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Member participation : encouraging and discouraging factors in senior centre planning Foster, John 1980

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MEMBER  ENCOURAGING  I N  P A R T I C I P A T I O N :  AND  SENIOR  DISCOURAGING  CENTRE  F A C T O R S  P L A N N I N G  by  JOHN  B . A . ,  A  T h e  U n i v e r s i t y  T H E S I S  SUBMITTED  THE  FOSTER  o f  I N  REQUIREMENTS  MASTER  B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a ,  P A R T I A L  F U L F I L M E N T  FOR  DEGREE  OF  THE  OF  ARTS  i n  THE  S c h o o l  We  F A C U L T Y  o f  C o m m u n i t y  a c c e p t  t o  THE  OF  t h i s  t h e  GRADUATE  a n d  t h e s i s  r e q u i r e d  U N I V E R S I T Y  O F  ( c )  J o h n  R e g i o n a l  a s  C h r i s t o p h e r  P l a n n i n g  c o n f o r m i n g  s t a n d a r d  B R I T I S H  O c t o b e r  S T U D I E S  COLUMBIA  1980  F o s t e r ,  1980  1977  O F  DE-6  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make  it  and  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be  department or by h i s or her understood t h a t  granted by  the head o f  representatives.  It i s  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not  be  allowed without my  permission.  Department of  Ce>/?iMM4//Ty  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date  (2/79)  my  /9SA  j&//> j?££/ai6?i Columbia  f&/tov6&  written  ii  ABSTRACT  A Senior Centre serves as a community f o c a l point on aging where older adults, either i n d i v i d u a l l y or i n groups, come together f o r various services and a c t i v i t i e s .  f  Most early Senior Centres were i n i t i -  ated, planned, and administered by bodies such as Recreation Departments or welfare agencies as a means of meeting the i d e n t i f i e d needs o f a community's older c i t i z e n s .  In recent years, however, older people  have become increasingly vocal i n i d e n t i f y i n g t h e i r own needs and have come to play a more active r o l e i n the planning and administration of t h e i r Senior Centres.  The l i t e r a t u r e provides l i t t l e information f o r  those interested i n the changes that have taken place i n the planning and administration of Senior Centres.  I t focuses mainly on what i s  planned (programs) rather than how planning i s conducted (process) or who p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the process.  This thesis i s exploratory i n nature,  seeking both to make an i n i t i a l attempt a t f i l l i n g the gap that exists i n the l i t e r a t u r e and t o provide assistance to those engaged i n planning at Senior Centres. The thesis begins with a background chapter, which provides an overview of the history and present situations of the Senior Centre movements i n the United States and Canada.  I t then b r i e f l y reviews the  relevant l i t e r a t u r e i n an e f f o r t to answer three questions: 1) What i s involved i n the planning process a t Senior Centres? 2) Why should a Senior Centre's members have the opportunity to become involved i n the process? 3) In what planning areas should members be involved?  iii  On the assumption that Centre members should have the opportunity to become involved i n t h e i r Centre's planning process, the main body of the t h e s i s seeks to discover what opportunities e x i s t f o r t h e i r involvement involved.  and to determine the f a c t o r s that encourage members to become The research i s "based upon case studies of three Senior Centres  i n the Greater Vancouver areas  S i l v e r Harbour Centre i n North Vancouver,  411 Centre i n Vancouver, and Murdoch Centre i n Richmond.  The data f o r  the case studies i s provided by Centre documents, personal observations, casual conversations, and open-ended interviews.  The interviews were  conducted with three groups involved i n or affected by, planning a t the Senior Centres: Executive Directors, Board members, and general members. Chapter 4 provides background on the three Centres.  I t reveals the  d i s t i n c t h i s t o r i e s , programs, p h y s i c a l environments and administrative structures of the Centres and underscores  the f a c t that no one planning  model would be appropriate f o r a l l three Centres.  Chapter 5 analyses  the " s t r u c t u r a l " opportunities that each Centre provides f o r i t s members to become involved i n planning. Two d i s t i n c t planning models emerge from the analysist  the predom-  i n a n t l y member-planned (autonomous) model, as represented by the S i l v e r Harbour and 411 Centres, and the mainly agencjsp-planned model found at Murdoch.  (semi-autonomous)  The "autonomous" Centres provide the greatest  opportunities, as t h e i r members exercise control over p o l i c y , budget, program, s t a f f i n g , and b u i l d i n g matters.  Members of the semi-autonomous  Centre exercise l e s s control, as they act only i n an advisory capacity. In Chapter 6, the f a c t o r s which p o t e n t i a l l y encourage or discourage members' involvement  i n planning are i d e n t i f i e d .  Their i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  iv emerges from a post facto analysis of the case study data. are separated i n t o four categories f o r a n a l y s i s :  The f a c t o r s  l ) administrative  structures, 2) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of planning members (Board and Committee members), 3) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Centre Directors and s t a f f , and 4) b u i l d i n g s . The most encouraging f a c t o r s f o r members' involvement i n planning appeared to be a r e l a t i v e l y autonomous administrative structure, s k i l l e d and experienced Board and Committee members, Directors, and s t a f f , a b u i l d i n g owned by members and designed f o r use as a Centre, and an adequate l e v e l o f junding and s t a f f i n g . The conclusions of the research which are presented i n Chapter  7,  stem from the a n a l y s i s of f a c t o r s which encourage or discourage members' involvement i n a Senior Centre's planning.  The main conclusion i s that,  generally speaking, i f the factors i d e n t i f i e d i n Chapter 6 are i n place, a Senior Centre should be more successful i n encouraging members to become involved i n i t s planning.  However, three problematic aspects of  e s t a b l i s h i n g an "encouraging" planning framework were i d e n t i f i e d and explored.  The f i r s t two were some planning members' apparent lack of  understanding of the planning process and a possible lack of continuity i n the planning network ( i . e . high s t a f f turnover and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e c r u i t i n g new  members to assume planning r o l e s ) .  The conclusion  drawn was that the provision of t r a i n i n g sessions, which focus on aspects of the planning process and on "human" s k i l l s , such as,communications, leadership, and how to motivate others, could r e s u l t i n s t a f f and members becoming more adept a t planning and encouraging other members to become involved i n the process. The t h i r d problematic aspect i d e n t i f i e d r e l a t e d to the somewhat s u r p r i s i n g f i n d i n g that an optimum l e v e l of resources (funding and  V s t a f f i n g ) appears to e x i s t , "below or above which factors discouraging to members' involvement i n planning set i n . The thesis concluded that I f t h i s optimum l e v e l could be ascertained, i t would r e s u l t i n signigicant benefits to the members, s t a f f , and administrative and funding bodies of Senior Centres.  An ascertainable optimum l e v e l would provide a basis  f o r governments and other funding bodies to determine a more equitable a l l o c a t i o n of resources amongst Centres.  And i f acted upon, i t would  encourage the maximum involvement of members i n t h e i r Centre's planning process. In c l o s i n g the t h e s i s , the implications that the research has f o r other planning groups and f o r society as a whole are discussed and a number of questions which might be pursued by other researchers are presented.  vi  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i i  LIST OF TABLES  ix  ACKNOWLEDGMENT  x  CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION  1  RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND OBJECTIVES  8  STATEMENT ON RESEARCH METHODS  1  0  ORGANIZATION OF STUDY  1  1  1  3  1 1 1  3 3 6  CHAPTER TWO - HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND THEORETICAL LITERATURE REVIEW HISTORICAL FRAMEWORK United States Canada  .  THEORETICAL LITERATURE REVIEW F i r s t Assumption . . . . . . . . . Second Assumption  18 22 27  SUMMARY  28  CHAPTER THREE - METHODOLOGY,  3  0  RESEARCH SETTING  3  0  METHODS  3  0  SAMPLE  3  1  INTERVIEW SCHEDULES  3  3  ANALYSIS  3  6  SUMMARY  3  8  3  9  CHAPTER FOUR - CASE STUDIES  vii Page SILVER HARBOUR CENTRE H i s t o r i c a l Overview Building and Physical Environment Membership and S o c i a l Environment Purpose and Program . . . . . . . . Administration  39 39 40 42 43 44  411 SENIOR CENTRE H i s t o r i c a l Overview B u i l d i n g and Physical Environment Membership and S o c i a l Environment . . . . . . . Purpose and Program . . . . . . . . Administration . . . . . . * .  4? 4? 48 51 53 55  MURDOCH CENTRE H i s t o r i c a l Overview . . . . . B u i l d i n g and Physical Environment Membership and S o c i a l Environment Purpose and Program Administration  58 58 60 63 65 67  SUMMARY  69  CHAPTER FIVE - STRUCTURAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR MEMBERS TO BECOME INVOLVED IN THE PLANNING PROCESS AT THREE CENTRES  70  MEMBER-PLANNED MODEL  70  AGENCY-PLANNED MODEL  ?4  CHAPTER SIX - ENCOURAGING AND DISCOURAGING FACTORS FOR MEMBER PARTICIPATION IN A SENIOR CENTRE'S PLANNING PROCESS ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE Two Models Funding Level Staffing  76 82 82 94 99  CHARACTERISTICS OF "PLANNING" MEMBERS S k i l l s and Experience Personality and Attitudes  101 101 105  CHARACTERISTICS OF DIRECTORS S k i l l s and Experience Personality and Attitudes  113 114 117  . . . . .  viii  Page BUILDING Program Planning F a c i l i t y Planning  , .  SUMMARY  125 126 131 135  CHAPTER SEVEN - CONCLUSION  136  CONCLUSIONS  136  IMPLICATIONS  143  FUTURE RESEARCH  148 150  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIXES I II III IV V  VI  DIRECTOR *-S INTERVIEW SCHEDULE  I57  BOARD MEMBER INTERVIEW SCHEDULE  I65  GENERAL MEMBERSHIP INTERVIEW SCHEDULE  . . . .  BACKGROUND "FACT SHEET" ON THE CASE STUDY CENTRES  I76  SILVER HARBOUR MANOR SOCIETY CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS  178  411 SENIORS CENTRE SOCIETY CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS  VII VIII  172  186  MURDOCH SENIOR CITIZEN CENTRE ADVISORY EXECUTIVE BOARD CONSTITUTION (GUIDELINES) . . MURDOCH SENIOR CITIZEN CENTRE ADVISORY EXECUTIVE BOARD OPERATIONAL GUIDELINES  . . .  195 200  ix  LIST OF TABLES  Table 1.  2.  Page S t r u c t u r a l Opportunities f o r Members to Become Involved i n Their Planning Process a t Three Senior Centres  71  Conceptual Model For Encouraging and Discouraging Factors For Members' Involvement i n Planning  80  . . . . .  X  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I  w o u l d  M,  H i l l  o f  t h i s  I  f o r  o f  c o o p e r a t i o n  t i m e  a n d  I  many  t o  t h e i r  t h a n k  a d v i c e  my  a n d  a d v i s o r s ,  P r o f e s s o r s  c o n t i n u e d  s u p p o r t  P.  B o o t h r o y d  t h r o u g h o u t  t h e  a n d  w r i t i n g  t h e s i s .  w o u l d  members  l i k e  a l s o  t h e  l i k e  S i l v e r  w i t h  t h e  i n f o r m a t i o n ,  a l s o  h o u r s  w i s h  s h e  t o  t o  t h a n k  H a r b o u r ,  r e s e a r c h  a n d  e x p r e s s  s p e n t  i n  t h u s  my  t y p i n g  t h e  4 1 1 ,  E x e c u t i v e  a n d  e f f o r t .  made  t h i s  M u r d o c h  T h e y  t h i s  g r a t i t u d e  D i r e c t o r s ,  g a v e  t h e s i s  t o  t h e s i s .  M r s .  C e n t r e s  S t a f f ,  f o r  g e n e r o u s l y  a n d  t h e i r  o f  t h e i r  p o s s i b l e .  M.  M c G a r r y  f o r  t h e  Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Although a v a r i e t y of d e f i n i t i o n s of Senior Centres have "been proposed over the past t h i r t y years, none have gained u n i v e r s a l acceptance. The f i r s t widely quoted d e f i n i t i o n appeared i n 1959s The Senior Centre may be a s i n g l e purpose (e.g. a r e c r e a t i o n , education, drop-in, or information and r e f e r r a l centre) or multi-purpose agency ( i . e . a centre which o f f e r s more than one s e r v i c e and stresses the maintenance or enhancement of the older person's physi c a l , s o c i a l and emotional well-being) e s t a b l i s h e d as a r e s u l t of community planning based on the unmet needs of older people i n any given community, The b a s i c purpose of such centres i s to provide older people w i t h s o c i a l l y e n r i c h i n g experiences which would help preserve t h e i r d i g n i t y as human beings and enhance t h e i r f e e l i n g s of s e l f - w o r t h (Maxwell, 1962, P. 7). One of the most complete d e f i n i t i o n s of a Senior Centre was presented by a l e a d i n g f i g u r e i n the Senior Centre movement i n the United Statess A Senior Centre i s a f a c i l i t y f o r o l d e r a d u l t s , w e l l s t a f f e d , housed, and financed which enjoys broad community support; which i s r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e to the older people i n the community and which i s open o f t e n enough t o f u l f i l l i t s o b j e c t i v e s : which o f f e r s a wide-ranging program of a c t i v i t i e s and s e r v i c e s designed w i t h a knowledge and understanding of the i n t e r e s t s , needs and d e s i r e s of the older people of i t s community; and, which provides f o r the r e a l i n v o l v e ment and p a r t i c i p a t i o n of i t s members i n the planning, conducting, and e v a l u a t i o n of i t s program and i n the determination of i t s p o l i c i e s and goals (Monro, 197 , p. 26). 2  The increase i n the number and p o p u l a r i t y of Senior Centres has been phenomenal.  Since the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the f i r s t Senior Centre i n 1  2 1943,  5,000 S e n i o r  o v e r  A m e r i c a  u a l l y  l o n e l y  a n d  e c o n o m i c  t o  a n d  r e c o g n i z e  o u t  h e a l t h  S e n i o r  t h a t  w e r e  m e a n i n g  t o  t h e  w r i t e r s  c o n t e n d  c o u l d )  l a t e r  i n  r e g a r d e d  o f  o l d e r  p e r s o n ' s  i n  t h e  l i v e s  o f . . . c h i l d r e n "  a n d  b y  o v e r  2001  n u m b e r  a n d  ( S e n a t e  o f  o f  o l d e r  o b s e r v e r s  s e n i o r  C e n t r e s  ( f o r  a d u l t  may  c a n  s p a r s e .  w i l l  t o  ( E s t e s ,  A s  t o  b e  m a n u a l s ,  d i v i d e d  o f  a s  o l d e r  N o r t h  s o c i e t y  p e o p l e  u n a b l e  a s  more  t o  t o  g r a d -  w e r e  a e e t  b u t  t h e i r  p.  w i l l  t h e " t r e n d  f o r  t o  a  b y  p l a c e  t h e  s c h o o l  10).  r i s e  t o  t o w a r d s  s o m e t h i n g  p l a y e d  N o t  o f  C e n t r e s  may  h o l d  a n d  Some  27).  s i x t y - f i v e  n e e d e d  i t  p.  t o  w a y  d i g n i t y  a g e d  l e v e l s  b e  g i v e  p .  1979).  S e n i o r  t o  y e a r s  m i l l i o n  3»4  o n l y  w i l l  t h e  e d u c a t i o n ,  a r e  a s  s e r v e  h e a l t h  c r u c i a l  t h e  e x p a n s i o n  o f  b e  a n  e x p e d i e n t  t a n g i b l e  i s  b e i n g  a s  g r o w i n g  S e n i o r  w a y  d o n e  f o r  134).  o f  S e n i o r  C e n t r e s ,  (1979) o b s e r v e s , i n t o  c o n f e r e n c e  now  c o u l d  i n n o v a t i v e  1972,  r o l e  p e o p l e  t h e i r  If,  t o  come  1975,  C o m m i s s i o n ,  s o c i e t y  a n  "may  e x p e c t e d  momentum,  t h a t  t h e  H a r d y ,  i s  C e n t r e s  g a i n  a n d  ( M o n r o ,  C e n t r e s  w e l l .  I n d e e d ,  w h i c h  p e o p l e ,  m i l l i o n  i n c r e a s e ,  b y  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  a n d  2.1  C r o l l  i m p o r t a n c e  M c l n t y r e  t h r o u g h o u t  b e i n g  b e i n g  means  a d u l t s "  f i g u r e  d e m o n s t r a t e  1979,  o f  o l d e r  i t s  ( C u l l  t h i s  r i s e  b e l i e v e ,  b y  e q u i v a l e n t  C a n a d a ,  c o n t i n u e  b a s i c a l l y  b o o k s ,  a n d  i n t o  n u m b e r s  " a  S e n i o r  e s t i m a t e d  c i t i z e n s  D e s p i t e d t h e  i s  l i f e  p o p u l a t i o n .  s o c i e t y )  a g e d "  a n  C a n a d a ,  e x p e c t a t i o n s  some  t h e  i n  now  came  f e a r  a s  o l d e r  t i m e ,  t h e  a r e  made  f u l f i l l  i n  T h e r e  i n  e s t a b l i s h e d  u n a s s i s t e d .  y e a r s  t h a t  b e e n  C e n t r e s  l i v e s  c o n t r i b u t i o n s  ( s o c i e t y  h a v e  i n c r e a s i n g  t h e i r  n e e d s  C e n t r e s  t h e  w h i c h  r e a l i z e  l i v i n g  S e n i o r  i n  1979).  (Demko,  b e g a n  C e n t r e s  t w o  t h e  g r o u p s .  p r o c e e d i n g s ,  a n d  l i t e r a t u r e  l i t e r a t u r e  The  f i r s t  o t h e r  o n  t h a t  g r o u p  t h e  C e n t r e s  d o e s  c o n s i s t s  p u b l i c a t i o n s  b y  e x i s t  o f  s u c h  3 organizations as the U.S. National Council on the Aging (NCOA) and the Canadian Council on S o c i a l Development (CCSD),  These publications are  aimed at professionals working i n Senior Centres and they cover most f a c ets of Centre operation.  The second group consists of research studies  and a r t i c l e s which f o r the most part appear i n gerontological and sociol o g i c a l journals.  These writings are addressed both to an academic  audience and persons who are a c t i v e l y associated with older adults. The i m p l i c i t questions asked i n both bodies of l i t e r a t u r e are "What are the needs of the e l d e r l y ? " and "How these needs?"  can the Senior Centre best meet  E i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , the focus of the l i t e r a t u r e  i s on the Centre's program.  For example, a number of studies have com-  pared the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of users and non-users of Senior Centres i n order to i d e n t i f y ways i n which more senior may be persuaded to j o i n the Centres (Trela and Simmons, 1971? Sykes,  1977;  Demko,  Trela, 1971;  Carp, 1976;  Toseland and  1979).  With few exceptions, the means i d e n t i f i e d involve the introduction of new programs, such as r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s or information and r e f e r r a l , outreach, or health services. The type of study $ast described y i e l d s valuable information about Senior Centre c l i e n t e l e and can serve as a u s e f u l guide f o r programming; however, i t does not meet the most urgent needs of Senior Centre Directors or others who plan at the Centres,  Planners need an understanding of how  to plan before they consider what to plan.  Or to paraphrase Harris, we  have a great need of a science of planning i n order to determine what i s science i n planning (Harris,  1967)•  4  I "believe that there are three e s s e n t i a l reasons f o r studying planning process a t Senior Centres.  the  F i r s t , e f f o r t s to a t t a i n a better  understanding of the planning process should lead to more e f f e c t i v e practice.  U n t i l the mid  1960's  theories of planning generally followed  a l i n e a r model, conceiving of plans as a system of blueprints f o r a desired future state.  In t h e i r simplest form, these theories presented  planning as involving a survey, to gather information, an analysis, to interpret the information, and a pJLan, or strategy to act upon the i n f o r mation (Hall,  1975i  P«  12).  These theories also tended to follow a  r a t i o n a l decision making model, which separated  the means and ends of  planning and postulated that an i d e a l or "optimum" end could be achieved. However, as Friedmann and Hudson point out, there are three major flaws i n such simple conceptualizations of r e a l i t y s 1 ) Kridwledgg - they assume that decisions precede action, when i n f a c t i t i s often impossible to obtain the  information  needed f o r making decisions u n t i l a f t e r a decision i s made, 2 ) Equity - they assume that the " r a t i o n a l " decision w i l l be equitable; however, economists have presented elegant  proofs  which reveal that an equitable calculatiofmof trade-offs amongst various a l t e r n a t i v e s (a "community welfare cannot be l o g i c a l l y derived,  function")  and  3 ) Coordination - they assume that a plan w i l l be implemented with a minimum of d i f f i c u l t y , ignoring the problem of coordinating the various groups offactors who  w i l l be  c a l l e d upon to put the plan i n t o e f f e c t (Friedmann and Hudson, 1974,  pp.  7-9).  5 As w i l l be explained i n Chapter 2, a "new wave" of planning theory/ has emerged as a reaction to the simplistic assumptions of the rationalist school.  In a parallel fashion, a "new wave" of Senior Centre planning  approaches have been suggested as alternatives to the approaches of the f i r s t Centre practitioners.  Senior Centres are smaller and less complex  than the social organizations dealt with i n most planning theory l i t e r ature; however, they are dynamic and complex just the same. Senior Centre Directors have been urged "to see the Centre as a process which involves the interaction of people, purpose, and program —  a process which trans-  lates goals, philosophy, and resources into action" (Monro, 1972,  p. 27).  The rationale of studying planning theory i s the belief that the more that i s understood of the process, the greater w i l l be the improvements that can be made i n i t .  Understanding should thus lead to more effective  planning and more successful Senior Centres. The second reason for studying the planning process at Senior Centres i s the changing role that Centre members have played i n the process over the years. When the earliest Centres began, social welfare agencies, church and community groups, or recreation departments often did the planning, determining what the older adults needed and introducing what they considered to be appropriate programs for meeting these needs. While these bodies generally sought some input from Centre members, they often did so i n a patronising manner. Over the years, older adults have come to show resentment of the younger "providers" and to demand a greater voice i n the planning of their own affairs.  The emerging viewpoint of  many older adults i s well expressed i n a recent publication for B.C. Seniors:  "Why do the professionals and bureaucrats bug us?,,.They seem  6  to decide what's good f o r us as i f we are children...They make l i f e d i f f i c u l t f o r us with t h e i r complicated forms, t e r r i b l e p r i n t i n g goody-good pamphlets, and phone—here, phone—there to get help.  They don't ask us  what we think" (The Elder Statesman, February, 1980). Many older people hold the view that Senior Centres, and other organizations or programs which a f f e c t t h e i r l i v e s , should be planned " f o r seniors, by seniors."  As w i l l be revealed i n Chapter two and i n the case  studies, seniors can and do play a variety of r o l e s i n the planning process a t Senior Centres.  They can be active and become involved a t a varir-  ety of l e v e l s throughout a l l stages o f f a Centre's development:  from the  i n i t i a t i o n , when they s e l e c t a s i t e , hire an architect, and seek community and government finances f o r b u i l d i n g the f a c i l i t y ; to the ongoing operation o f the Centre, when they may serve on the Board or committees, f o r members to represent them on the Board or committees,  vote  or make sug-  gestions to s t a f f or board members about changes they would l i k e to see introduced i n t h e i r Centre. The t h i r d reason f o r studying the planning process a t Senior Centres i s the changing r o l e that Senior Centre Directors and other "professional" Senior Centre planners have come to play.  As recently as 1972,  the Coord-  inator of the f i r s t Training I n s t i t u t e f o r Directors of Senior Centres i n Canada admitted "some Directors may...view themselves as persons responsible  f o r planning a schedule of a c t i v i t i e s , with or without the  involvement of members, to help accomplish t h i s purpose" (Wilson,  1972,  p. i x ) . In l i g h t of the preceding arguments, such an approach appears doomed to f a i l u r e .  7  One of the leading figures in thedevelopment of Senior Centres in the United States argued that while the Centre i s the "agency through which opportunities, services, and programs are offered, the true realization of partnership in action represents the dynamic means through which purpose i s accomplished" (Monro, 1972, p. 28). The philosophic approach that he favours i s Firstly, that (the Centre professional's role i s not to do for people "but rather to work with people for the achievement of common objectives; secondly, a belief that senior citizens,..are individuals, adults. and people: thirdly, a commitment to the right of people to be part of the decision making process in matters in which they have a v i t a l interest. In short, let's stop being patronizing to older adults — which only reinforces their feelings of incompetence and powerlessness — and let's start trusting them and expecting them to be competent, concerned, and creative (Monro, 1972, pp. 28-29). The preceding arguments for studying the planning process at Senior Centres reveal that the effort would not only be of interest to an academic audience, but would also have important practical implications for Senior Centre Directors, staff board and committee members, general members, and others involved in the planning process at a Centre. In order for these various groups to achieve the most effective planning process, they require an understanding of how the planning process at the Centre works, advantages and disadvantages of involving members in the process, how they can encourage members to become involved in the process, and how they can assist members to contribute more effectively.  8  RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND OBJECTIVES The thesis involves case studies, which examine the planning process at three Senior Centres in the lower mainland: the Silver Harbour Centre in North Vancouver, the 411 Centre in Vancouver, and Murdoch Centre in Richmond. Before presenting the case studies, an attempt i s made to define what i s involved in the planning process at Senior Centres. Also, two assumptions for the research are presented and substantiated: l ) members should have the opportunity to become involved in their Senior Centre's planning process, and 2) no easy formula exists for determining the "appropriate" extent and nature of members' involvement in a Centre's planning process. The literature from a variety of fields, including Senior Centre publications, planning theory, gerontology, and citizen participation i s used in this section on definitions and assumptions. Next, the thesis turns to the case studies. The case studies rely upon newsletters and other Centre documents, personal observations, and interviews with Centre Directors, board members, and general members to seek answers for the following questions: 1) What "structural" opportunities exist for members to become involved in the planning process at the selected Centres? 2) What are the factors which encourage or discourage members in becoming involved in their Centre's planning process? The main objective of this thesis i s to make an i n i t i a l attempt to f i l l the gap that exists in research on Senior Centres, choosing not to focus on the outcome of a Centre's planning (i.e. programs or services), but rather to consider the process of i t s planning (i.e. how the  9 outcomes are achieved).  In p a r t i c u l a r , the thesis considers the r o l e  that Senior Centre members play i n the planning processes o f the Centres. Rather than viewing how seniors can be planned f o r , i t seeks to determine how seniors can be encouraged to plan f o r themselves.  The study i s  -- .  exploratory, and as i t does not involve formal tests of hypotheses, i t s findings and conclusions are suggestive, rather than d e f i n i t i v e .  The  t e s t of any studyslultimately must be the u t i l i t y and r e p l i c a b i l i t y of i t s findings.  E f f o r t s are made i n t h i s thesis to f a c i l i t a t e future research  by suggesting relevant questions and i n t e r e s t i n g avenues of i n v e s t i g a t i o n . As indicated e a r l i e r , the thesis should also serve as a resource f o r Centre D i r e c t o r s , members, and others who are involved i n , or are i n t e r ested i n , the planning process a t Senior Centres.  Much research on the  e l d e r l y has been c r i t i c i z e d f o r i t s f a i l u r e to contribute to improving the well-being of older adults.  One gerontologist commented that  research "can a l l - t o o - e a s i l y f i n d ( i t s e l f ) preoccupied with 'counting the wrinkles of o l d age' while the r e a l l y c r u c i a l issues remain unattended" ( i n Schwartz and Proppe, 1970, p. 228). This study aims to avoid t h i s tendency by focusing on the achievements of older adults i n the planning of t h e i r Senior Centres.  I f successful, i t could stimulate  a dialogue between members and s t a f f from various Centres who .wish to learn how t h e i r counterparts a t other Centres conduct t h e i r planning. I t should also be of i n t e r e s t to planners or other i n d i v i d u a l s who are, or w i l l be, planning with the e l d e r l y .  10 STATEMENT ON RESEARCH METHODS  As mentioned i n the preceding section, the study i s exploratory. The d i s t i n g u i s h i n g features of exploratory studies are that they contain no formal hypotheses and they are usually performed on subjects about which l i t t l e i s previously known (Bailey, 1978).  The reason I chose to  employ an exploratory research design i s that no empirical studies o f the planning process a t Senior Centres have, to my knowledge, been conducted.  By following t h i s approach, I sought to generate hypotheses  rather; than s c i e n t i f i c a l l y t e s t them.  I concur with other researchers:  "elaborate hypotheses developed out of sketchy information can quickly become a Procrustean bed into which the researcher forces h i s findings no matter how i l l they f i t " (Needleman and Needleman, 1974,  p. 6).  A l u c i d defence o f the exploratory study i s contained i n a recent study of community planning i n the United States (Needleman and Needleman,  1974).  The authors argue that u n t i l recently, the exploratory study  was widely regarded as I n f e r i o r research, "an informal and sloppy preliminary stage o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i n t e r e s t i n g because i t paves the way f o r " r e a l ' research on previously unfamiliar subjects (needleman, 1974, p. 5).  However, the authors point out that a number o f explor-  atory studies have gained wide recognition as c l a s s i c s i n the S o c i a l Sciences, g i v i n g the f i e l d some of i t s more u s e f u l concepts and theories. This t h e s i s contains a number of l i m i t a t i o n s common to other exploratory studies, most notably that the conduct of the interviews and present a t i o n of the r e s u l t s are open to manipulation,  and that i t s findings  cannot be generalized to a l l Centre Directors and members i n a l l Senior  11  Centres.  However, i n Chapter 3, I present an argument which attempts  to show that the advantages of the chosen research method f a r outweigh i t s disadvantages. ORGANIZATION OF STUDY This thesis opens i n Chapter 2 with a discussion of the history of Senior Centres i n the United States and Canada.  I t continues with a  t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e review which lends support to the previously stated d e f i n i t i o n s and assumptions of the research and serves to i d e n t i f y the "state of the a r t " i n l i t e r a t u r e f o r Senior Centre p r a c t i t i o n e r s . Chapter 3 b r i e f l y discusses the reasons f o r the selection of the three Centres under study, and then explains the sampling procedures and methods of data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s . Chapter 4 i s devoted to case studies of the S i l v e r Harbour, 411, and Murdoch Centres,  Based on Centre newsletters and documents, personal  observations, and interviews with Centre Directors, board members, and representatives from the general memberships, the chapter attempts to provide background information and i n s i g h t into how planning i s conducted at each Centre.  I t then seeks to i d e n t i f y " s t r u c t u r a l " opportunities  that e x i s t f o r members to become involved i n the Centres' planning processes. Using the case study data as a basis, Chapter 5 provides an analysis of factors which encourage and discourage Aembers i n becoming involved i n planning at Senior Centres,  The four types of factors considered  r e l a t e to the Centres' administrative structures, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of planning members (Board and Committee members), the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Directors and s t a f f , and aspects of the Centres' buildings.  12 F i n a l l y , i n Chapter 6, the summary and conclusions are presented. The conclusions do not attempt to provide a simple guide to successful Senior Centre planning; however, they o f f e r insights and suggestions as to how more e f f e c t i v e planning a t Senior Centres might he encouraged.  C h a p t e r  H I S T O R I C A L  2  BACKGROUND  AND  L I T E R A T U R E  T h i s  e r a t u r e  c h a p t e r  f o u n d a t i o n  e v o l u t i o n  T h e  o f  t h e  v a r i e t y  o f  i n v o l v e d  t h e  i n  s t a t e m e n t  s h o u l d  h a v e  p l a n n i n g  i n  a n  s t u d y .  v a r i e s  T h e  e f f o r t  I t  t o  f r a m e w o r k  h i s t o r i c a l  movement  f o u n d a t i o n  i n  i d e n t i f y  "begins  w i t h a n  S e n i o r  s u b s t a n t i a t i o n  o f  t h e  a n d  t h e  2)  f r o m  b e c o m e  C e n t r e  t o  U n i t e d  u p o n  t h e  t h e  C e n t r e  t o  C e n t r e s  i n v o l v e d  t r a c e s  a n d  o f  t h e  a n d  i n  f r o m  a n d  f r o m  i s  w i t h  l )  S e n i o r  a  f o r  w h a t  c o n t i n u e s  t h e i r  t h e  a r t "  d e t e r m i n e  l i t -  C a n a d a .  l i t e r a t u r e  a s s u m p t i o n s t  e x t e n t  a n d  t h e o r e t i c a l  S t a t e s  " s t a t e  r e s e a r c h  " a p p r o p r i a t e "  a n d  f r a m e w o r k  a t t e m p t  a t  t o  t h e  r e l i e s  p r o c e s s  o p p o r t u n i t y  p r o c e s s ;  h i s t o r i c a l  C e n t r e  p l a n n i n g  a n d  t h e  i n v o l v e m e n t  t h e  p r a c t i c e .  t h e  t h e  l i t e r a t u r e  f i e l d s  C e n t r e  f o r  S e n i o r  t h e o r e t i c a l  S e n i o r  p r o v i d e s  T H E O R E T I C A L  REVIEW  members  C e n t r e ' s  n a t u r e  o f  m e m b e r s '  i n d i v i d u a l  t o  i n d i v i d -  u a l .  H I S T O R I C A L  U n i t e d  S t a t e s  The  f i r s t  i n i t i a t e d  W e l f a r e  i n  i n  s o c i a l  b y  S e n i o r  a  g r o u p  1944.  A t  w e l f a r e "  l e a r n e d  o f  o u t  U n i t e d  t h e  FRAMEWORK  t h e  M a x w e l l  C e n t r e ,  o f  S o c i a l  t h e  ( K u b i e  H o d s o n  t h e  t i m e ,  H o d s o n  W o r k e r s  i t  was  C e n t r e  i n  t h e  r e g a r d e d  a n d  L a n d a u ,  1943.  C e n t r e ,  C e n t r e s  w e r e  p.  i n  New  a s  New  Y o r k  C i t y ,  Y o r k  C i t y  D e p a r t m e n t  a  9).  g r a d u a l l y  " w h o l l y  As  new  o t h e r  was  e x p e r i m e n t  c o m m u n i t i e s  e s t a b l i s h e d  t h r o u g h -  S t a t e s .  (1962) o b s e r v e d  t h a t  13  two  d i s t i n c t  c o n c e p t s  o f  t h e  o f  C e n t r e s  14  emerged during the early years.  The f i r s t was the "welfare" model, typ-  i f i e d by the Hodson Centre, whose c l i e n t s generally had low incomes, l i t t l e education, and were often born outside the United States.  The  other was the "recreation" or "retirement centre" model, which served the more f i n a n c i a l l y ' secure, well-educated, and s o c i a l l y active older person. For the f i r s t f i f t e e n years of t h e i r  existence, Senior Centres were  characterized by great;, v a r i a t i o n i n the scope and quality of t h e i r programs.  In order to e s t a b l i s h guidelines f o r e x i s t i n g projects and to set  minimum standards to a s s i s t communities that were contemplating  having  t h e i r own Centres, the National Council on the Aging (NCOA) appointed a committee to undertake a major research study of American Senior Centres, The study began i n 1959  and was completed i n 1961.  Centres f o r Older Peoples  The project report,  Guide f o r Programs and F a c i l i t i e s  (Maxwell,  1962), served as a valuable resource f o r Centre p r a c t i t i o n e r s , not only providing therewith p r a c t i c a l information about a l l facets of Senior Centre operation, but also a r t i c u l a t i n g the philosophical foundation of the Senior Centre movement. As Centres continued to increase i n number and scope throughout  the  I960*s, the NCOA received widespread demands from Senior Centre p r a c t i tioners f o r technical assistance f o r t h e i r planning and programming. NCOA responded i n 19?0  The  by establishing the National I n s t i t u t e of Senior  Centres (NISC) to Hielp meet these demands.  The NISC has issued numerous  publications on Senior Centre operations.  I t s constituency contains not  only Senior Centre personnel, but also " s o c i a l workers, r e c r e a t i o n a l personnel, educators, public health nurses and other s p e c i a l i s t s , n u t r i t i o n i s t s , community and s o c i a l planners, housing administrators, nursing home d i r e c t o r s , retirement planners, and students" (Jacobs, 1975» v i i i ) .  1 5  A m e r i c a n  w i t h  t h e  C e n t r e s  a l s o  S e n i o r  p a s s a g e  w e r e  g i v e n  o f  t h e  C e n t r e s  t h e  o n l y  i m p e t u s  b y  w e r e  O l d e r  g i v e n  a  A m e r i c a n s  s o c i a l  a g e n c i e s  O f f i c e  o f  m a j o r  A c t  b o o s t  ( O A A ) ,  m e n t i o n e d  E c o n o m i c  i n  m i d - 1 9 6 0 ' s  t h e  M u l t i - p u r p o s e  i n  t h e  O p p o r t u n i t y  A c t .  S e n i o r  C e n t r e s  C o m m u n i t y  w e r e  A c t i o n  P r o g r a m s .  S e n i o r  C e n t r e s  e m p h a s i s  o n  i n c l u d e s  h e a l t h ,  r e c r e a t i o n  W h i t e  H o u s e  e v e r y  c o m m u n i t y  C e n t r e  t o  t o  n u t r i t i o n ,  a n d  p r o v i d e  w h e n  i t  a m e n d e d  i z e d  t h e  p r o v i s i o n  a g e n c i e s  t h e  o f  c o m p r e h e n s i v e  C a r o l  i c i e s  f o r  f o r  w o u l d  i n  t h e  a r e  who  n o t  o f  e x p e d i e n t  a g e d "  y e t  S e n i o r  i s  OAA  a  c o n c e d e d  c l e a r ;  t h i s  made  a s  l i n k  a n d  i n  a s  c r i t i c  may  w a y  d e m o n s t r a t e  1 9 7 9 ) ,  t h a t  p.  T h e  1 9 7 3 ,  o r  a l t e r -  S e n i o r  a s  g a v e  a r e a  p o i n t s  f o r  i m p l i c a t i o n s  r e v e a l  t h e  s e t t i n g s  S t a t e s  g a i n  s o m e t h i n g  C e n t r e s ,  f o c a l  1 9 7 9 ,  1 3 4 ) .  U.S.  r e n o v a t i o n ,  f u l l  t o  p e o p l e  a u t h o r -  c y n i c a l l y )  c o n t i n u e  S e n i o r  o l d e r  i n  " i n  V,  t h e y  U n i t e d  s t a t e d ,  T i t l e  C e n t r e s  s o m e w h a t  a l l  u n d e r  ( E s t e s ,  1 9 7 1 , t h e  m u l t i p u r p o s e  2 7 - 2 8 ) .  " a p p r o p r i a t e  o f  w h i c h  1 9 7 8 , w h i c h  T h e  w h i c h  I n  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n  h o w e v e r ,  s y s t e m "  ( t h o u g h  a  1 9 7 2 , p p .  S e n i o r  C e n t e r s  ( E s t e s ,  w e l l  b e  m u l t i p u r p o s e  w e r e  S e n i o r  t o  a s  t h e i r  s e r v i c e s .  a c q u i s i t i o n ,  C e n t r e s  v o c a l  s h o u l d  ( O A A ) ,  a s  f r o m  p r o g r a m m i n g ,  o t h e r  c o m m u n i t i e s .  s e r v i c e  a w a y  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n  f o r  A c t  s e r v e  t h e i r  s i n g l e - e n t r y  a n  t h e  t h a t  s u p p o r t  may  f o r  A m e r i c a n s  f u n d i n g  s e r v i c e s  e x p a n s i o n  d o n e  s u p p o r t  d e s i g n a t e  a g e d ,  a  M o n r o ,  t o  t o w a r d  b e  i t s  ( i n  d i s c r e t i o n  E s t e s ,  t h e  h e l p "  t h e  t o  a n d  s e r v i c e s ,  t o  1 9 7 8 a m e n d m e n t  C o n g r e s s  a d o p t e d  a m e n d m e n t s  c o m p r e h e n s i v e  t h i s  o f  m o v i n g  c o m p r e h e n s i v e  c o u n s e l l i n g ,  s o c i a l  O l d e r  o f  f a c i l i t i e s  m o r e  A g i n g  s h o w e d  T h e  p r o g r e s s i v e l y  n e i g h b o u r h o o d . . . t h e r e  s o u r c e s  g o v e r n m e n t  F u r t h e r  o n  b a s i c  F e d e r a l  o f  b e e n  t o w a r d s  C o n f e r e n c e  a p p r o p r i a t e  a t i o n  h a v e  o f  d e s i r e , ,  f o r  a  p. 1 3 3 ) .  g o v e r n m e n t  t h a t  " t h e  momentum,  t a n g i b l e  i s  p o l -  t r e n d  f o r  i t  b e i n g  16 Canada Senior Centres f i r s t appeared i n Canada i n the mid 1950's, over a decade a f t e r the American Centres "began.  Canada's f i r s t Senior Centre,  the Age and Opportunity Centre, was i n i t i a t e d i n Winnipeg i n 1954.  The  f i r s t B.C. Centre, S i l v e r Threads, began operation In V i c t o r i a i n  1957.  Although these, and other early operations were not c a l l e d "Senior Centres", they were very similar to the American models (Davis, 1978). The Canadian Senior Centre movement has been smaller and slower i n gaining momentum than the American movement.  Canadian Centres have  developed along less consistent l i n e s than t h e i r American counterparts. Generally speaking, they have been l o c a l , grass-roots organizations, established to meet the unique needs of each community.  They have been  funded and i n i t i a t e d by Municipal Parks and Recreation departments, S o c i a l planning agencies, church and community groups, senior c i t i z e n groups, and various other organizations. In B r i t i s h Columbia, the major sources of funding f o r Senior Centres comes from 1)  Municipal Parks and Recreation departments 3- e.g. Murdoch Centre i n Richmond and Century House i n New  2) The P r o v i n c i a l Ministry of Human Resources —  Westminster. the 411 Senior  Centre i n Vancouver, S i l v e r Harbour Centre i n North Vancouver, S i l v e r Threads i n V i c t o r i a , and the Penticton Retirement Cent r e i n Penticton are the only Centres to receive the bulk of t h e i r operational funding from the P r o v i n c i a l Government. 3) The Federal Government —  Brock House i n Vancouver and S i l v e r  Harbour Centre received Federal grants to a s s i s t them i n paying t h e i r c a p i t a l costs when they were f i r s t being started.  1 7  Centres also r e l y on grants from the Federal Government's New Horizon Program (which i s designed exclusively to provide "seed" money f o r projects planned f o r and by senior c i t i z e n s ) , private and group donations, and  earn-  ings from Centre events and programs. The f i r s t major step towards establishing a coordinated Canadian Senior Centre movement came i n 1 9 7 2 , when the Canadian Council on S o c i a l Development and the Welfare Grants D i v i s i o n o f the Department of National Health and Welfare j o i n t l y sponsored a conference f o r i n d i v i d u a l s involved i n giving leadership to Senior Centres i n Canada.  After this i n i t i a l  gathering, the Senior Centres Organization of Canada (SCOC) was formed and has since held annual conferences.  The Organization i s currently  working on a s e t of standards f o r Canadian Senior Centres, s i m i l a r to a set  published f o r American Centres by the NCOA ( 1 9 7 8 ) .  These standards  should a s s i s t Senior Centre p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n t h e i r quest to improve t h e i r operations as well as f a c i l i t a t e more consistent development of Centres i n Canada i n the future. I t i s impossible to say exactly how many Senior Centres e x i s t i n Canada (or the United States, f o r that matter), as no national survey of Canadian Centres has been conducted.  Although P r o v i n c i a l surveys e x i s t ,  one must use caution when comparing t h e i r f i g u r e s .  For example, accor-  ding to the S o c i a l Manning and Review Councill(SPARC) of B.,C.'s p u b l i cation, Senior C i t i z e n s ' Guide to Services i n B r i t i s h Columbia  thirty-one  Senior Centres existed i n the province early i n 1 9 7 9 . However, t h i s l i s t included single purpose drop-in Centres, while i t excluded one o f the best known multipurpose Senior Centres i n Canada, the Penticton  18 Retirement Centre.  The information base on Canadian Centres w i l l l i k e l y  improve when the SCOC becomes more established and researchers gain awareness of the emerging Senior Centre phenomenon. As i s the case i n the United States, more Senior Centres are expected to be established i n Canada i n the future.  The trend w i l l l i k e l y be away  from the single purpose "recreation centre" model to the multipurpose model, which serves the " t o t a l " person — some cases,  physical, emotional and, i n  spiritual. THEORETICAL LITERATURE REVIEW  The b r i e f review of the history of the Senior Centre movements i n the United States and Canada has shown the tremendous growth In the number and complexity of Senior Centres over the years.  I t has highlighted the  dynamic nature of Centres, and the need f o r f l e x i b i l i t y i n planning. Certainly, what was considered an adequate Centre i n the 1950's would hardly meet the needs of today's seniors.  I f i n d i v i d u a l s involved i n the  planning process a t Senior Centres are to meet the challenges of the future, they must a t a minimum have an e f f e c t i v e basis f o r t h e i r planning.  The following section seeks to contribute to such-a basis by  exploring the relevant l i t e r a t u r e to provide understanding of current thinking on the planning process a t Senior Centres, What i s Involved i n the Planning Process a t Senior Centres? Before considering what i s involved i n a Senior Centre's planning process, i t i s u s e f u l to examine what planning i t s e l f i s . Planning has been defined as "an action c e n t r a l l y concerned with the linkage between knowledge and organized a c t i o n " (Friedmann and Hudson, 1974,  p. 2),  I t has also been said to represent "an action-producing  19 a c t i v i t y which combines investigation, thought, design, communication, and other components..,a s p e c i a l kind of pre-action a c t i o n " (Fagin, i n Horowitz, 1978,  p.  45).  These d e f i n i t i o n s may seem vague, and indeed, they may be g u i l t y of what some c r i t i c s describe as "a form of generalization that we might designate as indeterminate abstraction;.,.not so much incorrect as i t i s simply t r i v i a l l y true" (Scott and Roweis, 1977,  p. 39).  However, plan-  ning i s a complex phenomenon and;no single d e f i n i t i o n could possibly encompass a l l of i t s a t t r i b u t e s . The complexity of planning was hinted at i n the discussion of the r a t i o n a l decision making model i n the introductory chapter.  To expand on  that discussion, c r i t i c s argued that the model's s i m p l i s t i c assumptions f a i l e d to deal with the f l u x and turmoil of the " r e a l " world.  They charged  fhat the model's greatest f a i l u r e was i t s neglect of the "human side of planning" (Friedmann and Hudson, 1974,  p. 13).  One t h e o r i s t noted,  "as  long as we remain with the economists' s i m p l i s t i c model of r a t i o n a l 'economic man,"  we can expect to  e f f e c t " (Bolan, 1974,  p.  plan with great naivete and with l i t t l e  32).  In an e f f o r t to devise a more e f f e c t i v e and r e a l i s t i c planning model, a "new  wave" (Friedmann and Hudson, 1974)  (Bolan, 1974)  of planning theory has emerged.  or "new This "new  paradigm" wave" places  greater emphasis on the "unrationality" of planning and i t abandons the premise that  planning can proceed along the value-free l i n e s of science,  Rather, i t acknowledges the e s s e n t i a l p o l i t i c a l nature of planning decisions and accepts the c e n t r a l r o l e played by ethics and values i n planning.  The more recent theorists see planning as a thinking and  s o c i a l process.  