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Not to seek gold but to paint : the British Columbian views of William G.R. Hind Fleming, Marnie Lynn 1980

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NOT TO SEEK GOLD BUT TO PAINT --THE BRITISH COLUMBIAN VIEWS OF WILLIAM G.R. HIND by MARNIE LYNN FLEMING Honours B.A. U n i v e r s i t y o f Windsor 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES FINE ARTS DEPARTMENT We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September I 9 8 O (c) M a m i e Lynn F l e m i n g , I 9 8 O In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements f< an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree tha the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of FINE ARTS The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date OCTOBER 5. 1980 6 ABSTRACT To r e c o n s t r u c t a p a s t w o r l d , d o u b t l e s s w i t h a v i e w t o the h i g h e s t purposes o f t r u t h , - - w h a t a work t o be i n any way p r e s e n t a t , t o a s s i s t i n , though o n l y as a l a m p - h o l d e r ! George E l i o t I n o r d e r t o make more m e a n i n g f u l sense o f W i l l i a m G.R. Hind's achievements, t h i s t h e s i s w i l l c o n s i d e r a number o f d i f -f e r e n t i s s u e s . F i r s t o f a l l , t h e r e i s the v i t a l q u e s t i o n o f Hind's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the a r t i s t i c m i l i e u o f V i c t o r i a n E n g l a n d from w h i c h he emerged. I n terms o f b o t h s t y l e and c h o i c e o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r h i s work b e a r s o b v i o u s s i m i l a r i t i e s t o the p r o -d u c t s o f contemporary E n g l i s h r e a l i s m . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f Hind's a l l e g i a n c e t o B r i t i s h t r e n d s must be examined. The f i r s t c h a p t e r w i l l c o n c e r n i t s e l f w i t h the a s p i r a -t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f V i c t o r i a n B r i t i s h a r t w h i c h are most r e l e v a n t t o Hind's p e r s o n a l development. An ex-a m i n a t i o n o f B r i t i s h a r t i s t i c and s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m s w i l l p r o v i d e the background n e c e s s a r y f o r a f u l l e r comprehension o f Hind's i n s i s t e n c e on t h e contemporary s u b j e c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e theme o f t h e l a b o u r e r and h i s accomplishments. The second c h a p t e r w i l l d e a l . w i t h the i d e a o f B r i t i s h i m p e r i a l i s m and e m i g r a t i o n , i s s u e s w i t h w h i c h H i n d was d i r e c t l y c oncerned. As a f u r t h e r s t e p i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the r o l e o f the p i c t o r i a l i l l u s t r a t o r , a l o n g w i t h an a n a l y s i s o f B r i t i s h and Canadian a t t i t u d e s toward B r i t i s h C olumbia as e x p r e s s e d i n books and p e r i o d i c a l s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . The f i n a l c h a p t e r w i l l c o n c e r n i t s e l f w i t h H i n d ' s B r i t i s h Columbian images and what t h e y t e l l us about h i s i d e o l o g y and background as a p r o d u c t o f mid n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y England. Such an approach t o W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d w i l l make i t p o s s i b l e f o r us to u n d e r s t a n d h i s work b e t t e r w i t h i n a broad s o c i a l and a r t i s t i c m i l i e u . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o o f F i g u r e s v Acknowledgements i x I n t r o d u c t i o n . 1 C h a p t e r I . The V i c t o r i a n Background.. 6 F o o t n o t e s 2k I I . The C o l o n i a l Scene 27 F o o t n o t e s kk I I I . The B r i t i s h Columbian Views o f W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d ^8 F o o t n o t e s 92 C o n c l u s i o n 97 F o o t n o t e s 100 B i b l i o g r a p h y 101 i . P r i m a r y S o u r c e s 101 i i . S econdary Sources 103 i i i . A r t i c l e s 106 i v . E x h i b i t i o n C a t a l o g u e s 108 V LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS F i g u r e Page 1 . F o r d Madox Brown. Work. 1852-65 o i l on canvas. (113 x 196 cm) Manc h e s t e r : C i t y A r t G a l l e r y . ( F i g u r e 69 i n L i n d a N o c h l i n , R e a l i s m [ M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n , 1971]D. 9 2. Henry W a l l i s . The S t o n e b r e a k e r . I857. o i l on p a n e l . C653 x 79 cm) Birmingham: C i t y Museum and A r t G a l l e r y . ( F i g u r e 63 i n L i n d a N o c h l i n , R e a l i s m • [ M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n , 1971]) 11 3 . John B r e t t . The S t o n e o r e a k e r . 1857-58. o i l on canvas (19 1/2 x 26 7/8 i n . ) L i v e r p o o l : W alker G a l l e r y . (Page 1371 Jeremy Maas, V i c t o r i a n P a i n t e r s [London: B a r r i e and R o c k l i f f - - T h e C r e s c e n t P r e s s , 1969]) 13 4. W i l l i a m B e l l S c o t t . I r o n and C o a l . 1861. m u r a l on w a l l . ( I 8 9 . 6 x I 8 9 . 6 cm) W a l l i n g t o n H a l l , Northumberland. ( F i g u r e 114 i n L i n d a N o c h l i n , R e a l i s m [ M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n , 1971]) 1^ 5- S i r J o h n E v e r e t t M i l l a i s . P o r t r a i t o f Joh n R u s k i n . 1854. o i l on canvas. C o l l e c t i o n o f S i r W i l l i a m A c l a n d . (Page 179 i n J.B. P r i e s t l e y , V i c t o r i a ' s Heyday, [ M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n , 197^3 ) .19 6. P a u l Kane. I n t e r i o r o f a W i n t e r Lodge o f the C l a l l a m s T 1846-48. Ottawa: The N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y o f Canada. ( F i g u r e 192 i n H a r p e r , P a u l Kanees  F r o n t i e r [ T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1971]) 3^ 7. Henry James Warre. H.B.C. S e t t l e m e n t and F o r t V i c t o r i a on Vancouver I s l a n d , S t r a i t s J u an de Fuca. 1845. w a t e r c o l o u r W o r c e s t e r , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : A m e r i c a n A n t i q u a r i a n S o c i e t y . (Page 31 i n M a r i a T i p p e t t and Douglas C o l e , From D e s o l a t i o n t o Sp l e n d o u r [Vancouver: C l a r k e , I r w i n Company L t d . , 1977]) 35 v i 8. Anonymous. Gold i n California--"El Dorado" in Sacremento. 1852. (Page 4-37 i n London Illustrated News, vol. 2 2 , no. 5 6 2 , June 5» 1 8 5 2 .) 36 9 . William G.R. Hind. Miners Leaving Fort Garry, June 1862. 1862. watercolour. (5*7 x 8 . 9 cm) Public Archives of Canada. (Figure 9 i n J. Russell Harper, William G.R. Hind 1833-1889 [Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, 1976 J) *H 10. William G.R. Hind. The Leather Pass, Rocky Mountains. 1862. watercolour. ( 2 2 . 2 x 31-1 cm) McCord Museum, McGill University. (Figure 27 i n Harper, William G.R. Hind  1833-1889, 1976) k-2 11. William G.R. Hind. Prospecting for Al l u v i a l Gold. 1864. o i l on panel. (88x 12 in.) Provincial Archives of Brit i s h Columbia. (Page 15 i n J. Russell Harper, "William Hind and the Overlanders," Beaver Magazine, Winter 1971) 52 12. William G.R. Hind. Gold Digger, B.C. I 8 6 5 . o i l on panel. ( 2 2 . 9 x 3 0 . 5 cm) McCord Museum, McGill University. (Figure 33 i n Harper, William G.R. Hind  1 8 3 3 - 1 8 8 9 , 1976) 55 1 3 . William G.R. Hind. Miners i n the Leather Gap. 1862. watercolour. (8 x 10 in.) Provincial Archives of Brit i s h Columbia. (Page 14 i n Harper, Beaver Magazine, Winter 1 9 7 D 57 14. /'William G.R. Hind. A View i n British Columbia, n.d. watercolour. (8 x 10 in.) McCord Museum, McGill University. (accession number M6ll) 59 15. William G.R. Hind. Saloon Scene. 1864. watercolour. (8 x 9 in?) Provincial Archives of British Columbia. (accession number 28247) 62 v i i 1 6 . W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d . M i n e r s , B r i t i s h C o lumbia. 1864. w a t e r c o l o u r . (13-3 x 21.6 cm) P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia. ( F i g u r e 3 0 i n Harper, W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d , 1 9 7 6 ) 64 1 7 . W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d . Bar i n a M i n i n g Camp i n the West o f Canada. 1865. w a t e r c o l o u r . (25-4 x 35-6 cm) McCord Museum, M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y . ( F i g u r e 29 i n Ha r p e r , W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d , 1976) .7 65 18. W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d . S a l o o n w i t h a Group o f Men on t h e F r a s e r R i v e r , B.C. 1864. w a t e r c o l o u r . (12.7 x 22.9 cm) McCord Museum, M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y . ( F i g u r e 28 i n Ha r p e r , W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d , 1976) . 67 19. W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d . C a b i n on the F r a s e r . c. I 8 6 5 . w a t e r c o l o u r . ( 2 2 . 2 x 3 0 . 8 cm) McCord Museum, M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y . ( F i g u r e 3 1 i n Ha r p e r , W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d , 1 9 7 6 ) 69 2 0 . W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d . Chinook I n d i a n s G a t h e r i n g S h e l l f i s h , c. 1 8 6 5 w a t e r c o l o u r . (13-3 x 2 2 . 2 cm) McCord Museum, M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y . ( F i g u r e 39 i n Ha r p e r , W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d , 1 9 7 6 ) 7 1 2 1 . P a u l Kane. The Man That Always R i d e s . 1849-15-o i l on canvas. ( 1 8 1/4 x 24 i n . ) R o y a l O n t a r i o Museum. ( F i g u r e Y I I I i n Dennis R e i d , A C o n c i s e  H i s t o r y o f Cana d i a n P a i n t i n g [ T o r o n t o : , U n i v e r s i t y o f O x f o r d P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) 72 2 2 . W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d . Chinese G o l d Washers on the F r a s e r R i v e r B.C. c~ 1 8 6 4 . w a t e r c o l o u r . (14 x 22.9 cm) McCord Museum, M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y . ( F i g u r e 2 2 i n Ha r p e r , W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d , 1 9 7 6 ) 7k 2 3 . W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d . M i n i n g i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia. I 8 6 2 - 6 3 . o i l on p a n e l . ( 8 x 12 i n . ) Toronto P u b l i c L i b r a r y . ( F i g u r e 9 3 i n B a r r y L o r d , The H i s t o r y o f P a i n t i n g i n Canada [ T o r o n t o : N.C. P r e s s , 1 9 7 4 ) 77 v i i i 24. W i l l i a m G.R. Hi n d . New Government Road, B.C. n. d. w a t e r c o l o u r . (5 1/2 x 9 i n . ) McCord Museum, M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y . ( a c c e s s i o n number M615) 79 25- W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d . Government Road, B.C., L i l l o o e t t e . c. 1865. w a t e r c o l o u r . (10 . 8 x 2 2 . 8 cm) McCord Museum, M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y . ( F i g u r e 35 i n H a r p e r , W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d , 1976) 81 2 6 . W i l l i a m G.R. Hi n d . Y a l e B r i d g e , B.C. n.d. w a t e r c o l o u r . (5 1/2 x 9 i n T ) McCord Museum, M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y . ( a c c e s s i o n number M6I7) 84 27. W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d . V i c t o r i a , Vancouver I s l a n d . c. 1865. w a t e r c o l o u r . ( 1 3 . 3 x 2 2 . 2 cm) McCord Museum, M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y . ( F i g u r e 36 i n Har p e r , W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d , 1976) 86 28. W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d . S t r a i t o f San Juan, c. I 8 6 5 . w a t e r c o l o u r . ( 2 2 . 5 x 3 1 ' 3 cm) McCord Museum, M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y . ( F i g u r e 37 i n Harper, W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d , 1976) 8? 2 9 . P a u l Kane. Boat Encampment. c. 1840. watercolour"! (5 1/4 x 8 3 / ^ i n . ) C o l l e c t i o n o f S t a r k Museum, Orange, Texas. (Page 39 i n George Woodcock,*"There are No U n i v e r s a l Landscapes," A r t s c a n a d a 35 [ O c t . -Nov. 1978]) 89 3 0 . P a u l Kane. Boat Encampment, c. 1847. o i l on canvas. (18 x 29 1/4 i n . ) R o y a l .Ontario Museum. (Page 39 i n George Woodcock, "There are No U n i v e r s a l Landscapes," A r t s c a n a d a 35 [ O c t . -Nov. 1 9 7 8 ] ) . . . 89 3 1 . W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d . F r a s e r Canyon Scene, n.d. o i l on p a n e l . (8 x 12 i n . ) P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia. ( a c c e s s i o n number 28242) 91 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Among the r e a d e r s o f t h i s m a n u s c r i p t I am i n d e b t e d t o Doreen W a l k e r , who o f f e r e d numerous s p e c i f i c comments to the b e n e f i t o f the t e x t , and whose F i n e A r t s 5&5 seminar gave me the i n s p i r a t i o n t o pursue the a r t o f W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d . I w i s h t o acknowledge my g r a t i t u d e t o Dr. D a v i d S o l k i n , my f a c -u l t y a d v i s e r , f o r l e n d i n g so g e n e r o u s l y h i s s k i l l s , p a t i e n c e and wisdom. More f o r m a l acknowledgements a r e due t o t h e r e s p e c t i v e a u t h o r i t i e s o f t h e McCord Museum, M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, and the U.B.C. F i n e A r t s and S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s L i b r a r i e s . The H i n d f a m i l y must a l s o be thanked f o r so g r a c i o u s l y o p e n i n g t h e i r doors t o me. 1 INTRODUCTION The f o l l o w i n g t h e s i s w i l l f o c u s on one a s p e c t o f t h e work o f W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d , t h e " e x p e d i t i o n a r t i s t " who accompanied t h e O v e r l a n d e r s t o B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1862. D u r i n g t h e f o l l o w -i n g t h r e e y e a r s he worked i n t h a t p r o v i n c e , p a i n t i n g a v a r i e t y o f scenes and s i t e s i n t h e Ca r i b o o g o l d f i e l d s and V i c t o r i a . A p p r o x i m a t e l y f o r t y - f i v e w a t e r c o l o u r s and o i l s s u r v i v e from H i n d ' s B r i t i s h Columbia p e r i o d . A l t h o u g h t h e l i m i t s o f t h i s s t u d y make i t i m p o s s i b l e t o d i s c u s s a l l o f t h e s e works, an attempt w i l l be made t o a n a l y s e most o f t h e p i c t u r e s i n t h e i r a r t i s t i c , c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l c o n t e x t . P r i m a r y s o u r c e m a t e r i a l r e g a r d i n g H i n d i s s c a r c e . A v a i l -a b l e a r e o n l y a few contemporary newspaper a r t i c l e s and r e f e r -ences t o him i n t h e j o u r n a l s and d i a r i e s o f t h e Overlanders.^" N e v e r t h e l e s s , o t h e r h i s t o r i c a l s o u r c e s r e g a r d i n g h i s e r a a r e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r w h i c h g i v e adequate a c c e s s t o t h e meaning o f h i s work. A s u r v e y o f t h e sec o n d a r y l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s s e v e r a l major u n e x p l o r e d a r e a s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e g a r d i n g Hind's produc-t i o n . I n p a r t i c u l a r , no attempt has been made t o examine t h e B r i t i s h Columbian m i l i e u i n w h i c h H i n d p a i n t e d h i s p i c t u r e s , n o r to a n a l y s e i d e a s and a t t i t u d e s about l i f e and a r t w h i c h he would have absorbed as a V i c t o r i a n p a i n t e r . J . R u s s e l l H a rper's monograph ( 1 9 7 6 ) , e n t i t l e d W i l l i a m  G.R. H i n d 1833-1889 has been most u s e f u l t o my r e s e a r c h , f o r i t b r i n g s t o g e t h e r most o f Hind's c h r o n o l o g i c a l and b i o g r a p h i c a l d a t a . However, Harper's o v e r l y r o m a n t i c i z e d approach f a i l s t o meet t h e s t a n d a r d s o f s e r i o u s a r t h i s t o r i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p . F o r 2 example, he c o m p l e t e l y d i s m i s s e s the i m p o r t a n c e o f Hind's E n g l i s h background: More p r o b a b l y h i s work i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y : the l o n e l y i n d i v i d u a l who observed l i f e f rom the s i d e - l i n e s r a t h e r t h a n as an a c t o r i n the p l a y i t s e l f ? 2 T h i s i s s i m p l y n o t a v a l i d b a s i s upon w h i c h t o g a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e i t h e r the form or the c o n t e n t o f Hind's work. The emphasis on " p e r s o n a l i t y " e s s e n t i a l l y d e n i e s Hind's r e l a t i o n -s h i p t o h i s t o r y , and s t i l l l e a v e s us w i t h o u t an extended and rounded s y n t h e s i s o f Hind's a r t . I n 1974, P a u l D u v a l i n c l u d e d a s e c t i o n on H i n d i n h i s book e n t i t l e d H i g h R e a l i s m i n Canada. D u v a l w r o t e : W i l l i a m George R i c h a r d s o n H i n d was one o f the most o r i g -i n a l t a l e n t s i n Canada's n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g . Many o f h i s p i c t u r e s are p e r f e c t examples o f h i g h r e a l -ism. S m a l l i n s i z e , m e a suring o n l y a few i n c h e s each way, Hind's p i c t u r e s a r e f i l l e d w i t h the most c a r e f u l l y o b s e r v e d d e t a i l s . They possess the c l a r i t y o f l i n e , l u -c i d i t y o f c o l o u r and n o v e l t y o f p o i n t o f v i e w w h i c h c h a r -a c t e r i z e s the b e s t o f p r e s e n t day r e a l i s m . . . h i s forms ar e s c u l p t e d i n space w i t h the permanence of an u n f o r g e t -t a b l e scene caught i n the n i c h e o f memory.3 D u v a l m e r e l y a c c e p t s Hind's " r e a l i s m , " as d e s c r i b e d above, w i t h -out c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t Hind's r e a l m o f " f a c t " may be the r e s u l t o f h i s c o n d i t i o n e d background. I n p r a i s i n g H i n d as "one o f the most o r i g i n a l t a l e n t s i n Canada's n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g , " D u v a l t a k e s a v i e w p o i n t s i m i l a r t o H a r p e r ' s . B o t h w r i t e r s show l i t t l e o r no r e g a r d f o r Hind's h i s t o r i c a l p o s i t i o n . By c o n t r a s t a n o t h e r a r t h i s t o r i a n , B a r r y L o r d , t a k e s a d i f f e r e n t p o i n t o f v i e w . He a t t e m p t s t o see H i n d ' s a r t as a p a r t o f ' i i t h e " h e r o i c s t r u g g l e s o f our p e o p l e " ^ i n the c o l o n y : : I t was H i n d , n o t Kane, who extended the documentary ap-p r o a c h t o the C a n a d i a n f i g u r e t h a t a r t i s t s l i k e R i n d i s b a c h e r had begun, and most p a r t i c u l a r l y d i r e c t s our a t t e n t i o n t o the w o r k i n g people and t h e i r a c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s e s i n t h i s l a n d . H i n d ' s l i t t l e p i c t u r e s 3 are a major s t e p f o r w a r d toward a p e o p l e ' s art.-5 L o r d was the f i r s t t o r e c o g n i z e the worker theme i n Hind's a r t and g i v e s c r e d i t to him f o r " a d v a n c i n g the t r a d i t i o n o f s o c i a l d o c u m e n t a t i o n t o the s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f Canada's r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r y w o r k e r s . " 0 However, i f L o r d had c a r r i e d the i d e a o f H i n d as a " p e o p l e ' s a r t i s t " f u r t h e r , he would have r e a l i z e d t h a t H ind's a r t r e f l e c t s the concerns o f the mid n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h b o u r g e o i s i e r a t h e r t h a n t h a t o f the p r o l e t a r i a t . L o r d does not u n d e r s t a n d the framework i n w h i c h Hind's p i c t u r e s were produced. I n d e p i c t i n g the w o r k e r , Hind was s a t i s f y i n g a V i c t o r i a n demand f o r c o n t e m p o r a n e i t y w h i c h a l l o w e d the m i d d l e c l a s s to i d e n t i f y w i t h e x p e r i e n c e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e i r epoch. They r e g a r d e d work as the key t o a s u c c e s s f u l and p o w e r f u l na-t i o n . T o gether w i t h h i s " r e a l i s t " t e n d e n c i e s , H i n d a l s o ab-s o r b e d the theme of l a b o u r , so common i n V i c t o r i a n a r t , and c r e -a t e d a w o r k e r image r e l e v a n t t o t h e B r i t i s h Columbian e n v i r o n -ment. I m p e r i a l i s t a t t i t u d e s towards B r i t i s h C olumbia a l s o p l a y e d an a c t i v e p a r t i n Hind's r o l e as a p i c t o r i a l - i l l u s t r a t o r . Many V i c t o r i a n s saw t h e i r c o u n t r y as "a brave young E n g l a n d l o n g i n g t o w i n g i t s way out o f an i s l a n d p r i s o n , t o d i s c o v e r and t o t r a f -f i c , t o c o l o n i s e and t o c i v i l i s e . H i n d responded by p i c t o r i -a l l y d e p i c t i n g how t h r o u g h h a r d work and p e r s e v e r a n c e c o l o n i s t s were a b l e t o e x t e n d the might o f the B r i t i s h Empire. H i s l a n d -scapes show e v i d e n c e o f power and e x p a n s i o n - o p t i m i s t i c , c i v i l -i z i n g i n f l u e n c e s i n a v a s t , untamed environment. H i n d ' s work r e p r e s e n t s an a t t e m p t t o s a t i s f y a demand f o r c o l o n i a l i n f o r m a l t i o n w h i c h t o l d v i e w e r s about the a s p i r a t i o n s and s u c c e s s o f t h e i r Empire. The as s u m p t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t the m u l t i t u d e o f i d e a s , a t t i t u d e s , p r e j u d i c e s and f e e l i n g s - - l o o s e l y c a l l e d the w o r l d v i e w o f the V i c t o r i a n b o u r g e o i s i e were e x p r e s s e d by W i l l i a m Hind's B r i t i s h Columbian v i e w s . T h i s approach has n e v e r y e t , t o my knowledge, been ap-p l i e d t o the s t u d y o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y Canadian a r t . By exam-i n i n g W i l l i a m H i n d as a p r o d u c t o f m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y E n g l a n d , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r us t o make more m e a n i n g f u l sense o f h i s work w i t h i n a b r o a d s o c i a l and a r t i s t i c m i l i e u . I n t a k i n g t h i s ap-p r o a c h , I f e e l t h a t I w i l l b r i n g a f r e s h awareness t o Hind's work i n B r i t i s h Columbia and r e v e a l some fundamental a t t i t u d e s o of h i s e r a , as t h e y a f f e c t e d the n e w l y - e s t a b l i s h e d c o l o n y / . 5 FOOTNOTES - INTRODUCTION The p u b l i c g e n e r a l l y o v e r l o o k e d Hind's s t u d i e s d u r i n g h i s l i f e t i m e , and the f i r s t t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y a p p r a i s a l o f h i s work d i d n o t ta k e p l a c e u n t i l a C e n t e n n i a l e x h i b i t i o n was h e l d a t t h e A r t G a l l e r y o f Windsor i n 1967- See c a t a l o g u e by J . R u s s e l l H a r p e r , W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d - A C o n f e d e r a t i o n P a i n t e r i n  Canada (Windsor: 1967). 2 J . R u s s e l l H a r p e r , W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d I 8 3 3 - I 8 8 9 (Ottawa: N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y o f Canada, 1976), pp. l g - 1 6 . •^Paul D u v a l , H i g h R e a l i s m i n Canada ( T o r o n t o : C l a r k e , I r w i n and Company L i m i t e d , 197^)» pp. 10-16. 4 B a r r y L o r d , The H i s t o r y o f P a i n t i n g i n Canada--toward  a p e o p l e ' s a r t ( T o r o n t o : New Canada P r e s s , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 9 ^ ^ I b i d . , p. 100. 