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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Chʻing salt monopoly : a reappraisal Sokoloff, Laurence David 1980

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THE CH'ING SALT MONOPOLY: A REAPPRAISAL b y LAURENCE DAVID SOKOLOFF B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of History) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 19 80 (Q) Laurence David Sokoloff, 19 80 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Br i t ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of HISTORY  The University of Br i t ish Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date - J ^ ^ E >x, i i > Abstract This essay begins with a survey of the research that has been done on the t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese s a l t monopoly, one of the most important sources of revenue to the Chinese state. The most i n f l u e n t i a l work on this subject i n English has been two a r t i c l e s by Dr. Thomas Metzger. Dr. Metzger puts:.forth what may be c a l l e d the "optimistic" interpretation of the monopoly's functioning; he argues that the Chinese government was capable of regulating commerce so as to y i e l d s i g n i f i c a n t amounts of revenue, and capable of e f f e c t i v e l y i n s t i t u t i n g reforms i n the face of changed conditions. He uses as his example Liang-huai, the largest of the eleven d i s t r i c t s into which the s a l t monopoly was divided, during the years 1740 to 1840. This paper seeks to dispute Dr. Metzger's conclusions with regards to Liang-huai. It uses as i t s primary sources the writings of various o f f i c i a l s of the ching-shih tfe (p r a c t i c a l statecraft) school of thought, who were intimate-ly concerned with the problems of the s a l t administration. It also makes use of the standard c o l l e c t i o n s of memorials of important o f f i c i a l s to the court, as well as secondary sources to provide h i s t o r i c a l background from e a r l i e r dynasties. Beginning with a description of the functioning of the s a l t monopoly i n Liang-huai, the thesis continues with an examination of Liang-huai during the eighteenth century, when i t was at the height of i t s prosperity. The success-f u l functioning of the monopoly at t h i s time does much i i i t o j u s t i f y M e t z g e r ' s c o n f i d e n c e i n i t . However, b e g i n n i n g a b o u t 1800 t h e r e was a d e c l i n e i n t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e monopoly. L e s s r e v e n u e was r e c e i v e d by t h e s t a t e , s a l t s m u g g l e r s i n c r e a s e d t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s u n t i l t h e y were t h e s o u r c e o f s u p p l y f o r h a l f o f L i a n g - h u a i ' s c u s t o m e r s , and most o f t h e o l d s a l t m e r c h a n t f a m i l y s went b a n k r u p t . The t h e s i s d e a l s a t l e n g t h w i t h t h e two main c a u s e s o f t h i s d e c l i n e , t h e r e l e n t l e s s l y r i s i n g p r i c e o f s a l t and t h e r a p i d l y r i s i n g p o p u l a t i o n , w h i c h t o g e t h e r made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r an i m p o v e r i s h e d p e a s a n t r y t o a f f o r d t h i s v i t a l p r o d u c t . T h i s c h a p t e r t h e n c o n c l u d e s by p o i n t i n g o u t t h e d a n g e r s a l t s m u g g l i n g p o s e d t o t h e d y n a s t y , s i n c e r e b e l l i o u s s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s drew much o f t h e i r s t r e n g t h f r o m t h e r a n k s o f t h e s m u g g l e r s . Thomas M e t z g e r p o i n t s t o t h e t i c k e t s y s t e m , i n s t i t u t e d by T'ao Chu, g o v e r n o r - g e n e r a l o f K i a n g s i , K i a n g s u , and An-h w e i , i n 1832, as a s t r i k i n g example o f how c a p a b l e o f f i c i a l s were a b l e t o make b a s i c r e f o r m s i n t h e monopoly. However, t h i s p a p e r c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e t i c k e t s y s t e m was e s s e n t i a l l y a f a i l u r e , s i n c e i t e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t e d i n t h e r e v i v a l o f t h e v e r y s y s t e m o f h e r e d i t a r y m e r c h a n t m o n o p o l i e s i t r e p l a c e d . The t h e s i s c o n c l u d e s by e x a m i n i n g t h e b a s i c dilemma o f s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n : i n o r d e r f o r s a l t t o y i e l d a g r e a t amount o f r e v e n u e t o t h e s t a t e i t s p r i c e w o u l d have t o be h i g h enough t o e n c o u r a g e s m u g g l i n g . A p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n w o u l d be t o p a r t i a l l y r e p l a c e h i g h s a l t t a x e s w i t h o t h e r s o u r c e s o f r e v e n u e , p r e f e r a b l y t h e l a n d t a x . M e t z g e r f a i l s t o d e a l s a t i s f a c t o r i l y w i t h t h i s b a s i c dilemma, and i v i n h i s " o p t i m i s t i c 1 5 a p p r a i s a l o f t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f a i l s t o s u f f i c i e n t l y d i s t i n g u i s h between i t s s u c c e s s f u l f u n c t i o n i n g i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y and i t s f a i l u r e i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h . Dr. E d g a r W i c k b e r g V Table of Contents I. Introduction 1 a) The Salt Monopoly: A Description 7 b) The P a r t i a l Success of the Eighteenth Century 18 I I . Collapse of the Salt Administration in Liang-huai a) Extent 24 b) Causes 30 c) The Transport Merchants and the Problem of Smuggling 5 7 d) The Problem of Imperial Security 62 II I . Proposals for the Reform of the Salt Monopoly 76 IV. Conclusion 94 Footnotes 108 Bibliography 118 Glossary 121 v i L i s t of Maps I. Salt Administration D i s t r i c t Boundaries II. Places Mentioned in the Text II I . Kiangsu Province v i i Acknowledgements I would l i k e to thank Dr. Alexander Woodside for his help i n choosing the topic of t h i s paper, and his aid i n carrying out the i n i t i a l research. I would also l i k e to express my appreciation to Professor Hsu-tu Chen for his help i n reading some of the d i f f i c u l t texts involved in my research. F i n a l l y , my special thanks go to Dr. Edgar Wickberg, for his painstaking care and thoughtful c r i t i -cisms by which this essay was brought to conclusion. 1 I . I n t r o d u c t i o n T h r o u g h o u t t h e l a s t t h o u s a n d y e a r s o f i m p e r i a l h i s t o r y t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t o r g a n s o f t h e C h i n e s e government. S i n c e a t l e a s t t h e M i n g D y n a s t y t h e s a l t monopoly p r o v i d e d t h e s e c o n d l a r g e s t p o r t i o n o f n a t i o n a l r e v e n u e , n e x t t o t h e l a n d tax.' N e v e r -t h e l e s s t h e s t u d y o f t h i s b r a n c h o f government has g e n e r a l l y been n e g l e c t e d by s c h o l a r s . W h i l e s e v e r a l works have been w r i t t e n i n C h i n e s e d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s a l t monopoly t h o s e t h a t have been s u r v e y e d f o r t h i s e s s a y have t e n d e d t o be w r i t t e n i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l " s c i s s o r s and p a s t e " s t y l e , p r o v i d i n g an e x h a u s t i v e a c c o u n t o f t h e s a l t l aws w h i l e n e g l e c t i n g t h e s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d t o t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n g . A more a n a l y t i c a l s t u d y , and p e r h a p s t h e b e s t so f a r p r o d u c e d , i s a book w r i t t e n by S a e k i 3 Tomi c o n c e r n i n g t h e C h 1 x n g s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h a t work, however, was n o t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g t h e w r i t i n g o f t h i s p a p e r . No f u l l - l e n g t h s t u d y o f t h e monopoly as i t e x i s t e d b e f o r e 1911 has been w r i t t e n i n E n g l i s h . A monograph w r i t t e n by Ho P i n g - t i i n 1954 does n o t d e a l w i t h t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as a w h o l e , b u t f o c u s e s on t h e s a l t m e r c h a n t s and why t h e y were u n a b l e t o d e v e l o p a "modern" v a r i e t y o f c o m m e r c i a l c a p i t a l i s m a l o n g E u r o p e a n l i n e s . Ko m a i n t a i n s t h a t C h ' i n g r e g u l a t i o n s p r e v e n t e d t h o s e m e r c h a n t s who t r a n s p o r t e d s a l t f r o m e x p a n d i n g t h e i r m a r k e t s , and so t h e y were c o n t e n t t o i n v e s t t h e i r c a p i t a l i n c o n s p i c u o u s c o n s u m p t i o n and o t h e r n o n - p r o d u c t i v e areas.*1 Perhaps the most i n f l u e n t i a l a r t i c l e s on t h i s subject have been two written by Dr. Thomas Metzger.^ In evaluating the success or f a i l u r e of the s a l t monopoly i t i s esse n t i a l to c r i t i c a l l y examine the work done by Dr. Metzger. Since the study of the entire s a l t administration over a period of centuries would be impractical in a short essay Metzger has chosen to l i m i t himself to the Liang-huai d i s t r i c t of the monopoly during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. There are several reasons why Metzger should choose th i s part of China for his research. Liang-huai was the largest of the eleven d i s t r i c t s into which the s a l t monopoly was divided, comprising most of the six provinces of Kiangsu, Kiangsi, Anwhei, Honan, Hunan, and Hupeh. By the early part of the nineteenth century the provinces of Kiangsi, Hunan, and Hupeh, which were Liang-huai's richest markets, alone had a combined population of about seventy m i l l i o n people. The enormous size of thi s region made i t one of the severest tests of the Ch'ing state's a b i l i t y to e f f e c t i v e l y organize commerce. Moreover, since Liang-huai was the largest d i s t r i c t source materials for i t s study would be comparatively p l e n t i f u l . 7 In addition, the wealth of thi s part of China made i t the center of o f f i c i a l i n t e r e s t . Those methods or reforms which worked well here tended to be imitated i n other parts - 8 of the empire. Derived from his study of Liang-huai, Metzger has put 3 f o r w a r d what we m i g h t c a l l t h e " o p t i m i s t i c ' 5 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . W h i l e a d m i t t i n g t h a t t h e s y s t e m was n o t c o m p l e t e l y e f f i c i e n t he p r a i s e s t h e C h i n e s e s t a t e ' s " i m p r e s s i v e c o m m e r c i a l c a p a b i l i t i e s " , e ven where i t f a c e d i t s most d i f f i c u l t 9 c h a l l e n g e s . M e t z g e r i s , however, q u i c k t o n o t e t h a t t h i s has n o t been t h e t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . He c r i t i c i z e s t h e work o f e a r l i e r s c h o l a r s by s a y i n g : ; |. . . what work has been done has f o c u s e d o n l y on t h e d y s f u n c t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s ( t h o s e o f t h e L i a n g - h u a i m e r c h a n t s and o f f i c i a l s ) . D i s t i n -g u i s h e d e x p e r t s on t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s u c h as T s o Shu-chen, Ho W e i - n i n g , Chou W e i - l i a n g , and T s e n g Y a n g - f e n g , have d e p l o r e d t h e L i a n g - h u a i m e r c h a n t s ' g r e a t power, s a y i n g i t was u s e d t o c o r r u p t t h e whole a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e monopoly... I n d e e d , s i n c e a t l e a s t M i n g t i m e s t h e monopoly has had t h e r e p u t a t i o n o '.' o f b e i n g hu-1' u ( i n a mess) . . . and o f f i c i a l s o f t e n '.c s c o n t e m p t u o u s l y lumped t o g e t h e r as p i ( c o r r u p t p r a c t i c e s ) '<• b o t h c o m p l i c a t e d f i s c a l a d j u s t m e n t s and d i s h o n e s t p r a c t i c e s . T h i s h y p e r b o l i c o u t l o o k has been l a r g e l y due t o t h e n o r m a t i v e , p o l i c y - o r i e n t e d a p p r o a c h o f s c h o l a r s and o f f i c i a l s w i t h i n t h e C h i n e s e t r a d i t i o n , who were r i g h t f u l l y more i n t e r e s t e d i n d o i n g away v / i t h bad p r a c t i c e s t h a n i n n i c e l y w e i g h i n g f u n c t i o n a l a g a i n s t d y s f u n c t i o n a l f a c t o r s . S a e k i Tomi's v a l u a b l e book (1962) s i m i l a r l y s t r e s s e s d y s f u n c t i o n a l f a c t o r s and i g n o r e s much d a t a i n t h e L i a n g - h u a i s a l t g a z e t t e e r s c o n c e r n i n g t h e v a r i o u s r o u t i n e a d j u s t m e n t s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e s t a t e t r i e d t o c o u n t e r d y s f u n c t i o n a l ; t e n d e n c i e s . " 1 0 M e t z g e r b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e C h ' i n g c o u r t was a b l e t o e f f e c -t i v e l y use e c o n o m i c and p o l i c e powers t o make t h e o p e r a t i o n II o f t h e monopoly more e f f i c i e n t . He p o i n t s o u t t h e s i g n i f i - -IX c a n t amount o f r e v e n u e t h a t s a l t t a x e s y i e l d e d . F i n a l l y , M e t z g e r h o l d s t h a t m a j o r r e f o r m o f t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was p o s s i b l e , and u s e s as h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n t h e s t r i k i n g s u c c e s s o f t h e " t i c k e t s y s t e m " (p' i a o - - f a) , w h i c h was :. introduced into Liang-huai after 1 8 3 0 . No doubt the apparent success of the t i c k e t system, coming after a period of d i f f i c u l t y in the Liang-huai administration, seems to Metzger to j u s t i f y his optimistic appraisal of the s a l t monopoly, and makes the period of history covered in his essays an a t t r a c t i v e one for him to study. The t i c k e t sytem, as well as several of Metzger's more s p e c i f i c proposals, w i l l be discussed i n greater d e t a i l l a t e r . In discussing whether or not Metzger's optimistic appraisal of the s a l t monopoly i s j u s t i f i e d i t i s essen-t i a l that we make clear our grounds for judging i t a success or f a i l u r e . This has been done by Edmund Worthy, who i n his study of the Southern Sung monopoly writes ''Ultimately the only yardstick for measuring the e f f e c t i v e -ness of controls i n the s a l t monopoly i s the prevalence of i l l i c i t s a l t production and sales". In other words, i f a large proportion of the population received t h e i r s a l t from smugglers, who paid no taxes to the government, then the monopoly must be judged a f a i l u r e . However, Worthy also notes that as long as revenue continued to pour into the government co f f e r s , a moderate amount of smuggling might be t o l e r a t e d I t seems, therefore, that the s a l t monopoly must be judged f i r s t and foremost on whether the government was s a t i s f i e d with the tax revenue i t yielded, and secondarily on the prevalence of i l l e g a l sales. A t h i r d standard for deciding whether the monopoly was functioning properly would be the prosperity of the m e r c h a n t s l i c e n s e d by t h e government t o e n t e r t h e s a l t t r a d e . D u r i n g t h e C h ' i n g D y n a s t y t h e s t a t e was d e p e n d a n t on m e r c h a n t s f o r t h e t r a n s p o r t and s a l e o f s a l t . I f t h e s e m e r c h a n t s d i d n o t have t h e c a p i t a l t o f i n a n c e s a l t shipmen o r went b a n k r u p t , t h e n t h e r e w o u l d be no way f o r l e g a l s a l t t o r e a c h c u s t o m e r s , and t h e m a r k e t w o u l d be t h r o w n open t o s m u g g l e r s . We n o w r t u r n . o u r a t t e n t i o n - . t o r L i a n g - I i u a i ' , t h e ' d i s t r i c t -c h o s e n b y l M e t z g e r : f o r r h i s r e s e a r c h ' . .This s t u d y , t o o , w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e on L i a n g - h u a i , so as t o p r o v i d e a c l o s e b a s i s o f c o m p a r i s o n t o M e t z g e r ! s own c o n c l u s i o n s . I f we use t h e s e t h r e e s t a n d a r d s , t h e n , t o j u d g e t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h a t p a r t o f C h i n a , t h e monopoly must be j u d g e d a t l e a s t a p a r t i a l f a i l u r e , and M e t z g e r ' s e v a l u a t i o n o f i t s p e r f o r m a n c e i s open t o d o u b t . A l t h o u g h t h e s a l t monopoly a c h i e v e d a measure o f s u c c e s s i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , by t h e y e a r 1830 i t was on t h e v e r g e o f c o l l a p s e . There' was '•. g e n e r a l a greement t h a t t h e amount o f t a x e s c o l l e c t e d was w e l l b e l o w t h e q u o t a s s e t by t h e government, s m u g g l e r s moved a t w i l l t h r o u g h o u t t h e L i a n g - h u a i a r e a , and most o f t h e o l d m e r c h a n t f a m i l i e s h a d gone b a n k r u p t . I n f a c t , one may q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r t h e r e v e n u e s y i e l d e d by t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y were w o r t h t h e d a n g e r t o t h e d y n a s t y i n v o l v e d i n c o l l e c t i n g them. S i n c e t h e T'ang D y n a s t y s a l t s m u g g l e r s h a d s e r v e d t o s w e l l t h e r a n k s o f t h o s e who r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t 6 a g a i n s t t h e i m p e r i a l c o u r t . T h i s , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e t h r e e s t a n d a r d s o f e v a l u a t i o n m e n t i o n e d above, i s p e r h a p s t h e most damning i n d i c t m e n t a g a i n s t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s a l t a d -m i n i s t r a t i o n . The body o f t h i s e s s a y w i l l d e a l i n some d e t a i l w i t h t h e c r i t i c i s m s I have made a g a i n s t t h e s a l t monopoly and M e t z g e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i t s s u c c e s s . B e f o r e b e g i n n i n g , however, w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e m e c h a n i c s o f t h e p r o -d u c t i o n , t r a n s p o r t , and s a l e o f s a l t i n L i a n g - h u a i i t i s w e l l t o warn t h e r e a d e r c o n c e r n i n g one o f t h e p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d i n d e a l i n g w i t h C h i n e s e h i s t o r y b e f o r e t h e twen-t i e t h c e n t u r y . T h i s i s t h e p r o b l e m o f s t a t i s t i c s . I n g e n e r a l , when c o l l e c t i n g t a x e s o r d i s p e n s i n g f u n d s f o r v a r i o u s p u r p o s e s , L i a n g - h u a i t r e a s u r y o f f i c i a l s d i d n o t c a r e f u l l y d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e s o - c a l l e d r e g u l a r and (6 m i s c e l l a n e o u s t a x e s (cheng-tsa.-k 'o) . 'In f a c t , i t was n o t even f e l t n e c e s s a r y t o know e x a c t l y how much t o t a l r e v e n u e L i a n g - h u a i y i e l d e d . I n d e f e n d i n g h i s r e f o r m s o f t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h e s t a t e s m a n T'ao Chu u s e d one s e t o f numbers, h i s o p p o n e n t s an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t s e t . ' 7 T h i s c o n f u s i o n was e n g e n d e r e d l a r g e l y by t h e ad hoc n a t u r e o f t h e s a l t t a x e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e g u l a r and m i s c e l l a n e o u s t a x e s numerous o t h e r f e e s and payments were demanded o f t h e m e r c h a n t s , many o f d o u b t f u l l e g a l i t y . A l -t h o u g h e s t i m a t e s c o n c e r n i n g s a l e s o f s a l t were o f f e r e d w i t h g r e a t e r a c c u r a c y t h a n s t a t i s t i c s r e g a r d i n g t a x a t i o n , i t i s c l e a r t h a t when d e a l i n g w i t h C h ' i n g f i n a n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n 7 numbers should be used with caution, a) The Salt Monopoly: A Description Salt has been used throughout history both as a sea-soning and a preservative, and under normal conditions to maintain health a person must consume four to twelve pounds of i t a year. The Chinese, however, consumed more of i t than usual, since those who l i v e on a diet of grain must use more than those peoples that eat meat. Part of the d i f f i c u l t y with the s a l t administration, as Edmund Worthy has suggested, may stem from the fact that s a l t i s not the best product i n which to have a monopoly. Although as a b i o l o g i c a l necessity people are forced to purchase s a l t no matter what the price, t h i s also means that i n times of scarcity people w i l l use any means, legal or i l l e g a l , to get i t . Unlike the o i l currently controlled by the OPEC monopoly, s a l t does not require expensive machinery to produce i t or large ships to transport i t , and so i t i s r e l a t i v e l y d i f f i c u l t for a government to ensure that the t o t a l supply i s under i t s control.*° According to legend i t was Kuan Chung, minister to the Duke of Ch'i during the Spring and Autumn period, who f i r s t thought of a monopoly of the sale of s a l t as a source of government revenue. However, China actually owes the s a l t administration as an i n s t i t u t i o n to Emperor Wu of Han. Around the year 120 B.C. the censor Chang T'ang advocated the creation of a monopoly i n s a l t and iron to pay for Emperor Wu's expensive m i l i t a r y campaigns. After a checkered career during the next several centuries the monopoly was 8 revived by the T'ang Dynasty f i n a n c i a l experts Ti-wu C h : i and L i u Yen, who faced the urgent task of putting the country together again after the r e b e l l i o n of An Lu-shan, From then on the s a l t monopoly became an accepted arm of the imperial government, the system i n use i n Liang-huai and most other portions of the empire having developed from the "shipment method1' (kang-fa) created by the late Ming o f f i c i a l Yuan Shih-chen.^ 3 The importance of the s a l t administration to the imperial finances cannot be underestimated. In the m i l i -tary c r i s i s at the beginning of the Southern Sung Dynasty s a l t v i r t u a l l y supported the armies single-handedly. Not only was the^salt administration the supplier to the state of the second largest portion of i t s revenue by the Ming Dynasty, as we have seen, but there was also a marked tendency for dynasties to grow more, not le s s , dependant on s a l t revenue as time went on. Beginning as a mere temporary expedient i n time of r e b e l l i o n the s a l t taxes eventually supplied half the revenue i n cash of the T'ang as Dynasty. In the year 1578 the xncome from the s a l t monopoly accounted for about one quarter of t o t a l revenue; by 1600 the declining state of Ming finances had raised t h i s figure 6 to one t h i r d . The seemingly greater r e l i a b i l i t y of s a l t revenue, i t must be admitted, does much to j u s t i f y Metzger 1s confidence i n the s a l t administration's effectiveness. This question of the r e l i a b i l i t y of the s a l t monopoly as opposed to other methods of taxation w i l l be discussed i n more d e t a i l toward the end of t h i s essay. The s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e t a i n e d i t s i m p o r t a n c e as a s o u r c e o f r e v e n u e d u r i n g t h e C h ' i n g D y n a s t y . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e s a l t monopoly y i e l d e d f i v e o r s i x m i l l i o n t a e l s o f r e v e n u e t o t h e c e n t r a l government o u t o f a t o t a l b u d g e t o f 40 m i l l i o n t a e l s . The L i a n g - h u a i d i s t r i c t a l o n e s u p p l i e d 2,200,000 t a e l s . I t must be n o t e d , however, t h a t t h i s sum, l a r g e as i t was, was o n l y a f r a c t i o n o f t h e t o t a l w e a l t h t h a t L i a n g - h u a i p r o d u c e d , most o f w h i c h n e v e r r e a c h e d t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t . ^ 7 The h e a d q u a r t e r s o f t h e L i a n g - h u a i a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was l o c a t e d a t Yangchow, a t t h e j u n c t i o n o f t h e G r a n d C a n a l and t h e Y a n g t z e R i v e r . T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n was h e a ded by a c h i e f s a l t c o m m i s s i o n e r , u s u a l l y a Manchu o f t h e I m p e r i a l H o u s e h o l d D e p a r t m e n t , u n t i l 1831, a t w h i c h t i m e i t was t a k e n o v e r by t h e g o v e r n o r - g e n e r a l o f K i a n g s i , K i a n g s u , and Anhwei. Under t h i s o f f i c i a l was a s t a f f o f a b o u t t h i r t y - s e v e n , n o t i n c l u d i n g v a r i o u s p r i v a t e s e c r e t a r i e s and i n f o r m a l a d v i s o r s , who were r e s p o n - ' s i b l e f o r managing t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t r e a s u r y , k e e p i n g r e c o r d s , and so f o r t h . I n a d d i t i o n t o h i s own s t a f f t h e c h i e f s a l t c o m m i s s i o n e r f r e q u e n t l y c o - o p e r a t e d w i t h t h e r e g u l a r p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l o f f i c i a l s ( e s p e c i a l l y t h e g o v e r n o r - g e n e r a l o f Hunan and Hupeh) i n s u c h m a t t e r s as t h e c a t c h i n g o f s m u g g l e r s . A t t a c h e d t o most o f t h e p r o v i n c e s i n t h e L i a n g - h u a i a r e a was an o f f i c i a l c a l l e d a s a l t t a o t a i , whose s p e c i a l j o b t h i s was. L i a n g - h u a i i t s e l f was d i v i d e d i n t o two l a r g e a d m i n i -10 s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t s , H u a i - n a n and H u a i - p e i , o f w h i c h t h e f o r m e r was much more i m p o r t a n t , w i t h a y e a r l y s h i p m e n t q u o t a o f a b o u t 1,600,000 y i n o f s a l t ( t h e y i n was a u n i t o f w e i g h t o f s h i f t i n g v a l u e , e q u a l t o 400 c a t t i e s i n 1830) compared t o 290,000 y i n f o r H u a i - p e i . As r e g a r d s t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f s a l t L i a n g - h u a i was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e b r a n c h o f f i c e s ( f e n - s s u ) , T'ung-chou, w h i c h a d m i n i s t e r e d n i n e p r o d u c t i o n a r e a s ( c h ' a n g , y a r d s ) , T 1 a i - c h o u , e l e v e n y a r d s , and H a i - c h o u , t h r e e y a r d s , t h e l a s t d i s t r i c t b e i n g synonymous w i t h t h e p r o d u c t i o n a r e a s o f H u a i - p e i . E a c h y a r d was a d m i n i s t e r e d by a s a l t r e c e i v e r (yen-k'o s s u - t a - s h i h ) , and c o v e r e d a l a r g e a r e a , p e r h a p s f i f t y s q u a r e m i l e s i n a l l . T h i s was b e c a u s e t h e y a r d s i n c l u d e d n o t o n l y m a n u f a c t u r i n g works ( t ' i n g ) , b u t a l s o a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , s i n c e most s a l t w o r k e r s were f a r m e r s as w e l l . I n d e e d , t h e a c t u a l m a n u f a c t u r e o f s a l t was l i m i t e d t o a b o u t f o u r months o f t h e y e a r . I n . H u a i - p e i s a l t was p r o d u c e d by e v a p o r a t i n g s e a w a t e r i n s p e c i a l l y - p r e p a r e d p o n d s , w h i l e i n H u a i - n a n t h e w a t e r was b o i l e d on s t o v e s . D u r i n g t h e M i n g D y n a s t y t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f s a l t w o r k e r ( t s a o - h u ) was h e r e d i t a r y , b u t d u r i n g t h e C h ' i n g t h e s e men were g r a d u a l l y b o u g h t o u t by w e a l t h y : : y a r d m e r c h a n t s t : ( c h ' ang-shang) . Sometimes s a l t w o r k e r s and y a r d m e r c h a n t s owned m a n u f a c t u r i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n common. As r e g a r d s t h e t r a n s p o r t and s a l e o f s a l t L i a n g - h u a i was f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e main a r e a s . C e r t a i n c o u n t i e s n e a r t h e y a r d s were s u p p l i e d by p e d d l e r s , o f t e n t h e p o o r , widows, o r o r p h a n s , who by law p a i d no t a x . O t h e r a r e a s i n Kiangsu province, where a l l the Liang-huai yards were located, were designated nearby ports (shih-an). At these places taxes were kept to a minimum so that prices might be lowered and smugglers, who might e a s i l y be supplied with s a l t from the nearby yards, be discouraged. Most of the Liang-huai markets, however, were c a l l e d kang-an (dis-tant ports). The Huai-pei distant ports were located i n Anhwei and Honan provinces, and were reached v i a the Kuai r i v e r . The Huai-nan distant ports, by far the most important markets, were located .in Anhwei, Kiangsi, Hunan and Hupeh, and used s a l t shipped up the Yangtze. One of the chief reasons for the existence of the yard merchants was to serve as convenient intermediaries between the thousands of small s a l t producers and the wealthy transport merchants (yun-shang). The l a t t e r usually' received t h e i r s a l t from the yard merchants at Yangchow, and paid t h e i r taxes at t h i s time. Under the system developed by Yuan Shih-chen those who paid t h e i r taxes i n advance received the hereditary p r i v i l e g e of s e l l i n g s a l t . Because th i s p r i v i l e g e could not be transferred to other families i t was c a l l e d ken-wo, or "rooted nest'', although eventually a system developed •whereby licenses to s e l l s a l t might be leased to others for a period of one to f i v e years. During the K !ang~hsi reign d i f f i c u l t i e s involved i n the supervision of the merchant community resulted in the creation of head merchants (tsung-shang), who guaranteed the a b i l i t y of the other merchants to pay t h e i r taxes. 12 These head merchants numbered about t h i r t y , as opposed to the small merchants (san-shang), who at t h e i r height i n the eighteenth century numbered about two hundred. It must be noted at t h i s point that the number of people involved i n the work of the s a l t monopoly was enormous. Metzger estimates that by 1800 the t o t a l number of s a l t workers, transport merchants and t h e i r associates, boatmen, etc. a. 8 added up to 4 00,00 0 men. It would c l e a r l y have been very d i f f i c u l t for thirty-seven o f f i c i a l s to supervise so many people. The head merchants provided v i t a l assistance i n managing at least those among the monopoly personnel who were engaged in the transport and sale of s a l t . Incidentally, one should not be confused by the various t i t l e s used, since during the eighteenth century even a "small merchant" would probably be a very wealthy man. Although some transport merchants were assigned certain d i s t r i c t s in which to s e l l t h e i r s a l t most merely transpor-ted i t as far as the large c i t i e s , Nanch 1ang i n Kiangsi and Hankow for that s a l t that was going to Hunan and Hupeh. From there i t was picked up by the so-called water merchants (shui-fan), who sold i t to the r e t a i l shops i n the various l o c a l i t i e s . In general, transport merchants were not allowed to ship s a l t to any other place other than that to which they were assigned, unless permitted to do so by the government. Also^ except i n extreme emergencies, shipping of s a l t e n t i r e l y outside the boundaries of Liang-huai or from one d i s t r i c t of the s a l t monopoly to another was s t r i c t l y forbidden. Having described i n outline the structure of the Liang-huai s a l t 13 P r o v i n c i a l B o u n dary S a l t D i s t r i c t B o u n d ary + * + + + + +Boundary Between H u a i - n a n and H u a i - p e i 14 1 5 D i s t r i c t B o u n dary * = = =- Waterway a H a i - c h o u Y a r d s A T'ai^-chou Y a r d s • T 1 u n g - c h o u Y a r d s 16 G u i d e t o Maps p. 13 S a l t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n D i s t r i c t B o u n d a r i e s 1. C h ' a n g l u /jji^ 6. ., Kwangtung /g jji 2. S h a n t u n g <!, 7. Yunnan || J | J 3. a. H u a i p e i ly\%_ 4 t 8. Szechwan ns j , | b. H u a i n a n IfO* 9 - Shenkan P 5^ #-4. L i a n g c h e tig 10. Hotung C^^j J§ 5. F u k i e n ^5 ^ The e l e v e n t h d i s t r i c t , F e n g t ' i e n ^ , c o m p r i s e s t h e t h r e e p r o v i n c e s o f M a n c h u r i a and i s n o t l o c a t e d on t h i s map. S o u r c e : C h i a n g T a o - c h a n g . " S a l t C o n s u m p t i o n i n C h ' i n g C h i n a " , Nanyang U n i v e r s i t y J o u r n a l , V o l s . 