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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A comparison of two methods in the teaching of physics 1980

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A COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS IN THE TEACHING OF PHYSICS by JOHN DAVID REEKIE B . S c , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES De p a r t m e n t o f M a t h e m a t i c s and S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA O c t o b e r 1980 (c) John D a v i d R e e k i e , 1980 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r equ i remen t s fo r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f E d u c a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date r w n h p r r IQftn ABSTRACT The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o compare two m e t h o d s o f t e a c h i n g s c i e n c e . The two methods were a s e l f - p a c e d method w h i c h u s e d l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c k a g e s s t a t e d i n b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s and a t e a c h e r - p a c e d , t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d method i n w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s were n o t g i v e n t h e o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was u n d e r t a k e n b e c a u s e t h e e f f e c t i v e - n e s s o f t h e s e l f - p a c e d method had been q u e s t i o n e d i n t h e s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n where i t was b e i n g a p p l i e d . The e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n a t t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y a t F r a n k H u r t S e c o n d a r y i n S u r r e y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , p r o v i d e d t h e s e t t i n g f o r a n a t u r a l e x p e r i m e n t . The e x p e r i m e n t a l p h a s e o f t h i s s t u d y t o o k p l a c e o v e r t h e f i r s t two t r i m e s t e r s o f t h e s c h o o l y e a r . The s u b j e c t s were s t u d e n t s i n f o u r s c i e n c e e i g h t c l a s s e s . Two c l a s s e s were t a u g h t by e a c h o f t h e two t e a c h e r s , w i t h one c l a s s , f o r e a c h t e a c h e r , r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o e a c h m e t h o d . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e t e a c h i n g methods was d e t e r m i n e d by c o m p a r i n g t h e mean s c o r e s o f t h e f i v e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s : a c q u i s i t i o n and r e t e n t i o n o f s c i e n c e k n o w l e d g e , u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s c i e n c e p r o c e s s e s , and s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s t o e x p e r i m e n t i n g and i n d e p e n d e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . The d a t a were a n a l y z e d u s i n g a two by two by two ( m e t h o d - b y - t e a c h e r - b y - g e n d e r ) f i x e d e f f e c t s f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n . The r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s e l f - p a c e d method was as e f f e c t i v e as the t e a c h e r - p a c e d method as measured on f o u r o f the d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s and was s u p e r i o r t o the t e a c h e r - p a c e d method f o r t e a c h i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s c i e n c e p r o c e s s e s . A s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between the t e a c h i n g method and the gender o f t h e s t u d e n t showed t h a t m ales s c o r e d much h i g h e r on the T e s t o f S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s when t a u g h t by the s e l f - p a c e d method. C o n t r a r y t o what was e x p e c t e d the g e n d e r o f the s t u d e n t was f o u n d t o have no e f f e c t on s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t or a t t i t u d e s t o s c i e n c e . S i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s between t e a c h e r and t e a c h i n g method f o r the two a t t i t u d e s c a l e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s t h a t a t e a c h i n g method had on s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s depended on t h e t e a c h e r u s i n g the t e a c h i n g method. Recommendations f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h were p r o p o s e d . F i n a l l y , the e p i l o g u e b r i n g s t h e r e a d e r up t o d a t e on the use o f the s e l f - p a c e d method o f t e a c h i n g a t F r a n k H u r t S e c o n d a r y . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v L I S T OF TABLES v i L I S T OF FIGURES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION 1.0 The P r o b l e m 1 1.1 I m p o r t a n c e o f t h e P r o b l e m 3 1.2 The S p e c i f i c P r o b l e m 4 1.3 H y p o t h e s e s 6 CHAPTER 2 - REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 2.0 S e l f - P a c i n g . 8 2.1 L e a r n i n g A c t i v i t y P a c k a g e s 11 2.2 B e h a v i o u r a l O b j e c t i v e s 15 2.3 C o n t e x t o f the S t u d y 21 2.4 G e n e r a l Q u e s t i o n s 24 CHAPTER 3 - METHOD OF STUDY 3.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 29 3.1 S u b j e c t s 29 3.1.1 D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e S u b j e c t s 29 3.1.2 S e l e c t i o n o f t h e S u b j e c t s 30 3.2 T e a c h i n g Methods 33 3.2.1 S e l f - P a c e d 33 3.2.2 T e a c h e r - P a c e d 33 3.3 D e s i g n o f the S t u d y 34 3.4 I n s t r u m e n t s 34 3.4.1 A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t 34 3.4.2 T e s t o f S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s 34 3.4.3 A t t i t u d e S c a l e s 36 3.4.4 H i d d e n F i g u r e s T e s t 36 3.5 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f I n s t r u m e n t s 38 3.6 D a t a P r e p a r a t i o n and A n a l y s i s . 39 3.6.1 D a t a P r e p a r a t i o n 39 3.6.2 T e s t A n a l y s i s 40 3.6.3 P r e l i m i n a r y A n a l y s i s 41 3.6.4 F i n a l A n a l y s i s 42 - i v - Page CHAPTER 4 - ANALYSIS OF DATA 4.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . 44 4.1 The F i n a l Sample 44 4.2 Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f I n s t r u m e n t s 45 4.3 Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e 47 CHAPTER 5 - CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 58 5.1 C o n c l u s i o n s 58 5.2 L i m i t a t i o n s 62 5.3 I n f e r e n c e s 63 5.4 Recommendations 67 5.5 E p i l o g u e 69 BIBLIOGRAPHY • • • 7 0 APPENDIX A U n i t T e s t and Sample L e s s o n s 80 APPENDIX B T e s t C o p i e s and R e s u l t s o f T e s t A n a l y s e s 85 APPENDIX C C e l l Means f o r A n a l y s e s o f V a r i a n c e and A n a l y s e s o f C o v a r i a n c e 116 APPENDIX D L e a r n i n g A c t i v i t y Package - O p t i c s . . . 119 - v - L I S T OF TABLES T a b l e ' Page 1 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e F;our C l a s s e s . . . . . . 32 2 Number o f Items f o r E a c h Type o f P r o c e s s . . . 35 3 Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f H i d d e n F i g u r e s T e s t S c o r e s 41 4 Summary o f the A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f t h e A t t i t u d e t o E x p e r i m e n t S c o r e s . ., 42 5 Summary o f t h e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f t h e A t t i t u d e t o I n d e p e n d e n t I n v e s t i g a t i o n S c o r e s . 42 6 Summary o f I n i t i a l and F i n a l C e l l Sample S i z e . 44 7 Summary o f A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t 45 8 Summary o f P r e and P o s t A t t i t u d e S c a l e s . . . . 46 9 Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e o f A c h i e v e m e n t - P o s t T e s t S c o r e s 48 10 C e l l Sample S i z e and A d j u s t e d Means A c h i e v e m e n t - P o s t T e s t 48 11 Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e o f R e t e n t i o n T e s t S c o r e s 49 12 Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e o f S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s T e s t S c o r e s 50 13 C e l l Sample S i z e and A d j u s t e d Means S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s T e s t . 50 14 Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e o f t h e E x p e r i m e n t A t t i t u d e S c a l e 53 15 C e l l Sample S i z e and A d j u s t e d Means E x p e r i m e n t A t t i t u d e S c a l e 53 16 A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e o f the I n d e p e n d e n t I n v e s t i g a t i o n A t t i t u d e S c a l e 56 17 C e l l Sample S i z e and A d j u s t e d Means I n d e p e n - d e n t I n v e s t i g a t i o n A t t i t u d e S c a l e 56 - v i - L I S T OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1 S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s Means v s . T r e a t m e n t s 51 2 A t t i t u d e t o E x p e r i m e n t i n g Mean S c o r e s v s . T e a c h e r 54 3 A t t i t u d e t o E x p e r i m e n t i n g Mean S c o r e s v s . T e a c h e r 55 4 A t t i t u d e t o I n d e p e n d e n t I n v e s t i g a t i o n v s . T e a c h e r 57 - v i i - ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My s i n c e r e t h a n k s a r e e x t e n d e d t o my s u p e r v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r H a r r y Cannon f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e and e n c o u r a g e m e n t . Thanks a r e a l s o due t o P r o f e s s o r Todd R o g e r s f o r h i s a d v i c e and s u p p o r t , and t o P r o f e s s o r W. Werner. I am e x t r e m e l y g r a t e f u l t o my w i f e , Ann, f o r h e r p a t i e n t a s s i s t a n c e . I would a l s o l i k e t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s t a f f , and s t u d e n t s o f F r a n k H u r t S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l f o r t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n d u r i n g the e x p e r i m e n t a l s t a g e o f t h i s s t u d y . My t h a n k s a r e e s p e c i a l l y due t o Mr. P. V e r i g i n who was t h e " o t h e r t e a c h e r " i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . - v i i i - - 1 - CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.0 The P r o b l e m The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o compare two methods o f t e a c h i n g s c i e n c e . The s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n b e c a u s e t h e e f f e c - t i v e n e s s o f one method, the use o f a s e l f - p a c e d p r o g r a m u s i n g l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c k a g e s s t a t e d i n b e h a v i o u r a l t e r m s , had been q u e s t i o n e d i n the s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n where i t was b e i n g a p p l i e d . A f t e r s e v e r a l y e a r s o f o p e r a t i n g on t h i s s y s t e m i t was becoming a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e were e f f e c t s b e i n g p r o d u c e d t h a t were deemed u n d e s i r a b l e . The p r o c e d u r e o f s e t t i n g the c o u r s e o u t i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c k a g e s c l e a r l y s p e c i f i e d t o s t u d e n t and t e a c h e r a l i k e what had t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d . I f s t u d e n t s d i d n o t c o m p l e t e a l l o f t h e work f o r a c o u r s e i n one y e a r i t was c a r r i e d o v e r i n t o the n e x t y e a r . T h i s meant t h a t t h e y had more work t o do t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r i n o r d e r t o keep up the e x p e c t e d r a t e o f p r o g r e s s . The number o f s t u d e n t s t h a t were i n c o m p l e t e a p p e a r e d t o be g r o w i n g . T h i s l e d t o c o n c e r n on the p a r t o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r t h e s e s t u d e n t s . A s u r v e y o f s t u d e n t p r o g r e s s was i n i t i a t e d a t t h i s p o i n t . The s u r v e y showed t h a t a b o u t 20 p e r c e n t o f the s t u d e n t s f a i l e d t o com- p l e t e a p a r t i c u l a r c o u r s e t h a t was o f f e r e d . About one h a l f - 2 - o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s were l e s s t h a n t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f the way t h r o u g h the i n c o m p l e t e c o u r s e . A p p r o x i m a t e l y one t h i r d o f the s t u d e n t s were b e h i n d i n a t l e a s t one c o u r s e . F o r the l e s s c a p a b l e s t u d e n t i t meant t h a t t h e l o n g e r t h e y s t a y e d i n t h i s s y s t e m the f a r t h e r b e h i n d t h e y were l i k e l y t o become. T h e r e were o f c o u r s e many e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s . A number o f s t u d e n t s were a b l e t o c o m p l e t e two y e a r s work w i t h i n one s c h o o l y e a r i n a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t . T h i s s y s t e m a l l o w e d them t o b r o a d e n t h e i r c o u r s e s e l e c t i o n s and t a k e c o u r s e s t h e y o t h e r w i s e would n o t be a b l e t o t a k e due t o l i m i t a t i o n s i n the t i m e t a b l e . S e v e r a l s t u d e n t s were a b l e t o use t h e i r time t o e n r o l l i n D o u g l a s C o l l e g e . F o r t u n a t e l y i t i s l o c a t e d a b o u t two m i l e s from the s c h o o l so t h e y c o u l d commute t o c o l l e g e d u r i n g the s c h o o l d a y . The major e f f e c t t h a t t h i s s y s t e m p r o d u c e d was t h a t i t showed up e v e r y d i s c r e p a n c y between a s t u d e n t ' s p r o g r e s s and the e x p e c t e d r a t e o f p r o g r e s s . S t u d e n t s were h e l d a c c o u n t a b l e , t o make up t h i s i n c o m p l e t e work. T h i s l e d , i n many i n s t a n c e s , t o an a c c u m u l a t i o n o f i n c o m p l e t e work. I t was f e l t t h a t a more commonly implemented method, t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d and t e a c h e r - p a c e d would be more e f f e c t i v e . However, a more c o n v e n t i o n a l t e a c h i n g method i s l i k e l y t o p r o d u c e s i m i l a r v a r i a t i o n s i n s t u d e n t s a c h i e v e m e n t , as does the s e l f - p a c e d method, b u t many o f the d i s c r e p a n c i e s between c o u r s e o u t l i n e and s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t a r e n o t d e t e c t e d due t o t h e r e p o r t i n g s y s t e m . I t a p p e a r s t h a t the c o n v e n t i o n a l - 3 - t e a c h i n g method i s more s u c c e s s f u l i f o n l y c o u r s e c o m p l e t i o n i s l o o k e d a t , b u t i t s h o u l d be remembered t h a t i n a c o n v e n - t i o n a l s y s t e m some s t u d e n t s c o m p l e t e the c o u r s e b u t a r e g i v e n a l o w e r g r a d e b e c a u s e some p a r t s o f t h e c o u r s e have n o t been c o m p l e t e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . T h i s l e d t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r a n a t u r a l e x p e r i m e n t a t F r a n k H u r t S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l . Thus, t h i s s t u d y was an a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e , i n the s c h o o l i n q u e s t i o n , whether the p r e s e n t s e l f - p a c e d p r o g ram was as e f f e c t i v e as the more c o n v e n t i o n a l method f o r t e a c h i n g s c i e n c e . 1•1 I m p o r t a n c e o f the P r o b l e m F r a n k H u r t S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l was s e t up as an a l t e r n a t e s c h o o l . The t e a c h i n g method u s e d t h r o u g h o u t the s c h o o l was one t h a t a l l o w e d s t u d e n t s t o work a t t h e i r own p a c e , t h e r e b y accom- m o d a t i n g d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g r a t e s . In o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e s t u d e n t s w o r k i n g a t t h e i r own p a c e , l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c k a g e s were d e v e l o p e d . These p a c k a g e s were s t a t e d w i t h b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s so t h a t the s t u d e n t s would know what was e x p e c t e d o f them and t o d i r e c t the s t u - d e n t s ' e f f o r t s t o w a r d s a g o a l . The s t u d e n t s were a l s o p r o v i d e d w i t h w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s i n f o r m i n g them a b o u t w h i c h books and m a t e r i a l s t o use when d o i n g the work. The t e a c h e r ' s r o l e was t h a t o f d e s i g n e r o f p a c k a g e s , c o n s u l t a n t t o the s t u d e n t s a b o u t t h e i r work, and e v a l u a t o r o f t h e i r p r o g r e s s . The s e t t i n g up o f t h i s s c h o o l as an a l t e r n a t e s c h o o l was p a r t o f a t r e n d i n - 4 - e d u c a t i o n t o p r o v i d e a l t e r n a t e forms o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e d e s i g n e d t o meet i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s among s t u d e n t s . A l t h o u g h the p r o g ram had been u s e d i n t h e s c h o o l f o r t h r e e y e a r s , t h e r e were p r e s s u r e s t o change the t e a c h i n g method and r e t u r n t o a more c o n v e n t i o n a l - t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d and p a c e d - method o f t e a c h i n g . The q u e s t i o n needed t o be a s k e d as t o whether o r n o t t h e t e a c h i n g methods u s e d t o a l l o w f o r d i f f e r - e n c e s i n l e a r n i n g r a t e s a r e as e f f e c t i v e f o r the s t u d e n t popu- l a t i o n as a whole as a r e the more c o n v e n t i o n a l t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d and p a c e d methods. In a t t e m p t i n g t o d e t e r m i n e the c o m p a r a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h i s a l t e r n a t e method o f t e a c h i n g some l i g h t may a l s o be shed on p r o b l e m s t h a t a r e e n c o u n t e r e d when a t t e m p t s t o implement new p rograms a r e made. 1.2 The S p e c i f i c P r o b l e m The c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e s e two methods was done on the b a s i s o f what e f f e c t t h e y had on f i v e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s : a c h i e v e - ment i n s c i e n c e , r e t e n t i o n o f s c i e n c e knowledge, u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s c i e n c e p r o c e s s e s , s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e t o e x p e r i m e n t i n g , and t o i n v e s t i g a t i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y . The e f f e c t t h a t t h e sex o f t h e s t u d e n t had on t h e f i v e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s was a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d . The sex o f the s t u d e n t i s g e n e r a l l y t h o u g h t t o have an e f f e c t on a c h i e v e m e n t i n s c i e n c e and t h e r e f o r e a t t i t u d e s t o s c i e n c e . T h u s , t h e s e c o m p a r i s o n s i n v o l v i n g t r e a t m e n t and sex can be p u t i n the f o r m o f q u e s t i o n s . The main q u e s t i o n s were - 5 - t h o s e c o n c e r n i n g the c o m p a r i s o n o f t e a c h i n g methods. The o t h e r q u e s t i o n s were t h o s e i n v o l v i n g the sex o f the s t u d e n t and the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s between t e a c h i n g methods and the sex o f the s t u d e n t . The main q u e s t i o n : 1. Do Grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s t a u g h t u s i n g a s e l f - p a c e d p rogram p e r f o r m as w e l l as Grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s t a u g h t u s i n g a t e a c h e r d i r e c t e d - t e a c h e r b a s e d p r o g ram i n terms o f a c q u i s i t i o n and r e t e n t i o n o f s c i e n c e knowledge, u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s c i e n c e p r o c e s s e s , a t t i t u d e s t o e x p e r - i m e n t i n g , and i n d e p e n d e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ? The two s u b s i d i a r y q u e s t i o n s : 2. Do male Grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s p e r f o r m as w e l l as f e m a l e Grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s i n terms o f a c q u i s i t i o n and r e t e n t i o n o f s c i e n c e knowledge, u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s c i e n c e p r o c e s s e s , a t t i t u d e s t o e x p e r i m e n t i n g and i n d e p e n d e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ? 3. F o r Grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s do i n t e r a c t i o n s between the t e a c h i n g method and the sex o f the s t u d e n t a f f e c t s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e i n terms o f a c q u i s i t i o n and r e t e n - t i o n o f s c i e n c e knowledge, u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s c i e n c e p r o c e s s e s , s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s t o e x p e r i m e n t i n g and i n d e p e n d e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ? D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms A t t i t u d e - an e n d u r i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n o f m o t i v a t i o n a l , e m o t i o n a l , p e r c e p t u a l , and c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o some - 6 - a s p e c t o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s w o r l d ( K r e c h , C r u t c h f i e l d , and B a l l a c h e y , 1962, p. 1 5 2 ) . S e l f - p a c e d l e a r n i n g - s t u d e n t s a r e g i v e n a m o r e - o r - l e s s s e t c u r r i c u l u m , b u t have some f l e x i b i l i t y i n d e t e r m i n i n g how f a s t t h e y w i l l move t h r o u g h the m a t e r i a l s . E x p e r i m e n t a l t e a c h i n g method - f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y i s t h e t e a c h i n g method t h a t u s e s s t u d e n t s e l f - p a c e d l e a r n i n g and l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c k a g e s w i t h b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s . ' C o n v e n t i o n a l t e a c h i n g method - f o r the p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y i s the t e a c h i n g method t h a t u s e s t e a c h e r d i r e c t i o n , t e a c h e r p a c i n g , and i m p l i e d r a t h e r t h a n e x p l i c t o b j e c t i v e s . S c i e n c e p r o c e s s e s - t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d by an i n v e s t i g a t o r d u r i n g s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y . F o r example, o b s e r v i n g , c o m p a r i n g , c l a s s i f y i n g , q u a n t i f y i n g , m e a s u r i n g , e x p e r i m e n t i n g , i n f e r r i n g , and p r e d i c t i n g (Tannenbaum, 1971). L e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c k a g e s (LAP's) - u n i t s o f work on a t o p i c t h a t a r e s e q u e n t i a l and i n d i c a t e the s o u r c e o f e a c h a c t i v i t y . An example o f a LAP i s g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x D. B e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s - o b j e c t i v e s t h a t s p e c i f y an o b s e r v a b l e s t u d e n t outcome. 1.3 H y p o t h e s e s B e cause p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , t a k e n t o g e t h e r , do n o t p r o v i d e d e f i n i t i v e r e s u l t s r e g a r d i n g the d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t o f a s e l f - p a c e d l e a r n i n g p r o g ram i n c o m p a r i s o n t o a t e a c h e r - p a c e d p rogram t h e r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s were s t a t e d i n the n u l l f o r m . - 7 - E a c h o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s was t e s t e d f o r e a c h o f the f o l l o w i n g d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s : a) a c h i e v e m e n t i n s c i e n c e b) r e t e n t i o n o f s c i e n c e knowledge c) u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s c i e n c e p r o c e s s e s d) s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e t o e x p e r i m e n t i n g e) s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e t o i n d e p e n d e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The t h r e e h y p o t h e s e s , c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the t h r e e e a r l i e r s t a t e d r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s , were: 1. T h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n mean p e r f o r m a n c e on e a c h o f the d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s between Grade e i g h t s t u - d e n t s t a u g h t by a s e l f - p a c e d method and Grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s t a u g h t by a t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d , t e a c h e r - p a c e d method. 2. T h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n mean p e r f o r m a n c e on e a c h o f the d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s between males i n Grade e i g h t and f e m a l e s i n Grade e i g h t . 3. T h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s between t e a c h i n g method and sex o f t h e s t u d e n t , as measured by t h e mean p e r f o r m a n c e o f Grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s on e a c h o f t h e f i v e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . The .05 l e v e l f o r s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e was u s e d t o t e s t e a c h h y p o t h e s i s s e p a r a t e l y . M i s s i n g d a t a p r e c l u d e d the use o f m u l t i v a r i a t e p r o c e d u r e s . F u r t h e r , s i n c e the s t u d y was somewhat more e x p l o r a t o r y t h a n d e f i n i t i v e , a more r e l a x e d l e v e l o f a was s e l e c t e d , t h e r e b y p r o v i d i n g somewhat more power t o d e t e c t p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s . - 8 - CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 2.0 S e l f - P a c i n g The d e s i r e t o p r o v i d e f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t u - d e n t a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s has l e d t o the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f many i n d i v i d u a l i z e d p r o g r a m s . A l t h o u g h many o f t h e s e programs a r e n o t t r u l y i n d i v i d u a l i z e d , s e v e r a l do u t i l i z e the s e l f - p a c e d mode o f l e a r n i n g . "A t r u l y i n d i v i d u a l i z e d method would a l s o have a l t e r n a t i v e l e a r n i n g s e q u e n c e s and a l t e r n a t i v e modes o f r e i n f o r c e m e n t " ( B u r n s , 1 9 7 1 ) . In p r a c t i s e t h e s e l f - p a c e d mode i s e m p h a s i z e d and w h o l e - c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n i s d e - e m p h a s i z e d . A c h i e v e m e n t In t e n o f o n l y t w e l v e c a s e s f o u n d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , s t u d e n t s who u s e d a s e l f - p a c e d p r o g r a m o f s t u d y d i d as w e l l o r b e t t e r t h an s t u d e n t s t h a t were i n t e a c h e r - p a c e d c l a s s e s . S i g - n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s i n s t u d e n t s ' a c h i e v e m e n t were r e p o r t e d by S t e e l e ( 1 9 7 4 ) , S i e m a n k o w s k i ( 1 9 6 9 ) , and F u l t o n (1971) f o r s t u d e n t s i n s e l f - p a c e d c l a s s e s . S t e e l e (1974) d i d a c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f s e l f - p a c e d and l e c t u r e - d i s c u s s i o n methods i n u n i v e r s i t y p h y s i c s f o r n o n - s c i e n c e m a j o r s . He f o u n d t h e r e was a p o s i t i v e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n s t u d e n t s ' a c h i e v e m e n t i n f a v o u r o f the s e l f - p a c e d p r o g r a m . S i e m a n k o w s k i (1969) l i k e w i s e c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y o f u n i v e r s i t y p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s u s i n g a s e l f - p a c e d p r o g r am - 9 - and f o u n d a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e g a i n i n a c h i e v e m e n t when com- p a r e d t o c o n v e n t i o n a l methods o f t e a c h i n g . F u l t o n (1971) c o n - d u c t e d h i s s t u d y w i t h h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s s t u d y i n g t h e BSCS c o u r s e and a l s o f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s i n a c h i e v e m e n t w i t h the s e l f - p a c e d mode as compared t o t h e t e a c h e r - p a c e d mode. The s e l f - p a c e d method was as e f f e c t i v e as t h e t e a c h e r - p a c e d method i n i m p r o v i n g s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t as shown i n s t u d i e s done by O ' T o o l e (1 9 6 8 ) , K l i n e ( 1 9 7 1 ) , Ketchum (19 7 2 ) , C i s e ( 1 9 7 8 ) , A n d e r s o n (1 9 8 0 ) , James ( 1 9 7 2 ) , and N i e f t ( 1 9 7 3 ) . The s u b j e c t s i n t h e s e s t u d i e s r a n g e f r o m e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t o u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . C i s e (1978) d i d a s t u d y on c o l l e g e p h y s i c s s t u d e n t s u s i n g a s e l f - p a c e d p r o g r a m and f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n a c h i e v e m e n t between t h i s mode o f l e a r n i n g and t h e t e a c h e r - p a c e d mode. K l i n e (1971) and Ketchum (1972) d i d s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g e i g h t h and n i n t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s r e s p e c t i v e l y . B o t h s t u d i e s compared s e l f - p a c e d t o t e a c h e r - p a c e d p r o g r a m s and n e i t h e r f o u n d any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n s c i e n c e a c h i e v e m e n t between the two g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s . The o t h e r s t u d i e s were done w i t h e l e - m e n t a r y s c h o o l s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s and showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f - f e r e n c e i n s c i e n c e a c h i e v e m e n t between the s e l f - p a c e d and t e a c h e r - p a c e d mode o f t e a c h i n g . The s t u d y by R i c h t e r (1972) i s the o n l y s t u d y r e v i e w e d t h a t shows a p o s i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n f a v o u r o f the t e a c h e r - p a c e d method. H i s s t u d y i n v o l v e d t e a c h i n g u n i t s i n h e a t and sound t o s t u d e n t s i n a p o s t s e c o n d a r y v o c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n . The l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e s e u n i t s were e i t h e r s e l f - p a c e d or - 10 - t e a c h e r - p a c e d . The t e a c h e r - p a c e d g r o u p showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r g a i n s i n a c h i e v e m e n t t h a n the s e l f - p a c e d g r o u p . R o b e r - son and Crowe (19 7 5 ) , t e a c h i n g t o p i c s i n f l u i d m e c h a n i c s t o e n g i n e e r i n g s t u d e n t s , i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s e l f - p a c e d g r o u p s c o r e d f o u r t o s i x p e r c e n t l e s s on a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s t h a n the t e a c h e r - p a c e d g r o u p b u t do n o t i n d i c a t e i n t h e i r s t u d y i f t h i s d i f f e r - ence i s s i g n i f i c a n t . A t t i t u d e The s t u d i e s o f s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s t o s e l f - p a c i n g a n d l s c i e n c e : show mixed r e s u l t s s i