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Kootenay-Salishan linguistic comparison : a preliminary study Morgan, Lawrence R. 1980

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KOOTENAY-SALISHAN LINGUISTIC COMPARISON: A PRELIMINARY STUDY by LAWRENCE R. MORGAN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , 1969  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f L i n g u i s t i c s )  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1980  © Lawrence R i c h a r d Morgan, 1980  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  this  written  at make  that  thesis  it  freely  permission  purposes  for  in p a r t i a l  the U n i v e r s i t y  may  representatives.  is  financial  University  of  British  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V 6 T 1W5  M a r c h 2 8 , 1930  of  Columbia,  British  by  for  gain  Columbia  shall  the  that  not  requirements I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  t h e Head o f  understood  Linguistics  of  of  for extensive  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment  available  permission.  Department  The  thesis  of  or  that  study.  this  thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ii T h i s t h e s i s p r e s e n t s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e Kootenay language i s g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e S a l i s h a n f a m i l y o f languages. The e v i d e n c e c o n s i s t s o f 129 p r o b a b l e cognate s e t s w h i c h i n c l u d e a word o r morpheme i n Kootenay compared t o a r e s e m b l a n t word o r morpheme i n one o r more S a l i s h a n languages. These cognate s e t s show t h a t a network o f sound c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s e x i s t s between Kootenay and t h e S a l i s h a n languages w h i c h cannot be e x p l a i n e d as e n t i r e l y t h e r e s u l t o f l i n g u i s t i c d i f f u s i o n . A number o f t h e sound c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s c o u l d o n l y have come about i f t h e r e had e x i s t e d a common a n c e s t o r language f o r Kootenay and t h e S a l i s h a n languages. The main body o f t h e t h e s i s c o n s i s t s o f b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n s o f : t h e h y p o t h e s i s o f a g e n e t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between Kootenay and S a l i s h a n , t h e K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n sound c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s , P r o t o - S a l i s h a n phonology, t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f S a l i s h a n i t e m s i n t h e t h e s i s , Kootenay phonology, t h e S a l i s h a n languages and t h e i r s u b g r o u p i n g s , and K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n g r a m m a t i c a l r e s e m b l a n c e s , f o l l o w e d b y t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e cognate s e t s . The cognate s e t s from 1 t h r o u g h 120 s e r v e as t h e e v i d e n c e f o r t h e consonant c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s . A f t e r t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e s e t s t h e r e i s a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e v o w e l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s where one cognate s e t a l r e a d y p r e s e n t e d i s r e c a s t t o b e t t e r show t h e v o w e l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s and one new cognate s e t i s g i v e n . E i g h t new cognate s e t s a r e i n t r o d u c e d i n a s e c t i o n on a d d i t i o n a l ( p o s s i b l e ) consonant c o r r e s p o n dences. There f o l l o w s a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f 21 s e t s w h i c h a r e c a s t i n t h e same g e n e r a l f o r m a t as t h e cognate s e t s b u t appear t o i n v o l v e word b o r r o w i n g r a t h e r t h a n cognacy. These c a s e s o f p r o b a b l e b o r r o w i n g a r e  iii  n o t m e r e l y t h e l e f t o v e r s o f K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n comparative work b u t a r e p a r t o f t h e e v i d e n c e f o r an a p p a r e n t l y l o n g s t a n d i n g  diffusional  c o n n e c t i o n between Kootenay and I n t e r i o r S a l i s h a n languages. T h i s d i f f u s i o n a l c o n n e c t i o n seems t o have gone beyond word borrowing i n t o t h e r e a l m o f grammatical borrowings and  interinfluences.  A l t h o u g h working out t h e d e t a i l s o f such i n t e r i n f l u e n c e s i s beyond  the  scope o f t h i s t h e s i s , t h e r e a r e p o i n t s o f e v i d e n c e i n t h e cognate s e t s as w e l l as i n t h e s e c t i o n on borrowings which suggest t h a t OkanaganC o l v i l l e may  have had t h e c l o s e s t and perhaps l o n g e s t d i f f u s i o n a l  c o n n e c t i o n w i t h Kootenay o f any o f t h e I n t e r i o r S a l i s h a n languages. S i n c e t r a d i t i o n a l O k a n a g a n - C o l v i l l e (and Lakes) t e r r i t o r y l i e s between Kootenay t e r r i t o r y and t h e p r o b a b l e homeland o f t h e speakers o f P r o t o S a l i s h a n somewhere around t h e F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a , i t appears  likely  t h a t P r o t o - K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n was p r o b a b l y spoken e i t h e r around t h e F r a s e r D e l t a o r somewhere between t h e r e and t h e p r e s e n t homeland o f t h e Kootenay some t h r e e hundred m i l e s t o the e a s t . The g e n e t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between Kootenay and S a l i s h a n i s n o t c l o s e enough t o warrant c l a s s i f y i n g Kootenay as a S a l i s h a n language. Kootenay i s a s i n g l e member language f a m i l y which i s c o o r d i n a t e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e S a l i s h a n f a m i l y i n a language s t o c k which can be  called  K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n . A l t h o u g h Kootenay s h o u l d no l o n g e r be c o n s i d e r e d a language i s o l a t e i n t h e a b s o l u t e sense i t i s s t i l l the K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n language s t o c k .  an i s o l a t e w i t h i n  iv  <  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  i i  Table o f Contents  iv  L i s t o f F i g u r e s and I l l u s t r a t i o n s  •  Acknowledgement  vi v i i  Abbreviations  1  Introduction  5  S a l i s h a n Phonology and T r a n s c r i p t i o n s  14  Kootenay Phonology and T r a n s c r i p t i o n  19  The S a l i s h a n Languages  21  K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n Grammatical Resemblances  24  P r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e Cognate S e t s  26  Examples o f t h e Sound Correspondences  29  Kootenay c  to  Salishan 1  c  M  "  m/n  M  "  w  "  "  *n  t  "  "  c  t?  "  y  "  "  s  y  "  "  *Y  52  x  "  "  ^  53  "  m  "  "  n  54  "  c  "  "  c  56  "  "  29  # *n  11  35 37  w  43  w  47  c  M  48 ,  49  V  Kootenay c  Salishan c  57  h  h  . 58  k  k  . 60  k  k  w  . 65  k'  k'  . 69  k'  k'  •  1  1  . 75  1  1  . 79  m  m  . 84  n  n  . 87  P  P  . 88  q  q  . 90  q  q  >  q > q  to  w  7 1  . 94  w  q  . 98  q'  100  s  104  t  109  t'  111  w  ;v  112  X  x  114  X  x  X  X  X  x  y  y  121  ?  122  s t t'  w  w  116 117  w  120  vi  Vowel Correspondences  124  A b l a u t Examples  127  M i n o r Vowel Correspondences  134  A d d i t i o n a l P o s s i b l e Consonant Correspondences  136  A d d i t i o n a l P r o n o m i n a l P r o b a b l e Cognate S e t s  140  Word B o r r o w i n g and R e l a t e d Phenomena  143  Conclusion  156  Footnotes  158  B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l Notes  161  Bibliography  163  LIST OF FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS  S a l i s h a n F a m i l y T r e e Diagram  22  Map o f t h e S a l i s h a n Languages and Kootenay  23  vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  T h i s s t u d y w o u l d n o t have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e h e l p o f two groups o f p e o p l e : t h e Kootenay p e o p l e who have worked w i t h me and h e l p e d me i n my g e n e r a l r e s e a r c h on t h e Kootenay language s i n c e 1968, and t h e s c h o l a r s o f S a l i s h a n languages who have s h a r e d t h e i r d a t a w i t h me. A l t o g e t h e r , t h i s i n c l u d e s some f i f t y p e o p l e who I would l i k e t o c o l l e c t i v e l y thank h e r e . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o thank my t h e s i s committee f o r t h e i r h e l p and p a t i e n c e , e s p e c i a l l y Dr. M. D a l e K i n k a d e , my t h e s i s a d v i s o r , who has been h e l p f u l t o an e x t e n t w h i c h h a s gone f a r beyond t h e c a l l o f d u t y and whose importance f o r t h i s s t u d y goes beyond t h e importance o f t h e s o u r c e s c i t e d under h i s name i n t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y .  