UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Chavin influence on early horizon Peruvian North Coast ceramics and dating implications Maitland, Maureen Elizabeth 1980

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1980_A8 M35_3.pdf [ 21.04MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0094903.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0094903-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0094903-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0094903-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0094903-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0094903-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0094903-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0094903-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0094903.ris

Full Text

THE CHAVIN INFLUENCE ON EARLY HORIZON PERUVIAN NORTH COAST CERAMICS AND DATING IMPLICATIONS by MAUREEN ELIZABETH MAITLAND B . A . , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia , 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of F ine A r t s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1980 © Maureen E l i z a b e t h M a i t l a n d In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requ i rement s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I ag ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thou t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 0 0 1 - i g , mo i i i ABSTRACT From 1500 to 500 B.C. a r e l i g i o u s c u l t now known as Chavfn d isseminated r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s throughout the North Highlands and Coasta l areas of Peru from a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n on the n o r t h - e a s t e r n s lopes of the Andean C o r d i l l e r a . Chavfn b e l i e f s are r e f l e c t e d i n an a r t s t y l e which u t i l i z e d s t o n e , c e r a m i c , t e x t i l e , bone, g o l d , s h e l l and adobe mediums and conformed to a number of h i g h l y developed a r t i s t i c convent ions . The aim of the study i s to examine the d i s p e r s i o n of Chavfn c u l t u r e to the North Coast through an a r t h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s of C h a v f n - r e l a t e d iconography on ceramics from t h a t area of Peru . An understanding of the i conograph ic r e l a t i o n s between Chavfn l i t h i c a r t and North Coast C h a v i n - r e l a t e d ceramics p rov ides a c l e a r e r understanding of the impact of Chavfn d i s p e r s i o n and supports evidence f o r a proposed r e v i s i o n of John Rowe's Chavfn stone chronology (Rowe 1967) , as o u t l i n e d i n a paper by M a i t l a n d , Mowatt, P h i l l i p s and Watson (1976) . Iconographic r e l a t i o n s between North Coast C h a v f n - r e l a t e d ceramics and the a r t of Chavfn have never before been thoroughly s t u d i e d . U n t i l t h i s time i t has been g e n e r a l l y assumed t h a t North Coast Chavfn -r e l a t e d ceramics p a r a l l e l e d the sequence of a r t s t y l e s a t Chavfn. The study shows t h a t Chavfn i n f l u e n c e a r r i v e d dur ing the f i n a l phases of the Chavfn sequence (Per iod I I I ) . In a d d i t i o n , i t d e f i n e s the s t y l i s t i c nature of Cupisnique-Tembladera ceramics i n comparison to o ther Chavfn -r e l a t e d North Coast ceramic s t y l e s and f u r t h e r d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between r e g i o n a l and C h a v f n - r e l a t e d aspects of the s t y l e . The r e s u l t i s a c l e a r e r understanding of the p h y s i c a l and temporal impacts of Chavfn i v c u l t u r e on the North Coast and the r e l a t i o n s between h igh land and c o a s t a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of Chavfn a r t s t y l e s . V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i i LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES . v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT xiv CHAPTER ONE: 1 INTRODUCTION 2 THE SAMPLE 6 SOURCES 7 METHODOLOGY 8 CHAPTER TWO: 13 DESCRIPTION OF THE CEREMONIAL COMPLEX AT CHAVIN 15 HISTORY OF CHAVl'N INVESTIGATIONS 17 THE PROPOSED CHAVIN CHRONOLOGY 25 Period I Style 28 Period II Style 31 Period III Style 34 Period III - The Cayman-related Style 35 Period III - The Feline-related Style 38 ARGUMENTS FOR A PROPOSED REVISION OF ROWE'S CHAVIN CHRONOLOGY 41 CHAPTER THREE: 48 THE NORTH COAST: A HISTORY OF INVESTIGATIONS INTO CHAVIN-RELATED CERAMICS 50 CHAPTER FOUR: 58 ANALYSIS OF THE CERAMIC SAMPLE 59 v i Page CHAPTER FOUR: (cont inued) TYPOLOGICAL ANALYSIS 59 1. F e l i n e s 61 a) F u l l F igure F e l i n e s 61 b) P r o f i l e F e l i n e Heads 65 2. F e l i n e - R a p t o r i a l B i r d s 65 a) Splayed F igures 68 b) P r o f i l e F e l i n e - R a p t o r i a l B i r d s 68 3 . Human Beings 71 4. Anthropomorphic F e l i n e s 76 5 . Human Heads and Vegetable Forms 81 6 . Snakes and F e l i n e Serpents 81 7. I s o l a t e d Symbols 83 TRAIT ANALYSIS 90 I Chavfn T r a i t s 92 II Regional T r a i t s 115 I I I E x p l a n a t i o n o f the T r a i t Chart 132 IV A Summary of T r a i t A n a l y s i s 134 ANALYSIS OF CERAMIC FORM 136 I D e s c r i p t i o n of Vessel Shapes 137 II Summary of Vessel Shapes 152 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS 154 GRAVE ASSOCIATION 157 CERAMIC SUMMARY 160 CHAPTER FIVE: 228 COMPARATIVE DATA 229 I Chavfn 229 II The North Coast 241 CHAPTER SIX: 259 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 260 BIBLIOGRAPHY 270 v i i LIST OF TABLES Page TABLE 1. Synopsis of C u l t u r e s of the Chicama V a l l e y 54 TABLE 2 . T r a i t Chart 133 TABLE 3 . A t a b l e showing correspondences among groups sub-groups and techniques 156 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES Page F igure 1. Map of Peru 3 F igure 2. The Ceremonial Complex at Chavfn 14 F igure 3 . The r e v i s e d Chavfn chronology 27 F igure 4. P e r i o d I S t y l e 29 F igure 5 . Elements of P e r i o d I S t y l e 30 F igure 6. Columns of the B lack and White P o r t a l 32 F igure 7. Elements of P e r i o d II S t y l e 33 F igure 8 . Per iod I I I : The Cayman-Related S t y l e 36 F igure 9 . Per iod I I I : Elements of the Cayman-Related S t y l e 37 F igure 10. Per iod I I I : The F e l i n e - R e l a t e d S t y l e 39 F igure 11. P e r i o d I I I : Elements of the F e l i n e - R e l a t e d S t y l e 40 F igure 12. T r a i t A n a l y s i s of C i r c u l a r P l a z a Carv ings 43 F igure 13. Drawing of the T e l l o O b e l i s k 44 F igure 14. A rev iew of the f o u r Chavfn ch rono log ies 47 F igure 15. Map of the Chicama V a l l e y 49 F igure 16. Vessel 4. A f u l l f i g u r e p r o f i l e f e l i n e 62 F igure 17. Vessel 60 . A f u l l f i g u r e modeled f e l i n e 63 F igure 18. Vessel 50. A f u l l f i g u r e p a r t i a l l y modeled f e l i n e 64 F igure 19. Vessel 42. P r o f i l e f e l i n e heads 66 F igure 20. Vessel 32. P r o f i l e f e l i n e w i th a b s t r a c t e d f e l i n e body 67 F igure 21 . Vessel 1 . A sp layed f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d 69 F igure 22. Vessel 2 1 . A p r o f i l e f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d 70 F igure 23. Vessel 9 . A p r o f i l e f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d 72 i x Page F igure 24. Vessel 18. A p r o f i l e f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d , head 73 F igure 25 . Vessel 67 . Human heads on a vegetable form ceramic 74 F igure 26. A vesse l d e p i c t i n g p o s s i b l e t rophy heads 75 F igure 27. Vessel p o r t r a y i n g a modeled human head 77 F igure 28. A vesse l d e p i c t i n g a f u l l f i g u r e modeled human being 78 F igure 29. Vessel 6 1 . A modeled anthropomorphic f e l i n e 79 F igure 30. Vessel 36. Two anthropomorphic f e l i n e s 80 F igure 31 . Vessel 7 1 . A modeled ceramic w i t h human head imagery 82 F igure 32. Vessel 54. A p a r t i a l l y modeled serpent 84 F igure 33. Vessel 29. A p o s s i b l e f e l i n e serpent 85 F igure 34. A hunchback f i g u r e w i th a f e l i n e serpent des ign 86 F igure 35 . Vessel 30. A f e l i n e serpent m o t i f 87 F igure 36. A vesse l d e p i c t i n g a symbol ic f e l i n e eye 89 F igure 37. Drawing of the f e l i n e and f e l i n e serpent c o r n i c e from the south -west corner of the new temple 94 F igure 38. Drawing of the eagle c o r n i c e from the B lack and White P o r t a l 95 F igure 39. Drawing of a p r o f i l e eagle from the c o r n i c e of the B lack and White P o r t a l 96 F igure 40. R o l l o u t of the north column from the B lack and White P o r t a l , hawk f i g u r e s 98 F igure 4 1 . R o l l o u t o f the north column from the B lack and White P o r t a l 99 F igure 42. Drawing of a hawk f i g u r e from the B lack and White P o r t a l 100 F igure 43. Claws j o i n e d a t the pads of the f e e t of a hawk f i g u r e from the B lack and White P o r t a l 101 X Page F igure 44. Drawing of the r e c o n s t r u c t e d Fore Temple L i n t e l 103 F igure 45. Drawing o f the T e l l o O b e l i s k 104 F igure 46. D e t a i l from the T e l l o Obe l i sk 105 F igure 47. Drawing of the T e l l o Obe l i sk 106 F igure 48. R o l l o u t of the south column of the B lack and White P o r t a l 108 F igure 49. Drawing of the Gotosh Monument 109 F igure 50. Drawing of r e c o n s t r u c t e d Fore Temple L i n t e l 110 F igure 51 . Drawing of the Gotosh Monument 111 F igure 52. Drawing of the Raimondi S t e l e 112 F igure 53 . Drawing of the Gotosh Monument 113 F igure 55. Vessel 9 . P r o f i l e f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d 116 F igure 56. Pr imary fang encompassed by i t s l i p b a n d 117 F igure 57. Vessel 15. A p r o f i l e f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d 118 F igure 58. S t r a i g h t - s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r fangs 119 F igure 59. Vessel 53. A f e l i n e i n a landscape 120 F igure 60 . I r r e g u l a r r e c t a n g u l a r eyes 119 F igure 6 1 . Vessel 33. I nc i sed f e l i n e showing i r r e g u l a r r e c t a n g u l a r eye 121 F igure 62 . E x t r u s i o n s from mouths 122 F igure 63. Square -cornered upturned l ipbands 123 F igure 64. Vessel 38. P r o f i l e f e l i n e head 124 F igure 65 . Toothbands f o l l o w i n g the upper and lower p r o f i l e of the face 125 Figure 66. Vessel 50. Winged eyes 126 F igure 67. Vessel 55 . A f e l i n e serpent 127 x i Page F igure 68. S c r o l l Noses: Rounded or square -co rnered 128 F igure 69. Vessel 68 . Human heads on a vegetab le form ceramic 129 F igure 70. Headdresses on human heads 130 F igure 71 . Diagram showing a n a l y s i s of ceramic p r o p o r t i o n s 136 F igure 72. Vessel Type a . 139 F igure 73. Vessel Type b. 141 F igure 74. Vessel Type c . 143 F igure 75. Vessel Type d . 145 F igure 76. Vessel Type e. 147 F igure 77. Vessel Type f . 149 F igure 78. Vessel Type g . 151 F igure 79. Summary of ceramic shapes 153 F igure 80 . Vessel 4 . 161 F igure 8 1 . Vessel 9. 162 F igure 82 . Vessel 38. 164 F igure 8 3 . Vessel 4 1 . 165 F igure 84. Vessel 59. 167 F igure 8 5 . Vessel 83 . 168 F igure 86. Vessel 2. 170 F igure 87. Vessel 3 . 171 F igure 88. Vessel 5 . 173 F igure 89. Vessel 6 . 175 F igure 90. Vessel 8 . 177 F igure 9 1 . Vessel 14. 180 F igure 92. Vessel 16. 182 x i i Page F igure 93 . Vessel 1.9. 184 F igure 94. Vessel 20. 186 F igure 95. Vessel 22. 188 F igure 96. Vessel 23 . 190 F igure 97. Vessel 25 . 191 F igure 98. Vessel 27. 193 F igure 99. Vessel 31 . 195 F igure TOO. Vessel 32. 197 F igure 101. Vessel 3 2 , R o l l o u t . 198 F igure 102. Vessel 33 . 200 F igure 103. Vessel 48. 205 F igure 104. Vessel 57. 209 F igure 105. Vessel 58. 210 F igure 106. Vessel 62. 213 F igure 107. Vessel 63 . 215 F igure 108. Vessel 64. 216 F igure 109. Vessel 66 . 218 F igure 110. Vessel 72. 221 F igure 111. Vessel 73. 222 F igure 112. Vessel 74. 224 F igure 113. Vessel 75 . 225 F igure 114. Vessel 77. 227 F igure 115. Sherds found by T e l l o a t Chavfn 230 F igure 116. Carved bone tube 232 F igure 117. Two i n c i s e d bowls from the Ofrendas g a l l e r i e s at Chavfn 234 F igure 118. Vessel from the Ofrendas g a l l e r i e s at Chavfn 236 x i i i Page F igure 119. Fragment of a s t i r r u p spout s a i d to come from Chavm 237 F igure 120. A "Raku" s t y l e vesse l 238 F igure 121. Fragment of a s t i r r u p spout found a t Chavfn 240 F igure 122. A bone s p a t u l a w i t h i n c i s e d f e l i n e - r e l a t e d imagery 242 F igure 123. A bone s p a t u l a recovered by Jun ius B. B i r d at Huaca P r i e t a 243 F igure 124. Two bone ear p lugs 244 Figure 125. A r o l l o u t of a stone bowl 246 F igure 126. A soapstone cup 247 F igure 127. A soapstone cup 248 F igure 128. A c l a y c y l i n d e r sea l 250 F igure 129. A group of pear l s h e l l ornaments s a i d to be from the Tembladera area 251 F igure 130. An anthropomorphic human f i g u r e 252 F igure 131. A f e l i n e serpent vesse l 254 F igure 132. F e l i n e and f e l i n e serpent ve sse l 255 F igure 133. Vessel showing f i s h m o t i f 256 xiv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to gra t e f u l l y acknowledge Dr. Alan R. Sawyer for the encouragement, guidance, and generous sharing of his specialised knowledge. Thanks i s extended to Dr. Marvin Cohodas for his helpful advice and to my relatives and friends who kindly gave me their valuable time and support during this project. 1 CHAPTER ONE 2 INTRODUCTION The temple of Chavfn i s s i t u a t e d i n the Mosna R i v e r V a l l e y on the easte rn s lopes of the C o r d i l l e r a B lanca approx imate ly 3 ,000 meters above sea l e v e l (F igure 1 ) . The r u i n s take t h e i r name from the modern v i l l a g e of Chavfn l o c a t e d w i t h i n the Prov ince of H u a r i , Department of Ancash. Today the v i l l a g e occupies land t h a t once supported p a r t of the se t t lement a s s o c i a t e d w i th the temple (Berger 1978, Map 1 ) . Recuay i s l o c a t e d 40 k i l o m e t e r s to the south -west on the other s i d e of the c o r d i l l e r a and Huari can be reached by t r a v e l l i n g north a long the Mosna R i v e r f o r a d i s t a n c e of 28 k i l o m e t e r s . The Wacheqsa, (or Pukcha, T e l l o 1960, F i g . 5 ) , and Mosna (or M a r i a s h , T e l l o 1960, F i g . 5 ) , R i ve rs converge a t Chavfn and f low n o r t h - e a s t to meet the Maranon R i v e r , one of the e leven major t r i b u t a r i e s of the Amazon. Gotosh, a Chavfn s i t e f i v e k i l o m e t e r s to the south -west i n the Wacheqsa R i v e r b a s i n , i s i nc luded wi th Chavfn because o f i t s geograph ica l p r o x i m i t y . Scho lars have commonly r e f e r r e d to the s i t e as Chavfn "de Huantar" . However, recent i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t the r e s i d e n t s of Chavfn have s t rong o b j e c t i o n s to t h i s nomenclature because "Huantar" i s the name of a nearby v i l l a g e wi th which they have an in tense r i v a l r y (p . c . : John H. Rowe 1978: from Richard B e r g e r ) . Rowe has suggested t h a t the s i t e be c a l l e d Chavfn i n Ancash; t h i s would e l i m i n a t e any bad f e e l i n g s and a l s o serve to c l a r i f y i t s approximate l o c a t i o n . On the b a s i s of what we now know, the temple a t Chavfn was the geographica l and i d e o l o g i c a l focus of a r e l i g i o u s c u l t which may have o r i g i n a t e d i n the t r o p i c a l lowlands of the Maranon R ive r b a s i n . Images i n f l u e n c e d by the s t y l e and iconography of Chavfn stone c a r v i n g s have F igure 1. Map of Peru . From: Sawyer, A . R . , A n c i e n t Pe ruv ian Ceramics ; The Nathan Cummings C o l l e c t i o n , 1966: 8. Drawing: A n i t a Leonoff 4 been found i n d i v e r s e c u l t u r a l contexts i n both c o a s t a l and h igh land areas of Peru . In the northern h ighlands C h a v f n - r e l a t e d temples have been d i scovered throughout the Mosna-Maranon d r a i n a g e , a t Kotosh i n the Huanuco area near the headwaters of the H u a l l a g a , and a t Kuntur Wasi (La Copa) , and Pacopampa near Cajamarca (F igure 1 ) . On the coast of P e r u , Chavfn i n f l u e n c e extended from the P i u r a V a l l e y i n the Far North to the Nasca V a l l e y i n the south . Included i n t h i s area are the we l l known temple complexes of Huaca de l o s Reyes i n the Moche V a l l e y ; Cerro Blanco i n the Nepena V a l l e y , P a l l c a in the Casma,Garagay i n the Rimac, and Curyacu near Lima on the Cent ra l Coast . Although C h a v f n - r e l a t e d temple complexes have not been excavated on the South Coas t , both ceramic and t e x t i l e remains i n d i c a t e reg iona l v a r i a t i o n s of the Chavfn s t y l e occur red i n t h a t a r e a . (For a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of Chavfn d i s p e r s i o n see Pat te rson 1971: 2 9 - 4 7 ; Lumbreras 1974: 5 7 ) . Regional m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the d i s p e r s i o n of C h a v f n - r e l a t e d images are i n t e r p r e t e d as evidence of a t h e o c r a t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y t h a t e s t a b l i s h e d outposts or " c o l o n i e s " i n order to communicate c e r t a i n b a s i c r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s (Conk l in 1978: 8 ) . Th is was accompl ished i n a c h r o n o l o g i c a l pe r iod known as the E a r l y H o r i z o n . "Hor i zons" are de f ined as u n i t s of time dur ing which r e l a t i v e l y uni form ceramic s t y l e s occur over e x t e n s i v e geographica l areas ( W i l l e y 1948: 9 ; Rowe 1967: 6 ) . D i s c o v e r i e s of C h a v f n - r e l a t e d a r t i f a c t s over widespread areas of Peru have l e d s c h o l a r s to des ignate Chavfn as a Hor izon c u l t u r e . Pan -Peruv ian Hor izons are supported by numerous Carbon 14 dates and the l i m i t s of the E a r l y Hor izon have been v a r i o u s l y i n t e r p r e t e d and are under a constant r e v i s i o n . The c h r o n o l o g i c a l bound-a r i e s of the Chavfn Hor izon are p r e s e n t l y determined by the e x i s t e n c e of 5 C h a v f n - r e l a t e d m o t i f s on r e g i o n a l a r t s t y l e s . For purposes of t h i s s t u d y , the Peruv ian chronology fo rmulated by John Rowe, which p laces the E a r l y Hor izon a t 1500-600 B . C . , has been adopted (Rowe, Menzel 1967: "A Chrono-l o g i c a l Table of the Peruv ian S i e r r a " ) . The aim of t h i s study i s t w o f o l d : 1. To examine the h i g h l a n d - c o a s t a l c o n n e c t i o n , or ev idence of Chavfn d i s p e r s i o n on the North Coast and i t s r e l a t i o n to the l i t h i c a r t a t Chavfn. The North Coast i s de f ined as t h a t area which i s bounded by the Lambayeque V a l l e y on the north and the Casma V a l l e y on the south (Sawyer 1966: 14) (F igure 1 ) . In order to accompl ish t h i s f i r s t g o a l , a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of Chavfn iconography and i t s r e l a t i v e chronology w i l l be undertaken. A recent study completed at The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia by four s tudents under the d i r e c t i o n of A lan R. Sawyer r e s u l t e d i n a proposed r e v i s i o n of a Chavfn chronology fo rmulated by John H. Rowe i n 1964 ( M a i t l a n d , Mowatt, P h i l l i p s , and Watson 1976). Th is paper w i l l examine correspondences between the proposed r e v i s e d chronology and C h a v f n - r e l a t e d North. Coast c e r a m i c s . 2. A second e q u a l l y important o b j e c t i v e w i l l be to determine the s t y l i s t i c nature of C h a v f n - r e l a t e d ceramics from the Chicama-Tembladera area as w e l l as a s s o c i a t e d specimens a l l e g e d to have come from the North Coast . Observat ion i n d i c a t e s t h a t there p e r s i s t s a g reat deal of confus ion i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between North Coast C h a v f n - r e l a t e d ceramic s t y l e s . The study w i l l attempt to d e f i n e and c l a r i f y i c o n o -graphic and s t y l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the above mentioned sample. Comparative images on Chavfn and North Coast C h a v f n - r e l a t e d s t o n e , adobe r e l i e f s , c e r a m i c , bone, soapstone, and s h e l l remains w i l l 6 be examined i n order to a r r i v e a t a f u l l e r understanding of the c u l t u r a l context as we know i t today . THE SAMPLE Only those ceramics w i t h iconography comparable to t h a t which i s found on Chavfn stone c a r v i n g s , meaning t h a t they are ' C h a v f n - r e l a t e d ' or 1 C h a v f n - i n f l u e n c e d 1 , are i n c l u d e d i n the sample. C h a v f n - r e l a t e d i s a term t h a t has been suggested by John H. Rowe as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r "Chav ino id 1 , a nomenclature o r i g i n a t e d by A. L. Kroeber i n 1942; because, accord ing to Rowe, Chav ino id i s p h i l o l o g i c a l l y i n c o r r e c t (Kroeber 1942: 8 2 ; Rowe p. c . : 1978) . The sample i s r e s t r i c t e d to C h a v f n - r e l a t e d ceramics (both complete v e s s e l s and s h e r d s ) , a l l grave o f f e r i n g s , which correspond to one or more of the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : 1. Ceramics from the Chicama V a l l e y p u b l i s h e d as "Cup isn ique" by Rafael Larco Hoyle i n 1941. 2. Ceramics from the Upper Jequetepeque V a l l e y near the town of Tembladera found by l o c a l pot hunters (commonly c a l l e d ' h u a q u e r o s ' ) , du r ing the 1 9 6 0 ' s . 3 . Ceramics w i th no known prov ince but s a i d to come from the North Coast and inc luded because they e x h i b i t i conograph ic and s t y l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r to those i n the f i r s t two c a t e g o r i e s . The t o t a l sample i n c l u d e s 77 c e r a m i c s ; of t h e s e , approx imate ly 26 are from L a r c o 1 s Cupisnique sample and the remainder are s a i d to come from the Tembladera area or the North Coast . For reasons of s i m p l i c i t y many p r e v i o u s l y p u b l i s h e d North Coast ceramics have not been i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s paper . 7 SOURCES A number of C h a v f n - r e l a t e d North Coast ceramics have been photo -graphed by A lan R. Sawyer who has generously made h i s a r c h i v e s a c c e s s i b l e f o r study and i l l u s t r a t i o n i n t h i s paper. Thanks to those a r c h i v e s , approx imate ly t h i r t y unpubl ished North Coast ceramics l o c a t e d i n both p r i v a t e and p u b l i c c o l l e c t i o n s were a v a i l a b l e f o r s tudy . Without A lan Sawyer's i n v a l u a b l e knowledge and adv ice on the s u b j e c t , t h i s study would not have been p o s s i b l e . Two p u b l i c a t i o n s , Rafael Larco H o y l e ' s Los Cupisniques (1941) and J u l i o C. T e l l o ' s Chavfn: C u l t u r a M a t r i z de l a C i v i l i z a c i o n A n d i n a ,  Pr imera Par te (1960) , were p r i n c i p a l re fe rences because of t h e i r c o n s i d -e r a b l e number of i l l u s t r a t i o n s and i n d i s p e n s a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . A p p r o x i -mately f i f t y percent of the ceramics i n L a r c o ' s sample are C h a v f n - r e l a t e d ; the remainder of the sample c o n s i s t s of a v a r i e t y of s t y l i z e d a n i m a l s , p l a n t s , human f i g u r e s , and p l a i n ware. In order to study the ceramics f i r s t - h a n d and p o s s i b l y i n c r e a s e the sample s i z e , the author v i s i t e d the Museo Nacional and the lAmano and Larco Museums i n L ima , as w e l l as the T r u j i l l o U n i v e r s i t y Museum i n T r u j i l l o dur ing the summer of 1978. Observat ions of Cupisnique ceramics i n the Larco Museum served as v a l u a b l e c ross checks a g a i n s t the i l l u s -t r a t i o n s i n Los Cupisn iques (Larco 1941). I t was p o s s i b l e to match many p r e v i o u s l y u n i d e n t i f i e d i l l u s t r a t i o n s w i t h the v e s s e l s from which they had been t a k e n . Th is prov ided important data on correspondences between vesse l shapes and iconography. (See notes on i n d i v i d u a l specimens under data s e c t i o n . ) Var ious s c h o l a r l y p u b l i c a t i o n s and e x h i b i t i o n cata logues augmented the number of specimens i n the sample. 8 S c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n on North Coast C h a v f n - r e l a t e d ceramic s t y l e s i s sparse and o f t e n u n r e l i a b l e but a l l r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n tha t i s p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e has been f a c t o r e d i n t o t h i s s tudy . Va luab le c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the study of Chavfn c u l t u r e have been made by a number of s c h o l a r s and re fe rences to t h e i r work w i l l be made under the appro -p r i a t e s e c t i o n s . METHODOLOGY An a r t h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s of the v i s u a l imagery forms the b a s i s of the methodology employed. ' Th is approach prov ides a v a l i d means of a s s e s s i n g r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and f o r m u l a t i n g r e l a t i v e ch rono log ies based on s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s when there i s a p a u c i t y of s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r -mat ion . When an a r t s t y l e r e f l e c t s the s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n of the c u l t u r e i t r e p r e s e n t s , i t may be d e f i n e d as the c o l l e c t i v e embodiment of c o n s i s t e n t though e v o l v i n g fo rms , e lements , q u a l i t i e s , and express ions of an i n d i v i d u a l or group over a s i g n i f i c a n t length of time (Shapi ro 1953). T r a n s l a t i o n from one m a t e r i a l to another u s u a l l y i n c u r s d i s -c repanc ies i n s t y l e and iconography. Coasta l Chavfn images were executed i n adobe r e l i e f , s t o n e , c e r a m i c s , woven f a b r i c s , bone, wood, s h e l l and g o l d . Adobe i n s t e a d of stone r e l i e f s were found at Cerro Blanco and Huaca de los Reyes and other c o a s t a l C h a v f n - r e l a t e d temple complexes. Pa inted p l a i n weave t e x t i l e s found on the South Coast near Carhua, but thought to have o r i g i n a t e d i n the North (Wal lace 1979: 4 3 ) , a f fo rded the p e r f e c t medium f o r u n r e s t r i c t e d C h a v f n - r e l a t e d d e s i g n s . Stone c a r v i n g 9 i s normal ly executed on a l a r g e s c a l e , takes c a r e f u l compos i t iona l p l a n n i n g , and a longer t ime to complete. A r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r degree of a r t i s t i c freedom i s a v a i l a b l e i n the ceramic medium. Some ceramic techniques may represent attempts to i m i t a t e e f f e c t s achieved i n stone ( r e l i e f decora t ion or s t r a p w o r k ) ; however, the s p a t i a l format i s com-p a r a t i v e l y r e s t r i c t i v e and r e d u c t i o n or p a r t i a l imagery i s a n a t u r a l outgrowth of the use of t h i s medium. The author w i l l apply the f o l l o w i n g a r t h i s t o r i c a l methodology i n order to f a c i l i t a t e the study of the ceramic sample. 1. T y p o l o g i c a l A n a l y s i s A t y p o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s c l a s s i f i e s i conograph ic content accord ing to sub jec t mat te r . Th is a n a l y s i s w i l l f a c i l i t a t e a r e c o g n i t i o n and understanding of m o t i f s and d i s t i n g u i s h among t y p i c a l , e x c e p t i o n a l , and aber rant imagery. 2. T r a i t A n a l y s i s Dorothy Menzel has de f ined a t r a i t as "any s t y l i s t i c d e t a i l t h a t can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from other s t y l i s t i c d e t a i l s by c o n t r a s t and repe -t i t i o n " (Menzel 1976: 7 ) . T r a i t a n a l y s i s w i l l group s t y l i s t i c d e t a i l s and s e r i a t e the sample a c c o r d i n g l y . 3_. Ceramic Shape An a n a l y s i s of vesse l shape and comparison w i th o thers of s i m i l a r shape o f f e r s c l u e s to the s e r i a t i o n of the sample. 10 Technique The ceramic sample w i l l be examined f o r the occurrence of a v a r i e t y of techniques such as broad Tine i n c i s i o n , f i n e l i n e i n c i s i o n , p u n c t a t i o n , c r o s s h a t c h i n g , mode l ing , a p p l i e d r e l i e f ( s t r a p w o r k ) , and i n c i s e d r e l i e f . 5_. Grave A s s o c i a t i o n Informat ion on grave a s s o c i a t i o n may f u r n i s h comparat ive data on the contemporaneity of ceramic s t y l e s , shapes and iconography of o b j e c t s found i n a s i n g l e tomb. 6_. Design A n a l y s i s The p r i n c i p a l elements of Chavfn s t y l e w i l l be de f ined i n r e l a t i o n t o the f o l l o w i n g terms: l i n e , s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , symmetry, m u l t i p l e imagery , r e p e t i t i o n , modular w i d t h , kenn ings , r e d u c t i o n and compartmen-t a l i z a t i o n . They are s e n s i t i v e monitors of s t y l i s t i c and c h r o n o l o g i c a l changes over extended per iods of t ime . a) L i n e : i s a communicative and emotive dev ice t h a t expresses u n i t y , t e n s i o n , harmony, v i t a l i t y , d u a l i t y , and balance i n a d e s i g n . The ' q u a l i t y ' of a l i n e d e s c r i b e s the c o n f i g u r a t i o n of an image and may be c u r v i l i n e a r , r e c t i l i n e a r or n a t u r a l i s t i c . N a t u r a l i s m i s de f ined as the a r t i s t ' s concept ion of an image as i t i s seen i n na tu re . b) S p a t i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n : d e f i n e s the arrangement o f an image w i t h i n a s p e c i f i e d a r e a . The r a t i o of p o s i t i v e to negat ive space and the placement of the design w i t h i n the design space are two necessary c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . 11 c) Symmetry: Anna 0 . Shepard d e f i n e s symmetry as the r e c o g n i t i o n of a 'mot ion ' or ' combinat ion of mot ions ' employed i n the r e p e t i t i o n of a d e s i g n . Mot ion(s) d e s c r i b e d i n r e l a t i o n to imaginary l i n e s , p o i n t s or axes may be b i l a t e r a l , r o t a t i o n a l , or r a d i a l (Shepard 1948: 217) . d) M u l t i p l e Imagery: occurs when two images share a common f e a t u r e and form a t h i r d image t h a t i s a composite of the f i r s t two. e) R e p e t i t i o n : i s the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of m o t i f s w i t h i n an i n d i -v i d u a l image. f ) Modular Width : i s a term suggested by Lawrence E. Dawson to d e s c r i b e a design "composed of a s e r i e s of bands of approx imate ly equal w id th" (Rowe 1967: 7 7 ) . g) Kennings: were f i r s t recogn ized and d e f i n e d by Rowe as a s e r i e s of v i s u a l comparisons or metaphors suggested by s u b s t i t u t i o n (Rowe 1967: 7 8 ) . Kennings i n d i c a t e t h a t the imagery has m u l t i - l e v e l e d meanings and, as a r e s u l t , the intended symbolism i s o f t e n obscure . h) Reduct ion : i s a process of a b s t r a c t i o n which e l i m i n a t e s i n d i v i d u a l t r a i t s and sometimes e n t i r e anatomical pa r t s of the f i g u r e . A knowledge of the in te rmed ia ry stages of r e d u c t i o n i s necessary i n order to r e c o n s t r u c t the o r i g i n a l image. i ) Compar tmenta l i za t ion : a compos i t iona l technique t h a t r e -s t r i c t s i n d i v i d u a l m o t i f s w i t h i n the whole to compartments or i n v i s i b l e r e c t a n g l e s of d i f f e r i n g s i z e s . 12 ]_. Comparative Data A d i s c u s s i o n of comparat ive data w i l l attempt to p o i n t out i conograph ic correspondences between the ceramic sample and r e l a t e d a r t i f a c t s found i n ceramic and other mediums both a t Chavfn and on the North Coast . 13 CHAPTER TWO 14 C Oft M i t t T 6 N N « M l O HEADS SOOTH w i M 6 PlATFOAl* ' ay l MOJlJA ANSA • O r o v o c -t X z BLACK ANO CEMTKAL.1 P L A Z A I A O M U M C N T A I . iTA.ia.WfcM ' ax r s u . « I t-ANION NORTH O r O z o X Z P •N UVTBH PLATFORM StBUtTuRC I B M t T f i t S 10 J I O L B T 6 N P i - 6 . PocOi II SOUTu W I M C tac.ua m C A S T P L A U f i » < J » L . A T 6 TRMM. f i F igure 2 . The Ceremonial Complex a t Chavfn ( a f t e r Lumbreras, 1969, 1977). Revised From: M a i t i a n d , Mowatt, P h i l l i p s and Watson, "A Proposed R e v i s i o n of Rowe's Chavfn Chronology" . Paper read January 7 , 1976 a t the I n s t i t u t e of Andean S tud ies Conference , B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a . 15 DESCRIPTION OF THE CEREMONIAL COMPLEX AT CHAVIN The ceremonial complex i s c o n s t r u c t e d of r e c t a n g u l a r s t r u c t u r e s , p l a t f o r m s , and t e r r a c e s which reach approx imate ly 12 to 14 meters i n he ight i n p l a c e s . Outer w a l l s are faced w i t h a veneer of s o l i d dressed stone b l o c k s , l a i d i n a l t e r n a t i n g narrow and wide c o u r s e s , and se t i n c l a y mor tar . W i th in the b u i l d i n g s there i s a network of m u l t i - l e v e l e d ' g a l l e r i e s ' composed of passageways, s t a i r w a y s , and small s torage rooms t h a t a l s o extend underneath the ceremonial p l a z a s . I n t e r i o r w a l l s are r u b b l e - f i l l e d and t r a c e s of p l a s t e r p a i n t and carved stone l i n t e l s i n d i c a t e tha t c e r t a i n areas were d e c o r a t e d . The g a l l e r i e s are roofed w i th s e m i - c o r b e l l e d capstones and passageways are v e n t i l a t e d by r e c -t a n g u l a r h o r i z o n t a l a i r s h a f t s t h a t pass to the o u t s i d e of the temple . Large q u a n t i t i e s of d e l i b e r a t e l y broken ceramics e x h i b i t i n g a v a r i e t y of a r t i s t i c s t y l e s and p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s have been found i n s i d e the g a l l e r i e s along w i th numerous marine s h e l l s , l l a m a , guinea p i g and f i s h bones. Th is i n d i c a t e s tha t they may have served as d e p o s i t o r i e s f o r r i t u a l o f f e r i n g s brought to the temple by r e l i g i o u s p i l g r i m s from other areas of Peru (Lumbreras 1974; 6 2 ) . The p lan of the temple complex as we know i t today i s thought to be the product of s e v e r a l c e n t u r i e s of growth. The most a r c h a i c s e c t i o n of the complex, a U-shaped s t r u c t u r e c a l l e d the Old Temple, i s composed of an e a s t e r l y o r i e n t e d c e n t r a l b u i l d i n g and two symmetr ical wings on the north and south . The area i n s i d e the U-shaped bay i s occupied by a Sunken C i r c u l a r P l a z a and a c e n t r a l s ta i rway leads from the P l a z a to the upper l e v e l s of the temple. The r e l i g i o u s focus of the temple t s centered around a carved stone c a l l e d the Lanzo'n, an anthropomorphic f e l i n e l o c a t e d a t the center of a c r u c i f o r m p a s s a g e - l i k e chamber i n the core of the Old Temple. 