8 & 9 ( 1 9 7 4 / 5 ) , p. 68-9. p. 14 P l a c e s M e n t i o n e d i n t h e T e x t N o t e : S i n c e p r e f e c t u r a l b o u n d a r i e s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r -mine, t h e l o c a t e d o f t h e p r e f e c t u r a l c a p i t a l i s u s u a l l y g i v e n i n s t e a d . 1. Yangchow y)')j 9. H o - f e i % RC 2. C h e n - c h i a n g ^ x 10. F e n g - y a n g Jjj^ fj^ 3. Hankow ^ 3? uj H . Shou-chou ^ 'j-J.J 4. Nanch'ang j | © 12. H s i a n g - y a n g ^ f|L 5. I - c h ' a n g ^ J§ 13. I - c h e n g ^ 6. C h i n g - c h o u ^ ' J >)•)•) 14. Waichow ^ ;).;.) 7. Soochow fe^ •).)./ 15. C h e n - h a i ^ J . ^ 8. Sungv-chiang ^x: S o u r c e : Chung-hua j e n - m i n kung-ho kuo f e n - s h e n g t i - t ' u c h i (A c o l l e c t i o n o f maps o f t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a a r r a n g e d by p r o v i n c e ) . T i - t ' u c h ' u - p a n - s h e (Map P r e s s ) , 1974. 17 p. 15 Kiangsu Province 1. Hai-chou lis!) 'Hi 2. T'ai-chou ^ 'J'li 3. Yangchow 4. I-cheng 5. Yellow River 6. Grand Canal 7. Yangtze River 8. Hai-chou Independent D i s t r i c t 9. Hsu-chou ^ % Prefecture 10. Huai-an ^ Prefecture 11. Yangchow Prefecture 12. T'ung-chou Independent D i s t r i c t IE 90') Note: Kiangsu south of the Yangtze i s not divided into d i s t r i c t s on t h i s map. Source: Thomas Metzger. "The Organizational C a p a b i l i t i e s of the Ch'ing State i n the F i e l d of Commerce: The Liang-Huai Salt Monopoly, 1740-1840", in.W.E. Willmott ed. Economic Organization i n Chinese Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1972, p. 12. 18 a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , we w i l l now t u r n t o i t s o p e r a t i o n i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , when t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e monopoly a. °l was c l o s e s t t o i t s o f f i c i a l i d e a l . b) The P a r t i a l S u c c e s s o f t h e E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y The p e r i o d f r o m t h e f i n a l p a c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y u n d e r K ' a n g - h s i d u r i n g t h e 16 80's t o t h e o u t b r e a k o f t h e Whi t e L o t u s R e b e l l i o n i n 1796 has g e n e r a l l y been s e e n as t h e h i g h p o i n t o f t h e C h ' i n g D y n a s t y , and o f t h e s a l t mono-p o l y as w e l l . As one a u t h o r p u t i t , "At t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e C h ' i n g . . . t h e who l e c o u n t r y was a t p e a c e . The p o p u l a t i o n was i n c r e a s i n g r a p i d l y , and t h e r e f o r e t h e number o f c u s t o m e r s f o r s a l t . S a l t q u o t a s were g e n e r a l l y o v e r s o l d , w h i l e t a x e s were l i g h t . The m e r c h a n t s were making a p r o f i t , and few a b u s e s h a d c r e p t i n t o t h e s y s t e m . " h o Thomas M e t z g e r a g r e e s w i t h t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Of t h e one h u n d r e d y e a r s t h a t a r e h i s s p e c i a l s t u d y he l a b e l s 1740-1805 t h e p e r i o d o f " p r o s p e r i t y " , w h i l e 1805-30 i s " i n c r e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t y " , and 1831-40 " p a r t i a l r e c o -i l v e r y " . S u r e l y anyone who h o l d s t h a t t h e C h ' i n g s a l t mono-p o l y f u n c t i o n e d e f f e c t i v e l y must p o i n t t o t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y w i t h s p e c i a l p r i d e . T h e r e i s , i n f a c t , much e v i d e n c e t o back up t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w . As we have m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e , t h e c h i e f s t a n d a r d f o r j u d g i n g t h e monopoly a s u c c e s s was t h e amount o f r e v e n u e i t g e n e r a t e d f o r t h e government. Under t h e r e i g n o f C h ' i e n - l u n g n o t o n l y were s a l t t a x e s c o l l e c t e d i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y , b u t i n o r d e r t o s a t i s f y t h e needs o f an e x p a n d i n g p o p u l a t i o n t h e s a l t c o m m i s s i o n e r C h i - c h ' i n g r e q u e s t e d t h a t s a l t f r o m n e x t y e a r ' s s h i p m e n t be s e n t t o t h e ma r k e t i n a d v a n c e . Between 1746 and 1803 19 no l e s s t h a n 7,054,000 y i n o f s a l t above t h e r e g u l a r q u o t a were s o l d i n t h i s manner, t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f o v e r t h r e e y e a r l y s h i p m e n t s . N o r d i d t h e r a p i d r a t e o f s a l e s , and t h e r e f o r e t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f r e v e n u e , d i m i n i s h t o w a r d t h e end o f t h e c e n t u r y . As l a t e as 1792 i n Hunan and Hupeh q u o t a s were o v e r s o l d by a l m o s t 103,000 y i n , w h i l e o v e r 18, 000 e x t r a y i n were s o l d i n K i a n g s i . 5 , 3 N o t o n l y were government demands f o r t a x e s s a t i s f i e d b u t t h e m e r c h a n t community as w e l l p r o s p e r e d . Ho P i n g - t i s u g g e s t s t h a t between 1740 and 1788 t r a n s p o r t m e r c h a n t s as a g r o u p e a r n e d a y e a r l y p r o f i t o f no l e s s t h a n f i v e m i l l i o n 3H t a e l s , f a r more t h a n t h e c e n t r a l government r e c e i v e d . U s i n g as h i s measure o f c o m p a r i s o n t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by m e r c h a n t s t o t h e i m p e r i a l t r e a s u r y Ho n o t e d t h a t between 1738 and 1804 t h e L i a n g - h u a i m e r c h a n t s handed o v e r more t h a n 36 m i l l i o n t a e l s , compared t o t h e l e s s t h a n f o u r m i l l i o n t a e l s r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e Cohong m e r c h a n t s o v e r a s i m i l a r p e r i o d o f t i m e ? 5 As t h e l a t t e r m o n o p o l i z e d t h e e n t i r e E u r o p e a n t r a d e o f t h e e m p i r e i t c a n ber s e e n t h a t t h e L i a n g - h u a i t r a n s p o r t m e r c h a n t s were v e r y w e a l t h y i n d e e d . The e f f e c t s o f v a s t w e a l t h c a n be s e e n on a p e r s o n a l l e v e l as w e l l . T h o s e o f t h e m e r c h a n t s who h a d p r e t e n s i o n s t o c u l t u r e p a t r o n i z e d g r e a t s c h o l a r s and b u i l t up v a s t l i b r a r i e s , w h i l e t h o s e who d i d n o t i n d u l g e d i n c o n s p i c u o u s c o n s u m p t i o n on a g r a n d s c a l e . M o r e o v e r , a c c e s s t o t h e b e s t l i b r a r i e s and t u t o r s e n a b l e d t h e sons o f t h e Yangchow m e r c h a n t s t o move w i t h r e l a t i v e e a s e i n t o t h e government b u r e a u c r a c y . Between 1646 and 1802 t h e t h r e e h u n d r e d o r so y a r d and t r a n s p o r t 20 m e r c h a n t s p r o d u c e d no f e w e r t h a n 139 h o l d e r s o f t h e c h i n -s h i h d e g r e e , and 208 h o l d e r s o f t h e c h u - j en d e g r e e , f o r p a s s i n g t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n and p r o v i n c i a l c i v i l s e r v i c e e x a m i n a t i o n s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s tremendous v i t a l i t y o f t h e m e r c h a n t community a t t e s t s t o t h e o r d e r l y and s u c c e s s f u l f u n c t i o n o f t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , e v e n d u r i n g t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e r e were numerous d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e monopoly. I t i s w e l l t o examine t h e s e i n some d e t a i l , s i n c e t h e y c o n t a i n t h e s e e d s o f t h e l a r g e - s c a l e breakdown o f t h e s a l t t r a d e d u r i n g t h e n e x t c e n t u r y . A m e m o r i a l by t h e G r a n d S e c r e t a r y G h u : S h i h w r i t t e n .about.-1.730 d e s c r i b e s . " e i g h t m a j o r p r o b l e m s t h a t L i a n g - h u a i o f f i c i a l s f a c e d : 1. The b o u n d a r i e s between t h e v a r i o u s d i s t r i c t s o f t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were i r r a t i o n a l . F o r example, C h e n - c h i a n g p r e f e c t u r e u s e d s a l t f r o m C h e k i a n g , e v e n t h o u g h i t was c l o s e r t o t h e L i a n g - h u a i y a r d s t h a n some d i s t r i c t s t h a t u s e d L i a n g - h u a i s a l t . 2. The y a r d m e r c h a n t s w o u l d use v a r i o u s p r e t e x t s t o c h e a t t h e i m p o v e r i s h e d s a l t w o r k e r s , who i n o r d e r t o make ends meet w o u l d have t o s e l l some o f t h e i r s a l t t o s m u g g l e r s . 3. Due t o t h e r i g i d d i v i s i o n o f t h e s a l t monopoly i n t o d i s t r i c t s , p e o p l e w o u l d be f o r c e d t o buy t h e i r s a l t f r o m r e t a i l shops b e l o n g i n g t o one d i s t r i c t , e v e n t h o u g h t h o s e i n a n o t h e r d i s t r i c t m i g h t be c l o s e r . 4. S a l t p r i c e s i n a r e a s c l o s e t o t h e y a r d s were t o o h i g h , f o r c i n g p e o p l e t o t u r n t o i l l e g a l s a l t f o r r e l i e f . W h i l e Chu f e l t t h a t l a r g e s m u g g l e r s o p e r a t i n g i n d i s t a n t a r e a s were e a s y t o a p p r e h e n d , t h e c o u n t l e s s p e t t y t r a d e r s w i t h i n one h u n d r e d l i _ o f t h e y a r d s were i m p o s s i b l e t o d e a l w i t h . 5. As s a l t p r i c e s r o s e t h e p e o p l e w o u l d c u t down on t h e i r c o n s u m p t i o n . Hence t h e q u o t a s o f s a l t t o be s o l d i n many a r e a s were t o o h i g h . Chu blamed h i g h p r i c e s on t h e v a r i o u s payments and b r i b e s demanded by o f f i c i a l s . 6. Many s w i n d l e r s and men o f d o u b t f u l means were e n t e r i n g t h e s a l t t r a d e ( s i n c e t h e m e r c h a n t community was h e r e d i t a r y I assume t h i s r e f e r s t o t h o s e who l e a s e d ken-wo) Chu s u g g e s t e d t h a t o n l y s u b s t a n t i a l and r e s p e c t e d m e r c h a n t s be p e r m i t t e d t o s h i p s a l t . 7. A l t h o u g h t h e p r i c e o f s a l t was f i x e d by law p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s w o u l d p r o t e c t t h e m e r c h a n t s and a l l o w them t o r a i s e p r i c e s a t w i l l . 8. Many s m a l l o r remote v i l l a g e s h a d no r e t a i l s h o ps where s a l t was s o l d , f o r c i n g p e o p l e t o do w i t h o u t o r t r a v e l l o n g d i s t a n c e s t o buy some. H o n e s t p e o p l e s h o u l d be g i v e n l i c e n s e s p e r m i t t i n g them t o s e l l s a l t i n t h e i r home v i l l a g e From t h i s m e m o r i a l two main c o n c e r n s o f t h o u g h t f u l o f f i c i a l s may be d i s c o v e r e d . F i r s t o f a l l , many a l r e a d y f e l t t h a t p r i c e s were t o o h i g h o r were b e c o m i n g t o o h i g h f o r p e a s a n t c o n s u m e r s . As t h i s t r e n d c o n t i n u e d i n t o t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e h a r d - p r e s s e d p e a s a n t r y was f o r c e d t o t u r n e v e r more f r e q u e n t l y t o s m u g g l e r s f o r i t s s u p p l y o f s a l t . T h e s e s m u g g l e r s were Chu's s e c o n d w o r r y . H i s f i r s t p o i n t , i m p l y i n g t h a t i n some a r e a s s a l t m i g h t be p u r c h a s e d more c h e a p l y f r o m o t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t s of the monopoly, signa l l e d the beginning of a problem that was to grow completely out of hand by 1830, namely l i n - s s u (smuggling from neighbouring d i s t r i c t s ) . Already no province i n the Liang-huai area was immune. A 1734 edict mentioned smuggling into Kiangsi and Honan from the Chekiang and Ti e n t s i n areas, while Hunan and Hupeh received i l l e g a l s a l t from Kwangtung and Szechwan. The emperor angrily c r i t i c i z e d the lack of diligence among the soldiers and co-operation among p r o v i n c i a l governors, and urged them to consider catching smugglers t h e i r most important duty. However, as Chu stated, t h i s problem was most severe i n those places nearest the yards. Here the t a c t i c of lowering prices i n the nearby ports to combat smuggling was a complete f a i l u r e . Those provinces at a somewhat greater distance, such as Kiangsi and Anhwei, suffered somewhat less from smuggling, while faraway Hunan and Hupeh were r e l a t i v e l y free of t h i s problem. To get away from the i l l e g a l competition the transport merchants tended to avoid the nearby provinces and seek out the l a t t e r . 1-11 The i n a b i l i t y of the government to eliminate smugglers prompted the beginning of a debate among o f f i c i a l s into methods of reforming the monopoly so as to improve i t s performance. Already from the debates i n the Huang-ch'ao  ching-shih wen-pien (Collected s t a t e c r a f t essays of the current dynasty) we can see that the major schools of thought of the nineteenth century have taken shape. The Ti e n t s i n t a o t a i Cheng Tsu-ch'en urged that s a l t be taxed at the yards rather than when i t was received by the trans-23 p o r t m e r c h a n t s , i n i m i t a t i o n o f t h e method o f t h e T'ang s t a t e s m a n L i u Yen. T h i s p r o p o s a l won t h e f a v o u r o f many-o f f i c i a l s . L u Hsun, a P r e s i d e n t o f t h e B o a r d o f War, u r g e d t h a t s a l t p r i c e s be r e d u c e d so t h a t consumers w o u l d n o t be f o r c e d t o buy f r o m s m u g g l e r s , a v i e w l a t e r h e l d by T 1 a o Chu, g r e a t e s t o f t h e l a t e C h ' i n g r e f o r m e r s i n t h i s f i e l d . 4 3 The v a r i o u s s c h o o l s o f r e f o r m w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l t o w a r d t h e end o f t h i s p a p e r . The c o n c e r n o f many p e r c e p t i v e o f f i c i a l s r e f l e c t e d t h e i r u n e a s i n e s s w i t h t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n e v e n a t i t s h e i g h t . To sum up, t h e n , w h i l e o u r c r i t e r i a ' . o f f u l l c o l l e c t i o n o f t a x e s and a h e a l t h y m e r c h a n t community seem t o show t h a t t h e monopoly was w o r k i n g p r o p e r l y d u r i n g t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e p e r s i s t e n t p r o b l e m o f s m u g g l i n g shows t h a t a l l was n o t w e l l . The s t a g e was s e t f o r t h e d r a m a t i c d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a f t e r t h e end o f t h e C h ' i e n - l u n g r e i g n ( 1 7 9 5 ) . 24 I I . C o l l a p s e o f t h e S a l t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n L i a n g - h u a i a) E x t e n t I n d e s c r i b i n g t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y i n e f f i c i e n t f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r y on we w i l l b e g i n w i t h a s t a t i s t i c a l s u r v e y o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was f a i l i n g t o s o l v e t h e t h r e e key p r o b l e m s o f s e c u r i n g s u f f i c i e n t r e v e n u e , c o m b a t t i n g t h e i l l e g a l t r a d e , and m a i n t a i n i n g t h e h e a l t h o f t h e m e r c h a n t community. We w i l l t h e n examine two i n t e r -r e l a t e d c a u s e s o f t h e monopoly's p o o r p e r f o r m a n c e : r a p i d l y r i s i n g s a l t p r i c e s w h i c h made i t a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e f o r consumers t o a f f o r d t h i s v i t a l p r o d u c t , and r i s i n g p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h e n c o u r a g e d many t o e n t e r t h e i l l e g a l t r a d e i n an e f f o r t t o e a r n a l i v e l i h o o d . A f t e r a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e t h r e a t t h i s i l l e g a l t r a d e p o s e d t o t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e d y n a s t y and i t s r e l a t i o n t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s , o u r c o n c l u s i o n w i l l sum up t h e argument so f a r . The 1830's saw a s e r i e s o f m a j o r r e f o r m s o f t h e L i a n g -h u a i s y s t e m . I t was c l e a r t o a l l by t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s d e c a d e t h a t t h e monopoly was i n s e r i o u s t r o u b l e . As t h e o f f i c i a l C h ' i n g h i s t o r y s t a t e d , "At t h a t t i m e i n L i a n g -h u a i s m u g g l e r s grew d a i l y more numerous, and t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n grew d a i l y more d i s o r d e r e d . " S a l e s o f s a l t were down d r a m a t i c a l l y . Of t e n y e a r l y s h i p m e n t s f r o m 1821 t o 1830 t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f o n l y 5.7 s h i p m e n t s were s o l d i n K u a i - n a n , w h i l e o n l y 3.4 s h i p m e n t s were s o l d i n H u a i - p e i . M 5 I n 1830 o n l y 520,000 y i n o f s a l t were s o l d i n L i a n g - h u a i , l e s s t h a n one t h i r d o f t h e o f f i c i a l q u o t a . E v e n more 25 alarming was the accumulation of back taxes owed by the s a l t merchants. By 1830 t h i s tax debt had reached 57 m i l l i o n taels of s i l v e r i n Huai-nan, and s i x m i l l i o n i n Huai-pei. M ^ In an 1828 memorial the Liang-huai s a l t commissioner Fu-chu-lung-a estimated that merely to service t h i s vast debt would require that the transport merchants pay 1.6 m i l l i o n taels annually above and beyond the regular quota of about four m i l l i o n t a e l s . He requested that the payment of back taxes be postponed, and that merchants only be required to pay the sums immediately owing. It i s doubtful whether even this would have been possible for the exhausted merchants. Not only was the s a l t administration unable to supply the government with revenue, but t h i s f a i l u r e was also of f a i r l y recent date. As late as the 1790's, as we have seen, sales of s a l t were proceeding b r i s k l y i n the ports. Within perhaps t h i r t y years t h i s s i t u a t i o n had completely changed. T'ao Chu paid witness to the suddenness of the collapse of the s a l t administration when he remarked, "From the l a s t years of Chia-ch'ing (about 1815) on sales i n the s a l t markets stagnated... By the tenth year of Tao-kuang (1830) the transport system had collapsed and could not be revived." M & Thomas Metzger has examined several of the factors which led to reduced sales i n Liang-huai, but maintains that the H S decline of the monopoly should not be exaggerated. Although he does not go on to elaborate t h i s statement he would seem to imply that the "impressive commercial c a p a b i l i t i e s " of the Ch'ing state were not li m i t e d to the prosperous period of the eighteenth century, although he i s quick to admit that d i f f i c u l t i e s did develop aft e r about 1805. It i s d i f f i c u l t to say what degree of i n e f f i c i e n c y one would permit i n a large bureaucratic organization before concluding that on the whole i t was not working properly. However, i t clear that o f f i c i a l s such as T'ao Chu considered the performance of the s a l t mono-' poly completely unacceptable. The decline i n regular sales of s a l t and the r e s u l t i n g flow of taxes to the government was p a r a l l e l e d by the marked growth of i l l e g a l sales. As we have mentioned before, at no time was the s a l t monopoly e n t i r e l y free of smugglers. How-ever, by the 1830's smuggling had passed far beyond the l e v e l of a minor i r r i t a n t . Metzger estimates that by the 1830's no less than half of the s a l t sold i n Liang-huai was sold So i l l e g a l l y . A contemporary expert, Pao Shih-ch'en, was even more pessimistic. He held that seventy to eighty percent si of the v i l l a g e s i n Liang-huai used smuggled s a l t . T'ao Chu stated i n a memorial that only a dozen or so prefectures i n Kiangsi, Hunan, and Hupeh actually used large amounts of government s a l t , the rest receiving theirs from smugglers ( i t w i l l be noted that not every prefecture i n these provinces was located i n Liang-huai; some by law used s a l t from other d i s t r i c t s of the monopoly). No wonder taxes were i n default, when only a few d i s t r i c t s had to shoulder the entire burden for almost six provinces. The growth of smuggling i n absolute amounts was matched by i t s spread over a wider geographical area. As we have seen, smuggling i n the eighteenth century took place largely i n those areas near the yards, with l i n - s s u .being a secondary problem. One o f f i c i a l , writing about 1730, complained that while Kiangsi suffered from l i n - s s u Hunan and Hupeh were free of th i s problem, since they were _far away from neigh-53 bouring production areas i n Kwangtung and Szechwan. Sales figures seem to support this point of view. As late as 1825 Hunan and Hupeh reported f u l l quotas of s a l t sold, while Kiangsi and other provinces had serious s h o r t f a l l s . However, by the late 1830's t h i s s i t u a t i o n had changed markedly. The famous statesman L i n Tse-hsu, writing as governor-general of Hunan and Hupeh, reported that, "The routes by which l i n - s s u enters Hunan and Hupeh are more numerous (than i n other provinces)". The d i s t r i c t s of I-ch'ang and Ching-chou suffered from smuggling from Szechwan, Pao-ch'ing and Heng-chou received s a l t i l l e g a l l y from Kwangr, turig ,c aridiso forth. Although sales had picked up i n recent years and f u l l quotas once again were being sold there was s t i l l over 400,000 yin remaining from former years i n the warehouses of Hankow. To sum up, then, the rapid i n f i l -t r a t i o n of the provinces of Hunan and Hupeh by smugglers, largely but not t o t a l l y a product of the l a s t ten years, was another serious indic a t i o n that by the 1830's the s a l t administration was not working as i t should. One of Thomas Metzger's most powerful arguments i n favour of his "optimistic" thesis concerning the e f f i c i e n c y of the s a l t administration was the supposed a b i l i t y of o f f i c i a l s to c r e a t i v e l y use administrative decisions to solve various problems. He seeks to apply th i s point of view to the problem of smuggling from neighbouring d i s t r i c t s of the 28 monopoly. He takes note of the c r i t i c i s m of Chu Shih that many of the boundaries of the various d i s t r i c t s were i r -r a t i o n a l , but argues that o f f i c i a l s were able to take action to remedy th i s s i t u a t i o n . He points to the case of several prefectures i n Kiangsi, which, during the late seventeenth century, were switched back and forth from Kwangtung to Liang-huai on the grounds of economic rationa-l i t y (such as providing new markets for expanding Kwang-tung production). Indeed, o f f i c i a l s were quick to argue for more r a t i o n a l boundaries. A 1791 memorial c i t e d various problems, such as the case of Chien-ch'ang prefecture i n Kiangsi, which was located over 2000 l i _ from the Huai-nan yards, but only 200 to 300 l i _ from various places i n Fukien, and hence suffered from the i n f l u x of more cheaply^-transported Fukien s a l t . 5 7 However, the results of these appeals were not always as promising as Metzger implies. Although Hunan:and Hupeh did not suffer seriously from l i n - s s u u n t i l the 1830's there were already minor d i f f i c u l t i e s of thi s sort by about 1800. Hence L i n Tse-hsu, writing around 1837, complained that memorials from that time requesting that i r r a t i o n a l boundaries be changed did not receive imperial approval, and so many d i s t r i c t s i n those two provinces s t i l l suffered from lin-ssu.decades l a t e r . In any event, by Lin's time the problem of l i n - s s u had long since passed the point where i t might be solved by a l t e r i n g a few boundaries. If Pao Shih-ch'en, writing about 1829, was correct when he claimed that smugglers were present i n seventy percent of the 2 9 v i l l a g e s of Liang-huai, then to attempt to eliminate l i n - s s u by s h i f t i n g a few d i s t r i c t s from-one area to:another would be l i k e putting a band-aid on a cancer. This seems to be a r e a l flaw i n Metzger's argument. The loss of so many d i s t r i c t s to smugglers ine v i t a b l y had a^serious impact on the merchants whose job i t was to transport s a l t . As we have seen, during the eighteenth century the transport merchants numbered somewhat over two hundred, and were fabulously wealthy. By the 1830's, however, T' ao Chu's assistant Yii Te-yuan estimated that there were only ten or twenty families l e f t with s u f f i c i e n t 5°l c a p i t a l to undertake s a l t shipments. T'ao himself came Go to much the same conclusion. In fact, many areas were v i r t u a l l y abandoned to smugglers, since there, were no longer any merchants to service them. Pao Shih-ch'en reported that in these areas o f f i c i a l s would make use of such temporary expedients as s e l l i n g s a l t captured from smugglers. b^ Various attempts were made to a l l e v i a t e t h i s problem, but they proved largely i n e f f e c t i v e . During the 1840's s a l t belonging to those merchants who went bankrupt was d i s t r i b u t e d among the remaining merchants. However, some o f f i c i a l s complained that these merchants would go bank-rupt i n t h e i r turn under the increasing load, while others would evade t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t e s by having the s a l t that should have gone to them registered under f i c t i t i o u s names. 6 Moreover, not only did the transport merchants suffer i n -creasing f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t y a f t e r 1830, but i t also be-came almost impossible to r e c r u i t the shui-.fan, who serviced 30 the i n d i v i d u a l d i s t r i c t s , or to f i n d r e t a i l s a l t shops i n some towns and c i t i e s . In s h o r t , both the l o c a l and r e g i o n a l L i a n g - h u a i t r a n s p o r t network was b r e a k i n g down, and the merchants' p l a c e being taken by smugglers. In f a c t , i t i s the c o l l a p s e of the community of t r a n s p o r t merchants which i l l u s t r a t e s most d r a m a t i c a l l y the d i f f i -c u l t y i n which the L i a n g - h u a i s a l t monopoly found i t s e l f . Although l e g a l s a l e s by 1830 were s t i l l probably h a l f of what government q u o t a s ' s t i p u l a t e d , t h i s d e c l i n e was s t i l l s u f f i c i e n t to d r i v e the v a s t m a j o r i t y of t r a n s p o r t merchants out of the t r a d e , b) Causes The most b a s i c and fundamental cause of the d e c l i n e of the L i a n g - h u a i s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was an i n e x o r a b l e r i s e i n s a l t p r i c e s , which made i t more and more d i f f i c u l t f o r the consumer to a f f o r d t h i s v i t a l product. Numerous o f f i c i a l statements bear witness to t h i s f a c t . Research by Ho P i n g - t i , based on a d e t a i l e d examination of s a l t p r i c e s at Hankow by Ch'ing o f f i c i a l s , put the p r i c e of one y i n of s a l t a t about 7.1 t a e l s i n 1740 and 12.0 t a e l s i n 1788. L i n Tse-hsu, w r i t i n g i n the l a t e 1830's, estimated 65 the p r i c e at f o u r t e e n t a e l s . Other o f f i c i a l s chose not to c o n s i d e r the p r i c e i n t a e l s of s i l v e r , but r a t h e r to measure i t i n the copper cash a c t u a l l y used by the people. An e s s a y i s t named Kuo Ch'i-yuan, w r i t i n g probably around 1730, put the p r i c e of s a l t i n Hunan, Hupeh, and K i a n s i at ten to twenty cash per c a t t y . However, T'ao Chu, w r i t i n g a century l a t e r , put t h i s f i g u r e at s i x t y to seventy 31 cash, or as much as eighty or ninety cash i n remote v i l l a g e s . ^ That t h i s was a heavy burden on the peasantry cannot be denied. Pao Shih-ch'en noted i n 1838 that a farmer wishing to buy a package of s a l t (somewhat over seven catties) would have to exchange for i t no less than a hundred c a t t i e s of grain (or i t s equivalent i n money), which would otherwise have gone to feed his family. I t i s important to r e a l i z e that the actual cost of producing the s a l t was r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e . T 1ao Chu held that t h i s was less than ten cash per catty, only a f r a c t i o n of the market pri c e . Both Kuo and T'ao placed the blame for high prices on transport costs and espe c i a l l y the nume-rous taxes the merchants were forced to pay, a l l of which 68 added to t h e i r t o t a l c a p i t a l investment. Transport costs, though, actually were:Iower i n Liang-huai than elsewhere. Pao Shih-ch'en noted that the transport merchants merely shipped t h e i r s a l t down the Yangtze, while smugglers seeking to enter the Liang-huai zone faced expensive land routes and formidable natural b a r r i e r s . Therefore, i n our discussion of s a l t prices we w i l l concentrate on the Ch'ing taxation system (or lack of system). It w i l l be noted that with the vast majority of his investment going to the government the merchant was under enormous temptation to bypass the administration e n t i r e l y , and buy s a l t i l l e g a l l y d i r e c t l y from the producers." 7 0 Not only were heavy taxes largely responsible for the rapidly r i s i n g price of s a l t , but as we have seen most of th i s tax revenue did not go to the central government. 