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A comparison of two methods in the teaching of physics Reekie, John David 1980

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A  COMPARISON  OF  TWO  TEACHING  METHODS  IN THE  OF P H Y S I C S  by  JOHN B.Sc,  A  DAVID  The U n i v e r s i t y  THESIS  SUBMITTED  THE  REEKIE  of British  IN P A R T I A L  REQUIREMENTS MASTER  FOR OF  Columbia,  1968  F U L F I L M E N T OF  THE DEGREE  OF  ARTS  in THE Department  We  F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE o f Mathematics  accept to  THE  this  (c)  and S c i e n c e  thesis  the required  UNIVERSITY  John  STUDIES  as  Education  conforming  standard  OF B R I T I S H  October  1980  David  Reekie,  COLUMBIA  1980  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the  requirements  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, the I  Library  shall  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  this  written  freely  that permission  purposes  thesis  available  It  gain  Education  University  of British  r w n h p r  r  IQftn  by t h e  is understood  permission.  of  for  for extensive  may be g r a n t e d  for financial  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  it  representatives.  Department The  make  Columbia  shall  for  I agree that  r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . copying  of this  thesis  Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r  that  copying  or  publication  n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  ABSTRACT  The  purpose  teaching which  science.  used  The  learning  objectives which  of this  ness  activity  were  investigation  situation  where  was  Secondary  i n Surrey,  a natural  taught  i n four  by e a c h  teacher, The  because  effectivei n the  being  existing  applied. study  Columbia,  The  a t Frank  provided  study  science eight classes.  o f t h e two  took The Two  t e a c h e r s , w i t h one t o each  t h e mean s c o r e s and r e t e n t i o n  science processes, independent  Hurt  the  setting  place  factorial  over  subjects  the  were  c l a s s e s were class,  f o r each  method.  of the f i v e  of science  dependent  determined variables:  knowledge,  understanding  and s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s t o  experimenting  investigations.  two by two by two  effects  the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s was  acquisition  a  objectives.  had been q u e s t i o n e d  phase of t h i s  randomly assigned  comparing  and  the  two t r i m e s t e r s o f t h e s c h o o l y e a r .  students  of  a s e l f - p a c e d method  experiment.  The e x p e r i m e n t a l first  of  t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d method i n  of this  British  two m e t h o d s  stated in behavioral  undertaken  i t was  a t the i n i t i a t i o n  by  packages  not given  situation  for  t o compare  two methods were  o f the s e l f - p a c e d method  school  was  and a t e a c h e r - p a c e d ,  the students This  study  The  d a t a were a n a l y z e d  (method-by-teacher-by-gender)  design.  fixed  using  The paced  method  measured to  results  on  four  as e f f e c t i v e  the  males when  taught  interaction  teacher  and t h e gender  effects  method  using  scales had on  of  indicated student  the teaching  the e p i l o g u e  teacher  found  between  showed  and t e a c h i n g  that  Processes t o what  t o have no  to science.  of  was effect  Significant method f o r  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s t h a t  attitudes  d e p e n d e d on t h e  method.  for further brings  the s e l f - p a c e d method  superior  effect  Contrary  that  as  and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of Science  was  or a t t i t u d e s  between  Recommendations Finally,  the Test  self-  method  of the student  of the student  achievement  the  a n d was  interaction  by t h e s e l f - p a c e d m e t h o d .  two a t t i t u d e  teaching  variables  for teaching  on  that  as the teacher-paced  significant  higher  the gender  student  the  much  method A  method  scored  expected on  processes.  teaching  indicated  of the dependent  the teacher-paced  science  a  was  of the analyses  research  the reader  of teaching  up  were  proposed.  to date  a t Frank  Hurt  on  the use  Secondary.  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  Page  ABSTRACT TABLE  i i  OF CONTENTS  LIST  OF T A B L E S  LIST  OF F I G U R E S  iv v i v i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 CHAPTER 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 CHAPTER 3.0 3.1  3.2  3.3 3.4  3.5 3.6  1 -  viii  INTRODUCTION  The P r o b l e m Importance o f the Problem The S p e c i f i c Problem Hypotheses 2 - REVIEW  1 3 4 6  OF T H E L I T E R A T U R E  Self-Pacing Learning A c t i v i t y Packages Behavioural Objectives Context o f the Study General Questions 3 - METHOD OF  .  8 11 15 21 24  STUDY  Introduction Subjects 3.1.1 Description o f the Subjects 3.1.2 Selection of the Subjects Teaching Methods 3.2.1 Self-Paced 3.2.2 Teacher-Paced Design of the Study Instruments 3.4.1 Achievement Test 3.4.2 Test of Science Processes 3.4.3 Attitude Scales 3.4.4 Hidden F i g u r e s Test Administration o f Instruments Data P r e p a r a t i o n and A n a l y s i s . 3.6.1 Data P r e p a r a t i o n 3.6.2 Test Analysis 3.6.3 Preliminary Analysis 3.6.4 Final Analysis  -  iv -  29 29 29 30 33 33 33 34 34 34 34 36 36 38 39 39 40 41 42  Page  CHAPTER  4 - A N A L Y S I S OF  4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 CHAPTER  DATA  Introduction . . The F i n a l Sample Summary o f A n a l y s i s Summary o f A n a l y s i s  of Instruments of Covariance  5 - CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS RECOMMENDATIONS  5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5  AND  Introduction Conclusions Limitations Inferences Recommendations Epilogue  58 58 62 63 67 69  BIBLIOGRAPHY  • • •  APPENDIX  A  Unit  APPENDIX  B  Test Copies Analyses  APPENDIX  APPENDIX  44 44 45 47  C  D  Test  and Sample  Lessons  and R e s u l t s  of  0  80  Test 85  C e l l Means f o r A n a l y s e s of and A n a l y s e s o f C o v a r i a n c e Learning  7  Activity  -  Package  v  -  Variance 116 - Optics  . . . 119  LIST  OF  TABLES  Table  '  1  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e F;our  2  Number  3  Summary Figures  4  5  o f Items  f o r Each  of Analysis Test Scores  Classes  Type  Summary o f t h e A n a l y s i s A t t i t u d e t o Independent of Initial  7  Summary  of Achievement  8  Summary  o f P r e and P o s t  9  Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e Achievement - Post Test Scores  12  13  14  15  16  17  and F i n a l  Cell  Size  .  42  .  44  Test  45  Attitude  S i z e and A d j u s t e d - Post Test  Scales  Means 48  of  of Analysis of Covariance Processes Test Scores  Analysis of Covariance of the Investigation Attitude Scale  49  50  Means 50  Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e Experiment A t t i t u d e Scale C e l l Sample S i z e and A d j u s t e d Experiment A t t i t u d e Scale  of the 53  Means 53 Independent  Sample S i z e and A d j u s t e d Means Investigation Attitude Scale v i -  46  48  Summary Science  C e l l Sample S i z e and A d j u s t e d Science Processes Test .  . . . .  of  of  -  42  Sample  Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e Retention Test Scores  Cell dent  35  of the  of Variance of the I n v e s t i g a t i o n Scores  Summary  11  . . .  41  Summary o f t h e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e Attitude to Experiment Scores . .,  C e l l Sample Achievement  32  o f Hidden  6  10  . . . . . .  of Process  o f Variance  Page  56 Indepen56  LIST  OF  FIGURES  Figure  Page  1  Science  2  Attitude Teacher  to Experimenting  Attitude Teacher  to Experimenting  Attitude Teacher  t o Independent  3  4  Processes  Means  v s . Treatments Mean  51  Scores vs. 54  Mean  Scores vs. 55  Investigation  vs. 57  -  v i i -  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  My Harry are  sincere  Cannon  also  support, to  during  Todd  and t o P r o f e s s o r  W.  this  my  Rogers  Werner.  gratitude Hurt  the experimental  supervisor,  stage  d u e t o M r . P. V e r i g i n  I am e x t r e m e l y  grateful  School  I would  viii  for their  study.  My  -  also  staff,  and  cooperation thanks a r e  who was t h e " o t h e r  investigation.  Thanks and  assistance.  of this  Professor  f o r h i s advice  to the administration,  Secondary  -  t o my  and encouragement.  Ann, f o r h e r p a t i e n t  o f Frank  especially in  f o rh i s assistance  to express  students  are extended  due t o P r o f e s s o r  my w i f e ,  like  thanks  teacher"  - 1 -  CHAPTER  1  INTRODUCTION  1.0  The  Problem  The  purpose  of this  teaching  science.  tiveness  o f one  learning  activity  been  questioned  The  study  study  method,  was  was  t o compare  undertaken  two m e t h o d s  because  the  effec-  the use o f a s e l f - p a c e d program  packages  stated  i n the s c h o o l  in behavioural  situation  of  using  terms,  had  where  i t was  being  this  system  i t was  applied. After becoming were  several  apparent  deemed  years that  o f o p e r a t i n g on  there  undesirable.  The  in learning  and  teacher  did  not complete  a l l o f t h e work  was  carried  into  work  expected  rate  what  packages  had  t o be  the next  the f o l l o w i n g  of progress.  appeared  t o be  showed  progress that  was  about  a particular  20  course  of  that  specified  i n one  T h i s meant  i n order  number  they  up  point.  offered.  A  that  were  failed About  on  survey  The  had  the  l e d to concern  the s t u d e n t s was  year i t  that  t o keep  students.  at this  student  students  of students  This  that course  to  for a course  growing.  percent  the  If  year  initiated  produced  accomplished.  year.  The  being  of setting  clearly  of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r these  student  plete  over  t o do  incomplete part  alike  effects  procedure  out  more  activity  were  of  survey t o comone  half  the  -  of  these  through  students  capable  were  behind  student  of course  were  able  their not  be a b l e  t o take  students  Douglas  College.  the school  that  the longer  they  were  exceptions  This  likely  work  system  and take  able  A number  allowed  courses  in this  of  There students  them  they  commute  to broaden  otherwise  would  i n the t i m e t a b l e .  t o use t h e i r  could  stayed  of the  less  t o become.  time  Fortunately i t i s located so they  one t h i r d  w i t h i n one s c h o o l y e a r i n  due t o l i m i t a t i o n s  were  o f t h e way  For the  they  to this.  two y e a r s  selections  Several  from  one c o u r s e .  subject.  course  quarters  in at least  t o complete  particular  three  Approximately  behind  many  than  course.  i t meant  the f a r t h e r  were  a  less  the incomplete  students  system  were  2 -  to enroll in about  to college  two  miles  d u r i n g the  school day. The showed the  effect  up e v e r y  expected  , t o make to  major  up  was  rate this  felt  produce the  conventional  similar  variations  outline  the reporting  system.  were  was  that i t  progress  held  and  accountable  l e d , i n many  instances,  work.  commonly  implemented  would  be more  t e a c h i n g method  i n students  b u t many  and s t u d e n t  a student's  This  and t e a c h e r - p a c e d  s e l f - p a c e d method,  course to  a more  a more  produced  Students  work.  o f incomplete  that  system  between  of progress.  incomplete  teacher-directed However,  this  discrepancy  an a c c u m u l a t i o n It  that  method, effective.  i s likely  achievement,  to  as does  o f the d i s c r e p a n c i e s between  achievement I t appears  a r e n o t d e t e c t e d due  that  the c o n v e n t i o n a l  -  teaching is  looked  tional a  method  grade  completed  to  because  Secondary  determine,  self-paced  1•1  program  of  the course  Thus,  this  as  but are  given been  School  was  allowed  students  t o work  at their  individual  learning  order  to f a c i l i t a t e  activity  stated with know w h a t  written  packages  towards  were  an  the  attempt present  conventional  and e v a l u a t o r as an  The  of  their  them  at their  that  one  accom-  about  The  was  the  were  own  students the  also  which  teacher's  stuprovided  books role  to the students  part  The  pace,  packages  to d i r e c t  progress.  school  thereby  These  students  consultant  alternate  pace,  was  rates.  and  the work.  alternate  the s c h o o l  working  o f them  of packages,  as an  developed.  informing  doing  own  o b j e c t i v e s so  a goal.  instructions  school  t h e more  throughout  students  expected  t o u s e when  work,  used  behavioural was  of designer  whether  s e t up  method  different  was  at  Problem  teaching  this  conven-  have n o t  study  in question,  The  materials  their  in a  science.  Secondary  Hurt  dents ' e f f o r t s  that  that  o f the course  as e f f e c t i v e  Frank  learning  with  was  of the  In  would  parts  School.  Importance  modating  were  some  complete  i n the s c h o o l  for teaching  school. that  students  remembered  completion  l e d to the c o n d i t i o n s f o r a n a t u r a l experiment  Hurt  method  be  course  satisfactorily.  This Frank  some  -  successful i f only  a t , but i t should  system  lower  i s more  3  setting  of a  and was  about up  trend in  -  education  to  designed  provide  to  meet  Although  program  years,  there  return  to  a  method  of  teaching.  whether ences  in  lation and  or  were more  not  a  paced  whole  may to  also  on  Specific  The  comparison effect  in  to  investigating The  dependent student  Thus, put  had  in  the  on  the  needed used  effective  more  that  practice  students.  the  school  teaching  teacher-directed be  to  allow  for  and  paced  asked  the  three  method  and  to  for  as  for  -  to  differ-  student  popu-  conventional  teacher-directed  to  the  determine  are  of  comparative  teaching  encountered  some when  light attempts  made.  two  five  r e t e n t i o n of student  methods  was  dependent  science  done  on  variables:  knowledge,  a t t i t u d e to  the  basis  achieve-  understanding  experimenting,  and  independently. that  the  sex also  thought  therefore  these  are  these  v a r i a b l e s was  and  in  a l t e r n a t e method  of  is generally  science  educational  Problem  processes,  effect  -  attempting  problems  they  science,  change  as  the  programs  science  be  In  of  used  methods  are  are  this  new  of  in  as  The  what  ment  of  shed  implement  1.2  of  be  to  teaching  methods.  effectiveness  been  question  learning rates  as  had  conventional The  forms  d i f f e r e n c e s among  pressures  the  -  alternate  individual  the  4  of  student  had  on  investigated.  The  sex  to  the  have  a t t i t u d e s to  comparisons  form  of  an  effect  on  The  of  five the  achievement  science.  i n v o l v i n g treatment  questions.  the  main  and  questions  sex were  can  -  those  concerning  other  questions  the  interaction  the  student. The  main 1.  The  the  5  -  comparison  were  those  effects  of  teaching  involving  between  the  teaching  methods.  sex  of  methods  Grade  eight  students well  taught  perform  as  using  a  teacher  d i r e c t e d - t e a c h e r based  terms  of  acquisition  as  and  of  imenting,  independent  and  Do  male  science  Grade  Grade  eight  eight  retention  science  of  eight  of  processes,  sex  of  a self-paced  students program science  taught in  knowledge,  attitudes  to  exper-  investigations?  For  Grade  the  teaching  eight method  student  performance  tion  science  processes, independent  in  terms  knowledge,  attitudes  students and  the  in  terms  knowledge,  student  of  as  well  as  acquisition  understanding  to  experimenting  do  interactions  of  and  sex  of  of  the  student  acquisition  understanding  attitudes  between affect  and  of  reten-  science  to experimenting  and  investigations?  Definition  of  Terms  Attitude  an  enduring  and  students  perform  investigations?  3.  of  students  science  processes,  independent  perceptual,  the  and  subsidiary questions:  female  -  Grade  retention  understanding  and  and  using  program  2.  student  question:  Do  two  the  The  o r g a n i z a t i o n of  cognitive processes  motivational,  with  respect  to  emotional, some  -  aspect  of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  6 -  world  Ballachey,  1962, p. 1 5 2 ) .  Self-paced  learning - students  curriculum, they  will  b u t have  move  Experimental is  method  and i m p l i e d  Science  processes  during  scientific  classifying, and  Learning that An  uses  method that  rather  student  how  fast  than  enquiry.  behavioural  explict  packages  study  self-paced learning  teacher  - the procedures  o f a LAP  set  of this  objectives.  - f o r the purposes  of this  direction,  followed  study  teacher  by an  investigator  observing,  comparing,  experimenting,  inferring,  1971). (LAP's)  i s given  - u n i t s o f work  the source  i n Appendix  objectives - objectives that  on  of each  a  topic  activity.  D. specify  an  observable  outcome.  Hypotheses  Because  previous  s t u d i e s , taken  definitive  results  self-paced  l e a r n i n g program  program  regarding  the research  '  objectives.  For example,  a r e s e q u e n t i a l and i n d i c a t e  example  in determining  student  with  uses  (Tannenbaum,  activity  Behavioural  1.3  that  q u a n t i f y i n g , measuring,  predicting  and  a more-or-less  - f o r the purposes  packages  method  pacing,  are given  flexibility  method  teaching  the teaching  Crutchfield,  the m a t e r i a l s .  learning activity  Conventional is  through  teaching  the teaching  and  some  (Krech,  together,  the d i f f e r e n t i a l i n comparison  hypotheses  were  to a  stated  do n o t p r o v i d e effect  of a  teacher-paced  i n the n u l l  form.  -  Each  of  the  dependent  was  -  tested  for  each  of  the  following  variables:  a)  achievement  b)  retention  c)  understanding  d)  students'  attitude  to  experimenting  e)  students'  attitude  to  independent  The stated  hypotheses  7  three  of  science of  the  i s no  students  science  by  variables a  taught  processes  to  investigation.  the  three  earlier  were:  difference  dependent taught  knowledge  corresponding  questions,  There  dents  of  science  hypotheses,  research 1.  in  in  a  performance  between  self-paced  by  mean  Grade  method  and  teacher-directed,  on  eight Grade  each  stueight  teacher-paced  method. 2. of  There the  eight 3.  and  the  The test use  .05  each of  to  the  detect  a  was  and  Grade  mean  between  the  performance  of  Grade  for  statistical  separately. procedures.  selected,  than  differences.  student, eight  in  on  each  Grade  between  as  measured  students  on  variables. significance Missing  Further, definitive,  thereby  males  interactions  of  dependent  performance  eight.  sex  exploratory  possible  in  in  significant  five  hypothesis  multivariate  of  no  method  level  somewhat more level  are  mean  of  variables  females  There  each  difference  dependent  teaching by  i s no  providing  data since a  was  used  precluded the  more  study  to the was  relaxed  somewhat  more  power  -  8 -  CHAPTER  REVIEW  2.0  THE  LITERATURE  Self-Pacing  The  desire  to provide  dent  abilities  many  individualized  are  not truly  and  for individual differences  interests  of learning.  programs.  have  alternative  reinforcement" emphasized  "A  truly  learning  (Burns,  in stu-  has l e d t o the i n t r o d u c t i o n  individualized,  mode  is  OF  2  Although several  many  of these  do u t i l i z e  the  i n d i v i d u a l i z e d method  sequences  1971).  and w h o l e - c l a s s  In p r a c t i s e instruction  programs self-paced  would  and a l t e r n a t i v e  of  also  modes o f  the self-paced  mode  i s de-emphasized.  Achievement In  ten of only  students better  than  nificant Steele  who  used  increases  (1974)  majors.  difference program. university  He  literature,  of study  achievement  (1969),  d i d as w e l l classes.  were  and F u l t o n  or  Sig-  reported  by  (1971) f o r  classes.  d i d a comparative methods found  Siemankowski  i n the  i n teacher-paced  in students'  in students'  physical  found  program  were  Siemankowski  lecture-discussion science  that  in self-paced  Steele  cases  a self-paced  students  (1974),  students  twelve  study  in university there  was  achievement (1969)  science  physics  a positive i n favour  likewise  students  of self-paced  f o r nonsignificant  of the  conducted  using  and  self-paced  a study  a self-paced  of program  -  and  found  pared  a  significant  his  study  course  and  also  with  found  The  s e l f - p a c e d method  method  Cise  done  (1978), subjects  university  of  teaching.  Fulton  students  studying  school  as  in  improving  by  O'Toole  increases in  compared was  as  student  (1968),  to  the  effective  Kline  (1980),  James  in  s t u d i e s range  com-  (1971)  con-  the  BSCS  achievement  as  (1971),  (1972), from  when  teacher-paced  achievement  Anderson these  in achievement  the as  teacher-  shown  Ketchum  and  mode.  (1972),  Nieft  elementary  in  (1973).  school  to  students.  Cise  (1978)  did  a  s e l f - p a c e d program  achievement  between  mode.  Kline  eighth  and  compared  gain  significant  s e l f - p a c e d mode  studies  (1971)  study  and this and  n i n t h grade  significant  two  groups  of  ference  in science  science  teacher-paced  mode  The  by  study  His  study  students  in a post  college no  of  Ketchum  of  learning (1972) d i d  other  students  the  and  in  teacher-paced  studies  programs  using  involving  Both  studies  and  neither  found  achievement  between  the  s t u d i e s were showed  between  the  no  done  with  ele-  significant  dif-  self-paced  and  teaching.  Richter  (1972)  difference  i s the in  only  favour  involved teaching units secondary  experiences  and  students  difference  respectively.  in science  The  physics  significant  teacher-paced  achievement  a positive  method.  laboratory  mode  students.  school  shows  found  difference  mentary  on  students  self-paced to  any  that  high  the  paced  a  with  -  positive  to c o n v e n t i o n a l methods  ducted  The  9  of  vocational  these  units  of  study the  in heat  reviewed teacher-paced and  institution.  were  either  sound  to  The  s e l f - p a c e d or  -  teacher-paced.  The  gains  in  son  Crowe  (1975),  achievement  engineering  students,  four  percent  to  paced ence  six  group  but  -  teacher-paced  greater and  10  than  the  teaching  topics  indicate  that  less  do  group  not  on  showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y  self-paced in  the  achievement  indicate  in  fluid  group.  Rober-  mechanics  self-paced  group  tests  the  their  than  study  to scored  teacher-  i f this  differ-  is significant. Attitude The  studies  show m i x e d ment.  that  learning ever,  of  i t to  students  had  wanted  Grade  tive  attitude The  more  Steele tive No  for  groups  with  to  the  (1971),  that  a  continue  is  effective and  difference  to in  (1968),  who  i t in and  and  a  These  a  of  maturation.  