16 The s i z e of the c a r v i n g and the f a c t tha t i t i s tennoned i n t o the f l o o r and c e i l i n g of the g a l l e r y i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t was p laced i n the temple dur ing c o n s t r u c t i o n (F igure 2 ) . Somewhat l a t e r the s i z e of the South Wing of the Old Temple was augmented by a p l a t f o r m a d d i t i o n . Remains of a s e c o n d , u n f i n i s h e d p l a t f o r m are v i s i b l e on i t s south s i d e . A monumental entranceway c a l l e d the Black and White P o r t a l and a Fore Temple on i t s eas te rn facade conf i rmed a s h i f t i n the ceremonial focus to t h a t area of the complex. A f i n a l la rge s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n per iod i s evidenced by a monumental s ta i rway l e a d i n g from the Fore Temple to a Sunken Cent ra l P l a z a . The Cent ra l P l a z a i s a square c o u r t y a r d , sunk approx imate ly s i x to seven meters below ground l e v e l and enc losed on i t s north and south s i d e s by temple p l a t f o r m s . The p la t fo rms were made a c c e s s i b l e from below by three wide s ta i rways on e i t h e r s i d e of the P l a z a . Requirements o f a d d i t i o n a l ceremonial space n e c e s s i t a t e d the expansion of the complex as Chavfn became an o b j e c t of p i lg r immage. I t i s ev ident from the o v e r a l l p lan t h a t the d e s i r e f o r a symmetr ical a r r a n g e -ment d i c t a t e d the r e s u l t s of expansion (F igure 2 ) . I t was apparent to the e a r l i e s t v i s i t o r s to the s i t e t h a t the e x t e r n a l w a l l s of the temple complex had once been r i c h l y ornamented wi th stone s c u l p t u r e s i n the form of carved tennoned heads, l o w - r e l i e f quadrangular or r e c t a n g u l a r stone s l a b s and c o r n i c e s ( T e l l o 1960: I n t r o -d u c c i o n ) . Today, a f t e r a massive l a n d s l i d e covered the s i t e i n 1945, few stone carv ings remain i n s i t u . Chavfn stone r e l i e f s d e p i c t a v a r i e t y of anthropomorphized f i g u r e s . A few such as the Lanzon have been ass igned major d e i t y or c u l t s t a t u s (Rowe 1967: 8 4 ) . These carv ings may be the purest exp ress ion of Chavfn a r t upon which a l l r e g i o n a l s t y l e s were modeled. An understanding of 17 Chavfn d i s p e r s i o n i s dependent on a knowledge of t h e i r s t y l e , symbolism or themes and c h r o n o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s and, f o r t h i s r e a s o n , d e s -c r i p t i o n s of t h e i r recovery and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i l l comprise the bulk of the f o l l o w i n g h i s t o r y . HISTORY OF CHAVIN INVESTIGATIONS The temple of Chavfn i s mentioned i n the w r i t i n g s of e a r l y p o s t -Conquest t r a v e l l e r s such as C ieza de Leon (1550) , A. Vasquez de Espinosa (1616) , Antonio Raimondi (1873) , and E. W. Middendorf (1886) ( T e l l o 1960: I n t r o d u c c i o n ) . Va'squez d e s c r i b e s Chavfn as the l o c a t i o n of an a n c i e n t o r a c l e and p i l g r image , center to which people journeyed from a l l p a r t s of Peru (Lumbereas 1971: 1 ) . Raimondi 's name i s a s s o c i a t e d w i th an important carved stone s t e l e t h a t was t ranspor ted from Chavfn to Lima i n 1874 and named i n h i s honour ( T e l l o 1960: 188) . Middendorf was the f i r s t to recognize t h a t Chavfn was the s i t e of a p r e - I n c a c u l t u r e but he was unable to determine i t s a n t i q u i t y or sphere of i n f l u e n c e (Middendorf 1895: 8 8 - 1 0 4 ) . These r e a l i z a t i o n s were l e f t to J u l i o C. T e l l o , the f i r s t eminent Peruv ian a r c h a e o l o g i s t . T e l l o conducted i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a t Chavfn th ree t i m e s : i n 1919, 1934, and f i n a l l y i n 1940 ( T e l l o , 1943 and 1960). H is f i r s t v i s i t took p lace as par t of an e x p l o r a t i o n of the Mosna-Wacheqsa R ive r b a s i n . At t h a t t ime he s t u d i e d the iconography of the tennoned heads, c o r n i c e s , and r e l i e f s tha t were found e i t h e r i n s i t u on the temple or s c a t t e r e d about the s i t e . 18 In the town of Chavfn , T e l l o d i scovered a carved stone o b e l i s k t h a t l o c a l o f f i c i a l s had p laced by the doorway of the church . He was t o l d tha t i t had been found i n 1908 by a farmer who was c u l t i v a t i n g h i s f i e l d i n what i s now known as the Cent ra l P l a z a . An examinat ion of the area i n the center of the P l a z a produced a stone base t h a t may have supported the Obe l i sk ( T e l l o 1960: 177) . T e l l o shipped the c a r v i n g to Lima where i t subsequent ly became known as the T e l l o O b e l i s k . As a r e s u l t of h i s 1919 o b s e r v a t i o n s , T e l l o was ab le to r e c o g -n i z e Chavfn m o t i f s on c e r a m i c s , g o l d , and s h e l l i n va r ious p r i v a t e and p u b l i c c o l l e c t i o n s throughout Peru ( T e l l o 1943: 135) . By 1926 he had observed Chavfn m o t i f s on ceramics from s i t e s i n the Cal le jo 'n de Hua lyas , a t Ancon-Supe on the Cent ra l C o a s t , and on the Paracas P e n i n s u l a i n the South ( T e l l o 1929: 99 ; 1943: 136) . In p a r t i c u l a r , he noted tha t a c e r t a i n type of blackware c e r a m i c , s i m i l a r to those observed a t Chavfn and other s i t e s throughout the Northern H i g h l a n d s , was found on the c o a s t . From these observa t ions T e l l o concluded t h a t : (a) he had i s o l a t e d a unique ceramic s t y l e which appeared to o r i g i n a t e i n the h igh lands more s p e c i f i c a l l y at Chavfn , and t h a t , (b) Chavfn was the center of a Pan -Peruv ian c u l t u r e t h a t had exer ted widespread i n f l u e n c e over d i v e r s e geographica l a r e a s . He r e f e r r e d to the p e r i o d of Chavfn i n f l u e n c e as Andean A r c h a i c ( T e l l o 1929: 100) . In 1934, T e l l o undertook a survey of the Maranon H igh lands . Upon a r r i v i n g a t Chavfn he was s u r p r i s e d to f i n d t h a t the Mosna R i v e r tha t f lows along the eas te rn boundary of the s i t e had a l t e r e d i t s c o u r s e , causing o n e - t h i r d of the South Cent ra l P l a t f o r m to be undermined (F igure 2 ) . E ight meters below the su r face of the exposed p l a t f o r m , T e l l o found 19 numerous sherds of b l a c k , g rey , brown., and red i n c i s e d and p o l i s h e d r e l i e f - s t a m p e d ce r amics . In t o t a l , the ' a c c i d e n t a l ' excavat ion y i e l d e d n e a r l y one hundred s h e r d s , some of which e x h i b i t e d imagery s i m i l a r to those found on the stone c a r v i n g s . With t h i s f i n d , T e l l o b e l i e v e d he had a s c e r t a i n e d the " t e c h n i c a l , m o r p h o l o g i c a l , o rnamenta l , and r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e aspec ts " of " c l a s s i c " Chavfn p o t t e r y ( T e l l o 1943: 152) . In 1938, Wendell C. Bennett conducted excavat ions a t Chavfn . His d e s c r i p t i o n s and measurements prov ided f u r t h e r s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r -mation on the s i t e . A number of sherds of both Chavfn and post -Chavfn s t y l e s were recovered . Chavfn sherds were i d e n t i f i e d on the b a s i s of t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y to des igns on stone carv ings but a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t on ly a smal l percentage of the t o t a l number excavated showed r e l a t e d iconography (Bennett 1944: 71) . D e s c r i p t i o n s of Chavfn sherds found by T e l l o and Bennett i n d i c a t e t h a t they are t h i c k - w a l l e d brown or blackware specimens. Designs were formed by f i n e l i n e or broad l i n e i n c i s i o n and st rapwork. Most appear to be s e c t i o n s of f l a t - b o t t o m e d , f l a r i n g r im bowls or g l o b u l a r bodied t h i c k - n e c k e d v e s s e l s ( T e l l o 1960: 319 -352 ; Bennett 1944: 8 1 - 8 7 ) . In 1940 T e l l o se t up a f i e l d museum i n a c o l o n i a l chapel l o c a t e d on top of the North Wing of the Old Temple (F igure 2 ) . A few smal l stone fragments and p l a s t e r c a s t s of a l l the major r e l i e f s made dur ing that t ime were sent to the Museo Nacional and the U n i v e r s i t y of San Marcos i n Lima. We are indebted to Bennett f o r h is e a r l y observa t ions on the s t y l e and iconography of Chavfn stone ca rv ings and v a l u a b l e t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on Chavfn ce r amics . His r e c o g n i t i o n of the d i s t i n c t i v e nature of Chavfn a r t enabled him to record the e x i s t e n c e of Chavfn -20 r e l a t e d a r t i f a c t s on the coast and thus fo rmulate an idea of the ex tent of Chavfn d i s p e r s i o n to those a r e a s . In 1943 Bennett proposed t h a t Chavfn be c a t e g o r i z e d as a Pan-Peruv ian s t y l e along w i th Tiahuanaco and Inca. (Bennett 1943: 326) . The next y e a r , A. L. Kroeber pub l i shed a d e s c r i p t i o n of Chavfn stone ca rv ings and C h a v f n - r e l a t e d a r t i f a c t s (Kroeber 1944: 8 2 ) . H is observa -t i o n s cor roborated B e n n e t t ' s c o n c l u s i o n s and the i d e a , f i r s t p o s t u l a t e d by T e l l o (1929) t h a t Chavfn was a Pan -Peruv ian c u l t u r e became g e n e r a l l y accepted . From 1941 u n t i l 1945 T e l l o worked on h i s Chavfn f i e l d notes w i th the idea of p u b l i c a t i o n i n mind. His u n f i n i s h e d manuscr ipts form the bulk of a posthumous p u b l i c a t i o n e n t i t l e d Chavfn: C u l t u r a M a t r i z de l a  C i v i l i z a c i o n Andina ( I960) . Th is re fe rence i s i n d i s p e n s i b l e as a source f o r p l a n s , photographs, d rawings , and d e s c r i p t i o n s of the s i t e , i t s stone c a r v i n g s , c e r a m i c s , and v a r i o u s r e l a t e d a r t i f a c t s . In 1945 a massive l a n d s l i d e covered the temple area w i th hundreds of tons of d e b r i s . Subsequent c l e a r i n g has revea led some c a r v i n g s but most of the stones s to red i n T e l l o ' s s i t e museum on top of the Old Temple have not y e t been recovered . F o r t u n a t e l y , T e l l o had recorded almost eve ry th ing i n the museum i n the form of p l a s t e r c a s t s , d rawings , or rubbings and many are i l l u s t r a t e d i n the 1960 p u b l i c a t i o n . Subsequent excavat ion of the s i t e h a s , however, brought to l i g h t an a d d i t i o n a l number of p r e v i o u s l y unrecorded ornamental stone p i e c e s . T e l l o ' s fundamental c o n t r i b u t i o n s to our knowledge of Chavfn c u l t u r e are u n p a r a l l e l e d . He was the f i r s t to survey and excavate the s i t e , to p o s t u l a t e the magnitude of Chavfn i n f l u e n c e on contemporaneous c u l t u r e s and to d e f i n e i t s d i s t i n c t i v e a r t s t y l e . A l though we now know 21 t h a t some of the ob jec ts and s i t e s T e l l o a s c r i b e d to Chavfn ( T e l l o 1946, f i g . 26) are i n f a c t un re la ted s t y l e s , most of T e l l o ' s o r i g i n a l concepts have proven to be e s s e n t i a l l y c o r r e c t . T e l l o d ied i n 1947 convinced t h a t the l a n d s l i d e had destroyed h i s work at Chavfn. T e l l o ' s a s s i s t a n t , Marino Gonzales Moreno, began r e - e x c a v a t i n g the s i t e i n 1954 and e v e n t u a l l y he was a b l e to uncover most of T e l l o ' s o r i g i n a l work. On the eas te rn f a c e of the New Temple, on ly a few meters away from the spot where T e l l o had stopped d i g g i n g i n 1945, he d iscovered the remains of a monumental entrance now c a l l e d the B lack and White P o r t a l (F igure 2 ) . Recons t ruc t ion of the s u p e r s t r u c t u r e of the P o r t a l beyond the f i r s t l e v e l i s p r o b l e m a t i c a l . I l l u s t r a t i o n s i n Rowe (1967, f i g s . 3 and 4) and Kauffman Doig (1973, f i g . F. 187) show t h a t i t prot ruded s l i g h t l y beyond the temple facade and was enc losed on e i t h e r s i d e by sc reen ing w a l l s and two carved stone columns. The w a l l s and columns may have supported a l i n t e l and c o r n i c e s u p e r s t r u c t u r e and a sc reen ing w a l l composed of r e c t a n g u l a r stone r e l i e f s . Behind the sc reen ing w a l l , two s t a i r c a s e s , s t i l l v i s i b l e , ascend i n oppos i te d i r e c t i o n s to the north and south and enter the temple at an upper l e v e l . Between 1967 and 1968, s e c t i o n s of a carved l i n t e l found i n the area of the Fore Temple were l a i d on top of the columns and s i d e p a n e l s . Th is r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s i n a c c u r a t e because a j o i n t i n the center of the l i n t e l complete ly v i o l a t e s the canons of post and l i n t e l support systems. At the base of the temple , on e i t h e r s i d e of the P o r t a l , and i n the area of the Fore Temple, a s i g n i f i c a n t number of fragmented r e l i e f s have been uncovered. They resemble the s t y l e and iconography of the P o r t a l columns and may have ornamented a w a l l f r i e z e . They may have formed a 22 sc reen ing w a l l which h i d the s ta i rway l e a d i n g to the upper l e v e l s of the temple. (See i l l u s t r a t i o n of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n Kauffman Doig 1973: 190) . In 1961, John H. Rowe surveyed the r u i n s a t Chavfn and the r e s u l t s of h i s work which i n c l u d e the f i r s t proposed stone chronology appeared i n an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Chavfn A r t ; an i n q u i r y i n t o i t s form and meaning" (.1962). The f o l l o w i n g year he re turned to Chavfn and an a m p l i f i e d v e r s i o n of h i s o r i g i n a l paper was p u b l i s h e d i n 1967. An understanding of the c o n c l u s i o n s of Rowe's study i s e s s e n t i a l to the arguments presented i n t h i s paper . His work began w i t h a survey of the i n t e r i o r g a l l e r i e s . Th is revea led t h a t two symmetr ical a d d i t i o n s had been made to the Old Temple complex and t h a t the New Temple had been c o n s t r u c t e d by an a d d i t i o n to the South Wing of the Old Temple. The complet ion of the Black and White P o r t a l d i v e r t e d the ceremonia l focus away from the Old Temple [Rowe 1967: 7 5 ) . A second expansion to the south was planned but not f i n i s h e d . I t s complet ion would have p laced the B lack and White P o r t a l on the c e n t r a l a x i s of the New Temple. Rowe's p lan of the s i t e i n c l u d e s a s t r u c t u r e c a l l e d the " P a t i o " , which might more a c c u r a t e l y be c a l l e d the "Fore Temple" (F igure 2 ) . I t i s l o c a t e d d i r e c t l y i n f r o n t of the B lack and White P o r t a l and fragments of a t l e a s t f o u r columns and r e l i e f s i n d i c a t e tha t i t may have been designed as an a t r ium to the entranceway. Remains of a monumental s ta i rway and a lower l e v e l c o n t a i n i n g a Sunken Cent ra l P l a z a and two f l a n k i n g temple p la t fo rms complete the e a s t e r l y o r i e n t e d a x i s of the New Temple (F igure 2 ) . 23 While examining the ev idence f o r a sequence of temple c o n s t r u c -t i o n , Rowe r e a l i z e d tha t c e r t a i n ca rv ings were a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d , e i t h e r as c u l t o b j e c t s , s t r u c t u r a l embe l l i shments , or d e c o r a t i o n , w i th s p e c i f i c areas of the temple , and cou ld be dated a c c o r d i n g l y . Some carv ings had been reused and were u n s u i t a b l e as c h r o n o l o g i c a l i n d i c a t o r s but others such as the Lanzon, tennoned i n s i d e the Old Temple, and the columns of the Black and White P o r t a l were i n d u b i t a b l y r e l a t e d to s p e c i f i c b u i l d i n g phases (Rowe 1967: 7 4 ) . By c o r r e l a t i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d stone carv ings w i th unassoc iated r e l i e f s of s i m i l a r s t y l e , Rowe was ab le to fo rmulate a r e l a t i v e stone chronology . His sequence i s comprised of four phases: AB, C, D, and EF. (Some l e t t e r s were grouped together to a l l o w f o r f u t u r e s u b d i v i s i o n s . ) Phases AB and D are d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the a r c h i t e c t u r e . Phase AB i s represented by the Lanzon and the Old Temple and Phase D by the B lack and White P o r t a l and the New Temple. Unasso-c i a t e d r e l i e f s , the T e l l o Obe l i sk and the Raimondi S t e l e , were dated to Phases C and EF on the b a s i s of h i s s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s . Rowe's r e l a t i v e sequence of c o n s t r u c t i o n and stone ca rv ings was a major breakthrough i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the c h r o n o l o g i c a l e v o l u t i o n of Chavfn c u l t u r e through i t s a r t . We are indebted to him f o r h i s percep -t i v e s y n t h e s i s of the chrono logy , as we l l as h i s e x c e l l e n t d e f i n i t i o n s of Chavfn a r t i s t i c convent ions . In 1966, Lufs Gu i l l e rmo Lumbreras and Hernan Amat O lazava l j o i n e d Marino Gonzales i n a programme of excavat ions a t Chavfn. Resu l t s of t h e i r work appear i n p u b l i c a t i o n s by Lumbreras and Amat (1965) and Lumbreras (1968, 1970, and 1977). The f o l l o w i n g i s a summary of t h e i r f i n d s . 24 Between 1966 and 1967, l a r g e d e p o s i t s of broken ceramics were recovered from the " G a l e r i e de l a s Ofrendas" i n the North P l a t f o r m of the Old Temple (F igure 2 ) . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the ceramics found t h e r e i n were ceremonial o f f e r i n g s t h a t had been r i t u a l l y d e s t r o y e d . Lumbreras pub l i shed a carbon date of 750 B. C. f o r the m a t e r i a l from the Ofrendas G a l l e r y and d i v i d e d i t i n t o three d i s t i n c t ceramic s t y l e s : Of rendas , Wacheqsa, and Mosna (Lumbreras 1970: 132) . A second group of ceramics c a l l e d "Rocas" were recovered i n 1969 by Amat from subterranean passageways i n the South Wing of the Old Temple (F igure 2 ) . Gonzales cons iders these passageways to be 'desbordes ' or r u n - o f f channels cons t ruc ted to d r a i n water from the temple, (p. c : A lan R. Sawyer from Gonzales 1978). A carbon date of 1200 B. C. was e s t a b l i s h e d f o r Rocas ceramics at t h a t t ime (Lumbreras 1970: 130) . In 1971 Lumbreras p u b l i s h e d a char t d e p i c t i n g h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the e v o l u t i o n of Chavfn ce r amics . The c h a r t i n d i c a t e s t h a t he b e l i e v e d tha t Ofrendas and Wacheqsa s t y l e s were contemporary w i th each other and l a t e r than Rocas (Lumbreras 1971, f i g . 6 ) . The sherds found by T e l l o i n 1934 were t e n t a t i v e l y p laced between Rocas and Ofrendas i n a t r a n s i t i o n a l phase (Lumbreras 1971: 2 5 ) . In 1972 Lumbreras excavated the area of the U-shaped bay i n f r o n t of the Old Temple and d i scove red a sunken C i r c u l a r P l a z a . P lans of the P l a z a were not pub l i shed u n t i l 1977, but a few photographs of ca rv ings from the i n t e r i o r w a l l s d e p i c t i n g f e l i n e s and anthropomorphic f e l i n e s were a v a i l a b l e i n 1973. (Taken by Pedro Rojas Ponce who v i s i t e d the s i t e wi th A lan R. Sawyer i n 1973. A complete se t was taken by C h r i s t o p h e r Donnan i n 1975. p. c . : A lan R. Sawyer 1980). 25 In 1974 Lumbreras p u b l i s h e d a r e v i s e d chronology tha t p laced Rocas ceramics a f t e r Ofrendas (Lumbreras 1974: 7 2 ) . A t h i r d ceramic chrono logy , one which corresponds c l o s e l y to Rowe's stone sequence, was pub l i shed i n 1977 (Lumbreras 1977: 3 5 ) . Rocas c e r a m i c s , i n i t i a l l y p laced e a r l i e s t i n the chronology (1971) , were r e - d a t e d to the Black and White P o r t a l phase (Rowe: D) , and Ofrendas ceramics were ass igned to the T e l l o O b e l i s k phase (Rowe: C ) . The Chavfn sequence was d i v i d e d i n t o two major epochs: "Chavfn A n t i g u o " , represented by the Lanzcfn, the Old Temple, the C i r c u l a r P l a z a , the T e l l o O b e l i s k , and Ofrendas ceramics (Rowe: AB and C ) , and "Chavfn T a r d i o " , cor responding to the New Temple, the B lack and White P o r t a l , the Fore Temple, and Rocas ceramics (Rowe: D and EF) (Lumbreras 1977: 35) (F igure 1 4 ) . The d i s c o v e r y of the C i r c u l a r P l a z a and the appearance of a group of C h a v f n - r e l a t e d t e x t i l e s s a i d to come from the Carhua area on the South Coast (Sawyer 1972: 92) prompted a r e - e x a m i n a t i o n of Rowe's Chavfn chronology by a group of s tudents at The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The work, completed dur ing the 1975-76 academic year under the d i r e c t i o n of A lan R. Sawyer r e s u l t e d i n a j o i n t paper which was g iven a t the annual conference of the I n s t i t u t e of Andean S tud ies i n B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a ( M a i t l a n d , Mowatt, P h i l l i p s , Watson 1976). THE PROPOSED REVISED.CHAVIN CHRONOLOGY The paper e n t i t l e d , "A Proposed R e v i s i o n of Rowe's Chavfn Chrono logy" , argues f o r the r e - l o c a t i o n of the c h r o n o l o g i c a l placement of the T e l l o O b e l i s k from Rowe's Phase C to a l a t e r date i n Phase EF. Four major stone s t y l e s were determined on the b a s i s of a s t y l i s t i c 26 a n a l y s i s o f the l i t h i c a r t . a n d , f o l l o w i n g Rowe's l e a d , s p e c i f i c stone c a r v i n g s were keyed to developmental stages i n the ceremonial cente r ( P e r i o d s I - I I I ) . An understanding of the four s t y l e s w i l l f a c i l i t a t e a r e c o g n i t i o n of c h r o n o l o g i c a l i n d i c a t o r s on North Coast C h a v f n - r e l a t e d ce ramics . PERIOD I: THE OLD TEMPLE - CIRCULAR PLAZA FOCUS (1500-1200 B .C . ) Lanzon F e l i n e Corn ices C i r c u l a r P l a z a S c u l p t u r e s PERIOD I I : THE SOUTH WING FOCUS (1200-900 B .C . ) B lack and White P o r t a l and Fore Temple S c u l p t u r e s PERIOD I I I : THE EAST PLAZA FOCUS (900-600 B .C . ) Raimondi S t e l e * T e l l o O b e l i s k Assor ted Stone Fragments Ofrendas Ceramics The Gotosh Monument* * The Raimondi S t e l e i s seen as t r a n s i t i o n a l between P e r i o d II and P e r i o d I I I s t y l e s and the Gotosh Monument i s seen as be longing to a very l a t e P e r i o d I I I phase. 27 F igure 3 . The Revised Chavfn Chronology ( U . B . C . Study 1976) , showing c o - t r a d i t i o n s of Cayman and F e l i n e c u l t s . (Broken l i n e s i n d i c a t e beginnings of t r a n s i t i o n a l phases . ) 28 PERIOD I STYLE P e r i o d I s t y l e i s de f ined by round cornered d i s -cont inuous curved l i n e s t h a t o f ten end i n e l a b o r a t e serpent or f e l i n e kenn ings . For t h i s reason P e r i o d I s t y l e i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d to as the c u r v i l i n e a r s t y l e . M u l t i p l e imagery i s common as are g u i l l o c h e s and S - c u r v e s . Composit ion i s based on a h o r i z o n t a l m o d u l a r i t y and des igns are r e p e t i t i v e and t i g h t l y c o n t r o l l e d w i t h i n the o u t l i n e of an i n d i v i d u a l f i g u r e . 29 F igure 4. P e r i o d I S t y l e . Drawing of the c o r n i c e f e l i n e a t the south -west corner of the New Temple. From: Rowe 1967, f i g . 17. 30 Round eyes and upturned rounded p u p i l s . S u p e r o r b i t a l r i d g e s f o l l o w the curve of the eye and c u r l upwards i n snake kennings. From: Rowe 1967: f i g . 17. 2 . Lipbands are rounded a t the corners and are o f t e n upturned. They te rminate a t the p r o f i l e of the f a c e . 3 . Fangs te rminate a t the l i m i t s of the l i p b a n d . 4. Secondary fangs are square . From: Rowe 1967: f i g . 17. 5 . Noses are de f ined by s p i r a l l i n e s . From: Rowe 1967: f i g . 17. 6 . Numerous eyes appear w i t h i n s p i r a l s , curves and g u i l l o c h e s . From: Rowe 1967: f i g . 17. 7. Snakes have separate eye , nose and mouth e lements . From: Rowe 1967: f i g . 17. 8 . Claws are separate from paws and are shor t and r e c u r v e d . From: Rowe 1967: f i g . 17. F igure 5 . Elements of P e r i o d I S t y l e . 31 PERIOD II STYLE Th is s t y l e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r e c t i l i n e a r l i n e s and v e r t i c a l as w e l l as a h o r i z o n t a l m o d u l a r i t y . Rounded corners and t i g h t curves are c o n t r a s t e d w i t h sharp angles tha t penet rate undecorated background a r e a s . Emphasis i s p laced on v a r i e t y and o c c u l t balance r a t h e r than r e p e t i t i o n or exact symmetry as seen i n P e r i o d I. P e r i o d II s t y l e i s animated and e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c . F igures are c o n t r o l l e d through rhythmic r e p e t i t i o n of d e t a i l s and an i n t e g r a t e d compos i t iona l s t r u c t u r e . A h igh degree of t e n s i o n i s c reated by opposing d i a g o n a l s which emit a v i t a l energy tha t i s i n d i c a t i v e of the s t y l e . Figure 6 a . R o l l o u t of the f i g u r e on the F igure 6 b. R o l l o u t of the f i g u r e on the south column of the B lack north column of the B l a c k and White p o r t a l . and White p o r t a l . From: Rowe 1967, f i g . 9. From: Rowe 1967, f i g . 8 33 1. Fangs t h a t prot rude beyond l i p b a n d s . 2. Cent ra l P r o f i l e f a n g s . 3 . Lipbands t h a t extend over the p r o f i l e of the f a c e . 4. T r i a n g u l a r secondary t e e t h . 5 . B r a c k e t - p o i n t e d mouth. From: Rowe 1967, f i g . 8 . Teeth t h a t extend over the p r o f i l e of the f a c e . ( R e s t r i c t e d Use Secondary t r a i t ) From: Rowe 1967, f i g . 9 . "L" Shaped f a n g s . (Secondary t r a i t ) From: Rowe 1967, f i g . 8 . 8 . Rectangular eyes , upturned r e c t a n g u l a r p u p i l s , angular s u p e r o r b i t a l r i d g e s l a c k i n g kennings . From: Rowe 1967, f i g . 9. 9 . Square noses and f o r e l o c k s . From: Rowe 1967, f i g . 8 10. Serpent heads w i th a s i n g l e l i n e r e p r e s e n t i n g the eye , nose and mouth. From: Rowe 1967, f i g . 15. 11. Lipbands bracketed a t e i t h e r the top or bottom of pr imary l i p b a n d s . From: Rowe 1967, f i g . 19. F igure 7. Elements of P e r i o d II S t y l e . 34 PERIOD I I I STYLE P e r i o d I I I i s represented by two d i ve rgent c u l t s t h a t are d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e i r s u b j e c t - m a t t e r , which i s e i t h e r cayman- re la ted or f e l i n e - r e l a t e d and t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t i c s t y l e s . 35 PERIOD I I I THE CAYMAN-RELATED STYLE A r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t y l e t h a t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by cayman, human, and vegeta l imagery. The s h i f t to a g r i c u l t u r a l m o t i f s represents an i n n o v a t i v e approach t h a t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n t h i s s tudy . Th is s t y l e i s seen as contemporary w i th the f e l i n e - r e l a t e d s t y l e but r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of an a l t e r n a t e s e m i - r e a l i s t i c c u l t t h a t combines t r a d i -t i o n a l and p r o g r e s s i v e Chavfn t r a i t s . E a r l i e r cayman imagery i s found i n P e r i o d I I , the Fore Temple L i n t e l and the Yauya S t e l e , from a nearby s i t e . Both r e l i e f s have been i d e n t i f i e d as caymen. Kennings are l e s s important than i n Per iods I to I I I ( the f e l i n e - r e l a t e d s t y l e ) , as are m u l t i p l e imagery and r e p e t i t i o n . The compos i t iona l s t r u c t u r e i s sub -o r d i n a t e d to a system of compartments or i n v i s i b l e r e c t a n g l e s of d i f f e r i n g s i z e s . Minor f i g u r e s compart -m e n t a l i z e d w i t h i n the whole f i g u r e take on symbol ic a s s o c i a t i o n s accord ing to compos i t iona l j u x t a p o s i t i o n s . (See Lathrap 1977: 333-351 f o r more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f symbol ic a s s o c i a t i o n s among images found on the T e l l o O b e l i s k . ) 36 F igure 8 . P e r i o d I I I : The Cayman-re lated s t y l e . Drawing of the T e l l o O b e l i s k . From: Rowe 1967, f i g . 6 . 37 1. Bracketed eyes w i th m u l t i p l e bracketed s u p e r o r b i t a l r i d g e s . 2. M u l t i p l e l i p b a n d s . 3 . S t r i a t e d fangs . 4. A l l fangs i s s u i n g from the top of the mouth. From: Rowe 1967, f i g . 6 R e l a t i o n s between f e l i n e s and vegetable iconography and human b e i n g s . From: Rowe 1967, f i g . 6 F igure 9 . Per iod I I I : Elements of the Cayman-re lated s t y l e . 38 PERIOD I I I THE FELINE-RELATED STYLE Th is s t y l e cont inues i n the t r a d i t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d dur ing P e r i o d II w i th l e s s emphasis on the o r i g i n a l concepts of t h a t s t y l e and a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of t r a i t e lements . Sub jec t matter i s i n d i c a t i v e of the f e l i n e c u l t but d i f f e r e n c e s occur i n a nervous r e p e t i t i o n of d e t a i l s , f e a r of negat i ve space (hor ro r v a c u i i ) , and n o n - d e s c r i p t i v e combinat ions of t r a i t s . A s t e r i l e c e n t r a l balance such as t h a t seen on the Raimondi S t e l e (F igure 10) and a number of smal l modular repeats impart a s t a t i c q u a l i t y when com-pared to the v i t a l i t y expressed i n P e r i o d I I . R e p e t i t i v e m u l t i p l e imagery and the s u b o r d i n a t i o n of the f i g u r e to i t s embel l ishments i n d i c a t e an unsuccess fu l attempt to m a i n t a i n the energy of t h a t t i m e . Th is s t y l e represents the f i n a l v e s t i g e s of the f e l i n e c u l t . I t occurs dur ing the same time span as the a l t e r n a t e cayman c u l t which i s seen i n the s t y l e of the T e l l o Obe l i sk and Ofrendas ce ramics . The Raimondi S t e l e i s a t r a n s i t i o n a l p iece and i s p laced i n e a r l y P e r i o d I I I , w h i l e the Gotosh Monument i s i n d i c a t i v e of the f i n a l phase of the s t y l e . 39 F igure 10. Per iod I I I : The F e l i n e - r e l a t e d s t y l e . Drawing of the Raimondi S t e l e From: T e l l o I 9 6 0 , f i g . 33 40 1. Downturned l ipbands on pr imary mouths From: T e l l o 1960, f i g . 33. 2. Space f i l l e r s : s c r o l l s , recurved rays f a n g s , snakes. From: T e l l o 1960, f i g . 39. From: T e l l o 1960, f i g . 52. From: T e l l o 1960, f i g . 46. 3 . Rectangular Eyes w i t h concave tops and bowl shaped bottoms. From: T e l l o 1960, f i g . 33. 4. Fangs and secondary tee th extending over the p r o f i l e of the f a c e . From: Roe 1974, " f i g . . 23. , 5 . Long hooked c laws . From: Roe 1974, f i g . 2 3 . F igure 11. P e r i o d I I I : Elements of the F e l i n e - r e l a t e d s t y l e . 41 ARGUMENTS FOR A PROPOSED REVISION OF ROWE'S CHAVIN CHRONOLOGY From a paper read i n B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a , a t the I n s t i t u t e of Andean S t u d i e s by M a i t l a n d , Mowatt, P h i l i p p s and Watson 1976. The study was based on a f o u r - p a r t a n a l y s i s of temple c o n s t r u c t i o n (Mowatt ) , stone c a r v i n g s ( M a i t l a n d ) , C h a v f n - r e l a t e d Carhua t e x t i l e s (Watson) , and Ofrendas ceramics ( P h i l l i p s ) . I t has been p r e v i o u s l y noted tha t P e r i o d I and P e r i o d II s t y l e s are a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y r e l a t e d to s p e c i f i c b u i l d i n g s t a g e s . On the b a s i s of a s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s of t r a i t e lements , the T e l l o Obe l i sk and Ofrendas ceramics are thought to correspond to the l a t e r East P l a z a Focus, or P e r i o d I I I . The main p o i n t s of the argument are summarized below. A n a l y s i s of decorated stone r e l i e f s from Chavfn i n d i c a t e d t h a t s t y l i s t i c t r a i t s : 1. Compose an e x t e n s i v e v i s u a l vocabulary and appear i n a v a r i e t y of m o d i f i e d and e v o l u t i v e forms accord ing to the p e r i o d i n which they are found. 2 . Some t r a i t s are d i a g n o s t i c of s p e c i f i c s t y l e s and a c t as c h r o n o l o g i c a l i n d i c a t o r s whereas others f u n c t i o n as archaisms tha t have been r e v i v e d a f t e r prolonged per iods of d i s u s e . Design and t r a i t a n a l y s i s supports a p o s t - P e r i o d II date f o r the T e l l o O b e l i s k . A t r a i t a n a l y s i s of C i r c u l a r P l a z a ca rv ings i s o l a t e d four t r a i t s t h a t are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of P e r i o d II s t y l e : 1. Fangs o v e r l a p p i n g t h e i r l i p b a n d s . 2. A f r o n t a l fang on a p r o f i l e f e l i n e mouth. 42 3 . Lipbands t h a t curve over the p r o f i l e of the f a c e . 4. T r i a n g u l a r secondary t e e t h . These t r a i t s i n d i c a t e t h a t there was an unbroken s t y l i s t i c t r a n s i t i o n from the Old Temple - C i r c u l a r P l a z a r e l i e f s of P e r i o d I (Rowe's AB) to the r e l i e f s of the B lack and White P o r t a l , P e r i o d II (Rowe's D). This i s schematized i n diagram on the f o l l o w i n g page (F igure 12) . The T e l l o Obe l i sk shows t r a i t s t h a t are i n d i c a t i v e of P e r i o d II and P e r i o d I I I S t y l e s (F igure 13) . 1. Fangs extending over t h e i r l i p b a n d s . 2 . T r i a n g u l a r secondary t e e t h . 3 . Serpents w i t h one l i n e d e f i n i n g the eye , nose and mouth. 4. B r a c k e t - p o i n t e d l ipbands on pr imary mouths. 5 . F ronta l fangs on p r o f i l e agnath ic mouths. 6 . Claws j o i n e d a t the pads of the f e e t . The T e l l o O b e l i s k i s s t y l i s t i c a l l y u n r e l a t e d to e i t h e r the Per iod I or P e r i o d II s t y l e s . A n a l y s i s demonstrates t h a t i t i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a t h i r d s t y l e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the f o l l o w i n g t r a i t s and design conven-t i o n s : a . S t r i a t e d fangs . b. M u l t i p l e l i p b a n d s . c . Bracketed eyes w i t h m u l t i p l e bracketed s u p e r o r b i t a l r i d g e s . d . Vegetal m o t i f s . e. Human imagery. f . Compar tmenta l i za t ion . g . S t y l i z e d n a t u r a l i s m . 43 AB CORNICE ( P e r i o d I) F igure 12. T r a i t A n a l y s i s of C i r c u l a r P l a z a C a r v i n g s . From: Rowe 1967, f i g s . 16 and 17 and photographs cour tesy C h r i s t o p h e r B. Donnan and A lan R. Sawyer D CORNICE ( P e r i o d I I ) CIRCULAR PLAZA ( T r a n s i t i o n a l S c u l p t u r e s ) 1. Fangs o v e r l a p p i n g t h e i r l i p b a n d s . 2 . A f r o n t a l f a n g . 3 . Lipband curv ing over the p r o f i l e of the f a c e . 4. T r i a n g u l a r Secondary t e e t h . 44 F igure 13. Drawing of the T e l l o Obe l i sk showing t r a i t s i n d i c a t e d on page 42. From: Rowe 1967, f i g . 6 . 