They recognize behaviour as being a central concept f o r  20  p l a n n i n g  a n d  i n t e r a c t s  w i t h  I t  i s  s p a c e ;  h o w e v e r ,  a l e r t  e f f o r t s  i l l s  o f  a  t o  s u b j e c t  C e n t r e  t o  d u c t i n g  h i r i n g  a t  s p i r i t  t o  o f  s t a g e s ,  c a n o n l y  m u t u a l  o c c u r  l e a r n i n g  a l t h o u g h  A c c o r d i n g  o t h e r  t o  d i s c u s s e d  o r  o f  2 )  m o d i f y i n g  M a x w e l l ,  a n d  p l a n n e d  a  t h e  i s  t h e  " p r o g r a m  i f  t h e  p l a n n e r  1973»  ( F r i e d m a n n ,  a s  a  b o t h  f o r  t h a t  t h e  C e n t r e s  a n d  f r o m  m a y b e  s e e n  w h e n  ( i . e .  w h e n  f u n d s ,  a c t i v -  t h e C e n t r e  o f f e r e d ,  s e t t i n g  m o n i t o r i n g ,  t h e  c o n -  r a i s i n g  e s t a b l i s h e d ,  b e  ( p r o c e s s )  v a r i e s  c o n d u c t e d ,  o f  a n d  m a t t e r ) .  m e t h o d  f a c i l i t y ,  s h o u l d  a l l t h e  e s t a b l i s h e d ,  o p e r a t i o n  t o  F r i e d m a n n  p l a n n i n g ,  C e n t r e s  i s  i n  d i s c u s s i o n  p a n a c e a  f o r  b r i e f  a r e  a n n u a l  e v a l u a t i n g ,  e t c . )  o n  i s  t h e name  a  a r e  i s  t h i s  s t u d y i n g  C e n t r e  c e n t r e  T h e  S e n i o r  t h e  i n  c o n t a i n e d  S e n i o r  r e q u i r e m e n t s ,  p l a n n i n g  p l a n n i n g  i n  a t  s e r v i c e s  p a r t i c u l a r l y  o f  a t  f o r  o n g o i n g  a n d  i s  t h e  s i t e  t h e  p l a n s ,  t h e s i s  C e n t r e s ,  i n i t i a t i o n  a f t e r  t o  i n  o p e r a t i o n ,  p l a n n i n g  b e f o r e  a r e  p r o d u c e  p l a n n i n g  m e m b e r s h i p  I t  n e v e r  t h e o r y  (1974).  i n h e r e n t  S e n i o r  a c t i v i t i e s  a s p e c t s  t h e C e n t r e  a t  l )  r e l a t e d  t h i s  l i t e r a t u r e  o t h e r  s e l e c t i n g  e s t a b l i s h i n g  e s t a b l i s h e d .  w i l l  a n y  p l a n n i n g  a n d B o l a n  r e g a r d i n g  a n d  ( i . e . s e l e c t i n g  o f  i t  C o n c e p t u a l l y ,  a n d d e c i s i o n s  t o  t h e  (1973),  ( s u b s t a n c e )  e t c . ) ,  f o c u s  o f  p l a n n i n g  t w o  a n d  j u s t i c e  ( o r  s t u d i e s ,  s t a f f ,  The  i n  p l a n n i n g  c o m p l e x i t i e s  a n d d e c i s i o n s  m a i n t a i n i n g ,  b e e n  a  r e v i e w s  t h e  m a t t e r  n e e d s  b u d g e t s ,  d o  C e n t r e  C e n t r e .  a c t i v i t i e s  t o  u n d e r s t a n d  n o w  o c c u r r i n g  made  i n  F a l u d i  t o  S e n i o r  T u r n i n g  d o  g o o d  t h e r e a d e r  i t i e s  e f f e c t i v e  c l i e n t  (1974),  t h a t  a s  h i s  i m p o s s i b l e  H u d s o n  a n d  t h a t  1974).  B o l a n ,  a n d  a r g u e  t h e  o f  s e p a r a t e  d o n e  c o n c e r n e d  p r o c e s s  s u m t o t a l  t h e C e n t r e .  e n t i t y "  a f t e r  w i t h  a r e  o f  t h e  p r o g r a m  a l s o  P r o g r a m  h a v e  p l a n n i n g ,  d i s c u s s e d .  a l l t h a t  ( M a x w e l l ,  C e n t r e s  i n d i v i d u a l s  c a n n o t  1 9 6 2 ,  p .  b e  59).  v i e w e d ,  A n o t h e r  21 author asserts that "programs are not only events, but also experiences with i n d i v i d u a l meanings f o r each member who p a r t i c i p a t e s " (Vickery,  1972,  p.  199).  The NCOA published a b r i e f guide f o r Senior Centre p r a c t i t i o n e r s , i d e n t i f y i n g eight components o f program planning: 1 ) E s t a b l i s h i n g program goals 2 ) Determining  priorities  3) A l l o c a t i n g resources 4) Monitoring programs and services 5 ) Producing information f o r constituents (boards, funding sources, and community) 6) Evaluating performance 7 ) Updating programs 8 ) Allowing f o r change (McGovern and Jacobs,  1975»  P»  2)  The premise of t h i s publication i s that program planning should aim to provide accountability, c r e d i b i l i t y , and t r u s t .  The authors argued  that i n order to reach t h i s goal, "Senior Centres need accurate management information on goals and; objectives, costs and resources, program implementation ? and evaluation" (McGovern and Jacobs, 1  1975»  P>  2).  The necessity  f o r such information has become more c r u c i a l i n recent years, due to f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t by a l l l e v e l s of Government and competition f o r funds with other sectors of society. As the "new wave" planning theorists stress, planning i s both a thinking and s o c i a l process.  I t involves not only understanding and  a c t i n g upon objective data, but also dealing with the complexity o f needs, desires, p e r s o n a l i t i e s , and emotions of Centre members, and s a t i s f y i n g  22  representatives of the community and government that the outcomes of a Centre's planning decisions are e f f e c t i v e and worthwhile.  Thus, planners  at Senior Centres not only need good management s k i l l s , but also to be highly s k i l l e d i n the human services, public r e l a t i o n s , and i n dealing with governments. F i r s t Assumption: Members Should Have the Opportunity to Become In a Centre's Planning Process V i r t u a l l y a l l l i t e r a t u r e on Senior Centres stresses the of involving members i n the planning process.  importance  Most of the arguments f i t  into one of four themes. l ) Gerontology - Gerontological studies have d i s p e l l e d a number of the myths about old people that have prevailed i n our society.  They  reveal that age i s a r e l a t i v e concept and people to not suddenly d e t e r i orate when they reach 65 years of age.  The a b i l i t y of a r t i s t s such as  Pablo Picasso, Goethe, and Michelangelo to produce great works i n t h e i r 80's, the continued p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y of world leaders such as Mao  Tse  Tung, Marshall T i t o , and Ronald Reagan, the the perseverance of numerous "lesser known" older adults long past the standard retirement age r e v e a l the danger of prejudging a person's p o t e n t i a l on the basis of chronologi c a l age alone. Research findings show that many of the so-called negative aspects of aging r e s u l t from environmental factors, rather than from b i o l o g i c a l changes or chronological age.  For example, recent studies involving  e l d e r l y subjects i n care f a c i l i t i e s discovered that when the subjects were given the opportunity and incentive to have a greater say i n the decisions which affected them, t h e i r memories improved and they became much more sociable and s a t i s f i e d with l i f e (Langer and Rodin,  1976).  23 These findings cannot be indiscriminately applied to Senior Centre members; however, they suggest that t r e a t i n g older people i n a humane way, showing respect f o r t h e i r decision-making a b i l i t i e s , and acknowledging t h e i r r i g h t to have a voice i n the planning of t h e i r own a f f a i r s can be b e n e f i c i a l . Studies such as the above lend support to arguments f o r ensuring that Senior Centre members have the opportunity to become involved i n t h e i r Centre's planning process.  They not only suggest that opportu-  n i t i e s f o r involvement may be b e n e f i c i a l to the older person's mental well-being, but that the lack of opportunities may have major detrimental effects. 2) Professional's r o l e - As noted i n the introductory chapter, the r o l e of the Senior Centre D i r e c t o r or planner, l i k e that of s o c i a l and community planners, has been more c l o s e l y analysed i n recent years. With the growing recognition that r a t i o n a l , value-free planning i s unattainable, the Senior Centre professional can no longer claim legitimacy from h i s technical expertise alone.  The recent emphasis that planning  theory l i t e r a t u r e places on the s o c i a l aspects of the planning process i s r e f l e c t e d i n the publications f o r Senior Centre p r a c t i t i o n e r s . Today's Senior Centre Director i s c a l l e d upon to serve as an enabler, catalyst, and motivator who plans with.„but never f o r Centre members (Wilson,  19?2; Jacobs, 1975).  i n e f f e c t , t h i s c a l l to engage i n a  process of "mutual l e a r n i n g " or "dialogue" with t h e i r c l i e n t s echoes the c a l l s of many "new wave" planning theorists who advocate that the planner's r o l e should be to engage i n a process of mutual learning (Friedmann and Hudson,  1974; Bolan, 1974).  7h  I n  c o n s i d e r i n g  l e g i t i m a c y "  members  m a j o r  i n  t h e  may  c a n c e l l a t i o n  b e e n  e f f e c t  n o  g i v e n  t h e  o f  f i g u r e  v e r y  q u i c k l y "  i n  s e e m  e f f e c t s  b e  a  s e v e r e  f o r  t h e  a d u l t  o n  a n o t h e r  t o  j o u r n e y .  p a r t i c i p a t e  D i r e c t o r  c a n  i n  b e  t h a t  C e n t r e  3.  p u b l i c  k.  e q u a l i t y  r e l a t e s  t o  S e n i o r  w i t h  t h e i r  C e n t r e  t h e  t i m e s  p r i n c i p l e s  a n d  p o s i t e d  b e f o r e  t h e  t h e  h e l d  t o  who  F o r  a n  n u m b e r  t o  a  l i v e s  C e n t r e  w e e k s .  a l o n e  who  The  a n d  h a s  a r e  C e n t r e  members  d e c i s i o n  m a k i n g  a t  f o r  t h e  p e r s o n  t h e  r e s p o n s i b l e  a  e x a m p l e ,  o l d e r  o f  i s  t h e i r  a n y  S e n -  n e g a t i v e  T h e  own  i n c l u d e  p r o f e s s i o n a l  m o v e m e n t  ( i . e .  s h o u l d  a  " c o u l d  f i n d  h e  1972,  G r e e k  e s s e n t i a l  s u r v i v a l .  s u g g e s t e d ,  a d o p t s  p.  members  u n l e s s  i n  A s  t h e  a  C e n t r e  c a t a l y s t - f a c i l i t a t o r  h i m s e l f  d i s p l a c e d  62).  H i s t o r i a n ,  f e a t u r e s  H e r o d i t u s ,  c o i n e d  t h e  ass  l a w  a c c o u n t a b i l i t y  o f  -  i t s  d e l i b e r a t i o n  a n d  o f  d e v e l o p m e n t  o f  a  c o n s e n s u s  o f f i c i a l s  s p e e c h  F a g e n c e ,  c e n t r a l  a  U n l e s s  D i r e c t o r s  W i l s o n ,  p o p u l a r  b l o w  f o r  o l d e r  d e c i s i o n  f o r  C e n t r e  p l a n n i n g  m e m b e r s .  e x c u r s i o n  i n  2.  t h e  t h e  ( S c h r e i b e r ,  e q u a l i t y  o n  " s e a r c h  i n c l u d i n g  F i r s t ,  m i n o r  s e r i o u s  p l a n n i n g )  1.  a  p l a n n e r ' s  f o r  e m e r g e .  l i k e  i n  D e m o c r a t i c  i n  p r o c e s s  members  " d e m o c r a c y "  The  t h e  i n c l u d e s  ( c i t e d  m i g h t  r e a s o n s  t o  r e a s o n  c h a n g e s  a n d  may  o r  r e s u l t .  p r o c e s s  r o l e  t e r m  t r i p  C e n t r e  s e c o n d  p r o f e s s i o n a l  3)  g o i n g  t h a t  p l a n n i n g  l e a d i n g  b u s  D i r e c t o r ' s  a d d i t i o n a l  f a r - r e a c h i n g  m o s t  t h e  C e n t r e  p l a n n i n g  f o r w a r d  b e  c o n s e q u e n c e s  t h e  a  t w o  W h a t  o p p o r t u n i t y  C e n t r e ,  The  h a v e  l o o k i n g  p r o s p e c t  i o r  C e n t r e ' s  o f  w o u l d  S e n i o r  I969),  ( R e i n ,  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  D i r e c t o r ,  h a s  t h e  1977,  p r i n c i p l e  0.  23)  u n d e r l y i n g  A t h e n i a n  " d i r e c t  d e m o c r a c y "  was  t h e  25 "equal r i g h t s of every c i t i z e n to participate i n the process of government..." (Fagence, 1977» P. 23).  Democratic p r i n c i p l e s have been c i t e d  to j u s t i f y the numerous c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n programs i n community planning i n the United States and Canada i n the 1960's and 1970's. Some cynics e x i s t , such as Fagence, who describes c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a "mere p a l l i a t i v e to the i l l s of the planning profession"  (Fagence,  1977,  p. l ) , and argues that the best c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n may, indeed, be equated with the l e a s t c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n (p. 35$).  However, confessed  non-believers l i k e Fagence are rare.,. In f a c t , " i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to avoid the view that writers and p o l i t i c i a n s a l i k e are a f r a i d to oppose e i t h e r the notion or the s p e c i f i c implementation of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n " (Rose, 1974, Arnstein i s correct,  p. 66).  Perhaps  "the idea of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a l i t t l e l i k e  eating spinach: no one i s against i t i n p r i n c i p l e because i t i s good f o r you"  (Arnstein,  1968,  p. 216).  Despite the general acceptance of the  "goodness" of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , no e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y method of measuring or evaluating the effectiveness yet been devised.  o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n has  According to one writer,  Many s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , planners, s o c i a l workers, and elected o f f i c i a l s p e r s i s t i n appraising what they term to be c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n without always r e a l i z i n g or admitting that what they report or i n f e r i s primarily a judgment - often a value judgment" (Rose, 1974, p. 214). A major problem facing participatory planning i n general, and a t Senior Centres i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s determining the "representativeness" of participants i n the process.  The f i r s t s t a f f workers a t the Hodson Cen-  tre had to deal with a select few domineering, autocratic,  e l d e r l y board  members who sought to run the Centre t h e i r way and by so doing,  threat-  ened to drive the other members from the Centre (Kubie and Landau, 1953).  26 This problem i s c e r t a i n l y not unique to the Hodson Centre, and i t emphas i s e s the f a c t that s e l f - i n t e r e s t , disagreeable tendencies, and incompetence w i l l not necessarily be eliminated by having representation from the users of any f a c i l i t y , service, or i n s t i t u t i o n . The f a c t that p o t e n t i a l problems may occur with involving Centre members i n planning, however, i s not an excuse f o r excluding them from the process.  The Centre Director or planner who has successfully adopted the  enabler-catalyst r o l e should be able to f i n d t a c t f u l ( a l b e i t time consuming) ways to remedy unproductive situations and work towards getting the planning process back on course.  Also, unless a l l c i t i z e n p a r t i c i -  pation programs could be s c i e n t i f i c a l l y proven to be i n e f f e c t i v e or d e t r i mental to the well-being of the i n d i v i d u a l , the exclusion of Senior Centre members from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the planning process at t h e i r Centres could not be j u s t i f i e d . I f society values democracy, and the r i g h t of i t s c i t i z e n s to p a r t i c ipate i n the process of t h e i r own government, any attempt to exclude older people from t h i s r i g h t , f o r reasons of age alone, would be blatant "ageism" (a term introduced by Butler (1969) to describe s o c i a l practices, including prejudices and stereotypes which are negative i n t h e i r appraisals of older persons and t h e i r r o l e i n s o c i e t y ) .  4) P o l i t i c a l expediency - I f members are involved i n a l l aspects of a Senior Centre's planning, they w i l l presumably become more committed to t h e i r Centre and work harder to make i t run successfully.  This b e l i e f  was  expressed by a leading spokesman i n the American Senior Centre momement, who  said, "You'll be a smash Director i f you have the members running the  Centre..." (Schreiber, 1972,  p. 37).  Certainly, i f members think they  are running t h e i r Centre, the Director should be a "smash""  27  I n v o l v i n g  o n l y  f o r  w e l l .  more  A s  a n d  C e n t r e  members  a p p l y i n g  t o  a m o u n t  t y p e  t u a l l y  c a n  o v e r "  l i k e l y  t h e  i n  " w i n n i n g  I f  d r i v e s ,  members  o f  a l l  f o r  g a i n  o f  C e n t r e ' s  p l a n n i n g  t h e  members,  b u t  t a k e  g r a n t s ,  f u n d i n g  S e n i o r  money  t o  f o r  h o l d i n g  f r o m  C e n t r e  C e n t r e s ,  more  a n d  o b t a i n e d  a  p r o c e s s  g a i n i n g  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  a s s i s t a n c e  p r o g r a m m i n g  a t t r a c t  a  I f  t h e  a  c a n  o f f e r ,  C e n t r e  i s  m e m b e r s '  C e n t r e ,  t h i s  a n d  f a c t o r  i t  o u t s i d e  e v e n t s ,  c o m m u n i t y  m a j o r  i m p o r t a n t ,  o r g a n i z i n g  s p e c i a l  b o t h  i s  f o r  i s  s u p p o r t  f u n d  t h e y  a r e  m u c h  g o v e r n m e n t  k e y  i s s u e  i s  s o u r c e s .  t h e  a m o u n t  f a c i n g  p a r t i c i p a t i o n  p a r t i c i p a t i o n  a s  r a i s i n g  d e t e r m i n i n g  a  n o t  i n  v i r -  p l a n n i n g  c e r t a i n l y  d e s i r a b l e .  S e c o n d  A s s u m p t i o n :  I n v o l v e m e n t  The  V a r i e s  " A p p r o p r i a t e "  f r o m  C e n t r e  t o  E x t e n t C e n t r e  a n d a n d  N a t u r e f r o m  o f  M e m b e r s '  I n d i v i d u a l  t o  I n d i v i d u a l  A n  A m e r i c a n  s o n s  who  s h i p  i s  g r o u p  c a r r y  a  h e a v y  t o  1969t  a t  t h a t  member  m u s t  A  n a t i o n a l  t i m e ,  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  n u m b e r s  g o v e r n m e n t .  n u m b e r  g i v e n  o f  A l s o ,  " T h e  o n  f i g u r e  a l o n e  members  s i z e .  p u b l i c a t i o n  was  t h a t  who  s e l f  C e n t r e  i n  a n d  e n t i r e  M a g a n n ,  b e i n g  o f  o v e r  1,000  5>7?°  b o a r d s  d e c i d e d l y  n o t  f o r m u l a  t h e  f r o m  o n l y  b e  of  l o w  a n d  g o v e r n m e n t  r o l e s  b e  i n  The  t h e  l e a d e r -  m e a n i n g f u l ,  f r o m  3).  d e c i s i o n  i d e a l  U n i t e d  S e n i o r  p e r -  o f  S t a t e s  C e n t r e s  C e n t r e s  t a k e n  had?,  19^9)•  w o u l d  o f  p l a n n i n g  w h i c h  o f  c o m m i t t e e  s u r v e y e d  d e t e r m i n i n g  i n  p.  A m e r i c a n  t h e  i n v o l v e d ' i n  n u m b e r  p r o c e s s ,  a c h i e v e d  c r i t e r i a  f o r  t h e  a n d  1 9 7 ^ ,  ( A n d e r s o n ,  t h e  e x i s t s  s h o u l d : \ b e  t h a t  p r o g r a m s . . . T o  f a r  t h e i r  i s  a r g u e d  s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t  (members)  ( J a c o b s  s h o u l d  n o  f o r  e f f e c t i v e  s u r v e y  d i s c o v e r e d  t h e  o f  i n v o l v e  i n v o l v e m e n t  A l t h o u g h  t o d a y ,  i n d e x  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n "  s e n i o r  i n  C e n t r e  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  r e l i a b l e  p r o g r a m s  m a k i n g  S e n i o r  l i k e l y  b e  much  h i g h e r  s u c c e s s f u l ' s e l f  t h e  a t  members  " a p p r o p r i a t e "  a  C e n t r e  a r e  o f  a  i n v o l v e d  28 w i l l d i f f e r i n d i f f e r e n t settings, depending on the size o f the  mem-  bership, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s assigned to s t a f f , and the physical and. emotional health o f group members" (Vickery, 1972, p. 168). A point which deserves emphasis i s that members should have the opportunity to become involved i n a Centre's planning, not required to become involved.  An older person may have a number o f p e r f e c t l y l e g i t i -  mate reasons f o r choosing not to become involved i n h i s Centre's planning process.  Attempting to^ reassure such a person to take an active r o l e i n  planning would l i k e l y t r i g g e r resentment, anger, or f e e l i n g s o f inadequacy.  Rather than gaining the person's support, the pressure t a c t i c s  could well drive him from the Centre, The question o f how much members should be involved i n a Centre's planning process can only p a r t l y be answered by examining the l i t e r a t u r e . A more complete answer w i l l emerge when the case studies are considered,. SUMMARY  This chapter has provided a b r i e f history o f the Senior Centre movements i n Canada and the United States and i t has presented a theoreti c a l l i t e r a t u r e foundation f o r the t h e s i s ^ The h i s t o r i c a l review traced the evolution o f Senior Centres from from the early single-purpose recreation or welfare Centres i n the 1970's and 1950's to the l a t e r multipurpose Centres that have emerged and gained increasing popularity since the 1960's, The t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e review began by examining what i s involved i n the planning process a t Senior Centres.  For the purposes o f  t h i s thesis, planning was defined as a thinking and s o c i a l process, cent r a l l y concerned with "the linkage between knowledge and organized action"  29  (Friedmann and Hudson, 1 9 7 4 , p. 2 ) . The various issues that may be involved i n planning f o r Senior Centres were also discussed. The remainder of the l i t e r a t u r e review substantiated the assumption underlying the research.  F i r s t , i t explored the question o f why members  should have the opportunity to become involved i n a Centre's planning process.  Four themes or j u s t i f i c a t i o n s were presented: gerontological,  the professional's r o l e , democratic p r i n c i p l e s , and p o l i t i c a l  expediency.  Second, i t examined the degree to which members should be involved i n t h e i r Centre's planning process.  No conclusive answer was found, as  the degree of desired member involvement was revealed to be dependent upon many variables and to vary from i n d i v i d u a l to i n d i v i d u a l and from Centre to Centre.  C h a p t e r  3  METHODOLOGY  T h i s  I t  c h a p t e r  b e g i n s  s t u d y  w i t h  w e r e  s a m p l i n g  a  d e s c r i b e s  b r i e f  c h o s e n  a n d  p r o c e d u r e ,  t h e  m e t h o d s  s t a t e m e n t  t h e n  a n d  C e n t r e  i n  t h r e e  i n  S e n i o r  N o r t h  R i c h m o n d .  m e t h o d s  C e n t r e s  V a n c o u v e r ,  T h e s e  o f  4 1 1  c h o s e n  b e c a u s e  t h e y  v i s i t s  t o  e a c h  C e n t r e .  I f  t r e s ,  t h e  t i m e  a n d  i n v o l v e d  t a t e d  my  a  d o i n g  r e s e a r c h  a n  l e s s  t i m e  p r o g r a m m i n g ,  o f  c o n t r a s t  C h a p t e r  h a d  c h o s e  i n  a n d  b u i l d i n g  i n  t o  i n f o r m a t i o n  c a s e  study;  S e n i o r  r e s e a r c h .  C e n t r e s  i n s t r u m e n t s  f o r  t h e  t w o  t o  u n d e r  u s e d ,  S i l v e r  I  s t u d y  t h e  m o d e l s .  h a d  l e s s  t h e  a n d  T h e  f a c i l i t y  i s  t o  M u r d o c h  make  m o r e  h a v e  C e n t r e  t h e y  C e n -  n e c e s s i -  i m p o r t a n t l y  b e c a u s e  t h e y  v a r y  w e r e  f r e q u e n t  a c c e s s i b l e  C e n t r e s  a n d  H a r b o u r  F i r s t ,  w o u l d  C e n t r e s  f u n d i n g  a n d  r e a s o n s .  S e c o n d ,  C e n t r e s  a r e  V a n c o u v e r ,  t r a v e l l i n g  s t u d y  p h y s i c a l  t h e  i n  s t u d y  a c c e s s i b l e .  c l i e n t e l e ,  o n  t h e  C e n t r e  d e c i d e d  p l a n n i n g  a n d  t h r e e  r e s e a r c h  i n  r e s e a r c h .  e s t a b l i s h m e n t ,  B a c k g r o u n d  i n  I  t h e  a n a l y s i s .  c h o s e n  r e a s o n a b l y  t h o r o u g h  p e r s p e c t i v e ,  i n t e r e s t i n g  t h e i r  c o s t  i n  S E T T I N G  w e r e  I  t h e  t h e  e x a m i n e d  t h e  C e n t r e s  w e r e  w h y  d i s c u s s e s  R E S E A R C H  T h e  o n  u s e d  f r o m  p r o v i d e  a c c o r d i n g  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  t o  b a s e s ,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : . -  p r o v i d e d  i n  t h e  c a s e  s t u d i e s  f o u r ' ,  METHODS  A s  The  m e n t i o n e d  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  i n  t h e  i n t r o d u c t o r y  f e a t u r e s  o f  c h a p t e r ,  e x p l o r a t o r y  30  t h i s  s t u d i e s  s t u d y  a r e  i s  t h a t  e x p l o r a t o r y .  t h e y  h a v e  n o  31 formal hyp6theses and that they are i d e a l l y suited to investigation of groups or phenomena about which l i t t l e i s known (Bailey, 1978).  I have  alerted the reader to the l i m i t a t i o n s of my methodology and advised him to exercise caution i n i n t e r p r e t i n g  or generalizing from the f i n d i n g s .  However, as I s h a l l explain, I believe that the methodological advantages outweigh i t s disadvantages. The data sources f o r the study consist o f l ) newsletters, Constitutions and By-laws, and other documents from the Centres, 2) personal observations, and 3) formal interviews and informal conversations with interview subjects and other Centre members and s t a f f .  SAMPLE I i d e n t i f i e d three groups of actors that I expected to play d i f f e r e n t r o l e s and have d i f f e r e n t perceptions of the planning processes a t the Centres: l ) Centre Directors, 2) board members, and 3) general members., I began by interviewing the Directors of the three Centres and asked them to set up interviews f o r me with board members.  Although the  S i l v e r Harbour and 411 Centres have younger "community members"* serving on t h e i r boards, I r e s t r i c t e d my interviews to board members who were also Centre members.  T M s decision was made because of time constraints  and because of d i f f i c u l t i e s I anticipated i n s e t t i n g up appointments with the community members.  *Adults who may or may not be Centre members who are i n v i t e d to serve by the Board rather than elected to serve by the general membership.  32 A l t h o u g h  i n s i g h t s  t h e  i n t o  o m i s s i o n  C o m m u n i t y  w i t h  d u t y  p l a n n i n g  t h e i r  members  a r e  a n d  d a y  n o t  t h e y  t o  b o a r d  d o  d a y  member,  a t  t h e  t o  t h e  f o r  s t u d y  t h e  t h e i r  i n  same  t h e  w o u l d  p r o v i d e d  C e n t r e s .  a f f e c t s  i n  who  t h e  i n  s u c h  s e r v e  C e n t r e s  b e  l e s s  I  do  v a l u e  t h e  b e l i e v e  o f  a s  o n  b o a r d ,  t h e  t h u s  o f  t h e  s t u d y .  a n d  a n d  c o m m u n i t y  t h e i r  ' B o a r d '  m e m b e r s h i p  d e c i d e d  t h a n  l a w  t h a t  t h e  c o m m u n i t y  f i e l d s  o f  v a l u a b l e  i n t e r e s t i n g  n o t  o u t s i d e  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  C e n t r e s .  I  some  t h e  i n f l u e n c e  members  i n v o l v e d  f a c i n g  a t  h a v e  e x p e r t i s e  C e n t r e  t h e  may  s e r i o u s l y  t h e i r  h a v e  i s s u e s  a s  t h e  I  c o n d u c t e d  a n d  " d o - e r s , "  s i x  a t  w h i c h  I  saw  To  s a m p l e  a  i n t e r v i e w s  o f  M u r d o c h  a  a n d  o b l i g e d  a s k i n g  b o a r d  e x c l u s i v e l y .  t h a t  t h a t  C e n t r e  o f  t h e  o f  o r  o f  t h e i r  t h e  o t h e r  a  o f  n i n e t e e n  t o t a l  D i r e c t o r s  a g r e e  who  t o  w e r e  h a v i n g  w o u l d  I  p e o p l e ,  w o u l d  t h e  o t h e r  m e m b e r s h i p .  t o  I  t h e  s e v e n  a t  n o t  b y  n e c e s s a r i l y  p r o c e s s  i n  m e m b e r s .  i n t e r v i e w  o b t a i n e d  s p o t "  A s  t h e  r e s p o n s e  p l a n n i n g  C e n t r e  s o u g h t  f a m i l y .  i n t e r v i e w s .  " o n e - s i d e d "  a n d  h i s  H a r b o u r ,  a c t i v e  i n d i v i d u a l s  i n  a n o t h e r  my  a  s m a l l  s a m p l e  s e t  u p  " o n  h a p p e n e d  t o  b e  a t  t h e  C e n t r e s  w h e n  i n t e r v i e w e d ,  I  was  a b l e  c o n d u c t  b e  t o  t h e  c o m m u n i t y  a s k i n g  i l l n e s s  S i l v e r  r e s p o n s e s ,  g e n e r a l  a v o i d e d  a t  C e n t r e  a s  a n d  members  o f  t h e  i n v o l v e d  members  w o u l d  f o r  ( e x c l u d i n g  e x p e r i e n c i n g  T h e s e  a b o u t  r a n g e  f r o m  was  d a n g e r  members  r e f u s a l  b o a r d s m e m b e r s  p o t e n t i a l  w i d e r  b o a r d  o n e  he  C e n t r e ,  d i r e c t l y  t h e  t h e y  h a d  t h a t  r e q u e s t i n g  i f  a l l  i n f o r m e d  s u b j e c t s  b y  I  p e r c e p t i o n s  w e r e  g a i n  o f  C e n t r e s .  t h e m  same  t h e y  i n t e r v i e w  D i r e c t o r s  i n t e r v i e w i n g  t h e  t o  w a s  s i x  C e n t r e  t h e r e  c h o s e n  f o r  n o t  p r o c e s s  c o m m e n t s  h e a v i l y  a t t e m p t e d  members)  h a v e  a n d  members  m e m b e r s ,  I  4 1 1 ,  a r e  U n l i k e  c o n t r i b u t i o n  t h e  t h e  g o v e r n m e n t s  members  I  c o m m u n i t y  o f  a c c o u n t i n g .  t h e  t h e  b y  i n t e r v i e w s .  t o  I  T h e y  was  a  33 t o t a l of nineteen such interviews.  Because none of the interviews were  arranged beforehand, the sampling procedure helped to ensure that others, i n addition to the Directors* "favourites," were selected, I t o l d the Directors that I d i d not want to speak only with active, outgoing members, but desired to speak with a cross-section of the membership.  A t o t a l of s i x members from a l l Centres refused to be i n t e r -  viewed; therefore, I may and outgoing members.  inadvertently have interviewed the more a f f a b l e  Due  to the small sample size and the possible bias  i n the s e l e c t i o n procedure, care must be taken i n generalizing the subjects' responses to the o v e r a l l membership.  However, as w i l l be  revealed i n the case studies, the opinions of the general members, as well as being i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h e i r own r i g h t , serve as an e f f e c t i v e b a l ance to the comments of the Directors and board members. A l l interviews were conducted i n private rooms or o f f i c e s at the Centres within a s i x weeks period between May and June, 1980. interviews  Some  with general members were completed i n twenty minutes, while  interviews with the Directors spanned several hours and involved frequent follow-up questioning.  The average length of time f o r an interview,  however, was an hour,  INTERVIEW SCHEDULES  I designed separate interview schedules f o r the Centre Directors, board members, and subjects from the general membership (See Appendix). As noted, I expected the three groups of actors to play d i f f e r e n t r o l e s and have d i f f e r e n t perceptions of the Centres' planning processes,  I  therefore designed the interview schedules with the aim of e l i c i t i n g the most complete responses from each group.  34 The questions were open-ended, probing into the following areas: l ) Roles of the Director, s t a f f , board, committee and general membership i n the Centre's planning process ( " o f f i c i a l " r o l e s as spelled out i n written job descriptions or the Centre's Constitution and By-laws, perceived r o l e s , and favoured r o l e s ) , Z) Desirable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s involved i n "planning" a t the Centres ( i . e . the Director, s t a f f , board and committee members). 3) Perceived opportunities and encouraging and discouraging factors f o r members' involvement i n the Centre's planning, 4) Advantages and disadvantages of the Centre's administrative model (e.g. funded, staffed, and operated by a Municipal Parks Department or run independently by members). 5) Planning issues f a c i n g the Centres, 6) O v e r a l l attitudes towards the respondent's Centre, i t s program, and Senior Centres i n general. One advantage of using an exploratory research design,  astopposed  to a more controlled design, Is that i t allowed f o r considerable f l e x i b i l i t y i n the interviews.  I t enabled me to ask respondents  questions  which were s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d to t h e i r Centres, as well as to allow them to elaborate on points which were of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to them.  Each  interview consisted of two types of questions: general questions r e l a t e d to the planning process at a l l Senior Centres, and Centre-specific questions r e l a t e d to aspects of the planning process peculiar to the respondent's Centre,  I determined the general interview question a f t e r  reading l i t e r a t u r e on Senior Centres, planning theory, c i t i z e n p a r t i c i pation, organizational science, and gerontology,  I determined  most of  35 the  Centre-specific questions after taking a tour of the Centres and  reviewing their Constitutions and By-laws, newsletters, staff's written job-descriptions, and other pertinent Centre documents. I added more questions related to the individual Centres when interview subjects raised issues that I had not foreseen.  Also, once I began interviewing,  I immediately eliminated questions from the schedule that appeared offensive, irrelevant, or generally ineffective.  Because of the f l e x i b i l i t y  of my approach, I was able to pursue the issues in subsequent interviews with other respondents and re-interview some earlier respondents on pertinent points. Although other researchers have noted that the described method of interviewing i s open to manipulation, both in terms of the questions asked and in the responses analysed and presented (Needleman and Needleman, 1974; Daneluzzi, 1978), I made efforts to control for bias. I sought this control i n my research design.  First,  I did not perform formal  pretests; however, I consulted three experts in the f i e l d of aging during the preparation of the interview schedules and I made major revisions to the schedules as a result of their comments. And, as noted, I conducted follow-up interviews with some early respondents to ensure that a l l interviews covered the most important questions and that the analyses were based on responses from the total sample, rather than a select few, I also attempted to control for bias in my analysis,  I presented  excerpts from interviews, both i n order to shed light on complex issues and to permit the reader to judge whether my interpretation of the comments was valid.  By making frequent v i s i t s to each Centre, I gained a strong  "feel" for the atmospheres of the Centres.  The personal observations I  36 made at the Centres, "off-the-record" comments I obtained during interviews, and casual conversations I had with respondents and others enabled me to gain insight into the characteristics and behaviour of people at the Centres,  Witnessing interactions between the Directors, board mem-  bers, and other members enabled me to put myself i n the position of the various actors and speculate how I would feel about participating in the Centres* planning. Finally, I attended the annual general meetings of two of the Centres, and a board meeting at the other C en tret, and thereby gained a greater understanding of the participatory planning process by observing i t i n action. ANALYSIS I used the "Shotgun" method of recording (Needleman and Needleman, 1974),, taking down notes on everything no matter how peripheral i t seemed to the study at the time.  My experience with the method was similar to  that of others who have used i t ; bits of data which at f i r s t seemed unrelated often f e l l into a seemingly obvious pattern as the research progressed.  Had I used a more rigorous research design and recorded only  information that I considered to be directly related to "my conception" of the planning process at Senior Centres, I would have eliminated some of the most significant data from the study (the findings on staffing, funding levels, and Centre buildings are the main examples). The data for the study i s descriptive, and requires qualitative, rather than quantitative analysis.  Although some social scientists gen-  erally prefer quantitative measures, believing that they can somehow, reveal a more accurate picture of "the truth," such social scientists  37 have been compared to "a drunk who searches f o r a l o s t wallet under a street l i g h t because the l i g h t i s better there" (Hampden-Turner, c i t e d i n Bolan, 1974,  p. 20).  As leading writers on Senior Centres observe, " I t i s not always possible i n evaluating programs i n a Senior Centre to e s t a b l i s h objective c r i t e r i a . Subjective judgments may be c a l l e d f o r and may be appropriate" (Leanse, et a l . , 1977, p. 38) This reasoning i s also applicable to studies of the planning process at a Senior Centre. By choosing to use q u a l i t a t i v e rather than quantitative analysis, the study faces two p o t e n t i a l hazards:  l ) presenting findings as "pat-  terns" when i n f a c t , no patterns exist, and 2) generalizing the findings to a larger population, i n cases where they only apply to the sample. The hazards are worth r i s k i n g , e s p e c i a l l y when the hazards of a l t e r native research designs are considered.  For example, Estes has complained  that "the dominance o f . . . p o s i t i v i s t i c research methodologies  inherited  from the i n i t i a l d i s c i p l i n e i n s o c i a l gerontology (Psychology) has limi t e d the legitimacy accorded to in<%depth observational approaches and has discouraged t r u s t i n , and researcher reliance upon, the perspectives and meanings generated and expressed by older people themselves" (Estes,  1979, P. 12). I have described the e f f o r t s I have taken to check and recheck the v a l i d i t y of my data and to control f o r bias,  I have confidence that the  patterns I describe are important i n providing an understanding of the planning process a t Senior Centres; however, "the ultimate test o f any method must be the u t i l i t y and r e p l i c a b i l i t y of i t s findings" (Needleman and Needleman, 1974,  p, 15).  I believe that the conceptualization and  execution of t h i s study i s sound and that the analyses and research  38  findings axe valid. I have sought to be clear and explicit i n my presentation i n order to facilitate the understanding and invite the scrutiny of a l l readers, as well as to assist researchers who may be interested in doing follow-up studies. SUMMARY This chapter has described the methodology used in the case studies. It contains a rationale for selecting the three Senior Centres examined in this thesis, a description of data sources, sampling procedure, interview schedule construction, and methods of analysis. Having provided this necessary background information, the case studies and analyses of factors which encourage and discourage members' involvement i n a Senior Centre's planning process are presented i n the following two chapters.  Chapter 4 CASE STUDIES This chapter presents case studies of three Senior Centres in Greater Vancouver, Each Centre i s examined separately i n an effort to provide a brief overview of the Centres' histories, buildings and physi c a l environments, memberships, programs and administrative structures. The purpose of the chapter i s not solely to provide elaborate descriptions of each Centre, but rather to present information which w i l l be pertinent to the analysis of factors which encourage or discourage memr bers i n becoming involved i n a Centre's planning process.  In addition,  the chapter aims to give the reader a "feel" for the Centres under study, thereby revealing the uniqueness of each Centre and underscoring the assertion made i n previous chapters that expteme care must be exercised so that generalizations about Senior Centre programs, clients, or physi c a l f a c i l i t i e s may be recognized as such. SILVER HARBOUR CENTRE A. Historical Overview The Silver Harbour Centre i n North Vancouver opened i n September, 1973, as the result of approximately five years of effort by a dedicated group of older citizens and interested younger individuals from North Vancouver. The f i r s t meeting to discuss the establishment of Silver Harbour was held i n February, 1968 at the home of one of the Centre's current officers.  At this meeting, a small group of older adults met 39  40  w i t h  a  t h e  l a n d  M a y o r  g r a n t  a p p o i n t e d  a  s o c i e t y .  I n  a s  The  t h a t  a d u l t s  M a n o r  a n d  e f f o r t s  V a n c o u v e r ,  w h i c h  d r a f t  H a r b o u r  a  t h e  C e n t r e  s o c i e t y  S o c i e t y .  was  n u m b e r s  t o  S e n i o r  t h e  ( e x c l u d i n g  made  i s  now  a n d  o f  a  l o c a t e d .  f o r  r e g i s t e r e d  w e r e  h e l d  b o t h  o l d e r  C e n t r e  c o m m i t t e e  c o m m i t m e n t  B y - l a w s  d u l y  M e e t i n g s  i n c r e a s i n g  g e t  who  C o n s t i t u t i o n  t h e  m e e t i n g s  I65  N o r t h  u p o n  1968,  o r d e r  i w r i t i n g  c i a l  A n d  t o  o t h e r  S o c i e t y  t h e  B,  B u i l d i n g  The  C i t y  N o r t h  i s  l e s s  The  a  V i c t o r i a  r e g u l a r l y  i n  t h e  y o u n g e r  e s t a b l i s h e d .  m e e t i n g s )  g r o u p  n o n - p r o f i t  i n  a n d  o f  B e t w e e n  w e r e  h e l d  b y  H a r b o u r  l a u n c h e d  s o u g h t  a  d o o r  S o c i e t y  h e l d  t o  c a n v a s s  a s s i s t a n c e  P r o v i n c i a l  a n d  g r a n t s  f o r  t h e  w h i c h  t h e  C e n t r e  b y  m e e t i n g  M u n i c i p a l  f r o m  u s e d  d o o r  b o t h  t h e  c o n s t r u c t i o n  i s  now  b a z a a r s ,  w i t h  l e v e l s  a n d  t h e  l o c a t e d  t h e  a n d  o f  F e d e r a l  o f  i n  P r o v i n -  C e n t r e ,  was  d o n a t e d  V a n c o u v e r .  E n v i r o n m e n t  w h e r e  a  b l o c k  b a r r i e r s .  H a r b o u r  o f  i m m e d i a t e l y  a w a y  f r o m  o f  s i t e ,  w i t h  S i l v e r  p o p u l a t i o n  v a r i e t y  s l o p i n g  d i f f i c u l t y  a c c e s s  w e r e  u p o n  h a s  a  S i l v e r  r e c e i v e d  l o c a t e d  a  a n d  s l i g h t l y  i m i z e s  i s  a l s o  t h e  P h y s i c a l  t h a n  s e r v i c e ,  h a v e  l a n d  V a n c o u v e r ,  C e n t r e  i n  w h i c h  w h i c h  a n d  members  N o r t h  a n d  t h e  e v e n t s ,  S o c i e t y  t h e  o f  V a n c o u v e r  H a r b o u r  f u n d s ,  p o l i t i c i a n s  n o t e d ,  b y  a  r a i s e  g o v e r n m e n t s ,  a s  b u s  t o  a n d  G o v e r n m e n t .  who  t o  o f  D e c e m b e r ,  f o l l o w e d ,  c o m m u n i t y .  o n  s i t e  c o m m i t t e e  1973,  l u n c h e o n s ,  I t  C i t y  s o c i e t y .  I n  o f  t h e  t h e  s u p p o r t e d  a n d  t h e  f o r  S i l v e r  y e a r s  1968  o f  s h o p s  w h i c h  w a l k i n g .  F o r  a  a d j a c e n t  a n d  T h e  e x a m p l e ,  i s  a p p r o x i m a t e l y  m a j o r  may  C e n t r e  t o  a  l o c a t e d ,  c r e a t e  o f  t h e  f r e q u e n t  i s  s i t u a t e d  C e n t r e  a  w i t h  C e n t r e ,  r a i l i n g  c e n t r e .  h a s  d i f f i c u l t i e s  d e s i g n  r a m p  w h i c h  s u b u r b  S i l v e r  r e c r e a t i o n  The  some  a  100,000,  t h o r o u g h f a r e  s e r v i c e s .  i s  f o r  p e o p l e  h o w e v e r ,  l e a d s  i n t o  m i n -  41 the Centre.  Within the building, an elevator, wall railings, and wash-  rooms for handicapped persons are provided. These design features enable members who would otherwise be unable to attend the Centre to make use of i t s f a c i l i t i e s with as l i t t l e inconvenience as possible. The Centre's building i s two stories high and has a basement, which i s also used for programs. While agreeing that i t s basic structure should be compatible with the Recreation Centre next door, members of the society were able to specify features which they desired to have incorporated into the design of the Centre. equipped.  Silver Harbour is well furnished and  For example, i t contains a kitchen and dining area, a large  crafts area with pottery kilns, weaving looms, and various other equipment, a b i l l i a r d room with three f u l l sized slate tables and a three-quarters size table, and a woodwork shop equipped with an array of quality hand and power tools.  Equipment and funds for the purchase of equipment came  from private and group donations and from grants from the Federal New Horizons program. Service Clubs were "especially eager" to donate equipment for men's activities, such as pool tables and power tools. One member described Silver Harbour members' resourcefulness i n gaining grants and donations this way:  "We're very good at begging."  Photographs of members participating i n on-going Centre programs and special events are arranged on the walls of the Centre. Examples of members' paintings, ceramics, and weaving are on display in the upstairs crafts rooms. Such 'personal' touches give the Centre a distinctive character, clearly accentuating the fact that i t i s people who give l i f e to any Centre.  42 G. Membership and Social Environment In July, 1 9 8 0 the membership at Silver Harbour totalled approximately 2 , 6 0 0 .  Membership i s available to individuals 60 years and over  and to their spouses.  Younger adults with handicaps have been granted  memberships upon the recommendation of their Physicians. A wide age-span i s represented at the Centre. Although some members use canes and appear to be slightly shaky i n their movements, the majority are reasonably mobile.  The Executive  Director of Silver Harbour observed, "We cater mainly to the well elderly." A member said: "We don't have f a c i l i t i e s to serve those in wheelchairs. Two or three other organizations look after them, so we haven't cut i n . We'd need extra staff and f a c i l i t i e s i f we tried." The membership appears to be predominantly from a middle-class background. On my visits to the Centre, I did not observe any members who were visibly impoverished.  Appearances may have been deceiving, for I was informed  that many members have no income aside from their Old Age pensions. One member suggested that i f members' incomes are modest, they may compensate by paying special attention to good grooming, i n order to keep up a "good front." Most members appear active and involved. They seem to have a purpose i n being at the Centre (for example, to take part i n organized activities such as dance classes, bingo, or crafts, chatting with friends, enjoying eating a meal, or reading a book in the Centre's library). Although not a l l members are involved i n organized activity, the Centre has a purposeful atmosphere, which distinguishes i t from a drop-in Centre,  43  Many o f the members are "regulars" who v i s i t the Centre d a i l y .  I  was frequently t o l d i n interviews that the Centre i s "a way o f l i f e " f o r many members.  The pool players, f o r example, a r r i v e a t the Centre before  i t i s unlocked i n the morning and they are the l a s t to leave i n the afternoon,  A member observed:  Many members are absolutely l o s t on Saturday and holidays when the Centre i s closed. A l l your friends are members. Another said, I've heard some members say 'coming here i s a way to get through the day.' That's rather sad. D. Purpose and Program The purpose of S i l v e r Harbour, as s p e c i f i e d i n A r t i c l e 2 o f the Centre's Constitution i s : a) To endeavour to provide such services and a c t i v i t i e s as may be deemed b e n e f i c i a l to the welfare o f e l d e r l y people. b) To own, operate, lease or manage such lands and premises as may be i n the control o f the Society from time to time. ( S i l v e r Harbour Manor Society Constitution,  Article 2 , ( 1 9 7 3 ) ) .  S i l v e r Harbour i s open from 9 * 0 0 a.m. to 4 : 1 5 P.m. from Monday to Friday and from 1 : 3 0  to  3>30 p.m., on a drop-in basis, on Sunday.  S i l v e r Harbour i s a multipurpose Centre, o f f e r i n g a broad spectrum o f a c t i v i t i e s and services.  Examples include:  organized a c t i v i t i e s - such as dance classes, c r a f t s , bingo, and keep-fit classes, educational experiences - such as French and Spanish lessons, v i s i t s to the theatre, and lectures by guest speakers,  44 t r i p s - day t r i p s as well as longer excursions, to places such as Reno, services - such as counselling, income tax a s s i s tance, housing r e g i s t r y , l e g a l advice, and community health services, n u t r i t i o n - snacks, refreshments, and a hot, n u t r i t i o n a l noon meal can be purchased a t modest prices i n the Centre's c a f e t e r i a , s p e c i a l events - such as sales, bazaars, dances, a Hawaiian Luau, an annual Mother's Day Pancake Breakfast, and Christmas dinner. The Centre i s also a f f i l i a t e d with the Federated L e g i s l a t i v e Council of Senior C i t i z e n s o f B.C. (F.L.C.), an umbrella group f o r Senior C i t i z e n s organizations that seek various benefits f o r Senior C i t i z e n s from Governments . A l l of the members whom I spoke to supported a broad base f o r programming.  