32 The v a r i o u s m i s c e l l a n e o u s t a x e s and payments t h a t d i d n o t go t o t h e s t a t e were l a b e l l e d by o f f i c i a l s " e x c e s s i v e f e e s " ( f o u - f e i ) . T 1 a o Chu e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e s e f e e s m i g h t be 71 f i v e t i m e s as much as t h e r e g u l a r t a x . M e t z g e r , however, seems t o d i s a g r e e . He c o n c l u d e s , "... i n f o r m a l and i l l e g a l l e v i e s w o u l d seem t o have been much l e s s t h a n t h e f o r m a l o n e s , and a c c o u n t s o f t h e c o r r u p t i o n o f s a l t o f f i c i a l s 73. must have i n v o l v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e h y p e r b o l e " . T h e r e i s no d o u b t some s e m a n t i c c o n f u s i o n h e r e , as f o u - f e i n e e d n o t have meant b r i b e s . Y e t M e t z g e r h i m s e l f a d m i t s t h a t m i l l i o n s o f t a e l s o f s a l t r e v e n u e d i d n o t go t o t h e c e n t r a l government. Such an unwelcome s i t u a t i o n f r o m t h e c o u r t ' s p o i n t o f v i e w i s damaging t o M e t z g e r ' s c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e h i g h e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e s a l t a d -m i n i s t r a t i o n , and i s s u g g e s t i v e o f what t h e C h i n e s e c a l l e d " t h e man i n t h e m i d d l e has a f u l l s tomach ( c h u n g - p a o ) " . T h i s meant o f c o u r s e t h a t w h i l e t h e p e o p l e p a i d a g r e a t d e a l o f t a x e s and t h e government r e c e i v e d l i t t l e , t h e v a r i o u s c l e r k s and o f f i c i a l s t o o k i n t h e l i o n ' s s h a r e o f t h e r e v e n u e . S i n c e t h e v a r i o u s f o u - f e i p r o v i d e d a m a j o r i m p e t u s f o r r i s i n g t a x e s , and s i n c e t h e s e i n t u r n were l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p u s h i n g up t h e p r i c e o f s a l t , i t i s w o r t h w h i l e t o examine some o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e f e e s i n some d e t a i l . -These t e n d t o r e v e a l a p a t t e r n : t h e c r e a t i o n o f more and more i r r e g u l a r t a x e s as t i m e went on, and t h e i n c r e a s i n g b u r d e n o f t h o s e t a x e s t h a t were a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o remember t h a t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e d y n a s t y o n l y r e g u l a r t a x e s e x i s t e d , s i n c e a 1645 d e c r e e had a b o l i s h e d t h e numerous t a x e s l e v i e d by t h e M i n g c o u r t t o pay f o r m i l i t a r y e x p e n s e s . 1 3 One o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t o f t h e f o u - f e i was t h e payment i n v o l v e d i n t r a n s f e r r i n g t h e r i g h t t o s e l l s a l t . As we h a v e s e e n , t h e ken-wo p r i v i l e g e was h e r e d i t a r y b u t m i g h t be l e a s e d t o o t h e r s by t h o s e m e r c h a n t s who d i d n o t w i s h t o t a k e t h e r i s k s i n v o l v e d i n a c t u a l l y t r a n s p o r t i n g s a l t t h e m s e l v e s . I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t by 1740 a b o u t h a l f o f t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n t h e t r a n s p o r t o f s a l t were l e a s e h o l d e r s . As w i t h many o t h e r payments t h e v a l u e o f ken-wo r o s e s t e a d i l y o v e r t h e y e a r s . A m e r c h a n t who p a i d .5 o r .6 t a e l s p e r y i n i n 1650 w o u l d pay 1.6, 2.0, o r e v e n 2.5 t a e l s i n 1740. T h e r e e v e n grew up a t Yangchow a g r o u p o f men who w o u l d s p e c u l a t e on t h e v a l u e o f ken-wo. A l t h o u g h t h e p r i c e o f ken-wo was e v e n t u a l l y f i x e d by t h e g overnment a t one t a e l p e r y i n t h i s l i m i t was n o t a l w a y s o b e y e d i n t h o s e y e a r s when t h e s a l t t r a d e was d o i n g w e l l . n 5 One a u t h o r i t y has e v e n c o n c l u d e d t h a t o f t e n t h e v a l u e o f ken-wo was more 1 t h a n t h a t o f t h e r e g u l a r t a x e s ; a g a i n , t h i s c o n t r a d i c t s M e t z g e r ' s d e e m p h a s i s o f t h e p l a c e o f i n f o r m a l payments i n t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T'ao Chu f i n a l l y a b o l i s h e d t h e p r a c t i c e o f l e a s i n g ken-wo i n 1831, as he f e l t t h a t t h o s e m e r c h a n t s who d i d n o t a c t u a l l y t r a n s p o r t ~rT-s a l t t h e m s e l v e s were p a r a s i t i c a l . . A n o t h e r i t e m o f f o u - f e i was t h e i n t e r e s t o w i n g on l o a n s f r o m t h e government, c a l l e d t ' a n g - l i ( t r e a s u r y p r o f i t s ) o r t ' ang^-hsi ( t r e a s u r y i n t e r e s t ) . I t had f r e q u e n t l y been t h e c a s e t h a t when m e r c h a n t s ha d f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s s h o r t o f c a p i t a l t h e y w o u l d b o r r o w money f r o m t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t r e a s u r y , o r i n d e e d be c o m p e l l e d t o do so by t h e o f f i c i a l s . " 7 By t h e 1830's t h e y e a r l y i n t e r e s t e x a c t e d f r o m t h e m e r c h a n t s had r e a c h e d 700,000 t a e l s . T'ao Chu even c o m p l a i n e d t h a t m e r c h a n t s a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e were p a y i n g i n t e r e s t on l o a n s " i s t a k e n o u t by t h e i r a n c e s t o r s d e c a d e s b e f o r e ! A l t h o u g h t h e payment o f t ' a n g ^ - l i , u n l i k e o t h e r o f t h e i r r e g u l a r t a x e s , d i d b e n e f i t t h e government t o some d e g r e e , i t a l s o h a s t e n e d t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e t r a n s p o r t m e r c h a n t s and n e e d l e s s l y r a i s e t h e p r i c e o f s a l t . A n o t h e r i t e m o f f o u - f e i t h a t was o f some b e n e f i t t o t h e c e n t r a l government was t h e s o - c a l l e d p a o - h s i a o o r " e f f o r t s t o r e t u r n t h e i m p e r i a l g r a c e " . T h e s e were c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by m e r c h a n t s t o t h e s t a t e i n t h e f a c e o f s u c h u r g e n t needs as m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n s , f a m i n e r e l i e f , So o r l a r g e p u b l i c works p r o j e c t s . A l t h o u g h m e r c h a n t c o n t r i -b u t i o n s t o t h e government were n o t unknown e a r l i e r , i t was n o t u n t i l a b o u t 1730 t h a t p a o - h s i a o became an e s t a b l i s h e d ft l p r a c t i c e . A l t o g e t h e r t h e L i a n g - h u a i m e r c h a n t s c o n t r i b u t e d a t o t a l o f 28,500,000 t a e l s d u r i n g t h e C h ' i e n - l u n g r e i g n (1736-1795) and 8,900,000 t a e l s d u r i n g t h e C h i a - c h ' i n g y e a r s (1796-1820), w h i l e m e r c h a n t s f r o m o t h e r d i s t r i c t s o f t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y s m a l l e r sums. Enormous as t h e s e amounts seem, t h e y m i g h t n o t have s t r a i n e d t h e s a l t m e r c h a n t s ' r e s o u r c e s i f c o l l e c t e d a t s t e a d y i n t e r v a l s . The d i f f i c u l t y was t h a t p a o - h s i a o was n e e d e d i r r e g u l a r l y i n l a r g e lump sums t o d e a l w i t h p r e s s i n g 35 problems, thereby cutting into the immense amounts of c a p i t a l necessary to transport a year's shipment of s a l t . For example, i n 1792 the Liang-huai merchants paid four m i l l i o n taels toward m i l i t a r y campaigns in Nepal, while i n 1795 two m i l l i o n -taels went toward crushing a Miao r e b e l l i o n i n Kweichow. Although the t o t a l amounts of pao-hsiao may not have been as great a f t e r Ch'ien-lung died there was a tendency as time went on for i t to be co l l e c t e d i n larger lump 'Sums:.' .' , - . The c o l l e c t i o n of pao-hsiao had many bad ef f e c t s besides besides cutting into the merchants' working c a p i t a l . I t also resulted i n di r e c t price increases for the consumer. T'ao Chu reported that from 1808 to 1818 the price of a package of s a l t was increased by .023 taels due to pao-hsiao involved with flood control work, and from 1826 to the beginning of 1830 there was a sim i l a r increase of .003 taels due to flood control and military'expenses. Moreover, as-in the case of treasury loans, i n t e r e s t from merchants' borrowing to pay for pao-hsiao would s t i l l be c o l l e c t e d years l a t e r , adding to t h e i r debt load. Another item of fou- f e i was the so-called hsia fee. The word hsia o r i g i n a l l y meant a small box for holding one's c a l l i n g card when one made an o f f i c i a l v i s i t , and so came to mean money paid for entertaining o f f i c i a l s and other costs of l o c a l administration. There i s evidence, however, that much of thi s money was appropriated i n t r a n s i t by the head merchants. Like many other i r r e g u l a r taxes, hsia payments tended to r i s e i n spite of government e f f o r t s to prevent t h i s . 36 A 1740 memorial put these payments at about 130,000 taels annually, while another o f f i c i a l writing a century l a t e r claimed that af t e r 1830 greedy l o c a l o f f i c i a l s set a quota of 700,000 taels per year for Hunan and Hupeh and 400,000 taels for Kiangsi, far above the l e g a l l i m i t of .4 taels per y i n . Although these l a s t figures seem very large, and may be exaggerated, the upward trend i s nevertheless p l a i n . Of a l l the f o u - f e i , the item that appears to have been the largest, although i t attracted s u r p r i s i n g l y l i t t l e o f f i c i a l comment, was the so-called "funds to manage public a f f a i r s " (pan-kung). Managed by the head merchants, these fees were co l l e c t e d on such pretexts as being necessary to maintain the harbours at Yangchow and Hankow, and were said by T 1ao Chu to amount to over two m i l l i o n taels a n n u a l l y ^ Indeed, fees and payments, many of which have not been mentioned here, seem to have been extracted under any convenient excuse. One c a l l e d the yueh-che, for example, usually provided the head merchants with over 100,000 taels income each year, although i t s supposed purpose was to support the sons of impoverished merchants. It i s d i f f i c u l t to see how a government o f f i c e that depended on close co-operation with a group of o f f i c i a l l y - l i c e n s e d transport merchants could operate e f f i c i e n t l y when those merchants were being exploited at every turn. Having noted the pattern whereby i r r e g u l a r s a l t taxes increased both i n number and amount over the years, c o n t r i -buting d i r e c t l y to the r i s i n g price of s a l t , the question now becomes: how was t h i s possible? Why was i t permitted? 37 A l t h o u g h a d e f i n i t i v e answer i s n o t p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t more e x h a u s t i v e r e s e a r c h , two f a c t o r s seem t o s t a n d o u t . F i r s t o f a l l , i t e m s o f f o u - f e i seem t o h a ve undergone a p r o c e s s o f " l e g i t i m i z a t i o n " , whereby t a x e s t h a t were f o r m e r l y c o n -s i d e r e d i l l e g a l o r i m p r o p e r were g r a d u a l l y a c c e p t e d as t i m e went on. T'ao Chu e x p l i c i t l y b l amed t h i s s i t u a t i o n f o r t h e e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g t a x b u r d e n , w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y c o s t t h e g o v e r n -ment r e v e n u e when h a r d - p r e s s e d m e r c h a n t s c o u l d no l o n g e r p a y . He w r o t e , "At t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e d y n a s t y r e g u l a r t a x e s o f t h e L i a n g - h u a i s y s t e m were o n l y 900,000 t a e l s . A f t e r -wards t h e s a l t f e e s , h s i a f e e , and c h i e h - s h e n g payment ( p r e s u m a b l y a n o t h e r i t e m o f f o u - f e i ) e t c . a l l c h a n g e d f r o m b r i b e s ( l o u - k u e i ) t o r e g u l a r t a x i t e m s . . . By t h e C h ' i e n - l u n g r e i g n ( t h e t a x l o a d ) h a d a l r e a d y r e a c h e d . f o u r m i l l i o n odd t a e l s , and a f t e r t h e t w e n t i e t h y e a r o f C h i a - c h ' i n g t h e t o t a l o f r e g u l a r and i r r e g u l a r t a x e s f i n a l l y r e a c h e d o v e r e i g h t m i l l i o n t a e l s a n n u a l l y . From t h i s t i m e on t a x e s f e l l more and more i n t o a r r e a r s . " T'ao's words a r e e c h o e d by a modern a u t h o r i t y , who w r o t e o f t h e o f f i c i a l s c o l l e c t i n g i l l e g a l f e e s "a r e p e a t e d h a b i t w o u l d become an e n t r e n c h e d a b u s e , and an e n t r e n c h e d abuse w o u l d become a l e g a l p r e c e d e n t " ( c h i h s i c h ' e n g p i , c h i p i S i . c h ' e n g l i ) . T h e r e seems t o have been a p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r i n -c i p l e a t work h e r e , whereby what once was c r i m i n a l a f t e r a t i m e c e a s e d t o s h o c k . A n o t h e r i n f l u e n c e seems t o have been a t work as w e l l . D u r i n g t h e p r o s p e r o u s p e r i o d o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e s a l t monopoly seems t o have been r e g a r d e d as t h e goose t h a t l a i d t h e g o l d e n e g g s . As one modern a u t h o r p u t i t , "When s a l t s a l e s e x c e e d e d t h e government q u o t a s t h e o f f i c i a l s and m e r c h a n t s a l l r e g a r d e d t h i s as a f o u n t a i n o f p r o f i t s „ S3 ( l i - s o u ) . E v e n when c o n d i t i o n s w o r s e n e d t h i s k i n d o f 38 t h i n k i n g s t i l l p r e v a i l e d . I n 1778, f o r example, an o f f i c i a l named I - l i n g - a r e q u e s t e d t h a t s a l t p r i c e s i n Hunan, Hupeh, and K i a n g s i be r a i s e d , i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t s a l e s i n t h e l a s t c o u p l e o f y e a r s h a d n o t been g o i n g w e l l . H i s r e q u e s t was r e f u s e d by t h e c o u r t . ^ 4 A l l t h i s has a b e a r i n g on M e t z g e r ' s " o p t i m i s t i c " ap-p r a i s a l o f t h e f a i r n e s s o f t h e s a l t t a x s y s t e m . The " i n -f o r m a l and i l l e g a l l e v i e s " t h a t he d i s c o u n t s were i n f a c t numerous, a l t h o u g h o f f i c i a l s may have c o n s i d e r e d them a p r o p e r s u p p l e m e n t t o t h e i r i n c o m e . M o r e o v e r , t h e " f o u n -t a i n o f p r o f i t s " p s y c h o l o g y was bound t o p r o v e h a r m f u l i n t h e end, as T'ao Chu has i n d i c a t e d . O f f i c i a l s c o n t i n u e d t o demand payments e v e n t h o u g h m e r c h a n t s were no l o n g e r a b l e t o make them. I f t h e m e r c h a n t s c o u l d no l o n g e r pay t h e i r t a x e s t h i s d e f e a t e d t h e whole p u r p o s e o f t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w h i c h was t o p r o v i d e t h e government w i t h r e v e n u e . Who p r o f i t e d , t h e n , f r o m t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f so many i r r e g u l a r t a x e s ? As we have s e e n , many p e o p l e b e n e f i t t e d , s u c h as t h e c e n t r a l government, l o c a l o f f i c i a l s , and t h e h e a d m e r c h a n t s . No d o u b t t h i s i s t h e r e a s o n t h e s e t a x e s were t o l e r a t e d f o r s o l o n g . I n d i s c u s s i n g t h e m a s s i v e t a x b u r d e n s t h e m e r c h a n t s f a c e d and t h e r e s u l t i n g d e c a y o f t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e r o l e o f t h e he a d m e r c h a n t s was c r u c i a l , a nd so o u r a n a l y s i s w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e upon them. Two d e v e l o p m e n t s i n c r e a s e d t h e h a r m f u l i n f l u e n c e o f t h e h e a d m e r c h a n t s . F i r s t o f a l l , as t i m e went on t h e hea d m e r c h a n t s t e n d e d t o c e a s e a c t u a l l y s h i p p i n g s a l t them-s e l v e s . On t h e one hand, some o f them went i n t o l e s s r i s k y -e n t e r p r i s e s , s u c h as t h e r i c e t r a d e , s i l k t r a d e , pawnshops, e t c . . Some o f them engaged i n s m u g g l i n g s a l t , and so a v o i d e d t a x a t i o n . On t h e o t h e r , v a r i o u s h e a d m e r c h a n t s and o f f i c i a l s became " f i n a n c i e r s " , p r o v i d i n g c a p i t a l t o t h o s e s m a l l m e r c h a n t s who a c t u a l l y t r a n s p o r t e d s a l t . The c o n t r o l o f t h e enormous c a p i t a l o u t l a y s r e q u i r e d t o c a r r y on t h e s a l t t r a d e g r a d u a l l y came i n t o t h e i r h a n d s . Pao S h i h -c h ' e n has d e s c r i b e d how, d u r i n g t h e C h ' i e n - l u n g r e i g n , t h e L i a n g - h u a i m e r c h a n t s e s t a b l i s h e d a " h a l l f o r managing c a p i t a l " (wu-pen t'ang) t o h a n d l e t h e f u n d s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e s a l t t r a d e . T h i s was s u p e r v i s e d by s e v e r a l w e a l t h y and c a p a b l e h e a d m e r c h a n t s . L a t e r , however, f u n d s were l o a n e d o u t i n s t e a d f r o m t h e t r e a s u r y o f t h e s a l t a d m i n i -s t r a t i o n , a l s o s u p e r v i s e d by t h e h e a d m e r c h a n t s ( p o s s i b l y i n c o l l u s i o n w i t h o f f i c i a l s ) . Now t h e s e men c o u l d draw on t h e t r e a s u r y whenever t h e y w i s h e d , and r e q u i r e t h e s m a l l m e r c h a n t s t o pay b a c k t h e money l o a n e d o u t . N a t u r a l l y t h i s i n c r e a s e d t h e i r f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . A n o t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t was t h e g r o w i n g t e n d e n c y o f h e a d m e r c h a n t s t o l i v e o f f t h e i r management o f f o u - f e i - . We have s e e n how p a r t o f s u c h i t e m s as t h e h s i a f e e was de-d u c t e d as i t p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h e i r h a n d s . T'ao Chu was e s p e c i a l l y b i t t e r a b o u t t h i s , and r e m a r k e d , "The h e a d m e r c h a n t s g e n e r a l l y s i t and use t h e s a l t f e e s . They,.are c a l l e d s a l t m e r c h a n t s b u t do n o t t r a n s p o r t s a l t . They a r e j u s t p a r a s i t e s i n t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . " T h i s s i t u a t i o n a l s o t i e d i n w i t h t h e i r management o f t h e t r e a s u r y . I f t h e y w i s h e d t o make a c o n t r i b u t i o n o f p a o - h s i a o , ! a n d t h e r e b y g a i n government f a v o u r , t h e y w o u l d b o r r o w f r o m t h e t r e a s u r y and l e a v e i t f o r t h e s m a l l m e r c h a n t s t o pay t h e money b a c k . S i n c e t h e h e a d m e r c h a n t s k e p t no c l e a r f i n a n c i a l r e c o r d s , t h e g overnment was k e p t i n t h e d a r k c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r d e a -l i n g s . M o r e o v e r , t h e p r o m i n e n t s c h o l a r Pao S h i h - c h ' e n seemed t o f e e l t h a t i t e m s o f f o u - f e i owed t h e h e a d m e r c h a n t s had p r i o r i t y o v e r t h e r e g u l a r t a x e s owed t h e g o v e r n m e n t . ^ Once a s m a l l m e r c h a n t p a i d h i s m i s c e l l a n e o u s t a x e s he m i g h t have v e r y l i t t l e l e f t . However, a modern a u t h o r i t y , Ho W e i - n i n g , d i s a g r e e s w i t h Pao, c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e r e g u l a r t a x e s were a l w a y s p a i d f i r s t . On t h i s p o i n t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e what a c t u a l l y t o o k p l a c e . The h e a d m e r c h a n t - f i n a n c i e r s h a d g r e a t ' p o w e r o v e r t h e s m a l l m e r c h a n t s f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , s i n c e e a c h s m a l l m e r c h a n t r e q u i r e d a h e a d m e r c h a n t t o g u a r a n t e e h i s payment o f t a x e s , t h e f o r m e r were d e p e n d a n t on t h e l a t t e r , . The s e c o n d r e a s o n was t h e s m a l l m e r c h a n t s ' enormous n e e d f o r c a p i t a l . An 1840 m e m o r i a l n o t e d t h a t t h e amount o f c a p i t a l t h e y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e t r a n s p o r t m e r c h a n t s d i d n o t e x c e e d f i v e o r s i x m i l l i o n t a e l s , e v e n t h o u g h T'ao Chu had/a few y e a r s e a r l i e r e s t i m a t e d t h a t t o s h i p a y e a r ' s q u o t a o f s a l t tot r e q u i r e d no l e s s t h a n t w e n t y o r t h i r t y m i l l i o n t a e l s . Mer-c h a n t s 1 l a c k o f c a p i t a l f o r c e d them t o r e s o r t t o s u c h ex-p e d i e n t s as b u y i n g s a l t f r o m t h e y a r d s on c r e d i t . Of c o u r s e , t h e s a l t p r o d u c e r s w o u l d t h e n be r e l u c t a n t t o p a r t w i t h t h e i r s a l t , p r e f e r r i n g t o s e l l i t t o s m u g g l e r s who p a i d c a s h . W i t h m e r c h a n t s b e i n g f o r c e d e a c h y e a r t o b o r r o w m i l l i o n s o f 41 taels of s i l v e r from head merchants and o f f i c i a l s i s i t any wonder that many went bankrupt? Metzger i s w i l l i n g to admit the corruption of the head merchants, although he prefers to stress that o f f i c i a l s were generally unable to 103 deal with commerce e f f e c t i v e l y without t h e i r aid. If we grant t h i s i s true, though, would not the i n d i s p e n s a b i l i t y of the head merchants make i t harder to deal with them when they borrowed money fraudulently, exploited the small mer-chants, or engaged i n smuggling and other abuses? So far we have examined how various kinds of payments demanded by the head merchants and others were instrumental in increasing the rate of taxation on s a l t , and therefore i t s price to the consumer. Several other factors were also involved which hurt the transport merchant when the time came to pay his taxes. In Liang-huai taxes were generally paid by the merchants before the s a l t was actually shipped, which was not the case i n other d i s t r i c t s of the monopoly. , o M It can e a s i l y be seen that i f the merchant did not have a great deal of c a p i t a l accumulated from previous years he would be forced to borrow to pay his taxes. In addition, whenever o f f i c i a l s found themselves i n urgent need of funds, such as when t h e i r annual f i s c a l report (tsou-hsiao) became due, they would urge the merchants to pay t h e i r taxes im-mediately, whether they were ready or not. Surely the arbitrariness of tax c o l l e c t i o n , when a merchant might be compelled to pay the regular taxes or some miscellaneous fee at any time, would make r a t i o n a l planning of the s a l t trade d i f f i c u l t indeed. 42 A n o t h e r d i f f i c u l t y f a c e d by t h e t r a n s p o r t m e r c h a n t s i n v o l v e d a r e g u l a t i o n w h i c h f o r b a d e t h e c a n c e l l a t i o n o f t a x d e b t s i n t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Even i f t h e m e r c h a n t s were u n a b l e t o s e l l t h e i r s a l t , t h e t a x e s on i t s t i l l h a d t o be p a i d . Hence t h e p r i c e o f t h e s a l t t h a t was s o l d r o s e s t i l l more, s i n c e i t h a d t o c o v e r t h e t o t a l t a x b u r d e n , and c h e a p e r s m u g g l e d s a l t became more a t t r a c t i v e t o t h e c o n s u m e r . 1 0 T'ao Chu c o m p l a i n e d b i t t e r l y a b o u t t h i s p o i n t , r e m a r k i n g , " I f t h e r e i s d r o u g h t o r f l o o d i n any l o c a l i t y ( l a n d t a x e s ) may be l e g a l l y c a n c e l l e d o r p o s t p o n e d . However, L i a n g - h u a i t a x e s have many u r g e n t u s e s ; n o t o n l y may t h e y n o t be c a n c e l l e d , b u t t h e y may a l s o n o t be p o s t -poned. They must be c o l l e c t e d on s c h e d u l e , e v e n i n f a m i n e y e a r s . " , 0 - 7 T'ao h e r e seems t o be r e f e r r i n g t o t h e f a c t t h a t many l o c a l government o f f i c e s r e l i e d on L i a n g - h u a i f u n d s t o o p e r a t e , and m i g h t m e m o r i a l i z e t h e c o u r t i f t h i s money was n o t f o r t h c o m i n g . M e t z g e r , however, t a k e s i s s u e w i t h t h i s s t a t e m e n t , n o t i n g t h a t t a x d e b t s were i n f a c t c a n c e l l e d i n a de f a c t o manner on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s . The w r i t i n g s o f C h ' i n g o f f i c i a l s on t h i s s u b j e c t , t h o u g h , l e a v e one w i t h t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e enormous d e b t a c c u m u l a t e d by t h e m e r c h a n t s o v e r d e c a d e s c o u l d n o t be s h r u g g e d o f f . We have a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d t h e m e m o r i a l o f s a l t c o m m i s s i o n e r F u - c h u ~ l u n g - a , w h i c h s t a t e d t h a t as o f 1 8 2 8 m e r c h a n t s were a l r e a d y p a y i n g b a c k o v e r 1 , 6 0 0 , 0 0 0 t a e l s o f b a c k t a x e s y e a r l y , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r r e g u l a r q u o t a . Pao S h i h - c h ' e n n o t e d i n 1 8 2 6 t h a t m e r c h a n t d e b t s t o t a l l e d o v e r 50 m i l l i o n no t a e l s . T'ao Chu r e q u e s t e d i n 1 8 3 1 t h a t t h i s enormous d e b t n o t be p a i d back u n t i l some t i m e i n t h e f u t u r e when t h e 43 s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had r e c o v e r e d some o f i t s f o r m e r v i t a l i t y . ' ' A l t h o u g h M e t z g e r may be c o r r e c t when he s t a t e s t h a t t a x c o l l e c t i o n m i g h t be p o s t p o n e d i n an emergency, t h e r e seems t o be no d o u b t t h a t t h e B o a r d o f Revenue e v e n t u a l l y e x p e c -t e d a l l t h e t a x e s t h a t were owing t o i t . The m e r c h a n t s , i n f a c t , were a l r e a d y p a y i n g t h i s d e b t . B e f o r e we c o n c l u d e o u r l e n g t h y d i s c u s s i o n o f s a l t p r i c e s w i t h a s t u d y o f what t h e y meant t o t h e consumer, one o t h e r i n f l u e n c e on t h e p r i c e o f s a l t must be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . T h i s was a d r a s t i c r i s e i n t h e v a l u e o f s i l v e r v i s - a - v i s c o p p e r c c a s h . L i n T s e - h s u n o t e d t h a t whereas t r a n s p o r t m e r c h a n t s w o u l d pay t a x e s and buy s a l t a t t h e y a r d s i n s i l v e r , t h e i r c u s t o m e r s w o u l d i n v a r i a b l y buy s a l t w i t h c o p p e r c o i n s . 0.3 t a e l s , f o r m e r l y w o r t h o n l y 300 c a s h , were now w o r t h 420 o r 430. T 1 a o Chu's u n o f f i c i a l a d v i s o r Wei Yuan, w r i t i n g a t a somewhat l a t e r d a t e , was e v e n more p e s s i m i s t i c : he s t a t e d t h a t t h e p r i c e o f s i l v e r h a d d o u b l e d s i n c e t h e C h ' i e n - l u n g r e i g n , t h e p e r i o d o f t h e m onopoly's g r e a t e s t p r o s p e r i t y . As we have s e e n , w h i l e t h e w h o l e s a l e p r i c e o f s a l t a t Hankow i n 1788 was 12.0 t a e l s p e r y i n , by t h e l a t e 1830's t h i s f i g u r e h a d o n l y r i s e n t o f o u r t e e n t a e l s . We may c o n c l u d e , t h e n , t h a t a f t e r a b o u t 1800 most o f t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r i c e o f s a l t t o t h e consumer was a c t u a l l y due t o t h e r i s i n g p r i c e o f s i l v e r , t h e i n c r e a s e when measured i n s i l v e r t a e l s b e i n g r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , w h i l e b e f o r e t h a t d a t e most o f t h e i n c r e a s e was due t o t h e s h a r p l y r i s i n g t a x e s m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e . H a v i n g d i s c u s s e d some o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e h i g h p r i c e o f s a l t 'in t h e e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , we must now ask what t h i s meant t o t h e consumer. How much o f a man's income w o u l d he s p e n d on t h i s r e g u l a t e d commodity? L i n T s e - h s u has e s t i m a t e d t h a t by t h e l a t e 1830's e a c h i n d i v i d u a l w o u l d s p e n d somewhat l e s s t h a n one c o p p e r c a s h e a c h day on s a l t , o r a b o u t 1400 c a s h a n n u a l l y f o r a f a m i l y o f f o u r . 1 ' 4 Immanuel Hsu, a modern a u t h o r i t y on l a t e C h ' i n g h i s t o r y , c a l c u l a t e d t h a t i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e Opium War an a g r i c u l -t u r a l l a b o u r e r o r house s e r v a n t i n S o u t h C h i n a w o u l d be. p a i d a b o u t 10,000 c a s h a y e a r , o r a b o u t f i v e t a e l s o f t h e i n f l a -t e d s i l v e r o f t h e day. I t c a n be s e e n t h a t t o p r o v i d e h i s f a m i l y w i t h s a l t m i g h t t a k e a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n o f a p o o r man's income. O t h e r w r i t e r s d i f f e r somewhat f r o m L i n i n t h e i r c o s t e s t i m a t e s . Pao S h i h - c h ' e n f e l t t h a t a y i n o f s a l t , o r 400 c a t t i e s i n 1838 when he w r o t e , w o u l d s u p p l y t h e n e e d s o f f o r t y p e o p l e f o r a y e a r . " 6 T h i s e s t i m a t e o f t e n c a t t i e s p e r p e r s o n i s somewhat l e s s t h a n t h e t h i r t e e n a modern g e o g r a -p h e r u s e s as t h e f i g u r e f o r t h e a n n u a l s a l t c o n s u m p t i o n o f t h e a v e r a g e C h i n e s e . ' 1 A t any r a t e , a f a m i l y o f f o u r w o u l d , a c c o r d i n g t o Pao, consume one t e n t h o f a y i n o f s a l t a n n u a l l y , o r 1.4 t a e l s w o r t h . T h i s f i g u r e i s s t a g g e r i n g . S i n c e a p o o r l a b o u r e r e a r n e d o n l y f i v e t a e l s a y e a r ( t h i s f i g u r e m i g h t be somewhat h i g h e r i n t h e Y a n g t z e v a l l e y ) , t o buy one p r o d u c t , s a l t , f o r h i s f a m i l y w o u l d consume a l m o s t one t h i r d o f h i s y e a r l y income. P e r h a p s t h e s i t u a t i o n was n o t as bad as t h a t , s i n c e o t h e r members o f h i s f a m i l y w o u l d work, and h i s a c t u a l c o n s u m p t i o n m i g h t be c l o s e r t o L i n ' s e s t i m a t e 45 t h a n t o Pao' s. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e p r i c e o f s a l t was very-h i g h , and a p o o r p e a s a n t h a d tremendous i n c e n t i v e t o buy c h e a p e r s m u g g l e d s a l t i f he c o u l d . Whatever t h e p r i c e o f s a l t i n L i a n g - h u a i , t h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t i t was much c h e a p e r i n o t h e r d i s t r i c t s o f t h e monopoly. A l t h o u g h e x a c t p r i c e f i g u r e s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e , L i n T s e - h s u has p r o v i d e d p l e n t i f u l d a t a on t h e t a x r a t e s i n o t h e r p r o v i n c e s . A s s u m i n g a r o u g h e q u a l i t y i n t h e r i s i n g v a l u e o f s i l v e r i n t h e p r o v i n c e s b o r d e r i n g L i a n g -h u a i , i t w o u l d be d i f f e r e n c e s i n t a x r a t e s t h a t w o u l d make t h e most d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e p r i c e o f s a l t t o t h e consumer. Hence a p a c k a g e o f Szechwan s a l t w e i g h i n g 135 c a t t i e s p a i d a t most .134 t a e l s o f t a x , w h i l e a s i m i l a r amount o f L i a n g -h u a i s a l t p a i d 1.3 t o 1.4 t a e l s . A ming o f s a l t f r o m S h a n s i (120 y i n ) p a i d 100 t a e l s o f r e g u l a r and m i s c e l l a n e o u s t a x e s , compared t o 4 80 t a e l s i n L i a n g - h u a i . L i n c i t e d s i m i l a r d i s c r e p a n c i e s f o r Kwangtung s a l t . D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p r i c e o f s a l t , c a u s e d by s t e e p t a x d i f f e r e n t i a l s between r e g i o n s , were t h e r o o t c a u s e o f t h e p r o b l e m o f l i n - s s u , w h i c h by t h e 1830's h a d i n f e c t e d t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p r e f e c t u r e s i n t h e s i x L i a n g - h u a i p r o v i n c e s . T'ao Chu, w r i t i n g i n 1834, s t a t e d t h a t i n g e n e r a l smuggled s a l t was o n l y h a l f t h e p r i c e o f l e g a l s a l t . A g a i n s t t h i s s o r t o f c o m p e t i t i o n many t r a n s -p o r t m e r c h a n t s had t o bow o u t , ev e n t h o u g h t h e y were b a c k e d by t h e p o l i c e power o f t h e s t a t e . N o t o n l y was smuggled s a l t c h e a p e r , b e c a u s e o f c o u r s e s m u g g l e r s d i d n o t pay any o f t h e i n n u m e r a b l e t a x e s r e q u i r e d o f t h e r e g u l a r m e r c h a n t s , b u t i t was a l s o o f b e t t e r q u a l i t y . 