45 Innovat ive hand l ing of the design space i s seen i n the d e p i c t i o n of r e a l i s t i c a l l y rendered i n d i v i d u a l compartmental ized images. In a d d i t i o n , a depar ture from the standard v i s u a l vocabulary i s seen i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of caymen, vegeta l m o t i f s , and human be ings . With the except ion of the Fore Temple L i n t e l and the Yauya S t e l e , i n d i c a t i o n s of these concepts are l a c k i n g i n Per iods I and II s c u l p t u r e s . The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia paper proposes t h a t the cayman-r e l a t e d and f e l i n e - r e l a t e d c u l t s c o - e x i s t e d dur ing P e r i o d I I I . F e l i n e s u b j e c t matter conf i rms the cont inuance of the c u l t throughout the f i n a l phases of Chavfn a r t ; however, r e p e t i t i o n of d e t a i l s and confused t r a i t combinat ions imply a l o s s of a r t i s t i c d i s c i p l i n e and a misunderstanding of the b a s i c des ign convent ions of e a r l i e r s t y l e s . Innovat ive hand l ing of space and des ign and l a c k of confo rmi ty to t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t matter shown i n the T e l l o Obe l i sk denotes the e x i s t e n c e of an a l t e r n a t e s t y l e . Symbol ic connotat ions of a g r i c u l t u r a l f e r t i l i t y and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s to Chavfn cosmology and the T e l l o Obe l i sk have been d i s c u s s e d i n depth by Lathrap (Lathrap 1974) . The U. B. C. paper argues tha t the Obe l i sk r e f l e c t s the e x i s t e n c e of an a l t e r n a t e symbol ic system t h a t arose out of a d i s a f f e c t i o n w i th the f e l i n e c u l t and a concern of a l l i e d c o a s t a l people w i th a g r i c u l t u r e . A n a l y s i s of Carhua t e x t i l e s and Ofrendas ceramics f u r t h e r supports t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . In the l a t e 1960's t e x t i l e fragments known to have come from the Carhua area on the South Coast appeared on the a r t market (Sawyer 1972: 9 2 ) . The designs on the t e x t i l e s are r e l a t e d to the complex iconography of• Chavfn stone r e l i e f s . A t r a i t a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the sample dated to Per iod II and none were e a r l i e r . Some t h a t were l a t e r i n date ( P o s t - P e r i o d I I ) showed c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the S t y l e of the T e l l o O b e l i s k . Vegetal imagery , caymen, 46 a s t y l i z e d n a t u r a l i s m , and compar tmenta l i za t ion were recogn ized as i n d i c a t o r s of the T e l l o O b e l i s k S t y l e . An examinat ion of Ofrendas ceramics i n d i c a t e d a s t y l i s t i c a f f i n i t y to the T e l l o O b e l i s k . Ofrendas ceramics show caymen and vegeta l m o t i f s , as w e l l as T e l l o Obe l i sk t r a i t s such as s t r i a t e d f a n g s , m u l t i p l e l ipbands and bracketed eyes and a s t y l i z e d n a t u r a l i s m . Lumbreras argues t h a t because the Ofrendas G a l l e r y i s l o c a t e d underneath the north s i d e of the C i r c u l a r P l a z a , and the ceramics of the g a l l e r y are s t y l i s t i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the T e l l o O b e l i s k , the date of the Obe l i sk i s conf i rmed as contemporary w i t h the C i r c u l a r P l a z a (Rowe: C) (Lumbreras 1977: 16 ) . There i s , however, no s i m i l a r i t y between the s t y l e of the s c u l p t u r e s of the C i r c u l a r P l a z a and the T e l l o O b e l i s k or Ofrendas ce ramics . In a d d i t i o n , sherds found by T e l l o i n the f i l l of the South Temple P l a t f o r m (F igure 2) are s i m i l a r to Ofrendas c e r a m i c s , thus suggest ing l a t e a r c h i t e c t u r a l a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h the East P l a z a Focus of P e r i o d I I I . The U .B .C . study concluded t h a t the T e l l o Obe l i sk was improper ly dated i n Rowe's sequence and t h a t i t rep resents an a l t e r n a t e c u l t based on a mythic s t r u c t u r e which takes the cayman as i t s supreme d e i t y . S t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s of stone r e l i e f s , t e x t i l e s , and c e r a m i c s , and c o r r e s -ponding c o r r e l a t i o n s to per iods of temple c o n s t r u c t i o n a l l support the proposed r e v i s e d chronology which p laces the T e l l o O b e l i s k i n P e r i o d I I I . 1500 1200 600 ROWE 1964 LUMBRERAS 1971 U.B.C. 1976 LUMBRERAS 1977 AB: LANZON F E L I N E CORNICES C: TELLO O B E L I S K LANZO'N ROCAS GALLERY CERAMICS PERIOD I : LANZO^ F E L I N E CORNICES CIRCULAR P L A Z A SCULPTURES EPOCH I : CHAVIN ANTIGUO OFRENDAS GALLERY C E R A M I C S , WACHESQCA MOSNA, RAKU CERAMICS D: BLACK AND WHITE PORTAL OFRENDAS GALLERY CERAMICS TELLO O B E L I S K PERIOD I I : BLACK AND WHITE PORTAL SCULPTURES ROCAS CERAMICS FORE TEMPLE L I N T E L EPOCH I I : CHAVIN TARDIO ROCAS CERAMICS E F : RAIMONDI STELE PERIOD I I I : RAIMONDI S T E L E T E L L O O B E L I S K OFRENDAS CERAMICS GOTOSH MONUMENT Figure 14. A review of the four Chavfn (1971, 1977) and the U.B.C. ch rono log ies proposed by Study (1976) . Rowe (1964) , Lumbreras 48 CHAPTER THREE Figure 15. Map of the Chicama V a l l e y . From: Larco 1948: 9 50 THE NORTH COAST:  A HISTORY OF INVESTIGATIONS INTO CHAVIN-RELATED CERAMICS The North Coast i s g e n e r a l l y d e s c r i b e d as the area between the Casma and Lambayeque R iver V a l l e y s i n c l u d i n g those of the Jequetepeque, or Pacasmayo, Chicama, Moche, V i r u , Santa and Nepena. The Lambayeque V a l l e y and the t e r r i t o r y north to the C h i r a R i v e r i s d e f i n e d as the " F a r " North Coast (Sawyer 1975) (F igure 1 ) . In 1933, J u l i o C. T e l l o p a r t i a l l y excavated a temple s t r u c t u r e a t Cerro B l a n c o , a ceremonial complex i n the Nepena (F igure 1 ) . I n i t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n l e v e l s revea led remains of adobe r e l i e f s decorated wi th pa in ted Chavfn d e s i g n s . This s t r a t i g r a p h i c ev idence l e d T e l l o to deduce the r e l a t i v e age of Chavfn as pre-Chimu ( T e l l o 1943: 137) . Fragments of blackware v e s s e l s w i th i n c i s e d m o t i f s resembl ing those found a t Chavfn were a s s o c i a t e d w i th rubb le t h a t had been used as f i l l i n subsequent b u i l d i n g stages ( T e l l o 1943, p i . X l V a ) . T e l l o ' s excavat ions conf i rmed the e x i s t e n c e of a c o a s t a l Chavfn c u l t u r e which v a r i e d i n degrees of s t y l i s t i c p u r i t y when compared to the stone ca rv ings a t Chavfn. The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n demonstrates T e l l o ' s thoughts on the meaning o f h i s f i n d s : The Nepena d i s c o v e r y d e f i n i t e l y c l e a r e d up the t rue c h a r a c t e r of Chavfn c u l t u r e on the c o a s t . In the f i r s t p l a c e , i t i s now proved t h a t t h i s c u l t u r e was r i c h i n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e m a t e r i a l , t h a t i t was unmistakable i n i t s d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s , and i d e n t i c a l to the t r a n s - A n d i n e c u l t u r e i n i t s e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s . In the second p l a c e , i t was demonstrated t h a t i t s 51 remains occupy a lower st ratum than the c u l t u r e s regarded by o ther i n v e s t i g a t o r s as the f i r s t and o l d e s t i n Peru . The Chavfn people developed on v i r g i n s o i l i n the Neperia V a l l e y a c i v i l i z a -t i o n w i thout precedent i n r e s p e c t to both o r i g i n a l i t y and e x c e l l e n c e of a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n . The same a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e , employment of the same k ind of d e c o r a t i v e and symbol ic m o t i f s , and p a r t i c u l a r methods of u t i l i z i n g l o c a l m a t e r i a l s , adapt ing them to p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d standards g i ve the Chavfn c u l t u r e f e a t u r e s of i t s own. ( T e l l o 1943: 139) I t i s ev ident t h a t T e l l o recogn ized the c o a s t a l impact of Chavfn d i s p e r s i o n and the d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r of r e g i o n a l s t y l e s which f l o u r i s h e d as a r e s u l t of i t s i n f l u e n c e . In 1934 Rafael Larco Hoyle v i s i t e d a barren r i v e r b e d (quebrada) i n the d e s o l a t e Cupisnique V a l l e y to the north of the Chicama V a l l e y (F igure 15) . He c a l l e d i t the "Pampa de l o s F o s i l e s " because of the numerous l ime c o n c r e t i o n s on i t s s u r f a c e (Bennett 1939: 9 0 ) . From the s u r f a c e of the quebrada, Larco c o l l e c t e d i n c i s e d sherds tha t he recogn ized as having s i m i l a r i t i e s t o those which T e l l o c a l l e d c o a s t a l Chavfn. During t h i s t i m e , complete v e s s e l s , s a i d to come from the Chicama V a l l e y , were being s o l d by l o c a l ' h u a q u e r o s 1 . Larco f e l t tha t because the ceramics were t e c h n i c a l l y r e l a t e d the sherds he had found on the Cupisn ique Quebrada he c a l l e d them "Cup isn ique" (Larco 1941: 8 ) . In 1936, Wendell C. Bennett conducted a survey of North Coast a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s . H is d e s c r i p t i o n s of Cerro B l a n c o , the Cupisnique Quebrada, and Chongojape, a s i t e i n the upper Lambayeque V a l l e y (F igure 1 ) , are of s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t i n t h a t they summarized North Coast Chavfn -52 r e l a t e d f i n d s up to t h a t t ime (Bennett 1939: 1 7 - 1 3 3 ) . Whi le at the Cupisnique Quebrada, Bennett gathered a t o t a l of 1435 sherds from the s u r f a c e of the "Pampa de l o s F o s i l e s " . An a n a l y s i s o f the sample i n d i c a t e d t h a t approx imate ly f i f t y percent were s i m i l a r to the type p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d by Larco as Cupisnique (Bennett 1939: 9 2 ) . In B e n n e t t ' s o p i n i o n , t h i s conf i rmed the e x i s t e n c e of Chavfn c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s i n the Cupisnique Quebrada. The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s h i s thoughts on the s u b j e c t : The p o l i s h e d and i n c i s e d b l a c k , brown, and redware, and t w o - c o l o r i n c i s e d and p o l i s h e d wares a r e , w i thout doubt , of the type ceramics c a l l e d "Chavfn Coast s t y l e " by T e l l o and , f o l l o w i n g the d i s c o v e r y of t h i s quebrada, "Cup isn ique s t y l e " by L a r c o . Comparison of the p ieces w i th whole v e s s e l s found i n the Chicama V a l l e y shows t h a t the sherds correspond i n type ware, shapes, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h i c k s t i r r u p - s p o u t s w i t h p r o j e c t i n g edge r i m s , and d e s i g n . (Bennett 1939: 92) In 1938, i n f o r m a t i o n regard ing the l o c a t i o n of graves i n the Chicama reached Larco and by 1939 he had l o c a t e d and excavated b u r i a l s i n three cemeter ies (Barbacoa , Pa lenque, and S a l i n a r ) on the Hacienda S a u s a l , as w e l l as s i x o t h e r s , a l l i n the Chicama V a l l e y (Larco 1946: 149) (F igure 1 5 ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the cemeter ies had been p r e v i o u s l y l oo ted and much of L a r c o ' s sample l a c k s grave a s s o c i a t i o n because i t was purchased from grave robbers (p . c : A. R. Sawyer 1978). These f i n d i n g s d i d , however, enable Larco to a r r i v e a t a c l e a r e r understanding of the temporal p o s i t i o n of North Coast ceramic s t y l e s . 53 Grave s t r a t i g r a p h y , a l though somewhat u n r e l i a b l e , i n d i c a t e d t h a t Moche and Chimu ceramics were superimposed on top of Cupisnique l e v e l s and t h e r e f o r e p o s t - d a t e d t h a t c u l t u r e (Larco 1941: 8 ; 1946: 150) . In the same y e a r , a survey of the V i r u V a l l e y headed by Ford and W i l l e y found t h a t C h a v i n - i n f l u e n c e d c u l t u r e s i n the V i r u and Chicama o v e r l a i d a long p r e - c e r a m i c phase ( W i l l e y and Corbet t 1954: I n t r o d u c t i o n , x i i i ) . Larco b e l i e v e d t h a t Cupisnique ceramics were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a d i s t i n c t c u l t u r e which he d e s c r i b e d as ' s i m i l a r ' but d i f f e r e n t from t h a t which had produced the stone c a r v i n g s at Chavfn (Larco 1941: 8 ) . T e l l o ' s d i s c o v e r i e s of l a r g e ceremonial complexes i n the Nepena led Larco to p o s t u l a t e t h a t Cupisn ique ceramics were par t of an independent f e l i n e c u l t t h a t had o r i g i n a t e d i n t h a t a r e a . He argued t h a t the "Nepena C u l t u r e " had e s t a b l i s h e d r e l i g i o u s outposts i n the Casma, a t Paracas on the South Coas t , and i n the Cent ra l and Northern H i g h l a n d s . The temple a t Chavfn was, i n L a r c o ' s o p i n i o n , a s a t e l l i t e p i l g r i m a g e s i t e (Larco 1941: 2 ) . Today, i t i s g e n e r a l l y accepted t h a t Chavfn was the r e l i g i o u s center of the c u l t u r e and t h a t d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s on c o a s t a l temples and a r t i f a c t s were i n f l u e n c e d by the s t y l e and iconography of i t s stone r e l i e f s . Larco p u b l i s h e d Los Cupisniques i n 1941. Ten graves are l i s t e d , but none of the contents are d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l and photographs are so poor t h a t i conograph ic d e t a i l s which may have prov ided i n f o r m a t i o n on s t y l i s t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s are obscured . Most of the ceramics i l l u s t r a t e d were obta ined from l o c a l "huaqueros" and l a c k proven ience . Those i n the c o l l e c t i o n of V i c t o r Larco H e r r e r a , L a r c o ' s u n c l e , and now i n the Museo Nacional i n L ima, were acqu i red from the same s o u r c e s . 54 Based on h i s observa t ions of the sample and grave s t r a t i g r a p h y , Larco p u b l i s h e d a c h r o n o l o g i c a l synops is of Chicama V a l l e y c u l t u r e s i n 1948. He c i t e s seven Epochs from Pre -Ceramic t imes u n t i l the Conquest. Each Epoch i s d i v i d e d i n t o three P e r i o d s : " I n i c i a l " , " M e d i o " , and " U l t i m o " . Cupisnique c u l t u r e was p laced i n the t h i r d or " E v o l u t i v a " Epoch. The f o l l o w i n g diagram i s excerpted from L a r c o ' s chrono logy : TABLE 1. Synopsis of C u l t u r e s of the Chicama V a l l e y . EPOCA PERIODO CULTURAS ULTIMO S a l i n a r V i r u Cupisnique - Santa Ana I I I EVOLUTIVA MEDIO Cupisn ique - T r a n s i t o r i o Cupisnique INICIAL P r e - C u p i s n i q u e (From: Larco 1948: 10) The " I n i c i a l " P e r i o d recogn ized the e x i s t e n c e of a p r e - C h a v i n / p r e - C u p i s n i q u e ceramic c u l t u r e (Larco 1948: 1 3 - 1 6 ) . The "Medio" P e r i o d was subd iv ided i n t o C u p i s n i q u e , Cupisnique T r a n s i t o r i o and C u p i s -n i q u e - S a n t a Ana. The f o l l o w i n g i s a summary of L a r c o ' s a n a l y s i s of the C u p i s n i q u e , Cupisnique T r a n s i t o r i o , and Santa Ana ceramic s t y l e s . 1. Cupisnique ceramics were decorated w i th i n c i s e d , modeled and r e l i e f images t h a t i n c l u d e d anthropomorphs, zoomorphs and phytomorphs. The most common s u b j e c t s were r e l i g i o u s i n c h a r a c t e r and , i n L a r c o ' s o p i n i o n , i n f l u e n c e d by the s t y l i z e d f e l i n e d e i t y of the Nepena V a l l e y . Techn ica l obse rva t ion i n d i c a t e d t h a t the ceramics were r e d u c t i o n ware of uneven t e x t u r e and c o l o u r (brown, b lack or g r e y - y e l l o w ) . Imperfec-t i o n s i n the c o l o u r and t e x t u r e occur red as a r e s u l t of incomplete 55 c o n t r o l dur ing the f i r i n g p r o c e s s . Larco i d e n t i f i e d f o u r d i s t i n c t s t i r r u p and spout forms and noted t h a t a s p e c i f i c spout form always corresponded to a c e r t a i n type of s t i r r u p handle (Larco 1941: 3 6 ) . O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s e r i a t i n g Cupisnique ceramics on changes i n vesse l shape w i l l be pursued at a l a t e r p o i n t i n t h i s s tudy . 2. Cupisnique T r a n s i t o r i o ceramics have predominant ly geometr ic d e s i g n s , many of which are symbol ic a b b r e v i a t i o n s of Cupisn ique m o t i f s and the C h a v f n - r e l a t e d r e l i g i o u s element i s e i t h e r s i m p l i f i e d or non-e x i s t e n t . For t h i s r e a s o n , they have been omit ted from t h i s s tudy . Processes of r e d u c t i o n f i r i n g cont inue but an advanced t e c h n i c a l knowl -edge produced a h igher q u a l i t y ceramic w i th a f i n e r t e x t u r e and c l e a r e r c o l o u r . 3 . C u p i s n i q u e - S a n t a Ana ceramics were c l a s s i f i e d as l a t e l o c a l v a r i a n t s of the Cupisn ique s t y l e . They show South Coast t r a i t s such as w h i s t l e spouts and corn popper shapes e v i d e n t l y c a r r i e d north by the S a l i n a r and V i r u c u l t u r e s t h a t appear at the c l o s e of the Cupisn ique p e r i o d (p. c . : A lan R. Sawyer 1979) . They do not e x h i b i t Chavfn -r e l a t e d iconography and f o r t h i s reason d i s c u s s i o n of the s t y l e i s omit ted from t h i s s tudy . (See Larco 1948: 1 9 - 2 2 . ) L a r c o ' s 1939 excavat ions r e - a f f i r m e d h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t Chicama ceramics were the same as those t h a t he had recovered from the "Pampa de l o s F o s i l e s " i n the Cupisnique Quebrada (Larco 1946: 140) . In recent years t h i s o p i n i o n has been q u e s t i o n e d . Between 1964 and 1968, A lan R. Sawyer made severa l reconnaissance t r i p s to the Cerro Zorro reg ion of the c e n t r a l Cupisnique Quebrada i n the company of F r i t z Smichek, a l o c a l a n t i q u a r i a n who had v i s i t e d the area numerous t imes and acted as h i s gu ide . Ne i the r was ab le to i d e n t i f y any C h a v f n - r e l a t e d sherds among those they f o u n d , and Smichek s t a t e d 56 t h a t he had never found a s i n g l e C h a v f n - r e l a t e d sherd i n h i s many t r i p s to the area (p . c : A lan R. Sawyer 1979) . Whi le i n Berke ley i n 1979, the author was ab le to examine sherds g iven to A. L. Kroeber by Larco i n 1939 (Lowie Museum Access ion #6565). No p r e c i s e provenience i s g iven but they were a l l e g e d to have been found by Larco on the Cupisn ique Quebrada. Among them, a fragment from a long necked b o t t l e w i t h a s t r i a t e d fang m o t i f i s s i m i l a r to those seen on some Ofrendas ceramics (Lumbreras 1974: F i g . 17bJ . Others are of a type u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i th Chongojape " f e a t h e r e d " ware (Lumbreras 1971, F i g s . 8b , 8 c ) . What percentage of the sherds t h a t Bennett c o l l e c t e d from the Cupisn ique Quebrada were of the type i l l u s t r a t e d by Larco i n Los  Cupisn iques i s unknown. None of the sherds g iven to Kroeber tha t are now i n the Lowie Museum corresponds to those i n d i c a t e d by Larco as coming from Chicama graves . In the e a r l y years of Chavfn s t u d i e s , many ceramics a t t r i b u t e d to the Chavfn pe r iod proved a f t e r more thorough r e s e a r c h , to be from other North Coast c u l t u r e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the Chimu. Larco and T e l l o both f e l l i n t o t h i s t rap s imply because they were p ioneers i n the f i e l d . Today the e x i s t e n c e of a v a r i e t y of r e g i o n a l C h a v f n - r e l a t e d s t y l e s are known but t h e i r proveniences are vague. The above observa t ions g i ve credence to A lan R. Sawyer 's suggest ion t h a t L a r c o ' s use of the term Cupisnique f o r ceramics found i n Chicama graves may be a misnomer (p. c : A lan R. Sawyer 1978). During the 1960's many ceramics s a i d to come from cemeter ies near Tembladera, a town i n the Upper Jequetepeque, appeared on the i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r t market . Undoubtedly t h i s group i n c l u d e d m a t e r i a l from other s i t e s as w e l l . T e c h n i c a l l y and s t y l i s t i c a l l y , some of the ceramics resemble 57 L a r c o ' s Cupisnique sample w h i l e o thers d i s p l a y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of o ther r e g i o n a l s t y l e s . Those wi th C h a v f n - r e l a t e d t r a i t s are important a d d i -t i o n s to t h i s s tudy . Many ceramics w i th i d e n t i f i a b l e North Coast C h a v f n - r e l a t e d imagery t h a t are t r a d i t i o n a l l y s a i d to come from the North Coast are i n c l u d e d because i t i s f e l t t h a t t h e i r i n h e r e n t s i g n i f i c a n c e i s too important to be o v e r l o o k e d . Recent North Coast d i s c o v e r i e s t h a t are p e r t i n e n t to t h i s study a r e : a j o i n t p u b l i c a t i o n on the adobe r e l i e f s from Huaca de los Reyes i n the Moche V a l l e y by M. Edward Mosely and Louis Watanabe (1974) and, more c u r r e n t l y , Thomas P o z o r s k y ' s a r c h a e o l o g i c a l excavat ions (Pozorsky 1975: 211-251) and W i l l i a m J . C o n k l i n ' s a n a l y s i s of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l sequence a t the same s i t e (Conk l in unpubl ished paper d e l i v e r e d at Berke ley 1980). 58 CHAPTER FOUR 59 ANALYSIS OF THE CERAMIC SAMPLE A n a l y s i s of the ceramic sample w i l l be accompl ished through the f o l l o w i n g methods: TYPOLOGICAL ANALYSIS: TRAIT ANALYSIS: CERAMIC FORM: TECHNIQUE: GRAVE ASSOCIATION: CERAMIC SUMMARY: a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n accord ing to themat ic con ten t . a n a l y s i s of s t y l i s t i c d e t a i l s . an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of vesse l shape. the use of va ry ing d e c o r a t i v e techn iques . data on the contemporaneity of ceramics i n a s i n g l e tomb. an i conograph ic d i s c u s s i o n of i n d i v i d -ual c e r a m i c s , i n c l u d i n g design a n a l y s i s . TYPOLOGICAL ANALYSIS T e l l o , Rowe, Lathrap and others have i d e n t i f i e d j a g u a r s , harpy e a g l e s , caymen, and anacondas, a l l j u n g l e a n i m a l s , on the stone r e l i e f s from Chavfn . T e l l o was the f i r s t to note a dominant f e l i n e c u l t ( T e l l o 1923: 5 8 3 - 6 0 6 ; 1929: 8 3 ) . The m a j o r i t y of stone r e l i e f s d e p i c t f e l i n e s , anthropomorphic f e l i n e s , f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d s or f e l i n e s e r p e n t s , w h i l e a s m a l l e r percentage i n c l u d e s snakes , f i s h , human b e i n g s , and an assortment of symbol ic images and vegeta l m o t i f s . Rowe p o s t u l a t e s h i e r a r c h i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s w i t h i n the imagery c l a s s i f y i n g the Lanzon, Raimondi S t e l e and T e l l o Obe l i sk as c u l t ob jec ts and others as a r c h i t e c t u r a l embel l ishments w i th secondary s t a t u s (Rowe 60 1967: 8 3 ) . On the b a s i s of ev idence known to Rowe a t the time of h i s s t u d y , he was ab le to propose t h a t the s t a f f god, an anthropomorphic f e l i n e w i th o u t s t r e t c h e d arms h o l d i n g s t a f f - l i k e ob jec ts had "more than l o c a l importance" (Rowe 1967: 8 6 ) . Th is was f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the d i s c o v e r y o f a group of t e x t i l e s from Carhua on the South Coast (Sawyer 1972: 9 1 - 9 2 ) . Many fragments d e p i c t s t a f f gods d a t i n g to Rowe's Phase D ( P e r i o d I I ) or l a t e r ( C o r d y - C o l l i n s 1977: 3 6 0 - 3 6 1 ; M a i t l a n d , Mowatt, P h i l l i p s , and Watson 1976). T e l l o b e l i e v e d the image on the T e l l o Obe l i sk was f e l i n e , but Rowe has argued f o r a c r o c o d i l i a n o r , more p r e c i s e l y , cayman i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n ( T e l l o 1923: 5 8 3 - 6 0 6 , 1929: 8 3 , 1960: 1 7 7 - 7 8 ; Rowe 1962: 18 , 1967: 8 3 ) . In 1971, Donald W. Lathrap presented c o n v i n c i n g data f o r the acceptance o f Rowe's h y p o t h e s i s . Lathrap d e s c r i b e s the Obe l i sk as a v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n of a complex mythic s t r u c t u r e i n which the cayman i s symbol ic of a g r i c u l t u r a l f e r t i l i t y (Lathrap 1971, 1974). In 1976, the U .B .C . Study proposed t h a t the Obe l i sk represented a r e l i g i o u s schism brought about by an inc reased emphasis on a g r i c u l t u r a l f e r t i l i t y . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l d i s c o v e r i e s on the Cent ra l Coast i n d i c a t e t h a t imagery a s s o c i a t e d w i th the Obe l i sk i s found i n tha t area (Lumbreras 1977: 17) . For example, c a y m a n - r a p t o r i a l b i r d images are seen on fragments of t a p e s t r y weave t e x t i l e s from Ancon-Supe ( W i l l e y and Corbet t 1954: p i . 24).. In a d d i t i o n , cayman- re la ted imagery has been found on Carhua t e x t i l e s from the South Coast ( U . B . C . Study 1976). These d i s c o v -e r i e s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s suggest t h a t c u l t s other than the f e l i n e gained power and were m a n i f e s t i n r e g i o n a l C h a v f n - r e l a t e d s t y l e s . C h r o n o l o g i c a l comparisons between Chavfn imagery and per iods of d i f f u s i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t m o t i f s on North Coast ceramics may prov ide c l u e s to the sequence of events a t Chavfn i t s e l f . 61 TYPOLOGY: A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n accord ing to thematic con ten t . Observat ion of the sample i n d i c a t e s t h a t Cupisnique-Tembladera ceramics and a s s o c i a t e d North Coast ceramics t h a t are t h e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to Chavfn stone r e l i e f s f a l l i n t o s i x groups. These groups are l i s t e d below accord ing to t h e i r r e l a t i v e f requency : 1 . F e l i n e s 2 . F e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d s 3 . Human beings 4. Anthropomorphic f e l i n e s 5 . Human heads on vegetable forms 6. Snakes and F e l i n e Serpents 7. I s o l a t e d Symbols An a l t e r n a t e l i s t which would r e f l e c t Chavfn h i e r a r c h i c a l s t a t u s would p lace anthropomorphic f e l i n e s i n f i r s t p l a c e , then f e l i n e s , f e l i n e -r a p t o r i a l b i r d s , snakes and f e l i n e s e r p e n t s , human b e i n g s , human heads on vegetab le fo rms , and i s o l a t e d symbols. 1_. F e l i n e s a) F u l l F igure F e l i n e s : A v a r i e t y of f u l l f i g u r e f e l i n e s are found on Chavfn r e l i e f s . S t y l i z e d f e l i n e s composed of m u l t i p l e kennings c o n t r a s t w i t h l e s s kenned s e m i - n a t u r a l i s t i c d e p i c t i o n s . S t y l i s t i c complex i ty i s unusual i n the c u r r e n t sample w i t h the except ion of F igure 16 which shows s i m i l a r i t i e s to Ofrendas ceramics (see Lumbreras 1971, F i g . 11) . In g e n e r a l , the sample c o n s i s t s of unkenned f e l i n e s such as those seen i n F igures 17 and 18. 62 ure 16. Vessel 4. A f u l l f i g u r e p r o f i l e f e l i n e . R o l l o u t cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer. 63 F igure 17. Vessel 60. A f u l l f i g u r e modeled f e l i n e . Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 64 Figure 18. Vessel 50. A f u l l f i g u r e p a r t i a l l y modeled f e l i n e . Photo courtesy of The B r i t i s h Museum 65 b) P r o f i l e F e l i n e Heads: An examinat ion of L a r c o 1 s Cupisnique sample i n d i c a t e s tha t a number of f i n e l i n e i n c i s e d p r o f i l e f e l i n e head v e s s e l s were found i n the Chicama V a l l e y . They have i r r e g u l a r r e c t a n g u l a r eyes , square -cornered upturned l i p b a n d s , and s t r a i g h t - s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r fangs encompassed by l i p b a n d s . The d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s image i s a row of fangs and tee th extending around the upper and lower p r o f i l e of the f a c e . The bottom l i p b a n d c u r l s under the c h i n and the top curves i n t o an upper f a n g . L ines e x t r u d i n g from the mouth normal ly lead to a second f e l i n e p r o f i l e head s i m i l a r to the f i r s t (F igure 19) . V a r i a t i o n s i n c l u d e the t reatment o f the c r e s t o f the head ( the s u p e r o r b i t a l r i d g e ) , l o c a t i o n of the e a r s , number of t e e t h , number of l i n e s d e f i n i n g f e a t u r e s , and degree of r e c t i l i n e a r i t y achieved i n the render ing of l i n e s . A prototype f o r t h i s image i s found i n the Gotosh Monument which i s dated to Per iod I I I , the f i n a l p e r i o d of the r e v i s e d stone chronology . Pe te r Roe has a l s o noted the s i m i l a r i t y between the p r o f i l e f e l i n e heads from the Chicama and the Gotosh Monument i n h i s 1974 study of Chavfn iconography (Roe 1974: 2 9 ) . A t h i r d image found on ceramics s a i d to come from the Tembladera area combines a p r o f i l e f e l i n e head s i m i l a r to the Gotosh Monument w i th an a b s t r a c t e d f e l i n e body and snake appendages (F igure 2 0 ) . Th is image i s r e l a t e d to both the Gotosh Monument and the p r o f i l e f e l i n e heads i n L a r c o ' s Cupisnique sample. 2. F e l i n e - R a p t o r i a l B i r d s The body of a f e l i n e i s combined w i th wings and a r a p t o r i a l b i r d beak. Rowe and Lathrap have argued t h a t r a p t o r i a l b i r d s are e i t h e r 66 F igure 19. Vessel 42.' P r o f i l e f e l i n e heads. From: Larco 1941, r o l l o u t from Chapter Heading IV, page 9 67 F igure 20. Vessel 32. P r o f i l e f e l i n e w i th a b s t r a c t e d f e l i n e body. R o l l o u t cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 68 hawks or harpy eagles (Rowe 1967: 8 2 ; Lathrap 1971: 7 6 - 7 7 ) . They appear i n P e r i o d I (Rowe 1967, f i g s . 11-13) and cont inue throughout the e n t i r e sequence o f Chavfn a r t . They may have f u n c t i o n e d as "guardians of the d e i t y " and t h e i r dominance i n the imagery of North Coast ceramics i s l i k e l y the r e s u l t of t h e i r h i g h l y v i s i b l e p r o f i l e and t r a d i t i o n a l l y c l o s e p h y s i c a l and symbol ic a s s o c i a t i o n w i th the d e i t y . Two types of f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d s have been i d e n t i f i e d i n the present sample: sp layed and p r o f i l e f i g u r e s . They w i l l be d i s c u s s e d under separate headings . a) Splayed F i g u r e s : The body i s s p r e a d , f e e t are turned outward , wings are o u t s t r e t c h e d and the head i s i n p r o f i l e . Th is pose resembles t h a t found on Per iod I r e l i e f s a t Chavfn (Rowe 1967, f i g s . 11^13) . In the North Coast sample t h i s image i s found on ceramics t h a t e x h i b i t numerous Chavfn t r a i t s ( F igu re 2 1 ) . b) P r o f i l e F e l i n e - R a p t o r i a l B i r d s Two types of p r o f i l e f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d s occur i n the sample; one i s a complex f i g u r e i n strapwork r e l i e f ; the other i s a s i m p l i f i e d render ing i n broad l i n e i n c i s i o n . Both have f e l i n e bodies w i t h upturned heads, f r o n t a l paws under the c h i n , and wings extending outwards from the back of the body. The strapwork examples have a p r o f u s i o n . o f agnath ic mouths which f i l l up the des ign space. The m a j o r i t y of these images have double o u t l i n i n g s i m i l a r to the T e l l o Obe l i sk and Ofrendas ce ramics . They have round or square cornered upturned l ipbands and f r o n t a l paws wi th three l i n e s r e p r e s e n t i n g claws (F igure 2 2 ) . Vessel 1. A sp layed f e l i n e -r a p t o r i a l b i r d . Photo cour tesy A lana C o r d y - C o l l 70 F igure 22. Vessel 21. A p r o f i l e f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d . Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 71 The broad l i n e i n c i s e d images have round corner mouths encompassing s t r a i g h t - s i d e d fangs and l i p b a n d s t h a t curve around the p r o f i l e of the face (F igure 2 3 ) . Eyes are round and p u p i l s are m i s s i n g . Claws are long and recurved on the upturned paw. Claws on the hind f o o t are o f t e n j o i n e d onto the pad of the f o o t . Evidence of t h i s type of image i n the stone r e l i e f s a t Chavfn i s l a c k i n g , but s u b j e c t matter and C h a v f n - r e l a t e d t r a i t s i n d i c a t e t h a t i t was i n f l u e n c e d by the stone s t y l e . Reduced v e r s i o n s were found by Larco i n Tombs 17 and 21 a t Barbacoa (Larco 1941, f i g s . 23 and 210) . F e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d heads are i d e n t i f i a b l e as r e d u c t i o n s of the o r i g i n a l f u l l f i g u r e v e r s i o n (F igure 2 4 ) . A modeled f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d i s i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y d i ve rgent from the c u r r e n t sample and has been omit ted because i t i s judged to be of q u e s t i o n a b l e a u t h e n t i c i t y . I t i s s t y l i s t i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i th a group of ceramics s a i d to come from the Tembladera area (See Lap iner 1976, f i g . 7 2 ) . 3. Human Beings Human heads are i d e n t i f i a b l e by t h e i r downturned f a n g l e s s mouths and u p c u r l i n g noses. Eyebrows are omit ted and u s u a l l y a d i s t i n c t i v e peaked headdress covers the head (F igure 2 5 ) . The peaked headdress i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i th modeled vegetable form ceramics and A lan Sawyer has suggested t h a t i t may denote a p l a n t form such as a l e a f or seed pod CP- c . : A lan Sawyer 1980). A group of dismembered human heads in te rconnec ted by a s e r i e s of l i n e s t h a t appear on a n g u l a r - s i d e d ceramics (F igure 26) may be i n d i c a t i v e of a t rophy head c u l t . Evidence of a trophy head c u l t i s seen i n a Chavfn f i g u r e which holds a severed human head i n i t s hand (Rowe 1967, f i g . 2 0 ) . 72 F igure 23. Vessel 9. A p r o f i l e f e l i n e -r a p t o r i a l b i r d . R o l l o u t cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 73 Figure 24. Vessel 18. A p r o f i l e f e l i n e -r a p t o r i a l b i r d , head. Photo courtesy of the Museum of the American Indian 74 F igure 25. Vessel 67. Human heads on a vegetable form ceramic . Photo cour tesy of the Museum of the American Indian 75 F igure 26. A vesse l d e p i c t i n g p o s s i b l e t rophy heads. (SEE VESSEL IS.) Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n : Lima 76 Larco d i scovered a f i n e l y modeled vesse l p o r t r a y i n g a human face i n c i s e d w i th numerous l i n e s as i f to i n d i c a t e o l d age (F igu re 2 7 ) . The face of the human on the vesse l i s s i m i l a r i n s t y l e to t h a t found on a f u l l f i g u r e seated man shown i n F igure 28. Photographs i n Los  Cupisn iques i n d i c a t e t h a t i t was found i n Tomb 19 a t Barbacoa i n the same grave as an a n g u l a r - s i d e d vesse l w i t h i n c i s e d human head imagery of the type d i s c u s s e d above (F igure 2 6 ) . The d e p i c t i o n of n a t u r a l i s t i c imagery such as t h a t seen i n F igures 27 and 28 i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a d i s t i n c t l y r e g i o n a l s t y l e based on r e a l i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the human f i g u r e and has not been f a c t o r e d i n t o t h i s study because i t i s u n r e l a t e d to the a r t of Chavfn. 4_. Anthropomorphic F e l i n e s Anthropomorphic f e l i n e images are uncommon and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of e n t i r e f i g u r e s such as tha t seen i n F igure 29 are r a r e . These f i g u r e s show vary ing r e g i o n a l and C h a v f n - r e l a t e d t r a i t s . F igure 29 shows bowl shaped eyes s i m i l a r to those seen on the anthropomorphic f e l i n e from the Gotosh Monument and a s l a b - l i k e mouth and fangs l i k e those seen on adobe s c u l p t u r e s from Huaca de l o s Reyes i n the Moche V a l l e y (Pozorsky 1975, f i g . 1 ) . Regional t r a i t s such as i r r e g u l a r r e c t a n g u l a r e y e s , downturned fanged l i p b a n d s , s t r a i g h t - s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r fangs and an upturned s c r o l l nose are seen i n F igure 30. The d i ve rgent nature of the t r a i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i th both f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e tha t there was no standard r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the anthropomorphic f e l i n e image on the North Coast . 77 Figure 27. Vessel p o r t r a y i n g a modeled human head. From: Larco 1941, f i g . 266, Tomb 19 Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 78 Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 79 F igure 29. Vessel 61. A modeled anthropomorphic f e l i n e . Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 80 F igure 30. Vessel 36. Two anthropomorphic f e l i n e s From Larco 1941: R o l l o u t , p. 134. 81 5_. Human Heads and Vegetable Forms Modeled vegetab le form ceramics are u s u a l l y found i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i th f i n e l i n e i n c i s e d human heads. The j u x t a p o s i t i o n of human beings and vegeta l m o t i f s i s t h e m a t i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i th the T e l l o O b e l i s k . One vegetable has been i d e n t i f i e d by Larco as a yucca (Larco 1941, f i g . 5 7 ) . P o s s i b l y a second spec ies i s seen i n F igure 3 1 ; however, A lan Sawyer has suggested t h a t t h i s shape may represent a bundle of t rophy heads i n s i d e of a net bag (p. c : A. Sawyer, 1980) . Th is i s based on an obser -v a t i o n made by Jane Dwyer t h a t net bags c o n t a i n i n g trophy heads are c a r r i e d by Paracas embroidered f i g u r e s (p. c : A lan Sawyer, 1980, from Jane Dwyer, d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n ) . 6_. Snakes and F e l i n e Serpents In 1974, Peter Roe made the d i s t i n c t i o n between the two v a r i e t i e s o f snakes d e p i c t e d on Chavfn stone r e l i e f s . The "s imple s n a k e " , or v i p e r , has a l e n t i c u l a r eye , a n o s t r i l hole f o r a nose and a s i n g l e l i n e demark-ing the mouth. The " c o l l a r e d c a t - s n a k e " or f e l i n e s e r p e n t , i s por t rayed w i th a c a t e a r , a neck c o l l a r , and f e l i n e mouth w i th s i n g l e or double fangs (Roe 1974: 10) . Representat ions of snakes are uncommon i n the North Coast sample. Cupisnique-Tembladera ceramics show few kennings and t h i s may account f o r the lack of snake imagery which occurs on many kenned images on Chavfn stone r e l i e f s . Snake imagery i s found on ceramics t h a t are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to Chavfn stone iconography and i t s absence i n ceramics of more r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s suggest i ve o f a l o c a l i z e d d i s r e g a r d f o r s tandard Chavfn design convent ions . 82 Figure 31. Vessel 71. A modeled ceramic w i th human head imagery. Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 83 F e l i n e serpents are u s u a l l y modeled or p a r t i a l l y modeled. The e n t i r e body i s covered w i th p e l t marks t h a t a r e " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the anaconda. The f e l i n e serpent i s found on stone r e l i e f s from Chavfn from Per iod I onwards ( T e l l o 1960, f i g . 71) (F igure 3 2 ) . A group of long snouted p r o f i l e heads executed i n f i n e l i n e i n c i s i o n may be f e l i n e s e r p e n t s . A l l show t r a i t s tha t are d i a g n o s t i c of modeled f e l i n e s e r p e n t s : long snouts ( twice the length of o r d i n a r y p r o f i l e f e l i n e heads ) , s i n g l e fangs i s s u i n g from the top of the l i p b a n d , and var ious mouth e x t r u s t i o n s , one of which (F igure 33) i s s i m i l a r to t h a t found on the f e l i n e serpent c o r n i c e a t Chavfn ( T e l l o 1960, f i g . 7 1 ) . Composi t ional c o n s i s t e n c y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s i s a homogeneous group r a t h e r than a s e r i e s of aber rant images. A hunchback f i g u r e s a i d to come from Tembladera has two in te rconnec ted s t y l i z e d serpents i n c i s e d on i t s back (F igure 3 4 ) . A r o l l o u t of the design shows appendages s i m i l a r to those which f u n c t i o n as symbol ic snakes on other ceramics (Larco 1941, f i g s . 19 and 3 8 ) . The composi t ion of the image i s s i m i l a r to a s i m p l i f i e d r e n d i t i o n seen i n F igure 35. An a l t e r n a t e i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n of the f e l i n e serpent image would suggest a p o s s i b l e cayman i d e n t i f i c a t i o n but t h i s i s l e s s l i k e l y i n l i g h t of the above i conograph ic ev idence . ]_. I s o l a t e d Symbols As p r e v i o u s l y no ted , symbol ic dev ices were used throughout a l l per iods of Chavfn a r t . The S - cu rve or peanut shape i s reproduced on three low r e l i e f , n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d v e s s e l s ( F igure 2 0 ) . 84 Figure 3 2 . Vessel 54. A p a r t i a l l y modeled feline, se rpent . Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer Figure 34a. A hunchback f i g u r e w i t h a F igure 34b. A r o l l o u t of the f e l i n e f e l i n e serpent des ign serpent m o t i f , i n c i s e d on i t s back. Vesse l a l l e g e d to come from the Tembladera a r e a . Photos cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer Figure 35. Vessel 30. A f e l i n e serpent m o t i f . Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 88 Larco d i s c u s s e s the symbol ic element i n Cupisnique T r a n s i t o r i o c e r a m i c s . He d e s c r i b e s t h e i r geometr ic nature no t ing a frequency of " c r o s s e s , a n g l e s , c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s , rudimentary s t a i r w a y s , broken l i n e s , v o l u t e s , romboids , and f r e t s " which represent symbol ic Chavfn t r a i t s such as jaguar t a i l v o l u t e s , c o n c e n t r i c p e l t marks , f e l i n e e y e s , and serpent head c r e s t s (Larco 1948: 19) . Comparison of these m o t i f s w i t h s i m i l a r m o t i f s on Cupisn ique ceramics i n the sample i n d i c a t e s t h a t the symbol ic des igns tha t Larco r e f e r s to are de r i ved from those sources (F igure 3 6 ) . Symbol ic ceramics have been omit ted from the t r a i t a n a l y s i s because they l a c k s u f f i c i e n t d i a g n o s t i c C h a v f n - r e l a t e d t r a i t s ( F igure 36) . A d i s c u s s i o n of symbol ic elements on i n d i v i d u a l specimens has been inc luded i n the ceramic summary. A SUMMARY OF THE TYPOLOGICAL ANALYSIS P r o f i l e human heads on modeled vegetable form ceramics and f e l i n e -r a p t o r i a l b i r d s comprise the bulk of the imagery found i n the present sample. These are f o l l o w e d i n order of decreas ing q u a n t i t y by f e l i n e s , f e l i n e s e r p e n t s , snakes , .and anthropomorphic f e l i n e s . 89 Figure 36. A vessel d e p i c t i n g symbolic Chavfn-related m o t i f s . Photo courtesy Alan R. Sawyer 90 TRAIT ANALYSIS Most Chavfn t r a i t s have long and cont inuous h i s t o r i e s , y e t undergo r a d i c a l a l t e r a t i o n s over s p e c i f i c per iods of t i m e . In a study of Ocucaje c e r a m i c s , M e n z e l , Rowe, and Dawson proved tha t an examinat ion of r e g i o n a l C h a v f n - r e l a t e d t r a i t s cou ld prov ide i n f o r m a t i o n regard ing the sequence of events a t Chavfn when they found tha t the b r a c k e t - p o i n t e d l ipband of Rowe's Chavfn Phase D corresponded to a s i m i l a r t r a i t found on Chavfn -i n f l u e n c e d Ocucaje 4 and 5 ceramics (Rowe 1967: 7 6 ) . In recent years the d i s c o v e r y of Carhua t e x t i l e s and Ofrendas ceramics has m o d i f i e d the Ocucaje chronology but t h e i r o r i g i n a l p r o p o s i t i o n remains v a l i d . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of a t r a i t . o f t e n foreshadows a new P e r i o d S t y l e ( U . B . C . S tudy , 1976). Once a t r a i t i s i n t r o d u c e d , i t e i t h e r remains i n c i r c u l a t i o n or reappears a t a l a t e r da te . The reappearance of an e a r l i e r t r a i t i s a form of " a r c h a i s m " , d e f i n e d as the d i r e c t i m i t a t i o n or r e v i v a l of e a r l i e r t r a i t s or s t y l e s . Archaism i s found throughout the e n t i r e sequence of Chavfn a r t and has c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i -f i c a n t l y to the confus ion sur rounding the d a t i n g of Chavfn or Chavfn -r e l a t e d a r t i f a c t s . In 1974, P e t e r Roe completed a study designed to augment the number of a r t i f a c t s ass igned to Rowe's Chavfn chronology in- order to "make the content of each p e r i o d more e x p l i c i t " (Roe 1974: 1 0 ) . He l i s t e d 148 ' f e a t u r e s ' which he d e s c r i b e d as " s t y l i s t i c a l l y d i s c e r n i b l e u n i t s (Roe 1974: 10) . When they were l i s t e d on a c h a r t , some f e a t u r e s c l u s t e r e d i n i n d i v i d u a l phases w h i l e o thers reappeared r e g u l a r l y throughout the sequence. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , Roe tended to choose f e a t u r e s t h a t were e x p l i c i t r a t h e r than u n i v e r s a l ; i n o ther words, those tha t were i n d i c a -t i v e of i n d i v i d u a l a r t i f a c t s i n s t e a d of e n t i r e phases. 91 For t h i s s t u d y , an a l t e r n a t e approach which omits secondary t r a i t s o r f e a t u r e s and i s o l a t e s pr imary t r a i t s o c c u r r i n g on both Chavfn stone r e l i e f s and North Coast ceramics has been chosen. In a d d i t i o n , t r a i t s t h a t are i n d i c a t i v e of C h a v f n - r e l a t e d Cupisnique-Tembladera ceramics have been f a c t o r e d i n t o the study i n order to demonstrate the r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of those c e r a m i c s . The r e l a t i v e date of a ceramic may be determined by c o r r e l a t i n g p r o g r e s s i v e or i n n o v a t i v e t r a i t s w i th the c h r o n o l o g i c a l per iods i n which they f i r s t appear a t Chavfn. Th is w i l l show t h a t a ceramic corresponds to a stone p e r i o d no e a r l i e r than t h a t which i s i n d i c a t e d by i t s most p r o g r e s s i v e t r a i t . Observat ions made a t the t ime of the U .B .C . Study (1976) determined t h a t types of e y e s , l i p b a n d s , f a n g s , c l a w s , or combina-t i o n s o f these are s e n s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r s of s t y l i s t i c and c h r o n o l o g i c a l change. P o i n t e d corner mouths and f r o n t a l fangs on p r o f i l e f a c e s , two t r a i t s i n d i c a t i v e of P e r i o d I I , have been omit ted because they are absent from the c u r r e n t sample. Th is e x c l u s i o n may be c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . A second omiss ion i s the r e c t a n g u l a r eye w i th concave bottom, i n v e r t e d bowl shape t o p , and e c c e n t r i c p u p i l which f i r s t appears as a secondary t r a i t on Per iod II c a r v i n g s . I t s usage as a pr imary t r a i t i s r a r e and as a secondary t r a i t i t i s o f t e n combined w i th agnath ic mouths. Examples of t h i s can be seen on the Raimondi S t e l e (F igure 10) . S u p e r o r b i t a l r i dges conform to the shape of the eye . When the eye i s geomet r i c , i t r e f l e c t s t h a t shape, and when i t i s c u r v i l i n e a r , the same i s t r u e . In P e r i o d I s u p e r o r b i t a l r i d g e s are kenned as s e r p e n t s , but i n P e r i o d II the kennings are rep laced by geometr ic forms. Occas ion -92 a l l y they are omit ted from pr imary faces and normal ly they are l a c k i n g over secondary eyes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h agnath ic mouths. The U .B .C . Study has i n d i c a t e d t h a t there i s a c h r o n o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between square and t r i a n g u l a r secondary t e e t h . Square t e e t h are a s s o c i a t e d w i th P e r i o d I, whereas t r i a n g u l a r t e e t h are i n d i c a -t i v e of P e r i o d II and the cayman- re la ted and f e l i n e - r e l a t e d s t y l e s of P e r i o d I I I . Secondary tee th on North Coast ceramics are not d i a g n o s t i c as s t y l i s t i c i n d i c a t o r s and have been excluded from the t r a i t l i s t . In summary, Chavfn t r a i t s t h a t occur on both stone ca rv ings and r e g i o n a l c e r a m i c s , and are c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y i n d i c a t i v e of s p e c i f i c stone p e r i o d s , are l i s t e d accord ing to t h e i r f i r s t appearance w i t h i n the stone sequence. I n t r o d u c t i o n and d u r a t i o n are d i s c u s s e d i n order to e s t a b l i s h reasons f o r the placement of each Chavfn t r a i t w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c stone p e r i o d . D i s t i n c t i o n s between pr imary and secondary usage have been noted . The order of r e g i o n a l t r a i t s i s based on t h e i r correspondence to the ceramic sequence e s t a b l i s h e d by the c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r i n g of Chavfn t r a i t s . Choice o f t r a i t s was based on f requency of appearance w i t h i n the t o t a l sample. No attempt was made to s e r i a t e the sample accord ing to r e g i o n a l t r a i t s . I. CHAVIN TRAITS Chavfn t r a i t s are l i s t e d i n order of t h e i r appearance w i t h i n the r e v i s e d stone chronology o u t l i n e d i n / F i g u r e 3 . T r a i t s 1 - 2 : appear i n P e r i o d I and cont inue throughout the e n t i r e stone sequence. 93 T r a i t s 3 - 5 : are i n d i c a t i v e of P e r i o d II and the r e l i e f s of the B lack and White P o r t a l . T r a i t s 6 - 9 : represent Per iod I I I , the cayman- re la ted s t y l e of the T e l l o O b e l i s k . T r a i t s 1 0 - 1 2 : are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of P e r i o d I I I and the s t y l e of the Gotosh Monument. T r a i t s 6 - 3 and io - 12 are more or l e s s c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y e q u i v a -l e n t ( a l l P e r i o d I I I ) , but r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of two d i v e r g e n t c u l t s ; the cayman c u l t or the f e l i n e c u l t , and t h e i r cor responding a r t i s t i c s t y l e s . _]_. The Rounded Corner Mouth Th is i s the s i m p l e s t and e a r l i e s t form of the Chavfn mouthband. I t occurs i n a l l per iods of Chavfn a r t ( F igu re 3 7 ) . 2_. Upturned Lipbands With Rounded Corners Th is mouth i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of P e r i o d II s t y l e , e s p e c i a l l y the B lack and White P o r t a l r e l i e f s and may have had i t s p rototype i n the Lanzon mouth o f P e r i o d I (Rowe 1967, f i g . 5 ) . A P e r i o d II .example i s shown i n F igure 38 (see a l s o T e l l o 1960, f i g . 3 9 ) . 3_. Fangs Over lapping Lipbands T h i s t r a i t i s d i a g n o s t i c of P e r i o d II r e l i e f s from the B lack and White P o r t a l a r e a . I t i s one of the p r i n c i p a l c h r o n o l o g i c a l i n d i c a t o r s of the t r a n s i t i o n between C i r c u l a r P l a z a s c u l p t u r e s and the B lack and White P o r t a l S t y l e of Per iod II (see t r a i t a n a l y s i s of C i r c u l a r P l a z a s c u l p t u r e s ) . The f r o n t a l fang seen on the p r o f i l e f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d i n F igure 39 i s a l s o i n d i c a t i v e of P e r i o d II but does not occur i n the 94 F igure 37. Drawing of the f e l i n e and f e l i n e serpent c o r n i c e from the s o u t h -west corner of the new temple. From: Rowe 1967, f i g . 17 95 F igure 38. Drawing of the eag le c o r n i c e from the B lack and White P o r t a l . From: Rowe 1967, f i g . 16 96 Fangs extending over the 1ipband. F igure 39. Drawing of a p r o f i l e eagle from the c o r n i c e of the B lack and White P o r t a l . From: Rowe 1967, f i g . 16 97 r e g i o n a l sample (see page 91 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s m o t i f ) . During P e r i o d I I I fangs cont inue to extend we l l beyond t h e i r l i p b a n d s . 4j Lipbands Extending Over The P r o f i l e Of The Face The i n i t i a l appearance of t h i s t r a i t i s found on t r a n s i t i o n a l r e l i e f s f r o m the C i r c u l a r P l a z a (Lumbreras 1977, f i g . 27) (F igure 12) but i t i s i n d i c a t i v e of P e r i o d II S t y l e and the B lack and White P o r t a l r e l i e f s , where i t appears as a pr imary t r a i t , and cont inues to be used as a pr imary t r a i t d u r i n g Per iod I I I (Rowe 1967, f i g . 9) ( F igu re 4 0 ) . 5 . "L" Shaped Fangs Fangs which turn outwards to form a r i g h t angle f i r s t occur as secondary t r a i t s i n the s c u l p t u r e s of the B lack and White P o r t a l ( P e r i o d I I ) . In a l l per iods they are most o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i th agnath ic mouths. Examples are found on the f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d s of the B lack and White P o r t a l f r i e z e . "L" shaped fangs appear more f r e q u e n t l y dur ing P e r i o d I I I ; the Raimondi S t e l e (F igure 10) i s an e x c e l l e n t example of the use of t h i s t r a i t ( F igure 4 1 ) . 6 . Claws Jo ined At The Pads Of The Feet F i r s t ev idence of t h i s t r a i t i s found on a f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d from the B lack and White P o r t a l f r i e z e . During P e r i o d II i t appears as a secondary t r a i t and does not become a pr imary t r a i t u n t i l P e r i o d I I I when i t i s found i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the T e l l o O b e l i s k ( the smal l f e l i n e a t the top of the Obe l i sk ) and Ofrendas ce ramics . I t i s more commonly seen on Ofrendas ceramics than on stone r e l i e f s (See Lumbreras 1971: f i g s . 1 1 - 1 3 ) . ( F igure 43) 98 Lipbands extending over the p r o f i l e of the f a c e . F igure 40. R o l l o u t of the north column from the B lack and White P o r t a l , hawk f i g u r e s . From: Rowe 1967, f i g . 8 99 "L" shaped f a n g . F igure 41 . R o l l o u t of the north column from the B lack and White P o r t a l . From: Rowe 1967, f i g . 8 100 F igure 42. Drawing of a hawk f i g u r e from the B lack and White P o r t a l . From: Rowe 1967, f i g . 15 101 F igure 43 . Claws j o i n e d a t the pads of the f e e t . See F igure 42 f o r photograph of the hawk f i g u r e from the B lack and White P o r t a l (Rowe 1967, f i g . 15) . 102 ]_. Bracketed Lipbands On Pr imary Mouths The bracketed l i p b a n d appears as a secondary t r a i t dur ing P e r i o d I when i t f u n c t i o n s as a kenned backbone or wingband (see Rowe 1967, f i g . 13) . The f i r s t use of the bracketed l i p b a n d as a pr imary t r a i t i s found on the Fore Temple L i n t e l of Late P e r i o d I I , and dur ing P e r i o d I I I i t appears as a pr imary t r a i t on the T e l l o Obe l i sk (F igures 44 and 4 5 ) . 8_. Long Snout One of the d i a g n o s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the cayman i s i t s long s n o u t , almost tw ice as long as the usual f e l i n e snout . Th is cayman t r a i t i s combined w i th a row of fangs tha t p r o j e c t from the top of the l i p b a n d . Both these t r a i t s are seen i n the T e l l o O b e l i s k i l l u s t r a t e d i n F igure 46. As noted i n the t y p o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s , a long snouted f i g u r e has been i d e n t i f i e d as a f e l i n e serpent i n the Cupisnique-Tembladera sample. G e n e r a l l y Chavfn f e l i n e serpents have s h o r t e r s n o u t s , i n d i c a t i n g a pos -s i b l e mix tu re of cayman-serpent imagery may have occur red on the North Coast . 9_. S t r i a t e d Fangs S t r i a t e d fangs f u n c t i o n as pr imary t r a i t s on the T e l l o Obe l i sk and Ofrendas ceramics (see Lumbreras 1971, f i g s . 1 8 - 2 1 ) . Th is t r a i t i s a s s o c i a t e d on ly w i th cayman- re la ted imagery and i s t h e r e f o r e r e s t r i c t e d to P e r i o d I I I of the Chavfn chrono logy . ( F igure 4 7 ) . 103 44. Drawing of the r e c o n s t r u c t e d Fore Temple L i n t e l showing a bracketed l ipband as a pr imary mouth. From: Roe 1974, f i g . 9 104 Bracketed l i pband on pr imary mouth. gure 45 . Drawing of the T e l l o O b e l i s k . From: Rowe 1967, f i g . 6 105 F igure 46. D e t a i l of a drawing of the head of the cayman from the T e l l o Obe l i sk showing i t s long snout . From: Rowe 1967, f i g . 6 106 F igure 47. Drawing of the T e l l o O b e l i s k . From: Rowe 1967, f i g . 6 107 10. Fangs Extending Over The Upper P r o f i l e Of The Face F i r s t seen on the south column of the B lack and White P o r t a l ( P e r i o d I I ) as a secondary t r a i t w i th teeth extending over the upper p r o f i l e of kenned images . (F igu re 4 8 ) . During P e r i o d I I I i t assumes pr imary importance and an e x t r a fang i s added to the top of the toothband (F igure 4 9 ) . 11. Long Hooked Claws Claws on the f e e t o f f e l i n e and r a p t o r i a l - b i r d images become p r o g r e s s i v e l y longer as the a r t s t y l e e v o l v e s . A comparison o f those on the r e c o n s t r u c t e d Fore Temple L i n t e l ( T e l l o 1960, f i g s . 5 9 , 61 and 68) (F igure 50) w i th the Gotosh Monument (F igure 51) shows a p rog ress ion i n the s t y l e of t h i s t r a i t . I t i s i n d i c a t i v e of P e r i o d I I I S t y l e which tends towards exagger -a t i o n o f m o t i f s i n order to enhance the f a i l i n g p r e s t i g e of e a r l i e r c u l t f i g u r e s . 12. Rectangular Eyes With Concave Tops And Bowl Shaped Bottoms Th is type of eye appears as a secondary t r a i t when i t i s s t y l i s -t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o P e r i o d I s c u l p t u r e s and as a pr imary t r a i t on P e r i o d II r e l i e f s . I t s usage i s l i m i t e d during P e r i o d II when i t s l a t e - b l o o m i n g p o p u l a r i t y as a pr imary t r a i t i s seen on the Raimondi S t e l e and the Pen'octm. Gotosh Monument (F igures 52 and 5 3 ) . 108 Teeth extending over the upper p r o f i l e of the face (Period I I ) . Figure 48. R o l l o u t of the south column of the Black and White P o r t a l . From: Rowe 1967, f i g . 9 109 F igure 49. Drawing of the Gotosh Monument. From: T e l l o 1960, P l a t e XLI I I n o I l l Long Hooked Claws (appearance i s compressed due to p e r s p e c t i v e of the drawing) . F igure 5 1 . Drawing of the Gotosh Monument. From: T e l l o 1960, p l a t e XLI I I 112 Rectangular eye wi th concave top and bowl shaped bottom. F igure 52. Drawing of the Raimondi S t e l e . From: Rowe 1967, f i g . 10 113 Rectangular eye w i th concave top and bowl shaped bottom. F igure 53 . Drawing of the Gotosh Monument. From: T e l l o 1960, p l a t e XLI I I 114 A Summary of Chavfn T r a i t s Rounded Corner Mouth Upturned Lipbands With Rounded Corners Fangs Over lapping Lipbands Lipbands Extending Over The P r o f i l e Of The Face "L" Shaped Fangs Claws Jo ined At The Pads Of The Feet Bracketed Lipbands On Pr imary Mouths Long Snouts S t r i a t e d Fangs Fangs Extending Over The Upper P r o f i l e Of The Face Long Hooked Claws Rectangular Eyes: Concave Top And Bowl Bottom 115 I I . REGIONAL TRAITS The f o l l o w i n g l i s t of r e g i o n a l t r a i t s i s composed of those tha t occur i n s i g n i f i c a n t numbers and are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y r e g i o n a l i n s t y l e . Regional t r a i t s t h a t are d i a g n o s t i c o f s m a l l e r numbers of ceramics have been omi t ted i n order to c o n t r o l the amount of v a r i a b l e s and thus o b t a i n a degree of u n i f o r m i t y w i t h i n the sample. An i conograph ic summary of each ceramic w i l l i n c l u d e the mention of t r a i t s excluded from the t r a i t a n a l y s i s but judged to be of s i g n i f i c a n t d i a g n o s t i c importance to be i n c l u d e d i n the s tudy . Regional t r a i t s are l i s t e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y from A to J . The order i n which they are presented i s r e g u l a t e d by the c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r i n g of Chavfn t r a i t s 1 through 12. A. Round Eyes Th is t r a i t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i th f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d imagery. The round eyes of P e r i o d I Chavfn r e l i e f s may have served as p r o t o -type images (see Rowe 1967, f i g . 17) ( F igu res 54 and 5 5 ) . F igure 54. Round eyes . From: Roe 1974: 6 1 , f i g s , d and e 116 F igure 55. Vessel 9. P r o f i l e f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l R o l l o u t cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer b i r d . 117 B_. Pr imary Fangs Encompassed By Lipbands In the Chavfn stone chrono logy , fangs tha t are con f ined to t h e i r l i p b a n d s are d i a g n o s t i c of P e r i o d I. T r a n s i t i o n a l r e l i e f s from the C i r -c u l a r P l a z a show fangs tha t extend beyond t h e i r l i pbands (Lumbreras 1977, f i g s . 27 and 32) ( F i g u r e 12) . Th is t r a i t cont inues throughout P e r i o d II and i n t o P e r i o d I I I when fangs reach c o n s i d e r a b l e l e n g t h s . On the North Coast , pr imary fangs on f e l i n e images are c o n f i n e d w i t h i n the l i m i t s of t h e i r l i pbands and they are s t r a i g h t - s i d e d i n c o n t r a s t to the rounded stone examples. Th is t r a i t occurs i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h l a t e r P e r i o d I I I t r a i t s and i s an obvious s t y l i s t i c d i g r e s s i o n which may have r e s u l t e d from a purposefu l r e c o l l e c t i o n o f P e r i o d I r e l i e f s ; i n o ther words, an a rcha ism. More l i k e l y i t i s a r e s u l t of r e g i o n a l s e l e c t i v i t y which i n t e r p r e t e d Chavfn imagery accord ing to i t s own l o c a l p re ferences (F igures 56 and 5 7 ) . F igure 56. Pr imary fang encompassed by i t s l i p b a n d . From: Roe 1974: 6 5 , f i g . n 118 F igure 57. Vessel 15. A p r o f i l e f e l i n e -r a p t o r i a l b i r d . Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 119 C. Rectangular Fangs Chavfn fangs curve s l i g h t l y backwards whereas s t r a i g h t - s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r fangs are a r e g i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , which i s i n d i c a t i v e of the same s e l e c t i v i t y seen i n T r a i t B [F igures 58 and 5 9 ) . F igure 58. S t r a i g h t - s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r fangs . From: Roe 1974: 6 5 , f i g . n JJ. I r r e g u l a r Rectangular Eyes This eye d i f f e r s from those seen on Chavfn stone r e l i e f s i n t h a t i t s corners are angular i n s t e a d of rounded and the s e m i - r e c t a n g u l a r shape i s formed by l i n e s t h a t are not always p a r a l l e l , thus i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the Chavfn des ign convent ion of modular width was unimportant on the North Coast (F igures 60 and 6 1 ) . F igure 60 . I r r e g u l a r r e c t a n g u l a r eyes . From: Roe 1974: 6 5 , f i g . n F igure 59. Vessel 53. A f e l i n e i n a landscape Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 121 F igure 6 1 . Vessel 33. I nc i sed f e l i n e showing i r r e g u l a r r e c t a n g u l a r eye. Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 122 E_. E x t r u s i o n s From Mouths T o n g u e - l i k e forms prot rude from the mouths of f e l i n e s or f e l i n e serpents on a smal l number of Chavfn stone c a r v i n g s . A P e r i o d I f e l i n e serpent c o r n i c e has a mouth e x t r u s i o n tha t may represent a b i f u r c a t e d tongue(Rowe 1967, f i g . 17) . When mouth e x t r u s i o n s occur on North Coast c e r a m i c s , they sometimes resemble the type mentioned above but more o f t e n they c o n s i s t of two or three p a r a l l e l l i n e s j o i n i n g f e l i n e heads t o g e t h e r . These e x t r u s i o n s appear to be n o n - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i n meaning and t h e i r appearance seems to be r e s t r i c t e d to f i n e l i n e i n c i s e d p r o f i l e heads i n the Cupisnique sample pub l i shed by Larco (F igu res 62 and 6 4 ) . Regional north coast e x t r u s i o n E x t r u s i o n s i m i l a r to Chavfn stone s t y l e F igure 62 . E x t r u s i o n s from mouths. From: Roe 1974: 6 5 , f i g s , j and o 123 £ . Square-Cornered Upturned Lipbands Precedence f o r t h i s t r a i t may have come from Chavfn upturned l ipbands w i t h rounded c o r n e r s , w h i l e square -cornered l ipbands r e f l e c t a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c North Coast penchant towards r e c t i l i n e a r i t y noted i n Reg iona l T r a i t s two and t h r e e . O c c a s i o n a l l y l ipbands are downturned and C o r d y - C o l l i n s has suggested t h a t t h i s i s a l a t e r e g i o n a l t r a i t when a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s t a f f gods d e p i c t e d on Carhua t e x t i l e s ( C o r d y - C o l l i n s 1976: 8 3 ) . The downturned l i p b a n d of the Raimondi S t e l e i n d i c a t e s tha t i t was an important P e r i o d I I I stone t r a i t . Downturned l ipbands are g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t i v e of human b e i n g s ; however, t h i s t r a i t i s found i n a l l pe r iods o f Chavfn a r t and i s t h e r e f o r e i n a p p r o p r i a t e as a c h r o n o l o g i c a l i n d i c a t o r (see Rowe 1967, f i g . 6 , The T e l l o Obe l i sk and f i g . 2 0 , and T e l l o 1960, f i g s . 82 and 85. ) ( F igu res 63 and 64) F igure 63 . Square -cornered upturned l i p b a n d s . From: Roe 1974: 6 5 , f i g . n 124 F igure 64. Vessel 3 8 . P r o f i l e f e l i n e head. Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 125 Toothbands Fo l low ing The Upper And Lower P r o f i l e Of The Face As noted i n Chavfn T r a i t number 8 , fangs f o l l o w the upward c u r l of t h e i r l ipbands when they appear as secondary kenned t r a i t s i n P e r i o d I I . Dur ing P e r i o d I I I , an e x t r a fang was added to the toothband (see Chavfn T r a i t number 8 , the Gotosh Monument), and t h i s becomes a pr imary t r a i t . On the North C o a s t , both t e e t h and fangs curve upwards and down-wards over the p r o f i l e of the f a c e . Th is i s a d i a g n o s t i c r e g i o n a l c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c p a r t i c u l a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i th L a r c o ' s Cupisn ique sample. (F igures 64 and 65) F igure 6 5 : Toothbands f o l l o w i n g the upper and lower p r o f i l e of the f a c e . From: Roe 1974: 6 5 , f i g . k 126 HL. Winged Eyes The te rm, winged eye , was coined by Roe i n 1974 (Roe 1974; 18) . With the except ion of i t s appearance on human beings and tennoned heads a t Chavfn , the winged eye occurs i n f r e q u e n t l y and then on ly as a secon -dary t r a i t on l a t e Chavfn c a r v i n g s . E a r l y p ro to types are seen i n the extended corners of f e l i n e eyes found on the Lanzdn or the Fore Temple L i n t e l (Rowe 1967, f i g s . 5 and 19) . The winged eye i s commonly found on North Coast ceramics and adobe s c u l p t u r e s and f u n c t i o n s as a prominent C h a v f n - r e l a t e d r e g i o n a l t r a i t (F igures 66 and 6 7 ) . F igure 66. Vessel 50. Winged eyes . F igure 67. Vessel 55 . A f e l i n e serpent Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawye 128 I. S c r o l l Noses: Rounded Or Square-Cornered Human f i g u r e s show c o n s i s t e n t t r a i t s throughout a l l pe r iods of Chavfn a r t and are t h e r e f o r e d i f f i c u l t to s e r i a t e . U s u a l l y mouths are round cornered and downturned, but there i s no standard eye form. Representat ions of human f i g u r e s i n Chavfn stone r e l i e f s (exc lud ing tennoned heads) show r e a l i s t i c noses t h a t are shor t and bulbous i n shape ( T e l l o 1960, f i g s . 8 0 , 81 and 82) and o f t e n p r o j e c t beyond the p r o f i l e of the face ( T e l l o 1960, f i g . 8 5 ; Rowe 1967, f i g . 2 0 ) . Human t r a i t s show c o n s i s t e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s throughout a l l per iods of Chavfn a r t and are d i f f i c u l t t o s e r i a t e . Human head imagery on Cupisnique-Tembladera ceramics i s s i m i l a r to the Chavfn prototype but e x h i b i t s a g r e a t e r degree of s t y l i z a t i o n . Noses are formed by the upward and inward movement of r e c t i l i n e a r or curved l i n e s . Th is s c r o l l nose i s d i s t i n c t l y r e g i o n a l i n s t y l e . ( F igu res 68 and 69) Upturned noses : rounded c o r n e r s . Upturned noses: square c o r n e r s . From: Vessel 64 From: Vessel 66 F igure 68. S c r o l l Noses: Rounded or square -cornered 129 F igure 69. Vessel 68 . Human heads on a vegetab le form ceramic . Photo cour tesy Mary Frame 130 Headdresses On Human Heads Some human heads have a headdress t h a t peaks over the forehead and c u r l s upwards a t the base of the neck. The p o s s i b l e symbol ic meaning of t h i s m o t i f has been d i s c u s s e d a t an e a r l i e r p o i n t i n t h i s study (see Typology - Human Beings) ( F i g u r e s b9 and. no). F igure 70. Headdresses, on human heads. From: Vessel 67 131 A Summary of Regional T r a i t s A. Round Eyes B. Pr imary Fangs Encompassed By Lipbands C. S t r a i g h t - S i d e d Rectangular Fangs D. I r r e g u l a r Rectangular Eyes E. E x t r u s i o n s From Mouths F. Square-Cornered Upturned Lipbands G. Toothbands Fo l low ing The Upper And Lower P r o f i l e s Of The Face H. Winged Eyes I. Upturned Noses On Human Heads: Square Or Rounded Corners J . Headdresses On Human F igures 132 I I I . EXPLANATION OF THE TRAIT CHART Chavfn t r a i t s 1 through 12 and r e g i o n a l t r a i t s A through J are l i s t e d w i th ceramic forms a through g across the top of the page. Numbers cor responding to the ceramic sample l i s t are i n d i c a t e d on the l e f t hand s i d e o f the page and are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of i n d i v i d u a l ce ramics . 