m i l a r t o t h e s t u d i e s o f s t u d e n t a c h i e v e - ment. S t e e l e ( 1 9 7 4 ) , F u l t o n ( 1 9 7 1 ) , James ( 1 9 7 2 ) , and S i e m a n - k o w s k i (1969) a l l i n d i c a t e t h a t s t u d e n t s who have e x p e r i e n c e d s e l f - p a c i n g p r e f e r i t t o c o n v e n t i o n a l t e a c h e r - p a c i n g . A l l f o u n d t h a t s t u d e n t s had a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t o t h i s mode o f l e a r n i n g and wanted t o c o n t i n u e w i t h i t i n f u t u r e c o u r s e s . How- e v e r , s e v e r a l s t u d i e s ( R o b e r s o n , 1975 and Reed, 1974) r e p o r t n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o s e l f - p a c i n g and a p r e f e r e n c e , on the p a r t o f s t u d e n t s , f o r t e a c h e r - p a c i n g . These s t u d i e s were done on d i v e r s e g r o u p s - R o b e r s o n w i t h e n g i n e e r i n g s t u d e n t s and Reed w i t h Grade s e v e n s t u d e n t s . I t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e i r n e g a - t i v e a t t i t u d e i s a f u n c t i o n o f m a t u r a t i o n . The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t s e l f - p a c i n g i s as e f f e c t i v e o r more e f f e c t i v e i n f o r m i n g s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s t o s c i e n c e . S t e e l e (1974) and S i e m a n k o w s k i (1969) b o t h r e p o r t more p o s i - t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o s c i e n c e when the s e l f - p a c e d mode i s u s e d . No d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e t o s c i e n c e i s shown i n s t u d i e s by O ' T o o l e (1968), N i e f t ( 1 9 7 3 ) , K l i n e ( 1 9 7 1 ) , and A n d e r s o n (1980). - 11 - No s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d showed a d e c l i n e i n t h e a t t i t u d e o f s t u - d e n t s toward s c i e n c e when the s e l f - p a c e d mode was u s e d . The s e l f - p a c e d mode a p p e a r s t o be as good as or b e t t e r t h a n t h e t e a c h e r - p a c e d mode i n d e v e l o p i n g a t t i t u d e s t oward s c i e n c e . The s e l f - p a c e d mode g e n e r a t e d more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o - ward t h e t e a c h e r i n two o f the s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d , Ketchum (1972) and F u l t o n ( 1 9 7 1 ) . F u l t o n (1971) r e p o r t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s p e r - c e i v e d the t e a c h e r as b e i n g more a b l e t o make t h e m a t e r i a l u n d e r s t a n d a b l e when the s e l f - p a c e d mode was u s e d . Ketchum (197 2 ) , r e p o r t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s u s i n g t h e s e l f - p a c e d mode "showed g r e a t e r p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e change i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t h e a r e a s o f e n t h u s i - asm, a b i l i t y t o e l i c i t s t u d e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and the a b i l i t y t o d e v e l o p t r u s t . " (p. 2195) 2.1 L e a r n i n g A c t i v i t y P a c k a g e s One p r o c e d u r e t h a t has been u s e d t o i n d i v i d u a l i z e i n s t r u c - t i o n has been t h e use o f l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c k a g e s ( L A P ' s ) . The n a t u r e o f t h e s e p a c k a g e s has v a r i e d f r o m s i m p l e programmed i n s t r u c t i o n u n i t s t o e l a b o r a t e p a c k a g e s c o n t a i n i n g a r a t i o n a l e , s p e c i f i c p e r f o r m a n c e o b j e c t i v e s , p r o v i s i o n s f o r s e l f a s s e s s - ment, o p t i o n s f o r d e p t h s t u d y , and d e f i n i t e t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n . An a t t e m p t has been made t o r e v i e w o n l y t h o s e s t u d i e s w h i c h have LAP's s i m i l a r t o t h o s e d e f i n e d i n C h a p t e r One. The e f f e c t s t h a t t h e use o f l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c k a g e s have on l e a r n e r outcomes a r e o f t e n l o s t b e c a u s e LAP's a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s s u c h as s e l f - p a c i n g . - 12 - I n c r e a s e s i n s c i e n c e a c h i e v e m e n t were shown by s i x o f t h e s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d : - F l o w e r s ( 1 9 7 7 ) , G l a s s e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) , Hedges ( 1 9 6 4 ) , M o r i b e r ( 1 9 6 7 ) , S t e e l e ( 1 9 7 4 ) , and S a y l e s ( 1 9 6 6 ) . A l l o f t h e s e s t u d i e s u s e d LAP'S i n some f o r m . G l a s s e r (1976), compared the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f LAP's t o c o n v e n t i o n a l methods f o r t e a c h i n g f i f t h g r a d e s c i e n c e . She f o u n d t h a t t h e LAP g r o u p s c o r e d h i g h e r on a c h i e v e m e n t and t h e d i f f e r e n c e between g r o u p s was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .0001 l e v e l . S t e e l e ( 1 9 7 4 ) , compared the LAP method t o the l e c t u r e - d e m o n s t r a t i o n method o f i n s t r u c t i o n f o r c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n a p h y s i c s c o u r s e f o r n o n - s c i e n c e m a j o r s . T h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n s t u d e n t a c h i e v e - ment between t h e two g r o u p s i n f a v o u r o f the LAP g r o u p . M o r i b e r (1967) and S a y l e s ( 1 9 6 6 ) , b o t h u s e d s h o r t t i m e d u r a t i o n programmed p a c k a g e s t o t e a c h s p e c i f i c u n i t s o f c o l l e g e p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e and h i g h s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y r e s p e c t i v e l y . B o t h f o u n d t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n a c h i e v e m e n t were made u s i n g t h i s method. M o r i b e r (1967) a l s o f o u n d t h a t t h e LAP method was s u p e r i o r t o a c o n v e n t i o n a l l e c t u r e - d e m o n s t r a t i o n method f o r t e a c h i n g a c o l l e g e p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e c o u r s e . The d i f f e r e n c e i n s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t was s i g - n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l . F l o w e r s ( 1 9 7 7 ) , compared l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c kage i n s t r u c - t i o n t o t e a c h e r c e n t e r e d i n s t r u c t i o n f o r s c i e n c e e i g h t s t u d e n t s and f o u n d t h a t the l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c kage g r o u p had h i g h e r a c h i e v e m e n t i n s c i e n c e a l t h o u g h t h e i n c r e a s e i n a c h i e v e m e n t was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l . - 13 - Hedges (1964) r e p o r t e d i n c r e a s e s i n a c h i e v e m e n t o f f o u r t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s u s i n g L A P ' s . Many o t h e r s t u d i e s ( A n d e r s o n , 1980, B a r n e s , 1969, B o u d r e a u x , 1970, 0 ' T o o l e , 1968, and Z e s c h l e , 1966) have shown t h a t g r o u p s u s i n g LAP's a c h i e v e a t t h e same l e v e l as s t u d e n t s t a u g h t i n t h e more c o n v e n t i o n a l t e a c h e r c e n t e r e d c l a s s . No s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d r e p o r t e d d e c r e a s e s i n s c i e n c e a c h i e v e m e n t when LAP's were u s e d . So, i t a p p e a r s from t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t the use o f LAP's i s as o r more s u c c e s s f u l t h a n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l t e a c h e r c e n t e r e d method o f t e a c h i n g s c i e n c e . S t u d e n t s t h a t have u s e d the LAP's have been p o s i t i v e i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o t h e i r u s e . A n d e r s o n ( 1 9 8 0 ) , B a r n e s ( 1 9 6 9 ) , Hedges ( 1 9 6 4 ) , M o r i b e r ( 1 9 6 7 ) , S t e e l e ( 1 9 7 4 ) , and Z e s c h l e (1966) a l l r e p o r t t h a t s t u d e n t s who have u s e d LAP's have a p o s i t i v e a t t i - tude t o t h i s method o f i n s t r u c t i o n . B a r n e s (1969) and S t e e l e (1974) b o t h f o u n d t h a t s t u d e n t s p r e f e r r e d t h e LAP method o v e r the c o n v e n t i o n a l t e a c h i n g method. The o t h e r f o u r s t u d i e s f o u n d t h a t s t u d e n t s u s i n g LAP's were s t r o n g l y i n f a v o u r o f t h e i r u s e . B a r n e s (1969) f o u n d 75% o f the s t u d e n t s i n a u n i v e r s i t y f r e s h m a n p h y s i c s c o u r s e p r e f e r r e d u s i n g LAP's r a t h e r t h a n a c o n v e n t i o n a l t e a c h i n g method. S t e e l e (1974) f o u n d t h e same p r e f e r e n c e f o r LAP's amongst t h e c o l l e g e p h y s i c s s t u d e n t s i n h i s s t u d y . Bou- d r e a u x ' (1975) s t u d y i s t h e o n l y one r e v i e w e d t h a t showed no s i g - n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the a t t i t u d e s o f s t u d e n t s between LAP's and a c o n v e n t i o n a l t e a c h i n g method. Her s t u d y was done w i t h g r a d e n i n e e a r t h s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s . As w e l l as t h e a t t i t u d e o f s t u d e n t s t o LAP's t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o s c i e n c e were a l s o r e p o r t e d - 14 - i n s e v e r a l s t u d i e s . Hedges (1964) f o u n d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r - e nce i n a t t i t u d e t o s c i e n c e when LAP's were u s e d , "The s t u - d e n t ' s a t t i t u d e s t oward s c i e n c e a r e e x t r e m e l y p o s i t i v e . In f a c t t h e y a r e e n t h u a s i a s t i c . " (p. 69) Whereas, A n d e r s o n (1980) and O ' T o o l e (1968) f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the a t t i - t u d e s o f s t u d e n t s t o s c i e n c e u s i n g e i t h e r method. O n l y one s t u d y r e p o r t e d t h e e f f e c t o f LAP's on r e t e n t i o n o f s c i e n c e knowledge. M o r i b e r (1967) f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f - f e r e n c e i n r e t e n t i o n between s t u d e n t s u s i n g LAP's and b e i n g t a u g h t by t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l method i n a c o l l e g e p h y s i c s c o u r s e . As f a r as t h e r e s e a r c h o f t h e e f f e c t s o f LAP's d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g t h e a t t i t u d e s o f boys and g i r l s t o ward s c i e n c e , A n d e r s o n (1980) r e p o r t s f i n d i n g no d i f f e r e n c e t h a t i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e t e a c h - i n g method u s e d . The i n t e r a c t i o n between e i t h e r t e a c h i n g method and t h e s e x o f t h e s t u d e n t w i t h r e g a r d t o a c h i e v e m e n t i n s c i e n c e i s n o t d e f i n i t i v e l y d e t e r m i n e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . A n d e r s o n (1980) and G l a s s e r (1976) f o u n d t h a t the use o f LAP's d i d n o t f a v o u r e i t h e r s e x . T h i s r e s u l t as G l a s s e r (1976) p o i n t s o u t " i s a f i n d i n g c o n t r a r y t o c e r t a i n s t u d i e s f o u n d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . The c o n - c l u s i o n i s t h a t boys and g i r l s a c h i e v e i n s c i e n c e t o a s i m i l a r d e g r e e . " (p. 4096) The e x p e c t e d r e s u l t was t h a t boys would do b e t t e r i n s c i e n c e . The f i n d i n g s o f C a m p b e l l (1972) and N a j m a i e (1974) a r e c o n t r a r y t o t h o s e o f A n d e r s o n (1980) and G l a s s e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) . C a m p b e l l (1972) f o u n d t h a t " g i r l s a r e f o u n d t o be more s u c c e s s f u l t h a n b o ys i n u s i n g L A P ' s . " (p. 117) N a j m a i e (1979) fo u n d t h a t f e m a l e c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s who had u s e d LAP's i n one - 15 - b i o l o g y c o u r s e "had s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r l o n g - t e r m a c h i e v e m e n t r e s u l t s i n s u b s e q u e n t l i f e - s c i e n c e c o u r s e s . " (p. 5812) The i s s u e o f how the use o f LAP's i n t e r a c t s w i t h t h e g e n d e r o f t h e s t u d e n t i s n o t c l e a r i n the l i t e r a t u r e . However, i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t C a m p b e l l (1972) s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e use o f LAP's f o r i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g f o r a l l s t u d e n t s may n o t be a p p r o p r i a t e . 2 . 2 B e h a v i o u r a l O b j e c t i v e s The e f f e c t t h a t t h e use o f b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s has on l e a r n i n g outcomes has n o t been c l e a r l y d e t e r m i n e d . The l i t e r - a t u r e on t h e e f f e c t t h a t p r o v i d i n g s t u d e n t s w i t h b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s has on a c h i e v e m e n t shows r e s u l t s t h a t a r e i n c o n s i s - t e n t . L i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been done t o d e t e r m i n e the e f f e c t t h a t p r o v i d i n g s t u d e n t s w i t h b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s has on s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s or r e t e n t i o n o f knowledge. A c h i e v e m e n t Many s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e f f e c t t h a t p r i o r knowledge o f b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s h as on s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s a r e e v e n l y d i v i d e d between t h o s e t h a t r e p o r t e d i n c r e a s e s i n a c h i e v e m e n t when b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s were u s e d and t h o s e t h a t f o u n d no e f f e c t c a u s e d by p r i o r knowledge o f b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s . No s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d a d e c r e a s e i n a c h i e v e m e n t when b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s were p r o v i d e d . O l s e n (1973), r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n a c h i e v e m e n t o f g r a d e n i n e p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s when c l a s s e s o f s t u d e n t s t h a t had been g i v e n b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s were compared w i t h c l a s s e s t h a t - 16 - had n o t r e c e i v e d them. The d i f f e r e n c e i n a c h i e v e m e n t was s t a t i s - t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l . A n d e r s o n (1975) and Edmondson (1978) b o t h f o u n d i n c r e a s e s i n a c h i e v e m e n t when b e - h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s were g i v e n t o t h e s t u d e n t s p r i o r t o t h e l e a r n i n g s e q u e n c e . A n d e r s o n ' s (1975) s t u d y i n v o l v e d u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s i n an e l e m e n t a r y s c i e n c e methods c o u r s e and Edmondson's (1978) s t u d y was done w i t h pharmacy s t u d e n t s . Edmondson (1978) f o u n d t h a t s t u d e n t ' s knowledge was s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d when b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s were u s e d . The d i f f e r e n c e i n knowledge between t h e g r o u p u s i n g the b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s and t h o s e u s i n g no o b j e c t i v e s was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . In a s t u d y done w i t h g r a d e t e n h e a l t h s t u d e n t s , D a l i s (1970) compared t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f s t u d e n t s who had p r e c i s e o b j e c t i v e s , vague o b j e c t i v e s , and no o b j e c t i v e s . She f o u n d t h a t t h e g r o u p w i t h p r e c i s e o b j e c t i v e s had much h i g h e r a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s on a 68 i t e m m u l t i p l e c h o i c e t e s t t h a n the o t h e r s t u d e n t s i n t h e s t u d y . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n a c h i e v e m e n t were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g - n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l . A k e r s (1979) and Hass (1977) a l s o f o u n d a c h i e v e m e n t was i n c r e a s e d when b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s were g i v e n t o t h e s t u - d e n t s . However, n e i t h e r s t u d y p r e s e n t s a c l e a r c u t i n c r e a s e i n a c h i e v e m e n t . A k e r s (1979) f o u n d t h a t i n o n l y one o f the f o u r u n i t s p r e s e n t e d t o e i g h t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s was t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p t h a t r e c e i v e d b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s and t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p t h a t d i d n o t . Hass (1977) f o u n d t h a t c o l l e g e b i o l o g y s t u d e n t s who had - 17 - been g i v e n b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s p r i o r t o t h e c o u r s e had s i g - n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d a c h i e v e m e n t as measured by a t e a c h e r made t e s t b u t t h a t t h e r e was no i n c r e a s e i n g e n e r a l b i o l o g y a c h i e v e - ment as measured by t h e N e l s o n B i o l o g y t e s t . H e r r o n (1971) f o u n d t h a t s t u d e n t s r a t e d by t h e i r SAT s c o r e s as b e i n g o f l o w e r a b i l i t y d i d c o n s i s t e n t l y b e t t e r when t h e y were g i v e n b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s . A l t h o u g h on o n l y one o f t h r e e t e s t s was t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e g r o u p s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g - n i f i c a n t . However, on a l l t h r e e t e s t s t h e g r o u p t h a t had been g i v e n b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s r e c e i v e d h i g n e r s c o r e s on an a c h i e v e - ment t e s t . Boardman (1970) and C o n l o n (1970) b o t h f o u n d t h a t a c h i e v e - ment s c o r e s were i m p r o v e d by p r e s e n t i n g b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s t o the s t u d e n t s b u t i n n e i t h e r c a s e was t h e i n c r e a s e s t a t i s t i - c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . A l t h o u g h Boardman (1970) d i d n o t f i n d any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s she d i d f i n d t h a t i n the g r o u p t h a t . r e c e i v e d b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s t h e l e t t e r g r a d e mode r o s e f r o m 2.0 (C) t o 3.0 (B) and t h a t no suc h i n c r e a s e was f o u n d i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . A n d e r s o n ( 1 9 8 0 ) , B r y a n t ( 1 9 7 2 ) , B i s h o p ( 1 9 6 9 ) , and Coleman (1972) a l l f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s between g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s t h a t r e c e i v e d b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s and t h o s e who d i d n o t . T h e r e seems t o be l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n by sex on s c i e n c e a c h i e v e m e n t when b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s a r e u s e d . A n d e r s o n (1980) and Colemen (1972) c o u l d f i n d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e - 18 - i n s c i e n c e by e i t h e r m a l e s or f e m a l e s . A k e r s (1979) d i d f i n d t h a t boys s c o r e d s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n g i r l s i n a n i n t h g r a d e p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e c o u r s e when b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s were g i v e n t o b o t h g r o u p s and t h a t g i r l s who were g i v e n o b j e c t i v e s d i d s l i g h t l y b e t t e r t h a n g i r l s who were n o t g i v e n them. N e i t h e r o f t h e s e r e s u l t s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Where a c h i e v e m e n t i n s c i e n c e i s c o n c e r n e d t h e r e c o u l d be an i n t e r a c t i o n between i n t e l l i g e n c e and t h e r e c e i v i n g o f b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s . C o n l o n (1970) and Hass (1977) f o u n d t h e r e t o be no d i f f e r e n c e i n a c h i e v e m e n t by a b i l i t y g r o u p s . J o h n s o n (1975) f o u n d t h a t when t e a c h i n g h i g h a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s i t makes no d i f - f e r e n c e whether o r n o t t h e y have r e c e i v e d b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s . W i t h l o w e r a b i l i t y g r o u p s , the g r o u p t h a t r e c e i v e d b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s d i d b e t t e r t h a n t h e g r o u p t h a t d i d n o t r e c e i v e them. B r y a n t (1972) and H e r r o n (1972) a l s o had s i m i l a r r e s u l t s w i t h low a b i l i t y g r o u p s . V e r y l i t t l e has been r e p o r t e d a b o u t th e e f f e c t s o f b e h a v i o u r - a l o b j e c t i v e s on r e t e n t i o n o f knowledge. O l s e n (1973) and B i s h o p (1969) d i d s t u d i e s o f t h e e f f e c t s o f b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c - t i v e s on r e t e n t i o n . The m e asures f o r r e t e n t i o n i n b o t h s t u d i e s were g i v e n a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t time a f t e r t h e t r e a t m e n t was c o n - c l u d e d - t h r e e weeks i n O l s e n 1 s (1973) s t u d y and t h i r t y d a y s i n B i s h o p ' s (1969) s t u d y . O l s e n (1973) f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was a s i g - n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e t e n t i o n between the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s - t h e g r o u p t h a t r e c e i v e d t h e b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c - t i v e s d i d much b e t t e r . B i s h o p (1969) f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f - f e r e n c e i n r e t e n t i o n between t h e two g r o u p s . - 19 - I t m i g h t be e x p e c t e d t h a t the use o f b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s would improve s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s t o s c i e n c e . I f , as E n g l e (1970) s a y s , t h e use o f b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s a l l o w s the s t u d e n t t o know what i s e x p e c t e d o f him and t o a l s o know how he i s p r o g r e s s - i n g , t h e n an i m p r o v e d a t t i t u d e s h o u l d f o l l o w . A n d e r s o n (19 8 0 ) , Coleman (19 7 2 ) , and Hass (1977) f o u n d t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e a t t i t u d e s o f s t u d e n t s t h a t r e c e i v e d b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s and t h o s e who d i d n o t r e c e i v e them. When t e a c h e r s r a t h e r t h a n s t u d e n t s a r e g i v e n t h e b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s , t h e r e a r e s i m i l a r mixed r e s u l t s . B r y a n t (1972) f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n c o g n i t i v e a c h i e v e m e n t o f s t u d e n t s t a u g h t by t e a c h e r s t h a t u s e d b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s and t h o s e t h a t d i d n o t u s e them. H e r r o n (1971) s u g g e s t s t h a t the s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s he f o u n d i n s t u d e n t ' s a c h i e v e m e n t when t h e y were g i v e n b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s , may have been due t o the f a c t t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s o f t h i s g r o u p a l s o were g i v e n the same o b j e c - t i v e s . N i e f t (1972) e x p e c t e d t o f i n d a change i n s t u d e n t a t t i - t u d e s when t e a c h e r s were g i v e n a l i s t o f b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s f o r the ISCS l e v e l 1 c o u r s e b u t , f o u n d i n s t e a d t h a t t h e r e were no d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e a t t i t u d e s o f ISCS s t u d e n t s whose t e a c h e r s had t h e b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s and non-ISCS s t u d e n t s whose t e a c h e r s had n o t been g i v e n o b j e c t i v e s . B a k e r (19 6 9 ) , i n a s t u d y done w i t h 18 t e a c h e r s i n Nevada h i g h s c h o o l s , f o u n d t h a t even when t e a c h e r s had been g i v e n t h e b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s t o t e a c h t o t h e i r c l a s s e s t h e y were u n a b l e t o c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f y , beyond a t c h a n c e l e v e l , t e s t q u e s t i o n s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s . A q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e v e a l e d t h a t t e a c h e r s u s e d o n l y 29 - 20 - p e r c e n t o f t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n a l t i m e i n a c t i v i t i e s r e l e v a n t t o the b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s t h e y had been g i v e n and o n l y 28 p e r c e n t o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s t h e y u s e d were j u d g e d t o be r e l e v a n t t o t h e b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s . Boardman (1970) f o u n d t h a t when s t u d e n t s worked on an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d p a c k a g e d s y s t e m t h e y f o u n d t h e p a c k a g e s o f h e l p o n l y when t h e y i n c l u d e d b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s . Boardman (1970) s t a t e d , " T h e r e was a d e f i n i t e i n d i c a t i o n t h a t s t u d e n t s n eed i n s t r u c t i o n s i n t h e use o f b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s " and "more t h a n p r i n t e d i n s t r u c t i o n . " Summary The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d has n o t p r o v i d e d d e f i n i t i v e answers r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t s t h a t t h e use o f s e l f - p a c i n g , l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c k a g e s o r b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s have on the a c q u i s i - t i o n and r e t e n t i o n o f s c i e n c e knowledge or s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s t o s c i e n c e . The e x p e r i m e n t a l t e a c h i n g method u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e use o f a l l t h r e e o f t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e i s a need t o d e t e r m i n e what e f f e c t s s e l f - p a c i n g , l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c k a g e s , and t h e use o f b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s have on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n and r e t e n t i o n o f s c i e n c e knowledge and on s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s t o s c i e n c e . None o f t h e s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d i n d i c a t e d what e f f e c t t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l method had on l e a r n i n g s c i e n c e p r o c e s s s k i l l s and few d e a l t w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e r e t e n t i o n o f s c i e n c e k nowledge. Thus t h e r e i s a need f o r a s t u d y t o d e t e r m i n e what e f f e c t s t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n and r e t e n - t i o n o f s c i e n c e knowledge and s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s t o s c i e n c e . - 21 - 2.3 C o n t e x t o f t h e S t u d y In o r d e r t o p u t t h i s s t u d y i n t o t h e l a r g e r p e r s p e c t i v e o f what has t a k e n p l a c e a t F r a n k H u r t an a t t e m p t w i l l be made t o document t h e major c h a n g e s and t o more f u l l y d e s c r i b e t h e s c h o o l as i t was when f i r s t o p e ned. The s e l f - p a c e d method was i n i t i a t e d as a means o f p r o v i d - i n g f o r d i f f e r e n c e s among s t u d e n t s and t o p r o v i d e a more h u m a n i s t i c atmosphere i n the s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t . The s e l f - p a c e d method u s e d l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c k a g e s s t a t e d w i t h b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s as a means o f a l l o w i n g f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s among s t u d e n t s . T h i s method was t o a l l o w s t u d e n t s t o work a t t h e i r own pace w h i l e s t i l l p r o v i d i n g them w i t h a s t r u c t u r e d c u r r i c u l u m and g o a l s t h a t were e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e and r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . The s t u d e n t s w r o t e the t e s t s f o r e a c h u n i t o f work i n t h e p a ckage as t h e y c o m p l e t e d the work. A s p e c i f i e d l e v e l o f p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e s e t e s t s had t o be a c h i e v e d b e f o r e the s t u d e n t was a l l o w e d t o p r o c e e d t o the n e x t p a c k a g e . I f t h e y f a i l e d t o r e a c h t h e d e s i r e d p e r f o r m a n c e l e v e l t h e y had t o do a d d i t i o n a l work on the t o p i c and t h e n r e w r i t e t h e u n i t t e s t . The u s e o f l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c k a g e s a l l o w e d s t u d e n t s t o f r e e l y t r a n s f e r between c l a s s e s and i n most c o u r s e s t o p u r s u e t o p i c s t h a t were o f i n t e r e s t t o them. W i t h i n any one c l a s s t h e r e may be s t u d e n t s w o r k i n g on s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t t o p i c s w i t h i n t h a t s u b j e c t . S t u d e n t s c o u l d ' t r a n s f e r between - 22 - c l a s s e s b e c a u s e t h e use o f l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c k a g e s a l l o w e d them t o t a k e p a r t i a l l y c o m p l e t e d p a c k a g e s w i t h them so t h a t t h e y c o u l d f i n i s h them under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a n o t h e r t e a c h e r o r i f a c o u r s e had been c o m p l e t e d t o e n t e r the n e x t c o u r s e and s t a r t f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g . B e c a u s e s t u d e n t s worked a t t h e i r own pace t i m e t a b l e c h a n g e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s took p l a c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r . I f a c o u r s e was n o t c o m p l e t e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r i t was c o n t i n u e d i n t h e n e x t y e a r u n t i l i t was f i n i s h e d and t h e n e i t h e r t h e n e x t c o u r s e was begun or a new c o u r s e was s t a r t e d . To b r i n g t h e s t u d e n t s c l o s e t o t h e s t a f f the s t u d e n t s were a s s i g n e d t o t e a c h e r a d v i s o r y g r o u p s . These g r o u p s c o n - s i s t e d o f s t u d e n t s a l l i n the same g r a d e and t h e y met w i t h t h e i r t e a c h e r a d v i s o r d a i l y f o r a t t e n d a n c e p u r p o s e s and f o r a one hour p e r i o d d u r i n g e a c h week. The p u r p o s e o f t h e t e a c h e r a d v i s o r y p e r i o d was t o p r o v i d e e a c h s t u d e n t w i t h one p e r s o n on t h e s t a f f o f t h e s c h o o l who w o u l d h e l p them w i t h any a c a d e m i c p r o b l e m s t h e y had, t o m o n i t o r t h e i r p r o g r e s s and t o a i d t h e s t u d e n t i n a d j u s t i n g t o s c h o o l l i f e . R e p o r t i n g o f s t u d e n t p r o g r e s s was done by a n e c d o t a l r e p o r t s t h a t were s e n t o u t f i v e t i m e s a y e a r . E a c h t e a c h e r wrote a r e p o r t f o r e a c h o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r c l a s s e s . S t u d e n t p r o g r e s s was b a s e d on s a t i s f a c t o r y c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c k a g e s . No l e t t e r g r a d e s were g i v e n . The r a t e o f p r o g r e s s o f c o m p l e t i n g t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c k a g e s was r e p o r t e d a l o n g w i t h comments a b o u t s t u d e n t s ' - 23 - a t t i t u d e , b e h a v i o u r and the p r o g r e s s o f the s t u d e n t i n r e l a - t i o n t o t h e i r a b i l i t y . I t was a g o a l o f the s c h o o l t o p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g so t h a t t h e y would d e v e l o p i n t o r e s p o n s i b l e members o f s o c i e t y . As a means o f p r o v i d i n g s t u d e n t s w i t h d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , s t u d e n t s a s s i g n e d t h e m s e l v e s i n t o c o u r s e s d u r i n g an a r e n a s c h e d u l i n g . S t u d e n t s c h o s e the c o u r s e s t h e y would t a k e f r o m the c o u r s e s t h e y were r e q u i r e d t o e n r o l l i n and t h o s e t h a t t h e y e l e c t e d t o t a k e . They c o u l d c h o o s e among t h e t e a c h e r s t h a t o f f e r e d a p a r t i c u l a r c o u r s e . E a c h c l a s s was l i m i t e d by t h e s p a c e a v a i l a b l e i n the c l a s s r o o m and by the s t u d e n t l o a d t h a t a t e a c h e r c o u l d r e a s o n - a b l y manage. T h i s p r o c e d u r e a p p l i e d t o s t u d e n t s i n G r a d e s n i n e t o t w e l v e b u t n o t t o Grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s who were a s s i g n e d t o c l a s s e s by c o m p u t e r . T h i s s y s t e m o f a r e n a s c h e d u l - i n g was d r o p p e d i n f a v o u r o f computer a s s i g n m e n t o f a l l s t u - d e n t s t o c o u r s e s . The c o m p u t e r i z e d p r o c e d u r e was i n t r o d u c e d f o r a l l s t u d e n t s i n 1977, t h e y e a r a f t e r t h i s s t u d y , and has been u s e d s i n c e t h e n . I t was a f t e r t h r e e y e a r s o f o p e r a t i o n t h a t major c h a n g e s began t o t a k e p l a c e . The E n g l i s h and S o c i a l S t u d i e s d e p a r t - ments s t o p p e d u s i n g t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c k a g e s d u r i n g t h e y e a r o f t h i s s t u d y . They i n s t i t u t e d a t e a c h e r - p a c e d g r o u p a p p r o a c h t o t e a c h i n g . The same method was u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y as a c o n t r o l . The r e s u l t o f t h i s change was t h a t s t u d e n t s c o u l d n o t f r e e l y t r a n s f e r f r o m one c l a s s t o a n o t h e r i n e i t h e r - 24 - o f t h e s e s u b j e c t a r e a s . T h i s meant t h a t t h e f r e e d o m t o move between o t h e r s u b j e c t a r e a s i n t h e s c h o o l was g r e a t l y r e - s t r i c t e d . T h i s was se e n as a major change i n the s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s c h o o l and c e r t a i n l y t h e t e a c h i n g method. I t was a t t h i s p o i n t o f time t h a t t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was i n i t i a t e d as a menas o f g a t h e r i n g d a t a on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e e x p e r i - m e n t a l t e a c h i n g method s o t h a t a more d a t a b a s e d d e c i s i o n c o u l d be made w i t h r e g a r d s t o w h i c h t e a c h i n g method t o u s e . 