1  ABBREVIATIONS  Languages and Language S u b d i v i s i o n s  Be  B e l l a Coola  Ch  Upper C h e h a l i s  Ck  Chilliwack  CI  Clallam  Cm  Columbian  Cr  Coeur d'Alene  Cv  Colville  Cw  Cowichan  Cx  Comox  Cz  Cowlitz  Fl  Flathead  HI  Halkomelem  Ka  Kalispel  Ld  Lushootseed = Puget S a l i s h  Li  Lillooet  Lm  Lummi  Lo  Lower C h e h a l i s  Me  Methow  Ms  Musqueam  Nk  Nooksack  NLd  Northern Lushootseed  2 NSh  N o r t h e r n Shuswap  NSt  Northern  Ok  Okanagan  PEIS  Proto-Eastern-Interior-Salishan  PIS  Proto-Interior-Salishan  PS  Proto-Salishan  Pt  Pentlatch  Qn  Quinault  Se  Sechelt  Sg  Songish  Sh  Shuswap  SLd  Southern  Sm  Samish  Sn  Saanich  So  Sooke  Sp  Spokane  Sq  Squamish  SSh  Southern Shuswap  St  Straits  Th  Thompson  Ti  Tillamook  Tw  Twana  Straits  Lushootseed  3 Author A b b r e v i a t i o n s  Ao  Aoki  Bd  Bouchard  Bt  Beaumont  Dr  Drachman  Dv  Davis  Ed  Edel  El  Elmendorf  Gb  Gibson  Hk  Hukari  Hr  Harris  Hs  Hess  Jh  Johnson  Kd  Kinkade  Kp  Kuipers  KT  Kinkade and Thompson  KS  Kinkade and S l o a t  Mi  Mitchell  Mg  Morgan  Nt  Nater  Rd  Reichard  Rf  Raffo  SD  Saunders and Davis  Sno  Snow  4 Sw  Swoboda  Sy  Snyder  Tm  Timmers  TTK  Thompson, Thompson, and Kinkade  TTE  Thompson, Thompson, and E f r a t  5 The purpose o f t h i s work i s t o p r e s e n t  evidence o f a genetic r e l a -  t i o n s h i p between t h e Kootenay^ language and the S a l i s h a n f a m i l y o f languages. The  e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t Kootenay and S a l i s h a n must neces-  s a r i l y have had a common a n c e s t o r  language w h i c h , f o r l a c k o f a b e t t e r  name, can be c a l l e d P r o t o - K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n . t h i n g s about t h i s p r e s e n t  One  of the  significant  study i s t h a t the existence of t h i s proto-  language can be e s t a b l i s h e d , b u t o n l y g i v e n P r o t o - S a l i s h a n t i o n s . T h i s makes P r o t o - K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n order, f o l l o w i n g the terminology A l s o presented  reconstruc-  a p r o t o l a n g u a g e o f t h e second  s e t f o r t h by Haas (1969, p.60).  i n t h i s work i s a s m a l l body o f e v i d e n c e o f a  d i f f u s i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between Kootenay and I n t e r i o r S a l i s h a n languages. The  f a c t t h a t t h e r e has been a d i f f u s i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between Kootenay  and some S a l i s h a n languages makes i t somewhat more d i f f i c u l t t o p r o v e t h a t Kootenay a l s o has a g e n e t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h S a l i s h a n as a whole. U l t i m a t e l y , however, c a r e f u l s t u d y o f the d e t a i l s o f t h i s d i f f u s i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p c o u l d add as much t o our u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of the p r e h i s t o r y of  t h e Kootenay and S a l i s h a n p e o p l e s as can be added s i m p l y by knowing t h a t Kootenay and t h e S a l i s h a n languages a r e g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d . I t i s t h e r e f o r e doubly important  t o d i s t i n g u i s h between K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n  borrow-  i n g s and c o g n a t e s . T h i s i s an on-going p r o c e s s , t h e f i r s t s t e p o f w h i c h must be t o e s t a b l i s h f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e t h a t Kootenay and S a l i s h a n a r e , i n f a c t , g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d , and t h a t a l l resemblances between Kootenay and S a l i s h a n a r e not due  e n t i r e l y to long e s t a b l i s h e d patterns  of  linguistic diffusion. I am n o t t h e f i r s t p e r s o n t o s u g g e s t t h a t Kootenay and S a l i s h a n a r e  6 g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d . S a p i r (1929) suggested i t by i n c l u d i n g Kootenay i n h i s proposed Algonquian-Wakashan s u p e r s t o c k . S a p i r assumed t h a t t h e Wakashan, Chimakuan, and S a l i s h a n language f a m i l i e s were g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d i n a group c a l l e d Mosan, proposed by F r a c h t e n b e r g (1920). S a p i r ' s Algonquian-Wakashan p r o p o s a l i s u n d e r c u t by t h e f a c t t h a t Mosan has n o t t u r n e d out t o be a v e r i f i a b l e g e n e t i c g r o u p i n g . What i s c l e a r t o d a y i s t h a t Wakashan, Chimakuan, and S a l i s h a n have much i n common, b u t t h a t many o f t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s between S a l i s h a n and t h e two o t h e r Mosan language f a m i l i e s may w e l l be due t o d i f f u s i o n . The q u e s t i o n o f t h e g e n e t i c a f f i l i a t i o n s o f Kootenay was n o t t a k e n up a g a i n u n t i l Haas (1965) compared Kootenay w i t h A l g o n q u i a n , S a l i s h a n , Wakashan, and Chimakuan. Haas was p r i m a r i l y comparing Kootenay w i t h P r o t o - A l g o n q u i a n . The r e s u l t s were i n t e r e s t i n g b u t n o t c o m p e l l i n g , and c e r t a i n l y do n o t c o n s t i t u t e p r o o f o f a g e n e t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p . I n f a c t , a few o f t h e suggested p o s s i b l e cognates between Kootenay and P r o t o A l g o n q u i a n must now be d i s m i s s e d as q u i t e i m p r o b a b l e , g i v e n more and b e t t e r d a t a on Kootenay t h a n were a v a i l a b l e t o Haas i n 1965.  Comparing  Kootenay and P r o t o - A l g o n q u i a n m y s e l f more r e c e n t l y , I c o u l d f i n d o n l y one a d d i t i o n a l l i k e l y  cognate.  Haas d i d d i s c o v e r some i n t e r e s t i n g resemblances between Kootenay and S a l i s h a n . She d i v i d e d t h e s e i n t o l i k e l y b o r r o w i n g s (between Kootenay and n e i g h b o u r i n g I n t e r i o r S a l i s h a n languages) and l i k e l y cognates. number o f t h e resemblances was  The  t o o s m a l l , however, t o be a n y t h i n g more  t h a n s u g g e s t i v e o f a g e n e t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p . G i v e n t h e s m a l l number o f resemblances  found between Kootenay and A l g o n q u i a n and between Kootenay  7 and S a l i s h a n by Haas (1965) and Haas's r e p u t a t i o n f o r f i n d i n g e v i d e n c e o f remote l i n g u i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i t was 1965  n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e t o assume i n  t h a t any r e l a t i o n s h i p between Kootenay and A l g o n q u i a n m i g h t r e m a i n  u n p r o v a b l e w h i l e d i f f u s i o n m i g h t l a r g e l y o r e n t i r e l y account f o r t h e resemblances between Kootenay and S a l i s h a n . The m a t t e r o f t h e g e n e t i c a f f i l i a t i o n s o f Kootenay remained a l m o s t as much an open q u e s t i o n a f t e r Haas's paper i n 1965 One  as i t had been a f t e r S a p i r ' s paper i n  o f t h e s a l i e n t p o i n t s o f Haas (1965) was  1929.  t h a t Kootenay  stands  as a language i s o l a t e w i t h o u t c l o s e r e l a t i v e s . T h i s means t h a t one must compare Kootenay w i t h r e c o n s t r u c t e d p r o t o l a n g u a g e s s u c h as P r o t o A l g o n q u i a n o r P r o t o - S a l i s h a n i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o f i n d c o n v i n c i n g  proof  o f t h e language's g e n e t i c a f f i l i a t i o n s . I f I am a b l e t o p r o v e h e r e t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f anyone t h a t Kootenay and S a l i s h a n a r e g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d , i t w i l l o n l y be w i t h t h e h e l p o f the r a t h e r r e c e n t c o m p a r a t i v e S a l i s h a n work o f Thompson, Thompson, and K i n k a d e ( u n p u b l i s h e d notebooks),  and K u i p e r s (1970) and (1976).  