As one of them said, with evident s a t i s f a c t i o n ,  We serve the whole person h e r e — p h y s i c a l and emot i o n a l . The only need we don't serve i s s p i r i t u a l . But there are l o t s of churches near here to look a f t e r that. E, Administration S i l v e r Harbour i s administered by i t s own Non-Profit Society. I t has thirteen member Board of Directors, which i s responsible f o r the Centre's policy, major f i n a n c i a l decisions, and the management o f the facility.  Seven o f the Board positions, those of the Society o f f i c e r s ,  are open to Centre members only.  These o f f i c e r s are elected to o f f i c e by  the Centre's general membership.  The remaining s i x Board positions,v,  those of the community members, are f i l l e d by younger adults from the community.  As noted previously, community members are not Centre members  and are not elected by the general membership.  Rather, theycsare i n v i t e d  45 to serve by the Board.  They are chosen mainly for their knowledge and  expertise and for their potential influence within the community and with Governments, Silver Harbour presently has the services of the Comptroller of the P.N.E., who serves as Treasurer, and a North Vancouver Alderman, who besides having p o l i t i c a l influence, i s also a lawyer and can assist the Centre i n legal matters.  Virtually a l l publications on Senior Cen-  tres recommend that younger community members be included on a Centre's governing Board..  Although Silver Harbour operates under the philosophy  that the Centre should be "for seniors, by seniors," the Executive Director and older Board members at Silver Harbour express gratitude for having community members. One member said: Our community members are very busy people. We don't usually get a l l of them out for a meeting, but we appreciate their dedication and a l l the help they give us. Another member, who supported the right of older-adults to have a say i n the planning of their affairs, had this to say of community Board members: I shudder to think what we'd do without them. There's a l o t of money involved i n this operation. We may have the odd retired accountant here, but most people are unaware of money matters. We need community members to help us run the Centre i n a businesslike way. The high value placed on community members i s attested to by the fact that when Silver Harbour f i r s t began, i t had six Centre members (Society officers) and seven community members on i t s Board,  Centre members were  satisfied with this arrangement. I t was a community member, not a Centre member who suggested that the Constitution and By-laws be changed to provide more member representation on the Board,  46  The Silver Harbour Society employs an Executive Director who i s responsible to the Board at a l l times. The Executive Director's respons i b i l i t i e s are mainly administrative, and cover such; areas as supervising staff, assisting with program planning, maintaining liaison with other community groups, and doing budgeting and purchasing, In addition to the Executive Director, the Centre employs five other full-time and two half-time staff (excluding maintenance personnel).  The  staff assists with the Centre's activity programs, office and administrative duties, and kitchen services. The Centre relies heavily upon the efforts of member volunteers for i t s operation. Each volunteer i s part of a program committee. Program committees are headed by "convenors" who are elected by the general membership at the Centre's Annual General Meeting. Provided that a committee does not contravene Centre policy or attempt to use more than i t s share of the Centre's resources, i t i s virtually free to do i t s own planning. Convenors meet monthly to report on earnings their programs have generated and to discuss matters relating to the Centre and i t s programming. At present, Silver Harbour has approximately two hundred active volunteers. The Executive Director proudly states, We suffer from the opposite problem of most Centres, Rather than having too few volunteers, we have (in some program areas) too many, The Centre's policy i s to use member instructors for i t s programs, whenever possible. I f qualified and willing members cannot be found,. the services of outside instructors from Community Colleges and other organizations are sought. Unless outside instructors are funded from  47 other sources, the S i l v e r Harbour Society i s not able to pay instructors for  t h e i r services. The Executive Director observes, We couldn't pay some instructors and not pay others. That would be a s i t u a t i o n i n v i t i n g problems. The bulk of operational funding f o r the Centre i s provided by a  Grant from the P r o v i n c i a l Ministry of Human Resources,  While the Grant  has been increased each sear, i t has not kept pace with the r i s e i n the cost of l i v i n g .  As w i l l be noted l a t e r i n the thesis, t h i s s i t u a t i o n  creates some problems f o r planning; however, i t challenges the resourcefulness of members i n r a i s i n g funds.  In addition to r e c e i v i n g the Provin-  c i a l Grant, S i l v e r Harbour members also contribute to the Centre's operat i o n a l revenue with proceeds from s p e c i a l events, program fees, and other activities.  The proportion of the member-raised funds has r i s e n from l e s s  than a t h i r d of the Centre's annual operating revenue i n 1974, to over 45% i n 1980. 411 SENIOR CENTRE  A. H i s t o r i c a l Overview Like S i l v e r Harbour, the 411 Senior Centre was i n i t i a t e d by a dedicated group of senior c i t i z e n s ; however, i t had to go through a "growing phase" before i t became a self-governing organization.  The f i r s t e f f o r t s  to get the Centre established occurred i n 1971, when members of the Senior C i t i z e n s Association of B.C. became concerned that there was no place i n downtown Vancouver where a senior from out-of-town could go to r e s t and have l i g h t refreshments while on a v i s i t to the c i t y .  Three members  of the Association formed a committee to p e t i t i o n the P r o v i n c i a l Government f o r assistance i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a small downtown senior drop-in Centre.  48 The Government met their request and provided a small space for the Centre on the ground floor of what was then a Provincial Government office building at 411 Dunsmuir Street. in the summer of 1972  Renovations for the Centre were started  and the f a c i l i t y was opened i n December of that year.  From i t s modest beginnings,  the Centre had a slow, but steady  growth. It was ©originally coordinated by an employee of the Provincial Division on Aging and staffed by older volunteers.  It functioned as a  place where "any senior who dropped i n " could purchase tea and snacks. Requests for more substantial and nutritious fare became frequent and i n 1973,  a full-time cook was hired to provide the Centre's patrons with sand-  wiches, soup, and an inexpensive hot noon meal. Shortly after, the Centre began offering a limited range of activities, suchr>as carpet bowling, bingo, discussion groups, and crafts. The number of staff, the range of programming, the size of the membership, and the physical space available for use by the Centre have increased steadily ever since,  A major change i n the Centre's adminis-  trative structure occurred i n 1977, non-profit Society,  when the Centre was registered as a  Following this change, the Centre was no longer under  the administration of a Provincial Government Department, but became a self-governing organization. B. Building and Physical Environment The 411 f a c i l i t y provides a sharp;, contrast to that of Silver Harbour. Rather than occupying a new building, specially designed and constructed as a Centre, i t i s housed i n an old four-story building which was constructed i n 1914  by a labour organization.  The building served as a  technical school i n the 1920's, a centre for unemployment r e l i e f in the  49 1930's, and then as the home of various Municipal and P r o v i n c i a l Government agencies from the 194-0 's to the 1970's. When the Centre was establ i s h e d i n 1972,  the b u i l d i n g contained a number of P r o v i n c i a l Government  Agencies, with the most important f o r seniors and the development of the 411 Centre being the D i v i s i o n on Aging. move out a f t e r 1972,  and by 1978,  These agencies slowly began to  the 4 l l Senior Centre was the sole  occupant of the b u i l d i n g . The 411 b u i l d i n g i s owned by the P r o v i n c i a l Government and managed by theBB.C, Building Management Corporation.  The 4 l l Society i s granted  free use of the basement and f i r s t two f l o o r s .  I t i s also provided with  free b u i l d i n g maintenance services. As the 411 b u i l d i n g was not s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to serve as a Senior Centre, i t i s not as a t t r a c t i v e or appropriate f o r i t s purpose as the S i l v e r Harbour f a c i l i t y .  Like S i l v e r Harbour's f a c i l i t y , however,  the 411 b u i l d i n g i s reasonably accessible to seniors who have problems with walking, and climbing s t a i r s ,  I t s entrance i s a t street l e v e l and  i t contains an elevator and washrooms f o r handicapped  people,?  In addition,  a number of renovations have been c a r r i e d out which have helped to make the b u i l d i n g more suitable f o r use as a Centre.  The major renovations  include the establishment of a men's woodworking shop, a large i n s t i t u t i o n a l - t y p e kitchen, a dining area, and a medical centre. Members of the Centre's Board  and operating committee kept the  Government informed about the need f o r an adequate Centre f o r seniors, and were thus instrumental i n gaining P r o v i n c i a l Government funds to undertake the recent renovations.  They also made suggestions as to what  form the renovations should take.  In addition, they and other Centre  5 0  members were successful i n acquiring Grants from such sources as the New Horizons Program, which enabled the Centre to purchase a printing press and other equipment for i t s programs. The downtown location of 411 contrasts with the suburban settings of Silver Harbour and Murdoch Centres. The location has a number of advantages.  First, i t i s central, making i t convenient for older adults  who live i n the downtown area and for other seniors who are downtown to shop or to keep appointments.  Second, i t i s on a city bus route (Dunsmuir  Street) and i s only a block away from the bus station.  I t i s therefore  easily reached by local seniors, as well as by those from out of town. Third, the building i t s e l f i s familiar to many older people, as i t has contained agencies and services for seniors since 1947.  As noted earlier,  the most recent of these agencies was the Division on Aging,  Older adults  had visited the Division on Aging for information on pension benefits, for bus passes, to see a counsellor, and for various other services. adults appreciate familiar environments.  Older  Thus when the 411 Centre was  established, i t had, i n effect, a "built-in" clientele. Despite these advantages, the Centre's location has drawbacks as well.  Perhaps the greatest drawback i s i t s close proximity to numerous  rooming houses, hostels, "seedy" hotels, and beer parlours.  Based on my  conversations with Centre members and my personal observations at the Centre, I suspect some older people may feel nervous about coming to 411. For example, one member who resides i n the area noted, This i s a rough part of town. Four people have been killed i n the hotel around the corner i n the past two months. Another said, Some of the people from around here use pretty  foul  51  language,  Old people don't like that,*  Also, during one of my v i s i t s a large, inebriated man who appeared to be i n his 20's entered the lobby of the Centre and began verbally abusing and physically threatening the members present. A Centre member calmly reasoned with the man and persuaded him to leave without incident. The experience was clearly upsetting to some members, however, and i t illustrates a type of problem for planning a successful, enjoyable program not faced at suburban centres, such as Silver Harbour and Murdoch. C, Membership and Social Environment The 411 Centre has the same membership policy as Silver Harbour, admitting individdals sixty years and over, and their spouses.  Younger  people with handicaps have also been admitted upon the recommendation of a social worker or doctor. In mid-1980, the Centre's membership was approximately 1,600. 411's clientele i s much more diverse than that of Silver Harbour, coming from a variety of residential locations, income brackets, and educational and social backgrounds.  Although the Centre was originally  established to serve out-of-town seniors visiting downtown Vancouver, i t has attracted a large number of older adults (predominantly male) who reside i n hostels, old hotels, and rooming houses near the Centre, I found that some people I interviewed at Silver Harbour and Murdoch had an image of the 411 members as "those poor old souls who need a place to come out of the rain,"  The members and staff at 411 are conscious of the  concept others have of the Centre and i t s clientele.  The former Program  •"-Judging from the vocabulary of some of the members I spoke with and overheard at 411, not a l l old people would object to "foul language".  52  A s s i s t a n t ,  f o r  e x a m p l e ,  t o l d  me  a  s t a n d i n g  j o k e  r e g a r d i n g  t h e  C e n t r e ' s  i m a g e s  B r o c k  H o u s e  P o i n t  G r e y  ( a  p r o s p e r o u s i s  t h e  D e s p i t e  b e r s h i p  i s  r e s i d e  a n d  i n  t h e  e v e r y  y e a r s ,  W h e r e a s  n i t y ,  f r o m  t h r o u g h o u t  b u s  c o m m u n i t y  t o l d  s o o n  b e  mean  i n g "  a  r e a l  o n l y  A  V a n c o u v e r  h a v e  members  p r o m i n e n t  o v e r  t h e  p a s t  t h e  E a s t  t o  t w o  I n d i a n  o f  4 1 1  C e n t r e .  t h e  members  Some  t r a v e l s  t h e  i n  mem-  K e r r i s d a l e :  man,  I n  p e r s o n  500  a n d  j o i n e d  f r o m  4 1 1 ' s  r e g i o n .  S h a u g h n e s s y  W e s t m i n s t e r .  t h a t  a r e a ,  commu-  E a s t  h i s  I n d i a n  c o m m u n i t y  C e n t r e .  s a i d ,  m e l t i n g  o n e s  who  s n o o t y  a r e  a n n o y i n g  t o  t h o s e  p o t  m i g h t c o m e .  4 1 1  h e r e .  M a n y  o r  a c t i v e  who  members  o t h e r  i n  p a s t i m e  a r e  come  o f  t h a t  4 1 1  p r o g r a m s .  a l l  i n  a t  h e r e  w o u l d n ' t  a t  i t s  a  " l o b b y  own  a  come  The  a r e  w a n t  o f  r e s p e c t s .  w a t c h e d .  a t t i t u d e s  p r e s e n c e  n o t We  r e s e m b l e s  i n a c t i v e  m e m b e r s '  t h e  t o  a t  C e n t r e .  t ^ e y  f o u n d  d o w n t o w n  s a i d ,  a n  s t u d y  a s  I n d i a n s  f i v e  200.  o v e r  member  a c t i v i t i e s  o f  h a d  t h e  b e  s t u d y  C e n t r e  t h e  G r e a t e r  New  E a s t  a t  c a n  a  o f  h a s  a t m o s p h e r e  o r g a n i z e d  n u m b e r  H a r b o u r  n i n e t y - s i x - y e a r - o l d  i n  a t t e n d i n g  d a r n e d  a c t i v i t y  home  e x p e c t s  C e n t r e  The  h i s  S i l v e r  V o l k s w a g e n .  i n  s u c h  a  he  A n o t h e r  n o t  t h e  member,  a f f l u e n t  w e l l - e d u c a t e d ; a n d  t h e  l i v e  t h e  t h a t  W e ' r e  a n  f r o m  me  who  n e i g h b o u r h o o d s ,  o l d e s t  19?8»  The  C a d i l l a c ,  w e ' r e  d r a w n  p r e s e n t l y  One  t h e  a n d  members  i n c r e a s i n g  w i l l  i s  V a n c o u v e r ' s  many  many  b y  i n  i t  members)  i n  h a s  t h e  C e n t r e ' s  a n  C e n t r e  w h i c h  T h u n d e r b i r d ,  a f f l u e n t  d a y  S e n i o r  a r e a ,  t h o s e  d r o p - i n  t o  s i t ,  f a c t  F o r  r i g h t ,  t o o  t h e m ,  t h a t  a n y w a y .  C e n t r e  n o t  t o  p e o p l e  e x a m p l e ,  a l t h o u g h  more  t h a n  e n g a g e  i n  " s i t "  " p e o p l e  i t  may  T h i s  a n n o y i n g  a s p e c t  was  l a r g e  A m e r i c a n  S e n i o r  C e n t r e ,  s i t t e r s "  a n d  " g o s s i p s "  t o  d o e s  w a t c h -  b e  r e v e a l e d  b e  i n  The  among  t h e  53 m a j o r  c o m p l a i n t s  T h e  P a s t  v o i c e d  b y  members  P r e s i d e n t  o f  4 1 1  p a s s i v e  members  a r e n ' t  He  o f f e r e d  s t u d e n t s  t h u s  d o l l a r  f o r  w a l k i n g  e v e r y  t o u r .  W h i l e  many  a c t i v e  o r g a n i z e d  p i a n o ,  f o r  g o t  t h e y  c h o s e  D.  i n  f r o m  d i v e r s e  i n  a  t e r m s  do  P u r p o s e  The  o r  a n d  t o  woman  f r o m  some  p a r t i c i p a t e  t h e  t o  g o t  u p  i n s t a n c e s  o f  m a i n  o n e  a c c e p t  t h e  i n  a n d  i n  t h e  a r e  a  o t h e r  members  b )  To a n d  o f  S o c i e t y  e n d e a v o u r  t h e  4 1 1  i s  a  t o  c o u n s e l l i n g  d e e m e d e l d e r l y  h a s  i n v o l v e d  i n  a c t i v i t i e s .  a  e n e r g e t i c  F o r  p l a y i n g  m o n t h l y  t h e  B i r t h d a y  j i g ,  a t t e n d a n c e .  r a c i a l  p r e j u d i c e  o f  c l a s s ,  members  ( w h i c h  m e m b e r s '  T h e  a n d  a n d  i n t e r e s t s ;  w h a t  I  w i l l  a t t i t u d e s  c l i e n t e l e  t h o s e  w a s  h o w e v e r ,  o t h e r s  C e n t r e .  S o c i e t y  a r e  v e r y  s i m i l a r  t o  t h o s e  H a r b o u r :  The  a l s o  P r o g r a m  o b j e c t s  a )  a  i t  D u r i n g  a n  i n  a  d o l l a r .  s t a r t e d  a c c e p t a n c e .  s o c i a l  o n e  member  d i d  C e n t r e .  p r o j e c t  members,  many/  i m p r e s s i o n  o f  w i t h  s p o n t a n e o u s  C e n t r e ,  t h o s e  was  a t  o n l y  t h e  summer  p a s s i v e  s i n g - a l o n g s .  l i f e s t y l e ,  d o ,  t o  e n g a g e  411  a p p e a r e d  e n c o u r a g e  t h e y  o l d e r  a g e ,  a  N o t  i m p r o m p t u  t o  o n  p a r t e d  o f  " s e e m i n g l y "  C e n t r e  o n l y  b e n e f i t s "  c o n s p i c u o u s l y  t o  C e n t r e ' s  t h e  h a d  a l s o  t h e  " f u l l  m e m b e r s .  c h a p t e r ) ,  o f  n o t  o f  a p p l a u s e  v i s i t s  he  v i s i t s  o b s e r v e d  l a t e r  my  my  a n  a n d  I  g e n e r a l l y  t o  o f  s p a r k i n g  h o o t s  A l t h o u g h  b u t  a t  t h a t  t h e  c o u l d  w e e k s ,  e n e r g e t i c  members,  r e c e i v i n g  I  n u m b e r  t h r e e  t h e r e b y  d i s c u s s  h a s  a n d  o n  t h e y  s i x  a  c o n c e r n e d  w o r k i n g  A f t e r  a c t i v i t i e s ,  e x a m p l e ,  P a r t y  4 1 1  i s  e x p e r i e n c i n g  " s i t t e r "  1976).  ( C a r p ,  n e c e s s a r y p e o p l e .  n o n - p r o f i t  p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s f o r  t h e  s u c h a n d  o r g a n i z a t i o n .  r e c r e a t i o n a l , a c t i v i t i e s  w e l f a r e  o r  a s  c u l t u r a l , may  e n j o y m e n t  be^. o f  o f  S i l v e r  54 c) To own, or operate, or manage such lands and premises as may he i n the control of the Society from time to time,  (411 Society Constitution. Article 2.  (197?)).  The Society has also published a position paper, which states: The purpose and goals of a Centre should be based on the belief that programs and services are meant to enrich lives; that associations and activities are to help older citizens f u l f i l l their basic needs. Like Silver Harbour, the 411 Centre i s a multipurpose Centre, offering  a broad program of activities and services. I t i s open seven days a  week from 8:45 a.m. to 4 : 1 5 p.m.  I t offers:  organized activities - such as sewing classes, chess and cards, trips - free monthly bus trips - Longer excursions are available at a modest price, educational experiences - such as discussion groups and English for New Canadians classes, personal services 35 such as counselling, legal advice, assistance with pension forms, income tax assistance, and medical services. Unlike Silver Harbour, the 411 Centre i s not affiliated with the Federated Legislative Council of Senior Citizens of B.C., or any other organization directly involved in seeking social action for senior c i t i zens.  Members and staff with whom I spoke at 411 were adamant that the  Centre must be non-political.  They argued that as the 411 Society  relies upon the Provincial Government for i t s operating budget and building, i t would be neither appropriate nor wise for the Centre to get involved in p o l i t i c a l issues.  One member said,  It's important for people, to fight to ensure that seniors get the benefits they deserve. I'm a l l for i t , as long as they don't bring the Centre into i t .  55  The program at the 411 Centre places greater emphasis on services than the activity-oriented Silver Harbour Centre's program. Much of i t s program i s open to a l l seniors, not only to Centre members. For example, the Information and Referral Services, which are located on the second floor of the building, received nearly 10,000 telephone enquiries and over 4,000 office visits from B.C. seniors in i t s f i r s t seven months of existence. The Talkfest, a weekly program which features guests speaking on a variety of topics, i s also open to any senior who cares to attend, It i s given weekly publicity in a local newspaper, and though i t got off to a slow start, i t has attracted increasing numbers of older adults as the sessions have progressed. Interested members are presently working with the Community Education Division of the Vancouver School Board to establish a Downtown Learning Centre at 411, which w i l l offer educational programs to seniors. Other plans for the Centre include securing the services of a Podiatrist and a Dentist in the near future. The staff and Centre members I interviewed at 411 a l l spoke proudly of the program offered at the Centre. A Board member who might have had a "bigger i s better" philosophy, said, We're the largest multiservice Centre in B.C. (in terms of services offered and numbers using them), We aim to be the biggest in Canada. E. Administration As noted, the 411 Centre was originally administered by the Provinc i a l Government's Division on Aging and then by the Vancouver Resources Board under the Ministry of Human Resources. Upon becoming a non-profit Society in 19?7» the Centre adopted an administrative structure similar to that of Silver Harbour. Tfte Centre i s administered by a Board of  56  D i r e c t o r s ,  c o n s i s t i n g  m e m b e r s - a t - l a r g e  t h e  A s  C e n t r e .  w i t h  t u r e s  a r e  E i g h t  t h e  c o n s i s t  m a i n l y  b y  t h e  The  d a y  o f  t o  b y  t h e  T h e  a d d i t i o n ,  4 1 1 ' s  e n t r u s t e d  a n d  F o u r  C e n t r e ' s  a r e  t h e  a n d  o f f i c e r s  m e m b e r s h i p  i n v i t e d  t o  a n d  s e r v e  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  m a k i n g  a n d  d e c i s i o n s  a r e  b y  o f  o n  t h r e e  members  t h e  o f  B o a r d . ;  4 l l ' s  B o a r d  m a j o r  e x p e n d i -  I  was  a r e  b y  m e e t s  t o  t h a t  r u n s  s t a f f  o f  n o t  t h e  f u l l - t i m e  C e n t r e ' s  w i t h  t h e  a n d  a n d  O p e r a t i n g  a n d  t h e  e l e c t e d  members  o f  d i s c u s s  i s s u e s  4 1 1 ,  b y  n o t  i n c l u d e s  t h e  a n  t w o  p a r t - t i m e  R e f e r r a l  S e r v i c e s .  E x e c u t i v e  D i r e c t o r  g e n e r a l  management  i s  t h e  r e p o r t s  f r o m  a f f e c t i n g  a n d  a t  p r o g r a m  t h e  members  i s  o f  c o m -  p r o g r a m  S i l v e r  H a r b o u r ,  g e n e r a l  a c t i v i t y  t h e  C o o r d i n a -  C e n t r e  t h a t  g r o u p .  a n d  " i t ' s  i t s  t h e  B o a r d . "  f o u r  D i r e c t o r ,  k i t c h e n  s t a f f  a r e  r e s p o n s i b l e  o f  p r o g r a m m i n g  C o m m i t t e e  C e n t r e ' s  E x e c u t i v e  a n d  i t s  C o o r d i n a t o r s  e a c h  h e a r  s t a f f  a n d  c o m m i t t e e s  b y  t o  t o l d  C e n t r e  The  p r o g r a m  B o o k k e e p e r - R e c e p t i o n i s t ,  t w o  t h e  m o n t h l y  r e p e a t e d l y  p a i d  members  C o n v e n o r s  a n d  a f f e c t  C o m m i t t e e .  B o a r d  c h o s e n  p r o g r a m s  C e n t r e ' s  a  t h e  w h i c h  t h e  P r o g r a m  e m p l o y e e s .  e m p l o y e d  t o  C e n t r e ' s  a  t h e  t o  I n  o p e r a t e  B o a r d  a n d  i s  b u s i n e s s ,  p r o g r a m s ,  E x e c u t i v e  D i r e c t o r ,  s e r v i c e s .  The  i s  e l e c t e d  a r e  I n f o r m a t i o n  The  p o l i c y  O p e r a t i n g  C o m m i t t e e  A s s i s t a n t ,  t h e  members  d e c i s i o n s  C o m m i t t e e  p r o g r a m m i n g .  T h e  b y  B o a r d ,  C o o r d i n a t o r s  t h e y  t h e i r  O p e r a t i n g  d a y  t h e  a c t i v i t y  o n  s e t t i n g  s e v e n  O p e r a t i n g  t o r s  H a r b o u r  U n l i k e  m e m b e r s h i p ;  e l e c t e d  m e m b e r s .  S o c i e t y ,  a c t i v i t i e s .  4 1 1 ' s  o f  f i f t e e n  c o m m u n i t y  S i l v e r  h a n d l e d  p o s e d  a r e  o f  P r o g r a m  r e s p o n s i b l e  A l l  s t a f f  A s s i s t a n t ,  f o r  a t  t h e  4 1 1  u n d e r  d e v e l o p m e n t  m u s t  c o m p l y  t h e  a n d  w i t h  d i r e c t f o n  o f  o p e r a t i o n  t h e  t h e  o f  C e n t r e ' s  t h e  C e n t r e ' s  p h i l o s o p h y  p r o g r a m .  t h a t  t h e  57 C e n t r e ' s  p l a n n i n g  a s s i s t a n c e , "  t h i s  s h o u l d  T h e  j o b  Members  a r e  r a t h e r  T h e  p l a c e s  4 1 1  u p o n  a l s o  o f  s e n i o r s ,  t h e  b y  P r o g r a m  s e n i o r s ,  w i t h  A s s i s t a n t  s t a f f  a r t i c u l a t e s  a n d  f r o m  t h e  a n d  o f f e r e d .  g i v e n  t o  o f  4 1 1  do  H a r b o u r  C e n t r e  113  t o  i n  u s e s  i n s t r u c t o r s  " b u l l  w o r k "  t h e  t h e  t o  d o  a s  w h a t  i t  t o  t h e  a s  t o  l e a d  p r o -  j o b .  I t  t a b l e s  a n d  v o l u n t e e r s  o p e r a t i o n  One  i t  a s s i g n s  w i p i n g  a n d  s t a t i s t i c s .  T h a t ' s  r o l e  s e r v e d  p l a n n i n g  r e l i a n c e  members  s u c h  members  t h e s e  h e r e .  t o  t h e  f o r  H a r b o u r  a b o u t  a  member  a t  o f  4 1 1 .  s a i d ,  makes  a s  s t a f f  t h e  o f  4 1 1  C e n t r e  c o m e s  f r o m  w o u l d  b e  m i s l e a d i n g  G r a n t s  o n  t h e  a n d  t h e  T h e r e f o r e ,  f u n d i n g  a d e q u a c y  n o  a n d  b a s i s  a  t o  o f  a  p u r p o s e ,  c o m p a r i s o n  i t s  e f f e c t s  i s  o n  c h a p t e r .  G r a n t ,  a n d  f u n d s  e x p r e s s e d  M i n i s t r y  I t  d i f f e r .  b a z a a r s  o p e r a t i n g  a n d  4 1 1  c i r c u m s t a n c e s  l a t e r  o p e r a t i n g  t h e  R e s o u r c e s .  p r o g r a m s  i n  s u c h  f o r  C e n t r e s '  s a i d  i t s  a n d  t h e  Human  t h e i r  b e  f u n d i n g  S i l v e r  a s  o f  t h e m  b y  a n d  f a c i l i t a t o r s  " f a c i l i t a t o r "  o u t s i d e  o f  t e a m  p l a n n i n g  Members  t h e m  a  t h e  t h e  h o u r s  p r o u d  t h e  e v e n t s ,  u p o n  a s  w o r k .  w i l l  a n d  f u n d - r a i s i n g  H a r b o u r .  a s  o f  a d d i t i o n  r e l i e s  w e r e  S i l v e r  1 9 8 0 ,  2 , 1 0 1  r a t i o ,  M o r e  p r o g r a m m i n g  I n  M a r c h ,  M i n i s t r y  n a t u r e  t o  t o  o p e r a t i o n a l  s i z e  m e m b e r - d o l l a r  s c o p e ,  I n  o f  l e a d e r s h i p  e m p l o y e d  a n d  t o  v o l u n t e e r s  C e n t r e  t h e  s i m i l a r  l o o k i n g  o p e r a t e  b u l k  p r o v i d e  a r e  p o s s i b l e ,  d e v o t i n g  t h e  c o m p a r e  t h a n  members  We  T h e  i s  v o l u n t e e r s  c h a i r s .  C e n t r e ,  G r a n t  C e n t r e  u p o n  t o  S t a f f  t e a c h e r s .  W h e n e v e r  r e l i e s  S t a f f  e n c o u r a g e d  t h a n  r a t h e r  s t a c k i n g  i t  d e s c r i p t i o n  h e l p .  member  s t a f f .  g r a m s ,  t h e  d o n e " ' " f o r  p h i l o s o p h y :  v o l u n t e e r  i t s  b e  Human  t h e  4 1 1  W h i t e  t o  a  C e n t r e  E l e p h a n t  l e s s e r  g r a t i t u d e  f o r  R e s o u r c e s ,  h o l d s  s a l e s .  d e g r e e  t h e  T h e y  s p e c i a l  t h a n  H o w e v e r ,  S i l v e r  f i n a n c i a l  r e g a r d e d  s u p p o r t  i t  a s  a  58  key factor in enabling 411 to carry out i t s program as i t does. A Board member acknowledged, We wouldn't be able to offer the services we do without MHR funding. Another said: The money frees us. Directors at some other Centres spend half their time in search of funds, We can devote a l l our energies to doing work for the Centre. MURDOCH CENTRE A. Historical Overview Unlike the Silver Harbour and 4 l l Centres, Murdoch Centre in Richmond was not initiated or planned by Senior Citizens, Rather, i t was established by the Richmond Municipal Council and the Department of Leisure Services. Prior to 1 9 7 5 , Richmond's elderly population had limited opportunities to participate in organized activities. Although they could take part in some programs for seniors in community centres, such as carpet bowling and bingo, these programs were only scheduled for a few hours each week. Some older adults, of course, were able to participate in programs with younger adults, and many have probably continued to do so. However, roughly two-thirds of the older people I interviewed claimed that older adults generally prefer to participate in programs or activities . with people in their own age group, I was also told that, either due to poor health or for psychological reasons, many seniors would feel intimidated joining in activities with younger adults, I f these statements are indicative of most older people's viewpoints, the needs of Richmond's seniors for recreational and social opportunities were not being  59 satisfied. Richmond's Municipal Council and Department of Leisure Services were sensitive to these unmet needs and they realized that as the older adult population was steadily increasing, the problem would only become greater. In the words of a Department of Leisure Services employee, the Department and Council realized that they had "a moral obligation to do something for seniors."  Thus?.,the Leisure Services Department, with Council's support,  was spurred on to establishing a separate f a c i l i t y with i t s own program for Richmond seniors. The f a c i l i t y that the Department chose was a two-story Church H a l l , which was under construction at the time by the Brighouse United Church. The Department helped secure a grant for the Church to assist with construction costs and i t was able to lease the building for f i v e days per week for use by Murdoch Centre.  The Centre began operation i n October,  1975. During Murdoch Centre's f i r s t years of operation, i t s program expanded and the membership increased steadily.  I n i t i a l l y , the Centre  offered a small range of " t r a d i t i o n a l " a c t i v i t i e s for seniors, such as carpet bowling and bingo.  By 1979» however, i t was offering a much  larger program, providing a wide variety of a c t i v i t i e s for i t s members. And while i t s membership stood at 40 after six months of operation, the figure had increased to over 700 by mid-1979, These growth factors made-the management of Murdoch Centre a demanding and d i f f i c u l t job.  In 1979i therefore, the Assistant Director* of  *A staff person hired by the Department of Leisure Services to work "on s i t e " at the Centre and perform managerial duties.  60 t h e  o f  C e n t r e  t h e  e n d e a v o u r e d  C e n t r e  e f f e c t i v e l y  C e n t r e  t h e  w h i c h ,  a n d  g u i d e l i n e s  M u r d o c h  a n d  w h i c h  C o n s t i t u t i o n  a n d  G e n e r a l  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  n e c e s s a r y ,  t h e  B.  s t a t u s  o f  c h a n g e  w o u l d  t o  h e l p  t h e  a  t h e  h e r  t o g e t h e r  a s  i n  n e e d s  a s s i s t a n c e ,  s e r v e  i n  o f  t o  t h e  t w e l v e  " t r i a l "  o p e r a t i o n a l  b o t h  d r a f t e d  do  s e n i o r  a  g u i d e l i n e s  h e r  j o b  more  i n c r e a s i n g l y  s e t  c o m p l e x  c i t i z e n s  o f  C o n s t i t u t i o n  o f  n e a r l y  s h o p p i n g  i s  f r o m  o p e r a t i o n a l  a n d  B y - l a w s  f o r  o n e - y e a r  t h e  same  o f  a n  C e n t r e  t r i a l  p r e s e n t e d  b y  members  b a s i s  m e e t i n g ,  t h e y  t h e  E x e c u t i v e  a t  w i l l  t h i s  T h e  p l a n s  n e a r  f u t u r e ,  b u t  C e n t r e  w i l l  t h e  s l a t e  a s s e s s e d  t o  t o  1979  D i r e c t o r .  b e  c o n t i n u e  t h e  M u r d o c h ' s  A s s i s t a n t  g u i d e l i n e s  y e a r .  a p p r o v e d  a p p r o v e d  o p e r a t i o n a l  A d v i s o r y  a p p l y  b e  o f  T h e  a n d ,  f o r  i f  n o n -  a d m i n i s t e r e d  b y  S e r v i c e s .  E n v i r o n m e n t  m u n i c i p a l i t y  i n  w h i c h  M u r d o c h  w h i c h  h a s  e x p e r i e n c e d  r o u g h l y  t h e  same  s i z e  C e n t r e  d r a m a t i c  a s  N o r t h  i s  l o c a t e d ,  g r o w t h  s i n c e  V a n c o u v e r ,  i s  t h e  w i t h  a  a  S e c o n d  p o p u -  100,000.  b u i l d i n g  i n  s t r e e t ,  w h i c h  r o u g h l y  t h o r o u g h f a r e )  c o m p l e x .  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  A t  P h y s i c a l  V a n c o u v e r  s i d e  new  f o r m a t i o n  m e m b e r s ,  a  L e i s u r e  t h e  t h e  o n  members  l a t e r  t h e  o f  I t  f o u r - l a n e  t h e  f o r  C e n t r e  B y - l a w s  o f  War.  T h e  s m a l l  t o  c a l l e d  B o a r d  a n d  R i c h m o n d ,  l a t i o n  t h e i r  s e v e n  r e v i s e d  B u i l d i n g  W o r l d  a  b r o u g h t  M e e t i n g .  D e p a r t m e n t  s u b u r b  She  w e r e  o f  i n a u g u r a l  p r o f i t  h o p e d ,  r e s p o n s i v e  w i t h  g u i d e l i n e s  c o m p o s e d  s e v e n  b e  i n i t i a t e  C e n t r e .  T h e  A n n u a l  s h e  o r g a n i z a t i o n .  c o m m u n i t y  B o a r d  t o  t o  t h a n  a n d  M u r d o c h  a r e  M u r d o c h  h a l f  a  o v e r  i s  S i l v e r  C e n t r e  b l o c k  t w o  l e s s  o p e r a t e s  f r o m  b l o c k s  Number  f r o m  a c c e s s i b l e  H a r b o u r  a n d  i s  t o  4 1 1 ,  s i t u a t e d  T h r e e  t h e  l a r g e  members  a s  R o a d  t h e  o f f  a  ( a  m a j o r  R i c h m o n d  who  u s e  n e a r e s t  b u s  C e n t r e  p u b l i c  s t o p  61 i s  a  f o r  b l o c k  away  t h o s e  o n  c o n v e n i e n t  t h e  my  a  e a c h  t h e  l o t  t h e  C e n t r e  was  m o r e  a n d  o f  f u n c t i o n  a  T h e  H a r b o u r  a  m e e t i n g  a n d  a n d  c i a l  o l d e r  n o  a d u l t s  S i l v e r  b u i l d i n g ,  C e n t r e  a s  i s  n o t  a l l  o b v i o u s  ( a n d  l o u n g e  o r  c l o s e s t  t h e  o f  t h i n g  e l e v a t o r s  m a i n  c h a i r s .  S i l v e r  H a r b o u r  f o r  a n d  s e n i o r  m o s t  e x p e r i e n c e  a  a n d  o r  4 1 1  t h e  p r o g r a m s  p r o b l e m s  I  t h a n  a s  i t s  o n l y  4 1 1  t h a t  o f  w i t h  h e l d  w a l k i n g  o n  t o  M u r d o c h .  a  m o d e r n  s u i t e d  i s  t o  s i n c e  o n  i t  a n d  h a s  a  A s  t h e  a n d  a n d  i t  a n d  i t  t h e  t h a t  s i t  d o e s  h a n d i c a p p e d .  a r e  t h a t  P a r k i n g  a t  i s  i s  i t  w a s  d o e s  a  n o t  m a k e s h i f t  o f  M u r d o c h ' s  n o t  S i l v e r  c a s u a l l y  g r o u p i n g  b e t w e e n  i t  o f  a d j a c e n t  a d d i t i o n ,  M u r d o c h  t h a t  t o l d  b u i l d i n g  c o n s i s t i n g  i s  w a s  i n  c i t i z e n s .  c a n  d i f f e r e n c e  c o u r s e  b e g u n  f a c i l i t y )  members  t h e  f a c i l i t y ,  I n  M u r d o c h ' s  a v a i l a b l e  w a s  h a d  s e n i o r  w i t h i n  p r o g r a m .  i t  H a r b o u r  d e s i g n .  l o t  c h u r c h  I d e a l l y  l o u n g e  A n o t h e r  a l s o  C e n t r e  4 1 1  n o t  w h e r e  l o b b y  i s  i s  b e t w e e n  t o  I t  f a c i l i t y  n o t  a r e a  l e v e l .  M u r d o c h ' s  r e n o v a t e d  d i n i n g  C e n t r e ' s  f e a t u r e s  who  t h e  i s  d u r i n g  c o n s t r u c t i o n  i n t o  g r o u p s ,  a n d  i t  w e r e  o r  c o n v e n i e n t  a s  p a r k i n g  s p a c e s  a  i s  C e n t r e ,  h o w e v e r ,  w i t h  S i l v e r  a f t e r  d i f f e r e n c e  e v e n  t h e  i n p u t  a g e  i t  g r o u n d  p r e - s c h o o l  H a r b o u r  H o w e v e r ,  1975.  b y  t h e  t h e  t i m e s  o c c a s i o n s ) ;  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  h a v e  i n  t h o s e  ( s i x  w h e n  C e n t r e  s m a l l  t h e  H a r b o u r  c o m f o r t a b l e  d e s i g n  c o n t a i n s  i n  a t  a  P a r k i n g  f u l l  t o  a t  i t t h a s  C e n t r e  t h e  w a l k  e n t r a n c e  a s  p r e v i o u s  e v e n t  c a n  e n t r a n c e .  d i d  T h e  a r e a  c a r s ,  S e r v i c e s  f a c i l i t y  p r o p e r  a n  H o w e v e r ,  a n d  a n  L e i s u r e  u s e  most  s o c i a l i z e .  i t y  b y  f o r  o n  b e c o m e s  S e n i o r  m e m b e r s  i n t e n d e d  c o u c h  a  h a s  v i s i t e d  S i l v e r  b u i l t  s e c u r e d  h a v e  I  p r o b l e m  t h e  a s  a n d  w i t h  t w i c e  h o l d s  s t r u c t u r e ,  C e n t r e  t i m e  R o a d .  n e a r b y  C e n t r e ' s  s o m e t i m e s  L i k e  w a s  s i t e  t h e  T h r e e  l i v e  members  o f  r e s e a r c h  who  f l a t  f o r  f e e t  l o t  N u m b e r  members  s i t u a t e d  t h i r t y  o n  c o n t a i n  a  f a c i l -  s p e *  t h e . b u i l d i n g  s e c o n d  f l o o r ,  c l i m b i n g  s t a i r s  62  p r o b a b l y  h a v e  d i f f i c u l t y  T h e  f a c t  t h a t  t h e  i p a l i t y  o r  M u r d o c h ' s  p l a n n e d  a t  t h e  B r i g h o u s e  t o  t h i s  a s  U n i t e d  o f  c h u r c h  c o n s u m p t i o n  w h i l e  F o r  t h e  o f  s e e m e d  p r o b l e m  t u r n i n g w a n t  a  d r i n k  e n c o u r a g e b e r s  a s  a b o u t  A n o t h e r  t h e  b u i l d i n g  t h e  c o n s e q u e n t  e q u i p m e n t ,  g r a m s  t o  m a c r a m e ,  a n d  i s  4 1 1  n o t  a n d  t h e  o n l y  t o  w a y  f o r  T h i s  e x a m i n e  t h e  t h e i r  o f  I t  n e e d s  make  o r  t h e  when  b u t  t h e  4 1 1  a n d  t h e  f i r s t  p o i n t ,  D i r e c t o r :  men  Some  men  s h o u l d n ' t  l e a s t  i s  t r e a t own  f o l l o w .  d i s p l a y ,  t h a t  h e l p s  n o t  c a n n o t  members  mem-  m i n d s  a s  t o  t h e  g i v e  i s  t h a t  i n  o p e r a t i o n .  i n s t a l l  must  c l e a n  T h e y  c a n n o t  c a n  members  S e r v i c e s  p l a n s  t o  a  members  c l e a n  u p  M u r d o c h  d i s t i n c t i v e ,  o t h e r  W i t h  e x p e n s i v e  u p  a f t e r  l e a v e  a t  p r o -  p a i n t i n g s ,  S i l v e r  a f t e r  a n  g r o u p s  H a r b o u r  t h e m s e l v e s  a t m o s p h e r e  " l i v e d - i n "  o f  c h a r a c t e r  C e n t r e s .  L e i s u r e  h a s  b e  p r o g r a m  a n d  t h e  f e w  a r r a n g e m e n t  C e n t r e  t h a t  w i t h  so  c a n  t h e  a n d  A s s i s t a n t  h u r t s .  t h e i r  C e n t r e  A l s o ,  i t  g e t  w h a t  i t s  f l o o r  t h e  M u n i c -  s a t i s f a c t o r y ,  s t r e s s e d  t o  t h e  n o t .  t h e  f o r  o n  we  o n  D i r e c t o r  t h e  a t u p  b y  o w n e r s ,  w a x  C e n t r e  l e a s i n g  g r o u p s  o u t  T h e  s h o u l d  i t s  w e r e n ' t  p o l i c y  i t  r e q u i r e m e n t  a n d  t h a t  t h e m  d r i n k  c o n t r a s t i n g  H a r b o u r  D e p a r t m e n t  b u t l e t  t o o l s .  i n c o n v e n i e n t ,  f a c i l i t y .  d a n c i n g .  b y  d a n c e s  i m p o r t a n t  i s  o w n e d  a c c o m m o d a t e  Members  d r i n k i n g '  s e c u r i t y ,  c r a f t s  s h a r p l y  d a n c e s  w e e k e n d s ,  o f  d a n c e  p r e m i s e s .  a b o u t  p o w e r  o t h e r  S i l v e r  T h e  M u r d o c h  a s  C e n t r e s .  a n o n y m i t y ,  o f  l a c k  s u c h  make  o n  a n d t h e y  c o m p l a i n t  o f  s e t  A s s i s t a n t  M u r d o c h ' s  u s e  ' n o  d r i n k i n g ,  a d u l t s  t h a t  o u r  b e f o r e  w h e t h e r  u s e  m u s t  C e n t r e ' s  t h a n  a c t i v i t i e s .  r e s t r i c t i o n s  C e n t r e  t h e  The  p l a c e s  M u r d o c h  t h e  C e n t r e ' s  r a t h e r  i s  p a r t i c u l a r l y  w i t h  o u t .  a g e n c y ,  t h e  o n  l e a s e d ,  t h e  p o l i c y  e x a m p l e ,  a l c o h o l  i n  b u i l d i n g  a n d  p r o h i b i t s  l a t t e r  The  The  c o m p l a i n e d  p o l i c y  i s  s p o n s o r i n g  C h u r c h ,  members  p a r t i c i p a t i n g  f a c i l i t y  C e n t r e .  p o l i c y .  n u m b e r  i n  t o  come  b r i n g  u p  i s  a w a r e  R i c h m o n d  w i t h  a n  o f  t h e  l i m i t a t i o n s  S e n i o r  a l t e r n a t i v e  C i t i z e n s  t o  t h e  o f  t h e  t o g e t h e r  c u r r e n t  63 arrangement.  The alternative may or may not be a Senior Centre.  A pen-  sioners' group i n Richmond, (the O.A.P.A.), which terminated i n 19?9» l e f t $1,300. to Leisure Services to be used to carry out preliminary studies f o r the planning o f a suitable resource f o r seniors. Assuming that the resource w i l l be a Senior Centre, the Assistant D i r e c t o r has taken Board members to v i s i t other Senior Centres i n Greater Vancouver i n order to help them gather ideas f o r features they would l i k e to incorporate i n t h e i r new Centre,  Further action w i l l l i k e l y be taken  i n l a t e 1980. C, Membership and S o c i a l Environment As noted e a r l i e r , Murdoch Centre has experienced dramatic growth i n i t s membership i n recent years.  By July, 1980, i t had over 950 members.  Planning Department population projections predict that Richmond's over-55 population w i l l have increased by 69% between I976 and 1986 (Richmond ' Planning Department, 1977). Combined with trends toward e a r l i e r r e t i r e ments and a greater o v e r - a l l "leisure consciousness" i n society, these population projections suggest that Murdoch's membership w i l l continue to r i s e f o r years to come. Two types of membership are available a t Murdoch Centre.  The f i r s t  i s Associate membership, which i s available to r e t i r e d individuals 55 years and over who l i v e outside of Richmond, granted with t h i s form o f membership.  No voting p r i v i l e g e s are  The second i s Active membership,  which c a r r i e s voting p r i v i l e g e s , and i s open to r e t i r e d Richmond r e s i dents, 55 years and over.  Younger adults may become members upon the  d i s c r e t i o n of the Assistant Director,  For example, two women i n t h e i r  early 40's, with s l i g h t mental handicaps, were permitted to j o i n , as  64 their parents had died and the women had been accustomed to associating with people of their parents' age. Bearing i n mind that no group of older adults i s homogeneous, and that individual differences always exist, Murdoch members resemble those of Silver Harbour Centre,  Most are generally well-groomed and appear to  come from white middle-class backgrounds.  And while they represent a  wide age range, members seem to be reasonably mobile and "healthy. As noted earlier, however, handicapped and less mobile seniors would experience d i f f i c u l t i e s i n using the Murdoch f a c i l i t y .  The apparent health  and mobility of members i s therefore not surprising. From my observations, most members appear to be at the Centre to attend specific programs. Once their programs are over, they do hot linger long before leaving.  Carp's (1976) study of a Senior Centre i n a  large Texas Senior Citizen Housing complex found that over half the member respondents used the Centre as a place for informal sociability, much as they would use their own living room, and over a quarter enjoyed going to the Centre and "just sitting."  Due to the interior layout of  the Murdoch f a c i l i t y , Murdoch members do not have the opportunity to informally socialize or "just s i t " , as the members of this Texas Senior Centre or Silver Harbour or 411 have. This factor may help to explain the marked "purposiveness" of Murdoch's members. A feature about Murdoch's membership, which the Assistant Director and many of the members I spoke with at the Centre identified as being positive, i s that i t includes some members i n their late f i f t i e s . The Assistant Director and a l l the Centre members interviewed expressed the opinion that f i f t y - f i v e i s a preferable minimum age for membership to  65 s i x t y .  F o r  e x a m p l e ,  F i f t y - f i v e y e a r s . down  t o  a n d  member  A s s i s t a n t  s i x t y - f i v e  P e o p l e  s e v e n t y  t a k e  e x c e l l e n t  A  t h e  a  D i r e c t o r  a r e  a n d  r e s t .  t h e  v o l u n t e e r s  g o o d  o v e r  ( M i n d  o b s e r v e d ,  v o l u n t e e r  d e s e r v e  y o u ,  we  i n  t h e i r  7 0 ' s  i s  f i f t y - f i v e  t o  s i t  h a v e  a n d  some  8 0 ' s ) ,  s t a t e d ,  When  t h e  c u t  y o u n g e r , C e n t r e  A n o t h e r  o f f  more  a g e  a c t i v e  more  y o u  m e m b e r s h i p .  I t  g e t  a  g i v e s  t h e  l i f e .  member  n o t e d  a  b e n e f i t  a c c r u i n g  t o  t h e  y o u n g e r  members  t h e m s e l v e s :  A  b i g  p r o b l e m  b u i l d t h e y  . t h e i r r e t i r e ,  t h e i r  how  t o  M u r d o c h ,  t h e y  S i l v e r  a n d  H a r b o u r  s i x t y  members  D.  a n d  P u r p o s e  T h e  t o  t h e  o f  p r o m o t e  y e a r  l e i s u r e  o v e r  t i m e .  I f  new  p e o p l e  r e a l i z e  t h e y  t h e y a n d  i n t o  d o n ' t  c a n  j o i n  g a i n  new  r e t i r e m e n t .  i s  n o t  i n c l u s i o n  o f  i n d i v i d u a l s  t o  b e  C e n t r e  t h e  M u r d o c h  w i t h i n  r e s o u r c e s t h e  a n d  v i s i b l y  b e n e f i c i a l  b o t h  y o u n g e r  b e t w e e n  t o  t h e  t h a n  " p r e - s e n i o r "  o p e r a t i o n .  t h e  r o u n d  n e e d s  a g e  i n f o r m a t i o n  o f  C e n t r e  o f  l i m i t a t i o n  o f  a l l o c a t e d f o r  s e n i o r  i n  a d u l t s  f i f t y - f i v e .  s e r v i c e s  i s :  o p p o r t u n i t i e s  f o r  A s  s e n i o r  s a t i s f y i n g R i c h m o n d  w e l l ,  t o  a d u l t s  p r o v i d e w h e n e v e r  p o s s i b l e .  To  p r o v i d e  e n c e  b e l o n g i n g p o s i t i v e  ( A r t i c l e B o a r d  s e t t i n g s  a c c e p t a n c e  1,  a n d  b y  i n  w h i c h  o t h e r s ,  r e c o g n i t i o n  members  t h e a s  may  f e e l i n g s  e x p e r i o f  i n d i v i d u a l s  o f  w o r t h .  M u r d o c h  C o n s t i t u t i o n ,  S e n i o r  C i t i z e n  (1979))  C e n t r e  A d v i s o r y  t h a t  f i f t y - f i v e  P r o g r a m  o b j e c t i v e  To  T h e y  w o r k  e a s e  t h e y When  m e m b e r s h i p  s e e m s  o v e r a l l  t h a t  j o b s .  s h o c k .  t h e m  i t s  a g e  i s  t h e i r  f r o m  m e e t  h e l p s  4 1 1 ,  o f  a n d  c a n  M u r d o c h ' s  a n d  ^ e a r s  a l l  t h e i r  I t  p e o p l e  m a j o r  w e r e  u s e  i n t e r e s t s .  w h i l e  many  a r o u n d  i t ' s  f r i e n d s  know  T h u s ,  w i t h l i v e s  E x e c u t i v e  o f  66  Although some services axe available at Murdoch Centre, such as Income Tax assistance, legal advice, and counselling, the Centre places fax greater emphasis on organized activities than do Silver Harbour and 411.  The activities at Murdoch are varied and meant to appeal to a wide  range of people.  Thbse seeking physical activity can attend keep-fit  classes at the Centre or play tennis and golf at other locations in Richmond. Those wanting to engage in creative pursuits can take painting, ceramics, or macrame lessons. Those seeking education and entertainment can attend plays, listen to guests speak on a variety of topics, take French lessons, or go on bus trips lasting a few hours or several days. Despite the fact that Murdoch has a games room with a three-quarter size pool table, a shuffleboard and dart board, i t does not have the programs or f a c i l i t i e s for men that Silver Harbour and 411 have. In addition to demographic factors, this may help to explain the predominance of women members at the Centre.  