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The influence of industrial structure on female labour force participation in Canadian urban areas Robinson, Pamela 1980

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THE  INFLUENCE OF INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE  ON FEMALE LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION IN ' CANADIAN URBAN AREAS by PAMELA ROBIN SON B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of Lancaster, 1975  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  (School of Community and R e g i o n a l  Planning)  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e g u i r e d  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1980 @  Pamela Robinson  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree  for  that  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  It  i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g or  publication  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my written  permission.  Department of  Community a n d R e g i o n a l  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  TMth June. 1980  Planning  or  i i ABSTRACT  An  understanding  important purposes  to  decades,  i n  characteristics study  factor,  a  have  o r on t h e r e s p o n s e that,  because  i n a few i n d u s t r i e s of local  attempt multiple  variable  labour  regression  f o r 101  Census  Agglomerations,  favours  women's e m p l o y m e n t .  significant  positive  rates;  i t si n c l u s i o n  power  of  variables The  the  model  reflecting analysis,  these  hypotheses.  but,  f o r  most  statistically  this  variable  i s expected  to reduce  'independent'  and  significant.  only  positive  marital Regional  t o be an  important  are available. by  Census  including  data  female  an  index  Areas  industrial  and  structure  t o show  a  participation  the  explanatory o f t h e dummy  factors. limited  support  association  status  i s highly  the i n d u s t r i a l  the influence  regional  provides  A consistent  employment  increase  of  conditions.  i s expected  with  to  studies  Metropolitan  t o which  recent  on i n d i v i d u a l  influence  o f 1971  association  and  either  few j o b s  Census  This  Most  women,  i n  unemployment  where  the extent  however,  age  remain^  i s likely  analysis  of  dramatically  women's  markets  and r e l a t e d  rates  and o c c u p a t i o n s ,  i s made t o m e a s u r e  representing,  risen  to  i s  f o r s o c i a l and economic  focussed  inhibiting participation  An in  have  participation  planning  participation  differences  Canada  argues  concentrated  f o r manpower  women,  regional  participation  composition  the  married  wide  both  influencing  of the implications  Although  particularly  factors  planners  and because  well-being.  This  of the  groups,  influences  i s  revealed,  this  appear  for  i snot to  be  reflecting  industrial  structure  the case  Quebec, n o t  at a l l .  of  Factors discussed, and  the  not  prevalence The  of  Consideration  is  and  pay  to  by  for  given  areas  work  of  only  solution.  proxies  of  for to  of  this  the  "female-intensive"  one  which  type;  some  research.  alternative  conclusion  value"  policy  s t r u c t u r e does being  a p p l i c a t i o n of e q u a l equal  are  independent  further  where i n d u s t r i a l  in  themselves  a p p e a r s t o be  study  made  vigorous  encouragement a partial  a  participation,  accompanied  "equal  in  and,  disappointing result  relationship  nevertheless  applicable  slightly  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e  therefore  appear t o i n h i b i t unless  strong  reflected  are  for this  shortcomings i n the  hypothesised  readily  suggestions  measures  account  in particular,  variables. is  which may  f a c t o r s only  that,  opportunity  measures,  industries  would  the  provide  i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  .  iv  LIST OF TABLES  vi  LIST OF FIGURES  vii  CHAPTER 1: FEMALE LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION IN CANADA .... 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n  1 1  2..Recent Trends i n Female Labour Force P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Canada 3. The Theory of Labour Force P a r t i c i p a t i o n 4. E m p i r i c a l Studies of Labour Force P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Canada .... 5. Female Labour Force P a r t i c i p a t i o n and I n d u s t r i a l Structure 6. Study O b j e c t i v e s CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY AND  DATA DESCRIPTION  1. _ I n t r o d u c t i o n 2..The Model 3. Data Source 4. D e s c r i p t i o n of V a r i a b l e s (i) Dependent V a r i a b l e s (ii) 'Personal Factors: a. Education b. E t h n i c Composition c. C h i l d r e n ( i i i ) Labour Market F a c t o r s : a. .Female Wages b. Male Income c. . Unemployment d. S c h o o l i n g (iv) Residence f a c t o r s : a. . Region b. . C i t y S i z e (v) I n d u s t r i a l S t r u c t u r e  . 2 9 22 34 44 46 .46 46 48 51 .51  1  51 52 52 53 53 53 .54 54 55 .55  V CHAPTER  3:  RESULTS  .57  1. _ I n t r o d u c t i o n 2. T h e B a s i c M o d e l 3. S h o r t c o m i n g s o f t h e A n a l y s i s 4. Summary o f R e s u l t s a n d R e l a t i o n Previous Studies CHAPTER  4:  .57 57 .67 to ,  CONCLUSIONS  79  1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 2. P o l i c y S t r a t e g i e s D t 1 80 3. S u g g e s t i o n s F o r F u r t h e r D a t a and R e s e a r c h  79 Collection 93  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX  1:  .74  93 RESULTS  OF  SUPPLEMENTARY  REGRESSIONS  .....96  vi  LIST OF TABLES  Page TABLE Age TABLE TABLE TABLE  TABLE TABLE TABLE  I : Female Labour Force P a r t i c i p a t i o n In Canada by Group, 1921 t o 1977  I I : Female Labour Force P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates by Province , 1911 t o 1976  8  I I I : Female Labour Force P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates by P r o v i n c e and M a r i t a l S t a t u s , 1971  .10  IV: Major Industry Groups Showing Percentage of Workforce Female and P r o p o r t i o n s of Female and Male Labour Force  36  V: Leading Female Occupations, Canada, 1971  .38  VI: D i s t r i b u t i o n o f CMAs and Census Agglomerations V I I : R e s u l t s of Step  TABLE TABLE TABLE  49  1 R e g r e s s i o n : E x c l u d i n g INDMIX  TABLE V I I I : D i s t r i b u t i o n of V a r i a b l e INDMIX TABLE  3  .  ....65  IX: R e s u l t s o f Step 2 Regression: I n c l u d i n g INDMIX X: D i s t r i b u t i o n of Employment by Major I n d u s t r y Group and Sex, 1971 and 1979 XI: Average Weekly Earnings by Industry, 1979 X I I Average Earnings of Persons Who Worked Mainly F u l l - t i m e f o r the F u l l Year 1970, by Occupation and Sex  APPENDIX 1: RESULTS OF SUPPLEMENTARY REGRESSIONS a. Weighted Regressions b. O m i t t i n g Male Income c. O m i t t i n g Regional Dummy V a r i a b l e s d. .Omitting C i t y Size Dummy V a r i a b l e s e. Using Logarithm o f INDMIX f . Using Region/Industry Mix I n t e r a c t i o n Terms g. .Using Region/Industry Mix I n t e r a c t i o n Terms Without Dummy V a r i a b l e s  58  66 84 .85  87 .96 96 .97 .98 99 100 101 102  vii LIST OF FIGURES  Page FIGURE 1:  Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n  Canada, FIGURE 2:  1951  P r o f i l e s by Age,  to 1971  The I n d i v i d u a l  ... Labour Supply Function  FIGURE 3: The E f f e c t of Wage and Income Changes on I n d i v i d u a l Labour Supply  5 .12 14  1 1  CHAPTER  Female 1.  Section This  Labour  i s concerned  force  participation  female  population  to  those  the  urban  the  age  employment.  areas  are  determinants  that  working  extent  should  planners?  •health  of  1  the  to  i s , with  which  More  Canada  influenced  is  of  female  the  either  female by  the  labour  proportion of employed  specifically,the  which  female  Firstly,  unemployment  and  study  a or  seeks  participation  industrial  a  labour  as  To  draw  statistics,  and  to  the  of  region—are force  factors  participation  most  rate—one  unemployed.  of  In  rates  structure  of  interest  to  areas. Why  the  with  rates,  of  seeking  identify  within  Participation  Introduction.  study  actively  Force  generally,  the  major  influenced  well  as  by  valid  be  by  changes  changes  of  changes  indicators  of in  i n the  conclusions  formulate  influencing  rate  size  of  the the  from  the  the  economic size  absolute  appropriate policies,  the  in  of  number  unemployment an  labour  awareness force  i s  necessary.. Secondly, identification demand,  in  the  taking  on  an  any of  aggregate of  more  practical  may  face  steps  been  met  or  to  level,  labour  at  f u t u r e imbalances  understanding  by  attempt  the  large  but  these  areas  projects  in  shortages  for  which  planning—the  labour or  supply  of  labour  relatively which  interest  and  occupations,  imbalances—must  determinants  shortages,  immigration  between  in specific  correct of  manpower  be  supply. remote  and  based On  a  areas  have  traditionally  is  increasingly  turning  towards  female  the  potential  Thirdly, clearly  and  labour  the  level  influences  obvious  example  a t t r a c t i o n of  the  i s that  training  force of  demand of  facilities,  by,  as  labour the of  well force  respect  of  this  following in  the  and  chapter.  To  section  will  thereby  being  for  these  describes  recent  the  of  those  participation rates.  factors chapter  i s  presented  describes  Recent  the  more,  which  are  trends  in  factors  be  Section and  4.  may  of  Trends,In_Female_Labour_Force  section the  The  third  individual expected  final  objectives  has  variations  evidence  The  this  context,  an  empirical  in  Canada.  which  level  is in  current  in  are  structure  p a r t i c i p a t i o n on  The  aims  It  in  and  female  general  discussed  arguments  of  important  the  industrial  and  influenced  level  community.  participation  theory  isolating  a  of  reasons  female  in  educational  be  the  participation for  place  of  level,  Section_2.  well  but  most  programmes,  influencing,  influence  relevance,  discusses  this  female  the  section  these  of  social  level  influence  few,  p a r t i c i p a t i o n . . E q u a l l y , i f not  that  particular 5  themselves  implications economic  services,  a  participation  services..The  employment  name b u t  untapped  Veit,1976).  force  government  care  largely  example,  labour  for  child  services, to  previously  (see,for  female  transportation as  a  to  concerning section  the  of  research..  Participation  In  Canada^ The  twentieth  World  War,  has  century, seen  participation. In  1921,  labour  less force.  a  Table than By  one  1977,  particularly  dramatic I  increase  illustrates fifth this  of  the  the  working  proportion  period in  female  extent age had  since  of  Second  labour  force  this  females risen  the  to  increase.  were  in  almost  the half.  TABLE_I Female  Labour_Force  Age  P a r t i c i p a t i o n I n Canada To 1977  By A g e G r o u p ,  1921  Group  Year 14-19  20-24  25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64  35-64 65+  14 +  1921  29.6  39.8  19.5  12. 2 i  n.a.  N.a.  12. 0  6.6  19.9  1931  26.5  4 7. 4  24.4  14.3  12. 9  11. 3  13. 2  6. 2  21.8  1941  26.8  46. 9  27.9  18. 1  14.5  11. 1  15. 2  5. 8  22.9  1951  37.8  46.9  24. 2  21.8  20. 4  14.5  19. 6  5. 1  24. 1  19612  34.2  49.5  29.6  31. 1  33. 4  24.4  30. 3  6.7  29.7  C  1971 2  37.0  6 2. 8  44.5  43.9  44. 4  34. 4  41. 5  8.3  39.9  19762 3  47. 9  69.8  54. 2  52.9  47.8  31.9  4 5. 2  4.0  45.4  1977  46.9  71. 3  55.6  55.3  49. 2  32.0  46. 5  4. 3  46. 2  1 Women 35-49 2 Women 15-19 Labour Force 3  Survey,  May-June  average.  S o u r c e : O s t r y a n d Z a i d i (1979, p . 41.) For years 1921-1941, taken f r o m D e n t o n a n d O s t r y (1965); f o r 1951-1971, C e n s u s o f C a n a d a , 1 9 7 1 ; f o r 1976-7, Revised Labour Force Survey. .  These  figures  particular labour  survey  force  Most middle and  represent  members  modest  has  while  exist;  the increase  force  Ostry  P r i o r t o World married women only just over (p.42.) 1961 t h i s  during  any  force  the proportion  (1979)  by m a r i t a l suggest  had r i s e n  comparable  t o 22  in  1..Prior  1951,  age-specific  to  20  from  34  25  between labour to  to  the ages market.  an  participation relatively  and  rising  o f 35 a n d  This  increase  change  of  44,  more t h a n  decrease  the  participation  population  the  age  which,  and  alone,  profile  was  detailed  status  do n o t  by  1971,  37  marital would  and of  t h e r e a f t e r . By  the childbearing  years  t o a second,  25 p e r c e n t  re-entry of married  despite  s i n g l e females  have  lower  peak  into  the  women l e d  i n the overall  1961,  status  rates  with  reflecting  1951  i s illustrated  apparent,  i n the behaviour  between  in  married  participation  and d e c l i n e d  thereafter  rate  changes  participation  low d u r i n g  participation i n  was  f i g u r e f o r 1976 was 4 3 . 7 p e r c e n t . . T h e  t o 24 a g e g r o u p  'two-peaked' rates  this  that  percent;  force  participation  of  35  War Two, fewer than 3 or 4 percent of worked outside t h e i r homes..Even i n 1951, 10 p e r c e n t h a d e n t e r e d t h e l a b o u r m a r k e t ,  labour  a  by  between  Unfortunately,  of increased  1961,  o f women  women  and Z a i d i  be  i n participation  by y o u n g e r  has i n c r e a s e d .  a  year.  in participation  on p a r t i c i p a t i o n  proportion  the  would  over  influence  in  women  quadrupled  The  peaked  during  almost  percent.  Figure  of  the increase  In particular,  statistics  however,  membership  women. T h e p r o p o r t i o n  by comparison.  historical  been  force  proportion  time  i n the labour  women i n t h e l a b o u r  By  a t some  and o l d e r  64 who w e r e  period,  week; a l a r g e r  striking  aged  labour  a  slight  and d e s p i t e  composition  tended  female  of  to depress  the rates  FIGUBE 1 Female . . P a r t i c i p a t i o n , P r o f i l e s _ B Y _ A g e _ C a n a d a . 1951 To 1971 x  t  Participation rate  1971  \  1961  1951  15-19 20-24 25-34 S o u r c e : S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1971 Volume 3 P a r t 1 T a b l e 1  35-44 Census  45-54  55-64  6  (Allingham,  1967a).  A number of f a c t o r s have c o n t r i b u t e d t o  this  female l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . On the supply fertility  and the g r e a t e r a v a i l i b i l i t y  of  goods  •reasonable'  and  standard  services  side,  At the  considered  in  decreased  of l a b o u r - s a v i n g  have l i g h t e n e d domestic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . range  increase  same  devices time,the  necessary  for a  o f l i v i n g has expanded, p r o v i d i n g a s t r o n g  f i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e towards market work  (Connelly,  1976,1978).  U r b a n i z a t i o n has f a c i l i t a t e d access t o employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , while  the  general  strengthened increased  l e v e l s may have  both  women's preferences f o r work o u t s i d e the home  and  their  increase  attractiveness  Z a i d i , 1 9 7 9 ) . On the demand economy  have  incomes  types,  has  including  industries  side,  to  employers  structural  (Ostry  changes  i n the  t o be s u i t a b l e f o r women.  Growth  1  professional  are i n  increasing  has  general  risen  complexity  the  expansion  for  clerical  of  services.  Because  service  labour i n t e n s i v e , o f f e r i n g  relative  limited  was  in  of production and exchange, together  with  the p u b l i c s e c t o r , has l e d t o a greater need  workers. I t i s i n these s e c t o r s that the m a j o r i t y  professional,  clerical  Between 1935 and 1961, the p r o p o r t i o n of  female  or s e r v i c e  labour  occupations.  the l a b o u r  force i n  The i n d u s t r i a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the labour f o r c e i s d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l i n s e c t i o n 5. 1  these  t o the economy as a whole. The  of women work: i n 1971, almost two t h i r d s of the force  in  i n c r e a s e d t h e demand f o r s e r v i c e s of v a r i o u s  scope f o r p r o d u c t i v i t y i n c r e a s e , the demand f o r labour i n industries  and  l e d t o a more than p r o p o r t i o n a l i n c r e a s e i n those  jobs g e n e r a l l y considered real  i n education  female  these  three  occupation  groups  increased  from  percent  (Meltz,  1965).. According  to  Canada  (1 9 7 6 ) ,  o f t h e n e t growth  i n employment  1974,  39 p e r c e n t  percent  i n  Thus  both  women's  for  the  female  Economic  t o 34.7  Council  between  i n d u s t r i e s , and a  of  1961 a n d  further  17.8  trade.  participation, by  was i n s e r v i c e  the  22 p e r c e n t  demand while  and supply  t h e demand  increased  factors  have  f o r goods  encouraged  and s e r v i c e s  p a r t i c i p a t i o n has i n i t s e l f  labour  of other  employment  have  women.  In addition,  undoubtedly  although  whether  this  was  a  increased  p a r t i c i p a t i o n , or> a r e s u l t  become  motivating of  female  generated  created  demand  attitudes  towards  more  favourable,  factor  i t ,i s  a  behind  the  matter  for  debate. Although regions  female  of Canada,  participation rates  wide  cases  have  female  participation rates  to  1976  the  persisted  regional  Prince  rates  Edward  Island  so that  Rates  i n Ontario  both  Alberta  participation  have  by  most  and  were  such  close  have  increased  to the  where  I I shows from  1911  Throughout  have  been low being  rapidly  been  some  i n since  average.  high,  while  participation rates  experienced  b y 1976 t h e r a t e s  t h e same  Table  national  consistently  i na l l  i n  exception  Participation rates  at approximately  and  the period  provinces  have  of the period, that  occur  Newfoundland).  t h e only  they  Saskatchewan,  i n the country.  grown  where  and Manitoba  of  over  Atlantic  average,  increased  of the century.  by p r o v i n c e  the  1976 t h e y  a t the beginning  highest  i n  t o the national  1961,  low  differences  (1951 t o 1976 i n t h e c a s e  period,  relative  over  have  rate  rapid  growth  i n Alberta in British  were i n  were t h e Columbia  as i n t h e country  as a  8 TABLE_II Female  Labour  Force_.Participatign_gates_^  Canada  Nfld.  1911  1921  1931  19411  1951  1961  1971  1976  16. 2  17.6  19.6  20. 7  24. 1  29.5  39. 2  44.8  16.0  18.4  25.7  31.9  -  -  -  P.E.I.  12.3  .13. 5  15.0  16. 1  18.5  24.7  38. 1  43.9  N.S. .  15.0  16. 8  16.6  18.6  19. 9  24.5  33.4  37.9  H.B. .  14.7  16. 2  17. 1 18.2  20.5  24.8  33.6  38.6  Que..  16. 2  18.7  21.9  22.9  25. 0  27.9  33.9  41.2  Ont..  17. 6  19. 1  20.6  22. 3  26. 5  32.6  43. 7  47.8  Man.  16.7  17.6  20.0  19.3  24.2  31.5  41.7  46.4  Sask.  10.9  12.6  14.3  14.9  1°8.7  26.4  38. 6  46.4  Alta..  12.7  13. 2  15.7  15.7  20. 4  30.8  43.8  50.0  B.C.  17. 1  16.2  19.5  18.6  23.4  28.3  39.8  44.9  Including  Source;  1911  1976  -  persons  1971:  on  active  service  S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a 1971 Census Volume 3 P a r t 1 T a b l e 1 S t a t i s t i c s Canada Volume 5 T a b l e 5  1976  Census  whole.  In  highest  female  relatively Canadian  even  As  Table  marital  status  relatively  rural  between the  areas,  between areas  i s  The  which  consequently  which  and  lowest  and size.  the  among  i s evident among  following  section  terms  f o ra l l  single  women  other  Force  offered.  o f time rate  between and  i n  women, t h e  women  being of  the  individuals,  and  variations..  f o r an  individual's  i s viewed  of labour  members,  work a n d l e i s u r e , that  and  highest  some  o f these  dimensions  depict  be  non-farm  participation  skills  to  women,  a few e x c e p t i o n s ,  to  by  urban  Participation^  and the p a r t i c u l a r adopted  between  discusses  f o r some  analysis,  intraprovincial  and f o r farm  participation  Labour  supply,  With  rural  force  wage  relative  non-farm  rates  towns  may a c c o u n t  supplied  farm  labour  division  below  has widened  may b e o b s e r v e d  by  are  i n  differences,  i n smaller  economic  of labour  hours  while  pattern  participation  TheprY_Of  traditiional  rates  rural  may i n f l u e n c e  3._The  choice  were  rates  the variation  of d i f f e r e n t  f o r  intermediate.  going  there  grew  to convergence..  a similar  although  i n participation  rates  effort  tendency  to interprovincial  participation  the  participation  participation  Newfoundland,  shows,  groups,  areas  aspect  of  slight  III  metropolitan  In  rates  hadt h e  small.  tendency  Section  of the period  of any p r o v i n c e , 1976  range  some  urban  factors  by  excluding  addition  differences and  and  absolute  has been  In  at the beginning  participation  slowly  somewhat,  is  which  average.  The  there  Quebec,  as an  supply  being  the i n t e n s i t y  The t o o l s  of  individual  an  on t h e b a s i s subjective  of  consumer optimal of  the  preferences  10 TABLE I I I Female  Labour  Force  P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates S t a t u s , , 1971.  Single  Married (includes  By  Province  separated)  AndMarital  Widowed and d i v o r c e d  Canada  53.5  37.0  26. 6  Nfld.  42. 2  21.3  13. 4  P.E.I. .  47.4  38.2  26. 6  N.S. .  47. 1  31.2  22. 8  N.B.  45.0  31.9  22. 5  Que.  52.2  28. 4  20.8  Ont. .  56. 3  43.0  29. 2  Man.  55.6  40. 4  27.6  Sask.  46. 5  39.5  24. 9  Alta.  56. 1  42.7  31. 9  B.C.  56.6  37.4  30.3  Source:  S t a t i s t i c s Canada Volume 3 Part 1  1971 Table  Census. 5.  11  between l e i s u r e and optimum  is  the  depicted  goods  earned  graphically  the  total  time  measured r i g h t w a r d s from the from the  point  indifference of goods and point  on  which  •rational' the  be  line  yield  traded  the  imposed by  equal  i s represented by  being  the  wage  the  i s , the  amount of  VYmax, the  income  Ymax. Working  of  income of Y ( 1 ) ;  in this position,  marginal  of  his u t i l i t y  substitution  (move to a higher  hours.  and  utility  will  the  marginal  rate  the and  with the  income  be  i s therefore  this  exceeds  curve)  (T(0)-T(2)) wage  by  rate,  an the  working  and  the the  working fewer hours  equals the  indifference  'tastes'.  will  increase  hours,  fewer goods. At T(*)  of s u b s t i t u t i o n  the  hours y i e l d s  rate  i n c r e a s e d by  a t t a i n i n g the  given wage r a t e and  hours  i n d i v i d u a l can  exceeds the  (the income l i n e i s tangent to the individual  wage  the  working  'consuming' more l e i s u r e and  work,  (T(0)-T(1))  indifference  Conversely,  marginal r a t e of s u b s t i t u t i o n individual's  to  r a t e . Non-labour income a v a i l a b l e t o  yield  rate  The  subject  slope (z) of  T(0)V. Working a l l a v a i l a b l e  of  goods  potential  i s shown by  an  any  unit of l e i s u r e .  income. The  line  At  marginal r a t e  individual  longer  individual's  utility.  the  additional  time and  leisure  v a r i o u s combinations  indicates  f o r an  of  i n d i v i d u a l w i l l seek to maximise u t i l i t y ,  constraints  available  represent  showing the  slope  hours  T (0)  hours of work l e f t w a r d s  of l e i s u r e f o r goods, that  would  a x i s time.  o r i g i n , and  each one  the  horizontal  vertical  with  l e i s u r e which w i l l curve,  work.. T h i s  available,  X (1) . . . . . X (n)  curves,  a  substitution  T (0).  