46 It was a long-standing complaint of o f f i c i a l s that the merchants adulterated t h e i r s a l t with sawdust, d i r t , and so forth, while the smugglers sold clean, pure s a l t A s s a l t was sold by weight i f less of t h e i r product was actually s a l t the merchants of course made a greater p r o f i t on each yin sold. As the smugglers sold cheap, clean s a l t i t i s not surprising that they were often very popular among the pea-santry, many of whom would help them to escape arrest. In his discussion of r i s i n g s a l t prices Thomas Metzger notes that the eighteenth century was a period of general i n f l a t i o n . Were increases i n the price of s a l t j u s t i f i e d when viewed i n terms of the economy as a whole? Metzger points out that while the price of a catty of s a l t i n Han-kow rose from . 0 1 1 9 taels in 1 6 9 1 to . 0 3 4 4 taels i n 1 7 8 8 the price of a bushel of fine r i c e i n Yangchow, for example, rose from somewhat over . 8 taels i n 1 6 9 7 to over 4 . 8 taels i n 1 7 8 6 , a much larger increase. High grain prices meant that the wages of the s a l t workers would have to increase as well. If farmers received a high price i n return for th e i r grain, they could a l s o r a f f o r d to pay high prices for s a l t . There are several d i f f i c u l t i e s with t h i s argument. F i r s t of a l l , the price of s a l t rose c h i e f l y i n response to the addition of new taxes and'the i n f l a t e d price of s i l v e r , not because high wages among the s a l t workers drove up the price of production. Although the price of s a l t at the yards t o did r i s e dramatically, from about two ten cash per catty in the one hundred years from 1 7 3 0 to 1 8 3 0 , t h i s was s t i l l a f a i r l y low p r i c e compared t o t h e s i x t y o r s e v e n t y c a s h t h e consumer a c t u a l l y p a i d . M e t z g e r c l a i m s t h a t t h e r i s e i n t a x a t i o n o f a b o u t 100% f r o m 1730 t o 179 5 (two t o f o u r m i l l i o n t a e l s ) was n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e m a s s i v e i n f l a t i o n o f t h e day. I n d e e d , t h i s may h e l p e x p l a i n why t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was a b l e t o f u n c t i o n so w e l l d u r i n g t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . However, a f t e r 1800, as M e t z g e r a d m i t s , t h e r e , w e r e r a p i d i n c r e a s e s i n t h e t a x q u o t a s t h a t were n o t e c o n o m i c a l l y j u s t i f i a b l e . M o r e o v e r , i t was o n l y a f t e r a b o u t 1825 t h a t t h e r i s i n g p r i c e o f s i l v e r became mostisevere ... Asr.we:'. have J s e e n r, d u r i n g p f c h e l a t t e r , : s t a g e s ^ o f ^ t h e ; s a l t o m o n o p d l y ' s ^ d e c a y r i n f l a t e d s i l v e r r a t h e r t h a n r i s i n g t a x e s was t h e c h i e f r e a s o n f o r t h e r i s e i n s a l t p r i c e I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p r i c e o f s a l t c a n n o t be s t r i c t l y com-p a r e d t o t h e p r i c e o f g r a i n . F i r s t o f a l l , s i n c e s a l t was a monopoly commodity, and t h e r e f o r e h e a v i l y t a x e d , i t s p r i c e was a r t i f i c i a l l y h i g h . E s s e n t i a l t o h e a l t h as i t was, t h e r e i s no r e a s o n e c o n o m i c a l l y t h a t i t s p u r c h a s e s h o u l d consume s u c h a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f a p o o r f a m i l y ' s i n c o m e . S e c o n d l y , t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f a c e d t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e i l l e g a l t r a d e , w h i c h t h e g r a i n t r a d e d i d n o t . I t was p h y s i c a l l y p o s s i b l e f o r s m u g g l e r s t o s u p p l y h a l f o f t h e s a l t consumed i n L i a n g - h u a i ; s i m i l a r b u l k t r a n s p o r t o f g r a i n t o m i l l i o n s o f p e o p l e w o u l d have been i m p o s s i b l e . A l e g a l p r i c e o f t e n c a s h p e r c a t t y , w h i c h i s a l l t h e s a l t r e a l l y c o s t t o p r o d u c e , w o u l d have d r i v e n t h e s m u g g l e r s o u t o f b u s i n e s s , b u t t o e l i m i n a t e a l l t a x a t i o n w o u l d o f c o u r s e 48 have meant t h e end o f t h e s a l t monopoly. The f a c t o f monopoly i t s e l f made t h e p r i c e o f s a l t t o o h i g h . The p r o b l e m o f s m u g g l i n g , w h i c h was c l o s e l y t i e d t o t h e r a p i d l y r i s i n g p r i c e o f s a l t , was a l s o i n t i m a t e l y c o n n e c -t e d w i t h t h e r a p i d and u n p r e c e d e n t e d g r o w t h o f p o p u l a t i o n t h a t t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g t h e f i r s t two c e n t u r i e s o f t h e C h ' i n g D y n a s t y . A d m i t t e d l y i m p e r f e c t f i g u r e s p u t t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f C h i n a a t a b o u t 143,000,000 i n 1740 b u t no l e s s t h a n 394,000,000 i n 1830. L i n T s e - h s u d e s c r i b e d t h e e f f o r t s made by t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o keep up w i t h t h i s g r o w t h i n p o p u l a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e t o t a l s a l t q u o t a o f L i a n g - h u a i had o n l y been i n c r e a s e d f r o m 960,000 y i n a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e d y n a s t y t o 1,700,000 y i n i n t h e l a t e 1830's, t h e w e i g h t o f t h e y i n had been i n c r e a s e d as w e l l f r o m 200 c a t t i e s t o 344 c a t t i e s by a b o u t 1730, and f i n a l l y s e t a t 400 c a t t i e s i n 1831. I f we a c c e p t f o r t h e t i m e b e i n g L i n ' s e s t i m a t e t h a t e a c h o f t h e l a r g e y i n w o u l d p r o v i d e 60 p e o p l e w i t h s a l t f o r a y e a r t h e n t h e 45,000,000 i n h a b i t a n t s o f Hunan and Hupeh, where L i n was g o v e r n o r -g e n e r a l , who u s e d L i a n g - h u a i s a l t w o u l d r e q u i r e 750,000 y i n a n n u a l l y . S i n c e t h e a c t u a l q u o t a f o r t h o s e p r o v i n c e s was a b o u t 780,000 y i n , t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n seems t o have b e e n a b l e t o keep up w i t h t h e g r o w t h o f p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s i s t h e v i e w h e l d by Thomas M e t z g e r , who c i t e s c o n c e r t e d government e f f o r t s t o expand s a l t p r o d u c t i o n . ' ^ * 1 L i n , however, d i d n o t a g r e e . He c o n c l u d e d , " I f one compares t h e r e p o r t e d p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s w i t h t h e amount o f s a l t t h a t must be s o l d I f e a r t h e r e i s a d e f i c i t ( f o r 13° the l a t t e r ) rather than a surplus." In f a c t , what seems to have happened was that by constantly increasing the weight of the yin the s a l t administration had just barely kept pace with population increases, assuming that the entire production quota could be sold. As we have seen, this was rarely the case by 1830. Pao Shih-ch'en, writing about that time, noted that in the face of enormous population growth each year quotas were undersold by 300,000 to 500,000 y i n . > 3 > Moreover, s a l t quotas did not s e l l equally well at a l l places. T'ao Chu, at the end of his career (he died i n o f f i c e i n 1839) , remarked that i n distant ports of Kiangsi, Hunan, and Hupeh sales were s t i l l poor, and these areas 132 perennially suffered from l i n - s s u . When distant ports might not e a s i l y be reached by government s a l t , or when for a variety of other reasons s a l t quotas could not be sold, the rapidly expanding population was forced to turn to smuggled s a l t to supply i t s needs. Of course, i f we do not accept Lin's figures regarding s a l t consumption the s i t u a t i o n becomes even worse. By Pao Shih-ch'en's estimate (40 people per yin per year) Hunan and Hupeh would require well over a m i l l i o n y i n annually, far above what the l e g a l quota could supply. In addition to making i t d i f f i c u l t for the government to supply the people the expanding population caused other problems as well. The amount of arable land i n the Chinese Empire only increased from 549 m i l l i o n mu i n 1661 to 791 m i l l i o n mu i n 1812, a rate of increase far below that of the population. Without s i g n i f i c a n t improvements i n a g r i -50 c u l t u r a l t e c h n i q u e s l a c k o f l a n d w o u l d r e s u l t i n t h e impo-v e r i s h m e n t o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . N o t o n l y w o u l d t h e p o o r p e a s a n t s be u n a b l e t o a f f o r d t h e h i g h p r i c e o f government s a l t , b u t many o f t h e l a n d l e s s w o u l d a l s o be f o r c e d t o t a k e up s m u g g l i n g as a method o f e a r n i n g a l i v i n g . The t e s t i m o n y o f C h ' i n g o f f i c i a l s summed up t h i s p r o b l e m n e a t -l y . Yu T e - y u a n , L i a n g - h u a i s a l t c o n t r o l l e r ( y e n ~ y u n - s h i h ) and T'ao Chu's c h i e f a s s i s t a n t f r o m 1831 t o 1835, n o t e d t h a t , "Because t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e v i l l a g e s grows d a i l y more numerous unemployed p o o r p e o p l e depend f o r f o o d and > 3 4 c l o t h i n g on s a l t ( s m u g g l i n g ) " , w h i l e L i n T s e - h s u a dded, "Among t h e p e o p l e e a r n i n g a l i v i n g i s d i f f i c u l t . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , w h e r e v e r p r o f i t s may be h a d f r o m s a l t t h e p o o r p e o p l e a l l c a r r y i t a b o u t and go f o r t h i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s t o s e l l i t i l l e g a l l y . T h o s e a r e a s n e a r Szechwan, Kwangtung, and S h a n s i a r e a l l f a r f r o m t h e L i a n g - h u a i y a r d s and o v e n s . . . b u t n e i g h b o u r i n g p r o v i n c e s r r a r e j u s t a s t e p away. ( T r a n s p o r t ) (.-expenses a r e l i g h t and t h e p r i c e i s c h e a p . To o r d e r t h e p e o p l e t o g i v e up what i s n e a r and use what i s f a r , g i v e up what i s cheap and use what i s e x p e n s i v e , i s by i t s v e r y n a t u r e d i f f i c u l t t o do." l i S L i n p a i n t s an e l o q u e n t p i c t u r e o f a monopoly w h i c h i t s i m p o v e r i s h e d c u s t o m e r s c o u l d no l o n g e r s u p p o r t . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e l o n g t e r m p r o b l e m o f p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h t h e r e a l s o were p r o b l e m s s p e c i f i c i - t o t h e 1820's and 1830's, a p e r i o d o f g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y f o r t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h e s e seem t o have been b a d y e a r s i n t h e L i a n g - h u a i r e g i o n . A c e r t a i n amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n may f o u n d on t h i s s u b j e c t i n m e m o r i a l s t h a t L i n T s e - h s u w r o t e as g o v e r n o r o f K i a n g s u (March 1832 t o F e b r u a r y 18 37) , w h i c h g i v e a g r i m p i c t u r e o f a l m o s t c o n t i n u a l n a t u r a l d i s a s -s t e r s . I n one c a s e e i g h t c o u n t i e s s u f f e r e d f r o m f l o o d s , 51 >B7 i n a n o t h e r f o u r more were i n u n d a t e d . Summing up h i s im-p r e s s i o n s , L i n w r o t e , " i n r e c e n t y e a r s i n K i a n g s u and o t h e r p r o v i n c e s t h e r e has been a l m o s t no y e a r i n w h i c h t a x e s were n o t p o s t -poned, a l m o s t no y e a r i n w h i c h r e l i e f was n o t g i v e n o u t . . . M i n o r o f f i c i a l s p r i v a t e l y l i n e t h e i r p o c k e t s , w h i l e h i g h o f f i c i a l s o n l y know how t o g a i n a good r e p u t a t i o n . " 1 3 9 N o t o n l y were f o o d c r o p s d e s t r o y e d , b u t t h e l o s s o f t h e c o t t o n c r o p w o u l d be a s e v e r e blow t o t h o s e d i s t r i c t s where t h e s o i l was p o o r , i n w h i c h o v e r 50% o f t h e p e o p l e d e p e n d e d on w e a v i n g f o r a l i v i n g . Bad w e a t h e r , o f c o u r s e , was n o t l i m i t e d t o t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . S e v e r a l o t h e r f a c t o r s , however, combined t o make t h e l o w e r Y a n g t z e r e g i o n more s u s c e p t i b l e t o f a m i n e t h a n i t had been i n f o r m e r t i m e s . F i r s t o f a l l , demands on t h e p e a s a n t r y t e n d e d t o i n c r e a s e o v e r t i m e . L i n r e m a r k e d t h a t i n t h e S o o c h o w - S u n g - c h i a n g r e g i o n g r a i n t a x e s amounted t o 1,800,000 p i c u l s ( i n c l u d i n g 200,000 p i c u l s o f g r a i n o w i n g f r o m t h e l a s t 11 y e a r s ) i n 1832, an u n p r e c e d e n t e d sum, e v e n t h o u g h o n l y 60% o f t h e I tO c r o p had been h a r v e s t e d . S e c o n d l y , t h e g e n t r y , who p r o -v i d e d most o f t h e f u n d s f o r f a m i n e r e l i e f , were e x h a u s t e d by t h e c o n t i n u i n g demands on t h e i r r e s o u r c e s . A l t h o u g h K i a n g s u s c h o l a r s had d o n a t e d 1,950,000 t a e l s f o r f a m i n e r e l i e f d u r i n g t h e g r e a t f a m i n e o f 1823, by t h e y e a r 1831 t h e y c o u l d o n l y g i v e 1,420,000 t a e l s , and n e x t t i m e i t w o u l d be even l e s s . 1 / 1' F i n a l l y , and most i m p o r t a n t i n t h e l o n g r u n , was t h e a p p a l l i n g g r o w t h o f o f f i c i a l c o r r u p t i o n , w h i c h r e n d e r e d 52 any r e l i e f measures the court might i n i t i a t e i n e f f e c t i v e . Lin quoted at length from a b l i s t e r i n g memorial by the supervising censor Chin Y i n g - l i n , who detailed a l l sorts of abuses. Yamen clerks would l i s t tradesmen as famine victims i n order to embezzle t h e i r allotments, adulterate r e l i e f grain or give fal s e measure, extort money while inspecting the countryside for bad harvests, and act i n co l l u s i o n with minor gentry or l o c a l gangsters (t'u-kun). These l a t t e r would foment lawsuits, extort r e l i e f t i c k e t s (chen-p'iao), or cause disturbances i n the homes of the r i c h " a (ch'ih ta~hu). Chin concluded by saying, "Formerly i n Ch'ien-lung and Chia-ch'ing times a l l cases i n which r e l i e f funds were embezzled were pu-nished with the f u l l weight of the law. In the past ten-odd years no governor or governor-general has impeached anyone for thi s reason. How can today's l o c a l o f f i c i a l s be superior to those of the past? The reason i s t h e i r superiors are a f r a i d to make accusations." 1 4 3 Although Lin succeeded to some degree i n refuting Chin's c l claims, nevertheless he himself admitted elsewhere that many o f f i c i a l s were less than honest, as we have seen above.1*14 There i s evidence of a decline i n o f f i c i a l morality since Ch'ien-lung times, which would render o f f i c i a l s almost as much a disaster as the weather. Pressed by bad harvests on one side and corrupt o f f i c i a l s on the other, i s i t any wonder many peasants gave up t h e i r hard l i v e s f or the more rewarding ( i f risky) profession of smuggler? The related problems of smuggling and r u r a l poverty were intimately connected with the management of the yards, the s a l t production areas. Since the yards were the only 53 place where s a l t production was carried out on a large scale, any smugglers who wished to continue t h e i r trade had to somehow secure a supply of s a l t from the workers there who i t s -manufactured i t . When sales of s a l t i n the ports were going poorly s a l t p i l e d up at the yards, and there was a tremendous temptation for the salt- workers to make a p r o f i t by s e l l i n g some of th i s to smugglers. O f f i c i a l s were well aware of t h i s . The censor Chiang Hung-sheng, for example, writing i n 1844, urged that smuggling be prevented by borrowing a m i l l i o n taels i n order to buy up surplus s a l t . Thomas Metzger has suggested that the pre-vention of smuggling at the yards was made easier by t h e i r ''social v i s i b i l i t y " i . e . the yards were large, well-defined areas with i n s t a l l a t i o n s that might e a s i l y be watched. However, another authority, Edmund Worthy, does not agree. He holds that since b o i l i n g s a l t from sea water i s a simple process that does not require large machinery, the pre-vention, of privateosalt j production :;wasivirtually' dmpos-s i b l e . Although Worthy's study deals with the Liang-che d i s t r i c t during the Sung Dynasty, the frequent o f f i c i a l complaints of smuggling from the yards seem to indicate that his conclusions hold for the Ch'ing as well. Rural poverty and growing land hunger affected the yards, because, as we have seen, most s a l t workers were farmers as well. Thomas Metzger suggests that agriculture provided s a l t workers with an assured l i v e l i h o o d even when the s a l t trade was stagnating. Agriculture could provide a cushion for those at the yards when harvests were good, 54 b u t t h e w o r s e n i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e 1820 ! s and 1830's s u g g e s t t h a t t h e o p p o s i t e was a l s o t r u e : w o r k e r s w o u l d s e l l s a l t t o s m u g g l e r s t o g e t money t o buy f o o d when h a r v e s t s f a i l e d . C e r -t a i n l y s a l t w o r k e r s s u f f e r e d , f r o m t h e same n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s t h a t a f f l i c t e d o t h e r p e a s a n t s . A p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p a l l i n g example was g i v e n i n a 1724 memorial,. : w h i c h d e s c r i b e d how 49,000 members o f s a l t w o r k e r f a m i l i e s d i e d when r e s t r a i n i n g (SO d i k e s gave way t o p o u n d i n g s u r f . I t was f o r - t h i s r e a s o n t h a t t h e o f f i c i a l C h ' i n g h i s t o r y remarked,, " I f y o u w i s h t o p r e v e n t s m u g g l i n g f r o m t h e y a r d s , y o u must r e l i e v e t h e s a l t w o r k e r s , and make s t r i c t t h e r e g u l a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g them. " IS"' N a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s s u c h as f l o o d s a l s o meant, o f c o u r s e , t h a t s a l t p r o d u c t i o n c o u l d n o t c a r r y on as u s u a l . I n an 1834 m e m o r i a l T 1 a o Chu d e s c r i b e d how, due t o f l o o d s and heavy r a i n s , t h e r e was i n s u f f i c i e n t s a l t p r o d u c e d , and so t h e p r i c e a t t h e y a r d s r o s e f r o m t h r e e t o f i v e t a e l s p e r y i n ,'53, B e s i d e s c a u s i n g d i s t r e s s f o r t h e s a l t w o r k e r s , i n t e r r u p t i o n s i n p r o d u c t i o n w o u l d a l s o r a i s e p r i c e s f o r co n s u m e r s . E v e n t u a l -l y t h e p o o r s a l e s and b a d h a r v e s t s f o r c e d many s a l t w o r k e r s t o d e s e r t t h e y a r d s a l t o g e t h e r i n hopes o f e a r n i n g a b e t t e r l i v i n g e l s e w h e r e . P r e v i o u s l y we d i s c u s s e d how r u r a l p o v e r t y was made worse by t h e c o r r u p t i o n o f o f f i c i a l s , who impeded t h e c a r -r y i n g o u t o f n e c e s s a r y r e l i e f m easures i n t i m e s o f f a m i n e . I t m i g h t be w i s e h e r e t o comment b r i e f l y on t h e r o l e p l a y e d by t h e s a l t m e r c h a n t s i n p r o v i d i n g r e l i e f f o r t h e c o u n t r y -s i d e . As b e f i t t i n g t h e i r v a s t w e a l t h , t h e t r a n s p o r t m e r c h a n t s p r o v i d e d f u n d s f o r a v a r i e t y o f c h a r i t a b l e e n t e r p r i s e s , s u c h 55 as orphanages, homes for widows, academies (shu-yuan), and so forth. Many of these enterprises were supported by various of the f o u - f e i items. Pao-hsiao payments, e s p e c i a l l y , often went to r i v e r conservancy work, which benefitted the a g r i -c u l t u r a l economy. The most s t r i k i n g instance of thi s kind occured i n 1788, when the transport merchants gave one m i l l i o n taels for flood r e l i e f work i n Hupeh. 1 5 5 These r e l i e f measures were helpful to the s a l t workers as well. Beginning about 17 30 the transport merchants were ordered to b u i l d charity granaries, many of them at the yards. According to Pao Shih-ch'en, by the 1830's i t was becoming d i f f i c u l t to secure enough grain for these f a c i l i t i e s . This would no doubt have been caused by the increasing f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s of the merchants. A sort of vicious c i r c l e was developing whereby merchants could no longer provide r e l i e f f or the s a l t workers, who thereupon sold t h e i r s a l t to smugglers to make additional money, which hurt the legitimate merchants s t i l l more. The s a l t workers' complaints sometimes threatened to break into open r i o t i n g or other forms of disturbance; Indeed, there are accounts of s a l t workers turning to banditry as 1ST far back as Sung times. A more contemporary example involved an 1823 incident. At that time sales at the nearby ports were going poorly, and s t r i c t p o l i c i n g was preventing i l l e g a l sales (one piece of evidence, i n c i d e n t a l l y , that does support Metzger's contentions). A noisy i f non-violent demonstration by s a l t workers outside of the various s a l t administration yamens compelled the viceroy to issue money for th e i r r e l i e f . ' 5 During the Taiping.Rebellion the governor-general of Kiangsi, Kiangsu, and Anhwei I-liang urged that help be given the s a l t workers following, the t o t a l collapse of the s a l t trade, for fear that they might rebel or enter into an agreement with ts<? the Taipings. A more thorough discussion of the connection between s a l t p o l i c i e s and unrest i n the countryside w i l l follow l a t e r i n t h i s essay. Before leaving the subject of the s a l t workers we should say something about the role of the yard merchants. As we mentioned i n our introduction, during the course of the Ch'ing Dynasty independent s a l t producers were gradually bought out by wealthy merchants. Wei Yuan, writing about 1850, e s t i -mated that about 60% of the s a l t overris and b o i l i n g pans were owned by these yard merchants, while smaller "depot merchants" (yuan-shang) and s a l t producers owned about 2 0% 160 each. Ownership by large merchants was beneficxal i n that they could provide s a l t producers with c a p i t a l and serve as intermediaries between the thousands of small producers and the large transport merchants. There was, however, another side to the story. The yard merchants would frequently attempt to cheat the s a l t workers, using a larger than regulation s a l t barrel or fraudulent weights and measures in order to obtain extra s a l t . Salt workers would frequently s e l l to smugglers i n order to avoid these exactions, among other reasons. Eventually the depressed condition of the s a l t trade caught up with the yard merchants. In an 1830 memorial the governor-general of Kiangsi, Kiangsu, and Anhwei Chiang Yu-t'ien stated that many 57 o f t h e y a r d m e r c h a n t s no l o n g e r h a d t h e c a p i t a l t o buy t h e s a l t t h a t t h e w o r k e r s p r o d u c e d . C h i a n g r e q u e s t e d t h a t 120,000 t a e l s be l e n t o u t f r o m t h e t r e a s u r y f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . I f e I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a t t h e same t i m e t h a t many t r a n s p o r t m e r c h a n t s were g o i n g b a n k r u p t t h e y a r d m e r c h a n t s a l s o f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s i n f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t y . c) The T r a n s p o r t M e r c h a n t s and t h e P r o b l e m o f S m u g g l i n g So f a r i n o u r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e L i a n g -h u a i s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n we have d e a l t w i t h t h e i m p a c t o f d e c l i n i n g t a x r e v e n u e s , i n c r e a s e d s m u g g l i n g , and t h e b a n k r u p t c y o f many o f t h e s m a l l m e r c h a n t s , as w e l l as d e s c r i b i n g t h e c h i e f c a u s e s o f t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s . A l l t h e s e p r o b l e m s were, o f c o u r s e , c l o s e l y r e l a t e d . S i n c e one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t c a u s e s o f m e r c h a n t s 1 d i s t r e s s was t h e t a x b u r d e n ..they b o r e , i t was a n a t u r a l p r o c e s s by w h i c h t h e y s o l d some s a l t i l l e g a l l y , t h e r e b y e v a d i n g a l l t a x e s b u t making t h e s m u g g l i n g p r o b l e m a l l t h e w o r s e . T h e r e were s e v e r a l ways i n w h i c h t h e y d i d t h i s , o n l y a few o f w h i c h w i l l be m e n t i o n e d h e r e . C l a i m i n g t h a t t h e y n e e d e d t o compensate f o r s a l t s p i l l e d i n t r a n s i t , m e r c h a n t s w o u l d b r i b e o f f i c i a l s t o a l l o w them t o c a r r y e x t r a s a l t , o f t e n a m o u n t i n g t o 500 o r 600 c a t t i e s i n a one y i n bag. A t o t h e r t i m e s t h e y w o u l d use a hea v y c a t t y when w e i g h i n g t h e s a l t t h a t went i n t o t h e i r b a g s . Pao S h i h - c h ' e n made a r o u g h e s t i m a t e t h a t f o r e v e r y t e n c a t t i e s o f l e g a l s a l t t h a t were c a r r i e d an a d d i t i o n a l s i x c a t t i e s were t r a n s p o r t e d i l l e g a l l y . ' * O t h e r o f f i c i a l s s h a r e d Pao's c o n c e r n w i t h t h e s i z e o f t h i s p r o b l e m . A s c h o l a r named Sun T i n g - c h ' e n , w r i t i n g i n 58 t h e 1850's, c l a i m e d t h a t s m u g g l i n g by o f f i c i a l m e r c h a n t s was f a r more s e r i o u s t h a n t h a t o f b a n d i t s . I f t r u e , t h i s w o u l d n o t have been s u r p r i s i n g . I n s p i t e o f t h e i r f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , f o r t h e t r a n s p o r t m e r c h a n t s t o c a r r y on t h e i r t r a d e a t a l l w o u l d r e q u i r e m i l l i o n s o f t a e l s w o r t h o f c a p i t a l . P e t t y s m u g g l e r s c o u l d h a r d l y hope t o compete i n s h e e r volume o f s a l t t r a n s p o r t e d w i t h s u c h s u b s t a n t i a l m e r c h a n t s . A modern a u t h o r , L i u Chun, d i s a g r e e s w i t h Sun, f e e l i n g t h a t l i n - s s u was a g r e a t e r t h r e a t t o t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a n s m u g g l i n g by m e r c h a n t s , b u t e v e n he a d m i t s t h a t s u c h s m u g g l i n g was a s e r i o u s p r o b l e m . ' 6 7 Thomas M e t z g e r , however, c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h i s p r o b l e m has been g r e a t l y e x a g g e r a t e d . He a r g u e s t h a t much o f t h e s a l t f o u n d i n t h e m e r c h a n t s ' bags was i n f a c t " l e g a l l y added w a s t a g e " . C r i t i c i s m o f t h e m e r c h a n t s came f r o m C o n f u c i a n o f f i c i a l s who were b i a s e d a g a i n s t them. T 1 a o Chu h i m s e l f s t a t e d t h a t b e f o r e 1830 bags o f o v e r 500 c a t t i e s were i t s ' ' o f f i c i a l l y a l l o w e d " . T h i s argument seems t o me unsound, and n o t m e r e l y b e c a u s e o f t h e o p i n i o n o f many a u t h o r i t i e s (T'ao Chu among them) t h a t m e r c h a n t s m u g g l i n g was a s e r i o u s p r o b l e m . The d i f f i c u l t y c e n t e r s on what M e t z g e r means by .". l e g a l " . L i n T s e - h s u , as we n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y , spoke o f t h e w e i g h t o f t h e o f f i c i a l y i n r i s i n g t o 400 c a t t i e s , n o t 500 o r 600, by a b o u t 1830. I f by " l e g a l " M e t z g e r means " o f f i c i a l l y a l l o w e d " o r " c u s t o m a r y " , i t was p r e c i s e l y t h i s s o r t o f c u s t o m and o f f i c i a l t h a t T'ao Chu was c o m p l a i n i n g a b o u t . The q u e s -t i o n i s , a d m i t t e d l y , v e r y c o m p l i c a t e d . S i n c e v i r t u a l l y e v e r y C h ' i n g o f f i c i a l h a d t o a c c e p t f e e s t o s u p p l e m e n t h i s meagre 59 s a l a r y , i t i s no wonder t h a t c e r t a i n p r a c t i c e s we w o u l d c a l l c o r r u p t a t t a i n e d q u a s i - l e g a l s t a t u s . The p r o b l e m o f s m u g g l i n g by m e r c h a n t s i s c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t many o f t h e m e r c h a n t s were e i t h e r u n w i l l i n g o r u n a b l e p e r s o n a l l y t o c a r r y on t h e i r t r a d e . I n s t e a d , t h e day t o day b u s i n e s s o f t r a n s p o r t i n g s a l t was l e f t t o t h e L i o " m e r c h a n t s ' s e r v a n t s and a s s i s t a n t s " (shang-huo s h a n g - s s u ) . S i n c e t h e C h ' i n g o f f i c i a l s r a r e l y w r o t e o f t h e s e men, u n l e s s i t was t o c o m p l a i n o f t h e i r d i s h o n e s t y , o u r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i r o r i g i n and f u n c t i o n s w i l l be b r i e f . A c c o r d i n g t o Pao S h i h - c h ' e n , t h e b u s i n e s s o f p a y i n g t a x e s a t Yangchow was e x t r e m e l y t i r e s o m e , i n v o l v i n g numerous yamens, c l e r k s , and payments t o be made. R a t h e r t h a n go t h e m s e l v e s t h e mer-c h a n t s w o u l d s e n d t h e i r s e r v a n t s t o h a n d l e t h i s b u s i n e s s . 1 7 1 A 179 3 m e m o r i a l a r g u e d t h a t i t w o u l d be more f i t t i n g i f t h e m e r c h a n t s p a i d t h e i r t a x e s t h e m s e l v e s , o r , f a i l i n g t h a t , two h e a d m e r c h a n t s s h o u l d be s e n t t o s u p e r v i s e t h e m e r c h a n t s ' a s s i s t a n t s and r e l a t i v e s , t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e y d i d n o t g e t i n t o m i s c h i e f . Beyond t h i s i t i s n o t known e x a c t l y what t h e s e r v a n t s ' and a s s i s t a n t s ' d u t i e s were. Nor a r e t h e i r e x a c t numbers known. Wei Yuan c o m p l a i n e d t h a t e a c h t r a n s p o r t m e r c h a n t was a c c o m p a n i e d by a h u n d r e d o r so o f t h e s e h a n g e r s -on. T'ao Chu e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e n e e d s o f t h e s e men, t o g e t h e r w i t h i n t e r e s t payments and f e e s p a i d a t t h e p o r t s , amounted t o o v e r s i x m i l l i o n t a e l s a n n u a l l y . From t h i s f r a g m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e we can deduce t h a t t h e m e r c h a n t s ' s e r v a n t s were numerous and e x p e n s i v e , b u t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o be more 60 s p e c i f i c . The m e r c h a n t s 1 s e r v a n t s and a s s i s t a n t s were a c c u s e d o f a l l s o r t s o f c o r r u p t p r a c t i c e s . They m i g h t , ' f o r example, engage i n shady d e a l i n g s w i t h c l e r k s i n t h e yamens o f t h e s a l t o f f i c i a l s . As i n m a g i s t r a t e s ' yamens, t h e s e men w o u l d f r e q u e n t l y have a g r e a t d e a l more e x p e r i e n c e t h a n t h e r e g u l a r o f f i c i a l s , and w o u l d know a l l t h e i n s and o u t s o f t h e s a l t t r a d e . One o f t h e most common c o m p l a i n t s a g a i n s t t h e s e r v a n t s and a s s i s t a n t s was t h a t t h e y w o u l d f a i l t o pay t h e crews o f t h e s a l t b o a t s t h e i r p r o p e r s a l a r i e s , and t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e s h i p p e r s ' a g e n t s (pu-t'ou) d e d u c t v a r i o u s sums. Sometimes no wages a t a l l were p a i d , and t h e crews were g i v e n s a l t v T f c i n s t e a d , w h i c h t h e y s o l d i l l e g a l l y . B o a t crews were t h e r e -by f o r c e d t o smuggle t o make ends meet. T h i s p r o c e s s was a c c e l e r a t e d by o t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t s , In t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y l a r g e s a l t b o a t s m i g h t c a r r y 3000 y i n and s m a l l b o a t s o v e r a t h o u s a n d , and e a c h b o a t w o u l d make two o r t h r e e t r i p s a y e a r . By t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , however, a l a r g e b o a t w o u l d o n l y c a r r y 800 o r so y i n , and a s m a l l one 400, and e a c h v e s s e l w o u l d o n l y make one t r i p a y e a r . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , t h e p o r t i o n o f t h e b o a t m e n 1 s wages t h a t was d e d u c t e d by t h e s h i p p e r s ' a g e n t s was s a i d t o have i n c r e a s e d s e v e r a l t i m e s , and crews were f o r c e d as w e l l t o s p e n d l a r g e sums e n t e r -t a i n i n g t h e s e r v a n t s . S i n c e wages r e m a i n e d f i x e d a t a b o u t one t a e l p e r y i n p e r t r i p i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t boatmen w o u l d seek t o i l l e g a l l y s u p p l e m e n t t h e i r d e c l i n i n g r e a l i ncome. Such s m u g g l i n g by b o a t crews was, i n f a c t , f r e q u e n t l y c a r r i e d on with the aid of the merchants' servants themselves. T'ao remarked angrily that boatmen would "heavily bribe the merchants' servants, shippers' agents, etc. and thereby plot to load (their boats) with s a l t . It goes so far that even maids and retainers of the merchants' households are also given monthly presents and payments." »"i8 A l l sorts of other i l l e g a l practices were associated with the boat crews. One such practice that caused great concern to o f f i c i a l s was " f a l s e l y reporting yen-hsiao". The yen-hsiao law allowed those merchants whose boats sunk during storms to replace the s a l t that had been l o s t , as well as being reimbursed by the government for the taxes that had been paid on i t . One can see that i f the s a l t had not been l o s t a f t e r a l l i t could be sold at a great p r o f i t . I t was estimated during the late 1 8 4 0 ' s that the amount of s a l t l o s t each year to yen-hsiao came to 3 0 , 0 0 0 to 5 0 , 0 0 0 y i n , although no doubt some of this was indeed due to the l e g i t i -me mate hazards of navigation. Such underhanded practices were not only a problem to the s a l t administration, but were also a serious law enforcement problem. The crews of the s a l t boats were numerous (as many as 3 0 men to a single \ & i boat) and might r i o t i f accused of wrong-doing. It i s perhaps s i g n i f i c a n t that the merchants themselves were accused of many of the crimes of t h e i r servants. Pao Shih-ch'en noted s a r c a s t i c a l l y that whereas formerly only servants would stoop to practices such as yen-hsiao fraud, now t h e i r place was being taken by t h e i r masters. A censor named T'u Wen-chun, writing about 1 8 4 6 , agreed, saying that whereas merchants would lend t h e i r boatmen c a p i t a l for smug-62 g l i n g operations, i f caught they would attempt to put the blame on t h e i r subordinates. In the face of t h i s sort of evidence, i t i s rather surprising that Thomas Metzger takes the problem of merchant smuggling so l i g h t l y . At any rate, the problem of smuggling by those legitimately involved i n the s a l t trade (as opposed to f u l l - t i m e bandits), whether merchants, servants, or boatmen, was by no means an i n s i g -n i f i c a n t one. T'ao Chu concluded that well over hal f the s a l t boats were engaged i n smuggling, d) The Problem of Imperial Security By the 1830's, then, the s a l t administration was i n such disorder that men such as the s a l t producers or boat crews might r i o t or cause disturbances due to acute economic hardship. However, the unsuccessful functioning of the s a l t administration posed far greater threats than th i s to the a b i l i t y of the dynasty to maintain order in the country-side. Throughout Chinese history s a l t smugglers have served to swell the ranks of those who rebelled against the court, and ev,en to provide the leaders of these r e b e l l i o n s . It i s known that the great T'ang rebel Wang Hsien-chih began his career as a s a l t smuggler. His successor Huang Ch'ao, whose f i f t e e n year uprising v i r t u a l l y destroyed the T'ang Dynasty, came from a family of wealthy s a l t merchants ( i t i s possible these also took part i n the i l l e g a l trade), although most of his followers were peasants suffering from famine i n Honan. Liang-huai i s known to have suffered from smuggling at least as far back as the T'ang. L i u Yen, whose e f f o r t s made 63 the s a l t administration an important arm of government, established a p a t r o l station i n the Yangchow area for the purpose of apprehending such bandits. This t r a d i t i o n of unrest continued in l a t e r times. During the Yuan Dynasty smugglers flourished due to greatly i n f l a t e d s a l t p r i c e s . After about 1340 the smugglers Chang Shih-ch'eng and Fang Kuo-chen led uprisings i n the Liang-huai and Liang-che regions. One author has remarked, "When readers of history say that the Yuan perished due to the chaos of the s a l t administration, i t i s not without reason." We w i l l now discuss the threat t h i s long t r a d i t i o n of violence posed to the Manchu court. Salt smuggling i n Liang-huai during the l a t t e r part of the Ch'ing Dynasty was intimately associated with the Nien bandits. Teng Ssu-yii has traced the f i r s t mention of the Nien in documents to the year 1797. He claims that the "Red Beards" (Hung~hu f e i ) , an offshoot of the White Lotus Society, would form large gangs c a l l e d nien-tzu, from which the Nien drew t h e i r name. A Ch'ing writer named Fang Yu-lan, however, gave a d i f f e r e n t account of the Niens' o r i g i n . He claimed that t h e i r bands were formed from demobilized v i l l a g e m i l i t i a , who had o r i g i n a l l y been recruited to f i g h t the White Lotus during t h e i r great revolt at the end of the eighteenth century. In any case, the Nien do not seem to have been present when the s a l t monopoly was at i t s height i n the mid-eighteenth century, although many of t h e i r l a t e r haunts, such as Ho-fei and Feng-yang d i s t r i c t s i n Anhwei, did suffer from smuggling before 1797. From that time on the Nien increased t h e i r a c t i v i t y . T'ao Chu, writing as a censor i n 1815, noted that smuggling was p r o f i t a b l e to them because the price of s a l t i n Liang-huai was twice as great as that smuggled in from the Ch'ang-l u s a l t d i s t r i c t . The Nien bandits, then, were another aspect of the d i f f i c u l t i e s that the s a l t administration encountered due to the i n f l a t e d price of t h e i r product, and conformed to our model of the monopoly's decline. By 1821 the Nien i n just three d i s t r i c t s of Kiangsu province were said to number over a thousand men, under the d i r e c t i o n of one L i u San~mao. F i n a l l y , i n 1853, the Nien openly revolted against the Ch'ing court, led by a man named Chang Lo-hsing, who had once worked as a s a l t smuggler in Anhwei. What, then, was the exact relationship between the s a l t smugglers and the Nien? Here L i n Tse-hsu has provided us with the most information. He remarked, "I have heard that formerly among the people over half of the bandits have come from the ranks of the s a l t smugglers. An example i s the Nien bandits and Red Beards of Hsiang-yang, who are most harmful. Generally, because they l i v e near Honan province they s e l l Honan s a l t for a l i v i n g , and from there go on to do a l l man-ner of wickedness. After the s a l t administration was reformed there were no longer any cases of theft i n Hsiang-yang... If s a l t matters are handled properly i t i s not only the s a l t administration that benefits.' 1 From th i s we can see that i t was s a l t smugglers who served to swell the ranks of the Nien bands, i n d i c a t i n g that the term "peasant r e b e l l i o n " when applied to the Nien uprising may be something of a misnomer. Of course, the smugglers derived great benefit from t h e i r membership i n the Nien gangs. O f f i c i a l s tended to fear the power of the secret s o c i e t i e s , and would make l i t t l e e f f o r t to capture the 6 5 • q c s m u g g l e r s i f t h e y knew t h e y were members. How were p e o p l e r e c r u i t e d i n t o t h e r a n k s o f t h e s a l t s m u g g l e r s ? E v i d e n c e on t h i s p o i n t i s somewhat f r a g m e n t a r y , b u t p e r h a p s s h o u l d be e x amined anyway. A c e n s o r ' s m e m o r i a l i n 1827 i n d i c a t e d t h a t an i n f l u e n t i a l c r i m i n a l named Mu J u n g - c h ' a n g was t h e b r o t h e r o f a Mu F e n g - l i n , w h i l e a n o t h e r b a n d i t named Ma K ' o - c h i e n was t h e m a t e r n a l u n c l e o f a c e r t a i n L i T a - p e n m e n t i o n e d i n a p r e v i o u s m e m o r i a l . T h e s e two exam-p l e s w o u l d seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r many p e o p l e s a l t smug-g l i n g was s o m e t h i n g o f a " f a m i l y b u s i n e s s " . The m e m o r i a l went on t o s a y t h a t i n c e r t a i n p a r t s o f Anhwei m a r k e t s where s a l t was s o l d were d i v i d e d i n t o an " i n n e r p o r t " and an " o u t e r p o r t " . The i n n e r p o r t s - were o c c u p i e d by b a n d i t s f r o m Honan, Anhwei, and K i a n g s u , w h i l e t h e o u t e r p o r t s were t h e t e r r i t o r y o f men f r o m S h a n t u n g . P e o p l e f r o m t h e same n a t i v e p l a c e , j u s t as p e o p l e f r o m t h e same c l a n , w o u l d t e n d t o c l i n g t o g e t h e r i n a d e c e n t r a l i z e d s o c i e t y l i k e C h ' i n g C h i n a . R e l i g i o n , t o o , seems t o h a v e drawn p e o p l e o f d i f f e r e n t f a m i l i e s t o g e t h e r . T'ao Chu r e p o r t e d i n 1831 t h a t Moslems w i t h t h e surnames Hsu and T s ' a o w o u l d f r e q u e n t l y q u a r r e l w i t h o t h e r s a l t s m u g g l e r s who were n o t o f t h e i r f a i t h i n S h ou-chou, Anhwei. A n o t h e r method o f r e c r u i t m e n t o f s a l t s m u g g l e r s seems t o have been t h e c r e a t i o n o f a s o r t o f " e m p l o y e r - e m p l o y e e " r e l a t i o n s h i p . T'ao Chu d i s c u s s e d t h i s p r o b l e m i n an 1832 m e m o r i a l . I n K i a n g s u p r o v i n c e t h e r e were owners o f s m a l l b o a t s c a l l e d mao-ch'uan, who u s u a l l y e a r n e d t h e i r l i v i n g by f i s h i n g . When f l o o d s f o r c e d them t o f l e e t h e i r homes 66 s m u g g l e r s w o u l d h i r e t h e s e f i s h e r m e n t o s e l l s a l t , and t h e y w o u l d g a t h e r t o g e t h e r i n g r o u p s o f s e v e r a l d o z e n o r e v e n s e v e r a l h u n d r e d . T'ao o r d e r e d t h a t t h e s e r e f u g e e s be c a r e -f u l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h e a c t u a l b a n d i t s . The l a t t e r w o u l d be a r r e s t e d , w h i l e t h e f o r m e r w o u l d be e s c o r t e d b a c k t o t h e i r v i l l a g e and g i v e n r e l i e f g r a i n . S e v e r a l comments seem i n o r d e r h e r e . F i r s t o f a l l , i n t h i s c a s e t h e s m u g g l e r s were n o t a c t u a l l y members o f t h e N i e n b a n d s , b u t were r a t h e r i n t h e i r s e r v i c e . A n o t h e r example o f s m u g g l e r s b e i n g s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e N i e n i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e 1815 m e m o r i a l o f T ' a o ' s m e n t i o n e d above. I n t h i s c a s e t h e Red B e a r d s s e r v e d as t h e s m u g g l e r s 1 p r o t e c t o r s , g u a r d i n g them f r o m t h e government s o l d i e r s i n r e t u r n f o r a f e e o f 200 c a s h p e r c a r t l o a d o f s a l t . S e c o n d l y , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t T 1 ao ' s p l a n f o r t h e mao--ch ' uan w o u l d have worked. M e r e l y e s c o r t i n g them bac k t o t h e i r drowned v i l l a g e s w o u l d have done l i t t l e good, w h i l e as we have s e e n t h e r e was o f t e n much c o r r u p t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e l i e f . I n g e n e r a l , t h i s m e m o r i a l seems t o c o n f i r m o u r v i e w t h a t r u r a l p o v e r t y was a f u n d a m e n t a l c a u s e o f s a l t s m u g g l i n g . One o f t h e most a l a r m i n g f e a t u r e s o f s a l t s m u g g l i n g , f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f C h ' i n g o f f i c i a l s , was i t s h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d n a t u r e . The b a n d i t s may e v e n be s a i d t o have c r e a t e d among t h e m s e l v e s an i l l e g a l b u r e a u c r a c y , a p r i v a t e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o r i v a l t h a t o f t h e government. As T'ao Chu p u t i t , s m u g g l e r s w o u l d " p u b l i c l y s e t up r e g u l a t i o n s " •xoo ( k u n g - j a n s h e - l i c h a n g - c h ' e n g ) . One example o f b a n d i t o r g a -n i z a t i o n comes f r o m an 1821 m e m o r i a l d e s c r i b i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s 67 of L i u San-mao. The author noted how L i u was the o v e r a l l leader of 24 gangs (po), spread out at regular i n t e r v a l s over the Kiangsu countryside. This setup made i t very d i f f i c u l t for law enforcement o f f i c i a l s to deal with smug-glin g , since i f one po leader was captured or his gang destroyed L i u merely sent out another man to replace him or set up another po elsewhere. 3 , 0 1 The most thorough account of bandit organization, how-ever, i s contained i n the writings of Pao Shih-ch'en. Pao noted that smugglers would have recognized leaders, c a l l e d ta chang-t'ou, and seconds i n command, or fu-chang-t'ou. Each of these would occupy certain places c a l l e d "wharves'* (ma-t'ou) or " s a l t stations" (yen-kuan), and levy a t o l l on each boat passing by. To help them i n t h e i r work were various subordinates who acted as "measurers" (p'eng-shou) or "clerks" (shu-shou). Each gang might number several hundred men, and control several hundred thousand taels worth of c a p i t a l . The reason for t h i s complex organization i s easy to see. As we discovered e a r l i e r by the year 1830 as much s a l t was sold i l l e g a l l y as l e g a l l y . For the smugglers to d e l i v e r s a l t to l i t e r a l l y m i l lions of people i t would have been necessary for them to organize and secure large amounts of c a p i t a l . Just as the government s a l t administration had i t s set of o f f i c i a l s , so did the smugglers have t h e i r clerks and measurers. Just as the head merchants were often fabulously wealthy, es p e c i a l l y i n the eighteenth century, so did certain of the smugglers att a i n great influence. Of these the most notorious was a certain Huang Yu~lin. Huang, a 68 native of Fukien, b u i l t up during the 1820's a powerful f l e e t of several hundred vessels on the Yangtze, some of which were capable of carrying several thousand pi c u l s of s a l t . His headquarters was a ma-t'ou near I-cheng, Kiangsu, an important center at which s a l t was packaged before being loaded on board ship. From there he sold s a l t in various parts of Hupeh and Kiangsi. Huang eventually surrendered himself to the authorities i n return for a pardon, an a f f a i r which l a t e r resulted i n severe punishment for gover-nor-general Chiang Yu-t'ien. x o 3 Of course, we must not exaggerate the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the "bureaucracy" of the s a l t smugglers and that of the government. For one thing, although each gang of s a l t smugglers had i t s own " o f f i c i a l s " there was never a vast organization i n charge of the entire i l l e g a l trade. Indeed, the pitched battles between groups of heavily-armed smugglers, frequently centering around control of a ma-t'ou, were a source of great concern to the government. Although the smugglers quarrelled among themselves, i n the f i n a l analysis i t was t h e i r membership i n the Nien that raised them from the status of a major nuisance to that of an ac-tual threat to the dynasty. It was not u n t i l 186 8 , a f t e r f i f t e e n years of open warfare, that they were eventually suppressed by L i Hung-chang. Mismanagement of the s a l t administration was, i n fa c t , a real+threat to the s t a b i l i t y of the nation. L i n Tse-hsu's remark that i f s a l t matters were handled properly the whole government would benefit strongly implied that the reverse was true as well. A l t h o u g h t h e N i e n were t h e most d a n g e r o u s o f t h e s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s w i t h whom s a l t s m u g g l e r s were r e l a t e d , t h e y h a d t i e s w i t h o t h e r g r o u p s as w e l l . T'ao Chu n o t e d t h a t i n v a r i o u s d i s t r i c t s o f K i a n g s i t h e r e were s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s t h a t went by s u c h names as T ' i e n - t i h u i ( I n c r e a s i n g Y o u n g e r B r o t h e r s S o c i e t y ) and T ' i e n - t a o h u i ( I n c r e a s i n g K n i v e s S o c i -e t y ) . Most o f t h e s a l t s m u g g l e r s i n t h e a r e a were a f f i -l i a t e d w i t h t h e s e s o c i e t i e s . The l o c a l o f f i c i a l s were u s u a l l y a f r a i d o f t h e s o c i e t i e s , and e v e n when s o l d i e r s were s e n t t o c a p t u r e t h e b a n d i t s i t was o f t e n f o u n d t h a t t h e y t o o were members o f t h e s o c i e t i e s ! t x o f e Nor was t h i s p r o b l e m e v e n l i m i t e d t o t h e L i a n g - h u a i d i s t r i c t . One o f f i c i a l m e n t i o n e d i n a l e t t e r t o a c o l l e a g u e , •'Formerly i n t h e C h i a - c h ' i n g p e r i o d t h e Kwangtung ban-d i t T'an A - c h a o s t y l e d h i m s e l f P r i n c e o f P ' i n g - p ' o , w h i l e t h e F u k i e n b a n d i t T s ' a i C h ' i e n c a l l e d h i m s e l f P r i n c e o f C h e n - h a i . They k i l l e d o f f i c i a l s and d i s -t u r b e d t h e c o u n t r y s i d e f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . I n t h e b e g i n n i n g t h e y were s a l t s m u g g l e r s . " A l t h o u g h i t i s n o t known w h e t h e r t h e s e men had any " o f f i c i a l s s e r v i n g u n d e r them t h e i r a s s u m p t i o n o f v a r i o u s t i t l e s does seem t o i n d i c a t e a " c o u r t " o f s o r t s , o r a t l e a s t some o r g a -n i z a t i o n b e y o n d t h a t o f a common band o f r o b b e r s . A more d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f t h e a c t i v i t y o f s e c r e t s o c i e t i e o u t s i d e o f t h e L i a n g - h u a i a r e a i s c o n t a i n e d i n an e s s a y by W i n s t o n H s i e h d e a l i n g w i t h a T r i a d u p r i s i n g i n 1911 i n t h e c i t y o f Waichow, Kwangtung. The p a r a l l e l s w i t h L i a n g - h u a i a r e numerous. As w i t h t h e N i e n , t h e T r i a d s were h e a v i l y i n v o l v e d w i t h s a l t s m u g g l i n g i n t h e a r e a . The l e a d e r o f t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e o f t h e u p r i s i n g , a man named Teng K'eng, 70 came f r o m a f a m i l y t h a t h a d l o n g been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s a l t t r a d e (whether l e g a l o r i l l e g a l i s u n c e r t a i n ) , much l i k e Chang L o - h s i n g o r Huang Ch'ao c e n t u r i e s b e f o r e . As i n L i a n g - h u a i , p o p u l a r r e s e n t m e n t a g a i n s t t h e s a l t monopoly had been s t i r r e d up by t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f numerous new t a x e s o r f o u ~ f e i i a l t h o u g h i n Kwangtung t h e r e was t h e added c o m p l i -c a t i o n t h a t more e f f i c i e n t management o f t h e s a l t a d m i n i -s t r a t i o n by t h o s e t r a i n e d i n W e s t e r n b u s i n e s s methods was d r i v i n g t h e s m u g g l e r s o u t o f b u s i n e s s . A t any r a t e , dan-g e r o u s as t h e N i e n were, i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e y were o n l y p a r t o f a p r o b l e m t h a t b e d e v i l e d , t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e e m p i r e . B e f o r e l e a v i n g t h e q u e s t i o n o f o r g a n i z e d s m u g g l i n g by s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s we s h o u l d examine one o t h e r f o r m t h e i l l e g a l s a l t t r a d e t o o k . D u r i n g t h e C h ' i n g D y n a s t y i t was t h e c u s -tom f o r t h o s e b o a t s w h i c h b r o u g h t t r i b u t e g r a i n t o P e k i n g t o r e t u r n empty t o t h e Y a n g t z e v a l l e y , v/here t h e y w o u l d p i c k up t h e i r n e x t l o a d . N a t u r a l l y t h e r e was a tremendous t e m p t a t i o n f o r t h e boatmen t o smuggle cheap s a l t f r o m t h e C h ' a n g - l u d i s t r i c t i n t o L i a n g - h u a i . A l t h o u g h t h i s p r o b l e m was known t o have e x i s t e d as e a r l y as 1660 t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t i t grew worse d u r i n g t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h 3 . II c e n t u r y . D u r i n g h i s t e n u r e as g o v e r n o r o f K i a n g s u L i n T s e - h s u w r o t e , " I n e a c h p r o v i n c e t h e g r a i n b o a t s number s e v e r a l t h o u -s a n d , ;;arid t h e i r crews s e v e r a l t e n s o f t h o u s a n d s . S a i -l o r s w i l l r e l y on t h e i r numbers t o a c t v i o l e n t l y . W h i l e t h i s i s n o t a new d e v e l o p m e n t , i t has been most s e v e r e i n r e c e n t y e a r s . " The v a s t number o f v e s s e l s engaged i n t r a n s p o r t i n g g r a i n 71 should give some idea of the size of the problem o f f i c i a l s confronted i n seeking to end t h i s i l l e g a l t r a f f i c . T'ao Chu concluded that the grain boats of Hunan, Hupeh, and Kiangsi were capable of carrying 200,000 to 300,000 yin of s a l t annually, or enough for eight to twelve m i l l i o n people (Pao Shih-ch'en's estimate). Even i f only a f r a c -tion of these boats actually smuggled, the loss of paying customers to the s a l t administration would be enormous. A basic cause of smuggling by the crews of grain boats was the meagre sa l a r i e s they were paid, much as economic need forced the crews of the s a l t boats on the Yangtze to smuggle. Teng T'ing-chen, writing as governor of Anhwei i n 1831, noted that s a i l o r s were only paid 3.6 taels a year for t h e i r labour. Even with certain fringe benefits, such as the right to deal i n certain kinds of merchandise on the side, t h i s was far below the amount needed for subsistence. Teng could only recommend that the s a i l o r s be permitted to s e l l a greater amount of merchandise. In spite of the vast size of the i l l e g a l trade c a r r i e d on by the grain boats, Thomas Metzger maintains that T'ao Chu was successful i n bringing a stop to t h i s sort of smug-gli n g . He bases his argument on an 1833 incident. In that year the director-general of grain transport pointed out that the inspection of grain boats by the s a l t administration was slowing down the delivery of grain to the c a p i t a l . He requested that boat crews be empowered to s e l l s a l t l e g a l l y (beyond the forty c a t t i e s already permitted for personal use), paying taxes on i t at Yangchow. T'ao argued against t h i s proposal, saying that the notoriously lawless boatmen would f a i l to pay taxes on the f u l l amount that they carried, and that i n addition the importation of so much s a l t into Liang-huai. would throw thousands of s a l t producers out of a job. Metzger feels that unless the boatmen were being successfully prevented from smuggling there would have been no need for t h e i r actions to have been l e g a l i z e d . i l S Metzger's argument here appears to have much merit. Indeed, T'ao Chu himself praised various competent o f f i c i a l s for having v i r t u a l l y wiped out smuggling from Ch'ang-lu i n x i 6 the l a s t two years. However, Metzger seems to underestimate how deep-rooted t h i s problem was. In an 1840 memorial grain boats were once again mentioned as smuggling s a l t into Hunan, Hupeh, and Kiangsi. The s i t u a t i o n was said to be even worse than before, although i t i s not at a l l clear j-ust when before was. Like the smuggling carried on by the secret s o c i e t i e s , that of the grain boats was highly organized. As we mentioned before, the boat crews were poorly paid, and would not have the c a p i t a l with which to purchase large amounts of s a l t . They were helped i n th i s regard by wealthy brokers who were ca l l e d :'wind guests" (feng-k'o) . In time a regular system of trade developed, whereby the feng-k'o would purchase lumber, paper, porcelain, and so forth i n the Yangtze valley and exchange them for s a l t at T i e n t s i n . The p r o f i t s gained i n t h i s trade were s p l i t between the feng-k'o and the boatmen. Teng T'ing-chen suggested that boatmen who confessed should be pardoned i f they were w i l l i n g to incriminate t h e i r f e n g - k ' o , b u t so c l o s e was t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two t h a t t h i s r a r e l y happened. 3 , 1 ^ S i n c e any g r a i n b o a t t h a t h a l t e d a t any one p l a c e f o r any l e n g t h o f t i m e w o u l d a t t r a c t t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e p o l i c e o f f i c i a l s , i t was i m p e r a t i v e t h a t any i l l e g a l s a l t t h a t was t o be b o u g h t o r s o l d be l o a d e d o r u n l o a d e d q u i c k l y . The b o a t crews were a s s i s t e d i n t h i s t a s k by a s p e c i a l g r o u p o f c r i --j m i n a l s t h e y made t h e i r l i v i n g by g r a i n b o a t s m u g g l i n g . S i n c e many o f t h e s e c r i m i n a l s were s a i d t o o c c u p y t h e ma-t'ou a l o n g t h e v a r i o u s w a t e r w a y s , and s i n c e t h e y were c a l l e d " g r e e n s k i n s " ( c h ' i n g - p ' i ) , w h i c h Pao S h i h - c h ' e n u s e d t o r e f e r t o some o f t h e s e c r e t s o c i e t y " o f f i c i a l s " , i t makes s e n s e t o assume t h a t t h e g r a i n b o a t crews ha d some c o n t a c t w i t h t h e N i e n . a : x o A f a r more i n t e r e s t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t was t h e c r e a t i o n o f v a r i o u s c u l t s among t h e boatmen. A c c o r d i n g t o a s e r i e s o f e d i c t s w r i t t e n i n 1825 t h e boatmen were g e n e r a l l y d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t s , t h e t p ' a n - a n , l a o - a n , and h s i n - a n s e c t s . The god ( o r gods) t h e s e g r o u p s w o r s h i p p e d was c a l l e d t h e A n c e s t o r Lo (lo-^-tsu) , and t h e i r p r i e s t s were c a l l e d " o l d o f f i c i a l s " ( l a o - k u a n ) . T h e s e p r i e s t s h a d g r e a t power, s i n c e t h e y had t h e a u t h o r i t y t o p u n i s h t h o s e boatmen who were a c c u s e d o f w r o n g d o i n g and t o e x t o r t c o n t r i b u t i o n s f r o m t h o s e bannermen whose j o b i t was t o g u a r d t h e g r a i n b o a t s . What most a l a r m e d t h e g o vernment, o f c o u r s e , was t h e p e n c h a n t o f t h e s e s e c t s f o r v i o l e n c e . They w o u l d f r e q u e n t l y f i g h t among t h e m s e l v e s f o r c o n t r o l o f t h e v a r i o u s f l e e t s o f g r a i n b o a t s . I n t h i s t h e y seem t y p i c a l o f what t h e C h ' i n g 7 4 o f f i c i a l s c a l l e d " r e l i g i o u s b a n d i t s " ( c h i a o - f e i ) . I t must be n o t e d t h a t when o f f i c i a l s condemned a r e l i g i o u s s e c t i t was n o t b e c a u s e i t s t e a c h i n g s were h e r e t i c a l , b u t b e c a u s e t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f i t s members t h r e a t e n e d t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e s t a t e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e l i n k i n g t h e v a r i o u s r e l i g i o u s g r o u p s o r t h e l a o - k u a n w i t h t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f s a l t s m u g g l i n g , i t seems n a t u r a l t o assume t h a t t h e f e a r w h i c h o f f i c i a l s f e l t f o r t h e s e p r i e s t s w o u l d t e n d t o p r o -•XXH t e c t t h e i r d i s c i p l e s f r o m a r r e s t . I n t h i s r e s p e c t member-s h i p i n a r e l i g i o u s body w o u l d seem t o have s e r v e d t h e same p u r p o s e as membership i n t h e N i e n o r o t h e r s e c r e t s o c i e t y , and t h e f e u d s between t h e s e s e c t s t o have o f f e r e d t h e same t h r e a t t o law and o r d e r as t h e q u a r r e l s o f b a n d i t s o v e r t h e c o n t r o l o f ma-t'ou. I t i s p e r h a p s b e s t t o c o n c l u d e o u r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e L i a n g - h u a i s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h an i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n t h a t t h i s d e c l i n e p o s e d . G r a n t e d , by t h e y e a r 1830 s a l e s o f s a l t were o n l y o n e - t h i r d t o o n e - h a l f o f what government q u o t a s r e q u i r e d . S m u g g l e r s , p r o t e c t e d by p o w e r f u l s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s , were s u p p l y i n g t h e s a l t n eeds o f m i l l i o n s o f p e o p l e . However, t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was s t i l l s u p p l y i n g t h e government w i t h a g r e a t d e a l o f i t s r e v e n u e . Why n o t be s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h i s ? M a s s i v e l o w e r i n g o f s a l e s and t a x q u o t a s w o u l d have p r e v e n t e d m e r c h a n t bank-r u p t c i e s , and t h e s a l t monopoly c o u l d have s e r v e d i t s p u r -p o s e , a l b e i t on a l o w e r l e v e l . The answer, o f c o u r s e , was t h a t t h e B o a r d o f Revenue was u n w i l l i n g t o l e t t h i s h appen. As Thomas M e t z g e r p u t i t , 75 "However, t h e r e w e r e d o w n h i l l c h a n g e s and t h e r e w e r e were u p h i l l c h a n g e s . M a n i p u l a t i n g e c o n o m i c s a n c t i o n s by s h i f t i n g e c o n o m i c o b l i g a t i o n s was r e l a t i v e l y e a s y and d o w n h i l l , b u t b a s i c a l l y c h a n g i n g e c o n o m i c o b l i -g a t i o n s a t t h e e x p e n s e o f p o w e r f u l i n t e r e s t s , as w i t h r e d u c i n g t h e t a x r a t e o r c a n c e l l i n g m a j o r t a x d e b t s , was an u p h i l l c h a n g e r e q u i r i n g . s t r o n g - n e r v e d e x e c u -t i v e l e a d e r s h i p . T h i s l e a d e r s h i p c o u l d emerge i n moments o f c r i s i s , b u t p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e n e c e -s s a r y f o l l o w - t h r o u g h m e a s u r e s was h a r d t o o b t a i n . " 2.