Two of the men I interviewed at Murdoch  spoke enviously of the fully equipped woodworking shops at other Centres. A woman I interviewed stated bluntly, It's important for the Centre to provide things for men to do. They don't want to come here and talk to a bunch of old biddies. Apart from comments about the lack of men's programming and certain "building related" complaints, most people I spoke with at Murdoch were very satisfied with the Centre's program. They saw i t as making a marked improvement in the lives of many older people. In the words of one member, Half the problem with getting old i s that you don't have ongoing goals. For some, just getting through the day i s a goal. This Centre has done wonders for people, giving them interests and a chance to be with others. We're treated as human beings, not old fossils. We've got a lot to be grateful for.  67  E, Administration As noted earlier, Murdoch Centre i s not an autonomous organization like Silver Harbour or 411.  I t i s administered by the Municipal Depart-  ment of Leisure Services, which i s responsible for determining policy, allocating funds, and preparing the annual budget. The staff person u l t i mately responsible for seeing that Departmental policy i s carried out at Murdoch Centre, and that expenditures f a l l within the budget guidelines, is the Leisure Education and Special Groups Coordinator.  The Coordinator  works out of the Municipal Hall and ''Seniors' are only one of many special groups with which he must deal. The staff person employed to actually look after the day to day management of the Centre i s the Assistant Director. She i s assisted by a paid, part-time Secretary.  The Assistant Director i s primarily  responsible for administering the Centre's budget, for supervising activities, staff, and volunteers, and for managing the Centre's premises and revenue. Working within the policy guidelines of the Leisure Services Department, she and her superior, the Leisure Education and Special Groups Coordinator, prepare the Centre's budget. Although her t i t l e i s "Assistant Director", she performs the duties of a Director. Technically she could be required to consult with the Special Groups Coordinator on every major issue. She has been granted considerable powers of discretion by the Coordinator, however, and i s only"" required to consult with hint on policy and money matters. As indicated previously, a change in the organizational structure at Murdoch occurred in September, 1979 when the new "policy guidelines" and the Centre's f i r s t Executive Advisory Board were approved. The Board consists of seven Centre^members, who are elected (or w i l l be, starting  68  in 198l) by the active membership (Richmond residents). The Assistant Director i s appointed to the eighth position ex officio. Murdoch's Board differs from those of Silver Harbour and 411 both in i t s responsibilities and composition.  First, in terms of i t s responsi-  b i l i t i e s , i t i s an advisory Board, not a governing Board, Its main function i s to advise the Assistant Director on the program direction for the Centre,  I t i s also responsible for assisting in finding, hiring  and paying program instructors for the Centre (preferably older adults), It does not have authority to make policy decisions and any of i t s decisions which contravene Departmental policy are subject to the veto power of the Assistant Director. The composition of Murdoch's Board differs from those of the Silver Harbour and 411 Boards in that i t contains no "community" representatives. Community members are primarily sought for their potential influence and their expertise. While they play an important role at Silver Harbour and 411, they are not as necessary at Murdoch. Being a part of a Municipal agency, Murdoch already has a channel to elected and Departmental decision makers, and the "expert" services, such as legal advice and accounting, are supplied by Leisure Services or another Municipal Department. Two Board members s i t on the Leisure Services Advisory Committee, a group of representatives from a l l the clubs, societies, groups and leagues in Richmond registered with the Leisure Services Department, These members are able to make the concerns of Murdoch Centre known to other committee members and to the Leisure Services Department repress sentatives. Thus, while members of Murdoch Centre cannot determine Centre policy, they at least have an opportunity to communicate with and  69 possibly influence those who do set p o l i c y . Each Board member heads a committee (e.g. public r e l a t i o n s , program, and s o c i a l committees),  At present, Murdoch does not have standing Pro-  gram A c t i v i t i e s Committees f o r a l l Centre a c t i v i t i e s .  However, four  a c t i v i t y groups e f f e c t i v e l y function as committees, planning t h e i r own programs and f i n d i n g and coordinating t h e i r own volunteers. f o r the establishment  Provisions  of formal standing committees f o r other a c t i v i t i e s  have been included i n the Centre's operational guidelines.  These commit-  tees w i l l be established l a t e r i n 1980, and t h e i r leaders w i l l meet j o i n t l y on a regular basis, much as the committee leaders of S i l v e r Harbour and 411 meet.  SUMMARY This chapter has presented case studies of three Greater Vancouver Senior Centres:  the S i l v e r Harbour, 411, and Murdoch Centres. I t revealed  the d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s of each CentreAs h i s t o r i c a l background, b u i l d i n g and location, membership, program, and administrative structure. Having presented these case studies, the next chapter examines the " s t r u c t u r a l " opportunities that members of the three Centres have to become involved i n t h e i r Centres'  planning.  Chapter 5 STRUCTURAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR MEMBERS TO BECOME INVOLVED IN THE PLANNING PROCESS AT THREE CENTRES In t h i s chapter, the " s t r u c t u r a l " opportunities f o r members to become involved i n the planning processes of the three Senior Centres are examined.  S t r u c t u r a l opportunities r e f e r to opportunities that are provided  within the administrative structures of the Centres. b r i e f and does not purport to be an evaluation.  The examination i s  I t s primary purpose i s  to provide the foundation f o r the analysis of encouraging and discouraging f a c t o r s f o r members' involvement i n Senior Centre planning, which i s presented i n the following chapter. Five areas of a Senior Centre's planning concern have been i d e n t i f i e d f o r the analysis.  The s t r u c t u r a l opportunities f o r members to become  involved i n these planning areas a t the three Centres are summarized i n Table 1. By examining the table, two d i s t i n c t planning models emerges the "member--planned" model, i n which members have control over each of the f i v e i d e n t i f i e d areas of planning concern, and the "agency-planned" model, i n which most of the Centre's major planning decisions are the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a parent Department or agency.  The S i l v e r Harbour and  411 Centres exemplify the "member-planned" model, while Murdoch Centre i s closer to the "agency-planned" model.  MEMBER-PLANNED MODEL  S t r u c t u r a l opportunities are available to members of S i l v e r Harbour and 411 f o r becoming involved i n a l l i d e n t i f i e d areas of planning a t t h e i r 70  TABLE 1  STRUCTURAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR MEMBERS TO BECOME INVOLVED IN THE PLANNING PROCESS AT THREE CENTRES  SILVER HARBOUR CENTRE  POLICY  FINANCE  411 CENTRE  MURDOCH CENTRE  7 Centre members & 6 Community members serve on Executive Boards Implement and effect changes i n policy  7 Centre members & 8 Community members serve on Executive Board. Implement and e f f e c t changes i n policy  7 Centre members & Assistant Director serve on Executive Advisory Board and can advise on program  Vote on special resolutions to a l t e r Constitution and By-laws (66% o f a l l members present a t meeting must approve change)  Vote on special resolutions to a l t e r Constitution and By-laws (75% of a l l members present must approve change)  2 representatives from Centre advise by serving on Leisure Services Advisory Committee  Executive Board can make major f i n a n c i a l decisions r e l a t i n g to Centre policy (within cons t r a i n t s imposed by the P r o v i n c i a l Govt, funding body)  Executive Board can make major f i n a n c i a l decisions r e l a t i n g to Centre p o l i c y (within cons t r a i n t s imposed by the P r o v i n c i a l Govt, funding body)  Vote on s p e c i a l r e s o l u t i o n to a l t e r Const. & By-laws (75% of a l l members present must approve change) Exec. Advisory Board respons i b l e f o r a l l o c a t i n g funds received from membership dues, program fees, p r o f i t s from s p e c i a l events and other monies raised by Centre. No control over Budget supplied by Leisure Services  TABLE 1 (Cont'd.)  SILVER HARBOUR CENTRE  PROGRAM  | Program Committee (35 Program "Convenors" at present. Number of Convenors geared to number of programs Program A c t i v i t i e s Committees each plan t h e i r own programs and coordinate own volunteers Members suggestions to: Exec, Director; Program Coordinator; Convenors, Suggestion Box Interest sheet (to indicate i n t e r e s t i n proposed programs)  {STAFF  BUILDING  411 CENTRE  Operating Committee (7 Board O f f i c e r s and a t present 22 Program Coordinators. Number of Coordinators geared to number of a c t i v i t y groups Program A c t i v i t i e s Committees each plan t h e i r own programs and coordinate own volunteers  MURDOCH CENTRE Executive Advisory Board suggests programs and hires and pays i n s t r u c t o r s Member suggestions to the Assistant D i r e c t o r ; the Program Coordinator or other Board members Program evaluation forms  Member suggestions to: Exec, Director; Program Assistant; Committee leaders Interest surveys o f members Exec, Board's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  No member input  The Exec, Director i s hired by and responsible to Board at a l l times. She may be entrusted to h i r e and supervise additional s t a f f as authorized by Board  The Exec, Director i s hired by and responsible to Boardr; He i s authorized to hire and supervise additional s t a f f  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y of Leisure Services Department  Executive Board  Executive Board  No member input on e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t y as b u i l d i n g i s leased  j Responsibility o f Exec. Board  Operating Committee  Executive Advisory Board w i l l be involved i n planning f o r new Murdoch f a c i l i t y  73 Centres.  Board members at the Centres are responsible f o r setting pol-  i c y , h i r i n g and f i r i n g paid s t a f f , and making decisions regarding major expenditures.  At 4 l l the Operating Committee has considerable input  into these areas as well.  Seven of i t s members also serve on the Board;  therefore they can voice the concerns o f other Operating Committee members a t Board meetings.  Proposals  to a l t e r the Societies* Consti-  tutions and By-laws must be put to the membership at a general or s p e c i a l meeting.  Approval must be gained from 66% of the S i l v e r Harbour and;75%  of the kll members present a t the meetings.  At present, programs a t  S i l v e r Harbour and 411 Centres are planned by the leaders of the programs ("Convenors" at S i l v e r Harbour and "Coordinators" at A l l ) , i n consult a t i o n with program participants or volunteers. t o r " r o l e , a s s i s t i n g members i n the planning.  S t a f f play a " f a c i l i t a -  Convenors and Coordinators  of a c t i v i t i e s meet monthly to report on t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r program areas and to discuss general matters concerning the Centres* programming. The Centres' memberships have an opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n program planning by making suggestions to the Executive Directors or other s t a f f , and to program Convenors or Coordinators,  At S i l v e r Harbour, members can  p a r t i c i p a t e i n program planning by signing an "interest sheet," which i s posted on the Centre's b u l l e t i n board, to indicate t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n proposed new programs.  I f enough members sign the sheet, the new program  w i l l be established. S i l v e r Harbour members can also contribute anonymously by placing suggestions i n a suggestion box (411 also had a Suggestion Box i n 1979» but i t was removed a f t e r s i x months as only two suggestions were received). Surveys of members have been conducted at both S i l v e r Harbour and 411, as w e l l .  New members a t S i l v e r Harbour are given a questionnaire  74  i n  w h i c h  t w o  t h e y  s t u d e n t s ,  o n  t h e  t y p e  B y  i n d i c a t i n g  f u t u r e  a r e  a b l e  t o  who  w e r e  h i r e d  o f  i n d i c a t e  e d u c a t i o n a l  t h e i r  p r o g r a m m i n g  o n  g r a n t  p r o g r a m s  i n t e r e s t s ,  a t  a  t h e i r  t h e i r  S i l v e r  T h e y  o f  H a r b o u r  members  c a n  C e n t r e  a n d  f o r  a d v i s e  o n  f e c t i n g  M u r d o c h .  t h r o u g h  t h e  U l t i m a t e  i c e s  T h e y  A s s i s t a n t  B o a r d  s i t  d i r e c t l y  o n  t h e  c h a n n e l  a l s o  D i r e c t o r  I n  f o r  t h e  f e w e r  members  p a r t i c i p a t e  o p p o r t u n i t y  o p p o r t u n i t i e s  i n v o l v e m e n t  a n d  make  t o  m a j o r  t h e  t o  r e s t s  members  o f  t h a n  i n .  a f f e c t  t h e  o f  A d v i s o r y  C o u n c i l  t h e  t h e  m e m b e r s h i p ' s  c o n c e r n s  a b o u t  a n d  p r o c e s s .  t h e s e  m a t t e r s  L e i s u r e  S e r v -  A d v i s o r y  t h e y  M u r d o c h  a f -  D e p a r t m e n t ,  E x e c u t i v e  S e r v i c e s  a t  d e c i s i o n s  o n  w i t h  t h e  t h o s e  p l a n n i n g  f i n a n c i a l  A d m i n i s t r a t o r  h o w e v e r ,  t w o  i n  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  i h e  t h e m ,  a d d i t i o n ,  L e i s u r e  t o  C e n t r e  411  s u r v e y e d  l i k e  a n  t h e  MODEL  s t a f f i n g  c a n  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  D e p a r t m e n t ,  h a v e  d i r e c t  p o l i c y ,  summer,  m i g h t  h a v e  A t  C e n t r e s .  M u r d o c h  411  t h i s  t h e y  A G E N C Y - P L A N N E D  Members  i n t e r e s t s .  a r e  a b l e  C e n t r e  t o  t o  t h e  D e p a r t m e n t .  A l t h o u g h  o v e r  f u n d s  i c e s ,  i t  p r o g r a m  o t h e r  i s  M u r d o c h ' s  a l l o c a t e d  i s  m i s c e l l a n e o u s  i t  e v e n t s  p a y s  a n d  C e n t r e ' s  f o r  f o r  b u y s  a n n u a l  t h e  w i t h  p r o f i t s  r e s p o n s i b l e  p l e ,  t o  c r e d i t e d  d u e s ,  E x e c u t i v e  f u n d s  t h e  b y  s p e c i a l  r e c e i v e d  p r o g r a m  B o a r d  d o e s  n o t  h a v e  c o n t r o l  D e p a r t m e n t  o f  b y  t h e  C e n t r e  ( m e m b e r s h i p  e v e n t s  a n d  f u n d  b y  t h e  C e n t r e ) .  t h e s e  f u n d s .  o f  i n s t r u c t o r s ,  i n c i d e n t a l  t h e  r a i s e d  a l l o c a t i o n  p r o g r a m  b u d g e t .  C e n t r e  f u n d s  f r o m  A d v i s o r y  makes  s u p p l i e s  L e i s u r e  r a i s i n g  T h e  W i t h  f e e s ,  e v e n t s ,  A d v i s o r y  t h e m ,  e x p e n d i t u r e s  f o r  n o t  f o r  p r o v i d e d  S e r v -  f o r  a n d  B o a r d  e x a m -  s p e c i a l  b y  t h e  75 Members  a r e a  o f  o f  M u r d o c h  p r o g r a m m i n g .  T h e  m a k i n g  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  p a y i n g  p r o g r a m  m a l  P r o g r a m  p l a n s  f o r  a r e  A c t i v i t y  u n d e r  a l l  a c t i v i t y  T h e  g e n e r a l  w a y  C o m m i t t e e  D i r e c t o r  b y  i n d i c a t e  e v a l u a t i o n  a n d  new  d e g r e e  A d v i s o r y  p r o g r a m s  A s  t h e  m e m b e r s h i p  P r o g r a m  p r o g r a m  E x e c u t i v e  C o m m i t t e e s  f o r  g r e a t e s t  f o r  n o t e d  i n  B o a r d  t h e  t h e  p r e s e n t l y  e s t a b l i s h m e n t  o f  i s  C e n t r e  a t  a n d  f o r  t h e  P r o g r a m  f o r  h i r i n g  c h a p t e r ,  M u r d o c h .  f o r m a l  i n  r e s p o n s i b l e  p r e c e d i n g  e x i s t  o f  a u t o n o m y  n o  a n d  f o r -  H o w e v e r ,  C o m m i t t e e s  g r o u p s .  p l a n n i n g  may  o n  t h e i r  i n s t r u c t o r s .  p r o g r a m  t h e y  h a v e  t h e  m a k i n g  h a v e  B o a r d  o r  i n t e r e s t s  f o r m s .  o p p o r t u n i t y  s u g g e s t i o n s  C o o r d i n a t o r ,  t h e i r  a n  T h e  w h e n  o t h e r  o n  t o  B o a r d  m e e t  t o  b e c o m e  i n v o l v e d  A s s i s t a n t  D i r e c t o r ,  m e m b e r s .  I n  m e m b e r s h i p  i n f o r m a t i o n  t h e y  t h e  t o  a p p l i c a t i o n  i s  c o n s i d e r e d  p l a n  p r o g r a m s  i n  t h e  a d d i t i o n ,  f o r m s  a n d  o n  b y  t h e  A s s i s t a n t  f o r  t h e  C e n t r e .  Chapter 6 ENCOURAGING AND DISCOURAGING FACTORS FOR MEMBER PARTICIPATION IN A SENIOR CENTRE'S PLANNING PROCESS The preceding chapter examined the s t r u c t u r a l opportunities that e x i s t f o r members at the three Senior Centres to become involved i n t h e i r Centres' planning processes.  However, the f a c t that members have  the opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a Centre's planning process does not necessarily mean that members w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e .  A member's decision to  p a r t i c i p a t e i s dependent on h i s concern f o r the planning issues, a v a i l able time, and many other i n t e r r e l a t e d f a c t o r s .  In addition, some i n d i -  viduals prefer to have as l i t t l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as possible f o r the carrying out of an a c t i v i t y , while others prefer to be an i n t e g r a l part of the planning and implementation process.  Therefore, while members  must be -permitted to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e i r Centre's planning process, they must not be compelled to p a r t i c i p a t e .  A basic assumption upon which  t h i s thesis r e s t s i s that both s t r u c t u r a l opportunities and encouragement to take advantage of the opportunities are required i f a Centre i s to be successful i n engaging members i n i t s planning process. Based upon the foregoing assumption,  t h i s chapter seeks to i d e n t i f y  some of the major factors which have the p o t e n t i a l to encourage or d i s courage members i n becoming involved i n t h e i r Centre's planning process. As noted i n Chapter 3, I began t h i s research with no preconceived hypotheses of what the encouraging or discouraging factors f o r member involvement would be. Rather, I asked Senior Centre Directors, Board,  76  77 and general members a series of open-ended questions about t h e i r Centre and i t s planning process.  Instead of assuming that I understood a l l the  complexities o f t h e i r Centre and i t s planning, I l e t the respondents identi f y the factors that they f e l t were important.  After analyzing the data  thus secured, the factors which emerged as those having the greatest p o t e n t i a l f o r encouraging or discouraging members i n becoming involved i n t h e i r Centres' planning processes r e l a t e d to l ) the Centres^ administ r a t i v e structures, 2) the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of "planning" members ( i . e . Board and Committee members), 3) the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Directors and s t a f f , and 4) the Centres' buildings, of f a c t o r s .  A section i s devoted to each set  Table 2 provides a summary of the main points covered i n the  analysis, The f i r s t s e t of factors examined r e l a t e to the administrative structures of the Centres,  I considered this to be the l o g i c a l point at which  to s t a r t as the administrative structure determines, to a large degree, the r o l e s that the Senior Centre members and Directors can play i n a Cent r e ' s planning process.  To quote Simons  We cannot understand the 'input* or the 'output' of the executive (Senior Centre planners and Directors) without understanding the organization i n which (they) work, (Their; behavior and i t s e f f e c t s on others are functions o f the organizational s i t u a t i o n i n which (-Uheyaare) placed (Simon, 1961, p, xv), The section on administrative structures distinguishes between the autonomous administrative model as found a t the S i l v e r Harbour and 411 Centres, and the semi-autonomous model as found a t Murdoch Centre. I t draws upon planning theory and other l i t e r a t u r e to argue that the autonomous structure provides greater encouragement f o r members to become involved i n a Senior Centre's planning process than the semi-autonomous  78  structure.  The l i t e r a t u r e i s used to provide a conceptual framework f o r  the analysis.  Following t h i s analysis, the section b r i e f l y examines the  r o l e that funding plays and how the administrative structure a f f e c t s the a b i l i t y of s t a f f to f a c i l i t a t e member involvement i n planning. The second set o f f a c t o r s examined i s concerned with the r o l e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of "planning" members.  While many members at the Centres  may plan, the planning members considered i n t h i s examination are the members who serve on Boards and Committees,  They are the members with the  most obvious influence and authority i n a Centre's planning process. And,as w i l l be seen, t h e i r s k i l l s and experience, p e r s o n a l i t i e s , and attitudes can have a major influence on whether or not other Centre members choose to become involved i n the process. The t h i r d set o f factors examined r e l a t e to the r o l e and characteri s t i c s of the Centre D i r e c t o r , *  The research data suggest that the per-  sonality, s k i l l s and experience, and attitude o f the D i r e c t o r perhaps play an even more important r o l e than those of the Board and Committee members i n f a c i l i t a t i n g members to become involved i n a Centre's planning process. Also, while the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of program s t a f f and other paid personnel are not dealt with e x p l i c i t l y , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i d e n t i f i e d as being important f o r Centre D i r e c t o r s are i m p l i c i t l y important f o r other s t a f f , as w e l l . The fourth and f i n a l set o f f a c t o r s examined r e l a t e to the Centre's physical f a c i l i t y .  The l i t e r a t u r e generally downplays the importance o f  a Centre's f a c i l i t y , arguing "Centres should be people oriented not  *The Assistant D i r e c t o r of Murdoch Centre i s included i n t h i s , and other references to "Directors" i n t h i s t h e s i s .  79 b u i l d i n g oriented" (Monro, 1972, p. 39)•  Nonetheless, such f a c t o r s as  the physical layout, available space, and tenure of a Centre's building have an important bearing upon the Centre's a b i l i t y to o f f e r a comprehensive program and s a t i s f y the needs of members.  Using the case study  data, the e f f e c t that the b u i l d i n g has on the program planning and other kinds of planning at Senior Centres w i l l be examined.  I t w i l l be shown  that, paradoxically, while an unsatisfactory b u i l d i n g may discourage members from becoming involved in; a Centre's program planning, i t may be a strong incentive f o r them to p a r t i c i p a t e i n " f a c i l i t y planning" ( i . e . planning to renovate an e x i s t i n g structure or s e l e c t i n g a s i t e , contributing to the design, and securing funds f o r a new f a c i l i t y ) . As the three Centres studied have d i s t i n c t organizational structures and planning concerns, i t i s not always possible to disguise t h e i r identi t i e s i n the a n a l y s i s .  In f a c t , the f i r s t and fourth sections make no  attempt to do so, as t h e i r focus i s p r e c i s e l y on the p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t that the d i f f e r e n t organizational structures and f a c i l i t i e s have on members* willingness to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a Centre's planning process.  However,  except i n cases where a p a r t i c u l a r aspect of a Centre has a bearing on the analysis, I have r e f r a i n e d from mentioning the Centres by name. Also, I have t r i e d to minimize comments which might lead to the personal i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of interview respondents. Before presenting the research findings, I believe i t I s necessary to reassert that my intentions are not to provide a p r e s c r i p t i o n f o r a foolproof Senior Centre planning process.  Nor are they to evaluate the  planning processes at the three Centres under study. Altshuler's words,  To borrow  TABLE 2  80  CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR ENCOURAGING AND DISCOURAGING FACTORS FOR MEMBERS' INVOLVEMENT IN PLANNING ENCOURAGING  DISCOURAGING  I ) ADMINISTRATIVE FACTORS Autonomy ("normative" planning) -control and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y -sense of achievement  Semi or non-Autonomous ("functional" planning") - l e s s control - l e s s sense of achievement Exceptions:  l ) those who want l i m i t e d responsibility 2) those who need strong s t a f f person to ensure t h e i r opportunities to become involved.  Abundant funding -(can hire s t a f f , plan programs, plan f o r b u i l d i n g r e p a i r s , etc.) "Challenge" of s l i g h t l y low funding. Might be dynamic f o r social action.  Excessively low funding  Good s t a f f i n g p o l i c y (Freedom to operate. Roles well defined. Adequate s a l a r i e s and enough s t a f f p o s i t i o n s ) .  Poor s t a f f i n g p o l i c y (Staff hampered i n operation by employer. Roles poorly defined or not defined. S a l a r i e s too low or work load too heavy).  2) PLANNING MEMBERS Experience and s k i l l s - leadership s k i l l s - a b i l i t y to communicate -motivation  Inexperienced Unable or unwilling to learn (e.g. inexperienced members with low socioeconomic background may lack experience i n administrative matters),  Warm and outgoing personality  Social isolate Unfriendly Bigoted  Democratic value system (accept r i g h t of a l l members to plan). Adaptable Flexible  Autocratic value system -Cliques (only accept r i g h t of some members to plan). Rigid Inflexible  81  TABLE 2 (Cont'd.) ENCOURAGING  DISCOURAGING  3) DIRECTORS S k i l l s i n management (Business and working with i n d i v i d u a l s and groups).  Lacking s k i l l s i n business management and/or human r e l a t i o n s  Individual leadership s t y l e s adapted to i n d i v i d u a l Centres  Leadership s t y l e not appropriate to p a r t i c u l a r Centre  "Approachable" Warm, f r i e n d l y Outgoing  Unapproachable Cool manner Patronizing, domineering too effusive  Diplomatic Understanding and patient Understanding of problems of aged  Impatient Not understanding or sympathetic with problems of the aged  Accept philosophy of members' r i g h t to plan  Favours s t a f f planning f o r seniors  W i l l i n g to forego s a t i s f a c t i o n of personal ego needs on the jot  Seeks ego g r a t i f i c a t i o n on the job  k) BUILDING Member owned, Sole occupancy Accessible. Good design features and well equipped to f a c i l i t a t e range of programs (Encourages involvement i n program planning)  Leased Shared occupancy Inaccessible Poorly designed and equipped (Frustrates involvement i n program planning).  "Challenging" b u i l d i n g or environment stimulates " f a c i l i t y " planning ( i . e . planning to remedy i l l s of present building by Improving i t or seeking a new f a c i l i t y ) .  "Ideal" building negates need of " f a c i l i t y " planning  82  I have not endeavoured to pass judgment on either men or plans, a task which would have required both wisdom and s k i l l of a f a r higher order than I have been able to employ (Altshuler, I965, p. 13). I have merely attempted to provide i n s i g h t into factors which may encourage or discourage members i n becoming involved i n t h e i r Centre's planning process. ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE  A, Two  Models  The Centres examined i n the case studies represent two basic adminis t r a t i v e structures. These structures correspond with the planning models i d e n t i f i e d i n the preceding chapter.  F i r s t , S i l v e r Harbour and 411 Centres  exemplify the autonomous* structure, being independent of any outside agency's administration and having p o l i c y set by t h e i r own Board of Directors.  Murdoch Centre provides an example of a semi-autonomous structure,  being administered and funded by the Municipal Department of Leisure Services.  While i t s Executive Advisory Board can i d e n t i f y p o l i c y issues,  the sole r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r determining p o l i c y r e s t s with Leisure Services.  l)  Conceptual Framework.  The autonomous administrative structure of  S i l v e r Harbour and 4 l l and the semi-autonomous structure of Murdoch Centre o f f e r the p o t e n t i a l f o r two d i f f e r e n t modes of planning.  The autonomous  structure o f f e r s the p o t e n t i a l f o r "normative planning".  Adopting  Faludi's d e f i n i t i o n , normative planning i s "a mode of planning whereby  *The term autonomous i s used i n t h i s thesis to indicate an administrative structure with a r e l a t i v e l y high degree of autonomy. Neither S i l v e r Harbour nor 411 are t o t a l l y autonomous. They both r e l y upon P r o v i n c i a l Government Grants f o r the bulk of t h e i r funding, and t h i s funding i s provided upon the condition that they o f f e r a c e r t a i n l e v e l of services and include a range of people i n t h e i r programs.  83 the goals and objectives defining, i n t e r a l i a , the l i m i t s of a planning agency are themselves the objects of r a t i o n a l choice and whereby that choice i s reviewed as and when the need a r i s e s "  (Faludi, 1 9 7 3 »  P« 1 7 5 ) •  In simple terms, i t i s a mode of planning which allows planners to not onlys e l e c t the means they w i l l adopt to meet a given end, but to question the d e s i r a b i l i t y of the end i t s e l f .  S i l v e r Harbour and 411,  with t h e i r auton-  omous organizational structures, can engage i n t h i s type of planning; t h e i r Boards are not only able to select strategies f o r achieving the Centres' goals and objectives, but they also have the authority to determine, monitor, and i f necessary, a l t e r the goals and objectives. Due to the low degree of autonomy offered by the organizational structure of Murdoch Centre, members there are not authorized to question the Centre's goals or objectives. They have only l i m i t e d authority over the Centre's program planning,  A Senior Centre's programs "are tools  designed to accomplish the Centre's expressed purpose and goals; they are not ends ifethemselves" (Leanse, e t a l , , 1 9 7 7 »  p. 1 2 9 ) • Therefore, Mur-  doch's Board and informal a c t i v i t i e s committees c o n t r o l the means of t h e i r planning, not the ends.  Faludi distinguishes such-, a form of planning as  "functional planning," and defines i t as a "mode of planning whereby the goals and objectives defining, i n t e r a l i a , the l i m i t s of the action space are not questioned (Faludi, 1 9 7 3 i P« 1 $ 5 ) • The f u n c t i o n a l mode of planning i s considered to be appropriate f o r the bureaucratic form of organization.  Bureaucracies, i n Max Weber's  conception, are "an h i e r a r c h i c a l non adaptive form of organization whose i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s are characterized by the authority of superior positions over a l l dependent i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n s " (Friedmann, 1973,  P«  243).  84 In a bureaucracy, the p o l i t i c i a n or superior sets the goals and  the  planner seeks to determine the best means f o r meeting them, F a l u d i concedes that bureaucracies  are "extremely u s e f u l organi-  zations f o r the r a t i o n a l , impartial, speedy solutions of well-defined problems" (Faludi, 1 9 7 3 , P. 2 2 6 ) , but argues that they are inadequate f o r solving problems r e q u i r i n g c r e a t i v i t y and innovation.  He proposes that  rather than being structured h i e r a r c h i c a l l y , organizations "ought to be of a c o l l e g i a t e , s e l f - d i r e c t i n g tyjSe... (and) work as teams i n the r e a l of the word" (Faludi, 1 9 7 3 , p. 2 5 0 ) . As noted i n Chapter 2 , "new  wave" planning t h e o r i s t s have rejected  the s i m p l i f y i n g assumptions of the r a t i o n a l decision making model and have redefined the r e l a t i o n s h i p that planners should have with t h e i r clients.  They see normative planning as the i d e a l form of planning to be  pursued.  Klosterman argues that planning cannot be value-free; therefore,  "a complete j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r an action must consider not only the means chosen f o r achieving ends, but also the ends themselves" (Klosterman, 1 9 6 8 , p. 42),  Another writer asserts that "for any agency to plan compre-  hensively, i t must be able to influence most of the factors which have a bearing on i t s problems, and i t must have the powers of using i t s resources i n a l t e r n a t i v e ways..." (Faludi, 1 9 7 3 , P« 1 6 6 ) . Faludi has developed a model which seeks to explain how planning may be achieved.  normative  The model proposes that the greater the r e l -  ative autonomy of an organization, the greater the l i k e l i h o o d that i t w i l l engage i n normative planning.  The control or "constraining" v a r i a -  ble i n t h i s model i s the r o l e concept held by the planner.  "Bureaucratic"  planners act as a constraint upon normative planning i n an organization  85 with high r e l a t i v e autonomy and " p o l i t i c a l " planners act as a constraint upon f u n c t i o n a l planning i n an organization with low r e l a t i v e autonomy. For example, i n a r e l a t i v e l y autonomous organization, i f normative planning i s to occur, the planner must be able to set new  ends or goals.  If  a planner sees himself as a bureaucrat, with the " v i t a l but,,.limited r o l e that (the) system assigns to the public employee" (Beckmann,  1964,  p. 324), he w i l l not l i k e l y r i s k generating opposition by challenging organizational goals and advocating innovative ends.  He w i l l l i k e l y accept  the status quo and thus act as a constraint upon the normative planning process.  I f , on the other hand, he sees h i s r o l e as p o l i t i c a l and i s  w i l l i n g to attempt to gain enough support to overrule entrenched forces, he i s l i k e l y to be more successful than the bureaucratic planner i n achieving normative planning.  In an organization with low r e l a t i v e auto-  nomy, therefore, the " p o l i t i c a l " planner acts as a constraint upon the functional planning process. Neither normative planning nor f u n c t i o n a l planning e x i s t i n t h e i r pure forms i n the r e a l world.  The purpose of introducing Faludi's model  i s to provide a conceptual framework f o r the examination 2) Autonomous Centres^  which follows.  The data from the three Senior Centres  studied suggests that the autonomous S i l v e r Harbour and 411 Centres gene r a l l y o f f e r more encouragement f o r members to become involved i n planning than the semi-autonomous Murdoch Centre*  Without exception, the  Directors and a l l of the members interviewed at S i l v e r Harbour and favoured the autonomous structure. When the Director of the 411 was asked what the advantages or disadvantages  411  Centre  of the autonomous model  were, he looked incredulous and stated, "There are no disadvantages,  only  86 advantages."  He continued, "Seniors don't f e e l that the Centre i s a  business operation.  Theysfeel that they belong.  It's theirs."  There are two reasons why the autonomous Centres might encourage members to become involved i n t h e i r Centre's planning.  F i r s t an auton-  omous administrative structure o f f e r s members the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f being i n control o f t h e i r Centre and second, i t provides them with an opportun i t y to maintain -personal pride and d i g n i t y . The s a t i s f a c t i o n of members a t S i l v e r Harbour and 411 was apparent i n t h e i r comments on t h e i r Centres* administrations. Members were unanimous i n saying they they should have the r i g h t to plan f o r themselves. In addition, t h e i r comments expressed a b e l i e f that planning done by seniors would be of better q u a l i t y than that done by younger professionals . Centres should be run by seniors to a large extent. I f they're run by paid professionals, they tend to take on an i n s t i t u t i o n a l character. We know what we want better than they do. When we reach 65 years of age, we don't automatically turn s e n i l e . We s t i l l know what we want. Many members voiced the fear that young professionals would t r y to plan f o r them: Often those with a recreation background have good ideas, but they can't understand that seniors don't want to be done f o r . I t ' s a f i x a t i o n of seniors that they know what they want. They can become outright h o s t i l e i f they have young people t e l l them what to do. Members r e i t e r a t e d t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r own administrative?! structures when they spoke of Parks Department Senior Centres.  Roughly  h a l f of the twenty-five members I spoke with a t S i l v e r Harbour and 411  87 had either v i s i t e d Parks Department Senior Centres or had friends who attended them.  They a l l preferred t h e i r own Centres and f i v e spoke  almost p i t y i n g l y of members of the Parks-run Centres.  A sample of t h e i r  comments follows: I much prefer a seniors-run Centre. I f the Centre's run by a Parks Department, you have to go by t h e i r p o l i c y . Seniors know what's best f o r seniors. You're not free i f you're under the Parks Department, We don't need any Government help. f i n e on our own.*  We do  These members l i s t e d examples of problems faced by semi and nonautonomous Centres i n Greater Vancouver, sucMas having operating hours c u r t a i l e d or being required to share space with other age groups.  There-  fore, t h e i r preference f o r t h e i r own member-planned Centres was based on more than pride and l o y a l t y . The personal pride and d i g n i t y that members may gain by becoming involved i n the planning process at an autonomous Senior Centre serves as a second factor f o r encouraging members to p a r t i c i p a t e i n planning.  As  discussed i n Chapter 2 , when i n d i viduals approach t h e i r l a t e r years, they begin to lose control over many aspects of t h e i r l i v e s : employment, housing, and transportation.  health,  They become dependent on Gov-  ernment f o r income, rent supplements, p r e s c r i p t i o n drugs, bus passes, and various services.  *(Obviously t h i s member didn't f e e l the heavy hand of Government i n t e r f e r i n g with the Centre's planning, even though i t s operation was Government funded.)  88  Having an opportunity to become involved i n planning at a Senior Centre i s one way an older adult can make decisions which a f f e c t h i s l i f e and those of others.  One D i r e c t o r noted,  I r e a l l y resent the set-up at Extended Care I n s t i tutions. S t a f f there are so patronizing.. They treat the older people l i k e l i t t l e children. That approach might be a l l r i g h t f o r the 10 percent who need i t . But f o r the other 90 percent, i t ' s surely not the way to go. The Director continued, The decisions members make at the Centre may be the only ones that have any e f f e c t i n t h e i r l i v e s . I f s t a f f imposed the Centre's program, members probably would be l e s s s a t i s f i e d with i t . A l l but two of the thirteen Board members I interviewed a t S i l v e r Harbour and 411 had served on other boards or committees, or been active doing other voluntary work before j o i n i n g the Centres.  Having the oppor-  t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n planning at t h e i r Senior Centre enabled them to c a p i t a l i z e on s k i l l s and experience from t h e i r pre-retirement years. P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n planning also afforded some Centre members opportunities to discover new a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s . who of  At 411, e s p e c i a l l y , many members  might not otherwise have had an opportunity to do so, held p o s i t i o n s responsibility. For example, the person who  chairs 411's Library Committee suffers  from a neurological disorder which prevents him from holding a paying job.  He i s i n h i s 50's, but has been permitted to j o i n the Centre upon  the recommendation of a S o c i a l Worker,  He l i v e s at the nearby Salvation  Army hostel f o r men and comes to the Centre d a i l y .  Although he receives  a supplement to h i s S o c i a l Assistance allowance f o r doing a minimum of 20 hours of volunteer work i n a month, he estimates that h i s work takes  89  u p  a p p r o x i m a t e l y  t r i e s  1 2 0  t o  g e t  " g o o d  l i b r a r y .  He  s a y s ,  E v e n  t h o u g h  l i k e  t h e  l i k e  a  a p p e a r s  p l a n n i n g  f r o m  o f  t h e  I  t h e We  t o  C o m m i t t e e , a l l  C e n t r e s .  e n c o u r a g e  a  I  p r o u d l y  w o r k  d e s c r i b e d  w i t h  d o n ' t  h i m  i n  how  h e  t h e  a c t  w o r k  a s  p a r t n e r s ,  W h i l e  a n  a u t o n o m o u s  T h i s  a n d  t o  a s s e r t i o n  T h e  i t s  t h a t  members  s e m i - a u t o n o m o u s  C e n t r e .  c o n t r i b u t i o n s  man  v o l u n t e e r s "  h e a d  e f f e c t .  C e n t r e  T h i s  t e a m .  t o  M u r d o c h  m o n t h .  " M a s t e r . "  p r o c e s s ,  s t r a i n i n g  a  d e p e n d a b l e  S e m i - A u t o n o m o u s  3)  t u r e  h o u r s  t h e y  a n d  i n v o l v e d  s t r u c t u r e  i s  members  p r o g r a m .  b e c o m e  b o r n e  o t h e r  a l s o  o u t  b y  t h e  a t  made  a  t o  S e n i o r  h a s  a  p r i d e  more  t h e  c o n -  f i n d i n g s  s p o k e  i n  s t r u c -  C e n t r e ' s  r e s e a r c h  M u r d o c h  e x h i b i t e d  m e m b e r s  i n  g e n e r a l l y  i n t e r v i e w e d  T h e y  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  p o s i t i v e l y  t h e  C e n t r e .  v o l u n t a r y  H o w e v e r ,  r t h e i r  p r i d e  r e l a t e d  t r e ' s  p l a n n i n g  t h e  p r o c e s s .  p o l i c y ,  b u d g e t ,  f a c t i o n  t h a t  o r  s u c h  M e m b e r s  t o  o n  f u n c t i o n a l  M u r d o c h ' s  s t a f f i n g ,  c o n t r o l  t h e  t h u s  p r o g r a m  m e m b e r s  tfcey  a f f o r d s  E x e c u t i v e  o r  a r e  members  A d v i s o r y  d o  a s p e c t s  n o t  c o n t r o l  u n a b l e  o f  B o a r d  t o  S i l v e r  i n t r o d u c t i o n  c h a n g e d i s  s t i l l  M e m b e r s make t h e  t h e  c a n  C e n t r e  ( T h e  s u g g e s t  a n d  a c k n o w l e d g e  A s s i s t a n t  w h a t  A d v i s o r y  ( T h e  B o a r d  A s s i s t a n t  h a s n ' t  D i r e c t o r )  t h i n g s ,  ( T h e h a s  b u t  A s s i s t a n t  t h e  f i n a l  t h e y  c a n ' t  D i r e c t o r )  w o r d  o n  r u n s  a n y  i m p l e m e n t e d .  a p p r o v a l .  k n o w s  t h e  D i r e c t o r ) We  S h e ' s s h e ' s  u s u a l l y b e e n d o i n g .  b r i n g s go  h e r e  t h i n g s  a l o n g f o r  t o  w i t h  y e a r s  u s  h e r  a n d  t h e  H a r b o u r  m a i n s t a y .  t h a t ' s  d e c i s i o n s ,  o f  m u c h ,  d e c i s i o n s ,  t h i n g  f o r  t h i n g s  t h e i r  s h e  a n d  t h e i r  C e n -  C e n t r e ' s  e x p e r i e n c e  r o l e s T h e  o f  t h e  s a t i s -  4 1 1 ,  l i m i t e d  90 One Board member r e l u c t a n t l y agreed to hold o f f i c e out o f l o y a l t y to the Centre and to the Assistant D i r e c t o r .  She stated, "No one r e a l l y  wants to serve on the Board." One might argue that Murdoch's Board i s merely a "rubber stamp" f o r Leisure Services p o l i c y and that i t s establishment "formal cooption,"  i s an example of  Formal cooption i s a process i d e n t i f i e d by P h i l i p  Selznick f o r : absorbing new elements into the organization... ( i t s ) use...does not envision the transfer of actual power. The form o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s emphasized but action i s channeled so as to f u l f i l l the administrative functions while preserving the locus of s i g n i f i c a n t decision i n the hands of the i n i t i a t i n g group (in Estes, 1979, p. 215). The establishment description,  of Murdoch's Executive Advisory Board f i t s t h i s  P r i o r to i t s formation, Centre members had no formal  representation i n the administrative structure.  The Board was i n i t i a t e d  by the Assistant Director to serve as an a s s i s t i n g body and to provide members with a greater voice i n the running of the Centre. not demand t h i s voice.  Members d i d  In f a c t , I was t o l d that some members even opposed  the introduction of the Board, fearing that i t would ' a l t e r the character of the Centre or program, Arnstein charges, P a r t i c i p a t i o n without the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of power i s an empty and f r u s t r a t i n g process f o r the powerless. Ittallows the power holders to claim that a l l sides were considered, but makes i t possible f o r only some of those sides to benefit. I t maintains the status quo (Arnstein, I969, p. 216). Although Murdoch's Board, Committee, and general members have l e s s control over t h e i r Centre's planning than members of an autonomous  91 Centre, they do have opportunities to have some say i n decisions a f f e c t i n g the Centre.  As Senior Centre experts observe, "while the  l e g a l authority of advisory committees may be limited, (advisory committees') influence can be substantial, p a r t i c u l a r l y when members are w e l l informed, have a deep commitment to the Senior Centre concept and (possess) s p e c i a l expertise r e l a t e d to the program..." (Leanse, et a l . , 1 9 7 7 t P« 7 ) . Actually, some members may f i n d even greater encouragement to become involved intplanning of an agency-administered Senior Centre, than at a l e s s r e s t r i c t e d autonomous Centre.  This may be true f o r two  reasons. F i r s t , as mentioned i n the introduction o f t h i s Chapter, some members do not want major planning r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s at Senior Centres,  Murdoch  Centre may provide the types of planning opportunities that such members desire.  For example, a Board member admitted that he was content to have  advisory powers and not to have the a d d i t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s he would have i f he served on a governing Board, He said, " I f I wanted to work a l l the time, Ilwould have kept my job f o r $28,000,00 a year." Another member indicated h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the "planned f o r " structure of Murdoch: I l i k e i t here a t Murdoch. I t ' s a loose k n i t organization. You don't f e e l you're obligated to do anything. A l l but one of the thirteen members interviewed a t Murdoch expressed appreciation o f Leisure Services' administration. For example,-;a r e l a t i v e l y new member of Murdoch who had recently moved to Richmond from the United States said, Leisure Services i s marvelous. They do so much f o r a l l age groups, not only seniors. The Senior  92 Centres I know i n the States are mainly Welfare places. My friends and I wouldn't dream of going to them. Murdoch's fabulous. Here, we're treated as people, not c h a r i t y cases. Another member noted, The odd person on the Board and i n the Centre f e e l s that Leisure Services has too much c o n t r o l . I don't think so, though. Some people complain about anything. Even one of the Board members who favoured the Board's gaining greater powers i n the future said, "When we get our own building, I hope Leisure Services s t i l l c a r r i e s us." The second reason why a semi-autonomous Senior Centre might encourage members to become involved i n planning i s that being under a parent agency's administration helps protect against s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups or domineering members "taking over,"  A member who has been active on num-  erous Government and voluntary Committees and Boards, observed, C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s balderdash. Often those with the loudest voice have the l e a s t to o f f e r . A Board member said, A Centre should belong to some Municipal body. From my experience i n working i n Trade Unions, I'd bet that cliques would form a t an independently operated Senior Centre. The Centre would quickly f a l l apart. He spoke of the advantages of having a strong Director or s t a f f person, I t ' s gogd to have a person to s e t t l e arguments and bring order to our meetings. The Directors of autonomous Senior Centres can perform t h i s a r b i t r a t o r r o l e ; however, they may have d i f f i c u l t i e s i n exercising the necessary authority to c u r t a i l the actions o f offending members,  93  e s p e c i a l l y  B o a r d  t h e y  A t  v i e w e d  f o r  Two  I n  o f  l e s s  t h a t  t h e y  a m o u n t  f r o m  t i m e  s a i d  H o w e v e r ,  m e m b e r s .  