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Comparison of raceways of circular and rectangular cross-section for the culture of rainbow trout (salmo… Piedrahita, Raul Humberto 1980

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COMPARISON  OF RACEWAYS OF CIRCULAR  AND  RECTANGULAR  CROSS-SECTION  FOR THE CULTURE OF  RAINBOW TROUT  (salmo  gairdneri)  by  R a u l Humberto B . A . S c , The U n i v e r s i t y  Piedrahita  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1977  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE in THE FACULTY  OF GRADUATE  (Department o f Bio-Resource  We a c c e p t t h i s to  thesis  the required  THE UNIVERSITY  STUDIES Engineering)  as c o n f o r m i n g standard  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  • June,1980 0  R a u l Humberto P i e d r a h i t a ,  19 80  In presenting this thesis in p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this  thesis  for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  is understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department nf  Bio-Resource  Engineering  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date  August,  I98O  -  i i -  ABSTRACT  Fish  raceways o f d i f f e r e n t c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l shapes  were compared  in biological  and h y d r a u l i c t e s t s .  Raceways o f r e c t a n g u l a r were u s e d . one  Two t y p e s o f c i r c u l a r  cross-section  r a c e w a y s were  studied,  w i t h a smooth w a l l , made o f PVC, a n d one w i t h a  w a l l , made o f g a l v a n i z e d The gain  biological  o f rainbow t r o u t  weight The  and c i r c u l a r  6.0 g) h e l d  fish  steel  tests consisted  (Salmo g a i r d n e r i )  corrugated  25.6  g) grew more t h a n t h o s e  22.9  g) a n d PVC  achieved  painted.  o f comparing t h e weight fingerlings  (initial  i n t h e d i f f e r e n t r a c e w a y s f o r 69 d a y s .  i n the painted  ct = 0.05).  t h a t had been  corrugated  (final  Very high  steel  raceway  i n the rectangular  weight  20.2 g) r a c e w a y s  stocking  densities  a t t h e end o f t h e experiment.  (final  weight  (final  weight  (significant at 3  (130-139 kg/m ) Critical  concentrations  o f d i s s o l v e d o x y g e n o r ammonia h a d n o t b e e n r e a c h e d  at this  point. Two t y p e s o f h y d r a u l i c of was  flow  v i s u a l i z a t i o n studies  introduced  recorded  at  various  One  consisted  i n which a dye, m a l a c h i t e  green,  i n t o t h e r a c e w a y and i t s movement o b s e r v e d and  photographically.  concentration  t e s t s were done.  In t h e second h y d r a u l i c  t e s t , the  o f m a l a c h i t e g r e e n i n t h e e f f l u e n t was m e a s u r e d  times a f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e dye.  were t h e n u s e d t o o b t a i n  residence  These  data  time d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the  -iia-  various the  raceways.  hydraulic  No  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  A biological corrugated trout that  steel  been f l u s h e d  r a c e w a y s f o r 29 The  hours.  the  t e s t using  r a c e w a y s was  f i n g e r l i n g s (3.6 had  m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d  g)  unpainted  were p l a c e d  f o r 64  27%  of the  days.  galvanized  died  Rainbow  i n galvanized  The  During t h i s  fish  tested.  a l s o c a r r i e d out.  s u r v i v o r s were t r a n s f e r r e d t o  additional  raceways  between  raceways  f i s h were l e f t  time,  48%  of  the  in  fish  f i b e r g l a s s t a n k s where  over the  next  50  hours  (2  the died. an days).  T A B L E OF CONTENTS  Page  ABSTRACT  .  .  .ii  T A B L E OF CONTENTS L I S T OF T A B L E S  •  L I S T OF F I G U R E S LIST  i i i •  .  •  •  '  vii  •  viii  OF A P P E N D I C E S  X  L I S T OF A P P E N D I X - T A B L E S / F I G U R E S  .  .  .  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  . xi xii  1.  INTRODUCTION  1  2.  L I T E R A T U R E REVIEW  3  2.1  Impoundments Used f o r Rainbow Trout  Culture  Natural  2.1.2  Raceways  2.1.3  Circular  2.1.4  Rectangular circulating  2.1.5  Vertical  2.1.6  Comparison between flow and c i r c u l a t i n g ponds  Model Theory  2.3  Zinc T o x i c i t y  of 3  2.1.1  2.2  2.4  the  ponds  .  3 impoundments  5 ponds.  units  .8 .10  through 12 .  to  3  Rainbow Trout  .14 17  2.3.1  Effect  of  temperature  2.3.2  Effect  of  water  2.3.3  Effect  of  dissolved oxygen.  .  .22  From G a l v a n i z e d M e t a l s .  .  .22  Zinc Release  hardness  19 . . .  20  -  iv  -  THEORY F O R M U L A T I O N  . . .24  3.1  Propositions.  24  3.2  Assumptions  25  3.3  Inferences  .25  M A T E R I A L S AND METHODS 4.1  Fish  Performance  4.1.1  4.1.2 4.1.3  4.1.4  2  Studies  Hydraulic 4.2.1  4.2.2  26  P h a s e 1 — B e f o r e A u g u s t 15, 1979 ( C o n s t r u c t i o n and i n s t a l l a t i o n of equipment)  27  4.1.1.1  Equipment  27  4.1.1.2  Equipment preparation and t e s t i n g  29  4.1.1.2.1  Orifice  calibration.  • 29  4.1.1.2.2  Conditioning of the corrugated steel raceways  31  P h a s e 2 — A u g u s t 15-16, 1979 (Stocking of t h e raceways)  31  P h a s e 3 — A u g u s t 17- S e p t e m b e r 14, 1979 (Intermediate stage, experiment redesigned)  33  Phase 4 — September N o v e m b e r 22, 197 9 (Comparison o f  4.2  6  three  14 raceways) . . .  Studies.  34 36  Flow patterns  36  4.2.1.1  Materials  4.2.1.2  Procedure.  Residence time  36 .  .  distribution  37 38  4.2.2.1  Materials  39  4.2.2.2  Procedure  39  - v -  5.  RESULTS AND 5.1  5.2 5.3  5.4  DISCUSSION  P h a s e 1 — B e f o r e A u g u s t 15, 1979 ( C o n s t r u c t i o n and i n s t a l l a t i o n o f equipment)  42  Phase 2 — A u g u s t 15-16, 1979 ( S t o c k i n g o f t h e raceways)  45  Phase 3 — A u g u s t 17 September 14, 1979 (Intermediate stage, experiment redesigned)  48  5.3.1  Water  51  5.3.2  O b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e management of t h e raceways  quality  Carrying density  capacity  57  and l o a d i n g 63  5.4.2  Water q u a l i t y  5.4.3  O b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e management of  Hydraulic 5.5.1  66  the system  67  Studies  68  Flow p a t t e r n s . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.1.1 A c r y l i c glass pipe raceway 5.5.1.2  Rectangular raceway.  5.5.1.3  Corrugated  5.5.2 CONCLUSIONS  72 73  . . .73  steel  p i p e raceways  6.  56  Phase 4 — September 14 November 22, 1979 (Comparison o f t h r e e raceways) . 5.4.1  5.5  42  Residence time d i s t r i b u t i o n s  78 . . . .78 87  -  7.  vi  -  RECOMMENDATIONS AND S U G G E S T I O N S FOR F U T U R E WORK  89  7.1  90  LITERATURE APPENDICES  CITED  Suggestions for  Future  Work  92 96  - v i i -  L I S T OF  TABLES  Table \1 2  ~  Summary o f w a t e r f l o w d a t a f o r t h e v a r i o u s shapes o f t r o u t r e a r i n g u n i t s . . . . Acute t o x i c i t y of  (48-, 9 6 - h r L C  5 Q  z i n c t o rainbow t r o u t  Water q u a l i t y d u r i n g  4  Zinc concentration i n the galvanized CSP r a c e w a y s d u r i n g Phase 1 M o r t a l i t i e s i n t h e g a l v a n i z e d CSP raceways  6  7  6  values)  3  5  Page  Phase 1  W e i g h t , a v e r a g e w e i g h t and number o f f i s h i n each raceway d u r i n g P h a s e s 2 and 3  18 43  44 47  5  0  F e e d , t e m p e r a t u r e and d i s s o l v e d oxygen d u r i n g  Phase  3  52  8  Ammonia and pH d u r i n g  9  w weaiyg hdtu rand of fW ie sihg h t i ,n ea av ce hr argaec e i n g number Phase 4  58  Feed, t e m p e r a t u r e and d i s s o l v e d oxygen d u r i n g Phase 4  59  11  Ammonia and pH d u r i n g  62  12  C a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y and s t o c k i n g d e n s i t y o f t h e raceways a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s of the experiments  64  Concentration o f malachyte green i n t h e e f f l u e n t o f t h e raceways at time t a f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e dye i n t h e i n f l o w  79  Normalized concentration values a t 5 l/min  82  Normalized concentration v a l u e s a t 10 l / m i n  83  10  13  14 15  Phase 3  Phase 4  -53  - viii  -  L I S T OF FIGURES Figure 1  _ T y p i c a l raceway section  of rectangular  cross4  2  Typical circular  3  R e c t a n g u l a r - c i r c u l a t i n g pond  4  Vertical  5  T o x i c i t y o f z i n c s u l f a t e t o rainbow t r o u t i n waters of d i f f e r e n t hardness . . .  6 7 8 9  10 11 12 13  14  15  Page  pond  7 9  r e a r i n g tank  11  P i l o t p l a n t apparatus i n the B u i l d i n g , U.B.C.  Biology 30  /Absorbance o f m a l a c h y t e g r e e n s t a n d a r d s a t 616.9 nm S c a l e s on t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e CSP r a c e w a y s •  46 the 49  S e d i m e n t a c c u m u l a t e d i n t h e CSP with the reduced l o a d i n g  raceway  S e d i m e n t a c c u m u l a t e d i n t h e PVC with the reduced loading  raceway  i n the c i r c u l a r  Flow p a t t e r n s a t 10 1/min  i n the c i r c u l a r  .40  galvanized  F i b e r g l a s s tanks used t o h o l d s u r v i v o r s from the g a l v a n i z e d CSP r a c e w a y s  Flow p a t t e r n s a t 5 1/min  .21  69 71 raceway 74 raceway 75  Flow p a t t e r n s i n the r e c t a n g u l a r r a c e w a y a t 5 1/min • • • •  76  Flow p a t t e r n s i n the r a c e w a y a t 10 1/min  77  rectangular  - ix -  16  17  C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f malachyte v s . t i m e a t 5 1/min  green  C o n c e n t r a t i o n of malachyte  green  vs.  t i m e a t 10  ~.  . . 80  1/min  18  E - c u r v e s a t 5 1/min  19  E - c u r v e s a t 10  1/min  81 .  85 .  .86  - x -  L I S T OF  APPENDICES  Appendix  Page  I  Construction Details  I-A  Corrugated  I-B  PVC  I-C  Rectangular  I-D  Acrylic  I-E  Rectangular  Steel  o f t h e Equipment*  Pipe  Raceway  Raceway  for Fish  99 Trials-  • • -101  G l a s s P i p e Raceway Raceway  103  f o r Hydraulic  Studies  105  I-F  Stands  I-G  O u t l e t Boxes  I-H  Constant  II  Drawings and Discharge Data f o r Orifices Data Sheet f o r I n t e r - R a c i n g A n t i f o u l i n g Green P a i n t  III IV  V VI  VII  -97 97  • Raceway  •  f o r t h e Raceways  107 109  Head Towers  I l l  113 116  Comparison o f t h e Hach and A u t o A n a l y z e r M e t h o d s f o r M e a s u r i n g AmmoniaProcedure f o r Measuring the Hach K i t  Ammonia  Procedure f o r Measuring the Auto-Analyzer  Ammonia w i t h  • 117  Using 122  F i l t e r and D e c h l o r i n a t o r U n i t i n t h e B i o l o g y B u i l d i n g , U.B.C.  123 128  -  LIST  xi  -  OF A P P E N D I X - T A B L E S / F I G U R E S  Table  II-l IV-1  Page  Discharge Data for O r i f i c e s , = 0.87 cm; Head = 0.22 m  Diameter 114  Ammonia-N Measured w i t h t h e Hach K i t . and t h e T e c h n i c o n A u t o - A n a l y z e r  118  Figure  Page  1-1  Corrugated  1-2  PVC R a c e w a y  1-3  Rectangular  1-4  Acrylic  1-5  Rectangular  Steel  P i p e Raceway  .  98 .100  Raceway f o r  Glass  Pipe  Fish Trials.  .  .  .  Raceway  Raceway f o r  104  Hydraulic  Studies  106  1-6  Stands  for  1-7  Outlet  Box  I- 8  Constant  II- l  Orifices  IV-1  A u t o - A n a l y z e r v s . Hach K i t Readings of t h e Ammonia-N C o n t e n t o f Samples • • . F i l t e r and D e c h l o r i n a t o r U n i t  VII-1  .102  the  Raceways  .  .108 .110  Head Tower  112 115  . ..  .119 129  1  -  xii  -  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I by  the  wish  to  members o f  and J.W.  of  the  Neil  Jackson,  help  and a d v i c e  in  Sun V a l l e y T r o u t Also to of  my w i f e  for  would  Drs.  also  Department  the  thanks  of  the  corrugated  to  of  important,  T.  thank  Ping Liao of  the  Mr.  me  Podmore  the  for  their  experiments.  B e r n i e Lehman  donation  steel  never-ending  Bulley,  to  Bio-Resource Engineering,  due t o  C r a i g Wint  and most  her  are  R.  like  preparation  Farms f o r  Mr.  the  Last  I  assistance given  J u r g e n P e h l k e and D r .  Special  donation  my c o m m i t t e e ,  Zahradnik.  technicians  fish.  acknowledge the  of  the  Westeel Rosco  of  experimental for  the  pipe. I  support  would and  like  to  advice.  thank  INTRODUCTION  1.  The culture  search f o r a type of rearing u n i t  rainbow t r o u t  prompted  (Salmo g a i r d n e r i )  aquaculturists  circular  ponds o r t a n k s , r e c t a n g u l a r  vertical  units.  studying whether  contribution  raceways  t o that  of circular  their hydraulic  reducing  c i r c u l a t i n g p o n d s and  cross-section  reducing  t h e maintenance  the incidence  i n turn,  costs,  costs  of circular  section  r a c e w a y s were made f r o m g a l v a n i z e d  conditions 1964;  S i n l e y e t a l . , 1974). one o f t o p i c s  circular  s t e e l which  found t o be t o x i c t o t r o u t under  and S h u r b e n ,  utilization  cross-section  The c o r r u g a t e d  ( A f f l e c k , 1952; L l o y d ,  Herbert  (cleaning),  of disease.  smooth a n d c o r r u g a t e d .  h a s been  cross-section.  increase the  improving the feed  tested,  that  improvement  by improving t h e space and water  Two t y p e s o f r a c e w a y s  zinc  t o determine  of rectangular  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s could,  the i n s t a l l a t i o n  and r e d u c i n g  shapes a r e raceways,  search consisted o f  raceways  e f f i c i e n c y o f the operation utilization,  designs.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w o u l d be an  over those o f conventional These h y d r a u l i c  e f f i c i e n t l y has  t o u s e a number o f b a s i c  Some o f t h e more common r e a r i n g u n i t s  This  i n which t o  1960; L l o y d ,  were crossreleases  certain  1961; S k i d m o r e ,  1964; Brown, 1968; S p r a g u e , 1971;  The q u e s t i o n  i n this investigation.  o f t h e z i n c t o x i c i t y was  - 2 -  The r a c e w a y s o f c i r c u l a r to a conventional 1:10  raceway o f r e c t a n g u l a r  h y d r a u l i c models.  categories.  One  rate of f i s h  held  dyes.  using  into  two  o f comparing the growth  i n the d i f f e r e n t raceways.  The  other  o f comparing t h e h y d r a u l i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  t h e d i f f e r e n t r a c e w a y s b y means o f h y d r a u l i c  tracer  compared  cross-section  The e x p e r i m e n t s were d i v i d e d  category consisted  experiments c o n s i s t e d of  c r o s s - s e c t i o n were  tests  using  3  -  2.  LITERATURE  2.1  Rearing  Units  Rearing  u n i t s may b e c l a s s i f i e d  categories  based  REVIEW  Used  on t h e i r  f o rthe Culture  shape.  a d v a n t a g e s a n d some d i s a d v a n t a g e s The of  relative  importance  assigned  Each  o f Rainbow  into  five  distinct -  s h a p e e x h i b i t s some  when c o m p a r e d t o t h e o t h e r s . to the various  characteristics  t h e c u l t u r e u n i t depends on t h e c o n d i t i o n s p r e s e n t  site  f o rwhich  2.1.1  the trout rearing facility  Natural  This  I n many  closely  those  cases,  includes  those  earthen  the conditions  encountered  ponds a r e n o t used  i n nature  (Wheaton,  extensively f o r high  t h e low water  densities  considered.  allowed  use e f f i c i e n c y ,  ponds o f  i n these  s y s t e m s due t o t h e l a c k o f c o n t r o l o v e r fish,  i s being  at the  ponds  category  shape.  Trout  ponds 1977).  yield  trout  irregular  approximate Natural production  the environment of the  t h e low stocking  and the d i f f i c u l t y  of harvesting  the fish  crop.  2.1.2  Raceways.  They c o n s i s t o f l o n g , The  inlet  narrow  channels  and o u t l e t a r e l o c a t e d a t opposite  (Figure 1 ) .  ends o f t h e long  t  1  111 £k.m  +-  •  £1,20 0.91  Figure  1.  T y p i c a l raceway o f r e c t a n g u l a r c r o s s - s e c t i o n . Dimensions i n meters.  - 5 -  channel.  