6 I b i d . , p. 9 9 -' W a l t e r E. Houghton, The V i c t o r i a n Frame o f Mind (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975) i P- 122. 6 CHAPTER ONE THE VICTORIAN BACKGROUND W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d ( I 8 3 3 - I 8 8 9 ) was a B r i t i s h - b o r n a r t i s t a c t i v e i n Canada d u r i n g the second h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h cen-t u r y . To g i v e an a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e o f the n a t u r e o f Hind's s t y l e and t h e m a t i c i n t e r e s t s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o examine the a r t i s t i c m i l i e u o f m i d ^ n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y E n g l a n d from w h i c h he emerged. I t i s n o t m e r e l y c o i n c i d e n t a l t h a t h i s work b e a r s o b v i o u s s i m i -l a r i t i e s t o the p r o d u c t s o f contemporary E n g l i s h r e a l i s m . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l examine the r e l e v a n t t r e n d s i n E n g l a n d w i t h w h i c h Hind's approach must be connected. H i n d was b o r n the y e a r f o l l o w i n g the Great Reform B i l l o f I 8 3 2 , and f o u r y e a r s b e f o r e Queen V i c t o r i a ascended the t h r o n e . The V i c t o r i a n Age was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c o n s t a n t and r a p i d change i n B r i t i s h economic c i r c u m s t a n c e , s o c i a l custom and i n t e l l e c -t u a l atmosphere. E n g l a n d was r a p i d l y u n d e r t a k i n g new s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s r e n d e r e d n e c e s s a r y by new i n d u s t r i a l c o n d i t i o n s i n an overcrowded i s l a n d . ^ " The development o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n gave r i s e t o a f a s h i o n a b l e d e v o t i o n t o n a t u r e and s c i e n c e . " S e l f -h e l p " became a f a v o u r i t e motto w i t h men o f t h e m i d d l e c l a s s . The age f o l l o w i n g the Reform B i l l saw the emergence o f a c a p i t a l i s t democracy as the r i s i n g m i d d l e c l a s s began t o t r u l y d i s p l a c e the a r i s t o c r a c y as the main s o u r c e o f p o l i t i c a l power i n E n g l a n d . The i n c r e a s e i n c o n c r e t e p o l i t i c a l power was ac-companied by a c o r r e s p o n d i n g s h i f t w i t h i n s o c i e t y as a whole towards t h e modes and manners o f b o u r g e o i s t h o u g h t , w h i c h i n s l e l u d e d the c o n t e x t o f the work e t h i c . A consequence o f t h i s a t t i t u d e was t h a t w r i t e r s and a r t i s t s began t o make a s e r i o u s 7 e f f o r t t o u n d e r s t a n d the c o n d i t i o n and o u t l o o k o f the w o r k i n g p e o p l e , always o f c o u r s e from the s t a n d p o i n t o f t h e i r own m i d d l e c l a s s i d e o l o g y . By 1850, i n the sphere o f V i c t o r i a n p a i n t i n g , t h e r e had emerged anpemphasis on scenes o f u r b a n and r u r a l p o v e r t y . "The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s are not e n t i r e l y c l e a r b u t i n p a r t t h e y may be l a i d t o the r e v e l a t i o n s o f government r e p o r t s , hunger, d i s e a s e , j o b l e s s n e s s , i n a d e q u a t e h o u s i n g and the l a c k o f s a n i t a r y f a c i l i -t i e s among b o t h u r b a n and r u r a l l a b o u r e r s . " C e r t a i n a r t i s t s began t o p r o t e s t a g a i n s t s o c i a l and economic i n j u s t i c e s and con-f r o n t e d t h e p u b l i c w i t h v e r b a l o r v i s u a l images o f what was hap-p e n i n g t o s o c i e t y as a whole. S o c i a l changes a f f e c t e d i n t e l l e c -t u a l developments i n l i t e r a t u r e , p h i l o s o p h y , p o l i t i c s and a r t . A major spokesman on s o c i a l i i s s u e s was Thomas C a r l y l e (1795-1881), a S c o t s e s s a y i s t , h i s t o r i a n and p h i l o s o p h e r , whom the s e r i o u s - m i n d e d V i c t o r i a n p u b l i c r e a d a v i d l y , d i s c u s s e d end-l e s s l y and r e v e r e d d e e p l y . George E l i o t remarked upon h i s a l l -p e r v a s i v e i n f l u e n c e : F o r t h e r e i s h a r d l y a s u p e r i o r or a c t i v e mind o f t h i s g e n e r a t i o n t h a t has n o t been m o d i f i e d by the w r i t i n g s o f C a r l y l e . 3 C a r l y l e a t t a c k e d the s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e age, and demand-ed a c t i o n i n the name o f m o r a l i t y and s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e . Most i m p o r t a n t , C a r l y l e demanded work, n o t work f o r payment, n o t work f o r power over men, b u t work: . . . t o make some nook o f God's c r e a t i o n a l i t t l e f r u i t -f u l l e r , b e t t e r , more worthy o f God; t o make some human h e a r t w i s e r , m a n f u l l e r , happier--more b l e s s e d , l e s s ac-c u r s e d . I t i s work f o r God. Noble f r u i t f u l l l a b o u r - -the grand s o l e m i r a c l e o f man. C a r l y l e ' s P a s t and P r e s e n t (1843) a l s o i n c l u d e s e s s a y s on l a b o u r 8 and numerous p l e a s f o r men t o work: F o r t h e r e i s a p e r e n n i a l n o b l e n e s s , and even s a c r e d n e s s , i n Work. Were he e v e r so b e n i g h t e d , f o r g e t f u l o f h i s c a l l i n g , t h e r e i s always hope i n a man t h a t a c t u a l l y and e a r n e s t l y works: i n I d l e n e s s a l o n e i s t h e r e p e r p e t u a l d e s p a i r . Work ne v e r so Mammonish, man _is i n communica-t i o n w i t h N a t u r e ; the r e a l d e s i r e t o g e t Work done w i l l i t s e l f l e a d one more and more t o . t r u t h . . . a man p e r f e c t s h i m s e l f by w o r k i n g . . . C o n s i d e r now, even i n the meanest s o r t s o f Labour, the whole s o u l o f man i s composed i n t o a r e a l harmony, the i n s t a n t he s e t s h i m s e l f t o work!-5 Thus, i n an age o f burdensome p h y s i c a l t o i l , C a r l y l e i n s p i r e d thousands w i t h a b e l i e f i n the d i g n i t y o f work. Other w r i t e r s , such as F r e d e r i c k E n g e l s , C h a r l e s D i c k e n s and Matthew A r n o l d , were i n f l u e n c e d by C a r l y l e ' s w r i t i n g . C a r l y l e h i m s e l f , had l i t t l e use f o r the F i n e A r t s . He w r o t e , " P a i n t i n g i s w o r t h l e s s , e x c e p t p o r t r a i t p a i n t i n g " (which he r e g a r d e d as i m p o r t a n t documentation).' 7 But i n s p i t e o f h i s e x p r e s s e d contempt f o r a r t , C a r l y l e d i d c o n t r i b u t e t o the g e n e r a l awareness o f the B r i t i s h l a b o u r e r as a theme f o r a r t i s t s . F o r d Madox Brown's Work ( e x h i b i t e d I 8 6 3 ) ( f i g u r e 1) pays t r i b u t e t o the v a l u e o f l a b o u r . The s u b j e c t i t s e l f grew out o f some s t u d i e s o f some n a v v i e s w o r k i n g on r o a d e x c a v a t i o n s i n the Hampstead: the B r i t i s h e x c a v a t o r . . . i n the f u l l s w i n g o f h i s a c t i v i t y ...appeared t o me...at l e a s t as w o r t h y o f the powers o f the E n g l i s h p a i n t e r as the f i s h e r m a n o f the A d r i a t i c , the peasant o f the Campagna, or the N e a p o l i t a n l a z z a r o n e . " Brown a f f i r m e d the need to b r i n g the l a b o u r theme home by p l a c -i n g a p o s i t i v e v a l u e on the contemporary w o r k i n g man. W h i l e the worker had p r e v i o u s l y appeared i n B r i t i s h a r t as p i c t u r e s q u e i n t e r e s t , the new s o c i a l democracy now g r a n t e d a f a i r s h a r e o f a r t i s t i c a t t e n t i o n t o the l a b o u r e r . A t the v e r y time Brown was p a i n t i n g Work, he was g i v i n g a r t c l a s s e s a t the Workingman's F i g u r e 1 10 C o l l e g e i n London. H i s p a i n t i n g acknowledges an ob v i o u s debt t o the i d e a s o f Thomas C a r l y l e ; he even i n c l u d e s C a r l y l e ' s p o r t r a i t ( r i g h t f o r e g r o u n d ) as one o f the " b r a i n w o r k e r s " whose a c t i v i t i e s g i v e meaning t o the l a b o u r s o f o t h e r s . B o r r o w i n g i d e a s from C a r l y l e , Brown viewed Work as an e x p e r i e n c e i n a h i s t o r i c a l and s p i r i t u a l c o n t e x t . ^ Brown wrote a l o n g d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s p a i n t i n g and i t s meaning i n a c a t a l o g u e s t a t e m e n t o f I 8 6 5 . He a l s o penned a sonnet t o accompany the p a i n t i n g . T h i s r e a d s , i n p a r t : Work, w h i c h beads the brow and t a n s the f l e s h Of l u s t y manhood c a s t i n g out i t s d e v i l s . 1 0 Brown's v e r s e s i n d i c a t e t h a t he f e l t a p r a i s e w o r t h y a t t i t u d e toward work. I n t h r e e s e c t i o n s o f the frame B r o w n i i n s c r i b e d ( l e f t ) : " N e i t h e r d i d we e a t any man's br e a d f o r naught, b u t wrought w i t h l a b o u r and t r a v a i l n i g h t and day;" ( c e n t e r ) : " I must work w h i l e i t i s day f o r n i g h t cometh when no man can work;" ( r i g h t ) : " " S e e s t thow a man d i l i g e n t i n h i s b u s i n e s s ? He s h a l l s t a n d b e f o r e kings.""'""1" Brown e x t o l l s p h y s i c a l prowess and makes m a n i f e s t the h e r o i s m o f l a b o u r a t a time when e x c a v a t i o n s f o r roads and r a i l w a y t r a c k s were a t t h e i r h e i g h t i n B r i t a i n . C a r l y l e ' s t h e o r i e s on l a b o u r a l s o s t i m u l a t e d Henry W a l l i s t o p a i n t The S t o n e b r e a k e r (1857) ( f i g u r e 2), w h i c h was accompan-i e d i n the R o y a l Academy c a t a l o g u e by a q u o t a t i o n from S a r t o r  R e s a r t u s : H a r d l y - e n t r e a t e d B r o t h e r ! F o r us t h y back so b e n t , f o r us were t h y s t r a i g h t l i m b s and f i n g e r s so deformed: t h o u w e r t our C o n s c r i p t , onwwhom the whole l o t f e l l , and f i g h t -i n g our b a t t l e s , were so marred. F o r i n thee too l a y a go d - c r e a t e d Form, b u t i t was n o t t o be u n f o l d e d ; e n c r u s t e d must i t s t a n d w i t h the t h i c k a d h e s i o n s and defacements o f Labour: and t h y body, l i k e the s o u l , was n o t t o know f r e e -dom. ^ F i g u r e 12 Like Sartor Resartus, W a l l i s ' Stonebreaker was meant to awaken his public to the need for a more democratic s o c i a l sys-tem. The Stonebreaker i s an exploration into the paradox of poverty, fatigue and death i n the midst of scenic beauty. Wallis gives the stonebreaker stature, underlined by the quote above, fo r the labourer has h e r o i c a l l y dropped dead on the job. -Other a r t i s t s at t h i s time who' chose to paint scenes of urban labourers included Walter Deverell, Arthur Boyd Houghton 14 and Frederick J. Shields. But of course, not every painting depicting the worker was t r y i n g to say the same thing. A t t i -tudes towards p i c t o r i a l scenes of labour ranged from declara-tions of s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e s to those verging on the sentimental. John Brett, i n painting his Stonebreaker (1857-58) (figure 3) chose to paint a fresh faced boy at work with the birds singing and his dog playing. In contrast to Wallis, Brett presents an i d y l l i c image of r u r a l work. In his Iron and Coal (1861) (figure 4), William B e l l Scott expressed sentiments akin to Madox Brown's i n commemorat-ing the heroism of the labourer."*"^ This work represents a view of the Tyneside with a group of smiths from the Robert Stephenson locomotive factory."*"^ Representations of l o c a l industries are included while shipping takes place on the quay below. The Stephenson High Level Bridge appears i n the distance. This mural praises the achievements of an i n d u s t r i a l England and gives honour and pride to the labourer. At the same time that a r t i s t s such as B e l l Scott were acclaiming the honour of labour on canvas, Charles Dickens was w r i t i n g equally precise and contemporary accounts of the working class. Not everyone agreed that t h i s was a f i t subject for F i g u r e 4 15 l i t e r a t u r e . W a l t e r Bagehot, f o r example, a t t a c k e d D i c k e n s be-cause he wrote about l a b o u r e r s who were "poor t a l k e r s , poor l i v e r s , and i n a l l ways poor pe o p l e t o r e a d about. '. .the c h a r a c -17 t e r o f the poor i s an u n f i t t o p i c f o r c o n t i n u o u s a r t . " How-e v e r , o t h e r c r i t i c s a f f i r m e d the r i g h t o f t h e l o w e r c l a s s e s t o l i t e r a r y and a r t i s t i c s t a t u s . George Henry Lewes, the p h i l o s o p h -i c a l w r i t e r and l i t e r a r y c r i t i c , a s s e r t e d i n the W e s t m i n s t e r  Review: R e a l i s m i i s . . . t h e b a s i s o f a l l A r t , and i t s a n t i t h e s i s i s n o t I d e a l i s m b u t F a l s i s m . When our p a i n t e r s r e p r e s e n t p e a s a n t s w i t h r e g u l a r f e a t u r e s and i r r e p r o a c h a b l e l i n e n ; when t h e i r m i l k m a i d s have the a i r o f Keepsake b e a u t i e s whose costume i s p i c t u r e s q u e , and n e v e r o l d and d i r t y ; when Hodge i s made t o speak u n r e f i n e d s e n t i m e n t s i n un-e x c e p t i o n a b l e E n g l i s h , and c h i l d r e n u t t e r l o n g speeches o f r e l i g i o u s and p o e t i c e n t h u s i a s m ; when the c o n v e r s a -t i o n o f the p a r l o u r and the d r a w i n g room i s a s u c c e s s i o n o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l remarks, e x p r e s s e d w i t h g r e a t c l e a r n e s s and l o g i c , an attempt i s made t o i d e a l i z e , b u t t h e r e s u l t i s s i m p l e f a l s i f i c a t i o n and bad a r t . To m i s r e p r e s e n t the forms o f o r d i n a r y l i f e i s no l e s s an o f f e n s e t h a n t o m i s r e p r e s e n t the forms o f i d e a l l i f e : a pug-nosed A p o l l o , or J u p i t e r i n a g r e a t c o a t , would n o t be more t r u l y shock-i n g t o an a r t i s t i c mind t h a n a re those s e n s e l e s s f a l s i -f i c a t i o n s o f n a t u r e i n t o w h i c h competence i s l e d under the p r e t e n c e o f i d e a l i z i n g , o f " b e a u t i f y i n g " n a t u r e . E i t h e r g i v e us t r u e p e a s a n t s , o r l e a v e them untouched, e i t h e r p a i n t no d r a p e r y a t a l l , o r p a i n t i t w i t h utmost f i d e l i t y ; e i t h e r keep your p e o p l e s i l e n t , o r make them speak the i d i o m o f t h e i r c l a s s . ° From t h i s passage we can see t h a t Lewes was a i m i n g f o r more t h a n j u s t an e x p a n s i o n o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r ; he was s e e k i n g a " t r u t h " o r " s i n c e r i t y " w h i c h was so i m p o r t a n t t o the V i c t o r i a n s . I n a s i m i l a r way C a r l y l e t o o , i s s u e d a p l e a t o l i t e r a r y a r t i s t s : . . . t o u n d e r s t a n d and r e c o r d what i s t r u e , o f w h i c h s u r e l y t h e r e i s and f o r e v e r w i l l be a whole i n f i n i t u d e unknown t o us , o f i n f i n i t e i m p o r t a n c e t o us.1 9 The " p u r s u i t o f t r u t h " became one o f the r a l l y i n g c r i e s f o r John R u s k i n who around the mid c e n t u r y emerged as the h i g h p r i e s t o f F i n e A r t s and spokesman f o r a group o f young a r t i s t s 16 known as the Pre R a p h a e l i t e B r o t h e r h o o d . R u s k i n f e l t a need t o come t o the Pre R a p h a e l i t e ' s defence when c r i t i c s a t t a c k e d and r e v o l t e d a g a i n s t the p a i n t i n g s w h i c h t h e y produced. ...they [ P r e R a p h a e l i t e s ] have been a s s a i l e d w i t h t h e most s c u r r i l o u s abuse w h i c h I e v e r r e c o l l e c t s e e i n g i s s u e from the p u b l i c p r e s s . I have, t h e r e f o r e , thought i t due t o them t o c o n t r a d i c t the d i r e c t l y f a l s e s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h have been made r e s p e c t i n g t h e i r works; and t o p o i n t out t h e k i n d o f m e r i t w h i c h , however d e f i c i e n t i n some r e s p e c t s , t h o s e works beyond th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i s p u t e . . . . The Pre R a p h a e l i t e s i m i t a t e no p i c t u r e s t h e y p a i n t from N a t u r e o n l y . But t h e y have opposed t h e m s e l v e s as s t e r n l y t o the e n t i r e f e e l i n g o f the R e n a i s s a n c e s c h o o l s , - - a f e e l -i n g compounded o f i n d o l e n c e , i n f i d e l i t y , s e n s u a l i t y , and s h a l l o w p r i d e . T h e r e f o r e t h e y have c a l l e d t h e m s e l v e s Pre R a p h a e l i t e . I f t h e y adhere t o t h e i r p r i n c i p l e s and p a i n t n a t u r e as i t i s around them, w i t h t h e h e l p o f mod-e r n s c i e n c e — w i t h the e a r n e s t n e s s o f the men o f the t h i r -t e e n t h and f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , t h e y w i l l , as I s a i d , f ound a new and n o b l e s c h o o l i n England.2Q F o r the purpose o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y , the a s p e c t s o f n a t u r e " w i t h the h e l p o f modern s c i e n c e " w h i c h R u s k i n o u t l i n e d above, are o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e . V i c t o r i a n E n g l a n d saw the f o r m a t i o n o f v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a -t i o n s t o f u r t h e r t h e advancement o f s c i e n c e ; f o r example, the R o y a l I n s t i t u t i o n and numerous M e c h a n i c s ' I n s t i t u t e s had ambi-t i o u s programmes f o r d i f f u s i n g s c i e n t i f i c knowledge among t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s e s . Advances i n c h e m i c a l s c i e n c e p r o v i d e d the key t o g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and t h e r e f o r e e v e n t u a l c o n t r o l , o f a h o s t o f p r a c t i c a l p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n manufacturesaand i n d u s -21 t r y , m a g r i c u l t u r e and e n g i n e e r i n g . The r e a l m o f s c i e n c e i n V i c t o r i a n E n g l a n d extended i t -s e l f i n t o a p o p u l a r b e l i e f c a l l e d " e x p e r i e n c e p h i l o s o p h y , " or more commonly known as p o s i t i v i s m . The term p o s i t i v i s m was a p p r o p r i a t e d t o denote a p h i l o s o p h y t h a t would l i m i t i t s e l f t o the p o s i t i v e s c i e n c e s and e x c l u d e a l l m e t a p h y s i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n . 17 George Lewes summed up the t e n e t s o f p o s i t i v i s m i n t h i s way: Our p r o v i n c e i s t o s t u d y her [ n a t u r e ' s ] l a w s , t o t r a c e h e r p r o c e s s e s , and, t h a n k f u l t h a t we can so f a r pene-t r a t e the d i v i n e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the u n i v e r s e , be con-t e n t — a s Locke w i s e l y and m o d e s t l y s a y s - - t o s i t down i n q u i e t i g n o r a n c e o f a l l t r a n s c e n d a n t s u b j e c t s . 2 2 The p o s i t i v i s t d o c t r i n e s a p p e a l e d t o the e a r n e s t layman because t h e y were d i d a c t i c and r e d u c t i v e , an a i d t o comprehension r a t h e r t h a n d i s c o v e r y . ^ A g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f p o s i t i v i s t f o l l o w e r s came from O x f o r d , where men l i k e R u s k i n g o t caught up i n t h e s c i e n t i -f i c s t u d y o f n a t u r e and p o s i t i v i s t c r e e d . R u s k i n made v a r i o u s campaigns t o t r a n s f o r m the contempo-r a r y i n t e r e s t i n s c i e n c e i n t o the r e a l m o f a r t . He i s s u e d p r o -p o s a l s t o the government t o encourage " a l l s e c o n d - r a t e a r t i s t s t h e n p a i n t i n g f a s h i o n a b l e i n s p i d i t i e s t o p a i n t t h o r o u g h l y accu-r a t e r e n d i t i o n s o f p l a n t s , a n i m a l s , the n a t u r a l s c e n e r y , and the 24 a t m o s p h e r i c phenomenon o f e v e r y c o u n t r y on e a r t h . " " E v e r y a r t i s t knows t h a t when he draws back from an attempt t o r e n d e r 25 n a t u r e as she i s , i t i s o f t e n e r i n c o w a r d i c e t h a n m d i s d a i n . " R u s k i n ' s w r i t i n g s abound w i t h s i m i l a r s t a t e m e n t s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e modern a r t i s t s h o u l d emulate the g e o l o g i s t o r c h e m i s t i n e x a c t n e s s when he att e m p t s t o r e n d e r n a t u r a l forms. I n t h i s way, he f e l t s c i e n c e would p r o v i d e d i r e c t knowledge o f r e a l i t y i t s e l f . R u s k i n a l s o saw t h e r o l e o f the " s c i e n t i f i c " a r t i s t as 26 f u r t h e r i n g the knowledge among the "common p e o p l e , " who appar-e n t l y would be l e d t h r o u g h v i s u a l a p p e a l s t o c o n s i d e r f a c t s w h i c h t h e y would o t h e r w i s e i g n o r e . Such an a r t i s t i n d e p i c t i n g n a t u r e would r e t a i n : a f i d e l i t y t o t h e f a c t o f s c i e n c e so r i g i d as t o make h i s work a t once a c c e p t a b l e and c r e d i b l e t o t h e most s t e r n l y c r i t i c a l i n t e l l e c t , s h o u l d y e t i n v e s t i t s f e a - ^ t u r e s a g a i n w i t h the sweet v e i l o f t h e i r d a i l y a s p e c t s . . . ' 18 John E v e r e t t M i l l a i s was one member o f t h e Pre R a p h a e l -i t e B r o t h e r h o o d who p a i d p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o s c i e n c e and i n -s i s t e d on a s p i r i t o f t r u t h f u l o b s e r v a t i o n . He p a i n t e d R u s k i n ' s p o r t r a i t i n 1853 ( f i g u r e 5) when the two were v a c a t i o n i n g i n S c o t l a n d . As an e a r l y c r i t i c o p i n e d , M i l l a i s had r e n d e r e d e v e r y d e t a i l i n t h e scene, "so t h a t the g e o l o g i s t cannot f i n d a f l a w 28 i n h i s r o c k s , or a b o t a n i s t m i s t a k e n l i c h e n , p l a n t o r f l o w e r . " He p a i n t e d f o r days c a r e f u l l y s t u d y i n g the scene from m o r n i n g u n t i l e v e n i n g . R u s k i n c l a i m e d t h a t t h e p a i n t e r d e s e r v e d r e s p e c t s i m p l y f o r h i s i n d i s p u t a b l e l a b o u r and f i d e l i t y t o n a t u r e . R u s k i n , i n h i s Modern P a i n t e r s , a d v i s e d the young a r t i s t s o f E n g l a n d t o : ...go t o N ature i n a l l s i n g l e n e s s o f h e a r t , and w a l k w i t h her l a b o r i o u s l y and t r u s t i n g l y , h a v i n g no o t h e r t h o u g h t s b u t how b e s t t o p e n e t r a t e h e r meaning, and remember h e r i n s t r u c t i o n ; r e j e c t i n g n o t h i n g , s e l e c t i n g n o t h i n g and s c o r n i n g n o t h i n g ; b e l i e v i n g a l l t h i n g s t o be r i g h t and good, and r e j o i c i n g always i n the t r u t h . 2 9 The g e o l o g i c a l p r e c i s i o n o f John B r e t t ' s S t o n e b r e a k e r (see above) d e l i g h t e d R u s k i n . H e bought S t o n e b r e a k e r and w r o t e : Here we have by t h e h e l p o f a r t , t h e power o f v i s i t i n g a p l a c e , r e a s o n i n g about i t , and knowing i t , as i f we were t h e r e . . . I n e v e r saw the m i r r o r so h e l d up t o N a t u r e , b u t i t i s Mirror's..work, n o t Man's...yet p r e c i o u s i n i t s p a t i e n t way; and as a wonder o f t o i l and d e l i c a t e h a n d l i n g , unimpeachable... th e c h e s t n u t t r e e s a r e l i k e a f u r n i s h e d d e s i g n o f D u r e r ' s - - e v e r y l e a f a s t u d y ; the p o p l a r t r u n k s and boughs drawn w i t h an unexampled e x q u i s i t i v e n e s s o f t e x t u r e and curve. 