w o u l d ,  t h e  o p e r a t i o n  t h e  B o a r d  e f f e c t ,  t h i s  t h a n  M u r d o c h ' s  y e a r .  Two  l i k e  t h e  o t h e r  B o a r d  a u t h o r i t y  w h i c h  t h e y  o u r  W e ' r e  l i k e  i n f a n t s  g r o w i n g  g o t  M a y b e  w h e n  a b l e  t o  o k a y  f o r  B o a r d  s e r v i n g  t o  l e a r n  we  t a k e  g e t o n  now,  t h e  more  h a v e  r e v e a l e d  B o a r d .  a  One  g r o w i n g  who  a r e  l i s t e n e d  o n e s  who  g e t  a n y t h i n g  Maybe w a n t  was  l o t s  e n t i a l  p e o p l e  S o o n e r  o r  R i c h m o n d b e  T h e s e  a b l e  a t  i n  " c o o p t e d "  t h e m  w i t h  o f  a  more  members  i n  t h e  i n  i n t e r -  f u t u r e .  s a t i s f a c t i o n  w i t h  h a v e :  we  c a n  w a l k .  we;?sll  b e  W e ' r e  p o l i t i c a l  a w a r e n e s s  g a i n e d  t o . . . T h e y ' r e f r o m t o  t h e  s t a r t  S i l v e r  i s  b y  h e l p  a t  s c r e a m i n g  H a r b o u r  a n d  S i l v e r  b i g  w h i l e  we  s a i d ,  i n f l u -  i n d o ,  w e ' l l  r o l e .  t h e  s a t i s f a c t o r y  T h u s ,  C e n t r e ,  H a r b o u r .  s h o t s  When  a c t i v e  t h a t  f u t u r e .  l e a r n i n g  g e t  M u r d o c h .  s u g g e s t  members  w i t h  t h e m  w e ' l l  j o i n  n e a r  h a v e  G o v e r n m e n t  b e h i n d  M u r d o c h ,  t h e  w e ' l l  f a m i l i a r  t a k e  comments  p r a c t i c e d  c h a l l e n g e d  t o  b e e n  r e s u l t s .  l a t e r t o  p o w e r s  h a s  c o m p l a i n e d ,  o n e s  h a d  B o a r d  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  o n l y  T h e y  B o a r d  n o w .  b e f o r e  o n l y  who  t h e  e m p l o y e r .  e x p r e s s e d  b u i l d i n g ,  t h e  we  t o ,  h e r e .  t h e  i f  s i x  w i d e r  w e t  c r a w l own  t h e i r  p r e s e n t l y  f e e t  r e s p o n s i b l e  t h o u g h .  members  o n  t o o u r  a n d  A d v i s o r y  t h e  members  g e t t i n g  W e ' v e  o f  t o  j u s t  A n o t h e r ,  v i d e d  w r i t i n g ,  a  b y ,  d i s c i p l i n i n g  W e ' r e  t o o ,  h a v e  b e  m i g h t  D e p a r t m e n t .  a s  e m p l o y e d  t h e y  a n d  o f  B e i n g  f u n c t i o n a l  f o r  w h i l e  t h e  t h e  t i m e  p l a n n i n g  b e i n g ,  A s s i s t a n t  e s t a b l i s h i n g  t h e  A d v i s o r y  o p p o r t u n i t i e s  a n d  e x p e r i e n c e  i t  p r o c e s s ,  c o u l d  D i r e c t o r  B o a r d ,  w h i c h  s h e  h a s  c o u l d  b e  n a y  p r o -  l e a d  94 them eventually to demand greater control over t h e i r Centre's planning and operation. The preceding discussion reveals that while the autonomous Centres generally o f f e r the greatest encouragement f o r members to become involved i n t h e i r Centres' planning processes, semi autonomous or agency-administered encouragement.  Senior Centres o f f e r t h e i r own d i s t i n c t forms of  The analysis now turns to examine how funding l e v e l s and  s t a f f i n g a f f e c t members' decisions to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e i r Senior Centre's planning process.  B, Funding Level An important factor i n the planning and administration of any Senior Centre i s i t s l e v e l o f funding.  Funding l e v e l determines, to a large  degree, the programs a Centre can o f f e r , s t a f f i t can h i r e , and goals i t can r e a l i s t i c a l l y expect to achieve.  A b r i e f prepared f o r submission to  the P r o v i n c i a l Government by an ad hoc committee composed of representatives from Senior Centres and other senior c i t i z e n s organizations stressed the importance of funding to a Senior Centre: Without adequate operating funds, on an ongoing basis, (Seniors') A c t i v i t y Centre/Groups have l i t t l e hope of surviving or being established where the need has been i d e n t i f i e d (Ad Hoc Committee, 1979, P. 4). The sources and l e v e l s of rEunding f o r the three Centres under study vary, with the S i l v e r Harbour and 411 Centres r e c e i v i n g t h e i r operating grants from the P r o v i n c i a l Ministry of Human Resources and Murdoch Centre r e c e i v i n g i t s funds from the Richmond Municipality.  The 1980 funding  a l l o c a t i o n s f o r the Centres are included i n the "Background Fact Sheets" i n the Appendix.  Attempting to determine the " r e l a t i v e adequacy"of the  95 Centres' funding l e v e l s by using a simple technique, such as a membership-funding d o l l a r r a t i o , would not y i e l d r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s .  Iri"".  f a c t , due to the d i f f e r e n t programs, s t a f f positions, c l i e n t e l e , and goals of the Centres, the comparisons would be meaningless and possibly misleading. Based on interview statements of the Centre Directors, however, the autonomous Centres appear to experience the greatest d i f f i c u l t i e s i n managing within the l i m i t s o f t h e i r a l l o c a t e d funds. Harbour's operating grant from 1979  to 1980,  The increase i n S i l v e r  f o r example, was %  below the r i s e i n the cost of l i v i n g f o r the same period.  %  a rate  The 411 Centre  received a larger percentage increase i n i t s most recent grant from the P r o v i n c i a l Government; however, the Centre's program had major expansions during the year, which m&kes comparisons of the 1979 a l l o c a t i o n s problematic.  and 1980  funding  The Assistant Director o f Murdoch Centre claims  that that Centre's funds have increased at a s u f f i c i e n t rate to meet with r i s e s i n the cost of l i v i n g and expansions i n the Centre's programs,  As  w i l l be noted l a t e r , however, the f a c t that Murdoch Centre has s t a f f shortages indicates that the funding i s below the i d e a l l e v e l . Problems with funding can have a dual e f f e c t , both discouraging and encouraging members' involvement i n planning. problems emerged from the case studies. funding l e v e l s .  Two p o t e n t i a l funding  The f i r s t problem r e l a t e d to  I f funding l e v e l s are perceived to be too low, they can  discourage members' involvement i n planning.  Members w i l l obviously not  engage i n planning programs that, i n t h e i r estimation?, can never be implemented, due to p r o h i b i t i v e i n s t r u c t o r fees, or material or equipment costs.  The second problem i s related to the i n s e c u r i t y i n the l e v e l and  96  s o u r c e  a n d  o f  4 1 1  u t i v e  f u n d i n g ,  C e n t r e s .  D i r e c t o r s  s u b m i s s i o n  y e a r  t o  w h e t h e r  G o v e r n m e n t  The  c o u l d  r e c e i v e  k e e p  u s  t h e  B o a r d  e v e n  p l a n n i n g  f u n d i n g  i t  i n v o l v e d  i n  a r e  f u n d i n g  n e c e s s i t a t e s  d o  s h e  S i l v e r  b u d g e t  n o t  know  w i t h  H a r b o u r  t h e  E x e c -  p r o p o s a l s  f r o m  f o r  y e a r  t o  C o n c e i v a b l y ,  t h e  f u n d i n g .  a t  S i l v e r  l o n g  was  a n d  c o n d u c t i n g  members  who  s t a n d i n g  a s k e d  "Who  H a r b o u r  f o r  f r u s t r a t e s  One  t h e  r e q u e s t e d .  d i f f i c u l t i e s  a l s o  a t  c o n s u l t a t i o n  a n n u a l  t h e y  t h e i r  f u n d i n g  when  i n  w o u l d  e n c o u r a g e d  a t  t h e  one  k n o w s ?  The  4 1 1  p r o m o t e s  l o n g  a r e  B o a r d  w h e t h e r  r e a s o n g o o d  b y  h e r e ,  t r a c k  o f  a n y  a c c o u n t s  i n a d e q u a c i e s  f u n d i n g  t h i s  i n  members  a n d  r a n g e ,  i n v o l v e d  member  h e r  G o v e r n m e n t  i n  r e p l i e d  C e n t r e  b u t o f a r e  we i t .  w a s .  o n  c a n ' t I  t h e  We  t h e s e  o f  a  t o  w o u l d  l i k e s  t o  a f f o r d  t o  s u r e  p r o b l e m s  e n c o u r a g e  c o p e  f r o m  c a n  t h o s e  l i m i t e d  c o n s i d e r a b l e  r e s p o n -  W h i l e  member  a n d  n o t  b e  a l l  f o r m e r  members  b a n k  s a i d ,  B o a r d i n  members  w i t h  f u n d s .  B o a r d  She  same  c a n  e x e r c i s e  t a k e  make  p r o p e r l y  c o u l d  t o  r e q u i r e m e n t ,  s e r v i n g  d i s c o u r a g e  H a v i n g  a l l o c a t i o n  f i g u r e s .  c a n  i n a d e q u a c i e s  m a t t e r s .  o b v i o u s l y  I ' m  w i t h  money  money  f u n d i n g  p l a n n i n g ,  f u n d i n g  p l a n n i n g  C e n t r e  I ' m  g o a l s  i n  o f  C e n t r e ' s  F i r s t ,  management  T h e  a n d  p r o b l e m s  t h e i r  s k i l l e d  s i b i l i t y  o f  i n  a m o u n t s  r e q u e s t e d :  w h i l e  who  C e n t r e ' s  a p p a r e n t  g u e s s i n g . "  members  F u n d i n g  t h e  p r o c e s s e s .  e x p e r i e n c e  f a c t o r s .  e m p l o y e e  h o w e v e r ,  c r e a t e s  I t  m o s t  p r e p a r e  d i s c o n t i n u e  a n d  e n c o u r a g i n g  b e  m e m b e r s ,  r e c e i v e  p l a n n i n g .  o f  was  T r e a s u r e r s ,  r e g a r d i n g  P a r a d o x i c a l l y ,  b e c o m i n g  C e n t r e s *  w i l l  p l a n n i n g  v o i c e  p r o b l e m  G o v e r n m e n t ;  t h e y  C e n t r e s '  a  a n d  t h e  c o m p r e h e n s i v e  w i t h  T h e  i n s e c u r i t y  p r a g m a t i c  t h e  T h i s  i s a  t h a t  l o t  o f  l o s e  o u r  r e c o r d s  k e p t .  a l s o  l e a d  p l a n n i n g  o r d e r  t o  make  t h e m  m o r e  i n a d e q u a c i e s  i s  t h a t  t h e y  c a n  members  t o  " a t t a i n a b l e . "  a c t  a s  a n  r e d e f i n e  t h e i r  A  e f f e c t  s e c o n d  i n c e n t i v e ,  c h a l l e n g i n g  97 i n d i v i d u a l  C e n t r e ' s  members  f u n d i n g  Members  some  o f  a t  t h e  a )  t o  t h e  t h r e e  f o l l o w i n g  t h e  s p e c i a l  b a z a a r s ,  t e a s ,  c h a r g i n g  members  c h a r g i n g  s e e k i n g  a l l  t o  f )  o f  C e n t r e s  h a v i n g  a p p l y i n g  t o  a  a p p e a r e d  t o  p l a n n i n g  a n d  t o  r e m e d y  t h e i r  w e r e  e n g a g e d  i n  a t  l e a s t  e . g .  o f  t o  S t a t e ,  t h e  t h e  F e d e r a l  New  P r o v i n c i a l  H o r i z o n s  G o v e r n m e n t  a n d  e v e n t s  f a s h i o n  m a t e r i a l s  s e r v i c e s  s u c h  t h e  C e n t r e ,  e . g .  s h o w s .  f e e s  f o r  f o r  t o  c o v e r  t h e  c o s t s  o f  a c t i v i t i e s .  a s  r e p a i r s  t o  c l o t h i n g ;  s e l l i n g  o r  i n d i v i d u a l s  o f  f r o m  p r i v a t e  g r o u p s  S i l v e r  H a r b o u r  h a v e  h a v e  C l u b s  b o o k s  a n d  i n  o b t a i n e d  b u s i n e s s e s  t h e i r  g i f t s  -  f r o m  a  i n  N o r t h  V a n c o u v e r  l i b r a r i e s  w h i c h  w e r e  a n d  d o n a t e d  t h e m .  t i a t e  a n d  g r a n t s ,  r e g i s t r a t i o n  S e r v i c e  f o r  i d e n t i f i e d  a b l e  s t u d y  f u n d - r a i s i n g  d o n a t i o n s  ( P r o v i n c i a l  B e i n g  w a y s  b o o k s .  members  n u m b e r  f o r  d a n c e s ,  a n d  f o r  u s e d  e . g .  s e e k i n g  F u n d .  i n s t r u c t i o n  e)  i n  e n d e a v o u r s s  S e c r e t a r y  p l a n n i n g  g o o d  u n d e r  f u n d - r a i s i n g  t o  L o t t e r y  d)  i n i t i a t i v e  C e n t r e s  p r o p o s a l s  P r o g r a m ,  c )  t h e  d e f i c i e n c i e s .  w r i t i n g  b)  t a k e  a n  make  b e  a n  a n d  E m p l o y m e n t  F e d e r a l )  n e e d s  o f  e x e r c i s e  a  d e g r e e  Y o u t h  o f  o f  d a n c e  o v e r  t h e  L o c a l  s e c u r e  e . g .  I n i t i a t i v e  t e m p o r a r y  a  g r o u p  o f  s t a f f  p r o j e c t s  t o  w o r k e r s  m e e t  t o  i n i -  p r o g r a m .  c o n t r i b u t i o n  c o n t r o l  i n c e n t i v e  c o n d u c t i n g  members,  a n d  t a n g i b l e  t o  o r  t o  t h e i r  s p e n d i n g  b e c o m e  o f  f o r  members  t o  f u n d  r a i s i n g  a c t i v i t i e s .  C e n t r e ' s  t h e  f u n d s  i n v o l v e d  B e i n g  i n  o p e r a t i o n  t h e y  r a i s e d  t h e  g i v e n  a n  98  opportunity to use previous s k i l l s or learn new ones may also have been an incentive. The enthusiasm of members involved i n fund-raising was evident at the three Centres studied.  I t was most apparent at S i l v e r Harbour and  411, however, where members are granted the greatest degree o f autonomy i n t h e i r planning. For example, the leader of the Sewing Committee at one of the autonomous Centres mends members' clothing f o r a nominal fee i n order to buy equipment and materials f o r her sewing c l a s s .  She said,  I'm surprised a t how much work I've gotten. I've been able to use the money to buy scissors, thread, and other things the " g i r l s " i n the sewing c l a s s need. This Committee leader gained obvious s a t i s f a c t i o n from the f a c t that s t a r t i n g the r e p a i r service was her idea, and that the Director merely said, "Fine," when she approached him with her suggestion. Perhaps due to the semi-autonomous administrative structure o f Murdoch Centre, i t s members have shown l e s s personal i n i t i a t i v e i n r a i s i n g funds f o r the Centre.  However, within the past year, they have  applied f o r and received a Federal Government New Horizons Grant.  And,  with the assistance of the Assistant Director, they have generated funds for the Centre's a c t i v i t i e s through membership and program fees, proceeds from s p e c i a l events, and other sources from within the Centre.  When  Murdoch becomes established as a Non^Profit Society, i t w i l l be c l a s s i f i e d as a charitable organization.  I t w i l l then be i n a p o s i t i o n to  a t t r a c t donations from Service Clubs and other groups as i t w i l l be able to issue tax-deductible r e c e i p t s to the donors.  With the addition  of these p o t e n t i a l sources of revenue, members w i l l have greater  99 o p p o r t u n i t i e s  C .  q u a l i t y  S e n i o r  C e n t r e ' s  o f  s t a f f "  r e v e a l e d  r o l e  i n  t w o  o f  f o r  t h e  t o  s e e k  t h e  C e n t r e s  m a i n  t o  f u n d i n g  i n  q u i t  t o  A s  w i l l  a b l e  t o  o f  s t a f f  w h i l e  t a k e  b e  f o r  t h e i r  a n d  C e n t r e .  i s  t h a t  C e n t r e ' s  t h e y  a  f u n d i n g  t h e  a  t h e  C e n t r e  t h i s  t h e s i s  l a t e r ,  members  w o r k s  a s  a  t h e  may  e n c o u r a g e d  o f  t h e m  b e  was  g r e a t e r  r a p p o r t  c r u c i a l  4 1 1  t h e  r e c e i v e  c o m p a r a b l e  w o r k  c o n s i d e r a b l e  s t a f f .  f o r  F o r  a p p r o x i m a t e l y  c o n d u c t e d .  T h e y  p a y .  t h a t  D i r e c t o r s  i n  d e t e r m i n i n g  b e c o m e  i n v o l v e d  s t a f f  b r e a k s  t h e  t o  p o s i t i o n s  p e r m i t  4 1 1  b e i n g  t o  d e t e r r e n t  f o r  r e q u i r e d  s t a f f  d e d i c a t e d  a t  p l a n n i n g  i m p o s s i b l e  n o t  a t  c a u s e d  f o r  o u t  d o e s  d o i n g  a n d  m a j o r  S t a f f  o f  f o r  q u a l i f i e d  a  r o l e .  E m p l o y e e s  r e s e a r c h  o f f e r e d  t h e  t h e  b e  p l a y  r e c e i v e  h a s  w i l l  i t  n u m b e r  e m p l o y e d  t h a t  made  G r a n t  t o  C e n t r e ' s  " f a c i l i t a t o r "  s a l a r i e s .  m a i n t a i n i n g  S e n i o r  c o m p e n s a t e  a l t h o u g h  w o u l d  A s  S t a f f  h a s  o p e r a t i n g  s i t u a t i o n  T u r n o v e r  t h u s  i n  b e e n  w i t h  b e  o f  a n d  h a d  b r o u g h t  w i l l  D i r e c t o r s  r e l a t i o n  79).  who  j o b s  d e v e l o p  a n d  w h a t  t h e  o u t  d i r e c t  p .  a d e q u a t e l y  a d e q u a t e  members  p r o c e s s .  e s t a b l i s h e d  a n d  4 1 1  t h e  T h i s  h i r i n g  members  p l a n n i n g  h i r e  S t a f f  a g e n c y .  t w o  l e f t  n o t  i t s  C e n t r e  a  1979.  a l . ,  p a r t i c i p a t i o n  c a r r y i n g  t w o - t h i r d s  e x a m p l e ,  a r e  t o  e t  "bears  i n s u f f i c i e n t  p r o b l e m i a t  p a y  d i f f i c u l t y  b o t h  member  e s t a b l i s h e d ,  a n o t h e r  y e a r  s e c t i o n ,  s u c c e s s f u l  r o u g h l y  a t  l a t e r  U n f o r t u n a t e l y ,  b e e n  C e n t r e  a  e f f e c t i v e n e s s  ( L e a n s e ,  f a c i l i t a t i n g  The  h a v e  i t s  i n  p r o c e s s .  o r  e n c o u r a g e m e n t  S t a f f i n g  "A  a  a n d  i n  b o n d s  member  a  a n d  S t a f f  w h e t h e r  C e n t r e ' s  w h i c h  h a v e  i n v o l v e m e n t  b e e n  i n  p l a n n i n g . T h e  d i f f i c u l t y  o f  m a k i n g  t h e  d e c i s i o n  t o  r e s i g n  was  e x p r e s s e d  b y  100 one of the two employees who l e f t 411s I l i k e the people here and I want the Centre to "be a success. But I'm young, I'm only 2 5 . I've been d r i v i n g an o l d car that's badly i n need of r e p a i r s and have been doing without nice clothes, concerts, and other things I've wanted and needed f o r over a year. I just couldn't hold out any longer. A Board member at 411 who appeared sympathetic to the dilemma faced by the s t a f f members who had l e f t , thoughtfully assessed the Centre's s t a f f i n g situations Some s t a f f use 411 as a stepping stone before moving on to another job. Because of the current employment and economic s i t u a t i o n , we get l o t s of applicants f o r any vacancy that's created. But we hesitate to hire people with extensive education or work experience because we know t h e y ' l l l i k e l y go on to something better withiivisix months. Although s a l a r i e s of the S i l v e r Harbour employees may be below what would be paid at other agencies, the Centre has not experienced high s t a f f turnover.  The Director of S i l v e r Harbour acknowledged that the  Centre i s fortunate to have such capable and dedicated s t a f f i n l i g h t of the s a l a r i e s they receive.  She praised the s t a f f , saying that "working  at the Centre i s more than just a job f o r them." The s t a f f i n g problem/at Murdoch Centre does not r e l a t e to salary scale, but to i n s u f f i c i e n t s t a f f p o s i t i o n s .  Despite the rapid increase  i n the membership from 40 to nearly 1,000 within four years, the only s t a f f person hired to work with the Assistant Director has been a parttime Secretary, Due to the increased demands made upon the Assistant Director by the growing membership, she must devote considerable time to "front l i n e " duty, rather than to working with members i n planning. admits,  She  101 I would l i k e to be able to f i n d out the s k i l l s and i n t e r e s t s of members and tryto channel them into appropriate areas. I just don't have the time. A Senior Centre Operational Manual stresses that "securing and r e t a i n i n g a competent and q u a l i f i e d s t a f f requires c a r e f u l attention to the factors which make f o r good working conditions, thus promoting good employee morale, e f f i c i e n c y , and a sense o f security and well being" (Leanse, e t a l . , 197?» p. 79).  The foregoing discussion reveals that  both the autonomous and semi-autonomous Senior Centres  may experience  d i f f i c u l t i e s i n measuring up to the i d e a l set out i n the Operational Manual.  More w i l l be said of s t a f f ' s r o l e i n encouraging members to plan i n  a l a t e r section. CHARACTERISTICS OF "PLANNING" MEMBERS This section examines the r o l e that a Centre's active "planning" members play i n encouraging other members to become involved i n planning. The "planning" members considered are the Board and Committee members as they are the most " v i s i b l e " members involved i n a Centre's planning process and possibly have the greatest p o t e n t i a l to influence other members to become involved. The analysis distinguishes two setsoof f a c t o r s or q u a l i f i c a t i o n s that Board and Committee members should possess i n order to encourage other members to become involved i n planning:  l ) s k i l l s and experience  and 2 ) personality and attitude,  A. S k i l l s and Experience The f i r s t q u a l i f i c a t i o n s Board and Committee members should possess r e l a t e to t h e i r experience and s k i l l s .  The " i d e a l " planning member  102  would have had previous experience on Boards or Committees or have been active i n Community organizations. In addition, he would be s k i l l e d i n working with others i n groups. The importance of having Board and Committee members who are experienced i s that they know how to organize planning tasks i n ways which permit and encourage other members to become involved. Experienced members can also perform an educational function and, either d i r e c t l y or by example, help other members who lack experience to understand and p a r t i c ipate i n the planning process. The value o f having experienced, knowledgeable people at the Board and Committee l e v e l can be seen i n the i n i t i a t i o n processes of the S i l v e r Harbour and 411 Centres.  At S i l v e r Harbour, older adults from a v a r i e t y  of Senior C i t i z e n s groups i n North Vancouver gained the cooperation of i n f l u e n t i a l people, organized volunteers, petitioned three l e v e l s o f Government f o r grants and land, and eventually brought about the construction of S i l v e r Harbour Centre. The 411 Centre was also i n i t i a t e d by experienced older adults (members of the Senior C i t i z e n s ' Association of B:,C.).  411's Advisory Boards  contained a number o f experienced and i n f l u e n t i a l older adults, including members of Seniors' organizations and a former Mayor of Vancouver. The 411 Advisory Board, with the assistance of Human Resources s t a f f , worked to e f f e c t the t r a n s i t i o n of 411 from being Government administered to a Centre which i s operated by i t s own N o n - l f o f i t Society. In addition to having experience on Boards and Committees or i n Community organizations, a Centre's "planning members* should also be s k i l l e d i n working with groups. cation and leadership s k i l l s .  In p a r t i c u l a r , they should have communiWriters on Senior Centres assert that the  103 value of e f f e c t i v e communication "cannot be overemphasized;...(it) increases the capacity of Centre s t a f f , board members, participants and supporters to carry out t h e i r r o l e s more e f f e c t i v e l y . . . " (Leanse, et a l . 1977,  p. 4-3).  Leadership s k i l l s are also valuable; at l e a s t one writer  claims that "the q u a l i t y and s k i l l of leadership i s the most important single f a c t o r i n the success or f a i l u r e of creative and r e c r e a t i o n a l projects f o r older people" (Maxwell, 1962,  p, 40),  An example of how a s k i l l e d communicator and leader may encourage other members to become involved i n a Centre's planning process i s provided by reference to a Program meeting and an Annual General Meeting a t one of the Centres under study.  At both meetings, the Centre's Past  President made presentations to members.  He used v i s u a l aids, boldly  writing the main points he was going to cover on large sheets of newsp r i n t , which were attached to a " f l i p chart."  He slowly and c a r e f u l l y  explained each point, entertaining questions and naking sure that the members understood him before moving on to h i s next point. This gentleman had been employed p r o f e s s i o n a l l y i n education and public r e l a t i o n s p r i o r to h i s retirement and had been a c t i v e f o r years i n Community organizations.  His past experience enabled him to commu-  nicate i n a simple, e f f e c t i v e , non-patronizing manner with h i s audience who were drawn from varied socio-economic backgrounds. In addition to encouraging the general membership to become involved i n a Centre's planning process, experienced planning members can also have an encouraging e f f e c t on other planning members.  Those who  are  s k i l l e d i n running meetings can ensure that Board and Committee meetings proceed i n an e f f i c i e n t , businesslike manner and do not deteriorate into  104  g o s s i p  o v e r "  s e s s i o n s .  t h e  t a n t  b y  m e e t i n g s .  a l l  v i e w e d .  I  s p o k e h a d  t o  n o w . a  l a t t e r  s a t  u s  o n  a n d  s a y . T h e  g e t  p r e v e n t  s k i l l  a n d  new  a r e  P r e s i d e n t t o  s p e a k .  s u r e  s k i l l s  n o n e  a n d  f e e l  a r e n ' t  i m p o r t a n c e  e x p e r i e n c e ,  c o n s i d e r e d  t h e  a s  f r o m  b e i n g  B o a r d  " t a k i n g  v e r y  members  i m p o r -  i n t e r -  a n y  h a v i n g  o f  t h e  e x p e r i e n c e  w h a t  we  a l l a l l  l i k e  a  m o r e .  B o a r d  a n d  D i r e c t o r s  t o  we  b e t t e r  w e ' r e  t r e a t e d  o f  P r e s i d e n t  h e a r  makes We  h o u s e w i v e s  s t u p i d  t h e  t o  much  b u n c h  a n d  o f  r u n  We  t h e  members  i d e n t i f i e d  h a l f  B o a r d , c a r e  p a r t i c i p a t i n g .  D e s p i t e  w a s  o v e r  t h e  d i d n ' t  M e e t i n g s  c h a n c e  o f  d o m i n e e r i n g  s a i d ,  f i r s t t o  a l s o  D i r e c t o r s  member  When  c a n  The  C e n t r e  One  s k i l l s  T h e y  b e  C o m m i t t e e  o r  B o a r d  e s s e n t i a l  f o r  members  members  a l l  w i t h  i n t e r v i e w e d  p l a n n i n g  m e m b e r s .  On  t h e  S i l v e r  H a r b o u r  t e c h n i c a l  e x p e r t i s e  C o m m u n i t y  B o a r d  d r a w n  h a d  t h e  B o a r d  The  f r o m  t h e  D i r e c t o r s  t h e i r  B o a r d s ,  e x c l u d e d  A  t e c h n i c a l  members  B o a r d  a n d  a r g u e d  w i l l i n g n e s s  o r  i s  c o u l d  p e r f o r m  t o  o n  t h e  t h e  A c c o u n t i n g  n o  n o t  M u r d o c h  c o n c e r n s  t h a t  t o  a r e  a l l  h e l p s ,  b u t  i t ' s  Common  s e n s e  h a v e  m o d i c u m  t h e r e  A t  members  L a w  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  r e a s o n  p e r f o r m  t h e s e  t h e  L e i s u r e  S e r v i c e s  B o a r d  e m p h a s i z e d  t h e  c a n  b e  o f  C o m p e t e n c e  n o t  i s  l i v e d  s e r v e  t h e t o  b e  a n d  a n  i n t e r e s t  r e q u i r e d .  a l l  t h e  e s s e n t i a l .  m a i n o u r  t h i n g . a g e  h a v e  M o s t some  t h a t .  i s  i n  t h a t  i s  r e q u i r e d .  p e o p l e  b y  members  t a s k s  i f  t h e y  A d v i s o r y  D e p a r t m e n t ,  l e a r n e d .  n e e d  E x p e r i e n c e  p e r f o r m e d  E x e c u t i v e  " i n c l u s i v e "  members  r e q u i r i n g  B o a r d ;  C e n t r e ,  i n e x p e r i e n c e d  t h a t ' s  a r e  w h y  s e r v i n g s  C e n t r e  who  a s  m e m b e r s h i p  a l l  f r o m  B o a r d s ,  s u c h  e x p e r t i s e ) .  C e n t r e  a n d  4 1 1  ( a l t h o u g h  C e n t r e ' s  r e f e r  d u t i e s  a r e a s  members  n e c e s s a r y  c a n  i n  a n d  T h e  n a t u r e  n o t  f e e l  t h r e e  o f  105 Of the three Centres studied, only Murdoch provided t r a i n i n g sessions f o r i t s Board members.  The l i t e r a t u r e on Boards and Senior Centres  stresses that orientation and t r a i n i n g sessions are e s s e n t i a l f o r preparing new Board members f o r t h e i r duties. interviewed  at Murdoch found the t r a i n i n g sessions h e l p f u l ,  of those interviewed necessary.  Two of the Board members  a t S i l v e r Harbour or 411 considered  However, none  t r a i n i n g to be  Their attitude i s summed up i n the quote of a Board member  who received "on the job" t r a i n i n g : You can soon learn what to do on the Board by s i t t i n g i n and l i s t e n i n g . Of the nineteen Board members interviewed,  a l l but four had previously  served on Boards or Committees or had been active i n Community organizations.  What distinguished these Board members from the r e s t o f the mem-  bership was not so much t h e i r s k i l l s or s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s , but rather, i n the words of one Director, the f a c t that "they are doers by nature," As w i l l be seen i n the following discussion, hbwever, s k i l l s and experience i n themselves provide no guaranty that planning members w i l l encourage others to become involved i n a Senior Centre's planning process. Personality and attitudes also play a v i t a l r o l e ,  B. Personality and Attitudes The personality t r a i t s and attitudes of Board and Committee members are c r u c i a l factors i n determining whether or not other members w i l l become involved i n a Senior Centre's planning process.  In t h i s and the  following section, the term personality i s used to r e f e r to "the i n t e grated and dynamic organization of the physical, mental, moral, and s o c i a l q u a l i t i e s o f the i n d i v i d u a l , as that manifests i t s e l f to other  106  people, i n the give and take of s o c i a l l i f e " (Drever, 1964,  p. 208),  Attitudes are conceived to be "a more or l e s s stable set or d i s p o s i t i o n of opinion, i n t e r e s t or purpose, involving expectancy of a c e r t a i n kind of experience, and readiness with a c e r t a i n kind of response,,," 1964,  (Drever,  p. 2 3 ) . The d i s t i n c t i o n between personality and a t t i t u d i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  i s not c l e a r cut.  Therefore, rather than make an a r b i t r a r y d i s t i n c t i o n ,  these q u a l i t i e s w i l l be dealt with simultaneously. A l l Directors, Board and general members interviewed claimed that the p e r s o n a l i t i e s and attitudes of "planning members" were more important than t h e i r s k i l l s and experience.  In the words of one member who  has  served f o r many years on the executive of a Senior Citizens" organization, S k i l l s and experience help i n any Board work you do. But those with s k i l l s and experience aren't necessarily the best, The personality t r a i t s interview respondents most frequently c i t e d as being important f o r a planning member were an outgoing nature and personal warmth.  Outgoing and warm Board and Committee members can  encourage other Centre members to become involved i n a Centre's planning process through what Simon c a l l s the "informal communication system," which i s a system " b u i l t around the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s of members i n an organization" (Simon, 1961,  p. 1 6 0 ) .  The informal communication system  i s d i s t i n c t from the formal system of communication, which i s the "channel and media of communication which have been consciously and d e l i b e r a t e l y established" (Simon, 1961,  p. 1 5 7 ) .  Some examples of chan-  nels i n a Senior Centre's formal communication system include voting f o r  107 Board o f f i c e r s , placing suggestions i n suggestion boxes, and making " o f f i c i a l " requests to the Director or Board o f f i c e r s . Planning members can best make use of the informal communication system i f they are outgoing individuals and active i n t h e i r Centre's program.  I f they are outgoing and active, they w i l l l i k e l y know many  of t h e i r Centre's members.  Thus they w i l l have the opportunity to pick  up on the wishes i n d i v i d u a l members may have regarding the Centre.  They  can also discover, without seeming to probe, the concerns, i n t e r e s t s , s k i l l s , and needs of the membership.  By showing warmth and i n t e r e s t ,  planning members may help to encourage members who are o r d i n a r i l y inart i c u l a t e to express t h e i r views. An example of how the informal communication system can be used i s provided by one very active Board member who also heads a committee, i n s t r u c t s a class, and volunteers "wherever she's needed" a t the Centre. This person describes her method of f i n d i n g out what members want: I hear them t a l k i n g i n my classes or i n the c a f e t e r i a , over a coffee. When I go to the Board or Operating Committee meeting, I t r y to c l i p t h e i r ideas i n somewhere. The Presidents o f the three Centres are outgoing and active i n t h e i r Centres' programs.  They make use of both formal and informal communi-  cation channels i n e f f o r t s to involve members i n t h e i r Centres' planning processes.  For example, S i l v e r Harbour's President i s one of the Cen-  t r e ' s founding members and i s well known and respected by the members. She chairs the Program Committee meetings; thus she i s knowledgeable about the Centre's programs and i s able to hear the concerns of committee leaders.  I f necessary, she takes these concerns to the Board.  The President of 411 began her association with the Centre i n 1 9 7 2 ,  1 0 8  a s  o n e  m o s t  b y  o f  o f  t h e  s t a f f  a b i l i t y  c e r n s  o r i g i n a l  C e n t r e ' s  a n d  t o  t o  l e a r n  P r e s i d e n t  o f  b i r t h d a y .  D u r i n g  I n  a d d i t i o n  b e  g e n u i n e  d e s i r e  b a n d  A n g e l s $  o f  i n t e r v i e w  p l a n n i n g  b e i n g  n u m b e r  s e r v e b e  I t  t o  t h e  c r a z y  t o  h a s  " p e r s o n a l  a b l e  do  a  h e a l i n g  b e l o n g e d  C e n t r e  a b l e  t o  c a n  o f  a n d  w a s  p r a i s e d  a n d  h e r  m e m b e r s *  t h e  t h e  i n  c o n -  B o a r d .  C e n t r e  f o r  o n  h i s  S h e  o r  s u g g e s t i o n s  a t  f i v e  p r o g r a m s .  member  m e n t i o n  c a l l  t h e  h e r  o r  m o n t h l y  c o m -  E x e c u -  p l a n n i n g  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  a c h i e v e  a n g e l i c  e x a m p l e ,  t h e  a n d  members  w o u l d  c o m p a s s i o n a t e ,  s u c c e s s — i n  q u a l i t i e s  r e s p o n d e n t s  o t h e r  w e r e  w i t h l i a  w o r d s ,  a  m e n t i o n e d  d e s c r i b e d  t h e  b y  i d e a l  c a r i n g :  h a v e  s e r v e .  c o s t  a  l o v e I f  f o r  y p u  B o a r d  p e o p l e  t o  d i d n ' t ,  w o r k  y o u ' d  s u r e l y  a n y t h i n g o f  g o o d .  t o  s m i l e ,  S m i l e s  b u t  ( t h e  l o n g  i t  h a v e  p o w e r s .  d e s c r i b e d  i d e a s  t o  t o  t o u c h "  t o  r e c e i v e  o u t g o i n g ,  t h e s e  B o a r d .  w o r l d  t h e  B o a r d )  i n v o l v e  A s  S h e  t a k e  n e c e s s a r y ,  i d e a l  p l a n n i n g  member  s y s t e m :  We  t o  e a c h  a b l e  n a m e s .  p a r t i c i p a t i n g  s h e  i s  g l a m o u r o u s .  d o e s n ' t  c a n  i s  i s  C e n t r e s  F o r  b e i n g  g o t o n  i s n ' t  a l s o  a s  S h e  a n d  w h i c h  w a r m  t h e i r  r e s p o n d e n t s .  member  s h e  d e d i c a t e d ,  s e e  A  w a r m  c o n g r a t u l a t e  c a l l s ,  f i r s t  h e r  w h e n  S h e  m e e t i n g s .  t o  t o  c l a s s  k i t c h e n .  t h e i r  a n d  C e n t r e  C e n t r e ,  s e l f l e s s ,  Y o u ' v e  v a l u e  t h e  B o a r d  i d e a l l y  T h e y  t h e s e  r e g a r d i n g  A d v i s o r y  t o  b y  f o r  C o m m i t t e e ,  p a i n t i n g  t e l e p h o n e s  t h e  w a n t .  M u r d o c h  a  p e r s o n a l l y  t i v e  members  O p e r a t i n g  i n  members  i n t e r v i e w e d  w h a t  i n s t r u c t i n g  p l a i n t s  v o l u n t e e r s  1,600  members  t h e  T h e  y e a r s ,  t h e  t r y  t o  d o  a l l  we  c a n  t o  m e m b e r s .  a s  a r e  we  h a v e  t h e  i m p l e m e n t e d .  money,  m e m b e r s '  a s  h a v i n g  a  d e m o c r a t i c  109  We don't allow one-man committees here. We're a very democratic organization. We treat everyone as equals here. We don't have any cliques. Being a good listener i s better than being a good talker any time. You can learn by listening. You won't learn i f you're always talking. Thirteen of the nineteen Board members interviewed expressed the opinion that the Board meetings ran very smoothly and that members got along well:  We're a compatible group. There are never any conflicts i n our meetings. We work well together because we have the same goal of seeing the Centre move ahead. Problems sometimes occur at the Committee level, but not with the Board. The remaining third of the Board members (two from each Centre) suggested that a l l Board meetings did not run so smoothly: We get arguments at times over procedures, rules...that sort of thing. Whenever ypu get a group of people together, you're bound to get conflicts. It's no different for us, just because we're old. We don't have too many major conflicts on the Board. When we get them, I'm afraid I'm the one who's usually to blame, I'm a stubborn old woman. In the words of one Board member, "the only thing distinguishing us (the Board) from the rest of the membership i s that we're willing to stick with things and see them through," Another said, "We're just people," Thus being "just people," a Centre's planning members are  110 bound to have some negative characteristics which serve to discourage other Centre members from becoming involved i n the Centre's planning process, I observed three of these negative characteristics i n some of the planning members at the Centres under study.  First, some of the planning  members were frustrated by the disinterest and lack of involvement shown by the membership towards the planning and operation of the Centre, They claimed that they put time and effort into serving on Board and Committees and received l i t t l e assistance or recognition in return. One Board member stated, Most of these people wouldn't l i f t a finger to help. They're the ones who are the loudest complainers, too. Another said, Some people only come here for a meal or to take part i n the activities. They l e t you know i t , too. And another noted, Only 10 per cent of the membership do anything for the Centre. Most people seem quite content to l e t things d r i f t along as long as someone else does the worrying. A factor which emerged as being particularly frustrating was that those most qualified to assist the planning members often chose not to participate.  Referring to this factor, some planning members said that  they would like to have a rest, but they feared that no one would be willing to replace them. One Director, sympathetic to their dilemma, stated: Frankly, I'm amazed at how few people run for office each year. We have members here  Ill  with years of experience who wouldn't touch a Board position with a ten foot pole. Regardless of the v a l i d i t y of planning members' f r u s t r a t i o n , i t can be a negative f a c t o r i f i t creates a "We—They" atmosphere which causes planning members to be r e s e n t f u l and i n t o l e r a n t of the non-planning members.  I f planning members do not respect the r i g h t o f those members who  merely want to come to enjoy the Centre a c t i v i t i e s and t r y to involve them i n planning against t h e i r w i l l , they w i l l only alienate the members and work against the goals of the Centre.  An understanding of how to  motivate members i s e s s e n t i a l i f planning members are to succeed i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to e n l i s t support.  For example^ a p a r t i c u l a r l y pushy committee  leader at one Centre .tried to "shame" members into serving on her committee.  Her method of r e c r u i t i n g met with no success.  The Director,  who was requested to o f f e r assistance, described the incidents I went i n and asked a group of members i f they would be w i l l i n g to lend a hand. They were more than w i l l i n g . Twenty-five volunteered. The key i s i n how you approach people. The second c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of some of the planning and general members which may discourage other members from becoming involved i n the Centre's planning process i s r a c i a l prejudice. This problem was evident at the 411 Centre, where a large number of East Indians have recently become members. member I interviewed  Although the East Indian  and the f i v e I spoke with informally at 411 assured  me that everyone a t the Centre was "very nice...very h e l p f u l , " and that "no problems of bigotry e x i s t , " I observed and was t o l d of a number of incidents of intolerance displayed by Board, Committee, and general members towards East Indian members.  For example, I overheard a Board  112 member, who had e a r l i e r claimed that a key reason f o r the success of 411 was that " a l l members are condidered as equals," complain to another members They may as well put a sign up outside saying, 'Only Card Players and Blacks Welcome.* Such an attitude hardly creates an atmosphere conducive to democratic p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a l l members i n the Centre's planning process. The Director, S t a f f and four Board members acknowledged that inci^. dents of prejudice occur at 411. They said that they t r y to q u e l l them when they a r i s e , but admitted that they can't instantaneously change attitudes which people have b u i l t up over t h e i r l i f e t i m e s . The t h i r d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of planning members which may serve to d i s courage other members from becoming involved i n t h e i r Centre's planning process i s cliquishness.  Cliques are "groups that buildi up an informal  network of communications...(which  they use) as a means of securing power  i n the organization" (Simon, 196l, p. l 6 l ) . necessarily have " e v i l " motives.  Members of a clique do hot  For example, the Director a t one of  the Centres under study claimed some committees a t the Centre became cliques because of the pride that leaders took i n t h e i r programs.  As a  r e s u l t , those leaders sought to include only t h e i r friends on t h e i r committees.  The Director said, A problem with some committee members i s that they are jealous about sharing t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The s t a f f and I have to look out to be sure that the l e s s aggressive members who would benefit from p a r t i c i p a t i n g are given a chance.  Despite the negative c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of some planning members, most Board and Committee members interviewed appeared sincere i n t h e i r stated  113  d e s i r e  some  t o  d i d  l e a d i n g  i n v o l v e  n o t  m e a s u r e  w r i t e r  p a r t i c i p a t i o n  1962,  p.  t h e  a  t o  t h e  i n  D i r e c t o r .  S e n i o r  p r o c e s s  I n  a r e  t h e  o r  i s  do  The  s u r p r i s i n g ,  " T h e  s k i l l  a r e n ' t  n o t  o n e  o f  b o r n  i n  e x c l u d e  o f  f o l l o w i n g  e x a m i n e d  who  C e n t r e  i n v o l v e d  D i r e c t o r ' s  v a t i n g  h a r d l y  p r o c e s s .  f a c t  f o r  t h a t  a s  a  d e m o c r a t i c  w i t h  i t "  g r o u p  ( M a x w e l l ,  t h e  o t h e r  many  s e c t i o n ,  members  f r o m  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  o f  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  o f  t h e  a n  e f f o r t  t o  d e t e r m i n e  d i s c o u r a g i n g  member  i n v o l v e m e n t  t h e  i n  r o l e  a  t h e y  may  C e n t r e ' s  p r o c e s s .  b e c o m e  T h o s e  i s  P e o p l e  members  C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S  t o  p l a n n i n g  o b s e r v e s ,  s k i l l .  p l a n n i n g  e n c o u r a g i n g  p l a n n i n g  A  t h e  i d e a l  C e n t r e s  l e a r n e d  p l a n n i n g  D i r e c t o r s  i n  u p  S e n i o r  t h a t  C e n t r e ' s  C e n t r e  members  5 9 ) .  C e n t r e  p l a y  o n  i s  E n s u r i n g  t h e i r  o t h e r  r o l e  t h e  i n  may  w r i t e  D i r e c t o r  a  b e  a b o u t  B o a r d  i s  o f  D I R E C T O R S  b e  i n s t r u m e n t a l  C e n t r e ' s  i m p o r t a n t  B o a r d s  o n e  c a n  S e n i o r  m o r e  OF  o f  t h e  p l a n n i n g  t h a n  v o l u n t a r y  m o s t  t h a t  i n  e n c o u r a g i n g  p r o c e s s .  o f  t h e  f a c t ,  p l a n n i n g  o r g a n i z a t i o n s  i m p o r t a n t  I n  f u n c t i o n s  a r g u e  o f  members  t h e  m e m b e r s .  t h a t  s t a f f  m o t i -  e x e c -  u t i v e s  B o a r d  members  S t a f f  w i s h e s  v o l u n t e e r s a  I n  t a k e  v o l u n t a r y  G l e n n ,  p.  t h e  i n  p r o t e c t  t h e  D i r e c t o r s '  p r o n o u n  i n  w o u l d  t o  e f f e c t i v e  b e ;  r a r e l y  o v e r  a n d  a c t u a l l y  a s  do  B o a r d ' l e a d '  ( C o n r a d  a n d  2 5 ) .  C e n t r e s '  r e f e r r i n g  p r o n o u n s  a s  t o  i m p a c t  i n v o l v e m e n t  i n e  t h e  o n l y  o r g a n i z a t i o n  1 9 7 6 ,  a n a l y z i n g  a r e t h e m  o f  t h e  p l a n n i n g  a n o n y m i t y ,  a l l  d i v u l g e  t h r e e  I  D i r e c t o r s  t h e  C e n t r e  D i r e c t o r s  p r o c e s s e s  a n  h a v e  t h e  a s  i d e n t i t y  u s e d  u s e  o f  o f  t h e  e f f o r t  t h e  s o l e  o n  i s  made  m a s c u l i n e  m a s c u l i n e  m a l e  m e m b e r s '  t o  p e r s o n a l  a n d  D i r e c t o r  f e m i n -  u n d e r  114 study and increase the l i k e l i h o o d of the women Directors being recognized. The analysis of D i r e c t o r s ' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s employs the same format as the analysis of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f planning members.  I t examines the  e f f e c t that a Director's l ) s k i l l s and experience and 2) personality and attitudes have i n the encouragement and discouragement of members i n planning.  A. S k i l l s and Experience No formal "professional" standards e x i s t f o r Senior Centre Directors, However, the NCOA Manual, Senior Centre Operation, says that, usually the Senior Centre Administrator i s a graduate professional i n such f i e l d s as adult education, recreation, therapeutic recreation, s o c i a l work or ministry, often with special t r a i n i n g i n gerontology. He/she should have a background of experience or t r a i n i n g i n publ i c administration or administration of voluntary organizations (Leanse, e t a l . , 1977, P. 14). Perhaps, because the Senior Centre movement i n Canada has not been i n existence f o r as long as i t s American counterpart, and because Canadian Centres have tended to emerge as grass roots organizations, the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r Centre Directors i n Canada have u n t i l recently been l e s s formal.  For example, .in 1971, the Coordinator of the Training  I n s t i t u t e f o r Senior Centre Directors acknowledged that i n addition to professionally trained personnel, some Directors i n Canada had "been 'active community workers,' but...(had) no formal specialized t r a i n i n g . . . " (Wilson, 1972, p. i x ) . This Coordinator stressed that "whatever (the Directors') background o f t r a i n i n g and experience before accepting r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n d i r e c t i n g a Senior Centre, none had s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g f o r the s p e c i a l and peculiar r o l e s when d i r e c t i n g a Senior Centre since  115  such training (had) not "been available" (Wilson, 1 9 7 , p. i x ) . 2  In the  past decade, however, Schools of Social Work, Physical Education, and Recreation in Canadian Universities have begun to offer programs which train students to perform many of the duties required of a Senior Centre Director, None of the Directors of the Centres under study had.i formal professional training related to working with the aged. However, based on my personal observations and the comments of interview respondents, the s k i l l s and experience possessed by the three Directors appear to have prepared them for carrying out their responsibilities. The f i r s t s k i l l which was identified by the three Directors and the majority of members interviewed was s k i l l i n business and management. One Director said, "I regard myself as a manager in a company."  