2 . 4 G e n e r a l Q u e s t i o n s The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e s e l f - p a c e d method c o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d by c o n s i d e r i n g d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e m e n t i o n e d i n C h a p t e r One. T h e r e were o t h e r f o r c e s a t work t h a t were h a v i n g a g r e a t e r e f f e c t on t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . These i n c l u d e d the a n x i e t y p r o d u c e d by s t u d e n t s n o t c o m p l e t i n g c o u r s e s , t h e g e n e r a l c o n s e r v a t i s m t h a t p e r v a d e s e d u c a t i o n , t h e a n x i e t y t h a t t e a c h e r s f e l t i n t h e i r new r o l e s and t h e i n c r e a s e d w o r k l o a d t h a t t e a c h e r s had w i t h t h i s new t e a c h i n g method. T h e s e p r o b l e m s were more a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t h a n e d u c a t i o n a l . P e r c e i v e d A n x i e t y The a n x i e t y c a u s e d by s t u d e n t s n o t c o m p l e t i n g t h e i r c o u r s e work w i t h i n the s c h o o l y e a r was f e l t by the s t u d e n t s , t h e i r p a r e n t s , the t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l . The e f f e c t o f t h i s was t o c a u s e a c h a i n r e a c t i o n w i t h r e g a r d . - 25 - t o t h e a n x i e t y one g r o u p f e l t b e i n g p a s s e d a l o n g t o t h e n e x t . The h i e r a r c h y was s u c h t h a t p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s i n t e r a c t e d , p a s s e d t h e i r c o n c e r n s on t o t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and t e a c h e r s p a s s e d t h e i r c o n c e r n s on t o a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . The s o l u t i o n t o the p r o b l e m o f s t u d e n t s n o t c o m p l e t i n g t h e i r c o u r s e was t o have t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c k a g e , s e l f - p a c e d s y s t e m r e p l a c e d f o r a l l E n g l i s h and S o c i a l S t u d i e s c l a s s e s as a f i r s t s t e p . As a r e s u l t t h e f l e x i b i l i t y o f the t i m e t a b l e was g r e a t l y r e d u c e d . S t u d e n t s c o u l d no l o n g e r t r a n s f e r f r e e l y f r o m one c l a s s t o a n o t h e r , so f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s i t m a t t e r e d l i t t l e i f t h e r e s t o f t h e s u b j e c t a r e a s were, p r e p a r e d t o a l l o w s t u d e n t s t o work a t t h e i r own r a t e b e c a u s e i f t h e y f i n i s h e d e a r l y t h e r e was no o t h e r c l a s s t o t r a n s f e r i n t o . C o m p l e t i o n o f t h e work p r e s e n t e d more o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o b l e m t h a n an e d u c a t i o n a l one. What do we do w i t h s t u d e n t s who f a i l t o c o m p l e t e t h e work a s s i g n e d i n a c o u r s e w i t h i n t h e p r e s c r i b e d t i m e ? The s e l f - p a c e d method p r e s e n t e d us w i t h t h e p r o b l e m and w i t h a s o l u t i o n . The s o l u t i o n was t o c o n t i n u e t h e work the f o l l o w i n g y e a r ^ B u t t h i s s o l u t i o n was r e j e c t e d . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s may n o t be any more s u c c e s s f u l a t c o m p l e t i n g the work under the c o n v e n t i o n a l t e a c h i n g method, b u t t h e i r l a c k o f c o m p l e t i o n goes u n n o t i c e d b e c a u s e t h e s t u - d e n t s r e c e i v e a lo w e r g r a d e . W i t h the s e l f - p a c e d method any d i s c r e p a n c y i n c o m p l e t i o n means t h e c o u r s e i s i n c o m p l e t e , n o t a lower g r a d e . - 26 - C o n s e r v a t i s m The g e n e r a l c o n s e r v a t i s m o f e d u c a t i o n and o f e d u c a t o r s was a n o t h e r c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r i n t h e d e c i s i o n t o abandon the s e l f - p a c e d t e a c h i n g method. T e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , i n the s c h o o l , g o t " c o l d f e e t " when p r o b l e m s s t a r t e d t o a r i s e . I n s t e a d o f l o o k i n g f o r ways t o s o l v e them, t h e y went back t o t h e " t r i e d and t r u e " method t h a t t h e y had u s e d p r e v i o u s l y . T e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s b r o u g h t t o the s e l f - p a c e d method t h e same a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s t h e y had p r e v i o u s l y h e l d w i t h the more c o n v e n t i o n a l t e a c h i n g methods. The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a much g r e a t e r v a r i a t i o n i n s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g r a t e s t h a n we m i g h t have e x p e c t e d . We s h o u l d t h e r e - f o r e e x p e c t t h a t i f t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c k a g e s were w r i t - t e n a t a d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e a v e r a g e s t u d e n t t h e r e would be some s t u d e n t s who would n o t c o m p l e t e the work w i t h i n t h e time p r o v i d e d . B u t , when t h i s o c c u r r e d i t was n o t d e a l t w i t h i n an e f f e c t i v e way. The s e l f - p a c e d method was abandoned i n f a v o u r o f t h e more c o n v e n t i o n a l t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d method. C h a n g i n g r o l e s The s e l f - p a c e d t e a c h i n g method c h a n g e d the r o l e s o f t e a c h e r s s u b s t a n t i a l l y . They now had t o become c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s and i n n o v a t o r s as w e l l as c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t e r s . T h e i r r o l e w i t h r e g a r d s t o the use o f c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s - 27 - c h anged from b e i n g a d i r e c t o r t o b e i n g a f a c i l i t a t o r . Once t h e y " l o s t " t h e i r p o s i t i o n a t the f r o n t o f the room many became i n s e c u r e . They became a n x i o u s a b o u t whether the s t u d e n t s would " f i n d t h e answer" w i t h i n the L A P ' s . They f e l t much more s e c u r e i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n as a t e a c h e r i n t h e more c o n v e n t i o n a l method t h a t p u t them a t the f r o n t o f t h e room d i r e c t i n g t h e " l e a r n i n g " , , i n s t e a d o f h a v i n g e a c h s t u d e n t as h i s own l e a r n - i n g d i r e c t o r . The s t u d e n t had c o n s i d e r a b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s r o l e b o t h from the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r and h i s t e a c h e r a d v i s o r . One p r o b l e m t h a t a r o s e f r o m the s e l f - p a c e d method was t h a t t e a c h e r s o f t e n had t o answer the same q u e s t i o n o r s o l v e the same p r o b l e m many t i m e s . T h i s became v e r y b othersome f o r most t e a c h e r s . B u t , w h i c h i s o f more v a l u e , an answer a t the time the s t u d e n t r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n o r an answer t o a q u e s t i o n the s t u d e n t does n o t have y e t ? T e a c h e r s ' r o l e s a l s o c h a n g e d when t h e y became an a d v i s o r t o a g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s . E v e r y t e a c h e r and a d m i n i s t r a t o r was i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p r o c e s s . Some t e a c h e r s f e l t v e r y i n s e c u r e when t h e y had t o d e a l w i t h s t u d e n t s on a p e r s o n a l l e v e l . They had n o t h i n g t o s a y t o them! I n s t e a d o f t r y i n g t o overcome t h e i r i n i t i a l u n e a s i n e s s t h e y s h r a n k away from t h i s ' r o l e and soon began a g i t a t i n g t o do away w i t h the t e a c h e r a d v i s o r y p e r i o d . I t has s i n c e been r e d u c e d t o m e e t i n g once v e r y o t h e r week and now i n many c a s e s i s u s e d as a s t u d y p e r i o d i n s t e a d o f an a d v i s o r y p e r i o d . - 28 - T e a c h e r w o r k l o a d T e a c h e r w o r k l o a d was expanded w i t h t h e use o f t h e s e l f - p a c e d t e a c h i n g method. A s i d e f r o m t h e i r t e a c h i n g l o a d t h e y were e x p e c t e d t o be c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n e r s and i n n o v a t o r s a t th e same t i m e . In a r e v i e w o f c u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n , F u l l a n and P o m f r e t (1977) c i t e a s t u d y done by House i n w h i c h he c l e a r l y p u t t h e c a s e t h a t t e a c h e r s f i n d t h e m s e l v e s i n when new programs a r e i n t r o d u c e d . Hosue s t a t e d t h a t " t h e c o s t s t o t e a c h e r s i n c l u d e t h e amount o f e n e r g y , t i m e , d i f f i c u l t y , and trauma i n v o l v e d i n l e a r n i n g new s k i l l s " and t h a t , by and l a r g t e a c h e r s a r e e x p e c t e d t o b e a r t h e s e c o s t s " a t t h e i r own e x - p e n s e . " T h i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s the s i t u a t i o n t h a t e x i s t e d a t F r a n k H u r t a t the time o f t h i s s t u d y . I t was a f t e r t h e t h i r d y e a r o f o p e r a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l , the y e a r s p r e v i o u s t o t h i s s t u d y , t h a t s e v e r a l members o f s t a f f l e f t t h e s c h o o l . T hese p e o p l e had a l l been i n v o l v e d i n the d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l t e a c h i n g method w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l . I t c a n be c o n j e c - t u r e d t h a t t h e tremendous w o r k l o a d t h a t t h e y had f o r t h r e e y e a r s was a key f a c t o r i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o l e a v e . A l t h o u g h t h e f a c t o r s m e n t i o n e d above a r e i m p o r t a n t when c o n s i d e r i n g the o v e r a l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a t e a c h i n g method, t h i s s t u d y was l i m i t e d t o t h e e f f e c t s t h a t t h e s e l f - p a c e d method had on s t u d e n t o u t c o m e s . T h i s was done i n o r d e r t o keep the s t u d y t o a manageable s i z e . - 29 - CHAPTER 3 METHOD OF STUDY 3.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n A 2 x 2 x 2 ( t r e a t m e n t - b y - g e n d e r - b y - t e a c h e r ) n o n - e q u i v a - l e n t c o n t r o l g r o u p d e s i g n ( C a m p b e l l and S t a n l e y , 1963, pp. 47-50) was u s e d t o t e s t the h y p o t h e s e s o f no d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e means o f s e l f - p a c e d and t e a c h e r - p a c e d c l a s s e s , means o f boys and g i r l s , and the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s p r o d u c e d by t h e s e two f a c t o r s on e a c h o f t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s c o n - s i d e r e d . In what f o l l o w s , t h e components o f t h i s d e s i g n , i n c l u d i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t s , t e a c h i n g methods, i n s t r u m e n t s , d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y , d a t a p r e p a r a t i o n , and a n a l y - s e s a r e d e s c r i b e d . 3 .1 Subj e c t s 3.1.1 D e s c r i p t i o n o f the S u b j e c t s The s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y were Grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n S c i e n c e E i g h t a t F r a n k H u r t S e c o n d a r y , i n D i s t r i c t #36, S u r r e y . S i n c e s t u d e n t s had no p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l t e a c h i n g method us e d i n t h i s s t u d y , i t was f e l t t h a t t h e r e would be no c o n f o u n d i n g e f f e c t due t o p r e v i o u s e x p o s u r e . T h i s s c h o o l p r o v i d e d a n a t u r a l s e t t i n g f o r t h i s e x p e r i m e n t b e c a u s e t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c kage method o f t e a c h i n g had been u s e d i n t h e s c h o o l f o r two y e a r s p r i o r t o - 30 - t h i s s t u d y and was i n t h e p r o c e s s o f b e i n g p h a s e d o u t . The s c h o o l as a whole was r e t u r n i n g t o more c o n v e n t i o n a l methods o f t e a c h i n g . F r a n k H u r t S e c o n d a r y e n r o l l s s t u d e n t s i n f i v e g r a d e s , f r o m the e i g h t h t o t w e l f t h g r a d e . A t t h e t i m e o f t h i s s t u d y t h e r e were a p p r o x i m a t e l y 650 s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d . The s c h o o l i s l o c a t e d on 7 7 t h Avenue i n t h e Newton a r e a o f S u r r e y . T h i s a r e a was c l a s s i f i e d , i n t h e a c c r e d i t a t i o n r e p o r t , as b e i n g a g r e a t e r e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s a r e a , f o l l o w i n g the g u i d e l i n e s p u t f o r t h by the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a T e a c h e r ' s F e d e r a t i o n . The s t u d e n t s i n t h i s s c h o o l come f r o m m i d d l e c l a s s or l o w e r m i d d l e c l a s s f a m i - l i e s . 3.1.2 S e l e c t i o n o f t h e S u b j e c t s S t u d e n t s Four c l a s s e s o f S c i e n c e E i g h t , t a u g h t by two s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t t r i m e s t e r o f the s c h o o l y e a r , took p a r t i n t h i s s t u d y . These c l a s s e s were s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e t h e y were t a u g h t by t e a c h e r s who had p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n t h i s s c h o o l u s i n g t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c k a g e s . The t r e a t - ments were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o the c l a s s e s so t h a t e a c h t e a c h - er had an e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p . The s t u d e n t s were a s s i g n e d t o c l a s s e s by a computer p r o - gram w h i c h was i n i t i a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be e q u i v a l e n t t o random s e l e c t i o n , t h e r e b y p r o v i d i n g no b i a s , f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y . On more c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t a s m a l l c l a s s o f 13 Band s t u d e n t s and a s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f - 31 - M a t h e m a t i c s programming b a s e d on p r e v i o u s s u c c e s s i n mathe- m a t i c s made t h i s r a n d o m i z a t i o n a s s u m p t i o n s u s p e c t . I t was n o t t h o u g h t t h a t ^ the a s s i g n m e n t o f the Band s t u d e n t s would be a s e r i o u s p r o b l e m i n f o r m i n g e q u i v a l e n t g r o u p s as t h e y would have been i n one o f t h e r e m a i n i n g f i v e c l a s s e s o f S c i e n c e E i g h t , t h r e e o f w h i c h were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y . A l s o , t h e y were o n l y 13 o f the 148 s t u d e n t s t h a t were e n r o l l e d i n S c i e n c e E i g h t d u r i n g t h a t y e a r . 5 The m a t h e m a t i c s c l a s s e s were s t r a t i f i e d i n t o t h r e e l e v e l s : one c l a s s was f o r t h e mos't s u c c e s s f u l s t u d e n t s , t h r e e c l a s s e s f o r a v e r a g e s t u d e n t s , and two c l a s s e s f o r t h e lo w e r a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s . The c l a s s f o r t h e most c a p a b l e m a t h e m a t i c s s t u d e n t s d i d n o t c o n f l i c t w i t h any o f the s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . One o f e a c h o f t h e c l a s s e s f o r a v e r a g e and l o w e r a b i l i t y m a t h e m a t i c s s t u - d e n t s o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the time t h a t a s c i e n c e c l a s s t h a t was i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y t o o k p l a c e , however t h e s e two mathema- t i c s c l a s s e s d i d n o t o c c u r i n t h e same b l o c k . The ch a n c e o f s t u d e n t s i n t h e s e two m a t h e m a t i c s c l a s s e s b e i n g i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y was r e d u c e d b e c a u s e t h e r e were o n l y t h r e e o f the f i v e c l a s s e s o f s c i e n c e t h a t t h e y c o u l d be a s s i g n e d t o t h a t were s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . I t was n o t t h o u g h t t h a t the f o r m a t i o n o f m a t h e m a t i c s c l a s s e s on t h e b a s i s o f a b i l i t y g r o u p - i n g i n t r o d u c e d v e r y much b i a s t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f s c i e n c e c l a s s e s b e c a u s e o f t h e s m a l l o v e r l a p o f m a t h e m a t i c s and s c i - e nce c l a s s e s i n t h e t i m e t a b l e . - 32 - C a m p b e l l and S t a n l e y (1963) p o i n t o u t t h a t the use o f n a t u r a l l y formed c l a s s e s i n e x p e r i m e n t s i s an a c c e p t a b l e pro- c e d u r e i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s when random a s s i g n m e n t o f s u b - j e c t s t o t r e a t m e n t i s n o t p o s s i b l e . However, as d e s c r i b e d l a t e r , a p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d t o t e s t the i n i - t i a l c o m p a r a b i l i t y o f the " e x p e r i m e n t a l " g r o u p s . T a b l e 1 T e a c h e r 2 T e a c h e r 1 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Four C l a s s e s C l a s s S i z e Male Female 1* 19 11 8 2** 23 6 17 3* 17 10 7 4** 15 8 7 * e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t ** c o n t r o l t r e a t m e n t T e a c h e r s The two t e a c h e r s who took p a r t i n t h i s s t u d y were b o t h male and were e x p e r i e n c e d s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s . One t e a c h e r had t a u g h t f o r two y e a r s i n A f r i c a b e f o r e j o i n i n g the s t a f f o f F r a n k H u r t . He had t a u g h t two y e a r s a t F r a n k H u r t b e f o r e t h i s s t u d y was i n i t i a t e d . The a u t h o r , who was the s e c o n d t e a c h e r , had t a u g h t s c i e n c e i n a j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l i n S u r r e y f o r f i v e y e a r s p r i o r t o j o i n i n g the s t a f f a t F r a n k H u r t . He a l s o had - 33 - t a u g h t a t F r a n k H u r t f o r two y e a r s p r i o r t o the i n i t i a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . B o t h t e a c h e r s were between 30 and 35 y e a r s o f age. A t h i r d t e a c h e r a v a i l a b l e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e s t u d y was r u l e d o u t b e c a u s e she was a b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r i n her f i r s t y e a r o f t e a c h i n g . 3.2 T e a c h i n g Methods 3.2.1 S e l f - P a c e d S a l i a n t f e a t u r e s o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l t e a c h i n g method a r e i t s s t r e s s on s t u d e n t s e l f - p a c i n g and the use o f l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c k a g e s (LAP's) w i t h s t a t e d b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s . The LAP u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f a s e q u e n t i a l o u t l i n e o f a c t i v i t i e s f o r s t u d y i n g o p t i c s , the o b j e c t i v e s f o r e a c h u n i t , and the s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s f o r e a c h s u b - u n i t . Once the s t u d e n t s had been shown how t o use the p a ckage and where t h e y would f i n d the m a t e r i a l s t h e y n e e d e d , t h e y were a l l o w e d t o p r o c e e d a t t h e i r own p a c e . The s t u d e n t s worked e i t h e r a l o n e or i n s m a l l g r o u p s . S t u d e n t s w r o t e the c o u r s e exams s e t by the t e a c h e r s when t h e y f i n i s h e d e a c h s u b - u n i t o f work. 3.2.2 T e a c h e r - P a c e d The c o n v e n t i o n a l t e a c h i n g method u s e d h e r e as a c o n t r o l a g a i n s t w h i c h the e x p e r i m e n t a l method c o u l d be compared was t e a c h e r d i r e c t e d , t e a c h e r - p a c e d . B e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s were n o t p r o v i d e d t o the s t u d e n t s ; i n s t e a d the work f o r e a c h day was p r e s e n t e d by the t e a c h e r t o the whole c l a s s o f s t u d e n t s . - 34 - The exams, the same ones the s e l f - p a c e d s t u d e n t s w r o t e , were s e t by the t e a c h e r a f t e r e a c h s u b - u n i t o f work and were w r i t t e n by the whole c l a s s . A c o p y o f an example l e s s o n o f e a c h p r o - gram and a u n i t t e s t i s p r o v i d e d i n A p p e n d i x A. 3.3 D e s i g n o f the S t u d y A 2 x 2 x 2 ( m e t h o d - b y - t e a c h e r - b y - g e n d e r ) n o n - e q u i v a l e n t g r o u p s f i x e d e f f e c t s f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n was u s e d i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . F a c t o r 1, method, was s u b d i v i d e d i n t o e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l . F a c t o r 2, t e a c h e r , was s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t e a c h e r 1 and t e a c h e r 2. T h i s f a c t o r was i n c l u d e d as p a r t o f the d e s i g n i n o r d e r t o c o n t r o l f o r any d i f f e r e n c e s between t e a c h e r s . F a c t o r 3, g e n d e r , was s u b d i v i d e d i n t o male and f e m a l e . 3.4 I n s t r u m e n t s 3.4.1 A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t The t e s t u s e d t o measure a c h i e v e m e n t and r e t e n t i o n o f knowledge, d e v e l o p e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r , c o n s i s t e d o f 59 m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e i t e m s r e f e r e n c e d t o b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s o f the o p t i c s l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c k a g e . C o n t e n t v a l i d i t y was e s t a b l i s h e d by h a v i n g the s e c o n d t e a c h e r compare the i t e m s on the t e s t w i t h the o b j e c t i v e s i n the p a c k a g e . A l l i t e m s on the t e s t were r e t a i n e d . A c o p y o f t h i s t e s t i s i n A p p e n d i x B. 3.4.2 T e s t o f S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s A m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n ( M o t t , 1974) o f Tannenbaum's T e s t o f S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s (1971) was u s e d t o p r o v i d e a measure o f - 35 - knowledge o f s c i e n c e p r o c e s s e s . I t i s a 50 i t e m m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e t e s t . M o t t p r e p a r e d h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n by t a k i n g the 50 i t e m s w h i c h y i e l d the h i g h e s t KR-20 e s t i m a t e o f i n t e r n a l c o n - s i s t e n c y , u s i n g the r e s p o n s e s o f s t u d e n t s i n Grade e i g h t c o l - l e c t e d by S i e b e n ( 1 9 7 1 ) . The number o f i t e m s f o r e a c h t y p e o f p r o c e s s e v a l u a t e d i s shown i n T a b l e 2. Tannenbaum ( 1 9 7 1 ) , u s i n g KR-20, r e p o r t e d a r e l i a b i l i t y o f the o r i g i n a l 96 i t e m t e s t t o be .91; S i e b e n (1971) r e p o r t e d a r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h i s same t e s t t o be .89. A c a l c u l a t i o n u s i n g the Spearman-Brown f o r m u l a ( C r o n b a c h , 1 9 4 9 ) , y i e l d e d a r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the s h o r t e n e d t e s t o f .84. A mean o f 33.032 and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 7.387 were r e p o r t e d by M o t t (1974) f o r the m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f the T e s t o f S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s . T a b l e 2 Number o f Items f o r E a c h Type o f P r o c e s s Type o f P r o c e s s Number o f Items o f M o d i f i e d T e s t O b s e r v i n g 6 Compar i n g 2 C l a s s i f y i n g 2 Q u a n t i f y i n g 8 Measur i n g 12 Exp e r i m e n t i n g 6 I n f e r r i n g 8 P r e d i c t i n g 6 T o t a l Number o f Items 50 - 36 - 3.4.3 A t t i t u d e S c a l e s The two a t t i t u d e s c a l e s u s e d were Form X and Form Z d e v e l o p e d by S i e b e n ( 1 9 7 1 ) . Form X, c a l l e d h e r e t h e a t t i t u d e t o e x p e r i m e n t i n g , i s an a t t i t u d e s c a l e d e v e l o p e d t o measure whether or n o t e x p e r i m e n t i n g i n s c i e n c e l e a d s s t u d e n t s t o p u r - sue phenomena t h a t t h e y n o t i c e . The s e c o n d a t t i t u d e s c a l e , Form Z, c a l l e d h e r e the a t t i t u d e t o i n d e p e n d e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i s an a t t i t u d e s c a l e d e v e l o p e d t o measure whether or n o t e x p e r - i m e n t i n g l e a d s s t u d e n t s t o i n v e s t i g a t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y . These two t e s t s were c h o s e n b e c a u s e the two v a r i a b l e s t h e y measured were t h o u g h t t o be i m p o r t a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g s u c c e s s i n s c i e n c e as t a u g h t by the l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s p a c kage method. S i e b e n (1971) r e p o r t e d t h e r e l i a b i l i t y t o be .82 f o r e a c h a t t i t u d e s c a l e as c a l c u l a t e d by C r o n b a c h ' s a l p h a . S i e b e n (1971) r e p o r t e d the mean o f Form X t o be .50 .22 and the s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n t o be 13.35 and the mean o f Form Z t o be 45.12 and the s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n t o be 13.54. 