market  i n F i g u r e 2 (a) . The  a x i s r e p r e s e n t s income or goods, the indicates  by  maximum  curve)  hours  of  wage r a t e and  the  utility.compatible  FIGURE_2  13 If  the  preference  rate  of substitution  wage  rate,  then  individual  for  of leisure  the optimal  will  leisure  not  i s such  f o r goods  hours  in  the  everywhere  o f work  participate  that  will  marginal  exceeds the  be z e r o  the labour  and  force  the  (Figure  2 (b)) . If hours  the individual  free  supplied  determined  minimum  i f he o r she works  again  maximised  be  shown  in  combination  f i g . . 2(c).. i s  utility  i s obtained  by  working  t h e minimum  hours  income  wages  not  the  zero  then  an i n c r e a s e i n n o n - l a b o u r  T(0)V(2)  will  T (2)) .  (Figure  A  change  decrease earned  individual previous in  terms  cheaper wish  changes  positive  the consumption  income  from  i n  that  income  of l e i s u r e  supplied to f a l l ,  in  a  the  case.  given  On  number  rate  may,  to  the  o f hours  t o 'purchase'  the other  earnings  relative  wage  supplied. Since  can a f f o r d  of  level  of  than  by  nonlabour  leisure  i s a  elasticity from  to  T(0)V(1)  increase  (T(0)TT(1))  to  of to and  (T(0)-  3 (a)) .  the labour from  This  work-leisure  higher  Assuming  demand,  cf labour  may  force.  (utility=x(2) )  of  that  hours  utility  (utility=x (1)).  good,  the  then  a  the  institutionally  preferred  •normal'  cause  some  the labour  hours  supply. a  continuously  at a l l ,  the effect  i s , has  work  available,  T(min)  on l a b o u r  vary  outside  Since  working  3 illustrates  and  must  by r e m a i n i n g  T(*),Y(*)  Figure  and  to  labour  is  of  i s not  hand,  foregone, leisure  t o s u b s t i t u t e goods  since  than  for leisure,  income  worked  more  has  however,  increase or  which  as  the 'cost'  of  increased,  working  be  has i n c r e a s e d , the  leisure,  formerly  can  in  the  leisure,  making  goods  the individual longer  hours.  may In  15 Figure  3{b)  prevails,  the  i n figure  Confining choice hours to  a  3(c),  deterrent  rate,  however,  person  not  experience s t i l l  no i n c o m e  participating  A wage  unchanged  participation.  the. labour  effect  on t h o s e  outside  tendency  this  simple  model,  will  vary  small  into  will  be  for leisure  since  labour  force  will  of leisure  will  draw  market  model,  there  force  will  to increase.  rate,  largely  determined  of  rather  i s  particularly  than  Firstly,  a  the  inappropriate. women,  tripartite  reduce to  income  will  be  According  no to  participation  the  non-labour subjective  the  response  either/or  introduce dichotomy  For  most  choice:  the a  of  factors  number the  individuals  allocation between  to  participation  to consider  to  the work/leisure  f o r married  involve  and  leave  t o goods.  i t , i t i s necessary  preferences,  clearly  to  or  b e no  i n v e r s e l y with by  non-  workers  there  likelihood  a  cannot  may c a u s e  t h e wage  as opposed  since  simple  but,  the  participation,  labour  decrease  tend i n the  therefore  wage  will  of  An i n c r e a s e  i n the labour  may  the  quantity  income  the "cost"  forparticipation  with  To extend  refinements.  instead  increase  decision—the  a n a l y s i s i s p r i m a r i l y s u i t e d t o marginal  influencing  model  t o encourage  supply  effect'.  positive  i n non-labour  therefore, the  directly  changes  decision.  some  although  a  force,  offsetting  preferences  and  but, i n this  Conversely  leave  and  effects  labour  participation  on p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  tend  individual  participation  This  effect  on  'substitution  currently participating  be i n c r e a s e d .  income,  zero  increase  will  effect'  the positive  supplying  to the market—an a  'income  the analysis to the  between  have  wage  negative  of  time  market  of  simple and will work,  16 leisure  and  in  home as  the  'nonmarket w o r k , w h i c h i n c l u d e s a l l t y p e s w e l l as e d u c a t i o n .  market  work c a n  care,  restaurant  extent  of  particular,  the  of the  consequently  the  reservation  wage  predict  that  productivity',  likely In  t o be  the  the  of  husband's l a b o u r the  wife's  analysis that the vary the  less force.  labour  supply  a joint  married supply  inversely labour  with  supply and  r a t h e r than  women,  i f  then  married  this  individual  can  therefore  he  an  i t  or  or  'home  similar she  individual is and  the  woman's  will  or a l l  assumed t h a t  more complex a n a l y s i s b a s e d on  the  the  independent,with nonlabour  i t can  income  be p r e d i c t e d  participation  family  therefore simultaneously  are  basis.  will  h u s b a n d ' s i n c o m e . I f i t i s assumed  d e c i s i o n s of b o t h are  If  individual's  that  and  d e c i s i o n s o f f a m i l y members  conditional,  her  wage',  the  of d o m e s t i c  d e c i s i o n i s primary  of a  led to  home  job.  We  In  inhibit  has  the  a  o f an  d e s c r i b e d above i s a p p r o p r i a t e and probability  this  in  force.  extent  to  the  which  'reservation  taking  likely  labour  decision  interdependent a  labour  greater  is likely  or  child  wage a t  or exceeded, then  the  paid  from  worthwhile..  supply,  g r e a t e r the extent  on  the  productivity  met  the  the  taken  case  in  or t h e  i n the  Secondly,  wage'  costs of  greater  responsibilities, participate  not  of  becomes  of labour  'asking  opportunity  the  be  o f young c h i l d r e n  individual's  participate  form  will  work  income d e r i v e d  i n general, the  market  the theory  is  on,  higher  labour  the  reflecting  not  the  In  so  home the  presence  participation.  will  m e a l s , and  in  concept  While the  provide s u b s t i t u t e s i n the  work i n t h e  participation  the  of  1  members  determined,  r e s p e c t i v e home and  that are then  market  17 productivities  of  both  members  is  called  f o r . In  general,  t h o u g h , t h e f o r m e r a s s u m p t i o n h a s been made. In asset  a d d i t i o n t o the earnings and  financial and  debt  assets  position  periods  of  the  higher  the  wife  may be r e l e v a n t . P h y s i c a l as w e l l a s  may be t h o u g h t  may a l s o be c o n v e r t e d temporary  hardship.  T h i r d l y , the question  which  supply  specifically that  woman's run  decisions with  the t o t a l  is  timing  t o s u s t a i n consumption  during  holdings  arises  of  operative  influences  will  vary  likely i s  whether  'permanent'  are  taken.  Mincer  (1960) ,  o f married  supplied  women,  dealing suggests  t o t h e market o v e r  i s made on t h e b a s i s o f t h e f a m i l y ' s  at  or  r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e on t h e b a s i s o f  o f market a c t i v i t i e s  influences  the less  then,  the  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n  life  equal,  force.  o r permanent income, e x c l u d i n g  the  income,  Other t h i n g s being  guantity of labour  married  nonlabour  of asset  t o be i n t h e l a b o u r  income  o f as y i e l d i n g  t o cash  a family's level  •transitory'  o f f a m i l y members, t h e f a m i l y ' s  a  her  will  earnings.  be a d j u s t e d  particular  according  own  to 'life  cycle'  However,  to reflect the Some  of  these  influences..Thus  by m a r r i e d  early  o f m a r r i a g e when t h e h u s b a n d ' s income i s below i t s  expected children of  long  run  level,  temporarily  participation  will  lower  when  to  long-  participation years  women i s l i k e l y  time.  a  the  be  higher  presence  i n the  of  young  i n c r e a s e s t h e r e s e r v a t i o n wage. The t i m i n g a l s o be i n f l u e n c e d by,  . . . c y c l i c a l and random v a r i a t i o n s i n wage r a t e s , employment opportunities,income and employment of other family members, p a r t i c u l a r l y o f t h e h e a d . ( M i n c e r , 1960, p. 68.)  The  reference  to cyclical  conditions brings  us t o a f o u r t h  18 amendment is  made  the  necessary  of  an  of  the  worker*  have  labour  Swidinsky as  changes Mincer  in  time  market A  on  also  her  prosperity  assumption  directions—was marginal outside benefits with  constant  participate work, of  a  since,  a  finding  job work  takes  job  the  with  high  and  discouraged that  on  will be  of  the  In  times  of  high  will  force  by  vacancies, be  reduced.  be  a  increased,  of  worker  cyclical of  the  to  woman  with  times  rewards.  i t does  Kunin's  for  the  not  rest  in  both  model,  i n or  the  remain  costs  and  unemployment,  even  incentive  continuing  time  while  wages.  effect  expected  or  will  effect  'rational'  reduced  seeking both  worker  participate  basis  there  fewer  In  this  example  flexible  the  search.  of  explanation  are  of size  rates  coincide  greater  to  the  level  the  to  (1970).  decision  level  for  effects the  force  'discouraged  writers,  theoretical  Kunin  the  The  discouraged  which  labour  unemployment  Some the  a  magnitude  debate.  offers  rates  the  labour  search will  and  participation  by  force  wages,  in  precluding  i n f l u e n c e on  d i f f e r e n c e s in)  work  wage  developed  labour  of  when  an  suggesting  force  labour,  reality,  substitution  the  assumption  e f f e c t — p r e f e r a b l e i n that  of  worker the  the  preferable  worker  much that  attributed  labour  exert  referred to  implicit  unemployed,  shrink.  rates,  somewhat  the  for  structural  wage  discouraged  to  for  direction  suggests  have  (or  (1960)  changes  of  matters  The  In  or  to  The  directly  in  model. demand  employed likely  force  (1969)  reflecting  would  be  hypothesis  the  elastic  force. been  simple  unemployment.  i s itself  labour  influence  cause  of  cf course  unemployment  the  infinitely  possibility  member may  to  the  and  to  money  to seek  costs  probability  of  19 The labour  added  force  worker  will  unemployment. workers* retired to  income occur  by  is  The demand  is  economic suggest  of  that,  of  the  unemployment  without  work  who  exists would  statistics.  unemployment  exist—either  cyclical in  the  unemployment  more  severely  underestimate adoption  of  complicated  of  affected the  policies since,  to  conditions, little  Conversely,  will  labour  in  effect  That  the  may  force  to  stronger. labour  implications  worker  work  order  effects  is  behaviour  unemployment,  to  in  variations in  i t s  well.  women,  are  regional  would  significant  i s , there  than  for  are  more  indicated  variations  by in  as  differences  in  the  level  of  as  differences  in  the  level  of  presence regions  extent  as  workers'  unemployment  like  aimed  •discouraged improved  the  the  to  high  transitory  both  force  Where  or  severity—then  as  of  terminology,  negative  which  the  'primary  force  course, of  heavy  times as  labour  to  upon  that  members—married  discouraged  of  unemployment  structural  reponse  interest  times  during  Mincer's  Of  labour  suggests  that,  the  Using  depending  Predominant  in  enter  reaction  net  particular  policy.  disguised people  the  unemployment response  family  unemployment.  simultaneously, in  other  a  shrink  suggests  incomes..  response  contrast,  than  teenagers—will  induced  changes  by  hypothesis  family  worker  rather  unemployed,  persons,  maintain  added  expand  This  become  hypothesis,  of  likely  full  employment  perhaps  is  disguised  regional  at  re-enter  of  labour  leaving  lead  to  an  disparities.  employment  expands, the  to  unemployment  becomes  those force  the  who in  level  The  were  response of  open  changed.  dominant  added  worker  behaviour  may  lead  to  an  20 overstatement  o f the r e a l  cyclical  severity  disparities  i n , unemployment. I n t h i s c a s e ,  of  be  jobs  will  less  than  t o the  work, n o t  i n a d d i t i o n to those  duration  of  f o r c e i n times  theory  the  It  woman's  studies  earning  power,  which a r e  and  the  more l i k e l y  she  higher  the  family's  other  greater  the  likely  she  extent is  to  empirical  role  f o r personal  differing It  as  to  will  be  outside  t a s t e s and  pointed  labour  (1976) comments  that  the  and  i t .  the  rationale  need  for  the  from  the  out  the  greater  education labour  asset  and  force.  or r e s i d e n t i a l that this  a  groups  empirical  matter theory may  of  a be  women  choice  been t h e  based  subject based  assumptions.  works  both  characteristics.  writers: attack  i t s underlying  the more  exerts  being  consumer has  The  the  some o f which of  a  other  h o l d i n g , and  net e f f e c t  behaviour  most  i n the f o l l o w i n g  Unemployment  preferences, in  for  There remains w i t h i n the  more r a d i c a l on  new  will  only  responsibilities,  force participation  a t t a c k by  shortage  withdraw  discussed  income  domestic  differences  but  i n the  i n f l u e n c e s , the  i t s l i m i t a t i o n s and  following  i s t o be  i n ethnic, religious  considerable on  be  unemployment  t h e r e f o r e her  determination.  should  approach  her  negative  for  reflected  of  actual  unexpectedly—that  skills,  regional  improve.  predicts—not  p o s i t i v e and  and  o u t l i n e d above p r o v i d e s  empirical  section.  of  unemployed,  unemployment,  f o r c e when c o n d i t i o n s  The of  their  the  or  numbers unemployed, s i n c e t h e  entrants  labour  labour  the  of,  discussed  of  both  McFarland in  the  section  ...show little familiarity with l i t e r a t u r e , which s u g g e s t t h a t the factors a wife's d e c i s i o n about  any of the women's three most important whether o r not t o work  21 would be t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h o s e a r o u n d h e r t o h e r w o r k i n g , particularly that o f h e r h u s b a n d ; how she p e r c e i v e s h e r possibilities i n the labour m a r k e t — s p e c i f i c a l l y , the extent o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n she w i l l have t o f a c e and t h e l i m i t s t o h e r upward m o b i l i t y ; and l a s t l y , t h e a v a i l i b i l i t y of daycare f a c i l i t i e s a t a reasonable cost, (p.30.) Marsden will  (1977) c r i t i c i s e s  inevitably  central  concern.  acceptance neglects  of  to married  secondary  assumption  workers  At t h e same t i m e  she  Connelly  a  cheap  exerting  a  segregated  them  the  in  recent  largely  (1978)  army  of expansion.  in  while  women  with c h i l d r e a r i n g  questions  the  of  automatic  downward  labour  access  analysis  from  in  capitalist  available  source  on  male  occupations  a  norm  Marxist  production,  largely  and, because of  changes  expansion.  wages  competition has  s t r u c t u r e o f t h e economy, t h e s e d e c a d e s by c o n s t a n t  to this  o f workers f o r  by male w o r k e r s o f t h e i r  pressure  i n 'female'  which  a r g u e s t h a t women have f i l l e d t h e  and r e a d i l y Fear  their  which have l e d i t t o  denying  women. I n a more e x t e n s i v e  of a reserve  providing  that  t h e prime age male work p a t t e r n a s a norm,  i t as s u c h  standpoint,  periods  standard  t o examine t h e power r e l a t i o n s h i p s  be r e g a r d e d  role  be  the  f  have been c h a r a c t e r i s e d She comments.  I n r e j e c t i n g t h e consumer c h o i c e model I have essentially rejected an a p p r o a c h t h a t c e n t r e s on s u b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e s t o e x p l a i n b e h a v i o u r . . The consumer c h o i c e a p p r o a c h r e d u c e s t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s w o r k i n g women f a c e to i n d i v i d u a l p r o b l e m s and by i m p l i c a t i o n d i r e c t s women t o seek p r i m a r i l y i n d i v i d u a l s o l u t i o n s . She  suggests  instead that  Women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n wage l a b o u r i s n o t a m a t t e r o f immediate s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s , but r a t h e r of p r e s t r u c t u r e d a l t e r n a t i v e s which d i r e c t t h e d e c i s i o n s women a r e c o m p e l l e d t o make, (p. 76.) While  recognising the  validity  of  these  criticisms,  in  22 defence  o f t h e consumer  general,  i t  behaviour.  context  factors  context.  influence  then  have  those  who h a v e  This  section  has  carried  o u t i n Canada  into  the  a r e concerned  case,  with the  the  force  effects  special influence  in  first  a  given  recognition  emphasis,  of  of that  and  i f the  of such  wider  itself  than  Force  concerning provided  recent  of  with  at  economic on  factors  participation. age  studies four  Canada  and, i n a l l a fairly  considering studies  sexes,  were  or i t s  but  one  general social,  investigate  are  and, i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  concerned with t h e  participation.  from  (Allingham,1967b)  t h e 1961 C e n s u s  and m a r i t a l s t a t u s  Tabulating groups,  These  o f which  provide  both  on  by t h e e m p i r i c a l  Statistics  women  of the studies considered  of age, education  five,  The other  of  influences  years.  work,  factors.  cross-tabulaticns  different  with  Labour  women. T h e y  behaviour  o f unemployment  The  force  with  only  influences  and economic  specifically  i n  auspices  married  demographic labour  current  within  i n the theory  t w o g r o u p s . .The f i r s t  under  of  less  participation  predecessor,  overview  i n  the evidence  studies  only  of  Canada.  summarises  out  behaviour  Of F e m a l e  force  carried  analysis  that, i n  applied i t .  labour  roughly  an  l e d t o an o b s c u r i n g  i s a weakness  female  fall  of  mainly  S e c t i o n , , 4. . E m p i r i c a l , S t u d i e s ParticipationIn  than  be s a i d  c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e development  lies  theory  this  more  i t might  n o t be i n c o n s i s t e n t  The d i f f e r e n c e choice  theory  patterns  need  which  consumer  in  no  Examining  structural the  pretends  choice  controlled  t o examine t h e  on f e m a l e  the participation  used  labour  r a t e s o f women  f o re d u c a t i o n ,  Allingham  23 reached  t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t m a r i t a l s t a t u s was t h e  important positive showed  variable influence.  a  reflecting tendency group, age.  more  but In  that  particular,  strikingly  a higher  education  two  initial  level  the  peaked  and  a  greater  influence  relatively  extended t h i s  of  age  as  an  and  Spencer  (1968),  of  each  was f o u n d  children  an  variable  this was  Education  used  here  of  tabulations,  the  dummy  independent  F o r women under 44, c h i l d factor,  the  presence  reflects  of  a  a strong  of  higher  cost  positive  education  labour  relative  a s a proxy  multiple  factor  regression  childcare  f o r women  was most p r o n o u n c e d f o r  to their  high  supply.  f o r income, e x e r t e d  a l s o analysed  which  i n f l u e n c e on women  c e n t r e s , perhaps i n d i c a t i n g  f o r a l l age and r e s i d e n c e (1968)  married  areas,  influence  women's  on  s t r o n g f o r women i n urban  exerted  women i n s m a l l e r u r b a n  Ostry  source,  6 exerting a strong negative i n f l u e n c e . . T h i s  suggest  4 5 . . The  influence  stronger  i n t h e 30 t o 34 age  a l l age g r o u p s , and was t h e most i m p o r t a n t  education,  a  education  estimate  characteristic.  was p a r t i c u l a r l y  such  profile,  M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s using  t o be t h e most i m p o r t a n t  under  authors  over  for  participation  analysis to investigate i n addition the influences  was u s e d t o d e r i v e  influences  in  women  u s i n g t h e same d a t a  participation.  services.  educated  independent  women's  the  strong  p r o p o r t i o n r e t u r n i n g t o work a f t e r  s t a t u s , r e s i d e n c e and husband's  effect  a very  of p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  of c h i l d  variables  most  slight.  Allingham  of  more  f o r c h i l d b e a r i n g t o be c o n c e n t r a t e d  The  status  exerts  single  a  demand  Husband's negative  groups.  1961 c e n s u s d a t a , with  dummy  using cross-  variables  and  24 analysis  of  previous  studies  children,  and t h e r e l a t i v e l y  her  variance.  results  and  particularly  dummy  education, did  regions,  to  to  Prairie  provinces,  in  Bureau  households  used  Multiple  taking  on a v a l u e  otherwise..The  of  Provinces  f o r c e than  was  of  this  influence  considered.  f o r older  and Quebec  of the family's  were  collected of  asset  of various  the  Finances  regarding Women  by  non-farm  dependent  i n  variable force,  the  0  major  with  unemployed  force,  providing  Significant  also  less  Columbia.  was i n t h e l a b o u r  were  Married  i n Ontario, the  as i n the previous  women,  holdings  of different  o f Consumer  behaviour.  was a  status,  considered.  t o be i n t h e l a b o u r  worker  Higher  women  the  The  participation  sample  study  included  child  of  data  results.  i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n s strong  than  British  a  used,  t h e wife  previous  added  from  f o r a Survey  o f 1 where  likely  used  Ostry  being  analysis. .  women  extent,  (1970)  Statistics  regression  more  factors  between  of residence  the l i k e l i h o o d  labour  findings  were  particularly  also  of  regression  f o r  and  i n f l u e n c e of age,  o f $5,000.  participation  or, to a lesser  confirmed  influences,  The  the  education  relationship  the region  of the other  the results of  association  the  significantly  initially  1964.  evidence  on  and Featherstone  Dominion  variables  while  i n the Atlantic  likely  Spencer  the  income,  differ  independently  be  negative  i n  of  independent  income,  that,  o r husband's  effects  a threshold  influence  women o f a l l a g e s  husbands  above  suggested  appear  minor a  variables  important  the  husbands  strong  coefficients less  concerning  indicated  participation  regional  In addition to confirming  regional study  and  apparent.  and debt short  position  and long  was term  25 financial  assets  participation,  while  participation considered A  priori,  were  and  associated a  positive  debtholdings  in this  study  with  was  influence of  positive  or  negative,  household  member  was  contibuting to,  household  tasks.  The  net  Skoulos of  the  (1974)  labour  using  two  families  Labour  with  consisted  depending  effect  undertook  sources.  husband  Canada's  Force  factor  an  Survey  of  1968  rates  upon  of  for  weakly  a  corresponding the  174  cities,  data,  Skoulos  could  be  additional additional,  analysis  women  in  Canada,  sample  of  non-farm  by  merging  obtained  Consumer  from  adults.  econometric  was  factor  positive.  married  of  the  generating  present,  data  additional  participation  extensive  Survey  f o r the  of  of  between  Another  whether  or  first  wife  aggregate  participation  The  and  on  proved  force participation  data  Statistics  this  apparent.  presence  the  probability  association  was  the  reduced  Finances  peripod..  