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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Member participation : encouraging and discouraging factors in senior centre planning Foster, John 1980

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M E M B E R P A R T I C I P A T I O N : E N C O U R A G I N G A N D D I S C O U R A G I N G F A C T O R S I N S E N I O R C E N T R E P L A N N I N G by J O H N F O S T E R B . A . , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1977 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S i n T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S S c h o o l o f C o m m u n i t y a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g W e a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A O c t o b e r 1980 ( c ) J o h n C h r i s t o p h e r F o s t e r , 1980 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Ce>/?iMM4//Ty j&//> j?££/ai6?i f&/tov6& The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date /9SA DE-6 (2/79) i i ABSTRACT A Senior Centre serves as a community focal point on aging where older adults, either individually or i n groups, come together f o r f various services and a c t i v i t i e s . Most early Senior Centres were i n i t i -ated, planned, and administered by bodies such as Recreation Departments or welfare agencies as a means of meeting the identified needs of a community's older citizens. In recent years, however, older people have become increasingly vocal i n identifying their own needs and have come to play a more active role in the planning and administration of their Senior Centres. The literature provides l i t t l e information for those interested i n the changes that have taken place in the planning and administration of Senior Centres. I t focuses mainly on what i s planned (programs) rather than how planning i s conducted (process) or who participates i n the process. This thesis i s exploratory i n nature, seeking both to make an i n i t i a l attempt at f i l l i n g the gap that exists i n the literature and to provide assistance to those engaged in planning at Senior Centres. The thesis begins with a background chapter, which provides an overview of the history and present situations of the Senior Centre movements i n the United States and Canada. I t then b r i e f l y reviews the relevant literature i n an effort to answer three questions: 1) What i s involved i n the planning process at Senior Centres? 2) Why should a Senior Centre's members have the opportunity to become involved i n the process? 3) In what planning areas should members be involved? i i i On the assumption that Centre members should have the opportunity to become involved i n their Centre's planning process, the main body of the thesis seeks to discover what opportunities exist for their involvement and to determine the factors that encourage members to become involved. The research i s "based upon case studies of three Senior Centres in the Greater Vancouver areas Silver Harbour Centre i n North Vancouver, 411 Centre i n Vancouver, and Murdoch Centre i n Richmond. The data for the case studies i s provided by Centre documents, personal observations, casual conversations, and open-ended interviews. The interviews were conducted with three groups involved i n or affected by, planning at the Senior Centres: Executive Directors, Board members, and general members. Chapter 4 provides background on the three Centres. I t reveals the distinct histories, programs, physical environments and administrative structures of the Centres and underscores the fact that no one planning model would be appropriate for a l l three Centres. Chapter 5 analyses the "structural" opportunities that each Centre provides for i t s members to become involved i n planning. Two distinct planning models emerge from the analysist the predom-inantly member-planned (autonomous) model, as represented by the Silver Harbour and 411 Centres, and the mainly agencjsp-planned (semi-autonomous) model found at Murdoch. The "autonomous" Centres provide the greatest opportunities, as their members exercise control over policy, budget, program, staffing, and building matters. Members of the semi-autonomous Centre exercise less control, as they act only i n an advisory capacity. In Chapter 6, the factors which potentially encourage or discour-age members' involvement i n planning are identified. Their identification i v emerges from a post facto analysis of the case study data. The factors are separated into four categories for analysis: l ) administrative structures, 2) characteristics of planning members (Board and Committee members), 3) characteristics of Centre Directors and staff, and 4) buildings. The most encouraging factors for members' involvement i n planning appeared to be a relatively autonomous administrative struc-ture, s k i l l e d and experienced Board and Committee members, Directors, and staff, a building owned by members and designed for use as a Centre, and an adequate level of junding and staffing. The conclusions of the research which are presented i n Chapter 7, stem from the analysis of factors which encourage or discourage members' involvement in a Senior Centre's planning. The main conclusion i s that, generally speaking, i f the factors identified i n Chapter 6 are i n place, a Senior Centre should be more successful i n encouraging members to become involved i n i t s planning. However, three problematic aspects of establishing an "encouraging" planning framework were identified and explored. The f i r s t two were some planning members' apparent lack of understanding of the planning process and a possible lack of continuity in the planning network (i . e . high staff turnover and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n recruiting new members to assume planning roles). The conclusion drawn was that the provision of training sessions, which focus on aspects of the planning process and on "human" s k i l l s , such as,communi-cations, leadership, and how to motivate others, could result i n staff and members becoming more adept at planning and encouraging other mem-bers to become involved i n the process. The third problematic aspect identified related to the somewhat surprising finding that an optimum level of resources (funding and V staffing) appears to exist, "below or above which factors discouraging to members' involvement i n planning set i n . The thesis concluded that I f this optimum level could be ascertained, i t would result in signigicant benefits to the members, staff, and administrative and funding bodies of Senior Centres. An ascertainable optimum level would provide a basis for governments and other funding bodies to determine a more equitable allocation of resources amongst Centres. And i f acted upon, i t would encourage the maximum involvement of members i n their Centre's planning process. In closing the thesis, the implications that the research has for other planning groups and for society as a whole are discussed and a number of questions which might be pursued by other researchers are presented. v i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES ix ACKNOWLEDGMENT x CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION 1 RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND OBJECTIVES 8 STATEMENT ON RESEARCH METHODS 1 0 ORGANIZATION OF STUDY 1 1 CHAPTER TWO - HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND THEORETICAL LITERATURE REVIEW 1 3 HISTORICAL FRAMEWORK . 1 3 United States 1 3 Canada 1 6 THEORETICAL LITERATURE REVIEW 18 F i r s t Assumption . . . . . . . . . 22 Second Assumption 27 SUMMARY 28 CHAPTER THREE - METHODOLOGY, 3 0 RESEARCH SETTING 3 0 METHODS 3 0 SAMPLE 3 1 INTERVIEW SCHEDULES 3 3 ANALYSIS 3 6 SUMMARY 3 8 CHAPTER FOUR - CASE STUDIES 3 9 v i i Page SILVER HARBOUR CENTRE 39 Historical Overview 39 Building and Physical Environment 40 Membership and Social Environment 42 Purpose and Program . . . . . . . . 43 Administration 44 411 SENIOR CENTRE 4? Historical Overview 4? Building and Physical Environment 48 Membership and Social Environment . . . . . . . 51 Purpose and Program . . . . . . . . 53 Administration . . . . . . * . 55 MURDOCH CENTRE 58 Historical Overview . . . . . 58 Building and Physical Environment 60 Membership and Social Environment 63 Purpose and Program 65 Administration 67 SUMMARY 69 CHAPTER FIVE - STRUCTURAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR MEMBERS TO BECOME INVOLVED IN THE PLANNING PROCESS AT THREE CENTRES 70 MEMBER-PLANNED MODEL 70 AGENCY-PLANNED MODEL ?4 CHAPTER SIX - ENCOURAGING AND DISCOURAGING FACTORS FOR MEMBER PARTICIPATION IN A SENIOR CENTRE'S PLANNING PROCESS 76 ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE 82 Two Models 82 Funding Level 94 Staffing 99 CHARACTERISTICS OF "PLANNING" MEMBERS 101 S k i l l s and Experience 101 Personality and Attitudes 105 CHARACTERISTICS OF DIRECTORS 113 S k i l l s and Experience 114 Personality and Attitudes . . . . . 117 v i i i Page BUILDING 125 Program Planning , . 126 F a c i l i t y Planning 131 SUMMARY 135 CHAPTER SEVEN - CONCLUSION 136 CONCLUSIONS 136 IMPLICATIONS 143 FUTURE RESEARCH 148 BIBLIOGRAPHY 150 APPENDIXES I DIRECTOR *-S INTERVIEW SCHEDULE I57 II BOARD MEMBER INTERVIEW SCHEDULE I65 III GENERAL MEMBERSHIP INTERVIEW SCHEDULE . . . . 172 IV BACKGROUND "FACT SHEET" ON THE CASE STUDY CENTRES I76 V SILVER HARBOUR MANOR SOCIETY CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS 178 VI 411 SENIORS CENTRE SOCIETY CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS 186 VII MURDOCH SENIOR CITIZEN CENTRE ADVISORY EXECUTIVE BOARD CONSTITUTION (GUIDELINES) . . 195 VIII MURDOCH SENIOR CITIZEN CENTRE ADVISORY EXECUTIVE BOARD OPERATIONAL GUIDELINES . . . 200 ix LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Structural Opportunities for Members to Become Involved i n Their Planning Process at Three Senior Centres 71 2. Conceptual Model For Encouraging and Discouraging Factors For Members' Involvement i n Planning . . . . . 80 X A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k m y a d v i s o r s , P r o f e s s o r s P . B o o t h r o y d a n d M , H i l l f o r t h e i r a d v i c e a n d c o n t i n u e d s u p p o r t t h r o u g h o u t t h e w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k t h e E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r s , S t a f f , a n d m e m b e r s o f t h e S i l v e r H a r b o u r , 4 1 1 , a n d M u r d o c h C e n t r e s f o r t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h e f f o r t . T h e y g a v e g e n e r o u s l y o f t h e i r t i m e a n d i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d t h u s m a d e t h i s t h e s i s p o s s i b l e . I a l s o w i s h t o e x p r e s s m y g r a t i t u d e t o M r s . M . M c G a r r y f o r t h e m a n y h o u r s s h e s p e n t i n t y p i n g t h i s t h e s i s . Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Although a variety of d e f i n i t i o n s of Senior Centres have "been pro-posed over the past t h i r t y years, none have gained universal acceptance. The f i r s t widely quoted d e f i n i t i o n appeared i n 1959s The Senior Centre may be a single purpose (e.g. a rec-reation, education, drop-in, or information and r e f e r -r a l centre) or multi-purpose agency ( i . e . a centre which offers more than one service and stresses the maintenance or enhancement of the older person's phys-i c a l , s o c i a l and emotional well-being) established as a r e s u l t of community planning based on the unmet needs of older people i n any given community, The basic purpose of such centres i s to provide older people with s o c i a l l y enriching experiences which would help preserve t h e i r d i gnity as human beings and enhance t h e i r feelings of self-worth (Maxwell, 1962, P. 7). One of the most complete d e f i n i t i o n s of a Senior Centre was pre-sented by a leading figure i n the Senior Centre movement i n the United Statess A Senior Centre i s a f a c i l i t y f o r older adults, well staffed, housed, and financed which enjoys broad community support; which i s r e a d i l y accessible to the older people i n the community and which i s open often enough to f u l f i l l i t s objectives: which offers a wide-ranging program of a c t i v i t i e s and services de-signed with a knowledge and understanding of the i n t -erests, needs and desires of the older people of i t s community; and, which provides f o r the r e a l involve-ment and p a r t i c i p a t i o n of i t s members i n the planning, conducting, and evaluation of i t s program and i n the determination of i t s p o l i c i e s and goals (Monro, 1972, p. 26). The increase i n the number and popularity of Senior Centres has been phenomenal. Since the introduction of the f i r s t Senior Centre i n 1 2 1943, o v e r 5,000 S e n i o r C e n t r e s h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h o u t N o r t h A m e r i c a ( D e m k o , 1979). S e n i o r C e n t r e s c a m e i n t o b e i n g a s s o c i e t y g r a d -u a l l y b e g a n t o r e a l i z e t h a t i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r s o f o l d e r p e o p l e w e r e l o n e l y a n d l i v i n g o u t t h e i r l i v e s i n f e a r o f b e i n g u n a b l e t o a e e t t h e i r e c o n o m i c a n d h e a l t h n e e d s u n a s s i s t e d . S e n i o r C e n t r e s w e r e r e g a r d e d a s " a m e a n s b y w h i c h s o c i e t y c o u l d r e c o g n i z e t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s m a d e b y o l d e r p e o p l e , a n d a n i n n o v a t i v e w a y i n w h i c h ( s o c i e t y c o u l d ) f u l f i l l i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o g i v e d i g n i t y a n d m e a n i n g t o t h e l a t e r y e a r s o f o l d e r a d u l t s " ( M o n r o , 1972, p . 27). S o m e w r i t e r s c o n t e n d t h a t i n t i m e , S e n i o r C e n t r e s " m a y c o m e t o h o l d a p l a c e i n t h e o l d e r p e r s o n ' s l i f e e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e r o l e n o w p l a y e d b y t h e s c h o o l i n t h e l i v e s o f . . . c h i l d r e n " ( C u l l a n d H a r d y , 1975, p . 10). T h e r e a r e n o w a n e s t i m a t e d 2.1 m i l l i o n p e o p l e a g e d s i x t y - f i v e y e a r s a n d o v e r i n C a n a d a , a n d t h i s f i g u r e i s e x p e c t e d t o r i s e t o 3»4 m i l l i o n b y 2001 ( S e n a t e o f C a n a d a , C r o l l C o m m i s s i o n , 1979). N o t o n l y w i l l t h e n u m b e r o f o l d e r c i t i z e n s i n c r e a s e , b u t t h e i r l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s w i l l r i s e a s w e l l . I f , S e n i o r C e n t r e s a r e a s c r u c i a l a s s o m e o b s e r v e r s b e l i e v e , m o r e C e n t r e s w i l l b e n e e d e d t o s e r v e t h e g r o w i n g s e n i o r a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n . I n d e e d , t h e " t r e n d t o w a r d s e x p a n s i o n o f S e n i o r C e n t r e s m a y c o n t i n u e t o g a i n m o m e n t u m , f o r i t m a y b e a n e x p e d i e n t w a y ( f o r s o c i e t y ) t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t s o m e t h i n g t a n g i b l e i s b e i n g d o n e f o r t h e a g e d " ( E s t e s , 1979, p . 134). D e s p i t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f S e n i o r C e n t r e s , l i t e r a t u r e o n t h e C e n t r e s i s s p a r s e . A s M c l n t y r e (1979) o b s e r v e s , t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t d o e s e x i s t c a n b a s i c a l l y b e d i v i d e d i n t o t w o g r o u p s . T h e f i r s t g r o u p c o n s i s t s o f b o o k s , m a n u a l s , c o n f e r e n c e p r o c e e d i n g s , a n d o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s b y s u c h 3 organizations as the U.S. National Council on the Aging (NCOA) and the Canadian Council on Social Development (CCSD), These publications are aimed at professionals working i n Senior Centres and they cover most fac-ets of Centre operation. The second group consists of research studies and articles which for the most part appear i n gerontological and socio-logical journals. These writings are addressed both to an academic audience and persons who are actively associated with older adults. The implicit questions asked i n both bodies of literature are "What are the needs of the elderly?" and "How can the Senior Centre best meet these needs?" Either directly or indirectly, the focus of the literature i s on the Centre's program. For example, a number of studies have com-pared the characteristics of users and non-users of Senior Centres i n order to identify ways i n which more senior may be persuaded to join the Centres (Trela and Simmons, 1971? Trela, 1971; Carp, 1976; Toseland and Sykes, 1977; Demko, 1979). With few exceptions, the means identified involve the introduction of new programs, such as recreational a c t i v i t i e s or information and referral, outreach, or health services. The type of study $ast described yields valuable information about Senior Centre clientele and can serve as a useful guide for programming; however, i t does not meet the most urgent needs of Senior Centre Directors or others who plan at the Centres, Planners need an understanding of how to plan before they consider what to plan. Or to paraphrase Harris, we have a great need of a science of planning i n order to determine what i s science i n planning (Harris, 1967)• 4 I "believe that there are three essential reasons for studying the planning process at Senior Centres. F i r s t , efforts to attain a better understanding of the planning process should lead to more effective practice. Until the mid 1960's theories of planning generally followed a linear model, conceiving of plans as a system of blueprints for a desired future state. In their simplest form, these theories presented planning as involving a survey, to gather information, an analysis, to interpret the information, and a pJLan, or strategy to act upon the infor-mation (Hall, 1 9 7 5 i P« 1 2 ) . These theories also tended to follow a rational decision making model, which separated the means and ends of planning and postulated that an ideal or "optimum" end could be achieved. However, as Friedmann and Hudson point out, there are three major flaws i n such simple conceptualizations of realitys 1 ) Kridwledgg - they assume that decisions precede action, when i n fact i t i s often impossible to obtain the information needed for making decisions u n t i l after a decision i s made, 2) Equity - they assume that the "rational" decision w i l l be equitable; however, economists have presented elegant proofs which reveal that an equitable calculatiofmof trade-offs amongst various alternatives (a "community welfare function") cannot be logically derived, and 3 ) Coordination - they assume that a plan w i l l be implemented with a minimum of d i f f i c u l t y , ignoring the problem of coordinating the various groups offactors who w i l l be called upon to put the plan into effect (Friedmann and Hudson, 1 9 7 4 , pp. 7 - 9 ) . 5 As will be explained in Chapter 2, a "new wave" of planning theory/ has emerged as a reaction to the simplistic assumptions of the rationalist school. In a parallel fashion, a "new wave" of Senior Centre planning approaches have been suggested as alternatives to the approaches of the f i r s t Centre practitioners. Senior Centres are smaller and less complex than the social organizations dealt with in most planning theory l i t e r -ature; however, they are dynamic and complex just the same. Senior Centre Directors have been urged "to see the Centre as a process which involves the interaction of people, purpose, and program — a process which trans-lates goals, philosophy, and resources into action" (Monro, 1972, p. 27). The rationale of studying planning theory is the belief that the more that is understood of the process, the greater will be the improvements that can be made in i t . Understanding should thus lead to more effective planning and more successful Senior Centres. The second reason for studying the planning process at Senior Centres is the changing role that Centre members have played in the process over the years. When the earliest Centres began, social welfare agencies, church and community groups, or recreation departments often did the planning, determining what the older adults needed and introducing what they considered to be appropriate programs for meeting these needs. While these bodies generally sought some input from Centre members, they often did so in a patronising manner. Over the years, older adults have come to show resentment of the younger "providers" and to demand a greater voice in the planning of their own affairs. The emerging viewpoint of many older adults is well expressed in a recent publication for B.C. Seniors: "Why do the professionals and bureaucrats bug us?,,.They seem 6 to decide what's good for us as i f we are children...They make l i f e d i f -f i c u l t for us with their complicated forms, terrible printing goody-good pamphlets, and phone—here, phone—there to get help. They don't ask us what we think" (The Elder Statesman, February, 1980). Many older people hold the view that Senior Centres, and other organizations or programs which affect their lives, should be planned "for seniors, by seniors." As w i l l be revealed i n Chapter two and i n the case studies, seniors can and do play a variety of roles i n the planning proc-ess at Senior Centres. They can be active and become involved at a varir-ety of levels throughout a l l stages offa Centre's development: from the in i t i a t i o n , when they select a site, hire an architect, and seek community and government finances for building the f a c i l i t y ; to the ongoing oper-ation of the Centre, when they may serve on the Board or committees, vote for members to represent them on the Board or committees, or make sug-gestions to staff or board members about changes they would like to see introduced i n their Centre. The third reason for studying the planning process at Senior Centres i s the changing role that Senior Centre Directors and other "professional" Senior Centre planners have come to play. As recently as 1972, the Coord-inator of the f i r s t Training Institute for Directors of Senior Centres i n Canada admitted "some Directors may...view themselves as persons respon-sible for planning a schedule of ac t i v i t i e s , with or without the involvement of members, to help accomplish this purpose" (Wilson, 1972, p. i x ) . In light of the preceding arguments, such an approach appears doomed to failu r e . 7 One of the leading figures in thedevelopment of Senior Centres in the United States argued that while the Centre is the "agency through which opportunities, services, and programs are offered, the true reali-zation of partnership in action represents the dynamic means through which purpose is accomplished" (Monro, 1972, p. 28). The philosophic approach that he favours i s Firstly, that (the Centre professional's role is not to do for people "but rather to work with people for the achievement of common objectives; secondly, a belief that senior citizens,..are individuals, adults. and people: thirdly, a commitment to the right of people to be part of the decision making process in matters in which they have a vital interest. In short, let's stop being patronizing to older adults — which only reinforces their feelings of incompetence and powerlessness — and let's start trusting them and expecting them to be competent, concerned, and creative (Monro, 1972, pp. 28-29). The preceding arguments for studying the planning process at Senior Centres reveal that the effort would not only be of interest to an academic audience, but would also have important practical implications for Senior Centre Directors, staff board and committee members, general members, and others involved in the planning process at a Centre. In order for these various groups to achieve the most effective planning process, they require an understanding of how the planning process at the Centre works, advantages and disadvantages of involving members in the process, how they can encourage members to become involved in the proc-ess, and how they can assist members to contribute more effectively. 8 RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND OBJECTIVES The thesis involves case studies, which examine the planning process at three Senior Centres in the lower mainland: the Silver Harbour Centre in North Vancouver, the 411 Centre in Vancouver, and Murdoch Centre in Richmond. Before presenting the case studies, an attempt is made to define what is involved in the planning process at Senior Centres. Also, two assump-tions for the research are presented and substantiated: l) members should have the opportunity to become involved in their Senior Centre's planning process, and 2) no easy formula exists for determining the "appropriate" extent and nature of members' involvement in a Centre's planning process. The literature from a variety of fields, including Senior Centre publi-cations, planning theory, gerontology, and citizen participation is used in this section on definitions and assumptions. Next, the thesis turns to the case studies. The case studies rely upon newsletters and other Centre documents, personal observations, and interviews with Centre Directors, board members, and general members to seek answers for the following questions: 1) What "structural" opportunities exist for members to become involved in the planning process at the selected Centres? 2) What are the factors which encourage or discourage members in becoming involved in their Centre's planning process? The main objective of this thesis is to make an i n i t i a l attempt to f i l l the gap that exists in research on Senior Centres, choosing not to focus on the outcome of a Centre's planning (i.e. programs or services), but rather to consider the process of its planning (i.e. how the 9 outcomes are achieved). In particular, the thesis considers the role that Senior Centre members play i n the planning processes of the Centres. Rather than viewing how seniors can be planned for, i t seeks to determine how seniors can be encouraged to plan for themselves. The study i s - - . exploratory, and as i t does not involve formal tests of hypotheses, i t s findings and conclusions are suggestive, rather than definitive. The test of any studyslultimately must be the u t i l i t y and r e p l i c a b i l i t y of i t s findings. Efforts are made i n this thesis to f a c i l i t a t e future research by suggesting relevant questions and interesting avenues of investigation. As indicated earlier, the thesis should also serve as a resource for Centre Directors, members, and others who are involved i n , or are inter-ested in, the planning process at Senior Centres. Much research on the elderly has been c r i t i c i z e d for i t s failure to contribute to improving the well-being of older adults. One gerontologist commented that research "can all-too-easily find ( i t s e l f ) preoccupied with 'counting the wrinkles of old age' while the really crucial issues remain unat-tended" (in Schwartz and Proppe, 1970, p. 228). This study aims to avoid this tendency by focusing on the achievements of older adults i n the planning of their Senior Centres. I f successful, i t could stimulate a dialogue between members and staff from various Centres who .wish to learn how their counterparts at other Centres conduct their planning. It should also be of interest to planners or other individuals who are, or w i l l be, planning with the elderly. 10 STATEMENT ON RESEARCH METHODS As mentioned in the preceding section, the study i s exploratory. The distinguishing features of exploratory studies are that they contain no formal hypotheses and they are usually performed on subjects about which l i t t l e i s previously known (Bailey, 1978). The reason I chose to employ an exploratory research design i s that no empirical studies of the planning process at Senior Centres have, to my knowledge, been con-ducted. By following this approach, I sought to generate hypotheses rather; than s c i e n t i f i c a l l y test them. I concur with other researchers: "elaborate hypotheses developed out of sketchy information can quickly become a Procrustean bed into which the researcher forces his findings no matter how i l l they f i t " (Needleman and Needleman, 1974, p. 6) . A lucid defence of the exploratory study i s contained in a recent study of community planning i n the United States (Needleman and Needleman, 1974). The authors argue that u n t i l recently, the exploratory study was widely regarded as Inferior research, "an informal and sloppy preliminary stage of investigation, interesting because i t paves the way for "real' research on previously unfamiliar subjects (needleman, 1974, p. 5). However, the authors point out that a number of explor-atory studies have gained wide recognition as classics i n the Social Sciences, giving the f i e l d some of i t s more useful concepts and theories. This thesis contains a number of limitations common to other explor-atory studies, most notably that the conduct of the interviews and presen-tation of the results are open to manipulation, and that i t s findings cannot be generalized to a l l Centre Directors and members i n a l l Senior 11 Centres. However, i n Chapter 3, I present an argument which attempts to show that the advantages of the chosen research method far outweigh i t s disadvantages. ORGANIZATION OF STUDY This thesis opens in Chapter 2 with a discussion of the history of Senior Centres in the United States and Canada. I t continues with a theoretical literature review which lends support to the previously stated definitions and assumptions of the research and serves to identify the "state of the art" i n literature for Senior Centre practitioners. Chapter 3 b r i e f l y discusses the reasons for the selection of the three Centres under study, and then explains the sampling procedures and methods of data collection and analysis. Chapter 4 i s devoted to case studies of the Silver Harbour, 411, and Murdoch Centres, Based on Centre newsletters and documents, personal observations, and interviews with Centre Directors, board members, and representatives from the general memberships, the chapter attempts to provide background information and insight into how planning i s conducted at each Centre. I t then seeks to identify "structural" opportunities that exist for members to become involved in the Centres' planning proc-esses. Using the case study data as a basis, Chapter 5 provides an analysis of factors which encourage and discourage Aembers in becoming involved in planning at Senior Centres, The four types of factors considered relate to the Centres' administrative structures, the characteristics of planning members (Board and Committee members), the characteristics of the Directors and staff, and aspects of the Centres' buildings. 12 Finally, i n Chapter 6, the summary and conclusions are presented. The conclusions do not attempt to provide a simple guide to successful Senior Centre planning; however, they offer insights and suggestions as to how more effective planning at Senior Centres might he encouraged. C h a p t e r 2 H I S T O R I C A L B A C K G R O U N D A N D T H E O R E T I C A L L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W T h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s t h e h i s t o r i c a l f r a m e w o r k a n d t h e o r e t i c a l l i t -e r a t u r e f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e s t u d y . T h e h i s t o r i c a l f r a m e w o r k t r a c e s t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e S e n i o r C e n t r e m o v e m e n t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d C a n a d a . T h e t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e f o u n d a t i o n r e l i e s u p o n t h e l i t e r a t u r e f r o m a v a r i e t y o f f i e l d s i n a n e f f o r t t o i d e n t i f y t h e " s t a t e o f t h e a r t " f o r S e n i o r C e n t r e p r a c t i c e . I t " b e g i n s w i t h a n a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e w h a t i s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a t S e n i o r C e n t r e s a n d c o n t i n u e s w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t a n d s u b s t a n t i a t i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h a s s u m p t i o n s t l ) m e m b e r s s h o u l d h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r S e n i o r C e n t r e ' s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ; a n d 2) t h e " a p p r o p r i a t e " e x t e n t a n d n a t u r e o f m e m b e r s ' i n v o l v e m e n t v a r i e s f r o m C e n t r e t o C e n t r e a n d f r o m i n d i v i d u a l t o i n d i v i d -u a l . H I S T O R I C A L F R A M E W O R K U n i t e d S t a t e s T h e f i r s t S e n i o r C e n t r e , t h e H o d s o n C e n t r e i n N e w Y o r k C i t y , w a s i n i t i a t e d b y a g r o u p o f S o c i a l W o r k e r s i n t h e N e w Y o r k C i t y D e p a r t m e n t o f W e l f a r e i n 1944. A t t h e t i m e , i t w a s r e g a r d e d a s a " w h o l l y n e w e x p e r i m e n t i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e " ( K u b i e a n d L a n d a u , 1943. p . 9). A s o t h e r c o m m u n i t i e s l e a r n e d o f t h e H o d s o n C e n t r e , C e n t r e s w e r e g r a d u a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h -o u t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . M a x w e l l (1962) o b s e r v e d t h a t t w o d i s t i n c t c o n c e p t s o f t h e C e n t r e s 13 14 emerged during the early years. The f i r s t was the "welfare" model, typ-i f i e d by the Hodson Centre, whose clients generally had low incomes, l i t t l e education, and were often born outside the United States. The other was the "recreation" or "retirement centre" model, which served the more financially' secure, well-educated, and socially active older person. For the f i r s t fifteen years of their existence, Senior Centres were characterized by great;, variation i n the scope and quality of their pro-grams. In order to establish guidelines for existing projects and to set minimum standards to assist communities that were contemplating having their own Centres, the National Council on the Aging (NCOA) appointed a committee to undertake a major research study of American Senior Centres, The study began in 1959 and was completed i n 1961. The project report, Centres for Older Peoples Guide for Programs and F a c i l i t i e s (Maxwell, 1962), served as a valuable resource for Centre practitioners, not only providing therewith practical information about a l l facets of Senior Centre operation, but also articulating the philosophical foundation of the Senior Centre movement. As Centres continued to increase in number and scope throughout the I960*s, the NCOA received widespread demands from Senior Centre practi-tioners for technical assistance for their planning and programming. The NCOA responded in 19?0 by establishing the National Institute of Senior Centres (NISC) to Hielp meet these demands. The NISC has issued numerous publications on Senior Centre operations. Its constituency contains not only Senior Centre personnel, but also "social workers, recreational personnel, educators, public health nurses and other specialists, nutri-tionists, community and social planners, housing administrators, nursing home directors, retirement planners, and students" (Jacobs, 1975» v i i i ) . 1 5 A m e r i c a n S e n i o r C e n t r e s w e r e g i v e n a m a j o r b o o s t i n t h e m i d - 1 9 6 0 ' s w i t h t h e p a s s a g e o f t h e O l d e r A m e r i c a n s A c t ( O A A ) , M u l t i - p u r p o s e S e n i o r C e n t r e s w e r e t h e o n l y s o c i a l a g e n c i e s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e A c t . C e n t r e s w e r e a l s o g i v e n i m p e t u s b y O f f i c e o f E c o n o m i c O p p o r t u n i t y C o m m u n i t y A c t i o n P r o g r a m s . S e n i o r C e n t r e s h a v e b e e n p r o g r e s s i v e l y m o v i n g a w a y f r o m t h e i r e m p h a s i s o n r e c r e a t i o n t o w a r d s m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e p r o g r a m m i n g , w h i c h i n c l u d e s h e a l t h , n u t r i t i o n , c o u n s e l l i n g , a n d o t h e r s e r v i c e s . I n 1 9 7 1 , t h e W h i t e H o u s e C o n f e r e n c e o n A g i n g a d o p t e d a r e c o m m e n d a t i o n w h i c h s t a t e d , " i n e v e r y c o m m u n i t y a n d n e i g h b o u r h o o d . . . t h e r e s h o u l d b e a m u l t i p u r p o s e S e n i o r C e n t r e t o p r o v i d e b a s i c s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , a s w e l l a s l i n k a l l o l d e r p e o p l e t o a p p r o p r i a t e s o u r c e s o f h e l p " ( i n M o n r o , 1 9 7 2 , p p . 2 7 - 2 8 ) . T h e U . S . F e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t s h o w e d i t s s u p p o r t f o r t h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n i n 1 9 7 3 , w h e n i t a m e n d e d T h e O l d e r A m e r i c a n s A c t ( O A A ) , a n d u n d e r T i t l e V , a u t h o r -i z e d t h e p r o v i s i o n o f f u n d i n g f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n , r e n o v a t i o n , o r a l t e r -a t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s t h a t w o u l d s e r v e a s m u l t i p u r p o s e S e n i o r C e n t r e s , F u r t h e r a m e n d m e n t s t o t h e O A A w e r e m a d e i n 1 9 7 8 , w h i c h g a v e a r e a a g e n c i e s t h e d i s c r e t i o n t o d e s i g n a t e S e n i o r C e n t r e s a s f o c a l p o i n t s f o r c o m p r e h e n s i v e s e r v i c e s i n t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s . T h e f u l l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s 1 9 7 8 a m e n d m e n t a r e n o t y e t c l e a r ; h o w e v e r , t h e y r e v e a l t h e d e s i r e , , o f C o n g r e s s t o s u p p o r t S e n i o r C e n t r e s a s " a p p r o p r i a t e s e t t i n g s f o r a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s i n g l e - e n t r y s e r v i c e s y s t e m " ( E s t e s , 1 9 7 9 , p . 1 3 3 ) . C a r o l E s t e s , w h o i s a v o c a l c r i t i c o f U n i t e d S t a t e s g o v e r n m e n t p o l -i c i e s f o r t h e a g e d , c o n c e d e d ( t h o u g h s o m e w h a t c y n i c a l l y ) t h a t " t h e t r e n d t o w a r d e x p a n s i o n o f S e n i o r C e n t e r s m a y c o n t i n u e t o g a i n m o m e n t u m , f o r i t m a y b e a n e x p e d i e n t w a y t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t s o m e t h i n g t a n g i b l e i s b e i n g d o n e f o r t h e a g e d " ( E s t e s , 1 9 7 9 ) , p . 1 3 4 ) . 16 Canada Senior Centres f i r s t appeared in Canada i n the mid 1950's, over a decade after the American Centres "began. Canada's f i r s t Senior Centre, the Age and Opportunity Centre, was initiated i n Winnipeg in 1954. The f i r s t B.C. Centre, Silver Threads, began operation In Victoria i n 1957. Although these, and other early operations were not called "Senior Centres", they were very similar to the American models (Davis, 1978). The Canadian Senior Centre movement has been smaller and slower i n gaining momentum than the American movement. Canadian Centres have developed along less consistent lines than their American counterparts. Generally speaking, they have been local, grass-roots organizations, established to meet the unique needs of each community. They have been funded and init i a t e d by Municipal Parks and Recreation departments, Social planning agencies, church and community groups, senior citizen groups, and various other organizations. In B r i t i s h Columbia, the major sources of funding for Senior Cen-tres comes from 1) Municipal Parks and Recreation departments 3- e.g. Murdoch Centre i n Richmond and Century House i n New Westminster. 2) The Provincial Ministry of Human Resources — the 411 Senior Centre i n Vancouver, Silver Harbour Centre i n North Vancouver, Silver Threads in Victoria, and the Penticton Retirement Cen-tre i n Penticton are the only Centres to receive the bulk of their operational funding from the Provincial Government. 3) The Federal Government — Brock House in Vancouver and Silver Harbour Centre received Federal grants to assist them in paying their capital costs when they were f i r s t being started. 1 7 Centres also rely on grants from the Federal Government's New Horizon Program (which i s designed exclusively to provide "seed" money for projects planned for and by senior citizens), private and group donations, and earn-ings from Centre events and programs. The f i r s t major step towards establishing a coordinated Canadian Senior Centre movement came i n 1 9 7 2 , when the Canadian Council on Social Development and the Welfare Grants Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare jointly sponsored a conference for individuals involved in giving leadership to Senior Centres i n Canada. After this i n i t i a l gathering, the Senior Centres Organization of Canada (SCOC) was formed and has since held annual conferences. The Organization i s currently working on a set of standards for Canadian Senior Centres, similar to a set published for American Centres by the NCOA ( 1 9 7 8 ) . These standards should assist Senior Centre practitioners in their quest to improve their operations as well as f a c i l i t a t e more consistent development of Centres in Canada in the future. It i s impossible to say exactly how many Senior Centres exist in Canada (or the United States, for that matter), as no national survey of Canadian Centres has been conducted. Although Provincial surveys exist, one must use caution when comparing their figures. For example, accor-ding to the Social Manning and Review Councill(SPARC) of B.,C.'s publi-cation, Senior Citizens' Guide to Services i n Bri t i s h Columbia thirty-one Senior Centres existed in the province early in 1 9 7 9 . However, this l i s t included single purpose drop-in Centres, while i t excluded one of the best known multipurpose Senior Centres i n Canada, the Penticton 18 Retirement Centre. The information base on Canadian Centres w i l l l i k e l y improve when the SCOC becomes more established and researchers gain awareness of the emerging Senior Centre phenomenon. As i s the case i n the United States, more Senior Centres are expected to be established i n Canada i n the future. The trend w i l l l i k e l y be away from the single purpose "recreation centre" model to the multipurpose model, which serves the "total" person — physical, emotional and, in some cases, s p i r i t u a l . THEORETICAL LITERATURE REVIEW The brief review of the history of the Senior Centre movements in the United States and Canada has shown the tremendous growth In the number and complexity of Senior Centres over the years. I t has highlighted the dynamic nature of Centres, and the need for f l e x i b i l i t y i n planning. Certainly, what was considered an adequate Centre in the 1950's would hardly meet the needs of today's seniors. I f individuals involved i n the planning process at Senior Centres are to meet the challenges of the future, they must at a minimum have an effective basis for their plan-ning. The following section seeks to contribute to such-a basis by exploring the relevant literature to provide understanding of current thinking on the planning process at Senior Centres, What i s Involved i n the Planning Process at Senior Centres? Before considering what i s involved i n a Senior Centre's planning process, i t i s useful to examine what planning i t s e l f i s . Planning has been defined as "an action centrally concerned with the  linkage between knowledge and organized action" (Friedmann and Hudson, 1974, p. 2), I t has also been said to represent "an action-producing 19 activity which combines investigation, thought, design, communication, and other components..,a special kind of pre-action action" (Fagin, i n Horowitz, 1978, p. 45). These definitions may seem vague, and indeed, they may be guilty of what some c r i t i c s describe as "a form of generalization that we might des-ignate as indeterminate abstraction;.,.not so much incorrect as i t i s simply t r i v i a l l y true" (Scott and Roweis, 1977, p. 39). However, plan-ning i s a complex phenomenon and;no single definition could possibly encompass a l l of i t s attributes. The complexity of planning was hinted at in the discussion of the rational decision making model in the introductory chapter. To expand on that discussion, c r i t i c s argued that the model's simplistic assumptions fa i l e d to deal with the flux and turmoil of the "real" world. They charged fhat the model's greatest failure was i t s neglect of the "human side of planning" (Friedmann and Hudson, 1974, p. 13). One theorist noted, "as long as we remain with the economists' simplistic model of rational 'economic man," we can expect to plan with great naivete and with l i t t l e effect" (Bolan, 1974, p. 32). In an effort to devise a more effective and r e a l i s t i c planning model, a "new wave" (Friedmann and Hudson, 1974) or "new paradigm" (Bolan, 1974) of planning theory has emerged. This "new wave" places greater emphasis on the "unrationality" of planning and i t abandons the premise that planning can proceed along the value-free lines of science, Rather, i t acknowledges the essential p o l i t i c a l nature of planning decisions and accepts the central role played by ethics and values i n planning. The more recent theorists see planning as a thinking and social process. They recognize behaviour as being a central concept for 2 0 p l a n n i n g a n d a r g u e t h a t e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g c a n o n l y o c c u r i f t h e p l a n n e r i n t e r a c t s w i t h h i s c l i e n t i n a s p i r i t o f m u t u a l l e a r n i n g ( F r i e d m a n n , 1973» B o l a n , 1974). I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d o j u s t i c e t o p l a n n i n g t h e o r y i n t h i s b r i e f s p a c e ; h o w e v e r , g o o d r e v i e w s o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e a r e c o n t a i n e d i n F r i e d m a n n a n d H u d s o n (1974), F a l u d i (1973), a n d B o l a n (1974). T h e d i s c u s s i o n s h o u l d a l e r t t h e r e a d e r t o t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n s t u d y i n g p l a n n i n g , a n d t h a t e f f o r t s t o u n d e r s t a n d i t w i l l n e v e r p r o d u c e a p a n a c e a f o r a l l t h e i l l s o f a S e n i o r C e n t r e ( o r a n y o t h e r o p e r a t i o n , f o r t h a t m a t t e r ) . T u r n i n g n o w t o p l a n n i n g a t S e n i o r C e n t r e s , b o t h t h e m e t h o d ( p r o c e s s ) a n d s u b j e c t m a t t e r ( s u b s t a n c e ) o f p l a n n i n g a t S e n i o r C e n t r e s v a r i e s f r o m C e n t r e t o C e n t r e . C o n c e p t u a l l y , p l a n n i n g a t S e n i o r C e n t r e s m a y b e s e e n a s o c c u r r i n g a t t w o s t a g e s , l ) b e f o r e t h e C e n t r e i s e s t a b l i s h e d , w h e n t h e a c t i v i t i e s a n d d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g i n i t i a t i o n a r e c o n d u c t e d , ( i . e . c o n -d u c t i n g n e e d s s t u d i e s , s e l e c t i n g a s i t e f o r t h e f a c i l i t y , r a i s i n g f u n d s , h i r i n g s t a f f , e t c . ) , a n d 2 ) a f t e r t h e c e n t r e i s e s t a b l i s h e d , w h e n a c t i v -i t i e s a n d d e c i s i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e o n g o i n g o p e r a t i o n o f t h e C e n t r e a r e m a d e ( i . e . s e l e c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s a n d s e r v i c e s t o b e o f f e r e d , s e t t i n g a n n u a l b u d g e t s , e s t a b l i s h i n g m e m b e r s h i p r e q u i r e m e n t s , a n d m o n i t o r i n g , e v a l u a t i n g , m a i n t a i n i n g , a n d m o d i f y i n g p l a n s , e t c . ) T h e f o c u s o f t h i s t h e s i s i s o n p l a n n i n g d o n e a f t e r t h e C e n t r e s h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d . I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g , a l t h o u g h o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a r e a l s o d i s c u s s e d . A c c o r d i n g t o M a x w e l l , " p r o g r a m i s t h e s u m t o t a l o f a l l t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s d o i n t h e C e n t r e a n d i n t h e n a m e o f t h e C e n t r e . P r o g r a m c a n n o t b e v i e w e d , d i s c u s s e d o r p l a n n e d a s a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y " ( M a x w e l l , 1 9 6 2 , p . 