I t would be  comparative  extremely  d i f f i c u l t o r perhaps i m p o s s i b l e t o p r o v e t h a t Kootenay and S a l i s h a n a r e g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d w i t h o u t d o i n g c o m p a r a t i v e work and r e c o n s t r u c t i n g P r o t o - S a l i s h a n elements. There i s s t i l l a g r e a t d e a l o f work as y e t t o be done on t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f P r o t o - S a l i s h a n and as a r e s u l t t h e r e i s a great d e a l of comparative Kootenay-Salishan  work w h i c h w i l l have t o be  put o f f u n t i l some t i m e i n t h e f u t u r e . B a s i c d e s c r i p t i v e work i s s t i l l b e i n g done f o r s e v e r a l S a l i s h a n languages and f o r Kootenay. I t s h o u l d perhaps be p o i n t e d out t h a t Kootenay and S a l i s h a n a r e i n many ways v e r y s i m i l a r and w o u l d , no doubt, have been t e n t a t i v e l y  8  a c c e p t e d as r e l a t e d l o n g ago, i f e x t e n s i v e enough d e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l s had been a v a i l a b l e f o r Kootenay and f o r S a l i s h a n languages n o t n e i g h b o u r ing  Kootenay. There has been a n a t u r a l tendency t o d i s c o u n t e v i d e n t  s i m i l a r i t i e s between Kootenay and n e i g h b o u r i n g S a l i s h a n languages as due to d i f f u s i o n . Many o f t h e more s t r i k i n g resemblances were s i m p l y n o t n o t i c e d because t h e d e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l s on Kootenay i n p r i n t d i d n o t even m e n t i o n t h e r e l e v a n t m o r p h o l o g i c a l elements. The e v i d e n c e I w i l l p r e s e n t below i s n o t t h e t o t a l body o f resemb l a n c e s between Kootenay and t h e S a l i s h a n languages. I d i v i d e t h e t o t a l number o f r e s e m b l a n t forms w h i c h I have found i n t o t h r e e main c a t e g o r i e s : p o s s i b l e c o g n a t e s , p r o b a b l e c o g n a t e s , and p r o b a b l e b o r r o w i n g s . O n l y t h e p r o b a b l e cognates and t h e p r o b a b l e b o r r o w i n g s i n v o l v i n g S a l i s h a n languages a r e g i v e n below. There a r e o n l y a h a n d f u l o f p r o b a b l e borrowi n g s b u t t h e y a r e o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t because t h e y i n d i c a t e l i n g u i s t i c c o n t a c t between t h e Kootenay and d i f f e r e n t I n t e r i o r S a l i s h a n groups perhaps a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s i n t h e p a s t . C a r e f u l s t u d y o f KootenayS a l i s h a n b o r r o w i n g s may  eventually y i e l d information f o r studies of  r e g i o n a l p r e h i s t o r y . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , forms w i l l u l t i m a t e l y have t o be p r o v e n as b o r r o w i n g s j u s t as forms must u l t i m a t e l y be p r o v e n as c o g n a t e s . I n t h e o r y , b o r r o w i n g s and c o g n a t e s s h o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e on t h e b a s i s o f t h e network o f sound correspondences w h i c h a p p l y t o t h e cognates b u t n o t t o t h e b o r r o w i n g s . I n p r a c t i c e , many items i n v o l v e o n l y i d e n t i c a l sound correspondences such as / s / t o / s / o r c o n t r a s t i v e l y e q u i v a l e n t sound correspondences w h i c h c o u l d be due t o cognacy o r t o r e c e n t borrowing.  There a r e ( a t l e a s t ) n i n e such c o n t r a s t i v e l y e q u i v a l e n t sound  9  correspondences due t o t h e f a c t t h a t Kootenay l a c k s c e r t a i n phonemes w h i c h a r e common i n S a l i s h a n and p r o b a b l y o c c u r r e d i n P r o t o - S a l i s h a n . The f o l l o w i n g correspondences a r e i n t h i s c a t e g o r y :  Kootenay  Salishan  1  1  x  =  [x]  x  a  a  k  k  k'  k'  q  q  w  q  q'  w  x  x  w  x  x  w  w  w  The c a s e f o r a g e n e t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p i s h e a v i l y dependent on t h o s e p r o b a b l e cognate s e t s w h i c h i n v o l v e what I c a l l ' s p e c i a l sound pondences'.  corres-  These a r e correspondences w h i c h c o u l d n o t be t h e r e s u l t o f  b o r r o w i n g between Modern Kootenay and t h e Modern S a l i s h a n languages. Most o f t h e s e correspondences a r e l i s t e d below as a group:  Kootenay  Salishan  c  1  >  c  m/n  *r)  w  10 Kootenay  Salishan  w t  c  t'  c  >  y X  ?  m  n  y  s  u  9  Some s p e c i a l sound c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s a r e more s p e c i a l t h a n o t h e r s . There a r e two c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s w h i c h c o u l d h a r d l y be due t o a n y t h i n g b u t a sound s h i f t t a k i n g p l a c e b e f o r e t h e development o f P r o t o - S a l i s h a n . These a r e Kootenay / c / t o S a l i s h a n /!/ and Kootenay / c / t o S a l i s h a n /#/. Recent b o r r o w i n g c a n be s p e c i f i c a l l y r u l e d o u t as an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e s e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s , because Kootenay w o u l d c e r t a i n l y borrow S a l i s h a n ,/!/ as /!/'» and S a l i s h a n would c e r t a i n l y borrow Kootenay / c / as / c / . I n one example, Kootenay has a c t u a l l y borrowed an i n s t a n c e o f S a l i s h a n as  ( s e e t h e Kootenay word / x a l c i n / 7  'dog' i n t h e s e c t i o n on borrow-  i n g s ) . S a l i s h a n w o u l d , o f c o u r s e , b o r r o w Kootenay / c / as / c / . I n o r d e r t o f i n d a s a t i s f y i n g e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e s e two s p e c i a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o assume t h a t P r o t o - K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n had */k/ and */*'/• I n Kootenay, w h i c h t o d a y l a c k s e i t h e r o f t h e s e sounds, t h e y became / c / and /c'/, r e s p e c t i v e l y , w h i l e i n S a l i s h a n t h e y became /!/ and /*'/, r e s p e c t i v e l y . P r o t o - S a l i s h a n a p p a r e n t l y l a c k e d /X/, w h i c h i s c o n s p i c u o u s b y i t s absence  11  from t h e o t h e r w i s e v e r y b a l a n c e d and s y m m e t r i c a l c h a r t s o f P r o t o - S a l i s h a n phonemes w h i c h have been r e c o n s t r u c t e d r e c e n t l y . O n l y one S a l i s h a n language, Comox, has IXI as a phoneme; and t h e r e d i f f u s i o n from n e i g h b o u r i n g Wakashan c o u l d a c c o u n t f o r i t s p r e s e n c e . There a r e two s p e c i a l sound c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s w h i c h must go back a t l e a s t t o t h e P r o t o - S a l i s h a n l e v e l . These a r e Kootenay /w/ * / n / and Kootenay /m/n/ w  to Salishan  t o S a l i s h a n */n /- I n the f i r s t p l a c e , the w  S a l i s h a n phoneme i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s i s one w h i c h o c c u r s o n l y as a P r o t o - S a l i s h a n r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l S a l i s h a n languages have r e f l e x e s o f /m/,  /b/, / r j / , and /w/.  O n l y two C o a s t S a l i s h a n  l a n g u a g e s , L u s h o o t s e e d and Twana, have /b/ ( w h i c h i s a development /m/). /m/,  O n l y T i l l a m o o k i n Oregon has /w/  from  ( w h i c h i s a l s o a development  i t would seem, b u t a p p a r e n t l y i n a l l e n v i r o n m e n t s ) . Kootenay  from /w/  c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o S a l i s h a n */n /> on t h e o t h e r hand, o c c u r s o n l y word w  i n i t i a l l y and i n one example d i r e c t l y a f t e r a s t o p consonant. Examples Kootenay /m/  of  o r /n/ c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o S a l i s h a n * / n / a r e a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y w  ones where t h e Kootenay segment i s word m e d i a l and g e n e r a l l y The p e c u l i a r a l t e r n a t i o n between /m/  intervocalic.  and / n / i n c e r t a i n morphemes i n  Kootenay c r i e s out f o r some s o r t o f e x p l a n a t i o n o r an i n t e r n a l l y r e c o n s t r u c t e d phoneme h a v i n g b o t h n a s a l and l a b i a l p r o p e r t i e s , b u t w h i c h i s d i s t i n c t from /m/.  The t o t a l l a c k o f -[n] i n any form i n Kootenay phono-  l o g y and t h e i n t e r n a l l y e v i d e n t l i k e l i h o o d t h a t an e a r l i e r form o f Kootenay had l a b i a l i z e d v e l a r and u v u l a r consonant phonemes make * / n / a w  c a n d i d a t e f o r s u c h an i n t e r n a l l y r e c o n s t r u c t e d phoneme, even w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o r e c o n s t r u c t e d S a l i s h a n phonology.  