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The tourist’s image of a city : Vancouver, B.C. Nightingale Berry, Ellen Janet 1979

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.  THE  TOURIST'S  IMAGE  OF A  CITY:  VANCOUVER,  B.C.  by ELLEN B.A.,  A  THESIS THE  JANET JNIGHTINGALE  BERRY  McMaster University,  SUBMITTED  IN  REQUIREMENTS MASTER  1977  PARTIAL  FULFILLMENT  FOR  DEGREE  OF  THE  OF  ARTS  in THE  FACULTY  OF  (Department  We a c c e p t to  THE  this  the  GRADUATE of  UNIVERSITY  Janet  as  conforming  standard  OF B R I T I S H  December,  © E l l e n  Geography)  thesis  required,  STUDIES  COLUMBIA  1979  Nightingale  Berry,  1979  OF  (  )E-6  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s  an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree  for  that  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  It  i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g or  publication  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my written  permission.  Department The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date .  BP  75-5  1  I E  ABSTRACT This of  i s an  tourist  various are  exploratory study  images  and  of  "image" as  the  constructed  product  developed.  To  be  concept  of  of  indirect  illustrate  d e r i v e d from  the  secondary  a modified  content  the  images t o u r i s t s  are  studied.  past and  travel images  tour  A  the  g r o u p s who  the and  direct  192  city  was  visited  a  socially-  experience  are  a c q u i r e by  may  articles  Secondly,  visiting  the  city  to ascertain  the  information sources, t o 1-2-  administered  Vancouver  that  is  examined  technique.  intentions,  scientists  periodical  s i n c e 1907,  analysis  The  social  image as  questionnaire designed  experience, of  used by  sources,  actually  Columbia.  images of a p l a c e  concerning Vancouver, w r i t t e n using  social construction  of Vancouver, B r i t i s h  definitions  reviewed,  of the  escorted  i n A u g u s t and  September  1978. . The  results  suggest  image o f a b e a u t i f u l , with  Stanley Park  images f i g u r e although more  city  particular study  booming,  Both may  overall  points to  experience,  and  crime  and  analyses  provide  images  of  the  public  cosmopolitan  i t s outstanding landmark.  i n the  i n f o r m a t i o n on  the  exciting,  impressions  non-travel-oriented periodicals  periodicals. of  low  as  t h a t Vancouver has  politics  suggest  than  Negative  of  tend do  Vancouver,  to  present  other  that holistic  o r g a n i z i n g schemata around  individual  places are b u i l t .  the b e n e f i t of  travel  emphasizes  importance  the (ii)  as  city,  images which The  an e n r i c h i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n  sources  i n the development  of a sense of  (Dr.  (iii)  J a m e s S.  place.  Duncan,  advisor)  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  Page ABSTRACT  ( i i )  TABLE  (iv)  OF C O N T E N T S  LIST  OF T A B L E S  LIST  OF F I G U R E S  ( v i i ) (x)  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. "SUPER  SMILE  (xi)  CAMPAIGN"  ( x i i i ) 1  INTRODUCTION CHAPTER  1:  CHAPTER  2:  4  IMAGERY. 1.1 1.2 1.3  Definitions Image F o r m a t i o n Summary  METHODOLOGY  Processes  FOR THE A N A L Y S I S  OF T H E 22  PERIODICALS CHAPTER  3:  4 15 20  PERIODICAL ANALYSIS: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.1 Landscape Elements 3.1.1 General Results 3.1.2 Comparison of Travel and Non-travel A r t i c l e s 3.2 Images 3.3 Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n s '' 3 . 3 . 1 The C o m p o s i t e Image 3.3.2 Changes Over Time 3.3.3 Conclusion  32 32 33 59 73 147 147 153 161  CHAPTER  4:  METHODOLOGY F O R T O U R I S T Q U E S T I O N N A I R E 4.1 Sample S e l e c t i o n 4.2 P i l o t Study and Questionnaire. *>.3 Development 4.3 Field Procedures 4.4 Data Processing Methods 4.5 Evaluation of the Methodology......  CHAPTER  5:  R E S U L T S OF THE T O U R I S T Q U E S T I O N N A I R E 180 5.1 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e F i n a l S a m p l e . . . . 180 5.2 Previous Travel Experience 186 5.3 A t t i t u d e s Towards Tour Group T r a v e l . . . . I 8 7 5.4 Choice of a P a r t i c u l a r Package Tour....193 5-5 Leisure Travel Intentions 196  (iv)  164 I65 , =i) ' 1?0 172 174 178  Page •5.6 5«7 5-8 5.9 5.10 5.11 CHAPTER  6:  Reasons f o r V i s i t i n g Vancouver Information Sources Experiences in Vancouver. Images of V a n c o u v e r . . . . . B e n e f i t of V i s i t and V o l u n t e e r e d Comments Summary  CONCLUSION 6.1 Summary 6.2 Implications for Travel 6.3 Suggestions for Further 6.4 Conclusion  NOTES APPENDICES:  Promotion Study  211 214 .230 245 267 271 273 273 277 279 281 282  A B C D  E  F  G H I J  K  L M N 0  P  Q  R  Images Used 285 L a n d Use C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System 286 L a n d Use Map o f V a n c o u v e r '. . Values of C h i - S q u a r e s f o r Comparison ^"S^k^JLC^dU^ of T r a v e l and N o n - t r a v e l Writers' S e l e c t i o n of Landscape Elements 288 Values of Chi-Squares f o r Comparison of T r a v e l and N o n - t r a v e l Writers' S e l e c t i o n of Land Use Types 289 Values of Chi-Squares f o r Comparison of T r a v e l and N o n - t r a v e l Writers' S e l e c t i o n of Images 290 Pre-t'est Questionnaire 291 Final Questionnaire 297 V a r i a b l e s u s e d i n t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . . . . 298 Chi-Square Results for Comparison of Canadians' and Americans' Reasons for V i s i t i n g Vancouver 300 Chi-Square Results for Comparison of Canadians* and A m e r i c a n s ' Information Sources 301 T-tests for E f f e c t s of Weather on P l a c e s Mentioned by Respondents 302 Postcards of Vancouver 303 Summary o f T - t e s t R e s u l t s for C a p s u l e and Aggregate Images 307 Rho S t a t i s t i c f o r C a p s u l e and A g g r e g a t e Images ( T o u r i s t Questionnaire Data) 309 Chi-Square Results for Canadian/ American Differences in Capsule Images of Vancouver 310 T-test Results for Canadian/ American Differences in Aggregate Images of Vancouver 311 The T o u r i s t ' s P r a y e r 313  (v)  Page 33.4  BIBLIOGRAPHY  327  GENERAL REFERENCES  (vi)  LIST  OF  TABLES  Table 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37  38  39 40  Page D i s t r i b u t i o n o f A r t i c l e s o v e r Time 24 Number o f C a n a d i a n P u b l i c a t i o n s I n d e x e d i n the Readers ' Guide 24 T i t l e s o f N o n - t r a v e l P e r i o d i c a l s Used 26 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T r a v e l and N o n - t r a v e l A r t i c l e s o v e r Time 27 Number o f T r a v e l P e r i o d i c a l s I n d e x e d i n Readers' Guide 28 L a n d s c a p e E l e m e n t s R a n k e d b y t h e Number o f A r t i c l e s M e n t i o n i n g Them 34 G r o u p i n g o f L a n d s c a p e E l e m e n t s b y Rank 38 C u m u l a t i v e Urban Form 48 Summary o f L a n d s c a p e E l e m e n t L a n d Use T y p e s 51 Location of "General Commercial" Places i n Vancouver 56 Comparison o f T r a v e l and N o n - t r a v e l W r i t e r s ' S e l e c t i o n of Landscape Elements 64 Number o f T r a v e l A r t i c l e s p e r L a n d Use Type 70 Number o f N o n - t r a v e l A r t i c l e s p e r L a n d Use Type...71 Landscape Elements Ranked by t h e i r T o t a l Number o f R e f e r e n c e s 74 Nicknames and Slogans o f Vancouver 79 Comparisons t o Other Places 83 Images o f V a n c o u v e r i n i t s E n t i r e t y 92 Images o f S t a n l e y P a r k 105 Features of Stanley Park 107 Images o f t h e W a t e r f r o n t 110 Images o f Gastown 113 Images o f V a n c o u v e r ' s S e t t i n g 115 Images o f C h i n a t o w n 11>7 I m a g e s o f U.B.C 119 F e a t u r e s o f U.B.C 120 I m a g e s o f CBD O f f i c e s 122 Images o f C a p i l a n o Canyon 124 Images o f V a n c o u v e r ' s Opera 126 Images o f I n s t r u m e n t a l Ensembles 128 Images o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e s t i v a l o f t h e A r t s 130 Images o f A r t 131 I m a g e s o f P.N.E 133 Images o f t h e Orpheum T h e a t r e 134 I m a g e s o f CBD S h o p p i n g a n d D i n i n g I36 Images o f V a n c o u v e r P u b l i c L i b r a r y 138 Images o f L i o n s Gate B r i d g e 141 Images o f Grouse M o u n t a i n . . . .....143 S u m m a r y o f t h e I m a g e s f o r E l e m e n t s #21-62 144 Summary o f I m a g e s 150 P r i c e R a n g e o f H o t e l Rooms i n D o w n t o w n Vancouver 169  (vii)  Table 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78. 79 80  Page Topic of Each Question in. the F i n a l Questionnaire 173 I d e n t i f y i n g C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of F i n a l Sample 175 Country of Residence 181 Province and State of Residence 182 Sex of the Respondents 183 Age D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Sample 183 Educational Levels of the Respondents 184 Occupation D i s t r i b u t i o n of Sample 184 Income D i s t r i b u t i o n of Sample 185 Destinations of Previous Travels 188 Number of Previous Travel D e s t i n a t i o n s 188 Number of Previous Package T r i p s 188 Reasons f o r Choice of Escorted Tour Group Travel 189 Reasons f o r Choice of a P a r t i c u l a r Package Tour 194 Places or A c t i v i t i e s of S p e c i a l I n t e r e s t 194 Number of Reasons L i s t e d f o r Choice of a P a r t i c u l a r Tour 197 L e i s u r e Travel I n t e n t i o n s 198 Number of Reasons f o r L e i s u r e T r a v e l 210 Reasons f o r V i s i t i n g Vancouver 212 Number of Reasons f o r V i s i t i n g Vancouver 212 Number of Information Sources 215 S i n g l e Information Sources on Vancouver 215 Number of Respondents R e l y i n g on P a i r s s o f Information Sources 217 Most Important Information Sources f o r Respondents R e l y i n g on Only Two Sources 218 Information Sources on Vancouver 219 Most important Information Sources 224 Most Important Information Sources f o r Respondents Influenced by Conversations about Vancouver 224 Most Important Information Sources f o r Respondents who had Read Brochures 226 Least Important Information Sources 229 Places Experienced by Respondents 231 Comparison of Wholesalers' and Respondents' Tour I t i n e r a r i e s 234 Places i n I t i n e r a r i e s but Mentioned by few Respondents 236 Places C l a s s i f i e d as Indoor F a c i l i t i e s 239 Frequency of Place - Names i n Brochures 241 Number of Places Experienced During Free Time...244 Free-time Travel Range 244 Number of Respondents V i s i t i n g each Place During Free Time 248 Place/Image Matrix 250 Places Ranked by Number of Responses 255 Images Ranked by Number of Responses 257 (viii)  Table 81 82  Page Images f o r D i f f e r e n t Locations of Capsule Images  Land Uses and P l a c e - s p e c i f i c  26l 265  (ix)  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  Page Model o f Communication 10 Dimensions of an Image 14 C u m u l a t i v e Landscape o f Vancouver 39 G e n e r a l Images o f Vancouver from P e r i o d i c a l s . . . 148 Graburn's A d a p t a t i o n o f Leach's S a c r e d P r o f a n e Model 202 Western S o c i e t y ' s P e r s p e c t i v e on t h e Value of Travel 208 R e l a t i v e P o s i t i o n of A t t r a c t i o n s to Hotels G e o r g i a and Vancouver 246 G e n e r a l T o u r i s t Images of Vancouver 259  (x)  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Many I  would  gave  l i k e  and  to  thank  Secondly,  Dr.  David  for  his  batical  Ley  Bureau,  and  ators  of  would  also  for  collection  could  not  tourist  have  In  the  Hemisphere, helpful tions  in  of  thank their the  travel  & Baldry,  P.  graduate  the  B r i g i t t e  tour  written  donated  Lawson  in  I978  while  on  sab-  Brian at  background This  and  like  to  express  students  in  the  my  U.B.C.  (xi)  of  Tiim  the  thesis  the  206 to  thoughtfully. Anevich  Gary were  Humes a l l  on  and of  very  the  supplemented Travel  by  service,  operainterviews Calladine  Simpson's. gratitude Department  I  hotel  time  and  information was  the  well,  and  Co-ordin-  administration  help  Horizon  Convention  respectively.  holiday  UTL,  Barr  Eaton's  Travel,  As  f a c i l i t a t e d  Tour  and  carefully of  was  and  the  the  their  both  at  own  of  F r i t z ,  escorts  without  personnel  agents  my  appreciation  data  Visitors'  co-operation  tours.  who  summer  thesis  questionnaires.  who  my  and Vancouver,  the  Suntours,  escorted  would  and  Georgia  providing  withlifour  I  Vancouver  Sweeney  Duncan,  1979.  John MacGregor  of  and  61 t h i s  S.  F i r s t l y ,  develop  the  questionnaire  questionnaire  McCloud  during  of  the  to  express  of  been  Toronto,  to  thesis.  James  summer  respondents  complete  Grant  of  reading  the  to  this  encouragement  advice  Hotels  receptionists  and  his  of  like  Dr.  advisor,  for  Debra  the  my  l i k e  the  Valde  to  would  gathering  byvGraham  contributed  I  c r i t i c a l  during  The  and  have  me m u c h g u i d a n c e  ideas. to  people  to of  my  fellow  Geography  for  their  thesis, in  the f i n a l  years, my  and s u p p o r t  and John Radke  parents  of  advice  stages.  f o r giving a n d my  during the writing  i n particular Finally,  me  husband  f o r his assistance  I would  s o many t r a v e l  of the  like  t o thank  experiences  Jim f o r h i s unquestioning  over  study  Fellowship,  was  funded  by a University  Graduate  1977-9.  E.J.N.B.  (xii)  the  support  efforts. This  my  "SUPER SMILE CAMPAIGN" was launched today a t Y a n i e r Park as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the province's h o s p i t a l i t y i n d u s t r y , e n t e r t a i n m e n t , and s p o r t s c i r c l e s j o i n e d M i n i s t e r o f T r a v e l I n d u s t r y Grace McCarthy and Mayor Jack V o l r i c h i n p r o m o t i n g t o u r i s m i n B.C. --Vancouver Sun, Tuesday, June 2 0 , 1 9 7 8 , p. 1.  (xiii)  INTRODUCTION The  Grand  Hotel  T h e r e ' s a p l a c e i n V a n c o u v e r t h e l o g g e r s know w e l l , I t ' s a p l a c e where they keep r o t g u t w h i s k e y t o s e l l . They a l s o keep b o a r d e r s a n d keep them l i k e h e l l , A n d t h e name o f t h a t p l a c e i s t h e G r a n d H o t e l . Oh, t h e G r a n d H o t e l , w h e n t h e l o g g e r s come i n , It's amusing t o see t h e p r o p r i e t o r g r i n , For he knows t h e y ' v e g o t c a s h and h e ' l l s o o n have i t a l l , So "Come, b o y s , h a v e a d r i n k ! " y o u w i l l h e a r Tommy c a l l . I n t h e m o r n i n g Tom R o b e r t s c o m e s u p t o t h e d o o r And t h e r e he s e e s l o g g e r s a l lo v e r t h e f l o o r , W i t h a b o t t l e o f rum and a b o t t l e o f r y e , A n d p a s s e s t o camp o n t h e o l d C a s s i a r .  Is of  this  the Vancouver you a r e f a m i l i a r  hard drinking,  floor"?  Folk  free  s p e n d i n g , and " l o g g e r s  song l y r i c s  concerning Vancouver. magazine  y o u may h a v e  to  t h e t o p o f GrouselvMoxmtain. obtained  mass m e d i a , experience  direct  image  The  perspective acquired  of this  on V a n c o u v e r .  on one f o r m o f mass m e d i a  Vancouver  of the city, ride  o n w h e r e a n d how  of Vancouver  -- f r o m t h e  other people, or actual  have  formed a  i s t o examine  To a s c e r t a i n experience,  particular  1  the kinds  of  first  literature.  of articles  time period,  the tourist's  the study  -- p e r i o d i c a l  through an a n a l y s i s over a long  travel  i n yourmMrid.  thesis  through indirect  cifically,  Depending  -- y o u w i l l  i n a  and taken a tram  communication with  of the city  intent  a visitor  your knowledge  i n the city  place  a l lover the  read  park i n the centre  or  partial  even been  A  a r e b u t one s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n  P e r h a p s y o u may h a v e  about a fabulous  your- h a v e  with?  written  the following  images focuses Spe-  about  questions  2  will  be  illuminated:  (1)  What e l e m e n t s o f t h e c i t y ' s l a n d s c a p e do writers of periodical articles consider important?  (2)  What i m a g e s do t h e y p r e s e n t o f t h e s e landscapeselements? Do t h e y i n d e e d "make a n i d e n t i t y " f o r a p l a c e , a s s u g g e s t e d b y S t r a u s s (I96I) and R e l p h (1976)?  (3)  Were t h e r e c h a n g e s a n d r e g u l a r i t i e s i n t h e types and images o f l a n d s c a p e elements presented over time?  Secondly, on  t h e images  e s c o r t e d package  of Vancouver a c t u a l l y tours after  they  held by  have v i s i t e d  tourists the c i t y  ar  are  studied within  What a r e t h e i n t e n t i o n s towards t r a v e l ?  (2)  Which sources on t h r o u g h o u t  (3)  How the  a review  has s i xchapters.  o f image f o r m a t i o n .  to collect  will  be d i s c u s s e d .  the r e s u l t s  describes analysis  and analyse  The t h i r d  of the tourist  are presented chapter  shape consists  Secondly,  chapter  i n the periodicals presents  and d i s c u s s e s the context  Chapter  Four  f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n and  questionnaire data, while  and d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter summarizes  social  t h e methodology  analysis within  employed  of  social  p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and  three research objectives.  the methodology  concluding  The f i r s t  the data  of the periodical  the f i r s t  tourists  o f imagery as used by  and t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l ,  used  questions:  o f i n f o r m a t i o n do t h e y r e l y their touristic experience?  of the concepts  processes  of these  do t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e c i t y images they a c q u i r e ?  thesis  scientists,  sults  of three research  (1)  The  of  a framework  Five.  the r e The  each olajbfaerpreceding chapters,  r  comparing t h e images and e x p e r i e n c e s  presented  i nthe  periodicals  with  Vancouver.  Finally,  m o t i o n and  those  further  derived  several  study are  from  direct experience  implications suggested.  for travel  in pro-  CHAPTER  1  IMAGERY  1.1  Definitions If our image or p e r c e p t i o n of a environmental order is confused t h e n t h e r e i s no p l a c e . . . . - This  is  architects  indeed  concerned  environments. has  the  a  Tuan  actual  object".  in  to  make l i s t s  common.  of  when  Secondly,  an  sensory  input"  i s t i c c d e f i n i t i o n , in  an  airplane  as  to  a is  ing,  used  chologists Tuan  senses  of  intthe  (see, also  of  states  signals  his of  an  Hull,  urban  of  the  can  is  the  the  a to  refer of  of  an  her  they  have of  correspond.  sustained purely a  to  "image"  two  by  mechan-  remote  sensor  landscape  below,  landscape.  The  emphasis  environmental taste,  term  picture  "image"  the  smell,  theories  signal or of  hearpsy-  19^3).  psychologists  4  or  is  well  from  touch,  example, that  of  seemingly  i t  "percept  This  equally  sight,  uses  the  "stimulus-response"  for  of  characteristics  the  (ibid.).  reception  the  be  patterns  on  mere  group  that  sense  photograph  perceiving  through as  a  human b e i n g the  "image"  may  may b e  receiving  a  scale  likeness  f a c i a l  applying  the  simplest  visual  image  by  different  g i r l  certain  the  assertion  (1962:37)  disappear?  " a r t i f i c i a l a  a l  this  the  Alternatively,  landscape  here  is  several In  et  humanizing  places  example,  because  current  what  physical For  s t a r t l i n g with  (1975s205).  "image"  mother  Just  power  Yi-Fu  the  a  Lyndon  specific or unclear  treat  an  image  as  "a s p e c i a l  kind  "ordinary"  a "brief"  "image" the an  events?  implies  A more s p e c i f i c  that  ronmental  this  simultaneous  previously  picture i n definition, the mental  on t h i s  notion  and d i r e c t  mind.  t od i s t i n g u i s h between a  As he sees  reactions  i t , percepts are  t othe existential  A n image,  experienced environment a t hand  (p.208).  however,  space  i s o fa  b u t prompted  by the  I nother words,  "an image  is  a p e r c e p t o f t h e p a s t " ( p . 209).  of  roast beef  an  i m a g e o f S u n d a y a f t e r n o o n s i n o n e ' s o w n home.  emitted from  "memory  o fstorage o f envi-  v  the individual.  environment  definition o f  introduces  i n the person s  a n d a n "image".  surrounding  approach  exactly  Un a d d i t i o h m t h e u s e o f t h e t e r m  information  "percept"  What  i s "amental  t h e r e h a s b e e n some k i n d  Tuan expands  "special"  Although as i n the f i r s t  image i s a p i c t u r e , o f imagery.  definition i s  What i s a n " e v e n t " ?  occurrence?  (ibid.).  this  i nan individ-  What d i s t i n g u i s h e s  a s used b y p s y c h o l o g i s t s  memory"  aspect  occurs b r i e f l y  Unfortunately  ambiguous t o b e u s e f u l .  from is  that  (1975:205).  u a l ' s mind" too  o f event  F o r example,  t h e aroma  t h e home o f a s t r a n g e r m a y e v o k e  h o o d m e m o r i e s seem t o b e p a r t i c u l a r l y  susceptible  Childto trig-  gering by the senses. In  geography,  orientation, five  began w i t h F.P. S u l l i v a n  years later  geographers next major (1948).  t h e study o fmental  by Trowbridge.  seemed t o l o s e  After  interest  images, (1908), 1913,  a s used f o r followed  however,  i nthetopic,  and t h e  s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d b y t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t ,  Hisarticle,  entitled  Tolman  " C o g n i t i v e Maps i n R a t s a n d  6 Men",  was b a s e d  Lewin  i n 1936,  were l e a r n e d  on p r i n c i p l e s and attempted  through  of psychology  developed  t o s h o w how "maps i n t h e m i n d "  experience.  I t took  t h e work o f  (1956) t o f i n a l l y y s t i m u l a t e  Kenneth Boulding  by  geographical  2 studies  o f images once more.  Since  then,  three  character-  i s t i c s o f images have been emphasized: (1) The f o r m o f t h e image i s a m e n t a l p i c t u r e , a n d t h e r e f o r e r e l i e s s t r o n g l y on v i s u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e environment. (2)  The image i s p a r t i a l l y direct experience.  (3)  The image i s a l s o p a r t i a l l y experience.  Kenneth Boulding that and  i s /the p r o d u c t immediate  this  defined  (Relph,  defined his  "what I b e l i e v e t o b e t r u e  o f immediate,  a product  of past  "image" as "a m e n t a l p i c t u r e  of experiences,  sensations"  idea, Boulding  a product  attitudes,  1976:56).  memories, Extending  "image o f t h e w o r l d " a s  -- my s u b j e c t i v e k n o w l e d g e "  (1956:6). Four years empirically and in  Jersey  later  i n a study City.  his definition  Kevin  Lynch  explored  o f t h e images  However, he o m i t t e d  these  ideas  of Los Angeles, therole  of the "environmental  Boston,  of attitudes  image":  ...the g e n e r a l i z e d mental p i c t u r e o f t h e e x t e r i o r p h y s i c a l world that i sheld by an i n d i v i d u a l . . T h i s image i s t h e p r o d u c t b o t h o f immediate sens a t i o n a n d o f t h e memory o f p a s t e x p e r i e n c e . . . .  (1960:4).  In  practice,  physical,  what was r e f e r r e d  symbolic  representation the  aggregate  t o a s t h e "image" was t h e  representation of the actual cognitive  -- t h e s k e t c h map d r a w n b y a n maps o f g r o u p s ,  individual,  a n d , more p e r i p h e r a l l y , t h e  7 verbal  reports  1976:8). as  in  of  the  In  other  words,  Tuan's  f i r s t  definition,  "mental  map" became  the  Dissatisfaction in  subsequent  1971:74).  images, a  articles  a  reliance  neglect  an  of  of  used  features  of  actual  u t i l i t y  in  city.  the  have the  to  a  a material  for  way-finding  for  responding  For  of  to  to  wherever  a  he  may  Finally, geographers schematic  this  environment. in  him,  and  encounter  tended  knowledge,  but  to  use  based  "drawn",  of  the  defining or  the  "coding  image  is  i t is  by  is  used a  tool  applying  places.  lights are  have  three  applied  light.  historians  on  by  specific  principles  the  be  psychology  image  t r a f f i c  respondent,  individual  nor  The  t r a f f i c  that  the  structure",  to  that  these a  the  visual  necessarily  environment  principles learns  only  question  picture,  the  sketches  cannot  approach  the  Wood,  of  on  problems  "cognitive  changes  to  expressed  (Francescato  environmental  these  In  city,  The  been  of  not  the  images  a mental  Tuan notes  have  and  in  that  yet  nor  driver  direct  has  s u i t a b i l i t y  v i s i b l e  studies  the  image.  concentration  visual  of  1973:80-1;  Stea,  landscape,  environmental  example,  signals  in  its  methods  a c t i v i t i e s  1975:206).  neither  set  and  "schema",  (Tuan,  picture  map".  the  a  Golledge,  geographers  and  circumvent  system"  a  other  and  map-sketching s k i l l s  such  Recent  as  by  highly  the  of  attempted image  on  became  Lynch's  images,  feelings  over-emphasis  material  include  on  (Moore  "sketched  Downs  Criticisms  articulations  the  with  1973:147;  and Mebane,  as  respondents  term  ahd  h i s t o r i c a l  "image"  indirect,  also  rather  as  than  8 direct  sources  of information:  ,  ...a p e o p l e ' s c o n c e p t o f a p l a c e o r r e g i o n which they have n o td i r e c t l y e x p e r i e n c e d and which can be expressed i nwords, p i c t u r e s ,  (1975:205).  o r maps  This  type  belonging dividuals. recounting as  o f image  t o a society,  rather than  those  F o rexample, h i s t o r i a n s "strange" O l d World  explorers ventured  route  across  conception  of specific i n -  have d e l i g h t e d i n  images  o f t h e New W o r l d  theAtlantic  i n search of a  t o the F a r East. Tuan's b r i e f  is  i sintended t o describe a broad  summary o f t h e a p p r o a c h e s  contained almost  "Images a n d M e n t a l broad,  entirely Maps"  definition  o f "image".  approaches  emphasize  i na footnote t o his  (1975)'  do n o t i n c l u d e s e v e r a l  t o image s t u d i e s paper,  H i s categories, although  important  Furthermore,  positions  each  i nv a r y i n g degrees  on t h e  o f these  other  t h e component o f  meaning i n a n image. Downs a n d S t e a ,  f o r example,  equate  "image"  "mental  map", b o t h  symbols  t h a t we a l l s u b s c r i b e t o , r e c o g n i z e , a n d e m p l o y "  (1973:9) • our  F o r one l o c a t i o n a l  cognitive  mapping process  mate, t h es o c i a l foods the  defined as "convenient  with  system,  - - a l lattributive  same a p p r o a c h  affective  term  such  f i l l s  attitudes  sets o f shorthand  as "Vancouver",  i n the details o f the people  information.  Rapoport  b u t r e s t r i c t s t h ec o n t e n t  information:  aspects- o f environmental  d e f i n i t i o n he i s r e f e r r i n g  there,  adopts  much  o f images t o  "a s y m b o l mnemonic f o r experience"  of cli-  (1976:221).  affective In this  s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the conceptual  9 categories that  and v a l u e s  influence This  of a culture  cognition  i s also  trademark,  design,  However, he a l s o "personality poration, claims  describes  that  this  uses  the imagery that  o f an i n d i v i d u a l ,  lies  between  property In  In of  a  manufactures  institution,  Boorstin  Boorstin  see and what  implying  i s really  above  While  acknowledge  that i s the  views t h e s u b j e c t i v i t y as o r i g i n a t i n g actually construct  an  image  i t every reaches the receiver:: . effect, Boorstin  that  i s working within a general Warneryd  t h e components o f such a model  communicator  and a r e c e i v e r ,  medium, a c o m m u n i c a t i o n  object  include  model et a i both  a message, a c h a n n e l o r (the topic  o f the message),  the  a i m o f t h e message, and t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e message  the  receiver's  (1967:12-3). communicator sage",  a  cor-  city.  "character",  c o m m u n i c a t i o n when he s p e a k s o f images.  suggest  (1962:186).  the s u b j e c t i v i t y i n question  i n d i v i d u a l s o r g r o u p s who  before  --  o f an i n d i v i d u a l o r group r e c e i v i n g t h e image.  contrast,  with  "image"  the importance of h i s approach.  are subjective,  Daniel  " p e r s o n a l i t y " c a n be  w h a t we  most o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n s d i s c u s s e d images  adopted by  o f the term  from an inward, p r i v a t e  Herein  reference  or simplified! picture  public, visible  discrepancy  there.  implicitly  p r o d u c t o r s e r v i c e , and presumably,  distinguished a wide  various  slogan,  profile"  of  of an environment.  the approach  B o o r s t i n when he l i s t s  -- f r a m e s  knowledge,  opinions,  values,  or  actions  The p r o c e s s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n and r e c e i v e r r , and where  i s illustrated  i n Figure  1.  on  a  single  t h e i m a g e i s t h e "mes-  H>C o m m u n i c a t o r -  0  2  (Usually  Figure  1:  ^Channel  >Receiver-  -Feedback(volunteered or elicited)  Aim  where  -^Message  L  *#=  communication  object  from  the  communicator's  ==  communication  object  from  the  receiver's  the  aim  of  the  Model  of  Communication  (adapted  from  communicator  Warneryd  et  includes  a l ,  I967:  the  aim  13).  point  point of  of  of  Effect  view  view  making  0  9  =  0 .) 1  11 B e c a u s e B o o r s t i n ' s "book i s a s p i r i t e d society,  he views  desirable  o f American  i m a g e s a s a "means t o a n e n d " ,  end a t t h a t .  modern day images, his  critique  position with  He c a n f i n d  and w i t h  nothing  and anun-  redeeming i n  a Doomsday p h i l o s o p h y ,  thefollowing definition  summarizes  o f a n image:  The i m a g e i s a p s e u d o - i d e a l . . . s y n t h e t i c , b e l i e v a b l e , passive, v i v i d , s i m p l i f i e d , and ambiguous (1962:185). This  approach d i f f e r s  mental psychologist. message w i t h the  What i s n e e d e d ,  encompasses b o t h  a reasonable  (1976).  quoting  of the environ-  B o o r s t i n sees a n image a s b e i n g thepsychologist  and concentrates therefore,  a  views  on i t s i n t e r p r e t a -  i sa point  a humanistic  geographers,  a l t e r n a t i v e i nh i s Place  Initially  interpretations  that  of view  that  i n t e n t and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  Edward Relph, sent  from  human i n t e n t , w h e r e a s  message as " g i v e n "  tion.  radically  he d e f i n e s  images w i t h  seems t o p r e -  and Placelessness respect  o f "message r e c e i v e r s " , a n d t h i s  to the i s worth  a t length:  Images a r e n o t j u s t s e l e c t i v e a b s t r a c t i o n s o f an o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y b u t a r e i n t e n t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f what i s o r what i s b e l i e v e d t o b e . The image o f a p l a c e c o n s i s t s o f a l l the elements associated w i t h t h e experiences of i n d i v i d u a l s o r groups and t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s towards that place. Insofar as these i n t e n t i o n s a r e focused and a r e s p e c i f i c , such ima g e s may b e c o n s i d e r e d b y o t h e r s t o b e n a r r o w a n d b i a s e d , b u t f o r t h o s e who h o l d t h e m t h e y are complete and c o n s t i t u t e t h er e a l i t y o f t h a t p l a c e (1976t56). He  describes  components. tensity  t h e s t r u c t u r e o f these The v e r t i c a l  and depth  images as h a v i n g two  dimension consists of thei n -  of experience,  resulting  i n"layers" of  insideness  (oroutsideness).  corresponds places  and other  groups. if  to the social  distribution  Unfortunately,  ca± g r o u p ' s  t o determine  experience  immerse h i m s e l f f o r a short  that  the native/nonnative.  insider/outsider in  theory  intense  of  but an  experience  anticipation, Like  Boulding,  Lynch,  ogists,  Relph  respect  to experience,  intention, his  images a r i s e  from  symbols,  while  of  on  qualities  the environment,  that  of events,  contribute to  sudden s u r p r i s e s , f o r example.  and most environmental images v a r y  p e r s o n a l i t y , memories, ( p . 5 7 ) • He a l s o the scale  the interaction  which are "constantly socialized languages,  Furthermore,  Relph bases h i sd e f i n i t i o n  d i s c u s s i o n o f images beyond  Group  to the  c::.  t o o n o t e s how i n d i v i d u a l  and circumstances  t o assume  on t h e s u b j e c t i v i t y  -- n e w e m o t i o n s ,  or t h e speed  visitor albeit  of the levels  o f "oneness" w i t h  are other  life,  feel  some i m a g e s c a n b e m o r e  the definitions  of fee.ling  h e may  corresponds  a r e n e c e s s a r i l y dependent  surely there intense  dichotomy  individual.  a  too simplistic  d i m e n s i o n o f a n image.  others,  one s p e c i f i c  some k i n d  I t i s just  one c a n acknowledge t h a t  than  intensity  time.  o f an i n d i v i d -  hand, an i n t e r e s t e d i n the city's  and  difficult,  .-Although  resident of a city,  totally  only  the intensity  at a place.  o u t s i d e r , and, on t h e o t h e r  might  individuals  i n p r a c t i c e i ti s very  p e r s o n may b e a l o n g - t i m e an  o f knowledge o f  objects w i t h i n and between  not impossible,  ual's  The h o r i z o n t a l s t r u c t u r e  psycholwith  emotions, continues  of the individual.  of individual  images  t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f common  and experiences"  (ibid.).  At the  highest  level  images,  with  (image)  is  from  the  socialization  two  variations  commonly  "free  groups. by  of  In  ready-made  contrast,  media the  and  for  especially  identity  by  "consensus"  58).  mass  public  a  society,  within  of  identity  disseminated  developed  c r i t i c i s m  on  and  the  developed and  assigned  "provided the  mass  This  58)-  by  identity  is  through  (p.  "mass"  individuals  (image)  selected,  advertising"  or  The  experiences  approach  heavy of  the  people,  "psuedo-ideal"  mass  and  simplified,  the  Relph,toOjlays  (p.  agreed-upon  opinion"  opinion-makers,  are  Boorstin,  mirrors and  inauthenticity  of  the  place:  They are the most s u p e r f i c i a l i d e n t i t i e s of p l a c e , o f f e r i n g no scope f o r e m p a t h e t i c i n s i d e n e s s and e r o d i n g e x i s t e n t i a l i n s i d e n e s s by d e s t r o y i n g the bases for identity with places. This i s so because mass i d e n t i t i e s are b a s e d not on symbols and s i g n i f i c a n c e s , and a g r e e d on v a l u e s , b u t on g l i b and c o n t r i v e d stereotypes created a r b i t r a r i l y and even s y n t h e t i c a l l y (ibid.). It  is  not  Relph and  on  necessary, this  however,  critique  importance  of  in  mass  to  order  images  agree to  in  with  Boorstin  acknowledge  contemporary  and  the  existence  North  American  society. It  appears,  scientists around  in  four  summarized  within  the  cesses  of  It  is  held  the  that  attempt  issues, in  Before  then,  each  Figure  ^.image"  the  to  define  having  two  among  "image"  has  social centred  dimensions.  These  are  2. as  used  in  "eight-dimensional image  discussion  formation  throughout  the  this  thesis  is  located  space"  of  Figure  f i r s t  be  reviewed  w i l l paper  that  this  is  2,  the  the  pro-  briefly. crucial  Issue What  is  an  Dimensions (a)in  image?  the  mind:  (b ) s y m " b o l i c  What  is  its  picture/schema  representation:  (a) o b j e c t i v e / s u b j e c t i v e  content?  figure (visual)/ word (verbal)  knowledge  (b) n o n - e m o t i o n a l / e m o t i o n a l r Who  has  an  (a) r e c e i v e r / c o m m u n i c a t o r  image?  (b)  How  is  an  image  individual/society  (a) i m m e d i a t e / p a s t  formed?  (b) d i r e c t / i n d i r e c t  Figure  2:  Dimensions  of  an  Image  experience experience  15 factor  1.2  i n developing  Image The  Formation  trasting  have  Terms  nitive  maps",  ogists  a l l stress hand,  mental give the  cognitive  i s  distinction is  ment for  i s  or  between  a r e shaped  or  by  of  as a  of  whole.  used"  important cannot  " l i f e  space",  and other  focus  than  "cogpsychol-  On t h e  on  environ-  that  t h e ways  people i n  which  (Rapoport,  1976:221).  and useful  approach?  be answered,  only,  because  the  knowledge  and meaning  Knowledge  of  the potential group,  con-  anthropological  "the meanings  variable  social  two  the environment.  that  even  that  from  and  Piaget  environmental  by  suggests  "schemata",  purposes  influenced  an individual  ment  as  a r e more  question  f o r analytical  "image"  formation  anthropologists  t h e more  this  of  psychological  assuming  i s known  Which Actually,  such  image  knowledge  the world  world  - -  Rapoport  and the writings  meanings,  to  Amos  approached  perspectives  (1976J220).  definition  Processes  anthropologist  scientists  other  one's  an  environ-  meanings  i t  may have  and the meanings  of  an  the specific  processes  of  image  environforma-  tion. Consider hearing, Tuan  f i r s t  and touch  i n i t i a l l y  the five that  claims  senses  a r e used  that  these  of  sight,  i n direct senses  are  taste,  smell,  perception. universal:  A l l human b e i n g s s h a r e common p e r c e p t i o n s , a common w o r l d , b y v i r t u e of possessing simi l a r o r g a n s . . . [and] w i t h g o o d w i l l o n e person can enter into the world of another despite d i f f e r e n c e s i n age, temperament, and culture (197^*5). For  example,  i n comparison  to  some  other  species,  manh a s  a  more  limited  range  better-developed vision a  clear,  as  being  chromatic  cloudless  massive,  sensory  Do  perception  we  and  and  this  varies  A  example  of  Islanders  view  society  views  cultural  (1974),  Lee  time yams  and as  a  colour and  a l l  band,  but  stereoscopic  see  mountain  at  individuals,  by  not  perspective  between  discussed  the  a blue  in  the  sky  distance  snow-capped?  cultures, classic  on  sensitivity  day,  grey,  Unfortunately Our  vision  1974:6,7).  (Tuan,  on  of  three  and  not  space  a  within  society  as  go  scales  - -  in  walk  enough.  between  perception  of  is  Trobriand  non-linear.  that  far  individuals.  differences  where  people  does  Another  around  at  night  I('Sortune,1932). Within  a  distinctive to  such  age,  while  textures.  the  intent  pilot sky a  means  farmer  for wait  his  his  infant  the  comes is  different  of  and a  promise  the  crops,  another  sex,  lowlands the  day.  individual  and  has  perception,  and  of  hearing  beginning  to  sights,  perhaps  an  thereby  image.  To  a  day  below  same v i e w  of  against  hoping  means  a  beautiful  he  eyehis  tastes,  object an  airplane  clear  blue  flying.  desperately and  old  importantly,  towards  mountain  and  odours,  more  own  With  develop  individuals its  his  according  experience.  loss  sounds,  high of  a  just  Furthermore,  sight  each  sensory  age,  often  meaning,  in  in  discriminate  of  its the  an  to  and  moulds  as  example,  a b i l i t i e s  culture,  capabilities  factors  for  sight,  single  his  To  for  crops  rain  must  17 Similarly,  for a single  object varies with time. may  his intent  When h e i s j u s t  be merely  lection climb  toward  t h e mountain,  the view  spectacle  photographs. i t s sight  h i s image o f a n  i t a t any p o i n t i n  sight-seeing,  another pretty  of scenic  individual,  of the mountain  t o add t o h i s c o l -  When h e i s p r e p a r i n g t o i s a reminder  of thechallenge  ahead. On in  t h e o t h e r hand,  part  determines which  a perceiving for  individual  viewing rather  Exotic  sense  of the object  o r group.  Postcards are intended  than touching, smelling,  touch, b u t rarely  t h e images o f a t a s t e d  souffle  will  Our  differ  radically  contemporary  society  commonly d e s i g n a t e d t h e most "Seeing  i sbelieving".  imagery  does n o t evoke  itself  o r senses a r e used most b y  f o o d s a r e meant t o be s a v o u r e d w i t h  buds and sometimes tainly  t h e purpose  with  or tasting. the eye, taste-  the ear.  Cer-  postcard or listened-tofrom tends  "normal"  images!  t o emphasize  "objective"  sight,  o f t h e senses  However, Tuan suggests t h a t our emotions  --  visual  as deeply as t h e other  senses: D i s t a n t o b j e c t s c a n o o n l y b e s e e n ; h e n c e , we h a v e the tendency t o r e g a r d seen o b j e c t s as " d i s t a n t "  (1974:10).  In has  fact,  the reliance  on t h e "seeing"  been a -frequent c r i t i c i s m  1974; R e l p h , 1976; B o o r s t i n , Thus,  even  direct  part  of "sight-seeing"  o f t h e modern t o u r i s t  (Tuan,  I962).  sensory perception  of our environ-  ment i s much more a m b i g u o u s t h a n t h e " S t i m u l u s - R e s p o n s e " theorists  would  have  i t .  A key to this  complexityi s  intentionality. ness  i s always  towards  mation.  level  (1966:20),  i s based  in  a world  So  that  being. people's with  o u t unwanted  infor-  perspective  As B o u l d i n g  puts  corresponding  Thus,  ofthe expects  it::;  "socializing" factors  of this  the*individual  thesis  lives  i n t e n t i o n s a s w e l l a s h i s own.  conflicting  meanings  motives an  (Berger  t o Relph's  " p u b l i c images" d i s c u s s e d  three  assumption  coexist, society creates  o f common, s h a r e d  1966:23),  from  of other  at least  The  even a t t h e sub-  and t h e r e w a r d s he  i ti s a fundamental  individuals  Lynch's  or i sdirected  (1956:50).  t h a t man i s a s o c i a l  world"  "conscious-  s e e t h e w o r l d t h e w a y we s e e i t b e c a u s e pays us and has p a i d us t o see i t t h a t  However,  can  an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  i n the past.  intends  and perhaps  on h i s m o t i v e s  or has r e c e i v e d  way  i t always  our intentions f i l t e r  A t any r a t e ,  We it  and Luckmann c l a i m t h a t  intentional";  objects"  conscious  world  Berger  "intersubjective and Luckmann,  "consensus i n Section  of individual  and values  images" and 1.1  above.  images o f p l a c e  results  (Relph,1976:57):  (1)  common e x p e r i e n c e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s o r g r o u p s at a specific place. F o r example, i fi t r a i n e d 0 c o n s t a n t l y whenever v i s i t o r s were i n Vancouver, i t s p u b l i c image w o u l d be t h a t o f a r a i n y , dreary c i t y .  (2)  common l a n g u a g e s . Merely l a b e l l i n g Stanley Park i n Vancouver a "park" evokes t h e p u b l i c image o f a t r e e d g r e e n s p a c e i n t e n d e d f o r p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n . Had i t b e e n c a l l e d a c*conservation a r e a " i t s p u b l i c image m i g h t be o f a more w i l d o r " n a t u r a l " p l a c e , and p e r h a p s where p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n i sp r o h i b i t e d .  (3)  signs and symbols. that our landscape symbols:  Berger and Luckmann note i s i n f u s e d w i t h s i g n s and  I am c o n s t a n t l y s u r r o u n d e d b y o b j e c t s t h a t " p r o c l a i m " t h e s u b j e c t i v e i n t e n t i o n s o f my f e l l o w m e n , a l t h o u g h I may h a v e d i f f i c u l t y b e i n g q u i t e sure j u s t what i t s i s s t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t i s "proclaiming"....(1966:35)• Civic the  b u i l d i n g s , f o r example, are  city  ( o r some a s p e c t  design  of  by  C i t y Fathers  the  the  Toronto  manifest  The  City Hall,  Emotions,  i n the  it).  ideas,  objects  symbolize curved  f o r e x a m p l e , was  moods, and  i n our  to  two-sectioned  to project a progressive,  3  character.  of  often designed  landscape  chosen  innovative  f e e l i n g s are through  made  symbol-  ization. A ized  key  question  i n the  individuals object  landscape?".  Surely  o r g r o u p s may  be  s u c h as  vironmental  a place.  or  communicate the  scape.  i n t e n t i o n of  symbols  buildings.  tallest  for  the  out  history religious  magnificent  skyscraping  churches  organizations However, as  power a l s o  their their  head  elevate  i n the Lynch  prestige  or  the  suggests, the  and  of public  each  have sought to of  land-  other  in cities.  status  One  form  vie with  to  their  i n the  i n the  halls,  offices  eyes of  i m p o s e m m e a n i n g s on  "en-  elements  to maintain  corporations  organizations to  single  termss?whose  landscape  power  buildings, city  Large business  many  i n the"designing  seeking  of  symbol-  design"?(1976:254).  the  Governments p r o c l a i m  imposing parliament  and  sway  imposing c o n t r o l over  create  are  i n t e n t i o n s of  In Sonnenfeld's  i s t h a t power e l i t e s ,  legitimacy,  the  ideas  d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s any  i n t e n t i o n " holds  manipulating  answer  i s "Whose e m o t i o n s a n d  their  other Through-  erect gods  men. groups  other  than those  environment, but  are  in  20 more d i s c r e e t a b o u t How c a n p l a c e s jective The  (1972:53)'  i t  other  than  institutions  come  be symbols  about?  o f sub-  intentions? answer l i e s  i n the interdependence  knowledge and meaning t h a t mation.  How d o e s t h i s  Rapoport  i scrucial  of  to social  environmental image  for-  e x p l a i n s i t ithis way:  Cognition, unlike perception, generally involves i n d i r e c t m a t e r i a l -- i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d f r o m other people, t h e i r values, views, interpretations. I t i s thus, almost by d e f i n i t i o n , c u l t u r a l l y a f f e e t e d . . . . I n d i r e c t means s u c h a s m e d i a , s t o r i e s , legends, f i l m s , songs, and t r a v e l r e p o r t s provide c o n c e p t u a l c a t e g o r i e s , names, a n d v a l u e s t h a t r e f l e c t and shape p r e v a i l i n g assumptions and w h i c h change as c u l t u r e changes. As c u l t u r e changes and as v a l u e s and taxonomies change, these a r e embodied i n images...and these profoundl y a f f e c t c o g n i t i o n (1976:221). B e c a u s e man i s a s o c i a l his  values  and  Luckmann's terms,  is  the social  this  1.3  and ideas  thesis  (1)  and because he t r a n s m i t s  to others, his r e a l i t y "socially  constructed"  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e images  i s , i n Berger (I966).  I t  of Vancouver  that  examines.  Summary Referring  it  being,  remains  t o t h e dimensions  to define  o f a n image  "image" as used  What i s a n i m a g e ?  i nthis  i nFigure  2,  study:  ( a ) T h i s t h e s i s makes no a t t e m p t t o examine t h e i n t e r n a l c o g n i t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n t h e m i n d -this i s the realm of the psychologist studying a particular individual. However, i t i s assumed throughout t h a t t h i s knowledge i s more t h a n a m e n t a l p i c t u r e a n d does i n c l u d e g e n e r a l l e a r n e d environmental principles. (b)  T h e r e i s no r e a s o n why s y m b o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f images cannot  21 be b o t h v i s u a l a n d v e r b a l . However, t h e r e seem t o b e t o o many p r o b l e m s i n h e r e n t i n t h e u s e o f s k e t c h maps a s a r t i c u l a t i o n s o f images. Because o f t h i s and t h e nature o f t h e d a t a sources ( p e r i o d i c a l s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ) t h e emphasis i n t h i s t h e s i s i s on words as e x p r e s s i o n s o f images. (2)  What i s i t s c o n t e n t ?  (a) Knowledge o f t h e environment may i n c l u d e " o b j e c t i v e f a c t s " , but which facts are s e l e c t e d is a function of subjectivity. (b)  (3)  Who  has an image?  (a) I n an urban c o n t e x t , where t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i s man-made, t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l images i s a process involving both r e c e i v e r s and c o m m u n i c a t o r s . Even images o f n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s may b e communicated between i n d i v i d u a l s or groups. The image o f a n y s p e c i f i c p a r t o f the environment may n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b e t h e same f o r b o t h t h e r e c e i v e r a n d t h e communicator. (b)  (4)  How  Images i n c l u d e b o t h non-emot i o n a l and emotional information.  I n d i v i d u a l s possess images, b u t these a r e w i t h i n a s o c i a l con&ext.  i s an image formed?  (a) This thesis maintains the d i s t i n c t i o n between "percept" and "image". An image i s a product of past experience. (b)  An image i s a p r o d u c t o f b o t h i n d i r e c t and d i r e c t experience. The e x a m i n a t i o n of p e r i o d i c a l s w i l l illustrate the influences of i n direct experience; the touri s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s des i g n e d t o a s s e s s images from direct experience.  CHAPTER METHODOLOGY  Because written  about  magazines, was  a  FOR  Vancouver  Instead  of  of  to  comprehensive  a  literature,  assumption The  that  Readers'  r e l i a b l e ,  America a l l  the  1905  to  bibliographic  a very  this  reference  for  to  the  Columbia  Department  of  Travel  Provincial  Beautiful a  B r i t i s h  government  and  large and side  publication,  travel  is  seen  other  issues  from  articles  magazines  circulation  i t  - -  for  1959  in  magazines. to  Summer  analysis.  22  in  on  and the  the  Even  North  It  any  grocery  Accordingly, were  the  B r i t i s h "Ministry entitled this  is  photographs in  has, to  l i s t s  gives  though  found  as  Index  the  glossy  subscribe  I978  the  chosen  Industry")  those  Vancouver  study  represented..  was  (now  Holiday.  may  each  under  issued  of  large  like  the  be  However,  Travel  has  l i t e r a -  from  periodicals  Industry  as  readers  sale  "popular" F a l l  i t  i t  systematically  Columbia Magazine.  layman-oriented  commercial  would  "Vancouver"),  and  the  periodicals,  publication  Secretary  of  restrict  It  "been  newspapers,  sample  Literature  each.  has  f i c t i o n ,  sample  to  major  case,  references  the  a  and  periodicals  in  excluded  of  journals,  small  present.  written  (in  of  Periodical  the  material  readership  of  PERIODICALS  books",  decided  index  to  t i t l e s  subject  was  widest  thorough  a r t i c l e  specific  i t  of  only  examination  Guide  from  select  selecting  type  THE  academic  "picture  to  OF  quantity  in  coffee-table  ;  ANALYSIS  tremendous  deemed necessary;  ture.  a  THE  2  it  such also, by  stores the  included  a  mail along-  available in  this  23 analysis.* The by  resulting  North A m e r i c a n  sample  consisted  journalists  w h e n t h e s e a r c h was  terminated.  of these a r t i c l e s  into  (or parts  trends  been marked by years. --  Note  social  that  up  reasons f o r  t o 1959.  31,  July  indicates years,  written  attitudes  o n l y 62  1978,  the classified  I t has been assumed  the changing decades,  t h e same n u m b e r a s  possible  Table 1  o v e r t h e 72  thereof).  i n North American  articles  b e t w e e n I907 and  distribution decades  o f 192  that  and v a l u e s have  rather  than i n single  articles  f o r t h e 1960's a l o n e .  were  There  referenced are  four  this:  (1)  Nor.the A m e r i c a a s a w h o l e h a d t i o n s on any t o p i c i n e a r l i e r 1905-9 v o l u m e o f t h e R e a d e r s ' o d i c a l s were indexed. In the 179 p e r i o d i c a l s w e r e i n d e x e d .  (2)  U n t i l t h e 1960*s, C a n a d i a n s r e l i e d a l m o s t exc l u s i v e l y on A m e r i c a n p u b l i c a t i o n s b e c a u s e few C a n a d i a n ones were p u b l i s h e d . Naturally a reader would encounter l i t t l e about Canadian c i t i e s i n American magazines. The growithrintlfcheCC.anadian p u b l i s h i n g b u s i n e s s , h o w e v e r , was n o t r e f l e c t e d i n the i n d e x i n g of the Readers' Guide (Table 2). W h i l e i t i s assumed t h r o u g h o u t t h a t Canadians c o n t i n u e t o r e a d American p e r i o d i c a l s , i t must be n o t e d t h a t t h i s a n a l y s i s p r o b a b l y underemphas i z e s C a n a d i a n images o f Vancouver.  (3)  Vancouver experienced a great surge of growth i n p o p u l a t i o n , a r e a , and w e a l t h i n t h e l a t e f i f t i e s t h a t has a c c e l e r a t e d on i n t o t h e s e v e n t i e s . As a r e s u l t , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e has b e e n more r e a s o n t o f o c u s j o u r n a l i s t i c a t t e n t i o n on t h e city.  (4)  Throughout the c e n t u r y t h e r e has been an i n c r e a s e i n b o t h g e n e r a l m o b i l i t y and l e i s u r e t r a v e l . It i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be an i n c r e a s i n g c o v e r a g e i n t h e m e d i a on s u c h p r e v i o u s l y - i s o l a t e d c i t i e s as Vancouver.  f a r fewer p u b l i c a years. In the G u i d e , 111 periA u g u s t 1978 volume,  24 TABLE 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f A r t i c l e s over Time Number o f A r t i c l e s  Time P e r i o d 1907-09  7  1910-19  3  1920-29  5 .  1930-39  14  1940-49  12  1950-59  21  I96O-69  62  1970-78  68 Total  192  TABLE 2 Number o f Canadian P u b l i c a t i o n s Indexed i n t h e Readers' Readers' Guide Volume  Guide  Canadian P u b l i c a t i o n s Indexed  1905-28  1  1929-30  3  1930-41  4  1941-49  3  1949-February 1978  0  May 10-August 1978  1  The numbered the  references beginning  publications  oriented B r i t i s h and  and  are  and  fashion,  landscaping The is  business,  (Table  with the  in a  somewhat.  With  seems  reasonable  terms  of  been do  in  fact  mass  Periodicals,  Beautiful  Sunset,  Travel,  include other  a  forty-  travel  topics  music, or  of  - -  column, general  recreation,  home  design  and  a  of  Here  to  assume  represent  a  is  no  (Table  taken  a wide  skewed in  out  "it  that  less 5),  In  analysis  .a s a m p l e  of  the  both  groups  is  case  indexed  of  common are  with since  has  dropped  however,  i t  readership  in  other  that  media  d i s t r i -  although  range  over  magazines  together,  interests. the  articles  articles  publications  articles  throughout  is  of  special-interest  travel  and  of  points  This  travel  groups  again  burgeoning  group  the  two  words,  these  directed  it  has  articles towards  society. What  articles of  addition,  consisted  science,  these  Zelinsky  occupation  assumed  towards  4.  towards  number  not  library  (1974:151)'  oriented the  Table  as  Boating,  architecture,  of  sudden  that  may  In  groups.  were  group  and  3).  1960's.  flourishing"  1971  oriented  two  travellers  second  or  a r t i c l e .  into  Motor  The  may  distribution  knowledge  those  towards  that  chronologically  earliest  c l a s s i f i e d  education,  given  bution, during  the  Camera.  otherwise  engineering,  time  were  ordered  Columbia,•Holiday,  magazines  news,  with  exclusively  Travel  three  were  the  is to  city?  the  most  eventually The  appropriate discern  obvious  and  method  of  analysing  socially-constructed frequently-used  192  images  technique  26  TABLE Titles  of  Non-travel  American City American C i t y and Country A m e r i c a n Home American Libraries A±ehmtee<fc m r a l l F o r u m m A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record Art in America Art News Atlantic Atlantic Monthly B e t t e r Homes a n d B u s i n e s s Week  Gardens  3 Periodicals  Library Life  Used  Journal  Mademoiselle Musical America New A m e r i c a n New R e p u b l i c Newsweek New Y o r k e r  Mercury  O p e r a News Outlook  Canadian Bookman Canadian Forum Canadian Magazine Contemporary Review  Public Putnam s  Engineering Esquire  Saturday Evening Post Saturday Review Science Sports Illustrated  Magazine  Harper's Weekly H i g h - F i d e l i t y and M u s i c a l America  1  Recreation  The C a t h o l i c Time  Independent Vogue Journal of the National Educational Association  World  ToDay  World  27  TABLE 4 D i s t r i b u t i o n oiEdTravel and N o n - t r a v e l A r t i c l e s over Time Decade OO's  Travel A r t i c l e s 0 1  P e r i o d i c a l s Group Non-travel A r t i c l e s 7  10's  1  2  20's  0  5  30's  0  14  40's  1  ll  50's  6  15  60's  31  31  70's  27  41  Total  66  126  28  TABLE Number  of  Travel  Indexed  Readers'  Guide  not  Volumes  Periodicals  Readers'  Guide  Travel  Publications  1905-18  2  1919-24  3  1925-28  2  1929-31  3  1931-32*  *  1932-47  1  1947-49  2  1949-53 .  1  1953-61  4  1961-63  6  1963-71  7  1971-Feb.l978  6  May, *Data  in  %  August  available  1978  4  Indexed  i s c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s , whereby a count o f a s e t o f s p e c i f i e d words i s c a r r i e d out f o r each a r t i c l e , and u s u a l l y c u l a t e d i n terms o f t h e a r e a o f each a r t i c l e .  cal-  F o r example,  the term "Vancouver" may be mentioned f i v e times p e r u n i t a r e a o f p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l , w h i l e t h e term " S t a n l e y P a r k " may be mentioned o n l y once p e r u n i t a r e a .  