59). A n o t h e r 2 1 author asserts that "programs are not only events, but also experiences with individual meanings for each member who participates" (Vickery, 1 9 7 2 , p. 1 9 9 ) . The NCOA published a brief guide for Senior Centre practitioners, identifying eight components of program planning: 1 ) Establishing program goals 2 ) Determining p r i o r i t i e s 3) Allocating resources 4) Monitoring programs and services 5 ) Producing information for constituents (boards, funding sources, and community) 6) Evaluating performance 7 ) Updating programs 8 ) Allowing for change (McGovern and Jacobs, 1 9 7 5 » P» 2 ) The premise of this publication i s that program planning should aim to provide accountability, credibility, and trust. The authors argued that in order to reach this goal, "Senior Centres need accurate management information on goals and; objectives, costs and resources, program implemen-tation 1? and evaluation" (McGovern and Jacobs, 1 9 7 5 » P> 2 ) . The necessity for such information has become more crucial i n recent years, due to f i s c a l restraint by a l l levels of Government and competition for funds with other sectors of society. As the "new wave" planning theorists stress, planning i s both a thinking and social process. I t involves not only understanding and acting upon objective data, but also dealing with the complexity of needs, desires, personalities, and emotions of Centre members, and satisfying 22 representatives of the community and government that the outcomes of a Centre's planning decisions are effective and worthwhile. Thus, planners at Senior Centres not only need good management s k i l l s , but also to be highly skilled i n the human services, public relations, and in dealing with governments. F i r s t Assumption: Members Should Have the Opportunity to Become  In a Centre's Planning Process Virtually a l l literature on Senior Centres stresses the importance of involving members in the planning process. Most of the arguments f i t into one of four themes. l ) Gerontology - Gerontological studies have dispelled a number of the myths about old people that have prevailed in our society. They reveal that age i s a relative concept and people to not suddenly deteri-orate when they reach 65 years of age. The a b i l i t y of artists such as Pablo Picasso, Goethe, and Michelangelo to produce great works i n their 80's, the continued p o l i t i c a l activity of world leaders such as Mao Tse Tung, Marshall Tito, and Ronald Reagan, the the perseverance of numerous "lesser known" older adults long past the standard retirement age reveal the danger of prejudging a person's potential on the basis of chronolog-i c a l age alone. Research findings show that many of the so-called negative aspects of aging result from environmental factors, rather than from biological changes or chronological age. For example, recent studies involving elderly subjects i n care f a c i l i t i e s discovered that when the subjects were given the opportunity and incentive to have a greater say i n the decisions which affected them, their memories improved and they became much more sociable and satisfied with l i f e (Langer and Rodin, 1976). 23 These findings cannot be indiscriminately applied to Senior Centre members; however, they suggest that treating older people in a humane way, showing respect for their decision-making a b i l i t i e s , and acknow-ledging their right to have a voice in the planning of their own affai r s can be beneficial. Studies such as the above lend support to arguments for ensuring that Senior Centre members have the opportunity to become involved i n their Centre's planning process. They not only suggest that opportu-nities for involvement may be beneficial to the older person's mental well-being, but that the lack of opportunities may have major detrimen-t a l effects. 2) Professional's role - As noted i n the introductory chapter, the role of the Senior Centre Director or planner, like that of social and community planners, has been more closely analysed i n recent years. With the growing recognition that rational, value-free planning i s unat-tainable, the Senior Centre professional can no longer claim legitimacy from his technical expertise alone. The recent emphasis that planning theory literature places on the social aspects of the planning process i s reflected i n the publications for Senior Centre practitioners. Today's Senior Centre Director i s called upon to serve as an enabler, catalyst, and motivator who plans with.„but never for Centre members (Wilson, 19?2; Jacobs, 1975). i n effect, this c a l l to engage i n a process of "mutual learning" or "dialogue" with their clients echoes the call s of many "new wave" planning theorists who advocate that the planner's role should be to engage i n a process of mutual learning (Friedmann and Hudson, 1974; Bolan, 1974). 7h I n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e S e n i o r C e n t r e D i r e c t o r ' s o r p l a n n e r ' s " s e a r c h f o r l e g i t i m a c y " ( R e i n , I 9 6 9 ) , t w o a d d i t i o n a l r e a s o n s f o r i n c l u d i n g C e n t r e m e m b e r s i n t h e C e n t r e ' s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e m e r g e . F i r s t , p l a n n i n g i s a m a j o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . W h a t m a y s e e m l i k e a m i n o r d e c i s i o n t o a C e n t r e D i r e c t o r , m a y h a v e f a r - r e a c h i n g e f f e c t s o n t h e m e m b e r s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e c a n c e l l a t i o n o f a b u s t r i p m i g h t b e a s e r i o u s b l o w t o a n o l d e r p e r s o n w h o h a s b e e n l o o k i n g f o r w a r d t o t h e e x c u r s i o n f o r a n u m b e r o f w e e k s . T h e e f f e c t w o u l d b e m o s t s e v e r e f o r t h e o l d e r a d u l t w h o l i v e s a l o n e a n d h a s n o p r o s p e c t o f g o i n g o n a n o t h e r j o u r n e y . U n l e s s t h e C e n t r e m e m b e r s a r e g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g a t t h e i r S e n -i o r C e n t r e , t h e C e n t r e D i r e c t o r c a n b e h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a n y n e g a t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s t h a t r e s u l t . T h e s e c o n d r e a s o n t h a t C e n t r e D i r e c t o r s s h o u l d i n c l u d e m e m b e r s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s r e l a t e s t o t h e i r o w n p r o f e s s i o n a l s u r v i v a l . A s a l e a d i n g f i g u r e i n t h e S e n i o r C e n t r e m o v e m e n t s u g g e s t e d , u n l e s s t h e C e n t r e p r o f e s s i o n a l c h a n g e s w i t h t h e t i m e s ( i . e . a d o p t s a c a t a l y s t - f a c i l i t a t o r r o l e a n d i n c l u d e s m e m b e r s i n p l a n n i n g ) h e " c o u l d f i n d h i m s e l f d i s p l a c e d v e r y q u i c k l y " ( S c h r e i b e r , i n W i l s o n , 1 9 7 2 , p . 6 2 ) . 3 ) D e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s - T h e G r e e k H i s t o r i a n , H e r o d i t u s , c o i n e d t h e t e r m " d e m o c r a c y " a n d p o s i t e d i t s e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s a s s 1 . e q u a l i t y b e f o r e t h e l a w 2 . p o p u l a r d e l i b e r a t i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c o n s e n s u s 3 . p u b l i c a c c o u n t a b i l i t y o f o f f i c i a l s k. e q u a l i t y o f s p e e c h ( c i t e d i n F a g e n c e , 1 9 7 7 , 0 . 2 3 ) T h e c e n t r a l p r i n c i p l e u n d e r l y i n g A t h e n i a n " d i r e c t d e m o c r a c y " w a s t h e 25 "equal rights of every citizen to participate i n the process of govern-ment..." (Fagence, 1977» P. 23). Democratic principles have been cited to justify the numerous citizen participation programs in community plan-ning in the United States and Canada i n the 1960's and 1970's. Some cynics exist, such as Fagence, who describes citizen participation as a "mere palliative to the i l l s of the planning profession" (Fagence, 1977, p. l ) , and argues that the best citizen participation may, indeed, be equated with the least citizen participation (p. 35$). However, confessed non-believers li k e Fagence are rare.,. In fact, " i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to avoid the view that writers and politicians alike are afraid to oppose either the notion or the specific implementation of citizen participation" (Rose, 1974, p. 66). Perhaps Arnstein i s correct, "the idea of citizen participation i s a l i t t l e l i k e eating spinach: no one i s against i t i n principle because i t i s good for you" (Arnstein, 1968, p. 216). Despite the general acceptance of the "goodness" of citizen participation, no entirely satisfactory method of measuring or evaluating the effectiveness of citizen participation has yet been devised. According to one writer, Many social scientists, planners, social workers, and elected o f f i c i a l s persist i n appraising what they term to be citizen participation without always realizing or admitting that what they report or infer i s primarily a judgment - often a value judgment" (Rose, 1974, p. 214). A major problem facing participatory planning i n general, and at Senior Centres i n particular, i s determining the "representativeness" of participants i n the process. The f i r s t staff workers at the Hodson Cen-tre had to deal with a select few domineering, autocratic, elderly board members who sought to run the Centre their way and by so doing, threat-ened to drive the other members from the Centre (Kubie and Landau, 1953). 26 This problem i s certainly not unique to the Hodson Centre, and i t empha-sises the fact that self-interest, disagreeable tendencies, and incompe-tence w i l l not necessarily be eliminated by having representation from the users of any f a c i l i t y , service, or institution. The fact that potential problems may occur with involving Centre members in planning, however, i s not an excuse for excluding them from the process. The Centre Director or planner who has successfully adopted the enabler-catalyst role should be able to find tactful (albeit time con-suming) ways to remedy unproductive situations and work towards getting the planning process back on course. Also, unless a l l citizen p a r t i c i -pation programs could be s c i e n t i f i c a l l y proven to be ineffective or detri-mental to the well-being of the individual, the exclusion of Senior Centre members from participation in the planning process at their Centres could not be j u s t i f i e d . If society values democracy, and the right of i t s citizens to partic-ipate in the process of their own government, any attempt to exclude older people from this right, for reasons of age alone, would be blatant "ageism" (a term introduced by Butler (1969) to describe social practices, including prejudices and stereotypes which are negative in their appraisals of older persons and their role i n society). 4) P o l i t i c a l expediency - I f members are involved i n a l l aspects of a Senior Centre's planning, they w i l l presumably become more committed to their Centre and work harder to make i t run successfully. This belief was expressed by a leading spokesman in the American Senior Centre momement, who said, "You'll be a smash Director i f you have the members running the Centre..." (Schreiber, 1972, p. 37). Certainly, i f members think they are running their Centre, the Director should be a "smash"" 2 7 I n v o l v i n g m e m b e r s i n a C e n t r e ' s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s i m p o r t a n t , n o t o n l y f o r " w i n n i n g o v e r " t h e m e m b e r s , b u t f o r g a i n i n g o u t s i d e s u p p o r t a s w e l l . I f C e n t r e m e m b e r s t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r o r g a n i z i n g f u n d r a i s i n g d r i v e s , a p p l y i n g f o r g r a n t s , a n d h o l d i n g s p e c i a l e v e n t s , t h e y a r e m u c h m o r e l i k e l y t o g a i n a s s i s t a n c e f r o m b o t h c o m m u n i t y a n d g o v e r n m e n t s o u r c e s . A s t h e a m o u n t o f f u n d i n g o b t a i n e d i s a m a j o r f a c t o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a m o u n t a n d t y p e o f p r o g r a m m i n g a C e n t r e c a n o f f e r , i t i s a k e y i s s u e f a c i n g v i r -t u a l l y a l l S e n i o r C e n t r e s , I f C e n t r e m e m b e r s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g c a n a t t r a c t m o r e m o n e y t o t h e C e n t r e , t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s c e r t a i n l y d e s i r a b l e . S e c o n d A s s u m p t i o n : T h e " A p p r o p r i a t e " E x t e n t a n d N a t u r e o f M e m b e r s ' I n v o l v e m e n t V a r i e s f r o m C e n t r e t o C e n t r e a n d f r o m I n d i v i d u a l t o  I n d i v i d u a l A n A m e r i c a n S e n i o r C e n t r e p u b l i c a t i o n a r g u e d t h a t t h e n u m b e r o f p e r -s o n s w h o c a r r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t a n d c o m m i t t e e l e a d e r -s h i p i s a r e l i a b l e i n d e x o f e f f e c t i v e C e n t r e p r o g r a m s . . . T o b e m e a n i n g f u l , g r o u p p r o g r a m s m u s t i n v o l v e ( m e m b e r s ) i n t h e e n t i r e p r o c e s s , f r o m d e c i s i o n m a k i n g t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n " ( J a c o b s a n d M a g a n n , 1 9 7 ^ , p . 3). T h e i d e a l o f h e a v y s e n i o r i n v o l v e m e n t w a s f a r f r o m b e i n g a c h i e v e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1 9 6 9 t A n a t i o n a l s u r v e y o f o v e r 1 , 0 0 0 A m e r i c a n S e n i o r C e n t r e s t a k e n a t t h a t t i m e , d i s c o v e r e d t h a t o n l y 5>7?° of t h e s u r v e y e d C e n t r e s h a d ? , m e m b e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o n t h e i r b o a r d s ( A n d e r s o n , 1 9 ^ 9 ) • A l t h o u g h t h e f i g u r e i s d e c i d e d l y l o w a n d w o u l d l i k e l y b e m u c h h i g h e r t o d a y , n u m b e r s a l o n e s h o u l d n o t b e t h e c r i t e r i a o f s u c c e s s f u l ' s e l f g o v e r n m e n t . A l s o , n o f o r m u l a e x i s t s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e " a p p r o p r i a t e " n u m b e r o f m e m b e r s w h o s h o u l d : \ b e i n v o l v e d ' i n p l a n n i n g a t a C e n t r e o f a g i v e n s i z e . " T h e s e l f g o v e r n m e n t r o l e s i n w h i c h m e m b e r s a r e i n v o l v e d 28 w i l l d i f f e r in different settings, depending on the size of the mem-bership, the responsibilities assigned to staff, and the physical and. emotional health of group members" (Vickery, 1972, p. 168). A point which deserves emphasis i s that members should have the opportunity to become involved in a Centre's planning, not required to become involved. An older person may have a number of perfectly l e g i t i -mate reasons for choosing not to become involved in his Centre's planning process. Attempting to^ reassure such a person to take an active role i n planning would l i k e l y trigger resentment, anger, or feelings of inade-quacy. Rather than gaining the person's support, the pressure tactics could well drive him from the Centre, The question of how much members should be involved in a Centre's planning process can only partly be answered by examining the literature. A more complete answer w i l l emerge when the case studies are considered,. SUMMARY This chapter has provided a brief history of the Senior Centre movements in Canada and the United States and i t has presented a theoret-i c a l literature foundation for the thesis^ The historical review traced the evolution of Senior Centres from from the early single-purpose recreation or welfare Centres i n the 1970's and 1950's to the later multipurpose Centres that have emerged and gained increasing popularity since the 1960's, The theoretical literature review began by examining what i s involved in the planning process at Senior Centres. For the purposes of this thesis, planning was defined as a thinking and social process, cen-t r a l l y concerned with "the linkage between knowledge and organized action" 2 9 (Friedmann and Hudson, 1 9 7 4 , p. 2 ) . The various issues that may be involved i n planning for Senior Centres were also discussed. The remainder of the literature review substantiated the assumption underlying the research. F i r s t , i t explored the question of why members should have the opportunity to become involved i n a Centre's planning process. Four themes or justifications were presented: gerontological, the professional's role, democratic principles, and p o l i t i c a l expediency. Second, i t examined the degree to which members should be involved in their Centre's planning process. No conclusive answer was found, as the degree of desired member involvement was revealed to be dependent upon many variables and to vary from individual to individual and from Centre to Centre. C h a p t e r 3 M E T H O D O L O G Y T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e m e t h o d s u s e d i n t h e c a s e s t u d y ; r e s e a r c h . I t b e g i n s w i t h a b r i e f s t a t e m e n t o n w h y t h e t h r e e S e n i o r C e n t r e s u n d e r s t u d y w e r e c h o s e n a n d t h e n d i s c u s s e s t h e r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d , t h e s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e , a n d m e t h o d s o f a n a l y s i s . R E S E A R C H S E T T I N G T h e t h r e e S e n i o r C e n t r e s e x a m i n e d i n t h e s t u d y a r e S i l v e r H a r b o u r C e n t r e i n N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , t h e 4 1 1 C e n t r e i n V a n c o u v e r , a n d M u r d o c h C e n t r e i n R i c h m o n d . T h e s e C e n t r e s w e r e c h o s e n f o r t w o r e a s o n s . F i r s t , t h e y w e r e c h o s e n b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e r e a s o n a b l y a c c e s s i b l e . I h a d t o m a k e f r e q u e n t v i s i t s t o e a c h C e n t r e . I f I h a d d e c i d e d t o s t u d y l e s s a c c e s s i b l e C e n -t r e s , t h e t i m e a n d c o s t i n v o l v e d i n t h e t r a v e l l i n g w o u l d h a v e n e c e s s i -t a t e d m y d o i n g l e s s t h o r o u g h r e s e a r c h . S e c o n d , a n d m o r e i m p o r t a n t l y f r o m a r e s e a r c h p e r s p e c t i v e , I c h o s e t o s t u d y t h e C e n t r e s b e c a u s e t h e y p r o v i d e a n i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a s t i n p l a n n i n g m o d e l s . T h e C e n t r e s v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r t i m e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t , c l i e n t e l e , f u n d i n g a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b a s e s , p r o g r a m m i n g , a n d b u i l d i n g a n d p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : . -B a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e C e n t r e s i s p r o v i d e d i n t h e c a s e s t u d i e s i n C h a p t e r f o u r ' , M E T H O D S A s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r , t h i s s t u d y i s e x p l o r a t o r y . T h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s o f e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d i e s a r e t h a t t h e y h a v e n o 30 31 formal hyp6theses and that they are ideally suited to investigation of groups or phenomena about which l i t t l e i s known (Bailey, 1978). I have alerted the reader to the limitations of my methodology and advised him to exercise caution i n interpreting or generalizing from the findings. However, as I shall explain, I believe that the methodological advantages outweigh i t s disadvantages. The data sources for the study consist of l ) newsletters, Consti-tutions and By-laws, and other documents from the Centres, 2) personal observations, and 3) formal interviews and informal conversations with interview subjects and other Centre members and staff. SAMPLE I identified three groups of actors that I expected to play different roles and have different perceptions of the planning processes at the Centres: l ) Centre Directors, 2) board members, and 3) general members., I began by interviewing the Directors of the three Centres and asked them to set up interviews for me with board members. Although the Silver Harbour and 411 Centres have younger "community members"* serving on their boards, I restricted my interviews to board members who were also Centre members. TMs decision was made because of time constraints and because of d i f f i c u l t i e s I anticipated i n setting up appointments with the community members. *Adults who may or may not be Centre members who are invited to serve by the Board rather than elected to serve by the general membership. 32 A l t h o u g h t h e c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s m a y h a v e p r o v i d e d s o m e i n t e r e s t i n g i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a t t h e C e n t r e s . I d o n o t b e l i e v e t h a t t h e o m i s s i o n o f t h e i r c o m m e n t s s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t s t h e v a l u e o f t h e s t u d y . C o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s a r e c h o s e n f o r t h e i r i n f l u e n c e i n t h e c o m m u n i t y a n d w i t h g o v e r n m e n t s a n d f o r t h e i r e x p e r t i s e i n s u c h f i e l d s a s l a w a n d a c c o u n t i n g . U n l i k e t h e C e n t r e m e m b e r s w h o s e r v e o n t h e b o a r d , c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s a r e n o t h e a v i l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e C e n t r e s o u t s i d e o f t h e i r ' B o a r d ' d u t y a n d t h e y d o n o t h a v e t h e s a m e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e m e m b e r s h i p o r o f t h e d a y t o d a y i s s u e s f a c i n g t h e C e n t r e s . I t h u s d e c i d e d t h a t t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e s t u d y w o u l d b e l e s s v a l u a b l e t h a n t h a t o f t h e o t h e r b o a r d m e m b e r s , I a t t e m p t e d t o i n t e r v i e w a l l b o a r d m e m b e r s ( e x c l u d i n g c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s ) a t t h e C e n t r e s . I h a d o n e r e f u s a l a n d a v o i d e d a s k i n g a n o t h e r m e m b e r , a s I w a s i n f o r m e d t h a t h e w a s e x p e r i e n c i n g i l l n e s s i n h i s f a m i l y . I c o n d u c t e d s i x i n t e r v i e w s o f b o a r d m e m b e r s a t S i l v e r H a r b o u r , s e v e n a t 4 1 1 , a n d s i x a t M u r d o c h C e n t r e , f o r a t o t a l o f n i n e t e e n i n t e r v i e w s . A s t h e C e n t r e D i r e c t o r s a n d b o a r d s m e m b e r s w e r e t h e a c t i v e p e o p l e , t h e " d o - e r s , " I s a w a p o t e n t i a l d a n g e r o f h a v i n g " o n e - s i d e d " r e s p o n s e b y i n t e r v i e w i n g t h e m e x c l u s i v e l y . T h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s w o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y h a v e t h e s a m e p e r c e p t i o n s a b o u t t h e C e n t r e a n d t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n w h i c h t h e y w e r e d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d a s w o u l d o t h e r C e n t r e m e m b e r s . T o g a i n a w i d e r r a n g e o f r e s p o n s e s , I s o u g h t t o i n t e r v i e w a s m a l l s a m p l e o f s u b j e c t s f r o m t h e g e n e r a l m e m b e r s h i p . I o b t a i n e d m y s a m p l e b y r e q u e s t i n g t h e C e n t r e D i r e c t o r s t o s e t u p " o n t h e s p o t " i n t e r v i e w s . T h e y o b l i g e d b y a s k i n g m e m b e r s w h o h a p p e n e d t o b e a t t h e C e n t r e s w h e n I w a s t h e r e i f t h e y w o u l d a g r e e t o b e i n t e r v i e w e d , I w a s a b l e t o c o n d u c t a 33 total of nineteen such interviews. Because none of the interviews were arranged beforehand, the sampling procedure helped to ensure that others, i n addition to the Directors* "favourites," were selected, I told the Directors that I did not want to speak only with active, outgoing members, but desired to speak with a cross-section of the membership. A total of six members from a l l Centres refused to be inter-viewed; therefore, I may inadvertently have interviewed the more affable and outgoing members. Due to the small sample size and the possible bias i n the selection procedure, care must be taken in generalizing the subjects' responses to the overall membership. However, as w i l l be revealed i n the case studies, the opinions of the general members, as well as being interesting i n their own right, serve as an effective bal-ance to the comments of the Directors and board members. A l l interviews were conducted in private rooms or offices at the Centres within a six weeks period between May and June, 1980. Some interviews with general members were completed i n twenty minutes, while interviews with the Directors spanned several hours and involved frequent follow-up questioning. The average length of time for an interview, however, was an hour, INTERVIEW SCHEDULES I designed separate interview schedules for the Centre Directors, board members, and subjects from the general membership (See Appendix). As noted, I expected the three groups of actors to play different roles and have different perceptions of the Centres' planning processes, I therefore designed the interview schedules with the aim of e l i c i t i n g the most complete responses from each group. 34 The questions were open-ended, probing into the following areas: l ) Roles of the Director, staff, board, committee and general membership in the Centre's planning process ( " o f f i c i a l " roles as spelled out i n written job descriptions or the Centre's Constitution and By-laws, perceived roles, and favoured roles), Z) Desirable characteristics or qualifications of individuals involved i n "planning" at the Centres (i.e. the Director, staff, board and committee members). 3) Perceived opportunities and encouraging and discouraging factors for members' involvement i n the Centre's planning, 4) Advantages and disadvantages of the Centre's administrative model (e.g. funded, staffed, and operated by a Municipal Parks Department or run independently by members). 5) Planning issues facing the Centres, 6) Overall attitudes towards the respondent's Centre, i t s pro-gram, and Senior Centres i n general. One advantage of using an exploratory research design, astopposed to a more controlled design, Is that i t allowed for considerable flex-i b i l i t y in the interviews. I t enabled me to ask respondents questions which were specifically related to their Centres, as well as to allow them to elaborate on points which were of particular interest to them. Each interview consisted of two types of questions: general questions related to the planning process at a l l Senior Centres, and Centre-specific questions related to aspects of the planning process peculiar to the respondent's Centre, I determined the general interview question after reading literature on Senior Centres, planning theory, citizen p a r t i c i -pation, organizational science, and gerontology, I determined most of 35 the Centre-specific questions after taking a tour of the Centres and reviewing their Constitutions and By-laws, newsletters, staff's written job-descriptions, and other pertinent Centre documents. I added more questions related to the individual Centres when interview subjects raised issues that I had not foreseen. Also, once I began interviewing, I immediately eliminated questions from the schedule that appeared offen-sive, irrelevant, or generally ineffective. Because of the flexibility of my approach, I was able to pursue the issues in subsequent interviews with other respondents and re-interview some earlier respondents on per-tinent points. Although other researchers have noted that the described method of interviewing is open to manipulation, both in terms of the questions asked and in the responses analysed and presented (Needleman and Needle-man, 1974; Daneluzzi, 1978), I made efforts to control for bias. First, I sought this control in my research design. I did not perform formal pretests; however, I consulted three experts in the field of aging during the preparation of the interview schedules and I made major revisions to the schedules as a result of their comments. And, as noted, I conducted follow-up interviews with some early respondents to ensure that a l l inter-views covered the most important questions and that the analyses were based on responses from the total sample, rather than a select few, I also attempted to control for bias in my analysis, I presented excerpts from interviews, both in order to shed light on complex issues and to permit the reader to judge whether my interpretation of the comments was valid. By making frequent visits to each Centre, I gained a strong "feel" for the atmospheres of the Centres. The personal observations I 36 made at the Centres, "off-the-record" comments I obtained during inter-views, and casual conversations I had with respondents and others enabled me to gain insight into the characteristics and behaviour of people at the Centres, Witnessing interactions between the Directors, board mem-bers, and other members enabled me to put myself in the position of the various actors and speculate how I would feel about participating in the Centres* planning. Finally, I attended the annual general meetings of two of the Cen-tres, and a board meeting at the other C en tret, and thereby gained a greater understanding of the participatory planning process by observing i t in action. ANALYSIS I used the "Shotgun" method of recording (Needleman and Needleman, 1974),, taking down notes on everything no matter how peripheral i t seemed to the study at the time. My experience with the method was similar to that of others who have used i t ; bits of data which at fi r s t seemed unrelated often f e l l into a seemingly obvious pattern as the research progressed. Had I used a more rigorous research design and recorded only information that I considered to be directly related to "my conception" of the planning process at Senior Centres, I would have eliminated some of the most significant data from the study (the findings on staffing, funding levels, and Centre buildings are the main examples). The data for the study is descriptive, and requires qualitative, rather than quantitative analysis. Although some social scientists gen-erally prefer quantitative measures, believing that they can somehow, reveal a more accurate picture of "the truth," such social scientists 37 have been compared to "a drunk who searches for a lost wallet under a street light because the light i s better there" (Hampden-Turner, cited in Bolan, 1974, p. 20). As leading writers on Senior Centres observe, "It i s not always possible in evaluating programs in a Senior Cen-tre to establish objective c r i t e r i a . Subjective judgments may be called for and may be appropriate" (Leanse, et a l . , 1977, p. 38) This reasoning i s also applicable to studies of the planning process at a Senior Centre. By choosing to use qualitative rather than quantitative analysis, the study faces two potential hazards: l ) presenting findings as "pat-terns" when in fact, no patterns exist, and 2) generalizing the findings to a larger population, i n cases where they only apply to the sample. The hazards are worth risking, especially when the hazards of alter-native research designs are considered. For example, Estes has complained that "the dominance of...po s i t i v i s t i c research methodologies inherited from the i n i t i a l discipline in social gerontology (Psychology) has lim-ited the legitimacy accorded to in<%depth observational approaches and has discouraged trust in, and researcher reliance upon, the perspectives and meanings generated and expressed by older people themselves" (Estes, 1979, P. 12). I have described the efforts I have taken to check and recheck the validity of my data and to control for bias, I have confidence that the patterns I describe are important in providing an understanding of the planning process at Senior Centres; however, "the ultimate test of any method must be the u t i l i t y and r e p l i c a b i l i t y of i t s findings" (Needleman and Needleman, 1974, p, 15). I believe that the conceptualization and execution of this study i s sound and that the analyses and research 38 findings axe valid. I have sought to be clear and explicit in my presen-tation in order to facilitate the understanding and invite the scrutiny of a l l readers, as well as to assist researchers who may be interested in doing follow-up studies. SUMMARY This chapter has described the methodology used in the case studies. It contains a rationale for selecting the three Senior Centres examined in this thesis, a description of data sources, sampling procedure, inter-view schedule construction, and methods of analysis. Having provided this necessary background information, the case studies and analyses of factors which encourage and discourage members' involvement in a Senior Centre's planning process are presented in the following two chapters. Chapter 4 CASE STUDIES This chapter presents case studies of three Senior Centres in Greater Vancouver, Each Centre is examined separately in an effort to provide a brief overview of the Centres' histories, buildings and phys-ical environments, memberships, programs and administrative structures. The purpose of the chapter is not solely to provide elaborate descrip-tions of each Centre, but rather to present information which will be pertinent to the analysis of factors which encourage or discourage memr bers in becoming involved in a Centre's planning process. In addition, the chapter aims to give the reader a "feel" for the Centres under study, thereby revealing the uniqueness of each Centre and underscoring the assertion made in previous chapters that expteme care must be exercised so that generalizations about Senior Centre programs, clients, or phys-ical facilities may be recognized as such. SILVER HARBOUR CENTRE A. Historical Overview The Silver Harbour Centre in North Vancouver opened in September, 1973, as the result of approximately five years of effort by a dedicated group of older citizens and interested younger individuals from North Vancouver. The f i r s t meeting to discuss the establishment of Silver Harbour was held in February, 1968 at the home of one of the Centre's current officers. At this meeting, a small group of older adults met 39 40 w i t h t h e M a y o r o f t h e C i t y o f N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , w h o m a d e a c o m m i t m e n t o f a l a n d g r a n t f o r t h e s i t e u p o n w h i c h t h e C e n t r e i s n o w l o c a t e d . T h e g r o u p a p p o i n t e d a c o m m i t t e e t o d r a f t a C o n s t i t u t i o n a n d B y - l a w s f o r a n o n - p r o f i t s o c i e t y . I n D e c e m b e r , 1968, t h e s o c i e t y w a s d u l y r e g i s t e r e d i n V i c t o r i a a s T h e S i l v e r H a r b o u r M a n o r S o c i e t y . M e e t i n g s w e r e h e l d r e g u l a r l y i n t h e y e a r s t h a t f o l l o w e d , a n d i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r s o f b o t h o l d e r a n d y o u n g e r a d u l t s s u p p o r t e d e f f o r t s t o g e t t h e S e n i o r C e n t r e e s t a b l i s h e d . B e t w e e n 1968 a n d 1973, I65 m e e t i n g s ( e x c l u d i n g c o m m i t t e e m e e t i n g s ) w e r e h e l d b y t h e s o c i e t y . I n o r d e r t o r a i s e f u n d s , t h e S i l v e r H a r b o u r S o c i e t y h e l d b a z a a r s , l u n c h e o n s , a n d o t h e r e v e n t s , a n d l a u n c h e d a d o o r t o d o o r c a n v a s s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . S o c i e t y m e m b e r s a l s o s o u g h t a s s i s t a n c e b y m e e t i n g w i t h a n d i w r i t i n g t o p o l i t i c i a n s i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l a n d M u n i c i p a l l e v e l s o f G o v e r n m e n t . T h e S o c i e t y r e c e i v e d g r a n t s f r o m b o t h t h e F e d e r a l a n d P r o v i n -c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s , w h i c h w e r e u s e d f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e C e n t r e , A n d a s n o t e d , t h e l a n d u p o n w h i c h t h e C e n t r e i s n o w l o c a t e d w a s d o n a t e d b y t h e C i t y o f N o r t h V a n c o u v e r . B , B u i l d i n g a n d P h y s i c a l E n v i r o n m e n t N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , w h e r e S i l v e r H a r b o u r C e n t r e i s l o c a t e d , i s a s u b u r b o f V a n c o u v e r w h i c h h a s a p o p u l a t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100,000, S i l v e r H a r b o u r C e n t r e i s l o c a t e d i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t t o a r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e . I t i s l e s s t h a n a b l o c k a w a y f r o m a m a j o r t h o r o u g h f a r e w h i c h h a s f r e q u e n t b u s s e r v i c e , a n d a v a r i e t y o f s h o p s a n d s e r v i c e s . T h e C e n t r e i s s i t u a t e d o n a s l i g h t l y s l o p i n g s i t e , w h i c h m a y c r e a t e s o m e d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r p e o p l e w h o h a v e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h w a l k i n g . T h e d e s i g n o f t h e C e n t r e , h o w e v e r , m i n -i m i z e s a c c e s s b a r r i e r s . F o r e x a m p l e , a r a m p w i t h r a i l i n g l e a d s i n t o 41 the Centre. Within the building, an elevator, wall railings, and wash-rooms for handicapped persons are provided. These design features enable members who would otherwise be unable to attend the Centre to make use of its facilities with as l i t t l e inconvenience as possible. The Centre's building is two stories high and has a basement, which is also used for programs. While agreeing that its basic structure should be compatible with the Recreation Centre next door, members of the society were able to specify features which they desired to have incorpor-ated into the design of the Centre. Silver Harbour is well furnished and equipped. For example, i t contains a kitchen and dining area, a large crafts area with pottery kilns, weaving looms, and various other equipment, a billiard room with three f u l l sized slate tables and a three-quarters size table, and a woodwork shop equipped with an array of quality hand and power tools. Equipment and funds for the purchase of equipment came from private and group donations and from grants from the Federal New Horizons program. Service Clubs were "especially eager" to donate equipment for men's activities, such as pool tables and power tools. One member described Silver Harbour members' resourcefulness in gaining grants and donations this way: "We're very good at begging." Photographs of members participating in on-going Centre programs and special events are arranged on the walls of the Centre. Examples of mem-bers' paintings, ceramics, and weaving are on display in the upstairs crafts rooms. Such 'personal' touches give the Centre a distinctive character, clearly accentuating the fact that i t is people who give l i f e to any Centre. 