3 1 Though p r e v i o u s l y mentioned h e r e i i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the "hard work" r h e t o r i c o f C a r l y l e , B r e t t ' s g e o l o g i c a l p r e c i s i o n a l s o embodies the s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s o f R u s k i n . F o r B r e t t s c i e n -t i f i c o b s e r v a t i o n p r o v i d e d a key t o the d i r e c t knowledge o f " f a c t s " and would n o t a l l o w f o r any m e t a p h y s i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n . F i g u r e 5 20 Thus, R u s k i n ' s c r i t i c i s m s were a major f o r c e i n n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r y a r t . H i s d e v o t i o n t o s c i e n c e , n a t u r e , and h i s a n a l y s i s o f c o m p o s i t i o n , c o l o u r and form e n a b l e d a r t i s t s and r e a d e r s t o u n d e r s t a n d more c l e a r l y the b e l i e f s and v a l u e s w h i c h r e a l i s t a r t i s t s h e l d . He was a l s o among the f i r s t i n E n g l a n d t o emphasize the f a c t t h a t " a r t i s a p u b l i c c o n c e r n and i t s c u l t i -v a t i o n one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t t a s k s o f the s t a t e , i n o t h e r words, t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s a s o c i a l n e c e s s i t y t h a t no n a t i o n can 32 n e g l e c t w i t h o u t d a n g e r i n g i t s i n t e l l e c t u a l e x i s t e n c e . " ^ F o r R u s k i n i t was n e c e s s a r y t o arouse t h e p u b l i c t o t a k e an i n t e r e s t i n t he i d e a l s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the r e a l i s t o u t l o o k . A t the same time t h a t R u s k i n was p r o f e s s i n g d i r e c t o b s e r -v a t i o n o f n a t u r e i n a r t , a l e s s e r u n d e r c u r r e n t i n r e a l i s t t r e n d s was t a k i n g p l a c e w h i c h may have i n f l u e n c e d t h e work o f W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d ; namely the B r i t i s h a d m i r a t i o n f o r s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y Dutch a r t . Dutch p a i n t i n g was a s t i m u l u s f o r the genre scenes of George M o r l a n d and D a v i d W i l k i e . C e r t a i n B r i t i s h a r t i s t s ad-m i r e d the f a i t h f u l and i n t i m a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f do m e s t i c l i f e i n t h e example o f J a n S t e e n and D a v i d T e n i e r s . A l o n g w i t h t h e Dutch a r t i s t e s s t e a d y i n t e n s i t y o f c o n t e m p l a t i o n , was t h e empha-s i s on t h e modest and humble s u b j e c t s . D a v i d Masson, an a r t c r i t i c f o r the B r i t i s h Q u a r t e r l y Review, n o t e d i n 1852: . . . a l l p a i n t e r s s h o u l d c u l t i v a t e the h a b i t and p o s s e s s t h e f a c u l t y o f p a i n t i n g t h i n g s w i t h l i t e r a l t r u t h ; when a p a i n t e r had thus a c q u i r e d t h e language o f h i s a r t , he might employ i t as h i s c h a r a c t e r and g e n i u s prompted, e i t h e r b a b b l i n g j o c o s e l y over mugs o f beer and to b a c c o p i p e s l i k e t h e Dutch p a i n t e r s , o r d e a l i n g f o r t h f i e r c e s a t i r e on men and manners l i k e Hogarth...33 The B r i t i s h m i d d l e c l a s s p r e f e r e n c e f o r a c c u r a t e d e p i c t i o n o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r s t r e n g t h e n e d the d e s i r e o f p a i n t e r s , " i f n o t 21 a c t u a l l y to compete [with nature], at least to confirm the exis-34 tence of the v i s i b l e world i n a very l i t e r a l way.' They f e l t a s p i r i t u a l kinship with the Dutch "to paint men i n the sincer-i t y of t h e i r natures and t h e i r habits, i n t h e i r work, i n the ac-complishment of t h e i r c i v i c and domestic functions, with t h e i r 35 present-day appearance, above a l l without pose." The theme of the worker and the desire f o r objective ac-curacy also became the goal for the i l l u s t r a t o r - j o u r n a l i s t s i n thei r attempt to inform the public of notable contemporary events. Popular journals such as I l l u s t r a t e d London News began publishing at a time when imperialism and power was at i t s height. Relative peace and order gave comfort and confidence to the middle c l a s s e s . U n d e r the guidance of Herbert Ingram, the IMustrated Bondon News became a weekly chronicle of events i n England. "The bankers, merchants, manufacturers, clerks, shop-keepers and engineers had been on the move since the a g i t a t i o n of the Reform Act of I832 and they were more than ready for a paper which would r e f l e c t t h e i r growing sense of self-confidence and p o l i t i c a l power." J i Hence the theme of work and the dig n i t y of labour n a t u r a l l y was an important c u l t u r a l issue which repre-sented the success of the empire. Ingram obtained the services of Henry V i z e t e l l y as art dire c t o r , a r t i s t and master engraver. V i z e t e l l y was an important pioneer of i l l u s t r a t e d journalism i n the nineteenth century. As transportation improved and t r a v e l -l i n g increased, Ingram and V i z e t e l l y appealed for eyewitness pic-tures. They made arrangements for a r t i s t s who had emigrated to the new colonies to send back drawings and l e t t e r s describing on the spot impressions of the region and a v a r i e t y of human 22 a c t i v i t i e s i n i t . V i z e t e l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t a r t s h o u l d be e n j o y e d as much f o r i t s t r u t h and c l o s e n e s s t o l i f e as f o r any e s t h e t i c 39 q u a l i t i e s i t may p o s s e s s . The i l l u s t r a t o r s became e x p l o r e r s i n the r e a l m o f f a c t and e x p e r i e n c e , v e n t u r i n g i n t o new s u b j e c t m a t t e r andnnew p l a c e s . I n t h i s way, t h e y f u l f i l l e d a demand f o r c o n t e m p o r a n e i t y , f o r d e p i c t i o n s o f a t t i t u d e s o r e v e n t s o f t h e age i n a r t i s t i c form. The problem o f why an a r t i s t s u ch as W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d chose t o p a i n t as he d i d and r e j e c t o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s i s c r u -c i a l . To u n d e r s t a n d h i s work i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o keep i n mind some o f t h e B r i t i s h a s p i r a t i o n s and achievements p r o v i d e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . I n summary we have seen how an i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n s o c i a l i s s u e s , w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on l a b o u r , l e d a r t -i s t s t o c o n f r o n t the p u b l i c w i t h s u b j e c t s e x t o l l i n g the v i r t u e s of h a r d work. T h i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r a l s o s a t i s f i e d t he demand f o r c o n t e m p o r a n e i t y w h i c h a l l o w e d the m i d d l e c l a s s t o i d e n t i f y w i t h e x p e r i e n c e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e epoch. N a t u r a l l y , an a r t i s t d i d n o t become a r e a l i s t m e r e l y by d e p i c t i n g a l a b o u r e r s he had a m o r a l commitment t o t e l l t he t r u t h . The V i c t o r i a n pur-s u i t o f t r u t h had ne v e r b e f o r e been a s s e r t e d so f o r c e f u l l y as the b a s i s o f a r t and R u s k i n , i n s u p p o r t o f t h i s p u r s u i t , f e l t t h a t s c i e n c e and c l o s e o b s e r v a t i o n p r o v i d e d d i r e c t knowledge o f r e a l i t y . The r e a l i s m o f Dutch s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y a r t i s t s , w h i c h was so p o p u l a r i n B r i t a i n , h e l p e d s e r v e as a model f o r some B r i t i s h a r t i s t s i n t h e i r f a i t h f u l and i n t i m a t e r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n s o f domesti c l i f e . However, B r i t i s h s u c c e s s was n o t r e -s t r i c t e d t o the mother c o u n t r y ; i n c r e a s e i n t r a v e l and p o l i t i c a l power extended t h e i r g r o w i n g c o n f i d e n c e t o the c o l o n i e s . 2 3 P i c t o r i a l i l l u s t r a t i n g h e l p e d s a t i s f y the demand o f r e a d e r s t o be i n f o r m e d about the a s p i r a t i o n s and s u c c e s s o f t h e i r t i m e s . Only a g a i n s t a background l i k e the one p r o v i d e d h e r e , can we b e g i n t o u n d e r s t a n d how.Hind was a b l e t o embody t h e i d e a l s and a t t i t u d e s o f the V i c t o r i a n m i d d l e - c l a s s e s i n h i s B r i t i s h C olumbia p a i n t i n g . However, b e f o r e an a n a l y s i s o f h i s work can be u n d e r t a k e n , we must t u r n t o the e m i g r a t i o n and c o l o n i z a t i o n i s s u e w h i c h b r o u g h t Hind t o B r i t i s h Columbia. 2 4 FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER ONE "*"G.M. Tr eve 1 yan, I l l u s t r a t e d E n g l i s h S o c i a l H i s t o r y ( M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n Books, L t d . , 1964), p. 86. Howard Rodee, "The D r e a r y Landscape," A r t J o u r n a l (Sumrrrer 1977) , p. 307--^Gerry H. Br o o k s , The R h e t o r i c a l Form o f C a r l y l e ' s  S a r t o r R e s a r t u s ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1972), p. 185. ^Thomas C a r l y l e , P a s t and P r e s e n t , w i t h an I n t r o d u c t i o n hy Douglas J e r r o l d (London: J.M. Dent and Sons L t d . , i 9 6 0 ) , p. IV. - ^ I b i d . , p. 189. Jeremy Maas, V i c t o r i a n P a i n t e r s (London: The C r e s c e n t P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 210. 7 I b i d . , p. 213. 8T.S.R. Boase, E n g l i s h A r t 1800-187-0 ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 287. ^"Brown i n c l u d e d the p o r t r a i t o f C a r l y l e and Rev. F.D. Ma u r i c e as symbols o f the cause o f w e l l o r d a i n e d work i n o t h e r s , a hunchback w i t h a bee r t r a y who t y p i f i e s 'town p l u c k and energy' and the r i c h t y p i f i e d by two l a d i e s , the younger ( a p o r t r a i t o f the a r t i s t ' s w i f e ) , e t c . , " see, R o b i n I r o n s i d e , P r e R a p h a e l i t e  P a i n t e r s (New York: P h a i d o n P u b l i s h e r s I n c . , 1 9 4 B ) , p. 2 3 . "^R. L i s t e r , V i c t o r i a n N a r r a t i v e P a i n t i n g (London: Museum P., 1966), p. Tk. 1 1 L i n d a N o c h l i n , R e a l i s m ( M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n Books, L t d . , 1978) , p. 260. Brown h i m s e l f wrote a l o n g , d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the work and i t s meaning i n a c a t a l o g u e s t a t e m e n t o f 1865-From Brown's i n s c r i p t i o n s on the frame, i t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t he s h a r e d d i s t i n c t r e l i g i o u s o v e r t o n e s w i t h C a r l y l e . 1 2 A l l e n S t a l e y , " B r i t i s h Landscape P a i n t i n g I 7 6 O - I 8 6 O , " i n Romantic A r t i n B r i t a i n ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : P h i l a d e l p h i a Museum o f A r t , 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 326. " ^ L i n d a N o c h l i n , R e a l i s m ( M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n Books, L t d . , 1978) , p. 120. 14 These a r t i s t s p l a c e d a p o s i t i v e v a l u e on the d e p i c t i o n o f low, humble and common p l a c e s u b j e c t s . ^ I r o n and C o a l ( l 8 6 l ) was the l a s t o f t w e l v e h i s t o r i c a l m urals p a i n t e d by B e l l S c o t t i n W a l l i n g t o n H a l l , Northumberland. 25 " ^ F r a n c i s D. K l i n g e n d e r , A r t and the I n d u s t r i a l  R e v o l u t i o n (London: N o e l C a r r i n g t o n , 1 9 4 7 ) , p. 218. i ^ L i n d a N o c h l i n , R e a l i s m ( M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n Books, Ltd., 1978), p. 3k. 18 George H. Lewes, " R e a l i s m i n A r t , " The W e s t m i n s t e r  Review, v o l . XIV ( J u l y and October 1858), p. 4"93-19 7 John R u s k i n , P r e - R a p h a e l i t i s m - - L e c t u r e s on A r c h i t e c t u r e  and P a i n t i n g (London: J.M. Dent and Company^ 1906), p. 173-2 0 I b i d . , p. 2 0 . 21 C.A. R u s s e l l and D.C. Goodman, S c i e n c e and the R i s e o f Technology S i n c e 1800 ( B r i s t o l : John W r i g h t and Sons L t d . , 1972), p. 25-P a u l Carus, " P o s i t i v i s m , " E n c y c l o p e d i a Americana, 1965 e d i t i o n , p. 422. ^ C h r i s t o p h e r K e n t , B r a i n s and Numbers ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r -s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 61. 2k See R u s k i n as c i t e d i n R o b e r t L. P e t e r s , " A l g e r n o n C h a r l e s Swinburne and the Use o f I n t e g r a l D e t a i l , " V i c t o r i a n  S t u d i e s 6 (June 1962), p. 293-2 5 -Mohn R u s k i n , P r e R a p h a e l i t i s m - - L e c t u r e s on A r c h i t e c -t u r e and P a i n t i n g (London: Sm i t h E l d e r , 1 8 5 4 ) , pp. 3 4 9 - 3 5 0 . 26 R o b e r t L. P e t e r s , " A l g e r n o n C h a r l e s Swinburne and the Use Of I n t e g r a l D e t a i l , " V i c t o r i a n S t u d i e s 6 (June 1962), p. 293-2 7 I b i d . , pp. 3 9 2 - 3 9 3 . 28 M.H. S p i e l m a n , M i l l a i s and h i s Works (Edinburgh:' W i l l i a m Blackwood and Sons, I 8 9 8 ) , p. 9 8 . 2 ^ J o h n R u s k i n , "Academy N o t e s , I 8 5 6 , " Complete Works o f John R u s k i n , ed. E.T. Cook and A. Wedderburn ( 1 9 0 2 - 1 2 ) , 3: 624. 30 ^ A l t h o u g h B r e t t was never o f f i c i a l l y a member o f the Pre R a p h a e l i t e B r o t h e r h o o d , h e d i d e x h i b i t w i t h them on o c c a s i o n . He was v e r y a c t i v e as a s c i e n t i s t and p u b l i s h e d papers on the s c i e n c e o f astronomy. As a F e l l o w o f the R o y a l A s t r o n o m i c a l S o c i e t y , B r e t t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n an e x p e d i t i o n t o S i c i l y t o ob-se r v e a s o l a r e c l i p s e , see, D e t r o i t I n s t i t u t e o f A r t s , Romantic  A r t i n B r i t a i n , 1968, p. 328. Ro b i n I r o n s i d e , Pre R a p h a e l i t e P a i n t e r s (New York: P h a i d o n P u b l i s h e r s I n c . , 1948;, p. 146. ^ 2 J o s e f L. A l t h o l z , The M i n d and A r t o f V i c t o r i a n  E n g l a n d ( M i n n e a p o l i s : The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 136. 26 - ^ D a v i d Masson, The B r i t i s h Q u a r t e r l y Review 16 ( I 8 5 2 ) , p. 2 0 2 . Jeremy Maas, V i c t o r i a n P a i n t e r s (London: The C r e s c e n t P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 192. v - ^ P e t r a Ten Doesschate Chu, F r e n c h R e a l i s m and the D u t ch  M a s t e r s ( U t r e c h t : H a e n t j e n s Dekker and Gumbert, 1974) , p. 48. •^^Asa B r i g g s , The Age o f Improvement 1?83-1867 (London: Lowe and Brydone L t d . , 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 344. 37 ^ ' P a u l H o g a r t h , A r t i s t s on Horseback--the Old West i n I l l u s t r a t e d J o u r n a l i s m ( T o r o n t o : G e n e r a l P u b l i s h i n g Company L i m i t e d , 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 19-3 8 I b i d . , p. 19. 3 9 I b i d . , p. 2 5 . 40 An a r t i s t ' s commitment t o " t e l l the t r u t h " became a m o r a l as w e l l as an a e s t h e t i c i m p e r a t i v e . The V i c t o r i a n s o f t e n were u n c e r t a i n about what t h e o r y t o a c c e p t b u t r a r e l y doubted t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o a r r i v e a t the t r u t h . " I t i s t h i s f a i t h i n the e x i s t e n c e o f u l t i m a t e t r u t h s i n r e l i g i o n , and e t h i c s , i n p o l i -t i c s , economics, and a e s t h e t i c s (as w e l l as the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s ) , and i n the c a p a c i t y o f the human mind t o d i s c o v e r them, by some form o f r e a s o n o r o f i n t u i t i o n , w h i c h u n i t e s the p a r t i s a n s o f ev e r y s c h o o l . " See W a l t e r E. Houghton, The V i c t o r i a n Frame o f Mind (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , P- 14~i 2 7 CHAPTER TWO THE COLONIAL SCENE F o r m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y E n g l a n d , o v e r p o p u l a t i o n , eco-nomic and s o c i a l t r o u b l e s were a l l f a c t o r s w h i c h caused men t o l o o k t o new l a n d s beyond t h e ocean. The w o r k i n g man who was ac-customed t o p r i v a t i o n and t o l o n g hours o f o u t - o f - d o o r work was r e a d y to t u r n h i s hands t o the h a r d s h i p s o f p i o n e e r l i f e , and t o i t s v a r i e t y o f r e q u i r e m e n t s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s . L e a d i n g news-papers such as The Times encouraged e m i g r a t i o n w h i l e propagan-d i s t s l i k e Gibbon W a k e f i e l d p l e a d e d t o h i s countrymen f o r a p l a n n e d c o l o n i a l l a n d p o l i c y , o r g a n i z e d e m i g r a t i o n and s o c i a l as w e l l as economic development. He b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e c o l o n i e s need n o t i n a l l cases be mere p o r t s - o f - c a l l o r p l a c e s o f t r a d e , but might become new B r i t i s h n a t i o n s . 1 P o p u l a r l e c t u r e s a t O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y d e a l t w i t h the sub-j e c t o f c o l o n i z a t i o n : The mere e f f o r t o f d i r e c t i n g the mind t o t r a v e l abroad to t h o s e new r e g i o n s o f romance and e x p e c t a t i o n , where a l l i s l i f e and hope, and a c t i v e energy, a f f o r d s a r e l i e f t o the s p i r i t s , w h i c h a g a i n f e e l w e a r i e d and f e t t e r e d when i t i s c a l l e d back t o f i x i t s a t t e n t i o n a t home. T h i s y e a r n i n g a f t e r the d i s t a n t and unseen i s a common propen-s i t y o f our n a t u r e . . . ^ M a s t e r s o f e v e r y s e a , and c o l o n i s t s of e v e r y s h o r e , t h e r e i s s c a r c e l y a nook w h i c h our i n d u s -t r y has n o t r e n d e r e d a c c e s s i b l e , s c a r c e l y a r e g i o n t o w h i c h t h e eye can wander on t h e map, i n w h i c h we have n o t some o b j e c t o f n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . . . . I t i s a s o r t o f i n -s t i n c t i v e f e e l i n g t o us a l l , t h a t the d e s t i n y o f our name and n a t i o n i s n o t here i n t h i s narrow i s l a n d w h i c h we occupy; t h a t the s p i r i t o f E n g l a n d i s v o l a t i l e , n o t f i x e d ; t h a t i t l i v e s i n our language, our commerce, our i n d u s t r y , i n a l l those c h a n n e l s o f i n t e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n by w h i c h we embrace and connect the v a s t m u l t i t u d e o f s t a t e s , b o t h c i v i l i z e d and u n c i v i l i z e d t h r o u g h o u t the w o r l d . ^ The i d e a o f B r i t i s h power and e x p a n s i o n , r e c o r d e d i n the above s t a t e m e n t , m o t i v a t e d men t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n i m p e r i a l i s m and 28 contribute to the success of the B r i t i s h nation. " B r i t i s h im-perialism was based upon a sense of superiority, (V . . '.'Masters of every sea, and colonists of every shore..."), upon a conviction of a superior economic system, a superior p o l i t i c a l code, on ac-cess to a superior view of some Higher Being, on a superior way 3 of l i f e . " ^ Colonies had become not only matters of p o l i t i c a l s i g n ificance and public pride but an expression of V i c t o r i a n pa-t r i o t i s m . Emigration was seen by some as an extension of B r i -tain's progress - a p o s i t i v e way to preserve the power and pres-tige of England. Most of the emigration during the l850*s was i n d i v i d u a l and unorganized, but various philanthropic organizations and trade unions helped. The most active o f f i c i a l body was the Colonial Land and Emigration Commissions which, between 1847 and 1852, t r i e d to implement the doctrines of such c o l o n i a l r a d i c a l s as Lord Durham and Wakefield, who regarded settlement as the 4 very basis of the c o l o n i a l empire. Periodic depressions gave d i r e c t impetus to emigration. Between 1851 and 1880, B r i t a i n sent out two and a hal f m i l l i o n c o l o n i s t s . ^ The r i s e i n immigration increased the demands f o r v i s u a l information about the colonies. As a r e s u l t , the new i l l u s t r a t e d journals began to despatch a r t i s t j o u rnalists from England to other parts of the world to send back clear informative p i c -tures of newsworthy events or places. ^  In 1851, William G.R. Hind l e f t England for Canada at 7 the age of eighteen. He chose to s e t t l e m Toronto, undoubted-l y because his older brother Henry had been l i v i n g there since 1848. Henry was becoming well kn6wn as a chemist, geologist, 29 e x p l o r e r and magazine e d i t o r . Perhaps t h r o u g h h i s academic con-t a c t s Henry was a h l e t o s e c u r e f o r h i s b r o t h e r a p o s i t i o n as "Drawing M a s t e r " a t the Toronto M odel S c h o o l , where he worked Q from November 1851 to November 1857-Henry H i n d was the f o u n d i n g e d i t o r of'The Canadian  J o u r n a l , whose r e a d e r s h i p was aimed a t a "young and r a p i d l y p r o -Q g r e s s i v e p e o p l e . " Henry endeavoured to produce a p u b l i c a t i o n w h i c h was a medium o f communication f o r a l l those i n t e r e s t e d i n s c i e n t i f i c o r i n d u s t r i a l p u r s u i t s . [The Canadian J o u r n a l ] w i l l a s s i s t , l i g h t e n and e l e v a t e the l a b o u r e r s o f the mechanic, w i l l a f f o r d i n f o r m a t i o n to the m a n u f a c t u r e r and g e n e r a l l y a d m i n i s t e r t o the want of t h a t a l r e a d y numerous and s t i l l i n c r e a s i n g c l a s s i n B r i t i s h A m e r i c a , who are d e s i r o u s o f becoming a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the most r e c e n t i n v e n t i o n s and improvements i n the A r t s , and those s c i e n t i f i c changes and d i s c o v e r i e s w h i c h are i n p r o g r e s s t h r o u g h o u t the w o r l d . 1 0 The Canadian J o u r n a l was based on the format o f the p o p u l a r B r i t i s h c h r o n i c l e , The I l l u s t r a t e d London News. The j o u r n a l ' s aim was t o promote a r t , l i t e r a t u r e , i n d u s t r y and s c i e n c e i n Canada, and t o d e v e l o p an exchange o f i d e a s among i t s r e a d e r s . I t i s a c u r i o u s f a c t . t h a t Henry H i n d d i d n o t employ h i s b r o t h e r as an i l l u s t r a t o r f o r h i s magazine, b u t u n l i k e The I l l u s t r a t e d London News, v e r y few i l l u s t r a t i o n s appear i n The Canadian J o u r n a l . However, the f i r s t o p p o r t u n i t y t o p u b l i c l y d i s p l a y W i l l i a m Hind's work too k p l a c e a t the Upper Canada E x h i b i t i o n 1 1 i n 1852, to w h i c h W i l l i a m c o n t r i b u t e d two p i c t u r e s 12 W a i t i n g f o r the Bat and R e a d i n g the News. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , n e i t h e r work has been l o c a t e d b u t t h e i r s u b j e c t s s u g g e s t contem-13 p o r a r y genre s c e n e s — a c r i c k e t game and a d a i l y p a s t i m e . -* F o r such s u b j e c t m a t t e r H i n d may have l o o k e d t o B r i t i s h n a r r a t i v e 14 p a i n t i n g s w h i c h e n j o y e d a wide a u d i e n c e . The p o p u l a r i t y o f 3 0 works l i k e t h e s e can he gauged hy t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y were so o f t e n r e p r o d u c e d i n l a r g e c i r c u l a t i o n j o u r n a l s i n c l u d i n g 1 The I l l u s t r a t e d London News. A f t e r 1857, t h e r e i s no r e c o r d o f W i l l i a m Hind's a c t i v i -t i e s u n t i l 1861, when i t i s r e c o r d e d t h a t he r e t u r n e d t o Canada from England."'"^ The l e n g t h o f time he spent i n E n g l a n d cannot be d e t e r m i n e d , and may range anywhere from a few months t o f o u r y e a r s . D u r i n g t h i s t r i p t o E n g l a n d , H i n d must have absorbed some o f the contemporaneous a r t i s t i c p r a c t i c e s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I . Perhaps an i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l awareness and knowledge o f r e a l i s t t r e n d s t u r n e d H i n d away from a n e c d o t a l genre s u b j e c t s t o scenes o f documentary r e a l i s m . Upon h i s r e t u r n , W i l l i a m d i s c o v e r e d t h a t h i s b r o t h e r had o r g a n i z e d an e x p e d i t i o n a a l o n g the n o r t h shore o f the S t . Lawrence from Seven I s l a n d s t o Mingan, and up the M o i s i e R i v e r t o the i n t e r i o r o f the u n c h a r t e r e d L a b r a d o r P e n n i n s u l a . I n h i s p u b l i s h e d j o u r n a l , under the h e a d i n g June 4 t h , I 8 6 7 , Henry H i n d w r o t e : I was accompanied by my b r o t h e r , Mr. W i l l i a m H i n d , who j u s t a r r i v e d from E n g l a n d i n the i l l f a t e d steamer " C a n a d i a n , " 1 ° soon to be l o s t on her r e t u r n voyage n e a r the s t r a i t s o f B e l l e I s l e . My b r o t h e r j o i n e d the expe-d i t i o n f o r the purpose o f making s k e t c h e s and w a t e r c o l o u r drawings o f s c e n e r y , I n d i a n s , and any n o v e l t y i n the vege-t a b l e o r m i n e r a l w o r l d w h i c h i t might be d e s i r a b l e t o t r a n s f e r t o h i s p o r t f o l i o . 17 On t h i s e x p e d i t i o n , W i l l i a m produced a r e m a r k a b l e s e r i e s o f gouaches, w a t e r c o l o u r s and p e n c i l d r a w i n g s , w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e the t opography o f the r e g i o n , and form a f a s c i n a t i n g document o f the I n d i a n p e o p l e and the events o f the e x p e d i t i o n i t s e l f . Many o f t h e s e works were r e p r o d u c e d as c h r o m o l i t h o g r a p h s and woodcuts i n Henry's two-volume r e p o r t , E x p l o r a t i o n s i n the 31 18 I n t e r i o r o f the L a b r a d o r P e n i n s u l a , p u b l i s h e d i n I 8 6 3 . -The L a b r a d o r e x p e d i t i o n r e t u r n e d t o Toronto i n the f a l l o f 1 8 6 1 , 1 9 and presumably upon h i s r e t u r n , W i l l i a m H i n d p r e p a r e d h i s s k e t c h e s o f the e x p e d i t i o n f o r the l i t h o g r a p h e r ' s use. He remained i n Toronto o n l y b r i e f l y , however, b e f o r e g o i n g on t o f u r t h e r a d v e n t u r e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. W i l l i a m ' s i n t e r e s t i n w e s t e r n Canada may have f i r s t been aroused i n 1857, when Henry H i n d and Simon James Dawson had been a p p o i n t e d by the c o l o n i a l government t o e x p l o r e t h e c o u n t r y be-tween the Head o f Lake S u p e r i o r and the Red R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t . Henry H i n d was to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o b s e r v a t i o n s o f g e o l o g y and n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , and g e n e r a l l y " a l l l e a d i n g f e a t u r e s o f t o p o g r a -20 21 phy, v e g e t a t i o n and s o i l " a l o n g the r o u t e . I n words s i m i l a r t o R u s k i n ' s p l e a s f o r c l o s e o b s e r v a t i o n o f n a t u r e , ( b u t i n a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t and f a r more p r a c t i c a l s p i r i t ) , Henry wrote i n a l e t t e r t o the P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y : E v e r y s u c c e e d i n g hour's e x p e r i e n c e , shows the n e c e s s i t y o f r e l y i n g on p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n a l o n e i n a l l t h a t r e -l a t e s t o the p h y s i c a l a s p e c t o f the c o u n t r y and i t s im-mense c a p a b i l i t i e s . 2 2 When the Hind-Dawson E x p e d i t i o n r e t u r n e d The C anadian J o u r n a l r e p o r t e d on i t s s u c c e s s : Now t h a t the p r a c t i c a b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a d i r e c t com-m u n i c a t i o n between Toronto and the Red R i v e r has been prov e d , the t i d e o f e m i g r a t i o n must soon be d i r e c t e d t o those v a s t r e g i o n s , even s h o u l d the more m a g n i f i c e n t scheme o f R a i l w a y and Steamer communication t o t h e P a c i f i c and the r i c h g o l d f i e l d s o f B r i t i s h C olumbia be much s t r o n g e r i n r e a l i z a t i o n . 2 3 Henry Hind's r e p o r t was i n f l u e n t i a l i n s t i m u l a t i n g Canadian i n -t e r e s t i n the w e s t e r n f r o n t i e r . However, t o the average e a s t e r n Canadian c o l o n i s t , t h e a r e a t h a t s e p a r a t e d him from the P a c i f i c c o a s t c o l o n i e s was a t e r r a i n c o g n i t a . !JHe had a v e r y hazy 32 n o t i o n o f i t as a t e r r i t o r y i n w h i c h I n d i a n s , f u r t r a d e r s , "buf-f a l o , r o l l i n g p r a i r i e s , and s k y p i e r c i n g mountains were mixed i n 24 happy c o n f u s i o n . " The demand f o r knowledge o f the w e s t e r n f r o n t i e r prompted C a p t a i n J . P a l l i s e r t o e x p l o r e f u r t h e r (Ln 1857-60) the a r e a west o f the Red R i v e r . He a l s o made i n q u i r i e s " i n t o the s u i t a b i l i t y o f Canada f o r s e t t l e m e n t and t h e a d v i s a -b i l i t y o f b u i l d i n g a l i n e o f r a i l r o a d t h r o u g h B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y 2 5 from A t l a n t i c t o P a c i f i c . " ^ P r i o r t o t h e d i s c o v e r i e s o f ' B r i t i s h Columbian g o l d i n 1858, p e r i o d i c a l s had d e s c r i b e d t h e w e s t e r n c o l o n y as a b l e a k and d r e a r y s e t t l e m e n t . The I l l u s -t racErated London News r e p o r t e d i n 1843: The s c e n e r y i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f the n o r t h e r n c o a s t - -wooded t o the w a t e r s edge and d i f f e r i n g l i t t l e e x c e p t i n the v a r i e t i e s o f p i n e . The o u t l i n e i s p l e a s i n g , b u t t h e scene o f f e r s no c o n t r a s t o f t i n t s f o r the p a i n t e r . 2 " I n Canada, the r e p o r t s had a s i m i l a r tone b u t l o o k e d f a -v o u r a b l y t o B r i t i s h Columbia's n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s : The C o a s t p r e s e n t s one c o n t i n u o u s o u t l i n e o f dense f o r -e s t s , swamps and rugged mountains and has everywhere a most u n p r e p o s s e s s i n g appearance. The i n t e r i o r , p a r t i c u -l a r l y the v a l l e y o f F r a s e r ' s - R i v e r , c o n t a i n s good l a n d and i s c a p a b l e o f s u p p o r t i n g a l a r g e a g r i c u l t u r a l popu-l a t i o n , b u t t h a t i s an e x c e p t i o n t o t h e g e n e r a l c h a r a c -t e r o f the c o u n t r y , w h i c h i s v a l u a b l e c h i e f l y f o r i t s i n e x h a u s t i b l e f o r e s t . . . a n d i t s v a l u a b l e f i s h e r i e s w h i c h w i l l become a s o u r c e o f b o u n d l e s s w e a l t h t o i t s i n h a b i -t a n t s a t some f u t u r e time. 2"' 7 F u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g w e s t e r n Canada was p r o -v i d e d by the a r t i s t s P a u l Kane and Henry James Warre, who may have h e l p e d make thos e i n Upper Canada more aware o f the much n e g l e c t e d r e g i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Kane gave T o r o n t o n i a n s t h e i r f i r s t comprehensive l o o k a t w e s t e r n Canada i n 1851, when he d i s p l a y e d newly p a i n t e d canvases o f the f r o n t i e r a t t h e Upper Canada A g r i c u l t u r a l E x h i b i t i o n . 3 3 Kane was s i n g l e d out as a s e n s a t i o n who had i l l u s t r a t e d a v i r -28 t u a l " k a l e i d o s c o p e o f t h e unknown." The m a j o r i t y o f h i s can-v a s e s d e a l t w i t h the customs, manners and h a b i t s o f I n d i a n t r i b e s 2 9 ( f i g u r e 6). Impressed by the s c e n e r y , he c l a i m e d t h a t 30 " i t exceeds i n grandeur any o t h e r perhaps i n the w o r l d . Henry James Warre, a B r i t i s h m i l i t a r y a r t i s t w o r k i n g i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia, became known i n Upper Canada f o r h i s drawings 31 o f the west made i n 1845-46, w h i l e on a reconnaissance m i s s i o n ^ t o the Oregon t e r r i t o r y . D u r i n g t h i s t ime he j o u r n e y e d t o V i c t o r i a and drew p i c t u r e s o f f o r t s and Hudson Bay Company p o s t s ( f i g u r e 7 ). Warre had mixed i m p r e s s i o n s o f the s c e n e r y , "The s c e n e r y t h r o u g h w h i c h we passed onward was grand beyond d e s c r i p -32 t i o n - - b u t oh how d e s o l a t e ! " W h i l e Canadians began t o t a k e an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n t h e west d u r i n g the 1840's and 5°'s, s e t t l e m e n t i n B r i t i s h Columbia was c o m p l e t e l y overshadowed by numerous B r i t i s h r e p o r t s o f " g o l d f e v e r " i n C a l i f o r n i a and A u s t r a l i a . E v e r y i s s u e o f The  I l l u s t r a t e d London News c a r r i e d new c l a i m s o f " s t r i k i n g i t r i c h . " The new s e t t l e m e n t s o f C a l i f o r n i a and A u s t r a l i a were w e l l docu-mented by I l l u s t r a t e d London News e n g r a v i n g s ( f i g u r e 8). B u t , i t wasn't u n t i l 1858 w i t h the f i r s t c r y o f " g o l d " i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia t h a t the w o r l d began t o pay a t t e n t i o n t o the r e g i o n . No l e s s t h a n 20,000 m i n e r s , merchants, j o b b e r s , s p e c u l a t o r s , 33 and a d v e n t u r e r s o f a l l s o r t s came t o V i c t o r i a i n 1 8 5 8 . ^ A con-temporary w r i t e r d e c l a r e d : M i n e r s now came f l o c k i n g o v e r , t o g e t h e r w i t h a l l t h a t heterogeneous c l a s s o f a d v e n t u r e r s commonly c a l l e d the " p i o n e e r s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n " . . . . T h i s i m m i g r a t i o n was so sudden, t h a t jpeople had t o spend t h e i r n i g h t s i n the s t r e e t s o r b u s h e s . . . f o r t h e r e were no h o t e l s s u f f i c i e n t t o r e c e i v e them. V i c t o r i a had a t l a s t been d i s c o v e r e d , F i g u r e 35 F i g u r e 7 F i g u r e 8 37 everybody was bound f o r V i c t o r i a , nobody could stop any-where else, f o r there, and there alone, were fortunes and large fortunes > to be made. And as the news of such a f l o u r i s h i n g state of things soon found i t s way to C a l i f o r n i a , i t was not long before the steamers brought up fresh crowds.34 The news of the Cariboo gold discovery was being trum-35 peted around the world. Kinahan Cornwallis returned to, London i n 1858 to publish The New Eldorado; or B r i t i s h Columbia. In t y p i c a l V i c t o r i a n flamboyance he described B r i t i s h Columbia: I t has eclipsed C a l i f o r n i a and outshone A u s t r a l i a ; i t has attracted, by almost magical influence tens of thousands to i t s shores and flashed upon the universe an a l l u r i n g fascination...that h i l l y and f o r e s t - c l a d i s l e of a thou-sand beauties and a nation's promise--the England of i t s ocean....The magic s p e l l of discovery i s being f e l t throughout the world, and nations have been awakened to the knowledge of another--a new--El Dorado, outvying a l l beside. A l l t h i s land, upon which nature has so lavished her treasures, i n i n v i t i n g p r o d i g a l i t y , rests beneath the sway of the B r i t i s h sceptre, and i t s riches are open to a l l . . . . A n exodus of t h i s kind would benefit imperial, s o c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l i n t e r e s t s . F i r s t l y , i n f o r t i f y i n g our power i n these colonies, which are at present so t h i n l y populated with B r i t i s h - b o r n subjects; and secondly, i n r e l i e v i n g the population of England of a superabundant number of educated classes, amongst which so much strug-g l i n g and competition exi s t s , as well as b e n e f i t t i n g those individuals by a transplantation into a f i e l d where energy and enterprise w i l l be more amply and u n i v e r s a l l y rewarded than are these, the crowded walks of the mother country, where alas! i n too many cases, the i n t e l l e c t u a l labourer may increasingly t o i l i n the vineyard of profes-s i o n a l and d a i l y l i f e , and scarce eke out for himself the means of a bare subsistence....I have to express my unbiased b e l i e f i n the d e s i r a b i l i t y of that country [B.C.] as a place of settlement for those who, emulous of gain, and intent upon doing something f o r themselves, which i n England may be of doubtful promise are w i l l i n g to go f o r t h and brave the world amongst a class of society, which although crude and unsettled, i n i t s unsophisti-cated roughness may be found a l l the more hospitable, and encouraging than i n England....Having thus spoken, my task i s ended, and B r i t i s h Columbia shines out upon the world--another gem i n the B r i t i s h crown--a land of gold and s t i l l more dazzling promise.3° How could any young V i c t o r i a n refuse such a t r a v e l endorsement? Opportunity, wealth and the pursuit of s o c i a l and, i n d u s t r i a l 38 i n t e r e s t , were open t o a l l i n B r i t i s h Columbia. C o r n w a l l i s con-t r a s t s t h i s " E l Dorado" w i t h the o v e r p o p u l a t e d , s t r u g g l i n g and c o m p e t i t i v e environment o f E n g l a n d . A t the same time he i n s t i l l s i n t h e r e a d e r a p r i d e t h a t the "gem" o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " r e s t s b e n e a t h the sway o f t h e B r i t i s h s c e p t r e . " Books such as Corn C o r n w a l l i s ' c o u p l e d w i t h Donald F r a s e r ' s r o s e a t e passages i n t h e London Times seduced many t o the C a r i b o o g o l d f i e l d s : I t i s common t o meet men who have sums v a r y i n g from $5,000 t o $10,000; and t h i s e v e n i n g , 3 men a r r i v e d from th e F r a s e r R i v e r who made $50,000 between them i n 6 weeks. ' A miner w r i t e s t h a t h i s g a i n s f a r s u r p a s s a n y t h i n g ever produced i n C a l i f o r n i a , and c i t e s the f a c t o f $1 , 7 0 0 h a v i n g been dug out o f two c r e v i c e s i n the r o c k l e s s t h a n t h r e e f e e t under the s u r f a c e . I n f a c t , t h e e e x p l o r a -t i o n o f t h e enormous y i e l d i s , as I b e f o r e s t a t e d the l a r g e , s o l i d , nuggety c h a r a c t e r o f t h e g o l d and i t s p r o x i -m i t y t o t h e s u r f a c e . Men who had n ever mined b e f o r e , tradesmen, mechanics, and l a b o u r e r s new t o the work, d i d j u s t as w e l l as the o l d p r a c t i s e d men.3° G o l d f e v e r produced a k i n d o f mass b l i n d n e s s ; i t s v i c t i m s were r e a d y t o b e l i e v e the most p r e p o s t e r o u s a b s u r d i t i e s on pure f a i t h . The C a r i b o o became i n p o p u l a r i m a g i n a t i o n a l a n d where nuggets l a y on the s i d e o f the r o a d . P r o m i s e s c o n t i n u e d i n t h e f o l l o w -i n g a d v e r t i s e m e n t w h i c h was p u b l i s h e d i n the Times (London) i n 1862: The B r i t i s h C olumbia O v e r l a n d T r a n s i t Company w i l l punc-t u a l l y d i s p a t c h a t noon from G l a s g o w — t h e the f i r s t c l a s s and p o w e r f u l screw s t e a m s h i p U n i t e d Kingdom, 1,200 t o n s burden, 300 horsepower, James C l a r k e commander, a p a r t y o f f i r s t and second c l a s s p a ssengers f o r Quebec, Canada, and over the Grand Trunk R a i l w a y and c o n t i n u o u s l i n e s o f r a i l w a y t o Chicago and S t . P a u l v i a the Red R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t s , i n c o v e r e d wagons t o B r i t i s h C olumbia. T h i s i s t h e s p e e d i e s t , s a f e s t and most e c o n o m i c a l r o u t e t o the g o l d d i g g i n g s . The l a n d t r a n s i t i s t h r o u g h a l o v e l y c o u n t r y u n e q u a l l e d f o r i t s b e a u t y and s a l u b r i t y o f c l i m a t e . More t h a n h a l f t h e d i s t a n c e from Quebec i s by r a i l w a y . ...Through f a r e s , 3t42 from E n g l a n d t o B r i t i s h Columbia; s a l o o n b e r t h s <K5 e x t r a . The company t h a t made the j o u r n e y sound l i k e a Sunday o u t i n g 3 9 proved t o be a hoax. However, the l u r e f o r g o l d was so s t r o n g t h a t t h o s e E n g l i s h m e n who had f a l l e n f o r the a d v e r t i s e m e n t r e -f u s e d t o q u i t . Now i n Canada and s t i l l undaunted t h e y j o i n e d a Toronto p a r t y headed f o r the C a r i b o o . On March 2 4 t h , 1862 a l e t t e r a d d r e s s e d t o the e d i t o r o f the T o r o n t o Globe r e a d : S i r - - A b o u t two months ago, the a c c o u n t s from B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b e i n g so good (and s t i l l c o n t i n u e so) as t o t h e r i c h n e s s o f the G o l d F i e l d s , a m e e t i n g was r e s o l v e d upon and t o o k p l a c e i n T o r o n t o f o r t h e purpose o f overcoming any d i f f i c u l t i e s e x i s t i n g i n a a c o n t e m p l a t e d o v e r l a n d r o u t e a c r o s s the Rocky M o u n t a i n s , and i f a t a l l p r a c t i c a b l e , t o p r o c e e d t h a t way.. V a r i o u s groups o f " O v e r l a n d e r s " l e f t O n t a r i o and Quebec f o r 41 B r i t i s h C o lumbia. W i l l i a m H i n d j o i n e d one T o r o n t o p a r t y w h i c h numbered f o r t y - f i v e . I t s s e c r e t a r y o r o r g a n i z e r was Stephen Redgrave, who p l a n n e d t o f o l l o w b e h i n d the Thomas M c M i c k i n g p a r t y o f one hundred and t h i r t y - e i g h t men. The Redgrave p a r t y l e f t T o ronto on A p r i l 2 3 » 1862 f o r S t . P a u l and F o r t G a r r y , on b o a r d the Grand Trunk R a i l w a y . H i n d was d e s c r i b e d by one 0 42 O v e r l a n d e r i n h i s d i a r y as the " e x p e d i t i o n a r t i s t . " E v e n t u a l l y H i n d completed n i n e t y - t h r e e s k e t c h e s i n a s k e t c h b o o k w h i c h docu-43 ments an i m p o r t a n t t r e k i n Canadian h i s t o r y . J T h i s s m a l l pock-et s k e t c h b o o k i s t y p i c a l o f t h o s e used by r e p o r t o r i a l a r t i s t s h i r e d by I l l u s t r a t e d London News, but Hind's s k e t c h e s o f t h e 44 O v e r l a n d j o u r n e y were never p u b l i s h e d , a l t h o u g h t h i s may have 45 been h i s i n t e n t i o n . ^ Hind's a r t i s t i c m a t e r i a l s were k e p t t o the b a r e e s s e n t i a l s f o r p o r t a b i l i t y under d i f f i c u l t c o n d i t i o n s . What he i n t e n d e d t o do w i t h h i s s k e t c h b o o k remains a m y s t e r y . C u r i o u s l y , the drawings c o n t a i n e d t h e r e i n do n o t appear t o be r e l a t e d t o any o f h i s more h i g h l y f i n i s h e d w a t e r c o l o u r s . The 40 sketchbook of pencil and watercolour vignettes, begins with the depiction of .Fort Garry and concludes with sketches of the party i n the mountains near Jasper. The subject matter includes thun-derstorms, Indians, buffalo, p r a i r i e flowers, duck hunting and his companions playing cards, f i x i n g carts and wri t i n g l e t t e r s 46 home. William Hind recorded the l i f e of the Overlanders as they crossed the p r a i r i e s on foot, with t h e i r supplies i n Red River carts pulled by an ox (figure 9)• At Edmonton the carts were sold and supplies were loaded on packhorses f o r the journey through the mountains (figure 10). Upon reaching the Fraser River most of the men b u i l t dugout canoes or r a f t s . Thirty s i x of the party agreed to take the animals overland to Kamloops through the dense bush along the North Thompson River, but thi s proved to be an impossible task, and after several days the ani-47 mals were butchered and r a f t s b u i l t for t r a v e l on the r i v e r . There are no references i n any of the Overlanders' d i a r i e s to Hind during this period. Six of the Overlanders were drowned i n separate accidents i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In early September 1862, the men who had opted for the Fraser River route arrived at Quesnel Mouth. The emaciated and ragged Thompson River party did not reach Kamloops u n t i l October. After t h e i r ambitious enterprise very few of the Over-landers ever did any mining. Capital, which most of them did not have, was required to make the mines pay. The end of a tiresome, arduous trek of more than three thousand miles did not meet the i r expectations of pots of gold. Some thought i t wisest, i n view of the late date and near '-• approach of winter, to defer v i s i t i n g Cariboo u n t i l the 4 1 Figure 9 43 f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g . Some o t h e r s made a l l p o s s i b l e h a s t e t o V i c t o r i a and l e f t the c o u n t r y w i t h o u t d e l a y . ° W i t h the t h r i l l o f adventure o v e r , many r e t u r n e d home the f o l l o w -i n g s p r i n g v i a Panama. One o f the O v e r l a n d e r s , W.H. E l l i s , t o o k w i t h him Hind's sketchbook, d e t a i l i n g the p a r t y ' s p r o g r e s s from F o r t G a r r y t o J a s p e r . ^ 0 Under the d a t e November 2 2 , 1862, R i c h a r d A l e x a n d e r penned i n h i s n o t e s : I have met the M e a f o r d f e l l o w s . They are making s h i n g l e s j u s t o p p o s i t e our s h a n t y . Purdy, F i f e , H i n d , W r i g h t and C o l l i n s a re down a t F r i s c o . 51 W i l l i a m H i n d a p p a r e n t l y j o i n e d the m a j o r i t y o f m i n e r s and mine owners who p r e f e r r e d t o spend t h e i r w i n t e r s i n t h e more g e n i a l c l i m a t e and a t t r a c t i v e s u r r o u n d i n g s o f San F r a n c i s c o . No w r i t -t e n or p i c t o r i a l e v i d e n c e o f Hind's s o j o u r n i n C a l i f o r n i a has s u r v i v e d . However, we do know t h a t he was back i n V i c t o r i a and w o r k i n g i n h i s s t u d i o by e a r l y F e b r u a r y o f I 8 6 3 . H i n d was t o r e m a i n i n B r i t i s h C olumbia f o r the n e x t few y e a r s documenting t h e c o l o n i a l scene. ZJ4 FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER TWO "'"Tr eve l y n , I l l u s t r a t e d E n g l i s h S o c i a l H i s t o r y , v o l . 4, p. 163. 2 Herman M e r i v a l e , L e c t u r e s on C o l o n i z a t i o n and C o l o n i e s  Delri±ered b e f o r e the U n i v e r s i t y o f Ox f o r d i n 1839, 1840 and  1841 (London: Longman, Green, Longman and R o b e r t s , 1861), p. 137--^Robin Winks, B r i t i s h I m p e r i a l i s m — G o l d , God, G l o r y (New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1 9 6 3 ) , pp. 2 - 3 4 . • D a v i d Thomson, E n g l a n d m the N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y ( M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n Books, L t d . , 1977)1 p. 164. - ^ A l t h o l z , The Mind and A r t o f V i c t o r i a n E n g l a n d , p. 168. 