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The theme of the descent in the Tale of Genji and the Ramayana Nakagawa, Masako 1979

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THE THEME OF THE DESCENT  IN  THE T A L E OF GENJI AND THE R A M A Y A N A  By MASAKO NAKAGAWA B . A . , Sophia U n i v e r s i t y ,  1971  M . A . , Sophia U n i v e r s i t y ,  1973  A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS  in THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE  STUDIES  D E P A R T M E N T OF ASIAN STUDIES We a c c e p t this t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY ©  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  August,  1979  Masako Nakagawa, 1979  OF  In  presenting  an  advanced  the I  Library  further  for  degree shall  agree  scholarly  by  his  of  this  written  thesis  in  at  University  the  make  that  it  thesis  purposes  for  freely  may  be  It  University  for  financial  British  of  Columbia,  British  gain  Columbia  August 2 o , 1 9 7 9  for  extensive  granted  Asian Studies of  of  available  permission.  of  fulfilment  by  the  is understood  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  D a t e  partial  permission  representatives.  Department The  this  shall  Head  be  requirements  reference copying  that  not  the  of  agree  and  of my  I  this  or  allowed  without  that  study. thesis  Department  copying  for  or  publication my  ii  ABSTRACT T h i s i s a c o m p a r a t i v e study b e t w e e n The T a l e of G e n j i and T h e R a m a y a n a w h i c h a r e m a s t e r p i e c e s of Japanese and Indian l i t e r a t u r e , i n the t h e m e o f the d e s c e n t o f the h e r o e s , G e n j i a n d R a m a . t y p e s of ' d e s c e n t ' :  T h e r e a r e two  one i s the e x t e r n a l d e s c e n t w h i c h i s e x i l e , a n d the  o t h e r i s the i n t e r n a l d e s c e n t w h i c h i s l a m e n t .  T h e l a t t e r s e e m s t o be  m o r e i m p o r t a n t a n d m o r e p r o f o u n d i n the m e a n i n g , e s p e c i a l l y f r o m Japanese viewpoint.  the  In t e r m s o f the t h e m e of the w o r k , the W a k a n a  c h a p t e r of T h e T a l e of G e n j i i s one of the m o s t i m p o r t a n t c h a p t e r s b e c a u s e o f i t s c o n s e n s u s of m e a n i n g a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , , A l t h o u g h the c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y b e t w e e n J a p a n e s e a n d I n d i a n literature is very rare,  except for B u d d i s t i c s t u d i e s , I w o u l d l i k e to  m a k e a n a t t e m p t to s e a r c h f o r a n e w p o s s i b i l i t y i n the s t u d y f i e l d o f l i t e r a t u r e b y s t a r t i n g t o e x a m i n e the h e r o i c p o w e r s of G e n j i a n d R a m a ,  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page Introduction I.  II.  III.  IV.  1  H e r o e s i n T h e T a l e of G e n j i a n d The R a m a y a n a A.  The Heroes's P o w e r  B.  The H e r o e s ' s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Features .  E x t e r n a l Descent:  . . . .  3 3  .  .  .  Exile  8 12  A.  E x i l e to the S e a s h o r e a n d the M o u n t a i n s  •  14  B.  T h e M o t i f o f the E x i l e R e t u r n i n g a n d S u c c e e d i n g .  28  Internal Descent:  .  .  .  Lament  A.  Sita's Ordeal  B.  W a k a n a no m a k i  35 36 . . . . . . . .  Conclusion Notes Appendices A and B Bibliography  47 70  o .  78 90 106  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I w o u l d l i k e to e x p r e s s m y deepest thanks to m y a d v i s o r , D r . L e o n Z o l b r o d , for without his good advice and encouragement this thesis w o u l d not have b e e n p o s s i b l e .  A l s o , I w o u l d l i k e to take this o p p o r t u n i t y  t o s h o w m y a p p r e c i a t i o n t o the p r o f e s s o r s o f the D e p a r t m e n t o f A s i a n S t u d i e s o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w h o w e r e w i l l i n g to s h a r e t h e i r knowledge w i t h m e while I was w o r k i n g on this t h e s i s .  INTRODUCTION T h i s i s a c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y b e t w e e n a m a s t e r p i e c e of J a p a n e s e l i t e r a t u r e a n d a m a s t e r p i e c e of I n d i a n l i t e r a t u r e ,  i n t e r m s of p l o t a n d l i t e r a l  themes.  I s t a r t e d to r e a d T h e R a m a y a n a t w o y e a r s a g o , a n d at f i r s t I s a w l i t t l e w h i c h r e m i n d e d m e of T h e T a l e of G e n j i .  The only p a r a l l e l I saw was R a m a ' s exile  to the m o u n t a i n s w h i c h m a y p a r a l l e l G e n j i ' s e x i l e to the s e a s h o r e .  In r e a d -  i n g the s t o r y of R a m a a f t e r h i s r e t u r n f r o m e x i l e , I w a s u n a b l e to d i s m i s s the s i m i l a r i t y w i t h the W a k a n a c h a p t e r s w h i c h d e a l w i t h G e n j i ' s i n n e r i n the l a t e r l i f e .  conflict  T h i s i s one of the. m o s t i m p o r t a n t c h a p t e r s of T h e T a l e of  G e n j i w h e n J a p a n e s e s c h o l a r s c o n s i d e r a n y t h e m a t i c p r o b l e m s of the w o r k . It c a n be s a i d t h a t the W a k a r f i c h a p t e r s a r e r i d d l e s .  If one m a y a s k  h i m s e l f w h e t h e r G e n j i l e a d s a h a p p y l i f e o r n o t , he c o u l d s a y t h a t G e n j i i s v e r y happy i n w o r l d l y sense, A f t e r a setback,  but he i s not v e r y h a p p y i n h i s i n n e r p s y c h e .  n a m e l y a n e x i l e , t h r o u g h o u t h i s l i f e he s l o w l y a s c e n d s i n  the r a n k i n g s of the H e i a n c o u r t u n t i l f i n a l l y he r e a c h e s the h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e rank for a c o m m o n e r .  H o w e v e r , suddenly, a dark shadow is cast over his  l i f e a n d he c a n n e v e r r e c o v e r f r o m t h i s s e t b a c k . i n the W a k a n f t c h a p t e r s .  The turning point comes  W h y d o e s G e n j i h a v e to s u f f e r i n h i s l a t e r l i f e ,  a q u e s t i o n t h a t h a s p u z z l e d m e s i n c e I f i r s t r e a d the w o r k . r e a s o n w h y the s t o r y of R a m a d r e w m y a t t e n t i o n .  is  T h i s i s the m a i n  Of c o u r s e ,  The R a m a y a n a  i s n o t a b l e to a n s w e r t h i s q u e s t i o n , but at l e a s t i t m a y g i v e u s a h i n t a s to  1  -2a m o r e u n i v e r s a l v i e w p o i n t to t h a t q u e s t i o n . In the f i e l d of c o m p a r a t i v e l i t e r a t u r e , t h e r e a r e t w o k i n d s of c o m p a r i sons:  one i s the c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y b e t w e e n t w o r e l a t e d w o r k s d e s p i t e  difference i n culture and language,  a n d the o t h e r i s the c o m p a r a t i v e  between unrelated w o r k s in different culture and language. b e l o n g s to the l a t t e r c a t e g o r y .  This  the  study  paper  T h e r e f o r e , we m u s t a l w a y s k e e p i n m i r i d  t h a t e a c h w o r k i s e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m the o t h e r .  Although I sometimes  e m p h a s i z e s i m i l a r a s p e c t s to r e v e a l s i m i l a r i t i e s , i t i s not the p u r p o s e of t h i s p a p e r to s h o w t h a t b o t h w o r k s a r e ,  i n fact,  similar.  In the f i e l d of c o m p a r a t i v e l i t e r a t u r e , w e s h o u l d be e s p e c i a l l y c a r e f u l i n c h o o s i n g a m e t h o d of s t u d y . f o c u s e d ' o n the m a i n c h a r a c t e r s  T o a v o i d u n n e c e s s a r y confusion, I have  of lUhe T a l e of G e n j i a n d T h e R a m a y a n a ,  G e n j i a n d R a m a , a n d not a n y p e r i p h e r a l c h a r a c t e r s .  A l s o , because  is an i m m e n s e difference i n h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l backgrounds  there  between  t h e s e t w o w o r k s , I h a v e c h o s e n to d e a l w i t h t h e m a t i c t o p i c s , s u c h a s , t h e m e of d e s c e n t .  1  T h e r e a r e t w o t y p e s of ' d e s c e n t ' i n t h i s p a p e r :  'the  one i s  the h e r o ' s e x i l e , a n d the o t h e r i s the h e r o ' s i n n e r c o n f l i c t i n h i s l a t e r  life.  CHAPIER I H E R O E S IN T H E T A L E O F G E N J I A N D T H E R A M A Y A N A A.  THE HEROES'S POWER Unlike o r d i n a r y people, heroes enter their stories i n a  m o r e fantastic and unusual way than nori-heroes. a n d R a m a , the m a i n c h a r a c t e r s R a m a ' s father, sacrifice,  somewhat  This is true with Genji  of T h e T a l e of G e n j i a n d T h e R a m a y a n a .  K n g D a s a r a t h a of A y o n d h y a , p e r f o r m s a n a u s p i c i o u s h o r s e  w h e n he i s b l e s s e d w i t h a s o n .  One y e a r after R a m a w a s b o r n  In the m e a n t i m e s i x s e a s o n s ( e a c h c o n s i s t i n g of t w o m o n t h s ) r o l l e d a w a y a f t e r the s a c r i f i c e w a s o v e r . Then on the n i n t h l u n a r d a y (of .the b r i g h t f o r t n i g h t ) of C h a i t r a , the t w e l f t h m o n t h a f t e r the c o n c l u s i o n of the s a c r i f i c e s ) w h e n the a s t e r i s m P u n a r v a s u ( p r e s i d e d o v e r b y A d i t i ) was. i n the a s c e n d a n t a n d (as m a n y a s ) f i v e p l a n e t s ( v i z , the S u n , M a r s , S a t u r n , J u p i t e r a n d V e n u s ) h a p p e n e d to be e x a l t e d ( a p p e a r e d i n the z o d i a c a l s i g n s of M e s a o r A r i e s , M a k a r a or C a p r i c o r n u s , Tula or L i b r a , K i r k a or C a n c e r a n d M i n a or P i s c e s r e s p e c t i v e l y ) a n d J u p i t e r i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the M o o n a p p e a r e d i n the z o d i a c a l s i g n of K a r k a , m o t h e r fausalya" (the e l d e s t w i f e of D a s a r a t h a ) g a v e b i r t h to a h i g h l y b l e s s e d s o n n a m e d SrT R a m a , w h o w a s (no o t h e r than) the L o r d of the u n i v e r s e , the a d o r e d of a l l the ( t h r e e ) w o r l d s , the d e l i g h t of I k s w a k u ' s r a c e , w h o r e p r e s e n t e d o n e - h a l f of L o r d V i s n u a n d w a s e n d o w e d w i t h a u s p i c i o u s d i v i n e m a r k s i n t h a t he h a d e y e s t i n g e d w i t h r e d , p o s s e s s e d exceptionally long a r m s and ruddy lips and a voice r e s e m b l i n g the s o u n d of a k e t t l e - d r u m , r & u s a l y a s h o n e b r i g h t l y w i t h t h a t s o n p o s s e s s e d of i m m e n s e g l o r y (even) a s A d i t i (the m o t h e r of g o d s ) w i t h I n d r a (the w i e l d e r of a t h u n d e r b o l t ) , the f o r e m o s t of g o d s .  T h e d e s c r i p t i o n of G e n j i ' s b i r t h * i s m o r e o r d i n a r y a n d a b s t r a c t t h a t of R a m a ' s . stances.  H o w e v e r , i n f a c t , he w a s a l s o b o r n u n d e r u n u s u a l c i r c u m -  G e n j i ' s father,  the e m p e r i o r ,  l e s s of h e r w e a k p o w e r i n the c o u r t . calls for social condemnation. unusual love.  than  infatuated with his mother,  regard-  H i s a f f e c t i o n i s so a b n o r m a l that it  I n d e e d , G e n j i w a s b o r n a s a r e s u l t of t h i s  T h e t e n s i o n f i n a l l y c a u s e s the d e a t h of G e n j i ' s m o t h e r  y e a r s after G e n j i ' s b i r t h .  three  T h e r e f o r e , the d e s c r i p t i o n of G e n j i ' s b i r t h  contains a great uncertain situation i n it: It m a y h a v e b e e n b e c a u s e o f a b o n d i n a f o r m e r l i f e t h a t she b o r e the e m p e r o r a b e a u t i f u l s o n , a j e w e l b e yond c o m p a r e . T h e e m p e r o r w a s i n a f e v e r of i n p a t i e n c e to s e e the c h i l d , , s t i l l w i t h the m o t h e r ' s f a m i l y ; a n d w h e n , o n the e a r l i e s t d a y p o s s i b l e , he w a s b r o u g h t to c o u r t , he d i d i n d e e d p r o v e to be a m o s t m a r v e l o u s b a b e . R a m a a n d G e n j i g r o w up s h o w i n g o u t s t a n d i n g t a l e n t s ; t h e y a r e God-like figures.  N o r t h r o p F r y e c l a s s i f i e s h e r o e s by t h e i r p o w e r i n h i s  b o o k A n a t o m y of C r i t i c i s m :  Four Essays;  1) the h e r o a s a d i v i n e b e i n g , s u p e r i o r i n k i n d b o t h to o t h e r m e n , a n d to the e n v i r o n m e n t of o t h e r m e n ; 2)  the h e r o of r o m a n c e ,  s u p e r i o r i n d e g r e e to o t h e r m e n a n d  to h i s e n v i r o n m e n t ; 3) the h e r o a s a l e a d e r ,  s u p e r i o r i n d e g r e e to o t h e r m e n ,  but  not to h i s n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t ; 4)  almos  the h e r o a s one of u s ,  s u p e r i o r n e i t h e r to o t h e r m e n n o r to  his environment; 5) the h e r o b e l o n g i n g to the i r o n i c m o d e , i n f e r i o r i n p o w e r o r i n t e l l i g e n c e to o u r s e l v e s . ^  -5-  If we p l a c e R a m a a n d G e n j i a g a i n s t t h i s s c a l e , w e c a n s a f e l y l o c a t e t h e m b e t w e e n c a t e g o r y 2 a n d 3.  T o define both h e r o e s ' s p o w e r m o r e c l e a r l y ,  f i r s t l e t u s l o o k at F r y e ' s d e f i n i t i o n of c a t e g o r y 2: If s u p e r i o r i n d e g r e e to o t h e r m e n a n d to h i s e n v i r o n m e n t , the h e r o i s the t y p i c a l h e r o of r o m a n c e , w h o s e a c t i o n s a r e m a r v e l l o u s , but w h o i s h i m s e l f i d e n t i f i e d a s a h u m a n b e i n g . T h e h e r o o f r o m a n c e m o v e s i n a w o r l d i n w h i c h the o r d i n a r y l a w s of n a t u r e a r e s l i g h t l y s u s p e n d e d : p r o d i g i e s of c o u r a g e a n d e n d u r a n c e , u n n a t u r a l to u s , a r e n a t u r a l to h i m , a n d e n chanted weapons, talking a n i m a l s , t e r r i f y i n g ogres and w i t c h e s , a n d t a l i s m a n s of m i r a c u l o u s p o w e r v i o l a t e no r u l e of p r o b a b i l i t y o n c e the p o s t u l a t e s of r o m a n c e h a v e been e s t a b l i s h e d . H e r e we have m o v e d f r o m m y t h , p r o p e r l y so c a l l e d , i n t o l e g e n d , f o l k t a l e , M a r c h e n , a n d t h e i r l i t e r a r y affiliates and d e r i v a t i v e s . ^ R a m a ' s p o w e r i s so g r e a t that s o m e t i m e s it affects n a t u r e h e r s e l f . F o r e x a m p l e , i n the c o m b a t s c e n e b e t w e e n R a m a a n d the d e m o n K i n g R a v a n a , R a m a ' s w r a t h affects  nature:  O n s e e i n g the f u r i o u s c o u n t e n a n c e of the v i r t u o u s R a m a , a l l b e i n g s w e r e s e i z e d w i t h t e r r o r , the e a r t h s h o o k , the m o u n t a i n s , f r e q u e n t e d b y l i o n s a n d t i g e r s , t r e m b l e d , the t r e e s s w a y e d to a n d f r o , the o c e a n , t h a t l a n d of. r i v e r s , w a s a g i t a t e d a n d f l o c k s of c r o w s , b r a y i n g l i k e d o n k e y s , d e s c r i b e d c i r c l e s i n the s k y on a l l s i d e s . V C o m p a r e d . t o R a m a , G e n j i h a s l e s s p o w e r on n a t u r e h e r s e l f . although it is r a r e ,  he d o e s , at t i m e s ,  quote w h i c h i s t a k e n f r o m the c h a p t e r dances  ' W a v e s of the B l u e O c e a n ,  1  s e e m to a f f e c t n a t u r e . 'An Autumn Excursion,  demonstrates  But,  The following 1  i n w h i c h he  his influence over  nature.  -6-  T h e f o r t y ' m e n i n the c i r c l e of the f l u t i s t s p l a y e d m o s t marvelously. T h e s o u n d of t h e i r f l u t e s , m i n g l e d w i t h the s i g h i n g of the p i n e s , w a s l i k e a w i n d c o m i n g d o w n f r o m deep m o u n t a i n s . ' W a v e s of the B l u e O c e a n , ' a m o n g f a l l i n g l e a v e s of c o u n t l e s s h u e s , h a d a b o u t i t a n a l m o s t f r i g h t ening beauty. The m a p l e b r a n c h i n G e n j i ' s cap was s o m e w h a t b a r e a n d f o r l o r n , m o s t of the l e a v e s h a v i n g f a l l e n , a n d s e e m e d at o d d s w i t h h i s h a n d s o m e f a c e . T h e G e n e r a l of the L o f t r e p l a c e d i t w i t h s e v e r a l c h r y s a n t h e m u m s w h i c h he b r o u g h t f r o m b e l o w the r o y a l s e a t . T h e s u n w a s a b o u t to s e t a n d a s u s p i c i o n of a n a u t u m n s h o w e r r u s t l e d p a s t a s i f the s k i e s t o o w e r e m o v e d to t e a r s . T h e c h r y s a n t h e m u m s i n G e n j i ' s c a p , d e l i c a t e l y t o u c h e d b y the f r o s t s , g a v e n e w b e a u t y to h i s f o r m a n d h i s m o t i o n s , no l e s s r e m a r k a b l e t o d a y t h a n on the d a y of the r e h e a r s a l . T h e n his dance was o v e r , and a c h i l l as i f f r o m another w o r l d p a s s e d o v e r the a s s e m b l y . ^ B o t h h e r o e s ' s p o w e r s s e e m to be h a l f - g o d on the one h a n d , a n d h a l f 7 h u m a n o n the o t h e r .  H o w e v e r , they a r e not d i v i n e b e i n g s .  w h o i s b e l i e v e d to be a n i n c a r n a t i o n o f the G o d V i s h n u ,  Even Rama  considers himself  g a human.  A s a m a t t e r of f a c t ,  f r o m the v e r y b e g i n n i n g of the s t o r y he  m u s t be b o r n a s a h u m a n i n o r d e r to d e s t r o y the d e m o n H n g R a v a n a w h o m o n l y m e n a n d a n i m a l s c a n k i l l b e c a u s e of the d i v i n e p r o m i s e he r e c e i v e d previously.  In T h e R a m a y a n a i t i s t o l d t h a t the g o d s t o r m e n t e d b y R a v a n a  a p p e a l to V i s h n u : A t t h a t t i m e , the i m m o r t a l V i s h n u , L o r d of the W o r l d , a t t i r e d i n y e l l o w , b e a r i n g the c o n c h , d i s c u s , a n d m a c e i n h i s h a n d s , a p p e a r e d m o u n t e d o n V a i n a t e y a , l i k e u n t o the s u n a b o v e the c l o u d s . W e a r i n g b r a c e l e t s o f g o l d , a d o r e d b y the G o d s , he t o o k h i s p l a c e b e s i d e B r a h m a , a n d a l l the C e l e s t i a l B e i n g s , h a v i n g p a i d h o m a g e to h i m w i t h h y m n s , p r o s t r a t e d themselves before h i m and s a i d : -  -7' O M a d h u s v d a n a , f o r the g o o d of a l l c r e a t u r e s , w e a d d r e s s t h i s p r a y e r to t h e e ! T h e M o n a r c h D a s a n a t h a w h o r e i g n s i n Ayodhya, O L o r d , a virtuous and l i b e r a l p r i n c e whose lustre e q u a l s the R i s h i s , h a s t h r e e c o n s o r t s w h o s e c h a s t i t y , g o o d q u a l i t i e s , a n d r e n o w n d i s t i n g u i s h t h e m . O V i s h n u , do t h o u i n c a r n a t e i n t h e m by d i v i d i n g t h y s e l f into four p a r t s ! B e c o m e a m o r t a l a n d the V a n q u i s h e r i n c o m b a t of R a v a n a , the p o w e r f u l . t o r m e n t o r of the w o r l d w h o c a n n o t be s l a i n b y the g o d s . I n t o x i c a t e d b y h i s e x c e s s i v e s t r e n g t h , the R a k s h a s a R a v a n a h a s e n s l a v e d the g o d s , G a n d h a n v a s , S i d d h a s , a n d great R i s h i s . Those G a n d h a r v a s and A p s a r a s who w e r e s p o r t i n g i n the N a n d a n a W o o d , , w e r e d r i v e n out b y t h a t m o n s t e r R a v a n a . W e h a v e c o m e w i t h the a s c e t i c s to d e m a n d his death. Siddhas, G a n d h a r v a s , and Y a k s h a s i i m p l o r e t h y p r o t e c t i o n , O G o d , D e s t r o y e r of t h i n e e n e m i e s , t h o u a r t o u r s u p r e m e r e f u g e ! F o r the d e s t r u c t i o n of t h o s e h o s t i l e to the g o d s , do t h o u r e s o l v e to d e s c e n d i n t o the w o r l d of m e n ! To a c e r t a i n extent, c a t e g o r y 2, but n o t e n t i r e l y .  both heroes's  c a p a c i t i e s s e e m to b e l o n g i n  L e t u s l o o k at F r y e ' s c a t e g o r y 3:  If s u p e r i o r i n d e g r e e to o t h e r m e n , but not to h i s n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t , the h e r o i s a l e a d e r . H e h a s a u t h o r i t y , p a s s i o n s , and p o w e r s of e x p r e s s i o n f a r g r e a t e r t h a n o u r s , but w h a t he d o e s i s s u b j e c t b o t h to s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m a n d to the o r d e r o f n a t u r e . This i s the h e r o of the h i g h m i m e t i c m o d e , o f m o s t e p i c a n d t r a g e d y a n d i s p r i m a r i l y the k i n d o f h e r o t h a t A r i s t o t l e had i n m i n d . ^ R a m a a n d G e n j i a r e s u p e r i o r to o t h e r m e n , but t h e y a r e n o t f r e e f r o m s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m a n d the n a t u r a l o r d e r . not have b e e n e x i l e d , a n d s u f f e r e d .  If t h e y w e r e , t h e y w o u l d  In the b r o a d e r v i e w , the h e r o i c  p o w e r s of R a m a a n d G e n j i a r e o n the s a m e s c a l e i n F r y e ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  B.  THE HEROES'S CHARACTERISTIC  FEATLRES  R a m a and Genji are half-god, half-human like f i g u r e s . to h a v e c o m e f r o m ' a m o r e a u s p i c i o u s w o r l d .  T h e y -\seem  T h i s i s r e l a t e d to the f a c t  t h a t the o p e n i n g s t o r i e s o f t h o s e h e r o e s a r e b e g u n b y p r o p h e c i e s .  Because  p r o p h e c i e s c o n n e c t the u p p e r w o r l d w i t h the l o w e r w o r l d . H In T h e R a m a y a n a , R a m a ' s b i r t h i s p r e d i c t e d a l o n g t i m e b e f o r e h i s a c t u a l b i r t h b y the s a g e S a n a t k u m a n a : ' A s a r e s u l t of the s a c r i f i c e , K n g P a s a r a t h a w i l l h a v e f o u r s o n s , e a c h of l i m i t l e s s v a l o u r . T h e s e s o n s w i l l be r e n o u n e d t h r o u g h o u t the w o r l d a n d w i l l i n c r e a s e the g l o r y of t h e i r d y n a s t y . '12 ;  The outline of G e n j i ' s l i f e i s r e l a t e d by a K o r e a n p h y s i o g n o m i s t w h e n G e n j i is s t i l l v e r y young: 'It i s the f a c e of one w h o s h o u l d a s c e n d to the h i g h e s t p l a c e a n d be f a t h e r to the n a t i o n , ' he s a i d q u i e t l y , a s i f to h i m s e l f . ' B u t to t a k e i t f o r s u c h w o u l d no doubt be to p r e d i c t t r o u b l e . Y e t i t i s n o t the f a c e of the m i n i s t e r , the d e p u t y , w h o s e t s a b o u t o r d e r i n g p u b l i c a f f a i r s . '13 T h i s i s n o t a v e r y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d n o r e x a c t p r e d i c t i o n , but l a t e r w h a t the p h y s i o g n o m i s t p r e d i c t e d t u r n s out to be c o r r e c t . T h u s , R a m a a n d G e n j i a r e i n t r o d u c e d to u s a s p a r t l y d i v i n e b e i n g s . B o t h of t h e m a r e a l m o s t s p o t l e s s f i g u r e s . a n d G e n j i s o m e t i m e s s e e m a l o o f to u s . m u c h of o u r s y m p a t h y .  T h i s i s p a r t of r e a s o n w h y R a m a  T h e y a r e not c h a r a c t e r s w h o e v o k e  I n o t h e r w o r d s , w e c a n n o t put o u r s e l v e s i n t h e i r  p o s i t i o n s , o r t r y to s h a r e t h e i r f e e l i n g s .  H o w e v e r , on the o t h e r h a n d , b o t h  -9-  h e r o e s have l i m i t e d p o w e r s , i n spite of t h e i r s u p e r i o r i t i e s . c r e a s e s the c o m p l e x i t y a n d i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r s t o r i e s .  Thus i n -  F o r instance,  after  the p r e d i c t i o n b y the K o r e a n p h y s i o g n o m i s t : S o m e h o w n e w s of the s a g e ' s r e m a r k s l e a k e d out, t h o u g h the e m p e r o r h i m s e l f w a s c a r e f u l to s a y n o t h i n g . T h e M i n i s t e r of the R i g h t , g r a n d f a t h e r of the c r o w n p r i n c e a n d . f a t h e r of the K o k i d e n l a d y , w a s q u i c k to h e a r , a n d a g a i n h i s s u s p i c i o n s w e r e a r o u s e d . 14 G e n j i i s the s e c o n d s o n o f the e m p e r o r b y h i s m i n o r w i f e .  Because  of h i s o u t s t a n d i n g a b i l i t i e s a n d the e m p e r o r ' s a f f e c t i o n f o r h i m , he i s d e e p l y i n v o l v e d i n a r i v a l r y w i t h his e l d e r b r o t h e r who has p o w e r f u l m a t e r n a l support.  G e n j i c o m e s to be g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d a s a r i v a l to the t h r o n e w h i c h  f i n a l l y p r o m p t s h i s f a t h e r to d e c i d e t h a t , f o r h i s o w n s a f e t y ,  he s h o u l d  b e c o m e a c o m m o n e r . , HoweVver, b e c a u s e G e n j i b e c o m e s the s o n - i n - l a w of the M i n i s t e r of the L e f t ,  he c o n t i n u e s to be i n v o l v e d i n c o u r s t c i r c l e s  even after that. In the c a s e o f R a m a , a l t h o u g h he i s the p r i n c i p a l c o n t e n d e r f o r the t h r o n e , he i s a l s o , n e v e r t h e l e s s , three brothers, rival.  involved in some r i v a l r y .  Among his  B h a r a t a , b o r n soon after R a m a , is his most important  H i s b i r t h is d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : B h a r a t a , e n d o w e d w i t h the e s s e n c e of h e r o i s m , w a s b o r n of K u k e y i , a n d he w a s p o s s e s s e d o f e v e r y g r a c e a n d f o r m e d f r o m a q u a r t e r of V i s h n u . ^  -10-  In s p i t e of t h e i r b r o t h e r l y l o v e , R a m a t e l l s S i t a , a f t e r i t h a s b e c o m e c l e a r that h i s father i s e x i l i n g h i m ,  " D o not s p e a k i n p r a i s e of m e  in Bharata's presence . . . . Both R a m a and Genji,  t h e n , a r e e x i l e d b e c a u s e of r i v a l r y w i t h i n  their respective royal families.  In both c a s e s t h e i r s t e p m o t h e r s  be m o r e e x a c t , the m o t h e r s of t h e i r r i v a l b r o t h e r s , in their exile.  