Three  Board members used the same analogy in describing their Directors. Managerial s k i l l s are often thought of i n terms of f i s c a l responsibility, hiring and firing, and running a successful business operation. These s k i l l s are important, especially at the autonomous Centres, where increases in operating grants have not kept pace with rise in the cost of living. As one Director observed, A Director needs experience in business. We operate on a shoestring here and a minor oversight could lead to a major problem. At the outset, a Director's business s k i l l s , or lack of them, might appear to have l i t t l e to do with member involvement in planning. However, the three Directors interviewed expressed the belief that by successfully looking after the business and administrative aspects of their Centres they can inspire confidence i n their Boards and member-ships  116  t h a t  a n  t h e  C e n t r e s  a t m o s p h e r e  I n  a r e  c o n d u c i v e  a d d i t i o n  a l s o  e f f e c t i v e l y  w a y s  i n  w h i c h  m a n a g e r i a l  One  b e i n g  t o  s k i l l s  a r e  o p e r a t e s  i n  a n  t e a m .  c o n t e n d s ,  we  a r e  a l l  A n o t h e r  s t y l e .  t h e y  He  n e e d  e v i d e n t  m i t t e e  n o t  t h a t  a s p e c t s  o n  so  t h i s  o t h e r  t h e  i m p o s e  m e s s a g e  t h e  t r e a t s  a n d  g e t s  m y s e l f  D i r e c t o r s  D i r e c t o r  m u s t  C e n t r e .  T h e  t h e  a s p e c t  o f  l e a d e r s h i p  d e t a c h e d  t h e m  a s  p r o b l e m s  " l a i d - b a c k "  o n  t h e  t h e i r  s t y l e s .  m a n n e r .  members  a t  t o  t h e  " H e ' s  i n  t h i s  h i s  m e m b e r s .  c o n v e r s a t i o n s  t h r o u g h  c r e a t e  He  o f  a  C e n t r e ,  g o a l s , "  a n d  c a s u a l  t h e  o f  t h i s  s o m e w h a t  f e w  same  c a s u a l  o f  t h e  D i r e c t o r  t e n d s  C e n t r e ' s  p l a n n i n g  i n v o l v e d  E a c h  i s  w i t h  He  p a i d  o f  T h e  s e t  b y  p e r s o n  t h e s e  M a x w e l l s h o u l d  a b i l i t y  t o  b e l i e f  p l a n n i n g  o f  f o r  " I ' v e  a n y  l e a d e r s h i p  B u t  w i t h  m e m b e r s .  a l w a y s  i n  more  p r o c e s s .  i f  he  o t h e r  d o n e  o n  I  am  members  One  w i l l i n g  h i s  t h e  t h e i r k i n d  w h i c h  d i d n ' t  o f  h e r e  made  a c t i v e  t o  i f  i t  C o m -  h e l p .  b e  i t s  p i t c h  w h i l e  I  e a c h  i n  C e n t r e  w o u l d  s t a f f s  f o r  h e l p  H e ' s  a n d  a  a l l  b e c o m -  t h o s e  b e c o m e  m y s e l f .  w o r k e d ,  a g a i n s t  r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n d i v i d u a l  a n d  w o r k  a d v a n t a g e s  m e a s u r e d  i n  r e a s o n  t h e y  p o s i t i o n s . . . o f  i n v o l v e d  h i s  v o l u n t e e r  b u t t  p r o f e s s i o n a l  t o  P a r t  o f  h a s  c a n  d i r e c t l y  a c t i v i t i e s ,  l o t s  s t y l e s  s t y l e  p a i d  b r i n g  become  t h a t  s i t t i n g  c r e a t e  e n v i r o n m e n t  t o  a n d  l e a d e r s h i p  a d e q u a c y  T h e y  a n d  h i s  r e a s o n s ,  s t a f f  t a g e s .  o u t  m o r e  d o n ' t  p r a i s e d  c o m m i t t e e s  a  i s  a n d  s u r p r i s i n g l y  m e e t  o u t  i n d i v i d u a l  b u t  t h u s  u p . "  r e s e n t f u l .  saw  "I  t o  t h e i r  c a n  p l a n n i n g .  a s p e c t  c a r r y  members  h a v e  i n  r e l a t i o n s  D i r e c t o r s  i n  D i r e c t o r  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  e f f i c i e n t ,  I n t e r v i e w s  member  The  i n g  D i r e c t o r  m e , "  s t u c k  "We  s t r i v i n g  s a y s ,  human  t o  The  i n v o l v e m e n t  b u s i n e s s  m a n i f e s t  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  a s  i n  t h e  d e l e g a t e s  He  e f f i c i e n t l y .  member  i n d i v i d u a l  d u t i e s  D i r e c t o r  t o  " m a n a g e "  t h e  r u n  I ' d  I f  I  q u i t . "  d i s a d v a n -  r e q u i r e m e n t  117 and group has equal opportunity f o r recognition, respect and attention (Maxwell, 1962, p. 42). I t can be quickly seen that a "cluster"of s k i l l s i s involved i n leadership s t y l e — t h e a b i l i t y to communicate, to l i s t e n , to consult, and to know when and how to act and when to delegate.  Personality and a t t i t u -  d i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are c l o s e l y linked with s k i l l s and with them, they can a f f e c t the involvement o f members i n a Centre's planning process. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e i r p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s are considered  below.  B. Personality and Attitudes Directors should i d e a l l y possess the personality and a t t i t u d i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i d e n t i f i e d as being desirable f o r planning members (a warm, outgoing personality, and a s e l f l e s s dedication to the Centre and i t s members).  And obviously, they should not possess the negative char-  a c t e r i s t i c s i d e n t i f i e d (cliquishness, p r e j u d i c i a l views regarding  ethnic  or r e l i g i o u s groups within the membership, or intolerance towards nonplanning members). The three personality and a t t i t u d i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s most frequently i d e n t i f i e d i n the interviews as being e s s e n t i a l f o r Directors to possess were l ) diplomacy and tact, 2) an understanding and accepting attitude, and 3) commitment to the Centre and i t s members. F i r s t , Directors need to be diplomatic.  In f a c i l i t a t i n g a Centre's  members i n planning, a Director must ensure that a l l members are given opportunity bers.  to p a r t i c i p a t e , not only the most s k i l l e d or aggressive mem-  Also, Directors must be certain that members w i l l be able to par-  t i c i p a t e i n planning i n the areas that i n t e r e s t them.  One Director noted  the challenge which the l a t t e r requirement sometimes presents:  118 Some  o f  o u r  p o p u l a r .  p r o g r a m  v o l u n t e e r i n g  t o  c o m m i t t e e s ,  t h o s e  t h a t a s  t h e  s u c h  c a s e s ,  s p e c i f i c  o p p o r t u n i t y  t r i e s  p e r s u a d e  n e e d e d  m o s t .  P e o p l e I t ' s  One  c o m e s  t h e  a  f r i e n d s  a t  one  " h i d d e n  a m o u n t  o f  members  a c c o r d i n g  The  t h e  t o  a s  The  b e c o m e  w h a t  t e s t s  n e e d  c a t e g o r i c a l l y  g r a n t i n g  i n  s h e  a c c e p t e d  t h e  i t  t o  a r e a s  r e f u s e  a  a n o t h e r .  w h e r e  He  t h e y  a r e  d o .  o f  t o  a  D i r e c t o r ' s  b e  a d m o n i s h e d .  c o m m i t t e e  b y  A  d i p l o m a t i c  l e a d e r s  p r o v i d e s  a  a n  s i t u a t i o n  member  A n  o f  t h e  t h e  C e n t r e  r e c i p e .  She  d i d  n o t  p r o c e e d i n g  was  " i n e d i b l e  h a d  t o  t h e  t h e  t e l l  w i t h  t h e  e x a m p l e  o f  p l a n .  g o o d s ,  o r  frpu  c e a s e  h a v e  a r o s e  t o  a s  b y  b e  i n c l u d e  s u c h  i n  a  p l a n n i n g  w i t h  r e d u c i n g  o t h e r  The  h a r d  member  t o  m e n t i o n e d  C o m m i t t e e  money  o f f e n d i n g  c o m m i t t e e  m a j o r i t y ,  t o  c o n s u l t  h e r  b a k e d  s o u g h t  B a k i n g  s a v e  a b i l i t i e s  i n c i d e n t  w h i c h  t o  b y  o f  t o  c o m m i t t e e s ,  b e f o r e  g o o d  t o  a s k .  C e n t r e s .  b a k i n g  t h a t  t h e  t o l d  e n d e a v o u r e d  a  n o t  w h i l e  p r o v i d e d  D i r e c t o r ,  f e l t  t o  c o m m i t t e e  r e s u l t ,  a s  r o c k . "  e i t h e r  s e r v e .  a b l e  i m p o r t a n t  a n d  i n v o l v e d  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r  a c c e p t a n c e .  i n  t h e  To  C e n t r e ' s  b e  a  s u c c e s s f u l  p l a n n i n g  C e n t r e  i n  D i r e c t o r  e n c o u r a g i n g  p r o c e s s ,  D i r e c t o r s  h e r  t h e  She  t o  f i r e  a s  v o l u n t e e r s , "  s e c o n d  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  t o  t h e  " F o r  h i r e  i s  D i r e c t o r  p r o c e d u r e s  e x p l a i n e d ,  w e l l  i n  t r i e s  c l i q u i s h  t h e i r  t h e  a g e n d a , "  D i r e c t o r  f o l l o w  o f  s u g a r  o r  some  o n  c o m m i t m e n t ,  p a r t i c i p a t e  t o  members  e x a m p l e  i n  s t a t e d ,  b e i n g  o n  r e g u l a r  t o  t r y i n g  w h i c h  A n o t h e r  b a z a a r  own  i n  t h e i r  c a s e .  m o s t  h a v e  i n t e r e s t e d  p e r s o n  b e t t e r  p l a n n i n g  p r e v i o u s l y ,  o n l y  r e s e n t  p e o p l e  We  c o m m i t t e e .  one  D i r e c t o r  a l w a y s  o f  w h e n  t o  very-  many  t h e m .  D i r e c t o r  members  One  o n  a  k i t c h e n  t h e  a r e  t o o  t h o u g h . . . e s p e c i a l l y  r e q u i r e  s u c h  g e t  members  o t h e r  t o  we  s e r v e  t r o u b l e e g e t t i n g  I n  C o m m i t t e e s  F r a n k l y ,  a r e  members  n e e d  t o  119 have a general knowledge of the aging process and an understanding of how the process a f f e c t s what members can and want to do. A general knowledge of the aging process involves an understanding of the physical l i m i t a t i o n s common to the aging population. For example,  one Director stated, I'd estimate that roughly k0% of members here have hearing problems. The majority of d i f f i c u l t i e s at the Centre r e s u l t from misunderstandings due to members hearing things i n c o r r e c t l y . Most occur among the members themselves, not between s t a f f and members. The s t a f f and I are very c a r e f u l to communicate with members. I t i s also important f o r the Directors to understand some factors  which influence the learning process of older people. Gerontological studies reveal that older adults are as i n t e l l i g e n t and capable of learning as younger people.  Hbwever, older adults must be given more time to  receive, record and respond to information. Some physiological factors are involved, but a psychological aspect also e x i s t s ; older adults have more stored information to check the new material against, and t h i s process i s said to delay t h e i r response time (Birren, et a l , , 197?). In order f o r Directors to be successful i n planning with Centre members, i t i s imperative that they understand and are sensitive to the implications of the aging process.  For example, I f they are understanding,  they w i l l know enough to allow planning members to have adequate time i n which to reach decisions.  They w i l l arrange f o r meetings to take place  where extraneous noise i s at a minimum and, i f necessary, w i l l repeat f o r the benefit of others what one Board or Committee member has said so that a l l can hear.  Also, they w i l l not "spring" ideas on the members without  allowing them time f o r preparation.  120  One member expressed pleasure i n the f a c t that "our present Director i s the f i r s t one we've had who doesn't make snap judgments," In t h e i r interview responses, the Directors under study gave e v i dence of having deep understanding of the changed circumstances that increasing age has caused members.  One said,  You've got to remember that many members don't have a family to go home to when they leave the Centre. They have no one to speak to and they have l o t s of time to dwell on what happened to them here during the day. What would be a minor incident to you or me might be a major problem to an older person. The members stressed the importance of having a patient Director. The following quote i s representative o f statements made by many: A Director needs l o t s o f patience. She needs to know how to deallwith Seniors, because they get awful funny sometimes. As noted e a r l i e r , people begin to lose control over many aspects of t h e i r l i v e s as they age.  P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the planning process at a  Senior Centre provides older people with an opportunity to exercise some degree of c o n t r o l over t h e i r l i v e s , and to regain a sense of d i g n i t y and self-respect.  One of the ways a patient and understanding Centre Direc1  tor^can encourage members to become involved i n planning and help them to derive the benefits associated with c o n t r o l i s by providing recognition. The importance of recognition was noted by a l l Directors.  They  acknowledged that merely needing and wanting members to be involved i n planning a t the Centres i s not s u f f i c i e n t .  In order to encourage new  planning members to become involved and to maintain the commitment of o l d ones, members must be made to f e e l needed and wanted.  Directors provide  overt forms of recognition, such as i s s u i n g formal "thank-you's" i n  121 Newsletters and at meetings or holding annual Recognition parties i n honour of planning members and other volunteers.  Directors who have  a s p e c i a l understanding of the i n d i v i d u a l member's needs,  expectations,  and personality are also able to provide subtle forms o f recognition. As one Director observed, You've got to have f e e l i n g s f o r people. I c a l l some of the men who come here "old bastards.* They love i t . I t l e t s them know I care. I f I c a l l e d other members that, they'd take offense and never come back. In providing recognition, the Directors must be aware that there i s a f i n e l i n e between recognizing and patronizing,  A member was quick to  point out, "One thing a Director has to understand i s that o l d people don't see themselves as o l d .  I t ' s always the other person who's o l d . "  The three Directors appeared to have been successful i n recognizing, but not patronizing, t h e i r Centres' members.  For example, they a l l had  "open door" p o l i c i e s , I n v i t i n g members to come to them at any time with complaints or suggestions.  At l e a s t some members were responsive to  t h e i r D i r e c t o r s ' "openness," as each of the interviews with the Directors was interrupted by members telephoning or entering the o f f i c e .  Also,  a l l members interviewed claimed that t h e i r Directors were approachable and l i s t e n e d to t h e i r ideas.  For example, one member said,  Anytime we want something or have a complaint, we can go to (our D i r e c t o r ) , Another stated, I've gone to (our Director) many times with suggestions. He hasn't always agreed with me. But I know he's listened,  1 2 2  T h e  a  t h i r d  p r o v e n  t h e  i m p o r t a n t  d e d i c a t i o n  p h i l o s o p h y  b y  s e n i o r s . "  h e  d o e s n ' t  p r o c e s s .  t h a t ,  A s  o n e  B o a r d  p h i l o s o p h y  a n d  p l a n n e d  D i r e c t o r  s h o u l d  t h a t  members,  t o  D i r e c t o r s  s h o u l d  p l a n n e d  b e  a n  h e ' d  b e  e f f e c t i v e  i n  t h e  h a v e  m u s t  " f o r  i s  a c c e p t  s e n i o r s  f a c i l i t a t o r  C e n t r e ' s  i f  p l a n n i n g  a d d e d  t o  s h o u l d  much  a s  d i d n ' t  b e  a n d  t h e  c o m m i t t e d  a s  a c c e p t  w o r k i n g  i t s  g o a l s .  t h a t  a n y  C e n t r e ' s  o f  D i r e c t o r s  m e m b e r s .  i n v o l v e d  C e n t r e  D i r e c t o r  C e n t r e  s u p p o r t  c a n n o t  b e  a r e  t h e  a  t h e  i t s  C e n t r e  n o t e d ,  members  h a v e  f o r  C e n t r e s  D i r e c t o r  I f  m i g h t  a n d  m a i n ,  b y  t h e  o p p o s i n g  t h e  D i r e c t o r  p h i l o s o p h y  B o a r d  a n d  o f  w o u l d  a n  a u t o n o m o u s  e x p e r i e n c e  m e m b e r s h i p  a n d  w o u l d  C e n t r e  d i f f i c u l t y  r i s k  i n  l o s i n g  j o b . )  T h e  t h r e e  s e n i o r s "  w e r e  T h e  r e q u i r e d  t o  A s s i s t a n t  s h e  l i s h m e n t  o f  g u i d e l i n e s  g r e a t e r  a t  M u r d o c h  a l l  p l a n n i n g  o n  a n d  t h e  i n  i n v o l v e d  o f  i n  o f  M u r d o c h  f o r  p l a n n i n g  a r e a s  h e r  a t  own  I t  members  p l a n n i n g ,  t h e  t h e y  " p l a n  S i l v e r  u n d e r  B o a r d  H a r b o u r  t h e i r  h a s  no  a n d  j u s t  t o  t e r m s  s u c h  t h e  f o r  s e n i o r s  a n d  o f  r e q u i r e m e n t ;  s a m e .  p r o p o s e d  p r o v i d i n g  C e n t r e s  e m p l o y m e n t .  f o r m a l  t h e  4 1 1  b y  T h e  e s t a b -  o p e r a t i o n a l  members  w i t h  C e n t r e ,  s u b s c r i b e d  C e n t r e ,  t h e y  e s s e n t i a l  w a n t  do  t h e  p h i l o s o p h y  t h e  i s  t h e  c o m m i t m e n t  D i r e c t o r s  t h e i r  o f  C e n t r e  A d v i s o r y  r e v e a l  t h e  a c c e p t e d  p h i l o s o p h y  a c c e p t  p h i l o s o p h y ,  w h a t  i n  t h e  t o  s t u d y  D i r e c t o r s  E x e c u t i v e  a u t o n o m y  members  much  a c c e p t  c h o o s e s  t h e  u n d e r  T h e  D i r e c t o r  A l t h o u g h  a c t i n g  D i r e c t o r s  p h i l o s o p h y .  h o w e v e r ,  b e  a  p h i l o s o p h y ,  a g a i n s t  s e c u r i n g  t h e  D i r e c t o r  t h e  t h i s  C e n t r e  members  p o s s i b l e .  h i s  I n  T h e  b l a t a n t l y  t h e  O b v i o u s l y  b e l i e v e  b e  ( T h e  t o  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  n o t  t o  h a v e  f o r  p l a n .  w a n t  t o  t o  t h e  t o  b a s i c  u s e  D i r e c t o r s  W h i l e  b e  many  p h i l o s o p h y  some  t o  j u d g m e n t  know  members  r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r  o f  i n  bow  w a n t  a l l  t o  123  p l a n n i n g  a t  t o  d e s i g n ,  p l a n ,  h e l p  a  members  C e n t r e .  a n d  g e t  F o r  e x a m p l e ,  b u i l d  a  m a t e r i a l s  f l o a t  f o r  p l a n n i n g  a n d  d e s i g n i n g  o f  s u p p o r t ,  t h e  C o m m i t t e e  l e a d e r  r e c r u i t i n g  t h e  more  T h e  The  t o  p r e c e d i n g  t r y i n g  t o  t h e  D i r e c t o r ' s  " B y  h e  o r  members  a n d  a n d  h i s  a  a  p a r a d e .  p r o j e c t  p r o j e c t .  was  b u t  T h e  v o l u n t e e r s  a  a n d  t h e  n u m b e r  b a c k  o n e  t o t a l l y  o f  C e n t r e  o f f e r e d  o u t  D i r e c t o r ' s  o f  o n  h a d  t o  i t ,  I  t o  t h e  d i r e c t  d i f f i c u l t i e s  e v e n t u a l l y  " l o o k i n g  a t  D i r e c t o r  s t a y e d  W i t h o u t  e x p e r i e n c e d  f o r m e d  g i v e  i n  u p  s h o u l d  o n  h a v e  r o l e  a s  o t h e r  do  t h u s  w a n t  l o o k  D i r e c t o r  a f t e r  f r e e i n g  t o  t a k e  a r e n ' t  d i f f i c u l t i e s  b e t w e e n  and.  t h e  o n .  F o r  members  B o a r d  members  I n  e n g a g e  o n e  a n d  i n  a s p e c t s  p l a n n i n g  e n c o u n t e r s  a n d  d e s c r i b e d  c o n t i n u i t y ,  D i r e c t o r  o f  i n  d o i n g  o t h e r  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . "  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  t o  much  p r o v i d i n g  t a s k s  e x a m p l e ,  i n  D i r e c t o r  t o o  p l a n n i n g  i n t e r e s t e d  t h e  f o u r  a  d o i n g  " c o n t i n u i t y . "  a t t e n d  t o  t h e  b a l a n c e  p r o v i d i n g  members  s t a f f  One  s t a f f  n o t  r e v e a l s  t h e  a r e a s  d u t i e s  c l a i m e d ,  T h e r e f o r e ,  C e n t r e ' s  o f  i n t e r e s t  t h e m .  In.  p o s s i b l y  p e r s o n  some  b e  c a s e s ,  v i e w e d  t h e  a s  D i r e c t o r s '  p l a n n i n g  p r a c t i c e  f o r  C e n t r e  o f  p r o v i d i n g  m e m b e r s .  s t a t e d ,  O f f i c i a l l y , p l a n n i n g . o f t e n  I n  t h e  d e l i c a t e  members.-  l a r g e ,  p l a n n i n g ,  t o  f o r  D i r e c t o r  f o r  a d m i t t e d ,  e x a m p l e  s t r i k e  l i t t l e  t h a t  D i r e c t o r  c o m m i t t e e  h e l p . "  t o o  a  c o o r d i n a t i n g  p r o j e c t .  d o n e  i n  a n d  t h e  a  r e f e r e n c e  t o  t h e  w a i t  a r e n ' t a c t u a l  s u p p o s e d f a c t ,  t o  t h o u g h ,  d o d a n y we  d o .  p r o g r a m  Members t o  we I n  a r e  f r e e  s t a f f  o r  f o r  p r e t t y  p l a n n i n g ,  b r i n g  m y s e l f .  m e m b e r s '  s p a r s e  t o  a  D i r e c t o r  p r o g r a m B u t  i f  s u g g e s t i o n s ,  p r o g r a m m i n g .  we w e ' d  s t a t e d ,  i d e a s h a d  t o  h a v e  F o r  c o n t i n u i t y  e x a m p l e ,  a  m i g h t  s t a f f  124 At the Centre i n question, programs were usually introduced because o f an a v a i l a b i l i t y of w i l l i n g and q u a l i f i e d member-instructors, rather than an expressed demand f o r particular, programs from the membership. The important d i s t i n c t i o n between the " f a c i l i t a t o r " and "provider" Directors i s that the f a c i l i t a t o r always l e t s members know they have the opportunity and r i g h t to suggest programs.  In addition, he assures them  that they can implement most programs they desire, provided they are w i l l i n g to do the planning and organizing and the proposed program i s " f e a s i b l e " ( i . e . i t does not contravene Centre policy, I t i s not too c o s t l y to implement, s u f f i c i e n t space i s available i n which to hold i t , and enough members are interested i n i t to make the program worthwhile). Because members know they may plan, they do not appear to resent the Director or s t a f f doing so when they choose not to exercise t h e i r r i g h t . In order f o r a Director to accept the "plan f o r senior by seniors" philosophy, he must be w i l l i n g to forego personal recognition of h i s work on behalf of the members and the Centre,  The d i f f i c u l t y i n abiding by  t h i s requirement was explained by the former Program Director a t one Centres My job i s easy i n one way. I'm not supposed to suggest things and I'm not expected to come up with dynamic ideas. But my job i s hard i n that I've got to r e s i s t putting forward what I know are good ideas. Even when the Director subtly plans a t a Centre by providing "continuity" to the members' planning e f f o r t s , he cannot take d i r e c t c r e d i t . I f a Director or s t a f f person requires personal recognition f o r h i s involvement i n a Centre's planning process, h i s glory w i l l come a t the expense of Centre members and members w i l l be discouraged from becoming involved i n planning.  125 T h i s  " b r i e f  c o m p l e t e s  t h e  e n c o u r a g e  o r  p l a n n i n g  f a c t o r s  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  t h i r d  s e c t i o n  d i s c o u r a g e  p r o c e s s .  r e l a t e d  I t  t o  i n  t h e  t h e  m e m b e r s '  i s  t h e  o f  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  a n a l y s i s  o f  i n v o l v e m e n t  f o l l o w e d  C e n t r e ' s  b y  t h e  t h e  i n  f i n a l  a  o f  C e n t r e  f a c t o r s  S e n i o r  s e c t i o n  D i r e c t o r s  w h i c h  may  C e n t r e ' s  i n  t h e  a n a l y s i s ,  b u i l d i n g .  B U I L D I N G  T h e  o r  f i n a l  s e t  d i s c o u r a g i n g  p r o c e s s  r e l a t e  o f  t o  t o  f a c t o r s  member  t h e  C e n t r e ' s  C e n t r e  p r a c t i t i o n e r s  a t i o n s  o f  C e n t r e ' s  w r i t e r  s t a t e d  p r o g r a m  o r  t h a t  h e  i n  a  b a r n  w i t h o u t  a  c o m p l e t e  t h e  C e n t r e s  F o r  e x a m p l e ,  m i n g ,  n e e d s  a  i t i e s  a n d  o f  b e e n  g u i d a n c e  f o r  a  g r o u p  t h a n  m e n t s  h e l d  s u r v e y  f o r  t h e  d e s e r v e  t h e  n o t c h  p r o g r a m m i n g  o r  o f  a  A l s o ,  t h e i r  a s  One  b u s  C e n t r e  a  s t a f f  n o n e  o f  b u i l d i n g .  t r i p s ,  s w i m -  B u i l d i n g s  n o n e t h e l e s s ,  S e n i o r  c o n s i d e r -  c o n d u c t i n g  r e s t a u r a n t s .  some, c o n s i d e r a t i o n  a b i l i t y  w i t h  c o m p e t e n t  4).  t o  t h a t  e l s e .  s t a f f  p .  p r o g r a m s  t h e a t r e s  a l l  w i t h o u t  u n d a t e d ,  t h e i r  o f  p l a n n i n g  w a r n s  p r e o c c u p i e d  e x c l u s i o n  t o p  e n c o u r a g i n g  C e n t r e ' s  l i t e r a t u r e  a v a i l a b l e  ( J o n e s ,  t o  The  h a v e  c a s t l e  p o t e n t i a l l y  S e n i o r  b e c o m e  " o f f - s i t e "  e x c u r s i o n s  o n  t o  c o n f i n e d  s u c h  n o t  " r a t h e r  a  a  a s  t o  a s  a n d  t h e y  m e e t  t h e  m e m b e r s .  e x c e l l e n t  s e n i o r  s h o u l d  p r o g r a m "  i n f l u e n c e  i t s  h a s  h a v e  s t u d y  e n v i r o n m e n t s  m a j o r  A n  t h i s  t h e y  t e n n i s ,  p h y s i c a l  h a v e  i n  w o u l d  i n  b u i l d i n g .  b u i l d i n g ,  t h a n  e m e r g e d  i n v o l v e m e n t  S e n i o r  t h e  w h i c h  d e s i g n  p u b l i s h e d  a n y o n e  t h e  o l d e r  m a n u a l  f o r  b y  NCOA,  i n v o l v e d  p r o g r a m  i s  c o n t e n t s  a d u l t s ,  t h e  i n  t h e  w h i c h  p r o v i d i n g  a c c o m m o d a t e d "  o f  t h i s  t h a t  p l a n n i n g  m a n u a l ,  s e c t i o n  o f  a i m s  t h e  " t o  f o c u s e s  o f f e r  p h y s i c a l  ( J o r d a n ,  o r  S e n i o r  1978,  o t h e r  o n  C e n t r e  t e c h n i c a l  f a c i l i t y  p.  i n  w h i c h  R a t h e r  6).  l i t e r a t u r e  t h e  f a c i l -  o n  i m p l i c a t i o n s  e n v i r o n -  t h a t  126 the Centres' buildings have for members' involvement in planning at the Centres. The case studies i n Chapter 4 contain descriptions of the buildings and surrounding environments of the three Centres.  To review briefly,  the Silver Harbour building i s owned by a Non-Profit Society and i s designed specifically to accommodate the Centre's program. The 411 building i s managed by the B.C. Building Management Corporation, and i s made available to the 411 Centre Society at no cost. It was a Labour Temple when i t was built i n 1914, and i t served a variety of purposes before a large portion of i t was renovated i n the 1970's to accommodate the 411 Senior Centre.  Murdoch Centre i s housed i n a building which i s  owned by, and leased from, a United Church.  It was originally designed  to function as a Church Hall for use by a l l age groups, not only senior citizens. With respect to member involvement in planning, the factors which distinguish the three buildings are related to their tenure and design. These factors affect members* involvement i n two types of planning at their Senior Centres.  Their effect on the f i r s t type, program planning,  i s considered below. Their influence on the second type, f a c i l i t y planning, i s considered i n the subsequent section, A. Program Planning* l ) Silver Harbour. Silver Harbour's building i s the most conducive of the three Centres under study to member involvement in program planning. *In this section, the term "program planning" i s used to refer to buildingrelated program planning, such as crafts and exercise classes, dances, etc. The term does not refer to off-site programming, such as outreach, swimming sessions, or bus trips.  127 A s  t h e  S i l v e r  H a r b o u r  r e l a t i v e l y  h i g h  u s e  o f  b u i l d i n g ,  a n d  t h e  t h e  S o c i e t y  d e g r e e  p r o g r a m s  o f  o w n s  i t s  a u t o n o m y .  t h u s  T h e y  t h e y  a r e  o f f e r  t h e y  w i s h  t o  a n d  f i v e  members  b u i l d i n g ,  f r e e  s e t  t o  ( a s  i t s  t h e i r  c h o o s e  s p a c e  members  own  p o l i c y  t h e i r  a n d  h a v e  h o u r s  o t h e r  a  r e g a r d i n g  o f  o p e r a t i o n  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  p e r m i t ) ,  The  D i r e c t o r  t h e i r  b u i l d i n g  was  t h o s e  o f  C e n t r e s .  o t h e r  Members t h e  i s  S h e  a l s o  p a r t  a  o f  t h e  t h e  r e a s o n  a s  a  S e n i o r  i n v o l v e d  i n  t h a t  i n  a c c o m m o d a t e  2)  p l a n n i n g ,  t h e i r  t h a t  o w n i n g  o p e r a t i o n  f r o m  I t ' s  r e n t i n g  t h a t  a n d  t h e  C e n t r e  a s  d e s i g n e d  t o  i n  p r o g r a m  many  s e r v e  a l s o  t h e  p l a n n i n g  n o t  a s  a  o f  m i g h t  The  o f  o w n e d  t h e  b y  a s  i t  t h a n  C e n t r e  t h e  411  C e n t r e .  t h e i r  t h e  " m a y b e  ( o w n e r s h i p )  i s  t h e  s i m p l y ,  f o r  S o c i e t y  Members  a s  t o  o f  a n d  t h e  was  a  f r e e  o f  411  h a v e  c o u n t e r p a r t s  a t  S i l v e r  g r e a t e r  s a t i s -  o f  t h e i r  n o t  b u i l d i n g  i n v o l v e m e n t  d e r i v e  i n v o l v e d  t o  b e c o m e  o f f e r  p r o v i d e s  b e c o m e  t o  m e m b e r s '  r e l a t i v e l y  b u i l d i n g  t o  c a n  members  s u c c e s s  d e s i g n e d  members  C e n t r e  a l l o w s  C e n t r e ' s  t h a t  Q u i t e  p o t e n t i a l  b u i l d i n g  411  b e c o m e  s p e c i f i c a l l y  e n c o u r a g e  p r o g r a m s ,  j e o p a r d i z e  S e n i o r  p l a n n i n g  t o  i s  p l a n n i n g .  e f f o r t s ,  t o  v o l u n t e e r s . "  s e r v e s  p r o g r a m  members  s p e c u l a t i n g  b u i l d i n g  i n c r e a s i n g  members  i s  so  H a r b o u r ' s  a d d i t i o n ,  f o r  i t  h a v e  r a n g e  C e n t r e .  411  e n c o u r a g e  p l a n n i n g ,  C e n t r e  w h i c h  m i g h t  p r o g r a m  S i l v e r  t h u s  b a r r i e r s  The  o w n e r s h i p  we  b r o a d  t h e i r  e n c o u r a g e m e n t  t h e i r  a  I n  f r o m  t e c t u r a l  o w n e r s h i p .  f e e l  c l a i m e d  c l a i m e d ,  b e t w e e n  Members  C e n t r e ' s  p r o g r a m s ,  p l a n n i n g .  f a c t i o n  o f  a s  H a r b o u r  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  D i r e c t o r  p r i d e  C e n t r e ' s  f u n c t i o n  o f  t h e  t h a t  t h a t  r a n g e  The  home.  f a c t  c a n  f a c t o r  S i l v e r  t h e i r s .  i n  The  m a j o r  d i f f e r e n c e  i n d i c a t e d  i n v o l v e d  i s  h a v e  same  o w n i n g  a  a t  a r c h i -  e f f o r t s .  l e s s  i n  p r o g r a m  o r i g i n a l l y  l e s s  a u t o n o m y  H a r b o u r ,  a s  128  they must comply with regulations set out by the building's managers, the B.C. Building Management Corporation.  They could not, f o r example,  close o f f the main lobby to non-members and hold organized a c t i v i t i e s there.  The 411 f a c i l i t y i s i n a public building and no person may be  prevented from entering. As indicated i n the previous chapter, i n r e f erence to the inebriated stranger who wandered into the Centre and intimidated members, the "public access" requirement may pose problems f o r programming and planning a t the Centre. The P r o v i n c i a l Government and the B.C. Building Management Corporation are accommodating landlords, however.  Despite certain r e s t r i c t i o n s  placed on the use of the building, members have a r e l a t i v e l y high degree of autonomy i n t h e i r program planning.  Like S i l v e r Harbour's members,  those at 411 can set the Centre's operating hours and implement the programs they desire (provided they have adequate space, funds, memberi n t e r e s t , etc.) To a degree, the f a c t that the 411 Society does not own i t s building may a c t u a l l y be an encouraging f a c t o r f o r member involvement i n program planning,  Unlike the S i l v e r Harbour Society, the 411 Society i s not  responsible f o r the maintenance and renovations to i t s b u i l d i n g .  Being  freed of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (and possible anxiety) of having to plan f o r building-related problems, members are able to devote t h e i r energies to program planning. The physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or design aspects of the 411 building also a f f e c t members' involvement i n program planning a t the Centre,  In  general, 411's design o f f e r s less encouragement f o r member involvement than that of S i l v e r Harbour.  Although renovations have made the b u i l d i n g  129 much  more  v i o u s l y ,  l a c k s  t h e  a p p r o p r i a t e  t h e  t h e  b u i l d i n g  a m e n i t i e s  s u r r o u n d i n g  v i d e s  a  b u i l d i n g  members  h a d  a  s p o k e  l i m i t s  W e ' r e  S i l v e r  I ' l l  c r e d i t  u s e  a s  a  h e r e .  We  d o n ' t  t h e y ' v e  C e n t r e ' s  o f  O v e r  w h e r e  t h a t  p r o b l e m s  p o s e d  w i t h  U n i t e d  T h e t h e  more  i n  c r e d i t ' s  p a r t ,  t o  w i t h  i t  p r o -  i n n e r  t h a t  S e n i o r  c i t y  t h e  C e n t r e .  t h e i r  a n d  F i v e  b u i l d i n g  C e n t r e .  a n d  T h e y  i t  d u e .  t h i s  t h a t  p r o v i d e s  a t  members  4 1 1  i s  may  C e n t r e  m o r e  a  t o  w h i c h  i t s  l e a s i n g  h a v e  i n  a r e  p l a c e  t o  d i s c o u r a g e  member  a n d  h o w e v e r ,  t o  t h e  r e d u c e s  t o  i t  i s  may  The  p a s s i v i t y  t o  l a r g e l y  a l s o  4 1 1 o f  The  c o m p l y  r e q u i r e d  r e l a x "  a n d  t h e  p l a n n i n g .  h a v i n g  b e i n g  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  c o n t r i b u t e s  a r r a n g e m e n t  p r o g r a m  t w o f o l d :  " c o m e  d r a w s ;  member  a r r a n g e m e n t  a n d  e x a m i n e d ,  f o r  l e a s i n g  t h e i r  p o l i c i e s  C e n t r e  b e i n g  e n c o u r a g e m e n t  f a c t o r s  t h e  d e s i g n  b u i l d i n g s  l e a s t  a r r a n g e m e n t  t h e  p o s s i b l y  a n d  m o r e  r e l a t e  b u i l d i n g - u s e  b u i l d i n g ' s  a n d  The  F i r s t ,  l e a s i n g  come  t h e  M u r d o c h  c l i e n t e l e  t h e  n o n - s t i m u l a t i n g  t h r e e  p l a n n i n g .  C h u r c h ' s  t o a r e  a c t i v i t i e s , *  t h e  b u i l d i n g .  o f  p l a c e p e o p l e  O f  b u i l d i n g  b y  f a c t  a  o r g a n i z e d  M u r d o c h ' s  t y p e  a  t h e r e ,  C e n t r e .  t h e  a u t o n o m y  t h a t  i t  n e e d  g o t  a f f a i r .  d e s i g n  w e l l  p r e -  e n v y .  h e r e .  p l a n n i n g  members)  f o r  t h e  o w n e d  f u n c t i o n  i n  i n  w i t h  H a r b o u r  a t  d i f f e r e n t  a  i n v o l v e m e n t  i s  S i l v e r  o f f e r e d  s e r v e  we  p r o g r a m  d u e ,  b e  B u t  i n  t o  c a n  i n  i t s  a c k n o w l e d g e d  p o l i s h e d  C e n t r e ' s  * ( N o t e :  members  t o  a g r e e d  o f  b e e n  f e e l  f i t s  many  v e r y  i n v o l v e m e n t  d u e  a n d  f o r  i s  M u r d o c h  t h e  s t a f f  H a r b o u r  i n t e r e s t e d  t h e  a n d  h a d  b u i l d i n g "  b u i l d i n g  e n v i r o n m e n t  t h a t  a s  T h e  members  d e s i g n e d  f a n c y  o f f i c e  i t  H a r b o u r .  g i v e  T h i s  M u r d o c h  a n d  t h a t  n o t  c a s u a l a s  " o l d  t h a n  S i l v e r  r e l a x .  3)  b u t  p r o g r a m s  H a r b o u r .  D i r e c t o r  s p e c i f i c a l l y  m o r e  a n  c o m f o r t a b l e  a w a r e n e s s  e v e r y t h i n g a t  h a s  p r o g r a m s  r e s p e c t ,  C e n t r e ' s  S i l v e r  t h e  t h e  e x p r e s s e d  w i t h  s t i l l  o f  a n d  H o w e v e r ,  f a c i l i t y  t h e  a r c h i t e c t u r e  f a m i l i a r  m e m b e r s .  f o r  b e  b u i l d i n g many  130 s h a r e  t h e  f a c i l i t y  t r a t i o n s  c u s s e d  t h e y  i n  h a v e  a l c o h o l i c  l e a v e  t h e i r  A s s i s t a n t  o t h e r  a n d  p r e s e n t  C e n t r e s  M a y b e  I ' m  b e c a u s e know  more  e v e n  s e t  S u n d a y  o u r  a t  I n  p l a n n i n g  b e c a u s e  d u e  o f  f u n c t i o n  i t  i s  c a l l y  t o  a s  n o t  a  a s  t o  own  o r  a r e  C e n t r e ,  f o r  r e n o v a t e d  b e c a u s e  t h e y  T h e y  f u r t h e r  p r o g r a m m i n g  i n d i c a t e d  b e  c o n t a i n  a n  e l e v a t o r ,  w a l k i n g  o r  c l i m b i n g  p r o g r a m s .  I f  t h e  e x p r e s s e d  One'-member  T h e  f r u s -  who  b e l o n g s  t o  c a n ' t  o n  h e l d  i n  o n  l e s s  h a s  u s e  h a v e  b y  t h e w i t h  t h e  t h e  a r e  n o t  a s  b u i l d i n g  f r o m  a c c e s s  4  members  p r o b a b l y  i s  t h a t  a r e  t h e  p r o g r a m s  m o s t  T h e  t o  i n  t o  r e n o v a t i o n s ,  s p e c i f i -  o f  t h e  o f  p r o g r a m s  p l a n  t h e i r  b u i l d i n g  f o r .  b u i l d i n g .  C e n t r e ' s  d o e s  n o t  d i f f i c u l t i e s  p a r t i c i p a t e  u n a b l e  t o  m e m b e r s  o f  e x p e r i e n c e  u n a b l e  members  d e s i g n e d  b u i l d i n g  L i k e  b a r r i e r s  f l o o r .  who  n o t  a  p r o g r a m s  d i s c o u r a g e d  p a r t i c i p a t i n g  p o s s i b l e  i n  s t r u c t u r a l  a s  C e n t r e .  a l s o  w a s  u n d e r g o n e  a  i n v o l v e d  a r e  p r o g r a m m i n g  s e c o n d  a m b u l a t o r y  b e c o m i n g  members  t h e  f e w e r  C h a p t e r  t h e r e f o r e  s t a i r s  f r o m  d i s c o u r a g e d  d i s c o u r a g e d  m u s t  w o r k s .  s e r v e  w a x  A s  C e n t r e  f o r  s i m p l y  p r o b l e m  c r e a t i v e  e q u i p m e n t ,  I  r e s t r i c t i o n s  a n d  S e n i o r  p l a n n i n g  m a j o r  We  c a n ' t  d e s i g n .  a r e  A  h o u r s ,  c a n ' t  a r r a n g e m e n t ,  M u r d o c h  a r e  o p e r a t i n g  d i s -  o t h e r s  We  d i s c o u r a g e d  a t  411,  w e r e  s t a t e d ,  t h e  d a n c e  f r u s -  e x p e n s i v e  t h e i r  C e n t r e s ,  h e r e . We  u s e  l e a s i n g  S e n i o r  o r  t h a n  t h e i r  i n t e r v i e w e d  V a n c o u v e r  o f f e r .  many  b u i l d i n g ' s  d e s i g n e d  t o  d i s p l s y  t h e  members  i n s t a l l  a r r a n g e m e n t .  o t h e r  h o u r s  b e i n g  i d e a l  members  h a v e  o r  a n d  s e t  e v e n t s ,  a n d  f a c i l i t y ,  t h e  t h e  t o  t o  members  c r i t i c a l  d a n c e s  r e n t e d  a d d i t i o n  B o a r d  c o n c e r t s .  f l o o r . . . T h e r e t h i s  o u t ,  G r e a t e r  b e e n  t h e y  h o l d  d r i n k s  s p e c i a l  p r o b l e m s  D i r e c t o r  u n a b l e  l e a s i n g  i n  I ' v e  w h a t  a r e  a t  a l l  T h e s e  A s s i s t a n t  m a t e r i a l s  D i r e c t o r  S e n i o r  t h e  b e v e r a g e s  t h e  g r o u p s .  M e m b e r s  4,  p r o g r a m  w i t h  o t h e r  c a u s e d  C h a p t e r  s e r v e  t r a t i o n  w i t h  t o  i n  w i t h  t h e  p a r t i c i p a t e  i n  131 t h e  p r o g r a m s ,  f o r  t h e m .  v i e w e d  i t y .  t h e  t h e  C e n t r e  F a c i l i t y  t h a t  I t  i n c l u d e s ,  The  t h e  members  a l s o  c a n  t o  i n v o l v e d  p l a n n i n g  p r o b l e m s  w h i c h  b a r r i e r s ,  t h e  c o n t r i b u t i o n s  t h e  b u i l d i n g s  w i l l  f o r  a c q u i r e  o f  m o t  a  a n d  i n  p l a n n i n g  members  r e d u c e d  i t  i s  i n t e r -  t h e i r  p o s s i b l e  t a l e n t s  B y  u s e s  i n  t o  o f  a s  f a c i l i t y  f o r  t o  o r  a c q u i r e  m o b i l -  t h a t  s i m i l a r  b u i l d i n g  d i s c o u r a g e  b u i l d i n g ,  a  f a c t o r s  member  s h a r e d  witfti  C e n t r e )  c a n  t h i s  o r  s i t e  a n  t h e s i s ,  o f  r e f e r s  a:-'Senior  e x i s t i n g  p l a n -  t o  C e n t r e ,  f a c i l i t y  o r  C e n t r e ,  i n v o l v e d  t h e  e l i m i n a t i n g  C e n t r e  p r o g r a m  w h i c h  t h e  i n  a  u n d e r  S e n i o r  i n f l u e n c e  u s e d  i m p r o v e d  C e n t r e s  a n  p l a n n i n g — f a c i l i t y  i m p r o v e  t h e i r  h a v e  C e n t r e s  o f  b e c o m e  o r  c a n  S e n i o r  k i n d  e l i m i n a t i n g  a n  i n  a n d  t h a n  b u i l d i n g  t o  o v e r c o m i n g  i t s  o t h e r  t h r e e  P a r a d o x i c a l l y ,  l e a s e d  a n o t h e r  t h e  members  t h r e e  a  p l a n n i n g  a u t o n o m y  w i t h  ( i . e .  t h e  b u i l d i n g  p l a n n i n g .  p l a n n i n g , "  m i n i m i z i n g  o n l y  t h e  new  f o r  g r e a t e r  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  f o r  r e l a t e s  t h e  o f  " i n a d e q u a t e "  p l a n n i n g  e x a m p l e ,  o f  p r o g r a m  b u i l d i n g  " f a c i l i t y  w h i c h  a t  i n  d e s i g n  i n v o l v e m e n t  b u i l d i n g .  s e e n  h e a l t h  o f  a n d  d e s i g n e d  i n c e n t i v e  a t t a i n  b e  t e n u r e  a n d  p r o s p e c t  C e n t r e ' s  "become  d e d i c a t e d  a r c h i t e c t u r a l  o v e r v i e w  p r o g r a m  t e r m  p l a n n i n g  p l a n n i n g  i s  i n  member  The  h a d  w o u l d  m e m b e r s ,  C e n t r e ' s  g r o u p s ,  n i n g ,  a l l  t h e  a  i n v o l v e m e n t  e n c o u r a g e  a n d  d e n i e d  i n v o l v e m e n t  make  t h e y  P l a n n i n g  members*  o t h e r  C e n t r e s  b e i n g  p r e c e d i n g  r e v e a l s  w h i c h  b e  t h a t  v e r s a t i l e  M u r d o c h ' s  p l a n n i n g  T h e  o n  o f  may  u n l i k e l y  v e r y  o t h e r  v i e w  p o t e n t i a l  B.  i s  T h r e e  a t  I n  i t  s t u d y .  i s  i n  f a c i l i t y  i n a d e q u a c i e s  t h e s e  E a c h  c a u s i n g  o f  t h e i r  i n a d e q u a c i e s ,  b u i l d i n g ,  p l a n n i n g .  p l a n n i n g  b u t  T h i s  C e n t r e  members  h a s  t o  t h e y  w i l l  p h e n o m e n o n  some  b e c o m e  132 i n v o l v e d  1)  i n  f a c i l i t y  S i l v e r  H a r b o u r .  b u i l d i n g  o f  t h a n  C e n t r e ' s  t h e  members  a s  a  t h e  t h r e e  c o n c e r n  f o r  t h e  t h e  member  was  a  m a j o r  t a s k  a n y  I s  f a c i l i t y  o n  t h e  o p p o r t u n i t y  e n g a g e d  i n  r a i s i n g  f u n d s  t h e y  b y  b o d i e s ,  o f  i d e n t i f i e d  A  member  m e e t i n g  r o o m s  t o  m e e t i n g s  s t a g e  a n d  h o l d  i n  t h e  t h e  m o s t  " i d e a l "  m e m b e r s h i p  a l l  t h e  b u t  s m a l l e r  o n e  s h o r t a g e  o f  t h e  o f  s p a c e  s t a t e d ,  h a d  C h r i s t m a s y e a r .  p l a n n i n g  t h e  u n d e r t a k e  d e g r e e  H a r b o u r  B o a r d  a  a n d  o u r  b y  s i t e .  t h e  h a v e o n  h a l l w a y s .  d i n n e r  a t  The  d e m a n d  f o r  t h r e e  t h e  i n c r e a s i n g  s e a t s  t o  t h e  i n  w i l l  h a v e  f a c t s  t h a t  t h e  a n d  I f  t h a t  t h e  no  l a n d  members  t o  i s  d e c i d e  s a t e l l i t e  p a r t i c i p a t e  i n  a  p l a n n i n g  members  c o m m u n i t y ,  t h e y  t h e y  be  a n d  a c q u i r e  p r o c e s s  t h e  f o r  f a c i l i t y ,  t h e  S i l v e r  b u i l d i n g  t o  new  p l a n n i n g  c a n n o t  s u p p o r t  f u r t h e r  a n o t h e r  members  w i l l  t o  members  s e n s e  o f  h a v e  t h a t  s e l e c t i n g  b u i l d i n g ' s  c o n -  s i t e  a  g o v e r n m e n t s  f o u n d i n g  r e s u l t i n g  H a r b o u r ,  The  s i m i l a r  ( i . e .  p r o p o s a l s  l i k e  t h e  t o  C e n t r e  r e g a r d i n g  may  e x e r c i s e  t h e  w r i t i n g  s u g g e s t i o n s  c o n s e q u e n c e  o f  a t  l a u n c h e d .  a v a i l a b l e  a  f o u n d i n g  b e  p r e s e n t  o f  t h e  c o n t r o l  e f f o r t  m e m b e r s h i p  c o n s t r u c t i o n  m a k i n g  a  t h e  a d d i t i o n s  a n d  A s  D i r e c t o r  o f  a c c o m m o d a t e  c o m p l i c a t e d  e t c . ) ,  T h e  f o r  W e ' v e  o u r  l a s t  t o  s t r u c t u r a l  o t h e r  d e s i g n e d  h a s  o v e r w h e l m i n g .  o r d e r  s t r u c t i o n  H a r b o u r  n o t e d ,  o f f e r e d  s i t t i n g s  I n  a l l  i s  t o t a l .  C e n t r e ,  b o o k e d .  S i l v e r  i t  S i l v e r  a u d i t o r i u m  C o m m i t t e e  We  C e n t r e s ,  a t  o c c a s i o n ,  b e e n  A l t h o u g h  p r e s e n t  i n t e r v i e w e d  On  A  p l a n n i n g ,  s i t e ,  a n d  d e s i g n ,  i n  t h e  s a t i s f a c t i o n  e x p e r i e n c e .  2)  T h e  4 1 1  e n c o u r a g e m e n t  C e n t r e .  f o r  members  L i m i t a t i o n s  t o  b e c o m e  o f  t h e  i n v o l v e d  4 1 1  b u i l d i n g  a l s o  p r o v i d e  i n  f a c i l i t y  p l a n n i n g .  A s  133 noted, the e f f o r t of members was instrumental i n persuading the Government to undertake renovations of the building.  At present, members  are requesting that the P r o v i n c i a l Government turn over the top two f l o o r s of the four-story structure to the Centre.  They are also  attempting to create a park adjacent to the Centre on a s i t e presently occupied by a parking l o t .  Members spoke proudly of the plans they have  for the building: We have plans to extend the c a f e t e r i a . We may put i n a 'ladies only' area then. I t should enable us to a t t r a c t more women members and help to a l t e r 411's reputation as a "men's Centre." I f we are granted the top f l o o r s , we may put i n an auditorium and a large medical centre, with a waiting room. One enthusiastic member described the plans currently being worked on f o r the 411 b u i l d i n g and l i s t e d the major renovations that have already been made.  He observed,  We've achieved what we have because we dreamed. We've always t r i e d to keep moving ahead, I f we stood s t i l l , we never would have improved. The Centre would have stagnated long ago. 3) Murdoch Centre.  Of the three Centres, Murdoch's b u i l d i n g has the  most serious inadequacies and provides the strongest encouragement f o r member involvement i n f a c i l i t y planning.  As noted, members at Murdoch  are presently engaged i n the early stages of a planning process which w i l l probably see the Centre being housed i n a new f a c i l i t y .  The. most  obvious reason why members at Murdoch may be encouraged to becomei involved i n t h i s f a c i l i t y planning process i s the prospect of f i n d i n g a f a c i l i t y which i s more suitable than t h e i r present l o c a t i o n .  A less  134 obvious reason i s that they may find inducement i n the autonomy they gain by becoming involved i n the process.  Under the present administrative  structure at Murdoch, members have advisory powers, but have relatively l i t t l e real control over the planning that goes on at the Centre. By becoming involved i n f a c i l i t y planning and seeking a new building, Murdoch's members may experience control during the planning, launching appeals to raise funds i n the community, applying for grants, selecting a site, and presenting suggestions regarding the design of the new building. They may/ also exercise control after the new building has been completed, as the Centre's members w i l l be the sole occupants of the building and they w i l l be able to set their own policy regarding i t s use.  Many of the  factors which discourage member involvement in program planning i n Murdoch's present building should thus be eliminated when the Centre i s relocated, A l l Board members interviewed regarded the establishment of a new f a c i l i t y as a cure for many of the " i l l s " presently being experienced at Murdoch. For example, referring to the relatively small proportion of men who belong to the Centre, one member asserted, We'll be able to i n s t a l l a good woodwork shop and get more pool tables when the new Centre i s opened. That should help us attract more men. Another who f e l t that nutritional needs of the elderly should be a major concern of the Centre observed, The new Centre should have a kitchen and serve inexpensive, balanced noon meals, JWalybe a wheels-to-meals program can be implemented, i n which those old people who don't get out much are brought to the Centre for lunch. People need emotional nourishment as well as physical nourishment ,  135  The new Murdoch building may not be as ideal as some members expect i t to be; however, the interview responses reveal that the prospect of establishing i t and moving from the present location serves as strong encouragement for at least some members to become involved in f a c i l i l t y planning. Before closing this section, i t should be noted that despite the possible influence that a Centre's building can have on member involvement i n planning, factors associated with the building are probably the least important of the four sets of factors examined in this chapter. A building should never be seen as an end in i t s e l f .  In the words of one  of the Directors, It's possible to go to great pains i n establishing a new Senior Centre, but i f the staff and programs aren't satisfactory, you'll wind up with a 'lovely empty building." SUMMARY In this Chapter, factors have been examined which may act to encourage or discourage member involvement i n planning at Senior Centres, The four main factors which emerged from casual conversations and interviews with Centre staff and members and from personal observations at the Centres related to l ) the administrative structure of the Centres, 2) characteristics of "planning members" (Board and Committee members), 3) characteristics of Centre Directors, and 4) the Centre buildings. Having examined these factors, the following Chapter provides the conclusions and implications of the researchlplus recommendations for future research.  