While t h i s i s  " o b j e c t i v e " , i n t h e sense o f b e i n g r e p r o d u c i b l e by o t h e r s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , i t i s a l s o a v e r y b a r r e n approach, and fraught with d i f f i c u l t i e s . w i t h content a n a l y s i s  Wood d i s c u s s e s f o u r problems  (1971:70-1):  (1)  I t reduces a l a r g e body o f d a t a t o a few c a t e g o r i e s  (2)  I t i g n o r e s t h e unique by b u r y i n g a s i n g l e response amongst many and by assuming t h a t t h e frequency^/' of mention o f an image r e f l e c t s i t s impact.  (3)  I t i g n o r e s a s s o c i a t i o n between c a t e g o r i e s . Wood suggests c o n t i n g e n c y a n a l y s i s would s o l v e t h e problem.  (4)  I t s r e s u l t s depend on t h e q u e s t i o n s asked. T h i s i s a problem endemic t o a l l r e s e a r c h methods, however.  F u r t h e r m o r e , a mere word count o f p l a c e s t e l l s us n o t h i n g about t h e a t t r i b u t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n -- t h e c o l o u r s , moods, s i z e , and o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s -- t h a t w i l l g i v e t h e r e a d e r a "complete" image o f t h e c i t y . C l e a r l y some s o r t o f s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s was needed t h a t approached t h e " o b j e c t i v i t y " of c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s w h i l e a t t h e same time a v o i d i n g i t s most g l a r i n g d e f i c i e n c i e s . The procedure chosen was as f o l l o w s : (1)  The g u i d i n g q u e s t i o n f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f a l l t h e a r t i c l e s was "What elements o f t h e c i t y a r e ^ mentioned, and what i s s a i d about those f e a t u r e s ? " Th/isv^s phrased i n b r o a d terms so t h a t t h e r e s u l t i n g c i t y image w i l l n o t be r e s t r i c t e d t o a a mere  30 l i s t of p l a c e s . Instead, "elements of the c i t y " can include both v i s i b l e feature - - people, buildings, topography, and a c t i v i t i e s , f o r example - - and such i n t a n g i b l e s as attitudes. (2)  S i m i l i a r l y , for each landscape element mentioned i n a p a r t i c u l a r a r t i c l e , the d e s c r i p t i v e informat i o n g i v e n was j o t t e d down. This consisted of either o f single adjectives, or, i n some c a s e s , d i r e c t quotations of e n t i r e sentences or p a r a graphs. This i s an attempt to take i n t o account t h e v a r i e d w r i t i n g s t y l e s o f t h e many authors., W h i l e one may c a l l S t a n l e y P a r k a " b i g v i r g i n forest", a n o t h e r may s a y t h e r e a r e "thousands o f a c r e s o f t a l l o r i g i n a l t r e e s " , b u t b o t h -ire are r e a l l y r e f e r r i n g to i t s s i z e and primitive vegetation.. A l s o , c o p y i n g down t h e a c t u a l q u o t a tions allows the researcher to h i g h l i g h t the more i n t e r e s t i n g ones d u r i n g the d i s c u s s i o n of the results. When p h o t o g r a p h s a c c o m p a n i e d t h e written material, t h e i r s u b j e c t and c a p t i o n were noted. No a t t e m p t w a s made t o c a t e g o r i z e t h e visual e f f e c t s of the photographs, as t h i s would depend solely on the r e s e a r c h e r ' s s e n s e of aesthetics. It i s the s u b j e c t i v i t y of the j o u r n a l i s t s that is at issue here.  (3)  A f t e r a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n was g a t h e r e d i n n o t e f o r m , e a c h q u o t a t i o n was r e a d a g a i n and p l a c e d i n a c e l l of a chart w i t h landscape elements l i s t e d a c r o s s t h e t o p a n d i m a g e s l i s t e d down one side. S y m b o l s d e s i g n a t e d t h e two g r o u p s o f p e r i o d i c a l s , and the decade of each r e f e r e n c e was i n d i c a t e d by i t s number (low numbers b e i n g the earliest). Categories were not e s t a b l i s h e d prior to the r e a d i n g of the a r t i c l e s . So t h a t image c a t e g o r i e s would be m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , synonymous a d j e c t i v e s were grouped t o g e t h e r . A complete l i s t of images i s given i n Appendix A.  Unfortunately version  of  content  three  problems  remain  with  this  modified  analysis:  (1)  It is s t i l l reductionist. However, w i t h a t o t a l of s i x t y - t w © l a n d s c a p e elements and f o r t y - e i g h t images the " r e d u c t i o n " has been kept to a minimum.  (2)  It i s s t i l l assumed t h a t the frequency of mention of an element i s p r o p o r t i o n a l to i t s impact. This a s s u m p t i o n may h a v e d r a s t i c c o n s e q u e n c e s i f one i s attempting to discover the a c t u a l functional s i g n i f i c a n e of a b u i l d i n g , for example. However, the purpose i n t h i s t h e s i s i s to measure the  31 i m p a c t of each element on the t h e r e i s no quantum l e a p f r o m actual functional significant (3)  r e a d i n g a u d i e n c e , so journalistic accounts in society.  that to  No c o n t i n g e n c y a n a l y s i s h a s b e e n p e r f o r m e d to measure a s s o c i a t i o n between categories of landscape elements oreimages. Instead, i t was decided to approach the q u e s t i o n of a s s o c i a t i o n impress i o n i s t i c a l l y by comparing the s p e c i f i c landscape elements and images presented i n the t r a v e l and non-travel periodicals, rather than within i n dividual articles.  3  CHAPTER PERIODICAL ANALYSIS:  The  or  that  The f i r s t  at least  interesting elements  a r e such  i n both  appeared  carry  landmarks,  choose city  to present?  change  different  3.1  over  landscape  Landscape The  elements  i n an a r t i c l e ,  Content  i n this  sentative by  First 192  article  groups  that  What of writers  passed  and  didwriters  select  images?  form,  every  time  was  as a " r e f e r e n c e " .  element/image  yet the issue  a city's  a n image  combination a  single  t r a d i t i o n a l l y works w i t h the arises  a s t o how r e p r e -  a r e o f t h e images a c t u a l l y r e c e i v e d I n other words, image  t h e r e a d e r must s e l e c t  articles  d i d both  i t was c o u n t e d  analysis  these r e s u l t s  about  do t h e y h a v e  "references", b u t a l l from  a reading audience.  reading  Secondly, i f  of journalists?  so t h a t  landscape  t h e r e may b e s e v e r a l  data  i n the a r t i c l e s ,  Elements  f o ra single  article.  frequently  Are there  d i d the conception of the  As time  d a t a were r e c o r d e d  presented Thus,  Thirdly,  time?  about.  what q u a l i t i e s  o f images o f t h e landscape  of the  considered important,  t h e same w e i g h t ?  make t h e m o u t s t a n d i n g i n t h e e y e s kinds  groups  enough t o w r i t e  that  d i d a l l elements  there  was t o d e s c r i b e t h e e l e m e n t s  the journalists  particular or  DISCUSSION  d a t a were a n a l y s e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h r e e r e s e a r c h  questions. city  R E S U L T S AND  on Vancouver  has been s e l e c t e d ,  involves  two, n o t one, s t e p s .  a specific  i n this  the process of  article  data set.  the reader w i l l  32  out of the  Then, once t h e be p r e s e n t e d  with  a  3.1.1  series  General Looking  once  in  i s t ' s 6).  an  It  terms type  that  f i r s t  seen  at  those  "capsule image  posits  no  of  a  its  city  ings,  and  do  tend  we  gives  a  relates  ization, ization  of  part  that as  in  chosen.  He  slogans  the  varieties  are  collapse these  of  capsule  city,  we  functions, 6).  and  These  unable  form  drawings,  adjectives,  or  other  claims  the  of  such  effects  of to  the  not  articles  although the  limits  type  aerial  models,  Why of  a  (I96I) of  very  some  b u i l d -  area?  Strauss  the  symbolization  essence  a c t i v i t i e s , large  (Table  this  myth,  Is  one  attributive  journal-  Porteous  that  human  complexity  comprehend  may be  scaled-down  marks,  folk  the  without  symbols  what  of  the  characteristics  to  Because  are  - -  images"?  images  cognition.  in  defining  "capsule  of  trend.  combined  of  least  landscape'  notes  and  at  half  a whole  diversity? that  the  almost  (1977:116).  common  of  this  a  "bird's-eye"  indication  for  and  (p.  has  mentioned  explanation  use  of  each  Vancouver  generalized  perception size  is  to  the  general  in  images"  people  into  journalist  elements  immediately  images  he  the  Results  a r t i c l e  is  of  city  images  relative'interest  presented  and  of  its of  organ-  symbol-  photographs,  specific  phrases. are  landStrauss  highly  s i g n i f i -  cant: . . . . p e r s o n a l a c t i o n i n the urban m i l i e u becomes o r g a n i z e d and r e l a t i v e l y r o u t i n i z e d . . . . U n c e r t a i n t y about the character of the environment can only engender deep p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s (p. 16). The  specific  found  in  the  content 192  of  the  articles  capsule  w i l l  be  images  discussed  of  Vancouver  later  in  this  TABLE 6 Landscape Elements Ranked by t h e Number o f A r t i c l e s M e n t i o n i n g Them (4) (2) (1) (3) Rank No. o f Element % o f 192 Articles Articles No. 43.2 17.7 17.2  1 2 3  29 27 21 20  15.1 14.1 10.9 10.4  4 5 6 7  8  19  9.9  8  9  19 19 18  9.9 9-9 9.4  9 10 11  18 17 16 16 15 15 15 14 14 . 13 13  9.4 8.9 8.3 8.3 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.3 7-3 6.8 6.8  12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22  1 2 3  83 34 33  4 5 6 7  10 11 12 13 14  5  (5) Landscape Element  Vancouver i n i t s e n t i r e t y S t a n l e y Park S e t t i n g (mountains, P a c i f i c Ocean, E n g l i s h Bay, B u r r a r d Inlet) Waterfront Opera Chinatown U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (U.B.C.) I n s t r u m e n t a l Ensembles ( o r c h e s t r a , s m a l l groups) Downtown (CBD) s h o p p i n g Marine C l i m a t e I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e s t i v a l of the A r t s Dining CBD O f f i c e s Grouse Mountain H o t e l Vancouver Queen E l i z a b e t h T h e a t r e Gastown L i o n s Gate B r i d g e Municipal Services Politics C a p i l a n o Canyon Pacific National Exhibition  (6) Group  _—  (7) Lynch's Urban Form*  __  (8) Land s Use(s) 5  __ 7 —  Place  B  Place Activity Place Place  C B B  6,7 4 3 5  Activity  —  4  Activity  ---  3  Activity Activity Place Place Place Place Place Place Activity Activity Place Place  --  --  A B A A B E  --B B  --  4  4 2 4 4 4 3 9 5 5 7 7,4  TABLE 6 (continued) (1)  (2)  (4) (3) # of 192 Element  Rank No. of Articles Articles  No.  12 11 11  6.3 5.7 5.7  23 24 25  17  11 10  5-7 5-2  26 27  5.2 5.2 4.7  28  18  10 10 9 8 8 8 7 7 7 7  4.2 4.2 4.2 3-7 3.7 3-7 3.7  31 32 33 34 35 36 37  6 6  3.1 3.1  38 39  6 5  3-1 2.6 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1  40.  15 16  19 20  21  22 23  4 4 4  29 30  41 42  43 44 45  46  (5)  Landscape Element  (6)  Group  A l l CBD Hotels Place Art Activity Howe Sound and Royal Hudson Place Train g Vancouver P u b l i c Aquarium Place B r i t i s h P r o p e r t i e s and Place West Vancouver Robsonstrasse Place West End Place Skyline (of West End and Place CBD o f f i c e s ) Orpheum Theatre Place Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y Place Vancouver's Mayors' People Dance and Theatre Activity Art G a l l e r i e s Place MacMillan Planetarium Place Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y Place (S.F,U.<> Maritime Museum Place Mount Seymour and Mount Place Cypress E n g l i s h Bay Beaches Place Queen E l i z a b e t h Park Place Shaughnessy Place Centennial Museum Place Japantown Place City Hall Place Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l Place Airport ....cont"i .  1. .  (7)  (8)  Lynch's Urban Form*  Land /Use(s)  A D  4 4 4  A B  4 1  B B A'  3 1 1,2  A A  A A  4 5 5 4 4 4 5  A B  4 7  C B B A B A E  7 7 1 4 3 5 9  --  A  b  TABLE 6  (1)  (continued)  (2)  R a n k No. o f Articles  23 24  25 26  *KEY:  <?o  (4) (3) o f 192 E l e m e n t  Articles  2.1 2.1 1.6 ' 1.6  47  3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  1.6 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62  A=Buildings B=Districts C=Edges D=Pathways E=Nodes  Landscape  (7)  (8) L a n d /Use(s)°  Place Activity Place Place  A  4 4 7 1  Place Place Place Place Place Place Place Activity Place Place Place Place  A A A A B B B  (6)  Element  Group  No.  4 4 3 3  L Y N C H ' S URBAN  (5)  48 49  50  FORM  O l d H a s t i n g s M i l l Museum CBD E n t e r t a i n m e n t Van Dusen B o t a n i c a l Gardens False Creek R e s i d e n t i a l Development Hotel Georgja C i t y Museum Bloedel Conservatory V a n c o u v e r CPR T r a i n S t a t i o n Lynn Canyon Deep Cove Yaletown Sea F e s t i v a l Canadian Memorial Chapel Lighthouse Park Kitsilano Fisherman's Market LAND  USES  l=Residential 2=0ffice 3=General Commercial 4=Leisure Commercial 5=Social or P u b l i c Services 6=Industrial 7=Park ( o r G o l f C o u r s e ) 8 = 0 t h e r Open Space 9=Transportation  Lynch's Urban Form*  --  B B  —  A B B B  4 4 7 9 7 1,4 2 4 5 7 1 3  37 chapter  3-2).  (Section  Suppose a r e a d e r sample  o f t h e 192  Beyond  the capsule  elements tend  articles  a great  examined  a representative  f o r this  thesis..  images o f Vancouver, which  i s he l i k e l y  to focus  there  has encountered  to read  about?  landscape  Did the  journalists  on o n l y a f e w p o i n t s o f i n t e r e s t , deal of internal  o r was  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n within the  city? 6 suggests t h a t t h e p e r i o d i c a l s  Table a wide total city  range  of topics  i n the a r t i c l e s  of sixty-one different were p r e s e n t e d ,  activities,  including  one g r o u p  and c l i m a t e ) .  elements  located?  the  or are there 7 groups  Table according  Are they  to their  evenly  the landscape  elements 6.  i n Table  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the landscape  are  ..read.  F o r the purposes  knowledge Map as  of the  of mountains  and  With  and t h i s  eleven elements  throughout  Figure 3  s i xclasses illustrates  as more and more  articles  the a c t i v i t i e s  according to the sites researcher's  personal  city.  1 consists  a whole.  part  i n the c i t y  by the w r i t e r s  within the  into  of i l l u s t r a t i o n  A  are these  distributed  interest"?  the  implied  the c i t y  "zones o f  rank  have been Hihocated"  elements  and two c o n t e x t u a l  Where w i t h i n  cover  on V a n c o u v e r .  forty-seven places,  of people,  (setting  city  landscape  d i d indeed  of the capsule  t h e second  m a n a g e d b y man.  landscape, As w e l l ,  of Vancouver  map,Stanley Park  and ocean a r e added  of the "natural"  element  and t h e s e t t i n g  -- t w o e l e m e n t s albeit  the city  partly  that are modified  as a major  port,  38  TABLE 7 G r o u p i n g o f Landscape Elements by Rank Map No. Landscape Element No. o f C u m u l a t i v e Element I.D.'s Ranks No. of Elements Elements 1 2  1 2-6  1 5  1 6  3  7-11  9  15  7-15  4  12-16  11  26  16-26  5  17-21  14  40  27-40  6  22-26  22  62  41-62  1 2-6  39  Figure  3  Cumulative Landscape  of  Vancouver  40  41  42  14  39  56'  3  2.2 37  •59  •33,45  42 49 3  1 VANCOUVER,  (7) C U M U L A T I V E  .53 41  •\ B.C.  RESULT  t  t  19 M U N I C I P A L 20 P O L I T I C S  r  /  N  SERVICES  °£_2 MILES  1  44 with  i t s facilities  opera(in So False in  the  Creek.  -and  continues  Again,  and  as w i l l  publicised  l a r g e wooded a r e a s  the  Orchestra although  and  noted  of  the  areas  although  the  large  District  small musical  i s reputed  the  t o be  two  (CBD)  --  Vancouver  groups). a  symphony c o n c e r t s  i s not.  or bad!)  prominence  of  this  landscape.  The  marine  temperature  and  moisture-content  city.  Then, t h r e e  appear  --  dining,  another  and  the  downtown a r e a  the  W i t h Map  but  event  across  the  4  peninsula  eleven Six of --  elements  the  of  Inlet the  a l s o a CBD  more e l e m e n t s these  are  provides  of  the  are  general  air in  i n the  reputation,  i s the entire  to  city.  added t o  Queen E l i z a b e t h T h e a t r e ,  the  Grouse  skyscraper,  l o c a t e d i n the  the  CBD  b u i l d i n g s . . Close  Burrard  of  international  giving  international  a f f o r d i n g a view  that  i n Vancouver's  qualities  of  and  Symphony  this  i s added n e x t ,  office  Hotel Vancouver,  of Vancouver. Inlet  music  perhaps  element  more l a n d s c a p e  skyscraper  Mountain Skyride, Finally,  climate  in  However,  (either the  ocean,  favourite activity  reputation  and  the  Mote  r e g i o n a l , n a t i o n a l , and  to  3.2,  shopping  soon a c q u i r e  clue  peninsula,  elements  orchestras  a  of  U.B.C.  i n Section  Next appears  various  good  the  appear.  north  Endowment L a n d s ,  (including  attending  of  Chinatown  on  trend  ensembles  shopping  tourists,  be  Central Business  instrumental  this  I n l e t , , and  for i t s "natural" characteristics  mountain hackdrop.  Vancouver's  Burrard  been focused  the westanmost p o i n t  i s a place  the  3  Map  Grey,  appears.  the  Queen E l i z a b e t h T h e a t r e ) and  f a r a t t e n t i o n has  Point  this  located along  the  small  i s added. image Burrard  Gastown,  the  Lions  Gate  scene",  and  are  type  the  provide.  Bridge,  the  are  and  p o l i t i c s . - -  The  Pacific  Canada,  Capilano  nine  a  city  site  and  the  Canyon  f i f t h  map  new  elements.  the  and  theatre,  West the  End  shore.  Bay  University Vancouver  the  the  City  Properties place  by  to  Western  the  planning  is  of  the  north"  with  in  the  Robson  the  are  its  Street  the  excur-  the  English  Bay  from  of  these  Burnaby  but  Hall.  Again  looking  Vancouver the  the  the  the  West  End  city's are  and  in  centred  B r i t i s h  together  overlooking  Fraser  being  mayors, the  are  the  Simon  as  the  dance  along  are  labelled  (grouped  d e l i -  d i s t r i c t ,  Museum,  places  north  and  library,  beaches  Maritime  adding  (called"Robson-  apartment  Theatre,  the  CBD,  shopping  the  and  de-  regional.  area  Train  f i l l  and  writers)  over  Sound.  writers),  West  region.  a l l  "looking  Hudson  the  and  the  Also  the  from  and  East in  by  services  exhibits  northern  high-rise  galleries,  (actually  the  Orpheum  Across  from  best  mapp,  municipal to  these  can  this  more  "art  of  city  on  function  include  along  End"  beaches.  by  in  Howe  MacMillan Planetarium,  English  in  "West  art  main  Royal  These  strasse") ,  skyline,  its  city's Two  a  displays  c l a s s i f i e d  continues  development  downtown  is  the  cattessen  - -  oriented  Inlet.  Squamish along  The  are  located  and  i t s e l f  agriculture  i t  Burrard  that  elements  Exhibition  park  is  five  the  Aquarium.  elements  city  three  although  as  along  to  and  National  and  P.N.E.  sion  the  commerce,  partment  city  to  hotels,  Public  remaining  oriented  industry,  large  "cultural"  the  two  The  Vancouver  of  Of  the  Mounts  as  a  single  Seymour  and  46 Cypress. in  Maps  In  Map  and  4  result  With  this  city  are  in  City  map,  areas  in  Queen  south  Old  Hastings  the  Train the  main  Park  Dusen  in  the  Museum,  the  False  Kitsilano  Vancouver  help  to  the  Station,  the  Fraser  i n f i l l  the  downtown  Yaletown  Sea F e s t i v a l ,  and  (a  the  the  Canyon,  and  northeast  the  banks  In ested  of  summary  in  the  a it  small  the  and  Vancouver  completely north  of  adopted  to  seems  ignored.  and  Even on  - -  the  De-  further  Sea  Eight  Island  more  entertainment,  Georgia,  the  office  CPR  d i s t r i c t ) ,  Market.  Finally,  to  the  Cove  (a  small  these  the  writers  jutting  West  End,  their  Much  Inlet,  embrace  that  peninsula  downtown,  Burrard  Museum,  Residential  Park,  Deep  Near  north  Lynn  community  fiord).  including South  area  Hotel  Lighthouse  Canadian  peninsula.  Airport  Fisherman's  is  the  Conservatory,  Centennial  River.  the  residential  Bloedel  "gentrified"  northwest, tbetfoe  of  neighbourhood.  International  Museum,  peninsula  Creek  of  City  elements.  this  the  elements,  sixty-two  and  of  M i l l  identity.  large  Gardens,  are  Arm  of  a  generally;  fourteen  its  centre  looking  on  and  Bay  the  and  large  English  North  Japantown,  the  treated  remaining  of  and  the  names  Shaughnessy,  Van  are  are  landscape  Elizabeth the  bank  velopment,  elements  the  city  the  across  6 adds  total  Chapel,  is  given  a  Hall,  Memorial  south  Map  mountains  are  highlighted.  d i s t r i c t , the  the  5 they  Finally, to  2,  and  a  under  regional the  suburbs  was  most  Burrard  Stanley  adjacent  attention  and  into  were  Inlet,  Pari. were  f o c u s edJ.  on  perspective  label  inter-  East almost places was  "Vancouver".  47 Why  i s there such  landscape  elements  Since  with urban the  perceiving  interested figures  qualities  appearing  city  as w e l l  resident,  this  o f two as  cause  i t i s so  3 a d d s two  node.  and  With  f o c u s as  Map  seven  a r e added appear  mentioned  buildings  and  map  one  a total  another  a v e r y uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n  are  of f i r s t and  an  landmarks,  edge  (which  district  be-  more d i s t r i c t s  and  a pathway and  suddenly  edge.  come  image.  The  Four  Finally,  resulting  of the f i v e  types  individual eight  landscape of  a  into  o f e l e v e n more d i s t r i c t s ,  more node.  the  form  to the landscape  and  for  type of urban  also  buildings  to  they too  industrial  t h r e e more w i t h  the f i f t h  more d i s t r i c t s writers  4  Map  an  typology of  The  districts  have been c l a s s i f i e d  appear  elements.  t h e map  might  deep).  first  applied  that  of each  M a p e 2,  e a c h map.  be  of landscape  8 are counts  initial  characteristics  may  i f i t i s assumed  a sparse landscape  buildings  for  of the p l a c e s that  the v i s u a l  i n the appearance  on  on v i s i o n  Although Lynch's  emphasizes  i n Table  selected  city?  seems t o r e l y  s u c c e s s i v e map.  structure  the  of the  1974:10), i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o  (Tuan,  journalists  is  throughout  the v i s u a l  each  uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n  our s o c i e t y  impressions examine  an  has  urban  structure. The and  buildings  source. the  fact  t h a t most o f the p l a c e s mentioned i s not  Unlike  street"  tradition,  s u r p r - i s i n g when one  were  c o n s i d e r s the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s administered to the  to discern h i s cognitive the p e r i o d i c a l  articles  map  districts  i n the  data  "man  in  Lynchian  were w r i t t e n by  journalists  TABLE  8  Cumulative Urban Type  of Urban  Form** Map  2 C u m u l a - Map tive  A.  Buildings  B.  Districts  C.  Edges  D.  Pathways  E.  Nodes  *See F i g u r e  (i960).  tive  Places  4 C u m u l a - Map tive  5 C u m u l a - Map  6 TI.  tive  2  2  3  5  7  12  8  20 4 2 . 5  2  2  2  4  3  7  4  11  111  22 4 6 . 8  1  1  --  1  --  1  1  2  --  --  1  1  --  1  1  1  --.  1  8  15  27  3  3 f o r maps i l l u s t r a t i n g  S*Based on Lynch  N u m b e r o jf  3 C u m u l a - Map  --  3  Total :  Form*  4  this  7  table.  12  2  4.3  1  2.1  1  2  4.3  20  47  100.  --  and  with  the  journalist's  tion,  and  point  of view.  in  journalist. delve  Districts,  FOr  into  reactions  to  Similarly, article.  give  article,  i t s history,  can  the he  be  has  the  intersections to  Gastown  so  for  city  and  i t passes  and  context  reading  the  w e l l - d e f i n e d on  an  function,  the  concrete..  bounded  crosses  on.  in  space.  country, through  so  Vancouver.  a national  map  c o n t i n u a t i o n of a n a t i o n a l highway.  then,  of  be  the  tourist  a focus  t h a t , by  rarely  small p o r t i o n of  the  part  there,  e a s i l y w i t h i n the  are  complex  about  history,  impression  t h a t few  w r i t e r s would  of Vancouver  to  appeal  the w r i t e r  by  some a d d i t i o n a l  as  select  in particular.  edges or pathways  --  are  topics unless  f e a t u r e such  as  a  surrounding i t s  learned something s p e c i f i c  s e c t i o n may  interesting  provides  C a n a d a ' s H i g h w a y #'1  expect,  writing  t h e r e , and  location,  and  material for  politics  people  informa-  presenting  large i n area  activities  building  placed  reader  i s simplys  would  shops and  pathways, however,  this  that while  author the  p l a c e , the  only a very  While it  the  example,  that  the  Its structure,  Edges and For  example, an  a specific  appearance  being  to disseminate  constitute readywwriting  reconstruction,  and  --  m o r e i m p o r t a n t l y , t o do  structure,  can  intent  i t as  Nodes  also they  a building  One an  --  unlikely are or  marked other  landmark. Since  Lynch  analysed  structural  elements  sideration  of a c t i v i t i e s  the  landscape  city  images  only  of p l a c e s , h i s typology  elements  i n the  in this  city data  i n terms excludes  (comprising set).  of  con-  eleven  I t seems  the  >  of  preferrable, using The  a  system that  traditional  Column 7 the  of  did that  the  Indeed, City  of  the  typology  i n Table  a v a r i e t y of  Planning  land  uses  each landscape this  9  types  that  elements  activities. system.  element  system,  indicate  land  uses  i n the  Department  were completely  and  i s j u s t such a  and  that  (except  this  i s sum-  typology  journalists  was  not  devised  but even.  by  " O t h e r Open S p a c e " ,  "Vacant or  ignored. might  --  these  i n Vancouver,  d i s t r i b u t i o n between categories three  landscape  9.'  C o m m u n i c a t i o n s " and  use  classify  ones) w i t h i n  figures  write  use  6 places  i n Table  The  , to  combines b o t h places  land  Table  contextual  marized  or  therefore  the  "Utilities  Under C o n s t r u c t i o n "  What i s i t a b o u t d i f f e r e n t  explain  t h e i r r e l a t i v e appeal  -land  to  writers? The  largest proportion  of  landscape  elements  to  lei's' ure  activities.  are  commercial but  catering  may  be  in several  by  interpreted  p l a c i n g Vancouver w i t h i n  ways.  the  Firstly,  one  S o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s have  the  e f f e c t s of  improvements  not  the  of  the  for  is a  the  may  large  replaced  by  disposable  large the  the  income  i n technology,  increase  i n the  o f many N o r t h  "leisure society".  To  Indeed,  whether  t h e y be  popular  American  labjel  f u l f i l l  and  amount  average person.  "post-industrial society"  recreational facilities,  begin  documented  f o u r - d a y w o r k - w e e k becorming.; i n c r e a s i n g l y  householders, be  these  l e i s u r e time a v a i l a b l e to  with and  l e a s t of  This  contextoofhpbst-industrial  North American society. continual  mentioned  the for  might demands sports,  51  TABLE 9 Summary o f L a n d s c a p e Land  Element Land  Use*  Use  Types  Number o f L a n d s c a p e  (1) R e s i d e n t i a l  7  (2) O f f i c e  3  (3) G e n e r a l  Commercial  6  (4) L e i s u r e  Commercial  24  (5) S o c i a l o r P u b l i c (6)  1  (7) P a r k ' ( o r G o l f  (9)  8  Services  Industrial  (8) O t h e r © p e n  10  Course)  --  Space  4  Transportation  (lO)Utilities  or  o r Under  *Note  three  --  Construction  elements  (#1,3,10) h a v e  and n o t e t h e m u l t i p l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  22, 30, 56).  --  Communications  (ll)Vacant that  Elements  n o t been  of four  classified,  elements  (#4,  the A r t s ,  or general "play"  pect,:,  then,  toward  leisure  scape.  and d i s t r i b u t e d  o f t h e heavy-  are recreational  and  i n the central  the  city  likely  about  follows  would ment  that readers  and r e c r e a t i o n  amusement  including  the price  the  general public,  the  of land  i n finding  i n the  parks  city.  insiders".  u s e , i t seems one p a r t o f i t  focuses land  on t h e uses.  and commercial  society  entertain-  have a chance  "commercial" This  category  recreation  motels,  and  areas  restaurants.  a room, o r a  and i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  In contrast,  Furthermore,  city.  and even p a r t i c i p a t e  Visitors  districts  When s o m u c h o f  out about  of an admission t i c k e t ,  admittance  With the  a leisure-oriented  entertainment, hotels,  For  gain  i n such  of " L e i s u r e Commercial"  includes  C).  choose a t l e a s t  second!interpretation  aspect  i n most r e s i d e n t i a l  type  land-  along the waterfront,  as a f e a t u r e of Vancouver.  be most i n t e r e s t e d  A  areas  ex-  oriented  f o r Vancouver.  (see Appendix  to this  that wr.iters w i l l  to w r i t e it  areas  would  a l lacross the c i t y  industry  city  i s devoted  We  many p l a c e s a n d a c t i v i t i e s  T h i s seems t o be t h e c a s e  exception there  to find  and r e l a x a t i o n .  meal,  the v i s i t o r ,  i n these  t o become  can  aspects of "temporary  many o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e l a n d s c a p e 11  are v i r t u a l l y general and  industrial  While public are  public  those  to the outsider.  The c l o s e s t  can normally get t o r e s i d e n t i a l , areas  i s t o see them from  parts of the landscape  services  oriented  closed  are "public"  v;drowards  office,  the outside.  devoted  to social  i n the broadest  the resident,  the  sense,  or they  and i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  the  land-owner  i n the city,  rather than  the v i s i t o r .  Unless  h e h a s h a d a n a c c i d e n t or' b e c o m e s  i l l ,  likely  that the stranger to the city  visit  hospitals.  While  attractions",  many c h u r c h e s  i n Canada t h e i r  open o n l y t o t h e i r visitor it  i s unlikely  or  secondary  the or the  city.  parts  lessen,  to the city.  vertising benefits  found  for  hotels,  the whole. "blot  disregard  a  development"  t o enter an  city.  I n other serves  journey,  elementary words,  t o remove,  between t h e o u t s i d e r and  likely  these are  interest  because  the type  periodicals  promotion  potential  these are of "soft" ad-  promises  i s a third  of the landscape type.  economic  elements  Visually,  A  were  theatres,  i n dimension,  journalist  b y f o c u s i n g on t h e s e  of the  exhibition  landmarks  o u t what l i e s b e h i n d , i t , i n favour itself"  o f symbol  the viewer to  of the interpretation  (1961:11).  his affection  to represent  type  or invite  to  style,  may d i s p l a y  As S t r a u s s p o i n t s o u t , t h i s  the facade  interpretation  a n d many r e s t a u r a n t s a r e d e s i g n e d  or setting.  the city  will  unless  free  Furthermore,  outstanding i n the landscape,  material,  by  to city  Commercial"  buildings, be  Similarly,  implicitly  to the city.  why t w e n t y - f o u r  "leisure  that w i l l  i n these  t o be  perspective, then,  p l a c e s and a c t i v i t i e s ,  Related of  the barriers  From t h e w r i t e r ' s  commercial  tend  o f L a n d U s e (4)  aspect  of the landscape  visitors  feel  school i n a strange  "commercial" at least  doors  on a " p r o f e s s i o n a l  t h a t he w i l l  one o f i t s  i n Europe a r e " t o u r i s t  congregations.  i s a teacher  will  i ti s un-  presented  The  second most numerous type  m e n t i o n e d was for  "Leisure  Parks  are  widely the  the  intended  and  --  free,  they  are  are  not  by  what m i g h t be  --  large  3*2),  As  this  the  be  aesthetics  development  of  the  land  use  because felt  type these  are  city-wide.  Library, where the  for  i t i s located C i t y H a l l and  plays  land  the  was  the  city-wide  activities the  often  buildings  in a  politics  specific  influence, have a h i g h  that  aesthetics  house  the  lead  (Section role  social  profile  most  in  Noteethat is  Vancouver  West End The  to  jurisdiction across expect  However, or  public  within  designed  Public  district  extends one  numerous  concerned with  city.  them a r e  and  influence  f o r the  p e r i o d i c a l s w o u l d n e c e s s a r i l y be services  city  surroundings  third  entire city.  does not  is  Instead,  significant  their  the  of  in itself  of  economically,  chapter  the  city.  public  city  their  j u s t the  municipal  are  image.  the  or  of most  trees,pools,  a  uses,  i s not  and  these places  intthe periodicals.  but  well.  exception  "natural"  catchment area  instance,  This  to  in this  Services"  public The  of  entire city  discussed  as  architecturally.  seen l a t e r  Public  the  the  open spaces,  of  or  benefit  sense  type  "Social  of  will  with  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from  called a  here  However, use  directly  g r e e n l a w n s and  flowers.  city  "outstanding"  visually  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s evoked  Admittance  in fact.  element  leisure activities,  the  waterfront.  the  landscape  uses apply  for public  i s u n l i k e l y to  parks  land  d i s t r i b u t e d across  easy  parks  Many o f  Commercial"  industrial  also  park.  of  the t o be  that  social  because service city,  and  "monuments",  55 impressive In  c o n t r a s t are  dential city's  t o b o t h r e s i d e n t s and  areas. area  to  describe this he  he  may  these only  Six  of  Commercial" not  places, the  h i s readers  the  chance  landscape  type.  Since  these  toward  leisure?  After all,  car  gets  in a  twenty  h i s h a i r cut  commercial parking  any  journalist  There are only t o be  at  two  anything  f r o n t i n g the  designed  with  the  Secondly, because government-managed  buys a the  of  land  are  they  10).  or  are  few  the  detail  a  are  at  be  least  written  itsis designed  rectangular parking  the  eye,  lots  direct  are  i n mind.  (i.e.,  to w r i t e about of  use  his  Firstly,  commercial  isaform  they  city  have been  Similarly,  strictly  public  or parks  could  of  car, not  are  a clothing  there  that  floors  in  "General  is a  from  establishments  sponsored),  i n great  done  interest  the  customer  Also,  (Table  of  has  can  uses o r i e n t e d  barber's,  lot.  street.  needs  admit-  himself,  for total  coat  city  more t h a n a  districts  themselves.  possible explanations.  building  establishments  they  i n the  recently that r e t a i l  the  c o m m e r c i a l , why  commercial  when he  commercial areas  about by  are  d i f f e r e n c e whether a  or v i s i t o r  resi-  e l s e to w r i t e about. . A l s o ,  elements were  those  of  restricted  of v i s i t i n g  as  store,  the  might have l i m i t e d  important  resident  of  When h e  little  of  these  physical features.  h a v e no  i t m a k e s no  seven of  stranger  as  --  only  writer, a  with  the  private places  largest proportion  Perhaps because  is left  they  the  is residential,  realize  places  strictly  Although  were mentioned. tance  the  visitors.  not  specific  56  TABLE Location  of  "General  10  Commercial" Places  Ribbons Downtown  Cambie  Chinatown  Commercial  Gastown  Denman  Japantown  Dunbar  Kerrisdale  East  North  Fraser Granville  (CBD)  Shore  Robsonstrasse (south)  Kingsway Main V i c t o r i a West  Fourth  West  Tenth  Vancouver  Districts  Broadway  Hastings  in  -  57 advertising, prefer  to  and,  as M a c C a n n e l l  appear unbiased,  aptly  thereby  puts  it,  w r i t e r s-  establishing  credibility:  The m e d i a a r e a c c o m p l i c e s i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of c u l t u r a l experiences, but the moral s t r u c t u r e o f t h e medium i s s u c h t h a t i t t a k e s t h e s t a n c e o f b e i n g n e u t r a l o r d i s i n t e r e s t e d (1976:24). Only towards of  of  transportation.  these  the  four landscape  the  train  the waterfront.  pathway, but Three  of  even i t has the their  are  situated  i n the  L a n d Use  (Appendix  the  city  surprising  only  elements  are  admittance  mentioned were  C)  and  peninsula.  for office two  major  Furthermore, offices  chosen f o r t h e i r  silos  true  --  the these  Since  activities,  exterior  i t  were  since there often  the  small  districts  (although  --  end.  A l l of  shows t h a t a v e r y  t h a t the  to  is a  offices  Yaletown.  i s zoned  ones d i s c u s s e d .  restricted those  beginning  Map  is  buildings  a definite  and  three  t h e w a r e h o u s e and  downtown B u r r a r d  of  too  are marked by and  oriented  "pathways"m  Gate Bridge  skyline,  proportion  are  the L i o n s  landscape  offices,  the  w i t h Lynch's  station,  Only  CBD  not  As  transportation places  airport,  City  elements presented  is  implicit?) , -  visual  qualities. The Burrard  large areal Inlet  and  extent  of  F a l s e Creek has  element.  From the  L a n d Use  there  actually  three major  are  Burrard  Inlet  and  industrial  Map  F a l s e Creek  district,  and  the banks  These are  certainly  of  distinct  been designated  (Appendix industrial  area,  the  waterfront  the  C)  a  their  single  i t i s seen  districts  Grandview  --  that the  Highway  Fraser River's North  from  along  Arm.  surroundings,  58 although  most people  Indeed,  industrial  marks.  With  admittance  the  to  would  agree,  buildings  exception  these  places  are  not  aesthetically  rarely  b u i l t  of  special  is  restricted  to  be  industrial to  appealing. land-  tours,  the  general  public. No  "Other  or-"Vacant at  a l l .  few  of  or  The  fact  on  places  with  is  one  Hamilton  a c t i v i t i e s .  between  the  was  less  time In  has  to  an  ticular  to  the  journalists i t  present  element  to  b u i l t - i n  types  elements, of  the  a c t i v i t i e s  that  low-profile,  and  cemeteries  (!).  and  that  area. and  kind  media, must  that  that  be  even  It bias  this  journalists.  the  It  is  of  has a  CBC  before  been  towards the  antagonism  was  ignored  the  been  relatively image.  writers  about  the  suggested and  struc-  Vancouver  the  information  Building  high  that  of  in  imposing  mutual  public  image  has  CBC  involves  noted  there  the  is  that  construct  influences  and  Intuitively,  and  attributive  elements.  of  intentions  so  appears  any  landuuse  it  established  landscape  landscape  Also,  for  very  some  magazine  recently,  p a r t i a l l y  specific that  and  b u i l t  summary,  been  begin  radio  mentioned are  employees,  there  are  there  downtown  many  Communications",  uses  that  are  lots  however,  the  Is  journalists?  ture  vacant  in  has  city.  categories  or  land  indicates  the  exception,  profile  the  in  for  architecturally,  by  Map  these  Street  " U t i l i t i e s  Construction"  Use  non-existent  There  Space",  Under Land  these  associated  Open  here  against  selection  subjectivity  of is  parspecific  related  59 3.1.2  Comparison One  a l i t y  method  is  ferent  to  appropriate  The  of  of  to  and  as  members  of  of  promoting  and  examining the  Non-travel  further  landscape  journalists.  study those  underlying  have  Travel  compare  groups  magazines  of  two  writing  assumption the  travel  tourism.  the  industry,  Consequently,  the  following  it  by  dif-  was  for  travel  periodicals.  f i r s t  have  set  writing  non-travel  that  intention-  selected  data  those  of  grooap  the  of  writers,  principal  travel  writers  aim  w i l l  some  or  a l l  (1)  to on  induce people to t r a v e l , l e a r n i n g and m o t i v a t i o n  (2)  t o remove one of l a c k of i n t e r e s t  the major b a r r i e r s to t r a v e l - (Lansing and B l o o d , 1964:11).  (3)  to  specific  (4)  of  is  this  - -  for  issue  elements  For  groups  the  Articles  "sacralize"  a  "to "make t h e s a l e " r e s e r v a t i o n and/or (Hall, 1972:95)-  Each  of  these  intentions  (1)  INDUCING  TRAVEL  Mcintosh  explains  u s i n g methods theory.  be  travel  based  sight.  - - receiving a scheduled t r i p  w i l l  why  intentions:  examined  must  deposited decision"  in  be  turn.  induced:  Engaging in pleasure travel is in i t s e l f , learned behavior. T h u s , a s t o u r i s m p r o m o t e r s we h a v e to i n d u c e p e o p l e t o t r a v e l f o r p l e a s u r e . . . . The pleasure t r i p . . . [is] a h i g h l y complex and b a s i c a l l y learned form of reducing tension (1972:52). Later.^aherexpandspon  the  "romance  of  travel  Perhaps uppermost of a l l i n d i v i d u a l tions i s simplyy the motivation for person's need for pure pleasure (p. Pleasure,  he  says,  is  the  t r i p ,  discussing  and  shopping  involved it  activities  with during  in  the  and  research,  t r i p ,  pleasure":  travel motivasatisfying a 60).  planning  friends,  for  and  the  anticipating educational, "romance"  60 of  honeymoon  tourist to  travel  industry  emphasize  (2)  and e x p e r i e n c i n g  marketing and a d v e r t i s i n g  romance  REMOVING Lansing  TRAVEL  and  travel  can be  is  recognized  programs  aim  pleasure..  (1964) p o . s a i t r t h a t  attributed  that  Thus,  BARRIERS  and Blood  in  new p l a c e s .  travel  to  two  l i t t l e  factors.  involves  two  interest  F i r s t l y ,  i t  fearst  (a)  F e a r o f t h e U n k n o w n ( L a n s i n g a n d B l o o d , 1964:11). What w i l l t h e c l i m a t e be l i k e ? Where w i l l I f i n d accommodation? W i l l I l i k e the food? W i l l I be able to handle strange currencies? T h e s e a r e some o f t h e q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r e b o u n d to plague the t r a v e l l e r about to depart f o r a strange place.  (b)  Fear fear of:  of Change ( D i c h t e r , 196?)• of t h e unknown a r e the p s y c (i)challenges to the takenof pre-conceived i d e a s , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and value  Related to the hological dangers for-granted r e a l i t y opinions^aricl systems.  (ii)being  these  forced  to  change  views  ('iii)a c o n f l i c t between the natural desire to m a i n t a i n t h e s t a t u s quo i n o n e ' s l i f e , and the urge to explore and satisfy one's curiosity. How  are  these  fears  travel  writers?  a  order.  t a l l  is  to  the  "give  phony  gives that  no the  Surely Dichter  people  the  protection clues  as  tourist  c o u r a g f " t o own  removed,  to  says  prefers  to  the  courage  of  their  how t h i s  reduce,  least  alleviated,  deepiinto task  to  of  get  the  the  from  is  to  the  be  (p.  attempt  to  opaqueness"  world  (I978).  not  increase,  6 7 ) , but  give  Instead, a  [sic]  Duncan  of  is  motivator  behind  done.  by  psyche  travel  isolationism"  does.not  "shatter  socially-constructed  dustry  at  reaching  industry  actually  or  suggests  people their  the  tourist's  i n culture  shock.  This  (a;),  is  accomplished  in  three  ways:  " p r o v i d i n g the t o u r i s t w i t h t h a t w h i c h he w i s h e s t o s e e " ( D u n c a n , 1978:275)' A travel writer, t h e n , w i l l w r i t e about those p l a c e s and a c t i v i t i e s i n the landscape that the t o u r i s t has decided are p a r t of a good " a u t h e n t i c " e x p e r i e n c e . 'Furthermore, the w r i t e r w i l l c o n s t r u c t images of these elements that correspond to the values of the contemporary t o u r i s t . For example, Duncan l i s t s three landscape images-valued by the tourist - " r o m a n t i c " , "remnant of theppastV,and "exotic"  277-8).  (p.  Indeed, i t makes sense to t a k e the reader's v a l u e s i n t o a c c o u n t when w r i t i n g an a r t i c l e if a w r i t e r wants to influence him. This is emphasized by George Gerbener i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the mass media: The any k i n d on w h a t ' s cultural in which a very re  A  e f f e c t of any p e r s u a s i v e campaign, or of p e r s u a s i v e communication, depends already there.... People's total l i f e s t r u c t u r e s them i n a p e r s p e c t i v e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r campaign or act finds c e p t i v e or f e r t i l e ground (Yeat, n.d.).  (b)  " t r a n s l a t i n g what the t o u r i s t terms" (Duncan, 1978:276).  (c)  " d e s c r i b i n g [the l a n d s c a p e ] as u n i q u e or quaint: terms d i s t a n t and i r r e l e v a n t to the everyday experience' of the t r a v e l l e r " (ibid. )  second  factor  information  about  1964:11).  James  expose  name  the  newspaper travel  reducing  travel  suitable  of  a  sections,  "The  Occupant".  In  of  place,  states  attempt labels  to this  billboards,  Hall  establish  that  positive  "boosterism"  when  organs, mere  most  is  that to  there  is  to  public  - -  and  the  and  direct  a  sections,  less  of  effective  mail  the  to  name  programs  place.  " l i t t l e  Blood,  used  travel  advertising of  and  are  exposure  image  familiar  inadequate  the  magazine  television,  house  into  (Lansing  destination  addition,to  a  travel  media  consumer  radio,  modes  a  l i s t s  tourist  tive  in  destinations  Hall,(1972)  publications, of  interest  sees  Tuan  respect  for  complex t r u t h " i n the (3)  SACRALIZING A MacCannell  spectacular tional For be  that  visited  terms  by  directly  (4)  advertising  Seven Wonders of  are  not  so  and  fifth  travel writers  naturally  no  institu-  (1972:4-3-4).  the  of media  World  will  advertising.  "wondrous" t h e y r e q u i r e  sacralization". and  so  This  involves  o f w h i c h may  (p.  be  what  five  steps,  accomplished  44-5):  naming the s i g h t , i n c l u d i n g research i n g i t s v a l u e to the viewer  (b)  " f r a m i n g " ( e r e c t i n g an o f f i c i a l b o u n d a r y t h e s i g h t ) and " e l e v a t i o n " ( p u t t i n g i t on  (c)  "enshrinement"  (d)  "mechanical reproduction" -- p h o t o g r a p h s a n d drawings to arouse the t o u r i s t ' s i n t e r e s t  (e)  "social reproduction" -- w h e n g r o u p s , c i t i e s , o r r e g i o n s name t h e m s e l v e s a f t e r t h e s i g h t (e.g., i n slogans). arousing  the  and  justifyaround display)  interest i n s p e c i f i c places  travel writers  engender  within  i n t e r e s t i n the  city  whole. M A K I N G THE In  SALE  contrast  " s a l e " must be  the  sale  of  made, as  Hall  explains,  sumer b e i n g a b l e with  are  (a)  city, a  sights  t r a v e l l e r s regardless  fourth,  by  Thus, by  as  a few  t h e y n e e d no  says the  "sight  first,  the  that  s u p p o r t t o "become t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n s  e x a m p l e , he  the  (1974::204).  SIGHT  claims  S i n c e most p l a c e s he  image  his  own  to  to  touch,  e y e s " w h a t he  i m p l i c a t i o n here  i s that  other  inspect, i s buying  commodities, "without  smell,  or  images i n c l u d i n g  the  even  (1972:95).  this consee The  descriptions  6 of  sensory  perceptions  must  be  presented  by  the  travel  writer.  The  travel  educator izing sume  with  the  the  writers  are  11  shows  group  of  writers  to  by  two  elements level of  be  (see  non-travel Park  assumed  to  value  have  stores  the  and  more There  on  twenty-five  three  we  f i n a l -  cannot  as-  p e r i -  promotion.  written  of  of  oriented  the  other  by  each  sixty-two  non-travel - -  of  Park  the  value  of  do  landscape at  and  this  the  0.01 proportion  Chinatown  seems and  the  than  reasonable.  tourists  Chinatown, for  indeed  selected  larger  place  attraction  although  tourists, major  are  does  department  d i s t r i c t s .  hand,  for  there  elements  a c t i v i t i e s .  articles  reasons  that  significant  Stanley  commercial  musical publications  type and  travel  significantly  business  ihanon-travel are  Three  recreation  varied  the  each  Intuitively  leisure  high  other  Opera,  A  D).  large  and  in  between  values  selected  a  contrast,  reveals  writers.  writers.  is  interesting  not  table  chi-square  writers  inducing  articles  differences of  a  Vancouver.  the  Appendix  Stanley  an  some  of  as  non-travel  discussed  of  of  groups  had  travel  did  that  In in  seen  of  interested  numbers  elements  appear  travel.  publishing  the  Inspection  the  to  can be  objective  necessarily  Table  landscape  then?  major  decision  that  odicals  writer,  was  than  in  this.  articles H i - f i  discussed travel  and  periodicals.  F i r s t l y ,  examining Musical  significantly  most opera  of  the  were  America,  in  and  3  TABLE 11 Comparison o f T r a v e l and N o n - t r a v e l W r i t e r s ' S e l e c t i o n o f Landscape Elements Element ' No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7  8  9 10 11 12 13  14 15 16 17  18  19 20 21 22 23  24  25 26 27  28  Landscape Element  Vancouver i n i t s e n t i r e t y S t a n l e y aPark Setting Waterfront Opera Chinatown U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia I n s t r u m e n t a l Ensembles CBD Shopping Marine C l i m a t e I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e s t i v a l of the A r t s Dining CBD O f f i c e s Grouse Mountain H o t e l Vancouver Queen E l i z a b e t h Theatre Gastown L i o n s gate B r i d g e Municipal Services Politics C a p i l a n o Canyon P a c i f i c National Exhibition A l l CBD H o t e l s Art Howe Sound and- R o y a l Hudson T r a i n Vancouver P u b l i c Aquarium B r i t i s h P r o p e r t i e s and West Vancouver Robsonstrasse  Land Use(s) _ _  7 -6,7 4 3 5 4 3 4 4 2 4 4 4 3 9 5 5 7 7,4 4 4 4 4 1 3  No. o f Travel Articles 27 19* 9 10 2 13* 9 3 7 7 4  8 7 3 3 7  8  0 1 7 10 6 1 7 7 3 6  No. o f Non-travel Articles  # of 66  28.8 13-6 15.2 3.0 19.7 13.6 4.6 10.6 10.6 6.1 12.1 10.6 13.6 4.6 4.6 10.6 12.1 0.0 1.5 10.6 15.2 9.1 1.5 10.6 10.6 4.6 9.1  24 19 25*  8  11 16** 12 12  14  10 10 7 13** 12  8 7  !  14  13 6 3 6 10 4 4 7 4  126  44.4 11.9 19.1 15.1 19.8 6.4  56 15  40.9  % of  8.7  12.7 9.5 9.5 11.1 7.9 7.9 5.6 10.3 9.5 6.4 5.6 11.1 10.3  4.8 2.4  •4.8 7.99 3.2 3.2 5.6 3-2  ....cont'd.  TABLE  11  Element No.  29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53  5k 55 56 57 58 59  (continued) Landscape  Element  West End S k y l i n e ( o f West E n d and CBD) Orpheum Theatre Vancouver P u b l i c Library Vancouver's Mayors Dance and Theatre Art Galleries MacMillan Planetarium Simon Fraser University M a r i t i m e Museum Mount Seymour and Mount Cypress E n g l i s h Bay Beaches Queen E l i z a b e t h P a r k Shaughnessy C e n t e n n i a l Museum Japantown City Hall Vancouver International Airport O l d H a s t i n g s M i l l Museum CBD E n t e r t a i n m e n t Van Dusen B o t a n i c a l Gardens F a l s e Creek R e s i d e n t i a l Development Hotel Georgia C i t y Museum Bloedel Conservatory Vancouver Train Station (CPR) Lynn Canyon Deep Cove Yaletown Sea F e s t i v a l Canadian Memorial Chapel  Land Use(s)  1 1.2 4 5 5 4 4 4 5 4 7 7 7 1 4 3 5 9 4 4 7 1 4 4 7 9 7 1,4 2 4 5  No. of Travel Articles  4 5 2 0 1 3 1 7 2 4 5 5 4 2 3 2 1 4 3 3 2 3 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0  •  fo  of  66 6.1 7.6 3.0 0.0 1.5 4.6 1.5 10.6 3.0 6.1 7.6 7.6 6.1 3.0 4.6 3.0 1.5 6.1 4.6 4.6 3.0 4.6 1.5 1.5 0.0 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 0.0  No. of Non-travel A r t i c l e s  6 4 6 8 7 4 6 0 5 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 0 i l l  0 2 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 1  fo  of  126  ' 4.8 3.2 4.8 6.4 5.6 3-2 4.8 0.0 4.0 1.6 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.6 0.8 1.6 2.4 0.0 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.0 1.6 0.8 1.6 0.8 0. 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 . . . c o n t *d.  T A B L E 11 Element No.  60 61 62 * **  (continued) Landscape  Element  7 1  Lighthouse Park Kitsilano Fisherman's Market  Chi-square i s significant Chi-square i s significant  No. o f Land Use(s) Travel Articles 1 1 1  3 a t c<=0.01 a t eC=0.01  (See A p p e n d i x  D)  fo  of 66  No. o f Non-travel Articles  1-5 1.5 1.5  0 0 0  of 126  ifo  0.0 0.0 0.0  Opera News.  Secondly, opera has a s p e c i f i c audience based  on a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n music, and, to a c e r t a i n extent, on income.  A c c o r d i n g l y , the n o n - t r a v e l w r i t e r s may be  assuming t h a t the g e n e r a l p u b l i c i s not i n t e r e s t e d i n opera. Thirdly,  i f a w r i t e r i s not an opeifr-goer h i m s e l f , he may  not c o n s i d e r opera a s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i v i t y i n Vancouver. Four other elements have chi-square v a l u e s at the l e v e l of 0.10. and  Two of these--  significant  Instrumental  Ensembles  the I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e s t i v a l of the A r t s -- are musical  a c t i v i t i e s and the e x p l a n a t i o n s reiterated.  f o r "Opera" above may be  A l s o , s i n c e Grouse Mountain and i t s s k y r i d e  i s a commercial t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of t r a v e l w r i t e r s mentioned i t . With the H o t e l Vancouver, however, one would not have expected t h a t more n o n - t r a v e l than t r a v e l w r i t e r s would i n c l u d e i t i n t h e i r a r t i c l e s , f o r one of the prime needs of t r a v e l l e r s i s accommodation.  Perhaps the  e x p l a n a t i o n l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t " t r a v e l l e r s " i n c l u d e not only t o u r i s t s  (to whom t r a v e l p u b l i c a t i o n s are o r i e n t e d )  but a l s o people on busines s reunions,  f o r example.  t r i p s , conventions,  or f a m i l y  Thus the h o t e l may be regarded  as a p l a c e w i t h a much wider f u n c t i o n than j u s t  tourist  accommodation. Is there a g e n e r a l p a t t e r n i n the d i f f e r e n c e s between the types ters?  of elements emphasized by the two groups of w r i % e i s  The i n i t i a l  impulse the a n a l y s t might have to ex-  p l o r e t h i s q u e s t i o n i s t o c l a s s i f y the landscape elements i n t o two groups, s e p a r a t i n g the t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n s from  68 all  other  whether  places  or not the travel  attractions,.and but  i n the city.  tourist  w r i t e r s mentioned  attractions.  Unfortunately this o f two s i m p l e  discover  only  the other w r i t e r s mentioned  cannot be adopted because  tourist  everything approach  facts:  (1)  Almost every place i n the c i t y i s a p o t e n t i a l tourist attraction. A l t h o u g h we t e n d t o t h i n k of t h e landscape of t o u r i s m as b e i n g p u r e l y c o m m e r c i a l i z e d , i n p r a c t i c e many non-commerc i a l places are considered prime t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n s , by t h e t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y and t h e t o u r i s t s themselves. S t a n l e y Park i s a case in point. Thus, MacCannell notes t h a t t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n s " c o n s i s t of p u b l i c b e h a v i o r and other v i s i b l e public parts of society" i n contrast to the a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n a private household ( 1 9 7 6 : 3 9 ) . He d e f i n e s " t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n " as "an e m p i r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e % tween a t o u r i s t , a s i g h t , and a marker a piece of i n f o r m a t i o n about a s i g h t " (p. 4 1 ) . This i s a broad d e f i n i t i o n indeed.  (2)  Separating t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n s from other places i m p l i c i t l y a s s u m e s t h a t t h e c i t y r e s i d e n t s do n o t v i s i t o r u s e them a s w e l l . However, Vanc o u v e r i t e s seem t o k t a k e a s much a d v a n t a g e o f t h e s o - c a l l e d " a t t r a c t i o n s " i n t h e c i t y a s do visitors.  Therefore, to  Then one c o u l d  view  f o r the purposes  the a c t i v i t i e s  or not t o u r i s t s  of this  thesis,  i t was  a t each p l a c e , r e g a r d l e s s o f whether  or r e s i d e n t s use the f a c i l i t i e s ,  criteria  f o r grouping  typology  as b e f o r e ,  decided  landscape  elements.  the following  Using  questions  as t h e t h e same  arise:  (1)  D i d t h e t r a v e l w r i t e r s e m p h a s i z e o n l y one t y p e of landscape element t o the e x c l u s i o n o f others? If so, are these places r e l a t e d to l e i s u r e activities?  (2)  D i d w r i t e r s f o r n o n - t r a v e l p u b l i c a t i o n s emphas i z e one t y p e o f l a n d s c a p e e l e m e n t , o r i s s a v a r i e t y of l a n d uses represented?  (3)  Were a n y l a n d u s e s r e p r e s e n t e d of w r i t e r s than the other?  more b y one  group  12  Table discuss  landscape  expected,  of  tourism  even  "Other  "Vacant  13  surprising  do  until  not  uses.  an  In  one  Instead,  so?  Two  of  and  at least emphasis the  ground  the  the  of  critical this  purpose  people  not  of  be  of p o l i t i c s .  with land  two  elements  type  of landscape  t r a v e l w r i t e r s --  land  uses  of  other  our articles  leisure  S e r v i c e s " were Why  should category  #37  Vancouver'  chapter, t o be  In other  the negative, words,  element would to promote  avoid  l a n d use  pre-  in this and  tend  need not  remaining  and  i s somewhat  n e c e s s a r i l y concerned city  uses  articles  evidence  to  in this  S e c t i o n 3-2).  