12 The correspondences between Kootenay v e l a r and u v u l a r consonants and S a l i s h a n l a b i a l i z e d v e l a r and u v u l a r consonants a r e o f s p e c i a l  interest  but o n l y because t h e y p r o v i d e t h e environment f o r c a s e s where Kootenay /u/ c o r r e s p o n d s t o S a l i s h a n /o/ a d j a c e n t t o a l a b i a l i z e d v e l a r o r u v u l a r . In e f f e c t , Kootenay /u/ i s a r e f l e x o f S a l i s h a n l a b i a l i z a t i o n o f a v e l a r o r u v u l a r a d j a c e n t t o /o/. I n any c a s e , t h e s e examples a r e l i s t e d under t h e correspondence o f Kootenay /u/ t o S a l i s h a n /o/. A l s o o f i n t e r e s t i n t h i s r e g a r d a r e examples o f Kootenay / a / c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o S a l i s h a n / a / a d j a c e n t t o a l a b i a l i z e d v e l a r o r u v u l a r consonant. These a r e c a s e s where Kootenay f a i l s t o show a r e f l e x o f S a l i s h a n l a b i a l i z a t i o n where i t might be expected t o . There appear t o have been a d d i t i o n a l p h o n o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g f a c t o r s a t work t o have produced t h e s e examples. The o t h e r v o c a l i c correspondences e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h i s work which a r e o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t as e v i d e n c e o f a g e n e t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p a r e t h o s e i n v o l v i n g S a l i s h a n a b l a u t . They appear t o show a r e l a t i o n s h i p between  Salishan  a b l a u t and Kootenay vowels which p r o b a b l y cannot be e x p l a i n e d w i t h o u t some assumptions about P r o t o - K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n phonology. In P r o t o - K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n some phonemes, no doubt, must have been more common t h a n o t h e r s . We  can t h e r e f o r e expect t h a t some Kootenay-  S a l i s h a n sound correspondences may be r e p r e s e n t e d today by q u i t e a few examples, w h i l e o t h e r s may be r e p r e s e n t e d by o n l y one o r two  examples.  F o r t h i s r e a s o n I have s e t up c e r t a i n sound correspondences even where t h e r e i s o n l y one example.  I have been s e l e c t i v e i n t h i s , however, r a t h e r  t h a n p u r e l y m e c h a n i c a l . Some p o s s i b l e sound correspondences have  simply  been i g n o r e d f o r t h e time b e i n g . F o r example, t h e g l o t t a l i z a t i o n o f  13 S a l i s h a n r e s o n a n t s has been i g n o r e d i n t h e s e t t i n g up o f sound c o r r e s p o n dences i n t h i s work. One s u c h p o s s i b l e sound c o r r e s p o n d e n c e would be where Kootenay / I / c o r r e s p o n d s t o S a l i s h a n / l ' / a l o n g w i t h i n s t a n c e s o f S a l i s h a n / l / . A n o t h e r s u c h c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w o u l d be where Kootenay  /m'/  c o r r e s p o n d s t o / m ( ) / , /m?/,./m/, / n / , and /b/ i n v a r i o u s S a l i s h a n ?  languages. On t h e o t h e r hand, even though t h e r e a r e o n l y t h e t h i n n e s t t h r e a d s o f e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t i n g t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f Kootenay / y / t o S a l i s h a n */Y/ and- Kootenay / x / t o S a l i s h a n / ? / t h e s e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s a r e s e t up, i f o n l y as a way o f k e e p i n g t r a c k o f t h e l i m i t e d e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t i n g them. There a r e two s p e c i a l K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n sound c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s w h i c h are a l s o p o o r l y e x e m p l i f i e d b u t p r o b a b l y n o t because o f t h e r a r i t y o f t h e Proto-Kootenay-Salishan  phonemes t h e y may r e p r e s e n t . These a r e :  Kootenay /y/ t o S a l i s h a n / s / and Kootenay /m/  t o S a l i s h a n /n/. I f t h e s e  correspondences r e p r e s e n t a n y t h i n g a t a l l , t h e y r e p r e s e n t P r o t o - K o o t e n a y S a l i s h a n phonemes w h i c h have i n Kootenay o r i n P r e - P r o t o - S a l i s h a n undergone sound s h i f t s i n v e r y s p e c i f i c and p r o b a b l y r a r e p h o n o l o g i c a l environments. I n t h e c a s e o f / y / t o / s / , P r o t o - K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n p r o b a b l y had */s/ w h i c h became / y / i n Kootenay i n a v e r y s p e c i f i c environment q u i t e l i k e c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s o f Modern Kootenay u n d e r l y i n g //s - n // becoming /y/. I n t h e c a s e o f Kootenay /m/  t o S a l i s h a n / n / , what has  p r o b a b l y happened i s t h a t i n a t l e a s t one example P r o t o - K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n */m/ /!/•  has become */n/ i n P r o t o - S a l i s h a n a d j a c e n t t o t h e l a t e r a l consonant  14 I n t h i s work P r o t o - S a l i s h a n r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s a r e drawn from  Kuipers  ( 1 9 7 0 ) , and ( 1 9 7 6 ) , and from t h e c o m p a r a t i v e S a l i s h a n notebooks o f Thompson, Thompson, and K i n k a d e ( n . d . ) - K u i p e r s  (1976) s u p p l i e s a c h a r t  o f P r o t o - S a l i s h a n phonemes w h i c h i s quoted below. Under i t h e r e i s a c h a r t o f P r o t o - S a l i s h a n phonemes as g i v e n by Kinkade ( p e r s o n a l communicat i o n , 1976) w h i c h c a n be t a k e n as t h e system o f t h e Thompson, Thompson, and K i n k a d e c o m p a r a t i v e S a l i s h a n notebooks. Kuipers  (1976)  p  c  t  7 P  c  t  m >  m i  k  a  w  q 5  A'  k'  s  1  X  n  1  y  g  n  1' y  g  u a  k  q x  w  X  9  q  w  q'  w  x  w  h  Feature o f 'darkening' Stress  /"/  /V  ( f o r vowels)  15 Thompson, Thompson, and K i n k a d e  k  k  K  k'  k  'w  s  1  X  x  w  r  1  y Y w n  f  y  p  t  c  P  t'  c  m  n  m  n  »  i  >  >  r  u  >  w  ?  q  w r)  w  q  q  V  X  x  w  ?  ?«  w  S t r e s s /"/  s a  B o t h K u i p e r s and Thompson, Thompson, and K i n k a d e r e c o n s t r u c t a system o f a b l a u t f o r P r o t o - S a l i s h a n . The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e between t h e phoneme i n v e n t o r i e s w h i c h appears t o be s i g n i f i c a n t f o r K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n c o m p a r a t i v e work, as i t s t a n d s now, i s t h e absence o f * / n / i n t h e K u i p e r s system. The K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n w  sound c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s s u g g e s t t h a t P r o t o - K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n p r o b a b l y had such a phoneme. There i s a l s o e v i d e n c e o f a c o r r e s p o n d i n g g l o t t a l i z e d */n /> a l t h o u g h a s e p a r a t e sound correspondence has n o t , as y e t , been s e t w  up. The s o l e example would be t h e p r o b a b l e cognate s e t i n v o l v i n g /-kam/ ' b e l t ' t o be f o u n d under t h e correspondence /m/n/  Kootenay  to */n /. w  The q u e s t i o n o f K u i p e r s ' d a r k e n i n g f e a t u r e /"/ and t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f P r o t o - S a l i s h a n * / r / and * / r / b y Thompson, Thompson, and K i n k a d e are  i n t e r r e l a t e d matters which b a r e l y a f f e c t the Kootenay-Salishan  16 sound correspondences  and p r o b a b l e cognate  There i s one p r o b a b l e cognate  s e t s as t h e y a r e now  formulated.  s e t which i n v o l v e s what would be P r o t o -  S a l i s h a n * / r / . T h i s i s t h e one w i t h Kootenay /-Iwiy/  ' h e a r t ' matching  P r o t o - I n t e r i o r - S a l i s h a n */-arwa.s/ ' i n s i d e ; f e e l i n g s ' l i s t e d under the correspondence  /y/ t o / s / . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the S a l i s h a n element may  be segmentable.into  a c o n n e c t i n g s u f f i x */-ar-/  and a l e x i c a l  well  suffix  p r o p e r */-was/. There i s a l r e a d y some e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e Kootenay element /-Iwiy/ may  a l s o be segmentable, and t h a t t h e r e may  be s e v e r a l examples  o f Kootenay / - I - / as a f o s s i l i z e d c o n n e c t i n g element f o r Kootenay l e x i c a l s u f f i x e s . T h i s matter  i s c o m p l i c a t e d i n s e v e r a l ways and w i l l have t o  w a i t f o r d i s c u s s i o n i n a l a t e r stage o f K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n work. Even t h e n , K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n comparative work may  have l i t t l e t o say about  the  n e c e s s i t y o f r e c o n s t r u c t i n g P r o t o - S a l i s h a n */r/. In o r d e r t o make f o r g r e a t e r c o m p a r a b i l i t y o f t h e S a l i s h a n forms quoted  i n t h i s work, a number o f r e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s have been made. These  a r e s p e c i f i e d below. The f i r s t group o f r e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s a r e t h o s e i n v o l v i n g Squamish, Shuswap, S e c h e l t , and B e l l a C o o l a forms from K u i p e r s and h i s s t u d e n t s Timmers and  k° if o  q  o  X  i s converted to  k  w  k'« q« q*  q X  Nater.  