or,  to  have an a c t i v e hand  F r o m the b e g i n n i n g of t h e s e t w o h e r o e s ' s l i v e s , t h e y b o t h  h a v e w o r l d l y p o w e r a n d g e n e r a l l y a r e so s u p e r i o r to o t h e r m e n t h a t t h e y a l w a y s r e m a i n i n c o n t e n t i o n , p a s s i v e o r o t h e r w i s e , f o r the t h r o n e . can see,  We  t h e n , t h a t i t i s no m e r e c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t R a m a a n d G e n j i w e r e  b o t h b o r n p r i n c e s ; the e p i c - l i k e g e n r e to w h i c h T h e R a m a y a n a a n d the T a l e of G e n j i b e l o n g d e m a n d , n o t o n l y t h a t the h e r o e s be of t r u l y " h e r o i c " d i m e n s i o n s , but a l s o t h a t t h e y s h o u l d u n d e r g o a l i f e of c o n f l i c t a n d t r i a l - w h i c h i s m o r e t h a n a m p l y p r o v i d e d b y the v i c i s s i t u d e s of l i f e at c o u r t . T h e r e i s one m o r e i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e to be n o t e d i n the of b o t h h e r o e s :  namely, great and courteous benevolence.  characters  Genji,  as  m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , i s " s o s u p e r i o r of m i e n a n d d i s p o s i t i o n t h a t f e w c a n f i n d i t i n t h e m s e l v e s to d i s l i k e h i m . "  S e e i n g h i m , " N o t the s t e r n e s t of  w a r r i o r s o r the m o s t u n b e n d i n g of e n e m i e s c o u l d h a v e h e l d b a c k a s m i l e . " B y n a t u r e he i s p l a c i d a n d g e n t l e .  R a m a a l s o i s s a i d to be s l o w to a n g e r ,  f u l l y s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d a n d b e n e v o l e n t to a l l b e i n g s .  Not a single battle nor  war  he e x p e r i e n c e d w a s c a u s e d b y h i s o w n a c t of v i o l e n c e .  f a i t h f u l i n c a r r y i n g o u t h i s duty.  He i s e x t r e m e l y  In T h e R a m a y a n a , he h i m s e l f s a i d " I , who  a m b y n a t u r e g e n t l e , who h a v e s u b d u e d m y  s e n s e s a n d who e x e r c i s e m e r c y ,  18 11  R a m a a n d G e n j i , u n l i k e h e r o e s s u c h a s K r i s h n a of I n d i a n m y t h -  o l o g y o r S u s a n o of the K o j i k i , t h e f i r s t w r i t t e n a c c o u n t of J a p a n e s e t  mytho-  l o g i c a l h i s t o r y , do n o t v i o l a t e t h e l a w s of. s o c i e t y . T h i s b e n e v o l e n t q u a l i t y of b o t h h e r o e s , i n i t s p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , h a s a g r e a t b e a r i n g o n the t h e m e of t h i s t h e s i s . R a m a w a s a h e r o of the b a t t l e f i e l d s a n d G e n j i a h e r o of the H e i a n c o u r t , but t h e i r s t o r i e s a r e n o t m e r e l y e x c i t i n g t a l e s of s u p e r m e n . d e e p e r t h a n that:  T h e y go  both h e r o e s suffer a profound i n t e r n a l o r d e a l a s w e l l  a s a n e x t e r n a l t e s t of c h a r a c t e r .  -12C H A P T E R II EXTERNAL DESCENT:  EXILE  A n epic hero's life usually starts g l o r i o u s l y .  He is outstanding  a m o n g h i s f e l l o w m e n a n d , f o r a w h i l e , the c o u r s e of h i s l i f e s e e m s to go o n w i t h o u t d i f f i c u l t y . worse. His  T h e n , s u d d e n l y , t h e r e c o m e s a c h a n g e f o r the  He must leave his homeland and enter a new and different w o r l d .  subsequent adventures  to the c o u r s e of a h e r o ' s  a r e not o n l y i m p o r t a n t ,  but a r e  indespensable  life.  B o t h E a s t e r n a n d W e s t e r n l i t e r a t u r e a b o u n d w i t h a c c o u n t s of l i v e s of t h i s p a t t e r n .  T h e r e l i g i o u s h e r o G a u t a m a the B u d d h a b i d s f a r e w e l l to  the p a l a c e a n d w a n d e r s a b o u t a s a b e g g a r . for  instance,  heaven,  The G r e e k h e r o - - s u c h  as,  the O d y s s e u s of H o m e r ' s O d y s s e y - - i s s e n t f o r t h to e x p l o r e  the u n d e r w o r l d , a n d m a g i c a l p l a c e s .  He meets with many a d -  v e n t u r e s o n h i s w a y b a c k to I t h a c a f r o m T r o y : E i c o s , a n d e n c o u n t e r w i t h the L o t u s E a t e r s ,  a b a t t l e w i t h the w a r l i k e  a visit with C i r c e , a  descent  into H a d e s , an escape f r o m S i r e n s , a sojourn for seven y e a r s with C a l y p s o , a s h i p w r e c k a n d so f o r t h . Kojiki,  S i m i l a r l y , the o l d J a p a n e s e c h r o n i c l e , the  r e l a t e s the a d v e n t u r e s  eight headed serpent (/v-f^^.S'o  of c e r t a i n h e r o e s :  S u s a n o ' s k i l l i n g of the  ), a n d Y a m a t o T a k e r u ' s a d v e n t u r e s  c o n q u e s t s of the e a s t e r n r e g i o n a n d of the s o u t h e r n K u m a s o t r i b e . f a i r y t a l e s we a r e a l s o t o l d of the h e r o ' s a d v e n t u r e s , he u s u a l l y o b t a i n s s u p e r i o r p o w e r o r g o o d f o r t u n e . his book The H e r o w i t h a T h o u s a n d F a c e s ,  states:  adventures  and  In in which  Joseph Campbell, in  -13A h e r o v e n t u r e s f o r t h f r o m the w o r l d of c o m m o n d a y i n t o a r e g i o n of s u p e r n a t u r a l w o n d e r : f a b u l o u s f o r c e s a r e t h e r e e n c o u n t e r e d . a n d d e c i s i v e v i c t o r y i s w o n : the h e r o c o m e s b a c k f r o m t h i s m y s t e r i o u s a d v e n t u r e w i t h the p o w e r to b e s t o w b o o n s on h i s f e l l o w m a n . ^ T h e n e w w o r l d i n t o w h i c h the h e r o v e n t u r e s t a k e s m a n y f o r m s .  As  Joseph Campbell says: T h i s f i r s t s t a g e of the m y t h o l o g i c a l j o u r n e y - - w h i c h w e h a v e d e s i g n a t e d the ' c a l l to a d v e n t u r e - - s i g n i f i e s t h a t d e s t i n y h a s s u m m o n e d the h e r o a n d t r a n s f e r r e d h i s s p i r i t u a l c e n t e r of g r a v i t y f r o m w h i c h the p a l e of h i s s o c i e t y to a z o n e u n k n o w n ( s i c ) . T h i s f a t e f u l r e g i o n of b o t h t r e a s u r e a n d d a n g e r m a y be v a r i o u s l y r e p r e sented: as a distant l a n d , a f o r e s t , a k i n g d o m under g r o u n d , b e n e a t h the w a v e s , o r a b o v e the s k y , a s e c r e t i s l a n d , lofty mountaintop, or profound d r e a m state; but i t i s a l w a y s a p l a c e of u n i m a g i n a b l e t o r m e n t s , superhuman deeds, and i m p o s s i b l e delight. 1  R a m a and G e n j i a l s o enter new w o r l d s . a d v e n t u r e c o m e s i n t e r m s of a n ' e x i l e ' : a n d G e n j i to the  F o r b o t h , the c a l l of  R a m a i s e x i l e d to the m o u n t a i n s  seashore.  It w i l l b:e;useful to e x a m i n e the e x i l e of the t w o h e r o e s , a n d one J a p a n e s e ,  one I n d i a n  to see h o w the p a t t e r n of t h e i r a d v e n t u r e s t a k e s  shape  a n d h o w t h i s p a t t e r n c o m p a r e s w i t h t h a t of o t h e r a d v e n t u r e s t o r i e s e l s e w h e r e i n the w o r l d .  -14A.  E X I L E TO THE SEASHORE A N D THE MOUNTAINS A l l the s a d , e x o t i c t h i n g s a l o n g the w a y w e r e n e w to him. T h e Oe s t a t i o n w a s i n r u i n s , w i t h o n l y a g r o v e of i p i n e s to s h o w w h e r e i t h a d s t o o d . ' M o r e r e m o t e , I fear., m y . p l a c e of e x i l e t h a n s t o r i e d o n e s i n l a n d s b e y o n d the s e a s . 21  T h e a b o v e l i n e s a r e f r o m " S u m a , " a c h a p t e r t h a t s t a r t s w i t h the l i n e , " F o r G e n j i l i f e h a d b e c o m e a n u n b r o k e n s u c c e s s i o n of r e v e r s e s a n d d i f f i c u l t i e s " (t^.^t&fZ&^AM-fck*tn  \t"  how h i s life has changed c o m p l e t e l y . exile.  22 ),  a n d g o e s on to r e v e a l  The once happy p r i n c e i s now an  H e m a k e s no a n n o u n c e m e n t of h i s d e p a r t u r e ,  a n d l e a v e s the c a p i t a l ,  the c e n t r e of h i s w o r l d , b y b o a t , w i t h o n l y s e v e n o r e i g h t t r u s t e d  retainers.  H i s d e s t i n a t i o n i s S u m a , f o r the H e i a n n o b l e s a s t r a n g e f a r a w a y l a n d . Suma his life undergoes a change.  In  He announces h i m s e l f as "a d i s c i p l e  of B u d d h a " a n d s p e n d s h i s t i m e c h a n t i n g s u t r a s . a n d e x o t i c c o m p a r e d to t h a t i n the c a p i t a l .  23  H i s house there i s strange  Its f e n c e i s " o f p l a i n t e d 24  b a m b o o a n d the p i l l a r s a r e of p i n e a n d the s t a i r s of s t o n e . " s e a s h o r e he l i v e s a s a d a n d q u i e t l i f e . strange and alien land.  O n the  He f e e l s that h i s e x i l e i s i n a  T h e p e o p l e , the c u s t o m s , a n d e v e n the n a t u r a l  e n v i r o n m e n t a r e a l l n e w to h i m : T h e b r i g h t , o p e n s e a s h o r e s h o w e d h i m to w o n d e r f u l advantage. The sea stretched p l a c i d into measurerless distances. H e t h o u g h t of a l l t h a t h a d h a p p e n e d to h i m , a n d a l l t h a t w a s s t i l l to c o m e . ^ § G e n j i h a s c o m e to t h i n k a b o u t l i f e a n d the w o r l d m o r e t h a n b e f o r e . i s h i s w o r s t o r d e a l , but i t g i v e s h i m a n o p p o r t u n i t y to r e f i n e h i s  Exile character.  -15L a t e r we d i s c o v e r t h a t h i s e x i l e i s a v e r y i m p o r t a n t s t a g e i n h i s l i f e . R a m a ' s case is also d r a m a t i c .  J u s t b e f o r e he i s c r o w n e d he i s  s u d d e n l y t o l d to go i n t o e x i l e b y Q u e e n K a i k e y i . banishment serenely.  R a m a p r e p a r e s for his  A l t h o u g h he i s s h o c k e d , he d o e s not s h o w i t :  W a l k i n g o n f o o t w i t h S i t a ( R a m a ' s . w i f e ) the t w o b r o t h e r s c o n v e r s i n g , r e a c h e d the M o u n t a i n C h i t r a k u t a , f r e q u e n t e d b y h e r d s of e l e p h a n t s a n d d e e r , r e n d e r e d m e l o d i o u s b y f l o c k s of b i r d s a n d a b o u n d i n g i n f r u i t a n d r o o t s . ^6 R a m a , his brother  ^ a k a h m a n a - ' a n d h i s wife S i t a , a l l c l o t h e d i n r o b e s of  b a r k , g o d e e p i n t o the f o r e s t a n d c r o s s the G a n g e s a n d the Y a m u n a r i v e r s . F i n a l l y t h e y b u i l d a hut on the M o u n t a i n C h i t r a k u t a .  Rama erects altars  i n the hut. T h e p l a c e s to w h i c h b o t h h e r o e s a r e e x i l e d a r e w i l d a r e a s w i t h f e w p e o p l e , but t h e r e a r e m a n y a n i m a l s a n d p l a n t s .  R a m a and Genji can  be c o n s i d e r e d to h a v e c o m e f r o m the u p p e r w o r l d to the p l a c e o f t h e i r exile, a lower world.  C o m p a r e d to the r e a l m of h u m a n s o c i e t y ,  where  t h e y u s e d to l i v e , the M o u n t a i n o f C h i t r a k u t a a n d the b a y of S u m a a r e w i l d and unchartered w i l d e r n e s s e s . N o r t h r o p F r y e m e n t i o n s t h e s e k i n d s of " p r i m a r y n a r r a t i v e m o v e m e n t s " i n l i t e r a t u r e i n The S e c u l a r S c r i p t u r e : F r o m the b e g i n n i n g the p o e t i c i m a g i n a t i o n h a s i n h a b i t e d a m i d d l e e a r t h . A b o v e i t i s the s k y w i t h w h a t e v e r i t r e v e a l s o r c o n c e a l s : b e l o w i t i s a m y s t e r i o u s p l a c e of b i r t h a n d d e a t h f r o m w h e n c e a n i m a l s a n d p l a n t s p r o c e e d , a n d to w h i c h they r e t u r n . There are therefore four p r i m a r y narrative movements in literature. These are first,  the d e s c e n t f r o m a h i g h e r w o r l d ; s e c o n d , the d e s c e n t to a l o w e r w o r l d ; t h i r d , the a s c e n t f r o m a l o w e r w o r l d ; a n d f o u r t h , the a s c e n t to a h i g h e r w o r l d . A l l s t o r i e s i n l i t e r a t u r e a r e c o m p l i c a t i o n s of, o r m e t a p h o r i c a l d e r i v a tions f r o m , these four n a r r a t i v e r a d i c a l s . T h e e x i l e of R a m a a n d G e n j i c a n be s e e n i n t e r m s of the s e c o n d m o v e m e n t , a d e s c e n t to a l o w e r w o r l d . L a k s h m a n a a c c o m p a n i e s his brother R a m a into e x i l e .  H i s best  friend and his devotee,  he l o v e s R a m a " a s h i s v e r y s e l f , he i s , a s i t  were, a second R a m a . "  28 "  figures,  F r y e p o i n t s out t h a t t w i n s , o r  are v e r y prominent i n descent  imagery.  Frye also mentions metamorphosis,  doppelganger  29  saying, " A n i m a l companions 3  are frequent i n descent themes,  a s p a r t o f the p a t t e r n of m e t a m o r p h o s i s . "  In t h i s c o n t e x t , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o t e t h a t R a m a a l l i e s h i m s e l f w i t h m o n k e y s a n d b e a r s to k i l l the d e m o n k i n g .  Animals are,  after a l l , a  n a t u r a l p a r t of t h a t l o w e r w o r l d to w h i c h the h e r o e s h a v e b e e n e x i l e d . In a l o w e r w o r l d the h e r o h a s to f a c e m a n y d i f f i c u l t i e s .  But an  i m p o r t a n t p o i n t of the d e s c e n t to a l o w e r w o r l d i s t h a t the h e r o o b t a i n s good fortune through his o r d e a l s . be f o r t u i t o u s i n the e n d .  H i s g r i e v o u s m i s f o r t u n e t u r n s out to  It i s i r o n i c t h a t w h e n the h e r o  experiences  e n d l e s s m i s f o r t u n e s he o b t a i n s h i s " t i c k e t " to the u p p e r w o r l d . L e t u s c o n s i d e r the c a s e of G e n j i . Suma,  A n extremely bad s t o r m hits  s o b a d t h a t the l i g h t n i n g , a n d t h u n d e r s e e m to a n n o u n c e the e n d  of the w o r l d .  Then, when a g a l l e r y adjoining G e n j i ' s r o o m is s t r u c k by  l i g h t n i n g , he i s f r i g h t e n e d a l m o s t out of h i s w i t s .  " T h e r e a r e no w o r d s - -  • l o n e l y a n d ' f o r l o n e ' s e e m m u c h t o o w e a k - - to d e s c r i b e h i s f e e l i n g s . 1  F u r t h e r m o r e , m y s t e r i o u s t h i n g s b e g i n to h a p p e n .  A n unknown m a n comes  t o h i m i n a d r e a m a n d t e l l s h i m t h a t the c o u r t s u m m o n s h i m . it  :mu3!t  *  Genji thinks  be the k i n g o f the s e a w h o t a k e s a f a n c y to h a n d s o m e m e n .  Finally,  i n a d r e a m he h a s a f t e r the s t o r m , h i s l a t e f a t h e r c o m e s to h i m a n d w a r m s h i m n o t to s t a y i n S u m a .  A f t e r a l l t h i s , G e n j i d e c i d e s t h a t he m u s t l e a v e . ^2  A s Ken A k i y a m a says,  " G e n j i shows his m y s t e r i o u s p o w e r by being  33 exiled . . . ",  the s a m e s t o r m h i t s the c i t y , a n d h i s l a t e f a t h e r h a s a l s o 34  appeared in Genji's elder brother's dram in i l l humor. b a d d r e a m a n d the s t o r m , G e n j i ' s b r o t h e r ,  the e m p e r o r ,  B e c a u s e of t h i s c o m e s to h a v e  sore  e y e s , a n d e v e n t u a l l y a l l o w s G e n j i to r e t u r n to the c i t y . T h u s , e v e r y t h i n g t h a t h a p p e n e d h e l p s G e n j i w i t h h i s r e t u r n to the city. a)  T h e s t o r m , the G o d of S u m i y o s h i , the o t h e r c o u n t l e s s G o d s ( / ' \ i 7j fyfy  ), H e a v e n ( ^ ) ,  the k i n g of the s e a (% i . ), a n d G e n j i ' s l a t e  father:  t h e s e t h i n g s c o m e up i n " S u m a " a n d " A k a s h i " w h i c h d e a l G e n j i ' s e x i l e . F i n a l l y , f o l l o w i n g the s u g g e s t i o n s of h i s f a t h e r ' s g h o s t , G e n j i d e c i d e s to 35 m o v e to the A k a s h i c o a s t .  T h e r e he m e e t s a y o u n g g i r l , the  o f a f o r m e r g o v e r n o r of H a r i m a ( B^'fJ'NJJL-) the m o t h e r of G e n j i ' s o n l y d a u g h t e r .  daughter  » w h o i s d e s t i n e d to b e c o m e  F o r Heian nobles, daughters  were  v e r y i m p o r t a n t , b e c a u s e t h r o u g h t h e m the f a t h e r m i g h t b e c o m e f a t h e r - i n l a w to a n E m p e r o r a n d t h u s g a i n a m e a s u r e o f c o n t r o l o v e r c o u r t p o l i t i c s .  -18When Genji learns  t h a t a d a u g h t e r h a s b e e n s a f e l y b o r n , he r e j o i c e s  a n d r e m e m b e r s w h a t t h e f o r t u n e t e l l e r h a d o n c e t o l d h i m : t h a t he w o u l d h a v e t h r e e c h i l d r e n , a n d two of t h e m w e r e  c e r t a i n to b e c o m e a n e m p e r o r a n d a n  36 empress.  F o r G e n j i the m o s t e x t r a v a g a n t h o p e s of the H e i a n n o b l e s  are  to c o m e t r u e . N o w l e t u s l o o k at R a m a .  H e f a l l s i n t o the d e p t h of d e s p a i r w h e n he  b e c o m e s i n f o r m e d of S i t a ' s d i s a p p e a r a n c e .  T h i s i s one of the r a r e  occasions  i n w h i c h he s h o w s e m o t i o n : T h e r e i s n o n e i n the w o r l d I d e e m m o r e w r e t c h e d t h a n I; misfortune after misfortune follow each other i n u n i n t e r rupted s u c c e s s i o n ; it is b r e a k i n g m y heart. S u r e l y , f o r m e r l y I either designed or executed innumerable evil acts and now t h e i r f r u i t has m a t u r e d and g r e a t e r and g r e a t e r c a l a m i t i e s b e s e t m e ! T h e l o s s of m y k i n g d o m , s e p a r a t i o n f r o m m y r e l a t i v e s , the p a r t i n g f r o m m y m o t h e r , the r e m e m b r a n c e of t h e s e t h i n g s a d d to the s u m of m i n e u n h a p p i n e s s . ^7 R a m a , w h o s h o w e d no s i g n of d i s t r e s s e v e n w h e n he k n e w he w a s to be e x i l e d , despairs in this way.  Uncontrollable anger strikes h i m .  He t e l l s L a k s h m a n a ,  O L a k s h m a n a , m y v i r t u e s s h a l l be o v e r s h a d o w e d t o d a y , a s t h o u s h a l t s o o n w i t n e s s , a n d m y w r a t h be m a n i f e s t i n the d e s t r u c t i o n of the d e m o n s a n d a l l c r e a t e d b e i n g s . T h u s R a m a ' s w r a t h l e a d s h i m to the s l a y i n g of R a v a n a . The G o d s help R a m a as m u c h as p o s s i b l e . a charioteer,  They lend h i m a chariot,  a n d I n d r a ' s b o w w h e n he e n g a g e s i n the f i g h t w i t h R a v a n a .  T h u s R a m a a c c o m p l i s h e s h i s a i m w i t h a i d f r o m the u p p e r w o r l d .  B u t the  relationship between an upper w o r l d and a l o w e r w o r l d i n The R a m a y a n a i s m o r e d y n a m i c t h a n t h a t of the G e n j i .  H e r e we h a v e to r e m e m b e r  the  -19-  f a c t t h a t the G o d s c r e a t e d the d w e l l e r s i n the w o o d s to a s s i s t R a m a . could say R a m a ' s exile is a planned action. i s r e v e a l e d b y s o m e of the  T h i s p l a n of the u p p e r  We world  characters.  B h a r a t a d e c i d e s to a s k h i s b r o t h e r , a n d b e c o m e k i n g i n s t e a d of h i m .  R a m a , to r e t u r n to the c i t y  O n h i s w a y to R a m a ' s p l a c e of e x i l e ,  he i s e n t e r t a i n e d b y the g r e a t R i s h i ,  Bharadvja.  He t e l l s B h a r a t a ,  O . B h a r a t a , thou shouldst not r e p r o a c h K a i k e y i ; R a m a ' s e x i l e w i l l p r o v e a s o u r c e of g r e a t g o o d to the G o d s , the D a n a v a s a n d the p u r e - s o u l e d R i s h i s h e r e . Charioteer Sumantra also tells Rama, O h e r o , o f f s p r i n g of R a g h u R a c e , t h i n e e x i l e i n the f o r e s t w i t h V a i d e h i a n d thy b r o t h e r w i l l e a r n thee a d e s t i n y e q u a l to v i c t o r y o v e r the T h r e e W o r l d . ^ In T h e R a m a y a n a a n d T h e T a l e of G e n j i , pattern: why  exile brings good fortune.  t h e n , w e s e e the  H o w e v e r , one m a y r a i s e  same  questions:  i s the h e r o e s ' s e x i l e n e c e s s a r y f o r the w o r k i n g out o f t h e i r d e s t i n i e s ?  W h y a r e the t h e m e s of d e s c e n t a n d a s c e n t  important?  T o a n s w e r t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , w e h a v e to d i s c u s s the c a u s e of the e x i l e . R a m a ' s e x i l e i s c a u s e d b y t w o b o o n s g i v e n to h i s s t e p m o t h e r ,  Queen Keikeyi.  T h e y a r e g r a n t e d b y K i n g D a s a r a t h a b e c a u s e she s a v e d h i s l i f e w h e n the k i n g w a s s e r i o u s l y w o u n d e d d u r i n g t h e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n the G o d s a n d the A s u r a s . The  Q u e e n d e m a n d s the e n t h r o n e m e n t  of h e r s o n , B h a r a t a , a n d R a m a ' s  b a n i s h m e n t f o r the p e r i o d of f o u r t e e n y e a r s .  Q u e e n K e i k e y i u s e d to be a  -20g o o d m o t h e r to R a m a , a n d , at f i r s t , become king.  she i s v e r y p l e a s e d to k n o w he w o u l d  It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to s e e h o w the Q u e e n h a s h e r m i n d c h a n g e d 41  by the s u g g e s t i o n of M a n t h a r a .  F o r the Q u e e n i s o n l y a w o m a n w h o  w a n t e d h e r o w n s o n to b e c o m e a k i n g . The K i n g , D a s a r a t h a , mind.  l i s t e n i n g to the Q u e e n ' s d e m a n d ,  loses his  T h e s c e n e s d e s c r i b i n g h o w R a m a ' s e x i l e i s a c c e d e d to b y h i s  f a t h e r u n d e r p r e s s u r e of the Q u e e n a r e f u l l of p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o m p l i c a t i o n s . G r o a n i n g , the K i n g , l i k e u n t o one w i t h o u t s u p p o r t , w h o s e h e a r t had been e n s l a v e d by that w o m a n b e y o n d a l l m e a s u r e , f e l l d o w n b e f o r e the Q u e e n , w h o s t o o d at a d i s t a n c e , s o t h a t he c o u l d not t o u c h h e r f e e t ; a n d he a p p e a r e d l i k e one w h o h a s l o s t h i s w i t s . 42 It i s t r u e t h a t the k i n g h a d to be f a i t h f u l to h i s w o r d s . a n d r e p e a t e d l y s a i d t h a t l o y a l t y to o n e ' s f a t h e r ' s  Also,  R a m a knew  w o r d s is a r i g i d duty.  B u t w e h a v e to n o t e w h a t R a m a s a i d to L a k s h m a n a : O S o n of S u m i t r a , i t i s d e s t i n y one s h o u l d r e c o g n i z e i n m y b a n i s h m e n t a n d l a t e r i n m y r e g a i n i n g of a l o s t k i n g om. Man's passions sometimes drive h i m unreasonably. he c a n n o t h e l p i t .  E v e n i f he k n o w s i t  A f t e r a l l , that i s d e s t i n y .  T o m a k e t h i s m a t t e r c l e a r e r w e s h a l l e x a m i n e the p r o b l e m c o n c e r n i n g the c a u s e o f G e n j i ' s e x i l e . any p r e c i s e causes for his e x i l e .  T h e T a l e o f G e n j i d o e s not m e n t i o n It i s p a r t l y b e c a u s e T h e T a l e of G e n j i  i s a c o u r t l y l o v e s t o r y t h a t m o s t of the s c e n e s t h a t a r e d e s c r i b e d a r e t h o s e of G e n j i ' s p r i v a t e l i f e ,  and l i k e w i s e his official life is generally only hinted  at t h r o u g h o u t m o s t of the t a l e .  L a d y M u r a s a k i t e n d s to r e v e a l l i t t l e w h e n  i t c o m e s to v e r y i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r s . one t h i n g , h o w e v e r ,  is clear:  F r o m s t u d i e s by. J a p a n e s e  scholars,  G e n j i ' s e x i l e h a s s o m e t h i n g to do w i t h h i s  secret love affair with his stepmother,  Fujitsubo. ^  They had a son,  p r i n c e R e i z e i , w h o g r e w up a s G e n j i ' s y o u n g e r b r o t h e r .  To secure  R e i z e i ' s f u t u r e e n t h r o n e m e n t , G e n j i h a d to be e x i l e d to S u m a . one u n a n i m o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s e x i l e .  In " S u m a " G e n j i  This is  muses,  I c a n t h i n k of a s i n g l e o f f e n c e f o r w h i c h I m u s t u n d e r g o s t r a n g e , s a d p u n i s h m e n t , a n d b e c a u s e of i t I t r e m b l e b e f o r e the h e a v e n . T h o u g h I w o u l d n o t c a r e i n the l e a s t i f m y o w n u n w o r t h y s e l f w e r e to v a n i s h a w a y , I o n l y hope t h a t the c r o w n p r i n c e ' s r e i g n i s w i t h o u t u n h a p p y AC.  event. H o w e v e r , one h a s to c o n s i d e r the d i f f i c u l t y of w h e t h e r G e n j i ' s s t e p m o t h e r , K o k i d e n , k n e w that R e i z e i w a s G e n j i ' s s o n .  N o , she d i d n o t .  V e r y few  p e o p l e k n e w of i t . G e n j i ' s l o v e a f f a i r w i t h O b o r o z u k i y o a n d the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n of that t i m e c o u l d a l s o , i n p a r t e x p l a i n G e n j i ' s e x i l e .  A b e , who studied  G e n j i i n e x i l e i n his book, G e n j i m o n o g a t a r i k e n k y u j o s e t s u , the c a u s e of G e n j i ' s e x i l e f r o m a l l p o s s i b l e a s p e c t s : l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n , a n d so on. of o l d t a l e s c a l l e d , " ing).  ^f£  examined  politics, history,  T h e n he c o n c l u d e d b y p o i n t i n g out a m o t i f ?fL  jpjjj  "  (Exile returning and  succeed-  -22W e h a v e to c o n c l u d e t h a t the a n s w e r to the q u e s t i o n w h y G e n j i l e f t the c i t y a n d w e n t to S u m a c a n n o t be f o u n d a n y w h e r e e l s e b u t , t h a t the a u t h o r p l a n n e d to c o n s t r u c t the s t o r i e s of S u m a a n d A k a s h i a c c o r d i n g to the p l a n , " ;lL$f ify "» § we c a n n o t g e t a n y r e a s o n a b l e a n s w e r s . 46 a  s  l  o  n  a  s  W e f i n d the s a m e m o t i f i n o l d J a p a n e s e t a l e s b e g i n n i n g w i t h the K o g i k i a n d the N i h o n S h o k i .  T o s h i k a g e ' s s t o r y of U t s u b o m o n o g a t a r i  a n d N a r i h i r a ' s t r i p to the e a s t of I s e m o n o g a t a r i a r e e x a m p l e s . a l s o see t h i s m o t i f i n w e s t e r n l i t e r a t u r e .  We can  The exile r e t u r n i n g and s u c -  ceeding is a dominant m o t i f i n a h e r o ' s a c c o m p l i s h i n g his goal in spite of g r e a t d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  and then l i v i n g a happy l i f e .  T h i s m o t i f i s s a i d to o r i g i n a t e f r o m the r i t e o f p a s s a g e  A £\> ).  