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The theme of the descent in the Tale of Genji and the Ramayana Nakagawa, Masako 1979

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T H E T H E M E O F T H E D E S C E N T I N T H E T A L E O F G E N J I A N D T H E R A M A Y A N A B y M A S A K O N A K A G A W A B . A . , S o p h i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1971 M . A . , S o p h i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1973 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S i n T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S D E P A R T M E N T O F A S I A N S T U D I E S We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A © August, 1979 Masako Nakagawa, 1979 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f A s i a n Studies T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e August 2 o , 1 9 7 9 i i A B S T R A C T T h i s i s a c o m p a r a t i v e s tudy b e t w e e n The T a l e of G e n j i and T h e  R a m a y a n a w h i c h a r e m a s t e r p i e c e s of J a p a n e s e and I n d i a n l i t e r a t u r e , i n the t h e m e of the d e s c e n t of the h e r o e s , G e n j i and R a m a . T h e r e a r e two t y p e s of ' d e s c e n t ' : one i s the e x t e r n a l d e s c e n t w h i c h i s e x i l e , a n d the o t h e r i s the i n t e r n a l de scen t w h i c h i s l a m e n t . The l a t t e r s e e m s to be m o r e i m p o r t a n t a n d m o r e p r o f o u n d i n the m e a n i n g , e s p e c i a l l y f r o m the J a p a n e s e v i e w p o i n t . In t e r m s of the t h e m e of the w o r k , the W a k a n a c h a p t e r of T h e T a l e of G e n j i i s one of the m o s t i m p o r t a n t c h a p t e r s b e c a u s e of i t s c o n s e n s u s of m e a n i n g and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , , A l t h o u g h the c o m p a r a t i v e s tudy b e t w e e n J a p a n e s e a n d I n d i a n l i t e r a t u r e i s v e r y r a r e , e x c e p t f o r B u d d i s t i c s t u d i e s , I w o u l d l i k e to m a k e a n a t t e m p t to s e a r c h f o r a new p o s s i b i l i t y i n the s tudy f i e l d of l i t e r a t u r e b y s t a r t i n g to e x a m i n e the h e r o i c p o w e r s of G e n j i a n d R a m a , i i i T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S P a g e I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 I . H e r o e s i n T h e T a l e of G e n j i a n d The R a m a y a n a . . . . 3 A . T h e H e r o e s ' s P o w e r 3 B . T h e H e r o e s ' s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c F e a t u r e s . . . . 8 I I . E x t e r n a l D e s c e n t : E x i l e 12 A . E x i l e to the S e a s h o r e a n d the M o u n t a i n s . . . • 14 B . T h e M o t i f o f the E x i l e R e t u r n i n g a n d S u c c e e d i n g . 28 III . I n t e r n a l D e s c e n t : L a m e n t 35 A . S i t a ' s O r d e a l 36 B . W a k a n a no m a k i . . . . . . . . 47 I V . C o n c l u s i o n 70 N o t e s o . 78 A p p e n d i c e s A a n d B 90 B i b l i o g r a p h y 106 iv A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T I w o u l d l i k e to e x p r e s s m y deepes t thanks to m y a d v i s o r , D r . L e o n Z o l b r o d , f o r w i t h o u t h i s good a d v i c e a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t t h i s t h e s i s w o u l d not have b e e n p o s s i b l e . A l s o , I w o u l d l i k e to t ake t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y to show m y a p p r e c i a t i o n to the p r o f e s s o r s of the D e p a r t m e n t of A s i a n S tud i e s of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a who w e r e w i l l i n g to s h a r e t h e i r k n o w l e d g e w i t h m e w h i l e I w a s w o r k i n g on t h i s t h e s i s . I N T R O D U C T I O N T h i s i s a c o m p a r a t i v e s tudy b e t w e e n a m a s t e r p i e c e of J a p a n e s e l i t e r a -t u r e and a m a s t e r p i e c e of Ind ian l i t e r a t u r e , i n t e r m s of p lo t and l i t e r a l t h e m e s . I s t a r t e d to r e a d The R a m a y a n a two y e a r s ago , and at f i r s t I s a w l i t t l e w h i c h r e m i n d e d m e of The T a l e of G e n j i . The o n l y p a r a l l e l I s aw was R a m a ' s e x i l e to the m o u n t a i n s w h i c h m a y p a r a l l e l G e n j i ' s e x i l e to the s e a s h o r e . In r e a d -ing the s t o r y of R a m a af te r h i s r e t u r n f r o m e x i l e , I w a s unab le to d i s m i s s the s i m i l a r i t y w i t h the W a k a n a c h a p t e r s w h i c h d e a l w i t h G e n j i ' s i n n e r c o n f l i c t i n the l a t e r l i f e . T h i s i s one of the. m o s t i m p o r t a n t c h a p t e r s of The T a l e of G e n j i w h e n J a p a n e s e s c h o l a r s c o n s i d e r any t h e m a t i c p r o b l e m s of the w o r k . It c a n be s a i d that the W a k a r f i c h a p t e r s a r e r i d d l e s . If one m a y a s k h i m s e l f w h e t h e r G e n j i l e a d s a happy l i f e o r not , he c o u l d say that G e n j i i s v e r y happy i n w o r l d l y s e n s e , but he i s not v e r y happy i n h i s i n n e r p s y c h e . A f t e r a s e tback , n a m e l y a n e x i l e , t h roughou t h i s l i f e he s l o w l y a s c e n d s i n the r a n k i n g s of the H e i a n c o u r t u n t i l f i n a l l y he r e a c h e s the h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e r a n k fo r a c o m m o n e r . H o w e v e r , sudden ly , a d a r k shadow i s c a s t o v e r h i s l i f e and he c a n n e v e r r e c o v e r f r o m t h i s s e tback . The t u r n i n g po in t c o m e s i n the Wakanf tchap te r s . W h y does G e n j i have to su f fe r i n h i s l a t e r l i f e , i s a q u e s t i o n that has p u z z l e d m e s i n c e I f i r s t r e a d the w o r k . T h i s i s the m a i n r e a s o n why the s t o r y of R a m a d r e w m y a t t en t i on . Of c o u r s e , The R a m a y a n a i s not ab l e to a n s w e r t h i s q u e s t i o n , but at l e a s t i t m a y g i v e us a h in t as to 1 -2-a m o r e u n i v e r s a l v i e w p o i n t to that q u e s t i o n . In the f i e l d of c o m p a r a t i v e l i t e r a t u r e , t he r e a r e two k i n d s of c o m p a r i -sons : one i s the c o m p a r a t i v e s tudy be tween two r e l a t e d w o r k s d e s p i t e the d i f f e r e n c e i n c u l t u r e a n d l anguage , and the o the r i s the c o m p a r a t i v e s tudy b e t w e e n u n r e l a t e d w o r k s i n d i f f e r en t c u l t u r e a n d l anguage . T h i s p a p e r b e l o n g s to the l a t t e r c a t e g o r y . T h e r e f o r e , we m u s t a l w a y s keep i n m i r i d that e a c h w o r k i s e n t i r e l y d i f f e r en t f r o m the o t h e r . A l t h o u g h I s o m e t i m e s e m p h a s i z e s i m i l a r a s p e c t s to r e v e a l s i m i l a r i t i e s , i t i s not the p u r p o s e of t h i s p a p e r to show that b o t h w o r k s a r e , i n fac t , s i m i l a r . In the f i e l d of c o m p a r a t i v e l i t e r a t u r e , we s h o u l d be e s p e c i a l l y c a r e -f u l i n c h o o s i n g a m e t h o d of s tudy . T o a v o i d u n n e c e s s a r y c o n f u s i o n , I have f o c u s e d ' o n the m a i n c h a r a c t e r s of lUhe T a l e of G e n j i and The R a m a y a n a , G e n j i a n d R a m a , and not any p e r i p h e r a l c h a r a c t e r s . A l s o , b e c a u s e t h e r e i s an i m m e n s e d i f f e r e n c e i n h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s b e t w e e n these two w o r k s , I have c h o s e n to d e a l w i t h t h e m a t i c t o p i c s , s u c h a s , 'the t heme of de scen t . 1 T h e r e a r e two types of ' d e s c e n t ' i n t h i s p a p e r : one i s the h e r o ' s e x i l e , a n d the o ther i s the h e r o ' s i n n e r c o n f l i c t i n h i s l a t e r l i f e . C H A P I E R I H E R O E S I N T H E T A L E O F G E N J I A N D T H E R A M A Y A N A A . T H E H E R O E S ' S P O W E R U n l i k e o r d i n a r y p e o p l e , h e r o e s en te r t h e i r s t o r i e s i n a s o m e w h a t m o r e f a n t a s t i c a n d u n u s u a l w a y than n o r i - h e r o e s . T h i s i s t r u e w i t h G e n j i a n d R a m a , the m a i n c h a r a c t e r s of The T a l e of G e n j i a n d The R a m a y a n a . R a m a ' s f a the r , K n g D a s a r a t h a of A y o n d h y a , p e r f o r m s an a u s p i c i o u s h o r s e s a c r i f i c e , w h e n he i s b l e s s e d w i t h a s o n . One y e a r a f t e r R a m a was b o r n In the m e a n t i m e s i x s e a s o n s (each c o n s i s t i n g of two months ) r o l l e d a w a y a f t e r the s a c r i f i c e was o v e r . T h e n on the n i n t h l u n a r day (of .the b r i g h t fo r tn igh t ) of C h a i t r a , the t w e l f t h m o n t h a f t e r the c o n c l u s i o n of the s a c r i f i c e s ) when the a s t e r i s m P u n a r v a s u ( p r e s i d e d o v e r by A d i t i ) was. i n the a s c e n d a n t and (as m a n y as) f i ve p l ane t s ( v i z , the Sun , M a r s , S a t u r n , J u p i t e r and V e n u s ) happened to be e x a l t e d ( a p p e a r e d i n the z o d i a c a l s i g n s of M e s a o r A r i e s , M a k a r a o r C a p r i c o r n u s , T u l a o r L i b r a , K i r k a o r C a n c e r a n d M i n a o r P i s c e s r e s p e c t i v e l y ) and J u p i t e r i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the M o o n a p p e a r e d i n the z o d i a c a l s i g n of K a r k a , m o t h e r fausalya" (the e l d e s t w i fe of D a s a r a t h a ) gave b i r t h to a h i g h l y b l e s s e d son n a m e d SrT R a m a , who was (no o the r than) the L o r d of the u n i v e r s e , the a d o r e d of a l l the ( three) w o r l d s , the d e l i g h t of I k s w a k u ' s r a c e , who r e p r e s e n t e d o n e - h a l f of L o r d V i s n u a n d was endowed w i t h a u s p i c i o u s d i v i n e m a r k s i n that he had eyes t i n g e d w i t h r e d , p o s s e s s e d e x c e p t i o n a l l y l ong a r m s a n d r u d d y l i p s and a v o i c e r e -s e m b l i n g the sound of a k e t t l e - d r u m , r & u s a l y a shone b r i g h t l y w i t h that son p o s s e s s e d of i m m e n s e g l o r y (even) as A d i t i (the m o t h e r of gods) w i t h I n d r a (the w i e l d e r of a t h u n d e r b o l t ) , the f o r e m o s t of g o d s . The d e s c r i p t i o n of G e n j i ' s b i r t h * i s m o r e o r d i n a r y a n d a b s t r a c t t han that of R a m a ' s . H o w e v e r , i n f a c t , he was a l s o b o r n u n d e r u n u s u a l c i r c u m -s t a n c e s . G e n j i ' s f a the r , the e m p e r i o r , i n fa tua ted w i t h h i s m o t h e r , r e g a r d -l e s s of h e r w e a k p o w e r i n the c o u r t . H i s a f f e c t i o n i s so a b n o r m a l that i t c a l l s f o r s o c i a l c o n d e m n a t i o n . Indeed , G e n j i was b o r n as a r e s u l t of t h i s u n u s u a l l o v e . The t e n s i o n f i n a l l y c a u s e s the dea th of G e n j i ' s m o t h e r t h r e e y e a r s a f t e r G e n j i ' s b i r t h . T h e r e f o r e , the d e s c r i p t i o n of G e n j i ' s b i r t h c o n t a i n s a g r e a t u n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n i n i t : It m a y have been b e c a u s e of a bond i n a f o r m e r l i f e that she b o r e the e m p e r o r a b e a u t i f u l son , a j e w e l b e -y o n d c o m p a r e . The e m p e r o r w a s i n a f e v e r of i n p a t i e n c e to see the c h i l d , , s t i l l w i t h the m o t h e r ' s f a m i l y ; and w h e n , on the e a r l i e s t day p o s s i b l e , he w a s b rough t to c o u r t , he d i d i n d e e d p r o v e to be a m o s t m a r v e l o u s babe . -R a m a and G e n j i g r o w up showing ou t s t and ing t a l e n t s ; they a r e a l m o s G o d - l i k e f i g u r e s . N o r t h r o p F r y e c l a s s i f i e s h e r o e s by t h e i r p o w e r i n h i s book A n a t o m y of C r i t i c i s m : F o u r E s s a y s ; 1) the h e r o as a d i v i n e b e i n g , s u p e r i o r i n k i n d bo th to o the r m e n , and to the e n v i r o n m e n t of o the r m e n ; 2) the h e r o of r o m a n c e , s u p e r i o r i n d e g r e e to o the r m e n and to h i s e n v i r o n m e n t ; 3) the h e r o as a l e a d e r , s u p e r i o r i n d e g r e e to o the r m e n , but not to h i s n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t ; 4 ) the h e r o as one of u s , s u p e r i o r n e i t h e r to o the r m e n n o r to h i s e n v i r o n m e n t ; 5) the h e r o b e l o n g i n g to the i r o n i c m o d e , i n f e r i o r i n p o w e r o r i n t e l l i g e n c e to o u r s e l v e s . ^ -5-If we p l a c e R a m a a n d G e n j i a g a i n s t t h i s s c a l e , we c a n s a f e l y l o c a t e t h e m b e t w e e n c a t e g o r y 2 a n d 3. T o def ine bo th h e r o e s ' s p o w e r m o r e c l e a r l y , f i r s t l e t us l o o k at F r y e ' s d e f i n i t i o n of c a t e g o r y 2: If s u p e r i o r i n d e g r e e to o the r m e n and to h i s e n v i r o n m e n t , the h e r o i s the t y p i c a l h e r o of r o m a n c e , w h o s e a c t i o n s a r e m a r v e l l o u s , but who i s h i m s e l f i d e n t i f i e d as a h u m a n b e i n g . The h e r o of r o m a n c e m o v e s i n a w o r l d i n w h i c h the o rd ina ry -l a w s of n a t u r e a r e s l i g h t l y su spended : p r o d i g i e s of c o u r a g e and e n d u r a n c e , u n n a t u r a l to u s , a r e n a t u r a l to h i m , a n d e n -chan ted w e a p o n s , t a l k i n g a n i m a l s , t e r r i f y i n g o g r e s a n d w i t c h e s , a n d t a l i s m a n s of m i r a c u l o u s p o w e r v i o l a t e no r u l e of p r o b a b i l i t y once the p o s t u l a t e s of r o m a n c e have been e s t a b l i s h e d . H e r e we have m o v e d f r o m m y t h , p r o p -e r l y so c a l l e d , in to l e g e n d , f o l k t a l e , M a r c h e n , a n d t h e i r l i t e r a r y a f f i l i a t e s and d e r i v a t i v e s . ^ R a m a ' s p o w e r i s so g r e a t that s o m e t i m e s i t a f fec t s n a t u r e h e r s e l f . F o r e x a m p l e , i n the c o m b a t scene be tween R a m a and the d e m o n K i n g R a v a n a , R a m a ' s w r a t h a f fec t s n a t u r e : On s e e i n g the f u r i o u s coun tenance of the v i r t u o u s R a m a , a l l b e ings w e r e s e i z e d w i t h t e r r o r , the e a r t h shook , the m o u n t a i n s , f r e q u e n t e d by l i o n s and t i g e r s , t r e m b l e d , the t r e e s s w a y e d to a n d f r o , the o c e a n , that l a n d of. r i v e r s , was a g i t a t e d and f l o c k s of c r o w s , b r a y i n g l i k e d o n k e y s , d e s c r i b e d c i r c l e s i n the s k y on a l l s ides.V C o m p a r e d . t o R a m a , G e n j i has l e s s p o w e r on n a t u r e h e r s e l f . B u t , a l t h o u g h i t i s r a r e , he does , at t i m e s , s e e m to affect n a t u r e . The f o l l o w i n g quote w h i c h i s t a k e n f r o m the c h a p t e r ' A n A u t u m n E x c u r s i o n , 1 i n w h i c h he d a n c e s ' W a v e s of the B l u e O c e a n , 1 d e m o n s t r a t e s h i s i n f l u e n c e o v e r n a t u r e . -6-The f o r t y ' m e n i n the c i r c l e of the f l u t i s t s p l a y e d m o s t m a r v e l o u s l y . The sound of t h e i r f l u t e s , m i n g l e d w i t h the s i g h i n g of the p i n e s , was l i k e a w i n d c o m i n g down f r o m deep m o u n t a i n s . ' W a v e s of the B l u e O c e a n , ' a m o n g f a l l -ing l e a v e s of c o u n t l e s s hues , had about i t an a l m o s t f r i g h t -en ing beau ty . The m a p l e b r a n c h i n G e n j i ' s cap w a s s o m e -what b a r e a n d f o r l o r n , m o s t of the l e a v e s h a v i n g f a l l e n , and s e e m e d at odds w i t h h i s h a n d s o m e f a c e . The G e n e r a l of the L o f t r e p l a c e d i t w i t h s e v e r a l c h r y s a n t h e m u m s w h i c h he b r o u g h t f r o m b e l o w the r o y a l sea t . The sun w a s about to set and a s u s p i c i o n of a n a u t u m n s h o w e r r u s t l e d p a s t as i f the s k i e s too w e r e m o v e d to t e a r s . The c h r y s a n t h e m u m s i n G e n j i ' s cap , d e l i c a t e l y t o u c h e d by the f r o s t s , gave new beauty to h i s f o r m and h i s m o t i o n s , no l e s s r e m a r k a b l e today than on the day of the r e h e a r s a l . T h e n h i s dance w a s o v e r , and a c h i l l a s i f f r o m a n o t h e r w o r l d p a s s e d o v e r the a s s e m b l y . ^ B o t h h e r o e s ' s p o w e r s s e e m to be h a l f - g o d on the one hand , and h a l f -7 h u m a n on the o t h e r . H o w e v e r , they a r e not d i v i n e b e i n g s . E v e n R a m a who i s b e l i e v e d to be a n i n c a r n a t i o n of the G o d V i s h n u , c o n s i d e r s h i m s e l f g a h u m a n . A s a m a t t e r of fac t , f r o m the v e r y b e g i n n i n g of the s t o r y he m u s t be b o r n as a h u m a n i n o r d e r to d e s t r o y the d e m o n Hng R a v a n a w h o m o n l y m e n and a n i m a l s c a n k i l l b e c a u s e of the d i v i n e p r o m i s e he r e c e i v e d p r e v i o u s l y . In The R a m a y a n a i t i s t o l d that the gods t o r m e n t e d by R a v a n a a p p e a l to V i s h n u : A t that t i m e , the i m m o r t a l V i s h n u , L o r d of the W o r l d , a t t i r e d i n y e l l o w , b e a r i n g the c o n c h , d i s c u s , and m a c e i n h i s hands , a p p e a r e d m o u n t e d on V a i n a t e y a , l i k e unto the sun above the c l o u d s . W e a r i n g b r a c e l e t s of g o l d , a d o r e d by the G o d s , he took h i s p l a c e b e s i d e B r a h m a , a n d a l l the C e l e s t i a l B e i n g s , hav ing p a i d homage to h i m w i t h h y m n s , p r o s t r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s be fo re h i m a n d s a i d : --7-'O M a d h u s v d a n a , f o r the g o o d of a l l c r e a t u r e s , we a d d r e s s t h i s p r a y e r to thee ! The M o n a r c h D a s a n a t h a who r e i g n s i n A y o d h y a , O L o r d , a v i r t u o u s a n d l i b e r a l p r i n c e w h o s e l u s t r e equa l s the R i s h i s , has t h r e e c o n s o r t s whose c h a s t i t y , good q u a l i t i e s , and r e n o w n d i s t i n g u i s h t h e m . O V i s h n u , do thou i n c a r n a t e i n t h e m by d i v i d i n g t h y s e l f i n to fou r p a r t s ! B e -c o m e a m o r t a l and the V a n q u i s h e r i n c o m b a t of R a v a n a , the p o w e r f u l . t o r m e n t o r of the w o r l d who cannot be s l a i n by the g o d s . I n t o x i c a t e d by h i s e x c e s s i v e s t r e n g t h , the R a k s h a s a R a v a n a has e n s l a v e d the g o d s , G a n d h a n v a s , S i d d h a s , and g r e a t R i s h i s . T h o s e G a n d h a r v a s and A p s a r a s who w e r e s p o r t i n g i n the N a n d a n a W o o d , , w e r e d r i v e n out by that m o n s t e r R a v a n a . We have c o m e w i t h the a s c e t i c s to d e -m a n d h i s dea th . S i d d h a s , G a n d h a r v a s , and Y a k s h a s i i m -p l o r e thy p r o t e c t i o n , O G o d , D e s t r o y e r of th ine e n e m i e s , thou a r t ou r s u p r e m e refuge ! F o r the d e s t r u c t i o n of those h o s t i l e to the g o d s , do thou r e s o l v e to d e s c e n d in to the w o r l d of m e n ! T o a c e r t a i n ex tent , bo th h e r o e s ' s c a p a c i t i e s s e e m to be long i n c a t e g o r y 2, but not e n t i r e l y . L e t us l o o k at F r y e ' s c a t e g o r y 3: If s u p e r i o r i n d e g r e e to o the r m e n , but not to h i s n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t , the h e r o i s a l e a d e r . H e has a u t h o r i t y , p a s s i o n s , and p o w e r s of e x p r e s s i o n f a r g r e a t e r than o u r s , but what he does i s sub jec t bo th to s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m a n d to the o r d e r of n a t u r e . T h i s i s the h e r o of the h i g h m i m e t i c m o d e , of m o s t e p i c and t r a g e d y and i s p r i m a r i l y the k i n d of h e r o that A r i s t o t l e had i n m i n d . ^ R a m a a n d G e n j i a r e s u p e r i o r to o the r m e n , but they a r e not f r ee f r o m s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m and the n a t u r a l o r d e r . If they w e r e , they w o u l d not have b e e n e x i l e d , a n d s u f f e r e d . In the b r o a d e r v i e w , the h e r o i c p o w e r s of R a m a a n d G e n j i a r e on the s a m e s c a l e i n F r y e ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . B . T H E H E R O E S ' S C H A R A C T E R I S T I C F E A T L R E S R a m a and G e n j i a r e h a l f - g o d , h a l f - h u m a n l i k e f i g u r e s . T h e y -\seem to have c o m e f r o m ' a m o r e a u s p i c i o u s w o r l d . T h i s i s r e l a t e d to the fac t that the open ing s t o r i e s of those h e r o e s a r e begun by p r o p h e c i e s . B e c a u s e p r o p h e c i e s connec t the uppe r w o r l d w i t h the l o w e r w o r l d . H In The R a m a y a n a , R a m a ' s b i r t h i s p r e d i c t e d a l ong t i m e be fo re h i s a c t u a l b i r t h by the sage S a n a t k u m a n a : ' A s a r e s u l t of the s a c r i f i c e , K n g ; P a s a r a t h a w i l l h a v e fou r s o n s , e a c h of l i m i t l e s s v a l o u r . T h e s e sons w i l l be r e n o u n e d th roughou t the w o r l d a n d w i l l i n c r e a s e the g l o r y of t h e i r d y n a s t y . '12 The ou t l i ne of G e n j i ' s l i f e i s r e l a t e d by a K o r e a n p h y s i o g n o m i s t when G e n j i i s s t i l l v e r y young : 'It i s the face of one who s h o u l d a s c e n d to the h i g h e s t p l a c e and be fa ther to the n a t i o n , ' he s a i d q u i e t l y , a s i f to h i m s e l f . ' B u t to take i t f o r s u c h w o u l d no doubt be to p r e d i c t t r o u b l e . Y e t i t i s not the face of the m i n i s t e r , the deputy , who se ts about o r d e r i n g p u b l i c a f f a i r s . '13 T h i s i s not a v e r y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d n o r e x a c t p r e d i c t i o n , but l a t e r what the p h y s i o g n o m i s t p r e d i c t e d t u r n s out to be c o r r e c t . T h u s , R a m a and G e n j i a r e i n t r o d u c e d to us as p a r t l y d i v i n e b e i n g s . B o t h of t h e m a r e a l m o s t s p o t l e s s f i g u r e s . T h i s i s p a r t of r e a s o n why R a m a a n d G e n j i s o m e t i m e s s e e m a l o o f to u s . T h e y a r e not c h a r a c t e r s who evoke m u c h of ou r s y m p a t h y . In o the r w o r d s , we cannot put o u r s e l v e s i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n s , o r t r y to s h a r e t h e i r f e e l i n g s . H o w e v e r , on the o the r hand , bo th -9-h e r o e s have l i m i t e d p o w e r s , i n sp i te of t h e i r s u p e r i o r i t i e s . T h u s i n -c r e a s e s the c o m p l e x i t y and i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r s t o r i e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , a f te r the p r e d i c t i o n by the K o r e a n p h y s i o g n o m i s t : S o m e h o w news of the s a g e ' s r e m a r k s l e a k e d out, t hough the e m p e r o r h i m s e l f was c a r e f u l to s ay n o t h i n g . The M i n i s t e r of the R i g h t , g r a n d f a t h e r of the c r o w n p r i n c e and . f a the r of the K o k i d e n l a d y , was q u i c k to h e a r , and a g a i n h i s s u s p i c i o n s w e r e a r o u s e d . 