x  w  17 x°  i s converted to  x  X  "  A'  11  "  "  1  "  "  i  w  Squamish / u / has been c o n v e r t e d t o /w/  and Squamish / i / has been  c o n v e r t e d t o /y/. K u i p e r s h a s , h i m s e l f , begun t o u s e /m'/ what was /m / ?  to represent  and /n/ t o r e p r e s e n t what was / n / i n K u i p e r s ( 1 9 6 7 ) . I n 7  t h i s work Squamish g l o t t a l i z e d n a s a l s can be f o u n d t r a n s c r i b e d  either  way.  The f o l l o w i n g v o w e l t r a n s c r i p t i o n s have been changed as  indicated:  a  i s converted to  e  i n Coeur d'Alene from R e i c h a r d  •£P'i  it  il  it  g?  a  "  "  "  e  i n L i l l o o e t f r o m Swoboda  it  II  i  i n Twana f r o m Drachman and  il  it  il  il  li  i n Comox f r o m D a v i s i  i n Cowichan, Musqueam, and C h i l l i w a c k f r o m ELmendorf and S u t t l e s and f r o m G a l l o w a y  18 The f o l l o w i n g consonant t r a n s c r i p t i o n s have been changed  as  indicated:  tc  i s converted t o  c  i n Coeur d'Alene from R e i c h a r d  ts 9'w  II  it  II  it  it  q' i n S o n g i s h from M i t c h e l l  qw'  w  ng X  x  M  ^  it  it  it  x  i n Lushootseed from Hess II  w  it  II  If  II  i  f  i n K a l i s p e l from V o g t  m  m  "  k  k'  "  ?  it  11  II  II  it  II  II  II  it  One morpheme boundary symbol /./ from Lushootseed (Hess) has been r e t r a n s c r i b e d as  /-/.  19  The Kootenay forms i n t h i s work a r e i n a t r a n s c r i p t i o n w h i c h i s phonemic, b u t n o t e n t i r e l y i n n o c e n t o f f a c t s r e v e a l e d b y a t e n t a t i v e g e n e r a t i v e phonology o f t h e language. A phoneme c h a r t i s g i v e n below:  Kootenay Phonemes p  t  c  k  q  p  t  c  k  q  s i m  n  m  n  ?  x  y  w  i  u  h  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t /k, k', q, q',/ and fx/ a r e r e a l i z e d q u i t e n o t i c e a b l y as [ k , k' , q , q' ] and [ x ] , r e s p e c t i v e l y , between a p r e c e d i n g w  w  w  w  w  /u/ and a f o l l o w i n g / a / o r / i / . S t r e s s i n Kootenay i s p r e d i c t a b l y p e n u l t i m a t e . The u n i t s o f s t r e s s assignment a r e t h e word and t h e s t r e s s - g r o u p . The s t r e s s - g r o u p c a n be d e f i n e d s y n t a c t i c a l l y and t h e assignment o f s t r e s s c a n be d e s c r i b e d as a p p l y i n g c y c l i c a l l y , f i r s t t o t h e words i n a s t r e s s - g r o u p , and t h e n t o t h e s t r e s s - g r o u p as a whole. I n t h i s way, t h e examples o f ' d i s t i n c t i v e secondary s t r e s s ' o f G a r v i n (1948, page 38) c a n be n e a t l y p r e d i c t e d . G a r v i n (1948) d i d n o t r e c o g n i z e g l o t t a l i z e d consonant phonemes f o r  20 Kootenay. I t i s a f a c t t h a t many i n s t a n c e s o f p h o n e t i c a l l y  glottalized  consonants i n Kootenay a r e t h e p r o d u c t o f c l u s t e r s o f consonant p l u s g l o t t a l s t o p . F o r s t o p consonants t h e r u l e i s t h a t any c l u s t e r o f s t o p consonant f o l l o w e d by g l o t t a l s t o p w i l l r e s u l t i n a g l o t t a l i c anywhere w i t h i n  a stress-group. Treating  ejective  a l l g l o t t a l i z e d consonants as  u n d e r l y i n g c l u s t e r s would be a v a l i d enough s o l u t i o n  orthographically,  except f o r t h e f a c t t h a t g l o t t a l i z e d consonants do e x i s t i n t h e underl y i n g forms o f many Kootenay morphemes. F o r example, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o count many morpheme i n i t i a l  i n s t a n c e s o f g l o t t a l i z e d consonants as u n i t a r y  segments and n o t as c l u s t e r s a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g forms i n o r d e r f o r c e r t a i n vowel i n s e r t i o n r u l e s t o a p p l y c o r r e c t l y . Vowel i n s e r t i o n must take p l a c e b e f o r e s t r e s s c a n be c o r r e c t l y  assigned.  In t h e Kootenay t r a n s c r i p t i o n u s e d i n t h i s work, a s u f f i x c a n be i d e n t i f i e d as a s u f f i x by t h e p r e s e n c e o f a hyphen i n f r o n t o f i t . I f t h e s u f f i x c a n o c c u r word f i n a l l y i t w i l l n o t be f o l l o w e d by a hyphen. Kootenay r o o t  elements o c c u r word i n i t i a l l y  g i c a l l y bound o r f r e e . A r o o t  and may be e i t h e r morpholo-  element f o l l o w e d by a hyphen i s one which  i s m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y bound and always o c c u r s f o l l o w e d by a s u f f i x . Segments found i n parentheses i n t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f Kootenay forms i n t h i s work a r e segments which a r e s u b j e c t t o d e l e t i o n .  21  There a r e some twenty-three modern S a l i s h a n languages and reconstructable  several  S a l i s h a n p r o t o l a n g u a g e s . In t h i s work I quote forms from  some t h i r t y - t h r e e S a l i s h a n speech d i v i s i o n s and a number o f the p o t e n t i a l l y r e c o n s t r u c t a b l e p r o t o l a n g u a g e s . I n the f o l l o w i n g c h a r t o f the S a l i s h an f a m i l y , adapted from Kinkade languages  (1976a), the twenty-three  distinct  a r e l i s t e d down the r i g h t hand s i d e o f the page w i t h t h e i r  s u b d i v i s i o n s e i t h e r i n d i c a t e d i n p a r e n t h e s e s o r as p a r t s o f a name. In the p r e s e n t a t i o n  hyphenated  o f the cognate s e t s , S a l i s h a n forms a r e u s u a l l y  l i s t e d under the headings: I n t e r i o r , B e l l a C o o l a , Coast, and Tsamosan ( f o r m e r l y known as Olympic). I d i s t i n g u i s h Tsamosan from Coast  Salishan,  a l t h o u g h Tsamosan i s reckoned t o be more c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o Coast S a l i s h a n than t o any o t h e r b r a n c h o f the f a m i l y . In t h i s work T i l l a m o o k i s taken as a member o f the Coast S a l i s h a n branch. What i s s i g n i f i c a n t for  K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n work, a t t h i s p o i n t , i s t h a t B e l l a C o o l a , Coast  S a l i s h a n , and Tsamosan a r e a l l g e o g r a p h i c a l l y  c o a s t a l and do n o t n e i g h -  bour Kootenay. I t i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e r e i s as much l i n g u i s t i c d i v e r s i t y i n the f a m i l y on the Coast as t h e r e i s .  Columbian Coeur d'Alene Spokane-Kalispel-Flathead Okanagan-Colville-Methow Shuswap Thompson Lillooet Bella  Coola  Comox Pentlatch Sechelt Squamish Nooksack Halkomelem ( C h i l l i w a c k Musqueam- Cowichan) Northern  Straits  (Saanich-  Songish-Sooke-Samish-Lummi) Clallam Lushootseed Twana Tillamook Cowlitz Upper C h e h a l i s Lower C h e h a l i s Quinault  Adapted from S u t t l e s and Elmendorf (1963)  24  There a r e many g e n e r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s between Kootenay and S a l i s h a n grammar and t h e r e a r e many resemblant grammatical items. F o r the time b e i n g , however, I have l e f t something l i k e h a l f o f the resemblant grammatical items i n the c a t e g o r y o f p o s s i b l e cognates and such items a r e n o t e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h i s work. The p r i o r i t y here i s t o show t h a t Kootenay  and S a l i s h a n a r e g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d . Many o f t h e p o s s i b l e  grammatical cognates c o n s i s t o f o n l y one o r two segments, t h e r e b y making i t d i f f i c u l t t o r u l e out chance as an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r whatever b l a n c e t h e r e may  resem-  be i n any g i v e n c a s e . O f t e n d e s c r i p t i v e l a b e l s a r e  t e n t a t i v e o r l a c k i n g f o r an i t e m i n s e v e r a l o f the languages where i t o c c u r s . B e f o r e i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o f u l l y e x p l o r e the s i m i l a r i t i e s  and  d i f f e r e n c e s between Kootenay and S a l i s h a n grammar, t h e grammars o f s e v e r a l languages i n c l u d i n g Kootenay w i l l have t o be t h o r o u g h l y desc r i b e d and P r o t o - S a l i s h a n grammar w i l l have t o be r e c o n s t r u c t e d . Even a t t h i s s t a g e o f r e s e a r c h , however, some i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t s i n the f i e l d o f K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n comparative grammar have a l r e a d y emerged. There a r e some f o r t y - s i x examples o f Kootenay  lexical suffixes i n  the p r o b a b l e cognate s e t s i n t h i s work. Of t h e s e , t h i r t y - f o u r a r e a p p a r e n t l y cognate t o S a l i s h a n r o o t elements. There i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t Kootenay has t u r n e d what were o r i g i n a l l y r o o t elements i n t o  suffixes.  