In t h i s r i t e , a p e r s o n i s g i v e n a p r o p h e c y b y h i s f o r e f a t h e r . larly,  i n the m o t i f , e x i l e ,  r e t u r n i n g , a n d s u c c e e d i n g , the h e r o i s r e l i e v e d  f r o m his o r d e a l by m e e t i n g his dead a n c e s t o r , of R a m a a n d G e n j i a p p e a r e d to t h e m .  j u s t a s the d e c e a s e d  L e t u s l o o k at t h e s e  A f t e r R a m a k i l l e d R a v a n a , his late father,  King Dasaratha,  F a r f r o m t h e e I do not p r i z e the h e a v e n i n w h i c h I d w e l l w i t h the G o d s , O R a m a , t h i s i s the t r u t h ! O M o s t E l o q u e n t of M e n , the w o r d s a d d r e s s e d to m e b y K a i k e y i , w h i c h w e r e d e s i g n e d to e f f e c t t h y b a n i s h m e n t , h a v e n e v e r b e e n e r a s e d f r o m m i n e h e a r t ! E m b r a c i n g theee and L a k s h m a n a and b e h o l d i n g thee w e l l and happy, I a m d e l i v e r e d f r o m m i n e a f f i l i c t i o n a s the s u n w h e n the m i s t h a s b e e n d i s pelled. T h e n he a d d e d :  8  fathers  scenes.  p e a r e d standing i n his a e r i a l c a r , and said:  4  Simi-  ap-  -23T h e t e r m of t h i n e e x i l e i s o v e r , t h y v o w s h o n o u r e d , a n d f u r t h e r , b y s l a y i n g R a v a n a on the b a t t l e f i e l d , t h o u h a s t g r a t i f i e d the G o d s . T h y t a s k i s a c c o m p l i s h e d ; t h o u h a s t w o n i n f i n i t e r e n o u n , O s l a y e r of T h y F o e s ; n o w , i n s t a l l e d as k i n g , m a y s t thou w i t h thy brothers, l i v e for a long t i m e ! ^ The appearance  o f the l a t e f a t h e r l e a d s the h e r o to a n e w w o r l d .  and success are now waiting for h i m .  Also,  R a m a ' s father h i m s e l f is saved f r o m anxiety.  Return  i n t h i s s c e n e , w e note t h a t Before his appearance  to  R a m a , K i n g D a s a r a t h a h a s not e n j o y e d h i s l i f e i n h e a v e n . T u r n i n g to G e n j i ' s m e e t i n g w i t h h i s f a t h e r , ' w e f i n d t h a t the h o w l i n g tempest attacks Suma, and finally lightning struck G e n j i ' s r o o m s .  He is  t h e n m o v e d to a b u i l d i n g a t the b a c k , a k i t c h e n o r s o m e t h i n g of t h a t s o r t , w h e r e he i s c r o w d e d t o g e t h e r w i t h m a n y p e o p l e w h o m he d o e s n o t u s u a l l y see or speak to.  A f t e r the c o n f u s i o n t h a t a l m o s t d r o v e e v e r y o n e  G e n j i i s e x h a u s t e d a n d d o z e s off. to h i m .  In h i s d r e a m h i s l a t e f a t h e r  This d r e a m eventually brings h i m happiness again.  f a t h e r a l s o a p p e a r s i n the e m p e n o r ' s emperor,  Genji's elder brother,  his father's  appears Genji's  d r e a m a n d s t a r e s at h i m .  is o b s e s s e d by this bad d r e a m .  h i s i l l n e s s he d e c i d e s to a l l o w G e n j i to r e t u r n to the c a p i t a l .  made,  The After  Also,  at  s u g g e s t i o n , G e n j i m o v e s to A k a s h i , m e e t s a g i r l , a n d b e c o m e s  the f a t h e r o f the f u t u r e e m p r e s s .  A g a i n w e f i n d the s a m e p a t t e r n a s we  d i d i n the s t o r y of R a m a .  T h e l a t e f a t h e r s a r e f r o m the o t h e r w o r l d a n d  a r e s u b j e c t to t h a t w o r l d .  T h e h e r o e s go t h r o u g h a n o r d e a l at the r i s k of  t h e i r l i v e s , after w h i c h their late fathers appear and announce t h e i r to the w o r l d .  return  -24T o s u p p o r t m y c o n t e n t i o n , I w o u l d l i k e to quote the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s d e s c r i b i n g G e n j i ' s d r e a m and his father's p a r t i n it: T h e o l d e m p e r o r c a m e to h i m , q u i t e a s w h e n he h a d l i v e d . " A n d why a r e you i n this w r e t c h e d p l a c e ? " He took G e n j i ' s h a n d a n d p u l l e d h i m to h i s f e e t . " Y o u m u s t do a s the g o d of S u m i y o s h i t e l l s y o u . Y o u m u s t p u t out to s e a i m m e d i a t e l y . You must leave this shore behind. " "Since I last saw you, s i r , " said Genji,. overjoyed, "I h a v e s u f f e r e d a n u n b r o k e n s e r i e s o f m i s f o r t u n e s . I h a d t h o u g h t o f t h r o w i n g m y s e l f i n t o the s e a . " " T h a t y o u m u s t not do. Y o u a r e u n d e r g o i n g b r i e f p u n i s h m e n t for c e r t a i n s i n s . I m y s e l f d i d not c o m m i t any c o n s c i o u s c r i m e s w h i l e I r e i g n e d , but a p e r s o n i s g u i l t y of t r a n s g r e s s i o n s a n d o v e r s i g h t s w i t h o u t h i s b e i n g a w a r e o f t h e m . I a m d o i n g p e n a n c e a n d h a v e no t i m e t o l o o k back t o w a r d s this w o r l d . B u t an echo of y o u r t r o u b l e s c a m e to m e a n d I c o u l d not s t a n d i d l e . I f o u g h t m y w a y t h r o u g h the s e a a n d up to t h i s s h o r e a n d I a m v e r y t i r e d ; b u t n o w t h a t I a m h e r e I m u s t s e e to a m a t t e r i n the c i t y , " A n d he d i s a p p e a r e d . ^ ° T h u s f a r w e h a v e s e e n h o w the s t o r i e s of the h e r o e s ' s f o l l o w the m o t i f o f the e x i l e r e t u r n i n g a n d s u c c e e d i n g . the m o t i f i s d o m i n a n t i n b o t h s t o r i e s .  exiles  It i s c l e a r t h a t  B u t I w o u l d l i k e f u r t h e r to p o i n t  out t h a t b o t h s t o r i e s a r e m o r e t h a n m e r e m o d e l p a t t e r n s of the m o t i f . I s h a l l suggest two points for this d i s c u s s i o n .  T h e f i r s t p o i n t i s the n a t u r e  of e x i l e , a n d the s e c o n d i s t h a t n e i t h e r of the s t o r i e s e n d s w i t h a n a c c o u n t o f the h e r o e s ' s r e t u r n a n d s u c c e s s .  T h e s e a r g u m e n t s w i l l b e c o m e the  m a i n f o c u s of the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r of t h i s t h e s i s .  I n the p r e s e n t  chapter,  h o w e v e r , I w o u l d l i k e to p a y a t t e n t i o n to the l a t e r s t o r i e s o f the e v e n t s b e f a l l i n g the h e r o e s a f t e r t h e i r r e t u r n f r o m  exile.  -25W e c a n c o m e to u n d e r s t a n d the h e a r t o f the c u l t u r e s b y c o n s i d e r i n g the c a u s e s of the h e r o e s ' s e x i l e s . F o r G e n j i it i s "fate"  F o r R a m a , i t i s " D h a r m a " ( t]  i * ) a s u n d e r s t o o d b y the B u d d h i s t s .  * ). These  c o n c e p t s a r e e s s e n t i a l p a r t s o f e a c h o f the r e s p e c t i v e c u l t u r e s .  Rama  d e c i d e d to d w e l l i n the f o r e s t to f o l l o w h i s f a t h e r ' s w o r d s ; he i s f a i t h f u l to h i s f a t h e r ' s w o r d s b e c a u s e i t i s D h a r m a .  K n g D a s a r a t h a h a d to f o l l o w  t h e c r u e l r e q u e s t of Q u e e n K e i k e y i b e c a u s e he h a d g r a n t e d h e r t w o b o o n s , a n d he c o u l d n o t v i o l a t e h i s p r o m i s e .  In I n d i a n t h o u g h t , m a n c a n c o n t r i b u t e  to the m a i n t e n a n c e of t h e c o s m i c o r d e r b y a n a b s o l u t e f i d e l i t y to the s o l e m n 51 word.  R a m a , o n s o m e o c c a s i o n s , m e n t i o n s the d e s t i n y o f h u m a n b e i n g s .  B u t w h a t m a d e h i s e x i l e p o s s i b l e i n the s t o r y i s the c o n c e p t o f D h a r m a - the h i g h e s t a i m o f a m a n . W h e n we think about G e n j i ' s e x i l e , we n o t i c e that a d a r k shadow c o v e r s the s t o r y . f e a r s one t h i n g :  G e n j i o f t e n c l a i m s t h a t he i s i n n o c e n t , but a l w a y s he his sinful love for his stepmother,  i s g r o w i n g up a s G e n j i ' s f a t h e r ' s  son.  Fujitsubo.  T h e i r son  This obsession becomes a funda• 52  m e n t a l m o t i v a t i o n o f h i s r e t i r e m e n t to the s e a s h o r e .  I n the  strictest  s e n s e o f the t e r m , w e m a y not c a l l h i s r e t i r e m e n t to S u m a e x i l e , T h e T a l e o f G e n j i d o e s not s a y a n y t h i n g c l e a r l y a b o u t the s u b j e c t .  because But,  i t s e e m s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t G e n j i h a s d e c i d e d to l e a v e the c a p i t a l b e f o r e t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n i s m a d e at c o u r t . H o w e v e r t h a t m a y b e , G e n j i i s l i v i n g i n f e a r o f the  consequences  of h i s s i n f u l a c t .  In J a p a n e s e thought,  such a sinful act a r i s e s as a r e s u l t  of d e e d s i n a p a s t l i f e , a n d i s t h e r e f o r e u n a v o i d a b l e a s l o n g a s the  succession  53 of h u m a n i n c a r n a t i o n s  continues.  In m a n y s t o r i e s f o l l o w i n g the m o t i f o f the e x i l e w h o r e t u r n s a n d s u c ceeds, power.  the c a u s e s of e x i l e a r e e x t e r n a l , a n d a l w a y s f o r c e d b y s o m e  outside  H o w e v e r , i n The R a m a y a n a a n d The T a l e of G e n j i ; we c a n see i n -  t e r n a l c a u s e s as w e l l as e x t e r n a l ones. a n e v o l u t i o n i n the g e n r e .  We can i n t e r p r e t this aspect as  T h i s i s p r o b a b l y one r e a s o n p e o p l e h b l d b o t h  works in high regard. So f a r , the d i s c u s s i o n h a s c e n t e r e d o n the t w o h e r o e s ' s e x i l e . T o c l a r i f y the p a r a l l e l e l e m e n t s i n b o t h c a s e s , thV.tabJe- o n p a g e 2 7 .  i t i s u s e f u l to c o n s i d e r  -27-  RAMA  GENJI  (cause) stepmother's intrigue and  stepmother's intrigue and  concept of D h a r m a (  c o n c e p t o f fate ( ^  i * )  (^exiled p l a c e ) mountains abound with  seashore,  remote,  exotic  a n i m a l s and plants (ordeal) S i t a ' s a b d u c t i o n a n d the  storm  war with Ravana ("aids) the G o d o f S u m i y o s h i  B r a h m a a n d the G o d s  the o t h e r c o u n t l e s s G o d s the K n g o f the s e a the g h o s t o f the e m p e r o r ( a p p e a r a n c e of f o r e f a t h e r ) the l a t e e m p e r o r  King Dasaratha (fortune) d e s t r u c t i o n o f the d e m o n s  m a r r i a g e a n d the b i r t h o f a daughter  -28B.  THE MOTIF OF THE EXILE RETURNING AND SUCCEEDING T o m a k e the p o i n t o f o u r d i s c u s s i o n c l e a r e r ,  I shall introduce  the  s t o r y of T o s h i k a g e i n The T a l e of U t s u b o ( T o s h i k a g e ' s s t o r y a l s o f o l l o w s the s a m e m o t i f ) .  T h e T a l e of U t s u b o i s s a i d to date f r o m the m i d d l e o f  the t e n t h c e n t u r y ,  a p p r o x i m a t e l y one h u n d r e d a n d f i f t y y e a r s b e f o r e  the  Genji was written. T h i s t a l e i s the l o n g e s t l i t e r a r y w o r k w r i t t e n b e f o r e the  Genji.  Its m a i n s t o r y i s a b o u t a k o t o (a k i n d o f h a r p o r z i t h e r ) b e l o n g i n g to T o s h i k a g e K i y o h a r a , w h o s e i n s t r u m e n t a n d s k i l l a r e h a n d e d d o w n to h i s daughter and grandson.  In p a r t , the m a i n p l o t i s a b o u t the c o u r t s h i p o f  beautiful P r i n c e s s A t e .  A c t u a l l y , t h i s w o r k f o c u s e s o n the r o l e of a r t  in life,  a n d the a u t h o r t r i e s to c o n v e y the g l o r y o f m u s i c a n d i t s s u p r e m e  value in life. T h e f i r s t " m a i n c h a r a c t e r we m e e t i n t h i s t a l e ,  Toshikage,  d i v i n e k o t o s i n a r e m o t e l a n d a n d l e a r n s k o t o m u s i c f r o m the beings there.  obtains  heavenly  T h u s , T o s h i k a g e ' s s t o r y b e l o n g s t o the m o t i f of the e x i l e  returning and succeeding. The T a l e of U t s u b o b e g i n s by t e l l i n g a f a n t a s t i c a l s t o r y w h i c h i s v e r y b r i e f , t a k i n g up o n l y a l i t t l e m o r e t h a n t w e n t y p a g e s i n the N i h o n R>ten T a i k e i t e x t . an only son.  L o r d )Kiyohara and his wife, who is a p r i n c e s s ,  have  W h e n t h e i r s o n , T o s h i k a g e , i s s t i l l v e r y y o u n g , he i s s o  -29o u t s t a n d i n g i n h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e t h a t the e m p e r o r r e q u e s t s the p r o m i n e n t  scholars  54 of t h a t a g e to e x a m i n e h i s k n o w l e d g e .  Toshikage p a s s e s those difficult  a m i n a t i o n s i n Chinese without any difficulty.  ex-  It i s i m p o s s i b l e to f i n d a n y o n e  to r i v a l h i m i n i n t e l l i g e n c e and p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s .  His parents love  h i m v e r y m u c h , but w h e n he r e a c h e s the a g e o f s i x t e e n , " he i s a p p o i n t e d a s a n e n v o y to C h i n a .  B e c a u s e o f the g r e a t d a n g e r i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s o r t o f 55  t r i p i n those days, his parents are g r i e f s t r i c k e n .  The three Japanese  e n v o y s h i p s a r e h i t b y a g a l e ' o n t h e i r w a y to C h i n a , w h i c h s h i p w r e c k s t w o of t h e m .  B u t , T o s h i k a g e ' s s h i p i s d r i v e n a w a y a n d onto the s e a s h o r e of  H a s h i (probably a country situated near C h i n a , w h i c h some s c h o l a r s identify 56 w i t h one o f the S o u t h S e a i s l a n d s , o r even" P e r s i a ) . -  F r o m the  seashore,  a w h i t e h o r s e t a k e s h i m i n t o the g r o v e o f a f a i r y l a n d , w h e r e he m e e t s t h r e e p e o p l e p l a y i n g the k o t o , a n d w i t h w h o m he s t u d i e s u n t i l he h a s l e a r n e d a l l of t h e i r m u s i c .  T h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r he h e a r s the s o u n d .  In the t h i r d  y e a r he r e a c h e s a p l a c e w h e r e a n A s u r a ( S a n s k r i t , a d e m o n u s u a l l y l i v i n g i n the sea) i s c u t t i n g d o w n a huge d i v i n e t r e e .  When Toshikage asks h i m  i f he c o u l d h a v e a p i e c e of w o o d to m a k e a k o t o , the A s u r a b e c o m e s and a l m o s t eats h i m .  angry,  B u t , T o s h i k a g e i s s a v e d by a d i v i n e c h i l d , w i t h a 57  m e s s a g e on a golden c a r d f r o m heaven,  r i d i n g on a d r a g o n .  Toshikage  t h e n o b t a i n s t h r e e k o t o s f r o m the A s u r a , a n d r e s u m e s h i s j o u r n e y to t h e west.  In the t h i r d y e a r he s e e s a h e a v e n l y m a i d d e s c e n d i n g f r o m the s k y .  -30-. She n a m e s h i s b e s t t w o k o t o s ,  " N a n h u " (the s o u t h w i n d ) , a n d " H a s h i h u "  (the w i n d o f H a s h i ) , a n d s u g g e s t s t h a t he go to s e e h e r s e v e n c h i l d r e n l i v i n g to the w e s t .  T h i s p l a c e i s d e s c r i b e d a s b e i n g e a s t of I n d i a , a n d  l e a r n m o r e about koto m u s i c t h e r e .  T o s h i k a g e a g a i n g o e s t o w a r d the  w e s t and m e e t s s e v e n people l i v i n g on s e v e n m o u n t a i n s .  They play  T o s h i k a g e ' s k o t o s a n d the s o u n d r e a c h e s the c o u n t r y o f B u d d h a . B u d d h a t h e r e u p o n a p p e a r s i n front of T o s h i k a g e and the  seven  p e o p l e , t e l l i n g t h e m of t h e i r f o r m e r l i v e s a n d p r e d i c t i n g t h a t one o f the s e v e n p e o p l e w i l l be b o r n a s T o s h i k a g e ' s d e s c e n d a n t .  ^  T o s h i k a g e t h e n r e t u r n s to J a p a n a f t e r t w e n t y - t h r e e a n d i n f o r m s the. e m p e r o r of h i s j o u r n e y . emperor grants h i m a high rank.  years  absence  I m p r e s s e d by his s t o r y ,  the  Toshikage then m a r r i e s a noble lady,  a n d h a s a d a u g h t e r to w h o m he t e a c h e s h i s k o t o m u s i c .  W h e n e v e r he p l a y s  59 his koto, m i r a c l e s take p l a c e .  When his daughter turns fifteen,  he  b e c o m e s i l l , but b e f o r e he d i e s , he g i v e s h e r the t w o k o t o s n a m e d b y the heavenly m a i d .  T o s h i k a g e ' s s t o r y ends i n this w a y .  T h e m a t e r i a l s of t h i s s t o r y m a y h a v e b e e n p i c k e d up f r o m t h o s e p a r t s of the B u d d h i s t c a n o n d e s c r i b i n g the w o r l d o f . . h e a v e n l y b e i n g s a n d remote imaginary lands.  B u t i f w e l o o k at t h i s s t o r y m o r e c l o s e l y , w e  w i l l n o t i c e t h a t i t f o l l o w s the s a m e m o t i f a s T h e R a m a y a n a a n d T h e T a l e of G e n j i .  T h e g o l d e n m e s s a g e c a r d b r o u g h t b y the d i v i n e c h i l d t o l d  T o s h i k a g e t h a t he w o u l d be r e b o r n i n the f u t u r e a s a d e s c e n d a n t  of the  heavenly maiden.  It w a s a l s o p r e d i c t e d t h a t one o f h e r s e v e n c h i l d r e n  would become Toshikage's grandchild.  In o t h e r w o r d s , the h e a v e n l y m a i d  a n d the s e v e n p e o p l e w h o m T o s h i k a g e m e t i n the l a t t e r p a r t of h i s j o u r n e y t a k e the s a m e r o l e s a s t h a t o f G e n j i ' s l a t e f a t h e r a n d K i n g D a s a r a t h a .  ^  T h r o u g h h i s j o u r n e y T o s h i k a g e o b t a i n s the d i v i n e k o t o s a n d l e a r n s koto m u s i c , w h i c h brings h i m and his progeny great fortune. c h a p t e r of t h i s t a l e w e a r e t o l d t h a t i n h i s n e w l y b u i l t t o w e r  In the l a s t Toshikage's  g r a n d s o n N a k a t a d a t e a c h e s h i s d a u g h t e r I n u m i y a the k o t o m u s i c w h i c h has been handed down f r o m T o s h i k a g e .  One y e a r l a t e r ,  o n the l a s t d a y  of the i n s t r u c t i o n , a l l the p e o p l e , i n c l u d i n g the e m p e r o r a n d the g a t h e r a r o u n d the t o w e r .  There,  empress,  c o u n t l e s s n u m b e r s of p e o p l e a r e a l l  s t r u c k w i t h a d m i r a t i o n at the d i v i n e k o t o m u s i c .  The tale ends by stating  t h a t the w o r l d s e e m e d t o b e c o m e a p a r a d i s e b e c a u s e of the d i v i n e m u s i c . I w o u l d l i k e to p o i n t out t h a t the m a i n i d e a of T h e T a l e o f U t s u b o i s s e t up i n the s t o r y o f T o s h i k a g e .  A l l the g l o r y a n d the m i r a c u l o u s  p h e n o m e n a a r e m a d e p o s s i b l e b y the e f f o r t w h i c h T o s h i k a g e h a d e x e r t e d d u r i n g h i s j o u r n e y t o the w e s t .  T h u s the G e n j i a n d T h e R a m a y a n a a r e n o t  u n u s u a l i n d e a l i n g w i t h the t h e m e o f the h e r o w h o i s s u f f e r i n g . n u m e r o u s other w o r k s on this  There  are  subject.  B e c a u s e the m o t i f of the e x i l e r e t u r n i n g a n d s u c c e e d i n g i s a l s o dominant in many Indian l i t e r a r y stories, s t o r i e s that i l l u s t r a t e this m o t i f .  I w i l l next d i s c u s s two Indian  O n e i s the g r e a t I n d i a n e p i c ,  The  =32M a h a b h a r a t a , a n d the o t h e r i s the s t o r y o f K r i s h n a ,  The Bhagavana P u r a n a .  T h e M a h a b h a r a t a * s m a i n s t o r y b e g i n s b y t e l l i n g of the o r i g i n o f the P a n d a v a s a n d the K a u r a v a s , Kingdom.  K i n g D h r t a r a s t r a r e s t o r e s the P a n d a v a s  T h e P a n d a v a s a r e t h e n c h a l l e n g e d b y the K a u r a v a s to a g a m b l i n g  m a t c h w i t h the p r o v i s i o n t h a t the l o s e r s s h o u l d s p e n d t w e l v e y e a r s i n e x i l e i n the f o r e s t ,  a n d the t h i r t e e n t h y e a r i n c o g n i t o .  Y u d h i s t h i r a o f the  P a n d a v a s . , w h o i s w e a k i n g a m b l i n g l o s e s the m a t c h a n d g o e s to the f o r e s t with his brothers and his wife, D r a u p a d i .  A f t e r h a v i n g s p e n t the s t i p u l a t e d  p e r i o d i n e x i l e , the P a n d a v a s r e t u r n t o r e c l a i m t h e i r k i n g d o m f r o m the K a u r a v a s who refuse. a n d the K a u r a v a s .  T h i s f i n a l l y s t a r t s the w a r b e t w e e n the P a n d a v a s  The fighting w h i c h lasts eighteen days, takes place  o n the h i s t o r i c p l a i n o f K u r a k s e t r a . P a n d a v a s s u c c e e d to the k i n g d o m . then finally regain their p r o s p e r i t y .  T h e K a u r a v a s a r e a l l k i l l e d a n d the The exiled and v i c t o r i o u s Pandavas When Yudhisthira finishes ruling  h i s k i n g d o m , he p r o c e e d s to the H i m a l a y a M o u n t a i n s a n d e n t e r s h e a v e n w h e r e the P a n d a v a s a n d the K a u r a v a s a r e f i n a l l y r e c o n c i l e d . W e c a n a l s o see the s a m e m o t i f i n the s t o r y o f the s u p r e m e G o d = head K r i s h n a .  K r i s h n a o n c e s p e n t p a r t of h i s l i f e i n e x i l e .  He l i v e d among  c o w h e r d s a p a r t f r o m h i s p a r e n t s a n d r e t u r n e d to c o u r t o n l y a f t e r a c c o m p l i s h i n g h i s g o a l o f k i l l i n g the d e m o n k i n g . ^1 S o m e f i f t y y e a r s o r m o r e b e f o r e the b a t t l e b e t w e e n the P a n d a v a s a n d the K a u r a v a s , Q u e e n P a v a n a r i k a o f the Y a d a v a s g i v e s b i r t h to a d e m o n  son n a m e d K a n s a .  B o t h the n u m b e r a n d a t r o c i o u s n e s s o f h i s c r i m e s  w h i l e he c o n q u e r s the n i n e d i v i s i o n s of t h e e a r t h . the G o d s .  increase,  A t l a s t E a r t h appeals to  T h e r e f o r e V i s h n u h i m s e l f p l u c k s one b l a c k a n d one w h i t e h a i r  out of h i s h e a d .  T h e b l a c k h a i r b e c o m e s the e i g h t h c h i l d of D e v a k i ,  of K i n g U g r a s e n a of the Y a d a v a s .  niece  T h e w h i t e h a i r b e c o m e s B a l a r a m a , the  62 s e v e n t h s o n of D e v a k i .  The eighth son, Krishna, is b o r n i n a v e r y danger-  o u s s i t u a t i o n , f o r K a n s a i s w a i t i n g to k i l l h i m . parents,  K a n s a h e a r d the v o i c e f r o m h e a v e n s a y i n g t h a t the e i g h t h s o n o f  D e v a k i would cause his destruction.  s e t s out f o r G o k u l a , his  A t the w e d d i n g of K r i s h n a ' s  In o r d e r to s a v e K r i s h n a , 63  c a r r y i n g the b a b y a c r o s s a r i v e r .  Vasudeva  Krishna,  with  b r o t h e r B a l a r a m a , a r e r a i s e d by h i s f o s t e r p a r e n t s N a n d a a n d h i s wife  Yasoda. K r i s h n a g r o w s up a s a s o n o f a c o w h e r d , d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e he h a s a double existence:  o n the one h a n d , he i s a n o r d i n a r y b o y , a n d o n the  o t h e r h a n d he i s the S u p r e m e G o d . e a s i l y defeated.  D e m o n s o f t e n a t t a c k h i m , but t h e y a r e  H o w e v e r , one d a y w h i l e K a n s a i s s t i l l i n s e a r c h o f h i s  e n e m y , he f i n d s out the t r u t h f r o m a s a g e .  K a n s a then a s s e m b l e s his demon  c o u n c i l l o r s a n d d e c i d e s to d e c o y K r i s h n a to a t o w n c a l l e d M a t h u r a .  But,  Krishna and B a l a r a m a enter M a t h u r a , and k i l l Kansa and a l l his demons. H a v i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d h i s d e s t i n y , he f i n a l l y m e e t s h i s t r u e p a r e n t s a n d 64 r e t u r n s to c o u r t .  -34K r i s h n a ' s s t o r y goes on:  H i s m a r r i a g e ; h i s b a t t l e s a g a i n s t the .  r e s t o f the d e m o n s ; h i s e x p l o i t s i n the b a t t l e o f K u r u k s e t r a ; the t i o n of D w a r a k s ; a n d , h i s d e p a r t u r e to h e a v e n . in his life,  destruc-  The r e a l turning point  however, and his greatest accomplishment,  i s h i s k i l l i n g of  K a n s a a n d the d e v i l s , a n d h i s c o n s e q u e n t d e p a r t u r e f r o m the w o r l d of the c o w h e r d s to t a k e h i s r i g h t f u l p l a c e a s a p r i n c e .  H e r e too we  see  the m o t i f o f the e x i l e r e t u r n i n g a n d s u c c e e d i n g . So b y . h a v i n g e x a m i n e d h o w o t h e r I n d i a n a n d Japane.se t a l e s f o l l o w the c o m m o n m o t i f o f the e x i l e r e t u r n i n g a n d s u c c e d i n g , w e c a n s e e t h a t t h e s e t a l e s go b e y o n d the n o r m a l p a t t e r n o f the m o t i f a n d t e l l o f the h e r o ' s l a t e r m o u r n i n g a n d ' i n t e r n a l d e s c e n t ' o f u n h a p p y p e r s o n a l lives.  C H A P T E R III INTERNAL DESCENT:  LAMENT  A h e r o who has o v e r c o m e o b s t a c l e s , and a c c o m p l i s h e d h i s a i m r e t u r n s f r o m e x i l e to h i s h o m e l a n d .  H e i s not o n l y a n o u t s t a n d i n g m a n  whom his fellow m e n follow and adore,  but a l s o a m a n of e x p e r i e n c e .  H e h a s done w h a t o t h e r p e o p l e c a n n o t do:  W i t h great difficulty he,has  a c c o m p l i s h e d the d e s t i n y w h i c h the u p p e r w o r l d h a s a s s i g n e d to h i m . Therefore,  he n o w k n o w s l i f e a n d i t s v a l u e b e t t e r t h a n b e f o r e .  He is  i n a p o s i t i o n to l e a d h i s p e o p l e . A f t e r h i s r e t u r n , a h e r o l e a d s a happy,, c o m f o r t a b l e l i f e w h i c h i s the e x a c t o p p o s i t e o f h i s e x i l e d l i f e . are regained.  A l l the t h i n g s t h a t he h a s l o s t  B u t , i n T h e R a m a y a n a a n d T h e T a l e of G e n j i a l i k e ,  while  b o t h h e r o e s a r e l e a d i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v e s , a p r o c e s s of i n t e r n a l r u i n begins.  T h i s r u i n c o m e s i n the f o r m o f the c r i s e s o f the h e r o ' s m a r r i e d  l i f e , w h i c h a r e a r e a l d i s g r a c e to a h e r o .  T h e y cannot expect a i d f r o m  the u p p e r w o r l d a n y m o r e , b e c a u s e t h e s e a r e p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s .  The  p r o b l e m s w h i c h R a m a and Genji underwent i n their later days are  dif-  ferent, f r o m e a c h other. his wife Sita.  R a m a ' s g r i e f i s c a u s e d m a i n l y b y the l o s s of  But G e n j i ' s lament shows m o r e c o m p l e x i t y .  