with  The  the  second  1961  Census,  examining  towns  and  municipal  subdivisions. Analysing to  estimate  being  a  and  the  presence status  the  The  representing of  other  of  adults  (homeowners b e i n g  of  the in  The  for  her  market  preferences  both  reflected  regression  utility  of  the  and  age  household, to  have  education  earnings, by  the  housework  the  a  with  of  to  other  inclusion  family time  and  proxied  by  children,  the  and  taken  utility  total  was  higher  was  analysis  function,  partners, subject  number  wife's  used  housework,  assumed  f o r housework).  family  family  extent  need  potential  a  wife's  leisure  constraints.  variables  micro  parameters  f u n c t i o n of  income budget  the  the  owner/renter preference as  a  proxy  influences of  or  on  variables  26 repreenting  the  occupation  and  region  of  sample income the  residence.  as  a  was  were  higher  with  a  related  residence  the  experienced  effect  was  would the  the  the  the  labour When  for  the  In  from  less  Quebec,  were  a  age,  that  In  derived  education  and  the  by  age,  turn  coefficients and  of  family  urban  areas  and  was the  inversely husband  since  the  the  reduced  income,  a  had  income  influence  Since  net  those  of  tending  the  income  positive  impact support  worker  behaviour  among  married  women  with  part  of  run  for  the by  outside  the  year.  found  to  differ  rest  the  of  of  the  exerted labour of  age  equation  sample  immigration  preceding  results  influences the  outside  the  were the  husbands  region,  influence  general, from  in  period,  Quebec  the  for  run  some  the  stronger,  in  were  husband  and  offering  a r r i v e d at  provinces,  important. to  and  place  again  significant  those  education,  ownership,  to  regressions  in  suggested  added  applied  Provinces  Atlantic  resemblance In  a  separate  husband's  status  for  Atlantic  the  home  results  net  the  participation.  participation, of  defined  However,  time  reflected  Skoulos  were  unemployment  year.  of  family's  Participation  weeks  likelihood  on  force  considerably  be  husband's  expected s i g n . . P a r t i c i p a t i o n  women  same  the  status,education  the  home.  the  also  existence  women. S i m i l a r  had  previous  to  the  Again  child  of  stronger,  unemployment  for  and  number  referred  increase  region.  the  the  and  f o r subsamples  and  status,  regressions  immigrants,  in  during  unemployment to  recent  adult  immigration  status,  representing  for  to  variable  and  significant  third  and  Separate  whole  group,  age  employment  variables  income  of  wife's  status  by  the  force,  and  and  bore  rural  country.  a  women  child strong only.  appeared  to  27 have  a stronger  effect  Skoulos's similar  females  A  the  Both  variable, time  was  support  also  o f need  participation  for  effect  influenc exerted declined  by m a r r i e d  i s  by  of was  other  with  that  incentive,  worker  earnings  Its  indicating  or  provided  added  as average  effects  as  data  the  included.  and income  interprets  country.  Census  defined  the negative  wage  of the  aggregate  providing  i n the form  about  i n the rest of  exceeded  author  inducement, bring  full  and  income.  which  again wage  working  positive, family  analysis  results,  hypothesis.  than  age,  a  strong  reguired  to  women i n t h e c h i l d b e a r i n g  years. The (1977)  final  study  using  a  women, h u s b a n d analysis carried  of  and  sample  present) female  o u t f o r each  expected  for  influence,  strongest  considerably addition,  the  the  force  Gunderson  observations  (non-farm  Census  to  participation.  regions.  status Age  and  undertake Analyses  of  Quebec  effect  than of  some  For s t a t i s t i c a l  i n the previous  of education  reasons,  was e v a l u a t e d  only  study,  referred to different variable could  age  time  the  o f age  children  be i n t e r p r e t e d  i n was  was g r e a t e s t i n  f o r the all-Canada  periods,  was  regions;  influence  t h e income  were  independent  i n the other  school  The  income  t h e a g e o f 45. The e f f e c t  i n  were  participation  family  exerted  an  as a whole.  the probability  The p o s i t i v e i m p a c t  unemployment  by  and f o r t h e c o u n t r y  child  after  undertaken  t h e 1971  between  deterrent  husband  unlike  variables the  a l l  there.  unemployed Since,  region  was  individual  labour  stronger  Maritimes.  of  residence,  obtained  group  from  relationship  education,  greater  i n this  and  of  case.  unemployment  the coefficient as  an  on  representing  28 the  net  effects  effects. by  many  tend  Because factors  to  of an  unemployment individual's  besides  reflect  local  added  worker  behaviour,  a  sign.  However  Gunderson  interpreted  absence  of  added  caution  should  worker  effect.  In  be  used  summary,  influences  on  female  regional  factors  between  those  appear  to  Provinces where  an  and,  conflicting  studies  readily to  to  he of  a  notably,  the  confirm  the  major  presence  earnings.  distinction  not  i s  explicitly  negative  influence  provinces  concerning  conflict  which  which  focus  and the  on  Quebec.  apparent  considered  s t i l l  specifically  the  Prairie those  participation The  i n f l u e n c e of  becomes  of  Where  Columbia—and  British  that  discouraged  above of  potential  the  warned  most  a clear  extent,  have  negative.  a  lesser  than  strongly indicating  discussed  factors  the  would  and  results a  i t  participation—Ontario  Atlantic  participation;  where  of  i s influenced  expected  evidence  respect  woman's  more  although  i t as  considered,  independent  apparent—the  the  to  as  participation, the  part  significantly  studies  with  regions  favour  proved  a  conditions,  therefore  result  the  income, are  i t  was  behaviour,  a l l  expectations  family  and  only  status  behaviour  in taking  theoretical  children,  employment  this  worker  than  employment  worker  discouraged positive  rather  studies  i s  provide  unemployment  more  on  this  out  by  apparent subject  on  when are  considered. The Proulx Survey, age-sex  first  used  such  annual  on,  was  carried  Proulx  time  series  data  from  the  labour  force  participation  regressing groups  study  in  some  cases,  the  the  aggregate  in  Labour of  1969. Force  various  unemployment  29 rate,  i n  Proulx*s  other  results  hypothesis 24,  behaviour  aged  19... R e s u l t s w e r e being  Officer data,  various  measures  in  the  Secular  Although  unemployment strongly  pattern  added  Swidinsky Force time  Survey series  lagged added to  estimates  worker  effect  number or of  longer. variables  and, f o r  of Proulx, the  t o predominate  f o r a l l male  response  to long-term  to  current  was o u t w e i g h e d  unemployment..The  females,  on  currently  credit  this  rates  a l l other  by same  females  behaviour.. used  time  employment  from  group to  was i n d i c a t e d  predominated  series  data  regressed  and f o r females  effect  consumer  Force  increasing  s i x months  i n some c a s e s ,  and c r o s s - s e c t i o n  aggregate  44 y e a r s ,  worker  (1969)  14  groups,  Labour  measures  the  force  f o r teenage  worker  20 t o worker  age-sex  to the findings  labour  response  ages  Discouraged  by t h e i n c l u s i o n  was f o u n d  the  the  f o r  income,  Contrary  was p o s i t i v e  was o b s e r v e d  exhibiting  and males  participation  from  work  effect  negative  worker  quarterly  specific  reflected  rate.  age  additional  20 t o 24 a n d men a g e d  using  unemployment,  per capita  worker  a  (1969),  seeking  discouraged  demand.  insignificant.  reflected  were  real  the  o f excess  not r e p o r t e d f o rt h e other  o f male  the birth  groups.  women a g e d  r e g r e s s e d age-sex  to those  representing females,  among  statistically  changes  for  o f men i n a g g r e g a t e  •intensity*  unemployed  variable  support  and Anderson  Survey  index  45 t o 64 a n d 6 5 a n d o v e r .  was a p p a r e n t  presumably  an  provided  i n the case  a n d women  to  cases,  data  the  from  1961  participation  population f o r males  over  45  f o r  males  the Labour  Census. rates  The  on t h e  r a t i o . .A d o m i n a n t  aged  20 t o 24 a n d 25  y e a r s . . The  discouraged  o f 14 t o 19 a n d 6 5 a n d  30 over,  and f o r f e m a l e s  between  impact  of  unemployment  slight.  By  contrast,  independent number o f market  every  level  of  aggregate  The  i t was  married  women t h a n  strongest  unemployment  a  coefficients, amounting t o  from  the  some  analysing  (1970) a l s o  focussing of  Summarising found,  of of  females  males..  by  the  and i t s assumed  to  Among  education  education  only,  Using  Census  between  or  stronger f o r  calculated in  labour  status  education.  271,000  associated  aggregate  high,  the  data  r a t e s f o r both  particularly medium  results  as expected,  the  disguised week  1961  actual  open  full-employment  on and  low  statistically  previous  census  in  income  tract,  behaviour  census  rate  was  i n low income t r a c t s ,  Kunin  inversely  with t h e average  The l a t t e r  by  tracts.  of t h e r e g r e s s i o n s f o r females,  male e a r n i n g s .  significant  t h e 1961 C e n s u s ,  by  differences  t h a t the p a r t i c i p a t i o n  and w i t h  from  sexes  with the p r o p o r t i o n married,  children,  the  used  participation  residents  did  44  marital  elementary  difference  r a t e and a  worker e f f e c t i n  females,  Swidinsky  as  of 4 percent. Kunin  ox  single  university  unemployment r a t e o f 7.5 p e r c e n t  and  discouraged  with  using  in  f o r widows. When d i s a g g r e g a t e d  f o r women w i t h  cross-section  level  estimates,  that  aggregate  was r e l a t i v e l y  variables  than  among  s t r o n g e s t among t h o s e  resulting  force  responsiveness  was g e n e r a l l y weaker  net  unemployment  control  a dominant  education.  women,  negligible  labour  The  g r o u p , whether g r o u p e d by a g e ,  unemployment  proved  44.  cross-section  the  areas, suggested  and  the  socio-demographic  almost  it  on  the  variables  20  variable  number was n o t  suggesting,  as  works, t h e e x i s t e n c e o f some t h r e s h o l d e f f e c t  31 in  the impact  o f income on p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  association confirmed, income lower  between  the relationship  group. income  whatever  The  by  on were  discouraged  worker  positive medium  unemployment  of  French  The  same e f f e c t  Labour  discouraged  firstly,  that  of  positive  Survey  income  tracts  English  findings  of  and  data,  Sharir  dominant  also  statistically  the  male  population  nor French  Skoulos  provided  hypothesis.  The  was were  origin. was  who  using  found  employment  to  population  in  and  f o r the regressed  on v a r i a b l e s rate  monthly  support  authors  employment  reflecting,  secondly,  a l l other  first  variable,  worker e f f e c t  a negative  f o r t h e second.  the  groups. A  r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e d i s c o u r a g e d worker  f o r the  worker  participation  (1978) ,  own  t h e added  negative  immigrants.  group's  expected  female  o f added  and  groups,  r a t e s f o r age-sex groups  coefficient  reflecting  the  at  be more  when t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f i m m i g r a n t s  s t u d y by Kuch  worker  participation  was  was f o u n d  work  a  the  that  between t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f  a l l income  h i g h e r among  Force  in  o r were o f n e i t h e r  contradicting  A later  suggesting  where a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e  origin,  participation  ratio  For  to  rate  evidence  indicated  middle  Regressing  unemployment  however,  upper  tend  factors..  association  and  rate.  i n tracts  used,  was  the  income women w i l l  throughout  effect;  behaviour  in  lower  obtained  in  was  t h i s as s u g g e s t i n g  necessity,  total  positive  participation  strongest  w h i l e upper  the  and  interprets  non-pecuniary  coefficients  significant  proving  author  prevails,  participation  behaviour  earnings  women w i l l , t h r o u g h  wage  influenced  women  female  The e x p e c t e d  effect  coefficient  The  expected  32 results  were o b t a i n e d  25  and  44  for  y o u n g e r and  neither effect o l d e r men  were  significant.  all  age  lowest  suggested of  the  age..  of t h e  was  to  24  t h a t such  workforce  the net  65  age  cyclical  as  worker  which  secondary  effects,  to  for  rate  authors  of as  part  workers. decline  a discouraged  teenagers,  and  other  in  effect  the  be t h o u g h t  appeared  net response  effects  t o t h e unemployment  women s h o u l d  r a t h e r than  while  were s i g n i f i c a n t  group,  f o r a l l males e x c e p t p l u s , the  worker  discouraged  added worker e f f e c t  found  t o 44 and  the  effects  between  significant,  discouraged  responsiveness  20  indicated  However, f o r males  statistically  only the  with  the  Estimating  effect 25  in  was  women, b o t h  Women's  primary  strength  For  groups,  predominating. was  f o r a l l groups.  for  The with  worker females  groups  being  indeterminate. , The studies  work by to  Swan  deal  explicitly  particular  interest..  hypothesis  t h a t i n the  recessions worker  Force In  tested  the  rate  unemployment  was  regressions. ststistical  male  Prairie  These bias  and  and  is  was  neighbouring  by  were common  variables.  from  the  1953  region, in  made  in  Labour to  1971.  on  the  while  male  the to  measurement Other  least  substituting  regressed  variable  the  discouraged  strongly,  p e r i o d from  of  rejected  the  Q u a r t e r l y data  adjustments  independent  strikingly  more  independent  introduced  'economic'  factors,  provinces)  participation a  of the  regional  covering the  in the  o n l y one  where unemployment f a l l s  operating  were u s e d ,  region,  unemployment  dependent  with  regions  was  as t h e  f o r open unemployment.  Survey  each  Swan  ( O n t a r i o and  effect  disguised  (1974),  female  reduce error  the in  variables included  33 were  wages  marriage  rates  In  and s e a s o n a l  Ontario  effects  were  region, effect  and s a l a r i e s p e r employed  and  the  regression  unemployment percent  would  i n  effects.  Swan  Ontario,  unemployment the  increase  was a b o u t  to  each and  50 p e r c e n t worker  Swan c o m m e n t e d  the  women.  and  the  no  Atlantic worker British  effect  extent  to  additional  than  on  which  a fall  increase  greater  of 1  worker  i n measured  i t  would  be  In the Atlantics, the  and i n B r i t i s h  Columbia,  that,  Atlantic  i n  worker  In  following  without  effect.  the  exert  region  estimated  20 p e r c e n t  additional  an a d d i t i o n a l  for  calculated  with  additional  difference.  showed  apparent  i n  he  t o b e some  without  British  rise  employment,  In  significant  men  birth  variables..  appeared  then  regional  i n t h e P r a i r i e s and  for  unemployment  participation.  and  while  b u t n o n e t e f f e c t was  Columbia,  no  and t r e n d  Quebec,  indicated,  person,  the  there  was  provinces  Columbia  Not only a r e more p e o p l e o u t o f work t h a n i n t h e r e s t o f Canada, i t i s a l s o t h e case that more of those who a r e l o o k i n g f o r work a c u a l l y n e e d i t , i n t h a t more o f them w i l l a c t u a l l y t a k e a j o b when e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t i e s improve, (p. 4 2 8 . ) And  he c o n c l u d e d  that.  Any a d j u s t m e n t t o measured unemployment r a t e s t o a l l o w f o r t h e r e s p o n s i v e n e s s o f l a b o u r s u p p l y t o demand w o u l d reveal even greater differences across regions i n s e n s i t i v i t y t o r e c e s s i o n t h a n were p r e v i o u s l y t h o u g h t t o o b t a i n , (p..432.)  To  summarise,  regarding  the  there  influence  Looking  only  results  of the studies  for  older  i s a considerable  at that  women,  part  of  that  unemployment  of the evidence  b y Swan of  degree  and O f f i c e r Proulx  on  and t h e time  conflict  participation.  relating and  of  t o women, t h e  Anderson, series  and,  work o f  34  Swidinsky, would suggest a dominant added worker response. . T h i s conclusion  is  supported  by  which were d i s c u s s e d f i r s t . worker e f f e c t i s i n  some  of the more g e n e r a l s t u d i e s  On the other hand, a net discouraged  general  indicated  by  Swidinsky's  cross-  s e c t i o n work and by the s t u d i e s of Gunderson, Kunin and Kuch and Sharir. It  i s usual to i n t e r p r e t time s e r i e s s t u d i e s as r e f l e c t i n g  response t o s h o r t run reflecting to  changes,  and  cross-section  changes  as  response to long run or s t r u c t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . .It i s  some e x t e n t p o s s i b l e t o r e c o n c i l e the evidence by s u g g e s t i n g  an added worker response to s h o r t run changes i n  the  level  of  unemployment, while discouraged worker behaviour predominates a  response  to  long  t h e o r e t i c a l l y and account  for  run  unemployment. T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s  i n t u i t i v e l y r e a s o n a b l e ; however, i t  a l l the  conflicts,  in  fails  added  worker  response  to  p a r t i c u l a r , the dominant  discouraged worker e f f e c t found by Kuch and S h a r i r , as the  as  well  as  found i n Skoulos* a n a l y s i s of 1 9 6 1  Census d a t a . In g e n e r a l , then, the c o n c l u s i o n review  of  the  second  understanding of the demand remains  group  to  be  drawn  of  studies  must  relationship  between  labour  from  be  this  that  our  supply  and  very l i m i t e d .  S e c t i o n 5. Female Labour,Force  P a r t i c i p a t i o n And  Industrial  Structure. The  basic  hypothesis of t h i s study i s t h a t , j u s t as there w i l l  be a tendency labour  force  f o r workers to become discouraged when  high  f i n d i n g w o r k — a tendency  unemployment which may  or may  reduces  and  leave  the  not be o f f s e t  the  chance of by  the  35 entry be  into  a  tendency  force  women t o r e m a i n o u t s i d e  the  job search  which would be expended utility  reservation intuitive only  of a  job  i s low. I n  approach,  terms,  effect, that  tc  the  average  where women know t h a t  the labour  distinction  i n seeking  search  wage—whatever  t h e most d e t e r m i n e d  outside  will  seek  a  between  this  effect,  and t h e more c o n v e n t i o n a l  a specific  of  time  short  market  work,  and  of the  wage. I n more  work i s a v a i l a b l e ,  the  rest  would l i k e  remaining  t o work. T h e  h e r e t h e i n d u s t r y mix  discouraged  than  theoretical  from  worker  effect  stem f r o m a  low  i s  a shortage demand  for  i n general.  The less  .kind o f job r a t h e r  costs  level  called  the labour  we may s a y t h a t t h e  little  f o r c e e v e n where t h e y  will  work would r e d u c e t h e  t h e r e s u l t i n g low p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s  labour  assertion  favourable  participation, Table  IV  elaboration.  of the Canadian  of  estate;  and  the  labour  retail  community,  fishing force  unspecified' force  trade;  column o f  labour This  force i n proportion  i n an i n d u s t r y .  c a t e g o r y , an above was  female  finance,  in  insurance  b u s i n e s s and p e r s o n a l  and m i n i n g  consequently  The f i r s t  known a s t h e d e g r e e o f s e x - t y p i n g  groups:  labour  further  may be more o r  and  g r o u p w h i c h , i n 1971, was f e m a l e .  industry  forestry,  structure  employment,  the proportion  the 'industry  proportion  an i n d u s t r i a l  female  requires  sometimes  Excluding  that  to  shows  each i n d u s t r y  the  i n d i v i d u a l s — s o there  p r o b a b i l i t y o f f i n d i n g work and t h e h i g h  expected  is  f o r married  following  effort  of  market o f o t h e r  where t h e demand f o r f e m a l e l a b o u r  terms, low  the labour  three and  major real  services. In the  i n d u s t r i e s , l e s s than  was f e m a l e . The s e c o n d  average  and t h i r d  10 p e r c e n t o f columns  show  36 TABLE  IV  Ma j p r , I n d u s t r y ..Groups, S h o w i n g P r o p o r t i o n s Of Female  P e r c e n t a q e _ O f Wgrkf g r c e _ F e m a l e And M a l e L a b o u r F o r c e 1971  F e m a l e s as % of i n d u s t r y labour force  .And  £  ; of t o t a l female labour force  » of t o t a l male labour force  Industry  A g r i c u l t ure  23.2  3.8  6. 5  0. 1  1. 2  Forestry  4.5  Fishing  3.6  Mining  6.8  0.3  2. 3  Manufacturing  24.6  13.7  23. 0  Construe tion  4.9  0. 4  0. 9  9. 0  Transport,communications, utilities  17.0  0.4  Wholesale  22.8  2.7  4. 8  trade  42.0  13. 1  9. 4  Finance, insurance, real estate  51.4  6. 2  3. 1  Community, business, personal services  57.6  39.7  15. 3  Public administration and defence  25.5  5.5  8. 4  Unspecified  44.2  10.2  6. 7  ALL  33.4  100. 0  Retail  trade  INDUSTRIES  Source:  C a l c u l a t e d from S t a t i s t i c s Volume 3 P a r t 4 T a b l e 2.  Canada  100. 0  1971  Census.  37 the  p r o p o r t i o n of the  in  each  industry  degree o f  and  industries  force,  labour  force.  23.0  extent than  both  the  of  the  69.1  percent textile  percent  the  of the  female,  1.3  A  similar  an  industrial  Gunderson  percentage percent of  business  of the  proportion  3.5  percent  the  female  who  t o be  example,  in  services' 'personal, for  almost  labour  were i n t h e In a t h i r d  and  60  force  force,  occupational rather  major  order  a  manufacturing,  workforce  when an  the  greater  accounted  Within  male l a b o u r  of female workers i s over  10.4  of t h e f e m a l e l a b o u r  25  i n descending  occupations.  is,  a  with  welfare  alone  force.  4. 2  personal services  percent,  groups  male  contained  For  and  75.1  of t h e  breakdown shows  breakdown i s e x a m i n e d . T a b l e  of females  t h r e e i t e x c e e d s 50 There  was  i n d u s t r y , with  total  female  compared  ' h e a l t h and  female labour  shows  o f the  percent  figures.  p a t t e r n i s apparent  ranked  these  force,  percent of the  (1976)  occupations,  30  the  'female  manufacturing  aggregate  contained  with  percent  than  and  These two  clothing  respectively  three  female c o n c e n t r a t i o n  females  percent.  and  as compared  than  and  community,  of  60  m a l e s . A more d e t a i l e d  sex-typing  the  less  female l a b o u r  of  industry..The  almost  shows t h a t i n t h e c a t e g o r y  services',  one  of the  proportion  17.2  with  forces  f o r m e r i s sometimes known a s  industries  t h a t r e v e a l e d by  breakdown  60  Primary  percent  of  sector  The  contained  compared  13 p e r c e n t  and  group.  male l a b o u r  f e m a l e c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n an  intensive' labour  f e m a l e and  V,  adapted  from  female-employing also  the  f o r c e i n each group.  Over  labour  showing  f o r c e i n 1971  of these 50  held  occupations,  percent;  in  all  the but  percent.  