6 Ottawa. P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, Image o f Canada, i n t r o d u c t i o n by M i c h a e l B e l l (Ottawa: P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada), i n t r o d u c t i o n . 7 'The r e a d e r may be r e f e r r e d t o J . R u s s e l H a r p e r , W i l l i a m  G.R. H i n d 1833-1889 (Ottawa: N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y o f Canada, 1 9 7 6 ) , f o r b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . Statements s u g g e s t i n g t h a t he s t u d i e d on the c o n t i n e n t are m e r e l y s p e c u l a t i v e (p. 7 ) « An a r t s c h o o l i n h i s n a t i v e town known as the Nottingham Government S c h o o l o f D e s i g n o p e r a t e d when he was young, b u t the r e c o r d s o f i t s e a r l y s t u d e n t s have n o t been l o c a t e d . V e r y l i t t l e i s known about the a r t i s t ' s y o u t h . What we do know about h i s l i f e and accomplishments are based upon a few contemporary r e p o r t s . Ref-e r e n c e s t o H i n d can be found i n t h e j o u r n a l s and d i a r i e s o f the O v e r l a n d e r s w h i c h are i n the B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s . T o r o n t o Normal S c h o o l J u b i l e e C e l e b r a t i o n ( T o r o n t o : Warwick B r o s , and R u t t e r , I 8 9 8 ) , p. 200. 9 Henry H i n d , " E d i t o r i a l ' , ' " The Canadian J o u r n a l o f Indus-t r y , S c i e n c e and A r t , v o l . 1 (August 1852), p. J! I b i d . 1 1 T h e Upper Canada E x h i b i t i o n was devot e d t o a g r i c u l t u r -a l p r o d u c t s and a l i v e s t o c k show. The r e v i e w e r i n t h e C a n a d i a n  A g r i c u l t u r i s t v o l . V (Octo b e r I 8 5 2 ) , p. 2 9 3 , remarked t h a t can-v a s e s were h i d d e n away i n a c o r n e r and c o u l d n o t be p r o p e r l y seen. As l a t e as I856 f a l s e t e e t h were s t i l l b e i n g i n c l u d e d i n the " f i n e a r t s " d i v i s i o n . 12 An anonymous a r t r e v i e w e r o f the C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l v o l . 1 ( O c t o b e r 1 8 5 2 ) , p. 6 1 , w r o t e : "... s p e c i a l . m e r i t s t o George R e i d ( f o r a p o r t r a i t ) , P a u l Kane, Mr. Whale ( l a n d s c a p e ) . Mr. W i l l i a m H i n d e x h i b i t e d two o i l p a i n t i n g s w h i c h showed c o n s i d e r -a b l e t a l e n t and gave f a i r promise o f f u t u r e e x c e l l e n c e i n the h i g h e r departments o f A r t . . . " k5 ; 1^The n a r r a t i v e p a i n t i n g s o f such a r t i s t s as F r i t h , Solomon and Redgrave i n v i t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n l i t e r a r y terms. F r i t h c l a i m s i n h i s A u t o b i o g r a p h y t h a t he was "always s t r o n g l y drawn'to p a i n t i n g modern l i f e , " and i t was he who c r e a t e d t he vogue f o r modern l i f e s u b j e c t s . i n the. 1 8 5 0 's and 60's, see f i g u r e 4 3 , . London, A l e x a n d e r G a l l e r y , V i c t o r i a n Panorama w i t h . an i n t r o d u c t i o n by C h r i s t o p h e r Wood, 1976. ~ 1 ^Lister.,.: V i c t o r i a n N a r r a t i v e P a i n t i n g s , . 1 9 6 6 , . p. 1 5 . The i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f n o v e l s and s t o r y books p r o v i d e d , a n o t h e r s o u r c e f o r t h e r i s e o f n a r r a t i v e p i c t u r e s from 1820 t o i 8 6 0 . The R o y a l Academy's ac c e p t a n c e o f n a r r a t i v e p i c t u r e s f o r the a n n u a l e x h i b i t i o n s (even though t h e y d e p a r t a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y from academic p r e c e p t s ) , i s a l s o i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y and i m p o r t a n c e . "^Henry H i n d , E x p l o r a t i o n s i n the I n t e r i o r o f the  L a b r a d o r P e n i s u l a (London: Longman, Green, Longman, R o b e r t s and Green, I 8 6 3 ) , p. 2 . Throughout the 1 8 5 0 's The I l l u s t r a t e d London News f r e -q u e n t l y mentioned a m a i l s t e a m s h i p known a s t t h e Canada. The Canada d e p a r t e d from L i v e r p o o l and a r r i v e d i n New York. I have n o t been a b l e t o determine i f t h e steamer mentioned i n Henry Hind's j o u r n a l i s t h e same b o a t . 17 H i n d , E x p l o r a t i o n s m the I n t e r i o r o f the L a b r a d o r  P e n i n s u l a , p. 2 . 18 The e n t i r e L a b r a d o r s e r i e s by W i l l i a m H i n d was b r o k e n up f o r a u c t i o n ( T o r o n t o Sotheby's s a l e October 1976). The s t u d -i e s w h i c h s u r v i v e from h i s L a b r a d o r e x p e d i t i o n , demonstrate an i n t e r e s t i n the Montagnais and N a s k a p i I n d i a n s . Many o f t h e s e p e n c i l , o i l and w a t e r c o l o u r s t u d i e s are i n the T o r o n t o P u b l i c L i b r a r y . 19 H i n d was l i v i n g on Yonge S t r e e t d u r i n g t h e t a k i n g o f the 1862 census. 20 Lewis H. Thomas, "The H i n d and Dawson E x p e d i t i o n s 1857-58','" The Beaver ( W i n t e r 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 4 l . 21 The e l d e r H i n d s e l e c t e d a s s i s t a n t s f o r the e x p e d i t i o n and i n c l u d e d Humphrey L l o y d Hime, who was t o become the f i r s t p h o t o g r a p h e r o f the Canadian p r a i r i e s . I t was l i k e l y t h a t '. W i l l i a m was i n England a t t h i s t i me (1857-58) and c o u l d n o t as-s i s t h i s b r o t h e r as e x p e d i t i o n a r t i s t . Henry n e v e r i n d i c a t e d p r e c i s e l y h i s r e a s o n s f o r r e q u e s t i n g a p h o t o g r a p h e r , a l t h o u g h he d i d m e n t i o n the advantage o f h a v i n g a n e g a t i v e from w h i c h any number o f p r i n t s c o u l d be t a k e n t o i l l u s t r a t e a r e p o r t . Hime was i n s t r u c t e d t o t a k e photographs o f " a l l o b j e c t s o f i n t e r e s t s u s c e p t i b l e o f p h o t o g r a p h i c d e l i n e a t i o n . " I n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g p u b l i s h e d i n The I l l u s t r a t e d London News, e n g r a v i n g s a f t e r f o u r -t e e n t b f t h e photos were produced i n Hind's o f f i c i a l r e p o r t i n i 8 6 0 . 46 2 2Thomas, The Beaver ( W i n t e r 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 42. 2 3 T h e Can a d i a n J o u r n a l no. XX (March 1 8 5 9 ) , p. 9 2 . ?4 Mark Sweeten Wade, The O v e r l a n d e r s o f '62 ( V i c t o r i a : A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, Memoir no. I X , p r i n t e d by C h a r l e s F. B a n f i e l d , 1931)i P- 5-2 - 5 I b i d . , p. 3-The I l l u s t r a t e d London News v o l . 2 ( 1 8 4 3 ) , p. 122. 2 ? L e t t e r d a t e d May 28, 1849 by James Douglas t o Capt. J . Sheppard, see F.W. Howay, B r i t i s h Columbia--From t h e E a r l i e s t  Times t o the P r e s e n t , v o l . 1 (Vancouver: S . J . C l a r k e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 1 4 ) , p. 375-28 J . R u s s e l l H arper, P a i n t i n g i n Canada ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f To r o n t o P r e s s ) , p. 122. 2 ^ H i n d e x h i b i t e d a l o n g s i d e P a u l Kane the f o l l o w i n g y e a r . -^°Paul Kane, Wanderings o f an A r t i s t , i n J . R u s s e l l H a r p e r , P a u l Kane's F r o n t i e r ( A u s t i n : U n i v e r s i t y o f Texas P r e s s , 1 9 7 D , p. 121. -^"LWarre's m i s s i o n was to i n v e s t i g a t e A m e rican e n c r o a c h -ment o n t w e s t e r n l a n d s b e l o n g i n g t o the Hudson Bay Company. I n 1845, U.S. P r e s i d e n t P o l k ' s e l e c t i o n c r y was " F i f t y - F o u r - F o r t y o r F i g h t . " D e s p i t e the e f f o r t s o f Warre, E n g l a n d l o s t Oregon and p a r t o f B r i t i s h Columbia. E a s t e r n Canada r e a l i z e d i t had to t a k e a genuine i n t e r e s t i n the west i f a l l was n o t t o be l o s t . • ^ ^ a r i a T i p p e t t and Douglas C o l e , From D e s o l a t i o n t o Spl e n d o u r - - C h a n g i n g P e r c e p t i o n s o f the B r i t i s h C olumbia Land-scape ( T o r o n t o : C l a r k e , I r w i n and Company L t d . , 1977) , P- 3 2 . 33 -^F.W. Howay, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a from t h e E a r l i e s t Times  t o the P r e s e n t , v o l . 2 (Vancouver: S . J. C l a r k e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 1 4 ) , p. 5 6 0 . ^ I b i d . ^ % a r i o n P l a c e , C a r i b o o Gold--The S t o r y o f the B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a G o l d Rush (New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 101. - ^ K i n a h a n C o r n w a l l i s , The New E l Dorado; or B r i t s h C olumbia (London: Thomas C a u t l e y Newby, 1 8 5 8 ) , pp. X I I I - X I V , XVI, 2 0 , 208-9, 315. 37 Times (London), Dec. 11, 1861, p. 8. 3 8 I b i d . , Feb. 5, 1862, p. 10. 47 -^Times (London), A p r i l , 1862, n.p. \ 4 l n Zj'0Globe (Toronto), March 24, 1862. LThe Overlander's Journey i s f u l l y documented i n sever-a l d i a r i e s belonging to J. Carpenter, Stephen Redgrave, and R.H. Alexander. They are quoted by Mark S. Wade i n his exhaustive narrative and authoritative account i n the Overlanders of '62, 1931. J. Russell Harper, William G.R. Hind I 8 3 3 - I 8 8 9 (Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 16. 43 -'The sketchbook, acquired by the Public Archives of Canada i n 1 9 6 3 , measures only 3 1/2 by 6 inches. 44 Correspondence with Sophie Beaven of the I l l u s t r a t e d  London News indicates that any record they may have regarding William G.R. Hind was destroyed i n the 1940 bombing of London. ^ I l l u s t r a t e d London News (June 4, I87O), p. 569. Even-t u a l l y , i n I870, when Hind was a resident of the Red River Colo-ny, two engravings that were prepared from his sketches were selected for I l l u s t r a t e d London News. 46 J. Russell Harper discusses the sketchbook m r e l a t i o n -ship to the di a r i e s of the Overlanders i n Beaver Magazine (Win-ter 1971)t PP. 4-15- I t i s not my intention i n t h i s thesis to add to Harper's comments regarding the Hind Overland sketchbook. 47 'Joanne Sawadsky m an unpublished M.A. thesis, The  Wayfaring Christians (University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976), p. 103, compares Hind's style to the Overlander d i a r i s t s : "mo-dest i n scale, but sensi t i v e and creative; a very s p e c i a l way of seeing, a l t e r n a t e l y painstaking and free." ho Wade, The Overlanders of '62, p. 140. ^Harper, William G.R. Hind 1833-1889, p. 21. ^°A photo of W.H. E l l i s s t i l l remains i n the sketchbook pocket which i s i n the Public Archives of Canada, Ottawa. 51 Alexander, The Diary and Narrative of Richard Henry  Alexander, p. 3 3 . Howay, B r i t i s h Columbia from the E a r l i e s t Times to the  Present, p. 112. 48 CHAPTER THREE THE BRITISH COLUMBIAN VIEWS OF WILLIAM G.R. HIND I n the s p r i n g o f 1858, t h e g r e a t e s t o f a l l t h e B r i t i s h Columbian g o l d r u s h e s was a t i t s h e i g h t . The e x c i t e m e n t o f g o l d gave B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i t s f i r s t s t a r t as a c o l o n y . "Seldom has a c o u n t r y o f s u c h magnitude been b u i l t on a s k e l e t o n so e x c l u -s i v e l y m e t a l l i c . " 1 The g o l d - s e e k i n g c o l o n i s t s found the l a n d s c a p e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e o t h e r a r e a s o f Canada. The r e g i o n " p r e s e n t e d i t s own p e c u l i a r problems and o f -f e r e d i t s own s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s t o tho s e who v i s i t e d o r s e t t l e d 2 i t . " Indeed, the l a n d s c a p e was so i n e s c a p a b l y i m p r e s s i v e , t h a t i n no time t h e e a r l y e f f o r t s o f Canadian a r t i s t s were t o come t o g r i p s w i t h t h e t e r r a i n . A r t i s t s s u ch as P a u l Kane and Henry Warre were f a s c i n a t e d by the n o v e l elements o f the mountains and pursued t h e p o e t i c and e x o t i c q u a l i t i e s o f t h e new l a n d s c a p e , w h i l e o t h e r p a i n t e r s devoted t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e new way o f l i f e i n t h e c o l o n y . The e x p e r i e n c e s o f the B r i t i s h Columbian f r o n t i e r s m a n are r e c o r d e d i n the v i e w s o f W i l l i a m G.R. H i n d . These works r e p r e s e n t v a l u a b l e h i s t o r i c a l documents o f t h e g o l d r u s h e r a and the l i v e s o f the s e t t l e r s . They a l s o r e f l e c t t he V i c t o r i a n n o t i o n s o f optimism, m o r a l e a r n e s t n e s s and en t h u s i a s m - - t h e s t a n -dards o f v a l u e w h i c h H i n d u p h e l d , and w h i c h a re c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s o t h e r Canadian s c e n e s . By F e b r u a r y o f I 8 6 3 , H i n d had s e t up a s t u d i o on Broad 4 9 S t r e e t i n V i c t o r i a . 3 Presumably by t h i s t i me he had begun t o 4 work on h i s p i c t u r e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. From what we know o f h i s L a b r a d o r and O v e r l a n d e r s k e t c h e s , he p o s s e s s e d a s t r o n g i n -t e r e s t i n s o c i a l d o c umentation. He can be d e s c r i b e d as an a r t i s t - j o u r n a l i s t i n the t r a d i t i o n o f the I l l u s t r a t e d London  News p i c t o r i a l r e p o r t e r s , whose assignments put them i n c o n s t a n t t o u c h w i t h developments i n i n d u s t r y and t h e l a b o u r movement. Fo r the E n g l i s h V i c t o r i a n s who p o p u l a r i z e d the I l l u s t r a t e d  London News and t h e i r c o l o n i a l c o u n t e r p a r t s who r e a d such p e r i -o d i c a l s as the Canadian J o u r n a l , i n d u s t r y and l a b o u r r e p r e s e n t e d power and s u c c e s s . Nowhere c o u l d the t r i u m p h s o f the B r i t i s h way o f l i f e be more c l e a r l y c h a r t e d t h a n i n books, a r t i c l e s and images w h i c h d e p i c t e d the expanding Empire. W i l l i a m Hind's p i c -t o r i a l r e p o r t i n g o f the B r i t i s h Columbian scene r e p r e s e n t s o n l y one o f many s i m i l a r e f f o r t s made by V i c t o r i a n a r t i s t s t h a t r e -f l e c t e d t h i s p o l i t i c a l power and s a t i s f i e d t h e d e s i r e f o r eye-w i t n e s s a c c o u n t s o f the c o l o n i e s . Many o f Hind's B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p i c t u r e s show peop l e a t work i n v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o s p e c t i n g . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l s u g g e s t t h a t Hind's i n t e r e s t i n p o r t r a y i n g the l a -b o u r i n g man stems from and r e f l e c t s h i s background as a member o f the m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h m i d d l e c l a s s . From i t s a r t t h i s s o c i a l group demanded a c c u r a c y o f d e t a i l and contempor-a n e i t y ; t h e s e q u a l i t i e s a r e a b s o l u t e l y c e n t r a l t o Hind's work, and t o contemporary r e a l i s m i n g e n e r a l , w h i c h i m p l i e d an a c t u a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h the c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e s , e v e n t s , customs, and appearances c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f one's own epoch. F o r , as seen i n Chapter I , B r i t i s h p i c t u r e s o f l a b o u r e r s 50 w h i c h e x t o l l e d the v i r t u e s o f hard work were v i e w e d "by V i c t o r i -ans as a t r i b u t e t o the fun d a m e n t a l and e n d u r i n g c h a r a c t e r o f the n a t i o n . By m i d d l e - c l a s s mores a l l had t o work and the con-ce p t o f work i n e v i t a b l y came t o d e v e l o p c e r t a i n m o r a l and i n t e l -l e c t u a l f a c u l t i e s t hought o f as the whole o f v i r t u e . - ' Whatsoever o f m o r a l i t y and o f i n t e l l i g e n c e ; what o f pa-t i e n c e , p e r s e v e r a n c e , f a i t h f u l n e s s , o f method, i n s i g h t , i n g e n u i t y , energy; i n a word, whatsoever o f S t r e n g t h the man had i n him w i l l l i e w r i t t e n i n the Work he does.° Thus work, came t o be, i n f a c t , the a c t u a l f a i t h o f many V i c t o r -i a n s . A s a B r i g g s has remarked t h a t V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y r e s t e d on f o u r main b e l i e f s — t h e g o s p e l o f work, " s e r i o u s n e s s " o f c h a r a c -7 t e r , r e s p e c t a b i l i t y and s e l f - h e l p . These b a s i c f e a t u r e s o f V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on work, were seen n o t o n l y as a means t o r e s p e c t a b i l i t y and s u c c e s s b u t a l s o as supreme v i r t u e s i n v o l v i n g b o t h s e l f d e n i a l and c r e a t i v e accom-p l i s h m e n t . As mentioned i n Chapter I , one o f the l e a d i n g f o r c e s to i n s p i r e V i c t o r i a n s w i t h t h i s b e l i e f was C a r l y l e . " P r o p e r l y s p e a k i n g , a l l t r u e work i s R e l i g i o n , " he wrote i n P a s t and  P r e s e n t (18^3) and he went on t o a s s e r t t h a t work meant "commu-n i c a t i o n w i t h N a t u r e " and t h a t even the humblest hand work r e -g v e a l e d "something o f d i v i n e n e s s . " P r o p o s i t i o n s such as C a r l y l e ' s became c o r n e r s t o n e s o f a new v i e w o f t h e m i d d l e c l a s s , and p i c t o r i a l images w h i c h d e p i c t e d achievements o f i n d u s t r i a l E n g l a n d r e f l e c t e d t h i s v i e w , g i v i n g p r i d e o f p l a c e t o the l a b o u r -e r and e x t o l l i n g the s u p e r i o r i t y o f B r i t a i n over a l l o t h e r na-t i o n s . The v i r t u e s o f B r i t i s h l a b o u r s p r e a d w i t h the e x p a n s i o n -i s t p r o c e s s t o the c o l o n i e s . The p r o c e s s o f i m p e r i a l i s m was b r o a d l y based on t h e romance o f e x p l o r a t i o n , the development o f 51 t r a d e , the movement o f B r i t i s h c a p i t a l , the c r e a t i o n o f new-forms o f economic dependence, the p u s h i n g f o r w a r d o f the f r o n -9 t i e r s , and the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f new m a r k e t s . E m i g r a t i o n and the movement o f men t o c o l o n i e s became o r g a n i z e d i n d u s t r y . As t h e l a n d Utopias o f the C h a r t i s t s and e a r l y r a d i c a l s f a d e d i n t o the background i n the l a t e 1 8 4 0 's and 5 0 's, the f a r more e x c i t i n g a p p e a l o f f o r e i g n s e t t l e m e n t t o o k i t s p l a c e . I t was an a p p e a l w h i c h l o o k e d n o t back t o t h e p a s t as d i d many w o r k i n g - c l a s s dreams, b u t f o r w a r d t o a new f u t u r e . - 1 - 0 T h i s new f u t u r e i n v o l v e d the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f B r i t i s h V i c t o r i a n v a l u e s t o new f r o n t i e r s ; and t h e s e v a l u e s were t r a n s -l a t e d i n t o a r t i s t i c forms. I t i s q u i t e c l e a r , f o r example, t h a t n a t i o n a l i s m and the g o s p e l o f hard work u n d e r l i e the approach t a k e n by H i n d , who c o n c e n t r a t e d on s u b j e c t s o f c o l o n i z a t i o n , and above a l l , on the d a i l y l i f e o f the w o r k e r . H i n d must have been aware o f e f f o r t s made by o t h e r B r i t i s h a r t i s t s t o p r e s e n t t h e theme o f l a b o u r , and he appears t o have found no more w o r t h w h i l e theme t h a n the l i f e o f the B r i t i s h Columbian w o r k e r . F o l l o w i n g i n the manner o f Madox Brown, B e l l S c o t t , W a l l i s , and o t h e r E n g l i s h p p a i n t e r s o f l a b o u r themes, H i n d c r e a t e d a worker image r e l e v a n t t o the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a environment. H i n d ' s p a i n t i n g P r o s p e c t i n g f o r A l l u v i a l G o l d i n B.C. ( f i g u r e 1 1 ) , i s an image o f a s o l i t a r y , l a b o u r i n g m i n e r , w h i c h demonstrates the a r t i s t ' s d e s i r e t o f o c u s upon th e c o n c r e t e ex-p e r i e n c e o f e v e r y d a y B r i t i s h Columbian l i f e . The p r o s p e c t o r i s shown a t the bank o f a c r e e k , panning f o r g o l d and a n t i c i p a t i n g a " l u c k y . s t r i k e . " T h i s i s by no means a d e g r a d i n g image, b u t one o f d i g n i t y and hope. There are none o f the o v e r t o n e s o f p o v e r t y and d e a t h t h a t we saw i n Henry W a l l i s ' S t o n e b r e a k e r (see C h a p t e r l ) J i n s t e a d h H i n d ' s image i s more a k i n t o the 52 F i g u r e 11 53 p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e s o f F o r d Madox Brown's work images, and i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h c o l o n i a l p r o p a g a n d a , - - s t r e s s i n g t h e hope and p u r s u i t o f s o c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l i n t e r e s t s . The image o f a s o l -i t a r y m i n e r i n e a r n e s t p u r s u i t o f g o l d ( w h i c h b r i n g s economic promise f o r the f u t u r e ) evokes optimism. W a l t e r Houghton ex-p l a i n s t h e V i c t o r i a n need t o demonstrate t h i s m o r a l optimism i n the f o l l o w i n g passage. At a moment when contemporary l i f e was e x h i b i t i n g the s e l f i s h , a c q u i s i t i v e s i d e o f human n a t u r e , any d a r k v i e w of man c o u l d o n l y reduce one's f a i t h i n goodness and n o b i l i t y t o the l e v e l o f a shaky t r u s t . 1 1 A com p a r i s o n o f Hind's s t u d y o f a p r o s p e c t o r w i t h con-temporary l i t e r a t u r e on B r i t i s h C o lumbia, shows t o what e x t e n t Hind's work embodies the mother c o u n t r y ' s a t t i t u d e s towards her new c o l o n y . C l e a r l y t h i s approach i s e s s e n t i a l l y i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t i m p l i e d by contemporary s t a t e m e n t s e x t o l l i n g the p o t e n t i a l o f the new c o l o n y , s u c h as t h a t w h i c h appeared i n the R o y a l  G e o g r a p h i c a l S o c i e t y Paper o f 1864: From i t s advantages o f g e o g r a p h i c a l p o s i t i o n , i t s v a s t m i n e r a l w e a l t h , i t s s a l u b r i o u s c l i m a t e , and v a l u a b l e n a t u r a l p r o d u c t s , i t seems b u t f a i r t o a n t i c i p a t e t h a t , under government and by p r o c e s s o f g r a d u a l development, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i l l e r e r a n k as n o t the l e a s t impor-t a n t C o l o n i e s o f the C r o w n . 1 2 From t h i s passage the r e a d e r can sense the w r i t e r ' s e n t h u s i a s m i n r e c o g n i z i n g a g r e a t and o p t i m i s t i c f u t u r e f o r the new colony. P r o s p e c t i n g f o r A l l u v i a l G o l d a c h i e v e s the same k i n d o f mood and a t t h e same time i m p l i e s a sense o f freedom f o r the s o l i -t a r y f i g u r e s e e k i n g m i n e r a l w e a l t h on v i r g i n t e r r a i n . T h i s i m p l i e d freedom may be v i e w e d as a m a t t e r o f V i c t o r i a n s e l f -c o n g r a t u t i o n , f o r the f o u n d i n g o f new B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s was s a i d t o be i n s p i r e d by "the d e s i r e o f s p r e a d i n g t h r o u g h o u t the 54 h a b i t a b l e g l o b e a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Englishmen-.