L e x i c a l s u f f i x e s a r e , i n any event, much more p l e n t i f u l i n Kootenay  than  i n any S a l i s h a n language. R e d u p l i c a t i o n i s r e c o n s t r u c t i b l e f o r P r o t o - S a l i s h a n b u t t h e r e i s no t r a c e o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n ever h a v i n g been a p a r t o f Kootenay grammar.  One  would expect a t l e a s t some r e l i c forms o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n i n the l e x i c o n  25 i f r e d u p l i c a t i o n had e x i s t e d a t some e a r l i e r s t a g e i n Kootenay. As i t i s , the few p o s s i b l e examples o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n t h a t e x i s t i n Kootenay a r e e i t h e r onomatopoetic o r a r e almost c e r t a i n l y borrowings from S a l i s h a n . The v a l i d i t y o f a noun-verb d i s t i n c t i o n i s q u e s t i o n a b l e  f o r both  Kootenay and S a l i s h a n . I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, n o t a l l o f t h e same arguments a p p l y  on t h e m a t t e r i n Kootenay as i n S a l i s h a n . F o r example,  Kootenay has f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g words t r a n s l a t a b l e i n E n g l i s h as ' t o be'  and ' t o e x i s t ' . I n S a l i s h a n languages, i n c o n t r a s t , words t r a n s l a t -  a b l e as ' t o be' and ' t o e x i s t  1  a r e l a c k i n g i n normal usage, w h i l e words  t r a n s l a t a b l e i n t o E n g l i s h as nouns c a r r y t h e i r own p r e d i c a t i o n o f e x i s t ence o r i d e n t i t y . I n Kootenay, a word t r a n s l a t a b l e as a noun i n E n g l i s h does n o t c a r r y i t s own p r e d i c a t i o n o f e x i s t e n c e  o r i d e n t i t y any more  than an E n g l i s h noun does. P a r t l y because o f t h i s , i t i s n o t easy t o argue t h a t Kootenay has no nouns. On t h e o t h e r hand, i f one i s f o r c e d t o a n a l y z e Kootenay as h a v i n g nouns as d i s t i n c t from v e r b s ,  i t i s very  d i f f i c u l t t o a v o i d t h e n e c e s s i t y o f u s i n g such terms as ' t r a n s i t i v e noun' and  ' r e f l e x i v e noun'. One t h i n g t h a t Kootenay and S a l i s h a n do have i n  common on t h i s m a t t e r i s t h a t some o f t h e v e r y t o be n o m i n a l i z e r s  elements w h i c h c a n be s a i d  c a n a l s o be argued t o be u l t i m a t e l y a s p e c t u a l  T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y a m a t t e r f o r f u r t h e r study, g i v e n t h e a r e a l and theoretical implications.  markers.  26 The p r o b a b l e cognate s e t s a r e e x e m p l i f i e d below a c c o r d i n g t o sound correspondence. The o r d e r o f t h e sound correspondences i s such t h a t those s p e c i a l correspondences which a r e most important as e v i d e n c e f o r a g e n e t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p a r e l i s t e d f i r s t . The e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s i s t h a t t h e vowel correspondences a r e g i v e n l a s t as a group, a l t h o u g h a l l o f t h e vowel correspondences e x e m p l i f i e d by cognate s e t s here a r e those which a r e s p e c i a l sound correspondences. E x e m p l i f i c a t i o n o f a g i v e n p r o b a b l e cognate s e t c a n be found under t h e most important o r i n t e r e s t i n g  conso-  nant correspondence i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e t . I n some c a s e s , t h e l o c a t i o n o f the e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n o f a g i v e n cognate s e t may seem a r b i t r a r y . F o r example, t h e s e t i n v o l v i n g Kootenay  / a n / 'more' and Sooke / a n / 'very, ?  ?  too much' w i l l be found under t h e correspondence /n/ t o / n / . The l o g i c h e r e i s t h a t examples o f t h e correspondence /n/ t o /n/ a r e r a r e r  than  examples o f t h e correspondence / / t o / / and a r e t h e r e f o r e o f g r e a t e r ?  ?  i n t e r e s t . W i t h i n t h e e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l sound correspondences t h e o r d e r o f t h e cognate s e t s i s l a r g e l y  arbitrary.  The o r d e r o f t h e sound correspondences i s as f o l l o w s :  Special  Correspondences  Kootenay  Salishan  c  to  1  c  to  t  m/n  to  *rj  w  to  *n  w  w  S p e c i a l but P r o b l e m a t i c o r P o o r l y Supported Correspondences Kootenay  Salishan  t  to  c  i  to  c  y  to  s  y  to  *Y  X  to  ?  m  to  n  9  Expected and I d e n t i c a l Correspondences Kootenay c  Salishan to  c  c  to  C  h  to  h  k  to  k  k  to  k  k'  to  k'  k'  to  1  to  1  1  to  1  m  to  m  n  to  n  P  to  P  q  to  q  q  to  q  9  9  w  w  28  (Expected and I d e n t i c a l Correspondences) Kootenay J q  Salishan >  to  q  q  to  q~  s  to  s  t  to  t  tf  to  t'  w  to  w  X  to  X  X  to  x  X  to  X  X  to  x  y  to  y  ?  to  ?  9  w  w  Vowel Correspondences Kootenay  Salishan  i  to  i  a  to  a  u  to  u  a  to  9  u  to  9  minor vowel correspondences and t h o s e i n v o l v i n g a b l a u t  29 Kootenay  c  Salishan Set  cik'-  1  1  'split'  Interior Ik^ep  'broken ( e . g . r o p e ) , dead'  lec  Sh  ' s t r i n g breaks'  Cr  Coast lac-ton lie  lec-to1 licot lie  Sq 'knife'  Sq  'knife'  Ck  'cut'  Ms,  'to cut'  Set (preparticle)  Se  'be c u t ' lac-tn  c  'knife'  Cw Ld  2  'future'  Coast 1-  'future p a r t i c l e '  (Dr)  Tw  Tsamosan 1  ' f u t u r e marker'  Set pac-  'scatter, distribute'  pac-kin  'to s c a t t e r things  3 Interior  pil  ' s c a t t e r ' ( s e e K u i p e r s (1974) p.  by hand, t o take some-  for discussion  thing apart, to deal  t h i s item)2  (cards)'  Ch  pil  'to d i s t r i b u t e '  of / l /  134 for Sh Cm  30 Set 3 (continued) pac-xam-kc-ik  'they  pil  'be s c a t t e r e d '  scattered C a l l running away i n d i f f e r e n t  Cr  Coast pil-an  'scatter (ordered t h i n g s ) ,  directions)'  erase'  Sq  pal  ' t o separate o r devide*  (Sy)  pal  ' f l e e , r u n away o u t o f f r i g h t ,  Ld  make s e l f s c a r c e because y o u are t o l d t o '  (Hs)  Ld  Set 4 Kootenay ma c ?  c  1  Salishan  'negative imperative',  Tsamosan  a l s o r a r e l y 'negative'  milta  'negative'  Ch  i n a g e n e r a l sense  milta  'no, n o t '  Cz  milt  Lo  'not*  Set 5 que-  'itch, t i c k l e , scratch an i t c h '  Tsamosan q' ili-, q' ilw  q' iliw  w  'itch'  Ch  'itch', q ' i l i - 'scratch w  (reflexive)'  Cz  B e l l a Coola q'il-cut  'toscratch o n e s e l f  (Nt)  N a t e r a l s o has H e i l t s u k q ' l - a and K w a k i u t l q'.wEl ( q u o t e d f r o m B o a s ) . w  31 Set 5 (continued) T h i s s u g g e s t s t o me t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e s e Wakashan languages may have borrowed t h e B e l l a C o o l a r o o t element when i t was * q i l o r some s u c h w  form w i t h l a b i a l i z a t i o n . I do have one example where B e l l a C o o l a has q'  w  f o r q' elsewhere i n S a l i s h a n b u t I u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e r e a r e some w  anomalies w i t h B e l l a C o o l a l a b i a l i z a t i o n i n t h e c o n t e x t o f Comparative S a l i s h a n work ( K i n k a d e , p e r s o n a l communication).  Set 6 Kootenay cin-  c  Salishan  'grab, be caught'  1  Coast lin  'be caught'  Sq  lid(i) 'tie'  Ld  Tsamosan lan  'button'  Ch  Ian-Ac  'cinch'  Ch  Ac  'belly'  Ch  Set 7 nictahal  'boy, young man'  Tsamosan nultalmos  'person'  nulta^lmosu?  (Sno)  'teenage boy' (Sno)  Lo Lo  32 Kootenay  c  Salishan Set  cuk(u)-  8  'take up f o o d o f f ground'  1  Bella lk  Coola  ' p i c k up'  w  (SD)  Interior lk  ' t o l a p up'  w  Ka  Set 9 cum-  'be u s e d t o , be accustomed t o '  Interior lem  'apologize'  (Rd)  Cr  Coast lim  Set cu-  'be accepted, be approved'  10  'stick i n '  cu-ku-t-iy-al  Sq  Interior 'spear'  //luty/  'stab'  Th  lu  ?  ' t o poke, s t a b ,  lu  ?  ' j a b , s t a b , poke'  iuP  sting'  Sh Sp  ' t o s t i n g , wound w i t h a p o i n t e d instrument'  The  Ka  S a l i s h a n element l u ? o r l u u seems t o have been borrowed ?  Kootenay i n r e c e n t times. Note Kootenay Jtu u 'awl' and lu^-nana ?  F o r some f u r t h e r d e t a i l s , see t h e s e c t i o n on borrowings.  into  'needle'.  