This is partly  because their m a r r i e d lives and social customs were different, G e n j i h a s m o r e t h a n one w i f e , R a m a h a s o n e .  for example  H o w e v e r , on the o t h e r h a n d ,  b o t h s t o r i e s a r e s i m i l a r i n d e a l i n g w i t h the p r o b l e m s o f the h e r o ' s A l s o , t h i s k i n d of t r o u b l e c a n be a r e a l d i s g r a c e to the h e r o a n d  lives.  distress-  i n g t h i n g w h i c h a n y o n e w o u l d l i k e to a v o i d . -The u n h a p p y e n d i n g s of The- R a m a y a n a a n d T h e T a l e o f G e n j i n o t s u r p r i s i n g w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f w o r l d e p i c l i t e r a t u r e ,  are  and both of  t h e s e t a l e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y the u n s u c c e s s f u l m a r r i e d l i f e of the hero in his later days.  B e y o n d t h i s v e r y b a s i c s i m i l a r i t y of unhappy  p e r s o n a l l i v e s , the t a l e s d i f f e r i n n e a r l y e v e r y d e t a i l . B o t h the m o d e o f a c t i o n a n d m o t i v a t i o n of e a c h h e r o a r e  quite  distinct and reflect a different l i t e r a r y structure and a different c u l t u r a l base.  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i f w e e x a m i n e t h e a s p e c t s of the  stories  w h i c h concern*the h e r o e s ' s l a m e n t s i n t h e i r l a t e r days w i t h s p e c i a l attent i o n t o the u n d e r l y i n g t h e m of s u f f e r i n g a f t e r  return.  Thus far I have c o m p a r e d both s t o r i e s point by point.  But I-shall  n o t c o n t i n u e w i t h t h i s m e t h o d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , - b e c a u s e the p r o b l e m s I s h a l l d i s c u s s a r e m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d a n d p r o f o u n d t h a n t h o s e o f the e x i l e s .  A.  SITA'S  ORDEAL  R a m a , a f t e r k i l l i n g R a v a n a , s e n d s a m e s s a g e to S i t a w h o i s d e t a i n e d in A s o k a grove.  B e c a u s e S i t a i s o v e r p o w e r e d b y e x c e s s i v e j o y , she  cannot  i m m e d i a t e l y a n s w e r o n h e a r i n g the n e w s of R a m a ' s v i c t o r y f r o m H u n u m a n who has brought R a m a ' s m e s s a g e .  T h e n R a m a c o m m a n d s t h a t she be  -37b r o u g h t to h i m a f t e r  she h a s b a t h e d h e r h a i r .  m a k e s h e r w a l k o n foot i n the p r e s e n c e s u l t i n g w a y to t r e a t a n o b l e l a d y . t r e s s e d to h e a r R a m a ' s o r d e r ,  W h e n she a r r i v e s ,  Rama  of'the m o n k e y s w h i c h i s a n i n -  L a k s h m a n a a n d the m o n k e y s ,  dis-  s o o n h e a r h i m s p e a k h a r s h w o r d s to  Sita:  • W h a t m a n o f h o n o u r w o u l d g i v e r e i n to h i s p a s s i o n s o f a r a s t o p e r m i t h i m s e l f to t a k e b a c k a w o m a n w h o h a s d w e l t i n the h o u s e o f a n o t h e r ? Thou hast-been taken i n t o R a v a n a ' s l a p a n d he h a s c a s t l u s t f u l g l a n c e s o n t h e e ; h o w c a n I r e c l a i m t h e e , I w h o b o a s t of b e l o n g i n g to a n i l l u s t r i o u s H o u s e ? T h e e n d w h i c h I s o u g h t i n r e . c o n q u e r i n g thee has b e e n g a i n e d ; I no l o n g e r have any a t t a c h m e n t f o r t h e e ; go w h e r e t h o u d e s i r e s 1^5  He adds,  " T u r n to L a k s h m a n a o r B h a r a t a , S h a t r u g h n a ,  S u g r i v a o r the  T i t a n B i b i s h a n a , m a k e t h y c h o i c e , O S i t a , a s p l e a s e s t h e e be.st. " ^ ^ Thereafter fidelity.  she u n d e r g o e s a f i r e o r d e a l to p r o v e h e r c o n j u g a l  She s a y s , A s m y h e a r t h a s n e v e r c e a s e d to be t r u e t o R a g h a v a , do thou, O w i t n e s s of a l l B e i n g s , g r a n t m e thy p r o t e c t i o n ! A s I a m p u r e i n conduct, though R a m a l o c k s on m e as s u l l i e d , s o t h o u , O W i t n e s s of the W o r l d s , g r a n t m e f u l l p r o t e c t i o n ! "67 ...  T h e n she e n t e r s the f l a m e s of the p y r e .  F r o m people witnessing it,  there rises a terrible cry. T h e n B r a h m a a n d the G o d s a p p e a r . divinity and p r a i s e s h i m . Sita and announces,  Brahma proclaims Rama's  A t the s a m e t i m e the g o d o f f i r e r i s e s up w i t h  "Sita is pure and without taint,  do t h o u r e c e i v e  -38M a i h i l i ; i t i s m y c o m m a n d t h a t she s h o u l d n o t s u f f e r r e p r o a c h i n a n y w a y . " O n h e a r i n g t h e s e w o r d s R a m a i s d e l i g h t e d (he k n e w of h i s w i f e ' s f i d e l i t y , . but he w a s a f r a i d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be r u m o r s a m o n g h i s p e o p l e ) .  In h i s  f o l l o w i n g w o r d s to the. C h i e f of G o d s w e f i n d h i s r e a l i n t e n t i o n : O n a c c o u n t of the p e o p l e , i t w a s i m p e r a t i v e t h a t S i t a s h o u l d p a s s t h r o u g h this t r i a l by f i r e ; this l o v e l y w o m a n had dwelt i n R a v a n a ' s i n n e r a p a r t m e n t s f o r a l o n g t i m e . H a d I not put the i n n o c e n c e o f J a n a k i to the t e s t , the p e o p l e w o u l d h a v e s a i d : ' R a m a , the s o n o f D a s a r a t h a i s g o v e r n e d b y l u s t ! It w a s w e l l k n o w n to m e t h a t Sita^ h a d n e v e r g i v e n h e r h e a r t to a n o t h e r a n d t h a t the d a u g h t e r o f J a n a k a , M a i t h i l i w a s e v e r d e v o t e d to m e . &9 1  T h e n he d e c l a r e s : H e r p u r i t y i s m a n i f e s t i n the T h r e e W o r l d s ; I c o u l d no m o r e r e n o u n c e M a i t h i l i , b o r n of J a n a k a than a hero his honour. ^ R a m a is an alert and brave hero. (  H e is endowed with "buddhi"  ° ), w a k e f u l v i g i l a n c e , a n d c a p a c i t y f o r i m m e d i a t e l y a c t i n g  upon what c o m e s w i t h i n one's p u r v i e w . ^  T h i s c a p a c i t y i s the  hero's  p r i n c i p a l s o u r c e of t h i s p o w e r . S i t a ' s f i r e o r d e a l p a r a l l e l s the s t o r y o f S a k u n t a l a o f T h e M a h a b harata .  S a k u n t a l a i s a l s o at f i r s t r e j e c t e d b y h e r h u s b a n d , K i n g D u h s a n t a  e v e n t h o u g h he k n o w s t h a t s h e h a s b e e n f a i t h f u l .  T h i s story goes as  follows: One d a y K n g D u h s a n t a , h u n t i n g i n the f o r e s t , of K a n v a o n the b a n k of the r i v e r M a l i n i .  f i n d s the  hermitage  T h e r e he m e e t s K a n v a ' s a d o p t e d  -39daughter,. S a k u n t a l a .  She e x p l a i n s h e r o w n b i r t h , t h a t she i s a  daughter  of V i s v a m i t r a a n d M e n a k a , a n d K a n v a a d o p t e d h e r a f t e r h e r m o t h e r erted her;  D u h s a n t a s u c c e e d e d i n s e d u c i n g S a k u n t a l a , but she  t h a t h e r s o n be h i s h e i r .  des-  demands  She g i v e s b i r t h to a s o n of b o u n d l e s s m i g h t .  W h e n h e r son. r e a c h e s the age of s i x t e e n , K a n v a t e l l s h i s s t u d e n t s to t a k e h e r a n d h e r s o n to D u h s a n t a , but D u h s a n t a r e f u s e s to r e c o g n i z e e i t h e r or her son.  Sukuntala becomes angry ana departs.  t e l l s h i m t h a t the b o y  is his son.  her  Then a celestial voice  T h e k i n g , d e l i g h t e d , s p e a k s to h i s  chaplain and councillors, L i s t e n , g o o d s i r s , t o w h a t the E n v o y of the G o d s h a s s p o k e n ! I m y s e l f k n e w v e r y w e l l he w a s m y s o n . B u t i f I had t a k e n h i m as m y . son on her w o r d a l o n e , s u s p i c i o n w o u l d h a v e b e e n r i f e a m o n g the. p e o p l e , a n d he w o u l d n e v e r h a v e b e e n c l e a r e d o f i t . T h e n he a c c e p t s h i s s o n a n d w i f e . In b o t h s t o r i e s ,  the h e r o e s f e e l c o n f i d e n t o f t h e i r w i v e s ' s p u r i t y ,  but t h e y h a v e t o d e n y f i r s t t h e i r w i v e s b e c a u s e of t h e i r p e o p l e . R a m a ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s S i t a i s s e v e r e r t h a n t h a t of D u h s a n t a Sakuntala.  L a t e r i n the " U t t a r a K a n d a "  However, towards  which describes Rama's  a f t e r h i s r e t u r n to the c i t y of A y o d h y a , w e see. a v e r y - s a d e n d i n g . w e f i n d t h a t R a m a d i d i n f a c t a b a n d o n S i t a i n the f o r e s t , was  life There  e v e n t h o u g h she  pregnant. In the g r e a t I n d i a n e p i c , T h e M a h a b h a r a t a , w e f i n d a n a b r i d g e d  -40s t o r y of R a m a ,  I t - e n d s b y t e l l i n g of h i s s a c r i f i c e of a h o r s e a f t e r h i s r e -  t u r n to A y o d h y a .  T h e r e i s no e p i s o d e h a v i n g to do w i t h S i t a ' s  abandonment.  R a m a ' s b e h a v i o u r t o w a r d s S i t a n o t o n l y h u r t s the s e n t i m e n t s o f the H i n d u , but a l s o g i v e s d i f f i c u l t y to m a n y s c h o l a r s . ^4  F o r example, R.  A n t o i n e m e n t i o n s i n h i s b o o k , R a m a a n d the B a r d s , t h a t the e p i c ought to e n d i n the h a p p y u n i o n of R a m a a n d S i t a , but g o e s o n to s a y t h a t s i n c e the e p i c i s i n f a c t a q u e s t f o r a n a n s w e r to the m y s t e r y of h u m a n e x i s t e n c e , T h e R a m a y a n a d o e s n o t e n d h a p p i l y . ^5 We s h a l l l o o k i n s o m e d e t a i l at S i t a ' s a b a n d o n m e n t . i n g to A y o d h y a , . R a m a a n d S i t a e n j o y h a p p i n e s s again,,  After  return-  B u t one d a y R a m a  r e a l i z e s that h i s . p e o p l e a r e t a l k i n g about h i m a n d h i s . w i f e .  His friend  s a y s t h a t e v e r y w h e r e the p e o p l e t a l k , a n d t h a t t h e y s a y , What p l e a s u r e can his heart experience i n p o s s e s s i n g Sita whom Ravana f o r m e r l y held i n his lap, having b o r n e h e r a w a y by f o r c e ? H o w i s it that R a m a , w a s not f i l l e d w i t h a v e r s i o n f o r h e r a f t e r she h a d b e e n t a k e n to L a n k a a n d c o n d u c t e d to the A s h o k a G r o v e , w h e r e s h e w a s l e f t to the m e r c y of the T i t a n s ? W e s h a l l n o w h a v e to c o u n t e n a n c e the s a m e s t a t e of affairs r e g a r d i n g our own w i v e s , since what a king does, his subjects follow. A t hearing these w o r d s , R a m a is s t r i c k e n with grief.  He summons his  b r o t h e r s a n d c o m m a n d s L a k s h m a n a to t a k e S i t a to the h e r m i t a g e of Valmiki.  A l t h o u g h he s a y s  firmly,  Y e a , I s w e a r to t h e e b y m y t w o f e e t , b y m y l i f e , t h a t t h o s e w h o s e e k to m a k e m e ' a l t e r m y r e s o l v e i n a n y w a y o r o p p o s e m y d e s i r e , I s h a l l d e e m to be m i n e 77 enemies. ' 1  -41w e c a n see t h a t he i s d e e p l y d i s t r e s s e d .  He tells L a k s h m a n a ,  f o r e i n what an o c e a n of g r i e f I have f a l l e n ! than this ! "  7  "See t h e r e -  T h e r e i s no m i s f o r t u n e  greater  8  In the p a s t , R a m a , a s a n e x i l e , h a s b e e n a t t a c k e d b y f r o m the o u t s i d e .  misfortune  B u t , n o w he h a s to s u f f e r d e e p t o r m e n t i n t e r n a l l y .  T h i s t i m e he h a s no e n e m y to a t t a c k , n o m i s e r y o u t s i d e h i m s e l f . t o r n between D h a r m a and his love for Sita.  He is  E v e n t u a l l y he c h o o s e s D h a r m a .  It i s p o s s i b l e t o m a k e the s t a t e m e n t t h a t R a m a ' s " D h a r m a i s t h a t he  abandon  his wife. R a m a h a s b e e n c o n s i d e r e d the s y m b o l o f D h a r m a : R a m a ' s n o b l e e x a m p l e of d e v o t i o n to d u t y to h i s f a t h e r , a n d to h i s p e o p l e , a s w e l l a s S i t a ' s l o n g - s u f f e r i n g f i d e l i t y to R a m a , h a v e b e e n l o o k e d to a s r e l i g i o u s a n d e t h i c a l i d e a l s d o w n t h r o u g h the a g e s . R a m a i s s e e n a s the e m b o d i m e n t of D h a r m a , a n d h i s t r i u m p h o v e r w i c k e d R a v a n a , a s the o v e r c o m i n g o f v i c e ( A d h a r m a ) i n o r d e r t h a t v i r t u e a n d on  the m o r a l l a w m i g h t p r e v a i l i n p e r s o n a l a n d p u b l i c l i f e . The w o r d " d h a r m a " ( c o n f o r m i t y to l a w , v i r t u e , t r u t h , define this w o r d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . i n Indian thought.  ^  % ) m a y be t r a n s l a t e d , or righteousness'.  'right behavior, .  B u t , i t i s not e a s y to  In other w o r d s ,  It h a s m u c h to do w i t h m a n ; i t i s a d y n a m i c  c o n c e p t c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n m a n a n d the w o r l d . to s u s t a i n the w o r l d b y f o l l o w i n g D h a r m a . ideals:  u  T h e r e i s n o G o d i n the c e n t e r of the w o r l d  Instead, there is m a n and D h a r m a .  D h a r m a i s not a n a b s t r a c t i d e a .  o  M a n has  U s u a l l y it has two p r i n c i p a l  the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s o c i a l l i f e ; a n d the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s  -42life.  S o c i e t i e s do n o t r e m a i n the s a m e .  dividual.  N e i t h e r d o e s the r o l e o f the i n -  A n c i e n t Indian t r a d i t i o n speaks of four ages ( K r i t a ,  D v a p a r a , and K a l i ) ,  Treta,  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s u c c e s s i v e l y d e c r e a s i n g p h y s i c a l 81  and spiritual purity.  T h e r e f o r e , n o one c a n g i v e a c o n s i s t e n t  defini-  t i o n of D h a r m a , w h i c h c o v e r s a l l f o u r a g e s . If one t r i e s to f i n d a n e x a c t d e f i n i t i o n o f D h a r m a i n T h e R a m a y a n a , he f a i l s b e c a u s e of i t s c o m p r e h e n s i v e n a t u r e .  Sometimes Rama himself  s e e m s to be i n c o n s i s t e n t ; f o r e x a m p l e , - i n " A y o d h y a K a n d a " , w h e n B h a r a t a c o m e s to p e r s u a d e R a m a to r e t u r n to the c i t y , R a m a s a y s ,  "I c o n s i d e r  l o y a l t y to o n e ' s w o r d to be the m o s t r i g i d p e r s o n a l d u t y a n d the e s s e n c e of a l l the v i r t u e s . " 8 2 ' L a t e r he a b a n d o n s S i t a e v e n a f t e r h a v i n g d e c l a r e d i n " Y a d h a K a n d a " t h a t he w o u l d n o t r e n o u n c e S i t a e v e n i n f r o n t o f B r a h m a . R a m a , a s the e m b o d i m e n t of D h a r m a , g i v e s , w e c a n s a y , p r a c t i c a l e x a m p l e s of D h a r m a .  I n a n c i e n t I n d i a , the n o r m a l ' f o r m o f the s t a t e w a s  m o n a r c h y , a n d it i s c l e a r that, for R a m a , h i s duty as a k i n g i s m o r e i m p o r t a n t than h i s duty as a h u s b a n d .  A c c o r d i n g to T h e M a h a b h a r a t a ,  i n the  g o l d e n age of s t a t e l e s s s o c i e t y , k i n g s h i p s w e r e n o t n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e the p e o p l e w e r e a l l c o n s c i o u s of t h e i r d u t y .  But, later on, m e n fell into a  s t a t e of. s p i r i t u a l l a s s i t u d e , a n d s p i r i t u a l k n o w l e d g e a n d r i g h t e o u s diminished.  T h e n the G o d s w e n t to B r a h m a f o r a i d .  f i r s t s y s t e m of l a w .  Vishnu created Virajas,  conduct  H e f o r m u l a t e d the  w h o b e c a m e the f i r s t k i n g .  -43T h e m a i n d u t y of a k i n g w a s the p r o t e c t i o n of h i s s u b j e c t s a n d t h e c o n t r o l of e v i l e l e m e n t s ,  a n d h i s h a p p i n e s s l i e s i n the h a p p i n e s s o f h i s  T h i s w a s the i d e a l k i n g s h i p o f a n x i e n t I n d i a .  subjects.  T h e r e f o r e , R a m a h a s to  be a w a r e o f w h a t i s g o i n g o n a m o n g h i s s u b j e c t s a n d m u s t s h o w t h e m a n i d e a l w a y of l i v i n g b e f o r e s e e k i n g h i s o w n h a p p i n e s s . I n c o n s i d e r i n g S i t a ' s o r d e a l w e a l s o h a v e to t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t the p o s i t i o n of w o m e n i n a n c i e n t I n d i a . very high.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e i r p o s i t i o n w a s not  A n o l d l e g e n d s a i d B r a h m a c r e a t e d w o m e n to s e d u c e m e n  (Mahabharata).  T h e R a m a y a n a a l s o r e p e a t e d l y e m p h a s i z e d the  importance  of the v i r t u e o f a w i f e ( S i t a f o l l o w s R a m a o n h i s e x i l e , a n d , a f t e r b e i n g a b d u c t e d b y R a v a n a , k e e p s h e r c h a s t i t y at the risk^ o f h e r l i f e ) .  The  s o c i e t y i n s i s t e d r i g i d l y , on the c h a s t i t y o f w o m e n , a n d a w i f e a c c u s e d o f a d u l t r y was deserted by her husband,  B u t t h i s d i d not m e a n a d i s s o l u t i o n  of t h e i r m a r r i a g e ; a f t e r a c e r t a i n c o u r s e of e x p i a t i o n s h e w a s t o be r e instated in her f o r m e r position. H o w e v e r , here we m i g h t r e m e m b e r Sita was innocent (because of a c u r s e , R a v a n a c o u l d n o t l o v e a w o m a n w h o d i d n o t l i k e h i m ) . R a m a k n e w v e r y w e l l that h i s wife w a s faithful. m i g h t p r e v a i l o v e r the d u t y o f the h u s b a n d ,  And,  E v e n i f the d u t y of k i n g  s t i l l we cannot fully  R a m a ' s attitude t o w a r d s Sita after his v i c t o r y o v e r R a v a n a .  accept  The R t .  Hon. S r i n i v a s a S a s t r i interprets this p r o b l e m f r o m a slightly different p o i n t of v i e w .  He says:  -44It i s d i f f i c u l t f o r u s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h i s e x t r e m e r i g o u r of the l a w . T h a t i s R a m a ' s e t e r n a l g l o r y . A t the r i s k of b e i n g m i s u n d e r s t o o d , at the r i s k o f b e i n g s o m e t i m e s c o n d e m n e d a s a n h u m a n b e i n g , a s a m a n h a r s h e v e n to the w i f e w h o w a s - t y p i c a l o f a l l the v i r t u e s o f w o m a n h o o d , R a m a s t o o d t r u e t o the a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t i o n o f d h a r m a . ^ We can p r o b a b l y say it i s R a m a ' s e t e r n a l g l o r y that m a d e h i m abandon Sita.  W e cannot h o w e v e r o v e r l o o k his deep m o u r n i n g . W h e n S i t a i s a b a n d o n e d o n the b a n k s o f the G a n g e s , V a l m i k i  h i s p r o t e c t i o n to h e r . and L a v a .  A f t e r a w h i l e , S i t a g i v e s b i r t h to t w o b o y s ,  offers  Kusha  Y e a r s l a t e r V a l m i k i c o m m a n d s K u s h a a n d L a v a to r e c i t e T h e  Ramayana near R a m a ' s pavilion.  T h e p e o p l e of the t o w n a r e s u r p r i s e d to  see t h e m , b e c a u s e they l o o k j u s t , l i k e R a m a .  When R a m a recognizes them  a s h i s s o n s , he s e n d s f o r S i t a . W h e n V a l m i k i r e t u r n s w i t h S i t a , he s a y s t o R a m a i n h i s a s s e m b l y , W i t h m y f i v e s e n s e s a n d m y m i n d a s the s i x t h m e d i t a t i n g a m i d s t the f o r e s t w a t e r f a l l s , S i t a ' s i n n o c e n c e w a s r e v e a l e d to m e . T h a t l a d y of i r r e p r o a c h a b l e a n d p u r e c o n d u c t , to w h o m h e r l o r d i s a G o d , w i l l g i v e p r o o f of h e r good f a i t h , O T h o u who d i d s t f e a r p u b l i c c o n demnation!^ R a m a a s k s V a l m i k i to f o r g i v e h i m f o r h a v i n g a b a n d o n e d S i t a b e c a u s e o f f e a r o f r u m o u r s a m o n g the p e o p l e . c i l e d w i t h Sita by V a l m i k i ' s  H e i n d i c a t e s h i s d e s i r e to be r e c o n -  support.  R a m a ' s r e i g n has b e e n a n i d e a l one:  h i s a g e i s the g o l d e n a g e .  M e n l i v e to e n j o y h a p p i n e s s f o r a t h o u s a n d y e a r s ; t r e e s b e a r f r u i t a n d  -45flowers perpetually.  R a m a i s the best of a l l k i n g s .  H o w e v e r , one t h i n g  h a s b e e n d i s t r e s s i n g h i m , n a m e l y , S i t a Is b a n i s h m e n t . banishment,  R a m a h a s r e m a i n e d f a i t h f u l to h e r .  After  Sita's  On ceremonial occasions,  he h a s a g o l d e n s t a t u e of S i t a p l a c e d b e s i d e h i m . A f t e r a l l t h o s e y e a r s he n o w w a n t s to r e c o v e r S i t a , w h o a c c o m p a n i e d by V a l m i k i ,  stands quietly.  T h e n she s a y s ,  "If, i n t h o u g h t ,  I  h a v e e v e r d w e l t o n a n y but R a m a , m a y the G o d d e s s M a d h a v i r e c e i v e me.  1 , 8 6  S i t a i s one of the l o v e l i e s t w o m e n t h a t w o r l d e p i c s h a v e e v e r She i s g e n t l e a n d c h a r m i n g b u t , an unbending s p i r i t . Rama.  husband,  8  on the o t h e r h a n d , s h e i s a l s o e n d o w e d w i t h  She i s n o t , h o w e v e r , a s t r o n g p e r s o n c o m p a r e d to  In The R a m a y a n a  feminine weakness.  created.  7  she i s a h e r o i n e w h o h a s f r a g i l e s e n s i t i v i t y a n d  F o r e x a m p l e , w h e n she w a s r e p r o a c h e d b y h e r  she s t a r t e d t r e m b l i n g , o v e r w h e l m e d w i t h s h a m e a f t e r  Ravana's  d e s t r u c t i o n ( h e r r e a c t i o n i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t of S a k u n t a l a i n a s i m i l a r situation (pp.39)).  It i s p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e  h e r h u s b a n d t h a t she s h o w e d l i t t l e s i g n of a n g e r .  she w a s t o o d e v o t e d to She i s a l o v e l y f i g u r e ,  but i n the s t o r y h e r o w n r a d i a n c e i s o v e r s h a d o w e d b y R a m a a n d h i s b r i l l i a n c e . B u t t h i s t i m e , s h e a s k e d the E a r t h G o d d e s s to r e s t o r e h e r . p o s s i b l e to i n t e r p r e t h e r w o r d s a s h e r f i n a l p r o t e s t a t i o n . scene i n w h i c h she s h o w s h e r independent  will.  It m i g h t be T h i s i s the o n l y  -46The E a r t h G o d d e s s a p p e a r s and takes Sita i n her a r m s . t h e y d e s c e n d i n t o the e a r t h , w h e r e she o r i g i n a l l y c a m e f r o m . sky,  the u n d e r w o r l d , a n d o n e a r t h ,  this m i r a c l e .  Then I n the  a l l b e i n g s r e j o i c e a n d e x u l t to s e e  A l l e x c e p t one p e r s o n .  A m o n g a l l the m o n k e y s a n d s a g e s  c r y i n g out, R a m a s t a n d s i n t e a r s , d e e p l y d i s t r e s s e d . p e r i e n c i n g a g o n y u n k n o w n to h i m t h u s f a r .  H e s a y s he i s e x -  H e c r y ' s out, a d d r e s s i n g the  Goddess, B r i n g b a c k M a i t h i l i (Sita) o n w h o s e a c c o u n t I a m d i s t r a u g h t ! If t h o u f a i l e s t t o r e t u r n S i t a to m e i n h e r o r i g i n a l f o r m , I s h a l l p l o u g h thee up w i t h thy m o u n t a i n s a n d f o r e s t s a n d s h a l l d e s t r o y t h e e s o t h a t n o t h i n g but w a t e r r e m a i n s . ^ B u t R a m a i s not a n o r d i n a r y m a n . and appeases h i m .  S o o n a f t e r the o u t b u r s t B r a h m a a p p e a r s  B r a h m a t e l l s h i m to r e c a l l t h a t he i s V i s h n u , the i n -  v i n c i b l e h e r o , a n d he w i l l be r e u n i t e d w i t h S i t a i n h e a v e n . R a m a c o n t r o l s h i s t e m p e r a n d d i s m i s s e s the a s s e m b l y .  Thus reminded, H e r e t u r n s to the  hut of V a l m i k i w i t h h i s s o n s a n d t h e r e s p e n d s the n i g h t l a m e n t i n g f o r S i t a . It i s r a r e f o r R a m a t o s h o w h u m a n e m o t i o n .  ^  B u t he s h o w s i t a n o t h e r  t i m e i n " Y u d d h a K a n d a " , w h e n he i s o n the w a y to L a n k a , the c i t y of R a v a n a . R a m a a n d the m o n k e y s h a v e to c r o s s the s e a to r e a c h L a n k a .  In o r d e r to  a s k the a i d of S a g a r a , the L o r d of the S e a , he s l e e p s f o r t h r e e n i g h t s o n the s e a s h o r e .  B u t S a g a r a does not a p p e a r .  s h o o t s a r r o w s at the s e a .  R a m a becomes angry and  S e e i n g t h i s , L a k s h m a n a r u s h e s to h i m ,  crying,  "Stay!  Stay!"  A l s o the h e a v e n l y c r e a t u r e s c r i e s o u t ,  n o t a c t t h u s " . 90  "Hold!  Hold!  Do  L a k s h m a n a t a k e s h o l d of R a m a ' s bow, a n d s a y s ,  T h o u h a s t no n e e d to a c t e n d a n d b r i n g S a g a r a to T h y p e e r s do n o t p e r m i t anger. C a l l to m i n d the  i n t h i s w i s e to a c c o m p l i s h t h i n e s u b j e c t i o n , O F o r e m o s t of H e r o e s . t h e m s e l v e s to be o v e r c o m e b y f o r b e a r a n c e of v i r t u o u s m e n . 91  T h i s i s one of the f e w t i m e s w e s e e t h a t t h e r e i s a c o n f l i c t w i t h i n R a m a , between his divine consciousness and his human emotions. A f t e r S i t a ' s d e s c e n t i n t o the e a r t h ,  the e n d o f the s t o r y o f R a m a  i s at h a n d . R a m a ' s life i s f i l l e d w i t h b r i l l i a n t e x p l o i t s . . B u t can we say.that he i s h a p p y ?  He is e x i l e d and r e t u r n e d after a c c o m p l i s h i n g his a i m s .  B u t he h a s to a b a n d o n h i s w i f e a n d he i s n e v e r a b l e to t a k e h e r b a c k . Why  do w e s e e a l a m e n t i n g h e r o at the e n d o f h i s  story?  In T h e T a l e o f G e n j i w e s e e G e n j i l a m e n t i n g i n h i s l a t e r T h i s i s not b e c a u s e o f a n y c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n the s t o r i e s , b o t h s t o r i e s wer.e w r i t t e n b y d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r s , at d i f f e r e n t t i m e s . B.  WAKANA  life.  but b e c a u s e  i n different countries,  and  It i s b e c a u s e t h e y s h a r e a u n i v e r s a l t h e m e .  