The s i z e o f r a c e w a y s v a r i e s w i d e l y ,  t r o u g h s t o o v e r 30 m growout  raceways.  r a c e w a y w o u l d be 1.5 t o 3 m w i d e to  0.9 m, t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n b e i n g  of  t h e raceway  slopes  from 5 m  A typical-30 m  a n d have a d e p t h o f 0.3 rectangular.  The b o t t o m  t o w a r d t h e o u t l e t a t l e s s t h a n 1%,  u s u a l l y a b o u t 0.7% (Burrows a n d Chenoweth, 1955; Buss and Miller,  1971; W e s t e r s a n d P r a t t ,  construction  material  1977).  The most  used f o r raceways  Some w a t e r f l o w  data reported  common  i s concrete. f o r raceways a r e :  a v e r a g e w a t e r v e l o c i t y a r o u n d 0.03 m/s, 1 t o 4 e x c h a n g e s p e r hour, a c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y 3 density  o f 16-32 kg/m  and M i l l e r ,  o f 0.4 t o 5 k g / l / m i n and a  (Burrows a n d Chenoweth, 1955; Buss  1971; B a r d a c h e t a l . , 1972) ( T a b l e 1 ) .  The s e t t l i n g o f s o l i d s i n t h e r a c e w a y s velocity  o f flow  impoundment. 1955)  that  excrement  stocking  i s one o f t h e d r a w b a c k s  I t has b e e n r e p o r t e d  of this  As t h e v e l o c i t y d e c r e a s e s ,  type of  (Burrows a n d Chenoweth,  t h e minimum w a t e r v e l o c i t y r e q u i r e d and a l l b u t t h e h e a v i e s t  due t o t h e low  debris  the heavier  to carry  i s 0.24 t o 0.3 m/s.  particles settle  until  a t a b o u t 0.03 m/s a l l b u t t h e m o s t s e m i b u o y a n t p a r t i c l e s a r e deposited. 2.1.3  C i r c u l a r impoundments  ( F i g u r e 2)  D i a m e t e r s up t o 13 m have b e e n u s e d . usually  r a n g e s between  The d e p t h  0.6 a n d 1.2 m a n d t h e b o t t o m may be  Table  1.  Carrying  Shape  Raceway  Summary o f w a t e r f l o w d a t a of t r o u t r e a r i n g u n i t s .  Stocking  Density  kg/l/min  kq/n?  0.4  - 5  16 - 32  1.2  -  16 - 120  (1,2,5)  Circular  Capacity  f o r t h e v a r i o u s shapes  (2,6,7,8,9)  2.5  Rate o f Exchange hr"  1  1-4  0.5  - 1  i  I  Rectangular circulating  Vertical  1. 2. 3. 4.  -  1.2  16 - 32  1.6  1.6  -  1.8  120 - 136  4.5  (3)  (4)  Bardach Burrows Burrows Buss e t  0.6  e t a l . , 1972 and Chenoweth, and Chenoweth, a l . , 1970  1955 1970  5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  Buss and M i l l e r , 1971 K i n c a i d e t a l . , 1972 Larmoyeux e t a l . , 197 3 R o b i n s o n and V a r n a s o n i , S u r b e r , 1936  1969  Figure  2.  T y p i c a l c i r c u l a r pond. Dimensions i n meters.  -  flat  or  s l o p i n g towards the  a nozzle The of  8 -  near the  impoundment, o r  centre.  The  ponds a r e  two  ponds:  capacity  of  1.2  inlet  outside  and  most common m a t e r i a l s  0.5  to  - 2.5  concrete.  i n the  centre  connected to  used f o r  Water f l o w  1 exchanges per  k g / l / m i n and  i s usually  water t a n g e n t i a l l y .  standpipe located  located  f i b e r g l a s s and  circular  The  s i d e which d i r e c t s the  o u t l e t i s some f o r m o f the  centre.  circular data  hour, a  a stocking  the  for  carrying  density  of  3  16  - 12 0 kg/m  R o b i n s o n and Kincaid  (Surber, Varnasoni,  e t a l . , 1976) Due  velocities  1936;  to the  1969;  (Table  2.1.4  of  the  to  Unlike rectangular  t h a t would hydraulic  the  the  the  flow,  water  than those  provides  a  i n raceways  better  water stream which c a r r i e s  pond  (Burrows and  types of  specific  (Figure  3),  Chenoweth,  also  pond was design  conceived  criteria.  called  1970)  impoundments p r e v i o u s l y  characteristics, biological  s a l m o n i d s and  1973;  pond.  circulating  satisfy  of  higher This  Rectangular-circulating 'Burrows' pond  the  pattern  Chenoweth, 1 9 5 5 ) .  more s o l i d s o u t  e t al_. ,  1955;  1).  ponds a r e  sediment c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y  Chenoweth,  Larmoyeux  circular  in circular  (Burrows and  Burrows and  as  a  These  considered, containment included  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  factors affecting efficient  pond  operation.  Ij  Jnltt  pipt  '  4  =  —  1  r  =  -  =  =  1 ' -  -  L  PtrfortUd  r  I  1  • .IT h  ^  1  - v l  scrttn  -IP J.  —  -*  •  1  ci 00  in  1  5  ci  -1;  ii  >  22.9  4  2.59 i  i  2.59 ^ £  fc-±-0.15 After  Burrows and Chenoweth,  1970  i  F i g u r e 3.  Rectangular c i r c u l a t i n g Dimensions.in meters.  pond.  - 10 -  The 15.3 the  consists of a rectangular  o r 22.9 m l o n g . pond  each  pond c o r n e r .  leaves  centre  stocking  1).  data  per hour,  pattern i s  turning under  vanes  pressure  ends o f t h e p o o l .  screens located  near the  f o r rectangular  circulating  carrying capacity  0.6 - 1.2  5  (Burrows  efficiency  to that of the circular  of c u l t u r i n g trout  from an e x p e r i m e n t  fish.  t o l e r a n t t o crowding  The o v e r a l l  pond i s  4)  i n vertical  to select fish  r e s u l t was a n u n a n t i c i p a t e d  kg/l/min,  pond.  The  idea  (Figure  ponds:  a n d Chenoweth, 1970)  f o r Burrows'  units  units  that would  ( B u s s e_t a _ l . ,  high  observation  was a much more s i g n i f i c a n t  be  1970).  r a t e o f s u r v i v a l among was t h a t w a t e r  quality  f a c t o r i n rearing rainbow  trout  crowding. Two  from  at opposite  16 - 32 kg/nr  The c l e a n i n g  exceptionally  than  The f l o w  i s introduced  Vertical  originated  test  flow  density  comparable  The  located  pool  wall.  1.6 e x c h a n g e s  2.1.5  Water  concrete  wall partly dividing  sections.  t h r o u g h two bottom  Water  (Table  i s a centre  by t h e use o f aluminum v e r t i c a l  t h r o u g h two headers Water  There  i n t o t w o 2.4 m w i d e  controlled at  pond  sizes of vertical  55-gallon  ( 2 0 8 1) s t e e l  u n i t s have been used,  drums and t h e o t h e r  made  one  made  from  a  Figure  4.  V e r t i c a l r e a r i n g tank. Dimensions i n meters.  -  fiberglass  tank with  introduced  through a pipe  of the  tank at  of the  120  - 136  comparison of other  located,  the  like  data  for vertical  kg/m  1.6  (Table  - 1.8  Water i s  to a  the  bottom  collecting  a ring,  around  the  of  reported  data  impoundments.  (1970) r e p o r t e d  the  b o t t o m edge o f t h e  units:  4 to  kg/l/min  5 exchanges  stocking  1).  cleaning efficiency  types  co-workers along  .  tank.  T h e r e i s no  the  m  Water e x i t s  hour, c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y 3  density  20.6  discharging against  i t s centre.  Water f l o w per  -  a c a p a c i t y of  g u t t e r through a screen top  12  t h a t would a l l o w between v e r t i c a l On  the  other  accumulation  t a n k and  of  a units  and  hand, Buss  and  some s e d i m e n t  recommended a m o n t h l y  cleaning. 2.1.6  C o m p a r i s o n between f l o w  Of three  the  account  five  f o r the  types  of  t h r o u g h and  impoundments m e n t i o n e d  great majority  of commercial  i n Canada and  t h e U.S.  They a r e ,  ponds and  rectangular  circulating  grouped  the  into  two  the water flows types. and  distinct  Raceways b e l o n g  rectangular  circulating  type  types  i n them, t h e  the  ponds.  according  ( W e s t e r s and  and  flow-through  ponds a r e Pratt,  facilities  the  way  be  i n which  circulating  type.  considered 1977).  circular  These can  to the  ponds  above,  raceways, the  flow-through  to the  circulating  circulating  Circular of  the  -  The  basic  13  hydraulic  -  characteristics  types  of ponds a r e c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t .  pond,  the incoming water  pond and  gradient  quality  the flow  While  some r e s e a r c h e r s  others  (Burrows and  (Westers and  fish,  pond,  a better  i n labour cleaning In  (Westers and distinct  feed  fish could  be m e d i o c r e  outlet. flow  (Levenspiel, 1955,  1972).  1970;  circulating  the  advantages  claimed f o r the  throughout  time required  to higher  the  water  for  feeding,  velocities.  p r o p o n e n t s o f t h e f l o w - t h r o u g h pond claim  that  i n water q u a l i t y  i t gives  quality,while  are continually  the  i n the pond w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g  due  f o r the rearing  the higher water  see  distinct  of plug  i n the  of f i s h  to the reduced  1977)  reason being that  and  Chenoweth,  advantages  distribution  efficiency  Pratt,  characteristic The  due  a very  i s mixed  1977)  result.  a homogeneous e n v i r o n m e n t f o r  distribution  contrast,  gradient  The  include:  a more even  better  savings  ponds  Pratt,  i n the  conditions  example  see advantages  the flow-through type.  circulating  pond  two  circulating  the water  the i n l e t  i s an  in a circulating  L a r m o y e u x e t al_. , 1973)  the  between  a f l o w - t h r o u g h pond  while  in  In the  the f l o w - t h r o u g h pond e x h i b i t s  i n water  theory,  type,  with  a p p r o x i m a t e l y homogenous w a t e r  In c o n t r a s t ,  In  i s mixed  of the  exposed  i n quality.  the existence  i s a more  environment  of a .  desirable  of salmonids.  them t h e o p p o r t u n i t y i n the c i r c u l a t i n g  t o an  average  Another  to  pond,  environment  select the which  disadvantage claimed  -  for  the c i r c u l a t i n g  14 -  ponds i s t h a t  fast  exchange r a t e s o f  water a r e n o t p o s s i b l e without u p s e t t i n g  a  hydraulic  pattern.  important  of  findings  recent  quality the  i s particularly  i s a much more s i g n i f i c a n t  less  rearing  2.2  concentrations  F l o w - t h r o u g h ponds  of fish  may be grown r e q u i r i n g  order  to obtain  some e x p e r i m e n t a l  model e x p e r i m e n t i s t o p r o v i d e installation  ( J o h n s t o n e and T h r i n g ,  Certain  to insure  similarity  of a  size operation,  the  must be o b s e r v e d i n  i n turn,  provide  The model s h o u l d  s i m i l a r t o the prototype,  i s n o t enough t o i n s u r e  scale  1957), o r t o f a c i l i t a t e  These laws,  i n t e r p r e t i n g the t e s t data.  geometrically  The f u n c t i o n  t h e m o d e l - t e s t d a t a c a n be a p p l i e d  scale.  on  production  data f o r a large  laws o f s i m i l a r i t y  that  prototype or large for  design  study o f the behaviour o f a f u l l  order  information  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w o u l d be i n a  r a c e w a y , a model e x p e r i m e n t was s e t up.  prototype.  velocities  Theory  what t h e h y d r a u l i c  the  permit  space.  Model  In  water  f a c t o r than crowding i n  exchange r a t e s w i t h o u t c r e a t i n g t o o h i g h increased  i n view  (Buss e t a l . , 1970) w h i c h show t h a t  r e a r i n g o f rainbow t r o u t .  high and  This  well-balanced  that  but t h i s the f l u i d  to the means  be geometric motion i n  -  the p r o t o t y p e w i l l If  the d i r e c t i o n  be  -  a c c u r a t e l y reproduced  o f f l o w and  t h e same i n model and kinematically  15  I f both  the  that  to the prototype.  fluid the  correctly  fluid  The  prototype,  the f l u i d  i n the prototype.  practical  impossibility,  In  any  particular  dominating small,  one  and  to take In  and  rise  velocity,  Complete  be  law  1966;  Binder,  and  s h o u l d be  prototype are the  designed same.  To  such  i s then  a  necessary.  are  law  can  be  influences. (open  channel  inertia  forces,  )J gL and  L i s some  Chenoweth,  1955;  t h a t F r f o r model this,  flow),  where v i s  H y d r a u l i c models o f  achieve  of  ignored i f they  to g r a v i t y  (Burrows and 1973).  ratio  the  o f flow i n raceways  dimension  scale  i s usually  t o t h e F r o u d e number, F r = v /  characteristic  channels  i t i s not  secondary  due  the  viscosity  similarity  o f f o l l o w i n g the major  care of the  be  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  fortunately,  g i s acceleration  Henderson,  p r o p e r t i e s of  the geometric  on  the predominant f o r c e s are g r a v i t y giving  dynamically  d e n s i t y and  o t h e r e f f e c t s may  the case  be  velocities  i n t h e model  h y d r a u l i c p r o b l e m , one  o r the r e s u l t s  adjusted  proper  i n t h e m o d e l d e p e n d on  between m o d e l and  to  are  Complete s i m i l i t u d e r e q u i r e s  to the corresponding  i n the prototype.  and  t o be  a l l of the p r o p e r t i e s o f the f l u i d  related  of  flow i s s a i d  densities  a r e p r o p o r t i o n a l , the model i s s a i d similar  model.  the r e l a t i v e v e l o c i t i e s  prototype,  similar.  i n the  open  and  the v e l o c i t y  in  -  should  16  -  the  model  the  square  root  of the linear  dimension o f the model  the  square  root  of the linear  dimension  i.e.,  i n a 1:10  0.316  times  the  product  the  2.5  a  1:10  be t o t h e v e l o c i t y  model, the v e l o c i t y  the velocity of velocity  power model  of the  should  be  i n the prototype.  as i s to  prototype, 1/  The  \ f 10  or  flow,  being  a n d area', w o u l d be p r o p o r t i o n a l t o  of the linear should  i n the prototype  then  dimension  be  ratio.  0.00316 t i m e s  The  that  flow  through  through  the  prototype. In influence to  open-channel  i s due  viscous  velocity, of  the  only  p e r f e c t way  i s t o keep both  prototype.  affects  This  fluids  forces  number,  d i m e n s i o n a n d p. t h e  flow  v  i s the  viscosity  will  enough  a c r i t i c a l model  impossibility  and p r o t o t y p e .  have a d i s t o r t e d i s fully  of  and  requiring  If viscosity any model  smaller  flow pattern.  turbulent  that viscosity  size  the effect  t h e same i n m o d e l  i n the prototype,  i n the prototype high  of dealing with  F r a n d Re  f o r model  the prototype  occurs  of i n e r t i a  by Reynolds  i s a practical  the flow pattern  velocities is  ratio  fluid.  different  the  i s represented  L a characteristic  viscosity  than  The  important  w h e r e js i s t h e d e n s i t y o f t h e f l u i d ,  The  in  t h e second most  to viscosity.  forces  Re = pvL/p.  flow,  If  (i.e., a l l  i s not a f a c t o r ) ,  a b o v e w h i c h no a p p r e c i a b l e  there  distortion  and below w h i c h a g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g d i s t o r t i o n  of  - 17  the  flow p a t t e r n r e s u l t s  Velocities the  i n raceways are  flow p a t t e r n .  flow  i s not  prototype,  as  fully and  -  the model s i z e low  i s no  critical  i s the  2.3  t o Rainbow  Zinc T o x i c i t y  brown t r o u t  through  reported.  of d i f f e r e n t  galvanized iron Later  on,  that  i n f l u e n c e the  1960;  L l o y d , 1961;  Brown, 1968; the e f f e c t  summarized  toxicity Skidmore,  The 1%  of the  1976). yield  96  Using  recommended  Affleck  the t o x i c i t y  (1952) e x p o s e d  of  of  zinc  to  rainbow  a g e s t o w a t e r t h a t had  of  zinc  1964;  passed  a t some o f t h e  t o rainbow t r o u t Herbert  and  zinc with  other  by  toxic  1964;  including  substances.  some o f t h e  the d i f f e r e n t  factors  (Lloyd,  Shurben,  S i n l e y e t a l . , 1974),  conditions  researchers  2. safe value  h o u r LCc>g d e t e r m i n e d this  r e v e a l e d a s m a l l number  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and  i n Table  drag.  Trout  r e s e a r c h on  u n d e r w h i c h t h e y were o b t a i n e d are  smaller  pipes.  S p r a g u e , 1971;  toxic  The  of viscous  other workers looked  of combining  The  effect  the  the  model s i z e .  literature  i n which o r i g i n a l  r a i n b o w t r o u t was and  of the  affects  viscous effects,  d e f i n e d by g e o m e t r y t h r o u g h o u t  the model, the g r e a t e r  references  decreased.  