14 G e n j i i s the s e c o n d son of the e m p e r o r by h i s m i n o r w i f e . B e c a u s e of h i s ou t s t and ing a b i l i t i e s and the e m p e r o r ' s a f f e c t i o n fo r h i m , he i s d e e p l y i n v o l v e d i n a r i v a l r y w i t h h i s e l d e r b r o t h e r who has p o w e r f u l m a t e r n a l s u p -p o r t . G e n j i c o m e s to be g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d a s a r i v a l to the t h r o n e w h i c h f i n a l l y p r o m p t s h i s f a the r to d e c i d e tha t , f o r h i s own sa fe ty , he s h o u l d b e c o m e a c o m m o n e r . , HoweVver, b e c a u s e G e n j i b e c o m e s the s o n - i n - l a w of the M i n i s t e r of the L e f t , he con t inues to be i n v o l v e d i n c o u r s t c i r c l e s e v e n a f t e r that . In the ca se of R a m a , a l t h o u g h he i s the p r i n c i p a l con t ende r f o r the t h r o n e , he i s a l s o , n e v e r t h e l e s s , i n v o l v e d i n s o m e r i v a l r y . A m o n g h i s t h r e e b r o t h e r s , B h a r a t a , b o r n s o o n a f t e r R a m a , i s h i s m o s t i m p o r t a n t r i v a l . H i s b i r t h i s d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : B h a r a t a , endowed w i t h the e s s e n c e of h e r o i s m , w a s b o r n of K u k e y i , and he was p o s s e s s e d of e v e r y g r a c e a n d f o r m e d f r o m a q u a r t e r of V i s h n u . ^ - 1 0 -In sp i te of t h e i r b r o t h e r l y l o v e , R a m a t e l l s S i t a , a f t e r i t has b e -c o m e c l e a r that h i s f a the r i s e x i l i n g h i m , " D o not speak i n p r a i s e of m e i n B h a r a t a ' s p r e s e n c e . . . . B o t h R a m a and G e n j i , t hen , a r e e x i l e d because of r i v a l r y w i t h i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r o y a l f a m i l i e s . In bo th c a s e s t h e i r s t e p m o t h e r s o r , to be m o r e e x a c t , the m o t h e r s of t h e i r r i v a l b r o t h e r s , have an a c t i v e hand i n t h e i r e x i l e . F r o m the b e g i n n i n g of these two h e r o e s ' s l i v e s , they bo th have w o r l d l y p o w e r a n d g e n e r a l l y a r e so s u p e r i o r to o the r m e n that they a l w a y s r e m a i n i n c o n t e n t i o n , p a s s i v e o r o t h e r w i s e , f o r the t h r o n e . We c a n see , then , that i t i s no m e r e c o i n c i d e n c e that R a m a and G e n j i w e r e b o t h b o r n p r i n c e s ; the e p i c - l i k e g e n r e to w h i c h The R a m a y a n a a n d the T a l e of G e n j i be long d e m a n d , not on ly that the h e r o e s be of t r u l y " h e r o i c " d i m e n s i o n s , but a l s o that they s h o u l d u n d e r g o a l i f e of c o n f l i c t a n d t r i a l - -w h i c h i s m o r e than a m p l y p r o v i d e d by the v i c i s s i t u d e s of l i f e at c o u r t . T h e r e i s one m o r e i m p o r t a n t f ea tu re to be no ted i n the c h a r a c t e r s of bo th h e r o e s : n a m e l y , g r e a t and c o u r t e o u s b e n e v o l e n c e . G e n j i , a s m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , i s " s o s u p e r i o r of m i e n a n d d i s p o s i t i o n that few c a n f i n d i t i n t h e m s e l v e s to d i s l i k e h i m . " See ing h i m , " N o t the s t e r n e s t of w a r r i o r s o r the m o s t unbending of e n e m i e s c o u l d have h e l d b a c k a s m i l e . " B y na tu r e he i s p l a c i d and gen t l e . R a m a a l s o i s s a i d to be s l o w to a n g e r , f u l l y s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d and benevo len t to a l l b e i n g s . N o t a s i n g l e ba t t l e n o r war he ex p e r i e n c e d was caused by his own act of violence. He i s e x t r e m e l y faithful i n c a r r y i n g out his duty. In The Ramayana, he h i m s e l f s a i d "I, who am by nature gentle, who have subdued my senses and who e x e r c i s e mercy, 18 1 1 Rama and Ge n j i , unlike heroes such as K r i s h n a of Indian myth-ology or Susano of thet K o j i k i , the f i r s t written account of Japanese mytho-l o g i c a l h i s t o r y , do not violate the laws of. society. T h i s benevolent quality of both heroes, in its p s y c h o l o g i c a l and ph i l o s o p h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , has a great bearing on the theme of this t h e s i s . R ama was a hero of the battlefields and G e n j i a hero of the Heian court, but th e i r s t o r i e s a r e not m e r e l y exciting tales of supermen. They go deeper than that: both heroes suffer a profound i n t e r n a l o r d e a l as w e l l as an external test of c h a r a c t e r . - 1 2 -C H A P T E R II E X T E R N A L D E S C E N T : E X I L E A n e p i c h e r o ' s l i f e u s u a l l y s t a r t s g l o r i o u s l y . He i s ou t s t and ing a m o n g h i s f e l l o w m e n and , f o r a w h i l e , the c o u r s e of h i s l i f e s e e m s to go on w i thou t d i f f i c u l t y . T h e n , s u d d e n l y , t h e r e c o m e s a change f o r the w o r s e . He m u s t l e a v e h i s h o m e l a n d a n d en te r a new and d i f f e r e n t w o r l d . H i s subsequen t a d v e n t u r e s a r e not on ly i m p o r t a n t , but a r e i n d e s p e n s a b l e to the c o u r s e of a h e r o ' s l i f e . B o t h E a s t e r n and W e s t e r n l i t e r a t u r e abound w i t h a c c o u n t s of l i v e s of t h i s p a t t e r n . The r e l i g i o u s h e r o G a u t a m a the B u d d h a b i d s f a r e w e l l to the p a l a c e a n d w a n d e r s about as a b e g g a r . The G r e e k h e r o - - s u c h a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , the O d y s s e u s of H o m e r ' s O d y s s e y - - i s sent f o r t h to e x p l o r e h e a v e n , the u n d e r w o r l d , and m a g i c a l p l a c e s . H e m e e t s w i t h m a n y a d -v e n t u r e s on h i s w a y b a c k to I thaca f r o m T r o y : a ba t t le w i t h the w a r l i k e E i c o s , and e n c o u n t e r w i t h the L o t u s E a t e r s , a v i s i t w i t h C i r c e , a d e s c e n t in to H a d e s , a n e s c a p e f r o m S i r e n s , a s o j o u r n fo r s e v e n y e a r s w i t h C a l y p s o , a s h i p w r e c k and so f o r t h . S i m i l a r l y , the o l d J a p a n e s e c h r o n i c l e , the K o j i k i , r e l a t e s the a d v e n t u r e s of c e r t a i n h e r o e s : S u s a n o ' s k i l l i n g of the e ight headed s e r p e n t ( /v - f^^ .S 'o ), and Y a m a t o T a k e r u ' s a d v e n t u r e s and conques t s of the e a s t e r n r e g i o n and of the s o u t h e r n K u m a s o t r i b e . In f a i r y t a l e s we a r e a l s o t o l d of the h e r o ' s a d v e n t u r e s , a d v e n t u r e s i n w h i c h he u s u a l l y ob ta ins s u p e r i o r p o w e r o r good f o r t u n e . J o s e p h C a m p b e l l , i n h i s book The H e r o w i t h a T h o u s a n d F a c e s , s t a tes : - 1 3 -A h e r o v e n t u r e s f o r t h f r o m the w o r l d of c o m m o n day in to a r e g i o n of s u p e r n a t u r a l w o n d e r : f abu lous f o r c e s a r e t h e r e e n c o u n t e r e d . a n d d e c i s i v e v i c t o r y i s won : the h e r o c o m e s b a c k f r o m t h i s m y s t e r i o u s a d v e n t u r e w i t h the p o w e r to b e s t o w boons on h i s f e l l o w m a n . ^ The n e w w o r l d in to w h i c h the h e r o v e n t u r e s t ake s m a n y f o r m s . A s J o s e p h C a m p b e l l s a y s : T h i s f i r s t s tage of the m y t h o l o g i c a l j o u r n e y - - w h i c h we have d e s i g n a t e d the ' c a l l to a d v e n t u r e 1 - - s i g n i f i e s that d e s t i n y has s u m m o n e d the h e r o a n d t r a n s f e r r e d h i s s p i r i t u a l c e n t e r of g r a v i t y f r o m w h i c h the pa le of h i s s o c i e t y to a zone u n k n o w n ( s i c ) . T h i s fa te fu l r e g i o n of bo th t r e a s u r e a n d danger m a y be v a r i o u s l y r e p r e -sen ted : as a d i s t an t l a n d , a f o r e s t , a k i n g d o m u n d e r g r o u n d , benea th the w a v e s , o r above the s k y , a s e c r e t i s l a n d , lo f ty m o u n t a i n t o p , o r p r o f o u n d d r e a m s ta te ; but i t i s a l w a y s a p l a c e of u n i m a g i n a b l e t o r m e n t s , s u p e r h u m a n deeds , and i m p o s s i b l e d e l i g h t . R a m a a n d G e n j i a l s o en te r new w o r l d s . F o r bo th , the c a l l of a d v e n t u r e c o m e s i n t e r m s of an ' e x i l e ' : R a m a i s e x i l e d to the m o u n t a i n s a n d G e n j i to the s e a s h o r e . It w i l l b:e;useful to e x a m i n e the e x i l e of the two h e r o e s , one Ind i an a n d one J a p a n e s e , to see how the p a t t e r n of t h e i r a d v e n t u r e s t ake s shape a n d how t h i s p a t t e r n c o m p a r e s w i t h that of o the r a d v e n t u r e s t o r i e s e l s e -w h e r e i n the w o r l d . - 1 4 -A . E X I L E T O T H E S E A S H O R E A N D T H E M O U N T A I N S A l l the s a d , e x o t i c t h ings a l o n g the w a y w e r e new to h i m . The Oe s t a t i o n was i n r u i n s , w i t h on ly a g r o v e of i p i n e s to show w h e r e i t had s tood . ' M o r e r e m o t e , I fear., my. p l a c e of e x i l e t han s t o r i e d ones i n l ands b e y o n d the s e a s . 21 The above l i n e s a r e f r o m " S u m a , " a c h a p t e r that s t a r t s w i t h the l i n e , " F o r G e n j i l i f e had b e c o m e a n u n b r o k e n s u c c e s s i o n of r e v e r s e s a n d d i f f i -how h i s l i f e has changed c o m p l e t e l y . The once happy p r i n c e i s now an e x i l e . H e m a k e s no a n n o u n c e m e n t of h i s d e p a r t u r e , a n d l e a v e s the c a p i t a l , the c e n t r e of h i s w o r l d , by boat , w i t h o n l y s e v e n o r e igh t t r u s t e d r e t a i n e r s . H i s d e s t i n a t i o n i s S u m a , fo r the H e i a n n o b l e s a s t r ange f a r a w a y l a n d . In S u m a h i s l i f e u n d e r g o e s a change . He announces h i m s e l f as "a d i s c i p l e of B u d d h a " and spends h i s t i m e chan t ing s u t r a s . H i s house t h e r e i s s t r a n g e 23 a n d e x o t i c c o m p a r e d to that i n the c a p i t a l . Its fence i s "o f p l a i n t e d 24 b a m b o o a n d the p i l l a r s a r e of p ine and the s t a i r s of s tone . " O n the s e a s h o r e he l i v e s a s a d a n d quie t l i f e . He f e e l s that h i s e x i l e i s i n a s t r a n g e a n d a l i e n l a n d . The p e o p l e , the c u s t o m s , a n d e v e n the n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t a r e a l l new to h i m : G e n j i has c o m e to t h i n k about l i f e and the w o r l d m o r e than b e f o r e . E x i l e i s h i s w o r s t o r d e a l , but i t g i v e s h i m an o p p o r t u n i t y to r e f i n e h i s c h a r a c t e r . c u l t i e s " (t^.^t&fZ&^AM-fck*tn \t" ), 22 and goes on to r e v e a l The b r i g h t , open s e a s h o r e s h o w e d h i m to w o n d e r f u l advan tage . The s ea s t r e t c h e d p l a c i d i n to measu re r -l e s s d i s t a n c e s . H e thought of a l l that had happened to h i m , and a l l that was s t i l l to c o m e . ^§ - 1 5 -L a t e r we d i s c o v e r that h i s e x i l e i s a v e r y i m p o r t a n t s tage i n h i s l i f e . R a m a ' s c a se i s a l s o d r a m a t i c . J u s t be fo re he i s c r o w n e d he i s sudden ly t o l d to go in to e x i l e by Q u e e n K a i k e y i . R a m a p r e p a r e s fo r h i s b a n i s h m e n t s e r e n e l y . A l t h o u g h he i s s h o c k e d , he does not show i t : W a l k i n g on foot w i t h S i t a ( R a m a ' s . wife) the two b r o t h e r s c o n v e r s i n g , r e a c h e d the M o u n t a i n C h i t r a k u t a , f r e q u e n t e d by h e r d s of e l ephan t s and d e e r , r e n d e r e d m e l o d i o u s by f l o c k s of b i r d s a n d abound ing i n f r u i t a n d r o o t s . ^ 6 R a m a , h i s b r o t h e r ^ a k a h m a n a - ' a n d h i s w i fe S i t a , a l l c l o t h e d i n r o b e s of b a r k , go deep in to the f o r e s t a n d c r o s s the G a n g e s a n d the Y a m u n a r i v e r s . F i n a l l y they b u i l d a hut on the M o u n t a i n C h i t r a k u t a . R a m a e r e c t s a l t a r s i n the hut. The p l a c e s to w h i c h bo th h e r o e s a r e e x i l e d a r e w i l d a r e a s w i t h few p e o p l e , but t h e r e a r e m a n y a n i m a l s a n d p l a n t s . R a m a and G e n j i c a n be c o n s i d e r e d to have c o m e f r o m the u p p e r w o r l d to the p l a c e of t h e i r e x i l e , a l o w e r w o r l d . C o m p a r e d to the r e a l m of h u m a n s o c i e t y , w h e r e they u s e d to l i v e , the M o u n t a i n of C h i t r a k u t a and the bay of S u m a a r e w i l d a n d u n c h a r t e r e d w i l d e r n e s s e s . N o r t h r o p F r y e m e n t i o n s these k i n d s of " p r i m a r y n a r r a t i v e m o v e m e n t s " i n l i t e r a t u r e i n The S e c u l a r S c r i p t u r e : F r o m the b e g i n n i n g the p o e t i c i m a g i n a t i o n has i n h a b i t e d a m i d d l e e a r t h . A b o v e i t i s the s k y w i t h w h a t e v e r i t r e v e a l s o r c o n c e a l s : b e l o w i t i s a m y s t e r i o u s p l a c e of b i r t h and dea th f r o m whence a n i m a l s and p l a n t s p r o c e e d , a n d to w h i c h they r e t u r n . T h e r e a r e t h e r e f o r e fou r p r i m a r y n a r r a t i v e m o v e m e n t s i n l i t e r a t u r e . T h e s e a r e f i r s t , the de scen t f r o m a h i g h e r w o r l d ; s e c o n d , the d e s c e n t to a l o w e r w o r l d ; t h i r d , the a s c e n t f r o m a l o w e r w o r l d ; a n d f o u r t h , the a s c e n t to a h i g h e r w o r l d . A l l s t o r i e s i n l i t e r a t u r e a r e c o m p l i c a t i o n s of, o r m e t a p h o r i c a l d e r i v a -t i o n s f r o m , these fou r n a r r a t i v e r a d i c a l s . The e x i l e of R a m a and G e n j i c a n be seen i n t e r m s of the s e c o n d m o v e m e n t , a d e s c e n t to a l o w e r w o r l d . L a k s h m a n a a c c o m p a n i e s h i s b r o t h e r R a m a in to e x i l e . H i s bes t f r i e n d and h i s devo tee , he l o v e s R a m a "as h i s v e r y se l f , he i s , as i t 28 w e r e , a s e c o n d R a m a . " " F r y e p o i n t s out that t w i n s , o r d o p p e l g a n g e r 29 f i g u r e s , a r e v e r y p r o m i n e n t i n de scen t i m a g e r y . F r y e a l s o m e n t i o n s m e t a m o r p h o s i s , s a y i n g , " A n i m a l c o m p a n i o n s 3 a r e f requen t i n d e s c e n t t h e m e s , as p a r t o f the p a t t e r n of m e t a m o r p h o s i s . " In t h i s con tex t , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that R a m a a l l i e s h i m s e l f w i t h m o n k e y s and b e a r s to k i l l the d e m o n k i n g . A n i m a l s a r e , a f t e r a l l , a n a t u r a l p a r t of that l o w e r w o r l d to w h i c h the h e r o e s have been e x i l e d . In a l o w e r w o r l d the h e r o has to face m a n y d i f f i c u l t i e s . B u t a n i m p o r t a n t po in t of the d e s c e n t to a l o w e r w o r l d i s that the h e r o ob ta ins g o o d for tune t h r o u g h h i s o r d e a l s . H i s g r i e v o u s m i s f o r t u n e t u r n s out to be f o r t u i t o u s i n the end . It i s i r o n i c that w h e n the h e r o e x p e r i e n c e s e n d l e s s m i s f o r t u n e s he ob ta ins h i s " t i c k e t " to the u p p e r w o r l d . L e t u s c o n s i d e r the ca se of G e n j i . A n e x t r e m e l y b a d s t o r m h i t s S u m a , so bad that the l i g h t n i n g , and thunde r s e e m to announce the end of the w o r l d . T h e n , w h e n a g a l l e r y a d j o i n i n g G e n j i ' s r o o m i s s t r u c k by l i g h t n i n g , he i s f r i g h t e n e d a l m o s t out of h i s w i t s . " T h e r e a r e no w o r d s - -• l o n e l y 1 and ' f o r l o n e ' s e e m m u c h too w e a k - - to d e s c r i b e h i s f e e l i n g s . * F u r t h e r m o r e , m y s t e r i o u s th ings b e g i n to happen . A n u n k n o w n m a n c o m e s to h i m i n a d r e a m a n d t e l l s h i m that the c o u r t s u m m o n s h i m . G e n j i t h i n k s i t :mu3 ! t be the k i n g of the sea who t ake s a f a n c y to h a n d s o m e m e n . F i n a l l y , i n a d r e a m he has a f t e r the s t o r m , h i s l a te f a the r c o m e s to h i m a n d w a r m s h i m not to s tay i n S u m a . A f t e r a l l t h i s , G e n j i d e c i d e s that he m u s t l e a v e . ^2 A s K e n A k i y a m a s a y s , " G e n j i shows h i s m y s t e r i o u s p o w e r by b e i n g 33 e x i l e d . . . " , the s a m e s t o r m h i t s the c i t y , and h i s l a t e f a the r has a l s o 34 a p p e a r e d i n G e n j i ' s e l d e r b r o t h e r ' s d r a m i n i l l h u m o r . B e c a u s e of t h i s b a d d r e a m a n d the s t o r m , G e n j i ' s b r o t h e r , the e m p e r o r , c o m e s to have s o r e e y e s , a n d e v e n t u a l l y a l l o w s G e n j i to r e t u r n to the c i t y . T h u s , e v e r y t h i n g that happened he lp s G e n j i w i t h h i s r e t u r n to the c i t y . The s t o r m , the G o d of S u m i y o s h i , the o ther c o u n t l e s s G o d s ( / ' \ i 7j a) fyfy ), H e a v e n ( ^ ) , the k i n g of the sea (% i . ), a n d G e n j i ' s l a t e f a the r : these th ings c o m e up i n " S u m a " and " A k a s h i " w h i c h d e a l G e n j i ' s e x i l e . F i n a l l y , f o l l o w i n g the s u g g e s t i o n s of h i s f a t h e r ' s ghos t , G e n j i d e c i d e s to 35 m o v e to the A k a s h i c o a s t . T h e r e he m e e t s a young g i r l , the daugh te r of a f o r m e r g o v e r n o r of H a r i m a ( B^'fJ'NJJL-) » who i s d e s t i n e d to b e c o m e the m o t h e r of G e n j i ' s o n l y d a u g h t e r . F o r H e i a n n o b l e s , d a u g h t e r s w e r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t , b e c a u s e t h r o u g h t h e m the f a the r m i g h t b e c o m e f a t h e r - i n -l a w to an E m p e r o r a n d thus g a i n a m e a s u r e of c o n t r o l o v e r c o u r t p o l i t i c s . - 1 8 -W h e n G e n j i l e a r n s that a daugh te r has been s a f e l y b o r n , he r e j o i c e s a n d r e m e m b e r s what the fo r tune t e l l e r had once t o l d h i m : that he w o u l d have t h r e e c h i l d r e n , a n d two of t h e m w e r e c e r t a i n to b e c o m e a n e m p e r o r a n d a n 36 e m p r e s s . F o r G e n j i the m o s t e x t r a v a g a n t hopes of the H e i a n n o b l e s a r e to c o m e t r u e . N o w le t us l o o k at R a m a . He f a l l s in to the depth of d e s p a i r w h e n he b e c o m e s i n f o r m e d of S i t a ' s d i s a p p e a r a n c e . T h i s i s one of the r a r e o c c a s i o n s i n w h i c h he shows e m o t i o n : T h e r e i s none i n the w o r l d I d e e m m o r e w r e t c h e d than I; m i s f o r t u n e a f t e r m i s f o r t u n e f o l l o w e a c h o the r i n u n i n t e r -r u p t e d s u c c e s s i o n ; i t i s b r e a k i n g m y h e a r t . S u r e l y , f o r -m e r l y I e i t h e r d e s i g n e d o r e x e c u t e d i n n u m e r a b l e e v i l a c t s and now t h e i r f r u i t has m a t u r e d and g r e a t e r and g r e a t e r c a l a m i t i e s bese t m e ! The l o s s of m y k i n g d o m , s e p a r a t i o n f r o m m y r e l a t i v e s , the p a r t i n g f r o m m y m o t h e r , the r e -m e m b r a n c e of these t h ings a d d to the s u m of m i n e u n -h a p p i n e s s . ^7 R a m a , who s h o w e d no s i g n of d i s t r e s s e v e n w h e n he k n e w he w a s to be e x i l e d , d e s p a i r s i n t h i s w a y . U n c o n t r o l l a b l e a n g e r s t r i k e s h i m . He t e l l s L a k s h m a n a , O L a k s h m a n a , m y v i r t u e s s h a l l be o v e r s h a d o w e d today , as thou sha l t s o o n w i t n e s s , a n d m y w r a t h be m a n i f e s t i n the d e s t r u c t i o n of the d e m o n s and a l l c r e a t e d b e i n g s . T h u s R a m a ' s w r a t h l e a d s h i m to the s l a y i n g of R a v a n a . The G o d s he lp R a m a as m u c h as p o s s i b l e . T h e y l e n d h i m a c h a r i o t , a c h a r i o t e e r , a n d I n d r a ' s bow w h e n he engages i n the f ight w i t h R a v a n a . T h u s R a m a a c c o m p l i s h e s h i s a i m w i t h a i d f r o m the u p p e r w o r l d . B u t the r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween a n u p p e r w o r l d and a l o w e r w o r l d i n The R a m a y a n a i s m o r e d y n a m i c than that of the G e n j i . H e r e we have to r e m e m b e r the -19-fact that the G o d s c r e a t e d the d w e l l e r s i n the woods to a s s i s t R a m a . We c o u l d s ay R a m a ' s e x i l e i s a p l a n n e d a c t i o n . T h i s p l a n of the u p p e r w o r l d i s r e v e a l e d by s o m e of the c h a r a c t e r s . B h a r a t a d e c i d e s to a s k h i s b r o t h e r , R a m a , to r e t u r n to the c i t y a n d b e c o m e k i n g i n s t e a d of h i m . O n h i s w a y to R a m a ' s p l a c e of e x i l e , he i s e n t e r t a i n e d by the g r e a t R i s h i , B h a r a d v j a . He t e l l s B h a r a t a , O . B h a r a t a , thou s h o u l d s t not r e p r o a c h K a i k e y i ; R a m a ' s e x i l e w i l l p r o v e a s o u r c e of g r e a t g o o d to the G o d s , the D a n a v a s a n d the p u r e - s o u l e d R i s h i s h e r e . C h a r i o t e e r S u m a n t r a a l s o t e l l s R a m a , O h e r o , o f f s p r i n g of R a g h u R a c e , th ine e x i l e i n the f o r e s t w i t h V a i d e h i a n d thy b r o t h e r w i l l e a r n thee a d e s t i n y e q u a l to v i c t o r y o v e r the T h r e e W o r l d . ^ In The R a m a y a n a a n d The T a l e of G e n j i , t hen , we see the s a m e p a t t e r n : e x i l e b r i n g s good f o r t u n e . H o w e v e r , one m a y r a i s e q u e s t i o n s : w h y i s the h e r o e s ' s e x i l e n e c e s s a r y f o r the w o r k i n g out of t h e i r d e s t i n i e s ? W h y a r e the t h e m e s of descen t a n d a s c e n t i m p o r t a n t ? T o a n s w e r these q u e s t i o n s , we have to d i s c u s s the cause of the e x i l e . R a m a ' s e x i l e i s c a u s e d by two boons g i v e n to h i s s t e p m o t h e r , Q u e e n K e i k e y i . T h e y a r e g r a n t e d by K i n g D a s a r a t h a b e c a u s e she s a v e d h i s l i f e w h e n the k i n g w a s s e r i o u s l y wounded d u r i n g the c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n the G o d s a n d the A s u r a s . The Q u e e n d e m a n d s the e n t h r o n e m e n t of h e r son , B h a r a t a , a n d R a m a ' s b a n i s h m e n t f o r the p e r i o d of f o u r t e e n y e a r s . Q u e e n K e i k e y i u s e d to be a - 2 0 -good m o t h e r to R a m a , a n d , at f i r s t , she i s v e r y p l e a s e d to k n o w he w o u l d b e c o m e k i n g . It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to see how the Q u e e n has h e r m i n d c h a n g e d 41 by the s u g g e s t i o n of M a n t h a r a . F o r the Q u e e n i s o n l y a w o m a n who w a n t e d h e r own son to b e c o m e a k i n g . The K i n g , D a s a r a t h a , l i s t e n i n g to the Q u e e n ' s d e m a n d , l o s e s h i s m i n d . The s c e n e s d e s c r i b i n g how R a m a ' s e x i l e i s a c c e d e d to by h i s f a the r u n d e r p r e s s u r e of the Q u e e n a r e f u l l of p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o m p l i c a t i o n s . G r o a n i n g , the K i n g , l i k e unto one w i thou t s u p p o r t , w h o s e h e a r t had been e n s l a v e d by that w o m a n b e y o n d a l l m e a s u r e , f e l l down be fo re the Q u e e n , who s tood at a d i s t a n c e , so that he c o u l d not t o u c h h e r feet; a n d he a p p e a r e d l i k e one who has l o s t h i s w i t s . 42 It i s t r u e that the k i n g had to be f a i t h fu l to h i s w o r d s . A l s o , R a m a k n e w a n d r e p e a t e d l y s a i d that l o y a l t y to o n e ' s f a t h e r ' s w o r d s i s a r i g i d du ty . B u t we have to note what R a m a s a i d to L a k s h m a n a : O Son of S u m i t r a , i t i s d e s t i n y one s h o u l d r e c o g n i z e i n m y b a n i s h m e n t a n d l a t e r i n m y r e g a i n i n g of a l o s t k i n g -o m . M a n ' s p a s s i o n s s o m e t i m e s d r i v e h i m u n r e a s o n a b l y . E v e n i f he k n o w s i t he cannot he lp i t . A f t e r a l l , that i s d e s t i n y . T o m a k e t h i s m a t t e r c l e a r e r we s h a l l e x a m i n e the p r o b l e m c o n -c e r n i n g the cause of G e n j i ' s e x i l e . The T a l e of G e n j i does not m e n t i o n any p r e c i s e c a u s e s f o r h i s e x i l e . It i s p a r t l y b e c a u s e The T a l e of G e n j i i s a c o u r t l y l o v e s t o r y that m o s t of the s c e n e s that a r e d e s c r i b e d a r e those of G e n j i ' s p r i v a t e l i f e , and l i k e w i s e h i s o f f i c i a l l i f e i s g e n e r a l l y o n l y h i n t e d at t h roughou t m o s t of the t a l e . L a d y M u r a s a k i tends to r e v e a l l i t t l e w h e n i t c o m e s to v e r y i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r s . F r o m s tud i e s by. J a p a n e s e s c h o l a r s , one t h i n g , h o w e v e r , i s c l e a r : G e n j i ' s e x i l e has s o m e t h i n g to do w i t h h i s s e c r e t l o v e a f f a i r w i t h h i s s t e p m o t h e r , F u j i t s u b o . ^ T h e y had a son , p r i n c e R e i z e i , who g r e w up as G e n j i ' s y o u n g e r b r o t h e r . T o s e c u r e R e i z e i ' s fu ture e n t h r o n e m e n t , G e n j i had to be e x i l e d to S u m a . T h i s i s one u n a n i m o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s e x i l e . In " S u m a " G e n j i m u s e s , I c a n t h i n k of a s i n g l e offence fo r w h i c h I m u s t u n d e r g o s t r a n g e , s a d p u n i s h m e n t , a n d b e c a u s e of i t I t r e m b l e be fo re the h e a v e n . T h o u g h I w o u l d not c a r e i n the l e a s t i f m y own u n w o r t h y s e l f w e r e to v a n i s h a w a y , I o n l y hope that the c r o w n p r i n c e ' s r e i g n i s wi thou t unhappy AC. event . H o w e v e r , one has to c o n s i d e r the d i f f i c u l t y of w h e t h e r G e n j i ' s s t e p m o t h e r , K o k i d e n , k n e w that R e i z e i w a s G e n j i ' s son . N o , she d i d not . V e r y few p e o p l e k n e w of i t . G e n j i ' s l o v e a f f a i r w i t h O b o r o z u k i y o a n d the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n of that t i m e c o u l d a l s o , i n p a r t e x p l a i n G e n j i ' s e x i l e . A b e , who s t u d i e d G e n j i i n e x i l e i n h i s book , G e n j i m o n o g a t a r i k e n k y u j o s e t s u , e x a m i n e d the cause of G e n j i ' s e x i l e f r o m a l l p o s s i b l e a s p e c t s : p o l i t i c s , h i s t o r y , l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n , a n d so on . T h e n he c o n c l u d e d by p o i n t i n g out a m o t i f of o l d t a l e s c a l l e d , " ^f£ ? f L jpjjj " ( E x i l e r e t u r n i n g and s u c c e e d -i n g ) . - 2 2 -We have to c o n c l u d e that the a n s w e r to the q u e s t i o n why G e n j i le f t the c i t y a n d went to S u m a cannot be found a n y -w h e r e e l s e but, that the au tho r p l a n n e d to c o n s t r u c t the s t o r i e s of S u m a a n d A k a s h i a c c o r d i n g to the p l a n , " ;lL$f ify "» a s l o n § a s we cannot get any r e a s o n a b l e a n s w e r s . 46 We f i n d the s a m e m o t i f i n o l d J a p a n e s e t a l e s b e g i n n i n g w i t h the K o g i k i and the N i h o n S h o k i . T o s h i k a g e ' s s t o r y of U t s u b o m o n o g a t a r i a n d N a r i h i r a ' s t r i p to the eas t of Ise m o n o g a t a r i a r e e x a m p l e s . We c a n a l s o see t h i s m o t i f i n w e s t e r n l i t e r a t u r e . The e x i l e r e t u r n i n g a n d s u c -c e e d i n g i s a d o m i n a n t m o t i f i n a h e r o ' s a c c o m p l i s h i n g h i s g o a l i n sp i t e of g r e a t d i f f i c u l t i e s , a n d then l i v i n g a happy l i f e . T h i s m o t i f i s s a i d to o r i g i n a t e f r o m the r i t e of p a s s a g e A £\> ). In t h i s r i t e , a p e r s o n i s g i v e n a p r o p h e c y by h i s f o r e f a t h e r . S i m i -l a r l y , i n the m o t i f , e x i l e , r e t u r n i n g , a n d s u c c e e d i n g , the h e r o i s r e l i e v e d f r o m h i s o r d e a l by m e e t i n g h i s dead a n c e s t o r , j u s t a s the d e c e a s e d f a t h e r s of R a m a a n d G e n j i a p p e a r e d to t h e m . L e t us l o o k at these s c e n e s . A f t e r R a m a k i l l e d R a v a n a , h i s l a t e f a t h e r , K i n g D a s a r a t h a , a p -p e a r e d s tand ing i n h i s a e r i a l c a r , a n d s a i d : F a r f r o m thee I do not p r i z e the h e a v e n i n w h i c h I d w e l l w i t h the G o d s , O R a m a , t h i s i s the t r u t h ! O M o s t E l o -quent of M e n , the w o r d s a d d r e s s e d to m e by K a i k e y i , w h i c h w e r e d e s i g n e d to effect thy b a n i s h m e n t , have n e v e r been e r a s e d f r o m m i n e h e a r t ! E m b r a c i n g theee and L a k s h m a n a and b e h o l d i n g thee w e l l and happy , I a m d e l i v e r e d f r o m m i n e a f f i l i c t i o n as the sun w h e n the m i s t has been d i s -p e l l e d . 