NO MAKI  -  A f t e r G e n j i ' s r e t u r n f r o m exile, another turning point comes i n his l i f e w h i l e he i s e n j o y i n g the f r u i t s of h i s p a s t l a b o u r s . d e s t r u c t i o n of h i s m a r r i a g e ,  A new c r i s i s ,  a p p r o a c h e s G e n j i s l o w l y but s u r e l y .  however, i n t e r n a l i z e s his g r i e f m o r e than R a m a does.  the  Genji,  R a m a at l e a s t  has  -48m e a n s , a n o r d e a l b y the f i r e , b y w h i c h he m i g h t p r e s e r v e h i s b y t e s t i n g S i t a a n d h a p p i l y r e s u m e the u n i o n . prevent his w o r l d from collapsing.  marriage  B u t G e n j i c a n do n o t h i n g to  C o n s e q u e n t l y , the G o d - l i k e G e n j i i s  d r i v e n i n t o a w o r l d of m i s e r y w h i l e n o one n o t i c e s i t , n o t e v e n G e n j i  him-  self. A f t e r r e t u r n i n g to the c a p i t a l , G e n j i l e a d s a n i d y l l i c l i f e .  As a  s y m b o l of h i s g l o r y , he b u i l d s the R o k u j o m a n s i o n f o r h i s w i v e s a n d daughters.  T h e c o u r t l y s t o r y d e v e l o p s b y u s i n g s c e n e s o f the H e i a n  calendar for each season.  M o s t o f the d r e a m s of H e i a n n o b l e s  come  true for Genji. A t the b e g i n n i n g o f the c h a p t e r ,  " T h e F i r s t W a r b l e r " , the N e w  Y e a r ' s f e s t i v a l s at the R o k u j o m a n s i o n a r e  described:  N e w Y e a r ' s d a y w a s c l o u d l e s s . T h e r e i s j o y i n s i d e the h u m b l e s t of h e d g e s , a s the g r a s s b e g i n s to c o m e g r e e n a m o n g p a t c h e s of s n o w a n d t h e r e i s a m i s t of g r e e n o n the t r e e s w h i l e the m i s t s i n the a i r t e l l of the a d v e n t of s p r i n g . T h e r e w a s g r e a t j o y i n the j e w e l e d p r e c i n c t s of G e n j i ' s R o k u j o m a n s i o n , w h e r e e v e r y d e t a i l of the g a r d e n s w a s a p l e a s u r e a n d the l a d i e s ' s a p a r t ments were perfection. ^ T h e n the v i s t a c h a n g e s a s the s p r i n g h a s d e e p e n e d a n d the g a r d e n of G e n j i ' s m o s t b e l o v e d w i f e , beauty:  spring  M u r a s a k i , r e a c h e s the h e i g h t of i t s  -49It w a s l a t e i n the T h i r d M o n t h . M u r a s a k i ' s s p r i n g g a r d e n w a s c o m i n g e v e r m o r e to l i f e w i t h b l o s s o m s and s i n g i n g b i r d s . E l s e w h e r e s p r i n g h a d d e p a r t e d , s a i d the o t h e r l a d i e s , and why d i d it r e m a i n h e r e ? G e n j i thought it a p i t y t h a t the y o u n g w o m e n s h o u l d h a v e o n l y d i s t a n t g l i m p s e s o f the m o s s on the i s l a n d , a d e e p e r g r e e n e a c h day. He h a d c a r p e n t e r s at w o r k on C h i n e s e p l e a s u r e b o a t s , a n d o n the d a y t h e y w e r e l a u n c h e d he s u m m o n e d p a l a c e m u s i c i a n s f o r w a t e r m u s i c . P r i n c e s a n d h i g h c o u r t i e r s c a m e c r o w d i n g to h e a r . ^3 I n d e e d h i s R o k u j o m a n s i o n s e e m s to be a n e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e i t s e l f . A l l s e e m s to be g o i n g w e l l f o r G e n j i . H e m e e t s a l a d y i n A k a s h i a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y b e c o m e s the of a l i t t l e p r i n c e s s .  W h e n i n f o r m e d o f h e r b i r t h a f t e r r e t u r n i n g to the  c a p i t a l , he t h i n k s of h i s l i t t l e d a u g h t e r , e m p r e s s i n the f u t u r e , capital.  father  w h o he h o p e s m i g h t b e c o m e a n  a n d s h o u l d not g r o w up i n A k a s h i , f a r f r o m the  H e s o l v e s t h i s p r o b l e i r u b y a d o p t i n g the l i t t l e p r i n c e s s , a s h i s  wife M u r a s a k i ' s daughter.  P r e s e n t l y , the L a d y o f A k a s h i , m o t h e r of  the l i t t l e p r i n c e s s , m o v e s i n t o the R o k u j o m a n s i o n w i t h h e r o w n m o t h e r from Akashi,  G e n j i ' s d a u g h t e r h a s a n i d e a l c h i l d h o o d u n d e r the c a r e of  Murasaki. G e n j i ' s f a m i l y c o n t i n u e s to p r o s p e r . Emperor.  H i s other son, Y u g i r i ,  outstanding intelligence.  H i s son, R e i z e i , is crowned  b y h i s w i f e A o i , h a s g r o w n up to d i s p l a y  P r e s e n t l y this p r o m i n e n t young m a n m a r r i e s  h i s c o u s i n , K u m o i no k d r i , after o v e r c o m i n g v a r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s , he l e a d s a h a p p y l i f e .  L a t e r his daughter,  the e m p e r o r w h o s u c c e e d e d R e i z e i .  and  the p r i n c e s s , i s m a r r i e d to  -50M e a n w h i l e , G e n j i t e m p o r a r i l y a d o p t s T a m a k a z u r a , the of T o no C h u j o a n d Y u g a o : his former lover.  daughter  T o no C h u j o i s G e n j i ' s b e s t f r i e n d and YGgao  T a m a k a z u r c i s at f i r s t a c c e p t e d as G e n j i ' s  daughter.  T h e s t o r y of h e r c o u r t s h i p p r o c e e d s i n a v e r y c o m p l i c a t e d w a y .  Although  h a v i n g g r o w n up i n K y u s h u , f a r a w a y f r o m the c a p i t a l , she i s e n d o w e d w i t h beauty and i n t e l l i g e n c e ; m a n y n o b l e m e n , t h e r e f o r e , in marriage. ly,  v i e for her hand  Genji h i m s e l f feels amorous affection towards her.  Eventual-  she m a r r i e s one of h e r s u i t o r s , H i g e g u r o , w h o i s a s o l i d but i n s e n s i t i v e  man.  T a m a k a z u r a ' s s t o r y i s a c o m i c a l and c h e e r f u l one,  r e s e m b l i n g that  of a S h a k e s p e a r i a n c o m e d y i n w h i c h c o m p l e t e h a r m o n y i s a c h i e v e d i n the end. T h e " W i s t e r i a L e a v e s " c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s the c l i m a x o f T a m a k a z u r a ' s s t o r y a n d m a r k s the h e i g h t o f G e n j i ' s g l o r y .  B y t h a t t i m e he i s a p p r o a c h i n g  h i s f o r t i e t h b i r t h d a y - - i n t h o s e d a y s p e o p l e u s e d to s t a r t c e l e b r a t i n g l o n g e v i t y at the age of f o r t y . ^4  A l i t t l e l a t e r he i s a c c o r d e d h o n o u r s e q u i -  v a l e n t to t h o s e o f a r e t i r e d e m p e r o r , and his father,  w h e n the c u r r e n t l y r e i g n i n g E m p e r o r  the S u z a k u E m p e r o r , v i s i t s G e n j i ' s R o k u j o m a n s i o n :  T h e e m p e r o r p a i d a s t a t e v i s i t t o R o k u j o l a t e i n the T e n t h M o n t h . S i n c e the c o l o u r s w e r e a t t h e i r b e s t a n d i t p r o m i s e d to be a g r a n d o c c a s i o n , the S u z a k u e m p e r o r a c c e p t e d the i n v i t a t i o n of h i s b r o t h e r , the p r e s e n t e m p e r o r , to j o i n h i m . It w a s a m o s t e x t r a o r d i n a r y e v e n t , the t a l k of the w h o l e court. T h e p r e p a r a t i o n s w h i c h o c c u p i e d the f u l l a t t e n t i o n of e v e r y o n e a t R o k u j o , w e r e u n p r e c e d e n t e d i n t h e i r c o m p l e x i t y a n d i n the a t t e n t i o n to b r i l l i a n t d e t a i l . ^  -5 1G e n j i ' s i n n e r w o r l d a l s o c h a n g e s a s he i s e n j o y i n g h i s p e r i o d o f glory.  H e i s f r e e d f r o m the a g o n y he h a s s u f f e r e d t h r o u g h h i s y o u t h :  his stepmother,  Fujitsubo, dies.  H e w i t h d r a w s to a m e d i t a t i o n r o o m  w h e r e he c a n s p e n d the d a y i n t e a r s .  It i s s p r i n g , but i n the e v e n i n g  l i g h t w i s p s o f c l o u d a r e the c o l o u r of a d u l l g r a y . lips:  A v e r s e c o m e s to h i s  " A r a c k o f c l o u d a c r o s s the l i g h t o f e v e n i n g / A s i f t h e y t o o / t h e s e  h i l l s / w o r e m o u r n i n g w e e d s " . ^6 the E m p e r o r ,  (After Fujitsubo's death a bishop t e l l s  F u j i t s u b o ' s s o n , a b o u t the s e c r e t of h i s b i r t h .  He then  knows his r e a l father i s G e n j i . ) In the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r ,  "New Herbs:  o f the l o n g e s t i n the e n t i r e r o m a n c e , pletely.  P a r t One a n d T w o " , one  the t o n e of the s t o r y c h a n g e s  com-  F o r G e n j i f a c e s one of the g r e a t t u r n i n g p o i n t s i n h i s l i f e .  This  c r i s i s b e g i n s w i t h h i s m a r r i a g e to a. y o u n g p r i n c e s s , the t h i r d d a u g h t e r of S u z a k u . his son.  P r e s e n t l y she g i v e s b i r t h to a b o y w h o , G e n j i k n o w s , i s n o t  O n the s u r f a c e ,  t h i s d o e s not s e e m to c h a n g e h i s . w o r l d .  a p p e a r s to c o n t i n u e to f l o u r i s h .  He  H o w e v e r , d e e p i n h i s m i n d , he i s d i s -  t r e s s e d a n d t o r m e n t e d b e c a u s e he has. to c o n c e a l h i s s o r r o w . s i t u a t i o n i s c o m p l e t e l y different f r o m that of h i s e x i l e .  This  Now his  f o r t u n e b e c o m e s a n i n t e r n a l m a t t e r , m u c h l i k e t h a t of R a m a ' s .  misWhen  he s p e n t h i s e x i l e i n S u m a a n d A k a s h i he w a s a y o u n g a m b i t i o u s m a n in his twenties.  H e o v e r c a m e h i s m i s f o r t u n e a n d r e t u r n e d l i k e the u s u a l  h e r o of e p i c s the w o r l d o v e r . an invisible  enemy.  B u t t h i s t i m e he i s m o r t a l l y w o u n d e d b y  G e n j i ' s h i g h p o s i t i o n h a s r e q u i r e d h i s m a r r i a g e to the Princess.  Third  M e a n t i m e , he h a s the w o m e n at R o k u j o a n d N i j o w h o m he  is looking after,  and among whom M u r a s a k i is his most beloved. A l -  t h o u g h she i s the d a u g h t e r o f a p r i n c e , h e r s o c i a l s t a n d i n g i s n o t c i e n t l y h i g h to be G e n j i ' s l e g a l w i f e .  suffi-  T h e n , t o o , the S u z a k u E m p e r o r  h a s b e e n i l l s i n c e h i s v i s i t to R o k u j o , a n d i s t h i n k i n g a b o u t t a k i n g h o l y orders.  B u t b e f o r e he c a n do s o , he h a s t o c h o o s e a h u s b a n d f o r h i s  f a v o u r i t e d a u g h t e r , the T h i r d P r i n c e s s .  A t f i r s t he p r e f e r s  Genji's  s o n Y u g i r i , but he g i v e s u p t h a t i d e a b e c a u s e Y H g i r i h a s a l r e a d y down and is leading a stable m a r r i e d life.  settled  F i n a l l y he d e c i d e s o n G e n j i .  '"It i s n o t e a s y f o r m e to m a k e the r e q u e s t , " the S u z a k u E m p e r o r tells Genji, a n d not e a s i e r f o r y o u , I a m s u r e , to be the o b j e c t , but m i g h t I a s k t h a t y o u t a k e the g i r l i n y o u r v e r y s p e c i a l charge and, quite as you think a p p r o p r i a t e , find a husband for h e r ? 9 ^ S u z a k u suggests d e l i c a t e l y that G e n j i take h i s daughter as h i s w i f e . T h i s r e q u e s t c o m e s a s a s h o c k f o r G e n j i ' s .wife M u r a s a k i , but n o one c a n t u r n d o w n a r o y a l r e q u e s t , e v e n G e n j i . It w a s a t e m p e s t out of the b l u e w h i c h t h e r e w a s n o e s c a p i n g , M u r a s a k i w a s d e t e r m i n e d t h a t she w o u l d not c o m p l a i n n o r g i v e a n y h i n t of r e s e n t m e n t . She k n e w t h a t n e i t h e r h e r w i s h e s n o r her a d v i c e w o u l d have m a d e any d i f f e r e n c e . She d i d n o t w a n t the w o r l d to t h i n k t h a t she h a d b e e n c r u s h e d b y w h a t h a d to c o m e . ^ A n o t h e r shadow was cast over G e n j i ' s w o r l d .  The s o l e m n m e l a n -  c h o l y y o u t h K t s h i w a g i h a s b e e n one of the s u i t o r s of the T h i r d P r i n c e s s  -53a n d c a n n o t g i v e up h i s p u r s u i t .  Genji,  after a l l , cannot ban an a f f e c t i o n -  ate young m a n f r o m h i s w o r l d . O n e p l e a s a n t d a y i n the T h i r d M o n t h , a g r o u p of y o u n g p e o p l e 'I -  playing football (  P  are  QQ  $%X> JpJ  )  at R o k u j o .  Kashiwagi takes his'place  w i t h his best f r i e n d , Y u g i r i , under a fine c h e r r y t r e e i n f u l l b l o o m . g l a n c e s o v e r t o w a r d the T h i r d P r i n c e s s ' s r o o m s .  He  Suddenly a pretty Chinese  c a t , p u r u e d b y a l a r g e r c a t c o m e s r u n n i n g out, a n d i n the p r o c e s s p u l l s back a curtain.  I n the d a r k r o o m he s e e s the T h i r d P r i n c e s s t u r n i n g to  l o o k at the c a t ; she h a s the c h a r m of y o u t h . In t h o s e d a y s , n o b l e l a d i e s d i d n o t s h o w t h e m s e l v e s . behind c u r t a i n s s u r r o u n d e d by t h e i r w o m e n . the p r i n c e s s ' s c a r e l e s s n e s s . with her.  They lived  T h i s i n c i d e n t i s t a k e n to s h o w  B u t , K t e h i w a g i has f a l l e n i m p o s s i b l y i n l o v e  H e o b t a i n s the C h i n e s e c a t a n d c h e r i s h e s i t , because" i t r e m i n d s  h i m of the i m a g e of the T h i r d P r i n c e s s . Meanwhile G e n j i ' s w o r l d is also disintegrating i n another  way.  A l t h o u g h he t r e a t s the T h i r d P r i n c e s s , w h o i s v e r y y o u n g a n d s t i l l i m mature,  as his l a w f u l w i f e ,  he. l o v e s M u r a s a k i m o r e t h a n a n y o n e  else.  H o w e v e r , M u r a s a k i ' s c o n f i d e n c e a n d h e r m a r r i e d l i f e a r e u n s e t t l e d b y the p r e s e n c e o f the p r i n c e s s .  C o n s e q u e n t l y , she s t a t e s m a n y t i m e s t h a t she  w a n t s to b e c o m e a n u n , but G e n j i w i l l not a l l o w h e r to do s o . young any m o r e ,  but she b e c o m e s m o r e b e a t i f u l y e a r - b y - y e a r .  n i g h t she h a s h e r w o m e n r e a d o l d s t o r i e s to h e r .  She i s n o t One l o n e l y  She n o t e s t h a t i n t h o s e  -54s t o r i e s , m e n w i t h a m o r o u s w a y s a l w a y s s e t t l e d o w n w i t h one w o m a n i n the end.  L a t e r , t h i n k i n g about her u n c e r t a i n l i f e ,  she cannot s l e e p .  d u r i n g the n i g h t , s h e i s s e i z e d w i t h v i o l e n t c h e s t p a i n s . g o a w a y , a n d she b e c o m e s s e v e r e l y i l l . illness,  Then,  T h e s e do n o t  G e n j i , v e r y c o n c e r n e d about h e r  spends m o s t of h i s t i m e beside h e r . K a s h i w a g i w a s m a r r i e d to the S e c o n d P r i n c e s s w h o i s a h a l f  of the T h i r d P r i n c e s s .  sister  B u t s t i l l he i s not a b l e to f o r g e t the T h i r d P r i n c e s s .  O n e n i g h t he t a k e s a d v a n t a g e of G e n j i ' s a b s e n c e a n d v i s i t s the T h i r d P r i n cess.  O n t h a t n i g h t he d r e a m s of h i s c a t , a n d i n h i s d r e a m he s e e m s t o  h a v e b r o u g h t i t b a c k to the p r i n c e s s , w h i c h i s a p r e d i c t i o n of the b i r t h of h i s s o n .  G e n j i l a t e r f o u n d out a b o u t t h i s v i s i t t h r o u g h a l e t t e r  from  K a s h i w a g i to the p r i n c e s s w h i c h s h e c a r e l e s s l y h a s l e f t l a y i n g a r o u n d . O w i n g to t h i s l a p s e , the l i v e s of the t w o y o u n g p e o p l e c o l l a p s e . K a s h i w a g i , t h i n k i n g he c a n n o t l i v e o n w i t h G e n j i ' s a n g e r , a n d w e a k e r b e c a u s e of n e r v o u s a n x i e t y . v o w s a f t e r g i v i n g b i r t h to a s o n .  becomes  weaker  The p r i n c e s s takes r e l i g i o u s  Soon after that K a s h i w a g i d i e s .  The  w h o l e c o u r t r e g r e t s h i s p a s s i n g ; e v e n G e n j i feels s a d about K a s h i w a g i ' s short life. A l l of the p e o p l e a r e q u i t e c o n v i n c e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t G e n j i i s v e r y p l e a s e d to h a v e a s o n b o r n o f a p r i n c e s s w h i l e he i s i n h i s l a t e r Genji,  years.  h o w e v e r , i s n o t h a p p y i n the m i d s t o f a l l o f the e x c i t e m e n t .  i s l a m e n t i n g a n d r e m e m b e r i n g the m i s c o n d u c t of h i s y o u n g e r d a y s .  He He  -55i s n o w i n the s a m e p o s i t i o n t h a t h i s f a t h e r w a s i n , a n d he i s t e r r i f i e d b y the t h o u g h t t h a t r e t r i b u t i o n h a s no d o u b t c o m e b e c a u s e of h i s m i s d e e d s ,  just as  w h e n he w a s i n e x i l e , he w a s f r i g h t e n e d b y the i d e a of fate (  ).  ~tH:'  W h e n the l i t t l e b o y r e a c h e s h i s f i f t i e t h d a y , G e n j i c o m e s a n d v i e w s him.  While Genji is holding h i m in his a r m s ,  he-can say nothing and  r e v e a l nothing: T h e l i t t l e b o y w a s c h a r m i n g , e s p e c i a l l y the s t n i l i n g , h a p p y e y e s a n d m o u t h . W o u l d n o t e v e r y o n e n o t i c e the r e s e m b l a n c e to the f a t h e r ? G e n j i t h o u g h t o f K a s h i w a g i , u n a b l e to s h o w t h i s s e c r e t l i t t l e k e e p s a k e to h i s g r i e v i n g p a r e n t s w h o h a d l o n g e d f o r at l e a s t a g r a n d c h i l d to r e m e m b e r h i m b y . H e thought how s t r a n g e i t w a s that a young m a n so c o m p o s e d and p r o u d a n d a m b i t i o u s s h o u l d have d e s t r o y e d h i m s e l f . H i s r e s e n t m e n t q u i t e l e f t h i m , a n d he w a s i n t e a r s . T h e e n d of G e n j i ' s p o r t i o n of the s t o r y i s at h a n d . even fully recovering f r o m her i l l n e s s .  M u r a s a k i dies without  T h e w o r l d s e e m s to be s l i p p i n g  through his fingers. A g a i n a b r i g h t s p r i n g h a s c o m e , but i t i s d a r k f o r h i m . the v e r s e ,  " A n d w h y h a s s p r i n g s o g r a c i o u s l y c o m e to v i s i t .  w h e r e t h e r e i s none to a d m i r e the b l o s s o m s ?  1 1  ^^  He utters  A lodging  "I have a l w a y s had  e v e r y t h i n g " , he t e l l s M u r a s a k i ' s w o m e n , T h a t w a s the s t a t i o n i n l i f e I w a s b o r n t o . Y e t i t h a s a l w a y s s e e m e d that I was m e a n t f o r s a d things too. I have often w o n d e r e d w h e t h e r the B l e s s e d O n e w a s not d e t e r m i n e d to m a k e m e see m o r e than o t h e r s what a u s e l e s s , i n s u b s t a n t i a l w o r l d i t i s . I p r e t e n d e d t h a t I d i d n o t s e e the p o i n t , a n d n o w a s m y l i f e c o m e s to a c l o s e I k n o w the u l t i m a t e i n s o r r o w . I see a n d a c c e p t m y own i n a d e q u a c i e s a n d the d i s a b i l i t i e s I b r o u g h t w i t h m e f r o m o t h e r lives. 1  0  2  -56F i n a l l y , G e n j i ' s o w n d e a t h i s o n l y h i n t e d at b y the c h a p t e r t i t l e : K u m o G a k u r e ( H i d i n g B e h i n d the C l o u d s ) . this chapter,  T h e r e i s o n l y the t i t l e f o r  no t e x t .  B o t h " U t t a r a K a n d a " (The R a m a y a n a ) a n d " W a k a n a " (The T a l e of Genji) w h i c h d e a l w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e h e r o e s ' s l a m e n t a t i o n , have a similar structure. chapters,  N e i t h e r of t h e m f o l l o w s the t h e m e s o f the p r e c e d i n g  a n d i n b o t h o f t h e m the tone o f the s t o r y c h a n g e s .  Both begin  b y t e l l i n g o f the p a s t ; the m a i n s t o r i e s a r e p r e c e d e d b y p a s s a g e s d e a l i n g w i t h s o m e a s p e c t o f the h e r o ' s p a s t l i f e ' .  In other w o r d s , these p a r t s  are  a k i n d o f i n t r o d u c t i o n to the c e n t r a l s t o r i e s a b o u t the h e r o e s i n w h i c h t h e y u n d e r g o a n i n t e r n a l i z e d o r d e a l , n a m e l y , the c o l l a p s e o f t h e i r m a r r i a g e s . T h e h e r o e s ' s p a s t a n d the g l o r y of t h e i r p a s t b e c o m e the b a s i s of n e w stories.  T h e r e f o r e i t i s p o s s i b l e to s a y t h a t the h e r o e s ' s  lamentation  i n t h e i r l a t e r d a y s i s n e i t h e r a m e r e r e p e t i t i o n n o r a n e w v e r s i o n o f the o r d e a l s of t h e i r youth.  It i s a n e w a n d m o r e p r o f o u n d p r o b l e m w h i c h  g r o w s out o f t h e i r p a s t . T h e m a r r i a g e w i t h the T h i r d P r i n c e s s w h i c h s h o u l d h a v e m a r k e d the h i g h p o i n t , b e c o m e s i n s t e a d s o m e t h i n g w h i c h at f i r s t d i s t u r b s the peace of his i n n e r w o r l d and f i n a l l y d e s t r o y s his w o r l d .  It i s j u s t l i k e  one d r o p o f w a t e r o n a s t i l l p o o l c a u s i n g r i p p l e s to s p r e a d i n e v e n widening c i r c l e s .  I n t h i s t a l e a l l the i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r s l i v e i n a  m i n i t u r e s o c i e t y of the c o u r t a r o u n d G e n j i .  The relationships among  t h e s e p e o p l e g r e a t l y c o n t r i b u t e to the r e a d e r s ' s e n j o y m e n t of t h i s t a l e . S o m e t i m e s the a u t h o r p u t s h e r s e l f i n t o the m i n d s of t h e s e a n d d e s c r i b e s G e n j i f r o m t h e i r p o i n t s of v i e w .  characters,,  M u r a s a k i and K a s h i w a g i ,  e v e n the T h i r d P r i n c e s s , k e e p t h e i r o w n p l a c e s i n the t a l e s o t h a t i t c a n e v e n be s a i d t h a t the r e a l i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r s a r e the w o m e n s u r r o u n d i n g Genji,  not G e n j i h i m s e l f .  In t h a t w a y G e n j i ' s w o r l d i s c l o s e to t h a t o f o u r s .  The people a r o u n d us a r e m o r e i m p o r t a n t than we r e a l i z e . The R a m a y a n a accomplishment. beautiful v e r s e s , o r d e a l by f i r e ,  o n the o t h e r h a n d p r e s e n t s a d i f f e r e n t s o r t o f l i t e r a r y  The R a m a y a n a w h i c h achieves l i t e r a r y perfection i n its f o c u s e s m a i n l y on R a m a ' s l i f e .  A s it is shown i n Sita's  h e r e the d i v i n e c o u p l e o f R a m a a n d S i t a a r e a l w a y s the  f i g u r e s o f the t a l e a n d a f o c u s o f puMic i n t e r e s t .  central  C o m p a r e d to t h i s R a m a  s t a n d s j u s t l i k e a s h i n i n g s u n i n h i s e p i c , G e n j i i s m o r e l i k e the m o o n , s h i n i n g but s o m e h o w w e a k e r a n d m o r e s e n s i t i v e . the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e i r l a m e n t a t i o n s .  These differences  reflect  A l l the d e s c r i p t i o n o f e a c h e v e n t i n  T h e R a m a y a n a i s m u c h m o r e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d t h a n i n T h e T a l e of G e n j i . It i s s o d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t t h a t s o m e t i m e s G e n j i g i v e s the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t he l i v e s i n s h a d o w y p a r t s o f the w o r l d .  In d e a l i n g w i t h the s a m e s o r t of  t h e m e s e a c h w o r k has i t s o w n o r i g i n a l a p p r o a c h . structures  H o w e v e r , the l i t e r a r y  o f the c o n c e r n e d p a r t s h a v e s o m e b a s i c s i m i l a r i t i e s .  I shall  d i s c u s s this next. The R a m a y a n a c o n s i s t s of s e v e n K a n d a s ;  Bala Kanda, Ayodhya  K a n d a , A r a n y a Kjjrida, K r i s h K i n d h a , S u n d a r a K a n d a , Y u d d h a K a n d a , a n d  -58Uttara Kanda.  The last,  " U t t a r a K a n d a " , w h i c h r e c o u n t s the t a l e of R a m a ' s  v i c t o r y o v e r R a v a n a , b e g i n s b y r e t e l l i n g the s t o r y of R a v a n a , o f the o r i g i n of the R a k s h a s e s w h i c h R a v a n a b e l o n g s t o , a n d o f H u n u m a n ' s c h i l d h o o d . T h e s e s t o r i e s o f the p a s t o c c u p y the f i r s t - h a l f of " U t t a r a K a n d a " .  Then  c o m e s the p a r t i n w h i c h R a m a h e a r s o f the p e o p l e t a l k i n g a b o u t S i t a . t h i s K a n d a the w h o l e l i f e s t o r y of R a v a n a i n t r o d u c e d b y the S a g e A g a s t y a .  Rama  w h o m R a m a h a s defeated,-  In is  w h o i s the v i c t o r i o u s k i n g of  A y o d h y a , l i s t e n s to the s t o r y of A g a s t y a . R a m a ' s g l o r y i s a g a i n r e t o l d i n t h i s s t o r y of h i s p a s t v i c t o r i e s , a n d t h i s b e c o m e s a n i n t r o d u c t i o n to the u p c o m i n g s t o r y . A l m o s t h a l f o f " U t t a r a K a n d a , " c o n s i s t s o f a s e r i e s of the f r o m the e a r l i e r p a r t o f T h e R a m a y a n a a s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e . -  stories  Compared  t o t h a t the p o r t i o n o f the p a s t s t o r y i n " W a k a n a " i s s m a l l arid p r e s e n t e d m a i n l y i n the. c o n v e r s a t i o n . T h e f i r s t p a r t of " W a k a n a " i s a s e r i e s of l o n g c o n v e r s a t i o n s b e t w e e n the S u z a k u E m p e r o r a n d v a r i o u s o t h e r p e o p l e . t i o n s c o m p l e t e l y c h a n g e the tone of the b o o k .  These conversa-  The Suzaku E m p e r o r is  i n p o o r h e a l t h a n d i s e a g e r to f i n d a g o o d s o n - i n - l a w i n the h u s b a n d f o r h i s f a v o r i t e , the T h i r d P r i n c e s s . daughter»s marriage. emperor, in-law.  The conversations,  concern his  F i r s t he t a l k s w i t h h i s s o n , the  current  t h e n w i t h Y u g i r i , G e n j i ' s s o n w h o m he w a n t s to be h i s s o n T h e w o m e n of the S u z a k u E m p e r o r ' s h o u s e h a v e a l l g a t h e r e d  -59f o r a l o o k at t h i s h a n d s o m e y o u n g m a n a n d t h e y p r a i s e h i m ,  B u t , the o l d e r  w o m e n s a y t h a t G e n j i w a s m o r e h a n d s o m e at the s a m e a g e .  The Suzaku  E m p e r o r o v e r h e a r s t h e s e w o m e n , a n d r e m a r k s to t h e m , Y e s , G e n j i w a s u n i q u e . B u t w h y . do y o u s a y 'that age*? H e h a s o n l y i m p r o v e d a s the y e a r s h a v e gone b y . I o f t e n s a y to m y s e l f t h a t the w o r d ' r a d i a n t ' w a s i n v e n t e d e s p e c i a l l y f o r h i m . 104 T h e n he c o n t i n u e s , " H e ( G e n j i ) g r e w up a t c o u r t a n d he w a s o u r f a v o u r i t e , the j o y a n d t r e a s u r e  of h i s l i f e " .  