enough t h a t v i s c o s i t y  Because o f t h e s e  there  A review  is  criterion  on  f o r continuous  through  the data  s a f e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s b e t w e e n 0.001  exposure i s  bio-assay on  Table  and  0.008  (U.S.E.P.A.,  2 would mg/1.  Table  2.  Acute t o x i c i t y  Exposure Type  Exposure Time (hr)  Size  (48-, 96-hr L C ^ v a l u e s )  Temperature (C)  of zinc  Zinc Concentration (mg/1)  t o rainbow  pH  trout.  Hardness mg/1 as C a C 0  Reference  3  3.9 g  96  FT*  14.8-15.5  0.285  7.3-7. 7  45  (5)  4.9 g  96  FT  14.8-15.5  .0.506  7.3-7. 7  45  (5)  28.4 g  96  FT  14.8-15.5  0.820  7.3-7. 7  45  (5).  Juveniles  96  FT  .12.7  0.43  6.8  26  (6)  96  FT  11.6-12.4  0.10  6.8-7. 0  48  FT  17.7  0.91  6.9  44  (4)  1.5 g  96  s**  10.0  0.09  7.0  20  (3)  Juvenile  96  FT  16.2  7.21  7.8  333  (6)  3.9 g  96  FT  14.8-15.5  2.40  7.3-7. 7  100+10  (5)  4. 9 g  96  FT  14.8-15.5  2.66  7.3-7. 7  100+10  (5)  28.4 g  96  FT  14.8-15.5  1.95  7.3-7. 7  100+10  (5)  48  S  3.20  7.6  300  (1)  7.0 g Fingerlings  *  FT - F l o w -t h r o u g h  ** S -  bioassay  S t a t i c; b i o a s s a y  15.0  References :  (2)  20-25  (1) Brown, 1968 (2) Chapman , 1976 (3)  i  G a r t o n , 1972  (4) H e r b e r t  and Shurben,  1964  (5) Holcombe and B e n o i t ,  1976  (6) S i n l e y  e t a l . , 1974  -  Chronic co-workers  toxicity  19  -  studies  (1974), showed t h a t  0.036 mg/1  p r o d u c e d no  that is  the  influence  literature the  concentration Toxicity  to the  by  the  life  toxicant  previous  and  rainbow  trout  adult  stage.  f r y stage to the  of  zinc.  The  duration  is sufficient  several  to k i l l  environmental  U.S.E.P.A., 1 9 7 6 ) .  stage at which the on  of  exposure to n o n - l e t h a l  exposure  given fish.  dissolved Toxicity also  fish  a c c l i m a t i z a t i o n of  a  factors  factors  t e m p e r a t u r e , w a t e r h a r d n e s s and  ( S k i d m o r e , 1964;  d e p e n d s on  e f f e c t s on  below  f a c t o r d e t e r m i n i n g whether a  toxicant  i s modified  particularly oxygen  of  and  i s i n agreement o v e r the  toxicity  t h e most i m p o r t a n t  Sinley  zinc concentrations  detectable  e x p o s e d f o r 21 months f r o m t h e In g e n e r a l ,  done by  are  the  first  fish  concentrations  of  exposed  due  to  the  toxic  substances.  2.3.1  at  the  E f f e c t of  temperature  T h e r e has  been o n l y  e f f e c t of  rainbow t r o u t .  t e m p e r a t u r e on The  study  times of rainbow t r o u t hard water, tested at  13.5,  generally  15.5,  18.5  at  study reported the  (Lloyd,  i n four four  and  lower i n the  concentration  one  toxicity  1960)  21.5°C.  of  looked  zinc  to  the  survival  zinc,  F i s h were  unchanged.  the  in  tested  S u r v i v a l t i m e s were  warmer w a t e r , b u t  a p p e a r s t o be  compared  concentrations  temperatures.  of  that  threshold  -  2.3.2  E f f e c t o f water  20 -  hardness  Hardness i s c o n s i d e r e d factor modifying Sinley  1964;  the t o x i c i t y  e t a_l. ,  at  of zinc Lloyd  1974).  time o f rainbow t r o u t  t o be t h e most  o f hardness  survival,  until  toxicities softest  increased  5 ) .  with  increase  i n the hardest  and co-workers  i n an a c u t e t o x i c i t y  toxicity  test  juvenile  rainbow t r o u t  ( 2 5 mg/1  ( 2 1 months).  3  looked  water a t  15  C were  the t o x i c i t y  concentration  of zinc  The maximum  0.320  mg/1  where t h e r e was no z i n c  w a t e r t h e MATC was f o u n d 0 . 1 4 0 mg/1, f o r f i s h  zinc  and  toxicity  0.430  mg/1  tests  toxicant  (MATC) i n h a r d w a t e r was f o u n d t o be between  where t h e r e was some z i n c  the  obtained f o r  7.210  acceptable  mg/1  between  chronic  d e c r e a s e s as water  0.640  and  rainbow  ( 3 3 0 mg/1 a s CaCO^) and  also  increases.  at the effect  ( 9 6 hours) and i n a  The r e s u l t s o f t h e c h r o n i c  hardness  exposure.  of zinc to juvenile  respectively. show t h a t  of  between t h e  2 . 5 days  The 9 6 h o u r LC^Q  i n hard  as C a C 0 )  i n period  difference  (1974)  test  that the  ( 3 2 0 mg/1 a s CaCO^) a n d t h e  o f water hardness on t h e t o x i c i t y  soft  He o b s e r v e d  ( 1 2 mg/1 a s CaCO^) w a t e r o v e r Sinley  trout  measured t h e s u r v i v a l  t h e r e was a t e n - f o l d  of zinc  1 9 6 0 ; Skidmore,  i n a series of concentrations of zinc,  three hardness l e v e l s (Figure  effect  (Lloyd,  important  0.071  caused m o r t a l i t y  caused m o r t a l i t y .  t o be, between  0.260  exposed t o t h e z i n c  and  0.036  mg/1  and  for fish  a t t h e f r y s t a g e i . e . , 1 . 5 g.  mg/1  In s o f t  and  f r o m t h e egg s t a g e , first  exposed t o  -  0.5  1  21 -  2  5  CONCENTRATION  OF ZINC  A = t o t a l hardness  320 mg  B = t o t a l hardness  50 mg  1  a s CaCO  C = t o t a l hardness  12 mg  1  a s CaCO  (After Lloyd,  Figure  5.  10  20  (P-P.m.Zri)  1 ^ a s CaCO,  1960)  T o x i c i t y o f z i n c s u l f a t e t o rainbow waters o f d i f f e r e n t hardness.  trout i n  -  toxicity  Jones  i s believed  of  z i n c i n hard waters i s the z-nc  ions  (Skidmore,  t h a t the  and  the  1964).  (1939) e s t a b l i s h e d  As  S t r o n t i u m was  reason f o r the  ions  by  the  reported  the  by  various  found t o cause the  followed  of  calcium,  decreased  antagonistic  action  alkaline-earth Skidmore  a d i f f e r e n c e i n the  a c t i o n between c o p p e r and  action,  -  It  between t h e metals  22  (1964),  antagonistic  a l k a l i n e - e a r t h metals.  greatest  antagonistic  magnesium and  barium  in  that  order.  2.3.3  Effect  The  of d i s s o l v e d  effect  of  d i s s o l v e d o x y g e n on  z i n c t o r a i n b o w t r o u t has He  s u l f a t e at three  oxygen, i n hard water that, of  o v e r an  3.8  a t an  five  (320  mg/1  exposure p e r i o d  by  the  toxicity  Lloyd  concentrations as  of  h a l f of  oxygen c o n c e n t r a t i o n  CaCO^)•  1000 the of  He  of  8.9  mg/1  of  dissolved  calculated  minutes, the f i s h was  of  (1961).  l e t h a l concentrations  non-lethal  zinc necessary to k i l l  higher at  been s t u d i e d  exposed rainbow t r o u t t o  zinc  oxygen  1.4  concentration times  than i t  was  mg/1.  2.4  Zinc  R e l e a s e From G a l v a n i z e d  Galvanized releasing  steel  Metals  sub-merged i n w a t e r  corrodes  z i n c . Many f a c t o r s s u c h as w a t e r h a r d n e s s , pH  and  -  23 -  time o f exposure a f f e c t t h e r a t e surface.  Zinc  corrodes  fairly  of corrosion  r a p i d l y during  stages o f exposure b u t c o r r o s i o n formation o f protective  The  f i l m s a r e composed o f c o r r o s i o n  and  zinc carbonate that  low  solubility.  Such c o n d i t i o n s dissolved  f i l m s on t h e z i n c  are:  can  6.5 t o 12, water  be used.  The f i g u r e g i v e n  ( S l u n d e r a n d Boyd, It  f o r zinc release  i n soft water  i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t water hardness has  trout.  raceways f o r  On o n e hand, w a t e r h a r d n e s s a f f e c t s t h e and hence t h e z i n c c o n c e n t r a t i o n  i n the  The o t h e r e f f e c t o f w a t e r h a r d n e s s i s on t h e of the zinc  to thef i s h .  a g g r a v a t e s t h e p r o b l e m by c a u s i n g and  which  1971).  o f zinc release  toxicity  hardness  quantative data  a double e f f e c t on t h e u s e o f g a l v a n i z e d  raceway.  low  a v a i l a b l e on t h e c o r r o s i o n  2 2 w a t e r i s 25 mg/dm / d a y a n d 2.5 mg/dm / d a y i n h a r d  rate  oxide  a n d Gorbunov, 1972; N o y c e e t a l . , 1 9 7 5 ) .  i n n a t u r a l w a t e r s b u t few g i v e  culturing  zinc  1965; S l u n d e r a n d Boyd, 1971;  T h e r e a r e many r e p o r t s zinc  like  i s l o w e r when t h e  i n t h e water, high  (Zinc Development A s s o c i a t i o n ,  of  surface.  f o r the formation of the f i l m s .  pH i n t h e r a n g e 2  with  a d h e r e n t a n d have a  The r a t e o f c o r r o s i o n  o x y g e n a n d CC>  Proskurkin  products  are strongly  are favourable  the"early  s l o w s down q u i c k l y  the  conditions  of the zinc  a t t h e same t i m e m a k i n g  In both cases,  s o f t water  more z i n c t o be r e l e a s e d  i t more t o x i c t o t h e f i s h .  3.  THEORY  FORMULATION  The b a s i c developed known  to  from:  theory  1)  be t r u e .  supporting  A set 2)  of  A set  tentatively  assumed t o  theory.  3)  A set  3.1  Propositions  of  propositions of  which  for  the  models  are  which  sake of  can be used t o  depend on the  are  study  of  the  flow  shape of  the  raceway  flow  rate.  settling  of  in  the  open  a  a channel  on t h e  characteristics  of  the  on the  velocity  flowing  in  the  at  which  age  to  zinc  dependent  the  and water  corrode  zinc  is  and r e l e a s e  released  and p h y s i c a l  is  zinc.  dependent  characteristics  of  flow.  The t o x i c i t y on t h e  of  the  channel.  chemical  water  is  particles  and t u r b u l e n c e  Galvanized materials The r a t e  raceway  and on  in  the  already  building  solids  the  been  flow.  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  on the  has  inferences.  channel  The  project  assumptions  be t r u e  Hydraulic  water  this  of  at  zinc  which  to the  and on t h e  characteristics  of  the  rainbow fish  are  physical water.  trout first and  depends exposed  chemical  -  3.2  25  -  Assumptions  The r a t e  at  walls  the  of  which  zinc  galvanized  Safe concentrations for  trout  under  The g r o w t h r a t e hydraulic they  3.3  are  is  of  released  pipe zinc  from  c a n be c a n be  predicted. established  continuous  exposure.  of  affected  fish  is  characteristics  of  the  the  by  the  raceway  in  which  reared.  Inferences  There of  is  less  circular  rectangular the  settling  of  c r o s s - s e c t i o n than cross-section  same c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l  average Fish  solids  if  in  in  a  raceway  a raceway  both raceways  area  and the  of have  same  velocity.  grow  faster  in  a raceway  of  circular  cross-section. It  is  safe  rearing  to  trout  use g a l v a n i z e d under  certain  pipe  raceways  conditions.  for  MATERIALS AND  4.  METHODS  From o b s e r v a t i o n s o f f i s h f r o m work done by 1955)  i t has  correlation hydraulic fish and  other researchers  become r e a d i l y  Because t h i s  because  factors  performance of the experimental a r e a had of  facilities  (Burrows and  apparent  that a very  correlation  strong  i s not  and  i n which fully  work i n t o  4.1  the  i t was  two  decided  distinct  study  to separate  areas  reared  in different  A detailed  review  o f t h e two  In clearer  Performance  order  of concern.  types  areas  of  of research f o l l o w s .  i t will  be  of the  presented  experiments  i n f o u r phases  follow a chronological order:  P h a s e 1,  1979  ( C o n s t r u c t i o n and  of equipment).  August  17  installation  b e f o r e August  (Stocking of the raceways).  t o September  14,  the  raceways.  that  A u g u s t 15-16, 1979  One  Studies  t o make t h e d e s c r i p t i o n  to the reader,  the  of the h y d r a u l i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  fish  Fish  the  understood  the raceways under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the o t h e r w i t h  performance of  the  other than h y d r a u l i c i n f l u e n c e the fish,  t o do w i t h  of the environment  and  Chenoweth,  e x i s t s between t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f f i s h  characteristics  live.  rearing  1979  (Intermediate  Phase  Phase stage,  3,  15, 2,  -  experiment redesigned). 1979  Phase  P h a s e 1. —  B e f o r e A u g u s t 15,  (Construction  The work done preparation  14 t o November  22,  and  installation  in this  of the s i t e ,  1979 of  equipment)  phase c o n s i s t e d o f the  t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and i n s t a l l a t i o n  r a c e w a y s and t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f p r e l i m i n a r y w a t e r  4.1.1.1  application  o f model  rectangular  raceway  following 0.91  m,  practical  f o r these  length  0.5%.  24.4  m,  raceway o f t h e w i d t h 2.4  A scale ratio  rectangular  studies.  The  scale  m,  o f 1:10  depth was  r a c e w a y a s t h e most s i z e s o f the raceways o f  c r o s s - s e c t i o n were c h o s e n so t h e y w o u l d have t h e and c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a r e a  The d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e 1:10  raceway a r e : slope  The p r o t o t y p e o r l a r g e  i s a hypothetical  f o r t h e model  same l e n g t h raceway.  analyses.  r a c e w a y s were d e t e r m i n e d by t h e  theory.  dimensions:  bottom s l o p e  selected  circular  of  Equipment  The s i z e s o f t e s t  the  4, September  (Comparison o f t h r e e r a c e w a y s ) .  4.1.1  the  27 -  0.5%.  length  2.44  m,  rectangular  model  rectangular  w i d t h 0.24  The r a c e w a y s o f c i r c u l a r  same l e n g t h  as t h e m o d e l  as t h e r e c t a n g u l a r  m,  of the  d e p t h 0.09  m  and  c r o s s - s e c t i o n are of  m o d e l , namely  2.4  m.  -  28  l  The d i a m e t e r s o f t h e p i p e s u s e d and t h e d e p t h t o w h i c h were f i l l e d are  were c h o s e n  such t h a t  the c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l  approximately equal to that of the rectangular  they area  raceway. 2  The  cross-sectional  A p i p e o f 0.20  m diameter would  times the diameter would  be  filled For  (CSP)  (Figure  ( i . e . 0.16  t o 0.41  o f 0.20  o f 0.20 6).  The  have t o be  m)  filled  fish  trials,  m diameter  m diameter  to  a n d a p i p e o f 0.25  times the diameter  the i n i t i a l  raceways  raceways  a r e a o f t h e r e c t a n g u l a r m o d e l i s 0.022 m .  two  diameter m).  Corrugated Steel  I-B)  concentration of zinc  m  ( i . e . 0.10  (Appendix  (Appendix  0.78  I-A) were  and two  Pipe  PVC  used  i n t h e CSP  raceways  c a n be p r e d i c t e d b a s e d on t h e f i g u r e s g i v e n f o r t h e r a t e o f zinc  release  i n s o f t water  (Section  2.4).  In s o f t water,  zinc  2 is  released  1971).  a t t h e r a t e o f 25 mg/dm /day  W i t h a f l o w o f 5 l / m i n t h r o u g h t h e CSP  expected  average  0.380 mg/1.  zinc concentration  raceway,  t h e e x p e r i m e n t s had  be r e d u c e d t o 0.038 mg/1.  t o be c a r r i e d  could  The experiments, c o n s t a n t head  f o u r raceways two  PVC  towers  and  used  two  n o t be  (Appendix  the  found  out i n very s o f t  and  water, method  1976).  i n the f i r s t  CSP,  be  It is  a s CaCO^ a s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e EDTA t i t r i m e t r i c  (American P u b l i c H e a l t h A s s o c i a t i o n ,  the  i n t h e e f f l u e n t would  u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t a supply o f hard water  5 mg/1  Boyd,  I f a s u p p l y o f h a r d w a t e r were a v a i l a b l e ,  z i n c c o n c e n t r a t i o n would  all  ( S l u n d e r and  received  s e c t i o n of the  the water  I-H), through  orifices  from  two  - 29 -  (Appendix  II)(Figure  t o t h e raceways.  The w a t e r e x i t e d  perforated  pipe  (Appendix  I-G).  standpipe  (Appendix  in  6). A constant  inserted  through  f l o w r a t e was  t h e raceways through  a  t h e end c a p o f t h e r a c e w a y  The p e r f o r a t e d p i p e was c o n n e c t e d  t h e raceway.  maintained  to a  I-G) f o r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e w a t e r  T h e r a c e w a y s were p l a c e d on s t a n d s  level (Appendix  I-F) .  4.1.1.2  Equipment p r e p a r a t i o n and t e s t i n g  4.1.1.2.1 determine desired  Orifice  the diameter  of the o r i f i c e  d i s c h a r g e were made f r o m  Q =  c  W  d 4  2 — (2gH)  where d i s t h e o r i f i c e orifice, and  calibration.  ( B i n d e r , 1973)  g i s the gravitational  drilled  Initial  orifice  and c a l i b r a t e d .  diameter  requirements.  c i s a constant acceleration, calculations  presented  i n Appendix I I .  f o r the  H i s t h e head f o rorifice  The o r i f i c e s  The n e c e s s a r y  were c a l i b r a t e d  size  were  adjustments  were made i n o r d e r t o s a t i s f y  A l lorifices  the  the equation  were made w i t h an assumed c o n s t a n t c . then  required to obtain  1 / 2  diameter,  Q i s the discharge.  Calculations to  in  the flow  and t h e data i s  -  Figure  6.  30  -  P i l o t Plant Apparatus U.B.C.  i n the  Biology  Building,  -  4.1.1.2.2 raceways.  31 -  Conditioning of the corrugated  After  c o n s t r u c t i o n and t e s t i n g  r a c e w a y s were f l u s h e d w i t h  was  s a m p l e s were t a k e n a c i d i f i e d with for  zinc  in  this  on d a y s 3 a n d 16 f r o m  Ash  acid  time,  the e f f l u e n t ,  (70% HNO^)  and a n a l y z e d Scientific),  a b s o r p t i o n spectrophotometer.  to concentrate  evaporation without  boiling  present,  Due t o t h e  i t was  the a c i d i f i e d (American  The  40 0 m l w a t e r  (Division of Fisher  low c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f z i n c  some c a s e s  13 l / m i n p e r r a c e w a y .  During  1.5 ml/1 n i t r i c  M o d e l 8 00 a t o m i c very  10°C.  using a J a r r e l  f o r leaks, the  t a p w a t e r f o r a p e r i o d o f 26 d a y s  at a flow r a t e of approximately water temperature  steel  necessary  sample by  Public  Health Association,  1976). After courtyard  flushing,  of the Biology Building  of d e c h l o r i n a t e d c i t y  water  r a c e w a y s were i n s t a l l e d flushed raceway.  t h e r a c e w a y s were t r a n s f e r r e d on campus, where a  i s available  (Appendix  a s shown i n F i g u r e 6.  supply  V I I ) . The  They were  f o r a p e r i o d o f 30 d a y s w i t h a f l o w o f 5 l / m i n Samples were a g a i n c o l l e c t e d  on d a y s 40 a n d 64 f r o m  the i n i t i a t i o n  t h e end o f t h e 30 day f l u s h i n g  4.1.2  to the  Phase 2 —  and a n a l y z e d  then per  f o r zinc  of the f l u s h i n g .  p e r i o d , t h e f i s h were  At  stocked.  A u g u s t 15-16, 1979  ( S t o c k i n g o f t h e raceways)  The to determine  purpose o f t h i s  s e c t i o n of the experiments  w h e t h e r t h e amount o f z i n c  r e l e a s e d from  was  the w a l l s  -  of  t h e g a l v a n i z e d CSP to the  trout.  On  August  15,  3.65  -  r a c e w a y s was  mortalities  (average weight  32  1979,  enough t o c a u s e  rainbow  trout  The  throughout  the  distributed  f i s h were w e i g h e d and  The w e i g h i n g was  the t r i p .  w e i g h t was in  the bucket  of  t h e b u c k e t was  determined  different  r e c o r d e d and  from  g a l v a n i z e d CSP  and i t s  The  new  weight  of the f i s h  was  bucket weight.  Consecutive  f a s h i o n were p l a c e d i n  surviving  o f t h e f i s h was  fish.  the t o t a l weight  The and  determined  number o f f i s h the average  was  i n the  raceways prompted t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f  fish  fiberglass  d u r i n g the second  day  (Aug.  f r o m t h e g a l v a n i z e d r a c e w a y s were tanks.  by  weight.  high m o r t a l i t i e s o f the f i s h  phase o f the experiment  two  the i n i t i a l  average weight  Unexpectedly  to  the weight  weighed i n t h i s  a sample o f 100  calculated  The  bucket  raceways. The  weighing  litre  l i t r e s o f water  the weighed water.  subtracting  batches of f i s h  four  Some f i s h were t h e n n e t t e d and p l a c e d  containing  by  arrival,  i n the  A four  w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y two recorded.  equally  Upon  done w i t h a T o l e d o m o d e l 4030  b a l a n c e w i t h a c a p a c i t y o f 5 kg. filled  Trout  f i s h were t r a n s p o r t e d i n b u c k e t s  w i t h oxygen b e i n g b u b b l e d  was  fingerlings  g) were s e c u r e d f r o m Sun V a l l e y  Farms i n M i s s i o n , B.C.  raceways.  heavy  this 16,  1979).  transferred  -  Phase 3 —  4.1.3  33  August  (Intermediate  -  17  t o September 1 4 ,  stage,  experiment  1979  redesigned)  The  third  phase o f the  intermediate  stage  i n w h i c h p r e p a r a t i o n s were made f o r  conducting During and  this  two  time,  the  fiberglass  equivalent in  a redesigned  three  t o 3%  e x p e r i m e n t c o n s t i t u t e d an  experiment  i n the  f i s h were h e l d  tanks.  The  f o u r t h phase.  i n two  according  feed manufacturers.  The  t o the  day  amount  distributed  recommendations o f  f e e d u s e d was  S t a r t e r , m a n u f a c t u r e d by  raceways  f i s h were f e d an  o f t h e i r body w e i g h t p e r  feedings,  PVC  Ewos number 2  Ritchie-Smith Ltd. of  the  Salmon  Abbotsford,  B.C. In p r e p a r a t i o n cross-section presented CSP  f o r the  raceway was  i n Appendix  built.  I-C.  r a c e w a y s were b o t h  The  by  The  s u r f a c e of the  applying a coat  paint  contains  possible the use  2 ^ag/1  International Paints CSP  some a p p r e h e n s i o n trout.  Lovegrove  The  copper c o n c e n t r a t i o n from  9 Jig/1  eighteen  two  i n the  hours a f t e r  days a f t e r  are  galvanized anti-  (Appendix  r a c e w a y was  z i n c chromate p r i m e r .  t o the  the  green i n t e r - r a c i n g  galvanized  c o p p e r and  toxicity  r e c t a n g u l a r and  prepared  antifouling  e x i s t e d as (1979)  to  He  found  tank water dropped f l o o d i n g the  flooding.  The  the  reported  of a s i m i l a r p a i n t i n rainbow t r o u t tanks.  t h a t the quickly  of  rectangular  Construction details  painted with  f o u l i n g p a i n t m a n u f a c t u r e d by III).  f o u r t h phase, a  tanks  very to  E.P.A. minimum  risk  -  level  i s 10 jug/1  painted three for  raceways  34  -  (U.S.E.P.A., 1 9 7 6 ) . were f l u s h e d  f i s h were i n t r o d u c e d  10 d a y s .  No  f o r s i x days  i n each.  The  a t 5 1/min  fish  before  were o b s e r v e d  d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s w e r e o b s e r v e d and  raceways  were s t o c k e d .  4.1.4  Phase  4 —  September 14 - November 22,  (Comparison o f t h r e e  of the f i s h  compared.  The  raceways  galvanized  CSP  raceway  held  1979  of the experiments, the  i n t h r e e t y p e s o f raceways  were: and  the  raceways)  D u r i n g the f o u r t h phase performance  In our c a s e , the  a PVC  p i p e raceway,  a wooden, r e c t a n g u l a r  was  a painted  cross-section  raceway. On were w e i g h e d The in  fish  September 14, and d i v i d e d  into  from t h e f i b e r g l a s s  three groups.  placed  the f i s h  One  group  f r o m t h e two  PVC  raceways  t h r e e groups o f e q u a l weight. t a n k were a l s o w e i g h e d  f r o m e a c h o f t h e two  i n t o each of t h e t h r e e raceways  used  and  sets  i n the  divided  was  fourth  phase. The f e e d was  f i s h were f e d t h r e e t i m e s a day.  a d j u s t e d based  changing water  on t h e i n c r e a s i n g  temperature,  following  The  amount o f  f i s h weight  and  the  the manufacturers  recommendations. Water samples s u p p l y were c o l l e c t e d  from each o f the raceways prior  and  t o f e e d i n g . The d i s s o l v e d  from  the  oxygen  -  and  35  t e m p e r a t u r e were m e a s u r e d  collection. within used  at the s i t e ,  /Ammonia and pH were m e a s u r e d  one h o u r o f c o l l e c t i n g  effluent  Dissolved  have  (Willoughby, 1977).  i n the  t h e samples.  oxygen.  after  laboratory  The p r o c e d u r e s  a dissolved 1968;  Buss  oxygen  not lower than 5  and M i l l e r ,  1971;  The  i n s t r u m e n t was  procedure i n d i c a t e d b.  the  mg/1  Westers  and  used t o measure t h e  w i t h a m o d e l 54, Y e l l o w S p r i n g s  oxygen meter.  Pratt, dissolved  Instruments d i s s o l v e d  calibrated  following  the  i n t h e manual f o r the a p p a r a t u s .  Temperature.  The  a thermocouple i n c o r p o r a t e d and  I t i s recommended t h a t  A membrane e l e c t r o d e was  oxygen  checked a g a i n s t  t e m p e r a t u r e was  i n the d i s s o l v e d  a mercury  thermometer  measured  oxygen  at least  using  electrode once e v e r y  weeks. c.  Digital  pH.  pH/ion d.  Measured  w i t h a F i s h e r Accumet M o d e l  Ammonia.  Measured  by t h e N e s s l e r method  Ames, I o w a ) .  calib  i n d u s t r i a l method No.  i n water  against  and  (Technicon  seawater u t i l i z i n g  Industrial  Systems,  IV, V and V I ) . A c a l i b r a t i o n values  using  Reading Engineer's L a b o r a t o r y K i t  (Hach C h e m i c a l Co., rated  420  meter.  a Hach DR-EL/2 D i r e c t  The  immediately  were: a.  two  -  The  Hach method  was  154-71W f o r ammonia  a Technicon Auto A n a l y z e r  II  Tarrytown, N.Y.)(Appendices  e q u a t i o n was  obtained  f o r ammonia p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h i s  o b t a i n e d by u s e o f t h e c a l i b r a t i o n  equation.  (Appendix I V ) .  thesis  were  36  -  4.2  Hydraulic  Studies  The r e a s o n f o r was t o  obtain  doing hydraulic  a characterization  S u p e r i m p o s e d on t h i s generated  -  by  the  undisturbed  fish  Two t e s t s  of  in  were  the  flow  a loaded  tests flow  are  of  information  in  movement  of  a tracer  produced  some q u a n t i t a t i v e  the  within  the  raceways  without  the  fish.  turbulences  raceway.  done on e a c h r a c e w a y ,  qualitative  the  form  of  provided  observation  raceway.  information  one  of  the  The s e c o n d  test  as r e s i d e n c e  time  distributions.  4.2.1  Flow  patterns  The s t u d y information raceway.  on t h e  It  a dye  4.2.1.1  way  patterns  in which  as w e l l  provides  the water  identification  as a r e a s of  high  of  areas  the of  velocity.  patterns  w e r e made v i s i b l e  into  incoming  stream of  the  qualitative  moves t h r o u g h  The f l o w  by t h e  introduction  water.  Materials  The s t u d y have t r a n s p a r e n t  o  flow  makes p o s s i b l e t h e  slow moving water  of  of  of  flow  walls.  patterns  Because of  requires this,  that  only  two  the  raceways  raceways  -  were  studied.  with  s i d e s made o f  37  One r a c e w a y . w a s clear  of  acrylic  filled  to  raceway  tested  was made f r o m  a 0.20  0.8  diameter  of  filled  this  to  times  r a c e w a y was  2.4  r a c e w a y s was r e g u l a t e d constant  head.  4.2.1.2  Procedure  Two f l o w l/min. what  are  l/min  (Burrows  of  be f o u n d used  in  the  to the  required. exchanges  flows  the  rate,  to  the  hour  in  the  patterns  a dye, malachyte  green,  5.0  and 11.6  correspond  to  the  and  for  for The  10.0  1971). the  flow  rates  and  900  per  model  the  on  raceway.  the  are w i t h i n 1.75  a  based  exchanges  criterion  to  length  between  and M i l l e r ,  l/min.  l/min  is  other  glass  under  prototype  flow  The  The  flow  tests,  raceway  Buss  required  and 10.0  per  m.  orifice  the  m wide  acrylic  The  one and f o u r  as the  tests,  rates  the  for  1955;  2.9  These flow  0.16  I-D).  prototype  be between 5.0  I-E).  m diameter or  0.24  u s i n g F r o u d e ' s number,  F r o u d e number  flow  cross-section  m long,  m (Appendix  used i n  and Chenoweth,  The f l o w of  were  for  2.4  a calibrated  corresponding  Using a constant scaling  using  determined  The recommended f l o w  hour  the  considered typical  a n d 3600  0.09  m (Appendix  rates  They were  of  glass  a n d was  pipe  a depth  rectangular  can  range 3.50  prototype. were  made v i s i b l e  by  into  the  stream of  incoming  the  introduction water.  -  The  malachyte  water used of  t o m a k e a 10 differed  dye  was  water  as  the  duration  in  a l lcases.  filter improve film.  on  the c l a r i t y  information looking  of the  were  incoming  stream raceway. seconds  (Kodak  i m p r e s s i o n on  tri-x of  pan).  A  the camera  t h e b l a c k and  was  red to white  were t a k e n a t v a r i o u s t i m e s a f t e r  the  dye.  time  d a t a may  n o t p r o v i d e an  used.  a l o n g the raceway  distribution  the behaviour of a f l u i d  streams  ml  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10  placed i n front  only at i t s inputs  circuiting  are.  was  20 m l  the  dye  1 / m i n , 10  surface i n the  t h e dye  film  amount o f  5.0  1/min, into  distilled  study of residence time d i s t r i b u t i o n s on  distribution  At  i n j e c t i o n was  white  photographs  The  a pipette  movement o f  of the  10  h i t the water  o f t h e dye The  At  in  The  flow rates.  with  stream  Residence  were d i l u t e d  were used.  ( V i v i t a r 25A)  The  -  stock solution. two  b l a c k and  introduction  4.2.2  g/1  injected  The  recorded  crystals  f o r the  stock solution  The of  green  38  and  point  o r dead  indication  outputs.  out areas  as  i n a c o n t a i n e r by Residence  the presence  of  i n a raceway,  t o where  provides  time  short but  i t does  i n the raceway  these  -  4.2.2.1  39 -  Materials  In studies,  addition  t o the raceways used  two more were t e s t e d  tribution.  fortheir  One was made f r o m  0.25 m  i n the flow pattern  r e s i d e n c e time  (10 i n , n o m i n a l  dis-  size)  d i a m e t e r CSP and i t was f i l l e d  t o 0.4 t i m e s t h e d i a m e t e r .  The  o t h e r was made f r o m  (8 i n , n o m i n a l  size)  diameter  CSP  and i t was f i l l e d  t o 0.8 t i m e s t h e d e p t h .  Both  raceways  were 2.4 m l o n g  4.2.2.2  (Appendix I ) .  Procedure  The period  procedure consisted  o f 10 s e c o n d s  from t h e e f f l u e n t leaving  t o determine  tracer  (Burrows  and Chenoweth, 1955;  t o those used  i t into  i n the flow pattern  Samples f r o m t h e e f f l u e n t were c o l l e c t e d a t  predetermined  time i n t e r v a l s .  The s a m p l e s  were t h e n a n a l y z e d  a H i t a c h i P e r k i n - E l m e r 139 U V - V I S . s p e c t r o p h o t o m e t e r  determine  samples  t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f dye  and t h e p r o c e d u r e f o r i n t r o d u c i n g  r a c e w a y s were s i m i l a r  using  t h e dye f o r a  1972).  The  studies.  i n introducing  i n t o t h e i n f l o w and t h e n c o l l e c t i n g  t h e raceway w i t h time  Levenspiel,  the  0.20 m  the concentration  o f malachyte  to  green present.  Absorbance  was m e a s u r e d a t 616.9 nm, t h e wave l e n g t h o f peak  absorbance  f o r malachyte  green  (Stecher,  1968).  The  c o n c e n t r a t i o n was t h e n d e t e r m i n e d by r e f e r e n c e t o a c a l i b r a t i o n run  i n the spectrophotometer  (Figure 7 ) .  -  The by d i v i d i n g time curve. time,  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s thus  When t h e n o r m a l i z e d  under t h e E-curves  5.0 and 10.0  o b t a i n e d were  normalized  them by t h e a r e a u n d e r t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n v e r s u s  the E-curves  The  41 -  are obtained  values are plotted ( L e v e n s p i e l , 1972).  against The  i s unity.  f o u r r a c e w a y s were e a c h t e s t e d a t two f l o w 1/min.  area  rates,  -  5.  RESULTS AND  5.1  Phase 1 —  42  DISCUSSION  B e f o r e A u g u s t 15,  ( C o n s t r u c t i o n and  During  -  1979  installation  of  the p r e p a r a t i o n p e r i o d , the data  consisted  of water q u a l i t y parameters such  dissolved  o x y g e n , pH,  Temperature:  equipment)  At  the  temperature  hardness start was  of the  10°C.  temperature,  zinc. f l u s h i n g p e r i o d , the  By  t h e end  of the  risen  t o 13°C  (Table 3).  are s u i t a b l e  f o r the  culture  the temperature temperatures  and  as:  collected  had  water  flushing, Both  of  rainbow  trout. Dissolved  oxygen: mg/1 (88%  pH:  The  The  (68%  s a t u r a t i o n a t 10°C)  water presented  a slightly  between 6.2  6.5  A very  found.  