4 8 T h e n he added : - 2 3 -The t e r m of th ine e x i l e i s o v e r , thy v o w s h o n o u r e d , a n d f u r t h e r , by s l a y i n g R a v a n a on the b a t t l e f i e l d , thou has t g r a t i f i e d the G o d s . T h y t a s k i s a c c o m p l i s h e d ; thou has t w o n i n f i n i t e r e n o u n , O s l a y e r of T h y F o e s ; now, i n s t a l l e d as k i n g , m a y s t thou w i t h thy b r o t h e r s , l i v e f o r a l ong t i m e ! ^ The a p p e a r a n c e of the l a t e f a the r l e a d s the h e r o to a new w o r l d . R e t u r n a n d s u c c e s s a r e now w a i t i n g f o r h i m . A l s o , i n t h i s s c e n e , we note that R a m a ' s f a the r h i m s e l f i s s a v e d f r o m a n x i e t y . B e f o r e h i s a p p e a r a n c e to R a m a , K i n g D a s a r a t h a has not en joyed h i s l i f e i n h e a v e n . T u r n i n g to G e n j i ' s m e e t i n g w i t h h i s f a t h e r , ' we f i n d that the h o w l i n g t e m p e s t a t t a c k s S u m a , and f i n a l l y l i g h t n i n g s t r u c k G e n j i ' s r o o m s . H e i s t hen m o v e d to a b u i l d i n g at the b a c k , a k i t c h e n o r s o m e t h i n g of that s o r t , w h e r e he i s c r o w d e d toge the r w i t h m a n y p e o p l e w h o m he does not u s u a l l y see o r speak to . A f t e r the c o n f u s i o n that a l m o s t d r o v e e v e r y o n e m a d e , G e n j i i s e x h a u s t e d and d o z e s off. In h i s d r e a m h i s l a t e f a the r a p p e a r s to h i m . T h i s d r e a m e v e n t u a l l y b r i n g s h i m h a p p i n e s s a g a i n . G e n j i ' s f a the r a l s o a p p e a r s i n the e m p e n o r ' s d r e a m a n d s t a r e s at h i m . The e m p e r o r , G e n j i ' s e l d e r b r o t h e r , i s o b s e s s e d by t h i s b a d d r e a m . A f t e r h i s i l l n e s s he d e c i d e s to a l l o w G e n j i to r e t u r n to the c a p i t a l . A l s o , at h i s f a t h e r ' s s u g g e s t i o n , G e n j i m o v e s to A k a s h i , m e e t s a g i r l , a n d b e c o m e s the fa ther of the fu ture e m p r e s s . A g a i n we f i n d the same p a t t e r n as we d i d i n the s t o r y of R a m a . The l a t e f a t h e r s a r e f r o m the o the r w o r l d a n d a r e sub jec t to that w o r l d . The h e r o e s go t h r o u g h a n o r d e a l at the r i s k of t h e i r l i v e s , a f t e r w h i c h t h e i r l a t e f a t h e r s a p p e a r a n d announce t h e i r r e t u r n to the w o r l d . - 2 4 -T o s u p p o r t m y c o n t e n t i o n , I w o u l d l i k e to quote the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s d e s c r i b i n g G e n j i ' s d r e a m a n d h i s f a t h e r ' s p a r t i n i t : The o l d e m p e r o r c a m e to h i m , qu i te as w h e n he had l i v e d . " A n d why a r e y o u i n t h i s w r e t c h e d p l a c e ? " H e took G e n j i ' s hand a n d p u l l e d h i m to h i s feet . " Y o u m u s t do as the god of S u m i y o s h i t e l l s y o u . Y o u m u s t put out to sea i m m e d i a t e l y . Y o u m u s t l e a v e t h i s s h o r e b e h i n d . " " S i n c e I l a s t s aw y o u , s i r , " s a i d G e n j i , . o v e r j o y e d , "I have s u f f e r e d a n u n b r o k e n s e r i e s of m i s f o r t u n e s . I had thought of t h r o w i n g m y s e l f i n to the s e a . " " T h a t y o u m u s t not do . Y o u a r e u n d e r g o i n g b r i e f p u n i s h m e n t fo r c e r t a i n s i n s . I m y s e l f d i d not c o m m i t any c o n s c i o u s c r i m e s w h i l e I r e i g n e d , but a p e r s o n i s g u i l t y of t r a n s g r e s s i o n s a n d o v e r s i g h t s w i thou t h i s be ing a w a r e of t h e m . I a m do ing penance a n d have no t i m e to l o o k b a c k t o w a r d s t h i s w o r l d . B u t a n e c h o of y o u r t r o u b l e s c a m e to m e a n d I c o u l d not s t and i d l e . I fought m y w a y t h r o u g h the sea a n d up to t h i s s h o r e and I a m v e r y t i r e d ; but n o w that I a m h e r e I m u s t see to a m a t t e r i n the c i t y , " A n d he d i s a p p e a r e d . ^ ° T h u s f a r we have s e e n how the s t o r i e s of the h e r o e s ' s e x i l e s f o l l o w the m o t i f of the e x i l e r e t u r n i n g and s u c c e e d i n g . It i s c l e a r that the m o t i f i s d o m i n a n t i n bo th s t o r i e s . B u t I w o u l d l i k e f u r t h e r to po in t out that b o t h s t o r i e s a r e m o r e than m e r e m o d e l p a t t e r n s of the m o t i f . I s h a l l sugges t two p o i n t s for t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . The f i r s t p o i n t i s the n a t u r e of e x i l e , a n d the s e c o n d i s that n e i t h e r of the s t o r i e s ends w i t h a n a c c o u n t of the h e r o e s ' s r e t u r n and s u c c e s s . T h e s e a r g u m e n t s w i l l b e c o m e the m a i n focus of the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r of t h i s t h e s i s . In the p r e s e n t c h a p t e r , h o w e v e r , I w o u l d l i k e to p a y a t t e n t i o n to the l a t e r s t o r i e s of the even ts b e -f a l l i n g the h e r o e s a f t e r t h e i r r e t u r n f r o m e x i l e . - 2 5 -We c a n c o m e to u n d e r s t a n d the h e a r t of the c u l t u r e s by c o n s i d e r i n g the c a u s e s of the h e r o e s ' s e x i l e s . F o r R a m a , i t i s " D h a r m a " ( t] * ) . F o r G e n j i i t i s " f a t e " i * ) as u n d e r s t o o d by the B u d d h i s t s . T h e s e c o n c e p t s a r e e s s e n t i a l p a r t s of e a c h of the r e s p e c t i v e c u l t u r e s . R a m a d e c i d e d to d w e l l i n the f o r e s t to f o l l o w h i s f a t h e r ' s w o r d s ; he i s f a i t h f u l to h i s f a t h e r ' s w o r d s b e c a u s e i t i s D h a r m a . K n g D a s a r a t h a had to f o l l o w the c r u e l r e q u e s t of Q u e e n K e i k e y i b e c a u s e he h a d g r a n t e d h e r two b o o n s , a n d he c o u l d not v i o l a t e h i s p r o m i s e . In Ind i an thought , m a n c a n c o n t r i b u t e to the m a i n t e n a n c e of the c o s m i c o r d e r by a n a b s o l u t e f i d e l i t y to the s o l e m n 51 w o r d . R a m a , on s o m e o c c a s i o n s , m e n t i o n s the d e s t i n y of h u m a n b e i n g s . B u t wha t m a d e h i s e x i l e p o s s i b l e i n the s t o r y i s the concep t of D h a r m a - -the h i g h e s t a i m of a m a n . W h e n we t h i n k about G e n j i ' s e x i l e , we n o t i c e that a d a r k shadow c o v e r s the s t o r y . G e n j i often c l a i m s that he i s i n n o c e n t , but a l w a y s he f e a r s one t h i n g : h i s s i n f u l l o v e f o r h i s s t e p m o t h e r , F u j i t s u b o . T h e i r s o n i s g r o w i n g up as G e n j i ' s f a t h e r ' s s o n . T h i s o b s e s s i o n b e c o m e s a f u n d a -• 52 m e n t a l m o t i v a t i o n of h i s r e t i r e m e n t to the s e a s h o r e . In the s t r i c t e s t s ense of the t e r m , we m a y not c a l l h i s r e t i r e m e n t to S u m a e x i l e , b e c a u s e T h e T a l e of G e n j i does not s ay any th ing c l e a r l y about the sub j ec t . B u t , i t s e e m s qui te p o s s i b l e that G e n j i has d e c i d e d to l e a v e the c a p i t a l be fo re the f i n a l d e c i s i o n i s m a d e at c o u r t . H o w e v e r that m a y be , G e n j i i s l i v i n g i n f e a r of the c o n s e q u e n c e s of h i s s i n f u l a c t . In J a p a n e s e thought , s u c h a s i n f u l a c t a r i s e s as a r e s u l t of deeds i n a pa s t l i f e , a n d i s t h e r e f o r e u n a v o i d a b l e as l o n g as the s u c c e s s i o n 53 of h u m a n i n c a r n a t i o n s c o n t i n u e s . In m a n y s t o r i e s f o l l o w i n g the m o t i f of the e x i l e who r e t u r n s a n d s u c -c e e d s , the c a u s e s of e x i l e a r e e x t e r n a l , a n d a l w a y s f o r c e d by some ou t s i de p o w e r . H o w e v e r , i n The R a m a y a n a a n d The T a l e of G e n j i ; we c a n see i n -t e r n a l c a u s e s as w e l l as e x t e r n a l o n e s . We c a n i n t e r p r e t t h i s a s p e c t as a n e v o l u t i o n i n the g e n r e . T h i s i s p r o b a b l y one r e a s o n p e o p l e h b l d bo th w o r k s i n h i g h r e g a r d . So f a r , the d i s c u s s i o n has c e n t e r e d on the two h e r o e s ' s e x i l e . T o c l a r i f y the p a r a l l e l e l e m e n t s i n bo th c a s e s , i t i s u s e f u l to c o n s i d e r thV.tabJe- on page 27 . - 2 7 -R A M A G E N J I ( c a u s e ) s t e p m o t h e r ' s i n t r i g u e a n d concep t of D h a r m a ( m o u n t a i n s abound w i t h a n i m a l s and p l a n t s S i t a ' s a b d u c t i o n a n d the w a r w i t h R a v a n a B r a h m a a n d the G o d s s t e p m o t h e r ' s i n t r i g u e a n d concep t of fate ( ^ i * ) (^exi led p l a c e ) s e a s h o r e , r e m o t e , e x o t i c ( o r d e a l ) s t o r m ("aids) the G o d of S u m i y o s h i the o the r c o u n t l e s s G o d s the K n g of the s ea the ghos t of the e m p e r o r ( a p p e a r a n c e of f o r e f a t h e r ) the l a t e e m p e r o r ( for tune) d e s t r u c t i o n of the d e m o n s m a r r i a g e a n d the b i r t h of a daugh te r K i n g D a s a r a t h a - 2 8 -B . T H E M O T I F O F T H E E X I L E R E T U R N I N G A N D S U C C E E D I N G T o m a k e the po in t of o u r d i s c u s s i o n c l e a r e r , I s h a l l i n t r o d u c e the s t o r y of T o s h i k a g e i n The T a l e of U t s u b o ( T o s h i k a g e ' s s t o r y a l s o f o l l o w s the s a m e m o t i f ) . The T a l e of U t s u b o i s s a i d to date f r o m the m i d d l e of the t en th c e n t u r y , a p p r o x i m a t e l y one h u n d r e d a n d f i f ty y e a r s be fo re the G e n j i w a s w r i t t e n . T h i s t a l e i s the l o n g e s t l i t e r a r y w o r k w r i t t e n b e f o r e the G e n j i . I ts m a i n s t o r y i s about a ko to (a k i n d of h a r p o r z i t h e r ) b e l o n g i n g to T o s h i k a g e K i y o h a r a , w h o s e i n s t r u m e n t a n d s k i l l a r e handed down to h i s daugh te r a n d g r a n d s o n . In p a r t , the m a i n p l o t i s about the c o u r t s h i p of b e a u t i f u l P r i n c e s s A t e . A c t u a l l y , t h i s w o r k f o c u s e s on the r o l e of a r t i n l i f e , a n d the au tho r t r i e s to c o n v e y the g l o r y of m u s i c a n d i t s s u p r e m e v a l u e i n l i f e . The f i r s t " m a i n c h a r a c t e r we m e e t i n t h i s t a l e , T o s h i k a g e , ob ta ins d i v i n e k o t o s i n a r e m o t e l a n d and l e a r n s k o t o m u s i c f r o m the h e a v e n l y b e i n g s t h e r e . T h u s , T o s h i k a g e ' s s t o r y be longs to the m o t i f of the e x i l e r e t u r n i n g a n d s u c c e e d i n g . The T a l e of U t s u b o b e g i n s by t e l l i n g a f a n t a s t i c a l s t o r y w h i c h i s v e r y b r i e f , t a k i n g up o n l y a l i t t l e m o r e than twenty pages i n the N i h o n R>ten T a i k e i t ex t . L o r d ) K i y o h a r a and h i s w i f e , who i s a p r i n c e s s , have a n o n l y s o n . W h e n t h e i r son , T o s h i k a g e , i s s t i l l v e r y young , he i s so - 2 9 -ou t s t and ing i n h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e that the e m p e r o r r e q u e s t s the p r o m i n e n t s c h o l a r s 54 of that age to e x a m i n e h i s k n o w l e d g e . T o s h i k a g e p a s s e s those d i f f i c u l t e x -a m i n a t i o n s i n C h i n e s e wi thou t any d i f f i c u l t y . It i s i m p o s s i b l e to f i n d anyone to r i v a l h i m i n i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s . H i s p a r e n t s l o v e h i m v e r y m u c h , but w h e n he r e a c h e s the age of s ixteen," he i s a p p o i n t e d as a n envoy to C h i n a . B e c a u s e o f the g r e a t dange r i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s o r t of 55 t r i p i n those d a y s , h i s p a r e n t s a r e g r i e f s t r i c k e n . The t h r e e J a p a n e s e envoy s h i p s a r e h i t by a ga le ' on t h e i r w a y to C h i n a , w h i c h s h i p w r e c k s two of t h e m . B u t , T o s h i k a g e ' s sh ip i s d r i v e n a w a y a n d onto the s e a s h o r e of H a s h i ( p r o b a b l y a c o u n t r y s i t u a t e d n e a r C h i n a , w h i c h s o m e s c h o l a r s i den t i fy 56 w i t h one of the South Sea i s l a n d s , o r even" P e r s i a ) . - F r o m the s e a s h o r e , a w h i t e h o r s e t a k e s h i m in to the g r o v e of a f a i r y l a n d , w h e r e he m e e t s t h r e e p e o p l e p l a y i n g the k o t o , a n d w i t h w h o m he s t u d i e s u n t i l he has l e a r n e d a l l o f t h e i r m u s i c . The f o l l o w i n g y e a r he h e a r s the s o u n d . In the t h i r d y e a r he r e a c h e s a p l a c e w h e r e a n A s u r a ( S a n s k r i t , a d e m o n u s u a l l y l i v i n g i n the sea) i s cu t t ing down a huge d i v i n e t r e e . W h e n T o s h i k a g e a s k s h i m i f he c o u l d have a p i e c e of w o o d to m a k e a k o t o , the A s u r a b e c o m e s a n g r y , a n d a l m o s t ea ts h i m . B u t , T o s h i k a g e i s s a v e d by a d i v i n e c h i l d , w i t h a 57 m e s s a g e on a g o l d e n c a r d f r o m h e a v e n , r i d i n g on a d r a g o n . T o s h i k a g e then ob ta ins t h r e e k o t o s f r o m the A s u r a , a n d r e s u m e s h i s j o u r n e y to the w e s t . In the t h i r d y e a r he sees a h e a v e n l y m a i d d e s c e n d i n g f r o m the s k y . - 3 0 - . She n a m e s h i s bes t two k o t o s , " N a n h u " (the sou th w i n d ) , a n d " H a s h i h u " (the w i n d of H a s h i ) , a n d sugges t s that he go to see h e r s e v e n c h i l d r e n l i v i n g to the w e s t . T h i s p l a c e i s d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g eas t of I n d i a , a n d l e a r n m o r e about ko to m u s i c t h e r e . T o s h i k a g e a g a i n goes t o w a r d the w e s t a n d m e e t s s e v e n peop le l i v i n g on s e v e n m o u n t a i n s . T h e y p l a y T o s h i k a g e ' s k o t o s a n d the sound r e a c h e s the c o u n t r y of B u d d h a . B u d d h a t h e r e u p o n a p p e a r s i n f ron t of T o s h i k a g e and the s e v e n p e o p l e , t e l l i n g t h e m of t h e i r f o r m e r l i v e s a n d p r e d i c t i n g that one of the s e v e n p e o p l e w i l l be b o r n as T o s h i k a g e ' s d e s c e n d a n t . ^ T o s h i k a g e then r e t u r n s to J a p a n a f t e r t w e n t y - t h r e e y e a r s a b s e n c e a n d i n f o r m s the. e m p e r o r of h i s j o u r n e y . I m p r e s s e d by h i s s t o r y , the e m p e r o r g r a n t s h i m a h i g h r a n k . T o s h i k a g e then m a r r i e s a n o b l e l a d y , a n d has a daugh te r to w h o m he t e a c h e s h i s ko to m u s i c . W h e n e v e r he p l a y s 59 h i s k o t o , m i r a c l e s take p l a c e . W h e n h i s daugh te r t u r n s f i f t een , he b e c o m e s i l l , but b e f o r e he d i e s , he g i v e s h e r the two k o t o s n a m e d by the h e a v e n l y m a i d . T o s h i k a g e ' s s t o r y ends i n t h i s w a y . The m a t e r i a l s of t h i s s t o r y m a y have been p i c k e d up f r o m those p a r t s of the B u d d h i s t c a n o n d e s c r i b i n g the w o r l d of . .heavenly be ings a n d r e m o t e i m a g i n a r y l a n d s . B u t i f we l o o k at t h i s s t o r y m o r e c l o s e l y , we w i l l n o t i c e that i t f o l l o w s the s a m e m o t i f a s The R a m a y a n a a n d The T a l e of G e n j i . The g o l d e n m e s s a g e c a r d b r o u g h t by the d i v i n e c h i l d t o l d T o s h i k a g e that he w o u l d be r e b o r n i n the fu ture as a de scendan t of the h e a v e n l y m a i d e n . It was a l s o p r e d i c t e d that one of h e r s e v e n c h i l d r e n w o u l d b e c o m e T o s h i k a g e ' s g r a n d c h i l d . In o the r w o r d s , the h e a v e n l y m a i d a n d the s e v e n peop le w h o m T o s h i k a g e m e t i n the l a t t e r p a r t of h i s j o u r n e y take the s a m e r o l e s as that of G e n j i ' s l a t e f a the r a n d K i n g D a s a r a t h a . ^ T h r o u g h h i s j o u r n e y T o s h i k a g e ob ta ins the d i v i n e k o t o s a n d l e a r n s ko to m u s i c , w h i c h b r i n g s h i m a n d h i s p r o g e n y g r e a t f o r t u n e . In the l a s t c h a p t e r of t h i s t a l e we a r e t o l d that i n h i s n e w l y b u i l t t o w e r T o s h i k a g e ' s g r a n d s o n N a k a t a d a t e a c h e s h i s daugh te r Inu m i y a the ko to m u s i c w h i c h has b e e n handed down f r o m T o s h i k a g e . One y e a r l a t e r , on the l a s t day of the i n s t r u c t i o n , a l l the p e o p l e , i n c l u d i n g the e m p e r o r a n d the e m p r e s s , ga the r a r o u n d the tower . T h e r e , c o u n t l e s s n u m b e r s of p e o p l e a r e a l l s t r u c k w i t h a d m i r a t i o n at the d i v i n e ko to m u s i c . The t a l e ends by s ta t ing that the w o r l d s e e m e d to b e c o m e a p a r a d i s e b e c a u s e of the d i v i n e m u s i c . I w o u l d l i k e to p o i n t out that the m a i n i d e a of T h e T a l e of U t s u b o i s set up i n the s t o r y of T o s h i k a g e . A l l the g l o r y and the m i r a c u l o u s p h e n o m e n a a r e m a d e p o s s i b l e by the e f for t w h i c h T o s h i k a g e had e x e r t e d d u r i n g h i s j o u r n e y to the w e s t . T h u s the G e n j i a n d The R a m a y a n a a r e not u n u s u a l i n d e a l i n g w i t h the t h e m e of the h e r o who i s s u f f e r i n g . T h e r e a r e n u m e r o u s o the r w o r k s on t h i s sub jec t . B e c a u s e the m o t i f of the e x i l e r e t u r n i n g a n d s u c c e e d i n g i s a l s o d o m i n a n t i n m a n y I n d i a n l i t e r a r y s t o r i e s , I w i l l nex t d i s c u s s two I n d i a n s t o r i e s that i l l u s t r a t e t h i s m o t i f . One i s the g r e a t I n d i a n e p i c , The =32-M a h a b h a r a t a , and the o the r i s the s t o r y of K r i s h n a , The B h a g a v a n a P u r a n a . The M a h a b h a r a t a * s m a i n s t o r y b e g i n s by t e l l i n g of the o r i g i n of the P a n d a v a s and the K a u r a v a s , K i n g D h r t a r a s t r a r e s t o r e s the P a n d a v a s K i n g d o m . The P a n d a v a s a r e then c h a l l e n g e d b y the K a u r a v a s to a g a m b l i n g m a t c h w i t h the p r o v i s i o n that the l o s e r s s h o u l d s p e n d t w e l v e y e a r s i n e x i l e i n the f o r e s t , a n d the t h i r t e e n t h y e a r i n c o g n i t o . Y u d h i s t h i r a of the Pandavas . , who i s w e a k i n g a m b l i n g l o s e s the m a t c h a n d goes to the f o r e s t w i t h h i s b r o t h e r s a n d h i s w i f e , D r a u p a d i . A f t e r h a v i n g spent the s t i p u l a t e d p e r i o d i n e x i l e , the P a n d a v a s r e t u r n to r e c l a i m t h e i r k i n g d o m f r o m the K a u r a v a s who r e f u s e . T h i s f i n a l l y s t a r t s the w a r b e t w e e n the P a n d a v a s a n d the K a u r a v a s . The f i g h t i n g w h i c h l a s t s e i g h t e e n d a y s , t a k e s p l a c e on the h i s t o r i c p l a i n of K u r a k s e t r a . The K a u r a v a s a r e a l l k i l l e d a n d the P a n d a v a s s u c c e e d to the k i n g d o m . The e x i l e d and v i c t o r i o u s P a n d a v a s then f i n a l l y r e g a i n t h e i r p r o s p e r i t y . W h e n Y u d h i s t h i r a f i n i s h e s r u l i n g h i s k i n g d o m , he p r o c e e d s to the H i m a l a y a M o u n t a i n s a n d e n t e r s h e a v e n w h e r e the P a n d a v a s and the K a u r a v a s a r e f i n a l l y r e c o n c i l e d . We c a n a l s o see the s a m e m o t i f i n the s t o r y of the s u p r e m e God= h e a d K r i s h n a . K r i s h n a once spent p a r t of h i s l i f e i n e x i l e . He l i v e d a m o n g c o w h e r d s a p a r t f r o m h i s p a r e n t s a n d r e t u r n e d to c o u r t o n l y a f t e r a c c o m p l i s h -i n g h i s g o a l of k i l l i n g the d e m o n k i n g . ^1 S o m e f i f ty y e a r s o r m o r e b e f o r e the ba t t l e b e t w e e n the P a n d a v a s a n d the K a u r a v a s , Q u e e n P a v a n a r i k a of the Y a d a v a s g i v e s b i r t h to a d e m o n son n a m e d K a n s a . B o t h the n u m b e r a n d a t r o c i o u s n e s s of h i s c r i m e s i n c r e a s e , w h i l e he c o n q u e r s the n ine d i v i s i o n s of the e a r t h . A t l a s t E a r t h a p p e a l s to the G o d s . T h e r e f o r e V i s h n u h i m s e l f p l u c k s one b l a c k a n d one w h i t e h a i r out of h i s h e a d . The b l a c k h a i r b e c o m e s the e i g h t h c h i l d of D e v a k i , n i e c e of K i n g U g r a s e n a of the Y a d a v a s . The w h i t e h a i r b e c o m e s B a l a r a m a , the 62 s e v e n t h son of D e v a k i . The e i g h t h son , K r i s h n a , i s b o r n i n a v e r y d a n g e r -ous s i t u a t i o n , f o r K a n s a i s w a i t i n g to k i l l h i m . A t the w e d d i n g of K r i s h n a ' s p a r e n t s , K a n s a h e a r d the v o i c e f r o m h e a v e n s a y i n g that the e i g h t h son of D e v a k i w o u l d cause h i s d e s t r u c t i o n . In o r d e r to save K r i s h n a , V a s u d e v a 63 se ts out fo r G o k u l a , c a r r y i n g the baby a c r o s s a r i v e r . K r i s h n a , w i t h h i s b r o t h e r B a l a r a m a , a r e r a i s e d by h i s f o s t e r p a r e n t s N a n d a a n d h i s w i fe Y a s o d a . K r i s h n a g r o w s up as a son of a c o w h e r d , d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e he has a double e x i s t e n c e : on the one hand , he i s a n o r d i n a r y boy , a n d on the o the r hand he i s the S u p r e m e G o d . D e m o n s often a t t a c k h i m , but they a r e e a s i l y defea ted . H o w e v e r , one day w h i l e K a n s a i s s t i l l i n s e a r c h of h i s e n e m y , he f inds out the t r u t h f r o m a s age . K a n s a then a s s e m b l e s h i s d e m o n c o u n c i l l o r s a n d d e c i d e s to d e c o y K r i s h n a to a t o w n c a l l e d M a t h u r a . B u t , K r i s h n a a n d B a l a r a m a e n t e r M a t h u r a , a n d k i l l K a n s a a n d a l l h i s d e m o n s . H a v i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d h i s d e s t i n y , he f i n a l l y m e e t s h i s t r u e p a r e n t s a n d 64 r e t u r n s to c o u r t . - 3 4 -K r i s h n a ' s s t o r y goes on: H i s m a r r i a g e ; h i s ba t t l e s a g a i n s t the . r e s t of the d e m o n s ; h i s e x p l o i t s i n the ba t t l e of K u r u k s e t r a ; the d e s t r u c -t i o n of D w a r a k s ; and , h i s d e p a r t u r e to h e a v e n . The r e a l t u r n i n g po in t i n h i s l i f e , h o w e v e r , a n d h i s g r e a t e s t a c c o m p l i s h m e n t , i s h i s k i l l i n g of K a n s a a n d the d e v i l s , and h i s consequen t d e p a r t u r e f r o m the w o r l d of the c o w h e r d s to take h i s r i g h t f u l p l a c e as a p r i n c e . H e r e t oo we see the m o t i f of the e x i l e r e t u r n i n g a n d s u c c e e d i n g . So b y . h a v i n g e x a m i n e d how o the r Ind i an a n d Japane.se t a l e s f o l l o w the c o m m o n m o t i f of the e x i l e r e t u r n i n g and s u c c e d i n g , we c a n see that these t a l e s go b e y o n d the n o r m a l p a t t e r n of the m o t i f and t e l l of the h e r o ' s l a t e r m o u r n i n g a n d ' i n t e r n a l d e s c e n t ' of unhappy p e r s o n a l l i v e s . C H A P T E R III I N T E R N A L D E S C E N T : L A M E N T A h e r o who has o v e r c o m e o b s t a c l e s , a n d a c c o m p l i s h e d h i s a i m r e t u r n s f r o m e x i l e to h i s h o m e l a n d . He i s not o n l y a n ou t s t and ing m a n w h o m h i s f e l l o w m e n f o l l o w and a d o r e , but a l s o a m a n of e x p e r i e n c e . H e has done what o the r peop le cannot do: W i t h g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y he ,has a c c o m p l i s h e d the d e s t i n y w h i c h the u p p e r w o r l d has a s s i g n e d to h i m . T h e r e f o r e , he now k n o w s l i f e a n d i t s v a l u e be t t e r t h a n b e f o r e . He i s i n a p o s i t i o n to l e a d h i s p e o p l e . A f t e r h i s r e t u r n , a h e r o l e a d s a happy,, c o m f o r t a b l e l i f e w h i c h i s the e x a c t oppos i t e of h i s e x i l e d l i f e . A l l the th ings that he has l o s t a r e r e g a i n e d . B u t , i n The R a m a y a n a a n d The T a l e of G e n j i a l i k e , w h i l e bo th h e r o e s a r e l e a d i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v e s , a p r o c e s s of i n t e r n a l r u i n b e g i n s . T h i s r u i n c o m e s i n the f o r m of the c r i s e s of the h e r o ' s m a r r i e d l i f e , w h i c h a r e a r e a l d i s g r a c e to a h e r o . T h e y cannot expec t a i d f r o m the u p p e r w o r l d a n y m o r e , b e c a u s e these a r e p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s . The p r o b l e m s w h i c h R a m a and G e n j i u n d e r w e n t i n t h e i r l a t e r days a r e d i f -ferent , f r o m e a c h o t h e r . R a m a ' s g r i e f i s c a u s e d m a i n l y by the l o s s of h i s w i f e S i t a . B u t G e n j i ' s l a m e n t shows m o r e c o m p l e x i t y . T h i s i s p a r t l y b e c a u s e t h e i r m a r r i e d l i v e s a n d s o c i a l c u s t o m s w e r e d i f f e r e n t , fo r e x a m p l e G e n j i has m o r e than one w i f e , R a m a has one. H o w e v e r , on the o the r hand , both s t o r i e s a r e s i m i l a r i n d e a l i n g w i t h the p r o b l e m s of the h e r o ' s l i v e s . A l s o , t h i s k i n d of t r o u b l e c a n be a r e a l d i s g r a c e to the h e r o a n d d i s t r e s s -i n g th ing w h i c h anyone w o u l d l i k e to a v o i d . -The unhappy end ings of The- R a m a y a n a a n d The T a l e of G e n j i a r e not s u r p r i s i n g w i t h i n the con tex t of w o r l d e p i c l i t e r a t u r e , and bo th of t he se t a l e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the u n s u c c e s s f u l m a r r i e d l i f e of the h e r o i n h i s l a t e r d a y s . B e y o n d t h i s v e r y b a s i c s i m i l a r i t y of unhappy p e r s o n a l l i v e s , the t a l e s d i f f e r i n n e a r l y e v e r y d e t a i l . B o t h the m o d e of a c t i o n a n d m o t i v a t i o n of e a c h h e r o a r e qu i te d i s t i n c t a n d r e f l e c t a d i f f e r e n t l i t e r a r y s t r u c t u r e and a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l b a s e . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y ev iden t i f we e x a m i n e t h e a s p e c t s of the s t o r i e s w h i c h concern*the h e r o e s ' s l a m e n t s i n t h e i r l a t e r days w i t h s p e c i a l a t t e n -t i o n to the u n d e r l y i n g t h e m of s u f f e r i n g a f t e r r e t u r n . T h u s f a r I have c o m p a r e d bo th s t o r i e s po in t by p o i n t . B u t I - s h a l l not con t inue w i t h t h i s m e t h o d i n the f o l l o w i n g sec t ion , - b e c a u s e the p r o b l e m s I s h a l l d i s c u s s a r e m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d a n d p r o f o u n d than those of the e x i l e s . A . S I T A ' S O R D E A L R a m a , a f t e r k i l l i n g R a v a n a , sends a m e s s a g e to S i t a who i s d e t a i n e d i n A s o k a g r o v e . B e c a u s e S i t a i s o v e r p o w e r e d by e x c e s s i v e j o y , she cannot i m m e d i a t e l y a n s w e r on h e a r i n g the news of R a m a ' s v i c t o r y f r o m H u n u m a n who has b r o u g h t R a m a ' s m e s s a g e . T h e n R a m a c o m m a n d s that she be - 3 7 -b r o u g h t to h i m a f te r she has ba thed h e r h a i r . W h e n she a r r i v e s , R a m a m a k e s h e r w a l k on foot i n the p r e s e n c e of ' the m o n k e y s w h i c h i s a n i n -s u l t i n g w a y to t r e a t a nob le l a d y . L a k s h m a n a and the m o n k e y s , d i s -t r e s s e d to h e a r R a m a ' s o r d e r , s o o n h e a r h i m speak h a r s h w o r d s to S i t a : • Wha t m a n of honour w o u l d g i v e r e i n to h i s p a s s i o n so f a r as to p e r m i t h i m s e l f to take b a c k a w o m a n who has dwe l t i n the house of a n o t h e r ? T h o u has t -been t a k e n in to R a v a n a ' s l a p a n d he has ca s t l u s t f u l g l a n c e s on thee; how c a n I r e c l a i m thee , I who boas t of b e l o n g i n g to a n i l l u s t r i o u s H o u s e ? The end w h i c h I sought i n r e -. c o n q u e r i n g thee has b e e n g a i n e d ; I no l o n g e r have any a t t a c h m e n t fo r thee ; go w h e r e thou d e s i r e s 1^5 H e a d d s , " T u r n to L a k s h m a n a o r B h a r a t a , S h a t r u g h n a , S u g r i v a o r the T i t a n B i b i s h a n a , m a k e thy c h o i c e , O S i t a , a s p l e a s e s thee be.st. " ^ ^ T h e r e a f t e r she u n d e r g o e s a f i r e o r d e a l to p r o v e h e r c o n j u g a l f i d e l i t y . She s a y s , A s m y h e a r t has n e v e r c e a s e d to be t r u e to R a g h a v a , do t hou , O w i t n e s s of a l l B e i n g s , g r a n t m e thy p r o t e c t i o n ! A s I a m p u r e i n conduc t , t hough R a m a l o c k s on m e as s u l l i e d , so t hou , O W i t n e s s of the W o r l d s , g r a n t m e f u l l p r o t e c t i o n ! "67 . . . T h e n she e n t e r s the f l a m e s of the p y r e . F r o m p e o p l e w i t n e s s i n g i t , t h e r e r i s e s a t e r r i b l e c r y . T h e n B r a h m a a n d the G o d s a p p e a r . B r a h m a p r o c l a i m s R a m a ' s d i v i n i t y a n d p r a i s e s h i m . A t the s ame t i m e the g o d of f i r e r i s e s up w i t h S i t a a n d a n n o u n c e s , " S i t a i s p u r e a n d w i t h o u t t a i n t , do thou r e c e i v e - 3 8 -M a i h i l i ; i t i s m y c o m m a n d that she s h o u l d not suf fe r r e p r o a c h i n any w a y . " O n h e a r i n g these w o r d s R a m a i s d e l i g h t e d (he k n e w of h i s w i f e ' s f i d e l i t y , . but he w a s a f r a i d that t h e r e w o u l d be r u m o r s a m o n g h i s p e o p l e ) . In h i s f o l l o w i n g w o r d s to the. C h i e f of G o d s we f i n d h i s r e a l i n t e n t i o n : O n a c c o u n t of the p e o p l e , i t w a s i m p e r a t i v e that S i t a s h o u l d p a s s t h r o u g h t h i s t r i a l by f i r e ; t h i s l o v e l y w o m a n h a d d w e l t i n R a v a n a ' s i n n e r a p a r t m e n t s f o r a l o n g t i m e . H a d I not put the i n n o c e n c e of J a n a k i to the t e s t , the p e o p l e w o u l d have s a i d : ' R a m a , the son of D a s a r a t h a i s g o v e r n e d by l u s t ! 1 It w a s w e l l k n o w n to me that Sita^ had n e v e r g i v e n h e r h e a r t to a n o t h e r a n d that the daugh te r of J a n a k a , M a i t h i l i w a s e v e r d e v o t e d to m e . &9 T h e n he d e c l a r e s : H e r p u r i t y i s m a n i f e s t i n the T h r e e W o r l d s ; I c o u l d no m o r e r e n o u n c e M a i t h i l i , b o r n of J a n a k a than a h e r o h i s h o n o u r . ^ R a m a i s a n a l e r t a n d b r a v e h e r o . H e i s e n d o w e d w i t h " b u d d h i " ( ° ), w a k e f u l v i g i l a n c e , and c a p a c i t y f o r i m m e d i a t e l y a c t i n g upon what c o m e s w i t h i n o n e ' s p u r v i e w . ^ T h i s c a p a c i t y i s the h e r o ' s p r i n c i p a l s o u r c e of t h i s p o w e r . S i t a ' s f i r e o r d e a l p a r a l l e l s the s t o r y of S a k u n t a l a of The M a h a b -h a r a t a . S a k u n t a l a i s a l s o at f i r s t r e j e c t e d by h e r h u s b a n d , K i n g D u h s a n t a e v e n though he k n o w s that she has been f a i t h f u l . T h i s s t o r y goes as f o l l o w s : One day K n g D u h s a n t a , hunt ing i n the f o r e s t , f i nds the h e r m i t a g e of K a n v a on the bank of the r i v e r M a l i n i . T h e r e he m e e t s K a n v a ' s adop ted - 3 9 -daughter , . S a k u n t a l a . She e x p l a i n s h e r o w n b i r t h , that she i s a daugh te r of V i s v a m i t r a and M e n a k a , a n d K a n v a adop t ed h e r a f t e r h e r m o t h e r d e s -e r t e d h e r ; D u h s a n t a s u c c e e d e d i n s e d u c i n g S a k u n t a l a , but she d e m a n d s that h e r son be h i s h e i r . She g i v e s b i r t h to a s o n of b o u n d l e s s m i g h t . W h e n h e r son. r e a c h e s the age of s i x t e e n , K a n v a t e l l s h i s s tudents to t ake h e r a n d h e r son to D u h s a n t a , but D u h s a n t a r e f u s e s to r e c o g n i z e e i t h e r h e r o r h e r s o n . S u k u n t a l a b e c o m e s a n g r y a n a d e p a r t s . T h e n a c e l e s t i a l v o i c e t e l l s h i m that the boy i s h i s son . The k i n g , d e l i g h t e d , s p e a k s to h i s c h a p l a i n a n d c o u n c i l l o r s , L i s t e n , g o o d s i r s , to what the E n v o y of the G o d s has s p o k e n ! I m y s e l f k n e w v e r y w e l l he w a s m y s o n . B u t i f I had t a k e n h i m as m y . s o n on h e r w o r d a l o n e , s u s p i c i o n w o u l d have been r i f e a m o n g the. p e o p l e , a n d he w o u l d n e v e r have b e e n c l e a r e d of i t . T h e n he a c c e p t s h i s son a n d w i f e . In bo th s t o r i e s , the h e r o e s f e e l conf iden t of t h e i r w i v e s ' s p u r i t y , but t h e y have to deny f i r s t t h e i r w i v e s b e c a u s e of t h e i r p e o p l e . H o w e v e r , R a m a ' s a t t i tude t o w a r d s S i t a i s s e v e r e r t han that of D u h s a n t a t o w a r d s S a k u n t a l a . L a t e r i n the " U t t a r a K a n d a " w h i c h d e s c r i b e s R a m a ' s l i f e a f t e r h i s r e t u r n to the c i t y of A y o d h y a , we see. a v e r y - s a d e n d i n g . T h e r e we f ind that R a m a d i d i n fac t abandon S i t a i n the f o r e s t , e v e n though she w a s p r e g n a n t . In the g r e a t I n d i a n e p i c , The M a h a b h a r a t a , we f i n d a n a b r i d g e d - 4 0 -s t o r y of R a m a , I t-ends by t e l l i n g of h i s s a c r i f i c e of a h o r s e a f t e r h i s r e -t u r n to A y o d h y a . T h e r e i s no e p i s o d e h a v i n g to do w i t h S i t a ' s a b a n d o n m e n t . R a m a ' s b e h a v i o u r t o w a r d s S i t a not o n l y h u r t s the s e n t i m e n t s of the H i n d u , but a l s o g i v e s d i f f i c u l t y to m a n y s c h o l a r s . ^4 F o r e x a m p l e , R . A n t o i n e m e n t i o n s i n h i s book , R a m a a n d the B a r d s , that the e p i c ought to end i n the happy u n i o n of R a m a and S i t a , but goes on to s ay that s i n c e the e p i c i s i n fac t a ques t f o r a n a n s w e r to the m y s t e r y of h u m a n e x i s t e n c e , The R a m a y a n a does not end h a p p i l y . ^5 We s h a l l l o o k i n some d e t a i l at S i t a ' s a b a n d o n m e n t . A f t e r r e t u r n -i n g to A y o d h y a , . R a m a and S i t a enjoy h a p p i n e s s again, , B u t one day R a m a r e a l i z e s that h i s . p e o p l e a r e t a l k i n g about h i m a n d h i s . w i f e . H i s f r i e n d s a y s that e v e r y w h e r e the p e o p l e t a l k , a n d that they s a y , Wha t p l e a s u r e c a n h i s h e a r t e x p e r i e n c e i n p o s s e s s i n g S i t a w h o m R a v a n a f o r m e r l y h e l d i n h i s l a p , h a v i n g b o r n e h e r a w a y by f o r c e ? H o w i s i t that R a m a , w a s not f i l l e d w i t h a v e r s i o n f o r h e r a f t e r she h a d b e e n t a k e n to L a n k a a n d c o n d u c t e d to the A s h o k a G r o v e , w h e r e she w a s lef t to the m e r c y of the T i t a n s ? We s h a l l n o w have to coun tenance the same state of a f f a i r s r e g a r d i n g o u r own w i v e s , s i n c e what a k i n g d o e s , h i s sub jec t s f o l l o w . A t h e a r i n g these w o r d s , R a m a i s s t r i c k e n w i t h g r i e f . H e s u m m o n s h i s b r o t h e r s a n d c o m m a n d s L a k s h m a n a to take S i t a to the h e r m i t a g e of V a l m i k i . A l t h o u g h he s a y s f i r m l y , Y e a , I s w e a r to thee by m y two feet , by m y l i f e , that those who seek to m a k e me ' a l t e r m y r e s o l v e i n any w a y o r oppose m y d e s i r e , I s h a l l d e e m to be m i n e 77 e n e m i e s . 1 ' - 4 1 -we c a n see that he i s d e e p l y d i s t r e s s e d . H e t e l l s L a k s h m a n a , "See t h e r e -f o r e i n wha t an o c e a n of g r i e f I have f a l l e n ! T h e r e i s no m i s f o r t u n e g r e a t e r than t h i s ! " 7 8 In the p a s t , R a m a , as a n e x i l e , has been a t t a c k e d by m i s f o r t u n e f r o m the o u t s i d e . B u t , now he has to su f fe r deep t o r m e n t i n t e r n a l l y . T h i s t i m e he has no e n e m y to a t t a c k , no m i s e r y ou t s ide h i m s e l f . He i s t o r n b e t w e e n D h a r m a a n d h i s l o v e f o r S i t a . E v e n t u a l l y he c h o o s e s D h a r m a . It i s p o s s i b l e to m a k e the s t a t emen t that R a m a ' s " D h a r m a i s that he abandon h i s w i f e . R a m a has b e e n c o n s i d e r e d the s y m b o l of D h a r m a : R a m a ' s nob le e x a m p l e of d e v o t i o n to duty to h i s f a t h e r , and to h i s p e o p l e , a s w e l l a s S i t a ' s l o n g - s u f f e r i n g f i d e l -i t y to R a m a , have b e e n l o o k e d to as r e l i g i o u s and e t h i c a l i d e a l s down t h r o u g h the a g e s . R a m a i s s e e n as the e m -b o d i m e n t of D h a r m a , and h i s t r i u m p h o v e r w i c k e d R a v a n a , as the o v e r c o m i n g of v i c e ( A d h a r m a ) i n o r d e r that v i r t u e and o n the m o r a l l a w m i g h t p r e v a i l i n p e r s o n a l a n d p u b l i c l i f e . o u The w o r d " d h a r m a " ( ^ % ) m a y be t r a n s l a t e d , ' r i g h t b e h a v i o r , . c o n f o r m i t y to l a w , v i r t u e , t r u t h , o r r i g h t e o u s n e s s ' . B u t , i t i s not e a s y to def ine t h i s w o r d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . T h e r e i s no G o d i n the c e n t e r of the w o r l d i n I nd i an thought . I n s t e a d , t h e r e i s m a n and D h a r m a . In o the r w o r d s , D h a r m a i s not a n a b s t r a c t i d e a . It has m u c h to do w i t h m a n ; i t i s a d y n a m i c c o n c e p t c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n m a n a n d the w o r l d . M a n has to s u s t a i n the w o r l d by f o l l o w i n g D h a r m a . U s u a l l y i t has two p r i n c i p a l i d e a l s : the o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i a l l i f e ; a n d the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s - 4 2 -l i f e . S o c i e t i e s do not r e m a i n the s a m e . N e i t h e r does the r o l e of the i n -d i v i d u a l . A n c i e n t I n d i a n t r a d i t i o n speaks of fou r ages ( K r i t a , T r e t a , D v a p a r a , a n d K a l i ) , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s u c c e s s i v e l y d e c r e a s i n g p h y s i c a l 8 1 a n d s p i r i t u a l p u r i t y . T h e r e f o r e , no one c a n g i v e a c o n s i s t e n t d e f i n i -t i o n of D h a r m a , w h i c h c o v e r s a l l f o u r a g e s . If one t r i e s to f i n d an exac t d e f i n i t i o n of D h a r m a i n The R a m a y a n a , he f a i l s b e c a u s e of i t s c o m p r e h e n s i v e n a t u r e . S o m e t i m e s R a m a h i m s e l f s e e m s to be i n c o n s i s t e n t ; f o r example , - i n " A y o d h y a K a n d a " , w h e n B h a r a t a c o m e s to p e r s u a d e R a m a to r e t u r n to the c i t y , R a m a s a y s , "I c o n s i d e r l o y a l t y to one ' s w o r d to be the m o s t r i g i d p e r s o n a l duty a n d the e s s e n c e of a l l the v i r t u e s . "82 ' L a t e r he abandons S i t a e v e n a f t e r h a v i n g d e c l a r e d i n " Y a d h a K a n d a " that he w o u l d not r e n o u n c e S i t a e v e n i n f ron t of B r a h m a . R a m a , as the e m b o d i m e n t of D h a r m a , g i v e s , we c a n s a y , p r a c t i c a l e x a m p l e s of D h a r m a . In a n c i e n t I n d i a , the n o r m a l ' f o r m of the s tate w a s m o n a r c h y , a n d i t i s c l e a r that , f o r R a m a , h i s duty as a k i n g i s m o r e i m -p o r t a n t t han h i s duty as a h u s b a n d . A c c o r d i n g to The M a h a b h a r a t a , i n the g o l d e n age of s t a t e l e s s s o c i e t y , k i n g s h i p s w e r e not n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e the p e o p l e w e r e a l l c o n s c i o u s of t h e i r du ty . B u t , l a t e r on , m e n f e l l i n to a s ta te of. s p i r i t u a l l a s s i t u d e , a n d s p i r i t u a l k n o w l e d g e a n d r i g h t e o u s conduc t d i m i n i s h e d . T h e n the G o d s went to B r a h m a f o r a i d . H e f o r m u l a t e d the f i r s t s y s t e m of l a w . V i s h n u c r e a t e d V i r a j a s , who b e c a m e the f i r s t k i n g . - 4 3 -T h e m a i n duty of a k i n g w a s the p r o t e c t i o n of h i s sub jec t s a n d the c o n t r o l of e v i l e l e m e n t s , and h i s h a p p i n e s s l i e s i n the h a p p i n e s s of h i s s u b j e c t s . T h i s w a s the i d e a l k i n g s h i p of a n x i e n t I n d i a . T h e r e f o r e , R a m a has to be a w a r e of what i s go ing on a m o n g h i s sub jec t s a n d m u s t show t h e m a n i d e a l w a y of l i v i n g be fo re s e e k i n g h i s own h a p p i n e s s . In c o n s i d e r i n g S i t a ' s o r d e a l we a l s o have to take i n to a c c o u n t the p o s i t i o n of w o m e n i n a n c i e n t I n d i a . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e i r p o s i t i o n w a s not v e r y h i g h . A n o l d l e g e n d s a i d B r a h m a c r e a t e d w o m e n to seduce m e n ( M a h a b h a r a t a ) . The R a m a y a n a a l s o r e p e a t e d l y e m p h a s i z e d the i m p o r t a n c e of the v i r t u e of a w i f e (Si ta f o l l o w s R a m a on h i s e x i l e , and , a f t e r b e i n g a b d u c t e d b y R a v a n a , k e e p s h e r c h a s t i t y at the risk^ of h e r l i f e ) . The s o c i e t y i n s i s t e d r i g i d l y , on the c h a s t i t y of w o m e n , a n d a w i f e a c c u s e d of a d u l t r y w a s d e s e r t e d by h e r h u s b a n d , B u t t h i s d i d not m e a n a d i s s o l u t i o n of t h e i r m a r r i a g e ; a f t e r a c e r t a i n c o u r s e of e x p i a t i o n she w a s to be r e -i n s t a t e d i n h e r f o r m e r p o s i t i o n . H o w e v e r , h e r e we m i g h t r e m e m b e r S i t a w a s i n n o c e n t (because of a c u r s e , R a v a n a c o u l d not l o v e a w o m a n who d i d not l i k e h i m ) . A n d , R a m a k n e w v e r y w e l l that h i s w i f e w a s f a i t h f u l . E v e n i f the duty of k i n g m i g h t p r e v a i l o v e r the duty of the h u s b a n d , s t i l l we cannot f u l l y a c c e p t R a m a ' s a t t i tude t o w a r d s S i t a a f t e r h i s v i c t o r y o v e r R a v a n a . The R t . H o n . S r i n i v a s a S a s t r i i n t e r p r e t s t h i s p r o b l e m f r o m a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t p o i n t of v i e w . He s a y s : - 4 4 -It i s d i f f i c u l t f o r us to u n d e r s t a n d t h i s e x t r e m e r i g o u r of the l a w . Tha t i s R a m a ' s e t e r n a l g l o r y . A t the r i s k of be ing m i s u n d e r s t o o d , at the r i s k of be ing s o m e t i m e s c o n d e m n e d as a n h u m a n b e i n g , as a m a n h a r s h e v e n to the wi fe who w a s - t y p i c a l of a l l the v i r t u e s of w o m a n h o o d , R a m a s tood t r u e to the a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t i o n of d h a r m a . ^ W e c a n p r o b a b l y say i t i s R a m a ' s e t e r n a l g l o r y that m a d e h i m abandon S i t a . W e cannot h o w e v e r o v e r l o o k h i s deep m o u r n i n g . W h e n S i t a i s abandoned on the banks of the G a n g e s , V a l m i k i o f f e r s h i s p r o t e c t i o n to h e r . A f t e r a w h i l e , S i t a g i v e s b i r t h to two b o y s , K u s h a a n d L a v a . Y e a r s l a t e r V a l m i k i c o m m a n d s K u s h a a n d L a v a to r e c i t e The R a m a y a n a n e a r R a m a ' s p a v i l i o n . The p e o p l e of the t own a r e s u r p r i s e d to see t h e m , b e c a u s e they l o o k j u s t , l i k e R a m a . W h e n R a m a r e c o g n i z e s t h e m as h i s s o n s , he sends f o r S i t a . W h e n V a l m i k i r e t u r n s w i t h S i t a , he s a y s to R a m a i n h i s a s s e m b l y , W i t h m y f ive s e n s e s a n d m y m i n d a s the s i x t h m e d i t a t i n g a m i d s t the f o r e s t w a t e r f a l l s , S i t a ' s i n n o c e n c e w a s r e -v e a l e d to m e . Tha t l a d y of i r r e p r o a c h a b l e and p u r e conduc t , to w h o m h e r l o r d i s a G o d , w i l l g i v e p r o o f of h e r good f a i t h , O T h o u who d i d s t f e a r p u b l i c c o n -d e m n a t i o n ! ^ R a m a a s k s V a l m i k i to f o r g i v e h i m f o r h a v i n g abandoned S i t a b e c a u s e of f e a r of r u m o u r s a m o n g the p e o p l e . H e i n d i c a t e s h i s d e s i r e to be r e c o n -c i l e d w i t h S i t a by V a l m i k i ' s s u p p o r t . R a m a ' s r e i g n has b e e n a n i d e a l one: h i s age i s the g o l d e n age . M e n l i v e to enjoy h a p p i n e s s f o r a t h o u s a n d y e a r s ; t r e e s b e a r f r u i t a n d - 4 5 -f l o w e r s p e r p e t u a l l y . R a m a i s the bes t of a l l k i n g s . H o w e v e r , one th ing has b e e n d i s t r e s s i n g h i m , n a m e l y , S i t a Is b a n i s h m e n t . A f t e r S i t a ' s b a n i s h m e n t , R a m a has r e m a i n e d f a i t h f u l to h e r . O n c e r e m o n i a l o c c a s i o n s , he has a g o l d e n s tatue of S i t a p l a c e d b e s i d e h i m . A f t e r a l l those y e a r s he n o w wan t s to r e c o v e r S i t a , who a c c o m -p a n i e d by V a l m i k i , s tands q u i e t l y . T h e n she s a y s , "If, i n thought , I have e v e r dwe l t on any but R a m a , m a y the G o d d e s s M a d h a v i r e c e i v e m e . 1 , 8 6 S i t a i s one of the l o v e l i e s t w o m e n that w o r l d e p i c s have e v e r c r e a t e d . She i s gen t le a n d c h a r m i n g but, on the o the r hand , she i s a l s o e n d o w e d w i t h a n unbend ing s p i r i t . She i s not , h o w e v e r , a s t r o n g p e r s o n c o m p a r e d to R a m a . In The R a m a y a n a she i s a h e r o i n e who has f r a g i l e s e n s i t i v i t y a n d f e m i n i n e w e a k n e s s . 8 7 F o r e x a m p l e , w h e n she w a s r e p r o a c h e d by h e r h u s b a n d , she s t a r t e d t r e m b l i n g , o v e r w h e l m e d w i t h s h a m e a f t e r R a v a n a ' s d e s t r u c t i o n (her r e a c t i o n i s qu i te d i f f e r e n t f r o m that of S a k u n t a l a i n a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n (pp .39 ) ) . It i s p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e she w a s too d e v o t e d to h e r h u s b a n d that she s h o w e d l i t t l e s i g n of a n g e r . She i s a l o v e l y f i g u r e , but i n the s t o r y h e r own r a d i a n c e i s o v e r s h a d o w e d by R a m a a n d h i s b r i l l i a n c e . B u t t h i s t i m e , she a s k e d the E a r t h G o d d e s s to r e s t o r e h e r . It m i g h t be p o s s i b l e to i n t e r p r e t h e r w o r d s as h e r f i n a l p r o t e s t a t i o n . T h i s i s the o n l y scene i n w h i c h she shows h e r independen t w i l l . - 4 6 -The E a r t h G o d d e s s a p p e a r s a n d t ake s S i t a i n h e r a r m s . T h e n they d e s c e n d in to the e a r t h , w h e r e she o r i g i n a l l y c a m e f r o m . In the s k y , the u n d e r w o r l d , a n d on e a r t h , a l l b e i n g s r e j o i c e a n d e x u l t to see t h i s m i r a c l e . A l l excep t one p e r s o n . A m o n g a l l the m o n k e y s a n d sages c r y i n g out, R a m a s tands i n t e a r s , d e e p l y d i s t r e s s e d . He s a y s he i s e x -p e r i e n c i n g agony u n k n o w n to h i m thus f a r . He cry ' s out, a d d r e s s i n g the G o d d e s s , B r i n g b a c k M a i t h i l i (Sita) on w h o s e a c c o u n t I a m d i s t r a u g h t ! If thou f a i l e s t to r e t u r n S i t a to m e i n h e r o r i g i n a l f o r m , I s h a l l p l o u g h thee up w i t h thy m o u n t a i n s a n d f o r e s t s a n d s h a l l d e s t r o y thee so that no th ing but w a t e r r e m a i n s . ^ B u t R a m a i s not a n o r d i n a r y m a n . Soon a f t e r the o u t b u r s t B r a h m a a p p e a r s a n d a p p e a s e s h i m . B r a h m a t e l l s h i m to r e c a l l that he i s V i s h n u , the i n -v i n c i b l e h e r o , and he w i l l be r e u n i t e d w i t h S i t a i n h e a v e n . T h u s r e m i n d e d , R a m a c o n t r o l s h i s t e m p e r a n d d i s m i s s e s the a s s e m b l y . H e r e t u r n s to the hut of V a l m i k i w i t h h i s sons a n d t h e r e spends the n igh t l a m e n t i n g f o r S i t a . ^ It i s r a r e f o r R a m a to show h u m a n e m o t i o n . B u t he shows i t a n o t h e r t i m e i n " Y u d d h a K a n d a " , w h e n he i s on the w a y to L a n k a , the c i t y of R a v a n a . R a m a a n d the m o n k e y s have to c r o s s the s ea to r e a c h L a n k a . In o r d e r to a s k the a i d of S a g a r a , the L o r d of the S e a , he s l e e p s f o r t h r e e n i g h t s on the s e a s h o r e . B u t S a g a r a does not a p p e a r . R a m a b e c o m e s a n g r y a n d shoots a r r o w s at the s e a . See ing t h i s , L a k s h m a n a r u s h e s to h i m , c r y i n g , " S t a y ! S t a y ! " A l s o the h e a v e n l y c r e a t u r e s c r i e s out , " H o l d ! H o l d ! D o not a c t t h u s " . 90 L a k s h m a n a t ake s h o l d of R a m a ' s bow, a n d s a y s , T h o u has t no n e e d to ac t i n t h i s w i s e to a c c o m p l i s h th ine end a n d b r i n g S a g a r a to s u b j e c t i o n , O F o r e m o s t of H e r o e s . T h y p e e r s do not p e r m i t t h e m s e l v e s to be o v e r c o m e by a n g e r . C a l l to m i n d the f o r b e a r a n c e of v i r t u o u s m e n . 91 T h i s i s one of the few t i m e s we see that t h e r e i s a c o n f l i c t w i t h i n R a m a , b e t w e e n h i s d i v i n e c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d h i s h u m a n e m o t i o n s . A f t e r S i t a ' s d e s c e n t i n to the e a r t h , the end of the s t o r y of R a m a i s at h a n d . R a m a ' s l i f e i s f i l l e d w i t h b r i l l i a n t e x p l o i t s . . B u t c a n we say . tha t he i s h a p p y ? He i s e x i l e d a n d r e t u r n e d a f t e r a c c o m p l i s h i n g h i s a i m s . B u t he has to abandon h i s w i fe a n d he i s n e v e r ab l e to take h e r b a c k . W h y do we see a l a m e n t i n g h e r o at the end of h i s s t o r y ? In The T a l e of G e n j i we see G e n j i l a m e n t i n g i n h i s l a t e r l i f e . T h i s i s not b e c a u s e of any c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n the s t o r i e s , but b e c a u s e b o t h s t o r i e s wer.e w r i t t e n by d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r s , i n d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s , a n d at d i f f e r e n t t i m e s . It i s b e c a u s e they s h a r e a u n i v e r s a l t h e m e . B . W A K A N A N O M A K I -A f t e r G e n j i ' s r e t u r n f r o m e x i l e , ano the r t u r n i n g po in t c o m e s i n h i s l i f e w h i l e he i s en joy ing the f r u i t s of h i s pa s t l a b o u r s . A n e w c r i s i s , the d e s t r u c t i o n of h i s m a r r i a g e , a p p r o a c h e s G e n j i s l o w l y but s u r e l y . G e n j i , h o w e v e r , i n t e r n a l i z e s h i s g r i e f m o r e than R a m a d o e s . R a m a at l e a s t has - 4 8 -m e a n s , a n o r d e a l by the f i r e , by w h i c h he m i g h t p r e s e r v e h i s m a r r i a g e by t e s t i n g S i t a and h a p p i l y r e s u m e the u n i o n . B u t G e n j i c a n do no th ing to p r e v e n t h i s w o r l d f r o m c o l l a p s i n g . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the G o d - l i k e G e n j i i s d r i v e n in to a w o r l d of m i s e r y w h i l e no one n o t i c e s i t , not e v e n G e n j i h i m -s e l f . A f t e r r e t u r n i n g to the c a p i t a l , G e n j i l e a d s a n i d y l l i c l i f e . A s a s y m b o l of h i s g l o r y , he b u i l d s the R o k u j o m a n s i o n f o r h i s w i v e s a n d d a u g h t e r s . The c o u r t l y s t o r y d e v e l o p s by u s i n g s c e n e s of the H e i a n c a l e n d a r f o r e a c h s e a s o n . M o s t of the d r e a m s of H e i a n n o b l e s c o m e t r u e f o r G e n j i . A t the b e g i n n i n g of the c h a p t e r , " T h e F i r s t W a r b l e r " , the N e w Y e a r ' s f e s t i v a l s at the R o k u j o m a n s i o n a r e d e s c r i b e d : N e w Y e a r ' s day w a s c l o u d l e s s . T h e r e i s j o y i n s i d e the h u m b l e s t of hedges, a s the g r a s s b e g i n s to c o m e g r e e n a m o n g pa t ches of snow a n d t h e r e i s a m i s t of g r e e n on the t r e e s w h i l e the m i s t s i n the a i r t e l l of the adven t of s p r i n g . T h e r e w a s g r e a t j o y i n the j e w e l e d p r e -c i n c t s of G e n j i ' s R o k u j o m a n s i o n , w h e r e e v e r y d e t a i l of the g a r d e n s w a s a p l e a s u r e a n d the l a d i e s ' s a p a r t -m e n t s w e r e p e r f e c t i o n . ^ T h e n the v i s t a changes as the s p r i n g has deepened a n d the s p r i n g g a r d e n of G e n j i ' s m o s t b e l o v e d w i f e , M u r a s a k i , r e a c h e s the he igh t of i t s beauty : - 4 9 -It was l a t e i n the T h i r d M o n t h . M u r a s a k i ' s s p r i n g g a r d e n w a s c o m i n g e v e r m o r e to l i f e w i t h b l o s s o m s and s i n g i n g b i r d s . E l s e w h e r e s p r i n g had d e p a r t e d , s a i d the o the r l a d i e s , and why d i d i t r e m a i n h e r e ? G e n j i thought i t a p i t y that the young w o m e n s h o u l d have o n l y d i s t an t g l i m p s e s of the m o s s on the i s l a n d , a d e e p e r g r e e n e a c h day . He had c a r p e n t e r s at w o r k on C h i n e s e p l e a s u r e boa t s , a n d on the day they w e r e l a u n c h e d he s u m m o n e d p a l a c e m u s i c i a n s f o r w a t e r m u s i c . P r i n c e s a n d h i g h c o u r t i e r s c a m e c r o w d i n g to h e a r . ^3 Indeed h i s R o k u j o m a n s i o n s e e m s to be a n e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e i t s e l f . A l l s e e m s to be go ing w e l l fo r G e n j i . H e m e e t s a l a d y i n A k a s h i a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y b e c o m e s the f a the r of a l i t t l e p r i n c e s s . W h e n i n f o r m e d of h e r b i r t h a f t e r r e t u r n i n g to the c a p i t a l , he t h i n k s of h i s l i t t l e daugh te r , who he hopes m i g h t b e c o m e a n e m p r e s s i n the fu tu r e , a n d s h o u l d not g r o w up i n A k a s h i , f a r f r o m the c a p i t a l . H e s o l v e s t h i s p r o b l e i r u b y adop t ing the l i t t l e p r i n c e s s , a s h i s w i f e M u r a s a k i ' s d a u g h t e r . P r e s e n t l y , the L a d y of A k a s h i , m o t h e r of the l i t t l e p r i n c e s s , m o v e s i n to the R o k u j o m a n s i o n w i t h h e r own m o t h e r f r o m A k a s h i , G e n j i ' s daugh te r has a n i d e a l c h i l d h o o d u n d e r the c a r e of M u r a s a k i . G e n j i ' s f a m i l y con t inues to p r o s p e r . H i s s o n , R e i z e i , i s c r o w n e d E m p e r o r . H i s o the r son , Y u g i r i , by h i s w i f e A o i , has g r o w n up to d i s p l a y ou t s t and ing i n t e l l i g e n c e . P r e s e n t l y t h i s p r o m i n e n t young m a n m a r r i e s h i s c o u s i n , K u m o i no k d r i , a f t e r o v e r c o m i n g v a r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s , a n d he l e a d s a happy l i f e . L a t e r h i s d a u g h t e r , the p r i n c e s s , i s m a r r i e d to the e m p e r o r who s u c c e e d e d R e i z e i . - 5 0 -M e a n w h i l e , G e n j i t e m p o r a r i l y adopts T a m a k a z u r a , the daugh te r of T o no C h u j o a n d Y u g a o : T o no C h u j o i s G e n j i ' s be s t f r i e n d a n d Y G g a o h i s f o r m e r l o v e r . T a m a k a z u r c i s at f i r s t a c c e p t e d as G e n j i ' s d a u g h t e r . T h e s t o r y of h e r c o u r t s h i p p r o c e e d s i n a v e r y c o m p l i c a t e d w a y . A l t h o u g h h a v i n g g r o w n up i n K y u s h u , f a r a w a y f r o m the c a p i t a l , she i s endowed w i t h beauty a n d i n t e l l i g e n c e ; m a n y n o b l e m e n , t h e r e f o r e , v i e f o r h e r hand i n m a r r i a g e . G e n j i h i m s e l f f e e l s a m o r o u s a f f e c t i o n t o w a r d s h e r . E v e n t u a l -l y , she m a r r i e s one of h e r s u i t o r s , H i g e g u r o , who i s a s o l i d but i n s e n s i t i v e m a n . T a m a k a z u r a ' s s t o r y i s a c o m i c a l a n d c h e e r f u l one, r e s e m b l i n g that of a S h a k e s p e a r i a n c o m e d y i n w h i c h c o m p l e t e h a r m o n y i s a c h i e v e d i n the end . The " W i s t e r i a L e a v e s " c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s the c l i m a x of T a m a k a z u r a ' s s t o r y a n d m a r k s the he igh t of G e n j i ' s g l o r y . B y that t i m e he i s a p p r o a c h i n g h i s f o r t i e t h b i r t h d a y - - i n those days p e o p l e u s e d to s t a r t c e l e b r a t i n g l o n -g e v i t y at the age of f o r t y . ^4 A l i t t l e l a t e r he i s a c c o r d e d h o n o u r s e q u i -v a l e n t to those of a r e t i r e d e m p e r o r , w h e n the c u r r e n t l y r e i g n i n g E m p e r o r a n d h i s f a t h e r , the S u z a k u E m p e r o r , v i s i t s G e n j i ' s R o k u j o m a n s i o n : The e m p e r o r p a i d a s tate v i s i t to R o k u j o l a t e i n the T e n t h M o n t h . S i n c e the c o l o u r s w e r e at t h e i r be s t a n d i t p r o m i s e d to be a g r a n d o c c a s i o n , the S u z a k u e m p e r o r a c c e p t e d the i n v i t a t i o n of h i s b r o t h e r , the p r e s e n t e m p e r o r , to j o i n h i m . It w as a m o s t e x t r a o r d i n a r y even t , the t a l k of the w h o l e c o u r t . The p r e p a r a t i o n s w h i c h o c c u p i e d the f u l l a t t e n t i o n of e v e r y o n e at R o k u j o , w e r e u n p r e c e d e n t e d i n t h e i r c o m -p l e x i t y a n d i n the a t t e n t i o n to b r i l l i a n t d e t a i l . ^ -5 1-G e n j i ' s i n n e r w o r l d a l s o changes as he i s en joy ing h i s p e r i o d of g l o r y . H e i s f r e e d f r o m the agony he has s u f f e r e d t h r o u g h h i s you th : h i s s t e p m o t h e r , F u j i t s u b o , d i e s . H e w i t h d r a w s to a m e d i t a t i o n r o o m w h e r e he c a n spend the day i n t e a r s . It i s s p r i n g , but i n the e v e n i n g l i g h t w i s p s of c l o u d a r e the c o l o u r of a d u l l g r a y . A v e r s e c o m e s to h i s l i p s : " A r a c k of c l o u d a c r o s s the l i g h t o f even ing / A s i f they too / t hese h i l l s / w o r e m o u r n i n g w e e d s " . ^6 ( A f t e r F u j i t s u b o ' s dea th a b i s h o p t e l l s the E m p e r o r , F u j i t s u b o ' s son , about the s e c r e t of h i s b i r t h . H e then k n o w s h i s r e a l f a the r i s G e n j i . ) In the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r , " N e w H e r b s : P a r t One a n d T w o " , one of the l o n g e s t i n the e n t i r e r o m a n c e , the tone of the s t o r y changes c o m -p l e t e l y . F o r G e n j i f a ce s one of the g r e a t t u r n i n g p o i n t s i n h i s l i f e . T h i s c r i s i s b e g i n s w i t h h i s m a r r i a g e to a. young p r i n c e s s , the t h i r d daugh te r of S u z a k u . P r e s e n t l y she g i v e s b i r t h to a boy w h o , G e n j i k n o w s , i s not h i s son . O n the s u r f a c e , t h i s does not s e e m to change his . w o r l d . H e a p p e a r s to con t inue to f l o u r i s h . H o w e v e r , deep i n h i s m i n d , he i s d i s -t r e s s e d a n d t o r m e n t e d b e c a u s e he has. to c o n c e a l h i s s o r r o w . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r en t f r o m that of h i s e x i l e . N o w h i s m i s -fo r tune b e c o m e s a n i n t e r n a l m a t t e r , m u c h l i k e that of R a m a ' s . W h e n he spent h i s e x i l e i n S u m a a n d A k a s h i he was a young a m b i t i o u s m a n i n h i s t w e n t i e s . H e o v e r c a m e h i s m i s f o r t u n e a n d r e t u r n e d l i k e the u s u a l h e r o of e p i c s the w o r l d o v e r . B u t t h i s t i m e he i s m o r t a l l y w o u n d e d by a n i n v i s i b l e e n e m y . G e n j i ' s h i g h p o s i t i o n has r e q u i r e d h i s m a r r i a g e to the T h i r d P r i n c e s s . M e a n t i m e , he has the w o m e n at R o k u j o a n d N i j o w h o m he i s l o o k i n g a f t e r , a n d a m o n g w h o m M u r a s a k i i s h i s m o s t b e l o v e d . A l -though she i s the daugh te r of a p r i n c e , h e r s o c i a l s t and ing i s not s u f f i -c i e n t l y h i g h to be G e n j i ' s l e g a l w i f e . T h e n , t oo , the S u z a k u E m p e r o r has been i l l s i n c e h i s v i s i t to R o k u j o , a n d i s t h i n k i n g about t a k i n g h o l y o r d e r s . B u t be fo re he c a n do so , he has to choose a h u s b a n d f o r h i s f a v o u r i t e daugh te r , the T h i r d P r i n c e s s . A t f i r s t he p r e f e r s G e n j i ' s son Y u g i r i , but he g i v e s up that i d e a b e c a u s e Y H g i r i has a l r e a d y s e t t l e d d o w n a n d i s l e a d i n g a s t ab le m a r r i e d l i f e . F i n a l l y he d e c i d e s on G e n j i . '"It i s not e a s y f o r m e to m a k e the r e q u e s t , " the S u z a k u E m p e r o r t e l l s G e n j i , and not e a s i e r f o r y o u , I a m s u r e , to be the ob jec t , but m i g h t I a s k that y o u take the g i r l i n y o u r v e r y s p e c i a l c h a r g e a n d , qui te as y o u t h i n k a p p r o p r i a t e , f i n d a h u s b a n d f o r h e r ? 9 ^ S u z a k u sugges t s d e l i c a t e l y that G e n j i t ake h i s daugh te r as h i s w i f e . T h i s r e q u e s t c o m e s as a s h o c k f o r G e n j i ' s .wife M u r a s a k i , but no one c a n t u r n down a r o y a l r e q u e s t , e v e n G e n j i . It was a t e m p e s t out of the b lue w h i c h t h e r e w a s no e s c a p -i n g , M u r a s a k i w a s d e t e r m i n e d that she w o u l d not c o m p l a i n n o r g i v e any hin t of r e s e n t m e n t . She k n e w that n e i t h e r h e r w i s h e s n o r h e r a d v i c e w o u l d have m a d e any d i f f e r e n c e . She d i d not want the w o r l d to t h i n k that she had b e e n c r u s h e d by wha t h a d to c o m e . ^ A n o t h e r shadow w a s ca s t o v e r G e n j i ' s w o r l d . The s o l e m n m e l a n -c h o l y you th K t s h i w a g i has b e e n one of the s u i t o r s of the T h i r d P r i n c e s s - 5 3 -and cannot g i v e up h i s p u r s u i t . G e n j i , a f t e r a l l , cannot ban a n a f f e c t i o n -ate young m a n f r o m h i s w o r l d . One p l e a s a n t day i n the T h i r d M o n t h , a g r o u p of young p e o p l e a r e 'I - P QQ p l a y i n g f o o t b a l l ( $%X> JpJ ) at R o k u j o . K a s h i w a g i t ake s h i s ' p l a c e w i t h h i s bes t f r i e n d , Y u g i r i , u n d e r a f ine c h e r r y t r e e i n f u l l b l o o m . H e g l a n c e s o v e r t o w a r d the T h i r d P r i n c e s s ' s r o o m s . Sudden ly a p r e t t y C h i n e s e ca t , p u r u e d by a l a r g e r ca t c o m e s r u n n i n g out, a n d i n the p r o c e s s p u l l s b a c k a c u r t a i n . In the d a r k r o o m he s ees the T h i r d P r i n c e s s t u r n i n g to l o o k at the cat ; she has the c h a r m of you th . In those d a y s , nob le l a d i e s d i d not show t h e m s e l v e s . T h e y l i v e d b e h i n d c u r t a i n s s u r r o u n d e d by t h e i r w o m e n . T h i s i n c i d e n t i s t a k e n to show the p r i n c e s s ' s c a r e l e s s n e s s . B u t , K t e h i w a g i has f a l l e n i m p o s s i b l y i n l o v e w i t h h e r . He ob ta ins the C h i n e s e cat a n d c h e r i s h e s i t , because" i t r e m i n d s h i m of the i m a g e of the T h i r d P r i n c e s s . M e a n w h i l e G e n j i ' s w o r l d i s a l s o d i s i n t e g r a t i n g i n a n o t h e r w a y . A l t h o u g h he t r e a t s the T h i r d P r i n c e s s , who i s v e r y young a n d s t i l l i m -m a t u r e , as h i s l a w f u l w i f e , he. l o v e s M u r a s a k i m o r e than anyone e l s e . H o w e v e r , M u r a s a k i ' s con f idence a n d h e r m a r r i e d l i f e a r e u n s e t t l e d by the p r e s e n c e of the p r i n c e s s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , she s ta tes m a n y t i m e s that she wan t s to b e c o m e a nun , but G e n j i w i l l not a l l o w h e r to do s o . She i s not young any m o r e , but she b e c o m e s m o r e b e a t i f u l y e a r - b y - y e a r . One l o n e l y n igh t she has h e r w o m e n r e a d o l d s t o r i e s to h e r . She no tes that i n those - 5 4 -s t o r i e s , m e n w i t h a m o r o u s w a y s a lways se t t l e down w i t h one w o m a n i n the end . L a t e r , t h i n k i n g about h e r u n c e r t a i n l i f e , she cannot s l e e p . T h e n , d u r i n g the n igh t , she i s s e i z e d w i t h v i o l e n t ches t p a i n s . T h e s e do not go a w a y , and she b e c o m e s s e v e r e l y i l l . G e n j i , v e r y c o n c e r n e d about h e r i l l n e s s , spends m o s t of h i s t i m e beside h e r . K a s h i w a g i w a s m a r r i e d to the S e c o n d P r i n c e s s who i s a h a l f s i s t e r of the T h i r d P r i n c e s s . B u t s t i l l he i s not ab le to f o r g e t the T h i r d P r i n c e s s . One n igh t he t ake s advantage of G e n j i ' s a b s e n c e and v i s i t s the T h i r d P r i n -c e s s . O n that n igh t he d r e a m s of h i s ca t , a n d i n h i s d r e a m he s e e m s to have b rough t i t b a c k to the p r i n c e s s , w h i c h i s a p r e d i c t i o n of the b i r t h of h i s s o n . G e n j i l a t e r found out about t h i s v i s i t t h r o u g h a l e t t e r f r o m K a s h i w a g i to the p r i n c e s s w h i c h she c a r e l e s s l y has lef t l a y i n g a r o u n d . O w i n g to t h i s l a p s e , the l i v e s of the two young peop le c o l l a p s e . K a s h i w a g i , t h i n k i n g he cannot l i v e on w i t h G e n j i ' s a n g e r , b e c o m e s w e a k e r a n d w e a k e r b e c a u s e of n e r v o u s a n x i e t y . The p r i n c e s s t ake s r e l i g i o u s v o w s a f t e r g i v i n g b i r t h to a s o n . S o o n a f t e r that K a s h i w a g i d i e s . The w h o l e c o u r t r e g r e t s h i s p a s s i n g ; e v e n G e n j i f e e l s s a d about K a s h i w a g i ' s s h o r t l i f e . A l l of the peop le a r e qu i te c o n v i n c e d , h o w e v e r , that G e n j i i s v e r y p l e a s e d to have a son b o r n of a p r i n c e s s w h i l e he i s i n h i s l a t e r y e a r s . G e n j i , h o w e v e r , i s not happy i n the m i d s t of a l l of the e x c i t e m e n t . He i s l a m e n t i n g a n d r e m e m b e r i n g the m i s c o n d u c t of h i s y o u n g e r d a y s . H e - 5 5 -i s now i n the s a m e p o s i t i o n that h i s fa ther was i n , a n d he i s t e r r i f i e d by the thought that r e t r i b u t i o n has no doubt c o m e b e c a u s e of h i s m i s d e e d s , j u s t a s w h e n he w a s i n e x i l e , he w a s f r i g h t e n e d by the i d e a of fate ( ~tH:' ). W h e n the l i t t l e boy r e a c h e s h i s f i f t i e t h day , G e n j i c o m e s a n d v i e w s h i m . W h i l e G e n j i i s h o l d i n g h i m i n h i s a r m s , he -can say no th ing a n d r e v e a l no th ing : The l i t t l e boy was c h a r m i n g , e s p e c i a l l y the s tn i l ing , happy eyes a n d m o u t h . W o u l d not e v e r y o n e n o t i c e the r e s e m b l a n c e to the f a t h e r ? G e n j i thought of K a s h i w a g i , unab le to show t h i s s e c r e t l i t t l e k e e p s a k e to h i s g r i e v i n g p a r e n t s who had l o n g e d f o r at l e a s t a g r a n d c h i l d to r e m e m b e r h i m b y . H e thought how s t r ange i t was that a young m a n so c o m p o s e d a n d p r o u d a n d a m b i t i o u s s h o u l d have d e s t r o y e d h i m s e l f . H i s r e s e n t m e n t qu i te lef t h i m , a n d he w a s i n t e a r s . The end of G e n j i ' s p o r t i o n of the s t o r y i s at hand . M u r a s a k i d i e s wi thou t e v e n f u l l y r e c o v e r i n g f r o m h e r i l l n e s s . The w o r l d s e e m s to be s l i p p i n g t h r o u g h h i s f i n g e r s . A g a i n a b r i g h t s p r i n g has c o m e , but i t i s d a r k f o r h i m . H e u t t e r s the v e r s e , " A n d w h y has s p r i n g so g r a c i o u s l y c o m e to v i s i t . A l o d g i n g w h e r e t h e r e i s none to a d m i r e the b l o s s o m s ? 1 1 ^ ^ "I have a l w a y s had e v e r y t h i n g " , he t e l l s M u r a s a k i ' s w o m e n , Tha t was the s t a t i o n i n l i f e I w a s b o r n to . Y e t i t has a l w a y s s e e m e d that I was m e a n t f o r s a d t h i n g s t o o . I have of ten w o n d e r e d w h e t h e r the B l e s s e d One w a s not d e t e r m i n e d to m a k e m e see m o r e than o t h e r s wha t a u s e l e s s , i n s u b -s t a n t i a l w o r l d i t i s . I p r e t e n d e d that I d i d not see the p o i n t , a n d now as m y l i f e c o m e s to a c l o s e I k n o w the u l t i m a t e i n s o r r o w . I see a n d a c c e p t m y own i n a d e -q u a c i e s a n d the d i s a b i l i t i e s I b r o u g h t w i t h m e f r o m o the r l i v e s . 1 0 2 - 5 6 -F i n a l l y , G e n j i ' s o w n dea th i s o n l y h i n t e d at by the c h a p t e r t i t l e : K u m o G a k u r e ( H i d i n g B e h i n d the C l o u d s ) . T h e r e i s o n l y the t i t l e f o r t h i s c h a p t e r , no t ex t . B o t h " U t t a r a K a n d a " (The R a m a y a n a ) a n d " W a k a n a " (The T a l e of G e n j i ) w h i c h d e a l w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e h e r o e s ' s l a m e n t a t i o n , have a s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r e . N e i t h e r of t h e m f o l l o w s the t h e m e s of the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s , a n d i n b o t h of t h e m the tone of the s t o r y c h a n g e s . B o t h b e g i n by t e l l i n g of the pas t ; the m a i n s t o r i e s a r e p r e c e d e d by p a s s a g e s d e a l i n g w i t h some a s p e c t of the h e r o ' s pa s t l i fe ' . In o ther w o r d s , t hese p a r t s a r e a k i n d of i n t r o d u c t i o n to the c e n t r a l s t o r i e s about the h e r o e s i n w h i c h they u n d e r g o a n i n t e r n a l i z e d o r d e a l , n a m e l y , the c o l l a p s e of t h e i r m a r r i a g e s . T h e h e r o e s ' s p a s t a n d the g l o r y of t h e i r pa s t b e c o m e the b a s i s of new s t o r i e s . T h e r e f o r e i t i s p o s s i b l e to s ay that the h e r o e s ' s l a m e n t a t i o n i n t h e i r l a t e r days i s n e i t h e r a m e r e r e p e t i t i o n n o r a new v e r s i o n of the o r d e a l s of t h e i r y o u t h . It i s a new and m o r e p r o f o u n d p r o b l e m w h i c h g r o w s out of t h e i r p a s t . The m a r r i a g e w i t h the T h i r d P r i n c e s s w h i c h s h o u l d have m a r k e d the h i g h p o i n t , b e c o m e s i n s t e a d s o m e t h i n g w h i c h at f i r s t d i s t u r b s the p e a c e of h i s i n n e r w o r l d a n d f i n a l l y d e s t r o y s h i s w o r l d . It i s j u s t l i k e one d r o p of w a t e r on a s t i l l p o o l c a u s i n g r i p p l e s to s p r e a d i n e v e n w i d e n i n g c i r c l e s . In t h i s t a l e a l l the i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r s l i v e i n a m i n i t u r e s o c i e t y of the c o u r t a r o u n d G e n j i . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s a m o n g t he se p e o p l e g r e a t l y c o n t r i b u t e to the r e a d e r s ' s en joymen t of t h i s t a l e . S o m e t i m e s the au thor pu ts h e r s e l f in to the m i n d s of these c h a r a c t e r s , , a n d d e s c r i b e s G e n j i f r o m t h e i r p o i n t s of v i e w . M u r a s a k i a n d K a s h i w a g i , e v e n the T h i r d P r i n c e s s , k e e p t h e i r own p l a c e s i n the t a l e so that i t c a n e v e n be s a i d that the r e a l i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r s a r e the w o m e n s u r r o u n d i n g G e n j i , not G e n j i h i m s e l f . In that w a y G e n j i ' s w o r l d i s c l o s e to that of o u r s . T h e peop le a r o u n d us a r e m o r e i m p o r t a n t t han we r e a l i z e . The R a m a y a n a on the o the r hand p r e s e n t s a d i f f e r e n t s o r t of l i t e r a r y a c c o m p l i s h m e n t . The R a m a y a n a w h i c h a c h i e v e s l i t e r a r y p e r f e c t i o n i n i t s b e a u t i f u l v e r s e s , f o c u s e s m a i n l y on R a m a ' s l i f e . A s i t i s s h o w n i n S i t a ' s o r d e a l by f i r e , h e r e the d i v i n e coup le of R a m a a n d S i t a a r e a l w a y s the c e n t r a l f i g u r e s of the t a l e a n d a focus of puMic i n t e r e s t . C o m p a r e d to t h i s R a m a s tands j u s t l i k e a s h i n i n g sun i n h i s e p i c , G e n j i i s m o r e l i k e the m o o n , s h i n i n g but s o m e h o w w e a k e r a n d m o r e s e n s i t i v e . T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s r e f l e c t the d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e i r l a m e n t a t i o n s . A l l the d e s c r i p t i o n of e a c h event i n T h e R a m a y a n a i s m u c h m o r e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d than i n The T a l e of G e n j i . It i s so d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t that s o m e t i m e s G e n j i g i v e s the i m p r e s s i o n that he l i v e s i n shadowy p a r t s of the w o r l d . In d e a l i n g w i t h the s a m e s o r t of t h e m e s e a c h w o r k has i t s o w n o r i g i n a l a p p r o a c h . H o w e v e r , the l i t e r a r y s t r u c t u r e s of the c o n c e r n e d p a r t s have some b a s i c s i m i l a r i t i e s . I s h a l l d i s c u s s t h i s nex t . The R a m a y a n a c o n s i s t s of s e v e n K a n d a s ; B a l a K a n d a , A y o d h y a K a n d a , A r a n y a Kjjrida, K r i s h K i n d h a , S u n d a r a K a n d a , Y u d d h a K a n d a , a n d - 5 8 -U t t a r a K a n d a . The l a s t , " U t t a r a K a n d a " , w h i c h r e c o u n t s the t a l e of R a m a ' s v i c t o r y o v e r R a v a n a , b e g i n s by r e t e l l i n g the s t o r y of R a v a n a , of the o r i g i n of the R a k s h a s e s w h i c h R a v a n a b e l o n g s to , a n d of H u n u m a n ' s c h i l d h o o d . T h e s e s t o r i e s of the p a s t o c c u p y the f i r s t - h a l f of " U t t a r a K a n d a " . T h e n c o m e s the p a r t i n w h i c h R a m a h e a r s of the peop le t a l k i n g about S i t a . In t h i s K a n d a the w h o l e l i f e s t o r y of R a v a n a w h o m R a m a has defeated,- i s i n t r o d u c e d by the Sage A g a s t y a . R a m a who i s the v i c t o r i o u s k i n g of A y o d h y a , l i s t e n s to the s t o r y of A g a s t y a . R a m a ' s g l o r y i s a g a i n r e t o l d i n t h i s s t o r y of h i s pa s t v i c t o r i e s , a n d t h i s b e c o m e s a n i n t r o d u c t i o n to the u p c o m i n g s t o r y . A l m o s t h a l f of " U t t a r a K a n d a , " c o n s i s t s of a s e r i e s of the s t o r i e s f r o m the e a r l i e r p a r t of The R a m a y a n a as m e n t i o n e d above. - C o m p a r e d to that the p o r t i o n o f the p a s t s t o r y i n " W a k a n a " i s s m a l l ar id p r e s e n t e d m a i n l y i n the. c o n v e r s a t i o n . The f i r s t p a r t of " W a k a n a " i s a s e r i e s of l o n g c o n v e r s a t i o n s b e t w e e n the S u z a k u E m p e r o r a n d v a r i o u s o the r p e o p l e . T h e s e c o n v e r s a -t i o n s c o m p l e t e l y change the tone of the book . The S u z a k u E m p e r o r i s i n p o o r h e a l t h and i s e a g e r to f i n d a g o o d s o n - i n - l a w i n the h u s b a n d fo r h i s f a v o r i t e , the T h i r d P r i n c e s s . The c o n v e r s a t i o n s , c o n c e r n h i s d a u g h t e r » s m a r r i a g e . F i r s t he t a l k s w i t h h i s son , the c u r r e n t e m p e r o r , t hen w i t h Y u g i r i , G e n j i ' s s o n w h o m he wan t s to be h i s s o n -i n - l a w . The w o m e n of the S u z a k u E m p e r o r ' s house have a l l g a t h e r e d - 5 9 -f o r a l o o k at t h i s h a n d s o m e young m a n a n d they p r a i s e h i m , B u t , the o l d e r w o m e n say that G e n j i w a s m o r e h a n d s o m e at the s a m e a g e . The S u z a k u E m p e r o r o v e r h e a r s these w o m e n , a n d r e m a r k s to t h e m , Y e s , G e n j i w a s u n i q u e . B u t why. do y o u say ' that age*? He has o n l y i m p r o v e d as the y e a r s have gone b y . I often s ay to m y s e l f that the w o r d ' r a d i a n t ' w a s i n v e n t e d e s p e c i a l l y f o r h i m . 104 T h e n he c o n t i n u e s , " H e (Genj i ) g r e w up at c o u r t a n d he w a s ou r f a t h e r ' s f a v o u r i t e , the j oy a n d t r e a s u r e of h i s l i f e " . T h e n the S u z a k u E m p e r o r s u m m o n s the n u r s e s of the T h i r d P r i n c e s s . T h e y p r e f e r G e n j i to Y u g i r i b e c a u s e they say Y u g i r i i s v e r y d e v o t e d to h i s w i f e a n d no th ing c a n p u l l h i m a w a y f r o m h e r . One of t h e m s a y s , I s h o u l d t h i n k that c h a n c e s m i g h t be be t t e r w i t h h i s f a t h e r . It w o u l d s e e m that G e n j i s t i l l has the o l d a c q u i s i t i v e i n s t i n c t s a n d that he i s a l w a y s on the a l e r t f o r l a d i e s of r e a l l y g o o d p e d i g r e e . I a m t o l d that he s t i l l t h i n k s of the f o r m e r h i g h p r i e s t e s s of K a m a a n d s o m e t i m e s gets off a l e t t e r to h e r . T h e S u z a k u E m p e r o r i s t o l d of G e n j i ' s i r r e s i s t i b l e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s a n d then he r e m e m b e r s O b o r o z u k i y o , one of h i s own w i v e s who once h a d an a f f a i r w i t h G e n j i . H e d e c i d e s on G e n j i . G e n j i i s not the c h a r a c t e r w h o s e a c t i o n s c a r r y the p l o t h e r e . It i s G e n j i ' s p a s t that i s u s e d by the S u z a k u E m p e r o r to m a k e h i s j u d g m e n t . A l t h o u g h G e n j i i s not v e r y p l e a s e d w i t h t h i s m a r r i a g e a r r a n g e m e n t , i t i s a l s o t r u e that the T h i r d P r i n c e s s i s the n i e c e of h i s s t e p m o t h e r F u j i t s u b o , =.60-the w o m a n w h o m he l o n g e d f o r a l l d u r i n g h i s you th ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , the p r i n c e s s i s not w i thou t i n t e r e s t to h i m . G e n j i ' s pas t i s a l s o e m p h a s i z e d i n " W a k a n a " by the s t o r y of the o l d m a n of A k a s h i who i s the f a the r of the L a d y of A k a s h i a n d g r a n d f a t h e r of the A k a s h i P r i n c e s s . H e i s w e l l - b r e d and , i n f ac t , a c o u s i n of G e n j i ' s l a t e m o t h e r . In the y e a r the o l d m a n ' s daugh te r , the L a d y A k a s h i , w a s b o r n , he had an a u s p i c i o u s d r e a m i n w h i c h he s u p p o r t e d the b l e s s e d M o u n t S u m e r u i n h i s r i g h t hand , a n d on b o t h s i d e s of the m o u n t a i n the sun a n d the m o o n w e r e p o u r i n g a d a z z l i n g r a d i a n c e o v e r the w o r l d . H i s d a u g h t e r ' s fu ture b e c a m e h i s l i f e . H e w i t h d r e w to the c o u n t r y s i d e b e c a u s e t h e r e w a s a l i m i t to wha t he c o u l d do i n the c a p i t a l . E v e r y y e a r he had h i s daugh te r m a k e a p i l g r i m a g e to the S u m i y o s h i S h r i n e . W h e n G e n j i spent h i s e x i l e d days i n S u m a , the o l d m a n w a s e x c i t e d b e c a u s e h i s d r e a m h a d c o m e t r u e . G e n j i a n d L a d y A k a s h i l e a r n f r o m the o l d m a n ' s l ong l a s t l e t t e r that he b e l i e v e d i n a d r e a m a n d spent h i s l i f e t r y i n g to f u l f i l l i t . The L a d y A k a s h i now k n o w s why h e r f a the r has b e e n a m b i t i o u s , a n d shows h e r f a t h e r ' s l e t t e r to G e n j i : The o l d m a n had b e e n thought i m p o s s i b l y e c c e n t r i c a n d w h o l l y u n r e a l i s t i c i n h i s a m b i t i o n s . G e n j i h a d b e e n i n bad c o n s c i e n c e about the w h o l e A k a s h i e p i s o d e . The c r o w n p r i n c e s s ' s b i r t h h a d s e e m e d to t e l l of a b o n d f r o m a f o r m e r l i f e , but the fu ture h a d s e e m e d v e r y u n c e r t a i n a l l the s a m e . H e now saw how m u c h that one f r a g i l e -61-d r e a m had m e a n t to the o l d m a n . It had the apparent ly-w i l d a m b i t i o n to have G e n j i as a s o n - i n - l a w . G e n j i had s u f f e r e d i n e x i l e , i t now s e e m e d that the c r o w n p r i n c e s s m i g h t be b o r n . H e a r i n g the news that the c r o w n p r i n c e s s has g i v e n b i r t h to a baby boy , the o l d m a n m a d e h i s w a y in to the m o u n t a i n s . M i c h i o F u k a z a w a p o i n t s out that i n l a t e r l i f e G e n j i m u s t p a y the p r i c e fo r . h i s g l o r i o u s pa s t . H e m e n t i o n s : It i s not u n r e a s o n a b l e to c o n c l u d e that the d o w n f a l l w o u l d be m e a n i n g l e s s w i thou t the d e s c r i p t i o n s of h i s g l o r i o u s you th . 