T h e n the S u z a k u E m p e r o r s u m m o n s the n u r s e s o f the Princess.  father's  Third  T h e y p r e f e r G e n j i to Y u g i r i b e c a u s e t h e y s a y Y u g i r i i s v e r y  d e v o t e d to h i s w i f e a n d n o t h i n g c a n p u l l h i m a w a y f r o m h e r .  O n e of  them says, I s h o u l d t h i n k t h a t c h a n c e s m i g h t be b e t t e r w i t h h i s father. It w o u l d s e e m t h a t G e n j i s t i l l h a s the o l d a c q u i s i t i v e i n s t i n c t s a n d t h a t he i s a l w a y s on the a l e r t f o r l a d i e s of r e a l l y g o o d p e d i g r e e . I a m t o l d t h a t he s t i l l t h i n k s o f the f o r m e r h i g h p r i e s t e s s of K a m a a n d s o m e t i m e s g e t s off a l e t t e r t o h e r . T h e S u z a k u E m p e r o r i s t o l d of G e n j i ' s i r r e s i s t i b l e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s a n d t h e n he r e m e m b e r s O b o r o z u k i y o , one o f h i s o w n w i v e s w h o o n c e h a d a n a f f a i r with Genji.  He decides on G e n j i .  G e n j i i s n o t the c h a r a c t e r w h o s e a c t i o n s c a r r y the p l o t h e r e .  It  i s G e n j i ' s p a s t t h a t i s u s e d b y the S u z a k u E m p e r o r to m a k e h i s j u d g m e n t . A l t h o u g h G e n j i i s not v e r y p l e a s e d w i t h t h i s m a r r i a g e a r r a n g e m e n t , a l s o t r u e t h a t the T h i r d P r i n c e s s i s the n i e c e o f h i s s t e p m o t h e r  it is  Fujitsubo,  =.60the w o m a n w h o m he l o n g e d f o r a l l d u r i n g h i s y o u t h ; c o n s e q u e n t l y ,  the  p r i n c e s s i s not w i t h o u t i n t e r e s t to h i m . G e n j i ' s p a s t i s a l s o e m p h a s i z e d i n " W a k a n a " b y the s t o r y o f the o l d m a n of A k a s h i  w h o i s the f a t h e r o f the L a d y o f A k a s h i a n d  of the A k a s h i P r i n c e s s . late mother.  grandfather  H e i s w e l l - b r e d a n d , i n f a c t , a c o u s i n of G e n j i ' s  In the y e a r the o l d m a n ' s d a u g h t e r ,  the L a d y A k a s h i ,  was  b o r n , he h a d a n a u s p i c i o u s d r e a m i n w h i c h he s u p p o r t e d the b l e s s e d M o u n t S u m e r u i n h i s r i g h t h a n d , a n d o n b o t h s i d e s of the m o u n t a i n the s u n a n d the m o o n w e r e p o u r i n g a d a z z l i n g r a d i a n c e o v e r the w o r l d . daughter's future b e c a m e his l i f e .  H e w i t h d r e w t o the c o u n t r y s i d e  t h e r e w a s a l i m i t to w h a t he c o u l d do i n the c a p i t a l .  His because  E v e r y y e a r he h a d  h i s d a u g h t e r m a k e a p i l g r i m a g e to the S u m i y o s h i S h r i n e .  When Genji  s p e n t h i s e x i l e d d a y s i n S u m a , the o l d m a n w a s e x c i t e d b e c a u s e h i s d r e a m had come true. G e n j i a n d L a d y A k a s h i l e a r n f r o m the o l d m a n ' s l o n g l a s t l e t t e r t h a t he b e l i e v e d i n a d r e a m a n d s p e n t h i s l i f e t r y i n g to f u l f i l l i t .  The  L a d y A k a s h i now k n o w s why h e r father has b e e n a m b i t i o u s , a n d shows h e r f a t h e r ' s l e t t e r to G e n j i : The o l d m a n had been thought i m p o s s i b l y e c c e n t r i c and wholly u n r e a l i s t i c i n his ambitions. Genji had been i n b a d c o n s c i e n c e a b o u t the w h o l e A k a s h i e p i s o d e . The c r o w n p r i n c e s s ' s b i r t h h a d s e e m e d to t e l l o f a b o n d f r o m a f o r m e r l i f e , but the f u t u r e h a d s e e m e d v e r y u n c e r t a i n a l l the s a m e . H e n o w s a w h o w m u c h t h a t one f r a g i l e  -61-  d r e a m h a d m e a n t to the o l d m a n . It h a d the a p p a r e n t l y w i l d a m b i t i o n to h a v e G e n j i a s a s o n - i n - l a w . G e n j i h a d s u f f e r e d i n e x i l e , i t n o w s e e m e d t h a t the c r o w n p r i n c e s s m i g h t be b o r n . H e a r i n g the n e w s t h a t the c r o w n p r i n c e s s h a s g i v e n b i r t h to a b a b y b o y , the o l d m a n m a d e h i s w a y i n t o the m o u n t a i n s . M i c h i o F u k a z a w a p o i n t s out t h a t i n l a t e r l i f e G e n j i m u s t p a y the p r i c e for. his g l o r i o u s past.  He mentions:  It i s n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t the d o w n f a l l w o u l d be m e a n i n g l e s s w i t h o u t the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f h i s g l o r i o u s youth. 1  0  8  T h e h a p p i n e s s a n d g l o r y w h i c h b o t h o f the h e r o e s o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h e x i l e l a t e r t u r n s out to be the c a u s e o f t h e i r l a m e n t a t i o n .  R a m a took Sita  b a c k , t h u s r i s k i n g h i s l i f e ; but s t i l l he h a d to a b a n d o n h e r l a t e r he w a s k i n g .  Genji,  because  a l s o h a v i n g a c h i e v e d a l l the g l o r y he w a n t e d ,  finally  m a r r i e d a l a d y o f the h i g h e s t r a n k , but i t w a s she w h o c a u s e d h i m t r o u b l e . N o w w e m u s t t u r n to a f u n d a m e n t a l p r o b l e m : l a m e n t a t i o n of the h e r o e s . exact answer.  h o w to i n t e r p r e t  the  It i s w i t h o u t doubt v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o g i v e a n  B u t , s o m e e x a m i n a t i o n o f the w r i t e r s t h e m s e l v e s  may  h e l p to i l l u m i n a t e t h i s p r o b l e m . W e do n o t e v e n k n o w the g i v e n n a m e o f the a u t h o r o f T h e T a l e of G e n j i .  W e c a l l h e r b y the p o p u l a r n a m e w h i c h w e m a y p r e s u m e w a s .  u s e d at the H e i a n c o u r t .  She l e f t a d i a r y :  D i a r y of M u r a s a k i S h i k i b u ) .  M u r a s a k i s h i k i b u n i k k i (The  F r o m i t w e c a n g a t h e r w h a t s o r t of p e r s o n  -62-  she w a s .  Also,  i t i s n o t d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d w h y she w r o t e a b o u t the  hero's lamentation in his later life.  B u t , b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g to t h i s d i s -  c u s s i o n , I w o u l d l i k e to e x p l a i n u n d e r w h a t c i r c u m s t a n c e s h e r d i a r y w a s written, because it w i l l make m y argument  clearer.  L a d y M u r a s a k i w e n t to c o u r t a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e of the f i r s t d e c a d e of the e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y t o j o i n the s e r v i c e o f E m p r e s s S h o s h i .  Her  d i a r y c o v e r s a b o u t t w o of the y e a r s a t c o u r t ( 1 0 0 8 - 1 0 10), d u r i n g w h i c h p e r i o d s h e w a s s o m e t i m e s a t u t o r f o r the e m p r e s s .  The m a i n events  i n h e r d i a r y a r e the b i r t h o f t w o s o n s t o the e m p r e s s . w e r e v e r y important events i n H e i a n p o l i t i c s .  These births  The e m p r e s s ' s  father,  M i c h i n a g a , w h o w a s the h e a d o f the m o s t p o w e r f u l c l a n of n o b l e s i n the H e i a n p e r i o d , h a d b e e n e a g e r l y a w a i t i n g the b i r t h of a g r a n d s o n w h i c h w o u l d g i v e h i m a v e r y s t a b l e p o s i t i o n at c o u r t , f a t h e r to a f u t u r e e m p e r o r .  s i n c e he w o u l d be a g r a n d -  T h u s , M i c h i n a g a s e c u r e d a p o s i t i o n of u n -  s h a k a b l e p o w e r i n H e i a n p o l i t i c s b e c a u s e of h i s g r a n d s o n s .  Therefore,  the e v e n t s w h i c h L a d y M u r a s a k i ' s d i a r y d e a l w i t h a r e c r u c i a l o n e s , the o b j e c t o f e v e r y b o d y ' s i n t e r e s t .  and  ( A s one w o u l d e x p e c t w i t h s u c h i m -  portant events, there were some v e r y luxurious ceremonies surrounding the b i r t h s , but t h e r e i s no n e e d t o d i s c u s s t h e m h e r e . ) L a d y M u r a s a k i saw those important events, was i m p r e s s e d , and took pleasure i n her m i s t r e s s .  H e r a d m i r a t i o n w a s p r o b a b l y the m o t i v a t -  ing force for her w r i t i n g her d i a r y .  B u t , s h e w a s the k i n d of i n t r o s p e c t i v e  -63p e r s o n w h o c o u l d not c o m p l e t e l y g i v e h e r s e l f up to l u x u r i o u s c o u r t Two contradictory feelings were interwoven i n her diary:  life.  a t t a c h m e n t to  court life and detachment f r o m it. It i s not c e r t a i n w h e n h e r d i a r y w a s w r i t t e n , a l t h o u g h i t w a s p r o b a b l y w h e n M u r a s a k i w a s a b o u t t h i r t y y e a r s o l d , not l o n g a f t e r b i r t h of the p r i n c e s . . she was a g e n i u s .  g^g  w  a  s  very intelligent:  the  it i s even s a i d that  B u t , she w a s n o t v e r y l u c k y i n h e r p e r s o n a l l i f e .  She  i s s a i d to h a v e b e e n m a r r i e d i n h e r e a r l y t w e n t i e s to a d i s t a n t o l d k i n s m a n , Nobutaka Fujiwara.  B u t , h e r m a r r i e d l i f e d i d not l a s t l o n g , f o r i n a few  y e a r s he l e f t h e r a l o n e w i t h a d a u g h t e r .  It s e e m s t h a t she s t a r t e d w r i t i n g  T h e T a l e o f G e n j i a f t e r she b e c a m e a w i d o w . Genji,  A s she w r o t e T h e T a l e o f  i t b e c a m e s o f a m o u s a n d p o p u l a r t h a t she* w a s r e q u e s t e d to c o m e  a n d l i v e at the c o u r t b y M i c h i n a g a . A t c o u r t she c o n t i n u e d t o w r i t e s u c c e s s f u l l y .  B u t , it was  t r u e t h a t she w a s n o t l e a d i n g a n o r d i n a r y l i f e a s a w o m a n . g i v e s a u n i q u e p e r s p e c t i v e to h e r d i a r y . p r o u d o f l i v i n g at c o u r t , isolated.  also  This situation  O n the one h a n d she w a s v e r y  but o n the o t h e r h a n d ,  she a l w a y s f e l t s a d a n d  T h e m o r e she e n j o y e d h e r l i f e at c o u r t the m o r e d e e p l y  she  b e c a m e d i s t r e s s e d by her own i n t r o s p e c t i o n . In h e r d i a r y she d e s c r i b e d the E m p e r o r ' s v i s i t to the m a n s i o n w h i c h M i c h i n a g a owned.  Tsuchimikado  A m o n g ' t h e a c c o u n t s of l a v i s h  she l e f t h e r d e s c r i t p i o n s o f the b e a r e r s o f the E m p e r o r ' s  cart:  ceremonies,  -64The r o y a l c a r t has a r r i v e d . The m u s i c p e r f o r m e d on b o a t s s o u n d e d s u p e r b . W h e n the r o y a l c a r t d r e w up t o the s t a i r s of the m a n s i o n , I s a w the b e a r e r s as-? c e n d i n g the s t a i r s w i t h t h e i r b a c k s b e n t a n d b o w e d u n c o m f o r t a b l y . W h e n t h e y r e a c h e d the top t h e y t h e n h a d to k o w t o w . B u t , s e e i n g t h e m r e m i n d e d m e t h a t I a m i n the s a m e p o s i t i o n a s t h e y a r e . E v e n i n c o u r t t h e r e i s l i m i t i n r a n k , so I o b s e r v e that c o u r t l i f e i s not e a s y . W h e n t h i s E m p e r o r ' s state v i s i t w a s a p p r o a c h i n g , she w r o t e a p o e m on l o o k i n g at d u c k s (  JL,  ) o n the l a k e o f M i c h i n a g a ' s g a r d e n :  D u c k s o n the w a t e r . . . A m I the s a m e a s t h o s e d u c k s ? Living in a fluid world. T h e n she a d d e d : r T h e y l o o k l i k e t h e y a r e e n j o y i n g t h e m s e l v e s , but i n r e a l i t y , I t h i n k , they a r e s u f f e r i n g . I c a n see m y own self i n t h e m . . T h e s e t w o q u o t e s s h o w h e r to be s u c h a p e s s i m i s t i c p e r s o n t h a t the  reader  m i g h t get the i m p r e s s i o n she m i g h t c o m m i t s u i c i d e o r p e r h a p s t a k e h o l y orders. vows.  In f a c t she m e n t i o n e d t h a t s h e w a s i n t e r e s t e d i n t a k i n g r e l i g i o u s A l t h o u g h J a p a n e s e s c h o l a r s doubt t h a t p a r t o f h e r d i a r y i s h e r  interpolated letter,  i n t h i s p a r t w e l e a r n t h a t she w a s n o t q u i t e a b l e to  d e c i d e to l e a v e the w o r l d .  She s t o o d i n b e t w e e n . . She c o u l d n o t a b a n d o n  t h i s w o r l d , e v e n though she found l i f e m e a n i n g l e s s .  B u t she s a i d t h a t  s h e e x p e r i e n c e d s o m u c h m i s e r y t h a t she n o w t h o u g h t o f b e c o m i n g a m a n . N e v e r t h e l e s s s h e w a s a f r a i d t h a t she m i g h t n o t be a b l e to m a i n t a i n h e r v o w s once she took t h e m .  This w o r l d still held her:  -65N o w , I s h o u l d s a y w h a t I w a n t to d o . So f a r I h a v e a v o i d e d saying disagreeable things. N o m a t t e r what other people s a y , I w o u l d l i k e o n l y to s t u d y the s u t r a s , f o l l o w i n g A m i t a b h a B u d d h a ' s s u g g e s t i o n s . I h a v e r e a c h e d the s t a t e w h e r e n o t h i n g i n t h i s w o r l d m a t t e r s to m e . So I s h o u l d n o t w a i t t o b e c o m e a nun any m o r e . But I a m a f r a i d that even i f I took r e l i g i o u s v o w s , I m i g h t w a v e r s a t o r i ( l i b e r a t i o n ) . T h a t i s the o n l y r e a s o n w h y I h e s i t a t e to t a k e v o w s . I a m r e a c h i n g the a g e t h a t one t a k e s v o w s * I f I w a i t a n y l o n g e r , i t w i l l b e c o m e d i f f i c u l t to r e a d the s u t r a s . A l s o I m i g h t b e c o m e l a z y . Although it might sound like I a m superficially r e l i g i o u s , i n f a c t t h a t i s a l l t h a t I p a y a t t e n t i o n to t h e s e d a y s . H o w e v e r , t h e r e i s no c e r t a i n t y that a sinful p e r s o n l i k e m y s e l f c a n e v e r r e a c h s a t o r i . B e c a u s e I m u s t have been so bad i n m y p r e v i o u s e x i s t e n c e s that that i s why I n e v e r h a v e b e e n a b l e to a c c o m p l i s h a n y t h i n g g o o d i n t h i s l i f e . So I c a n n o t h e l p b u t t a k e a p e s s i m i s t i c v i e w o f m y c h a n c e s for s a t o r i . It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to r e m e m b e r t h a t a p e r s o n s u c h a s t h i s w r o t e the Genji:  exile, return,  and lamentation.  world is M u r a s a k i ' s world.  T h e G e n j i i s f i c t i o n , but G e n j i ' s  M u r a s a k i o b s e r v e d the t h i n g s h a p p e n i n g i n  the o u t s i d e w o r l d w i t h the e y e s o f a w r i t e r . introspective.  B u t she r e m a i n e d d e e p l y  It w a s n a t u r a l f o r h e r to l o o k i n t o h e r h e r o ' s i n n e r w o r l d  and examine his inner motivations.  She t e l l s u s t h a t s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s  a n d i n d i v i d u a l i s m a r e not i d e a s t h a t w e r e c r e a t e d i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . She w o u l d not have b e e n s a t i s f i e d w i t h g i v i n g T h e T a l e of G e n j i a happy ending.  M o r e importantly, however, this introspective person was  -66w a n d e r i n g b e t w e e n t w o w o r l d s , the w o r l d o f i n d i v i d u a l a n d t h a t o f the world.  outer  She d i d n o t f i n d i t e a s y to d e c i d e w h e t h e r she s h o u l d t a k e r e l i g i o u s  vows or not.  T h i s i s p o s s i b l y b e c a u s e she was: a t t a c h e d to. the w o r l d o f  human emotion.  F o r h e r , w e c a n s a y , the e x a m i n a t i o n of the i n n e r w o r l d  of m a n ' s p s y c h e w a s t o o i m p o r t a n t to c a s t a w a y f o r h e r o w n e n l i g h t e n m e n t . N o one k n o w s w h a t b e c a m e o f h e r l a t e r . . religious vows. Genji,  E v e n t u a l l y she m i g h t have t a k e n  B u t a t l e a s t a r o u n d the t i m e w h e n s h e w r o t e T h e T a l e o f  she w a s s t i l l u n c e r t a i n w h e t h e r she s h o u l d t a k e v o w s o r n o t . The  a u t h o r of T h e R a m a y a n a , V a l m i k i ,  philosophical work:  T h e Y o g a V a s i s t h a (or The M a h a r a m a y a ) .  t h e r e i s s o m e doubt a s to the l a t t e r , same author,  i s s a i d to h a v e w r i t t e n a Although  I w i l l be a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e y h a v e the  a n d w i l l be u s i n g b o t h T h e R a m a y a n a a n d T h e Y o g a v a s i s t h a to  illustrate Valmiki's personality. The  Y o g a v a s i s t h a i s a w o r k of p h i l o s o p h y .  It s t a t e s t h a t the f u n d a -  m e n t a l i d e a of the u n i v e r s e i s t h a t t h i s w o r l d i s o n l y the i m a g i n a t i o n of the . L o g o s ( C o s m i c M i n d ) .  J u s t a s the c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f a d r e a m e r  a s a d r e a m , the S u p r e m e C o n s c i o u s n e s s a p p e a r s a s t h i s w o r l d . this w o r l d is as u n r e a l as a d a y d r e a m . "In r e a l i t y t h e r e i s no w o r l d . .  .  .  •"  appears  Therefore,  V a l m i k i put it quite s u c c i n c t l y ,  T h e r e i s no w o r l d .  There is B r a h m a alone  T h u s , the u l t i m a t e s t a t e o f l i b e r a t i o n f o r h u m a n b e i n g s i s  a t t a i n e d b y b e c o m i n g one w i t h the r e a l i t y o f t h i s w o r l d , a n d t h u s f r e e a l l d e s i r e and action.  from  -67In T h e Y o g a v a s i s t h a , the i m p o r t a n c e o f h u m a n e f f o r t i s e m p h a s i z e d . A c c o r d i n g to t h i s w o r k t h e r e i s n o t h i n g l i k e d e s t i n y a n d o u r p r e v i o u s are our destiny;  The Yogavasistha says,  efforts  " T h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n the w o r l d  w h i c h c a n n o t be a c h i e v e d b y m e n b y r i g h t s o r t of e f f o r t s .  .  .; "  If  w e s u m m a r i z e T h e Y o g a v a s i s t h a , i t c a n be s a i d t h a t .this i s a w o r k e m p h a s i z i n g m a n ' s e f f o r t s a n d h i s p o s s i b i l i t y of a t t a i n i n g l i b e r a t i o n t h r o u g h 112 e f f o r t s w i t h i n the f r a m e w o r k of the S u p r e m e C o s m i c O r d e r . In T h e R a m a y a n a , character.  V a l m i k i - i s not o n l y i t s c o m p o s e r ,  but a l s o a  F o r e x a m p l e , he w a s ^ t h e p e r s o n w h o o f f e r e d p r o t e c t i o n to  S i t a w h e n she w a s a b a n d o n e d i n the f o r e s t . .  This might contradict Narada's  s t o r y a b o u t ' R a m a , w h i c h i s t o l d at the b e g i n n i n g of the e p i c .  When V a l m i k i  f i r s t h e a r d of R a m a ' s s t o r y f r o m N a r a d a , . R a m a had a l r e a d y d i e d .  Narada  c l e a r l y s a y s , t o w a r d s the c l o s e of h i s s h o r t s t o r y a b o u t R a m a , "he  (Rama)  113  r e t u r n e d to h i s c e l e s t i a l a b o d e ,  Vaikuntha. "  • B u t we s h o u l d f o r g i v e h i m b e c a u s e he w a s s o d e v o t e d to h i s s t o r y t h a t he w r o t e h i m s e l f i n t o the p l o t .  H o w e v e r , the p o i n t w h i c h n e e d s a t -  t e n t i o n h e r e i s that,, a s the e x i s t e n c e o f N a r a d a ' s s t o r y s h o w s ,  Valmiki  i s n o t l i k e l y the a u t h o r of T h e R a m a y a n a i n the s t r i c t s e n s e o f the w o r d . B u t , p r o b a b l y he d i d w r i t e the f i n e s t v e r s i o n of the s t o r y o f R a m a w h i c h 114 had been handed down by o r a l t r a d i t i o n . It i s d a n g e r o u s to c o n s i d e r the s t o r i e s c o n c e r n i n g V a l m i k i i n The R a m a y a n a as r e a l .  They are m o r e or less legendary stories.  We  -68k n o w n e x t to n o t h i n g a b o u t h i m .  H o w e v e r , t h o s e s t o r i e s of V a l m i k i m i g h t  g i v e u s s o m e h i n t s a b o u t h o w a n d w h y he c o m p o s e d T h e R a m a y a n a . N e x t I w o u l d l i k e to i n t r o d u c e h o w V a l m i k i e n t e r s the e p i c a s a n a u t h o r a n d one of the  characters.  V a l m i k i c r e a t e d the m e t r i c a l f o r m c a l l e d ' S h l o k a ' i n w h i c h he c o m posed his poetry,  T h e R a m a y a n a , out o f h i s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e ; f o r e x a m p l e ,  he s a w a h u n t e r s h o o t i n g a m a l e b i r d o f a p a i r o f K r a u n c h a b i r d s i n the forest.  L o o k i n g o n the s i g h t , he w a s d e e p l y t o u c h e d b y the c r y o f the  f e m a l e b i r d a n d i n c e n s e d b y the d e e d o f the h u n t e r .  115  T h e n he s a i d ,  H u n t e r , h a v i n g s l a i n t h i s b i r d i n the m i d s t of e n j o y m e n t with its mate m a y s t thou seek in v a i n for a resting place forever.11° S o o n a f t e r t h a t , he n o t i c e d the w o r d s he h a d j u s t s a i d out of a n g e r a p o e m , w i t h four stanzas,  comprised  e a c h o f e q u a l s y l l a b l e s w h i c h w o u l d be c a l l e d  •shloka' (grief). The immediate m o t i v a t i o n for his composing The R a m a y a n a was h i s g r i e f a n d d e s p a i r at s e e i n g a b i r d b e i n g k i l l e d . of the c o s m i c o r d e r , i n the w o r l d ,  a n d the i n d i v i d u a l w o r l d ( m i c r o c o s m ) .  community, society, and universe,  consciousness.  H e r e we see a c y c l e M a n exists  each having an individual  L a d y M u r a s a k i w a s w a n d e r i n g , b e t w e e n the  of B u d d h a ' s w o r l d and h e r own s t i l l e m o t i o n a l w o r l d .  enlightenment  A s f a r a s the c o m -  p o s i t i o n o f l i t e r a r y w o r k s i s c o n c e r n e d , w e m i g h t be a b l e t o l o c a t e the m y s t e r y of l i t e r a r y c o m p o s i t i o n i n the c o n f l i c t w i t h i n a n a u t h o r  between  -69the i n d i v i d u a l w o r l d a n d the o u t e r w o r l d .  Emotion can m i s l e a d man and  b e c o m e a m o s t p o w e r f u l o b s t a c l e to e n l i g h t e n m e n t .  But still  Valmiki  a n d L a d y M u r a s a k i see i n e m o t i o n one of the m o s t b e a u t i f u l t h i n g s i n t h i s world.  R a m a and G e n j i a r e not c o m p l e t e l y free f r o m t h e i r e m o t i o n , a  fact that m i g h t a t t r a c t  readers.  117  -70C H A P T E R IV CONCLUSION T h u s f a r w e h a v e d i s c u s s e d the h e r o i c c y c l e :  exile and  return,  a n d l a m e n t i n T h e R a m a y a n a a n d T h e T a l e of G e n j i .  B u t how m a y we  i n t e r p r e t the l i t e r a r y m e a n i n g o f t h i s h e r o i c c y c l e ?  What motivates  two heroes throughout their o r d e a l s ?  the  W h a t n e c e s s i t a t e s the e x t e r n a l a n d 118  internal descents?  Both C h a r l e s M o o r m a n i n King and Captains  J o s e p h C a m p b e l l i n T h e H e r o w i t h «i T h o u s a n d F a c e s ^ ^  and  approach these  issues only p a r t i a l l y . In K i n g a n d C a p t a i n s , M o o r m a n d i s t i n g u i s h e s t w o v a l u e s y s t e m s heroic literature,  t h a t of the k i n g a n d t h a t of the h e r o .  A c h i l l e s ' s l i f e w i t h A g a m e m n o n ' s i n the I l i a d . c a l m and responsible,  in  He contrasts  A c h i l l e s w h o i s at f i r s t  b e c o m e s a v i c t i m of h i s o w n u n y i e l d i n g f u r y .  A g a m e m n o n , o n the o t h e r h a n d , m o v e s f r o m s e l f i s h w r a t h to a s e n s e of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of h i s o f f i c e .  M o o r m a n further  studies these sets  o f v a l u e s i n the O d y s s e y , B e o w u l f , T h e S o n g of R o l a n d , T h e N i b e l u n g e n l i e d , The Icelandic Sagas,  and The A r t h u r L e g e n d, and  says:  T h u s the k i n g - - A g a m e m n o n , C h a r l e m a g n e , A r t h u r - - i n c r e a t ing his nation and later i n exemplifying its i m a g e , m u s t leave i t s a c t i v e d e f e n s e to l e s s e r , o r a t a n y r a t e to l e s s i d e a l i z e d , f i g u r e s , to A c h i l l e s o r R o l a n d o r G a w a i n , t h a t ( s i c ) t h e s e a r e indeed l e s s i d e a l i z e d m e n ; though they a r e h e r o e s , they a r e e s s e n t i a l l y s u b j e c t s r a t h e r t h a n k i n g s a n d a s s u c h b e a r the f a u l t s of g e n e r a l h u m a n i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y a n o v e r w e e n i n g p r i d e , a k i n g of h u b r i s , i n t h e i r o w n a b i l i t y . T h e y a r e  essentially egotistical; their own reputation, their own h o n o r i s to t h e m o f s u p r e m e i m p o r t a n c e . U n l i k e the k i n g s , they n e v e r p l a c e n a t i o n a l safety o r n a t i o n a l honor above t h e i r own safety and honor. Hence they s a c r i f i c e n a t i o n to s e l f a n d b r i n g d o w n u p o n c o m m i t t e e s a n d R o u n d T a b l e the t r a g i c r e s u l t s o f t h e i r p r i c e . W h e n w e a p p l y M o o r m a n ' s t w o s e t s o f h e r o i c v a l u e s to the t w o k i n d s of descent,  we m a y o b s e r v e that i n t h e i r e x i l e s R a m a and G e n j i  have h e r o i c q u a l i t i e s , and i n t h e i r l a m e n t a b l e l a t e r days they have k i n g l y qualities; Genji taking a kingly position becomes a central political figure in his later days.  T h e r e f o r e t h e i r d e s c e n t s m a y be i n t e r p r e t e d a s a  p r o c e s s of a t r a n s i t f r o m h e r o to k i n g .  M o o r m a n p o i n t s out t h a t i n  O d y s s e u s w e c a n s e e the l i n k of the t w o k i n g l y a n d h e r o i c v a l u e s , O d y s s e u s has both q u a l i t i e s . ^ *  because  M o o r m a n c o n s i d e r s the w a n d e r i n g of  O d y s s e u s t o be a n e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s t h r o u g h w h i c h h i s c h a r a c t e r developed.  is  A f t e r reaching Ithaca Odysseus r e s u m e s his legitimate  p o s i t i o n as a k i n g . S i m i l a r l y , the d e s c e n t s of o u r h e r o e s ' s l i v e s m a y p o s s i b l y be c o n s i d e r e d to be a s o r t of e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s ; h o w e v e r ,  Moorman's  t w o s e t s of v a l u e s do n o t f u l l y e x p l a i n t w o i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f the i n g o f the t w o d e s c e n t s .  