then,  strong  evidence  of a segregated  labour  38 TABLE  V Leading, Female  Occupations,.Canada,  Occupation  Females as percent of occupation  Secretaries/stenographers Sales clerks Bookkeepers/accounts clerks Elementary teachers Waitresses T e l l e r s and Cashiers Farm workers Nurses,graduate Typists, clerk typists General o f f i c e clerks Sewing machine o p e r a t o r s P e r s o n a l s e r v i c e n.e.c. Janitors/cleanerss Nursing aids S o r d e r l i e s Secondary teachers Other c l e r i c a l n.e.c. Receptionists Supervisors,sales Chefs & cooks Packaging n.e.c. Barbers Shairdressers Telephone operators Library & f i l e clerks L a b o u r & e l e m e n t a l work Babysitters  97.4 66.0 67.6 82. 3 82.9 91.3 46. 2 95.8 95.6 62. 2 90. 1 92.0 32. 4 74.4 44.5 62.0 92.6 16. 8 50. 2 56.3 63. 2 95. 9 82.2 47.0 96.6  total  65.9  in  Source:  25  leading  occupations  Gunderson,1976, p.114-115. (Taken from S t a t i s t i c s Canada,  1971 Percent of female labour Force 8. 1 5. 4 4. 6 4. 1 3. 6 3. 5 3. 2 3. 1 2. 9 2. 7 1.9 1. 9 1.9 1.8 1. 7 1. 5 1.4 1. 4 1. 3 1.3 1. 2 1.3 0. 9 0. 8 0.7 61.7  1971  Census).  39 market,  with  industry female  females  disproportionately  and o c c u p a t i o n a l  dominated.  opportunities proportion  f o r  or  relatively market,  In general, women  of t o t a l  industries  i n  economic  much  manufacturing  sectors,  will  be  limited,  than  occupational  specific  will  even  itself  will  though  be  we  a  (1970) by  women  demand quoted as  between f o r  subject of  context  i n  labour  i n t h e primary  opportunities  on i n d u s t r i a l  demand  or  rather  f o r  labour  i n  industrial  i n any i n d u s t r y  the  of  the  industry  industry In  cause  i n  'female  3 of this  extent  to  which  the  i s o r i e n t e d towards t h e  mix  effect  the United  determined  given  States.  structure.  urban  areas  not, of  Oppenheimer  participation  t o the  increased  occupations..Connelly  1  views  female  most  cursory  Its  economic  importance  of c a p i t a l i s t  analyses  treatment i n  often  assumed  of  the  to the influence the  and t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s  (1978),  participation  by t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s  however,  somewhat  has  of the increased  chapter,  i s usually recognised,  industries  local  o f females  t h e major  general,  industrial  sectors are  occupations.  of  primarily  have  the  these  the proportion  reflection  labour  producers..In  here  1940 a n d 1960 a s t h e r e s p o n s e  i n Section  being  of a  employment  focus  high  towards  where t h e s e  place  employment  relatively  i s directed  takes  extent,  upon  unrecognized..  identified  a  few  contingent  female  existence  more  a  be l a r g e l y  traditionally  been  where  female  structure of that  course,  areas  i n  to a large  be  i n t h e economy  occupational  The  will  s t r u c t u r e because  occupations  structure,  there  production  heavy  relatively  are,  Conversely,  represented  where  which  activity  occupations.  poorly  or  groups,  represented  historical of  'female'  to contribute t o  40 higher have as  participation rates  treated a  industrial  kind  portion  of  economic  of  the  industry  and  Finegan force  Areas  (SMSA's).  which  towards by  age  An  average  marital  and  a  number  45,  widowed  married  Census  work  work where  and  was  within  a  domestic  flexible  part-time  was  2  the  be  United  States,  in  SMSA  unemployment variables mix  separated  women,  but  rate  work  distribution  extent  for  women labour  and  and  strongly  24  for  female  age  proved  King  Bowen  examined  and  the  Finegan's  hypothesis  and  over  single  to  labour  r a t i o n a l e being  market,  the  responsibilities  exist. hours  The in  hours  and  may  the  be  variability  more  widespread  mean  and  variance  each  SMSA  were  study, that  positively related  working  of  on  or  using female  of  that  easily  hours market  combined  opportunities of  the  calculated  v a r i a b l e was The f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h i s i n d u s t r y mix t h a t used h e r e , which i s d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g 2  of  oriented  as  under  not  study  other  such  variable  Bowen  the  regressions  women e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e  and  addressed  was  were  to  Statistical  reflecting  each  that  attributed have  included  industry  for  cross-sectional  included  the  account  Metropolitan  of  Also  'culture*  studies  variable  control  elaborated  data.  participation of  few  and  studies  women.  King(1978) 1970  of  . The  for  divorced  A  major  mix  including  significant for  a  'tastes'  cannot  In  structure  status.  education.  and  industry  employment  variables,  earnings,  undertook  industrial  female  market  which  factors.  cross-section  partially  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Standard  the  and  to  effect directly.  (1969)  labour  to  variation  most  like  factor  demographic mix  But  structure,  residual  observed or  there.  for  predicted  on  the  basis  t h e same chapter..  as  41 of  that  city's inter-industry  national the  h o u r s o f work by i n d u s t r y .  children,  d i s t r i b u t i o n and o f t h e  The r e s u l t s  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h o u r s was i n d e e d  pre-school to  employment  f o r or i n  mix v a r i a b l e .  however, t h e h o u r s d i s t r i b u t i o n v a r i a b l e s neither  that  s i g n i f i c a n t f o r women  whether as a s u b s t i t u t e  Bowen and F i n e g a n ' s i n d u s t r y  indicated  c a s e , and t h e a u t h o r c o n c l u d e d  addition  For other  were  with  groups,  significant  in  that  ...The industry mix v a r i a b l e owes i t s significance to f a c t o r s o t h e r than t h e v a r i a b i l i t y i n hours c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p a r t i c u l a r i n d u s t r i e s . . (p. 406.) In section  Canada, two o f t h e s t u d i e s which  reflecting industry  used a g g r e g a t e  the  proportion  groups  to  o f an a r e a ' s  reflect  Swidinsky(1969)  respectively  the  positive,  but  not  proportion  professional  particularly  or  high  of  found  was  income  data  used  three  in  significant,  force mix  to  labour  to  also  previous variables  in certain effect  trade  and  variable  was  probably because these  reflect  force  on  representing  manufacturing,  (1974) r e p r e s e n t e d the  the  variables  employment  groups  conditions  industrial structure in  and s a l e s  by  managerial  and  occupations.  This  be s i g n i f i c a n t f o r most age g r o u p s and  so f o r t h e under 25 and 55 t o 64  age  groups.. I t s  s t r o n g e r i n low income a r e a s t h a n  i n middle  (1979)  supply  behaviour  from t h e 1971 C e n s u s P u b l i c  Use Sample  areas.  Nakamura e t a l using  industry  and t e c h n i c a l , c l e r i c a l  was  influence  the  proportion  aggregated  adequately. . Skoulos  variable  labour  F o r most age g r o u p s , t h e e f f e c t o f e a c h  were t o o h i g h l y  the  in  1961 C e n s u s d a t a i n c l u d e d  participation.  services.  discussed  on i n d i v i d u a l s  examined  labour  42 Tapes. and  This  sample  urban/rural  for  jobs'  than  residence  index  local  the  ratio  and p l a c e  women  was  occupation labour  only,  information  consequently study  m a r k e t s . . The  women a n d t h e t o t a l province  geographic  used i n t h i s  labour  calculating  provides  force  related t o regional rather  index  was  of residence.  by  from  the  and o l d e r  in  each  The e x p e c t e d number o f j o b s f o r proportion  by  This  occupation  in  v a r i a b l e was t h e n  each  of  women  province  included  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and the p r o v i n c i a l  in  p r o b i t a n a l y s i s of married  surprisingly  i n view o f t h e f a c t  market c o n d i t i o n s  t o be q u i t e  strongly  Section  in  that  each  participation of i n d u s t r i a l  Having at  with  place o f  personal  and  analysis  participation..Somewhat  provincial  were r e f l e c t e d ,  and  not  local  t h e v a r i a b l e was f o u n d  significant.  r a t e should  makers.  and  unemployment  female  1 suggested, i n general  participation policy  constructed  between t h e e x p e c t e d number o f j o b s f o r  family  labour  'opportunity  g r o u p i n Canada a s a whole, and t h e breakdown o f t h e  residence.  a  the  number o f women 15 y e a r s  derived  by p r o v i n c e  be a m a t t e r outlined  t e r m s , why t h e l a b o u r  of c o n c e r n t o p l a n n e r s and  the  the i n d i v i d u a l  force  major  level,  determinants  of  including the influence  s t r u c t u r e , some more s p e c i f i c  reasons  may  now  be  given. A high preferable may  be a  average  female p a r t i c i p a t i o n to  a  l o w e r one. Low p a r t i c i p a t i o n  reflection fertility  r a t e i s i n no s e n s e n e c e s s a r i l y  of  demographic  or a r e l a t i v e l y  factors,  high  i n age g r o u p s where p a r t i c i p a t i o n  retirement  or school  They  such  proportion  population  attendance.  r a t e s i n an a r e a above  of the female  i s low  may r e f l e c t  as  because  of  the prevalence  43 of  traditional  values placing  a heavy e m p h a s i s on d o m e s t i c and  childbearing  roles.  They may i n d i c a t e  society  which  those f a m i l i e s  in  income c a n a f f o r d On  would  to  work  discouraged  specific  effect.  of  necessary  so  skills,  o n . Low f e m a l e  At  the i n d i v i d u a l  may  represent  associated At  level,  not only  of the  family  i sa  termed  the  by  lack  of  adeguate  lack  daycare  a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o employment, and rates  may  therefore  represent  p r o b l e m s on s e v e r a l  of earnings but also and  industry  may be d e p r e s s e d by a  levels.  opportunities  of the  self-realization  low f e m a l e  which  may  participation  indicate  an  as g r e a t e r i n e q u a l i t i e s  husband's  chances may  o f income  o f m a r r i e d women d e c l i n e s  income,  a  higher  incomes i n g e n e r a l i n d i c a t e s for  individuals.  proportion  less  Evidence  o f wives who work do s o l a r g e l y  arising  increased  have more t h a n one w a g e e a r n e r , s o t h a t  distribution  majority  women who  reflected  an a b s e n c e o f employment  loss  level,  causes  as w e l l  families  so that  by  be  w i t h work o u t s i d e t h e home.  the family  the  the  interaction  Since the p a r t i c i p a t i o n in  we have  o f s o c i a l and economic  •involuntary' poverty  by  participation  existence  social  on one  may be d e p r e s s e d  i n aggregate,  participation  by poor p h y s i c a l  the  for  to live  phenomenon; a n o t h e r i s t h e s h o r t a g e o f  opportunities  Similarly,  arrangements,  rates  of t h e i n d i v i d u a l ,  opportunities  worker  employment  mix  prosperous  a r e u n a b l e t o do s o . One s u c h f a c t o r  s h o r t a g e o f employment the  who c a n a f f o r d  hand, p a r t i c i p a t i o n  outside the control like  relatively  t o do s o . .  the other  factors  a  from  incidence of distribution.  with  increases  o f low i n c o m e  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  inequality  than  does  suggests  that  the  out of f i n a n c i a l  need,  44 w h i l e many low income f a m i l i e s may be beyond only  because  1976;  Armstrong To  of  t h e w i f e ' s income.  and A r m s t r o n g ,  the regional  the  poverty  (Connelly,1976;  line  Gunderson,  1976.)  economy, a low  female  participation  rate  may  i n d i c a t e an u n d e r u t i l i s a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y ,  an  overall  The  loss  standard of  purchasing  nonparticipation aggregate  of l i v i n g  may  demand,  power  in  opportunities,  more l i k e l y  to create  problem  may  short  resulting  itself  further  employment  The  falling  of i t s potential. from  involuntary  to  a shortage o f  contribute  inhibiting  the  development  p a r t i c u l a r l y since  w o r k i n g women a r e  a demand f o r t h e s e r v i c e s  thus  present  of  of other  characteristics  women.  of a ' v i c i o u s  circle'. In an  general,  t h e n , low f e m a l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n  unfavourable  representing  industrial  a problem  of  structure  disguised  may  resulting  be  thought  unemployment,  with  from of as costs  a n a l o g o u s t o t h o s e o f open unemployment. . Section The  6. S t u d y  direct  chapter (1)  Objectives.  aims  of  the  To d e v e l o p  a  measure  structure  t o w a r d s t h e employment To measure and  structure different (3)  described  i n the following  a r e as f o l l o w s :  industrial  (2)  research  To  influence  on  the  of l o c a l  varies  the  degree  labour  to  which  the  markets i s f a v o u r a b l e  o f women;  compare labour  age and m a r i t a l investigate  of  the force  status  whether  influence  industrial  p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f women i n groups;  and  between.regions;  of  to  what  extent  this  45 (4)  To  structure  investigate  whether  can  for  unexplained These  aims a r e  account  expressed  c h a p t e r . In  consider  how  therefore, with the  as  specific  of  structure,  rates, affects social policy  e f f e c t s of  an  research  i n t e r p r e t i n g the  industrial  the  portion  in  industrial  the  previously  v a r i a t i o n i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n between  following  participation  a  differences  hypotheses i n  r e s u l t s , the through  and  industrial  aim  the  is  to  i t s influence  economic  measures which might be adverse  regions.  welfare adopted to  structure.  on and,  deal  CHAPTER 2  Methodology  And  Data_DescriptiQn  J._Intrgductipn.  Section This  chapter  the  data  provides a description  source  of the b a s i c  and t h e o p e r a t i o n a l  model  adopted,  d e p e n d e n t and i n d e p e n d e n t  variables. The the  next  specific  discusses used used  section  research  the nature  for  outlines the general  the  hypotheses  of t h e data  analysis.  to represent  to  be  and t h e  The f i n a l  the i n f l u e n c e s  model, t o g e t h e r  tested. . Section  level  section  allowed  with  of  aggregation  defines  for  in  3  the the  proxies general  model. Section,2. The  The M o d e l ,  purpose  industrial  of  structure  urban a r e a s ,  participation.  force  The  analysis,  defined  model was  was  on f e m a l e  to  labour  examine  the i n f l u e n c e o f  force  to the extent  participation possible  i n o t h e r f a c t o r s known o r t h o u g h t  participation  being  study  while c o n t r o l l i n g  urban d i f f e r e n c e s  regression  the  technigue with  the  rate  of  by age and m a r i t a l  used  was  dependent the  i ' t h group  status.  for inter-  to influence  stepwise  variable  The  in  multiple  the  labour  o f women, g r o u p s following  basic  used:  LFP  =b i  0  +b X 1 i + b 1 2  X 2 i +b  C +b 3  4  R *b IM + u 5  where; Xii  represents  factors  those  personal,  f o r t h e i ' t h group  which  social are  known  and d e m o g r a p h i c to  influence  47 women's w i l l i n g n e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e ; X2i  represents  the  rewards  C,R  represent  factors, IM u  group  through step,  defined  were  R,  the  examined,  A  exists (2)  between  in  the  the  apparently  •other' case  section.  hypotheses  independent  factors  X1  In the second  structure  particularly  rates f o r  was a d d e d  to  power  o f t h e model  that  of  R,  were  being,  significant  relationship  v a r i a b l e s and t h e v a r i a b l e IM; lead  o f t h e model influence  of  to  an  increase  and a reduction i n region  on  labour  participation. regressions between  (including (widowed  were the  performed ages  separated),  and d i v o r c e d )  of married  age groups:  allow  participation  i n the explanatory  power  structure;  representing  statistically  explanatory  o f a l l women  married  force  industrial  t h e dependent  residence  term.  the following  research  of  and r e g i o n ;  proxies  coefficients,  positive,  Separate  as  b  influences  I n c l u s i o n o f t h e IM v a r i a b l e w i l l  force  to  on  i n  Changes  the specific  (1)  three  labour  the variable reflecting  i n  size  disturbance  step,  discussed  and  the  as c i t y  factors influencing  f o r the i ' t h group;  'independent'  regressed  regression.  market  the influence of industrial  first  the  rates  the  i s a statistical  the  labour  to participation  represents  In each  those  of  single  women  f o rthe p a r t i c i p a t i o n 15  and  (never  64,  married),  i n t h e same a g e  women, t h e s a m p l e  group.  was f u r t h e r d i v i d e d  15 t o 2 4 , 25 t o 44 a n d 45 t o 6 4 . T h i s  f o rchanging  f o r attitudinal  i n f l u e n c e s over  and f o r  the *life  d i f f e r e n c e s between  women  cycle',  and In into  was  done  as  well  in different  age  48 groups.  Unfortunately  case  of single  the  number o f s u c h  participation such a r e a s  t h e same breakdown was n o t p o s s i b l e i n t h e  and o t h e r  women. I n many o f  r a t e t o be a m e a n i n g f u l  requires  In  general,  a mean o f 0 and a c o n s t a n t  (2)  The  related  The  extent  effects  in  source  of  required,  for  independently  distributed  variance;  no  exact  between any o f t h e X v a r i a b l e s  justify  these  assumptions  is  chapter.  from  the  of  Summary Tapes made a v a i l a b l e by  1971 C e n s u s .  p r e f e r a b l e i n view  participation,  while  variables;  numbers,  are a d d i t i v e .  from t h e User  have been  much  should  the  Although  of c o n t i n u i n g  successive censuses social  and  increases  provide  demographic  the decennial census g i v e s breakdown o f t h e l a b o u r  more r e c e n t  the only  the only  information d e t a i l e d and  f o r c e by i n d u s t r y and s e x  s u b - p r o v i n c i a l areas. Use  the  t h e model  Source;.  Canada  comprehensive  size.  be a d o p t e d ;  dependent  exists  i n the following  were o b t a i n e d  female  the  t o which t h e d a t a  S e c t i o n _ 3. . Data  would  to  relationship  their  Statistics  a sample  f o r the  excluding  v a r i a b l e s X1....Xn a r e f i x e d (non-random)  and  considered  data  terms u a r e  with  linear  areas,  t h e use o f m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s  The d i s t u r b a n c e  linearly  while  underlying  t h a t the f o l l o w i n g assumptions  (1)  Data  figure,  would have r e s u l t e d i n t o o s m a l l  made.  smaller  women i n any age g r o u p was t o o s m a l l  Some comment on t h e a s s u m p t i o n s be  the  o f aggregate  analysis  data  (participation  of i n d i v i d u a l  many ways p r e f e r a b l e — w a s  participation  rates)  as  rates—a  d i c t a t e d by t h e f a c t  that  opposed  to  technique i n the  Public  49 TABLE_VI Distribution  O f CMAs  Prairies  CMA's  &nd_Census  Atlantic  Agglomerations  Ontario  Quebec  B.C..  Total  5  3  9i  3  3  22  50,000100,000  -  2  7  3  -  12  25,00050,000  1  3  3  13  6  26  10,00025,000  2  8  10  6  5  31  5,00010,000  1  2  3  1  10  Total  9  31  28  15  101  Census Agglomerations  ?Including  3  Ottawa-Hull.  19  50 Use  Sample  Census  Tapes  containing  respondents  identification. conditions The of  An  would  level  the Census  do  Metropolitan  by  Canada  Known  b y t h e name  area,  as  of  or  subject limits  of this  The  Census  to  main  labour  there  100,000 city,  commuting  within  the  that  market  area  o r more  population.  they  field,  continuous  conditions, within  was  a r e 22, a r e d e f i n e d  a 20 m i l e  of  a  contain  whole  labour  market  s u b d i v i s i o n s . The main a  market  Agglomeration..Census  labour  largest  census  lying  to certain  the  of  geographic  to obtain.  and Census  having  individual  f o r the analysis  o f which  the  area  corresponding  municipalities  Area  on  precise  reflection  chosen  (CMA's),  built-up  municipalities  contain  accurate  of aggregation  Areas  continuous  not  information  t h e r e f o r e be i m p o s s i b l e  Metropolitan Statistics  detailed  includes  those  b u i l t - u p area o r , radius  of  the  area. Agglomeration  i s defined as,  A statistical area having an urban c o r e o f o v e r 1,000 p o p u l a t i o n w i t h a n a d j a c e n t b u i l t - u p a r e a o f a t l e a s t 1,000 p o p u l a t i o n and a minimum density of 1,000 persons per square m i l e . The l a r g e s t urban a r e a and i t s a d j a c e n t urban c o r e must be i n two d i f f e r e n t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a n d c o n s t i t u t e a c o n t i n u o u s b u i l t - u p a r e a w i t h no s e p a r a t i o n g r e a t e r than one mile. The p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e u r b a n i z e d c o r e must be a t l e a s t 2,000. A r e a s w i t h an u r b a n i z e d core of 100,000 or more a r e C e n s u s M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas. The Table  distribution VI.  o f CMA's  and Census  Agglomerations  i s shown i n  51 Section (i)  4.  D e s c r i p t i o n Of  Dependent PRMF065,  The  variables  PRMAMF,  dependent members  exact  definition  varied  to  total of  were  PRSFU65,  calculated  population  the  somewhat;  (PRWU65,  PROFU65,  PRYGMF,  EROLMF)  variables  force  has  Variables.  labour  in  1971,  in a  force  as  given  used  labour  the  ratio  group  of  of  women.  in successive  force  members  labour The  censuses  were  defined  as Non-inmates, 15 y e a r s a n d o v e r , who, i n t h e week p r i o r t o e n u m e r a t i o n , worked f o r pay o r p r o f i t , h e l p e d without pay in a family business or f a r m , l o o k e d f o r work, were on temporary lay-off, or had jobs from which they were temporarily absent because of illness, vacation, s t r i k e , e t c . Persons doing housework i n t h e i r own home or volunteer work only, a r e e x c l u d e d from t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . Also excluded are female farm workers who indicated that they worked without pay i n a f a m i l y f a r m o r b u s i n e s s f o r l e s s t h a n 20 hours. PRWU65,  PRSF065,  participation  PROFU65,  rates  married  women b e t w e e n  PROLMF  refer  women a g e d 4 (ii)  of  a l l  women,  the  ages  of  respectively  single  15  and  women,  64..  respectively  to  the  participation  to  44  and  45  24,  25  to  positive  greater  to  to other  the and  PRYGMF,  PRMAMF,  r a t e s of  married  64.  Two  xxFUNI)  association  between  reflecting  both  'taste'  educated  f o r market  education  higher work  on  used  and  participation  was  potential  earnings  and  the  of  highly  part  more  a  individuals. sets  urban  percentage ALLFUNI,  (XXFED12;  Education  expected,  in  refer  'Personal'_factors  4(ii)a. A  15  PRMFU65  of  variables  were  areas:  ALLFED12,  YGFED12,  of  each  YGFUNI,  age  group  having  MAFONI, O L F O N I  to  reflect  MAFED12, an  measure  O L F E D 12  education the  education  levels  measure  above  percentage  Grade of  the 11. a l l  52  women  and  education. 4(ii)b. This  of  each  age  group having a t l e a s t some u n i v e r s i t y  3  Ethnic^ Composition  variable  regarding  included  with  no  the d i r e c t i o n of i n f l u e n c e ,  of c u l t u r a l working  was  (PCTOTH)  differences.  PCTOTH  a  priori  expectations  t o allow f o r the e f f e c t s  measures  the percentage  age p o p u l a t i o n f o r whom the 'language most often  at home' was n e i t h e r It  English  of  spoken  nor French.  