Siemankowski  (1969)  science  the  attitude Nieft  to  (1973),  Kline  both  that  is  is  shown  (1971),  on  in  and  done and  part on  Reed nega-  effective science.  more  mode  the  their  to  How-  report  as  report  self-paced  science  1974)  attitudes  of  courses.  were  self-pacing  A l l  mode  students  unlikely  students'  when  this  studies  seems  forming  Sieman-  experienced  preference,  It  in  to  Reed,  engineering  that  achieve-  and  have  future  students. function  student  (1972),  attitude  1975  self-pacing  of  andlscience:  teacher-pacing.  with  (Roberson,  literature indicates  (1974)  students  positive  with  self-pacing  James  conventional  Roberson  seven  to  studies  teacher-pacing.  -  attitudes  O'Toole  to  studies  attitudes  students,  diverse  or  a l l indicate  several  negative  to  Fulton  prefer  and  attitudes  similar  (1974),  (1969)  self-pacing found  student  results  Steele  kowski  of  is  posiused.  studies Anderson  by (1980).  -  No s t u d i e s dents  reviewed  toward  self-paced  science  mode  teacher-paced The ward and  mode  t o be a s g o o d  mode  attitudes  generated  more  the teacher  Fulton  (1971)  as being  more  when  the s e l f - p a c e d  reported  "showed  greater  teacher  characteristics, specifically  to  ability develop  2.1  tion The  trust."  nature  ment, An  options  LAP's  h a s been  that  learner  outcomes  other  per-  Ketchum mode  i n the perception  i n the areas  used  of  of  enthusi-  and t h e a b i l i t y  activity  packages  objectives,  made  study,  defined  lost  from  (LAP's).  simple  containing  programmed a rationale,  for self  and d e f i n i t e t e a c h e r  the use o f l e a r n i n g are often  packages  provisions  to review  t o those  to individualize instruc-  has v a r i e d  to elaborate  similar  students  the self-paced  change  (1972)  the material  understanding,  has been  packages  f o r depth  effects  with  attitude  the use of l e a r n i n g  units  Ketchum  Packages  that  performance  attempt  have  Activity  o f these  instruction  that  science. attitudes to-  reviewed,  t o make  using  student  positive  The  (p. 2195)  procedure  has been  specific  positive  to elicit  Learning  One  students  stu-  than the  mode was u s e d .  (1972),  asm,  that  toward  reported able  of  mode was u s e d .  as or b e t t e r  i n two o f t h e s t u d i e s  (1971).  understandable  i n the attitude  the self-paced  i n developing  self-paced  Fulton  a decline  when  appears  the teacher  ceived  showed  11 -  only  those  i n Chapter  activity because  i n s t r u c t i o n a l procedures  such  evaluation.  studies One.  packages  LAP's  assess-  which The  have  on  are associated  as s e l f - p a c i n g .  -  Increases  in  science  studies  reviewed:-Flowers  Moriber  (1967),  studies  used  LAP'S  effectiveness grade  of  science.  achievement  and  significant  at  method  to  college  ment  the  (1967)  and  packages high gains  the  a  that  Flowers tion and  to  two  the  group  (1966),  LAP  the  were  method  for  compared  the for  non-science  student  LAP  LAP  achieve-  group.  duration  Moriber programmed  Both  found  this  method.  superior teaching  to  a  student  that  a  and  significant  Moriber  (1967)  conventional  college  physical  achievement  was  sig-  level. compared  centered  at  was  on  statistically  for  time  fifth  college physical science  using  method  the  short  of  difference in  .01  the  used  made  course  of  higher  instruction  difference in  favour  units  was  of  (1964),  teaching  scored  (1974),  method  respectively.  LAP  The  in  for  groups  Steele  physics  both  specific  learning activity  instruction  learning activity  in science  significant  in a  groups  (1977),  that  achievement not  the  teacher  found  compared  the  significant  chemistry  at  (1976),  that  enrolled  was  course.  nificant  Glasser  lecture-demonstration  lecture-demonstration science  these  d i f f e r e n c e between  in achievement found  A l l of  methods  Hedges  the  (1966).  conventional  level.  s i x of  Sayles  the  .0001  by  (1976),  found  teach  school  to  shown  Glasser  and  form.  were  She  Sayles  to  (1977),  i n some  the  There  between  -  achievement  (1974),  LAP's  students  majors.  also  Steele  12  the  although .05  the  level.  for  science  package increase  package eight  group  had  instrucstudents higher  in achievement  was  -  Hedges grade  students  Barnes, have  shown  that  the  were  centered  Students attitudes (1964), report  to their  use.  Moriber  both  students method found  students (1969)  physics teaching LAP's  course  dreaux' nificant  that  preferred Steele  have  (1974),  (1974)  LAP's  i s the only  the  been  teaching  earth  science  Barnes  The  t o LAP's  their  that  conventional  LAP's found  method.  atti-  Steele  method  four  i n favour  over  studies  found  of their  use.  in a university a  freshman  conventional  t h e same p r e f e r e n c e  students  one  Hedges  a positive  than  i n h i s study.  reviewed  Her  that  As  study  well  a t t i t u d e s to science  as  their  (1966) a l l  t h e LAP  rather  in  (1969),  (1969) and  other  strongly  students.  class.  positive  Zeschle  have  preferred  the c o l l e g e p h y s i c s  as  achievement  Barnes  and  the students  using  level  the l i t e r a t u r e  (1980),  method. were  1966)  centered  d i f f e r e n c e i n the a t t i t u d e s o f students  nine  students  students  75% o f  teacher  1980,  science.  instruction.  found  a t t h e same  from  fourth  Zeschle,  in science  the LAP's  have used  LAP's  a conventional  grade  teaching  of  (Anderson,  and  s u c c e s s f u l than  Steele  using  (1975) s t u d y  achieve  decreases  Anderson  teaching  method.  amongst  of  1968,  conventional  used  who  studies  0'Toole,  i t appears  of  (1967),  conventional  Barnes  and  method  i n achievement  other  LAP's  i s a s o r more  have  to this  that  So,  that  that  (1974)  using  reported  used.  use o f LAP's  teacher  the  Many  i n t h e more  reviewed  LAP's  tude  LAP's.  groups  taught  studies  when  using  -  increases  1969, B o u d r e a u x , 1970,  students No  (1964) r e p o r t e d  13  Bou-  showed between  was  done  for  no  sig-  LAP's with  the a t t i t u d e of  were  also  reported  -  in  several  ence  in  dent's fact and  studies.  attitude  are  O'Toole  tudes  of  one  science  ference  science  found to  no  study  the  conventional  As  as  the  research  the  a t t i t u d e s of  reports ing  finding  method The  of  the  This  contrary  degree." in  (1974)  are  (1976).  of  LAP's no  using  LAP's  a  In  in  (1980)  the  atti-  method.  found  of  on  retention  significant  college  toward  that  between  regard  found  that  as  boys  and  physics  LAP's  dif-  being course.  differentiating  science,  Anderson  i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to  to  in  that  the  use  of  (1976) found  girls  (1980)  the  teach-  The  f i n d i n g s of  successful  than  found  female  those  (1972)  boys  in using  college  of  found  points  out  "is a  result  was  who  favour  (p. had  are 117) used  either  The a  boys  and  and  finding  to  (1972)  (1980)  "girls  LAP's."  students  that  Campbell  Anderson that  science  sex  not  (1980)  literature.  in  the  is  Anderson not  the  and  science  did  achieve  science.  method  LAP's  in  expected  to  in  literature.  The  contrary  teaching  achievement  the  Glasser  and  either  4096)  Campbell  that  girls  certain studies  (p.  better  with  result  to is  in  effects  difference  determined  (1976)  clusion  and  interaction  definitively  sex.  effect  stu-  Anderson  difference  either  students  "The  positive.  Whereas,  (1967)  the  used,  differ-  used.  student  Glasser  boys no  the  significant  were  69)  method  of  a  extremely  using  between  by  far  are  Moriber  taught  LAP's  (p.  reported  retention  found  significant  science  knowledge.  in  when  enthuasiastic."  (1968)  -  (1964)  science  toward  students  Only of  to  attitudes  they  Hedges  14  con-  similar would  and  do  Najmaie  Glasser  found  to  Najmaie LAP's  in  be  more  (1979) one  - 15 -  biology  course  results  i n subsequent  of  how  is  not clear  that  "had s i g n i f i c a n t l y  (1972) s t r o n g l y  The  effect  that  outcomes  ature  the e f f e c t  objectives tent. that  providing  student  be  noted  t h e use o f LAP's f o r  n o t be  appropriate.  the use of behavioural  has n o t been that  research  with  determined. with  results  that  done  of  The  h a s on liter-  behavioural are inconsis-  t o determine  behavioural  or r e t e n t i o n  objectives  students  shows  has been  students  attitudes  clearly  providing  h a s on a c h i e v e m e n t  Little  may  issue  of the student  i t should  that  The  Objectives  learning on  suggests  achievement  ( p . 5812)  the gender  However,  f o r a l l students  Behavioural  long-term  courses."  interacts with  i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  individualizing  2.2  life-science  the use o f LAP's  Campbell  better  the  objectives  effect  h a s on  knowledge.  Achievement Many  studies  of  behavioural  of  these  investigated  objectives  studies  i n achievement  and  that  those  found  objectives.  achievement  when  nine  physical  been  given  divided  when  No  between  caused  studies  significant  differences  behavioural  students  when  objectives  were  The r e s u l t s reported  were  used  knowledge o f a decrease i n  provided.  Olsen  i n achievement o f grade  classes  were  knowledge  that  objectives  indicated  objectives  prior  those  by p r i o r  behavioural  science  that  achievement.  behavioural  no e f f e c t  behavioural  (1973), r e p o r t e d  h a s on s t u d e n t  are evenly  increases  the e f f e c t  of students  compared  with  that  classes  had that  - 16 -  had  not received  tically  them.  significant  The d i f f e r e n c e  a t t h e .01 l e v e l .  Edmondson  (1978)  havioural  o b j e c t i v e s were  both  found  learning  sequence.  students  i n an e l e m e n t a r y  (1978) found  study that  was  between using  a study  vague  68  study.  grade  of students  i n achievement  (1979) when  achievement.  presented  difference  and Hass  neither  Akers  Hass  also  those  level. Dalis  (1970)  objectives,  that  achievement  the group scores  students  on a  i n the  statistically  (1977)  found  o b j e c t i v e s were  study  presents  found grade  that  sig-  achievement  given  a clear  in only  students  the achievement  received behavioural not.  when  i n knowledge  had p r e c i s e  were  (1978)  increased  students,  the other  (1977)  (1979)  to eighth  between  Edmondson's  level.  behavioural  However,  than  university  and  She f o u n d  higher  The d i f f e r e n c e s  increased  units  who  test  to the  o b j e c t i v e s and  ten health  be-  Edmondson  a t t h e .05  and no o b j e c t i v e s .  a t t h e .01  course  The d i f f e r e n c e  significant  with  prior  significantly  used.  statis-  when  involved  students.  multiple choice  Akers  dents.  study  the b e h a v i o u r a l  the achievement  nificant  did  done  was  p r e c i s e o b j e c t i v e s h a d much  item  that  pharmacy  knowledge  using  objectives,  to the students (1975)  was  (1975) a n d  i n achievement  s c i e n c e methods  o b j e c t i v e s were  the group  compared  given  with  n o o b j e c t i v e s was In  with  done  Anderson  increases  Anderson's  student's  behavioural  i n achievement  was  to the  that  one o f t h e f o u r there  a  significant  of the experimental  college  stu-  cut increase in  o b j e c t i v e s and t h e c o n t r o l  found  was  biology  group  group  students  that who h a d  -  been  given  behavioural  nificantly  increased  test  but that  ment  as measured Herron  as  being  there  (1971)  o f lower  behavioural  tests  was  was n o  found  scores  rated  Although  objectives  on o n l y  the groups tests  received  made  achieve-  by t h e i r  d i d consistently better  on a l l t h r e e  (1970)  were  the students  cally  and C o n l o n  improved  SAT  when  that  scores  were  three  statistically  higner  scores  they  one o f  the group  significant.  Although  significant  did  find  i n the group  the  letter  that  grade  increase Anderson  was  a l l found  between  groups who  There achievement (1980)  rose  found  (1980),  (1972)  those  mode  (1970)  case  sig-  had  on an  Boardman  found  that  behavioural  was  been achieve-  from  2.0  Bryant  (1972),  no s i g n i f i c a n t that  statisti-  d i d not find  d i f f e r e n c e i n achievement that. received  achieve-  objectives  the increase  (1970)  any  scores  behavioural  (C) t o 3.0  i n the c o n t r o l  of students  both  by p r e s e n t i n g  but i n neither  statistically  and  students  biology  sig-  test.  ment  such  test.  had  by a t e a c h e r  i n general  Biology  objectives.  behavioural  t o the course  as measured  increase  that  ability  However,  Boardman  to  achievement  the d i f f e r e n c e between  nificant.  ment  objectives prior  by t h e Nelson  given  given  17 -  she  objectives  (B) a n d t h a t  no  group.  Bishop  (1969),  and Coleman  d i f f e r e n c e i n achievement received  behavioural  scores  objectives  d i d not.  seems when  t o be l i t t l e behavioural  and Colemen  (1972)  differentiation  by s e x on  o b j e c t i v e s are used.  could  find  no s i g n i f i c a n t  science  Anderson difference  -  in  science  that  boys  groups  slightly  course  and  better  results Where  than  were  objectives.  Conlon  found  when  that  With  lower  Bryant low  (1972)  ability Very  al  did  teaching or  tives  little  were  (1969) on  cluded  -  control tives  given  grade  objectives  given  them.  i s concerned and  the  given did  Neither  have  there  found  groups.  of  there  that  received  the  group  that  did  had  not  similar  an  be  no  (1975)  behavioural  group  also  to  i t makes  the  be  behavioural  Johnson  students  received  (1972)  could  r e c e i v i n g of  (1977)  ability  been  studies The  relatively  groups  weeks  much  the  of  about  the  effects  measures short  for  time  no  dif-  objectives.  behavioural receive  them.  results  Olsen  after  (1973)  better.  Bishop  i n r e t e n t i o n between  the  two  of  with  of  (1973)  behaviourand  behavioural  the  found  received (1969)  Olsen  study  i n r e t e n t i o n between that  effects  retention  (1973)  1  group  the  knowledge.  in Olsen s  study.  -  reported  r e t e n t i o n of  difference  did  ference  a  (1969)  nificant  than  a ninth  find  significant.  ability  they  in  did  o b j e c t i v e s were  not  Hass  high  Herron  has  did  three  Bishop's  by  groups,  retention.  given  and  (1979)  groups.  o b j e c t i v e s on  Bishop  not  better and  were  science  (1970)  girls  were  intelligence  ability  objectives  than  who  who  in  Akers  behavioural  girls  achievement  whether  females.  statistically  between  in  -  higher  girls  achievement  difference  or  when  that  interaction  ference  males  slightly  science  both  these  either  scored  physical to  by  18  i n both  treatment and  that  objecstudies was  thirty there  days  was  the  experimental  the  behavioural  found groups.  no  con-  a  in sig-  and objec-  significant  dif-  -  It  might  be  expected  would  improve  student  says,  the  of  use  19  that  behavioural of  ing,  an  attitude  improved  (1972),  and  the  a t t i t u d e s of  and  those  who  When  that of  there  those  slight  that  the  tives.  for  taught  by  when  the  of  (1972)  teachers  ISCS  level  whose  teachers  study  even  the  done  when  teach beyond  to at  with  teachers their  A  given  the  had  level,  he  no  is  to  progress(1980),  difference in objectives  used  find  a  a  list  of  found  (1971)  given  change  they  were  ISCS  questions revealed  to  atti-  objectives there  students  were  whose students  Baker  (1969),  in  schools,  found  that  objectives  correctly  appropriate that  fact  objec-  student  non-ISCS  high  the  they  the  same  that  behavioural  unable  to  the  that  when  behavioural  objectives.  the  objectives  due  in  found  achievement  suggests  been  o b j e c t i v e s and  given  (1972)  achievement  instead  i n Nevada  behavioural  Bryant  behavioural  have  to  given  the  in cognitive  a l s o were  been  questionnaire  student  given  results.  a t t i t u d e s of  test  (1970)  Anderson  was  are  Herron  but,  been  how  objectives  Engle  behavioural  student's  group  teachers  classes  chance  objectives.  not  that  in  1 course  18  mixed  expected were  the  know  there  o b j e c t i v e s , may  this  I f , as  follow.  students  increase  behavioural  had  also  found  them.  found  d i f f e r e n c e s between had  than  use  to  received  teachers  not  behavioural  them.  similar  behavioural  Nieft  that  significant  teachers  teachers  a  a  are  of  science.  should  receive  d i f f e r e n c e s he  given  no  was  and  (1977)  rather  that did  were  tudes  not  there  students  and  Hass  teachers  objectives,  him  students  did  use  objectives allows  i s expected  Coleman  the  a t t i t u d e s to  know w h a t then  -  teachers  to  identify,  to  these  used  only  29  -  percent the  of  behavioural  percent to  their  the  of  20  instructional  time  o b j e c t i v e s they  the  activities  -  they  had  been  given  used  were  judged  (1970)  found  that  when  individualized  packaged  system  only  included  behavioural  when  (1970)  they  stated,  "There  instructions  "more  activities  relevant  and  only  to  be  to  28  relevant  behavioural objectives.  Boardman  need  in  than  in  printed  was  they  students found  use  of  indication  behavioural  on  an  packages  objectives.  a definite  the  the  worked  of  help  Boardman that  students  objectives"  and  instruction."  Summary The  literature  regarding  the  reviewed  effects  activity  packages  tion  r e t e n t i o n of  to  and  science.  was  The  or  pacing,  knowledge  have and  the  is a  use  need  on  the  provided  of  o b j e c t i v e s have  knowledge teaching of  a l l three  to determine packages,  acquisition  and and  reviewed  indicated  what  and  few  dealt with  knowledge.  Thus  effects  these  tion  science  the  there  had  on  effect  is a  need  characteristics knowledge  and  of  what the  these  use  have  on  study the  students'  study  attributes.  of  self-  behavioural science  None  of  the  characteristics process  retention of  a  acquisi-  attitudes  effects  science. these  the  for  the  used i n t h i s  learning science  question  on  students'  of  answers  learning  retention of  a t t i t u d e s to  method  or  method  students'  experimental  definitive  self-pacing,  on  the  of  science  not  use  behavioural  learning activity  objectives  studies  there  the  experimental  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  Therefore,  that  has  to  skills  science  determine  acquisition  a t t i t u d e s to  of  and  what reten-  science.  -  2.3  Context  In  order  of  what  to  document  school  has  as  The ing  of  the  to  the  place  at  first  among  atmosphere  method  used  in  o b j e c t i v e s as  differences  among  work  at  their  structured and  readily  unit  of  work  specified achieved  If  freely  pursue class topics  topics there  within  as  to  was  they on  be  made  describe  of  be  students  that  subject.  a  means  provide  a  the  The  for to  the  completed  these  the  tests to  with  individual  packages  with  for  the  work.  had  to  proceed  the  students a  identifiable  tests  desired on  self-  allow  easily  provid-  more  p r o v i d i n g them  wrote  each A  be  to  the  next  performance  topic  allowed  c l a s s e s and  i n most  interest  to  them.  working  on  several  Students  of  stated  was  were  work  activity  between  to  allowed  reach  as  method  students  additional  t h a t were  may  The  student  learning  will  fully  allowing  that  of  transfer  This  of  goals  test.  attempt  packages  and  unit  use  a means  performance  do  perspective  environment.  s t i l l  failed  to  school  activity  package  the  they  had  the  The to  of  before  they  rewrite  the  level  package. level  in  and  while  available.  an  initiated  pace  curriculum  larger  t o more  students  students. own  Hurt  and  was  learning  the  opened.  the  behavioural  into  Frank  s e l f - p a c e d method  humanistic  to  study  changes  when  for differences  paced  this  major  i t was  -  Study  put  taken  21  and  then  students  courses Within  to  any  one  different  could' t r a n s f e r  between  -  classes  because  them  to  take  they  could  or  start  finish  timetable changes  year  finished  new  course  one  the to  problems student  either  teacher  for  provide  the  they  to  s c h o o l who  had,  course at  students  took  completed  year  course  that  teacher  worked  not  next  of  were  until  was  r e p o r t f o r each progress  learning  activity  The  of  was  out of  based  reported  of  The  would  begun  i t or  a  they  met  purposes  them  of  con-  with  and  the  for  the  was  done  teacher  one  person  with  any  academic  and  in  satisfactory No  letter  with  the  by  to  aid  the  anecdotal  a year.  students  Each  their  teacher  classes.  completion  grades  were  learning  comments  a  with  progress  times  completing  along  and  groups  life.  five  on  students  These  student  their  the  purpose  help  progress  packages.  progress  staff  attendance  each  school  student sent  the  grade  week.  to monitor  in a d j u s t i n g to  was  was  the  to  same  p e r i o d was  wrote  packages  the  each  that  rate  next  individual  next  close  daily  reports  Student  the  advisory groups.  a l l in  advisor  Reporting  a  in  the  period during  of  for  so  another  students  If a course  students  students  teacher  staff  then  enter  Because  continued  of  them  allowed  started.  assigned  advisory the  was  to  packages  with  direction  completed  year.  i t was  and  bring  hour  the  activity  packages  the  pace  was  their  under  beginning.  the  of  them  the  throughout  sisted  completed  from  place  were  learning  been  own  To  of  -  had  their  during  use  partially  i f a course  and  the  22  about  of  given.  activity students'  the  on  -  attitude, tion  behaviour  to their It  was  a goal  chose  They  into  course.  nine  to twelve  three  ments  stopped  using  could  scheduling. the courses  they  offered  a  by t h e s p a c e that  applied  a  teacher  students  This  o f computer  system  after  this  particular i n the  could  reason-  i n Grades  who  were  of arena  assignment  procedure  were  take.  available  to students  eight  assigned Students  that  years  the l e a r n i n g  study.  They  schedul-  of a l l stu-  was  introduced  study,  activity  instituted  transfer  of this from  that  and S o c i a l  a  T h e same m e t h o d  The r e s u l t  not freely  of operation  The E n g l i s h  to teaching.  a control.  students  the teachers  load  develop  of providing  to  limited  with  would  elected  i n 1977, t h e year  place.  as  they  A s a means  from  The c o m p u t e r i z e d  t o take  approach  rela-  and has  then.  after  of this  take  by computer.  