33  Kootenay  c  Salishan  1  Set 11 wicwic kawic  'killdeer' 'semipalmated p l o v e r '  Interior w i l (as i n ) wiwl-wol w'il (as i n ) wwilw'il  'snipe'  Sh  'sandpiper'  Cm  T h i s i t e m may b e s t be t a k e n as onomatopoetic g i v e n t h e f o l l o w i n g forms: Interior walowal  'long b i l l e d curlew'  Fl  Coast wlQ-iye W 9 0 W 3 0  '(large or small) snipe'  Ck  ' s n i p e ( i n one d i a l e c t )  Ck  C e r t a i n l y t h i s item i s problematic, but i t i s not the o n l y case where an a p p a r e n t l y onomatopoetic word appears i n Kootenay i n a f o r m n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l t o a f o r m i n a C o a s t S a l i s h a n language w h i l e some I n t e r i o r S a l i s h a n languages have r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t forms. See Kootenay p'iq  ' 'nighthawk' i n t h e s e c t i o n on onomatopoetic words. The /Q/ i n  C h i l l i w a c k s h o u l d go back t o an e a r l i e r / c / a c c o r d i n g t o r e g u l a r C o a s t S a l i s h a n sound c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s . The Kootenay word / w i c w i c / i s v e r y n e a r l y t h e o n l y word i n t h e language w h i c h c o u l d be s a i d t o be r e d u p l i c a t e d , w h i c h i n i t s e l f s u g g e s t s onomatopoeia. Even w i t h a l l t h i s , i s s t i l l t h e f a c t t h a t t h e E n g l i s h word  there  ' k i l l d e e r ' i s supposedly i t s e l f  onomatopoetic b u t does n o t resemble any o f t h e Kootenay o r S a l i s h a n words above.  34  Kootenay  c  Salishan  1  S e t 12 qucac  'chipmunk'  *q' ac-ww  'chipmunk'  (TTK)  PS  Interior qacwewye  ( r e d u p l i c a t i o n o f ) qacw-eye 'chipmunk'  q^acow-ayV  Sh  'chipmunk'  7  q^q^c-w-eye  7  Cm  'chipmunk'  Sp  Coast sq a£fel  'squirrel'  sq' ac'al  'squirrel*  w  w  s-dx -q' acal w  w  Ck (El)  'squirrel'  Tw (Dr)  Tw  Tsamosan sq' acal  'chipmunk'  w  sq a ce l , w  ?  ?  ' l i t t l e chipmunk'  Cz, Ch Ch  35  Kootenay  c  Salishan  A'  S e t 13 c'i-  'fast, rapid'  B e l l a Coola Ai  'fast'  (Nt)  Coast A'i-A'i  'rapidly'  A'i-gol  'speedboat',  A'i-A'i  'fast (rapid)'  Cx - g o l 'boat*  Cx Se  Note a l s o : Interior Aox  'fast, swift'  Cm  A'ax  'fast, swift'  Ka  Tsamosan A'ax  'fast, hurry'  C z , Ch  S e t 14 ip-  'close'  cup-in-aqlil  Coast 'to close  one's eyes* cup-in-ka-luma one's mouth*  A'ip-awica  'undergarments'  (s)Aop-iwan 'to close  Aap  ' s h i r t , chemise'  'cover, c l o t h i n g '  Aop-  'to cover'  Se Se Sq Sn  Tsamosan A'ip-  'cover'  A'ip :  A'ipsi-  Ch 'cover'  Cz  Note, however: c'ip'-us-m  'shut t h e eyes'  Sq  36  Kootenay  c  Salishan X' Set 15  mac-  'dirty'  Interior ma2c' 'soft ground, muddy ground'  Cm  Coast maX', mo*' 'be dirty'  Sq  Note the following possible ablaut forms: Interior miA' 'paint'  Cm  miA' 'rub, paint'  Cv  mix*  'cover with a liquid like paint' Sp Coast  cmiA' 'dirty' c-  Ck  'a prefix for colour terms, a prefix for deriving verbs'  Ck  37 Kootenay m/n  Salishan * n  w  Set 16 -nana  'diminutive  suffix,  *n ana? w  t h e young o f a s p e c i e s ' -mna  'diminutive  occurring after stems o t h e r w i s e  suffix  Bella mna  (TTK)  PS  Coola  'child'  a few ending  'child, offspring'  (TTK)  Coast mana  'child (offspring)'  Se  i n an u n d e r l y i n g g l o t t a l  man?a  ' c h i l d ' (TTK)  Cw  s t o p which i s anomalously  nana  7  'offspring'  So  not r e a l i z e d  nana  7  'offspring'  Lm  'child'  CI  as g l o t t a l -  i z a t i o n on t h e m* -una  '(probably) a  diminutive s u f f i x ring  nana? nana (occur-  i n two examples,  once a f t e r  -qat ' t a i l '  and once a f t e r 'lake')'  -qnuk  'child, offspring'  (Mi)  (TTK)  Sg  nana?  'child'  Sg  bada  ?  'offspring,  (one's own) c h i l d '  NLd  bada  ?  'offspring,  (one's own) c h i l d '  SLd  bada  'child'  (TTK)  Tw  wana  'child'  (TTK)  Ti  Tsamosan man  'child'  Ch  38 Kootenay  m/n  Salishan  *n  w  Set 17 T h i s cognate s e t may r e p r e s e n t a s e p a r a t e sound  correspondence,  Kootenay m t o S a l i s h a n * r f . w  -kam  (the only l e x i c a l  element i n t h e word ?  a-kam-t)  Coast cam( ) ?  'belt'  ' c l o s e ; come t o g e t h e r , be f o l d e d , doubled up'  com o-tn ?  Sq  'shoulder s t r a p o f b a s k e t , packstrap'  coma t o n 1  com' 3t9n ?  comotal cana ton ?  sorjSton  ' tump 1 i n e ' ' p a c k s t r a p ' (TTK) ' p a c k s t r a p ' (TTK) 'tumpline' 'tumpline'  coba( )-tod ?  Sq  'tumpline'  Nk Ms,  Cw Ck CI Lm Ld  39  Kootenay m/n  Salishan * n  w  S e t 18 -m-, -n-  Interior  'middle v o i c e  s u f f i x , ( o r perhaps  //omo//  better) personal  //-m//  'middle ( v o i c e ) s u f f i x ' 'middle s u f f i x w h i c h i n d i c a t e s some i n v o l v e m e n t on t h e p a r t  involvement s u f f i x '  of t h e p r i m a r y r e f e r e n t , a l s o  The f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n d i t i o n the occurrence o f -m- v e r s u s -n- a r e n o t  //-m//  f u l l y worked o u t , however?  -m  o c c u r s as -om'  Cv  'middle ( v o i c e ) '  Sp  'middle ( v o i c e ) '  Cm  Coast  a pattern i s evident. This s u f f i x occurs w i t h  -m-  - a l t o form a s u f f i x  -or) ( a l s o -rj and -om)  'middle v o i c e '  group -mai, - n a l  passive s u f f i x '  ' c o m i t a t i v e ' . The g e n e r a l  -n ( a l s o -m)  r u l e i s t h a t -mai o c c u r s  -(0)rj  word f i n a l l y w h i l e - n a l  -m  occurs before a d d i t i o n a l  -b ( a l s o -ob)  suffixes.  Th  Cx 'medio(Rf)  'affected'  'involved, affected'  'medio-passive'  (Hk)  'middle v o i c e '  Sg So CI Cw Ld  Tsamosan -m / - m i t -  'middle ( v o i c e ) '  Ch  -m / - m i t -  'middle ( v o i c e ) '  Cz  40  Kootenay  Salishan  m/n  S e t 19 mat  Interior  ' t o l e a v e something  b e h i n d , t o abandon  mt-es, c-mt-st-es  something, t o d i s p o s e  s-mt-em  o f something'  7  -ma t ?  am  7  -kic  'to feed'  'they a r e g i v e n i t to eat'  'to give  'have' 'benefactive'  Sh  (as i n )  ?  (act-feed-caus-tran-indef-pl)  something t o someone' ha-  Sh  'food p r o v i d e d '  c- am-s-t-im-alx  (as i n )  ha-ma t-kic  'to feed'  Cv  ?  am-  'feed'  Cm  ?  amtam  ' f e e d someone'  Cm  ?  amtan  ' I f e d him'  Cm  Coast ?anat  'to give'  (Rf)  Sg  ?an-  (root) 'give'  (Rf)  Sg  net-  ( a s i n ) netan  'to distribute  wealth, give rights and p r i v i l e g e s t o a name' netx  w  (Mi)  ' t o cause t o be g i v e n '  ?  anast  'togive'  (Mi)  ?  a n a t , ^ a n a ^ t ; u n a s t , ''a^nust  (Mi)  Sg Sg  ?  'make a g i f t ' ?anac ?  Sg  ana s ?  ' g i v e i t t o me' ' g i v e i t t o me'  CI (TTE) (TTE)  CI Lm, So  41 S e t 19  (continued) Coas t  (continued)  ?ona?s  ' g i v e i t t o me'  batax  ' g i v e ( e . g . food)  w  (TTE) (Kd)  Tsamosan matil-  'give food, feed'  S e t 20 Kootenay tamuxu  m/n  Salishan  w  Coast  ' t o be dark o u t ,  t o be d a r k i n a p l a c e '  *n  tanon te'non  'evening' 'evening, n i g h t '  (Mi)  42  Kootenay  Salishan  m/n  *n,  w  Set 21 -minna ?  'mountain'  a-k'a-minna  'hole'  'mountain'  w  'mountain pass'  -ka-  *s-rj an  (TTK)  PS  B e l l a Coola smt  'mountain'  smt, smnt  (SD)  'mountain'  (TTK)  Coast smaanit  'mountain'  (TTK)  Se  sma'nit  'mountain'  (TTK)  Pt  s-manit  'mountain'  Sq  sment  'stone, r o c k , mountain'  smelt  'stone, mountain' (TTK)  Ms,  Cw Ck  srjenot  'stone'  Sg  snanot  'stone'  CI  srjeent  'rock, mountain'  Lm  s-badit  'mountain'  Ld  s-badil  'mountain'  Ld  sbadit  'mountain'  (Kd)  Tw  Tsamosan smanici  'mountain'  Ch  smaTiac  'mountain'  Lo  smanicu  'mountain'  Qn  43  Kootenay  w  Salishan  *n  w  Set 22 -qwi  ' ( t o ) swallow'  *q'an aw  'swallow'  (TTK)  PS  Interior q'm-  ' ( t o ) swallow'  Sh  ' t o swallow'  Sp  q'm(i) q'am  'swallow'  Ka  q'em  ' swallow'  Cr  Coast qam-n  ' swallow'  maq'-at rjaq'-  'swallow i t ' ' t o swallow'  naqat, rjaq't baq'  Sq Ck (Rf)  'swallow'  'put i n mouth, swallow'  Sg CI Ld  Tsamosan maq'  w  'swallow'  Ch  44 Kootenay  Salishan  w  Set waqa  *n  23  *s-n 9q' a?  'heron'  w  w  'heron'  w  (TTK)  PS  Interior  p r o b a b l y waqaC ) 7  smuq' a w  'crane; h e r o n  ?  somoq^e?  'crane'  som6q e  ' g r e a t b l u e heron'  w  ?  Cm  1  (TTK)  Ka Fl  Coast smoq' e  'crane'  w  smoq' a w  'great b l u e heron'  ?  srjOq' a?  'heron'  w  srjoq' a( ) w  ?  s-b9q' a w  Ck  ?  (TTK)  'heron' 'heron'  awaqa, *waq' a? w  (TTK)  (TTK)  HI Sg Lm Ld Ti  45 Kootenay  Salishan * Q  w  W  Set 24 wu-  Vus  (quite possibly once)  'four'  (Kd) (TTK)  PS  Interior  'four' mus musos  Sh  'four' 'four'  Cm  mus  'four'  Sp  mus  'four'  Ka  mus  'four'  Fl  mus  'four'  Cv  mus  'four'  Cr  B e l l a Coola mus  'four'  (Nt)  Coast nas  'four'  nos  'four'  buus  So (Mi)  'four'  Sg Ld  Tsamosan mus  'four'  Ch  Kootenay /wu-xa'ca/ means ' e i g h t ' , b u t / x a ' c a / ' f o u r ' may be r e l a t e d t o / x a c i n - / 'both' and /xanc-/ 'both'. I n a d d i t i o n , Kootenay has a decade marker /-wu/ o c c u r r i n g i n s u c h forms a s : /qalsa-n-wu/ /qalsa/  'thirty'  'three'  46 Set 24 /yi'ku-n-wu/ /yi'ku/ The up  (continued)  'fifty'  'five'  Kootenay word f o r 'ten' i s / it'-wu/ p r o b a b l y ?  ten'. I t i s probable,  literally  'fill(ed)  o r a t l e a s t p o s s i b l e , t h a t a sound s h i f t o f  word i n i t i a l * n t o w i n an e a r l i e r form o f Kootenay y i e l d e d /wu-/ ' f o u r ' w  a l o n g s i d e /wu/ ' t e n ' . T h i s c o u l d have r e s u l t e d i n t h e c o i n a g e o f / i t w u / ?  