Chapter 7 CONCLUSION  This thesis has examined the planning processes a t three Senior Centres i n the Greater Vancouver area.  In p a r t i c u l a r i t focused on the  r o l e that members played i n the processes and f a c t o r s which encouraged them to become involved.  This chapter presents the major conclusions o f  the research, followed by t h e i r implications and questions f o r future study. CONCLUSIONS The conclusions stem from the analysis of factors which encourage and discourage members* involvement i n a Senior Centre's planning process.  To review, the main "encouraging" factors i d e n t i f i e d were:  l ) Autonomous Administrative Structures These structures provide members with more " s t r u c t u r a l opportunities to p a r t i c i p a t e and the research a t the S i l v e r Harbour and 411 Centres suggests that they allow them to experience a greater sense o f control and s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e i r planning.  Centres with l e s s autonomous  structures o f f e r fewer s t r u c t u r a l opportunities and l e s s encouragement to members to become involved i n t h e i r Centre's planning process. However, the research a t Murdoch Centre suggests that the l e s s autonomous Centres may provide encouragement to members who do not want a great deal o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r planning and to those who require the security of a strong s t a f f person i n order to p a r t i c i p a t e .  136  13? 2) An Adequate Level o f Funding, and S t a f f i n g The research suggests that i f the Centre's l e v e l of junding i s too low, members w i l l become frustrated and w i l l not get involved i n planning.  This i s because members do not want to plan f o r programs o r other  concerns i f they see l i t t l e hope o f having t h e i r plans implemented. Some members a t the three Centres appeared to gain encouragement from the challenge o f making plans to r a i s e funds f o r t h e i r Centres.;. Others complained,  however, that having to write grant proposals and seek  donations from businesses and organizations was t i r i n g and tedious and i t could prevent members from engaging i n other aspects of t h e i r Cent r e s ' planning process.  The s t a f f i n g problems a t the studied Centres  were also related to funding l e v e l s .  As found a t the 411 Centre, when  low funding l e v e l s present a Centre from paying i t s s t a f f adequate s a l a r i e s , d i f f i c u l t i e s w i l l a r i s e i n h i r i n g and maintaining q u a l i f i e d staff.  High s t a f f turnover can discourage members from becoming involved  i n t h e i r Centre's planning process, as i t prevents them from forming bonds with employees who are hired to f a c i l i t a t e them i n t h e i r planning efforts.  And as found a t Murdoch Centre, i f low funding l e v e l s r e s u l t  i n too few s t a f f being hired, the paid employees w i l l have d i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g time to f a c i l i t a t e and encourage members i n planning, 3) S k i l l e d and Experienced Planning Members As seen a t S i l v e r Harbour and 411 Centres, Board and Committee members with leadership and communication s k i l l s can be p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e i n encouraging other members to become involved i n planning. Outgoing and agreeable personalities, receptiveness to members' ideas, and value positions that support the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f members i n the  138  Centre's planning process also emerged as being important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r planning members. 4) S k i l l e d and Experienced Executive Directors To be e f f e c t i v e i n encouraging members to plan, Directors require the s k i l l s , experience, and " p o s i t i v e " personality and a t t i t u d i n a l chara c t e r i s t i c s i d e n t i f i e d f o r e f f e c t i v e planning members.  A somewhat sur-  p r i s i n g f i n d i n g of the research was that the three Directors and many-rof the members interviewed also indicated s k i l l s i n business management to be an important q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r a D i r e c t o r .  They argued that a D i r -  ector with good business management s k i l l s could ensure that the Centre was being run successfully, gaining the members' confidence and f r e e i n g them to become involved i n the non-business aspects o f the Centre's planning.  The interview subjects also indicated that a D i r e c t o r needed  to accept the r i g h t o f members to plan, have a sound understanding o f group dynamics and o f the needs and circumstances o f the aged, and know how much and i n what areas members want to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r Centre's planning. 5) Accessible. Well Designed Buildings The research suggests that a building s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to function as a Senior Centre and owned and s o l e l y occupied by members p o t e n t i a l l y o f f e r s the greatest encouragement to members to become involved i n t h e i r Centre's planning.  S i l v e r Harbour Centre's building,  f o r example, which meets the preceding c r i t e r i a ,  could accommodate a  greater range of programs and was more congenial and accessible to members than the leased, shared, general purpose b u i l d i n g o f Murdoch Centre,  Due to the design and ownership o f S i l v e r Harbour's building,  139 the Centre's members had a greater range o f programs that they could plan f o r and they were able to exercise considerable control over t h e i r planning and programming.  Despite the o v e r a l l d e s i r a b i l i t y of a  s p e c i a l l y designed <member-owned building, c o s t l y maintenance, r e p a i r s , or expansions w i l l i n e v i t a b l y be required f o r such a b u i l d i n g .  Mem-  bers' energies and the Centre's resources w i l l have to be transferred from the "pleasant" planning a t the Centre and be devoted to attending to building-related matters.  For t h i s reason, an older building, such  as 411's, which i s renovated f o r use as a Senior Centre and managed by a "benevolent" landlord may o f f e r a comparatively high degree of encouragement to member involvement i n planning. The three Senior Centres studied i n t h i s thesis had d i s t i n c t i v e programs, administrative structures, buildings, and memberships. Obviously, no one planning model would be appropriate f o r meeting the varied needs and circumstances o f the three Centres (or any other Cent r e s , f o r that matter).  Whatever planning model a Centre adopts,  those  making use o f the model must recognize i t as being dynamic, and they must be prepared to a l t e r i t as time and circumstances necessitate. Generally speaking, however, ensuring that the i d e n t i f i e d  "encouraging"  f a c t o r s are i n place should create an environment conducive to member involvement i n a Centre's planning. Admittedly, a number o f d i f f i c u l t i e s would emerge i n attempting to e s t a b l i s h a planning framework which would encourage member involvement. Three of the more problematic aspects are discussed below. The f i r s t problematic aspect r e l a t e s to ensuring that c o n t i n u i t y i s b u i l t into the planning process.  Some members and s t a f f a t the  140  three Centres under study expressed concern about maintaining continu i t y within t h e i r Centres' processes.  A few planning members, f o r  example, indicated a fear that i f they ceased to serve, no other members would replace them.  These planning members placed most o f the  blame f o r the p o t e n t i a l lack o f continuity on the new, more recent Cent r e members, who had shown l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n becoming involved i n planning.  However, some o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y must r e s t with the  planning members.  I f f t h e y regard themselves as indispensable, they  could become "entrenched,"  c l i n g i n g to t h e i r planning positions while  at the same time, f e e l i n g overburdened. could occur.  In such an instance, problems  When the "entrenched" members f i n a l l y have to r e t i r e from  duty, the newer members might lack the necessary s k i l l s or confidence to assume the vacated planning p o s i t i o n s . The problem o f ensuring that continuity i s maintained within the planning process may be compounded by planning members' attitudes toward the value and necessity of t r a i n i n g , sFcr example, two of the three Centres studied offered no formal t r a i n i n g to t h e i r Board or Committee members. A l l Board members interviewed a t those Centres claimed that t r a i n i n g was unnecessary f o r preparing members f o r Board dusbies. In f a c t , some appeared almost i n s u l t e d when the question was r a i s e d , as i f the very suggestion that they might require t r a i n i n g i n f e r r e d that they were not competent to perform t h e i r duties.  By r e s i s t i n g the intro'  duction of t r a i n i n g sessions, planning members might unwittingly be d i s couraging the l e s s s k i l l e d or confident members from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n planning. The research suggests that continuity within the planning process  141 would be more assured i f planning members had a better understanding of how to motivate other members and i f they made a sincere e f f o r t to include those others i n t h e i r planning. The second problematic aspect o f establishing a successful memberplanning process r e l a t e s to the lack o f understanding that some members showed regarding the planning process.  An example o f t h i s lack of under-  standing was revealed i n the e f f o r t s o f members a t one o f the Centres studied to acquire a new b u i l d i n g f o r t h e i r Centre.  The Centre's Board  members tended to speak of the b u i l d i n g as an end i n i t s e l f , not as a means o f f u l f i l l i n g the Centre's purpose o r goals.  One o f the main  reasons f o r wanting the new b u i l d i n g seemed to be the f a c t that Centre members i n adjacent municipalities had t h e i r own buildings.  Little  evidence emerged that members had considered alternative means o f meeting t h e i r needs, such as h i r i n g additional s t a f f or coordinating programs with Community Centres or other groups.  One could conclude that unless  members (and s t a f f ) give more c a r e f u l thought to determining the reason f o r the proposed building's construction and the purposes i t i s to serve, they may f i n d they have engaged i n an expensive planning exercise, not only r e t a i n i n g t h e i r Centre's e x i s t i n g problems, but also acquiring f r e s h ones with the new b u i l d i n g . The t h i r d problematic aspect of e s t a b l i s h i n g an e f f e c t i v e planning modsel r e l a t e s to resources ( f i n a n c i a l , s t a f f , building, and equipment), Seriously inadequate resources can not only discourage members' involvement i n planning; they can also create d i f f i c u l t i e s i n programming and s t a f f i n g , and ultimately jeopardize the very existence of the Centre. Despite these negative aspects, the research revealed that s l i g h t  142 resource inadequacies could have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t , encouraging members to become involved i n planning e f f o r t s to redress the inadequacies. This phenomenon was apparent a t the three Centres with respect to planning f o r fund r a i s i n g and b u i l d i n g matters.  Such a c t i v i t y could be  regarded as mere "busy work" which causes members to transfer t h e i r energies from planning i n the areas they enjoy to planning f o r the surv i v a l needs of t h e i r Centres.  Indeed, some of the members interviewed  held t h i s opinion. Others, however, seemed to derive s a t i s f a c t i o n from making a d i r e c t contribution to and being i n control of t h e i r Centre's resources.  The research suggests that an optimum p r i n c i p l e may be  present. The optimum p r i n c i p l e can be depicted graphically as follows: Level of member involvement i n planning optimum  Level of resources  The graph suggests that below the optimum where resources are too low, members may c u r t a i l t h e i r involvement, as they become t i r e d and f r u s trated and f e e l that they have l e s s power to e f f e c t change.  Beyond the  optimum, where too high a l e v e l of resources i s supplied, members may decrease involvement, as they have l e s s need to take i n i t i a t i v e i n planning f o r themselves.  Indeed, t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y was suggested by  143  long-standing Board members at two of the studied Centres.  They i n d i -  cated that a possible reason why the "young" seniors do not seem eager to become involved i n t h e i r Senior Centre's planning process i s the f a c t that they d i d not have to f i g h t to gain improved f i n a n c i a l and s o c i a l benefits f o r seniors as the older adults before them had.  I t would be  d i f f i c u l t to t e s t the hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l e v e l of resources and members' involvement i n planning f o r a t present no cases e x i s t (to my knowledge) where governments or other funding bodies have over endowed a Senior Centre, IMPLICATIONS The research has a number of important implications f o r Senior Cent r e s , other planning groups, and f o r society at l a r g e . F i r s t , the main Implication f o r Senior Centres has already been noted: attempting to implement the i d e n t i f i e d "encouraging" f a c t o r s i n a Senior Centre's planning process should generally create an atmosphere more conducive to member involvement i n planning.  However, the preceding  discussion revealed that d i f f i c u l t i e s may a r i s e i n attempting to ensure that continuity i s b u i l t into the planning process and that the i n d i v i d uals involved have a sound understanding of the process,  A conclusion  that can be drawn i s that the planning members could help to minimize these d i f f i c u l t i e s . The defensiveness shown by some planning members when questioned about t r a i n i n g sessions suggests that i n i t i a l attempts to introduce such sessions might meet with resistance.  One way of overcoming possible  resistance might be to c a r e f u l l y explain the purpose and importance of  144 the sessions, so that members do not f e e l that they are being requested to accept t r a i n i n g because they are incompetent.  Also, the sessions  would l i k e l y meet with a more favourable response i f they were "fun" to attend and they had a degree of "prestige" attached to them.  For  example, i f the sessions Included members and s t a f f from a number o f Centres i n a region, those attending the sessions would l i k e l y enjoy meeting and being with others who  share t h e i r i n t e r e s t s .  They could  also achieve status i n t h e i r own and others' estimation. The t r a i n i n g sessions could address such planning issues as setting, p r i o r i z i n g , and modifying goals, developing, monitoring and evaluating programs, and preparing budgets. r e l a t i o n s or group dynamics.  P a r t i c u l a r attention could be paid to  t r a i n i n g members and s t a f f i n how other Centre members.  They could also deal with human  to communicate with and motivate  By i n v o l v i n g members and s t a f f from a number of  Centres i n workshops, an exchange of information could be f a c i l i t a t e d . Channels could possibly be established through which information  was  exchanged on a f a i r l y regular basis a f t e r the t r a i n i n g sessions had ended, In order f o r the sessions to be a success, the person giving them would not only require sound knowledge of planning and working with groups, he would also need to have an understanding to the s p e c i a l needs of the aged.  of and s e n s i t i v i t y  The members interviewed made i t c l e a r  that they do not appreciate young "know-alls" t r y i n g to t e l l them what to do. Another Implication of the research r e l a t e s to the p r i n c i p l e of "optimum support l e v e l s . "  hypothesized  The p r i n c i p l e suggests on  hand that the l e v e l of resources that governments and other  one  agencies  145 provide to Senior Centres could p o t e n t i a l l y be excessive.  I f members  had everything provided f o r them, they would probably not f e e l the same need o f planning fund-raising events (which may, or may not, be a negative f a c t o r ) and they would not be compelled to exercise as much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n managing t h e i r resources as members o f Centres that had been given l e s s .  More importantly, they would not have the same  degree of opportunity to exercise t h e i r a b i l i t i e s and to experience the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f having a degree o f c o n t r o l over t h e i r own and t h e i r Centre's destiny. On the other hand, the optimum p r i n c i p l e suggests that i f the l e v e l o f resources supplied to a Senior Centre were too low, members might be discouraged from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e i r Centre's planning process. I f t h i s were the case, members would thus be prevented from d e r i v i n g the maximum benefits from attending t h e i r Centre, I f the p r i n c i p l e of "optimum support l e v e l s " were taken into account, and an optimum point could be determined,  governments and other  agencies would l i k e l y f i n d that they were funding Senior Centres a t a point well be3iow the optimum.  By using the "optimum support level."  p r i n c i p l e as a basis f o r the., .allocation of funds, funding bodies could ensure maximum p a r t i c i p a t i o n of Centre members i n t h e i r planning and the equitable d i s t r i b u t i o n of resources amongst various Senior Centres, Although the research investigated the planning process a t Senior Centres, i t s implications extend to other planning groups.  I t i s true  that planning with members of Senior Centres requires s p e c i a l knowledge and expertise ( f o r example, Senior Centre Directors need to be knowledgeable and sympathetic  to the social}.*'physical, and economic losses that  older adults experience).  However, members of Senior Centres tend to be  146 the "well e l d e r l y , " and once c e r t a i n factors associated with the aging process are taken into account, planning with Senior Centre members i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from planning with any heterogeneous group. For example, many o f the problematic aspects o f planning with Senior Centre members i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s thesis, such as cliques, bigoted attitudes, and entrenchment of members, would be found i n almost any planning group. Thus, i f the establishment o f "encouraging" factors helps Senior Centres to increase member involvement i n t h e i r planning processes, i t should also a s s i s t bodies composed of younger members. In addition the provision of t r a i n i n g sessions f o r the planning members of other groups should help those groups to involve more members and to improve the q u a l i t y o f t h e i r planning.  For example, c i t i z e n  p a r t i c i p a t i o n programs i n the United States and Canada have frequently been c r i t i c i z e d f o r providing a soapbox f o r members o f the most vocal i n t e r e s t groups, while being unresponsive to tftose l e s s able to verbalize t h e i r concerns.  I f the l e s s a r t i c u l a t e i n d i v i d u a l s could be taught how  the planning process works and the means o f expressing themselves through i t , more c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n programs would be successful i n involving a wider range of the c i t i z e n r y  The chances o f success would be  increased i f the vocal or a r t i c u l a t e members were trained i n how to motivate t h e i r peers to become involved. The concept o f optimal!ty might also apply to other planning groups besides Senior Centres,  I f so, planning groups and funding bodies should  take a genuine i n t e r e s t i n determining roughly where the optimum point lies.  Such knowledge would a s s i s t planning groups to r e a l i s t i c a l l y define  t h e i r needs.  In addition, i t would enable funding bodies to determine  equitable a l l o c a t i o n of resources.  I f funding bodies used an optimality  147  concept as a basis f o r determining  t h e i r a l l o c a t i o n s to community groups,  they could reduce one of the major anxieties plaguing the groups  —  i n s e c u r i t y over the l e v e l and continuity of funding. In i t s broadest sense, the research has implications f o r society as a whole.  As the number o f older adults continues to increase, more  Senior Centres w i l l l i k e l y be b u i l t to meet t h e i r needs.  The e s t a b l i s h -  ment of these Centres w i l l require a considerable amount of society's resources.  I f Centre members are encouraged, f a c i l i t a t e d , and trained i n  planning they w i l l become more adept at planning f o r t h e i r Senior Recognizing  Centres.  that a c t i v e , s e l f - d i r e c t i n g adults are generally h e a l t h i e r  and more s a t i s f i e d  than t h e i r more passive peers, older adults who  take  advantage of opportunities to plan at Senior Centres have much to gain. Funding bodies and taxpayers w i l l also gain, f o r they can be confidents of the a b i l i t y of Seniors to plan f o r themselves, and thus be  assured  that public monies are being used e f f i c i e n t l y . While the t h e s i s d i d not attempt to evaluate the a b i l i t y o f Senior Centre members i n planning, the examples i t presented  should r e v e a l that  the planning members under consideration were capable of planning f o r t h e i r Centres by i m p l i c a t i o n .  I f older adults can plan e f f e c t i v e l y a t  Senior Centres, they can also contribute to other p a r t i c i p a t o r y planning programs.  I f society recognized the a b i l i t y of many of i t s older members,  rather than dwelling on t h e i r supposed d i s a b i l i t i e s , i t could mous b e n e f i t s .  reap enor-  For example, representatives of community planning  programs, organizations, or other planning bodies might consider  visiting  Senior Centres and personally appealing to the members to contribute to t h e i r endeavours.  I f they were successful i n t h e i r appeals they, t h e i r  148  organizations, and t h e i r constituents could benefit from the years of experience and expertise that many older adults can o f f e r .  Thus the  community would be u t i l i z i n g a valuable resource and the older adults?' would regain some o f t h e i r l o s t s e l f esteem. FUTURE RESEARCH Due to the exploratory nature o f t h i s thesis, i t has r a i s e d more questions than i t has answered.  Further research i s required t o :  1) Refine and expand upon the categories of encouraging and discouraging f a c t o r s f o r members' involvement i n a Senior Centre's planning process. 2) Explore the p r i n c i p l e o f "optimum support l e v e l s " - Does i t apply a t Senior Centres, to other planning groups?  Is i t a u n i v e r s a l concept applicable Can governments, other funding bodies,  and planners use the concept t o determine a measurable "optimum" l e v e l of resources to be provided? 3) Determine whether the encouraging and discouraging f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s t h e s i s are applicable to Adult Day Care Centres, Residents' Councils, o r other planning bodies composed of older a d u l t s . - How f a r can the plan " f o r Seniors by Seniors" concept be taken? 4) Determine whether the encouraging and discouraging factors are applicable to groups which include a range o f age groups. What are the differences between planning with younger and older adults? 5) Survey a broader sample on t h e i r attitude towards Senior Centres and "Seniors planning f o r Seniors" a t the Centres, - What i s  14-9  the attitude of Seniors who don't belong to a Senior Centre? What i s the attitude of Seniors involved i n Community Centre programs with a range o f age groups? those who ceased to belong?  What i s the a t t i t u d e o f  Are there any planning members who  ceased to serve?. I f so, why d i d they cease to serve?  Are non-  planning members aware o f s t r u c t u r a l opportunities to p a r t i c i pate i n planning?  Do they care that these opportunities e x i s t ,  or are they only concerned with the a c t i v i t i e s and services available a t the Centre? 6) Determine whether member planned Senior Centres are more e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e i n terms o f meeting needs, than those planned by paid professionals. - What other f a c t o r s need to be considered besides resources?  Are there hidden costs involved  i n employing either model? The economic and s o c i a l implications of the projected increase i n the over 65 years population w i l l be enormous.  Governments and  planners  have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y both to Seniors and to society a t large, to encourage and; f a c i l i t a t e older adults to a s s i s t i n meeting these future challenges.  Therefore, i t i s  e s s e n t i a l that researchers contribute to the  e f f o r t by seeking to f i l l the vacuum that presently e x i s t s i n the l i t e r ature on planning with Seniors.  150  B I B L I O G R A P H Y  A d  H o c  C o m m i t t e e  F u n d i n g o f  o f  B r i t i s h  A l e x a n d e r ,  C o l u m b i a .  W h i c h  A . A .  P r e s s ,  A n d e r s o n ,  N a n c y  N.  R o b ' t .  J o h n .  P a u l ,  B a i l e y ,  B e c h t e l l ,  C ,  B o l a n ,  T h e  o f  T h e o r y  S i l v e r s t e l n .  C e n t r e s .  A  B e r k e l e y  I t h i c a s  I n f o r m a t i o n  C i t i z e n  a n d  f o r  P a t t e r n  C e n t r e  C o r n e l l  U n i v e r s i t y  f r o m  a  N a t i o n a l  F o u n d a t i o n ,  S u r v e y .  1969.  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Journal (January 1974): 2-16 Garrett, Lorna, and Mary H i l l . Community Care f o r Seniors Study. Vancouver: Sparc of B.C., 1972. Golant, Stephen M. The Residential Location and S p a t i a l Location o f the E l d e r l y . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972. Hacker, Abbe. "Senior Centres f o r the Older C i t i z e n s . " In The Neglected Older American: S o c i a l and Rehabilitation Services, pp. 185-215. Edited by J.G. C u l l and R.E. Hardy/. S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s : Thomas, 1973. H a l l , Peter. Urban and Regional Planning. Charles, 1975.  Newton Abott: David and  Harbert, A.S,, and L.H. Ginsberg. Human Services f o r Older Adults: Concepts and S k i l l s . Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth, 1979.  153 Harris, B, "The Limits of Science and Humanism i n Planning." Journal (Sept. 196?)s 324-335  A.I.P.  Harris, Lou, and Associates. The Myth and R e a l i t y of Aging i n America. Washington, D.C.: Survey f o r National Council on Aging, 1975. Havens, Betty, "How to Cope with Many Masters and Survive." Edmonton: National Organization of Senior Centres. 1978. (mimeographed), Horowitz, L.L, "Social Planning and S o c i a l Science: H i s t o r i c a l Continu i t i e s and Comparative D i s c o n t i n u i t i e s . " In Planning Theory i n the 1980*5. Edited by R.W. Burchell and G. S t e r n l i e b . New Brunswick, New Jersey: Center f o r Urban P o l i c y Research, 1978. Jacobs, B e l l a , and Allene Magann. Involving Men Centers. Washington, D.C.: NCOA, 1974.  A Challenge f o r Senior  Jacobs, B e l l a , ed. Senior Centres: R e a l i z i n g our P o t e n t i a l . National I n s t i t u t e of Senior Centres, 1975.  Washington:  Jacobs, B e l l a . S o c i a l Action: Expanding Roles f o r Senior Centers. Washington, D.C,: NCOA. 1974. Jones, L.H, "What i s the Role of the Senior Centre?" (mimeographed). Jordan, J.U. Senior Centre Design.  Undated  Washington, D.C. NCOA, 1978.  Kaplan, Max. Leisure: L i f e s t y l e and Lifespan.  Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.  1979. Kleemier, Robert W,, ed. Aging and Leisure. New York: Oxford, 1 9 6 l . Klosterman, R.E, "Foundation f o r Normative Planning." A.I.P. Journal (January, 1978): 37-45. Koenig, D.J,; C. Doyle; and P. DeBeck. The Golden Years i n B r i t i s h Columbiat How Are They Seen By Senior Citizens? V i c t o r i a : University o f V i c t o r i a , 1977. Kubie, S.M., and G. Landau, Group Work With the Aged. New York: International U n i v e r s i t i e s Press, 1953. Langer, E,, and J , Rodin, "Effects of Choice and Enhanced Personal R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r the Aged: A F i e l d Experiment i n an I n s t i t u t i o n a l Setting," Journal o f Personality and S o c i a l Psychology 32 (1976): 191-198. Lawton, M, Powell; Robert Newcomer; and Thomas 0. Byerts, eds. Community Planning f o r An Aging Society. Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania: Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross, 1976.  154  Leanse, Joyce. "The Senior Centre, Individuals, and the Community." In The Later Years; S o c i a l Applications of Gerontology. Edited by Richard A, K a l e s h . M o n t e r e y : Brooks/Cole, 1 9 7 7 . Leanse, J . j M. "Tlven; and T.B, Robb. Senior Centre Operation. A Guide to Organization and Management. Washington, D.C,: National I n s t i t u t e f o r Senior Centres, 1 9 7 7 . Lemon, B.W,; V,L. Bengstonj and J.A. Peterson, "An Exploration of the A c t i v i t y Theory of Aging." In Contemporary S o c i a l Gerontology, pp. 51-62. E d i t e d by B.D, B e l l . S p r i n g f i e l d : Charles C. Thomas, 1976.  Lindblom, C.E. "The Science of Muddling Through." Review 1 9 (Spring 1 9 5 9 ) » 7 9 - 8 8 .  Public Administration  McGovern, Kay, and B e l l a Jacobs. Program Planning: A c c o u n t a b i l i t y C r e d i b i l i t y . Trust. Washington: NCOA, 1 9 7 5 .  f  Maclntyre, Lynne. "Alternative Theoretical Models f o r Senior Centres." Paper presented at the 32nd Annual S c i e n t i f i c Meeting o f the Gerontological Society, Washington, D.C., November 1 9 7 9 . March, J.G,, and H.A.  Simon.  Organizations.  New  York: Wiley, 1 9 5 8 .  Maxwell, Jean M. Centres f o r Older People...New York: National Council on the Aging, 1 9 6 2 . Maxwell, Jean M. "Senior Centers and the Mental Health of Older Persons: Are They Related?" In Senior Centers: R e a l i z i n g Our P o t e n t i a l . Edited by B e l l a Jacobs. Washington, D.C: The National Council on the Aging, 1 9 7 5 . Merton, R.K. S o c i a l Theory and S o c i a l Structure. New of Glencoe, 1 9 5 7 .  York: Free Press  M i l l e r , S. "The S o c i a l Dilemma of the Aging Leisure P a r t i c i p a n t . " Older People and Their S o c i a l World. Edited by A. Rose and W. Peterson. Philadelphia: F.A.Davis, I965.  In  Monro, Alexander. "Centres of the 70*s." In Report: Training I n s t i t u t e f o r Directors of Senior Centres, pp. 26-35. Edited by L o l a Wilson. Ottawa: National Health and Welfare. 1 9 7 2 . Moore, R.W, "The Multipurpose Senior Centre: A MSdel f o r Service Delivery." In Aging i n Canada: Proceedings of a Seminar, pp. 7 1 - 7 8 . Edited by N. Carter. King, Ontario: Seneca College, 1 9 7 8 . Murdoch Senior Centre Advisory Executive Board Constitution, 1979.  September,  1 5 5 Needleman, M.L., and C.E, Needleman. G u e r i l l a s i n the Bureaucracyi Community Planning Experiment i n the United States. New York: Wiley, 1 9 7 4 .  The  Neugarten, B., ed. "Aging i n the Year 2 0 0 0 : A Look a t the Future." Gerontologist 1 5 ( 1 9 7 5 ) * 1 - 4 0 . Palmore, Erdman, "The Future Status of the Aged." ( 1 9 7 6 ) : 2 9 7 - 3 0 2  Gerontologist 1 6  Perryman, G.N. "The Functions of Evaluation Research i n C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n Programs," M.A, Thesis. School of Community and Regional Planning, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 7 5 . Rein, Martin. "Social Planning: The Search f o r Legitimacy." A.I.P. Journal (July, 1 9 7 6 ) : 2 3 3 - 2 4 4 . Richmond Planning Department. August, 1 9 7 7 .  Population Analysis: Richmond. B.C.  R i t t e l , H.W.J,, and M.W, Webber. Dilemmas i n a General Theory of Planning. Berkeley: I n s t i t u t e of Urban and Regional Development, 1 9 7 2 . Rose, Albert. C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Urban Renewal. University of Toronto, 1 9 7 4 .  Toronto:  Rosener, J . B. " C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n : Tying Strategy to Function," In C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n : C e r t i f i c a t i o n f o r Community Development, pp. 5 8 - 7 0 , Edited by P. Marshall, Washington, D.C.: Nahro, 1 9 7 7 . Schreiber, Marvin. "Discussion on Centres f o r the 7 0 ' s . " In Report: Training I n s t i t u t e f o r Directors of Senior Centres. Edited by L. Wilson. Ottawa: The Canadian Council on S o c i a l Development, 1 9 7 2 . Schwartz, A.N, and H,G, Proppe. "Toward Person/Environment Transactional Research i n Aging." Gerontologist 1 0 ( 1 9 7 0 ) : 2 2 8 - 2 3 2 . Scott, A.J., and S.T. Roweis. Urban Planning i n Theory and P r a c t i c e : A Reappraisal.Toronto: University of Toronto, 1 9 7 7 . Senate of Canada. Retirement: P o l i c i e s . Pensions, and Proposals. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services, 1 9 7 9 . Senior Centre Standards: NCOA, 1 9 7 8 .  Guidelines f o r P r a c t i c e . Washington,  S i l v e r Harbour ManorSociety May, 1 9 8 0 .  Constitution and By-laws,  D.C,,  Amended 1 3  156  Simon, H.A.  Administrative Behavior.  Smith, D,, and V. Ross. Intermet, 1973.  New "Xforks MacMillan, 1961.  Enhancing C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n .  Toronto:  S o c i a l Planning and Review Council o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Information: Senior C i t i z e n ' s Guide to Services i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver: S.P.A.R.C., 1979. Storey, Ruth T.  "Who Attends a Senior A c t i v i t y Center?"  2 (1962): 216-222.  Taietz, P h i l i p . "Two Conceptual Models o f the Senior Journal o f Gerontology 31 (l976)t 219-222.  sGerontologist  Center."  Tissue, Thomas. " S o c i a l Class and the Senior C i t i z e n Centre." Gerontologist 3 (Autumn 1971)* pp. 196-200.  The  Toseland, Ron, and James Sykes. "Senior Centre P a r t i c i p a t i o n and Other Correlates o f L i f e S a t i s f a c t i o n . " Gerontologist 17 (June 197?)* pp. 235-241. Trela, J.E,, and L.W, Simmons, "Health and Other Factors A f f e c t i n g Membership i n a Senior Centre." Journal o f Gerontology 26 (l97l)»  pp. 46-51.  Trela, J.E, "Some P o l i t i c a l Consequences of Senior Centre and Old Age Group Memberships." Gerontologist 2 (Summer 1971): pp. 118-123. Tuckman, J . "Factors Related to Attendance i n a Centre f o r Older People." Journal o f the American G e r i a t r i c Society 15 (196?):  pp. 474-479.  Vickery, Florence T. Training Guide.  Creative Programming f o r Older Adults: A Leadership New York: Association Press, 1972.  Wilson, Lola, ed. Reports Training I n s t i t u t e f o r Director o f Senior Centres. Ottawa* The Canadian Council on S o c i a l Development, 1972.  157  APPENDIX I DIRECTOR'S INTERVIEW SCHEDULE I would l i k e to begin by asking you some general background questions about the Centre... -when was i t started? -who was involved i n i n i t i a t i n g i t ? -why was i t started? -who funds the Centre? -who administers the Centre? -who owns the building? -how many paid s t a f f are there What are some o f your main duties a t the Centre? What would you say are some of the most important q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r a D i r e c t o r to have? -education -work and/or community experience -attitude -stamina -leadership s k i l l s What i s the composition o f the Board o f Directors? -numbers -elderly/non-elderly -offices Have Centre members always served on the Board?  158 6.  How are the Board members chosen? -elected/appointed -nominating committee  7.  Do you think a D i r e c t o r or the Nominating Committee should look f o r people with s p e c i a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r Board, membership? -why, or why not? -what c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ? -how can they a t t r a c t them?  8.  What are the main functions of the Board?  9.  Does the Centre r e l y on standing committees?  ad hoc committees?  -what are some o f the most important standing committees? -what i s t h e i r function? -how many members? -same people on many committees? -do committee members have to be members of the Centre? 10.  What i s your r e l a t i o n s h i p with the Board? - f u l l member? -ex o f f i c i o ? -administrative ? -carry out p o l i c i e s and Board decisions?  11.  Do you think t h i s i s a good r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r a Director and Board to have?  12.  Do you f e e l any o f your duties or r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , or those of the Board should be changed?  _  w h i c h  Q  n  e  s  ?  -why? -easy to do?  159 Do you do anything s p e c i f i c to help to prepare new  Board or Committee  members f o r t h e i r duties? - o r i e n t a t i o n / t r a i n i n g sessions? -Board manual? -discuss time commitment Are there any routines which you follow to help ensure that Board and committee meetings run smoothly? -send out Minutes and Notice of meetings? -help prepare Agenda? - a s s i s t with correspondence? -prepare written report each month? - o f f e r praise and constructive criticism? Do you notice any differences i n working with senior adults as opposed to younger adults? -slower pace? -short run  goals?  -hearing problems? -memory loss? - s o c i a l event rather than business meeting? -motivational needs f o r a f f i l i a t i o n rather than achievement? Do these differences make your job more demanding? What would you say are some of the main advantages and disadvantages of a Centre controlled by members as opposed to one controlled by an outside agency?  160 18,  What would you say are some o f the main advantages and disadvantages of a Board composed e n t i r e l y of Centre members, and one that has representatives from the community? -Pro's? -Con's?  19,  Would  350U  say that the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Board or committee members  vary i n any way from those o f the general membership? -s.e.s.? -age? -general a c t i v i t y l e v e l ( i n Centre and i n other organizations)? -health/energy l e v e l ? -education? -skills? -attitudes 20,  How can you ensure that Board and committee members represent the i n t e r e s t s o f the general membership? -avenues f o r membership's input? -issue opinlonaires? -task frequently with members? -reports to the membership through newsletters, etc.? -have Board members drawn from crosssection o f membership?  21,  Are you s a t i s f i e d with the l e v e l o f involvement o f members i n the Centre's planning process?  22,  Are Board meetings open to ALL Centre members? attend?  I f so, do many  161 23.  Can the head of an a c t i v i t y b a s i c a l l y plan h i s program as he l i k e s , or must he f i r s t go through s t a f f or an operating committee?  24.  How do you ensure that the Board and committees get f r e s h ideas? - l i m i t term of o f f i c e ? -recommend that the members speak with Boards at other Centres? -suggest that they attend workshops and conferences?  25.  Could you describe how one of your recent programs was planned? -determine needs, -objective and goal setting? -monitoring -who  26.  How  process?  d i d what?  do you evaluate how successful a program has been? -criteria? - s t a t i s t i c a l quality? -who  performs the evaluation?  - i s i t standard practice to conduct such evaluations? 27.  Do you receive many suggestions or complaints from members regarding programs, a c t i v i t i e s , or Centre policy?  28.  Are there any groups that you would l i k e the Centre to reach that i t i s currently not reaching? - a f f l u e n t or  impoverished?  -handicapped  (mentally or p h y s i c a l l y ) ?  -males? -ethnic? -people without cars? -shy or reclusive?  162 29.  W h a t  e f f o r t s ,  i f  a n y ,  h a v e  b e e n  made  t o  h e l p  a c c e p t a n c e  - h o w  s u c c e s s f u l  o f  t h e s e  p e o p l e ?  30.  I s  t h e r e  p e o p l e ?  31.  Do  y o u  c o n s e n s u s  I f  f i n d  n a t u r e  a n d  a m o n g s t  t h e  n o t ,  w h a t  a r e  t h a t  some  members  o t h e r s  s e e m  B o a r d  some  n e v e r  o f  o f  t o  members  t h e  t h e  t e n d  o r  - a c t i v i t i e s  W h a t  m e t h o d s  d o  y o u  u s e  t o  o v e r c o m e  t h i s  - h o w  - i s  33.  A p a r t  w a y s  f r o m  i n  s e r v i n g  w h i c h  o n  C e n t r e  t h e  B o a r d  members  o r  may  i n v o l v i n g  t h e s e  t o  b e  j o i n e r s  b y  i n v o l v e d ?  - c o m m i t t e e  32.  a b o u t  t h e y ?  o b j e c t i o n s ?  C e n t r e  g e t  w e r e  v o l u n t e e r  o r  p r o g r a m s ?  p r o b l e m ?  s u c c e s s f u l  i t  w o r k ?  w o r t h  t h e  c o m m i t t e e s ,  p a r t i c i p a t e  a r e  b o t h e r ?  a r e  i n  t h e y ?  t h e r e  p l a n n i n g  a n y  a t  o t h e r  t h e  C e n t r e ?  - c h a n n e l s  - e x a m p l e s member  - l e v e l  34.  I s  t h e  C e n t r e  C e n t r e s ,  i n v o l v e d  c o m m u n i t y  i n  a n y  o r  o f  p l a n s  r e s u l t i n g  f r o m  i n p u t ?  o f  p r o g r a m m i n g  o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  a v a i l a b l e ?  i n t e r e s t ?  o r  a c t i v i t i e s  w i t h  o t h e r  a g e n c i e s ?  - w h a t  a r e  t h e y ?  - w h a t  i s  t h e  n a t u r e  o f  - w h a t  i s  t h e  r e a s o n  f o r  ( e . g .  a v o i d  d u p l i c a t i o n  s h a r e  f a c i l i t i e s  o r  i n v o l v e m e n t ?  i n v o l v e m e n t o f  s e r v i c e s ,  r e s o u r c e s ,  e t c . ) ?  163  35.  How successful has t h i s involvement been? -do you expect that i t w i l l  continue?  - w i l l i t be stressed - the same, l e s s , or more i n the future? 36.  What do you perceive to be the main purpose or r o l e of the Centre? -providing s o c i a l opportunities? -being a place f o r recreation? -being an information/service Centre? -advocacy (e.g. s o c i a l action/community awareness)?  37.  Do you expect that the Centre w i l l play t h i s r o l e f o r the foreseeable future? -why?  38.  Could you speculate on what the outcome of removing the age c r i t e r i a f o r membership might be?  39.  Do non-members ever v i s i t or use the f a c i l i t i e s of the Centre? -who -under what conditions? -what are the f e e l i n g s o f the Board and general membership on t h i s subject?  kO.  Are many non-members i n the community aware of the Centre or i t s activities? -elderly -younger people -evidence (press notices, volunteers, donations of services and funds)  kl.  Are you b a s i c a l l y s a t i s f i e d with t h i s recognition/support?  164 42.  Your job sounds very demanding and challenging,  Has the Adminis-  t r a t i o n and/or Board; been supportive? - i n what way? -staff -morale boost 43.  What are the major sources o f funding f o r the Centre?  44.  Has the l e v e l of funding been s u f f i c i e n t to meet programming, s t a f f i n g , and other needs o f the Centre?  45.  When s t a f f quit, are members understanding, or do they f e e l hurt or resentful?  46.  Do you f e e l comfortable i n delegating some r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to the Board and committees? -reasons -examples of support or non-support  47.  Do the general membership appreciate the time demands and responsib i l i t i e s of your job? -reasons -examples  48.  What are the main p r i o r i t i e s i n planning that face the Centre? -strategy f o r meeting them  49.  I s there anything else you would l i k e to add? Thank you very much.  165 APPENDIX I I BOARD MEMBER INTERVIEW SCHEDULE  1.  How axe Boaxd and committee members chosen? -nominating committee and elections -appointed -terms of o f f i c e (fixed or i n d e f i n i t e )  2.  Do you think i t i s important f o r members of Boards and committees to have s p e c i a l s k i l l s and experience? -what kinds? (e.g. education, occupation, voluntary work, etc.)  3.  What made you decide to serve?  4.  Has serving on the Board met with your expectations?  5.  Should e f f o r t s be made to get people with s p e c i a l s k i l l s or experience to serve on the Board, or should anyone who wishes to serve have equal opportunity? -why?  6.  What kind of support should a new Board or committee member be given by the Board and Director? -written job description -Boaxd manual - c o n s t i t u t i o n and by-laws -terms of reference of committee -orientation and t r a i n i n g sessions -morale boosts - e.g. praise and constructive c r i t i c i s m - c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n of expected time commitment  166  7.  W e r e  y o u  g i v e n  8.  W h a t  a r e  t h e  9.  W h a t  i s  t h e  a n y  m a i n  o f  t h e s e  s u p p o r t s ?  d u t i e s  o f  t h e  r e l a t i o n s h i p  o f  t h e  B o a r d ?  B o a r d  t o  - a r e  t h e  t h e r e  d u t i e s  10,  Do  y o u  t h i n k  t h i s  d i v i s i o n  o f  d u t i e s  a n y  o r  a n d  E x e c u t i v e  D i r e c t o r ?  o v e r l a p s  i n  y o u r  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ?  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  i s  a b o u t  r i g h t ?  11,  W h a t  w o u l d  y o u  s a y  i s  t h e  i d e a l  B o a r d  c o m p o s i t i o n ?  - s e n i o r  a d u l t s  - s e n i o r  a n d  - s p e c i a l  12,  W h a t  a r e  t h a t  i s  D i r e c t o r  t h e  m a i n  p l a n n e d  o r  b y  a d v a n t a g e s  t h e  c o m m u n i t y  a n d  members  a s  y o u n g e r  a d u l t s  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  d i s a d v a n t a g e s  o p p o s e d  o n l y  t o  o f  o n e  a  S e n i o r  p l a n n e d  C e n t r e  b y  a  g r o u p ?  a )  C o n ' s  - a g e - s p e c i f i c  p r o b l e m s  - i n e f f i c i e n c y  - s h o r t - t e r m ,  - d o m i n a n t  p e r s o n a l  m e m b e r s ,  g o a l s  c l i q u e s  - " y e s - m e n "  - m o r e  w o r k  f o r  members  - i n s e c u r i t y  b )  P r o ' s  - r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  - d e m o c r a t i c  - h a v e t a p  c o m m u n i c a t i o n r e s o u r c e s  s e l f  members  i d e a l  - t h e r a p e u t i c ; a n d  o f  f r o m  n e t w o r k ; many  p r e s e r v e s  r e s p e c t  c a n  s o u r c e s  d i g n i t y  167 13.  Would you say that members o f the Board are d i f f e r e n t from the o v e r a l l membership i n any way? - a c t i v i t y l e v e l ( i n Centre and other organizations) —s # e • s • -education -health/energy l e v e l -experience  l£K  How can a Board get f r e s h ideas?  How can i t be sure that i t i s  representing the interests of the Centre members? -attend conferences - f i x e d term of o f f i c e f o r Board members -consult other groups -seek membership's input -form research committee to keep abreast o f studies done i n the f i e l d - v i s i t other Senior Centres and meet with t h e i r members and s t a f f 15.  Do people who aren't on the Board ever o f f e r you advice or make suggestions about programs, a c t i v i t i e s , or services? -what kinds o f suggestions -who makes them? -are they acted upon? -are suggestions encouraged? -small or great i n t e r e s t from membership i n planning -attitudes of the Board about sharing power  168  16.  Beside serving on the Board or a committee, are there other ways that members can p a r t i c i p a t e i n planning a t the Centre? - i n what ways,? -who takes advantage o f them?  17.  What are the main functions served by committees?  18.  What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Board and committees?  Who serve  on committees? 19  Can you t e l l me some things that make Board o r committee meetings run smoothly? -length of meeting -committee reports printed i n bold type on l i g h t coloured paper; mailed or handed out before meetings -members allowed to add items to agenda before meeting begins -Roberts Rules o f Order followed -strong chairperson who keeps meeting on track - a l l members given opportunity to speak  20.  Are there any differences i n planning with a Board or committee o f Senior adults as opposed to a Board or committee composed of younger adults? -hearing loss, therefore necessary to speak louder - much repeating -slower movements - hard to take Minutes, generally slower pace -time perspective (short goals as death nears) -memory loss  169 21,  Can you give me an example o f how a recent program or a c t i v i t y was planned? -need studies or surveys of members -goal s e t t i n g -who was involved, and a t what stage o f process? -was written constitution containing Centre's objectives consulted or considered?  