began  year  students  they  i n favour  since  so that  an a r e n a  b u t n o t t o Grade  dropped  was  in  that  procedure  to courses.  It  was  to classes  used  would  among  This  a l l students  been  during  a n d by t h e s t u d e n t  manage.  assigned  to provide  opportunities,  i n and those  class  ably  was  they  choose  Each  classroom  dents  courses  to enroll  could  of the student  of society.  decision-making  the courses  required  for  of the school  f o r decision-making  with  themselves  ing  and t h e p r o g r e s s  r e s p o n s i b l e members  students  -  ability.  opportunities into  23  major  Studies  packages  change  one c l a s s  used  was  depart-  during the  teacher-paced was  changes  group  in this  that  t o another  study  students in either  -  of  these  subject  between  other  stricted. of  subject  This  the school  this  point  menas mental could  2.4  seen  that  the freedom  i n the school  as a major  t o move  was g r e a t l y r e -  change  the teaching  i n the s t r u c t u r e  method.  the present  of gathering  data  on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e e x p e r i -  teaching  method  with  so that  regards  study  a more  t o which  was  I t was a t  that  The  data  by c o n s i d e r i n g  were  process.  i n Chapter having  These  courses,  education,  the anxiety  the increased  One.  decision  method  touse.  the general that  These  problems  were  effect  could  other  on t h e  produced  conservatism  teachers that  method  v a r i a b l e s other  There  the anxiety  workload  method.  dependent  a greater  included  completing  teaching  as a  Questions  mentioned that  initiated  based  teaching  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the self-paced  investigated  and  areas  meant  o f time  General  work  was  This  and c e r t a i n l y  b e made  those  areas.  24 -  felt  teachers were  than  forces at  decision-making by s t u d e n t s  that  had w i t h  not  pervades  in their  more  be  new this  roles new  administrative  than  educational. Perceived The course their The  Anxiety  anxiety  work  within  parents,  effect  caused  by s t u d e n t s  the school  the teachers  of this  was  year  not completing was  felt  by t h e  and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  t o cause  a chain  their students,  of the school.  reaction with  regard.  -  to  t h e a n x i e t y one g r o u p  The  h i e r a r c h y was  passed  their  such  concerns  on  passed  their  solution  t o the problem  course  was  system  replaced  a  first  was  t o have  step.  greatly  from  one  to  students  Completion problem who  fail  problem work  at  time?  and w i t h  be n o t e d  completing  but  their  dents  a  receive a  lower  could  other  presented  year^  students under  grade.  in completion  grade.  own  more  transfer  With  means  freely  purposes  i t  were, p r e p a r e d  because  i f they  to transfer  into.  d o we  do w i t h  i n a course presented  solution solution n o t be  was was  students  w i t h i n the us w i t h  rejected.  any more  unnoticed  the It  successful  because  method,  the  stu-  the s e l f - p a c e d method  the course  the  to continue  the c o n v e n t i o n a l t e a c h i n g goes  as  o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  assigned  may  classes  of the t i m e t a b l e  rate  What  The  their  Studies  longer  class  But t h i s  of completion lower  no  The  package, s e l f - p a c e d  Social  s e l f - p a c e d method  t h e work  lack  discrepancy  activity  at their  a solution.  that  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and  not completing  and  next.  interacted,  of the subject areas  t h e work  The  students  so f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l  no  to the  to administrators.  an e d u c a t i o n a l o n e .  the f o l l o w i n g  should  was  along  the f l e x i b i l i t y  Students  t o work  there  and  of students  a result  t o complete  prescribed  on  the l e a r n i n g  o f t h e work  than  parents  i f the rest  early  passed  to teachers  t o another,  little  finished  being  concerns  reduced.  mattered allow  -  for a l l English As  class  felt  that  teachers  25  i s incomplete,  any not  -  26  -  Conservatism The was  general  another  the  teaching  school,  Instead  of  got  and  method.  "cold  looking  "tried  for  true"  the  a t t i t u d e s and  with  the  indicates learning fore ten  at  there  a  rates  than  that  be  the  time  with  abandoned  to  in in  some  we  that  the  to  used  who  had  expected.  would  But,  when  way.  The  more  arise.  went  back  The  We  the  to  in  student  should  occurred  there-  were  average  self-paced  held  literature  complete  conventional  in  method  previously  packages  not  this  to  the  previously.  variation  to  abandon  self-paced  methods.  greater  have  they  the  they  teaching  students  of  had  appropriate  effective  favour  them,  to  educators  administrators,  learning activity  level  of  decision and  they  brought  might  provided.  an  solve  i s a much  i f the  difficulty  would  within dealt  there  the  expectations  conventional  that  expect  ways  administrators  more  in  and  when p r o b l e m s s t a r t e d  method  and  education  Teachers  feet"  Teachers same  of  contributing factor  self-paced the  conservatism  writ-  student the  work  i t was  method  not  was  teacher-directed  method.  Changing The teachers  roles  self-paced  teaching  substantially.  developers  and  Their  with  role  changed  They  now  had  as  well  as  innovators regards  method  to  the  use  of  to  the  become  curriculum curriculum  roles  of  curriculum implementers. materials  -  changed they  from  "lost"  insecure. would  being their  They  "find in  method  that put  ing  One  both  from  problem  teachers  same p r o b l e m  classroom  arose  had  many  But,  the  student  does  group  involved when had  of  in  they  had  their soon  initial began  agitating  week  now  of  an  and  t o do  since  i n many  advisory  or  when  they  teachers on  teacher  Instead shrank  away w i t h  of  at  a  became  an  trying from  very  that the  for the  time  advisor was  insecure They  overcome  this' role  and  advisory  to meeting  once  cases  i s used  as  period  study  most  level.  to  teacher  this  advisor.  administrator  reduced  period.  learn-  question  been  a  the  solve  personal  away the  was  or  to  felt  a  more  conventional  answer  answer  and  much  bothersome  an  became  assistance in  an  students  they  felt  h i s own  question  value,  many  directing  as  his  very  Once  students  more  room  and  teacher  Some  them!  uneasiness  I t has  more  changed  to  They  student  became  Every  the  the  the  same  also  say  period.  the  roles  with  in  room  s e l f - p a c e d method  yet?  to deal  to  the  have  process.  the  considerable  question  students.  of  each  not  this  nothing  the  of  LAP's.  teacher  This  i s of  facilitator.  whether  teacher  answer  which  the  had  from  times.  raises  Teachers'  to  about  having  a  front  front  the  student  a  the  being  the  a  student  the  to  at  as  The  that  often  teachers.  them  at  within  position  -  to  anxious  instead of  director.  role  position  answer"  their  "learning",,  director  became  the  secure  a  27  very  other  instead  -  Teacher  workload  Teacher  workload  paced were the  teaching expected  same  Fullan he new  method.  trauma  (1977)  put the case  programs  teachers  Aside  In a review  and P o m f r e t  from  involved  that  in learning  teachers Hosue  new  t o bear  pense."  This  indicates  year  Hurt  a t the time  of operation that  people  had a l l been  mental  teaching  tured  that  years  was  several  method keep  method  was  had on  the study  student  that  time,  study.  after  previous  decision  to  above  effectiveness  outcomes.  t o a manageable  This size.  the to  at  third this These  conjec-  had f o r three leave.  are important  of a teaching  to the e f f e c t s that  ex-  of the experi  I t c a n be  they  larg  existed  the school.  the school.  in their  own  to  and  by and  "at their  left  i n when  difficulty,  I t was  that  at  "the costs  and t h a t ,  the years  workload  they  i n which  themselves  the s i t u a t i o n that  the f a c t o r s mentioned  limited  by House  i n the development  within  the o v e r a l l  find  costs  of staff  involved  a key f a c t o r  considering study  members  the tremendous  Although  this  of this  load  and i n s t r u c t i o n ,  stated  these  self-  and i n n o v a t o r s  skills"  of the school,  study,  teaching  done  of energy,  are expected  Frank  their  a study  teachers  clearly  the use o f the  designers  cite  t h e amount  with  of curriculum  are introduced.  include  -  expanded  t o be c u r r i c u l u m  time.  clearly  was  28  the  was d o n e  when  method,  self-paced i n order  to  -  29  -  CHAPTER  METHOD OF  3.0  STUDY  Introduction  A lent  2 x  2 x  control  47-50)  was  between means by  3  2  (treatment-by-gender-by-teacher)  group  used  to test  t h e means  o f boys  these  design  including  description  enrolled  felt  differences  design  effects  of the dependent  f o l l o w s , the components  data  produced  variables  of this  of the subjects, teaching  of the study,  classes,  con-  design,  methods,  p r e p a r a t i o n , and  analy-  Subj e c t s  The  the  1963, pp.  are described.  3.1.1  #36,  o f no  and the i n t e r a c t i o n  on e a c h  In what  3 .1  the hypotheses  and g i r l s ,  sidered.  ses  and S t a n l e y ,  o f s e l f - p a c e d and t e a c h e r - p a c e d  two f a c t o r s  instruments,  (Campbell  non-equiva-  D e s c r i p t i o n of the  subjects  in this  i n Science  Surrey.  Since  experimental that  there  would  This  experiment  because  school  had been  study  Grade  Hurt  eight  method  used  provided  effect  study, due  a natural setting activity  i n the school  in District  experience  in this  be n o c o n f o u n d i n g  students  Secondary,  had no p r e v i o u s  the learning used  were  a t Frank  students  teaching  exposure.  teaching  Eight  Subjects  package  with  i t was  to previous for this  method  f o r two y e a r s  prior  of to  -  this  study  school of  as  and  i n the  a whole  was  -  process  of  being  r e t u r n i n g t o more  phased  out.  conventional  The  methods  teaching. Frank  the  Hurt  eighth  were on  was  30  to  Secondary  t w e l f t h grade.  approximately  77th  Avenue  in  650 the  classified,  in  educational  needs  the  Columbia  British  this  enrolls  the  At  students Newton  area  come  from  3.1.2  Selection  time  of  middle  of  The  r e p o r t , as  or  grades, study  school This  being  a  The  lower  is located was  greater forth  students  middle  from  there  area  g u i d e l i n e s put  Federation.  class  this  Surrey.  f o l l o w i n g the  Teacher's  school  the  in five  enrolled.  accreditation area,  students  by  in  class  fami-  lies . of  the  Subjects  Students Four teachers  c l a s s e s of during  part  in  were  taught  by  this  school  using  ments er  this  the  were  had  an  The gram  first  study.  the  randomly  which  was  study.  more  class  of  and  to  Band  the  activity the  and  science year,  took  because  experience packages.  c l a s s e s so  they  within The  treat-  that each  teach-  group.  to  bias,  examination  two  school  t o c l a s s e s by  considered  students  by  selected  previous  control  p r o v i d i n g no  careful 13  had  assigned  initially  thereby  On  who  assigned  were  taught  c l a s s e s were  learning  experimental students  Eight,  t r i m e s t e r of  These  teachers  selection,  small  Science  be for  i t was a  a  computer  equivalent the  purpose  discovered  stratification  to of  prorandom this  that of  a  -  Mathematics  programming  matics  this  made  It  was  be a s e r i o u s  would  have  were  three  only  Eight  The  was  for  average  students.  of  tics  study  five  classes  were  selected  formation ing  ence  was  that  for this  study.  because  much  they  into  as  they  of  Science  Also,  they  in  Science  three  ability  however  were  could  of each  only  stu-  that  was  two mathema-  The chance  being  included three  be a s s i g n e d  to the formation  timetable.  students  One  class  these  on t h e b a s i s  overlap  classes  mathematics  block.  classes  levels:  ability  classes.  I t was n o t t h o u g h t  bias  three  mathematics  a science  there  classes  of the small  i n the  enrolled  f o r the lower  i n t h e same  because  of mathematics  classes  place,  of science  very  study.  students,  capable  that  two m a t h e m a t i c s  reduced  groups  classes  stratified  and lower  took  d i d n o t occur  introduced  classes  were  the time  study  i n these  this  were  any o f the s c i e n c e  during  in this  five  students  5  f o r average  occurred  students  that  f o r t h e most  with  o f the Band  in this  a n d two c l a s s e s  The c l a s s  classes  students  classes  students,  the classes  included  included  i n mathe-  suspect.  equivalent  f o r t h e mos't s u c c e s s f u l  not conflict  dents  i n forming  year.  mathematics  class  did  were  13 o f t h e 148  one  assumption  i n one o f t h e r e m a i n i n g  that  success  that^ the assignment  problem  o f which  during  on p r e v i o u s  randomization  would  Eight,  based  not thought  been  31 -  of in  o f the to  that  that the  of a b i l i t y of  group-  science  of mathematics  and  sci-  -  Campbell naturally cedure  formed  Stanley classes  i n the s o c i a l  jects  to treatment  later, tial  and  32  -  (1963) p o i n t i n experiments  s c i e n c e s when  a preliminary analysis  was  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  Teacher  1  * **  acceptable  performed  pro-  of  sub-  as d e s c r i b e d  to test  the  ini-  groups.  1 the  Four  Classes  Female  Size  Male  1*  19  11  8  2**  23  6  17  3*  17  10  7  4**  15  8  7  Class  2  the use o f  assignment  However,  the "experimental"  Table  Teacher  i s an  random  i s not possible.  comparability of  out that  experimental treatment control treatment  Teachers The male  two  and were  taught  Hurt.  study  was  He  years had  prior  science  took  taught The  in this  before  author,  One  joining a t Frank  who  high  the s t a f f  study  teachers.  two y e a r s  in a junior  to j o i n i n g  part  science  in Africa  initiated.  taught  years  who  experienced  f o r two  Frank  had  teachers  was  school  a t Frank  were  both  teacher  the s t a f f Hurt  had of  before  this  the second  teacher,  i n Surrey  for five  Hurt.  He  also  had  -  taught this A  at  study.  third  out  Frank  Hurt  Both  teacher  because  for  two  teachers  available  she  was  a  33  -  years  were for  prior  to  the  initiation  between  30  and  35  inclusion  in  the  study  was  i n her  first  year  beginning  teacher  years  of  of  age.  ruled of  teaching.  3.2  Teaching  3.2.1  Self-Paced  Saliant its  stress  activity The of  LAP  on  student  packages used  and  students would  in  had  at  the  3.2.2 The  study  studying  own  when  optics,  how  a  they  students  finished  the  each  objectives. outline  for  each  sub-unit.  package  and  were  course  sub-unit  Once  where  allowed  worked  either exams  of  are  learning  objectives  the  wrote  of  sequential  f o r each  needed,  Students  use  behavioural  the  t o use  The  t e a c h i n g method  the  c o n s i s t e d of  pace.  they  and  stated  objectives  shown  groups.  teachers  with  m a t e r i a l s they  their  in small  experimental  self-pacing  specific been  the  (LAP's)  this  for  the  find  proceed  the  f e a t u r e s of  activities  unit,  or  Methods  the  they to  alone  set  by  work.  Teacher-Paced conventional  against  which  teacher  directed,  not  provided  was  presented  the  to by  t e a c h i n g method  experimental  method  teacher-paced.  the the  students; teacher  here  could  be  Behavioural  instead to  used  the  the  whole  as  a  control  compared objectives  work class  f o r each of  was were day  students.  -  The  exams,  the  set  by  teacher  by  the  the  whole  gram  and  3.3  Design  A  a  teacher  3,  2 x  to  3.4  1,  The  the  method,  was  example  work  and  lesson  i n Appendix  factor for  was  any  design  was  were  were  of  written  each  pro-  A.  was  into  subdivided  included  as  male  part  and  in  the  present  experimental  into  d i f f e r e n c e s between into  non-equivalent  used  subdivided  teacher,  subdivided  test  used  of  teacher the  and  1  and  design  teachers.  in  Factor  female.  the  test  with  were  3.4.2  Science  the  achievement  investigator,  referenced  optics learning activity  test  A  by  items  e s t a b l i s h e d by the  Test  to measure  developed  multiple-choice  on  factorial  Achievement  knowledge,  was  an  of  wrote,  Instruments  3.4.1  of  of  students  Study  2,  This  was  sub-unit  i s provided  effects  control  gender,  self-paced  each  copy  -  (method-by-teacher-by-gender)  Factor 2.  A  test  2  the  after  the  Factor  control.  order  of  fixed  study.  ones  class.  unit  2 x  groups  same  34  having  the  modified  of  second  copy  Science  version  Processes  A  (1971)  this  test  59  objectives  Content  validity  compare  package.  of  the  items  A l l items  on  i s i n Appendix  Processes  (Mott, was  consisted of  teacher  the  of  retention  behavioural  package.  objectives in  retained.  Test  the  to  and  1974)  used  to  of  Tannenbaum's  provide  a  Test  measure  of  of  B.  -  knowledge choice items  test. which  sistency, lected of  of science Mott yield  using  a  the o r i g i n a l reliability  using  (1971).  (1971),  using  96  test  of this  KR-20  same  of students  KR-20, t o be  test  f o r the shortened  and  standard  deviation  for  the m o d i f i e d  o f 7.387 w e r e  v e r s i o n of the Test  Table Number  Type  of  o f Items  .89.  .84.  A  reported  (1971)  reported  calculation  by M o t t  of Science  Type  of  a  (1974)  Processes.  o f Items  Process  of Modified  Classifying  2  Quantifying  8 12  Exper imenting  6  Inferr ing  8  Predicting  6 Items  reliability  o f 33.032  2  of  a  A mean  Compar i n g  Number  type  yielded  6  Total  col-  1949),  Observing  Measur i n g  eight  2  f o r Each  Number  Process  con-  2.  (Cronbach, of  t h e 50  f o r each  .91; S i e b e n  test  taking  i n Grade  reported  t o be  multiple-  of internal  of items  i n Table  the Spearman-Brown f o r m u l a  reliability  item  estimate  The number  i s shown  item  I t i s a 50  h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n by  the responses  Tannenbaum of  prepared  evaluated  -  processes.  the h i g h e s t  by S i e b e n  process  35  50  Test  - 36 -  3.4.3 The  Attitude two a t t i t u d e  developed to  sue  Z, c a l l e d  imenting  as  taught  each  (1971)  deviation the  t o be  3.4.4 As  t h e mean  discussed  an  adaptation  achievement  below,  t o measure to pur-  scale,  investigation,  whether  or not  independently. they  success  package  the r e l i a b i l i t y  exper-  These measured  in science  method. t o be  by C r o n b a c h ' s  .82 f o r  alpha.  Sieben  t o be .50 .22 a n d t h e s t a n d a r d o f Form  Z t o be 4 5 . 1 2 a n d  13.54.  Test  scores.  o f the Hidden  Figures  of cognitive  i s a relationship in science.  attitude  attitude  i n determining  X  Z  students  t h e two v a r i a b l e s  an a n a l y s i s  the achievement  a measure  there  Figures  leads  t o measure  o f Form  the  developed  to independent  activities  t o be  here  The second  1 3 . 3 5 a n d t h e mean  Hidden  analyze  scale  as c a l c u l a t e d  deviation  to  provided  because  X and Form  called  to investigate  reported  scale  Form  in science  important  (1971)  standard  that  chosen  reported  X,  developed  by t h e l e a r n i n g  attitude  Form  notice.  students  t o be  Sieben  were  the a t t i t u d e  scale  were  thought  they  here  leads  tests  were  (1971).  used  i s an a t t i t u d e  that  an a t t i t u d e  two  scales  or n o t e x p e r i m e n t i n g  phenomena  Form is  by S i e b e n  experimenting,  whether  Scales  was  The c o v a r i a t e u s e d Test  style.  between  Witkin,  of covariance  used was  ( W i t k i n , 1972) I t has been  cognitive  e t a l . (1977)  style  which  found and  reviewed  -  studies style  that  and  37  i n v e s t i g a t e d the  achievement  in  -  relationship  science.  They  between  came  to  cognitive  these  conclu-  sions: " I n a g o o d m a j o r i t y o f t h e l a r g e number o f s t u d i e s with c o l l e g e populations, r e l a t i v e l y fieldi n d e p e n d e n t s t u d e n t s were found t o p e r f o r m sign i f i c a n t l y better in mathematics, sciences, e n g i n e e r i n g , and a r c h i t e c t u r e d o m a i n s t h a n fielddependent students..." (p. 45) " i t i s noteworthy t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c o g n i t i v e s t y l e and a c h i e v e m e n t a p p e a r d e s p i t e t h e r e s t r i c t e d range i n c o g n i t i v e s t y l e scores likely to occur in groups f i l t e r i n g i n t o these domains." (p. 46) " S t u d i e s o f the r e l a t i o n between c o g n i t i v e s t y l e and p e r f o r m a n c e have been l e s s f r e q u e n t with h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s than w i t h c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , and t h e i r r e s u l t s n o t as c l e a r . In o n l y a b o u t h a l f of the s t u d i e s w i t h h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s now o n r e c o r d was the r e l a t i o n between m a t h e m a t i c s s c i e n c e a c h i e v e m e n t and m e a s u r e o f f i e l d - d e p e n dence-independence s i g n i f i c a n t , although in every s t u d y , the d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r f o r m a n c e as a f u n c t i o n o f c o g n i t i v e s t y l e was i n the e x p e c t e d direction." (p. 46) The  Hidden  adaptation It  is a  item a  used  group  requires  complex  tests.  using  mean  this  be  earlier  by  the  field.  computed  to  Test  administered  Grimes  for  Figures  7.705.  subject The  (1973)  A  to  copy  test  be of  the  (1973)  is divided that  0.92. 22.860 this  present and  Mott  c o n s i s t i n g of  identify  reported  K R - 2 0 , was test  Grimes  to  test  used, i n  test  simple  into  the  Mott and  a  two  16  i s provided  items.  an  Each  within  item  sub-  consistency,  reported  standard  was  (1974).  shape  internal  (1974)  the  32  study  the  deviation  i n Appendix  B.  -  3.5  Administration  The three  achievement  month  during  classes  were  discussion  test  and  were  asked  test  was  of  those  given  90  science  period.  during to  Hidden  on  Appendix part  B,  were  Part  the  was  to  Test  jects exam  original  test  weeks  was  followed. and  tested  The  The  retention  test  and a l l  their  to the  test  60  minute  time  and  of which was  to Part  students  was  administered  period.  The  direc-  appears i n  allowed  not allowed  or to return  the  Students  a t t h e same  science  a copy  were  minimize  classes.  Ten m i n u t e s  students  to  had w r i t t e n  during  administered  regular  of the t e s t ,  who  achievement  of school.  their  done  others.  the author  the c l a s s  and a l l  the t e s t .  