-- t h e i r 13 energy, t h e i r c i v i l i z a t i o n and t h e i r freedom." J P r o s p e c t i n g f o r A l l u v i a l G o l d d i s p l a y s Hind's o b s e s s i v e i n s i s t e n c e on d e t a i l e d a c c u r a c y , a q u a l i t y w h i c h no doubt has i t s r o o t s i n the type o f r e a l i s m t h a t R u s k i n p r o f e s s e d and the B r i t i s h p u b l i c so admired. One can even see a s m a l l b i t o f t o b a c c o i n t h e m i n e r ' s p i p e and t h e wear on h i s crude t i n cup. T h e c c a r e f u l r e n d e i n g o f g e o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s i n the r o c k s and background v e g e t a t i o n a l s o evokes t h o s e p r e - e m i n e n t l y V i c t o r i a n v i r t u e s o f throughness and p r e c i s i o n . An awareness' o f the a p p e a l o f the i n d u s t r i o u s man a l s o marks Hind's G o l d D i g g e r , B.C. ( f i g u r e 1 2 ) . The scene p r e s e n t s an i n t i m a t e l o o k a t a p r o s p e c t o r w i t h h i s back t u r n e d . As i n P r o s p e c t i n g f o r A l l u v i a l G o l d , here t h e v i e w e r sees H i n d ' s f i g u r e s from c l o s e up, a p r o x i m i t y t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l y h e i g h t e n s the sense o f v i s u a l immediacy. Once a g a i n , H i n d endeavors t o r e n d e r a d e t a i l e d i m p r e s s i o n o f n a t u r e . G l i m p s e s o f r o c k s , and t h e i r r e f l e c t i o n s i n the w a t e r , r e c a l l R u s k i n ' s words t h a t "the modern a r t i s t s h o u l d emulate t h e g e o l o g i s t o r c h e m i s t i n e x a c t n e s s when he s t u d i e s and a t t e m p t s t o r e p r e s e n t n a t u r a l 14 f o r m s . " V i c t o r i a n p r i n c i p l e s o f a r t were o f t e n q u i t e l i t e r -a l l y s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s 1 - ' based o n t t h e a r t i s t ' s knowledge o f b o t a n y , g e o l o g y , e t c . I n h i s d e t a i l e d o b s e r v a t i o n o f n a t u r e , H i n d can i n d e e d be c a l l e d s c i e n t i f i c . S o m e s s c i e n t i f i c o b s e r v e r s i n the m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y (as s e e n i n C h a p t e r I ) d e v e l o p e d the concept o f p o s i t i v i s m . I t was a p h i l o s o p h y e l a b o r a t e d i n E n g l a n d by John S t u a r t M i l l , and o t h e r s such as F r e d e r i c k H a r r i s o n , R. Congreve, and George Figure 12 56 Lewes. The f o l l o w e r s o f p o s i t i v i s m were concerned t o make a l l ar e a s o f human e x p e r i e n c e t h e s u b j e c t o f e m p i r i c a l s c i e n c e , based on t h a t w h i c h was o b s e r v a b l e . Lewes termed the p h i l o s o -phy " p o s i t i v e s c i e n c e " and wrote the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t i n The B i o g r a p h i c a l H i s t o r y o f P h i l o s o p h y : S c i e n c e f i n d s i t s e l f y e a r by y e a r and alm o s t day by day, a d v a n c i n g s t e p by s t e p , each a c c u m u l a t i o n o f power add-i n g t o the momentum o f i t s progress....Onward, and f o r -e v e r onward, m i g h t i e r and f o r e v e r m i g h t i e r , r o l l s t he wondrous t i d e o f d i s c o v e r y , and t h e "thoughts o f men are widened by t h e p r o c e s s o f the sun."16 T h i s passage rem i n d s s u s o f the o p t i m i s t i c f a i t h p l a c e d i n s c i -ence and s t r e s s e s t h e V i c t o r i a n need t o demonstrate "power [and t h e ] momentum o f i t s p r o g r e s s . " As a c l o s e o b s e r v e r o f n a t u r e , H i n d s h a r e d the s c i e n t i s t ' s r e s p e c t f o r f a c t s . S i n c e B r i t i s h p r o g r e s s depended on the a p p l i c a t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c methods, the s t u d y o f s c i e n c e became t h e b a s i s o f t r u t h , even i n the a r t s . H i n d ' s c a r e f u l l y r e n d e r e d n a t u r e s t u d i e s r e f l e c t t h i s d e s i r e f o r d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n . M i n e r s i n the L e a t h e r Gap, Rocky M o u n t a i n s ( f i g u r e 13) a l s o d i s p l a y s v e r i s t i c d e p i c t i o n s o f r o c k y s o i l , f o r H i n d has m e t i c u l o u s l y d e f i n e d each s t o n e . The e f f e c t s o f d i r e c t sun-l i g h t and the p l a y o f deep shadows o n t t h e r o c k s i m p l y an e a r -n e s t , p a i n s t a k i n g t e c h n i q u e . The immediacy o f the f i g u r e s ' pose a c c e n t u a t e s i t s momentary e x p l i c i t n e s s . L e a n i n g a g a i n s t a r o c k , one f i g u r e i s shown p a u s i n g from h i s work, r e l a x i n g and o b s e r v i n g h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s , w h i l e a n o t h e r f i g u r e c o n t i n u e s t o c l i m b . L i k e good r e p o r t a g e , the m i n e r s ' costume, pose, and s c e n e r y m a i n t a i n t h e apparent f o r t u i t o u s n e s s o f Hind's v i s i o n . The m i n e r s e v i d e n t l y do n o t r e p r e s e n t a d e g r a d i n g image, f o r Hin d v i e w s t h e i r work as a worthy achievement w h i c h b r i n g s 57 Figure 13 58 w e l l d e s e r v e d s a t i s f a c t i o n . The theme o f optimism and s a t i s f a c t i o n i s m a i n t a i n e d even i n the s t u d y o f a mountain l a n d s c a p e , A View i n B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a ( f i g u r e 14) by the presence o f a s i n g l e r e d c l a d f i g -u r e w i t h h i s back t u r n e d t o the v i e w e r . T h i s image o f a s o l i -t a r y m i n e r i n a l a n d s c a p e may have r e p r e s e n t e d f o r H i n d the freedom and e x p a n s i v e n e s s o f the new c o l o n y . Compared t o 17 B r i t a i n where "so much s t r u g g l i n g and c o m p e t i t i o n e x i s t e d " ' i n o v e r p o p u l a t e d c i t i e s , Hind's B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a may have had an a p p e a l f o r t h e more e n t e r p r i s i n g and independent-minded emi-g r a n t , l o o k i n g f o r w a r d a t l a s t t o a chance o f sun and a i r , away from t h e crowded s w e l l o f B r i t i s h c i t y l i f e . H ind's images t h e r e f o r e r e c o r d moments i n the l i v e s o f c o l o n i s t w o r k e r s a m i d s t a p r o m i s i n g f r o n t i e r . These p o s i t i v e images o f t h e s o l i t a r y miner seem t o concur w i t h t h e r e p o r t s o f B r i t i s h Columbia r e l a y e d back t o e a s t e r n Canada and B r i t a i n . M i l t o n and C h e a d l e , f o r i n s t a n c e , r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y "found the c o u n t r y abounding i n m i n e r a l w e a l t h . The e x t e n t and r i c h n e s s o f the g o l d f i e l d s i s added t o 18 e v e r y month by f r e s h d i s c o v e r i e s . " T h i s sense o f o p t i m i s m pervades Hind's P r o s p e c t o r P a n n i n g f o r G o l d , w h i c h may more c l o s e l y r e f l e c t h i s p r e c o n c e i v e d n o t i o n s o f t h e C a r i b o o ( g l e a n e d from contemporary j o u r n a l s l i k e t h e one j u s t c i t e d ) t h a n the a c t u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s he found t h e r e a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l . I t was s t i l l p o s s i b l e when H i n d f i r s t a r r i v e d i n the C a r i b o o ( i n d e e d , as i t i s t o d a y ) , f o r an independent p r o s p e c t o r t o eke out a meagre e x i s t e n c e . However, s t a r t i n g i n I 8 6 3 , (Hind a r r i v e d i n l a t e 1 8 6 2 ) , i n d i v i d u a l g o l d p a n n i n g p r o d u c t i o n e n t e r e d i n t o 59 F i g u r e 14 60 a r a p i d d e c l i n e . The y i e l d was s t i l l v e r y l a r g e h u t i t came al m o s t e n t i r e l y from a few r i c h c l a i m s . Those a r e a s a c c e s s i b l e t o the i n d i v i d u a l p r o s p e c t o r had been exh a u s t e d by the end o f 1862. P r o s p e c t o r s had worked t h e i r way up from the banks o f t h e F r a s e r t o t h e n o r t h e r n C a r i b o o a r e a , where new d i s c o v e r i e s b r o u g h t about a r a d i c a l change i n t h e methods o f m i n i n g . G o l d was f o u n d o n t t h e benches above r i v e r s and i t f r e q u e n t l y l a y deep. There e x t r a c t i o n r e q u i r e d more complex m a c h i n e r y and g r e a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f l a b o u r . M i n i n g had become c a p i t a l -i z e d w h i l e p o v e r t y f o r c e d many g o l d s e e k e r s t o become l a b o u r e r s i n o t h e r p e o p l e s * mines. Many o t h e r would-be p r o s p e c t o r s t u r n e d t o work on government r o a d s . Thus, a l t h o u g h i t was s t i l l p o s s i b l e f o r H i n d t o have w i t n e s s e d the m i n er p a n n i n g on h i s own, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y he was more l i k e l y t o see groups of men "wet s i n k i n g , " d r i v i n g s h a f t s or b u i l d i n g s l u i c e s . The t r u t h o f the s i t u a t i o n r a r e l y made i t back t o t h e e a s t and B r i t a i n . W i t h a l l the p r e v i o u s propaganda e n c o u r a g i n g c o l o n i -z a t i o n w i t h a " s t r i k e i t r i c h " theme, r e p o r t s o f "humbug" 19 would n o t have f i t the B r i t i s h i m p e r i a l i s t scheme. Hin d ' s f i d e l i t y t o v i s u a l " r e a l i t y " may, a f t e r a l l , have c o n c e n t r a t e d on the dream a t t h e expense o f r e a l i t y ; f o r a l l r e a l i s m i s r e l -a t i v e and n o t a b s o l u t e . The v e r y a c t o f p a i n t i n g i t s e l f i s a s t e p away from r e a l i t y , and i t does n o t m a t t e r how " f a c t u a l " a p a i n t e r i s , h i s p e r c e p t i o n w i l l always i n e v i t a b l y be c o n t r o l l e d by who he i s and h i s h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n . Thus, Hind's " r e a l i s m " i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h c o l o n i a l p r o-paganda e n c o u r a g i n g s e t t l e m e n t . We have a l r e a d y seen t h a t Hind's v i s u a l r e a l i s m was c o n d i t i o n e d by o t h e r a s p i r a t i o n s and 61 achievements o f the p e r i o d , and w h i l e h i s work does demonstrate 20 a v e n t u r i n g i n t o "the r e a l m o f f a c t and e x p e r i e n c e , " h i s s t y l e and t h e m a t i c i n t e r e s t s were i n e v i t a b l y f o r m u l a t e d by the m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y V i c t o r i a n m i l i e u . T h e r e f o r e H i n d ' s por-t r a y a l o f s o l i t a r y m i n e r s p a n n i n g f o r g o l d may be v i e w e d as a p r o d u c t o f c o n d i t i o n e d r e s p o n s e s t o r e a l i t y — r e s p o n s e s w h i c h he may n o t have been aware o f . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g i t would seem the p r i n c i p l e s o f i m p e r i a l i s m , s c i e n c e and l a b o u r p r e s e n t i n Hind's a r t appeared t o him t o be so c e r t a i n , t h a t i t was impos-s i b l e f o r him n o t t o e x p r e s s what he h i m s e l f b e l i e v e d t o be t r u e . I n a p p r o a c h i n g the r e a l m o f " f a c t , " H i n d may have drawn upon a p i c t o r i a l t r a d i t i o n t h a t f a s c i n a t e d many o f h i s contem-p o r a r i e s : s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y Dutch p a i n t i n g . H i n d l o o k e d t o t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y Dutch i d i o m i n an a t t e m p t t o t r a n s f o r m an everyday, commonplace scene i n t o a "work o f a r t . " The most N e t h e r l a n d i s h o f has works i s a S a l o o n Scene o f 1864 ( f i g u r e 1 5 ) , w h i c h appears t o be a c l o s e d e r i v a t i o n from a s e v e n t e e n t h 21 c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g i n the F l e m i s h / D u t c h t r a d i t i o n . The l e a d paned windows, earthenware j u g s , pewter t a n k a r d and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y p e a s a n t - c l a d c a r d p l a y e r s would i n d i c a t e t h a t H i n d was f a m i l i a r w i t h the p a i n t i n g s i n the manner o f D a v i d T e n i e r s or Adr-iaen Brouwer. The o b j e c t s i n t h e s e p a i n t i n g s were r e c a l l e d by H i n d as p a r t o f a s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y t r a d i t i o n and a g a i n were n o t what he a c t u a l l y saw i n B r i t i s h Columbia. H i n d prob-a b l y r e c o g n i z e d the importance t h a t t h e Dutch p a i n t e r s gave t o the humble, modest, and everyday o c c u r r e n c e , and h i s S a l o o n  Scene l o o k s back t o t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f s m o k e - f i l l e d i n n s 62 Figure 15 63 i n h a b i t e d by l o w - l i f e c h a r a c t e r s , caught i n t r i v i a l a c t i v i t i e s , w h i c h were " f a i t h f u l , e x a c t , complete, w i t h no e m b e l l i s h -22 ments." M i n e r s , B r i t i s h Columbia ( f i g u r e 16) shows a n o t h e r s a l o o n scene i n c l u d i n g a heterogeneous c o l l e c t i o n o f bearded m i n e r s c o n v e r s i n g i n i n f o r m a l poses. A g a i n , v e r y much i n t h e Dutch t r a d i t i o n , t h e i r p o s t u r e s s u g g e s t b o t h t h e momentary and f o r t u i t o u s n a t u r e o f the image, and the i n f o r m a l way o f l i f e o f the m i n e r . T h i s w a t e r c o l o u r d i r e c t s our i n t e r e s t t o the two f o r e g r o u n d f i g u r e s , b u t t o the extreme r i g h t , t he v i e w e r c a t c h e s a g l i m p s e o f a f i g u r e w ashing h i s h a i r i n a b u c k e t . I t i s ex-a c t l y t h i s s o r t o f "me a n i n g l e s s " d e t a i l w h i c h i s e s s e n t i a l t o Hind's a r t i s t i c approach. F o r a l t h o u g h M i n e r s , B r i t i s h  C o lumbia may be l e s s d e r i v a t i v e t h a n the S a l o o n Scene, b o t h r e -t a i n a D u t c h - l i k e emphasis on f a i t h f u l and acu t e o b s e r v a t i o n o f d e t a i l i n " p o r t r a i t s o f men and p l a c e s , c i t i z e n h a b i t s , squares 23 and s t r e e t s . " ^ H i n d managed t o c a p t u r e s i m i l a r c a n d i d poses i n - a water-c o l o u r ( l a i d down on a s k e t c h book c o v e r ) , e n t i t l e d The B a r i n  a M i n i n g Camp i n t h e West o f Canada ( f i g u r e 17). T h i s work de-s c r i b e s a c o l l e c t i o n o f men w i t h o u t i n h i b i t i o n s . Some a r e c e l -e b r a t i n g a l u c k y day, o t h e r s a r e drowning t h e i r s o r r o w s , w h i l e o t h e r despondents have sought t h e s h e l t e r o f a s a l o o n as a p l a c e t o s l e e p . H i n d thus p o r t r a y s the o r d i n a r y , contemporary l i f e o f men and the s a l o o n i n a l l i t s p r o s a i c n e s s , and h i s f i g -u r e s a r e bound by p o s t u r e , pose and a c t i o n t o t h e i r own t i m e . He i s n o t concerned w i t h p a s s i n g judgment on the e f f e c t s o f s a -l o o n s on the B r i t i s h Columbian community, b u t does show the de-ge n e r a t e a s p e c t s o f the s a l o o n as w e l l as the comradeship 64 Figure 16 F i g u r e 17 66 accompanying i t . The saloon i s depicted as a meeting place and yet Hind i s not a f r a i d to imply, as he does i n The Bar i n a Mining Camp, that frequently i t sent the miner back to the claim penniless. Richard C. Willoughby, an American from San Francisco, came to B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1862 and wrote about the saloons: These miners were shut off from the good influences of the home c i r c l e and also from the influences for good of the C h r i s t i a n churches of our day. A l l these to them were passed and i n t h e i r l i v e s i n t h i s country they had to face the awful temptations which bore down so many to an untimely grave....Young men would often f i n d themselves cut off from a l l the enjoyments and met with t h e i r companions i n t h i s place and were induced to drown t h e i r sorrows i n the flowing bowl. By t h i s means they became habituated to drink and other vices, which i n many cases soon ended t h e i r earthly career.24 Paradoxically while Willoughby i s concerned to make a judgment on the worthlessness of saloons, he at the same time brings out t h e i r i n t r i n s i c value i n providing places for com-radeship and recreation, a point which i s emphasized i n Hind's paintings, f or instance his Saloon with a Group of Men on* the  Fraser River, B.C. (figure 18). The subject of the painting i s men chatting i n front of a saloon--as Marion T. Place has re-marked, "a prospector's sweetest reward, next to making a bi g 25 discovery, was t a l k i n g about his experience." I t would seem that Hind saw leis u r e and recreation as the rewards of hard work. Other Victorians such as Thomas Arnold f e l t that recre-26 ation intended "to strengthen us for work to come." Ruskin too, thought recreation was e n t i r e l y j u s t i f i e d "during the reac-t i o n after hard labour, and quickened by s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the 27 accomplished duty or perfected r e s u l t . " ' A more intimate s o c i a l scene, not involving saloon 67 F i g u r e 18 68 l i f e , b u t showing the same c o n c e r n w i t h contemporary e x p e r i e n c e i s C a b i n on the F r a s e r R i v e r ( f i g u r e 1 9 ) . M a r i a n P l a c e ' s des-c r i p t i o n o f a C a r i b o o c a b i n c o u l d v e r y w e l l be a p p l i e d t o Hind's p i c t o r i a l d e s c r i p t i o n : ...the c a b i n s were s m a l l , no more t h a n 8 o r 10 f t . s q u a r e , h a s t i l y thrown t o g e t h e r and c h i n k e d w i t h moss and mud. Each c o n t a i n e d 2 - 4 bunks n a i l e d t o the w a l l s , a few s h e l v e s and w a l l pegs, a s m a l l f l a t topped i r o n s t o v e , a s t a c k o f d r y i n g f i r e w o o d and l i n e s s t r u n g overhead f o r d r y i n g sweaty so c k s and l a u n d r y . . . . The n i g h t s passed q u i e t l y i n e n d l e s s c a r d games and talk. 2° Hi n d was concerned w i t h r e n d e r i n g as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e a f a i t h -f u l and e x a c t p o r t r a i t o f "men and p l a c e s , " and w h i l e as we have n o t e d a l r e a d y h i s r e a l i t y was c o n d i t i o n e d , he was n o t pre-pared t o r o m a n t i c i s e . H i s approach t o o t h e r a s p e c t s o f the g o l d - m i n i n g s o c i e -t y w h i c h i n t e r e s t e d him i s i n k e e p i n g w i t h h i s e f f o r t s t o con-f r o n t t h e c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e o f h i s time w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e ima-g e r y . T h i s approach i n c l u d e d d e p i c t i o n s o f t h e l o c a l I n d i a n s . The O v e r l a n d e r s f r e q u e n t l y mentioned e n c o u n t e r s w i t h I n d i a n s i n t h e i r j o u r n a l s . One O v e r l a n d e r , A.L. F o r t u n e d i s p a r a g i n g l y wrote about the d e s t r u c t i v e e f f e c t a l c o h o l had on the t r i b e s , w h i l e i n o t h e r passages he d e s c r i b e d them as "competent," " r e -29 s o u r c e f u l " and " p h y s i c a l l y s u p e r i o r . " The N a t i v e s , t o o , t o o k an a c t i v e p a r t i n the g o l d r u s h d i s c o v e r i e s . An e n t r y i n Governor Douglas' d i a r y r e f e r s t o the m i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s o f the I n d i a n s : The I n d i a n s a r e g e t t i n g p l e n t y o f g o l d and t r a d i n g w i t h t h e Americans....They b a r t e r t h e i r g o l d f o r t o b a c c o . . . . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r the Hudson Bay Company t o g e t l a -bour a t p r e s e n t as t h e y a r e a l l busy m i n i n g and make between $2 and $3 a day each man.30 The c o l o n i s t s were o v e r b e a r i n g i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o the Figure 19 70 n a t i v e s , who, i n r e t u r n , r e s e n t e d t h e i r a g g r e s s i o n and m a l t r e a t -ment o f I n d i a n women. Douglas warned " t h a t no abuses would he t o l e r a t e d , and t h a t the laws would p r o t e c t the r i g h t s o f the 31 I n d i a n s no l e s s t h a n the w h i t e man." J An i n f o r m a t i o n pamphlet i s s u e d hy the A g e n t - G e n e r a l f o r e m i g r a n t s e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e r e were: p r o b a b l y 30,000 N a t i v e s . . . r a t h e r saucy on the west c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d ; u s e f u l as common l a b o u r e r s , and n o t w i t h o u t c a p a b i l i t i e s as a r t i s a n s . . . a l t o g e t h e r the I n d i a n s c o n t r i b u t e v e r y l a r g e l y t o t h e t r a d e o f t h e p r o v i n c e . 32 A l t h o u g h the above w r i t e r i s v e r y p a t r o n i z i n g i n h i s a t t i t u d e towards the I n d i a n s , he does g i v e them c r e d i t f o r t h e i r i n d u s -t r i o u s n e s s . H i n d ' s w a t e r c o l o u r Chinook I n d i a n s G a t h e r i n g  S h e l l f i s h ( f i g u r e 20) i s a k i n t o the e m i g r a t i o n pamphlet's des-c r i p t i o n o f the N a t i v e as a "common l a b o u r e r . " He shows the Chinook g o i n g about t h e i r d a i l y chore o f g a t h e r i n g f o o d , p r e -sumably a commonplace o c c u r r e n c e on the w e s t e r n C a n a d i a n f r o n -t i e r . I n c o n t r a s t t o p r e v i o u s a r t i s t s such as P a u l Kane ( f i g -u r e 2 1 ) , H i n d does n o t attempt t o ennoble the I n d i a n , b u t i n -s t e a d g i v e s him a new image - - t h a t o f the n a t i v e l a b o u r e r , a r e -s o u r c e f u l , competent and p h y s i c a l l y i n d u s t r i o u s f i g u r e . T h i s d e p i c t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t the new c o l o n y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia was p r o g r e s s i v e where even the I n d i a n s s h a r e d the B r i t i s h v a l u e s d f l a b o u r . Hind's a t t r a c t i v e image o f the N a t i v e u p h o l d i n g V i c t o r i a n v a l u e s i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h our v i e w o f Hi n d as a p i c -t o r i a l i l l u s t r a t o r , a b e l i e v e r i n the V i c t o r i a n work e t h i c , and an o p t i m i s t about the p r o s p e c t s f o r the new c o l o n y . A g g r e s s i v e a s s e r t i o n o f w h i t e supremacy became a pro-nounced f e a t u r e i n V i c t o r i a n c u l t u r e i n the 1850's and 60's. J A w r i t e r f o r t h e London D a i l y T e l e g r a p h i n 1866 w r o t e , "Of a l l 7 1 F i g u r e 20 Figure 2 1 73 human t a s k s , the most h o p e l e s s l y d i f f i c u l t i s t h a t o f govern-i n g w i s e l y , humanely, and j u s t l y a community i n w h i c h u n e q u a l 34 and a n t a g o n i s t i c r a c e s are l a r g e l y i n t e r m i n g l e d . " J H i n d ' s im-age o f the Chinook I n d i a n s would t h e r e f o r e appear t o i m p l y t h a t the c o l o n i a l g o v e r n o r s o f B r i t i s h Columbia had been s u c c e s s f u l i n i m p o s i n g the work e t h i c on an "unequal" r a c e . I t may be t h a t H i n d was i n f l u e n c e d i n p a r t by°a b r o a d e r phenomenon,that o f the p o p u l a r i n t e r e s t i n r a c e and r a c i a l t h e o r i e s . J He n o t o n l y d e p i c t e d the N a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n peace-f u l l y a t work, b u t a l s o showed the Chinese i m m i g r a n t s as a l a -b o u r i n g p e o p l e . By 1864, t h e r e were about 2,000 Chinese i n B r i t i s h Columbia; Mdand some o f t h e O v e r l a n d e r s , such as A.L. F o r t u n e , r e c o r d e d t h i s f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h the O r i e n t a l s : We had n e v e r seen specimens o f t h a t w o n d e r f u l p e o p l e b e f o r e t h i s t i m e , e x c e p t Mr. W a t t i e who had been i n C a l i f o r n i a some y e a r s p r e v i o u s . They were a wonder „ 7 t o us w i t h t h e i r c h o p s t i c k s , p i g t a i l s and s.allow s k i n . ' The p a i n t i n g C h i n e s e G o l d Washers on the F r a s e r R i v e r , B.C. ( f i g u r e 22) r e v e a l s a a s i m i l a r c u r i o s i t y , b u t what i s more s i g -n i f i c a n t i s t h a t H i n d , as i n h i s p o r t r a y a l o f the n a t i v e I n d i a n s a t work, g i v e s t o the C h i n e s e a sense o f d i g n i t y and w o r t h by d e p i c t i n g them a t work--here w i t h p i c k s and s h o v e l s . Once a g a i n , contemporary v i e w e r s c o u l d have seen t h e s e images as a r e f l e c t i o n o o f good c o l o n i a l government, where "unequal" r a c e s share V i c t o r i a n v a l u e s . When the r u s h f o r g o l d i n C a l i f o r n i a waned, many o f the C h i n e s e m i n e r s f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s out o f work and headed n o r t h t o the d i g g i n g s i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia. Here t h e y were t r e a t e d as s e c o n d - c l a s s c i t i z e n s sub-j e c t t o the a s s e r t i o n o f "white s u p e r i o r i t y " and s t r o v e t o make a l i v i n g r e - p a n n i n g the g r a v e l l e f t b e h i n d by the more 7k greedy Europeans, who had gone f u r t h e r n o r t h i n a f r e n z y t o f i n d 'the s o u r c e o f pay d i r t . 