the  types  the  in non-travel  Politics  (see  The  This  elements  seen l a t e r  to v i s i t  As  non-travel articles.  landscape  these  pleasure.  represented.  not  or P u b l i c  #20  promo-  or Communications",  However,  --  are  l a n d use  low-profile  "Is this  "Social  contrast, w r i t e r s not  a g i n g  represented.  i n importance  sensitive  as w i l l  on  a l l other  "Leisure Commercial"  asks,  the  land uses  number o f n o n - t r a v e l  Again,  come s e c o n d  politically  serve  only  society?".  images p r e s e n t e d or  are  "Utilities  i n sixty-two of  Mayors;  ignore  to  the most of a l l t y p e s .  leisure-oriented  are  not  appear  that  As  emphasize  places  type.  "Park"  class.  indeed  i n d i c a t e s the  represented  be  each l a n d use  or Under C o n s t r u c t i o n " are  are  this  of  articles  In their  do  open space",  l a n d use  sented  do  articles  per  land  number o f t r a v e l  travel writers.  publications,  Table  parks  the  they  industrial  non-travel of  elements  most by  However, the --  the  " L e i s u r e C o m m e r c i a l " and  represented tion  summarizes  tourism.  with the  types  not  encourtouchy  were  .TABLE  12  Number o f T r a v e l A r t i c l e s Land  Use  p e r Land  Use  Type  T o t a l No. T r a v e l Articles  %  (1)  Residential  19  7-3  (2)  Office  13  5.0  (3)  General  Commercial  36  13.8  (4)  Leisure  Commercial  93  35-6  (5)  Social or Public  13  5-0 3.8  Services  (6)  Industrial  10  (7)  Park  54  (8)  O t h e r Open  (9)  0  Space  Transportation  (lO)Utilities (ll)Vacant Total  or  i  Communications  o r Under  Construction  Of).*?  20:7 n„ n  0:0  23  8.8  0  0.0  0  0. 0  261  100. 0  TABLE 13 Number o f N o n - t r a v e l A r t i c l e s p e r Land Use Type No. o f N o n - t r a v e l Articles  Land Use (1) R e s i d e n t i a l  19  5-k  (2) O f f i c e  14  3-9  (3) G e n e r a l Commercial  34  9.6  (4) L e i s u r e Commercial  149  42,1  (5) S o c i a l o f P u b l i c S e r v i c e s  62  17.5  (6) I n d u s t r i a l  19  5-k  (7) Park  30  8.5  0  (8) Other Open Space (9) T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  27  0.0 7.6  ( l O ) U t i l i t i e s or Communication  0  0. 0  ( l l ) V a c a n t or Under  0  0.0  Total  Construction  35^  100. 0  72 fairly  equally represented  flecting  the  When a the  use  found  of  varied  chi-square  there  (Appendix E ) .  group  interests catered  each land  that  in this  a n a l y s i s was  use  were  type  only  " S o c i a l or  by  two  the  two  i s probably  the  nature  of p o l i t i c s  non-travel  periodicals services. more  in travel  reflects method  the  of  discussed  American City  Parks,  on  the  articles  other than  a b o v e , and  in leisure However,  and  (11),  which n e i t h e r group mentioned,  did  not  excluded  ignore  remains  examine  from  difference two only  the  i n the  land  the  use  slightly and  differences words,  treatment  (Table  were not  magazine about a  the  also  sensi-  because  special-interest municipal  three  the  landscape  two  significant  capsulized Vancouver,  (10), writers  i n the  little  a whole by the  elements  groups, In  the  technique  and  one  picks  --  chances  i t s setting,  the  other  or not the  city.  elements  (Appendix E).  another magazine  a  emphasized  contextual  i n both  as  (8),  T h e r e was  publications using The  This  travel  uses  o f V a n c o u v e r as  11).  far  articles.  activities  varied land  d i f f e r e n c e whether or  of  categories  c l i m a t e ) were presented  i t makes no  travel  reading  more  three  typology.  groups, with non-travel  (setting  a  to  the  represented  i t must be  the  completely  the  was  hand, were r e p r e s e n t e d  that with  It  of  such  i n non-travel  promotion.  exception  i t  p u b l i c a t i o n s than  that deal with  special interest  tourism  compare  differences  because  publications included  as  to  P u b l i c S e r v i c e s " were  This  re-  periodicals.  groups,  significant  in  tive  the  performed  i n non-travel  articles.  articles,  to by  p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y much more travel  of  and  up  of i t s  climate, and  climate To  does al  are  probably would  summarize,  not  to  expect;  town, more  and by  these  presented  3.2  by  in  - -  than  hotel.  of  are  by  by  travel  In  general,  groups  travel  is  - -  other  c i t i e s .  of  magazines  to  be  do  writers, though,  specialto  well  the  multi-faceted  in  China-  emphasized  seem as  .  leads  Park,  However,  city  tourism  uni-dimension-  Stanley  l i k e l y  the  setting  promotion  others.  in  of  the  simplistic,  elements  a c t i v i t i e s  both  the  if  be  some-  as  the  landscape  terms  of  land  Vancouver.  Images In  Section  measuring was  three  writers  largest  the  stereotype  Mountain  musical  in  wonders  features  that  result  the  One  popular  seems  under-represented  city's  uses  it  Only  Grouse  interest what  that  same.  such  necessarily  landscape  one  be  the  the  relative  according  articles.  i t  3-1  to  the  Table  was  noted  that  importance  total  number  14 p r e s e n t s  the  a  second  method  of  each  of  references,  results  landscape  of  of  element  rather  applying  than  this  technique. A six  of  comparison the  sixty-two  both  techniques.  maps  similar  from  Table  "appear"  shifted  to  14,  at  elements,  of  the  In  last  elements other  Figure  same  stage  were  Thus,  two  columns  remain  words,  3 was  fifty-eight  nineteen  "down".  the  if  in  shifted using  a  the set  constructed  percent as  in  the  of  and  measure  same of  using  the  Figure "up"  reveals  that class  six  Of  only of  the  the seven  total  for  cumulative  elements  3>  thirty-  data would remaining were references  TABLE Lahds'Sape' E l e m e n t s  |Rank|No. of References  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13  lk  15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22  23  356 149 117 77 68 63 61 56 50  k5 ko  39 38 37 35 33 29 27 27 25  2k 2k 23 23 21 21 21 20  fo  1913 8.1 6.3 4.2 3-7 3.4 3-3 3.0 2.7 2.4 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.6 1.5 1.5 1,4 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 l.fi  1.1 1.1 l . o  Element No. i n Table 6 l  2 4 17 3 6 7 13 21 5 8 11 24 22 31 9 12 32 18 14 62 27 10 15 26 37 36 16  Ranked by  14  their  Total  Landscape  Number  of  References  Element  Class  1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 33 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4  Vancouver in i t s entirety Stanley Park Waterfront Gastown Setting Chinatown U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia CBD O f f i c e s Capilano Canyon Opera Instrumental Ensembles International F e s t i v a l of the Arts Art Pacific National Exhibition Orpheum T h e a t r e CBD S h o p p i n g Dining Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y Lions Gate B r i d g e Grouse Mountain Fisherman's Market B r i t i s h P r o p e r t i e s and West Vancouver Marine Climate Hotel Vancouver Vancouver P u b l i c Aquarium Simon F r a s e r University MacMillan' Planetarium Queen E l i z a b e t h T h e a t r e . . . .  continued  1 2 2 4 2 2 3 3 4 2 3 3 4 4 5 3 3 5 4 3 6 5 3 3 4 5 5 4  TABLE Rank  ' 24 25 26 27 28 229 30 31  32 33 34 35 36 37  ,10  14  (continued)  No. of References  19 19 16 15 15 14 14 13 12 12 11 10 10 10 10 10 q 9 9 7 7 6 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 3 3  * 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 U.  Landscape  Element No. i n Table 6  1  i 20 19 28 29 45 25 33 23 30 35 55 39 49 54 34 43 38 46 48 44 47 . 40 41 42 •57 59 56 52 61 50 51  Element  Politics Municipal Services Robsonstrasse West End City Hall Howe S o u n d a n d R o y a l H u d s o n Train Vancouver's Mayors A l l CBD H o t e l s Skyline Art Galleries Lynn Canyon Mount Seymour and Mount cypress r  Van DusenBB'otaMeal Gardens q V a n c o u v e r GPR T r a i n Station Dance and Theatre C e n t e n n i a l Museum M a r i t i m e Museum Vancouver International Airport CBD E n t e r t a i n m e n t Japantown O l d H a s t i n g s M i l l Museum E n g l i s h Bay Beaches Queen E l i z a b e t h P a r k Shaughnessy Yaletown Canadian Memorial Chapel Deep Cove C i t y Museum Kitsilano False Creek R e s i d e n t i a l Development Hotel Georgia  Class  !  4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6  Class Table  '  4 4 5 5 6 4 5 4 5 5 6 5 6 6 5 6 5 6 6 6 6 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6  in 6  T A B L E lk  (continued)  R a n k No. o f References  38  2 2 1  39 Total  imkk  E l e m e n t No. i n Table 6  0.1 0.1 0.1  53 58 60  Landscape Bloedel Conservatory Sea F e s t i v a l Lighthouse Park  Element  Class  6 6 6  •Class i n Table 6  6 6 6  100.0  o\  77 has  the  sizing) of  general effect  of a m p l i f y i n g (rather  the  of s p e c i f i c  these  importance  twenty-six landscape  down a s i n g l e  class,  Gastown, C a p i l a n o Canyon, erman's Market reader he  a l l moved  encounters  i s inundated  instance, article  was  an  measurement r e f l e c t s intensity  of the  images  the  ments--  that this  imagery  put  Fish-  for  that  images of  one  the  method and  J u s t what are the  a  elements,  yet  alternative  'information of  or  Market,  article,  presented.  up  t h a t once  t h e number o f a r t i c l e s  attributive  that are  and  landscape  of twenty-four  both  so  Fisherman's  d i s c u s s e d i n o n l y one  I t seems, t h e n ,  --  these  most  differences.  Orpheum T h e a t r e ,  images.  a total  While  some s t a r t l i n g  on  de-empha-  were s h i f t e d  "up"two c l a s s e s ,  article  w i t h maw  presented  market.  the  elements.  elements  there are  than  of the  these  landscape  ele-  forth? 14  1.  (1) Vancouver A  in  total  192  the  city  promote examines J.N.  o f 356  capsule  articles.  much o f t h e i r by  i n i t s entirety  boosters  --  of c i t y  civic  Kane and  G.L.  of American  world  status;  c'ago;o -The  and  San  geographical setting  t o jhabels i n v e n t e d  Tuan  He  --  F r a n c i s c o --  appeared  t o be  compiled  found New  political  that York  by  the represented  supremacy;  elegance more  to  systematically  nicknames  differences.  W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.  virility;  city  devote  b u s i n e s s m e n --  city.  (I965).  Alexander  nicknames r e v e a l e d r e g i o n a l  and  presented  (I96I)  Strauss  images  official  the r e p u t a t i o n of t h e i r the l i s t  of Vancouver were  (1974) a n d  Tuan  discussion  images  (p.  important  Chi202). to  small poli  cities  than  l a r g e ones, perhaps because  other  the  nicknames u s u a l l y ignored  appeared Other  hand,  only  ities, city  i fthegeographical  s i xtimes  of industrial  thepromising  was l a b e l l e d  "cradle",  included the Western  "desert" list. Frontier,  growth, b o t a n i c a l or p a s t o r a l qual-  t h e "hub",  labels  the special-interest  where t h e  "Home", " c e n t r e " , " h e a r t " ,  "birthplace",  ( p . 203-4).  or "capital"  varied with respect  ences between o r w i t h i n c i t i e s of  F o r example,  f u t u r e , and ethnocentrism,  "crossroads",  use o f these  i t .  to actual  and t h e i n t e n t i o n s or  g r o u p s who i n v e n t e d  i n c l u d e d t h e Chamber o f Commerce, c i v i c  businessmen,  journalists,  of labels  artists,  given  and v i s i t o r s .  t o American  differconcerns  the labels.  These groups  same t y p e s  On  s e t t i n g was u n d e s i r a b l e ,  i n Kane a n d A l e x a n d e r ' s  t o p i c s o f nicknames  the value  The  (Tuan,1974:203).  have more f a c e t s t o c h o o s e f r o m  the  t h e metro-  cities  leaders,  Are the  applied to  V a n c o u v e r a s weikl? Twenty-eight  of thereferences  "Canada's T h i r d L a r g e s t seemed these  (or Ranking) C i t y " ,  t o b e an.'jimportant authors.  "small  l a r g e city"!(#112:26). ^  (Table  Of plicitly of  size  Vancouver a  the size  label,  o f s u b j e c t s f o rnicknames  o f Van-  15).  the thirty negative  the i l l i c i t  so that  i t was s m a l l , b u t one o f  Beyond  1  Vancouver as  of the city to  i ta t t h a t and c a l l e d  t h e r e was a w i d e v a r i e t y couver  characteristic  Two w r i t e r s s a i d  them c o u l d n o t l e a v e  labelled  labels  i n Table  -- V a n c o u v e r  drug  trade.  15.  only  i sa "rioter"  This  three  a r e ex-  and centre  i sn o t an endearing  image,  79 TABLE  15  Nicknames and Slogans (other  Article  Number  2 9* 11 14 30* 35* 43 43 43  i j i  I  1  !  48 52 66* 70 98* 101* 125* 125* 153 170 170 171 176* 176* 17;6J 176** 176* 179 191 191 191  than  those  o f Vancouver  referring  Nickname  or  to  size)  Slogan  R i o t e r and Spokesman f o r t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t The L i v e r p o o l o f t h e P a c i f i c Northwest The M o s t A m e r i c a n i n C a n a d a The M e t r o p o l i s o f t h e P a c i f i c Crossroads of Empire The R i v i e r a o f C a n a d a The G r e a t e s t C i t y o f t h e P a c i f i c n o r t h w e s t The C i t y o f U n f i n i s h e d B u s i n e s s Canada's E v e r g r e e n P l a y g r o u n d ( a u t h o r d e n i e s its appropriateness) The N a r c o t i c s C e n t e r o f C a n a d a Canada's Drug C a p i t a l B.C. C o m m e r c i a l a n d C u l t u r a l Capital C e n t r e o f Commerce Y a c h t i n g Center o f Canada's Photogenic Waterways Entertainment C a p i t a l by day...by n i g h t Emerging C i t y A S i t e i n Search of a City (pre-1960) Canadian-style Lotus Land The L o s A n g e l e s o f C a n a d a The S a n F r a n c i s c o o f C a n a d a Gateway t o G r e a t S k i A r e a s Host C i t y ) Port ; Business Centre > >(Author denies t h e i r Outdoors Headquarters I appropriateness) B i g and B e a u t i f u l C i t y ) Canada's Gateway t o t h e O r i e n t Lotus Land Gateway t o t h e P a c i f i c Rim Executive City v  * S t a r r e d numbers a r e t r a v e l travel articles  ;  articles;  a l l others a r e non-  since  "riots"  and t h e "drug  trade" are likely  feelings  of apprehension,  reader.  I t i s not surprising,  odicals  i n which  magazines.  these  an American,  Canada" l a b e l  would  writer  calls  Northwest", "The  City  business settled  therefore, that the peri-  out of the context  Canadians  Vancouver  three  the  names o f o t h e r  San  Francisco), but the reader's  cities. the  grime  of Liverpool,  seeming  referring  a catchy  he a l s o c a l l s i t  adopt  Los Angeles,  interpretation  on t h e  o r un-  of the t i t l e s  and  of the those  to the port a c t i v i t y  f o r instance?  phrase  While  of the P a c i f i  i s incomplete  (Liverpool,  c o n s t i t u t e s the appeal  provides  City  on h i s knowledge and image o f  Is the writer  ambiguity It  depends  to national  I s t h e emphasis  or that the city  places  of the a r t i c l e .  i t would be an i n s u l t !  "The G r e a t e s t  Also,  a r e ambiguous,  while  a "boosting" label,  economically?  are non-travel  t h e "Most A m e r i c a n C i t y i n  of Unfinished Business". attitude,  analogies  labels  seem c o m p l i m e n t a r y ,  clearly  i n the average  r e f e r e n c e s were found  f o r example,  identity-conscious one  or scorn,  Many o f t h e r e m a i n i n g  e s p e c i a l l y when t a k e n To  fear,  t o evoke  Perhaps t h i s  of this  easily  type  or  very  of label.  remembered and  repeated,  to say everything, but i n saying nothing,  i s offend  i n g no one! At  any r a t e ,  many  o f t h e same t e c h n i q u e s  by  Tuan were a p p l i e d t o t h e l a b e l l i n g  of  the labels  as  a lush "lotus  activities.  emphasize  of Vancouver.  the physical setting  l a n d " w i t h many r e s o u r c e s  Seven s t r e s s i t s growth  discussed Seven  of the c i t y  f o r outdoor  i n commerce,  although  81  industry  p e r se i s n o t mentioned.  centrism  and t h e "promise o f t h e f u t u r e " a r e c l e a r l y i n  evidence. that  Interestingly,  h a v e become p o p u l a r ,  proceed  to invent their  Actually, objective quality  two a u t h o r s  really  a teenager  New Y o r k e r . person to  This to a  other city's  i t may w e l l  i n Ontario"s  leads cities.  Strauss  age o r t r e n d  claims  f o r each  perspective.  be "Lotus  of comparing t h a t such  For capital"  seasoned Land" t o a  essential  (1961:27).  Vancouver  concepts  i n growth a r e r e l a t i v e ,  cities,is  ssetting  basis i n  the Caribbean.  to the question,  i n emulation  and then  continental climate, butnot  so t h a t by d e f i n i t i o n ,  of  the city  f r o m V e r n o n , B.C., b u t n o t t o a  from  labels  be an "entertainment  absolute,  either  have t h e i r  depends on t h e r e a d e r ' s  an immigrant  ethno-  own!  but the status given  Similarly,  living  mentioned  (  a l l of the references  "fact",  both  refute their accuracy,  e x a m p l e , V a n c o u v e r may i n d e e d to  As w e l l ,  rathertthan  comparison with This  for  a l l characteristics  the  effects  i s achieved of a city,  of complexity  e i t h e r way. Strauss  i n forcing  other  c o m p a r i s o n may b e  o r c o m p e t i t i o n -- t h e b a s i c  a standard  as  again  purpose In general, emphasizes  us t o c o n s t r u c t a n a l -  ogies : I n a l l such p h r a s i n g , t h e speaker draws upon the emotional and n o n - s p e c i f i c resources o f language t o m a k e c l e a r -- i n t e r m s o f s o m e t h i n g e l s e w i t h w h i c h we a r e a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r -- w h a t s e e m s t o h i m to be t h e u n d e r l y i n g meaning o f an a p p a r e n t l y confused and confusing urban world (196l:l4-5). Duncan notes  that this  technique  of translating  t h e unknown  82 into  terms  (1978:278).  dustry the  Both  from places  data  across  comparing Vancouver  within the travel i n -  the travel  other w r i t e r s i n this  Drawing in  o f t h e known i s p o p u l a r  writers,  and  •'•  s e t a r e no e x c e p t i o n .  the world,  to other  they  cities  have d e l i g h t e d  (Table  16).  B e c a u s e most o f t h e w r i t e r s d i d n o t assume t h a t a l l the  p l a c e s were known t o t h e r e a d e r ,  way  intended,  Thus, may  t h e c o m p a r i s o n s w e r e u s u a l l y made  i n the discussion that follows,  n o t a l l be s t r i c t l y  instead trate  or at least  focus  on p a r t i c u l a r  the general  B.C.  explicit. presented  images o f Vancouver, b u t  elements  of the city  to illus-  comparison.  Twelve r e f e r e n c e s Victoria,  capsule  t h e images  i n the  i n Table  The f i r s t  16  compared Vancouver t o  instance appeared  i n 1911:  V i c t o r i a has a t present the lead i n shipbuilding when compared w i t h Vancouver....Notwithstanding t h i s , Vancouver appears from i t s n a t u r a l s u i t a b i l i t y f o r t h e p u r p o s e d e s t i n e d t o become t h e l a r g e s t s h i p b u i l d i n g and commercial c e n t r e on t t h a t p a r t o f t h e P a c i f i c coast(#8:786). Fourteen  years  shipbuilding, patronizing,  later  Victoria  had l o s t  i t s primacy i n  a n d c o m p a r i s o n s w e r e made i n a a but fanciful  somewhat  tone:  ....Wherever y o u go, whatever y o u buy o r cannot a f f o r d t o buy, however y o u d e c i d e , t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s -- m i d - V i c t o r i a n l y i n V i c t o r i a , m o r e b r u s q u e l y i n V a n c o u v e r -- i n v a r i a b l y c h i r p " K ' y o u l "  [Thank-youJ  (#11:119).  L i k e a grandame o f o u r m o t h e r ' s g e n e r a t i o n , w i t h h e r l o n g s k i r t s sweeping t h e ground, V i c t o r i a regards w i t h mingled c o n s t e r n a t i o n and d i s a p p r o v a l the hardy, go-ahead, s h o r t - s k i r t e d f l a p p e r t h a t i s Vancouver, And Vancouver laughs i n h e r e l d e r l y kinswoman's f a c e , k i l t s up h e r s k i r t t o h e r knee, and keeps r i g h t on p r o g r e s s i n g . V i c t o r i a may b e a l i t t l e pompous 5 V a n c o u v e r , s o h e r c i t i z e n s a v e r , i s t h e "most A m e r i c a n C i t y i n C a n a d a " (#11:112).  TABLE Comparisons  Place  to  which  Vancouver  is  to  16 Other  Compared  of  References  1 2 1  A l l Western c i t i e s West Coast c i t i e s P a c i f i c N o r t h West c i t i e s " American West A m e r i c a n N o r t h West A l l American c i t i e s Seattle Portland Los Angeles San F r a n c i s c o San Diego Boston Cincinnati Washington, D.C. Chicago New Y o r k , N.Y. Miami  Total  No.  12 4 2 1 1  Victoria Toronto Montreal QuebeccCity Halifax  A l l European London Liverpool Paris Stockholm Oslo Cape Town Rio Sydney Calcutta Port Said Riviera  Places  c i t i e s of l i k e  villages  size  1 2 1 6 2 1 18  3  2 1 1 1 4 1 13  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  79  -  84 T h i s i m a g i n a t i v e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e two c i t i e s was r e p e a t e d two y e a r s l a t e r i n a n o t h e r a r t i c l e { V i c t o r i a r e g a r d s Vancouver as a f a s t growing boy, exuberant , s p i r i t e d , and a b i t t o o f l u s h e d w i t h i t s own achievements. Vancouver l o o k s upon V i c t o r i a w i t h t h e r e s p e c t and t o l e r a n c e one bestows upon a g e n t l e maiden aunt w i t h a f a i n t s c e n t o f l a v e n d e r (#13:112). ;  I n 1930, t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s e a was seen t o g i v e a "more B r i t i s h atmosphere a t Vancouver and V i c t o r i a t h a n elsewhere i n Canada e x c e p t H a l i f a x " (#16:15).  I n 1945, t h e two c i t i e s  were grouped as " b e a u t i f u l s i s t e r c i t i e s "  (#34:16), b u t  most comparisons seemed t o s t r e s s d i f f e r e n c e s r a t h e r t h a n s i m i l a r i t i e s between Vancouver and V i c t o r i a .  I n 1949,  one w r i t e r c l a i m e d t h a t a l t h o u g i "both i n c u b a t e i n a mellow m i l d n e s s a l l y e a r round...Vancouver i s n e a r l y a l l b u s i n e s s , and V i c t o r i a i s n e a r l y a l l p l e a s u r e " (#39:38)*  By t h i s  Jime an e x p l i c i t v a l u e was p l a c e d on e f f i c i e n c y and s u c c e s s f u l business practices.  That same y e a r American C i t y  r e p o r t e d Vancouver's i n n o v a t i o n s i n v e h i c l e - t e s t i n g , f a r more s u c c e s s f u l t h a n V i c t o r i a ' s (#41:133)-  Three y e a r s  l a t e r a w r i t e r spoke w i t h t h i n l y - d i s g u i s e d d i s d a i n f o r the o l d e r c i t y : No c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t i s made, as i n V i c t o r i a , t o p r e s e r v e a n y t h i n g t h a t t h e swarming American t o u r i s t s might c o n s i d e r q u a i n t . . . I t s l a r g e s t h o t e l . . . o p e r a t e s s t r i c t l y on a c o m f o r t and l u x u r y b a s i s . (#42:248). A j o u r n a l i s t i n 1976 r e c a l l e d Vancouver b e f o r e WW I I as b e i n g "not so d e t e r m i n e d l y E n g l i s h a s . . . C V i c t o r i a b u t ] more b u s i n e s s l i k e " , and t h e n d e s c r i b e d post-war Vancouver as h a v i n g a more i n t e r n a t i o n a l f l a v o u r because o f European  immigration denied  (#170:70).  the presence  in Victoria  theB r i t i s h  city  h a s grown,  lost  thevery  world  tinctions lost  quality.  status  The l i f e - s t y l e s ,  embedded  t h e i r appeal  Thus, w h i l e  t h ew r i t e r s  f o r this  of the shrinking  power.  like  completelythose  found  i ti s likely  has i nfact diminished  i t seems t h a t  desire  overtones"  (#82:57).  influence  i n I962  a writer  of "English  and Toronto  that  reflection  Indeed,  as t h e  themselves  have  Perhaps t h i s  i sa  ofBritain  as a major  t r a d i t i o n s , and class  i n t h e E n g l i s h way o f l i f e t o North Americans  dis-  may h a v e  increasingly  concerned  13 with  economic p r o s p e r i t y . The c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h  nevertheless,  J  Toronto a r e fewer b u t v a r i e d  anda l l four  similarities.  aredifferences  I n 1925 i " t w a s n o t e d  that  member o f t h e P u g e t S o u n d A s s o c i a t i o n sport,  and transportation,  lingham,  andV i c t o r i a  hand, maintains benefits  couver would powerful, state  than  V a n c o u v e r was a  o f trade,  tourism,  i n c l u d i n g Tacoma, S e a t t l e , B e l -  (#11:121).  Toronto,  a cultural barrier with  arelost.  rather  on t h e other  New Y o r k ,  and mutual  I n 1951» o n e j o u r n a l i s t p r e d i c t e d  s o o n become b i g g e r ,  than Toronto  o f t h e a r t scene  (#12:249).  Van-  a n d b y i m p l i c a t i o n , more Finally,  i n I968 t h e  i s d e s c r i b e d : (,r "M6ntroal a n d T o r o n t o ;  h a v e more g a l l e r i e s a n d c o l l e c t o r s , a n d a r e E s t a b l i s h e d , but  Vancouver  i s reportedly  Vancouver andMontreal scenes,  andalso  contrast  ture.  One w r i t e r c l a i m e d  lish",  i talso  livelier."  (#112:26).  seem t o h a v e d i f f e r e n t a r t  i n t h e i r predominant ethnic that while  hasno "trace  Vancouver  cul-  i s nof'Engiish  o f M o n t r e a l a n d Quebec's  French  accent"  writers,  Vancouver  Four cities  of  economic  the  24).  "the  For  ment  is  with  North  American was  cities  across  noted  the  pace  in  the  border"  s i m i l a r i t i e s but  as  waxed  in  One  the  Pacific the  c i t i e s  American than  commented its  on  youth  Orpheum  Theatre  themselves  Northwest"  standard  of  (43:  measure-  c i t i e s .  to  contrast  In  1936  the  Time  (#25:24).  as  Marwin,  topography, when  Canadian  contended  civic-conscious  poetic  and  Vancouverites  coast  preferred  city  sizedof  the  these  rather  proclaimed  statements  counterparts.  " a boom  forests,  of  American West  writers  couver  and  city  Canadian  east-west  that  to  among C a n a d i a n  continent.  the  greatest  these  an  another  stated  of  together  the  another  then,that  counterpart  fourth  each  Other  of  (#30:45),  yet  A  (#185:66).  no  seems,  implying  division  and  It  grouped  West,  growth  (#82:51),  it  has  references  north-south  c a l l  (#82:51).  the in  climate,  describing  city  VanU.S.  1925, setting,  the  slower  Canada:  N o r t h of the man-made b o u n d a r y . . . the b e n e f i c e n c e o f P r o v i d e n c e seems t o h a v e sunk i n t o human n a t u r e . You are n o t l o c k e d i n t o motor v e h i c l e s en r o u t e nor s y s t e m a t i c a l l y b a n d i t e d upon r e l e a s e . The m o u n t a i n s a r e y o u r s f o r the l i f t i n g up of y o u r eyes. Y o u do n o t h a v e t o i n g r a t i a t e y o u r s e l f into the f a v o r of s a l e s countesses and s a l e s barons in the shops before you t r y to buy something. Instead, of b a c k i n g into f u e l s t a t i o n s f o r peremptory n o u r i s h m e n t t h r e e t i m e s a d a y , y o u may b r e a k f a s t , l u n c h , d i n e , have t e a , or sup at your e a s e . . . .  (#11:19). Seven  years  later  he  reaffirmed  his  earlier  opinion:  {In t h e A m e r i c a n N o r t h w e s t ] "Thank-you" is seldom heard s i n c e i n the mannerisms of t r a d e the good manners of human r e l a t i o n s a r e a p t t o be submerged. . . . . I n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n Sahara o f uniformity  87 Vancouver i s a green oasis. I t s p e o p l e go a n d g e t as s u c c e s s f u l l y as the populations of other cities ... hut Vancouver t a k e s time out t o say "K'you" and i t i s almost i n v a r i a b l y s a i d w i t h a s m i l e . . . .  (#29:303).  Finally, cities  1940  a of  t h e same  sentiment, hustle ities type broad  and business of  l i k e  American  compared  1908  West  End  to  Vancouver  outward  allaying  with  a l l  "Predominantly  akin  (#30:45).  With  fears  British  appearances to  United  and i n  States  statements  of  American  of  i n i t s  communthis  t h e unknown  to  a  readership.  specific  cities  to Vancouver.  popular a  in  i s  i s  activity  size"  the writer  grouped  population:  Vancouver  Eleven  a  article  source  of  article  i n  the United  Seattle,  comparison.  describing  States  were  the closest,  was  The f i r s t  these  t h e homes  of  located  quite appeared  in the  present  d i s t r i c t :  These r e s i d e n c e s average h i g h e r , i n taste as well as i n commodiousness and surrounding b i t s of ground, t h a n t h o s e o f t h e much l a r g e r c i t y o f S e a t t l e . The p e o p l e have h a d more t i m e t o make them,sog,not b e cause they are m a t e r i a l l y older, but apparently bea cause they are not so absorbed i n business (#7:688). Later cities.  a r t i c l e s ,  In  I962,  International bustling  of  both  for  Festival  waterfront  described  however, example, of  with  the physical  preferred  one w r i t e r  the Arts Seattle's  setting  to  with  equate  t h e two  matched  Vancouver's  Seattle's,  (#82:56,51)-  and the business  A  and i t s second  activities  c i t i e s :  ....young, vigorous, and waterlogged; spreading up mountainsides and around i n l e t s , preoccupied with i t s pleasure boats, with lumber and shipping; serving the northlands but l o o k i n g toward the Far East (#81:18).  Another San  claimed  Diego,  that  like  "Vancouver  On t h e o t h e r  hand,  San Francisco,  i sconscious  that both Vancouver and S e a t t l e  of  t h ef i r s t  erences  reader  but  a "real  the  city",  assumption  of urbanity long  cities, build  just  o u t a common n o t o r i e t y  I n each o f these  great  pains  i sno l i t t l e  like  i sthat  (#81:19).  "claim t o be t h e s i t e  (#127:50).  that Vancouver  underlying type  S k i d Road"!  t h e w r i t e r seems t o t a k e  the  of kultur"  one w r i t e r p o i n t e d  in  S e a t t l e , and  t o assure  uncouth  Seattle.  Seattle itself  i st h e arche-  a S k i d Road!).  h i s t o r y and t r a d i t i o n s  of theEastern  these  settlement  Of c o u r s e , t h e  (complete w i t h  perhaps  ref-  American w r i t e r s f e l t  up a n image o f t h e W e s t e r n c i t i e s  Faced  with  Seaboard  compelled t o  as being  civilized  places,too. Both  comparisons  Marvin,  i n 1925i  in both  cities  inner  city  noted  to Portland referred to vegetation. t h eu b i q u i t o u s  cultivation  o f roses  (#11:21), a n d i n I962 t h e e f f e c t s o f t w o  p a r k s were  described:  Forested Stanley Park, close t o t h ec i t y ' s center, s o f t e n s t h e downtown n e o n a n d c o n c r e t e much a s H o y t P a r k d o e s f o r P o r t l a n d (#82:51). In both  references,  periences  t h ew r i t e r s appealed  i nPortland  t o sensory ex-  t o evoke a comparable  image f o r  Vancouver. Griffith immigration  i n I976 d e s c r i b e d  t h ee f f e c t o f post-war  on Vancouver:  V a n c o u v e r h a s i n e f f e c t become t h e L o s A n g e l e s of Canada, through a comparable westward s h i f t of p o p u l a t i o n , though Vancouver would r a t h e r be known as"tfe.eeSannFrancisco o f C a n a d a " (#170:70).  89 When m e a s u r e d b y t h e number San F r a n c i s c o with  appears  Vancouver.  t h e Chinatowns  as  "second  only  Golden  to Vancouver's  c i t i e s ,  Gate  Lions  Park  to Stanley  fronts  were  seen  t o have  point  Bridge  Gate  Gate  tourist's  with  made  to i t ,  city  to  very  of view  - -  focused  Vancouver's In  described  addition,  was claimed to  Bridge  Park  compare  references  t o SanF r a n c i s c o ' s " .  Golden  the  popular  of the eighteen  of both  i n size  San F r a n c i s c o ' s pond  as t h e most  Eleven  on  of references  (#81:18),  (#82:60).  desirable  corres-  a n di t s  The two w a t e r -  locations  out of sight  from  and smellJ:  Vancouver i s p e c u l i a r l y blessed i n i t s waterfront. M o s t l a r g e c i t i e s manage t o c o n g r e g a t e a m a j o r i t y of t h e i r o b j e c t i o n a b l e f e a t u r e s f i g h t where t h e incoming t r a v e l l e r cannot f a i l t o see and smell them. B u t Vancouver - - l i k e SanFrancisco - - i s a n e x c e p t i o n (#22:12). Another of one  author  SanFrancisco writer  version  but  also The  f i n a l  (#81:19),  Vancouver  (#16:14).  F i n a l l y ,  the writers  V a n c o u v e r ' s own Thus,  city  compared -  conscious"  (#82:51),  d i d not r e s t r i c t  i n  setting  their  i s  populations  and parks  (#82:60).  comparisons  MacMillan BloedellBuilding i s  (#130:^3)  Federal  Office  o f i t s Orpheum  Theatre  a r e a s good  Hall  i n general,  to Vancouver  Boston's  Symphony  1976,  i n  to be similar not only  "culture  Vancouver's  l i k e  was ahead  and "character".  Coast  have  as "once  (#176:17)»  similar waterfronts  apparently  Boston's  West  Both  t h e West.  acoustics  seen  i n a c t i v i t i e s  Diego.  However,  were  that  Kitsilano  of Haight-Ashhury"  two c i t i e s  to  i n 1930  i n trade  labelled  the  San  claimed  (#180:MA-36).  and the  as that  Vancouver  of  i s no  larger  90 t h a n C i n c i n n a t i "but n e v e r t h e l e s s has a v e r y i n n o v a t i v e art  scene (#132:122).  Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y has a square  j u s t l i k e the Pentagon (#170:70).  I n 1935 one w r i t e r ex-  c l a i m e d t h a t Vancouver's C h r i s t i a n V i g i l a n c e League, p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and women's groups campaigned t o " c l e a r Vancouver s t r e e t s o f v i c e , and t o s t o p Vancouver [from] becoming a m i x t u r e between Chicago and p o r t S a i d " ! (#24: 264).  Some w r i t e r s even took on New York C i t y -- G e o r g i a  S t r e e t i s " a v e r y modest nod " t o P a r k Avenue ( # 1 3 0 : 4 3 ) » S t a n l e y Park i s l a r g e r t h a n C e n t r a l P a r k (#171:88), and i  b o t h Vancouver's a i r and a r t system a r e more r e f r e s h i n g t h a n New Y o r k ' s (#112:26).  L a s t l y , Vancouver's h o t e l s  have " o v e r t o n e s o f glamorous Miami Beach"  (#101:31)•  Here a g a i n the comparisons seemed t o emphasize u r b a n i t y , but  w i t h Vancouver emerging as p r e f e r r a b l e t o many o f t h e  Eastern  cities.  The f i n a l group o f comparisons draws from non-North American c o u n t r i e s .  R o b s o n s t r a s s e has "the e s t a b l i s h e d  atmosphere o f a q u a i n t European v i l l a g e " (#137:63).  A  t r a v e l w r i t e r c l a i m e d a t o u r i s t c o u l d e n j o y a two-week v a c a t i o n i n Vancouver w i t h " d i v e r s i o n s as d i v e r s i f i e d as [he] might e n j o y i n comparable time s p e n t i n London and Paris"  (#171:86).  He a l s o l i k e n e d Vancouver's s e t t i n g t o  t h a t o f Stockholm, O s l o , and o t h e r Scandanavian c i t i e s (#171:110).  The s e t t i n g o f U.B.C. was d e s c r i b e d as " s h a r i n g  w i t h Cape Town [ U n i v e r s i t y ] the honors f o r the f i n e s t i n the  w o r l d " (#43:69).  S i m i l a r l y , the harbour was h i g h l i g h t e d :  O n l y two h a r b o u r s c a n f a i r l y match V a n c o u v e r . R i o de J a n e i r o , w h i c h i s e v e n m o r e s p e c t a c u l a r , and Sydney, w h i c h h a s more s p a c e b u t n o t t h e b e a u t y o f t h e o t h e r t w o (#98:4-0). Finally, in  1997  ling  Cove  in*!  and t h e B l a c k  touch of Dante's  other  thesis cities  and metaphor. a relative  city  Inferno,  has explored  and f r e e  fight  with  a  thrown  t h e comparisorEsof Vancouver  a t length because  The d a t a concept.  a r e matched,  cities.  Similarly,  works.  Even  that  of analogy,  simile,  that place i n a  and judged w i t h  itself  strange  those i n other  and even people a r e p l a c e d  n a t i o n a l , o r even g l o b a l  like  west, mountains  devices  Sensory experiences  activities  a city  i t i s contended  suggest, i n fact,  measured,  within,;-, t h e r e g i o n a l ,  the  of Hindu immigrants i n  Hole of Calcutta,  t h e y e a r e more t h a n t h e l i t e r a r y  in  label-  (#5085). This  to  quarters  as  ( a t Elm and P o w e l l S t r e e t s ) as a "combination  LibjDy P r i s o n  little  comparisons of a l l ,  two a u t h o r s q u o t e d a V a n c o u v e r n e w s p a p e r  the wretched l i v i n g  Cedar of  i n one o f t h e m o s t i n t e r e s t i n g  Vancouver bounded  to the north  urban  net-  by t h e ocean t o  and e a s t ,  and an  inter-  n a t i o n a l border to the southh, cannotrremain isolated. The  experiences  t h o s e ijust mildly result  of i t sresidents, interested  i n socially  Snappy l a b e l s were  only  and d i r e c t  w e r e many a d d i t i o n a l presented  i n the city,  constructed  two f o r m s  city  i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  count o f the references  and  to  images.  images.  of the city  image.  cities  Actually,  there  i n i t s entirety  T a b l e 17 g i v e s  t o each  even  a r e combined  comparisons t o other  of Vancouver images  i t svisitors,  the  total  TABLE Images  Rank  1 2 3 4  5  6 7 8 9 10  Image Number*  35 16 37  28  5• 36 33 26 29 41 18  35 11 12 13  14  15 16  32 17 27 30 34 31 39 12 40  17  18  *See  19  24  38 47 1 3 20 21 Appendix  of  Vancouver  Image  booming cosmopolitan large American for physical recreation conservative young historical British humanitarian criminal beautiful civilized "undesirably" cosmopolitan high status undeveloped innovative underdeveloped depressing exciting picturesque radical peopled by hippies small monopoly-dominated e l e m e n t o n l y named or photographed colour or lights rambunctious d i s l i k e of external intervention A for complete l i s t  17 in  its  Entirety  Sign*  Total References  + + +  62 29  N  +  N N  +  N  + -  + +  -  + + +  --  + +  -  +  N N N N  +  -  28  24 23 22 19 14 14  13 12 12 12 11 11 10 99 8 5 3 3 2 2 2 22 1 11 11  1  fo 17.4 8.2 7-9 6.7 6.5 6.2 5-3 3.9 3.9 3-7 3-4 3.4'i  3.4 3.1 3.1 2.8 2,5 2.3 1.4 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3  93 Did as  a whole?  project, a  thewriters presentaunified Strauss  aided  asserts  by t h e media,  chosen urban symbolization  this  symbolization,  people,  things,  and legends,  i n d i v i d u a l images w i l l  the  imagery  is  o f Chicago  (1961:32-4). emphasize  some  i npoint.  Chicago  by t h e "sub-images"  enterprise industry  and t h e l i k e .  r e s u l t s from  a n d commerce,  symbolism, Table opinion  slums,  ethnic  f o rVancouver's  radical/conservative; exciting/depressing,  f o r example.  Chicago.  the  political  and reactions However, t h e r e  By  there  renced  sixty-two  A total  conflicting city  juvenile  prairie  or  of  consensus o f  of twenty-nine e x t r e m e s --  Furthermore,  there d i d  has suggested  of violence  and enter-  t o t h e v i s u a l appearance o f and behaviour  may h a v e  of Vancouver-  to the city.  o n e w a s "boom a n d b u s t l e " , This  pioneer  function.  d i d seem t o b e a f e w f a v o u r e d  times.  cites"  underdeveloped/civilized;  images  leanings  visitors  f a r t h e most p o p u l a r  Also,  as a place  such  as Strauss  were  images r e f e r r e d  landscape,  ites,  of America"  large/small;  for  other  He  Two  Chicago  many o f t h e m p o l a r  seem t o b e j u s t two p o l e s  prise,  others.  o f crime, v i c e , and  diversity,  imagery.  not  While  places,  as a v i o l e n t  does n o t r e a d i l y suggest  images were p r e s e n t e d ,  of  t h e images o f c o s m o p o l i t a n i s m ,  and a "cross-roads 17  comprising  and de-emphasize  as a case  will  As "proof"  urban d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n evidenced by gangsters, delinquency,  city  be l i n k e d together.  images a r e p r o j e c t e d .  illustrated  any s p e c i f i c  a s e t o f images  writers will  the  broad  that  images o f t h e c i t y  image i n c l u d e s  images. refer-  a group o f  adjectives  stressing  "bustling", An  article  Post the  "boom-town" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  "growing",  "rapidly  (#4-3) b y R o b e r t s  epitomizes  p r o g r e s s i n g " , and  i n 1951  the attitude  --  "booming  "ambitious  i n the Saturday  well with  such  Evening  quotations  as  following: ---  " f r e e - w h e e l i n g c i t i z e n s " ( p . 24) "A s t r o n g l y h e l d l o c a l c o n v i c t i o n m a i n t a i n s t h a t r e c r e a t i o n a l assets are intended f o r the use of residents only a f t e r working hours....Vancouver was riotnfounded b y men who came t o l o o k a t s c e n e r y , b u t b y f r o n t i e r b u s t e r s i n t e n t on b u i l d i n g a town and m a k i n g money. T h e i r h e i r s and a s s i g n s have always conformed t o the only t r a d i t i o n Vancouver has ever t a k e n s e r i o u s l y . The r e s u l t i s a boomtown atmosphere w h i c h n o t even o c c a s i o n a l economic upsets can d i s p e l . " (ibid.) -- " I n t h e D o m i n i o n ' s p e r p e t u a l b o o m t o w n , t h e r e a r e no s a c r e d r e l i c s a n d a man c a n s t i l l g e t r i c h w i t h a b i g i d e a . " (ibid.) -- " t h e C i t y o f U n f i n i s h e d B u s i n e s s " . . . " a h u s t l e t o get ahead r e s u l t s i n a s t r a n g e m i x t u r e o f t h e handsome a n d t h e r a m s h a c k l e ; t h e a i r of a city athat i s u p o n i t s t o e s a n d g o i n g p l a c e s . " (p.69) S l a c k e r s beware! that  Vancouver's  foremost  i s a mecca f o r t h e c o m p e t i t i v e ,  man, a n d i n d e e d ,  t h e image  people.  economic  Clearly  benefit  o f such  Second itan"  decided  i s calculated  to this  Indians  "ethnic"melange"  such  i sthe  i s t h e "cosmopol-  Italians,  the population  of Japanese, Greeks,  Koreans,  Dutch,  other  and Americans, b u t s e v e r a l w r i t e r s  as t h e f o l l o w i n g  Bearded East streets with  image  the writers listed  to embellish the "facts"  such  business-  to attract  prosperity i n the city  Germans, B r i t i s h ,  Europeans,  tions  Typically  of the city's  Chinese,  enterprising  place  thrust.  i n importance  image.  counts  a  image i s a f a  from  with  stereotyped  descrip-  1940:  I n d i a n s i n gaudy turbans s t r u t t h e Oriental dignity, rubbing shoulders  95 w i t h sun-tanned white-garbed p l a n t e r s from F i j i ; d a r k i e s from Barbados; Englishmen speaking w i t h a c c e n t s o f O x f o r d and Cambridge, o r s o f t - s p o k e n h a l f - b r e e d s from the t r a p p i n g grounds of the Far North. C h i n e s e f r o m Hong Kong and Canon [sic); l i p - s m i l i n g J a p a n e s e ; w h i t e o f f i c e r s on h o l i d a y s f r o m t h e t r o p i c a l l a n d s o f Borneo and t h e S t r a i t s Settlement; swarthy Africanders; lean, f i t A u s t r a l i a n s , a n d t h e s i b i l a n t - v o i c e d New Z e a l a n d e r s (#30:24). Here the w r i t e r pecially  that  of colour,  North American as  an  exotic  varied  i s appealing to the reader's senses,  "mini-  socio-economic  United Nations".  backgrounds,  status  the c i t y  and  is,  as  writer  the  amenities f o r luxury  one  ing in  this  wide  puts  implies  l a n d s c a p e , and which  he  may  Thirdly, as an  range  the c i t y ' s  endemic  that  has  an  residential The  end  (#101:26).  encounter  population Almost largest  as a whole  -- w h e r e v e r  synonymous w i t h w e a l t h and The  To  estab-  result  the  a varied,  one  --  size  city  interest-  activities  i s designated  to a w r i t e r  the  phrase  city",  the  underlying  this  i s a value  with  Certainly  b i g business, large  looks,  size  i s viewed  homes, as  prosperity.  f o u r t h most i m p o r t a n t image contends  "American  and  cosmopolitan city with a l l  "Big i s Better".  to society  huge s t a d i u m s  of  participate.  "Canada's t h i r d  assumption  and  have a g r e a t c h o i c e of  important quality.  u s e d was  Vancouver  acquires a broad outlook,  living"  he w i l l  of  non-  From t h i s base  of a c t i v i t i e s .  i t , " a  will  a picture  of  occupations, s k i l l s ,  of commercial, i n d u s t r i a l ,  lishments,  visitor,  h i s scant knowledge  p e o p l e s t o c o n j u r e up  histories,  a variety  and  es-  character".  In addition  that  to the  Vancouver  city  comparisons mentioned  above, w r i t e r s p o i n t e d t o g e n e r a l  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s found i n t h e l a n d s c a p e t h a t seemed more "American" t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e . n o t e d Vancouver's  F o r example, one w r i t e r  F o u r t h o f J u l y American v i s i t o r s and f l a g s  American h o l i d a y e r s and businessmen,  similar clothing styles  s t o r e s , and h o t e l s , and even a w h o l e - h e a r t e d w i t h t h e Jones" a t t i t u d e ( # 1 1 J 1 2 1 ) .  "keep up  Less frequent but  e q u a l l y p e r s u a s i v e a r e the c l a i m s t o Vancouver's characteristics.  British  Commonly, t h e w r i t e r s acknowledged  American outward appearance  but maintained a s o l i d  " c h a r a c t e r " forms Vancouver's  corec  To i l l u s t r a t e  c o n t e n t i o n they a g a i n r e s o r t e d t o s t e r e o t y p e s .  an British this  I n the  c l u b s a r e "a s p e c i e s p e c u l i a r t o B r i t i s h Columbia -- t h e l o n g - r e t i r e d army c o l o n e l s who have e a t e n chutney a t Jodhpur and r e t a i n an i n o r d i n a t e a p p e t i t e f o r f r e e l i q u o r "  (#4-2:244)  L a t e r t h i s same w r i t e r n o t e d the -"quiet bowler-on-thegreen and even q u i e t e r c r i c k e t matches"; t h e jam, marmal a d e s , k i p p e r s , b l o a t e r s i n the l o c a l d i e t ; t h e S c o t c h and a l e i n t h e b e e r p a r l o u r s (#42:248).  A f t e r d e s c r i b i n g the  p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l u n r e s t o f the c i t y i n 1945, a n o t h e r w r i t e r c o n t i n u e d w i t h " A l l o f these surges t a k e p l a c e i n s i d e o f t h e sedate p a t t e r n o f a B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l  system  whose r u l i n g group remains a p p a r e n t l y u n p e r t u r b e d " , and t h e n n o t e d t h e l o c a l customs o f d r e s s i n g f o r d i n n e r , t h e emphasis on o r d e r and r e g u l a t i o n , and t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e n a t u r e o f the newspapers (#34:15)'  Another n o t e d the  E n g l i s h - s t y l e gardens, the h o u s i n g s t y l e s , t h e a f t e r n o o n t e a s , s t r e e t s i g n s w i t h E n g l i s h names, and l o y a l t y t o t h e  97 (#82:54-5)"  Queen with  Why s h o u l d  establishing a British The  clue  lies  these w r i t e r s be so concerned  character  audience  cluster  o f images accompanying  "tradition",  provide city do  for things  -indeed  a t l e a s t seeming B r i t i s h . t h e term  "charm", and even  a contrast,  images.  Vancouver?  i n a n avowed a f f e c t i o n o f a n A m e r i c a n  reading  as  image f o r  and hence,  Thus, assuming  t r a v e l because  such  " e c c e n t r i c " , seem t o  a relief  that  "British",  The  f r o m many  tourists,  for  American  example,  they want a change, t h e w r i t e r s  are  guaranteeing  them o f one i n V a n c o u v e r ,  combined  the  r e a s s u r a n c e "of a f a m i l i a r l a n g u a g e a n d o u t w a r d  with appear-  ance. The on  fifth  image o f V a n c o u v e r  the physical recreation  cluding  skiing,  water  i n i t s entirety  opportunities  sports,  centred  i n the area,  g o l f i n g , and other b a l l - r e l a t e d  activities.  These  Lawn b o w l i n g  and c r i c k e t were l a b e l l e d " c o n s e r v a t i v e "  and  images were  the "conservative"  times.  A statement  often  l i n k e d t o two  image was r r e f e r e n c e d  typical  in-  of this  others. sports,  twenty-two  i s a s follows':'  Although Vancouver c l e a r l y has a penchant f o r the progressive, someetypical Canadian conservatism has  e a t e n i t s w a y t o t h e c o a s t (#39*38).  In the  p a r t i c u l a r s e v e r a l w r i t e r s were r a t h e r strict  labelled and  drinking regulations  a t l e a s t , membership  mandatory where hard hand, 'the  skiing,  city  i nVancouver  " l i c e n s e d p r e m i s e s " and have  i n 19^9  and t e n n i s  with  -- b a r s a r e  separate  entrances,  i n a " d r i n k i n g c l u b " was  l i q u o r was i n v o l v e d .  sailing,  fascinated  On t h e o t h e r  a r e "young s p o r t s " , and  a s a w h o l e was l a b e l l e d "young" n i n e t e e n ^  times.  The is  "young" just  notes  i s indeed grounded  o v e r one h u n d r e d  that  reflected writer  image  the actual  age o f a c i t y  i n i t s image  (1961:25).  the effect  concerning  i s m e n t i o n e d "by t h e w r i t e r  contrast,  fourteen  aspect of Vancouver  its  rather  its  early  the  railroad  was  also  this  inauspicious  i tserves t o  Each  new  social,  achievement seems e v e n  time span  references  as a whole.  of the  greater  involved  f o ra  barons.  outpost".  emphasized These  Because  the histor  centred  b e g i n n i n g s as a t i n y  destruction by f i r e ,  so v i o l e n t ,  "frontier of  the short  to the  city.  In ical  or architectural  milltown,  and i t s connections the city's  Vancouver  was o f t e n  The f o l l o w i n g  around  short  with  history  designated  quotations  a  are typical  viewpoint:(#34215  This i s t r u l y a f r o n t i e r city. N o t o n l y do t h e f o r e s t s come r i g h t u p t o t h e c i t y ' s e d g e s , b u t new a n d u n t r i e d s o c i a l e x p e r i m e n t s p r e s s a t t h e older individualist patterns. Vancouver i s a c i t y o f d e s t i n y i n a c i t y o f f e r m e n t (#34:15). . . . . I t remains a l a s t f r o n t i e r , a f f o r Canadians on t h e westward w i n g p r a i r i e i n t e r i o r and from t h e l e s s (both p o l i t i c a l l y and c l i m a t o l o g i c a r e a c h e s (#127:48). These q u o t a t i o n s as  a frontier  images  he  h e may w i s h t o m a k e  accomplishments.  city  "young"  i s that  points  political,  when one c o n s i d e r s  Strauss  The a d v a n t a g e  economic, that  Vancouver  may n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  youth  o f any other  the city's  --  y e a r s o l d -- a l t h o u g h  i n emphasizing a city's  amplify  i n fact  suggest that  city  (  i n a l refuge from the temperate lly) eastern  the concept of Vancouver  i s the anchor around which  presented by the writers  revolve.  the various  As w i l l  be  seen  99 throughout as  this  study,  thef r o n t i e r  a r e c u r r e n t theme when s p e c i f i c  outpost  concept  emerges  parts of thecity are  described. T h i r t e e n r e f e r e n c e s w e r e made t o a nature  o f Vancouver.  writers  to select.  Surely this How c a n a c i t y  approaches were adopted. land  uses  tunities  devoted  Firstly,  i nd e t a i l  A year  t o t h edescription  constructed  sandbox d i s p l a y s  a  social  o f commercial (#170J70).  was n o t e d  humanitarian  residents take enjoy  life.  a r t i c l e  writer  by public  focused  i n business  and p u r s u i t  o f happiness"  more, a n o t h e r  maintained  this  i nthemselves,  explicitly  that they  Vancouver  beaches  Apparently  warm, a n d f r i e n d l y , putit,  described  a s 1976 t h e  As l a t e  writers  children  them t o t h e  of Vancouverites.  of r e l a x a t i o n  fensive  l a t e r an entire  (#35).  Secondly,  A s one w r i t e r  attitude  o f Vancouver's  I n 1946 a n o t h e r  t o be p o l i t e ,  oppor-  S a l v a t i o n Army, a n d  and e x h i b i t e d  a r e n o t so absorbed  t h etime  despite  w a t e r f r o n t spaces  attitudes  mentioned  o f a c o n t e s t where  club f o r theelderly  replacement  on  (#32:83-4).  Two  I n 194-0, o n e w r i t e r  Legion,  [PMitjh  public  some a r t i c l e s  t h ef e r v e n t war e f f o r t s  was d e v o t e d  general  he humanitarian?  ones.  I.O.D.E., Y . M . C . A . , C a n a d i a n  ?ffilis K l F t r T  i san odd q u a l i t y f o r  to non-profit activities  f o rprofit-oriented  described  "humanitarian"  can't  and t o  i sa  (#101:26).  "city Further-  t h a t Vancouver r e s i d e n t s recognize and a r eproud,  and even de-  o f it':'  C r i t i c s o f t h e mushrooming m e t r o p o l i s have suggested t h a t t h er a i l r o a d barons were h a r d - b o i l e d men, i n t e r e s t e d s o l e l y i n money. Such a s t a t e m e n t , made i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f a n e s t a b l i s h e d  100 V a n c o u v e r i t e , c a n l e a d t o a n i n v i t a t i o n t o come o u t i n t h e a l l e y a n d r e p e a t i t (#43:24). Three Attempts place the to  images were r e f e r e n c e d  to establish  serve  touunderscore,  frontier dispel.  beauty",  outpost  "handsome",  superlatives  city's  "attractive",  a kind  a negative  early  24) a n d a p l a c e  dignified  of reverse  logic,  " s c e n i c " , and "magnifi-  to describe thecity.  significantly. rough  as a c i v i l i z e d ,  through  The i n t e n t  o f these  -- w h o w o u l d n o t w a n t t o v i s i t  about a b e a u t i f u l  figured  each.  theadjectives of "breathtaking  i sobvious  surprisingly,  times  i m a g e t h a t some w r i t e r s a r e t r y i n g  Secondly,  c e n t " were used  or read  thecity  twelve  place?  Thirdly,  image o f c r i m e  a n d somewhat  and c o r r u p t i o n  Two o f t h e . r e f e r e n c e s n o t e d t h e  history  o f white  a s a " b r a w l i n g m i l l t o w n " (#25:  s l a v e r y (#101:20), b u t t h e r e S  maininggreferences,  a l l post-war,  porary  included d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e Vancouver  crime.  underworld, holdups,  o f Vancouver l i f e  fact,  only  realtors,  one account  Canadian c i t y  culture"  of Vancouver than Another very -- t h a t t h e c i t y  -- d i s h o n e s t  theskid  Sun r e p o r t e r ' s exused-  row bread  car dealers,  line  w r i t t e n i n I968 c a l l e d  Surely this  skid  (#57:62). Vancouver "the row and drug  i sa d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e  that of a beautiful, negative  trade,  " d e s t r u c t i v e rowdyism"  with a long-standing  (#112:26).  on contem-  dens, b r o t h e l s , t h e drug  Time d e s c r i b e d a V a n c o u v e r  fraudulent In  gambling,  sluggings, and general  (#50:39)' poses  This  concentrated  pleasant  image r e c e i v e d e l e v e n  i s "undesirably" cosmopolitan.  city! references These  101 accounts  are  so  of  Canada  as  be  quoted  here  written a  rash  in of  Asiatic  at  variance  a r a c i a l l y  dealt  race  riots  immigrants  The  in  the  generally-held  nation  f i r s t  directly  and  the  tolerant  directly.  1907,  with  a r t i c l e  with  city  this  and  concluding  that  the  they in  image w i l l  the  issue,  data,  describing  antagonism  against  with:  The e x c u s e made i n B r i t i s h p a p e r s f o r the o u t b r e a k - - t h a t i t was p r o d u c e d by the advent of A m e r i c a n l a b o r a g i t a t o r s , has no validity. The C a n a d i a n s on t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t a r e j u s t a s eager to prevent c o m p e t i t i o n as are our people.  (#1:701) That  same y e a r  Weekly It  another  entitled  described  claimed  writer  "White  the  race  wrote  Canada:' r i o t s ,  an  the  an  a r t i c l e  Slogan  effigy  of  burning,  a r t i c l e  Question", tagonism  The  "invasion" no  caste  aim  wear  1933.  one "one  as in  system,  foods, By  but  others,  and  hard  authors  l i f e , take  the  strange  noted  the  two ' c o l o u r e d  also  one  by  are  these  of  l i s t e d  lower of  clothes, more  presence men"  1907,  pro-  in  class,  - -  "dapper  a Vancouver  of  the  operate  the  an-  this Hindus  within  eat  not  a  strange  housing  tolerated, i f of  "Oriental  immigrants  problems  require  the  discussed  "Canadians",  and  disgraceHorrified, what that, grations  on  Hindu  Vancouverites  jobs  were  in  comments  treatment  of  perceived  non-whites  writer or  reiterated  two  towards  #6).  have  and  passionately:  third  (#5»  Harper's  Vancouver".  E a s t e r n Canada l o o k s w i t h d i s g u s t on the f u l e x h i b i t i o n s of temper i n Vancouver. M i n i s t e r s of t h e Crown demand t o know b y right a western city, and a y o u n g one a t should attempt to d i c t a t e the whole immi p o l i c y of the Government (#2:1446). The  in  (#5:385)'  whole-heartedly;  F i l i p i n o s [sic]" marching  band  and  102 (#22:13).  Indeed,  a 194-0 a r t i c l e  stated  flatly:  The C h i n a m a n . . . d o e s n o t t o d a y a r o u s e t h e a n t i p a t h y t h a t h e d i d t h i r t y y e a r s a g o . He i s tolerated. He i s r e g a r d e d a s b e i n g g e n e r a l l y honest (#30:24). The  last  1951>  article  to hint  saying that the lumberjacks,  prospectors, North  Chinese,and  y e t no v i s i b l e  Eleven status  "rakehell  ject  o f some  readers  urban development "undeveloped"  nature,  high  this i s  a r e r e a d i n g about a  sub-  eighteen references denied the  of the city. -- p r i m i t i v e ,  to live. into  keep thus  Ten c l a i m e d fresh,  that  Vancouver  clean, close to  Eight references twisted this  an "underdeveloped" qualities  i tisolated "primitive"  ignorant. two  (#43:68).  and i n s h o r t , a h e a l t h y u n s p o i l e d environment i n  them, t h e v e r y  and  t o t h e downtown  import.  