1 0 8 The h a p p i n e s s and g l o r y w h i c h b o t h of the h e r o e s o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h e x i l e l a t e r t u r n s out to be the cause o f t h e i r l a m e n t a t i o n . R a m a took S i t a b a c k , thus r i s k i n g h i s l i f e ; but s t i l l he had to abandon h e r l a t e r b e c a u s e he was k i n g . G e n j i , a l s o h a v i n g a c h i e v e d a l l the g l o r y he w a n t e d , f i n a l l y m a r r i e d a l a d y of the h i g h e s t r a n k , but i t w a s she who c a u s e d h i m t r o u b l e . N o w we m u s t t u r n to a f u n d a m e n t a l p r o b l e m : how to i n t e r p r e t the l a m e n t a t i o n of the h e r o e s . It i s w i t h o u t doubt v e r y d i f f i c u l t to g i v e a n e x a c t a n s w e r . B u t , s o m e e x a m i n a t i o n of the w r i t e r s t h e m s e l v e s m a y he lp to i l l u m i n a t e t h i s p r o b l e m . We do not e v e n k n o w the g i v e n n a m e of the a u t h o r of The T a l e of G e n j i . We c a l l h e r by the p o p u l a r n a m e w h i c h we m a y p r e s u m e w a s . u s e d at the H e i a n c o u r t . She lef t a d i a r y : M u r a s a k i s h i k i b u n i k k i (The D i a r y of M u r a s a k i S h i k i b u ) . F r o m i t we c a n g a t h e r wha t s o r t of p e r s o n - 6 2 -she w a s . A l s o , i t i s not d i f f i c u l t to u n d e r s t a n d why she w r o t e about the h e r o ' s l a m e n t a t i o n i n h i s l a t e r l i f e . B u t , b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g to t h i s d i s -c u s s i o n , I w o u l d l i k e to e x p l a i n u n d e r what c i r c u m s t a n c e s h e r d i a r y w a s w r i t t e n , because i t w i l l m a k e m y a r g u m e n t c l e a r e r . L a d y M u r a s a k i went to c o u r t a r o u n d the m i d d l e of the f i r s t decade of the e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y to j o i n the s e r v i c e of E m p r e s s S h o s h i . H e r d i a r y c o v e r s about two of the y e a r s at c o u r t (1008-10 10), d u r i n g w h i c h p e r i o d she was s o m e t i m e s a t u to r f o r the e m p r e s s . The m a i n even t s i n h e r d i a r y a r e the b i r t h of two sons to the e m p r e s s . T h e s e b i r t h s w e r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t even t s i n H e i a n p o l i t i c s . The e m p r e s s ' s f a t h e r , M i c h i n a g a , who w a s the head of the m o s t p o w e r f u l c l a n of n o b l e s i n the H e i a n p e r i o d , had been e a g e r l y a w a i t i n g the b i r t h of a g r a n d s o n w h i c h w o u l d g i v e h i m a v e r y s t ab le p o s i t i o n at c o u r t , s i n c e he w o u l d be a g r a n d -fa the r to a fu ture e m p e r o r . T h u s , M i c h i n a g a s e c u r e d a p o s i t i o n of u n -s h a k a b l e p o w e r i n H e i a n p o l i t i c s b e c a u s e of h i s g r a n d s o n s . T h e r e f o r e , the even ts w h i c h L a d y M u r a s a k i ' s d i a r y d e a l w i t h a r e c r u c i a l ones , a n d the ob jec t of e v e r y b o d y ' s i n t e r e s t . ( A s one w o u l d expec t w i t h s u c h i m -p o r t a n t e v e n t s , t h e r e w e r e s o m e v e r y l u x u r i o u s c e r e m o n i e s s u r r o u n d i n g the b i r t h s , but t h e r e i s no n e e d to d i s c u s s t h e m h e r e . ) L a d y M u r a s a k i s a w those i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s , w a s i m p r e s s e d , a n d took p l e a s u r e i n h e r m i s t r e s s . H e r a d m i r a t i o n w a s p r o b a b l y the m o t i v a t -i n g f o r c e f o r h e r w r i t i n g h e r d i a r y . B u t , she w a s the k i n d of i n t r o s p e c t i v e - 6 3 -p e r s o n who c o u l d not c o m p l e t e l y g i v e h e r s e l f up to l u x u r i o u s c o u r t l i f e . T w o c o n t r a d i c t o r y f e e l i n g s w e r e i n t e r w o v e n i n h e r d i a r y : a t t a c h m e n t to c o u r t l i f e and d e t a c h m e n t f r o m i t . It i s not c e r t a i n w h e n h e r d i a r y w a s w r i t t e n , a l t h o u g h i t w a s p r o b a b l y w h e n M u r a s a k i w a s about t h i r t y y e a r s o l d , not l o n g a f t e r the b i r t h of the p r i n c e s . . g^g w a s v e r y i n t e l l i g e n t : i t i s e v e n s a i d that she w a s a g e n i u s . B u t , she w a s not v e r y l u c k y i n h e r p e r s o n a l l i f e . She i s s a i d to have been m a r r i e d i n h e r e a r l y t w e n t i e s to a d i s t a n t o l d k i n s m a n , N o b u t a k a F u j i w a r a . B u t , h e r m a r r i e d l i f e d i d not l a s t l o n g , f o r i n a few y e a r s he lef t h e r a lone w i t h a d a u g h t e r . It s e e m s that she s t a r t e d w r i t i n g The T a l e of G e n j i a f t e r she b e c a m e a w i d o w . A s she w r o t e The T a l e of G e n j i , i t b e c a m e so f a m o u s a n d p o p u l a r that she* w a s r e q u e s t e d to c o m e a n d l i v e at the c o u r t by M i c h i n a g a . A t c o u r t she c o n t i n u e d to w r i t e s u c c e s s f u l l y . B u t , i t w a s a l s o t r u e that she w a s not l e a d i n g a n o r d i n a r y l i f e as a w o m a n . T h i s s i t u a t i o n g i v e s a un ique p e r s p e c t i v e to h e r d i a r y . O n the one hand she w a s v e r y p r o u d of l i v i n g at c o u r t , but on the o the r hand , she a l w a y s fe l t s a d a n d i s o l a t e d . The m o r e she en joyed h e r l i f e at c o u r t the m o r e d e e p l y she b e c a m e d i s t r e s s e d by h e r own i n t r o s p e c t i o n . In h e r d i a r y she d e s c r i b e d the E m p e r o r ' s v i s i t to the T s u c h i m i k a d o m a n s i o n w h i c h M i c h i n a g a o w n e d . A m o n g ' t h e a c c o u n t s of l a v i s h c e r e m o n i e s , she lef t h e r d e s c r i t p i o n s of the b e a r e r s of the E m p e r o r ' s c a r t : - 6 4 -T h e r o y a l c a r t has a r r i v e d . The m u s i c p e r f o r m e d on boa ts sounded s u p e r b . W h e n the r o y a l c a r t d r e w up to the s t a i r s of the m a n s i o n , I s a w the b e a r e r s as-? cend ing the s t a i r s w i t h t h e i r b a c k s bent a n d b o w e d u n c o m f o r t a b l y . W h e n they r e a c h e d the top they then had to k o w t o w . B u t , s e e i n g t h e m r e m i n d e d m e that I a m i n the s a m e p o s i t i o n as they a r e . E v e n i n c o u r t t h e r e i s l i m i t i n r a n k , so I o b s e r v e that c o u r t l i f e i s not e a s y . W h e n t h i s E m p e r o r ' s s tate v i s i t was a p p r o a c h i n g , she w r o t e a p o e m on l o o k i n g at d u c k s ( JL, ) on the l a k e of M i c h i n a g a ' s g a r d e n : D u c k s on the w a t e r . . . A m I the s a m e as those d u c k s ? L i v i n g i n a f l u i d w o r l d . T h e n she added : r T h e y l o o k l i k e they a r e en joy ing t h e m s e l v e s , but i n r e a l i t y , I t h i n k , t hey a r e s u f f e r i n g . I c a n see m y own s e l f i n t h e m . . T h e s e two quotes show h e r to be s u c h a p e s s i m i s t i c p e r s o n that the r e a d e r m i g h t get the i m p r e s s i o n she m i g h t c o m m i t s u i c i d e o r p e r h a p s take h o l y o r d e r s . In fac t she m e n t i o n e d that she w a s i n t e r e s t e d i n t a k i n g r e l i g i o u s v o w s . A l t h o u g h J a p a n e s e s c h o l a r s doubt that p a r t of h e r d i a r y i s h e r i n t e r p o l a t e d l e t t e r , i n t h i s p a r t we l e a r n that she w a s not qu i te a b l e to d e c i d e to l e a v e the w o r l d . She s t o o d i n b e t w e e n . . She c o u l d not abandon t h i s w o r l d , e v e n though she found l i f e m e a n i n g l e s s . B u t she s a i d that she e x p e r i e n c e d so m u c h m i s e r y that she n o w thought of b e c o m i n g a m a n . N e v e r t h e l e s s she w a s a f r a i d that she m i g h t not be a b l e to m a i n t a i n h e r v o w s once she took t h e m . T h i s w o r l d s t i l l h e l d h e r : - 6 5 -N o w , I s h o u l d s ay what I want to do . So f a r I have a v o i d e d s a y i n g d i s a g r e e a b l e t h i n g s . N o m a t t e r wha t o the r p e o p l e s ay , I w o u l d l i k e o n l y to s tudy the s u t r a s , f o l l o w i n g A m i t a b h a B u d d h a ' s s u g g e s t i o n s . I have r e a c h e d the state w h e r e no th ing i n t h i s w o r l d m a t t e r s to m e . So I s h o u l d not w a i t to b e c o m e a nun any m o r e . B u t I a m a f r a i d that e v e n i f I t ook r e l i g i o u s v o w s , I m i g h t w a v e r s a t o r i ( l i b e r a t i o n ) . T h a t i s the o n l y r e a s o n w h y I hes i t a t e to take v o w s . I a m r e a c h i n g the age that one t ake s vows* If I w a i t any l o n g e r , i t w i l l b e c o m e d i f f i c u l t to r e a d the s u t r a s . A l s o I m i g h t b e c o m e l a z y . A l t h o u g h i t m i g h t sound l i k e I a m s u p e r f i c i a l l y r e l i g i o u s , i n fact that i s a l l that I pay a t t e n t i o n to these d a y s . H o w e v e r , t h e r e i s no c e r t a i n t y that a s i n f u l p e r s o n l i k e m y s e l f c a n e v e r r e a c h s a t o r i . B e c a u s e I m u s t have been so b a d i n m y p r e v i o u s e x i s t e n c e s that that i s why I n e v e r have been ab l e to a c c o m p l i s h a n y t h i n g good i n t h i s l i f e . So I cannot he lp but take a p e s s i m i s t i c v i e w of m y c h a n c e s fo r s a t o r i . It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to r e m e m b e r that a p e r s o n s u c h as t h i s w r o t e the G e n j i : e x i l e , r e t u r n , and l a m e n t a t i o n . The G e n j i i s f i c t i o n , but G e n j i ' s w o r l d i s M u r a s a k i ' s w o r l d . M u r a s a k i o b s e r v e d the th ings happen ing i n the ou t s ide w o r l d w i t h the eyes of a w r i t e r . B u t she r e m a i n e d d e e p l y i n t r o s p e c t i v e . It w a s n a t u r a l f o r h e r to l o o k in to h e r h e r o ' s i n n e r w o r l d a n d e x a m i n e h i s i n n e r m o t i v a t i o n s . She t e l l s us that s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d i n d i v i d u a l i s m a r e not i d e a s that w e r e c r e a t e d i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . She w o u l d not have been s a t i s f i e d w i t h g i v i n g The T a l e of G e n j i a happy e n d i n g . M o r e i m p o r t a n t l y , h o w e v e r , t h i s i n t r o s p e c t i v e p e r s o n w a s - 6 6 -w a n d e r i n g b e t w e e n two w o r l d s , the w o r l d of i n d i v i d u a l a n d that of the ou te r w o r l d . She d i d not f i n d i t e a s y to d e c i d e w h e t h e r she s h o u l d t ake r e l i g i o u s v o w s o r no t . T h i s i s p o s s i b l y b e c a u s e she was: a t t a c h e d to. the w o r l d of h u m a n e m o t i o n . F o r h e r , we c a n s a y , the e x a m i n a t i o n of the i n n e r w o r l d of m a n ' s p s y c h e w a s too i m p o r t a n t to c a s t a w a y f o r h e r own e n l i g h t e n m e n t . N o one k n o w s what b e c a m e of h e r l a t e r . . E v e n t u a l l y she m i g h t have t a k e n r e l i g i o u s v o w s . B u t at l e a s t a r o u n d the t i m e w h e n she w r o t e The T a l e of G e n j i , she w a s s t i l l u n c e r t a i n w h e t h e r she s h o u l d take v o w s o r not . The a u t h o r of The R a m a y a n a , V a l m i k i , i s s a i d to have w r i t t e n a p h i l o s o p h i c a l w o r k : T h e Y o g a V a s i s t h a (or The M a h a r a m a y a ) . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s some doubt as to the l a t t e r , I w i l l be a s s u m i n g that they have the s a m e a u t h o r , a n d w i l l be u s i n g b o t h The R a m a y a n a a n d The Y o g a v a s i s t h a to i l l u s t r a t e V a l m i k i ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . T h e Y o g a v a s i s t h a i s a w o r k of p h i l o s o p h y . It s ta tes that the f u n d a -m e n t a l i d e a of the u n i v e r s e i s that t h i s w o r l d i s o n l y the i m a g i n a t i o n of the . L o g o s ( C o s m i c M i n d ) . J u s t a s the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of a d r e a m e r a p p e a r s as a d r e a m , the S u p r e m e C o n s c i o u s n e s s a p p e a r s as t h i s w o r l d . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s w o r l d i s a s u n r e a l as a d a y d r e a m . V a l m i k i put i t qu i te s u c c i n c t l y , "In r e a l i t y t h e r e i s no w o r l d . T h e r e i s no w o r l d . T h e r e i s B r a h m a a l o n e . . . •" T h u s , the u l t i m a t e s ta te of l i b e r a t i o n f o r h u m a n b e i n g s i s a t t a i n e d by b e c o m i n g one w i t h the r e a l i t y of t h i s w o r l d , a n d thus f ree f r o m a l l d e s i r e and a c t i o n . - 6 7 -In The Y o g a v a s i s t h a , the i m p o r t a n c e of h u m a n e f fo r t i s e m p h a s i z e d . A c c o r d i n g to t h i s w o r k t h e r e i s no th ing l i k e d e s t i n y and o u r p r e v i o u s e f fo r t s a r e ou r d e s t i n y ; The Y o g a v a s i s t h a s a y s , " T h e r e i s no th ing i n the w o r l d w h i c h cannot be a c h i e v e d by m e n by r i g h t s o r t of e f fo r t s . . .; " If we s u m m a r i z e The Y o g a v a s i s t h a , i t c a n be s a i d that .this i s a w o r k e m -p h a s i z i n g m a n ' s e f fo r t s a n d h i s p o s s i b i l i t y of a t t a i n i n g l i b e r a t i o n t h r o u g h 112 e f fo r t s w i t h i n the f r a m e w o r k of the S u p r e m e C o s m i c O r d e r . In The R a m a y a n a , V a l m i k i - i s not o n l y i t s c o m p o s e r , but a l s o a c h a r a c t e r . F o r e x a m p l e , he was^the p e r s o n who o f f e r e d p r o t e c t i o n to S i t a w h e n she was abandoned i n the f o r e s t . . T h i s m i g h t c o n t r a d i c t N a r a d a ' s s t o r y a b o u t ' R a m a , w h i c h i s t o l d at the b e g i n n i n g of the e p i c . W h e n V a l m i k i f i r s t h e a r d of R a m a ' s s t o r y f r o m N a r a d a , . R a m a had a l r e a d y d i e d . N a r a d a c l e a r l y s a y s , t o w a r d s the c l o s e of h i s s h o r t s t o r y about R a m a , "he (Rama) 113 r e t u r n e d to h i s c e l e s t i a l abode , V a i k u n t h a . " • B u t we s h o u l d f o r g i v e h i m b e c a u s e he w a s so d e v o t e d to h i s s t o r y that he w r o t e h i m s e l f in to the p l o t . H o w e v e r , the p o i n t w h i c h needs a t -t e n t i o n h e r e i s that,, as the e x i s t e n c e of N a r a d a ' s s t o r y s h o w s , V a l m i k i i s not l i k e l y the au tho r of The R a m a y a n a i n the s t r i c t s ense of the w o r d . B u t , p r o b a b l y he d i d w r i t e the f i n e s t v e r s i o n of the s t o r y of R a m a w h i c h 114 h a d been handed down by o r a l t r a d i t i o n . It i s d a n g e r o u s to c o n s i d e r the s t o r i e s c o n c e r n i n g V a l m i k i i n T h e R a m a y a n a as r e a l . T h e y a r e m o r e o r l e s s l e g e n d a r y s t o r i e s . W e - 6 8 -k n o w nex t to no th ing about h i m . H o w e v e r , those s t o r i e s of V a l m i k i m i g h t g i v e us s o m e h in t s about how and w h y he c o m p o s e d The R a m a y a n a . N e x t I w o u l d l i k e to i n t r o d u c e how V a l m i k i e n t e r s the e p i c as a n a u t h o r a n d one of the c h a r a c t e r s . V a l m i k i c r e a t e d the m e t r i c a l f o r m c a l l e d ' S h l o k a ' i n w h i c h he c o m -p o s e d h i s p o e t r y , The R a m a y a n a , out of h i s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e ; f o r e x a m p l e , he saw a hun te r shoo t ing a m a l e b i r d of a p a i r of K r a u n c h a b i r d s i n the f o r e s t . L o o k i n g on the s i gh t , he w a s d e e p l y t o u c h e d by the c r y of the 115 f e m a l e b i r d a n d i n c e n s e d by the deed of the h u n t e r . T h e n he s a i d , H u n t e r , h a v i n g s l a i n t h i s b i r d i n the m i d s t of en joymen t w i t h i t s m a t e m a y s t t hou seek i n v a i n f o r a r e s t i n g p l a c e f o r e v e r . 1 1 ° Soon a f t e r that , he n o t i c e d the w o r d s he had j u s t s a i d out of a n g e r c o m p r i s e d a p o e m , w i t h four s t a n z a s , e a c h of e q u a l s y l l a b l e s w h i c h w o u l d be c a l l e d • s h l o k a ' ( g r i e f ) . The i m m e d i a t e m o t i v a t i o n f o r h i s c o m p o s i n g The R a m a y a n a w a s h i s g r i e f a n d d e s p a i r at s e e i n g a b i r d be ing k i l l e d . H e r e we see a c y c l e of the c o s m i c o r d e r , a n d the i n d i v i d u a l w o r l d ( m i c r o c o s m ) . M a n e x i s t s i n the w o r l d , c o m m u n i t y , s o c i e t y , a n d u n i v e r s e , e a c h h a v i n g a n i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . L a d y M u r a s a k i w a s w a n d e r i n g , b e t w e e n the e n l i g h t e n m e n t of B u d d h a ' s w o r l d and h e r own s t i l l e m o t i o n a l w o r l d . A s f a r as the c o m -p o s i t i o n of l i t e r a r y w o r k s i s c o n c e r n e d , we m i g h t be a b l e to l o c a t e the m y s t e r y of l i t e r a r y c o m p o s i t i o n i n the c o n f l i c t w i t h i n a n a u t h o r b e t w e e n - 6 9 -the i n d i v i d u a l w o r l d a n d the ou te r w o r l d . E m o t i o n c a n m i s l e a d m a n a n d b e c o m e a m o s t p o w e r f u l o b s t a c l e to e n l i g h t e n m e n t . B u t s t i l l V a l m i k i a n d L a d y M u r a s a k i see i n e m o t i o n one of the m o s t b e a u t i f u l t h i n g s i n t h i s w o r l d . R a m a and G e n j i a r e not c o m p l e t e l y f r ee f r o m t h e i r e m o t i o n , a 117 fac t that m i g h t a t t r a c t r e a d e r s . - 7 0 -C H A P T E R I V C O N C L U S I O N T h u s f a r we have d i s c u s s e d the h e r o i c c y c l e : e x i l e a n d r e t u r n , a n d l a m e n t i n The R a m a y a n a and The T a l e of G e n j i . B u t how m a y we i n t e r p r e t the l i t e r a r y m e a n i n g of t h i s h e r o i c c y c l e ? W h a t m o t i v a t e s the two h e r o e s th roughou t t h e i r o r d e a l s ? Wha t n e c e s s i t a t e s the e x t e r n a l a n d 118 i n t e r n a l d e s c e n t s ? B o t h C h a r l e s M o o r m a n i n K i n g a n d C a p t a i n s a n d J o s e p h C a m p b e l l i n The H e r o w i t h «i T h o u s a n d F a c e s ^ ^ a p p r o a c h these i s s u e s o n l y p a r t i a l l y . In K i n g a n d C a p t a i n s , M o o r m a n d i s t i n g u i s h e s two v a l u e s y s t e m s i n h e r o i c l i t e r a t u r e , that of the k i n g a n d that of the h e r o . He c o n t r a s t s A c h i l l e s ' s l i f e w i t h A g a m e m n o n ' s i n the I l i a d . A c h i l l e s who i s at f i r s t c a l m and r e s p o n s i b l e , b e c o m e s a v i c t i m of h i s own u n y i e l d i n g f u r y . A g a m e m n o n , on the o the r hand , m o v e s f r o m s e l f i s h w r a t h to a s ense of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of h i s o f f i c e . M o o r m a n f u r t h e r s t u d i e s these se t s of v a l u e s i n the O d y s s e y , B e o w u l f , The Song of R o l a n d , The N i b e l u n g e n l i e d , T h e I c e l a n d i c S a g a s , a n d The A r t h u r L e g e n d , a n d s a y s : T h u s the k i n g - - A g a m e m n o n , C h a r l e m a g n e , A r t h u r - - i n c r e a t -i n g h i s n a t i o n a n d l a t e r i n e x e m p l i f y i n g i t s i m a g e , m u s t l e a v e i t s a c t i v e defense to l e s s e r , o r at any r a t e to l e s s i d e a l i z e d , f i g u r e s , to A c h i l l e s o r R o l a n d o r G a w a i n , that ( s i c ) these a r e i n d e e d l e s s i d e a l i z e d m e n ; though they a r e h e r o e s , they a r e e s s e n t i a l l y sub jec t s r a t h e r than k i n g s a n d as s u c h b e a r the fau l t s of g e n e r a l h u m a n i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y a n o v e r w e e n i n g p r i d e , a k i n g of h u b r i s , i n t h e i r own a b i l i t y . T h e y a r e e s s e n t i a l l y e g o t i s t i c a l ; t h e i r own r e p u t a t i o n , t h e i r o w n hono r i s to t h e m of s u p r e m e i m p o r t a n c e . U n l i k e the k i n g s , they n e v e r p l a c e n a t i o n a l safe ty o r n a t i o n a l hono r above t h e i r own safe ty a n d h o n o r . H e n c e they s a c r i f i c e n a t i o n to s e l f a n d b r i n g down upon c o m m i t t e e s a n d R o u n d T a b l e the t r a g i c r e s u l t s of t h e i r p r i c e . W h e n we a p p l y M o o r m a n ' s two se ts of h e r o i c v a l u e s to the two k i n d s of d e s c e n t , we m a y o b s e r v e that i n t h e i r e x i l e s R a m a a n d G e n j i have h e r o i c q u a l i t i e s , a n d i n t h e i r l a m e n t a b l e l a t e r days they have k i n g l y q u a l i t i e s ; G e n j i t a k i n g a k i n g l y p o s i t i o n b e c o m e s a c e n t r a l p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e i n h i s l a t e r d a y s . T h e r e f o r e t h e i r d e s c e n t s m a y be i n t e r p r e t e d as a p r o c e s s of a t r a n s i t f r o m h e r o to k i n g . M o o r m a n p o i n t s out that i n O d y s s e u s we c a n see the l i n k of the two k i n g l y a n d h e r o i c v a l u e s , b e c a u s e O d y s s e u s has b o t h q u a l i t i e s . ^ * M o o r m a n c o n s i d e r s the w a n d e r i n g of O d y s s e u s to be a n e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s t h r o u g h w h i c h h i s c h a r a c t e r i s d e v e l o p e d . A f t e r r e a c h i n g I t haca O d y s s e u s r e s u m e s h i s l e g i t i m a t e p o s i t i o n as a k i n g . S i m i l a r l y , the d e s c e n t s of o u r h e r o e s ' s l i v e s m a y p o s s i b l y be c o n s i d e r e d to be a s o r t of e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s ; h o w e v e r , M o o r m a n ' s two se ts of v a l u e s do not f u l l y e x p l a i n two i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s of the m e a n -ing of the two d e s c e n t s . U n l i k e O d y s s e u s , i n ou r h e r o e s ' s l a t e r l i v e s t h e i r s ense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as k i n g s does not n e c e s s a r i l y p r o m i s e t h e m p e r s o n a l h a p p i n e s s . A n d , u n l i k e O d y s s e u s , i n t h e i r l a t e r days R a m a a n d G e n j i a r e not h e r o e s of a c t i o n a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e i r o r d e a l s a r e i n t e r n a l i z e d . M o o r m a n ' s t h e o r y p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l a p p r o a c h to the ( - 7 2 -c h a r a c t e r s of R a m a a n d G e n j i ; h o w e v e r , i t c a n not f u l l y e n c o m p a s s these two l a m e n t s . The h e r o i c c y c l e , e x i l e - r e t u r n , i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a p r o c e s s of a w a r e n e s s of u n i v e r s a l oneness by J o s e p h C a m p b e l l . He s t a t e s : A n d so , to g r a s p the f u l l v a l u e of the m y t h o l o g i c a l ' f i g u r e s that have c o m e down to u s , we m u s t u n d e r s t a n d they a r e not on ly s y m p t o m s of the u n c o n s c i o u s (as i n d e e d a r e a l l h u m a n thoughts a n d a c t s ) , but a l s o c o n t r o l l e d a n d i n -t ended s t a t e m e n t s of c e r t a i n s p i r i t u a l p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h have r e m a i n e d as cons tan t t h roughou t the c o u r s e of h u m a n h i s t o r y . B r i e f l y f o r m u l a t e d , the u n i v e r s a l d o c t r i n e t e a c h e s that a l l the v i s i b l e s t r u c t u r e s of the w o r l d - - a l l t h ings a n d b e i n g s - - a r e the ef fec ts of a ubuqu i tous p o w e r out of w h i c h they r i s e w h i c h s u p p o r t s a n d f i l l s t h e m d u r i n g the p e r i o d of t h e i r m a n i f e s t a t i o n a n d b a c k in to w h i c h they m u s t u l -1 22 t i m a t e l y d i s s o l v e . T h e p u r p o s e of a h e r o ' s a d v e n t u r e i s to open the d o o r to a w o r l d of s u p e r -c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a w o r l d w h o s e d i m e n s i o n i s f o r g o t t e n i n e v e r y d a y l i f e . The u l t i m a t e u n i v e r s a l p o w e r , C a m p b e l l s a y s , i s k n o w n as e n e r g y i n s