^5 I t i s e a s y t o s y m p a t h i z e w i t h t h e B o a r d o f R e v e n u e ' s p r e -d i c a m e n t . The s a l t r e v e n u e , e s p e c i a l l y s u c h i t e m s as p a o - h s i a o , was r e q u i r e d f o r u r g e n t n e e d s . W i t h t h e c o u r t n e e d i n g a l l i t s r e s o u r c e s f o r t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f i n c r e a -s i n g l y common p e a s a n t r e b e l l i o n s , s u c h as t h a t o f t h e M i a o i n 1799 o r t h e E i g h t T r i g r a m s s e c t i n 1813, i t was no t i m e t o be t e l l i n g t h e p r e s i d e n t o f t h e B o a r d o f Revenue t h a t he s h o u l d c u t h i s t a x q u o t a s i n h a l f . F a c e d w i t h u n r e s t c a u s e d by s a l t s m u g g l e r s t h a t m i g h t e s c a l a t e i n t o m a j o r r e b e l l i o n , and u n w i l l i n g t o r e m i t any s a l t t a x e s , t h e c o u r t h a d t o c h o i c e b u t t o c o n s i d e r p r o p o s a l s f o r m a j o r r e f o r m s . T h e s e r e f o r m s w i l l be t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e n e x t s e c t i o n o f o u r e s s a y . 76 I I I . P r o p o s a l s f o r t h e R e f o r m o f t h e S a l t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n I t i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f Thomas M e t z g e r ' s t h e s i s t h a t t h e L i a n g - h u a i s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was a b l e t o use e c o n o m i c and p o l i c e measures t o e n s u r e t h e smooth r u n n i n g o f t h e monopoly, and t o change t h e s e measures when t h e y no l o n g e r p r o v e d e f f e c t i v e . I f we a c c e p t M e t z g e r f s p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e n , we must c o n c e d e t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o make m a j o r r e f o r m s when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e c r i s i s c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h e x i s t e d a r o u n d 1830. A t t h a t t i m e , as we r e c a l l , n o t o n l y were t h e s a l e s o f l e g a l s a l t and government r e v e n u e s t h r e a t e n e d , b u t t h e r g r o w t h o f smug-..: g l i n g a l s d p o s e d a g r a v e t h r e a t t o law and o r d e r i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . I n d e e d , a s e r i e s o f s w e e p i n g i n n o v a t i o n s were i n t r o d u c e d i n L i a n g - h u a i d u r i n g t h e decade o f t h e 1830's. B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g w h e t h e r t h e s e r e f o r m s were e f f e c t i v e , how-e v e r , we s h o u l d a t t e m p t t o f i l l i n some b a c k g r o u n d by des-c r i b i n g t h e m a j o r " s c h o o l s " o f r e f o r m among o f f i c i a l s o f t h e p e r i o d . T h e s e seem t o be t h r e e i n number. The f i r s t and s i m p l e s t o f t h e s e s c h o o l s was t h a t w h i c h f a v o u r e d more s t r i c t law e n f o r c e m e n t . A f a i r l y t y p i c a l s t a t e m e n t o f t h i s i d e a comes f r o m an 1826 m e m o r i a l , w h i c h c o n c l u d e d , "When s a l e s o f s a l t a r e p o o r i t i s g e n e r a l l y be-c a u s e t h e a p p r e h e n s i o n o f s m u g g l e r s has been i n e f f e c t i v e , and n o t b e c a u s e p r i c e s have i n c r e a s e d . " S i n c e L i n T s e - h s u , d u r i n g h i s t e r m o f o f f i c e as g o v e r n o r -g e n e r a l o f Hunan ana Hupeh, was most c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r o b -lem o f l i n - s s u , l e t us examine some o f t h e measures he t o o k t o d e a l w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f s m u g g l i n g . L i n t o o k a p e r s o n a l 77 i n t e r e s t i n the problems of the s a l t administration, as when he v i s i t e d various m i l i t a r y posts i n Hsiang-yang pre-fecture, Hupeh, so as to encourage the soldiers to be more d i l i g e n t i n catching smugglers. This was consistent with his general approach of choosing capable o f f i c i a l s for this work. Lin made a special point of mentioning the responsibi- J l i t y that l o c a l magistrates had i n arresting smugglers and promoting sales, and ordered the s a l t taotai to remove those magistrates whose sales records were poor. However, Lin did not stop there. At the v i l l a g e l e v e l he entrusted l o c a l gentry, m i l i t i a leaders, and pao-chia (mutual surveillance groups) heads with the duty of f e r r e t i n g out smugglers. Lin used both an economic and a moral argument to get his point across to the common people. On-the one hand, why r i s k the f u l l penalty of the law to buy cheaper smuggled s a l t , since government s a l t cost a man no more than one cash a day any-way? On the other, smuggling showed one's ingratitude to the emperor, who had manifested his favour by f i x i n g the land tax in perpetuity. How e f f e c t i v e would such measures be i n stopping the i l l e g a l trade? Let us look again at the estimates of per capita s a l t consumption. Lin's estimate that one yin would feed sixty people for one year seems somewhat of f the mark, since the conclusions of a modern geographer (thirteen c a t t i e s annually) and those of Pao Shih-ch'en (ten ca t t i e s annually) seem more i n agreement. Using."1 the l a t t e r ' s estimate, as a median figure, we fin d that the 45 m i l l i o n Liang-huai cus-tomers i n Hunan and Hupeh would have consumed somewhat over 78 1.1 m i l l i o n y i n e a c h y e a r . Y e t L i n e s t i m a t e d t h a t i n t h e y e a r 1836 h i s p r e d e c e s s o r had managed t o s e l l o n l y 730,000 y i n , l e a v i n g a l m o s t 400,000 y i n t o be s u p p l i e d by s m u g g l e r s . L i n c l a i m e d t h a t h i s s o l d i e r s had s e i z e d o v e r a m i l l i o n c a t -t i e s o f smuggled s a l t , o r somewhat more t h a n 2500 y i n , i n t h e y e a r f o l l o w i n g t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f h i s s t r i c t p o l i c i e s . x 5 ' As can be s e e n , t h i s was o n l y a s m a l l f r a c t i o n o f t h e sm u g g l e d s a l t i n c i r c u l a t i o n . The f a i l u r e o f a p o l i c y o f s t r i c t l a w e n f o r c e m e n t seems eve n more a p p a r e n t when we t a k e two o t h e r f a c t s i n t o c o n s i -d e r a t i o n . F i r s t , a s s u m i n g t h a t M e t z g e r i s c o r r e c t when he e s t i m a t e s t h a t by 1830 h a l f t h e s a l t i n L i a n g - h u a i was p u r -c h a s e d i l l e g a l l y , t h e s i t u a t i o n as r e g a r d s s m u g g l i n g i n Hunan and Hupeh was b e t t e r t h a n e l s e w h e r e . T h i s makes s e n s e , s i n c e , as we have s e e n , t h e s e two p r o v i n c e s were h i s t o r i c a l l y t h e l a s t t o s u f f e r f r o m a s e v e r e s m u g g l i n g p r o b l e m . S e c o n d -l y , L i n was an o f f i c i a l n o t e d f o r h i s a b i l i t y and i n t e g r i t y . ^ : I f e v e n he was u n a b l e t o stem t h e p r o b l e m o f s m u g g l i n g , how c o u l d l e s s e r o f f i c i a l s hope t o do t h i s ? What were t h e r e a s o n s f o r L i n ' s f a i l u r e ? T h e r e seem t o have been s e v e r a l . As C h i n Y i n g - l i n ' s m e m o r i a l , w h i c h we drew on a t l e n g t h i n o u r d i s c u s s i o n o f r u r a l p o v e r t y , has shown, many a t t h e c o u r t were c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e c o r r u p t i o n rampant among c o u n t y m a g i s t r a t e s and t h e i r s u b o r d i n a t e s , t h e v e r y men upon whom L i n was f o r c e d t o r e l y so h e a v i l y . More-o v e r , t h e r e s e a r c h o f H s i a o Kung-chuan has shown t h a t s u c h i n s t i t u t i o n s as t h e p a o - c h i a were i n e f f e c t i v e i n c o n t r o l l i n g a r e s t l e s s and d e s t i t u t e p e a s a n t r y . The a p p a l l i n g c o n d i t i o n o f f l o o d o r f a m i n e v i c t i m s , who were v e r y numerous a t t h a t t i m e , w o u l d s i m i l a r l y r e n d e r L i n ' s m o r a l arguments l u d i -c r o u s . A l t h o u g h t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e d e c l i n e o f v i l l a g e i n s t i t u t i o n s i s , o f c o u r s e , a v a s t one t h a t c a n n o t be p r o p e r -l y d e a l t w i t h h e r e , one o t h e r p r o b l e m can be d e s c r i b e d more s i m p l y . T h i s was t h e p r o b l e m o f c o r r u p t i o n among t h e s o l d i e r s t h e m s e l v e s . Pao S h i h - c h ' e n has d e s c r i b e d how l e g i t i m a t e c u s t o m e r s o f s a l t s h o ps w o u l d be a r r e s t e d as s m u g g l e r s , s i n c e t h e s o l d i e r s w i s h e d t o make a good i m p r e s s i o n on t h e i r s u p e -r i o r s . The N i e n b a n d i t s , on t h e o t h e r ^ h a n d , w o u l d e s c a p e a r r e s t t h r o u g h b r i b e r y o r i n t i m i d a t i o n . T h i s c o m p l a i n t a p p e a r e d w i t h p a i n f u l r e g u l a r i t y i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f C h ' i n g I B M o f f i c i a l s . Thomas M e t z g e r b a s e s much o f h i s argument on t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o e f f e c t i v e l y e n f o r c e i t s r e g u l a t i o n s , as i n t h e c a s e o f g r a i n b o a t s m u g g l e r s m e n t i o n e d above. Y e t i f s o l d i e r s a c c e p t e d p r o t e c t i o n money (as i n an 1844 c a s e ) , were b o u g h t o f f o r f r i g h t e n e d away, where was law e n f o r c e m e n t t h e n ? The s e c o n d method f o r d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was t h a t o f " l o w e r i n g p r i c e s t o combat s m u g g l i n g " ( c h i e n - c h i a t i - s s u ) . O f f i c i a l s r e a s o n e d t h a t s i n c e i t was t h e h i g h c o s t o f government s a l t t h a t f o r c e d c u s t o m e r s t o t u r n t o s m u g g l e r s , a l o w e r p r i c e w o u l d e n c o u r a g e them t o obey t h e law. The words o f T'ao Chu's a d v i s o r , Wei Yuan, " I f one does n o t r e d u c e p r i c e s how c a n one combat s m u g g l i n g ? I f one does n o t l i g h t e n t h e c h ' e n g - p e n 80 (capital expenditure required to ship salt) how can one lower prices? If one does not reduce fees how can one lighten the ch'eng-pen, and how can one do th i s without changing the laws? Indeed, investigating the beginning and using i t to regulate the end r e s u l t i s how the gentleman gets to the root of the problem." 2.2>& Wei himself, i n an essay written about 1850, proposed a four-point program of reform. He suggested that taxes i n the Huai-nan region could be lowered by being o f f s e t with a 700,000 t a e l annual surplus i n Huai-pei>. where a reform program had been i n operation for some years. Furthermore, prices at the yards could be reduced by curbing the ex-cessive p r o f i t s of the wealthy yard merchants. This,, how-ever, does not seem p r a c t i c a l , given our description of the d i f f i c u l t i e s these merchants faced. More r e a l i s t i c was another proposal, by which transportation costs could be lowered by eliminating the costly repackaging of s a l t at various places along the r i v e r routes. F i n a l l y , Wei proposed that many of the f o u - f e i items and much of the tedious paperwork of the s a l t monopoly yamens be done away with. As we have seen, the former comprised the majority of the Liang-huai tax burden. It was T'ao Chu, however, who proposed the most com-prehensive program of reform. His fifteen-item plan, pre-sented to the court i n 1831, was, l i k e Wei's, based largely on the p r i n c i p l e of reducing prices to combat smuggling. F i r s t of a l l , T'ao sought to reduce f o u - f e i by over a m i l l i o n t a e l s , largely by eliminating such items as charity c o n t r i -butions and payments to yamen clerks. Secondly, he also suggested that s a l t administration procedures be sim p l i -f i e d , so as to reduce the opportunities for clerks to 81 extort payments. T'ao also requested that the o f f i c e of head merchant be abolished, at the same time setting up less powerful "merchants to handle a f f a i r s " , so that the small number of full - t i m e o f f i c i a l s might s t i l l have some help i n managing the community of transport merchants. This was a most important measure, as i t not only ended many of the head merchants' abuses that we described previously, but also foreshadowed T'ao's l a t e r decision to end the system of hereditary monopolies. This reform w i l l be described at length l a t e r . T'ao chose to handle the problem of merchant debt by asking that payment of back taxes be postponed u n t i l the s a l t monopoly had recovered some of i t s former prosperity,! As we have seen, i t would have been i m p o l i t i c to'-ask that they be cancelled altogether. T'ao also urged that merchants'' servants and assistants be severely punished i f they attempted to make deductions from the boatmen's s a l a r i e s . -T'ao con-cluded by suggesting various other minor reforms which need not be discussed here. As we can see, T'ao's plan dealt with a great number of the problems mentioned i n thi s essay. Some o f f i c i a l s , how-ever, quarrelled with the assumption that sales would f l o u -r i s h i f s a l t was made cheaper. L i n Tse-hsu wrote, "This idea (reducing prices to combat lin-ssu) i s generally a good one, but i t does not recognize the role of p r o f i t s and abuses. I cannot avoid c r i t i -c i z i n g i t on these grounds. This method has been t r i e d many times but has had no e f f e c t . Now the ex-n e penses involved i n shipping Liang-huai s a l t are very heavy. Reduce them as you may, the s a l t w i l l never be as cheap as smuggled s a l t , which pays no tax at a l l . If you do not d i l i g e n t l y catch smugglers, and hope to to compete with them by using le g a l s a l t , merchants 82 w i l l only lose t h e i r investments, and l i n - s s u w i l l s t i l l go on." Lin's point, although well made, was not e n t i r e l y v a l i d . As Wei Yuan pointed out, although smugglers did not pay taxes, they had many other heavy expenses, such as paying •XH a bribes to the soldiers along t h e i r routes. At any rate, T'ao's proposals seem to have been more p r a c t i c a l than the i n e f f e c t i v e method of s t r i c t law enforcement suggested by Li n . The t h i r d school of s a l t reform was that of "taxing s a l t at the yards" (chiu-ch'ang cheng-shui). Supposedly based on the system of L i u Yen, t h i s method had gained much support i n the past from writers on the s a l t admini-s t r a t i o n , most notably the famous early Ch'ing scholar a t i Ku Yen-wu. A f a i r l y t y p i c a l statement of t h i s school's ideas may be found i n an 1829 memorial written by a censor named Wang Tseng-fang. Wang f e l t that the chief problem of Liang-huai s a l t administration was the system of here-ditary monopolies, which prevented small businessmen from going into the s a l t trade without breaking the law. A simple solution to t h i s problem would be for s a l t producers to pay taxes on the s a l t while i t was s t i l l at the yards. After-wards the s a l t workers could s e l l t h e i r s a l t to whichever merchant they wished, large or small. In t h i s way many former smugglers would be drawn into the legal trade, and the problem of smuggling be done away with. Unfortunately, t h i s method too had i t s drawbacks. As T'ao Chu pointed out, the s a l t producers were not wealthy. 83 I f y o u a t t e m p t e d t o c o l l e c t t a x e s f r o m them b e f o r e t h e y s o l d t h e i r s a l t , how c o u l d t h e y h a v e t h e c a p i t a l t o manage t h i s ? I f t h e y w e r e a l l o w e d t o s e l l t h e i r s a l t f i r s t t h e y w o u l d a b s c o n d w i t h t h e money w i t h o u t p a y i n g t a x e s . I f , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , y o u e n t r u s t e d payment o f t a x e s t o t h e y a r d mer-c h a n t s , t h e y w o u l d r u t h l e s s l y e x p l o i t t h e s a l t p r o d u c e r s s o as t o make t h e l a r g e s t p o s s i b l e p r o f i t s a f t e r t a x e s . The o n l y o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y w o u l d be t o e n t r u s t t a x payment t o t h e o f f i c i a l s a t t h e y a r d s . T h e s e , h o w e v e r , w e r e g e n e r a l l y o f l o w r a n k , and c o u l d n o t be t r u s t e d t o p r o p e r l y h a n d l e s u c h immense r e v e n u e ( t h e a l t e r n a t i v e o f a p p o i n t i n g more r e s p o n d , \ b l s i b l e o f f i c i a l s t o t h i s p o s i t i o n d o e s n o t seem t o h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r e d ) . The c o u r t was f o r c e d t o a g r e e w i t h T 1 a o 1 s r e a s o n i n g . None o f t h e t h r e e s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t , t h e n , was e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y , a n d y e t i t was c l e a r t o t h e c o u r t by 1830 t h a t m e a n i n g f u l r e f o r m was i m p e r a t i v e . I n t h a t y e a r Wang T i n g , p r e s i d e n t o f t h e B o a r d o f R e v e n u e , and Pao H s i n g , a v i c e - p r e s i d e n t o f t h a t B o a r d , w e re s e n t as i m p e r i a l commis-s i o n e r s t o t h e L i a n g - h u a i r e g i o n t o s e e w h a t c o u l d be done a b o u t i t s p r o b l e m s . T h e i r r e p o r t s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e f i g h t a g a i n s t s m u g g l i n g was g o i n g b a d l y b e c a u s e t h e s a l t a d m i n i -s t r a t i o n l a c k e d t h e a u t h o r i t y o v e r p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s and s o l d i e r s n e c e s s a r y t o do an e f f e c t i v e j o b . T h e r e f o r e , j u r i s -d i c t i o n o v e r t h e s a l t m o n o p o l y i n L i a n g - h u a i was g i v e n t o T'ao Chu, t h e n g o v e r n o r - g e n e r a l o f K i a n g s i , K i a n g s u , and A n -h w e i , and t h e s e p a r a t e o f f i c e o f c h i e f s a l t c o m m i s s i o n e r a b o l i s h e d . After having his fi f t e e n - p o i n t program of reform, mentioned above, approved by the court, T 1ao decided to turn his attention to Huai-pei, the smaller of the two regions into which Liang-huai was divided. Here the si t u a t i o n was t r u l y desperate. Excluding a few d i s t r i c t s i n which sales were going reasonably well, out of a t o t a l of seventeen heredi-tary merchants only three s t i l l had the c a p i t a l necessary to ship s a l t . T 5ao's e f f o r t s to r e c r u i t new merchants into the trade, or, f a i l i n g that, to use government-financed s a l t shipments (kuan-yun) i n those areas wThich had long been dominated by smugglers were not very successful. It was i n 1832, then, that T 1ao decided to implement the so-called "t i c k e t system" (p'iao-fa) i n those areas where sales were going poorly, along the li n e s of e a r l i e r reforms i n Chekiang. The main feature of thi s system was that each t i c k e t allowed a man to ship ten yin of s a l t , and so even small traders might be accomodated within the system. After 1835, moreover, poor people near the yards were permitted to s e l l as l i t t l e as 100 c a t t i e s . This would go a long way toward ending petty smuggling near the yards, a problem that had plague^Liang-huai since the eighteenth century. In order to supervise so many small traders, many of them former smugglers, T 1ao appointed several "station merchants" (chu-shang), who would make recommendations as to who was honest enough to enter the trade. It must be noted, however, that these men were far less powerful than the old head merchants. It was at these "stations" (chu-ch'ang), situated near the yards, that the s a l t was coll e c t e d from the s a l t producers and 85 the merchants' taxes paid. These taxes, i n c i d e n t a l l y , were considerably lower than before. In 1833"regular taxes were fixed at 1.051 taels per y i n , while miscellaneous taxes were set at .40 t a e l s , and the basic cost of the s a l t i t s e l f at .60 t a e l s . No other f o u - f e i were permitted. While the regular taxes were the same as before, the tax rate as a whole was reduced con-siderably, since, as we have seen, i t was the custom for fou-f e i to far exceed the revenue that was delivered to the go-' : vernment. As a f i n a l reform, T'ao ordered that each mer-chant had to pass through one of three checkpoints (ch'ia) set up within 100 l_i of the yards. I f the amount of s a l t i n his bags did not match the amount on his t i c k e t he was treated as a smuggler. The same held true i f he arrived at his destination without the checkpoint seal on his ti c k e t . 2 " As can e a s i l y be seen, the t i c k e t system drew heavily on ideas found i n each of-the three major schools of reform. T'ao's goal of bringing former smugglers into the trade by abolishing hereditary monopolies was reminiscent of the "taxing s a l t at the yards" school. He also attempted to reduce taxes along the lines of the school that favored lowering prices to combat smuggling, as well as tightening security by setting up the various checkpoints. Indeed, T'ao's reforms may be said to have been a creative synthesis of much of the progressive thought then current i n s a l t administration c i r c l e s . Was the t i c k e t system a success? Thomas Metzger has concluded that "In Huai-pei, his f a i l u r e i n 1831 (T'ao's 86 i n s t i t u t i o n of the system of kuan-yun) was followed by the spectacular and continued success of the t i c k e t system i n i t i -a l ated i n 1832." This i s i n keeping with Metzger's view that the Ch'ing s a l t administration was capable of undertaking major changes when the need arose. Indeed, the short-term success of the t i c k e t system seems indisputable. As the o f f i c i a l Ch'ing history put i t , "At that time those o f f i c i a l s that made t h e i r l i v i n g from s a l t p r o f i t s raised a hue and cry, and said t h i s system was unworkable. T'ao Chu didn't pay any atten-t i o n . . . When the people learned that there were p r o f i t s to be made they gathered from near and f a r . Boats li n e d up to enter the ports, i n a way that had not been seen for decades... In that year there were natural disasters i n Hai-chou. Famine victims turned to the s a l t trade to make a l i v i n g , and countless l i v e s were saved." From 1832 to 1854 there was no year i n which the f u l l Huai-pei tax quota was not col l e c t e d , and i n addition 670,000 taels of revenue was transferred to Huai-nan, much as Wei Yuan had suggested. In 1849, moreover, a disastrous f i r e destroyed most of the s a l t boats destined for Hankow, forcing many of the remaining transport merchants to declare bank-ruptcy. At t h i s point governor-general Lu Chien-ying i n s t i -tuted the t i c k e t system in Huai-nan and those comparatively prosperous areas of Huai-pei that T 1ao Chu had not touched. Although the success of t h i s measure i s harder to evaluate, since many of the relevant records were destroyed during the Taiping Rebellion, availabe evidence indicates that i n Huai-nan, too, s a l t prices dropped markedly and f u l l tax quotas were co l l e c t e d . The success of the t i c k e t system converted v i r t u a l l y 87 a l l o f t h e o f f i c i a l s w r i t i n g a t t h e t i m e i n t o a d v o c a t e s o f t h i s method. An 1850 m e m o r i a l t o t h e B o a r d o f Revenue e v e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e t i c k e t s y s t e m be e x t e n d e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e e m p i r e , a l t h o u g h t h e o u t b r e a k o f t h e T a i p i n g R e b e l l i o n p r e v e n t e d t h i s measure f r o m b e i n g c a r r i e d o u t . One c a n n o t h e l p b u t f e e l t h a t t h e s e o f f i c i a l s were p e r h a p s o v e r l y e n -t h u s i a s t i c . I n s p i t e o f i t s s u c c e s s t h e t i c k e t s y s t e m was n e v e r w i t h o u t p r o b l e m s , e v e n i n t h e s h o r t r u n . T h i s i s i n k e e p i n g w i t h M e t z g e r ' s d i c t u m t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s o f o f f i c i a l s " t h a t made t h e i r l i v i n g f r o m s a l t p r o f i t s " c o u l d be overcome i n t i m e s o f c r i s i s (as 1830 c e r t a i n l y w a s ) , p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e n e c e s s a r y f o l l o w -t h r o u g h measures was d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n . I n t h e l o n g r u n t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s , c o mbined w i t h t h e g e n e r a l c r i s i s s i t u -a t i o n o f l a t e C h ' i n g s o c i e t y , e v e n t u a l l y d e s t r o y e d i t . Thomas M e t z g e r has a d m i t t e d , " D i f f i c u l t i e s d i d grow o u t o f t h e t i c k e t s y s t e m , b u t t h e s e a r e o u t s i d e t h e s c o p e o f t h i s p a p e r . " I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s be d i s -c u s s e d . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h e t i c k e t s y s t e m f i r s t e n c o u n t e r e d d i f -f i c u l t i e s b e c a u s e o f i t s g r e a t s u c c e s s . As m e r c h a n t s f l o c k e d t o e n t e r t h e t r a d e t h e amount o f s a l t a v a i l a b l e f o r them t o s e l l p r o v e d i n s u f f i c i e n t . One c e n s o r c o m p l a i n e d i n 1840 t h a t t h i s l e d t o an abuse whereby m e r c h a n t s , i n o r d e r t o p r o v e t h e y h a d s u f f i c i e n t c a p i t a l t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e t r a d e , w o u l d have t o d e p o s i t a c e r t a i n sum o f money w i t h t h e o f f i c i a l o f f i c i a l s . Such d e p o s i t s h a d a l r e a d y amounted t o o v e r t e n m i l l i o n t a e l s . However, i n 1846 g o v e r n o r - g e n e r a l P i - c h ' a n g 88 c l a i m e d t h a t t h e m e r c h a n t s ' c a p i t a l was no l o n g e r b e i n g e x a m i n e d i n t h i s manner. ' x 5 2-A more s e r i o u s p r o b l e m stemmed f r o m t h e low p r i c e o f t i c k e t s a l t . An o f f i c i a l named T s ' a o L u - t ' a i w r o t e i n 1844 t h a t t h e t o t a l c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n b r i n g i n g t i c k e t s a l t t o m a r k e t o n l y amounted t o f o u r t a e l s , as o p p o s e d t o t e n t o t h i r t e e n t a e l s f o r s a l t h a n d l e d t h e o l d way i n H u a i - n a n . The i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t was s m u g g l i n g f r o m t h e H u a i - p e i mar-k e t s i n Honan and Anhwei i n t o t h e H u a i - n a n p o r t s i n Hunan and Hupeh. The o f f i c i a l r e s p o n s e t o t h i s p r o b l e m was t o t r y t o l i m i t t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f s a l t i n t h e H u a i - p e i y a r d s t o t h e amount H u a i - p e i i t s e l f r e q u i r e d . x S i Of c o u r s e , t f c h i s p r o b l e m w o u l d end when H u a i - n a n a d o p t e d t h e t i c k e t s y s t e m . Y e t Thomas M e t z g e r seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t H u a i - p e i , due t o g e o g r a p h i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , was much l e s s v u l n e r a b l e t o s m u g g l i n g t h a n H u a i - n a n . E v e n t h o u g h t h e t i c k e t s y s t e m was an i n i t i a l s u c c e s s i n t h e l a t t e r a r e a , t h e g r e a t e r f r e q u e n c y o f l i n - s s u t h e r e meant t h a t MhAs-raefcho.dgmighteeizentihally have f a i l e d i n H u a i - n a n . T h i s , a t any r a t e , was t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f s u c h C h ' i n g o f f i c i a l s as P i - c h ' a n g , and m i g h t e x p l a i n why t h e t i c k e t s y s t e m was n o t i n s t i t u t e d f o r so many y e a r s i n H u a i - n a n , when i t s s u c c e s s i n H u a i - p e i h a d been so d r a m a t i c . ' X 5 S' So f a r we have e x a m i n e d t h e s h o r t - t e r m p r o b l e m s a s s o -c i a t e d w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e t i c k e t s y s t e m . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o t e l l w h e t h e r t h i s s y s t e m w o u l d have a c t u a l l y worked i n H u a i - n a n , s i n c e t h e T a i p i n g R e b e l l i o n , coming 89 so soon a f t e r L u C h i e n - y i n g ' s r e f o r m s t h e r e , marked a t u r -n i n g p o i n t i n l o n g - t e r m s a l t a f f a i r s i n c e n t r a l C h i n a . The T a i p i n g R e b e l l i o n t o r e a p a r t t h e s y s t e m t h a t T'ao Chu h a d b u i l t up. D u r i n g t h e c o n s t a n t f i g h t i n g t h e Y a n g t z e R i v e r was b l o c k e d , and so L i a n g - h u a i m a r k e t s had t o depend on s a l t s h i p p e d i n f r o m o t h e r z o n e s . T'ao's measures t o p r e v e n t s m u g g l i n g were f o r a t i m e r e n d e r e d u s e l e s s , s i n c e t h e g o v e r n -ment was f o r c e d t o k i n e f f e c t , s a n c t i o n l i n - s s u as a means o f s u p p l y . F a r more s e r i o u s was t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s a l t l i k i n ( t r a n s i t t a x ) as a means o f r a i s i n g r e v e n u e . A t f i r s t c o l l e c t e d r a t h e r h a p h a z a r d l y a t t h e t o l l b o o t h s o f v a r i o u s army u n i t s , i t s c o l l e c t i o n was s t a n d a r d i z e d by T s e n g K u o - f a n i n 1864. A l t h o u g h t h e l i k i n r a t e s v a r i e d f r o m p r o v i n c e t o p r o v i n c e t h e y were u n i f o r m l y much h i g h e r t h a n t h e r e g u l a r s a i t t a x e s . T h i s a d d e d e x p e n s e made i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r s m a l l m e r c h a n t s t o e n t e r t h e t r a d e . T s e n g a c k n o w l e d g e d t h i s when he r a i s e d t h e c o n t e n t o f a t i c k e t f r o m t e n t o §00 y i n , a l l o w i n g o n l y s u b s t a n t i a l m e r c h a n t s t o e n t e r t h e t r a d e . L a -t e r , however, t h e s e w e a l t h y m e r c h a n t s began t o s e l l t h e t i c k e t t i c k e t s t o o t h e r s , and o f t e n d i d n o t a c t u a l l y s h i p s a l t them-s e l v e s . T h e r e f o r e , i n 1866 L i Hung-chang i n t r o d u c e d t h e s o - c a l l e d " r e v o l v i n g t i c k e t s y s t e m " (hsun-huan p ' i a o - f a ) , whereby t h o s e m e r c h a n t s who a g r e e d t o pay t h e i r s a l t l i k i n and c e r t a i n p a o - h s i a o i t e m s i n a d vance w o u l d r e c e i v e perma-n e n t r i g h t s t o t h e i r t i c k e t s . T h i s was, i n f a c t , a r e v i v a l o f t h e s y s t e m o f h e r e d i t a r y m o n o p o l i e s , w h i c h t h e C h ' i n g 90 o f f i c i a l s f r e e l y a d m i t t e d . N o t o n l y t h a t , b u t t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f s a l t l i k i n p u s h e d up t h e p r i c e o f government s a l t , c r e a -t i n g o nce a g a i n t h e p r o b l e m o f w i d e s p r e a d s m u g g l i n g . I n s p i t e o f Thomas M e t z g e r ' s a p p r o v a l , and T 1 a o Chu's b e s t e f f o r t s , t h e t i c k e t s y s t e m c a r r i e d w i t h i n i t t h e s e e d s o f i t s own d e s t r u c t i o n . L i u Chun c o n s i d e r s t h a t t h i s w o u l d q u i t e l i k e l y have happened e v e n i f t h e r e h a d been no T a i p i n g R e b e l l i o n . F i r s t o f a l l , t h e t i c k e t s y s t e m was b a s e d on a low t a x r a t e . Y e t even i n t h e a b s e n c e o f a g r e a t i n t e r n a l r e b e l l i o n , t h e f o r e i g n wars and r e s u l t i n g i n d e m n i t i e s o f t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w o u l d have f o r c e d t h e C h ' i n g c o u r t t o t u r n t o t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o meet i t s r e v e n u e n e e d s . S e c o n d l y , t h e a p p a r e n t s u c c e s s o f t h e p i i a o - f a meant t h a t t h e r e w o u l d n o t be enough s a l t t o go a r o u n d . I n t h e c o m p e t i t i o n f o r t i c k e t s t h e w e a l t h y m e r c h a n t s w o u l d be a t an a d v a n t a g e , and t h e g o a l o f e n t i c i n g p e t t y s m u g g l e r s i n t o t h e l e g a l t r a d e w o u l d be t h w a r t e d . E v e n t u a l l y a s m a l l g r o u p o f w e a l t h y m e r c h a n t s , i n L i u ' s o p i n i o n , w o u l d d o m i n a t e t h e t r a d e as" b e f o r e . x 5 ( i S i n c e i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s a y what m i g h t have t a k e n p l a c e h a d t h e T a i p i n g R e b e l l i o n n e v e r o c c u r r e d , p e r h a p s L i u ' s c o n c l u s i o n s a r e n o t e n t i r e l y t r u s t w o r t h y . Y e t i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e t i c k e t s y s t e m was n o t e n t i r e l y s u c c e s s f u l , s i n c e i t was e v e n t u a l l y s u p e r s e d e d by t h e v e r y s y s t e m o f h e r e d i t a r y m o n o p o l i e s t h a t i t was d e s i g n e d t o r e p l a c e . F o r a number o f r e a s o n s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o be o p t i m i s t i c a b o u t t h e p o s s i -b i l i t i e s o f s u c c e s s f u l r e f o r m d u r i n g t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e 91 C h ' i n g D y n a s t y . F i r s t o f a l l , as T'ao Chu s u g g e s t e d , p l a n n i n g on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e was n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e i d e a l f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I f a r e f o r m was s u c c e s s f u l i n o n l y one a r e a , i t m i g h t m e r e l y s e r v e t o a g g r a v a t e t h e p r o b l e m s , i n c a n e f e h e r n - s l K i s i s what happened i n H u a i - p e i , where t h e l o w e r i n g o f p r i c e s c a u s e d by t h e t i c k e t s y s t e m r e s u l t e d i n s m u g g l i n g i n t o H u a i - n a n . Y e t t h e c e n t r a l g overnment o f t h e l a t e C h ' i n g was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by g e n e r a l l y l a c k l u s t r e r u l e r s . The Empress Dowager T z ' u - h s i , who d o m i n a t e d t h e c o u r t d u r i n g t h e l a s t h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a l t h o u g h c a p a b l e , was s h o r t - s i g h t e d and c o n c e r n e d c h i e f l y w i t h m a i n -a s s t a i n i n g h e r own power. The c o u r t was a l s o n o t o r i o u s f o r i t s c o r r u p t i o n . Well-known examples o f t h i s i n c l u d e d t h e a m a s s i n g o f an enormous f o r t u n e by t h e C h ' i e n - l u n g e m p e r o r ' s f a v o r i t e Ho-shen as f a r back as t h e 1790's, and t h e d i v e r s i o n o f f u n d s fcomLLil-IHungehhangssPEeiyang f l e e t t o b u i l d t h e Empress Dowager's Summer P a l a c e , a move w h i c h s e r i o u s l y c r i p p l e d t h e C h i n e s e n a v y . A l t h o u g h a c a p a b l e p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s u c h as T'ao Chu o r L i m i g h t i n s t i t u t e r e f o r m s , w i t h o u t t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e c o u r t s u c h m e a sures w o u l d be l i m i t e d i n a r e a and e f f e c t i v e n e s s . M o r e o v e r , many o f t h e p r o b l e m s w h i c h T 1 a o f a c e d d u r i n g t h e 1830's c o n t i n u e d u n t i l t h e end o f t h e d y n a s t y . One o f t h e s e , as L i u Chun p o i n t e d o u t , was h i g h t a x a t i o n w h i c h d r o v e up t h e p r i c e o f s a l t . ©.fifcding t h e l a s t h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y C h i n a f o u g h t wars w i t h b o t h F r a n c e and J a p a n , and was f o r c e d t o pay r e p a r a t i o n s t o t h e v i c t o r i o u s powers, as 92 well as the enormous Boxer Indemnity of 4 5 0 m i l l i o n t a e l s . In order to raise the needed revenue s a l t taxes had risen by 1 9 0 0 to a t o t a l of 1 3 . 5 m i l l i o n taels (including s a l t l i k i n ) , as opposed to only six m i l l i o n taels a century ear-l i e r . Although t h i s new revenue must have been very welcome to the government, Winston Hsieh has shown how popular resentment of numerous new items of f o u - f e i greatly increased revolutionary sentiment i n the Kwangtung c o u n t r y s i d e . i U It i s quite possible that such resentment might have been s t i r r e d up in Liang-huai as well. Another problem the s a l t monopoly faced had to do with general i n f l a t i o n . As we have seen, a f t e r 1 8 0 0 much of the r i s e i n price of s a l t to the consumer was due to the increasing value of s i l v e r v i s - a - v i s copper cash. A l f e h o u g though d>ur sources do not make clear whether or not t h i s process continued aft e r 1 8 5 0 , there was during the l a s t decades of the Ch'ing Dynasty a general r i s e i n prices of consumer goods of about 1 0 0 % every f i f t e e n years. This would have the same e f f e c t on the peasant'sopmmehasing power as a decline i n value of copper cash, and would make the burden of increasing taxes even worse. Thomas Metzger suggests that the s a l t administration i n Liang-huai was capable of s i g n i f i c a n t reforms i n times of c r i s i s , and points to the t i c k e t system as an example of such a successful reform. Our conclusion, however, i s that the process of dynastic decline, involving widespread corruption, weakness i n the face of foreign aggression, and a desperate search for revenue, would work against 93 any s u c c e s s f u l r e f o r m o f t h e s a l t monopoly. I n t h e c a s e o f t h e t i c k e t s y s t e m , t h e p r e s s u r e s o f t h e T a i p i n g R e b e l l i o n and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e s y s t e m i t s e l f r e s u l t e d i n a t t o t a l r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e s y s t e m o f h e r e d i t a r y m o n o p o l i e s by t h e 1870's/ 94 IV. C o n c l u s i o n I n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e s t a t e ' s a b i l i t y t o e f f i c i e n t l y r e g u l a t e commerce Thomas M e t z g e r has c h o s e n t o c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e L i a n g - h u a i d i s t r i c t o f t h e s a l t mono-p o l y . As we have s e e n , M e t z g e r c h o o s e s t o c o n c e n t r a t e on L i a n g - h u a i , b e e a u s e , as t h e l a r g e s t o f t h e s a l t m o n opoly's e l e v e n d i s t r i c t s , i t p r o v i d e d t h e s e v e r e s t t e s t o f t h e s t a t e ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t i e s . P e r h a p s , however, M e t z g e r has been u n d u l y h a r s h on h i m s e l f . M e a s u r e s w h i c h were u n s u c c e s s f u l when a p p l i e d o v e r L i a n g - h u a i ' s s i x p r o v i n c e s m i g h t have been w o r k a b l e on a more l i m i t e d s c a l e . L i a n g - h u a i c e r t a i n l y p o s e d c h a l i e n l e n g e s t o o f f i c i a l s t h a t were more s e v e r e t h a n e l s e w h e r e . F o r example, s i n c e t h e l o w e r Y a n g t z e v a l l e y was one o f t h e most p r o s p e r o u s r e g i o n s i n C h i n a t a x e s h e r e were much h e a v i e r t h a n i n o t h e r p r o v i n c e s . T h i s c r e a t e d t h e d i f f i c u l t p r o b -lem o f l i n - s s u , w h i c h o t h e r d i s t r i c t s p r o b a b l y l a r g e l y avodlded. S e c r e t s o c i e t i e s a l s o seem t o have been more a c t i v e h e s e i h a n o i n eoimerother r e g i o n s , s u c h as Szechwan. T h e r e t h e l o c a t i o n o f s a l t w e l l s , w h i c h were e a s y t o g u a r d , i n remote r e g i o n s p r e v e n t e d l a r g e - s c a l e s m u g g l i n g . :j"^3 Not o n l y d i d L i a n g - h u a i p r e s e n t a s p e c i a l c a s e , b u t t h e C h ' i n g D y n a s t y as w e l l was a p e r i o d i n C h i n e s e h i s t o r y t h a t was u n u s u a l i n many ways. A l t h o u g h t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f C h i n a a l w a y s i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f p r o l o n g e d p e a c e t h e m a s s i v e p o p u l a t i o n e x p l o s i o n o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h and n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s w h i c h , as we have s e e n , p u t enormous p r e s -s u r e on t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , seems t o have been u n p r e -c e d e n t e d . T h i s p a p e r a r g u e s , however, t h a t t h o s e p r o b l e m s t h a t were u n i q u e t o t h e C h ' i n g o r L i a n g - h u a i were n o t t h e c r u c i a l o n e s . C e r t a i n v e r y i m p o r t a n t d i f f i c u l t i e s were n e v e r a d e q u a t e l y d e a l t w i t h t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e h i s t o r y o f t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . We w i l l d i s c u s s t h e s e by e x a m i n i n g b r i e f l y some o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e s a l t monopoly i n t h e v a r i o u s d y n a s t i e s and r e g i o n s . The "modern" s a l t . m o n o p o l y was f i r s t c r e a t e d d u r i n g t h e T'ang D y n a s t y i n t h e a f t e r m a t h o f t h e An L u - s h a n r e b e l l i o n . I n t h e y e a r s i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e r e t i r e m e n t o f i t s c r e a t o r L i u Yen i n a b o u t 780 t h e p r i c e o f s a l t r o s e drama-t i c a l l y , l a r g e l y i n r e s p o n s e t o m i l i t a r y n e e d s . T h e r e were o t h e r c a u s e s as w e l l , however. One o f t h e s e was t h e i n s t i -t u t i o n o f v a r i o u s i r r e g u l a r " t a x e s , s u c h as t h e "monthly a d v a n c e s " ( y u e h - c h i n ) , w h i c h went d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e em p e r o r ' s p r i v y p u r s e . A n o t h e r was t h e abandonment o f t h e " e v e r n o r -mal s y s t e m " ( c h ' a n g - p ' i n g f a ) , whereby d i s t a n t r e g i o n s were s u p p l i e d w i t h s a l t f r o m government w a r e h o u s e s a t a che a p xb4> p r i c e . The end r e s u l t o f h i g h p r i c e s was, o f c o u r s e , an i n c r e a s e i n t h e amount o f s m u g g l i n g . x b l The s a l t monopoly was a l s o n o t immune t o t h e p r o b -lems t h a t a f f l i c t e d t h e T'ang D y n a s t y as a w h o l e . Many o f t h e r e g i o n s where s a l t was p r o d u c e d , s u c h as t h e c o a s t a l p r e f e c t u r e s o f Hopeh and S h a n t u n g , were u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f p o w e r f u l p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n o r s , who d e n i e d t h e s a l t r e v e n u e 2,4.8 t o t h e c e n t r a l g overnment. M o r e o v e r , c o r r u p t i o n a t c o u r t seems t o have i n c r e a s e d as t i m e went on, l a r g e l y due t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e e u n u c h s . C a p a b l e o f f i c i a l s were r e p l a c e d by t h o s e who u s e d b r i b e r y o r " p u l l " t o s e c u r e t h e i r p o s t s , and numerous p a r a s i t s were m a i n t a i n e d i n o f f i c e . Due t o f r a u d u l e n t a c c o u n t i n g p r o c e d u r e s (hsu-ku) government income d e c l i n e d e v e n when t a x r a t e s r o s e . By t h e y e a r 850 s a l t r e v e n u e was l i t t l e more t h a n h a l f o f what i t had been a t t h e h e i g h t o f L i u Yen's c a r e e r . ^ " 7 0 T h r o u g h o u t most o f t h e Sung D y n a s t y s a l t was h a n d l e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s o - c a l l e d s a l t c e r t i f i c a t e s y s t e m ( y e n - c h ' a o  f a ) . M e r c h a n t s who p u r c h a s e d t h e s e c e r t i f i c a t e s were p e r -m i t t e d t o s e l l s a l t . P r i m e M i n i s t e r T s ' a i C h i n g (1046-1126) l a t e r began t h e p r a c t i c e o f i s s u i n g new c e r t i f i c a t e s a t f r e q u e n t i n t e r v a l s . The e x p e n s e i n v o l v e d i n p u r c h a s i n g new c e r t i f i c a t e s o r p a y i n g t h e s u r c h a r g e r e q u i r e d t o renew one's o l d c e r t i f i c a t e s p u t a r u i n o u s b u r d e n on many mer-c h a n t s . I n h i s e x c e l l e n t s t u d y o f t h e L i a n g - c h e s a l t d i s t r i c t d u r i n g t h e S o u t h e r Sung D y n a s t y Edmund Worthy p l a c e s much o f t h e blame f o r t h e s a l t m onopoly's d i f f i c u l t i e s on t h e p r o b l e m s o f s a l t p r o d u c t i o n . The wages o f t h e s a l t p r o -d u c e r s , g i v e n o u t by t h e government i n Sung t i m e s as o p p o s e d t o t h e y a r d m e r c h a n t s d u r i n g t h e C h ' i n g ^ w e r e p a i d i r r e g u l a r -l y o r n o t a t a l l due t o o f f i c i a l c o r r u p t i o n . S a l t w o r k e r s were t h e r e f o r e e n c o u r a g e d t o s e l l t o s m u g g l e r s , a i d e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i r f u r n a c e s were c a p a b l e o f p r o d u c i n g f a r more s a l t t h a n t h e government q u o t a s r e q u i r e d . The p o l i c e i n s p e c t o r s , who f r e q u e n t l y f o r m e d f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h t h e s a l t w o r k e r s , were e i t h e r u n w i l l i n g o r u n a b l e t o s t o p i l l e g a l s a l e s . * As was t h e c a s e d u r i n g t h e C h ' i n g , t a x e s f o r m e d t h e b u l k o f t h e p r i c e t h e m e r c h a n t p a i d f o r h i s s a l t ( d u r i n g t h e Sung t a x e s were p a i d when t h e m e r c h a n t b o u g h t h i s s a l t a t t h e y a r d s , u n l i k e t h e payment a t Yangchow i n l a t e r c e n t u r i e s ) . Worthy e s t i m a t e s t h a t a bag o f 300 c a t t i e s was a t one t i m e s o l d f o r e i g h t e e n s t r i n g s o f c a s h , a l t h o u g h t h e •xiH c o s t t o t h e government was a t most 4.2 s t r i n g s . The end r e s u l t was p r e d i c t a b l e . Government s a l t was o f t e n t h r e e t i m e s as e x p e n s i v e as i l l e g a l s a l t , and s m u g g l e r s f l o u r i s h e d . a S a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e M i n g D y n a s t y f o l l o w e d a somewhat d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n f r o m t h a t o f t h e Sung. I n t h e f i r s t y e a r s o f t h e d y n a s t y m e r c h a n t s were g i v e n c e r t i -f i c a t e s p e r m i t t i n g them t o s e l l s a l t i n e x c h a n g e f o r s u p p l y i n g g r a i n t o f r o n t i e r m i l i t a r y p o s t s . S i n c e t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s n e e d s were f i l l e d i n t h i s way t a x e s were l i g h t . I n 1492 t h e p r e s i d e n t o f t h e B o a r d o f Revenue, Yeh C h ' i , a l t e r e d t h i s s y s t e m by p e r m i t t i n g payments t o be made i n s i l v e r r a t h e r t h a n g r a i n . S i n c e t h e m e r c h a n t s no l o n g e r o p e r a t e d t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l o n i e s t h a t h a d s u p p l i e d g r a i n t o t h e f r o n t i e r , t h e p r i c e o f f o o d t h e r e s k y r o c k e t e d and t h e m e r c h a n t c h a n t s were f o r c e d t o pay much more s i l v e r t o s u p p l y t h e i n c r e a s e d c o s t s o f t h e army. D u r i n g t h e l a t t e r y e a r s o f t h e d y n a s t y t h e t a x b u r d e n was made worse by t h e c r e a t i o n o f numerous a d d i t i o n a l t a x e s , l a r g e l y due t o t h e u n f o r t u n a t e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e e u n u c h s , who f r e q u e n t l y u s e d t h e i r p o s i t i o n o f t r u s t as t h e e mperor's p e r s o n a l s e r v a n t s t o e n r i c h them-s e l v e s . 98 The d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t h e s a l t monopoly were i n c r e a s e d by t h e t e n d e n c y o f t h e government t o i s s u e t o o many s a l t c e r t i f i c a t e s . M e r c h a n t s sometimes f o u n d t h a t t h e y had t o w a i t y e a r s b e f o r e t h e y c o u l d use t h e i r c e r t i f i c a t e s . I n t i m e , a c l a s s o f s p e c u l a t o r s a r o s e who p u r c h a s e d c e r t i f i c a t e s c h e a p l y when t h e y c o u l d n o t be u s e d and s o l d them a t a h i g h p r i c e when t h e i r t i m e came due. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , s a l t p r o d u c e r s d u r i n g t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y s o u g h t t o compensate f o r r i s i n g p o p u l a t i o n by i n c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i o n b e y o n d g o v e r n -ment q u o t a s . M e r c h a n t s were a l l o w e d t o p u r c h a s e t h i s s u r p l u s s a l t a t a cheap p r i c e ; sometimes t h e y b o u g h t t w i c e as much s u r p l u s as r e g u l a r s a l t . S i n c e t h e l a t t e r was v e r y e x p e n s i v e i t c o u l d n o t be s o l d l e g a l l y , and so was f r e q u e n t l y s o l d x~\ S t & l s m u g g i e f c s afcubelewsthe government p r i c e . The numerous d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e M i n g s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n have c a u s e d a t l e a s t one modern s c h o l a r t o t h r o w up h i s hands i n d e s p a i r . Ray Huang w r i t e s , "we have n o t t h e s l i g h t e s t d o u b t t h a t i t ( t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) r e p r e s e n t s one o f t h e w o r s t c a s e s o f a b u r e a u c r a t - m a n a g e d economy... D e a l i n g w i t h m e r c h a n t s , t h e government s e l d o m c a r r i e d o u t i t s o b l i g a t i o n s f a i t h -f u l l y . O f f i c i a l s i n c h a r g e were t o o a n x i o u s t o p r o d u c e an i m m e d i a t e p r o f i t , w i t h r e g a r d n e i t h e r f o r t h e f u t u r e n o r f o r t h e m a r k e t s i t u a t i o n . Laws p r o t e c t i n g t h e mono-p o l y were s t r i n g e n t b u t c o u l d n o t be e n f o r c e d . I n t h e r e i g n o f Wu-tsung (1506-1521), a b u s e s by eunuchs and i n f l u e n t i a l a r i s t o c r a t s v i r t u a l l y w r e c k e d t h e w h o l e o p e r a t i o n . D e s p i t e r e f o r m s by l a t e r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , t h e monopoly was n e v e r p u t on a s o u n d b a s i s . " ^ S o A l l t h i s i s a f a r c r y i n d e e d f r o m t h e " i m p r e s s i v e c o m m e r c i a l c a p a b i l i t i e s " M e t z g e r c l a i m s t h e C h ' i n g s t a t e p o s s e s s e d . Now, i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t a t i t s h e i g h t t h e C h ' i n g s t a t e was more e f f i c i e n t t h a n t h e M i n g ha d b e e n . F o r one t h i n g , t h e C h ' i n g emperors f o r some t i m e s u c c e s s f u l l y r u l e d an 99 e m p i r e much l a r g e r i n s i z e and p o p u l a t i o n t h a n t h e i r p r e d e -c e s s o r s ' . However, as we have s e e n , by t h e l a t e C h ' i n g , when most o f t h e r e f o r m s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s e s s a y t o o k p l a c e , C h i n a h a d e n t e r e d i n t o t h e p e r i o d o f d y n a s t i c d e c l i n e . "Abuses by e unuchs and i n f l u e n t i a l a r i s t o c r a t s " were common t h e n as w e l l , i n a d d i t i o n t o m a s s i v e i n t e r n a l r e b e l l i o n s and f o r e i g n w a r s . I t i s d o u b t f u l i n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n t h a t t h e C h ' i n g c o u r t c o u l d have c a r r i e d o u t r e f o r m s more s u c c e s s f u l l y t h a n i t s M i n g c o u n t e r p a r t . A t any r a t e , i t seems c l e a r t h a t many o f t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t p l a g u e d t h e C h ' i n g s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were n o t o f r e c e n t o r i g i n . Such p r o b l e m s as s m u g g l i n g f r o m t h e y a r d s , i n e f f i c i e n t o r c o r r u p t p o l i c e o f f i c e r s , s p e c u l a t i o n i n s a l t c e r t i f i c a t e s o r ken-wo, and burdensome f o u - f e i were a l l p r e v a l e n t i n e a r l i e r t i m e s . T h o s e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t were u n i q u e ( o r most marked) i n t h e C h ' i n g , s u c h as p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h and s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s , do n o t seem t o have been t h e c r u c i a l o n e s . The common t h r e a d t h a t r u n s t h r o u g h -o u t t h e c e n t u r i e s was h i g h p r i c e s . T h e s e , as we have s t a t e d b e f o r e , were i n h e r e n t i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f a monopoly s i t u a -t i o n . F o r t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o r a i s e enough r e v e n u e t o be w o r t h w h i l e t a x e s w o u l d have t o make up t h e l i o n ' s s h a r e o f t h e p r i c e o f s a l t . I f t h i s was t h e c a s e , t h e n s m u g g l i n g w o u l d a l w a y s be a t t r a c t i v e . T h i s was what L i n T s e - h s u meant when he s a i d t h a t i t w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e t o l o w e r p r i c e s enough t o d e f e a t s m u g g l e r s . Numerous a t t e m p t s were made t o e f f e c t i v e l y r e f o r m t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and n o t j u s t i n t h e L i a n g - h u a i d i s t r i c t . 100 T h i s was b e c a u s e t h e s y s t e m o f h e r e d i t a r y m o n o p o l i e s , i n s p i t e o f t h e a d v a n t a g e s i t had f o r o f f i c i a l s , who h a d o n l y t o r e g u l a t e a l i m i t e d number o f m e r c h a n t s , seems t o have c a u s e d p r o b l e m s whenever i t was p u t i n t o p r a c t i c e . I n 1724 Kwangsi s w i t c h e d o v e r t o t h e method o f government t r a n s p o r t and s a l e o f s a l t (kuan-yun k u a n - h s i a o ) , w h i l e i n 1728 F u k i e n i n s t i t u t e d a f o r m o f t h e " t a x i n g s a l t a t t h e y a r d s " s y s t e m . I n 1789 Kwangtung, f o r c e d i n t o a c t i o n by r a p i d l y a c c u m u l a t i n g m e r c h a n t d e b t s , p u t i n t o e f f e c t a s y s t e m o f s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e m e r c h a n t community by t e n s t a t i o n mer-c h a n t s . I n 1806 t h e o f f i c e o f s t a t i o n m e r c h a n t was a b o l i s h e d due t o c o r r u p t i o n among i t s h o l d e r s . I n C h ' a n g - l u , mean-w h i l e , p r i c e s h a d r i s e n e n o r m o u s l y , w i t h t h e e x t r a t a x e s l e v i e d b e i n g u s e d t o pay f o r f l o o d c o n t r o l work. I n 1823 a g r o u p o f o f f i c i a l s m e e t i n g w i t h t h e C h i h l i r v i c e r o y y N a - e r h - c h i n g - o , c a r r i e d o u t a s e r i e s o f r e f o r m s i n c l u d i n g r e d u c i n g f o u - f e i , r e c r u i t i n g new m e r c h a n t s i n C h i h l i , and u s i n g t h e t i c k e t s y s t e m i n p a r t s o f Honan. What i s most i n t e r e s t i n g a b o u t t h e s e r e f o r m s , some o f w h i c h were no d o u b t more e f f e c t i v e t h a n o t h e r s , i s t h a t many were i n s t i t u t e d du-" r i n g t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , when t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was a t i t s h e i g h t . A t no t i m e , t h e n , was t h e r e n o t some p a r t o f t h e e m p i r e i n w h i c h t h e s a l t monopoly was n o t m a l -f u n c t i o n i n g b a d l y enough t o r e q u i r e a m a j o r o v e r h a u l . The p r o b l e m t h e c o u r t f a c e d , t h e n , e v e n i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h century,j-was how t o e l i m i n a t e t h e b a s i c dilemma o f low p r i c e s and low r e v e n u e , o r h i g h p r i c e s , h i g h t a x e s , and t h e a t t e n -d a n t p r o b l e m s o f s m u g g l i n g , p o p u l a r r e s e n t m e n t , and e v e n 101 p e a s a n t r e b e l l i o n s , s u c h as t h o s e o f t h e T r i a d s and N i e n . T'ao Chu, o f c o u r s e , hoped by t h e t i c k e t s y s t e m t o p r o v e t h a t one c o u l d l o w e r t h e t a x r a t e s , and y e t a t t h e same t i m e c o l l e c t t h e f u l l amount o f t a x e s by i n c r e a s i n g t h e volume o f s a l e s . Y e t i n t h e f a c e o f t h e T a i p i n g R e b e l l i o n , o f f i c i a l s i n s t i t u t e d t h e l i k i n t a x , t h e r e b y d r i v i n g up t h e p r i c e and c r e a t i n g t h e p r o b l e m o f s m u g g l i n g a l l o v e r a g a i n . One o t h e r s o l u t i o n p r e s e n t s i t s e l f . I f t h e c o u r t c o u l d become l e s s d e p e n d e n t on s a l t r e v e n u e , by s w i t c h i n g t o o t h e r forms o f t a x a t i o n , i t w o u l d n o t have t o r a i s e t h e p r i c e o f s a l t so h i g h , and t h e r e f o r e s m u g g l i n g w o u l d be l e s s a t t r a c t : ' " , t i v e . One way t o do t h i s m i g h t have been t o c r e a t e mono-p o l i e s i n p r o d u c t s o t h e r t h a n s a l t . D u r i n g t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e Sung D y n a s t y , i n f a c t , m o n o p o l i e s i n s u c h p r o d u c t s as w i n e , s i l k , and t e a had e x i s t e d as w e l l as i n s a l t . I n s h o r t o r d e r , however, t h e r e v e n u e f r o m s a l t c o m p l e t e l y e c -l x p s e d t h a t f r o m t h e s e o t h e r p r o d u c t s . A l t h o u g h o u r s o u r c e s do n o t s u g g e s t why, one m i g h t c o n j e c t u r e t h a t t o e f f e c t i v e l y r e g u l a t e t h e s a l e o f t h e s e p r o d u c t s was even more d i f f i -c u l t t h a n t o r e g u l a t e t h e s a l e o f s a l t . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a l a r g e wine monopoly, f o r example, w o u l d c e r t a i n l y have e n c o u r a g e d b o o t l e g g i n g on a m a s s i v e s c a l e . T h e r e f o r e , i t seems t h a t o t h e r s o u r c e s o f r e v e n u e w o u l d be p r e f e r a b l e t o m o n o p o l i e s i n i m p o r t a n t p r o d u c t s . D u r i n g t h e l a t e C h ' i n g t h e most i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e s o f government r e v e n u e , a s i d e f r o m t h e s a l t t a x e s , were t h e l a n d t a x , t h e l i k i n , and t h e m a r i t i m e customs r e v e n u e . A l -t h o u g h t h e l i k i n m i g h t have y i e l d e d e x t r a r e v e n u e , t h i s w o u l d 102 o n l y have worked i f s a l t had been s p e c i f i c a l l y exempted f r o m a l l i n l a n d t r a n s i t d u t i e s , s i n c e s a l t l i k i n was l a r g e l y r e s -p o n s i b l e f o r r a i s i n g t h e p r i c e o f t h a t a r t i c l e . The c o u r t seems t o have been r e l u c t a n t t o d i s p e n s e w i t h t h e r e v e n u e f r o m s a l t l i k i n , e ven a f t e r t h e T a i p i n g R e b e l l i o n when t a x a t i o n m i g h t have b e e n r e d u c e d ^ s i n c e t h e d a n g e r t o t h e d y n a s t y was no l o n g e r so i m m e d i a t e . As t o t h e customs r e v e n u e , t h i s was n o t a f r u i t f u l s o u r c e o f e x t r a i n come, s i n c e t h e v a r i o u s u n e q u a l t r e a t i e s d i d n o t p e r m i t t a r i f f s o f o v e r 5%. C h i n a d i d n o t , i n f a c t , a c h i e v e t a r i f f autonomy u n t i l a b o u t 192 8. A l t h o u g h i n c r e a s e d f o r e i g n t r a d e w o u l d , o f c o u r s e , g e n e r a t e a d d i t i o n a l income f r o m t a r i f f s , t h i s was l a r g e l y i n t h e hands o f p r i v a t e m e r c h a n t s , and n o t s u b j e c t t o government c o n t r o l . The r e m a i n i n g p o s s i b i l i t y was t o " a b o l i s h " t h e s a l t monopoly, by i n c o r p o r a t i n g a l l s a l t t a x e s i n t o t h e l a n d t a x . Yu T e - y u a n h a d r e j e c t e d t h i s p r o p o s a l i n L i a n g - h u a i f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t o f a l l , t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f o v e r f i v e m i l l i o n t a e l s o f s a l t t a x e s i n t o t h e l a n d t a x w o u l d p u t an i n t o l e r a b l e s t r a i n on t h e p e a s a n t r y . S e c o n d l y , s u c h a move w o u l d be u n f a i r , as s c h o l a r s , m e r c h a n t s , and o t h e r s who d i d n o t own l a n d w o u l d e s c a p e t a x a t i o n . T h e s e arguments seem f a u l t y f o r a number o f r e a s o n s . I t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e w h e t h e r i n c r e a s e d l a n d t a x e s w o u l d be more burdensome t h a n t h e s a l t t a x e s . As we have s e e n , t h e l a t t e r consumed a v e r y l a r g e p o r t i o n o f a p o o r p e a s a n t ' s income. M o r e o v e r , s i n c e many s c h o l a r s and m e r c h a n t s owned l a n d as w e l l , t h e number o f p e o p l e who w o u l d a v o i d t a x a t i o n w o u l d be r e l a t i v e -103 l y small. In addition, under the new system those who owned more land would pay more taxes. Under the s a l t monopoly a poor man would consume almost as much s a l t as a r i c h man, and therefore pay almost as much taxes. Although a poor man might cut his consumption of s a l t i n hard times, there were certain b i o l o g i c a l l i m i t s beyond which he could not go. The land'tax seems , :therf ore ,' to haveobeen. more? f a i r \as '. • a rmethodrof : r a i s i n g "money thah;.the r s a l t taxes. The method of incorporating s a l t taxes into the land tax had, i n f a c t , been put into practice i n various parts of the country. In 1792 t h i s step was taken i n the Ho-tung d i s t r i c t (including parts of Honan, Shansi, and Shensi), while the same measure was adopted i n the Shensi-Kansu d i s t r i c t i n 1 8 0 0 . In 1795 a censor's memorial complained that so e f f e c t i v e was t h i s method i n cutting s a l t prices that Hunan and Hupeh were rapidly being i n f i l t r a t e d by Ho-2-%S tung s a l t . Of course, t h i s memorial must be read with caution. Liang-huai pe r e n i a l l y suffered from l i n - s s u , so that reforms i n Ho-tung may not have been necessary to lower the price s u f f i c i e n t l y to o f f e r unfair competition to s a l t sold i n Hunan and Hupeh. At any rate, i n spite of this evidence that incorporation of s a l t taxes into the land tax was he l p f u l i n lowering prices, the sytem of merchant monopolies was restored i n Ho-tung i n 1 8 1 2 . " 5 ^ ° Although the use of the land tax to replace s a l t taxes was never carried out over a large portion of China as were the system of merchant monopolies and the t i c k e t system, th i s method of reform s t i l l seems to have held some promise. 