3.4.4 H i d d e n F i g u r e s T e s t As d i s c u s s e d below, an a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e was us e d t o a n a l y z e t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s . The c o v a r i a t e u s e d was an a d a p t a t i o n o f the H i d d e n F i g u r e s T e s t ( W i t k i n , 1972) w h i c h p r o v i d e d a measure o f c o g n i t i v e s t y l e . I t has been f o u n d t h a t t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o g n i t i v e s t y l e and a c h i e v e m e n t i n s c i e n c e . W i t k i n , e t a l . (1977) r e v i e w e d - 37 - s t u d i e s t h a t i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o g n i t i v e s t y l e and a c h i e v e m e n t i n s c i e n c e . They came t o t h e s e c o n c l u - s i o n s : " I n a good m a j o r i t y o f the l a r g e number o f s t u d i e s w i t h c o l l e g e p o p u l a t i o n s , r e l a t i v e l y f i e l d - i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d e n t s were f o u n d t o p e r f o r m s i g - n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r i n m a t h e m a t i c s , s c i e n c e s , e n g i n e e r i n g , and a r c h i t e c t u r e domains t h a n f i e l d - d e p e n d e n t s t u d e n t s . . . " (p. 45) " i t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c o g - n i t i v e s t y l e and a c h i e v e m e n t appear d e s p i t e the r e s t r i c t e d r a n g e i n c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s c o r e s l i k e l y t o o c c u r i n g r o u p s f i l t e r i n g i n t o t h e s e d o m a i n s . " (p. 46) " S t u d i e s o f the r e l a t i o n between c o g n i t i v e s t y l e and p e r f o r m a n c e have been l e s s f r e q u e n t w i t h h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s than w i t h c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , and t h e i r r e s u l t s n o t as c l e a r . In o n l y a b o u t h a l f o f the s t u d i e s w i t h h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s now on r e c o r d was the r e l a t i o n between m a t h e m a t i c s - s c i e n c e a c h i e v e m e n t and measure o f f i e l d - d e p e n - d e n c e - i n d e p e n d e n c e s i g n i f i c a n t , a l t h o u g h i n e v e r y s t u d y , the d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r f o r m a n c e as a f u n c t i o n o f c o g n i t i v e s t y l e was i n the e x p e c t e d d i r e c t i o n . " (p. 46) The H i d d e n F i g u r e s T e s t used, i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was an a d a p t a t i o n u s e d e a r l i e r by G r i m e s (1973) and M o t t ( 1 9 7 4 ) . I t i s a g r o u p a d m i n i s t e r e d t e s t c o n s i s t i n g o f 32 i t e m s . E a c h i t e m r e q u i r e s t h e s u b j e c t t o i d e n t i f y a s i m p l e shape w i t h i n a complex f i e l d . The t e s t i s d i v i d e d i n t o two 16 i t e m s u b - t e s t s . G r i m e s (1973) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , computed u s i n g KR-20, was 0.92. M o t t (1974) r e p o r t e d the mean f o r t h i s t e s t t o be 22.860 and t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n t o be 7.705. A c o p y o f t h i s t e s t i s p r o v i d e d i n A p p e n d i x B. - 38 - 3.5 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f I n s t r u m e n t s The a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d a t t h e end o f t h e t h r e e month t e a c h i n g p h a s e . I t was a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e c l a s s t e a c h e r d u r i n g t h e r e g u l a r 60 m i n u t e c l a s s p e r i o d and a l l c l a s s e s were t e s t e d on t h e same d a y . T h i s was done t o m i n i m i z e any d i s c u s s i o n o f the t e s t between s t u d e n t s who had w r i t t e n the t e s t and t h o s e who had n o t y e t w r i t t e n the t e s t . S t u d e n t s were a s k e d n o t t o d i s c u s s t h e t e s t w i t h o t h e r s . The r e t e n t i o n t e s t was g i v e n 90 d a y s a f t e r the p o s t a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t and a l l c l a s s e s were g i v e n the t e s t by t h e a u t h o r d u r i n g t h e i r 60 m i n u t e s c i e n c e p e r i o d . The whole c l a s s was t e s t e d a t the same time and s u b j e c t s r e m a i n e d i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l c l a s s e s . The H i d d e n F i g u r e s t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e s t u d e n t s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t two weeks o f s c h o o l . The t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a l l c l a s s e s d u r i n g t h e i r r e g u l a r s c i e n c e p e r i o d . The d i r e c - t i o n s on the f r o n t o f t h e t e s t , a c o p y o f w h i c h a p p e a r s i n A p p e n d i x B , were f o l l o w e d . Ten m i n u t e s was a l l o w e d f o r e a c h p a r t o f t h e t e s t and s t u d e n t s were n o t a l l o w e d t o p r o c e e d i f f i n i s h e d P a r t 1 e a r l y o r t o r e t u r n t o P a r t 1 once P a r t 2 o f the exam was s t a r t e d . The T e s t o f S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s , m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n , was g i v e n t o the s t u d e n t s w i t h i n the week f o l l o w i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t . T h i s t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a l l s u b - j e c t s by t h e a u t h o r . The d i r e c t i o n s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e exam (see A p p e n d i x B ) were r e a d t o t h e s t u d e n t s and t h e - 39 - s t u d e n t s f o l l o w e d on t h e i r c o p y o f the t e s t . A one hour t i m e p e r i o d was g i v e n t o c o m p l e t e the t e s t . T h e r e were some p r o b - lems i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the p i c t u r e s p r e s e n t e d i n some q u e s t i o n s . The s t u d e n t s were i n f o r m e d o f t h e s e a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e t e s t p e r i o d and d r a w i n g s s i m i l a r t o t h e p i c t u r e s were p u t on the b o a r d a t t h e f r o n t o f t h e room so t h a t a l l s t u d e n t s c o u l d see them. The a t t i t u d e s c a l e s t e s t was g i v e n t w i c e t o e a c h s t u d e n t : once w i t h i n the f i r s t week o f s c h o o l and a g a i n a t the end o f the t e a c h i n g u n i t , f o l l o w i n g t h e a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t and the T e s t o f S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s . The a u t h o r a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e t e s t t o a l l c l a s s e s on b o t h o c c a s i o n s . The d i r e c t i o n s were r e a d o u t t o the c l a s s and q u e s t i o n s were t h e n a n s w e r e d . The s t u d e n t s were g i v e n time t o do t h e p r a c t i s e q u e s t i o n s . The t e s t was t h e n r e a d o u t t o the s t u d e n t s , q u e s t i o n by q u e s t i o n , and t h e s t u d e n t s were g i v e n t i m e t o r e s p o n d a f t e r e a c h q u e s t i o n . T h i s was done f o r two r e a s o n s . 1. So t h a t s t u d e n t s would t h i n k a b o u t e a c h q u e s t i o n b e f o r e a n s w e r i n g i t . 2. To e n s u r e t h e y u n d e r s t o o d e a c h q u e s t i o n ' s m e a n i n g . 3.6 D a t a P r e p a r a t i o n and A n a l y s i s 3.6.1 D a t a P r e p a r a t i o n The d a t a c o l l e c t e d were c o d e d by the a u t h o r and v e r i f i e d by r a n d o m l y s e l e c t i n g t h e d a t a f o r t e n s u b j e c t s and r e c o d i n g t h i s d a t a . R e s u l t s o f t h i s v e r i f y i n g p r o c e d u r e showed no - 40 - e r r o r s . The d a t a were keypunched w i t h 100% v e r i f i c a t i o n by the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o m p u t i n g c e n t e r s t a f f . 3.6.2 T e s t A n a l y s i s An i t e m a n a l y s i s o f t h e p o s t - t e s t and r e t e n t i o n t e s t d a t a was p e r f o r m e d and an e s t i m a t e o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y (Hoyt, 1941) was computed u s i n g t h e LERTAP ( L a b o r a t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h T e s t A n a l y s i s P a c k a g e ) , N e l s o n ( 1 9 7 4 ) , computer p r o - gram m a i n t a i n e d by the E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e C e n t r e . The Hoyt e s t i m a t e o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f the p o s t - t e s t i s .82 and .76 f o r t h e r e t e n t i o n t e s t . The p o s t - t e s t has a mean o f 31.74 and a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 7.98. The mean f o r t h e r e t e n t i o n t e s t i s 30.16 and t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n i s 6.74. An i t e m a n a l y s i s o f t h e two a t t i t u d e s c a l e s d a t a was p e r - formed and an e s t i m a t e o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y (Hoyt, 1941) was computed u s i n g t h e LERTAP computer p r o g r a m . The H o y t e s t i m a t e s o f r e l i a b i l i t y were .67 and .73 f o r t h e p r e - and p o s t - t e s t s c a l e s t h a t measure t h e a t t i t u d e t o e x p e r i m e n t i n g . The mean and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n were 47.38 and 10.11 r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r t h e p r e - t e s t and 46.35 and 12.87 r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r t h e p o s t - t e s t . The H o y t e s t i m a t e s o f r e l i a b i l i t y were .85 and .85 f o r t h e p r e - and p o s t - t e s t s c a l e s t h a t measure the a t t i t u d e t o i n d e p e n d e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The mean and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n were 46 .35 and 12.87 r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r the p r e - t e s t and 55.30 and 13.52 r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r t h e p o s t - t e s t . - 41 - 3.6.3 P r e l i m i n a r y A n a l y s i s A p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s o f t h e p r e - t e s t d a t a was p e r f o r m e d t o examine more c l o s e l y the e q u i v a l e n c e o f t h e g r o u p s f o r m e d . A 2 x 2 x 2 ( m e t h o d - b y - t e a c h e r - b y - g e n d e r ) f i x e d e f f e c t s a n a l y - s i s o f v a r i a n c e (Winer, 1971) was u s e d t o s e p a r a t e l y a n a l y z e the s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on t h e H i d d e n F i g u r e s T e s t and e a c h o f t h e two a t t i t u d e s c a l e s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e a n a l y s e s a r e summa- r i z e d i n A p p e n d i x C. As shown i n T a b l e s 3, 4 and 5 t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between sex and t e a c h e r . T h u s , t o e l i m i n a t e t h i s s o u r c e o f b i a s and t o r e a l i z e a p o s s i b l e i n c r e a s e i n power due t o t h e use o f a c o v a r i a t e , t h e H i d d e n F i g u r e s T e s t was r e t a i n e d and a n a l y s e s o f c o v a r i a n c e employed t o a n a l y z e a l l t h e d a t a . T a b l e 3 H i d d e n F i g u r e s T e s t S c o r e s S o u r c e D e g r e e s Mean P r o b a b i l i t y o f V a r i a n c e o f Freedom Squ a r e F Sex (S) 1 162.701 2.06 0.156 T e a c h e r (T) 1 21.895 0.28 0.601 T r e a t m e n t (Tr) 1 87.791 1.11 0.296 S x T 1 3.405 0.04 0.836 S x Tr 1 317.790 4.02 0.049 T x Tr 1 0.956 0.01 0.913 S x T x Tr 1 73.680 0.93 0.338 R e s i d u a l 65 79.076 - 42 - T a b l e 4 Summary o f t h e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f the A t t i t u d e t o E x p e r i m e n t S c o r e s S o u r c e D e g r e e s Mean o f V a r i a n c e o f Freedom S q u a r e ic P r o b a b i l i t y Sex (S) 1 36.98 7 0 .37 0 .544 T e a c h e r (T) 1 183 .589 1.84 0 .179 T r e a t m e n t (Tr) 1 57.558 0 .58 0.450 S x T 1 .0.324 0.00 0.955 S x Tr 1 23.062 0.23 0.632 T x Tr 1 414 .336 4.16 0 .045 S x T x Tr 1 2.401 0 .02 0.877 R e s i d u a l 66 99.593 T a b l e 5 Summary o f t h e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f the A t t i t u d e t o I n d e p e n d e n t I n v e s t i g a t i o n S c o r e s S o u r c e o f V a r i a n c e D e g r e e s o f Freedom Mean S q u a r e F P r o b a b i l i t y Sex (S) 1 7.405 0.07 0.797 T e a c h e r (T) 1 7.026 0.06 0.803 T r e a t m e n t (Tr) 1 56.652 0.51 0.478 S x T 1 155.582 1.40 0 .242 S x T r 1 168.091 1.51 0.224 T x Tr 1 1388.437 12.46 0.001 S x T x Tr 1 2.647 0.02 0 .878 Res i d u a l 66 111.403 3.6.4 F i n a l A n a l y s i s The use o f D e s i g n 10 and the p r e l i m i n a r y r e s u l t s l e d t o the d e c i s i o n t o use a 2 x 2 x 2 (method-- b y - t e a c h e r - b y - g e n d e r ) - 4 3 - f i x e d e f f e c t s a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e t o s e p a r a t e l y a n a l y s e a c h i e v e m e n t , r e t e n t i o n , and s c i e n c e p r o c e s s e s s c o r e s u s i n g H i d d e n F i g u r e s s c o r e s as the c o v a r i a t e . The a n a l y s i s o f the a t t i t u d e s c a l e s was a 2 x 2 x 2 ( m e t h o d - b y - t e a c h e r - b y - g e r i d e r ) f i x e d e f f e c t s a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e t h a t s e p a r a t e l y a n a l y s e d the a t t i t u d e s t o e x p e r i m e n t i n g and i n d e p e n d e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n u s i n g t h e p r e - t e s t s c o r e s r e s p e c t i v e l y as c o v a r i a t e s . The l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e u s e d f o r a l l a n a l y s i s was t h e .05 l e v e l . A l l a n a l y s e s were c o m p l e t e d on an AMDAHL 470 M o d e l V/6 Mark 2 u s i n g t h e pr o g r a m ANOVAR, S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( N i e , N.H., e t a l . , 1 9 75). - 44 - CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS OF DATA 4 .0 I n t r o d u c t i o n The r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s e s d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . In what f o l l o w s , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h o s e a n a l y s e s , t h e f i n a l sample s i z e s r e a l i z e d a r e p r e - s e n t e d , f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p s y c h o m e t r i c c h a r a c - t e r i s t i c s o f e a c h o f the m e asures u s e d . The c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the a n a l y s e s o f c o v a r i a n c e p e r f o r m e d on e a c h o f the d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s c o n s i d e r e d . 4.1 The F i n a l Sample The f i n a l s a mple, c o n s i s t i n g o f 74 s u b j e c t s d i s t r i b u t e d i n f o u r c l a s s e s as shown i n T a b l e 6, was d e r i v e d from the i n i t i a l sample o f 104 s u b j e c t s . A t t r i t i o n , due t o m i s s i n g d a t a or l e a v i n g the c l a s s , a c c o u n t e d f o r the d i f f e r e n c e between the number o f s u b j e c t s i n t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l s a m p l e s . T a b l e 6 I n i t i a l Sample F i n a l Sample Summary o f I n i t i a l and F i n a l C e l l Sample S i z e T e a c h e r 1 T e a c h e r 2 T e a c h e r - S e l f - T e a c h e r - S e l f - P a c e d P a c e d P a c e d P a c e d n = 23 28 24 29 male = 14 18 13 9 f e m a l e = 9 10 11 20 n = 17 15 19 23 male = 10 8 11 6 f e m a l e = 7 7 8 17 - 45 - 4.2 Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f I n s t r u m e n t s S c i e n c e a c h i e v e m e n t and r e t e n t i o n The r e s u l t s f o r the a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 7. The i t e m d i f f i c u l t y and i t e m t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n d i s c r i m i n a - t i o n i n d e x ( p o i n t - b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ) f o r b o t h t e s t s a r e g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x B. The d i f f i c u l t y i n d i c e s v a r y from .095 t o .946 on t h e p o s t - t e s t and f r o m .081 t o .973 on the r e t e n t i o n t e s t . The d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n d i c e s v a r y from -0.10 t o 0.59 on t h e p o s t - t e s t and f r o m -0.20 t o 0.58 on the r e t e n t i o n t e s t . A l l 59 i t e m s , on b o t h t e s t s , were r e t a i n e d f o r s u b s e q u e n t a n a l y s i s . T a b l e 7 Summary o f A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t P o s t Re t e n t i o n Mean 31.74 30.16 S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n 7.98 6.74 Range 15.00 - 50.00 16.00 - 48.00 H o y t e s t i m a t e o f i n t e r n a l 0.82 0.76 c o n s i s t e n c y S t a n d a r d e r r o r o f measurement 3.33 3.29 A t t i t u d e S c a l e s The r e s u l t s f o r the a t t i t u d e s c a l e s , a d m i n i s t e r e d as p r e - and p o s t - t e s t s , a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 8. I t e m - t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x B f o r b o t h a t t i t u d e s c a l e s , and b o t h o c c a s i o n s . The i t e m - t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r the e x p e r i m e n t i n g T a b l e 8 Summary o f P r e - and P o s t - A t t i t u d e S c a l e s P r e Post* Mean S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n Range P o s s i b l e Range Hoyt e s t i m a t e o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y S t a n d a r d e r r o r o f measurement E x p e r i m e n t i n g 47.38 10.11 20.00 - 68.00 20.00 - 100.00 0.67 5.64 I n d e p e n d e n t I n v e s t i g a t i o n 54.27 11.09 32.00 - 82.00 20.00 - 100.00 0.73 5.65 Ex p e r i m e n t i n g 46.35 12.87 22.00 - 80.00 20.00 - 100.00 0.85 4 .83 I n d e p e n d e n t I n v e s t i g a t i o n 55.30 13.52 23.00 - 86.00 20.00 - 100.00 0.85 5.11 - 47 - a t t i t u d e s c a l e v a r y f r o m -0.045 t o 0.471 on the p r e - t e s t and from -0.036 t o 0.658 on the p o s t - t e s t . The i t e m - t e s t c o r r e - l a t i o n f o r t h e a t t i t u d e s c a l e c a l l e d i n d e p e n d e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n v a r y from 0.080 t o 0.581 on t h e p r e - t e s t and f r o m 0.083 t o 0.654 on t h e p o s t - t e s t . A l l 20 i t e m s were r e t a i n e d f o r b o t h a t t i t u d e s c a l e s . Item means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e two a t t i t u d e s c a l e s t h a t c o m p r i s e t h e two a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f t h e t e s t s a r e g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x B. 4.3 Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e A c h i e v e m e n t P o s t - T e s t S c o r e s In o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e mean s c o r e s on t h e a c h i e v e m e n t p o s t - t e s t a r e due t o methods o f i n s t r u c t i o n , the t e a c h e r , or t h e sex o f the s t u d e n t , a 2 x 2 x 2 f i x e d e f f e c t s a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e was done u s i n g the H i d d e n F i g u r e s s c o r e s as the c o v a r i a t e . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 9. As shown i n T a b l e 10, the r e s u l t s show the t e a c h e r e f f e c t t o be the o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t . The means f o r t h e s e two g r o u p s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 10. An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e means shows t h a t the a c h i e v e m e n t p o s t - t e s t mean i s t h e g r e a t e s t f o r T e a c h e r 2. R e t e n t i o n T e s t S c o r e s The r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e p e r f o r m e d f o r the r e t e n t i o n t e s t s c o r e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 11. T h e r e a r e no - 48 - T a b l e 9 Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e o f A c h i e v e m e n t P o s t - T e s t S c o r e s Mean S o u r c e o f V a r i a n c e D.F. S q u a r e s F P r o b a b i l i t y C o var i a t e H i d d e n F i g u r e s 1 272.134 4.964 0.029 Main E f f e c t s Sex (S) 1 67.189 1.226 0.272 T e a c h e r (T) 1 264.192 4.819 0.032 T r e a t m e n t (Tr) 1 174.069 3.175 0.079 2- Way I n t e r a c t i o n s S x T 1 23.300 0.425 0.517 S x Tr 1 142.204 2.594 0.112 T x T r 1 39.170 0.715 0.401 3- Way I n t e r a c t i o n s S x T x Tr 1 142.805 2.605 0.111 R e s i d u a l 64 54.818 T o t a l 72 T a b l e 10 C e l l Sample S i z e and A d j u s t e d Means A c h i e v e m e n t P o s t - T e s t Gender T r e a t m e n t T e a c h e r Male Female S e l f - P a c e d n x .:8 32.50 n x 6 33.33 T e a c h e r - P a c e d n x n x 6 40.17 10 28 .20 n x n x 17 31.59 7 25.43 n x 11 32.00 n x 8 33.63 - 49 - T a b l e 11 Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e o f R e t e n t i o n T e s t S c o r e s Mean S o u r c e s o f V a r i a n c e D.F. S q u a r e s F P r o b a b i l i t y C o v a r i a t e H i d d e n F i g u r e s 1 471.474 12.519 0.001 Main E f f e c t s Sex (S) 1 14.202 0.377 0.541 T e a c h e r (T) 1 145.024 3.851 0.054 T r e a t m e n t (Tr) 1 76.117 2.021 0.160 2- Way I n t e r a c t i o n s S x T 1 75.413 2.002 0.162 S x Tr 1 64.267 1.706 0.196 T x T r 1 0.263 0.007 0.934 3- Way I n t e r a c t i o n S x T x Tr 1 48.780 1.295 0.259 R e s i d u a l 64 37.661 T o t a l 72 s i g n i f i c a n t main or i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s f o r the r e t e n t i o n t e s t s c o r e s . B o t h t r e a t m e n t s were as e f f e c t i v e f o r b o t h s e x e s o f s u b j e c t s as t a u g h t by e i t h e r t e a c h e r . S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s T e s t S c o r e s An a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e was done u s i n g H i d d e n F i g u r e s s c o r e s as the c o v a r i a t e . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s a r e shown i n T a b l e 12. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were o b t a i n e d f o r t r e a t m e n t and f o r t h e sex by t r e a t m e n t i n t e r a c t i o n . The means c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 13. The means f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t show t h a t t h e s e l f - p a c e d g r o u p s c o r e d h i g h e r on the S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s T e s t t h a n d i d t h e t e a c h e r - p a c e d g r o u p . However, t h e sex by t r e a t m e n t i n t e r a c t i o n m i t i g a t e s a g a i n s t a s i m p l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the main t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t . - 5 0 - T a b l e 12 Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f Covariance••;of S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s T e s t S c o r e s Mean S o u r c e o f V a r i a n c e D.F. S q u a r e s F P r o b a b i l i t y C o var i a t e H i d d e n F i g u r e s 1 492.189 13.117 0.001 Main E f f e c t s Sex (S) 1 66.399 1.770 0.188 T e a c h e r (T) 1 12.306 0.3.28 0.569 T r e a t m e n t (Tr) 1 273.971 7.302 0.009 2- Way I n t e r a c t i o n s S x T 1 3.743 0.100 0.753 S x Tr 1 358.970 9.567 0.003 T x T r 1 12.031 0.321 0.573 3- Way I n t e r a c t i o n S x T x T r 1 20.114 0.536 0.467 R e s i d u a l 64 37.522 T o t a l 72 T a b l e 13 C e l l Sample S i z e and A d j u s t e d Means S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s T e s t Gender T r e a t m e n t M a l e Female S e l f - P a c e d n = 37 n = 14 n = 23 X = 26. .81 X = 27. ,93 X = 26. 13 T e a c h e r - P a c e d n = 36 n = 21 n = 15 X = 21. .89 X = 20. .19 X = 24. 27 A g r a p h i c a l a n a l y s i s was done f o r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n i n o r d e r t o b e t t e r i n t e r p r e t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n . F i g u r e 1 shows t h e mean S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s s c o r e s p l o t t e d a g a i n s t t r e a t m e n t f o r b o t h - 51 - s e x e s . Means o f S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s f o r t h e s e g r o u p s a r e f r o m T a b l e 13. F i g u r e 1 S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s Means v s . T r e a t m e n t s 28 Adj u s t e d Means f o r S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s 20 -I ( 1 — 1 2 T r e a t m e n t s The g r a p h i c a l a n a l y s i s shows t h a t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between t r e a t m e n t and sex i s o f a d i s o r d i n a t e n a t u r e ( G l a s s & S t a n l e y , 1971, p 4 1 0 - 4 1 1 ) . M a l e s i n t h e s e l f - p a c e d g r o u p a p p e a r e d t o have s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n m a l e s i n t h e t e a c h e r - p a c e d g r o u p . In c o n t r a s t f e m a l e s t u d e n t s i n b o t h g r o u p s were more c o m p a r a b l e a l t h o u g h t h e y s c o r e d h i g h e r i n the s e l f - p a c e d - 52 - g r o u p t h a n i n t h e t e a c h e r - p a c e d g r o u p . However, the d i f f e r - e nce d o e s n o t appear t o be s i g n i f i c a n t . A t t i t u d e S c a l e An a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e was done s e p a r a t e l y f o r e a c h o f the a t t i t u d e s c a l e s u s i n g t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g p r e - t e s t s c o r e s as the c o v a r i a t e . T a b l e 14 shows the summary o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e o f t h e a t t i t u d e t o e x p e r i m e n t t e s t s c o r e s . T h e r e a r e two s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s ; sex by t e a c h e r and t r e a t m e n t by t e a c h e r . F o r e a c h o f t h e s e i n t e r a c t i o n s a g r a p h i c a l a n a l y s i s was done. T a b l e 15 c o n t a i n s t h e means f o r t h e s e e f f e c t s . F i g u r e 2 shows t h e g r a p h i c a l a n a l y s i s f o r the sex by t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n . Means were t a k e n from T a b l e 15. The g r a p h i c a l a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t T e a c h e r 1 had a more p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on t h e a t t i t u d e t o e x p e r i m e n t i n g o f m a l e s than o f f e m a l e s . I t f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t T e a c h e r 1 had a more p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on t h e a t t i t u d e t o e x p e r i m e n t i n g o f m a l e s t h a n had T e a c h e r 2 and t h a t T e a c h e r 2 had a more p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on t h e a t t i t u d e s o f f e m a l e s t o e x p e r i m e n t i n g than T e a c h e r 1. T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between males and f e m a l e s i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o e x p e r i m e n t i n g when t a u g h t by T e a c h e r 2. - 53 - T a b l e 14 Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e o f t h e E x p e r i m e n t A t t i t u d e S c a l e S o u r c e o f V a r i a n c e C ovar i a t e P r e - t e s t M ain E f f e c t s Sex (S) T e a c h e r (T) T r e a t m e n t (Tr) 2- Way I n t e r a c t i o n s S x T S x T r T x Tr 3- Way I n t e r a c t i o n S x T x T r R e s i d u a l T o t a l D.F. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 65 73 Me an S q u a r e s 2971.201 370.126 24.268 145.081 1352.076 80.128 552.993 9.100 106.276 27.957 3.483 0 .228 1.365 12.722 0.754 5.203 0.086 P r o b a b i l i t y 0.000 0.067 0.634 0.247 0.001 0.388 0.026 0.771 T a b l e 15 C e l l Sample S i z e and A d j u s t e d Means E x p e r i m e n t A t t i t u d e S c a l e T e a c h e r 1 2 Gender Male n = 19 n = 17 X = 53.37 X = 45.00 Female n = 13 n = 25 X = 38 .46 X = 46.04 T r e a t m e n t S e l f - p a c e d n = 15 n 23 X = 52.20 X = 42.74 T e a c h e r - p a c e d n = 17 n = 19 X = 43.00 X = 49.11 A t t i t u d e t o F i g u r e 2 E x p e r i m e n t i n g S c o r e s v s . T e a c h e r 55 M a l e s F e m a l e s 50 A d j u s t e d Means f o r M a l e s A t t i t u d e t o E x p e r i m e n t i n g ^ 40 35 1 2 T e a c h e r F i g u r e 3 shows t h e g r a p h i c a l a n a l y s i s f o r t h e t e a c h e r by t r e a t m e n t i n t e r a c t i o n . The g r a p h i c a l a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s e l f - p a c e d method had a g r e a t e r e f f e c t on the a t t i t u d e t o e x p e r i m e n t - i n g when t a u g h t by T e a c h e r 1 and c o n v e r s e l y the t e a c h e r - p a c e d method had a g r e a t e r e f f e c t when t a u g h t by T e a c h e r 2. F u r t h e r i t i n d i c a t e s T e a c h e r 1 had a g r e a t e r e f f e c t on a t t i - t ude t o e x p e r i m e n t i n g when u s i n g t h e s e l f - p a c e d method t h a n when u s i n g t h e : - t e a c h e r - p a c e d method. In c o n t r a s t , T e a c h e r 2 - 55 - F i g u r e 3 A t t i t u d e t o E x p e r i m e n t i n g Mean S c o r e s v s . T e a c h e r 55 / A d j u s t e d Means f o r A t t i t u d e t o 50 E x p e r i m e n t i n g 45 40 1 2 Te a c h e r ' had a g r e a t e r e f f e c t on t h e a t t i t u d e t o e x p e r i m e n t i n g when u s i n g the t e a c h e r - p a c e d method t h a n when u s i n g t h e s e l f - p a c e d method. T a b l e 16 shows t h e summary o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i - ance o f t h e a t t i t u d e s c a l e f o r i n d e p e n d e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h e r e i s one s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between t e a c h e r and t r e a t m e n t . T a b l e 17 shows the means f o r t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t . A g r a p h i c a l a n a l y s i s was done t o d e t e r m i n e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t e a c h e r by t r e a t m e n t i n t e r a c t i o n . F i g u r e 4 shows the r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s . Means f o r t h e s e g r o u p s a r e from T a b l e 17. T e a c h e r - p a c e d S e l f - p a c e d - 56 - T a b l e 16 A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e o f t h e I n d e p e n d e n t I n v e s t i g a t i o n A t t i t u d e S c a l e Mean S o u r c e o f V a r i a n c e D.F. S q u a r e s F P r o b a b i l i t y C o v a r i a t e P r e - t e s t 1 6373.473 70.785 0.000 Main E f f e c t s Sex (S) 1 213.236 2.368 0.129 T e a c h e r (T) 1 160.373 1.781 0.187 T r e a t m e n t ( Tr) 1 76.178 0.846 0.361 2- Way I n t e r a c t i o n s S x T 1 126.870 1.409 0.240 S x Tr 1 59.130 0.657 0.421 T x T r 1 679.212 7.543 0.008 3- Way I n t e r a c t i o n S x T x Tr 1 11.230 0.125 0.725 R e s i d u a l 65 .90.040 T o t a l 73 T a b l e 17 C e l l Sample S i z e and A d j u s t e d Means I n d e p e n d e n t I n v e s t i g a t i o n A t t i t u d e S c a l e S e l f - p a c e d T e a c h e r - p a c e d T e a c h e r 1 n = = 15 n = = 17 x = = 60. .53 x = = 47. .00 2 n = = 23 n = = 19 x = = 51. .74 x = = 62. .89 The g r a p h i c a l a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s the same i n t e r a c t i o n s as f o r the t e a c h e r by t r e a t m e n t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e a t t i t u d e - 57 - F i g u r e 4 A t t i t u d e t o I n d e p e n d e n t I n v e s t i g a t i o n v s . T e a c h e r 65 A d j u s t e d Means f o r A t t i t u d e t o I n d e p e n d e n t I n v e s t i g a t i o n +_ r- 1 2 T e a c h e r t o e x p e r i m e n t i n g . T e a c h e r 1 had a g r e a t e r e f f e c t on t h e a t t i t u d e t o i n d e p e n d e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n when u s i n g the s e l f - p a c e d method t h a n when u s i n g t h e t e a c h e r - p a c e d method. In c o n t r a s t T e a c h e r 2 had a g r e a t e r e f f e c t when u s i n g the t e a c h e r - p a c e d method. A g a i n , t h e s e l f - p a c e d method was more e f f e c t i v e when t a u g h t by T e a c h e r 1 and t h e t e a c h e r - p a c e d method was most e f f e c t i v e when t a u g h t by T e a c h e r 2. The r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s e s have been p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . - 58 - CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n grew o u t o f a p e r c e i v e d need, by the a u t h o r , t o d e t e r m i n e the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f two t e a c h - i n g methods, the s e l f - p a c e d and t e a c h e r - p a c e d methods. The s c h o o l i n w h i c h t h i s s t u d y took p l a c e had been u s i n g a s e l f - p a c e d method and was i n the p r o c e s s o f c h a n g i n g t o a t e a c h e r - p a c e d method. In what f o l l o w s , the d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e s e two methods w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h - w i l l be made. 5.1 C o n c l u s i o n s The a n a l y s e s , as r e p o r t e d i n c h a p t e r f o u r , have p r o v i d e d e v i d e n c e t o answer the q u e s t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d by the n u l l h y p o t h e s e s t h a t were s t a t e d i n c h a p t e r one and t o t h e r e b y d e t e r m i n e the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the two t e a c h i n g me t h o d s . The r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the two t e a c h i n g methods has been d e t e r m i n e d . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g the e f f e c t o f t e a c h i n g method on the d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , u n d e r - s t a n d i n g o f s c i e n c e p r o c e s s e s , was r e j e c t e d . However t h e r e - 59 - was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between t h e sex o f t h e s t u d e n t and t h e t e a c h i n g method. The s e l f - p a c e d method o f t e a c h i n g was f o u n d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n the t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d method, f o r t e a c h i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s c i e n c e p r o c e s s e s . The i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e sex o f t h e s t u d e n t and t e a c h i n g method d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t m a l e s s c o r e d much h i g h e r on t h e T e s t o f S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s when t a u g h t w i t h t h e s e l f - p a c e d method and t h a t f e m a l e s a l s o s c o r e d much h i g h e r on t h e T e s t o f S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s w i t h t h e s e l f - p a c e d method b u t t h e d i f - f e r e n c e , between the s c o r e s , a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the t e a c h i n g method was n o t as g r e a t as i t was f o r m a l e s . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g the e f f e c t s o f t e a c h i n g method on t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s : a c h i e v e m e n t i n s c i e n c e , r e t e n t i o n o f s c i e n c e knowledge, s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s t o e x p e r i m e n t i n g , and i n d e p e n d e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were n o t r e - j e c t e d . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the t e a c h i n g methods was f o u n d f o r t h e s e v a r i a b l e s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d however, t h a t t h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s i n v o l v i n g t e a c h i n g method f o r t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , s t u d e n t s ' a t t i - t u de t o e x p e r i m e n t i n g and i n d e p e n d e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . The s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s i n v o l v i n g t e a c h i n g method i n c l u d e t e a c h e r as the o t h e r f a c t o r . T hese i n t e r a c t i o n s were f o u n d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t f o r b o t h o f the a t t i t u d e s c a l e s . A c l e a r p r e f e r e n c e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h i n g method was shown by b o t h t e a c h e r s . T e a c h e r one p r e f e r r e d the s e l f - p a c e d - 60 - method and T e a c h e r two p r e f e r r e d the t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d method. As a r e s u l t t h e a t t i t u d e s o f s t u d e n t s t o e x p e r i m e n t i n g and ind e p e n d e n t , i n v e s t i g a t i o n v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h t e a c h i n g method was u s e d by t h e i r t e a c h e r . S t u d e n t s t a u g h t by T e a c h e r one u s i n g t h e s e l f - p a c e d method s c o r e d h i g h e r on b o t h a t t i - t u d e s c a l e s t h a n s t u d e n t s t a u g h t by T e a c h e r one u s i n g the t e a c h e r - p a c e d method. C o n v e r s e l y , s t u d e n t s t a u g h t by T e a c h e r two u s i n g t h e t e a c h e r - p a c e d method s c o r e d h i g h e r on t h e two a t t i t u d e s c a l e s t h a n s t u d e n t s t a u g h t by T e a c h e r two u s i n g the s e l f - p a c e d method. The n u l l h y p o t h e s e s r e g a r d i n g sex o f the s t u d e n t and t h e f i v e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a r e a l l a c c e p t e d . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d between t h e mean s c o r e s o f m a l e s and f e m a l e s on t h e f i v e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . S i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r - a c t i o n s i n v o l v i n g t h e sex o f the s t u d e n t were f o u n d . As men- t i o n e d e a r l i e r t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between the sex o f t h e s t u d e n t and t e a c h i n g method on the d e p e n d e n t v a r i - a b l e , u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s c i e n c e p r o c e s s e s . A h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n was f o u n d between t h e t e a c h e r and t h e sex o f t h e s t u d e n t f o r the d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e t o e x p e r i m e n t i n g . M a l e s t a u g h t by T e a c h e r one s c o r e d h i g h e r than f e m a l e s t a u g h t by T e a c h e r one. The m a l e s t a u g h t by T e a c h e r one s c o r e d h i g h e r t h a n m a l e s t a u g h t by T e a c h e r two and f e m a l e s t a u g h t by T e a c h e r one s c o r e d l o w e r t h a n f e m a l e s t a u g h t by T e a c h e r two. T h e r e were no a p p a r e n t d i f f e r e n c e s - 61 - i n t h e mean s c o r e s f o r t h e a t t i t u d e t o e x p e r i m e n t i n g between males and f e m a l e s t a u g h t by T e a c h e r two. The f a c t o r T e a c h e r , w h i c h i t became n e c e s s a r y t o c o n t r o l f o r , was f o u n d t o have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t . The n u l l h y po- t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g the d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , a c h i e v e m e n t i n s c i - e n c e , was r e j e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f the a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e . The a n a l y s i s shows t h a t s t u d e n t s t a u g h t by T e a c h e r two s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on t h e a c h i e v e m e n t i n s c i e n c e t e s t t h a n s t u d e n t s t a u g h t by T e a c h e r one. The T e a c h e r f a c t o r was a l s o i n v o l v e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s . T h e r e were s i g - n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s betwen T e a c h e r and T e a c h i n g method f o r t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s t o e x p e r i m e n t i n g and i n d e p e n d e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , and between the sex o f the s t u d e n t and T e a c h e r f o r t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e t o e x p e r i m e n t i n g . B o t h o f t h e s e i n t e r a c - t i o n e f f e c t s were d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . On t h e b a s i s o f the r e j e c t i o n o f t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s , r e g a r d i n g the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s c i e n c e p r o c e s s e s , i n f a v o u r o f t h e s e l f - p a c e d method and t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f the n u l l h y po- t h e s e s f o r t h e o t h e r d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s t h e s e l f - p a c e d method has been f o u n d t o be as e f f e c t i v e as t h e t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d method. However, the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e t e a c h i n g method a p p e a r s t o depend upon the t e a c h e r who i s u s i n g i t i n s o f a r as s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s a r e c o n c e r n e d . - 62 - 5.2 L i m i t a t i o n s T h i s s t u d y was l i m i t e d t o Grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s . T h i s was done so t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e t e a c h i n g method would n o t be a f f e c t e d by p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the s e l f - p a c e d method. A l t h o u g h t h i s d o e s r e d u c e t h e ch a n c e o f p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e c o n f o u n d i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y i t does r e s t r i c t the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f the s t u d y i n t h a t the l o n g term e f f e c t s o f u s i n g t h e s e l f - p a c e d method have n o t been e x p l o r e d . T h i s s t u d y was done o v e r a t h r e e month p e r i o d . What e f f e c t t h e s e l f - p a c e d method has on s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s and a c h i e v e m e n t i n s c i e n c e when t h i s method i s u s e d o v e r l o n g e r time p e r i o d s or w i t h s t u d e n t s o f o t h e r g r a d e s has n o t been i n v e s t i g a t e d . The r e s u l t s s h o u l d be us e d w i t h d i s c r e t i o n o u t s i d e o f t h e Grade e i g h t p o p u l a t i o n t h a t made up t h i s s t u d y . The i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r as one o f t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h i s s t u d y i n t r o d u c e d a p o s s i b l e e r r o r as the r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s e s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t e r e x h i b i t e d a b i a s t o w a r d s the s e l f - p a c e d method o f t e a c h i n g . The f i v e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s u s e d t o compare the two t e a c h i n g methods i n t h i s s t u d y a r e o n l y a s m a l l s e l e c t i o n f r o m a much l a r g e r p o o l o f p o s s i b l e v a r i a b l e s t h a t m i g h t be u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f any t e a c h i n g method. They have been c h o s e n b e c a u s e t h e y were t h o u g h t t o be r e l e - v a n t t o the p r e s e n t s t u d y b u t , t h e y do n o t e x h a u s t the p o s s - i b l e c h o i c e s f o r t h e c o m p a r i s o n t h a t has been done. - 63 - The l a c k o f random a s s i g n m e n t o f s u b j e c t s t o t r e a t m e n t l e v e l l i m i t s t h e i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y o f t h i s s t u d y . However, i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h i s s t u d y s t i l l has a l e g i t i m a t e d e s i g n a l t h o u g h o f l e s s power than a t r u e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n . The d e s i g n o f t h i s s t u d y would be c l a s s i f i e d as an example o f d e s i g n t e n o f C a m p b e l l and S t a n l e y ( 1 9 6 3 ) : t h a t i s , a n o n - e q u i v a l e n t c o n t r o l g r o u p d e s i g n . "A d e s i g n i n w h i c h t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p and the e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p do n o t have p r e - e x p e r i m e n t a l s a m p l i n g e q u i v a l e n c e . R a t h e r , the g r o u p s c o n s t i t u t e n a t u r a l l y a s s e m b l e d c o l l e c t i v e s s u c h as c l a s s r o o m s , as s i m i l a r as a v a i l a b i l i t y p e r m i t s . . . " As s u c h , c a u t i o n must be u s e d i n a p p l y i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y t o o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s . 5 . 3 I n f e r e n c e s The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t s t a t e m e n t s c o u l d be made r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t s o f t h e two t e a c h - i n g methods t h a t were i n v e s t i g a t e d , the e f f e c t t h a t t h e t e a c h e r has on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h i n g method, and the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s o f sex o f the s t u d e n t and t e a c h i n g method and t e a c h e r . These r e s u l t s s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e l i t e r a - t u r e on the t e a c h i n g methods and the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s o f t e a c h i n g method, t e a c h e r and sex o f t h e s t u d e n t . The s e l f - p a c e d has been f o u n d t o be as e f f e c t i v e or more e f f e c t i v e t h a n the t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d method f o r t e a c h i n g the c o g n i t i v e a s p e c t s o f s c i e n c e . The r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s e s - 64 - show t h a t the s e l f - p a c e d method was s u p e r i o r t o t h e t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d method f o r t e a c h i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s c i e n c e p r o - c e s s e s . In the a c q u i s i t i o n and r e t e n t i o n o f s c i e n c e knowledge the s e l f - p a c e d method i s as e f f e c t i v e as the t e a c h e r - p a c e d method. The s e l f - p a c e d g r o u p d i d as w e l l on the a c h i e v e m e n t and r e t e n t i o n t e s t s as d i d t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , even though some s t u d e n t s i n the s e l f - p a c e d g r o u p d i d n o t c o m p l e t e t h e p h y s i c s u n i t . T h e s e r e s u l t s s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d i e s done by K l i n e (1971) and Ketchum (1972) who a l s o f o u n d no s i g - n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e two t e a c h i n g methods. The d i f f e r e n c e i n mean s c o r e s f o r the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s c i e n c e p r o c e s s e s , i n f a v o u r o f t h e s e l f - p a c e d method, i n d i c a t e s t h a t the s e l f - p a c e d method s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d method. The p r o c e s s e s and u n d e r l y i n g c o n c e p t s o f s c i e n c e may v e r y w e l l be o f l o n g e r l a s t i n g v a l u e and meaning t h a n the knowledge o f s c i e n c e f a c t s . B u t , t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e t e a c h i n g method and the sex o f t h e s t u d e n t t e n d s t o c o n f o u n d the e f f e c t o f t h e t e a c h i n g method. A l t h o u g h t h e s e l f - p a c e d method was shown t o be s u p e r i o r t o the t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d method f o r t e a c h i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s c i - e nce p r o c e s s e s , t h e d i f f e r e n c e was l a r g e l y due t o t h e d i f f e r - ence t h e m a l e s showed when t a u g h t by t h e s e two methods. M a l e s t a u g h t by the s e l f - p a c e d method s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n m a l e s t a u g h t by t h e t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d method. T h i s w o u l d , by i t s e l f , a c c o u n t f o r the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two t e a c h - i n g methods. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d however, t h a t f e m a l e s a l s o - 65 - s c o r e d h i g h e r on t h e T e s t o f S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s when t a u g h t by the s e l f - p a c e d method, a l t h o u g h t h e d i f f e r e n c e between the mean s c o r e s f o r t h e two methods was nowhere as l a r g e as i t was f o r m a l e s . The s e l f - p a c e d method has been shown t o be s u p e r i o r t o t h e t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d method f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f s c i e n c e p r o - c e s s e s , o n l y f o r b o y s , and as e f f e c t i v e f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n and r e t e n t i o n o f s c i e n c e k n owledge, f o r b o t h g e n d e r s , and t h e r e f o r e s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o the t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d method. T h e r e i s an a p p a r e n t anomaly i n t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e t e a c h i n g method by sex i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between mean s c o r e s was f o u n d on the a c h i e v e m e n t and r e t e n t i o n m e asures b u t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was f o u n d on t h e T e s t o f S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s . A n d e r s o n (1980) and G l a s s e r (1976) f o u n d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s o f no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i n t e r - a c t i o n e f f e c t s o f t e a c h i n g method and sex o f t h e s t u d e n t f o r measures o f a c h i e v e m e n t . No s t u d i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y l o o k e d a t s c i e n c e p r o c e s s e s . The t e a c h i n g method u s e d d o e s d i f f e r e n - t i a l l y a f f e c t s t u d e n t s d e p e n d i n g on t h e i r sex when measured on t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s c i e n c e p r o c e s s e s . M a l e s s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r when a s e l f - p a c e d method i s u s e d i n p r e - f e r e n c e t o a t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d method. F e m a l e s a l s o s c o r e h i g h e r w i t h t h e s e l f - p a c e d method o v e r the t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d method however t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s n o t as g r e a t as i t i s f o r m a l e s . The r e s u l t s t e n d t o r e f u t e t h e r e s u l t s f o u n d by - 66 - C a m p b e l l (1972) t h a t f e m a l e s do b e t t e r w i t h l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c k a g e s t h a n m a l e s do. The r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s e s show t h a t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s between the t e a c h e r and t h e t e a c h i n g method a r e most i m p o r t - t a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a t t i t u d e s o f s t u d e n t s . No d i f f e r - e n c e s between t e a c h e r s o r J t e a c h i n g methods were f o u n d b e c a u s e the t e a c h e r s had o p p o s i t e e f f e c t s on s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s w h i c h depended upon the t e a c h i n g method u s e d . One t e a c h e r h i g h l y f a v o u r e d t h e s e l f - p a c e d method o v e r t h e t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d method and as a r e s u l t s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s were more p o s i t i v e i n t h e s e l f - p a c e d g r o u p t h a n i n t h e t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d g r o u p . The o p p o s i t e e f f e c t was f o u n d f o r t h e o t h e r t e a c h e r . These r e s u l t s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r was v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e t e a c h i n g method on s t u - d e n t a t t i t u d e s and t h a t n o t e v e r y t e a c h e r w i l l be a b l e t o use e v e r y t e a c h i n g method w i t h e q u a l s u c c e s s . T h e r e must be some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t t e a c h e r s have t h a t i n t e r a c t i n some way w i t h the t e a c h i n g method. The i n t e r a c t i o n between the sex o f t h e - s t u d e n t and the t e a c h e r f o r the d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e a t t i t u d e t o e x p e r i m e n t i n g i s i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d a r e s u l t o f t e a c h e r b i a s . One t e a c h e r a p p a r e n t l y f a v o u r e d t h e m a l e s o v e r t h e f e m a l e s and as a r e s u l t the a t t i t u d e o f m a l e s t o e x p e r i m e n t i n g was more p o s i t i v e t h a n t h e a t t i t u d e t o e x p e r i m e n t i n g o f f e m a l e s . I f t h e r e i s a c o n n e c t i o n between a t t i t u d e and a c h i e v e m e n t , as s u g g e s t e d by C a m p b e l l ( 1 9 7 2 ) , t h e n s u c h a b i a s p o s e s a s e r i o u s p r o b l e m i n - 67 - l i g h t o f t h e f a c t t h a t the v a s t m a j o r i t y o f s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e a r e m a l e . The e x i s t e n c e o f s u c h b i a s e s , on t h e b a s i s o f s e x , by t e a c h e r s needs t o be r e c o g n i z e d and methods f o r o v e r c o m i n g i t need t o be i n s t i t u t e d . The s e l f - p a c e d method has been f o u n d t o be as e f f e c t i v e as t h e t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d method f o r t e a c h i n g t h e c o g n i t i v e a s p e c t s o f s c i e n c e . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e t e a c h i n g method on t h e a f f e c t i v e a s p e c t s o f s c i e n c e depends upon some as y e t u n i d e n t i f i e d t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e t e a c h i n g method a r e what d e t e r - mine the e f f e c t t h a t t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f t e a c h e r and t e a c h i n g method have on s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s . The s e l f - p a c e d method, on t h e b a s i s o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y , s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e more c o n v e n t i o n a l l y u s e d t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d method, however an e f f o r t n e e d s t o be made t o match t h e t e a c h i n g method w i t h t h e t e a c h e r . 5.4 Recommendations T h i s s t u d y has n o t a t t e m p t e d t o l o o k a t t h e l o n g term e f f e c t s t h a t the use o f t h e s e l f - p a c e d method o f t e a c h i n g w i l l have on s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t o r a t t i t u d e s . The t h r e e months i n w h i c h t h e s e l f - p a c e d method was u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s a s h o r t time i n t h e time t h a t s t u d e n t s spend i n s c h o o l . The e f f e c t t h a t t h i s method w i l l have on f u t u r e s u c c e s s i s n o t known and n e e d s t o be d e t e r m i n e d . Whether s t u d e n t a c h i e v e - ment and a t t i t u d e s w i l l d i m i n i s h , i n c r e a s e or r e m a i n a t a - 68 - c o n s t a n t l e v e l o v e r t i m e and c o n t i n u e d use o f t h e s e l f - p a c e d method i s n o t known. S t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s t o t h e i r t e a c h e r o r t o s c i e n c e have n o t been e x p l o r e d and need t o be i f t h e s e l f - p a c e d method i s t o be w i d e l y u s e d . The e f f e c t s o f u s i n g t h e s e l f - p a c e d method on t h e t e a c h e r have n o t been i n v e s t i g a t e d . What c h a n g e s i n t e a c h e r w o r k l o a d , m o r a l e and t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e s e have on t e a c h e r s u r v i v a l have n o t been e x p l o r e d . T e a c h e r s w i l l have l i t t l e t i m e t o i n n o v a t e i f a l l t h e i r t i m e , e n e r g y and m o t i v a t i o n a r e u s e d up i n t r y i n g t o r a i s e s t u d e n t s u c c e s s t o a m a s t e r y e f f e c t , c o n s t r u c t new m a t e r i a l s and manage t h e p r o g r a m when u s i n g t h e s e l f - p a c e d method. The t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t d e t e r m i n e a t e a c h e r ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h i n g method need t o be d e t e r m i n e d . Once t h i s i s done t h e n an e f f o r t t o match a t e a c h e r w i t h a s u i t a b l e method or methods can be made. The e f f e c t t h a t t h e s e l f - p a c e d t e a c h i n g method h a s on o t h e r t o p i c s i n s c i e n c e : i n t h e a r e a s . o f c h e m i s t r y , b i o l o g y , and e a r t h s c i e n c e , have n o t been i n v e s t i g a t e d . E a c h o f t h e s e a r e a s o f s c i e n c e have a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them m a t e r i a l s and l a b o r a t o r y p r o c e d u r e s t h a t a r e u n i q u e t o them. T h e r e i s a need t o d e t e r m i n e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e s e l f - p a c e d t e a c h - i n g method w i t h t h e s e o t h e r a r e a s o f s c i e n c e . - 69 - 5.5 E p i l o g u e I t has been t h r e e and a h a l f y e a r s s i n c e the d a t a c o l l e c - t i o n phase o f t h i s s t u d y was done. In t h i s time F r a n k H u r t S e c o n d a r y has c o m p l e t e l y p h a s e d o u t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l t e a c h - i n g method and a d o p t e d t h e more c o n v e n t i o n a l t e a c h i n g method. In t h e s e v e n y e a r s t h e s c h o o l has been i n o p e r a t i o n a g r e a t many c h a n g e s have t a k e n p l a c e . The m a j o r c h a n g e s took p l a c e a t t h e t i m e t h i s s t u d y was i n i t i a t e d . A l t h o u g h the s e l f - p a c e d method was i n t r o d u c e d i n i t s e n t i r e t y when t h e s c h o o l opened, t h e c h a n g e s t h a t have come a b o u t have done so g r a d u a l l y o v e r a p e r i o d o f s e v e r a l y e a r s . More r e c e n t s t u d i e s by F u l l a n and P o m f r e t (1977) have p r o v i d e d new i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e p r o c e s s o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . W i t h i n s t u d i e s s u c h as t h e i r s t h e r e a r e q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d a b o u t the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s t h a t m i g h t have been more r e l e v a n t t h a n the q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . - 7 0 - BIBLIOGRAPHY Akers, George David, 1980. The e f f e c t of behavioral objectives on student achievement in introductory physical science (IPS). Dissertation Abstracts, 40, 9 , 4983-A. Andersen, Austin, 1975. The effects of a modular biology course on attitudes toward biology. Dissertation Abstracts, 36, 4, 2119-A. Anderson, Charles and Butts, David, 1980. A comparison of individualized and group instruction in a sixth-grade e l e c t r i c i t y u n i t . Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 17, 2, 139-145. Anderson, Elaine J.; De Melo, Hermes T.; Szabo, Michael; and Toth, Goerge, 1975. Behavioral objectives, science pro- cesses, and learning from inquiry-oriented i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials. Science Education, 59, 2, 263-271. Anderson, Gary; Walberg, Herbert J.; and Welch, Wayne W. , 1969 . Curriculum effects on the s o c i a l climate of learning: a new representation of discriminant functions. Amer ican Educational Research, 6, 3, 315-328. Atwood, Ronald K.; Brown, Mark R.; and Neal, Anna A., 1972. Evaluation of a hybrid elementary science curriculum u t i l i z i n g behavioral tasks. School Science and Mathematics, 72, 7, 641-646. Baker, Eva L., 1969. E f f e c t s on student achievement of behavioral and non-behavioral objectives. The Journal of Experimental Education, 37, 4, 5-8. Barnes, Marjorie Ruth Petersen, 1969. An experimental study of the use of programmed instruction in,.a university physical science laboratory. Dissertation Abstracts, 30, 5, 1907-A. Bishop, Douglas D., 1969. Effectiveness of prior exposure to performance objectives as a technique for improvement of student r e c a l l and retention.. Dissertation Abstracts, 30, 10, 4345-A.. Boardman, Dorris Elaine, 1970. The e f f e c t of students' advanced knowledge of behavioral objectives on their achievement in remedial chemistry. Dissertation Abstracts, 31, 7, 3286-A. - 71 - B o u d r e a u x , P a t s y Lou A r n o l d , 1975. A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e e f f e c - t i v e n e s s o f t e a c h i n g n i n t h - g r a d e e a r t h s c i e n c e by a t r a d i t i o n a l , a m u l t i - m e d i a a p p r o a c h , and a m u l t i - m e d i a a c t i v i t y p a c k e t a p p r o a c h , D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 36, 4, 2119-A. B r y a n t y , N a p o l e o n and A n d e r s o n , Hans A., 1972. E f f e c t s o f p e r f o r m a n c e o b j e c t i v e s on a c h i e v e m e n t . J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , 9, 4, 369-375. B u r n s , R.W., 1971. Methods f o r i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . E d u c a t i o n a l T e c h n o l o g y , 1 1 , 6 . B u r n s , R i c h a r d W., 1973. L e a r n e r a w a r e n e s s o f s u c c e s s w i t h l e a r n i n g p a c k a g e s . E d u c a t i o n a l T e c h n o l o g y , 13, 8, 31-32. C a m p b e l l , D o n a l d T. and S t a n l e y , J u l i a n C , 1966. E x p e r i m e n t a l and Q u a s i e x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n s f o r R e s e a r c h . Rand M c N a l l y and Company, C h i c a g o . C a m p b e l l , Roy F r a n k l i n , 1973. An a n a l y s i s o f s u c c e s s f a c t o r s i n the u t i l i z a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c k a g e s employed as v e h i c l e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n a t Nova H i g h S c h o o l . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , . 34, 1, 117-A. C i s e , J o hn P a u l , 1978. L o c u s o f c o n t r o l s h i f t , c o g n i t i v e a c h i e v e m e n t , and c o m p l e t i o n r a t e f o r s e l f - p a c e d PSI v s . i n s t r u c t o r - p a c e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n i n t r o d u c t o r y p h y s i c s a t a community c o l l e g e . . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 39, 7, 4163-A. Cohen, R o n a l d D., 1972. I n s t r u c t i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s f o r d e v e l o p - ment o f s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l a . S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , 56, 4, 477- 485. Coleman, C l a r e n c e D a v i d J r . , 1972. A c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f t h e e f f e c t s o f p r i o r knowledge o f p e r f o r m a n c e o b j e c t i v e s on c o g n i t i v e l e a r n i n g outcomes i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n o f TCCP p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 33, 12, 6723-A. C o n l o n , B e t s y Ann, 1970. A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f s e v e n t h - g r a d e s t u d e n t s w i t h and w i t h o u t p r i o r knowledge o f the o b j e c t i v e s o f an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d s c i e n c e p r o g r a m - ISCS. D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 31, 5, 2245-A. C o n s a l v o , R o b e r t W., 1969. E v a l u a t i o n and b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c - t i v e s . The A m e r i c a n B i o l o g y T e a c h e r , 31, 4, 230-232. C r o c k e r , R o b e r t K.; B a r t l e t t , K e v i n R.; and E l l i o t t , H a r r y G., 1976. A c o m p a r i s o n o f s t r u c t u r e d and u n s t r u c t u r e d modes o f t e a c h i n g s c i e n c e p r o c e s s a c t i v i t i e s . J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , 13, 3, 267-274. - 72 - C r o n b a c k , Lee J . , 1949. E s s e n t i a l s o f P s y c h o l o g i c a l T e s t i n g , . H a r p e r & Row, P u b l i s h e r s , New Y o r k . D a l i s , Gus T., 1970. E f f e c t o f p r e c i s e o b j e c t i v e s upon s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t i n h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n . The J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i - m e n t a l E d u c a t i o n , 39, 2, 20-23. Dawson, A l l a n Dean, 1972. The i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s o f s t u d e n t s who e n r o l l i n a c o n v e n t i o n a l b i o l o g y c o u r s e a f t e r t a k i n g an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d j u n i o r h i g h s c i e n c e c o u r s e (ISCS) . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 34, 1076-A. D e l B a r t o , D o u g l a s F.l , 1978 . A t t i t u d e s and a c h i e v e m e n t i n t r a d i t i o n a l , i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and c o m p o s i t e s c i e n c e sequences.. D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 39, 1, 796-A. D i x o n , W.J. and Brown, M.B. ( E d s . ) , 1979. B i o m e d i c a l Computer P r o g r a m s . P S e r i e s . L o s A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s . D r u m h e l l e r , S i d n e y J . , 1973. B e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n - h a r n e s s i n g one's p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t . S c h o o l S c i e n c e and M a t h e m a t i c s , 73, 1, 61-71. D u c h a s t e l , P h i l i p p e C. and M e r r i l l , P a u l F., 1973. The e f f e c t s o f b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s on l e a r n i n g : a r e v i e w o f e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s . Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 43, 1, 53-70. Edmondson, W i l l i a m H e n r y , 1978. The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f u t i l i z - i n g b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s i n a p h a r m a c e u t i c a l p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 39, 10, 6088-A. E n g e l , D o r o t h y and T a r g e n s o n , K e n n e t h J . , 1978. I n d i v i d u a l i z e d s c i e n c e w i t h b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s . The S c i e n c e T e a c h e r , 39, 8, 22-23. E n g l e r t , Thomas James, 1972. A c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f the e f f e c t s on a c h i e v e m e n t and c h a n g e s i n a t t i t u d e o f s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n f i r s t y e a r a l g e b r a under two d i f f e r e n t t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h e s . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 33, 2, 1076-A. Engman, B i l l D., 1968. B e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s : key t o p l a n n i n g . The S c i e n c e T e a c h e r , 35, 86-87. E s h l e m a n , W i n s t o n H u l l , 1967. A c o m p a r i s o n o f p r o g r a m e d i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h c o n v e n t i o n a l methods f o r t e a c h i n g two u n i t s o f e i g h t h g r a d e s c i e n c e . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 28, 2, 535-A. - 73 - F e h l e n , J o a n E . , 1976. M a s t e r y l e a r n i n g t e e h h i q u e s i n the t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g . S c h o o l S c i e n c e and Mathe- m a t i c s , 76, 3, 241-245. F e r g u s o n , George A., 1971. S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s i n P s y c h o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n . M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, New Y o r k . F i n g e r , J o hn A.; D i l l o n , J o h n A.; and C o r b i n , F r e d e r i c , 1965. P e r f o r m a n c e i n i n t r o d u c t o r y c o l l e g e p h y s i c s and p r e v i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n i n p h y s i c s , J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , 3, 61-65. F i n l e y , A l b e r t C. and L o u d e r b a c k , H.M., 1967. A d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f h i g h s c h o o l . The S c i e n c e T e a c h e r , 34, 7, 46-48. F l o w e r s , Emma J e a n , 1977. A c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f s t u d e n t change t h r o u g h programmed and t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n e i g h t h - g r a d e s c i e n c e , D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 38, 5, 2655-A. F u l l a n , M i c h a e l and P o m f r e t , A l a n , 1977. R e s e a r c h on C u r r i c u - lum and I n s t r u c t i o n I m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 47, 2, 335-397, S p r i n g . F u l t o n , H a r r y F., 1971. I n d i v i d u a l i z e d v s . g r o u p t e a c h i n g o f BSCS b i o l o g y . The A m e r i c a n B i o l o g y T e a c h e r , 33, 277-279. G a l l a g h e r , James J o s e p h , 1970. A c o m p a r i s o n o f i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and g r o u p i n s t r u c t i o n i n S c i e n c e : E f f e c t s on t h i r d g r a d e p u p i l s . J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , 7, 253- 263 . G e i s e r t , P a u l , 1969. B e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s f o r b i o l o g y . The A m e r i c a n B i o l o g y T e a c h e r , 31, 4, 233-235. G e o r g e , K e n n e t h D., 1965. The e f f e c t o f BSCS and c o n v e n t i o n a l b i o l o g y on c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n S c i - ence T e a c h i n g , 3, 293-299. G i d e o n s e , H e n d r i k D., 1969. B e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s : c o n t i n u i n g the d i a l o g u e . The S c i e n c e T e a c h e r , 36, 51-54. G l a s s , Gene V. and S t a n l e y , J u l i a n C., 1970. S t a t i s t i c a l Methods i n E d u c a t i o n and P s y c h o l o g y . P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y . G l a s s , Lynn W. and Y a g e r , R o b e r t E . , 1970. I n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n as a s p u r t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s c i e n t i f i c e n t e r p r i s e . The A m e r i c a n B i o l o g y T e a c h e r , 32, 359-361. G l a s s e r , P a t r i c i a C. J a c k s o n , 1976. The e f f e c t o f l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y p a c k a g e s on s c i e n c e a c h i e v e m e n t i n the f i f t h g r a d e . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 37, 7, 4096-A. - 74 - Hardy, C l i f f o r d A., 1970. Chem s t u d y and t r a d i t i o n a l c h e m i s t r y : an e x p e r i m e n t a l a n a l y s i s . S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , 54, 3, 273- 276. H a s s , J e r r y Norman, 1977. The e f f e c t s o f p e r f o r m a n c e o b j e c - t i v e s on a t t i t u d e and a c h i e v e m e n t o f s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n a p r i n c i p l e s o f b i o l o g y c o u r s e f o r n o n - s c i e n c e m a j o r s a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n M i s s i s s i p p i . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 38, 5, 2684-A. H e a t h , R o b e r t W. and S t i c k e l l , D a v i d W., 1963. CHEM and CBA e f f e c t s on a c h i e v e m e n t i n c h e m i s t r y . The S c i e n c e T e a c h e r , 30, 5, 45-46. Hedges, W i l l i a m D. and M a c D o u g a l l , Mary Ann, 1964. T e a c h i n g f o u r t h g r a d e s c i e n c e by means o f programmed s c i e n c e m a t e r i a l s w i t h l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i e n c e s . S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , 48, 1, 64-76. H e f f e r m a n , D a n i e l F., 1973. A c o m p a r i s o n o f the e f f e c t s o f i n d i v i d u a l i z e d s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l s c i - e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n i n j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 34, 3024-A. Henson, K e n n e t h T., 1973. P e r f o r m a n c e b a s e d t e a c h i n g and s c i - e n c e : a w o r k i n g team f o r the f u t u r e . C o n t e m p o r a r y E d u c a - t i o n , 44, 6, 331-334. H e r r o n , D u d l e y J . , 1971. The e f f e c t o f b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s on s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t i n c o l l e g e c h e m i s t r y . J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , 8, 4, 385-391. H e r r o n , D u d l e y J . , 1966. E v a l u a t i o n and t h e new c u r r i c u l a . J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , 4, 159-170. Hug, W i l l i a m E . , 1971. C o m p a r i s o n o f c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e g a i n s between i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y , s m a l l - g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n , and l a r g e - g r o u p p r e s e n t a t i o n i n h i g h s c h o o l B i o l o g y . S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , 55, 2, 241-247. James, R o b e r t K., 1972. A c o m p a r i s o n o f g r o u p and i n d i v i d u - a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s i n s e v e n t h g r a d e s c i e n c e . J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , 9, 1, 91-96. J o h n s o n , C l i f f o r d C. and Sherman, J a c k E . , 1975. E f f e c t s o f b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s on s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t i n ISCS. S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , 59, 2, 177-180. K e r l i n g e r , F r e d N., 1973. F o u n d a t i o n s o f B e h a v i o r a l R e s e a r c h . H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , I n c . , New Y o r k . - 75 - Ketchum, Roy J . , 1972. A c o m p a r i s o n o f i n d i v i d u a l p r o g r e s s and g r o u p i n s t r u c t i o n i n i n t r o d u c t o r y p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 33, 5, 2195-A. K i n g , L e s l i e A. and S zabo, M i c h a e l , 1975. I n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n o f p h y s i c s f o r i n c r e a s e d e n r o l l m e n t t h r o u g h modern i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s . The S c i e n c e T e a c h e r , 42, 4, 36-37. K l i n e , A r l y n A., 1971. A s t u d y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l f - d i r e c t e d and t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d e i g h t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d i n an open-ended s u p p l e m e n t a r y ESCP l a b o r a t o r y b l o c k . J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , 8, 3, 263-271. Koch, D a v i d P., 1972. E f f e c t s o f s t u d e n t s ' use o f b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s on a c h i e v e m e n t , c o n f i d e n c e and l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n - ment i n p r o j e c t p h y s i c s . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 33, 6, 6747-A. Koepke, C h a r l e s A. I l l , 1968. R e p l y t o A t k i n on b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s . The S c i e n c e T e a c h e r , 35, 12-13. K i t s , c o l e n s and c u r i o s i t y , 1975. A few o f the b a s i c s , a b o u t i n d i v i d u a l i z e d s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n . T e a c h e r , 92, 7. K r e c h , D.; C r u t c h f i e l d , R.S.; and B a l l a c h e y , E . L . , 1962. I n d i v i d u a l i n S o c i e t y . M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, New Y o r k . K u r t z , Edwin B. J r . , 1965. H e l p stamp o u t n o n - b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s . The S c i e n c e T e a c h e r , 32, 31-32. L e a h y , D a n i e l J . , 1962. I m p l i c a t i o n s o f a u t o m a t i o n f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f s c i e n c e . S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , 46, 4, 304-309. Lehman, R o b e r t A. and S i m c o , Edward R., 1971. A scheme f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c - t i v e s i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s c i e n c e . S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , 55, 3, 371-377. L i t t l e f i e l d , D a v i d L., 1975. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s t u d e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as r e l a t e d t o a c h i e v e m e n t i n an i n d i v i - d u a l i z e d h i g h s c h o o l b i o l o g y p r o g r a m . The S c i e n c e T e a c h e r , 42, 6, 7-8. Mann, E l o i s e Ann, 1972. A s t u d y o f a t t i t u d e s toward s c i e n c e o f s e l e c t e d j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s ( S a r a s o t a , F l o r i d a ) a f t e r e x p o s u r e t o an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d s c i e n c e p rogram ( I S C S ) . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 33, 2195-A. - 76 - M e l t o n , L a r r y and Humphreys, D o n a l d , 1980. U s i n g the Q - s o r t as a p r e d i c t o r o f a c a d e m i c s u c c e s s i n s e l f - p a c e d , i n d i - v i d u a l i z e d s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , 17, 3, 243-249. Montague, E a r l J . and B u t t s , D a v i d P., 1968. B e h a v i o r a l o b j e c - t i v e s . The S c i e n c e T e a c h e r , 35, 33-35. Montague, E a r l J . and K o r a n , John J . J r . , 1969. B e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n : an e l a b o r a t i o n . The S c i e n c e T e a c h e r , 36, 10, 77-78. M o r i b e r , G e o r g e , 1967. The measurement o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f programmed l e a r n i n g i n an a r e a o f c h e m i s t r y i n a p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e c o u r s e f o r n o n - s c i e n c e c o l l e g e m a j o r s . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 28, 4, 1348-A. M u l l e n , J.G., 1975. An a t t e m p t a t a p e r s o n a l i z e d c o u r s e i n t h e r m o d y n a m i c s . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P h y s i c s , 43, 4, 354- 360. N a j m a i e , Mohammad H o s s a i n , 1980. L o n g i t u d i n a l e f f e c t s o f a s e l f - p a c e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l method i n an i n t r o d u c t o r y u n i - v e r s i t y b i o l o g y c o u r s e . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 40, 11, 5812-A. Nay, M a r s h a l l A. and C r o c k e r , R o b e r t K., 1970. S c i e n c e t e a c h - i n g and the a f f e c t i v e a t t r i b u t e s o f s c i e n t i s t s . S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , 54, 1, 59-67. N e i f t , J e r r y Wayne, 1973. The e f f e c t s o f an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d s e l f - p a c e d p r o g r a m on s e l e c t e d t e a c h e r , c l a s s r o o m , and s t u d e n t v a r i a b l e s - ISCS l e v e l o ne. D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 33, 6198-A. N e l s o n , L a r r y R i c h a r d , 1974. G u i d e t o L e r t a p Use and I n t e r - p r e t a t i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f O t a g o , D u n e d i n , New Z e a l a n d . N i e , N.H.; H u l l , C.H.; J e n k i n s , J . G.; S t e i n b r e n n e r , K. ; and B e n t , D.H., 1975. S t a t i s t i c a l P a ckage f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . 2nd e d i t i o n . M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, New Y o r k . Okey, James R., 1973. A l t e r i n g t e a c h e r and p u p i l b e h a v i o r w i t h m a s t e r y t e a c h i n g . S c h o o l S c i e n c e and M a t h e m a t i c s , 73, 7, 530-535. O l s e n , R o b e r t C h a r l e s , 1972. A c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f the e f f e c t o f b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s on c l a s s p e r f o r m a n c e and r e t e n - t i o n i n p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 33, 1, 224-A. - 7 7 - O l s e n , R o b e r t C h a r l e s , 1973. A c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f t h e e f f e c t o f b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s on c l a s s p e r f o r m a n c e and r e t e n - t i o n i n p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e . J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , 10, 3, 271-277. O ' T o o l e , R . J . , 1968. The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i n d i v i d u a l i z e d e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s c i e n c e . S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , 52, 4, 381-384. R a i n e y , R o b e r t G., 1965. The e f f e c t s o f d i r e c t e d v e r s u s non- d i r e c t e d l a b o r a t o r y work on h i g h s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y a c h i e v e - ment. J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , 3, 286- 292. R a i n e y , R o b e r t G., 1964. A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e CHEM s t u d y c u r - r i c u l u m and a c o n v e n t i o n a l a p p r o a c h i n t e a c h i n g h i g h s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y . S c h o o l S c i e n c e and M a t h e m a t i c s , 64, 6, 539-544. Ramsey, G r e g o r A. and Howe, R o b e r t W., 1969. An a n a l y s i s o f r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s c i e n c e . S c i e n c e and C h i l d r e n , 6, 7, 25-36. Ramsey, G r e g o r A. and Howe, R o b e r t W., 1969. An a n a l y s i s o f r e s e a r c h on i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s c i e n c e , P a r t I I - I n s t r u c t i o n a l P r o c e d u r e s . The S c i e n c e T e a c h e r , 36, 4, 72-81. Reed, J a c k A., 1970. I n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n - a p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e ? S c h o o l S c i e n c e and M a t h e m a t i c s , 74, 366-370. R i c h t e r , George B., 1972. A c o m p a r i s o n o f an i n d e p e n d e n t - p r o g r e s s - r a t e method w i t h an even f r o n t method i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f s c i e n c e . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 33, 4, 1542-A. R o b e r s o n , J.A. and Crowe, C.T., 1975. I s s e l f - p a c e d i n s t r u c - t i o n r e a l l y w o r t h i t ? E n g i n e e r i n g E d u c a t i o n , 65, 7, 761- 764. Samples, R o b e r t E . , 1970. Toward t h e i n t r i n s i c : a p l e a f o r the n e x t s t e p i n c u r r i c u l u m . The A m e r i c a n B i o l o g y T e a c h e r , 32, 3, 143-148. S a y l e s , J . H e n r y , 1966. U s i n g programmed i n s t r u c t i o n t o t e a c h h i g h s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y . J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , 4, 40. S i e m a n k o w s k i , F r a n c i s T., 1969. An a u t o - p a c e d t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s i n p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e f o r e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n : a p i l o t r e p o r t . J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , 6, 150-156. - 78 - S t a l l i n g s , E v e r e t t Sherman I I I , 1973. A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e i n q u i r y b e h a v i o r o f ISCS and non-ISCS s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s as measured by the t a b s c i e n c e t e s t . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 34, 1149-A. Stedman, C a r l t o n - H . , 1973. An a n a l y s i s o f t h e a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e taxonomy o f e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s : c o g - n i t i v e doman. J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , 10, 3; 235-241. S t e e l e , R o b e r t W., 1974. D e v e l o p m e n t and e v a l u a t i o n o f an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d s e l f - p a c e d p h y s i c s c o u r s e f o r n o n - s c i e n c e m a j o r s . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 35, 7, 4274-A. S t r o n c k , D a v i d R., 1971. C o m p a r a t i v e e f f e c t s o f t h r e e s e v e n t h g r a d e s c i e n c e p rograms w i t h d i f f e r e n t l a b o r a t o r y m a t e r i - - a l s . S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , 55, 2, 125-130. T r o j a k , D o r i s A., 1972. D e s i g n i n g a s t r a t e g y f o r l o n g - t e r m • i n s t r u c t i o n . S c h o o l S c i e n c e and M a t h e m a t i c s , 72, 9, 811-816. V o e l k e r , A l a n M., 1970. A c o m p e t e n c i e s a p p r o a c h t o t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n . The S c i e n c e T e a c h e r , 37, 6, 37-39, 42. W a l b e s s e r , H e n r y , 1963. C u r r i c u l u m e v a l u a t i o n by means o f b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s . J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , 1, 296-301. W a s i k , John L., 1971. A c o m p a r i s o n o f c o g n i t i v e p e r f o r m a n c e o f PSSC and non-PSSC p h y s i c s s t u d e n t s . J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , 8, 1, 85-90. W h i t e , K i n n a r d and Howard, James.Lee, 1970. The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f a c h i e v e m e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on i n s t r u c t i o n a l t r e a t - ments. The J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l E d u c a t i o n , 39, 2, 78- 82. W i l l i a m s , Homer R. and K o e l s c h e , C h a r l e s L., 1967. O r g a n i z a - t i o n o f c h e m i s t r y c l a s s e s . A c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f two p a t t e r n s i n the t e a c h i n g o f h i g h s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y . The - S c i e n c e T e a c h e r , 34, 5, 52-54. W i n e r , B . J . , 1971. S t a t i s t i c a l P r i n c i p l e s i n E x p e r i m e n t a l Des i g n . 2nd E d i t i o n . New Y o r k , M c G r a w - H i l l . W i t k i n , H.A. e t a l . , 1977. E d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f c o g - n i t i v e s t y l e s . Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 47, 1, 1-64. - 79 - W o l f s o n , M o r t o n L., 1973. A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f d i r e c t and i n d i - r e c t t e a c h i n g s t y l e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o a c h i e v e m e n t and r e t e n t i o n o f l e a r n i n g i n s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , 10, 4, 285-290. Wood, Dean A., 1974. The a p p r o p r i a t e use o f e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . S c h o o l S c i e n c e and M a t h e m a t i c s , 74, 3, 199- 203. Wood,, F r e d H. and McCurdy, D o n a l d W., 1976. An a n a l y s i s o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s e l f - d i r e c t e d n e s s as r e l a t e d t o s u c c e s s i n an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d c o n t i n u o u s p r o g r e s s c o u r s e i n chem- i s t r y and p h y s i c s . S c h o o l S c i e n c e and M a t h e m a t i c s , 74, 5, 382-388. Z e s c h k e , R i c h a r d , 1966. U s i n g programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i n a h i g h s c h o o l b i o l o g y c o u r s e . The A m e r i c a n B i o l o g y T e a c h e r , 28, 776-778. A m e r i c a n C h e m i c a l S o c i e t y , 1973. R e p o r t o f the h i g h s c h o o l s u b c o m m i t t e e o f the c u r r i c u l u m c o m m i t t e e . J o u r n a l o f C h e m i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 50, 4, 257. Appendix Tannenbaum, 1971, Test of Science Processes, page 105. Witkin, 1972, Hidden Figures Test, page 99. - 8 0 - A P P E N D I X A - 81 - SAMPLE LESSONS T e a c h e r - D i r e c t e d Method The s t u d e n t s , upon e n t e r i n g the c l a s s r o o m , were d i r e c t e d t o open t h e i r t e x t b o o k s t o the a p p r o p r i a t e page. The i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e e x p e r i - ment was t h e n r e a d and from t h i s the t e a c h e r would e x - t r a c t t h e p u r p o s e f o r the p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t . S t u - d e n t s would c o p y th e p u r p o s e i n t o t h e i r n o t e b o o k s . The t e a c h e r would t h e n p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s w i t h the r e q u i r e d a p p a r a t u s f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t and s t u d e n t s , w o r k i n g i n p a i r s , would p e r f o r m t h e e x p e r i m e n t by f o l l o w i n g t h e p r o c e d u r e s i n the t e x t s . S t u d e n t s were r e q u i r e d t o answer . a l l q u e s t i o n s i n b o l d f a c e t y p e i n t h e p r o - c e d u r e s o f the t e x t . Once t h i s was done, s t u d e n t s would w r i t e a c o n c l u s i o n t o t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e e x p e r i - ment and answer t h e q u e s - t i o n s i n the t e x t a t the end o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e . D u r i n g t h e t i m e t h e s t u d e n t s were d o i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t the t e a c h e r would c i r c u l a t e t h r o u g h t h e room t o o b s e r v e the s t u d e n t s ' p r o g r e s s and t o a s s i s t s t u d e n t s who needed h e l p . S e l f - P a c e d Method The s t u d e n t s , upon e n t e r i n g t h e c l a s s r o o m , would c o n t i n u e t h e i r work from where t h e y had l e f t i t a t t h e end o f t h e l a s t p e r i o d . I f t h e y were a b o u t t o s t a r t an e x p e r i m e n t t h e y would f o l l o w t h e s e s t e p s . S t e p 1 - Read the o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e s equence t h e y were w o r k i n g on f r o m t h e back o f t h e package o f o p t i c s and c o p y t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s i n t o t h e l a b o r a t o r y w r i t e up. S t e p 2 - A s s e m b l e the r e q u i r e d a p p a r a t u s as g i v e n i n t h e t e x t . They had been i n s t r u c t - ed as t o where i n the room the a p p a r a t u s was k e p t , so o n l y i n e x c e p t i o n a l c a s e s d i d t h e y need a s s i s t a n c e a t t h i s p o i n t . S t e p 3 - The s t u d e n t s p r o - c e e d e d w i t h the e x p e r i m e n t , e i t h e r a l o n e o r w i t h t h e h e l p o f a l a b o r a t o r y p a r t n e r , as i n s t r u c t e d by the t e x t and answered the q u e s t i o n s i n b o l d - f a c e t y p e t h a t a r e i n t h e p r o - c e d u r e s . S t e p 4.- Once the e x p e r i m e n t a l phase o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t was c o m p l e t e s t u d e n t s would w r i t e o u t what t h e y had l e a r n e d a b o u t the o b j e c t i v e s and answer t h e q u e s t i o n s a t the end o f the p r o c e d u r e i n t h e t e x t . W h i l e the s t u d e n t s were work- i n g on the e x p e r i m e n t t h e t e a c h e r would c i r c u l a t e t h r o u g h t h e room making s u r e t o speak t o e a c h s t u d e n t and o b s e r v e 1. I n t r o d u c i n g S c i e n c e C o n c e p t s i n t h e L a b o r a t o r y . M.C. S chmid, 1973. - 82 - T e a c h e r - D i r e c t e d Method S e l f - P a c e d Method t h e i r p r o g r e s s w i t h t h e i r work. I f any p r o b l e m s had been e n c o u n t e r e d by t h e s t u - d e n t t h e s e would be d i s c u s s e d and a s o l u t i o n f o u n d . The t e a c h e r a t t e m p t e d t o speak t o e a c h s t u d e n t t w i c e e a c h p e r i o d , once a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the p e r i o d and a g a i n a t the end o f t h e p e r i o d . Any s t u d e n t c o u l d r e c e i v e t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e t e a c h e r a t any t i m e d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d . - 83 - HOW LIGHT TRAVELS I n s t r u c t i o n s : 1. A l l answers must be w r i t t e n on an answer s h e e t - do n o t mark t h i s p a p e r . 2. A t t h e end o f the exam you must r e t u r n b o t h q u e s t i o n s h e e t s and answer s h e e t s . 3. You may use p e n c i l and r u l e r f o r d i a g r a m s b u t a l l w r i t t e n a nswers must be i n pen. PART A: T r u e or F a l s e . On t h e answer s h e e t p l a c e an X on T i f t h e s t a t e m e n t i s t r u e , and on F i f f a l s e . 1. You c a n see l i g h t e n e r g y . 2. V i s i o n r e s u l t s f r o m s i g n a l s s e n t o u t f r o m the e y e s . 3. I s a a c Newton e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h l i g h t . 4. I n c a n d e s c e n t means " c o l d l i g h t " . 5. No p l a n t o r a n i m a l w i l l e m i t l i g h t u n l e s s oxygen i s p r e s e n t . 6. F i r e f l i e s a r e an example o f b i o l u m i n e s c e n t l i g h t s o u r c e s . 7. Shadows d e c r e a s e i n s i z e as o b j e c t moves c l o s e r t o t h e s c r e e n . 8. The p i n h o l e image o f a c a n d l e f l a m e i s an e r e c t c a n d l e f l a m e . 9. As an o b j e c t moves c l o s e r t o a c a n d l e f l a m e t h e umbra i n c r e a s e s and t h e penumbra d e c r e a s e s i n s i z e . 10. Aluminum f o i l i s an example o f a t r a n s l u c e n t o b j e c t . 11. L i g h t e n e r g y from a s o u r c e i s v i s i b l e i n t h e s p a c e between t h e s o u r c e and t h e s c r e e n . 12. A c a n d l e f l a m e i s an example o f a b r o a d s o u r c e o f l i g h t . 13. A c a n d l e f l a m e i s an example o f a l u m i n o u s s o u r c e o f l i g h t . 14. When we h o l d a c a r d w i t h a p i n h o l e between a c a n d l e f l a m e and a s c r e e n , we see an i n v e r t e d shadow o f a c a n d l e f l a m e . PART B: C o m p l e t i o n . W r i t e on t h e answer s h e e t t h e b e s t word or p h r a s e w h i c h b e s t c o m p l e t e s e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e - ments : 1. F o r y o u r e y e s t o r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m an o b j e c t t h e o b j e c t must r e f l e c t . 2. An o b j e c t w h i c h e m i t s i t s own l i g h t i s c a l l e d . 3. The n a r r o w e s t p o s s i b l e beam o f l i g h t i s c a l l e d . 4. An o b j e c t t h r o u g h w h i c h no l i g h t w i l l p a s s i s c a l l e d 5. When a l i g h t s o u r c e l o o k s s m a l l , e i t h e r b e c a u s e i t i s s m a l l or b e c a u s e i t i s f a r away, i t i s c a l l e d . 6. A f r o s t e d l i g h t b u l b as seen f r o m w i t h i n t h e room i s c a l l e d 7. The e d g e s o f shadows c a s t by a t i n y l i g h t s o u r c e a r e 8. The edges o f shadows c a s t by l a r g e l i g h t s o u r c e s a r e 9. Shadows a r e good e v i d e n c e t h a t l i g h t t r a v e l s i n . 10. I f most o f t h e l i g h t p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e o b j e c t , the o b j e c t i s s a i d t o be . 11. D u r i n g an e c l i p s e o f t h e s u n , t h e a r e a o f p a r t i a l shadow on e a r t h i s c a l l e d t h e 12. The a r e a o f c o m p l e t e shadow i s c a l l e d . 13. We s t u d y l i g h t b e c a u s e l i g h t i s an i m p o r t a n t means o f 14. A l i g h t s o u r c e we use i n c l a s s made o f a t r a n s f o r m e r , s m a l l l i g h t b u l b , d o u b l e c o n v e x l e n s and a b a f f l e i s c a l l e d 15. D e s c r i b e f u l l y what you see on s c r e e n when you h o l d a s p h e r i c a l opaque b a l l between a p o i n t l i g h t s o u r c e and a s c r e e n . The b a l l i s n e a r t h e s c r e e n . (3 marks) - 85 - A P P E N D I X B - 86 - ITEM ANALYSIS OF ACHIEVEMENT TEST T e s t P o s t R e t e n t i o n D i f f i c u l t y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n D i f f i c u l t y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n I tern Index Index Index Index 1 .932 0 .34 .973 0 .14 2 .8 65 0.40 .892 0.24 3 .392 0.43 .405 0.39 4 .459 -0 .04 .514 -0.07 5 .946 0.18 .919 0.01 6 .838 0.33 .824 0.41 7 .351 0 .19 .230 0.16 8 .541 0.21 .622 0.09 9 .365 0.21 .284 0.29 10 .811 0.30 .784 0.32 11 .703 0.21 .608 0.28 12 .527 0.35 .405 0.33 13 .297 0.04 .230 0.09 14 .716 0.40 .797 0.30 15 .365 0.26 .446 0.12 16 .689 0.30 .730 0.19 17 .716 0.30 .676 0.31 18 .432 0 .09 .568 0.10 19 .149 -0.03 .162 -0.20 20 .892 0.24 .905 0.35 21 .716 0 .16 .824 0.09 22 .095 0.13 .081 0 .18 23 .649 0.33 .581 0 .25 24 .824 0.31 .784 0.24 25 .432 0.43 .500 0.31 26 .365 0.45 .203 0.24 27 .446 0.14 .203 0.26 28 .784 0.15 .838 0.13 29 .811 0.23 .851 0.18 30 .676 0.43 .541 0.18 31 .230 0.40 .270 0.56 32 .311 0.29 .230 0.24 33 .608 0.55 .514 0.52 34 .608 0.42 .405 0 .29 35 .676 0.44 .554 0.22 36 .405 0.59 .311 0.57 37 .541 0.50 ,486 0.41 38 .608 0.58 .459 0 .55 39 .392 0.50 .243 0.51 40 .622 0.35 .514 0.21 41 .405 0.20 .432 0.09 42 .568 0.42 .635 0.30 43 .608 0 .28 .527 0 .33 - 8 7. - T e s t P o s t R e t e n t i o n D i f f i c u l t y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n D i f f i c u l t y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Item Index Index Index Index 44 .270 0.27 .18 9 0.19 •45 .541 0.59 .500 0.53 46 .216 0 .18 .216 0 .24 47 .095 0 .07 .176 -0.07 48 .351 0.08 .284 0.10 49 .500 0.41 .568 0 .31 50 .581 0.37 .689 0.37 51 .635 0.42 .649 0.42 52 .527 0.57 .459 0.58 53 .419 0.13 .257 0.29 54 .405 0.36 .419 0.39 55 .689 0.36 .743 0.36 56 .905 0 .19 .905 0 .24 57 .295 0.06 .338 0.10 58 .405 -0.10 .176 -0.07 59 .541 0.39 .635 0 .19 - 88 - ITEM-TEST CORRELATIONS FOR THE ATTITUDE SCALES I n d e p e n d e n t E x p e r i m e n t i n g I n v e s t i g a t i o n Item P r e P o s t P r e P o s t 1 -0.045 0.283 0.271 0 .385 2 0.257 0.229 0.252 0.416 3 0.457 0.618 0.467 0.426 4 0.025 0.126 0.581 0 .654 5 0 .360 0.494 0.140 0.498 6 0.406 0.598 0.112 0.479 7 0 .346 0.301 0.204 0.353 8 0.232 0 .480 0.210 0.504 9 0 .304 0 .558 0.385 0 . 