42 G. Membership and Social Environment In July, 1980 the membership at Silver Harbour totalled approxi-mately 2 , 6 0 0 . Membership is available to individuals 60 years and over and to their spouses. Younger adults with handicaps have been granted memberships upon the recommendation of their Physicians. A wide age-span is represented at the Centre. Although some members use canes and appear to be slightly shaky in their movements, the majority are reasonably mobile. The Executive Director of Silver Harbour observed, "We cater mainly to the well elderly." A member said: "We don't have facilities to serve those in wheelchairs. Two or three other organizations look after them, so we haven't cut in. We'd need extra staff and facilities i f we tried." The membership appears to be predominantly from a middle-class background. On my visits to the Centre, I did not observe any members who were visibly impoverished. Appearances may have been deceiving, for I was informed that many members have no income aside from their Old Age pensions. One member suggested that i f members' incomes are modest, they may com-pensate by paying special attention to good grooming, in order to keep up a "good front." Most members appear active and involved. They seem to have a purpose in being at the Centre (for example, to take part in organized activities such as dance classes, bingo, or crafts, chatting with friends, enjoying eating a meal, or reading a book in the Centre's library). Although not a l l members are involved in organized activity, the Centre has a purposeful atmosphere, which distinguishes i t from a drop-in Centre, 4 3 Many of the members are "regulars" who v i s i t the Centre daily. I was frequently told in interviews that the Centre i s "a way of l i f e " for many members. The pool players, for example, arrive at the Centre before i t i s unlocked i n the morning and they are the last to leave in the afternoon, A member observed: Many members are absolutely lost on Saturday and holidays when the Centre i s closed. A l l your friends are members. Another said, I've heard some members say 'coming here i s a way to get through the day.' That's rather sad. D. Purpose and Program The purpose of Silver Harbour, as specified i n Article 2 of the Centre's Constitution i s : a) To endeavour to provide such services and act i v i t i e s as may be deemed beneficial to the welfare of elderly people. b) To own, operate, lease or manage such lands and premises as may be i n the control of the Society from time to time. (Silver Harbour Manor Society Constitution, Article 2 , ( 1 9 7 3 ) ) . Silver Harbour i s open from 9 * 0 0 a.m. to 4 : 1 5 P.m. from Monday to Friday and from 1 : 3 0 to 3>30 p.m., on a drop-in basis, on Sunday. Silver Harbour i s a multipurpose Centre, offering a broad spectrum of act i v i t i e s and services. Examples include: organized a c t i v i t i e s - such as dance classes, crafts, bingo, and keep-fit classes, educational experiences - such as French and Spanish lessons, v i s i t s to the theatre, and lectures by guest speakers, 44 trips - day trips as well as longer excursions, to places such as Reno, services - such as counselling, income tax assis-tance, housing registry, legal advice, and com-munity health services, nutrition - snacks, refreshments, and a hot, nutri-tional noon meal can be purchased at modest prices in the Centre's cafeteria, special events - such as sales, bazaars, dances, a Hawaiian Luau, an annual Mother's Day Pancake Breakfast, and Christmas dinner. The Centre i s also a f f i l i a t e d with the Federated Legislative Council of Senior Citizens of B.C. (F.L.C.), an umbrella group for Senior Citizens organizations that seek various benefits for Senior Citizens from Govern-ments . A l l of the members whom I spoke to supported a broad base for programming. As one of them said, with evident satisfaction, We serve the whole person here—physical and emo-tional. The only need we don't serve i s sp i r i t u a l . But there are lots of churches near here to look after that. E, Administration Silver Harbour i s administered by i t s own Non-Profit Society. I t has thirteen member Board of Directors, which i s responsible for the Centre's policy, major financial decisions, and the management of the f a c i l i t y . Seven of the Board positions, those of the Society officers, are open to Centre members only. These officers are elected to office by the Centre's general membership. The remaining six Board positions,v, those of the community members, are f i l l e d by younger adults from the community. As noted previously, community members are not Centre members and are not elected by the general membership. Rather, theycsare invited 45 to serve by the Board. They are chosen mainly for their knowledge and expertise and for their potential influence within the community and with Governments, Silver Harbour presently has the services of the Comptroller of the P.N.E., who serves as Treasurer, and a North Vancouver Alderman, who besides having political influence, is also a lawyer and can assist the Centre in legal matters. Virtually a l l publications on Senior Cen-tres recommend that younger community members be included on a Centre's governing Board.. Although Silver Harbour operates under the philosophy that the Centre should be "for seniors, by seniors," the Executive Director and older Board members at Silver Harbour express gratitude for having community members. One member said: Our community members are very busy people. We don't usually get a l l of them out for a meeting, but we appreciate their dedication and a l l the help they give us. Another member, who supported the right of older-adults to have a say in the planning of their affairs, had this to say of community Board members: I shudder to think what we'd do without them. There's a lot of money involved in this oper-ation. We may have the odd retired accountant here, but most people are unaware of money mat-ters. We need community members to help us run the Centre in a businesslike way. The high value placed on community members is attested to by the fact that when Silver Harbour f i r s t began, i t had six Centre members (Society officers) and seven community members on its Board, Centre members were satisfied with this arrangement. It was a community member, not a Centre member who suggested that the Constitution and By-laws be changed to provide more member representation on the Board, 46 The Silver Harbour Society employs an Executive Director who is responsible to the Board at a l l times. The Executive Director's respon-si b i l i t i e s are mainly administrative, and cover such; areas as supervising staff, assisting with program planning, maintaining liaison with other community groups, and doing budgeting and purchasing, In addition to the Executive Director, the Centre employs five other full-time and two half-time staff (excluding maintenance personnel). The staff assists with the Centre's activity programs, office and administra-tive duties, and kitchen services. The Centre relies heavily upon the efforts of member volunteers for it s operation. Each volunteer i s part of a program committee. Program committees are headed by "convenors" who are elected by the general membership at the Centre's Annual General Meeting. Provided that a com-mittee does not contravene Centre policy or attempt to use more than i t s share of the Centre's resources, i t i s virtually free to do its own plan-ning. Convenors meet monthly to report on earnings their programs have generated and to discuss matters relating to the Centre and i t s program-ming. At present, Silver Harbour has approximately two hundred active volunteers. The Executive Director proudly states, We suffer from the opposite problem of most Centres, Rather than having too few volunteers, we have (in some program areas) too many, The Centre's policy is to use member instructors for i t s programs, whenever possible. If qualified and willing members cannot be found,. the services of outside instructors from Community Colleges and other organizations are sought. Unless outside instructors are funded from 47 other sources, the Silver Harbour Society i s not able to pay instructors for their services. The Executive Director observes, We couldn't pay some instructors and not pay others. That would be a situation inviting problems. The bulk of operational funding for the Centre i s provided by a Grant from the Provincial Ministry of Human Resources, While the Grant has been increased each sear, i t has not kept pace with the rise in the cost of l i v i n g . As w i l l be noted later i n the thesis, this situation creates some problems for planning; however, i t challenges the resource-fulness of members i n raising funds. In addition to receiving the Provin-c i a l Grant, Silver Harbour members also contribute to the Centre's opera-tional revenue with proceeds from special events, program fees, and other a c t i v i t i e s . The proportion of the member-raised funds has risen from less than a third of the Centre's annual operating revenue i n 1974, to over 45% in 1980. 411 SENIOR CENTRE A. Historical Overview Like Silver Harbour, the 411 Senior Centre was initia t e d by a dedi-cated group of senior citizens; however, i t had to go through a "growing phase" before i t became a self-governing organization. The f i r s t efforts to get the Centre established occurred i n 1971, when members of the Senior Citizens Association of B.C. became concerned that there was no place in downtown Vancouver where a senior from out-of-town could go to rest and have light refreshments while on a v i s i t to the c i t y . Three members of the Association formed a committee to petition the Provincial Govern-ment for assistance in establishing a small downtown senior drop-in Centre. 48 The Government met their request and provided a small space for the Centre on the ground floor of what was then a Provincial Government office building at 411 Dunsmuir Street. Renovations for the Centre were started in the summer of 1972 and the facility was opened in December of that year. From its modest beginnings, the Centre had a slow, but steady growth. It was ©originally coordinated by an employee of the Provincial Division on Aging and staffed by older volunteers. It functioned as a place where "any senior who dropped in" could purchase tea and snacks. Requests for more substantial and nutritious fare became frequent and in 1973, a full-time cook was hired to provide the Centre's patrons with sand-wiches, soup, and an inexpensive hot noon meal. Shortly after, the Centre began offering a limited range of activities, suchr>as carpet bowling, bingo, discussion groups, and crafts. The number of staff, the range of programming, the size of the membership, and the physical space available for use by the Centre have increased steadily ever since, A major change in the Centre's adminis-trative structure occurred in 1977, when the Centre was registered as a non-profit Society, Following this change, the Centre was no longer under the administration of a Provincial Government Department, but became a self-governing organization. B. Building and Physical Environment The 411 facility provides a sharp;, contrast to that of Silver Harbour. Rather than occupying a new building, specially designed and constructed as a Centre, i t is housed in an old four-story building which was constructed in 1914 by a labour organization. The building served as a technical school in the 1920's, a centre for unemployment relief in the 49 1930's, and then as the home of various Municipal and Provincial Govern-ment agencies from the 194-0 's to the 1970's. When the Centre was estab-lished i n 1972, the building contained a number of Provincial Government Agencies, with the most important for seniors and the development of the 411 Centre being the Division on Aging. These agencies slowly began to move out after 1972, and by 1978, the 4 l l Senior Centre was the sole occupant of the building. The 411 building i s owned by the Provincial Government and managed by theBB.C, Building Management Corporation. The 4 l l Society i s granted free use of the basement and f i r s t two floors. It i s also provided with free building maintenance services. As the 411 building was not specifically designed to serve as a Senior Centre, i t i s not as attractive or appropriate for i t s purpose as the Silver Harbour f a c i l i t y . Like Silver Harbour's f a c i l i t y , however, the 411 building i s reasonably accessible to seniors who have problems with walking, and climbing stairs, Its entrance i s at street level and i t contains an elevator and washrooms for handicapped people,? In addition, a number of renovations have been carried out which have helped to make the building more suitable for use as a Centre. The major renovations include the establishment of a men's woodworking shop, a large institutional-type kitchen, a dining area, and a medical centre. Members of the Centre's Board and operating committee kept the Government informed about the need for an adequate Centre for seniors, and were thus instrumental in gaining Provincial Government funds to undertake the recent renovations. They also made suggestions as to what form the renovations should take. In addition, they and other Centre 5 0 members were successful in acquiring Grants from such sources as the New Horizons Program, which enabled the Centre to purchase a printing press and other equipment for its programs. The downtown location of 411 contrasts with the suburban settings of Silver Harbour and Murdoch Centres. The location has a number of advantages. First, i t is central, making i t convenient for older adults who live in the downtown area and for other seniors who are downtown to shop or to keep appointments. Second, i t is on a city bus route (Dunsmuir Street) and is only a block away from the bus station. It is therefore easily reached by local seniors, as well as by those from out of town. Third, the building itself is familiar to many older people, as i t has contained agencies and services for seniors since 1947. As noted earlier, the most recent of these agencies was the Division on Aging, Older adults had visited the Division on Aging for information on pension benefits, for bus passes, to see a counsellor, and for various other services. Older adults appreciate familiar environments. Thus when the 411 Centre was established, i t had, in effect, a "built-in" clientele. Despite these advantages, the Centre's location has drawbacks as well. Perhaps the greatest drawback is its close proximity to numerous rooming houses, hostels, "seedy" hotels, and beer parlours. Based on my conversations with Centre members and my personal observations at the Cen-tre, I suspect some older people may feel nervous about coming to 411. For example, one member who resides in the area noted, This is a rough part of town. Four people have been killed in the hotel around the corner in the past two months. Another said, Some of the people from around here use pretty foul 5 1 language, Old people don't like that,* Also, during one of my visits a large, inebriated man who appeared to be in his 20's entered the lobby of the Centre and began verbally abusing and physically threatening the members present. A Centre member calmly reasoned with the man and persuaded him to leave without incident. The experience was clearly upsetting to some members, however, and i t illustrates a type of problem for planning a successful, enjoyable pro-gram not faced at suburban centres, such as Silver Harbour and Murdoch. C, Membership and Social Environment The 411 Centre has the same membership policy as Silver Harbour, admitting individdals sixty years and over, and their spouses. Younger people with handicaps have also been admitted upon the recommendation of a social worker or doctor. In mid-1980, the Centre's membership was approximately 1,600. 411's clientele is much more diverse than that of Silver Harbour, coming from a variety of residential locations, income brackets, and edu-cational and social backgrounds. Although the Centre was originally established to serve out-of-town seniors visiting downtown Vancouver, i t has attracted a large number of older adults (predominantly male) who reside in hostels, old hotels, and rooming houses near the Centre, I found that some people I interviewed at Silver Harbour and Murdoch had an image of the 411 members as "those poor old souls who need a place to come out of the rain," The members and staff at 411 are conscious of the concept others have of the Centre and its clientele. The former Program •"-Judging from the vocabulary of some of the members I spoke with and over-heard at 411, not a l l old people would object to "foul language". 52 A s s i s t a n t , f o r e x a m p l e , t o l d m e a s t a n d i n g j o k e r e g a r d i n g t h e C e n t r e ' s i m a g e s B r o c k H o u s e ( a S e n i o r C e n t r e i n V a n c o u v e r ' s a f f l u e n t P o i n t G r e y a r e a , w h i c h h a s m a n y w e l l - e d u c a t e d ; a n d p r o s p e r o u s m e m b e r s ) i s t h e C a d i l l a c , S i l v e r H a r b o u r i s t h e T h u n d e r b i r d , a n d w e ' r e t h e V o l k s w a g e n . D e s p i t e t h e m a n y m e m b e r s w h o l i v e i n t h e d o w n t o w n a r e a , 4 1 1 ' s m e m -b e r s h i p i s d r a w n f r o m t h r o u g h o u t t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r r e g i o n . S o m e r e s i d e i n a f f l u e n t n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , s u c h a s S h a u g h n e s s y a n d K e r r i s d a l e : a n d t h e C e n t r e ' s o l d e s t m e m b e r , a n i n e t y - s i x - y e a r - o l d m a n , t r a v e l s t o 4 1 1 e v e r y d a y b y b u s f r o m h i s h o m e i n N e w W e s t m i n s t e r . I n t h e p a s t t w o y e a r s , a n i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r o f E a s t I n d i a n s h a v e j o i n e d t h e C e n t r e . W h e r e a s i n 19?8» t h e C e n t r e h a d f i v e m e m b e r s f r o m t h e E a s t I n d i a n c o m m u -n i t y , i t p r e s e n t l y h a s o v e r 200. A p r o m i n e n t p e r s o n i n t h e E a s t I n d i a n c o m m u n i t y t o l d m e t h a t h e e x p e c t s t h a t o v e r 500 m e m b e r s o f h i s c o m m u n i t y s o o n w i l l b e a t t e n d i n g a t t h e C e n t r e . O n e C e n t r e m e m b e r s a i d , W e ' r e a r e a l m e l t i n g p o t h e r e . A n o t h e r s a i d , T h e o n l y o n e s w h o m i g h t n o t c o m e h e r e a r e t h o s e t o o d a r n e d s n o o t y t o c o m e . W e w o u l d n ' t w a n t t h e m , a n y w a y . T h e a t m o s p h e r e a t 4 1 1 r e s e m b l e s t h a t o f a d r o p - i n C e n t r e m o r e t h a n a n a c t i v i t y C e n t r e . M a n y m e m b e r s a t 4 1 1 c o m e t o s i t , n o t t o e n g a g e i n o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t i e s o r o t h e r p r o g r a m s . T h e f a c t t h a t p e o p l e " s i t " d o e s n o t m e a n t ^ e y a r e i n a c t i v e i n a l l r e s p e c t s . F o r e x a m p l e , " p e o p l e w a t c h -i n g " c a n b e a n a c t i v e p a s t i m e i n i t s o w n r i g h t , a l t h o u g h i t m a y b e a n n o y i n g t o t h o s e w h o a r e w a t c h e d . T h i s a n n o y i n g a s p e c t w a s r e v e a l e d i n a s t u d y o f m e m b e r s ' a t t i t u d e s a t a l a r g e A m e r i c a n S e n i o r C e n t r e , T h e s t u d y f o u n d t h e p r e s e n c e o f " l o b b y s i t t e r s " a n d " g o s s i p s " t o b e a m o n g t h e 53 m a j o r c o m p l a i n t s v o i c e d b y m e m b e r s ( C a r p , 1976). T h e P a s t P r e s i d e n t o f 4 1 1 i s c o n c e r n e d t h a t t h e C e n t r e ' s " s e e m i n g l y " p a s s i v e m e m b e r s a r e n ' t e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e " f u l l b e n e f i t s " o f t h e C e n t r e . H e t h u s o f f e r e d s t u d e n t s w o r k i n g a t t h e C e n t r e o n a s u m m e r p r o j e c t a d o l l a r f o r e v e r y " s i t t e r " t h e y c o u l d e n c o u r a g e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a w a l k i n g t o u r . A f t e r s i x w e e k s , h e h a d o n l y p a r t e d w i t h o n e d o l l a r . W h i l e 4 1 1 h a s a n u m b e r o f c o n s p i c u o u s l y p a s s i v e m e m b e r s , i t a l s o h a s m a n y a c t i v e a n d e n e r g e t i c m e m b e r s . N o t o n l y a r e m a n y / m e m b e r s i n v o l v e d i n o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t i e s , b u t t h e y a l s o e n g a g e i n s p o n t a n e o u s a c t i v i t i e s . F o r e x a m p l e , o n t h r e e o f m y v i s i t s t o t h e C e n t r e , a m e m b e r s t a r t e d p l a y i n g t h e p i a n o , t h e r e b y s p a r k i n g i m p r o m p t u s i n g - a l o n g s . D u r i n g a m o n t h l y B i r t h d a y P a r t y f o r m e m b e r s , a n o l d e r w o m a n g o t u p a n d d i d a n e n e r g e t i c j i g , r e c e i v i n g h o o t s a n d a p p l a u s e f r o m t h o s e i n a t t e n d a n c e . A l t h o u g h I o b s e r v e d s o m e i n s t a n c e s o f r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e ( w h i c h I w i l l d i s c u s s i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r ) , t h e m a i n i m p r e s s i o n o f m e m b e r s ' a t t i t u d e s I g o t f r o m m y v i s i t s t o 4 1 1 w a s o n e o f a c c e p t a n c e . T h e c l i e n t e l e w a s d i v e r s e i n t e r m s o f a g e , l i f e s t y l e , s o c i a l c l a s s , a n d i n t e r e s t s ; h o w e v e r , t h e y g e n e r a l l y a p p e a r e d t o a c c e p t o t h e r m e m b e r s a n d w h a t t h o s e o t h e r s c h o s e t o d o o r n o t t o d o , a t t h e C e n t r e . D . P u r p o s e a n d P r o g r a m T h e o b j e c t s o f t h e 4 1 1 S o c i e t y a r e v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f S i l v e r H a r b o u r : a ) T h e S o c i e t y i s a n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n . b ) T o e n d e a v o u r t o p r o v i d e s u c h r e c r e a t i o n a l , c u l t u r a l , a n d c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s a n d a c t i v i t i e s a s m a y b e ^ . d e e m e d n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e w e l f a r e o r e n j o y m e n t o f e l d e r l y p e o p l e . 54 c) To own, or operate, or manage such lands and premises as may he in the control of the Society from time to time, (411 Society Constitution. Article 2. ( 1 9 7 ? ) ) . The Society has also published a position paper, which states: The purpose and goals of a Centre should be based on the belief that programs and services are meant to enrich lives; that associations and activities are to help older citizens f u l f i l l their basic needs. Like Silver Harbour, the 411 Centre is a multipurpose Centre, offer-ing a broad program of activities and services. It is open seven days a week from 8:45 a.m. to 4 : 1 5 p.m. It offers: organized activities - such as sewing classes, chess and cards, trips - free monthly bus trips - Longer excursions are available at a modest price, educational experiences - such as discussion groups and English for New Canadians classes, personal services 35 such as counselling, legal advice, assistance with pension forms, income tax assistance, and medical services. Unlike Silver Harbour, the 411 Centre is not affiliated with the Federated Legislative Council of Senior Citizens of B.C., or any other organization directly involved in seeking social action for senior c i t i -zens. Members and staff with whom I spoke at 411 were adamant that the Centre must be non-political. They argued that as the 411 Society relies upon the Provincial Government for its operating budget and building, i t would be neither appropriate nor wise for the Centre to get involved in political issues. One member said, It's important for people, to fight to ensure that seniors get the benefits they deserve. I'm a l l for i t , as long as they don't bring the Centre into i t . 55 The program at the 411 Centre places greater emphasis on services than the activity-oriented Silver Harbour Centre's program. Much of i t s program is open to a l l seniors, not only to Centre members. For example, the Information and Referral Services, which are located on the second floor of the building, received nearly 10,000 telephone enquiries and over 4,000 office visits from B.C. seniors in i t s f i r s t seven months of existence. The Talkfest, a weekly program which features guests speaking on a variety of topics, is also open to any senior who cares to attend, It is given weekly publicity in a local newspaper, and though i t got off to a slow start, i t has attracted increasing numbers of older adults as the sessions have progressed. Interested members are presently working with the Community Education Division of the Vancouver School Board to establish a Downtown Learning Centre at 411, which w i l l offer educational programs to seniors. Other plans for the Centre include securing the services of a Podiatrist and a Dentist in the near future. The staff and Centre members I interviewed at 411 a l l spoke proudly of the program offered at the Centre. A Board member who might have had a "bigger is better" philosophy, said, We're the largest multiservice Centre in B.C. (in terms of services offered and numbers using them), We aim to be the biggest in Canada. E. Administration As noted, the 411 Centre was originally administered by the Provin-cial Government's Division on Aging and then by the Vancouver Resources Board under the Ministry of Human Resources. Upon becoming a non-profit Society in 19?7» the Centre adopted an administrative structure similar to that of Silver Harbour. Tfte Centre is administered by a Board of 56 D i r e c t o r s , c o n s i s t i n g o f f i f t e e n m e m b e r s . F o u r o f f i c e r s a n d t h r e e m e m b e r s - a t - l a r g e a r e e l e c t e d b y t h e C e n t r e ' s m e m b e r s h i p a n d a r e m e m b e r s o f t h e C e n t r e . E i g h t c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s a r e i n v i t e d t o s e r v e b y t h e B o a r d . ; A s w i t h t h e S i l v e r H a r b o u r B o a r d , t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f 4 l l ' s B o a r d c o n s i s t m a i n l y o f s e t t i n g p o l i c y a n d m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s o n m a j o r e x p e n d i -t u r e s b y t h e S o c i e t y , T h e d a y t o d a y d e c i s i o n s w h i c h a f f e c t t h e C e n t r e a n d i t s p r o g r a m m i n g a r e h a n d l e d b y t h e O p e r a t i n g C o m m i t t e e . T h e O p e r a t i n g C o m m i t t e e i s c o m -p o s e d o f t h e s e v e n e l e c t e d B o a r d m e m b e r s a n d t h e C o o r d i n a t o r s o f p r o g r a m a c t i v i t i e s . U n l i k e t h e C o n v e n o r s o f p r o g r a m c o m m i t t e e s a t S i l v e r H a r b o u r , 4 1 1 ' s a c t i v i t y C o o r d i n a t o r s a r e n o t e l e c t e d b y t h e C e n t r e ' s g e n e r a l m e m b e r s h i p ; t h e y a r e c h o s e n b y t h e m e m b e r s o f e a c h p r o g r a m a c t i v i t y g r o u p . T h e O p e r a t i n g C o m m i t t e e m e e t s m o n t h l y t o h e a r r e p o r t s f r o m t h e C o o r d i n a -t o r s o n t h e i r p r o g r a m s a n d t o d i s c u s s i s s u e s a f f e c t i n g t h e C e n t r e a n d i t s p r o g r a m m i n g . I w a s r e p e a t e d l y t o l d b y s t a f f a n d m e m b e r s t h a t " i t ' s t h e O p e r a t i n g C o m m i t t e e t h a t r u n s 4 1 1 , n o t t h e B o a r d . " T h e C e n t r e ' s p a i d s t a f f i n c l u d e s a n E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , a P r o g r a m A s s i s t a n t , a B o o k k e e p e r - R e c e p t i o n i s t , a n d f o u r k i t c h e n e m p l o y e e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t w o f u l l - t i m e a n d t w o p a r t - t i m e s t a f f a r e e m p l o y e d t o o p e r a t e 4 1 1 ' s I n f o r m a t i o n a n d R e f e r r a l S e r v i c e s . T h e C e n t r e ' s E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e B o a r d a n d i s e n t r u s t e d w i t h t h e g e n e r a l m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e C e n t r e ' s b u s i n e s s , p r o g r a m s , a n d s e r v i c e s . T h e P r o g r a m A s s i s t a n t , u n d e r t h e d i r e c t f o n o f t h e E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d o p e r a t i o n o f t h e C e n t r e ' s p r o g r a m . A l l s t a f f a t 4 1 1 m u s t c o m p l y w i t h t h e C e n t r e ' s p h i l o s o p h y t h a t t h e 57 C e n t r e ' s p l a n n i n g s h o u l d b e d o n e " ' " f o r s e n i o r s , b y s e n i o r s , w i t h s t a f f a s s i s t a n c e , " T h e j o b d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e P r o g r a m A s s i s t a n t a r t i c u l a t e s t h i s p h i l o s o p h y : M e m b e r s a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p a n d v o l u n t e e r h e l p . S t a f f a r e e m p l o y e d a s f a c i l i t a t o r s r a t h e r t h a n t e a c h e r s . T h e 4 1 1 C e n t r e i s s i m i l a r t o S i l v e r H a r b o u r i n t h e r e l i a n c e i t p l a c e s u p o n m e m b e r v o l u n t e e r s a n d t h e " f a c i l i t a t o r " r o l e i t a s s i g n s t o i t s s t a f f . W h e n e v e r p o s s i b l e , t h e 4 1 1 C e n t r e u s e s m e m b e r s t o l e a d p r o -g r a m s , r a t h e r t h a n l o o k i n g t o o u t s i d e i n s t r u c t o r s t o d o t h e j o b . I t a l s o r e l i e s u p o n v o l u n t e e r s t o d o " b u l l w o r k " s u c h a s w i p i n g t a b l e s a n d s t a c k i n g c h a i r s . I n M a r c h , 1 9 8 0 , 1 1 3 m e m b e r s s e r v e d a s v o l u n t e e r s a t t h e C e n t r e , d e v o t i n g 2 , 1 0 1 h o u r s t o t h e p l a n n i n g a n d o p e r a t i o n o f 4 1 1 . S t a f f a n d m e m b e r s w e r e p r o u d o f t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s . O n e m e m b e r s a i d , W e o p e r a t e a s a t e a m h e r e . T h a t ' s w h a t m a k e s t h e C e n t r e w o r k . T h e b u l k o f o p e r a t i o n a l f u n d i n g f o r t h e 4 1 1 C e n t r e c o m e s f r o m a G r a n t f r o m t h e M i n i s t r y o f H u m a n R e s o u r c e s . I t w o u l d b e m i s l e a d i n g t o c o m p a r e t h e s i z e o f t h e S i l v e r H a r b o u r a n d 4 1 1 G r a n t s o n t h e b a s i s o f a m e m b e r - d o l l a r r a t i o , a s t h e C e n t r e s ' c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n d t h e p u r p o s e , s c o p e , a n d n a t u r e o f t h e i r p r o g r a m s d i f f e r . T h e r e f o r e , n o c o m p a r i s o n i s o f f e r e d . M o r e w i l l b e s a i d a b o u t t h e f u n d i n g a d e q u a c y a n d i t s e f f e c t s o n p r o g r a m m i n g a n d p l a n n i n g i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r . I n a d d i t i o n t o i t s o p e r a t i n g G r a n t , t h e 4 1 1 C e n t r e h o l d s s p e c i a l f u n d - r a i s i n g e v e n t s , s u c h a s b a z a a r s a n d W h i t e E l e p h a n t s a l e s . H o w e v e r , i t r e l i e s u p o n t h e m f o r o p e r a t i n g f u n d s t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e t h a n S i l v e r H a r b o u r . M e m b e r s a n d s t a f f e x p r e s s e d g r a t i t u d e f o r t h e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t g i v e n t o t h e m b y t h e M i n i s t r y o f H u m a n R e s o u r c e s , T h e y r e g a r d e d i t a s a 5 8 key factor in enabling 411 to carry out i t s program as i t does. A Board member acknowledged, We wouldn't be able to offer the services we do without MHR funding. Another said: The money frees us. Directors at some other Centres spend half their time in search of funds, We can devote a l l our energies to doing work for the Centre. MURDOCH CENTRE A. Historical Overview Unlike the Silver Harbour and 4 l l Centres, Murdoch Centre in Richmond was not initiated or planned by Senior Citizens, Rather, i t was estab-lished by the Richmond Municipal Council and the Department of Leisure Services. Prior to 1 9 7 5 , Richmond's elderly population had limited opportuni-ties to participate in organized activities. Although they could take part in some programs for seniors in community centres, such as carpet bowling and bingo, these programs were only scheduled for a few hours each week. Some older adults, of course, were able to participate in programs with younger adults, and many have probably continued to do so. However, roughly two-thirds of the older people I interviewed claimed that older adults generally prefer to participate in programs or activities . with people in their own age group, I was also told that, either due to poor health or for psychological reasons, many seniors would feel intim-idated joining in activities with younger adults, If these statements are indicative of most older people's viewpoints, the needs of Richmond's seniors for recreational and social opportunities were not being 59 sat is f ied . Richmond's Municipal Council and Department of Leisure Services were sensitive to these unmet needs and they realized that as the older adult population was steadily increasing, the problem would only become greater. In the words of a Department of Leisure Services employee, the Department and Council realized that they had "a moral obligation to do something for seniors." Thus?.,the Leisure Services Department, with Council's support, was spurred on to establishing a separate f a c i l i t y with i t s own program for Richmond seniors. The f a c i l i t y that the Department chose was a two-story Church H a l l , which was under construction at the time by the Brighouse United Church. The Department helped secure a grant for the Church to assist with con-struction costs and i t was able to lease the building for f ive days per week for use by Murdoch Centre. The Centre began operation in October, 1975. During Murdoch Centre's f i r s t years of operation, i t s program expanded and the membership increased steadily. I n i t i a l l y , the Centre offered a small range of " t radit ional" act i v i t ies for seniors, such as carpet bowling and bingo. By 1979» however, i t was offering a much larger program, providing a wide variety of ac t i v i t ies for i t s members. And while i t s membership stood at 40 after s ix months of operation, the figure had increased to over 700 by mid-1979, These growth factors made-the management of Murdoch Centre a demand-ing and d i f f i c u l t job. In 1979i therefore, the Assistant Director* of *A staff person hired by the Department of Leisure Services to work "on s i te" at the Centre and perform managerial duties. 60 t h e C e n t r e e n d e a v o u r e d t o i n i t i a t e a c h a n g e i n t h e o p e r a t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s o f t h e C e n t r e w h i c h , s h e h o p e d , w o u l d h e l p h e r b o t h t o d o h e r j o b m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y a n d t o b e r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e n e e d s o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m p l e x C e n t r e o r g a n i z a t i o n . S h e b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r t w e l v e s e n i o r c i t i z e n s f r o m t h e c o m m u n i t y a n d w i t h t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e , d r a f t e d a s e t o f o p e r a t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s w h i c h w e r e t o s e r v e a s a " t r i a l " C o n s t i t u t i o n a n d B y - l a w s f o r M u r d o c h C e n t r e . T h e g u i d e l i n e s c a l l e d f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a n E x e c u t i v e A d v i s o r y B o a r d c o m p o s e d o f s e v e n C e n t r e m e m b e r s , C e n t r e m e m b e r s a p p r o v e d t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a n d B y - l a w s o n a o n e - y e a r t r i a l b a s i s a t M u r d o c h ' s 1979 A n n u a l G e n e r a l M e e t i n g . A t t h e s a m e m e e t i n g , t h e y a p p r o v e d t h e s l a t e o f s e v e n i n a u g u r a l B o a r d m e m b e r s p r e s e n t e d b y t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r . T h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e n e w o p e r a t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s w i l l b e a s s e s s e d a n d , i f n e c e s s a r y , r e v i s e d l a t e r t h i s y e a r . T h e C e n t r e p l a n s t o a p p l y f o r n o n -p r o f i t s t a t u s i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e , b u t w i l l c o n t i n u e t o b e a d m i n i s t e r e d b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f L e i s u r e S e r v i c e s . B . B u i l d i n g a n d P h y s i c a l E n v i r o n m e n t R i c h m o n d , t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y i n w h i c h M u r d o c h C e n t r e i s l o c a t e d , i s a s u b u r b o f V a n c o u v e r w h i c h h a s e x p e r i e n c e d d r a m a t i c g r o w t h s i n c e t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r . I t i s r o u g h l y t h e s a m e s i z e a s N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , w i t h a p o p u -l a t i o n o f n e a r l y 100,000. T h e b u i l d i n g i n w h i c h M u r d o c h C e n t r e o p e r a t e s i s s i t u a t e d o f f a s m a l l s i d e s t r e e t , r o u g h l y h a l f a b l o c k f r o m N u m b e r T h r e e R o a d ( a m a j o r f o u r - l a n e t h o r o u g h f a r e ) a n d o v e r t w o b l o c k s f r o m t h e l a r g e R i c h m o n d C e n t r e s h o p p i n g c o m p l e x . M u r d o c h i s l e s s a c c e s s i b l e t o m e m b e r s w h o u s e p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t h a n a r e S i l v e r H a r b o u r a n d 4 1 1 , a s t h e n e a r e s t b u s s t o p 61 i s a b l o c k a w a y o n N u m b e r T h r e e R o a d . H o w e v e r , t h e C e n t r e i s c o n v e n i e n t f o r t h o s e m e m b e r s w h o l i v e n e a r b y a n d c a n w a l k t o t h e C e n t r e , a s i t i s s i t u a t e d o n a f l a t s i t e a n d h a s a n e n t r a n c e a t g r o u n d l e v e l . I t i s a l s o c o n v e n i e n t f o r m e m b e r s w i t h c a r s , a s i t t h a s a s m a l l p a r k i n g l o t w i t h i n t h i r t y f e e t o f t h e C e n t r e ' s e n t r a n c e . P a r k i n g s p a c e s w e r e a v a i l a b l e i n t h e l o t e a c h t i m e I v i s i t e d t h e C e n t r e ( s i x t i m e s d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f m y r e s e a r c h a n d t w i c e o n p r e v i o u s o c c a s i o n s ) ; h o w e v e r , I w a s t o l d t h a t t h e l o t s o m e t i m e s b e c o m e s f u l l w h e n t h e p r e - s c h o o l o r c h u r c h a d j a c e n t t o t h e C e n t r e h o l d s a n e v e n t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h a C e n t r e p r o g r a m . P a r k i n g w a s m o r e o f a p r o b l e m a t S i l v e r H a r b o u r a n d 4 1 1 t h a n i t w a s a t M u r d o c h . L i k e t h e S i l v e r H a r b o u r b u i l d i n g , M u r d o c h ' s f a c i l i t y i s a m o d e r n s t r u c t u r e , b u i l t i n 1975. H o w e v e r , i t i s n o t a s I d e a l l y s u i t e d t o f u n c t i o n a s a S e n i o r C e n t r e a s i s t h e S i l v e r H a r b o u r f a c i l i t y , s i n c e i t w a s s e c u r e d b y L e i s u r e S e r v i c e s a f t e r c o n s t r u c t i o n h a d b e g u n o n i t a n d C e n t r e m e m b e r s d i d n o t h a v e i n p u t i n t o i t s d e s i g n . I n a d d i t i o n , i t w a s i n t e n d e d f o r u s e b y a l l a g e g r o u p s , n o t o n l y s e n i o r c i t i z e n s . T h e m o s t o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n M u r d o c h ' s b u i l d i n g a n d t h e S i l v e r H a r b o u r f a c i l i t y ( a n d e v e n t h e r e n o v a t e d 4 1 1 f a c i l i t y ) i s t h a t i t d o e s n o t h a v e a p r o p e r l o u n g e o r d i n i n g a r e a w h e r e m e m b e r s c a n s i t a n d c a s u a l l y s o c i a l i z e . T h e c l o s e s t t h i n g t o a l o u n g e t h a t M u r d o c h h a s i s a m a k e s h i f t m e e t i n g a r e a i n t h e C e n t r e ' s m a i n l o b b y c o n s i s t i n g o f a g r o u p i n g o f a c o u c h a n d c o m f o r t a b l e c h a i r s . A n o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n M u r d o c h ' s f a c i l -i t y a n d t h o s e o f S i l v e r H a r b o u r a n d 4 1 1 i s t h a t i t d o e s n o t c o n t a i n s p e * c i a l d e s i g n f e a t u r e s f o r s e n i o r o r t h e h a n d i c a p p e d . A s t h e . b u i l d i n g c o n t a i n s n o e l e v a t o r s a n d m o s t p r o g r a m s a r e h e l d o n t h e s e c o n d f l o o r , o l d e r a d u l t s w h o e x p e r i e n c e p r o b l e m s w i t h w a l k i n g a n d c l i m b i n g s t a i r s 62 p r o b a b l y h a v e d i f f i c u l t y i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e C e n t r e ' s a c t i v i t i e s . T h e f a c t t h a t t h e f a c i l i t y i s l e a s e d , r a t h e r t h a n o w n e d b y t h e M u n i c -i p a l i t y o r M u r d o c h ' s s p o n s o r i n g a g e n c y , p l a c e s r e s t r i c t i o n s o n w h a t c a n b e p l a n n e d a t t h e C e n t r e . T h e b u i l d i n g p o l i c y i s s e t b y i t s o w n e r s , t h e B r i g h o u s e U n i t e d C h u r c h , a n d M u r d o c h C e n t r e m u s t a c c o m m o d a t e i t s p r o g r a m t o t h i s p o l i c y . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e C e n t r e ' s A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r a n d a n u m b e r o f m e m b e r s c o m p l a i n e d t h a t M u r d o c h ' s d a n c e s w e r e n ' t s a t i s f a c t o r y , a s c h u r c h p o l i c y p r o h i b i t s t h e u s e o f d a n c e w a x o n t h e f l o o r a n d t h e c o n s u m p t i o n o f a l c o h o l o n t h e p r e m i s e s . M e m b e r s s t r e s s e d t h e f i r s t p o i n t , w h i l e t h e l a t t e r s e e m e d p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t t o t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r : T h e p r o b l e m w i t h o u r d a n c e s i s t h a t w e g e t s o f e w m e n t u r n i n g o u t . T h e ' n o d r i n k i n g ' p o l i c y h u r t s . S o m e m e n w a n t a d r i n k b e f o r e d a n c i n g . T h e C e n t r e s h o u l d n ' t e n c o u r a g e d r i n k i n g , b u t i t s h o u l d a t l e a s t t r e a t m e m -b e r s a s a d u l t s a n d l e t t h e m m a k e u p t h e i r o w n m i n d s a b o u t w h e t h e r t h e y d r i n k o r n o t . A n o t h e r c o m p l a i n t a b o u t t h e l e a s i n g a r r a n g e m e n t i s t h a t o t h e r g r o u p s u s e t h e b u i l d i n g o n w e e k e n d s , w h e n t h e C e n t r e i s n o t i n o p e r a t i o n . W i t h t h e c o n s e q u e n t l a c k o f s e c u r i t y , t h e C e n t r e c a n n o t i n s t a l l e x p e n s i v e e q u i p m e n t , s u c h a s p o w e r t o o l s . A l s o , m e m b e r s m u s t c l e a n u p a f t e r p r o -g r a m s t o m a k e w a y f o r t h e g r o u p s t h a t f o l l o w . T h e y c a n n o t l e a v e p a i n t i n g s , m a c r a m e , a n d o t h e r c r a f t s o u t f o r d i s p l a y , a s c a n m e m b e r s a t S i l v e r H a r b o u r a n d 4 1 1 C e n t r e s . T h i s r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t m e m b e r s c l e a n u p a f t e r t h e m s e l v e s i s n o t o n l y i n c o n v e n i e n t , b u t i t h e l p s t o g i v e M u r d o c h a n a t m o s p h e r e o f a n o n y m i t y , s h a r p l y c o n t r a s t i n g w i t h t h e d i s t i n c t i v e , " l i v e d - i n " c h a r a c t e r o f t h e S i l v e r H a r b o u r a n d 4 1 1 C e n t r e s . T h e D e p a r t m e n t o f L e i s u r e S e r v i c e s i s a w a r e o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e M u r d o c h f a c i l i t y . I t h a s p l a n s t o b r i n g R i c h m o n d S e n i o r C i t i z e n s t o g e t h e r t o e x a m i n e t h e i r n e e d s a n d t o c o m e u p w i t h a n a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e c u r r e n t 63 arrangement. The alternative may or may not be a Senior Centre. A pen-sioners' group i n Richmond, (the O.A.P.A.), which terminated i n 19?9» l e f t $1,300. to Leisure Services to be used to carry out preliminary studies for the planning of a suitable resource for seniors. Assuming that the resource w i l l be a Senior Centre, the Assistant Director has taken Board members to v i s i t other Senior Centres i n Greater Vancouver in order to help them gather ideas for features they would like to incorporate i n their new Centre, Further action w i l l l i k e l y be taken i n late 1980. C, Membership and Social Environment As noted earlier, Murdoch Centre has experienced dramatic growth i n i t s membership i n recent years. By July, 1980, i t had over 950 members. Planning Department population projections predict that Richmond's over-55 population w i l l have increased by 69% between I976 and 1986 (Richmond ' Planning Department, 1977). Combined with trends toward earlier r e t i r e -ments and a greater over-all "leisure consciousness" i n society, these population projections suggest that Murdoch's membership w i l l continue to rise for years to come. Two types of membership are available at Murdoch Centre. The f i r s t i s Associate membership, which i s available to retired individuals 55 years and over who li v e outside of Richmond, No voting privileges are granted with this form of membership. The second i s Active membership, which carries voting privileges, and i s open to retired Richmond r e s i -dents, 55 years and over. Younger adults may become members upon the discretion of the Assistant Director, For example, two women i n their early 40's, with slight mental handicaps, were permitted to join, as 64 their parents had died and the women had been accustomed to associating with people of their parents' age. Bearing in mind that no group of older adults is homogeneous, and that individual differences always exist, Murdoch members resemble those of Silver Harbour Centre, Most are generally well-groomed and appear to come from white middle-class backgrounds. And while they represent a wide age range, members seem to be reasonably mobile and "healthy. As noted earlier, however, handicapped and less mobile seniors would exper-ience difficulties in using the Murdoch facility. The apparent health and mobility of members is therefore not surprising. From my observations, most members appear to be at the Centre to attend specific programs. Once their programs are over, they do hot linger long before leaving. Carp's (1976) study of a Senior Centre in a large Texas Senior Citizen Housing complex found that over half the member respondents used the Centre as a place for informal sociability, much as they would use their own living room, and over a quarter enjoyed going to the Centre and "just sitting." Due to the interior layout of the Murdoch facility, Murdoch members do not have the opportunity to informally socialize or "just sit", as the members of this Texas Senior Centre or Silver Harbour or 411 have. This factor may help to explain the marked "purposiveness" of Murdoch's members. A feature about Murdoch's membership, which the Assistant Director and many of the members I spoke with at the Centre identified as being positive, is that i t includes some members in their late f i f t i e s . The Assistant Director and a l l the Centre members interviewed expressed the opinion that fifty-five is a preferable minimum age for membership to 65 s i x t y . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r o b s e r v e d , F i f t y - f i v e t o s i x t y - f i v e a r e t h e g o o d v o l u n t e e r y e a r s . P e o p l e s e v e n t y a n d o v e r d e s e r v e t o s i t d o w n a n d t a k e a r e s t . ( M i n d y o u , w e h a v e s o m e e x c e l l e n t v o l u n t e e r s i n t h e i r 7 0 ' s a n d 8 0 ' s ) , A m e m b e r s t a t e d , W h e n t h e c u t o f f a g e i s f i f t y - f i v e y o u g e t a y o u n g e r , m o r e a c t i v e m e m b e r s h i p . I t g i v e s t h e C e n t r e m o r e l i f e . A n o t h e r m e m b e r n o t e d a b e n e f i t a c c r u i n g t o t h e y o u n g e r m e m b e r s t h e m s e l v e s : A b i g p r o b l e m w i t h m a n y p e o p l e i s t h a t t h e y b u i l d . t h e i r l i v e s a r o u n d t h e i r j o b s . W h e n t h e y r e t i r e , i t ' s m a j o r s h o c k . T h e y r e a l i z e t h e i r f r i e n d s w e r e a l l f r o m w o r k a n d t h e y d o n ' t k n o w h o w t o u s e t h e i r t i m e . I f t h e y c a n j o i n M u r d o c h , t h e y c a n m e e t n e w p e o p l e a n d g a i n n e w i n t e r e s t s . I t h e l p s t h e m e a s e i n t o r e t i r e m e n t . T h u s , w h i l e M u r d o c h ' s m e m b e r s h i p i s n o t v i s i b l y y o u n g e r t h a n t h a t o f S i l v e r H a r b o u r a n d 4 1 1 , i t s i n c l u s i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s b e t w e e n f i f t y - f i v e a n d s i x t y ^ e a r s o f a g e s e e m s t o b e b e n e f i c i a l b o t h t o t h e " p r e - s e n i o r " m e m b e r s a n d t o t h e o v e r a l l C e n t r e o p e r a t i o n . D . P u r p o s e a n d P r o g r a m T h e o b j e c t i v e o f M u r d o c h C e n t r e i s : T o p r o m o t e w i t h i n t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f a l l o c a t e d r e s o u r c e s y e a r r o u n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s a t i s f y i n g t h e l e i s u r e n e e d s o f s e n i o r a d u l t s i n R i c h m o n d o v e r t h e a g e o f f i f t y - f i v e . A s w e l l , t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s f o r s e n i o r a d u l t s w h e n e v e r p o s s i b l e . T o p r o v i d e s e t t i n g s i n w h i c h m e m b e r s m a y e x p e r i -e n c e a c c e p t a n c e b y o t h e r s , t h e f e e l i n g s o f b e l o n g i n g a n d r e c o g n i t i o n a s i n d i v i d u a l s o f p o s i t i v e w o r t h . ( A r t i c l e 1, M u r d o c h S e n i o r C i t i z e n C e n t r e A d v i s o r y E x e c u t i v e B o a r d C o n s t i t u t i o n , (1979)) 66 Although some services axe available at Murdoch Centre, such as Income Tax assistance, legal advice, and counselling, the Centre places fax greater emphasis on organized activities than do Silver Harbour and 411. The activities at Murdoch are varied and meant to appeal to a wide range of people. Thbse seeking physical activity can attend keep-fit classes at the Centre or play tennis and golf at other locations in Richmond. Those wanting to engage in creative pursuits can take painting, ceramics, or macrame lessons. Those seeking education and entertainment can attend plays, listen to guests speak on a variety of topics, take French lessons, or go on bus trips lasting a few hours or several days. Despite the fact that Murdoch has a games room with a three-quarter size pool table, a shuffleboard and dart board, i t does not have the programs or fac i l i t i e s for men that Silver Harbour and 411 have. In ad-dition to demographic factors, this may help to explain the predominance of women members at the Centre. Two of the men I interviewed at Murdoch spoke enviously of the fully equipped woodworking shops at other Centres. A woman I interviewed stated bluntly, It's important for the Centre to provide things for men to do. They don't want to come here and talk to a bunch of old biddies. Apart from comments about the lack of men's programming and certain "building related" complaints, most people I spoke with at Murdoch were very satisfied with the Centre's program. They saw i t as making a marked improvement in the lives of many older people. In the words of one member, Half the problem with getting old is that you don't have ongoing goals. For some, just getting through the day is a goal. This Centre has done wonders for people, giving them interests and a chance to be with others. We're treated as human beings, not old fossils. We've got a lot to be grateful for. 67 E, Administration As noted earlier, Murdoch Centre is not an autonomous organization like Silver Harbour or 411. It is administered by the Municipal Depart-ment of Leisure Services, which is responsible for determining policy, allocating funds, and preparing the annual budget. The staff person u l t i -mately responsible for seeing that Departmental policy is carried out at Murdoch Centre, and that expenditures f a l l within the budget guidelines, is the Leisure Education and Special Groups Coordinator. The Coordinator works out of the Municipal Hall and ''Seniors' are only one of many special groups with which he must deal. The staff person employed to actually look after the day to day management of the Centre is the Assistant Director. She is assisted by a paid, part-time Secretary. The Assistant Director is primarily responsible for administering the Centre's budget, for supervising activ-itie s , staff, and volunteers, and for managing the Centre's premises and revenue. Working within the policy guidelines of the Leisure Services Department, she and her superior, the Leisure Education and Special Groups Coordinator, prepare the Centre's budget. Although her t i t l e i s "Assistant Director", she performs the duties of a Director. Technically she could be required to consult with the Special Groups Coordinator on every major issue. She has been granted considerable powers of discretion by the Coordinator, however, and is only"" required to consult with hint on policy and money matters. As indicated previously, a change in the organizational structure at Murdoch occurred in September, 1979 when the new "policy guidelines" and the Centre's f i r s t Executive Advisory Board were approved. The Board consists of seven Centre^members, who are elected (or w i l l be, starting 68 in 198l) by the active membership (Richmond residents). The Assistant Director is appointed to the eighth position ex officio. Murdoch's Board differs from those of Silver Harbour and 411 both in i t s responsibilities and composition. First, in terms of i t s responsi-b i l i t i e s , i t is an advisory Board, not a governing Board, Its main function is to advise the Assistant Director on the program direction for the Centre, It is also responsible for assisting in finding, hiring and paying program instructors for the Centre (preferably older adults), It does not have authority to make policy decisions and any of i t s deci-sions which contravene Departmental policy are subject to the veto power of the Assistant Director. The composition of Murdoch's Board differs from those of the Silver Harbour and 411 Boards in that i t contains no "community" representatives. Community members are primarily sought for their potential influence and their expertise. While they play an important role at Silver Harbour and 411, they are not as necessary at Murdoch. Being a part of a Municipal agency, Murdoch already has a channel to elected and Departmental decision makers, and the "expert" services, such as legal advice and accounting, are supplied by Leisure Services or another Municipal Department. Two Board members sit on the Leisure Services Advisory Committee, a group of representatives from a l l the clubs, societies, groups and leagues in Richmond registered with the Leisure Services Department, These members are able to make the concerns of Murdoch Centre known to other committee members and to the Leisure Services Department repress sentatives. Thus, while members of Murdoch Centre cannot determine Centre policy, they at least have an opportunity to communicate with and 69 possibly influence those who do set policy. Each Board member heads a committee (e.g. public relations, program, and social committees), At present, Murdoch does not have standing Pro-gram Activities Committees for a l l Centre a c t i v i t i e s . However, four activity groups effectively function as committees, planning their own programs and finding and coordinating their own volunteers. Provisions for the establishment of formal standing committees for other a c t i v i t i e s have been included i n the Centre's operational guidelines. These commit-tees w i l l be established later i n 1980, and their leaders w i l l meet jointly on a regular basis, much as the committee leaders of Silver Har-bour and 411 meet. SUMMARY This chapter has presented case studies of three Greater Vancouver Senior Centres: the Silver Harbour, 411, and Murdoch Centres. I t revealed the distinctiveness of each CentreAs historical background, building and location, membership, program, and administrative structure. Having presented these case studies, the next chapter examines the "structural" opportunities that members of the three Centres have to become involved in their Centres' planning. Chapter 5 STRUCTURAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR MEMBERS TO BECOME INVOLVED IN THE PLANNING PROCESS AT THREE CENTRES In this chapter, the "structural" opportunities for members to become involved i n the planning processes of the three Senior Centres are exam-ined. Structural opportunities refer to opportunities that are provided within the administrative structures of the Centres. The examination i s brief and does not purport to be an evaluation. Its primary purpose i s to provide the foundation for the analysis of encouraging and discouraging factors for members' involvement i n Senior Centre planning, which i s presented in the following chapter. Five areas of a Senior Centre's planning concern have been identified for the analysis. The structural opportunities for members to become involved in these planning areas at the three Centres are summarized in Table 1. By examining the table, two distinct planning models emerges the "member--planned" model, in which members have control over each of the five identified areas of planning concern, and the "agency-planned" model, i n which most of the Centre's major planning decisions are the responsibility of a parent Department or agency. The Silver Harbour and 411 Centres exemplify the "member-planned" model, while Murdoch Centre i s closer to the "agency-planned" model. MEMBER-PLANNED MODEL Structural opportunities are available to members of Silver Harbour and 411 for becoming involved i n a l l identified areas of planning at their 70 TABLE 1 STRUCTURAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR MEMBERS TO BECOME INVOLVED IN THE PLANNING PROCESS AT THREE CENTRES SILVER HARBOUR CENTRE 411 CENTRE MURDOCH CENTRE POLICY 7 Centre members & 6 Community members serve on Executive Boards Implement and effect changes i n policy 7 Centre members & 8 Community members serve on Executive Board. Implement and effect changes i n policy 7 Centre members & Assistant Director serve on Executive Advisory Board and can advise on program Vote on special resolutions to alter Constitution and By-laws (66% of a l l members present at meeting must approve change) Vote on special resolutions to alter Constitution and By-laws (75% of a l l members present must approve change) 2 representatives from Centre advise by serving on Leisure Services Advisory Committee Vote on special resolution to alter Const. & By-laws (75% of a l l members present must approve change) FINANCE Executive Board can make major financial decisions relating to Centre policy (within con-straints imposed by the Provincial Govt, funding body) Executive Board can make major financial decisions relating to Centre policy (within con-straints imposed by the Provincial Govt, funding body) Exec. Advisory Board respon-sible for allocating funds received from membership dues, program fees, profits from special events and other monies raised by Centre. No control over Budget supplied by Leisure Services TABLE 1 (Cont'd.) SILVER HARBOUR CENTRE 411 CENTRE MURDOCH CENTRE PROGRAM | Program Committee (35 Program "Convenors" at present. Number of Convenors geared to number of programs Program Activities Committees each plan their own programs and coordinate own volunteers Members suggestions to: Exec, Director; Program Coordinator; Convenors, Suggestion Box Interest sheet (to indicate interest in proposed programs) Operating Committee (7 Board Officers and at present 22 Program Coordinators. Number of Coordinators geared to number of activity groups Program Activities Committees each plan their own programs and coordinate own volunteers Member suggestions to: Exec, Director; Program Assistant; Committee leaders Interest surveys of members Executive Advisory Board suggests programs and hires and pays instructors Member suggestions to the Assistant Director; the Program Coordinator or other Board members Program evaluation forms {STAFF j Responsibility of Exec. Board The Exec, Director i s hired by and responsible to Board at a l l times. She may be entrusted to hire and supervise additional staff as authorized by Board Exec, Board's responsibility The Exec, Director i s hired by and responsible to Boardr; He i s authorized to hire and supervise additional staff No member input Responsibility of Leisure Services Department BUILDING Executive Board Executive Board Operating Committee No member input on existing f a c i l i t y as building i s leased Executive Advisory Board w i l l be involved i n planning for new Murdoch f a c i l i t y 73 Centres. Board members at the Centres are responsible for setting pol-icy, hiring and f i r i n g paid staff, and making decisions regarding major expenditures. At 4 l l the Operating Committee has considerable input into these areas as well. Seven of i t s members also serve on the Board; therefore they can voice the concerns of other Operating Committee mem-bers at Board meetings. Proposals to alter the Societies* Consti-tutions and By-laws must be put to the membership at a general or special meeting. Approval must be gained from 66% of the Silver Harbour and;75% of the kll members present at the meetings. At present, programs at Silver Harbour and 411 Centres are planned by the leaders of the programs ("Convenors" at Silver Harbour and "Coordinators" at A l l ) , in consul-tation with program participants or volunteers. Staff play a " f a c i l i t a -tor" role, assisting members in the planning. Convenors and Coordinators of a c t i v i t i e s meet monthly to report on their particular program areas and to discuss general matters concerning the Centres* programming. The Centres' memberships have an opportunity to participate in program planning by making suggestions to the Executive Directors or other staff, and to program Convenors or Coordinators, At Silver Harbour, members can participate in program planning by signing an "interest sheet," which i s posted on the Centre's bulletin board, to indicate their interest in pro-posed new programs. I f enough members sign the sheet, the new program w i l l be established. Silver Harbour members can also contribute anony-mously by placing suggestions i n a suggestion box (411 also had a Suggestion Box i n 1979» but i t was removed after six months as only two suggestions were received). Surveys of members have been conducted at both Silver Harbour and 411, as well. New members at Silver Harbour are given a questionnaire 74 i n w h i c h t h e y a r e a b l e t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . A t t h e 411 C e n t r e t w o s t u d e n t s , w h o w e r e h i r e d o n a g r a n t t h i s s u m m e r , s u r v e y e d m e m b e r s o n t h e t y p e o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s t h e y m i g h t l i k e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n . B y i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , m e m b e r s h a v e a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o a f f e c t t h e f u t u r e p r o g r a m m i n g a t t h e i r C e n t r e s . A G E N C Y - P L A N N E D M O D E L M e m b e r s o f M u r d o c h C e n t r e h a v e f e w e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a n t h o s e a t S i l v e r H a r b o u r a n d 411 f o r d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T h e y c a n a d v i s e o n p o l i c y , s t a f f i n g a n d m a j o r f i n a n c i a l d e c i s i o n s a f -f e c t i n g M u r d o c h . T h e y c a n a l s o m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n t h e s e m a t t e r s t h r o u g h t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r t o i h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t , U l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e m , h o w e v e r , r e s t s w i t h t h e L e i s u r e S e r v -i c e s D e p a r t m e n t , I n a d d i t i o n , t w o m e m b e r s o f t h e E x e c u t i v e A d v i s o r y B o a r d s i t o n t h e L e i s u r e S e r v i c e s A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l a n d t h e y a r e a b l e t o d i r e c t l y c h a n n e l t h e m e m b e r s h i p ' s c o n c e r n s a b o u t M u r d o c h C e n t r e t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t . A l t h o u g h M u r d o c h ' s E x e c u t i v e A d v i s o r y B o a r d d o e s n o t h a v e c o n t r o l o v e r f u n d s a l l o c a t e d t o t h e C e n t r e b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f L e i s u r e S e r v -i c e s , i t i s c r e d i t e d w i t h f u n d s r a i s e d b y t h e C e n t r e ( m e m b e r s h i p f e e s , p r o g r a m d u e s , p r o f i t s f r o m s p e c i a l e v e n t s a n d f u n d r a i s i n g e v e n t s , a n d o t h e r m i s c e l l a n e o u s f u n d s r e c e i v e d b y t h e C e n t r e ) . T h e A d v i s o r y B o a r d i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e s e f u n d s . W i t h t h e m , f o r e x a m -p l e , i t p a y s f o r p r o g r a m i n s t r u c t o r s , m a k e s e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r s p e c i a l e v e n t s a n d b u y s i n c i d e n t a l p r o g r a m s u p p l i e s n o t p r o v i d e d f o r b y t h e C e n t r e ' s a n n u a l b u d g e t . 75 M e m b e r s o f M u r d o c h h a v e t h e i r g r e a t e s t d e g r e e o f a u t o n o m y i n t h e a r e a o f p r o g r a m m i n g . T h e E x e c u t i v e A d v i s o r y B o a r d i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a k i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n n e w p r o g r a m s f o r t h e C e n t r e a n d f o r h i r i n g a n d p a y i n g p r o g r a m i n s t r u c t o r s . A s n o t e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r , n o f o r -m a l P r o g r a m A c t i v i t y C o m m i t t e e s p r e s e n t l y e x i s t a t M u r d o c h . H o w e v e r , p l a n s a r e u n d e r w a y f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f f o r m a l P r o g r a m C o m m i t t e e s f o r a l l a c t i v i t y g r o u p s . T h e g e n e r a l m e m b e r s h i p h a v e a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g b y m a k i n g s u g g e s t i o n s t o t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , t h e P r o g r a m C o m m i t t e e C o o r d i n a t o r , o r o t h e r B o a r d m e m b e r s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e y m a y i n d i c a t e t h e i r i n t e r e s t s o n m e m b e r s h i p a p p l i c a t i o n f o r m s a n d o n p r o g r a m e v a l u a t i o n f o r m s . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d b y t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r a n d t h e B o a r d w h e n t h e y m e e t t o p l a n p r o g r a m s f o r t h e C e n t r e . Chapter 6 ENCOURAGING AND DISCOURAGING FACTORS FOR MEMBER PARTICIPATION IN A SENIOR CENTRE'S PLANNING PROCESS The preceding chapter examined the structural opportunities that exist for members at the three Senior Centres to become involved in their Centres' planning processes. However, the fact that members have the opportunity to participate i n a Centre's planning process does not necessarily mean that members w i l l participate. A member's decision to participate i s dependent on his concern for the planning issues, avail-able time, and many other interrelated factors. In addition, some indi-viduals prefer to have as l i t t l e responsibility as possible for the carrying out of an activity, while others prefer to be an integral part of the planning and implementation process. Therefore, while members must be -permitted to participate i n their Centre's planning process, they must not be compelled to participate. A basic assumption upon which this thesis rests i s that both structural opportunities and encouragement to take advantage of the opportunities are required i f a Centre i s to be successful i n engaging members i n i t s planning process. Based upon the foregoing assumption, this chapter seeks to identify some of the major factors which have the potential to encourage or dis-courage members in becoming involved in their Centre's planning process. As noted in Chapter 3, I began this research with no preconceived hypotheses of what the encouraging or discouraging factors for member involvement would be. Rather, I asked Senior Centre Directors, Board, 76 77 and general members a series of open-ended questions about their Centre and i t s planning process. Instead of assuming that I understood a l l the complexities of their Centre and i t s planning, I l e t the respondents ident-i f y the factors that they f e l t were important. After analyzing the data thus secured, the factors which emerged as those having the greatest potential for encouraging or discouraging members i n becoming involved in their Centres' planning processes related to l ) the Centres^ adminis-trative structures, 2) the characteristics of "planning" members (i.e. Board and Committee members), 3) the characteristics of Directors and staff, and 4) the Centres' buildings, A section i s devoted to each set of factors. Table 2 provides a summary of the main points covered i n the analysis, The f i r s t set of factors examined relate to the administrative struc-tures of the Centres, I considered this to be the logical point at which to start as the administrative structure determines, to a large degree, the roles that the Senior Centre members and Directors can play i n a Cen-tre's planning process. To quote Simons We cannot understand the 'input* or the 'output' of the executive (Senior Centre planners and Directors) without understanding the organization i n which (they) work, (Their; behavior and i t s effects on others are functions of the organizational situation i n which (-Uheyaare) placed (Simon, 1961, p, xv), The section on administrative structures distinguishes between the autonomous administrative model as found at the Silver Harbour and 411 Centres, and the semi-autonomous model as found at Murdoch Centre. I t draws upon planning theory and other literature to argue that the auton-omous structure provides greater encouragement for members to become involved i n a Senior Centre's planning process than the semi-autonomous 78 structure. The literature i s used to provide a conceptual framework for the analysis. Following this analysis, the section br i e f l y examines the role that funding plays and how the administrative structure affects the ab i l i t y of staff to f a c i l i t a t e member involvement i n planning. The second set of factors examined i s concerned with the roles and characteristics of "planning" members. While many members at the Centres may plan, the planning members considered i n this examination are the mem-bers who serve on Boards and Committees, They are the members with the most obvious influence and authority i n a Centre's planning process. And,as w i l l be seen, their s k i l l s and experience, personalities, and attitudes can have a major influence on whether or not other Centre mem-bers choose to become involved i n the process. The third set of factors examined relate to the role and character-i s t i c s of the Centre Director,* The research data suggest that the per-sonality, s k i l l s and experience, and attitude of the Director perhaps play an even more important role than those of the Board and Committee members in f a c i l i t a t i n g members to become involved in a Centre's planning process. Also, while the characteristics of program staff and other paid personnel are not dealt with e x p l i c i t l y , the characteristics identified as being important for Centre Directors are implicitly important for other staff, as well. The fourth and f i n a l set of factors examined relate to the Centre's physical f a c i l i t y . The literature generally downplays the importance of a Centre's f a c i l i t y , arguing "Centres should be people oriented not *The Assistant Director of Murdoch Centre i s included i n this, and other references to "Directors" i n this thesis. 79 building oriented" (Monro, 1972, p. 39)• Nonetheless, such factors as the physical layout, available space, and tenure of a Centre's building have an important bearing upon the Centre's a b i l i t y to offer a compre-hensive program and satisfy the needs of members. Using the case study data, the effect that the building has on the program planning and other kinds of planning at Senior Centres w i l l be examined. I t w i l l be shown that, paradoxically, while an unsatisfactory building may discourage mem-bers from becoming involved in; a Centre's program planning, i t may be a strong incentive for them to participate i n " f a c i l i t y planning" ( i . e . planning to renovate an existing structure or selecting a site, contrib-uting to the design, and securing funds for a new f a c i l i t y ) . As the three Centres studied have distinct organizational structures and planning concerns, i t i s not always possible to disguise their ident-i t i e s in the analysis. In fact, the f i r s t and fourth sections make no attempt to do so, as their focus i s precisely on the potential effect that the different organizational structures and f a c i l i t i e s have on mem-bers* willingness to participate i n a Centre's planning process. However, except i n cases where a particular aspect of a Centre has a bearing on the analysis, I have refrained from mentioning the Centres by name. Also, I have tried to minimize comments which might lead to the personal identification of interview respondents. Before presenting the research findings, I believe i t Is necessary to reassert that my intentions are not to provide a prescription for a foolproof Senior Centre planning process. Nor are they to evaluate the planning processes at the three Centres under study. To borrow Altshuler's words, TABLE 2 80 CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR ENCOURAGING AND DISCOURAGING FACTORS FOR MEMBERS' INVOLVEMENT IN PLANNING ENCOURAGING DISCOURAGING I) ADMINISTRATIVE FACTORS Autonomy ("normative" planning) -control and responsibility -sense of achievement Semi or non-Autonomous ("functional" planning") -less control -less sense of achievement Abundant funding -(can hire staff, plan programs, plan for building repairs, etc.) Exceptions: l ) those who want limited responsibility 2) those who need strong staff person to ensure their opportunities to become involved. "Challenge" of slightly low funding. Might be dynamic for social action. Excessively low funding Good staffing policy (Freedom to operate. Roles well defined. Adequate salaries and enough staff positions). Poor staffing policy (Staff hampered in operation by employer. Roles poorly defined or not defined. Salaries too low or work load too heavy). 2) PLANNING MEMBERS Experience and s k i l l s - leadership s k i l l s - a b i l i t y to communicate -motivation Inexperienced Unable or unwilling to learn (e.g. inexperienced members with low socio-economic background may lack experi-ence i n administrative matters), Warm and outgoing personality Social isolate Unfriendly Bigoted Democratic value system (accept right of a l l members to plan). Adaptable Flexible Autocratic value system -Cliques (only accept right of some members to plan). Rigid Inflexible TABLE 2 (Cont'd.) 81 ENCOURAGING  3) DIRECTORS S k i l l s in management (Business and working with individuals and groups). Individual leadership styles adapted to individual Centres "Approachable" Warm, friendly Outgoing Diplomatic Understanding and patient Understanding of problems of aged Accept philosophy of members' right to plan Willing to forego satisfaction of personal ego needs on the jot k) BUILDING Member owned, Sole occupancy Accessible. Good design fea-tures and well equipped to fa c i l i t a t e range of programs (Encourages involvement i n program planning) "Challenging" building or environment stimulates " f a c i l -i t y " planning (i.e. planning to remedy i l l s of present building by Improving i t or seeking a new f a c i l i t y ) . DISCOURAGING Lacking s k i l l s i n business man-agement and/or human relations Leadership style not appropriate to particular Centre Unapproachable Cool manner Patronizing, domineering too effusive Impatient Not understanding or sympathetic with problems of the aged Favours staff planning for seniors Seeks ego gratification on the job Leased Shared occupancy Inaccessible Poorly designed and equipped (Frustrates involvement i n program planning). "Ideal" building negates need of " f a c i l i t y " planning 82 I have not endeavoured to pass judgment on either men or plans, a task which would have required both wisdom and s k i l l of a far higher order than I have been able to employ (Altshuler, I965, p. 13). I have merely attempted to provide insight into factors which may encour-age or discourage members in becoming involved in their Centre's planning process. ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE A, Two Models The Centres examined in the case studies represent two basic admini-strative structures. These structures correspond with the planning models identified i n the preceding chapter. F i r s t , Silver Harbour and 411 Centres exemplify the autonomous* structure, being independent of any outside agency's administration and having policy set by their own Board of Direc-tors. Murdoch Centre provides an example of a semi-autonomous structure, being administered and funded by the Municipal Department of Leisure Ser-vices. While i t s Executive Advisory Board can identify policy issues, the sole responsibility for determining policy rests with Leisure Services. l ) Conceptual Framework. The autonomous administrative structure of Silver Harbour and 4 l l and the semi-autonomous structure of Murdoch Centre offer the potential for two different modes of planning. The autonomous structure offers the potential for "normative planning". Adopting Faludi's definition, normative planning i s "a mode of planning whereby *The term autonomous i s used i n this thesis to indicate an administrative structure with a relatively high degree of autonomy. Neither Silver Har-bour nor 411 are total l y autonomous. They both rely upon Provincial Gov-ernment Grants for the bulk of their funding, and this funding i s provided upon the condition that they offer a certain level of services and include a range of people i n their programs. 8 3 the goals and objectives defining, inter a l i a , the limits of a planning  agency are themselves the objects of rational choice and whereby that  choice i s reviewed as and when the need arises" (Faludi, 1 9 7 3 » P« 175)• In simple terms, i t i s a mode of planning which allows planners to not only-select the means they w i l l adopt to meet a given end, but to question the desirability of the end i t s e l f . Silver Harbour and 411, with their auton-omous organizational structures, can engage i n this type of planning; their Boards are not only able to select strategies for achieving the Centres' goals and objectives, but they also have the authority to deter-mine, monitor, and i f necessary, alter the goals and objectives. Due to the low degree of autonomy offered by the organizational structure of Murdoch Centre, members there are not authorized to question the Centre's goals or objectives. They have only limited authority over the Centre's program planning, A Senior Centre's programs "are tools designed to accomplish the Centre's expressed purpose and goals; they are not ends ifethemselves" (Leanse, et a l , , 1 9 7 7 » p. 1 2 9 ) • Therefore, Mur-doch's Board and informal a c t i v i t i e s committees control the means of their planning, not the ends. Faludi distinguishes such-, a form of planning as "functional planning," and defines i t as a "mode of planning whereby the  goals and objectives defining, inter a l i a , the limits of the action space  are not questioned (Faludi, 1 9 7 3 i P« 1 $ 5 ) • The functional mode of planning i s considered to be appropriate for the bureaucratic form of organization. Bureaucracies, i n Max Weber's conception, are "an hierarchical non adaptive form of organization whose internal relations are characterized by the authority of superior posi-tions over a l l dependent inferior positions" (Friedmann, 1973, P« 243). 84 In a bureaucracy, the p o l i t i c i a n or superior sets the goals and the planner seeks to determine the best means for meeting them, Faludi concedes that bureaucracies are "extremely useful organi-zations for the rational, impartial, speedy solutions of well-defined problems" (Faludi, 1 9 7 3 , P. 2 2 6 ) , but argues that they are inadequate for solving problems requiring creativity and innovation. He proposes that rather than being structured hierarchically, organizations "ought to be of a collegiate, self-directing tyjSe... (and) work as teams in the real of the word" (Faludi, 1 9 7 3 , p. 2 5 0 ) . As noted in Chapter 2 , "new wave" planning theorists have rejected the simplifying assumptions of the rational decision making model and have redefined the relationship that planners should have with their clients. They see normative planning as the ideal form of planning to be pursued. Klosterman argues that planning cannot be value-free; therefore, "a complete justification for an action must consider not only the means chosen for achieving ends, but also the ends themselves" (Klosterman, 1 9 6 8 , p. 42), Another writer asserts that "for any agency to plan compre-hensively, i t must be able to influence most of the factors which have a bearing on i t s problems, and i t must have the powers of using i t s resources i n alternative ways..." (Faludi, 1 9 7 3 , P« 1 6 6 ) . Faludi has developed a model which seeks to explain how normative planning may be achieved. The model proposes that the greater the r e l -ative autonomy of an organization, the greater the likelihood that i t w i l l engage in normative planning. The control or "constraining" varia-ble i n this model i s the role concept held by the planner. "Bureaucratic" planners act as a constraint upon normative planning i n an organization 85 with high relative autonomy and " p o l i t i c a l " planners act as a constraint upon functional planning i n an organization with low relative autonomy. For example, in a relatively autonomous organization, i f normative plan-ning i s to occur, the planner must be able to set new ends or goals. I f a planner sees himself as a bureaucrat, with the " v i t a l but,,.limited role that (the) system assigns to the public employee" (Beckmann, 1964, p. 324), he w i l l not l i k e l y risk generating opposition by challenging organizational goals and advocating innovative ends. He w i l l l i k e l y accept the status quo and thus act as a constraint upon the normative planning process. If, on the other hand, he sees his role as p o l i t i c a l and i s willing to attempt to gain enough support to overrule entrenched forces, he i s l i k e l y to be more successful than the bureaucratic planner i n achieving normative planning. In an organization with low relative auto-nomy, therefore, the " p o l i t i c a l " planner acts as a constraint upon the functional planning process. Neither normative planning nor functional planning exist i n their pure forms in the real world. The purpose of introducing Faludi's model i s to provide a conceptual framework for the examination which follows. 2) Autonomous Centres^ The data from the three Senior Centres studied suggests that the autonomous Silver Harbour and 411 Centres gen-erally offer more encouragement for members to become involved i n planning than the semi-autonomous Murdoch Centre* Without exception, the Directors and a l l of the members interviewed at Silver Harbour and 411 favoured the autonomous structure. When the Director of the 411 Centre was asked what the advantages or disadvantages of the autonomous model were, he looked incredulous and stated, "There are no disadvantages, only 86 advantages." He continued, "Seniors don't feel that the Centre i s a business operation. Theysfeel that they belong. It's theirs." There are two reasons why the autonomous Centres might encourage members to become involved i n their Centre's planning. F i r s t an auton-omous administrative structure offers members the satisfaction of being in control of their Centre and second, i t provides them with an opportu-nity to maintain -personal pride and dignity. The satisfaction of members at Silver Harbour and 411 was apparent in their comments on their Centres* administrations. Members were unan-imous i n saying they they should have the right to plan for themselves. In addition, their comments expressed a belief that planning done by seniors would be of better quality than that done by younger profession-als . Centres should be run by seniors to a large extent. I f they're run by paid professionals, they tend to take on an institutional char-acter. We know what we want better than they do. When we reach 65 years of age, we don't automatically turn senile. We s t i l l know what we want. Many members voiced the fear that young professionals would try to plan for them: Often those with a recreation background have good ideas, but they can't understand that seniors don't want to be done for. It's a fixation of seniors that they know what they want. They can become outright hostile i f they have young people t e l l them what to do. Members reiterated their satisfaction with their own administrative?! structures when they spoke of Parks Department Senior Centres. Roughly half of the twenty-five members I spoke with at Silver Harbour and 411 8 7 had either visited Parks Department Senior Centres or had friends who attended them. They a l l preferred their own Centres and five spoke almost pityingly of members of the Parks-run Centres. A sample of their comments follows: I much prefer a seniors-run Centre. I f the Centre's run by a Parks Department, you have to go by their policy. Seniors know what's best for seniors. You're not free i f you're under the Parks Department, We don't need any Government help. We do fine on our own.* These members li s t e d examples of problems faced by semi and non-autonomous Centres i n Greater Vancouver, sucMas having operating hours curtailed or being required to share space with other age groups. There-fore, their preference for their own member-planned Centres was based on more than pride and loyalty. The personal pride and dignity that members may gain by becoming involved in the planning process at an autonomous Senior Centre serves as a second factor for encouraging members to participate i n planning. As discussed in Chapter 2 , when indi viduals approach their later years, they begin to lose control over many aspects of their li v e s : health, employment, housing, and transportation. They become dependent on Gov-ernment for income, rent supplements, prescription drugs, bus passes, and various services. *(Obviously this member didn't f e e l the heavy hand of Government inter-fering with the Centre's planning, even though i t s operation was Government funded.) 88 Having an opportunity to become involved in planning at a Senior Centre i s one way an older adult can make decisions which affect his l i f e and those of others. One Director noted, I really resent the set-up at Extended Care Insti-tutions. Staff there are so patronizing.. They treat the older people l i k e l i t t l e children. That approach might be a l l right for the 10 percent who need i t . But for the other 90 percent, i t ' s surely not the way to go. The Director continued, The decisions members make at the Centre may be the only ones that have any effect i n their l i v e s . If staff imposed the Centre's program, members probably would be less satisfied with i t . A l l but two of the thirteen Board members I interviewed at Silver Harbour and 411 had served on other boards or committees, or been active doing other voluntary work before joining the Centres. Having the oppor-tunity to participate in planning at their Senior Centre enabled them to capitalize on s k i l l s and experience from their pre-retirement years. Participating in planning also afforded some Centre members opportunities to discover new a b i l i t i e s and interests. At 411, especially, many members who might not otherwise have had an opportunity to do so, held positions of responsibility. For example, the person who chairs 411's Library Committee suffers from a neurological disorder which prevents him from holding a paying job. He i s in his 50's, but has been permitted to join the Centre upon the recommendation of a Social Worker, He lives at the nearby Salvation Army hostel for men and comes to the Centre daily. Although he receives a supplement to his Social Assistance allowance for doing a minimum of 20 hours of volunteer work in a month, he estimates that his work takes 89 u p a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 2 0 h o u r s a m o n t h . T h i s m a n p r o u d l y d e s c r i b e d h o w h e t r i e s t o g e t " g o o d d e p e n d a b l e v o l u n t e e r s " t o w o r k w i t h h i m i n t h e l i b r a r y . H e s a y s , E v e n t h o u g h I h e a d t h e C o m m i t t e e , I d o n ' t a c t l i k e t h e " M a s t e r . " W e a l l w o r k a s p a r t n e r s , l i k e a t e a m . 3) S e m i - A u t o n o m o u s C e n t r e s . W h i l e a n a u t o n o m o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c -t u r e a p p e a r s t o e n c o u r a g e m e m b e r s t o b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n a S e n i o r C e n t r e ' s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , a s e m i - a u t o n o m o u s s t r u c t u r e g e n e r a l l y h a s a m o r e c o n -s t r a i n i n g e f f e c t . T h i s a s s e r t i o n i s b o r n e o u t b y t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s f r o m M u r d o c h C e n t r e . T h e m e m b e r s i n t e r v i e w e d a t M u r d o c h s p o k e p o s i t i v e l y o f t h e C e n t r e a n d i t s p r o g r a m . T h e y a l s o e x h i b i t e d p r i d e i n t h e v o l u n t a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n s t h a t t h e y a n d o t h e r m e m b e r s m a d e t o t h e C e n t r e . H o w e v e r , r t h e i r p r i d e r e l a t e d t o t h e f u n c t i o n a l o r p r o g r a m a s p e c t s o f t h e i r C e n -t r e ' s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . M u r d o c h ' s m e m b e r s d o n o t c o n t r o l t h e C e n t r e ' s p o l i c y , b u d g e t , o r s t a f f i n g , t h u s t f c e y a r e u n a b l e t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e s a t i s -f a c t i o n t h a t s u c h c o n t r o l a f f o r d s m e m b e r s o f S i l v e r H a r b o u r a n d 4 1 1 , M e m b e r s o n t h e E x e c u t i v e A d v i s o r y B o a r d a c k n o w l e d g e t h e i r l i m i t e d r o l e s T h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e A d v i s o r y B o a r d h a s n ' t c h a n g e d t h i n g s m u c h , ( T h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r ) i s s t i l l t h e m a i n s t a y . M e m b e r s c a n s u g g e s t t h i n g s , b u t t h e y c a n ' t m a k e d e c i s i o n s , ( T h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r ) r u n s t h e C e n t r e a n d h a s t h e f i n a l w o r d o n a n y t h i n g t h a t ' s i m p l e m e n t e d . ( T h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r ) b r i n g s t h i n g s t o u s f o r a p p r o v a l . W e u s u a l l y g o a l o n g w i t h h e r d e c i s i o n s , S h e ' s b e e n h e r e f o r y e a r s a n d s h e k n o w s w h a t s h e ' s d o i n g . 