c i e n c e , M a n a to the M a l a n s i a n s , W a k o n d a to the S i o u x I n d i a n s , Shak to to the H i n d u s , a n d the p o w e r of G o d to the C h r i s t i a n s . The h e r o r e p r e s e n t s the c l a i m s of the s u p e r c o n s c i o u s n e s s . H i s a d v e n t u r e s and r e t u r n a r e a m i c r o -c o s m i c c y c l e of the d i s c o v e r y of oneness w i t h the c o s m i c p o w e r . A l t h o u g h C a m p b e l l ' s t h e o r y c o n c e r n s o n l y a n e x t e r n a l d e s c e n t , i t m a y i m p l y the p o s s i b i l i t y of i n t e r n a l d e s c e n t b e i n g a c o n t i n u i n g p r o c e s s t h r o u g h w h i c h the a w a r e n e s s o f u n i t y w i t h s u p e r c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s a c h i e v e d . In tooth l a m e n t a t i o n s i t i s a p p a r e n t that the d i m e n s i o n s of R a m a ' s a n d G e n j i ' s w o r l d s have c h a n g e d a f t e r t h e i r r e t u r n s f r o m e x i l e , a n d that they bo th de lve deepe r in to the i n n e r w o r l d s of e x i s t e n c e . H o w e v e r , c a n we d e s c r i b e t h i s change as an a w a r e n e s s of u n i t y w i t h s u p e r c o n s e i o u s -n e s s ? R a m a ' s a n d G e n j i ' s l a m e n t s s e e m to be too p e r s o n a l to l e a d to a n e n l i g h t e n m e n t of t h i s s o r t . I w o u l d sugges t that C a m p b e l l ' s t h e o r y a p -p r o a c h e s o n l y the p h i l o s o p h i c a l a s p e c t s of t he se two l a m e n t s . W h e n we c o n s i d e r e x t e r n a l a n d i n t e r n a l d e s c e n t s f r o m a b r o a d e r p e r s p e c t i v e , we m a y o b s e r v e one i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n them., i n the a p p e a r a n c e of a i d f r o m the u p p e r w o r l d . In e x i l e d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n a n d a i d a r e n u m e r o u s a n d i n d i s p e n s a b l e . B u t i n l a m e n t d i v i n e i n t e r -v e n t i o n w o r k s n e g a t i v e l y (S i t a ' s d e s c e n t to the e a r t h , a w a r e n e s s of r e t r i -b u t i o n of G e n j i ) . D i v i n e m e s s a g e s and i n t e r v e n t i o n s e e m to c e a s e to a p p e a r i n the h e r o e s ' s s t o r i e s . W h e n e v e r a m a n s t a r t s t h i n k i n g of h i s w o r l d as independen t of a n u p p e r w o r l d , the m y t h o l o g i c a l age i s o v e r , a n d a n e w e r a b e g i n s . T h e r e f o r e , a f u l l e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the d e s c e n t s of R a m a a n d G e n j i i s to c o n s i d e r t h e i r d e s c e n t s as a l i t e r a r y a c c o m p l i s h m e n t w h i c h u s h e r s i n the c o m i n g n e w w o r l d of l i t e r a t u r e . In t h i s new w o r l d a l l the c h a r a c t e r s a r e f r ee f r o m d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n , a n d i n s t e a d , t h e i r i n n e r s e n s e s , t h e i r p s y c h e s l a r g e l y g o v e r n t h e i r s t o r i e s . It m a y be s a i d that T h e R a m a y a n a a n d T h e T a l e of G e n j i open the d o o r to m o d e r n l i t e r a t u r e . - 7 4 -T h e E a r t h G o d d e s s r e c e i v e s S i t a a n d d e s c e n d s in to the e a r t h . O f c o u r s e unhappy end ings a r e not u n u s u a l i n e p i c s of the w o r l d . F o r e x a m p l e , we c a n r e c a l l G i l g a m e s h ' s g r i e f a n d that the end ing of the M a h a b h a r a t a w a s s o m e w h a t p e s s i m i s t i c . B u t t hose h e r o e s do not s e e m to suf fe r i n t e r n a l i z e d o r d e a l s , they r e m a i n a c t i v e t i l l the end of t h e i r s t o r i e s , a n d keep f i g h t i n g . E v e r y o n e w o n d e r s at i t a n d i s a m a z e d at s e e i n g s u c h a n i n c r e d i b l e t h ing happen b e f o r e t h e i r v e r y e y e s . In the m i d s t of a l l t h i s e x c i t e m e n t R a m a i s t e r r i b l y d e p r e s s e d , f o r he has l o s t h i s l a s t hope . B r a h m a t e l l s h i m that he w i l l r e j o i n S i t a i n h e a v e n . R a m a i s a lone i n t h i s s c e n e , i s o l a t e d e m o t i o n a l l y f r o m - o t h e r p e o p l e a n d e v e n the G o d s , no one c a n - r e a l l y u n d e r s t a n d h i s f e e l i n g o r g r i e f . T h i s s cene i n " U t t a r a K a n d a 1 1 d e s c r i b i n g S i t a ' s d e s c e n t i n to the e a r t h p a r a l l e l s the scene i n " K a s h i w a g i " i n w h i c h G e n j i i s - h o l d i n g a baby boy i n h i s a r m s , b o r n of the T h i r d P r i n c e s s , G e n j i i s a l m o s t i n t e a r s , but not b e c a u s e of a l l the e x c i t e m e n t a r o u n d h i m . H e i s m o u r n i n g , t h i n k i n g about the i r o n y of fa te . W h i l e l o o k i n g a t a c h a r m i n g l i t t l e boy i n h i s a r m s , he r e m e m b e r s the f a t h e r , -K a s h i w a g i , who wfile he w a s s t i l l a you th had d e s t r o y e d h i s l i f e . G e n j i i s no t i n a p o s i t i o n to c r i t i c i z e the young m a n , b e c a u s e G e n j i s u f f e r e d the same s o r t of s i n f u l l o v e i n h i s y o u t h . - 7 5 -In these s cenes b o t h R a m a and G e n j i s e e m to have l o s t t h e i r r a d i -a n c e . T h e g r i e f s that h e r o e s su f fe r a r e d i f f e r en t i n the k i n d . R a m a i s t o r t u r e d by the f e e l i n g of h i s l o s s . G e n j i i s s t r i c k e n down by a w a r e n e s s of r e t r i b u t i o n . H o w e v e r , c o m p a r e d to t h e i r e x i l e d d a y s , one th ing , is m i s s i n g i n these s c e n e s . Tha t i s , the a i d f r o m the u p p e r w o r l d , the p o w e r s w h i c h s a v e d t h e m b e f o r e . In those s c e n e s b o t h h e r o e s a r e c o m p l e t e l y i s o l a t e d c h a r a c t e r s . N o one t h e r e t r i e s to u n d e r s t a n d the r e a l f e e l i n g s of. the h e r o e s . T h e y s t and a l o n e i n those s c e n e s . I n v i s i b l e shadows c r e e p the h e r o e s a n d r e -m i n d us of the t r a n s i t o r y na tu r e of b o t h h u m a n l i f e a n d i t s d e e d s . T h e y cannot e x p e c t any a i d f r o m the u p p e r w o r l d . It s e e m s that the d i v i n e p o w e r w h i c h r e s c u e d , t h e m f r o m t h e i r e x i l e i s , now w o r k i n g a g a i n s t t h e m . T h e i r destinies...:, a r e a l r e a d y f u l f i l l e d . The l a t e r l i v e s of R a m a a n d G e n j i a r e m o r e p e a c e f u l on the s u r f a c e , but at the s a m e t i m e they a r e w o u n d e d deep i n s i d e . It i s b e c a u s e b o t h s t o r i e s d e a l w i t h the p r o b l e m s c o n c e r n i n g the r e s p e c t i v e h e r o ' s m a r r i e d l i f e . T h e y a r e l e f t w i t h a n a w a r e n e s s of the t r a n s i t o r y na tu r e of human l j f e a n d d e e d s . It goes w i thou t s a y i n g that b e c a u s e The R a m a y a n a a n d The T a l e of G e n j i a r e the l i t e r a r y m a s t e r p i e c e s of two d i s t a n t g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s a n d d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r en t c u l t u r e , they have no d i r e c t l i t e r a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s e s s a y a r e m e r e l y i m p l i c a t i o n s of c o m p a r a t i v e s tudy . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of the c o m p a r a t i v e a p p r o a c h to the s tudy of l i t e r a t u r e , h o w e v e r , i s to e n l a r g e the o v e r a l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g by h i g h l i g h t i n g c o n t r a s t s . T h e r e a p p e a r to be two m a i n d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n the s t o r i e s : the i n f l u e n c e of the o r a l t r a d i t i o n , a n d the q u a l i t y of the h e r o i c t h e m e . The R a m a y a n a a p p a r e n t l y has been p a s s e d down i n the o r a l t r a d i -t i o n , but The T a l e of G e n j i b a s i c a l l y a w o r k by one a u t h o r . A l t h o u g h T h e T a l e of G e n j i i s not c o m p l e t e l y f r ee f r o m the i n f l u e n c e of o r a l t r a d i t i o n , i t c a n be c o n c l u d e d that t h i s i s the w o r k of L a d y - M u r a s a k i . C o n t r a r i l y , V a l m i k i i s a l e g e n d a r y a u t h o r , p e r h a p s the l a s t a n d b e s t e d i t o r of the s t o r y of R a m a . T h e tones of bo th e p i c s a r e qu i te d i f f e r e n t f r o m e a c h o t h e r . T h e R a m a y a n a i s m u c h m o r e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d than the G e n j i . It i s p r o b a b l y p a r t l y b e c a u s e of the d i f f e r e n c e i n l anguage and l i t e r a r y s t y l e . In o l d J a p a n e s e , s en t ences a r e l ong a n d qui te often the sub jec t s a r e o m i t t e d . The R a m a y a n a f o l l o w i n g the o r a l t r a d i t i o n i s w r i t t e n i n v e r s e a n d we c o u l d c a l l The T a l e of G e n j i a w o r k of p o e t i c p r o s e . A s p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d , The R a m a y a n a i s the s t o r y of a h e r o of the b a t t l e f i e l d , and T h e T a l e of G e n j i i s the s t o r y of a h e r o of the H e i a n c o u r t . F o r t h i s r e a s o n the a u t h o r of the G e n j i does not g i v e m u c h space f o r G e n j i ' s e x i l e d d a y s . N o m a t t e r how i m p o r t a n t the i n c i d e n c e of e x i l e i n G e n j i ' s l i f e i s , b o t h the a u t h o r ' s a n d the r e a d e r ' s i n t e r e s t focus'^on c o u r t l i f e , w h i l e i n The R a m a y a n a R a m a ' s l i f e i n e x i l e s e e m s to be m o s t i m p o r t a n t . - 7 7 -In e x a m i n i n g the c a u s e s of the a c t i o n i n b o t h The R a m a y a n a a n d T h e T a l e of G e n j i we c a n see a n i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e . In The T a l e of G e n j i we f i n d the a c t i o n f u l l of p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , w h e r e a s i n T h e R a m a y a n a we f i n d that an a c t i o n tends to have one c a u s e . F o r e x a m p l e , R a m a ' s s t e p m o t h e r h a d a n a c t i v e hand on h i s e x i l e , but i n the c a s e of G e n j i ' s e x i l e the a u t h o r i m p l i e d at l e a s t t h r e e c a u s e s : f i r s t the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n , s e c o n d G e n j i ' s l a p s e w i t h one of the e m p e r o r ' s w i v e s a n d f i n a l l y G e n j i ' s o b s e s s i o n c a u s e d by h i s s e c r e t l o v e a f f a i r w i t h h i s s t e p m o t h e r . A l s o , G e n j i ' s l a m e n t i n h i s l a t e r days i s b r o u g h t up by t h r e e m a i n t h i n g s : K a s h i w a g i , h i s b e l o v e d M u r a s a k i ' s i l l n e s s , a n d h i s a w a r e n e s s of r e t r i -b u t i o n f o r the a c t i o n of h i s y o u t h . C o n t r a r i l y , i n The R a m a y a n a the r u m o r s of the p e o p l e a r e the d i r e c t c ause of S i t a ' s a b a n d o n m e n t . L a d y M u r a s a k i e m p l o y s m u l t i p l e c a u s e s f o r e a c h event a n d at the_same t i m e s o m e p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s that goes w i t h the even t , e. g . , the f e a r of r e t r i b u t i o n . W h e n we k n o w what G e n j i i s r e a l l y a f r a i d of, the m e a n i n g of h i s m i s f o r t u n e b e c o m e s o p p r e s s i v e . In r e a l l i f e s e v e r a l f a c t o r s a r e a l w a y s e n t a n g l e d a n d cause m o r e than one r e s u l t . H u m a n l i f e c a n n e v e r be as s i m p l e as a h e r o ' s l i f e . I t h i n k i t i s c l e a r that L a d y M u r a s a k i t r i e d to c o n v e y the m e a n i n g of a r e a l l i f e t h r o u g h h e r w o r k , a n d t h i s i s w h y one c a n say that The T a l e of G e n j i i s m o r e than a c o u r t l y l o v e s t o r y e - 7 8 -N O T E S ^ C h i m m a n l a l G o s v a m i , e d . , 2nd e d . , S r i m a d V a l m i k i R a m a y a n a ( G o r c k h p u r : G i t a P r e s s , 1973-76) , p p . 64. ^ E d w a r d G . S e i d e n s t i c k e r , t r a n s . , T h e T a l e of G e n j i ( N e w Y o r k : A l f r e d A . K n o f f , 1977), p p . 4, 5. •^Nor throp F r y e , A n a t o m y of C r i t i c i s m : F o u r E s s a y s ( N e w J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1957), p p . 3 3 , 34 . 4 I b i d . , p p . 33 . ^ H a r i P r a s a d S h a s t r i , t r a n s . , 2nd e d . , The R a m a y a n a of V a l m i k i ( L o n d o n : S h a n t i s a d a n , 1962- ), p p e 299 . D S e i d e n s i c k e r , p p . 133, 134. 7 J a m e s F r a z e r , The G o l d e n B o u g h : A Study i n M a g i c a n d R e l i g i o n ( N e w Y o r k : T h e M a c m i l l a n C o . , 1957), p p . 1 1 9 - 3 9 . W h e n S i t a u n d e r w e n t a n o r d e a l b y f i r e , B r a h m a a p p e a r e d a n d i n q u i r e d R a m a of h i s i n t e n t i o n , a s k i n g , " H o w a r t t hou u n a w a r e that thou t h y s e l f a r t the C h i e f of the G o d s ? " T o t h i s R a m a a n s w e r e d , " I d e e m m y s e l f to be a m a n , R a m a , b o r n of D a s a r a t h a ; who then a m I i n r e a l i t y ? F r o m w h e n c e have I c o m e ? L e t the G r a n d s h i r e of the w o r l d i n f o r m m e . " ( S h a s t r i , III, p p . 339) . ^ S h a s t r i , I , p p . 39 . - 7 9 -1 0 F r y e , p p . 34 . ^ E . M . F o r s t e r , A s p e c t s of the N o v e l (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and C o . , 1927). ^ S h a s t r i , I , p p . 29 . 13 S e i d e n s t i c k e r , p p . 14. l ^ S e i d e n s t i c k e r , p p . 15. 1 5 S h a s t r i , I , p p . 45 . l 6 I b i d . , p p . 232 . ^ ^ S e i d e n s t i c k e r , p p . 13. 1 8 S h a s t r i , p p . 136. ^ T h e H e r o w i t h a T h o u s a n d F a c e s , 2nd e d . ( N e w J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1968), p p . 30 . ^ I b i d . , p p . 58 . ^ S e i d e n s t i c k e r , p p . 230 . 2 2 N i h o n K o t e n b u n g a k u t a i k e i , G e n j i m o n o g a t a r i ( T o k y o : I w a n a m i s h o t e n , 1958), II , p p . 11 . 2 3 T o no C h u j o who v i s i t e d G e n j i i n S u m a a d m i r e d G e n j i ' s house : " H e w a s soon a d m i r i n g G e n j i ' s r u s t i c house w h i c h s e e m e d to h i m the m o s t e x t r a o r d i n a r y p l a c e to be l i v i n g i n . H e thought i t m o r e l i k e s o m e l e g e n d a r y h e r m i t ' s hut i n a C h i n e s e b o o k than a r e a l c o t t a g e " . A r t h u r W a l e y , t r a n s . , - 8 0 -T h e T a l e of G e n j i : A n o v e l i n S i x P a r t s by L a d y M u r a s a k i , I ( T o k y o : C h a r l e s E . T u t t l e C o . , 1970), p p . 2 5 1 . 2 4 S e i d e n s t i c k e r , p p . 244 . ( K o t e n t a i k e i , G e n j i , II , p p . 49) ^ S e i d e n s t i c k e r , p p . 246. ^ S h a s t r i , \ t p p . 3 0 1 - 2 . 27 The S e c u l a r S c r i p t u r e : A Study of the S t r u c t u r e of R o m a n c e ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s a n d L o n d o n , E n g l a n d : H a r v a r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1976), p p . 97 . S h a s t r i , I , p p . 46 . 29 T w o h e r o e s of the t en c h a p t e r s , K a o r u a n d N i o u a r e e x a m p l e s . ^ S e c u l a r S c r i p t u r e , p p . 115. 31 S e i d e n s t i c k e r , p p . 250 . 32 The w h o l e i m p o r t of the d r e a m w a s that the d r a g o n k i n g had t a k e n a f a n c y to h i m a n d w i s h e d to d e t a i n h i m ye t l o n g e r on the s h o r e of h i s d o m a i n s . H e b e c a m e v e r y d e p r e s s e d a n d f r o m t h i s t i m e o n w a r d s took a d i s l i k e to the p a r t i c u l a r p a r t of the c o a s t i n w h i c h he h a d c h o s e n to r e s i d e . ( W a l e y , p p . 254 . ) • ^ " H i k a r u G e n j i , " G e n j i m o n o g a t a r i K5"za, v o l . I l l ( T o k y o : Y u s e i d o , 1972), p p . 308 . - 8 1 -34 T h i s p a r a l l e l s B h a r a t a ' s d r e a m (chap te r 69, " A y o d h y a K a n d a " ) . In t h i s d r e a m K i n g D a s a r a t h a a p p e a r e d i n faded c l o t h i n g . 35 S h i g e r u Y a n a i , " G e n j i m o n o g a t a r i to r e i k e n t a n no K o s h S , " i n G e n j i m o n o g a t a r i k e n k y u t o S h i r y o : K o d a i b u n g a k u r o n s h Q , v o l . I ( T o k y o : M u s a s h i n o s h o i n , 1969), p p . 194. 3 6 S e i d e n s t i c k e r , p p . 273 . 3 7 S h a s t r i , II , p p . 131. 3 8 I b i d . , p p . 136. 3 9 S h a s t r i , I , p p . 380 . 4 0 I b i d . , p p . 288. 4 1 I b i d . , c h a p t e r 7, 8, 9. 4 2 I b i d . , p p . 193. 4 ^ I b i d o , p p . 220 . 44 A k i y a n a t en , " H i k a r u G e n j i , " G e n j i m o n o g a t a r i k o z a , v o l . I l l , p p . 306„ ^ ^ S e i d e n s t i c k e r , p p . 226 . 46 G e n j i m o n o g a t a r i k e n k y u j o s e t s u ( T o k y o : T o k y o U n i v . P r e s s , 1968), p p . 720 . 4 7 E i i c h i M i t a n i , " G e n j i m o n o g a t a r i n i o k e r u m i n k a n s h i n k o to ' p l o t 1 to no k a n k e i : k i s h u r u r i t a n no g e n s h i t s u n i t s u i t e , 1 1 K o k u b u n g a k u , June 1966, p p . 45 , 46 . - 8 2 -4 8 S h a s t r i , III, pp . 3 4 3 . 4 9 I b i d . , p p . 3 4 3 . 50 S e i d e n s t i c k e r , p p . 250 . 5 1 R . A n t o i n e , R a m a a n d the B a r d s : E p i c M e m o r y i n the R a m a y a n a ( C a l c u t t a : A W r i t e r s W o r k s h o p G r e y b i r d B o o k , 1975). 5 2 M i t a n i , p p . 49 . 5 3 A b e , p p . 686, 687. ^ 4 O n c e t h e r e w a s a s h i k i b u d a y u a n d m a j o r c o n t r o l l e r of the l e f t c a l l e d L o r d K i y o h a r a . H e h a d a s o n by a p r i n c e s s . The boy w a s i n -c o m p a r a b l y i n t e l l i g e n t . N i h o n K o t e n B u n g a k u T a i k e i , U t s u b o m o n o g a t a r i , v o l . I ( T o k y o : I w a n a m i Sho ten , 1959), p p . 35'. W h e n T o s h i k a g e r e a c h e d the age of s i x t e e n , a m i s s i o n to C h i n a w a s sen t . T h i s t i m e , t a l e n t e d p e o p l e w e r e a p p o i n t e d as a n envoy and a deputy e n v o y , a n d T o s h i k a g e w a s c h o s e n . H i s p a r e n t s w e r e o v e r w h e l m e d w i t h g r i e f . I b i d . , p p . 36 . ^ ^ I b i d . , note 13. F f % j t P If 3 1 - $ * T . >f&# 1 - t \ . AK I # t\ r « ft. f «> 4 ? ^ O n the p l a t e i t s a i d , " T h e l a t t e r t h i r d of the w o o d i s to be g i v e n to a J a p a n e s e , T o s h i k a g e . " A s u r a w a s so s u r p r i s e d that he k n e l t down - 8 3 -b o w i n g to h i m s e v e n t i m e s . A s u r a s a i d , " O h , y o u w i l l b e c o m e a c h i l d of h e a v e n l y m a i d e n i n the f u t u r e . I b i d . , p p . 42 . 5 8 . , , * . . z <r> ks>j%: , -fc A l = £ £ S A ± ..~/ft'*> 3&l*<ff M o . . . a n d y o u s h a l l have one of these s e v e n p e o p l e as y o u r g r a n d c h i l d . " I b i d . , pp . 4 8 0 3 , = • A ft f ^ - f B <9 I f l=. i , $ c, . ^ j / 7 ^ 5 o " T o s h i k a g e r e c e i v e d Se ta h u a n d s t a r t e d p l a y i n g a song c a l l e d , * T a i k y o k u * . N o s o o n e r h a d h i s m u s i c sounded than the t i l e s of the p a l a c e s c a t t e r e d l i k e f l o w e r s . T h e n he p l a y e d a n o t h e r s o n g . A l t h o u g h i t w a s the m i d d l e of the S i x t h M o n t h ( in the m i d s t of the s u m m e r ) , huge f l a k e s of s n o w , m i r a c u l o u s l y , s t a r t e d f a l l i n g . " I b i d . , p p . 5 2 . ^®We have to note that the s e v e n p e o p l e t o l d T o s h i k a g e that they d e s c e n d e d in to t h i s w o r l d b e c a u s e of s i n f u l a c t s i n t h e i r p r e v i o u s l i v e s i n h e a v e n . We a r e r e m i n d e d of the f a t h e r s of G e n j i a n d R a m a , a n d the fac t that they d i d not en joy t h e i r l i v e s i n the o the r w o r l d . k l " i t i s a gen t le e x i l e . K r s n a , a god who d e s c e n d e d to be b o r n a p r i n c e , now l i v e s as c o w h e r d - - a n d i s conten t . I n s t ead of s t a t e s m a n s h i p , he l e a r n s h e r d m a n s h i p ; i n s t e a d of the r e f i n e d a r t s of c o u r t l y l i f e , he l e a r n s to p l a y a s i m p l e b a m b o o f l ue ; i n s t e a d of the m a n y a r t s of w a r , a s w o u l d be f i t h i s r o y a l b i r t h , he l e a r n s (as we s h a l l see) the m a n l y a c t s of l o v e . " K e n n e t h E . B r y a n t , P o e m s to the C h i l d - G o d : S t r u c t u r e s a n d S t r a t e g i e s - 8 4 -i n the P o e t r y of S u r d a s ( B e r k e l e y ; L o s A n g e l e s , L o n d o n : U n i v . of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1978), p p . 10. L p H e w a s t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m D e v a k i ' s w o m b to that of h i s f a the r V a s u d e v a ' s o the r w i f e , R o h i n i who had been sent to N a n d a , a l e a d i n g c o w h e r d of G o k u r a . 63 V a s u d e v a le f t K r i s h n a at N a n d a ' s house a n d r e t u r n e d w i t h the baby g i r l o f N a n d a . K a n s a k i l l e d t h i s baby g i r l but she b e c a m e the goddes s D e v i a n d t o l d h i m that h i s e n e m y w a s b o r n e l s e w h e r e . 64 W . G . A r c h e r , The L o v e s of K r i s h n a : In I n d i a n P a i n t i n g a n d P o e t r y ( L o n d o n : G e o r g e A l l e n & U n w i n L t d . , 1957). 65 S h a s t r i , I II , p p . 335 , 336 . k ^ I b i d . , p p . 336 . ^ I b i d . , p p . 338 . 6 8 I b i d . , p p . 3 4 1 . 6 9 I b i d . , p p . 3 4 1 , 342 . 7 0 I b i d . , p p . 342 . 7 *Hans v a n B u i t e n e n , " T h e I n d i a n H e r o as V i d y a d h a r a " i n T r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a : S t r u c t u r e and C h a n g e B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l a n d S p e c i a l S e r i e s , v o l . x ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : A m e r i c a n F o l k l o r e S o c i e t y , 1959), p p . 100. 7 2 J . A . B . B u i t e n e n , t r a n s . , The M a h a b h a r a t a ( C h i c a g o : The U n i v . of C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1975), p p . 170. 73 A s to r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the s t o r y of R a m a a n d V a l m i k i ' s R a m a y a n a , J , A . B . B u i t e n e n c o n c l u d e s ( in the I n t r o d u c t i o n of The M a h a b -ha ra t a ) as f o l l o w s : " T h e o n l y c o n c l u s i o n that s e e m s r e a s o n a b l e c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the s t o r y of R a m a a n d V a l m i k i ' s R a m a y a n a i s that the f o r m e r i s a s u m m a r y of a f u l l y e x p a n d e d R a m a c a r i t a w h i c h , a f t e r i t s conten ts w e r e f i x e d i n the s t o r y of R a m a , u n d e r w e n t f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t , a c q u i r e d a n e w b e g i n n i n g a n d a n e w end , a t t r a c t e d s u b s i d i a r y e l e m e n t s , a n d b e c a m e k n o w n as the o r i g i n a l - p o e m (ad ikavya ) of V a l m i k i . " (pp. 213) . 74 S o m e c l a i m that the c o n c e r n e d p a r t s a r e i n t e r p o l a t i o n s . 75 R a m a a n d the B a r d s : E p i c M e m o r y i n the R a m a y a n a ( C a l c u t t a : W r i t e r s W o r k s h o p G r e y b i r d B o o k , 1975), p p . 107. ^ S h a s t r i , i n , p p . 522 . 77 I b i d . , p p . 525 . ^ I b i d . , p p . 524. 7 9 _ T h e R a m a y a n a g i v e s one s o l u t i o n to R a m a ' s m i s f o r t u n e . Tha t i s , V i s h n u w a s f o r m e r l y c u r s e d by B h r i g u to be b o r n in to the w o r l d of m e n a n d t h e n l i v e s e p a r a t e d f r o m h i s c o n s o r t fo r m a n y y e a r s . See , " U t t a r a K a n d a , " c h a p t e r 5 1 . ^ S o u r c e s of I n d i a n T r a d i t i o n (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v . P r e s s , 1958), p p . 217 . —8 6~ 8 ^Lb id . , p p . 223 . 8 2 S h a s t r i , I , p p . 415 . 83 R a m a s h r a y a S h a r m a , A S o c i o - P o l i t i c a l S tudy of the V a l m i k i  R A M A Y A N A ( D e l h i : M o t i l a l B a n a r s i d a s s , 1971), p p . 62. 84 o r t L e c t u r e s on the R a m a y a n a , r e v . e d . ( M a d r a s : M a d r a s S a n s k r i t A c a d e m y , 1968), p p . 4 0 1 . 85 S h a s t r i , III, p p . 616. 8 ^ I b i d . , p p . 617. ' 87 S. L . N . S i m h a m e n t i o n s : " S i t a i s a g l o r i o u s m o d e l of p u r i t y , c h a s t i t y , d e v o t i o n to h u s b a n d , c o u r a g e , s i l e n t s u f f e r i n g , f o r g i v e n e s s a n d p r a c t i c a l s e n s e . Indeed , one s o m e t i m e s gets the f e e l i n g that S i t a i s the m o s t i m p r e s s i v e c h a r a c t e r i n the R a m a y a n a . R a m a y a n a f o r the M o d e r n W o r l d ( B o m b a y : B h a r a t i y a V i d y a B h a v a n , 1965), p p . 83 . 8 8 S h a s t r i , III, p p . 618. 8 9 I b i d . , c h a p t e r 98 . 9 ^ I b i d . , pp„ 5 0 . C h i m m a n l a l G o s w a m i , e d . , 2nd e d . , S r i m a d V a l m i k i - R a m a y a n a : w i t h S a n s k r i t t ex t a n d E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n ( G o r a k h p u r : G i t a P r e s s , 1973-76) , p p . 1437. - 8 7 -9 2 S e i d e n s t i c k e r , p p . 409 . 9 3 I b i d . , p p . 418 . 9 4 K i k a n I k e d a , H e i a n c h o no s e i k a t s u to b u n g a k u ( T o k y o : K a d o k a w a sho ten , 1964), p p . 99 . 9 5 S e i d e n s t i c k e r , p p . 534 . 9 6 I b i d . , p p . 340 . 9 7 I b i d . , p p . 549 . 9 8 I b i d . , p p . 550 . 9 9 K o t e n t a i k e i , G e n j i , III , note 382 . 1 0 0 S e i d e n s t i c k e r , pp* 650. 1 0 1 I b i d . , p p . 723 . 1 0 2 I b i d . , p p . 724. 1 0 3 I n T h e W o r l d of The T a l e of G e n j i ( T o k y o : T o k y o U n i v . P r e s s , 1964) K e n A k i y a m a p o i n t s out that the p l o t of " W a k a n a " i s c a r r i e d f o r w a r d by those c o n v e r s a t i o n s . i d e n s t i c k e r , p p . 540 . 1 0 5 I b i d . , p p . 5 4 1 . 1 0 6 I b i d . , p p . 5 4 1 . 1 0 7 I b i d . , p p . 578 . - 8 8 -108»iWakana. P a r t I, II: W a k a n a no m a k i no hoho,. G e n j i  m o n o g a t a r i k o z a I V ( T o k y o : Y u s e i - d o , 1972). ^ ^ s i n c e H e i a n d i a r i e s w e r e not day by day d i a r i e s . F o r e x a m p l e The S a r a s h i n a D i a r y by T a k a s u e M u s u m e i s h e r m e m o r i e s . * * ^ B . L . A t r e y a , Y o g a v a s i s t h a & M o d e r n Though t : o r A g r e e m e n t of the E a s t a n d the W e s t on F u n d a m e n t a l P r o b l e m s , r e v i s e d a n d e n l a r g e d e d . ( B a n a r s : The I n d i a n B o o k Shop , 1954), p p . 