On t h e o t h e r h a n d ,  also  habits"  that they  seamen,  Hindu community i n  i n the Canadian urban system.rrBresumably  to convince  tion  the "largest  loggers,  r e f e r e n c e s w e r e a l s o made t o t h e c i t y ' s  used  which  miners,  A m e r i c a n a l l c g i v e a daub> o f g a u d i n e s s  scene"  is  a t t h e a t t i t u d e was w r i t t e n i n  There  images, w i t h  keeping  from  the mainstream  seems, t h e n , the choice  on one's a s s u m p t i o n  quality  of urban  image.  Vancouver  i n the sense  largely  "Innovative"  city  of being  interpreta-  According to close t o nature of urban  life,  crude,  raw, o r  t o be t e n s i o n between  o f one o v e r  the other  o f what c o n s t i t u t e s  these  resting  a desirable  life. s£nd t h e c l u s t e r  o f synonyms  "distinct",  "unique",  and "modern" were r e f e r r e d c t d  nine  Vancouver  i n i t s entirety.  relates  Again,  this  times f o r closely  103 to  other  images  Of  the  of  the  remaining  "exciting",  city's  images f o r t h i s  "radical",  "peopled  "monopoly-dominated",  and  tion",  will  the  the  thesis.  best in  only  by  the  first  V a n c o u v e r as  a writer South  e n t e r p r i s e and  he  i n the  element  --  "depressing",  hippies", "small",  "dislike  of  external interven-  elaborated at this  a depressing  named F r i s b i e ,  Seas  by  growth.  who  point  p l a c e was  was  in  expressed  a traveller  based  1937?  year  The f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n o f V a n c o u v e r i s n o t p l e a s i n g , b u t t h e second and succeeding impressions are wholly d e l i g h t f u l . The w a t e r f f o n t t s t r e e t s a r e g r i m y ; t h e y a r e c r o w d e d w i t h t h o u s a n d s o f men who, from morning to evening, from evening to morning, s t a n d l i s t l e s s l y on t h e s i d e w a l k s , l e a n a g a i n s t the b u i l d i n g s , s t a r e b l a n k l y at the gray stone w a l l s across the s t r e e t s . T h e y seem as u t t e r l y depressed as the l i t t l e n a s t u r t i u m p l a n t s t h a t d e c o r a t e t h e w i n d o w s i l l s o f many o f t h e o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s . . . T h e i r c l o t h e s are drab c o l o r l e s s t h i n g s t h a t hang about t h e i r bodies l i k e w i l t e d l e a v e s ; t h e i r hats s l o u c h over t h e i r eyes; t h e i r boots are u n p o l i s h e d ; a n d m o s t d i s c o n c e r t i n g o f a l l , one s e n s e s a n i n a d e q u a c y o f s o a p and w a t e r . . . . (#27*219). Fortunately,  f o r V a n c o u v e r , he  continues  on  a more  positive  note: W i t h i n a few h o u r s , however, I l e a r n e d t h a t t h e s e men b e l o n g t o a f a r d i f f e r e n t , a n d a f a r m o r e picturesque c l a s s than that of the c h r o n i c a l l y unemployed of other c i t i e s . By  this  he  meant the  riggers,  and  and  were  i n town t o  the  loggers  these  men  canners  i n the  l o v e d an  paper makers,  who  i n Vancouver's h i n t e r l a n d  spend  worked  a l l their  f o l k s o n g The exciting,  m a k i n g them much more unemployed.  fishermen,  earnings  loggers,  (just  Grand H o t e l ) .  romantic  interesting  than  life  To  when  others  high-  like Frisbie,  employed,  even when  104 In  summary,  then,  tirety,  do  not  writers  of  periodicals  of  a  "boom  images, as  If  applied  indeed  a whole,  action  is  Vancouver  to  any  haps  and  the  entirety  its  the  of  the  people"., is  values  used  six  are  attributes  themselves then  separate  (or  and  this  crucial  where  exception  twenty-nine  negative  people  explored  their  to  in  Vancouver.  essentially the  image  visitor/resident  inter-  to  the  images  i t  of  could but  of  far  the  images  attributed  much  d e t a i l  for  two  outweighed  the  references  withingthe is  the  images  words,  in  they  element  (2)Stanley  18.  its  in  accumulation  Table  the  has  other  The  perhaps  these  particularly  analysis,  correspond  2.  is  of  Vancouverites  proposition  In  to  importantly,  colour  ly.  Four  conceptions  tingency  with  amb-iguo.us,  thesis  single  more  This  amongst  neutral  or  en-  opinion  are  numerically  writers*  Out  its  concerned.  This  F i r s t l y ,  a r t i c l e s ,  in  of  positive  of  and  consensus  Vancouver  inherently  "city  view  of  are  directly  the  a  images  emphasis.  qualities.  negative as  town"  eight  negative were  suggest  fifteen  such),  the  of be  the  city  tested also the  of  a  to  w i l l  landscape  examined  city  "Vancouver  that shape  with  a  con-  impressionistical-  image  derived  elements' in  per-  elements.  s t a t i s t i c a l l y be  and  expect  whole  composite  separate  images  as  reasons..  Secondly,  reasonable  specific  may  does  city.  to  its  from  images entirety"?  Park presented  for  SStanley  Park  are  given  in  TABLE  18  Images o f S t a n l e y Image  1 3 5 8 9 10 12 14 16 17  18 23  24 25  26 27  28 29 30 32  34 35 36 37  40  41 42 Total  No.  Image  e l e m e n t o n l y named o r p h o t o g r a p h e d colour or l i g h t s for physical recreation s p e c i a l events family-oriented free admission exciting intriguing cosmopolitan "undesirably" cosmopolitan criminal enthusiastic peopled by hippies beautiful historical high status American British undeveloped civilized innovative booming conservative large picturesque human i t a r i an high quality 27  images  Park Sign N N  + + + + + + + -  + + + + + N N  Total References  9 3 5 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 7 2 11 12 23  1 3  + + + +  23  + + + +  23  N  2 4 1 2 3 3 2  149  106 Three three The  images r e c e i v e d an  r e f e r e n c e s --  p a r k was  equal  lauded  a s b e i n g one  because  of  i t s "one  forest".  Because  of  i t s size,  the park  nearby with  indeed,  assumption,  as  the amenities of  A to  g r e a t range  light  by  and  " p i c t u r e s q u e " , and  people park  there.  in  sports.  the city  Table  used  also  19  Examination  to  environment.  park  example.  by  one  bustle  of  "Nature are  of the park  Most w r i t e r s  the  as  of t h i s  table  a natural,  the  The  nearbyJ were  brought  to describe  Table  18  of the people  and or  and  f e a t u r e s of that  the  offer  participating that despite  unspoiled area  i t is a  "beauty",  activities  reveals  i n the  man-modified  indicates  images a t t r i b u t e d  w r i t e r "put  visitor  i s Good",  chose  individual  these w r i t e r s ,  cosmopolites, hippies, As  i s that  d e s c r i b e d the  lists  Furthermore,  descriptions  t h e y be  a  take precedence.  "civilization"  i n t r o d u c e the park,  l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n of really  noted,  immerse h i m s e l f i n  for strolling,sight-seeing,  image o f the  virgin  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h s u c h words as  t h a t were mentioned  opportunities  and  of course,  separate writers.  purely visual  world,  even the v a l u e s a s s o c i a t e d  o f o t h e r images  its  and  "large".  i n the  acres of  the h u s t l e  towering trees  underlying l o n g as  twenty-  finest  these w r i t e r s  a business-orientedworld, time where  of the  thousand  i s able to forget  downtown, and  another  of  " h i g h s t a t u s " , " u n d e v e l o p e d " , and  primarily  to  "weight"  that  to the park  that v i s i t  Americans,  it,  the are  whether  or B r i t i s h ,  i t ? "People-watching  for  i n Stanley  107 TABLE Features  19  of Stanley  Park  Feature  No.  of  References  TO S E E "Natural":  "Man-made":  TO  trees Lost Lagoon B u r r a r d I-nHiet Beaches lawns Siwash' Rock view of mountains bird sanctuary gardens prospector's cabin fire-ranger's lookout I n d i a n encampment l i t t l e bridge trestle snowshed tunnel Japanese'ftWarMTemorial Robert Burns statue Harding Memorial R.C.A.F. M e m o r i a l G a r d e n Pauline Johnson fountains totem poles N i n e O ' c l o c k Gun naval station "Empress" b o w s p r i t Lumberman's A r c h Brockton Point Lighthouse hot-water booth pavilions rLng r o a d stands ;G a u s e w a y  12 12  7  8 33 1 2  9 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 9 6 1 2 3 1 1 2 6 1 1  DO  trails mini railroad zoo cricket fields Malkine Bowl lawn bowling p i t c h and p u t t shuffleboard tennis  10 5 16 11 5 course  6 2 7 . . ..continued  108 T A B L E 19  (continued)  Feature horseshoes eating places aquarium seawall walk pool cinderrtrack hike paths pony r i d e Ceperly Playground kiddies' traffic school outdoor checkers p i c n i c areas rugby field grass hockey  No.  of  References  3 6  11.  3 4  1  2  1  2  1  2 2 4 4  109 Park  i s the best  cost  a thing" The  Park  you'll  find  and i t doesn't  (#117:45).  image c o n s t r u c t e d  i s indeed  by these  a "people-place".  to  r e c o n c i l e t h e seeming  in  the middle  a r i s e s , "How  i n Vancouver,  writers i s that  Perhaps  this  To p u t i t s i m p l y ,  c a n V a n c o u v e r b$" a f u l l - f l e d g e d  a vast  writer  interested i n establishing the urbanity  question  negative and  of treed  must be answered.  images  i n the l i s t ,  might be s u f f i c i e n t  visiting readers  images  to discourage  merely reinforce the idea town. those  o f any other  (4)  the  cosmopolitan"  prejudice  that  large North  American  from  t o most  and crime i s not a  i n i t s public parks  o f 117 r e f e r e n c e s  would small  just  like  city.  (Table  20).  w e r e made t o V a n c o u v e r ' s  That  emerges as i t s s t r o n g e s t  activities  viable.  i n the park.  Waterfront  facilities  bustle"  of Vancouver,  some p e o p l e  that Vancouver  I t has i t s "problems"  A total port  "undesirably  of racial  F o r any  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e two  t h e p a r k , b u t i t i s more l i k e l y these  i fi t can  i n i t s heart?".  " 6 r i m i n a l " , were a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e people  This  3.  land  forest  the question  city  afford  this  i s an attempt  juxtaposition of a virgin  of the city.  tract  Stanley  involved  F o r example,  this image  i n any p o r t  one'writer  place's  i s a reflection  that  stated  "boom a n d of  i s economically i n a 1951  The j u n c t i o n o f s t e e l a n d t i d e w a t e r h a s b e e n g o i n g c o n c e r n e v e r s i n c e fl887J • Developed h a r b o r f r o n t a g e now t o t a l s m o r e t h a n f o r t y e i g h t s q u a r e m i l e s . . . . (#43:24).  article: a  110  1  V  TABLE Images  Image  1 2 3 5 7 12 14  16 25 26 27 28  29 30 32 34 35 37 39 40 41 42  45 Total  of  the  20 Waterfront  Image  No.  e l e m e n t o n l y named or photographed sound c o l o u r or Bights for physical recreation dining {exciting intriguing cosmopolitan beautiful . historical high status American B r i t i s h undeveloped civilized innovative DoomingIve large depressing picturesque humanitarian high quality inauthentic 23  images  Sign  No. of References  N  7  N N  1 3  + + + + + + + + N N  + + + + +  — +  + +  —  8  1 2 1 4 11 6 16 1 1 2 2 6 23 12 2 1 3 3 1 117  He  continues,  of  freight  seven  describe  handled,  s u c h as  anchorage,  From t h i s  foundation  the  f o l l o w i n g would  --  " c h a l l e n g i n g M o n t r e a l as Canada's f i r s t terms of tonnage handled" ( i b i d . )  --  "great  --  "second b u s i e s t p o r t  --  "finest  colourful  and  and  piers,  and  the  the  high  mark and  of  capitalize  lively  i n North  the  images  Instead, on  the  of  activity  tourist  port"  i s that  port  world" only  of  The  (#12:30)  three writers  the  i n the  t o make t h i s  in  (#170:70)  i t seems t h e size  America"  (ibid.)  i n the  boats  attraction.  of North  America"  sheer  number o f p l e a s u r e  level  even a  and  coast  most modern h a r b o r  were n e g a t i v e .  chosen to  Pacific  flow:  "leading port  and  the  tons  a deep  shipyards.  on  million  --  references  case  more t h a n n i n e  the  astonishing aspect  have  the  forty-seven berths,  e l e v a t o r s , and  superlatives  The  to  ships  harbour,  place  a  land-  following is  a  i n point: ...hear the h o o t - h o o t o f the b o a t s , see the g u l l s swoop and s k i m t h e w a t e r , l o o k down on h u n d r e d s o f b o a t m a s t s , and w a t c h t h e t a n k e r s r e f u e l i n g a t the f l o a t i n g s e r v i c e centers. Day o r n i g h t (when e v e r y t h i n g g l i t t e r s . ) i t ' s a s t u n n i n g p a n o r a m a (#163:  94).  Thus,  i n the  waterfront  eyes  of  these  w r i t e r s , Vancouver's  i s not  an  unpleasant  n e c e s s i t y but  economic  and  even a e s t h e t i c a s s e t .  shipping  and  recreational activities  Inlet city's  i s viewed  as  liveliness  The  a happy combination and  high  status  an  mixture  a l l along and  i n the  industrial important of the  both Burrard  indicative  urban  of  network.  the  112 4.  (17) G a s t o w n Unlike  not  Stanley Park  and t h e w a t e r f r o n t , Gastown  have two o r t h r e e v e r y  Instead,  there  twenty-seven early  as t h e o r i g i n a l  offical  mayor  phrases  "Ace" Aasen. skid  such  across the  s e c t i o n o f Vancouver,  m e n t i o n o f i t s namesake  previous  ( T a b l e 21).  N i n e r e f e r e n c e s w e r e made t o G a s t o w n ' s  special  its  images  i s a more even d i s t r i b u t i o n  images.  history  predominant  "Gassy Jack"  Seven r e f e r e n c e s  row character of crime  acknowledged  and poverty i n  as the following:  " f o r y e a r s an a r e a o f rundown warehouses d e g e n e r a t i n g d o w n t o w n " (#179*32)  --  "a S k i d Road  --  "a s a d f a c e they  of renovation" visually While  (#127:50)  of Vancouver"  (#136:21)  each took  care  to establish  (#179:32) h a v e t r a n s f o r m e d  one w r i t e r  another  on t h e r i s e "  p l e a s i n g and i n t e r e s t i n g  of k i t s c h  with  and i t s un-  --  However,  does  explained,  "There  tourist  twisted this  that the "forces Gastown  offend"  idea around  into  a  touch  (#12,7:50),  and emphasized  Gastown i s n o t r e s t o r e d as i t had been, b u t i s b e t t e r the  a  attraction.  i s , of course,  t o Gastown, b u t i tdoesn't  writer  i n the  that than  original: Today i t i s a p l a c e o f a r t g a l l e r i e s , s p e c i a l t y r e s t a u r a n t s , b o u t i q u e s -- a n d m a n y i n v i t i n g h o l e s i n t h e w a l l (#136:23).  The  overall  image  o f Gastown s t r e s s e s a wide v a r i e t y o f  shops,  eating establishments,  and people.  writer  s t a t e d , Gastown i s a "marvelous  place"  (#163:92).  Indeed,  as one  people-watching  113  TABLE 21 Images of Gastown Image  Sign  element o n l y named o r photog graphed sound colour or l i g h t s odours for physical recreation shopping and g a l l e r y t o u r i n g dining s p e c i a l events exciting intriguing cosmopolitan criminal enthusiastic p e o p l e d by h i p p i e s beautiful historical high status British civilized young innovative booming depressing picturesque humanitarian high q u a l i t y inauthentic  N  3  N N N + + + + + + +  1 1 1 1  Image No. 1 2 3 4 5  6 7  8 12 14 16  18 23  24 25 26 27 29 32 33 34 35 39 40  41 42 45  Total  27 images  -  + + + + + N + N + + -  + + + —  No. of References  8 7 1 2  6  2 2 1 4 2 9 3 1 1 1 3 4 7 3 1 1 1 77  114 5.  Setting  (3)  Vancouver's cribed  setting  of  mountains  with  twelve  different  predominant  (Table  22).  that  "no  city  Vancouver" viewed  as  status,  on e a r t h  (#4-2 : 2 4 4 ) .  as  One w r i t e r has a more In  a landscape  images,  fact,  element  epitomized  by  the  and ocean were with  i t s  claimed  des-  beauty  being  unabashedly  beautiful  setting  than  Vancouver's  setting  is  that  gives  the  city  world  following:  . . . . n e i t h e r the population architecture, which leaves what sets Vancouver a p a r t . . the northern sunlight with (#42:245).  growth nor the c i t y ' s much t o be d e s i r e d , is ..Vancouver glitters in a s p a r k l e a l l i t s own  A new d i s c o v e r y o f m e d i c i n a l c l a y s and s p r i n g s leads Vancouverites, l o g i c a l l y enough, to the conclusion that t h i s w i l l be,one of the world's great health resorts. In Vancouver's estimate, not only w i l l the sick of the world f i n d their way h e r e , b u t t h e h e a l t h y a s w e l l , b e c a u s e of t h e verdant and touching beauty of the snow-capped mountain country and the sparkle offthe water inc the sounds and the f i o r d s (#34:16). Clearly  the  lack  self-admiration!  of  While five  and  writer  unmatched other  setting  commercial be  is  writer  believes  references  that  i t  grafted  setting" images  puts  the  the  have  unspoiled  city  in  that  the  city's  onto  Vancouver's  no  setting,  isolation.  "modernity  has  older  amenities  explained.  Firstly,  (#170:70). here  "bustling"  location"  Vancouverites  applauded  also  maintained  successfully  Two the  eight  explained  Another been  latter  need in  the  (#69:115).  I3British"\ (especially  i n  to  be  sense  of  being  Secondly,  Canada)?  In  a  "fine  how c a n a  1940,  a  setting  Travel  115  TABLE  22  Images o f V a n c o u v e r ' s  Image 1 5 12 25 26 27 29 30 31 34 35 40 Total  No.  Setting  Image e l e m e n t o n l y named o r p h o t o graphed for physical recreation exciting beautiful historical high status British undeveloped (natural) underdeveloped ( p r i m i t i v e ) innovative booming picturesque 12  images  Sign  No. o f References  N  18  + + + + +  2 5 19 1 4 1 8 5 2 2 1  N  + -  + + +  68  magazine  writer  explained:  Geographically, i t i s claimed, Vancouver i s as n e a r l y the centre o f the B r i t i s h Empire asi t i s possible....Nature i t s e l f , i t would appear, fashioned the protected basin f o r a world port, and h a d d e f i n i t e l y marked i t f o r t h e B r i t i s h p e o p l e , f o r away t o t h e n o r t h w a r d , b e y o n d t h e t r e e - c l a d s l o p e s , she h a d s c u l p t u r e d f r o m r u g g e d m o u n t a i n p e a k s t w o c o u c h a n t l i o n s a s symbols of sovereignty (#30:24,22). Here  the w r i t e r has  intentions 6.  (6)  directly  offercshopping  their  seamy s i d e a n d a l o n g  the c i t y ) .  Chinatown  emphasize of  that  Both  history (relative  Chinatown's  o f the large  i s not  Both  t o the  C h i n e s e community  vis-  have  most f r e q u e n t l y  rest mentioned  i t serves.  "restored", andthus the w r i t e r s  i t o f f e r s the v i s i t o r  Chinese l i f e ,  i n T a b l e 23.  d e l i g h t s t o the senses.  However,  image was the s i z e  listed  t o Gastown, a n d  andd i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o the  and b o t h o f f e r  Also,  i s similar  out b y t h e images  itor,  of  imperialistic  Chinatown  i s borne  places  his  onto the n a t u r a l landscape.  I n many w a y s C h i n a t o w n this  imposed  as w e l l as authentic  an "authentic"  view  Chinese foodsand  souvenirs„ One rhythm  w r i t e r i n 1975 d e s c r i b e d  i n Chinatown,  shoppers b y day, Vancouver's section  i n an a r t i c l e  food  (#159?58). markets w i t h  delicacies  -- v e g e t a b l e s ,  duck  ginger,  eggs,  entitled  on the R a f f i s h side  Chinatown"  features  i n some d e t a i l "Busy  a tnight,  By day,  the d i u r n a l  the  with  that's eastern  Canadian and Chinese  dried fish,  Okanagan  d r i e d seaweedd p o r k , ducks,  fruits, chickens  117  TABLE 23 Images o f Chinatown Image  Image No. 1 2 3 6 7 8 12 16 17 18 20 23 26 28 31 34 35 37 40 44 Total  element o n l y named o r photographed sound colour or l i g h t s s;ho.pping o r g a l l e r y - t o u r i n g dining s p e c i a l events exciting cosmopolitan "undesirably" cosmopolitan criminal (rambunctious enthusiastic historical American underdeveloped innovative booming large picturesque authentic 20 images  Sign  No. o f References  N  4  N N + + + + +  3 2 7 5 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 3 1 2 3 3 11 2 5  -  + + + N -  + + + + +  63  118  hanging and  from hooks.  import  shops where  knacks as w e l l land  I n the western  China,  (#159:68).  as jade,  delicate  there  silks  are the curios  shopsfor  the usual  and teak f u r n i t u r e  ivory miniatures,elegant  The w r i t e r  <?:00 P.M.,  "tourists  area  from  and then  main-  lacquerware"  s t a t e d t h a t b e t w e e n 6:00  i s a "lull",  knick-  P.M. a n d  Chinatown  changes  character: S t r e e t s i d e markets have c l o s e d ; t h e l o n g b l o c k e a s t o f M a i n i s q u i e t e r . Neon l i g h t s , glowing a l l d a y , now s t a n d o u t a g a i n s t t h e d a r k e n i n g sky. Groups o f young people s t r o l l a l o n g t h e streets. Chinese couples and t h e i r well-behaved c h i l d r e n m o v e q u i e t l y b y . O l d men i n d o o r w a y s r e a d t h e Chinese Times b y s t r e e t l i g h t . Streetw a l k e r s t a k e up t h e i r s t a t i o n s s . Curio shops, t h e i r i n t e r i o r s b r i g h t l y l i t , a t t r a c t dozens o f visitors (ibid.). As  with  Stanley Park  watching 7.  U.B.C.  of British  i s the f i r s t  Columbia  landscape  f a r t h a t h a s no n e g a t i v e  images  Chinatown  images.  stress the university's  high  and  the p r o g r e s s i v e programs  would be s u r p r i s e d i fthese since the success  any u n i v e r s i t y  endeavours. mentioned university  i to f f e r s  others  immersion program,  and enrollment, (Table  characteristics  other  2k ). y  importance)  and academic  f e a t u r e s w i t h i n U.B.C.  (Table  were  and d i s t i n g u i s h t h e  25).  a l l of these  One  w e r e n o t men-  (and by extension,  t o e m b e l l i s h t h e image, from  I t s predominant  i s measured by i t s s i z e  However,  examined  status i n the province  the nation, i t s large physical size  of  "people-  (U.B.C.)  element t o be  and  tioned,  i sa  place".  (7) U n i v e r s i t y  thus  and Gastown,  Excepting  t h e summer  f e a t u r e s may b e  visited  119  TABLE 24 Images o f U.B.C. Image No. 1 3 5 8 12 13  16 23 25 26 27 30  33 34 35 36 37  40 42  44 46 Total  Image element o n l y named or photographed colour or l i g h t s physical recreation s p e c i a l events exciting educational ( f o r the v i s i t o r ! ) cosmopolitan enthusiastic beautiful historical high status undeveloped young innovative booming conservative jiarge picturesque high q u a l i t y authentic efficient 21 images  Sign  No. of References  N  4  N + + + + + + + + + + N + + N + + + + +  1 2 1 1 2 1 5 4 2 12 2 1 7 2 1 8 1 2 1 1 61  120  TABLE Features Feature  rose Totem  o f U.B. C. No.  of References  9  setting Nitobe  25  6  Gardens  2  gardens  2  Park  Fine Arts  2  Gallery  pool  2  concerts  1  summer i m m e r s i o n  program  1  Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y  1  Visitor's  1  Pavilion  International Main  Library  House  1 1  121 or  experienced  ically  "by  the  "West C o a s t "  mountain backdrop, sity  i n nature  to  other  Totem P a r k ,  and  seemed  museum.  and  The  univer-  c u l t u r e s -people  from  (C.B.D.) O f f i c e s  treatment  to be placed  i n the  received  a r t i c l e s ' (Table  on the  o rthe  "extraordinary  (#142:37).  status",  "high  tension  "civilized",  i s combined w i t h  o fe n t e r p r i s e , business  these  are  types  in  Bloedel with  e x t e r i o r frame such  other  "intriquing", "beautiful",  "young",  "booming",  e f f e c t i s to  image  the  The emphasis  Building  s t r u c t u r e " as the  as "exciting",  q u a l i t y " , the  26).  MacMillan  Westmount T r a n s m i s s i o n  When i n n o v a t i o n  characteristics  a generally  architectural innovation  des.ignn o f s u c h b u i l d i n g s a s the  headquarters  and  the  and  nations.  (13) D o w n t o w n  "high  specif-  s e t t i n g o focean  Japanese, n o n - I n d i a n C a n a d i a n s ,  positive  its  Three are  for several  V a n c o u v e r ' s downtown o f f i c e s  the  U.B.C.  -- t h e  emerges a s a m e e t i n g p l a c e  Indian,  8.  stranger  "large",  r e i n f o r c e the  acumen, and  city  growth.  o f images w e l l - s u i t e d to  Clearly  business  headquarters.  tone  H o w e v e r , some o f t h e  other  down t h e . g l i t t e r  brassiness.  references lated  noted  and  undeveloped  images l i s t e d  serve t o  Specifically,  primitive qualities,  i n t o s u c h a r c h i t e c t u r a l t e r m s a s "a b l e n d  •natural"  environment".  for  example, makes use  has  a " f o r e s t theme" o f  The  MacMillan  of n a t u r a l  light  a simulated  Bloedel  trans-  with  the  Building,  (#126:126),  plant  three  grove,  and  a green  even  122  TABLE  26  I m a g e s o f CBD  Image  1 12 14 25 27 28 30 32 33 34 35 36 37 40 41 42 43 Total  Offices  Image  No.  e l e m e n t o n l y named o r p h o t o graphed exciting Intriguing beautiful high status American lundeveloped civilized young innovative "booming conservative large picturesque humanitarian high quality low q u a l i t y 17  images  Sign  No. o f References  N  4  + + + +  2 1 4 4 2 3 6 1 10 6 2 1 1 6 2 1  N  + +  N  + +  N  + + + +  56  carpet, with the  and a green v e l v e t  this  idea  mountains  keeping not  and sea w i l l  feel  totally into  the overall  9.  (21)  Also  the descriptions  (Table  pedestrians  the addition  will o f "con-  adds a t o u c h o f r e s t r a i n t  27)  --  "a s u s p e n s i o n b r i d g e w h i c h  Canyon. gorges, tunity  feet  above  swings  pedestrians  the [roaring]water"  (#161:108)  a r e a few examples  o f the phrases used  The t e m p e s t u o u s  danger  t o convey  at the Capilano  waters, the rugged  and t h e swaying s u s p e n s i o n b r i d g e  fiords  offer  o f an e x p l o r e r .  shops,  features  are the Cleveland  of the area  Dam,  waters,  Thus,  C a p i l a n o Canyon  i tp r o v i d e s a capsule view  trees,  to the that  the dining  i s viewed  t o many a c t i v i t i e s . r a n g i n g f r o m p i c n i c k i n g Also,  oppor-  establish-  g r a s s e d a r e a s i n t h e p a r k , and t h e C a p i l a n o  Hatchery.  suited  Other  and  an  f o r a d v e n t u r e -- a l m o s t a t e m p o r a r y r e t u r n  ments,  view  " t h e b r i d g e sways w i t h t h e abandon o f a t e n - y e a r v e t e r a n o n a b u r l e s q u e c i r c u i t " (#39*38)  were mentioned  ing.  obscured, and  " Y o u c a n w a l k a c r o s s t h e dam f o r a d i z z y i n g r i g h t down t h e s p i l l w a y " (#181:42)  image o f e x c i t e m e n t and even  Fish  so the view of  image.  C a p i l a n o Canyon  These  of  so t h a t  Connected  --  --  days  (#130*450•  n o t he t o t a l l y  overwhelmed.  some 200  an  area  the offices  t h e m a t a human s c a l e  servative" to  i s designing  seating  and w i l d l i f e  the province.  found  as a  place  to fish-  of the mountains,  i n t h e non-urban  portion  124  TABLE Images  Image  1 2 5 7 9 10 11 12 13 25 26 27 30 34 37 38 40 Total  27  of Capilano  Canyon  Image  No.  e l e m e n t o n l y named o r p h o t o graphed sound for physical recreation dining family-oriented free admission expensive (bridge admission) exciting educational beautiful historical high status undeveloped innovative large small picturesque 17  images  Sign  Nol of References  N  9  N + + + +  4 2 1 1 1  -  + + + + + + + +  N  +  1 15 1 2 1 1 3 1 4 1 2 50  j  125 10.  (5)  Opera  The  image o f V a n c o u v e r ' s  periodical  literature  with  elements  on  those  presents five  and because  technical.  the  critics  with the  stars  almost  opera  purposes  residents of this  by  definition,  opera  so  to classify  a phrase  by  t h e c h o r u s " as merely  companies p e r se consists  The i m a g e s l i s t e d  of  aesthetics  ance, will  it's  Fourthly,  i n periodicals.  explicitly  imposes  on t h e p e r f o r m a n c e s . inevitable  that  g i v e two c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t ,  views.  Finally,  evaluation  the next. successful;  because  i s likely  opera  on c l o s i n g  night  and c o l o u r s ,  would  be  critical  losing  as  To m a k e a name f o r h i spersonal  two d i f f e r e n t and even  sense perform-  critics  opposing,  i s a v e r y dynamic  activity,  one p e r f o r m a n c e  the performance the lead  reviews  "neutral"  F o r any s i n g l e  t o vary from  On o p e n i n g n i g h t  Thirdly,  28, then, d e s c r i b e  a r e n o t intended t o appear  i ti s almost  applied  o f t h e opera program i n  i n Table  t h e manner o f t h e performances.  the c r i t i c  Thus, f o r  was r e c o r d e d .  an image o f "sound"  Vancouver.  himself,  individuals  that  lights,  or  as " c o n s e r v a t i v e performance  on t h e achievements  a r e most o t h e r a r t i c l e s  highly  and so  of these  o f sounds,  information  arts  roles,  only information  such  peri-  on n a t i o n a l  only i n the background.  the Vancouver  the fine  i n music  companies r e l y  thesis,  information  t h e r e v i e w s were o f t e n  f o c u s e d on t h e p e r f o r m a n c e s  the city  not encountered  Firstly,  t o assume t h e l e a d i n g  to  of  problems  exclusively  of this,  Secondly,  international  as discussed i nthe  d i s c u s s e d so f a r .  t h e o p e r a was f o u n d  odicals,  opera  may b e  to  highly  s i n g e r may h a v e  a  126  TABLE  28  Images o f V a n c o u v e r ' s Image  1 12 21 23 27 32  33 34 357 36 42 43 Total  No.  Opera  Image  e l e m e n t o n l y named o r p h o t o graphed exciting d i s l i k e of external intervention enthusiastic high status civilized young innovative booming conservative high quality low q u a l i t y 12  images  Sign  No. o f References  N  4  + -  1 1  + + +  4  N  + +  N  + -  6  2 1 1 2 5  11 7 45  127  sore t h r o a t .  The p r o d u c t i o n o f " A i d a " may he e x c e l l e n t  i n a l l r e s p e c t s h u t t h a t o f "Don G i o v a n n i " be a m i s e r a b l e failure. These c o m p l i c a t i o n s may e x p l a i n s e v e r a l s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s of T a b l e 28.  There a r e o n l y twelve  images because c r i t i c a l  r e v i e w s r e s o r t t o much t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l t o i l l u s t r a t e an image o f h i g h o r low q u a l i t y . "sound" o r " l i g h t " images.  There i s no l i s t i n g o f t h e  There a r e almost as many r e f e r -  ences m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t Vancouver's opera i s o f l o w q u a l i t y as h i g h . I n g e n e r a l , though, t h e p i c t u r e o f t h i s aspect o f the c i t y ' s l i f e  i s p o s i t i v e -- opera i s perhaps t o o con-  s e r v a t i v e b u t e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y supported audiences n e v e r t h e l e s s .  by Vancouver  As one w r i t e r n o t e d , these  audiences  are o f t e n on t h e d e f e n s i v e a g a i n s t t h e E a s t : Perhaps Mr. Nathan Cohen was s u r p r i s e d t o f i n d a t o p - f l i g h t major p r o f e s s i o n a l company i n Vancouver -- b u t t h e r e s i d e n t s o f B r i t i s h Columbia are n o t (#143:39). 11.  (8) I n s t r u m e n t a l Ensembles T h i s element and t h e two t h a t f o l l o w ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l  F e s t i v a l and A r t ) i n v o l v e many o f t h e problems o f a e s t h e t i c judgement d i s c u s s e d f o r opera.  However, from Table 29,  i t i s seen t h a t i n g e n e r a l t h e w r i t e r s g i v e t h i s a p o s i t i v e treatment. the g e n e r a l  The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n  activity epitomizes  tone:  The m u s i c a l l i f e o f t h e c i t y . . . i s one o f i t s u n d e n i a b l e s t r e n g t h s . There a r e a number o f s m a l l musical o r g a n i z a t i o n s which r e g u l a r l y p e r f o r m music r a n g i n g from t h e R e n a i s s a n c e t o t h a t w r i t t e n y e s t e r d a y , and m u s i c i a n s o f nat i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n s g i v e  128  IABLE 29 Images o f I n s t r u m e n t a l  Image  1 12 23  26  27 29 32  3 3 4 4  4 5 2 3  Total  Ensembles  Image  No.  e l e m e n t o n l y named o r p h o t o graphed exciting enthusiastic historical high status British civilized innovative booming high quality low q u a l i t y 11  images  Sign  No. o f References  N  6  + + + +  3 5 1 4  N  + + + +  1 1 2  4  9  4 4o  129  c o n c e r t s here (#189:MA 3 4 ) . L i k e opera performances,  c o n c e r t s a r e w e l l - a t t e n d e d , and  o f t e n t h e Vancouver Symphony O r c h e s t r a p l a y s t o a f u l l house.  I t s c o n d u c t o r , Akiyama, i s d e s c r i b e d as " e x c i t i n g " ,  leading with "blazing b r i l l i a n c e "  (#154:MA 3 8 ) , and  g e n e r a l l y o p t i m i s t i c note pervades t h e r e v i e w s . 12.  (11) I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e s t i v a l o f t h e A r t s (Table 30) T h i s f e s t i v a l o f music, dance, drama, and t h e v i s u a l  a r t s , was i n s t i t u t e d i n 1958 and r a n f o r s i x y e a r s . its in  At  h e i g h t i n i 9 6 0 t h e f e s t i v a l was g i v e n w o r l d s t a t u s t h e r e v i e w s , b u t a few y e a r s o f poor management r e s u l t e d  i n heavy c r i t i c i s m .  According to the general opinion of  the r e v i e w e r s t h e F e s t i v a l d i e d a n a t u r a l death. 13.  (24) A r t The main image o f a r t i n Vancouver applauded t h e ex-  c i t i n g and i n n o v a t i v e works produced by l o c a l a r t i s t s 31).  (Table  Because o f t h e c i t y ' s y o u t h and i s o l a t i o n , i t was  viewed as t a n t a l i z i n g " f r e s h ground" (#112:26) f o r t h e a r t i s t . However, these same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e a a l s o s s e e n in a poorly-developed t i v e audiences  a r t system.  gave l i t t l e  to result  The g e n e r a l l y c o n s e r v a -  support t o t h e a r t ^ s c e n e i n t h e  e a r l y y e a r s , as i l l u s t r a t e d by t h i s comment i n a 1931 article: I t i s l i t t l e more t h a n a decade s i n c e t h e f i r s t s t i r r i n g s o f a d e s i r e f o r an a r t s c h o o l animated the minds o f Vancouver a r t l o v e r s t o a s u f f i c i e n t e x t e n t t o i n c i t e anyone t o t a k e a c t i o n (#19:102). L a t e r a r t i c l e s noted g r a d u a l improvements, p r i m a r i l y due t o government g r a n t s and an i n c r e a s e i n c i t y  size.  130  TABLE  30  Images o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e s t i v a l o f t h e A r t s Image 1 12 16 21 22 23 27 29 31 32 33 35 38 42 43 Total  No.  Image e l e m e n t o n l y named o r p h o t o graphed exciting cosmopolitan i&islike of external intervention apathetic enthusiastic high status British underdeveloped civilized young booming small high quality low q u a l i t y 15  images  Sign  No. o f References  N  1  + +  3 8 1  + +  N  -  +  N  +  N  +  -  1 3 6 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 8 39  131  T A B L E A31-'.:Images o f A r t  Image 1 12 16 21 22 27 29 31 32 33 34 35 37 41 43 Total  Image  No.  e l e m e n t o n l y named o r p h o t o graphed exciting cosmopolitan dislike of external intervention apathetic high status British underdeveloped civilized young innovative booming large human i t a r i a n low q u a l i t y 15  images  Sign  No. o f References  N  1  + +  6 1 1  +  N  -  +  N  + + + +  —  3 2 1 2 3 4 9 2 1 1 1 38  132 14.  (22) No  the  r e l i e f  the  the i t  negative  literature  huge of  Pacific  a  images (Table  map  of  displays,  fun  fairs  "civic  preferred  National of  the  the  midway.  enterprise  to  stress  enthusiastic  prose:  its  presented  the  one  educational  humanitarian  the  benefits  afforded  writer  money-maker"  in  mentioned  entertainment  Although  and  were  commonly  Columbia,  sheer  (P.N.E.)  PkN.E.  Writers  32).  B r i t i s h  and  and  Exhibition  by  labelled  (#4-3:69).  another  characteristics  in  One e l e m e n t i n t h e P . N . E . syndrome t h a t makes it unique i s i t s complete l a c k of i m p e r s o n a l i t y . A v e r y r e a l and v i t a l p a r t of the BritishCColumbia l i f e s t y l e , i t belongs t o , and i s p a r t of, the people. It brings the expatriated B r i t i s h Columb i a n b a c k home t o c a t c h t h e t e m p o o f t h e w e s t coast l i f e and e x o r c i s e i n h i b i t i o n s (#155*16-7). Clearly  the  National  15.  sound The  the  one  1958  and  poor  performers.  the  result - - - -  and  care of  the  confused w i t h  (C.N.E.)  writer in  in  stated  such  theatre  this  Toronto's  writer's  In  f l a t l y  had  declined created  1975-6, h o w e v e r , of  which  the  articles  this  renovation  "No  Canadian  mind!  orchestra  surroundings...."  ventilation  most  with  not  Theatre  well  once-elegant  restored, of  Orpheum  really  repair,  is  Exhibition  (31) In  P.N.E.  was  was  to  (#55*22).  a  much the  state  h a l l  (Table  described  in  of  dis-  discomfort was  giveddetailed  done  could  33).  such  completely descriptions The  terms  " l a v i s h " (#185:66) "pleasingly old-fashioned" (#182:37) " g i l d e d and unashamedly ornate" (#l80:MA-36)  Furthermore,  emphasis  was  placed  on  the  return  to  for  the  end as:  133  TABLE  32  I m a g e s o f P.N.E. Image 1 2 5 8 12 13 23 258 26 27 35 36 37  41 Total  No.  Image e l e m e n t o n l y named o r p h o t o graphed sound for physical recreation s p e c i a l events exciting educational enthusiastic beautiful historical high status booming conservative large humanitarian 14  images  Sign  No. o f References  N  2  N  1 2 2  + + + + + + + + +  N  + +  4 7 1 2 2  4 2 1 6 1  37  134  TABLE  33  Images o f t h e Orpheum  Image 1 7 23 25 26 27 28 328 34 37 38 40 428 43 44 45 46 Total  Theatre  Sign  Image  No.  e l e m e n t o n l y named graphed dining enthusiastic beautiful historical high status American civilized innovative large small picturesque high quality low q u a l i t y authentic inauthentic efficient 17  images  or photo-  No. o f References  N  3  + + + + +  1 2 3 5 3 1 1 2 2 1 1 5 1 1 1 2  N  + + + N  + + -  +  -  +  35  (#183:3)>  ' " e l e g a n c e o f a "bygone e r a " romance and g l i t t e r as  important as attending  the  Orpheum.  tant  asset  16.  (9)  17.  (12)  treated  as being  a concert as a reason t o v i s i t  To t h e s e w r i t e r s ,  to thecultural  t h e Orpheum i s a n i m p o r -  life  o f Vancouver.  Dining  together here  f o r two r e a s o n s  a n d many w r i t e r s  almost w i t h i n  spoke  opportunities are -- t h e i r  images a r e  o f shopping and d i n i n g  t h e same b r e a t h .  seem t o go h a n d - i n - h a n d ,  They a r e two a c t i v i t i e s especially  for visitors  the city. The  British  predominant merchandise  maintained,  seen  feature  visit.  i ntheStates...." spices,  imports  ( T a b l e 34). city  You'll  A s one w r i t e r  find  (#82:58).  merchandise  seldom  Murchie's teas, china,  coffees  and I r i s h  as special  attractions,  "Cowichan"  s w e a t e r s and Hudson's B a y  West Coast  Indian  blankets.  The main  ments, however,  shopping i s t h  "can be t h e h i g h l i g h t  E n g l i s h w o o l l e n s a n d bone  a r ec i t e d  feature  is. t h e i r  Restaurants  offer  of  residents.  thecity  o f Vancouver's  available  shopping i nt h i s  of your Vancouver  and  t i m e s was v i e w e d  downtown s h o p p i n g a n d d i n i n g  similar,  which  for the  CBD S h o p p i n g  The  to  of earlier  Nostalgia  of thecity's  as w e l l  dining  cosmopolitan nature  menus a s d i v e r s e  establish  (Talbe  as t h eethnic  A s one w r i t e r  as the  34).  diversity  suggested:  ...much o f t h e p r o o f o f V a n c o u v e r ' s e t h n i c v a r i e t y l i e s i nthe e a t i n g , and i f y o u s t a y e d i n town f o u r o r f i v e days a week, y o u c o u l d b u i l d y o u r e n t i r e s c h e d u l e a r o u n d e a t i n g o u t (#171:87).  TABLE  34  I m a g e s o f CBD S h o p p i n g a n d  Image 1 2 12 16 26 27 28 29 32 34 35 41 44 Total  Image  No. E l e m e n t o n l y named o r sound exciting cosmopolitan historical high status American British civilized innovative booming human i t a r i a n authentic  photographed  Dining Sign  No. o f R e f e r e n c e s Shopping Dining  N N  + + + +  N N  + + + + +  7 2 4 2 1  --1 6 1 2 4 3 —  33  1  — 3 13 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1  29  137  R e s t a u r a n t s such as "Cloud N i n e " and "Grouse N e s t " a panoramic v i e w o f t h e c i t y were o f t e n mentioned.  offering In  g e n e r a l , these two a c t i v i t i e s were p r e s e n t e d as "being l i v e l y and v a r i e d , o f f e r i n g something palate.  t o s u i t every budget and  A p p a r e n t l y t h e r e i s n o t h i n g backward about Van-  c o u v e r ' s shopping and d i n i n g , a t l e a s t ! 18.  (32) Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y ( T a b l e 35) Some o f these d e s c r i p t i o n s were perhaps t h e most  i n t e r e s t i n g of a l l .  F i r s t l y , note t h a t t h e r e have been  two main p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s . In  The f i r s t was h e a v i l y  criticised.  1930, one c r i t i c c l a i m e d i t had an u n s u i t a b l e s i t e ,  "perhaps t h e n o i s i e s t i n Vancouver", and was a c a s u a l r e f u g e for  unemployed men (#17:861-2).  I n 1951 another w r i t e r  m a i n t a i n e d t h e l i b r a r y was n o t worthy  o f t h e town-- "a  j e r k w a t e r c o l l e c t i o n o f books housed i n a l o n g o u t d a t e d h o v e l " , o p e r a t e d by an overworked  staff  (#42:248-9).  A 1953 a r t i c l e , however, d e s c r i b e d p l a n s f o r a new l i b r a r y w i t h t h e g o a l s o f k e e p i n g " f u n c t i o n over form", a l l o w i n g flexibility,  s e r v i n g t h e e n t i r e community, and c r e a t i n g  "a s t r u c t u r e t h a t w i l l be o u t s t a n d i n g among t h e c i t y ' s landmarks"  (#45:79).  Four y e a r s l a t e r a n o t h e r  article  d e s c r i b e d t h e end r e s u l t as a "landmark i n t h e h i s t o r y o f l i b r a r y development i n Canada" (#54:3024).  I t s outstanding  f e a t u r e was s e e n t t o be t h e g l a s s w a l l s which p r o v i d e "an i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a s t t o i t s massive n e i g h b o r s " (#54:3022). A 1974 a r t i c l e , however, s t r e s s e d t h r e e s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f the l i b r a r y  (#157:409):  138  TABLE Images o f V a n c o u v e r Image 1 2 3 8 16 23 27 32 34 39  41 43  46  Total  No.  35 Public  Image e l e m e n t o n l y named o r p h o t o graphed sound colour or lights s p e c i a l events cosmopolitan enthusiastic high status civilized innovative depressing humanitarian low q u a l i t y efficient 13  images  Library  Sign  No. o f References  N  2  N N  1 1 1 1 3 1 1 5 1 4 5 1  + + + + + +  + +  27  139 (1)  the Vancouver S o c i a l Information Station  (2)  the  (3)  the v a r i e t y o fusers o f the l i b r a r y "residents o f t h e d o w n t o w n a r e a ' s ' n o t - s o - n i c e ' h o t e l s who f o r many y e a r s h a d b e e n i s o l a t e d f r o m V a n c o u v e r ' s new s e r v i c e s , s e n i o r c i t i z e n s a t t r a c t e d t o t h e f o r m a l i t y y and c o r r e c t n e s s o f t h e l i b r a r y , s i n g l e s from the n e a r b y West End's ' b a c h e l o r c i t y ' h i g h r i s e s , d r i f t e r s who h a n g a r o u n d l i b r a r i e s " , a n d and r e c e n t i m m i g r a n t s  "strong  Thus,  over  three  transformations:'  the^image  o f the  the  actual building  (2)  the  operations  (3)  the purpose o f the been up-dated. t o these  an eyesore  Department-'.s  o f community"  (1)  According being  time,  sense  Planning  library  has  been  w i t h i n the  both  undergone  replaced have  i n the  library  t o a landmark>  has  library  library  w r i t e r s the  engendered  changed  community  has  changed  i n appearance  has  from and  function. 19.  (18)  Lions  Gate  Tuan suggests utilitarian transition  from  that a "bridge  and one  (1974:199)'  another" symbolism ideal  fact  o f the  Bridge i s simultaneously  a symbol f o r connectness place  t o the  As a case  Brooklyn  from  [sic]or  one  world t o  i n p o i n t he c i t e s  Bridge  o f w e s t w a r d movement and  next,  a s embodying  the  linking  a  the  "the  o fEast  American and  16 West, and Several •into  the  peaceful mastery  o fnature"  c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s combined  (ibid.)  t o t u r n the  bridge  a symbolc? i n c l u d i n g : (1) the e x t r a o r d i n a r y p h y s i c a l dimensions bridge f o r that time p e r i o d  o f the  140  Lions  (2)  the absence o f skycrapers i n the area which would reduce the v i s u a l e f f e c t of the bridge on t h e s k y l i n e  (3)  immediate heavy  (4)  legends surrounding philosophies!)  (5)  "the a t t e n d a n c e o f t h e o p e n i n g c e r e m o n i e s b y a n i m p o r t a n t p u b l i c f i g u r e ( t h e U.S.A. P r e s i d e n t )  Four  of these  Gate Bridge  meanings  into  on t h e b r i d g e  the architect  f a c t o r s have  constructed  a symbol,  operated although  f o r i ta r e d i f f e r e n t  (and h i s Hegelian  to transform the the specific (Table  The f i r s t a r t i c l e t o m e n t i o n t h e b r i d g e was w r i t t e n i n 1940, a n d c a l l e d i t a i l h i g h l e v e l suspension bridge that h a s one o f t h e l o n g e s t s p a n s i n t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e " (#30:45).  (2)  The i m m e d i a t e v i s u a l b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e b r i d g e i s n o t t h e downtown s k y s c r a p e r s b u t t h e ocean and t h e m o u n t a i n s . I t i s a "superb l a t t i c e o f s t e e l cables, etched against a mountain backd r o p " (#43:69).  (3)  I n 1937 t h e b r i d g e w a s d e s i g n e d w i t h t w o l a n e s , but continued heavy t r a f f i c r e s u l t e d i n i t s widening to three lanes. A s l a t e a s 1976, however, a r t i c l e s s t i l l described the bridge as b e i n g " t r a f f i c - j a m m e d " (#170:70).  (4)  A l t h o u g h t h e r e w e r e no l e g e n d s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the a r c h i t e c t , s e v e r a l a r t i c l e s described the s t o r y o f t h e b r i d g e ' s c r e a t i o n by powerful Engl i s h c a p i t a l i s t s ( t h eGuiness f a m i l y ) .  the case  to  the mountains "East  of the Lions through  Gate B r i d g e ,  connecting  t h e suburbs,  the symbolism i s  t o West" b u t "South t o N o r t h " ,  "urban t o non-urban".  sents  t e c h n o l o g i c a l achievement combined w i t h  pleasure,  as evidenced  festoon  connection"  of wires" (#53:15)-  the city  and by e x t r a p o l a -  tion,  lacy  36):  (1)  In  not  traffic  Certainly the bridge  aesthetic  by t h e use of such phrases (#163:94) a n d " a h i g h  repre-  as "a  and l a c y  Other p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , h .  141  TABLE Images  Image  Lions  Gate  Bridge  Sign  Image  No.  1  of  36'  element only graphed  named  or  photo-  No. of References  N  15  25 "  beautiful  +  4  26  h i s t o r i c a l  +  2  27  high  +  2  28  American  N  1  35  booming  +  2  46  .efficient  +  1  Total  7  status  images  27  however, "be  were  speculated  constructed, of  upon  to,  here.  the bridge  the B r i t i s h  continue the  only inferred  the  literature,  F i r s t l y ,  on a broad  may have  Empire.  between  of  the North  Shore  residents  are able  associated  with  l i v i n g ,  to  i t s  of  the Lions  i t  as  2 0.  amenities.  a  Gate  The  Grouse  the  landmark  in  when  omnipotence  may have By  and  constructing  and downtown, away  s t i l l  from  have  literature  the  easy  the numerous  the  scale,  only  B r i t i s h problems  access  photographs  help  to  establish  city.  Mountain  images  37).  i n  e l i t e s .  live  yet  any r a t e ,  Bridge  significant  (14)  (Table  At  to  a n d may  the  the bridge  the power  Properties  city  confirmed  Secondly,  symbolize  connection  i n  of  The  this  place  following  i s  were a  few and rather  typical  simplistic  comment:'  V a n c o u v e r i t e s go t o s k i a n d t o u r i s t s t a k e t h e s k y r i d e up f o r l u n c h and a n o t h e r one o f t h o s e "beautiful views" (#161:108). The  one n e g a t i v e  "crude  chalet"  ticated citizens  The tensive 38  l i s t s  images.  comment,  at  complex, soar"  the  including  1954,  i n  (#47:168). a  referred  Today  "restaurant  to  i t  i s  which  to  a  the  sophis-  dressy  (#127:50).  remaining treatment these  top  written  forty-two by  elements  many w r i t e r s .  elements  and very  did not receive  Accordingly,  b r i e f l y  ex-  Table  summarizes  their  143  TABLE  37  Images o f Grouse  Image  Mountain  Image  No.  Sign  No. o f References  1  e l e m e n t o n l y named o r p h o t o graphed  N  &  5  for  +  7  exciting  +  3  25  beautiful  +  2  26  historical  +  1  31  underdeveloped  -  1  32  civilized  +  3  • 12  Total  7  physical  images  recreation  25  TABLE Summary  of  the  Images  38 for  Elements  Element 21.  (62)  #21-62  Images  Fisherman's  Market  --exciting,  colourful  22. (27)  B r i t i s h Properties and West Vancouver  --high-status, high-amenity place of residence and recreation  23. (10)  Marine  --mild,  2 4 , (15)  Hotel  Climate Vancouver  25«(26) V a n c o u v e r Aquarium 26.(37)  Public  wet,  often  —established, --innovative,  --innovative programs  S.F.U.  c i v i l i z e d highly-acclaimed  architecture,  --educational, architecture  innovative  27. (36)  MacMillan etarium  2 8 . (16)  Queen Elizabeth Theatre  - - l a r g e , modern, s i a l acoustics  29. (20)  P o l i t i c s  - - a c i t y of activism, external  30.(19) M u n i c i p a l  Plan-  Services  32. (29)  Robsonstrasse West  33.(45) C i t y  •v. (25}  Howe  controver-  p o l i t i c a l unrest, antipathy to intervention  --innovative operations used by F i r e Department, Vehicle Inspectors, Parking Corp., City Vehicles Department; rampant c o r r u p t i o n i n the police force during the  1940's a n d 31. ( 2 8 )  foggy  --European  1950's  flavour  End  - - r e s i d e n t i a l area of high s t a t u s , once w i t h a l l single - f a m i l y d e t a c h e d homes b u t now w i t h l u x u r y highrises oriented^towards "swinging singles"  Hall  - - u n t i l 1951, v i e w e d a s a d i g ? : n i f i e d monument t o thjgcity; no m e n t i o n a f t e r 1951  Sound  end.  .  ..continued  145 TABLE  38  (continued)  Images  Element  34.(25) Howe  Sound and Royal Hudson Train  35.(33) V a n c o u v e r ' s 36.(23) A l l  CBD  Mayors  - - a beautiful recreationaarea f e a t u r i n g an e x c i t i n g , nostalgic train excursion --controversial,  high-profile  - - h i g h - s t a t u s , c i v i l i z e d  Hotels  37-(30) S k y l i n e  - - p r i m a r i l y photographs of the downtown s k y l i n e from across E n g l i s h Bay or Burrard Inlet  38.(35) A r t  --innovative,  Galleries  39.(55) L y n n  --natural, for recreation  Canyon  40.(39) Mount  Seymour Cypress  Mount  acclaimed  and  physical  - - w e l l - d e v e l o p e d s k i i n g and hiking f a c i l i t i e s ; scenic  41.(49) Van Dusen  Botanical  --educational  42.(54) Vancouver  CPR  - - a n i m p o s i n g monument; mention after 1927  Gardens  Train  Station  43.(34) D a n c e  and  Theatre  44.(43) C e n t e n n i a l 45.(38) M a r i t i m e 46.(46)  Vancouver national  47.(48)  CBD  Museum  Museum  InterAirport  Entertainment  48.(44) Japantown  49.(47) O l d  Hastings Museum  --enthusiastic,  no  growing  --educational --educational; exhibits - - e f f i c i e n t ,  historic  beautiful  - - e x c i t i n g , cosmopolitan although very conservative b e f o r e WW II --authentic, picturesque not as prosperous as Chinatown  M i l l  - - h i s t o r i c a l  continued  but  146 T A B L E 38 ( c o n t i n u e d )  Element 50.(40) E n g l i s h  51.(41) Q u e e n  Images  Bay  Beaches  Elizabeth  --site of f i r s t locomotive t o r e a c h V a n c o u v e r ; many photographs --primarily  photographs  Park  52.(42) S h a u g h n e s s y  --high area  53.(57) Y a l e t o w n  --an " O f f i c e Space v e r s i o n of Gastown"(#176:13)  54.(59) C a n a d i a n Chapel  55.(56)  Deep  56.(52) C i t y  Memorial  status  residential  ==an a r c h i t e c t u r a l to peace  memorial  Cove  --for water-oriented recreation  Museum  --educational  physical  57.(61) K i t s i l a n o  --a one-time " v e r s i o n o f H a i g h t - A s h b u r y "(#176:17)  58.(50) F a l s e C r e e k R e s i d e n t i a l Development  --primarily  59.(51) H o t e l  --not q u i t e as e l e g a n t as Hotel Vancouver  Georgia  60.(53) B l o e d e l tory 61. (58) S e a  Conserva-  Festival  62.(60) L i g h t h o u s e  Park  photographs  --educational --a w a t e r - o r i e n t e d event --photograph  special  147 3-3  Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n s  3-3.1  The C o m p o s i t e  Image  Figure 4 illustrates Vancouver  as d e r i v e d from  composite  portrayal  tion  were in  capsule  of specific  images  elements  i n Table  17?  much r i c h e r  a n d (2) o f T a b l e  images  i t i s seen  i s radically different  that  c o n c e p t u a l i z e d Vancouver  for  example.  the  larger  they  thoughts  up h e r s k i r t s " ,  However, whether  is  cities  be a matter  inherently  a n d "The L o s A n g e l e s when w r i t e r s  often personify ordered  or not certain  more c o n d u c i v e  r e a l l y a matter  elements of expedif o r catch o f Canada",  are thinking  the city  and coherent  "Vancouver  --  i s a friendly attributes  -analysis.  at  i n order "Vancouver city".  of urban  t o c a p s u l e images than  for. . l i n g u i s t i c  when  i n its' entirety  s p e c i f i c landscape  Alternatively,  scale,  keep t h e i r  lifts  are  i m a g e s came t o m i n d  This could merely  -- A m e r i c a n  Vancouver  approaches.  i f some i m a g e s p r o v i d e a p p r o p r i a t e t o p i c s  phrases  to  different  there  the ranking of the  f o r t h e two  journalists  ency  that  o f columns  the  the city.  note  by inspection  i s that  within  from the  data i s  implication  about  different  of the entire  The  t h a n when t h e y w r o t e  t h e combina-  images p r e s e n t i n g  Secondly,  39,  Is the  from  Firstly,  w h i l e t h e imagery  ( T a b l e 39)•  image o f  data.  resulting  o n l y twenty-ndne d i f f e r e n t  i t s entirety,  (1)  the periodicals  o f Vancouver  o f t h e images  city's  the general composite  areas others  Figure General  4  Images of  from  Vancouver  Periodicals  TABLE 39 Summary o f Images (3) (1) (2) Rank Rank Image No. in Table 17 18 11 1 10 3 13 8 2 16 10 5  27 35 25 37 34 26 16 12 32 5  11 12 13 14 15  12 9  16 17 18 19  8  30 41 42 36 28 23 29 43 33 39 40 13  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10  6 4  7 15 16  (4) Image  element o n l y named o r photographed high status booming beautiful large innovative historical cosmopolitan exciting civilized f o r p h y s i c a l recreation undeveloped humanitarian high quality conservative American enthusiastic British low q u a l i t y young depressing picturesque educational  (5) Sign  N + + + + + + + + + + + + + N N + N N + +  (6) Decade 00 10 20 30 40 50 6o 70  -- -2 1 3 2 1  2 5 1 2 3  1  —  2  1  —  1  Refs.  10 16 68 93  106*  Total Refs.  83  189  48 46 38 38 44 45 36 45 39 20  72 57 56 57 44 49* 43 49* 19 47*  75 75 61 51 62 31 37 29 50* 18  147 132 117 108 106 80 80 78 69 65  4 4 2 3 4 6 7 7 3 4 3 1  15 8 15 10 9 19 12 11 7 4 5 9  25 18 24 18 9 10 7 12 12 12 10 14  24 10 10 12 8 12 18 2 6 9 10 24*  32 42* 35* 30* 29* 25 17 30* 25* 15 14  56 52 45 42 37 37 35 32 31 24 24 24  1  _— _— 1 1 — 1  V  54 31 43 37 37 21 26 24 12 31  — —1 — _ —2 2 — 10 1  Q  (7) NonTravel Refs.  7 3 9 22 5 10 16 18 2 n 11 88 3 5 8 13 4 9 8 3 1 3 7 2 4 11 4 5 1 4 2 8 3 11 4 8  11 1  l  Travel  2  3 9 2 1 2 2 2 2 5 3 1  4 4 1 8 1  — 5 2 1 2  —  .... c o n t i n u e d  TABLE (1) Rank  20  39  (2) Rank in Table 17 14  10  21  —  (continued) (3) Image No.  31 18  7 6  22  --  23  18 11  17  — —  14  17  19  22-4  25 26  18  27 28  29 30 31 32 33 34  35  —  3  2  21  • 17  44 24  18  20  — — : 17  — — 17  8  9  46 38  15 22 45 47 10 11  (4) Image  underdeveloped criminal dining s h o p p i n g and gallery-touring colour or lights "undesirably" cosmopolitan sound intriguing radical d i s l i k e of external intervention authentic peopled by hippies rambunctious special events family-oriented efficient small entertaining apathetic inauthentic monopoly-dominated free admission too expensive  (5) Sign  (6)  -1-  -+  1  4  7 7  + N —  N +  -  —  --8 —  1  — —  —  j_ _  ~  1  --1 --- --  1  3  N +  -  3  3 16  9  3 5 12 11  18* 16* 8  4  11 11*  15  6 4 11*  14 12 11 11  7  21 21 20 18  4  2  ~• —  3  2  4  2  5 10  8 8  2  5 3  --2  3 3  4 7  8  2  5  5  10 10  1  3 4 4 4  2  7 4  9 9  3 1  --2  1  2  1  1  1 1  4  2  1 1  1  -- --  17  Total Refs.  1 1  5  1  6  7 6 4 1  (7) NonTravel Refs.  --2  1  + + + + + + N +  Travel Refs.  i)ecade 00 10 20 30 40 50 6 o 70  -- --  2  3 3  1  2  5 8  —  2  5 4  1 5  — —  3  9  — 4  3v 2  2 1  2  1 -1  1 .  —  —  ...continued  14  8 7 5 5 4 3  2 2 1  TABLE  '• ( 1 ) Rank  39  (2) Rank in Table  (continued)  (4) Image  (3) Image No.  (6) Decade  (5)  Sign  00  10  20  30 40 50 60 70  Travel Refs.,  (7) NonTravel Refs.  Total Refs.  17 48  35  — Total  Chi-square  4  symbolic of n a ture over civi l i z a t i o n odours (food) 48  significant  1  1  1  --  1  31 17 51 8 1 1 2 2 2 0 4 777 561  841  1003  1844  1  N  images  s t a t i s t i c  __  +  at  at  least  oC =  0.10  (see  Appendix  1  F)  153 3-3.2  Changes Over Time How w a s t h e t o t a l  time  by these  presented ful,  (column 6 o f Table  image : o f t h e c i t y  writers?  