5.0, The  low  and  5.5  presented  the expected  mg/1  3).  acidic  fish.  mg/1  i n Table  7.7  pH,  fluctuating  v a l u e f o r the water hardness  week i n t e r v a l s .  4.5  of  (Table 3).  o f the  values obtained  that  a low  T h r e e m e a s u r e m e n t s were made p r i o r  introduction a t one  and  from  t o a h i g h o f 10.0  s a t u r a t i o n a t 10°C)(Table  Water h a r d n e s s :  Zinc:  values fluctuated  The as  f o r the 4.  The  to  was  the  a n a l y s e s were done  values obtained  were  CaC0 3  zinc  c o n c e n t r a t i o n are  It is interesting  to  decay i n r a t e of r e l e a s e  note (Slunder  Water q u a l i t y  T a b l e 3.  Day  d u r i n g Phase 1.  Date  Number  T e m p e r a t u r e (°C)  D.O.  (mg/1)  33  July  19/79  10  8.0  40  July  20/79  10  7.7  44  July  24/79  10  10.0  45  July  25/79  9.5  10.0  50  July  30/79  11  9.4  64  Aug.  13/79  13  9.2  Water h a r d n e s s 5 mg/1  as CaCO-.  pH  6.2  6.5  6.3  Table  4.  Zinc  concentration  i n t h e g a l v a n i z e d CSP r a c e w a y s d u r i n g  Zinc Concentration Day Number  Date  Raceway 1  Phase  1.  (mg/1) Raceway 2  3  J u n e 13/79  0.43  0.12  16  J u n e 26/79  0.02  0.16  40  July  20/79  0.16  0.05  i  64  Aug. 13/79  0.23  0.24  ,  -  and Boyd, this  45 -  1971) d i d n o t o c c u r .  i s t h o u g h t t o have b e e n  of the p r o t e c t i v e galvanized pipe  film  The r e a s o n f o r  t h e r e m o v a l - o f some  t h a t had formed  on t h e  The r e m o v a l may have come a b o u t  when t h e s e d i m e n t and some s c a l e s t h a t had f o r m e d on t h e z i n c  surface  ( F i g u r e 8) were removed b y g e n t l e  s c r a p i n g w i t h t h e b a r e hand introduction in the  of the f i s h .  t h e raceways fish  Phase  2 —  The z i n c  was m e a s u r e d  f o r the  concentration  one d a y b e f o r e  stocking  and f o u n d t o be 0.23 and 0.24 mg/1  f o r each  o f t h e two CSP  5.2  i n preparation  raceways.  August  15-16, 1979  ( S t o c k i n g o f t h e raceways)  The u n s u i t a b i l i t y  of the environment  i n the galvanized  r a c e w a y s was d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e h e a v y m o r t a l i t i e s The  first  after The  d e a t h s o c c u r r e d between f o u r  t h e f i s h were i n t r o d u c e d  fish  c o n t i n u e d t o d i e even  from t h e g a l v a n i z e d raceways The  zinc  i n t h e raceways  reported  transferred  t o f i b e r g l a s s tanks.  concentrations  a t the time the f i s h (Table  were  4) f o r t h e two r a c e w a y s .  s a f e v a l u e s r a n g e f r o m 0.038 t o 0.260 mg/1 f o r  s o f t w a t e r , w i t h 96 h o u r L C ^ ' s i n t h e r a n g e (Section  hours  (Table 5 ) .  a f t e r h a v i n g been  b r o u g h t i n were 0.24 and 0.23 mg/1 The  and e i g h t e e n  sustained.  2.3).  0.100 t o 0.820  mg/1  I t i s thought t h a t the unexpectedly high  m o r t a l i t i e s were due t o t h e e x t r e m e l y u n f a v o u r a b l e w a t e r  con-  ditions,  a s CaCO-j.  specifically  the very  low w a t e r h a r d n e s s , 5 mgA  Figure  8.  S c a l e s on t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e CSP r a c e w a y s .  galvanized  Table  Mortalities  5.  Time After Stocking (hr)  Time Interval (hr)  i n the galvanized  No. o f Dead F i s h Raceway 1 Raceway  raceways.  Avg.Death Rate/hour Raceway 1 Raceway 2  No.of F i s h R e m a i n i n g Raceway 1 Raceway 2  0  0  438  438  51  3.9  3.4  379  387  46  48  7.7  8.0  333  339  42  71  9.3  15.8  291  268  121  141  9.0  10.4  170  127  3.5  0  0  18. 5  15. 0  59  24. 5  6.0  29.0**  4.5  3.5*  2  CSP  42.5  13 . 5  48.0  5.5  19  10  3.5  1 .8  151  117  53. 0  5.0  21  10  4.2  2.0  130  107  66. 5  13. 5  10  7  0.7  0.5  120  100  72.0  5.5  2  1  0.4  0.2  118  99  80.5  8.5  0  2  0  0.2  118  97  *  Time 0 i s a t 13:25, A u g u s t 15/80.  **  The s u r v i v o r s  were t r a n s f e r r e d  to fiberglass  t a n k s a t 29.0 h r s .  - 48  5.3  Phase 3 —  August  -  17  - September  (Intermediate stage, experiment  During t h i s p e r i o d , August f i s h were h e l d  i n two  PVC  (Figure  p u t i n one weight, for  9) u n t i l  r a c e w a y s and  fiberglass  average weight  this  period.  August  the s u r v i v o r s  the procedure o u t l i n e d were d e t e r m i n e d them.  The  weight  by  by  number o f f i s h was  t h e raceway PVC  raceway PVC fiberglass 5.8 into and  and  5.5  + 0.6.  techniques.  average  batches  and  weighing  dividing  the  total  t a n k t h a t were  counted.  period,  found  i t was  and  that  fish  i n the  grown more t h a n t h o s e i n t h e  When a 10% become 6.4  error originates  w o u l d be  by  weights  except f o r m o r t a l i t i e s  error + 0.6,  i n the  6.4,  estimate i s taken 5.8  +  0.6,  p l a c e d i n the  amount o f w a t e r  directly  t o be  weighing  i s n e t t e d and  an u n d e t e r m i n e d  amount o f w a t e r  raceway  fish  f o u n d by  Every time a f i s h  weighing bucket, The  The  total  The  a v e r a g e w e i g h t s were f o u n d  these weights  and  4.1.2.  50  i n t u r n had  The  i n each  grown more t h a n t h o s e  g respectively.  account, 5.5  2 had  1 which tank.  of t h i s  fiberglass  T a b l e 6 shows t h e  i n Section  i n the f i b e r g l a s s  from  t o t a l w e i g h t s were m e a s u r e d  c o u n t i n g two  A t t h e end in  The  1979,  some o f t h e v a l u e s a r e m e a s u r e d  the average weight,  survivors  i n two  number o f f i s h  Note t h a t  and o t h e r s c a l c u l a t e d .  redesigned)  29 when t h e y were c o u n t e d  tank o n l y . and  197 9  17 t o September 14,  t h e g a l v a n i z e d p i p e r a c e w a y s were h e l d tanks  14,  related  i s introduced.  to the  number  Figure  9.  F i b e r g l a s s tanks used t o h o l d s u r v i v o r s f r o m CSP r a c e w a y s .  the  Table 6.  Weight, average weight and number of f i s h i n each raceway during Phases 2 and 3. Weight of F i s h (g) Aug.15/79 Sept.15/79  Avg. Weight of Fish (g/fish) Aug.15/79 Sept.15/79  Estimated No.of Fish Aug.15/79  M o r t a l i t i e s for Aug.15/79 to Sept.15/79 Sept.15/79 (No.of Fish)  PVC Raceway 1  1612  2524  3.65*  5.8**  442***  434***  PVC Raceway 2  1606  2795  3.65*  6.4**  440***  437***  Combined  3196  920  3.65*  5.5**  876***  168***  6414  6239  3.65*  6.0  8  678  CSP Raceways  Total:  1758  *  Calculated from a sample of 100 f i s h at Sun Valley Trout Farms  ***  Number o f f i s h = (Weight)/(Average Weight).  Calculated from two samples of 50 f i s h each  1039  689  i  -  of  nettings  of  the weigher  release  f o r a b a t c h and a l s o depends on t h e t e c h n i q u e i . e . , t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e between c a t c h  + 0.4  5.3.1  t o 6.0  Water  the f i s h +0.6  place  T a b l e s 7 and  Temperature: the  grew f r o m an a v e r a g e w e i g h t  g i n t h e 30-day  period.  quality  data f o r the p e r i o d  difference  i n f l o w and  i n t e m p e r a t u r e was  the e f f l u e n t .  f r o m a h i g h o f 16°C  The  detected  temperature  t o a low o f 1 3 ° C .  were m e a s u r e d a t d i f f e r e n t  between ranged  Temperatures  t i m e s o f t h e day  and  no  f l u c t u a t i o n s were n o t e d .  oxygen:  The  considerably (Table 7 ) . related  D.O.  of the supply f l u c t u a t e d  f r o m a h i g h o f 9.4  I t i s thought that these v a r i a t i o n s  t o t h e management o f t h e f i l t e r i n g  t h e water  supply  (Appendix V I I ) .  The  dissolved  oxygen  i n the e f f l u e n t  fluctuated widely, following addition  quite  t o a low o f 7.4  for  in  i s presented  8.  No  daily  of  quality  The w a t e r  Dissolved  and  transfer.  Overall,  in  -  i n t h e b u c k e t , t h e amount o f s h a k i n g t a k i n g  during the  3.6  51  t o day-to-day v a r i a t i o n s  are  system  from the  the supply  mg/1  raceways  fluctuations  o f i t s own.  -  (  Table  Day  No.  7.  Feed, Phase  t e m p e r a t u r e and d i s s o l v e d oxygen 3. Feed/ _ Raceway (g)  Date  52 -  m  Temp. (°c)  ~ D i s s o l v e d Oxygen " Supply PVC-1  during  (mg/1) ^' PVC-2  15  48  2  16  48  14  9.4  7.5  7.4  3  17  48  14  8.5  7.3  7.0  4  18  48  5  19  48  15  8.2  6.7  7.2  6  20  52  15  8.2  6.9  6.7  7  21  60  15  8.2  6.9  7.0  8  22  56  15  8.4  7.3  6.8  9  23  56  15  8.0  6.9  7.1  10  24  52  16  8.1  6.5  7.1  11  25  48  15  8.3  6.5  7.0  12  26  48  14  8.2  7.0  7.2  13  27  48  14  28  48  14  8.3  7.0  6.9  15  29  48  16  30  48  13  9.4  6.8  7.2  17  31  48  15  8.2  6.5  7.0  1  32  19  2  36  16  8.3  7.0  7.0  20  3  60  21  4  60  22  5  60  15  8.0  6.1  5.5  23  6  60  15  • 7.9  5.7  5.8  24  7  60  15  7.5  5.7  5.7  25  8  60  26  9  40  27  10  64  28  11  64  29  12  60  14  7.4  5.5  6.0  30  13  60  13  7.9  6.3  6.7  31  14  40  13  8.1  6.4  6.5  1  18  August  Sept.  Table  8.  /Ammonia and pH d u r i n g Phase 3.  Ammonia-N Day  Supply  No.  PH  (mg/1)  PVC-1  PVC-2  Supply  PVC-1  PVC-2  6.6  6.4  6.4  7  0.04  0.13+0.05* 0.08+0.05  6.6  6.5  6.5  9  0.04  0.08+0.05  0.08+0.05  6.5  6.6  6.5  14  0.04  0.08+0.05  0.08+0.05  6.4  6.5  6.4  17  0.04  0.26+0.07  0.22+0.06  6.6  6.5  6.5  22  0.04  0.17+0.05  0.17+0.05  6.2  6.1  6.1  27  0.04  0.13+0.05  0.13+0.05  6.2  6.1  6.1  u>  *  Error associated with  the experimental  procedure  (See A p p e n d i x I V ) .  -  The  54  d i s s o l v e d oxygen d e p l e t i o n  i n the  initial  days  (September  6,  to a high  of  1979).  s l i g h t d e c l i n e i n o x y g e n use  A  mg/1  end  c o u l d be 15  to  due  13  to  the  supply  duration  on  6.6 day  (0.1 two  of on  to feeding  the  experiment.  8).  final  decline from  the  The  effluent  pH's The  decreased over initial  final  pH  supply  reading  e f f l u e n t pH  effluent  were  fish.  lower than the  c a s e s where t h e  0.1  6.2  slightly  inflow  was  pH  was  was  the  except units  for  higher  supply. the  pH  was  low  enough t o  amount o f ammonia i n t h e  a threat  to the  Trussell,  1972,  T o t a l ammonia cases.  This  the  effluent  2, w h i l e  units)  In a l l c a s e s ,  The  0.26+0.07 this  1.6.  The  drop i n water temperature  the  (Table  0.2  than the  the  down t o  and  day  27  to  occurred  30-day p e r i o d .  o x y g e n measurements i n t h e  a l w a y s done p r i o r  was  23  C.  Dissolved  Both the  a r o u n d day  of the  o x y g e n d e p l e t i o n was  Ammonia:  raceways  f r o m a r o u n d 1.3 2.1  mg/1  i n the  increased  towards the  pH:  -  fish  (NH^  highest mg/1  to the  plus  that present  Warren,  1962;  very  in a l l  1976).  NH^+)  was  concentration  Ammonia-N  total  raceways d i d not  ( L l o y d , 1961;  U.S.E.P.A.,  insure  (Table  low  recorded 8).  ammonia-N c o n c e n t r a t i o n  was  Compare of  21.0  -  mg/1, a pH  the value o f 6.5  W e s t e r s and  55  considered  a t 10°C Pratt,  Although  the  accurate  than  -  t h e Hach  being  (Boyd, 197 7 ) ,  of  t o run  s a m p l e s c o u l d be  collected.  The  and  analyzed  results  and  1955;  Willoughby,  Pratt,  fish  the advantage  even a s m a l l as  1968;  \  0  the  these  s o o n as  c o u l d t h e n be  d e n s i t y i n the  1977).  1972;  practical  in  management d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e level  at  more  the d e c i s i o n t o use  Hach k i t had  inexpensive  Trussell,  i s admittedly  ammonia a n a l y s e s  The  fish  1977).  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s prompted  experiments.  t o the  (Warren, 1962;  autoanalyzer  Hach k i t f o r t h e  toxic  of  number  they  were  u s e d t o make  flow,  feeding  raceways ( H a s k e l l ,  Boyd, 1977;  Westers  and  -  5.3.2  Observations  In the  all  orifice  by  interference This  hose  of  of  the  hose  raceway  the  hose.  wind with  be  -  management  raceways,  securely  disruption  flexible the  on t h e  a flexible  should  accidental The  the  56  of  inflow  the  down t o  water  to  raceways  was d i r e c t e d  incoming  flow  s h o u l d be p l a c e d  as p o s s i b l e  the  The hose p r e v e n t e d  tied  the  of  water  the  as c l o s e  prevent  the  the  stream.  prevent  to  from  the  raceways.  to  the  head  occurrence  end  of  backflows. The o u t l e t siphoned  out  extended  into  a  tube  at  least  the  through  to  the  it  drain  to  introducing  found  to  be  several due t o  the  raceway  had to  were  fish  on t h e were  be c l e a n e d by  the  the  material  effluent  be  pipe  that  introducing  accumulated".  from the  at  it.  No s o l i d s  least  outlet  once  per  The r a c e w a y s accumulated  covered with  jumped  approximately  walls  be c l e a n e d by  through  small maladjustments  growing  had to  in  were the  fish.  raceways  occasions,  that  The p e r f o r a t e d  be c l e a n e d o u t  self-cleaning.  After started  out  a wire  stocked with The  had to  siphon  had t o  by  solids  once a week.  delivering  month  raceways  collected  raceway  The p i p e box  box  in  out  of  the  placing  two  c o v e r e d by  some o f  weeks of  PVC r a c e w a y s .  hand.  nets  At  a green  of  (Figure  On  the  raceways  the  netting.  being the  6).  stocked,  end of  slimy  algae  Phase  layer  that  3  -  5.4  Phase  4 —  (Comparison In 1979  57, -  September  14 - November 22, 1979  of three  the period  raceways)  f r o m September 15 t o November 22,  (69 d a y s ) , f i s h were h e l d  i n t h r e e raceways,  f r o m PVC, one made f r o m p a i n t e d (Appendix  each.  CSP and one made f r o m wood  I ) . I n i t i a l l y a l l raceways  approximately  2080 g e a c h  were l o a d e d w i t h  ( T a b l e 9 ) , o r 346 f i s h  The f l o w t h r o u g h e a c h o f t h e r a c e w a y s  a t 6.0 g  was 5 1/min.  The  f i s h were f e d t h r e e times p e r day f o r a t o t a l  per  raceway  to  one made  p e r day i n i t i a l l y .  This  amount was  o f 60 g  increased  90 g p e r d a y b y O c t o b e r 22 (day 3 8 ) ( T a b l e 1 0 ) . The w a t e r  quality  p a r a m e t e r s m o n i t o r e d were: t e m p e r a t u r e ,  oxygen,  pH and ammonia  F i s h growth: Initially,  (Tables  each raceway  fish  day  i n t h e new r a c e w a y s ,  final four  held  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2080 g o f f i s h o r  a t an a v e r a g e w e i g h t o f 6.0 g .  raceway  these,  10 a n d 1 1 ) .  The f i s h w e i g h t d a t a i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 9.  346  steel  dissolved  26 f i s h  jumped o u t o f t h e c o r r u g a t e d  due t o a p o o r l y p o s i t i o n e d  the t o t a l m o r t a l i t i e s  During the f i r s t  net.  Other  than  f o r t h e p e r i o d were s i x .  The  a v e r a g e w e i g h t s were d e t e r m i n e d by c o u n t i n g and w e i g h i n g samples  indicate  o f 20 f i s h  a h i g h e r growth  (25.6 g / f i s h ) , (22.9 g / f i s h ) (significantly range t e s t  from each o f t h e raceways. rate  f o rthe f i s h  f o l l o w e d by t h e f i s h and by t h e f i s h different  i n t h e CSP  i n the rectangular  i n t h e PVC raceway  a t oC = 0.05, by Duncan's  ( W a l p o l e and M y e r s ,  The v a l u e s  1972)).  raceway raceway  (20.2 g / f i s h ) . multiple  Table 9.  Weight, average weight and number of f i s h i n each raceway during Phase 4.  Weight o f F i s h (g) Sept.15/79 Nov.22/79  Avg.Weight of Fish (g/fish) Sept.15/79 Nov.22/79  Estimated No.of Fish Sept.15/79  Nov.22/79  Mortalities for September 15/79 to Nov.22/79 (No.of Fish)  PVC Raceway  2080  7505  6.0*  20.2**  346  371  2  Rectangular Raceway  2072  7521  6.0*  22.9**  345  328  3  CSP Raceway  2087  7034  6.0*  25.6**  348  275  27  Total:  6239  22060  6.0*  22.7  1039  974  32  *  See Table 6.  **  Calculated from two samples o f 50 f i s h each.  ***  Number of f i s h = (Weight)/(Average Weight).  - 59 -  Table 10.  Day No.  Date  Feed, temperature and dissolved oxygen during Phase 4. Feed/ Raceway. (g)  1  Sept. 15  40  2  16  60  3  17  4  18  5  19  60  6  20  60  7  21  60  8  22  60  9 10  23 24  45 60  11  25  60  12  26  60  13  27  60  Temp. (°C)  Dissolved Oxygen (mg/1) Supply PVC RECT  CSP  13  7.8  6.4  6.3  6.6  60  11  7.8  6.7  7.6  6.6  40  11  7.3  6.1  6.7  6.7  14  8.0  6.8  6.7  6.6  14  7.6  5.9  6.1  6.0  14  7.9  6.1  6.6  6.1  14  28  60  15  29  60  16  30  60  15  17  Oct. 1  60  14  7.4  5.7  6.0  5.8  18  2  60  19  3  66  14  8.3  6.4  6.0  6.2  20  4  72  21  5  72  22  6  48  23  7  72  24  8  72  13  8.2  6.6  6.3  6.3  25  9  48  26  10  72  27  11  72 14  8.5  5.9  6.1  6.1  28  12  72  29  13  72  30  14  48  i  - 60 -  Table 10.  Day No. 31 32  Date Oct.  15  (Cont'd)  Feed/ Raceway (g)  16  72 72  33  17  50  34  18 19  75  35 36  20  75  37  21  60  38  22  90  39  23  90  40  24  90  Temp. (°C)  Dissolved Oxygen (mg/1) Supply PVC " RECT CSP  14  8.0  6.7  6.2  7.0  12  8.1  6.1  6.1  5.8  12  9.8  6.5  6.1  6.3  12  11.0  6.1  7.0  7.3  11  11.0  7.7  7.7  8.1  6.5  8.1  75  41  25  90  42  26  90  43 44  27  90  28  60  45  29  90  46  30  90  47 48  31 Nov. 1  90 90  10  49  2  90  10  50  3  90  51  4  60  52  5  90  53  6  90  54  •7  90  55  8  90  56  9  90  57  10  90  58  11  60  9  59  12  85  9  60  13  90  9  10  11.0  7.9  10  11.0  8.6  7.8  8.0  10  11.1  7.6  7.5  7.6  11.1  7.7  7.5  7.3  10  - 61 -  Table 10.  Day No.  Date  (Cont'd) Feed/ Raceway (g)  61  Nov. 14  90  62  15  63 64  16 17  90 90  65  18  45  66  19  90  67  20  90  68  21  90  69  22  90  90  Temp. (°C)  Dissolved Oxygen (mg/1) Supply PVC RECT CSP  9  9  11.2  7.8  7.9  8.0  8  11.4  7.7  8.0  7.6  8  11.5  8.1  8.0  7.3  Table 11.  Ammonia and pH during Phase 4.  Ammonia-N (mg/1) Day No.  Date  Supply  PVC  pH  RECT  CSP  Supply  PVC  RECT  CSP  Sept. 23  0.08+0.05*  0.17+0.05  0.22+0.06  0.17+0.05  6.2  6.0  5.9  6.1  31  Oct. 15  < 0.04  0.13+0.05  0.08+0.05  0.13+0.05  6.4  6.2  6.2  6.2  46  Oct.. 30  0.08+0.05  0.22+0.06  0.13+0.05  0.13+0.05  5.7  6.0  5.5  5.7  69  Nov. 22  < 0.04  0.17+0.05  0.13+0.05  0.13+0.05  6.8  6.2  6.3  6.4  9  *  Error associated with the experimental procedure (See Appendix IV).  63  On D e c e m b e r 2 4 ,  -  1979,  the  inflow  r a c e w a y was a c c i d e n t a l l y  knocked off  raceway  of  is  in  died.  c l o s e agreement w i t h  average  and t o t a l  agreement the  The c o u n t  in  the  weights figures  c a l c u l a t e d number o f  22 c a n b e e x p l a i n e d b y process  (Section  5.4.1  fish  Carrying capacity  raceways  are  excess  of  obtained.  summarized in those  that  errors  12.  the  disbetween  the  rates,  weighing  out  raceways  that  have r e p o r t e d  (1970)  reported  a stocking density  stated).  that  the  values  (Table  the  for  1)  peak  far were  not loadings  d i s s o l v e d oxygen nor  1.6  -  of  Note  and t h a t  and s t o c k i n g d e n s i t i e s :  size  density  v a l u e s o b t a i n e d were  obtained  were not  the  density  and s t o c k i n g  Table  s h o u l d be p o i n t e d  (the  the  value  from  associated with  (1970)  troughs  in  ammonia  levels.  Other workers  capacities  This  r a c e w a y s and  and s t o c k i n g  reached since neither  had r e a c h e d l i m i t i n g  unique.  fish  The a p p a r e n t  other  recommended f o r  Note a l s o  It  330.  t h e PVC  o n S e p t e m b e r 15 a n d o n N o v e m b e r  capacity  maximum p o s s i b l e l o a d i n g were not  the  calculated  9).  the  to  5.3).  The c a r r y i n g  in  for  was  number  (Table  the  and a l l  dead f i s h the  pipe  1.8  the  kg/l/min  troughs  these  similar Buss  and  results  90 k g / m  and the  K i n c a i d and c o - w o r k e r s  not  carrying co-workers  3 and 120-136 k g / m . 3 of  are  in  carrying (1976)  Piper  aluminum capacity obtained  Table  12.  C a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y * a n d s t o c k i n g d e n s i t y * * o f t h e raceways at v a r i o u s stages o f the experiments. Flow Rate  Date  Aug.  Raceway  15  S e p t . 15  S e p t . 15  Nov.  22  Carrying Capacity kg/nr^s  Stocking Density  l/min  m /s  PVC-1  5  8.3xl0~  5  1.94xl0  4  0.322  29.8  PVC-2  5  8.3xl0~  5  1.92xl0  4  0.321  29.7  PVC-1  5  8.3xl0~  5  3.02xl0  4  0.505  46.7  PVC-2  5  8.3xl0~  5  3.35xl0  4  0.559  51.8  PVC  5  8.3xl0~  5  2.49xl0  4  0.416  38.5  Rectangular  5  8.3xl0~  5  2.48x10  0.414  38.4  CSP  5  8.3x10"  5  2.50xl0  4  0.417  38.6  PVC  5  8.3xl0~  5  8.99xl0  4  1.501  139.0  Rectangular  5  8.3xl0~  5  9.01xl0  4  1.504  139.3  CSP  5  8.3xl0~  5  8.42xl0  4  1.407  130.3  3  kg/l/min  *  Carrying Capacity =  (Weight  o f Fish)/(Flow Rate).  **  Stocking Density  (Weight  o f F i s h ) / ( V o l u m e o f Raceway).  =  kg/m  3  -  stocking densities circular in  tanks  37.5 l i t e r  as h i g h as 170 k g / m i n J  circular  using  (Willoughby,  8.8  liter  a n d c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s o f 1.58  Calculations capacities  65 -  kg/l/min  tanks. of stocking densities  the procedures  1968; W e s t e r s ,  proposed  and c a r r y i n g  by v a r i o u s  researchers  1970; W e s t e r s and P r a t t ,  1977)  3 yielded  values  r a n g i n g b e t w e e n 118 and 158 kg/m  f o rthe  stocking  d e n s i t y a n d b e t w e e n 1.3 and 1.7 k g / l / m i n  carrying  capacity.  those  obtained The  trials  density  and such  with  a r e i n c l o s e agreement  results  obtained  i n our experiments,  the values  obtained  (as m e n t i o n e d  operations  water r e s o u r c e s .  above),  t h a t most  are u n d e r u t i l i z i n g  Monitoring  and i n t h e  when c a l c u l a t i n g  and c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y i n d i c a t e  farming  with  experimentally.  p e r f o r m e d by o t h e r w o r k e r s  together  trout  These v a l u e s  f o r the  stocking  commercial  t h e i r pond  of environmental  space  parameters  a s d i s s o l v e d o x y g e n , t e m p e r a t u r e a n d ammonia w o u l d  convince  the farmers  maintained  i n their  that larger ponds w i t h o u t  populations  stressing  c a n be  the f i s h .  the  fish  and  a d e q u a t e b a c k up s y s t e m s t h a t w o u l d c o r r e c t any  failure  at high d e n s i t i e s  fish  rapidly  to prevent  r e q u i r e s r e l i a b l e water  a devastating fish  kill.  Growing  supplies supply  - 66  5.4.2  Water  quality  The w a t e r in  T a b l e s 10 and  Temperature:  -  q u a l i t y data f o r the period  i s presented  11.  No  difference  i n t e m p e r a t u r e was  between t h e i n f l u e n t and temperature  a t day  the e f f l u e n t .  one was  peak o f 15°C on day  detected  16.  13°C.  After  The  I t reached a  that  i t started  a  v e r y g r a d u a l d e c l i n e and a t t h e end o f t h e experiment Dissolved  (day 6 9 ) , i t had  oxygen:  The  oscillated  dissolved  around  7.8  as the temperature  reached  oxygen o f the water  mg/1  initially  dropped.  On day  t e m p e r a t u r e was  8°C, t h e d i s s o l v e d  climbed  mg/1.  t o 11.5  depletion 1.2  mg/1  The  i n the raceways t o a h i g h o f 4.9  occurred  towards  the increased  (7.4 mg/1)  loading.  oxygen  had  oxygen from  The  around  h i g h e r uses  The  due  lowest d i s s o l v e d 5.7  mg/1.  to  oxygen  I t occurred  c a u s e d by a c o m b i n a t i o n o f h i g h  (15°C)  and  low d i s s o l v e d  i n the i n f l u e n t water.  test period,  the d i s s o l v e d  e f f l u e n t was  around  oxygen use n o t e d  increased  68, when t h e  increased mg/1.  supply  t h e end o f t h e t e s t p e r i o d  17 and was  temperature  and  dissolved  v a l u e f o r t h e e f f l u e n t was on day  8°C.  7.8  above.  oxygen  A t t h e end o f t h e  oxygen c o n t e n t o f  mg/1  even w i t h t h e  the  heavy  -  pH:  67 -  The pH r e m a i n e d o n t h e a c i d experiment. of  The s u p p l y  6.8 t o a low o f 5.7.  pH t h a n  the supply  Ammonia:  the  from a h i g h  The e f f l u e n t had a  lower  The l o w e s t  pH  on d a y 4 6 when t h e s u p p l y  a pH o f 5.7. The ammonia N i t r o g e n  throughout was  fluctuated  i n a l l cases.  was 5.5 and i t o c c u r r e d had  s i d e throughout  c o n c e n t r a t i o n r e m a i n e d low  the experiment.  0.2 2 + 0.06 mg/1.  The h i g h e s t v a l u e  I t was o b s e r v e d  obtained  i n the  r e c t a n g u l a r r a c e w a y on d a y 9 and i n t h e PVC r a c e w a y on  day 46.  T h e r e was no d e f i n i t e  trend  ammonia-N c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t h e t h r e e relative  t o each o t h e r .  lower  c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f ammonia-N t h a n  Observations  The third  raceways  I n o t h e r w o r d s , no one  raceway had a c o n s i s t e n t l y  5.4.3  f o r the  or higher the other  raceways.  on t h e management o f t h e s y s t e m  o b s e r v a t i o n s noted  i n S e c t i o n 5.3.2 f o r t h e  phase o f t h e experiments a p p l y  I n a d d i t i o n , i t was n o t e d  equally to this  that the a n t i f o u l i n g  paint  phase. prevented  the growth o f a l g a e  on t h e w a l l s o f t h e CSP and r e c t a n g u l a r  raceways.  g r o w t h was d e t e c t e d  not  covered  raceway.  No a l g a e  by a s l i m y  and t h e w a l l s were  l a y e r a s was t h e c a s e  f o r t h e PVC  - 68  5.5  -  Hydraulics  The  r e s u l t s of  the  hydraulic  presented,  characterize  the  flow  absence of  fish.  patterns fish on  are  swimming.  the  flow  thesis.  on  the  The  the  and  the  established  turbulence  q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of  extent  of  the  the  s i m i l a r i n nature but  flow  generated  fish  this  however,  the  fish  activity  raceways.  occurred  by  the  scope of  i n f l u e n c e of the  the  e f f e c t of  events w i l l ,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  being  raceways i n  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s beyond the  hydraulic  events are and  disturbances  A d e s c r i p t i o n o f two  illustrate  i n the  S u p e r i m p o s e d on  the  studies  The  two  at d i f f e r e n t times  i n d i f f e r e n t raceways.  Event  1.  On  September  3,  r a c e w a y t h a t had The of  fish the  used  noted fish,  raceway  introduced  that solid  flushed. suitability  t r a n s f e r of  soon a f t e r the  a  10).  i n the  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  wastes s t a r t e d accumulating This  t i m e when t h e  became s u s p e n d e d eventually  CSP  fish.  (Figure  the  and  i n the  f o r t e s t i n g the  environment p r i o r to the  I t was  until  f i s h were p u t  j u s t been p a i n t e d  were t o be  large batch of  three  three  batch of  raceway. i n the  c a r r i e d out  accumulation  At  the  fish  w a t e r and  raceway.  the  continued  this point,  turbulent of  348  in  the  It  was the  solids  were should  Figure  10.-  S e d i m e n t a c c u m u l a t e d i n t h e CSP w i t h the reduced l o a d i n g .  r  raceway  -  be  pointed  out  s o l i d s has E v e n t 2.  On  70  t h a t no  taken place  December 24,  out  -  a l l but  an  three  fish  noticeable build-up since.  accident fish  time,  333  had  3-1/2  months w i t h o u t  occurred  i n the  been kept solids  PVC  in this  accumulating  a trace.  S o l i d s s o o n s t a r t e d b u i l d i n g up  r a c e w a y and  ( F i g u r e 11)  and  had  the  t o be  fish  revealed and  followed  activity  usually associated with  feeding.  their  around  The  feeding  observations  i n f l u e n c e of the a raceway.  hydraulic are,  subsequent e x i t  at times of high  took p l a c e  in  sporadic  This  fish  activity  by  Factors  such  presented  fish  on  the  p o i n t out  out.  of  or fish of  raceways  which u s u a l l y  the  characteristics  i n f l u e n c e d e t r a c t s from the no  hydraulic characteristics as:  the  time.  s t u d i e s of raceways w i t h  the  to  suspension  from the  fish  however, s e v e r a l f a c t o r s t h a t s e r v e  studying  the  the  patterns  the  in  cleaning  The  for  reduced  suctioned  t h a t the  that  survivors  throughout the d u r a t i o n o f  a c t i o n was  s e d i m e n t s and  three  f e e d i n g was  flushing  the  in  i n the  the  accident,  At  raceway  were l e f t  experiments with  occurred  raceway.  A f t e r the  Observations  the  which wiped  raceway.  raceway  of  as  extent of the  of flow  usefulness  i n them.  of  There  justification  for  of t r o u t c u l t u r e u n i t s .  -  Figure | j.  71  -  S e d i m e n t a c c u m u l a t e d i n t h e PVC with the reduced loading.  raceway  - 72  The  -  sporadic nature  periods.  T h i s means t h a t t h e  f o r extended  The  very  are  stocked  different by  be  d e n s i t i e s a t which  different  operators  the n o - f i s h flow  different  carrying capacities  densities  can  be  obtained  impoundments h a v i n g  the of of  pattern  (Table  the  characteristics that  and  very  loading  from d i f f e r e n t  different  shapes  flow  1).  patterns  of  f o u r c o m p l e t e r u n s were made.  g r a p h s s h o w i n g t h e movement o f t h e dye t o 15.  Visual  t h e CSP  The  are presented  o b s e r v a t i o n s , not  p h o t o g r a p h s were made i n t h e  below.  flow  a r a c e w a y , comes f r o m t h e f a c t  A total  on  also  extent  s t r o n g e s t c o n f i r m a t i o n of  characteristics  i n runs  and  A l l t h i s means t h a t t h e  importance of the background  Flow  raceways  highly variable.  . Perhaps the  of  periods  d e n s i t y i n a raceway as a b a t c h  grows.  will  in  f a r removed  time.  t h e d i s t u r b a n c e on  12  be  from the n o - f i s h s i t u a t i o n  fish  Figures  f i s h may  too  increasing  5.5.1  activity  swimming i n c o n d i t i o n s n o t  of  -  of the h i g h  recorded  photo-  in in  f o u r complete runs  and  also  raceways. These o b s e r v a t i o n s  are  described  -  5.5.1.1  Acrylic  The  73  glass pipe  dye movement  -  raceway  i n this  r a c e w a y i s shown i n  Figures  12 a n d 1 3 f o r t h e two f l o w r a t e s , 5.0 a n d 1 0 . 0 l / m i n .  In both  cases,  almost close high  complete mixing  of the inflow occurred  i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y a n d no dead to the i n l e t ,  indicating  s p o t s were d e t e c t e d  the presence  of a region of  turbulence. No d e a d a r e a s were d e t e c t e d  raceway. location  In t h e second h a l f , of the  outlet  a drawdown c a u s e d  became a p p a r e n t .  w a t e r f l o w a p p e a r e d on t h e l o w e r a corresponding  stagnant  depth o f the stagnant  i n the f i r s t  area  area  half  of the  by t h e  A zone o f r a p i d  s e c t i o n o f t h e raceway  close to the surface.  i n c r e a s e d as i t g o t c l o s e r  with  The to the  outlet. Observations areas  extending  f r o m above r e v e a l e d some m i n o r  back from t h e o u t l e t  end a l o n g  the p i p e a d i s t a n c e of about o n e - f i f t h T h e r e were no dead a r e a s  stagnant  the sides of  o f t h e raceway  length.  c l o s e t o t h e bottom o f t h e  raceway.  5.5.1.2  Rectangular  The Figures As  raceway  d y e movement  for this  raceway is.shown i n  14 a n d 15 f o r t h e 5.0 and 1 0 . 0 l / m i n  was t h e c a s e  flow r a t e s .  i n t h e pipe raceways, a r e g i o n o f h i g h  i±  IB  20  22  Z5  Numbers i n d i c a t e t h e t i m e (minutes) a f t e r t h e i n j e c t i o n o f t h e dye.  Figure  12.  Flow p a t t e r n s at 5 l/min.  i n the c i r c u l a r  raceway  Figure  14.  Flow p a t t e r n s at 5 l/min.  i n the r e c t a n g u l a r  raceway  -  turbulence the  occurred  near t h e i n l e t  inflow resulted.  half  78 -  o f t h e raceway.  Dead a r e a s In t h i s  were d e t e c t e d  case,  n e a r t h e s u r f a c e and t h e b o t t o m . along  above o n l y .  