was o r i g i n a l l y intended t o i n c l u d e  also  the  percentage  of the p o p u l a t i o n  which was French speaking, however, the degree  of  between  collinearity  representing  Quebec  this  variable  (see s e c t i o n  and t h e dummy  4(iv)a.)  was  variable  such  as t o  preclude i t s use. 4(ii)c. A  Children  negative  ( PCTCHDN,PCTNOCH, FEETxx)  relationship  was  expected between t h e presence o f  c h i l d r e n and the p a r t i c i p a t i o n widowed females. The i n f l u e n c e be  the s t r o n g e s t ,  involves  negative  and  o f young c h i l d r e n  divorced  and  was expected t o  to  a  woman's  working  experience  and  t o the wage she can expect t o earn, an independent  relationship  participation  married  however, t o the extent that r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n  interruptions  consequently  of  between  i s expected,  children  ever  born  and  PCTCHDN measures the percentage o f  a l l f a m i l i e s i n which there i s a t l e a s t one c h i l d under the age of  6  y e a r s . PCTNOCH measures the p r o p o r t i o n  of a l l f a m i l i e s i n  I d e a l l y , age and m a r i t a l s t a t u s s p e c i f i c measures o f e d u c a t i o n should be used, s i n c e women i n one m a r i t a l s t a t u s group may have a s y s t e m a t i c tendency t o have a higher or lower l e v e l of education from women i n the same age group but with d i f f e r e n t m a r i t a l s t a t u s . However, such measures were not a v a i l a b l e . 3  53 which  there  are  FERTALL, children  ever 15  to  Female  positive  was  only  to  the  minimise the  between  40  4 ( i i i ) b. A  and  negative  sources)  on  the  labour  negative was  men  labour worker  force  i t s  PCMFT70 force  the  ever  and  female  being  of  of  45  number  married to  of aged  64.  wages  the  and  wage r a t e s  provided.  women  As  in  who  a  year  female  as  such  was  rough  proxy,  and  weeks  hours  worked  preceding  between  ( FUR,  male  f o r married  during  the  the  full-time was  MUR,  used  income  for  used.  average  there  may were  (from  a l l  year.  PCMFT70)  to  represent  FUR  measures  of  female  tentatively,  income  during  the the  MUR,  reflect  the both  therefore  influence  worker  percentage added no  of  percentage  enumeration  representing discouraged  coefficient  and  women a n d ,  preceding  f o r c e unemployed  unemployed,  effects;  regarding  labour  The  44  differences  participation.  association,  expected.  women  measure  measures  were  unemployment  years.  (AVEMMY)  expected  variables  female  No  data  relationship  married  19  measure  to  between  earnings  women. AVEMMY of  25  of  (AVFWAG)  weeks d u r i n g  was  FERTOL  24,  i n f l u e n c e of  4 ( i i i ) c. .Unemployment Three  to  earnings  52  age  thousand  expected.  Male_income  other  15  the  factors  average  participation for  64,  wages  available,  worked,  per  relationship  participation  under  FERTMA,  born  Labour-market  4 ( i i i ) a. A  children  FERTYG,  respectively 4 (iii)  no  firm  week;  a  behaviour, of  and  of  the  male  discouraged expectations  sign.  measures which  the  worked  percentage between  40  of  the  and  52  male weeks  experienced in  1970.  This  54 variable  was i n t e n d e d  conditions,  r e f l e c t i n g the extent  unemployment. minimise the  Male  rather  the extent  labour  could  generally  poor  participation,  were  or a  labour  market,  behaviour already period, worker  PCTMFT70  i s liJcely  f o ra large  market  work  control school  may  PCSCHFT  itself  , which  since  a  female  discouraged extent  to  covering  that  enter  o f added  the latter  AVEMMY,  cultural dummy  f o r factors  even  be i n f l u e n c e d i s  the  worker  effect  will  the  same  sensitive  to  t h e major  alternative to  i t was t h o u g h t  though by  discouraged  expected  necessary  the decision  labour  market  between  the percentage  full-time  i  women  education,  measures  4 liy) a _Region account  o f young  factor,  association  receiving  L  number  this  4. ( i v ) R e s i d e n c e  for,  women  that  deters  the  indicative  t o be more  direction of  extent  market  To  outside  ( PCSCHFT )  i s continued  f o r  negative  To  by t h e v a r i a b l e  was u s e d t o  reflecting  induce  However,  the  To t h e  labour  association  seasonal  voluntarily  Again,  market  effects.  Since  i  spent  expected.  employment  expected.  4 ( i i i ) d. . S c h o o l i n g  over  be  and  unemployment  association  would  be r e f l e c t e d  periods  labour  persistent  female  seasonal  positive  a negative  was  of  or negative.  highly  i n male  of long-term  reflected.  be p o s i t i v e  behaviour  interruptions  than  t o which  market  influence  worker  as an i n d i c a t o r  to  to stay i n factors.  participation  A and  o f a l l women  aged  15 a n d  differences  i n  tastes,  not e x p l i c i t l y  allowed  education. .  factors { D A T L , DQUE, DPR A, unexplained and  variables  other  were  DEC)  regional  influences  included..Thus,  DATL  i s s e tequal  to 1  for  areas  in  the  Atlantic  influence  i s ' assumed  variables  explicitly  interpreted line  relative  work for  as  would the  the  size  base at  case—in  influence  of  with  extent  to  towards  which  the  of  by  will  women  industrial rate used  structure,  total  that  an  developed  experienced  groups,  and  in  industry  each  (male  the  plus  multiplied This  independent  total  force, thought  and of  proportion group  this was  the  of  the  as  a  by  a  Prior sign  a  extent,  DBC.  lesser  to  reflect case  the  being  a  population.  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and structure  of  and  was  was  in  of  total  This  into  each  each  besides  measure Canada's  26  industry  was  city,  the  industry  experienced  in  value the  female actual  group  industry  index  females  filled  The  which  across  area's  percentage.  force  For  is  (1969)..  divided  labour  actual  participation  reguired.  Finegan  the  factors  the  the  oriented  which  of  course,  is  Since  force)  variety  summed  proportion  Ontario.  reference  labour  force  the  regression  negative  expected.  calculated.  , and  divided  was  force  labour  ratio  expressed as  was  the  measure  Bowen  labour  female) by  by  the  women, a  100,000  by  including,  of  is  )  (or  influenced  independent  coefficient  used  female  females  the  The  D510  industrial  employment  be  to  between  of  to  were  ( INDMIX  of the  married  size,  otherwise.  instance,  D1025,  city  area's  total  itself, was  an  employment  proportion  for  50,000  association  0  intercept  this  variables  Industrial structure  positive  the  so  D A T L , DQUE a n d  dummy  agglomeration  and  in  least  to  independent  (DCMA, D 2 5 5 0 ,  four  •independent'  A  difference  suggest,  City  Similarly,  4 (v)  to  be  included,  c o e f f i c i e n t s of  4 ( i v ) b.  census  the  to  provinces,  total  was  groups. labour may  be  labour  56 force  o f an  structure.  area expected  on t h e  basis  of that  area's  industrial  57 CHAPTER 3  Results Sectign_JL _ I n t r o d u c t i o n . . This s e c t i o n presents which were c a r r i e d Section model, w i t h On  the  2 and  being  out  with  an  force  provided  f o r the  previous  work on  Sgctign  results  of  VII.  regressions  .9,  i t  set  v a r i a b l e s i n the  before on.  the  d i s a p p o i n t i n g , only  for the  third  slight section  generally  structure briefly  consistent on  the  poor  labour  results  model which were e s t i m a t e d of t h e s e  comparisons,  mix  force  of in  explanations. which  where  may  be  drawn  relevant,  with  participation.  of  the  v a r i a b l e , are  except  considerably  effects  The  v a r i a b l e which a r e  showed m o d e r a t e l y  where of  variable.  conclusions  estimation  industry  .8.to  basic  Model. .  the  of the  was  the  female labour  inclusion  range from  i n d u s t r y mix  industrial  validity  chapter. the  also describes  making  ?. „The_Basic  The  mix  i n f l u e n c e of  summarises  analysis,  the  regressions  previous  hypotheses.  industry  t o i n v e s t i g a t e the  from t h e  of  of  of e s t i m a t i n g  possible explanations  the  3  series  i n the  proved  s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of the  Section  the  results  inclusion  participation. . It  order  the  the  results  underlying  of  described  these  of  alternative  The  as  without  therefore considers performance  results  discusses  whole,  support  the  Step  i n the  l o w e r (. 68).  high case The  b a s i c model, summarized  in  Table  R squares,mainly of  single  v a r i a b l e INDMIX a r e  in  women,  performance of  1 regression i s discussed  of adding the  without  each  briefly, commented  IH IO loo  l  DATL  Other Women 15-64  Married Women 15-24  Married Women 25-44  Married Women 45-64  -3.182 (1.15)  2.675 (0.41)  -9.458* (8.12)  -5.812* (6.61)  -1.074 (0.13)  -8.046* (6.20)  -3.414 (1.55)  -5.505* (6.46)  -0.238 CO. 01)  -1.414 (0.16)  -1.180 (0.17)  -4.755* (5.12)  -1.518 (0.37)  1.731  -5.584* (5.60)  -7.151* -2.152 (.15.65) (1.15)  All Women 15-64  Married Women 15-64  Single Women 15-64  -4.032* (4.66)  -4.761 (3.57)  DQUE  0.184 (0.02)  -4.189* (.4.65)  5.618* (5.58)  DPRA  -4.515* (8.28)  -4.351* (4.23)  -5.161* (4.21)  DBC  -5.580* -6.648* -3.981 (17.64) (13.77) (3.64)  CO.34)  DCMA  0.065 (0.00)  -0.549 (0.15)  0.663 (0.14)  -1.570 (0.45)  -1.364 (0.43)  -0.615 (0.18)  -0.573 (0.10)  D2550  0.858 (0.65)  -1.382 (0.93)  0.020 (0.00)  0.295 (0.02)  -0.459 (0.05)  1.446 (0.98)  1.042 (0.34)  D1025  0.979 (0.86)  2.287 (2.58)  -1.729 (1.03)  1.745 (.0.54)  -2.687 (1.61)  2.114 (2.08)  3.139 (3.20)  0.172 -14.011* -8.698* -4.057 (25.12) (22.23) (3.10) (0.00)  D510  -6.808* -7.097* -6.506* (.25.61) (15.31) (8.53)  MUR  -0.130 (1.09)  -0.036 (0.04)  -0.257 (0.85)  -0.492 (3.97)  FUR  -0.741* -0.751* -0.166 (24.82) (14.02) (0.54)  -0.648 (3.77)  -1.078* -0.633* -0.913* (.15.64) (10.11) (14.76)  PCMFT70  -0.064 (0.57)  0.008 (0.01)  -0.002 (0.00)  0.895* C21.97)  0.077 (0.29)  0.060 (0.31)  0.035 (0.06)  AVFWAG  -0.002 (2.39)  0.000 (0.04)  -0.005* (6.28)  0.004 (.1.61)  0.002 (0.78)  0.001 (0.20)  0.000 (0.01)  AVEMMY  -0.003* -0.004* (16.59) (16.54)  -0.004* (6.55)  -0.003* (6.67)  -0.004* -0.004* (15.42) (11.97)  PCSCHFT  -0.523 (2.78)  -0.371 (0.77)  -1.907* -1.262 (29.38) (3.23)  -0.739 (2.78)  -0.446 (1.87)  0.613 (1.92)  PCTCHDN  0.093 (0.43)  0.018 (0.01)  -0.168 (0.28)  -0.097 (0.14)  -0.018 (0.01)  0.347 (1.43)  PCTNOCH  -0.151 (0.20)  -0.186 (0.17)  -0.443 (.0.34)  -0.118 (.0.03)  -0.069 (0.02)  -0.438 (0.53)  FERTxx  -0.006* (7.65)  -0.006* (4.13)  -0.004 (.0.53)  -0.015* (5.33)  -0.004 (2.52)  -0.009* (13.64)  PCTOTH  0.115* (.4.67)  0.117 (2.64)  0.161 (.3.49)  0.007 (0.00)  -0.137 (1.62)  0.139 (3.85)  0.128 (1.62)  xxFED12  0.438* (25.57)  0.445* (14.47)  0.193 (2.33)  0.475* C5.97)  0.117 (1.15)  0.372* 0-5.72)  0.459* (7.21)  xxxFUNI  0.495* (.4.56)  0.287 (0.84)  1.464* (15.69)  0.386 CO.55)  0.755* (8.48)  0.103 (0.20)  -0.104 CO.06)  CONSTANT R  2  FIGURES  AT 5%.  -0.286 (2.92)  -0.319 (3.51)  -0.347 C2.71)  93.047  84.419  85.085  44.626  96.796  75.796  77.341  .898  .876  .680  .873  .781  .858  .859  IN PARENTHESES-SHOW F VALUES; COEFFICIENTS MARKED  ARE SIGNIFICANT  ISOId) 110 le trier  110  il-t) I IW l(+ IfD  to  (D CO I CO  IHIO IP I" I ltd I* IO IM IC lOi IH-  IS I  IS lo Is IH IX  w  l<5 IH IH  59 Considering education expected  variables positive  xxFED12,  above  groups  Conversely, some in in  single  women.  The  11 were  education  were  or  women  who  though  significant  FEETxx  women  showed  at  5% f o r women  rather  was  uniformly  an unexpected  attainment  the majority of  variable  other  10%  things  positive  women  variables was sign  being  other  than  disaggregated  level  f o r single  of children  negative They  sign  were  women  i n the middle reflecting  i n  no c a s e  born  i n each  significant  a s a whole, and  women, b u t n o t f o r o t h e r  PCTCHDN  PCTOTH  a t t h e 5% l e v e l  the  t h e number  appeared.  f o rmarried  groups  age group..  and f o rmarried  o f the other poor.  the  t h e expected  they  married  surprisingly,  performance  showed  a s a whole  and o l d e r  The  at  measuring  t h e r e g r e s s i o n s i n which  young  also  of  with  i s not surprising  backgrounds  any  women i n t h e m i d d l e  variables  ever-married  in  with  women.  f o rthese  I t was s i g n i f i c a n t  not  group  of educational  from  variables  married  only  form  the  the proportion  suggesting,  b y women  but  of  for  reflecting  level  of  a t t h e 5% l e v e l f o r  young  significant  The  given  of t h e ethnic composition,  women a s a w h o l e ,  The  and  of course,  participation  and married  a  regressions. This result  English speaking.  regressions,  of  sets  exception,  participation.  women  xxFUNI,  both  one  significant  i n 6 of t h e 7 cases,  higher  French  to  with  proportion  single  coefficient  positive  women  with  of the g e n e r a l l y higher younger  for  only  Grade  the disaggregated  equal,  showed,  the variables  among  was  variables,  the  except  university  view  the 'personal*  relationship  reflecting  education all  first  women  age g r o u p .  child  status  significant  i n 3 o f the groups.  or,  and  PCTNOCH,  60 again  not  significant,  every case.  between t h e  the  population  children  within  AVTWAG  was  women, i t  showed  group,  draw  in  was  from  unaffected  by,  underlying  wages  Intercity  there  It  may  that  reasons  appropriate.  No  living  differences  would  again  lead  separate e f f e c t s  they the  not  age  the  age  structure  presence  of  v a r i a b l e s , male  sign  and  was  significant  in  the  sign  significantly  case  was  7 g r o u p s , women as a whole and  at  negative 5%.  conclusion  why  these  appropriate  participation  as  of  may  consistent  f o r the  earnings  rather  a v e r a g e wage r a t e . the  wages and  r a n g e 40  earnings,  a downward b i a s t o  was  money made  wages for  bias  the  to  52  and,  i f  t o our  higher  coefficient.  would  be  inter-city  which, i f p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d downward  is  wages on i n d i v i d u a l  i t does  within  be  t o work f e w e r weeks w i t h  than  correction  be  the  t o , c h a n g e s i n wage r a t e s .  influence  tendency  rather  that  results  proxy  single  sign,which,for  I t would n o t  i n weeks worked  a  income,  no  positive  to  were  wage v a r i a b l e  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  real  to  female  wages, would i m p a r t be  partly  in  the  s u c h , i s a poor  the  sign  performance of  the  were a s y s t e m a t i c  average  negative  unexpected  differences  would c l o u d  market  AVFWAG, r e p r e s e n t i n g  as  that  reflecting  responds n e g a t i v e l y  with  attributed  l o o s e l y r e l a t e d to  significant  several  than  fact  be  labour  the  this  or  participation.  In  an  There are an  the  2 of  negative  group.  expected  puzzling. and  to  age  only  However, t h e  positive,  latter  be  next  AVEMJ3Y, showed t h e case.  therefore  and  any  Considering  each  unexpected  v a r i a b l e s , making t h e  to d i s t i n g u i s h , p a r t l y to the  s p e c i f i c . . PCTNOCH may of  an  These s u r p r i s i n g r e s u l t s a r e  collinearity hard  showed  t o money estimate  more  cost  of  wages, of  the  61  influence  of  wages  on  problems, the average of  the  potential  participation.  wage r a t e  wages  Even  might i t s e l f  faced  by  without  be a poor i n d i c a t o r  inhabitants  of  p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the d i s t r i b u t i o n of wages i s h i g h l y if  the  t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of women working f u l l  the v a r i a b l e i s based, d i f f e r s y s t e m a t i c a l l y remainder..  Thus  a  The e f f e c t s of c o l l i n e a r i t y simple  correlation  between was t o be  absent  women  i f men  and  markets. However, i t does variables  difficult  area,  skewed,  or  time, on whom  from those  of the  to  surprising..  should a l s o be pointed  earnings was apparent.\This only  an  weak r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  our measure of wage r a t e s i s not r e a l l y  strong  these  make  male  income  expected,  faced the  fully  separate  distinguish.  out. A  and  and  female  would  separate effects  be  labour of the  Omitting the male income  v a r i a b l e l e d to a s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o e f f i c i e n t f o r AVFWAG i n every case but one, r e f l e c t i n g variable  and  confirming  the  i t s stronger  suspected t h a t the wage v a r i a b l e influence  of  industrial  the  female  of  these  a  Thus  wage  the  number  of  AVFWAG was n e g a t i v e a c t u a l l y controlled  the  major  female  correlation  and both AVEMMY and  l a r g e , simple c o r r e l a t i o n s between INDMIX and  variables.  that  omitted  by n e g a t i v e , although not  and i n d u s t r y  o f f s e t t i n g . However, subsequent a d d i t i o n showed  the  be r e f l e c t i n g t h e  negative  o r i e n t a t i o n of i n d u s t r y  AVFWAG was expected, and was evidenced particularly  Since  low wage,  of  i n f l u e n c e . I t was a l s o  might i t s e l f  structure.  i n d u s t r i e s are predominantly between  influence  both  e f f e c t s might be  of the v a r i a b l e  INDMIX  cases i n which the c o e f f i c i e n t of increased  when  this  factor  was  f o r . The s i g n i f i c a n t negative c o e f f i c i e n t obtained i n  62 the r e g r e s s i o n f o r s i n g l e females i s a l s o hard t o e x p l a i n although  AVEMMY  was omitted from t h i s eguation f o r t h e o r e t i c a l  reasons we have no reason to expect influence  strongly  this  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n  omitted  variable  tendency  to  education and other non-market a c t i v i t i e s f o r market  work i n areas o f g e n e r a l p r o s p e r i t y , and t h a t , f o r some this  to  of s i n g l e women. We can  only suggest that the the negative s i g n r e f l e c t s a substitute  since,  reason,  i s not adeguately r e f l e c t e d by i n c l u s i o n of the v a r i a b l e  PCSCHFT. Of  the other  unemployment  labour  market  variables,  the  female  r a t e FUR showed the expected negative sign f o r a l l  groups and was s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 5% l e v e l f o r women as a and  f o r each of the married groups..The male unemployment r a t e  MUR was a l s o negative i n each group.  I t was nowhwere s i g n i f i c a n t  at the 5% l e v e l but was s i g n i f i c a n t a t 10% married  women  f o r each  group  of  except those over 45. PCTMFT70 showed a p o s i t i v e  s i g n i n a l l cases except t h a t of women as a whole, was  whole  however, i t  s i g n i f i c a n t only f o r other women, where i t was s t r o n g l y so.  We thus f i n d  no evidence of any net added worker behaviour,  considerable  support  f o r the e x i s t e n c e  and  of a n e t discouraged  worker e f f e c t . . PCSCHFT, as expected, showed a participation  which  was  negative  significant  association  a t 5% f o r s i n g l e  with  females  only. F i n a l l y , we c o n s i d e r t h e performance reflecting  residence  factors.  Region  of  of  those  residence  variables proved a  s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r a l l groups except f o r o l d e r married women. Residence i n the  Atlantic  provinces  was  63 associated  with  lower  participation  s i n g l e women and by each women, the e f f e c t Residence participation group, effect  group  of  was p o s i t i v e , in  Quebec  by  women as a whole, by  married  women;  f o r other  although not s i g n i f i c a n t l y so. .  was  also  associated  by married women, p a r t i c u l a r l y  with  i n the  lower  middle  and by widowed and d i v o r c e d women. For s i n g l e women, the was s i g n i f i c a n t l y p o s i t i v e ; as  a  i t was a l s o p o s i t i v e ,  small,  f o r women  average  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of high p a r t i c i p a t i o n  whole, presumably r e f l e c t i n g  though an above  s i n g l e women.  L o c a t i o n i n the P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s was a s s o c i a t e d with participation the  age  7  relative  groups.  lower  to the base case o f O n t a r i o , f o r each  The e f f e c t  was s i g n i f i c a n t  of  f o r four groups: a l l  women, s i n g l e women and married women i n aggregate  and  i n the  middle age group. The  influence  of  n e g a t i v e , the c o e f f i c i e n t other  women,  British  Columbia  was  also  generally  being negative f o r a l l groups  and s i g n i f i c a n t  except  f o r women as a whole and f o r each  group of married women except those over 45. Of  the variables  representing  reflecting  a Census Agglomeration  10,000 showed s i g n i f i c a n t a Census Agglomeration this  case,  a  participation the  but these  surprisingly, coefficient  in 5  only  that  with p o p u l a t i o n of 5,000 t o  with p o p u l a t i o n of 50,000 t o 100,000.. In  strong  of  size,  d i f f e r e n c e s r e l a t i v e t o the base case,  negative  f o r a l l groups except  coefficients  groups,  city  influence other women.  was  exerted  The  signs  on on  the other dummy v a r i a b l e s varied, between  were  i n no  out of  case  the 7  significant. groups^  the  Somewhat s i g n on the  of the CMA dummy v a r i a b l e was n e g a t i v e , while  those  64 on  D2550  However,  and these  D1025  were  each  effects  were  i n general  Calculation range with  between  size  and  tendency areas,  in  region  f o r lower  results  Table  IX.  which  structure  random  about  would  magnitude  groups,  other  women  negative effects despite  city  general  smaller  highest  a  Que.), by  was a  urban  i n Quebec and  i s  Increases  were  by  those  negative.  There of  a n d , where  are  cases,  was a s l i g h t  the influences  unfavourable  positive This  are  industrial  and  by and  magnitude  and  fulfilled  only  provinces, the  INDMIX  the  i t s  negligible,  the  of  a  f o r the  factors  were  i n  partly  as  industrial  and,  of the A t l a n t i c  i n B.C. And t h e A t l a n t i c s . effects  minor  v a r i a b l e s were  the  f o r every  f o r women  other  addition  shown  participation,  i n R sguares  i n  significance  only  on  reduction  Columbia,  are  was p o s i t i v e  relatively  I n t h e case  model  that, although  influence  of a general  regional  an  o f INDMIX  i s outweighed  extent.  and  There  to the basic  t o suggest  some  reduction  coefficients  were  (Magog,  o f values  with  a t t h e 5% l e v e l  seem  have  and B r i t i s h  some  INDMIX  o f t h e r e g i o n a l dummy  a limited  Prairies  values  The c o e f f i c i e n t  expectations  VIII.  showed  Columbia.  influences.  significance  i n Table  the  contribution  disaggregated  INDMIX  N f d . ) a n d 45.2  t o be a s s o c i a t e d  of adding  does  independent  to  values  b u t was s i g n i f i c a n t  whole,  slight.  mix v a r i a b l e  City,  shown  overall,  The  i n most o f t h e g r o u p s .  o f 33.8. The d i s t r i b u t i o n  i s  i n British  group,  our  mean  while,  lowest  of the industry  22.5 ( L a b r a d o r  an o v e r a l l  positive  did  majority, increase  bring where  i n the  coefficients f o r  suggests  reflecting positive,  structure,  that  the  i n d u s t r y mix they so  are that  so the  TABLE_VIII Distribution  Prairies  CMA's  35. 3 (1.7)  Of V a r i a b l e  INDMIX.  Ontario  Quebec  Atlantic  33.2 (2.9)  35. 5 (1.9)  35. 5 (1.3)  B.C.  35.1  (1.7)  Census Agglomerations: 50,000100,000  -  34.8 (4.0)  37.6 ( 3 . 