3 8 Thus, t h e y were an i s o l a t e d and d i s -advantaged group w i t h i n the C a r i b o o s o c i e t y . There were o f t e n words o f c a u t i o n when f u r t h e r C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n was s u g g e s t e d , b u t , as f a r as many c o l o n i s t s i n V i c t o r i a were concerned the Chi n e s e c o n t r i b u t e d t o the commerce o f the c i t y . The f o l l o w i n g contemporary s t a t e m e n t r e c o g n i z e s the C h i n e s e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the c o l o n i e s : They may be i n f e r i o r t o Europeans and Americans i n energy and a b i l i t y ; h o s t i l e t o us i n r a c e , language and h a b i t s and r e -main among us a P a r i a h r a c e ; s t i l l t h e y a re p a t i e n t , e a s i l y governed and i n v a r i a b l y i n d u s t r i o u s and t h e i r p resence a t t h i s j u n c t u r e would b e n e f i t t r a d e everywhere i n the two c o l o -n i e s [Vancouver I s l a n d and M a i n l a n d B.C.]....Our p r e d i c t i o n i s t h a t w h i l e B r i t i s h C olumbia p r o f i t s d i r e c t l y by t h e i r l a -b o u r , i n d i r e c t l y our comm e r c i a l p r o s p e r i t y i s a s s u r e d . 39 I n a d d i t i o n t o a c t i v e l y w o r k i n g the d i g g i n g s abandoned by w h i t e s , f i v e hundred C h i n e s e were employed by W r i g h t and Company a t $40 40 a month, c o n s t r u c t i n g the C a r i b o o r o a d . Other O r i e n t a l s found 41 work as l a b o u r e r s , washmen and r e s t a u r a n t o p e r a t o r s . I n a f a s h i o n s i m i l a r t o the contemporary r e p o r t s (see above), H i n d was s u c c e s s f u l i n d e c l a r i n g t h e i n d u s t r y and e a r n e s t n e s s o f the Chinese manual l a b o u r e r . H i n d shows the Chinese m i n e r s s i f t i n g the g r a v e l and t r a n s p o r t i n g m i n e r a l s t o the r o c k e r s i t e a t the edge o f the r i v e r . T h e i r r o c k i n g methods o f r e t r i e v i n g g o l d were s i m i l a r t o the w h i t e m i n e r s , however the Chi n e s e had a unique method f o r t r a n s p o r t i n g the g r a v e l . The G a z e t t e and C o l o n i s t r e c o r d t h e i n t e r e s t i n t h i s method: A p r o c e s s i o n o f moon-eyed O r i e n t a l s m i g h t have been seen y e s -t e r d a y a f t e r n o o n on t h e i r way t o the wharf o f the steamer f o r L a n g l e y . . . [ e a c h ] was l o a d e d i n t r u e C h i n e s e s t y l e , w i t h a p o l e on h i s s h o u l d e r and d a n g l i n g from each end o f w h i c h t h e r e were packages o f p r o v i s i o n s e t c . 4 2 T h e i r bamboo canes and heavy l o a d s a re s t r a n g e l y s i n g u l a r 7 6 t o us. ^ Thus, H i n d documents t h e i r u n i q u e p r o c e s s method, as w e l l as d e p i c t i n g the C h i n e s e as r e s o u r c e f u l and p h y s i c a l l y i n d u s t r i o u s . He r e c o r d s the v a r i o u s r a c e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p a r t a k i n g o f V i c t o r i a n v a l u e s i n t h e c o n c r e t e n e s s o f a c o l o n i a l s e t t i n g , w i t h " i n d u s t r y " b e i n g the main f o c u s o f h i s a t t e n t i o n . The theme o f i n d u s t r y even o c c u r s i n Hind's l a n d s c a p e s , where man's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a environment i s p o r t r a y e d down t o the s m a l l e s t d e t a i l . F o r example M i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia ( f i g u r e 2 3 ) d e p i c t s the p r o d u c t i o n meibhod^ Q 45 o f s l u i c i n g . ^ I n t h i s v i e w H i n d i n c o r p o r a t e d the s l u i c i n g p r o c e s s and i t s w o r k e r s w i t h the l a n d s c a p e . The s l u i c i n g meth-od was r e g a r d e d as a s i g n o f " p r o g r e s s " w h i c h r e p l a c e d t h e i n d i -v i d u a l m i n e r as a more e f f e c t i v e method o f p r o d u c i n g g o l d . The f i g u r e s i n Hind's c o m p o s i t i o n a r e seen as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the l a n d s c a p e , and perhaps the r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t H i n d saw p r o g r e s s and the e v o l v i n g p r o c e s s o f m i n i n g as t a k i n g away from the i n d i v i d u a l . P r o g r e s s was g e n e r a l l y p r a i s e d by the m i d - V i c t o r i a n s and H i n d may have been aware o f the p a r a l l e l s between i n d u s -t r i a l developments i n E n g l a n d and t h o s e i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I n E n g l a n d , the s i m p l e s t defence o f i n d u s t r y was a l s o the most o b v i o u s . " S c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l advance i n E n g l a n d was v i s i b l e , i t c o u l d be measured i n f i g u r e s and summed up i n 46 f a c t s . " S i g n s o f i n d u s t r i a l p r o g r e s s a r e a l s o " v i s i b l e " i n the l a n d s c a p e s o f W i l l i a m H i n d w h i c h p o r t r a y t h e r o a d s and 49 b r i d g e s m B r i t i s h Columbia. As mentioned above many men i n the C a r i b o o had t o become wage e a r n e r s on the government r o a d s , F i g u r e 23 78 and t h e y were h e r a l d e d as heroes hy the c o l o n i a l p r e s s . A f t e r t h e e a r l i e s t o f t h e government r o a d s had been completed, Governor Douglas wrote i n October i 8 6 0 : I n r i d i n g over the f a c e o f t h e s e f r o w n i n g c l i f f s , w h i c h a t t w e l v e months ago seemed t o d e f y a l l e f f o r t s o f im-provement, i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o su p p r e s s a f e e l i n g o f t h a n k f u l n e s s and i n t e n s e g r a t i f i c a t i o n a t the s u c c e s s -f u l i s s u e o f our l a b o u r s , and t h e i r p r o b a b l e i n f l u e n c e on the t r a d e and development o f the c o u n t r y . 4 8 The w i l d e r n e s s had been t r a n s f o r m e d from " f r o w n i n g c l i f f s " t o " s u c c e s s f u l " r o a d s as the r e s u l t o f much l a b o u r . The c o l o n i s t s , by b r i n g i n g a sense o f o r d e r t o the l a n d s c a p e , had begun t o tame i t . I n l e s s t h a n t h r e e y e a r s , many r o a d s were c o n s t r u c t e d and became t h e p r i d e o f the c o l o n y . New Government Road, B.C. ( f i g u r e 2 4 ) r e p r e s e n t s another o f Hind's e f f o r t s t o combine e v i d e n c e o f c o l o n i a l i n d u s t r y w i t h an i d y l l i c l a n d s c a p e . A l o g c a b i n o c c u p i e s the c e n t r e o f the c o m p o s i t i o n , w h i l e I n d i a n s c a r r y i n g packs on t h e i r b a c k s add a d d i t i o n a l i n t e r e s t t o the r o a d scene. However, the scene im-p l i e s something beyond the f a c t o f s p e c i f i c c o l o n i a l l a b o u r e r s p e r f o r m i n g a r o u t i n e t a s k , and p i c t o r i a l l y conveys a c o m f o r t i n g s u g g e s t i o n o f the s u c c e s s and u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e r o a d s as w e l l as t h e m o r a l b e a u t y o f l a b o u r i n g e n e r a l . P a r a l l e l s can be drawn between the B r i t i s h Columbian r o a d worker and the B r i t i s h r a i l w a y n a v v i e s . I n the same way t h a t Governor Douglas r e g a r d e d the r o a d w o r k e r s w i t h awe-struck a d m i r a t i o n , Samuel S m i l e s p a i n t s t h i s p i c t u r e o f the B r i t i s h navvy: The l a b o u r e r s who ex e c u t e d t h i s f o r m i d a b l e work were i n many r e s p e c t s a r e m a r k a b l e c l a s s . The " r a i l w a y n a v v i e s , " as t h e y were c a l l e d , were men drawn by the a t t r a c t i o n o f 79 Figure 24 8 0 good wages from a l l parts of the kingdom...their powers of endurance were extraordinary. In times of emergen-cy they would work for twelve and sixteen hours, with only short i n t e r v a l s for meals.... They displayed great pluck and seemed to disregard p e r i l s . * 9 Just as Ford Madox Browneexecuted scenes of navvies as symbols of work and p r o g r e s s , W i l l i a m Hind recorded the "remarkable" products of the B r i t i s h Columbian road workers. His Government  Road, B.C. L i l l o o e t t e (figure 25) shows two red clad figures on a bridge, pausing to contemplate the spectacular f a l l s . His painting juxtaposes human achievement and endeavour with the rugged and awesome beauty of B r i t i s h Columbia. Hind's govern-ment road scenes may be viewed as a r e f l e c t i o n of c o l o n i a l pride and the i n d u s t r i a l awareness of the V i c t o r i a n age. Bridges were greatly admired i n the V i c t o r i a n epoch both for t h e i r technical q u a l i t i e s and for t h e i r character as a picturesque enhancement df the landscape.-' 1 Along the four hundred mile long Cariboo Wagon Road (which extended from Yale to Spence's Bridge) was the Alexandra Suspension Bridge. I t was the f i r s t suspension bridge i n the west and considered a feat of engineering design. Connecting pyramidal towers made of immense wooden timbers, supported twin cables that carried a road way having a clear spanoof 265 feet. Contemporary re-52 ports found the use of v i r g i n west coast timber noteworthy. In 1865, Hind painted t h i s bridge i n collaboration with a Mr. 53 Tomlinson-^ as a review i n The Colonist informs us: We were yesterday shown an excellent o i l painting--^ feet 6 inches by 3 feet 4 1/2 inches--the j o i n t pro-duction of Messrs. Hind and Tomlinson of t h i s c i t y . The subject being a l o c a l one, invests the picture with additional i n t e r e s t . The a r t i s t s have been en-gaged by a gentleman who w i l l shortly proceed to England to lecture, to paint a series of pictures em-bracing views i n both colonies [Vancouver Island and 8 1 Figure 25 82 t h e B.C. m a i n l a n d ] and the p r e s e n t one, t h e f i r s t o f a s e r i e s , shows t h a t the t a s k has "been c o n f i d e d t o a b l e hands. The scene i s l a i d on t h e v a l l e y o f the F r a s e r above Y a l e , showing T r u t c h ' s S u s p e n s i o n B r i d g e i n the f o r e g r o u n d , and the t r a i l b e h i n d i s seen w i n d i n g a l o n g t h e t o r t u o u s bank o f a stream u n t i l i t becomes obscure by a d i s t a n t haze. The t i n t s and shadows a r e a l l w e l l p r e s e r v e d , and the v a r i o u s t i n t s thrown upon the rugged mine c l a d mountains a r e t r u e t o n a t u r e , and convey an a c c u r a t e i d e a o f the g e n e r a l o u t l i n e o f t h e c o u n t r y . . . A c c o r d i n g t o the r e v i e w the s i z e o f the p a i n t i n g would make i t Hind's l a r g e s t r e c o r d e d work, b u t u n f o r t u n a t e l y i t has been 55 l o s t . ^ The r e v i e w i m p l i e s t h a t the p a i n t i n g i n q u e s t i o n was commissioned f o r use i n a l e c t u r e s e r i e s i n E n g l a n d . So the a r t i s t may have p a i n t e d the scene w i t h a d e l i b e r a t e campaign i n mind t o p r o c l a i m the r e m a r k a b l e achievements o f the new colop_ n i e s . A p a r a l l e l phenomenon i n E n g l a n d was t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f the E n g l i s h m a n John Cooke Bourne's (1814 -96) i n d u s t r i a l and en-g i n e e r i n g scenes o f the l a t e 1830's w h i c h were p o p u l a r i z e d by a p u b l i c i n t e r e s t e d i n i n d u s t r i a l p r o g r e s s . Bourne.'s drawings o f the London and Birmingham R a i l w a y combine' an i n t e r e s t i n i n d u s t r i a l p r o g r e s s w i t h the n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e . He f e l t t h a t " a l l p e r s o n s would d e r i v e p l e a s u r e i n c o n t e m p l a t i n g the i n -c r e a s i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f the commerce, ma n u f a c t u r e s and a r t s o f Gre a t B r i t a i n . " - 3 An a n a l o g y between Bourne's v i e w s and Hind's can be made, because b o t h a r t i s t s t u r n e d t o b r i d g e s as s u b j e c t s o f p o p u l a r i n t e r e s t and as e v i d e n c e o f p r o g r e s s . F o r the A l e x a n d r a B r i d g e had opened up the i n t e r i o r by i n c r e a s i n g com-merce, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and s e t t l e m e n t . H i n d u s e d the b r i d g e and r o a d s u b j e c t s as symbols o f s u c c e s s and c o n f i d e n c e , w h i c h were l i n k e d w i t h the f a s c i n a t i o n h e l d f o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o -g r e s s i n the p e r i o d . The C o l o n i s t r e v i e w o f H i n d and Tomlinson's A l e x a n d r a 8 3 S u s p e n s i o n B r i d g e c o n t i n u e s by s a y i n g : ...Great p a i n s have been e v i d e n t l y bestowed by t h e a r t -i s t s on the e x e c u t i o n o f t h e more promine n t f e a t u r e s i n the p i c t u r e , and p a r t i c u l a r l y the r i v e r banks and the r o c k y gorge spanned by the f i n e s u s p e n s i o n b r i d g e and t h e f i r t r e e s above. As a work o f a r t the p i c t u r e speaks w e l l f o r our n a t i v e t a l e n t , and we s h a l l l o o k f o r w a r d t o f u t u r e p r o d u c t i o n s from t h e same p e n c i l . . . 57 The r e v i e w e r n o t e s t h a t t h e a r t i s t s t o o k " g r e a t p a i n s " i n t h e e x e c u t i o n o f the p a i n t i n g and g i v e s c r e d i t t o t h e i r l a b o u r . G e n e r a l l y V i c t o r i a n s g r e a t l y admired "the m a s t e r y o o f the pas-s i o n s , p a t i e n c e and r e s o l u t i o n ; the c o n t r o l l e d energy f o c u s e d c-o on work." I n t h i s way, even i n h i s m e t i c u l o u s approach t o h i s p a i n t i n g , H i n d m a i n t a i n e d the V i c t o r i a n work e t h i c . I n h i s w a t e r c o l o u r Y a l e B r i d g e , B.C. ( f i g u r e 2 6 ) , H i n d d e l i n e a t e s a n o t h e r s u s p e n s i o n b r i d g e , t h i s one s p a n n i n g t h e t u r b u l e n t w a t e r s below the town o f Y a l e . The b r i d g e assumes a monumental c h a r a c t e r i n the d e s i g n and j o i n s t h e l i n e s o f t h e a d j a c e n t l a n d s c a p e w i n g s . The p o p u l a r image o f b r i d g e s i n B r i t a i n would have been e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o H i n d i n the popu-l a r p e r i o d i c a l s a v a i l a b l e i n Canada. H i s b r i d g e r e p r e s e n t s a c i v i l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e i n an o t h e r w i s e rugged l a n d s c a p e , and w h i l e i t may be viewed as f u l f i l l i n g a demand f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about the c o l o n y , i t i s a l s o a symbol o f power. Hind's Y a l e  B r i d g e o f f e r s a n o t h e r p i e c e o f e v i d e n c e t h a t B r i t i s h i n g e n u i t y c o u l d tame the w i l d e r n e s s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The c u r r e n t i n t e r e s t i n e n g i n e e r i n g p r o j e c t s i n s p i r e d n o t . o n l y H i n d b u t a l s o contemporary w r i t e r s such as E l s p e t h Honeyman C l a r k e . Her poem "The C a r i b o o T r a i l " (n.d.) p r a i s e s t h e new speed and volume o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o h w w h i c h were made pos-s i b l e by the new r o a d : 84 F i g u r e 26 8 5 They have b l a s t e d and. hewn a new road, By the s i d e o f the o l d , o l d t r a i l ; They have l a i d t h e i r grades f o r a s w i f t e r wheel Than the o l d t r a i l knew; But--who?--who w i l l come on the new road r i d i n g , Up to the r i v e r to Yale and past? R i c h man, poor man f l y i n g p a s t , Glad men, sad men, f i r s t and l a s t ! What do they look f o r ? Beauty? ^ I t l i e s where ever a man may t u r n h i s eyes!... C l a r k e emphasizes the "newness" of the road compared to the o l d t r a i l . The m a t e r i a l s o f stone and s t e e l c o n t r i b u t e to a f i r m and s o l i d s t r u c t u r e , a l l o w i n g f o r a " s w i f t e r " wheel. Hind shares s i m i l a r sentiments as C l a r k e i n d e c l a r i n g the p r i d e which the B r i t i s h Columbian community had f o r the Government roads and b r i d g e s . Hind's other landscapes are l e s s concerned w i t h human accomplishment, but s i g n s o f progress are e v i d e n t i n a r a t h e r i d y l l i c scene c a l l e d V i c t o r i a , Vancouver I s l a n d ( f i g u r e 2 7 ) . The p a i n t i n g d e p i c t s a panorama of the young c a p i t a l c i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, w i t h t a l l , masted s h i p s n e s t l e d i n the peace-f u l harbour. Hind's a t t e n t i o n to d e t a i l i s so acc u r a t e t h a t a r c h i v i s t s can now p o i n t to the exact l o c a t i o n of h i s vantage 60 p o i n t . Signs of i n d u s t r y , such as s h i p b u i l d i n g take p l a c e , w h i l e Indians i n dugout canoes spear f o r f i s h . The i n t e r m i n g l -i n g of two c u l t u r e s i s brought together harmoniously i n t h i s image which combines the t r a n q u i l i t y of an o l d e r way of l i f e w i t h the " i n d u s t r y " and progress of the new. Almost a l l of Hind's landscapes d e a l w i t h the produc-t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p - b e t w e e n c o l o n i s t and nature. At f i r s t glance Hind's w a t e r c o l o u r S t r a i t o f San Juan ( f i g u r e 2 8 ) would appear to be completely devoid of any human element. However, f u r t h e r examination r e v e a l s a t i n y steamship b e l l o w i n g smoke i n the 86 F i g u r e 27 87 F i g u r e 28 88 s t r a i t s , and a r o a d w h i c h winds down t o the w a t e r ' s edge. The v a s t panoramic expanse of the n o r t h w e s t i n t h i s p a i n t i n g i s overwhelming i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e e v i d e n c e o f human c i v i l i z a t i o n and p r o g r e s s i n M i n i n g , B.C. and Y a l e B r i d g e . W h i l e H i n d was ca p a b l e o f expounding the V i c t o r i a n "hard work" v i r t u e s o f the new c o l o n y , t h i s scene acknowledges t h e freedom and b e a u t y w h i c h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o f f e r e d the new s e t t l e r . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t r a c e s o f human endeavour s t i l l a c t here as e n n o b l i n g f e a t u r e s i n a p r o m i s i n g s e t t l e m e n t . Hind's p i c t o r i a l a p proach t o B r i t i s h C olumbia (as seen a l s o i n the b r i d g e and r o a d s c e n e s ) , e x t o l s the c o l o n y as a f r e e and i n d u s t r i o u s environment. H i s S t r a i t o f San Juan r e p r e s e n t s a v e r y a c c u r a t e r e n d e r i n g o f the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t e r r a i n . Other C a n a d i a n a r t i s t s s u ch as P a u l Kane o f t e n e x a g g e r a t e d t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l a n d s c a p e . Fo r example, i n Kane's w a t e r c o l o u r s t u d y e n t i t l e d B o a t Encampment ( f i g u r e 2 9 ) , the mountains appear t o be o f medium h e i g h t , b u t i n s u b s e q u e n t l y p a i n t i n g t h e same s u b j e c t i n o i l ( f i g u r e 3°)> Kane i n v e n t e d much more grand forms t o tower a-6 l bove the human camp. Kane's p r a c t i c e was i n f l u e n c e d by B r i t i s h t h e o r i e s o f the " s u b l i m e . " By t h e 1840's i n B r i t a i n and N o r t h A m e r i c a , mountains became the s u b j e c t o f c o n v e n t i o n -a l i z e d e m o t i o n and r o m a n t i c e x a g g e r a t i o n . "No one c o u l d w r i t e o f mountains w i t h o u t r e s o r t i n g t o r h e t o r i c a l bombast. A sense 62 o f genuine awe d i s s o l v e d i n t o a f e i g n e d s e n s a t i o n a l i s m . " T h e o r i e s o f the s u b l i m e seem t o have s t r u c k a c h o r d o f sympathy i n Kane, who e x a g g e r a t e d the l a n d s c a p e as an at t e m p t t o enu-merate the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s expounded by such t h e o r i s t s as Edmund B u r k e . J H i n d appears t o have r e j e c t e d the t h e o r i e s o f Figure 3 0 9 0 the s u b l i m e and s u b s t i t u t e d f o r them much more r e a l i s t i c p r o -p o r t i o n s . As we have a l r e a d y n o t e d , H i n d ' s i n t e r e s t was i n f a i t h f u l s t u d i e s o f n a t u r e and the r e n d e r i n g o f " t r u t h " as ad-v o c a t e d by R u s k i n . Other l a n d s c a p e s u b j e c t s by H i n d such as t h e F r a s e r  Canyon Scene ( f i g u r e 31), a l s o r e c a l l t he B r i t i s h t r e n d s i n f l u -enced b y R u s k i n ' s c a l l s f o r f a i t h f u l d e p i c t i o n s o f n a t u r e . I n r e n d e r i n g t h e F r a s e r Canyon Scene, Hind's i n t e r e s t i n f l o r a and f a u n a has l e d him t o assume an u n u s u a l vantage p o i n t by g e t t i n g down c l o s e t o the ground and i s o l a t i n g a s e c t i o n o f a much l a r g e r f i e l d . The o b j e c t s H i n d chose t o i s o l a t e were a v a r i e t y o f p l a n t s , g r a s s e s and o u t c r o p p i n g s o f r o c k , s e t a g a i n s t a back-drop o f rugged mountains. R u s k i n i s s u e d a volume o f i n s t r u c -t i o n s on how t o copy g e o l o g i c a l f o r m a t i o n s , and a l s o c h a l l e n g e d 64 the a r t i s t t o convey the e x p e r i e n c e o f m o u n t a i n s c e n e r y . I t would appear t h a t H i n d took up t h i s c h a l l e n g e by a c c u r a t e l y de-p i c t i n g v e g e t a t i o n and g e o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s . The f a c t t h a t he chose t h i s e v e r y d a y s u b j e c t i s o f p r i m a r y s i g n i f i c a n c e t o h i s a r t i s t i c c o n c e p t i o n . He was n o t p a i n t i n g the n a t u r e o f t h e Romantics b u t h i s own environment, and he f o r c e s t h e v i e w e r t o t a k e n o t i c e o f an i n s i g n i f i c a n t scene w h i c h would o t h e r w i s e go u n n o t i c e d . I n R u s k i n ' s words, H i n d went " t o n a t u r e i n a l l s i n g l e n e s s o f h e a r t . . . r e j e c t i n g n o t h i n g , s e l e c t i n g n o t h i n g . " R e a l i s m a l t h o u g h an i m p o s s i b i l i t y was s t i l l h i s g o a l . 