The f i r s t  Vancouver as a h i g h  time  so, c i v i l i z e d ,  status city,  picturesque, Curiously  undeveloped,  radical,  constructed  period  large/small, innovative, cosmopolitan  ably"  39)  (1907-9)  booming, b e a u t i but also  humanitarian,  and d i s l i k i n g  external  intervention.  ( t o t h e contemporary r e a d e r ) , t h e most  strife,  considered based  ignorance as  popular f o rim-  "undesirable" by Vancouverites.  partly  on economic  of the l i f e  styles  Racial  g r o u n d s , b u t a l s o o n WASP  of other  cultures,  was  seen  a key feature of Vancouver. It  may b e s u g g e s t e d ,  compatible  i n fact,  with a frontier  that this  attitude.  situation i s  At the turn of the  c e n t u r y , ' V a n c o u v e r was o n l y a b o u t t w e n t y y e a r s the  city  influx they  residents' livelihood  o f "cheap" l a b o u r ,  would  ethic, to  "undesir-  young,  r e f e r e n c e was t h a t V a n c o u v e r was a d u m p i n g g r o u n d migrants  over  oust  ver's  "survival  When  by an that  of the f i t t e s t "  f o r economic and non-economic  reasons  the intruders.  During quality"  became t h r e a t e n e d  i ti s not too surprising  t u r n to the rugged  and search  old.  t h e second  and " B r i t i s h "  portrait,  with  t e n years  of the century,  characteristics  "high  were added  t h e boom-town image b e i n g  t o Vancou-  prominent.  V a n c o u v e r was o n i t s way up. In and  t h e 1920's, w r i t e r s b e g a n t o i n c l u d e  j u s t m e n t i o n names o f l a n d s c a p e  counts,  thereby  building  a visual  elements  photographs i n their ac-  image o f t h e c i t y .  154 Also,  the writers  "colour  or lights",  images.  During  were v e r y North  positive  along with  c i t i e s during the "Roaring  Twenties".  of the Depression,  o f images were  seemed t h a t t h o u g h  problems  While  differ-  were  added,  crime,  and  apathy. of  c o u l d n o t evade t h e p r e s s i n g  urban  itsstill  Nevertheless,  and perhaps  the writers  used  tor e -  images o f  beauty p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y t h e most d u r i n g t h e " D i r t y t h e 1940's, o n l y  most  Although  important,  feriority"  the growth the concept  appeared  Strauss least,  three  images  of "progress",  past"  (1961:19).  access  a city's  are  both  lying  these  (ibid.). lished  high  t w o new a d d i t i o n a l  Thirties".  images  image o f V a n c o u v e r a g a i n of the city's  that  was  "primitive i n -  i n American urban  of symbolic  time  concepts  the "frontier",  He n o t e s  imagery a t prevail  financial  assessments  t h a t when imageSmakers a c c u r a t e l y  and s o c i a l  consequences.  a r e three models  of continuous  expansion  there  Under-  of urban  The " g r o w t h " model assumes t h a t a c i t y path  --  and t h e " r e g i o n a l  c u r r e n t s t a t u s and f u t u r e p r o s p e c t s ,  on a l i n e a r  were  i n the a r t i c l e s .  suggests types  elenents  t h e c i t y m i g h t be on t h e f r i n g e  deem t h e i m a g e o f V a n c o u v e r ,  added.  other  Suddenly Vancouver had  depression,  of the times.  During  places  "sound" and t h e  and rambunction  images.  ements o f l o w q u a l i t y ,  however, v e r y  introduced.  images o f enthusiasm  civilization,  stock of  period comparisons w i t h American  so were f o u r n e g a t i v e  It  to their  V a n c o u v e r was g r o w i n g  the years  kinds  "historical", "conservative",  and " i n t r i g u i n g "  this  popular.  American In  ent  added  change i s estab-  or  155 contraction.  This  any  the  aspect  cuss  --  spirit  of  g r o w t h may city  population, are  were o f t e n quality  t h a t an  terrain,  commonly u s e d  of Vancouver,  cultural  s e e n as  expected  be  as  measured  culture, quality, growth  "backward" city  --  of  and  not  the  population  cycle  A  city  "old  will  age",  "reborn"  the  third that in a  and  with  maker can to  be  the  city  the  that  sense  model  Vancouver, but  "death",  the  future  with  the  model  order  i s used  experience  At  city's  life  of  and  an  the  cyclical  that  change  is  of an  "maturity , 1  then w i l l  be  the  link  imagei t  Finally,tthe  change,  or  cycli-  organism.  "youth",  city.  assumes  the  change  discovery  the  i t does not  very  of Strauss  offer  model p r o v i d e s . the  arts,  The  " i n s t a n t " company towns. since  case  the  discontinuous  immigrants  i n d e s c r i p t i o n s of after  the  size.  h i s t o r y and  abrupt,  i s rare  the  In  a l l times  " d i s j u n c t i o n " model of  as  this  of  to  t o a wave of  resource  states  even  experiences  s t a t u s due new  and  then  life  "personality".  r e f e r back  model,  and  perhaps a new  present  the  "born"  the  civic  conforming to  cal,  analogy with  dis-  e s p e c i a l l y the  that  an  or  indicators.  "development" model, however, assumes drawing  of  image-maker w i s h e s to  facilities,  for a  i n terms  This  beginnings  of  " g r o w t h " m o d e l seems t o  be  preferred. In  the  194-0 * §  characteristic "spurious  a  city.  s t r u c t u r e " of  structure", thing  of  " a u t h e n t i c i t y " was MacCannell  He  suggests  as  a  that  a  society, i n contrast to a  f o r c e s modern p e o p l e  (1976:147).  introduced  describes  to this  search  f o r the  s t r u c t u r e as  valued  "genuine "real" being a l l  1  156 the  elements  i n everyday  "genuine"  cultural  (ibid.).  According  bought,  life  elements to  not  be  his  point  he  states  Mona L i s a  or  Independence  Unfortunately uine  sold,  his  he  culture". be  for sale,  not  be  i n the  subsidized sponsored  any  MacCannell s  seems  to  1  stretch  valuing likes them by  as  feel  "truth"  others.  On  i n an  liable  to  Thirdly,  result belief  is His  of  Chinese image  istics  of  are  the  he  food  the  not  give  convincing  while  the  inherent  for sale"  examples  reason  the  (p.  Mona L i s a  157)'  of  "gen-  may  why  not  i t  may  than  in a  a  that  thesis but  even memories  just  too  "spurious"  more u s e f u l e x p l a n a t i o n in basic told  human n a t u r e .  lies,  because  Lowenthal  hand,  historicity,  or  or  to  i s served,  he  not the  one accepts  "stupid"  suggests  that  our  (1975*18).  also reduce  the  not  "cognitive  is dining  i s assured  will  i s e a t i n g and  No  authenticity, is  Vancouver and  for  i f he  even  aesthetic pleasure  restaurants  1950's,  are  fee?  far.  other  are  privately-  s u b s t a n t i a l admission  "naive"  he  as  "authentic"  i n " a u t h e n t i c i t y may  o f what  During  Hall  When a v i s i t o r  food  prove  more  i n sheer  Chinatown's  to  a t t r a c t i o n s such  is labelled  object's  dissonance". one  the  and  can  government-  i s being he  "genuine".culture  inaa  simpler  he  commercialization  experiences  authenticity lies  to  faith  a  from  Are  notion  the  separated  distributed,  "True  i s no  charging  Also,  or  example,  future.  museum  Perhaps  to  there  museum  thesis,  flatly,  For  now  through  traded  fails  t h a t become  that  feel  actual  in i t really  confused. character-  contradictory. era  of  the  post-war  Baby  Boom,  157 it  i s not  surprising  that  two  new  images  "family-oriented"  and  "educational"!  of  the  e a r l y monopoly  efficiency  and  railroad  barons were added.  the  during  a  city  competitive The  call  frivolous and  ment, and  d e c a d e was  Sixties"  Also, descriptions of Vancouver hy  most numerous high  status,  the  image  of  reflecting  i n t r o d u c e d w h a t some  images t h a t r e v o l v e  gallery-touring,  free admission.  man!"  were  attitude.  "Swinging  shopping  out,  this  The  introduced  around  special  leisure  events,  The  use  increased,  and  high  --  of photographs  of  places  status continued  t o be  dining,  entertain-  Images of V a n c o u v e r as  mecca f o r h i p p i e s a l s o suddenly  articles.  might  a "far,  appeared  in  i n the  city  the  the  most  popu-  images  of  lar description. The food --  articles  odours  i n the  inauthenticity  naming  continue  images  of  status", ting".  the  a  quest  gress  city.  failures  ( i n favour  of  high  Other  and  suggests  of  the  of a  longing for  expense.  negative  five  and  and  "high and  "exci-  possible explanations  present,  represent  an  model  the  an  "play f o r the  identity,  can  place-  word a s s o c i a t i o n  past  visit  --  for  escape  affluent",  attack against  of  'natural' order"  people  and  images are  I t may  cyclical  qualities  Photographs  important  t h a t a r e t u r n to  "country"  two  "innovative", "historical",  for stability  even claims kind  and  i n modern s o c i e t y .  "atavistic  decade added  to r e i n f o r c e v i s u a l  Lowenthal  the  present  downtown a r e a  "booming",  nostalgia from  i n the  change), (1975:5)'  has an  or  an He  even become expression  pro-  of  a  158 the  fourth dimension Several  these  Firstly, groups "old" End  i n images  their  image.  district  the area  associated  with  realize  confused  buildings  not L  this  this  port  type  image,  c h a n g e s o much  "there  Secondly, changes  high-status,  of living.  Thus,  a visitor  outdoors,  been suggested  the  such  The G r a n d H o t e l  the e n t i r e time  Also,  data  fea-  demolr-she  s e t have  period.  I n t h e case  and  fashions  of Vancouver,  t h e development o f the c i t y ' s  a s m a l l , rough and p a r o c h i a l  repu-  industrial  t o an urbane,  paradoxically o f f e r i n g the pleasures  that  would  initial  completely.  images.  "natural"  that are  (1962:37)-  i n city  city  Today,  sugges.it, w i t h  i n attitudes, values,  mopolitan  of high  i s no p l a c e "  of the century  an  but dominated  the l i f e - s t y l e s  shifts,  at the beginning  ifications  i t was a n a r e a  of the "attractions" i n this  from being  using  i n t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n has been long  has traced  that  image o f t h e West  As Lyndon e t a l  may b e r e m o v e d  a n d many  study  quite  that  (1976:60).  he was i n t h e West E n d i f he h e l d  existed throughout  tation  suggests  single-family estates.  highrises, with  i n the song  effect  was t h a t  i s s t i l l  image o f t h e a r e a .  ished,  may  F o r example, andearly  some l u x u r y  tured  Relph  i n two ways  conditions  well-landscaped,  however,  a  time.  plausibility  environmental  residential  not  over  to effect  and i n d i v i d u a l s cannot f u n c t i o n p r o p e r l y  status,  by  19750)-  f a c t o r s may h a v e b e e n i n o p e r a t i o n  changes  images l o s e  (Lowenthal,  cosof the  w i t h i n :nminutes o f downtown. . I t h a s these  c h a n g e s may b e r e l a t e d t o mod-  of our conception  o f what a c i t y  should  be.  159 On a s m a l l e r  scale,  changes  i n the definition  c o n s t i t u t e s an " a t t r a c t i o n " f o r t h e v i s i t o r a  city's  CPR no  image.  Train  Dignified institutions  coverage  i n the a r t i c l e s hand,  current  delights  commercial d i s t r i c t s  of other  Yaletown,  and Japantown.  these  with  places,  Of  these  course,  image-makers'  the c i t y swinging  a  dog?  (Table  interest  a highbrow  i s likely  Gastown,  Even the very  names  "town", become  audiences.  intellectual,  a business  contributed  loaded  revolve  Is the v i s i t o r  of travel articles  t o have  executive,  two k i d s since  to the  and  t h e 1960's increased  i n Vancouver..  39 p r e s e n t s  of articles,  significant  the use o f each  with  a t t h e 0.10  Chi-sq.uare a n a l y s i s use photographs,  '"image b y t h e t w o  sixteen differences level  (Appendix F ) .  place-naming,  non-travel, a r t i c l e s , sight-seeing,  implying  Travel  the non-travel  travel. articles,  with  articles  "historical",  tended  "exciting",  more  than  a tourist's interest i n  nostalgia, thrills,  enrichment through  proving  o r b e t t e r when t e s t e d  " f o r p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n " and " e d u c a t i o n a l "  by  --  i n l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s and' i m a g e s o f " f u n " a n d  Table  to  i n "authentic"  or places  s i n g l e , or a young couple w i t h  entertainment  groups  intended  received  f o r example.  d e f i n i t i o n s of attractions  The b u r g e o n i n g 4)  eras  the suffix  connotations.  a  a  a l l with  nostalgic  around to  Chinatown,  Chapel  a f t e r t h e 1920*s, fashion  influence  such as t h e Vancouver  S t a t i o n and t h e Canadian Memorial  On t h e • o t h e r  of  may  o f what  "play",  Images u s e d however,  and  intellectual  significantly  suggest  reading  more  160 audiences and  that are interested  general This  topics  themes  concurs  i n I96I  count  of subtitle  and Saturday  Post,  conducted  (1961:70).  "can  do" f o r thev i s i t o r .  that  "with rare  ignore  other  matters  this  other  industry, politics, vital  titles." Post  economic  (ibid.).  subtitles  almost  t h i s was n o t t h e case t h e sample  on a r t i c l e  included and perhaps  content  rather  that t h e Saturday  or simply  descriptive sees  them"  I s he i m p l y i n g t h a t t h e P o s t w r i t e r s do n o t  do n o t d e s c r i b e  results The  and s u b j e c t i v i t y ,  of this  economic  study  preceeding  however,  "beautiful", throughout  images were  and s o c i a l  travel  conditions?  Strauss'  contention.  discussion has highlighted the different with  e a c h new d e c a d e .  t h a t t h e images  "large",  the entire  i nsocial  and t h a t  do n o t c o n f i r m  t h a t were presented  noted,  changes  further  newspapers, and  c o n d i t i o n s as t h e author  writers  be  Clearly  are "factual,  selectivity  images  articles  Strauss maintained  exhibit  The  claimed  i naddition to Holiday,  As w e l l ,  or social  emphasized  t o t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f a c i t y and  s e t , perhaps because  magazines  by  and what t h e c i t y  theHoliday  the a n a l y s i s focused  Evening of  data  travel  because than  subtitles  However, S t r a u s s  r e s i d e n t s " (1961:70).  with  Evening  Holiday  exceptions,  completely  its  politics,  i n part w i t h a rough  o f urban f u nand excitement,  such  reviews,  news.  i nHoliday  Strauss  i ncritical  and " c i v i l i z e d " time  values  elicited  "high  period.  with  status",  appeared  "booming",  consistently  I n other words,  e a c h new d e c a d e ,  by thewriters.  I t should  these  despite five  Assuming that t h e  161 writers  d i d not  implication the as  core  here  i s that these  s e e n "by j o u r n a l i s t s .  the  the  these  had  lative  been  of  the  decades,  this  study  through indirect  and  i n f l u e n c e of  the as  of  t h a t the  the  image  exception  remaining  of  cities  the  on  from  experiences  communication.  stock  Thus, as  continue  t o be  the  Luckmann  knowledge"  generation  individuals  t h e mass m e d i a grow,  Vancouver w i l l  of  one  of  and  in  cumu-  In fact,  what Berger  once  again  images are  time.  social  Images,  presented  city  through  i s passed  direct  through  to  and  more p e o p l e images o f  travel cities  embellished.  Conclusion The  images of Vancouver p r e s e n t e d  complex..  social  They seem t o be  values  over  time,  and  vary with  articles.  In g e n e r a l , the  yet  criticisms  of the  lar,  are  city,  also included.  scape  and  element,  beauty, Stanley  and  the  to  t h e r e was  typified  by  images the  changing  purpose  of Vancouverites  Although  Park.  these w r i t e r s  d e s c r i p t i o n s are  consensus, most w r i t e r s emphasized growth,  by  strongly tied  the  and  i t s "true"  t o be  illustrate  "accumulation  the  next  so  discrete  Information  are  the  images c o n s t i t u t e  with  most o f the  (1966).  3-30  --  course,  i n t r o d u c e d , tended  r a t h e r than  results  such  positive  directly,  images a l s o d e s c r i b e most major  also that  following  term  Of  other  world.  Note they  each  d e s c r i p t i o n s of Vancouver  "beautiful", of  communicate w i t h  no  of  positive, in  particu-  complete  o f s t a t u s , boom  most p o p u l a r  land-  162 This around  which  elements gling  thesis  o f Vancouver  two  selected  retain  since  concept  and d e s c r i b e d landscape  status  city",  character.  (1974) s u g g e s t , i n f a c t ,  -- t h e " b e l i e f  strug.-i:<  i n t h e urban  i t s "undeveloped"  that  i n progress" and the " r u r a l  m y t h " -- h a v e b e e n d i m e n s i o n s ular  organizing  has been t h e " f r o n t i e r  and Holdsworth  themes  a basic  i t s "underdeveloped"  and s t i l l  Bottomley  that  many w r i t e r s  t o shed  network  suggests  o f Canadian  thought  the n i n e t e e n t h century, andnthey  i n partic-  use Vancouver  19 as  a case  goods,  i npoint  services,  .  As a p l a c e o f c o n c e n t r a t e d  and people,  the city  the hallmark of c i v i l i z a t i o n . makers  emphasize  business  such  city  i s expected  Consequently  elements  acumen, o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l  activities,  some  t o be image-  as i n d u s t r i a l  development.  On t h e  o t h e r h a n d , a t t h e same t i m e a n d o f t e n b y t h e same society  continues to idealize  created, as  based  Bottomley  virtue"  on t h e i d e a  that  and Holdsworth  ( p . 63).  Nature.  As Wallace  people,  A " r u r a l myth" i s  the agrarian  put i t ,  growth,  lifestyle i s ,  a l l "innocence and  Stegner,  i n h i s memoirs o f  S o u t h e r n .^Saskatchewan , declares: F r o n t i e r s , l i k e w a r s , a r e s a i d t o b r e a k down e s t a b l i s h e d c i v i l i z i n g r e s t r a i n t s and t o encourage d e m o r a l i z a t i o n . T h e y a r e a l s o sometimes s a i d t o engender i n people, by f r e e i n g them from a r t i f i c i a l r e s t r a i n t s and t h r o w i n g them i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h c l e a n n a t u r e , a gene r o s i t y , openness, independence, and courage unknown t o t h e o v e r - c i v i l i z e d (1962:291-2). How c a n t h e s e c o n f l i c t i n g t i o n s h i p s be r e c o n c i l e d ? resulting  city  n o t i o n s o f man-land  I n t h e case  rela-  o f Vancouver, t h e  image seems t o t a k e one o f two f o r m s .  163 While create The  some  -image-makers l a b e l  t h e image  of Vancouver  i ta "primitive as a " c i v i l i z e d  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two i s r e a l l y  sis. growth  While  the "primitive  ethic,  on t h e r u r a l velopment  city"  and t h e " c i v i l i z e d myth, b o t h  i n a relatively  describe young  image  city",  wilderness".  a matter is. based  wilderness" dimensions country.  others  o f empha-  on t h e  image  i s founded  of urban  de-  CHAPTER  4  METHODOLOGY FOR T O U R I S T  duct the  Chapter  1 of this  of both  indirect  social  a  construction of city  come f r o m i n d i r e c t  examine  t h e images  city.  d e s c r i b e d a n image  and d i r e c t  2 and 3 focused  Chapters that  thesis  QUESTIONNAIRE  experience.  as a  pro-  In tracing  images v i a p r i n t e d media,  on t h e c o n t e n t experience.  derived through  o f the type  I t remains, the direct  A c c o r d i n g l y , Chapers 4 and 5 have  o f images  then, t o  experience  of  the following  general objectives:  Since is  (1)  t o a s s e s s t h e images o f t h e c i t y o b t a i n e d t o u r i s t s have v i s i t e d Vancouver.  (2)  t o a s c e r t a i n the information sources t o u r i s t s draw upon i n t h e i r p r e - t r i p i n f o r m a l r e s e a r c h on Vancouver, t e s t i n g f o r trends i n the types o f c i t y images t h e t o u r i s t s a c q u i r e .  (3)  t o examine p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t o u r i s t s and t h e types o f c i t y i m a g e s t h e y c o n s t r u c t . Do s o c i o - e c o n o m i c status, place of residence, previous travel experience, and t o u r i s t i c i n t e n t i o n s o f t o u r i s t s have a n y e f f e c t on t h e i r i m p r e s s i o n s o f V a n c o u v e r ?  research  assumed t h r o u g h o u t  inferred. is  c o n d i t i o n s were  Instead,  to arrive  tourist  experience  conclusions presents  the thrust of this  moulds where  t h e image  used a r e e s p e c i a l l y  o f how t h e w h o l e  of the city.  i n details the f o l l o w i n g 164  of data  design,  crucial  t h a t may b e d r a w n .  a r e t o be  part of the thesis  the major source  information, the research  techniques  controlled, i t  t h a t no c a u s a l c o n n e c t i o n s  a t a general understanding  In any study reported  only loosely  after  This five  i s self-  instruments, and  to the kinds of  chapter, topics:  therefore,  165  4.1  (1)  t h e sample  (2)  the development  (3)  the f i e l d  (4)  the data  (5)  an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s the methodology.  Sample  selection  procedures  followed  p r o c e s s i n g methods  o f a sample  process,  involving  first  I963  of "tourist"  of a specific  The  technical  U.N.  having  the  on I n t e r n a t i o n a l  lomats  visiting  area.  frequency  tourist  Tourism  f o r more  the city  than  from  within The  trips,  i n this  definition  types  officials, such  of tourists  travel  on ex-  conventioneers,  city  def-  t o u r i s m by sub-  Included  however, t h e wideerange  will  definition.  approved by the  1973?99-100).  I n a major  and l e n g t h o f t r i p ,  types  that  T r a v e l and  to national  foreign  that a l l of these  destinations within  and then t h e  on v a c a t i o n b u t a l s o s t u d e n t s  f o r example.  Clearly,  within  a country  (Bryden,  "region" f o r "country".  and other v i s i t i n g  likely  two-step  to return to h i s place of  e x e c u t i v e s on b u s i n e s s  relatives,  study,  a n d n o t "being r e n u m e r a t e d  not only v i s i t o r s  change,  i n this  of "tourist"  can e a s i l y be adapted  stituting  is  definition  country being v i s i t e d "  inition  are  as used  an i n t e n t i o n  permanent r e s i d e n c e  was a  t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an o p e r a t i o n a l  "any n o n - r e s i d e n t  24 h o u r s ,  and s t r e n g t h s of  of tourists  group of t o u r i s t s  Conference  includes  employed  Selection  selection  choice  used  of the questionnaire  The  definition  procedures  dip-  and v i s i t i n g as Vancouver i t will  of travel  mode, a n d  visit'"the intentions,  specific  that i s represented by  h a v e some i n f l u e n c e o h t h e i m a g e s  these each  166 type  acquires.  For  the  to  f o l l o w the d i c t i o n a r y ,  as  "one  during  who  his leisure  "tourist" In for  he  study  because  as  will  of  the  tourists'  the  to Vancouver, groups  type  student  the  industry. 1978,  For a  total  from  Drive  Tours) were  Toronto  not  indeed  o f f e r e d by  daily,  a l l dates  from  package  tourist  city.  season.  As  Far  East study  a  leisure-travellers  the  to  yet the  and  different  in  terms  tourist  e a r l y November  escorted  (excluding the  agents.  Each  or bi-weekly,  one  package  Fly/Drive  the  revealed  of  the  i n the  while major  pack-  of hotels  tourists height  and  in  of these  and  busload  e a c h week d u r i n g  tour  is a "  sixteen tour wholesalers  least  be  package  back-packing  trailer,  were booked, most of  will  the  Certainly this  significant  travel  weekly,  operators  languages.  escorted  excluding  to Vancouver  i n Vancouver received at these  single  seventy-one  collected  ages departed course  of  of  However, t h i s  example, between m i d - J u l y  tours  brochures  close to  drawn from  tourist,  are  "tourist"  comprehensive p i c t u r e of a l l  young f a m i l y w i t h  tours  of  "English-speaking"  of E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g  from a of  a  of  knowledge  as  and  city.  s a m p l e was  specialized  of numbers,  the  group  a  city  "tourist"  definitions  modifier  limited  in that a  of  departing  and  i n c l u d e the  of  decided  1974:529),  operational definition  to achieve  images  Within  of  to  i t was  5).  many A s i a n v i s i t o r s .  attempt  study  conceptual  i n Chapter  researcher's  V a n c o u v e r has  does not  (The  explored  i s unfortunate  this  common-usage d e f i n i t i o n  time.  had  of  f o r pleasure'"(Cohen,  a d d i t i o n , the  this  This  'travels  purposes  of  discussion  from the of  167 the  questionnaire  typically  shop  experiences  i n Vancouver,  the  tour  insight  the c i t y  i s useful,  maligned  of  British  The choice  it  groups  tour  late  in  Toronto tour  greater  much  the tour  barrier  of the seventy-one  constraints  and t h e w r i t e r  groups  Also,  instead  to first  concerns the and  individual  finally, sample, tour  i n the i n -  was n o t p r a c t i c a l  (thetourist  r e t u r n e d from  since  above.  representative  packages  this  Also,  as the departure  mentioned  to study several  However,  groups.  packages,  For a highly  ideal  individual  selection  tour wholesalers,  point  i n Canada t o  i n Toronto, with  the language  i n July).  was e s s e n t i a l  a  as the departure  the choice o f Toronto  and time  October  these  and perhaps  tours  there t o form  from brochures.  in  study  was s e l e c t e d  groups.  each  to budget  them t o  t h a n we h a v e b e e n l e d t o e x p e c t .  s t e p i n t h e sample  have been  from  ventory due  reduce  of specific  would  Perhaps  some o f t h e m , d o a c q u i r e  originate  meeting  second  individual  describes  maintains.  Most o f t h e package  was assumed t h a t  p o i n t would  tourist  will  of v i s i t o r s i n the c i t y .  Columbia  participants it  groups  Ontario,  the tours.  Their  or superficial,  t h e n , t o f o c u s on a l a r g e  groups  Toronto,  stay.  e x p e r i e n c e s may n o t b e a s s u p e r f i c i a l a s  or at least  into  their  however b r i e f as each  tourists  a t home.  stereotype of tour  travellers,  It  effect  and r e l a t i v e s  Also,  these  and d i n e downtown d u r i n g  have a m u l t i p l i e r friends  (Chapter 5)i  results  season  ended  researching  i thad been decided t o  of independent  travellers, i t  obtain p e r m i s s i o n from  the proper  168 authorities  "before  endorsement of B u r e a u was Tour  the  by  The  Greater  obtained,  Co-ordinator  visited  conducting  the  and  tour  result  and  of  this  Vancouver Convention  then  the  Hotel Georgia  the  1978  i t is likely  be  exposed  as  ists  the  variability  staying there.  at  these  two 40).  entire  sample  the  hotels  two  the  as  n e i t h e r the A l s o , the  obtaining  Hotel  the  the  of both  question  status of  the  the  tourrsts desigB  tours,  lowest  wide range of  and  thirteen hotels  highest nor  income  the  Georgia  some  as  would  Since  d e s t i n a t i o n s of Toronto  a fairly  and  the  was  block  at both  CBD.  socio-economic  results  indicated  occupation,  of  s e a s o n ended  t h e r e was  However, o f  i n the brochures  ucation,  i s $37  of  nated  (Table  the  that tourists  the Hotel Vancouver,  had  tourist  same p l a c e s w i t h i n t h e  o f a r o o m f o r two  to  of both  l o c a t e d downtown w i t h i n a  each  $4-9-$65 a t  Visitors  are  of  price  and  H o t e l Vancouver were chosen  Both  the  the  and  operating bases.  to  approval  three-step procedure  that  so  First  groups.  approval before  other,  research.  S e n i o r Management of  official the  the  rates  p r e t e s t and of ages,  respondents  the ed-  (Chapter  5). To factors  summarize, were  i n the  sample  selection,  the  following  controlled:  (1)  the general (leisure)  purpose  (2)  the c u l t u r a l background, to the extent t h a t a l l r e s p o n d e n t s were a b l e t o r e a d and w r i t e E n g l i s h  (3)  the  departure  of  p o i n t of  the  the  tourists'  tours  trip  (Toronto)  TABLE Price in  Range  of  Downtown  40 Hotel  Rooms  Vancouver  Rate  Hotel  quoted  over  the  Couple*  c550-66  Bayshore Century Plaza Travelodge Devonshire Doric-Howe Motor Hotel Four Seasons Georgia Grosvenor Holiday Inn Harbourside Holiday Inn Downtown Hyatt Regency Rembrandt Sheraton Landmark Vancouver  *Prices  per  531- 45 c532- 40 c526 c555-69 c537  <  c5 2 6 - 2 8  542-50 c535 c550-62 c530-60 537 549-65 (  <  telephone,  August  27,  1978  170 (4)  the type of t r a v e l (escorted package tours t r a v e l l i n g by bus, t r a i n , or a combination o f b o t h , p l u s f l i g h t s b e t w e e n hometowns and t r i p o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s )  (5)  "the p l a c e o f a c c o m m o d a t i o n w i t h i n V a n c o u v e r ( H o t e l s G e o r g i a and V a n c o u v e r ) , and, by ext e n s i o n , the tour w h o l e s a l e r s u s i n g each h o t e l (UTL, S u n t o u r s , and H o r i z o n ) a t t h e time.  (6)  the month of the v i s i t to Vancouver (September, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the pre%testo:on  7,  August In  spite  that  the  rowly  these  c o n t r o l s , however,  group l a b e l l e d  defined  labelled a  of  1978).  as  in this  "elderly".  wide range  of  4.2  Pilot  S t u d y and  Background i n d u s t r y was  four  tour wholesalers  ledge test  and  last  a review  (see  i s as  results  indicated  even those  as  v a r i a b l e as results  nar-  the  group  exhibited  a t t i t u d e s amongst the  tour-  5). Questionnaire  obtained and  week o f  questionnaire  criteria  and  information  tour  and  questionnaire  experiences  sampled.(Chapter  the  study,  The  ists  during  "tourist",  the  of was  Appendix  on  during four  June  the  the  Development operations informal  travel  1978.  literature  constructed  on  with  the  interview  agents  Based  of  on  in  the  with  Toronto  this  tourism,  package  knowa  pre-  following  G):  (1)  where p o s s i b l e , items were ordered from the g e n e r a l t o t h e s p e c i f i c , and f r o m t h e n e u t r a l to the most s e n s i t i v e , to maximize the information returned.  (2)  i n order to r e c e i v e the co-operation of both t h e t o u r e s c o r t s and t h e t o u r i s t s t h e m s e l v e s , t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s had t o be f a i r l y s i m p l e and s h o r t . T h i s c r i t e r i o n was b a s e d on t h e assumption t h a t the sample c o n s i s t e d of people who w e r e o n v a c a t i o n a n d t h u s u n l i k e l y t o  171 complete a long, involved questionnaire. Four limi t a t i o n s of the p r e - t e s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e , developed in consequence: (a)  Rather than b e i n g open-ended, most of the questions provided a l i s t of suggested res sponses f o r the respondent to check (/), r e d u c i n g both the e f f o r t of w r i t i n g long r e s p o n s e s and the l e n g t h of time required to complete the questionnaire. To c o m p e n s a t e f o r t h e n e c e s s a r y emphasis on e l i c i t e d responses, however, every question included an "Other" category for volunteered information. A l s o , a l a r g e space was l e f t at the end of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r additional comments.  (b)  Traditionally, such q u a l i t a t i v e information as c i t y images has o f t e n been measured with some t y p e o f m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g . Unfortunately, because this thesis examines the images of t h i r t y - f o u r places within the c i t y , t h e MDS t e c h n i q u e w o u l d have r e s u l t e d i n an e x t r e m e l y l o n g and complex questionnaire. Therefore a two-dimensional c h a r t was c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h a l i s t of image v a r i a b l e s having only dichotomous values ("0"=no check; "l"=check). Furthermore, w i t h the exception of a s k i n g the respondents which sources of i n f o r m a t i o n were the most a n d l e a s t i m p o r t a n t , no a t t e m p t was made to obtain their each question.  ranking  of  the  items  in  (c)  To r e d u c e t h e c o m p l e x i t y a n d l e n g t h o f the questionnaire, the respondents were not r e q u i r e d t o p r o d u c e d r a w i n g s o r s k e t c h maps as i n other s t u d i e s of the image of a city. In l i g h t of the problems inherent i n this technique (see Chapter 2 ) , however, itswas n o t f e l t t h a t t h i s was a s e r i o u s omission, or even d e s i r a b l e except f o r purposes of comparison with other studies.  (d)  The i n v e n t o r y of p l a c e s and i m a g e s i i n the place/matrix (Question 14 o f t h e f i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) was b a s e d p a r t l y on the r e s u l t s of the p e r i o d i c a l s a n a l y s i s (Chapter 3) a n d p a r t l y o n t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e travel brochures collected in Toronto. However, i n keeping w i t h the c r i t e r i a of b r e v i t y and s i m p l i c i t y , n o t a l l o f t h e p l a c e s and images c o u l d be l i s t e d . Furthermore, the images had to be e n c a p s u l i z e d as b e s t as p o s s i b l e ,  172 (  :  and some n e g a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s i n c l u d e d t o " b a l a n c e " t h e l i s t even though they were n o t the most f r e q u e n t l y - m e n t i o n e d i n the p e r i o d i c a l s or brochures.  The r e s u l t i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e  (Appendix H) c o n t a i n e d  on t h e t o p i c s i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 41.  questions  Because t h e p r e - t e s t  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was changed so l i t t l e , i t s r e s u l t s were i n c l u d e d i n t h e f i n a l sample, w i t h t h e place/image m a t r i x d a t a coded as " m i s s i n g " . 4.3  F i e l d Procedures A t each h o t e l t h e l i a i s o n w i t h t h e t o u r groups was t h e  Tour G o - o r d i n a t o r , accommodation  who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o r g a n i z i n g  and e n s u r i n g t h a t arrangements r a n smoothly  w i t h each group.  Each C o - o r d i n a t o r  s u p p l i e d a l i s t of  expected t o u r groups, a r r i v a l t i m e s , and names o f e s c o r t s . A t t h e H o t e l Vancouver t h e C o - o r d i n a t o r p r e f e r r e d t o c o n t a c t the e s c o r t s h e r s e l f and hand t h e b l a n k q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o them, whouwould i n t u r n d i s t r i b u t e them t o t h e t o u r members i n t h e i r h o t e l rooms.  The r e s p o n d e n t s would complete t h e  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a t t h e i r l e i s u r e and r e t u r n them t o a box i n t h e l o b b y o f t h e h o t e l b e f o r e they l e f t Vancouver.  At  t h e H o t e l G e o r g i a t h e e s c o r t s were c o n t a c t e d by t h e w r i t e r , shown t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e and asked i f they would d i s t r i b u t e the forms t o a l l group members b e f o r e l e a v i n g Vancouver.  The  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e t u r n e d t o t h e e s c o r t s who l e f t them a t t h e h o t e l f r o n t desk f o r c o l l e c t i o n . All Question  e s c o r t s were asked t o complete a q u e s t i o n n a i r e and 11 i n p a r t i c u l a r so t h e r e would be some " o b j e c t i v e "  i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e p l a c e s a c t u a l l y v i s i t e d by each group.  173  TABLE Topic in  the  of  Each  Final  41 Question  Questionnaire  Question Number(s) I , 2,3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 I I , 12 13 14 15 16-20 21  --to identify tour group - - p l a c e of r e s i d e n c e --previous travel experience - - a t t i t u d e s towards tour group travel - - c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n of a s p e c i f i c tour - - l e i s u r e travel intentions - - f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g a d e c i s i o n to v i s i t Vancouver - - i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s acknowledged by respondent --experiences in Vancouver - - r a n g e of " f r e e time" t r a v e l i n Vancouver --place/image matrix - - b e n e f i t of v i s i t to Vancouver - - s o c i o - e c o n o m i c status of respondent - - a d d i t i o n a l v o l u n t e e r e d comments  174  A l s o , f o r each group t h e t o t a l number of p a r t i c i p a n t s was o b t a i n e d , and t h e weather d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f t h e i r  visit  n o t e d t o account f o r s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s on t h e c i t y images. Not a l l e s c o r t e d t o u r s a r r i v i n g a t b o t h h o t e l s were used I n t h e sample because o f s e v e r a l c o m p l i c a t i o n s i n t h e f i e l d procedures.  F i r s t l y , t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n depended  n o t o n l y on t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l respondents but a l s o of the tour e s c o r t s .  Several escorts forgot to  d i s t r i b u t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , and s e v e r a l o t h e r s  refused  t o p a r t i c i p a t e because o f problems t h e y had been h a v i n g  with  the t o u r members p r i o r t o t h e i r a r r i v a l i n Vancouver. Only one e s c o r t , however, r e f u s e d on t h e grounds t h a t any q u e s t i o n n a i r e would i n c o n v e n i e n c e  the t o u r i s t s .  In general,  most e s c o r t s were v e r y w i l l i n g t o h e l p and seemed q u i t e i n t e r e s t e d i n the research.  S e c o n d l y , some c o n f u s i o n  arose o c c a s i o n a l l y i n t h e p r o c e s s escorts a t the H o t e l Georgia,  of f i r s t c o n t a c t i n g the  s i n c e t h e a r r i v a l times were  o n l y e s t i m a t i o n s , and t h e r e were o f t e n " l a s t - m i n u t e " changes. The  i d e n t i f y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e f i n a l sample  are i n d i c a t e d i n Table 42. 4.4  D a t a P r o c e s s i n g Methods The r e s p o n s e s f o r Q u e s t i o n s 4 t h r o u g h 14 and 16 through  20 were coded i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r computer f i l e s .  Questions  15 and 21 were o m i t t e d from t h e computer a n a l y s e s  except  to note whether o r n o t a comment was made.  The responses  t o these two q u e s t i o n s and a l l comments made i n t h e c a t e g o r i e s l a b e l l e d "Other" were c o l l a t e d by hand.  Several  TABLE 42 I d e n t i f y i n g C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f F i n a l Sample Tour H o t e l * A r r i v a l Weather f o r Three Days W h o l e s a l e r and Package Tour size Date 1  2  1  Thurs., -showers,cool,humid  Aug.31, - r a i n , c o o l  Returns No.  Escort Return  UTL--"Summertime Spect a c u l a r "by Motorcoach and R a i l "  25**  17 68.0  Yes  1978  -rain,cool -rain,cool -sunny.warm -rain.warm  UTL--"The O v e r l a n d e r Tour"  15  11  73.3  Yes  Sept.9  -rain,cool -sunny.warm -rain,warm  Suntours--"Canada West"  32  18 56.3  Yes  1  3  1  4  1  -rain,cool Wed. , Sept.13 - r a i n , c o o l -sun i n d a y , r a i n a t n i g h t , v e r y windy  UTL--"The E x p l o r e r Tour"  35  13 37.1  Yes  5  1  Thurs., -showers,cool.Thunder i n afternoon Sept.14 -sun i n day, r a i n a t n i g h t , v e r y windy -showers,cool  UTL--"The O v e r l a n d e r Tour"  31  16  Yes  6  2  Horizon--"West by -sun i n d a y , r a i n a t Fri. , Rail" Sept.15 n i g h t , v e r y windy -showers,cool.Thunder i n afternoon -sunny,clear,cool,wind  30  20 66.7  ScL"t • j  Sept.9  51.6  . . ..continued  No  TABLE  42  (continued)  Three  and  Package Tour Returns S i z e ' ^No.  Return Escort  Arrival Date  Weather  7  1  Tues., Sept.19  -sunny,cool,clouds -rain,cool,windy -rain,cool  UTL--"The Tour"  Overlander  25  16 64. 0  No  8  1  Wed. , Sept.20  -rain,cool,windy -rain,cool -rain,cool,clearing in afternoon  UTL--"The Tour"  Explorer  45  20 44.4  Yes  9  1  Thurs., Sept.21  -rain,cool -rain,cool,clearing in afternoon -showers,overcast, cool  UTL—"The Tour"  Overlander  28  19 67.9  No  10  1  -showers,overcast, cool -overcast,cool -sunny,warm  UTL--"The Tour"  Overlanders  26  23 88.5  Yes  27  18 66.7  No  29  15 51.7  No  Sept.23  for  Days W h o l e s a l e r  Hotel*  Tour  %  11  2  Wed. , Sept.20  -rain,cool,windy -rain,cool -rain,cool,clearing in afternoon  Horizon--"Rockies Pacific Circle"  12  1  Sun. , Aug. 6  -warm,cloudy -sunny,very warm -sunny in AM,cloudy in PM.,hot  UTL—"The Tour"  Total *1= Ho t e l  Georgia;  2=  Hotel  Vancouver  and  Canadian  **Includes  escorts  348  206  xn  tota  59.2  7  by  177 new  variables  sponses in  the  were  to each "Other"  grouped become  with  created that  question.  "University  "Post-Secondary"  The  F i n a l l y , the responses  d a t a s e t was  or College"  education.  partitioned  into  two  files.  with  N=206, c o n t a i n e d a l l i n f o r m a t i o n  naire,  with  each  a  cell  d e s i g n a t e d as  complete  file  list  consisted  place/image considered  i n the place/image  a separate variable.  of a l lv a r i a b l e s only  of the  matrix.  Each  each  case.  the  matrix, this  and  Thus, because second  file  i n the  Appendix  information  file.  question-  G presents The  second  contained i n the  seventeen  images  the p l a c e s as 175  The  matrix (Question  in this  of the  a separate case  for  and  category, to  first,  14)  falling  c a t e g o r y f o r e d u c a t i o n were recoded  the  resyo^^et.-;  summed t h e n u m b e r o f  the  respondents  c o n t a i n e d 17  X  was variables  completed  175  -  2975  "cases". Prepared tical  Package  tabulate of  compiled by  f o r the S o c i a l  Sciences  statistics.  of s t a t i s t i c a l  measurement  variables  were  of  each v a r i a b l e  either  et a l i n their  the  techniques used  most.  and  governed I).  to  the values of by  particular the  Since  level most  or i n t e r v a l / r a t i o l e v e l ,  Analysis  The  and  selection  was  Statis-  (SPSS) were used  (Appendix  at a nominal  Chi-square s t a t i s t i c  w i l l be  The  significance  the  results  Nie  the frequencies of the v a r i a b l e s  the descriptive  tests of  programs  of V a r i a n c e were  i n d i v i d u a l procedures  presented i n Chapter  5«  and  178  4.5  Evaluation  of the Methodology  In addition t o t h e s p e c i f i c there  a r e three  other  constraints discussed  limitations  o f the methodology:  (1)  To b e s t m e a s u r e t h e e f f e c t s o f d i r e c t experience on c i t y i m a g e s , i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n i d e a l t o a d minister a questionnaire to the respondents before t h e i r v i s i t t o V a n c o u v e r , and a n i d e n t i c a l one after their stay. However, t h e w r i t e r was u n able t o arrange contact with the tours before t h e i r a r r i v a l a t the Vancouver h o t e l s . Furthermore, because p l a c e images a r e o f t e n d i f f i c u l t to a r t i c u l a t e even a f t e r e x p e r i e n c i n g an e n v i r o n m e n t , i t was f e l t t h a t a p r e - v i s i t q u e s t i o n n a i r e would p r o b a b l y have a s m a l l r e t u r n r a t e , produce e x t r e m e l y meagre r e s u l t s , and j e o p a r d i z e co-operation f o r a p o s t - v i s i t questionnaire .  (2)  P e r s o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n one o r s e v e r a l o f t h e t o u r s would have been u s e f u l t o determine t h e k i n d s o f i n f o r m a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n s o f p l a c e s i n Vancouver p r o j e c t e d by t h e tour commentators. U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s c o u l d n o t be arranged because of the tour operators' r e g u l a t i o n s regarding extra passengers.  (3)  The i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n t o t h e e s c o r t s s p e c i f i e d t h a t a l l t o u r i s t s c o m p l e t e a q u e s t i o n n a i r e ine! dividually. H o w e v e r , many c o u p l e s c h o s e t o c o l l a b o r a t e on a s i n g l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . This could n o t be avoided s i n c e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were n o t a d m i n i s t e r e d i n c o n t r o l l e d s i t u a t i o n s .  Clearly albeit  this  methodology  i s fraught  most t e c h n i c a l i n n a t u r e .  industry  demands t h a t  with  The s e a s o n a l  collection  period.  nature  and  remain.  easy  limits  Established techniques  the data  f o r measuring f o r the sake o f  simplicity.  Fortunately  are  the tourist  a n d p r o t o c a l be<<  of tourism  p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s had t o be ignored brevity  difficulties,  Working with  c e r t a i n procedures  followed.  ology  above,  s e v e r a l redeeming features  On a p r a c t i c a l  t o code  note,  i n preparation  o f t h e method-  the questionnaires  f o r computer f i l e s .  The  high  return rate of sixty  most  complicated  five  percent  volume  of.the  Finally,  and c o l l e c t i n g  been e s t a b l i s h e d , a reasonable inexpensively  and  and e f f i c i e n t l y .  of the  by  eighty-  the wide v a r i e t y  comments s u g g e s t t h a t  well-received.  distributing  the completion  (the place/image matrix)  respondents,  of volunteered  n a i r e was for  item  percent,  once t h e  the  question-  mechanisms  the questionnaires sample s i z e  and  may  be  have acquired  5  CHAPTER R E S U L T S OF THE T O U R I S T 5.1  Characteristics  of the Final  o f t h e 206  Over h a l f  QUESTIONNAIRE Sample  respondents were American  o n e - t h i r d were Canadian  ( T a b l e 4-3).  Americans,  t h e U n i t e d Kingdom,  26 w e r e f r o m  Germany, and 1 was f r o m respondents were from w e r e f r o m New In  Of t h e n o n - N o r t h  South A f r i c a .  Ontario,  Brunswick,  State,  Eastern  w i t h most  One-quarter  and t h e o t h e r  Quebec, and A l b e r t a  of these  Canadians 44).  (Table lived  of the remaining Americans  o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were  women a n d o v e r o n e - t h i r d w e r e c o m p l e t e d For  t h e r e m a i n i n g 21 r e t u r n s ,  had  collaborated  i n New  from  other  o r no  either  completed  b y men  by 45).  (Table  t h e husband  and w i f e  i n d i c a t i o n was g i v e n as t o t h e s e x  the respondents As  offthe  expected f o r escorted sample  However,  each  Although  was  over f i f t y  o f the younger  tours,  a large  wide  range  (Table The a Kirly  proportion  y e a r s o l d i n age (Table age groups  46).  was a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d .  t h e age d i s t r i b u t i o n w o u l d  lead  t h a t most o f t h e respondents were r e t i r e d ,  of  from  states.  Over h a l f  of  1 was  t h e U.S.A., 2 1 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s  York  and  us t o expect  i n fact  o f o c c u p a t i o n s was r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e  a very sample  48). sample even  also  had a wide  distribution  among  t h e respondents, however,  range  categories  indicated 180  o f income l e v e l s , (Table 49).  an income o f l e s s  with Most  181  T A B L E 4-3 Country  Country  of  Residence  -Frequency .t-reCjUency 68  Canada  33.0  107  51.9  26  12.6  Germany  1  0.5  South  1  0.5  3  1.5  U.S.A. United  Kingdom  Africa  Missing Total  206  100. 0  182  TABLE Province Province  or  State  New B r u n s w i c k Quebec Ontario Alberta New Y o r k S t a t e Pennsylvania Ohio Connecticut Michigan New J e r s e y California Maryland Massachussetts Illinois Georgia Florida Maine West V i r g i n i a Rhode I s l a n d Other Countries Missing Total  44  and S t a t e  of Residence  Frequency 4 9 52 3 43 15 11 2 9 3 3 2 6 3 2 3 3 1 1 28 3 206  1.9 4.4  2512  1-5 20.9 7.3 5-3 1.0 4.4 1.5 1.5 1.0 2.9 1-5 1.0 1.5 1.5 0.5 0.5 13?S 1.5 100. 0  183  TABLE 45 Sex o f t h e Respondents Sex Male Female Missing Total  Frequency  fo  72  35-0  113  54.8  21  10.2  206  100.0  TABLE 46 Age D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e Sample Frequency  fo  3  1.1.5  21-30  16  7.8  31-40  6  2.9  41-50  20  9.7  152  73.8  9  4.4  206  100.0  Age C a t e g o r y Under 21  Over050  MissingS Total  184 TABLE 47 E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s o f t h e Respondents Level of Education  Frequency  Elementary School  13  6.3  Secondary S c h o o l  60  29.I  105  51.0  28  13.6  206  100.0  Pols  t-Secondary  Missing Total  TABLE 48 O c c u p a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n of Sample O c c u p a t i o n Category  Frequency  %  Retired  80  38.8  Student  7  3.4  24  11.7  5  2.4  Clerical  11  5-3  White C o l l a r  22  10.7  Professional  17  8.3  Managerial/Administration  12  5.8  Missing  28  13.6  Housewife Manual  Total  206  100. 0  185  TABLE Income  Income  Category  49  Distribution  of  Sample  Frequency  13  6.3  $5,000-9,000  29-  14.1  $10,000-14,000  38  18.4  $15,000-19,000  31  15.0  $20,000-24,000  10  4.9  $25,000-29,000  13  6.3  $30,000 o r m o r e  23  11.2  Missing  49  23.8  206  100. 0  Less  Total  than  $5 ,.000  186  t h a n $20,000 p e r y e a r . In older, of  summary, t h e  many l i v e d  panies  the  increased  did this  Two-thirds tinental  50).  Hawaii  and  group  How  a new  the  almost  other Pacific  fifteen this  this  Table  respondents the  51  were  sample had  In fact,  America,  i n travel  all  point  had  had  travelled  a s many h a d  and  been to  had  islands,  time  ex-  also  i n ConEurope  been  to  the Caribbean,  Asia,  been to Vancouver  and  and  Victoria  summer's e x p e r i e n c e i n V a n c o u v e r  group  in  South America, A f r i c a ,  was  respondents.  of people  indicates  that  appears  "novice t o u r i s t s " , travelled  t o be  well-tra-ellec  o n l y seven:'.: p e r c e n t o f and  to at l e a s t  three of the respondents  were  i s a sixty-eight-year-old  of the l i s t e d  accom-  much p r e v i o u s t r a v e l  almost two  different  "world  destinations,  and  w o m a n who made t h e  the  one-quarter places.  tourists",  h a v i n g been t o most of the r e g i o n s i n the w o r l d . in  variety  have?  f o r most of t h e  Indeed, veiled.  in a  amount o f l e i s u r e  of the respondents  so t h a t  one  increase  Many o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s  Only  before,  an  income and  other places i n Central  Canada.  of  that  society.  U.S.A., a n d  (Table  i n North  primarily  Experience  3 suggested  post-industrial  perience  as  They worked  w h i l e most l i v e d  Previous Travel  and  characterized  i n the U n i t e d Kingdom.  Chapter  a  c a n he  well-educated, middle-class.  o c c u p a t i o n s and  5.2  sample  had  A  case  been  following  to  1  18?  comment V My t r i p t o t h e S o u t h P o l e h a d t o "be c a n c e l l e d , a n d i n l o o k i n g around f o r a place t o v i s i t , the Canadian R o c k i e s l o o k e d i n t e r e s t i n g . I f I have time on my t r i p t o C h i n a n e x t y e a r , [ I ] w o u l d e n j o y s t o p ping o f f e i t h e r here or Anchorage again. How m u c h o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' with had  tour groups?  Sixty-five  b e e n on a t l e a s t  b e e n on f i v e for  these  advantages 5.3  over  tour group t r a v e l  independent  advantages  o f package  v a c a t i o n " -- r e f e r s (Table  itinerary,  53).  --  In  effect,  the wholesaler  53). Banff,  the operator  (see Chapter  i s left  and entertainment  a major b a r r i e r  Over h a l f  "the worry  and t h e e s c o r t takes  t h e new s c e n e r y  they  that  Travel  travel.  The m o s t  i s removed  from  to the highly structured nature  Because  on  because  suggests  h a s some c o n s i s t e n t  escorted tour group  operations, the tourist  known"  o f them h a d  travel.  and accommodation,  transportation, daily  respondents  and f i v e This  had been  6 o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e examines the p e r c e i v e d  f r e q u e n t l y mentioned reason  tours  travel  of the  t o u r s ( T a b l e 52).  A t t i t u d e s Towards Tour Group Question  a  percent  one t o u r b e f o r e ,  previous  people,  previous  to travel  plans  of  the route,  arranges  the  responsibility for free to along  concentrate  the route.  -- " F e a r  o f t h e Un-  3) -- i s r e m o v e d .  of the respondents  liked  package  tours  could  s e e many p l a c e s  i n a short time  F o r example,  "The O v e r l a n d e r  Tour" went t o C a l g a r y ,  the Banff  N a t i o n a l Park,  lake Louise,  (Table  Jasper, the  188 TABLE Destinations  of  50  Previous Frequency  Destination  TABLE Number  of  Previous  Destinations*  Frequency  Places to Previously  7.3  15 45 50 44 30 11  3 4 5 6 7  21.8  24.3 21.4 14.6  8  5.3 3.9  3  1.5 100. 0  2 06  Total ^Vancouver  and V i c t o r i a  counted  TABLE Number of  Previous 0  Missing Total  51  Travel  0 1 2  Number  15.0 14.6 66.0 31.1 36.4 63.6 14.6 23.3  31 30 136 64 75 131 30 48  1) V a n c o u v e r 2) V i c t o r i a 3) U . S . A . 4) H a w a i i a n d P a c i f i c Islands' 5 )Caribbean 6) E u r o p e 7) A s i a 8) 0 t h e r ( o t h e r p o i n t s in Canada, A f r i c a , A u s t r a l i a New Z e a l a n d , India, South and C e n t r a l America )  Number of Travelled  Travels  1 2 3 4 5  of  Previous  Tours  as  a  single  destination  52 Package  Trips  Frequency  61 64 37 16 9 5 14 206  29. 6 31. 1 18. 0 7- 8 4. 4 2. 4 6. 8 100. 0  189  TABLE 53 Reasons f o r C h o i c e of E s c o r t e d Reason f o r C h o o s i n g Tour Group T r a v e l  Tour Group T r a v e l  Frequency  ( l ) t h e worry i s removed from a v a c a t i o n ( 2 ) t o see many p l a c e s i n a s h o r t time ( 4 ) t h e d i s t a n c e i s too f a r to d r i v e independently ( 6 ) f o r the commentaries g i v e n by the e s c o r t ( 7 ) t o meet o t h e r passengers w i t h i n t e r e s t s s i m i l a r t o mine (3)1 l i k e to t r a v e l by bus or t r a i n ( 8 ) t o meet o t h e r passengers w i t h i n t e r e s t s d i f f e r e n t from mine (9)other (5)1 do not have my own transportation Missing  128  62.1  111  53-9  101  49. o  Octal  2C 6  61  29.6  44  21.4  42  20.4  30  14.6  18 14  8.7  14  6.8  :  6.8  ICO. 0  190 Columbia  Icefields,  Victoria, tours  Jasper  a l l i n a period  i t may  Belgium".  cause  Some o f  --  this  the  able  answer Questions  to  tourists  (specifying Victoria Within  dates  city,  to s p e c i f i c  there  places  more c o n f u s e d  typee  suggests?  thesis  to  observations  be  than  be  This  of  3  A  few  seemed visited this  i t must in  (see  grouped  comments.  even g r e a t e r Section  beyond  confusion  5'8).  t h a t group  the  travellers,  as  limits the  were  questionnaire  independent t r a v e l l e r s i t was  evidence  respondents  evidence  be  respondents  volunteered  t o be  of  time/place  indeed  i n the  and  feature  the  Few  and  in their  independent  may  Vancouver,  " I f i t ' s Tuesday,  1,2,  from  While  study  because  times).  w i t h Vancouver  the  days.  s t u d i e d here.  and  Does i t f o l l o w  The  ten  c o n f u s i o n was  amongst  are  of  i s commonly c r i t i c i z e d  confusion  as  N a t i o n a l Park,  tourists the  of  stereo-  this  following  made:  (1)  S u r e l y one o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a l l l e i s u r e t r a v e l , ' ^ w h e t h e r i t be i n a g r o u p o r independently, i s t h a t c o n c e r n a b o u t t i m e , so much a p a r t o f normal d a i l y routime, i s lessened. Sleep and m e a l s c h e d u l e s may b e r e l a x e d . Since the t o u r i s t h a s l e f t w o r k b e h i n d , one d a y o f t h e w e e k i s t h e same a s a n o t h e r . What r e l e v a n c e h a s time t o a p e r s o n on h o l i d a y ?  (2)  The c o n f u s i o n o v e r p l a c e - n a m e s i s a t t r i b u t e d t o the f u l l , high-powered i t i n e r a r i e s of tour packages. H o w e v e r , t h e r e i s no i n h e r e n t r e a s o n why a well-prepared independent t r a v e l l e r (or couple) c a n n o t a l s o v i s i t many p l a c e s i n a s h o r t t i m e , and c o n c e i v a b l y become j u s t as c o n f u s e d as t h e tour group t r a v e l l e r .  depth  of  discussed  the  sense  later  p o i n t however,  of place  ( S e c t i o n 5-9  i t i s suggested  tourists and  may  Chapter  that the  acquire 6).  effort  At a  will this  traveller  191 makes t o  understand  The  third  group t r a v e l  the or  with  he  the  visits  distance  53).  Toronto  This  is a crucial  drivers.  travel,  For  the  i s too  no  factor. tour  drive since  side-trips  a minimum of  anyone not  trip  f a r to  i s understandable  to Vancouver w i t h  f o r sight-seeing takes  two  mobile  that  (Table  d r i v e from stops  place  most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned r e a s o n f o r  was  independently  the  four  days  e s p e c i a l l y fond  to Western Canada can  of  auto-  appear  for-  midable . Since  only  transportation, other  fourteen most had  than necessity  ferred  bus  or  train  driving  is left  ty-  appreciated  one  something that because  the  an  of  group t r a v e l . driving is  almost  bus  the  In  forced  commentaries given  instant focused  contrast  the  being  the  with  enjoy  are  each other's  in this  escorts, Indeed, questions,  that  those  traveller  travellers,  in his  people  who  company"  emerge as  of  group p a r t i c i p a n t  Mcintosh,  sample however,  i n a group d i d not  of Six-  aspects  his fellow  suggests  tour  any  social  tour  i n a group  -"tourists  on  the  tourism,  the  tourists,  f o r example, interact  worry  i s without.  