90 One Board member reluctantly agreed to hold office out of loyalty to the Centre and to the Assistant Director. She stated, "No one really wants to serve on the Board." One might argue that Murdoch's Board i s merely a "rubber stamp" for Leisure Services policy and that i t s establishment i s an example of "formal cooption," Formal cooption i s a process identified by Philip Selznick for: absorbing new elements into the organization... (its) use...does not envision the transfer of actual power. The form of participation i s emphasized but action i s channeled so as to f u l f i l l the administrative functions while preserving the locus of significant decision in the hands of the i n i t i a t i n g group (in Estes, 1979, p. 215). The establishment of Murdoch's Executive Advisory Board f i t s this description, Prior to i t s formation, Centre members had no formal representation i n the administrative structure. The Board was initia t e d by the Assistant Director to serve as an assisting body and to provide members with a greater voice i n the running of the Centre. Members did not demand this voice. In fact, I was told that some members even opposed the introduction of the Board, fearing that i t would ' alter the character of the Centre or program, Arnstein charges, Participation without the redistribution of power i s an empty and frustrating process for the powerless. Ittallows the power holders to claim that a l l sides were considered, but makes i t possible for only some of those sides to benefit. It maintains the status quo (Arnstein, I969, p. 216). Although Murdoch's Board, Committee, and general members have less control over their Centre's planning than members of an autonomous 91 Centre, they do have opportunities to have some say i n decisions affecting the Centre. As Senior Centre experts observe, "while the legal authority of advisory committees may be limited, (advisory com-mittees') influence can be substantial, particularly when members are well informed, have a deep commitment to the Senior Centre concept and (possess) special expertise related to the program..." (Leanse, et a l . , 1 9 7 7 t P« 7 ) . Actually, some members may find even greater encouragement to become involved intplanning of an agency-administered Senior Centre, than at a less restricted autonomous Centre. This may be true for two reasons. F i r s t , as mentioned in the introduction of this Chapter, some members do not want major planning responsibilities at Senior Centres, Murdoch Centre may provide the types of planning opportunities that such members desire. For example, a Board member admitted that he was content to have advisory powers and not to have the additional responsibilities he would have i f he served on a governing Board, He said, "If I wanted to work a l l the time, Ilwould have kept my job for $28,000,00 a year." Another member indicated his satisfaction with the "planned for" structure of Murdoch: I lik e i t here at Murdoch. It's a loose knit organization. You don't f e e l you're obligated to do anything. A l l but one of the thirteen members interviewed at Murdoch expressed appreciation of Leisure Services' administration. For example,-;a rela-tively new member of Murdoch who had recently moved to Richmond from the United States said, Leisure Services i s marvelous. They do so much for a l l age groups, not only seniors. The Senior 92 Centres I know in the States are mainly Welfare places. My friends and I wouldn't dream of going to them. Murdoch's fabulous. Here, we're treated as people, not charity cases. Another member noted, The odd person on the Board and in the Centre feels that Leisure Services has too much control. I don't think so, though. Some people complain about anything. Even one of the Board members who favoured the Board's gaining greater powers i n the future said, "When we get our own building, I hope Leisure Services s t i l l carries us." The second reason why a semi-autonomous Senior Centre might encour-age members to become involved i n planning i s that being under a parent agency's administration helps protect against special interest groups or domineering members "taking over," A member who has been active on num-erous Government and voluntary Committees and Boards, observed, Citizen participation i s balderdash. Often those with the loudest voice have the least to offer. A Board member said, A Centre should belong to some Municipal body. From my experience i n working i n Trade Unions, I'd bet that cliques would form at an independently operated Senior Centre. The Centre would quickly f a l l apart. He spoke of the advantages of having a strong Director or staff person, It's gogd to have a person to settle argu-ments and bring order to our meetings. The Directors of autonomous Senior Centres can perform this arbi-trator role; however, they may have d i f f i c u l t i e s i n exercising the necessary authority to cur t a i l the actions of offending members, 93 e s p e c i a l l y B o a r d m e m b e r s . B e i n g e m p l o y e d b y , a n d r e s p o n s i b l e t o , t h e B o a r d t h e y w o u l d , I n e f f e c t , b e d i s c i p l i n i n g t h e i r e m p l o y e r . A t t h e t i m e o f t h i s w r i t i n g , M u r d o c h ' s A d v i s o r y B o a r d h a s b e e n i n o p e r a t i o n f o r l e s s t h a n a y e a r . T w o o f t h e s i x B o a r d m e m b e r s i n t e r -v i e w e d s a i d t h a t t h e y m i g h t l i k e t o h a v e w i d e r p o w e r s i n t h e f u t u r e . H o w e v e r , t h e y a n d t h e o t h e r B o a r d m e m b e r s e x p r e s s e d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e a m o u n t o f a u t h o r i t y w h i c h t h e y p r e s e n t l y h a v e : W e ' r e j u s t g e t t i n g o u r f e e t w e t n o w . W e ' r e l i k e i n f a n t s g r o w i n g h e r e . W e ' v e g o t t o l e a r n t o c r a w l b e f o r e w e c a n w a l k . M a y b e w h e n w e g e t o u r o w n b u i l d i n g , we;?sll b e a b l e t o t a k e o n m o r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . W e ' r e o k a y f o r n o w , t h o u g h . T w o B o a r d m e m b e r s r e v e a l e d a g r o w i n g p o l i t i c a l a w a r e n e s s g a i n e d f r o m s e r v i n g o n t h e B o a r d . O n e c o m p l a i n e d , t h e o n l y o n e s w h o a r e l i s t e n e d t o . . . T h e y ' r e t h e o n l y o n e s w h o g e t a n y t h i n g f r o m t h e D e p a r t m e n t . M a y b e w e ' l l h a v e t o s t a r t s c r e a m i n g t o o , i f w e w a n t r e s u l t s . A n o t h e r , w h o w a s f a m i l i a r w i t h S i l v e r H a r b o u r C e n t r e , s a i d , T h e y h a d l o t s o f G o v e r n m e n t h e l p a n d i n f l u -e n t i a l p e o p l e b e h i n d t h e m a t S i l v e r H a r b o u r . S o o n e r o r l a t e r w e ' l l g e t b i g s h o t s i n R i c h m o n d t o j o i n M u r d o c h . W h e n w e d o , w e ' l l b e a b l e t o t a k e a m o r e a c t i v e r o l e . T h e s e c o m m e n t s s u g g e s t t h a t w h i l e t h e f u n c t i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , a s p r a c t i c e d a t M u r d o c h , i s s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r t h e t i m e b e i n g , i t c o u l d b e c h a l l e n g e d i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . T h u s , w h i l e t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r n a y h a v e " c o o p t e d " m e m b e r s b y e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e A d v i s o r y B o a r d , s h e h a s p r o -v i d e d t h e m w i t h l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s a n d e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h c o u l d l e a d 94 them eventually to demand greater control over their Centre's planning and operation. The preceding discussion reveals that while the autonomous Centres generally offer the greatest encouragement for members to become involved i n their Centres' planning processes, semi autonomous or agency-administered Senior Centres offer their own distinct forms of encouragement. The analysis now turns to examine how funding levels and staffing affect members' decisions to participate in their Senior Centre's planning process. B, Funding Level An important factor i n the planning and administration of any Senior Centre i s i t s level of funding. Funding level determines, to a large degree, the programs a Centre can offer, staff i t can hire, and goals i t can r e a l i s t i c a l l y expect to achieve. A brief prepared for submission to the Provincial Government by an ad hoc committee composed of represent-atives from Senior Centres and other senior citizens organizations stressed the importance of funding to a Senior Centre: Without adequate operating funds, on an ongoing basis, (Seniors') Activity Centre/Groups have l i t t l e hope of surviving or being established where the need has been identified (Ad Hoc Committee, 1979, P. 4). The sources and levels of rEunding for the three Centres under study vary, with the Silver Harbour and 411 Centres receiving their operating grants from the Provincial Ministry of Human Resources and Murdoch Centre receiving i t s funds from the Richmond Municipality. The 1980 funding allocations for the Centres are included i n the "Background Fact Sheets" in the Appendix. Attempting to determine the "relative adequacy"of the 95 Centres' funding levels by using a simple technique, such as a membership-funding dollar ratio, would not yield reliable results. Iri"". fact, due to the different programs, staff positions, clientele, and goals of the Centres, the comparisons would be meaningless and possibly misleading. Based on interview statements of the Centre Directors, however, the autonomous Centres appear to experience the greatest d i f f i c u l t i e s i n man-aging within the limits of their allocated funds. The increase in Silver Harbour's operating grant from 1979 to 1980, for example, was % % a rate below the rise i n the cost of l i v i n g for the same period. The 411 Centre received a larger percentage increase in i t s most recent grant from the Provincial Government; however, the Centre's program had major expansions during the year, which m&kes comparisons of the 1979 and 1980 funding allocations problematic. The Assistant Director of Murdoch Centre claims that that Centre's funds have increased at a sufficient rate to meet with rises in the cost of l i v i n g and expansions in the Centre's programs, As w i l l be noted later, however, the fact that Murdoch Centre has staff shortages indicates that the funding i s below the ideal level. Problems with funding can have a dual effect, both discouraging and encouraging members' involvement i n planning. Two potential funding problems emerged from the case studies. The f i r s t problem related to funding levels. I f funding levels are perceived to be too low, they can discourage members' involvement i n planning. Members w i l l obviously not engage i n planning programs that, in their estimation?, can never be implemented, due to prohibitive instructor fees, or material or equipment costs. The second problem i s related to the insecurity in the level and 96 s o u r c e o f f u n d i n g , T h i s p r o b l e m w a s m o s t a p p a r e n t a t t h e S i l v e r H a r b o u r a n d 4 1 1 C e n t r e s . T h e C e n t r e s * T r e a s u r e r s , i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e E x e c -u t i v e D i r e c t o r s a n d B o a r d m e m b e r s , p r e p a r e a n n u a l b u d g e t p r o p o s a l s f o r s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t ; h o w e v e r , t h e y d o n o t k n o w f r o m y e a r t o y e a r w h e t h e r t h e y w i l l r e c e i v e t h e a m o u n t s r e q u e s t e d . C o n c e i v a b l y , t h e G o v e r n m e n t c o u l d e v e n d i s c o n t i n u e t h e i r f u n d i n g . T h e i n s e c u r i t y r e g a r d i n g f u n d i n g a t S i l v e r H a r b o u r a n d 4 1 1 p r o m o t e s p r a g m a t i c p l a n n i n g a n d c r e a t e s d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r c o n d u c t i n g l o n g r a n g e , c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n n i n g . I t a l s o f r u s t r a t e s m e m b e r s w h o a r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e C e n t r e s ' p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s . O n e l o n g s t a n d i n g B o a r d m e m b e r r e p l i e d w i t h a v o i c e o f e x p e r i e n c e w h e n s h e w a s a s k e d w h e t h e r h e r C e n t r e w o u l d r e c e i v e t h e f u n d i n g i t r e q u e s t e d : " W h o k n o w s ? T h e G o v e r n m e n t l i k e s t o k e e p u s g u e s s i n g . " P a r a d o x i c a l l y , w h i l e p r o b l e m s o f f u n d i n g c a n d i s c o u r a g e m e m b e r s f r o m b e c o m i n g i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r C e n t r e ' s p l a n n i n g , t h e s e s a m e p r o b l e m s c a n b e e n c o u r a g i n g f a c t o r s . F i r s t , f u n d i n g i n a d e q u a c i e s c a n e n c o u r a g e t h o s e m e m b e r s w h o a r e s k i l l e d i n m o n e y m a t t e r s . H a v i n g t o c o p e w i t h l i m i t e d f u n d i n g n e c e s s i t a t e s p l a n n i n g m e m b e r s t o e x e r c i s e c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y i n t h e m a n a g e m e n t a n d a l l o c a t i o n o f f u n d s . W h i l e n o t a l l m e m b e r s w o u l d b e e n c o u r a g e d b y t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t , a B o a r d m e m b e r a n d f o r m e r b a n k e m p l o y e e a t o n e C e n t r e o b v i o u s l y w a s . S h e s a i d , T h e r e a s o n I ' m s e r v i n g o n t h e B o a r d i s t h a t I ' m g o o d w i t h f i g u r e s . W e t a k e i n a l o t o f m o n e y h e r e , b u t w e c a n ' t a f f o r d t o l o s e t r a c k o f a n y o f i t . I m a k e s u r e o u r r e c o r d s a n d a c c o u n t s a r e p r o p e r l y k e p t . F u n d i n g i n a d e q u a c i e s c o u l d a l s o l e a d p l a n n i n g m e m b e r s t o r e d e f i n e t h e i r C e n t r e ' s g o a l s i n o r d e r t o m a k e t h e m m o r e " a t t a i n a b l e . " A s e c o n d e f f e c t o f f u n d i n g i n a d e q u a c i e s i s t h a t t h e y c a n a c t a s a n i n c e n t i v e , c h a l l e n g i n g 97 i n d i v i d u a l m e m b e r s t o t a k e t h e i n i t i a t i v e i n s e e k i n g w a y s t o r e m e d y t h e i r C e n t r e ' s f u n d i n g d e f i c i e n c i e s . M e m b e r s a t t h e t h r e e C e n t r e s u n d e r s t u d y w e r e e n g a g e d i n a t l e a s t s o m e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g f u n d - r a i s i n g e n d e a v o u r s s a ) w r i t i n g p r o p o s a l s f o r g r a n t s , e . g . t o t h e F e d e r a l N e w H o r i z o n s P r o g r a m , t o t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t L o t t e r y F u n d . b ) p l a n n i n g s p e c i a l f u n d - r a i s i n g e v e n t s f o r t h e C e n t r e , e . g . b a z a a r s , t e a s , d a n c e s , a n d f a s h i o n s h o w s . c ) c h a r g i n g m e m b e r s r e g i s t r a t i o n f e e s t o c o v e r t h e c o s t s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a n d m a t e r i a l s f o r a c t i v i t i e s . d ) c h a r g i n g f o r s e r v i c e s s u c h a s r e p a i r s t o c l o t h i n g ; s e l l i n g g o o d u s e d b o o k s . e ) s e e k i n g d o n a t i o n s f r o m p r i v a t e g r o u p s o r i n d i v i d u a l s -e . g . m e m b e r s o f S i l v e r H a r b o u r h a v e o b t a i n e d g i f t s f r o m a n u m b e r o f S e r v i c e C l u b s a n d b u s i n e s s e s i n N o r t h V a n c o u v e r a n d a l l C e n t r e s h a v e b o o k s i n t h e i r l i b r a r i e s w h i c h w e r e d o n a t e d t o t h e m . f ) a p p l y i n g f o r Y o u t h E m p l o y m e n t o r L o c a l I n i t i a t i v e p r o j e c t s ( P r o v i n c i a l a n d F e d e r a l ) t o s e c u r e t e m p o r a r y s t a f f t o m e e t i d e n t i f i e d n e e d s o f m e m b e r s , e . g . a g r o u p o f w o r k e r s t o i n i -t i a t e a n e x e r c i s e a n d d a n c e p r o g r a m . B e i n g a b l e t o m a k e a t a n g i b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e i r C e n t r e ' s o p e r a t i o n a n d h a v i n g a d e g r e e o f c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s p e n d i n g o f t h e f u n d s t h e y r a i s e d a p p e a r e d t o b e a n i n c e n t i v e f o r m e m b e r s t o b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g a n d c o n d u c t i n g o f f u n d r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s . B e i n g g i v e n a n 98 opportunity to use previous s k i l l s or learn new ones may also have been an incentive. The enthusiasm of members involved in fund-raising was evident at the three Centres studied. It was most apparent at Silver Harbour and 411, however, where members are granted the greatest degree of autonomy in their planning. For example, the leader of the Sewing Committee at one of the autonomous Centres mends members' clothing for a nominal fee in order to buy equipment and materials for her sewing class. She said, I'm surprised at how much work I've gotten. I've been able to use the money to buy scissors, thread, and other things the " g i r l s " in the sewing class need. This Committee leader gained obvious satisfaction from the fact that starting the repair service was her idea, and that the Director merely said, "Fine," when she approached him with her suggestion. Perhaps due to the semi-autonomous administrative structure of Murdoch Centre, i t s members have shown less personal i n i t i a t i v e in raising funds for the Centre. However, within the past year, they have applied for and received a Federal Government New Horizons Grant. And, with the assistance of the Assistant Director, they have generated funds for the Centre's a c t i v i t i e s through membership and program fees, proceeds from special events, and other sources from within the Centre. When Murdoch becomes established as a Non^Profit Society, i t w i l l be class-i f i e d as a charitable organization. It w i l l then be i n a position to attract donations from Service Clubs and other groups as i t w i l l be able to issue tax-deductible receipts to the donors. With the addition of these potential sources of revenue, members w i l l have greater 99 o p p o r t u n i t i e s a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o s e e k f u n d i n g f o r t h e i r C e n t r e . C . S t a f f i n g " A S e n i o r C e n t r e ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s " b e a r s a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n t o t h e q u a l i t y o f i t s s t a f f " ( L e a n s e , e t a l . , 1979. p . 79). A s w i l l b e r e v e a l e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n , C e n t r e D i r e c t o r s a n d S t a f f p l a y a m a j o r r o l e i n f a c i l i t a t i n g m e m b e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a S e n i o r C e n t r e ' s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i n s u f f i c i e n t f u n d i n g h a s m a d e i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r t w o o f t h e C e n t r e s t o h i r e a n d a d e q u a t e l y c o m p e n s a t e t h e S t a f f r e q u i r e d f o r t h e s u c c e s s f u l c a r r y i n g o u t o f t h e " f a c i l i t a t o r " r o l e . T h e m a i n p r o b l e m i a t 4 1 1 i s t h a t a l t h o u g h a n u m b e r o f s t a f f p o s i t i o n s h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e C e n t r e ' s o p e r a t i n g G r a n t d o e s n o t p e r m i t t h e C e n t r e t o p a y i t s S t a f f a d e q u a t e s a l a r i e s . E m p l o y e e s a t 4 1 1 r e c e i v e r o u g h l y t w o - t h i r d s o f w h a t t h e y w o u l d r e c e i v e f o r d o i n g c o m p a r a b l e w o r k a t a n o t h e r a g e n c y . T h i s s i t u a t i o n h a s c a u s e d t h e C e n t r e c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y i n h i r i n g a n d m a i n t a i n i n g q u a l i f i e d a n d d e d i c a t e d s t a f f . F o r e x a m p l e , t w o s t a f f m e m b e r s w h o h a d b e e n e m p l o y e d a t 4 1 1 f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y a y e a r q u i t w h i l e t h e r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s t h e s i s w a s b e i n g c o n d u c t e d . T h e y b o t h l e f t t o t a k e j o b s t h a t o f f e r e d t h e m g r e a t e r p a y . A s w i l l b e b r o u g h t o u t l a t e r , t h e r a p p o r t t h a t D i r e c t o r s a n d S t a f f a r e a b l e t o d e v e l o p w i t h m e m b e r s m a y b e c r u c i a l i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t m e m b e r s w i l l b e e n c o u r a g e d t o b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n a C e n t r e ' s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T u r n o v e r o f s t a f f b r e a k s t h e b o n d s w h i c h h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d a n d t h u s w o r k s a s a d e t e r r e n t t o m e m b e r i n v o l v e m e n t i n p l a n n i n g . T h e d i f f i c u l t y o f m a k i n g t h e d e c i s i o n t o r e s i g n w a s e x p r e s s e d b y 100 one of the two employees who l e f t 411s I like the people here and I want the Centre to "be a success. But I'm young, I'm only 2 5 . I've been driving an old car that's badly in need of repairs and have been doing without nice clothes, concerts, and other things I've wanted and needed for over a year. I just couldn't hold out any longer. A Board member at 411 who appeared sympathetic to the dilemma faced by the staff members who had l e f t , thoughtfully assessed the Centre's staffing situations Some staff use 411 as a stepping stone before moving on to another job. Because of the current employment and economic situation, we get lots of applicants for any vacancy that's created. But we hesitate to hire people with extensive education or work experience because we know they'll l i k e l y go on to something better withiivisix months. Although salaries of the Silver Harbour employees may be below what would be paid at other agencies, the Centre has not experienced high staff turnover. The Director of Silver Harbour acknowledged that the Centre i s fortunate to have such capable and dedicated staff i n ligh t of the salaries they receive. She praised the staff, saying that "working at the Centre i s more than just a job for them." The staffing problem/at Murdoch Centre does not relate to salary scale, but to insufficient staff positions. Despite the rapid increase in the membership from 40 to nearly 1,000 within four years, the only staff person hired to work with the Assistant Director has been a part-time Secretary, Due to the increased demands made upon the Assistant Director by the growing membership, she must devote considerable time to "front l i n e " duty, rather than to working with members in planning. She admits, 101 I would like to be able to find out the s k i l l s and interests of members and try-to channel them into appropriate areas. I just don't have the time. A Senior Centre Operational Manual stresses that "securing and retaining a competent and qualified staff requires careful attention to the factors which make for good working conditions, thus promoting good employee morale, efficiency, and a sense of security and well being" (Leanse, et a l . , 197?» p. 79). The foregoing discussion reveals that both the autonomous and semi-autonomous Senior Centres may experience d i f f i c u l t i e s i n measuring up to the ideal set out i n the Operational Man-ual. More w i l l be said of staff's role i n encouraging members to plan in a later section. CHARACTERISTICS OF "PLANNING" MEMBERS This section examines the role that a Centre's active "planning" members play i n encouraging other members to become involved in planning. The "planning" members considered are the Board and Committee members as they are the most "visible" members involved i n a Centre's planning process and possibly have the greatest potential to influence other members to become involved. The analysis distinguishes two setsoof factors or qualifications that Board and Committee members should possess i n order to encourage other members to become involved i n planning: l ) s k i l l s and experience and 2 ) personality and attitude, A. S k i l l s and Experience The f i r s t qualifications Board and Committee members should possess relate to their experience and s k i l l s . The "ideal" planning member 102 would have had previous experience on Boards or Committees or have been active i n Community organizations. In addition, he would be ski l l e d i n working with others in groups. The importance of having Board and Committee members who are exper-ienced i s that they know how to organize planning tasks i n ways which permit and encourage other members to become involved. Experienced mem-bers can also perform an educational function and, either directly or by example, help other members who lack experience to understand and partic-ipate i n the planning process. The value of having experienced, knowledgeable people at the Board and Committee level can be seen i n the i n i t i a t i o n processes of the Silver Harbour and 411 Centres. At Silver Harbour, older adults from a variety of Senior Citizens groups in North Vancouver gained the cooperation of influential people, organized volunteers, petitioned three levels of Government for grants and land, and eventually brought about the con-struction of Silver Harbour Centre. The 411 Centre was also init i a t e d by experienced older adults (mem-bers of the Senior Citizens' Association of B:,C.). 411's Advisory Boards contained a number of experienced and influential older adults, including members of Seniors' organizations and a former Mayor of Vancouver. The 411 Advisory Board, with the assistance of Human Resources staff, worked to effect the transition of 411 from being Government administered to a Centre which i s operated by i t s own Non-lfofit Society. In addition to having experience on Boards and Committees or in Community organizations, a Centre's "planning members* should also be skilled in working with groups. In particular, they should have communi-cation and leadership s k i l l s . Writers on Senior Centres assert that the 103 value of effective communication "cannot be overemphasized;...(it) increases the capacity of Centre staff, board members, participants and supporters to carry out their roles more effectively..." (Leanse, et a l . 1977, p. 4-3). Leadership s k i l l s are also valuable; at least one writer claims that "the quality and s k i l l of leadership i s the most important single factor i n the success or failure of creative and recreational projects for older people" (Maxwell, 1962, p, 40), An example of how a sk i l l e d communicator and leader may encourage other members to become involved i n a Centre's planning process i s pro-vided by reference to a Program meeting and an Annual General Meeting at one of the Centres under study. At both meetings, the Centre's Past President made presentations to members. He used visual aids, boldly writing the main points he was going to cover on large sheets of news-print, which were attached to a " f l i p chart." He slowly and carefully explained each point, entertaining questions and naking sure that the members understood him before moving on to his next point. This gentleman had been employed professionally i n education and public relations prior to his retirement and had been active for years in Community organizations. His past experience enabled him to commu-nicate in a simple, effective, non-patronizing manner with his audience who were drawn from varied socio-economic backgrounds. In addition to encouraging the general membership to become involved in a Centre's planning process, experienced planning members can also have an encouraging effect on other planning members. Those who are skilled in running meetings can ensure that Board and Committee meetings proceed i n an efficient, businesslike manner and do not deteriorate into 104 g o s s i p s e s s i o n s . T h e y c a n a l s o p r e v e n t d o m i n e e r i n g m e m b e r s f r o m " t a k i n g o v e r " t h e m e e t i n g s . T h e l a t t e r s k i l l w a s i d e n t i f i e d a s b e i n g v e r y i m p o r -t a n t b y a l l C e n t r e D i r e c t o r s a n d o v e r h a l f o f t h e B o a r d m e m b e r s i n t e r -v i e w e d . O n e m e m b e r s a i d , W h e n I f i r s t s a t o n t h e B o a r d , t h e P r e s i d e n t s p o k e t o u s a n d d i d n ' t c a r e t o h e a r w h a t w e h a d t o s a y . M e e t i n g s a r e r u n m u c h b e t t e r n o w . T h e n e w P r e s i d e n t m a k e s s u r e w e a l l g e t a c h a n c e t o s p e a k . W e f e e l w e ' r e a l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g . W e a r e n ' t t r e a t e d l i k e a b u n c h o f s t u p i d h o u s e w i v e s a n y m o r e . D e s p i t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f h a v i n g B o a r d a n d C o m m i t t e e m e m b e r s w i t h s k i l l s a n d e x p e r i e n c e , n o n e o f t h e D i r e c t o r s o r B o a r d m e m b e r s i n t e r v i e w e d c o n s i d e r e d s k i l l s a n d e x p e r i e n c e t o b e e s s e n t i a l f o r a l l p l a n n i n g m e m b e r s . O n t h e S i l v e r H a r b o u r a n d 4 1 1 B o a r d s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e q u i r i n g t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e i n a r e a s s u c h a s L a w o r A c c o u n t i n g a r e p e r f o r m e d b y C o m m u n i t y B o a r d m e m b e r s ( a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s n o r e a s o n w h y B o a r d ; m e m b e r s d r a w n f r o m t h e C e n t r e ' s m e m b e r s h i p c o u l d n o t p e r f o r m t h e s e t a s k s i f t h e y h a d t h e n e c e s s a r y e x p e r t i s e ) . A t M u r d o c h C e n t r e , t h e E x e c u t i v e A d v i s o r y B o a r d c a n r e f e r t e c h n i c a l c o n c e r n s t o t h e L e i s u r e S e r v i c e s D e p a r t m e n t , T h e d u t i e s C e n t r e m e m b e r s p e r f o r m o n t h e B o a r d c a n b e l e a r n e d . T h e t h r e e D i r e c t o r s a n d a l l B o a r d m e m b e r s e m p h a s i z e d t h e " i n c l u s i v e " n a t u r e o f t h e i r B o a r d s , a n d a r g u e d t h a t i n e x p e r i e n c e d m e m b e r s n e e d n o t f e e l e x c l u d e d f r o m s e r v i n g s A w i l l i n g n e s s t o s e r v e a n d a n i n t e r e s t i n t h e C e n t r e a r e a l l t h a t ' s r e q u i r e d . E x p e r i e n c e h e l p s , b u t i t ' s n o t e s s e n t i a l . C o m m o n s e n s e i s t h e m a i n t h i n g . M o s t p e o p l e w h o h a v e l i v e d t o b e o u r a g e h a v e s o m e m o d i c u m o f t h a t . C o m p e t e n c e i s a l l t h a t i s r e q u i r e d . 105 Of the three Centres studied, only Murdoch provided training sessions for i t s Board members. The literature on Boards and Senior Centres stresses that orientation and training sessions are essential for pre-paring new Board members for their duties. Two of the Board members interviewed at Murdoch found the training sessions helpful, However, none of those interviewed at Silver Harbour or 411 considered training to be necessary. Their attitude i s summed up i n the quote of a Board member who received "on the job" training: You can soon learn what to do on the Board by s i t t i n g i n and listening. Of the nineteen Board members interviewed, a l l but four had previously served on Boards or Committees or had been active in Community organiza-tions. What distinguished these Board members from the rest of the mem-bership was not so much their s k i l l s or special a b i l i t i e s , but rather, i n the words of one Director, the fact that "they are doers by nature," As w i l l be seen i n the following discussion, hbwever, s k i l l s and experience in themselves provide no guaranty that planning members w i l l encourage others to become involved in a Senior Centre's planning process. Personality and attitudes also play a v i t a l role, B. Personality and Attitudes The personality t r a i t s and attitudes of Board and Committee members are crucial factors i n determining whether or not other members w i l l become involved i n a Senior Centre's planning process. In this and the following section, the term personality i s used to refer to "the inte-grated and dynamic organization of the physical, mental, moral, and social qualities of the individual, as that manifests i t s e l f to other 106 people, in the give and take of social l i f e " (Drever, 1964, p. 208), Attitudes are conceived to be "a more or less stable set or disposition of opinion, interest or purpose, involving expectancy of a certain kind of experience, and readiness with a certain kind of response,,," (Drever, 1964, p. 2 3 ) . The distinction between personality and attitudinal characteristics i s not clear cut. Therefore, rather than make an arbitrary distinction, these qualities w i l l be dealt with simultaneously. A l l Directors, Board and general members interviewed claimed that the personalities and attitudes of "planning members" were more important than their s k i l l s and experience. In the words of one member who has served for many years on the executive of a Senior Citizens" organiza-tion, S k i l l s and experience help i n any Board work you do. But those with s k i l l s and experience aren't necessarily the best, The personality t r a i t s interview respondents most frequently cited as being important for a planning member were an outgoing nature and personal warmth. Outgoing and warm Board and Committee members can encourage other Centre members to become involved i n a Centre's planning process through what Simon cal l s the "informal communication system," which i s a system "built around the social relations of members in an organization" (Simon, 1961, p. 1 6 0 ) . The informal communication system i s distinct from the formal system of communication, which i s the "channel and media of communication which have been consciously and deliberately established" (Simon, 1961, p. 157) . Some examples of chan-nels i n a Senior Centre's formal communication system include voting for 1 0 7 Board officers, placing suggestions i n suggestion boxes, and making " o f f i c i a l " requests to the Director or Board officers. Planning members can best make use of the informal communication system i f they are outgoing individuals and active i n their Centre's program. If they are outgoing and active, they w i l l l i k e l y know many of their Centre's members. Thus they w i l l have the opportunity to pick up on the wishes individual members may have regarding the Centre. They can also discover, without seeming to probe, the concerns, interests, s k i l l s , and needs of the membership. By showing warmth and interest, planning members may help to encourage members who are ordinarily inar-ticulate to express their views. An example of how the informal communication system can be used i s provided by one very active Board member who also heads a committee, instructs a class, and volunteers "wherever she's needed" at the Centre. This person describes her method of finding out what members want: I hear them talking i n my classes or i n the cafeteria, over a coffee. When I go to the Board or Operating Committee meeting, I try to c l i p their ideas i n somewhere. The Presidents of the three Centres are outgoing and active i n their Centres' programs. They make use of both formal and informal communi-cation channels in efforts to involve members i n their Centres' planning processes. For example, Silver Harbour's President i s one of the Cen-tre's founding members and i s well known and respected by the members. She chairs the Program Committee meetings; thus she i s knowledgeable about the Centre's programs and i s able to hear the concerns of committee leaders. I f necessary, she takes these concerns to the Board. The President of 411 began her association with the Centre i n 1 9 7 2 , 1 0 8 a s o n e o f t h e o r i g i n a l v o l u n t e e r s i n t h e k i t c h e n . S h e i s a b l e t o c a l l m o s t o f t h e C e n t r e ' s 1,600 m e m b e r s b y t h e i r f i r s t n a m e s . S h e w a s p r a i s e d b y s t a f f a n d m e m b e r s i n t e r v i e w e d f o r h e r w a r m " p e r s o n a l t o u c h " a n d h e r a b i l i t y t o l e a r n w h a t m e m b e r s w a n t . S h e i s a b l e t o t a k e m e m b e r s * c o n -c e r n s t o t h e O p e r a t i n g C o m m i t t e e , a n d w h e n n e c e s s a r y , t o t h e B o a r d . T h e P r e s i d e n t o f M u r d o c h C e n t r e h a s b e l o n g e d t o t h e C e n t r e f o r f i v e y e a r s , i n s t r u c t i n g a p a i n t i n g c l a s s a n d p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n p r o g r a m s . S h e p e r s o n a l l y t e l e p h o n e s t o c o n g r a t u l a t e e a c h C e n t r e m e m b e r o n h i s o r h e r b i r t h d a y . D u r i n g t h e s e c a l l s , s h e i s a b l e t o r e c e i v e s u g g e s t i o n s o r c o m -p l a i n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e C e n t r e , w h i c h s h e c a n m e n t i o n a t t h e m o n t h l y E x e c u -t i v e A d v i s o r y B o a r d m e e t i n g s . I n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g w a r m a n d o u t g o i n g , p l a n n i n g m e m b e r s w o u l d i d e a l l y b e s e l f l e s s , d e d i c a t e d , u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d c o m p a s s i o n a t e , w i t h l i a g e n u i n e d e s i r e t o s e e t h e i r C e n t r e s a c h i e v e s u c c e s s — i n o t h e r w o r d s , a b a n d o f A n g e l s $ A n u m b e r o f t h e s e a n g e l i c q u a l i t i e s w e r e m e n t i o n e d b y i n t e r v i e w r e s p o n d e n t s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e r e s p o n d e n t s d e s c r i b e d t h e i d e a l p l a n n i n g m e m b e r a s b e i n g c a r i n g : Y o u ' v e g o t t o h a v e a l o v e f o r p e o p l e t o s e r v e o n t h e B o a r d . I f y p u d i d n ' t , y o u ' d b e c r a z y t o s e r v e . B o a r d w o r k s u r e l y i s n ' t g l a m o u r o u s . I t d o e s n ' t c o s t a n y t h i n g t o s m i l e , b u t i t c a n d o a w o r l d o f g o o d . S m i l e s h a v e h e a l i n g p o w e r s . T h e y a l s o d e s c r i b e d t h e i d e a l p l a n n i n g m e m b e r a s h a v i n g a d e m o c r a t i c v a l u e s y s t e m : W e ( t h e B o a r d ) t r y t o d o a l l w e c a n t o i n v o l v e m e m b e r s . A s l o n g a s w e h a v e t h e m o n e y , m e m b e r s ' i d e a s a r e i m p l e m e n t e d . 1 0 9 We don't allow one-man committees here. We're a very democratic organization. We treat everyone as equals here. We don't have any cliques. Being a good listener is better than being a good talker any time. You can learn by listening. You won't learn i f you're always talking. Thirteen of the nineteen Board members interviewed expressed the opinion that the Board meetings ran very smoothly and that members got along well: We're a compatible group. There are never any conflicts in our meetings. We work well together because we have the same goal of seeing the Centre move ahead. Problems sometimes occur at the Committee level, but not with the Board. The remaining third of the Board members (two from each Centre) suggested that a l l Board meetings did not run so smoothly: We get arguments at times over proce-dures, rules...that sort of thing. Whenever ypu get a group of people together, you're bound to get conflicts. It's no different for us, just because we're old. We don't have too many major conflicts on the Board. When we get them, I'm afraid I'm the one who's usually to blame, I'm a stubborn old woman. In the words of one Board member, "the only thing distinguishing us (the Board) from the rest of the membership is that we're willing to stick with things and see them through," Another said, "We're just people," Thus being "just people," a Centre's planning members are 110 bound to have some negative characteristics which serve to discourage other Centre members from becoming involved in the Centre's planning process, I observed three of these negative characteristics in some of the planning members at the Centres under study. First, some of the planning members were frustrated by the disinterest and lack of involvement shown by the membership towards the planning and operation of the Centre, They claimed that they put time and effort into serving on Board and Com-mittees and received l i t t l e assistance or recognition in return. One Board member stated, Most of these people wouldn't l i f t a finger to help. They're the ones who are the loudest complainers, too. Another said, Some people only come here for a meal or to take part in the activities. They let you know i t , too. And another noted, Only 10 per cent of the membership do anything for the Centre. Most people seem quite content to let things drift along as long as someone else does the worrying. A factor which emerged as being particularly frustrating was that those most qualified to assist the planning members often chose not to participate. Referring to this factor, some planning members said that they would like to have a rest, but they feared that no one would be willing to replace them. One Director, sympathetic to their dilemma, stated: Frankly, I'm amazed at how few people run for office each year. We have members here I l l with years of experience who wouldn't touch a Board position with a ten foot pole. Regardless of the validity of planning members' frustration, i t can be a negative factor i f i t creates a "We—They" atmosphere which causes planning members to be resentful and intolerant of the non-planning mem-bers. If planning members do not respect the right of those members who merely want to come to enjoy the Centre a c t i v i t i e s and try to involve them i n planning against their w i l l , they w i l l only alienate the members and work against the goals of the Centre. An understanding of how to motivate members i s essential i f planning members are to succeed in their efforts to enlist support. For example^ a particularly pushy committee leader at one Centre .tried to "shame" members into serving on her committee. Her method of recruiting met with no success. The Director, who was requested to offer assistance, described the incidents I went i n and asked a group of members i f they would be willing to lend a hand. They were more than willing. Twenty-five volun-teered. The key i s i n how you approach people. The second characteristic of some of the planning and general mem-bers which may discourage other members from becoming involved in the Cen-tre's planning process i s r a c i a l prejudice. This problem was evident at the 411 Centre, where a large number of East Indians have recently become members. Although the East Indian member I interviewed and the five I spoke with informally at 411 assured me that everyone at the Centre was "very nice...very helpful," and that "no problems of bigotry exist," I observed and was told of a number of incidents of intolerance displayed by Board, Committee, and general mem-bers towards East Indian members. For example, I overheard a Board 112 member, who had earlier claimed that a key reason for the success of 411 was that " a l l members are condidered as equals," complain to another members They may as well put a sign up outside saying, 'Only Card Players and Blacks Welcome.* Such an attitude hardly creates an atmosphere conducive to democratic participation by a l l members in the Centre's planning process. The Director, Staff and four Board members acknowledged that inci^. dents of prejudice occur at 411. They said that they try to quell them when they arise, but admitted that they can't instantaneously change attitudes which people have built up over their lifetimes. The third characteristic of planning members which may serve to dis-courage other members from becoming involved in their Centre's planning process i s cliquishness. Cliques are "groups that buildi up an informal network of communications...(which they use) as a means of securing power in the organization" (Simon, 196l, p. l 6 l ) . Members of a clique do hot necessarily have " e v i l " motives. For example, the Director at one of the Centres under study claimed some committees at the Centre became cliques because of the pride that leaders took i n their programs. As a result, those leaders sought to include only their friends on their com-mittees. The Director said, A problem with some committee members i s that they are jealous about sharing their responsibilities. The staff and I have to look out to be sure that the less aggres-sive members who would benefit from parti-cipating are given a chance. Despite the negative characteristics of some planning members, most Board and Committee members interviewed appeared sincere i n their stated 1 1 3 d e s i r e t o i n v o l v e o t h e r m e m b e r s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T h e f a c t t h a t s o m e d i d n o t m e a s u r e u p t o t h e i d e a l i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g , f o r a s a l e a d i n g w r i t e r o n S e n i o r C e n t r e s o b s e r v e s , " T h e s k i l l o f d e m o c r a t i c g r o u p p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a l e a r n e d s k i l l . P e o p l e a r e n ' t b o r n w i t h i t " ( M a x w e l l , 1 9 6 2 , p . 5 9 ) . E n s u r i n g t h a t p l a n n i n g m e m b e r s d o n o t e x c l u d e o t h e r m e m b e r s f r o m t h e i r C e n t r e ' s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s o n e o f t h e m a n y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e C e n t r e D i r e c t o r . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f C e n t r e D i r e c t o r s a r e e x a m i n e d i n a n e f f o r t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r o l e t h e y m a y p l a y i n e n c o u r a g i n g o r d i s c o u r a g i n g m e m b e r i n v o l v e m e n t i n a C e n t r e ' s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F D I R E C T O R S A S e n i o r C e n t r e D i r e c t o r c a n b e i n s t r u m e n t a l i n e n c o u r a g i n g m e m b e r s t o b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n a S e n i o r C e n t r e ' s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I n f a c t , t h e D i r e c t o r ' s r o l e m a y b e m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h a t o f t h e p l a n n i n g m e m b e r s . T h o s e w h o w r i t e a b o u t B o a r d s o f v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r g u e t h a t m o t i -v a t i n g t h e B o a r d i s o n e o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n s o f s t a f f e x e c -u t i v e s B o a r d m e m b e r s a r e o n l y a s e f f e c t i v e a s S t a f f w i s h e s t h e m t o b e ; r a r e l y d o B o a r d v o l u n t e e r s t a k e o v e r a n d a c t u a l l y ' l e a d ' a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n ( C o n r a d a n d G l e n n , 1 9 7 6 , p . 2 5 ) . I n a n a l y z i n g t h e i m p a c t o f t h e t h r e e C e n t r e D i r e c t o r s o n m e m b e r s ' i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e C e n t r e s ' p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s a n e f f o r t i s m a d e t o p r o t e c t t h e D i r e c t o r s ' a n o n y m i t y , I h a v e u s e d t h e m a s c u l i n e p e r s o n a l p r o n o u n i n r e f e r r i n g t o a l l D i r e c t o r s a s u s e o f t h e m a s c u l i n e a n d f e m i n -i n e p r o n o u n s w o u l d d i v u l g e t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e s o l e m a l e D i r e c t o r u n d e r 114 study and increase the likelihood of the women Directors being recognized. The analysis of Directors' characteristics employs the same format as the analysis of characteristics of planning members. I t examines the effect that a Director's l ) s k i l l s and experience and 2) personality and attitudes have i n the encouragement and discouragement of members i n planning. A. S k i l l s and Experience No formal "professional" standards exist for Senior Centre Directors, However, the NCOA Manual, Senior Centre Operation, says that, usually the Senior Centre Administrator i s a graduate professional i n such fi e l d s as adult education, recreation, therapeutic recreation, social work or ministry, often with special training in gerontology. He/she should have a background of experience or training in pub-l i c administration or administration of voluntary organizations (Leanse, et a l . , 1977, P. 14). Perhaps, because the Senior Centre movement i n Canada has not been in existence for as long as i t s American counterpart, and because Cana-dian Centres have tended to emerge as grass roots organizations, the qualifications for Centre Directors i n Canada have u n t i l recently been less formal. For example, .in 1971, the Coordinator of the Training Institute for Senior Centre Directors acknowledged that i n addition to professionally trained personnel, some Directors i n Canada had "been 'active community workers,' but...