Unlike Odysseus,  mean-  i n our h e r o e s ' s later l i v e s  t h e i r s e n s e of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as k i n g s does not n e c e s s a r i l y p r o m i s e t h e m personal happiness.  A n d , unlike O d y s s e u s , i n their later days R a m a  a n d G e n j i a r e n o t h e r o e s of a c t i o n a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e i r o r d e a l s internalized.  are  M o o r m a n ' s t h e o r y p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l a p p r o a c h t o the  ( -72characters  of R a m a a n d G e n j i ; h o w e v e r , i t c a n n o t f u l l y e n c o m p a s s  these  two l a m e n t s . The h e r o i c c y c l e , e x i l e - r e t u r n , i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a p r o c e s s of a w a r e n e s s of u n i v e r s a l o n e n e s s by J o s e p h C a m p b e l l .  He states:  A n d s o , to g r a s p the f u l l v a l u e of the m y t h o l o g i c a l ' f i g u r e s t h a t h a v e c o m e d o w n to u s , w e m u s t u n d e r s t a n d t h e y a r e not o n l y s y m p t o m s o f the u n c o n s c i o u s (as i n d e e d a r e a l l h u m a n t h o u g h t s a n d a c t s ) , but a l s o c o n t r o l l e d a n d i n t e n d e d s t a t e m e n t s of c e r t a i n s p i r i t u a l p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h h a v e r e m a i n e d a s c o n s t a n t t h r o u g h o u t the c o u r s e o f h u m a n h i s t o r y . B r i e f l y f o r m u l a t e d , the u n i v e r s a l d o c t r i n e t e a c h e s t h a t a l l the v i s i b l e s t r u c t u r e s o f the w o r l d - - a l l t h i n g s a n d b e i n g s - - a r e the e f f e c t s o f a u b u q u i t o u s p o w e r out o f w h i c h t h e y r i s e w h i c h s u p p o r t s a n d f i l l s t h e m d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f t h e i r m a n i f e s t a t i o n and back into w h i c h they m u s t u l 1 22 timately dissolve. T h e p u r p o s e o f a h e r o ' s a d v e n t u r e i s to o p e n the d o o r t o a w o r l d of s u p e r consciousness,  a w o r l d whose dimension is forgotten in everyday life.  ultimate universal power, Campbell says,  The  is known as energy i n s c i e n c e ,  M a n a to the M a l a n s i a n s , W a k o n d a to the S i o u x I n d i a n s , S h a k t o to the H i n d u s , a n d the p o w e r o f G o d to the C h r i s t i a n s . c l a i m s o f the s u p e r c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  T h e h e r o r e p r e s e n t s the  H i s adventures  and r e t u r n a r e a m i c r o -  c o s m i c c y c l e o f the d i s c o v e r y o f o n e n e s s w i t h the c o s m i c p o w e r . Although C a m p b e l l ' s theory concerns only an external descent,  it  m a y i m p l y the p o s s i b i l i t y of i n t e r n a l d e s c e n t b e i n g a c o n t i n u i n g p r o c e s s t h r o u g h w h i c h the a w a r e n e s s o f u n i t y w i t h s u p e r c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s a c h i e v e d .  In tooth l a m e n t a t i o n s i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t the d i m e n s i o n s o f R a m a ' s a n d G e n j i ' s w o r l d s have changed after t h e i r r e t u r n s f r o m e x i l e , and that t h e y b o t h d e l v e d e e p e r i n t o the i n n e r w o r l d s of e x i s t e n c e .  However,  c a n we d e s c r i b e t h i s change as an a w a r e n e s s  superconseious-  ness?  of u n i t y w i t h  R a m a ' s a n d G e n j i ' s l a m e n t s s e e m to be t o o p e r s o n a l t o l e a d to a n  e n l i g h t e n m e n t of t h i s s o r t .  I w o u l d suggest that C a m p b e l l ' s t h e o r y a p -  p r o a c h e s o n l y the p h i l o s o p h i c a l a s p e c t s of t h e s e t w o l a m e n t s . W h e n we c o n s i d e r e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l descents f r o m a b r o a d e r p e r s p e c t i v e , w e m a y o b s e r v e one i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m . , i n the a p p e a r a n c e  o f a i d f r o m the u p p e r w o r l d .  and a i d are numerous and indispensable.  In e x i l e d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n  But in lament divine inter-  v e n t i o n w o r k s n e g a t i v e l y ( S i t a ' s d e s c e n t to the e a r t h , a w a r e n e s s bution of G e n j i ) . i n the h e r o e s ' s  of r e t r i -  D i v i n e m e s s a g e s a n d i n t e r v e n t i o n s e e m to c e a s e to a p p e a r stories.  W h e n e v e r a m a n s t a r t s t h i n k i n g of h i s w o r l d a s  i n d e p e n d e n t o f a n u p p e r w o r l d , the m y t h o l o g i c a l a g e i s o v e r , a n d a n e w era begins.  T h e r e f o r e , a f u l l e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the d e s c e n t s o f R a m a  a n d G e n j i i s to c o n s i d e r t h e i r d e s c e n t s a s a l i t e r a r y a c c o m p l i s h m e n t u s h e r s i n the c o m i n g n e w w o r l d o f l i t e r a t u r e .  which  I n t h i s n e w w o r l d a l l the  c h a r a c t e r s are free f r o m divine intervention, and instead, their inner senses, their psyches largely govern their stories.  It m a y be s a i d t h a t  T h e R a m a y a n a a n d T h e T a l e of G e n j i o p e n the d o o r t o m o d e r n l i t e r a t u r e .  -74T h e E a r t h G o d d e s s r e c e i v e s S i t a a n d d e s c e n d s i n t o the e a r t h . O f c o u r s e u n h a p p y e n d i n g s a r e n o t u n u s u a l i n e p i c s of the w o r l d .  For  e x a m p l e , w e c a n r e c a l l G i l g a m e s h ' s g r i e f a n d t h a t the e n d i n g of the Mahabharata was somewhat p e s s i m i s t i c . to s u f f e r i n t e r n a l i z e d o r d e a l s , stories,  and keep fighting.  B u t t h o s e h e r o e s do n o t  seem  t h e y r e m a i n a c t i v e t i l l the e n d o f t h e i r  E v e r y o n e w o n d e r s at i t a n d i s a m a z e d  seeing such an i n c r e d i b l e thing happen before their v e r y eyes.  at  I n the  m i d s t o f a l l t h i s e x c i t e m e n t R a m a i s t e r r i b l y d e p r e s s e d , f o r he h a s his l a s t hope.  lost  B r a h m a t e l l s h i m t h a t he w i l l r e j o i n S i t a i n h e a v e n .  R a m a is alone i n this scene, isolated emotionally from-other  people  a n d e v e n the G o d s , no one c a n - r e a l l y u n d e r s t a n d h i s f e e l i n g o r g r i e f . T h i s scene in "Uttara Kanda  1 1  d e s c r i b i n g S i t a ' s d e s c e n t i n t o the e a r t h  p a r a l l e l s the s c e n e i n " K a s h i w a g i " i n w h i c h G e n j i i s - h o l d i n g a b a b y b o y in his a r m s ,  b o r n o f the T h i r d P r i n c e s s ,  G e n j i i s a l m o s t i n t e a r s , but n o t b e c a u s e o f a l l the around h i m .  excitement  H e i s m o u r n i n g , t h i n k i n g a b o u t the i r o n y o f f a t e .  l o o k i n g at a c h a r m i n g l i t t l e boy i n his a r m s ,  While  he r e m e m b e r s the f a t h e r , -  K a s h i w a g i , w h o wfile he w a s s t i l l a y o u t h h a d d e s t r o y e d h i s l i f e . i s n o t i n a p o s i t i o n to c r i t i c i z e the y o u n g m a n , b e c a u s e G e n j i t h e s a m e s o r t of s i n f u l l o v e i n h i s y o u t h .  Genji  suffered  -75I n t h e s e s c e n e s b o t h R a m a a n d G e n j i s e e m to h a v e l o s t t h e i r r a d i ance.  T h e g r i e f s t h a t h e r o e s s u f f e r a r e d i f f e r e n t i n the k i n d .  t o r t u r e d b y the f e e l i n g o f h i s l o s s . of r e t r i b u t i o n .  R a m a is  G e n j i i s s t r i c k e n down by a w a r e n e s s  H o w e v e r , c o m p a r e d to t h e i r e x i l e d d a y s , one t h i n g ,is  m i s s i n g i n these scenes.  T h a t i s , the a i d f r o m the u p p e r w o r l d ,  powers which saved them  before.  In t h o s e s c e n e s b o t h h e r o e s a r e c o m p l e t e l y i s o l a t e d  characters.  N o one t h e r e t r i e s to u n d e r s t a n d the r e a l f e e l i n g s of.the h e r o e s . stand alone i n those scenes.  the  They  I n v i s i b l e s h a d o w s c r e e p the h e r o e s a n d r e -  m i n d u s o f the t r a n s i t o r y n a t u r e of b o t h h u m a n l i f e a n d i t s d e e d s . c a n n o t e x p e c t a n y a i d f r o m the u p p e r w o r l d .  They  It s e e m s t h a t the d i v i n e  p o w e r w h i c h rescued, t h e m f r o m t h e i r e x i l e is, now w o r k i n g against them.  T h e i r destinies...:, a r e a l r e a d y f u l f i l l e d .  a n d G e n j i a r e m o r e p e a c e f u l o n the s u r f a c e , a r e wounded deep i n s i d e .  The l a t e r l i v e s of R a m a  b u t a t the s a m e t i m e t h e y  It i s b e c a u s e b o t h s t o r i e s d e a l w i t h the p r o b l e m s  c o n c e r n i n g the r e s p e c t i v e h e r o ' s m a r r i e d l i f e . a w a r e n e s s of the t r a n s i t o r y n a t u r e of h u m a n l j f e  They a r e left w i t h an and deeds.  It g o e s w i t h o u t s a y i n g t h a t b e c a u s e T h e R a m a y a n a a n d T h e T a l e of G e n j i a r e the l i t e r a r y m a s t e r p i e c e s  of t w o d i s t a n t g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s  a n d d i s t i n c t l y different c u l t u r e , they have no d i r e c t l i t e r a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s e s s a y a r e m e r e l y i m p l i c a t i o n s of c o m p a r a t i v e study.  A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of the c o m p a r a t i v e  approach  to the s t u d y o f l i t e r a t u r e , h o w e v e r , i s to e n l a r g e the o v e r a l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g by h i g h l i g h t i n g c o n t r a s t s . the s t o r i e s :  T h e r e a p p e a r to be t w o m a i n d i f f e r e n c e s  between  the i n f l u e n c e o f the o r a l t r a d i t i o n , a n d the q u a l i t y o f the h e r o i c  theme. T h e R a m a y a n a a p p a r e n t l y h a s b e e n p a s s e d d o w n i n the o r a l t r a d i t i o n , but T h e T a l e o f G e n j i b a s i c a l l y a w o r k b y one a u t h o r .  Although The  T a l e o f G e n j i i s n o t c o m p l e t e l y f r e e f r o m the i n f l u e n c e o f o r a l t r a d i t i o n , i t c a n be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h i s i s the w o r k o f L a d y - M u r a s a k i . is a legendary author,  Contrarily,  Valmiki  p e r h a p s the l a s t a n d b e s t e d i t o r o f the s t o r y o f R a m a .  The tones of both e p i c s a r e quite different f r o m each other. i s m u c h m o r e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d t h a n the G e n j i .  The Ramayana  It i s p r o b a b l y p a r t l y b e c a u s e  o f the d i f f e r e n c e i n l a n g u a g e a n d l i t e r a r y s t y l e . a r e l o n g a n d q u i t e o f t e n the s u b j e c t s a r e o m i t t e d .  In o l d J a p a n e s e ,  sentences  The R a m a y a n a following  the o r a l t r a d i t i o n i s w r i t t e n i n v e r s e a n d w e c o u l d c a l l T h e T a l e o f G e n j i a w o r k of p o e t i c p r o s e . A s p r e v i o u s l y noted, battlefield,  T h e R a m a y a n a i s the s t o r y of a h e r o of the  a n d T h e T a l e o f G e n j i i s the s t o r y of a h e r o of the H e i a n c o u r t .  F o r t h i s r e a s o n the a u t h o r of the G e n j i d o e s n o t g i v e m u c h s p a c e f o r G e n j i ' s exiled days.  N o m a t t e r h o w i m p o r t a n t the i n c i d e n c e o f e x i l e i n G e n j i ' s  l i f e i s , b o t h the a u t h o r ' s a n d the r e a d e r ' s i n t e r e s t focus'^on c o u r t l i f e , w h i l e i n T h e R a m a y a n a R a m a ' s l i f e i n e x i l e s e e m s t o be m o s t i m p o r t a n t .  -77In e x a m i n i n g the c a u s e s of the a c t i o n i n b o t h T h e R a m a y a n a T h e T a l e of G e n j i w e c a n see a n i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e .  and  In T h e T a l e o f  G e n j i w e f i n d the a c t i o n f u l l of p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , w h e r e a s i n T h e R a m a y a n a w e f i n d t h a t a n a c t i o n t e n d s to h a v e one c a u s e . Rama's  For  example,  s t e p m o t h e r h a d a n a c t i v e h a n d o n h i s e x i l e , but i n the c a s e o f G e n j i ' s  e x i l e the a u t h o r i m p l i e d at l e a s t t h r e e c a u s e s :  f i r s t the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n ,  s e c o n d G e n j i ' s l a p s e w i t h one o f the e m p e r o r ' s w i v e s a n d f i n a l l y G e n j i ' s o b s e s s i o n c a u s e d by his s e c r e t l o v e affair w i t h his s t e p m o t h e r .  Also,  G e n j i ' s l a m e n t i n h i s l a t e r d a y s i s b r o u g h t up b y t h r e e m a i n t h i n g s : K a s h i w a g i , his b e l o v e d M u r a s a k i ' s i l l n e s s , and his a w a r e n e s s of r e t r i b u t i o n f o r the a c t i o n of h i s y o u t h .  C o n t r a r i l y , i n The R a m a y a n a  the  r u m o r s of t h e p e o p l e a r e the d i r e c t c a u s e o f S i t a ' s a b a n d o n m e n t .  Lady  M u r a s a k i e m p l o y s m u l t i p l e c a u s e s f o r e a c h e v e n t a n d at t h e _ s a m e t i m e s o m e p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t g o e s w i t h the e v e n t , e. g . , the of r e t r i b u t i o n .  W h e n w e k n o w w h a t G e n j i i s r e a l l y a f r a i d of, the  of h i s m i s f o r t u n e  becomes oppressive.  be a s s i m p l e a s a h e r o ' s l i f e .  meaning  In r e a l l i f e s e v e r a l f a c t o r s  a l w a y s e n t a n g l e d a n d c a u s e m o r e than one r e s u l t .  fear  are  Human life can never  I think it i s c l e a r that L a d y M u r a s a k i t r i e d  to c o n v e y the m e a n i n g of a r e a l l i f e t h r o u g h h e r w o r k , a n d t h i s i s w h y one c a n say that The T a l e of G e n j i i s m o r e t h a n a c o u r t l y l o v e  story  e  -78NOTES  ^ C h i m m a n l a l G o s v a m i , ed. , 2nd ed. , S r i m a d V a l m i k i R a m a y a n a (Gorckhpur:  Gita Press,  1973-76), pp.  64.  ^Edward G . Seidensticker, trans., A l f r e d A . Knoff,  1977), p p . 4,  The T a l e of G e n j i (New Y o r k :  5.  •^Northrop F r y e , A n a t o m y of C r i t i c i s m : Princeton Univ. Press, 4  1957), p p . 3 3 , 3 4 .  I b i d . , pp. 33.  ^Hari Prasad Shastri, trans., (London: D  7  F o u r E s s a y s (New Jersey:  Shantisadan,  1962-  S e i d e n s i c k e r , pp. James Frazer,  (New Y o r k :  ), p p  133,  2nd e d . , The R a m a y a n a of V a l m i k i 299.  e  134.  The G o l d e n B o u g h : A Study i n M a g i c and R e l i g i o n  T h e M a c m i l l a n C o . , 1957), p p .  119-39.  When Sita underwent an o r d e a l by f i r e ,  B r a h m a appeared  and  i n q u i r e d R a m a of h i s i n t e n t i o n , a s k i n g , " H o w a r t thou u n a w a r e that thou t h y s e l f a r t the C h i e f of the G o d s ? "  To this R a m a answered,  "I d e e m  m y s e l f to be a m a n , R a m a , b o r n o f D a s a r a t h a ; w h o t h e n a m I i n r e a l i t y ? F r o m whence have I c o m e ? ( S h a s t r i , III, p p .  339).  ^ S h a s t r i , I, p p .  39.  L e t the G r a n d s h i r e o f the w o r l d i n f o r m m e . "  -791 0  Frye,  ^ E .  pp.  34.  M . F o r s t e r , A s p e c t s of the N o v e l ( N e w Y o r k :  B r a c e and C o . ,  Harcourt,  1927).  ^ S h a s t r i , I, p p .  29.  13 Seidensticker, pp.  14.  l^Seidensticker, pp.  15.  1 5  S h a s t r i , I, p p .  l 6  I b i d . , pp.  45.  232.  ^^Seidensticker, pp. 1 8  S h a s t r i , pp.  13.  136.  ^ T h e Hero with a Thousand Faces, P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1968), p p . ^ I b i d . , pp. 58. ^ S e i d e n s t i c k e r , pp. 2 2  30.  230.  N i h o n K o t e n bungaku t a i k e i , Genji monogatari (Tokyo:  Iwanamishoten, 2 3  2nd ed. (New J e r s e y :  1958), II, p p .  11.  T o no C h u j o w h o v i s i t e d G e n j i i n S u m a a d m i r e d G e n j i ' s h o u s e :  " H e w a s s o o n a d m i r i n g G e n j i ' s r u s t i c h o u s e w h i c h s e e m e d to h i m the e x t r a o r d i n a r y p l a c e to be l i v i n g i n .  He thought i t m o r e l i k e some  h e r m i t ' s hut i n a C h i n e s e b o o k t h a n a r e a l c o t t a g e " .  most  legendary  Arthur Waley, trans. ,  -80T h e T a l e of G e n j i :  A n o v e l i n S i x P a r t s by L a d y M u r a s a k i , I (Tokyo:  C h a r l e s E . T u t t l e C o . , 1970), p p . 2 4  S e i d e n s t i c k e r , pp.  251.  244.  ( K o t e n t a i k e i , G e n j i , II, p p . ^ S e i d e n s t i c k e r , pp. ^Shastri, \  t  pp.  49)  246.  301-2.  27 The Secular S c r i p t u r e :  A S t u d y o f the S t r u c t u r e o f R o m a n c e  (Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England: 1976), p p .  97. S h a s t r i , I, p p .  Harvard Univ.  Press,  46.  29 T w o h e r o e s o f the t e n c h a p t e r s , ^ S e c u l a r Scripture, pp.  K a o r u and N i o u are  examples.  115.  31 Seidensticker, pp.  250.  32 T h e w h o l e i m p o r t of the d r e a m w a s t h a t the  dragon king had  t a k e n a f a n c y t o h i m a n d w i s h e d to d e t a i n h i m y e t l o n g e r o n the s h o r e o f his domains.  He became v e r y depressed and f r o m this time  onwards  t o o k a d i s l i k e t o the p a r t i c u l a r p a r t o f the c o a s t i n w h i c h he h a d c h o s e n to r e s i d e .  (Waley, pp.  254.)  • ^ " H i k a r u G e n j i , " G e n j i m o n o g a t a r i K5"za, v o l . I l l ( T o k y o : Yuseido,  1972), p p .  308.  -8134  T h i s p a r a l l e l s B h a r a t a ' s d r e a m (chapter 69, " A y o d h y a K a n d a " ) .  In this d r e a m K i n g D a s a r a t h a a p p e a r e d i n faded c l o t h i n g . 35 Shigeru Yanai,  " G e n j i m o n o g a t a r i to r e i k e n t a n n o K o s h S , "  in Genji monogatari kenkyuto Shiryo:  K o d a i bungaku ronshQ, v o l . I  (Tokyo:  194.  Musashino shoin,  1969), p p .  36 Seidensticker, pp. 3 7  S h a s t r i , II, p p .  3 8  I b i d . , pp.  3 9  S h a s t r i , I, p p .  4 0  I b i d . , pp. 288. I b i d . , c h a p t e r 7, 8,  4 1  4  131.  136.  I b i d . , pp.  193.  ^ I b i d o , pp.  220.  4 2  273.  380. 9.  44 A k i y a n a ten, pp.  " H i k a r u Genji, " Genji monogatari koza, v o l . I l l ,  306„ ^^Seidensticker, pp.  226.  46 Genji monogatari kenkyu josetsu (Tokyo: 1968), p p . 4 7  Press,  720.  E i i c h i Mitani,  ' p l o t t o no k a n k e i : 1  Tokyo Univ.  " G e n j i m o n o g a t a r i n i o k e r u m i n k a n s h i n k o to  k i s h u r u r i t a n no g e n s h i t s u n i t s u i t e ,  J u n e 1966, p p . 4 5 , 4 6 .  11  Kokubungaku,  -824 8  S h a s t r i , III, p p .  4 9  I b i d . , pp.  50  343.  343.  Seidensticker, pp.  250.  51 R . A n t o i n e , R a m a a n d the B a r d s :  E p i c M e m o r y i n the R a m a y a n a  (Calcutta: A W r i t e r s Workshop G r e y b i r d Book, M i t a n i , pp. 49.  1975).  5 2  A b e , p p . 686,  5 3  687.  ^ O n c e t h e r e w a s a s h i k i b u d a y u a n d m a j o r c o n t r o l l e r o f the l e f t 4  called L o r d Kiyohara.  He had a son by a p r i n c e s s .  comparably intelligent.  The boy was i n -  Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei, Utsubo monogatari,  v o l . I (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten,  1959), p p . 35'.  W h e n T o s h i k a g e r e a c h e d the age o f s i x t e e n , a m i s s i o n t o C h i n a w a s s e n t . T h i s t i m e , talented people w e r e appointed as an envoy and a deputy envoy, and Toshikage was chosen. Ibid. , pp.  His parents were overwhelmed with grief.  36.  ^ ^ I b i d . , n o t e 13.  F f % j t P If 3 1 - $ * T . > f & # 1 - t \ . AK I #  t\  r  « ft. f  O n the p l a t e i t s a i d , " T h e l a t t e r t h i r d of the w o o d i s to be g i v e n t o a Japanese,  T o s h i k a g e . " A s u r a w a s s o s u r p r i s e d t h a t he k n e l t d o w n  «> 4 ? ^  -83b o w i n g to h i m s e v e n t i m e s .  A s u r a said, "Oh, you w i l l become a  o f h e a v e n l y m a i d e n i n the f u t u r e .  Ibid. , pp. 42.  5 8 . , , * . . z <r> ks>j%: , -fc A l = £ £ S A ± ..~/ft'*> 3 & l * < f f . . .  child  M o  a n d y o u s h a l l h a v e one o f t h e s e s e v e n p e o p l e a s y o u r g r a n d c h i l d . "  I b i d . , pp. 48  3  ,  =  0  • A ft f  ^ - f B <9 I f  l=. i  , $  c,  . ^  j/7 ^  " T o s h i k a g e r e c e i v e d Seta hu and s t a r t e d p l a y i n g a song c a l l e d ,  5  o  *Tai kyoku*.  N o s o o n e r h a d h i s m u s i c s o u n d e d t h a n the t i l e s o f the p a l a c e s c a t t e r e d l i k e flowers.  T h e n he p l a y e d a n o t h e r s o n g .  A l t h o u g h i t w a s the m i d d l e o f the  S i x t h M o n t h ( i n the m i d s t of the s u m m e r ) , huge f l a k e s o f s n o w , m i r a c u l o u s l y , started f a l l i n g . "  Ibid. , pp. 52.  ^®We h a v e to n o t e t h a t the s e v e n p e o p l e t o l d T o s h i k a g e t h a t t h e y d e s c e n d e d into t h i s w o r l d b e c a u s e of s i n f u l a c t s i n t h e i r p r e v i o u s l i v e s in heaven.  W e a r e r e m i n d e d o f the f a t h e r s of G e n j i a n d R a m a , a n d the  f a c t t h a t t h e y d i d n o t e n j o y t h e i r l i v e s i n the o t h e r w o r l d . k l " i t i s a gentle e x i l e .  K r s n a , a g o d w h o d e s c e n d e d t o be b o r n a  p r i n c e , now l i v e s as c o w h e r d - - a n d i s content.  Instead of s t a t e s m a n s h i p ,  he l e a r n s h e r d m a n s h i p ; i n s t e a d of the r e f i n e d a r t s o f c o u r t l y l i f e , he l e a r n s t o p l a y a s i m p l e b a m b o o f l u e ; i n s t e a d of the m a n y a r t s of w a r , a s w o u l d b e f i t h i s r o y a l b i r t h , he l e a r n s (as w e s h a l l s e e ) the m a n l y a c t s o f l o v e . " K e n n e t h E . B r y a n t , P o e m s t o the C h i l d - G o d :  Structures and Strategies  -84i n the P o e t r y o f S u r d a s ( B e r k e l e y ; L o s A n g e l e s , L o n d o n : Press,  1978), p p .  U n i v . of C a l i f o r n i a  10.  Lp H e w a s t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m D e v a k i ' s w o m b to t h a t o f h i s f a t h e r V a s u d e v a ' s o t h e r w i f e , R o h i n i w h o h a d b e e n s e n t to N a n d a , a l e a d i n g c o w h e r d of G o k u r a . 63 V a s u d e v a l e f t K r i s h n a at N a n d a ' s h o u s e a n d r e t u r n e d w i t h the baby g i r l of N a n d a .  K a n s a k i l l e d t h i s b a b y g i r l but she b e c a m e the g o d d e s s  D e v i and t o l d h i m that his e n e m y was b o r n  elsewhere.  64 W. G . Archer, P o e t r y (London:  The L o v e s of K r i s h n a :  George Allen & Unwin Ltd. ,  In Indian P a i n t i n g and  1957).  65 S h a s t r i , III, p p . 335,  India:  k^Ibid. , pp.  336.  ^ I b i d . , pp.  338.  6 8  I b i d . , pp.  341.  6 9  I b i d . , pp. 341,  7 0  I b i d . , pp.  7  *Hans v a n B u i t e n e n ,  336.  342.  342. " T h e Indian H e r o as V i d y a d h a r a " i n T r a d i t i o n a l  Structure and Change B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l and S p e c i a l S e r i e s ,  (Philadelphia: 7  2  J.  A m e r i c a n Folklore Society,  A . B . Buitenen, trans.,  U n i v . of C h i c a g o P r e s s ,  1975), p p .  1959), p p .  The Mahabharata  170.  vol. x  100. (Chicago:  The  73  A s to r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the s t o r y of R a m a a n d V a l m i k i ' s  Ramayana,  J , A . B . B u i t e n e n c o n c l u d e s ( i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n o f T h e M a h a b -  harata) as follows:  " T h e only c o n c l u s i o n that s e e m s r e a s o n a b l e  concerning  the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the s t o r y of R a m a a n d V a l m i k i ' s R a m a y a n a i s t h a t the f o r m e r i s a s u m m a r y o f a f u l l y e x p a n d e d R a m a c a r i t a w h i c h , a f t e r i t s c o n t e n t s w e r e f i x e d i n the s t o r y of R a m a , u n d e r w e n t development, elements, (pp.  further  a c q u i r e d a new beginning and a new end, a t t r a c t e d s u b s i d i a r y  a n d b e c a m e k n o w n a s the o r i g i n a l - p o e m ( a d i k a v y a ) o f V a l m i k i . "  213). 74 S o m e c l a i m t h a t the c o n c e r n e d p a r t s a r e  interpolations.  75 R a m a a n d the B a r d s :  E p i c M e m o r y i n the R a m a y a n a ( C a l c u t t a :  W r i t e r s Workshop G r e y b i r d Book, ^Shastri,  i n , pp.  1975), p p .  107.  522.  77 Ibid. , pp.  525.  ^ I b i d . , pp.  524.  7 9  _ T h e R a m a y a n a g i v e s one s o l u t i o n t o R a m a ' s m i s f o r t u n e .  That i s ,  V i s h n u w a s f o r m e r l y c u r s e d b y B h r i g u t o be b o r n i n t o the w o r l d o f m e n a n d then l i v e separated f r o m his consort for m a n y y e a r s . chapter  See,  "Uttara K a n d a , "  51. ^ S o u r c e s of I n d i a n T r a d i t i o n (New Y o r k :  1958), p p .  217.  Columbia Univ.  Press,  —8 6~ 8  ^Lbid. , pp.  8 2  Shastri,  223.  I, p p .  415.  83 R a m a s h r a y a S h a r m a , A S o c i o - P o l i t i c a l S t u d y o f the R A M A Y A N A (Delhi:  Motilal Banarsidass,  1971), p p .  Valmiki  62.  84  L e c t u r e s o n the R a m a y a n a ,  o r t  Academy,  r e v . ed. ( M a d r a s :  Madras Sanskrit  1968), p p . 4 0 1 .  85 S h a s t r i , III, p p . 8  616.  ^ I b i d . , p p . 617.  '  87 S. L . N . S i m h a m e n t i o n s : chastity,  d e v o t i o n to h u s b a n d ,  practical sense.  Indeed,  " S i t a i s a g l o r i o u s m o d e l of p u r i t y ,  courage,  silent suffering, forgiveness  one s o m e t i m e s g e t s the f e e l i n g t h a t S i t a i s the  m o s t i m p r e s s i v e c h a r a c t e r i n the R a m a y a n a . World  (Bombay:  Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan,  8 8  S h a s t r i , III, p p .  8 9  I b i d . , chapter 98.  9  and  R a m a y a n a f o r the M o d e r n 1965), p p .  83.  618.  ^ I b i d . , pp„ 5 0 .  