with  the post by  was  of the  f o r each  to proceed i f  1 once  Part  2 of  started. of Science  achievement by  two  1 early  the students  the  after  by  period  students  the t e s t  in their  the f r o n t  finished  The  This  w h o l e c l a s s was  during  of the t e s t  exam  t h e same d a y . between  a t the end  administered class  Figures  the f i r s t  60  the t e s t  The  remained  I t was  had n o t y e t w r i t t e n  days  given  a l l classes  tions  on  administered  minute  not to discuss  were  The  phase.  the t e s t  who  classes  subjects  was  the regular  tested  -  Instruments  test  teaching  teacher  any  of  38  within test.  the author.  (see A p p e n d i x  B)  Processes,  t h e week This The were  modified  following  test  was  version,  administration  administered  to the students  given of  to a l l sub-  d i r e c t i o n s a t the beginning read  was  of the  and t h e  -  students period lems The  followed  was  given  on  their  students  test  period  the  board  see  them.  copy  t o complete  in distinguishing were  the p i c t u r e s  informed  and d r a w i n g s  a t the f r o n t  the of  within  the f i r s t  teaching Science  classes  unit,  similar  week  and q u e s t i o n s  given  time  t o do  the practise  were  given two  so t h a t  given  t o respond  i n some  twice  and a g a i n  answered. questions.  after  p u t on  student:  and the T e s t  the test  were  read  test  to a l l  out t o the  students  The  could  a t the end o f  by q u e s t i o n ,  each  prob-  questions.  were  test  The  time  of the  to each  administered  question  some  a l lstudents  The d i r e c t i o n s  then  o u t t o the students,  for  was  The a u t h o r  were  were  to the p i c t u r e s  f o l l o w i n g the achievement  read  time  There  a t the beginning  of school  occasions.  class  A one hour  presented  of these  o f t h e room  Processes.  on b o t h  o f the t e s t .  the t e s t .  The a t t i t u d e s c a l e s t e s t once  39 -  were  was  then  and t h e  students  question.  This  was  about  question  done  reasons.  1.  So  that  students  would  think  each  before  answering i t .  2.  3.6  To ensure  Data  Preparation  3.6.1 The by  Data  data  randomly  this  they  data.  understood  each  question's  meaning.  and A n a l y s i s  Preparation  c o l l e c t e d were c o d e d  selecting Results  the data  of this  by t h e a u t h o r  f o r ten subjects  verifying  procedure  and  verified  and  recoding  showed  no  -  errors.  The  University  An was  Test  item  was  gram  Hoyt  .82  and  .76  formed  test  and  an  test  scales  mean  and the  the  the  LERTAP  by  the  staff.  retention  of  estimate the  the  the  of  that  The  computer and  attitude  Hoyt  46.35  post-test  investigation. 12.87  and  estimates  and  and  respectively,  scales  12.87 of  scales The  for  the  and  for  is  The  the  10.11  post-test.  mean the  was  per-  1941) Hoyt  pre-  and  postThe  respectively, for  w e r e .85 the  standard  the  is  6.74.  (Hoyt,  measure  and  a  for  data  respectively,  that  has  experimenting.  reliability  mean  respectively,  for  pro-  Centre.  mean  program.  to  d e v i a t i o n were 47.38 and  The  deviation  .73  Educational  post-test  post-test  attitude  data  (Hoyt,  computer  the  internal consistency  the  test  Service  of  7.98.  standard  two  LERTAP  measure  of  of  (1974),  Research  test.  and  30.16  retention  (Laboratory  internal consistency  is  and  center  and  Nelson  r e l i a b i l i t y w e r e .67  pre-  verification  internal consistency  Educational  w e r e 46 .35 13.52  the  of  deviation  The  independent  post-test  standard  pre-test  100%  computing  Package),  the of  standard  post-test.  using  by  using  of  the  estimate  analysis  computed  estimates  for  a  item  of  Analysis  for  and  An  an  estimate  31.74  was  and  Test  retention  for  analysis  maintained  The  Columbia  with  Analysis  computed  Research  of  British  performed  1941)  -  d a t a were k e y p u n c h e d  of  3.6.2  40  pre-test  the and  .85  attitude deviation and  55.30  to  -  3.6.3  A  e x a m i n e more 2 x  2 x  2  of variance  the  scores  two  attitude  to  this  i n power Test  analyze  C.  1971)  The As  was  effect  Test  4 and  to realize  analy-  analyze  and e a c h  analyses  3,  formed.  effects  of the  are  summa-  5 there  teacher.  was  Thus,  of covariance  Hidden employed  data.  3  Figures Test  Degrees of Freedom  Scores  Mean Square  F  Probability  1  162.701  2.06  0.156  1  21.895  0.28  0.601  1  87.791  1.11  0.296  1  3.405  0.04  0.836  x Tr  1  317.790  4.02  0.049  T x Tr  1  0.956  0.01  0.913  S  1  73.680  0.93  0.338  65  79.076  Sex  (S)  Teacher  (T)  Treatment S x S  T  x T x Tr  Residual  (Tr)  a  a possible  t o the use o f a c o v a r i a t e , the  Hidden Source Variance  fixed  between sex and  Table  of  o f these  analyses  performed  of the groups  Figures  and  was  to separately  i n Tables  of bias  r e t a i n e d and  a l lthe  used  results  shown  source due  was  the Hidden  interaction  eliminate  Figures  on  scales.  i n Appendix  increase  the equivalence  (Winer,  obtained  significant to  closely  o f the p r e - t e s t data  (method-by-teacher-by-gender)  sis  rized  -  Preliminary Analysis  A preliminary analysis to  41  -  42  -  Table Summary the  of  Source Variance  4  of the A n a l y s i s Attitude  of Variance  to Experiment  Degrees of Freedom  Mean Square  of  Scores  ic  Probability  0 .37  0 .544  183 .589  1.84  0 .179  1  57.558  0 .58  0.450  1  .0.324  0.00  0.955  x Tr  1  23.062  0.23  0.632  T x Tr  1  414 .336  4.16  0 .045  S x T x Tr  1  2.401  0 .02  0.877  Sex  (S)  Teacher  (T)  Treatment S x S  (Tr)  T  1  36.98 7  1  99.593  66  Residual  Table Summary the  of  Sex  of the A n a l y s i s  Attitude  to Independent  (S)  Teacher  (T)  Treatment  (Tr)  of Variance  of  Investigation  Mean Square  Degrees of Freedom  Source Variance  5  F  Scores  Probability  1  7.405  0.07  0.797  1  7.026  0.06  0.803  1  56.652  0.51  0.478  S  x T  1  155.582  1.40  0 .242  S  x Tr  1  168.091  1.51  0.224  T x Tr  1  1388.437  S x T x Tr  1  2.647  3.6.4 The the  Final  0 .878  Analysis  use o f Design  decision  0.02  111.403  66  Res i d u a l  0.001  12.46  t o use  10 a n d  a 2 x  2 x  the 2  preliminary  results  led to  (method-- b y - t e a c h e r - b y - g e n d e r )  -  fixed  effects  achievement, Hidden  fixed the  of  of covariance  retention,  and s c i e n c e  scores  scales  effects  attitudes  using  analysis  Figures  attitude  analysis  Mark  Sciences  processes  The a n a l y s i s  that  respectively  completed  t h e program  scores  separately  and independent  fora l l analysis  were  analyse using of the  (method-by-teacher-by-gerider)  of covariance  scores  used  analyses  2 using  2 x 2  to experimenting  significance  to separately  as the c o v a r i a t e .  was a 2 x  the pre-test  All  43 -  ANOVAR,  was t h e .05  Statistical  ( N i e , N.H., e t a l . , 1 9 7 5 ) .  investigation  as c o v a r i a t e s .  o n a n AMDAHL  analysed  The  level  level.  470 M o d e l V/6 Package  for Social  -  44  -  CHAPTER  ANALYSIS  4 .0  are  results  presented those  sented,  of  in  followed of  the  this  analyses,  teristics  the  by  each  of  the  each  of  4.1  The  Final  Sample  The  final  sample,  four  p r e s e n t a t i o n of the  dependent  c l a s s e s as  initial  sample  data  leaving  or  number  of  of  final  In  104  the  variables  of  Initial  TeacherPaced n = male = female  Final Sample  n = male = female  was  subjects derived  Attrition,  concludes  performed  on  for and  due  the  distributed from to  the  missing  difference  final  between  samples.  6  and F i n a l  Teacher  Initial Sample  6,  initial  Table  pre-  charac-  chapter  covariance  74  accounted the  The  results  are  psychometric  of  in Table  in  the  realized  Three  considered.  consisting  subjects.  sizes  of  i n Chapter  f o l l o w s , the  used.  analyses  class,  subjects  Summary  what  sample  measures  shown  the  described  a d i s c u s s i o n of  a  the  DATA  analyses  chapter.  with  in  OF  Introduction  The  of  4  C e l l Sample  Size  Teacher  1 SelfPaced  2  Teacher Paced  SelfPaced  =  23 14 9  28 18 10  24 13 11  29 9 20  =  17 10 7  15 8 7  19 11 8  23 6 17  -  4.2  Summary  of Analysis  of  Science  achievement  and  The 7.  The  tion  item  index  tests from the  results  -  Instruments  retention  f o r the achievement  difficulty  and item  i n Appendix  B.  retention t o 0.59  test.  test.  subsequent  A l l 59  items,  The d i f f i c u l t y and from  f o r both vary  .081 t o .973 o n vary  from  - 0 . 2 0 t o 0.58 tests,  were  on t h e  retained  analysis.  Table Summary  7  of Achievement  Test  Post Mean Standard  discrimina-  indices  indices  and from on b o t h  i n Table  coefficients)  The d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  on t h e p o s t - t e s t  are given  correlation  (point-biserial correlation  are given  retention  test  test  .095 t o .946 o n t h e p o s t - t e s t  -0.10  for  45  31.74  30.16  7.98  6.74  Deviation  Range  Re t e n t i o n  15.00 - 50.00  16.00 -  48.00  Hoyt estimate o f i n t e r n a l cons i s t e n c y  0.82  0.76  Standard  3.33  3.29  error  Attitude The  o f measurement  Scales  results  and  post-tests,  are  given  occasions.  f o r the a t t i t u d e are given  i n Appendix The  B  i n Table  f o r both  item-test  scales, 8.  Item-test  attitude  correlations  administered  correlations  scales,  f o r the  as p r e -  and  both  experimenting  Table Summary  8  o f P r e - and P o s t - A t t i t u d e  Scales  Pre  Post*  Exper imenting  Independent Investigation  Exper imenting  Independent Investigation  Mean  47.38  54.27  46.35  55.30  Standard deviation  10.11  11.09  12.87  13.52  Range Possible  Range  20.00  -  68.00  32.00  -  82.00  22.00  -  80.00  23.00  -  86.00  20.00  -  100.00  20.00  -  100.00  20.00  -  100.00  20.00  -  100.00  Hoyt e s t i m a t e of internal consistency  0.67  0.73  0.85  0.85  Standard error of measurement  5.64  5.65  4 .83  5.11  -  attitude from  scale  vary  from  - 0 . 0 3 6 t o 0.658  lation vary  on  t o 0.581 on  means  that  comprise  Summary  scores  order on  given  the  teacher  for  these  retention  analysis  items  corre-  investigation  and from  0.083  were r e t a i n e d  9.  to  f o r both  shows  attitude  of the t e s t s are  Scores whether  Test  a r e due  i n t h e mean  t o methods o f  or the sex o f the s t u d e n t ,  shown  done  using  The r e s u l t s  the only  are given  was  in Table  10,  a 2 x  the achievement  10.  2 x  of this  analysis  the r e s u l t s  show  The  means  An e x a m i n a t i o n  post-test  2  the Hidden  significant effect.  in Table  mean  of  i s the  2. Scores  o f the a n a l y s i s  scores  the d i f f e r e n c e s  post-test  As  that  f o r Teacher  results  f o r t h e two  Covariance  of covariance  t o be  two g r o u p s  test  deviations  as the c o v a r i a t e .  effect  Retention The  Post-Test  i n Table  means  greatest  of  the teacher,  scores  are  these  independent  and  B.  to determine  effects  Figures  item-test  t h e two a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s  the achievement  instruction, fixed  A l l 20  of Analysis  Achievement In  called  the p r e - t e s t  and s t a n d a r d  i n Appendix  4.3  scale  The  the p r e - t e s t  scales.  Item  given  -0.045 t o 0.471 on  the post-test.  attitude  scales  0.080  -  the p o s t - t e s t .  f o r the a t t i t u d e  from  0.654  on  47  of covariance  are presented  i n Table  performed  11.  There  f o r the a r e no  -  48  Table  -  9  Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e o f Achievement P o s t - T e s t Scores Mean Source  of Variance  D.F.  Squares  F  Probability  1  272.134  4.964  0.029  1 1 1  67.189 264.192 174.069  1.226 4.819 3.175  0.272 0.032 0.079  1 1 1  23.300 142.204 39.170  0.425 2.594 0.715  0.517 0.112 0.401  1  142.805  2.605  0.111  Residual  64  54.818  Total  72  Covar i a t e Hidden  Figures  Main Effects Sex (S) Teacher (T) Treatment (Tr) 2- Way Interactions S x T S x Tr T x Tr 3- Way Interactions S x  T x  Tr  Table Cell  10  Sample S i z e and A d j u s t e d Achievement P o s t - T e s t  Means  Gender Treatment Self-Paced  Teacher n  .:8  n  x  32.50  x  33.33  n  17 31.59  n  Teacher-Paced  Female  Male  6  x  40.17  x  n  10  n  x  28 .20  x  n  11  n  x  32.00  x  6  7 25.43 8 33.63  -  49  -  Table Summary  11  of Analysis of Covariance Retention Test Scores  of  Mean Sources  of Variance  D.F.  Squares  F  Probability  Covar i a t e Hidden F i g u r e s Main E f f e c t s Sex (S) Teacher (T) Treatment (Tr)  1  471.474  12.519  0.001  1 1 1  14.202 145.024 76.117  0.377 3.851 2.021  0.541 0.054 0.160  2- Way S x S x T x  Interactions T Tr Tr  1 1 1  75.413 64.267 0.263  2.002 1.706 0.007  0.162 0.196 0.934  3- Way  Interaction 1  48.780  1.295  0.259  Residual  64  37.661  Total  72  S x  T x Tr  significant  main  or  scores.  Both  subjects  as t a u g h t  Science An scores shown  paced did  and  means  group  f o r the r e t e n t i o n  12.  The  f o r t h e s e x by  higher  on  group.  effect.  done u s i n g  results  of this  differences  treatment  factors  mitigates against  treatment  was  Hidden  of  effect  were  the Science  that  Processes  The  means  13. the  self-  Test  However,  t h e s e x by  a  interpretation  simple  are  obtained for  i n Table show  Figures  analysis  interaction.  are given  f o r the treatment  scored  sexes  Scores  Significant  to these  f o r both  test  teacher.  of covariance  the teacher-paced  interaction main  Test  the c o v a r i a t e .  corresponding The  by e i t h e r  Processes  i n Table  treatment  effects  t r e a t m e n t s were as e f f e c t i v e  analysis as  interaction  than  treatment o f the  -  50  Table  -  12  Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e • • ; o f Science Processes Test Scores Mean Source  of Variance  D.F.  Covar i a t e Hidden F i g u r e s Main E f f e c t s Sex (S) Teacher (T) Treatment (Tr)  Squares  F  Probability  1  492.189  13.117  0.001  1 1 1  66.399 12.306 273.971  1.770 0.3.28 7.302  0.188 0.569 0.009  1 1 1  3.743 358.970 12.031  0.100 9.567 0.321  0.753 0.003 0.573  1  20.114  0.536  0.467  Residual  64  37.522  Total  72  2- Way I n t e r a c t i o n s S x T S x Tr T x Tr 3- Way S x  Interaction T x Tr  Table Cell  13  Sample S i z e and A d j u s t e d Science Processes Test  Means  Gender  Self-Paced  Teacher-Paced  n  =  37  n  =  14  n  =  23  X  =  26..81  X  =  2 7 .,93  X  =  2 6 . 13  n  =  36  n  =  21  n  =  15  X  =  21..89  X  = 20..19  X  =  2 4 . 27  A g r a p h i c a l a n a l y s i s was to  done  b e t t e r i n t e r p r e t the i n t e r a c t i o n .  Science  Processes  Female  Male  Treatment  scores  f o r the i n t e r a c t i o n i n order Figure  plotted against  1 shows  treatment  t h e mean for  both  -  sexes. Table  Means  of Science  51 -  Processes  f o r these  groups  a r e from  13.  Figure Science  Processes  1  Means  v s . Treatments  28  Adj u s t e d Means f o r Science Processes  20  -I  ( 1  1— 2 Treatments  The treatment 1971, have paced more  g r a p h i c a l a n a l y s i s shows  that  the i n t e r a c t i o n  and sex i s o f a d i s o r d i n a t e n a t u r e  p 410-411). scored group.  Males  significantly In c o n t r a s t  comparable  although  (Glass  i n the s e l f - p a c e d group better  than  female  students  they  scored  males  higher  Stanley,  appeared  i n the  i n both  &  between  to  teacher-  groups  were  i n the s e l f - p a c e d  -  group ence  than does  i n the  teacher-paced  not  appear  Attitude  Scale  An  analysis  the  attitude  as  the  covariate.  of  covariance  There  are  the  graphical  analysis  teacher  2  was  males  than  a more males  positive  of  done  differ-  separately for  corresponding  shows  the  summary  to experiment  each  done.  taught  the  of  15  each  pre-test of  the  test  sex  these  Table  than  effect  Means were  on  females.  had  effect  the  by  scores.  teacher  contains  scores  analysis  interactions  effect  the  There  and  females  in  by  Teacher  2.  analysis taken  indicates attitude  It further  Teacher  on  1.  graphical  analysis  positive  Teacher  males  shows  graphical  positive  than  For  interaction.  The  of  14  the  attitude  teacher.  the  the  and a  means  for  effects. Figure  had  However,  significant interactions;  by  more  group.  significant.  using  Table  treatment  these  be  -  c o v a r i a n c e was  scales  of  two  to  of  of  52  on  the  2 and  attitudes was  their  no  for  from that  Table Teacher  attitude  of  sex  to  Teacher females  that  1 had  a  of  Teacher  1  experimenting 2 had  to  a  more  experimenting  significant difference  attitude  by  15.  to experimenting  indicates  that  the  to experimenting  between when  -  53  Table Summary the  Source  of  -  14  of Analysis of Covariance of Experiment A t t i t u d e Scale Me an Squares  D.F.  Variance  Covar i a t e Pre-test  Probability  0.000  27.957  2971.201  Main E f f e c t s S e x (S) T e a c h e r (T) Treatment (Tr)  1 1 1  370.126 24.268 145.081  3.483 0 .228 1.365  0.067 0.634 0.247  2- Way Interactions S x T S x Tr T x Tr  1 1 1  1352.076 80.128 552.993  12.722 0.754 5.203  0.001 0.388 0.026  3- Way Interaction S x T x Tr  1  9.100  0.086  0.771  Residual  65  106.276  Total  73  Table Cell  15  Sample S i z e and A d j u s t e d Means Experiment A t t i t u d e Scale Teacher 1  Gender  Male  n X  Female  n X  Treatment  Self-paced  n X  Teacher-paced  n X  = = = = = = = =  2  19  n  53.37  X  13  n  38 .46  X  15  n  52.20  X  17  n  43.00  X  = = = =  17 45.00 25 46.04 23  = = =  42.74 19 49.11  Figure Attitude  Scores vs.  Experimenting  to  2 Teacher  55 Males Females 50 Adjusted Means f o r Attitude to Experimenting  Males ^  40  35 1  2 Teacher  Figure by  3 shows t h e g r a p h i c a l  treatment The  method ing  paced  graphical  taught  method  Further  f o r the teacher  interaction. analysis  indicates  had a g r e a t e r e f f e c t  when  analysis  by T e a c h e r  had a g r e a t e r  i t indicates  tude  to experimenting  when  using  on  that  the a t t i t u d e  1 and c o n v e r s e l y effect  when  the to  self-paced experiment-  the t e a c h e r -  taught  by T e a c h e r  Teacher  1 had a g r e a t e r e f f e c t  when  the self-paced  using  the:-teacher-paced  method.  on  method  In c o n t r a s t ,  2. attithan  Teacher  2  -  55  -  Figure  Attitude  to Experimenting  3  Mean  Scores  vs.  Teacher  Teacher-paced Self-paced  55 /  Adjusted Means f o r Attitude to Exper imenting  50  45  40 1 had  a greater effect  on  using  the teacher-paced  paced  method. Table  ance  shows  i s one  the a t t i t u d e method  than  t h e summary  of the a t t i t u d e  There and  16  scale  Table  17  to experimenting when  using  f o r independent  shows  the  of the a n a l y s i s  significant interaction  treatment.  2  Teacher'  self-  of  covari-  investigation.  effect  t h e means  when  between  for this  teacher  interaction  effect. A graphical of  the teacher  results Table  of this  17.  analysis  by  was  treatment  analysis.  done  to determine  interaction. Means  f o r these  the  Figure groups  nature  4 shows are  the  from  -  56  -  Table  16  A n a l y s i s of Covariance of the Investigation Attitude  Independent Scale  Mean Source  of Variance  D.F.  Squares  F  Probability  Covariate Pre-test  1  6373.473  70.785  0.000  1 1 1  213.236 160.373 76.178  2.368 1.781 0.846  0.129 0.187 0.361  1 1 1  126.870 59.130 679.212  1.409 0.657 7.543  0.240 0.421 0.008  1  11.230  0.125  0.725  Residual  65  .90.040  Total  73  Main E f f e c t s Sex (S) T e a c h e r (T) Treatment (Tr) 2- Way Interactions S x T S x Tr T x Tr 3- Way Interaction S  x T x  Tr  Table  17  C e l l Sample S i z e and A d j u s t e d Means Independent I n v e s t i g a t i o n A t t i t u d e Scale Self-paced Teacher  1  2  The as  graphical  f o r the teacher  n == 15  n == 17  x == 6 0 ..53  x == 4 7 ..00  n == 23  n == 19  x == 5 1 ..74  x == 62..89  analysis by  Teacher-paced  indicates  treatment  t h e same  interaction  interactions  with  the  attitude  - 57 -  Figure Attitude  t o Independent  4  Investigation  v s . Teacher  65  Adjusted Means f o r Attitude to Independent Investigation  +_  r-  1  2 Teacher  to  experimenting.  attitude paced  paced when  than  Teacher  method. taught  effective The chapter. be  t o independent  method  contrast  Teacher  by Teacher taught  results The  investigation using  when  using  the teacher-paced  2 had a g r e a t e r e f f e c t  Again,  when  discussed  when  1 had a g r e a t e r e f f e c t  the self-paced  when  method  of the analyses  implications  self-  method.  In  the t e a c h e r -  was m o r e method  effective was  most  2. have  been  o f the r e s u l t s  i n the following  the  using  1 and t h e t e a c h e r - p a c e d by T e a c h e r  on t h e  chapter.  presented  in this  o f the analyses  will  -  58 -  CHAPTER 5  CONCLUSIONS,  IMPLICATIONS,  AND  RECOMMENDATIONS  5.0  Introduction  This author, ing  investigation  to determine  methods,  school  method  paced  method.  of  these  further  5.1  out of a perceived  the r e l a t i v e  the s e l f - p a c e d  i n which  paced  grew  this  study  a n d was  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f two  and t e a c h e r - p a c e d took  place  i n the process  In what  two m e t h o d s  follows,  will  research- w i l l  n e e d , by t h e teach-  methods.  had been u s i n g  of changing  The  a  to a  self-  teacher-  the d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s  be d i s c u s s e d . a n d  recommendationsf o r  be made.  Conclusions  The  analyses,  as r e p o r t e d  evidence  t o answer  the question  hypotheses determine  that  were  stated  the r e l a t i v e  i n chapter  four,  represented  i n chapter  have  provided  by t h e n u l l  one and t o  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e two  thereby  teaching  me t h o d s . The has  relative  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e two t e a c h i n g  been d e t e r m i n e d .  effect  of teaching  standing  of science  The n u l l  method  hypothesis  on t h e d e p e n d e n t  processes,  was  regarding  methods the  v a r i a b l e , under-  rejected.  However  there  -  was  a significant  student  interaction  and t h e t e a c h i n g  teaching  was  directed  method,  processes.  found  The  interaction  the  of Science  of  ference, method  Processes  was  The method  on  retention  jected.  No  methods  was  and  found  however,  that  teaching  method  include  teacher  found  t o be  clear  preference  by  both  scored  much  higher  attributable  teachers.  on  and i n d e p e n d e n t  Teacher  dif-  teaching  in science,  were  to not r e -  the t e a c h i n g  I t should  interactions  be  noted  involving  students'  atti-  investigations.  involving  factor.  for a particular  of  attitudes  between  variables.  f o r both  on  the Test  but the  achievement  f o r the dependent v a r i a b l e s ,  significant  higher  the self-paced  the e f f e c t s  difference  as the other  and  t o the t e a c h i n g  investigations  interactions  teacher-  f o r males.  