133 TABLE 2. TRAIT CHART Chivin Traits K « v» 5 c : M '• £ C £ « C CT : a « c o p i - ^ & f— l«* •» ^ * • fc *- +* & X ) D K * -» .£ ± 6 V K S S :=)W,Ws o (& j w x tc >>9lon4l Traits TI- W Xt at <s\ o. -^ C C _J »t •> « O *> m O u- *> i - *- »— «) * Ul " L4-> O & £, f "S >> 3 w K O. UJ *> • tel ^ Oi i — UJ tn ± _ C C 3 I f t; e « s f f l s £ ^ «c f </i u. x oo n ffescel Shapes i a * i * 1 1 If II a A p f f 1 t « H s h i f i J 1 o 0 o o o o o o o o 2 0 o o o o o o o o o 3 o 0 o o 0 o o o o o 4 0 o o o o o 0 5 0 0 0 0 o o o 6 0 o o o o o o 7 o 0 o o o 0 8 0 o o 0 o o 9 o o o o o o 10 0 o o o o o 11 o o o 0 o o 12 o o o o o o 13 o o o o 0 14 o o 0 o 15 o o o o o 16 o o o o 17 o o o o 18 o o o 19 o 0 o o o 20 o 0 o o o 21 o o o o 0 o o o 22 o o o o o o 23 0 0 o o o o r24 0 o 0 o o 25 o o 0 o o 26 o o o o 27 0 o o o 28 o o 29 0 o o 0 o 30 0 o o o 0 31 0 0 o 0 o 32 o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o 33 o 0 0 o 0 0 o 0 34 o 0 o o o o 35 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o 36 0 o 0 o 0 o 37 o o 0 o 0 0 0 0 38 o 0 o o o 0 o o 39 o o o o 0 0 o o 40 o 0 0 0 o o 0 41 o o 0 0 o o 0 0 42 o 0 o 0 o o o o 43 o o o o o o 0 44 0 0 o o o o o 45 o o o o o o o o 46 0 0 0 o 0 0 o 0 47 o 0 0 0 0 1-48 o o o 0 o 0 0 o o o 49 o o 0 0 o 50 0 0 o 0 o 0 51 0 0 o o o 0 52 o a o o o o 53 0 0 o 0 o 0 54 0 o 0 0 0 55 0 o 0 0 0 56 0 o o 0 o 57 o o o o o 58 0 0 0 0 0 59 0 0 o 0 0 60 0 o o 0 0 61 o o 0 o 0 62 0 0 o 63 0 0 0 o 0 64 o o 0 o 65 0 o o o o o 0 66 0 o 0 67 o 0 0 68 o o o o 69 o o o 70 o o o o 71 o 0 o o 72 o 0 o 73 0 o o 74 0 o 75 o 0 76 o o 0 o 77 o o o 134 IV. SUMMARY OF TRAIT ANALYSIS T r a i t c l u s t e r s show t h a t Cupisnique-Tembladera ceramics i n the c u r r e n t sample f a l l i n t o three main groups which are f u r t h e r d i v i s i b l e i n t o s m a l l e r sub -g roups . Sub-groups correspond to themes s e t out i n the t y p o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . S i m i l a r r e g i o n a l t r a i t s occur i n a l l groups suggest ing a contemporaneity w i t h i n the sample w i th minor c h r o n o l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n among sub -g roups ; however, accord ing to the e s t a b l i s h e d aims of t h i s s t u d y , a s e r i a t i o n was not at tempted. The f o l l o w i n g i s a themat ic summary of the imagery found i n the three main groups (a l lowance should be made f o r a c e r t a i n degree of over lap w i t h i n the three g roups ) : Group I. 1. Splayed f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d s 2 . P r o f i l e f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d s 3 . P r o f i l e f e l i n e s Group I I . 1. P r o f i l e agnath ic mouth f e l i n e s 2 . F e l i n e serpents (may be a l t e r n a t e l y i n t e r p r e t e d as caymen) 3 . Anthropomorphic f e l i n e s 4. P r o f i l e f e l i n e heads Group I I I . 1. F e l i n e s i n a myth ica l cactus landscape 2. F e l i n e serpents 3 . S e m i - r e a l i s t i c f e l i n e s 135 4. Anthropomorphic f e l i n e s 5. Human heads Note: A smal l number o f ceramics are r e l a t e d through t r a i t a n a l y s i s to the c u r r e n t sample; however, t h e i r s u b j e c t matter and t e c h n i c a l execut ion i n d i c a t e s t h a t they are unusua l . They may be r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e of a d d i t i o n a l sub -g roups , but a t the present t ime t h i s cannot be e s t a b l i s h e d . Those ceramics w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the ceramic summary. o 136 ANALYSIS OF CERAMIC FORM Shape and p r o p o r t i o n are the two f a c t o r s t h a t govern the a n a l y s i s o f ceramic fo rm. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s have been made on the b a s i s of photo -graphs and approximate r a t i o s of w idth to he ight were taken a c c o r d i n g to the diagram below: F igure 7 1 . Diagram showing a n a l y s i s of ceramic p r o p o r t i o n s . 137 Each vesse l was analysed accord ing to the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : 1. The base of the v e s s e l a) i t s shape; the c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the s i d e s may be rounded, r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t - s i d e d , a n g u l a r - s i d e d , or modeled, b) the base may be f l a t or round, and c) i t s approximate p r o p o r t i o n s w i l l be examined i n r e l a t i o n to the e n t i r e ce ramic . 2 . The S t i r r u p o f the v e s s e l a) i t s shape may be c i r c u l a r , t r i a n g u l a r or s e m i - r e c t a n g u l a r ( s q u a r e - s h o u l d e r e d ) , and b) i t s approximate p r o p o r t i o n s w i l l be examined i n r e l a t i o n to the e n t i r e ce ramic . 3 . The Spout o f the vesse l a) i t s shape may be s t r a i g h t - s i d e d or concave , and b) i t s approximate p r o p o r t i o n s w i l l be examined i n r e l a t i o n to the e n t i r e ce ramic . 4. The Rim of the v e s s e l a) i t s shape may be f langed or beve led . I. DESCRIPTION OF VESSEL SHAPES Seven shapes t h a t are i n d i c a t i v e of the sample have been i s o l a t e d . They are l i s t e d from a t o g and v a r i a t i o n s t h a t occur w i t h i n the seven b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s have been noted. The e n t i r e sample c o n s i s t s of s t i r r u p 138 spout v e s s e l s w i t h the except ion o f one cup found by Larco i n Tomb 21 a t Barbacoa A (Larco 1941, f i g . 6 3 ) . Type a : ( F igure 72) 1. Base a) rounded s i d e s b) round base c) He igh t : the base i s approx imate ly tw ice the he ight of the s t i r r u p and four t imes the he ight of the spout . 2. S t i r r u p a) c i r c u l a r shape b) H e i g h t : the s t i r r u p i s approx imate ly h a l f the he ight of the base and tw ice the he ight of the spout . Width : the s t i r r u p i s approx imate ly t w o - t h i r d s the width of the base. 3 . Spout a) s t r a i g h t - s i d e d b) H e i g h t : the spout i s approx imate ly h a l f the he ight of the s t i r r u p and o n e - q u a r t e r the he ight of the base. Width : the spout i s o n e - t h i r d the width of the s t i r r u p . 4. Rim a) Heavy f l a n g e 139 F igure 72. Vessel Type a . Drawing: A n i t a Leonoff 140 Type b: ( F igu re 72) 1. Base a) rounded s i d e s b) f l a t base c) H e i g h t : the base i s approx imate ly equal t o the s t i r r u p and tw ice the he ight of the spout . 2. S t i r r u p a) c i r c u l a r shape b) H e i g h t : the s t i r r u p i s approx imate ly the same he ight as the base and tw ice the he ight of the spout . Wid th : the s t i r r u p i s approx imate ly equal i n w idth to the spout . 3 . Spout a) s t r a i g h t - s i d e d b) He igh t : the spout i s approx imate ly h a l f the he ight of the s t i r r u p and h a l f the he ight of the base. 4. Rim a) Heavy f l a n g e and beveled r i m . 141 Figure 73. Vessel Type b. Drawing: A n i t a Leonoff 142 Type c : ( F igure 74) 1. Base a) rounded s i d e s b) f l a t base c) He igh t : the base i s approx imate ly twice the he ight of the s t i r r u p and three t imes the h e i g h t of the spout . 2. S t i r r u p a) c i r c u l a r shape b) H e i g h t : the s t i r r u p i s approx imate ly o n e - h a l f the he ight of the base and twice the he ight of the spout . Width : the s t i r r u p i s approx imate ly the same width as the base. 3 . Spout a) concave s i d e s b) He igh t : the spout i s approx imate ly o n e - t h i r d the he ight of the base and s t i r r u p . Width : the spout i s approx imate ly o n e - t h i r d the he ight of the s t i r r u p . 4. Rim a) Beveled Figure 74. Vessel Type c. Drawing: A n i t a Leonoff 144 Type d : ( F igure 75) 1. Base a) rounded s i d e s b) round base or f l a t base c) He igh t : the base i s approx imate ly tw ice the he ight of the s t i r r u p and three t imes the he ight of the spout 2. S t i r r u p a) c i r c u l a r shape b) wide diameter c) He igh t : the s t i r r u p i s approx imate ly o n e - h a l f the he ight of the base and t w i ce the he igh t of the spout Width : the s t i r r u p i s approx imate ly t h r e e - q u a r t e r s the width of the base 3 . Spout a) concave s i d e s b) t h i c k d iameter c) H e i g h t : the spout i s approx imate ly o n e - h a l f the he igh t of the s t i r r u p Width : the width of the spout i s approx imate ly o n e - q u a r t e r the width of the s t i r r u p . 4. Rim a) Beveled 145 F igure 7 5 . Vessel Type d . Drawing: A n i t a Leonoff 146 Type e : ( F igure 76) 1 . Base a) rounded s i d e s b) f l a t or rounded base c) He igh t : the base i s approx imate ly tw ice the he ight of the s t i r r u p and the spout . 2 . S t i r r u p a) c i r c u l a r shape b) wide diameter c) He igh t : the s t i r r u p i s approx imate ly o n e - h a l f the he ight of the base and the spout . Wid th : the s t i r r u p i s approx imate ly t w o - t h i r d s the width of the base. 3 . Spout a) concave s i d e s b) t h i c k diameter c) H e i g h t : the spout i s approx imate ly the same he ight as the s t i r r u p and o n e - h a l f the he ight of the base. Width : the spout i s approx imate ly o n e - q u a r t e r the width of the s t i r r u p . 4. Rim ' E l i m i n a t e d . Figure 76. Vessel Type e. Drawing: A n i t a Leonoff 148 Type f : ( F igu re 77) 1. Base a) rounded or angular s i d e s b) f l a t base c) There i s a tendency towards e l o n g a t i o n o f the s t i r r u p and spout i n t h i s type of modeled c e r a m i c , c r e a t i n g d i f f e r e n t p r o p o r t i o n s i n each specimen. 2. S t i r r u p a) s e m i - r e c t a n g u l a r shape (square shouldered) 3 . Spout a) concave s i d e s 4. Flange E l i m i n a t e d . 149 F igure 77. Vessel Type f . Drawing: A n i t a Leonoff 150 Type g : ( F igure 78) 1. Base a) a n g u l a r - s i d e d b) f l a t base c) He igh t : the he ight of the base i s approx imate ly o n e - t h i r d g r e a t e r than the s t i r r u p or the spout 2. S t i r r u p a) t r i a n g u l a r b) medium diameter c) H e i g h t : the s t i r r u p i s approx imate ly t w o - t h i r d s the he ight of the base and approx imate ly equal to the he ight of the spout . 3 . Spout a) s t r a i g h t - s i d e d (.with a s l i g h t taper ) b) Medium diameter c) He igh t : the spout i s approx imate ly t w o - t h i r d s the he ight of the base and equal to the s t i r r u p . Width : the width of the spout i s approx imate ly o n e - q u a r t e r the width of the s t i r r u p . ( P r o p o r t i o n s of t h i s vesse l type vary depending on the length of the s t i r r u p and spout . ) 151 \ 1 F igure 78. Vessel Type g . Drawing: A n i t a Leonoff 152 I I . SUMMARY OF VESSEL SHAPES Vessel shapes correspond to the three major groups i d e n t i f i e d i n the t r a i t a n a l y s i s . Types a , b, and c correspond to Group I, Types d and e to Group II and Types f and g to Group I I I . They are summarized i n v i s u a l form on the f o l l o w i n g page (F igure 7 9 ) . Group I r e l i e f - d e c o r a t e d (strapwork) images are p laced p a r a l l e l and v e r t i c a l to the a x i s of the spout . Group II i n c i s e d images are p laced on the p a r a l l e l and v e r t i c a l a x i s of the spout . They may be l o c a t e d under the spout ( the t r a n s v e r s e a x i s ) . Group I I I i s comprised of a number of modeled ceramics and the imagery u s u a l l y encompasses the e n t i r e base of the v e s s e l . 153 Type a Type b ..... Type c GROUP I Type f Type g GROUP I I I F igure 79. A Summary of Vessel Shapes 154 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS Cupisnique-Tembladera ceramics and a s s o c i a t e d North Coast specimens were decorated by means of the f o l l o w i n g t e c h n i q u e s : V. R e l i e f - d e c o r a t i o n ( a p p l i q u £ ) : R e l i e f - d e c o r a t i o n c o n s i s t s of the b u i l d i n g up of the s u r f a c e through a d d i t i v e p i e c e s of c l a y . I t i n c l u d e s s t rapwork , a technique i n which p ieces of c l a y are worked and l a i d on the s u r f a c e o f the ceramic i n high and low r e l i e f depending on the t h i c k n e s s of the i n d i v i d u a l e lements . 2. I n c i s i o n : I n c i s i o n i s the s c o r i n g of the s u r f a c e of the vesse l w i th a sharp or b l u n t t o o l . A v a r i e t y of e f f e c t s and a high degree of a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n can be achieved depending on the des ign and m a n i p u l a t i o n of the t o o l used i n the i n c i s i n g process (see Shepard 1956, f i g . 15) . For purposes of t h i s s t u d y , i n c i s e d ceramics are d i v i d e d i n t o two general c a t e g o r i e s : broad l i n e i n c i s i o n and f i n e l i n e i n c i s i o n . 3. Mode l ing : Model ing c r e a t e s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e form by shaping the s u r f a c e of the vesse l by hand. 155 4j P u n c t a t i o n : Th is i s accomplished by punching, stamping or r o l l i n g po inted ob jec ts over the s u r f a c e of the c l a y . 5. B u r n i s h i n g : B u r n i s h i n g i s p o l i s h i n g the damp c l a y s u r f a c e w i t h a smooth ins t rument . Th is g i v e s an i n t e r e s t i n g t e x t u r a l e f f e c t when some areas are l e f t rough and o ther areas are bu rn i shed . SUMMARY OF TECHNICAL ANALYSIS Examinat ion o f the sample i n d i c a t e s tha t i n d i v i d u a l sub-groups are r e s t r i c t e d to s p e c i f i c techniques (Table 3). When compared to Groups I to I I I e s t a b l i s h e d i n the T r a i t A n a l y s i s , i t becomes ev ident t h a t techniques are r e l a t e d to the broader c r i t e r i a . Group I ceramics are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by broad l i n e i n c i s i o n or r e l i e f - d e c o r a t i o n (strapwork) i n combinat ion w i th f i n e l i n e i n c i s i o n . Group II ceramics are almost e x c l u s i v e l y decorated i n f i n e l i n e i n c i s i o n w i t h t e x t u r a l e f f e c t s achieved through c r o s s h a t c h i n g . Group I I I ceramics show model ing w i t h d e t a i l s executed i n f i n e l i n e i n c i s i o n . 156 TABLE 3. A t a b l e showing correspondences among g roups , sub-groups and t e c h n i q u e s . GROUP SUB-GROUP TECHNIQUE I A: F e l i n e s R e l i e f - d e c o r a t e d (strapwork) F e l i n e - R a p t o r i a l B i r d s w i t h f i n e l i n e and broad l i n e i n c i s e d d e t a i l s B: F e l i n e - R a p t o r i a l B i r d s Broad l i n e i n c i s i o n II A: F e l i n e Serpents F ine l i n e i n c i s i o n B: Anthropomorphic F e l i n e s Fine l i n e i n c i s i o n C: Agnathic -mouth F e l i n e s F ine l i n e i n c i s i o n , app l ique D: F e l i n e Heads F ine l i n e i n c i s i o n , c r o s s -h a t c h i n g , app l ique I I I A: Human Heads F ine l i n e i n c i s i o n B: Human Heads and Vegetal Model ing and f i n e l i n e M o t i f s i n c i s i o n C: S e m i - R e a l i s t i c F e l i n e s Model ing and f i n e l i n e i n c i s i o n D: F e l i n e s i n a Cactus Model ing and f i n e l i n e Landscape i n c i s i o n E: F e l i n e Serpents Model ing and f i n e l i n e i n c i s i o n F: Anthropomorphic Model ing and f i n e l i n e F e l i n e s i n c i s i o n 157 OBJECTS IN THE SAMPLE WITH GRAVE ASSOCIATION The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of v e s s e l s from documented graves w i th abso lu te provenience i n d i c a t e d i n photographs from Los Cupisniques (Larco 1941). Vessel Number Data A P r o f i l e f e l i n e executed i n strapwork r e l Vesse l Shape: smal l c y l i n d e r vase w i th handle . Tomb 21 Barbacoa A , Larco 1941, f i g . 272. D e s c r i p t i o n : Larco 1941: 204 i n d i c a t e s t h a t the vesse l was found i n Tomb 2 1 . I l l u s t r a t i o n : Larco 1941, f i g . 63 . A F e l i n e - R a p t o r i a l B i r d executed i n broad l i n e i n c i s i o n . Tomb 21 Barbacoa A, Larco 1941, f i g . 272. D e s c r i p t i o n : Larco 1941: 204. I l l u s t r a t i o n : Larco 1941, f i g . 23 . 158 Vessel Number Data A F e l i n e - R a p t o r i a l B i r d i n broad l i n e i n c i s i o n . Tomb 17 Barbacoa , Larco 1941, f i g s . 238, 250 , 251 , 253. D e s c r i p t i o n : Larco 1941: 186. I l l u s t r a t i o n : Larco 1941, f i g . 41 . An Anthropomorphic f e l i n e tha t i s modeled w i th f i n e l i n e i n c i s i o n . Tomb 5 Barbacoa, Larco 1941, f i g . 243. D e s c r i p t i o n : Larco 1941: 182. I l l u s t r a t i o n : Larco 1941, f i g . 215. An Anthropomorphic f e l i n e executed i n f i n e l i n e i n c i s i o n on an a n g u l a r - s i d e d v e s s e l . Tomb 19 Barbacoa, Larco 1941, f i g . 262, 266. D e s c r i p t i o n : Larco 1941: 194. I l l u s t r a t i o n : Larco 1941, f i g . 107. A Head of an o l d woman or man? Modeled w i t h i n c i s i o n . Tomb 19 Barbacoa , Larco 1941, f i g . 266. D e s c r i p t i o n : Larco 1941: 193. I l l u s t r a t i o n : Larco 1941, f i g . 53 . No vesse l number See F igure 27 159 Vessel Number No vesse l number Data An a n g u l a r - s i d e d v e s s e l w i t h f i n e l i n e i n c i s e d a b s t r a c t e d snake d e s i g n s . Tomb 1 Pa lenque , Larco 1941, f i g . 316. S t i r r u p spout i s broken o f f . I l l u s t r a t i o n : Larco 1941, f i g . 36. 160 CERAMIC SUMMARY The f o l l o w i n g i s a summary of each of the three groups of ceramics de f ined by t y p o l o g y , t r a i t a n a l y s i s , ceramic shape, t e c h n i q u e , and grave a s s o c i a t i o n . The d i s c u s s i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e specimens which are cons idered t o be exemplary o f t h e i r ass igned groups. GROUP I: ( F igures 80 and 81) Group I s u b j e c t matter i s composed of f e l i n e s and f e l i n e - r a p -t o r i a l b i r d s . F e l i n e s and f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d s are standard images i n Chavfn a r t . T r a i t a n a l y s i s shows t h a t these images e x h i b i t P e r i o d I I I T e l l o Obel isk/Ofrendas ceramic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A n a l y s i s of vesse l shapes shows Group I ceramics correspond to Types a , b, and c . Two techniques are i n d i c a t i v e of the group: strapwork w i th i n c i s e d d e t a i l s and broad l i n e i n c i s i o n . Broad l i n e i n c i s e d f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d s were found i n b u r i a l s i n the Chicama V a l l e y . Th is group shows the s t r o n g e s t C h a v f n - r e l a t e d t r a i t s and i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Chavfn stone c a r v i n g s and Ofrendas ceramics i n s t y l e , des ign convent ions and t r a i t a n a l y s i s . GROUP I I : ( F igu res 82 and 83) Th is group of ceramics shows f e l i n e or anthropomorphic f e l i n e imagery a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Per iod I I I and the f e l i n e - r e l a t e d c u l t a t Chavfn. Numerous examples show t r a i t s t h a t are r e l a t e d to the Gotosh Monument which i s thought to date to the f i n a l phase of P e r i o d I I I of the Chavfn stone chronology . 161 V Figure 80 . Vessel 4 . Photo: M. M a i t l a n d 162 F igure 8 1 . Vessel 9. Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 163 Two types of ceramic shapes , Type d ( F i g u r e 82) and Type e (F igure 8 3 ) , are i n d i c a t i v e of Group II ce ramics . Type d has a round s t i r r u p and i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to Group I shapes w i th d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r i n g i n the p r o p o r t i o n s of base , s t i r r u p and spout . Type e i s i d e n t i f i e d by i t s t r i a n g u l a r s t i r r u p . The imagery i s executed e x c l u s i v e l y i n f i n e l i n e i n c i s i o n . No s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e on grave a s s o c i a t i o n ; however, Type e ceramics are i l l u s t r a t e d i n b u r i a l s from the Chicama V a l l e y . Th is suggests tha t t h i s ceramic shape i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a r e g i o n a l s t y l e which developed i n t h a t a r e a . Group II ceramics show a g rea te r number of r e g i o n a l t r a i t s i n d i -c a t i n g a s e l e c t i v e approach to Chavfn i n f l u e n c e occur red on the North Coast . GROUP I I I : ( F igu res 84 and 85) Group I I I ceramics show the g r e a t e s t v a r i e t y i n s u b j e c t m a t t e r . Imagery i n c l u d e s : human heads, vegeta l m o t i f s , f e l i n e s , anthropomorphic f e l i n e s and f e l i n e s e r p e n t s . A n a t u r a l i s m i n h e r e n t i n P e r i o d I I I a t Chavfn and evidenced i n the T e l l o Obe l i sk and Ofrendas ceramics i s mixed wi th P e r i o d I I I f e l i n e - r e l a t e d t r a i t s such as the bowl shaped eye of the Gotosh Monument. Vessel Types f and g correspond to t h i s group of ce ramics . Type f i s a square -shou ldered low p r o f i l e ce ramic . P r o p o r t i o n s v a r y , but g e n e r a l l y s t i r r u p s and spouts tend to be e longated i n comparison to other North Coast ceramic types (Type g ) . Th is group i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by modeled ceramics w i t h f i n e l i n e i n c i s i o n f o r d e t a i l s . 164 Figure 82. Vessel 38. Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer Figure 83. Vessel 41. Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 166 Some grave a s s o c i a t i o n s are suggested by i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f a n g u l a r -s i d e d v e s s e l s w i t h human imagery (Type g ) , w i t h d i s t i n c t l y r e g i o n a l s e m i - n a t u r a l i s t i c modeled human ceramics i n Chicama V a l l e y graves ( F i g u r e . This group shows s t rong r e g i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n s . Chavfn s u b j e c t -matter i s executed i n a s e m i - n a t u r a l i s t i c modeled form that i s c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c of n o n - C h a v f n - r e l a t e d r e g i o n a l s t y l e c e r a m i c s . I d e n t i f i a b l e Chavfn t r a i t s correspond to P e r i o d I I I of the stone chronology . INDIVIDUAL CERAMICS Each ceramic i s summarized accord ing to i t s s e q u e n t i a l p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the t r a i t c h a r t . A l l a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on l o c a t i o n , provenience f o r m , d e c o r a t i v e technique and grave a s s o c i a t i o n w i l l be presented when p e r t i n e n t to the d i s c u s s i o n . An a n a l y s i s of des ign and the r e l a t i o n of the ceramic sample t o the l i t h i c a r t of Chavfn and r e l a t e d a r t i f a c t s i n o ther mediums from the North Coast w i l l be undertaken. (Dimensions of i n d i v i d u a l specimens are inc luded when such i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e ; however, t h i s data i s not germane to the c o n c l u s i o n s of the s t u d y . ) As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , no attempt to fo rmula te a r e l a t i v e chronology w i t h i n the sample was made; however, p o s s i b l e c h r o n o l o g i c a l i n d i c a t o r s are noted and some temporal d i f f e r e n c e s are suggested w i t h i n c e r t a i n sub -groups . VESSEL 1 (F igure 2 0 ) : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : La J o l l a , C a l i f o r n i a H e i g h t : 1 3 " . Width : approx imate ly 9" Reconst ructed from f ragments . 167 F igure 84. Vessel 5 9 . Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 168 F igure 85 . Vessel 7 3 . Drawing: A n i t a Leonoff (see photograph, f i g u r e 111) 169 VESSEL 2 (F igure 8 6 ) : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : Europe He igh t : 1 3 " . Width : approx imate ly 9" Reconstructed from f ragments . VESSEL 3 (F igure 8 7 ) : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : Europe He ight : 1 4 " . Width : approx imate ly 9" Reconst ructed from fragments Vesse ls 1 to 3 , three i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l sp layed f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d s s a i d to be from a grave l o t and to come from the Tembladera area e x h i b i t the g r e a t e s t number of C h a v f n - r e l a t e d t r a i t s i n the sample. Vessel number one has a f l a t base , number two has a bowl base and number three has a r i n g base. They are executed i n strapwork r e l i e f w i th broad l i n e i n c i s e d d e t a i l s . Splayed f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d s are found on c o r n i c e r e l i e f s from P e r i o d I a t Chavfn ; however, P e r i o d II t r a i t s such as "L" shaped fangs and Per iod I I I t r a i t s such as extended l i p b a n d s , j o i n e d c l a w s , bracketed l i p b a n d s , and s t r i a t e d fangs i n d i c a t e t h a t the specimens were s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by the s t y l e of the T e l l o Obe l i sk and Ofrendas ceramics (Lumbreras 1971, f i g s . 1 1 , 12 , 1 3 , and 18) . Kennings i n the form of agnath ic mouthed f e l i n e s are found at the j o i n t s of the wings and t a i l f e a t h e r s . A combined c u r v i l i n e a r and r e c t i l i n e a r t reatment of l i n e i s i n d i c a t i v e of Ofrendas c e r a m i c s . F e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d s occur on both the f r o n t and back of the v e s s e l s and S -cu rves are i n t e r s p e r s e d between them. The images occupy the e n t i r e a v a i l a b l e des ign space. The o c c u r -rence of decorated and undecorated spouts on ceramics w i th almost i d e n t i c a l iconography i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s design c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t . 170 Figure 86. Vessel 2. Photo courtesy Alana Co r d y - C o l l i n s Figure 87. Vessel 3 . Photo cour tesy Alana Cordy - C o l l i n s 172 VESSEL 4 (F igure 8 0 ) ( R o l l o u t : F igure 16) : C o l l e c t i o n : T r u j i l l o U n i v e r s i t y Museum, T r u j i l l o A f u l l f i g u r e p r o f i l e f e l i n e executed i n broad l i n e i n c i s i o n and low r e l i e f shows t r a i t s t h a t are f u l l y compat ib le w i th Ofrendas ceramics from Per iod I I I o f the ChaviYi stone chronology . I t bears a s t rong resemb-lance to two f u l l f i g u r e p r o f i l e f e l i n e s (F igure 117) i n c i s e d on the i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l w a l l s of an Ofrendas bowl . A number of t r a i t s such as eye fo rm, r e c t a n g u l a r fangs encompassed by l i p b a n d s , the c u r l e d c r e s t of the head, and bracketed l i p b a n d ex tend ing over the p r o f i l e of the face occur on both c e r a m i c s . A bracketed l i p b a n d on a pr imary mouth i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the T e l l o O b e l i s k . The reduced f e l i n e on the s t i r r u p resembles the f e l i n e on a s t i r r u p fragment s a i d to have come from Chavfn (F igure 119) . A l l a v a i l a b l e des ign space has been u t i l i z e d , the head of the f e l i n e i s l o c a t e d under the spout and a second f e l i n e body r e c a l l s the compos i t ion of C i r c u l a r P l a z a s c u l p t u r e s . N e i t h e r the T r u j i l l o nor the Ofrendas f e l i n e s are kenned; i n s t e a d , a s e m i - n a t u r a l i s m i n f l u e n c e d by the T e l l o Obe l i sk i s apparent . VESSEL 5 (F igure 8 8 ) : . P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : Buenos A i r e s Th is f i g u r e i s p a r t of a s e r i e s of p r o f i l e f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d s (Vesse ls 6 , 8 , 9 , 10, 1 1 , 12, 1 3 , 20) tha t undergo a gradual r e d u c t i o n i n iconography. Vessel 5 has the most complete m o t i f i n the sample. I t has a number of C h a v f n - r e l a t e d t r a i t s and the head i s s i m i l a r to t h a t of a sp layed f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d on a long -necked Ofrendas j a r (F igure 118) . Both f i g u r e s show r e c t a n g u l a r eyes , angular s u p e r o r b i t a l 173 Figure 88. Vessel 5. Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 174 r i d g e s , and round l i p b a n d s w i t h square r e c t a n g u l a r f a n g s . T h i s vesse l i s f u r t h e r r e l a t e d to Ofrendas ceramics by the j o i n e d claws on i t s hind f o o t . The upward he ld forepaw has curved fangs s i m i l a r to those found on Per iod II and P e r i o d I I I stone r e l i e f s . Kennings u s u a l l y appear a t the j o i n t s of Chavfn images and the eye form at the base of the t a i l f e a t h e r s r e c a l l s t h i s des ign convent ion . O f r e n d a s - r e l a t e d imagery i n d i c a t e s Vessel 5 took i t s p r i n c i p a l i n f l u e n c e from Per iod I I I of the Chavfn chronology . VESSEL 6 [F igure 8 9 ) : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : Buenos A i r e s Th is image i s s i m i l a r to t h a t found on Vessel 5 . The s u p e r o r b i t a l r i d g e i s omitted and the r e c t a n g u l a r Chavfn eye has been rep laced by a round r e g i o n a l eye. The two i n d i v i d u a l c laws on the forepaw of Vesse l 5 have been reduced t o a s i n g l e element w i t h f e a t h e r - l i k e l i n e s i n d i c a t i n g c l a w s . The j o i n e d claws on the hind f o o t are an Ofrendas t r a i t . T a i l f e a t h e r s are rep laced by a s e m i - r e a l i s t i c f e l i n e t a i l and a f e l i n e eye i s kenned on the wing. There i s a marked d i f f e r e n c e between the t reatment of imagery on Vessel 5 which shows a number of s tandard Chavfn t r a i t s and Vessel 6 which i n d i c a t e s a break w i th t r a d i -t i o n i n p re ference of a r e g i o n a l i z e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . VESSEL 7 : From: Larco 1948: 17 (extreme r i g h t ) ; a l s o Larco 1966, f i g . 9. Vessel 7 d e p i c t s a sp layed f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d i n strapwork r e l i e f and shows a c l o s e resemblance i n s u b j e c t matter and a r t i s t i c s t y l e to Vesse ls 1 to 3 . Th is ceramic f i r s t appears i n L a r c o ' s 1948 p u b l i c a t i o n , suggest ing the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i t may have come from an area o u t s i d e of the Chicama. Figure 89. Vessel 6 . Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 176 The image i s a r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l i f i e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i t h few kenn ings ; the f u l l agnath ic head seen a t the base o f the t a i l f e a t h e r s on Vesse ls 1 to 3 occurs i n a reduced fo rm, agnath ic heads are omit ted from the w ings , and the s t i r r u p spout i s undecorated. The base of the v e s s e l i s g r e a t l y reduced i n s i z e and the e n t i r e body of the image i s compressed. The l a c k of c l e a r photographs makes i t i m p o s s i b l e to determine the e x i s t e n c e of d e t a i l s such as double o u t l i n i n g or s t r i a t e d fangs . Th is image i s r e l a t e d to a f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d found on the i n t e r i o r su r face of a bowl from the Ofrendas g a l l e r i e s (F igure 117) . The pr imary head i s s i m i l a r to the f e l i n e found on the s t i r r u p of Vesse l 4 as w e l l as sherds from Chavfn (F igu res 115 and 119) . VESSEL 8 (F igure 9 0 ) : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : Buenos A i r e s ' Vessel 8 resembles Vessel 13. The body of the image has been reduced c u t t i n g o f f i t s lower t o r s o , h ind f o o t , and t a i l . In c o n t r a s t , the head, forepaw, and wing occupy a g rea te r p r o p o r t i o n of the a v a i l -ab le des ign space. VESSEL 9 (F igure 81) ( R o l l o u t : F igure 2 3 ) : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : Buenos A i r e s Vessel 9 shows r e g i o n a l t r a i t s s i m i l a r to Vesse ls 6 and 8. The h ind paw i s reduced to n o n - d e s c r i p t i v e s t r a i g h t l i n e s and the forepaw to a s i n g l e element t h a t i s r e m i n i s c e n t of a f e a t h e r m o t i f . 177 F igure 90. Vessel 8 . Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 178 VESSEL 10: From Lapiner 1976, f i g . 94. C o l l e c t i o n : M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum of A r t , New York. Vessel 10 i s s i m i l a r to the image on Vessel 9 w i t h the i n c l u s i o n of a f e l i n e t a i l . VESSEL 1 1 : From Larco 1941, f i g s . 32 and 272 ; a l s o Larco 1945: 12 top r i g h t . Vessel 11 was found i n Tomb 21 a t Barbacoa (Larco 1941, f i g . 272) . The photograph i s unc lear but the iconography appears to be s i m i l a r to Vesse ls 8 and 10. The s i z e of the head i n d i c a t e s a degree of reduc -t i o n comparable to those c e r a m i c s . VESSEL 12: From Larco 1941, f i g . 210 and f i g s . 248 , 250 and 251. Vessel 12 was found by Larco i n Tomb 17 a t Barbacoa A. The image i s reduced and the head, forepaw, and wing are p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l a r g e r . The mouth shows a departure from convent iona l form. The poor q u a l i t y of the photographic r e p r o d u c t i o n obscures the iconography of the broad l i n e i n c i s e d s t i r r u p s which are n o t i c e a b l y t h i c k e r than others i n the group. 179 VESSEL 13: From Larco 1941, f i g . I l l ; a l s o Larco 1945: 12 bottom l e f t . This v e s s e l , i l l u s t r a t e d as p a r t of L a r c o 1 s Cupisnique sample but l a c k i n g grave a s s o c i a t i o n , i s s i m i l a r to Vesse ls 11 and 12 found i n graves at Barbacoa A. I t shows the g r e a t e s t amount of reduc t ion i n the group; the head occupies the e n t i r e f r o n t h a l f of the vesse l base. A long recurved f a n g , a t r a i t which i s uncommon i n the North Coast sample, ove r laps i t s l i p b a n d . VESSEL 14 (F igure 9 1 ) : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : Lima Vessel 14 d e p i c t s a f e l i n e or c a y m a n - r a p t o r i a l b i r d head i n s t r a p -work r e l i e f on a rocker stamped background. A s i n g l e long fang i s s u i n g from the top of the l i pband i s a cayman- re la ted c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . The round eye and s u p e r o r b i t a l r i dge are s i m i l a r to r e l i e f - d e c o r a t e d Chavfn fragments (F igures 119 & 121) and North Coast ceramics i n the sample (see Vessel 4 , F igure 8 0 ) . Th is b o t t l e i s unusual i n the f o l l o w i n g r e s p e c t s : the shape of the spout , the a d d i t i o n o f background t e x t u r i n g , and the iconography of i t s d e s i g n . I t may be i n d i c a t i v e of a s t y l e more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to Chongojape ceramics than those s a i d to come from the North Coast . VESSEL 15 (F igure 5 7 ) : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : Lima Vessel 15 d e p i c t s a sp layed f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d i n strapwork r e l i e f w i th a mouth, eye and fang s i m i l a r to other r e l i e f - d e c o r a t e d v e s s e l s i n the c u r r e n t sample. The wings show an i n c i s e d f e l i n e eye which i s an i n d i c a t i o n of a cursory attempt to copy Chavfn kennings . The body of the pr imary f i g u r e i s reduced to a p a r t i a l t o r s o . Normal l y , i f s t i r r u p s are d e c o r a t e d , reduced v e r s i o n s of p r i n c i p a l images are 180 F igure 91. Vessel 14. Photo cour tesy A lan R. 181 found. In t h i s example, sp layed f e l i n e s which are almost i d e n t i c a l to the pr imary f i g u r e have been reproduced on the s t i r r u p s . VESSEL 16: From Larco 1941, f i g . 