5)  31.7 (1 .5)  25,00050,000  34.9 (0.0)  31.6 (2.8)  35. 8 (4. 2)  34.3 (3.9)  30.5 ( 3 . 5)  33. 9 ( 3 . 2)  35. 8 ( 6 . 9)  33.2 (5.0)  29.2 (2. 3)  10,00025,000  33.7 (1 1-4)  5,00010,000  26.0 (0.0)  32.2 ( 4 . 5)  32.9 ( 2 . 9)  33.5 (3.7)  29.9 (3.7)  Total  33.9 (5.1)  33.6 (3.2)  35.6 (4.3)  33.6 (3.9)  30.6 (3.3)  Figures  i n parentheses  show  standard  deviations.  All Women 15-64  Married Women 15-64  Single Women 15-64  Other Women  Married Women  Married Women  Married Women  15-64  15-24  25-44  45-64  DATL  -2.716 (1.95)  -4.155 (2.40)  -2.988 (0.96)  4.181 (0.89)  -8.616* (.6.59)  -4.838 (3.98)  -0.674 (0.05)  DQUE  -0.311 CO.05)  -4.417* (4.98)  5.496* (5.14)  -8.612* (6.90)  -3.683 (1.81)  -5.634* (6.77)  -0.697 (0.06)  DPRA  -4.216* (7.43)  -4.213 (3.90)  -5.159* (4.16)  -1.072 (0.09)  -1.120 CO.15)  -4.395* (4.28)  -1.688 (0.45)  DBC  -5.028* -6.394* -3.815 (14.26) (12.13) (3.11)  2.361 (0.60)  -5.343* (5.15)  -6.484* (11-59)  -2.119 ( L I D  DCMA  0.178 (0.03)  -0.498 (0.12)  0.703 CO.16)  -1.443 (0.38)  1.229 CO.35)  -0.554 (0.15)  -0.486 (0.07)  1.241 (1.37)  1.558 (1.13)  0.078 (0.00)  0.733 (0.09)  -0.069 (0.00)  1.756 (1.40)  1.394 (0.58)  1.434 (1.83)  2.497 (2.92)  -1.692 (0.98)  2.267 (0.87)  -2.166 (1.02)  2.336 (2.50)  3.624 (3.90)  D510  -5.441* -6.467* -6.237* (13.49) (10.02) (7.07)  1.737 (0.26)  -12.485* (.17.40)  -7.559* (12.76)  -2.980 (1.32)  MUR  -0.092 (0.56)  -0.032 (0.03)  -0.214 (.0.58)  -0.433 (3.02)  -0.289 (2.80)  -0.313 (0.21)  FUR  -0.645* -0.707* -0.148 (17.69) (11.17) (0.40)  -0.538 (2.36)  -0.934* (10.33)  -0.555* (6.92)  -0.819 (0.26)  PCMFT70  -0.059 (0.50)  0.011 (0.01)  0.010 (0.01)  0.901* (22.26)  0.065 (0.21)  0.072 (0.46)  0.027 (0.04)  AVFWAG  -0.002 (3.22)  0.000 (0.02)  -0.005* (5.52)  0.004 (1.31)  0.001 (0.25)  0.001 (0.10)  -0.000 (0.00)  AVEMMY  -0.002* (4.31)  -0.003* (7.93)  -0.003 (.2.02)  -0.002 (1.63)  -0.003* (4.67)  -0.003* (6.59)  PCSCHFT  -0.450 (2.11)  -0.338 (.0.63)  -1.879* - 1 . 1 7 9 (26.43) ( 2 . 7 8 )  -0.627 (1.96)  -0.392 (1.41)  0.662 (2.20)  PCTCHDN  0.031 (0.05)  -0.011 CO.00)  -0.239 (0.55)  -0.177 (0.43)  -0.075 CO.16)  0.339 (.1.36)  PCTNOCH  -0.273 (0.65)  -0.241 (0.27)  -0.584 CO.57)  -0.251 (0.14)  -0.013 CO.08)  -0.497 (0.67)  FERTxx  -0.006* (6.42)  -0.006 (3.69)  -0.003 (0.35)  -0.012 C3.17)  -0.003 (1.23)  -0.009* (13.98)  PCTOTH  0.145* (7.16)  0.131 (3.04)  0..167 C3.54)  -0.042 CO.11)  -0.103 (0.87)  0.164* (4.88)  0.145 (1.99)  xxFED12  0.424* (24.74)  0.438* (13.87)  0.187 (2.13)  0.459* (5.54)  0.099 (0.82)  0.356* (.14.04)  0.458* (7.14)  xxFUNDI  0.311 (1.61)  0.202 (0.36)  1.438* (14.26)  0.175 (0.10)  0.645* (5.70)  -0.019 (0.00)  INDMIX  0.258*  0.112  0.054  (4.12)  (0.46)  (0.10)  0.295 (1,03)  0.344 (1-89)  0.219 C I . 21)  D2550  v  D1025  CONSTANT R  2  78.200 .903  -0.269 (2.50)  77.584 .877  81.612 .680  -0.176  CO.15)  0.176 (0.84)  27.636  79.079  60.505  69.017  .875  .786  .860  .860  FIGURES I N PARENTHESES SHOW F VALUES; COEFFICIENTS MARKED '*' ARE SIGNIFICANT  67 regional  effect  allowed  f o r . In  women a s a positive  here  the case  whole, to  becomes  the sign  negative,  stronger o f Quebec,  while  and t h e n e g a t i v e  group  of married  and  of  these  as though women  occur  variable  was  been  true..For  changed  from  on s i n g l e  i n f l u e n c e s i n d i c a t e d f o r each  women  the negative  i n Quebec  f a c t o r has  the positive influence  was r e d u c e d  other  this  the reverse  o n t h e dummy  women  therefore  once  were  increased.  influences  despite  I t  seems  on t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i t s favourable  industrial  structure. It  must  be s t r e s s e d ,  small,  i n most  three  cases  formerly level.  cases  less  would  would  conclusions  from  than  addition  significant It  5%  at  these  section  data  and  results  considers  methodology  which  Firstly, a  linear  A showed  variances..  smaller  the  are very  point.  In  cause  a  coefficient  insignificant  be j u s t i f i e d  only  at  this  t o draw  any f i r m  shortcomings  i n the  The^Analysis.  the extent  t o which  may a c c o u n t  how f a r  model,  examination  The  urban  appear  changes  f o rthe rather  disappointing  t h e data  examining linearity  justified  evidence  the use  of  related tothe  and t h e independence  of  variables.  evidence  smaller  percentage INDMIX  hardly  o f homoskedacity,  visual some  these  results..  we c o n s i d e r  explanatory  of  that  obtained.  regression  assumptions the  were  one  to  therefore  S e c t i o n _ 3a._Shcrtcominqs Of This  however,  the  pattern  of heteroskedacity,  variance  areas. . This number  of  appeared i s  that  of residual i s , of  considerably  hardly  larger  surprising,  o f i n d i v i d u a l s on which  terms  unequal for  since  the calculation  the  the of  68 participation of  random  the  estimates  are  r a t e s i s based, t h e g r e a t e r  factors.  of coefficients,  inefficient,  standard  error.  pattern  may  adjusted root  associated  with  to estimates  which  follows  weighting  root  of  variance.  the  The  this each  of the adult  in  female p o p u l a t i o n .  are presented the  o v e r a l l explanatory  r e s u l t s were e f f e c t i v e l y  model. INDMIX was a g a i n  identical  significant  large  kind  of  observation  factor  which  i s  model was t h e r e f o r e t o the sguare  The r e s u l t s from  i n Appendix  bias which  have an u n n e c e s s a r i l y  f o r by  square  influence  i n general,  by g i v i n g e a c h c a s e a w e i g h t p r o p o r t i o n a l  increase  a  i s , i s , which  corrected the  does n o t ,  b u t does l e a d  Heteroskedacity  to  of r e g r e s s i o n s  the  that  be  proportinately inversely  Heteroskedacity  w i l l be t h e  1a. A p a r t  this  from  set  a slight  power o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n s , with  only  those o f  the  basic  i n t h e c a s e o f women a s  whole. The  assumption  dependent or an the  and i n d e p e n d e n t  difference equal  between  of  no  The  an  a t lower l e v e l s ,  that  that  between  a given  variable.  variable against  violations  of  the  change have  Plotting  t h e dependent  the  linearity  o f INDMIX a s t h e i n d e p e n d e n t  underlying  such t h a t a g i v e n  INDMIX b e i n g  implies  of  logarithm  which would i m p l y  more i m p o r t a n t  whole.  obvious the  relationship  o f an i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e w i l l  each independent  showed  INDMIX  results,  linear  variables  i n the l e v e l  assumptions. . Using variable,  a  e f f e c t whatever the l e v e l  values  variables  of  absolute  we a g a i n  curved  relationship  change  i s relatively  obtained  once more s i g n i f i c a n t  only  very  similar  f o r women a s a  ( A p p e n d i x 1b.) problem  of m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y has a l r e a d y  been  alluded  to.  Multicollinearity  linearly case,  related where  coefficients following (1)  to  one  the  or  when  more o f  be  computed.  may  result;  The  coefficients will leading  appearance  of  relationship While  appear  to  an  the  relationship  cannot  errors,  (2)  exists  others.  is In  tend  to  inaccurate  In  perfect less  variable the  extreme  almost  so,  extreme  cases,  the  have v e r y l a r g e  even  is  or  estimates  insignificance  is  independent  standard  and  where  to  an  the  underlying  strong;  either  one  of  significant,if  two  related  both  are  variables included  may  one  singly  or  both  may  or  to  the  appear i n s i g n i f i c a n t , (3)  Relatively  structure the  of  small  the  modifications  eguations  may  effect  of  multicollinearity  separate e f f e c t s  of e a c h  mentioned i n the  previous section,  and  income  variable  variables.  correlation  coefficients  independent  variables  concern, the  linear relationship  independent other  variables,  variables,  was  male income v a r i a b l e also  fairly  representing set  of  bring  the  data  about  large  changes  in  coefficients.  The  wage  to  strong British  Census  were  make  the  to  distinguish.  As  t h i s l e d to  problems with  the  difficult  Although  between  then,  none  INDMIX  large  obtained  is,  enough  s t r o n g , the  to  regressing negative  of and  between i t and by  to  the  simple  the  other  give the  set  INDMIX  association  cause of  Columbia, the  Agglomerations  with Atlantic  with  the  dummy  provinces  populations  of  other  on  the  with  the  being p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t . . T h e r e relationships  for  were  variables and 5,000  the to  70 10,000—an these  inevitable  r e f l e c t i o n of the i n d u s t r i a l structure  areas. To  test  f o rthe existence  further  regressions  secondly,  the regional  dummy  variables.  shown of  INDMIX  in  dummies  increased  each  a t 10% f o r young women,  largely  spurious  single  women  of  be  1e, a r e q u i t e  o f INDMIX  reflecting  i n Quebec,  which  industrial size  dummy  the does  generally,  higher  recalled,  for  city  for  making  age group  significant for  association  t o be a  participation  not necessarily  result  by from  structure.  variables  were  excluded,  s i g n i f i c a n t f o r women a s a w h o l e women e x c e p t  Omission  of the regional  i n t h e middle  the latter  are  coefficient  women. I t was a l s o  we s u s p e c t  size  which  striking.  Omission  women  AVEMMY,  the city  regressions,  regressions.  married  one  the city  married  will  the  though  favourable  proved  firstly,  and t h i r d l y  these  the significance  and  again  of  a t 5% f o r m a r r i e d  single  omitting,  variables  1c t h r o u g h  of  significant  When  run  of multicollinearity,  i n a significantly positive  it  more  dummy  The r e s u l t s  resulted  and e f f e c t s  were  i n Appendices  AVEMMY  its  of  those  size  and f o r  o f 45 a n d o v e r ,  factors  were  INDMIX  each  group  f o r whom, i t  themselves  not  important. We  interpret  underlying labour  of  dummy  significant the  relationship  force  association  these  between  participation  with  other  variables also  results  as  suggesting  industrial structure  may  variables.  be p a r t l y The f a c t  industrial structure  suggests  that,  i n the  c o e f f i c i e n t s of these  dummy  variables  masked  that  in  that and  becomes q u i t e  original  female  by i t s the  the  close  absence strongly  specification,  were p a r t l y  reflecting  71 industrial  structure.  significant  when INDMIX was added i m p l i e s  factors  That,  as w e l l , so t h a t  powerful  explanation  association appeared Thus  than  we  again  we  remained  the influence  of other  variables  INDMIX a l o n e . variables,  find  of i n d u s t r i a l  Next,  model, t h e y  provided  INDMIX  itself  some  support  c f the magnitude structure  consider  for of  the  c a n n o t be a r r i v e d a t .  the p o s s i b i l i t y  that  weaknesses—either  represent  industrial  may t h e m s e l v e s have  structure  t o o u r somewhat i n c o n c l u s i v e  Firstly,  t o do more than  the  distribution  of  measure  the  total  by t h e s e  was  force  who had n e v e r worked o r who 1970—includes an  imperfect  indicator  unemployment industries, were  unemployed  is this  i s not  share  systematically  of  between  labour  worked  the  higher  in  regional  regions,  then  data,  inter-industry than o f  force—which  differs  of t h o s e  prior  to  members  January  1  and i s t h e r e f o r e  structure..  So  long  egually  I f , however, some  possible  force rather  approximately  important.  total  on  labour  industrial  three  weaknesses.  as w e l l as employed  distributed  systematically  industry's  of  to  contributed  the e x i s t i n g  by t h e e x c l u s i o n  last  used  on t h e d e g r e e o f e r r o r  based  experienced  labour  given  speculate  employment a s s u c h . The e x p e r i e n c e d the  INDMIX  r e s u l t s . There a r e  which may have been i n t r o d u c e d  from  variable  d i s t o r t i o n ; unfortunately,  i s difficult  hypotheses,  independendent  the  it  therefore  our  or m e t h o d o l o g i c a l — i n  of  more  Because o f t h e s t r o n g  conceptual  sources  a  insignificant.  a l t h o u g h an e s t i m a t i o n effects  t h e dummy  between t h e s e  largely  i n the basic  as  between  unemployment  industries,  or  i f an  unemployment  differed  a  bias  source  of  i s  72 introduced.  Higher  proportion  of  females  favourableness the in  unemployment  of  l a r g e r the  industrial  i f  a  relatively would be such  true  would  which  largely  be  If  be  lower  of  the  greater  than  unemployment  industries,  unreasonable  .offsetting  an  there i s the  possibility  the  i t were  reverse  t o suppose t h a t  and  the net  i n d u s t r y t h e r e a r e two  of aggregation  s u b - s e c t o r s the f i r s t  employs a h i g h e r  p r o p o r t i o n of females  than  use  s e c t o r data  us t o  of aggregate  favourableness in  will  high  l a b o u r f o r c e i s employed  used.  seem  a  overestimate  would t h e n  male-dominated  be  an  with  effect  minor.  Secondly, within  to  area's  were  c a s e . I t does n o t  errors  relatively  in  industries  structure,  coefficient  measure  higher  the  lead  p r o p o r t i o n o f an  t h a t i n d u s t r y . The  would  will  in  the f i r s t  of  and  will  industrial  lead  the  second,  i t i n one  of  If  which  then  the  underestimate  s t r u c t u r e i n an a r e a  to overestimate  bias.  the  specialising  specialising  in  the  second. Related  to t h i s ,  there  may  occupational composition  o f an  will  our  a  not  be  reflected  tendency  employment office  to  administrative  and  the  these  labour  force,  what might be  h i g h demand  will  be  the  which  be to  head  clerical  overall, an  be  female  termed the  are,  i n s t a n c e s , INDMIX w i l l  true relationships  towards  f o r female  which  in  f o r example,  the favourableness  workers i n i n d u s t r i e s  dominated.. In both  differences  measure. T h e r e may,  underestimate  a relatively  intercity  industry's  o f C.M.A.'s b e c a u s e o f  effect:  indicator  by  be  and male  imperfect  some  extent  clouded. Thirdly,  i t  may  be  that  the  response  to  industrial  structure regions be  varies  employers  hired,  then  outside  we  less  systematically  a r e more w i l l i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l  would e x p e c t  the e f f e c t s  marked t h e r e . E s t i m a t i n g  whole  will  between  therefore  lead  interaction  each  the  variables.  variables, in  the  response  Ontario,  line, a  to  as  positive  one l e s s e r  that  The  and  that  of single  between  region  or  and  the  indicating  INDATL was p o s i t i v e  o f INDQUE was n e g a t i v e  women, and was s i g n i f i c a n t  f o r women  as  women, b u t was s i g n i f i c a n t showed no c l e a r Thus  a  of  i n no  case,  is  some i n d i c a t i o n deterred,  so,  industrial  interpretation of  between e a c h  of  and  of adding  a  these  1f.  a t 5%  case but  f o r women case  married  except  women a s a  o f INDBC  was  group o f m a r r i e d that  of  INDPRA  pattern..  there  an  while  of the case  i n every  each  these  differences  i n every  for  whole and f o r  p r o v i n c e s a r e more r e a d i l y  problems  and  base  i n appendix  a  INDMIX  greater,  results  as  this  slope  whole and i n t h e m i d d l e a g e g r o u p . The c o e f f i c i e n t negative  t o be  for  coefficients  women, and was s i g n i f i c a n t  That  of single  by  industries,  We a l l o w e d  structure,  coefficient  of  some  for t h e country  terms  model a r e i n d i c a t e d  coefficient  whole.  each  in  of i n d u s t r i a l structure  responsiveness..The  The  a  industrial  between  terms t o t h e b a s i c  one,  occupations  INDATL, INDQUE, INDPRA, INDBC, r e p r e s e n t  regression  negative  If  women, and women t o  t o poor r e s u l t s .  by c r e a t i n g dummy  to hire  i t s effects  possibility of  regions.  unfavourable should  the  women i n t h e A t l a n t i c  and women  dummy  simple  variables  in  structure.  be made v e r y c a u t i o u s l y  c o l l i n e a r i t y . . The of  that  in  Quebec  less  However,  this  view  correlation and  of the  coefficient  i t s corresponding  interaction the  dummy  were  term  variables  added,  Many  of the signs  negative  versa.  sign  identical model,  with  so that  differences Thus  that  was i n e v e r y interaction  variables  were  2  a  case  cases.  positive matched  term,  and  omitted  terms  terms  by  vice  from t h e  became  guite  The c o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n  of  size  and  of the simple  significance,  dummy  i t was c l e a r l y r e g i o n a l included  being  variables  i n the basic  differences  reflected  virtually  rather  i n  factors  than  genuine  i n response. we c a n n o t  systematically  rule  out the possibility  between  regions,  nor can  of a we  response draw  any  conclusions.  Section,4. this  Summary_Of_Results section,  outlined  above,  Our  little  exception  status  we  variables,  1  English  French  Swidinsky those  (1969)  of Kunin  the  speaking  (1970)..  used  primarily  studies. as  controls,  results  of the aggregate  the  conforms  Studies.  the results  t h e expected  of  (1970) ,  on  previous  of a positive  proportion  and Skoulos  with  showed  To P r e v i o u s  comment  performance  The f i n d i n g  and  nor  They  o f o f t h e poor  participation  and  comparisons  comment.  variables.  And,Relation  summarise  a n d draw  'personal  require the  when t h e i n t e r a c t i o n  the i n t e r a c t i o n  1g.)  terms  those  while  differing  In  i n  specifically  firm  variable  when t h e dummy  errors of  s i g n i f i c a n t i n only  on t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g  (Appendix  were,  large  a n d i t was n o t i c e a b l e  the coefficients for  terms  o f .99. The s t a n d a r d  remained  f o r t h e dummy  different.  not  very  they  changed  Moreover,  model,  became  so that  coefficient a  was i n t h e o r d e r  child  association  between  population  neither  with  though  with  the  results  contrasting  of with  75 The is,  demonstration  o f a dominant d i s c o u r a g e d  too, i n c o n f o r m i t y with  the  section  studies.  response  t o unemployment o f t h e g r o u p s  marital  status.  greatest  by m a r r i e d  age by  Considerable  majority  The  Swidinsky,  which  prevalence  showed  obtained this  the  which  would  by G u n d e r s o n  b e h a v i o u r . Our  be  (1977),  inclusion  proportion  in  school  sensitivity  of s i n g l e  of  would  also  response  measure  suggesting labour  market  readily  than  The female  lack  the  overall  attchment,  they  little  explained  in  section  inferences  regarding individual  expected  positive  real  weakening  used  leave  single  by m a r r i e d results  no e v i d e n c e o f reflecting  the  the apparent  by  2,  this  both  results.  single  sensitive  unemployment,  women i n  labour  response  precedent. result  force  their less  wages  a  and  This difference  t o the l e v e l of  While,  cannot  behaviour,  of  of  to  t o c u r r e n t unemployment..  Swidinsky  i n the i n f l u e n c e  responsiveness  were h i g h l y  the  positive  wages seems t o be w i t h o u t  was  than  women i n r e s p o n s e  of a significant  measure  study  by  the  tend t o l e s s e n  stability  w h i l e more f l e x i b l e  married  24  women.  of  that,  to  to a decline i n  with  variable  unemployment, b u t , a l o n e among t h e g r o u p s , our  15  the cross section  demonstrated  Widowed and d i v o r c e d women showed  to  women and  worker b e h a v i o u r  a  i n the  different  those i n t h e  consistent  which  by  by s i n g l e  be a t t r i b u t e d  added  cross-  found  women  greatest  may p e r h a p s  effect  Canadian  were  least  c o n t r a s t s with  of offsetting  women by 1971,  was  of  women, p a r t i c u l a r l y  women. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e the  differences  response  group. . T h i s f i n d i n g  of  worker  for  reasons  be used  t o draw  similar Skoulos,  may p e r h a p s since  those  aggregate with t h e reflect  a  studies  were the  carried  out,  o r may m e r e l y i n d i c a t e t h a t  problems a s s o c i a t e d  Turning the  to  the  existence  with  i t s estimation  an i n f l u e n c e  of i n d u s t r i a l i n the expected  g r o u p s s h o w i n g t h e most c o n s i s t e n t in  the  15  to  24  and  25  evidence t o suggest that influence of  Atlantic  that, may  However,  in  may  the  be  addition,  be p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e i t  is  clear  that  negative  of  influence  close  association  and  other  any a c c u r a c y  industrial  Quebec  between  variables  the  relative  structure;  to explain  other  to  and, i n despite  i n the  industrial are a l s o  partcular,  in  i t s  favourable  our  of  industrial  measure  made i t i m p o s s i b l e importance  of  the  we c a n , however, a s s e r t  that  to estimate effect  the of  significant  chapter,  industrial  relatively  than the  conventional  demand.  first  in  of  i t appeared  l e s s of the v a r i a t i o n i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s  measure o f l a b o u r  requires  industrial  factors  o f e d u c a t i o n o r , f o r m a r r i e d women, t h e more  measures  some  structure.  structure  The  to  p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates  the  In  women  I t provided  attributed  differences,  level  d i r e c t i o n , with the  influence  provinces,  of  reflected i n regional  with  female  response being married  being  The  on  on p a r t i c i p a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e n e g a t i v e  provinces  industrial  confirmed  regional  and  structure.  increased. .  structure  t o 44 age g r o u p s .  part  reason  'unexplained*  the A t l a n t i c  structure,  have  a r e a o f major i n t e r e s t , o u r a n a l y s i s  o f an i n f l u e n c e  participation,  f o r some  explaining poor  we  cited several  structure  proved  instances  where  consistent  and  v a r i a t i o n s i n female p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  performance  some comment. The s t r o n g e r  of  our  variable  influence  therefore  estimated  f o r the  similar well  measure by Bowen and F i n e g a n  reflect  States  our  segregation  may  d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e U n i t e d  in  the  from a l e s s e r  second  instance,.  degree the  h a n d , when e i t h e r s e t o f dummy v a r i a b l e s were o m i t t e d  from  poor  p e r f o r m a n c e o f o u r measure r e l a t i v e  Skoulos, representing  the  collar  of  Skoulos s  case,  that  rather it  i t  than  pick that  rather  at  of the  which  cities,  the  towns  than  be • s u p e r i o r '  within  an  industry-based effect';  for  jobs'  their  individual  reflecting  in  that  division. data  By  Skoulos'  using measure  s o , i t may  also  influences rather  than  effect.  The  1971 C e n s u s d a t a ,  so  that  the  i n the i n f l u e n c e o f i n d u s t r i a l  greater  index  may  data,  with  labour  and  which a p p r o x i m a t e s a  i n doing  attitudinal  genuine s h i f t  •opportunity  area  an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  than  s t r u c t u r e does n o t a r i s e .  