91 F i g u r e 31 9 2 FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER THREE ±A.C. M i l i k e n , "The Ned McGowan War," Canada West  Magazine v o l . 4 , no. 1 ( S p r i n g 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 16. ^ a r i a T i p p e t t and Douglas C o l e , From D e s o l a t i o n t o  Spl e n d o u r - - C h a n g i n g P e r c e p t i o n s o f the B r i t i s h Columbian Landscape ( T o r o n t o : C l a r k e , I r w i n and Company L t d . , 1 9 7 7 ) » p. 9-^The C o l o n i s t , Wednesday, F e b r u a r y 2 5 , 1863, p. 3 , r e -p o r t e d under the h e a d i n g F i n e A r t s : "Mr. H i n d o f Bro a d S t r e e t has j u s t f i n i s h e d p a i n t i n g a b e a u t i f u l s i g n f o r Mr. E a r l e s ' t a -v e r n on Government S t r e e t . I t i s a l i k e n e s s o f H.R.H. The P r i n c e o f Wales, one s i d e r e p r e s e n t s him i n H i g h l a n d e r costume, and on the o t h e r s i d e as a c o l o n e l i n the army. The l i k e n e s s i s v e r y a c c u r a t e and as a work o f a r t r e f l e c t s the h i g h e s t c r e d -i t on Mr. Hind's a b i l i t i e s . . . the s i g n has been hung up." 4 Other t h a n E a r l e s ' t a v e r n s i g n and a commission t o p a i n t the A l e x a n d r a S u s p e n s i o n B r i d g e , t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t H i n d s o l d any o f the works he produced i n B.C. William G.R. Hin d (1833-1888)—A C o n f e d e r a t i o n P a i n t e r  i n Canada (Windsor: A r t G a l l e r y o f Windsor, 1967), p. 6. I n t h i s e x h i b i t i o n c a t a l o g u e J . R u s s e l l Harper has d e s c r i b e d Hind as b e i n g p a r t o f a " l i v e l y l o c a l a r t scene" i n V i c t o r i a . I n f a c t , by the 1860's, numerous p i c t u r e s were b e i n g p a i n t e d by n a v a l a r t i s t s as p a r t o f the B r i t i s h t o p o g r a p h i c a l t r a d i t i o n . The t o p o g r a p h e r s made maps, s u r v e y s and drawings f o r m i l i t a r y p u r p o s e s . As p i c t o r i a l r e c o r d s o f the new c o l o n y t h e y were s e n t back t o E n g l a n d , as evi d e n c e o f the w i d e l y s h a r e d optimism and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e . The o f f i c e r - a r t i s t s i n d e p i c t i n g g a r r i -sons, f i e l d r e c o r d s , towns and s c e n e r y were i n the p o s i t i o n o f e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e image o f the c o l o n y i n E n g l a n d . The f e a t u r e s o f B r i t i s h C olumbia a t t h i s time were e x e c u t e d i n a s t y l e t h a t was p r i m a r i l y one o f documentation. There i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t H i n d had any c o n t a c t w i t h a r t i s t s i n V i c t o r i a . However, s i n c e the c i t y ' s w h i t e p o p u l a -t i o n numbered 6 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e i n I863 (see F r e d e r i c k P. Howard, B r i t i s h Columbia and V i c t o r i a Guide and D i r e c t o r y f o r I 8 6 3 ) , and the t o p o g r a p h i c a l a r t i s t s were mentioned i n p u b l i c a t i o n s , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t H i n d would have knowntthem and t h e i r work. a l t e r E. Houghton, The V i c t o r i a n M i n d , p. 2 4 9 . 7 I b i d . Q Asa B r i g g s , The Age o f Improvement I 7 8 3 - I 8 6 7 (London: Lowe and Brydone L t d . , 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 4 0 3 . 9 I b i d . , p. 473-1 0 I b i d . , p. 386. 93 1 1 W a l t e r E. Houghton, The V i c t o r i a n M i n d , p. 3 0 2 . 12 Spencer H. P a l m e r , " P r i n c i p a l Gold F i e l d s o f B.C.," e x e r p t s from The J o u r n a l o f the R o y a l G e o g r a p h i c a l S o c i e t y  Papers (March 14, 1864), p. 195. 1 3 W a l t e r E. Houghton, The V i c t o r i a n Frame o f M i n d I 8 3 O - 1870 (New Havens Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975). P- 47. T h i s so-c i a l freedom was a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f the advancement o f p o l i t i -c a l p r o g r e s s . "The r e f o r m o f the c i v i l law under Benthamite i n f l u e n c e , the r e p e a l o f the c l a s s l e g i s l a t i o n l i k e the T e s t and C o r p o r a t i o n A c t s i n 1828, the e x t e n s i o n o f the s u f f r a g e i n I 8 3 2 w i t h the r e a l i g n m e n t o f the e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s , the ad-m i s s i o n o f the D i s s e n t e r s t o s e a t s on the town c o u n c i l s (1835)1 the r e f o r m o f the c i v i l s e r v i c e ( 1 8 5 0 - 7 0 ) , and the whole s h i f t i n economic p o l i c y from i n t e r f e r e n c e and r e g u l a t i o n t o l a i s s e z -f a i r e , c u l m i n a t i n g i n the f r e e t r a d e l e g i s l a t i o n w w h i c h r e p e a l e d the Corn Laws i n 1846 and the N a v i g a t i o n A c t s i n 1849, was a r e c o r d o f p o l i t i c a l e m a n c i p a t i o n more t h a n s u f f i c i e n t t o war-r a n t as much s a t i s f a c t i o n as the m i d d l e c l a s s f e l t i n i t s ma-t e r i a l w e a l t h and power." 14 James Samhrook, Pre R a p h a e l i t i s m - - a C o l l e c t i o n o f C r i t i c a l E s s a y s , e d i t e d and w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n hy J . Sambrook XChicago: The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1974), p. 1 1 . 1 - ? W a l t e r E. Houghton, The V i c t o r i a n M i n d , p. 149. l 6 I b i d . , p. 34. 17 'Kinahan C o r n w a l l i s , The New E l Dorado; or B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a (Londons Thomas C a u t l e y Newby, I 8 5 8 ) , p. XVI. -1 o V i s c o u n t M i l t o n and W.B. Cheadle, The Northwest  Passage by Land (Londons C a s s e l l , P e t t e r and G a l p i n , 1865), P. 385. 19 'Propaganda soon changed t o encourage w o r k i n g o f the l a n d r a t h e r t h a n p r o s p e c t s o f g o l d . I l l u s t r a t e d London News, F e b r u a r y 7, I 8 6 3 , p. 145, r e p o r t s : "For w h i l e the s e a r c h f o r g o l d w i l l a t t r a c t thousands t o t h e s h o r e s o f t h e P a c i f i c , t h e r e can be no doubt t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f those who h u r r y t o the mines w i l l , g r o w i n g d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the h a r d s h i p s and u n c e r -t a i n t i e s o f a d i g g e r ' s l i f e , t u r n t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o the r a r e c o m m e r c i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l inducements o f t h e c o u n t r y . " 20 L i n d a N o c h l i n , R e a l i s m , p. 17 w r i t e s : " I n t h e mid 19th c e n t u r y , s c i e n t i s t s and h i s t o r i a n s seemed t o be r e v e a l i n g a t b r e a k n e c k speed more and more about r e a l i t y p a s t and p r e s e n t . There were no a p parent l i m i t s t o t h e d i s c o v e r y o f what c o u l d be known about man and n a t u r e . R e a l i s t w r i t e r s and a r t i s t s were l i k e w i s e e x p l o r e r s i n t o the r e a l m o f f a c t and e x p e r i e n c e , ven-t u r i n g i n t o a r e a s , h i t h e r t o untouched or o n l y p a r t l y i n v e s t i -g a t e d by t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s . " 94 21 C o r n e l i u s K r i e g h o f f was a n o t h e r a r t i s t w o r k i n g i n Canada who t o o k an a v i d i n t e r e s t i n t r a n s l a t i n g Dutch scenes i n t o a C a n a d i a n environment. 22 E u g l n e F r o m e n t i n , The M a s t e r s o f P a s t Time: Dutch and  F l e m i s h P a i n t i n g from Van Eyck t o Rembrandt, t r a n s l a t e d by A. B o y l e (London: P h a i d o n P r e s s , 1 9 4 8 ) , p. 130. F r o m e n t i n f u r t h e r w r i t e s , "Dutch p a i n t i n g . . . w a s and c o u l d o n l y be the p o r t r a i t o f H o l l a n d , i t s e x t e r i o r image, f a i t h f u l , e x a c t , complete w i t h no e m b e l l i s h m e n t s . P o r t r a i t s o f men and p l a c e s , c i t i z e n h a b i t s , s q u a r e s , s t r e e t s , c o u n t r y p l a c e s , t h e s e a and s k y - - s u c h was the program o f the Dutch s c h o o l . " 2 3 I b i d . 24 W i l l i a m Shannon, "The L i f e S t o r y o f R i c h a r d C. W i l l o u g h b y , " t y p e w r i t t e n m a n u s c r i p t i n the L i b r a r y o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, Vancouver, B.C., n.d., p. 15-2 % a r i a n T. P l a c e , C a r i b o o Gold--The S t o r y o f the  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a G o l d Rush (New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Wins-t o n , 1970), p. 1 1 2 . 2 % a l t e r E. Houghton, The V i c t o r i a n Frame o f M i n d , p. 2 4 3 . 27 'John R u s k i n , Stones o f V e n i c e 3» c h a p t . 3 i s e c . 75 m Works I I , 193-M a r i a n T. P l a c e , C a r i b o o G o l d , p. 112. 29 7 J o a n n e M a r i e Sawadsky, The W a y f a r i n g C h r i s t i a n s , p. 5 8 . 30 ^ T.A. R i c k a r d , " I n d i a n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the G o l d D i s c o v e r i e s , " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y 2 (1938)1 p. 1 3 . 3 1 I b i d . , p. 1 4 . 32 S p r o a t , B r i t i s h Columbia I n f o r m a t i o n f o r E m i g r a n t s , p. 7 . 33 • . - ^ C h r i s t i n e B o l t , V i c t o r i a A t t i t u d e s Towards Race (London: Routledge~and Kegan P a u l , 1971)1 p r e f a c e . 34 D D a i l y T e l e g r a p h (London), September 1 2 , 1 8 6 6 . 35 -^The r e a l m o f s c i e n c e , one o f the most s a l i e n t e l e -ments o f the epoch, encouraged the s t u d y o f man. P u b l i c a t i o n s such as Darwin's O r i g i n o f the S p e c i e s (1859) and Descent o f  Man (1871) a t t e s t t o t h i s i n t e r e s t . F.W. Howay, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a — T h e M a k i n g o f a  P r o v i n c e ( T o r o n t o : The R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1 9 2 8 ) , p. 2 6 2 . 95 3 7 M a r k Sweeten Wade, The O v e r l a n d e r s o f '62 ( V i c t o r i a : A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, Memoir No. I X , p r i n t e d by C h a r l e s F. B a n f i e l d , 1931), p. 128. 3 8 J . R u s s e l l H a r p e r , W i l l i a m G.R. Hi n d 1833-1889, p. 2 3 . 3 9 J a m e s M o r t o n , I n the Sea o f S t e r i l e M o u n t a i n s (Vaneouver: J . J . Douglas L t d . , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 16. ^°Ibid., p. 14. 41 . x I b i d . 42 G a z e t t e ( V i c t o r i a ) , March, 1859. 44 ^ C o l o n i s t ( V i c t o r i a ) , May 1 2 , I 8 6 3 . c f . , P r o s p e c t i n g f o r A l l u v i a l G o l d i n B.C. w h i c h de-p i c t s t h e manual method. ^•%hen t h e s h a l l o w d i g g i n g s had become exhausted t h e r e was a s h i f t t o t h e deep d i g g i n g t e c h n i q u e s . The c o s t o f b u i l d -i n g s l u i c e s , f l u m e s , g i a n t o v e r s h o o t w h e e l s , pumps and e l a b o r -a t e h o i s t i n g m a c h i n e r y used up p r o f i t s f a s t e r t h a n the g o l d c o u l d be mined. C l a i m a f t e r c l a i m was s o l d t o l a r g e companies w i t h c a p i t a l . H i n d shows the c a r e f u l l y c o n s t r u c t e d f l u m e s w h i c h c a r r i e d w a t e r down t o a s e r i e s o f l o n g narrow boxes s e t on sawhorses w i t h the upper ends h i g h e r t h a n t h e l o w e r . When p a y d i r t was s h o v e l l e d i n t o t h e s e b o xes, o f t e n c a l l e d " l o n g Toms" the f l o w i n g w a t e r c a r r i e d o f f the waste m a t e r i a l and t h e g o l d caught on the c l e a t s n a i l e d t o the bottom. P l a c e , C a r i b o o  G o l d , p. 5 3 . 46 B r g g g s , The Age o f Improvement, p. 394. ^ B y 1 8 6 1 , the importance o f w e a l t h i n the C a r i b o o i n -duced the Governor and the R o y a l E n g i n e e r s , t o c o n s i d e r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n s t r u c t i n g an a l l l a n d r o u t e from Y a l e t o W i l l i a m ' s Creek. I n o r d e r f o r s u p p l i e s t o r e a c h the C a r i b o o , a r o a d had t o be b u i l t t o p e r m i t the use o f f r e i g h t wagons. F. W. Howay, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a — T h e M a k i n g o f a P r o v i n c e , p. 138 d e s c r i b e s some o f the c o n s t r u c t i o n problems o f th e government •road as f o l l o w s : "The d i f f i c u l t y o f m a i n t a i n i n g , by mule t r a n s p o r t , a s u p p l y o f n e c e s s a r i e s a t a p l a c e f o u r hundred m i l e s from t h e head o f n a v i g a t i o n was enormous, e x t e n d i n g . f r o m Y a l e t o W i l l i a m s Creek, and c o n s i d e r e d a t a c o s t o f over one m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . " 48 F.W. Howay, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a — T h e M a k i n g o f a P r o -v i n c e , p. 138. 49 Frar R e v o l u t i o n (London: N o e l C a r r i n g t o n , 1 9 4 7 ) , p. 152. ^ F r a n c i s D. K l i n g e n d e r , A r t and the I n d u s t r i a l 96 ^°Brown made the navvy the c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n h i s a l l e -g o r i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n Work. -^"Adele Holcomb, "The B r i d g e i n the M i d d l e D i s t a n c e ; S y m b o l i c Elements i n Romantic Landscape," A r t Q u a r t e r l y no. 1 ( S p r i n g 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 5 0 . - ^ H a r o l d Kalman and Douglas R i c h a r d s o n , " B u i l d i n g f o r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y , " The J o u r n a l o f Can a d i a n A r t H i s t o r y v o l . I l l ( F a l l 1 9 7 6 ) , no. 1 and 2 , p. 2 1 . -^-^Hind was not the f i r s t a r t i s t t o p a i n t t h i s b r i d g e . I n I 8 6 3 , Edmund T. Coleman was commissioned by the c o n t r a c t o r o f the b r i d g e , J o s eph W. T r u t c h , t o p a i n t a p i c t u r e o f the A l e x a n d r a S u s p e n s i o n B r i d g e . See T i p p e t t and C o l e , From  D e s o l a t i o n t o S p l e n d o u r , p. 37• ^ T h e C o l o n i s t (Wednesday, A p r i l 1 9 , I 8 6 5 ) , p. 3 . -^An o i l , 12 x 16 3/4 i n c h e s , e n t i t l e d A l e x a n d r a  S u s p e n s i o n B r i d g e has been nominated as a s t u d y f o r the H i n d and T o m l i n s o n p a i n t i n g . However, t h e r e i s no s o l i d documenta-t i o n upon w h i c h t o a t t r i b u t e p a r t o r a l l o f the work t o H i n d . T h i s p a i n t i n g i s i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . - ^ K l i n g e n d e r , A r t and the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n , p. 135-^ T h e C o l o n i s t (Wednesday, A p r i l 1 9 , I 8 6 5 ), p. 3-^ J a m e s Anthony Fronde, Thomas C a r l y l e . A H i s t o r y o f the F i r s t F o r t y Y e a r s o f h i s L i f e , 1795-1835, 2 v o l s . (London: 1 8 8 2 ) , p. 373-^Howay, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a — T h e Making o f a P r o v i n c e , p. 146. 60 A r c h i v a l i n f o r m a t i o n from the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia's S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s L i b r a r y , H i n d V e r t i c a l F i l e , December 10, 1963 r e a d s , "The a r t i s t must have been on the Longhees r e s e r v e and l o o k e d s o u t h towards V i c t o r i a n a n d James Bay p e n i n s u l a . The Olympic mountains show t h r o u g h the l i n e o f t r e e s on the p e n i n s u l a . " 6 l T i p p e t t and C o l e , From D e s o l a t i o n t o S p l e n d o u r , p. 3 4 . 6 2 I b i d . , p. 3 2 . J A d e f i n i t i o n o f b e a u t y and the s u b l i m e was g i v e n by Edmund Burke i n h i s P h i l o s o p h i c a l E n q u i r y i n t o t h e O r i g i n o f our I d e a s o f th e . S u b l i m e and B e a u t i f u l , 1757' -John R u s k i n , Modern P a i n t e r s , v o l . 4 (London: George A l l e n , S u n n y s i d e , O r p i n g t o n ) , 1897• R u s k i n ' s volume I V i s t i t l e d "Of M o u n t a i n Beauty." 97 CONCLUSION We can now see t h a t Hind's " r e a l i s m " was a p r o d u c t o f h i s background--a p a r t o f a b r o a d e r phenomenon o f the B r i t i s h c onquest i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h i s " r e a l i s m " i s n e i t h e r a b s o l u t e nor n e u t r a l b u t r e f l e c t s a B r i t i s h m i d d l e c l a s s a t t i -tude toward the w o r l d . The p a i n s t a k i n g t e c h n i q u e w h i c h H i n d b r i n g s t o h i s " r e a l i s t " s t y l e i s a t e s t i m o n y t o one o f the bas-i c v i r t u e s o f V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y ; t h a t o f l a b o u r . Labour was v i e w e d not o n l y as a means t o r e s p e c t a b i l i t y and s u c c e s s , b u t a l s o as assupreme v i r t u e i n v o l v i n g b o t h s e l f - d e n i a l and c r e a t i v e accomplishment. I n an e r a w h i c h saw burdensome p h y s i c a l t o i l , B r i t i s h a r t i s t s f e l t a need t o adopt a p r a i s e w o r t h y a t t i t u d e ^ t o w.ork. They r e g a r d e d work as t h e key t o a p o w e r f u l n a t i o n . T h i s n o t i o n o f n a t i o n a l i s m and the g o s p e l o f h a r d work became i m p o r t a n t t o H i n d , and he found the B r i t i s h Columbian worker a w o r t h w h i l e theme i n e x t o l l i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l o f a new B r i t i s h c o l o n y . He d e p i c t s i n h i s scenes t h e v a r i e d s o c i a l groups o f t h e p r o m i s i n g c o l o n y - - m i n e r s , I n d i a n s and C h i n e s e , and shows them as b e i n g p h y s i c a l l y i n d u s t r i o u s , u p h o l d i n g m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y v a l u e s . I n t h e s e s u b j e c t s he a l s o a s s i m i l a t e s the r a t h e r V i c t o r i a n c o n c e p t i o n o f p r o v i d i n g "good government," o f k e e p i n g a m i x t u r e o f r a c e s i n order; w i t h o u t v i o l a t i n g t h e i r t r a d i t i o n s and p r e j u d i c e s . By r e c o r d i n g the l a b o u r p r o c e s s e s o f t h i s heterogeneous c o l l e c t i o n o f men, H i n d l e a v e s us impor-t a n t p i c t o r i a l r e c o r d s o f a d e v e l o p i n g B r i t i s h Columbia. A l -though "work" must have been the most p o p u l a r word i n t h e V i c t o r i a n v o c a b u l a r y and the means by w h i c h a c o m m e r c i a l s o c i e t y c o u l d be r e a l i z e d ( i . e . , money, r e s p e c t a b i l i t y and s u c c e s s ) , 98 t h i s d i d not mean t h a t one was. never t o r e l a x . A l l o w a n c e was made f o r r e c r e a t i o n , i n t h e l i t e r a l sense t h a t t i e s i t t o the p a t t e r n o f work. H i n d viewed l e i s u r e i n h i s s a l o o n scenes as "being the r e w a r d o f h a r d work. I m p e r i a l i s m u n d e r l i e s the approach t a k e n by H i n d i n h i s r o l e as a p i c t o r i a l r e p o r t e r . I t was assumed t h a t the " E n g l i s h P e o p l e i n W o r l d - H i s t o r y " had been a s s i g n e d "the grand Indus-t r i a l t a s k o f c o n q u e r i n g some h a l f o r more o f t h i s Terraqueous P l a n e t f o r the use o f man." 1 Hind's B r i t i s h Columbian v i e w s show e v i d e n c e o f B r i t i s h power and c i v i l i z a t i o n w h i c h marked the s u c c e s s o f t h e mother c o u n t r y i n i t s e f f o r t s t o tame a v a s t , rugged c o l o n y . One g a i n s a s t r o n g sense o f o p t i m i s m and hope i n H ind's work, a l o n g w i t h a sense o f b e i n g d i s b u r d e n e d . I n the same way t h a t c o l o n i a l propaganda encouraged e m i g r a t i o n t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by e x t o l l i n g the freedom and e x p a n s i v e n e s s o f the new c o l o n y , Hind's images may have had an a p p e a l f o r those w i s h i n g t o escape an overcrowded E n g l a n d . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , the V i c t o r i a n w o r l d "huzzas a t p r o s p e r i t y , and t u r n s away from 2 m i s f o r t u n e as from some c o n t a g i o u s d i s e a s e " - - t h e r e f o r e , by p r e s e n t i n g an o p t i m i s t i c and s u c c e s s f u l f r o n t i e r , H i nd was c r e -a t i n g images f o r an i m p e r i a l i s t a u d i e n c e who b e l i e v e d i n the rewards o f c o l o n i z a t i o n . I t may seem p a r a d o x i c a l t h a t i m p e r i -a l i s t s would l e a v e t h e i r o v e r p o p u l a t e d , i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n o n l y t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r t e c h n o l o g i c a l e n t e r p r i s e s i n the new c o l o n y . However, even though i n d u s t r y c o n t i n u e d t o grow i n Canada, i t gave t h e new e m i g r a n t a chance t o c l i m b t h e l a d d e r o f s u c c e s s more q u i c k l y . A B r i t i s h Columbian i n f o r m a t i o n pamphlet f o r e m i g r a n t s r e a d : 99 A smart, a c t i v e , c a p a b l e man, w i t h o n l y a l i t t l e money, b u t accustomed t o work w i t h h i s hands, i s , however, s u r e t o succeed i n making a c o m f o r t a b l e home i n B r i t i s h : C o l u m b i a . . . . I f such a s e t t l e r has a s t r o n g h e a r t h i m s e l f , and i s b l e s s e d w i t h a common sense w i f e used t o c o u n t r y work, he may c o n f i d e n t l y l o o k f o r w a r d t o becoming even r i c h . He need no l o n g e r r e m a i n i n the c o n d i t i o n o f a l a b o u r e r . T h i s c e r t a i n t y o f r i s i n g i n t h e s o c i a l s c a l e must s t i m u l a t e the emi g r a n t . 3 Hind's images, t h e r e f o r e , appear t o s u p p o r t t h i s i m p e r i a l i s t con-c e p t i o n . H i s p i c t u r e s , a l t h o u g h c a p a b l e o f expounding the V i c t o r i a n "hard work" e t h i c o f the new c o l o n y , a t t e s t e q u a l l y t o the e x p a n s i v e n e s s and b e a u t y B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o f f e r e d the new s e t t l e r . They r e p r e s e n t the p r o d u c t s o f h i s v e r a c i t y and l a b o u r w h i c h c l e a r l y r e f l e c t Hind's v e r y d e f i n i t e system o f v a l -ues. By o b s e r v i n g and p o r t r a y i n g t h e young c o l o n y o f B r i t i s h C o l umbia, H i n d l e a v e s us memorable, p i c t o r i a l documents o f an i m p o r t a n t e r a i n Canadian h i s t o r y . 100 FOOTNOTES - CONCLUSION Thomas C a r l y l e , " C h a r t i s m , " C r i t i c a l and M i s c e l l a n e o u s  E s s a y s , ed. H.D. T r a i l l , v o l . 4 , pp. 1 7 I - I 7 5 . W a l t e r E. Houghton, The V i c t o r i a n Frame o f M i n d , pp. 191-192. 3 S p r o a t , B r i t i s h Columbia I n f o r m a t i o n f o r E m i g r a n t s , p. 7-101 BIBLIOGRAPHY i . P r i m a r y Sources A l e x a n d e r , R i c h a r d Henry. The D i a r y and N a r r a t i v e o f R i c h a r d Henry A l e x a n d e r i n a J o u r n e y A c r o s s the Rocky M o u n t a i n s . E d i t e d and w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by N e i l B r e a r l e y . Richmond, B.C.: The A l c u i n S o c i e t y , 1973-B a l l a n t y n e , R o b e r t M. Handbook t o the New Gold F i e l d s . E d i n b u r g h : A. S t r a h a n , 1858. The B i s h o p o f Columbia. A Tour o f B r i t i s h Columbia. London: C l a y P r i n t e r s , 1861. C a r l y l e , Thomas. S a r t o r R e s a r t u s . The L i f e and O p i n i o n s o f  H e r r T e n f e l s c h O c k h . E d i t e d by C F . H a r o l d , New York, 1937. 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