104 I f Ray Huang i s c o r r e c t when he c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e s a l t monopoly was one o f t h e w o r s t examples o f b u r e a u c r a t i c management i n i m p e r i a l C h i n a (and i t i s t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h i s p a p e r t h a t Huang's c o n c l u s i o n s a r e more n e a r l y c o r r e c t t h a n t h e " o p t i m i s t i c " a s s e s s m e n t o f Thomas M e t z g e r ) t h e n p e r h a p s i n c r e a s e d use o f t h e l a n d t a x w o u l d have been more p r o f i t a b l e t o t h e C h ' i n g c o u r t . C e r t a i n l y one f a c t o r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s m i g h t have been t h e c a s e . The s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was a h i g h l y complex a p p a r a t u s , c o n s i s t i n g o f many component p a r t s . S a l t p r o d u c e r s , y a r d m e r c h a n t s , - o f f i c i a l s , boatmen, t r a n s p o r t m e r c h a n t s , and s h u i - f a n a l l h a d t o do t h e i r j o b o r t h e monopoly c o u l d n o t f u n c t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o r r u p t i o n among any o f t h e s e g r o u p s , e a c h o f them was s u b j e c t t o d i s r u p t i o n d u r i n g t h e c h a o t i c c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e l a t e C h ' i n g . D u r i n g t h e T a i p i n g R e b e l l i o n , f o r example, t h e f l i g h t o f y a r d m e r c h a n t s and d e s t r u c t i o n o f t o o l s and f a c i l i t i e s a t t h e H u a i - n a n y a r d s meant t h a t s a l t p r o d u c t i o n c o u l d n o t c o n t i n u e . The p r e s e n c e o f t h e T a i p i n g c a p i t a l a t N a n k i n g meant t h a t t h e Y a n g t z e R i v e r r o u t e t o Hunan and Hupeh was c u t , f o r c i n g t h o s e p r o v i n c e s t o depend on s a l t f r o m Szechwan, i n e f f e c t , l e g a l i z i n g l i n - s s u . The c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e n , seems t o have made i t h i g h l y v u l n e r a b l e . Our e n d o r s e m e n t o f t h e l a n d t a x , however, must i n t h e a b s e n c e o f f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h by an e x t r e m e l y c a u t i o u s one. The p o s s i b i l i t y o f b u r e a u c r a t i c mismanagement, c o r r u p t i o n , and o c c u p a t i o n o f t e r r i t o r y by T a i p i n g a r m i e s , r e s u l t i n g i n d i s r u p t i o n o f t h e s o u r c e s o f r e v e n u e were o b v i o u s l y by 105 no means absent from the c o l l e c t i o n of the land tax. Moreover, a comparison of the e f f i c i e n c y of the s a l t and land taxes w i l l inevitably be d i f f i c u l t , since a researcher w i l l be dealing with many hypothetical situations and "might-have-beens". Nevertheless, a comparative study of various methods of r a i s i n g revenue, concentrating on t h e i r r e l a t i v e usefulness to the Ch'ing state, does o f f e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s for future research. We w i l l now conclude t h i s paper by summingLxxp- our objections-to Thomas Metzger's "optimistic".thesis concerning the effectiveness of the Ch'ing s a l t administration. Metz-ger has chosen to concentrate his research on the Liang-huai d i s t r i c t of the monopoly during the years 1740 to 1840, and we have done the same. However, Metzger does not appear to adequately distinguish between d i f f e r e n t periods of h i s - v " tory. Using our three c r i t e r i a of the supply of revenue to the state, the size of the i l l e g a l trade, and the health of the merchant community, we fin d that during the eighteenth century the s a l t administration i n Liang-huai did much to j u s t i f y Metzger's f a i t h i n i t s "impressive commercial c a p a b i l i t i e s " . The s a l t monopoly provided the state with i t s second largest portion of revenue, after the land tax. Taxes were co l l e c t e d i n f u l l , the community of transport merchants was f l o u r i s h i n g , and smuggling was considerably less than what i t was to become. However, even at this time, other d i s t r i c t s of the monopoly were not always func-tioning as they should, and required major reforms, even i f Liang-huai did not. 106 A f t e r a b o u t t h e y e a r 1800, however, t h e s i t u a t i o n c o m p l e t e l y c h a n g e d , e v e n t h o u g h M e t z g e r m a i n t a i n s t h a t "we s h o u l d n o t e x a g g e r a t e t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e monopoly", i m p l y i n g t h a t t h e C h ' i n g s t a t e ' s a b i l i t y t o e f f e c t i v e l y r e g u l a t e commerce r e m a i n e d a f t e r t h a t d a t e . The s t a t e by 1830 r e p o r t e d s h o r t f a l l s i n s a l t r e v e n u e a m o u n t i n g t o o v e r f i f t y m i l l i o n t a e l s i n ' a l l , , more t h a n t h e r c o u r t ' s t o t a l a n n u a l income. T h i s enormous d e b t h a d f o r c e d most o f t h e t r a n s p o r t m e r c h a n t s t o e i t h e r d e c l a r e b a n k r u p t c y ( c h i e f l y t h e s m a l l m e r c h a n t s ) , o r e n t e r o t h e r t y p e s o f b u s i n e s s ( t h e h e a d m e r c h a n t s ) . M e t z g e r h i m s e l f a d m i t s t h a t s m u g g l e r s a t t h a t t i m e s u p p l i e d h a l f o f t h e s a l t t h a t L i a n g - h u a i r e q u i r e d . T h i s makes a mockery o f t h e word "monopoly", w h i c h means t h e government s e l l s a l l t h e s a l t consumed. P e r h a p s most a l a r m i n g o f a l l was t h e c l o s e c o n -n e c t i o n between s a l t s m u g g l i n g and t h e s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s , m eaning t h a t f a i l u r e s i n t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o g r o w i n g u n r e s t i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e , w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y b r o k e i n t o open r e b e l l i o n i n 1853. W h i l e a d m i t t i n g t h a t t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f a c e d a number o f p r o b l e m s by t h e f i r s t d e c a d e s o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , M e t z g e r m a i n t a i n s t h a t s u c c e s s f u l r e f o r m s were p o s s i b l e , p o i n t i n g t o t h e s h o r t - t e r m s u c c e s s o f t h e t i c k e t s y s t e m i n t o d u c e d by g o v e r n o r - g e n e r a l T'ao Chu. However, M e t z g e r e r r s by n o t c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e t i c k e t s y s t e m a f t e r 1840. A l t h o u g h g r o w i n g c o r r u p t i o n and i n c o m -p e t e n c e a t t h e c o u r t w o u l d have c r e a t e d p r o b l e m s f o r any r e f o r m p r o g r a m , t h e t i c k e t s y s t e m was e s p e c i a l l y v u l n e r a b l e , 107 s i n c e i t was b a s e d on a low r a t e o f t a x a t i o n t h a t c o u l d n o t be m a i n t a i n e d i n t h e f a c e o f g r o w i n g demands f o r r e v e n u e . E v e n t u a l l y t h i s s i t u a t i o n f o r c e d t h e r e v i v a l o f t h e s y s t e m o f h e r e d i t a r y m o n o p o l i e s . M e t z g e r , w h i l e p r e s e n t i n g much u s e f u l d a t a , has f a i l e d t o c o n s i d e r t h e b a s i c dilemma o f t h e monopoly s i t u a t i o n . Dependence on a s i n g l e p r o d u c t f o r enormous amounts o f r e v e n u e c r e a t e d an a r t i f i c i a l l y h i g h p r i c e f o r t h a t p r o d u c t , w h i c h s t i m u l a t e d t h e g r o w t h o f t h e i l l e g a l t r a d e . A l t h o u g h any f i r m c o n c l u s i o n must a w a i t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , t h e o n l y s o l u t i o n seems t o have been a s u b s t i t u t i o n o f o t h e r k i n d s o f r e v e n u e f o r some o f t h e s a l t t a x e s ( t h e s a l t monopoly was t o o p r o f i -t a b l e t o a b o l i s h a l t o g e t h e r ) , so as t o t a k e t h e upward p r e s -s u r e o f f t h e p r i c e o f s a l t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i n t h e c h a o t i c c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e l a t e C h ' i n g s u c h a m a s s i v e r e f o r m w o u l d have r e q u i r e d an e n e r g y and d e t e r m i n a t i o n t h a t t h e c o u n t r y no l o n g e r p o s s e s s e d . 108 F o o t n o t e s 1. Ray Huang. " F i s c a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n D u r i n g t h e M i n g D y n a s t y " , i n C h a r l e s 0. H u c k e r e d . C h i n e s e Government i n  M i n g T i m e s : Seven S t u d i e s . New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969, p . 94. 2. The works i n C h i n e s e s u r v e y e d f o r t h i s p a p e r a r e Ho W e i - n i n g . Chung-kuo y e n - c h e n g s h i h (A h i s t o r y o f t h e C h i n e s e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) . T a i p e i , 1966. H e r e a f t e r HWN, and T s e n g Y a n g - f e n g . Chung-kuo y e n - c h e n g s h i h (A h i s t o r y o f t h e C h i n e s e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) . S h a n g h a i , 1937. H e r e a f t e r TYF,. 3. S a e k i Tomi " i £ 1& -| . S h i n d a i e n s e i no k e n k y u 5-^ JEJ^ S T ? (The s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n u n d e r t h e C h ' i n g D y n a s t y ) . K y o t o , 1956. 4. Ho P i n g - t i . "The S a l t M e r c h a n t s o f Y ang-chou: A S t u d y o f C o m m e r c i a l C a p i t a l i s m i n E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y C h i n a " , H a r v a r d J o u r n a l o f A s i a t i c S t u d i e s , V o l . 17 ( 1 9 5 4 ) , p. 130-68. 5. Dr. M e t z g e r ' s two a r t i c l e s a r e "T'ao Chu's R e f o r m o f t h e H u a i p e i S a l t Monopoly (1831-1833)", H a r v a r d P a p e r s  on C h i n a , V o l . 16 ( 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 1-39, and "The O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e C h ' i n g S t a t e i n t h e F i e l d o f Commerce: The L i a n g - H u a i S a l t M o n o p oly, 1740-1840", i n W.E. W i l l m o t t ed. E c o n o m i c O r g a n i z a t i o n i n C h i n e s e S o c i e t y . S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972, p. 10-45. 6. M e t z g e r , " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C a p a b i l i t i e s " , p. 10. 7. P r o m i n e n t among t h e s e s o u r c e s a r e t h e t h r e e L i a n g - h u a i s a l t g a z e t t e e r s o f 1693, 1806, and 1904. 8. F o r example, t h e t i c k e t s y s t e m g a i n e d w i d e p o p u l a r i t y a f t e r i t was i n s t i t u t e d i n L i a n g - h u a i . See L i u Chun. "Tao-kuang ch'ao l i a n g - h u a i f e i - y i n k a i - p ' i a o shih-mo" (A c o m p l e t e a c c o u n t o f t h e change f r o m t h e s y s t e m o f h e r e -d i t a r y m o n o p o l i e s t o t h e t i c k e t s y s t e m i n L i a n g - h u a i d u r i n g t h e T a o - k u a n g r e i g n ) , Chung-kuo s h e - h u i c h i n g - c h i s h i h  c h i - k ' a n ( C o l l e c t e d r e s e a r c h a r t i c l e s on C h i n e s e s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c h i s t o r y ) , V o l . 1, no. 2 (May 1 9 3 3 ) , p. 186-8. 9. M e t z g e r , " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C a p a b i l i t i e s " , p . 10. 10. I b i d . J i 11. I b i d . , p. 11. 12 . I b i d . , p. 18 . 13. I b i d . , p. 42. 14. Edmund H. Worthy. " R e g i o n a l C o n t r o l i n t h e S o u t h e r n Sung S a l t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n " , i n J o h n W i n t h r o p H a e g e r e d . C r i s i s and P r o s p e r i t y i n Sung C h i n a . T u c s o n : U n i v e r s i t y o f A r i z o n a P r e s s , 1975, p. 135. 15. I b i d . , p. 137. 16. L i u Chun, "Tao-kuang", p. 141-2. 17. M e t z g e r , " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C a p a b i l i t i e s " , p. 18, 31. 18. See, f o r example, t h e f i g u r e s f o r s a l e s o f s a l t o f f e r e d by N a - e r h - c h i n g - o i n C h ' i n g s h i h - l u c h i n g - c h i t z u - l i a o  c h i - y a o ( I m p o r t a n t e c o n o m i c m a t e r i a l s t a k e n f r o m t h e C h ' i n g 109 v e r i t a b l e r e c o r d s ) . C o m p i l e d by t h e h i s t o r y d e p a r t m e n t o f N a n k a i U n i v e r s i t y . P e k i n g , 1959, p. 851. H e r e a f t e r SLCY. 19. C h i a n g T a o - c h a n g . " S a l t C o n s u m p t i o n i n C h ' i n g C h i n a " , Nanyang U n i v e r s i t y J o u r n a l , V o l s . 8 & 9 ( 1 9 7 4 / 5 ) , p . 67. 20. Worthy, " R e g i o n a l C o n t r o l " , p. 138-9. 21. TYF, p. 4. 22. HWN, p. 32. 23. TYF, p. 9, 21. 24. Worthy, " R e g i o n a l C o n t r o l " , p. 102. 25. HWN, p. 114. 26. I b i d . , p. 223. 27. M e t z g e r , "T'ao Chu's Reform", p. 2. 28. M e t z g e r , " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C a p a b i l i t i e s " , p . 19. 29. T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s a l t monopoly i s f o u n d i n Ho, " S a l t M e r c h a n t s " , p . 133-49, M e t z g e r , " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C a p a b i l i t i e s " , p. 11-16, M e t z g e r , "T'ao Chu's R e f o r m " , '" p. 2-9, and L i u Chun "Tao-kuang", p. 129-31. 30. L i u Chun, "Tao-kuang", p. 129. 31. M e t z g e r , " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C a p a b i l i t i e s " , p. 10. 32. L i u Chun, "Tao-kuang", p. 131-3. 33. SLCY, p. 832. 34. Ho, " S a l t M e r c h a n t s " , p. 150. 35. I b i d . , p. 154. 36. I b i d . , p. 156-61. 37. I b i d . , p . 165. 38. Chu S h i h i x t • " C h ' i n g t i n g y e n - f a s h u " (A m e m o r i a l r e q u e s t i n g t h a t s a l t laws be e s t a b l i s h e d ) , i n C h ' i n g - c h ' a o c h i n g - s h i h w e n - p i e n ( C o l l e c t e d s t a t e c r a f t e s s a y s o f t h e C h ' i n g D y n a s t y ) . E d . Ho C h ' a n g - l i n g . 8 v o l s . T a i p e i , 1973. chuan % 50, p. l l b - 1 3 . H e r e a f t e r WP. 39. SLCY, p. 813. 40. L i u Chun, "Tao-kuang", p. 139. 41. SLCY, p. 784. 42. Cheng T s u - c h e n t§> p %g_ £ j£ • "Keng y e n - f a " ^ £f| «± (On c h a n g i n g t h e s a l t l a w s ) , i n WP, c h . 49, p . 3b-4. 43. L u Hsun -i H . "Shang-yen c h i a - y i n c h i e n -nn. c h i a s h u p^j h a ^1 ^ (A m e m o r i a l r e q u e s t i n g t h a t t h e w e i g h t o f t h e y i n be i n c r e a s e d w h i l e t h e p r i c e o f t h e m e r c h a n t s ' s a l t i s r e d u c e d ) , i n WP, c h . 49, p . 9-9b. 44- C h ' i n g - s h i h ( H i s t o r y o f t h e C h ' i n g D y n a s t y ) . E d . K u o - f a n g y e n - c h i u y u a n ( N a t i o n a l D e f e n s e R e s e a r c h I n s t i -t u t e ) . 8 v o l s . T a i p e i , 1971, c h . 124, p. 7. H e r e a f t e r CS. 45. L i u Chun, "Tao-kuang", p. 150. 46. CS, c h . 124, p. 7. 47. T a - c h ' i n g l i - c h ' a o s h i h - l u ( V e r i t a b l e r e c o r d s o f t h e s u c c e s s i v e r e i g n s o f t h e C h ' i n g D y n a s t y ) . H s u a n - t s u n g c h ' e n g h u a n g - t i s h i h - l u ( V e r i t a b l e r e c o r d s o f t h e T a o - k u a n g 110 r e i g n ) . T o k y o , 1937, c h . 134, p. 15b-16. H e r e a f t e r CSL. 48. T'ao Chu. T'ao w e n - i - k u n g (Chu) c h i ( C o l l e c t e d w r i -t i n g s o f T'ao C h u ) . 8 v o l s . T a i p e i , 1974, c h . 18, p. 64. H e r e a f t e r TC. 49. M e t z g e r , " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C a p a b i l i t i e s " , p. 41. 50. M e t z g e r , "T'ao Chu's Ref o r m " , p. 9. 51. Pao S h i h - c h ' e n . An-wu s s u - c h u n g (Four t y p e s o f e s s a y s c o n c e r n i n g t h e p a c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e Y a n g t z e v a l l e y ) . T a i p e i , Wen-hai P u b l i s h i n g Co. r e p r i n t o f an 1872 e d i t i o n . Ch. 5, p. 14b. H e r e a f t e r PSC. 52. TC, c h . 15, p. 38b. 53. Shen C h ' i - y u a n i^fc ^2. fL. . "Shang t u ~ y u a n l u n c h i a n g - h s i yen~wu sh u " . --f.^ ^ J S --r P& kfo a (A l e t t e r t o t h e g o v e r n o r - g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i n g K i a n g s i s a l t m a t t e r s ) , and "Shang t u - y u a n c h a o - k u n g l u n h u a i - y e n s h u " - t £ f £ & & i * (A l e t t e r t o g o v e r n o r - g e n e r a l Chao d i s c u s s i n g L i a n g - h u a i s a l t ) , i n WP, c h . 50, p. 20, 21b. 54. SLCY, p. 845. A l s o L i n T s e - h s u . L i n wen-chung-kung  c h e n g - s h u ( P o l i t i c a l w r i t i n g s o f L i n T s e - h s u ) . 2 'vols.'..' C h a n g s h a , 1939. Hu-kuang t s o u - k a o j | | £ ( M e m o r i a l s w r i t t e n as g o v e r n o r - g e n e r a l o f Hunan and Hupeh), c h . 1, p. 1 - l b . H e r e a f t e r LTH (HK) . 55. M e t z g e r , " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C a p a b i l i t i e s " , p. 11. 56. I b i d . , p. 39-40. 57. SLCY, p. 830. 58. LTH (HK), c h . 3, p. 2. 59. Yu T e - y u a n . . >'"' C h ! eng ho ou-keng s h i h " 1 ^ ^ (A l e t t e r t o M a s t e r H o ) , i n C h ' i n g - c h ' a o c h i n g - s h i h wen-hsu p i e n ( A d d i t i o n a l s t a t e -c r a f t e s s a y s o f t h e C h ' i n g D y n a s t y ) . E d . Ko S h i h - c h u n . V o l s . 9-13 i n a s e r i e s . T a i p e i , 1973, c h . 42, p. 12. H e r e a f t e r WHP. 60. TC, c h . 13, p. 23-23b. 61. PSC, c h . 7 shang J^r;. . ( f i r s t p a r t ) , p. 40. 62. O m i t t e d by m i s t a k e . 63. T'u Wen-chun % 32L Hit? • " C h i n g - c h ' en t ' u n g - c h ' o u h u a i - t s ' o c h i - p i s h u " %i_ f j t 1 % jj$ ; v | i 111 £ | ^ ^JL (A m e m o r i a l c o n c e r n i n g t h e h a n d l i n g o f a b u s e s i n L i a n g - h u a i s a l t a f f a i r s ) , i n T a o - h s i e n - t ' u n g - k u a n g s s u - c h ' a o t s o u - i ( M e m o r i a l s o f t h e f o u r r e i g n s o f Tao-kuang, H s i e n - f e n g , T ' u n g - c h i h , and K u a n g - h s u ) . E d . Wang Yun-wu. T a i p e i , 1970, p. 752. H e r e a f t e r T I . 64. PSC, c h . 7 shang, p. 39b. 65. Ho, " S a l t M e r c h a n t s " , p. 147. LTH (HK), c h . 3, p . 2. 66. TC, c h . 11, p. 5b. A l s o Kuo C h ' i - y u a n |_p ^g. f t I l l "Cho y e n - f a " ® 0 ^ i% (A d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s a l t l a w s ) , . 38b. Kuo, "Cho y e n - f a " , 137. . 135. p. 2 . . 136. i n WP, c h . 50, p. 1 1 . 67. PSC, c h . 7 s h a n g , p 68. TC, c h . 1 1 , p. 5b. p. 11. 69. PSC, c h . 5, p. 22b. 70. I b i d . , c h . 7 s h a n g , p. 8. 71. TC, c h . 1 1 , p. 17b. 72. M e t z g e r , " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C a p a b i l i t i e s " 73. CS, c h . 124, p. 3. 74. Ho, " S a l t M e r c h a n t s " , p. 75. PSC, c h . 5, p. 18-18b. 76. L i u Chun, " T a o - k u a n g " , p 77. I b i d . A l s o CS, c h . 124, 78. L i u Chun, " T a o - k u a n g " , p R e f o r m " , p. 4. 79. TC, c h . 1 3 , p. 19-19b. 801 M e t z g e r , "T'ao Chu's R e f o r m " , p, k u a n g n , p. 132. 81. HWN, p. 408. CS, c h . 124, p. 5, L i u C h u n, " T a o - k u a n g " , p. 134. M e t z g e r , "Tao Chu's R e f o r m " , p. L i u Chun, " T a o - k u a n g " , p. 134. TC, c h . 1 5 , p. 40. L i u C h u n , " T a o - k u a n g " , p. 1 3 5 . Ho, " S a l t M e r c h a n t s " , p. 141. SLCY, p. 815 !K- .nn-c h a n g i n g t h e s a l t l a w s ) , i n WHP, c h . 4 3 , p. 6. 89. M e t z g e r , "T'ao Chu's R e f o r m " , p. 33 n o t e 10 1 1 , p. 22. L i u C h u n, " T a o - k u a n g " , p. 144. 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"Cheng-tun ts'o-wu c h a n g - c h ' e n g s h u " * ^ H fet H f U £ & (A m e m o r i a l c o n c e r n i n g a d j u s t i n g t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s ) , i n T I , p. 233. 177. . Pao S h i h - c h ' e n , " H u a i - y e n " , WP, c h . 49, p. 5. 178. TC, c h . 11, p. 14b. 179. I b i d . , c h . 11, p. 14b-15. 180. L i H s i n g - y u a n ^ |[ . " C h o - i h u a i - n a n y e n -wu c h a n g - c h ' e n g s h u " <B tffc 5& * *£_ f ^ (A m e m o r i a l d i s c u s s i n g t h e H u a i - n a n s a l t r e g u l a t i o n s ) , i n T I , p. 802. 181. L u K'un, "Cheng-tun", T I , p. 233. 182. PSC, c h . 5, p. 18. 114 183. T'u Wen-chun, " C h i n g - c h ' en t 1 ung-ch ' cm" , T I , p. 754 184. TC, c h . 11, p. 19b. 185. HWN, p. 122. 186. I b i d . , p. 72. 187. TYF, p. 16. 188. Teng S s u - y u . The N i e n Army and T h e i r G u e r r i l l a  W a r f a r e . The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1961, p. 19-22. 189. F a n g Y i i - l a n 7j £ ; ^  • " H s i n g - l i e h j i h - c h i h u i - y a o " 1. ^ s E jp_ ^ - ( I m p o r t a n t i t e m s f r o m t h e H s i n g - l i e h D i a r y ) , i n N i e n - c h u n (The N i e n Army). E d . F a n Wen-Ian e t . a l . P e k i n g , 1957. V o l . 6, p. 309. 190. SLCY, p. 830. 191. T e n g , N i e n Army, p. 41. 192. CSL, c h . 13, p. 7. 193. S i a n g - t s e h C h i a n g . The N i e n R e b e l l i o n . S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , 1954, p. 14. 194. LTH (HK), c h . 3, p . 3. 195. CSL, c h . 101, p. 40. 196. I b i d . , c h . 125, p. 25-6. 197. TC, c h . 13, p. 27b. 198. I b i d . , c h . 13, p. 27-30b. 199. Teng, N i e n Army, p. 41. 200. TC, c h . 13, p. 27. 201. CSL, c h . 13, p. 7. 202. Pao S h i h - c h ' e n , " H u a i - y e n " , WP, c h . 49, p. 4b. A l s o Wang T s e n g - f a n g 5. ^efr . " C h i n g - c h 1 e n yen-wu ching<-chiu c h i h - f a s h u " P J L ^ J l i , X~ i £ £3iL ( A m e m o r i a l c o n c e r n i n g l o n g - s t a n d i n g methods i n t h e s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) , i n T I , p. 214. 203. T h i s a c c o u n t o f Huang's c a r e e r i s f o u n d i n M e t g e r , " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C a p a b i l i t i e s " , p. 33. T e n g , N i e n Army, p. 53-4 n o t e 31. CSL, c h . 168 p . 3-5, c h . 169 p. 25b-27, c h . 174 p. 31-32b, c h . 1.77 p. 22b-24. 204. Pao S h i h - c h ' e n , " H u a i - y e n " , WP, c h . 49, p. 4b. 205. Hsu, Modern C h i n a , p. 309. 206. CSL, c h . 180, p. 20-20b. 207. Yang S h i h - t a fc^L -t- . " Y i i wang y u - s h i h l u n h u a i - y e n t i - i s h u " ^ £ ' i & £ & 1 I (The f i r s t l e t t e r t o C e n s o r Wang d i s c u s s i n g L i a n g - h u a i s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) , i n WHP, c h . 43, p. 4b. 208. W i n s t o n H s i e h . " T r i a d s , S a l t S m u g g l e r s and L o c a l U p r i s i n g s : O b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e S o c i a l and E c o n o m i c Back-g r o u n d o f t h e Waichow R e v o l u t i o n o f 1911", i n J e a n C h e s -neaux e d . P o p u l a r Movements and S e c r e t S o c i e t i e s i n C h i n a  1840-1950. S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972, p. 158. 209;. I b i d . , p . 148. 210. I b i d . , p. 160-64. 211. CS, c h . 124, p. 3. 115 212. LTH ( K S ) , c h . 4 , p. 5. 213. TC, c h . 15, p. 5. 214. T e n g T 1 i n g - c h e n ^-P £ | . " C h ' o u - i c h ' a - c h i n l i a n g - c h ' u a n c h i a - s s u c h a n g - c h ' e n g s h u " | t ^ 1^ | ^ $ A | i l l (A m e m o r i a l d i s c u s s i n g r e g u l a t i o n s f o r b i d d i n g s m u g g l i n g by g r a i n b o a t s ) , i n T I , p. 237-8. 215. M e t z g e r , " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C a p a b i l i t i e s " , p. 33. TC, c h . 15, p. 1-6. 216. TC, c h . 15, p. 2. 217. SLCY, p. 854-5. 218. TC, c h . 13 p. 2, c h . 15 p. l b . 219. T e n g T ' i n g - c h e n , " C h ' o u - i c h ' a - c h i n " , T I , p. 237. 220. I b i d . , p. 236. A l s o Pao S h i h - c h ' e n , " H u a i - y e n " , WP, c h . 49, p. 4b. 221. CSL, c h . 83, p. 8-9. 222. I b i d . , c h . 80, p. 28b-29. 223. Kung-chuan H s i a o . R u r a l C h i n a : I m p e r i a l C o n t r o l i n  t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y . S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , 1967, p. 232. 224. CSL, c h . 80, p. 29b. 225. M e t z g e r , " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C a p a b i l i t i e s " , p. 11. 226. I b i d . 227. CSL, c h . 105, p. 24-24b. 228. LTH (HK), c h . 2, p. 2b-3. 229. I b i d . , c h . 3, p. 2b-3. 230. I b i d . , c h . 1, p. 1. 231. I b i d . , c h . 3, p. 2b. 232. Chang H s i n - p a o , C o m m i s s i o n e r L i n , p. 122-4. 233. Kung-chuan H s i a o , R u r a l C o n t r o l , p. 74-5. 234. A c c o u n t s o f c o r r u p t i o n among t h e s o l d i e r s a r e f o u n d i n PSC, c h . 7 s h a n g , p. 39. L i u Chun, "Tao-kuang"', p. 145. -;SLCY, p. 839 . C h i a n g Hung-sheng, " C h i n g - c h ' e n h u a i - t s ' o " , T I , p. 692. 235. T s ' a o L u - t ' a i |jf ^ $~ . " C h i n g - c h ' e n h u a i -t s ' o c h i ~ p i c h i - i c h e n g - t u n s h u " "fo- p£ i t * | v & k . % t ^ (A m e m o r i a l s u g g e s t i n g how t o i m m e d i a t e l y c o r r e c t a b u s e s i n L i a n g - h u a i s a l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) , i n T I , p. 670-1. 2 36. WY, c h . 7, p. 16. 237. I b i d . , c h . 7, p. 16-23. 238. SLCY, p . 792-4. 239. LTH (HK), c h . 3, p . 3b. 240. WY, c h . 7, p. l b . 241. L i u Chun, "Tao-kuang", p. 150-1. 242. Wang T s e n g - f a n g , " C h i n g - c h ' e n yen-wu", T I , p. 215. 243. CS, c h . 124, p. 7. 244. M e t z g e r , "T'ao Chu's Reform", p. 5. 245. L i u Chun, "Tao-kuang", p. 169. 246. 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The l a t e r history of the t i c k e t system i s found i n L i u Chun. 5 ,Hsien-feng i-hou liang-huai chih p'iao-fa" (The t i c k e t system i n Liang-huai a f t e r the Ksien-feng reign), Chung-kuo she-hui ching-chi shih chi-k'an (Collec-ted a r t i c l e s on Chinese s o c i a l and economic h i s t o r y ) , Vol. 2, no. 1 (November 1933), p. 142-165. 257. L i u Chun, "Tao-kuang", p. 155. 258. Hsu, Modern China, p. 166, 368. 259. Ibid., p. 166, p. 409. 260. Ibid., p. 517. 261. Hsieh, "Triads", p. 162-4. 262. Hsu, Modern China, p. 518. 263. Hsieh, "Triads", p. 159. 264. TYF, p. 10-11. Also Denis Twitchett. F i n a n c i a l  Administration under the T'ang Dynasty. London: Cambridge University Press, 1970, p. 55. 265. HWN, p. 99, 114-5. 266. Ibid. , p. 101-2. 26 7. Twitchett, F i n a n c i a l Administration, p. 56. 268. Ibid., p. 56-7. 269. HWN, p. 118. 270. Twitchett, Fi n a n c i a l Administration, p. 55-6, 58. 271. Worthy, "Regional Control", p. 104-5, 134. 272. 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" H s i e n - f e n g i - h o u l i a n g - h u a i c h i h p ' i a o - f a " (The t i c k e t s y s t e m i n L i a n g - h u a i a f t e r t h e H s i e n - f e n g r e i g n ) , Chung-kuo s h e - h u i c h i n g - c h i s h i h c h i - k ' a n V o l . 2, no. 1 (November 1933) , p. 142-165. 17. Thomas M e t z g e r . "T'ao Chu's R e f o r m o f t h e H u a i p e i S a l t Monopoly (1831-1833)'', H a r v a r d P a p e r s on C h i n a , V o l . 16 (1962) , p. 1-39. "The O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e C h ' i n g S t a t e i n t h e F i e l d o f Commerce: The L i a n g - K u a i S a l t M o n o p oly, 1740-1840", i n W.E. W i l l m o t t ed. E c o n o m i c O r g a n i z a t i o n i n C h i n e s e  S o c i e t y . S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972, p. 10-18. N i e n - c h u n (The N i e n Army) . Ed . F a n Wen-I a n C"^" X_ * ^ e t . a l . 6 v o l s . S h a n g h a i , 195 7. 19. Pao S h i h - c h ' e n zL ^ ^- • An-wu s s u - c h u n g ( F o u r t y p e s o f e s s a y s c o n c e r n i n g t h e p a c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e Y a n g t z e v a l l e y ) . T a i p e i , Weh-hai P u b l i s h i n g Co. r e p r i n t o f an 1872 e d i t i o n . 120 20. Ta-ch'ing li-ch'ao shih-lu fgfc ^ g? (Veritable records of the successive reigns of the Ch'ing Dynasty). Hsuan-tsung ch'eng huang-ti shih-lu (Veritable records of the Tao-kuang reign). Tokyo, 1937. 21. Tao-hsien-t'ung-kuang ssu-ch'ao tsou-i (Memorials of the four reigns of Tao-kuang, Hsien-feng, T' ung-chili, and Kuang-hsu) . Ed. Wang Yun-wu €P Taipei, 1970. ^ 22. T'ao Chu pSp i ^ r j - . T'ao wen-i-kung (Chu) chi ^ X. <5|*> j | (Collected writings of T'ao Chu). 8 vols. T a i p e i , 1974. 23. Teng Ssu-yu. The Nien Army and Their G u e r r i l l a War-fare . The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1961. 24. Tseng Yang-feng tg -jCp L'^J • Chung-kuo yen-cheng shih (A history of the Chinese s a l t administration). Shanghai, 1937. 25. Denis Twitchett. F i n a n c i a l Administration under the  T'ang Dynasty. London: Cambridge University Press, second edition 1970. 26. Wei Yuan * • Ku-wei t'ang nei-wai chi * f rtl (Collected writings from the l i t t l e ancient h a l l ) . T a i p e i , 1969 . 27. Edmund H. Worthy. "Regional Control i n the Southern Sung Salt Administration", i n John Winthrop Kaeger ed. C r i s i s and Prosperity i n Sung China. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1975, p. 101-141. 121 G l o s s a r y C e r t a i n words and names w h i c h a r e f a m i l i a r f r o m g e n e r a l C h i n e s e h i s t o r y have been o m i t t e d . Chang L o - h s i n g ?-|L '\f C h i n g - c h o u ')•)'} Chang S h i h - c h ' e n g ^ 1 ^  c h l i n g - p ' i j | £ Chang T'ang « v c h i u - c h ' a n g c h e n g - s h u i c h ' a n g ± B ' ^ ^ C h ' a n g - l u - j ^ yg- Chu S h i h %^ ^ . ^ t c h ' ang-p' i n g f a jjr l p chung-pao >^ c h ' a n g - s h a n g ± s c h u - c h ' ang ^ / f o ^ C h e n - c h i a n g j | ; r c h u - j e n ^ C h e n - h a i c ^ c h u - s h a n g JSj fa c h e n - p ' i a o J F a n g Kuo-chen f i J ^ c h e n g - t s a - k ' o I E ' J i i . F a n g Y u - l a n 7=5 3 L 5 f|f Cheng T s u - c h ' e n ^_g_ £ ^ f e n - s s u i ] ch'eng-pen ^ 7(5^ f e n g - k ' o J i ^ J C h i - c h ; i n g % /|| F e n g - y a n g JTff^ j*jjL c h i h s i c h ' e n g p i , c h i p i c h ' e n g l i * I T; * n '•!?- - . ' i c h ' i a f o u - f e i ? || ^ C h i a n g Hung-sheng : x 9 f f u c h a n g - t ' o u J^ j 5 C h i a n g Y u - t ' i e n # | ^ £ F u - c h u - l u n g - a c h i a o - f e i 1 * £ C h i e n - c h ' a n g j j : § H a i - c h o u 5 % ')•]•) c h i e n - c h i a t i - s s u lip c h ' i h t a - h u Z7 Heng-chou *(£T ')')') c h i n - s h i h ^ 1 -±- H o - f e i 6 $ G C h i n Y i n g - l i n Aii ^ | f Ho-shen ^ i f 122 Ho-tung :q * l i k i n & £ hu-t'u ^ l i - s o u | ^ Huai-nan > I i j|] L l Ta-pen ^ ^ ^ Huai-pei yfc ^ Liang-che Gfo Huang Ch' ao ^ Liang-huai ^3 >'\JL Huang-ch'ao ching-shih wen-pien |[ ^ t£ 5ZL Huang Yu-lin eif 3L l i n - s s u ^ Hung-hu f e i | ^ 111 Lin Tse-hsu fcfc. g'j ^ hsia |f L i u Chun ^ Hsiang-yang j | pijL L i u San-mao -S- ^ hsin-an ^ ^ L i u Yen ! J Hsu = *f _ • lo-t s u hsu-ku /J: ^ Lu Chien-ying hsun-huan p'iao-fa y\J% £ ^ §& i£ lo a - k u e . i pig £ < L I-ch'ang £ * Lu Hsun / J | £ I-cheng ^ M a K'o-chien ^ ;( I-liang .p-A ma-t'ou Jj 5_j| kang-an mao-ch'uan £ | £ kang-fa 4,. |2] ming & ken-wo ^ Mu Feng-lin FjT^ Ku Yen-wu jg^ Mu Jung-ch' ang ^ f, Kuan Chung ^ ^ Na-erh-ching--o kuan-yun '|r o 1 J »' ^  ^ kuan-yun kuan-hsiao ^ nien-tzu t u t &n ^ ^ , ^ : kung-jan s h e - l i chang-ch'eng ix. IL |p ^ i . Kuo Ch'i-yuan |p jj=£, jt, pan-kung %f)% lao-an p' an-an j i g lao-kuan ^- g" pao-chia ^ * f a 1 2 3 Pao-ch'ing jk, Ti-wu Ch * i ^, i _ ^ BEI a pao-hsiao % H ^ T !ien-tao hui A 4 Pao Hsing £ l £ M T ' i e n ~ t i hui : ^  ^ Pao Shih-ch'en ^ ^ t' ing p'eng-shou f t' u-kun ±_ * ft p i tfcfc. T'u Wen-chun 5 £ ^ £ v, Pi-ch'ang i , T s ' a i Ch'ien ^ -§ ^ _^ p'iao-fa tsao-hu |? ^ P'ing-p'p ^ £ j £ Ts'ao * po T s ' a o Lu-t'ai f ^ pu-t'ou i | s | tsou-hsiao |k san-shang £, tsung-shang ^Jg ^ Sun Ting-ch !en ^ ^ ^ Waichow i , >)•)-) Sung-chiang Wang Hsien-chih J_ ^ ^ _ shang-huo shang-ssu pj] /it/j-shih-an ^ ^ ' W a n 9 T i n 9 5-Shou-chou § ,).).) ^ n g Tseng-fang 3L 7? shu-shou £ s_ Wei Yuan £ ^ CJl^ a v shu-yuan ^ pA, wu-pen t'ang ftfe ^ shui-fan Ik. Wu-tsung ^ £ ta chang-t'ou 1 i t | ^ Yangchow #^ •)•)-) T !ai~chou * .)•).» Y e h C h ! i IT T'an A~chao | | ^ yen-ch 1 ao fa ^ ^ t'ang-hsi ^ | yen-hsiao : ^ t'a n g - l i ^ yen-k'o ssu-ta-shih T'ao Chu p £ j an- a ^ J * ~ Teng K' eng yen-kuan Teng T' ing-chen ^ $± ^ | ' yen-yun-shih \j_ i t 1 2 4 Y i n =7! Yu T e - y u a n ^ ; £3 y u a n - s h a n g ±. !_ ^ Yuan S h i h - c h e n ^ j£-y u e h - c h e ft % ^ y u e h - c h i n ^ yf£ y u n - s h a n g p-j 

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