be  a t and  Dead a r e a s were a l s o  made on t h e s e  The o u t s t a n d i n g  the presence  present  back from t h e o u t l e t .  o f the flow  i n the corrugations,  Other than  due t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y and e x t e n t  r a c e w a y s were done  behaviour  o f dead a r e a s  to the outlets.  detected  from  observed especially  t h a t , no d e a d a r e a s  could  i n making t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s .  The  location  for  t h e management o f t h e r a c e w a y s . I f t h e s t a g n a n t  close  second  CSP r a c e w a y s  Observations  close  i n "the  they were b o t h  t h e s i d e s o f t h e raceway e x t e n d i n g  5.5.1.3  was  and c o m p l e t e m i x i n g o f  of the stagnant  areas  t o t h e water s u r f a c e , food p a r t i c l e s  a r e important  falling  area i s at or i n t h e water  will  move s l o w l y downstream a n d t o w a r d s t h e b o t t o m , g i v i n g t h e  fish  more t i m e  finally will  sink, they w i l l  be c a r r i e d  affected  t o reach  the food.  to the outlet.  areas  raceway, p a r t i c l e s  reaching  close  Feces  from t h e f i s h  i n a s i m i l a r way by t h e w a t e r f l o w .  will  I f , on t h e o t h e r  them w i l l  settle  and s e d i m e n t s  Of t h e r a c e w a y s t e s t e d ,  smooth r a c e w a y d i d n o t show s t a g n a n t  t o t h e bottom.  be  a r e c l o s e t o t h e bottom o f t h e  accumulate i n t h e raceways.  only the c i r c u l a r  particles  e n t e r a r e g i o n o f h i g h e r v e l o c i t y and  hand, t h e s t a g n a n t  will  When t h e f o o d  areas  Table 13.  Concentration of malachyte green i n the e f f l u e n t of the raceways at time t a f t e r the introduction of the dye i n the inflow. (Concentration of Malachyte Green mg/1)  Flow = 5.0 1/min Time (min) 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0  C i r c u l a r - Rectangular Raceway Raceway  0.97 1.12 1.26 1.55 1.70 1.36 1.07 1.12 0.87 0.53 0.39 0.39 0.24  CSP (25 cm) CSP (20 cm) Raceway Raceway  Circular Raceway  Rectangular Raceway  CSP (25 cm) Raceway  0.00 1.55 3.01 4. 27 3.40 3. 20 2.67  0.00 0.05 0.00 6.12 0.31 0.63 1.07  1.84 1.21 0.58 0.58 0.44  1.55  0.24  0.39  0.53 0.44  1.07 1.70 2.14 2. 23 2. 77  0.00 0. 00 0. 63 1.70 1.94 2.52 2.67 2.33 1.89 1. 60  0.05 0.00 0.15 0. 29 0.49 0.73 1.41 1.46 1.57  2.48  1.41  1.82  2. 09  1.07  1.75  0.24  0.15  0.15  1. 36 1.12 0. 78  0.63 0.25 0.24 0.19  1.36 1.12  0.24  0.05  0.10  0.10  0.34  0.02  0. 29  0.39 0.15 0.10  0.63  CSP (20 cm) Raceway  0.05 0.68 4.76 6.12 6.12 4. 57 3.35 2.09 1.60 0.97 0.63 0.49  0.00 0.10 3.11 5. 63 6.22 5.15 3.79 2.57 1.89 1.21 0.97 0.68 0.39 0.29  0. 00 0.34  Flow = 10.0 1/min  1.17 0.92  -  4H  80 -  Circular racaway  2-J  ~  kA  Rectangular  racaway  E  Ul  or o ui x  u  t\  0.25 m dia. C S P racaway  <  2 *•  0.20 m dia. CSP  racaway  u o u  24  TIME AFTER INJECTION F i g u r e 16.  (min)  C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f malachyte green vs, time a t 5 l/min.  -  TIME AFTER Figure  17.  81 -  INYECTION  [min]  C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f malachyte green v s . t i m e a t 10 l / m i n .  Table  14.  Normalized  c o n c e n t r a t i o n values a t 5 l/min.  E-values Time (min)  3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11. 0 12. 0 13. 0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17. 0 18.0 19.0  Circular Raceway  Rectangular Raceway  0.108 0.124 0.140 0.172 0.189 0.151 0.119 0.124 0.097 0.059 0.043 0.043 0.027  0.25 m CSP Raceway v  0.20 m CSP Raceway  0.070 0.111 0.140 0.146 0.181  0.000 0.000 0.052 0.140 0.160 0.208 0.221 0.193 0.156 0.132  0.004 0.000 0.012 0.022 0.038 0.056 0.108 0.112 0.121  0.162  0.117  0.140  0.137  0.088  0.135  0.089 0.073 0.051  0.052 0.021 0.020 0.016  0.105 0.086  0.008  0.026  0.002  0.022  0.000 0.038  (l/min)  0.025 0.010 0.007  0.048  Table  15.  Normalized  c o n c e n t r a t i o n v a l u e s a t 10 1/min.  E-values Time (min) 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5. 0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0  Circular Raceway  Rectangular Raceway .  0.000 0.006 0.187 0.339 0.375 0.310 0.225 0.155 0.114 0.073 0.058 0.041 0.023 0.017  0.003 0.043 0.299 0.385 0.385 0.287 0.211 0.131 0.101 0.061 0.040 0.031  (1/min) 0.25 m CSP Raceway  0.20 m CSP Raceway  0.000 0.117 0.226 0.321 0.256 0.241 0.201  0.000 0.007 0.000 0.017 0.043 0.088 0.149  0.138 0.091 0.044 0.044 0.033  0.215  0.015  0.029  0.074  0.014  0.009  0.011  0.061  0.014  . 0.003  0.008  0.163 0.128  -  5.5.2  Residence The  presented  time  original  i n Table  13  84  -  distribution  c o n c e n t r a t i o n versus time  data i s  and  and  plotted  c u r v e s were e x t r a p o l a t e d and  i n F i g u r e s 16  the area under each  m e a s u r e d u s i n g a Numonics G r a p h i c s C a l c u l a t o r planimeter). the  The  d i s t r i b u t i o n was  c o n c e n t r a t i o n by  time  detected  earlier  the others. circuiting very  of  o f dye is  i n the  stream.  The  approximately The  circuiting  0.25  and  normalized  and  the  a r e shown i n t h e dye  was  raceway than i n  o f a more marked s h o r t  r e c t a n g u l a r raceways have  distributions  indicating  CSP  that  r a c e w a y has  f o u r raceways s t u d i e d . and  the  slower  The  10  l/min flow r a t e ,  The  0.25  m diameter  CSP  marked s h o r t c i r c u i t i n g  lower  peak  that  least.  diameter  r a c e w a y was  diameter  w h i l e the  I t s h o u l d be filled  0.20  0.20  5 l/min flow  raceway.  m diameter  CSP  o f 0.4 and  rate.  t h e most CSP  remembered t h a t  to a depth  m diameter  there  t h e r a c e w a y s b e h a v e d i n much  raceway a g a i n e x h i b i t e d the  and least  decay i n d i c a t e  a t the lower  while  they  the  of i n t e r m i x i n g t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h i s  same manner as t h e y had  the  CSP  the presence  m diameter  the  exhibited  m diameter  circular  0.20  i n the e f f l u e n t  At the  dividing  t h e same e x t e n t o f s h o r t c i r c u i t i n g  of the  a l a r g e degree  and  5 l/min flow r a t e ,  r e s i d e n c e time  intermixing.  short  At the  The  a g a i n s t time  ( L e v e n s p i e l , 1972)  This indicates  similar  exhibit  19.  (electronic  o f 1/time.  then p l o t t e d  E - c u r v e s were o b t a i n e d and  was  the a r e a under the c o n c e n t r a t i o n v e r s u s  c o n c e n t r a t i o n , E, was  18  The  curve  t h e n n o r m a l i z e d by  c u r v e o b t a i n i n g E, w i t h u n i t s  Figures  17.  times  raceway  the  0.25  m  the  the c i r c u l a r  raceways  -  were b o t h had  filled  t o 0.8  84a  -  times the diameter,  t h e same c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l  area.  but a l l three  -  OD -  TIME AFTER INJECTION Figure  18.  (min)  E -curves a t 5 l/min.  TIME AFTER INJECTION Figure  19.  E -curves  (min) at  10  1/min.  6.  CONCLUSIONS  1.  Galvanized  h o l d i n g rainbow t r o u t , of  Salmo g a i r d n i e r i ,  the t e s t , even a f t e r  2.  racing  flushing  The g a l v a n i z e d  h o l d i n g rainbow t r o u t  The p a i n t  International  under the c o n d i t i o n s  f o r 64 d a y s .  CSP r a c e w a y s a r e s u i t a b l e f o r  when t h e i n s i d e  antifouling paint  3. by  s t e e l raceways a r e u n s u i t a b l e f o r  i s coated with  a s was done i n t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s .  used, i n t e r - r a c i n g  Paints,  inter-  i s not toxic  a n t i f o u l i n g produced  to the f i s h  and i t  r e d u c e s t h e g r o w t h o f a l g a e on t h e w a l l s o f t h e r a c e w a y s .  4.  Fish  c a n be grown i n r a c e w a y s o f c i r c u l a r  cross-section.  5.  *  Rainbow t r o u t  fingerlings  grew f a s t e r  i n t h e CSP r a c e w a y  and t h e PVC  raceway.  6.  (initial  than i n the r e c t a n g u l a r  The raceways a r e s e l f - c l e a n i n g  c o n d i t i o n s o f water flow r a t e  w e i g h t 6.0 g)  and f i s h  raceway  under the  densities  tested.  -  The  term s e l f - c l e a n i n g  a s u s e d h e r e means t h a t  no a c c u m u l a t i o n o f s o l i d s  7.  Fish  8.  in  raceways.  No m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e h y d r a u l i c o f t h e r a c e w a y s were f o u n d .  The f i s h  the raceways.  stocked with f i s h , raceways  tested at  ( w e i g h t o f f i s h / v o l u m e o f pond) t h a n  f o r conventional  characteristics  9.  there i s  i n t h e raceways.  c a n b e grown i n t h e r a c e w a y s  much h i g h e r d e n s i t i e s those reported  88 -  affect  Sediments  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  d i d n o t accumulate i n t h e raceways  but the sediments d i d b u i l d  had o n l y a few f i s h  o f the flow  i n them.  up when t h e  -  7.  RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE WORK  During encountered are  89 -  the experiments,  i n t h e management o f t h e r a c e w a y s .  some s u g g e s t i o n s  1. raceway.  f o r modifications  Locate the i n l e t  In the present  approximately present  raceways.  What  c l o s e r t o t h e head end o f t h e i s coming i n  0.3 m f r o m t h e h e a d e n d o f t h e r a c e w a y . causes  Improve t h e n e t t i n g c l o s e t o t h e ends o f t h e T h e r e were s e v e r a l c a s e s o f f i s h  poorly  3. pipe.  This  The  backflows.  jumping o u t  c l o s e t o t h e ends o f t h e r a c e w a y s due t o i m p r o p e r l y and  follows  o f t h e raceways.  s e t up, t h e i n f l o w  l o c a t i o n of the i n l e t  2.  s e v e r a l p r o b l e m s were  f i t t i n g enclosing  Increase  nets.  the s i z e of the screen  c a n be a c h i e v e d  adjusted  on t h e e f f l u e n t  by one o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s e v e r a l  o f t h e f o l l o w i n g means:  a.  Maintaining between  t h e same s l a t  w i d t h and s p a c i n g  slats,  i)  increase  the diameter of the pipe, or  ii)  increase  the length  of pipe  i n t h e raceway  - 90 -  effluent  b.  I n c r e a s e t h e number o f s l a t s  on t h e p i p e  c.  Increase the s i z e o f the s l a t s .  4.  Increase  the diameter o f the pipe c a r r y i n g the  from t h e o u t l e t box, t o p r e v e n t t h e system  from  b a c k i n g up a n d o v e r f l o w i n g .  5.  Provision  f o r t h e complete  s h o u l d be made by i n s t a l l i n g  d r a i n a g e o f t h e raceways  a p l u g on t h e b o t t o m  of the  raceways.  6.  Install  removal o f s o l i d s  7.1  accumulated  Suggestions  a. of t h e scaled  d r a i n on t h e o u t l e t box f o r t h e i n t h e box.  f o r F u t u r e Work  Experiments  i n scaled  up e x p e r i m e n t s w o u l d  were f o r p r e d i c t i n g The  up r a c e w a y s .  The r e s u l t s  tell  t h e models  how good  the behaviour of the large  scale  conclusions presented i n Section  apply t o the large limit  a bottom  s c a l e raceways.  the depth o f the large  maximum d i a m e t e r o f 1.0 m.  6  F i s h management  scale c i r c u l a r The f l o w r a t e  raceways  raceways. should considerations to a  and l e n g t h s h o u l d  be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e u s e o f t h e m o d e l l a w s a s o u t l i n e d i n  -  Section  2.2.  For  a 1.0  times the diameter, The  flow  rate  the  -  m d i a m e t e r raceway, f i l l e d  the  length  of  the  to the  5 l/min  flow  same c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y  raceway c o u l d  carry  419  kg.  as  rate  280  0.3  i n the  stocking  12.2  m.  l/min  the model, the  The  to  r a c e w a y w o u l d be  f o r s u c h a r a c e w a y s w o u l d be  (corresponding At  91  model). large  density  in  this  3 c a s e w o u l d be increased on  the  i f the  flow  u s e d up  by  rate the  b. the  high  c. circulating stocked  The  stocking  fish  swimming i n t h e  density  affects  levels  d e n s i t i e s and  Compare t h e tanks,  and  water c o n d i t i o n s . used.  the  The  the  could  be  upper  limit  amount o f  raceway.  the  growth r a t e  of the  o f d i s s o l v e d oxygen or stocking  comparing the  growth r a t e of  vertical  energy  model raceways t o determine i f  T h i s would i n v o l v e  Test  density  r a t e were i n c r e a s e d .  at a predetermined  d.  be  .  i s d e t e r m i n e d b a s e d on  stressful  reached.  should  flow  stocking  at different  be  kg/m  Experiments i n the  even b e f o r e are  61.7  units.  optimum  galvanized  Water s u p p l i e s  CSP  equal  reared  A l l the  ammonia  raceways  growth of  fish  fish  the  fish.  i n raceways,  units  would  level.  raceways under  of d i f f e r e n t  different  hardness  -  92  -  LITERATURE CITED  Affleck,  R.J. Aust.  1952. Jour,  Z i n c p o i s o n i n g i n a trout, h a t c h e r y . o f M a r i n e and F r e s h w a t e r Res., 3 ( 2 ) : 1 4 2 - 1 6 9 .  A m e r i c a n P u b l i c H e a l t h A s s o c i a t i o n . 1976. S t a n d a r d Methods f o r t h e E x a m i n a t i o n o f W a t e r and W a s t e w a t e r , 1 4 t h edition. American P u b l i c H e a l t h A s s o c i a t i o n , Inc., Washington. B a r d a c h , J o h n E . , W.O. M c L a r n e y , J.H. R y t h e r . 1972. A q u a c u l t u r e ; t h e f a r m i n g and h u s b a n d r y o f f r e s h w a t e r and m a r i n e o r g a n i s m s . John Wiley. Binder,  R.C. 1973. F l u i d Mechanics. P r e n t i c e H a l l , London.  Boyd, C E . J.  Fifth  edition.  1977. E v a l u a t i o n of a water a n a l y s i s k i t . E n v i r o n . A n a l . , 6 ( 4 ) : 381-384.  Brown, V.M. 1968. The c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e a c u t e t o x i c i t y of mixtures of poisons to rainbow t r o u t . 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A m e r i c a n Z i n c I n s t i t u t e , New York.  -  96  -  APPENDICES  -  APPENDIX  I-A.  97 -  Corrugated  Steel  Pipe  Two s i z e s o f CSP r a c e w a y s were b u i l t . diameter  p i p e a n d some f r o m  shows t h e 0.20 m d i a m e t e r  The  CSP u s e d  steel plate  was h e l i c a l runs  along  with  2.5 cm t h i c k gumwood d i s c s .  compound  polysulfide inside  the length of the pipe.  (18 g a u g e ) .  to achieve  The  T h e ends were c a p p e d  The d i s c s were f i r s t  t h e v o i d s were f i l l e d  with  screwed  polysulfide  a water-tight seal.  s e a l a n t was c o a t e d w i t h a n t i f o u l i n g  1-1.  openings  The p a i n t on t h e  were c u t on t h e r a c e w a y a s shown i n  Care s h o u l d be t a k e n  p i p e when m a k i n g t h e h o l e s . on  F i g u r e 1-1  o f t h e raceway.  Rectangular Figure  pipe.  p i p e m e a n i n g t h a t t h e seam o f t h e  t h i c k n e s s was 0.13 cm  caulking  0.20 m  raceway.  helically  p l a c e and then  Some f r o m  0.25 m d i a m e t e r  wall  in  Raceway.  two o p p o s i n g  the metal  t o a v o i d t h e seams o f t h e  The h o l e s were made b y d r i l l i n g  c o r n e r s o f t h e h o l e t o be c u t and t h e n  cutting  using a jigsaw.  When t h e r a c e w a y s were p a i n t e d f o r t h e f o u r t h p h a s e o f t h e experiment,  a zinc  c h r o m a t e p r i m e r was a p p l i e d p r i o r  application  o f t h e green  antifouling  paint.  tothe  Section A-A  APPENDIX  FIGURE 1 - 1 .  C o r r u g a t e d S t e e l P i p e Raceway. Dimensions i n meters.  -  APPENDIX  T h e PVC of 0.6  0.6  I-B.  PVC  m thick  PVC  inside  the pipe  pipe.  The  the  sheeting.  from  0.20  m diameter  PVC  T h e e n d c a p s w e r e made Two  and the other  pipe  from  d i s c s were c u t , one t o f i t h a d t h e same d i a m e t e r  were g l u e d  together  and then  as t h e  glued  to  ends o f t h e raceways.  Rectangular as  thickness.  two d i s c s  -  Raceway.  