are s i g n i f i c a n t  significant  much  with  regarding  f o r these  there  scored  taught  a s i t was  the  of science  when  independent  to experimenting The  t h a t males  knowledge, s t u d e n t s '  significant  than  of  the sex o f t h e s t u d e n t  the dependent v a r i a b l e s : of science  better  t h e s e l f - p a c e d method  the s c o r e s ,  hypothesis  experimenting,  tude  with  n o t as g r e a t  null  also  the sex o f the  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  Processes  females  between  between  The s e l f - p a c e d method  between  demonstrated  and t h a t  Science  method.  for teaching  method  method  effect  t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y  teaching Test  59 -  These  teaching  interactions  of the a t t i t u d e teaching  method  method  scales. was  were A  shown  one p r e f e r r e d t h e s e l f - p a c e d  - 60 -  method As  and Teacher  two p r e f e r r e d  the t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d method.  a result  the a t t i t u d e s  of students  independent,  investigation  varied  method one  was u s e d  using  tude  scales  using  attitude  five  than  students  method.  scales  than  null  differences  were  found  actions  involving earlier  was  and  females  there  was  Teacher atti-  taught  higher  by  Teacher  on t h e two two u s i n g t h e  taught  by T e a c h e r  t h e mean  a significant  between  higher  two.  There  o f males and inter-  found.  As  A highly  vari-  significant  and t h e sex o f t h e  students'  attitude  one s c o r e d  The m a l e s  males  taught  one s c o r e d  men-  between the  on t h e d e p e n d e n t  one.  were  significant  interaction  by Teacher  than  by Teacher  were  the teacher  by T e a c h e r  and the  Significant  processes.  variable,  taught  No  scores  variables.  of science  Males  taught  sex of the student  and t e a c h i n g method  found  one s c o r e d  females  taught  between  f o r the dependent  experimenting.  Teacher  by  on b o t h  by T e a c h e r  the sex of the student  understanding  interaction  than  scored  teaching  one u s i n g t h e  are a l l accepted.  dependent  of the student  student  higher  students  taught  regarding  variables  on t h e f i v e  able,  method  students  taught  by Teacher  Conversely,  hypotheses  females  sex  Students  scored  taught  t o which  and  method.  dependent  tioned  teacher.  the teacher-paced  self-paced The  according  t h e s e l f - p a c e d method  teacher-paced two  by t h e i r  to experimenting  higher  taught  by  by T e a c h e r  lower  no a p p a r e n t  than  to  two  females  differences  - 61 -  in  the  males  for,  mean and  females  The  factor  was  found  thesis ence, The  scores  to  taught  involved nificant  the  and  student attitude were basis  the  the  self-paced the  method  has  been  achievement  analysis  of  as  to  covariance.  Teacher  two  achievement  in  science  test  than  was  also  one.  of  to  betwen  for  the  of  and  be  depend  as the  upon  attitudes  of  science  the  dependent to  were  attitudes and  of  sig-  Teaching  dependent Both  scored  to  between  the  variable  these  interac-  earlier.  rejection  However,  students'  students'  experimenting.  the  and  investigations,  Teacher  method  found  The  variables,  discussed  sci-  by  effects  and  in  taught  independent  other  method.  appears  Teacher  understanding  for  insofar  on  dependent  theses  method  students  the  hypo-  Teacher  the  directed  of  null  interaction  effects  the  basis  control  There  regarding of  variable,  The  to  effects.  the  On  that  necessary  in s i g n i f i c a n t interaction  students' tion  i t became  significant effect.  the  between  two.  factor  experimenting of  on  experimenting  Teacher  for  by  which  a  to  Teacher  dependent  higher  students  sex  the  shows  significantly  method  have  attitude  by  Teacher,  rejected  analysis  the  taught  regarding was  for  the  null  processes,  acceptance  variables  the  effective  as  of  are  teacher  in  the  favour  null  hypo-  self-paced the  effectiveness the  hypothesis,  who  concerned.  of  teacherthe  teaching  i s using  i t  -  5.2  was  done  study  was  so that  affected  Although  this  study  does  the r e s u l t s  done  over  method  in  science  when  or  with  students  results  Grade  eight The  of other  should  in this  The teaching  a bias five  study  larger  used  to determine  They  have  vant  t o the present  ible  choices  been  longer  this  pool  study  are only  of possible  because  study  they  time  b u t , they  f o r the comparison  that  periods  investigated. of the  as one o f t h e error  as the  the experimenter  method  of  t o compare a small  variables  were  the  achievement  teaching. t h e two  selection  that  might  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f any t e a c h i n g  chosen  This  study.  that  v a r i a b l e s used  effects  effect  outside  a possible  the s e l f - p a c e d  in this  a much  up  demonstrated  towards  from  over  the  explored.  What  discretion  introduced  term  a t t i t u d e s and  of the experimenter  dependent  methods  the long  period.  method.  restrict  has n o t been  made  would n o t  experience  i t does  n o t been  i s used  with  that  of the analyses  exhibited  month  grades  be u s e d  population  have  This  method  of prior  study  students'  method  students.  the s e l f - p a c e d  in that  method  h a s on  involvement  teachers results  of this  a three  this  with  the chance  of the study  self-paced  The  reduce  eight  of the teaching  experience  the self-paced  was  t o Grade  the e f f e c t s  generalizability using  limited  by p r i o r  confounding  of  -  Limitations  This  be  62  thought  has been  method.  t o be  do n o t exhaust done.  be  rele-  the poss-  -  The level it  limits  should  design The of  lack  o f random  noted  although  design design  that  non-equivalent  control  and  group  s t i l l  than  would  ten of Campbell  of this  study  power  study  of subjects  validity  this  of less  of this  -  assignment  the i n t e r n a l  be  63  a  be  a  However,  legitimate  experimental  classified  Stanley  treatment  study.  has  true  to  as  (1963):  design.  an  example  that  i s ,a  design.  "A d e s i g n i n w h i c h t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p a n d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p do n o t have p r e - e x p e r i m e n t a l sampling equivalence. Rather, the groups c o n s t i t u t e n a t u r a l l y assembled collectives such as c l a s s r o o m s , as s i m i l a r as a v a i l a b i l i t y permits..." As  such,  study  5.3  c a u t i o n must  to other  used  in applying  the r e s u l t s  of  this  situations.  Infe rences  The could  results  be made  methods  has  on  the  interaction  method  of this  regarding  ing  ture  be  t h a t were  study  indicated  the r e l a t i v e  investigated,  effects  and  on  teacher.  the t e a c h i n g  teaching The  method,  o f sex o f  These  methods  teacher  and  s e l f - p a c e d has been  effective  than  cognitive  aspects  and  sex o f the  The  that  the  t o be  teachteacher  method,  and  interaction  and  teaching litera-  effects  of  student. as e f f e c t i v e  the t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d method of science.  t h e two  s u b s t a n t i a t e the  the  found  of  teaching  the student  results  statements  the e f f e c t  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a p a r t i c u l a r effects  that  results  or  for teaching of the  more the  analyses  - 64 -  show  that  the s e l f - p a c e d  directed  method  cesses.  In  the  and  The  unit. done  tests  processes,  i n favour method  and  of  science  meaning  than  interaction student  tends  Although  processes,  ence  the males  taught than  ing  by  males  itself,  method  showed  account  The  well  by  be  achievement  e v e n t h o u g h some  of  method,  the the  also  teaching  method  of  shown  was  taught  underlying  method  But, the  be n o t e d  t o be  method.  superior  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  these  scored  f o r the d i f f e r e n c e  value  the sex o f the  l a r g e l y due by  two  that  sci-  differ-  methods.  method.  between  t o the  of  t o the  significantly  however,  that  alternative  lasting  and  The  indicates  facts.  sig-  science  of  longer  no  methods.  and  method  f o r teaching  studies  found  as an  of science  was  physics  processes  the t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d  I t should  knowledge  the e f f e c t o f the t e a c h i n g  when  the s e l f - p a c e d  methods.  very  the d i f f e r e n c e  taught  two  considered  method.  to confound  teacher-directed ence  be  the teaching  the self-paced  the  f o r the u n d e r s t a n d i n g  the knowledge  between  on  ( 1 9 7 2 ) who  pro-  teacher-paced  the r e s u l t s  these  should  may  the  group,  of the s e l f - p a c e d  the t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d  concepts  by  scores  of science  d i d not complete  Ketchum  teacher-  of science  d i d as w e l l  group  between  i n mean  to  and  difference  self-paced  retention  substantiate  (1971)  difference  the  group  to the  understanding  as d i d the c o n t r o l  results  Kline  nificant  an  superior  i s as e f f e c t i v e as  i n the s e l f - p a c e d  These by  method  self-paced  retention  students  for teaching  was  the a c q u i s i t i o n and  self-paced  method.  method  Males  higher  This  t h e two females  would, teachalso  -  scored the  to  scores  f o r boys,  should  teaching  method  mean  of Science  (1976)  found  action  effects  on  similar  affect  shown  by  f o r both  a s i t was  t o be  superior  of science  f o r the  pro-  acquisition  g e n d e r s , and  a s an a l t e r n a t i v e  to the  teacher-  higher  effects.  was  Processes.  found  method No  method  however  on  of science  used  their  does  and  found Glasser  inter-  processes.  over  Females  at  differenmeasured  Males  score  i s used also  i n pre-  score  the t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d  i s n o t as g r e a t  to refute  looked  s e x when  a s e l f - p a c e d method  the d i f f e r e n c e tend  (1980)  specifically  method  t h e s e l f - p a c e d method  The r e s u l t s  the achievement  and sex o f t h e s t u d e n t f o r  studies  depending  when  significant  d i f f e r e n c e was  Anderson  t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d method.  with  on  No  o f no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e  The t e a c h i n g  understanding  to a  i n the findings of the  but a significant  results  students  higher  males.  scores  o f achievement.  significantly ference  as l a r g e  f o r the teaching  anomaly  of teaching  processes.  their  nowhere  has been  by sex i n t e r a c t i o n  between  the Test  tially  was  knowledge,  i s an a p p a r e n t  r e t e n t i o n measures  science  taught  the d i f f e r e n c e between the  method  be c o n s i d e r e d  when  method.  difference  measures  Processes  and as e f f e c t i v e  retention of science  There  on  although  The s e l f - p a c e d  only  directed  and  of Science  t h e t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d method  therefore  -  f o r t h e two m e t h o d s  males.  cesses, and  on t h e T e s t  s e l f - p a c e d method,  mean for  higher  65  the r e s u l t s  as i t i s found  by  for  - 66 -  Campbell  (1972)  packages  than  The  results  and  the  in determining  the  attitudes  between  teachers had  upon  favoured  the  and  in  s e l f - p a c e d group  opposite  results  the  attitudes teaching  with  is  that  teaching  The  interaction for  the  with  between  dependent  favoured  was  because  attitudes  more  which  highly  positive  teacher.  very  teaching  teacher  that  a  result  the  males  males  the  attitude  to experimenting  between  to  These  important method  will  be  There  interact  of  of  in  on  able must  stuto  be  use some  i n some  teacher  over  such  of  and a  the -student  attitude  the  experimenting  attitude  then  sex  variable  of  (1972),  were  success.  the  attitude  Campbell  found  way  method.  the  connection  the  have  differ-  teacher  other  teacher  equal  No  import-  t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d group.  the  every  teachers  in a l l likelihood  apparently  the  most  were  One  attitudes  for  are  the t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d  i n the  found  that not  the  teacher  than  that  method  characteristics  activity  interactions  students'  used.  over  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of and  the  students.  on  method  student  was  demonstrated  determining  every  result  effect  that method  of  effects  teaching  method the  a  show  teaching  s e l f - p a c e d method  as  learning  o r J t e a c h i n g methods  opposite  the  with  do.  teacher  the  depended  dent  better  analyses  teachers  The  do  the  ences the  males  females  of  between tant  that  to  poses  a  and  more If  achievement,  bias  One  females  females.  the  experimenting  bias.  was  and  as  a  result  positive  there as  teacher  is  than  a  suggested  by  s e r i o u s problem  in  -  light  of  the  fact  at  the  present  on  the  basis  methods  for  The as  the  of  of  affective  the  effect  on  the  basis  as  an  teaching  needs be  been for  to  of  found  the  the  attitudes.  The  the  more  however  method  this  an  with  the  as  and  method  some  as  interaction are  teacher  and  should  to  deter-  teaching method,  be  used be  yet  between  what  self-paced  study,  needs  effective  cognitive  upon  conventionally  effort  biases,  teaching  method  of  of  the  The  teaching  be the  depends  combination  results  such  recognized  to  teaching  science  the  of  teachers  instituted.  characteristics. and  science  be  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  students'  method,  has  of  existence  to  method  aspects  that  of  The  i t need  The  a l t e r n a t i v e to  directed  considered  teacher-  made  to  match  teacher.  Recommendations  This effects will  a  study  that  have  months is  on  majority  teachers  method  teacher  -  vast  male.  by  characteristics  have  5.4  sex,  science.  method  the  are  overcoming  unidentified  mine  the  teacher-directed  the  these  time  self-paced  aspects on  that  67  on  the  has  not  use  student  in which  the  time  in  The  effect  that  this  not  known  ment  and  needs  the  achievement  the  to  look  self-paced  self-paced  short  and  of  attempted  or  method  was  students  method  will  have  attitudes will  determined.  diminish,  on  in  spend future  increase  or  term  teaching The  used  Whether  long  of  attitudes.  that  be  the  method  time  to  at  in  three  this  study  school.  success student  remain  at  is achievea  - 68 -  constant method  level  to  been  explored  The  and need  use o f the s e l f - p a c e d  of using  explored.  if  a l l their  to  raise  time,  student  materials  t o be  or t o science  have  i f t h e s e l f - p a c e d method i s  t h e s e l f - p a c e d method  investigated.  and t h e e f f e c t  been  teacher  used.  effects  n o t been  morale not  and c o n t i n u e d  attitudes to their  be w i d e l y  have  time  i s n o t known.  Student not  over  that  these  Teachers energy  success  a n d manage  What  changes have  will  have  on  to a mastery  the program  when  i n teacher teacher  little  and m o t i v a t i o n  on t h e  a r e used  using  workload,  survival  time  effect,  teacher  to up  have  innovate in trying  construct  new  the s e l f - p a c e d  method. The  teacher  effectiveness  characteristics  with  a particular  determined.  Once  teacher  a suitable  with  The other and  effect  topics  earth  areas  need ing  that  have  procedures  with  teaching then  method  an e f f o r t  method o r methods  the self-paced  s c i e n c e , have  to determine method  i s done  in science:  of science  laboratory  this  that determine  i n the areas.of n o t been  need  t o be  h a s on  chemistry,  associated with  them  that  t o them.  Each  other  areas  biology, of  these  m a t e r i a l s and There  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the s e l f - p a c e d  these  a  made.  method  investigated.  are unique  teacher's  t o match  c a n be  teaching  a  of science.  is a teach-  5.5  tion  has  phase  Secondary ing  been of  many c h a n g e s the  method the a  time was  period More  provided Within the than  study  adopted  years  a  half  of  have this  -  study  several  questions  the  has  been  The  time  about  have  data  Hurt teach-  teaching  in operation changes  Although when  the  done  so  collec-  Frank  experimental  major  its entirety  the  method.  a  great  took  the  place  self-paced  school  opened,  gradually  over  years.  insights  implementation  this  initiated.  come  since  conventional  place.  in  In  out  more  s t u d i e s by  s t u d i e s such  the  phased  was  years  done.  school  taken  t h a t have  recent new  was  the  the  introduced  changes  and  completely  and  seven  three  this  has  method the  at  69  Epilogue  It  In  -  as  into  Fullan the  theirs  process raised  and  process there  this  of  are  that might in  Pomfret  have  implementation.  questions  have  study.  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D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 3 3 , 4, 1542-A. R o b e r s o n , J . A . and Crowe, C.T., 1975. t i o n r e a l l y worth i t ? Engineering 764. Samples, R o b e r t E . , 1970. Toward the n e x t s t e p i n c u r r i c u l u m . T e a c h e r , 3 2 , 3, 1 4 3 - 1 4 8 .  Is self-paced instrucEducation, 6 5 , 7, 7 6 1 -  the i n t r i n s i c : a plea f o r The A m e r i c a n B i o l o g y  S a y l e s , J . H e n r y , 1966. U s i n g programmed i n s t r u c t i o n t o t e a c h high school chemistry. Journal o f Research i n Science Teaching, 4, 4 0 . S i e m a n k o w s k i , F r a n c i s T . , 1 9 6 9 . An a u t o - p a c e d t e a c h i n g process in p h y s i c a l science f o r elementary teacher preparation: a p i l o t report. Journal of Research i n Science Teaching, 6, 1 5 0 - 1 5 6 .  -  78  -  S t a l l i n g s , E v e r e t t Sherman I I I , 1973. A comparison o f the i n q u i r y b e h a v i o r o f ISCS and non-ISCS s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s as m e a s u r e d by t h e t a b s c i e n c e t e s t . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 34, 1149-A. Stedman, C a r l t o n - H . , 1973. An a n a l y s i s o f t h e a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g the taxonomy o f e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s : c o g n i t i v e doman. J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e Teaching, 10, 3; 2 3 5 - 2 4 1 . S t e e l e , R o b e r t W., 1974. D e v e l o p m e n t a n d e v a l u a t i o n o f an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d self-paced physics course for non-science m a j o r s . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 3 5 , 7, 4 2 7 4 - A . S t r o n c k , D a v i d R., 1971. Comparative e f f e c t s of three seventh grade s c i e n c e programs with d i f f e r e n t l a b o r a t o r y m a t e r i - a l s . S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , 55, 2, 1 2 5 - 1 3 0 . T r o j a k , D o r i s A., instruction. 811-816.  1972. School  Designing a strategy for S c i e n c e and M a t h e m a t i c s ,  long-term 72, 9,  •  V o e l k e r , A l a n M., 1970. A competencies approach to teacher e d u c a t i o n . The S c i e n c e T e a c h e r , 3 7 , 6, 3 7 - 3 9 , 4 2 . W a l b e s s e r , H e n r y , 1963. Curriculum behavioral objectives. Journal T e a c h i n g , 1, 2 9 6 - 3 0 1 .  e v a l u a t i o n by means o f of Research i n Science  W a s i k , J o h n L., 1971. A comparison of c o g n i t i v e performance o f PSSC and non-PSSC p h y s i c s s t u d e n t s . J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , 8, 1, 8 5 - 9 0 . W h i t e , K i n n a r d and Howard, J a m e s . L e e , 1970. The relationship o f a c h i e v e m e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on i n s t r u c t i o n a l treatm e n t s . T h e J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l E d u c a t i o n , 3 9 , 2, 7882. W i l l i a m s , Homer R. a n d K o e l s c h e , C h a r l e s L . , 1 9 6 7 . Organization of chemistry c l a s s e s . A comparative study of two p a t t e r n s i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f h i g h s c h o o l c h e m i s t r y . The Science Teacher, 34, 5, 5 2 - 5 4 . Winer, B.J., Des i g n .  1971. S t a t i s t i c a l Principles in Experimental 2nd E d i t i o n . New York, McGraw-Hill.  W i t k i n , H.A. e t a l . , 1977. n i t i v e s t y l e s . Review 1-64.  Educational i m p l i c a t i o n s of of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 47,  cog1,  -  79 -  W o l f s o n , Morton L., 1973. A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t t e a c h i n g s t y l e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o a c h i e v e m e n t and retention of learning in science classes. Journal of Research i n Science Teaching, 1 0 , 4, 2 8 5 - 2 9 0 . Wood, D e a n A . , 1 9 7 4 . T h e a p p r o p r i a t e u s e o f e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . S c h o o l S c i e n c e a n d M a t h e m a t i c s , 7 4 , 3, 1 9 9 203. Wood,, F r e d H. a n d M c C u r d y , D o n a l d W., 1 9 7 6 . A n a n a l y s i s o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s e l f - d i r e c t e d n e s s as r e l a t e d t o s u c c e s s i n an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d c o n t i n u o u s progress course i n chemi s t r y a n d p h y s i c s . S c h o o l S c i e n c e a n d M a t h e m a t i c s , 7 4 , 5, 382-388. Zeschke, R i c h a r d , 1966. high school biology 28, 776-778.  U s i n g programmed i n s t r u c t i o n c o u r s e . The A m e r i c a n B i o l o g y  in a Teacher,  American C h e m i c a l S o c i e t y , 1973. Report o f the h i g h s c h o o l subcommittee o f the c u r r i c u l u m committee. J o u r n a l of C h e m i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 5 0 , 4, 2 5 7 . Appendix Tannenbaum, 1971, T e s t o f S c i e n c e P r o c e s s e s , W i t k i n , 1972, Hidden F i g u r e s T e s t , page 99.  page 105.  -  80  -  A P P E N D I X  A  -  SAMPLE  Teacher-Directed  81  LESSONS  Self-Paced  Method  The s t u d e n t s , upon e n t e r i n g the c l a s s r o o m , were d i r e c t e d to open t h e i r t e x t b o o k s t o the a p p r o p r i a t e page. The i n t r o d u c t i o n to the e x p e r i m e n t was t h e n r e a d and from t h i s the t e a c h e r would ext r a c t the purpose f o r the present experiment. Students would copy the purpose into their notebooks. The teacher would then p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s w i t h the r e q u i r e d apparatus f o r the experiment and s t u d e n t s , w o r k i n g i n p a i r s , would perform the e x p e r i m e n t by f o l l o w i n g t h e p r o c e d u r e s i n the t e x t s . S t u d e n t s were r e q u i r e d t o answer . a l l q u e s t i o n s i n b o l d f a c e type i n the p r o cedures of the t e x t . Once t h i s was d o n e , s t u d e n t s would w r i t e a c o n c l u s i o n to the purpose of the e x p e r i ment and a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s i n the t e x t at the end o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l procedure. D u r i n g the time the s t u d e n t s were d o i n g the experiment the t e a c h e r would c i r c u l a t e t h r o u g h the room t o o b s e r v e t h e s t u d e n t s ' p r o g r e s s and to a s s i s t students who needed h e l p .  