C h i m m a n l a l G o s w a m i , ed. , 2nd ed. , S r i m a d V a l m i k i - R a m a y a n a : w i t h S a n s k r i t text and E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n pp.  1437.  (Gorakhpur:  Gita Press,  1973-76),  -879 2  S e i d e n s t i c k e r , pp.  9 3  I b i d . , pp.  9 4  K i k a n I k e d a , H e i a n c h o no s e i k a t s u to b u n g a k u ( T o k y o :  Kadokawa shoten,  1964), p p .  S e i d e n s t i c k e r , pp.  9 6  I b i d . , pp.  340.  9 7  I b i d . , pp.  549.  9 8  I b i d . , pp.  550.  99. 534.  K o t e n t a i k e i , G e n j i , III, n o t e 3 8 2 .  9 9  Press,  418.  9 5  1 0 0  409.  S e i d e n s t i c k e r , pp*  650.  1 0 1  Ibid.,  pp.  723.  1 0 2  Ibid.,  pp.  724.  1 0 3  I n The W o r l d of The T a l e of G e n j i ( T o k y o :  Tokyo Univ.  1964) K e n A k i y a m a p o i n t s out t h a t the p l o t o f " W a k a n a "  c a r r i e d f o r w a r d by those c o n v e r s a t i o n s . idensticker, pp. 1 0 5  I b i d . , pp.  541.  1 0 6  I b i d . , pp.  541.  1 0 7  I b i d . , pp.  578.  540.  is  -881 0 8 » i W a k a n a . P a r t I, II: monogatari koza  W a k a n a no m a k i n o hoho,. G e n j i  IV (Tokyo: Yusei-do,  1972).  ^ ^ s i n c e H e i a n d i a r i e s w e r e not day by day d i a r i e s . example The S a r a s h i n a D i a r y by Takasue M u s u m e i s her **^B.  L . Atreya,  For  memories.  Y o g a v a s i s t h a & M o d e r n Thought:  or  A g r e e m e n t of the E a s t a n d the W e s t o n F u n d a m e n t a l P r o b l e m s , r e v i s e d and enlarged ed. (Banars: 1 1 1  I b i d . , pp.  The Indian Book Shop,  116.  9.  l - ^ I n The R a m a y a n a L a k s h m a n a says, a r e subject to fate,  1954), p p .  " T h e w e a k a n d the c o w a r d l y  but v a l i a n t s o u l s w h o a r e m a s t e r s o f t h e m s e l v e s ,  n o t b o w to d e s t i n y .  do  T h a t h e r o w h o b y h i s s p i r i t e d e f f o r t s i s a b l e to o v e r -  c o m e d e s t i n y does not f a i l i n h i s u n d e r t a k i n g ; d e s t i n y i s p o w e r l e s s  before  him." S h a s t r i , I, p p . 1 1 3  I b i d . , pp.  223.  8.  114 Nabaneeta Sen, " C o m p a r a t i v e studies i n o r a l epic poetry and the V a l m i k i R a m a y a n a :  R e p o r t o n the B a l a k a n d a , " A m e r i c a n O r i e n t a l  Society,  8.  1966, p p . 4 0 7 , *^Thereafter  the a u g u s t S a g e V a l m i k i b e h e l d a p a i r o f s o f t - v o i c e d  Krauncha B i r d s fearlessly disporting themselves in love, whereupon a h u n t e r o f v i c i o u s h a b i t a n d e v i l i n t e n t s l e w the m a l e b i r d i n the p r e s e n c e o f the a s c e t i c .  The female d e p r i v e d of h e r y e l l o w - c r e s t e d c o m p a n i o n ,  w h o but n o w , h a d b e e n s p r e a d i n g h i s w i n g s i n the a c t of l o v e t o p l e a s e  -89h e r , p e r c e i v i n g h i m to be b l e e d i n g a n d c r y i n g out i n d i s t r e s s ,  b e g a n to  lament piteously. S h a s t r i , I, p p . 9, l l 6  Shastri,  I, p p .  10.  10.  H ^ I t i s q u i t e r e a s o n a b l e f o r V a l m i k i a n d L a d y M u r a s a k i to c r e a t e h e r o e s w h o a r e o u t s t a n d i n g a m o n g o t h e r p e o p l e , but to the n a t u r a l  subject  order.  118 K i n g s fa C a p t a i n s :  V a r i a t i o n s on a H e r o i c T h e m e ( L e x i n g t o n :  T h e U n i v . P r e s s o f K e n t u c k y , 1971). 119 2nd ed. (New J e r s e y : l ^ M o o r m a n , pp  B  Princeton Univ. P r e s s ,  1968).  168.  121 M y contention that O d y s s e u s goes t h r o u g h a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f r o m h e r o to k i n g l i n k s the O d y s s e y w i t h I l l i a d , w h e r e the t w o s e t s o f v a l u e s a p p e a r as i n two f i g u r e s , A c h i l l e s and A g a m e m n o n .  A n d just  a s i n the I l i a d the o r i g i n s o f A c h i l l e s i n m y t h a n d A g a m e m n o n i n h i s s t o r y h e l p H o m e r to s u p p o r t h i s d u a l r o l e i n the p o e m . Ibid. , pp. 51. * C a m p b e l l , pp. 257. 2 2  -90-  APPENDICES  -91APPENDIX A PP.  5  -ft  it l - £ < ; ^ 5 £  - £ l=i  3  . £• <?> 1c « > - # p £ *  S a k i no y o n i m o , o n c h i g i r i y a f u k a k a r i k e m u , y o n i n a k u k i y o r a n a r u t a m a no w o n o k o m i k o s a h e  umaretamahinu.  Nihon koten bungaku t a i k e i , G e n j i m o n o g a t a r i (Tokyo: Iwanami shoten,  pp. 6 #  J  1958), I, p p .  <h * I f \z.  1 * M E • ^ %?  f£  IjlAX >"1A%Q if'vfciJL $ T • *fc *> I - I f  j^ffai  3 $ £ # [ ' / T .  28.  B&m^>  i ; if  7f-$i*>>%rj-4  * «h fo 3 « v i ' ^ r f <nR", flpfif ft  1 Hi-fat  i<"^ T  K o - d a k a k i m o m i j i n o k a g e n i , y o n j u n i n no k a i s h i r o , i h i - s h i r a z u f u k i t a t e t a r u m o n o no ne d o m o n i a h i t a r u m a t s u k a z e ,  " M a k o t o no  m i y a m a o r o s h i , " to k i k o e t e f u k i - m a y o h i , i r o - i r o n i c h i r i k a f u k o - n o - h a no naka y o r i , made m i y u .  s e i k a i h a no k a g a y a k i i d e t a r u s a m a , K a z a s h i no m o m i j i ,  ni ke o s a r e t a r u k o k o c h i sureba, sashikahetamafu.  ito, osoroshiki  i t a u c h i r i s u k i t e , k a h o no n i h o h i Omae n a r u k i k u wo w o r i t e ,  H i k u r e k a k a r u hodo n i , k e s h i k i b a k a r i ,  Sa-daisho uchi-shigurete,  s o r a no k e s h i k i s a h e m i - s l i i r i g a h o n a r u n i , s a r u w a , i m i j i k i k i k u no i r o - i r o u t s u r o h i , wo  tsukushitaru,  e naranu wo kazashite,  i r i a y a no h o d o ,  tomo omohezu. I b i d . , p p „ 274„  sugata n i ,  k y o w a , m a t a n a k i te  s o z o r o s a m u k u , k o n o - y o no koto  -92-  " K u n i no o y a to n a r i t e , t e i o no k a m i n a k i k u r a i n i n o b o r u b e k i so o w a s h i m a - s u h i t o n o , s o n a t a n i te m i r e b a , m i d a r e u r e f u r u k o t o ya a r a m .  Q h o y a k e no k a t a m e to n a r i t e ,  k a t a n i te m i r e b a , m a t a , Ibid. , pp.  sono so  a m e (no) s h i t a t a s u k u . r u  tagafubeshi"  44.  K o n o m i k o m i t s u n i n a r i t a m a f u t o s h i , o n - h a k a m a g i n o k o t o , I c h i no m i y a no t a t e m a t s u r i s h i n i o t o r a z u , K u r a - z u k a s a , W o s a m e - d o n o no mono wo tsukushite,  i m i j i u sesasetattiafu.  Sore n i tsukete m o ,  yo  no s o s h i r i n o m i o h o k a r e d o , kono m i k o no o y o z u k e m o t e - o w l s u r u on-katachi, kokoro-bahe,.. arigataku m e z u r a s h i k i made mietamafu wo,  e sonemiahetamawazu.  M o n o no k o k o r o s h i r i t a m a f u hito w a ,  " K a k a r u h i t o m o , y o n i i d e o w a s u r u m o n o n a r i k e r i . " to a s a m a s h i k i made,  me wo odorokashitamafu. Ibid. , pp. 30.  -93-  P P . 11 % £  <?> £ £ ft J |- 7 \t f >" £ |£ - t  o>,  brf^P-i&lu>cfc$  z  " M u h o n s h i n n o n o , g e s q k u n o y o s e n a k i n i te w a t a d a y o w a s e j i .  Waga  m i - y o m o i t o s a d a m e n a k i w o t a d a u d o n i t e , O h o y a k e no o n - u s h i r o m i wo  suru namu, Yukusaki  m o tanomoshige n a r u koto'! to,  oboshi  s a d a m e t e , i y o i y o m i c h i m i c h i no zae w o narawasftse-tamafu. koto n i k a s h i k o k u te, tada-udo n i wa ito a t a r a s h i k e r e  Kiwa  d o , s h i n n o to  n a r i t a m a h i n a b a , yo no utagahi o h i t a m a h i n u b e k u m o n o s h i t a m a h e s u k u y o no k a s h i k o k i m i c h i n o h i t o n i k a n g a h e s a s e t a m a f u  ni mo,  onaji sama n i mose ba, Genji n i nashi tatematsurubeku,  oboshi  ba,  okitetari. I b i d . , pp. 44, 45.  pp.  16  fr\)  i  b.V>^"$*%V*  i  . *J >3 3 f c t Tl 5 ^ # £ t t f e ^ f c I-. x  'Vi'ir^-Ji  •Kix-W. * i»-^«73 ftjtt. n f c < | > 7 . ^ l 3 ' ' ^ y T ' '  { i  K a r i s o m e n o m i c h i n i te m o , k a k a r u t a b i w o n a r a h i t a m a w a n u k o k o c h i ni,  kokoro bososa mo, wokashisa mo, mezurakanari.  Ohoe dono to  ihikeru tokoro wa, itaku arete, matsu bakari zo, shirushi narikeru. K a r a k u n i n i na wo n o k o s h i k e r u hito y o r i m o i(ku)he shirarenu ihei wo ya semu I b i d . , II, p p . 3 0 .  \  -94-  U m i n o o m o t e , u r a u r a to n a g i - w a t a r i t e , koshi kata yukusaki, oboshi Ibid. , pp.  pp.  19  r  i(ku)he m o s h i r a n u n i ,  tsuzukerarete.  52.  u y_ iKP i 3 " ^ I  Y. , I " \ !U" & 3  'Jo  "Ito k o k o r o b o s o s h i " to i h e b a o r o k a n a r i . Ibid. , pp.  P P . 24 r-p  y i |  61.  ^  #k%\-$>%y'ft3b-g-ififa^-bftts^*—  " T a d a , k a k u omohikakenu t s u m i n i a t a r i haberu. m o ,  omohitamahe  a w a s u r u koto no hito f u s h i n i , s o r a m o o s o r o s i u n a m  haberu.  W o s h i g e n a k i m i w a , n a k i n i shite m o , M i y a no m i - y o d a n i , koto naku o w a s h i m a s a ba. .Ibid. , pp. 24,  25.  11  Q  i ^ ^ a ^ i ^ - p . #Wfc-Tf J ^ - ^ - *ts~<<. % 1  n  r  i?^-*»X|t^t ViVi=: t ^ T . ^ T c V v ^ **** :  K o i n , tada,  owashimashishi sama nagara,  tachtamahite,  "Nado, kaku ayashiki tokoro ni wa, monosuru zo.  11  to t e , o n - t e w o t o r i t e , h i k i , t a t e t a m a f u . " S u m i y o s h i no k a m i no m i c h i b i k i t a m a f u m a m a n i , h a y a , funadeshite, to,  notamawasu.  kono u r a wo s a r i n e . " Ito,  ureshikute,  " K a s h i k o k i on-kage n i , wakaretatematsurinishi konata,  sama-zama  kanashiki koto n o m i ohoku habere ba, i m a w a kono nagisa n i , m i wo to,  ya sute h a b e r i n a m a s h i .  11  kikoetamahe ba, "Ito, a r u m a j i k i k o t o . nari. do,  K o r e w a , tada, i s a s a k a n a r u , m o n o no m u k u i  "are wa k u r a h i n i a r i s h i t o k i , ayamatsu koto n a k a r i s h i k a  o n o z u k a r a , o k a s h i a ( r i ) k e r e ba, sono t s u m i wo ofuru hodo,  -96-  itoma nakute,  k o n o - y o wo k a h e r i m i z a r i t s u r e do, i m i j i k i u r e h e n i  s h i z u m u w o m i r u n i , tahe gatakute, u m i n i i ( r i ) , n a g i s a n i n o b o r i , i t a k u k o j i n i t a r e do, k a k a r u tsuide n i , D a i r i n i s o s u b e k i koto a r u ni yori namu, isogi noborinuru. " to t e ,  tachi-saritamahinu. Ibid.,, pp. 61, 62.  P  p.  52 4 t - ' - * * ^ 3 3 i i r = * £ ^ & . f ^ y £ < #  . S J * ^ * ! ^ ! *  T o s h i t a c h i k a h e r u a s h i t a n o s o r a no k e s h i k i , n a g o r i n a k u k u m o r a n u u r a r a k a g e s a n i w a , k a z u n a r a n u k a k i n e no u c h i d a n i , y u k i ' - m a n o k u s a , w a k a y a k a n i i r o - z u k i h a j i m e , i t s u s h i k a to k e s h i k i d a t s u k a s u m i n i , k o no m e m o u e h i k e b u r i , o n o z u k a r a , hito no k o k o r o m o n o b i r a k a n i zo m i y u r u kashi.  M a shite itodo, t a m a wo s h i k e r u omahe w a , n i w a y o r i hajime m i -  d o k o r o o h b k u , m i g a k i - m a s h i t a m a h e r u o n - k a t a g a t a no a r i s a m a , mo,  k o t o no h a t a r u m a j i k u n a m u . Ibjd. , pp.  377.  manebitatemu  -97-  Y a y o h i n o h a t s u k a a m a r i no k o r o h o h i , H a r u n o O m a h e no a r i s a m a ,  tsune  y o r i k o t o n i t s u k u s h i t e n i h o f u h a n a no i r o , t o r i n o k o e , h o k a no s a t o n i wa,  " M a d a f u r i n u n i y a j ' to, m e z u r a s h i u , m i e k i k o y u .  Y a m a no k o d a c h i ,  n a k a j i m a no w a t a r i , i r o m a s a r u k o k e no k e s h i k i n a d o , w a k a k i h i t o b i t o n o , hatsuka n i , k o k o r o - m o t o n a k u o m o f u b e k a m e r u n i , K a r a m e i t a r u fune, rasetamahikeru,  isogi sauzokasetamahite,  . U t a z u k a s a no hito m e s h i t e ,  oroshi hajimesasetamafu  fune no g a k u s e r a r u .  Miko-tachi,  tsukuhi wa  Kandachime  nado, amata m a i r i t a m a h e r i . I b i d . , pp. 395. PP.  5 4 f.sf>#R »&%iy*>  rlrx- i• m *  T ^ P & M & P ^ - * ^  j t < i . &$-p><ft $4$p^  *pif[*>-f+y\-'T.$b-%3'<3  t^yt.4**  K a n n a - z u k i no h a t s u k a a m a r i ho hodo n i , R o k u j 5 i n n i m i - y u k i a r i . M o m i j i n o s a k a r i n i t e , kyo" a r u b e k i t a b i n o m i - y u k i n a r u n i , S u z a k u In n i m o o n s h o s o k o a r i t e ,  In sahe, w a t a r i o w a s h i m a s u b e k e r e  n i m e z u r a s h i k u , a r i g a t a k i koto n i te, odorokasu.  ba,  yo(no) h i t o - d o m o , k o k o r o w o  A r u j i no In^ata m o , m i - k o k o r o w o t s u k u s h i t e m e m o  aya naru on-kokoro-mouke wo, I b i d . , III, p p .  204.  yo  sesasetamafu.  -98-  I r i h i s a s u m i n e n i t a n a b i k u u s u - g u m o w a m o n o o m o f u sode n i i r o ya  magaheru I b i d . , II, p p . 2 3 1 .  K a t a w a r a i t a k i y u z u r i nare do, " K o n o , i w a k e n a k i n a i shinno h i t o r i , tori-wakite hagukumi oboshite,  sarubeki yosuga wo mo,  on-kokoro  n i o b o s h i s a d a m e t e , a z u k e t a m a h e " to k i k o e m a h o s h i k i w o . I b i d . , III, p p .  236.  K o k o r o no u c h i n i m o ,  "Kaku,  s o r a y o r i ide k i n i t a r u y5 n a r u koto  n i te, nogaretamafu kata n a k i wo, nikuge n i m o k i k o e n a s a j i . kokoro ni, habakaritamahi,  Wa(ga)  i s a m u r u koto n i shitagahitamafubeki.  O n o g a - d o c h i no k o k o r o y o r i o k o r e r u k e s o n i m o a r a z u .  Samukarubeki  k a t a riaki m o n o k a r a , w o k o g a m a s h i k u o m o h i m u s u b o h o r u r u s a m a , hito n i , m o r i k i k o e j i . I b i d . , pp.  240.  yo(no)  •99-  Ito, n a n i g o k o r o m o nau m o n o g a t a r i s h i t e , k u c h - t s u k i no u t s u k u s h i k i > m o , aramu, no,  warahitamaheru,  " K o k o r o s h i r a z a r a n hito w a ,  mami, ikaga  n a h o , i t o y o k u , n i k a y o h i t a r i k e r i " to m i t a m a f u n i , " O y a - t a c h i  ' K o dani are k a s h i  1  to, n a i t a m a f u r a m  ni mo, e misezu,  hito  s h i r e z u , h a k a n a k i k a t a m i b a k a r i w o , todome okite, sa b a k a r i o m o h i a g a r i , o y o z u k e t a r i s h i m i wo, k o k o r o mote u s h i n a h i t s u r u y o " to, Aware n i oboshikere kaheshi,  ba,  1  to, omofu k o k o r o m o h i k i  uchi-nakaretamahinu.  Ibid., IV, pp..39,  p p . .59  •mez'amashi  .( i~  40.  f 7 \1 * J A j; % I "ft k^-fe* % ^"U  Wa(ga) yado w a hana m o t e - h a y a s u hito m o n a s h i n a n i n i k a h a r u no tazune k i t s u r a m . I b i d . , pp.  195.  p p . 59 : « * l ' i 7 ^ l * . # ^ 3 ^ J c f c .  f*^'>. 5?. AV)ir  ft 5 ^ 1 .  ^I-P-HUS  trt^ii  3 $l"P.  % VMS'/  l - ^ l .  ?3  ^n-i  faZ-r'fal-Ti^^Z^if.  f^.  -100-  K o n o y o n i t s u k e te w a , a k a z u o m o f u b e k i k o t o , w o s a - w o s a takaki m i ni wa umare nagara, mata,  " H i t o y o r i m o , koto n i k u c h i o s h i k i  c h i g i r i n i m o a r i k e r u k a n a " to o m o f u k o t o t a h e z u . w o s h i r a s u b e k u riotoke nado n o , wo,  shihite,  arumajiu,  okitetamaheru  Y o no, hakanaku u k i  m i narubeshi.  Sore  s h i r a z u g a o n i n a g a r a f u r e b a , k a k u , i m a w a no y u b e  c h i k a k i sue n i , i m i j i k i ,  k o t o no. t o j i m e w o m i t s u r u n i , s u k u s e n o  h o d o m o , m i z u k a r a n o k o k o r o no k i w a m o , n o k o r i  naku m i hatete,  kokoro yasuki ni. Ibid. , pp. 62 f =  198. ^ 3 # T s VIXV-^I-  I*.  °&  *-*>1Z>  M a k o t o n i , k a r e w a , ito, s a m a koto n a r i s h i hito zo k a s h i . sono yo n i m o nebi m a s a r i t e , miyuru nihohi nam, Ibid. ,111, pp.  itodo,  Ima wa mata  " H i k a r u to w a , k o r e w o i f u b e k i n i y a " t o  kuwawaritaru.  T e i o no k a g i r i n a k u k a n a s h i k i m o n o n i  s a b a k a r i nade k a s h i z u k i , m i n i kahete o b o s h i t a r i s h i k a do.  Ibid. , pp.  218.  n  i  218.  M i y a no u c h i n i o h i i d e t e , shitamahi,  «=*  -101-  K a n o In k o s o , n a k a - n a k a ,  naho, i k a n a r u n i tsukete m o , hito wo  yukashiku oboshitaru kokoro wa taezu monose Ibid. , pp. *o*i=  sasetamafunare.  220.  i-^t- r-t-fi?m^m  ^ ; P < T .  fijf  ftfrt'ti-  «»^«=^^  Sono n a k a n i m o , y a m u g @ t o n a k i o n - n e g a h i f u k a k u te, S a k i no S a i i n n a d o wo. m o , i m a n i w a s u r e g a t a k u k o s o , Ibid. , pp.  kikoetamafunare.  220.  * I 0f l=- ^ C 50 , /3^«<  i- (  B»f^\-fix-to  s u z u r o n i t a k a k i k o k o r o z a s h i a r i " to; mo togame,  mata,- ware nagara m o ,  "Saru majiki furumahi wo,  hito kari  n i te m o s u r u k a n a " t o o m o h i s h i k o t o w a , k o ( n o ) k i m i n o u m a r e t a m a h i s h i t o k i n i , c h i g i ( r i ) , fukaku o m o h i s h i r i n i s h i k a do, m e no mahe n i m i e n u anata no koto w a , o b o t s u k a n a k u k o s o , o m o h i - w a t a r i t s u r e . kakaru tanomi arite, anagachi n i wa n o z o m i s h i n a r i k e r i .  Saraba, Yoko-zama  n i i m i j i k i m e w o m i , t a d a y o h i s h i m o , k o n o h i t o h i t o r i no t a m e n i koso arikere. Ibid. , pp. 297,  298.  -102-  The Yogavasistha  Vastutastu jagannasti sarva brahmaiva kevalam  Na tadasti jagatkose subhakarmanupatina, yatpau-rusena na samasadyate j a n a i h .  suddhena  -103-  Sampo E K)toba a n d The R a m a y a n a In S a m p o E K o t o b a t h e r e i s the s t o r y of the b e n e v o l e n t p r i n c e S h u d a n a (^8  A  )  o  f  S h a k u h a r a (#f  }fi $L | | ) ).  T h i s i s a s t o r y o f one o f B u d d h a ' s  ~ f o r m e r l i v e s , originating a Buddhist canon c a l l e d , « / K £ ^ 7 v f  §±  ( T a i s h i S h u d a n a K y o ) . I n t e r e s t i n g l y t h i s h a s s o m e s i m i l a r i t i e s to T h e Ramayana, S a m p o E Potoba w a s w r i t t e n i n 9 8 4 b y T a m e n o r i M i n a m o t o (J/^ ^ T a m e n o r i w a s a c o n t e m p o r a r y of L a d y M u r a s a k i .  ^ ).  T h e s t o r y b e l o n g s to t h e  g e n r e o f the e x i l e r e t u r n i n g a n d s u c c e e d i n g , as. m o d i f i e d by. B u d d h i s t Doctrine. T h e f o l l o w i n g f i v e p o i n t s f r o m the s t o r y o f p r i n c e S h u n d a n a s h o w s o m e s i m i l a r i t i e s to the p l o t of T h e R a m a y a n a . 1.  P r i n c e S h u d a n a g i v e s a w h i t e e l e p h a n t to a n o t h e r k i n g .  the e l e p h a n t i s a t r e a s u r e o f h i s c o u n t r y .  Because  The m i n i s t e r i n s i s t s that  S h u d a n a s h o u l d be e x i l e d i n t o the m o u n t a i n s f o r t w e l v e y e a r s . 2.  T h e k i n g t e l l s S h u d a n a to l e a v e the c o u n t r y a n d go i n t o M t .  Dantoku ( 3.  o> j_j ) i n n o r t h e r n I n d i a .  S h u d a n a ' s w i f e a s k s h i m to t a k e h e r w i t h h i m .  a n d a l l the p e o p l e o f h i s c o u n t r y l a m e n t at h i s 4.  Shudana's  mother  departure.  I n the m o u n t a i n , f o r h i s w i f e a n d h i s t w o c h i l d r e n he b u i l d s t h r e e  huts.  One day a n u g l y o l d m a n f r o m K i r u , a distant c o u n t r y  comes  a n d a s k s i f he c o u l d h a v e S h u d a n a ' s t w o c h i l d r e n to be s e r v a n t s  for  104h i s young w i f e . wife.  L a t e r the s a m e m a n c o m e s a s k i n g f o r  S h u d a n a a l s o g i v e s the o l d m a n h i s w i f e .  Shudana's  I n f a c t the d i d m a n  i s the g o d T a i s h a k u . 5.  The god then grants a boon w h i c h a l l o w s Shudana and his  f a m i l y t o r e t u r n to t h e i r c o u n t r y .  P r e s u m a b l y , this story is influenced by o l d Indian folk tales w h i c h a l s o m i g h t have been i n f l u e n c e d by The R a m a y a n a .  -105APPENDIX  B  Ramayana (1) B a l a K a n d a (77 c h a p t e r s ) ,  (2) A y o d h a (119), (3) A r a n y a (75),  (4) K i s h k i n d h a (67), (5) S u n d a r a (68), (6) Y u d d h a (130), (7) U t t a r a (111) (about 1600 p a g e s , H a r i P r a s a d S h a s t r i , t r a n s .  (1)  (2)  (4)  |J3J  (5)  J  T h e R a m a y a n a of V a l m i k i )  (7)  (6)  -I  P Cfl  o^  n to  P  P  CO  rt H  p  fl>  o  cr  P £  3  -a  CD  P P-  ire an  rt  w  cn cn cn rt p O o  01  o o 3  de  T u r n i n g points i n life (descent and ascent)  en  P  I—-  rt-  -—  -J  T a l e of G e n j i 41 c h a p t e r s (about 734 p a g e s ,  E . Seidensticken, trans.  C h . 12, 13 Suma, Akashi  T h e T a l e of G e n j i ) C h . 3 4 , 35 Wakana  t^rt- y rt  I—'  CD  3 4  3  CD P >" O rt- cn HJ 0> (5  3<  o Ml  4 rt  So  rt-  p 1-i  p  CfQ cn CO  o T u r n i n g points i n life (descent and ascent)  3  -106-  SELECTED  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Books: Campbell, Joseph. The H e r o w i t h a Thousand F a c e s . Princeton University Press, 1968. New York:  2nd e d .  Harcourt,  Princeton:  Foster,  E . M . A s p e c t s of T h e N o v e l . C o m p a n y , 1927.  B r a c e and  Frazer,  J . G . The G o l d e n B o u g h : A Study i n M a g i c and R e l i g i o n . Y o r k : T h e M a c m i l l a n C o m p a n y , 1957.  New  Fry,  N o r t h r o p . A n a t o m y of C r i t i c i s m : F o u r E s s a y s . P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957.  Princeton:  Fry,  Northrop. T h e S e c u l a r S c r i p t u r e : A S t u d y o f the S t r u c t u r e of R o m a n c e . C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s and L o n d o n , England: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1976.  Mason, Herbert, trans. Gilgamesh: A .Verse Narrative. New York, S c a r b o r o u g h , a n d O n t a r i o : N e w A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y , 1970. M o o r m a n , C h a r l e s . K i n g s a n d C a p t a i n s ; V a r i a t i o n s on A H e r o i c L e x i n g t o n : T h e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s of K e n t u c k y , 1971.  Theme.  S a n d a r s , N . K . r e v . e d . T h e E p i c of G i l g a m e s h : A n E n g l i s h V e r s i o n with A n Introduction. L o n d o n : P e n g u i n B o o k s , 1972.  Japanese  Literature  Books: Abe,  A k i o . Genji monogatari kenkyu josetsu. Press, 1964.  A k i y a ' m a , K e n . G e n j i m o n o g a t a r i no s e k a i . Press, 1964. Ikeda,  Tokyo:  Tokyo:  K i k a n . H e i a n c h o no s e i k a t s u to b u n g a k u . s h o t e n , 1964.  Tokyo University  Tokyo University  Tokyo:  I&dokawa  - 107-  Oka, Kazuo and Tokuhei Y a m a g i s h i . T o k y o : YCTseido, 1 9 7 1 - 7 2 .  comp.  8 vols.  O m o r i , A n n i e Shepley and KOchi D o i . t r a n s . Old Japan. T o k y o : P e n k y u s h a , 1961.  Genji monogatari ~~ ~~  koza.  D i a r i e s of C o u r t L a d i e s of  R e i s h a u e r , Jean and Robert r a r l R e i s h a u e r . E a r l y Japanese H i s t o r y , p a r t B . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1937. Seidensticker, Edward G . trans. A l f r e d A . Kaoff, 1977.  T h e T a l e of G e n j i .  2 vols.  N e w York:  W a l e y , A r t h u r , t r a n s . T h e T a l e of G e n j i : A N o v e l i n S i x P a r t s b y L a d y Murasaki. 2 v o l s . T o k y o : C h a r l e s E . T u t t l e C o m p a n y , 1970. Articles: Mitani, Eiichi. " G e n j i m o n o g a t a r i n i o k e r u m i n k a n s h i n k o to ' p l o t ' to no K a n k e i : K i s h u r u r i t a n no g e n s h i t s u n i t s u i t e . " K o k u b u g a k u . J u n e 1966, p p . 4 5 - 5 0 . Y a n a i , S h i g e r u . " G e n j i m o n o g a t a r i to r e i k e n t a n n o kSsho". " In v o l . I of G e n j i m o n o g a t a r i k e n k y u to s h i r y o : k o d a i b u n g a k u r o n s h u . Tokyo: M u s a s h i n o s h o i r i , 1969, p p . 1 8 3 - 2 1 5 . Indie  Literature  Books: A n t o i n e , R o b e r t . R a m a a n d the B a r d s : E p i c M e m o r y i n the R a m a y a n a . C a l c u t t a : A W r i t e r s W o r k s h o p G r e y b i r d B o o k , 1975. Archer,  W. C. London:  T h e L o v e s of K r i s h n a : i n I n d i a n p a i n t i n g a n d p o e t r y . George A l l e n a n d U n w i n L t d . , 1 9 5 7 . '  Atrata,  B . L . Y o g a v a s i s t h a a n d M o d e r n T h o u g h t : o r A g r e e m e n t of the E a s t a n d the W e s t on F u n d a m e n t a l P r o b l e m s , r e v . and e n l a r g e d ed. B a n a r s : T h e I n d i a n B o o k S h o p , 19 S4.  Bary, W i l l i a m Theodore, c o m p . S o u r c e s of I n d i a n T r a d i t i o n . C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958.  New York:  -108B r y a n t , K e n n e t h E . P o e m s to the C h i l d - G o d : S t r u c t u r e s a n d S t r a t i g i e s i n the P o e t r y o f S u r d a s . B e r k e l e y , L o s Angeles and London: U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1978. Buitenen, J . A . B . van. trans, and ed. T h e U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o P r e s s ,  The M a h a b h a r a t a . 1975.  Chicago:  K h a n , B e n j a m i n . T h e C o n c e p t of D h a r m a i n V a l m i k i R a m a y a n a . M u n s h i R a m M a n o h a r L a i , 1965.  Delhi:  P a t h a k , M a d h u s u d a n M a d h a v l a l . S i m i l e s i n the R a m a y a n a . Baroda: T h e M a h a r a j a S a y a j i r a o U n i v e r s i t y of B a r o d a , 1968. Raghavan, V . Trust,  The G r e a t e r R a m a y a n a . 1973.  Varanasi:  The A l l - I n d i a K a s h i r a j " "~ . ~ "  S h a r m a , R a m a s h r a y a . A S o c i o - P o l i t i c a l S t u d y of the V A L M I K I D e l h i : M o t i l a l B a n a r s i d a s s , 1971. Shastri,> H a r i P r a s a d , t r a n s . T h e R a m a y a n a of V a l m i k i . London: Shantisadan, 1962- . Shastri,  RAMAYANA.  2nd. ed. 3 v o l s .  T h e R t . H o n . V . S. S r i n i v a s a . L e c t u r e o n the R a m a y a n a . M a d r a s S a m s k r i t A c a d e m y , 1968.  S i m h a , S. L . N . R a m a y a n a f o r T h e M o d e r n W o r l d . V i d y a B h a v a n , 1965.  Bombay:  Madras:  Bharatiya  V o r a , D h a i r y a b l a P . E v o l u t i o n of M o r a l s i n the E p i c s : MAHABHARATA and R A M A Y A N A . B o m b a y : G . R . B h a t k a l , 1959. V y a s , S h a n t i k u m a r N a n o o r a m . I n d i a i n the R a m a y a n a a g e : A s D e s c r i b e d in V a l m i k i ' s R A M A Y A N A ^ D e l h i : A t m a R a m , 1967. -  Article: Sen,  Nabaneeta. "Comparative studies i n o r a l epic poetry and The V a l m i k i R a m a y a n a : A R e p o r t o n the B a l a k a n d a . " J o u r n a l of the A m e r i c a n O r i e n t a l S o c i e t y , v o l . 86, pp. 4 0 1 - 1 7 .  

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