independent  on  and  by  the  to  the  pre-  engineer.  to  hensive  inclined  the  reasons  feedback.  during meal times.  interested  train  own  actually  because  d r i v e r or  travels with  their for  Forty-two  probably  particularly book  travel  independent t r a v e l l e r  reasons  his car,  53)-  travel,  receive  the  chosen group  (Table  the  escort  about a place Two  to  people were w i t h o u t  the  are  compre-  "who more  are socially  (1972:39). social  especially  part  For of  important.  192 About a f i f t h others  like  of  the  respondents  themselves,  perhaps  i n the  quick  f r i e n d s h i p s w o u l d be  made.  ested  i n meeting  the  Finally, of  tour  from and  several  group  Some o f  the  the  others  over  than  A  few  difficulties  respondents  travel  was  actually that  were accompanying, to  of  one  t r a v e l independently.  factor. One  and  scenery,  felt  places,  and  much as  possible  Since  yet  tours  flavour  three-quarters  single criterion i t appears  multi-faceted. benefits  as  The  w e l l as  that  of  she  not  of  a  the  reasons  tour  was  too  to  able  young as  a  forth. enjoy the  the  wheel".  choice  to  "get  as  place".  respondents  and  they  most i n t e r e s t i n g  of  decision-making  practicality  group  relative  "behind  strange  included  avoided.  mentioned  w o u l d be  for their this  of  husband  h i g h l i g h t the that  arranged,  reasons were put  was  worry  almost  are  she  also  enabled her  another the  that  C o s t was  tours  that  choice  f r i e n d or  stated  p r e s u m a b l y b e c a u s e he  Another  travel,  the  the  Three p l a c e - o r i e n t e d  woman c l a i m e d  than a  that  is  meals are  i n some c o u n t r i e s  claimed  of  more r e l a x i n g  Security  and  choice  volunteered.*  removal  s e e n t o be  reservations  1  language  Tours were  inter-  f o r the  t r a v e l were the  were  different interests.  additional criteria  independent t r a v e l .  guaranteed- , s i n c e and  with  reasons were r e l a t e d to  meet  a n t i c i p a t i o n that  Fewer s t i l l  tour  independent  vacation.  safer  on  chose group t r a v e l to  social  listed tour  group  process and  convenience.  more  is  educational The  193 following these  comment b y  tourists  had  one  couple  summarizes  the  feelings  toursr  towards  B e f o r e we r e t i r e d e i g h t y e a r s a g o , we a l w a y s d r o v e o u r own c a r , a n d t h e n we d i s c o v e r e d t o u r s ! It is a j o y h a v i n g a l l t h e d e t a i l s t a k e n c a r e o f and we s e e m a n y p l a c e s a n d t h i n g s we w o u l d n o t h a v e s e e n o n o u r own. The r u n n i n g comments b y t h e d r i v e r s and t o u r d i r e c t o r s a r e a p p r e c i a t e d . 5.4  Choice  of  Although  a Particular i t was  consumer r e s e a r c h nized How  not  of  the  teristics  of  Table  was  specific  the  5^  the  7 was  offered.  Not  in fact  the  of  tioned  Rocky Mountains  a  special  grouped w i t h on  the  within  tour.  the  stopover  relative  important  other two  as  those and  who  the  respondents  to  conduct recog-  features.  other  charac-  people.  stopover people  the  seventy  or  those  to  activities places  or  d i d most o f t e n (Table  V a n c o u v e r was  points  choice trips  to  55).  f o l l o w e d the  hold  usually Canada  specific  elements  i n the  choice  offer  the  other  criteria  coincide with About  recommendation  of a  tour.  standard  of a p a r t i c u l a r  respondents.  mentioned  i n Western  mentioned  deciding factors  final  response  r e s o r t towns  i n Western Canada,  t i m i n g of  important  to  o f W e s t e r n Canada seemed t o  f o r these  i n the  was  to  places  specified  a l l leading wholesalers  points  Convenient  offered different  specific  but  topology  Only  Vancouver  Since  as  interest,  appeal  study  t o u r s , i t was  most f r e q u e n t  a l l respondents  distinctive  this  tours?  activities the  of  package  itinerary  shows t h a t t h e  Question  Tour  intent  that various wholesalers  important  The  Package  emerged package.  holidays  one-third of t h e i r  of  travel  194 TABLE Reasons Reasons Package  54  f o r Choice of a P a r t i c u l a r  f o r Choice of a Tour  Package  Tour  Frequency  Particular  (9)specific places or a c t i v i t i e s offered (2 ) c o n v e n i e n t t r i p d a t e s (3)recommended by t r a v e l agent (8)attractiveness of the brochure (4)recommended b y f r i e n d o r r e l a t i v e (1)price ( 7 ) f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s had joined the tour ( 5 ) p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e company (lO)other  82 70 65 57 53 37 22  39-8 34.0 31.6 27-7 25.7 18.0 10.7  15 10  7.3 4.9  Total TABLE Places Specific  or Activities Places  or  55  of Special  Interest  Frequency  Activities  Rocky Mountains Banff Jasper Vancouver Lake Louise Victoria "Western Canada" " B r i t i s h Columbia" Accommodations Banff I c e F i e l d s , Emerald Lake, Lake, canyons, r i v e r s (Within Vancouver) gardens hatcheries  (Question77)  28 13 13 11 10 9 3 £.  Moraine  2 1 1 1  each  195 agent,  relying  other  the  travellers' The  to  on  agent's  a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of  three wholesalers  tures in  the brochure  was  (Table  The  sampled  o f W e s t e r n Canada, and  detail.  pared  54).  of  scenery  and  significant  c o n t a i n many s p e c i f y the  A c c o r d i n g l y , the.consumer  f o r the  knowledge  experiences.  f i f t y - s e v e n respondents  all  e x p e r t i s e and  activities  brochures  of  full-cotoursspic-  daily  itineraries  i s e n t i c e d and  he  is likely  pre-  to e x p e r i -  ence. Another the  friend  the  person  of  he  dollars the  not  a friend  respondents may  not  of  knows,  important  (Table  Although  experience  the  the  daily  trusts,  there  or r e l a t i v e ,  have the  conversations  and  a tour  54).  travel of  the  tour.  potential  shares  of  the  interests  i s a d i f f e r e n c e of  trip  t o most of  surprising,  these  Toronto,  price  respondents  can  tour  from  with.  depending  d i s t a n c e of  was  not  (Table  c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t most  a  s e v e r a l hundred  l e n g t h , a c c o m m o d a t i o n s , and  hometown f r o m  to  During  traveller  operations  was  agent's e x p e r t i s e ,  between v a r i o u s Western Canada packages,  client's factor  information i n choosing  direct  details  Although  on  the  have had  course  learn  of  or r e l a t i v e  will  the  a  of  recommendation by  one-quarter  he  source  of  a  significant  54).  the  the  This  is  respondents  were m i d d l e - c l a s s . Although or r e l a t i v e s were  some r e s p o n d e n t s on  travelling  the  tour, according  singly  f r e q u e n t l y mentioned  were accompanying  or  as  reasons  married  to  the  e s c o r t s most  couples.  were p r e v i o u s  friends  Other  experience  less with  the  company and  comments n o t e d included, of  the  the  available booking such  of  ten  percent  criterion percent  that  over a  listed  these  period the  the  choice  In  number o f  and  explicit  she  of  the that  Travel  meals detail  a  t h a t makes movement t o leisure  leisure  travel  tourism,  by  Toronto,  and  results  are  The in  seeing  It  had  the by  of  had  was  the  One  brochures  decision.  highest  were a l s o  broadly  but  i n our  the  ranked  influenced  timing.  travel  defined  specific  Why  should  life-style  another place  and  a  or  as  sources travel  questionnaire  the  stay  a list  of  i n „the l i t e r a t u r e interviewed  on in  The  57-  i n Table  been assumed a t  give  temporary  presents  industry personnel  as  of  psychology  t o u r members i n t h e . p r e - t e s t .  places"  "one  enjoyable?  original, questionnaire other  the  making her  intentions suggested  given  studied  convenient  presented.  time  the  the  seems  discriminating.  decisions  tourist  were not  Question 8  It  Intentions  What i s t h e r e  during  more package,  56).  (Table  p a c k a g e s was  'travels for pleasure'",  that pleasure  listed  a particular  were v e r y  o f many m o n t h s b e f o r e  Chapter 4  pleasure?  of  least four  claimed  i t appears  Leisure  there  the  respondents  t h i r d - p a r t y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n and  5.5  who  at  tourists  itinerary  criterion, by  itinerary,  of  f o r the  woman, f o r i n s t a n c e ,  While  the  Volunteered  brochure.  t h a n one  then,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as  timing  Fifty-seven  and  space.  a  d i d not  leisure  time  that  include  "interest  travel intention. by  definition,  rel.";:.:.--  197  TABLE  56  Number o f R e a s o n s Choice  Number o f R e a s o n s  Listed f o r  of a Particular  Listed  Package  Tour  Frequency  fo  4.4  0  9  1  70  34v-0  2  67  32.5  3  38  18.4  4  17  8.3  5  3  0.0  6  0  1.5  2  1.0  7  .  4.  198  TABLE 57 Leisure Travel  Intentions  Leisure Travel Intention ( 1 2 ) i n t e r e s t e d i n seeing other places (4) f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l development (ll)for relaxation (1) f o r a change (5) f o r s o c i a l or c u l t u r a l development (10)to v i s i t f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s (3) f o r e x c i t e m e n t (7) t o f i l l i n c r e a s e d l e i s u r e time (8) t o escape p r e s s u r e (2) f o r n o v e l t y (9) t e l e v i s i o n programs and magazines have s t i m u l a t e d my i n t e r e s t i n other places (13)other (6) t r a v e l i s p o p u l a r among my c i r c l e of f r i e n d s Missing  Frequency 173 74 73 63  41 33 29 21 20 16  f  84.0 35-9 35-4 30.6 19.9 16.0  14.1 10.2 9.7 7.8  14  6.8  11 10  5.3 4.9  7  3.4  199 voluntary places.  travel The  purpose  h o w e v e r , was ing  this  to  i t was  volunteered  is  16  be  percent  seeing  new  26  per  interest.  The  of  his  so  grandly  places  or  f o r the  life"  as  sample,  for travel  had  the  173  final  respond-  during  they  travel,  those  can  d i d not  i s that while  their  f o r the  socially, travel  or  i t i s not  at  (Table  scholar  tourist  Smith  the  This  toured  to  of h i s 29).  are  of  psychologiFor  those  r e a s o n was  "in-  concept  travel's  when  Rome f o r t h e studies,  Although s t i l l  of  a l l place-oriented.  sixteenth century  commodity 1955-  57)•  indeed  activity  physically.  i s not  this  t h e y may  i t i s what the do  include  destinations that  today, modern t o u r i s m  and  of the  "benefit dexterity  i t i s not  r e t a i n s an  tourism"  involve  i n such  three  intellectual  "quaint"  N o r t h e r n Canada, Panama, o r  put  educa-  (1977) f o r e x a m p l e , m e n t i o n s  "leisured mobility" that "Ethnic  tabulated,  respondents added to  respondents  Instead,  (Shepard,  component.  concerns.  whole  o r i g i n a t e d i n the  his wit,  of  r e s u l t s were  15  f o r the  of  development"  of  types  the  foster-  What i s e v e n more i n t e r e s t i n g  places  young a r i s t o c r a t  other  questionnaire,  second most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned  tellectual benefits  7 of  while  then,  the  i t was  the  se  interest in  f a c t o r s c r e a t i n g and  a reason  intellectually,  respondents,  tional  of  of  so  57)-  places  e x p e r i e n c i n g ; " new cally,  as  of  pre-test  i m p l i c a t i o n here  characteristics specific  item  and  Indeed,  time.(Table  The  that  reason,  leisure  reason.  this  When t h e  indicated this  that  some k i n d  i n t o the  found  this  questionnaire.  of  delve  interest.  however,  ents  implied  or " p r i m i t i v e "  Indonesia  is  often  200 attractive tourism", son to  et  to  the  art historian,  i n c l u d i n g guided  lumiere  tours  performances,  l e a r n about  the  past.  f o r example.  o f museums, monuments,  also attracts  Finally  tourism"  He  "many e d u c a t i o n - o r i e n t e d  driving land to  that  through  that appeals  mountains  relationships"  did  f o r our  puts  to  and  the  ancestors.  the  who  that  Shepard  want  type  travelers to  geographical  or  of  geographer. enjoy  observe  Modern tourism,  extent  As  to  countryside  (1977*3)-  concretize historical  though perhaps not  and  people  Smith denotes a  "environmental claim's  "Historical  man-  then,  seems  knowledge, a l -  the  Tour to  somewhat  Rome  cynically  it::: The b e s t m o d e r n a l t e r n a t i v e t o c o l l e g e l i f e a s a greenhouse f o r p e r c e p t i o n i s the v a c a t i o n , degraded, p e r v e r t e d , a n d s t r e a m l i n e d t h o u g h i t may have b e c o m e (1955:33)The  third  relaxation on  --  a padded  and  i m p l i e s a p h y s i c a l and  coach  gazing  certainly  soothe  spas,  sunbathing,  entertainment" Although promote  the the  tropical  sailing, through  and  as  at  mental  the  the  body and  and  g a m b l i n g and  night  clubs  "sand,  sea,  island  and  resorts,  sex"  such  strolling  labels  "convivial  (1977*3)-  combination  mention  care  Smith  f o r W e s t e r n C a n a d a do  d i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , as and  taken  non-competitive  food,  brochures  Sitting  scenery,  mind.  involving  for travel  rest.  passing  good  travel  boutiques  reason  accommodation are  "recreational tourism",  sports,  the  seat,  k n o w i n g t h a t meals and  of, w i l l this  most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned  usual  i s made o f w e l l as  through  parks.  the  not for golf,  browsing Clearly  --  201 t h o s e r e s p o n d e n t s who were f o c u s i n g others  that  exercise  claimed  on t h o s e  tend  aspects  interaction with  a change  other  that  travel.  Shepard,  to  that  today  the cool  encing  a change"  i n t h e summer  of the tourist  lives  (E))  Points two  parties, often is  B , D,  "lives",  purpose and  the city's  (1955:29). i s phrased  heat  Grab-urn's i n terms  voluntarily of experi-  this  definition and Leach's  non-ordinary  every  individual  home l i f e touristic  F, and H a r e t r a n s i t i o n  (parts life  has (A) and  ( ( C ) and  rituals  between  such as going-away p a r t i e s , welcoming  are periods  encesis  a major  a l t e r a t i o n s i n our l i v e s  ordinary  or farewell dinners.  reached.  leisure  of climate",  and t o u r i s m  t o Graburn,  -- t h e p r o f a n e ,  writers  eighteenth,  ( 1 9 7 7 : 2 ) . T'o i l l u s t r a t e  and t h e sacred,  (G)).  that  a w a y f r o m home f o r t h e p u r p o s e  According  i n environ-  of  l e i s u r e d p e r s o n who  (1961) m o d e l o f s a c r e d - p r o f a n e  the  explains  draws an a n a l o g y between work  two  purpose  t o "get a change  "a t e m p o r a r i l y  5)«  or continual  Several  i n the seventeenth,  countryside  a place  (Figure  of regular  f o r example.  c i t y - d w e l l e r s escape from  visits  he  and i g n o r i n g  zones,  routine.  f o r example,  definition  change:  i n time  i s the primary  c e n t u r i e s was  conceptual of  change  t h e "Grand Tour"  and  forrelaxation  i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o a change  maintain  nineteenth  of travel,  travellers,  ment and i n t h e n o r m a l d a i l y  of  travel  t o r e d u c e r e l a x a t i o n -- l a c k  and s l e e p ,  Relaxation  they  of tension,  The m o d e l  cumulative.  As p o i n t s released  i s linear  Graburn  of change,  when  t h e new  and on-going,  extends  this  since  they state experi-  model t o t h e  B  (C) SSacred  D  F  (G) Sacred  ^  TOURISM  TOURISM  (A) Profane  (E) Profane  WORK  WORK  •>-  time  Figure  Source:  5:  Graburn's A d a p t a t i o n  Graburn  (1977)  o f Leach's  Sacred  - Profane  Model  ^ o  203 daily ment  travel of  do  contends  an  that  need  these  touristic  s o c i e t y where  the  excite-  ideal  life,  "for i t i s sacred  Obviously,  possible  only  return  to  Cohen's novelty  and  for  very  the  cultural-specific.  holds  that  i n the  "Who  workaday  is a  as  the  the  of  is  being (1977:  comfortable  average  travel  citizen  world.  T o u r i s t ? " (1974) a l s o specific  and  tourism  sense  continuous rich,  "profane",  change  Graburn  inherently s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g " since  paper,  and  Graburn  though,  the  state"?  individualism, self-reliance,  valued,  renewing,  of  i n t e n t i o n s are  are  must  alternated with  "changes  ethic  23)'  on  sleep  work  exciting,  is  we  Western  the  of  touring.  Why  In  experience  purpose  of  focuses  the  tourist:  A ' t o u r i s t ' i s a voluntary, temporary t r a v e l l e r , t r a v e l l i n g i n the expectation of pleasure from t h e n o v e l t y and c h a n g e e x p e r i e n c e d on a r e l a t i v e l y l o n g and n o n - r e c u r r e n t r o u n d t r i p (p.533)' ....A b a s i c d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t o u r i s m i s t h a t t o u r i s m connotes a change from r o u t i n e , something d i f f e r e n t , strange, unu s u a l o r n o v e l , and e x p e r i e n c e n o t commonly present i n the d a i l y l i f e of the t r a v e l l e r (p.  532,  533).  C o h e n makes are  mostly want  Both  types,  more  a  change  from  however,  moie o r i e n t e d oriented The  tion  further distinction  tions,  change  less  than  their  are  of and  and  daily  classed  towards  towards  results  that  between  interested in novelty,  just  seers  a  sightseers,  vacationers,  routine  as  (p.  tourists,  "attractions"  and  who  who  544).  with  sight-  vacationers  "facilities".  this  studys  novelty  one-third  do  are of  not  the  the  support  primary  the  travel  respondents  suggest inten-  indicated  204 change as a r e a s o n f o r t r a v e l , and t h i s c r i t e r i o n was f o u r t h , not f i r s t or second, i n the l i s t t i o n 8.  N o v e l t y was  ranked  s u p p l i e d i n Ques-  s e l e c t e d by even fewer  respondents,  r a n k i n g t e n t h on the l i s t  of t h i r t e e n  reasons.  Since  these  t o u r i s t s were t e c h n i c a l l y  s i g h t s e e r s r a t h e r than v a c a t i o n e r s ,  a c c o r d i n g to Cohen n o v e l t y s h o u l d have ranked even h i g h e r t h a n change as a t r a v e l Why  intention.  s h o u l d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s be a t v a r i a n c e  w i t h the c o n c e p t u a l d e f i n i t i o n s  o f the t o u r i s t ?  a r e two p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s -- one other,  technical,  and  the  theoretical.  F i r s t l y , the m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t -- may  There  be a t f a u l t .  -- the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  Perhaps the r e s p o n d e n t s d i d not under-  s t a n d what "change" or " n o v e l t y " meant, a l t h o u g h nonex.e i n d i c a t e d t h i s by v o l u n t e e r i n g a comment i n t h e i r questionnaires.  completed  On the o t h e r hand, perhaps a d i r e c t  ques-  t i o n asked of the r e s p o n d e n t can not p o s s i b l y get a t the r e a l r e a s o n s f o r t r a v e l , b u r i e d i n the r e s p o n d e n t ' s subconscious. is  T h i s i s a drawback of a l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  and  p a r t i a l l y remedied by the use o f m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l  scaling  techniques.  As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 4, however,  these t e c h n i q u e s were not p r a c t i c a l f o r t h i s  study.  Perhaps the e x p l a n a t i o n l i e s more i n t h e o r y than i n a technical  weakness of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  Both Graburn  and Cohen seem t o i m p l i c i t l y assume a u n i v e r s a l need f o r r e c r e a t i o n and change. need may  As Nash p o i n t s out, though, t h i s  i n f a c t be a c q u i r e d because of c e r t a i n  conditions (1977f37).  social  Nash i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o i n t w i t h  205 twohexamples. an  interest  rochial  A modern , l i b e r a l  i n other peoples  one i s l i a b l e  v i r o n m e n t may f o s t e r escape. is who in  as w e l l  d i d not value a relatively  milieu  Social  many  cultural  urban en-  a s a means o f  f o rnovelty  and change  Those  change and n o v e l t y  may h a v e b e e n  satisfying^,  listed  reasons  and c u l t u r a l  of travel  respondents living  and s t i m u l a t i n g  f o rtravel  social  development,  leaders  since  of the respondents.  student of  these  as  a reason  an  individual  fortravel. benefit,  and today  This  group  interested  Perhaps  of  this  above b y Cohen,  i s a function of t o the young  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , "intellectual  that  friends  or relatives.  claimed  to travel  i s highly  of the respondents  i n search  development"  or cultural  In the individualized  Slightly  many  i n t e l l e c t u a l growth i s  whereas s o c i a l  self-fulfillment  Sixteen percent  or  b y o n l y one-  ment i s dependent upon a g r o u p o f t r a v e l l e r s area residents.  tourists,  i n social  i n contrast  chose Note  as  i t i s viewed  i t was s e l e c t e d  f o r example.  same r e s p o n d e n t s  (Table  a s a means o f p r o m o t i n g  age o f t h e sample,  traveller,  remain  development have been l a u d e d  f o r centuries,  international  general  with  a more p a -  as p s y c h o l o g i c a l .  however, were n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y  the  i n travel  t h e need  understanding between peoples.  fifth  that  a t home.  benefits by  can arouse  An a l i e n a t i n g  an i n t e r e s t  stable,  Seven other 57).  and p l a c e s ,  to stifle.  I n other words,  social  education  fewer  or  interaction  society  described  rated.  travel  (fourteen  of excitement,  develop-  to  visit  percent)  understandably  206 since Ten  r e l a x a t i o n was t h e t h i r d most i m p o r t a n t  percent  indicated  travel  f i l l s  their  increased  time.  I n a n e r a when t h e age o f r e t i r e m e n t  ahead,  travel  available  does serve  t o the former  same n u m b e r o f p e o p l e this  for  working  travel  person.  n i n t h item  describe travel example,  suddenly  Approximately  t o escape pressure,  of the l i s t as induced  leisure  i s pushed f u r t h e r  t h e empty t i m e  was n o t s e e n a s a m a j o r f a c t o r The  to  to f i l l  reason.  encouraging  i n Question  the  but again travel.  8 was  b y t h e mass m e d i a .  intended Smith,  claims;  T h e b r o k e r s o f t o u r i s m -- g o v e r n m e n t s , c a r r i e r s , a n d t o u r o p e r a t o r s -- h a v e e x p e r t l y t r a n s l a t e d t h e e x p a n d i n g economy i n t o m a r k e t a b l e t o u r p a c k ages, low-cost c h a r t e r s , and o f f - s e a s o n f a r e s designed t o encourage and s u s t a i n f o r e i g n t r a v el. These m a s t e r s o f a d v e r t i s i n g have "psyched" m i l l i o n s o f p e o p l e i n t o mass t o u r i s m on t h e p r e m i s e t h a t " t o t a k e a v a c a t i o n " m e a n s t o "go s o m e p l a c e " , a n d t h a t t o " s t a y home a n d d o n o t h i n g " i s almost immoral and/or an acknowledgement o f l o w e c o n o m i c s t a t u s (1977 ' 1 3 ) . Indeed, of  as explained  the travel  i n Chapter  however, an i n t e r e s t  tools.  of  t h e image-makers.  an  exotic locale  the  that place,  promote  u s i n g t h e mass  may b e g e n e r a t e d  level, b y t h e mass  inducement has n o t been t h e g o a l  A fictional  may a r o u s e  suspense  the reader's  In fact,  story set i n  interest  even though a n o v e l i s t ' s  tourism.  literature  travel,  objective  A t a more g e n e r a l  i n travel  media even though t r a v e l  to  the primary  i n d u s t r y i s t o induce  media as m a n i p u l a t i v e  iting  3,  intent  i n visi s not  i t i s a common c l a i m w i t h i n  on t o u r i s m t h a t r e c e n t  improvements i n  c o m m u n i c a t i o n s have done much t o i n c r e a s e o u r c u r i o s i t y about  other  p l a c e s , and our d e s i r e t o v i s i t  them  ourselves  207 (see, by  f o r example,  "A L i t t l e  the F e d e r a l Government  Travelling Music" published  (1972); M c i n t o s h  (1972);  Nash  (1977)). The Only  results  seven  of t h i s  travel  result  be  stimulated  that  their  Several interpretations  televiinterest  of  this  suggested!  (2)  The m e d i a h a s a r o u s e d a n the r e s p o n d e n t s were n o t ence, o r ,  (3)  The r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e c o n s c i o u s o f a n i n f l u e n c e by the media b u t were r e l u c t a n t to admit they were b e i n g "manipulated". interpretation  the wording  carefully tion.  The  bounds  of t h i s  The  the  p r e s e n t e d by  travel  The  implications  first  or  of  second  manipula-  alternative,  i n - d e p t h r e s e a r c h , beyond  topic  Graburn  but  (1977).  6).  " p r o p e r " and  on  the l i s t  the r o l e  the  Smith  He  quoted  above  a  begins  four-fold  perspective  According to Graburn,  acceptable to stay  in in-  discussion i s  proposes  society's  i n Question  of status  a more c o m p l e t e  of Western  (Figure  --  statement by  issue,  classification  probable,  study.  a sensitive  travel.  broach  sidered  on  any  remaining item suggested  i s also  ducing  of the  based  but not  i t e m i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  to avoid  acceptance  interest i n t r a v e l but conscious of that i n f l u -  i s possible  of that  designed  h o w e v e r , must be  of  had  agreed  claim.  The t y p e s o f t e l e v i s i o n p r o g r a m s a n d magazines most o f these respondents were i n c o n t a c t w i t h have i n f a c t not i n c r e a s e d t h e i r c u r i o s i t y , o r ,  since  to  support t h i s  (1)  Theethird  8  magazines  ( T a b l e 57).  may  not  percent of the respondents  s i o n programs and in  s t u d y do  on  the v a l u e  i t i s con-  a t home p r o v i d e d  Travel  Stay  Voluntary  "Doing n o t h i n g "  Compulsory/Serious  Work and  Figure  Source:  6:  Western  (including  a t home  schoolwork  Tourism  and/or  Occupations  housework  Society's Perspective  G r a b u r n (1977, F i g . 1, p .  18)  on  the Value  of  Travel  Recreation  requiring  travel  209 s e r i o u s work  i sbeing  as  i ti s v o l u n t a r y  to  stay  just  accomplished,  and a l e i s u r e  a t home v o l u n t a r i l y  gained  from work-associated  "validity" concludes status  as those with  activity.  during  not s o c i a l l y acceptable.  the following  as  along  In contrast,  one's l e i s u r e  In addition,  travel  acquired  and t o t r a v e l  time i s  experiences  d o n o t h a v e t h e same  from l e i s u r e assessment  travel.  Graburn  of travel  as a  symbol:(1577  P e o p l e who s t a y a t home f o r v a c a t i o n a r e o f t e n l o o k e d d o w n u p o n o r p i t i e d , o r made t o f e e l l e f t b e h i n d and p o s s i b l y p r o v i n c i a l , except f o rt h e aged and i n f i r m , s m a l l c h i l d r e n , and t h e p o o r . Within t h e f r a m e w o r k o f -tourism, n o r m a l a d u l t s t r a v e l a n d t h o s e who d o n o t a r e d i s a d v a n t a g e d . Obviously worded  this  simply  Instead,  item  as " I b e l i e v e t r a v e l  the final  group aspect  on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e  phrasing  of travel.  item,  i t ranked  being  chosen by only  suggest  lowest  strongly  i s a status  merely focuses  In spite on t h e l i s t  symbol".  on t h e peer  of the neutrality of travel  t e n respondents  that f o rt h i s  c o u l d n o t be  sample a t l e a s t ,  intentions, 57).  (Table  travel  socially-motivated, but primarily  of this  This  was n o t  a means o f s e l f -  enrichment. Volunteered nature while  reasons  a n d scenery,  included curiosity,  a desire to get well  on v a c a t i o n , t h e i n t e r e s t  seasons n o t p o s s i b l e w h i l e to  "keep from b e i n g  also  mentioned  that  Three-quarters reason  f o rt r a v e l  bored they  or boring". had been given  their  places  person,  of the respondents during  away f r o m  i n seeing  a working  a love of  leisure  during  and t h e attempt  Several trips listed time  home  respondents as  gifts.  more t h a n  (Table  58).  one  210  TABLE Number o f R e a s o n s  58  f o rLeisure  Travel  Number o f R e a s o n s  Frequency  0  7  3-4  1  45  21.8  2  41  19-9  3  49  23.8  4  35  17.0  5  17  8.3  6  8  3.9  7  2  1.0  8  2  1.0  Total  206  100. 0  In  other words,  travel  Since psychological,  motivation i s also  physical,  intellectual,  c u l t u r a l b e n e f i t s , m a y be accrued, time  travel  noted, ing  i s indeed  worlds 5.6  within  i n the environment,  seventy  just  part of the tour  cent  indicated  percent  -- d i s c o v e r -  that particular  of their  general  of the respondents ( T a b l e 59)•  specific  said  Also,  new  package  itineraries, interest.  the city  o n l y seven  places or a c t i v i t i e s  them t o t h e c i t y .  and t h e aquarium,  the parks  Goethe  w h y t h e y h a d come t o V a n c o u v e r i n p a r t i c u -  lar,  Park  As  and d i s c o v e r i n g  t h a t V a n c o u v e r was n o t t h e m a i n p l a c e o f  t h a t had e n t i c e d  leisure-  Vancouver  S e c t i o n 5" 4 i t w a s n o t e d  Thus, when a s k e d  and  (Dichter,I967:63).  oneself  t o u r s were s e l e c t e d because and  that  t w o way's o f t r a v e l l i n g  Reasons f o r V i s i t i n g In  i tappears  social,  a means o f p e r s o n a l g r o w t h .  there are r e a l l y  new w o r l d s  multi-faceted.  These  was  per-  i n Vancouver  included Stanley  Gastown, C a p i l a n o , S u s p e n s i o n B r i d g e ,  and gardens,  and t h e harbour  f a c t o r s were t r a v e l  ing.  D e s p i t e v i g o r o u s p r o m o t i o n a l campaigns by the f e d e r a l provincial  that  governments,  promotion  Other  minor  and  agent  sights.  and s o c i a l  o n l y two r e s p o n d e n t s  they had been i n f l u e n t i a l  i n the decision  to  visit-  indicated visit  Vancouver. Twenty-one p e r c e n t reasons visit  f o rv i s i t i n g  o f t h e sample v o l u n t e e r e d  the city.  Several explained that a  t o Vancouver had been a long-term  expressed  the desire  additional  interest,  t o have a f i r s t - t i m e  and o t h e r s  experience of the  212  TABLE Reasons  Reasons  f o rVisiting  (5)Vancouver  59  f o rV i s i t i n g  Vancouver Frequency  Vancouver  i s just part  of the tour  (6)other (2)travel  agent  promotion  (4)specific places Vancouver (3)to  visit  or a c t i v i t i e s i n  friends or relatives  (1 g o v e r n m e n t  promotion  Missing  TABLE Number o f R e a s o n s  69.4  43  20.9  22  10.7  14  6.8  13  6.3  2  1.0  15  7.3  60  f o rV i s i t i n g  Vancouver  Frequency  fo  0  15  7.3  1  148  71.8  2  40  19.4  3  3  1.5  206  100.0  Number o f  Total  143  Reasons  213 c i t y ."because  of  Many  grouped  Vancouver  West  Coast,  seen  and  were  a  rates  of  change  to  of  know  accompaniment  a  v i s i t i n g  Vancouver  mental  promotion,  to  v i s i t  third  within  those  reason  in  the  significant  l i s t e d  social Behind  cultural know In  residents  do  not  Vancouver  as  a  tour  is  other the  really  a  to  differ  been  know  of  for  of  c i t i e s  and  or  want  the r e l a t i v e s " - -  Americans  a  Canadians small  Canadians  that  govern-  specific  only  of  than  their  by  thirteen  that  sig-  expected  the  while  suggest in  currency  for  c i t i e s  implication  Canadian  not mentioned  reasons  friends  -None  l i k e l y  results  test  influenced  v i s i t  the  had  length,  Instead,  factor,  more  In  be  the  reasons  to  country's  test.  they  .  relative.  had  l i k e l y  "to  is  w i l l  w i l l  Americans.  Canadians  reasons  .  for  and  choosing  destination. decisions  group,  and  to  v i s i t  seventy-two  Furthermore,  It  their  as  the  to  or  performed  J).  West,  trip  differences  this  Unlike  "decision" for  It  though,  Americans  friend  was  - -  result  of  Other  specifically.  v i s i t i n g this  about.  claimeto  of  the  Canada  more  l i s t in  barrier.  generate,  be  one  places  proved  did.  would  and  Rockies,  excitement.  of  (Appendix  Canadians  attractions  a  analysis  and  convenient  of  Canadian/American  more  the  more  nificant  that  beauty  a s vpar»ts  scenery,  Chi-square  i t s  with  Victoria  wanted  and A  or  reports  it  to  purchase  travel, a  of  appears  that  participate  particular  Vancouver  percent  to  was  the  based  package, on  respondents  the  decision  a  single  (Table to  v i s i t  in  a  the reason 60).  214 Vancouver ists.  was  Instead,  particular In  not  other  the  Chapter  those  the  that of  of  actually  their  the  are  The  f i r s t  many  in  their  to  this  While  nineteen  before  knowledge two  relied  the  mode  was  a  Canada  information  ascertain  upon  by  to  may  69  have  present  set  of  not  a  subattrac-  the  total  twelve  least  knew  seven source  Since  over  of  they  this  do  draw  sources  about  used.  Vancouver previous  sources.  for  information,  of  the  How  sample  different  half  10.  upon  this  gathered  their  ac-  problem':'  In  information  had  source  Question  search?  others  of  significant.  respondents  nothing  10  assumed  every  most  one  information  was  that  concerns  information of  the  It  results  the  the  examined  remember  the  in  Question  those  been  tables did  2  tourists.  on Vancouver,  single  two.  of  to  designed  range  at  role  was  v i s i t ,  on  once  specific  detail.  respondents  from  and  tour-  selected.  Western  in  sources  a wide  their  been  periodicals,  pre-trip  was  these  ended  Chapter  l i k e l y  there  of  of  tourists.  images,  .drawn  information  during  had  communities  the  respondents  6l  Tables  most  and  information  knowledge  image  these  place  sources,  while  for  Sources  questionnaire  sources  of  of  1 discussed  construction of  capsule  images  Information  a l l  Canada package"  the  minds  at  decision-making process  "Western  sumed I n d i v i d u a l  5.7  decision  the  words,  tions, in  a  Thirtybut  respondents  two drew  from  variety  of  more  than sources, A  information  i t  available  appears oh  that  there  Vancouver.  is  a  215 T A B L E 61 Number o f I n f o r m a t i o n Number o f I n f o r m a t i o n Sources  Sources  Frequency  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  9.2 15-5 21.4 18.4 16.0 6.8 6.8 2.4 2.4 1.0  19 32 44 38 33 14 14 5 5 2 206  Total  TABLE Single  Information  f>  100. 0  62  Sources  on  Vancouver  (N=32) Information  Source  (1) b r o c h u r e s (12 C o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s (9) N a t i o n a l G e o g r a p h i c (2) g u i d e b o o k s (13)other (3) m a p s (6) n e w s p a p e r s (8) t r a v e l magazines (ll)academic journals (4) p o s t e r s (5) p o s t c a r d s (7) newsmagazines (10)novels or poetry Total  Frequency  fo  9 9  28.1 28.1  5 3 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0  15.6 9.4 6.3 3.1 3.1 3-1 3.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. 0  32  100.0  Which o f these sources were used.by t h e l a r g e s t number o f r e s p o n d e n t s ? s i n g l e source  Those r e s p o n d e n t s who r e l i e d on a  tended t o draw from e i t h e r r b r b c h u r e s r o r o n -  c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s (Table 6 2 ) .  Those  who had l e a r n e d o f Vancouver from j u s t two i n f o r m a t i o n sources  a l s o tended t o base t h e i r knowledge on b r o c h u r e s  or conversations  ( o r b o t h ) as i n d i c a t e d i n Table 63.  F u r t h e r m o r e , when asked w h i c h one o f t h e i r two sources was most i m p o r t a n t  i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n Van-  c o u v e r , b r o c h u r e s and c o n v e r s a t i o n s were most often'ment i o n e d (Table 6 4 ) . I n f a c t , f o r t h e e n t i r e d a t a s e t t h e most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned i n f o r m a t i o n source was the b r o c h u r e (Table 6 5 ) . James H a l l , E x e c u t i v e V i c e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e E a s t  Michigan  T o u r i s t A s s o c i a t i o n , l i s t s f i v e types o f t o u r i s m  marketing  programs -- a d v e r t i s i n g , s a l e s p r o m o t i o n , p u b l i c i t y , s a l e s l i t e r a t u r e , and i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s ( 1 9 7 2 : 1 0 0 - 3 ) .  Of  t h e s e , he c l a i m s t h a t s a l e s l i t e r a t u r e , is."perhaps t h e most important  t o o l f o r s e l l i n g t o u r i s m " (p. 1 0 2 ) , and t h i s  seems t o be borne out by t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y .  In-  deed, t h e t r a v e l agents i n t e r v i e w e d i n Toronto a l l c l a i m e d t o r e l y almost e x c l u s i v e l y on t h e w h o l e s a l e r s '  brochures  i n p r o v i d i n g t h e i r c l i e n t e l e w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n on Vancouver. The  second most o f t e n mentioned i n f o r m a t i o n  source  was n o t any form o f p r i n t e d media b u t c o n v e r s a t i o n s f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s (Table 165)• (Chapter  with  As mentioned e a r l i e r  3) p a r t o f t h e p l e a s u r e o f t r a v e l i s d i s c u s s i n g  thevplans with others.  I n our m o b i l e s o c i e t y t h e t o p i c  TABLE 63 Number of Respondents R e l y i n g on P a i r s of I n f o r m a t i o n Sources. (N=44) (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  -  2  2  2  (2) guidebooks  2  -  (3) maps  2  (4) p o s t e r s  2  '•Information Sources (1)  on Vancouver  brochures  2  2  1  1  1  -  1  1  1  -  2  (9) N a t i o n a l  Geographic  1  (11)academic  j ournals 8  (8)  (9)  2  1  19  (12)  (13)  8 1 2  1  1  1  -  2  2  -  1  1  -  6  2  (13)other Total  (11)  -  1  (8) t r a v e l magazines  (7)  -  (7)news magazines  (12)conversations  (6)  1  -  (5) postcards (6) newspapers  (5)  k  7  2  2  4  1  11  < 6 3  2  3  -  3  2  3  -  23  5  9  1  218  TABLE Most  Important  Respondents  Information  Information  Relying  Source  64  on  Only  Sources Two  Frequency  for  Sources  fo  (1)  brochures  8  18.2  (12  Conversations  8  18.2  (8)  travel  3  6.8  (2)  guidebooks  2  4.5  (9)  National  2  4.5  (13)other  2  4.5  (5)  postcards  1  2.3  (6)  newspapers  1  2.3  Missing  17  38.6  Total  44  100. 0  magazines  Geographic  TABLE 65 I n f o r m a t i o n Sources on Vancouver  I n f o r m a t i o n Source  Frequency U.S.A. All f  Can.  Respondents  fo  (1) b r o c h u r e s  43  63.2  . 62  57.9-  120  58.3  (12)conversations  41  60.3  55  51.4  112  54.4  (3) maps  32  47.1  38  35-5  82  39.8  (2) guidebooks  31  45.6  34  31.8  75  36.4 |  (6)  31  45.6  18  16.8  53  25.7!  (9) N a t i o n a l Geographic  11  16.2  30  28. 0  48  23.3  (5) p o s t c a r d s  21  30.9  17  15.9  42  20.4  (8) t r a v e l  10  14.7  23  21.5  35  17.0  13  19.1  6  5.6  19  9.2  (13)other  2  2.9  9  8.4  15  7.3  (7) news magazines  5  7.4  4  3.7  9  4.4  (ll)academic journals  2  2.9  1  0.9  4  1.9  (lO)novels or poetry  1  1.5  0  0.0  1  0.5  newspapers  magazines  (4) p o s t e r s  220  o f t r i p s t a k e n c r o p s up f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e course o f c o n v e r s a t i o n s between f r i e n d s . The n e x t commonly-mentioned i t e m was t h e map o f Vancouver.  C i t y ; s t r e e t maps p r o v i d e a w e a l t h o f i n f o r m a t i o n  t o t h e v i s i t o r -- t h e l a y o u t o f t h e main r o u t e s , t h e s i z e and c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f t h e c i t y , t h e g e n e r a l l a n d uses, and o f t e n , t h e l o c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n o f major p o i n t s o f i n t e r est . Guidebooks were mentioned respondents  (Table 6 5 ) •  by t h i r t y - s i x p e r c e n t o f t h e  One o f t h e e a r l i e s t  guidebooks  w r i t t e n was c o m p i l e d by F r a n c i s M i s s i o n i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h century f o r t r a v e l l e r s i n I t a l y (Marti-Ibanez,I967)•  Mission  a d v i s e d t h e t r a v e l l e r t o spend f r e e l y -- a t e c h n i q u e s u r e t o f o s t e r r e s p e c t amongst t h e n a t i v e s , and a d m i s s i o n t o p l a c e s of i n t e r e s t !  I n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , K a r l Baedeker  c o m p i l e d t h e famous "Baedeker g u i d e s " f o r t r a v e l l e r s i n Europe.  These d e s c r i b e d a t t r a c t i o n s , h o t e l s , r e s t a u r a n t s ,  shops, b e h a v i o u r codes, and p r o t e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s M a c C a n n e l l p r e s e n t s an i n t e r e s t i n g comparison  (ibid.).  o f t h e views  o f P a r i s a t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , as found i n a guide f o r m i d d l e - c l a s s t o u r i s t s and i n a g u i d e f o r t h e upper classes (I976).  F o r example, t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s guide p r e -  s e n t e d t h e S t o c k Exchange as an e x c i t i n g s p e c t a c l e , w i t h the i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t anyone can make money.  The upper-  c l a s s g u i d e , however, d e s c r i b e d t h e Exchange as n o i s y and u n p l e a s a n t , and a d i s g u s t i n g reminder o f t h e need t o make money.  Both guidebooks  i n c l u d e d as " a t t r a c t i o n s "  elements  of the c i t y t h a t represented the important i n s t i t u t i o n s  221  of law, economy, government,  industry, man and nature, l i f e  and death -- the Supreme Court, Stock Exchange, Mint, Tape s t r y Works, Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Tobacco f a c t o r y , slaughterhouse, morgue, and sewer system. Contemporary guidebooks are often oriented towards s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s -- gourmet d i n i n g , a r t , a r c h i t e c t u r e , h i s t o r i c places, entertainment. In recent years there has been a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of books on Vancouver, complete with colour photographs of the c i t y .  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g ,  t h e r e f o r e , to f i n d that many of these t o u r i s t s had read of Vancouver i n guidebooks. Fewer respondents had learned about Vancouver through the other forms of p r i n t e d media -- newspapers,  magazines,  postcards, posters, j o u r n a l s , and novels or poetry(Table 65). Magazines s p e c i f i e d were the American Automobile A s s o c i a t i o n Magazine, B e a u t i f u l B r i t i s h Columbia, B e t t e r Homes and Gar^e-.s dens, Chatelaine, Chartered Accountant Magazine, a European p e r i o d i c a l Geperau, Holiday, I n t e r n a t i o n a l T r a v e l , L e i s u r e , Macleans, Newsweek, Sunset, T r a v e l , and Vista-Exxon.  The  N a t i o n a l Geographic issue r e f e r r e d to by f o r t y - e i g h t respondents features an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Canada's Window on the Pacific:'  The B r i t i s h Columbia Coast" (March 1972).  Twelve  of the t h i r t y - e i g h t pages focus on Vancouver and include s i x colour photographs of the f o l l o w i n g landscape elements':' (1)  Grouse Mountain s k i i n g  (2)  shoppers downtown on a winter's day (on Georgia Street)  (3)  Burrard Peninsula l o o k i n g north over the downtown area, Stanley Park, Burrard I n l e t ,  222  The  (4)  the West End  (5)  L o s t Lagoon i n S t a n l e y Park -- the aquarium, zoo, p i c n i c grounds,beaches, swimming p o o l s , m i n i a t u r e railway, playing f i e l d s , t r a i l s , v i r g i n forests, are mentioned  (6)  wheat s h i p p i n g I n the h a r b o u r  i n t r o d u c t i o n d w e l l s on the d r e a r i n e s s of Vancouver's  r a i n y weather, and c o n t r a s t s i t w i t h the s p a r k l i n g c l e a r days t h a t are a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the c i t y .  There are  d e s c r i p t i o n s of the l u s h v e g e t a t i o n , s e t t i n g of mountains and sea, geology,  c l i m a t e , v a r i e d topography, and the con-  c e n t r a t i o n o f n a t u r a l and urban advantages.  The  author  a l s o d e s c r i b e s the e a r l y Gastown h i s t o r y , the c i t y ' s growth, and p o r t  fast  activities.  Problems i n Vancouver are a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s  arti-  c l e , b u t care i s t a k e n t o show t h a t the c i t y has t u r n e d them to  i t s advantage.  I t has a h i s t o r y of i s o l a t i o n from the  r e s t of Canada, b u t i t s p r o x i m i t y t o the new  markets i n  Japan has g i v e n Vancouver i n c r e a s e d importance i n the eyes of,fthe E a s t .  The phenomenal growth i n p o p u l a t i o n has l e d  to a h i g h unemployment r a t e , y e t the c i t y p r o f i t s from i t s e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y i n p l a c e s such as Robson S t e e t (Robson="' r u  strasse).  A t one time t h e r e was  "fierce discrimination  and c u l t u r a l e n c l a v e s l i k e Chinatown" ('p. 3 ^ 8 ) , y e t today the r e p u t a t i o n of b e i n g Canada"s l a r g e s t Chinatown i s proclaimed with pride.  Gastown once was  b u t has been r e n o v a t e d  a S k i d Row  district,  t o became a l i v e l y , s o p h i s t i c a t e d  attraction. Much of the i n f o r m a t i o n i s gathered  from  conversations  223 with Vancouverites the an  harbour  master,  economist,  and  thus  -- t h e h o t e l  doorman, a c i t y  t h e p o r t manager, a tugboat  a w a i t r e s s , and c a b d r i v e r s .  likely  bus d r i v e r , skipper,  I t i s well-written  to stimulate the interest  of visitors  to  Vancouver. Other included books,  information sources  volunteered by the respondents  s c h o o l geography and h i s t o r y ,  gardening  non-fiction  i n f o r m a t i o n , and p r e v i o u s v i s i t s  history t o Van-  couver. When t h e r e s p o n s e s for  t o information sources  Canadian/American d i f f e r e n c e s ,  nificant  (Appendix  K).  about t h e c i t y  Posters city,  picturing  i n newspapers,  and postcards  on t h e o t h e r hand,  information  about a c i t y  three  sources  distributed 65 a n d 6 6 ) .  When a s k e d ential  activities  images  news-oriented and events,  as brochures  (designed and  and c o n v e r s a t i o n s ( T a b l e s of tourists  o f Vancouver upon  leaving  i n S e c t i o n 5«9-  which  i n developing  information source their  interest  was most  i n Vancouver,  influconversa-  t i o n s were mentioned most o f t e n by t h e respondents data  s e t (Table  a  t h a t none o f t h e s e  Whether o r n o t t h e two groups  i s examined  city  -- s p e c i a l  by Canadian f i r m s ) ,  the  and t o have  i n f o r m a t i o n about  to provide  were as i m p o r t a n t  held different  t o have  Americans.  tend  Note, however,  actually  sig-  i t s landmarks and a t t r a c t i o n s .  Newspapers,  crimes.  examined  proved  Vancouver,  t h a n were.  provide visual  usually highlighting  high-profile  types  More C a n a d i a n s were l i k e l y  seen p o s t e r s and postcards read  three  were  166).  Table  67. s h o w s t h a t w h e n e v e r  i n this these  TABLE Most  Information  Important  66  Information  Sources  Frequency  Source  (12)conversations with friends or r e l a t i v e s (1) " b r o c h u r e s (2) g u i d e b o o k s (9) N a t i o n a l G e o g r a p h i c (8) t r a v e l magazines (13) o t h e r (6) n e w s p a p e r s (5) p o s t c a r d s  62  30.1  35  17.0 8.7  12 6 6 5 1  5.8  2.9 2.9 2.4 0.5  59  28.6  206  100. 0  18  (  {  Not  applicable  Total  TABLE. Most for  Important  Respondents  (12) (1) (2) (9) (6) (13) (8)  Total  Source  conversations brochures guidebooks National Geographic newspapers other t r a v e l magazines  Missing  Information  Influenced about  Information  67  by  Sources  Conversations  Vancouver  Frequency  fo  62 11 7 5 3 3 1  55-4 9.8 6.3 • 4.5 2.7 2.7 0.9  20  17-9  112  100. 0  225 conversations  were  important  than  any  more  half  of  had  than read  tions  the  were  In  fact,  ly  throughout  Boulding  other  of  type  brochures,  that  many  of  this  in  were  these the his  indicated  the  more  source  Even when  more  than  considered  information  respondents.  important  ittseems  notes  they  the  sales  more  indicated,  the  respondents  that  conversa-  brochures(Table  68).  conversationssfigure  decisions book  tourists  The  for  significant-  make.  Kenneth  Image:  "It i s not the propaganda of the chambers of commerce t h a t b r i n g s p e o p l e to C a l i f o r n i a ; i t i s the l e t t e r or even more, the v i s i t from the e n t h u s i a s t i c f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s who h a v e moved west and found the " p i c k i n g s " good.... A p e r s o n a l message always c a r r i e s more "weight" than an impersonal one. The n a u s e a t i n g and u s u a l l y s e l f - d e f e a t i n g e f f o r t s of advertisers to "personalize" t h e i r communications is testimony to the t r u t h of t h i s proposition (1956:88). Why  should  Would  not  Berger in  communication  a well-informed  discussion  begin The plac the A l l  They  personal  and Luckmann  their  They  a  with  the  (I967) of  stranger provide  social  carry be a  just  weight?  as  r e l i a b l e ?  reasonable  interaction  following  more  in  explanation  everyday  l i f e .  proposition:  most important experience of others takes e in the f a c e - t o - f a c e s i t u a t i o n , which is p r o t o t y p i c a l case of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . . other cases are d e r i v a t i v e of i t (p.28).  explain  that  characteristics  face-to-face  distinguishing  "now"  is  shared  by  communication has i t  from  both  other  types  three (p.  28-9):  (1)  the  participants  (2)  Throughout the conversation both people consciously and " u n c o n s i o u s l y make' s y m b o l i c g e s t u r e s w i t h their f a c e , hands, arms, or other parts of t h e i r body. This permits each person to "monitor" the other's meanings ( " s u b j e c t i v i t y " ) almost i m m e d i a t e l y , and u s e t h o s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t o g u i d e h i s own a c t i o n s  226  TABLE Most for  Information  Important  Respondents  Source  68  Information who  had  Read  Sources Brochures  Frequency  f  (12)conversations  37  30.8  (1)  brochures  34  28.8  (2)  guidebooks  14  11.7  (9)  National  4  3-3  (13)other  2  1.7  (6')  newspapers  1  0.8  (8)  travel  1  0.8  1  0.8  26  21.7  magazines  (ll)academic Missing Total  Geographic  journals  120  100. 0  and (3)  In  thoughts.  In the f a c e - t o - f a c e s i t u a t i o n , the communicator i s f u l l y r e a l t o t h e r e c e i v e r . B e r g e r and L u c k m a n n c l a i m h e may e v e n h e m o r e " r e a l " t o t h e r e ceiver than himself, because self-knowledge r e q u i r e s deliberate introspection.  other words,  dynamic,  and  munication. receiver's  The all  "real"  When t h e s e  qualitiesaare  and  next  of  the  honesty,  powerful  Geographic,  and  --  Although  the  Boulding  literature study  as b e i n g  d i d not  Bryden notes, the  important  to  combined w i t h  com-  the  competence,  guidebooks, (Table  becomes  It  i s not on  ill-founded  false  promotion  travel  t h a t sampled  have grave  r e g i o n which most t r a v e l  or  "experts".  the  or m i s l e a d i n g . can  appears,  available  the  other w r i t e r s c r i t i c i z e propaganda,  were  National  66).  preferred to r e l y  sheer  of  information sources  communication  seem  tourist  unlikely  and  type  e t a l , 1967:43).  magazines  tourists  other  immediate,  communication  brochures,  travel  any  is  communicator's  (Warneryd  f o u r most  than  personal  t h a t when p e r s o n a l  reliable,  for  seems more  travel-oriented  then,  face-to-face situation  knowledge  crediblity, extremely  the  in  this  Indeed,  as  consequences  industries  are  risk:  . . . . i f p r o m o t i o n and a d v e r t i s i n g campaigns a r e b a s e d on p o r t r a y i n g an image o f t h e h o s t c o u n t r y w h i c h i s f a l s e , t h e t o u r i s t may f e e l t h a t h e has been cheated. This could lead to d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and r e s e n t m e n t w h i c h , i f r e f l e c t e d i n t h e behavi o u r o f t o u r i s t s , may b e h e a r t i l y r e c i p r o c a t e d (1973*95). In  the  entire  sample,  b e e n misled, and B.C.  Day  Holiday  only three  a l l the  respondents  complaints  on A u g u s t  7,  1978,  felt  were centred when T o u r  they  had  around  the  1 was  in  228 Vancouver. their  Two  travel  particular in  respondents  a g e n t who  tour  The  third  pointingly  noisy  and  B e c a u s e no  other  tour  which  one  important  of  informed  dirty  these  orientation, scriptions least  problems i n the  rather in  than  their  information  to  interest  (Table ing to  69).  had  the  respondents  been the  probably  least 69).  (Table because  although  or  de-  the  landscape  to  fifteen  emphasis tourist  (and  10(c) Also,  the  asked  seldom have photographs features.  facilities. the  Perhaps  i s on  Also,  lengthy  Newspapers were  respondents.  i n newspapers  most t r a v e l  fifty-one  i n the  usefulness  there  of  casual  were few  a  trip,  a  specific  of  sections than  It is  applicable  information-gather-  i t becomes type  is  responses  cases were not type  the  events  " e x o t i c " l o c a l e s f a r more  however, t h a t since  this  newsworthy  e s p e c i a l l y Canadian) c i t i e s .  done o f t e n l o n g b e f o r e judge  during  again.  i n Vancouver  here,  there.  they  to note,  Question  disap-  basic  American  important  sources  Monday  Mardi Gras  arise  shop  useful for  newspapers f e a t u r e  North  Sunday and  G a s t o w n was  questionnaire  to  much " o b j e c t i v e " i n f o r m a t i o n  of  the  opportunity  the  d i d not  10(c)  important  because  of  to  this  groups a r r i v e d i n Vancouver  i n c r e a t i n g an  provide  that  because  Maps were most o f t e n m e n t i o n e d they  have an  person f e l t  resentment  them t h a t  a l l s t o r e s were c l o s e d  t h a t week.  Question  not  group would not  Vancouver since  such a h o l i d a y  had  directed their  of  difficult media.  TABLE Least  Information (3) (6)  69  Important Information  Source  maps newspapers  Sources  Frequency  %  21  10.2  15  7.3 6.3  (1)  brochures  13  (5)  postcards  9  (12) c o n v e r s a t i o n s  7  3.4  (8)  travel  6  2.9  (4)  posters  5  2.4  (2)  guidebooks  5  2.4  (9)  National  4  1.9  1  0.5  magazines  Geographic  (13) o t h e r Missing Total  or Not  Applicable  120  53.3  206  100. 0  230 5.8  Experiences In  order  Vancouver, ties  they  to d i s c e r n the  i t.is  visited?  11  prehensive  l i s t  first  the  with  Stanley  of  Park,  the  areas,  the  column  (d)).  time  some p l a c e s respondents  been  ent  had  the  gone  had  and  of  activi-  t h a t a l l the had  on  and  any  experi-  the  tour  groups  first  offers  are  experienced  over  half  of  taken  them  to  Bridge  and  Fish  Gate B r i d g e , downtown  G a s t o w n and the  the  initial  (b)and  free  Hatch-  residential 70,  (Table  general  populare  CBD  were  exposure during  (c)).  None o f  although  the  the  the  one  tours respond-  own. i n column  (d)  of  Table  explanation for this  experienced  i n the  t o u r had  and  com-  during their  sample,  Lions  in a  d i n i n g downtown were the  columns  her  and  there  own  Queen E l i z a b e t h T h e a t r e  low,  Bloedel  their  entire  the  to r e s u l t  respondents  Suspension  after  70,  percentages  study  on  that their  S h o p p i n g and  The  Included  the  Queen E l i z a b e t h P a r k ,  to  packages,  the  Chinatown,  (Table  wholesaler  then  Capilano  most o f t e n r e v i s i t e d  had  were designed  places  For  activities,  tour  12  the  indicated  Gastown,  this  Were t h e r e  t o u r and  eries,  city  tourists  t o know w h i c h p l a c e s  some t h a t n o  and  i n Vancouver.  respondents  free  images these  of? Questions  time  essential  experienced.  respondents ence  i n Vancouver  the  same p l a c e s .  a standard  are  city  tours  i s that not a l l Although  between  Queen E l i z a b e t h P a r k ,  Chinatown,  each Vancouver  companies.  of a l l three wholesalers  Stanley Park,  Conservatory,  are generally-  tour for a l l his  some v a r i a t i o n s  city  70  Gastown, downtown,  used  in  the U.B.C,  TABLE 70 P l a c e s E x p e r i e n c e d by  Respondents  (N=199)  Attraction (Landscape  Element)  (1) S t a n l e y Park (2) Vancouver P u b l i c Aquarium (3) Van Dusen Gardens (4) Queen E l i z a b e t h Park (5) K i t s i l a n o Park & E n g l i s h Bay (6) L i g h t h o u s e Park (7) C l e v e l a n d Dam (8) C a p i l a n o F i s h Hatcheries (9) C a p i l a n o Suspension Bridge (10) Lynn Canyon Suspension Bridge (11) Lynn Canyon E c o l o g y Centre (12) Grouse Mountain Skyride (13) Mts. Seymour & Cypress (14) Queen E l i z a b e t h Theatre (15) 0rpheum Theatre (16) A r t G a l l e r i e s  (a) With t o u r only  fo Respondents who E x p e r i e n c e d A t t r a c t i o n TdJ TcT (b) W i t h tour W i t h t o u r and During free ( c o l s , a+c) d u r i h g t f r e e time time o n l y 0.5  94.5 10.6  100.0 21.7  0.0 0,5 0.0  15.6 65.3 5.5  20.6 69.3 7.5  2.5 0.5 2.0  0. 