1.  Introducing Science Schmid, 1973.  -  Concepts  Method  The s t u d e n t s , upon e n t e r i n g the c l a s s r o o m , would c o n t i n u e t h e i r work from where t h e y had l e f t i t a t the end o f t h e last period. I f t h e y were a b o u t t o s t a r t an e x p e r i m e n t they would follow these steps. S t e p 1 - Read the o b j e c t i v e s f o r the sequence t h e y were w o r k i n g on f r o m t h e b a c k o f t h e p a c k a g e o f o p t i c s and c o p y these o b j e c t i v e s i n t o the l a b o r a t o r y w r i t e up. Step 2 - Assemble the r e q u i r e d a p p a r a t u s as g i v e n i n the text. T h e y had been instructed as t o where i n t h e room t h e a p p a r a t u s was k e p t , s o o n l y i n e x c e p t i o n a l cases d i d they need a s s i s t a n c e a t t h i s p o i n t . S t e p 3 - The s t u d e n t s p r o ceeded w i t h the experiment, e i t h e r alone or w i t h the h e l p of a l a b o r a t o r y p a r t n e r , as i n s t r u c t e d by t h e t e x t a n d answered the q u e s t i o n s i n b o l d face type t h a t are i n the p r o cedures . S t e p 4.- O n c e t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l phase of the experiment was complete s t u d e n t s would w r i t e o u t what t h e y had l e a r n e d a b o u t the o b j e c t i v e s and answer the q u e s t i o n s a t the end o f the p r o c e d u r e i n t h e text. W h i l e the s t u d e n t s were worki n g on t h e e x p e r i m e n t the teacher would c i r c u l a t e through t h e room m a k i n g s u r e t o s p e a k t o e a c h s t u d e n t and observe  i n the  Laboratory.  M.C.  -  Teacher-Directed  Method  82  -  Self-Paced  Method  their progress with their work. I f any p r o b l e m s had been e n c o u n t e r e d by t h e stud e n t t h e s e w o u l d be d i s c u s s e d and a s o l u t i o n f o u n d . The teacher attempted to speak to each student twice each p e r i o d , once a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p e r i o d and a g a i n a t the end o f t h e p e r i o d . Any student c o u l d r e c e i v e the a s s i s t a n c e of the teacher a t any time d u r i n g the p e r i o d .  -  HOW  83  -  LIGHT  TRAVELS  Instructions: 1.  A l l a n s w e r s m u s t be mark t h i s paper.  2.  A t the end s h e e t s and  3.  Y o u may answers  written  o f t h e exam y o u answer s h e e t s .  on  an  must  use p e n c i l and r u l e r m u s t be i n p e n .  answer  return  sheet  both  f o r diagrams  - do  question  but a l l written  PART A: True or F a l s e . On t h e a n s w e r s h e e t p l a c e i f t h e s t a t e m e n t i s t r u e , and on F i f f a l s e . can  see  light  an  1.  You  2.  Vision  3.  Isaac  4.  Incandescent  5.  No p l a n t present.  6.  Fireflies  7.  Shadows screen.  8.  The p i n h o l e flame.  9.  A s an o b j e c t moves c l o s e r t o a c a n d l e f l a m e t h e i n c r e a s e s and t h e penumbra d e c r e a s e s i n s i z e .  results Newton  or  signals  experimented means  "cold  animal  will  sent  with  out from  the  on  T  eyes.  light.  light". emit  light  u n l e s s oxygen  a r e an  example  of bioluminescent l i g h t  decrease  in size  as o b j e c t  foil  X  energy.  from  image  not  of a candle  i s an  example  moves  flame  of a  is  sources.  closer  to the  erect  candle  i s an  translucent  umbra  10.  Aluminum  11.  L i g h t energy from a source i s v i s i b l e between t h e s o u r c e and t h e s c r e e n .  12.  A  candle  flame  i s an  example  of  13.  A  candle  flame  i s an  example  of a  14.  When we h o l d a c a r d w i t h a p i n h o l e b e t w e e n a c a n d l e a n d a s c r e e n , we s e e a n i n v e r t e d s h a d o w o f a c a n d l e  i n the  a broad  object. space  source  luminous  of  source  light. of  light. flame flame.  P A R T B: Completion. W r i t e on or p h r a s e w h i c h b e s t c o m p l e t e s ments :  t h e answer s h e e t the b e s t word each of the f o l l o w i n g state-  1.  For your eyes to r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n o b j e c t must r e f l e c t .  2.  An  3.  The  4.  An  5.  When a l i g h t s o u r c e l o o k s s m a l l , s m a l l o r b e c a u s e i t i s f a r away,  6.  A frosted called  light  7.  The  edges  of  shadows  cast  by  a  8.  The  edges  of  shadows  cast  by  large  9.  Shadows  object  which  narrowest object  emits  possible  through  are  i t s own  which  bulb  good  beam no  as  of  pass  . .  is called  e i t h e r because i t is called within  tiny  the  light light  light  room  is  source  are  sources  are  travels  in  D u r i n g an e c l i p s e o f t h e on e a r t h i s c a l l e d the  12.  The  13.  We  14.  A l i g h t s o u r c e we u s e i n c l a s s made o f a t r a n s f o r m e r , s m a l l l i g h t b u l b , d o u b l e c o n v e x l e n s and a b a f f l e is called  15.  D e s c r i b e f u l l y w h a t y o u s e e on s c r e e n when y o u h o l d a s p h e r i c a l opaque b a l l between a p o i n t l i g h t s o u r c e and a screen. The b a l l i s n e a r t h e s c r e e n . (3 m a r k s )  study  light  shadow  because  light  the  area  is called i s an  object,  .  11.  sun,  the  i t is .  I f most o f the object i s said  complete  through  the  10.  area of  passes .  object  is called  will  from  that  an  is called  light  light  seen  evidence  light t o be  light  from  of  the  partial  shadow  .  i m p o r t a n t means  of  - 85 -  A P P E N D I X  B  -  ITEM  Test I tern 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43  86  -  A N A L Y S I S OF A C H I E V E M E N T  Post Difficulty Index .932 .8 65 .392 .459 .946 .838 .351 .541 .365 .811 .703 .527 .297 .716 .365 .689 .716 .432 .149 .892 .716 .095 .649 .824 .432 .365 .446 .784 .811 .676 .230 .311 .608 .608 .676 .405 .541 .608 .392 .622 .405 .568 .608  TEST  Retention  Discrimination Index 0 .34 0.40 0.43 -0 .04 0.18 0.33 0 .19 0.21 0.21 0.30 0.21 0.35 0.04 0.40 0.26 0.30 0.30 0 .09 -0.03 0.24 0 .16 0.13 0.33 0.31 0.43 0.45 0.14 0.15 0.23 0.43 0.40 0.29 0.55 0.42 0.44 0.59 0.50 0.58 0.50 0.35 0.20 0.42 0 .28  Difficulty Index .973 .892 .405 .514 .919 .824 .230 .622 .284 .784 .608 .405 .230 .797 .446 .730 .676 .568 .162 .905 .824 .081 .581 .784 .500 .203 .203 .838 .851 .541 .270 .230 .514 .405 .554 .311 ,486 .459 .243 .514 .432 .635 .527  Discr imination Index 0 .14 0.24 0.39 -0.07 0.01 0.41 0.16 0.09 0.29 0.32 0.28 0.33 0.09 0.30 0.12 0.19 0.31 0.10 -0.20 0.35 0.09 0 .18 0 .25 0.24 0.31 0.24 0.26 0.13 0.18 0.18 0.56 0.24 0.52 0 .29 0.22 0.57 0.41 0 .55 0.51 0.21 0.09 0.30 0 .33  -  Test Item 44 •45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59  8 7. -  Post  Retention  Difficulty Index  Discr imination Index  Difficulty Index  Discr imination Index  .270 .541 .216 .095 .351 .500 .581 .635 .527 .419 .405 .689 .905 .295 .405 .541  0.27 0.59 0 .18 0 .07 0.08 0.41 0.37 0.42 0.57 0.13 0.36 0.36 0 .19 0.06 -0.10 0.39  .18 9 .500 .216 .176 .284 .568 .689 .649 .459 .257 .419 .743 .905 .338 .176 .635  0.19 0.53 0 .24 -0.07 0.10 0 .31 0.37 0.42 0.58 0.29 0.39 0.36 0 .24 0.10 -0.07 0 .19  -  88  -  I T E M - T E S T C O R R E L A T I O N S FOR ATTITUDE SCALES  Exper imenting Item  Pre  Post  THE  Independent Investigation Pre  Post  1  -0.045  0.283  0.271  0 .385  2  0.257  0.229  0.252  0.416  3  0.457  0.618  0.467  0.426  4  0.025  0.126  0.581  0 .654  5  0 .360  0.494  0.140  0.498  6  0.406  0.598  0.112  0.479  7  0 .346  0.301  0.204  0.353  8  0.232  0 .480  0.210  0.504  9  0 .304  0 .558  0.385  0 . 563  10  0 .192  0.293  0.218  0.454  11  0 .261  0.569  0.515  0.434  12  0.112 *  0.487  0.454  0 .517  13  0 .207  -0.036  0 .307  0.497  14  0 .090  0.556  0.422  0 .460  15  0 .291  0.619  0.294  0.19 6  16  0.330  0.511  0 .166  0 .459  17  0.335  0.471  0 .259  0.505  18  0.471  0.658  0.268  0 .347  19  0.331  0.637  0.080  0.387  20  0.229  0.342  0 .199  0.083  -  ITEM  ANALYSIS  ATTITUDE  89  -  OF A T T I T U D E  SCALE  SCALES  - EXPERIMENTING  Post - t e s t  Pre- test Mean  Item  Standard Deviation  Mean  Standard Deviation  1  2.446  1.346  1.892  .. 1 . 0 0 1  2  3.514  1.316  3 .230  1.267  3  1.459  0.863  1.608  0.991  4  2.500  1.464  1.986  1.104  5  2.649  1.521  2.514  1.436  6  2.054  1.084  2.122  1.110  7  1.676  1.148  1.716  1.014  8  2.203  1.570  2.243  1.524  9  2.108  1.340  1.973  1.238  10  1.959  1.349  1.730  1.064  11  2.000  1.228  2.230  1.234  12  2.527  1.510  2.919  1.301  13  2.446  1.416  2.514  1.367  14  2.770  1.400  2.716  1.531  15  1.973  1.282  2.311  1.181  16  3.257  1.536  2.784  1.528  17  2.770  1.400  2.865  1.368  18  2.041  1.349  2.378  1.290  19  2.324  1.229  2.446  1.124  20  2.703  1.602  2.176  1.243  x =  47.38  =  10.11  x  =  46.35  =  12.87  -  ATTITUDE  90  -  S C A L E - INDEPENDENT I N V E S T I G A T I O N  Post - t e s t  Pre - t e s t Mean  I tern  Standard Deviation  Mean  Standard Deviation  1  2.081  1.301  2.095  1.18 4  2  2.324  1.294  2.541  1.326  3  3 .203  1.499  3.324  1.481  4  2.419  1.562  2.459  1.397  5  2.784  1.599  2.932  1.446  6  2.392  1.515  2.257  1.272  7  3.784  1.274  3.730  1.306  8  3.068  1.456  3.027  1.385  9  3 .905  1.229  3.270  1.242  10  1.865  1.348  2.311  1.271  11  2.257  1.366  2 . 243  1.203  12  2.324  1.481  2.216  1.436  13  1.865  1.253  2.081  1.301  14  3.203  1.535  3.257  1.462  15  2.676  1.536  2.595  1.404  16  1.986  1.188  2.446  1.229  17  2.541  1.387  2.662  1.388  18  3.068  1.275  3.149  1.279  19  2.122  1.260  2.743  1.283  20  4.405  1.084  3.959  1.199  x =  54.27  =  11.09  x  =  55.30  =  13.52  -  91  -  SCIENCE  8  OPTICS Name  Circle  the answer  of your  choice.  1.  Light travels a) i n s t r a i g h t lines b) i n c i r c u l a r motion c) t h r o u g h a l l s o l i d s d) t h r o u g h a l l l i q u i d s e) n o n e o f t h e s e  2.  A body which g i v e s a) t r a n s l u c e n t b) o p a q u e c) c o l d d) luminous e) none o f t h e s e  3.  An e x a m p l e o f a n o n - l u m i n o u s a) t h e s u n b) a c a n d l e c ) t h e moon d) a s t a r e) none o f t h e s e  4.  M a t e r i a l which allows a) o p a q u e b) t r a n s l u c e n t c) t r a n s p a r e n t d) i n c a n d e s c e n t e) c o l d  5.  L i g h t that bounces o f f a s u r f a c e a) r e f l e c t e d b) d i f f u s e d c) converged d) d i v e r g e d e) a b s o r b e d  6.  Wax a) b) c) d) e)  o f f i t s own  paper i s p r o b a b l y transparent translucent opaque none o f t h e s e a l l of these  most  of  light  is  body i s  the l i g h t  i s said  to pass  t o be  through  is  -  92 -  7.  An a) b) c) d)  i n c a n d e s c e n t o b j e c t i s one t h a t gives o f f cold light i s h o t enough t o g i v e o f f l i g h t d o e s n o t g i v e o f f any l i g h t none o f t h e s e  8.  The shadow f o r m e d f r o m a p e n c i l and a s m a l l s h a r p e s t when a) t h e p e n c i l i s c l o s e t o t h e s c r e e n b) t h e p e n c i l i s h a l f w a y b e t w e e n t h e s o u r c e c) the p e n c i l i s c l o s e t o the s o u r c e d) n o n e o f t h e s e  source  is  1  9.  10.  and  the  When:, you. move away f r o m a l i g h t s o u r c e t h e l i g h t dimmer because a) l e s s l i g h t i s e m i t t e d b) t h e l i g h t b e n d s away f r o m y o u c) the l i g h t s t o p s b e f o r e i t g e t s t o you d) n o n e o f t h e s e Bioluminescence i s a) a t y p e o f b a c t e r i a b) l i g h t f r o m a l i v i n g c) a type o f a l g a e d) n o n e o f t h e s e  11.  The penumbra i s a) a f u l l shadow b) a s o u r c e o f l i g h t c) a p a r t i a l shadow d) n o n e o f t h e s e  12.  When l i g it is a) b e n t b) g o e s c) b e n t d) none  ht  goes  from  Par a) b) c) d)  14.  A concave m i r r o r i s a) d i s h e d inwards b) d i s h e d o u t w a r d s c) a f l a t s u r f a c e d) none o f t h e s e  appears  source  a more  dense  to a  less  dense  away f r o m t h e n o r m a l straight through toward the normal of these  13.  screen  a l l e l r a y s r e f l e c t e d from a n u p s i d e down i m a g e a p o i n t image a r i g h t s i d e up image none o f t h e s e  a concave  mirror  form  medium  -  93  -  15.  A normal l i n e i s a) h o r i z o n t a l t o t h e s u r f a c e b) a t 4 5 ° t o t h e s u r v a c e c) p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e s u r f a c e d) n o n e o f t h e s e  16.  The f o c a l p o i n t o f a c o n c a v e m i r r o r i s a) t h e p o i n t w h e r e t h e r e f l e c t e d rays cross b) t h e c e n t e r o f t h e c u r v e d surface c) t h e c e n t e r o f t h e c i r c l e w h i c h t h e m i r r o r d) n o n e o f t h e s e  17.  A double convex l e n s has a) b o t h s i d e s d i s h e d o u t w a r d s b) b o t h s i d e s d i s h e d i n w a r d s c) o n e s i d e d i s h e d i n w a r d s a n d t h e o t h e r wards d) n o n e o f t h e s e a l l e l l i g h t rays strike d i v e r g e outward are reflected converge a t a p o i n t o f these  i s part  side  a concave  dished  out-  18.  When p a r a) t h e y b) t h e y c) t h e y d) n o n e  19.  A double convex l e n s , forms a t the f o c a l a) a r e a l i m a g e , l a r g e r t h a n t h e o b j e c t b) a v i r t u a l image c) a p o i n t o f l i g h t d) n o n e o f t h e s e  20.  A transparent object a) l e t s some l i g h t t h r o u g h i t b) l e t s a l l t h e l i g h t t h r o u g h i t c) d o e s n o t a l l o w l i g h t t o p a s s t h r o u g h i t d) n o n e o f t h e s e  21.  A s o l a r e c l i p s e happens every time a) t h e moon i s b e t w e e n t h e s u n a n d e a r t h b) t h e e a r t h s t o p s l i g h t f r o m h i t t i n g t h e moon c ) t h e moon s t o p s some s u n l i g h t f r o m r e a c h i n g t h e e a r t h d) n o n e o f t h e s e  22.  A shadow i s a a) a b s e n c e o f l i g h t b) a r e a w h e r e l i g h t i s b l o c k e d c) where l i g h t shines d) n o n e o f t h e s e  out  lens  point  -  23.  A broad l i g h t source a) s h a r p s h a d o w b) f u z z y s h a d o w c) no shadow d) n o n e o f t h e s e  24.  An a)  25.  94  -  can produce  a  example o f a broad luminous l i g h t t h e moon b) t h e s u n c) a s t a r  source i s d) n o n e o f  An e x a m p l e o f , a n o n l u m i n o u s l i g h t s o u r c e i s a) t h e moon b) t h e s u n c) a s t a r d) n o n e  of  26.  The image i n a p l a n e m i r r o r i s a) o n l y i n v e r t e d vertically b) o n l y i n v e r t e d laterally c) i n v e r t e d v e r t i c a l l y and l a t e r a l l y d) n o t i n v e r t e d v e r t i c a l l y o r l a t e r a l l y  27.  In a p l a n e m i r r o r , t h e image i s a) r e a l b) n o t r e a l o r v i r t u a l c) virtual d) r e a l a n d v i r t u a l  28.  In a) b) c) d)  a p l a n e m i r r o r , t h e image i s higher than the o b j e c t s m a l l e r than the o b j e c t higher or s m a l l e r than the o b j e c t same h e i g h t a s t h e o b j e c t  29.  In a) b) c) d)  a p l a n e m i r r o r , t h e image i s t h i n n e r than the o b j e c t wider than the o b j e c t t h i n n e r or wider than the o b j e c t same w i d t h a s t h e o b j e c t  30.  In a) b.) c) d)  a p l a n e m i r r o r , t h e i m a g e a p p e a r s t o be f a r t h e r behind the m i r r o r than the o b j e c t c l o s e r t o the m i r r o r than the o b j e c t f a r t h e r or c l o s e r t o the m i r r o r than the o b j e c t same d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e m i r r o r a s t h e o b j e c t  31.  In a p l a n e m i r r o r , t h e image a) b e h i n d t h e m i r r o r b) i n f r o n t o f t h e m i r r o r c ) on t h e b a c k o f t h e m i r r o r d) f u r t h e r b e h i n d t h e m i r r o r  really  than  these  these  is  the o b j e c t  is in  front  -  95  -  32.  A l i n e j o i n i n g t h e o b j e c t and t h e image i n a is a) p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e n o r m a l l i n e b) p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e b a c k o f t h e m i r r o r c) p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o the i n c i d e n t r a y d) p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e r e f l e c t e d ray  33.  The a) b) c) d)  ray of l i g h t s t r i k i n g incident ray reflected ray normal ray h o r i z o n t a l ray  34.  The a) b) c) d)  angle of i n c i d e n c e i s the angle between t h e i n c i d e n t r a y and t h e p a r a l l e l m i r r o r r a y t h e i n c i d e n t r a y and t h e r e f l e c t ray t h e i n c i d e n t r a y and t h e n o r m a l l i n e t h e i n c i d e n t r a y and t h e p e r p e n d i c u l a r ray  35.  The a) b) c) d)  angle of incidence i s l a r g e r than the angle o f reflection s m a l l e r than the angle of reflection equal to the angle of reflection s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r or l a r g e r than the angle  If of a) b) c) d)  a ray of l i g h t t r a v e l s towards a m i r r o r a r e f l e c t e d r a y , the ray w i l l l e a v e the m i r r o r a l o n g the path of the l e a v e the m i r r o r a l o n g the path of the l e a v e the m i r r o r a l o n g the path of the l e a v e the m i r r o r a l o n g a path p a r a l l e l ray  36.  37.  Parall a) a s b) a s c) as d) a s  38.  When t h e m u s t be a) 45'  39.  In a) b) c) d) e)  the  mirror  e l l i g h t rays r e f l e c t o f f p a r a l l e l l i g h t rays diffused light rays converging light rays diverging light rays angle b)  of r e f l e c t i o n ^ c) 30 60  t h e d i a g r a m , r a y BC an i n c i d e n t r a y a diffused ray a converging ray a d i v e r g i n g ray none o f these  is  a  is  plane  i s 30°, d)  the 90  plane  mirror  called  of  reflection  along  the  path  i n c i d e n t ray normal l i n e reflected ray t o the reflected  mirror  angle  of  incidence  -  96  -  40.  The p o i n t a t which a lens causes l i g h t rays t o meet i s s a i d to be a) a p r i n c i p a l a x i s b) a p r i n c i p a l focus c) a d i f f u s e d spot d) a sharp image e) none of these  41.  The purpose of a lens i s to a) r e f l e c t l i g h t b) r e f r a c t l i g h t c) screen colour d) d i f f u s e l i g h t e) none of these An a) b) c) d) e)  image you see..in..a plane mirror i s erect inver ted diffused refracted none of these  An a) b) c) d) e)  image which can be r e f l e c t e d virtual real diverging converging transparent  on a screen i s  44.  The image produced by the paper A i s a) i n v e r t e d b) e r e c t c) r e a l d) a and c e) b and c  45.  P a r a l l e l l i g h t rays r e f l e c t o f f a plane m i r r o r a) as p a r a l l e l l i g h t rays b) as d i f f u s e d l i g h t rays c) as converging l i g h t rays d) as d i v e r g i n g l i g h t rays  46.  A r e a l image i s a) formed by a convex m i r r o r b) formed by a plane m i r r o r c) always upside down d) none of these  -  97  -  47.  The a n g l e o f r e f r a c t i o n i s a) a l w a y s e q u a l t o t h e a n g l e o f i n c i d e n c e b) a l w a y s l e s s t h a n t h e a n g l e o f i n c i d e n c e c) a l w a y s more t h a n t h e a n g l e o f i n c i d e n c e d) n o n e o f t h e s e  48.  The p r i n c i p a l a x i s a) i s w h e r e t h e r e f l e c t e d r a y s m e e t b) p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e f o c a l p o i n t c) i s p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o the n o r m a l d) n o n e o f t h e s e  49.  When a l i g h t r a y i s r e f r a c t e d a) b e n t b) d i v i d e d c) r e f l e c t e d d) none o f t h e s e  50.  A lens that i s wider a t the center known a s a) c o n c a v e b) c o n v e x c) c o n c a v e - c o n v e x d) n o n e o f t h e s e e) a l l o f a , b , and c  51.  T h i s i s a diagram a) c o n v e x l e n s b) c o n c a v e l e n s c) p l a n e m i r r o r d) umbra e) p e n u m b r a  52.  In a) b) c) d) e)  t h i s plane mirror an i n c i d e n t r a y a diffused ray a converging ray a diverging ray a perpendicular  53.  In a) b) c) d)  a plane mirror the angle of incidence i s not equal to the angle of r e f l e c t i o n e q u a l t o the angle of r e f r a c t i o n equal to the angle of r e f l e c t i o n none o f t h e s e  54.  A v i r t u a l image i s a) f o r m e d b y a p l a n e m i r r o r b) c a n n o t be p u t o n a s c r e e n c ) u p s i d e down d) none o f t h e s e  i tis  than  a t the edge i s  of a  r a y AB i s  - 9 a 55.  You c a n n o t s e e a r o u n d c o r n e r s because a) y o u r e y e s a r e n o t e q u i p p e d f o r t h i s b) l i g h t t r a v e l s i n s t r a i g h t lines c) o b j e c t s a r o u n d a c o r n e r do n o t r e f l e c t d) n o n e o f t h e s e  light  56.  A l u m i n o u s o b j e c t i s one t h a t a) g i v e s o f f l i g h t b) r e f l e c t s light c) does n o t r e f l e c t light d) n o n e o f t h e s e  57.  I n a p l a n e m i r r o r t h e f e w e s t number o f s i g h t l i n e s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e image i s a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) m o r e t h a n 3  58.  In a) b) c) d)  59.  a p l a n e m i r r o r t h e image i s t h e same s i z e a s t h e o b j e c t s m a l l e r than the o b j e c t b i g g e r than the o b j e c t d e p e n d s on t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m  needed  the m i r r o r  An i m a g e i n a m i r r o r i s l a t e r a l l y i n v e r t e d when a) i t s l e f t s i d e a p p e a r s t o be t h e r i g h t s i d e o f t h e b) t h e i m a g e i s u p s i d e down c ) i m a g e c a n be p u t o n a s c r e e n d) n o n e o f t h e s e  image  HIDDEN FIGURES TEST T h i s i s a t e s t of your a b i l i t y to t e l l which one of f i v e simple shapes can be found i n a more complex p a t t e r n . At the top of each page i n t h i s t e s t are f i v e simple shapes l e t t e r e d A, B, C, D, and E. Beneath each row of shapes i s a page of p a t terns. Each p a t t e r n has a row of l e t t e r s beneath i t . The c o r r e c t answer i s shown by a c i r c l e around the l e t t e r of the shape of the shape which you are to f i n d i n the p a t t e r n . When you have found the shape of the p a t t e r n , use the p e n c i l s u p p l i e d to outl i n e i t as shown i n the examples below. NOTE: There i s only one of these figures in each pattern, and thi6 figure w i l l always be right side up and exactly the same size as one of the five lettered figures . Now try these 2 examples.  A  B  <g)  B  C  C  D  E  D  E  A  B  C. < £ >  E  The figures below show how the figures are included i n the problems. Figure A i s i n the f i r s t problem and figure D i n the second.  (g)  B  C  D  E  A  B  C ©  E  You w i l l have 10 minutes for each of the two parts of this test. Each part has 2 pages. When you have finished Part 1, STOP. Please do not go on to Part 2 until you are asked to do so. DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL ASKED TO DO SO.  Part  A  1  (10 m i n u t e s )  B  - 100 -  C  D  GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE  E  Part  1 (continued)  A -B ©  D  E  - 101 -  A B @ D E  DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL ASKED TO DO SO. STOP.  Part  2 (10 m i n u t e s )  102 -  Part  2  (continued)  - 103 -  B  / x/\ 26.  /•/  Z7.  2®.  \ A  B  C  D (E)  A  B  C  (3)  E  ®  B  C  D  E  X 29.  ix  30.  A B C Df! A  B  C ®  E  32.  31.  @  A  B  C  D  B  C  D  E  ®  DO NOT GO BACK TO PART-1, AND DO NOT GO ON TO ANY OTHER TEST UNTIL ASKED TO DO SO. STOP.  