use o f  was  structure  Nakamura e t a l (1979) used a  analysis  or  the e n t i r e range of i n d u s t r i a l  h i s measure r e f l e c t s  of  variable  respects,  a ' p u r e ' employment o p p o r t u n i t y  variable  1961. A l t e r n a t i v e l y ,  i n both  up t h e 'head o f f i c e  possibility  in  municipal  conditions  market r a t h e r  occupational will  since  merely a white c e l l a r / o t h e r dichotomy,  reflects  labour  reflects  force  and  1  s u b d i v i s i o n s . Our measure s h o u l d in  used  be r e g l e c t i n g a l e s s e n i n g o f  structure  aggregation  t o that  of the labour  differences i n the formation  level  performed--in  may a g a i n  of i n d u s t r i a l  may r e f l e c t the  the proportion  occupations  influence  in  be  study  a n a l y s i s , t h e r e s u l t s were n o t d i s s i m i l a r .  white  it  market  1969  On  The by  their  i n 1960 and Canada i n 1971, stemming  of l a b o u r other  genuine behavioural  in  force  significance  be i n p a r t a  of  their  attributable to  dichotomous  participatio.  dependent  Many  of the  78 problems o f m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y i n v o l v e d used  would  compensated area  therefore for their  data.  be  use o f  I t may a l s o  •independent' opportunities  regional  of r e s i d e n c e  despite  favourable  reflected  i n the negative  (French); the  kind  be t h a t ,  in  s i n c e they their  these  Quebec,  may  have  rather  be t h a t  miscellaneous  their  influences  were r e f l e c t e d by t h e r e g i o n a l dummy  urban  measure  of  job  'perverse'  i t s low p a r t i c i p a t i o n  structure,  (Roman  than  did not control f o r  would  be  c o e f f i c i e n t s which r e s u l t e d f o r  religion  were  more than  e f f e c t s . . The  with  industrial  i t may t h e r e f o r e of  province-wide  i s reflecting  reflecting  which  influences,  effects  variables  absent,  when a g g r e g a t e d a t a  Catholic)  largely dummy  and l a n g u a g e  variable, i s picking which,  variables.  up  i n our a n a l y s i s ,  79 CHAPTER 4  Conclusions 1.  Section The  Introduction..  r e s u l t s described  a consistent force  i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r showed t h a t ,  positive  association  participation  which t h a t  labour  rate  not in of  appear  i n a labour  market's  t o w a r d s t h e employment  between  industrial  structure  o f f e m a l e s was i n d i c a t e d ,  t o be a major i n f l u e n c e .  already  aggregate labour  structure  did  'independent' although  not  influence  we showed t h a t ,  evidence  to  participation  suggest  of  o f married also  weaknesses  in  the actual  influences,  and t h e p r e v a l e n c e  women's  type.  on  that  proxies of  but  that  i s  little  the influence  and  i n industrial role  of the  participation  rates,  regional  the  o f Quebec, t h e r e influences  statistical  collinearity  on  was the  industrial  problems—both  used t o r e p r e s e n t  part,  that  fertility  the various  between  these  t h e cause o f these  rather  r e s u l t s . Thus t h e o v e r a l l c o n c l u s i o n  participation  structure, readily  showed  have b e e n , i n l a r g e  disappointing  reduce  to  education,  women were p a r t l y r e f l e c t i n g  s t r u c t u r e . . We  proxies—may  of  women,  with t h e e x c e p t i o n the  the v a r i a t i o n  for differences  region  that  this factor did  influences  significantly  labour  oriented  proved i n f e r i o r  f o r married  male i n c o m e . F u r t h e r m o r e , a l l o w i n g  is  In explaining  well-documented  demand and,  female  market a n d t h e e x t e n t t o  p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s , i t s performance the  the  while  affected  i s , not t h a t  by  industrial  a p p e a r s t o be s u c h a s i s n o t  r e f l e c t e d by an a g g r e g a t e , c r o s s - s e c t i o n  study  of  this  80 The first  issue  chapter  welfare, various the  examined  pointed  and  was a f a i r l y  o u t , i t has c o n s i d e r a b l e  consequently  still  a number o f c a v e a t s b e f o r e inconclusive  issues  must  following and,  combat  therefore, place  the  t h e two b r o a d  the  influence  participation. offered  be  for  In  to a greater  Section,2..Policy was s t r e s s e d should  one.  The i s s u e an  the  those  factors  we f i r s t l y  consider  issue  the  final  data  support  which  section,  while,  understanding  given  of p o l i c y  terms. these  wider  In t h e caveats  context  might  be  industrial some  for  t o point out  by  used  to  structure  suggestions  c o l l e c t i o n and r e s e a r c h  which  on are  might  of the issue.  Strategies._  i n the f i r s t  should  area  to general  unfavourable  chapter  not a u t o m a t i c a l l y  within  limited  strategies of  further  rate  more  have been n e c e s s a r y  in  for  and p o l i c y making, a t  making s u c h i n f e r e n c e s ,  necessarily  section,  discussing  It  planning  n a t u r e o f t h e r e s u l t s , any d i s c u s s i o n  secondly,  lead  for  implications  l e v e l s . Even had t h e r e s u l t s p r o v i d e d  h y p o t h e s e s , i t would  the  narrow one t h o u g h , as t h e  be assumed  n o t be how  for  that  i t s own  preferable  to  a  lower  to r a i s e the p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate  sake,  presenting  a higher p a r t i c i p a t i o n  but r a t h e r  involuntary  how  to deal  constraints  with on  participation. To  the extent that  constraint, relaxation only  to  i t will  the  facilities, of eggregate  may bring  extent  industrial  be  only  structure  one  about a d e s i r e d that  demand p e r m i t  such a  o f a number o f f a c t o r s . . I t s increase  in  participation  such  as c h i l d - c a r e  mobility  and t h e l e v e l  other conditions  training provisions,  does p r e s e n t  physical  women t o r e s p o n d .  81 While t h e i n f l u e n c e o f i n d u s t r i a l in  t e r m s o f i t s i n f l u e n c e as a f a c t o r  participation, itself  i t must be remembered  i s a crude  which  measure, g i v i n g  labour  participation with  force  either  prefer  high  jobs  no i n d i c a t i o n are  such  or  entry into To broader has  i n mind t h e s e in  certain  jobs,  factors,  industries  then,  by  breaking  other types  the extent  logically,  by  be  high  combined  underemployment, t h e part-time  who  would their  an  occupations area  i s  women  results i n  under-endowed  t h e r e a r e two ways t o combat the  provision  of  such  encouraging  o f employment. second  anti-discrimination  Government  and  down t h e s e g r e g a t i o n t h r o u g h  government  ratified  discrimination  occupation,  imposing  approach  and e q u a l  of  concerning  The  A  i f the segregation of  encouraging  that this  l o n g b e e n an o b j e c t  Federal  employed.  may s t i l l  or  rate  of the extent t o  work, o r o f women employed i n work below  this state of affairs: jobs,  fully  o f women w o r k i n g  i n v o l u n t a r y n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n where with  inhibiting  that the p a r t i c i p a t i o n  unemployment  i n t h e form  or  viewed  and p r e f e r e n c e .  Bearing into  of  full-time  capability  encouraging  r a t e w i t h i n a l a b o u r market  problems  latter  members  s t r u c t u r e h a s been  is  encompassed  o p p o r t u n i t y measures, i t policy.  In  an I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a b o u r  in  by  respect  of  1964, t h e Convention  employment  and  the obligation t o  ...pursue a national policy o f promoting equality of o p p o r t u n i t y and t r e a t m e n t i n r e s p e c t o f employment without d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on a number o f g r o u n d s , i n c l u d i n g s e x . . (Women's B u r e a u , 1974, p.24.) Employment Convention r a t i f i e d two y e a r s l a t e r c a l l e d f o r  policy  designed  employment,  such  t o promote f u l l , that  productive  and  freely  chosen  82  The  The fullest possible opportunity s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d f o r e a c h worker t o q u a l i f y f o r and u s e i n d i v i d u a l s k i l l s in a job, i r r e s p e c t i v e c f sex, (Labour Canada, 1979, p.5.) Canadian Human Eights A c t passed i n 1977 p r o h i b i t s  discrimination  i n employment  advertisements and  territory  relating had p a s s e d  or employment  to  employment..By  similar  The H o y a l  was  1967, i t s b a s i c  recommend  in  what s t e p s  recommendations jurisdiction, typing of  including  within the C i v i l  Following Government  action,  province  though  varying  on t h e S t a t u s  o f Women  terms  wide  those  office, first  the three  men'. I t s  to  ( R o y a l Commission  federal  reduce  sex-  on t h e S t a t u s  1970). .  the  the  of  r a n g e o f i s s u e s under  t h e t a k i n g o f measures Service.  of reference •to  by t h e F e d e r a l Government t o  publishing  of  this  m i n i s t e r was g i v e n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  Women.. T h i s contained  a  including  each  o p p o r t u n i t i e s with  covered  Women i n C a n a d a ,  Comission  might be t a k e n  e n s u r e f o r women e g u a l  1979,  legislation,  somewhat i n c o v e r a g e . established  policies,  i n 1979, p u b l i s h e d significant  basic principles  report,  a  Federal  for the Status  a Plan  commitment  of Action to  of  which  affirmative  being,  (a) A l l persons should enjoy equal r i g h t s , o p p o r t u n i t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o d i f f e r e n c e s o f s e x and m a r i t a l s t a t u s , and t h e s e r i g h t s s h o u l d be p r o t e c t e d by law. , (b) B o t h men and women s h o u l d have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o make f r e e and i n f o r m e d c h o i c e s a b o u t how t h e y live. Therefore, neither laws, n o r s o c i e t y , s h o u l d impose s e x - s t e r e o t y p e d r o l e s c n women o r men.. (c) T h e r e s h a l l be no s p e c i a l t r e a t m e n t on t h e b a s i s o f sex, with two e x c e p t i o n s : measures r e l a t i n g t o m a t e r n i t y , and short-term measures to reduce or eliminate d i s a d v a n t a g e s s u f f e r e d by women due t o p a s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . ( S t a t u s o f Women, 1979, p. 9.) T h i s same r e p o r t a d m i t s t h a t .  83 Removal of d i s c r i m i n a t o r y l a n g u a g e from l e g i s l a t i o n w i l l not a l o n e a c h i e v e our o b j e c t i v e s . Equality, i n practice, r e q u i r e s a t t i t u d i n a l and e c o n o m i c c h a n g e s w h i c h w i l l a f f e c t all our r e l a t i o n s h i p s , ...although there h a s been a d r a m a t i c i n c r e a s e o f women i n many o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n s , we must r e c o g n i s e t h a t most women i n Canada s t i l l work i n t h e traditional occupations of stenographer, typist, sales clerk, baby s i t t e r , m a i d , s e r v i c e worker, s c h o o l t e a c h e r , seamstress, waitress, nurse, nursing assistant and a i d e , telephone operator, janitor and c l e a n e r . Improvement i n women's wages a n d i n t h e n a t u r e and c o n d i t i o n o f t h e i r work w i l l come n e i t h e r e a s i l y n o r q u i c k l y , (p. 11.) o  We do n o t p r o p o s e policy  objectives  significant accorded limited  i s  distribution 1971  of  a  desirability  However,  to  greater  commitment  in  past w i l l  the and  illustrated  o f employment  the  here.  decade  partly  more  of  by T a b l e  of the  achieve  than  any  has  been  be n e c e s s a r y . The equal  opportunity  X, w h i c h compares t h e  by m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p and  sex f o r  a n d 1979. Though t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f women i n e v e r y i n d u s t r y  g r o u p d i d a s more percent  of  industry  groups.  statementsts To  women  female  will  comment  encouragement of  a far  statements  impact  measures  question  implied  results,  such  to  workers  I t remains  low  industrial weekly  labour,  still  t o be s e e n  force,  show  and  of  low  pay.  changes.  t o examine  Looking  Table  XI  f o r major i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s  the  lowest  industry,  the  policy  of the o t h e r s t r a t e g y , t h e  earnings,  trade, the  70  'female'  wheher t h e r e c e n t  o f t h e s e ' j o b s . I n g e n e r a l , most  productivity  and r e t a i l  over  i n the three  any m o r e : f a r - r e a c h i n g  on t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y  distribution  manufacturing  labour  o f 'women's j o b s ' , i t i s n e c e s s a r y  earnings  industries  the  were  b r i n g about  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  skill,  entered  largest  weekly leather,  some  a r e low  first shows  at the average  i n 1979. S e r v i c e  employers earnings. clothing  of  female  Within and  the  knitting  84. TABLE X 1979 .  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Employment by M a j o r I n d u s t r y Group and Sex 1971 and 1971 % Female  Industry  1979  1  % of  % of  Female  Male  Labour Force  %  2  % of  5I of Female  Male  Labour  Labour  Labour  Force  Force  Force  Female  14.6  2.7  7.9  25.2  3.0  4.7  3.8  0.3  4.1  8.7  0.5  2.6  Manufacturing  23.9  15.8  25.6  26.5  13.6  20.0  Construction  4.4  0.8  9.2  8.0  1.3  6.2  15.4  4.0  11.0  20.6  4.5  8.7  Trade  36.3  17.9  15.9  42.2  18.9  17.4  Finance, Insurance  51.9  6.9  3.2  59.3  8.2  5.3  59.7  46.9  16.1  59.7  43.7  28.4  Public Administration  25.3  4.7  7.0  34.8  6.1  6.8  All  33.7  100.0  100.0  38.8  100.0  100.0  Agriculture Other P r i m a r y I n d u s t r i e s  T r a n s p o r t , Communication & Utilities  & Real Estate Community, B u s i n e s s & Personal Services  Industries  Average, September t o December 1971 2 A n n u a l Average, 1971 Source:  S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Labour F o r c e Survey. September  1971 t o December 1971 and December 1979 I s s u e s .  TABL_E_XI A v e r a g e Weekly E a r n i n g s B y „ I n d u s t r y ,1979 £  Industry  $ p e r week  Forestry  40 3.71  Mining  444.57  Manufacturing: Durable Non-durable  323.13 348.48 301.03 294.15 355.13 331.20 204.33 263.53 204. 55 193.94 334.43 241.12 382.55 303.94 386.33 333.60 349.76 368.58 314. 25 351.98 459.16 265. 33  Food 6 beverages Tobbacco p r o d u c t s Rubber p r o d u c t s Leather products Textiles Knitting Clothing Wood p r o d u c t s Furniture 8 fixtures Paper Printing S publishing Primary metals Metal f a b r i c a t i n g Machinery T r a n s p o r t a t i o n equipment E l e c t r i c a l products Non-metallic minerals Petroleum S c o a l products M i s c e l l a n e o u s manufactures  428.79  Construction Transport, Wholesale Retail  Communications,  Utilities  298.25  trade  187.63  trade  Finance,  Insurance,  349.36  Real estate  279.46 197.79  Service  industries  Source;  S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a , "Employment, E a r n i n g s a n d Hours, December, 1979. .  86 divisions,  the  three  with  more  fifty  percent  female  However, b e c a u s e o f t h e  greater  employees,  show l o w e s t  prevalence  o f p a r t - t i m e l a b o u r among f e m a l e  such  data  wage the  does n o t  data full  are  permit  available  valid  differences  n e i t h e r by  Census d a t a .  Table  mainly  i t  XII  is  for  o c c u p a t i o n a l groups arranged earnings  by  both  except  for  illustrate The  of  column, and  of  Of  female  ranges  percent  to  from  male  34.3  within  the  the f a c t  Medicine  and  t h a t w i t h i n the  treating'  category,  the lower  paid  nursing  with  is  which  primarily we  are concerned  •between-occupation' out  the  t h a t , i n so f a r a s  wage  in  in  the lowest  lower  given  effects  female  o f any  group  segregation. i n the S  final  Health  to  pay,  lower  large  skill  diffrerence  derives partly diagnostic  of w o r k e r s a r e categories,  i n almost  every  from and  female, over  80  group.  of o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n  and  gaps.  Even so, be  figures  illustration  'health  here,  can  average  i s an  example, t h e  related  major  major  i s given  occupation  by  aggregate  Medicine  8 percent  and  t h e two  of t h e  of occupational  paid  p e r c e n t . s i m i l a r e x a m p l e s c o u l d be It  order  these  the  highly  o n l y about  1970,  extent, t h i s  Health  of  year  were t h e  percent  w i t h i n each g r o u p . F o r  illustration  who  earnings  i n t e a c h i n g . To an  for  earning of persons  full  course,  t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f women i n  categories  in  farming.  occupation  1971  Earnings  service,  Hourly  examine a g a i n  i n descending  only part of the e f f e c t  ratio  70.5  and  to  average the  sexes. .  occupations, c l e r i c a l  a comparable  examining  made.  i n d u s t r y nor  necessary  shows t h e  full-time  employees,  c o m p a r i s o n s t o be  r a n g e o f employment. F o r  earnings  worked  earnings.  than  consequently i t should  separated,  the  with be  such  pointed role  of  87.  TABLE X I I .Average E a r n i n g s f o r Persons Who Worked M a i n l y F u l l Time f o r t h e F u l l Year 1970, by O c c u p a t i o n  and Sex. Average E a r n i n g s ($ per y e a r )  Occupation  Both Sexes; Male  Female  Female E a r n i n g  Employees Female  Male E a r n i n g (%)  Managerial, Administrative  13157  14058  7193  46035  51.2  S o c i a l Sciences & Related  12295  14596  7377  17180  50.5  Mining,  10775  10775  10385  10437  6693  2485  64.1  Medicine & Health  9000  16437  5641  155885  34.3  Teaching  8828  10507  7403  124985  70.5  Other C r a f t s , n.e.c.  7929  8304  4386  9000  52.8  Construction  7846  7862  5497  2510  69.9  Artistic,  Literary  7453  8005  5087  4150  63.6  Machining  & Related  7357  7506  4355  9225  58.0  T r a n s p o r t Equipment O p e r a t i n g  7249  7286  4504  3320  61.8  Sales  7244  8158  3756  95310  46.0  F o r e s t r y & Logging  6893  6914  4178  220  60.4  Processing  6726  7134  4087  33765  57.3  Product F a b r i c a t i o n & Assembling  6532  7238  3702  100555  51.2  M a t e r i a l s Handling  6427  6960  3968  22800  57.0  Service .  5575  6685  3326  193920  49.7  C l e r i c a l & Related  5558  7059  4699  601190  66.6  Farming, H o r t i c u l t u r e ,  3960  4033  2661  15310  66.0  Quarrying  Natural Sciences, Engineering  & Related  A n i m a l Husbandry Source:  S t a t i s t i c s Canada,, 1971 Census. Volume 3 P a r t 6 T a b l e 18,  -  88 •within-occupation• of  equal  pay  legislation.  Force:Facts  and  defined,  and  In  femal In  the  i n 48  of  advent  i s s u e o f "Women i n t h e  Labour  lists,  average  first  1977  l a r g e , d e s p i t e the  for  male and  year, the  52 o c c u p a t i o n s ,  selected  female  male  wage  i n the  occupations,  wage r a t e s f o r rate  second  of  declined to  65  percent  between t h e two  assess  education  the  and  t o be  data,  other  occupational  year,  i n 46  which  might  cumulative  things,  education,  classified  over  distribution  one  was  about  remaining  two-thirds  comparable  endowments, a r e s u l t  of  the  one-half  attributable broadly  in  the  the  to  the  role  of  using  1971  differential  into  factors.  for differences i n , experience,  at l e a s t  reflecting  These f a c t o r s  third  contributing  as  58.  difficult  t o sex  (1977),  training,  distributions,  of  experience,  discrimination*  involved controlling  discrimination.  little  'wage  in  suggest  earnings  the  i t actually  i t is  related  studies  the  and  industrial be  data,  differences  directly  was  the cases,  c o n s i d e r a b l e . Gunderson  former  and  of  detailed  related'  the  half  From s u c h  not  decomposed  •productivity Estimating  years.  contribution  However,  discrimination Census  i n almost  other f a c t o r s  discrepancy.  among  and,  1976  exceeded  a number of i n s t a n c e s , t h e f e m a l e : m a l e wage r a t i o  order  a  The  Figures"  narrowly 1977.  wage gaps r e m a i n s  a portion of  the  results  together accounted differential, of t h i s  of for  with  the  fraction.  The  to different comparable  and  rewards f o r  with t h o s e  of  89 p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada. * the  prevalence  characterised and  by  sampled eight  of  low  wages,  by a low d e g r e e  poor  of control  opportunities  307 w h i t e  collar  dimensions  showed  the s c a l e , than  promotion,  o f work i n which  t o be  work  processes,  Marchak  Columbia,  measuring  w o r k e r s c o u l d have  or control  over t h e i r  (1973)  different  jobs.  women t o be o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d a t t h e lower  that  though  suggests that  jobs a r e l i k e l y over  workers i n B r i t i s h  men a t t h e upper.  o f men f e l t  from  f o r advancement.  amounts o f c h o i c e , d i s c r e t i o n measure  women's  Apart  A much s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n o f  they c o u l d r e l i s t i c a l l y the  t h e female  majority  desired  expect it..  Each end o f women  significant  Connelly(1978)  occupations  . . . p r o v i d e h o r i z o n t a l r a t h e r than v e r t i c a l c a r e e r patterns for women; t h a t i s , women c o n t i n u e t o t e a c h , n u r s e and t y p e , w i t h i n c r e a s e s i n pay b u t n o t p r o m o t i o n s , (p.42.) and,  a s G u n d e r s o n (1976)  comments,  Many o f t h e p r e d o m i n a n t l y female occupations have been characterized a s dead-end j o b s ; t h e y a r e n o t c o n d u c i v e t o c a r e e r advancement o r t o i n d e p e n d e n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , and few are stepping stones t o more challenging jobs. In a d d i t i o n , many j o b s , s u c h a s c o o k i n g , cleaning or taking c a r e o f c h i l d r e n , a r e e x t e n s i o n s of household a c t i v i t i e s , (p. 113.) a  study i n Whitehorse,  labour  in  clerical  a city  and  with  service  a relatively occupations,  h i g h demand f o r and  a  high  * A l t h o u g h b o t h i n d u s t r i a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n made a considerable c o n t r i b u t i o n t c t h e e a r n i n g s gap, i n a n o t h e r s t u d y (Gunderson, 1977) t h e a u t h o r p o i n t s o u t t h a t merely correcting f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n b r o a d c a t e g o r y does n o t i n i t s e l f i t s e l f l e a d to a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e o v e r a l l e a r n i n g s gap, s i n c e t h i s would i n v o l v e s h i f t i n g female employees from clerical and t e a c h i n g occupations where t h e gap i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , t o p r i m a r y and b l u e c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n s where i t i s l a r g e .  90 participation available women. due  rate,  was i t s e l f  Although  to the high  t o them where  a major  most cost  women  paid  jobs  Centre,  dissatisfaction market  the only  outside  jobs  to  male  to  effectively  routine  workers.  among  work a n e c e s s i t y  the t r a d i t i o n a l  was g e n e r a l l y c o n f i n e d  i t seems  such  that,  where  by a s h o r t a g e  jobs  would  combined  provide  with  opportunity  tending  to  open  jobs.  Even  occupations, and  (Women's  poorly  Research  the  or  problems  eliminated  by  on i n d i v i d u a l  participation  of  Statistics geographic  the  solution to the  labour  force  but,  to the p r i n c i p l e s o f of  problems  equal  value',  associated  Eor_,Futare_Data j g o l l e ^ t i g n  rates.  