0 0.0 0.0  3.0 1.5 70.9  5-5 2.0 72.9  3.0  0.0  74.9  74.9  0.5  0.0  10.6  11.1  0.5  0.0  4.0  4.5  8.0  0.5  3.5  11.5  2.5 4. 0  1.0 3.5  0. 0 0.0  2.5 4.0  3.5 7.5  0.0 1.0  0.5 4.0  0. 0 0. 0  0.5 1.0  1.0 5-0  82.4 10.1  1.5 11.1  15.6 64.8 5-5  5.0 4.0 2220  3.0 1.5 70.9 74.9 10.6 4.0 3.0  12.1  . continued  TABLE 70 ( c o n t i n u e d ) Attraction (Landscape Element)  ( 1 7 ) C e n t e n n i a l Museum (18)MacMillan Planetarium ( l 9 ) M a r i t i m e Museum ( 2 0 ) B l o e d e l Conservatory !(21)01d H a s t i n g s M i l l (22)Chinatown (23)Gastown (24)downtown (25)Rohsonstrasse (26)S.F.U. (27)U.B.C. ( 2 8 ) L i o n s Gate B r i d g e ( 2 9 ) r e s i d e n t i a l areas (30)performing arts ( 3 1 ) R o y a l Hudson T r a i n Excursion (32)dining (33)shopping (34)other :  Missing:  7 cases  fo Respondents who E x p e r i e n c e d A t t r a c t i o n (d) (c) (b) D u r i n g f r e e W i t h t o u r and With tour time o n l y d u r i n g f r e e time ( c o l s , a+c)  (a) With t o u r only  (e) Total  1-5 2.0  1.5 3.0  3.0 20.6  4.5 22.6  0.0 1.0 0. 0  4.0 37.2 4. 0 68.8 74.9 59.8 22.6 2.5 7.0 68.3 63.3 1.0 0.5  6-5 40.2 4.0 74.3  60.3 1.0 0.5  2.5 3.5 0.0 5.5 10.1 15.1 15.1 3.0 6.0 1.5 3.5 2.0 0.0  15.I 10.6 3-0  44.2 51.8 8.5  29.7 27.2 5.0  73.9 79.0 13.5  1.5 17.6 4.0 36.2 4. 0 54.8 49.2 34.7 15.1 2.5 6.5  64.3  "  (3»4$)  Column ( e ) i s t h e sum o f columns ( a ) , ( b ) , and ( c ) .  14.1  25.6 25.1 7.5 0.0 0.5 4.0 3.0 0.0 0.0  14.6 16.6 2.0  85.O 74.9  42.7 5-5 13-0 69.8 66.8 3.0 0.5  233 dining, from  and a tour o f E n g l i s h  this  that  a l l respondents  would  have  would  h e 100.0.  checked  to  and Horizon also  i n these  sample) t o i n d i c a t e couver and  Public  tours  areas were mentioned seven  percent In  Question not  and a  Gate  drive  of the entire  b y o n l y 10.6  The V a n percent  The C a p i l a n o  Fish  L i o n s Gate B r i d g e , and  residential  the expected  developed  are astonishing  twenty-  by the  responses to  ( T a b l e 71).  were mentioned  notably the Capilano Fish  Places  by the r e n -  Hatcheries and  B r i d g e , L i o n s Gate B r i d g e , and r e s i d e n t i a l  the itineraries  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , were mentioned  some p l a c e s  by Very  areas  included  few of the respond-  ( T a b l e 72). What l i e s  behind  thetquestionnaire it  Aquarium,  the Lions  them t h e r e .  not at a l l .  i n the itineraries  t h e UTL t o u r s .  ents  Public  percent  a r e compared w i t h t h e t o u r i s t s '  spohdehts,most  in  (twenty-seven  when t h e t o u r i t i n e r a r i e s  indicated  for  "both  a l l of the f i f t y - f o u r  b y much more t h a n  11, t h e r e s u l t s  Suspension  100  o f t h e sample.  fact,  wholesalers  since  shopping,  expected  A q u a r i u m was m e n t i o n e d  Robsonstrasse,  question  approaching  t h e Vancouver  t h e tour had taken  t h e Howe S o u n d d r i v e  Hatcheries,  offer  have  this  Similarly,  areas, scheduled  Howe S o u n d , we w o u l d  I t follows  p l a c e s , and a l l t h e percentages  Hatcheries, Robsonstrasse,  residential  respondents  who a n s w e r e d  f o rS t a n l e y Park.  the Capilano Fish Bridge,  o f f these  71).  However, t h e o n l y f i g u r e  p e r c e n t was t h a t Suntours  B a y (Tabi>e  appears?  There  these  discrepancies?  n o t as straightforward are five  possible  Is this  item i n  and "objective"  interpretatioasoof  as  TABLE Comparison  of  Wholesalers'sand  71 Respondents'  X = P l a c e on t o u r i t i n e r a r y a c c o r d i n g to wholesaler. Numbers r e f e r to t o t a l r e s p o n d e n t s m e n t i o n i n g t h a t p l a c e  1 Landscape  Element  ; (1)Stanley Park j (2)Vanc. P u b l i c Aquarium (3)Van Dusen Gardens (4)Queen E l i z a b e t h P a r k ( 5 ) K i t s i l a n o P a r k '& ( E n g l i s h Bay (6)Lighthouse Park ( 7 ) C l e v e l a n d Dam (8)Capilano Fish Hatcheries (9)Capilano Suspension Bridge (10)Lynn Canyon Suspension Bridge ( l l ) L y n n Canyon Ecology Centre (12)Grouse Mtn. Skyride (13)Mt. Seymour & C y p r e s s (l4)Queen E l i z a b e t h Theatre (15)0rpheum T h e a t r e (l6)Art Galleries (17)Centennial Museum (18)MacMillan Planetarium ( 1 9 ) M a r i t i m e Museum  Tour  as  Itineraries  being  on  the  tour  HORIZON SUNTOURS UT] W h o lslr. Tours T o u r s W h o l s l r . Wholslr. Tours (N=38) (N=16) (N=l45) X  138 19  X X  14  115 9  X X  14  6 2 105 133  X X X  1 2 1  18  X  8  X  5 4 6  X  28  X X  2 4 36 5  1 2 1  X X X X  X  36 1 1 1 1  34 15 3  1  X.X. X X X  1 1 2 2  5 2 .  1 ...continued  itinerary.  TABLE  71  Landscape  (continued) Element  (20')Bloedel Conservatory (21) 01d H a s t i n g s M i l l (22) C h i n a t o w n (23) G a s t o w n (24) downtown (25) R o b s o n s t r a s s e (26) S . F . U . (27) U.B.C. (28) L i o n s Gate Bridge (29) r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s (30) p e r f o r m i n g arts (31) R o y a l H u d s o n Train Excursion (32) d i n i n g (33) s h o p p i n g (34) T o t e r n P a r k Sears Observation Deck Squamish Point Grey Other  HORIZON SUNTOURS UTL W h o lslr. T o u r s W h o l s l r . Wholslr. Tours (N=16) (N=l45) X X X X X  X  68 6  X  93 99  X X X X  80 21 2 10  96 102 2 1 X X X  32 35  1 13 14  X X X  11 2 2 1 10 5  X X  1 3  X X X  x x X X X X X X X  X X X  X  HGRI  236 TABLE Places  i n Itineraries  b u t Mentioned  Wholesaler UTL  72 by few Respondents  Places 1 K i t s i l a n o Park / E n g l i s h U.B.C., T o t e m P a r k  Bay, Old Hastings  Mill,  SUNTOURS  Vancouver P u b l i c Aquarium, Lighthouse Park, C l e v e l a n d Dam, C a p i l a n o F i s h H a t c h e r i e s a n d Suspension B r i d g e , Lynn Canyon Suspension B r i d g e and Ecology Centre, Grouse Mountain S k y r i d e , Orpheum T h e a t r e , C e n t e n n i a l Museum, MacMillan Planetarium, Bloedel Conservatory, Robsonstrasse, U.B.C, r e s i d e n t i a l areas, dini n g , s h o p p i n g , S e a r s O b s e r v a t i o n D e c k , Howe Sound D r i v e , P o i n t Grey  HORIZON  V a n c o u v e r P u b l i c A q u a r i u m , Queen E l i z a b e t h Park, K i t s i l a n o P a r k / E n g l i s h Bay, B l o e d e l C o n s e r v a t o r y , S.F.U. , U . B . C , Totem P a r k , P o i n t Grey  (This  table  summarizes  Table  71)'  237 these  results: (1)  poor questionnaire  design  (2)  weather  (3)  wholesaler  error  (4)  respondent  confusion  (5)  differential  effects  impact  Each  o f these  (1)  POOR Q U E S T I O N N A I R E D E S I G N The  leading, tion  interpretations w i l l  design  of the question  o r how t o a n s w e r  i t .  no r e s p o n d e n t s  with, (2)  this  may b e w e a k , o r m i s t h e ques-  d o e s n o t seem l i k e l y  rate to the question any c r i t i c i s m s  since  (96.6 p e r c e n t ) , o f , o r problems  item.  WEATHER E F F E C T S The  weather during  a very  brief  tended  stay a t others,  facilities. possible  visit  the city  such  Chapter  However,  indoor  earlier,  i t was n o t  121) d i d n o t h a v e tour.  some r a i n  D i d respondents  indoor  facilities  i n the other  determine  i t i spossible to test  t o Question  k, i t i s s e e n t h a t o n l y  either  and an ex-  t o accompany t h e t o u r s and " o b j e c t i v e l y "  p a t t e r n s , i n the responses  spondents  as parks,  Unfortunately, as mentioned  for  fewer  such  a s museums a n d o t h e r  actual itineraries.  city  t o u r s may h a v e f o r c e d  t o some p l a c e s  the  in  i n turn.  d i d n o t understand  This  volunteered  questionnaire  elements.  he examined  itself  so t h a t t h e respondents  t h e r e was a h i g h r e s p o n s e and  of landscape  three  11.  From Table  tours  (#6, 7, a n d  on t h e day o f t h e i r  a r r i v a l and  i n these  three  o r more o u t d o o r  tours  elements  mention than  t o u r s who d i d :"l e n c o u n t e r  re-  rain?  k2  238 Fourteen together  places  as b e i n g  are  not  All  other  performed,  the  relationships  difference  (3)  claimed  between the tours  (Appendix  those  to have v i s i t e d  the  t-test  direction no  of  significant the  two  L).  a place  t h a t the w h o l e s a l e r  particular,  most of  the  Bridge,  the Lions  Capilano  the  UTL  T h i s was  confirmed  by  pleted  Question  11  the  brochures. fact visit  and  by  four  respondents the wholesaler  e r r o r of  respondents  and  the  to  to  Capilano  have  Suspension  areas  on  e s c o r t s who  i n f o r m a t i o n i n the that these  did  omission.  claimed  residential  f o u r UTL  then,  had  i s some r e a s o n  made a n  the  I t seems o b v i o u s these  there  Fish Hatcheries,  Gate B r i d g e ,  the  although  had  tour.  their  com-  company  tours did  in  places.  RESPONDENT CONFUSION Earlier,  raised. one  73)•  of p l a c e s mentioned by  i n s t a n c e s where most of  visited  (4)  (Table  Student  p r e d i c t e d , t h e r e was  types  activities  whose a s s o c i a t e d  When t h e  that although  include i t i n his itinerary,  beliieve In  as  those  grouped  W H O L E S A L E R ERROR In  not  of  was  were  where v i s i t o r  as  rain.  found  11  overcast weather  considered  i t was  i n Question  facilities  dampened by  was  list  r a i n y or  p l a c e s were are  the  indoor  a f f e c t e d by  activities  groups  on  the  These t o u r i s t s  week b e f o r e  exposed  i s s u e of  t o many  their  confusion  had  a l l been t r a v e l l i n g  arrival  "sights"  and  of package tours  i n Vancouver, attractions  was  for at  so  had  been  along  the  way.  least  TABLE Places  Landscape (8)  Ecology  Centre  Theatre  Theatre  Galleries  (17) C e n t e n n i a l (18) M a c M i l l a n  Museum Planetarium  (19) M a r i t i m e  Museum  (20) B l o e d e l  Conservatory  ( 2 1 ) 01d  Indoor  Hatcheries  Elizabeth  (15) O r p h e u m (16) A r t  Fish  Canyon  (14) Queen  as  Element  Capilano  (ll)Lynn  Classified  73  Hastings  M i l l  (29) r e s i d e n t i a l (30) p e r f o r m i n g (31) R o y a l  areas arts  Hudson  (32) d i n i n g (33) s h o p p i n g  Museum  Train  Excursion  F a c i l i t i e s  240 W i t h i n Vancouver, sometimes in  have  comprehensive,  c o v e r i n g up t o t w e n t y - f i v e p l a c e s o r  a single  should  t h e t o u r becomes e v e n more  day.  I t would  some r e s p o n d e n t s  h o t be t o t a l l y  become  confused  activities  unexpected  then,  as t o where  they  been. To c o m p o u n d t h e p r o b l e m ,  ties  the l i s t  11 by n e c e s s i t y  i n Question  o f p l a c e s and  included  five  activi-  parks,  two  canyons w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l c e n t r e s and s u s p e n s i o n bridges-,; two  theatres,  t h r e e museums,  the  list  arranged  it  was  appears  names  that  minds  factor  several  simple count  was m e n t i o n e d According Stanley  Park,  Bridge  unsure  i s frequent exposure  p l a c e names  o f t h e number o f t i m e s  Chinatown,  each  brochures  Queen E l i z a b e t h  shopping,  74  Table  place or  collected  the city's Park,  i n the  t o -those names  they had s t u d i e d beforehand.  i n the f i f t e e n  of the  through presents  activity  i n Toronto.  highlights are  Gastown, B l o e d e l Con-  the Capilano  Suspension  and H a t c h e r i e s , U.B.C, L i o n s Gate B r i d g e , and t h e  residential column  remained  together,  visited.  to these brochures,  servatory,  areas  of the North  (d) of Table  70,  t h e sample mentioned  part  tourists  Although  p l a c e s grouped  that helps to consolidate  of tourists  the brochures  of  with similar  o f the p l a c e s they had One  a  and two u n i v e r s i t i e s .  ;  of their  frequently  tour.  Shore  i t i s seen eight  Shopping,  and Shaughnessy.  that  of these  over  sixty  elements  percent  as b e i n g  h o w e v e r , was n a t u r a l l y  designated as a f r e e - t i m e a c t i v i t y ,  the  B l o e d e l C o n s e r v a t o r y was m e n t i o n e d  but  not by the respondents.  often  From  so t h a t  more only  i n the brochures  TABLE Frequency  Landscape  of  74  P l a c e Names  Element  (1)Stanley Park (2)Vancouver P u b l i c Aquarium (3)Van Dusen B o t a n i c a l Gardens (4)Queen E l i z a b e t h P a r k (5)Kitsilano Park (&English Bay) (6)Lighthouse Park ( 7 ) C l e v e l a n d Dam (8)Capilano Fish Hatcheries (9)Capilano Suspension Bridge (10)Lynn Canyon S u s p e n s i o n B r i d g e ( l D ) L y n n Canyoft E c o l o g y Centre (12)Grouse M o u n t a i n S k y r i d e (13)Mount Seymour and C y p r e s s M t n . (l4)Queen E l i z a b e t h Theatre (15)0rpheum T h e a t r e (l6)Art Galleries ( 1 7 ) C e n t e n n i a l Museum (18)MacMillan Planetarium ( 1 9 ) M a r i t i m e Museum (20)Bloedel Conservatory (21)01d H a s t i n g s M i l l M u s e u m (22)Chinatown (23)Gastown (24)downtown (25)Robsonstrasse (26)S.F.U. (27)U.B.C. (28)Lions Gate Bridge (29)residential areas (30)performing arts (31)Royal Hudson T r a i n Excursion (32)dining (33)shopping (34)harbour (35)other - - night l i f e , sports, Howe S o u n d  in  Brochures  Frequency  39 2 0 25 9 0 0 15 17 0  00  9 0 4 0 2 0 0 1 20 0 19 21 7 0 0 13 12 12 0 1 8 19 8 8  242 (5)  D I F F E R E N T I A L I M P A C T OF The  recall  advertising product that  of  the  the  direct  than  course,  to  catalogs  traction  i n order  effort  istics teen  --  of  have  Did  tour, from  places  listed  art galleries  reader on  setting  as  a key  a mode o f  as  part  being 12  and  tourists  of  the  13  had  their  of  a  11  that  are  theatres. i s made at%  i t offers in  a general  characterIndeed,  centred  two  less  tourist  "natural"  tour  listed  itineraries to  on  thirparks,  universities  attractions? their  free  by  the  on  the  interest  their  introdueeddin the How  f a r d i d they  time?  respond-  i n Vancouver.  assess  i n e x p l o r i n g Vancouver  hotel during  or  also  characteristic.  were designed  other  as  than  some e f f o r t  Even the  usually return to places  or v i s i t  visitors  climate.  t e n p l a c e s was  the  the  such  the West Coast  i n Question  or mountains.  Overall,  they  as  on  of  l u s h v e g e t a t i o n are  characteristics  focused  east  these  the  the  trees far  West C o a s t  literature  convince  see  a  i t follows  places with  on  I n V a n c o u v e r and  canyons,  Questions these  the  t o p o g r a p h y , v e g e t a t i o n , and  their  ents  to  seems t o be  the  gardens,  such  promotional  "unique"  to  or the  impact  attractions  the  experience,  ever  the  images are  f o r example, has  would  Salmon H a t c h e r i e s  experience.  this  Park,  respondents  i n any  Since  w o u l d remember t h o s e  to have a g r e a t e r  Of  new  indirect  Other features unique  place-specific  o n l y a f f e c t e d by  other media.  as  Stanley  these  Pacific  likely  or  as w e l l  impact.  Rockies.  names i s n o t  i n brochures  respondents  greatest larger  of p l a c e  LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS  own. city travel  243 According five  respondents  Vancouver  and  the  results  d i d not 75).  (Table  sufficient, the  to  however,  a c t i v i t i e s on  their  to  have v i s i t e d  fifteen  time  f o r d i n i n g and  two  taken The  place  look"  places  distance  by  only  70,  (Table  of  of  were the  Seabus r i d e ,  Note again  Was Table they  76 had  at  during  of  --  a  few  least  their  the  the  not  included  claimed  time. their  free  explains  the  both  city 70,  to  why  tour  had  column ( c ) ) .  for a  "second  also within  i n the  during  Robsonstrasse the  aquarium  places  free  visited  the  a  are  were  time  the d e s t i n a t i o n Park  during  the free  waterfront.;and  Rosary C a t h o l i c Church,  these  tour  i n Stanley  Other places Tower,  city  their  was  also mentioned viewing  two  of  unstructured  This  returned Park,  Most  hotel.  and  t h a t many o f  there  Stanley  Observation  Holy  used  .'jdowntown ( T a b l e  tourists  was  tworplaces  free  highly  in  tour  respondents  most o f t e n a f t e r  respondents  (b)).  Sears  both  city  to rest.  three  twenty-  experiences  the  time  pedestrian.  twenty-two.  respondents  distance  the  respondents,  destination  Two  the  the  places  column  thirty  time  shopping  re-visited  In general,  of  places  were C h i n a t o w n and  visited  the  Indeed,  w e r e G a s t o w n and  other  walking  felt  experienced  own.  a v a i l a b l e to  places  two  free-time  they  use  questionnaire,  l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n of respondents  activities the  this  any  Perhaps  or  The  gain  p r e f e r r e d to  respondents,  of  film  and on  within  the  library.  Vancouver. walking  hotels.  indeed  a  "friction  of  indicates that half  of  travelled  ten blocks  more t h a n  the  distance" effect? respondents from  estimated  their  hotel  TABLE Number  Number  of  75  of Places Experienced  Places/Activities  During  Frequency  0 1 2 3  25 16 38 30 27 20 17  4  5 6 7 8 ' 9 10 11 12 13  (1) (2) (3)  0-2 3 - 5 6 - 10  (4)  more  Missing Total  than  Hotel  206  100. 0  76  Travel  Range  Frequency  5 20 10  18.4  14.6  3.4  Missing  Free-time  12.1 7.8  7  15  TABLE  fo  3 2 0 1 1 1 1 3  14  Total  Time  13.1 9-7 8.3 6.8 1.5 1.0 0,. "0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.5  14  D i s t a n c e from (blocks)  Free  f  2.4 9.7  47 104  22.8 50.5  30  14.6  206  100. 0  '!  245 during  their  Vancouver between ly  places  not  in  lack  of  actual  ure,  four  beyond  the  (Table  no  tests of  rows  the  that  point as  of  mid-way  the  node.  are  Clearly  beyond  a  to  be  ten  blocks).  a map  of  bus  routes  useful  crucial  features  peninsula  (assumed  been  distance 77)-  of  the  very  city  to  factor  them. in  block  range  Because  significance suggest  hotel  in  their  that  a very  they  had  had  c e l l  were  free  is  they  the  distance  and  Perhaps  l i m i t i n g  the  subjective.  claimed  33  this  free-  rough  visited  for  people  w i l l  at  i t  unit  must  of  meas-  places  acknowledged  performed  time  Although  frequencies  those  respondents  in  clearly  Question  are  so  Table  77-  small, However,  who  stay  close  least  dine  and  to  shop  area.  Images What had  presented  of  were  In  of  the  the  Table  frequencies important  discussed  Vancouver images  experienced  frequencies  most  the  be  and  32  their  that  to  respondents  13  the  a  estimate  appears  granted  they  was  the  Vancouver  Inlet  suggested have  using  the  travel.  travelled  5.9  and  Burrard  would  7 shows  zone,  distance  Information  The  in  each  the  respondents  schedules  Figure  Georgia  walking  time  be  in  Hotels  comfortable  time  time.  located  the  Several  free  here.  are ones  in  these  Vancouver?  place/image 78.  the  The  matrix  Because  generally and  respondents  the  small.  row  and  had  of  the  individual  (Question  matrix  has  Therefore, column  c e l l  14) 612  totals  places  are c e l l s ,  only w i l l  the be  Figure Relative to  Position  Hotels  (See  Table  Georgia  77  7 of and  Attractions Vancouver  for Place  Names)  TABLE Number o f R e s p o n d e n t s V i s i t i n g  Landscape  Element  77 each P l a c e  Distance 0-2  1) S t a n l e y P a r k 2) V a n c . P u b l i c A q u a r i u m 3) V a n D u s e n B o t a n i c a l G a r d e n s 4) Queen E l i z a b e t h P a r k 5) K i t s i l a n o P a r k / E n g l i s h B a y 6) L i g h t h o u s e Park 7) C l e v e l a n d Dam 8) C a p i l a n o F i s h H a t c h e r i e s 9) C a p i l a n o S u s p e n s i o n Bridge Bridge 10 L y n n C a n y o n S u s p e n s i o n Centre 11 L y n n C a n y o n E c o l o g y 12 G r o u s e M o u n t a i n S k y r i d e 13 M o u n t S e y m o u r a n d C y p r e s s M t n . 14 Q u e e n E l i z a b e t h T h e a t r e 15 O r p h e u m T h e a t r e 16 A r t G a l l e r i e s 17 C e n t e n n i a l M u s e u m 18 M a c M i l l a n P l a n e t a r i u m 19 M a r i t i m e Museum Conservatory 20 B l o e d e l 21 O l d H a s t i n g s M i l l M u s e u m 22 C h i n a t o w n 23 G a s t o w n 24 d o w n t o w n 25 R o b s o n s t r a s s e 26 S . F . U . 27 U.B.C.  During  from H o t e l 3 - 5  Free  Time  (blocks)  T3T  6-10 2 1  More  t h a n 10 23 21 10  8  i  1 1  1 1  3 5 1 1 3 1 1 15 2 7 5 6  9 4 8  1 1 2 1 2 2  5 16 20 12 2 1  . . ..continued  31 50 55 30 3  8  T A B L E 77  Landscape  (continued) Distance (1) 0-2  Element  (28)Lions Gate Bridge ( 2 9 ) r e s i d e n t i a l areas (30 ) p e r f o r m i n g a r t s (31)Royal Hudson T r a i n (32 J d i n i n g (33) s h o p p i n g (34) o t h e r  from H o t e l (blocks) (4) (2) (3) 6 1 0 M o r e t han 3 - 5 10 10 4  1 Excursion  1 3 2  9 17 2  30 37 3  68 69 13  10  TABLE ? 8 Place/image Place  Matrix  (Question 1 4 )  or A c t i v i t y  (1)Stanley Park (2)Vanc. Pub. Aquarium (3)Van Dusen Gardens (4)Queen E l i z a b e t h Park ( 5 ) K i t s i l a n o Park & E n g l i s h Bay ( 6 ) L i g h t h o u s e P*ark ( 7 ) C l e v e l a n d Dam ( 8 ) C a p i l a n o F i s h Hatcheries ( 9 ) C a p i l a n o Susp. B r i d g e (10)Lynn Canyon Susp. B r . ( l l ) L y n n Canyon E c o l o g y Centre (12)Grouse Mtn. S k y r i d e ( 1 3 ) M t s . ^Seymour & Cypress (l4)Queen E l i z a b e t h Theatre (15)0rpheum T h e a t r e (l6)Art Galleries ( 1 7 ) C e n t e n n i a l Museum (18)MacMillan Planetm. ( 1 9 ) M a r i t i m e Museum (20)Bloedel Conservatory (21)01d H a s t i n g s M i l l  Exciting  Beautiful  18  144  Historical  Image A m a t e u r - CosmoHigh Bustish politan Status l i n g  Depressing  97 4  23 0 1 3 1  0 0 0 0 0  2 1 1 1 0  12 4 0 6 0  0 0 1 2 0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0  2 0 7  0 0 10  0 1 0  0 0 0  0 0 7  0 0 1  0 0 2  63 2 1  20 3 0  7 0 0  7 1 0  2 0 0  l 0 0  3 1 0  1 0 0  12 1  7 1  1 0  1 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  2  2  0  0  1  1  0  0  0 1 2 9 1 16 1  0 1 3 15 2 51 0  0 1 4 3 2 0 0  0 2 0 0 0 0 0  0 2 1 3 0 0 ; 0  0 0 1 3 0 9 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 0  6 1 4 1  40  5  18  . . ..continued  / o 0 0 0  TABLE 78  (continued)  Place or A c t i v i t y  (22)Chinatown (23)Gastown (24)downtown (25)Robsonstrasse (26)S.F.U. (27)U.B.C. ( 2 8 ) L i o n s Gate B r i d g e j ( 2 9 p r e s i d e n t i a l areas \ (30)performing arts ( 3 1 ) R o y a l Hudson T r a i n (32)dining (33)shopping (34)other ( i n c l . (35)) (36)Vancouver as a whole Total  Image E x c i t i n g Beautii'" ; H i s t o r - ;Amateur- Cosmo- H i g h Bust- Depresical ish p o l i t a n Status l i n g sing ful  4 2 0 17 16 7 58  103  46  2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 . 0 0 1 1 0 0  393  647  200  18  25 29  22 9 3  1  19  3 10  21  4 3 4 33 64 1 0 5 7 7  26  47 5 2  1 0  9 5 0  0 1 2 0  15  24 42 25  0 0 4 8 0 0 35 37 2 55  261  1 1 8 4 0 0 4 21 1 1  28 24 34 11 0 0 3 1  16 0 20  4 24 1 44  6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1  138  182  11  0 0  17  . ...continued  TABLE 78 ( c o n t i n u e d ) Place or A c t i v i t y  ( 1 ) S t a n l e y Park (2)Vanc. Pub. Aquarium (3)Van Dusen Gardens (4)Queen E l i z a b e t h Park ( 5 ) K i t s i l a n o Park & E n g l i s h Bay ( 6 ) L i g h t h o u s e Park ( 7 ) C l e v e l a n d Dam (8)Capilano F i s h Hatcheries ( 9 ) C a p i l a n o Susp. Brv-(10)Lynn Canyon Susp. Bridge (11)Lynn Canyon E c o l o g y Centre (12)Grouse Mtn. S k y r i d e (13)Mts. Seymour and Cypress (l4)Queen E l i z a b e t h Theatre (15)0rpheum Theatre (16)Art G a l l e r i e s ( 1 7 ) C e n t e n n i a l Museum (18)MacMillan Planetarium ( l 9 ) M a r i t i m e Museum (20)Bkedel Conservatory (21)01d H a s t i n g s M i l l (22)Chinatown  Image Other Tot. F o r Phys. Nat- N o i s y I n Good Inno- L a r g e Amer. B r . Taste vative Char. Char. ural Recr. 22 0 0 3 0  55 1 0 13 3  0 0 0 0 0  40  0 0 1  0 0 19  0 1 11  0 0 6  3 0  10 0  0 0  0  1  1 0  GO  15 0 2 5 0  1 2 0 1 0  385 26 35 168 11  16  0 0 2  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 26  2 2 138  4 0  5 0  3 0  0 0  0 0  14  143  0  7  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  2  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 1  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  22 3  .0  0  0  3  0  2  0  0  0  11  0 0 0 2  0 0 1 1  0 1 0 0  1 1 2 5  0 0 2 6  0 0 1 0  0 0 1 1  0 2 1 0  0 1 1 2  0 0 0 0  1 7 0 3  0 2 0 8  0 13 0 4  0 8 0 0  0 1 0 5  0 1 0 1  0 1 0 0  0 3 0 10  2 7 20 2  9 1 3 5 0  43 3 1 8 0  0 0  1 1 0 0  . ...continued  ,  1 13 20 50 6 112 1 137  TABLE  78  Place  or  (continued) Activity For Phys. Recr.  (23) G a s t o w n (24) downtown (25 ) R o h s o n s t r a s s e  (26) S . F . U . (27) U.B.C. (28) L i o n s Gate Bridge (29) r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s (30) p e r f o r m i n g a r t s (31) R o y a l H u d s o n Train (32) d i n i n g (33) s h o p p i n g (34 )v("35-) o t h e r (36)Vancouver as a whole Total  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 15 48  Image Good I n n o N a t - "Noisy" I n vative Taste ural 4  3 1  0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 15 141  Xafge  2  8 6 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 3 0 12  14 8  12 1 28  18  1 41  46  239  120  153  6 1 1 4 22 1  0 31  15 7 6 .0 2 2 1  0 1  4 6 2  10 0 0 4  13 5 0 0 0 8  Amer. Char.  Br.""  Other  ToTT  Char.  5 12 1 1 1 0 7 0 0 12 155 1 19  1 3 0 .0 1 0 10 1 0 6 5 0 26  12 4 3 1 1 3 3 0 0 11 9 0 19  I1196 185 74 10 15 95 154 6 2  80  79  127  2883  147  162 22 520  It  was  eearlier  suggested  that  different  a different  impact  variability  i s t h e number o f r e s p o n s e s  in  the place/image  oh t h e t o u r i s t .  matrix  p l a c e s were a l l i n c l u d e d second,  third,  of  (Table 79). i n the city  and f o u r t h  town) were r e v i s i t e d  One  (Stanley  Stanley and  citing,  each  tours,  Park,  in  g e n e r a l was v i e w e d  and  beautiful  place.  were dominated tunities  were  by  thirteen  Gastown, and  t h e image  M.  natural,  The d o w n t o w n  exciting, Park oppor-  bustling.  Properties  good t a s t e ,  ex-  area  The s h o p p i n g  c o s m o p o l i t a n and  f o r t h e i r beauty,  large,  t o be h i s t o r i c a l ,  "beautiful".  of the B r i t i s h  down-  P o s t c a r d s o f some  R e s p o n s e s f o r Queen E l i z a b e t h  areas  nessy were noted  received  as a c o s m o p o l i t a n , b u s t l i n g ,  c o n s i d e r e d t o be  The r e s i d e n t i a l  this  i n Appendix  and c o s m o p o l i t a n i n c h a r a c t e r .  have  and t h o s e r a n k i n g  considered beautiful,  Gastown appeared  of  place top  b y many r e s p o n d e n t s .  P a r k was  i n good t a s t e .  measure  The  t h e more i m p o r t a n t p l a c e s a r e f o u n d  p l a c e s may  and  Shaugh-  and h i g h  sta-  tus . Vancouver's c o s m o p o l i t a n and volunteered city,  not  h i t the r i g h t  and  t h e comment,  spots".  One  "awful".  that  their  Toronto-based  restaurant.  the importance  labelled  respondent,  The  just  she l a b e l l e d  outcome  n e x t meal w o u l d be This respondent's  of dining,  however,  C h i n e s e f o o d seemed The  as b e i n g  experiences i n  "So f a r we  restaurant  other restaurants mediocre.  p e r i e n c e s was  trate  One  were  review of her dining  beginning with  and a n o t h e r ,  two  opportunities  i n good t a s t e .  a critical  the  isty"  dining  in a  "tour-  strange,  of her exfamiliar  attitudes  i n the t o u r i s t i c  have  illus-  experience  255 TABLE P l a c e s Ranked  Rank  79  b y Number o f R e s p o n s e s Responses  Place  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13( 14 15 16 17 18  (36)Vancouver as a whole (1) S t a n l e y P a r k (23)Gastown (24)downtown (4) Q u e e n E l i z a b e t h P a r k (33)shopping ( 2 9 ) r e s i d e n t i a l areas (32)dining (9) C a p i l a n o S u s p e n s i o n Bridge (8) C a p i l a n o F i s h H a t c h e r i e s (22 ) C h i n a t o w n (20)Bloedel Conservatory (28)Lions Gate B r i d g e (25)Robsonstrasse (18)MacMillan Planetarium (3) V a n D u s e n G a r d e n s (2) V a n e . P u b l i c A q u a r i u m (12)Grouse Mtn. S k y r i d e ( 3 4 ) , (35) o t h e r  19 20 21 22  ( 1 7 ) C e n t e n n i a l Museum (27)U.B.C (l6)Art Galleries (5) K i t s i l a n o P a r k / E n g l i s h B a y (l4)Queen E l i z a b e t h Theatre (26)S.F.U. (10)Lynn Canyon S u s p e n s i o n B r . (19)Maritime Museum (30)performing arts (13)Mts. Seymour & C y p r e s s (6) L i g h t h o u s e Park (7) C l e v e l a n d Dam ( l l ) L y n n Canyon E c o l o g y Centre (31)Royal Hudson T r a i n E x c u r s n a r (15)0rpheum T h e a t r e (21)01d H a s t i n g s M i l l Museum  23 24 25 26 27  28  * Cell  frequencies  520 385 I96 185 168 162 154 147 143 138 137 112 95 74 50 35 26 22 22 20 15 13 11 11 10 7 6 6 3 2 2 2 2 1 1  Most Impt. Image beautiful beautiful historical cosmopolitan beautiful cosmopolitan beautiful cosmopolitan exciting exciting bustling beautiful beautiful cosmopolitan beautiful beautifull exciting exciting exciting, beautiful historical  --  -  insignificant  (This t a b l e summarizes t h e row and column p l a c e / i m a g e m a t r i x , T a b l e 78).  totals  of the  256 as  noted  "by M c i n t o s h :  The t o u r i s t c o n s i d e r s e a t i n g a n d p o s s i b l y d r i n k i n g as among t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f h i s v a c a t i o n . How t h e s e f o o d s a r e p r e p a r e d a n d p r e s e n t e d t o h i m a r e o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e . Among h i s h a p p i e s t m e m o r i e s may b e t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f d i n i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e and Iperhaps u n u s u a l e a t i n g p l a c e where l o c a l foods were prepared and served t o p e r f e c t i o n  (1972:36).  Clearly,  however, d i n i n g  e x p e r i e n c e s may b e a m o n g t h e u n -  h a p p i e s t memories o f a p l a c e as w e l l . The  s u s p e n s i o n b r i d g e and f i s h  Canyon b o t h  seemed t o be e x c i t i n g  was c o n s i d e r e d b e a u t i f u l , river and  below,  for  To t h e s e  and e x c i t i n g .  important 79•  Table images  "interesting"  dominated  and L i o n s Gate. place listed  -- f o r t h e e n t i r e  over  bustling,  the responses  Bridge.  The  i s presented i n  cosmopolitan,  when t h e images a r e r a n k e d  important  i n good  list  taste,  of places.  according to the total  a l l places, these  are the top s i x  80).  Two Firstly, Secondly, negative  o t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s may b e made a l l t h e images suggested the three least characteristics  popular  suggested.  downtown.  The h i g h e s t f r e q u e n c y ^ Bridge.  Table  80.  responses.  images were t h e t h r e e  t o Vancouver as a whole,  Capilano Suspension  from  r e c e i v c e d some  primarily  the  o f the canyon  C h i n a t o w n was  "Beautiful"  exciting,  and b u s t l i n g  number o f r e s p o n s e s (Table  tourists  image f o r each  -- b e a u t i f u l ,  fact,  Also, the bridge  Note t h a t there a r e o n l y s i xd i f f e r e n t  historical, In  probably because  the Bloedel Conservatory  most  places.  a n d t h e h a t c h e r i e s were l a b e l l e d  "educational".  historical,  hatcheries i n Capilano  " N o i s y " was Chinatown,  applied  Gastown, and  f o r "amateurish"  was f o r  Chinatown r e c e i v e d s i x of  257  TABLE 80 Images Ranked "by Number o f Responses Rank  Image  Responses  fo  1  (2 ) b e a u t i f u l  647  22.4  2  (1) e x c i t i n g  393  13.6  3  (5 ) c o s m o p o l i t a n  261  9-1  4  ( 1 2 ) i n good t a s t e  239  8.3  5  (3)historical  200  6.9  6  (7 ) b u s t l i n g  182  6.3  7  (14)large  153  5-3  8  (10)natural  141  4.9  9  (6)high  138  4.8  status  10  (17) o t h e r  127  4.4  11  (13)innovative  120  4.2  12  (15)American  80  2.8  13  (l6)British  79  2.7  14  (9)for physical recreation  48  1.7  15  (11)noisy  46  1.6  16  (4)amateurish  18  0.6  17  (8 )depressingi'  11  0.4  2883  100.0  'Total  character character  258 the  eight responses  has  not  completely  for  the  various  To  areas  to group  land uses,  received  the  land  portation,  and  tern reflects type  of  free  time.  as  the  mapped the  social  the  "Cosmopolitan" general  Considering  the  seven l a n d use  tus  of  types.  Shaughnessyand  more a p p r o p r i a t e  the  of  For  a  ists  had  extremely  this  result  may  each their  residential  dominant  image  commercial were  list-  distinguish social  sta-  P r o p e r t i e s might have  been  than  high  merely  "beautiful"  to  parks.  superficial  level,  simplistic  in fact  image f o r m a t i o n .  to  pat-  transportation  would  the  leisure  during  leisure  two  parks  this  s i x t e e n iimages  p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s may On  and the  to  trans-  tourists  image f o r  example,  British  areas,  t o u r and  and  only  characteristic  them f r o m  result.  of  city  emerged as  that  i t is  and  Clearly  the  important  total  i t is rather surprising  Two  of  commercial,  that a  images  shows t h a t  general  or p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , parks,  office,  distinguish  81  residential  the  most  ed,  a  Table  exposure  during  general  8.  or p u b l i c s e r v i c e s .  both  s t i l l  features according  3..  and  i t  of Vancouver,  f o l l o w e d by  office  The  i n Figure  images  i n Chapter  was  Apparently  image.  landscape  relative  l a n d use,  the  the  social  facilitiess,  uses.  are  uses,  "Beautiful"  for  i t s ghetto  most responses,  commercial  areas,  lost  f u r t h e r understand  instructive their  f o r "depressing".  be  drawn from  i t appears  images  as  this  i f these  of Vancouver.  illustrate  the  underlying  Specifically,  the  concern  here  tour-  However, processes is  how  259  Figure General  Tourist  8  Images o f  Vancouver  TABLE Images  Land  Use  for  Type Exciting  19  17 1 45 9  372  579  164  22 101  75 4 147  9  Total  Historical  64 21 45 62 7 347 33  '4  1 2 3 4 5 7  Beaut i f u l  81  Different  Amateurish  1. 0 4 4 0 9 0  5 5  82  18  Land  Uses  Image CosmoHi-ghus politan Status  Bus^t l i n g  [Depressing  1 34 121 38 0 8 3  0 0 6 1 0 3  4  21 8 30 36 0 35 4  288  134  205  10  8 42 143  85 0 6  . . . .  o  continued  Key: Land  Use  Places  Type  1.  Residential  2. 3. 4. 5. (jf. 9.  Office General Commercial Leisure Commercial S o c i a l or P u b l i c Services Parks Transportation  *Place  24  is  "triple-counted"  (refer  t o r l i s t  in  Question  11)  29 ( S h a u g h n e s s y a n d B r i t i s h Properties) 24* (C.B.D.) 2 2 , 23, 24*. 25, 33 2 , 1 2 , 1 4 , 15; 1 6 , 17, 1 8 , 19, 2 1 , 2 4 * 30,  26, 1, 28  27 3, 4 ,  5, 6 ,  (Lions  because  of  Gate the  7, 8 ,  9, 1 0 ,  11,  13,  31,  20  Bridge) multiple  functions  of  the  C:?.B.D.  32  TABLE  Land  81  Use  Type  image Large  American Character  B r i t i s h Character  5  7  10  3  154  7  10  12  3  4  185  44  34  25  34  9  38  754  9  54  21  16  27  13  21  490  0  0  2  2  4  2  1  2  25  108  4  92  47  58  2  23  45  1008  0  1  4  2  13  0  0  3  95  132  46  226  114  131  84  59  116  2711  I n Good I n n o v a tive Taste  Natural  Noisy  1  2  0  22  1  2  3  6  8  3  11  26  4  8  5 7 9 Total  (continued)  ©ther.  Total  263 the  images o f t h e c i t y ' s  images  of Vancouver  were r e q u i r e d had  parts  are related  as a whole.  to f i r s t  Because  indicate  their  e x p e r i e n c e d and then describe  the respondents  images  . their  1  to the capsule  of places they  impressions of  Vancouver  as a whole,  regarding  the direction  existence  o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p between c a p s u l e and  i m a g e s may b e  n o c o n c l u s i o n n may b e d r a w n o f any r e l a t i o n s h i p .  w e r e r e s p o n d e n t s who  image f o r t h e e n t i r e  city  p l a c e s and a c t i v i t i e s  examine  this  question,  was p e r f o r m e d  on each  r e s p o n d e n t s who  t h o s e who  too  significant of  had.  few cases  had a l s o  the city.  place-specific. beautiful, good to ing  selected  Respondents  the city.  image?  indivTo  significance  Group 1 as  those  image f o r V a n c o u v e r matrix),  and Group  images t e s t e d  exhibited  2  (two had  statistically  Comparing  t h e means had des  ccosmopolitan, f o r physical, or with  those  In contrast,  those  of  that  specific  t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s who  innovative,  or large,  attribute  t-test  (Appendix N).  i t i s seen  historical,  taste,  seven  as e x c i t i n g ,  noisy,  same  image w i t h  a  to describe  that  of the place/image  differences  recreation,  within  aggregate  i n Group 2),  Vancouver  character  the Student  Of t h e f o u r t e e n  t h e two g r o u p s ,  scribed  using  had n o t s e l e c t e d  (Row 36  as  aggregate  had s e l e c t e d  a l s o more l i k e l y  idualal  a whole  However, t h e  examined.  Firstly,  as  here  or  British  i m a g e s f o r many p l a c e s  seven  who  an American  o t h e r images were  more  had d e s c r i b e d Vancouver  high status,  bustling,  natural, i n  were n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y more  i m a g e s t o many i n d i v i d u a l  as  likely  elements  form-  264 Why  should particular  more t h a n  others?  particular bolize  Park,  the c i t y .  the  images  they  each  image  these  that  images d e s c r i b e  i n themselves  i t i s seen  Gastown appear  Alternatively,  society the  that  that  t h e r e may  be  Stanley of  something  tourists  o t h e r c a p s u l e images  sym-  landscape  i n both groups  encourages  city  to  look  i n the p l a c e s  visit. second  capsule  and  investigation  aggregate  images w i t h i n  statistic  was  significant  each  set.  calculated,  difference the  c a p s u l e and  i m p o r t a n t images were Few  these r e s u l t s  a tourist  are  l e d to believe.  multiple  that  Section  t h e r e was  a (Appendix  the  "beautiful",  "exciting",  and  o t h e r images matched "British  i n rank,  character". that  city  imagery,  i s much more v a r i e d  o n l y does the  s o do  three  individual  entire  even  than  city  we  have  features within i t . that  the c i t y  is  o f i t s p a r t s when images a r e c o n s t r u c t e d .  the Canadian  c a p s u l e and  of  rho  distributions  i n some i n s t a n c e s i t a p p e a r s  m o r e t h a n t h e sum  icans?  Spearman's  found  i t appears  Not  ordering  image s e t s ,  on a s h o r t s t a y ,  meanings, but  Furthermore,  Did  and  between  aggregate  of the  most n o t a b l y " n a t u r a l "  for  the rank  b e t w e e n t h e two  most  From  When t h e  i t was  For both  "cosmopolitan".  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p  images concerns  0).  ent  the c i t y  is listed,  downtown, and  i n our  that  However, when t h e most i m p o r t a n t  e x c i t e m e n t and  A  the  within  ( T a b l e 82).  inherent for  I t i s possible  elements  elementsfor  images e n c a p s u l a t e the whole  respondents  aggregate 5.6  images  indicated  have s i g n i f i c a n t l y of Vancouver  that  t h e two  differ-  t h a n d i d Amer-  groups  had  265 TABLE Locations  of Capsule  and P l a c e - s p e c i f i c  C a p s u l e Images a l s o A t t r i b u t e d t o many S e p a r a t e P l a c e s b y I n d i v i d u a l Respondents excitihg.",n  physical  Most  recreation  Stanley  Park  innovative  Capilano  American  shopping  character character  Images  Stanley  Most  Gastown Hatcheries  Park  Important  beautiful  Stanley  historical  Gastown  high  residential  status  Park  bustling  downtown  natural  Stanley  Park  Stanley  Park  Stanley  Park  in  good  large  taste  Bridge  downtown  Chinatown;  Place-specific  Place  Suspension  noisy  British  Images  Important  Capilano  ;  cosmopolitan for  82  areas  Place  266  slightly it  different  combinations of information  i s reasonable to expect that  Vancouver  would  differ  from an  a national  78)»  Table no  were  examined  Chi-square s t a t i s t i c  (Appendix P ) . different  However,  f o r t h e two  ans were l i k e l y because  there  In addition, aggregate  One  when a t e s t (Row  37  significant  level.  were  In general, hold  to a  cities  analysis  a t the  0.05  however,  though,  two  again  may  noise.  no  level.(Appendix  Q).  was  at  significant to f e e l  many  and A m e r i c a n s  the  places  of Vancouver. on  seemed  Perhaps the c i t y , i n the  differences.  l i ebehind the s i m i l a r i t y  C a n a d i a n and A m e r i c a n g e n e r a l (1)lnformation:  urban  t h e r e were  t h e r e were n o t enough Europeans  factors  perhaps  performed f o r each  for continental/intercontinental  rate,  city,  than were Americans.  Canadians  images  More C a n a d i -  i n Canada t h a n i n the  was  o f T a b l e 78<),  level  significantly  level.  "noisy"  "North American perspective"  unfortunately test  a  of  a t t h e 0.05  compare V a n c o u v e r ' s  innovative  t h e same o v e r a l l  points  a t t h e 0.10  on  differences,  " n o i s y " was  More Canadians were l i k e l y  i n Vancouver  any  t h e y may  variable,"innovative",  0.10  to  groups  are fewer large  image  differences  the v a r i a b l e  36  (Row  f o r Canadian/American proved s i g n i f i c a n t  and  perspective.  of Vancouver  to l a b e l Vancouver  U.S.A. w i t h w h i c h  perspective  international  However, when t h e c a p s u l e images  sources,  images  of  to  this but sample At between  Vancouver:  B o t h groups s e l e c t e d b r o c h u r e s and c o n v e r s a t i o n s more o f t e n as i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e s on V a n c o u v e r t h a n o t h e r sources, and as n o t e d b e f o r e , t h e b r o c h u r e s were Canadian p u b l i c a t i o n s a v a i l a b l e throughout North America. Periodicals  267 s u c h a s t h o s e a n a l y s e d i n C h a p t e r s 2 a n d 3» a n d o t h e r f o r m s of p r i n t e d media a l s o u s u a l l y have a North American distribution. I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t any c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r b e t w e e n t h e s e two c o u n t r i e s w o u l d be s m a l l where t r a v e l i n f o r m a t i o n i s concerned. ExperienceJ  (2)  5.10  Benefit Of  stay  and V o l u n t e e r e d  i n this  As w e l l ,  59-7  p e r c e n t s gave  25-7  from  content  of these  two t y p e s  Fourteen  your  o f comments o f t e n  Because overlapped,  together f o r the discussion.  of the respondents  too b r i e f  to get the " f u l l  indicated  that this  a desire  some  percent volunteered addi-  comments a t t h e end o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  they have been grouped  with  sample,  Comments  t o t h e q u e s t i o n , "What h a v e y o u g a i n e d  i n Vancouver?".  tional the  of V i s i t ,  the tourists  response  A l l tours, regardless of their origin, h a d t h e same g e n e r a l i t i n e r a r y w i t h i n V a n c o u v e r ( T a b l e 71). and a l l t h e s e t o u r i s t s were t r a v e l l i n g f e r a l e i s u r e . While i t might be expected t h a t group d i f f e r e n c e s would appear i n t h e images o f oS some s p e c i f i c a t t r a c t i o n s , o v e r a l l images o f Vancouver a r e n o t l i k e l y t o d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e c a u s e t h e two g r o u p s saw t h e same k i n d s o f p l a c e s a n d p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e same k i n d s o f activities. A much l a r g e r s a m p l e s i z e would be n e c e s s a r y t o t e s t f o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e images f o r particular places.  brief  to return.  stated  flavour" exposure  that their  s t a y was  o f Vancouver. to the city  The f o l l o w i n g  Twenty  left  i s a case  them  i n point:  I k n e w t h e moment I a r r i v e d i n V a n c o u v e r t h a t t w o d a y s w a s n o t e n o u g h t o s a t i s f y me. Most of the s i g h t s r e q u i r e a t l e a s t a h a l f day t o enjoy and I h a d n o t i m e f o r museums a n d a r t g a l l e r i e s . MAYBE NEXT T I M E ! Most  o f t h e comments, however,  tourists  focused  on t h e knowledge  d i d manage t o a c q u i r e d u r i n g t h e i r  stay.  A  these  dozen  268 r e s p o n d e n t s were n o t described (city,  Seen as ness,  Vancouver  climate,  also  was  gardens,  architecture,  and  a m i x t u r e o f c i t y and  and  this  feeling  nature.  as modern, c o s m o p o l i t a n , and  economic  connoisseur from  articulated  t h e m o s t p o p u l a r comment.  p a r k s and  growth.  b i g n e s s made V a n c o u v e r  er  to.  cleanli-  that  cuisine  scale  the c i t y ' s  i t s " b i g c i t y " atmosphere,  The  geographic  most  b e a u t y was  mentioned this  but  to this  described  of potential  knowledge,  nation) i t applied  planning fostering was  this  and w h i c h  "beautiful!"  contributing  good  learned  region,  Vancouver,  sensible  place  what t h e y had  province,  For  s p e c i f i c , about  just  Seven  respondents  yet several l i k e any  T o r o n t o who  was  a  also  noted  other c i t y .  mentioned  earli-  well:  J u s t saw a n o t h e r c i t y . . . B u t t h e n i t ' s d i f f e r e n t f o r u s -- u n l e s s o n e i s i n a E u r o p e a n c i t y o r New Y o r k , o r u n l e s s o n e i s h e r e f o r a s o c i a l o c c a s i o n -- T o r o n t o , M o n t r e a l , L . A . , Vancouver-r e a l l y a l l just another c i t y . Four respondents  c l a i m e d t h e y had  facts  about Vancouver,  about  i t s cultural  the of  high cost  and  life.  collected  three others f e l t Four  and  t h e y had  exclaimed their  of l i v i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y  twelve people from  many h i s t o r i c a l  amazement  i n housing.  five  different  this  i s unfortunate but not  Vancouver's  rain,  considering  the following  tours  learned  A  total  complained  summary s t a t e m e n t b y  of  unexpected  Environment  Canada: T h i s S e p t e m b e r was t h e d u l l e s t a n d s i x t h w e t t e s t on t h e A i r p o r t ' s record books. In addition, prec i p i t a t i o n f e l l o n 18 d a y s o f t h e m o n t h a t t h e a i r p o r t a n d o n 19 d a y s i n d o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r . In b o t h c a s e s , t h i s i s o n l y one d a y l e s s t h a n t h e p r e v i o u s r e c o r d s o f 19 a n d 20 r e s p e c t i v e l y (Sept.  1978V5).  at  269 With  a situation  only  recourse • issto  that  encourages The m o s t  around  like  the above perhaps remind  visitors  interesting  common a d j e c t i v e ,  comments  Marvin nel  (1925,1928) a n a l y s e d  downtown  gers. ing  the sentiment  Two  generally  people  i n Chapter  felt  3  Some o f  the sales  and f r i e n d l y  contrasting quite  important  i n t h e two a r t i c l e s  seemed p o l i t e  One  t h e most  i s concerned.  f r a n k and t h o u g h t f u l statements  o f t h e West.  centred  one o f t h e m o s t  expressed  Quebec r e s i d e n t s p r e s e n t e d  admire!  " F r i e n d l y " was  where v i s i t o r / r e s i d e n t i n t e r a c t i o n echoed  so  on V a n c o u v e r  of i t s people.  and c e r t a i n l y  promoter's  that i t i s the r a i n  the lush vegetation they  descriptions  these  the travel  from  by  person-  t o stran-e;:s French-speak-  reactions to the  uncomfortable:  I now k n o w m o r e a b o u t t h e W e s t a n d t h e m e n t a l i t y of the people there. B e i n g from t h e E a s t and a French Canadian, I would a l s o l i k e t o add t h a t I d i d n ' t f e e l a t home a n d o f t e n h a d t h e f e e l i n g t h a t I was i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . M o s t p e o p l e a r e u n i l i n g u a l . . . a n d I w o n d e r how p e o p l e who don't speak E n g l i s h g e t . a l o n g . The o t h e r r e s p o n d e n t  c o n t r a d i c t e d the above:  I expected t o be a b i t depayseff...But I wasn't. Although everything i s very beautiful I f e l t r i g h t a t home. People are g e n e r a l l y f r i e n d l y and p o l i t e . I'm u s e d t o D o w n t o w n M o n t r e a l a n d t h i s was j u s t l i k e [ i t j ( l e s s t h e g a r d e n s ) . A b i t cleaner than Montreal. Different vegetation. (*uprooted;  taken  Indeed,  interprovincial  several  Canadian  sources  i n British  waste  o u t of.eone^s e e l e m e n t ) relations  respondents. Columbia  mentioned  and noted  o f many a n d t h e p o l l u t i o n  continued:  Two  seemed q u i t e  their  entailed.  important  the vast concern One  to  resour  over  the  respondent  270 One o r t w o c h a n c e e n c o u n t e r s w i t h p e o p l e i n r e s t a u r a n t s d i s t u r b e d a b o u t Quebec d i s t u r b e d me. As a f o r m e r r e s i d e n t o f Quebec and now of O n t a r i o , I f e e l there i s s t i l l need of m o r e e d u c a t i o n i n t h a t a r e a i f we a r e t o r e m a i n "One C a n a d a " . Otherwise I found B.C. friendly. One  Ontarian  and  one  American pointed  Americanism  i n B.C.  volunteered  comments by  positive  with  the  They seemed t o This by  the  that  leads  t o be  spondents. by  the  of  the  higher  pleasure  very  cost  In  of  in travelling  of b e n e f i t s  Canada. listed  The  sense  a long distance,  their  experience  significant  to at  least  first-hand  fact,  living.  i n l e a r n i n g about  broadening  They v a l u e d  anti-  were a l l  psychological well-being.  satisfaction  i n g many p l a c e s , and appeared  the American respondents  great  --  a l a c k of  i n Ontario.  to a second major group  respondents  of personal  i s prevalent  exception  take  out  of  see-  the  world  twenty-five re-  experience,  as  illustrated  comment:  . . . . B e i n g h e r e h a s g i v e n me a f i r s t - h a n d k n o w l e d g e o f t h e c i t y and a r e a w h i c h had o n l y b e e n p i c t u r e s and words i n a book b e f o r e . Several positive ever, she  respondents reports of  claimed  had  said  their  their  friends  V a n c o u v e r was  thought,  and  another  more modern t h a n  she  had  Eleven  people  said  experience and  actually that  confirmed  relatives.  the  One,  more b e a u t i f u l  i t was  newer,  how-  than  larger,  and  expected. a major b e n e f i t of  V a n c o u v e r was  the  collection  made c o n c r e t e  f o r some b y  the  their  of memories they slides  they  had  had  stay  in  acquired,  taken.  Indeed,  Dichter  e x p l a i n s t h a t goodmemories c o n s t i t u t e the  after-  effects  of  memories  travel  --  long after  the  trip  the best  271 "spill  over"  into  the total l i f e  Finally,  s i x respondents  visiting  friends  5.11  noted  the s o c i a l "benefits of  and r e l a t i v e s ,  a n d m a k i n g new  acquaintances.  Summary The  tourists  generally tions  i nthis  of the places  as  t h e way t o a c h i e v e  development, and j o i n i n g this  goal with  factor  the itinerary  f o rthe largest  and  Banff  as an a t t r a c t i o n ,  the  city  individual overall  fourth place  interest  attractions  impression  exciting  sonal relationships  package.  emerged about  theRocky Mountains,  Their  Jasper,  had v i s i t e d  images o f t h e  as a b e a u t i f u l ,  the questionnaire  p o i n t t o the importance throughout  an interest  or relatives  a s was  their  cosmopolitan,  importance  responses. of  interper-  experiences.  carried  much  i n Vancouver and choosing  The a t t i t u d e s  as s i g n i f i c a n t  the tourist's  of Vancouverites  i n the general  t h e memories t h e respondents The  Although  were g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e ,  Recommendations by f r i e n d s  ular  package,  place.  the results  developing  group  t o be t h e d e c i d i n g  once t h e t o u r i s t s  of the city  seen  amount o f  of a specific  was a r o u s e d .  Two m o t i f s p e r m e a t e d Firstly,  after  was  a tour  number o f r e s p o n d e n t s .  took  their  the least  o f f e r e d proved  Vancouver  and  d e c i s i o n s and evalua-  Leisure travel  When i t c a m e t o t h e c h o i c e  however,  and  travel  theyvvisited.  a means o f p e r s o n a l  worry.  sample were w e l l - t r a v e l l e d  discerning i n their  as  in  (1967:64).  of the person  of' k n o w l e d g e  about  take  other  a  partic-  to visitors  comments  would  weight  volunteered home w i t h  places  them.  emerged  272 as  the second motif.  T r a v e l was m o t i v a t e d  l e a r n more about p l a c e s images a c q u i r e d their  of those  general,  i n studying  tative  tourists'  results  had  their  and t h e  acquired  return at a later  Europe, couver.  tourists  i n Vancouver. their  brief  other  they  date.  regions  the quanti-  and i n d i c a t e d t h a t  The s e n s e  of place  i n the city  of this  A l s o , because  was  a n d many these  o f Canada, t h e U n i t e d  brought with  they indeed  intended  tourists  S t a t e s , and  them f r e s h p e r s p e c t i v e s  As Samuel Johnson once  com-  were w i l l i n g t o r e f l e c t  stay  b u t most were w e l l aware  were from  embellished  of the place/image matrix,  during  t o be a u s e f u l  The many t h o u g h t f u l  by the respondents  experiences  partial, to  images.  l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f these  on  experience,  p l a c e s was t h e m a j o r b e n e f i t o f  the questionnaire proved  ments v o l u n t e e r e d  a  personal  trip. In  tool  through  by a desire to  on Van-  said:'  A l l t r a v e l has i t s advantages. If the traveller v i s i t s better countries, h e may l e a r n t o i m p r o v e h i s own. And i f f o r t u n e c a r r i e s h i m t o w o r s e , h e may l e a r n t o e n j o y h i s own. --"A l i t t l e  1972  Travelling  Music",  CHAPTER  6  CONCLUSION 6.1  Summary The w o r l d i s a h o o k ; h e who s t a y s a t home r e a d s o n l y one p a g e . --  Is  Augustine's  catalogue  of places?  Who  1 of this  Chapter tion  "travel  Thus,  percepts  the tourist's  thesis  information  from  friends, tuteto tourist  experience  If  this  approach  is  indeed  indirect  images a r e s o c i a l l y  and d i r e c t  and even complete  itself  acquires.  experience.  h a s many i n the city,  the travel  industry,  strangers a l l contribFurthermore,  i s moulded by s o c i a l  the  definition.  t o the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of urban  correspondence  i n such  visitors The  that city  defini-  imagery  a p p r o p r i a t e , i t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e r e w o u l d b e some,  not total,  presented  hook?  t o h i s own e x p e r i e n c e s  t h e images a t o u r i s t  o r a mere  explored the conceptual  members o f t h e m e d i a ,  relatives,  novel  "book" o f p l a c e s he v i s i t s  In addition  city  writes this  of past  "authors".  but  hook" a r i c h  o f an "image", p r o p o s i n g  constructed  Augustine  mass m e d i a a s p e r i o d i c a l s  of Vancouver  and t h e images  acquire.  results  proposition.  between t h e images  presented  Only  acknowledge having Vancouver p r i o r  i n Chapters  3 and 5 support  a few o f the t o u r i s t s any k i n d o f source  to their  visit.  273  questioned  this  d i dn o t  o f i n f o r m a t i o n on  The v a s t m a j o r i t y p o i n t e d  2 74 to  the  influences of  tives,  "brochures,  conversations  and  other  interest  i n Vancouver.  indicate  t h a t most of  their  visit  expressed visited  these  the  Of  Vancouver.  other  had  her  French-speaking  One  feared  experiences  had  she  questionnaire  results  were w e l l - p r e p a r e d respondents,  f o u n d when t h e y  expected  would  feel  background. i n Vancouver  relatheir  206  the  f r i e n d s and  i n developing  tourists  s u r p r i s e a t what they  the  their  sources  Indeed,  to Vancouver.  with  an  for 2  only  actually  older, smaller  city;  uncomfortable because  For  the  r e s t of  seemed t o  confirm  the  of  sample,  their  expectations. For  both  visiting with  the  the city,  Vancouver.  reational  the  of Vancouver. perpetuate visit  this  the  and  town,  both  the  forests,  l o c a t i o n on  prime  emphasis  on  The  city's  Stanley seeing  the  one  d i n i n g , Chinatown,  S o u t h and  East  the  tourists  and  i n both  in  and  Vancouver were  while  Lions  results.  shopping,  tourists,  must  and  features  In  the Gas-  ignored  S h a u g h n e s s y and  P r o p e r t i e s were f r e q u e n t l y mentioned. w r i t e r s and  simply  of mountains  questionnaire oh  land  itineraries  i t s famous park  emphasis  rec-  character  figured significantly  i n d i c a t e d a heavy  the  --  beautiful setting  climate  --  tour  Park  synonymous  commercial  and  travel brochures  tourists  gardens,  The  w r i t e r s and  British  almost  cosmopolitan"  in particular.  the  emerged as  the  "natural, beautiful,  downtown p e n i n s u l a  by  and  i t s marine  analyses  p e r i o d i c a l s and  Its scale, virgin  p e r i o d i c a l s a n a l y s i s and  Both  the  Park  Vancouver without  Gate Bridge. ocean,  Stanley  activities,  epitomized  not  w r i t e r s of  the  general,  v i e w e d V a n c o u v e r as  a  275 dynamic,  attractive,  positive  qualities  If  tourists  set  of  and  these  does as  a  p r i o r i  sure  do  not  images  to  of  this  cosmopolitan  "boost" v i s i t what  are  contradict  open-minded?  