The used below  by  modified Mott  version  (1974)  i n d i c a t e s the  original  was  -  104  -  of  the  Test  of  in  this  a l s o used  item  numbers  on  both  Science study. the  Processes The  modified  table and  tests.  Test  of  Science Processes  Modified Item No.  Or i g i n a l Item No.  Modi f i e d Item No.  Or i g i n a l Item No.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25  13 15 18 19 20 21 22 24 26 27 32 33 3 5 36 38 39 40 41 44 48 51 55 56 57 58  26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50  59 60 63 64 71 72 73 74 75 77 82 83 85 87 88 89 90 91 92 94 37 45 79 80 81  10 5 DO  NOT  TURN  THE  PAGE UNTIL  T E S T OF  THE  TEACHER  TELLS  YOU  TO  DO  SO  SCIENCE PROCESSES  INSTRUCTIONS Now look at your answer sheet. Find where it says "GRADE." It is next to where some of the numbers are already blackened in. Now blacken in the number that tellB which grade you are In, Now print your name in the correct boxes and blacken in the letter boxes under each letter in your name. Look at the way it Is done in the picture of the answer sheet on this page. Be very careful to blacken the right letter boxes.  This teat is called the Test of Science Processes. "Processes" are ways of doing things. For example, scientists have to be able to look at things very carefully and tell what they sec. Scientists have to be able to measure and use numbers. And scientists have to be able to plan and understand experiments. This is a toot of how well YOU can do some of the things scientists have todo. It Is NOT a test of how many facts you know about science. , You should have a pencil, an answer sheet, a piece of scrap paper for doing any figuring, and this test booklet. If you do not have any of these things, raise your hand and the teacher will get what you need. PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THE TEST BOOKLET. Now look at the picture of the answer sheet below. It shows the only right way to fill in answers. Only numbers 146 to ISO are filled in correctly. You must use a pencil and you must make your answers black and they must fill the box completely and not overflow. Do NOT make any of the mistakes shown in numbers 151 to 155. Do NOT make an "X." Do NOT make your answers too light. Do NOT miss the box. Do NOT circle the answer or make a checkmark. Erase your mistakes completely. There is only one right way to fill in your answers -- COMPLETELY AND BLACKLY WITH A PENCIL. Do NOT wrinkle your answer sheet. It Is going to be read by a machine and the machine can not read wrinkled papers. The machine can only read penciled answers oo DO NOT USE INK.  Most of the questions on this test have pictures that go with them. The first few are in color. The teacher will show you the color pictures and read the questions WITH you. Then you will have about half a minute to think about the question and mark your answer. Always be careful to mark your answer in the right place on your answer sheet. If you make a mistake or change your mind, be sure to erase the wrong answer completely and then mark your new answer. NEVER mark more than one answer for each question. Be sure to keep up with the teacher. If you can not think of an answer, either guess or skip it. Do not spend too much time on any one question. If you have difficulty with a question, go on to the next one and come back to the hard one later. Every so often, the teacher will tell you about which question you should be working on. PLEASE DO NOT WRITE IN THE TEST BOOKLET. If you need to do any figuring, you may do it on the scrap paper. . IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS, RAISE YOUR HAND  NOW.  S A M P L E NAME GRID  MINI  >n<ii»  II  NM'f  lin arrtt Mflfltifn, imw tuoirt  IH<  3JAWX  S A M P L E GRADE AND  S A M P L E ANSWERS  — ————i  r>  —I  RIGHT D.I  WRONG  I  2  .to  NUMBER  f.  _.  144 j  I;  t A t . rj ill  b  3  t  mi i id>o  m  IW|  l«0  mi  'A  t>.  >4  i \  .1.  J  04  Wj I I 0 I  I,  h  CM 1  r  3'  t  9  4  4  • *  'l  w  '«  it  .7  tl  $  ul  1  11?  i '  M DO  NOT  TURN  THE  PAGE UNTIL  THE  TEACHER  TELLS  YOU  TO  DO  SO Copyright ©  DO NOT WRITE IN T H E T E S T  ALL OF THE QUESTIONS ON THIS PAGE REFER TO COLOR PICTURES. YOU SHOULD LOOK AT THE PICTURES AS THE TEACHER SHOWS THEM TO YOU AND THEN ANSWER THE QUESTIONS. i 1. BE S URE YOU A R E USING ANSWER S P A C E 1 This is a picture of 5 shirts. Which choice includes only the shirts you would wear if you wanted to be seen easily in the dark? 1. 1 and 4 2. 2 and 3 3. 1. 3, and 5 4. 2, 4, and 5 S. 2, 3, and 5 2. This lo a picture of 8 pieces of paper. Which is the only group of two pieces that you can take away so that you have taken away all of one color and all of one shape? 1. 1 and 6 2. 2 and 8 3. 2 and 7 4. 1 and 3 5. 4 and 5  BOOKLET  106-  This is a picture of 5 pieces of paper that are slightly different. Which choice tells exactly how they are different? 1. 4 is a different color. 2. 2 is smaller. 3. 2 is smaller than all the others and 4 is a different color. 4. 1,3, 4, and 5 are the same size. 5. 4 and 2 are different from each other.  This is a picture of some cut flowers. They arc called Anthurium. The red parts are called bracts. Just from what you see in the picture, which of the following statements can you make? 1. Anthurium have either red or white bracts and green leaves. 2. All Anthurium have red bracts and green leaves. 3. All Anthurium have green leaves. 4. Anthurium bracts may be red, or white, or any color In between, but the leaves are always green. 5. None of these, because you do not have enough information. 9.  3.  This is a picture of 5 objects, Which choice is a way they are the same? j ~) 1. They are all used for eating. 2. They are all the same color. 3. They are all made of wood. 4. They are all about the same size. 5. They are all about the same shape.  This is a picture of 8 pieces of paper. If you group them by color, what is the smallest numberof groups you can make? 1.1 2. 2 . 3. 3 4. 4 5. 5  1  4. This is a picture of 8 pieces of paper. Which choice includes only the pieces which are red and have a triangular hole? 1. 1, 4, and 6 2. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 3. 5 and 8 4. 1, 4, 6, and 8 . 5. 4 and 6 5. BE SURE YOU A R E USING ANSWER S P A C E 5 Look at the picture of the 8 pieces of paper again. Which choice includes only those piece* that are NOT red and have square holes? 1. 2, 3, 5, and 7 2. 5 and 7 3. 5, 7, and 8 4. 1, 3, 5, 7, and 8 5. 2, 3, 4, and 8 6.  !  This Is a picture of 10 beads. Which is the only group of 3 beads that you can take away so that your three are all one color and none of the 7 you leave is that color? 1. 4, 6, and 7 i 2. 2, 6, and 8 ! 3. 1, 3, and 5 4. 3, 5, and 10 1  5. 4, 7, and 9 page 2  \  \: ;i  10. BE SURE YOU A R E USING ANSWER S P A C E 10 Look at the picture of 8 pieces of paper again. If you group them by shape, what is the smallest number of groups you can make? 1. 1 2. 2 3. 3 4. 4 5. 5 11. This is a picture of 7 toy cars. Cars 1, 2, 4, and 6 make up a special group. This group is special because it Includes all the cars that 1. have wheels. 2. are not blue and have wheels. 3. are red. 4. are not blue. 5. are red and white. 12. This is a picture of pieces of paper which were left in the sun for different numbers of days. Which is the only thing you can say for sure, based on what you see in the picture? 1. Blue paper fades more than red paper. 2. All paper will continue to fade forever the longer you leave it in the sun. 3. Any paper left in the sun will fade. 4. This paper faded more by day 5 than it had by day 2. 5. Paper will fado in the sun, but cloth will not. GO ON TO P A G E 3  DO NOT WRITE  IN T H E T E S T  107  BOOKLET  THE NEXT QUESTIONS ARE TO FIND OUT HOWWELL YOU CAN LOOK AT THINGS AND HOW CAREFULLY YOU CAN TELL WHAT YOU SEE. 17.  13,  This la a picture of a boy studying what happens when he. tightens or loosens the strings of a guitar. Which one of the following Is moot important to his study? 1, The lengths and thicknesses of the strings 2. The size of the guitar ~)3. The temperature of the strings 4.. What the guitar and strings are made of 5, The age of the guitar  14.  This is a picture of 5 things. Which of them has volume? 1. The block 2. The square 3. The circle 4. The triangle 5. The curved line  These are two pictures of a pot of water on a stove. Picture 2 was taken 5 minutes after picture 1. Which choice is the best way of telling that there has been a change? 1. The water is boiling in picture 2. 2. The gas is on in picture 2. 3. The water gets hot when the gas is on. 4. The water is not boiling in picture 1. 5. The water is boiling in picture 2, but it is not boiling in picture 1.  18.  This is a picture of a ball that has just Dounced off the wall and will bounce on the floor. Which one of the following is LEAST important to someone studying the bouncing? 1. What the ball is made of 2. What the floor is made of 3. What the wall is made of 4. How high the wall is / 5. Gravity / i  19. ._  15.  LJ •  h  i t  •  /  '.V'i  This picture shows 4 ways of arranging 3 bulbs and a battery. Which two ways are the same? 1. 1 and 4 2. 2 and 4 3. 1 and 2* 4. 3 and 2 8. 3 and 4  ;.I  This is a picture of 5 objects. Which of them is NOT in the same phase of matter (solid, liquid, gas) as all the others? 1. The pencil ' 2. - The water 3. The toy giraffe 4. The glass 5. The beads  20.  16.  k<  V Thls is a picture of a growing-seed, Which choiceTbest describes what you see? | 1. The seed is growing. 2. Someone planted and watered the seed. 3. The seed coat has split and a root and a stem are coming out of the seed. 4. A root is growing down and a otemis growing up. 5. The seed has germinated. page 3  ..9.  This is a picture with 4 parts. Each part shows a compaa a bar magnet, and a horseshoe magnet. In which two pat are the three things arranged in the same way? 1. 1 and 3 2. 2 and 4 B E SURE YOU A R E U S I r - 1 and 4 ANSWER S P A C E 20 4. 2 and 3 5. 1 and 2 GO ON TO PAGE 3  DO  NOT  WRITE  IN THE  TEST  108  BOOKLET  THE NEXT QUESTIONS ARE TO FINDOUT HOWWELL YOU CAN PUT THINGS INTO GROUPS. [' 21. 25.  This lea picture of a match. Which choice tells all that you can see In the picture and no more? 1. Someone la holding a match which is burning and giving off smoke. 2. Someone has just lit a match. 3. Someone is holding a burning match. 4. Someone is about to be burned by the match he is holding. 5. A match is burning and giving off light and heat. THE NEXT QUESTIONS ARE TO FIND OUT HOW WELL YOU CAN TELL HOW THINGS ARE THE SAME OR DIFFERENT.  This is a way. How 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  picture of 5 objects (hat are alike In one special arc they alike? They are all the same shape. They all help you see things that are far away. They are all made of metal. They all have lenses. They all make things look smaller.  26. 22.  1'. .• , . U ^ ' ' i2 Which choice best describes these two pictures? 1. Different things are in both pictures, and they are ., arranged differently. 2. Different things are in both pictures, but they are arranged in the same way. 3. The same things are in both pictures, but they are arranged differently. The same things are in both pictures, and they are I arranged in the same way. 5. Picture 2 ie a mirror image of picture 1. x  This is a picture of 8 objects. Which choice includes all the objects that are round like a ball and NONE of the objects that are flat? 1.'1, 2, 3,, 4, 5, 7, and 8 2. 2, .3, 5, 7, and 8 3. 4. 6,and 8 4. 2. 3,and 5 ' 5. 1. 2,3, 5, and 7  27. 23.  This is a picture of two things happening. Which choice is a way they are the same? 1. Something is burning in both and heating something else. 2. Glass is used in both. _ 3. There fs a solid burning in both. 4. Something 1« cooking lnono, but In the other something Is being lit. 5. There in liquid in both.  This is a picture '6f 5 objectB. Which choice includes only those that-would make good paper weights? 1. 1, 3, 4, and 5 2. .3 and 4 3. 1, 2, and 5 4. 1 and 5 5. 1,4, and 5  28. 24.  This ts a picture otA objects. Which are the aWHS? I... li anil: * •[ I, i.  2 anti 3 5  3. 1, 2. and 4 4. None 5. I and 4 page 4  This Is a picture of 7 objects. Which choice includes only thoBe that can beused for carrying more than just a few drops of water? 1. t. 2. 1. 6, and' 7 2. 3.  1. Z. 3. 4. v-ni h  1,2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 4. 1,2, 3, 4, 6, and 7 5. 1, 2, 3, and 6 GO  ON  TO P A G E 5  DO  NOT  WRITE  IN THE  TEST  109  BOOKLET »---  34. 29.  D 2  This is a picture of 10 marbles and 6 other objects. Which choice includes only those that can be used to carry all 10 marbles at the same time? 1. 1, 3, and 6 2. 1 and 3 3. 1,3, and 5 4. 1, 2, and 3 5. 2, 3, 4, and 5 THE NEXT QUESTIONS ARE TO FIND OUT HOW WELL YOU CAN USE NUMBERS. 30. BE SURE YOU ARE USING ANSWER S P A C E 30 Which number below is five hundred sixteen thousand, three hundred seventy-two? 1. 516.312 2. 572, 316 3. 516,372 >•» 1^ 1 0 41 4. 372,516 «Y* 5. 516, 370 1  31.  Here is a picture of 4 blocks. Which choice lists the blocks from smallest to biggest? 1. 1, 4. 3, 2 2. 2, 4, 3, 1 3. 2, 3, 1, 4 4. 2. 3, 4, 1 5. 3. 2, 4, 1 32. Which one of these temperature readings is 25 degrees lower than 15°F? '" r. -IO°F- " • . 2. 15°F 3. -25°F 4. 0°F 5. 40°F  M 33.  ...  l  iii  IP  This picture shows 50 straws. What fraction of the straws •re on the dark paper? 1. 1/5 2. 50/5 3. 10/25 4. 2/50 5. 1/10 page 5  """^  j 1 \  3  4 g ,  This is a picture of 5 glasses of colored water. Which choice lists the glasses from most water to least water? 1. 5, 3, 1, 4, 2 2. 2, 4, 3, 5, 1 3. 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 4. 4, 2, 3, 1, 5 5. 2, 4, 3, 1, 5 35. Which one 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  of these decimals is equal to 15/100? .0015 .015 15.0 1.5 .15  36. If the 17th of. March is Monday, what day of the week is the 23rd of March? 1. Sunday 2. Monday 3. Tuesday 4. Thursday 5. Friday 1  37. If there are 25 children in a class and 5 are absent, what percent of the class is present? 1. 95* 2. 80* 3. 75* 4. 25* 5. 20* THE NEXT QUESTIONS ARE TO FIND OUT HOW WELL YOU CAN USE GRAPHS AND CHARTS. 38.  approximate approximate number of length of a hours in a year (in earth years) day 12 JUPITER 10 12 SATURN 10 .29 9 MARS 2 24 2 1 1 84 URANUS 5 MERCURY 0 1400 1/4 This is a chart of information about 5 planets Which of these planets has the longest year? 1. Jupiter 2. Saturn 3. Mars 4. Mercury 5. Uranus NAME  number . of moons  39. Look at the chart again Which two planets have about the same length of day? 1. Jupiter and Saturn 2. Mars and Jupiter 3. Mars and Uranus 4. Mercury and Uranus 5. No two GO ON TO P A G E 6  DO  NOT  WRITE IN THE  TEST  BOOKLET  110  40. 45.  BE SORE YOU A R E USING ANSWER S P A C E 40 Thlo lo a graph of the boiling temperatures of 6 different l i quids. Which liquid has the lowest boiling temperature? 1. Liquid 1 2. Liquid 3 3. Liquid 4 4. Liquid 5 5. Liquid 6  THE NEXT QU ESTIONS ARE TO FIND OU T HOW WELL YOU CAN MEASURE.  This is a picture of a thermometer In a glass of water. What is the temperature of the water? j CftOC 50°F 2. 90°F 3. 20°C 4. 5. 0"C 46. Which one of these units would be best to use in measuring the weight of a loaded freight car? 1. Pounds 2. Liters 3. TonB 4. Kilograms 5. Grams  42.  47.  This le a picture of 5 different rulers, Which one would be best for measuring how tall you are? 1. I . 2. 2 ! ; 3. 3 4. 4  This is a picture of a quart of milk. About how much does the milk weigh? .1. 10 milligrams 2. 1 gram 3. t ounces 4. \0 liters 5. 2 pounds  41. Look at the graph again, Which two liquids have the same boiling temperature? 1. 6 and 4 2. 3 and 4 3. 1 and 5 4. 2 and 1 5. 3 and 5  5.  5  48.  43. U,~... <..^>i^'^  This is a picture of a ball. Which of these would be beotjfor measuring the distance around this ball? 1. Tape measure' 2. Meter stick 3. Yard stick 4. 1-foot ruler 5. 6-inch ruler 44.  These are two pictures of a clock. In picture 1, it Is 3:40 in the afternoon. In picture 2, It is 6:10 that evening. How much later was picture 2 taken? 1. 2 hours and 30 minutes 2. 6 hours and 10 minutes . . 3. 3 hours and 40 minutes 4. 9 hours and 50 minutes 5. 9 hours and 30 minutes page 6  These two pictures show a thermometer before and after it was cooled for 10 minutes. If its temperature went down at a steady rate, what was the rate? 1. 1 degree por hour 2. 1 dogroo por mlnuto 3. 1 degree por second 4. 2 degrees per minuter 5. 20 degrees per minute  49.  This is a picture of a box with Its dimensions shown on it and a scale drawing of the box. One dimension Is left out of the scale drawing. What should It be? 1. 1 Inch 2. 2 Inches 3. 3 Inches 4. 4 Inches 5. 5 Inches GO ON TO P A G E 7  DO  NOT  WRITE IN  THE  TEST  BOOKLET  111  T  50.  55.  BE SURE YOU ARE USING ANSWER'SPACE 50 Thio 1B a picture of a little boy holding a ball. About how big la the ball? 1. 4 inches across . 2. 5 centimeters across 3. 1/2 yard across 4. 1 meter across 5. 9 inches across  \ - i  This is a picture of a block. What are its dimensions? 1. 18 Inches by 12 inches by 6 inches 2. 14 inches by 11 l/2 inches by 3 l/2 inches 3. 14 inches by 12 inches by 6 inches 4. 15 l/2 inches by 10 l/2 Inches by 3 inches 5. 18 Inches by 11 l/2 inches by 4 inches  56. SI.  i  This la a picture of a room. Pretend that you are in this room and you want to measure its size, but you do not have a ruler. Which choice is NOT something you could use? 1. Your foot lengths 2. Floor tile lengths 3. Chair lengths 4. Window lengths 5. Table lengths 52. Which one of these units is used in measuring area? 1. Inch 2. Cubic Centimeter 3. Yard 4. Square Kilometer 5. Meter  This is a picture of a box with its dimensions shown on it. What Is the area of the top of the box? 1. 20 squares-inches 2. 300 square inches 3. 35 cubic inches 4. 160 square inches 5. 35Nsquare inches 57. Look at the picture of the box again. Which of these is NOT the volume of the box? 1. 15 inches times 20 inches times 8 inches 2. 300 square inches times 8 inches 3. 2, 400 cubic inches 4. ^160 square inches times 15 inches ' 5. 15 inches plus 20 inches plus 8 inches 58. Which one of these is the number of seconds in an hour? 1. 2,400 2. "60 ><i 3. 600 ^ 4. 86,400 5. 3, 600 1  53. 59.  at;."  IK  ^ QO0  Mo I* 4,0  This is a picture of a balance with a toothbrush on one side. If you wanted to weigh the toothbrush, which group of objects would be best to use? 1. The marbles 2. The stones . 3. The screws 4. The paper 5. The wlros 54. Which one of those units is NOT used In measuring weight? 1. Kilogram . _ 2. Gram J. Milligram 4. Kilometer 5. Pound page 7  This picture shows a marble and a ruler. If the marble rolls from A to B in 2 seconds at a steady speed, how fast is it going? 1. 12 inches per 2 seconds 2. 24 inches per second 3. 2 feet per second 4. l/2 foot per second 5. 1 foot per second 60. Which one of those units would be beat to use in measuring the distance from the earth to tho moon? 1. Yards B E SURE YOU ARE USING 2. Feet 3. Inches ANSWER S P A C E 60 4. Miles 5. Light Years GO ON TO P A G E 8  DO  NOT  WRITE IN THE  TEST  BOOKLET  THE NEXT QUESTIONS ARE TO FIND OU T HOW WELL YOU CAN PLAN AND UNDERSTAND EXPERIMENTS.  61. 67.  Thla is a picture of a box and 5. drawings. Which is the best drawing of the box? 1. 1 2. 2  This is a picture of two ice cube trays. One is filled with very hot water and one with cold water. Many people say: "HOT WATER MAKES ICE CUBES QUICKER THAN COLD WATER. " Which choice would be the b e B t statement for helping you plan an experiment to test this? 1. The hotter the water you start with, the faster it 62. will freeze into ice cubes. Which one of these units is used in measuring length? 2. Hot water freezes into ice cubes fast.1. Centimeter 3. Hot water freezes at higher temperatures than cold 2. Gram water. 3. Square Yard ' 4. Acre Hot water freezes into ice cubes faster because it_ 5. Quart turns on the refrigerator. 5. Hot water makes steam which keeps the refriger-_ ator going. 68. If you wanted to test the statement you chose in the last ques63. tion, which factor listed below is the only one you should allow to change during the experiment? 1. The temperature of the water you use. / 2. The amount of water in each tray. 3. The position of the trays in the freezer. This picture shows a part of a map. How far is it from North 4. The refrigerator in which you put the trays._ Town to Birch Falls? 5. The kind of trays you use. ' 1. 9 miles 69. 2. 18 miles Some things that can change during your experiment are list3. (4}/2 miles ed below. Which one changes because of all the others? 1. The kind of trays you use. 4. 27 miles 2. The refrigerator in which you put the trays. 5. 6 3/4 miles 3. The time it takes for freezing. 4. The temperature of the water you use. 64. 5. The amount of water in each tray. Look at the map again. If you were using the same scale to draw another map, how far apart would you place two towns which are actually 5 miles from each other? 1. 10 Inches V 2. 2/5 Inches » 3. 5 inches 4. 15 Inches 5. 1 foot 70. 65. In which pair below are the measurements closest in sire? 1. 2 l/2 kilograms and 1 pound 2. 2 l/2 centimeters and 1 inch 3. 5 kilometers and 1 mile BE SURE YOU ARE USING ANSWER S P A C E 70 4. 5 liters and 1 quart This is a picture of 5 objects. If you want to study the rela3. 10 yards and 1 meter tionship between the length of a pendulum and how long it takes 66. to complete one swing, which things would be best to use? In which pair below are the units closest In size? 1. C and D only 1. Pound and kilogram 2. A, B, and E only 2. Yard and meter 3. A, C, and D only 3. Meter and mile 4. A and B only 4. Gram and liter 5. AU of the things 5. Centimeter and foot GO ON TO P A G E 9 3. 3 4. 4 5. 5  /  s  P»ge 8  113 DO NOT WRITE IN T H E T E S T  KEY 71.  0=OLD H= N t W L=LrOHT D=DARK| |W=WARM C=COOL i  This is a graph of the results of an experiment.. 400 seeds that were 10 years old and 400 new seeds were planted in good soil and watered each day. 100 old seeds and 100 new seeds were put in a dark cool place. 100 old seeds and 100 new seeds were put in a light cool place. 100 old seeds and 100 new seeds were put In a dark warm place. 100 old seeds and 100 new seeds were put In a light warm place. Five things which may affect the growth of seeds are: water, heat, soil, age, and light. Which of these were tested? 1. Heat, age, and light only ~ [ 2. Soil, heat, and light only | 3. Heat, soil, age, and light only 4. Water and soil only 5. Water and age only 72. Look at the graph again, Here are some things you can see on the graph: A. 365 seeds sprouted. B. 400 seeds were 10 years old. C 400 seeds were new. D. 400 seeds were kept cool. E. 400 seeds were kept warm. F. 400 seeds weie kept in the light. C. 400 seeds were kept in the dark. Which one happened because of all the others? 1. A 2. B 3. D 4. F 5. G  BOOKLET  75. Look at the graph again. Why were 800 seeds used? 1. 800 makes 8 groups of exactly 100 each, and 100 is a round number. 2. Experiments require exactly 100 samples in each group. .3. 800 were all the seeds that were available. 4. The groups needed to be large enough so that what was found out was not wrong due to chance. 800 happened to be the number taken out of the bag.  76.  ID  .id  This picture shows 5 containers that were left out in a storm. The rainwater has been colored so that you can see it better. Which is the best container to use to find out how many inches of rain fell? 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. D 5. E  77. / V  ^  . .  IJ  / / /.'-••  t  This is a picture of a ball at the top of a slope. If you want to find out the average time it takes for the ball to roll all the way down the slope, about how many times should you let it roll down and time it? 1.1 2. 2 3. 15 Look at the graph once more, Here are 5 statements about 4. 