211. ( f i g u r e 92) O r i g i n a l l y from the c o l l e c t i o n of V i c t o r Larco H e r r e r a , t h i s vesse l was f i r s t pub l i shed by T e l l o i n 1923 ( T e l l o 1923, f i g . 67) and i s s a i d to come from the North Coast . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the iconography i s p r o b l e m a t i c a l . I t i s the s o l e d e p i c t i o n of a f r o n t faced agnath ic f e l i n e as a p r i n c i p a l image. I t i s i nc luded because i t shows a resemblance to the agnath ic mouth f e l i n e s seen on the sp layed f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d i n Vesse ls 1 to 3 and may be the a b s t r a c t i o n of t h i s image. The agnathic -mouthed f e l i n e w i t h "L" shaped fangs i s dominant i n the design of the Raimondi S t e l e and other Per iod I I I r e l i e f s . Imagery i n s p i r e d by the Raimondi S t e l e has been found i n o ther mediums on the North Coast . The shape of the base and s t i r r u p spout of the vesse l are c o n s i s t e n t w i th r e l i e f - d e c o r a t e d v e s s e l s from Group I o f the sample. The e x i s t e n c e o f a number of these v e s s e l s tends to support Rowe's suggest ion of a long C h a v f n - r e l a t e d r e l i e f - d e c o r a t e d ceramic t r a d i t i o n on the North Coast (Rowe 1971: 113 and 114) . VESSEL 17: From Larco 1941, f i g . 63 and 272 Vessel 17 i s a strapwork r e l i e f broad l i n e i n c i s e d cup w i t h a handle . I t was found by Larco i n Tomb 21 a t Barbacoa A w i t h a p r o f i l e f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d i n broad l i n e i n c i s i o n (Vessel 11) . The curved l i n e s i n f r o n t o f the f e l i n e nose are s i m i l a r to those seen i n Vesse ls 21 and 23 where they are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of s t y l i z e d wings . Double 182 F igure 92. Vessel 16. Photo cour tesy Alan R. Sawyer 183 o u t l i n i n g executed i n broad l i n e i n c i s i o n i s found on the T e l l o O b e l i s k , Ofrendas ceramics and Vesse ls 1 to 3 . Th is i s the on ly cup in the present sample and i t i s a l s o the s o l e example o f a r e l i e f - d e c o r a t e d p i e c e i n L a r c o ' s Cupisnique sample. VESSEL 18: (F igure 24) C o l l e c t i o n : Museum of the American I n d i a n , New York , Specimen #3896, l i s t e d p roven ience , Lambayeque V a l l e y . Vessel 18 i s s a i d to come from the Lambayeque V a l l e y . Observa-t i o n s o f : a) i t s shape: almost s t r a i g h t - s i d e d base , t h i n high s t i r r u p , s t r a i g h t - s i d e d spout w i t h heavy f l a n g e , b) i t s iconography : i r r e g u l a r eye , e a r , and nose, and c) i t s techn ique : strapwork r e l i e f w i th a rocker stamped background, suggest t h a t the v e s s e l comes from an area o u t s i d e of the Chicama V a l l e y . I t has been i n c l u d e d i n the c u r r e n t sample because i t s imagery i s sugges t i ve o f a reduced p r o f i l e f e l i n e -r a p t o r i a l b i r d . The t r i p l e clawed forepaw he ld i n f r o n t of the upturned head i s s i m i l a r to t h a t seen on V e s s e l s 22 and 2 3 , and the a b s t r a c t e d f e a t h e r m o t i f s are i d e n t i f i a b l e as reduced wing and t a i l m o t i f s . VESSEL 19. (F igure 9 3 ) : C o l l e c t i o n : T r u j i l l o U n i v e r s i t y Museum, T r u j i l l o A spout l o c a t e d i n the T r u j i l l o U n i v e r s i t y Museum i s i nc luded because o f i t s i conograph ic s i m i l a r i t y to the r e l i e f - d e c o r a t e d p r o f i l e f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d s . The image i s a reduced v e r s i o n of Vesse ls 21 to 23 . 184 F igure 93. Vessel 19. Photo: M. M a i t l a n d 185 VESSEL 20 [F igure 9 4 ) : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : New York Vessel 20 shows a p r o f i l e f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d head which appears to be a reduced v e r s i o n of the broad l i n e i n c i s e d f i g u r e s (Vesse ls 6 , 8 , 9 , 10 to 1 3 , and 2 0 ) . I t shows a d i v e r g e n t vesse l shape which i s o l a t e s i t from the c u r r e n t sample and i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t may be r e l a t e d to a d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n a l s t y l e l o c a t e d o u t s i d e of the Chicama V a l l e y . VESSEL 21 (F igure 2 2 ) : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : Buenos A i r e s Vessel 21 d e p i c t s a p r o f i l e f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d which i s executed i n strapwork r e l i e f w i th f i n e l i n e i n c i s e d d e t a i l s . I t s s u r f a c e i s embel l i shed w i th g r a p h i t e . The iconography i s s i m i l a r to a reduced v e r s i o n of the image found on Vessel 22. T r a i t a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s the e x i s t e n c e o f P e r i o d I I I Chavfn i n f l u e n c e : m u l t i p l e images and kennings d e f i n e the reduced lower t o r s o , the forepaw has j o i n e d claws s i m i l a r to the hind f o o t on Vessel 22 and hor ror v a c u i i a s s o c i a t e d wi th P e r i o d I I I r e l i e f s d e f i n e s a use of space t h a t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the e n t i r e group. VESSEL 22 : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : T r u j i l l o (F igure 95) Vessel 22 d e p i c t s a p r o f i l e f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d executed i n the strapwork r e l i e f . Th is specimen i s s a i d to have been found i n the upper Moche V a l l e y (p . c . : A lan R. Sawyer 1980). I t s red s l i p p e d s u r f a c e i s h i g h l y unusual and the shape of the vesse l i s d i ve rgent from the r e s t of the sample; i t s s i d e s are compressed, the s t i r r u p s are t h i n and e l o n g a t e d , and i t s spout i s t h i n w i th a heavy f l a n g e . I t i s inc luded i n the sample because i t i s the most complete render ing o f an i c o n o g r a p h i -Figure 94. Vessel 20. Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 187 c a l l y r e l a t e d p r o f i l e f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d i n the r e l i e f - d e c o r a t e d sample. The image i s comprised of a complex combinat ion of kennings and dual images tha t are s t y l i s t i c a l l y i n d i c a t i v e o f the Chavfn P e r i o d I I I f e l i n e - r e l a t e d s t y l e . Two d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s o f t h i s image are a forepaw w i th i t s three d i v i d e d claws and a s t y l i z e d wing band. The claws of the hind f o o t are j o i n e d a t the pads o f the f e e t : a P e r i o d I I I t r a i t i n d i c a t i v e o f the s t y l e of the T e l l o Obe l i sk and Ofrendas c e r a m i c s . As noted i n the t y p o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s , the form of t h i s image i s t h e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to a group o f broad l i n e i n c i s e d f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d s , two of which were found i n Chicama b u r i a l s (Vesse ls 11 and 12) . A p r o f i l e f e l i n e cup (Vessel 17) found i n the same b u r i a l as a broad l i n e i n c i s e d p r o f i l e f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d (Vessel 11) i s i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y r e l a t e d to Vessel 22 because of i t s d i s t i n c t i v e curved wing band. This suggests t h a t broad l i n e i n c i s e d and r e l i e f - d e c o r a t e d p r o f i l e f e l i n e -r a p t o r i a l b i r d s are t e m p o r a l l y - r e l a t e d . The two d i v e r g e n t techniques may i n d i c a t e separate r i t u a l f u n c t i o n s . VESSEL 23 (F igure 9 6 ) : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : Buenos A i r e s A p r o f i l e f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d executed i n strapwork r e l i e f w i th broad l i n e i n c i s i o n shows the same degree o f r e d u c t i o n as Vessel 2 1 , but there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n i t s i c o n o g r a p h i c i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n . Vessel 23 i s l a c k i n g dual imagery and kennings . A d i s r e g a r d or misunderstanding of s tandard Chavfn des ign convent ions i s noted i n the area of the s u p e r o r b i t a l r i d g e where an undef ined shape has been s u b s t i -tu ted f o r an agnath ic f e l i n e mouth and nose c u r l . The above d i s c r e p a n c i e : Figure 95 . Vessel 22. Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 189 i n the s t y l e o f the specimen i n d i c a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y of a s k i l l f u l f o r g e r y . The double o u t l i n i n g seen around the mouth i s an Ofrendas ceramic/ T e l l o Obe l i sk t r a i t . I t i s seen i n Vesse ls 1 to 3 and 1 7 , a l l o f which are i n f l u e n c e d by P e r i o d I I I o f the Chavfn stone chronology . VESSEL 24 : From: Larco 1941, f i g . 108. R o l l o u t , Chapter I heading page. Drawing i s i n v e r t e d . VESSEL 2 5 : (F igure 9 7 ) : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : New York . VESSEL 26: From Larco 1941: 141. R o l l o u t i n L a r c o . No cor responding v e s s e l . Three broad l i n e i n c i s e d p r o f i l e agnath ic mouth f e l i n e s have been f a c t o r e d i n t o the c u r r e n t sample. Vesse ls 24 and 25 show a number of agnath ic mouths i n s i d e s t y l i z e d forms t h a t are suggest i ve of f e a t h e r s . The c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the design on Vessel 24 i s r e l a t e d to the curved wing bands on Vesse ls 21 and 23 . The r o l l o u t (Larco 1941, Chapter I, Heading) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s image i s combined w i t h a step f r e t m o t i f . The e n c l o s i n g form on V e s s e l 25 i s p a r t i c u l a r l y suggest i ve of a f e a t h e r m o t i f and may have been i n f l u e n c e d by kenned f e a t h e r s on Chavfn stone r e l i e f s (Rowe 1978, f i g . 15) . "L" shaped fangs are most commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i th Per iod I I I o f the Chavfn stone chronology . 190 F igure 96. Vessel 23. Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer Figure 97. Vessel 25. Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 192 VESSEL 27 (F igure 9 8 ) : C o l l e c t i o n Amano Museum, Lima AND VESSEL 28: From Larco 1941, f i g . 115. S i m i l a r image on the reverse of the v e s s e l . Some background t e x t u r i n g , undecorated spout . Observed i n Larco Museum, L ima, 1978. Vessel 27 shows an unusual combinat ion of t r a i t s : the mouth i s f a n g l e s s but upturned ; u s u a l l y anthropomorphic f e l i n e s d i s p l a y fangs and f a n g l e s s human mouths are downturned. The two l i n e s a t the top of i t s eye , r e m i n i s c e n t of hawk markings on r e l i e f s from the B lack and White P o r t a l , are not found elsewhere i n the p resent sample. A b o t t l e t h a t i s i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y r e l a t e d to Vesse l 27 i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Los  Cupisn iques (Larco 1941, f i g . 115) . Vessel 28 i s s i m i l a r i n shape but the image i s executed i n f i n e l i n e i n c i s i o n w i t h background t e x t u r i n g s i m i l a r to t h a t found on p r o f i l e f e l i n e head v e s s e l s (Vessel 4 2 ) . The mouth i s downturned and f a n g l e s s and the eye i s an i r r e g u l a r r e c t a n g l e . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these images i s p r o b l e m a t i c a l ; however, t r a i t a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s tha t Vessel 28 f i t s comfor tab ly i n t o the c u r r e n t sample, whereas Vessel 27 i s d i ve rgent from the group. VESSEL 29: From Larco 1941: 31 . ( F I G U R E 3 3 ) F e l i n e head i s p o s i t i o n e d on v e r t i c a l a x i s , c rescent shape on h o r i z o n t a l a x i s on the r e v e r s e . Observed on vesse l w i th t h i c k round s t i r r u p spout and f l a r i n g f l a n g e . S i m i l a r to vesse l i n Larco 1941, f i g . 106. Observed i n Larco Museum, L ima, 1978. 193 F igure 98. Vessel 27. Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 194 VESSEL 30 (F igure 3 5 ) : From 32 Masterworks of Andean A r t , a cata logue from the Museum of Modern A r t , New York , 1955, f i g . 8 . L i s t e d as from the c o l l e c t i o n of Rafae l Larco Hoy le . He igh t : 8 - 3 / 8 " . VESSELS 29 AND 30: Two f i n e l i n e i n c i s e d images of s i m i l a r v e s s e l shape have been i n t e r p r e t e d as f e l i n e s e r p e n t s . (See t y p o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s f o r d i s c u s -s i o n o f the image i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . ) They show r e g i o n a l t r a i t s and design convent ions - i r r e g u l a r r e c t a n g u l a r e y e s , square upturned l i p b a n d s , s c r o l l e a r s , r e c t i l i n e a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of l i n e , and u t i l i z a t i o n of a r e l a t i v e l y smal l percentage of des ign space - f a c t o r s which i n d i c a t e t h a t they are r e l a t e d to a group of p r o f i l e f e l i n e heads i l l u s t r a t e d i n L a r c o ' s Cupisnique sample (Vesse ls 38 to 4 5 ) . The d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t r a i t s of t h i s image, i t s long snout and s i n g l e fang o v e r l a p p i n g the l i p b a n d , suggest a cayman i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . In e i t h e r c a s e , they are r e l a t e d to P e r i o d I I I o f the Chavfn stone chronology . Vessel 4 7 , a c a s u a l l y drawn long snouted image w i t h a s i n g l e fang executed i n f i n e l i n e i n c i s i o n , i s a l s o c a t e g o r i z e d i n t h i s sub -group. VESSEL 31 (F igure 9 9 ) : C o l l e c t i o n : Museo N a c i o n a l , Lima This image i s r e l a t e d to long snouted f e l i n e serpents and p r o f i l e f e l i n e heads from the Cupisnique sample. I t may be v a r i o u s l y i n t e r p r e t e d as a mod i f ied v e r s i o n o f a f e l i n e serpent o r a p r o f i l e f e l i n e head or as the prototype f o r e i t h e r of those images. 195 F igure 99. Vessel 31 . Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 196 VESSEL 32 (F igures 100 and 101) : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : Buenos A i r e s Vessel 32 shows C h a v f n - r e l a t e d t r a i t s t h a t are a s s o c i a t e d wi th Per iod I I I and the Gotosh Monument: a l i pband c u r l i n g over the upper p r o f i l e of the face wi th a d d i t i o n a l fangs a t the middle and top of the mouth, long hooked c l a w s , m u l t i p l e imagery a s s o c i a t e d w i t h agnath ic mouths, and double o u t l i n i n g as seen i n Ofrendas ceramics and the T e l l o O b e l i s k . One c l a w , kenned as a f e a t h e r m o t i f , i s s i m i l a r to the reduced forepaws on broad l i n e i n c i s e d f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d s (Vesse ls 6 , 8 , and 9 ) . The t r i - p o i n t snake head has i t s p rototype i n the f e l i n e serpents on the eag le f e a t h e r s of the south column of the B lack and White P o r t a l ( F igure 6 a ) . The reverse "L" shaped fang seen on the agnath ic mouth t h a t forms the s u p e r o r b i t a l r i d g e of the f e l i n e head i s a r e g i o n a l v a r i a n t . H o r i z o n t a l l y s t r i a t e d secondary t e e t h are r e g i o n a l t r a i t s i n f l u e n c e d by the s t r i a t e d fangs of the T e l l o O b e l i s k and Ofrendas ce ramics . The composi t ion of the f e l i n e i s unusual suggest ing t h a t i t may have been i n f l u e n c e d by c i r c u l a r bowl des igns or round bone s p a t u l a s (see Lap iner 1976, f i g . 3 4 ) , ( f ^ u r e . \zz> Vesse ls of t h i s shape w i t h added c l a y t w i s t s are i l l u s t r a t e d i n Los Cupisniques (Larco 1941: 217; 1945: 12) . VESSEL 33 (F igu re 102) : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : Buenos A i r e s Th is image i s s i m i l a r i n iconography and shape, w i t h the c l a y t w i s t under the s t i r r u p , to Vessel 32. The f e l i n e composi t ion i s l e s s c l e a r and C h a v f n - r e l a t e d design convent ions such as kennings and m u l t i p l e imagery have been o m i t t e d . A North Coast tendency towards r e c t i l i n e a r i t y i s apparent . The p r i n c i p a l head has P e r i o d I I I t r a i t s : a toothband 197 F igure 100. Vessel 32. Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 198 F igure 101. Vessel 32, R o l l o u t courtesy, A lan R. Sawyer 199 extending over the p r o f i l e o f i t s mouth and an "L" shaped fang on i t s pr imary mouth. Regional t r a i t s such as secondary h o r i z o n t a l s t r i a t e d tee th ( i n f l u e n c e d by Per iod I I I ) , i r r e g u l a r r e c t a n g u l a r eyes , and an upturned r e c t a n g u l a r l i pband i n d i c a t e i t s r e l a t i o n to the North Coast sample. The treatment of the body of the f e l i n e shows l e s s concern f o r C h a v f n - r e l a t e d des ign convent ions (kenn ings , dual imagery) and a f r e e r t reatment of compos i t ion denotes the cor responding germinat ion of a r e g i o n a l s t y l e . VESSEL 34: From Larco 1941, Chapter Heading VI ( R o l l o u t ) . No c o r r e s -ponding v e s s e l . The f i n e l i n e i n c i s e d p r o f i l e f e l i n e i s known from a r o l l o u t i n Los Cupisniques (Larco 1941, Chapter Heading V I ) . No cor responding vesse l has been l o c a t e d . As noted p r e v i o u s l y , the s e m i - c i r c l e i s a common North Coast des ign w i th unknown meaning but i t i s found on a number of f i n e l i n e i n c i s e d p r o f i l e f e l i n e v e s s e l s from the Cupisnique sample. The l ipband and the c u r l e d mouth e x t r u s i o n are s i m i l a r to those seen on agnath ic f e l i n e mouths i n Vesse ls 24 and 26. Double o u t l i n e d l ipbands are f r e q u e n t l y noted i n the sample (Vesse ls 1 to 3 , 2 3 , and 33) . Double o u t l i n i n g o f an e n t i r e f i g u r e , o r pa r t s t h e r e o f , i s a Per iod I I I T e l l o Obel isk/Ofrendas ceramic t r a i t . The long hooked claws wi th double l i n e s r a d i a t i n g outwards, the round upturned agnath ic l i p b a n d wi th i t s long backward c u r v i n g f a n g , the a t t i t u d e of the body and i t s s t y l i z e d wing suggest t h a t t h i s image i s a reduced v e r s i o n of the p r o f i l e f e l i n e seen i n Vessel 33. The c o n f i g u r a t i o n of i t s mouth and claws i n d i c a t e s Figure 102. Vessel 33. Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 201 t h a t i t was i n f l u e n c e d by P e r i o d I I I of the Chavfn stone chrono logy , p a r t i c u l a r l y the Gotosh Monument. VESSEL 35 : From Larco 1941, Chapter Heading V ( R o l l o u t ) . Design i s s i m i l a r to t h a t on vesse l i n Larco 1941, f i g . 17. S t i r r u p i s r e s t o r e d , spout i s m i s s i n g . Drawing i s on the v e r t i c a l a x i s . The h a l f c i r c l e i s on the r e v e r s e . Some t e x t u r i n g i s n o t i c e a b l e between i n c i s e d l i n e s . Observed i n Larco Museum, L ima , 1978. Th is i s the f i r s t i n a s e r i e s o f f i n e l i n e p r o f i l e f e l i n e heads. I t i s p laced a t the top o f the l i s t because i t s fangs curve upward over the p r o f i l e of i t s f a c e , a t r a i t d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the Gotosh Monument. T h i s image may be the prototype f o r a sub-group o f p r o f i l e heads (Vesse ls 38 to 45) w i t h fangs c u r l i n g over the upper and lower p r o f i l e of the f a c e . VESSEL 36: From Larco 1941: 134 ( R o l l o u t ) . Drawing i s c o r r e c t . See, a l s o , Larco 1945: 13. Observed i n Larco Museum, L ima, 1978. Vessel 36 , a f i n e l i n e i n c i s e d image, i s i d e n t i f i e d as an a n t h r o -pomorphic f e l i n e f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons : 1. Serpent head d r e s s : the heads of anthropomorphic f e l i n e s on Chavfn stone r e l i e f s are u s u a l l y kenned as s e r p e n t s . 2. Downturned l i p b a n d : downturned l ipbands are a s s o c i a t e d wi th human imagery. (The s i n g l e fang i s a f e l i n e t r a i t . ) 3 . Shape of the head: i s r e l a t i v e l y square and t h e r e f o r e r e l a t e d to human heads. 4. The s c r o l l nose: an upward c u r l e d s c r o l l nose i s a human t r a i t . 5. Background l i n e s : a n a l y s i s of the c u r r e n t sample i n d i c a t e s tha t h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s w i th sharp angles are a s s o c i a t e d w i th human imagery. 202 The shape o f the base of Vessel 36 i s unusual because i t i s r e l a -t i v e l y s t r a i g h t - s i d e d i n s t e a d of g l o b u l a r . VESSEL 37 : From Larco 1941, f i g . 106. Image on vesse l i s i d e n t i c a l to drawing i n Larco 1941: 249, w i thout a c i r c l e around the f e l i n e . From the c o l l e c t i o n of V i c t o r Larco H e r r e r a , observed i n the Larco Museum, L i m a , 1978. For d i s c u s s i o n o f the iconography of t h i s vesse l see Vessel 31 . VESSEL 38: P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : Museo N a c i o n a l , Lima (F igures 64 and 82) VESSEL 39: From Larco 1941, f i g . 105. R o l l o u t on page 113 i s c o r r e c t . Observed i n Larco Museum, L ima , 1978. VESSEL 40: From Larco 1941: 219 ( r o l l o u t ) . No cor responding vesse l VESSEL 4 1 : C o l l e c t i o n : Museo N a c i o n a l , Lima (F igure 8 3 ) . VESSEL 4 2 : From Larco 1941, R o l l o u t , Chapter IV, heading page. Drawing i s c o r r e c t , background t e x t u r i n g i n some a r e a s . See a l s o , Larco 1945: 12 f o r an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the e n t i r e v e s s e l . Observed i n the Larco Museum, L ima, 1978. VESSEL 4 3 : From Larco 1941: 33 ( R o l l o u t ) . No cor responding v e s s e l . VESSEL 44: From Larco 1941: 133 ( R o l l o u t ) , Chapter V I I , heading page. No corresponding v e s s e l . 203 VESSEL 4 5 : From Pre-Columbian A r t , P u b l i c Auc t ion c a t a l o g u e , P a r k - B e r n e t G a l l e r i e s I n c . , New York , 1971. VESSELS 38 TO 4 5 : A s e r i e s of n ine p r o f i l e f e l i n e heads show minor v a r i a t i o n s i n the number of s e m i - c i r c l e background l i n e s , the numbers and combinat ions of l i n e s o u t l i n i n g the heads, numbers of f e l i n e s d e p i c t e d , and the degree of complex i t y i n the t reatment of the s u p e r o r b i t a l r i d g e . The prototype of t h i s image i s found i n the Gotosh Monument a t Chav in . Kenned super -o r b i t a l r idges are omit ted i n the North Coast sample and a g r e a t e r degree o f r e c t i l i n e a r i t y i s apparent i n the des ign concept . B o t t l e s 38 and 39 correspond to Vessel Type d ( i n c l u d i n g Vessel 37 d iscussed e a r l i e r ) , and b o t t l e s 4 1 , 4 2 , and 45 correspond to Type e . Th is i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s no c h r o n o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between the two shapes. Perhaps Type d i s the product of a r e l i e f - d e c o r a t e d t r a d i -t i o n of t h i c k round s t i r r u p spout b o t t l e s whereas Type e , w i t h i t s t h i n t r i a n g u l a r s t i r r u p s p o u t , i s a r e g i o n a l North Coast s t y l e . Vessel 42 has a ceramic t w i s t a t the top of i t s base s i m i l a r to those seen i n Vesse ls 32 and 33. No cor responding v e s s e l s f o r specimens 4 0 , 43 and 44 have been l o c a t e d . VESSEL 46: From Larco 1941, f i g . 104 ( R o l l o u t ) . Drawing i s c o r r e c t . Observed i n Larco Museum, L ima, 1978. Th is specimen shows f i n e l i n e human heads and f e l i n e heads wi th s t y l i z e d vegeta l m o t i f s . The vegeta l m o t i f s are r e m i n i s c e n t of those t h a t are seen on ceramics from the Ofrendas g a l l e r i e s a t Chav in . (See Lumbreras 1971, f i g s . 14 and 2 5 ) . 204 The f e l i n e has a po inted headdress which i s u s u a l l y found on human heads and h o r i z o n t a l l y s t r i a t e d f a n g s , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c Cup isn ique -Tembladera t r a i t . Th is ceramic i s unusual i n tha t f e l i n e and human imagery i s combined i n one p l a c e , ( S E E AUVD V E S S E L <V§) VESSEL 47 : From Larco 1941: 139 ( R o l l o u t ) . No cor responding v e s s e l . Th is f i n e l i n e i n c i s e d f e l i n e head belongs to sub-group of images t h a t have long snouts and s i n g l e fangs i s s u i n g from the top of t h e i r l i p b a n d s . See Vessel 31 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s type of imagery. VESSEL 48 (F igure 103) : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : New York Th is vesse l i s the f i r s t i n a s e r i e s of modeled vegetable form ceramics which e x h i b i t e i t h e r f e l i n e or human imagery o r , as i n t h i s example, both . (See Vesse ls 6 7 , 58 and 70. ) The f e l i n e has a peaked headdress which i s u s u a l l y found on human images. Th is suggests t h a t i t may be e i t h e r an anthropomorphic f e a t u r e or a vegeta l m o t i f . I t i s o f t e n found on modeled vegetable form c e r a m i c s . The f e l i n e shows c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e g i o n a l t r a i t s as w e l l as h o r i z o n t a l l y s t r i a t e d f a n g s , seen a l s o on Vesse ls 66 and 69. See Vesse l 64 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the human imagery. VESSEL 49 : From Larco 1941, f i g . 216. From the c o l l e c t i o n of V i c t o r Larco H e r r e r a . VESSEL 50 : C o l l e c t i o n : B r i t i s h Museum, London. H e i g h t : 4-1/4"L (F igure 18) 205 turn F igure 103. Vessel 48. Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 206 VESSEL 51 : From C o r d y - C o l l i n s 1977, f i g . 8 . VESSEL 52 : From Lap iner 1976, f i g . 40. C o l l e c t i o n : Munson -Wi l l i ams -P r o c t o r I n s t i t u t e , U t i c a , New York. Height 1 0 - 1 / 2 " , Width 7 " . VESSEL 53 : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : Buenos A i r e s (F igure 5 9 ) . VESSELS 49 TO 5 3 : A Group of F ive F e l i n e s i n a M y t h i c a l Landscape Vessels 49 to 53 represent a sub-group o f f i v e f e l i n e s , p a r t i a l l y modeled w i th f i n e l i n e i n c i s e d d e t a i l s , s i t u a t e d i n s t y l i z e d cactus landscapes . Vesse ls 4 9 , 5 0 , and 52 i n c l u d e f e l i n e s e r p e n t s . I t has been suggested t h a t the cactus d e p i c t e d i n t h i s group i s the h a l l u c i n o g e n i c San Pedro (T r ichocereus p a c h a n o i ) , used today by modern Peruv ian shamans ( C o r d y - C o l l i n s 1977: 3 5 6 - 3 5 7 ) . (A modeled ceramic cactus i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Los Cupisniques 1941, f i g . 128) . Vesse ls 49 and 52 show f e l i n e s w i t h heads turned towards the v i e w e r , but Vesse ls 5 0 , 5 1 , and 53 have backward turned f e l i n e heads so t h a t they are viewed i n p r o f i l e . A l l have a t h i n t a i l , c u r l e d a t the t i p and curved upward or downward. Three f e l i n e claws are r e m i n i s -cent of the t r i - p a r t forepaw on Vesse ls 22 and 23 . The stepped s p i r a l background i s s i m i l a r to i n c i s e d designs on Vessel 24. The s p i r a l s on Vesse ls 52 and 53 are t i g h t l y c u r l e d r e c a l l i n g rays found on the Raimondi S t e l e and P e r i o d I I I f e l i n e - r e l a t e d stone r e l i e f s from Chavfn . A l l f e l i n e s have c i r c u l a r p e l t marks and r e c t a n g u l a r fangs encom-passed by l i p b a n d s . The winged eye , the dominant d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t r a i t , i s commonly found on modeled or p a r t i a l l y modeled ce ramics . 207 Vessel 5 2 , s a i d to come from the Tembladera a r e a , shows t r a c e s of p o s t - f i r e p a i n t and a g r e a t e r degree of r e a l i s m i n the d e p i c t i o n of the f e l i n e . Vessel 49 i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Los Cupisniques (Larco 1941, f i g . 56) and the remainder are l o c a t e d i n p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n s . Two ceramics of s i m i l a r s u b j e c t matter were omit ted from t h i s study because they were judged to be of q u e s t i o n a b l e a u t h e n t i c i t y . VESSEL 54 (F igure 3 2 ) : From 32 Masterworks of Andean A r t , a cata logue o f the Museum of Modern A r t , New York , 1955, f i g . 10. From the c o l l e c t i o n of Rafae l Larco Hoy le . He ight : 9 - 3 / 4 " . Th is f e l i n e serpent i s the f i r s t i n a s e r i e s of ceramics d e p i c t i n g t h i s m o t i f . Vessel 54 i s a lmost i d e n t i c a l to Vessel 57. Both f e l i n e serpent bodies are s i t u a t e d i n a b a c k - t o - b a c k c o m p o s i t i o n ; they show t r a c e s of g r a p h i t e pigment and s l i p p a i n t and t h e i r s t i r r u p s are of s i m i l a r length and c o n f i g u r a t i o n . The number of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of t h i s image i n the North Coast sample i n d i c a t e s tha t i t was a common theme. A l l f e l i n e serpents have winged e y e s , a t r a i t which i s commonly found on modeled o r p a r t i a l l y modeled North Coast ce ramics . This group i s r e l a t e d to f e l i n e serpents seen on stone r e l i e f s a t Chavfn. Chrono log ica l i n d i c a t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i th f e l i n e serpent imagery are l a c k i n g , but the presence of the winged eye i n d i c a t e s t h a t the group i s r e l a t e d to North Coast ceramics t h a t correspond to P e r i o d I I I o f the Chavin stone chronology . 208 VESSEL 55 (F igure 6 7 ) : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : New York This f u l l y modeled serpent i s s a i d to have come from the Tembladera a r e a . I t shows a la rge amount of p o s t - f i r e p a i n t p r e s e r v a t i o n and i s s i m i l a r i n t h i s r e s p e c t to Vessel 52. The e x t r u d i n g p e l t marks are an unusual i conograph ic t r a i t , but the rounded corner l i pband w i th s l a b -l i k e fangs and low square shouldered s t i r r u p are i n d i c a t i v e of modeled North Coast ceramics s a i d to come from the Tembladera a r e a . VESSEL 56: From Larco 1945: i© (top l e f t corner ) T h i s f e l i n e serpent i s p a r t i a l l y modeled w i t h an i n c i s e d mouth e x t r u s i o n and p e l t marks. A punctated background s u b t l y d e f i n e s the o u t l i n e of i t s body. The c u r l e d s u p e r o r b i t a l r i d g e i s sugges t i ve o f an i n c i s e d image on a hunchback f i g u r e s a i d to come from the Tembladera area (F igure 3 4 ) , as w e l l as s l i p pa in ted serpents on Mosna ceramics (Lumbreras 1971, f i g . 2 5 ) . VESSEL 57 (F igure 104) : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : Lima Th is f e l i n e serpent i s a lmost i d e n t i c a l to Vessel 54 and d i s c u s -s i o n o f the image can be found under t h a t specimen number. VESSEL 58 (F igure 105) : From Larco 1941, f i g . 6 . 7 - 7 / 8 " h i g h . From Tomb 1 Palenque (Larco 1941, f i g . 316) . This unusual double f e l i n e serpent l a c k s d e f i n i t i o n i n the body areas but the mouths and winged eyes are s i m i l a r to those seen on Vesse ls 54 and 57. A photograph i n Larco (1945: 24) i n d i c a t e s tha t t h i s vesse l may have come from a Cupisnique b u r i a l i n the area c a l l e d Santa Ana. (See h i s t o r y of the North Coast , t h i s s t u d y . ) Figure 104. Vessel 57. Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 210 F igure 105. Vessel 58. Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 211 VESSEL 59 : From Lap iner 1976, f i g . 30. C o l l e c t i o n of the Museum of P r i m i t i v e A r t , New York (F igure 84) Vessel 59 i s a f u l l y modeled f e l i n e w i t h nose , eye and fang t r a i t s s i m i l a r to f e l i n e s dep ic ted i n Vesse ls 49 to 53. Both ceramics are s a i d to come from the Tembladera area and the low square -shou ldered s t i r r u p spout seems to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of modeled ceramics a l l e g e d to be from t h a t v i c i n i t y . The spout form corresponds to Wacheqsa and Mosna ceramics from the Ofrendas g a l l e r i e s a t Chavfn (Lumbreras 1971: 1 - 28) and i s a l s o found i n Formative Moche ceramics (p . c . : A l a n R. Sawyer 1980). VESSEL 60 (F igure 1 7 ) : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : New York. Pub l i shed i n Lap iner 1976, f i g . 4 5 , 1 0 - 3 / 4 " h i g h . Vessel 60 d e p i c t s a f u l l y modeled f e l i n e t h a t a l s o bears a resem-blance to Vesse ls 49 to 53 because of i t s winged eye , the c o n f i g u r a t i o n of i t s c l a w s , and i t s t a i l which i s t h i n and c u r l e d . Th is specimen i s c o m p o s i t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d to a f u l l f i g u r e f e l i n e i l l u s t r a t e d i n Larco (Larco 1941, f i g . 56) t h a t was omit ted from the sample because i t i s l a c k i n g i n r e g i o n a l Cupisnique-Tembladera t r a i t s de f ined i n t h i s s tudy . VESSEL 61 (F igure 2 9 ) : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : Buenos A i r e s , 29" h i g h . Th is anthropomorphic f e l i n e i s the on ly f u l l f i g u r e example found i n the c u r r e n t sample. I t s s l a b - l i k e l i p b a n d , r e c t a n g u l a r fangs and square -shou ldered s t i r r u p are s i m i l a r to modeled ceramics from the Tembladera area (Vesse l s 55 and 5 9 ) . Fangs o v e r l a p p i n g t h e i r l i pbands are i n d i c a t i v e of P e r i o d II Chavfn r e l i e f s . The bowl shaped eye i s a s s o c i a t e d wi th the Gotosh Monument and Late P e r i o d I I I r e l i e f s . The 212 body of the f i g u r e i s t r e a t e d i n a s e m i - r e a l i s t i c manner w i t h i n c i s e d d e t a i l s i n d i c a t i n g a l o i n c l o t h and neck ornament. The ears and nose are h i g h l y s t y l i z e d and the c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f the s t i r r u p suggests t h a t the ceramic may be t r a n s i t i o n a l to Formative Moche (p. c . : A lan R. Sawyer 1980). Anthropomorphic s tand ing f i g u r e s are found a t Huaca de los Reyes i n the Moche V a l l e y and i conograph ic correspondences between those f i g u r e s and Vessel 61 are apparent . The g reat anthropomorphic f e l i n e head (Pozorsky 1975, f i g . 