(had) no formal specialized training..." (Wilson, 1972, p. i x ) . This Coordinator stressed that "whatever (the Directors') background of training and experience before accepting responsibility in directing a Senior Centre, none had specific training for the special and peculiar roles when directing a Senior Centre since 1 1 5 such training (had) not "been available" (Wilson, 1 9 7 2 , p. ix). In the past decade, however, Schools of Social Work, Physical Education, and Recreation in Canadian Universities have begun to offer programs which train students to perform many of the duties required of a Senior Centre Director, None of the Directors of the Centres under study had.i formal pro-fessional training related to working with the aged. However, based on my personal observations and the comments of interview respondents, the skills and experience possessed by the three Directors appear to have prepared them for carrying out their responsibilities. The f i r s t s k i l l which was identified by the three Directors and the majority of members interviewed was s k i l l in business and management. One Director said, "I regard myself as a manager in a company." Three Board members used the same analogy in describing their Directors. Mana-gerial skills are often thought of in terms of fiscal responsibility, hiring and firing, and running a successful business operation. These skills are important, especially at the autonomous Centres, where increases in operating grants have not kept pace with rise in the cost of living. As one Director observed, A Director needs experience in business. We operate on a shoestring here and a minor oversight could lead to a major problem. At the outset, a Director's business skills, or lack of them, might appear to have l i t t l e to do with member involvement in planning. However, the three Directors interviewed expressed the belief that by successfully looking after the business and administrative aspects of their Centres they can inspire confidence in their Boards and member-ships 116 t h a t t h e C e n t r e s a r e b e i n g r u n e f f i c i e n t l y . T h e D i r e c t o r c a n t h u s c r e a t e a n a t m o s p h e r e c o n d u c i v e t o m e m b e r i n v o l v e m e n t i n p l a n n i n g . I n a d d i t i o n t o s k i l l s i n b u s i n e s s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e D i r e c t o r m u s t a l s o e f f e c t i v e l y " m a n a g e " t h e h u m a n r e l a t i o n s a s p e c t o f t h e C e n t r e . T h e w a y s i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l D i r e c t o r s c a r r y o u t t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e i r m a n a g e r i a l d u t i e s a r e m a n i f e s t i n t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e s . O n e D i r e c t o r o p e r a t e s i n a n e f f i c i e n t , b u t s o m e w h a t d e t a c h e d m a n n e r . H e d e l e g a t e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o m e m b e r s a n d t r e a t s t h e m a s m e m b e r s o f a t e a m . H e c o n t e n d s , " W e h a v e s u r p r i s i n g l y f e w p r o b l e m s a t t h i s C e n t r e , a s w e a r e a l l s t r i v i n g t o m e e t t h e s a m e g o a l s , " A n o t h e r D i r e c t o r i s m o r e c a s u a l a n d " l a i d - b a c k " i n h i s l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e . H e s a y s , " I d o n ' t i m p o s e m y s e l f o n t h e m e m b e r s . B u t I a m h e r e i f t h e y n e e d m e , " I n t e r v i e w s a n d c a s u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h m e m b e r s m a d e i t e v i d e n t t h a t t h i s m e s s a g e g e t s t h r o u g h t o t h e m e m b e r s . O n e a c t i v e C o m -m i t t e e m e m b e r p r a i s e d t h e D i r e c t o r s " H e ' s a l w a y s w i l l i n g t o h e l p . H e ' s n o t s t u c k u p . " T h e o t h e r D i r e c t o r t e n d s t o b e c o m e m o r e d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e C e n t r e ' s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . P a r t o f h i s r e a s o n f o r b e c o m -i n g s o i n v o l v e d i s h i s b e l i e f t h a t i f h e d i d n ' t p i t c h i n a n d h e l p t h o s e o n c o m m i t t e e s w i t h p l a n n i n g a n d o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s , t h e y w o u l d b e c o m e r e s e n t f u l . H e r e a s o n s , " I ' v e d o n e l o t s o f v o l u n t e e r w o r k m y s e l f . I f I s a w a p a i d s t a f f p e r s o n s i t t i n g o n h i s b u t t w h i l e I w o r k e d , I ' d q u i t . " E a c h o f t h e s e l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e s h a s i t s a d v a n t a g e s a n d d i s a d v a n -t a g e s . T h e a d e q u a c y o f a n y s t y l e c a n b e m e a s u r e d a g a i n s t a r e q u i r e m e n t s e t o u t b y M a x w e l l f o r p a i d p r o f e s s i o n a l C e n t r e s t a f f s T h e y s h o u l d b r i n g t o t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . . . a b i l i t y t o c r e a t e t h e k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h e a c h i n d i v i d u a l 117 and group has equal opportunity for recognition, respect and attention (Maxwell, 1962, p. 42). I t can be quickly seen that a "cluster"of s k i l l s i s involved in leader-ship style—the a b i l i t y to communicate, to listen, to consult, and to know when and how to act and when to delegate. Personality and at t i t u -dinal characteristics are closely linked with s k i l l s and with them, they can affect the involvement of members in a Centre's planning process. These characteristics and their potential effects are considered below. B. Personality and Attitudes Directors should ideally possess the personality and attitudinal characteristics identified as being desirable for planning members (a warm, outgoing personality, and a selfless dedication to the Centre and i t s members). And obviously, they should not possess the negative char-acteristics identified (cliquishness, prejudicial views regarding ethnic or religious groups within the membership, or intolerance towards non-planning members). The three personality and attitudinal characteristics most frequently identified in the interviews as being essential for Directors to possess were l ) diplomacy and tact, 2) an understanding and accepting attitude, and 3) commitment to the Centre and i t s members. Fir s t , Directors need to be diplomatic. In f a c i l i t a t i n g a Centre's members i n planning, a Director must ensure that a l l members are given opportunity to participate, not only the most skilled or aggressive mem-bers. Also, Directors must be certain that members w i l l be able to par-ticipate in planning in the areas that interest them. One Director noted the challenge which the la t t e r requirement sometimes presents: 118 S o m e o f o u r p r o g r a m C o m m i t t e e s a r e v e r y -p o p u l a r . F r a n k l y , w e g e t t o o m a n y p e o p l e v o l u n t e e r i n g t o s e r v e o n t h e m . W e h a v e t r o u b l e e g e t t i n g m e m b e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n o t h e r c o m m i t t e e s , t h o u g h . . . e s p e c i a l l y o n t h o s e t h a t r e q u i r e a r e g u l a r c o m m i t m e n t , s u c h a s t h e k i t c h e n c o m m i t t e e . I n s u c h c a s e s , t h e D i r e c t o r t r i e s n o t t o c a t e g o r i c a l l y r e f u s e a s p e c i f i c o p p o r t u n i t y t o o n e p e r s o n w h i l e g r a n t i n g i t t o a n o t h e r . H e t r i e s t o p e r s u a d e m e m b e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e a r e a s w h e r e t h e y a r e n e e d e d m o s t . O n e D i r e c t o r s t a t e d , P e o p l e r e s e n t b e i n g t o l d w h a t t o d o . I t ' s a l w a y s b e t t e r t o a s k . O n e o f t h e m o s t t r y i n g t e s t s o f a D i r e c t o r ' s d i p l o m a t i c a b i l i t i e s c o m e s w h e n p l a n n i n g m e m b e r s n e e d t o b e a d m o n i s h e d . A n i n c i d e n t m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , i n w h i c h s o m e c l i q u i s h c o m m i t t e e l e a d e r s s o u g h t t o i n c l u d e o n l y t h e i r f r i e n d s o n t h e i r c o m m i t t e e s , p r o v i d e s a n e x a m p l e o f s u c h a c a s e . A n o t h e r e x a m p l e i s p r o v i d e d b y a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h a r o s e i n p l a n n i n g a b a z a a r a t o n e o f t h e C e n t r e s . A m e m b e r o f t h e B a k i n g C o m m i t t e e w i t h h e r o w n " h i d d e n a g e n d a , " e n d e a v o u r e d t o s a v e t h e C e n t r e m o n e y b y r e d u c i n g t h e a m o u n t o f s u g a r i n a b a k i n g r e c i p e . S h e d i d n o t c o n s u l t o t h e r c o m m i t t e e m e m b e r s o r t h e D i r e c t o r b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h h e r p l a n . T h e r e s u l t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e D i r e c t o r , w a s " i n e d i b l e b a k e d g o o d s , a s h a r d a s r o c k . " T h e D i r e c t o r f e l t t h a t s h e h a d t o t e l l t h e o f f e n d i n g m e m b e r t o e i t h e r f o l l o w p r o c e d u r e s a c c e p t e d b y t h e c o m m i t t e e o r c e a s e t o s e r v e . S h e e x p l a i n e d , " F o r t h e g o o d o f t h e m a j o r i t y , frpu h a v e t o b e a b l e t o f i r e a s w e l l a s h i r e v o l u n t e e r s , " T h e s e c o n d i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r a C e n t r e D i r e c t o r a r e u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d a c c e p t a n c e . T o b e s u c c e s s f u l i n e n c o u r a g i n g m e m b e r s t o b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n t h e C e n t r e ' s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , D i r e c t o r s n e e d t o 119 have a general knowledge of the aging process and an understanding of how the process affects what members can and want to do. A general knowledge of the aging process involves an understanding of the physical limitations common to the aging population. For exam-ple, one Director stated, I'd estimate that roughly k0% of members here have hearing problems. The majority of d i f f i -culties at the Centre result from misunder-standings due to members hearing things incorrectly. Most occur among the members themselves, not between staff and members. The staff and I are very careful to commun-icate with members. It i s also important for the Directors to understand some factors which influence the learning process of older people. Gerontological studies reveal that older adults are as intelligent and capable of learn-ing as younger people. Hbwever, older adults must be given more time to receive, record and respond to information. Some physiological factors are involved, but a psychological aspect also exists; older adults have more stored information to check the new material against, and this process i s said to delay their response time (Birren, et a l , , 197?). In order for Directors to be successful i n planning with Centre members, i t i s imperative that they understand and are sensitive to the implications of the aging process. For example, I f they are understanding, they w i l l know enough to allow planning members to have adequate time in which to reach decisions. They w i l l arrange for meetings to take place where extraneous noise i s at a minimum and, i f necessary, w i l l repeat for the benefit of others what one Board or Committee member has said so that a l l can hear. Also, they w i l l not "spring" ideas on the members without allowing them time for preparation. 120 One member expressed pleasure i n the fact that "our present Director i s the f i r s t one we've had who doesn't make snap judgments," In their interview responses, the Directors under study gave evi-dence of having deep understanding of the changed circumstances that increasing age has caused members. One said, You've got to remember that many members don't have a family to go home to when they leave the Centre. They have no one to speak to and they have lots of time to dwell on what happened to them here during the day. What would be a minor incident to you or me might be a major problem to an older person. The members stressed the importance of having a patient Director. The following quote i s representative of statements made by many: A Director needs lots of patience. She needs to know how to deallwith Seniors, because they get awful funny sometimes. As noted earlier, people begin to lose control over many aspects of their lives as they age. Participating in the planning process at a Senior Centre provides older people with an opportunity to exercise some degree of control over their lives, and to regain a sense of dignity and self-respect. One of the ways a patient and1 understanding Centre Direc-tor^can encourage members to become involved in planning and help them to derive the benefits associated with control i s by providing recognition. The importance of recognition was noted by a l l Directors. They acknowledged that merely needing and wanting members to be involved in planning at the Centres i s not sufficient. In order to encourage new planning members to become involved and to maintain the commitment of old ones, members must be made to feel needed and wanted. Directors provide overt forms of recognition, such as issuing formal "thank-you's" i n 121 Newsletters and at meetings or holding annual Recognition parties in honour of planning members and other volunteers. Directors who have a special understanding of the individual member's needs, expectations, and personality are also able to provide subtle forms of recognition. As one Director observed, You've got to have feelings for people. I c a l l some of the men who come here "old bastards.* They love i t . I t lets them know I care. If I called other members that, they'd take offense and never come back. In providing recognition, the Directors must be aware that there i s afine line between recognizing and patronizing, A member was quick to point out, "One thing a Director has to understand i s that old people don't see themselves as old. It's always the other person who's old." The three Directors appeared to have been successful in recognizing, but not patronizing, their Centres' members. For example, they a l l had "open door" policies, Inviting members to come to them at any time with complaints or suggestions. At least some members were responsive to their Directors' "openness," as each of the interviews with the Directors was interrupted by members telephoning or entering the office. Also, a l l members interviewed claimed that their Directors were approachable and listened to their ideas. For example, one member said, Anytime we want something or have a complaint, we can go to (our Director), Another stated, I've gone to (our Director) many times with suggestions. He hasn't always agreed with me. But I know he's listened, 1 2 2 T h e t h i r d i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r C e n t r e D i r e c t o r s t o h a v e i s a p r o v e n d e d i c a t i o n t o t h e C e n t r e a n d i t s m e m b e r s . D i r e c t o r s m u s t a c c e p t t h e p h i l o s o p h y t h a t , I n t h e m a i n , C e n t r e s s h o u l d b e p l a n n e d " f o r s e n i o r s b y s e n i o r s . " O b v i o u s l y a D i r e c t o r c a n n o t b e a n e f f e c t i v e f a c i l i t a t o r i f h e d o e s n ' t b e l i e v e m e m b e r s s h o u l d b e i n v o l v e d i n t h e C e n t r e ' s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . A s o n e D i r e c t o r n o t e d , T h e B o a r d a n d m e m b e r s a r e c o m m i t t e d t o t h e p h i l o s o p h y t h a t t h e C e n t r e s h o u l d b e p l a n n e d b y m e m b e r s , a s m u c h a s p o s s i b l e . I f a D i r e c t o r d i d n ' t a c c e p t t h i s p h i l o s o p h y , h e ' d b e w o r k i n g a g a i n s t t h e C e n t r e a n d i t s g o a l s . ( T h e D i r e c t o r m i g h t h a v e a d d e d t h a t a n y D i r e c t o r o f a n a u t o n o m o u s C e n t r e b l a t a n t l y o p p o s i n g t h e C e n t r e ' s p h i l o s o p h y w o u l d e x p e r i e n c e d i f f i c u l t y i n s e c u r i n g t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e B o a r d a n d m e m b e r s h i p a n d w o u l d r i s k l o s i n g h i s j o b . ) T h e t h r e e D i r e c t o r s u n d e r s t u d y a c c e p t e d t h e " p l a n f o r s e n i o r s b y s e n i o r s " p h i l o s o p h y . T h e D i r e c t o r s o f t h e S i l v e r H a r b o u r a n d 4 1 1 C e n t r e s w e r e r e q u i r e d t o a c c e p t t h e p h i l o s o p h y u n d e r t h e i r t e r m s o f e m p l o y m e n t . T h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r o f M u r d o c h C e n t r e h a s n o s u c h f o r m a l r e q u i r e m e n t ; h o w e v e r , s h e c h o o s e s t o a c c e p t t h e p h i l o s o p h y j u s t t h e s a m e . T h e e s t a b -l i s h m e n t o f t h e E x e c u t i v e A d v i s o r y B o a r d a n d t h e p r o p o s e d o p e r a t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s a t M u r d o c h r e v e a l h e r c o m m i t m e n t t o p r o v i d i n g m e m b e r s w i t h g r e a t e r a u t o n o m y i n p l a n n i n g a t t h e C e n t r e , A l t h o u g h a l l o f t h e D i r e c t o r s s u b s c r i b e d t o t h e b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y o f m e m b e r s p l a n n i n g f o r t h e i r o w n C e n t r e , t h e y h a v e t o u s e s o m e j u d g m e n t i n a c t i n g o n t h e p h i l o s o p h y , I t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r D i r e c t o r s t o k n o w b o w  m u c h a n d i n w h a t a r e a s m e m b e r s w a n t t o p l a n . W h i l e m a n y m e m b e r s w a n t t o b e i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g , t h e y d o n o t w a n t t o b e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l 123 p l a n n i n g a t a C e n t r e . F o r e x a m p l e , a c o m m i t t e e w a s f o r m e d a t o n e C e n t r e t o p l a n , d e s i g n , a n d b u i l d a f l o a t f o r a p a r a d e . T h e D i r e c t o r o f f e r e d t o h e l p m e m b e r s g e t m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e p r o j e c t b u t s t a y e d t o t a l l y o u t o f t h e p l a n n i n g a n d d e s i g n i n g o f t h e p r o j e c t . W i t h o u t t h e D i r e c t o r ' s d i r e c t s u p p o r t , t h e C o m m i t t e e l e a d e r e x p e r i e n c e d a n u m b e r o f d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e c r u i t i n g a n d c o o r d i n a t i n g v o l u n t e e r s a n d e v e n t u a l l y h a d t o g i v e u p o n t h e p r o j e c t . T h e D i r e c t o r a d m i t t e d , " l o o k i n g b a c k o n i t , I s h o u l d h a v e d o n e m o r e t o h e l p . " T h e p r e c e d i n g e x a m p l e r e v e a l s t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s a D i r e c t o r e n c o u n t e r s i n t r y i n g t o s t r i k e a d e l i c a t e b a l a n c e b e t w e e n d o i n g t o o m u c h a n d d o i n g t o o l i t t l e f o r m e m b e r s . - O n e D i r e c t o r a n d . f o u r B o a r d m e m b e r s d e s c r i b e d t h e D i r e c t o r ' s r o l e a s p r o v i d i n g " c o n t i n u i t y . " I n p r o v i d i n g c o n t i n u i t y , a D i r e c t o r o r o t h e r s t a f f a t t e n d t o t h e p l a n n i n g t a s k s a n d o t h e r d u t i e s t h a t m e m b e r s d o n o t w a n t t o t a k e o n . F o r e x a m p l e , o n e D i r e c t o r c l a i m e d , " B y a n d l a r g e , m e m b e r s a r e n ' t i n t e r e s t e d i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . " T h e r e f o r e , h e a n d h i s s t a f f l o o k a f t e r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e C e n t r e ' s p l a n n i n g , t h u s f r e e i n g m e m b e r s t o e n g a g e i n p l a n n i n g i n a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t t o t h e m . I n . s o m e c a s e s , t h e D i r e c t o r s ' p r a c t i c e o f p r o v i d i n g c o n t i n u i t y m i g h t p o s s i b l y b e v i e w e d a s p l a n n i n g f o r C e n t r e m e m b e r s . F o r e x a m p l e , a s t a f f p e r s o n s t a t e d , O f f i c i a l l y , w e a r e n ' t s u p p o s e d t o d o d a n y p l a n n i n g . I n a c t u a l f a c t , t h o u g h , w e o f t e n d o . I n r e f e r e n c e t o p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g , a D i r e c t o r s t a t e d , M e m b e r s a r e f r e e t o b r i n g p r o g r a m i d e a s t o t h e s t a f f o r m y s e l f . B u t i f w e h a d t o w a i t f o r m e m b e r s ' s u g g e s t i o n s , w e ' d h a v e p r e t t y s p a r s e p r o g r a m m i n g . 124 At the Centre in question, programs were usually introduced because of an avai l a b i l i t y of willing and qualified member-instructors, rather than an expressed demand for particular, programs from the membership. The important distinction between the " f a c i l i t a t o r " and "provider" Directors i s that the f a c i l i t a t o r always lets members know they have the opportunity and right to suggest programs. In addition, he assures them that they can implement most programs they desire, provided they are willing to do the planning and organizing and the proposed program i s "feasible" (i.e. i t does not contravene Centre policy, I t i s not too costly to implement, sufficient space i s available in which to hold i t , and enough members are interested in i t to make the program worthwhile). Because members know they may plan, they do not appear to resent the Dir-ector or staff doing so when they choose not to exercise their right. In order for a Director to accept the "plan for senior by seniors" philosophy, he must be willing to forego personal recognition of his work on behalf of the members and the Centre, The d i f f i c u l t y in abiding by this requirement was explained by the former Program Director at one Centres My job i s easy in one way. I'm not supposed to suggest things and I'm not expected to come up with dynamic ideas. But my job i s hard in that I've got to res i s t putting forward what I know are good ideas. Even when the Director subtly plans at a Centre by providing "conti-nuity" to the members' planning efforts, he cannot take direct credit. If a Director or staff person requires personal recognition for his involvement in a Centre's planning process, his glory w i l l come at the expense of Centre members and members w i l l be discouraged from becoming involved in planning. 125 T h i s " b r i e f i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f C e n t r e D i r e c t o r s c o m p l e t e s t h e t h i r d s e c t i o n i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h m a y e n c o u r a g e o r d i s c o u r a g e m e m b e r s ' i n v o l v e m e n t i n a S e n i o r C e n t r e ' s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I t i s f o l l o w e d b y t h e f i n a l s e c t i o n i n t h e a n a l y s i s , f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o t h e C e n t r e ' s b u i l d i n g . B U I L D I N G T h e f i n a l s e t o f f a c t o r s w h i c h e m e r g e d a s p o t e n t i a l l y e n c o u r a g i n g o r d i s c o u r a g i n g t o m e m b e r i n v o l v e m e n t i n a S e n i o r C e n t r e ' s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s r e l a t e t o t h e C e n t r e ' s b u i l d i n g . T h e l i t e r a t u r e w a r n s t h a t S e n i o r C e n t r e p r a c t i t i o n e r s s h o u l d n o t b e c o m e p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h c o n s i d e r -a t i o n s o f t h e C e n t r e ' s b u i l d i n g , t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f a l l e l s e . O n e w r i t e r s t a t e d t h a t h e w o u l d " r a t h e r h a v e t o p n o t c h s t a f f c o n d u c t i n g a p r o g r a m i n a b a r n t h a n h a v e a c a s t l e a v a i l a b l e w i t h o u t c o m p e t e n t s t a f f o r w i t h o u t a c o m p l e t e p r o g r a m " ( J o n e s , u n d a t e d , p . 4). A l s o , n o n e o f t h e C e n t r e s i n t h i s s t u d y c o n f i n e d t h e i r p r o g r a m s t o t h e i r b u i l d i n g . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e y h e l d s u c h " o f f - s i t e " p r o g r a m m i n g a s b u s t r i p s , s w i m -m i n g , t e n n i s , a n d e x c u r s i o n s t o t h e a t r e s o r r e s t a u r a n t s . B u i l d i n g s a n d p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t s d e s e r v e s o m e , c o n s i d e r a t i o n n o n e t h e l e s s , a s t h e y h a v e a m a j o r i n f l u e n c e o n t h e a b i l i t y o f a S e n i o r C e n t r e t o m e e t t h e n e e d s o f i t s m e m b e r s . A n e x c e l l e n t d e s i g n m a n u a l f o r t h e p l a n n i n g o f S e n i o r C e n t r e f a c i l -i t i e s h a s b e e n p u b l i s h e d b y t h e N C O A , w h i c h a i m s " t o o f f e r t e c h n i c a l g u i d a n c e f o r a n y o n e i n v o l v e d i n p r o v i d i n g t h e p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t y i n w h i c h a s e n i o r g r o u p p r o g r a m i s a c c o m m o d a t e d " ( J o r d a n , 1978, p . 6). R a t h e r t h a n s u r v e y t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h a t m a n u a l , o r o t h e r l i t e r a t u r e o n e n v i r o n -m e n t s f o r o l d e r a d u l t s , t h i s s e c t i o n f o c u s e s o n t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t 126 the Centres' buildings have for members' involvement in planning at the Centres. The case studies in Chapter 4 contain descriptions of the buildings and surrounding environments of the three Centres. To review briefly, the Silver Harbour building is owned by a Non-Profit Society and is designed specifically to accommodate the Centre's program. The 411 building is managed by the B.C. Building Management Corporation, and is made available to the 411 Centre Society at no cost. It was a Labour Temple when i t was built in 1914, and i t served a variety of purposes before a large portion of i t was renovated in the 1970's to accommodate the 411 Senior Centre. Murdoch Centre is housed in a building which is owned by, and leased from, a United Church. It was originally designed to function as a Church Hall for use by a l l age groups, not only senior citizens. With respect to member involvement in planning, the factors which distinguish the three buildings are related to their tenure and design. These factors affect members* involvement in two types of planning at their Senior Centres. Their effect on the fi r s t type, program planning, is considered below. Their influence on the second type, facility planning, is considered in the subsequent section, A. Program Planning* l) Silver Harbour. Silver Harbour's building is the most conducive of the three Centres under study to member involvement in program planning. *In this section, the term "program planning" is used to refer to building-related program planning, such as crafts and exercise classes, dances, etc. The term does not refer to off-site programming, such as outreach, swimming sessions, or bus trips. 127 A s t h e S i l v e r H a r b o u r S o c i e t y o w n s i t s b u i l d i n g , i t s m e m b e r s h a v e a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h d e g r e e o f a u t o n o m y . T h e y s e t t h e i r o w n p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g u s e o f t h e b u i l d i n g , t h u s t h e y a r e f r e e t o c h o o s e t h e i r h o u r s o f o p e r a t i o n a n d t h e p r o g r a m s t h e y w i s h t o o f f e r ( a s s p a c e a n d o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p e r m i t ) , T h e D i r e c t o r a n d f i v e m e m b e r s a t S i l v e r H a r b o u r c l a i m e d t h a t o w n i n g t h e i r b u i l d i n g w a s a m a j o r f a c t o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t h e i r o p e r a t i o n f r o m t h o s e o f o t h e r C e n t r e s . T h e D i r e c t o r c l a i m e d , M e m b e r s h a v e t h e p r i d e o f o w n e r s h i p . I t ' s t h e s a m e d i f f e r e n c e a s b e t w e e n r e n t i n g a n d o w n i n g a h o m e . M e m b e r s f e e l t h a t t h e C e n t r e i s t h e i r s . S h e a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t o w n e r s h i p m i g h t e n c o u r a g e m e m b e r s t o b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n t h e C e n t r e ' s p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g , s p e c u l a t i n g " m a y b e ( o w n e r s h i p ) i s p a r t o f t h e r e a s o n w e h a v e s o m a n y v o l u n t e e r s . " T h e f a c t t h a t S i l v e r H a r b o u r ' s b u i l d i n g i s s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d t o f u n c t i o n a s a S e n i o r C e n t r e a l s o s e r v e s t o e n c o u r a g e m e m b e r s t o b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n t h a t C e n t r e ' s p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g . Q u i t e s i m p l y , a s t h e b u i l d i n g c a n a c c o m m o d a t e a b r o a d r a n g e o f p r o g r a m s , t h e C e n t r e c a n o f f e r a g r e a t e r r a n g e o f p r o g r a m s , t h u s i n c r e a s i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r m e m b e r s ' i n v o l v e m e n t i n p l a n n i n g . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e b u i l d i n g a l l o w s m e m b e r s t o d e r i v e s a t i s -f a c t i o n f r o m t h e i r p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s , a s i t i s r e l a t i v e l y f r e e o f a r c h i -t e c t u r a l b a r r i e r s w h i c h m i g h t j e o p a r d i z e t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e i r e f f o r t s . 2) T h e 411 C e n t r e . T h e 411 C e n t r e ' s b u i l d i n g p r o v i d e s l e s s e n c o u r a g e m e n t f o r m e m b e r s o f t h a t C e n t r e t o b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g , a s i t i s n o t o w n e d b y t h e 411 S o c i e t y a n d w a s n o t o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n e d t o s e r v e a s a S e n i o r C e n t r e . M e m b e r s o f 411 h a v e l e s s a u t o n o m y i n t h e i r p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g t h a n t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s a t S i l v e r H a r b o u r , a s 128 they must comply with regulations set out by the building's managers, the B.C. Building Management Corporation. They could not, for example, close off the main lobby to non-members and hold organized a c t i v i t i e s there. The 411 f a c i l i t y i s i n a public building and no person may be prevented from entering. As indicated i n the previous chapter, in ref-erence to the inebriated stranger who wandered into the Centre and intimidated members, the "public access" requirement may pose problems for programming and planning at the Centre. The Provincial Government and the B.C. Building Management Corpor-ation are accommodating landlords, however. Despite certain restrictions placed on the use of the building, members have a relatively high degree of autonomy i n their program planning. Like Silver Harbour's members, those at 411 can set the Centre's operating hours and implement the pro-grams they desire (provided they have adequate space, funds, member-interest, etc.) To a degree, the fact that the 411 Society does not own i t s building may actually be an encouraging factor for member involvement in program planning, Unlike the Silver Harbour Society, the 411 Society i s not responsible for the maintenance and renovations to i t s building. Being freed of the responsibility (and possible anxiety) of having to plan for building-related problems, members are able to devote their energies to program planning. The physical characteristics or design aspects of the 411 building also affect members' involvement in program planning at the Centre, In general, 411's design offers less encouragement for member involvement than that of Silver Harbour. Although renovations have made the building 129 m u c h m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e C e n t r e ' s p r o g r a m s t h a n i t h a d b e e n p r e -v i o u s l y , t h e b u i l d i n g s t i l l h a s a n " o l d o f f i c e b u i l d i n g " f e e l t o i t a n d l a c k s t h e a m e n i t i e s o f S i l v e r H a r b o u r . T h e b u i l d i n g f i t s i n w e l l w i t h t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d m e m b e r s a n d s t a f f a g r e e d t h a t i t p r o -v i d e s a f a m i l i a r a n d c o m f o r t a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t f o r m a n y o f i t s i n n e r c i t y m e m b e r s . H o w e v e r , t h e D i r e c t o r a n d m e m b e r s a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t t h e b u i l d i n g l i m i t s t h e p r o g r a m s t h a t c a n b e o f f e r e d a t t h e C e n t r e . F i v e m e m b e r s e x p r e s s e d a w a r e n e s s t h a t S i l v e r H a r b o u r o w n e d t h e i r b u i l d i n g a n d h a d a f a c i l i t y s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d f o r u s e a s a S e n i o r C e n t r e . T h e y s p o k e w i t h r e s p e c t , b u t n o t w i t h e n v y . W e ' r e m o r e c a s u a l h e r e . W e d o n ' t n e e d e v e r y t h i n g a s f a n c y a s t h e y ' v e g o t i t a t S i l v e r H a r b o u r . I ' l l g i v e c r e d i t w h e r e c r e d i t ' s d u e . S i l v e r H a r b o u r i s a v e r y p o l i s h e d a f f a i r . B u t w e s e r v e a d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n h e r e . T h i s C e n t r e ' s m o r e a p l a c e t o c o m e a n d r e l a x . O v e r t h e r e , p e o p l e a r e m o r e i n t e r e s t e d i n o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t i e s , * 3) M u r d o c h C e n t r e . O f t h e t h r e e C e n t r e b u i l d i n g s b e i n g e x a m i n e d , M u r d o c h C e n t r e ' s b u i l d i n g p r o v i d e s t h e l e a s t e n c o u r a g e m e n t f o r m e m b e r i n v o l v e m e n t i n p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g . T h e f a c t o r s w h i c h d i s c o u r a g e m e m b e r i n v o l v e m e n t i n p l a n n i n g a t M u r d o c h r e l a t e t o i t s l e a s i n g a r r a n g e m e n t a n d t h e d e s i g n o f t h e b u i l d i n g . F i r s t , t h e l e a s i n g a r r a n g e m e n t r e d u c e s t h e a u t o n o m y t h a t M u r d o c h ' s m e m b e r s m a y h a v e i n t h e i r p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g . T h e p r o b l e m s p o s e d b y t h i s l e a s i n g a r r a n g e m e n t a r e t w o f o l d : h a v i n g t o c o m p l y w i t h t h e U n i t e d C h u r c h ' s b u i l d i n g - u s e p o l i c i e s a n d b e i n g r e q u i r e d t o * ( N o t e : T h e f a c t t h a t 4 1 1 i s m o r e a p l a c e t o " c o m e a n d r e l a x " i s l a r g e l y d u e t o t h e t y p e o f c l i e n t e l e t h e C e n t r e d r a w s ; h o w e v e r , i t m a y a l s o b e d u e , i n p a r t , t o t h e b u i l d i n g ' s d e s i g n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h e 4 1 1 b u i l d i n g i s n o n - s t i m u l a t i n g a n d p o s s i b l y c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e p a s s i v i t y o f m a n y m e m b e r s ) 130 s h a r e t h e f a c i l i t y w i t h o t h e r g r o u p s . T h e s e p r o b l e m s a n d t h e f r u s -t r a t i o n s t h e y h a v e c a u s e d t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r a n d m e m b e r s w e r e d i s -c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 4, M e m b e r s a r e u n a b l e t o s e t t h e i r o p e r a t i n g h o u r s , s e r v e a l c o h o l i c b e v e r a g e s a t s p e c i a l e v e n t s , i n s t a l l e x p e n s i v e e q u i p m e n t , l e a v e t h e i r p r o g r a m m a t e r i a l s o u t , o r d i s p l s y t h e i r c r e a t i v e w o r k s . T h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r a n d a l l B o a r d m e m b e r s i n t e r v i e w e d e x p r e s s e d f r u s -t r a t i o n w i t h t h e p r e s e n t l e a s i n g a r r a n g e m e n t . O n e ' - m e m b e r w h o b e l o n g s t o o t h e r S e n i o r C e n t r e s i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r s t a t e d , M a y b e I ' m m o r e c r i t i c a l t h a n t h e o t h e r s b e c a u s e I ' v e b e e n t o o t h e r C e n t r e s , I k n o w w h a t t h e y h a v e t o o f f e r . W e c a n ' t e v e n s e t o u r o w n h o u r s h e r e . W e c a n ' t h o l d S u n d a y c o n c e r t s . W e c a n ' t s e r v e d r i n k s a t d a n c e s o r u s e d a n c e w a x o n t h e f l o o r . . . T h e r e a r e m a n y r e s t r i c t i o n s w i t h t h i s r e n t e d f a c i l i t y , I n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g d i s c o u r a g e d f r o m b e c o m i n g i n v o l v e d i n p r o g r a m s p l a n n i n g d u e t o t h e l e a s i n g a r r a n g e m e n t , m e m b e r s a r e a l s o d i s c o u r a g e d b e c a u s e o f t h e b u i l d i n g ' s d e s i g n . A s t h e b u i l d i n g w a s n o t d e s i g n e d t o f u n c t i o n a s a S e n i o r C e n t r e , a n d h a s n o t u n d e r g o n e s t r u c t u r a l r e n o v a t i o n s , i t i s n o t a s i d e a l f o r S e n i o r C e n t r e p r o g r a m m i n g a s a b u i l d i n g s p e c i f i -c a l l y d e s i g n e d o r r e n o v a t e d f o r u s e a s a C e n t r e . L i k e t h e m e m b e r s o f 411, m e m b e r s a t M u r d o c h a r e d i s c o u r a g e d f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n p r o g r a m s p l a n n i n g s i m p l y b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e f e w e r p o s s i b l e p r o g r a m s t o p l a n f o r . T h e y a r e f u r t h e r d i s c o u r a g e d b y t h e a c c e s s b a r r i e r s o f t h e i r b u i l d i n g . A m a j o r p r o b l e m i n d i c a t e d i n C h a p t e r 4 i s t h a t m o s t o f t h e C e n t r e ' s p r o g r a m m i n g m u s t b e h e l d o n t h e s e c o n d f l o o r . T h e b u i l d i n g d o e s n o t c o n t a i n a n e l e v a t o r , t h e r e f o r e m e m b e r s w h o e x p e r i e n c e d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h w a l k i n g o r c l i m b i n g s t a i r s a r e p r o b a b l y u n a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r o g r a m s . I f t h e l e s s a m b u l a t o r y m e m b e r s a r e u n a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n 131 t h e p r o g r a m s , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e y w o u l d " b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g f o r t h e m . T h r e e v e r y v e r s a t i l e a n d d e d i c a t e d p l a n n i n g m e m b e r s i n t e r -v i e w e d a t t h e o t h e r C e n t r e s h a d h e a l t h p r o b l e m s w h i c h r e d u c e d t h e i r m o b i l -i t y . I n v i e w o f M u r d o c h ' s a r c h i t e c t u r a l b a r r i e r s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e C e n t r e m a y b e b e i n g d e n i e d t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s a n d t a l e n t s o f s i m i l a r p o t e n t i a l p l a n n i n g m e m b e r s , B . F a c i l i t y P l a n n i n g T h e p r e c e d i n g o v e r v i e w o f t h e b u i l d i n g s o f t h e t h r e e S e n i o r C e n t r e s r e v e a l s t h a t t h e t e n u r e a n d d e s i g n o f t h e b u i l d i n g c a n h a v e a n i n f l u e n c e o n m e m b e r s * i n v o l v e m e n t i n p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h m a k e a C e n t r e ' s b u i l d i n g " i n a d e q u a t e " a n d d i s c o u r a g e m e m b e r i n v o l v e m e n t i n p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g ( i . e . a l e a s e d b u i l d i n g , s h a r e d w i t f t i o t h e r g r o u p s , a n d d e s i g n e d f o r u s e s o t h e r t h a n a S e n i o r C e n t r e ) c a n e n c o u r a g e m e m b e r i n v o l v e m e n t i n a n o t h e r k i n d o f p l a n n i n g — f a c i l i t y p l a n -n i n g , T h e t e r m " f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g , " a s u s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , r e f e r s t o a l l p l a n n i n g w h i c h r e l a t e s t o t h e b u i l d i n g o r s i t e o f a : - ' S e n i o r C e n t r e , I t i n c l u d e s , f o r e x a m p l e , p l a n n i n g t o i m p r o v e a n e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t y o r p l a n n i n g t o a c q u i r e a n e w f a c i l i t y f o r a C e n t r e , T h e i n c e n t i v e f o r m e m b e r s t o b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g i s t h e p r o s p e c t o f m i n i m i z i n g o r e l i m i n a t i n g t h e i n a d e q u a c i e s o f t h e i r C e n t r e ' s b u i l d i n g . B y o v e r c o m i n g o r e l i m i n a t i n g t h e s e i n a d e q u a c i e s , m e m b e r s w i l l m o t o n l y a c q u i r e a n i m p r o v e d C e n t r e b u i l d i n g , b u t t h e y w i l l a l s o a t t a i n g r e a t e r a u t o n o m y i n t h e i r p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g . T h i s p h e n o m e n o n c a n b e s e e n a t t h e t h r e e C e n t r e s u n d e r s t u d y . E a c h C e n t r e h a s s o m e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h i t s b u i l d i n g w h i c h i s c a u s i n g m e m b e r s t o b e c o m e 132 i n v o l v e d i n f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g , 1 ) S i l v e r H a r b o u r . A l t h o u g h S i l v e r H a r b o u r h a s t h e m o s t " i d e a l " b u i l d i n g o f t h e t h r e e C e n t r e s , i t i s d e s i g n e d f o r a m e m b e r s h i p s m a l l e r t h a n t h e C e n t r e ' s p r e s e n t t o t a l . T h e D i r e c t o r a n d a l l b u t o n e o f t h e m e m b e r s i n t e r v i e w e d a t S i l v e r H a r b o u r i d e n t i f i e d t h e s h o r t a g e o f s p a c e a s a c o n c e r n f o r t h e C e n t r e , A B o a r d m e m b e r s t a t e d , O n o c c a s i o n , a l l o f o u r m e e t i n g r o o m s h a v e b e e n b o o k e d . W e ' v e h a d t o h o l d m e e t i n g s o n t h e a u d i t o r i u m s t a g e a n d i n t h e h a l l w a y s . A C o m m i t t e e m e m b e r n o t e d , W e o f f e r e d o u r C h r i s t m a s d i n n e r a t t h r e e s i t t i n g s l a s t y e a r . T h e d e m a n d f o r s e a t s w a s o v e r w h e l m i n g . I n o r d e r t o a c c o m m o d a t e t h e i n c r e a s i n g m e m b e r s h i p a t S i l v e r H a r b o u r , a m a j o r f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g e f f o r t w i l l h a v e t o b e l a u n c h e d . T h e p l a n n i n g t a s k I s c o m p l i c a t e d b y t h e f a c t s t h a t t h e p r e s e n t b u i l d i n g c a n n o t s u p p o r t a n y s t r u c t u r a l a d d i t i o n s a n d t h a t n o l a n d i s a v a i l a b l e f o r f u r t h e r c o n -s t r u c t i o n o n t h e s i t e . I f t h e m e m b e r s d e c i d e t o a c q u i r e a n o t h e r s i t e a n d u n d e r t a k e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a s a t e l l i t e f a c i l i t y , m e m b e r s w i l l h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s s i m i l a r t o t h a t e n g a g e d i n b y t h e f o u n d i n g m e m b e r s o f t h e C e n t r e ( i . e . s e l e c t i n g a s i t e , r a i s i n g f u n d s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y , w r i t i n g p r o p o s a l s t o g o v e r n m e n t s a n d o t h e r b o d i e s , m a k i n g s u g g e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e n e w b u i l d i n g ' s d e s i g n , e t c . ) , A s a c o n s e q u e n c e t h e y m a y b e l i k e t h e f o u n d i n g m e m b e r s i n t h e d e g r e e o f c o n t r o l t h e y e x e r c i s e a n d t h e r e s u l t i n g s e n s e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n t h e y e x p e r i e n c e . 2 ) T h e 4 1 1 C e n t r e . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e 4 1 1 b u i l d i n g a l s o p r o v i d e e n c o u r a g e m e n t f o r m e m b e r s t o b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n f a c i l i t y p l a n n i n g . A s 133 noted, the effort of members was instrumental i n persuading the Gov-ernment to undertake renovations of the building. At present, members are requesting that the Provincial Government turn over the top two floors of the four-story structure to the Centre. They are also attempting to create a park adjacent to the Centre on a site presently occupied by a parking l o t . Members spoke proudly of the plans they have for the building: We have plans to extend the cafeteria. We may put in a 'ladies only' area then. It should enable us to attract more women members and help to alter 411's reputation as a "men's Centre." If we are granted the top floors, we may put in an auditorium and a large medical centre, with a waiting room. One enthusiastic member described the plans currently being worked on for the 411 building and l i s t e d the major renovations that have already been made. He observed, We've achieved what we have because we dreamed. We've always tried to keep moving ahead, If we stood s t i l l , we never would have improved. The Centre would have stagnated long ago. 3) Murdoch Centre. Of the three Centres, Murdoch's building has the most serious inadequacies and provides the strongest encouragement for member involvement i n f a c i l i t y planning. As noted, members at Murdoch are presently engaged i n the early stages of a planning process which w i l l probably see the Centre being housed in a new f a c i l i t y . The. most obvious reason why members at Murdoch may be encouraged to becomei involved i n this f a c i l i t y planning process i s the prospect of finding a f a c i l i t y which i s more suitable than their present location. A less 134 obvious reason is that they may find inducement in the autonomy they gain by becoming involved in the process. Under the present administrative structure at Murdoch, members have advisory powers, but have relatively l i t t l e real control over the planning that goes on at the Centre. By becoming involved in facility planning and seeking a new building, Mur-doch's members may experience control during the planning, launching appeals to raise funds in the community, applying for grants, selecting a site, and presenting suggestions regarding the design of the new building. They may/ also exercise control after the new building has been completed, as the Centre's members will be the sole occupants of the building and they will be able to set their own policy regarding its use. Many of the factors which discourage member involvement in program planning in Murdoch's present building should thus be eliminated when the Centre is relocated, A l l Board members interviewed regarded the establishment of a new facility as a cure for many of the " i l l s " presently being experienced at Murdoch. For example, referring to the relatively small proportion of men who belong to the Centre, one member asserted, We'll be able to install a good woodwork shop and get more pool tables when the new Centre is opened. That should help us attract more men. Another who felt that nutritional needs of the elderly should be a major concern of the Centre observed, The new Centre should have a kitchen and serve inexpensive, balanced noon meals, JWalybe a wheels-to-meals program can be implemented, in which those old people who don't get out much are brought to the Centre for lunch. People need emotional nourishment as well as physical nour-ishment , 135 The new Murdoch building may not be as ideal as some members expect i t to be; however, the interview responses reveal that the prospect of establishing i t and moving from the present location serves as strong encouragement for at least some members to become involved in f a c i l i l t y planning. Before closing this section, i t should be noted that despite the possible influence that a Centre's building can have on member involve-ment in planning, factors associated with the building are probably the least important of the four sets of factors examined in this chapter. A building should never be seen as an end in itself. In the words of one of the Directors, It's possible to go to great pains in establishing a new Senior Centre, but i f the staff and programs aren't satis-factory, you'll wind up with a 'lovely empty building." SUMMARY In this Chapter, factors have been examined which may act to encourage or discourage member involvement in planning at Senior Centres, The four main factors which emerged from casual conversations and inter-views with Centre staff and members and from personal observations at the Centres related to l) the administrative structure of the Centres, 2) characteristics of "planning members" (Board and Committee members), 3) characteristics of Centre Directors, and 4) the Centre buildings. Having examined these factors, the following Chapter provides the conclusions and implications of the researchlplus recommendations for future research. Chapter 7 CONCLUSION This thesis has examined the planning processes at three Senior Centres i n the Greater Vancouver area. In particular i t focused on the role that members played i n the processes and factors which encouraged them to become involved. This chapter presents the major conclusions of the research, followed by their implications and questions for future study. CONCLUSIONS The conclusions stem from the analysis of factors which encourage and discourage members* involvement i n a Senior Centre's planning process. To review, the main "encouraging" factors identified were: l ) Autonomous Administrative Structures These structures provide members with more "structural opportunities to participate and the research at the Silver Harbour and 411 Centres suggests that they allow them to experience a greater sense of control and satisfaction i n their planning. Centres with less autonomous structures offer fewer structural opportunities and less encouragement to members to become involved i n their Centre's planning process. However, the research at Murdoch Centre suggests that the less auton-omous Centres may provide encouragement to members who do not want a great deal of responsibility for planning and to those who require the security of a strong staff person i n order to participate. 136 13? 2) An Adequate Level of Funding, and Staffing The research suggests that i f the Centre's level of junding i s too low, members w i l l become frustrated and w i l l not get involved i n plan-ning. This i s because members do not want to plan for programs or other concerns i f they see l i t t l e hope of having their plans implemented. Some members at the three Centres appeared to gain encouragement from the challenge of making plans to raise funds for their Centres.;. Others complained, however, that having to write grant proposals and seek donations from businesses and organizations was t i r i n g and tedious and i t could prevent members from engaging i n other aspects of their Cen-tres' planning process. The staffing problems at the studied Centres were also related to funding levels. As found at the 411 Centre, when low funding levels present a Centre from paying i t s staff adequate sal -aries, d i f f i c u l t i e s w i l l arise i n hiring and maintaining qualified staff. High staff turnover can discourage members from becoming involved in their Centre's planning process, as i t prevents them from forming bonds with employees who are hired to f a c i l i t a t e them i n their planning efforts. And as found at Murdoch Centre, i f low funding levels result i n too few staff being hired, the paid employees w i l l have d i f f i c u l t y finding time to f a c i l i t a t e and encourage members i n planning, 3) Skilled and Experienced Planning Members As seen at Silver Harbour and 411 Centres, Board and Committee members with leadership and communication s k i l l s can be particularly effective i n encouraging other members to become involved i n planning. Outgoing and agreeable personalities, receptiveness to members' ideas, and value positions that support the participation of members i n the 138 Centre's planning process also emerged as being important characteristics for planning members. 4) Skilled and Experienced Executive Directors To be effective i n encouraging members to plan, Directors require the s k i l l s , experience, and "positive" personality and attitudinal char-acteristics identified for effective planning members. A somewhat sur-prising finding of the research was that the three Directors and many-rof the members interviewed also indicated s k i l l s i n business management to be an important qualification for a Director. They argued that a Dir-ector with good business management s k i l l s could ensure that the Centre was being run successfully, gaining the members' confidence and freeing them to become involved i n the non-business aspects of the Centre's planning. The interview subjects also indicated that a Director needed to accept the right of members to plan, have a sound understanding of group dynamics and of the needs and circumstances of the aged, and know how much and i n what areas members want to assume responsibility for their Centre's planning. 5) Accessible. Well Designed Buildings The research suggests that a building specifically designed to function as a Senior Centre and owned and solely occupied by members potentially offers the greatest encouragement to members to become involved in their Centre's planning. Silver Harbour Centre's building, for example, which meets the preceding c r i t e r i a , could accommodate a greater range of programs and was more congenial and accessible to members than the leased, shared, general purpose building of Murdoch Centre, Due to the design and ownership of Silver Harbour's building, 139 the Centre's members had a greater range of programs that they could plan for and they were able to exercise considerable control over their planning and programming. Despite the overall desirability of a specially designed <member-owned building, costly maintenance, repairs, or expansions w i l l inevitably be required for such a building. Mem-bers' energies and the Centre's resources w i l l have to be transferred from the "pleasant" planning at the Centre and be devoted to attending to building-related matters. For this reason, an older building, such as 411's, which i s renovated for use as a Senior Centre and managed by a "benevolent" landlord may offer a comparatively high degree of encour-agement to member involvement i n planning. The three Senior Centres studied i n this thesis had distinctive programs, administrative structures, buildings, and memberships. Obviously, no one planning model would be appropriate for meeting the varied needs and circumstances of the three Centres (or any other Cen-tres, for that matter). Whatever planning model a Centre adopts, those making use of the model must recognize i t as being dynamic, and they must be prepared to alter i t as time and circumstances necessitate. Generally speaking, however, ensuring that the identified "encouraging" factors are in place should create an environment conducive to member involvement in a Centre's planning. Admittedly, a number of d i f f i c u l t i e s would emerge i n attempting to establish a planning framework which would encourage member involvement. Three of the more problematic aspects are discussed below. The f i r s t problematic aspect relates to ensuring that continuity i s b u ilt into the planning process. Some members and staff at the 140 three Centres under study expressed concern about maintaining contin-uity within their Centres' processes. A few planning members, for example, indicated a fear that i f they ceased to serve, no other mem-bers would replace them. These planning members placed most of the blame for the potential lack of continuity on the new, more recent Cen-tre members, who had shown l i t t l e interest in becoming involved i n planning. However, some of the responsibility must rest with the planning members. Iffthey regard themselves as indispensable, they could become "entrenched," clinging to their planning positions while at the same time, feeling overburdened. In such an instance, problems could occur. When the "entrenched" members f i n a l l y have to retire from duty, the newer members might lack the necessary s k i l l s or confidence to assume the vacated planning positions. The problem of ensuring that continuity i s maintained within the planning process may be compounded by planning members' attitudes toward the value and necessity of training, sFcr example, two of the three Centres studied offered no formal training to their Board or Com-mittee members. A l l Board members interviewed at those Centres claimed that training was unnecessary for preparing members for Board dusbies. In fact, some appeared almost insulted when the question was raised, as i f the very suggestion that they might require training inferred that they were not competent to perform their duties. By resisting the intro' duction of training sessions, planning members might unwittingly be dis-couraging the less s k i l l e d or confident members from participating i n planning. The research suggests that continuity within the planning process 141 would be more assured i f planning members had a better understanding of how to motivate other members and i f they made a sincere effort to include those others i n their planning. The second problematic aspect of establishing a successful member-planning process relates to the lack of understanding that some members showed regarding the planning process. An example of this lack of under-standing was revealed i n the efforts of members at one of the Centres studied to acquire a new building for their Centre. The Centre's Board members tended to speak of the building as an end i n i t s e l f , not as a means of f u l f i l l i n g the Centre's purpose or goals. One of the main reasons for wanting the new building seemed to be the fact that Centre members i n adjacent municipalities had their own buildings. L i t t l e evidence emerged that members had considered alternative means of meeting their needs, such as hiring additional staff or coordinating programs with Community Centres or other groups. One could conclude that unless members (and staff) give more careful thought to determining the reason for the proposed building's construction and the purposes i t i s to serve, they may find they have engaged i n an expensive planning exercise, not only retaining their Centre's existing problems, but also acquiring fresh ones with the new building. The third problematic aspect of establishing an effective planning modsel relates to resources (financial, staff, building, and equipment), Seriously inadequate resources can not only discourage members' involve-ment in planning; they can also create d i f f i c u l t i e s i n programming and staffing, and ultimately jeopardize the very existence of the Centre. Despite these negative aspects, the research revealed that slight 142 resource inadequacies could have a positive effect, encouraging members to become involved i n planning efforts to redress the inadequacies. This phenomenon was apparent at the three Centres with respect to plan-ning for fund raising and building matters. Such activity could be regarded as mere "busy work" which causes members to transfer their energies from planning i n the areas they enjoy to planning for the sur-vi v a l needs of their Centres. Indeed, some of the members interviewed held this opinion. Others, however, seemed to derive satisfaction from making a direct contribution to and being i n control of their Centre's resources. The research suggests that an optimum principle may be present. The optimum principle can be depicted graphically as follows: Level of member involvement in planning optimum Level of resources The graph suggests that below the optimum where resources are too low, members may c u r t a i l their involvement, as they become tired and frus-trated and f e e l that they have less power to effect change. Beyond the optimum, where too high a level of resources i s supplied, members may decrease involvement, as they have less need to take i n i t i a t i v e i n planning for themselves. Indeed, this possibility was suggested by 143 long-standing Board members at two of the studied Centres. They in d i -cated that a possible reason why the "young" seniors do not seem eager to become involved in their Senior Centre's planning process i s the fact that they did not have to fight to gain improved financial and social benefits for seniors as the older adults before them had. I t would be d i f f i c u l t to test the hypothesized relationship between the level of resources and members' involvement i n planning for at present no cases exist (to my knowledge) where governments or other funding bodies have over endowed a Senior Centre, IMPLICATIONS The research has a number of important implications for Senior Cen-tres, other planning groups, and for society at large. F i r s t , the main Implication for Senior Centres has already been noted: attempting to implement the identified "encouraging" factors i n a Senior Centre's planning process should generally create an atmosphere more conducive to member involvement i n planning. However, the preceding discussion revealed that d i f f i c u l t i e s may arise i n attempting to ensure that continuity i s b u i l t into the planning process and that the individ-uals involved have a sound understanding of the process, A conclusion that can be drawn i s that the planning members could help to minimize these d i f f i c u l t i e s . The defensiveness shown by some planning members when questioned about training sessions suggests that i n i t i a l attempts to introduce such sessions might meet with resistance. One way of overcoming possible resistance might be to carefully explain the purpose and importance of 144 the sessions, so that members do not f e e l that they are being requested to accept training because they are incompetent. Also, the sessions would l i k e l y meet with a more favourable response i f they were "fun" to attend and they had a degree of "prestige" attached to them. For example, i f the sessions Included members and staff from a number of Centres i n a region, those attending the sessions would l i k e l y enjoy meeting and being with others who share their interests. They could also achieve status i n their own and others' estimation. The training sessions could address such planning issues as setting, priorizing, and modifying goals, developing, monitoring and evaluating programs, and preparing budgets. They could also deal with human relations or group dynamics. Particular attention could be paid to training members and staff i n how to communicate with and motivate other Centre members. By involving members and staff from a number of Centres i n workshops, an exchange of information could be f a c i l i t a t e d . Channels could possibly be established through which information was exchanged on a f a i r l y regular basis after the training sessions had ended, In order for the sessions to be a success, the person giving them would not only require sound knowledge of planning and working with groups, he would also need to have an understanding of and sensitivity to the special needs of the aged. The members interviewed made i t clear that they do not appreciate young "know-alls" trying to t e l l them what to do. Another Implication of the research relates to the hypothesized principle of "optimum support levels." The principle suggests on one hand that the level of resources that governments and other agencies 145 provide to Senior Centres could potentially be excessive. I f members had everything provided for them, they would probably not feel the same need of planning fund-raising events (which may, or may not, be a negative factor) and they would not be compelled to exercise as much responsibility i n managing their resources as members of Centres that had been given less. More importantly, they would not have the same degree of opportunity to exercise their a b i l i t i e s and to experience the satisfaction of having a degree of control over their own and their Cen-tre's destiny. On the other hand, the optimum principle suggests that i f the level of resources supplied to a Senior Centre were too low, members might be discouraged from participating i n their Centre's planning process. I f this were the case, members would thus be prevented from deriving the maximum benefits from attending their Centre, If the principle of "optimum support levels" were taken into account, and an optimum point could be determined, governments and other agencies would l i k e l y find that they were funding Senior Centres at a point well be3iow the optimum. By using the "optimum support level." principle as a basis for the., .allocation of funds, funding bodies could ensure maximum participation of Centre members i n their planning and the equitable distribution of resources amongst various Senior Centres, Although the research investigated the planning process at Senior Centres, i t s implications extend to other planning groups. I t i s true that planning with members of Senior Centres requires special knowledge and expertise (for example, Senior Centre Directors need to be knowledge-able and sympathetic to the social}.*'physical, and economic losses that older adults experience). However, members of Senior Centres tend to be 146 the "well elderly," and once certain factors associated with the aging process are taken into account, planning with Senior Centre members i s not significantly different from planning with any heterogeneous group. For example, many of the problematic aspects of planning with Senior Centre members identified i n this thesis, such as cliques, bigoted attitudes, and entrenchment of members, would be found i n almost any planning group. Thus, i f the establishment of "encouraging" factors helps Senior Centres to increase member involvement i n their planning processes, i t should also assist bodies composed of younger members. In addition the provision of training sessions for the planning members of other groups should help those groups to involve more members and to improve the quality of their planning. For example, citizen participation programs in the United States and Canada have frequently been c r i t i c i z e d for providing a soapbox for members of the most vocal interest groups, while being unresponsive to tftose less able to verbalize their concerns. I f the less articulate individuals could be taught how the planning process works and the means of expressing themselves through i t , more citizen participation programs would be successful i n involving a wider range of the citizenry The chances of success would be increased i f the vocal or articulate members were trained in how to moti-vate their peers to become involved. The concept of optimal!ty might also apply to other planning groups besides Senior Centres, I f so, planning groups and funding bodies should take a genuine interest i n determining roughly where the optimum point l i e s . Such knowledge would assist planning groups to r e a l i s t i c a l l y define their needs. In addition, i t would enable funding bodies to determine equitable allocation of resources. If funding bodies used an optimality 147 concept as a basis for determining their allocations to community groups, they could reduce one of the major anxieties plaguing the groups — insecurity over the level and continuity of funding. In i t s broadest sense, the research has implications for society as a whole. As the number of older adults continues to increase, more Senior Centres w i l l l i k e l y be b u i l t to meet their needs. The establish-ment of these Centres w i l l require a considerable amount of society's resources. I f Centre members are encouraged, fa c i l i t a t e d , and trained i n planning they w i l l become more adept at planning for their Senior Centres. Recognizing that active, self-directing adults are generally healthier and more satisfied than their more passive peers, older adults who take advantage of opportunities to plan at Senior Centres have much to gain. Funding bodies and taxpayers w i l l also gain, for they can be confidents of the a b i l i t y of Seniors to plan for themselves, and thus be assured that public monies are being used e f f i c i e n t l y . While the thesis did not attempt to evaluate the a b i l i t y of Senior Centre members i n planning, the examples i t presented should reveal that the planning members under consideration were capable of planning for their Centres by implication. I f older adults can plan effectively at Senior Centres, they can also contribute to other participatory planning programs. If society recognized the a b i l i t y of many of i t s older members, rather than dwelling on their supposed d i s a b i l i t i e s , i t could reap enor-mous benefits. For example, representatives of community planning programs, organizations, or other planning bodies might consider v i s i t i n g Senior Centres and personally appealing to the members to contribute to their endeavours. If they were successful in their appeals they, their 148 organizations, and their constituents could benefit from the years of experience and expertise that many older adults can offer. Thus the community would be u t i l i z i n g a valuable resource and the older adults?' would regain some of their lost self esteem. FUTURE RESEARCH Due to the exploratory nature of this thesis, i t has raised more questions than i t has answered. Further research i s required to: 1) Refine and expand upon the categories of encouraging and discouraging factors for members' involvement i n a Senior Centre's planning process. 2) Explore the principle of "optimum support levels" - Does i t apply at Senior Centres, Is i t a universal concept applicable to other planning groups? Can governments, other funding bodies, and planners use the concept to determine a measurable "optimum" level of resources to be provided? 3) Determine whether the encouraging and discouraging factors identified i n this thesis are applicable to Adult Day Care Centres, Residents' Councils, or other planning bodies composed of older adults. - How far can the plan "for Seniors by Seniors" concept be taken? 4) Determine whether the encouraging and discouraging factors are applicable to groups which include a range of age groups. -What are the differences between planning with younger and older adults? 5) Survey a broader sample on their attitude towards Senior Centres and "Seniors planning for Seniors" at the Centres, - What i s 14-9 the attitude of Seniors who don't belong to a Senior Centre? What i s the attitude of Seniors involved in Community Centre programs with a range of age groups? What i s the attitude of those who ceased to belong? Are there any planning members who ceased to serve?. I f so, why did they cease to serve? Are non-planning members aware of structural opportunities to p a r t i c i -pate i n planning? Do they care that these opportunities exist, or are they only concerned with the act i v i t i e s and services available at the Centre? 6) Determine whether member planned Senior Centres are more efficient and effective i n terms of meeting needs, than those planned by paid professionals. - What other factors need to be considered besides resources? Are there hidden costs involved in employing either model? The economic and social implications of the projected increase i n the over 65 years population w i l l be enormous. Governments and planners have a responsibility both to Seniors and to society at large, to encour-age and; f a c i l i t a t e older adults to assist i n meeting these future chal-lenges. 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"Knowledge and Action: A Guide to Planning Theory." A.I.P. Journal (January 1974): 2-16 Garrett, Lorna, and Mary H i l l . Community Care for Seniors Study. Vancouver: Sparc of B.C., 1972. Golant, Stephen M. The Residential Location and Spatial Location of  the Elderly. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972. Hacker, Abbe. "Senior Centres for the Older Citizens." In The Neglected Older American: Social and Rehabilitation Services, pp. 185-215. Edited by J.G. Cull and R.E. Hardy/. Springfield, I l l i n o i s : Thomas, 1973. Hall, Peter. Urban and Regional Planning. Newton Abott: David and Charles, 1975. Harbert, A.S,, and L.H. Ginsberg. Human Services for Older Adults: Concepts and S k i l l s . Belmont, California: Wadsworth, 1979. 153 Harris, B, "The Limits of Science and Humanism in Planning." A.I.P. Journal (Sept. 196?)s 324-335 Harris, Lou, and Associates. The Myth and Reality of Aging i n America. Washington, D.C.: Survey for National Council on Aging, 1975. Havens, Betty, "How to Cope with Many Masters and Survive." Edmonton: National Organization of Senior Centres. 1978. (mimeographed), Horowitz, L.L, "Social Planning and Social Science: Historical Contin-uities and Comparative Discontinuities." In Planning Theory i n the  1980*5. Edited by R.W. Burchell and G. Sternlieb. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Center for Urban Policy Research, 1978. Jacobs, Bella, and Allene Magann. Involving Men A Challenge for Senior Centers. Washington, D.C.: NCOA, 1974. Jacobs, Bella, ed. Senior Centres: Realizing our Potential. Washington: National Institute of Senior Centres, 1975. Jacobs, Bella. Social Action: Expanding Roles for Senior Centers. Washington, D.C,: NCOA. 1974. Jones, L.H, "What i s the Role of the Senior Centre?" Undated (mimeographed). Jordan, J.U. Senior Centre Design. Washington, D.C. NCOA, 1978. Kaplan, Max. Leisure: Lifestyle and Lifespan. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. 1979. Kleemier, Robert W,, ed. Aging and Leisure. New York: Oxford, 1 9 6 l . Klosterman, R.E, "Foundation for Normative Planning." A.I.P. Journal (January, 1978): 37-45. Koenig, D.J,; C. Doyle; and P. DeBeck. The Golden Years in B r i t i s h  Columbiat How Are They Seen By Senior Citizens? Victoria: University of Victoria, 1977. Kubie, S.M., and G. Landau, Group Work With the Aged. New York: International Universities Press, 1953. Langer, E,, and J, Rodin, "Effects of Choice and Enhanced Personal Responsibilities for the Aged: A Fiel d Experiment i n an Institutional Setting," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 32 (1976): 191-198. Lawton, M, Powell; Robert Newcomer; and Thomas 0. Byerts, eds. Community Planning for An Aging Society. Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania: Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross, 1976. 154 Leanse, Joyce. "The Senior Centre, Individuals, and the Community." In The Later Years; Social Applications of Gerontology. Edited by Richard A, Kalesh.Monterey: Brooks/Cole, 1977. Leanse, J.j M. "Tlven; and T.B, Robb. Senior Centre Operation. A Guide  to Organization and Management. Washington, D.C,: National Institute for Senior Centres, 1977. Lemon, B.W,; V,L. Bengstonj and J.A. Peterson, "An Exploration of the Activity Theory of Aging." In Contemporary Social Gerontology, pp. 51-62. Edited by B.D, B e l l . Springfield: Charles C. Thomas, 1976. Lindblom, C.E. "The Science of Muddling Through." Public Administration  Review 19 (Spring 1959)» 79-88. McGovern, Kay, and Bella Jacobs. Program Planning: Accountability f  Credibility. Trust. Washington: NCOA, 1975. Maclntyre, Lynne. "Alternative Theoretical Models for Senior Centres." Paper presented at the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Gerontological Society, Washington, D.C., November 1979. March, J.G,, and H.A. Simon. Organizations. New York: Wiley, 1958. Maxwell, Jean M. Centres for Older People...New York: National Council on the Aging, 1962. Maxwell, Jean M. "Senior Centers and the Mental Health of Older Persons: Are They Related?" In Senior Centers: Realizing Our Potential. Edited by Bella Jacobs. Washington, D.C: The National Council on the Aging, 1975. Merton, R.K. Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press of Glencoe, 1957. Miller, S. "The Social Dilemma of the Aging Leisure Participant." In Older People and Their Social World. Edited by A. Rose and W. Peterson. Philadelphia: F.A.Davis, I965. Monro, Alexander. "Centres of the 70*s." In Report: Training Institute  for Directors of Senior Centres, pp. 26-35. Edited by Lola Wilson. Ottawa: National Health and Welfare. 1972. Moore, R.W, "The Multipurpose Senior Centre: A MSdel for Service Delivery." In Aging i n Canada: Proceedings of a Seminar, pp. 71-78. Edited by N. Carter. King, Ontario: Seneca College, 1978. Murdoch Senior Centre Advisory Executive Board Constitution, September, 1979. 1 5 5 Needleman, M.L., and C.E, Needleman. Guerillas in the Bureaucracyi The  Community Planning Experiment in the United States. New York: Wiley, 1 9 7 4 . Neugarten, B., ed. "Aging i n the Year 2 0 0 0 : A Look at the Future." Gerontologist 1 5 ( 1 9 7 5 ) * 1-40. Palmore, Erdman, "The Future Status of the Aged." Gerontologist 1 6 ( 1 9 7 6 ) : 2 9 7 - 3 0 2 Perryman, G.N. "The Functions of Evaluation Research i n Citizen Participation Programs," M.A, Thesis. School of Community and Regional Planning, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 7 5 . Rein, Martin. "Social Planning: The Search for Legitimacy." A.I.P. Journal (July, 1 9 7 6 ) : 2 3 3 - 2 4 4 . Richmond Planning Department. Population Analysis: Richmond. B.C. August, 1 9 7 7 . R i t t e l , H.W.J,, and M.W, Webber. Dilemmas i n a General Theory of Planning. Berkeley: Institute of Urban and Regional Development, 1 9 7 2 . Rose, Albert. Citizen Participation i n Urban Renewal. Toronto: University of Toronto, 1 9 7 4 . Rosener, J. B. "Citizen Participation: Tying Strategy to Function," In Citizen Participation: Certification for Community Development, pp. 5 8 - 7 0 , Edited by P. Marshall, Washington, D.C.: Nahro, 1 9 7 7 . Schreiber, Marvin. "Discussion on Centres for the 7 0 ' s . " In Report: Training Institute for Directors of Senior Centres. Edited by L. Wilson. Ottawa: The Canadian Council on Social Development, 1 9 7 2 . Schwartz, A.N, and H,G, Proppe. "Toward Person/Environment Transactional Research i n Aging." Gerontologist 1 0 ( 1 9 7 0 ) : 2 2 8 - 2 3 2 . Scott, A.J., and S.T. Roweis. Urban Planning in Theory and Practice: A Reappraisal.Toronto: University of Toronto, 1 9 7 7 . Senate of Canada. Retirement: Policies. Pensions, and Proposals. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services, 1 9 7 9 . Senior Centre Standards: Guidelines for Practice. Washington, D.C,, NCOA, 1 9 7 8 . Silver Harbour ManorSociety Constitution and By-laws, Amended 1 3 May, 1 9 8 0 . 156 Simon, H.A. Administrative Behavior. New "Xforks MacMillan, 1961. Smith, D,, and V. Ross. Enhancing Citizen Participation. Toronto: Intermet, 1973. Social Planning and Review Council of Br i t i s h Columbia. Information: Senior Citizen's Guide to Services i n Br i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver: S.P.A.R.C., 1979. Storey, Ruth T. "Who Attends a Senior Activity Center?" sGerontologist 2 (1962): 216-222. Taietz, Philip. "Two Conceptual Models of the Senior Center." Journal of Gerontology 31 (l976)t 219-222. Tissue, Thomas. "Social Class and the Senior Citizen Centre." The  Gerontologist 3 (Autumn 1971)* pp. 196-200. Toseland, Ron, and James Sykes. "Senior Centre Participation and Other Correlates of Life Satisfaction." Gerontologist 17 (June 197?)* pp. 235-241. Trela, J.E,, and L.W, Simmons, "Health and Other Factors Affecting Membership in a Senior Centre." Journal of Gerontology 26 (l97l)» pp. 46-51. Trela, J.E, "Some P o l i t i c a l Consequences of Senior Centre and Old Age Group Memberships." Gerontologist 2 (Summer 1971): pp. 118-123. Tuckman, J. "Factors Related to Attendance i n a Centre for Older People." Journal of the American Geriatric Society 15 (196?): pp. 474-479. Vickery, Florence T. Creative Programming for Older Adults: A Leadership  Training Guide. New York: Association Press, 1972. Wilson, Lola, ed. Reports Training Institute for Director of Senior Centres. Ottawa* The Canadian Council on Social Development, 1972. 157 APPENDIX I DIRECTOR'S INTERVIEW SCHEDULE I would like to begin by asking you some general background questions about the Centre... -when was i t started? -who was involved i n i n i t i a t i n g i t ? -why was i t started? -who funds the Centre? -who administers the Centre? -who owns the building? -how many paid staff are there What are some of your main duties at the Centre? What would you say are some of the most important qualifications for a Director to have? -education -work and/or community experience -attitude -stamina -leadership s k i l l s What i s the composition of the Board of Directors? -numbers -elderly/non-elderly -offices Have Centre members always served on the Board? 158 6. How are the Board members chosen? -elected/appointed -nominating committee 7. Do you think a Director or the Nominating Committee should look for people with special qualifications for Board, membership? -why, or why not? -what characteristics? -how can they attract them? 8. What are the main functions of the Board? 9. Does the Centre rely on standing committees? ad hoc committees? -what are some of the most important standing committees? -what i s their function? -how many members? -same people on many committees? -do committee members have to be members of the Centre? 10. What i s your relationship with the Board? - f u l l member? -ex officio? -administrative ? -carry out policies and Board decisions? 11. Do you think this i s a good relationship for a Director and Board to have? 12. Do you fee l any of your duties or responsibilities, or those of the Board should be changed? _ w h i c h Q n e s ? -why? -easy to do? 159 Do you do anything specific to help to prepare new Board or Committee members for their duties? -orientation/training sessions? -Board manual? -discuss time commitment Are there any routines which you follow to help ensure that Board and committee meetings run smoothly? -send out Minutes and Notice of meetings? -help prepare Agenda? -assist with correspondence? -prepare written report each month? -offer praise and constructive criticism? Do you notice any differences i n working with senior adults as opposed to younger adults? -slower pace? -short run goals? -hearing problems? -memory loss? -social event rather than business meeting? -motivational needs for a f f i l i a t i o n rather than achievement? Do these differences make your job more demanding? What would you say are some of the main advantages and disadvantages of a Centre controlled by members as opposed to one controlled by an outside agency? 160 18, What would you say are some of the main advantages and disadvantages of a Board composed entirely of Centre members, and one that has representatives from the community? -Pro's? -Con's? 19, Would 350U say that the characteristics of Board or committee members vary i n any way from those of the general membership? -s.e.s.? -age? -general a c t i v i t y level (in Centre and in other organizations)? -health/energy level? -education? - s k i l l s ? -attitudes 20, How can you ensure that Board and committee members represent the interests of the general membership? -avenues for membership's input? -issue opinlonaires? -task frequently with members? -reports to the membership through newsletters, etc.? -have Board members drawn from cross-section of membership? 21, Are you satisfied with the level of involvement of members i n the Centre's planning process? 22, Are Board meetings open to ALL Centre members? I f so, do many attend? 161 23. Can the head of an activity basically plan his program as he likes, or must he f i r s t go through staff or an operating committee? 24. How do you ensure that the Board and committees get fresh ideas? - l i m i t term of office? -recommend that the members speak with Boards at other Centres? -suggest that they attend workshops and conferences? 25. Could you describe how one of your recent programs was planned? -determine needs, -objective and goal setting? -monitoring process? -who did what? 26. How do you evaluate how successful a program has been? -criteria? - s t a t i s t i c a l quality? -who performs the evaluation? - i s i t standard practice to conduct such evaluations? 27. Do you receive many suggestions or complaints from members regarding programs, a c t i v i t i e s , or Centre policy? 28. Are there any groups that you would like the Centre to reach that i t i s currently not reaching? -affluent or impoverished? -handicapped (mentally or physically)? -males? -ethnic? -people without cars? -shy or reclusive? 162 29. W h a t e f f o r t s , i f a n y , h a v e b e e n m a d e t o h e l p a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e s e p e o p l e ? - h o w s u c c e s s f u l w e r e t h e y ? 30. I s t h e r e c o n s e n s u s a m o n g s t t h e B o a r d m e m b e r s a b o u t i n v o l v i n g t h e s e p e o p l e ? I f n o t , w h a t a r e s o m e o f t h e o b j e c t i o n s ? 31. D o y o u f i n d t h a t s o m e m e m b e r s o f t h e C e n t r e t e n d t o b e j o i n e r s b y n a t u r e a n d o t h e r s s e e m n e v e r t o g e t i n v o l v e d ? - c o m m i t t e e o r v o l u n t e e r w o r k ? - a c t i v i t i e s o r p r o g r a m s ? 32. W h a t m e t h o d s d o y o u u s e t o o v e r c o m e t h i s p r o b l e m ? - h o w s u c c e s s f u l a r e t h e y ? - i s i t w o r t h t h e b o t h e r ? 33. A p a r t f r o m s e r v i n g o n t h e B o a r d o r c o m m i t t e e s , a r e t h e r e a n y o t h e r w a y s i n w h i c h C e n t r e m e m b e r s m a y p a r t i c i p a t e i n p l a n n i n g a t t h e C e n t r e ? - c h a n n e l s a v a i l a b l e ? - e x a m p l e s o f p l a n s r e s u l t i n g f r o m m e m b e r i n p u t ? - l e v e l o f i n t e r e s t ? 34. I s t h e C e n t r e i n v o l v e d i n a n y p r o g r a m m i n g o r a c t i v i t i e s w i t h o t h e r C e n t r e s , c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , o r a g e n c i e s ? - w h a t a r e t h e y ? - w h a t i s t h e n a t u r e o f i n v o l v e m e n t ? - w h a t i s t h e r e a s o n f o r i n v o l v e m e n t ( e . g . a v o i d d u p l i c a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s , s h a r e f a c i l i t i e s o r r e s o u r c e s , e t c . ) ? 1 6 3 3 5 . How successful has this involvement been? -do you expect that i t w i l l continue? - w i l l i t be stressed - the same, less, or more i n the future? 3 6 . What do you perceive to be the main purpose or role of the Centre? -providing social opportunities? -being a place for recreation? -being an information/service Centre? -advocacy (e.g. social action/com-munity awareness)? 3 7 . Do you expect that the Centre w i l l play this role for the foresee-able future? -why? 3 8 . Could you speculate on what the outcome of removing the age c r i t e r i a for membership might be? 3 9 . Do non-members ever v i s i t or use the f a c i l i t i e s of the Centre? -who -under what conditions? -what are the feelings of the Board and general membership on this subject? kO. Are many non-members in the community aware of the Centre or i t s activities? -elderly -younger people -evidence (press notices, volunteers, donations of services and funds) kl. Are you basically satisfied with this recognition/support? 164 42. Your job sounds very demanding and challenging, Has the Adminis-tration and/or Board; been supportive? - i n what way? -staff -morale boost 43. What are the major sources of funding for the Centre? 44. Has the level of funding been sufficient to meet programming, staffing, and other needs of the Centre? 45. When staff quit, are members understanding, or do they f e e l hurt or resentful? 46. Do you feel comfortable in delegating some responsibilities to the Board and committees? -reasons -examples of support or non-support 47. Do the general membership appreciate the time demands and responsi-b i l i t i e s of your job? -reasons -examples 48. What are the main pr i o r i t i e s i n planning that face the Centre? -strategy for meeting them 49. Is there anything else you would like to add? Thank you very much. 165 APPENDIX II BOARD MEMBER INTERVIEW SCHEDULE 1. How axe Boaxd and committee members chosen? -nominating committee and elections -appointed -terms of office (fixed or indefinite) 2. Do you think i t i s important for members of Boards and committees to have special s k i l l s and experience? -what kinds? (e.g. education, occu-pation, voluntary work, etc.) 3. What made you decide to serve? 4. Has serving on the Board met with your expectations? 5. Should efforts be made to get people with special s k i l l s or experience to serve on the Board, or should anyone who wishes to serve have equal opportunity? -why? 6. What kind of support should a new Board or committee member be given by the Board and Director? -written job description -Boaxd manual -constitution and by-laws -terms of reference of committee -orientation and training sessions -morale boosts - e.g. praise and con-structive criticism -clear indication of expected time commitment 166 7. W e r e y o u g i v e n a n y o f t h e s e s u p p o r t s ? 8. W h a t a r e t h e m a i n d u t i e s o f t h e B o a r d ? 9. W h a t i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e B o a r d t o t h e E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r ? - a r e t h e r e a n y o v e r l a p s i n y o u r d u t i e s o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ? 10, D o y o u t h i n k t h i s d i v i s i o n o f d u t i e s a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i s a b o u t r i g h t ? 11, W h a t w o u l d y o u s a y i s t h e i d e a l B o a r d c o m p o s i t i o n ? - s e n i o r a d u l t s o n l y - s e n i o r a n d y o u n g e r a d u l t s - s p e c i a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s 12, W h a t a r e t h e m a i n a d v a n t a g e s a n d d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f a S e n i o r C e n t r e t h a t i s p l a n n e d b y t h e m e m b e r s a s o p p o s e d t o o n e p l a n n e d b y a D i r e c t o r o r c o m m u n i t y g r o u p ? a ) C o n ' s - a g e - s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s - i n e f f i c i e n c y - s h o r t - t e r m , p e r s o n a l g o a l s - d o m i n a n t m e m b e r s , c l i q u e s - " y e s - m e n " - m o r e w o r k f o r m e m b e r s - i n s e c u r i t y b ) P r o ' s - r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f m e m b e r s - d e m o c r a t i c i d e a l - h a v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n n e t w o r k ; c a n t a p r e s o u r c e s f r o m m a n y s o u r c e s - t h e r a p e u t i c ; p r e s e r v e s d i g n i t y a n d s e l f r e s p e c t 167 13. Would you say that members of the Board are different from the overall membership i n any way? -activity level (in Centre and other organizations) —s # e • s • -education -health/energy level -experience l£K How can a Board get fresh ideas? How can i t be sure that i t i s representing the interests of the Centre members? -attend conferences -fixed term of office for Board members -consult other groups -seek membership's input -form research committee to keep abreast of studies done i n the f i e l d - v i s i t other Senior Centres and meet with their members and staff 15. Do people who aren't on the Board ever offer you advice or make suggestions about programs, a c t i v i t i e s , or services? -what kinds of suggestions -who makes them? -are they acted upon? -are suggestions encouraged? -small or great interest from membership i n planning -attitudes of the Board about sharing power 168 16. Beside serving on the Board or a committee, are there other ways that members can participate i n planning at the Centre? - i n what ways,? -who takes advantage of them? 17. What are the main functions served by committees? 18. What i s the relationship between the Board and committees? Who serve on committees? 19 Can you t e l l me some things that make Board or committee meetings run smoothly? -length of meeting -committee reports printed i n bold type on light coloured paper; mailed or handed out before meetings -members allowed to add items to agenda before meeting begins -Roberts Rules of Order followed -strong chairperson who keeps meeting on track - a l l members given opportunity to speak 20. Are there any differences i n planning with a Board or committee of Senior adults as opposed to a Board or committee composed of younger adults? -hearing loss, therefore necessary to speak louder - much repeating -slower movements - hard to take Minutes, generally slower pace -time perspective (short goals as death nears) -memory loss 169 21, Can you give me an example of how a recent program or activity was planned? -need studies or surveys of members -goal setting -who was involved, and at what stage of process? -was written constitution containing Centre's objectives consulted or considered? 22, What do you think the main role or purpose of the Centre should be? -multiservice Centre, with services and a c t i v i t i e s -activity Centre only -cultural-activity Centre -cultural-activity-social service -social club 23, Has funding for the Centre been sufficient for i t to meet i t s goals? 