250 this experiment: 5. 1,000 A. More new seeds sprout than old seeds. / THE NEXT QUESTIONS ARE TO FIND OUT HOW WELL YOU B. Heat makes a difference in how many seeds sprout.-' CAN FIGURE OUT AND PREDICT, WHEN YOU ARE GIVEN C. Light makes a difference in how many seeds sprout. ' SOME FACTS. BE VERY CAREFUL TO THINK ABOUT D. Water does not make a difference in how many seeds sprout. YOUR ANSWERS. MAKESURE THEY ARE BASED ON WHAT E. Light does not make a difference in how many seeds sprout. YOU SEE IN THE PICTURE OR CHART. Which of these con you find from the graph? 1. A only j WIND DIRECTION 78. A, B, and D only SUN MON TUE WED THU FRI SAT D and E only C and D only NOON E NE E E S E calm A, B, and E only E 74. Look at the graph again. Listed below are some other experiments you could do. Which one is NOT based on the experiment shown in the graph? 1. A study of seeds of several ages, 2. A study of the effect of different numbers of hours of light and dark on seeds. 3. A etudy of the heights of plants. 4. A study of the effect of different amounts of water on seeds. 5. A study of the effect of different temperatures on seeds. page 9  MIDNIGHT S W W W calm N W W W This is a chart of wind direction at noon and midnight for one week. Which is the most general statement you can make based on this chart? 1. The direction of the day winds is 180 difforont from the direction of the night winds. 2. The direction of the wind is different at night than it is during the day at this place. 3. There is always a wind in this place. 4. Day winds come from the east and night winds come from the west. 5. It is warmer during the day than it is at night. GO ON TO PAGE 10  NOT  WRITE  IN THE T E S T  79.  BOOKLET  84.  This in a picture of 5 pins and 5 magnets. Which statement CANNOT be made just from looking at the picture? 1. Pins 2 and 5 have big heads. 2. Pins 2, 3, and 5 are sticking to their magnets. 3. Some pins are made from a metal which is not magnetic. 4. AU the pins with big heads shown in this picture are sticking to their magnets. 5. Pins 1 and 4 are not sticking to their magnets. BO. BE SURE YOU A R E USING ANSWER S P A C E 80 Look at the picture again. What else must you do to prove that pins 2 and 5 are attracted to magnets? 1. See if pins 2 and 5 are magnetic. 2. See if magnets 2 and 5 are really magnets. 3. Take a magnet that you know is good and see If It attracts pins 2 and 5. 4. See if pins 2 and 5 attract each other. 5. See if magnets 2 and 5 attract each other. 81. Here are 6 possible facts: Look at the picture once more. A. Magnet 1 is a strong magnet. B. Magnet 1 is NOT a magnet. C. Pin 1 is glued to the table. D. Pin 1 1B loose on the table, E. Pin 1 Is made of steel. F. Pin 1 is NOT made of steel. Which facts must you know in order to be sure that pin 1 io NOT attracted to magnets? • 1. B and C only 2. A and D only i 3. F only 4. B and E only 5. D and F only COUNTRY A V E R A G E R A I N F A L L INCHES PER YEAR 5.4 56.7 B 82 14 3.1 C .9 5 . 4 D 9. 0 E 78.3 F 62. 5 G This is a chart of average yearly rainfall in 7 countries. Which countries are probably mostly desort? 1. A and B^ 2. B, D, F, and G 3. B and E 4. A and E 5. C and D 83. Look at the chart again. Here is a list of some other facts which you can get about these countries: A. Fertility of the soil B. Number of farmers C. Value of farm crops D. Site of the country E. Average temperature Which would help you decide what kinds of plants probably grow in each country? 1. B only 2. A, C, and E only 3. A and B only 4. C, D, and E only 5. A and E only P*ge 10  This is a picture of some string. The* manufacturer claims it will hold at least 100 pounds. What is the beat way to check this? i . Hang a weight of 75 pounds on the string, and keep adding 1-pound weights until it breaks. 2. Hang a 100-pound weight on the string, and see if it breaks. 3. Let two 100-pound boys pull on each end of a piece of the string, and see if it breaks. 4. Hang 101 pounds on the string and see if it breaks, 5. Double the string and hang 50 pounds from It, and see if it breaks.  k 85.  This is a picture of a bulb that is not lit even though the switch is closed. Which of these statements is NOT a possible explanation? 1. The bulb is not screwed in tightly. 2. The battery is wired into the circuit backwards. 3. The bulb is burned out. 4. The battery is dead. 5. A wire is not making good contact. /  86.  A  This is a picture of a balance and 6 marbles. Marbles 1, 2, and 3 all weigh the same. When marbles 1, 2, and 3 are put on one side and 4, 5, and 6 are put on the other side, they balance. Which other facts do you need to know in order to say that all the marbles weigh the same? 1. Marble 5 weighs the same as marble 2. 2. Marble 5 weighs the same as marble 2 and marble 1. 3. Marble 3 weighs the same as marble 6. 4. Marble 4 weighs the same as marble 5 and marble 6. i . Marble 3 weighs the. same as marble 5. "•1  87.  This is a picture of a barometer. From reading it, which of the following statements about the weather can you make? 1. The barometric pressure is rising. 2. You do not have enough information to tell what will happen, 3. The weather is changing. 4. It will rain in two days. 5. The barometric pressure is falling. GO ON TO P A G E 11  115 DO  NOT  WRITE  IN T H E T E S T  A M E T A L BAR LENGTH TEMPERATURE 1 0 0 cm 10°C, 1 0 1 cm 88. 30°C. 50°C. 1 0 2 cm 90°C, 1 0 4 cm This is a chart of the change In length of a metal bar as it is heated. Use the chart to figure out what UB length is at 40°C. 1. 101 centimeters 2. 101. 5 centimeters 3. 102 centimeters 4. 102. 5 centimeters 5. 103 centimeters 89. Use the chart to figure outwhat the length of the bar probably is at 100°C.  90.  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  103.5 centimeters 104 centimeters 104. 5 centimeters 105 centimeters 105. 5 centimeters  BE SURE YOU A R E U S IN G A N S W E R S P A C E 9 0 What is the beat way to check the answers you gave to the last Measure the bar at 100°C, and then graph all the two questions? 1 numbers to check your answers. 2. Put your answers on the chart and see if they look correct. Measure the bar at 120°C, and then make a graph of all the numbers to check your answers. Measure the bar at least 5 times at other temperatures, and compare what you find with your answers. o o Measure the bar at 40 C and at 100 C and compare what you find with your answers.  91. IRE  • *\  AFTER  These are two pictures of ablownup balloon taken before and after heating. When you heat the balloon, it gets bigger. When you cool the balloon, it gets smaller. Why? 1. Gasses get bigger when heated and smaller when cooled. 2. All things get smaller when heated and bigger when cooled. 3. Liquids get bigger when heated and smaller when ';• cooled.' 4. Plastics get bigger when heated and smaller when cooled. :j 5. Solids get bigger when heated and smaller when  ^  p^f^ij^m>^m  coo,ed  92.  .crfL...... U  l^fiKLJ  These are two pictures of a battery, a bulb, a switch, and some wtres. Which is the only thing you can be sure is different between picture 1 and picture 2? 1. The bulb was replaced. 2. The wires were tightened. 3. The bulb was screwed In. 4. The battery was electrically recharged. 5. Electricity isflowingthrough the bulb. page 11  i  BOOKLET  93.  This is a picture of three rubber-band scales which are all alike. Scale A has 3 marbles on it. Scale B has 5 marbles on it. Scale C has 7 marbles on It. If you put another marble on scale B, the pointer will probably point to about "6. " Why? 1. "6" is halfway between "5" and "7. " 2. The amount a rubber band stretches depends on how much weight is pulling it. 3. Rubber bands stretch. 4. Then there will be one more marble on scale B. 5. The numbers on the scales were put on after trying out different numbers of marbles. 94. In order to prove that "NOT ALL THINGS GET BIGGER AS YOU HEAT THEM, " which of the following would you need to do? 1. Find one thing that does not get bigger when it is heated. Find all the things that do not get bigger when they are heated. ' Find one thing that gets bigger when it ia heated. Find all the things that get bigger when they are heated. Find all the things that do not change size when they are heated. 95.  B.'-FORE  A P T E R '  5 DAYSi These are two pictures of a beqn seed taken 5 days apart. What is moBt likely to have caused the change in the seed? 1. Light 2. Fertilizer 3. Heat 4. Water 5. Plant food '96.  In order to make this statement: "THE COLDER A CITY IS, THE MORE SNOW IT HAS, " which of the following do you need to know about soma cities? 1. The average temperature of each city and the number of snowplows each has. 2. The number of days school was closed in each city because of snow. 3. The average temperature and precipitation of each city. 4. - The average temperature and average snowfall of each city. 5. The average number of times it snows in each city.! MAKE SURE THAT YOUR ANSWERS ARE BLACK AND COMPLETELY FILL THE SPACES. MAKE SURE THAT YOU HAVE COMPLETELY ERASED ANY MISTAKES OR STRAY MARKS ON YOUR ANSWER SHEET. YOU MAY CO BACK AND WORK ON ANY SECTION OF THE TEST UNTIL TIME IS CALLED BY THE TEACHER.  - 116 -  A  P  P  E  N  D  I  X  C  -  SUMMARY  Achievement  OF C E L L MEANS  11.7 -  FOR A N A L Y S I S  Teacher Male  x n  Sex Female  28.20 10  32.00 11  Self-Paced 1  2  32.50  40.17  8  6  x  25 .43  33.63  33.33  31.59  n  7  8  6  17  Test Teacher-Paced  Teacher Male  1 x n  Sex Female  Science  COVARIANCE  Test Teacher-Paced  Retention  OF  27.90 10  30.55 11  Self-Paced 1  2  29.25  37.00  8  6 30.47  x  26.57  29 .75  31.67  n  7  8  6  17  Processes Teacher-Paced Teacher Male  x n  Sex Female  20.30 10  20.09 11  Self-Paced 1  2  27.50  28.50  8  6 26.94  x  24.00  24.50  23.83  n  7  8  6  17  -  118  -  T e a c h e r -- P a c e d Teacher Male  X n  Sex Female  Attitude  1  2  1  2  49.80  49.18  57.33  37.33  9  6 44.65  10  11  X  33.29  49.00  44.50  n  7  8  6  t o Independent  Teacher  17  Investigation Teacher -Paced  —  Self--Paced  S e l f -Paced  1  2  1  2  51.20  63.91  62.22  45.83  .- 9  6 53.82  Male  X  Female  n  Male  X  41.00  61.50  58 .00  Female  n  7  8  6  10  11  17  -  A  P  P  E  N  119  -  D  X  I  D  -  FRANK  120  -  HURT SECONDARY  OPTICS S T U D E N T O U T L I N E AND  SCHOOL  EVALUATION  NAME  Sequence  1  Practice  Lecture Chapters a n d 26  2  Lab  3  Chapters  Topic  25  4 - 1  28  4  Lab  5  Chapter  6  Test  7  Lab  8  Chapter  9  Lab  Introduction I n t r o d u c t i o n and O t h e r S o u r c e s o f L i g h t p . 118 Ques.. 1 - 3 p . 122 Light Ques. 167  27  4 - 2  Test  11  Lab  S o u r c e s p . 164 1 - 6 p . 166 -  Witches' Light Ques. 1 - 4 p. Cold Light Ques. 1 - 4 p. Light Ques. 167  4 - 3  Exercise  The p a t h t a k e n Ques. 1 - 8 p. 30  The S o l a r Ques. 1 -  Books  by l i g h t 171  E c l i p s e p. 7 p . 137  132  6 p.  176  Shadows 1 -  Collect 4 - 5  129  passes through 1 - 3 p . 166 -  Collect  4 - 4  126  29  Ques. 10  Date  174  Exercise  -  Books  F o r m a t i o n o f Images Q u e s . 1 - 2 p . 179  Completed  -  Sequence  Practice  121 -  Date  Topic  12  Chapter  13  Appendix 7  R e a d p . 2 4 1 - 243 i n the l a b . t e s t  14  Lab  R e f r a c t i o n by a T r a n s parent Solid Q u e s . 1 - 5 p . 185  15  Chapter  16  Lab  17  Filmstrip  18  37  4 - 6  38  Test  20  Lab  21  Chapter  22  Lab  23  Chapters  39 .  4 - 1 1  25  Test  26  Lab  Refraction  Making a Lens Ques. 1 - 2 p.  172  Exercise  Books  Studying Reflection Q u e s . 1 - 10 p . 212  -  213  33  M i r r o r s i n the Beginning Q u e s . 1 - 4 p . 148  4 - 1 2  Images i n a P l a n e M i r r o r Q u e s . 1 - 7 p . 216 - 217  31 32  Lab  Use o f  The S t o r y o f L e n s e s Q u e s . 1 - 5 p . 191  Collect  19  24  The G l a s s m a k e r s Q u e s . 1 - 4 p . 170 Making Lenses  4 - 7  Chapter  Windows o f Sand Q u e s . 1 - 4 p . 168  4 - 1 3  Mirrors Ques. 1 - 3 p. M i r r o r s i n Use Ques. 1 - 5 p.  145  C y l i n d r i c a l Curved Q u e s . 1 - 3 p . 220 Collect  4 - 8  140  Exercise  Mirrors  Books  U s i n g a S p h e r i c a l Convex L e n s t o P r o d u c e a n Image Q u e s . 1 - 8 p . 196 - 197  Completed  -  Sequence  Practice  122  -  Topic  Date Completed  Enrichment Lens Makers F o r m u l a and W o r k s h e e t  27  28  Chapter  36  29  Lab  30  Chapter  31  Lab  32  Filmstr ip  33  Test  4 - 9  11  4 - 1 0  Ques.  1 -  4 p.  163  D e f e c t s i n V i s i o n and How t o C o r r e c t Them Ques.  1 -  11  p.  56  P r i s m s and C o l o u r Q u e s . 1 - 3 p . 207  Collect  Exercise  Books  -  FRANK  123 -  HURT SECONDARY  SCHOOL  OPTICS  This  unit  viour. of  i s concerned  You w i l l  perform  experiments  (a)  How  i t travels.  (b)  How  i t i s reflected.  (c)  How  i t i s refracted.  OF  OPTICS  A.  OF  LIGHT  C.  the study  of light  and i t s beha-  to determine  the nature  light:  OBJECTIVES  B.  with  NATURE 1.  To determine b y man.  2.  To c l a s s i f y  3.  The c o n d i t i o n s  4.  To c l a s s i f y m a t e r i a l s t h r o u g h them.  PATH  OF  different  light  w a y s i i n which  light  i s produced  sources.  necessary  f o r seeing.  a c c o r d i n g t o how  light  passes  LIGHT  1.  To d e t e r m i n e  the path  2.  To d e t e r m i n e  how  3.  To determine by d i f f e r e n t  t h e t y p e s o f shadows light sources.  FORMATION  OF  of  shadows  light. are  formed. that  c a n be  formed  IMAGES  1.  To f i n d  how  you can produce  a real  image.  2.  T o f i n d o u t how t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e o b j e c t i n f r o n t of the p i n h o l e a f f e c t s the s i z e and c o n d i t i o n o f t h e image t h a t i s p r o d u c e d .  -  3.  D.  E.  F.  G.  To f i n d screen.  REFRACTION  how  OF  moving  To  be  able  2.  To  state  3.  To f i n d where one medium t o  4.  To of  to measure  5.  Observe path of  the  law  how t h e light. OF  of  the  a  image  on  the  protractor.  refraction. i s bent  when  material  i t passes  affects  shape  of  lenses  i s used  nature  of  images  in a plane  the  from  angle  to change  the  LIGHT  To  observe  2.  To  state  3.  To  observe  4.  To  determine  why  5.  To  determine  where  6.  The  the  the  law  of  of  mirror.  reflection.  reflection  from  objects  a  rough  are  images  surface.  coloured.  are  located  in a plane  mirror.  mirrors.  MIRRORS  1.  T o o b s e r v e how light rays.  2.  To d e t e r m i n e t h e s p h e r i c a l convex  3.  To d e t e r m i n e image formed  DEFECTS  changes  angles with  different  1.  CURVED  screen  a l i g h t ray another.  d e t e r m i n e how diffraction.  uses  the  -  LIGHT  1.  REFLECTION  124  IN  convex  and  nature lens.  concave  of  the  mirrors  image  formed  reflect  by  how t o c h a n g e t h e s i z e a n d n a t u r e by a s p h e r i c a l c o n v e x lens.  a  of  VISION  1.  To  learn  the  2.  To  determine  how  3.  To  learn  parts  the  defects  in  vision.  to correct of  the  the  human  defects eye.  in  vision.  the  -  PRISMS  AND  125  -  COLOUR  1.  T o l e a r n how t o u s e a p r i s m refraction of light.  2.  T o o b s e r v e how white light.  a prism  t o show  reflection  can separate  the colour  -  BEHAVIORAL  126  -  OBJECTIVES  UNIT  FOR  THE  OPTICS  Sequence  1  The s t u d e n t w i l l i n c a n d e s c e n t and  l e a r n the d i f f e r e n c e between luminescent sources of light.  Sequence  2  T h e s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n how to c l a s s i f y light s o u r c e s as b e i n g p o i n t s o u r c e s , b r o a d sources, l u m i n o u s and n o n - l u m i n o u s . The s t u d e n t i s a l s o t o l e a r n how a r a y box operates.  Sequence  3  The s t u d e n t w i l l d e f i n e t h e t e r m s b i o l u m i n e s c e n c e , chemiluminescent, p h o s p h o r s , and f l u o r o s c o p e . The s t u d e n t i s a l s o t o l e a r n the d i f f e r e n c e between f l u o r e s c e n t and p h o s p h o r e s c e n t phosphors.  Sequence  4  By d o i n g L a b 4 - 2 t h e s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n t h e meani n g s o f o p a q u e , t r a n s p a r e n t and t r a n s l u c e n t . The student w i l l learn to c l a s s i f y objects according t o how they l e t l i g h t pass through themselves.  Sequence  5  The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e w o r d e l e c t r o l u m i n e s c e n c e and t h r e e a d v a n t a g e s o f e l e c t r o l u m i n e s c e n t l i g h t by r e a d i n g C h a p t e r 29.  Sequence  6  The s t u d e n t w i l l r e v i e w o b j e c t i v e A and n i t i o n s from the c h a p t e r s and l a b s and h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g by w r i t i n g a t e s t .  Sequence  7  T h e s t u d e n t w i l l o b s e r v e how t o s e e l i g h t by d o i n g procedure P a r t A of l a b 4 - 3 and t h e p a t h o f l i g h t b y d o i n g p r o c e d u r e B o f t h e same l a b .  Sequence  8  The how  Sequence  9  T h e s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n how shadows a r e f o r m e d and t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e words umbra and penumbra. The s t u d e n t w i l l a l s o o b s e r v e the d i f f e r e n t shadows f o r m e d b y a s i n g l e p o i n t s o u r c e a n d b y two p o i n t sources.  Sequence  10  The s t u d e n t the path of a test.  the defidemonstrate  s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n how e c l i p s e s come a b o u t and they g i v e f u r t h e r p r o o f of the path of light.  w i l l demonstrate h i s understanding of l i g h t , o b j e c t i v e s A a n d B, by w r i t i n g  -  Sequence  11  127 -  The s t u d e n t  will  do l a b 4 - 5  (a) define image.  the terms  image,  and from i t erect,  inverted,  (b) size  o b s e r v e how m o v i n g t h e o b j e c t c h a n g e s t h e and n a t u r e o f t h e image.  (c) size  o b s e r v e how m o v i n g t h e s c r e e n and n a t u r e o f t h e image.  (d) 180 has  real  changes the  by a n s w e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s 1 - 4 on pages - 1 8 1 t h e s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n why t h e i m a g e formed.  Sequence  12  The s t u d e n t w i l l d e f i n e t h e t e r m s l e h r , annealed a n d w i l l l e a r n t h e m a t e r i a l s t h a t a r e u s e d t o make g l a s s a n d a l s o how d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f g l a s s a r e made.  Sequence  13  The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n t h e m e a n i n g s o f e x t e r i o r angle, interior angle, vertex, right angle, s t r a i g h t a n g l e a n d how t o m e a s u r e a n g l e s w i t h a p r o t r a c t o r by r e a d i n g a p p e n d i x 7 and p e r f o r m i n g t h e e x e r c i s e s o n p . 242 o n t h e l a b t e x t .  Sequence  14 '  The s t u d e n t w i l l d e f i n e t h e t e r m s n o r m a l , incident r a y , r e f r a c t e d r a y , r e f r a c t i o n , angle of incidence, and a n g l e o f r e f r a c t i o n . He w i l l a l s o s t a t e t h e law o f r e f r a c t i o n .  Sequence  15  B y r e a d i n g c h a p t e r 38 t h e s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n t h e d i f f e r e n c e between p l a t e g l a s s , s h e e t g l a s s and f l o a t g l a s s a s w e l l a s how t h e s e t h r e e t y p e s o f g l a s s a r e made a n d t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f e a c h type of glass.  Sequence  16  The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n t h e d i f f e r e n c e between c o n v e x a n d c o n c a v e s u r f a c e s a n d how cylindrical, concave and convex s u r f a c e s d i f f e r in their effect on p a r a l l e l b e a m s o f l i g h t . The s t u d e n t w i l l also d e f i n e the terms l e n s a x i s , p r i n c i p a l a x i s , p r i n c i p a l f o c u s , f o c a l l e n g t h , and v i r t u a l .  Sequence  17  The s t u d e n t w i l l r e v i e w l e n s e s by v i e w i n g f i l m s t r i p s "The S t o r y o f L e n s e s " .  Sequence  18  The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n t h e p r o c e d u r e l e n s e s by r e a d i n g c h a p t e r 3 9 .  Sequence  19  The s t u d e n t w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e h i s knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o b j e c t i v e D by w r i t i n g a t e s t .  the  f o r making  -  128 -  Sequence  20  The s t u d e n t w i l l d e f i n e t h e terms r e a l and v i r t u a l images and w i l l s t a t e t h e law o f r e f l e c t i o n . He w i l l a l s o l e a r n why c o l o u r e d o b j e c t s a r e t h e colour they a r e .  Sequence  21  The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n d i f f e r e n t man m a k e s a n d t h e i r uses.  Sequence  22  The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n mirror i s located.  Sequence  23  The s t u d e n t w i l l d e f i n e t h e t e r m s l a t e r a l l y I i n v e r t e d , s e x t a n t , c o r n e r a n d r e f l e c t o r a n d some f u r t h e r uses of m i r r o r s .  Sequence  24  T h e s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n how c o n c a v e a n d c o n v e x m i r r o r s form images and what k i n d s o f images t h e y w i l l form. The terms f o c a l l e n g t h , p r i n c i p a l a x i s , p r i n c i p a l f o c u s , c o n v e r g i n g a n d d i v e r g i n g w i l l be d e f i n e d and a p p l i e d t o m i r r o r s .  Sequence  25  The s t u d e n t w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e h i s understanding o b j e c t i v e s E and F by w r i t i n g a t e s t .  Sequence  26  T h e s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n how t o f o r m a n i m a g e w i t h a s p h e r i c a l convex l e n s . He w i l l a l s o l e a r n how c h a n g i n g t h e o b j e c t d i s t a n c e a f f e c t s t h e image d i s t a n c e and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e image.  Sequence  27  The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n i m a g e w i l l be b y u s i n g  Sequence  28  T h e s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n how l e n s e s a n d m i r r o r s a r e u s e d t o make l a r g e t e l e s c o p e s a n d t h e t h r e e m a i n focal points of telescopes.  Sequence  29  The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n t h e p a r t s o f t h e e y e : r e t i n a , c o r n e a , c i l i a r y m u s c l e a n d l e n s , a n d he w i l l l e a r n how e y e d e f e c t s c a n be c o r r e c t e d . He w i l l d e f i n e the terms myopia, h y p e r m e t r o p i a and astigmatism.  Sequence  30  The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n about d i f f e r e n t e y e t u r e s i n a n i m a l s b y r e a d i n g c h a p t e r 11 a n d the q u e s t i o n s t o the c h a p t e r .  Sequence  31  T h e s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n how p r i s m s c a n be u s e d r e f l e c t and r e f r a c t l i g h t and t o p r o d u c e a spectrum.  where  types  t h e image  of mirrors  in a  plane  ;  of  how t o p r e d i c t w h e r e t h e the l e n s maker's f o r m u l a .  strucdoing  to  -  129  -  Sequence  32  By v i e w i n g t h e f i l m s t r i p " G e o m e t r i c a l O p t i c s " t h e student w i l l review the nature of l e n s e s .  Sequence  33  The s t u d e n t w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e h i s k n o w l e d g e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o b j e c t i v e s G and H by w r i t i n g test.  NOTE:  The s t u d e n t w i l l have s a t i s f a c t o r i l y done.  t o r e - w r i t e any  test  that  a  i s not  

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