563 10 0 .192 0.293 0.218 0.454 11 0 .261 0.569 0.515 0.434 12 0.112 * 0.487 0.454 0 .517 13 0 .207 -0.036 0 .307 0.497 14 0 .090 0.556 0.422 0 .460 15 0 .291 0.619 0.294 0.19 6 16 0.330 0.511 0 .166 0 .459 17 0.335 0.471 0 .259 0.505 18 0.471 0.658 0.268 0 .347 19 0.331 0.637 0.080 0.387 20 0.229 0.342 0 .199 0.083 - 89 - ITEM ANALYSIS OF ATTITUDE SCALES ATTITUDE SCALE - EXPERIMENTING P r e - t e s t P o s t - t e s t Item Mean S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n Mean S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n 1 2.446 1.346 1.892 .. 1.001 2 3.514 1.316 3 .230 1.267 3 1.459 0.863 1.608 0.991 4 2.500 1.464 1.986 1.104 5 2.649 1.521 2.514 1.436 6 2.054 1.084 2.122 1.110 7 1.676 1.148 1.716 1.014 8 2.203 1.570 2.243 1.524 9 2.108 1.340 1.973 1.238 10 1.959 1.349 1.730 1.064 11 2.000 1.228 2.230 1.234 12 2.527 1.510 2.919 1.301 13 2.446 1.416 2.514 1.367 14 2.770 1.400 2.716 1.531 15 1.973 1.282 2.311 1.181 16 3.257 1.536 2.784 1.528 17 2.770 1.400 2.865 1.368 18 2.041 1.349 2.378 1.290 19 2.324 1.229 2.446 1.124 20 2.703 1.602 2.176 1.243 x = 47.38 = 10.11 x = 46.35 = 12.87 - 90 - ATTITUDE SCALE - INDEPENDENT INVESTIGATION P r e - t e s t P o s t - t e s t I tern Mean S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n Mean S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n 1 2.081 1.301 2.095 1.18 4 2 2.324 1.294 2.541 1.326 3 3 .203 1.499 3.324 1.481 4 2.419 1.562 2.459 1.397 5 2.784 1.599 2.932 1.446 6 2.392 1.515 2.257 1.272 7 3.784 1.274 3.730 1.306 8 3.068 1.456 3.027 1.385 9 3 .905 1.229 3.270 1.242 10 1.865 1.348 2.311 1.271 11 2.257 1.366 2 . 243 1.203 12 2.324 1.481 2.216 1.436 13 1.865 1.253 2.081 1.301 14 3.203 1.535 3.257 1.462 15 2.676 1.536 2.595 1.404 16 1.986 1.188 2.446 1.229 17 2.541 1.387 2.662 1.388 18 3.068 1.275 3.149 1.279 19 2.122 1.260 2.743 1.283 20 4.405 1.084 3.959 1.199 x = 54.27 = 11.09 x = 55.30 = 13.52 - 91 - SCIENCE 8 OPTICS Name C i r c l e the answer o f y o u r c h o i c e . 1. L i g h t t r a v e l s a) i n s t r a i g h t l i n e s b) i n c i r c u l a r m o t i o n c) t h r o u g h a l l s o l i d s d) t h r o u g h a l l l i q u i d s e) none o f t h e s e 2. A body w h i c h g i v e s o f f i t s own l i g h t i s a) t r a n s l u c e n t b) opaque c) c o l d d) l u m i n o u s e) none o f t h e s e 3. An example o f a n o n - l u m i n o u s body i s a) t h e sun b) a c a n d l e c) the moon d) a s t a r e) none o f t h e s e 4. M a t e r i a l w h i c h a l l o w s most o f the l i g h t t o p a s s t h r o u g h i s a) opaque b) t r a n s l u c e n t c) t r a n s p a r e n t d) i n c a n d e s c e n t e) c o l d 5. L i g h t t h a t b o u n c es o f f a s u r f a c e i s s a i d t o be a) r e f l e c t e d b) d i f f u s e d c) c o n v e r g e d d) d i v e r g e d e) a b s o r b e d 6. Wax p a p e r i s p r o b a b l y a) t r a n s p a r e n t b) t r a n s l u c e n t c) opaque d) none o f t h e s e e) a l l o f t h e s e - 9 2 - 7. An i n c a n d e s c e n t o b j e c t i s one t h a t a) g i v e s o f f c o l d l i g h t b) i s h o t enough t o g i v e o f f l i g h t c) d o e s n o t g i v e o f f any l i g h t d) none o f t h e s e 8. The shadow formed from a p e n c i l and a s m a l l s o u r c e i s s h a r p e s t 1 when a) t h e p e n c i l i s c l o s e t o t h e s c r e e n b) the p e n c i l i s h a l f w a y between t h e s o u r c e and t h e s c r e e n c) the p e n c i l i s c l o s e t o the s o u r c e d) none o f t h e s e 9. When:, you. move away from a l i g h t s o u r c e t h e l i g h t a p p e a r s dimmer b e c a u s e a) l e s s l i g h t i s e m i t t e d b) t h e l i g h t bends away from you c) the l i g h t s t o p s b e f o r e i t g e t s t o you d) none o f t h e s e 10. B i o l u m i n e s c e n c e i s a) a t y p e o f b a c t e r i a b) l i g h t from a l i v i n g s o u r c e c) a t y p e o f a l g a e d) none o f t h e s e 11. The penumbra i s a) a f u l l shadow b) a s o u r c e o f l i g h t c) a p a r t i a l shadow d) none o f t h e s e 12. When l i g h t goes from a more dense t o a l e s s dense medium i t i s a) b e n t away f r o m t h e n o r m a l b) goes s t r a i g h t t h r o u g h c) b e n t toward t h e n o r m a l d) none o f t h e s e 13. P a r a l l e l r a y s r e f l e c t e d from a c o n c a v e m i r r o r f o r m a) an u p s i d e down image b) a p o i n t image c) a r i g h t s i d e up image d) none o f t h e s e 14. A c o n c a v e m i r r o r i s a) d i s h e d i n w a r d s b) d i s h e d o u t w a r d s c) a f l a t s u r f a c e d) none o f t h e s e - 93 - 15. A n o r m a l l i n e i s a) h o r i z o n t a l t o the s u r f a c e b) a t 4 5 ° t o t h e s u r v a c e c) p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o the s u r f a c e d) none o f t h e s e 16. The f o c a l p o i n t o f a c o n c a v e m i r r o r i s a) the p o i n t where t h e r e f l e c t e d r a y s c r o s s b) the c e n t e r o f t h e c u r v e d s u r f a c e c) t h e c e n t e r o f t h e c i r c l e w h i c h the m i r r o r i s p a r t d) none o f t h e s e 17. A d o u b l e c o n v e x l e n s has a) b o t h s i d e s d i s h e d o u t w a r d s b) b o t h s i d e s d i s h e d i n w a r d s c) one s i d e d i s h e d i n w a r d s and t h e o t h e r s i d e d i s h e d o u t - wards d) none o f t h e s e 18. When p a r a l l e l l i g h t r a y s s t r i k e a c o n c a v e l e n s a) t h e y d i v e r g e o u t w a r d b) t h e y a r e r e f l e c t e d c) t h e y c o n v e r g e a t a p o i n t d) none o f t h e s e 19. A d o u b l e convex l e n s , f o r m s a t the f o c a l p o i n t a) a r e a l image, l a r g e r t han the o b j e c t b) a v i r t u a l image c) a p o i n t o f l i g h t d) none o f t h e s e 20. A t r a n s p a r e n t o b j e c t a) l e t s some l i g h t t h r o u g h i t b) l e t s a l l the l i g h t t h r o u g h i t c) d o e s n o t a l l o w l i g h t t o p a s s t h r o u g h i t d) none o f t h e s e 21. A s o l a r e c l i p s e happens e v e r y t i m e a) t h e moon i s between t h e sun and e a r t h b) the e a r t h s t o p s l i g h t f r o m h i t t i n g t h e moon c) t h e moon s t o p s some s u n l i g h t f r o m r e a c h i n g t h e e a r t h d) none o f t h e s e 22. A shadow i s a a) a b s e n c e o f l i g h t b) a r e a where l i g h t i s b l o c k e d o u t c) where l i g h t s h i n e s d) none o f t h e s e - 94 - 23. A b r o a d l i g h t s o u r c e c a n p r o d u c e a a) s h a r p shadow b) f u z z y shadow c) no shadow d) none o f t h e s e 24. An example o f a b r o a d l u m i n o u s l i g h t s o u r c e i s a) t h e moon b) t h e sun c) a s t a r d) none o f t h e s e 25. An example o f , a non l u m i n o u s l i g h t s o u r c e i s a) t h e moon b) t h e sun c) a s t a r d) none o f t h e s e 26. The image i n a p l a n e m i r r o r i s a) o n l y i n v e r t e d v e r t i c a l l y b) o n l y i n v e r t e d l a t e r a l l y c) i n v e r t e d v e r t i c a l l y and l a t e r a l l y d) n o t i n v e r t e d v e r t i c a l l y or l a t e r a l l y 27. In a p l a n e m i r r o r , t h e image i s a) r e a l b) n o t r e a l or v i r t u a l c) v i r t u a l d) r e a l and v i r t u a l 28. In a p l a n e m i r r o r , t h e image i s a) h i g h e r t h a n t h e o b j e c t b) s m a l l e r t h a n the o b j e c t c) h i g h e r or s m a l l e r t h a n t h e o b j e c t d) same h e i g h t as t h e o b j e c t 29. In a p l a n e m i r r o r , t h e image i s a) t h i n n e r than t h e o b j e c t b) w i d e r t h a n t h e o b j e c t c) t h i n n e r or w i d e r t h a n the o b j e c t d) same w i d t h as the o b j e c t 30. In a p l a n e m i r r o r , the image a p p e a r s t o be a) f a r t h e r b e h i n d t h e m i r r o r t h a n t h e o b j e c t b.) c l o s e r t o t h e m i r r o r t h a n t h e o b j e c t c) f a r t h e r or c l o s e r t o t h e m i r r o r t h a n t h e o b j e c t d) same d i s t a n c e f r o m the m i r r o r as t h e o b j e c t 31. In a p l a n e m i r r o r , t h e image r e a l l y i s a) b e h i n d the m i r r o r b) i n f r o n t o f t h e m i r r o r c) on t h e back o f t h e m i r r o r d) f u r t h e r b e h i n d t h e m i r r o r t h a n the o b j e c t i s i n f r o n t - 95 - 32. A l i n e j o i n i n g the o b j e c t and the image i n a p l a n e m i r r o r i s a) p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e n o r m a l l i n e b) p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e back o f t h e m i r r o r c) p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e i n c i d e n t r a y d) p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e r e f l e c t e d r a y 33. The r a y o f l i g h t s t r i k i n g t h e m i r r o r i s c a l l e d a) i n c i d e n t r a y b) r e f l e c t e d r a y c) n o r m a l r a y d) h o r i z o n t a l r a y 34. The a n g l e o f i n c i d e n c e i s t h e a n g l e between a) the i n c i d e n t r a y and t h e p a r a l l e l m i r r o r r a y b) the i n c i d e n t r a y and t h e r e f l e c t r a y c) t h e i n c i d e n t r a y and t h e n o r m a l l i n e d) t h e i n c i d e n t r a y and t h e p e r p e n d i c u l a r r a y 35. The a n g l e o f i n c i d e n c e i s a) l a r g e r t h a n t h e a n g l e o f r e f l e c t i o n b) s m a l l e r t h a n t h e a n g l e o f r e f l e c t i o n c) e q u a l t o t h e a n g l e o f r e f l e c t i o n d) s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r or l a r g e r t h a n t h e a n g l e o f r e f l e c t i o n 36. I f a r a y o f l i g h t t r a v e l s t o w a r d s a m i r r o r a l o n g t h e p a t h o f a r e f l e c t e d r a y , the r a y w i l l a) l e a v e t h e m i r r o r a l o n g t h e p a t h o f t h e i n c i d e n t r a y b) l e a v e t h e m i r r o r a l o n g the p a t h o f the n o r m a l l i n e c) l e a v e t h e m i r r o r a l o n g t h e p a t h o f t h e r e f l e c t e d r a y d) l e a v e t h e m i r r o r a l o n g a p a t h p a r a l l e l t o the r e f l e c t e d r a y 37. P a r a l l e l l i g h t r a y s r e f l e c t o f f a p l a n e m i r r o r a) as p a r a l l e l l i g h t r a y s b) as d i f f u s e d l i g h t r a y s c) as c o n v e r g i n g l i g h t r a y s d) as d i v e r g i n g l i g h t r a y s 38. When t h e a n g l e o f r e f l e c t i o n i s 3 0 ° , the a n g l e o f i n c i d e n c e must be ^ a) 45' b) 60 c) 30 d) 90 39. In t h e d i a g r a m , r a y BC i s a) an i n c i d e n t r a y b) a d i f f u s e d r a y c) a c o n v e r g i n g r a y d) a d i v e r g i n g r a y e) none o f t h e s e - 96 - 40. The point at which a lens causes l i g h t rays to meet i s said to be a) a p r i n c i p a l axis b) a p r i n c i p a l focus c) a diffused spot d) a sharp image e) none of these 4 1 . The purpose of a lens i s to a) r e f l e c t l i g h t b) re f r a c t l i g h t c) screen colour d) diffuse l i g h t e) none of these An image you see..in..a plane mirror i s a) erect b) inver ted c) diffused d) refracted e) none of these An image which can be reflected on a screen i s a) v i r t u a l b) r e a l c) diverging d) converging e) transparent 44. The image produced by the paper A i s a) inverted b) erect c) re a l d) a and c e) b and c 45. P a r a l l e l l i g h t rays r e f l e c t off a plane mirror a) as p a r a l l e l l i g h t rays b) as diffused l i g h t rays c) as converging l i g h t rays d) as diverging l i g h t rays 46. A rea l image i s a) formed by a convex mirror b) formed by a plane mirror c) always upside down d) none of these - 97 - 47. The a n g l e o f r e f r a c t i o n i s a) a l w a y s e q u a l t o t h e a n g l e o f i n c i d e n c e b) a l w a y s l e s s t h a n t h e a n g l e o f i n c i d e n c e c) a l w a y s more t h a n the a n g l e o f i n c i d e n c e d) none o f t h e s e 48. The p r i n c i p a l a x i s a) i s where the r e f l e c t e d r a y s meet b) p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e f o c a l p o i n t c) i s p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o the n o r m a l d) none o f t h e s e 49. When a l i g h t r a y i s r e f r a c t e d i t i s a) b e n t b) d i v i d e d c) r e f l e c t e d d) none o f t h e s e 50. A l e n s t h a t i s w i d e r a t t h e c e n t e r than a t the edge i s known as a) c o n c a v e b) c o n v e x c) c o n c a v e - c o n v e x d) none o f t h e s e e) a l l o f a, b, and c 51. T h i s i s a d i a g r a m o f a a) c o n v e x l e n s b) c o n c a v e l e n s c) p l a n e m i r r o r d) umbra e) penumbra 52. In t h i s p l a n e m i r r o r r a y AB i s a) an i n c i d e n t r a y b) a d i f f u s e d r a y c) a c o n v e r g i n g r a y d) a d i v e r g i n g r a y e) a p e r p e n d i c u l a r 53. In a p l a n e m i r r o r t h e a n g l e o f i n c i d e n c e i s a) n o t e q u a l t o t h e a n g l e o f r e f l e c t i o n b) e q u a l t o the a n g l e o f r e f r a c t i o n c ) e q u a l t o t h e a n g l e o f r e f l e c t i o n d) none o f t h e s e 54. A v i r t u a l image i s a) formed by a p l a n e m i r r o r b) c a n n o t be p u t on a s c r e e n c) u p s i d e down d) none o f t h e s e - 9 a - 55. You c a n n o t see a r o u n d c o r n e r s b e c a u s e a) yo u r e y e s a r e n o t e q u i p p e d f o r t h i s b) l i g h t t r a v e l s i n s t r a i g h t l i n e s c) o b j e c t s a r o u n d a c o r n e r do n o t r e f l e c t l i g h t d) none o f t h e s e 56. A l u m i n o u s o b j e c t i s one t h a t a) g i v e s o f f l i g h t b) r e f l e c t s l i g h t c) does n o t r e f l e c t l i g h t d) none o f t h e s e 57. In a p l a n e m i r r o r t h e f e w e s t number o f s i g h t l i n e s n eeded t o d e t e r m i n e the p o s i t i o n o f t h e image i s a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) more t h a n 3 58. In a p l a n e m i r r o r t h e image i s a) the same s i z e as t h e o b j e c t b) s m a l l e r t h a n t h e o b j e c t c) b i g g e r t h a n the o b j e c t d) depends on t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e m i r r o r 59. An image i n a m i r r o r i s l a t e r a l l y i n v e r t e d when a) i t s l e f t s i d e a p p e a r s t o be t h e r i g h t s i d e o f t h e image b) the image i s u p s i d e down c) image c a n be p u t on a s c r e e n d) none o f t h e s e HIDDEN FIGURES TEST This i s a test of your a b i l i t y to t e l l which one of f i v e simple shapes can be found in a more complex pattern. At the top of each page in this test are f i v e simple shapes lettered A, B, C, D, and E. Beneath each row of shapes i s a page of pat- terns. Each pattern has a row of l e t t e r s beneath i t . The cor- rect answer i s shown by a c i r c l e around the l e t t e r of the shape of the shape which you are to find in the pattern. When you have found the shape of the pattern, use the pencil supplied to out- li n e i t as shown in the examples below. NOTE: There is only one of these figures in each pattern, and thi6 figure will always be right side up and exactly the same size as one of the five lettered figures . Now try these 2 examples. A B C D E <g) B C D E A B C. < £ > E The figures below show how the figures are included in the problems. Figure A i s i n the f i r s t problem and figure D in the second. ( g ) B C D E A B C © E You will have 10 minutes for each of the two parts of this test. Each part has 2 pages. When you have finished Part 1, STOP. Please do not go on to Part 2 until you are asked to do so. DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL ASKED TO DO SO. P a r t 1 (10 minutes) - 100 - A B C D E GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE P a r t 1 (continued) - 101 - A -B © D E A B @ D E DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL ASKED TO DO SO. STOP. P a r t 2 (10 minutes) 102 - P a r t 2 (continued) - 103 - B 2 6 . / x/\ /• / \ Z7. 2®. A B C D ( E ) A B C (3) E ® B C D E 29. A B C ® E 3 0 . X ix A B C D f ! 31. A B C D ® 3 2 . @ B C D E DO NOT GO BACK TO PART-1, AND DO NOT GO ON TO ANY OTHER TEST UNTIL ASKED TO DO SO. STOP. - 104 - The m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f t h e T e s t o f S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s u s e d by M o t t (1974) was a l s o u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The t a b l e below i n d i c a t e s t h e i t e m numbers on b o t h the m o d i f i e d and o r i g i n a l t e s t s . T e s t o f S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s M o d i f i e d Or i g i n a l Modi f i e d Or i g i n a l Item No. Item No. Item No. Item No. 1 13 26 59 2 15 27 60 3 18 28 63 4 19 29 64 5 20 30 71 6 21 31 72 7 22 32 73 8 24 33 74 9 26 34 75 10 27 35 77 11 32 36 82 12 33 37 83 13 3 5 38 85 14 36 39 87 15 38 40 88 16 39 41 89 17 40 42 90 18 41 43 91 19 44 44 92 20 48 45 94 21 51 46 37 22 55 47 45 23 56 48 79 24 57 49 80 25 58 50 81 10 5 DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL THE TEACHER TELLS YOU TO DO SO T E S T O F S C I E N C E P R O C E S S E S INSTRUCTIONS This teat is called the Test of Science Processes. "Pro- cesses" are ways of doing things. For example, scientists have to be able to look at things very carefully and tell what they sec. Scientists have to be able to measure and use num- bers. And scientists have to be able to plan and understand experiments. This is a toot of how well YOU can do some of the things scientists have todo. It Is NOT a test of how many facts you know about science. , You should have a pencil, an answer sheet, a piece of scrap paper for doing any figuring, and this test booklet. If you do not have any of these things, raise your hand and the teach- er will get what you need. PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THE TEST BOOKLET. Now look at the picture of the answer sheet below. It shows the only right way to fill in answers. Only numbers 146 to ISO are filled in correctly. You must use a pencil and you must make your answers black and they must fill the box com- pletely and not overflow. Do NOT make any of the mistakes shown in numbers 151 to 155. Do NOT make an "X." Do NOT make your answers too light. Do NOT miss the box. Do NOT circle the answer or make a checkmark. Erase your mistakes completely. There is only one right way to fill in your answers -- COMPLETELY AND BLACKLY WITH A PENCIL. Do NOT wrinkle your answer sheet. It Is going to be read by a machine and the machine can not read wrinkled papers. The machine can only read penciled answers oo DO NOT USE INK. Now look at your answer sheet. Find where it says "GRADE." It is next to where some of the numbers are already black- ened in. Now blacken in the number that tellB which grade you are In, Now print your name in the correct boxes and blacken in the letter boxes under each letter in your name. Look at the way it Is done in the picture of the answer sheet on this page. Be very careful to blacken the right letter boxes. Most of the questions on this test have pictures that go with them. The first few are in color. The teacher will show you the color pictures and read the questions WITH you. Then you will have about half a minute to think about the question and mark your answer. Always be careful to mark your an- swer in the right place on your answer sheet. If you make a mistake or change your mind, be sure to erase the wrong answer completely and then mark your new answer. NEVER mark more than one answer for each question. Be sure to keep up with the teacher. If you can not think of an answer, either guess or skip it. Do not spend too much time on any one question. If you have difficulty with a question, go on to the next one and come back to the hard one later. Every so often, the teacher will tell you about which question you should be working on. PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THE TEST BOOKLET. If you need to do any figuring, you may do it on the scrap paper. . IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS, RAISE YOUR HAND NOW. SAMPLE NAME GRID MINI >n<ii» NM'f III lin arrtt Mflfltifn, imw tuoirt IH< 3JAWX m D.I I; M SAMPLE ANSWERS RIGHT WRONG 144 j IW| l«0 mi i id>o mi 'A 0 4 W j I I 0 I SAMPLE GRADE AND NUMBER — —I — — — — r> t I 2 3 b i t .to A t rj . ill f. _. t>. > 4 i . 1 . CM \ r 1 J 3' 4 4 t 9 • 'l w * '« i t .7 t l I, $ u l i ' h 1 11? DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL THE TEACHER TELLS YOU TO DO SO Copyright © 106- DO NOT WRITE IN THE TEST BOOKLET ALL OF THE QUESTIONS ON THIS PAGE REFER TO COLOR PICTURES. YOU SHOULD LOOK AT THE PICTURES AS THE TEACHER SHOWS THEM TO YOU AND THEN ANSWER THE QUESTIONS. i 1. BE S This i shirts dark? URE YOU ARE USING ANSWER SPACE 1 s a picture of 5 shirts. Which choice includes only the you would wear if you wanted to be seen easily in the 1. 2. 3. 4. S. 1 and 4 2 and 3 1. 3, and 5 2, 4, and 5 2, 3, and 5 2. This lo a picture of 8 pieces of paper. Which is the only group of two pieces that you can take away so that you have taken away all of one color and all of one shape? 1. 1 and 6 2. 2 and 8 3. 2 and 7 4. 1 and 3 5. 4 and 5 3. This is a picture of 5 objects, are the same? j ~) 1. They are all used for eating. 2. They are all the same color. 3. They are all made of wood. 4. They are all about the same size. 5. They are1 all about the same shape. Which choice is a way they 4. This is a picture of 8 pieces of paper. Which choice includes only the pieces which are red and have a triangular hole? 1. 1, 4, and 6 2. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 3. 5 and 8 4. 1, 4, 6, and 8 . 5. 4 and 6 5. BE SURE YOU ARE USING ANSWER SPACE 5 Look at the picture of the 8 pieces of paper again. Which choice includes only those piece* that are NOT red and have square holes? 1. 2, 3, 5, and 7 2. 5 and 7 3. 5, 7, and 8 4. 1, 3, 5, 7, and 8 5. 2, 3, 4, and 8 6. ! This Is a picture of 10 beads. Which is the only group of 3 beads that you can take away so that your three are all one color and none of the 7 you leave is that color? 1. 4, 6, and 7 i 2. 2, 6, and 8 ! 3. 1, 3, and 5 1 4. 3, 5, and 10 5. 4, 7, and 9 \ \: page 2 ;i This is a picture of 5 pieces of paper that are slightly differ- ent. Which choice tells exactly how they are different? 1. 4 is a different color. 2. 2 is smaller. 3. 2 is smaller than all the others and 4 is a different color. 4. 1,3, 4, and 5 are the same size. 5. 4 and 2 are different from each other. This is a picture of some cut flowers. They arc called Anthurium. The red parts are called bracts. Just from what you see in the picture, which of the following statements can you make? 1. Anthurium have either red or white bracts and green leaves. 2. All Anthurium have red bracts and green leaves. 3. All Anthurium have green leaves. 4. Anthurium bracts may be red, or white, or any color In between, but the leaves are always green. 5. None of these, because you do not have enough information. 9. This is a picture of 8 pieces of paper. If you group them by color, what is the smallest numberof groups you can make? 1.1 2. 2 . 3. 3 4. 4 5. 5 10. BE SURE YOU ARE USING ANSWER SPACE 10 Look at the picture of 8 pieces of paper again. If you group them by shape, what is the smallest number of groups you can make? 1. 1 2. 2 3. 3 4. 4 5. 5 11. This is a picture of 7 toy cars. Cars 1, 2, 4, and 6 make up a special group. This group is special because it Includes all the cars that 1. have wheels. 2. are not blue and have wheels. 3. are red. 4. are not blue. 5. are red and white. 12. This is a picture of pieces of paper which were left in the sun for different numbers of days. Which is the only thing you can say for sure, based on what you see in the picture? 1. Blue paper fades more than red paper. 2. All paper will continue to fade forever the longer you leave it in the sun. 3. Any paper left in the sun will fade. 4. This paper faded more by day 5 than it had by day 2. 5. Paper will fado in the sun, but cloth will not. GO ON TO PAGE 3 DO NOT WRITE IN THE TEST BOOKLET 107 THE NEXT QUESTIONS ARE TO FIND OUT HOWWELL YOU CAN LOOK AT THINGS AND HOW CAREFULLY YOU CAN TELL WHAT YOU SEE. 13, This la a picture of a boy studying what happens when he. tight- ens or loosens the strings of a guitar. Which one of the fol- lowing Is moot important to his study? 1, The lengths and thicknesses of the strings 2. The size of the guitar ~)3. The temperature of the strings 4.. What the guitar and strings are made of 5, The age of the guitar 14. This is a picture of 5 things. Which of them has volume? 1. The block 2. The square 3. The circle 4. The triangle 5. The curved line 15. ._ LJ • '.V'i This picture shows 4 ways of arranging 3 bulbs and a battery. Which two ways are the same? 1. 1 and 4 2 and 4 1 and 2* 3 and 2 3 and 4 2. 3. 4. 8. 16. V ;.I Which choiceTbest de-Thls is a picture of a growing-seed, scribes what you see? | 1. The seed is growing. 2. Someone planted and watered the seed. 3. The seed coat has split and a root and a stem are coming out of the seed. 4. A root is growing down and a otemis growing up. 5. The seed has germinated. page 3 17. These are two pictures of a pot of water on a stove. Picture 2 was taken 5 minutes after picture 1. Which choice is the best way of telling that there has been a change? 1. The water is boiling in picture 2. 2. The gas is on in picture 2. 3. The water gets hot when the gas is on. 4. The water is not boiling in picture 1. 5. The water is boiling in picture 2, but it is not boil- ing in picture 1. 18. This is a picture of a ball that has just Dounced off the wall and will bounce on the floor. Which one of the following is LEAST important to someone studying the bouncing? 1. What the ball is made of 2. What the floor is made of 3. What the wall is made of 4. How high the wall is / 5. Gravity / h 19. i i t • / This is a picture of 5 objects. Which of them is NOT in the same phase of matter (solid, liquid, gas) as all the others? 1. The pencil ' 2. - The water 3. The toy giraffe 4. The glass 5. The beads 20. k< ..9. This is a picture with 4 parts. Each part shows a compaa a bar magnet, and a horseshoe magnet. In which two pat are the three things arranged in the same way? 1. 1 and 3 2. 2 and 4 BE SURE YOU AREUSIr 3- 1 and 4 ANSWER SPACE 20 4. 2 and 3 5. 1 and 2 GO ON TO PAGE 108 DO NOT WRITE IN THE TEST BOOKLET 21. This lea picture of a match. Which choice tells all that you can see In the picture and no more? 1. Someone la holding a match which is burning and giving off smoke. 2. Someone has just lit a match. 3. Someone is holding a burning match. 4. Someone is about to be burned by the match he is holding. 5. A match is burning and giving off light and heat. THE NEXT QUESTIONS ARE TO FIND OUT HOW WELL YOU CAN TELL HOW THINGS ARE THE SAME OR DIFFERENT. 22. 1'. .• , . U ^ ' ' i2 Which choice best describes these two pictures? 1. Different things are in both pictures, and they are ., x arranged differently. 2. Different things are in both pictures, but they are arranged in the same way. The same things are in both pictures, but they are arranged differently. The same things are in both pictures, and they are 3. 5. arranged in the same way. Picture 2 ie a mirror image of picture 1. I 23. This is a picture of two things happening. Which choice is a way they are the same? 1. Something is burning in both and heating something else. Glass is used in both. _ There fs a solid burning in both. Something 1« cooking lnono, but In the other some- thing Is being lit. There in liquid in both. 2. 3. 4. 5. 24. This ts a picture otA objects. Which are the aWHS? I... li anil: * •[ I, i . 2 anti 3 5 3. 1, 2. and 4 4. None 5. I and 4 page 4 THE NEXT QUESTIONS ARE TO FINDOUT HOWWELL YOU CAN PUT THINGS INTO GROUPS. [' 25. 2. 3. 4. 5. This is a picture of 5 objects (hat are alike In one special way. How arc they alike? 1. They are all the same shape. They all help you see things that are far away. They are all made of metal. They all have lenses. They all make things look smaller. 26. This is a picture of 8 objects. Which choice includes all the objects that are round like a ball and NONE of the objects that are flat? 1, 2, 3,, 4, 5, 7, and 8 2, .3, 5, 7, and 8 1.' 2. 3. 4. 5. 4. 6, 2. 3, 1. 2, and 8 and 5 ' 3, 5, and 7 27. This is a picture '6f 5 objectB. Which choice includes only those that-would make good paper weights? 1. 1, 3, 4, and 5 2. .3 and 4 3. 1, 2, and 5 4. 1 and 5 5. 1,4, and 5 28. This Is a picture of 7 objects. Which choice includes only thoBe that can beused for carrying more than just a few drops of water? 1. t. 2. 1. 6, and' 7 2. 1. Z. 3. 4. v-ni h 3. 1,2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 4. 1,2, 3, 4, 6, and 7 5. 1, 2, 3, and 6 GO ON TO PAGE 5 DO NOT WRITE IN THE TEST BOOKLET 109 29. This is a picture of 10 marbles and 6 other objects. Which choice includes only those that can be used to carry all 10 marbles at the same time? 1. 1, 3, and 6 2. 1 and 3 3. 1,3, and 5 4. 1, 2, and 3 5. 2, 3, 4, and 5 THE NEXT QUESTIONS ARE TO FIND OUT HOW WELL YOU CAN USE NUMBERS. 30. BE SURE YOU ARE USING ANSWER SPACE 30 Which number below is five hundred sixteen thousand, three hundred seventy-two? 1. 516.312 2. 572, 316 3. 516,372 >•» 4. 372,516 «Y* 5. 516, 370 1 1̂  10 41 31. Here is a picture of 4 blocks. Which choice lists the blocks from smallest to biggest? 1. 1, 4. 3, 2 2. 2, 4, 3, 1 3. 2, 3, 1, 4 4. 2. 3, 4, 1 5. 3. 2, 4, 1 32. Which one of these temperature readings is 25 degrees lower than 15°F? '" r. -IO°F- " • . 2. 15°F 3. -25°F 4. 0°F 5. 40°F »--- 33. M l iii IP This picture shows 50 straws. What fraction of the straws •re on the dark paper? 1. 1/5 2. 50/5 3. 10/25 4. 2/50 5. 1/10 page 5 34. j 1 \ . . . " " " ^ D 2 3 4 g , This is a picture of 5 glasses of colored water. Which choice lists the glasses from most water to least water? 1. 5, 3, 1, 4, 2 2. 2, 4, 3, 5, 1 3. 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 4. 4, 2, 3, 1, 5 5. 2, 4, 3, 1, 5 35. Which one of these decimals is equal to 15/100? 1. .0015 2. .015 3. 15.0 4. 1.5 5. .15 36. If the 17th of. March is Monday, what day of the week is the 23rd of March? 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Sunday Monday Tuesday Thursday Friday 37. If there are 25 children in a class and 5 are absent, what per- cent of the class is present? 1. 95* 2. 80* 3. 75* 4. 25* 5. 20* THE NEXT QUESTIONS ARE TO FIND OUT HOW WELL YOU CAN USE GRAPHS AND CHARTS. 38. approximate approximate NAME number . number of length of a of moons hours in a day year (in earth years) JUPITER 1 2 1 0 1 2 SATURN 9 1 0 .29 MARS 2 2 4 2 URANUS 5 1 1 8 4 MERCURY 0 1400 1/4 This is a chart of information about 5 planets Which of these planets has the longest year? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Jupiter Saturn Mars Mercury Uranus 39. Look at the chart again same length of day? 1. Jupiter and Saturn 2. Mars and Jupiter 3. Mars and Uranus 4. Mercury and Uranus 5. No two Which two planets have about the GO ON TO PAGE 6 D O NOT WRITE IN THE TEST BOOKLET 110 40. BE SORE YOU ARE USING ANSWER SPACE 40 Thlo lo a graph of the boiling temperatures of 6 different l i - quids. Which liquid has the lowest boiling temperature? 1. Liquid 1 2. Liquid 3 3. Liquid 4 4. Liquid 5 5. Liquid 6 Which two liquids have the same 41. Look at the graph again, boiling temperature? 1. 6 and 4 2. 3 and 4 3. 1 and 5 4. 2 and 1 5. 3 and 5 THE NEXT QU ESTIONS ARE TO FIND OU T HOW WELL YOU CAN MEASURE. 42. This le a picture of 5 different rulers, best for measuring how tall you are? 1. I . 2 3 ! ; 4 5 Which one would be 2. 3. 4. 5. 43. U,~... <..^>i^'^ This is a picture of a ball. Which of these would be beotj measuring the distance around this ball? 1. Tape measure' Meter stick 2. 3. 4. 5. Yard stick 1-foot ruler 6-inch ruler for 44. These are two pictures of a clock. In picture 1, it Is 3:40 in the afternoon. In picture 2, It is 6:10 that evening. How much later was picture 2 taken? 1. 2 hours and 30 minutes 2. 6 hours and 10 minutes . . 3. 3 hours and 40 minutes 4. 9 hours and 50 minutes 5. 9 hours and 30 minutes page 6 45. This is a picture of a thermometer In a glass of water. What is the temperature of the water? j C f t O C 2. 3. 4. 5. 50°F 90°F 20°C 0"C 46. Which one of these units would be best to use in measuring the weight of a loaded freight car? 1. Pounds 2. 3. 4. 5. Liters TonB Kilograms Grams 47. This is a picture of a quart of milk. About how much does the milk weigh? .1. 