1) shows a s i m i l a r s l a b - l i k e l i p b a n d , fangs and square secondary t e e t h . Standing f i g u r e s w i t h b e l t l i k e appendages extending from the lower t o r s o show f e l i n e heads w i th bowl shaped eyes . (The upper to rsos of these f i g u r e s have been d e s t r o y e d ; see Pozorsky 1975, f i g . 2 . ) A n a l y s i s o f the imagery a t Huaca de l o s Reyes i n d i c a t e s the presence of numerous l a t e Chavfn and r e g i o n a l Cupisnique-Tembladera t r a i t s such as " L " shaped f a n g s , toothbands extending over the p r o f i l e of the f a c e , and r e c t i l i n e a r fangs . (See Pozorsky 1975, f i g . 2 1 ) . VESSEL 62 [F igure 106) : From Larco 1941, f i g s . 212-214. H e i g h t : 9 - 3 / 4 " . This p a r t i a l l y modeled vesse l d e p i c t s a mythic fe l ine -human t r a n s -format ion theme. I t i s the on ly r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s s u b j e c t i n the North Coast sample and i s unusual w i t h i n the e n t i r e spectrum of Chavfn -r e l a t e d m o t i f s . The human head has a downturned l ipband and kenned snake headdress. The f e l i n e d i s p l a y s a downturned mouth w i t h s l a b - l i k e fangs s i m i l a r to those seen i n the c u r r e n t sample and the adobe r e l i e f s a t Huaca de l o s Reyes (Pozorsky 1975, f i g . 1 ) . The bowl shaped eye i s a l a t e t r a i t r e l a t e d to the Gotosh Monument and P e r i o d I I I r e l i e f s a t Chavfn. 213 F igure 106. Vessel 62. Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 214 VESSEL 63 (F igure 107) : C o l l e c t i o n : Museum of Archaeology and Ethno logy , Cambridge, England This modeled ceramic was f i r s t pub l i shed by Bushne l l (1956) . The imagery , which i s u n u s u a l , appears to be an anthropomorphized f e l i n e -r a p t o r i a l bird/human. Bushne l l r e f e r s to a h o o d - l i k e o b j e c t tha t covers the t i p of the head. This f e a t u r e has been found to correspond to human head imagery and i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i th vegetab le form ce ramics . The modeled eye i s suggest i ve of bowl shaped eye forms. The iconography on the wing i s u n c l e a r and may be an attempt to i m i t a t e a Chavfn kenned wingband wi th f e l i n e eyes . The a n g u l a r - s i d e d base and s t i r r u p spout are c o n s i s t e n t w i th other Cupisnique-Tembladera ceramics i n the sample. VESSEL 64 (F igure 108) : C o l l e c t i o n : T r u j i l l o U n i v e r s i t y Museum: T r u j i l l o Vessel 64 shows f i n e l i n e i n c i s e d human heads w i th i r r e g u l a r r e c t a n g u l a r eyes ( the upper l i n e which i s concave g ives the impress ion of a bowl shaped e y e ) , downturned l ipbands w i t h rounded c o r n e r s , h o r i z o n -t a l l y s t r i a t e d f a n g s , an upward c u r l e d s c r o l l nose and e a r , and square shaped head. The h o r i z o n t a l and angular background l i n e s are a s s o c i a t e d w i th human imagery. The p o i n t e d headdress i s o f t e n seen on human heads, e s p e c i a l l y when combined w i t h vegeta l imagery (see Vessel 4 6 ) . This image shows standard t r a i t s a s s o c i a t e d wi th North Coast human imagery. Human t r a i t s are c o n s i s t e n t throughout the e n t i r e sequence of Chavfn a r t and are t h e r e f o r e d i f f i c u l t to r e l a t e to p a r t i c u l a r t ime p e r i o d s . 215 F igure 107. Vessel 63. Photo cour tesy Museum of Archaeology and E thno logy , Cambridge Vessel 64. Photo: M. M a i t l a n d 217 VESSEL 6 5 : From Larco 1941, f i g . 27 . Drawing i s c o r r e c t , c r e s c e n t shaped des ign i s on r e v e r s e . Observed i n Larco Museum, Lima 1978. R o l l o u t Chapter V, heading page. Two i n c i s e d anthropomorphic heads are seen on Vessel 6 5 . Th is vesse l shows an i n t e r e s t i n g combinat ion of p r o f i l e f e l i n e head and human head imagery. The background l i n e s are i n d i c a t i v e both of human heads ( h o r i z o n t a l and angular l i n e s ) , and p r o f i l e f e l i n e heads ( s e m i - c i r c l e s ) . The l ipbands are f e l i n e w i th upturned corners and r e c t a n g u l a r fangs . The c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the head i s human and the headdress i s commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h human imagery. VESSEL 66 (F igure 109) : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : Buenos A i r e s , 8" h i g h . Th is image i s s i m i l a r to Vessel 64 except the headdress r e c a l l s the c o n f i g u r a t i o n of s u p e r o r b i t a l r i d g e s on p r o f i l e f e l i n e heads (Vesse ls 38 to 4 5 ) . North Coast human head imagery shows r e a d i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e t r a i t s (see Vessel 6 4 ) . They occur on v a r i o u s ceramic shapes i n combina-t i o n w i t h i n c i s e d f e l i n e imagery and modeled forms. VESSEL 67 (F igure 2 5 ) : From C o l l e c t i o n of the Museum of the American I n d i a n . Specimen #24/3536. Sa id to be from Tembladera/Cajamarca a r e a , 11" h i g h . Th is v e s s e l , Vesse ls 68 and 7 0 , and a f o u r t h vesse l w i th s i m i l a r iconography ( i l l u s t r a t e d i n Larco 1941, f i g . 5 7 , but exc luded from the sample because the poor q u a l i t y photograph makes a n a l y s i s of i conograph ic d e t a i l s i m p o s s i b l e ) show i n c i s e d human heads w i th downturned f a n g l e s s mouths, i r r e g u l a r r e c t a n g u l a r shaped eyes and peaked headdresses. 218 F igure 109. Vessel 66. Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 219 As mentioned i n the t y p o l o g i c a l d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s image, the themat ic u n i t y of vegetable forms and human heads i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the T e l l o O b e l i s k and concepts of a g r i c u l t u r a l f e r t i l i t y p r e v a l e n t i n P e r i o d I I I cayman- re la ted imagery at Chavfn. VESSEL 68 ( F igu re 6 9 ) : C o l l e c t i o n : Amano Museum, Lima Th is vegetable form ceramic w i th f i n e l i n e i n c i s e d human head imagery i s comparable to Vesse ls 4 8 , 6 8 , and 70. See Vessel 67 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the imagery. VESSEL 69: From Larco 1941, f i g s . 107 and 262. Vesse l 69 shows an unusual s t y l i z e d f i g u r e w i t h h o r i z o n t a l l y s t r i a t e d f a n g s , i r r e g u l a r r e c t a n g u l a r e y e s , an upturned s c r o l l nose , and a f e a t h e r headdress. Th is vesse l shape i s a s s o c i a t e d w i th ceramics bear ing i n c i s e d C h a v f n - r e l a t e d human head imagery. I t was found i n Tomb 19 a t Barbacoa w i t h a modeled s e m i - r e a l i s t i c human head vesse l ( F igure 2 7 ) . C h a v f n - r e l a t e d t r a i t s are almost n o n - e x i s t e n t and t r a i t a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s i t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the sample i s found i n i t s r e g i o n a l s t y l e and correspondence to f i n e l i n e i n c i s e d C h a v f n - r e l a t e d human heads. VESSEL 70 : From Andre Emmerick, A r t of Anc ien t P e r u , New York , 1968: 7. Th is vegetab le form and human head vesse l i s s i m i l a r i n iconography to Vessel 70. See Vessel 67 f o r d i s c u s s i o n of the human head m o t i f s . 220 VESSEL 71 (F igure 3 1 ) : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : New York "Shows a group of human heads on modeled forms p o s s i b l y i d e n t i f i e d i n the t y p o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s as vegetable forms or t rophy heads enc losed i n a net bag. The human imagery: downturned f a n g l e s s mouth, s c r o l l nose and e a r s , and peaked headdress , are c o n s i s t e n t w i th e s t a b l i s h e d r e g i o n a l t r a i t s . A net bag or c o n t a i n e r may i n d i c a t e the entrapment and t r a n s p o r t of Chavin power symbols such as the f e l i n e or t rophy head imagery f o r which there i s precedent i n the stone r e l i e f s a t Chav in . The symbol ic j u x t a p o s i t i o n of human head imagery , vegeta l m o t i f s , and a g r i c u l t u r a l f e r t i l i t y i s seen on the T e l l o O b e l i s k . VESSEL 72 (F igure 110) : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : New York The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s image i s p r o b l e m a t i c a l ; however, c e r t a i n t r a i t s appear to suggest an anthropomorphic fe l ine -human theme. The long snout i s a f e l i n e t r a i t and the downturned f a n g l e s s mouth i s human- re la ted . The angu la r - shaped base i s a d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Cupisnique-Tembladera s t y l e ; however, aber ranc ies such as the ceramic t w i s t o v e r l y i n g a p r i n c i p a l m o t i f v i o l a t e s standards of C u p i s n i q u e -Tembladera imagery and may i n d i c a t e a s k i l l f u l f o r g e r y . VESSEL 73 (F igure 111) : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : Buenos A i r e s Vessel 73 shows two f u l l y modeled p a r r o t s on a round base w i th f i n e l i n e i n c i s e d human heads and a p o s s i b l e net d e s i g n . The human heads show c o n s i s t e n t Cupisnique-Tembladera t r a i t s . Th is specimen shows an i n t e r e s t i n g combinat ion of the s e m i - r e a l i s t i c modeled r e g i o n a l Cup isn ique -Tembladera s t y l e and the i n t r u s i v e C h a v i n - r e l a t e d s t y l e . 221 F igure 110. Vessel 72. Photo cour tesy Alan R. Sawyer Figure 111. Vessel 73. Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 223 VESSEL 74: From Larco 1941, f i g . 208 ( R o l l o u t ) (F igure 112) I n c i s e d human heads w i t h downturned l i p b a n d s , i r r e g u l a r r e c t a n g u l a r e y e s , s c r o l l noses and ears^and po inted human headdresses are enc losed i n a g u i l l o c h e . Th is a n g u l a r - s i d e d vesse l shape i s s i m i l a r to t h a t of a ceramic found by Larco i n Tomb 19 at Barbacoa (Vessel 69) and one l o c a t e d i n the T r u j i l l o U n i v e r s i t y Museum. VESSEL 7 5 : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : Lima (F igure 113) Vessel 75 shows a group of f i n e l i n e i n c i s e d human heads w i th i r r e g u l a r r e c t a n g u l a r eyes and downturned l i p b a n d s . L ines which j o i n the heads together suggest tha t they are a connect ing rope between trophy heads. The images are g r e a t l y s i m p l i f i e d and l a c k headdresses , s c r o l l noses or e a r s . The shape of the vesse l i s s i m i l a r to Vessel 74 ; the s t i r r u p spout i s g r e a t l y e l o n g a t e d . VESSEL 76: From Larco 1941, f i g . 215 Vessel 76 was found by Larco i n Tomb 5 a t Barbacoa. The winged eye , u s u a l l y found on modeled c e r a m i c s , i s s i m i l a r to t h a t seen i n Vessel 5 9 , a modeled s e m i - r e a l i s t i c f e l i n e . The s l a b - l i k e nose resembles those seen on p a r t i a l l y modeled f e l i n e s from Vesse ls 49 to 53 . The i n c i s e d mouth i s round cornered w i t h r e c t a n g u l a r fangs and t r i a n g u l a r secondary t e e t h . The shape of the head, the headdress and the a p p l i e d eyebrows are human-r e l a t e d t r a i t s . A l l t r a i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the image are r e g i o n a l , i n d i -c a t i n g a l o c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the f e l i n e and a complete break wi th s tandard t r a d i t i o n a l Chavfn iconography. 224 F igure 112. Vessel 74. From: Larco 1941, f i g . 208 225 F igure 113. Vessel 75. Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 226 VESSEL 77 (F igure 114) : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : New York. Shows f i n e l i n e i n c i s e d human heads which may be trophy heads on engraved vegetable forms i n s i d e a bowl . The ceramic t w i s t under the spout suggests a rope handle or the end of a net bag. This ceramic t w i s t i s a l s o seen on Vesse ls 32 and 3 3 , two v e s s e l s t h a t show f e l i n e i n s t e a d of human imagery. I nc i sed human heads on t h i s type of vegetable form u s u a l l y occur w i t h i n net bags (F igure 31) and the a d d i t i o n of a bowl base may suggest a s k i l l f u l f o r g e r y by the same hand as t h a t which made Vessel 72. Otherwise i t may i n d i c a t e a new i conograph ic type of t rophy heads i n bowls . 227 F igure 114. Vessel 77. Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 228 CHAPTER FIVE 229 COMPARATIVE DATA The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n c i t e s r e l a t i o n s between i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y s i m i l a r a r t i f a c t s executed i n ceramic and other mediums from Chavfn and the North Coast w i th the Cupisnique-Tembladera sample. The purpose i s to p rov ide a broader p e r s p e c t i v e o f the c u l t u r a l contex t w i t h i n which Chavfn d i s p e r s i o n i n f l u e n c e d the Cupisnique-Tembladera ceramic s t y l e . The comparat ive data has been d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s : those a r t i f a c t s tha t were found a t Chavfn and those t h a t are C h a v f n - r e l a t e d and s a i d to come from or known to be from the North Coast . I. CHAVIN A d i s c u s s i o n of major Chavfn stone r e l i e f s i s omit ted because they have been p r e v i o u s l y f a c t o r e d i n t o the t r a i t a n a l y s i s . Among the sherds t h a t T e l l o found a t Chavfn and i l l u s t r a t e d i n h i s 1960 p u b l i c a t i o n , two f e l i n e heads executed i n strapwork r e l i e f are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the c u r r e n t sample (.Figure 115, b and d ) . Both specimens have round corner mouths and r e c t a n g u l a r fangs encompassed by l ipbands (Chavfn T r a i t 1 , Regional T r a i t s B and C) . F igure 115 a i s executed i n strapwork r e l i e f and shows a paw w i t h claws j o i n e d to the pad of the f o o t s i m i l a r to t h a t seen i n F igures 59 and 95 . F igure 115 d i s i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y r e l a t e d to f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d s executed i n strapwork r e l i e f on v e s s e l s from Group I. I t has a round eye (Regional T r a i t A) and the suggest ion of a beak i n f r o n t of i t s mouth. Th is i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s supported by a spout fragment i n the T r u j i l l o U n i v e r s i t y Museum showing a s i m i l a r round app l ique shape t h a t forms par t of a s t y l i z e d beak a t the lower edge of i t s jaw (F igure 9 3 ) . 230 F igure 115. Sherds found by T e l l o at Chavfn. From: T e l l o 1960, f i g s . 162 b, 163, and 164, bottom r i g h t hand corner 231 F igure 115 c l e f t , a spout f ragment , shows t e c h n i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s to Group I i n i t s broad l i n e i n c i s i o n , a p p l i e d r e l i e f , and background t e x t u r i n g . F igure 115 c , r i g h t , shows S - c u r v e s tha t are r e l a t e d to images on stone r e l i e f s and Ofrendas ceramics and , i n t u r n , to Group I of the ceramic sample (F igure 8 6 ) . F igure 115 e shows a r e l i e f - d e c o r a t e d fragment w i t h broad l i n e i n c i s i o n . Th is sherd i s s i m i l a r to a second fragment observed i n Guzco t h a t i s s a i d to come from Chavfn (p . c : Manuel Chavez Bal lo 'n 1978) . Both have round eyes (Regional T r a i t A) and s i n g l e long fangs i s s u i n g from the top of agnath ic mouths. They are r e l a t e d to a strapwork vesse l w i t h cayman imagery t h a t has been f a c t o r e d i n t o the North Coast sample (F igure 9 1 ) . A c y l i n d r i c a l bone tube found by T e l l o i n the bank o f the Wacheqsa R ive r (F igure 116) resembles a decorated fragment of a stone l i n t e l found by T e l l o i n the doorway of the town j a i l and subsequent ly l o s t i n the 1945 l a n d s l i d e ( T e l l o 1960: 186) . I t i s c u r r e n t l y known from a drawing i n Chavfn : C u l t u r a M a t r i z de l a C i v i l i z a c i o n Andina ( T e l l o 1960, f i g . 32) and a photograph i n Manual de Arqueo log ia Peruana (Kauffmann Doig 1978: 234) . T e l l o noted i t s s i m i l a r i t y to the T e l l o O b e l i s k ( T e l l o 1960: 186) and i t i s s t y l i s t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to the r e c e n t l y r e c o n s t r u c t e d Fore Temple L i n t e l ( l a t e P e r i o d I I , U .B.C. Chronology) . Accord ing to the t r a i t a n a l y s i s proposed by the U .B .C . Study (1976) , t h i s stone fragment and the bone tube (F igure 116) would date to Per iod I I I i n the r e v i s e d stone chronology . Both show toothbands extending over the p r o f i l e of the face (Chavfn T r a i t 9 ) , a t r a i t t h a t i s d i a g n o s t i c o f P e r i o d I I I Chavfn S t y l e and Group II Cupisnique-Tembladera ceramics f o r which they may be the e a r l y p r o t o t y p e s . (See F igures 19 and 100.) 232 Figure 116. Carved bone tube. From: T e l l o I960, f i g . 177a 233 Among the Chavfn sherds i l l u s t r a t e d by Bennett few have r e c o g n i z a b l e imagery and i d e n t i f i a b l e Cupisnique-Tembladera iconography i s l a c k i n g (Bennett 1944, f i g s . 29 and 3 0 ) . (One fragment has a f e l i n e eye s i m i l a r to the bone c y l i n d e r found by T e l l o ; Bennett 1944, f i g . 18 c . ) Ceramics and sherds found by Lumbreras i n the Ofrendas g a l l e r i e s p rov ide v a l u a b l e comparat ive m a t e r i a l to the North Coast sample. Two i n c i s e d f e l i n e images on the i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l w a l l s of a sha l low bowl c l o s e l y resemble a f e l i n e on a s t i r r u p spout b o t t l e s a i d to come from the Moche V a l l e y and now i n the T r u j i l l o U n i v e r s i t y Museum (F igure 16) . In a d d i t i o n , two i n c i s e d f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d s of s i m i l a r s t y l e and e v i -d e n t l y by the same hand, are i l l u s t r a t e d w i th the bowl i n F igure 117. The second m o t i f shows s t rong resemblances to four sp layed f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d s , th ree from a p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n t h a t are s a i d to come from the Tembladera area (F igures 2 1 , 8 6 , 8 7 ) , and a f o u r t h i l l u s t r a t e d i n Larco (Larco 1966, f i g . 9 ) . They have a number of T e l l o Obe l i sk and Ofrendas ceramic t r a i t s such as double o u t l i n i n g , S - c u r v e s , bracketed l i p b a n d s , and s t r i a t e d fangs (Chavin T r a i t s 6 and 8 ) . A sp layed f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d d e c o r a t i n g a b o t t l e from the Ofrendas g a l l e r i e s (F igure 118) i s a l s o c o m p o s i t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d to F igure 21 . I t shows s i m i l a r i t i e s i n i t s mouth and eye forms to a North Coast f u l l f i g u r e p r o f i l e f e l i n e w i th a f r o n t a l paw under i t s c h i n (F igure 8 8 ) . A s t i r r u p spout fragment i l l u s t r a t e d by Lumbreras i n a group of Mosna ceramics i n 1971 (Lumbreras 1971, f i g . 6) was o r i g i n a l l y i n c l u d e d i n the Ofrendas group (Lumbreras 1970: 138) . Th is study supports t h a t o r i g i n a l placement on the b a s i s of i t s c l o s e r e l a t i o n to r e l i e f - d e c o r a t e d v e s s e l s from the North Coast t h a t e x h i b i t Ofrendas t r a i t s . A second fragment s a i d to come from Chavfn (F igure 119) i s a r e l i e f - d e c o r a t e d s t i r r u p fragment t h a t i s s i m i l a r 234 F igure 117. Two i n c i s e d bowls from the Ofrendas g a l l e r i e s a t Chavfn. From: Lumbreras 1971, f i g s . 11 and 12 Photo cour tesy Alan R. Sawyer 235 to a r e l i e f - d e c o r a t e d f e l i n e i n F igure 80 (round corner mouths, extended l i p b a n d s , Chavin T r a i t s 1 and 4 , round eyes , l ipbands e n c l o s i n g f a n g s , r e c t a n g u l a r f a n g s , Regional T r a i t s , A , B, C. Both have reduced f e l i n e bodies of r e l a t e d shape) . Lumbreras s t a t e s t h a t "another s t y l e , known as "Raku" e x h i b i t s " e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y c l o s e a f f i n i t i e s to Cup isn ique" (Lumbreras 1974: 71 and 1977: 18) . A s t i r r u p spout b o t t l e (F igure 120) c a t e g o r i z e d as "Raku" (Lumbreras 1974: 7 1 ) , a s u b - s t y l e of Mosna, i s i d e n t i c a l i n shape (Type e) and iconography ( p r o f i l e f e l i n e heads) to Group II North Coast ceramics (Lumbreras 1971: f i g . 25 b or 1974, f i g . 7 8 ) . Lumbreras d e s c r i b e s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c shapes o f Mosna, Wacheqsa, and Rocas ceramics as f o l l o w s : The Mosna group i s composed of two w e l l - d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t y p e s : Bichrome and P o l i s h e d Gray. The bichrome ceramics have a c o l o r e d p o l i s h e d s u r f a c e , which i s pa in ted i n a dark red c o l o r , w i t h designs remotely resembl ing those of Chavi'n and f a l l i n g w e l l w i t h i n the " c h a v i n o i d 1 concept . The known forms are g l o b u l a r b o t t l e s w i th rounded bases and l a r g e n e c k s , and bowls w i t h narrow r i m s . In the gray ware the predominant form i s the b o t t l e w i th the s t i r r u p s p o u t , which has a t r a p e z o i d a l f o r m , i n c o n t r a s t to Wacheqsa, where the form i s r e c t a n g u l a r , and to Rocas , where the form i s c i r c u l a r (Lumbreras 1971: 2 5 ) . 236 Figure 118. Vessel from the Ofrendas g a l l e r i e s at Chav in . From: Lumbreras 1970: 150 Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 237 F igure 119. Fragment of a s t i r r u p spout showing strapwork r e l i e f f e l i n e Sa id to come from Chavi'n (p . c . Manuel Chavez B a l l o n 1978) . Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 238 F igure 120. A s t i r r u p spout ve sse l c a t e g o r i z e d by Lumbreras as "Raku" (Lumbreras 1974: 7 1 ) . From: Lumbreras 1974, f i g . 78 239 Wacheqsa ceramics e x h i b i t modeled vegeta l m o t i f s and a n g u l a r - s i d e d shapes i n red ware w i t h a p p l i e d g r a p h i t e p a i n t (Lumbreras 1971, f i g . 24 a and d ) . They are r e l a t e d i n shape and iconography to Group I I I North Coast ce ramics . Mosna ceramics w i t h s l i p - p a i n t e d f e l i n e serpent des igns show s i m i l a r i t i e s to f e l i n e serpent des igns on some Group I I I C u p i s n i q u e -Tembladera ceramics (F igures 32 and 3 3 ) . Lumbreras sees s i m i l a r i t i e s between Rocas ceramics and a group of C h a v f n - r e l a t e d s t i r r u p spout v e s s e l s s a i d to come from Chongojape (Lumbreras 1974: 7 2 ) . Examinat ion of the Rocas sample and ceramics w i t h Chongojape provenience i n A lan Sawyer 's photographic a r c h i v e s supports t h i s a s s e r t i o n . I conograph ic , s t y l i s t i c and t e c h n i c a l correspondences between Cupisnique-Tembladera ceramics and Rocas-Chongojape ware i s r a r e , a l though the shape of the s t i r r u p spout i s o f t e n s i m i l a r . One sherd i l l u s t r a t e d by Lumbreras i n the Rocas group (F igu re 121) i s s t y l i s t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to F igures 80 and 9 1 . I t has a round corner l i pband t h a t extends over the p r o f i l e of the f a c e , s t r i a t e d fangs (Chavfn T r a i t s 1 , 4 , and 8) and a round eye (Regional T r a i t A ) . The s t r i a t e d fangs are s i m i l a r to those found on F igures 86 and 8 7 , ceramics r e l a t e d to the s t y l e of the T e l l o Obe l i sk and P e r i o d I I I . The c r e s t of the head i s s i m i l a r to t h a t found on F igure 80 . F igure 91 i s a f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d head w i th a long fang i s s u i n g from i t s top l i p b a n d , a t r a i t tha t i s i n d i c a t i v e of cayman imagery. Th is vesse l has unusual iconography and i t s t e c h n i c a l execut ion i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t i s r e l a t e d to the h igh land Chongojape s t y l e and may be a prototype f o r Moche I I I agnath ic f e l i n e head images (Rowe 1971: 107) . These l i m i t e d observa t ions suggest t h a t a s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s of Rocas-Chongojape ceramics may uncover temporal 240 Figure 121. Fragment of a s t i r r u p spout found at Chav in . From: Lumbreras 1971, f i g . 9 241 r e l a t i o n s wi th P e r i o d I I I of the r e v i s e d Chavfn chrono logy , thereby suggest ing a r e l a t i v e contemporaneity w i th Cupisnique-Tembladera and Chongojape ce r amics . I I . THE NORTH COAST L a r c o ' s sample i n Los Cupisniques o f f e r s very few Chav in -r e l a t e d a r t i f a c t s i n o ther mediums. A high percentage i s undecorated o r , i n the case o f a group of bone s p a t u l a s , the photographs are so poor t h a t accura te i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the imagery i s i m p o s s i b l e (Larco 1941, f i g . 157, 159 -162) . A drawing i n Roe (1974: 52) shows a bone s p a t u l a i l l u s t r a t e d i n Larco (1941 f i g . 161) w i th g rea te r c l a r i t y . A f e l i n e mouth w i th fangs extending over the p r o f i l e of the face (Chavfn T r a i t 9) i s v i s i b l e on f e l i n e heads. A bone s p a t u l a (F igure 122) shows i conograph ic t r a i t s : t o o t h -bands extending over the p r o f i l e of the face and long hooked claws (Chavfn T r a i t s 9 and 10) t h a t are comparable to i n c i s e d f e l i n e s on F igures 100 and 102 of the ceramic sample. Excavat ions conducted by Jun ius B i r d a t Huaca P r i e t a i n the Chicama V a l l e y uncovered a bone s p a t u l a i n the Guanape l e v e l s of the s i t e (p . c : A lan R. Sawyer, 1980) (F igure 123) . The imagery d e p i c t s a f u l l f i g u r e human being wi th a round corner f a n g l e s s mouth and a bulbous nose (Regional T r a i t 1) s i m i l a r to human r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a t Chavfn ( T e l l o . I 9 6 0 , f i g s . 81 and 82) and on Cupisnique-Tembladera ceramics (F igures 2 1 , 106 and 108) . Two ear p lugs made of bone w i th t u r q u o i s e i n l a y and t r a c e s of red p a i n t were found i n the contents of Tomb 22 at Barbacoa (F igure 124) . They show iconography s i m i l a r to a group of f e l i n e s i n landscapes ( F i g u r e s w - ^ ' 242 243 F igure 123. A bone s p a t u l a recovered by Jun ius B. B i r d a t Huaca P r i e t a . Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 244 Figure 124. Two bone ear p l u g s . From: Larco 1941, f i g . 169 245 and f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d s , two of which were a l s o found i n Barbacoa b u r i a l s (Vesse ls 11 and 12, p. 178) . F igure 125 i s a r o l l o u t o f a stone bowl from Tomb 3 a t Barbacoa D (Larco 1941: 218, f i g s . 145 and 283) . The r o l l o u t i n d i c a t e s the j u x -t a p o s i t i o n of two images w i t h i n a g u i l l o c h e m o t i f t h a t i s s i m i l a r to F igure 112. The head on the extreme r i g h t i s a f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d w i th anthropomorphic t r a i t s (downturned f a n g l e s s mouth and bulbous nose) . The second i s an unusual image w i th a toothband extending over the upper p r o f i l e of the face (Chavfn T r a i t 9 ) . A head ornament and the c o n f i g u r a -t i o n of the face w i t h an upturned nose i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t may be a n t h r o -pomorphized. A C h a v f n - r e l a t e d stone cup i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Larco (F igure 126). I t shows human and f e l i n e imagery t h a t i s r e l a t e d to the Gotosh Monument, a double l i p b a n d as i n the T e l l o O b e l i s k , bowl shaped e y e s , toothbands over the p r o f i l e o f the face (Chavfn T r a i t s 9 and 1 1 ) , and i r r e g u l a r r e c t a n g u l a r eyes (Regional T r a i t D). The g u i l l o c h e or rope m o t i f i s a r e g i o n a l t r a i t t h a t i s a l s o seen on i n c i s e d North Coast ceramics d e p i c t -ing human head imagery. A soapstone cup s a i d to come from Tembladera (F igure 127) shows s i m i l a r i t i e s to the bone s p a t u l a (F igure 122) and p r o f i l e f e l i n e heads c a t e g o r i z e d i n Group II of t h i s study (Vesse ls 38 to 4 5 , pp. 202 and 203) . The f e l i n e head has a square cornered l i pband t h a t enc loses r e c t a n g u l a r fangs and a fanged p r o f i l e (Regional T r a i t s B, C, and G) . A second image on the reverse i s s i m i l a r to the f i r s t but has a d d i t i o n a l mouth e x t r u s i o n s kenned as f e a t h e r s . The f i r s t f e l i n e head has a paw under i t s c h i n , a compos i t iona l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t i s found on the Fore Temple L i n -t e l , on the l i n t e l found i n the doorway of the j a i l at Chavfn ( T e l l o 1960, 246 F igure 125. A r o l l o u t of a stone bowl . From: Larco 1941, f i g . 145 247 F igure 126. A soapstone cup o r i g i n a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n Larco 1941, f i g . 142. From the c o l l e c t i o n of V i c t o r Larco H e r r e r a . From: Keleman 1969, p l a t e 258 248 F igure 127. A soapstone cup s a i d to come from Tembladera. P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n : Vancouver 249 f i g . 32) and on the Gotosh Monument of P e r i o d I I I a t Chavfn. Th is suggests t h a t Group II Cupisnique-Tembladera ceramic p r o f i l e f e l i n e heads may be reduced v e r s i o n s of t h i s image. I t i s a l s o seen on r e l i e f - d e c o r a t e d and broad l i n e i n c i s e d v e s s e l s from Group I of the sample. A c l a y c y l i n d e r sea l s a i d to come from Tembladera (F igure 128) shows a square cornered upturned l i p b a n d , r e c t a n g u l a r fangs encompassed by t h e i r l i p b a n d s , and a fanged p r o f i l e (Regional T r a i t s B, C, F, and G) . A group o f smal l carved pear l s h e l l ornaments from Tembladera (F igure 129) show f e l i n e s i n c rouch ing p o s i t i o n s w i th r e c t a n g u l a r fangs conta ined w i t h i n l i pbands and winged eyes (Regional T r a i t s B, C, and H) . Two anthropomorphic f e l i n e heads w i t h bracketed l ipbands (Chavfn T r a i t 7) and winged eyes w i t h bulbous noses (Regional T r a i t s H and I) are found i n the same group. A s tand ing human f i g u r e w i t h a round eye , downturned f a n g l e s s l i p b a n d , and bulbous nose , i s s i m i l a r to the i n c i s e d human heads i n Group I I I Cupisnique-Tembladera ceramics (F igure 130) . Three s t y l i s t i c a l l y homogeneous ceramics s a i d to come from the Tembladera area show C h a v f n - r e l a t e d imagery of a s t y l e and type tha t i s not p resent i n the s e l e c t e d sample. A vesse l w i th f e l i n e serpent imagery (F igure 131) shows a l i pband extending over the p r o f i l e of an agnath ic mouth (Chavfn T r a i t 9 ) , a mouth e x t r u s i o n (Regional T r a i t 8 ) , a bowl shaped eye (Chavfn T r a i t 12) and a round corner mouth (Chavfn T r a i t 1) w i th a r e c t a n g u l a r fang encom-passed by i t s l i pband (Regional T r a i t C ) . An "L" shaped fang backbone forms the body of the serpent which has a winged eye (Regional T r a i t H) . These t r a i t s i n d i c a t e a very l a t e date f o r the v e s s e l . I t s imagery may have i n f l u e n c e d a group of Moche I I I ceramics which Rowe p u b l i s h e d as pos -s i b l e archaisms (Rowe 1971: 111) . 250 F igure 128. A c l a y c y l i n d e r sea l s a i d to come from the Tembladera a r e a . From: Lap iner 1976, f i g . 106 251 F igure 129. A group of pear l s h e l l ornaments s a i d to be from the Tembladera a rea . P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n : New York Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 252 F igure 130. An anthropomorphic human f i g u r e s a i d to be from the Tembladera a r e a . P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n : New York Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 253 A second ceramic i n t h i s group shows i n t e r t w i n e d f e l i n e serpent imagery ( F igu re 132) , a s u b j e c t s i m i l a r to tha t found on the c y l i n d e r sea l d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y ( F igure 128) . A p p l i e d c l a y forms are super -imposed on a long spout and a t a l l square -shou ldered s t i r r u p t h a t i s a t tached to a bowl shaped base. The base and s t i r r u p are i n c i s e d w i th what appears to be serpent f e l i n e imagery. The iconography shows l a t e t r a i t s : downturned l ipbands and winged eyes (Regional T r a i t s 3 and 4 ) . An "L" shaped fang toothband s i m i l a r to t h a t seen i n F igure 131 i s ba re l y v i s i b l e on the concave s u r f a c e of the muf f in - shaped base. The t h i r d vesse l shows a f i s h w i t h i conograph ic d e t a i l s tha t are s i m i l a r to the f i r s t two v e s s e l s (F igure 133) . A l l th ree ceramics have i n v e r t e d bowl shaped eyes on pr imary heads. The group i s unusual i n many r e s p e c t s : combinat ions of t e c h n i q u e s , a p p l i e d c l a y forms w i t h broad l i n e and f i n e l i n e i n c i s i o n s , vesse l shapes , a long t a p e r i n g spout w i t h no s t i r r u p r e m i n i s c e n t of Wacheqsa shapes (Lumbreras 1971, f i g . 2 4 ) , a long necked s t i r r u p and spout on a V-shaped base , and a h i g h l y o r i g i n a l use of Chavfn t r a i t s and s u b j e c t m a t t e r . C h a v f n - r e l a t e d and r e g i o n a l Cupisnique-Tembladera t r a i t s are combined i n a manner tha t i s suggest i ve of a s t y l i s t i c a l l y d i v e r g e n t r e g i o n a l s t y l e . One f i g u r e (Pozorsky 1975, f i g . 32) from Huaca de l o s Reyes i n the Moche V a l l e y , a f e l i n e head w i t h an agnath ic mouth and toothband extending over the p r o f i l e of the face (Chavfn T r a i t 9 r e l a t e d to the Gotosh Monu-ment and P e r i o d I I I of the stone chronology) resembles F igures 126 and 128. A second adobe r e l i e f (Pozorsky 1975, f i g . 2) i s s i m i l a r to the heads on the soapstone cup (F igu re 125) . Bowl shaped eyes (Chavfn T r a i t I I ) a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Gotosh Monument and downturned l ipbands of P e r i o d I I I gure 131. A f e l i n e serpent vesse l s a i d to ha come from the Tembladera a r e a . Photo cour tesy of A lan R. Sawyer 255 F igure 132. F e l i n e and f e l i n e serpent vesse l s a i d to come the Tembladera a r e a . Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer Figure 133. Vessel showing f i s h m o t i f s a i d to have come from the Tembladera a r e a . Photo cour tesy A lan R. Sawyer 257 ( the Raimondi S t e l e ) are commonly seen on Huaca de los Reyes adobe r e l i e f s . Group I I I f e l i n e s show the c l o s e s t a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Huaca de l o s Reyes imagery (F igure 2 9 ) . Th is may be the r e s u l t of d i f f e r e n t mediums, adobe and c l a y , and d i s s i m i l a r s u b j e c t m a t t e r : the anthropo-morphic s tand ing f i g u r e , a dominant s u b j e c t i n Huaca de los Reyes s c u l p -t u r e , i s r a r e i n the Cupisnique-Tembladera sample. F e l i n e adobe r e l i e f s a t Cerro Blanco show "L" shaped fangs (Chavfn T r a i t 5) and extended f a n g s : t r a i t s t h a t are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Per iod I I I a t Chavfn . Apart from c e r t a i n t r a i t s such as the "L" shaped f a n g s , bracketed toothbands , agnath ic mouths and s t r a i g h t - s i d e d r e c t a n g u l a r fangs ( T e l l o 1943, p i . X I I I a ) , which occur i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i th P e r i o d I I I t r a i t s i n the Cupisnique-Tembladera sample , the iconography of Cerro Blanco adobe r e l i e f s i s not d i r e c t l y comparable to the ceramics under study i n t h i s paper . SUMMARY S i m i l a r i t i e s between Group I North Coast r e l i e f - d e c o r a t e d v e s s e l s and c e r t a i n Ofrendas ceramics i n d i c a t e s p o s s i b l e North Coast proveniences f o r those specimens. T r a i t and s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s shows t h a t i n f l u e n c e was d e r i v e d from P e r i o d I I I Chavfn s t y l e . One " R a k u " . v e s s e l ; i d e n t i c a l i n every r e s p e c t to Group II ceramics from L a r c o ' s Cupisnique sample, probably o r i g i n a t e d i n t h a t a r e a . T r a i t a n a l y s i s of Group II & I I I North Coast ceramics has shown Chavfn Per iod I I I a s s o c i a t i o n s p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h the s t y l e of the Gotosh Monument. 258 Re lated but d i s s i m i l a r r e g i o n a l a r t i f a c t s i n d i c a t e t h a t a number of v a r i a b l e s must be f a c t o r e d i n t o a study of C h a v f n - r e l a t e d r e g i o n a l s t y l e s : 1 . The t r a n s l a t i o n o f Chavfn imagery i n t o d i f f e r e n t mediums caused s i g n i f i c a n t m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n iconography . 2 . On the North Coas t , C h a v f n - r e l a t e d t r a i t s are found i n a v a r i e t y of mediums, but s u b j e c t - m a t t e r and iconography are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the ceramic sample and i n p a r t i c u l a r Group II specimens. 3 . North Coast Regional people s e l e c t e d what they wanted from standard Chavfn imagery w i t h l i m i t e d r e s p e c t f o r composi t ion or i conograph ic p u r i t y . 259 CHAPTER SIX 260 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The aim of t h i s study has been to analyse C h a v f n - r e l a t e d North Coast ceramics and t h e i r temporal r e l a t i o n to the l i t h i c a r t a t Chavfn. An i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e i r i conograph ic and s t y l i s t i c nature and t h e i r correspondences w i th Chavfn ceramics and other North Coast a r t i f a c t s was undertaken i n o rder to d i s t i n g u i s h elements of the C h a v f n - r e l a t e d r e g i o n a l s t y l e . The author i s p a r t i c u l a r l y indebted to John H. Rowe f o r h i s f o r m u l a t i o n o f a Chavfn stone chronology and h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the des ign convent ions of Chavfn a r t (.1964, 1967). Rowe's s e r i a t i o n prov ided the foundat ions f o r a r e v i s e d chronology suggested as the r e s u l t of a d e t a i l e d study of Chavfn iconography accompl ished by a group of s tudents a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia under the d i r e c t i o n of A lan R. Sawyer ( M a i t l a n d , Mowatt, P h i l l i p s and Watson, 1976) . The r e v i s e d chrono logy , made p o s s i b l e by a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d i s c o v e r i e s unknown at the t ime of Rowe's s t u d y , proposes a l a t e r date f o r the T e l l o O b e l i s k . Th is chronology was u t i l i z e d as the re fe rence p o i n t f o r c h r o n o l o g i c a l comparisons between North Coast ceramics and the a r t of Chavfn. The North Coast sample c o n s i s t s o f 77 ceramics showing s u b j e c t matter i n f l u e n c e d by Chavfn l i t h i c a r t . Los Cupisniques p u b l i s h e d by Rafae l Larco Hoyle (.1941) was an i n d i s p e n s a b l e source f o r C h a v f n - r e l a t e d ceramics r e p o r t e d l y from the Chicama V a l l e y . Approx imate ly f i f t y percent of the ceramics pub l i shed i n Los Cupisniques were i d e n t i f i e d as Chavfn -r e l a t e d ; the remainder appear to be m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of a r e g i o n a l s t y l e . H o p e f u l l y a f u t u r e study of the r e g i o n a l nature of these ceramics w i l l 261 prov ide v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h a t s t y l e and i t s p o s s i b l e pre -Chavfn component. Because of the poor q u a l i t y of the photographs i n L a r c o ' s pub-l i c a t i o n , a study of the ceramics i n the Larco Museum i n Lima was under -taken by the author i n 1978. Th is prov ided v a l u a b l e data on c o r r e s -pondences between iconography and vesse l shapes of ceramics i n the sample. The sample was then augmented w i th photographs of ceramics made a v a i l -ab le by A l a n R. Sawyer from h i s personal a r c h i v e s . Approx imate ly f o r t y - f i v e percent of the ceramics i n the s e l e c t e d sample were from t h a t source . An a r t h i s t o r i c a l methodology which i n c l u d e d a t y p o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of vesse l shapes , t r a i t a n a l y s i s , and t e c h n i c a l a n a l y s i s prov ided the b a s i s f o r s tudy . A d i s c u s s i o n of i n d i v i d u a l ceramics i n c l u d e d a summary of des ign c o n v e n t i o n s , grave a s s o c i a t i o n , and c o r r e s -pondences to Chavi'n a r t . Ceramics i d e n t i f i e d by Larco as "Cup isn ique T r a n s i t o r i o " [Larco 1941) were omit ted from the sample because they appear to rep resent a r e g i o n a l n o n - C h a v f n - r e l a t e d s t y l e which c o n -t a i n s symbol ic des igns based on Cupisnique m o t i f s . A n a l y s i s of the s u b j e c t matter shows t h a t the m a j o r i t y of ceramics f a l l i n t o themat ic assemblages c o n s i s t i n g of f e l i n e s , f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d s , human heads, and vegeta l f o r m s , s n a k e s , f e l i n e s e r p e n t s , and anthropomorphic f e l i n e s . Most o f these images had secondary s t a t u s as at tendants to the d e i t y a t Chavi'n. Seyen b a s i c ceramic shapes were de f ined and shown to correspond to s p e c i f i c types of imagery. Contemporaneity between some vesse l shapes was determined because of the e x i s t e n c e of i d e n t i c a l imagery. Numerous examples of t r i a n g u l a r shape s t i r r u p v e s s e l s found i n Chicama b u r i a l s and on ceramics s a i d to come from the Tembladera area appear to i n d i c a t e the e x i s t e n c e o f a r e g i o n a l vesse l shape. 262 Imagery was executed accord ing to the f o l l o w i n g t e c h n i q u e s : strapwork or r e l i e f d e c o r a t i o n , i n c i s i o n (broad l i n e and f i n e l i n e ) , and mode l ing . Punc ta t ion and b u r n i s h i n g were used to c r e a t e t e x t u r a l e f f e c t s . R e l i e f - d e c o r a t e d ceramics show c l o s e i conograph ic c o r r e s -pondences to the l i t h i c a r t of Chavfn. Broad l i n e and f i n e l i n e i n c i s e d ceramics i n d i c a t e some r e g i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n s , w h i l e modeled ceramics i n t e r p r e t Chavfn themes i n a s e m i - r e a l i s t i c manner which i s a r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the North Coast s t y l e . T r a i t a n a l y s i s i s o l a t e d twelve Chavfn t r a i t s , found on both Chavfn stone r e l i e f s and North Coast C h a v f n - r e l a t e d c e r a m i c s , and ten r e g i o n a l t r a i t s found i n the bulk of the sample. No attempt was made to s e r i a t e ceramics a c c o r d i n g to r e g i o n a l t r a i t s ; however, a n a l y s i s of c e r t a i n t h e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d groups would seem to i n d i c a t e an e v o l u -t i o n i n t ime which i s suggest i ve of a r e l a t i v e chrono logy . Design convent ions support t r a i t a n a l y s i s . These i n c l u d e m u l t i p l e imagery , kenn ings , and hor ro r v a c u i i found on ceramics w i th numerous Chavfn t r a i t s , or a s t y l i z e d r e c t i l i n e a r i t y , s e m i - r e a l i s m , and r e d u c t i o n of imagery on those showing s t ronger r e g i o n a l t i e s . Grave a s s o c i a t i o n , a l though l i m i t e d , p rov ided f u r t h e r data on r e l a t i o n s between techniques and iconography. The f o l l o w i n g i s a d e t a i l e d summary of the c o n c l u s i o n s a r r i v e d a t through a n a l y s i s of the prev ious d a t a . Cupisnique-Tembladera ceramics f a l l i n t o three d i s t i n c t y e t i n t e r r e l a t e d groups. 263 GROUP I Group I i n c l u d e s : r e l i e f - d e c o r a t e d (st rapwork) ceramics s a i d to come from the North Coast (a more exact l o c a t i o n i s i m p o s s i b l e to determine) and broad l i n e i n c i s e d specimens, some of which were found i n L a r c o 1 s Cupisnique sample. The dominant images of Group I are p r o f i l e f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d s , sp layed f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d s , and p r o f i l e f e l i n e s . A l l are executed e i t h e r i n r e l i e f w i th broad l i n e i n c i s i o n or i n broad l i n e i n c i s i o n a l o n e . T h i s group shows i n f l u e n c e s cor responding d i r e c t l y to P e r i o d I I I Chavfn r e l i e f s such as the T e l l o O b e l i s k and the Raimondi S t e l e . Many Ofrendas c e r a m i c s , found at Chavfn but g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d to have been manufactured e lsewhere , are s t y l i s t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to the T e l l o O b e l i s k . A number o f r e l i e f - d e c o r a t e d ceramics from Group I show iconograph ic s i m i l a r i t i e s to Ofrendas ceramics and r e l i e f - d e c o r a t e d ceramic fragments found a t Chavfn . Th is suggests t h a t such ceramics may have o r i g i n a l l y come from the North Coast . Images on r e l i e f - d e c o r a t e d ceramics are o f t e n composed of kennings and m u l t i p l e images which lead to hor ror v a c u i i or a crowded use of the des ign space. A r e l i e f - d e c o r a t e d p r o f i l e f e l i n e or f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d cup , found i n a Chicama grave w i t h a second ceramic bear ing a reduced broad l i n e p r o f i l e f e l i n e b i r d , i n d i c a t e s an a s s o c i a t i o n between the two images and techniques which i s f u r t h e r c o r r o b -o ra ted by t r a i t a n a l y s i s . E i g h t broad l i n e i n c i s e d f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d s i n v a r i o u s stages of r e d u c t i o n demonstrate the e x i s t e n c e of t h i s d i s t i n c t i v e a r t i s t i c convent ion a s s o c i a t e d w i t h North Coast C h a v f n - r e l a t e d imagery. The r e d u c t i o n of the f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d i s t raced from a f u l l f i g u r e 264 w i t h T e l l o Obel isk/Ofrendas t r a i t s , to two p r o f i l e head images on ceramics from Barbacoa graves i n the Chicama V a l l e y . I t i s demonstrated t h a t r e d u c t i o n of an image should be cons idered as a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of C h a v f n - r e l a t e d ceramic imagery. A n a l y s i s supports a s e r i a t i o n of specimens from l e a s t to most reduced and suggests a r e l a t i v e chronology w i t h i n c e r t a i n groups of c e r a m i c s . Perhaps f u t u r e d i s c o v e r i e s w i l l i n c r e a s e our understanding of the e v o l u t i o n of North Coast m o t i f s by p r o v i d i n g sequences of r e d u c t i o n f o r images such as the p r o f i l e f e l i n e heads found i n L a r c o ' s Cupisnique sample (Group I I ) . Observat ions of vesse l shapes w i t h i n Group I show a mix tu re of types a to c , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t those s p e c i f i c shapes correspond to the group as a whole. GROUP II Group II i s composed of f i n e l i n e i n c i s e d images, the m a j o r i t y of which are found i n L a r c o ' s Cupisnique sample and are s a i d to come from the Chicama V a l l e y . T r a i t a n a l y s i s has shown t h a t Group II imagery was i n f l u e n c e d by P e r i o d I I I r e l i e f s from Chavi'n, i n p a r t i c u l a r , the Gotosh Monument which i s thought to belong to a f i n a l phase of the stone chronology . An inc reased emphasis on r e g i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s apparent . Kennings and m u l t i p l e imagery are omit ted i n f a v o r of s i m p l i f i e d r e c t i l i n e a r render ings of p r o f i l e f e l i n e heads, f e l i n e s e r p e n t s , agnath ic f e l i n e s w i th a b s t r a c t e d b o d i e s , and anthropomorphic f e l i n e s . Three ceramics w i th reduced f e a t h e r m o t i f s and "L" shaped fangs s i m i l a r to those seen on f e l i n e - r a p t o r i a l b i r d s are i n c l u d e d i n t h i s group. F e l i n e 265 serpents may be a l t e r n a t e l y i n t e r p r e t e d as caymen because of t h e i r long snouts and s i n g l e fangs ove r lapp ing the l i p b a n d . I f such an i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n i s c o r r e c t , t h i s would be the only i n s t a n c e of cayman- re la ted imagery a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Group II c e r a m i c s . A s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a l l e r percentage of the des ign space i s u t i l i z e d i n Group II c e r a m i c s . Background l i n e s u s u a l l y correspond to the s u b j e c t -matter d e p i c t e d and serve a f u r t h e r purpose as u n i f y i n g compos i t iona l d e v i c e s . S e m i - c i r c l e s occur w i th f e l i n e or anthropomorphic imagery and h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s w i th angular p o i n t s are o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h human imagery. A vesse l found i n the Ofrendas g a l l e r i e s a t Chavin and c l a s s i f i e d as "Raku" s t y l e by Lumbreras (1974: 71) i s i d e n t i c a l i n iconography and shape (Type f ) to Group II p r o f i l e f e l i n e heads. Lumbreras has c a t e g o r -i z e d "Raku" as a ceramic s t y l e cor responding to the "Mosna" s t y l e which he p laces l a t e i n h i s 1971 ceramic sequence (Lumbreras 1971, f i g . 6 ) . Ceramics i n the Group II sample l a c k grave a s s o c i a t i o n ; however, t h e i r i n c l u s i o n i n Los Cupisniques w i t h photographs of v e s s e l s of s i m i l a r shape but unrecogn izab le iconography found i n Chicama b u r i a l s i n d i c a t e s t h a t they come from t h a t area of the coast (Larco 1941, f i g s . 234, 282, 301) . Vessel Type e w i t h i t s round s t i r r u p shows s i m i l a r iconography to Vessel Type f w i th i t s t r i a n g u l a r s t i r r u p . Numerous Type f v e s s e l s were found i n Chicama b u r i a l s i n d i c a t i n g tha t t h i s vesse l shape may be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a d i s t i n c t i v e l o c a l s t y l e . GROUP I I I Group I I I ceramics show C h a v f n - r e l a t e d imagery d e p i c t e d i n a s p e c i f i c a l l y r e g i o n a l manner. Human head imagery and combined human and 266 vegeta l m o t i f s , modeled f e l i n e s e r p e n t s , s e m i - r e a l i s t i c f e l i n e s , and anthropomorphic f e l i n e s dominate the iconography. The few Chavin t r a i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s group are r e l a t e d to the Gotosh Monument and date to the end of P e r i o d I I I i n the Chavfn chronology . The winged eye seen on most Group I I I ceramics i s a u n i f y i n g r e g i o n a l t r a i t , The round corner s l a b - T i k e l i p b a n d found on modeled ceramics i n t h i s group i s a Chavfn t r a i t t h a t i s seen on stone r e l i e f s d a t i n g to a l l pe r iods of Chavfn a r t i n c l u d i n g the T e l l o O b e l i s k . Th is l i p b a n d i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i th s e m i - r e a l i s t i c imagery i n h e r e n t i n Group I I I modeled c e r a m i c s . The n a t u r a l i s t i c t rend i n Group I I I ceramics i s found i n imagery a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l f e r t i l i t y de r i ved from the T e l l o O b e l i s k . Th is t rend i s a l s o seen i n Wacheqsa ceramics from the Ofrendas g a l l e r i e s a t Chavfn and i s r e i n f o r c e d by a Cupisnique-Tembladera p re fe rence f o r the d e p i c t i o n o f human beings and animals i n a s e m i - r e a l i s t i c manner. Human imagery shows a l i m i t e d v a r i a t i o n i n i conograph ic i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n both at Chavfn and on the North Coast . I n c i s e d C u p i s n i q u e -Tembladera human heads show iconography t h a t i s b a s i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h a t seen on the stone r e l i e f s at Chavfn. A few stone fragments from Chavfn d e p i c t w a r r i o r f i g u r e s c a r r y i n g dismembered heads, suggest -ing the p o s s i b i l i t y of a t rophy head c u l t . S t y l i z e d human heads are i n c i s e d on modeled vegeta l forms or net bags which may have f u n c t i o n e d as c o n t a i n e r s f o r t rophy heads. Symbol ic a s s o c i a t i o n s between vegeta l forms and human imagery are found on the T e l l o O b e l i s k . Vegetal imagery i s a l s o seen on Ofrendas ce ramics . Modeled and p a r t i a l l y modeled anthropomorphic f e l i n e imagery i s a l s o found i n Group I I I . The bowl shaped e y e , o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i th 267 t h i s type of s u b j e c t matter i s r e l a t e d to l a t e P e r i o d I I I Chavfn r e l i e f s p a r t i c u l a r l y the Gotosh Monument. Th is and other P e r i o d I I I t r a i t s are found on modeled adobe r e l i e f s a t Huaca de l o s Reyes i n the Moche V a l l e y . Although the adobe r e l i e f s are on ly p a r t i a l l y p r e s e r v e d , those areas t h a t remain suggest the d e p i c t i o n of anthropomorphic images (see Pozorsky , 1975) . At the I n s t i t u t e of Andean S tud ies Conference i n 1980, W i l l i a m J . C o n k l i n d e l i v e r e d a paper i n which he showed t h a t the r e l i e f s a t Huaca de l o s Reyes belonged to a l a t e phase of the Temple complex ( C o n k l i n - • unpubl ished paper d e l i v e r e d a t B e r k e l e y , 1980) . A group o f p a r t i a l l y modeled f e l i n e s i n a myth ica l cac tus l a n d -scape are a s s o c i a t e d w i th an i conograph ic concept s i m i l a r to one seen i n the C i r c u l a r P l a z a a t Chavfn. F e l i n e serpents are found i n f u l l and p a r t i a l l y modeled forms and are i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y r e l a t e d to d e p i c t i o n s of f e l i n e serpents from Chavfn. They a r e , however, r e g i o n a l i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n showing winged eyes , s l a b - l i k e l i p b a n d s , and r e c t a n g u l a r fangs . Both of the above sub-groups are i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i th C u p i s n i q u e -Tembladera ceramics t h a t show t r a i t s cor responding to P e r i o d I I I o f the stone chronology a t Chavfn . Emphasis i n Group I I I i s p laced on a s e m i - n a t u r a l i s t i c render ing and kennings and m u l t i p l e imagery or r e g i o n a l convent ions such as reduc -t i o n and r e c t i l i n e a r i t y are g e n e r a l l y absent from t h i s group. Modeled images s a i d to come from Tembladera are l i v e l y i n c h a r a c t e r and are o f t e n found on v e s s e l s w i th low square -shou ldered s t i r r u p s (Type f ) ; however, the dominant vesse l shape of Group I I I i s an e longated t r i a n g u l a r s t i r r u p ceramic (Type g ) . 268 This study has shown the h i e r a t i c e v o l u t i o n of C h a v f n - r e l a t e d Cupisnique-Tembladera ceramics and a t the same time determined t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t y l e i n order to d i s t i n g u i s h them from other North Coast C h a v f n - r e l a t e d ce r amics . I t has been g e n e r a l l y assumed i n the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t North Coast C h a v f n - r e l a t e d s t y l e s p a r a l l e l e d a l l pe r iods of Chavfn a r t . Th is study has shown that Chavfn d i s p e r s i o n dates to P e r i o d I I I at a time when a schism i n the r e l i g i o n between the cayman c u l t , w i th i t s emphasis on a g r i c u l t u r a l f e r t i l i t y and the f e l i n e c u l t i n the l a s t e ra o f i t s dominance, c reated a d u a l i t y i n the i n f l u e n c e exer ted to r e g i o n a l a r e a s . Observat ion of Chavfn t r a i t s on ceramics i n the c u r r e n t sample shows t h a t i n f l u e n c e was d e r i v e d from both c u l t s . A l a n Sawyer has suggested t h a t ceramics w i t h numerous Chavfn t r a i t s may have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f u n c t i o n s more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to Chavfn r e l i g i o n and were the proper ty of a p r i e s t c l a s s . He p o s t u l a t e s t h a t Paracas -Chavfn ceramics which d i s p l a y a combinat ion of r e g i o n a l and C h a v f n - r e l a t e d symbols may have f u n c t i o n e d as l e s s sacred icons i n com-p a r i s o n to the r e l a t i v e l y dogmatic Carhua t e x t i l e s . Two f a c t o r s are i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p r o p o s a l : f i r s t , t h a t the t e x t i l e s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the thoughts of the a l i e n p r i e s t c l a s s and, s e c o n d l y , d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s p l a c e unequal emphasis on d i f f e r e n t mediums dur ing d i f f e r e n t per iods o f t ime (p . c . : A lan R. Sawyer, 1979) . Chavfn imagery on Cupisnique-Tembladera ceramics i s a composite of a l l pe r iods of Chavfn a r t , but t r a i t a n a l y s i s shows P e r i o d I I I 269 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which i n d i c a t e t h a t the ceramics must date to t h a t pe r iod or l a t e r . A l a r g e number o f i n t e r r e l a t e d r e g i o n a l t r a i t s and an over lap of vesse l shapes and techniques as w e l l as iconography suggests a l o c a l s t y l e which absorbed s e l e c t e d aspects of Chavin dogma and t ransformed them a c c o r d i n g to i t s own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . S t y l i s t i c correspondences were found between the ceramic sample and adobe r e l i e f s , bone and stone mediums from the North Coast . These s i m i l a r i t i e s conf i rm the e x i s t e n c e of a r e g i o n a l North Coast s t y l e . No attempt was made to fo rmula te an abso lu te chrono logy ; however, change w i t h i n the sample i s s l i g h t , suggest ing a t ime span of no more than three c e n t u r i e s . Ceramics from Group I I I show the h i g h e s t percentage of r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t they are most c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to a non-Chavin a s s o c i a t e d s e m i - r e a l i s t i c r e g i o n a l s t y l e which appears on the Coast . Th is study has shown t h a t the peoples of the Chicama developed under the i n f l u e n c e of Chavin an a r t s t y l e which i s r e f l e c t i v e of P e r i o d I I I stone r e l i e f s and a t the same t ime e x e r c i s e d a high degree of s e l e c t i v i t y which enabled them to c r e a t e t h e i r own d i s t i n c t r e g i o n a l s t y l e . 270 BIBLIOGRAPHY A y e r s , Fred D. 1961 "Rubbings from Chavfn de Huantar , P e r u . " American A n t i q u i t y , v o l . 2 7 , no. 2 , pp. 238 -245 . S a l t Lake C i t y . B e n n e t t , Wendell C l a r k 1939 "Archaeology of the North Coast of P e r u . " A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Papers of the American Museum of Natura l H i s t o r y , P a r t 1 , v o l . 37 and P a r t 1 , v o l . 39. 1942 "Chavfn Stone C a r v i n g . " Ya le A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s , v o l . 3 , Ya le U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , pp. 1 - 9 , p l a t e s 1 - 3 0 . New Haven. 1943 "The P o s i t i o n of Chavfn i n Andean Sequences." Proceedings of the American P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y , v o l . 86 , no. 2 , pp. 323-337. 1944 "The North Highlands of Peru . Excavat ions i n the C a l l e j o n de Huaylas and Chavfn de Huantar . " American Museum of Natura l H i s t o r y A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Papers , v o l . 3 9 , p a r t I, pp. 1 -114. New York. B e r g e r , R. L. n . d . The Occupation of Chavfn , Ancash, i n the I n i t i a l P e r i o d and E a r l y H o r i z o n . Ph .D . T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y . 1978. B u s h n e l l , Geof f rey 1956 "A Cupisnique Vase i n the Royal S c o t t i s h Museum." XXXII I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress of A m e r i c a n i s t s , P r o c e e d i n g s , pp. 402 -404 . Copenhagen. 271 C o n k l i n , W. J . 1971 "Chavfn T e x t i l e s and the O r i g i n s of Peruv ian Weaving." T e x t i l e Museum J o u r n a l , v o l . I l l , no. 2 , Dec. 1971, pp. 1 3 - 1 9 . Washing-t o n , D.C. 1978 "The R e v o l u t i o n a r y Weaving Invent ions of the E a r l y H o r i z o n . " Nawpa Pacha no. 1 6 , 1978, pp. 1 - 1 2 . B e r k e l e y , n . d . "Elements of a North Coast A r c h i t e c t u r a l Sequence." Paper presented a t the 20th Annual Meeting of the I n s t i t u t e of Andean S t u d i e s . January 4 - 5 , 1980. B e r k e l e y . C o r d y - C o l l i n s , A lana 1976 An Iconographic Study o f Chavfn T e x t i l e s from the South Coast of P e r u : The D iscovery o f a Pre -Co lumbian Catech ism. Doctora l D i s s e r t a t i o n . I n s t i t u t e of A rchaeo logy , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s . 1977 "Chavfn A r t : I t s Shamanic/Hal luc inogenic O r i g i n s . " Pre -Columbian A r t H i s t o r y ; S e l e c t e d Readings ( C o r d y - C o l l i n s , A. and S t e r n , J . , e d s . ) , pp. 3 5 3 - 3 6 1 . Peek P u b l i c a t i o n s , Pa lo A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a . Kan, Michael 1972 "The F e l i n e M o t i f i n Northern P e r u . " The C u l t of the F e l i n e ; A Conference i n Pre -Columbian Iconography, October 31st and November 1 s t , 1970 ( E l i z a b e t h P. Benson, e d . ) , pp. 6 9 - 8 5 . Dumbarton Oaks Trustees f o r Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , pp. 6 9 - 8 6 . Washington, D.C. Keleman, Pal 1969 A r t of the Amer icas . Thomas Y. Crowel l Co. New York . 272 Kroeber , A l f r e d L. 1930 " A r c h a e o l o g i c a l E x p l o r a t i o n s i n P e r u . " P a r t I I I : The North Coast F i e l d Museum of Natura l H i s t o r y . Anthropology Memoirs, v o l . 2 , no. 2. Ch icago . 1944 "Peruv ian Archaeology i n 1 9 4 2 . " V i k i n g Fund P u b l i c a t i o n s i n Anthropo logy , no. 4 . New York . Larco H o y l e , Rafael 1941 Los Cup isn iques . Trabajo presentado a l Congreso I n t e r n a c i o n a l de A m e r i c a n i s t a s de L ima , s e s i o n XXVI I . L ima. 1945 Los C u p i s n i q u e s . Buenos A i r e s . Sociedad Geogra f i ca Americana. 1946 "A C u l t u r e Sequence f o r the North Coast of P e r u . " Handbook of South American I n d i a n s . Bureau f o r American E thno logy , B u l l . 143, v o l . 2 , pp. 149-175. Washington, D.C. 1948 Crono logfa Arquelo 'g ica de Norte de l P e r u . Pr imera E d i c i o n . Sociedad Geogra f i ca Amer icana, E d i t o r i a l y C u l t u r a l . Buenos A i r e s . 1966 The Anc ien t C i v i l i z a t i o n of Peru . B a r r i e & J e n k i n s . London. L a t h r a p , Donald W. 1971 "The T r o p i c a l Rain Fores t and the C u l t u r a l Context of C h a v f n . " Dumbarton Oaks Conference on Chavfn October 26th and 2 7 t h , 1968 ( E l i z a b e t h P. Benson, e d . ) , pp. 7 3 - 1 0 0 . Dumbarton Oaks Trustees f o r Harvard U n i v e r s i t y . Washington, D.C. 1977 " G i f t s of the Cayman: Some Thoughts on the Subs is tence B a s i s of C h a v f n . " Pre -Columbian A r t H i s t o r y : S e l e c t e d Readings ( C o r d y - C o l l i n s , A. and S t e r n , J . , e d s . ) , pp. 3 3 3 - 3 5 1 . Peek P u b l i c a t i o n s , Pa lo A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a . 273 L a t h r a p , Donald W. ms "Complex Iconographic Features Shared by Olmec and Chavfn and Some S p e c u l a t i o n s on T h e i r P o s s i b l e S i g n i f i c a n c e . " Paper read J u l y 3 1 , 1971 a t Pr imer Simposio de C o r r e l a c i o n e s A n t r o p o l o g i c a s Andino-Mesoamericano, 25-31 J u l i o . S a l i n a s , Ecuador. Lumbreras, Lufs G. 1968 "Towards a R e - E v a l u a t i o n of Chav fn . " Dumbarton Oaks Conference on Chavfn , October 26th and 2 7 t h , 1968 ( E l i z a b e t h P. Benson, e d . ) , pp. 1 - 2 8 . Dumbarton Oaks Trustees f o r Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , pp. 1 - 2 8 . Washington, D.C. 1970 Los Templos de Chavfn ; Gufa para e l V i s i t a n t e . Pub l i cac io 'n del Proyecto Chavfn. L ima. 1974 The Peoples and C u l t u r e s of Anc ien t P e r u . (Meggers, Bet ty J . , T r a n s l a t o r ) , Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n P r e s s , C i t y of Washington. 1977 "Excavaciones en e l Templo Ant iguo de Chavfn (Sector R ) ; Informe de l a Sexta Campana." Nawpa Pacha 15 (Rowe, H. and Lyon, P . , e d s . ) , pp. 1 - 3 8 . B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a . Lumbreras, L u i s G. and Hernan Amat 1965- " Informe P r e l i m i n a r sobre l a s G a l e r f a s I n t e r i o r e s de Chavfn 1966 (Pr imera Temporada de T r a b a j o s ) . " R e v i s t a del Museo N a c i o n a l , 34: pp. 143-197. L ima. M a i t l a n d , Maureen E. n . d . " Iconographic R e l a t i o n s between C h a v f n - r e l a t e d North Coast Ceramics and the A r t of Chavfn." A paper presented a t the 19th Annual Meeting o f the I n s t i t u t e o f Andean S t u d i e s , January 5 - 6 , 1979. B e r k e l e y . 274 M a i t l a n d , M . E . , Mowatt, S . , P h i l l i p s , A . , and Watson, S . n . d . "A Proposed R e v i s i o n of Rowe's Chavi'n Chrono logy . " A paper presented a t the 16th Annual Meeting of the I n s t i t u t e of Andean S t u d i e s , January 9 - 1 0 , 1976. B e r k e l e y . M e n z e l , Dorothy 1976 P o t t e r y S t y l e and S o c i e t y i n Anc ien t P e r u ; A r t as a M i r r o r of H i s t o r y i n the l e a V a l l e y , 1350-1570. U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , B e r k e l e y , Los A n g e l e s , London. Mose ley , Edward M. and L u i s Watanabe 1974 "The Adobe S c u l p t u r e of Huaca de l o s Reyes . " A rchaeo logy , v o l . 2 7 , no. 3 , J u l y , pp. 1 5 4 - 1 6 1 . P h i l a d e l p h i a . P a t t e r s o n , Thomas C. 1971 "Chavfn : An I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i t s Spread and I n f l u e n c e . " Dumbarton Oaks Conference on Chavfn , October 26th and 2 7 t h , 1968 ( E l i z a b e t h P. Benson, e d . ) , pp. 2 9 - 4 8 . Dumbarton Oaks Trustees f o r Harvard U n i v e r s i t y . Washington, D.C. P o z o r s k y , Thomas 1975 " E l Complejo C a b a l l o Muerto y l o s F r i s a s de Barro de l a Huaca de l o s Reyes ." R e v i s t a del Museo N a c i o n a l , tomo X L I , pp. 2 1 1 -251. L ima. Roe, Pe te r 1974 A Fur ther E x p l o r a t i o n of the Rowe Chavfn S e r i a t i o n and I t s I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a North C e n t r a l Coast Chronology. Dumbarton Oaks Trustees f o r Harvard U n i v e r s i t y . Washington, D.C. Rowe, John Howl and 1962 "Chavfn A r t ; an i n q u i r y i n t o i t s form and meaning . " The Museum of P r i m i t i v e A r t . New York . 275 Rowe, John Howl and 1967 "Form and Meaning i n Chavfn A r t . " Peruv ian Archaeo logy : S e l e c t e d Readings (Rowe, J . , and M e n z e l , D . , e d s . ) , pp. 7 2 - 1 0 3 . Peek P u b l i c a t i o n s . Pa lo A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a . Rowe, John Howl and , and Dorothy Menzel 1967 Peruv ian Archaeology : S e l e c t e d Readings. Peek P u b l i c a t i o n s . Pa lo A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a . Sawyer, A lan R. 1972 "The F e l i n e i n Paracas A r t . " The C u l t of the F e l i n e : A Con-fe rence i n Pre -Columbian Iconography, October 31st and November 1 s t , 1970 ( E l i z a b e t h P. Benson, e d . ) , pp. 9 1 - 1 1 5 . Dumbarton Oaks Trustees f o r Harvard U n i v e r s i t y . Washington, D.C. S h a p i r o , Meyer 1953 " S t y l e . " I n : An A p p r a i s a l of Anthropology Today. (Tax, S . , E i s e l e y , L o r e n , C . , Rouse, I., V o e g e l i n , C . F . , e d s . ) , The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , Ch icago , I l l i n o i s . Shepard , Anna 0 . 1948 "The Symmetry o f A b s t r a c t Design w i th S p e c i a l Reference to Ceramic D e c o r a t i o n . " C o n t r i b u t i o n s to American Anthropology and H i s t o r y , no. 4 7 , May 1948. 1956 Ceramics f o r the A r c h a e o l o g i s t . Carnegie I n s t i t u t e of Washington, P u b l i c 609. Washington, D.C. T e l l o , J u l i o C. 1923 " W i r a - K o c h a , " T i r a d a Apar te de l a R e v i s t a I n c a , del Museo de A rqueo log ia de l a Un i ve rs idad de San Marcos, V o l . 1 . Lima 1929 Ant iguo P e r u : pr imera epoca. Ed i tado por l a Comision Organ iza -dora del Segundo Congreso Sudamericano de Tur ismo. L ima. 276 T e l l o , J u l i o C. 1943 "The D iscovery of the Chavfn C u l t u r e i n P e r u . " American A n t i q -u i t y , v o l . 1 , no. 1 , pp. 135-160. 1960 Chavfn : C u l t u r a M a t r i z de l a Ci v i 1 i zac io 'n A n d i n a ; Pr imera P a r t e . Revised and e d i t e d by T o r t i b i o M a j i a Xesspe. P u b l i c a c i o n del A rch i vo " J u l i o C. T e l l o " de l a U n i v e r s i d a d Nacional Mayor de San Marcos , v o l . 2 . L ima. W a l l a c e , Dwight, T. 1979 "The Process of Weaving Development on the Peruv ian C o a s t . " The Jun ius B. B i r d Pre -Co lumbian T e x t i l e Conference , May 19th and 2 0 t h , 1973 (Rowe, A . P . , Benson, E . P . , and S c h a f f e r , A . - L . , e d s . ) , pp. 2 7 - 5 0 . The T e x t i l e Museum and Dumbarton Oaks Trustees f o r Harvard U n i v e r s i t y . Washington. W i l l e y , Gordon R. 1951 The Chavfn Problem: A Review and C r i t i q u e . Southwestern Journal of Anthropo logy , v o l . 7 , no. 2 , Summer, pp. 103-144. Albuquerque. W i l l e y , Gordon R. and John M. Corbet t 1954 E a r l y Ancon and E a r l y Supe C u l t u r e s : Chavfn Hor izon S i t e s of the Cent ra l Peruv ian Coast . Columbia S tud ies i n Archaeology and E thno logy , v o l . I l l , pp. 8 4 - 1 3 0 . Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York . 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0094903/manifest

Comment

Related Items