i l l u s t r a t e s  friendly  indeed  expectations  this  being  and  image  of  a l l  Vancouver.  new  places  prepared  with  those  places  ought  be,  merely  the  the  city,  verified  by  common n o t i o n  of  Shepard's  description  to  a  experience, the of  tourist  the  tourist  viewpoint:  The t o u r i s t f o l l o w s a c l a s s i c a l p a t t e r n . He moves t h r o u g h n o v e l l a n d s c a p e s w h i c h have a minimum of s i g n v a l u e . Detachment from h i s daily niche increases his potentialities for understanding r e l a t i o n s h i p s . . . . In t h i s plastic and r e c e p t i v e mood he i s e s s e n t i a l l y a new and d i f f e r e n t person (1955*33)In  fact,  ferences and  the  the  between images  results the  conspicuous  variations  itineraries  of  arts  and  theatres sumably are  eraries, Old  Van and  the  Fish  Gardens  would  City were of  Park  and were  suggest.  by  of  Hall,  most.  popular  The  The  performing  Queen  the  tourists,  from  Elizabeth  and  prer  reservations  the  on this  tour and  other  tours  way,  the  i t i n -  the  hand,  Suspension the  The  University,  a l l  Columbia  On  most  specific  and  Canyon  in  the  them  dif-  periodicals  Simon Fraser  B r i t i s h  Viewed  the  performances.  excluded  Capilano more  on  include  advance  Museum f r o m  Hatcheries  literature  in  many  respondents.  Orpheum  not  in  city.  ignored  do  University  M i l l  Elizabeth  tours  indicate  based the  the  totally  well  be  within,  Skyride,  Dusen  Hastings  Queen and  required  Mountain  the  the  tourist  to  as  study  portrayed  the  seem  such  almost  because  often  Grouse and  were  by  tours  f a c i l i t i e s  this  landscape  acquired  the  of  the  Bridge than tour  the  276 group member i s h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d by the t r a v e l  industry.  What he i s supposed t o see, he s e e s ; what he i s n o t i n t e n d e d t o e x p e r i e n c e , he does n o t . However, a c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s r e v e a l s t h a t f a c t o r s more s u b t l e t h a n t r a v e l i n d u s t r y d i r e c t i v e s a r e a t t w o r k i n c r e a t i n g the t o u r member's image of the c i t y .  W h i l e t h e s e r e s p o n d e n t s spent most o f  t h e i r f r e e time i n the downtown a r e a , they made no comments about the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s t h e r e . though t h e y undoubtedly had been i n c o n t a c t w i t h  Al-  Vancouver's  e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s , no d i r e c t comment was made about them. W h i l e s l o g a n s encapsulating.;; Vancouver abounded i n the  lit-  e r a t u r e , none were c o i n e d by the t o u r i s t r e s p o n d e n t s .  In  p a r t i c u l a r , the emphasis  size  i n the s l o g a n s on Vancouver's  and h i g h s t a t u s i n the urban network seemed r e l a t i v e l y i m p o r t a n t t o most o f the t o u r i s t s . were made between Vancouver  un-  I n s t e a d , when comparisons  and a n o t h e r c i t y , they were most  o f t e n s t a t e d i n terms o f the r e s p o n d e n t ' s hometown.  Only  one suggested the c i t y was underdeveloped, and s e v e r a l noted its  ( p l e a s a n t ) l a c k of A n t i - A m e r i c a n i s m .  I n g e n e r a l , the  comments e x p r e s s e d v e r y p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s -- a sense of p l a c e based on the d e s i r e t o know what i t would be l i k e t o a c t u a l l y l i v e i n Vancouver. I n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of " t o p o p h i l i a " ("the a f f e c t i v e bond between people and p l a c e " ) , Tuan c r i t i c i z e s the t o u r i s t ' s sense o f p l a c e (1974:4).  He c l a i m s t h a t the v i s i t o r ' s  v i e w p o i n t i s s i m p l e , e a s i l y a r t i c u l a t e d , s u p e r f i c i a l or i g n o r a n t , and based on v i s u a l a e s t h e t i c s (p.63-5).  On the  277 o t h e r hand, he does acknowledge t h e v a l u e tive did  on t h e environment. s h e d new l i g h t  inhabitants  the tourists  on t h e c h a r a c t e r o f Vancouver and i t s  the tourist's  emphasis  may d r a w o u r a t t e n t i o n t o a n i m p o r t a n t  such on  t h a t a r e judged  of a t least  society  states, people 6.2  Since  one a s p e c t  passing  should  society,  through  travel  Vancouver.  home w i t h  emerged f r o m  tionnaires  routes  respect? indica-  I four  As Tuan  impressions  of  (1974:63)'  C o l u m b i a p i c t u r e d on t h e i n i t s presentation of  the tourists  of their  s t u d i e d enjoyed  i n particular,  trip.  However,  their  and r e t u r n e d two c o m p l a  comments i n t h e q u e s -  alleviated.  s e v e r a l respondents  to interesting  that  Promotion  the volunteered  t h a t c o u l d be  Firstly,  the fleeting  and Vancouver  good memories  those  livability.  cannot be n e g l e c t e d "  On t h e w h o l e ,  receive  relies  to value  n o t be f o r g o t t e n .  t o be e f f e c t i v e  i n the province  plaints  America would  of urbanization, the visual  industry of British  page appears  o f urban  c a n be used as an  of a city's  i t s trend  of our c i t i e s  aesthetics  s o c i e t y as a whole  impressions  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o rT r a v e l  title  stay  tourist  " I n our mobile  The  i n North  dimension  successful i n at least  i s to continue  appearance  found i n  on v i s u a l  perception, i s i t not reasonable  other words,  tor  cities  aesthetic approval?  cities In  How m a n y o t h e r  visual  here  periodicals.  addition,  living.  perspec-  studied  f r o m more p e r s o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s t h a n  t h e mass m e d i a In  Indeed,  of a fresh  places  noted  t h a t a map o f b u s  i n Vancouver  should  be  provided  278 i n t h e h o t e l rooms.  T h i s would make i t e a s i e r f o r v i s i t o r s  t o e x p l o r e t h e c i t y d u r i n g t h e i r f r e e time.  Secondly,  a  f r e q u e n t c o m p l a i n t was t h a t n o t enough f r e e time was a l l o w e d i n the i t i n e r a r y . days i n Vancouver.  Many t o u r i s t s would have l i k e d s e v e r a l A l t h o u g h an extended v i s i t would l e n g t h e n  the t r i p , i t seems these t o u r i s t s t i l l would have p r e f e r r e d t o be a b l e t o e x p l o r e t h e c i t y more f u l l y .  After a l l ,  since  most o f these t o u r i s t s were r e t i r e d and f a i r l y w e l l - o f f f i n a n c i a l l y , i t i s n o t unreasonable  t h a t they would be w i l l i n g  t o spend some e x t r a time and money t o have a more s a t i s f y i n g s t a y i n Vancouver. To promote t r a v e l t o Vancouver, v i s i t o r s s h o u l d be encouraged t o t e l l t h e i r f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s a t home about t h e i r experiences there.  P e r s o n a l t e s t i m o n i a l s seem t o c a r r y  f a r more weight t h a n any p r i n t e d media when v a c a t i o n e r s a r e choosing t h e i r t r i p d e s t i n a t i o n s .  I n a d d i t i o n , t r a v e l agents  would be w e l l a d v i s e d t o v i s i t Vancouver themselves.  Their  recommendation o f Vancouver as a t r i p d e s t i n a t i o n would be f a r more i n f l u e n t i a l when based on p e r s o n a l Furthermore,  experience.  t r a v e l agents c o u l d then pass on a c c u r a t e i n -  f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e type o f c l o t h i n g s u i t a b l e f o r Vancouve r ' s c l i m a t e -- e s p e c i a l l y r a i n wear! I n Vancouver, members o f the t r a v e l and s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s , p u b l i c s e r v a n t s , and r e s i d e n t s o f t h e c i t y i n g e n e r a l s h o u l d be urged t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r h o s p i t a l i t y t o v i s i t o r s . Unpleasant  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a c i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n can negate  any p o s i t i v e memories o f the p l a c e f o r a t o u r i s t . i s indeed i t s p e o p l e .  A city  279 O v e r a l l , the t o u r i s t s seemed - s a t i s f i e d with the itineraries.  tour  A more complete p i c t u r e of the c i t y , however,  would i n c l u d e a d r i v e through the r e s i d e n t i a l areas and E a s t Vancouver.  of South  A l s o , to reduce c o n f u s i o n over p l a c e  names, i t would he u s e f u l to provide more i n c l u s i v e  itiner-  ary l i s t s  colour  i n the w h o l e s a l e r s '  brochures,  as w e l l as  photographs. Although the a r t i c l e s i n the p e r i o d i c a l s tended to p h a s i z e Vancouver's n a t u r a l , "undeveloped" q u a l i t i e s , t o u r i s t s i n t h i s study  the  seemed to look more f o r the " b i g  c i t y " urban advantages of d i n i n g and p a r t i a l l y a f u n c t i o n of age  shopping.  This i s  (most of the t o u r i s t s were over  f i f t y years o l d ) , but can a l s o be the type  em-  seen as a consequence of  of a c t i v i t i e s o f f e r e d by the tours -- v i s i t i n g  museums and  shopping areas  especially.  Perhaps some of the  younger tour members would a p p r e c i a t e the o p p o r t u n i t y t o u r to take advantage of some of the s p o r t s a v a i l a b l e i n Vancouver.  i n the  activities  A r i d e on the Seabus as p a r t of  the c i t y tour might a l s o expose the v i s i t o r s more to the waterfront 6.3  a c t i v i t i e s i n Vancouver.  Suggestions f o r F u r t h e r  Study  Urban imagery i s a h i g h l y complex and to  research.  interesting topic  Although much has been accomplished i n r e c e n t  s t u d i e s of the c i t y resident';s view of h i s home, l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d to those  " f l e e t i n g impressions  the v i s i t o r " d e s c r i b e d by Tuan ( 1 9 7 4 : 6 3 ) .  of  This t h e s i s i s  an e x p l o r a t o r y look at a s p e c i f i c type of v i s i t o r - -  the  280  escorted package tour group member -- h i s images of a new p l a c e , and how those images are acquired.  There remain,  however, s e v e r a l avenues of research a v a i l a b l e f o r f u r t h e r study of t h i s t o p i c . To examine the images presented  i n the mass media, the  data could be s e l e c t e d from a representative sample of a l l information sources a v a i l a b l e to the t r a v e l l e r at a p a r t i c u l a r time.  This would involve not only p r i n t e d media but  t e l e v i s i o n commercials and r a d i o programs as w e l l .  Also,  a content a n a l y s i s of newspapers from a s p e c i f i c t r a v e l o r i g i n would give more d e t a i l e d information on the kinds of non-promotional images portrayed f o r a s i n g l e h o l i d a y d e s t i n ation. Alsb.tn-jbheiresearcher would f i n d i t u s e f u l to accompany the escorted tours i n person.  This would c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h  the s p e c i f i c places the tours v i s i t e d , and through unobt r u s i v e observation, determine i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n s of the t o u r i s t s to those places.  Personal interviews with tour  e s c o r t s and bus d r i v e r s would give f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o the kinds of information these key personnel pass on to the tourists.  In p a r t i c u l a r , such issues as how they obtain  t h e i r information, and how they decide what would be of i n t e r e s t to the t o u r i s t s could be examined. F i n a l l y , comparative studies may prove u s e f u l i n i l l u minating the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of urban images.  An i n d i -  v i d u a l on an escorted tour i s but one type of t o u r i s t , experi e n c i n g c e r t a i n kinds of places and a c t i v i t i e s i n the c i t y .  281 A "broader study would examine t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e many o t h e r t y p e s o f t o u r i s t s and t h e images they a c q u i r e .  The  i m p r e s s i o n s o f t o u r i s t s from o t h e r c u l t u r e s would a l s o i l l u s t r a t e c u l t u r a l b i a s e s i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f images. A comparison  o f t h e images o f s e v e r a l c i t i e s ,  especially  t h o s e i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s (such as Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , and S e a t t l e ) , would f u r t h e r d e f i n e t h e p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n c r e a t i n g a sense o f p l a c e . 6.4  Conclusion The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y suggest t h a t A u g u s t i n e ' s  w o r l d i s n o t a "book" b u t an on-going s c r i p t .  The images o f  places are being c o n t i n u a l l y r e v i s e d according t o the i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e " p r o d u c e r s " and t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e "readers".  F o r t h e t o u r group t r a v e l l e r , t h e c o n t e n t s o f  t h i s s c r i p t may be a mere l i s t o f p l a c e s , a gazetteer,'' b u t an e f f o r t may be made t o r e a d between t h e l i n e s and g a i n some i n s i g h t i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f those p l a c e s . A l t h o u g h t r a v e l has changed d r a s t i c a l l y from t h e Grand Tour o f t h e 1700*s, i t s t i l l  i s an e n r i c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e .  To see a p l a c e w i t h one's own eyes, t o savour i t s l o c a l c u i s i n e , andutotmeet i t s p p e o p l e , l e a v e s an impact on one's memory t h a t w i l l always  remain.  282  NOTES 1.  From Fowke  (1972), p.  122.  2.  S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , G o u l d (1966, 1 9 6 ? ) , G o u l d a n d W h i t e ( 1 9 6 8 ) , D o w n s a n d S t e a (1973) o n c o g n i t i v e m a p p i n g a t t h e r e g i o n a l , n a t i o n a l , a n d w o r l d l e v e l s ; P r i n c e (1971), P o r t e o u s (1975) o n i m a g i n e d l a n d s c a p e s . B u n t i n g ( I 9 6 7 ) g i v e s an • a n n o t a t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y o f u r b a n p e r c e p t i o n s t u d i e s up t o 1967-  3.  F o r s t u d i e s of the s y m b o l i c meanings of the Toronto C i t y H a l l s e e B u n t i n g (196?) a n d R o c k m a n ( I 9 6 7 ) .  4.  The b o u n d a r i e s o f " V a n c o u v e r " c a n h a v e s e v e r a l m e a n i n g s . The " G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t " i n c l u d e s m o s t o f t h e L o w e r M a i n l a n d o f B.C., b u t n o a r t i c l e s indexed under "Vancouver" i n the Readers' Guide i n c l u d e d places i n the small m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The a c t u a l b o u n d a r i e s of the C i t y of Vancouver reach to Burrard I n l e t i n t h e n o r t h , B u r n a b y i n t h e e a s t , t h e U.B.C. E n d o w ment Lands i n t h e w e s t , and Richmond i n t h e s o u t h , y e t w r i t e r s c o n s i s t e n t l y i n c l u d e d N o r t h and West V a n c o u v e r and b o t h u n i v e r s i t i e s i n t h e a r t i c l e s on V a n c o u v e r . I t has been assumed h e r e t h a t t h e r e a d e r i s unaware o f the legal, l i m i t s of Vancouver. Thus, f o r example, i f a w r i t e r p r e s e n t e d Grouse M o u n t a i n and t h e R o y a l Hudson T r a i n E x c u r s i o n as " a t t r a c t i o n s i n V a n c o u v e r " , t h e y have been r e p o r t e d as s u c h .  5.  E x c l u d e s a r t i c l e s t h a t used "Vancouver" only to l o c a t e t h e s p e c i f i c p l a c e o r a c t i v i t y t h a t was t h e t o p i c o f discussion. Responsible journalism requires that the c o u n t r y and c i t y where t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e a r t i c l e i s s e t , be e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h e o u t s e t . T h u s , a l l 192 a r t i c l e s "mentioned" Vancouver a t l e a s t once. The v a l u e o f "83" h e r e r e f e r s t o t h e n u m b e r o f a r t i c l e s t h a t p r e s e n t e d a t l e a s t one image o f V a n c o u v e r a s a a unite i n Itself.  6.  "Land Use" r e f e r s t o t h e use o f ground s p a c e , and i s i n t u i t i v e l y l i n k e d to the a c t i v i t i e s there (Chapin, 1965:265). C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s b a s e d on t h e December 1976 C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r L a n d U s e Map p r e p a r e d b y t h e C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , . A p p e n d i x C. See A p p e n d i x B f o r d e f i n i t i o n s of each c l a s s .  7.  The  8.  When w r i t e r s o n l y m e n t i o n e d a n a q u a r i u m i n S t a n l e y P a r k , t h e r e f e r e n c e was c l a s s i f i e d a s " S t a n l e y P a r k " . Other w r i t e r s named i t as t h e V a n c o u v e r P u b l i c A q u a r i u m and i g n o r e d i t as b e i n g p a r t o f the p a r k .  R o y a l Hudson T r a i n E x c u r s i o n  is a tourist  facility.  283 9.  The i n f o r m a t i o n o n V a n c o u v e r ' s m a y o r s was distinguished f r o m b o t h g e n e r a l p o l i t i c s and t h e C i t y H a l l b e c a u s e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n was s p e c i f i c a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of these people.  10.  C l a s s i f i e d as " l e i s u r e C o m m e r c i a l " i n s t e a d of " S o c i a l and P u b l i c S e r v i c e s " t o match t h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f t h e o t h e r museums.  11.  F o r an i n t e r e s t i n g a n a l y s i s of the t o a p l a c e s e e G o f f m a n (1959).  12.  For a d e t a i l e d examination of t h i s problem from i n t e r a c t i o n i s t a p p r o a c h s e e D u n c a n (1978).  13*  T a b l e 16 i n d i c a t e s t h a t f e w w r i t e r s c o m p a r e d V a n c o u v e r t o E u r o p e a n c o m m u n i t i e s and c o n c e n t r a t e d instead on American c i t i e s . I n p a r t , t h i s may b e e x p l a i n e d by the n a t u r e of the sample used i n t h i s study. ' A h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of the p e r i o d i c a l s are American p u b l i c a t i o n s , a n d w r i t e r s may h a v e a m o r e c o n t i n e n t a l p e r s p e c t i v e than Canadian w r i t e r s . ( D . Ley, p e r s o n a l communication).  lk.  The e l e m e n t s f o r t h i s s e c t i o n a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e o r d e r t h e y a p p e a r i n T a b l e lk. The b r a c k e t e d numbers proceeding each element l a b e l reger to t h e i r rank i n Table 6..  15-  R e f e r e n c e s f o r the p e r i o d i c a l s d a t a are numbered chronologicallyaaridllistediintithe bibliography. .  16..Tuan b a s e s h i s comments on on t h e B r o o k l y n Bridge. a comparison of Shaughnessy see  workbby  degrees  of  admission  Trachtenberg  a t t i t u d e s i n the C o o p e r (1977)-  British  an  (I965)  17-  For and  Properties  18.  T r u d i B u n t i n g ( I 9 6 7 ) f o u n d t h a t T o r o n t o ' s C i t y H a l l was a t t r i b u t e d the f o l l o w i n g images by c i t y r e s i d e n t s : " m a s t e r p i e c e " , " o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e " , "work o f a r t " , " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Toronto", " t h r i l l i n g " , "pride arising", " i n place", "attractive", "imaginative", "more t h a n an o f f i c e b u i l d i n g " , " n o t e x p e n s i v e " , and "a l a n d m a r k " ( p . 68,69). Her most i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g was t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s t e n d e d t o s u p e r i m p o s e t h e i r i m a g e s o f T o r o n t o as a w h o l e o n t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e C i t y H a l l ( p . 30). For example, i f a respondent f e l t T o r o n t o was a p r o g r e s s i v e c i t y , he a l s o t h o u g h t t h e C i t y H a l l was "progressive". S i m i l a r i l y , i f he d i s l i k e d t h e c i t y , h e was l i a b l e t o a l s o d i s l i k e t h e City Hall. Perhaps t h i s e x p l a i n s the current l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n Vancouver's C i t y H a l l , s t i l l d i g n i f i e d but no ' l o n g e r modern. F o r w r i t e r s who b e l i e v e t h a t V a n c o u v e r  i s e s s e n t i a l l y p r o g r e s s i v e , modern the C i t y H a l l i s an anachronism.  , and  even  "hip",  B o t t o m l e y and H o l d s w o r t h c o n t i n u e i n t h e i r paper t o r e l a t e t h e s e two " b e l i e f s y s t e m s t o p a s t and c u r r e n t l a n d use c o n f l i c t s i n Vancouver.  285 A P P E N D I X A: Image  Number  1 2 3 4 • 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12  Images  Used Image  e l e m e n t o n l y named o r p h o t o g r a p h e d sound colour or lights odours (food) for physical recreation shopping and g a l l e r y - t o u r i n g dining s p e c i a l events family-oriented free admission expensive exciting educational 13 intriguing 14 entertaining 15 16 cosmopolitan "undesirably" cosmopolitan 17 18 criminal radical 19 19 rambunctious 20 d i s l i k e of external intervention 21 apathetic 22 enthusiastic 23 peopled by h i p p i e s 24 beautiful 25 historical 26 high status 27 American 28 British 29 undeveloped 30 underdeveloped 31 civilized 32 32 young 33 innovative 34 booming 35 conservative 36 large 37 small 38 depressing 39 picturesque 40 humanitarian 41 high q u a l i t y 42 low q u a l i t y 43 authentic 44 inauthentic 45 efficient 46 monopoly-dominated 47 svmbolic of nature over c i v i l i z a t i o n 48 1 = I nh e r e n t l y p o s i t i v e , o r u s e d a s s u c h *Key: N = N e u t r a l , or used v a r i o u s l y or ambiguously 2 =• I n h e r e n t l y n e g a t i v e , o r u s e d a s s u c h  Sign* N N N N  + + + + + +  -  + + + +  + -  + + + + +  N N  +  -  +  N  + +  N  +  N  -+  + +  + +  N N  286 APPENDIX  B :  Land  Use  Class i f ieatio.nSSystem  The V a n c o u v e r C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t ' s c a t i o n system i s as f o l l o w s (see Appendix C): (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)  (6) (7)  classifi=  Single Family Dwelling Duplex or Conversion Apartment or Townhouse Office Commercial - - r e t a i l , personal service, amusement, r e c r e a t i o n , accommodation, restaurants and p a r k i n g School S o c i a l or P u b l i c Services - - h o s p i t a l s , churches, institutions, police stations, f i r e h a l l s , military b a s e s , and other such uses not elsewhere classified (public administration is included under "Office" )' Wholesale or Storage Manufacturing or Construction Park or Golf Course O t h e r Open Space - - i n c l u d e s n u r s e r i e s , farms, s t a b l e s , and c e m e t e r i e s Transportation U t i l i t i e s or Communications Vacant or Under Construction 1  (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14)  riding  For the purposes of t h i s paper the above c l a s s e s have been c o l l a p s e d and expanded to r e s u l t i n the following typology: (1) (2) (3) (4)  (5)  (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11)  Residen Office, General Leisure  tial excluding public administration Commercial Commercial - - land uses t a i l o r e d s p e c i f i c a l l y for l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s i . e . , amusement, recreation, accommodation, restaurant S o c i a l or P u b l i c Services - - h o s p i t a l s , churches, educational f a c i l i t i e s , police stations, f i r e h a l l s , m i l i t a r y b a s e s , p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and other such uses not elsewhere c l a s s i f i e d Industrial - - Wholesale, storage, manufacturing, construction Park or Golf Course O t h e r Open Space - - n u r s e r i e s , cemeteries Transportation U t i l i t i e s or Communications Vacant or Under Construction  farms,  riding  stables,  APPENDIX C LAND USE" MAP OF VANCOUVER  288 APPENDIX  nifi ass The and  D:  Values of Chi-Squares T r a v e l and N o n - t r a v e l of Landscape Elements  f o r Comparison of Writers Selection (Table 11) 1  A C h i - S q u a r e t e s t was p e r f o r m e d t o t e s t f o r sigc a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s of writers to whether or not they s e l e c t e d a landscape element.. assumptions of t h i s s t a t i s t i c are as f o l l o w s (Loether McTavish, 1976:551): (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)  Independent observations Nominal-level variables Simple random sample The sum o f t h e e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c i e s i s equal t o t h e sum o f t h e o b s e r v e d frequencies No e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c y i s l e s s t h a n five Underlying continuous d i s t r i b u t i o n of the C h i Square s t a t i s t i c  B e c a u s e many o f t h e o b s e r v e d f r e q u e n c i e s i n t h i s data s e t were v e r y s m a l l , A s s u m p t i o n 5 was n o t always satisfied. A l t h o u g h F i s h e r ' s E x a c t T e s t was d e v e l o p e d for t h e s e c a s e s ( B l a l o c k , 1972:291), t h e t e s t i s b e s t used when the t o t a l sample s i z e and m a r g i n a l t o t a l s are much smaller than those i n this data set. T h e r e f o r e no s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t was p e r f o r m e d f o r the l a n d s c a p e elem e n t s n u m b e r e d 19 t o 62 ( i . e . , t h o s e e l e m e n t s m e n t i o n e d b y f e w e r t h a n 15 w r i t e r s ) . F o r t h e t o p 18 e l e m e n t s , the v a l u e s of the c a l c u l a t e d C h i - S q u a r e s are as follows: Element No. 1 2  3  4  5  6 7 8  9  10 11  12  13 14  15 16  17 18  Landscape  Element  Calulated CH Ghi'et S q u a r e  Vancouver i n i t s entirety Stanley Park Setting Waterfront Opera Chinatown U.B.C. Instrumental Ensembles CBD S h o p p i n g Climate International Festival of the Arts Dining CBD O f f i c e s Grouse Mountain Hotel Vancouver Queen E l i z a b e t h Theatre Gastown L i o n s Gate Bridge  Significance Level  0.21 8.47 0.88 0. 00 10.12 7-95 1.11 3-23 0.06 0. 06 2.76  not  0.90 0.38 3.70 3.70 1.49 2.58 2.58  not not  signif..  0. 01 not not  signif. signif.  0. 01 0.01 not  signif.  0.10 not not  signif. signif.»  0.10 signif. signif.  0.10 0.10 not not not  signif. signif. signif.  289 APPENDIX  Land  Use  E:  Values of C h i - S q u a r e s T r a v e l and N o n - t r a v e l of Land use Types  for Comparison of Writers' Selection  Calculated Chi-Square  O.96 1.Residential 0.37 2.Office 3.General Commercial 2.62 4.Leisure Commercial 2.63 5 . S o c i a l or P u b l i c Services 21.97 6.Industrial 0.79 18.90 7.Park 8 . O t h e r Open Space 0.2': 9.Transportation 1 0 . U t i l i t i e s or Communication 11.Vacant or Under Conetruc-;io struction  —  —  Significance Level not significant not significant motssignificant" not significant  0 . 000)1  not significant 0.00ID1  —  not  — —  significant  290 APPENDIX F:  Values of Chi-Squares f o r Comparison of T r a v e l and N o n - t r a v e l W r i t e r s ' S e l e c t i o n of Images (Table 39) Significance Level  Image No..  Image  Calculated Chi-Square  1  element only named or photographed sound c o l o u r or l i g h t s for physical recreation shopping and g a l l e r y touring dining exciting educational intriguing cosmopolitan " u n d e s i r a b l y " cosmopolitan criminal radical d i s l i k e of e x t e r n a l intervention enthusiastic beautiful historical high status American British undeveloped underdeveloped civilized young innovative booming conservative large depressing picturesque humanitarian high q u a l i t y low q u a l i t y  9-32  0. 01  0.75 2.19 19.35  n. s. n. s. 0. 001  2  3 6  7 12 13 14  16 17 18  19 21 23 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 52 33 34 35 36 37 39 40 41 42  43  1.77 I.69 9.73 27.78 2.17 2.22  n. s. n. s.  0.01 0. 001  n. s. n. s.  3.33  0.10  4. 08  0.05 0. 01  9.29 3.34 2.64  0.26 8.25 0.74 8.61 0.49 0.17 4.67 9.43 8.77 0.76 0.33 5. 04 2.38 0. 00 0.00  15. 02 10.16 20.31  Images not l i s t e d i n the above t a b l e had expected quencies l e s s than f i v e .  n. s.  n. s. n. s.  0.01  n. s. 0. 01 n. s. n. s  0.05 0. 01 0. 01  n. s. n. s.  0.025  n. s. n. s. . n. s.  0. 001 0. 01 0. 001 fre-  292 Tour Name  Respondent TOURIST QUESTIONNAIRE Date:  Month  Day  When d i d you a r r i v e i n Vancouver?_  Month  Time  Day  Time  3.  When i s your departure  4.  C i t y of your i n i t i a l departure:  5.  What i s your present hometown?_  6.  (a)Have you t r a v e l l e d p r e v i o u s l y as a t o u r i s t to of the f o l l o w i n g p l a c e s ? (Check i f "Yess").  ( 1 ) Vancouver (2) V i c t o r i a (3JU.S.A. (fe)Caribbean ("b)Were any tour? (l)Yes  from.Vancouver? Month  Day  (l)Toronto (2)other (please s p e c i fy)  any  (5)Europe (6)Asia_ (7)6ther ( s p e c i f y )  of these t r i p s with an e s c o r t e d package (2)N6  ( c ) I f yes, which ones? 7.  Why d i d you choose to t r a v e l w i t h an e s c o r t e d tour group i n s t e a d o f independent t r a v e l ? (Check i f applicable) ( 1 ) the worry i s removed from a v a c a t i o n (2) 1 can see many p l a c e s i n a s h o r t time ( 3 ) f o r the commentaries g i v e n by the e s c o r t ( 4 ) 1 l i k e to t r a v e l by bus ( 5 ) 1 do not have my own t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( 6 ) a t o u r o f f e r s an o p p o r t u n i t y to meet other passengers w i t h i n t e r e s t s s i m i l a r to mine (7) a tour o f f e r s an o p p o r t u n i t y to meet other passengers w i t h i n t e r e s t s d i f f e r e n t from mine (8) other ( s p e c i f y )  2  293 2 8.  Why d i d y o u c h o o s e t o t r a v e l w i t h in particular?  this  package  tour  (1) p r i c e (2) c o n v e n i e n t t r i p d a t e s (3) r e c o m m e n d e d b y t r a v e l a g e n t (4) recommended b y f r i e n d o r r e l a t i v e (5) p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e c o m p a n y (6) t h e o n l y s p a c e a v a i l a b l e a t t h e t i m e o f booking (7) f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s h a d j o i n e d t h e t o u r (8) a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of the brochure (9) s p e c i f i c p l a c e s o r a c t i v i t i e s o f f e r e d (specify) (10) o t h e r 9.  (specify)  Why d o y o u t r a v e l i f applicable)  i n your l e i s u r e  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)  time?  (Check  f o r a change,.. f o r novelty,, for excitement, _ for intellectualddevelppment f o r s o c i a l o r c u l t u r a l development^, t r a v e l i s p o p u l a r a m o n g my c i r c l e o f f r i e n d s t o f i l l i n c r e a s e d i e i s u r e P - t i m e - ' - e "'^ •'•*•£• to escape pressure t h e m a s s m e d i a h a s a r o u s e d my i n t e r e s t i n o t h e r places (10) t o v i s i t f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s (11) f o r r e l a x a t i o n (12) o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) _ _ _  10. Why  s u r  d i d y o u come t o V a n c o u v e r  i n  particular?  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)  low price to t r a v e l a l o n g d i s t a n c e convenient t r i p length government promotion t r a v e l agent.promotion currency rates nationalism see f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s s p e c i f i c attractions or a c t i v i t i e s i n Vancouver (specify) (10) o t h e r ( s p e c i f y )  .  3  294 3 11..  What k i n d s o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t V a n c o u v e r h a v e y o u read, seen, o r heard? (1)b r o c h u r e s (2) guidebooks (3) m a p s (4) p o s t e r s (%)postcards (6) d a i l y newspapers ( s p e c i f y ) (7) news m a g a z i n e s ( s p e c i f y ) (8) t r a v e l magazines ( s p e c i f y ) (9) p l a c e m a t s (10) n o v e l s o r p o e t r y ( s p e c i f y ) (11) academic j o u r n a l s ( s p e c i f y ) (12) c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s (13) o t h e r ( s p e c i f y )  12.  ( a ) W h i c h o f t h e s e was t h e most i m p o r t a n t ing your i n t e r e s t i n Vancouver? (b)Which  of these  was t h e l e a s t  i n develop-  important?  13.  Which o f the f o l l o w i n g places Vancouver has your tour taken f o l l o w i n g page and p u t a t i c k  and a c t i v i t i e s i n you t o ? (See t h e i n Column ( a ) ) .  14.  Which o f t h e p l a c e s o r a c t i v i t i e s on page 4 have you experienced d u r i n g your f r e e time i n Vancouver? (Check i n column ( b ) ) .  4  295  (a) With tour ( 1 ) Stanley Park (2) Vancouver P u b l i c Aquarium (3) Van Dusen B o t a n i c a l Gardens (4) Queen E l i z a b e t h P a r k (5) K i t s i l a n o P a r k (6) L i g h t h o u s e P a r k (7) C l e v e l a n d Dam (8) C a p i l a n o F i s h H a t c h e r i e s (9) C a p i l a n o S u s p e n s i o n BridgeSv (10) Lynn Canyon E c o l o g y C e n t r e (11) Lynn Canyon S u s p e n s i o n Bridge (12) Grouse M o u n t a i n S k y r i d e (13) Mount Seymour and Mount Cypress (14) Queen E l i z a b e t h Theatre (15) 0rpheum Theatre (16) A r t G a l l e r i e s (17) C e n t e n n i a l Museum (18) M a c M i l l a n P l a n e t a r i u m (19) M a r i t i m e Museum (20) B l o e d e l C o n s e r v a t o r y (21) 01d H a s t i n g s M i l l Museum (22) Chinatown (23) Gastown (24) downtown (25) R o b s o n s t r a s s e (fiobson S t . ) (26) Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y (27) U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia (28) L i o n s Gate B r i d g e (29) r e s i d e n t i a l areas ( s p e c i f y ) :  (b) D u r i n g f r e e time (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) )) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15)  (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) (27) (28) (29)  (30) p e r f o r m i n g a r t s (31) R o y a l Hudson T r a i n E x c u r s i o n (32) d i n i n g (33) s h o p p i n g (34) o t h e r p l a c e s o r a c t i v i t i e s (specify)  (30) (31) (32) (33)  (35)  (35).  (36) 15«  :  (34) (36)  F o r each p l a c e and a c t i v i t y y o u have checked i n Q u e s t i o n s 13 and 14 p l e a s e t i c k any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a d j e c t i v e s you f e e l d e s c r i b e them. (See page 5 for chart).  5  5  PLACE/ACTIVn ?Y NUMBER I N QUES. 13' AND 14 DESCRIPTION exciting beautiful historical international flavour high status for physical recreation natural,unspoiled In good t a s t e innovative bustling large American British ether (specify)  16.  What a r e y o u r i m p r e s s i o n s  17.  ( a ) Do y o u f e e l y o u h a v e g a i n e d stay i n Vancouver? (l)Yes (2)No (b) I f y e s , what have Sex:  (1) M a l e  19-  Age:  ( l ) U n d e r 21 (2) 21 - 30 (3) 31 - 40  20.  Your  21.  Your a p p r o x i m a t e income  22.  anything  from your  you gained?  18.  (1) (2) (3) (4)  o f Vancouver as a whole?  (2) F e m a l e  (4) 41-50  _ (5) o v e r 50_  occupation:.  u n d e r $5,000 $5,000 - $9,000 £510,000 - $ 1 4 , 0 0 0 $15,000 - $19,000  before  taxes (5) $20,000 - $24,000 (6) $25,000 - $29,000 (7) $30,000 a n d o v e r  Comments  T H A N K - Y 0 U V E R Y MUCH  A P P E N D I X H:  Final  Questionnaire  • • ' TOURIST QUESTIONNAIRE Date;  • • •Month  . Day"  W h e n d-id y o u  arrive  ' :  from Vancouver? . ' ;  W h a t i s y o u r p r e s e n t ..hometown?  (c) I f yes,  with  ' Time.  Day  ' :'. .  a tourist '-•' >.  ;  trips (2)Ho  . -' T i m e  Month  (l)Vancouver ''12) V i c t o r ! a '" ' •' ° '' ' .(3)U.S.A. '"' ' • ' •• " ( I 4 . ) H a w a i i and P a c i f i c i s l a n d s these  •'  •'  t r a v e l l e d ' p r e v i o u s l y as (Check i f "Yes")  (b) W e r e a n y o f " (l)Yes  T o u r Name Respondent  '  i n V a n c o u v e r ? •' • • Month.. ... ... D a y  When i s " y o u r d e p a r t u r e  ( a ) H a v e -you places'?'  '" ''  an  to [•  any  of  the  following  (^)Caribbean . ( 6 ) E u r o p e "' " ' (7)Asia ' (8).other ( s p e c i f y )  escorted  package  " • • 1  tour?  which destinations?  . •  Why d i d y o u - c h o o s e t o t r a v e l w i t h a n e s c o r t e d independent t r a v e l ? (Check i f a p p l i c a b l e )  tour  group  instead  of  (1) t h e w o r r y i s r e m o v e d f r o m a v a c a t i o n (2) t o s e e , m a n y p l a c e s i n a s h o r t t i m e - •• (3) 1 l i k e t o ' t r a v e l b y b u s o r t r a i n , • ;•• (IJ.)the d i s t a n c e i s t o o f a r t o d r i v e I n d e p e n d e n t l y (5>)I d o n o t h a v e my own t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ''_'*• • •"-.' . • (6) f o r t h e c o m m e n t a r i e s g i v e n b y t h e e s c o r t (7) t o m e e t o t h e r p a s s e n g e r s w i t h i n t e r e s t s s i m i l a r t o m i n e _ (8) t o m e e t • o t h e r p a s s e n g e r s w i t h i n t e r e s t s d i f f e r e n t t o m i n e ^ (9) o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) ' ' •• -  ;  Why  ;  d i d you' c h o o s e  to  travel with  this  package  tour  in  (1) p r i c e (2) c o n v e n i e n t t r i p d a t e s (3) r e c o m m e n d e d b y t r a v e l a g e n t (ij.) r e c o m m e n d e d b y f r i e n d o r r e l a t i v e (5>)previous e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e company (6) t h e o n l y s p a c e a v a i l a b l e a t t i m e o f b o o k i n g (7) f r l e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s h a d j o i n e d t h e t o u r (8) a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f t h e b r o c h u r e (9) s p e c i f i c p l a c e s o r a c t i v i t i e s o f f e r e d ( s p e c i f y ) (10) Why  do  other  you  (specify)  t r a v e l "in your  (1) f o r a  particular? ;". '-' ' _'• [  .  '  . leisure  time?  (Check i f a p p l i c a b l e ) . <  change  (2) f o r n o v e l t y • , (3) f o r e x c i t e m e n t —(Ij.)for i n t e l l e c t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t . . . . • . -—. ( j ? ) f o r s o c i a l o r c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t . .. — (6) t r a v e l i s p o p u l a r a m o n g my c i r c l e o f f r i e n d s (7) t o f i l l i n c r e a s e d l e i s u r e t i m e (8) t o e s c a p e p r e s s u r e . (9) t e l e v i s i o n p r o g r a m s a n d m a g a z i n e s h a v e s t i m u l a t e d my interest i n other places . ' , (10) t o v i s i t f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s (11) f o r r e l a x a t i o n >•.'..-. .:. (12) i n t e r e s t e d i n s e e i n g o t h e r p l a c e s (13) o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) .. •'. ... ;  1 *. »  •  »  t  '.....2  9.. .-.Why i d i d - y o u c o m e t o " V a n c o u v e r , i n p a r t i c u l a r ? ?. • j ( l ) g d v ' e r n m e n t p r o m o t i o n ' . ' . . ; - .... ..;' • (2) t r a v e l a g e n t promotion-'-'•-••'••'—••• - ' - - . - . ' ; ' - " - •_ (3) t o v i s i t f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s (4) s p e c i f i c p l a c e s o r a c t i v i t i e s i n V a n c o u v e r ~ . ( - s p e c i f - y ) - 7 (5) V a n c o u v e r i s j u s t " p a r t (6) o t h e r " ( s p e c i f y ) '  of  the. tour •  ~~  "~  ~  '.  "  ,.. '•  , A  l 0 . a ) W h a t - k i n d s o f i n f ornTati"on a b o u t V a n c o u v e r , h a v e , . y o u . r e a d , s e e n , o r ht e a r d i (1) b r o c h u r e s (7)news m a g a z i n e s ( s p e c i f y ) " (2) g u i d e b o o k s (8)travel Magazines (specify) (3) m a p s _ _ - (-9)National G e o g r a p h i c . . . (Ij.) p e s t e r s ( 1 0 ) n o v e l s - - o r p o e t r y (specify) " '' " '' ' . ( ! r ) p o s t c a r d s ( H ) a c a d e m i c ..journals, (specify). , , , ,., . . " (6)newspapers (12)conversations with, "friends .or-relatives; (13)other ( s p e c i f y ) ' '"' :  1  (b')-Which o n e o f t h e .above i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e s '"'"--most i m p o r t a n t . i n d e v e l o p i n g y o u r i n t e r e s t  ,  f ! ("C") W h i c h " ' o n e  Ii 1  ,ll. . ! '  ' S  was" "the ' l e a s t  .........  important?  ' '  y o u h a v e phe.cke.d'was i n Vancouver-?"-.;,-  ' '  "  ,  1  ''  the  • -»••-. -.-.  . •  W h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p l a c e s "and' a c t i v i t i e s ; - i n . V a n c o u v e r " ' h a s ' y o u r tour taken you to? (Tick i n Column ( a ) ) ; ' ' (a) • • ' (hf ''•' '  ___  W*h+o«**,. purinj tre<t*i«.£  .. .  ; ! ' '  '  — (1)Stanley Park ' _ '(I)' __J " •-, (2)Vancouver Public Aquarium. . •'..- , . , (.2) (3)~Van D u s e n B o t a n i c a l g a r d e n s , , ,, . * .'*. : zi (3) . ! ( i ) Q u e e n E l i z a b e t h P a r k ' '. ' " "' 1 _ W) __ ' ' '" ; .{-5)Kitsilano P a r k ,. , .,, . . (5) , i —.(6)Lighthouse Park " " " : °) : " " ' ! ••(7)Cleveland Dam . .V ... . _ (7) ; " ... 1 | (8) C a p i l a n o F i s h H a t c h e r i e s . , /' , ' .. ' ( ° ) _ _ • y,{. i *" (-9) C a p i l a n o ' S u s p e n s i o n B r i d g e . " , ... . _ . , _L — • • . j " ( l O J L y n n C a n y o n S u s p e n s i o n B r i d g e , . . ,' ' .' . _. •'.'• . I -(.11')Lynn C a n y o n E c o l o g y C e n t r e ' '.'• '." '. (11) I (12),Grouse. .Mountain "Skyride 1. . ' .. .'." , , -__u'| )— i (13)Mount-Seymour and'Cypress M o u n t a i n ' " " ' ' .viBOv^. -•(lij.)Queen ' E l i z a b e t h T h e a t r e - - • —•• • - " _ 'J^K " ' • -(.15) O r p h e u m T h e a t r e ,, j ?) (16)Art'Galleries (specify) " "' _ ' ' ' (17)Centennial Museum — )trl\— : (18JMacMillan Planetarium , .. .. — J^{_ .. (19)Maritime Museum ... . '.'• .' '• j (20)Bloedel Conservatory . ' -" . ^—•/ ? ! — (21) O l d - H a s t i n g s M i l l '. . , , . — ' ^ l ) — (22)Chrnatown :.,'-..,.r , " — )%%{—. . ' ' (23) G a s t o w n ., " :' , ~ ' _ 23 — , (2I4.)downtown .. "'" ;. . , ( 2 5 ) R o b s o n s t r a s s e ( R o b s o n S t . ) " - •'- '. . . ' ) i\-— " .\ •' ( 2 6 ) S i m o n F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y ' ( 2 6 ) — ^ •• (27) U n i v e r s l t y of-British G b l u m b i a • —7 *JL• . (28) L i o n s G a t e - B r i d g e - '• ' _ ) ^ \ — " (29) r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s ( s p e c i f y ) . ... . — [ — . (30) p e r f o r m i n g a r t s ' • *_ (30)_ (31) R o y a l H u d s o n T r a i n E x c u r s i o n (.31) ....'- ; (32-)dining '32)_ .; • • : ' (33) s h o p p i n g •.. — • : ' i (%) other (specify) ... •_ 34) . , , < ' 1,1 : (35) .. . ,. •. : : _ (35) •.... :  ;  (  '. . :  1  2  v  ! ;  , j ' j ; i !  1  v  ;  ;  v  2  r  ; i ;  3  l  <  —  12. ( a ) H a V e ; your (b)If 13.  ;  3  —-———  y o u e x p e r i e n c e d a n y of the above p l a c e s free time i n Vancouver? (1) Y e s  yes, which  ones?  (Tick  i n Column  (,b)  . . . . . • . . . .  or. a c t i v i t i e s during -(2 ) N o . ', ..; •'«' ; ;  above).-  -•-  I n y o u r e s t i m a t i o n what i s t h e f u r t h e s t d i s t a n c e you- h a v e s ' t r a v e l l e d from your h o t e l during your.-free, time-,in Vancouver? • ' . ' (1) 0 - 2 b l o c k s _ (3). 6.- 10.-.blocks- ,.. j . • (2)" 3 - ' 5 " b l d c K s ' "* " (4) m o r e t h a n 10 b l o c k s  i.  • »  lli.(aj  I am e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n y o u r i m p r e s s i o n s o f t h e p l a c e s a n d a c t i v i t i e s your have experienced i n Vancouver. F o r each p l a c e and a c t i v i t y y o u h a v e • c h e c k e d i n Q u e s t i o n s II a n d 12 p l e a s e t i c k . a n y . of t h e f o l l o w i n g a d j e c t i v e s y o u f e e l d e s c r i b e them.  (b)What a r e y o u r i m p r e s s i o n s o f V a n c o u v e r as a w h o l e ? (Check any (36)). d e s c r i p t i o n s y o u f e e l a p p l y i n t h e a b o v e c h a r t a l o n g Row  3  l> # »  •4-  15.  What have you gained.-from your s t a y i n Vancouver?  16.  Sex;  (1) -Male-  17.  Age: (l)Under 21 • • (2)21 - 30 ; •' (3)31 - kO • • .Will,.- 50 '" • ; (5) over 50 ;  ' (2) Female I  " . :.,  — •  18. ; What education do you have? . ' : ':' '  .  :  19.  (1) 'elementary school (2) secondary school • __ (3) u n i v e r s i t y or c o l l e g e ik) other : __, ;  'What i s your occupation?  20i ; Your approximate " '' ' :  1  -  ;  income b e f o r e taxes:  (1) under 5 5 , 0 0 0 ' " ' 1(2) 1 5 , 0 0 0 - ).9,000 (3) '$10., 000 - f i l l , 0 0 0 ; i . '(h) ;|;i5,ooo - :j;i9j000  21.  i;  . . ;  '  ( 5 ) y20>000 - :>2),000 (6) |25,000 - #29,000 (7) -p 30,000 and over ;  +  Comments .*•>.'  .. Thank-you v e r y much  .  2 98 APPENDIX  Item  I : Variables  Variable  Name  TOUR RESP ESCORT COUNTRY HOME 5(a)  NATRAV  PREV1-PREV8 TLPREV ! 5 ( h ) PACKAGE  5(c)  . 6  DEST  GR0UP1-GR0UP9 TLGROUP  7  T0UR1-T0UR10 TLTOUR  1  8  WHY1-WHY8 TLWHY  9  VANC1-VANC6 TLVANC  10(a)  INF01-INF013 TLINFO  Used  i nthe Questionnaire  Variable  Definition  level of Measurement*  - t o u r number - r e s p o n d e n t number _»!» i f r e s p o n d e n t w a s the escort -country o f respondent's hometown -province or state of residence -number o f p l a c e s i n North America t r a v e l l e d to, w i t h Vancouver and V i c t o r i a grouped t o gether -specific destinations previously visited -number o f d e s t i n a t i o n s previously visited -"1" i f any previous experience with escorted p a c k a g e t o u r s ; " 2 " i f none -number o f e s c o r t e d package t o u r s p r e v i o u s ly experienced, with Vancouver and V i c t o r i a grouped t o g e t h e r - s p e c i f i c reasons f o r choosing e s c o r t e d group travel -number o f r e a s o n s indicated - s p e c i f i c reasons f o r choosing a p a r t i c u l a r t o u r package -number o f r e a s o n s indicated - s p e c i f i c reasons f o r leisure travel i -number o f r e a s o n s indicated - s p e c i f i c reasons f o r v i s i t i n g Vancouver -number o f r e a s o n s indicated -respondent's informatioil t i o n sources on Vancouver Hnumber o f i n f o r m a t i o n sources  • N N N N N R  N R N  R  N R N R N R N R N R  299 Item  Variable  Name  Variable  Definition  ![j e v e l  of  :vl e a s u r e m e n t * 10(b)  IMP  10(c)  LEAST  11, 12(b)  WHERE1-  11  TLPLACE  WHERE05  TLWITH  TLFREE  12(a)  FREE  13  DIST  lk  EL1-EL612  15  IMAGE1IMAGE17 GAIN  16  SEX  17  AGE  18  ED OCCUP  19 20 21  *KEY:  INCOME C6MMEN CHART N=Nominal;  -information source considered most i n f l u e n t i a l in developing interest i n Vancouver -information source considered least i n f l u e n t i a l in developing interest i n Vancouver - p l a c e s and a c t i v i t i e s in Vancouver experienced. "1" i f w i t h t o u r only, "2" i f d u r i n g f r e e time only, "3" i f w i t h tour and d u r i n g f r e e time -number of different places and a c t i v i t i e s experienced -number of places and a c t i v i t i e s experienced with tour -number of p l a c e s and a c t i v i t i e s experienced during free time -"1" i f a n y p l a c e s or a c t i v i t i e s experienced during free time;"2" i f none - e s t i m a t i o n of farthest distance travelled from hotel during free time -individual c e l l s of place/image matrix."1" if checked -number of places checked f o r each image -"1" i f s o m e t h i n g g a i n e d from v i s i t -VI" i f m a l e , " 2 " i f f e male, "0" i f no response or husb./wife collaboration -age category of respondent - l e v e l of education -occupation of respondent categorized after data collection -income category -"1" i f comments - " 1 " i f place'/i i m a g e m a t r i :a completed 0='.Ordinal;  R=Ratio  N  N  N  R  R  R  N  0  N  R N N  0  0  N  0 N N  300 APPENDIX J :  Chi-Sq.uare R e s u l t s f o r Comparison o f Canadians' and Americans* Reasons f o r V i s i t i n g Vancouver  1 •H CH •H  0  o  fl  W) cdfl •H 0Q  O  CO MO MO CM  o  TH  •  o  •  o  oo o o• o  NO CO ON NO •  TH  -=}ON ON .3-  o  NO ON CO ON  tH NO  co• o  o  •  O  0 M  Cn cn  cd  o< tn i  cn CM  .fl  O  o-  00  TH  CM  TH  •  •  TH TH  o  00  TH TH  •  O  oMO  TH  • CM  a  • H  00  cn rH ON  CM  O  •  A.  o o o  CO  o  00  cn  ON  •  •  0 0 0  CO tH  ON cn  cn •  CO •  o-  CM  0  •  TH  o  !>-  o  00  VN  o-  CM  cn • cn  o•  o-•  cn  MO  rH  cn  o cn o• o  TH  EH  O  TH  •  MO  vn  TH  -  iH  cn CM  o-  O NO  II CQ  •H  fl cd  cn  00  CM  CQ  cn  .=*•  TH  o  >>  H  cd  fl cd  fl  |  W) A • H  fl o  4^  • H  • H  - P  CO  O  £  •H  > o  CH  fl o  CQ Cfj CD  O  ^  uft  CD  •  o  o  >B  O fl Cd  « >  fl CD  4^  •H  CD  r-l <H  fl  W) Ofl cd  • H  H 4^ CD o  >cd go U u 4 s  ^—  iH  o  CQ  CM  ft  CQ CD  >  •H  4^ 4^ cd ro H •H CD • H  U o u HJ o !>  ^—.  cn  CQ CD O cd H  ft O  • H  4^ CQ H 3 3 ••~3 4 CQ •H 0  fl cd >  fl CQ CD  !M  4^  >  <H  0  4^  t>  fl cd  O  • H  cd  flcd  • f l  • H  O •H 0 4= ft O CQ cd  CQ  s  •H  <+H • H •H  •H  > o o  3 O O  O  fl U cd cd  > ft  vn  0  U 0  .fl 4° 0  M0  O  tH O iH  TH  II  II  ra • H ra  CQ  >>  H  cd  fl cd  fl  • H  m  fl cd 0  •H H  0  g <H  0  U0  0  g  g  fl O  •H  4^ cd  >U 0  ra 0  fl ra ra •H  •H  g 0 rH  0  g S  301  APPENDIX K i  Chi-Square R e s u l t s f o r Comparison o f .Canadians' and Americans* I n f o r m a t i o n Sources  I n f o r m a t i o n Source  Chi-square  Significance  (1)brochures  0.28962  0.5905  (2 ^guidebooks  2.83173  0.0924  (3)maps  I.85298  0.1734  (4)posters  6.50726  0.0107  (5)postcards  4.65239  0.0310  15.66837  0.0001  (7)news magazines  0.49585  0.4813  ( 8 ) t r a v e l magazines  0.84813  0.3571  ( 9 ) N a t i o n a l Geographic  2.63281  0.1047  (lO)novels or poetry  O.05256  0.8187  (11)academic j o u r n a l s  0.15952  0.6896  (12 C o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h friends or r e l a t i v e s  0.99277  0.3191  (13)other  1.28538  0.2569  (6)newspapers  302 APPENDIX 1 :  Group  T-tests f o rEffects of leather Mentioned by Respondents  1= T o u r s 1,2,3,4,5,8,9,10,11  (Rain  on  Places  on d a y y o f  arrival)  n=155 G r o u p 2= T o u r s 6 , 7 i l 2  (No r a i n  on day o f a r r i v a l )  n=51 VARIABLE:  Number o f I n d o o r F a c i l i t i e s M e n t i o n e d  Mean:  t=  G r o u p 1= 2.2839 G r o u p 2= 2.0588  1.23  One-tail  VARIABLE: Mean:  t=  probability=  Number  0.111  (not significant  atoc=^0.05)  o f Outdoor F a c i l i t i e s Mentioned  G r o u p 1= G r o u p 2=  4.7032 5.2549  -1.55  One-tail  probability=  0.061  (not significant  at°(=0.05)  303 APPENDIX  M:  Postcards  of  Vancouver  Panorama  Entrance  to  of  Vancouver  Stanley  Park  Downtown  (Granville  Street)  305  Queen E l i z a b e t h  Park  and  Bloedel  Conservatory  Capilano (The  above  Suspension  postcards  Productions  L t d . ,  are  Bridge  published  Burnaby,  B.C.).  and by  Canyon  Natural  Color  APPENDIX N: Group Group  1: 2:  Summary o f T - t e s t  Results  f o r Capsule and Aggregate  R e s p o n d e n t s who d i d n o t s e l e c t t h a t R e s p o n d e n t s who s e l e c t e d t h a t i m a g e  Images  image f o r V a n c o u v e r a s a f o r Vancouver as a whole 1 - t a i l Probability  XX  whole  Significant at <*=o. 05  Group  N. o f Cases  exciting  1 2  117 58  1.3419 - I . 9 6 4.6207  0.0275  Yes  Beautiful  1 2  73 103  2.8904 -1.62 5.0485  0.054  No  historical  1 2  129 46  0.7054 -1.27 3.3913  0.105  No  4  amateurish  5  cosmopolitan  1 2 1 2  174 0 121 55  1 2  bustling depressing  Image  Image No.  9  2  0.7025 -2.03 5.6909  0.0235  Yes  155 20  0.5161 -1.26 6.6000  0.1125  No  1 2  131 44  0.4733 3.8864 - i : 5 5  0.064  No  1 2  173 1  Test n o t performed-  1 2  159 15  natural  1 2  160 15  0.1572 -1.93 0.5333 0.6500 -1 10  noisy  1 2  162 12  high  8  for 10 11  formed— Test n o t p e r  status  physical  recreation  7.7333 0.1481  0.7500  0.0365 <~>. 1 4 5 5  Yes  - i : i O  0:i455  No  -2.14  0. 028  Yes continued  APPENDIX  NE ( c o n t i n u e d )  Image  Image No.  G r o u p No. o f Cases 1 2  147  innovative  1 2  14  large  15  American  16  British  12  in  13  good  taste  character character  ( X * Mean number o f p l a c e s  t  X  1 - t a i l Prob- S i g n i f i c a n t a t ability * = o . 05  0.9184 -1.49 6.0357  0.0735  No  156  0.3526 -5-97 2.5556  0.000  Yes  1 2  134  0.4776 -1.32 3.6098  0.097  No  1 2  155 19  0.1742 -4.85 I.6316  0. 000  Yes  1 2  148  0.2027 -3-78 0.8462  0.0005  Yes  indicated  28  18  41  26  as having  that  image)  •CO  309 APPENDIX Q :  Rho S t a t i s t i c , f o r Capsule and Images ( T o u r i s t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  f o r C a p s u l e Rank f o r A g g r e gate Images Images  exciting  2  2  2  beautiful  1  1  3  h i s t o r i c a l  4  5  4  amateurish  16  15  5  cosmopolitan  3  3  6  high  9  9  5  6  15  16  12.5  13 8  1  7  r  Rank  Image  Image No.  Aggregate Data)  1  status  !b u s t l i n g  8  depressing  9  for  physical  recreation  10  natural  12.5  11  noisy  14  12  in  13  innovative  14  large  15  American  16  B r i t i s h  good  taste  7 11 6 10  character  8  character  = 0.92273757.  significant  a t <* =  0.000  14 4 10  7 11 12  fo U . S . A .  Can.  Image (I) e x c i t i n g (2 ) b e a u t i f u l (3 ) h i s t o r i c a l (4 ) a m a t e u r i s h (5) c o s m o p o l i t a n (6) h i g h status (7 ) b u s t l i n g (8 Repressing (9) f o r p h y s i c a l recreation (10) n a t u r a l (II) noisy (12) i n g o o d t a s t e (13) i n n o v a t i v e (14) l a r g e (15) A m e r i c a n c h a r a c t e r (16) B r i t i s h character (17) o t h e r  21 34 16 0 16 6  30.9 50.0  13 0 6 6 6  19.1 0.0 8.8 8.8 8.8 13.2  9 10 13 4 7 5  23-5 0.0 23.5 8.8  14.7 19.1 5.9 10.3 7.4  Number  of  Canadians  i n analysis  = 68  Number  of Americans  i n analysis  =107  No  missing  observations  27 57 24 0 29 13 22 0 7 8 2 19 8 19 11 14 12  f 25.2 53.3 22.4 m 0.0 27.1 12.1 20.6 0.0 6.5 7.5 1.9 17.8 7.5 17.8 10.3 13.1 11.2  Chi-square  Significance  0.41290 0.07127 0.00025  0.5205  0.12234 0.19370  0.7265 0.6599 0.9691  0.00150 0.07038 0.00118 3115304 0.34080 1.63648 0.00070 0.54173 0.09921 0.33527  0.7895 0.9874  0.7908 0.9726 0.0758 0.5594 0.2008 0.9790 0.4617 0.7528 0.5626  APPENDIX  Group Group  Q:  1: 2:  T-test Results f o r Canadian/American D i f f e r e n c e s i n A g g r e g a t e Images o f Vancouver  Canadian respondents American respondents  Grp.  Mean  1 2  2.4386  (2 ) b e a u t i f u l  1 2  (3 ) h i s t o r i c a l  Image  (N=57) (N=90)  t  2-tail Proba b i l i t y  Significant a t <^=0.05  1.35  0.178  No  4.0175 3.5222  1.34  0.184  No  1 2  1.2807 O.9667  1.31  0.193  No  (4)amateurish  1 2  0.1579 O.0667  1.26  0.210  No  (5 C o s m o p o l itan  1 2  1.6316 1.2333  1.24  0.217  No  (6)high status  1 2  0.8596 0.6556  0.92  0.359  No  (7 ) h u s t l i n g  10. 9.099298 -0.45 2 1.0333  0.655  No  (8 R e p r e s s i n g  1 2  0.0351 0.0556  -O.56  0.573  No  (9)for physical recr.  1 2  0.2807 0.2333  0,49  0,626  No  (lO)natural  1 2  0.8947 0.6111  1.60  0.111  No  (11)noisy  1 2  0.2807 0.1889  0.88  0.381  No  (12)in good taste  1 2  1.3158 1.3111  0. 02  0.987  No  (13)innovativ o 1 2 tive  1.0000 O.5667  1.70  0.093v  No  (l4)lar;ge  1 2  0.9649 0.6667  1.52  0.130  No  (15)American char.  1 2  0.3684 -0.27 0.4111  0.785  No  (1)exciting  1.9333  • • • c•o n t i n u e d  312  Significant a t ^ -0.05  Mean  (16)British char.  1 2  0.5263 0.3222  1.35  0.181  No  (17)other  1 2  0.8947  1.22  .0.224  No  0.6333  t  2 - t a i l Proba b i l i t y  Grp.  Image  313 A P P E N D I X R:  The  Tourist's  Prayer  H e a v e n l y F a t h e r , l o o k down on us y o u r h u m b l e , o b e d i e n t t o u r i s t s e r v a n t s who a r e d o o m e d t o t r a v e l t h i s e a r t h t a k ing photographs, m a i l i n g postcards, buying souvenirs and w a l k i n g around i n d r i p - d r y underwear. We b e s e e c h y o u , 0 L o r d , t o see t h a t our p l a n e i s n o t h i j a c k e d , our l u g g a g e i s n o t l o s t and our o v e r w e i g h t baggage goes u n n o t i c e d . G i v e us t h i s day d i v i n e g u i d a n c e i n o u r s e l e c t i o n o f hotels. We p r a y t h a t t h e p h o n e s w o r k , a n d t h a t t h e o p e r a t o r s s p e a k o u r t o n g u e , t h a t t h e r e i s no m a i l w a i t i n g f r o m o u r c h i l d r e n w h i c h w o u l d f o r c e us t o c a n c e l t h e r e s t of our trip. L e a d us t o good, i n e x p e n s i v e r e s t a u r a n t s where the wine i s i n c l u d e d i n the p r i c e of the meal. G i v e us t h e w i s d o m t o t i p c o r r e c t l y i n c u r r e n c i e s we do n o t u n d e r s stand. M a k e t h e n a t i v e s l o v e u s f o r w h a t we a r e and n o t f o r w h a t we c a n c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e i r w o r l d l y g o o d s . D G r a n t us t h e s t r e n g t h t o v i s i t t h e museums, t h e c a t h e d r a l s , t h e p a l a c e s , a n d i f , p e r c h a n c e , we s k i p a n h i s t o r i c m o n u m e n t t o t a k e a n a p a f t e r l u n c h , h a v e Mmercy on us f o r o u r f l e s h i s weak. D e a r God, p r o t e c t o u r w i v e s f r o m " b a r g a i n s " they don't need or can't a f f o r d . L e a d them not i n t o temptat i o n f o r t h e y know n o t w h a t t h e y do. A l m i g h t y F a t h e r , keep our husbands from l o o k i n g a t f o r e i g n women a n d c o m p a r i n g t h e m t o u s . Save them f r o m making f o o l s of themselves i n n i g h t c l u b s . Above a l l , p l e a s e do n o t f o r g i v e t h e m t h e i r t r e s p a s s e s f o r t h e y know e x a c t l y w h a t t h e y do. And when o u r v o y a g e i s o v e r , g r a n t us t h e f a v o r o f f i n d i n g s o m e o n e who w i l l l o o k a t o u r home m o v i e s a n d l i s t e n t o our s t o r i e s , so our l i v e s as t o u r i s t s w i l l not have been i n v a i n . T h i s we a s k y o u i n t h e name o f C o n r a d H i l t o n , Thomas Cook and A m e r i c a n E x p r e s s . 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( A u g . 15,  Newsweek  1955)  (July  11,  1955)  "Seattle-Vancouver-Victoria." $ S e p t . 1956) V o l . 20, p p . 11-?.  i nVancouver." 72, p p . 62-3.  Time  Library p p . 3021-4.  ( D e c . 15,  1958)  British  Columbia  British  318 62.  "The P a c i f i c Great E a s t e r n and t h e Peace R i v e r A r e a . " B e a u t i f u