10 milligrams 2. 1 gram 3. t ounces 4. \0 liters 5. 2 pounds 48. These two pictures show a thermometer before and after it was cooled for 10 minutes. If its temperature went down at a steady rate, what was the rate? 1. 1 degree por hour 2. 1 dogroo por mlnuto 3. 1 degree por second 4. 2 degrees per minuter 5. 20 degrees per minute 49. This is a picture of a box with Its dimensions shown on it and a scale drawing of the box. One dimension Is left out of the scale drawing. What should It be? 1. 1 Inch 2. 2 Inches 3. 3 Inches 4. 4 Inches 5. 5 Inches GO ON TO PAGE 7 DO NOT WRITE IN THE TEST BOOKLET 1 1 1 50. BE SURE YOU ARE USING ANSWER'SPACE 50 Thio 1B a picture of a little boy holding a ball. About how big la the ball? 1. 4 inches across . 2. 5 centimeters across 3. 1/2 yard across 4. 1 meter across 5. 9 inches across SI. i This la a picture of a room. Pretend that you are in this room and you want to measure its size, but you do not have a ruler. Which choice is NOT something you could use? 1. Your foot lengths 2. Floor tile lengths 3. Chair lengths 4. Window lengths 5. Table lengths 52. Which one of these units is used in measuring area? 1. Inch 2. Cubic Centimeter 3. Yard 4. Square Kilometer 5. Meter 53. This is a picture of a balance with a toothbrush on one side. If you wanted to weigh the toothbrush, which group of objects would be best to use? 1. The marbles The stones . The screws The paper The wlros 55. T \ - i This is a picture of a block. What are its dimensions? 1. 18 Inches by 12 inches by 6 inches 2. 14 inches by 11 l/2 inches by 3 l/2 inches 3. 14 inches by 12 inches by 6 inches 4. 15 l/2 inches by 10 l/2 Inches by 3 inches 5. 18 Inches by 11 l/2 inches by 4 inches 56. This is a picture of a box with its dimensions shown on it. What Is the area of the top of the box? 1. 20 squares-inches 2. 300 square inches 3. 35 cubic inches 4. 160 square inches 5. 35Nsquare inches 57. Look at the picture of the box again. Which of these is NOT the volume of the box? 1. 15 inches times 20 inches times 8 inches 2. 300 square inches times 8 inches 3. 2, 400 cubic inches 4. ̂160 square inches times 15 inches ' 5. 15 inches plus 20 inches plus 8 inches 58. Which one of these is the number of seconds in an hour? 1. 2,400 "60 ><i 600 ^ 1 ^ QO0 2. 3. 4. 5. 86,400 3, 600 IK 59. at;." 54. 2. 3. 4. 5. Which one of those units is NOT used In measuring weight? 1. Kilogram Gram . _ 2. J. 4. 5. Milligram Kilometer Pound page 7 Mo I* 4,0 This picture shows a marble and a ruler. If the marble rolls from A to B in 2 seconds at a steady speed, how fast is it going? 1. 12 inches per 2 seconds 2. 24 inches per second 3. 2 feet per second 4. l/2 foot per second 5. 1 foot per second 60. Which one of those units would be beat to use in measuring the distance from the earth to tho moon? 1. Yards B E SURE YOU ARE USING 2. Feet 3. Inches ANSWER SPACE 60 4. Miles 5. Light Years GO ON TO PAGE 8 DO NOT WRITE IN THE TEST BOOKLET 61. THE NEXT QUESTIONS ARE TO FIND OU T HOW WELL YOU CAN PLAN AND UNDERSTAND EXPERIMENTS. 67. Thla is a picture of a box and 5. drawings. Which is the best drawing of the box? 1. 1 2. 2 3. 3 4. 4 5. 5 62. Which one of these units is used in measuring length? 1. Centimeter 2. Gram 3. Square Yard ' 4. Acre 5. Quart 63. This picture shows a part of a map. How far is it from North Town to Birch Falls? 1. 9 miles 2. 18 miles 3. (4}/2 miles 4. 27 miles 5. 6 3/4 miles 64. Look at the map again. If you were using the same scale to draw another map, how far apart would you place two towns which are actually 5 miles from each other? 1. 10 Inches V 2. 2/5 Inches » 3. 5 inches 4. 15 Inches 5. 1 foot 65. In which pair below are the measurements closest in sire? 1. 2 l/2 kilograms and 1 pound 2. 2 l/2 centimeters and 1 inch 3. 5 kilometers and 1 mile 4. 5 liters and 1 quart 3. 10 yards and 1 meter 66. In which pair below are the units closest In size? 1. Pound and kilogram 2. Yard and meter 3. Meter and mile 4. Gram and liter 5. Centimeter and foot 2. 3. 5. This is a picture of two ice cube trays. One is filled with very hot water and one with cold water. Many people say: "HOT WATER MAKES ICE CUBES QUICKER THAN COLD WATER. " Which choice would be the beBt statement for help- ing you plan an experiment to test this? 1. The hotter the water you start with, the faster i t will freeze into ice cubes. Hot water freezes into ice cubes fast.- Hot water freezes at higher temperatures than cold water. Hot water freezes into ice cubes faster because it_ turns on the refrigerator. Hot water makes steam which keeps the refriger-_ ator going. 68. If you wanted to test the statement you chose in the last ques- tion, which factor listed below is the only one you should al- low to change during the experiment? / 1. The temperature of the water you use. / 2. The amount of water in each tray. 3. The position of the trays in the freezer. 4. The refrigerator in which you put the trays._ 5. The kind of trays you use. ' 69. Some things that can change during your experiment are list- ed below. Which one changes because of all the others? The kind of trays you use. The refrigerator in which you put the trays. The time it takes for freezing. s The temperature of the water you use. The amount of water in each tray. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 70. P»ge 8 BE SURE YOU ARE USING ANSWER SPACE 70 This is a picture of 5 objects. If you want to study the rela- tionship between the length of a pendulum and how long it takes to complete one swing, which things would be best to use? 1. C and D only 2. A, B, and E only 3. A, C, and D only 4. A and B only 5. AU of the things GO ON TO PAGE 9 DO NOT WRITE IN THE TEST BOOKLET 113 71. K E Y 0=OLD H = N t W L=LrOHT D = D A R K | |W=WARM C = C O O L i This is a graph of the results of an experiment.. 400 seeds that were 10 years old and 400 new seeds were planted in good soil and watered each day. 100 old seeds and 100 new seeds were put in a dark cool place. 100 old seeds and 100 new seeds were put in a light cool place. 100 old seeds and 100 new seeds were put In a dark warm place. 100 old seeds and 100 new seeds were put In a light warm place. Five things which may affect the growth of seeds are: water, heat, soil, age, and light. Which of these were tested? 1. Heat, age, and light only ~ [ 2. Soil, heat, and light only | 3. Heat, soil, age, and light only 4. Water and soil only 5. Water and age only Here are some things you can see 72. Look at the graph again, on the graph: A. 365 seeds sprouted. 400 seeds were 10 years old. 400 seeds were new. 400 seeds were kept cool. 400 seeds were kept warm. 400 seeds weie kept in the light. 400 seeds were kept in the dark. Which one happened because of all the others? 1. A 2. B 3. D 4. F 5. G B. C D. E. F. C. Here are 5 statements about Look at the graph once more, this experiment: A. More new seeds sprout than old seeds. / B. Heat makes a difference in how many seeds sprout.-' C. Light makes a difference in how many seeds sprout. ' D. Water does not make a difference in how many seeds sprout. E. Light does not make a difference in how many seeds sprout. Which of these con you find from the graph? 1. A only j A, B, and D only D and E only C and D only A, B, and E only 74. Look at the graph again. Listed below are some other ex-periments you could do. Which one is NOT based on the ex-periment shown in the graph? 1. A study of seeds of several ages, 2. A study of the effect of different numbers of hours of light and dark on seeds. 3. A etudy of the heights of plants. 4. A study of the effect of different amounts of water on seeds. 5. A study of the effect of different temperatures on seeds. page 9 75. Look at the graph again. Why were 800 seeds used? 1. 800 makes 8 groups of exactly 100 each, and 100 is a round number. Experiments require exactly 100 samples in each group. 800 were all the seeds that were available. The groups needed to be large enough so that what was found out was not wrong due to chance. 800 happened to be the number taken out of the bag. 2. .3. 4. 76. ID . i d This picture shows 5 containers that were left out in a storm. The rainwater has been colored so that you can see it better. Which is the best container to use to find out how many inches of rain fell? 1. A 2. 3. 4. 5. B C D E 77. / / / V / . ' - • • ^ . . IJ t This is a picture of a ball at the top of a slope. If you want to find out the average time it takes for the ball to roll all the way down the slope, about how many times should you let it roll down and time it? 1.1 2 15 250 1,000 THE NEXT QUESTIONS ARE TO FIND OUT HOW WELL YOU CAN FIGURE OUT AND PREDICT, WHEN YOU ARE GIVEN SOME FACTS. BE VERY CAREFUL TO THINK ABOUT YOUR ANSWERS. MAKESURE THEY ARE BASED ON WHAT YOU SEE IN THE PICTURE OR CHART. 2. 3. 4. 5. 78. WIND DIRECTION SUN MON TUE WED THU FRI SAT NOON E N E E E S E calm E MIDNIGHT S W W W calm N W W W This is a chart of wind direction at noon and midnight for one week. Which is the most general statement you can make based on this chart? 1. The direction of the day winds is 180 difforont from the direction of the night winds. 2. The direction of the wind is different at night than it is during the day at this place. There is always a wind in this place. Day winds come from the east and night winds come from the west. It is warmer during the day than it is at night. GO ON TO PAGE 10 3. 4. 5. NOT WRITE IN THE TEST BOOKLET 79. This in a picture of 5 pins and 5 magnets. Which statement CANNOT be made just from looking at the picture? 1. Pins 2 and 5 have big heads. 2. Pins 2, 3, and 5 are sticking to their magnets. 3. Some pins are made from a metal which is not magnetic. 4. AU the pins with big heads shown in this picture are sticking to their magnets. 5. Pins 1 and 4 are not sticking to their magnets. BO. BE SURE YOU ARE USING ANSWER SPACE 80 Look at the picture again. What else must you do to prove that pins 2 and 5 are attracted to magnets? 1. See if pins 2 and 5 are magnetic. 2. See if magnets 2 and 5 are really magnets. 3. Take a magnet that you know is good and see If It attracts pins 2 and 5. 4. See if pins 2 and 5 attract each other. 5. See if magnets 2 and 5 attract each other. Here are 6 possible facts: 81. Look at the picture once more. A. Magnet 1 is a strong magnet. B. Magnet 1 is NOT a magnet. C. Pin 1 is glued to the table. D. Pin 1 1B loose on the table, E. Pin 1 Is made of steel. F. Pin 1 is NOT made of steel. Which facts must you know in order to be sure that pin 1 io NOT attracted to magnets? • 1. B and C only 2. A and D only i 3. F only 4. B and E only 5. D and F only 82 COUNTRY AVERAGE RAINFALL INCHES PER YEAR A 5.4 B 56.7 C 14 3.1 D .9 5 . 4 E 9. 0 F 78.3 G 62. 5 This is a chart of average yearly rainfall in 7 countries. Which countries are probably mostly desort? 1. A and B^ 2. B, D, F, and G 3. B and E 4. A and E 5. C and D 83. Look at the chart again. Here is a list of some other facts which you can get about these countries: A. Fertility of the soil B. Number of farmers C. Value of farm crops D. Site of the country E. Average temperature Which would help you decide what kinds of plants probably grow in each country? 1. B only 2. A, C, and E only 3. A and B only 4. C, D, and E only 5. A and E only P*ge 10 84. i . 2. This is a picture of some string. The* manufacturer claims it will hold at least 100 pounds. What is the beat way to check this? Hang a weight of 75 pounds on the string, and keep adding 1-pound weights until it breaks. Hang a 100-pound weight on the string, and see if it breaks. 3. Let two 100-pound boys pull on each end of a piece of the string, and see if it breaks. 4. Hang 101 pounds on the string and see if it breaks, 5. Double the string and hang 50 pounds from It, and see if it breaks. k 85. This is a picture of a bulb that is not lit even though the switch is closed. Which of these statements is NOT a possible ex- planation? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The bulb is not screwed in tightly. The battery is wired into the circuit backwards. The bulb is burned out. The battery is dead. A wire is not making good contact. / 86. and 6 marbles. 1, This is a picture of a balance  Marbles 2, and 3 all weigh the same. When marbles 1, 2, and 3 are put on one side and 4, 5, and 6 are put on the other side, they balance. Which other facts do you need to know in order to say that all the marbles weigh the same? 1. Marble 5 weighs the same as marble 2. 2. Marble 5 weighs the same as marble 2 and marble 1. 3. Marble 3 weighs the same as marble 6. 4. Marble 4 weighs the same as marble 5 and marble 6. i . Marble 3 weighs the. same as marble 5. "•1 87. This is a picture of a barometer. From reading it, which of the following statements about the weather can you make? 1. The barometric pressure is rising. 2. You do not have enough information to tell what will happen, 3. The weather is changing. 4. It will rain in two days. 5. The barometric pressure is falling. GO ON TO PAGE 11 115 DO NOT WRITE IN THE TEST BOOKLET A METAL BAR TEMPERATURE 10°C, 88. 30°C. 50°C. 90°C, LENGTH 10 0 cm 10 1 cm 102 cm 104 cm This is a chart of the change In length of a metal bar as it is heated. Use the chart to figure out what UB length is at 40°C. 1. 101 centimeters 2. 101. 5 centimeters 3. 102 centimeters 4. 102. 5 centimeters 5. 103 centimeters 89. Use the chart to figure outwhat the length of the bar probab- ly is at 100°C. 1. 103.5 centimeters 2. 104 centimeters 3. 104. 5 centimeters 4. 105 centimeters 5. 105. 5 centimeters 90. BE SURE YOU A R E U S IN G A N S W E R S P A C E 9 0 What is the beat way to check the answers you gave to the last two questions? 1 2. Measure the bar at 100°C, and then graph all the numbers to check your answers. Put your answers on the chart and see if they look correct. Measure the bar at 120°C, and then make a graph of all the numbers to check your answers. Measure the bar at least 5 times at other temper- atures, and compare what you find with your an- swers. o o Measure the bar at 40 C and at 100 C and compare what you find with your answers. 91. IRE • *\ A F T E R These are two pictures of ablownup balloon taken before and after heating. When you heat the balloon, it gets bigger. When you cool the balloon, it gets smaller. Why? 1. Gasses get bigger when heated and smaller when cooled. 2. All things get smaller when heated and bigger when cooled. 3. Liquids get bigger when heated and smaller when ';• cooled.' 4. Plastics get bigger when heated and smaller when cooled. :j 5. Solids get bigger when heated and smaller when coo,ed^ p^f^ij^m>^m 92. .crfL...... U l ^ f i K L J These are two pictures of a battery, a bulb, a switch, and some wtres. Which is the only thing you can be sure is dif- ferent between picture 1 and picture 2? 1. The bulb was replaced. 2. The wires were tightened. 3. The bulb was screwed In. 4. The battery was electrically recharged. 5. Electricity is flowing through the bulb. 93. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. This is a picture of three rubber-band scales which are all alike. Scale A has 3 marbles on it. Scale B has 5 marbles on it. Scale C has 7 marbles on It. If you put another mar- ble on scale B, the pointer will probably point to about "6. " Why? "6" is halfway between "5" and "7. " The amount a rubber band stretches depends on how much weight is pulling it. Rubber bands stretch. Then there will be one more marble on scale B. The numbers on the scales were put on after try- ing out different numbers of marbles. 94. In order to prove that "NOT ALL THINGS GET BIGGER AS YOU HEAT THEM, " which of the following would you need to do? Find one thing that does not get bigger when it is heated. Find all the things that do not get bigger when they are heated. ' Find one thing that gets bigger when it ia heated. Find all the things that get bigger when they are heated. Find all the things that do not change size when they are heated. 1. 95. B . ' - F O R E A P T E R ' 5 DAYSi These are two pictures of a beqn seed taken 5 days apart. What is moBt likely to have caused the change in the seed? 1. Light 2. Fertilizer 3. Heat 4. Water 5. Plant food '96. In order to make this statement: "THE COLDER A CITY IS, THE MORE SNOW IT HAS, " which of the following do you need to know about soma cities? 1. The average temperature of each city and the num- ber of snowplows each has. 2. The number of days school was closed in each city because of snow. 3. The average temperature and precipitation of each city. 4. - The average temperature and average snowfall of each city. 5. The average number of times it snows in each city.! MAKE SURE THAT YOUR ANSWERS ARE BLACK AND COM- PLETELY FILL THE SPACES. MAKE SURE THAT YOU HAVE COMPLETELY ERASED ANY MISTAKES OR STRAY MARKS ON YOUR ANSWER SHEET. YOU MAY CO BACK AND WORK ON ANY SECTION OF THE TEST UNTIL TIME IS CALLED BY THE TEACHER. page 11 i - 116 - A P P E N D I X C - 11.7 - SUMMARY OF CELL MEANS FOR ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t T e a c h e r Sex M a l e Female x n x n T e a c h e r - P a c e d 28.20 10 25 .43 7 32.00 11 33.63 8 S e l f - P a c e d 1 2 32.50 40.17 8 6 33.33 31.59 6 17 R e t e n t i o n T e s t T e a c h e r Sex Male Female x n x n T e a c h e r - P a c e d 1 27.90 10 26.57 7 30.55 11 29 .75 8 S e l f - P a c e d 1 2 29.25 37.00 8 6 31.67 30.47 6 17 S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s T e a c h e r Sex Male Female x n x n T e a c h e r - P a c e d 20.30 10 24.00 7 20.09 11 24.50 8 S e l f - P a c e d 1 2 27.50 28.50 8 6 23.83 26.94 6 17 - 118 - Teacher--Paced S e l f - -Paced T e a c h e r 1 2 1 2 Male X 49.80 49.18 57.33 37.33 Sex n 10 11 9 6 Female X 33.29 49.00 44.50 44.65 n 7 8 6 17 A t t i t u d e t o I n d e p e n d e n t I n v e s t i g a t i o n T e a c h e r - P a c e d S e l f - P a c e d T e a c h e r 1 2 1 2 Male X 51.20 63.91 62.22 45.83 Female n 10 11 .- 9 6 — Male X 41.00 61.50 58 .00 53.82 Female n 7 8 6 17 - 119 - A P P E N D I X D - 120 - FRANK HURT SECONDARY SCHOOL OPTICS STUDENT OUTLINE AND EVALUATION NAME Sequence P r a c t i c e T o p i c Date C o m p l e t e d 1 L e c t u r e I n t r o d u c t i o n C h a p t e r s 25 I n t r o d u c t i o n and O t h e r and 26 S o u r c e s o f L i g h t p. 118 Ques.. 1 - 3 p. 122 2 Lab 4 - 1 L i g h t S o u r c e s p. 164 Ques. 1 - 6 p. 166 - 167 3 C h a p t e r s 27 W i t c h e s ' L i g h t Ques. 1 - 4 p . 126 28 C o l d L i g h t Ques. 1 - 4 p. 129 4 Lab 4 - 2 L i g h t p a s s e s t h r o u g h Ques. 1 - 3 p. 166 - 167 5 C h a p t e r 29 6 T e s t C o l l e c t E x e r c i s e Books 7 Lab 4 - 3 The p a t h t a k e n by l i g h t Ques. 1 - 8 p. 171 8 C h a p t e r 30 The S o l a r E c l i p s e p. 132 Ques. 1 - 7 p. 137 9 Lab 4 - 4 Shadows Ques. 1 - 6 p. 174 - 176 10 T e s t C o l l e c t E x e r c i s e Books 11 Lab 4 - 5 F o r m a t i o n o f Images Ques. 1 - 2 p. 179 - 121 - Sequence P r a c t i c e T o p i c Date C o m p l e t e d 12 C h a p t e r 37 13 A p p e n d i x 7 14 Lab 4 - 6 15 C h a p t e r 38 16 Lab 4 - 7 17 F i l m s t r i p 18 C h a p t e r 39 . 19 T e s t 20 Lab 4 - 1 1 21 C h a p t e r 33 22 Lab 4 - 1 2 23 C h a p t e r s 31 32 24 Lab 4 - 1 3 25 T e s t 26 Lab 4 - 8 Windows o f Sand Ques. 1 - 4 p. 168 Read p. 241 - 243 i n the l a b . t e s t R e f r a c t i o n by a T r a n s - p a r e n t S o l i d Ques. 1 - 5 p. 185 The G l a s s m a k e r s Ques. 1 - 4 p. 170 M a k i n g Use o f R e f r a c t i o n L e n s e s The S t o r y o f L e n s e s Ques. 1 - 5 p. 191 Mak i n g a Lens Ques. 1 - 2 p. 172 C o l l e c t E x e r c i s e Books S t u d y i n g R e f l e c t i o n Ques. 1 - 10 p. 212 - 213 M i r r o r s i n t h e B e g i n n i n g Ques. 1 - 4 p. 148 Images i n a P l a n e M i r r o r Ques. 1 - 7 p. 216 - 217 M i r r o r s Ques. 1 - 3 p . 140 M i r r o r s i n Use Ques. 1 - 5 p . 145 C y l i n d r i c a l C u r v e d M i r r o r s Ques. 1 - 3 p. 220 C o l l e c t E x e r c i s e Books U s i n g a S p h e r i c a l Convex Lens t o P r o d u c e an Image Ques. 1 - 8 p. 196 - 197 - 122 - Sequence P r a c t i c e T o p i c Date C o m p l e t e d 27 28 C h a p t e r 36 29 Lab 4 - 9 30 C h a p t e r 11 31 Lab 4 - 1 0 E n r i c h m e n t L ens Makers F o r m u l a and W o r k s h e e t Ques. 1 - 4 p. 163 D e f e c t s i n V i s i o n and How t o C o r r e c t Them Ques. 1 - 11 p. 56 P r i s m s and C o l o u r Ques. 1 - 3 p. 207 32 33 F i l m s t r i p T e s t C o l l e c t E x e r c i s e Books - 123 - FRANK HURT SECONDARY SCHOOL OPTICS T h i s u n i t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the s t u d y o f l i g h t and i t s b e h a - v i o u r . You w i l l p e r f o r m e x p e r i m e n t s t o d e t e r m i n e the n a t u r e o f l i g h t : (a) How i t t r a v e l s . (b) How i t i s r e f l e c t e d . (c) How i t i s r e f r a c t e d . OBJECTIVES OF OPTICS A. NATURE OF LIGHT 1. To d e t e r m i n e d i f f e r e n t w a y s i i n w h i c h l i g h t i s p r o d u c e d by man. 2. To c l a s s i f y l i g h t s o u r c e s . 3. The c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r s e e i n g . 4. To c l a s s i f y m a t e r i a l s a c c o r d i n g t o how l i g h t p a s s e s t h r o u g h them. B. PATH OF LIGHT 1. To d e t e r m i n e t h e p a t h o f l i g h t . 2. To d e t e r m i n e how shadows a r e f o r m e d . 3. To d e t e r m i n e the t y p e s o f shadows t h a t c an be formed by d i f f e r e n t l i g h t s o u r c e s . C. FORMATION OF IMAGES 1. To f i n d how you can p r o d u c e a r e a l image. 2. To f i n d o u t how t h e p o s i t i o n o f the o b j e c t i n f r o n t o f the p i n h o l e a f f e c t s the s i z e and c o n d i t i o n o f t h e image t h a t i s p r o d u c e d . - 124 - 3. To f i n d how moving t h e s c r e e n c h a n g e s t h e image on t h e s c r e e n . D. REFRACTION OF LIGHT 1. To be a b l e t o measure a n g l e s w i t h a p r o t r a c t o r . 2. To s t a t e t h e law o f r e f r a c t i o n . 3. To f i n d where a l i g h t r a y i s b e n t when i t p a s s e s from one medium t o a n o t h e r . 4. To d e t e r m i n e how d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l a f f e c t s the a n g l e o f d i f f r a c t i o n . 5. O b s e r v e how t h e shape o f l e n s e s i s u s e d t o change t h e p a t h o f l i g h t . E . REFLECTION OF LIGHT 1. To o b s e r v e the n a t u r e o f images i n a p l a n e m i r r o r . 2. To s t a t e t h e law o f r e f l e c t i o n . 3. To o b s e r v e r e f l e c t i o n f r o m a r o u g h s u r f a c e . 4. To d e t e r m i n e why o b j e c t s a r e c o l o u r e d . 5. To d e t e r m i n e where images a r e l o c a t e d i n a p l a n e m i r r o r . 6. The u s e s o f m i r r o r s . F. CURVED MIRRORS 1. To o b s e r v e how convex and c o n c a v e m i r r o r s r e f l e c t l i g h t r a y s . 2. To d e t e r m i n e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e image formed by a s p h e r i c a l c o n v e x l e n s . 3. To d e t e r m i n e how t o change th e s i z e and n a t u r e o f the image formed by a s p h e r i c a l c o n v e x l e n s . G. DEFECTS IN VISION 1. To l e a r n t h e d e f e c t s i n v i s i o n . 2. To d e t e r m i n e how t o c o r r e c t the d e f e c t s i n v i s i o n . 3. To l e a r n t h e p a r t s o f the human e y e . - 125 - PRISMS AND COLOUR 1. To l e a r n how t o use a p r i s m t o show r e f l e c t i o n r e f r a c t i o n o f l i g h t . 2. To o b s e r v e how a p r i s m can s e p a r a t e t h e c o l o u r w h i t e l i g h t . - 126 - BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES FOR THE UNIT OPTICS Sequence 1 The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n t h e d i f f e r e n c e between i n c a n d e s c e n t and l u m i n e s c e n t s o u r c e s o f l i g h t . S equence 2 The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n how t o c l a s s i f y l i g h t s o u r c e s as b e i n g p o i n t s o u r c e s , b r o a d s o u r c e s , l u m i n o u s and n o n - l u m i n o u s . The s t u d e n t i s a l s o t o l e a r n how a r a y box o p e r a t e s . Sequence 3 The s t u d e n t w i l l d e f i n e t h e terms b i o l u m i n e s c e n c e , c h e m i l u m i n e s c e n t , p h o s p h o r s , and f l u o r o s c o p e . The s t u d e n t i s a l s o t o l e a r n t h e d i f f e r e n c e between f l u o r e s c e n t and p h o s p h o r e s c e n t p h o s p h o r s . Sequence 4 By d o i n g Lab 4 - 2 t h e s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n the mean- i n g s o f opaque, t r a n s p a r e n t and t r a n s l u c e n t . The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n t o c l a s s i f y o b j e c t s a c c o r d i n g t o how t h e y l e t l i g h t p a s s t h r o u g h t h e m s e l v e s . S equence 5 The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n t h e meaning o f t h e word e l e c t r o l u m i n e s c e n c e and t h r e e a d v a n t a g e s o f e l e c - t r o l u m i n e s c e n t l i g h t by r e a d i n g C h a p t e r 29. Sequence 6 The s t u d e n t w i l l r e v i e w o b j e c t i v e A and the d e f i - n i t i o n s f r o m t h e c h a p t e r s and l a b s and d e m o n s t r a t e h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g by w r i t i n g a t e s t . Sequence 7 The s t u d e n t w i l l o b s e r v e how t o see l i g h t by d o i n g p r o c e d u r e P a r t A o f l a b 4 - 3 and the p a t h o f l i g h t by d o i n g p r o c e d u r e B o f the same l a b . Sequence 8 The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n how e c l i p s e s come a b o u t and how t h e y g i v e f u r t h e r p r o o f o f t h e p a t h o f l i g h t . Sequence 9 The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n how shadows a r e formed and t h e meaning o f t h e words umbra and penumbra. The s t u d e n t w i l l a l s o o b s e r v e t h e d i f f e r e n t shadows formed by a s i n g l e p o i n t s o u r c e and by two p o i n t s o u r c e s . Sequence 10 The s t u d e n t w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p a t h o f l i g h t , o b j e c t i v e s A and B, by w r i t i n g a t e s t . - 127 - Sequence 11 The s t u d e n t w i l l do l a b 4 - 5 and from i t (a) d e f i n e the terms image, e r e c t , i n v e r t e d , r e a l image. (b) o b s e r v e how moving the o b j e c t c h a n g e s t h e s i z e and n a t u r e o f t h e image. (c) o b s e r v e how moving t h e s c r e e n c h a n g e s the s i z e and n a t u r e o f t h e image. (d) by a n s w e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s 1 - 4 on pages 180 - 181 the s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n why t h e image has f o r m e d . Sequence 12 The s t u d e n t w i l l d e f i n e t h e terms l e h r , a n n e a l e d and w i l l l e a r n t h e m a t e r i a l s t h a t a r e u s e d t o make g l a s s and a l s o how d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f g l a s s a r e made. Sequence 13 The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n t h e meanings o f e x t e r i o r a n g l e , i n t e r i o r a n g l e , v e r t e x , r i g h t a n g l e , s t r a i g h t a n g l e and how t o measure a n g l e s w i t h a p r o t r a c t o r by r e a d i n g a p p e n d i x 7 and p e r f o r m i n g the e x e r c i s e s on p. 242 on the l a b t e x t . Sequence 14 The s t u d e n t w i l l d e f i n e the terms n o r m a l , i n c i d e n t ' r a y , r e f r a c t e d r a y , r e f r a c t i o n , a n g l e o f i n c i d e n c e , and a n g l e o f r e f r a c t i o n . He w i l l a l s o s t a t e the law o f r e f r a c t i o n . Sequence 15 By r e a d i n g c h a p t e r 38 t h e s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n t h e d i f f e r e n c e between p l a t e g l a s s , s h e e t g l a s s and f l o a t g l a s s as w e l l as how t h e s e t h r e e t y p e s o f g l a s s a r e made and the a d v a n t a g e s o f e a c h t y p e o f g l a s s . S e quence 16 The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n t h e d i f f e r e n c e between c o n - vex and c o n c a v e s u r f a c e s and how c y l i n d r i c a l , c o n c a v e and convex s u r f a c e s d i f f e r i n t h e i r e f f e c t on p a r a l l e l beams o f l i g h t . The s t u d e n t w i l l a l s o d e f i n e t h e terms l e n s a x i s , p r i n c i p a l a x i s , p r i n - c i p a l f o c u s , f o c a l l e n g t h , and v i r t u a l . S equence 17 The s t u d e n t w i l l r e v i e w l e n s e s by v i e w i n g t h e f i l m s t r i p s "The S t o r y o f L e n s e s " . Sequence 18 The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n t h e p r o c e d u r e f o r making l e n s e s by r e a d i n g c h a p t e r 39. Sequence 19 The s t u d e n t w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e h i s knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o b j e c t i v e D by w r i t i n g a t e s t . - 128 - Sequence 20 The s t u d e n t w i l l d e f i n e t h e terms r e a l and v i r t u a l images and w i l l s t a t e t h e law o f r e f l e c t i o n . He w i l l a l s o l e a r n why c o l o u r e d o b j e c t s a r e the c o l o u r t h e y a r e . Sequence 21 The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f m i r r o r s man makes and t h e i r u s e s . Sequence 22 The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n where t h e image i n a p l a n e m i r r o r i s l o c a t e d . Sequence 23 The s t u d e n t w i l l d e f i n e t h e terms l a t e r a l l y ; I i n v e r t e d , s e x t a n t , c o r n e r and r e f l e c t o r and some f u r t h e r u s e s o f m i r r o r s . Sequence 24 The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n how c o n c a v e and c o n v e x m i r - r o r s f o r m images and what k i n d s o f images t h e y w i l l f o r m . The terms f o c a l l e n g t h , p r i n c i p a l a x i s , p r i n c i p a l f o c u s , c o n v e r g i n g and d i v e r g i n g w i l l be d e f i n e d and a p p l i e d t o m i r r o r s . Sequence 25 The s t u d e n t w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o b j e c t i v e s E and F by w r i t i n g a t e s t . S equence 26 The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n how t o form an image w i t h a s p h e r i c a l c o n v e x l e n s . He w i l l a l s o l e a r n how c h a n g i n g t h e o b j e c t d i s t a n c e a f f e c t s t h e image d i s t a n c e and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e image. Sequence 27 The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n how t o p r e d i c t where the image w i l l be by u s i n g t h e l e n s maker's f o r m u l a . Sequence 28 The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n how l e n s e s and m i r r o r s a r e u s e d t o make l a r g e t e l e s c o p e s and t h e t h r e e main f o c a l p o i n t s o f t e l e s c o p e s . Sequence 29 The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n t h e p a r t s o f t h e e y e : r e t i n a , c o r n e a , c i l i a r y m u s c l e and l e n s , and he w i l l l e a r n how eye d e f e c t s can be c o r r e c t e d . He w i l l d e f i n e the terms m y o p i a , h y p e r m e t r o p i a and a s t i g m a t i s m . Sequence 30 The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n a b o u t d i f f e r e n t e ye s t r u c - t u r e s i n a n i m a l s by r e a d i n g c h a p t e r 11 and d o i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s t o t h e c h a p t e r . Sequence 31 The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n how p r i s m s can be u s e d t o r e f l e c t and r e f r a c t l i g h t and t o p r o d u c e a s p e c t r u m . - 129 - Sequence 3 2 By v i e w i n g t h e f i l m s t r i p " G e o m e t r i c a l O p t i c s " t h e s t u d e n t w i l l r e v i e w t h e n a t u r e o f l e n s e s . Sequence 33 The s t u d e n t w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e h i s knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o b j e c t i v e s G and H by w r i t i n g a t e s t . NOTE: The s t u d e n t w i l l have t o r e - w r i t e any t e s t t h a t i s n o t s a t i s f a c t o r i l y done.

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