24, What type of members should the Centre try to attract? - a l l seniors? -well-elderly? - a l l but the confused? -locals? 2 5 , Are there any groups you would l i k e to see reached by the Centre that i t i s currently not reaching? -males -handicapped -seniors without cars -recluses -institutionalized elderly -ethnic groups 170 26. Do you find that some people seem to be joiners by nature, and others seem to never get involved? -non-joiners i n programs -committee and volunteer work done by the same few a l l the time -whether problem can be minimized, and whether attempts to minimize i t are worth the effort. 27. Do you ever try to involve non-members i n the Centre? -children's Easter egg hunt -host luncheon for busload of seniors on day t r i p -rummage sale/afternoon tea/public bingo 28. What do you think would be the outcome i f people of a l l ages were permitted to join the Centre? -younger adults wouldn't join -younger adults would try to dictate to seniors 29. Do many people i n the community, aside from members, know about the Centre or i t s activities? -mention i n press -volunteers -favourable or non-fabourable attention (e.g. v i s i t s from schools, incidents of discrimination, etc.) -donations 30. Do you think efforts should be made to improve community recognition of the Centre? -methods (P.R., open house, joint planning) 1 7 1 3 1 . What do you consider to he the major accomplishments of your Board ! and the Centre? 3 2 . What are the main pr i o r i t i e s currently facing the Board and Centre? -what w i l l be done about them? 3 3 . Is there anything you would like to add? Thank you very much. 172 APPENDIX III GENERAL MEMBERSHIP INTERVIEW SCHEDULE I would like to begin by asking for your ideas about how decisions are made- regarding programs, a c t i v i t i e s , and other matters at the Centre. 1. Who decides what ac t i v i t i e s and programs are to take place at the Centre? -program committee? -the Director? -an outside Department? -the Board? 2. Do you think i t ' s a good idea to have only Centre members on the Board? -Why? -What are the alternatives? 3. Do you come to the Centre often? What things do you do here? 4. Have you ever considered serving on the Board or Committees? 5. What are some important qualifications for a Centre Director to have? -education -social s k i l l s -experience -active i n Centre or community -attitude -understanding of the aging process -leadership 173 What are some of the important qualifications for Board members to have? -education -experience -attitude -leadership What do you think the duties and responsibilities of the Board should be? What do you think the role of the Director should be? Who do you think should have the f i n a l say about what goes on at the Centre, the Board or the Director? -Why? If you didn't like a program or activity at the Centre, could you do anything to get i t changed? -what? (e.g. complain to Director or Board) -have any members done this? -with what effect? Have Board or committee members, or the Director, ever asked your opinion about a program or activity? - i s this/would this be a good idea? If there were something you wanted changed at the Centre, would Board members be approachable? The Director approachable? Do you think that they would seriously consider your ideas? 174 12, Besides serving on the Board or Committees, are there other ways that members can have a say about what goes on at the Centre? -examples - suggestion box, opinion-aires, newsletters -speak with activity instructors -speak with other members to decide on a group solution 13, Are there any changes you would like to see i n the Centre, such as new ac t i v i t i e s or programs? 14, Are there some older people who may have d i f f i c u l t y getting out to the Centre and might benefit from i t ? - f r a i l elderly -low insome without autos -ethnic -disabled (physically &; mentally) -how could tftey be encouraged? 15, What do you think would be the consequences of letting younger adults join the Centre? 16, In your opinion, should people who aren't members be allowed to use the Centre? -does this happen? -attitudes and justifications -children, e.g. Easter egg hunt -busloads of institutionalized elderly 1 7 5 1 7 . Do many people i n the community who aren't members know about the Centre? -elderly - a l l ages -newspaper releases -volunteers -donations (money, goods, services) 1 8 . What are the main reasons for having a Centre? -social clubj combat loneliness -activity Centre -cultural enrichment -service Centre -community development/social action 1 9 . What are some of the most important functions which the Centre should be serving now? -e.g. act i v i t i e s , services, etc. 2 0 . Do you think that the Centre i s doing a good job? 2 1 . What do you consider to be the main pri o r i t i e s facing the Centre? 2 2 . Is there anything you would like to add? Thank you. APPENDIX IV BACKGROUND "FACT SHEET" ON THE CASE STUDY CENTRES SENIOR CENTRE SILVER HARBOUR 411 MURDOCH ' LOCATION . North Vancouver Vancouver Richmond OPENING DATE September, 1973 December, 1972 October, 1975 AGE and TENURE of BUILDING Building especially designed for use as Senior Centre. Completed in 1973. Owned by Silver Harbour Manor Society Building designed for Labour organization in 1914, Use and maintenance of building provided "cost free" by B.C. Building Management Corp. Major renovations have occurred. Building constructed in 1975 for Brighouse United Church. Leased by Municipality for use as Senior Centre, ADMINISTRATION "Autonomous" Administered by Silver Harbour Manor Society (a Non-profit Society composed of Centre mem-bers) Policy set by 2 Board of Directors composed of Centre members and community representatives. "Autonomous" Administered by 411's Non-profit Society. Policy set by Board 1 consisting of Centre members and rep-resentatives from the Community. "S emi-Autonomous" Administered by Richmond Municipal Department of Leisure Services. Policy set by the Department, MAJOR FUNDING SOURCE Ministry of Human Resources Ministry of Human Resources Municipality of Richmond OPFJBAXING- .GRANT OR DEPT. FUNDING $85,000. (1979-80) $107,300. (1979-80) $35,000, (approximately) (excluding rent) SILVER HARBOUR 411 MURDOCH SAMPLE OF PROGRAM Activities-Bingo, crafts, b i l l i a r d s . Special events Trips Hot lunch Services - counselling Comm. Health Nurse, Outreach Social Action - a f f i l i a t i o n with F.L.C. Activities - cards, sewing Special events Trips Hot lunch Services - counselling, Information, Medical c l i n i c A ctivities - Bingo, crafts Special events Trips Services - Tax c l i n i c s Legal advice NUMBER OF PAID STAFF 6 Full-time and 2 Half-time 8 Full-time and 4 Half-time 1 Full-time and 1 Half-time APPROXIMATE MEMBERSHIP (June, 1980) 2,600 1,600 950 B Y - L A W S 1 7 9 ARTICLE 1 - MEMBERSHIP (a) Membership of the Society shall be those persons sixty (60) years of age and over, and any spouse of such person, who subscribe to the Constitution and By-laws of the Society, and who support the aims and purposes of the Society having paid such Annual Membership dues as shall be determined through Resolutions passed by a simple majority at the Annual Meetings of the Society. (b) Honourary Membership shall be granted to those persons who have been chosen to serve on the Board of Directors as Community Members, by virtue of their acts of contribution in community af fa irs and professional l i f e but do not f a l l into the general def init ion of membership. ARTICLE 2 - CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH MEMBERSHIP CEASES Members may terminate their membership by notice in writing to the Secretary. The Board of Directors may terminate any membership for just and suf f ic ient cause. The membership year in the Society shall be based on the f i sca l year of the Society, and members shall pay the annual dues on or before the f i r s t day of Apri l of each year or upon the member joining the Society. A member who has fa i led to pay the current annual membership fee ceases to be a member in good standing. ARTICLE 3 - MEETINGS (a) The Annual General Meeting of the Society shall be held during the month of June, in each and every year, at such time and place as the Board of Directors shall decide and notice of such meeting shall be available to the members of the Society, providing not less than fourteen(14) days written notice thereof. 180 (b) N o t i c e o f a l l S p e c i a l and Genera l Meet ings s h a l l be a v a i l a b l e to a l l members o f the S o c i e t y , p r o v i d i n g not l e s s than f o u r t e e n (14) days w r i t t e n n o t i c e t h e r e o f . (c ) A quorum f o r S p e c i a l and any Genera l Meet ing o f the S o c i e t y s h a l l be s e v e n t y - f i v e (75) members 1n good s t a n d i n g . ARTICLE 4 - OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY The O f f i c e r s o f the S o c i e t y s h a l l c o n s i s t o f the f o l l o w i n g o f f i c e r s : Past P r e s i d e n t , P r e s i d e n t , 1s t V i c e - P r e s i d e n t , 2nd V i c e - P r e s i d e n t , S e c r e t a r y , Member - a t -1a r ge , Member - a t - La r ge . ARTICLE 5 - ELECTION OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY The S o c i e t y s h a l l e l e c t , a t the Annual Genera l M e e t i n g , O f f i c e r s to se rve on the Board o f D i r e c t o r s . A nominat ing commi t tee , composed of a c h a i r m a n , e l e c t e d by the Boa rd , and t h r e e (3) S o c i e t y mernbors, e l e c t e d by the membership, s h a l l p r e p a r e a l i s t o f c and ida te s from the membership, w i l l i n g and e l i g i b l e to s t and f o r o f f i c e . W r i t t e n nominat ions on forms approved by the Board o f D i r e c t o r s s h a l l be r e c e i v e d by the Nominat ing Committee up to f o u r t e e n (14) days p r i o r to the date o f the Annual Genera l M e e t i n g , a t which t ime the l i s t of c a n d i d a t e s and w r i t t e n nominat ions s h a l l be p o s t e d . Nominat ions from the f l o o r s h a l l be accepted at the Annual Genera l M e e t i n g . The members w i s h i n g to s tand f o r o f f i c e s h a l l be p r e s e n t a t the Annual Genera l Meet ing or s t a t e i n w r i t i n g t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to s t a n d . V o t i n g s h a l l be conducted by s e c r e t b a l l e t at the Annual Genera l Mee t i n g . Only those who have v a l i d membership ca rds 1n the S o c i e t y s h a l l be e n t i t l e d to v o t e . Absentee b a l l o t s s h a l l be accep ted by the Annual Genera l M e e t i n g , but proxy v o t i n g s h a l l not be a l l o w e d . ARTICLE 6 - BOARD OF DIRECTORS, POWERS AND TERM OF DIRECTORS (a) The genera l p o l i c y o f the S o c i e t y , and the o p e r a t i o n o f the f a c i l i t i e s , s h a l l be i n the hands o f a Board o f D i r e c t o r s , c o n s i s t i n g o f t h i r t e e n (13) members o f the S o c i e t y . JLOi ( b ) The B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s s h a l l be c o n s t i t u t e d and made up o f s i x ( 6 ) c o m m u n i t y members a n d t h e o f f i c e r s o f t h e S o c i e t y , who s h a l l s e r v e w i t h o u t r e m u n e r a t i o n . ( c ) A n o m i n a t i n g c o m m i t t e e o f t h e B o a r d s h a l l p r e p a r e and p r o v i d e t h e names o f c a n d i d a t e s f r o m t h e c o m m u n i t y w i l l i n g and e l i g i b l e t o s t a n d f o r B o a r d m e m b e r s h i p as n e e d e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e r e q u i r e d number. T h e s e names s h a l l be s u b m i t t e d t o t h e B o a r d f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n a t t h e n e x t s c h e d u l e d m e e t i n g a f t e r t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e A n n u a l G e n e r a l M e e t i n g . . ( d ) The Community Members on t h e B o a r d s h a l l s e r v e a two (2) y e a r t e r m , o n e - h a l f o f whom s h a l l be e l e c t e d i n t h e e v e n numbered y e a r s , a n d o n e - h a l f o f whom s h a l l be e l e c t e d i n t h e o d d nu m b e r e d y e a r s . ( e ) Upon a v a c a n c y o c c u r r i n g on t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s , t h e B o a r d s h a l l be empowered t o f i l l s u c h v a c a n c y by t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f an a p p r o p r i a t e p e r s o n who s h a l l s e r v e t h e u n e x p i r e d t e r m o f t h e p e r s o n s o r e p l a c e d . ( f ) T h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s , by an a f f i r m a t i v e v o t e o f a t l e a s t two t h i r d s o f a l l t h e members t h e r e o f , may r e m o v e any D i r e c t o r o r O f f i c e r f r o m t h e S o c i e t y f o r j u s t a nd s u f f i c i e n t c a u s e . ( g ) T he B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s s h a l l m e e t n o t l e s s t h a n f o u r ( 4 ) t i m e s a y e a r , s u c h m e e t i n g s t o be h e l d on t h e c a l l o f t h e C h a i r m a n o f t h e B o a r d . A quoru m f o r a B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s m e e t i n g s h a l l be f o r t y ( 4 0 % ) p e r c e n t o f t h e members o f t h e B o a r d . A R T I C L E 7 - BOARD OFFICERS AND SOCIETY OFFICERS A t t h e f i r s t s c h e d u l e d B o a r d m e e t i n g a f t e r t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e A n n u a l M e e t i n g o f t h e S o c i e t y , t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s s h a l l , by S p e c i a l R e s o l u t i o n , c h o o s e f r o m amongst t h e i r own members, t h e O f f i c e r s o f t h e B o a r d . The O f f i c e r s f o r t h e B o a r d s h a l l c o n s i s t o f a C h a i r m a n , V i c e - C h a i r m a n , S e c r e t a r y , T r e a s u r e r , and t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e S o c i e t y . 182 The President of the Society may, i f selected, hold any position except that of Treasurer. The Officers of the Board shall constitute the Executive Committee. ARTICLE 8 - EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR The Board.of Directors may entrust the general management of the business and a f f a i r s , programs and services o f the Society to a salaried o f f i c i a l , named the Executive Director, who shall be responsible to the Board of Directors at a l l times. ARTICLE 9 - EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE (a) The Executive Committee of the Board and the Executive Director shall be responsible for implementing the pol icies of the Board of Directors. (b) In the event of a vacancy occurring on the Executive Committee, then the Board of Directors shall appoint a member from the Board to f i l l the vacancy for the balance of the'unexpired term. ARTICLE 10 - AUDIT OF ACCOUNTS The Auditor shall be selected by the Board of Directors but subject to the approval of a l l membership at the Annual General Meeting. The Auditor shall carry out an audit o f the books of the Society annually and present to the Annual General Meeting, a duly cer t i f ied f inancial statement. ARTICLE 11 - SEAL The Seal of the Society shall be 1n the custody o f the President of the Society or such other person as the Board of Directors may from time to time appoint, and shall only be affixed to documents by a Resolution of the Board of Directors and in the presence of two (2) of the Officers o f the Society. 183 ARTICLE 12 - BANKING (a ) A l l f u n d s o f the S o c i e t y s h a l l be d e p o s i t e d 1n t h e name o f t h e S o c i e t y a t t h e bank o r banks o r s u c h a p p r o v e d f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n t o be s e l e c t e d by t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s . (b) The B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s may f r o m t i m e t o t i m e by R e s o l u t i o n , a u t h o r i z e s u c h D i r e c t o r o r D i r e c t o r s , O f f i c e r o r O f f i c e r s , C l e r k o r C a s h i e r o r such employee o f t h e S o c i e t y as the D i r e c t o r s may a p p o i n t , to t r a n s a c t d a i l y b a n k i n g b u s i n e s s w i t h t h e s a i d bank o r banks or o t h e r a p p r o v e d f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n , and t o s i g n and e x e c u t e on b e h a l f o f t h e S o c i e t y , a l l s u c h d o c u m e n t a t i o n as may be r e q u i r e d f o r d a i l y b a n k i n g p u r p o s e s . ARTICLE 13 - CUSTODY The S e c r e t a r y o f t h e S o c i e t y s h a l l p r e p a r e and m a i n t a i n t h e M i n u t e s o f p r o c e e d i n g s o f m e e t i n g s o f the S o c i e t y and o f the D i r e c t o r s . These s h a l l be k e p t i n the c u s t o d y o f t h e S o c i e t y , a l o n g w i t h a l l o t h e r b o o k s and r e c o r d s o f t h e S o c i e t y a t the S o c i e t y ' s o f f i c e s a t 144 E a s t 22nd S t r e e t , N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and s h a l l be a v a i l a b l e to members f o r i n s p e c t i o n upon f i v e (5) b u s i n e s s days w r i t t e n n o t i f i c a t i o n a t the S o c i e t y ' s o f f i c e s . ARTICLE 14 - ALTERATION OF BY-LAWS Amendments to t h e s e B y - l a w s s h a l l be by S p e c i a l R e s o l u t i o n and p a s s e d by t h r e e - q u a r t e r s ( 3 / 4 ) o f s u c h members as a r e p r e s e n t and e n t i t l e d to v o t e a t any A n n u a l G e n e r a l o r S p e c i a l m e e t i n g . N o t i c e o f p r o p o s e d amendments s h a l l be a v a i l a b l e to the m e m b e r s h i p , p r o v i d i n g n o t l e s s t h a n f o u r t e e n (14) days w r i t t e n n o t i c e t h e r e o f . ARTICLE 15 - APPOINTMENT OF SPECIAL,COMMITTEE S p e c i a l Commit tees may be a p p o i n t e d by t h e B o a r d and s h a l l be d i s c h a r g e d upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e i r t a s k s . 184 ARTICLE 16 - POWER TO BORROW The B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s may, by a S p e c i a l R e s o l u t i o n a d o p t e d by an a f f i r m a t i v e v o t e o f a t l e a s t t h r e e - q u a r t e r s ( 3 / 4 ) o f a l l the members t h e r e o f , b o r r o w o r r a i s e money when n e c e s s a r y f o r an on b e h a l f o f the S o c i e t y f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e o f the S i l v e r H a r b o u r Manor S o c i e t y B u i l d i n g a t 144 E a s t 22nd S t r e e t , N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and to s e c u r e the r e p a y m e n t t h e r e o f , and f o r the s a i d p r u p o s e s may, on b e h a l f o f t h e S o c i e t y , make, d r a w , a c c e p t o r e n d o r s e p r o m i s s o r y n o t e s and o t h e r n e g o t i a b l e i n s t r u m e n t s , c h a t t e l o r o t h e r m o r t g a g e s and a l l i n s t r u m e n t s c r e a t i n g i n d e b t e d n e s s o r c o l l a t e r a l s e c u r i t y s u b j e c t t o t h e S o c i e t i e s A c t . ARTICLE 17 - FISCAL YEAR The f i s c a l y e a r o f the S o c i e t y s h a l l be f r o m A p r i l 1 s t to March 3 1 s t o f each and e v e r y y e a r . ARTICLE 18 - RULES OF COURT M e e t i n g s o f the S o c i e t y and o f the B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s s h a l l be c o n d u c t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n and B y l a w s , and any q u e s t i o n n o t so c o v e r e d s h a l l be g o v e r n e d by R o b e r t ' s R u l e s o f O r d e r . ARTICLE 19 - REGISTERED OFFICE The R e g i s t e r e d O f f i c e o f t h e S o c i e t y s h a l l be the S i l v e r H a r b o u r C e n t r e a t 144 E a s t 22nd S t r e e t , i n t h e C i t y o f N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o r a t such o t h e r a d d r e s s e s as may be d e s i g n a t e d and p a s s e d by R e s o l u t i o n o f t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s as made f rom t i m e t o t i m e . 188 ARTICLE 5 - PTS~rr_T?TC;: 07 ^ n ^ C C T ^ v In the event of winding up or d i s s o l u t i o n of ths society, funds and assets of the society remaining a f t e r the s a t i s f a c t i o n of i t s .debts and l i a b i l i t i e s , sr.all oe giver, or transferred to such organization or o r 2 ani z at io r. s conc-jrned witn the r a c i a l crcoleias or organizations promotion the same object of this society, as may be determined by the members of the society at the time of win-djng up or dissolution, and i f e f f e c t cannot be given to the afore said crovisions, then such funds shall be given or transferred to seme other organization; provided that any such organization referred to in this paragraph s h a l l be a charitable organization, a charitable corporation, or a charitable trust recognized by the Department of National Revenue of Canada as being qu a l i f i e d as such under the provisions of the Income Tax Act of Canada from time to time in effect. ARTICLE 6 - PROVISIONS UNALTERABLE » In accordance with the provisions of the Societies Act, A r t i c l e s 4 and 5 of t h i s Constitution are unalterable. BY LAWS ARTICLE 1 - MEMBERSHIP (a) Membership of the Society sh a l l be those persons Sixty ( 6 0 ) years of age and over, and any spouse of such person, who subscribe to the Constitution and By-Laws of the Society, and who support the aims and objects of the Society having paid such annual membership.dues as shall be determined through resolutions passed by a simple majority at the Annual Meetings of the Society. Every such member shall have the right to speak and vote at any special or general meeting of the Society. (b) Honorary membership shall be granted to those persons who have been chosen to serve on the 3oara of Directors, as Community Members, by virtue 189 of their acts of contribution in community a f f a i r s and professional l i f e but who are not active members of the Society and may not f a l l into the general d e f i n i t i o n of membership. Such Community Members shall have the right to speak and vote at any and a l l Board and General meetings of the Society, and to hold office on the Board. (c) Community Members df the Board to be issued with membership cards stamped "HONORARY" ARTICLE 2. Any member may terminate his membership by notice i n writing to the Secretary. The Board of Directors may terminate any membership for just and sufficient cause, on recommendation of the Operating Committee. Any member who has been suspended may appeal to the Board of Directors, i n writing. The membership year of the Society shall be based on the f i s c a l year of the Society, and members shal l pay the annual dues on or before the f i r s t day of April of each year, or upon the member joining the Society. Any member who f a i l s to pay the annual raemuershiD d-ues of the F.ociety when they oecaae due w i l l f o r f e i t a l l rignts a n a p r i v i i i r / j s o f memoersnip in t h e Society. "ARTIC'3 3 ^"TT'^rS (a) 'The Annual General Meeting of the Society shall be held at least once i n every calendar year and not acre than 15 months after the adjournment of the previous annual meeting, at such time and place as the Board of Directors shall decide and notice of such meeting shall be available to the members of the Society by posting such notice in the Society's premises 21 days before the meeting and/or shall be publicized i n a newspaper circulating i n the Vancouver area, providing 14 days notice thereof. (b) Notice of .all Special and General Meetings s h a l l be available to a l l members of the Society and/or shall be publicized i n a newspaper circulating in the Vancouver Area, providing 14 days notice. (c) A quorum for special and any general meeting of the Society shall be Sixty Members i n good standing. 190 ARTICLE ke (a) The Society shall elect, at the Annual General Meeting a Committee to operate the a c t i v i t i e s of the Centre, and a nominating committee shall prepare a l i s t of candidates from the membership, w i l l i n g and elegible to stand for o f f i c e . Additional nominations may be made from the flo o r . The members wishing to stand for of f i c e shall be present at the Annual General . • Meeting, or shall state, i n writing,- their willingness to stand. (b) The Operating Committee of the Centre shallconsist of the following Officers: -~ , — . , , Past President President Vice-president Secretary Member-at-Large Member-at-Large Member-at-Large The Operating Committee may add to their numbers, cc—ordinators of Programme a c t i v i t i e s , who w i l l have voice and vote at Operating Committee Meetings, but who are not ex-officio members of the Board of Directors, (c) Upon a vacancy occurring on the Operating Committee, the Operating Committee s h a l l be empowered to f i l l such vacancy Dy the appointmnet of an appropriate person, such person sha l l be w i l l i n g and e l i g i b l e to stand for office, ARTICLE 5 BQHRD Or DIRECTCHS, POWERS *MD TERM OF DIRECTORS (a) The general policy of the Society, and the operation of the f a c i l i t i e s , shall.be i n the nanus of the Board of Directors, consisting of Fifteen (15; members of the Society. (b) The Board of Directors s h a l l be'constituted and made up of eight (8) Community members, and the Seven (7) Officers of the Operating Committee. (c) A nominating cc-nittee of the Board shall prepare and provide a l i s t of candidates from the Community w i l l i n g and e l i g i b l e to stand for Board Membership, and these candidates shall be elected and approved by the Board at a meeting immediately after the conclusion of the Annual General Meeting, 191 (d) The Comunity memcers on tne. Board zho.ll servo * Two (2) year terni, one-half of wnc:r. sn;iii elected in the oua r.'_;:.^ ered /ears. (.») Upon a vacancy occur ir.* on thrj Board of Directors, tno Board sh-oll be empowered to f i l l cu-ch vacancy by t::o appointment of an appropriate person wno shall serve the unexpired term of the person so replaced. ( f ) The Board of Directors snail meet net less than Four (u.) times a year, such meeting to be held on the c a l l of the Chairman of the Board. A quorum for a Board of Directos Meeting shall be Forty Per Cent (U0%) of the memoers of the Board. (g) The Board of Directors may set up standing committees, and may set up ad hoc committees when necessary to further the achievement of the objectives of the Society. Ad hoc committees shall be discharged on completion of their tasks (h) No Director shall receive remuneration for his or her duties as Director. ARTICLE 6 BORRO'.miG POV/SRS The society shall have the power to borrow or raise or secure the payment of money in such a manner as the society thinks f i t , and without limiting the foregoing the society nay issue debentures or debenture stock, perpetual or otherwise, charged upon a l l the society's present or future property, and to purchase, redeem or pay off any such security; but in no event shall the society borrow or secure the payment of money, without the sanction of a resolution of the board of directors, passed by a three-quarters majority vote of those present and entitled to.vote. ARTICLE 7 BOARD OFFICERS AMD SOCIETY OFFICERS * The Board of Directors sh a l l meet immediately after the conclusion of the Annual Meeting of the Society, and by Special Resolution, sha l l choose from amongst their own members, the Officers of the Board. The Officers for the Board shall consist of the Chairman, Vice-Chairman, Secretary, Treasurer, and the President of the Operating Committee,, The President of the Operating Committee shall also serve as President of the Society, the Officers of the Board shall be the Executive of the Society. 192 (a) The secretary shall be responsible for the recording, custody and distribution of a l l minutes of the general meetings, and a l l minutes of the meetings of the Board of Directors and Operating Committee meetings of the society. The secretary shall also maintain a l l other books and records of the society, save and except those records required, to De kept by the treasurer. The secretary shall-also perform a l l other secretarial duties assigned by the board of directors. The secretary shall maintain a register of a l l o f f i c e r s and a l l directors of the society and shall notify a l l elegible members of a l l meetings of the society. (b) The treasurer sh a l l be responsible for keeping an accurate account of a l l monies received and disbursed on behalf of the society. ARTICLE 8 CS:iTRI5 DIRECTOR > The Board of Directors may entrust the general management of the business and a f f a i r s , programs and services of the Ull Seniors Centre Society to. a salaried o f f i c i a l , named trie Centre Director, who shall be responsible to..trie Board of Directors at a l l times. The Centre Director w i l l hire and supervise such additional staff as the board may from time to time authorize. V. ARTICLE ci EXECUTIVE CCi-MITTKE (a) The Executive of the Society snail oe responsible for tne Jay - to -d.Ty management .of tr.e Society, and shall oe responsible for imrl .1 tin £ tne c c i i c i e s of the Board of Directors, (b) In the event of a vacancy occuring cn tne Executive Committee, tnen the Executive Committee shall appoint a memoer from the Board of Directors, to f i l l the vacancy for the balance of the unexpired term. ARTICLE 10 AUDIT OF ACCOU-.TS The Auditor shall be selected by the Board of Directors but subject to the approval by the membership at the Annual General Meeting. The auditor shall carry out an audit of the books of the Society annually and present to the Annual General Meeting a duly c e r t i f i e d f i n a n c i a l statement. •ARTICLE 11 SEAL ' . • ' The Seal of the Society shall be i n the custody of the President of the Society or such other person as the Board of Directors may from time to time 193 appoint, and shall only be affixed to documents by a Resolution of the Board of ** Directors and in the presence of Two (2) of the Officers of the Society. ARTICLE 12 BANKING (a) A l l funds of the Society shall be deposited i n the name of the Society at the bank or banks, or other financial institutions, to be selected by the Board of Directors. (b) The Board of Directors may from time to time by resolution authorize such Director or Directors, Auditor or Auditors, Officer or Officers, Clerk or Cashier or such employee of the Society as the Directors may appoint to transact i t s banking business with the said bank or banks, and to sign and execute on behalf of the Society a l l such documentation, security agreements, promises and pledges as aforesaid, and to delegate i n any resolution of the Society the power hereby conferred upon the Directors. ARTICLE 13 CUSTODY The books and records of the Society shall be available to members for inspection upon ten (10) days written notification at the Society's offices at -411 Dunsmuiir Street, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. ARTICLE 14 ALTERATION OF BY-LAWS Amendments to these By-Laws shall be by Special Resolution and passed by • 75% (£) of such members as are entitled to vote and are present at any general or special meeting. Notice of proposed amendments shal l be available to the member-ship i n writing and/or publication in a newspaper circulating the . Vancouver Area, providing not less than Fourteen (14) days notice. ARTICLE 15 FISCAL YEAR The f i s c a l year of the Society shall be from A p r i l 1st to March 31st of each and every year. ARTICLE 16 RJ&ISTERED OFFICE The Registered Office of the Society shall be at 411 Dunrmuir Street, in the c i t y of Vancouver, in the ProvLnce of B r i t i s h Columbia, or at such other addresses as may be designated and passed by Resolution of the Board of Directors as made from time to time. APPENDIX VII "SOCIETIES ACT" 195 MURDOCH SENIOR CITIZEN CENTRE ADVISORY EXECUTIVE BOARD CONSTITUTION ARTICLE I ARTICLE I I 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) OBJECTIVE OF MURDOCH SENIOR CITIZEN CENTRE EXECUTIVE ADVISORY BOARD  To promote within the l i m i t a t i o n s of allocat e d resources year round opportunities for s a t i s f y i n g the l e i s u r e needs of senior adults i n Richmond over the age of f i f t y - f i v e . As w e l l , to provide . information services for senior adults whenever possible. To provide settings i n which members may experience acceptance by others, the feelings of belonging and recognition as i n d i v i d u a l s of p o s i t i v e worth. GUIDELINE RE: ELECTIONS The annual meeting w i l l be held i n September of each year. The purpose of the meeting w i l l be threefold: (a) to give statements regarding l e i s u r e time services provided during the previous year. ( b ) to announce the f i n a n c i a l statement of the previous year. (c) to conduct the elections of o f f i c e r s for the executive board. The Assistant d i r e c t o r of Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre w i l l conduct the e l e c t i o n of o f f i c e r s . A l l elected o f f i c e r s must be members of Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre. Positions - The advisory executive board s h a l l consist of eight members. They s h a l l be seven elected o f f i c e r s plus the assistant d i r e c t o r of Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre. The o f f i c e r s of the advisory executive board w i l l be: ELECTED: President President Elect Secretary Treasurer Soc i a l Co-Ordinator Programme Co-Ordinator Membership and P u b l i c i t y Co-Ordinator APPOINTED: Assistant Director of Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre A l l positions s h a l l be for a two year term only except President only one year as President and one year as Past President. -ARTICLE I I I 1) 2) MEETINGS The Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre advisory executive board s h a l l meet once per month. A auorum s h a l l consist of four members. PAGE TWO VOTING -'w The e l e c t i o n of o f f i c e r s at the annual meeting s h a l l be by secret b a l l o t . Other voting may be by show of hands or by b a l l o t at the d i s c r e t i o n of the president. In case of amendments to the guidelines, the voting whether by show of hands or by b a l l o t , s h a l l be tabulated to ensure a three-fourths majority as required under A r t i c l e IX Sec. 1 A scrutineer w i l l be appointed by the executive advisory board with the a s s i s t a n t director: a s s i s t i n g . At monthly meetings, the assistant' d i r e c t o r s h a l l r e t a i n the determining vote on matters r e l a t e d to the Department of Leisure Services p o l i c y . The president s h a l l have the deciding vote i n event of a t i e . MEMBERSHIP Membership i n Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre s h a l l be of a dual nature and s h a l l be designated by appropriate membership cards, namely: (a) Associate Membership: Av a i l a b l e to r e t i r e d c i t i z e n s 55 or over not r e s i d i n g i n Richmond at $5.00 per annum t h i s i s a non voting membership p r i v i l e d g e . (b) Active Membership: A v a i l a b l e to any r e t i r e d c i t i z e n 55 or over of Richmond for a membership fee of, $3.00 per annum and renewable of September 1st of each year. Nominees for e l e c t i o n to o f f i c e s h a l l be r e s t r i c t e d to a c t i v e members. Voting p r i v i l e d g e s s h a l l be r e s t r i c t e d to Active members. Denial of membership or revoking a membership i s the decision .of the advisory executive board. A serious breach of s o c i a l , e t h i c a l or moral standards could provoke such action. Any person from outside the M u n i c i p a l i t y of the Township of Richmond may attend Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre as a guest ;however on or before t h e i r t h i r d v i s i t they must take out a associate membership. COMMITTEES Committees s h a l l be formed as deemed necessary by the executive advisory board and the assistant d i r e c t o r . Each standing a c t i v i t y committee s h a l l name a c h a i r -person who s h a l l report to i t on t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y . Such chairpersons s h a l l also prepare and present a written report of the A c t i v i t y ' s operation at the annual meeting. PAGE THREE ARTICLE VII 1) FINANCIAL ACCOUNTS 197 2) 3) 4) 5) ARTICLE V I I I 1) 2) 3) ARTICLE IX 1) 2) The President and Treasurer and the Ass i s t a n t d i r e c t o r of Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre advisory executive board are responsible for e s t a b l i s h i n g an account at a f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n . This account s h a l l be a non-personal account i n the name of the Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre executive advisory board. Funds c o l l e c t e d and disbursed s h a l l be channelled through the Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre records. A ledger f o l i o s h a l l be maintained to show i t s f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n . For a l l established bank accounts there s h a l l be three signing o f f i c e r s with a minimum of two signatures required to v a l i d a t e a cheque one at a l l times must be the a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r . The executive advisory board i s responsible to ensure that a l l acounting books are kept up to date. These books are open to inspection and f i n a n c i a l statements s h a l l be presented monthly at an executive advisory board meeting. Once a year, accounting books w i l l be subject to audit by an outside source. ORGANIZATIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre i s a p r i v a t e b u i l d i n g leased by the Corporation of the Township of Richmond for use of members of the Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre and therefore must comply with p o l i c i e s of the Corporation of the Township of Richmond. Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre i s a l l o c a t e d on a annual budget covering administration maintenance and programme supplies. .' The Assistant d i r e c t o r i s responsible to the Department of Leisure Services administrator for a l l decisions regarding the expenditure of the budget. AMENDMENT OF GUIDELINES The guidelines may be ammended by a r e s o l u t i o n passed by a three-fourths majority of the members present at a annual meeting. A notice of motion w i l l be posted at Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre t h i r t y (30) days p r i o r to the annual meeting. PAGE FOUR JOB DESCRIPTION .198 MURDOCH SENIOR CITIZEN CENTRE PRESIDENT 1) Be responsible for and chair monthly executive advisory board meetings 2) Work with a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r to assure that a l l other executives are functioning according to t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . 3) Work with a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r to oversee a l l functions and a c t i v i t i e s during the year. 4) Act as or designate a welcoming person at a l l functions. 5) See that a l l new members are made welcome and become involved i n a c t i v i t i e s . 6) In co-operation with a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r appoint committies for s p e c i a l events. VICE-PRESIDENT 1) Be prepared to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of president pro term i n the presidents absence. 2) To a s s i s t president i n a l l his/her functions 3) Work with assistant d i r e c t o r i n fund r a i s i n g events - a l l s p e c i a l community events and a c t i v i t i e s . SECRETARY 1) Draw up agenda of monthly executive advisory board meetings. 2) To read, take and post on b u l l e t i n board the minutes of the monthly board meetings, through as s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r provide Department of Leisure Services with copy of the minutes. 3) To see that board members are n o t i f i e d of upcoming meetings. 4) Prepare an agenda and co-ordinate annual general e l e c t i o n . TREASURER 1) Keep accurate accounting records of the Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre books. 2) To present f i n a n c i a l records at monthly board meetings. 3) Work with the a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r i n preparation of •annual f i n a n c i a l report for the annual general meeting. 4) Work with assistant d i r e c t o r to prepare an annual budget for the Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre. MEMBERSHIP" and PUBLICITY. CO-ORDINATOR 199 1) To ensure that annual membership cards and badges and a l l new members are registered. 2) To make quarterly attendance checks for missing members. 3) To stimulate membership worth 4) To work with assistant d i r e c t o r i n the a s s i s t i n g of p u b l i c i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s and events i n l o c a l news agencies. SOCIAL CO-ORDINATOR 1) To work with a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r at a l l Centre s o c i a l events. 2) To a s s i s t with monthly birthday p a r t i e s . 3) To acknowledge i l l n e s s and deaths of members 4) To handle d a i l y coffee and tea ros t e r . PROGRAMME CO-ORDINATOR 1) A s s i s t i n findin g resources for Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre, preferrably members themselves to lead or i n s t r u c t programmes. 2) Act as a l i a s o n to the board on programme opportunities and new ideas. 3) Encourage involvement and attendance of a l l senior adults i n Richmond 4) Act as a sounding person for suggested ideas and new programmes from the membership and the ass i s t a n t d i r e c t o r . MURDOCH. SENIOR CITIZEN CENTRE ADVISORY EXECUTIVE BOARD 200 OPERATIONAL GUIDELINES OBJECT OF THE CENTRE To promote with i n the limitations; of allocated resources year round, opportunities f o r s a t i s f y i n g the l e i s u r e needs of senior adults i n t h i s community over tha age. of 55. As w a l l , to provide information services for senior adults whenever possible. To provide settings i n which members may experience acceptance by others, the f e e l i n g of belonging and recognition as i n d i v i d u a l s of p o s i t i v e worth. ADMINISTRATION Murdoch Centre i s leased by the Corporation of the Township of Richmond and must comply with the p o l i c of the Richmond Department of Leisure Services. Budget Murdoch Centre has a annual budget covering: a d v e r t i s i n g , power, heat, telephone, water, maintenance and general centre supplies, administation s a l a r i e s and benefits and major . . c a p i t a l supplies. f • The advisory executive board w i l l be credited with funds from the following sources: 1) Annual member-ship dues 2) . Programme fees 3) Special event programme p r o f i t s 4) Fund r a i s i n g events 5) And any other mis^eellanious revenue directed for use of Senior C i t i z e n s i n Murdoch Centre. . The advisory executive board w i l l be responsible for the following types of expenses: 1) Instructor fees for programmes 2) Expenses incurred for s p e c i a l events and functions 3) Necessary casual help as deemed necessary by the as s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r 4) To make - donations or contributions to appropriate . requests. 5) To issue honourariums and a l l o c a t e funds i n recognition to volunteers and other contributors of Murdoch Centre. 6) To purchase any c a p i t a l expenditures that do not f a l l w i t h i n the municipal budget (and purchase of those items that the m u n i c i p a l i t y do not have funds f o r at the needed time) 7) To purchase necessary supplies expendable items -PAGE TWO OPERATION 201 Authority The a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r w i l l be the l i a i s o n with the executive advisory board and the Richmond Department of Leisure Services. The executive advisory board work co-operatively with the a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r to make decisions about the operation and programmes at Murdoch • Centre. However, the a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r i n accordance to her r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s - has the r i g h t to veto any decisions that are not i n agreement with the Corporation of the Township of Richmond, Department of Leisure Services. The a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r w i l l administrate budget funds and exercise supervisory r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s for a l l f a c i l i t y a c t i v i t i e s , s t a f f and volunteers, and s e c u r i t y of premises and revenue. EXECUTIVE ADVISORY BOARD The board i s a representative' group of senior adults to v o l u n t a r i l y a s s i s t and advise the • a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r regarding programme d i r e c t i o n , f o r Murdoch Centre. ' • Terms of Reference (a) A s s i s t i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and assessment of the needs and desires of senior adults (b) Act as a sounding board for suggested ideas and new programme from the membership and the a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r (c) Make recommendations r e l a t i v e to programme developm (d) Promote Murdoch Centre's programme throughout the community and develop support for the Centre. (e) Encourage involvement and attendance of a l l • senior adults i n Richmond. (f) A s s i s t i n f i n d i n g resources for Murdoch Centre, preferably from members themselves to lead or i n s t r a c t programmes and' a i d i n the functioning of the Centre and recomend these to the a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r (g) Report back concerns and considerations of Murdoch Senior C i t i z e n Centre members to the a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r f o r a c t i o n . MEETING AND VOTING The executive advisory board s h a l l p r eferably meet once per month on a regular basis, t h i s however, i s at the boards d i s c r e t i o n . The a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r may c a l l a board meeting at anytime urgent business a r i s e . General meetings w i l l be held i n September o each calendar year. Each active member i n good standing s h a l l have one vote. 

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