raceways were b u i l t cm w a l l  99  shown  openings  openings  i n Figure was  were c u t i n t h e t o p o f t h e raceways 1-2.  similar  The p r o c e d u r e  used  for cutting  t o t h a t d e s c r i b e d f o r t h e CSP  o  the  raceways.  Section A-A  APPENDIX  FIGURE 1 - 2 .  PVC Raceway. Dimensions i n meters.  i  -  APPENDIX  The  I-C.  rectangular  planks.  Rectangular  The wood was g l u e d  were a p p l i e d .  raceway  Raceway f o r F i s h  raceway was b u i l t  t h e n p r i m e d and f i n a l l y  The  101 -  from  Trials.  3.8 cm t h i c k f i r  and s c r e w e d t o g e t h e r .  two c o a t s  o f green a n t i f o u l i n g  The seams were t h e n s e a l e d w i t h  i s shown i n F i g u r e  I t was  1-3.  silicone  paint sealant.  0.04 0 0.24 0.04 0.04  2.44  0 04 0.16  K)05 10.20 He*  _£  1  —r  ooT  APPENDIX FIGURE  1-3.  R e c t a n g u l a r Raceway f o r F i s h Dimensions i n meters.  Trials.  -  APPENDIX  I-D.  The a c r y l i c diameter  in  1-4.  0.6  to  P i p e Raceway.  r a c e w a y was b u i l t  cm w a l l  obtain  -  Glass  the  from 0.20 m  thickness.  maximum l e n g t h s  order  Rectangular Figure  glass pipe  pipe of  available made i n  Acrylic  103  of  1.8  The p i p e  m so a j o i n t  was had to  be  d e s i r e d 2.4 4 m l e n g t h .  openings were c u t The end c a p s were  in  the  pipe  discs of  a s shown  0.6  in  cm t h i c k n e s s .  Section A - A  —r  LZ Io«  ZJ  1  0.1  APPENDIX  022  o.osX 0 05  o  2*4-  FIGURE 1-4.  A c r y l i c G l a s s P i p e Raceway. Dimensions i n meters.  i  -  APPENDIX  This  Rectangular  r a c e w a y was b u i l t  (Figure The  I-E.  1-5).  0.6  placed along the  thick  horizontal  sides  sections. wood p i e c e s  sides.  The t o p  prevent  the  was  Raceway f o r  to  glass.  prevent  Further along  glass  top  cm t h i c k  acrylic  2.5  support  the  3.8  Studies.  glass  Vertical  the  members w e r e  p i e c e s were  acrylic  Hydraulic  f r o m wood and a c r y l i c  cm a c r y l i c  The v e r t i c a l  steel  -  The bottom and ends were  s i d e s were  bending.  105  fir.  supports glass  cm w i d e  by  was p r o v i d e d  were  from 0.6  cm  by  and bottom edges of  connected by c r o s s - p i e c e s  from bending  out  when t h e  the  to  raceway  filled.  The wood was p r i m e d seams w e r e  painted  sealed with  w i t h white marine  silicone  sealant.  enamel.  The  APPENDIX FIGURE 1-5.  R e c t a n g u l a r Raceway f o r H y d r a u l i c Studies. Dimensions i n meters.  - 107 -  APPENDIX I - F .  S t a n d s f o r t h e Raceways.  Stands f o r s u p p o r t i n g  t h e r a c e w a y s were made f r o m 2"x4"  ( n o m i n a l s i z e ) (5x10 cm)  fir.  p l y w o o d were a d d e d t o p r o v i d e  E n d s e c t i o n s o f 1.8 support  t o w e r and t o i m p r o v e t h e s t a b i l i t y  Figure  1-6.  f o r the constant  head  of the s t r u c t u r e .  T r i a n g u l a r b r a c e s o f p l y w o o d were a l s o in  cm  installed  a s shown  APPENDIX FIGURE 1-6.  S t a n d s f o r t h e Raceways. Dimensions i n meters.  -  APPENDIX  The  I-G.  outlet  pipe.  slots  and  1.3  The  outlet  one  on  on  cm  I.D.  The  the o u t l e t  apart.  side  and  from  0.10  m  diameter  PVC  ( 2 . 5 cm)  I.D.  t h r e a d e d f o r 1"  1-7.  pipe are  0.3  i n p l a c e by  o f t h e end  cm  wide,  wall.  two  1.3  deep  machine.  threaded  Silicone  cm  discs,  sealant  i s used  leaks.  pipe carrying flexible  manufactured from  the effluent  plastic  o u t f l o w and  effluent  Boxes.  They were c u t i n a m i l l i n g  pipe i s held  each  to prevent  The  are d r i l l e d  shown i n F i g u r e  The  -  boxes are c o n s t r u c t e d  Holes  p i p e as  Outlet  109  from  the o u t l e t  box  i s 1.9  cm  pipe.  water  level  control  f r o m PVC  parts  except  the outlet  box.  units  are  entirely  f o r the pipe carrying  the  8 r—  0.013 =^=~&i^  §  0.20  6  0.33  4  (i  T  APPENDIX FIGURE  1-7.  O u t l e t Box. Dimensions i n meters.  6  M — I O 1  C o n s t a n t Head Tower.  APPENDIX I-H.  The  constant  h e a d b o x e s were b u i l t  The  fittings  a r e a l l PVC  (Figure  t h e wood was p r i m e d a n d two c o a t s p a i n t were a p p l i e d . sealant.  from  1-8).  1.1 cm After  o f green  plywood. assembly,  antifouling  The seams were s e a l e d w i t h  silicone  APPENDIX FIGURE 1-8.  C o n s t a n t Head Towers. Dimensions i n meters.  - 113 -  Drawings and D i s c h a r g e Data  APPENDIX I I .  The  orifices  pipe. The  were d r i l l e d  on PVC c a p s  They were c o u n t e r s u n k  orifice  for Orifices.  f o r 5 cm  (2") I.D.  from t h e o u t s i d e a t 4 5 ° .  s i z e s were d e t e r m i n e d  from t h e e q u a t i o n  Q =  (Binder,  1973),  the  orifice,  due  to gravity  where Q i s t h e d i s c h a r g e , c i s a c o n s t a n t f o r  d i s the o r i f i c e  a n d H i s t h e head  Once c a l c u l a t i o n s  was made  t h r o u g h i t was m e a s u r e d .  calculations  s i z e were made u s i n g (Figure  From t h i s  orifice  were made a n d t e s t e d  desired  was  0.22 m.  was  f o u n d t o be 0.87 cm  and  tested  (Table  set of  d i a m e t e r was f o u n d .  (Table  f l o w was 5 1/min o r 8.3x10 With  I I - l ) and t h e d i s c h a r g e  i n a second  -5 The  II-l).  3 m /s.  The h e a d  a c o n s t a n t c = 0.65, t h e r e q u i r e d  II-l).  (11/32").  an assumed  d a t a , a new e s t i m a t e f o r c  T h i s e s t i m a t e was u s e d and t h e r e q u i r e d  Four o r i f i c e s  above t h e o r i f i c e .  f o r an o r i f i c e  c o n s t a n t c , an o r i f i c e  was o b t a i n e d .  diameter, g i s the a c c e l e r a t i o n  The o r i f i c e s  were  diameter drilled  -  APPENDIX TABLE I I - l .  Date  July  Sept.  114 -  D i s c h a r g e Data f o r O r i f i c e s , d i a m e t e r = 0.87 cm, head = 0.22  Orifice  24/79  24/79  Number  Discharge  1  4.8  2  4.8  3  5.0  4  4.8  1  4.9  2  5.0  3  5.0  m.  (l/min)  APPENDIX FIGURE  II-l.  Orifice. Dimensions i n meters.  - 116  APPENDIX I I I ,  -  Data Sheet f o r I n t e r - r a c i n g A n t i f o u l i n g Green P a i n t .  Manufacturer:  International  Vehicle  R o s i n and o t h e r f i l m  Type  Pigment:  Cuprous  Solvent:  Aromatic  Flash  2 6°C  Point:  Recommended D r y F i l m Thickness:  5.08  _r> x 10 m  Theoretical  12.5  m  Time:  2  per l i t r e  Touch:  2-3  Hard:  6  Overcoating:  Overnight  Colour:  Green  Finish:  Semi-gloss  Method o f  Application:Brush  S h i p p i n g Weight: Thinner:  7. 2 kg, 073102  Ltd,  formers  hydrocarbons  53  Dry  (Canada)  o x i d e , P h t h a l o g r e e n , Hansa y e l l o w  % S o l i d s by Volume:  Coverage:  Paints  a t 5.08x10  hours  hours  -5  m D.F.T,  -  APPENDIX IV.  Ammonia was Engineer's and  m e a s u r e d u s i n g a Hach DR-EL/2 D i r e c t Laboratory  N.Y.).  r a c e w a y s and  from  a refrigerator fifth  day  were a n a l y z e d The  results  Figure correct  The  i n A p p e n d i c e s V and  Samples were c o l l e c t e d  the  K i t (Hach C h e m i c a l  Auto A n a l y z e r  Systems, Tarrytown,  in  -  C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e Hach and A u t o - a n a l y z e r M e t h o d s o f M e a s u r i n g Ammonia.  a Technicon  presented  117  daily  a t 4°C.  The  value  from  The  Industrial  f o r the t e s t s  the e f f l u e n t  pH  The  are  was  i n Table  auto-analyzer  of each of  approximately samples  IV-1  value  the  s a m p l e s were s t o r e d  t h e Hach K i t and  (Boyd, 1 9 7 7 ) .  Iowa),  VI.  of c o l l e c t i o n , a l l the using both  Ames,  (Technicon  procedures  the water supply.  are presented  IV-1.  II  Co.,  Reading  (15 i n  the  and  6.1.  On  total)  auto-analyzer.  plotted  in  i s assumed t o be  A regression equation  the  i s obtained  as f o l l o w s  y = 0.45  x -  0.10  where y i s t h e ammonia c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n mg/1 x i s t h e Hach k i t r e a d i n g a l s o correlation  i n mg/1  of  ammonia-N,  o f ammonia-N.  c o e f f i c i e n t f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p  is r =  The 0.905.  -  APPENDIX  TABLE  IV-1,  118  -  Ammonia-N Measured W i t h the Hach and the T e c h n i c o n A u t o - A n a l y z e r . Ammonia-N  Day of Sample Collection  Supply Hach  AutoAnalyzer  Kit  (mg/1)  Effluent From Rectangular Raceway  Effluent From CSP Raceway  Hach  AutoAnalyzer  Hach  AutoAnalyzer  Monday  0.28  0.006  0.45  0.11J  0.45  0.075  Tuesday  0.25  0.011  0.40  0.135  0..45  0.113  Wednesday  0.25  0.007  0.43  0.076  0.40  0.086  -0.22  0.006  0.40  0.073  0.40  0.093  0.21  0.007  0.40  0.078  0.45  0.095  Thursday  Friday  Note:  all  samples were  analyzed  .  on F r i d a y .  APPENDIX FIGURE I V - 1 .  A u t o - a n a l y z e r v s . Hach K i t R e a d i n g s o f t h e Ammonia-N C o n t e n t o f Samples.  •  a  0.20  0.30  0.40  HACH KIT VALUE ( mg/I Ammonia - N )  0.50  -  120 -  F u r t h e r m o r e , a 95% c o n f i d e n c e of  interval  t h e ammonia c o n c e n t r a t i o n c a n be c o n s t r u c t e d  t-statistic  as f o l l o w s  ( W a l p o l e and M y e r s ,  y = 0.45 x - 0.10 + t  where  t„ ,~ 0.0 b / 2. n  r  n  The of  for single  values  0  5  ^  2  using a  1972):  S  •= 2.16 f o r n - 2 = 13 d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m - 15  confidence prepared  Q  measurements  interval  standard  ranging  from  i s plotted i n Figure  ammonia  IV-1.  Analysis  s o l u t i o n s i n t h e Hach k i t , y i e l d e d  63% t o 127% o f t h e known  concentrations.  -  The  autoanalyzer  a n a l y s i s were o f f by a maximum o f 5% o f  t h e known c o n c e n t r a t i o n . the  samples  from  T h i s r e s u l t s would  and in  t h e water  I n c o n t r a s t , on t h e a n a l y s i s o f  the water supply,  w h i c h were up t o 50 t i m e s  in  121 -  the presence  The i n t e r f e r i n g  t h e Hach K i t s h o u l d be c a l i b r a t e d a manner  similar  values  t h o s e o b t a i n e d by t h e a u t o a n a l y z e r .  indicate  supply.  t h e Hach k i t y i e l d e d  to that presented  of interfering  agents  are not  f o r each water here.  agents  identified supply  -  APPENDIX V.  Nessler  122  -  P r o c e d u r e f o r M e a s u r i n g Ammonia U s i n g Hach K i t .  the  Method.  Range: 0-2  mg/1  ,  Procedure: 1.  T a k e a w a t e r sample by cylinder sample  2.  to the  25-ml mark.  Pour i n t o  Using  25-ml g r a d u a t e d  c y l i n d e r t o the  the  1-ml  calibrated  yellow  color w i l l  present. Allow  develop  at least  25 m i n u t e s  f o r the  performing  Steps  P l a c e the  4 and  t h e N i t r o g e n , Ammonia  425 of 5.  nm.  Adjust  zero  mg/1.  t h e mg/1  add  1 ml  of  t o mix.  cell.  Nessler A  i f ammonia n i t r o g e n i s n o t more  develop  than  before  5. c o n t a i n i n g the prepared i n the  cell  ( N e s s l e r Method) M e t e r  t h e LIGHT CONTROL f o r a m e t e r  sample i n t h e  ammonia n i t r o g e n  (N).  cell  de-  holder. Insert  a d j u s t the Wavelength D i a l  P l a c e the prepared  another  c l e a n sample  swirl  color to f u l l y  sample c e l l  t h e m e t e r and  and  filling  25-ml m a r k . P o u r  10 m i n u t e s , b u t  m i n e r a l i z e d water s o l u t i o n  in  another  dropper,  R e a g e n t t o e a c h sample c e l l  4.  a clean  o f d e m i n e r a l i z e d w a t e r by  the d e m i n e r a l i z e d water i n t o 3.  graduated  cell.  M e a s u r e 25 ml clean  f i l l i n g a c l e a n 25-ml  Scale to reading  h o l d e r and  read  APPENDIX V I .  Industrial Range:  General  P r o c e d u r e f o r M e a s u r i n g Ammonia w i t h Auto-Analyzer.  Method No.  154-71W  0-14 0 j ) l g / l  Description  The a u t o m a t e d utilizes blue  the  the  Berthelot  colored  indophenol added to  procedure  for  the  determination  Reaction,  compound b e l i e v e d  in  to  the  be c l o s e l y  ammonia  formation related  o c c u r s when t h e  solution  of  a n ammonium  sodium phenoxide,  followed  by  the  hypochlorite.  A solution  sodium c i t r a t e  is  precipitation  of  added the  of  to  potassium  the  hydroxides  sample of  Performance  at  60 S a m p l e s P e r H o u r  Sensitivity  at  10 ^ g a t  (140 ^ g Coefficient at Detection  which  of  of  stream  to  and  salt  is  of  sodium and  eliminate  the  magnesium.  U s i n g Aqueous  N/1  Standards  0.15 absorbance  units  Variation N/1  (112 jjg N/1)  a  to  sodium t a r t r a t e  calcium  N/1)  8.0 jiqat Limit  addition  of  0. 31% 0.2 ^ g a t (2.8 / i g  N/1 N/1)  -  124  -  Reagents  Complexing  Reagent  Potassium (KNaC H 0 4  Sodium  4  Sodium  Tartrate  6  33  g  24  g  Citrate  HOC ( C O O N a ) ( C H C O O N a ) . 2 H 0 2  2  Distilled  Water,  Brij-35*  (Technician  2  ml  1000  q.s.  ml  0.5  NO.T21-0110)  Preparation: Dissolve of  sodium c i t r a t e  pH o f Dilute  this to  Brij-35.  33 g o f in  solution one  liter  potassium  950 m l to  5.0  of with  sodium t a r t r a t e  distilled  water.  concentrated  with distilled  water.  and  Adjust  sulfuric  Add 0.5  ml  24 the  acid. of  g  -  Alkaline  125 -  Phenol Phenol  83  (C H OH) c  c  Sodium H y d r o x i d e , Distilled  180  ml  1000  ml  20% w/v(NaOH)  Water, q . s .  g  Preparation: Using phenol  a one l i t e r  i n 50 ml o f d i s t i l l e d  c o o l i n g under t a p water, 180  ml o f 20% NaOH.  Sodium H y p o c h l o r i t e (Technicon  Any having  water.  i n small  flask,  d i s s o l v e 83 g o f  C a u t i o u s l y add, w h i l e  increments  D i l u t e t o one l i t e r  with  with  agitation,  distilled  water.  (Stock) No. T01-0114)  good c o m m e r c i a l l y  a v a i l a b l e household  bleach  5.25% a v a i l a b l e c h l o r i n e may be u s e d .  Sodium H y p o c h l o r i t e Dilute liter  Erlenmeyer  with  (Working)  2 00 ml o f s t o c k  water.  s o d i u m h y p o c h l o r i t e t o one  - 126 -  Sodium  Nitroprusside Sodium  Nitroprusside  (Na Fe(CN) N0.2H 0) 2  5  Distilled  0.5  2  Water,  q.s.  1000  g ml  Preparation: Dissolve distilled  0.5 g o f s o d i u m n i t r o p r o s s i d e i n 9 0 0 m l o f  water and d i l u t e  t o one  liter.  Standards  Stock  S t a n d a r d A , 5 0 0 0 j p g a t N/1 Ammonium S u l f a t e Distilled  Water,  ( 7 0 , 0 0 0 pq  (NH ) S0 4  2  4  q.s.  Chloroform  N/1) 0.3310 g 1000  ml  1  ml  Preparation: In  a one l i t e r  volumetric  flask,  of  ammonium s u l f a t e i n 900 m l o f d i s t i l l e d  to  volume  a  with  preservative.  distilled  water.  d i s s o l v e 0.3310 g water.  Dilute  Add 1 ml o f c h l o r o f o r m  as  - 127  Stock  Standard  B,  Stock  -  100 yag a t N/1  (1400 jig  N/1)  Standard  Distilled  2 ml  Water, q . s .  100  ml  Preparation: Dilute flask  t o 100  Working  2 ml  of stock standard A  ml w i t h d i s t i l l e d  water.  i n a volumetric  Prepare  fresh  daily,  Standards ml  Stock  B  pg  a t N/1  ug  N/1  0.2  0.2  2.3  2.0  2.0  28.0  4.0  4.0  56.0  6.0  6.0  84.0  8.0  8.0  112.0  10.0  10.0  140.0  Preparation: Pipette Dilute  t o 100  s t o c k B i n t o a 100  ml w i t h d i s t i l l e d  ml  water.  volumetric Prepare  flask.  fresh  daily.  -  APPENDIX V I I .  Information  F i l t e r and D e c h l o r i n a t o r U n i t i n t h e B i o l o g y B u i l d i n g , U.B.C.  on t h e f i l t e r  f r o m Mr. C o l l i n at  Parkinson  a n d d e c h l o r i n a t o r u n i t was (1979),  o f t h e Zoology  obtained  Department  U.B.C.  A sketch of the f i l t e r given are  The  The each  i s shown i n F i g u r e V I I - 1 .  flow through  filter  the f i l t e r  i s unknown.  A minimum  dimensions  estimate  l/min.  i s b a c k f l u s h e d t w i c e a week f o r a b o u t 15 m i n u t e s  time.  fill  All  approximate.  w o u l d be 20 0  The  128 -  i s changed e v e r y  two t o t h r e e  years.  -  APPENDIX  FIGURE V I I - 1 .  129 -  Filter  and D e c h l o r i n a t o r  Diff user  Silica  sand  Charcoal  180  C r u s h t d oyster  Fine  gravel  Medium  gravel  Coarse  gravel  0.90  shells  Unit,  

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