116. 1 1 1 I b i d . , p p . 9. l - ^ I n The R a m a y a n a L a k s h m a n a s a y s , " T h e w e a k a n d the c o w a r d l y a r e sub jec t to fa te , but v a l i a n t s o u l s who a r e m a s t e r s of t h e m s e l v e s , do not bow to d e s t i n y . T h a t h e r o who by h i s s p i r i t e d e f fo r t s i s ab l e to o v e r -c o m e d e s t i n y does not f a i l i n h i s u n d e r t a k i n g ; d e s t i n y i s p o w e r l e s s b e f o r e h i m . " S h a s t r i , I , p p . 223 . 1 1 3 I b i d . , p p . 8. 114 N a b a n e e t a S e n , " C o m p a r a t i v e s tud i e s i n o r a l e p i c p o e t r y a n d the V a l m i k i R a m a y a n a : R e p o r t on the B a l a k a n d a , " A m e r i c a n O r i e n t a l  S o c i e t y , 1966, p p . 407 , 8. * ^ T h e r e a f t e r the augus t Sage V a l m i k i b e h e l d a p a i r of s o f t - v o i c e d K r a u n c h a B i r d s f e a r l e s s l y d i s p o r t i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n l o v e , w h e r e u p o n a h u n t e r of v i c i o u s hab i t a n d e v i l in ten t s l e w the m a l e b i r d i n the p r e s e n c e o f the a s c e t i c . The f e m a l e d e p r i v e d of h e r y e l l o w - c r e s t e d c o m p a n i o n , who but n o w , had b e e n s p r e a d i n g h i s w i n g s i n the a c t of l o v e to p l e a s e - 8 9 -h e r , p e r c e i v i n g h i m to be b l e e d i n g a n d c r y i n g out i n d i s t r e s s , b e g a n to l a m e n t p i t e o u s l y . S h a s t r i , I , p p . 9 , 10. l l 6 S h a s t r i , I , p p . 10. H ^ I t i s qu i te r e a s o n a b l e f o r V a l m i k i a n d L a d y M u r a s a k i to c r e a t e h e r o e s who a r e ou t s t and ing a m o n g o the r p e o p l e , but sub jec t to the n a t u r a l o r d e r . 118 K i n g s fa C a p t a i n s : V a r i a t i o n s on a H e r o i c T h e m e ( L e x i n g t o n : T h e U n i v . P r e s s of K e n t u c k y , 1971). 119 2nd e d . (New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1968). l ^ M o o r m a n , pp B 168. 121 M y c o n t e n t i o n that O d y s s e u s goes t h r o u g h a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f r o m h e r o to k i n g l i n k s the O d y s s e y w i t h I l l i a d , w h e r e the two se t s of v a l u e s a p p e a r as i n two f i g u r e s , A c h i l l e s a n d A g a m e m n o n . A n d j u s t a s i n the I l i a d the o r i g i n s of A c h i l l e s i n m y t h a n d A g a m e m n o n i n h i s s t o r y he lp H o m e r to s u p p o r t h i s d u a l r o l e i n the p o e m . I b i d . , p p . 5 1 . * 2 2 C a m p b e l l , p p . 257 . - 9 0 -A P P E N D I C E S - 9 1 -A P P E N D I X A P P . 5 -ft - £ l=i it l - £ < ; ^ 5 £ 3 . £• <?> 1c « > - # p £ * S a k i no yo n i m o , on c h i g i r i y a f u k a k a r i k e m u , yo n i n a k u k i y o r a n a r u t a m a no w o n o k o m i k o sahe u m a r e t a m a h i n u . N i h o n k o t e n bungaku t a i k e i , G e n j i m o n o g a t a r i ( T o k y o : I w a n a m i sho ten , 1958), I, pp . 28 . p p . 6 # J <h * I f \z. IjlAX >"1A%Q if'vfciJL 7f-$i*>>%rj-4 1 * M E • ^ %? f £ $ T • *fc *> I - I f i ; i f * «h fo 3 « v i ' ^ r f <nR", flpfif ft 3 $ £ # [ ' / T . j ^ f f a i B&m^> 1 Hi-fat i < " ^ T -K o - d a k a k i m o m i j i no kage n i , yon ju n i n no k a i s h i r o , i h i - s h i r a z u f u k i t a t e t a r u m o n o no ne d o m o n i a h i t a r u m a t s u k a z e , " M a k o t o no m i y a m a o r o s h i , " to k i k o e t e f u k i - m a y o h i , i r o - i r o n i c h i r i k a f u k o - n o - h a no n a k a y o r i , s e i k a i h a no k a g a y a k i i d e t a r u s a m a , i t o , o s o r o s h i k i m a d e m i y u . K a z a s h i no m o m i j i , i t a u c h i r i s u k i t e , k a h o no n i h o h i n i ke o s a r e t a r u k o k o c h i s u r e b a , O m a e n a r u k i k u wo w o r i t e , S a - d a i s h o s a s h i k a h e t a m a f u . H i k u r e k a k a r u hodo n i , k e s h i k i b a k a r i , u c h i - s h i g u r e t e , s o r a no k e s h i k i sahe m i - s l i i r i gaho n a r u n i , s a r u w a , i m i j i k i suga ta n i , k i k u no i r o - i r o u t s u r o h i , e n a r a n u wo k a z a s h i t e , k y o w a , m a t a n a k i te wo t s u k u s h i t a r u , i r i a y a no hodo , s o z o r o s a m u k u , k o n o - y o no k o t o t o m o o m o h e z u . I b i d . , pp„ 274„ -92-" K u n i no o y a to n a r i t e , t e i o no k a m i n a k i k u r a i n i n o b o r u b e k i so owash ima-su h i to no , sona ta n i te m i r e b a , m i d a r e u r e f u r u ko to y a a r a m . Q h o y a k e no k a t a m e to n a r i t e , a m e (no) s h i t a tasuku. ru k a t a n i te m i r e b a , m a t a , sono so t a g a f u b e s h i " I b i d . , p p . 44 . K o n o m i k o m i t s u n i n a r i t a m a f u t o s h i , o n - h a k a m a g i no k o t o , I c h i no m i y a no t a t e m a t s u r i s h i n i o t o r a z u , K u r a - z u k a s a , W o s a m e - d o n o no m o n o w o t s u k u s h i t e , i m i j i u sesasetatt iafu. S o r e n i t suke t e m o , yo no s o s h i r i n o m i o h o k a r e d o , k o n o m i k o no o y o z u k e m o t e - o w l s u r u o n - k a t a c h i , kokoro -bahe , . . a r i g a t a k u m e z u r a s h i k i m a d e m i e t a m a f u w o , e s o n e m i a h e t a m a w a z u . M o n o no k o k o r o s h i r i t a m a f u h i to w a , " K a k a r u h i t o m o , yo n i ide o w a s u r u m o n o n a r i k e r i . " to a s a m a s h i k i m a d e , m e wo o d o r o k a s h i t a m a f u . I b i d . , p p . 30 . - 9 3 -P P . 11 % £ o>, <?> £ £ ft J |- 7 \t fz >" £ |£ - t brf^P-i&lu>cfc$ " M u h o n sh inno no , gesqku no y o s e n a k i n i te w a t a d a y o w a s e j i . W a g a m i - y o m o i t o s a d a m e n a k i wo t ada udo n i te , O h o y a k e no o n - u s h i r o m i wo s u r u n a m u , Y u k u s a k i m o t a n o m o s h i g e n a r u ko to ' ! to , o b o s h i s a d a m e t e , i y o i y o m i c h i m i c h i no zae w o n a r a w a s f t s e - t a m a f u . K i w a ko to n i k a s h i k o k u te , t a d a - u d o n i w a i t o a t a r a s h i k e r e do , sh inno to n a r i t a m a h i n a b a , yo no u t a g a h i o h i t a m a h i n u b e k u m o n o s h i t a m a h e b a , s u k u y o no k a s h i k o k i m i c h i no h i to n i k a n g a h e s a s e t a m a f u n i m o , o n a j i s a m a n i m o s e b a , G e n j i n i n a s h i t a t e m a t s u r u b e k u , o b o s h i o k i t e t a r i . I b i d . , p p . 44 , 4 5 . pp . 16 fr\) i i . *Jx>3 3 f c t Tl 5 ^ # £ t t f e ^ f c I-. ' V i ' i r ^ - J i b.V>^"$*%V* •Kix-W. * i»-^«73 ftjtt. n f c < | > 7 . ^ l 3 ' ' ^ y T ' ' { i \ K a r i s o m e no m i c h i n i te m o , k a k a r u t a b i wo n a r a h i t a m a w a n u k o k o c h i -n i , k o k o r o b o s o s a m o , w o k a s h i s a m o , m e z u r a k a n a r i . Ohoe dono to i h i k e r u t o k o r o w a , i t a k u a r e t e , m a t s u b a k a r i z o , s h i r u s h i n a r i k e r u . K a r a k u n i n i na wo n o k o s h i k e r u h i to y o r i m o i (ku)he s h i r a r e n u i h e i w o y a s e m u I b i d . , II , p p . 30 . - 9 4 -U m i no o m o t e , u r a u r a to n a g i - w a t a r i t e , i (ku)he m o s h i r a n u n i , k o s h i k a t a y u k u s a k i , o b o s h i t s u z u k e r a r e t e . I b i d . , p p . 52 . p p . 19 r u y_ iKP i 3 " ^ I Y. , I " \ !U" & 3 'Jo "Ito k o k o r o b o s o s h i " to ihe ba o r o k a n a r i . I b i d . , p p . 61 . P P . 24 r-p y i | ^ #k%\-$>%y'ft3b-g-ififa^-bftts^*— " T a d a , k a k u o m o h i k a k e n u t s u m i n i a t a r i haberu . m o , o m o h i t a m a h e a w a s u r u ko to no h i to f u s h i n i , s o r a m o o s o r o s i u n a m h a b e r u . W o s h i g e n a k i m i w a , n a k i n i sh i t e m o , M i y a no m i - y o d a n i , ko to n a k u o w a s h i m a s a b a . 1 1 . Ib id . , p p . 24, 25 . Q n i^^a^i^-p. #Wfc-Tf J ^ 1 - ^ - *ts~<<. % r i?^-*»X|t^t:ViVi=: t ^ T . ^ T c V v ^ **** K o i n , t a d a , o w a s h i m a s h i s h i s a m a n a g a r a , t a c h t a m a h i t e , " N a d o , k a k u a y a s h i k i t o k o r o n i w a , m o n o s u r u z o . 1 1 to t e , on - t e w o t o r i t e , h i k i , t a t e t a m a f u . " S u m i y o s h i no k a m i no m i c h i b i k i t a m a f u m a m a n i , h a y a , f u n a d e s h i t e , kono u r a w o s a r i n e . " to , n o t a m a w a s u . I to , u r e s h i k u t e , " K a s h i k o k i o n - k a g e n i , w a k a r e t a t e m a t s u r i n i s h i k o n a t a , s a m a - z a m a k a n a s h i k i ko to n o m i o h o k u h a b e r e b a , i m a w a k o n o n a g i s a n i , m i w o y a sute h a b e r i n a m a s h i . 1 1 to , k i k o e t a m a h e b a , "I to , a r u m a j i k i k o t o . K o r e w a , t a d a , i s a s a k a n a r u , m o n o no m u k u i n a r i . " a r e w a k u r a h i n i a r i s h i t o k i , a y a m a t s u ko to n a k a r i s h i k a do, o n o z u k a r a , o k a s h i a ( r i ) k e r e ba , sono t s u m i w o o f u r u hodo , - 9 6 -i t o m a naku t e , k o n o - y o w o k a h e r i m i z a r i t s u r e do , i m i j i k i u r e h e n i s h i z u m u w o m i r u n i , tahe ga t aku te , u m i n i i ( r i ) , n a g i s a n i n o b o r i , i t a k u k o j i n i t a r e do , k a k a r u t s u i d e n i , D a i r i n i s o s u b e k i k o t o a r u n i y o r i n a m u , i s o g i n o b o r i n u r u . " to te , t a c h i - s a r i t a m a h i n u . Ib id . , , p p . 61 , 62. P p . 52 4 t - ' - * * ^ 3 3 i i r = * £ ^ & . f ^ y £ < # . S J * ^ * ! ^ ! * T o s h i t a c h i k a h e r u a s h i t a no s o r a no k e s h i k i , n a g o r i n a k u k u m o r a n u u r a r a k a g e s a n i w a , k a z u n a r a n u k a k i n e no u c h i d a n i , y u k i ' - m a no k u s a , w a k a y a k a n i i r o - z u k i h a j i m e , i t s u s h i k a to k e s h i k i d a t s u k a s u m i n i , k o no m e m o u e h i k e b u r i , o n o z u k a r a , h i to no k o k o r o m o n o b i r a k a n i z o m i y u r u k a s h i . M a sh i t e i t o d o , t a m a w o s h i k e r u o m a h e w a , n i w a y o r i h a j i m e m i -d o k o r o ohbku , m i g a k i - m a s h i t a m a h e r u o n - k a t a g a t a no a r i s a m a , m a n e b i t a t e m u m o , k o t o no ha t a r u m a j i k u n a m u . Ib jd . , p p . 377 . - 9 7 -Y a y o h i no h a t s u k a a m a r i no k o r o h o h i , H a r u no O m a h e no a r i s a m a , t sune y o r i k o t o n i t s u k u s h i t e n i h o f u hana no i r o , t o r i no k o e , h o k a no sa to n i w a , " M a d a f u r i n u n i y a j ' to , m e z u r a s h i u , m i e k i k o y u . Y a m a no k o d a c h i , n a k a j i m a no w a t a r i , i r o m a s a r u k o k e no k e s h i k i nado , w a k a k i h i t o b i t o n o , h a t s u k a n i , k o k o r o - m o t o n a k u o m o f u b e k a m e r u n i , K a r a m e i t a r u fune, t s u k u -r a s e t a m a h i k e r u , i s o g i s a u z o k a s e t a m a h i t e , o r o s h i h a j i m e s a s e t a m a f u h i w a . U t a z u k a s a no h i t o m e s h i t e , fune no g a k u s e r a r u . M i k o - t a c h i , K a n d a c h i m e nado , a m a t a m a i r i t a m a h e r i . I b i d . , p p . 395. P P . 54 f.sf>#R »&%iy*> T ^ P & M & P ^ - * ^ *pif[*>-f+y\-'T.$b-%3'<3 rlrx- i• m * j t < i . &$-p><ft $4$p^ t^yt.4** K a n n a - z u k i no h a t s u k a a m a r i ho hodo n i , R o k u j 5 i n n i m i - y u k i a r i . M o m i j i no s a k a r i n i t e , kyo" a r u b e k i t a b i no m i - y u k i n a r u n i , S u z a k u In n i m o o n s h o s o k o a r i t e , In s ahe , w a t a r i o w a s h i m a s u b e k e r e b a , yo n i m e z u r a s h i k u , a r i g a t a k i ko to n i te , yo(no) h i t o - d o m o , k o k o r o wo o d o r o k a s u . A r u j i no In^a ta m o , m i - k o k o r o w o t s u k u s h i t e m e m o a y a n a r u o n - k o k o r o - m o u k e w o , s e s a s e t a m a f u . I b i d . , III, p p . 204. - 9 8 -I r i h i s a s u m i n e n i t a n a b i k u u s u - g u m o w a m o n o o m o f u sode n i i r o y a m a g a h e r u I b i d . , II , p p . 231 . K a t a w a r a i t a k i y u z u r i n a r e do , " K o n o , i w a k e n a k i n a i sh inno h i t o r i , t o r i - w a k i t e h a g u k u m i o b o s h i t e , s a r u b e k i y o s u g a w o m o , o n - k o k o r o n i o b o s h i s a d a m e t e , a z u k e t a m a h e " to k i k o e m a h o s h i k i w o . I b i d . , III, p p . 236. K o k o r o no u c h i n i m o , " K a k u , s o r a y o r i i de k i n i t a r u y 5 n a r u ko to n i t e , n o g a r e t a m a f u k a t a n a k i w o , n i k u g e n i m o k i k o e n a s a j i . Wa(ga) k o k o r o n i , h a b a k a r i t a m a h i , i s a m u r u ko to n i s h i t a g a h i t a m a f u b e k i . O n o g a - d o c h i no k o k o r o y o r i o k o r e r u k e s o n i m o a r a z u . S a m u k a r u b e k i k a t a riaki m o n o k a r a , w o k o g a m a s h i k u o m o h i m u s u b o h o r u r u s a m a , yo(no) h i to n i , m o r i k i k o e j i . I b i d . , p p . 240 . •99 -I to , n a n i g o k o r o m o n a u m o n o g a t a r i s h i t e , w a r a h i t a m a h e r u , m a m i , k u c h - t s u k i no u t s u k u s h i k i > m o , " K o k o r o s h i r a z a r a n h i to w a , i k a g a a r a m u , naho , i t o y o k u , n i k a y o h i t a r i k e r i " to m i t a m a f u n i , " O y a - t a c h i no , ' K o d a n i a r e k a s h i 1 to , n a i t a m a f u r a m n i m o , e m i s e z u , h i t o s h i r e z u , h a k a n a k i k a t a m i b a k a r i w o , t o d o m e o k i t e , sa b a k a r i o m o h i a g a r i , o y o z u k e t a r i s h i m i w o , k o k o r o m o t e u s h i n a h i t s u r u y o " to , A w a r e n i o b o s h i k e r e b a , • m e z ' a m a s h i 1 to , o m o f u k o k o r o m o h i k i k a h e s h i , u c h i - n a k a r e t a m a h i n u . I b i d . , I V , p p . . 3 9 , 4 0 . p p . .59 .( i~ f 7 \1 * J A j; % I "ft k^-fe* % ^"U Wa(ga) yado w a hana m o t e - h a y a s u h i to m o n a s h i n a n i n i k a h a r u no t azune k i t s u r a m . I b i d . , p p . 195. p p . 59 : « * l ' i 7 ^ l * . # ^ 3 ^ J c f c . t r t ^ i i 3 $l"P. f*^'>. 5?. rAV)i- ^ I - P - H U S % V M S ' / ? 3 ^ n - i ft 5^1. l - ^ l . faZ-r'fal-Ti^^Z^if. f^. - 1 0 0 -K o n o yo n i t suke te w a , a k a z u o m o f u b e k i k o t o , w o s a - w o s a a r u m a j i u , t a k a k i m i n i w a u m a r e n a g a r a , m a t a , " H i t o y o r i m o , ko to n i k u c h i o s h i k i c h i g i r i n i m o a r i k e r u k a n a " to o m o f u ko to t a h e z u . Y o no , h a k a n a k u u k i w o s h i r a s u b e k u r iotoke nado n o , o k i t e t a m a h e r u m i n a r u b e s h i . S o r e w o , s h i h i t e , s h i r a z u gao n i n a g a r a f u r e b a , k a k u , i m a w a no yube c h i k a k i sue n i , i m i j i k i , ko to no. t o j i m e wo m i t s u r u n i , s u k u s e no hodo m o , m i z u k a r a no k o k o r o no k i w a m o , n o k o r i n a k u m i ha te te , k o k o r o y a s u k i n i . I b i d . , p p . 198. 62 f = I*. ^ 3 # T s V I X V - ^ I - ° & *-*>1Z> «=* in M a k o t o n i , k a r e w a , i t o , s a m a ko to n a r i s h i h i t o z o k a s h i . I m a w a m a t a sono yo n i m o n e b i m a s a r i t e , " H i k a r u to w a , k o r e wo i f u b e k i n i y a " to m i y u r u n i h o h i n a m , i t o d o , k u w a w a r i t a r u . I b i d . , 1 1 1 , p p . 218. M i y a no u c h i n i o h i i d e t e , T e i o no k a g i r i n a k u k a n a s h i k i m o n o n i s h i t a m a h i , s a b a k a r i nade k a s h i z u k i , m i n i kahe te o b o s h i t a r i s h i k a do . I b i d . , p p . 218 . - 1 0 1 -* o * i = i-^t- r-t-fi?m^m ^ ; P < T . f i j f ftfrt'ti- «»^«=^^ Sono n a k a n i m o , yamug@tonak i o n - n e g a h i f u k a k u t e , S a k i no S a i i n -nado wo. m o , i m a n i w a s u r e g a t a k u k o s o , k i k o e t a m a f u n a r e . * I 0f l=- ^ C 50 , /3^«< i- ( B»f^\-fix-to m o t o g a m e , m a t a , - w a r e n a g a r a m o , " S a r u m a j i k i f u r u m a h i w o , k a r i n i te m o s u r u k a n a " to o m o h i s h i ko to w a , ko(no) k i m i no u m a r e t a m a h i s h i t o k i n i , c h i g i ( r i ) , f u k a k u o m o h i s h i r i n i s h i k a do , m e no m a h e n i m i e n u ana ta no ko to w a , o b o t s u k a n a k u k o s o , o m o h i - w a t a r i t s u r e . S a r a b a , k a k a r u t a n o m i a r i t e , a n a g a c h i n i w a n o z o m i s h i n a r i k e r i . Y o k o - z a m a n i i m i j i k i m e w o m i , t a d a y o h i s h i m o , kono h i to h i t o r i no t a m e n i k o s o a r i k e r e . K a n o In k o s o , n a k a - n a k a , naho , i k a n a r u n i t suke t e m o , h i t o wo y u k a s h i k u o b o s h i t a r u k o k o r o w a t a e z u m o n o s e s a s e t a m a f u n a r e . I b i d . , p p . 220 . I b i d . , p p . 220 . s u z u r o n i t a k a k i k o k o r o z a s h i a r i " to ; h i t o I b i d . , p p . 297 , 298. - 1 0 2 -T h e Y o g a v a s i s t h a V a s t u t a s t u j a g a n n a s t i s a r v a b r a h m a i v a k e v a l a m N a t a d a s t i j a g a t k o s e s u b h a k a r m a n u p a t i n a , y a t p a u - r u s e n a suddhena na s a m a s a d y a t e j a n a i h . - 1 0 3 -S a m p o E K)toba a n d The R a m a y a n a In S a m p o E K o t o b a t he r e i s the s t o r y of the b e n e v o l e n t p r i n c e Shudana (^8 A ) o f S h a k u h a r a (#f }fi $L | | ) ). T h i s i s a s t o r y of one of B u d d h a ' s ~ f o r m e r l i v e s , o r i g i n a t i n g a B u d d h i s t c a n o n c a l l e d , « / K £ ^ 7 v f §± ( T a i s h i Shudana K y o ) . I n t e r e s t i n g l y t h i s has s o m e s i m i l a r i t i e s to The R a m a y a n a , S a m p o E Potoba w a s w r i t t e n i n 984 by T a m e n o r i M i n a m o t o (J/^ ^ ^ ). T a m e n o r i w a s a c o n t e m p o r a r y of L a d y M u r a s a k i . T h e s t o r y b e l o n g s to the g e n r e of the e x i l e r e t u r n i n g a n d s u c c e e d i n g , as. m o d i f i e d by. B u d d h i s t D o c t r i n e . T h e f o l l o w i n g f i v e p o i n t s f r o m the s t o r y of p r i n c e Shundana show s o m e s i m i l a r i t i e s to the p l o t of T h e R a m a y a n a . 1. P r i n c e Shudana g i v e s a w h i t e e lephan t to a n o t h e r k i n g . B e c a u s e the e l ephan t i s a t r e a s u r e of h i s c o u n t r y . The m i n i s t e r i n s i s t s that Shudana s h o u l d be e x i l e d i n t o the m o u n t a i n s f o r t w e l v e y e a r s . 2 . T h e k i n g t e l l s Shudana to l e a v e the c o u n t r y and go in to M t . D a n t o k u ( o> j_j ) i n n o r t h e r n I n d i a . 3 . Shudana ' s w i fe a s k s h i m to t ake h e r w i t h h i m . S h u d a n a ' s m o t h e r a n d a l l the p e o p l e of h i s c o u n t r y l a m e n t at h i s d e p a r t u r e . 4. In the m o u n t a i n , f o r h i s w i f e a n d h i s two c h i l d r e n he b u i l d s t h r e e hu t s . One day a n u g l y o l d m a n f r o m K i r u , a d i s t a n t c o u n t r y c o m e s a n d a s k s i f he c o u l d have S h u d a n a ' s two c h i l d r e n to be s e r v a n t s f o r 104-h i s young w i f e . L a t e r the s a m e m a n c o m e s a s k i n g f o r Shudana ' s w i f e . Shudana a l s o g i v e s the o l d m a n h i s w i f e . In fac t the d i d m a n i s the g o d T a i s h a k u . 5. The god then g r a n t s a boon w h i c h a l l o w s Shudana a n d h i s f a m i l y to r e t u r n to t h e i r c o u n t r y . P r e s u m a b l y , t h i s s t o r y i s i n f l u e n c e d by o l d I n d i a n f o l k t a l e s w h i c h a l s o m i g h t have b e e n i n f l u e n c e d by The R a m a y a n a . - 1 0 5 -A P P E N D I X B R a m a y a n a (1) B a l a K a n d a (77 c h a p t e r s ) , (2) A y o d h a (119), (3) A r a n y a (75), (4) K i s h k i n d h a (67), (5) S u n d a r a (68), (6) Y u d d h a (130), (7) U t t a r a (111) (about 1600 pages , H a r i P r a s a d S h a s t r i , t r a n s . T h e R a m a y a n a of V a l m i k i ) (1) (2) | J 3 J P Cfl n to rt o 3 (4) (5) J T u r n i n g po in t s i n l i f e (descen t and ascen t ) (6) P P o ^ w CO fl> P £ - a 01 rt H (7) cn rt CD - I cn cn p O o P p P-cr an ire ire o o 3 de en P I—-rt--— - J T a l e of G e n j i 41 c h a p t e r s (about 734 p a g e s , E . S e i d e n s t i c k e n , t r a n s . The T a l e of G e n j i ) C h . 12, 13 S u m a , A k a s h i I—' 3 CD 4 3 C h . 34, 35 W a k a n a t^ rt- y rt CD P >" O rt- cn HJ 0> (5 3< 4 rt So o M l rt-T u r n i n g po in t s i n l i f e (descent and ascen t ) p 1-i p CfQ cn CO o 3 - 1 0 6 -S E L E C T E D B I B L I O G R A P H Y B o o k s : C a m p b e l l , J o s e p h . The H e r o w i t h a T h o u s a n d F a c e s . 2nd e d . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968. F o s t e r , E . M . A s p e c t s of The N o v e l . N e w Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and C o m p a n y , 1927. F r a z e r , J . G . The G o l d e n B o u g h : A Study i n M a g i c a n d R e l i g i o n . N e w Y o r k : The M a c m i l l a n C o m p a n y , 1957. F r y , N o r t h r o p . A n a t o m y of C r i t i c i s m : F o u r E s s a y s . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957. F r y , N o r t h r o p . The S e c u l a r S c r i p t u r e : A Study of the S t r u c t u r e of R o m a n c e . C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s and L o n d o n , E n g l a n d : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976. M a s o n , H e r b e r t , t r a n s . G i l g a m e s h : A . V e r s e N a r r a t i v e . N e w Y o r k , S c a r b o r o u g h , and O n t a r i o : N e w A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y , 1970. M o o r m a n , C h a r l e s . K i n g s a n d C a p t a i n s ; V a r i a t i o n s on A H e r o i c T h e m e . L e x i n g t o n : The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s of K e n t u c k y , 1971. S a n d a r s , N . K . r e v . ed . The E p i c of G i l g a m e s h : A n E n g l i s h V e r s i o n w i t h A n I n t r o d u c t i o n . L o n d o n : P e n g u i n B o o k s , 1972. J a p a n e s e L i t e r a t u r e B o o k s : A b e , A k i o . G e n j i m o n o g a t a r i k e n k y u j o s e t s u . T o k y o : T o k y o U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964. A k i y a ' m a , K e n . G e n j i m o n o g a t a r i no s e k a i . T o k y o : T o k y o U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964. I keda , K i k a n . H e i a n cho no s e i k a t s u to bungaku . T o k y o : I&dokawa sho ten , 1964. - 107-O k a , K a z u o a n d T o k u h e i Y a m a g i s h i . c o m p . 8 v o l s . G e n j i m o n o g a t a r i k o z a . T o k y o : YCTseido, 1971-72 . ~~ ~~ O m o r i , A n n i e S h e p l e y and K O c h i D o i . t r a n s . D i a r i e s of C o u r t L a d i e s of O l d J a p a n . T o k y o : Penkyusha , 1961. R e i s h a u e r , J e a n and R o b e r t r a r l R e i s h a u e r . E a r l y J a p a n e s e H i s t o r y , p a r t B . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1937. S e i d e n s t i c k e r , E d w a r d G . t r a n s . The T a l e of G e n j i . 2 v o l s . N e w York: A l f r e d A . Kaoff, 1977. W a l e y , A r t h u r , t r a n s . The T a l e of G e n j i : A N o v e l i n S i x P a r t s by L a d y  M u r a s a k i . 2 v o l s . T o k y o : C h a r l e s E . T u t t l e C o m p a n y , 1970. A r t i c l e s : M i t a n i , E i i c h i . " G e n j i m o n o g a t a r i n i o k e r u m i n k a n s h i n k o to ' p l o t ' to no K a n k e i : K i s h u r u r i t a n no g e n s h i t s u n i t s u i t e . " K o k u b u g a k u . June 1966, pp . 4 5 - 5 0 . Y a n a i , S h i g e r u . " G e n j i m o n o g a t a r i to r e i k e n t a n no kSsho". " In v o l . I of G e n j i m o n o g a t a r i k e n k y u to s h i r y o : k o d a i bungaku r o n s h u . T o k y o : M u s a s h i n o sho i r i , 1969, pp . 183 -215 . Indie L i t e r a t u r e B o o k s : A n t o i n e , R o b e r t . R a m a a n d the B a r d s : E p i c M e m o r y i n the R a m a y a n a . C a l c u t t a : A W r i t e r s W o r k s h o p G r e y b i r d B o o k , 1975. A r c h e r , W . C . The L o v e s of K r i s h n a : i n Ind i an p a i n t i n g a n d p o e t r y . L o n d o n : George A l l e n a n d U n w i n L t d . , 1957. ' A t r a t a , B . L . Y o g a v a s i s t h a a n d M o d e r n Thought : o r A g r e e m e n t of the E a s t a n d the W e s t on F u n d a m e n t a l P r o b l e m s , r e v . a n d e n l a r g e d ed . B a n a r s : The Ind i an B o o k Shop, 19 S4. B a r y , W i l l i a m T h e o d o r e , c o m p . S o u r c e s of Ind ian T r a d i t i o n . N e w Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958. - 1 0 8 -B r y a n t , K e n n e t h E . P o e m s to the C h i l d - G o d : S t r u c t u r e s and S t r a t i g i e s i n the P o e t r y of S u r d a s . B e r k e l e y , L o s A n g e l e s a n d L o n d o n : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1978. B u i t e n e n , J . A . B . v a n . t r a n s , a n d e d . The M a h a b h a r a t a . C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1975. K h a n , B e n j a m i n . The C o n c e p t of D h a r m a i n V a l m i k i R a m a y a n a . D e l h i : M u n s h i R a m M a n o h a r L a i , 1965. P a t h a k , M a d h u s u d a n M a d h a v l a l . S i m i l e s i n the R a m a y a n a . B a r o d a : The M a h a r a j a S a y a j i r a o U n i v e r s i t y of B a r o d a , 1968. R a g h a v a n , V . The G r e a t e r R a m a y a n a . V a r a n a s i : The A l l - I n d i a K a s h i r a j T r u s t , 1973. " "~ . ~ " S h a r m a , R a m a s h r a y a . A S o c i o - P o l i t i c a l Study of the V A L M I K I R A M A Y A N A . D e l h i : M o t i l a l B a n a r s i d a s s , 1971. Shas t r i ,> H a r i P r a s a d , t r a n s . The R a m a y a n a of V a l m i k i . 2nd . e d . 3 v o l s . L o n d o n : S h a n t i s a d a n , 1962- . S h a s t r i , The R t . H o n . V . S. S r i n i v a s a . L e c t u r e on the R a m a y a n a . M a d r a s : M a d r a s S a m s k r i t A c a d e m y , 1968. S i m h a , S. L . N . R a m a y a n a f o r The M o d e r n W o r l d . B o m b a y : B h a r a t i y a V i d y a B h a v a n , 1965. V o r a , D h a i r y a b l a P . E v o l u t i o n of M o r a l s i n the E p i c s : M A H A B H A R A T A  a n d R A M A Y A N A . B o m b a y : G . R . B h a t k a l , 1959. V y a s , S h a n t i k u m a r N a n o o r a m . Ind ia i n the R a m a y a n a age: A s D e s c r i b e d i n V a l m i k i ' s R A M A Y A N A ^ D e l h i : - A t m a R a m , 1967. A r t i c l e : S e n , N a b a n e e t a . " C o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s i n o r a l e p i c p o e t r y a n d T h e V a l m i k i R a m a y a n a : A R e p o r t on the B a l a k a n d a . " J o u r n a l of the A m e r i c a n O r i e n t a l S o c i e t y , v o l . 86 , pp . 4 0 1 - 1 7 . 

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