22,  What do you think the main r o l e or purpose of the Centre should be? -multiservice Centre, with services and a c t i v i t i e s - a c t i v i t y Centre only - c u l t u r a l - a c t i v i t y Centre - c u l t u r a l - a c t i v i t y - s o c i a l service - s o c i a l club  23,  Has funding f o r the Centre been s u f f i c i e n t f o r i t to meet i t s goals?  24,  What type of members should the Centre t r y to attract? - a l l seniors? -well-elderly? - a l l but the confused? -locals?  2 5 , Are there any groups you would l i k e to see reached by the Centre that i t i s currently not reaching? -males -handicapped -seniors without cars -recluses -institutionalized elderly -ethnic groups  170 26.  Do you f i n d that some people seem to be joiners by nature, and others seem to never get involved? -non-joiners i n programs -committee and volunteer work done by the same few a l l the time -whether problem can be minimized, and whether attempts to minimize i t are worth the e f f o r t .  27.  Do you ever t r y to involve non-members i n the Centre? -children's Easter egg hunt -host luncheon f o r busload of seniors on day t r i p -rummage sale/afternoon tea/public bingo  28.  What do you think would be the outcome i f people of a l l ages were permitted to j o i n the Centre? -younger adults wouldn't j o i n -younger adults would t r y to d i c t a t e to seniors  29.  Do many people i n the community, aside from members, know about the Centre or i t s a c t i v i t i e s ? -mention i n press -volunteers -favourable or non-fabourable attention (e.g. v i s i t s from schools, incidents of discrimination, etc.) -donations  30.  Do you think e f f o r t s should be made to improve community recognition of the Centre? -methods (P.R., open house, j o i n t planning)  171  31.  What do you consider to he the major accomplishments of your Board  !  and the Centre? 32.  What are the main p r i o r i t i e s currently f a c i n g the Board and Centre? -what w i l l be done about them?  33.  Is there anything you would l i k e to add?  Thank you very much.  172  APPENDIX I I I GENERAL MEMBERSHIP INTERVIEW SCHEDULE I would l i k e to begin by asking f o r your ideas about how decisions are made- regarding programs, a c t i v i t i e s , and other matters a t the Centre. 1.  Who decides what a c t i v i t i e s and programs are to take place a t the Centre? -program committee? -the Director? -an outside Department? -the Board?  2.  Do you think i t ' s a good idea to have only Centre members on the Board? -Why? -What are the alternatives?  3.  Do you come to the Centre often?  What things do you do here?  4.  Have you ever considered serving on the Board or Committees?  5.  What are some important q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r a Centre Director to have? -education -social s k i l l s -experience -active i n Centre or community -attitude -understanding of the aging process -leadership  173  What are some of the important q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r Board members to have? -education -experience -attitude -leadership What do you think the duties and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the Board should be?  What do you think the r o l e o f the Director should be?  Who do you think should have the f i n a l say about what goes on a t the Centre, the Board o r the Director? -Why? I f you didn't l i k e a program or a c t i v i t y a t the Centre, could you do anything to get i t changed? -what? (e.g. complain to Director or Board) -have any members done t h i s ? -with what e f f e c t ? Have Board or committee members, or the Director, ever asked your opinion about a program or a c t i v i t y ? - i s this/would t h i s be a good idea? I f there were something you wanted changed a t the Centre, would Board members be approachable?  The Director approachable?  that they would seriously consider your ideas?  Do you think  174 12,  Besides serving on the Board or Committees, are there other ways that members can have a say about what goes on a t the Centre? -examples - suggestion box, opiniona i r e s , newsletters -speak with a c t i v i t y instructors -speak with other members to decide on a group solution  13,  Are there any changes you would l i k e to see i n the Centre, such as new a c t i v i t i e s o r programs?  14,  Are there some older people who may have d i f f i c u l t y getting out to the Centre and might benefit from i t ? - f r a i l elderly -low insome without autos -ethnic -disabled (physically &; mentally) -how could tftey be encouraged?  15,  What do you think would be the consequences o f l e t t i n g younger adults j o i n the Centre?  16,  In your opinion, should people who aren't members be allowed to use the Centre? -does t h i s happen? -attitudes and j u s t i f i c a t i o n s -children, e.g. Easter egg hunt -busloads o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d e l d e r l y  175  17.  Do many people i n the community who aren't members know about the Centre? -elderly - a l l ages -newspaper releases -volunteers -donations (money, goods, services)  18.  What are the main reasons f o r having a Centre? - s o c i a l clubj combat loneliness - a c t i v i t y Centre - c u l t u r a l enrichment -service Centre -community development/social action  19.  What are some of the most important functions which the Centre should be serving now? -e.g. a c t i v i t i e s , services, e t c .  20.  Do you think that the Centre i s doing a good job?  21.  What do you consider to be the main p r i o r i t i e s f a c i n g the Centre?  22.  Is there anything you would l i k e to add?  Thank you.  APPENDIX IV  SENIOR CENTRE ' LOCATION .  BACKGROUND "FACT SHEET" ON THE CASE STUDY CENTRES  411  SILVER HARBOUR  MURDOCH  North Vancouver  Vancouver  OPENING DATE  September,  December,  AGE and TENURE of BUILDING  Building e s p e c i a l l y designed f o r use as Senior Centre. Completed i n 1973. Owned by S i l v e r Harbour Manor Society  Building designed f o r Labour organization i n 1914, Use and maintenance of building provided "cost f r e e " by B.C. Building Management Corp. Major renovations have occurred.  Building constructed i n 1975 f o r Brighouse United Church. Leased by Municipality f o r use as Senior Centre,  ADMINISTRATION  "Autonomous" Administered by S i l v e r Harbour Manor Society (a Non-profit Society composed of Centre members) P o l i c y set by 2 Board of Directors composed of Centre members and community representatives.  "Autonomous" Administered by 411's Nonp r o f i t Society. P o l i c y set by Board 1 c o n s i s t i n g of Centre members and representatives from the Community.  "S emi-Autonomous" Administered by Richmond Municipal Department of Leisure Services. P o l i c y set by the Department,  MAJOR FUNDING SOURCE  Ministry of Human Resources  Ministry of Human Resources  Municipality of Richmond  OPFJBAXING- .GRANT OR DEPT. FUNDING  $85,000. (1979-80)  $107,300. (1979-80)  $35,000, (approximately)  1973  Richmond 1972  October,  1975  (excluding rent)  411  SILVER HARBOUR  SAMPLE OF PROGRAM  Activities-Bingo, c r a f t s , billiards. Special events Trips Hot lunch Services - counselling Comm. Health Nurse, Outreach S o c i a l Action - a f f i l i a t i o n with F.L.C.  MURDOCH  A c t i v i t i e s - cards, sewing  A c t i v i t i e s - Bingo, c r a f t s  Special events  Special events  Trips  Trips  Hot lunch  Services - Tax c l i n i c s Legal advice  Services - counselling, Information, Medical c l i n i c  NUMBER OF PAID STAFF  6 Full-time and 2 Half-time  8 Full-time and 4 Half-time  1 Full-time and 1 Half-time  APPROXIMATE MEMBERSHIP (June, 1980)  2,600  1,600  950  B Y -  LAWS  179  ARTICLE 1 - MEMBERSHIP (a) Membership of the Society s h a l l persons sixty  be those  (60) years of age and over, and any spouse of  such person, who subscribe to the Constitution and By-laws of the Society, and who support the aims and purposes of the Society having paid such Annual Membership dues as s h a l l be determined through Resolutions  passed by a simple majority  at the Annual Meetings of the Society. (b) Honourary Membership s h a l l  be granted to  those persons who have been chosen to serve on the Board of Directors as Community Members, by v i r t u e of t h e i r acts of contribution in community a f f a i r s and professional do not f a l l  l i f e but  into the general d e f i n i t i o n of membership.  ARTICLE 2 - CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH MEMBERSHIP CEASES Members may terminate t h e i r membership by notice in writing to the Secretary.  The Board of Directors may terminate  any membership for just and s u f f i c i e n t cause.  The membership  year in the Society shall be based on the f i s c a l year of the Society, and members shall pay the annual dues on or before the f i r s t day of A p r i l of each year or upon the member j o i n i n g the Society.  A member who has f a i l e d to pay the current annual  membership fee ceases to be a member in good standing. ARTICLE 3 - MEETINGS (a) The Annual General Meeting of the Society s h a l l be held during the month of June, in each and every year, at such time and place as the Board of Directors s h a l l decide and notice of such meeting shall be a v a i l a b l e to the members of the Society, providing not less than fourteen(14) days written notice thereof.  180 (b) shall not  Notice  be a v a i l a b l e  less  than  the  all  all  fourteen  (c) of  to  of  members  (14)  be  shall  of  and G e n e r a l  the  Special  seventy-five  Meetings  Society,  days w r i t t e n  A quorum f o r  Society  Special  notice  and  any  providing  thereof.  General  ( 7 5 ) members  Meeting  1n good  standing. ARTICLE  4 -  OFFICERS  OF THE  The O f f i c e r s following  officers:  ARTICLE  5 -  Meeting,  to  committee,  Board,  three  shall and  prepare  approved  by  Nominating date  of  from the  Board  of  1n t h e  ballots  proxy  ARTICLE  6 -  of  at  nominations  to  stand or  shall  for  state Only  shall not  days  time  willing on  to  the  be  to  the list  of  Nominations Meeting.  present  at  the  willingness  ballet valid  vote.  General  forms  the  General  their  have  the Annual  be  prior  secret  who  the  membership,  be p o s t e d .  in writing those  the  nominations  shall  be e n t i t l e d  be a c c e p t e d by shall  e l e c t e d by  the Annual  be c o n d u c t e d by  A  membership,  which  office  General  be r e c e i v e d by  shall  be a c c e p t e d a t  Meeting.  at  the  membership  Absentee Meeting,  allowed.  BOARD OF DIRECTORS, POWERS AND TERM OF DIRECTORS (a)  operation  shall  Meeting,  Meeting  voting  from the Written  Directors  Vice-President,  Directors.  mernbors, e l e c t e d by  office.  the  Member-at-Large.  Annual  a chairman,  General  Society  shall  of  (14)  wishing  General  the  fourteen  shall  Voting  at  up t o  and w r i t t e n  General  Annual  but  the  floor  stand.  cards  for  1st  of  SOCIETY  Board  candidates  stand  Committee  The members to  of  consist  President,  elect,  on the  Society  shall  Member-at-1arge,  composed o f  to  the Annual  candidates  Annual  (3)  a list  eligible  shall  serve  nominating and  President,  OFFICERS OF THE  Society  Officers  the S o c i e t y  Secretary,  ELECTION The  of  Past  2nd V i c e - P r e s i d e n t ,  SOCIETY  of  Directors,  the  The g e n e r a l  policy  facilities,  shall  consisting  of  of be  thirteen  the in  (13)  Society,  the  hands  members  and of  of  a the  the Board Society.  JLOi  (b) The Board o f D i r e c t o r s s h a l l be c o n s t i t u t e d a n d made up o f s i x ( 6 ) c o m m u n i t y members a n d t h e o f f i c e r s o f t h e S o c i e t y , who s h a l l s e r v e w i t h o u t r e m u n e r a t i o n . (c) A nominating committee o f t h e Board s h a l l p r e p a r e a n d p r o v i d e t h e names o f c a n d i d a t e s f r o m t h e c o m m u n i t y w i l l i n g and e l i g i b l e t o s t a n d f o r Board membership as needed t o c o m p l e t e t h e r e q u i r e d number. T h e s e names s h a l l b e s u b m i t t e d to t h e Board f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n a t t h e next s c h e d u l e d meeting a f t e r the c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e Annual General Meeting. . ( d ) T h e C o m m u n i t y Members o n t h e B o a r d s h a l l s e r v e a t w o (2) y e a r t e r m , o n e - h a l f o f whom s h a l l be e l e c t e d i n t h e e v e n n u m b e r e d y e a r s , a n d o n e - h a l f o f whom s h a l l be e l e c t e d i n t h e odd numbered y e a r s . ( e ) Upon a v a c a n c y o c c u r r i n g o n t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s , t h e B o a r d s h a l l be e m p o w e r e d t o f i l l s u c h v a c a n c y by t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f a n a p p r o p r i a t e p e r s o n who s h a l l s e r v e the unexpired term o f t h e person so r e p l a c e d . ( f ) T h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s , by an a f f i r m a t i v e v o t e o f a t l e a s t t w o t h i r d s o f a l l t h e members t h e r e o f , may remove any D i r e c t o r o r O f f i c e r f r o m t h e S o c i e t y f o r j u s t and s u f f i c i e n t cause. (g) The B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s s h a l l meet n o t l e s s t h a n f o u r ( 4 ) t i m e s a y e a r , s u c h m e e t i n g s t o be h e l d o n t h e c a l l o f t h e Chairman o f t h e Board. A quorum f o r a Board o f D i r e c t o r s m e e t i n g s h a l l be f o r t y ( 4 0 % ) p e r c e n t o f t h e members of the Board. A R T I C L E 7 - BOARD O F F I C E R S AND S O C I E T Y O F F I C E R S At t h e f i r s t s c h e d u l e d Board meeting a f t e r t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e A n n u a l M e e t i n g o f t h e S o c i e t y , t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s s h a l l , by S p e c i a l R e s o l u t i o n , c h o o s e f r o m a m o n g s t t h e i r own m e m b e r s , t h e O f f i c e r s of t h e Board. The O f f i c e r s f o r t h e Board s h a l l c o n s i s t o f a Chairman, Vice-Chairman, S e c r e t a r y , T r e a s u r e r , and the P r e s i d e n t o f t h e S o c i e t y .  182  The President of the Society may, i f selected, hold any position except that of Treasurer.  The Officers of the Board shall constitute the  Executive Committee. ARTICLE 8 - EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR The Board.of Directors may entrust the general management of the business  and a f f a i r s , programs and services  o f the Society to a salaried o f f i c i a l , named the Executive D i r e c t o r , who shall at a l l  be responsible to the Board of Directors  times.  ARTICLE 9 - EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE (a)  The Executive Committee of the Board and  the Executive Director shall  be responsible for implementing  the p o l i c i e s of the Board of D i r e c t o r s . (b)  In the event of a vacancy occurring on the  Executive Committee, then the Board of Directors s h a l l a member from the Board to f i l l of the'unexpired term.  appoint  the vacancy for the balance  ARTICLE 10 - AUDIT OF ACCOUNTS The Auditor shall be selected by the Board of Directors but subject to the approval of a l l membership at the Annual General Meeting.  The Auditor shall carry out an audit  o f the books of the Society annually and present to the Annual General Meeting, a duly c e r t i f i e d f i n a n c i a l ARTICLE 11 - SEAL The Seal of the Society s h a l l  statement.  be 1n the custody  o f the President of the Society or such other person as the Board of Directors may from time to time appoint, and s h a l l only be a f f i x e d to documents by a Resolution of the Board of Directors and in the presence of two (2) of the O f f i c e r s o f the Society.  183  ARTICLE  12 -  BANKING (a)  1n t h e  name o f  financial  A l l funds of the  Society  i n s t i t u t i o n to (b)  time the  banking the  as  all  banking  ARTICLE  be  the  bank  banks  or such  authorize  Clerk or C a s h i e r  Directors  with  the  such  sign  the  Society North  at  Minutes of  the  for  Society's  ARTICLE  14  as  are  Special  at  (14)  the  and p a s s e d  other  offices  to  to  as  daily  banks  or o t h e r  approved  may be  of be  required  shall  of for  (5)  prepare  meetings kept  books at  144  of  i n the  the  Society  custody  and r e c o r d s East  and  22nd  of  the  Street,  be a v a i l a b l e  business  of  days  to  written  offices.  these  the  By-laws s h a l l  by t h r e e - q u a r t e r s  and e n t i t l e d  meeting.  15  all  Society's  Notice of  to  vote  at  (3/4)  be by of  p r o v i d i n g not  less  Special  such  any A n n u a l  p r o p o s e d amendments  membership,  days w r i t t e n n o t i c e  ARTICLE  transact  - ALTERATION OF BY-LAWS  present  available  of  to  Society  proceedings  upon f i v e  Amendments Resolution  or  Directors,  such employee  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and s h a l l  inspection  notification  the  These s h a l l  along with  Vancouver,  members  or  or  to  and e x e c u t e on b e h a l f  documentation  Directors.  Society,  Directors.  may f r o m t i m e  may a p p o i n t ,  s a i d bank  approved  CUSTODY  the  the  Board of  such D i r e c t o r  The S e c r e t a r y o f and o f  by t h e  deposited  purposes.  13 -  maintain  or  Directors  i n s t i t u t i o n , and t o  Society,  daily  the  business  financial  shall  The B o a r d o f  or O f f i c e r s ,  Society  Society  be s e l e c t e d  by R e s o l u t i o n ,  Officer  at  the  members  General  shall than  or  be fourteen  thereof.  - APPOINTMENT OF S P E C I A L , C O M M I T T E E Special  B o a r d and s h a l l  Committees  be d i s c h a r g e d  may be  appointed  upon c o m p l e t i o n  of  by  the  their  tasks.  184  ARTICLE  16 -  POWER TO BORROW The B o a r d o f  D i r e c t o r s m a y , by a S p e c i a l  a d o p t e d by an a f f i r m a t i v e v o t e o f of  all  for of  t h e members  an on b e h a l f the  North  repayment  all  the  Society  and f o r  make, d r a w ,  negotiable  subject  -  FISCAL  1st  ARTICLE  to March  18 -  o p e r a t i o n and  Columbia,  at  and t o  19 -  31st  of  or endorse  secure  the  mortgages  of  or c o l l a t e r a l  and  security  of  each  the S o c i e t y and e v e r y  shall  be  from  year.  the  Society  and o f  the with  Board  of  the C o n s t i t u t i o n be  governed  Rules of Order. REGISTERED OFFICE  Harbour Centre at V a n c o u v e r , i n the  other  addresses  the  22nd  p r o m i s s o r y n o t e s and  or other  be c o n d u c t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e  North of  East  Act.  The R e g i s t e r e d Silver  maintenance  s a i d p r u p o s e s m a y , on b e h a l f  and B y l a w s , and any q u e s t i o n n o t so c o v e r e d s h a l l  ARTICLE  necessary  RULES OF COURT  shall  by R o b e r t ' s  144  (3/4)  YEAR  Meetings Directors  money when  Building  indebtedness  The f i s c a l y e a r o f April  three-quarters  raise  the  instruments, chattel  to the S o c i e t i e s  17  the  accept  instruments creating  ARTICLE  for  Vancouver, B r i t i s h  thereof,  Society,  other  of  least  borrow or  S i l v e r H a r b o u r Manor S o c i e t y  Street, the  thereof,  at  Resolution  Board of  as  144  O f f i c e of East  the  Society  22nd S t r e e t ,  Province of B r i t i s h  shall  i n the  Columbia  may be d e s i g n a t e d and p a s s e d  D i r e c t o r s as made f r o m t i m e t o  be  City or at  the of such  by R e s o l u t i o n time.  188  ARTICLE 5 - PTS~rr_ ?TC;: 07 T  ^n^CCT^v  In t h e event o f winding up o r d i s s o l u t i o n o f ths s o c i e t y , funds and a s s e t s o f the s o c i e t y remaining a f t e r the of  i t s .debts and l i a b i l i t i e s ,  satisfaction  sr.all oe giver, or t r a n s f e r r e d to such  o r g a n i z a t i o n or o r 2 ani z at io r. s conc-jrned witn t h e r a c i a l crcoleias or o r g a n i z a t i o n s promotion the same object of t h i s s o c i e t y , as may  be  determined by the members of the s o c i e t y at the time of win-djng up or d i s s o l u t i o n , and i f e f f e c t cannot be g i v e n to t h e a f o r e s a i d  crovisions,  then such funds s h a l l be given or t r a n s f e r r e d to seme other o r g a n i z a t i o n ; provided that any such organization r e f e r r e d to i n t h i s paragraph  shall  be a c h a r i t a b l e organization, a c h a r i t a b l e corporation, or a c h a r i t a b l e t r u s t recognized by the Department of National Revenue o f Canada as being q u a l i f i e d as such under the p r o v i s i o n s o f the Income Tax Act of Canada from time t o time i n e f f e c t .  ARTICLE  6 - PROVISIONS  UNALTERABLE  » In accordance with the p r o v i s i o n s o f the S o c i e t i e s Act, A r t i c l e s 4 and 5 o f t h i s C o n s t i t u t i o n are u n a l t e r a b l e .  BY LAWS ARTICLE  (a) of  1 - MEMBERSHIP  Membership of the Society s h a l l be those persons S i x t y ( 6 0 ) years  age and over, and any spouse o f such person, who  C o n s t i t u t i o n and By-Laws of the Society, and who  subscribe t o the  support the aims and objects  of the S o c i e t y having paid such annual membership.dues as s h a l l be determined through r e s o l u t i o n s passed by a simple m a j o r i t y at the Annual Meetings of the Society.  Every such member s h a l l have the r i g h t to speak and vote at any  s p e c i a l or general meeting of the Society. (b)  Honorary membership s h a l l be granted to those persons who  have been  chosen to serve on the 3oara of D i r e c t o r s , as Community Members, by v i r t u e  189 o f t h e i r acts of c o n t r i b u t i o n i n community a f f a i r s and p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e but who are not a c t i v e members of the Society and may not f a l l i n t o the general d e f i n i t i o n o f membership.  Such Community Members s h a l l have the  r i g h t t o speak and vote at any and a l l Board and General meetings o f the Society, and t o hold o f f i c e on the Board. (c)  Community Members df the Board to be issued with membership cards  stamped "HONORARY" ARTICLE  2.  Any member may terminate h i s membership by notice i n w r i t i n g to the Secretary.  The Board  o f D i r e c t o r s may terminate any membership f o r  just and s u f f i c i e n t cause, on recommendation of the Operating Committee. Any member who has been suspended may appeal to the Board o f D i r e c t o r s , i n w r i t i n g . The membership year of the Society s h a l l be based on the f i s c a l year o f the Society, and members s h a l l  pay the annual dues on or before  the f i r s t day of A p r i l o f each year, or upon the member j o i n i n g the Society. Any member who f a i l s to pay the annual r a e m u e r s h i D d-ues of the F.ociety when they oecaae due w i l l f o r f e i t a l l r i g n t s a n a p r i v i i i r / j s o f memoersnip i n t h e Society. "ARTIC'3 3 ^"TT'^rS (a)  'The Annual General Meeting o f the Society s h a l l be held at l e a s t once i n  every calendar year and not acre than 15 months a f t e r the adjournment o f the previous  annual meeting, at such time and place as the Board o f D i r e c t o r s  s h a l l decide  and notice of such meeting s h a l l be a v a i l a b l e to the members o f  the Society  by posting such notice i n the Society's premises 21 days before  the meeting and/or s h a l l be p u b l i c i z e d i n a newspaper c i r c u l a t i n g Vancouver area, providing 14 days notice (b)  i n the  thereof.  Notice of . a l l S p e c i a l and General Meetings s h a l l be a v a i l a b l e t o a l l  members of the Society and/or s h a l l be p u b l i c i z e d i n a newspaper  circulating  i n the Vancouver Area, providing 14 days n o t i c e . (c)  A quorum f o r s p e c i a l and any general meeting o f the Society s h a l l be  Sixty Members i n good  standing.  ARTICLE (a)  k  190 e  The Society s h a l l e l e c t , at the Annual General Meeting a Committee to  operate the a c t i v i t i e s of the Centre, and a nominating committee  shall  prepare a l i s t of candidates from the membership, w i l l i n g and e l e g i b l e t o stand f o r o f f i c e .  A d d i t i o n a l nominations may be made from the f l o o r .  The  members wishing to stand f o r o f f i c e s h a l l be present at the Annual General . • Meeting, or s h a l l state, i n writing,- t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to stand. (b) The Operating Committee of the Centre s h a l l c o n s i s t of the following Officers:  -~ , — ., , Past President President Vice-president Secretary Member-at-Large Member-at-Large Member-at-Large  The Operating Committee may  add to t h e i r numbers, cc—ordinators of  Programme a c t i v i t i e s , who w i l l have voice and vote at Operating Committee Meetings, but who (c)  are not e x - o f f i c i o members of the Board o f D i r e c t o r s ,  Upon a vacancy occurring on the Operating Committee, the Operating  Committee s h a l l be empowered to f i l l  such vacancy D y the appointmnet of an  appropriate person, such person s h a l l be w i l l i n g and e l i g i b l e to stand f o r o f f i c e , ARTICLE 5 BQHRD Or  (a)  DIRECTCHS,  POWERS *MD  TERM OF  DIRECTORS  The general p o l i c y of the Society, and the operation of the f a c i l i t i e s ,  shall.be i n the nanus of the Board of D i r e c t o r s , c o n s i s t i n g of F i f t e e n (15; members of the Society. (b)  The Board of D i r e c t o r s s h a l l be'constituted and made up of eight (8)  Community members, and the Seven (7) O f f i c e r s of the Operating Committee. (c)  A nominating c c - n i t t e e of the Board s h a l l prepare and provide a l i s t of  candidates from the Community w i l l i n g and e l i g i b l e to stand f o r Board Membership, and these candidates s h a l l be elected and approved by the Board at a meeting immediately a f t e r the conclusion of the Annual General Meeting,  191 (d)  The Comunity  half of wnc:r. sn;iii (.»)  memcers on tne. Board zho.ll servo * Two  (2) year terni, one-  elected i n the oua r.'_;:.^ered /ears.  Upon a vacancy occur ir.* on thrj Board of D i r e c t o r s , tno Board sh-oll be  empowered to f i l l  cu-ch vacancy by t: o appointment of an appropriate person wno :  s h a l l serve the unexpired term of the person so replaced. (f)  The Board of Directors s n a i l meet net l e s s than Four (u.) times a year,  such meeting to be held on the c a l l of the Chairman of the Board.  A quorum f o r  a Board of Directos Meeting s h a l l be Forty Per Cent (U0%) of the memoers of the Board. (g)  The Board of D i r e c t o r s may  set up standing committees, and may  set up ad  hoc committees when necessary to f u r t h e r the achievement of the o b j e c t i v e s of the (h)  Society.  Ad hoc committees  s h a l l be discharged on completion of t h e i r tasks  No D i r e c t o r s h a l l receive remuneration f o r h i s or her d u t i e s as D i r e c t o r .  ARTICLE  6  BORRO'.miG POV/SRS  The s o c i e t y s h a l l have the power to borrow or r a i s e or secure the payment of money i n such a manner as the society t h i n k s f i t , and without l i m i t i n g the foregoing  the society nay i s s u e debentures or debenture stock, perpetual or  otherwise, charged upon a l l the society's present or future property, and to purchase, redeem or pay o f f any such security; but i n no event s h a l l the society borrow or secure the payment of money, without the sanction of a r e s o l u t i o n of the board of d i r e c t o r s , passed by a three-quarters majority vote o f those present and e n t i t l e d to.vote. ARTICLE  7  BOARD OFFICERS AMD  SOCIETY OFFICERS  *  The Board of D i r e c t o r s s h a l l meet immediately a f t e r the conclusion of the Annual Meeting of the Society, and by S p e c i a l Resolution, s h a l l choose from amongst t h e i r own members, the O f f i c e r s of the Board.  The O f f i c e r s f o r  the Board s h a l l consist of the Chairman, Vice-Chairman, Secretary, Treasurer, and the President of the Operating Committee,, The President of the Operating Committee s h a l l also serve as President o f the Society, the O f f i c e r s o f the Board s h a l l be the Executive of the Society.  192 (a) The secretary s h a l l be responsible f o r the recording, custody and distribution  o f a l l minutes of the general meetings, and a l l minutes of the  meetings of the Board of D i r e c t o r s and Operating society.  The secretary s h a l l also maintain  Committee meetings o f the  a l l other books and records of the  s o c i e t y , save and except those records required, to De kept by the t r e a s u r e r . The  secretary s h a l l - a l s o perform a l l other  board  of directors.  s e c r e t a r i a l d u t i e s assigned by the  The secretary s h a l l maintain  a register of a l l officers  and a l l d i r e c t o r s of the society and s h a l l n o t i f y a l l e l e g i b l e members of a l l meetings of the s o c i e t y . (b)  The treasurer s h a l l be responsible f o r keeping an accurate account o f a l l  monies received and disbursed on behalf o f the s o c i e t y . ARTICLE 8 CS:iTRI5 DIRECTOR  >  The Board of Directors may entrust the general management o f the business and a f f a i r s , programs and services of the Ull Seniors Centre Society to. a s a l a r i e d o f f i c i a l , named trie Centre D i r e c t o r , who s h a l l be responsible to..trie Board of D i r e c t o r s at a l l times.  The Centre D i r e c t o r w i l l h i r e and supervise  such a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f as the board may from time to time authorize.  V.  ARTICLE (a)  ci EXECUTIVE  The Executive  CCi-MITTKE  of the Society s n a i l oe responsible f o r tne Jay - to -d.Ty  management .of tr.e Society, and s h a l l oe responsible f o r i m r l  .1 t i n £ tne c c i i c i e s  of the Board of D i r e c t o r s , (b)  In the event of a vacancy occuring cn tne Executive Committee, tnen the  Executive Committee s h a l l appoint  a memoer from the Board of D i r e c t o r s , to f i l l  the vacancy f o r the balance of the unexpired  term.  ARTICLE 10 AUDIT OF ACCOU-.TS The Auditor s h a l l be selected by the Board o f D i r e c t o r s but subject t o the approval by the membership at the Annual General Meeting.  The auditor s h a l l carry  out an audit of the books of the Society annually and present to the Annual General Meeting a duly c e r t i f i e d f i n a n c i a l •ARTICLE 11  SEAL  statement. '  .•  '  The Seal of the Society s h a l l be i n the custody of the President of the S o c i e t y or such other person as the Board o f D i r e c t o r s may from time t o time  193 appoint, and s h a l l only be a f f i x e d to documents by a Resolution of the Board of ** D i r e c t o r s and i n the presence of Two ARTICLE (a)  12  (2) of the O f f i c e r s of the Society.  BANKING  A l l funds of the S o c i e t y s h a l l be deposited i n the name of the Society at  the bank or banks, or other f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , to be selected by the Board of D i r e c t o r s . (b)  The Board of D i r e c t o r s may from time to time by r e s o l u t i o n authorize such  Director or D i r e c t o r s , Auditor or Auditors, O f f i c e r or O f f i c e r s , Clerk or Cashier or such  employee of the S o c i e t y as the D i r e c t o r s may  appoint to transact i t s  banking business with the said bank or banks, and to sign and execute on behalf of the Society a l l such documentation, security agreements, promises and pledges as aforesaid, and to delegate i n any r e s o l u t i o n of the Society the power hereby conferred upon the D i r e c t o r s . ARTICLE 13 CUSTODY The books and records o f the Society s h a l l be a v a i l a b l e to members f o r i n s p e c t i o n upon ten (10) days w r i t t e n n o t i f i c a t i o n at the Society's o f f i c e s at 411  Dunsmuiir Street, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia.  ARTICLE 14 ALTERATION OF BY-LAWS Amendments to these By-Laws s h a l l be by S p e c i a l Resolution and passed by • 75% (£) of such members as are e n t i t l e d to vote and are present at any general or s p e c i a l meeting.  Notice of proposed amendments s h a l l be a v a i l a b l e t o the member-  ship i n w r i t i n g and/or p u b l i c a t i o n i n a newspaper c i r c u l a t i n g the .  Vancouver  Area, providing not l e s s than Fourteen (14) days n o t i c e . ARTICLE  15  FISCAL  YEAR  The f i s c a l year of the Society s h a l l be from  A p r i l 1st to March 31st of  each and every year. ARTICLE  16  RJ&ISTERED OFFICE  The Registered O f f i c e of the Society s h a l l be at 411 Dunrmuir Street, i n the c i t y of Vancouver, i n the ProvLnce of B r i t i s h Columbia, or at such other addresses as may  be designated and passed by Resolution of the Board of D i r e c t o r s  as made from time to time.  APPENDIX VII "SOCIETIES ACT" MURDOCH SENIOR CITIZEN CENTRE ADVISORY EXECUTIVE BOARD CONSTITUTION  195  OBJECTIVE OF MURDOCH SENIOR CITIZEN CENTRE EXECUTIVE ADVISORY BOARD  ARTICLE I  To promote w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s of a l l o c a t e d resources year round o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s a t i s f y i n g the l e i s u r e needs of s e n i o r a d u l t s i n Richmond over the age of f i f t y - f i v e . As w e l l , t o provide . i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s f o r senior a d u l t s whenever possible. To provide s e t t i n g s i n which members may experience acceptance by o t h e r s , the f e e l i n g s of belonging and r e c o g n i t i o n as i n d i v i d u a l s of p o s i t i v e worth. ARTICLE I I  1) 2)  3) 4) 5)  6)  ARTICLE I I I  1) 2)  GUIDELINE RE:  ELECTIONS  The annual meeting w i l l be held i n September of each year. The purpose of the meeting w i l l be t h r e e f o l d : (a) t o g i v e statements regarding l e i s u r e time s e r v i c e s provided d u r i n g the previous year. (b) t o announce the f i n a n c i a l statement of the previous year. (c) t o conduct the e l e c t i o n s of o f f i c e r s f o r the executive board. The A s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r of Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre w i l l conduct the e l e c t i o n of o f f i c e r s . A l l e l e c t e d o f f i c e r s must be members of Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre. P o s i t i o n s - The a d v i s o r y executive board s h a l l c o n s i s t of e i g h t members. They s h a l l be seven e l e c t e d o f f i c e r s plus the a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r of Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre. The o f f i c e r s of the a d v i s o r y executive board w i l l be: ELECTED: President President Elect Secretary Treasurer S o c i a l Co-Ordinator Programme Co-Ordinator Membership and P u b l i c i t y Co-Ordinator APPOINTED: A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r o f Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre A l l p o s i t i o n s s h a l l be f o r a two year term only except P r e s i d e n t only one year as P r e s i d e n t and one year as Past P r e s i d e n t . MEETINGS The Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre a d v i s o r y e x e c u t i v e board s h a l l meet once per month. A auorum s h a l l c o n s i s t of four members.  PAGE VOTING  TWO  -'  w  The e l e c t i o n of o f f i c e r s a t the annual meeting s h a l l be by s e c r e t b a l l o t . Other v o t i n g may be by show of hands or by b a l l o t at the d i s c r e t i o n of the p r e s i d e n t . In case of amendments t o the g u i d e l i n e s , the v o t i n g whether by show of hands or by b a l l o t , s h a l l be t a b u l a t e d t o ensure a t h r e e f o u r t h s m a j o r i t y as r e q u i r e d under A r t i c l e IX Sec. 1 A s c r u t i n e e r w i l l be appointed by the executive a d v i s o r y board w i t h the a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r : a s s i s t i n g . At monthly meetings, the a s s i s t a n t ' d i r e c t o r s h a l l r e t a i n the determining vote on matters r e l a t e d to the Department of L e i s u r e S e r v i c e s p o l i c y . The p r e s i d e n t s h a l l have the d e c i d i n g vote i n event of a t i e . MEMBERSHIP Membership i n Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre s h a l l be of a dual nature and s h a l l be designated by a p p r o p r i a t e membership cards, namely: (a) A s s o c i a t e Membership: A v a i l a b l e to r e t i r e d c i t i z e n s 55 or over not r e s i d i n g i n Richmond a t $5.00 per annum t h i s i s a non v o t i n g membership p r i v i l e d g e . (b) A c t i v e Membership: A v a i l a b l e to any r e t i r e d c i t i z e n 55 or over of Richmond f o r a membership fee of, $3.00 per annum and renewable of September 1st of each year. Nominees f o r e l e c t i o n to o f f i c e s h a l l be r e s t r i c t e d to a c t i v e members. V o t i n g p r i v i l e d g e s s h a l l be r e s t r i c t e d to A c t i v e members. D e n i a l of membership or revoking a membership i s the d e c i s i o n .of the advisory executive board. A s e r i o u s breach of s o c i a l , e t h i c a l or moral standards could provoke such a c t i o n . Any person from o u t s i d e the M u n i c i p a l i t y of the Township of Richmond may attend Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre as a guest however on or before t h e i r t h i r d v i s i t they must take out a a s s o c i a t e membership. ;  COMMITTEES Committees s h a l l be formed as deemed necessary by the executive a d v i s o r y board and the a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r . Each standing a c t i v i t y committee s h a l l name a c h a i r person who s h a l l r e p o r t to i t on t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y . Such chairpersons s h a l l a l s o prepare and present a w r i t t e n r e p o r t of the A c t i v i t y ' s o p e r a t i o n a t the annual meeting.  PAGE THREE ARTICLE V I I 1)  2)  3)  4)  5  )  ARTICLE V I I I 1)  2)  3)  FINANCIAL ACCOUNTS  The P r e s i d e n t and Treasurer and the A s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r of Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre a d v i s o r y e x e c u t i v e board are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g an account at a f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n . This account s h a l l be a non-personal account i n the name of the Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre executive a d v i s o r y board. Funds c o l l e c t e d and d i s b u r s e d s h a l l be channelled through the Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre records. A ledger f o l i o s h a l l be maintained t o show i t s financial situation. For a l l e s t a b l i s h e d bank accounts there s h a l l be three s i g n i n g o f f i c e r s w i t h a minimum of two s i g n a t u r e s r e q u i r e d to v a l i d a t e a cheque one a t a l l times must be the a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r . The e x e c u t i v e a d v i s o r y board i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o ensure t h a t a l l acounting books are kept up t o date. These books are open t o i n s p e c t i o n and f i n a n c i a l statements s h a l l be presented monthly a t an e x e c u t i v e a d v i s o r y board meeting. Once a year, accounting books w i l l be s u b j e c t to a u d i t by an o u t s i d e source. ORGANIZATIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre i s a p r i v a t e b u i l d i n g leased by the Corporation of the Township of Richmond f o r use of members of the Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre and t h e r e f o r e must comply w i t h p o l i c i e s of the C o r p o r a t i o n of the Township of Richmond. Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre i s a l l o c a t e d on a annual budget covering a d m i n i s t r a t i o n maintenance and programme s u p p l i e s . .' The A s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o the Department of L e i s u r e S e r v i c e s a d m i n i s t r a t o r f o r a l l d e c i s i o n s regarding the expenditure of the budget. AMENDMENT OF  ARTICLE IX 1)  2)  197  GUIDELINES  The g u i d e l i n e s may be ammended by a r e s o l u t i o n passed by a t h r e e - f o u r t h s m a j o r i t y of the members present at a annual meeting. A n o t i c e of motion w i l l be posted a t Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre t h i r t y (30) days p r i o r to the annual meeting.  PAGE FOUR JOB DESCRIPTION MURDOCH SENIOR CITIZEN CENTRE  .198  PRESIDENT 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)  Be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r and c h a i r monthly executive advisory board meetings Work w i t h a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r to assure t h a t a l l other executives are f u n c t i o n i n g according t o their positions. Work w i t h a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r t o oversee a l l f u n c t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s during the year. Act as or designate a welcoming person at a l l functions. See t h a t a l l new members are made welcome and become i n v o l v e d i n a c t i v i t i e s . In co-operation w i t h a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r appoint committies f o r s p e c i a l events.  VICE-PRESIDENT 1) 2) 3)  Be prepared to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of p r e s i d e n t pro term i n the p r e s i d e n t s absence. To a s s i s t p r e s i d e n t i n a l l h i s / h e r f u n c t i o n s Work w i t h a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r i n fund r a i s i n g events - a l l s p e c i a l community events and activities.  SECRETARY 1) 2)  3) 4)  Draw up agenda of monthly executive a d v i s o r y board meetings. To read, take and post on b u l l e t i n board the minutes of the monthly board meetings, through a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r provide Department of L e i s u r e S e r v i c e s w i t h copy of the minutes. To see t h a t board members are n o t i f i e d of upcoming meetings. Prepare an agenda and co-ordinate annual general election.  TREASURER 1) 2) 3) 4)  Keep accurate accounting records of the Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre books. To present f i n a n c i a l records at monthly board meetings. Work w i t h the a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r i n p r e p a r a t i o n of •annual f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t f o r the annual general meeting. Work w i t h a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r to prepare an annual budget f o r the Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre.  199  MEMBERSHIP" and PUBLICITY. CO-ORDINATOR 1) 2) 3) 4)  To ensure t h a t annual membership cards and badges and a l l new members a r e r e g i s t e r e d . To make q u a r t e r l y attendance checks f o r m i s s i n g members. To s t i m u l a t e membership worth To work w i t h a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r i n the a s s i s t i n g of p u b l i c i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s and events i n l o c a l news agencies.  SOCIAL CO-ORDINATOR 1) 2) 3) 4)  To work w i t h a s s i s t a n t s o c i a l events. To a s s i s t w i t h monthly To acknowledge i l l n e s s To handle d a i l y c o f f e e  d i r e c t o r a t a l l Centre birthday parties. and deaths of members and t e a r o s t e r .  PROGRAMME CO-ORDINATOR 1) 2) 3) 4)  A s s i s t i n f i n d i n g resources f o r Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre, p r e f e r r a b l y members themselves t o l e a d o r i n s t r u c t programmes. A c t as a l i a s o n t o the board on programme o p p o r t u n i t i e s and new i d e a s . Encourage involvement and attendance of a l l s e n i o r a d u l t s i n Richmond A c t as a sounding person f o r suggested ideas and new programmes from the membership and the assistant director.  MURDOCH. SENIOR CITIZEN CENTRE ADVISORY EXECUTIVE BOARD OPERATIONAL GUIDELINES  200  OBJECT OF THE CENTRE To promote w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s ; of a l l o c a t e d resources year round, o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s a t i s f y i n g the l e i s u r e needs of s e n i o r a d u l t s i n t h i s community over tha age. of 55. As w a l l , t o provide i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s f o r s e n i o r a d u l t s whenever possible. To provide s e t t i n g s i n which members may experience acceptance by o t h e r s , t h e f e e l i n g o f belonging and r e c o g n i t i o n as i n d i v i d u a l s o f p o s i t i v e worth. ADMINISTRATION Murdoch Centre i s leased by the Corporation of t h e Township of Richmond and must comply w i t h the p o l i c of t h e Richmond Department o f L e i s u r e S e r v i c e s . Budget Murdoch Centre has a annual budget c o v e r i n g : a d v e r t i s i n g , power, heat, telephone, water, maintenance and general centre s u p p l i e s , a d m i n i s t a t i o n s a l a r i e s and b e n e f i t s and major . . capital supplies. f•  The a d v i s o r y executive board w i l l be c r e d i t e d w i t h funds from the f o l l o w i n g sources: 1) 2) . 3) 4) 5)  1) 2) 3)  Annual member-ship dues Programme fees S p e c i a l event programme p r o f i t s Fund r a i s i n g events And any other mis^eellanious revenue d i r e c t e d f o r use of Senior C i t i z e n s i n Murdoch Centre. . The a d v i s o r y executive board w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the f o l l o w i n g types of expenses:  I n s t r u c t o r fees f o r programmes Expenses i n c u r r e d f o r s p e c i a l events and f u n c t i o n s Necessary c a s u a l help as deemed necessary by the assistant director 4) To make - donations or c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o appropriate . requests. 5) To i s s u e honourariums and a l l o c a t e funds i n r e c o g n i t i o n t o v o l u n t e e r s and other c o n t r i b u t o r s of Murdoch Centre. 6) To purchase any c a p i t a l expenditures that do not f a l l w i t h i n the m u n i c i p a l budget (and purchase of those items t h a t the m u n i c i p a l i t y do not have funds f o r a t the needed time) 7) To purchase necessary s u p p l i e s expendable items -  PAGE OPERATION  TWO  201 Authority The a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r w i l l be the l i a i s o n w i t h the e x e c u t i v e a d v i s o r y board and the Richmond Department of L e i s u r e S e r v i c e s . The e x e c u t i v e a d v i s o r y board work c o - o p e r a t i v e l y w i t h the a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r to make d e c i s i o n s about the o p e r a t i o n and programmes at Murdoch • Centre. However, the a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r i n accordance to her r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s - has the r i g h t to veto any d e c i s i o n s t h a t are not i n agreement w i t h the C o r p o r a t i o n of the Township of Richmond, Department of L e i s u r e S e r v i c e s . The a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r w i l l a d m i n i s t r a t e budget funds and e x e r c i s e s u p e r v i s o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s for a l l f a c i l i t y a c t i v i t i e s , s t a f f and v o l u n t e e r s , and s e c u r i t y of premises and revenue.  EXECUTIVE ADVISORY BOARD The board i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' group of s e n i o r a d u l t s t o v o l u n t a r i l y a s s i s t and a d v i s e the • a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r regarding programme d i r e c t i o n , f o r Murdoch Centre. ' • Terms of Reference (a)  A s s i s t i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and assessment of the needs and d e s i r e s of s e n i o r a d u l t s (b) Act as a sounding board f o r suggested i d e a s and new programme from the membership and the assistant director (c) Make recommendations r e l a t i v e to programme developm (d) Promote Murdoch Centre's programme throughout the community and develop support f o r the Centre. (e) Encourage involvement and attendance of a l l • s e n i o r a d u l t s i n Richmond. (f) A s s i s t i n f i n d i n g resources f o r Murdoch Centre, p r e f e r a b l y from members themselves t o l e a d or i n s t r a c t programmes and' a i d i n the f u n c t i o n i n g of the Centre and recomend these t o the a s s i s t a n t director (g) Report back concerns and c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre members to the a s s i s t a n t director for action. MEETING AND  VOTING The executive a d v i s o r y board s h a l l p r e f e r a b l y meet once per month on a r e g u l a r b a s i s , t h i s however, i s at the boards d i s c r e t i o n . The a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r may c a l l a board meeting at anytime urgent business a r i s e . General meetings w i l l be h e l d i n September o each calendar year. Each a c t i v e member i n good standing s h a l l have one vote.  

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