encountered  the  use of data  characteristics,  a n a l y s i s o f the i n d i v i d u a l  Gunderson  a partial  ' f o r work  related  from  with  segregation.  Many o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l  information  pay  deterred  j o b s , t h e mere p r o v i s i o n  women i n t o  and e q u a l  Segtion_3^_Suggestions  reduced  a t best  are  an a c t i v e commitment  perpetuate  occupational  women  of 'female'  problem, perhaps a t t r a c t i n g  number  of  range o f jobs  1979).  participating  equal  source  limited  low p a i d a n d low r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  unattractive  Thus  unless  the  women c o n s i d e r e d  were employed  employment  that  of l i v i n g ,  were i n t h e s e  their  of  revealed  participation  This  was  studies  i n t h e United  Canada i s t o r e l e a s e information  limited  and  (1979),  data to  have  been  providing detailed hence  procedure  States.  such  could  allowing  d e c i s i o n rather than o f  the  (1977) and by Nakamura e t a l  And R e s e a r c h .  followed  as  well  The c u r r e n t from t h e  province  as  a  policy of  Census  and  by  place  with of  91 residence. study  of  this  regional et to  Thus  labour  a l , seems suggest  Canada  to  to  which  compatible  also  is  decennial  would  in  a  of  a  for  out  a  homogeneous  the  study  not  seem  by  Nakamura  unreasonable  of  somewhat  relate  industrial  availability.  In  view  definitions  Census  data  of  has  Statistics  more  residents  the  and  information,  precise  of  Census  but  In  larger  breakdown  the  female The  employment  a l l  aspects  changes  comparison more  the  than  participation..  Two  Force  Survey  some  of  control  the  industry  in  for  Labour  and  by  demand  provide  only, by  as  extent  is limited  provide  that,  addition,  of  basis  the  periodic  availabilty  firms  participation  presentation,  fact  would  in  Again,  u n l i k e l y to  has  Hours  the  data  obvious  limited.  from  of  publications:  Earnings  very  systematic  be  so  changes  structure.  and  would  increased,  Canada  information detailed  useful to  any  labour  be  in carrying  requirements  least  on  illustration  Employment,  would  with  possible  guestions,  required  be  changes  this  Statistics  It  be  Census  female  justified.  made i n  confidentiality  data  an  implicitly  at  problem  assumption  the  current  of  the  a  Areas.  would  time  since  identification,  Metropolitan  over  type  scarcely  might  It  i s necessarily  market,  that  geographic  there  of  for  the  variables  latter neither  and  provides provides  a  sub-provincial  areas. . Concerning participation, economic  one  research  availability individuals  of over  is  struck  i n the  United  detailed time  by  such  data as  of the  labour greater  States  which  concerning  exist  i n the  supply,  including  sophistication is  permitted  the  National  of  by  the  behaviour  of  Longitudinal  92 Survey. in  a  T h e s e have been u s e d , a l o n e o r  v a r i e t y of  presented  a  p r o j e c t s . The  constraint  with t a x a t i o n  absence of  to economic  statistics,  such a d a t a  research  on  source,  the  has  subject  in  Canada, It  may  be,  however, t h a t t h e r e  sophisticated  quantitative  studies  local  it  at  the  would be  disguised area,  possible  these  area's i n d u s t r i a l formulation  of  and  s t r u c t u r e and  between two  now  largely  distinct:  costs  and  which  market,  within  large  in  part,  the  societally  as  a  on  and  choice  to  women i n  an  for  studies  the could  abstracted  framework,  and  the  participation  somewhat  qualitative  viewing  to i n d i v i d u a l descriptive  women's p r o b l e m s i n t h e  which s e e s s u c h  imposed.  of  basis  a r a t i o n a l response more  surveys,  magnitude  among  approaches  consumer  general  sample the  from  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  provide  technical  focussed  a tradition  more  p o l i c y m e a s u r e s . 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" E c o n o m i c s a n d Women: A C r i t i q u e o f t h e Scope of T r a d i t i o n a l A n a l y s i s and Research" A t l a n t i s vol.1 no.2, S p r i n g , 1977. M a r c h a k , P a t r i c i a . . " T h e C a n a d i a n L a b o u r F a r c e : J o b s f o r Women." I n Women i n C a n a d a e d . M a r y l e e S t e p h e n s o n . . Toronto: New P r e s s , 1973... Marsden, Lorna. "Some Problems of R e s e a r c h o n Women i n t h e C a n a d i a n L a b o u r F o r c e " A t l a n t i s v o l . 2 no.2, S p r i n g 1977. M e l t z , Noah M. Changeg.in the. O c c u p a t i o n a l C a n a d i a n L a b o u r F o r c e „ 1931,,, t o • 1 9 6 1 . Printer, 1965. t i  Composition oft h e Ottawa: Queen's '  M i n c e r , J a c o b . . " L a b o u r F o r c e P a r t i c i p a t i o n o f M a r r i e d Women: A Study o f Labour S u p p l y " i n A s p e c t s . o f , Labgur_Econqmics.. A Conference o f t h e U n i v e r s i t i e s N a t i o n a l Bureau f o r Economic Research. 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Labour  Economics  Proulx, Pierre-Paul. "La Variabilite Cycligue des Participation a la Main d'oeuvre au Canada" Journal., of Economics v o l . 2 , n o . 2, May, 1969.  i _Canada n  Taux de Canadian  Skoulas, Nicholas. Determinants..of the P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate of M a r r i e d Women i n t h e C a n a d i a n L a b o u r F o r c e : An Econometric Analysis. Ottawa: I n f o r m a t i o n Canada, 1974. Spencer, Byron. G. And Dennis c. Female Labour_Force P a r t i c i p a t i o n : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1970. Swan,  A  Featherstone, Micro Study.  Married Ottawa:  Neil M. . "The Response of L a b o u r S u p p l y t o Demand i n Canadian Regions" Canadian.,Jgurnal of Economics vol.7, no.3, August *974.  Swidinsky, Robert. Unemployment and Labgur.Force.Partici^atipn: The^Canadian Experience. Discussion paper n o . 16, Department of Economics, U n i v e r s i t y of British Columbia, 196 9. Veit,,Suzanne, Women_in M i n i n g : A n , E x p l o r a t o r y S t u d y . Prepared for B.C. Department of Economic Development, B.C. Manpower Sub-committee on North-east Coal Development, 1976. Women's for  R e s e a r c h C e n t r e . . Beyond t h e . P i p e l i n e . Report Prepared t h e N o r t h e r n P i p e l i n e Agency. . Vancouver, 1979. :  All Women 15-64  Married Women 15-64  Single Women 15-64  Other Women 15-64  Married Women 15-24  Married Women 25-44  Married Women 45-64  DATL  -2.618 (1.59)  -4.152 (2.40)  -2.915 (1.01)  4.171 (0.94)  -6.046 (3.88)  -3.996 (2.49)  -1.845 (0.36)  DQUE  -1.315 (0.85)  -4.511* (6.02)  2.522 (1.46)  -6.166* (4.36)  -4.446 (3.79)  -5.303* (7.16)  -1.752 (0.52)  DpRA  -2.845* (4.87)  -4.037* (5.91)  -2.119 (1.38)  0.761 (0.08)  -1.714 (0.67)  -4.249* (6.49)  -1.484 (0.69)  DBC  -4.425 (10.61)  -6.919* (15.63)  -1.701 (0.75)  2.384 (0.72)  -6.867* (9.95)  -6.740* (13.01)  -2.469 (2.06)  DCMA  -0.142 (0.03)  -1.021 (0.81)  0.966 (0.54)  -2.324 (1.63)  -1.364 (0.81)  -1.062 (0.83)  -1.023 (0.58)  D2550  1.624 (2.58)  1.900 (2.13)  0.971 (0.43)  0.227 (0.01)  1.405 (0.63)  2.059 (2.34)  1.825 (1.41)  D1025  1.291 (1.37)  2.463 (3.01)  -2.325 (2.38)  2.233 (0.96)  -0.477 (0.06)  2.293 (2.49)  3.731* (4.97)  D 510  -5.125* (7.97)  -6.109* (6.83)  -5.766* (4.90)  0.690 (0.03)  -10.031* (10.27)  -7.051* (8.35)  -2.501 (0.80)  MUR  -0.128 (0.74)  -0.289 (2.27)  0.011 (0.00)  -0.439 (2.04)  -0.306 (1.39)  -0.275 (1.91)  -0.321 (2.04)  FUR  -0.667* (14.22)  -0.679* (8.87)  -0.318 (1.77)  -Oi'470 (1.65)  -0.783* (7.28)  -0.584* (6.16)  -0.744* (8.21)  PCMFT70  ,0.047 (0.22)  0.130 (1.01)  0.171 (2.47)  . 0.825* (15.83)  0.119 (0.60)  0.166 (1.80)  0.163 (1.22)  AVFWAG  -0.002 (2.31)  0.001 (0.26)  -0.005* (7.35)  0.005 (2.96)  0.001 (0.11)  0.002 (0.80)  W).000 CO.02)  AVEMMY  -0.002 (2.90)  -0.004* (9.38)  -0.004* (4.40)  -0.002 (1.40)  -0.003* (5.80)  -0.003* (7.35)  PCSCHFT  -0.419 (1.56)  -0.394 (0.83)  -1.092 (2.47)  -0.806 (3.71)  -0.416 (1.48)  0.580 (1.89)  PCTCHDN  0.038 (0.06)  -0.021 (0.01)  -0.587 (0.03)  -0.114 (0.19)  -0.120 (0.34)  0.374 (1.89)  PCTNOCH  -0.046 (0.01)  -0.115 (0.05)  0.090 (0.01)  -0.225 (0.12)  -0.124 (0.06)  0.008 (0.00)  FERTxx  -0.005 (3.27)  -0.004 (1.92)  -0.005 (0.79)  -0.019* (8.66)  -0.002 (0.47)  -0.007* (10.57)  PCTOTH  0.143* (7.55)  0.158* (5.55)  0.112 (2.23)  0.091 (0.71)  -0.027 (0.09)  0.175* (6.58)  0.209* (6.88)  XXFED12  0.361* (20.55)  0.395* (14.80)  0.182 (2.78)  0.428* (6.75)  0.179 (3.68)  0.319* (12.66)  0.403* (8.73)  xxxFUNI  0.352 (2.00)  0.443 (1.76)  1.001* (8.40)  0.418 (0.79)  0.567* (5.74)  00.180 (0.47)  0.194 (0.19)  INDMIX  0.314* (5.21)  0.111 (0.39)  0.244 (1.83)  0.086 (0.09)  0.394 (2.63)  0.198 (0.91)  0.173 (.0.86)  CONSTANT  63.346  63.920  68.149  27.474  74.148  51.401  48.618  .910  .895  .779  .894  .819  .873  .895  R  2  -1.415* (18.60)  FIGURES IN PARENTHESES SHOW F VALUES, COEFFICIENTS MARKED '*' ARE SIGNIFICANT  All Women 15-64  Married Women 15-64  DATL  -1.446 (0.59)  DQUE  -0.559 (0.15)  Other Women 15-64  Married Women 15-24  Married Women 25-44  Married Women 45-64  -1.780 (0.45)  6.170 (2.11)  -7.800* (5.56)  -3.072 (1.73)  0.221 (0.01)  -4.881* (5.64)  -9.001* (7.49)  -3.631 (1.7.5)  -5.536* (6.25)  -1.984 (0.46)  DPRA  -3.594* -3.049 (5.39) (1.96)  -0.097 (0.00)  -0.593 (0.04)  -3.260 (2.40)  -1.258 (0.23)  DBC  -4.788* -5.944* (12.51) (9.72)  2.739 (0.81)  -5.388* (5.19)  -5.605* (8.68)  -2.531 (1.50)  DCMA  0.165 (0.03)  -0.517 (0.12)  -1.459 (0.38)  -1.216 (0.34)  -0.579 (0.16)  -0.554 (0.09)  D2550  1.622 (2.31)  2.270 (2.28)  1.330 (0.31)  0.298 (0.02)  2.371 (2.54)  2.243 (1.44)  D1025  2.065 (3.97)  3.677* (6.34)  3.255 (1.94)  -1.423 (0.47)  3.057* (4.31)  5.290* (8.89)  D510  -4.261* -4.261* (9.31) (4.69)  3.584 -11.312* -5.590* (1.30) (15.64) (8.19)  -0.519 (0.04)  MUR  -0.060 (0.22)  -0.207 (1.38)  -0.162 (0.33)  -0.381 (2.39)  -0.232 (1.78)  -0.238 (1.18)  FUR  -0.578* -0.582* (14.29) (7.30)  -0.434 (1.58)  -0.851* (8.95)  -0.449* (4.57)  -0.663* (6.48)  PCMFT70  -0.099 (1.41)  0.839* -0.014 (20.10) (0.01)  0.024 (0.05)  -0.108 (0.64)  AVFWAG  -0.004* -0.002 (8.24) (1.24)  -0.064 (0.30)  Single Women 15-64  0.002 (0.37)  -0.001 (0.08)  -0.001 (0.41)  -0.003 (1.71)  AVEMMY  PCSCHFT  -0.467 (2.18)  -0.369 (0.69)  -1.205 (2.87)  -0.591 (1.73)  -0.362 (1.15)  0.632 (1.88)  PCTCHDN  -0.081 (0.36)  -0.219 (1.36)  -0.414 (1.88)  -0.296 (1.37)  -0.232 (1.70)  0.159 (0.30)  PCTNOCH  -0.425 (1.60)  -0.526 (1.23)  -0.821 (1.18)  -0.400 (.0.37)  -0.256 (0.30)  -0.756 (1.49)  FERTxx  -0.005* -0.004 (4.38) (1.66)  -0.001 (0.08)  -0.009 (2.11)  -0.001 (0.14)  -0.009* (12.23)  PCTOTH  0.164* (8.93)  0.165* (4.56)  0.070 (0.32)  -0.088 (0.64)  0.193* (6.64)  0.155 (2.13)  xxFEDl2  0.421* (23.35)  0.431* (12.37)  0.453* (5.34)  0.094 (0.72)  0.336* (.12.06)  0.431* (5.93)  xxxFUNI  0.133 (0.32)  -0.131 (0.16)  -0.104 CO.04)  0.526* (4.28)  INDMIX  0.417* (16.37)  0.417* (8.25)  0.545* (5.49)  0.533* (6.95)  CONSTANT  69.555  61.414  14.098  71.962  40.538  63.454  .898  .864  .871  .782  .851  .849  R  2  -0.255 (1.17) 0.509* (11.47)  -0.344 (0.55) 0.416* (5.78)  o a All ; Womeii 15-64  Married Women 15-64  Single Women  15-64  Other Women 15-64  Married Women 15-24  Married Women 25-44  Married Women 45-64  Hcf  (+  HD _J  CD VQ HO  DATL  3  P>  DQUE  O C  a a ><  DPRA  < P>  DBC  H H-  DCMA  0.170 (0.02)  -0.990 (0.44)  1.656 (0.79)  -3.252 (1.71)  -1.345 (Q.40)  -1.092 (0.50)  -0.559 (0.10)  D2550 ,  0.435 (0.16)  0.031 (0.00)  -0.198  CO.01)  -0.643 (0.07)  -0.779 (0.13)  0.572 (0.14)  0.889 (0.26)  D1025  0.848 (0.59)  1.758 (1.32)  -3.359 C3.81)  1.943 (0.58)  -2.103 (.0.95)  1.304 (0.71)  3.354 (3.61)  D510  -5.806* (14.76)  -7.724* (13.51)  -6.643* (.7.39)  -1.727 ?^-12.155* (16.84) (0.24)  -8.080* (13.63)  -3.474 (1.98)  MUR  -0.185 (2.34)  -0.375* (4.98)  -0.147 (0.56)  -0.404 (2.09)  -0.387 (2.62)  -0.363* (4.47)  -0.370 (3.66)  FUR  -0.791* (28.26)  -1.044* (25.47)  0.001 (0.00)  -0.867 (.6.33)  -1.088* (15.48)  -0.786* (12.90)  -0.880* (.13.54)  PCMFT70  -0.683  -0.038  CO.66)  0.075 (0.42)  1.039* (.28.58)  0.139 (0.99)  0.211* (4.24)  CO.075)  AVFWAG  -0.002 (1.68)  0.000 (0..03)  -0.001  0.002 (.0.23)  0.002 (0.49)  0.001 CO. 16)  -0.000 (0.00)  AVEMMY  -0.001 (2.05)  -0.003* C8.47)  -0.005* (8.37)  -0.002 (0.97)  -0.162 (1.72)  -0.003* (7.97)  PCSCHFT  -0.019 (0.04)  0.148  (P.13)  -1.757* (6.37)  -0.357 (0.62)  -0.171 (.0.27)  0.784 (3.72)  PCTCHDN  0.014 CO. 01)  -0.032 (0.03)  -0.013 (0.00)  -0.348 (1.83)  -0.221 (1.41)  0.345 (2.13)  PCTNOCH  -0.191  -0.177  -0.124  CO.33)  CO.15)  CO.02)  -0.451 (0.52)  -0.054 CO. 01)  -0.453 (P. 71)  FERTxx  -0.008* (10.01)  -0.008* (5.30)  -0.001 (.0.02)  -0.015* (7.31)  -0.000 (.0.02)  -0.009* (.19.13)  PCTOTH  0.094* (6:09)  0.136* (6.60)  0.061  CO.22)  CO.47)  0.032 (.0.16)  0.200* (12.97)  0.109 (2.94)  xxFED12  0.362* (25.07)  0.477* (22.50)  0.035 (P. 13)  0.769* (21.03)  0.154 (.2.02)  0.406* (25.51)  0.463* (14.15)  xxxFUNI  -0.218 (1.88)  -0.444* (4.05)  0.901* (12.48)  0.728 (.3.92)  0.104 (0.25)  -0.589* (9.61)  -0.353 (1.19)  INDMIX  0.391* (12.45)  CO.92)  0.148  0.342* (4.63)  -0.349 (.1.85)  0.492 (3.79)  0.417* (5.01)  0.178 (.1.04)  CONSTANT  72.470  76.131  61.449  50.930  71.559  32.109  69.541  .884  .850  .614  .846  .755  .828  .858  R  2  CO.14) CO.09)  -1.593* (19.29)  0.030  0.036  cr p-  1  ro cn  CO  DATL DQUE DPRA DBC  o  All Women 15-64  Married Women 15-64  Single Women 15-64  Other Women 15-64  Married Women 15-24  Married Women 25-44  Married Women 45-64  r+ HB  -2.093 (.0.81)  -3.741 (1.41)  -3.014 (0.89)  3.167 (0.53)  -6.715 (3.18)  -2.903 (1.03)  -3.391 (1.14)  rr  -1.629 (0.96)  -6.573* (8.49)  6.126* (6.58)  -9.753* -5.010 (9.80) (2.75)  -7.405* (8.35)  -4.542 (2.51)  CO HN  -4.278* -4.253 (5.29) (2.84)  -6.693* (6.81)  -0.852 (0.06)  -3.549 (1.96)  -2.562 (0.94)  -3.881* -4.700* (6.32) (5.05)  -4.497* (4.62)  -3.267 (2.25)  -1.112 (0.30)  3.198 (1.23)  -2.375 (0.54) -4.938 (3.60)  DCMA  B H-  r+  n  (t> O C S  C3 CS  < H  (D  D2550 D1025 D510 MUR FUR  PCMFT70 AVFWAG AVEMMY PCSCHFT  -0.033 (0.52)  -0.115 (0.35)  -0.052 (0.07)  -0.240 (0.79)  -0.221 (0.65)  -0.129 (0.42)  -0.202 (0.86)  -0.520* -0.550 (8.20) (4.99)  -0.038 (0.03)  -0.547 (2.59)  -0.608 (3.59)  -0.368 (2.21)  -0.788* (8.44)  0.021 (0.04)  0.125 (0.88)  0.099 (0.98)  0.936* (25.89)  0.132 (0.67)  0.190 (2.32)  0.126 (0.74)  -0.002 (1.64)  0.001 (0.23)  -0.004 (3.99)  0.004 (2.17)  0.000 (0.01)  0.001 (0.36)  0.002 (0.56)  0.004* (4.87)  0.000* (0.01)  0.001 (0.24)  -0.003* (10.36)  -1.209 (3.06)  -0.144 (0.08)  0.047 (.0.02)  0.647 (1.93)  :  . -0.001 -0.002 (0.48) (3.23) -0.198 (0.29)  -0.029 (0.50)  PCTCHDN  -0.145 (0.74)  -0.229 (1.01)  -0.231 (0.54)  0.354 (1.36)  -0.395 (3.31)  0.284 (0.86)  PCTNOCH  -0.659 C2-.70)  -0.749 (1.90)  -0.655 (0.76)  -0.600 (0.65)  -0.672 (.1.53)  -0.656 (1.05)  FERTxx  -0.005 (3.07)  -0.005 (1.49)  -0.003 (0.23)  -0.015* (4.13)  -0.001 (0.03)  -0.008* (.10.56)  PCTOTH  0.147* (5.54)  0.110 (.1.69)  0.223* (6.51)  -0.019 CO.03)  -0.033 (0.08)  0.173* (4.10)  0.063 (0.37)  0.334* (10.89)  0.316* (5.29)  0.190 (2.11)  0.431* (5.17)  0.049 (0.16)  0.195 (3.17)  0.253 (2.15)  0.251 (.0.73)  0.120 (0.09)  1.642* (17.71)  0.164 (0.09)  0.567 (3.47)  -0.245 (0.66)  0.227 CO.25)  0.555* (17.07)  0.467* (6.56)  0.235 (1.90)  0.206 (0.67)  0.844*  xxFED12 xxxFUNI INDMIX CONSTANT R  2  -1.733* (21.31)  0.748* (13.74)  59.356  55.545  61.288  34.951  47.785  25.422  .851  .816  .630  .870  .705  .787  0.241 (.1.81) 61.560 .833  CD  c All Women 15-64  Married Women 15-64  Single Women 15-64  -2.566 (1.76)  -3.958 (2.18)  -0.322 (0.05)  DPRA  -4.056* (6.90)  DBC  -4.907* -6.279* -3.844 (13.63) (11.65) (3.13)  DATL  DQUE  Other Women 15-24  V)  Married Women 15^24  Married Women 25-44  Married Women 45-65  -3.029 (0.98)  4.485 -8.310* (1.023) (6.19)  -4.664 (3.72)  -0.558 (0.003)  -4.467* (5.14)  5.533* (5.23)  -8.671* -3.698 (7.061) (1.86)  -5.594* (6.72)  -0.778 (0.073)  -4.099 (3.68)  -5.144* (4.13)  -0.847 -0.911 (0.057) (0.10)  -4.219 (3.91)  -1.634 (0.42)  2.561 (0.71)  -5.184* (4.90)  -6.305* -2.073 (10.85) (1.07)  DCMA  0.090 (0.01)  -0.535 (0.14)  0.679 (0.15)  -1.538 (0.43)  -1.339 (0.43)  -0.634 (0.20)  -0.538 (0.64)  D2550 *  1.274 (1.46)  1.610 (1.22)  0.061 (0.00)  0.808 (0.11)  0.042 (0.00)  1.805 (1.49)  1.466 (4.19)  D1025  1.509 (2.04)  2.578 (3.11)  -1.700 (0.98)  2.399 (0.98)  -1.953 (0.84)  2.397 (2.64)  3.757 (1.14)  D510  -5.304* -6.272* (13.01) (9.50)  -6.332* (7.23)  2.028 •-12.063* -7.355* -2.749 (0.36) (16.50) (12.16) (1.13)  MUR  -0.094 (0.60)  -0.034 (0.03)  -0.516 (0.58)  -0.426 (2.99)  -0.289 (2.84)  -0.310 (2.13)  FUR  -0.634* -0.692* -0.153 (17.28) (10.75) CO.43)  -0.516 (2.17)  -0.894* (9.61)  -0.540* (6.55)  -0.798* (9.54)  PCMFT70  -0.055 (0.08)  0.013 (0.01)  0.008 (0.00)  0.906* (22.62)  0.064 (0.20)  0.077 (0.53)  0.027 (.0.04)  AVFWAG  -0.002 (0.00)  0.000 (0.01)  -0.005* (5.51)  0.003 (1.30)  0.001 (0.18)  0.001 (0.09)  -0.000 (0.01)  AVEMMY  -0.002 CO.00)  -0.003* (6.99)  -0.002 (1.61)  -0.002 (1.10)  -0.002 (3.91)  -0.003* (5.96)  PCSCHFT  -0.461 (0.00)  -0.338 (0.63)  -1.886* -1.186 (26.77) C2.84)  -0.614 (1.92)  -0.399 (1.49)  0.655 (2.19).  PCTCHDN  -0.029 (0.05)  -0.017 (.0.01)  -0.246 CO.58)  -0.181 (0.47)  -0.. Q80 (.0.18)  0.340 (1.38)  PCTNOCH  -0.267 (0.64)  -0.249 (0.29)  -0.586 (0.59)  -0.247 (0.14)  -0.115 (.0.06)  -0.494 ( P . 67)  FERTxx  -0.006* (6.12)  -0.006 C3.52)  -0.003 CO.30)  -0.011 (3.00)  -0.003 (0.99)  -0.009* (13.88)  PCTOTH  0.149* (7.61)  0.135 (3.27)  0.166 C3.48)  0.049 (0.16)  -0.091 (0.69)  0.169* C5.16)  0.149 (2.12)  xxFED12  0.419* (24.37)  0.343* (13.64)  0,188 (2.12)  0.451* (3.38)  0.092 CO, 71)  0.350* 0-3,55)  0,456* C7.13)  xxxFUNI  0.294 (.1.46)  0.177 (0.28)  1.445*  0.137 (0.06)  0.612* (5.20)  -0.037 ( P . 02)  -0.193 CP, 18)  9.637* (5.12)  5.283 (.0.80)  1.381 11.893 (.0.057) C I . 4 8 )  14.643 (3.14)  8.727 (1.68)  7.218 (1.27)  LOGINDMIX  CONSTANT  -0.267 (2.49)  (.14.42)  51.455  61.619  78.928  -6.705  0.904  .877  .680  .875  36.68 .789  34.858 a  .861  48.414 .861  3  t"<  O ia  P>  h  Hr+  a o Hi H S3 a 3 H X  DATL  Single Women 15-64  Married Women 15-64  All Women 15-64  Other Women 15-64  Marr i e d Women 15-24  Married Women 25-44  Married Women 45-64  -11.436 (0.87)  -26.082 (2.97)  -21.996* -16.552 (1.92) (6.45)  -11.104 (0.59)  15.517 (0.56)  -21.081 (1.38)  DQUE  8.206 (1.20)  20.229 (3.82)  -13.523 (1.07)  9.858 (0.30)  14.932 (1.03)  27.460* (7.01)  16.669 (1.83)  DPRA  -3.021 (0.11)  2.348 (0.03)  -11.267 •-18.321 (0.70) (0.49)  -6.146 (0.11)  14.304 (1.28)  -1.302 (0.01)  DBC  -3.245 (0.12)  0.873 (0.01)  =16.007 (1.00)  1.321 (0.00)  3.105 (0.03)  -2.242 (0.03)  8.070 (0.25)  DCMA  -0.433 (0.17)  -1.215 (0.72)  0.689 (0.13)  -1.823 (0.54)  -1.782 (0.67)  -1.280 (0.80)  -1.434 (0.61)  D2550  0.630 (0.37)  0.952 (0.44)  0.091 (0.00)  1.055 (0.18)  -0.528 (0.06)  CO. 71)  1.199  0.398 CO.05)  D1025  0.724 (0.49)  1.648 (1.33)  -1.575 (0.79)  2.315 (0.87)  -2.794 (1.67)  1.533 (1.17)  2.420 CI.76)  D510.  -6.583* (19.33)  -7.984  -5.943* C5.74)  2.180 (0.37)  -13.396* (18.11)  -9.724* (20.66)  -5.157 (3-64)  MUR  -0.132 (0.97)  -0.289 (2.42)  -0.078 (0.12)  -0.012 (0.00)  -0.364  CI.63)  -0.381* (4.12)  -0.343 (2.06)  FUR  -0.598* (15.79)  -0.673* (10.51)  -0.114 (0.21)  -0.630 (3.05)  -0.928* (9.66)  -0.530* (6.65)  -0.701* (7.24)  PCMFT70  -0.044 (0.27)  L0.073 (0.38)  -0.021 (0.04)  1.027* (25.50)  0.108 (0.50)  0.117 (1.19)  0.095 :(0.42)  AVFWAG  -0.002 (3.19)  -0.000 (0.02)  -0.004 (3.77)  0.003 (0192)  0.001 (0.10)  -0.000 (0.06)  -0.001 (0.05)  AVEMMY  -0.002* (4.34)  -0.003* (8.24)  -0.003 (2.18)  -0.002 (1.68)  -0.003* (6.47)  -0.003* (7.86)  PCSCHFT  -0.806* (6.31)  -0.907* (4.19)  -1.430 (3.45)  -1.005* (4.19)  -0.914* (6.91)  -0.038 (0.01)  PCTCHDN  0.178 (1.35)  0.145 (0.47)  -0.272 (0.55)  -0.037 (0.01)  0.205 (0.92)  0.430 (2.05)  PCTNOCH  0.011 (0.00)  0.093 (0.04)  -0.501 (0.35)  0.044. (0.00)  0.429 (0.77)  -0.146 (0.05)  FERTxx  -0.005* (4.89)  -0.004 (1.71)  -0.002 (0.15)  -0.012 (3.20)  -0.201 (0.20)  -0.007* (8.52)  PCTOTH  0.146* (7.28)  0.162* (4.73)  0.139 (2.20)  0.090 (0.48)  -0.082 (0.54)  0.195* (7.24)  0.176 (3.01)  xxFED12  0.451* (29.35)  0.501* (18.98)  0.171 (1.67)  0.501* (6.27)  0.120 (1.16)  0.424* (21.55)  0.559* (10.71)  xxxFUNDI  0.167 (0.49)  -0.009 (0.00)  1.561* (15.32)  0.103 (0.03)  0.513 (3.36)  -0.084 (0.12)  -0.328 (0.53)  INDMIX  0.292 (2.43)  0.403 C2.42)  -0.255 (0.74)  0.476 (1.12)  0.508 (1.88)  0.610* (4.72)  0.262 (0.79)  INDATL  0.581* (5.36)  0.383 (1.22)  0.227 (0.28)  -0.321 (0.29)  0.380 (.0.51)  0.164 (0.22)  0.768 (2.89)  INDQUE  -0.239 (1.33)  -0.691* (5.84)  0.538 (2.21)  -0.506 (1.04)  -0.531 (1.65)  -0.911* (10.44)  -0.497 (2.05)  -1.765* (20.56)  INDRRA  -0.010 (.0.00)  -0.177 (0.23)  0.186 (0.16)  0.485 (.0.58)  0.156 (0.08)  -0.550 (2.19)  0..002 (0.00)  INDBC  -0.041 (0.19)  -0.194 (.0.23)  0.360 (0.51)  0.053 (.0.06)  -0.242 (0.16)  -0.09.0 (0.05)  -0.321 (0.39)  70.426  58.871  89.500  16.495  70.618  37.328  59.957  CONSTANT  .916  .892  .689  .880  .797  .883  .876  R  2  H • H0>  c  cr  All Women 15-64  Married Women 15-64  Single Women 15-64  Other Women 15-64  Married Women 15-24  Married Women 25-44  Married Women 45-64  H cn fD H -  cn 3  so fD ua  H-  INDATL  -0.050 (0.78)  -0.100 (1.69)  -0.091 (1.04)  0.097 (0.58)  -0.234* (5.58)  -0.135 (3.95)  .0.010 (0.01)  o s X  INDQUE  -0.014 (0.13)  -0.140* (7.06)  0.157* (5.77)  -0.262* (8.90)  -0.121 (2.56)  -0.187* -0.034 (10.70) (0.18)  PJ C  -0.115* -0.117 (3.60) (6.43)  -0.148* (4.11)  -0.008 (0.01)  -0.036 (0.19)  -0.130* (4.49)  H  INDPRA  -0.045 (0.39)  3  cn  r+  H  >~<  3  H-  INDBC  -0.160* -0.197* -0.125 (13.93) (11.44) (3.35)  0.104 (1.16)  -0.172* (5.19)  -0.192* -0.080 (10.16) (1.511)  X  3  r+  DCMA  0.405 (0.15)  -0.277 (0.04)  1.019 (0.34)  -1.805 (0.06)  -0.982 (0.23)  -0.358 (0.06)  -0.405 (0.05)  fD  H  P> O r+  H* O  D2550  1.342 (1.60)  1.692 (1.37)  0.124 (0.01)  0.501 (0.04)  0.264 (0.02)  1.897 (1.70)  1.469 (0.65)  D1025  1.517 (2.05)  2.516 (3.05)  -1.561 (0.85)  1.868 (0.61)  -1.917 (0.81)  2.315 (2.55)  3.659* (4.04)  CD •i B cn  D510  -5.240* -6.294* (12.69) C9.90)  -6.200* (7.09)  1.095 -11.982* -7.333* -2.924 (0.11) (16.47) (12.78) (1.31)  S3 H-  -0.262 (2.57)  -0.093 (0.25)  -0.245 (0.82)  -0.396 (2.69)  -0.272 (2.73)  -0.315 (2.33)  FUR  -0.613* -0.699* -0.117 (15.68) (10.12) (0.25)  -0.544 (2.42)  -0.911 (9.92)  -0.530* (6.49)  -0.768* (8.72)  PCMFT70  -0.083 (1.00)  0.000 (0.00)  -0.021 (0.05)  0.924* (24.56)  0.060 (0.18)  0.061 (0.35)  0.019 (0.02)  AVFWAG  -0.002 (2,78)  0.000 (0.02)  -0.005* (5.41)  0.003 (1.23)  0.001 CO.25)  0.001 (0.08J  0.000 (0.00)  AVEMMY  -0.001 (2.87)  -0.003* . (6.57)  -0.003 (2.23)  -0.002 (1.41)  -0.002* (4.11)  -0.003* (5.87)  PCSCHFT  -0.418 (1.85)  -0.360 (0.74)  -1.795* -1.331 (24.42) (3.66)  -0.598 (1.79)  -0.375 (.1.40)  0.574 (.1.58)  PCTCHDN  -0.020 (0.02)  -0.054 (0.08)  -0.134 (0.18)  -0.230 (0.74)  -0.097 (0.29)  0.256 CO. 81)  PCTNOCH  -0.396 (1.39)  -0.329 (0.52)  -0.316 CO.17)  -0.352 (0.28)  -0.173 (0.15)  -0.612 (1.04)  FERTxx  -0.006* -0.006 (3.36) (6.17)  -0.003 CO.28)  -0.013 (.3.69)  -0.003 (.1.53)  -0.008* (11.93)  PCTOTH  0.150* (8.47)  0.135 (3.73)  0.156 (3.52)  0.023 (0.04)  -0.090 (0.72)  0.168* (5.85)  0.152 C2.45)  xxFED12  0.425* (26.19)  0.435* (14.82)  0.197 (2.54)  0.450* (5.74)  0.096 (0.78)  0.334* (13.40)  0.467* (7.43)  xxxFUNI  0.211 (0.73)  0.102 (0.09)  1.469* (5.08)  0.152 (0.07)  0.615* (4.97)  -0.068 (0.08)  -0.251 (P.30)  INDMIX  0.345* (7.30)  0.276 (2.52)  0.027 CO.02)  0.373 (1.67)  0.466 (3.43)  0.398* C4.33)  0.229 (1.34)  CONSTANT  76.013  72.249  .902  .879  3  H3  MUR  R  2  -0.099 (0.69)  82.65 .683  20.729  77.148  56.007  67.343  .876  .786  .828  .862  r+  O r+  O C  3 S ^  -iO  NJ  

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