for  'ten' and t h e u s e o f /xa'ca/ as ' f o u r ' , a l t h o u g h  j u s t how /xa'ca/  became ' f o u r ' i s n o t c l e a r . F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on /xa'ca/ see cognate s e t 115 under t h e correspondence x t o x.  Kootenay  w  Salishan * n  w  Set 25 wu-  'touch'  Interior musmus-m mus-  Sh  'feel'  Cr  ' f e e l about* Bella  mus-a  Cm  ' f e e l , grope'  Coola  ' f e e l , touch'  (Nt)  As t h e r e a r e no cognates i n S t r a i t s S a l i s h f o r t h i s r o o t , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s c o u l d be e i t h e r *mus o r * n u s i n P r o t o - S a l i s h a n . w  47 Kootenay  t  Salishan  c  S e t 26 matqul  'seagull'  Interior macq' ul' w  Cm  'pelican'  The Kootenay i t e m above l o o k s s u s p i c i o u s l y l i k e a b o r r o w i n g from S a l i s h a n b u t i t f a i l s t o q u a l i f y as a c l e a r borrowing f o r a t l e a s t  two  p h o n o l o g i c a l r e a s o n s . I f Modern Kootenay were t o borrow t h e Columbian term i t would be borrowed as */macqu l/. There i s a t l e a s t one ?  example  i n Kootenay o f a word w h i c h has been pronounced by some i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h / c / where o t h e r s have / t / . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t an e a r l i e r form o f Kootenay may have had i n s t a n c e s o f / c / which became / t / . T h i s i s o n l y one p o s s i b i l i t y , however. A t l e a s t r e c e n t b o r r o w i n g can be r u l e d out. F o r one o t h e r p o s s i b l e example o f Kootenay ft/ c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o S a l i s h a n / c / , see cognate s e t 92 i n v o l v i n g Kootenay / - q u t a l /  ' f a t ' under  the correspondence /q'/ t o /q' /> The d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h a t example i s t h a t w  w h i l e Kootenay has / - q u t a l / , one S a l i s h a n language, Shuswap, has b o t h /q' uc/ ' f a t , s t o u t ' and / q t e l / w  w  'grease'.  48  Kootenay  t'  Salishan Set  sit'  'blanket'  c  27  *s-?ic-  'blanket'  (TTK)  PS  Interior sidn  'blanket'  Th  sicm  'blanket'  Sh  sicam  'blanket'  Cm  sicbm  'blanket*  Ka  sic  'be b l a n k e t e d , be b l a n k e t '  Cr  Coast s ic'am  'clothes, clothing'  ?  Set taqmila  Se  28  'deerfly'  Coast cb-cbq' als w  'small black f l i e s ' ,  Sq  Both o f the examples o f /t'/ t o /c'/ above l o o k s u s p i c i o u s l y l i k e they a r e the r e s u l t o f word borrowing a t some time i n the p a s t . Haas (1965) suggested  t h a t the example i n v o l v i n g Kootenay / s i t ' / might be i n  t h a t c a t e g o r y . A t l e a s t w i t h these two Modern Kootenay and ruled  out.  examples, borrowing between  the modern S a l i s h a n languages i n d i c a t e d above can  be  49 Kootenay  Salishan  y  s  Set 29 -Iwiy  feelings' ?  Interior  ' h e a r t , mind,  a-k-itwiy  saan-ilwiy  'heart'  'inside; feelings'  -alawas  'chest, stomach, s e a t o f  »bad»  -elas  'chest, character'  Sh  ' h e a r t , stomach'  Cr  automatically  by r u l e a f t e r a consonant.  Cm  1  Coast  o f t h e form  -id g as 9  w  'upper p a r t o f t o r s o , mind, mental a t t i t u d e '  i n i t i a l l y on t h i s morpheme is inserted  Cm  'feelings  w  / - i l w i y / which appears  PIS  -lwas  -ilg es The / i /  (KT)  mind o r i n t e l l i g e n c e '  ' t o be angry'  saan-  *-arwas  -e'lwas, -awas -1'las -aligas yanawas yadwas  Ld  ' i n t h e stomach'  Ck  'of t h e c h e s t ' 1  'breast'  Ck  (Ed)  Ti  'heart' 'heart'  CI Skagit  Ld  Tsamosan -inuwas  'stomach'  Cz, Ch  50  Kootenay  Salishan  y  Set -Ch)iy ?  30  * - a k i s t or *-akis  'hand'  a-k-iy  s  -eks(t) I f t h e o r i g i n a l form  'hand, lower arm*  -aks(on),  -ks(on)  o f t h i s s u f f i x had been  -akst,  * / - k i y / the Modern Kootenay  -isks(t), -(i)ks(t)  still  be / a k i y / , b u t i t would be ?  *// a-k-kiy// ?  (TTK)  PS  Interior  'hand'  word f o r hand would  'hand'  i n i t s under-  -kst  'hand, arm'  'hand, arm, f i n g e r ' 'hand'  Sh Cm Cm Cv  Coast -aci? -cos  'hand, lower arm' 'hand'  Ld Sn  l y i n g form. The e x t r a /k/ would be d e l e t e d by r u l e .  There i s one o t h e r Kootenay element w h i c h may be cognate t o t h e S a l i s h a n forms l i s t e d above. See cognate s e t 40 i n v o l v i n g Kootenay /-ak/ 'limb  o f body' and B e l l a C o o l a /-ak/ 'appendage' l i s t e d under t h e  correspondence /k/ t o /k/.  51  Kootenay  Salishan  y  s  Set 31  -ly  'reflexive  suffix'  Interior -ist  ' r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x f o r middle  -i(st)  commonly found a f t e r t h e m i d d l e v o i c e s u f f i x -m-,  Sp  voice  T h i s s u f f i x i s most  -n-.  wekum  'forms r e f l e x i v e v e r b s ' 'he h i d e s something'  wek i(st) w  'he h i d e s h i m s e l f  ( a l s o ) -mist  (om-ist)  Ka  I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t i i i Kootenay t h e r e i s a r u l e which c o n v e r t s u n d e r l y i n g / / . . . s - n . . . / / i n t o /y/ i n c e r t a i n c o n s t r u c t i o n s which a r e , no doubt, o f some a n t i q u i t y i n t h e language. T h i s sound change was n o t e d by Boas  (1926).  ?  as  ?  ay-wu  qalsa  'two' 'twenty'  'three'  qalsa-n-wu  xa'ca  'thirty'  'four'  xa'ca-n-wu  'forty'  52  Kootenay  Salishan  y  *y  Set 32 yamasin-  Interior  'bent back on  i t s e l f , d o u b l e back'  yam  yamasin-ku( )  djem  ?  -kuC )  ' t o hem'  'by means o f a  7  pointed yamasin-kin  'pin'  Cm  'pin, brace'  (Reichard  Cr  has 'djam')  Coast  object' 'to p u l l  yab- yabat' ?  ' t i e d round'  (Kd)  something back on itself -kin  According  'by hand'  yamasin-xam  and vowel correspondences s u p p l i e d by  'to turn  around i n a v e r y  tight  space and go back' -xam  t o t e n t a t i v e consonant  'by body motion'  Kinkade, t h e P r o t o - I n t e r i o r  Salishan  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d i c a t e d by t h e Columbian and Coeur d'Alene forms would be *yam.  Tw  53 Kootenay  x  Salishan Set  -yax(a)  'to go and g e t  33  *ya?-  'gather'  something, t o f e t c h something'  ?  (TTK)  PS  Interior yaS  'gather'  Cm  ya?  'gather(ed)'  Cv  ya?  'gather(ed)'  Cv  ya  (ya?)  Sp  7  'gather, accumulate'  There i s one o t h e r s e t o f forms from I n t e r i o r S a l i s h a n languages which c o u l d p o s s i b l y be cognate t o the Kootenay l e x i c a l  yxen yax  s u f f i x above.  ' t o chase f i s h i n t o f i s h t r a p ' 'drive, herd'  Cm  yx-" dax de-x  Sh  Cm  ' d r i v e , round up' 'round up'  (TTK)  (TTK)  Cr Cr  54  Kootenay  m  Salishan  n  Set 34 -l(u)ma  ' t h r o a t , mouth'  (Upper Kootenay) -l(i)ma  Coast -l.n-  ' t h r o a t , mouth'  ' t h r o a t ?' (as i n )  -l.n-ay -a ldol ~  (Lower Kootenay)  ?  'inside of throat' - a ldol ?  ?  Sq  'parts o f the mouth'  Ld  Tsamosan -In-al -l nl ?  'mouth' ( a l s o ) - l n - 1 (as i n ) c a p l ^ n l  The segmentation o f t h e Upper C h e h a l i s s u p p l i e d i n order  Kootenay /m/  'cough'  forms (and C o w l i t z  Lo  forms) i s  t o b r i n g o u t t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f them t o t h e Squamish  forms. Note t h a t some i n s t a n c e s What may v e r y  Cz, Ch  o f Squamish /y/ come from e a r l i e r  /l/.  l i k e l y have happened w i t h t h i s s i n g l e example o f  c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o S a l i s h a n /n/ i s t h a t  may have s h i f t e d an o r i g i n a l */m/ under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f an a d j a c e n t  Pre-Proto-Salishan  i n t h e morpheme i n q u e s t i o n  t o /n/  / I / . There i s some i n d i c a t i o n from  the Squamish form t h a t P r o t o - S a l i s h a n may n o t have had a schwa  separat-  i n g t h e / I / and t h e /n/. K u i p e r s u s e s t h e symbol /./ t o i n d i c a t e t h a t a schwa would be expected b u t does n o t o c c u r ( s e e K u i p e r s 1967 pages 22 and  23). I n c o n t r a s t t h e p a r e n t h e s i z e d  vowels o f t h e Upper and Lower  Kootenay forms suggest t h a t an e a r l i e r stage o f Kootenay d i d have an e p e n t h e t i c vowel o f n e u t r a l q u a l i t y between t h e / I / and /m/.  T h i s vowel  has become a phonemic segment i n Modern Kootenay where i t i s p e n u l t i m a t e  55 i n a word and hence s t r e s s e d . I n forms where i t would n o t be  penultimate  and thus u n s t r e s s e d i t g e n e r a l l y f a i l s t o occur. Thus one gets'.  ?  a-k'a-luma -ka-  but  'mouth'  pak'aluma]  'hole'  also:  ?  a-k'a-lma- is ?  - is ?  ' h i s , h e r , i t s mouth', ' t h e i r mouth(s)' 'general t h i r d person possessive [ aka3ma is] ?  ?  suffix'  56 Kootenay  c  Salishan Set  ca-  'small'  c  35  *cam  'small'  (TTK)  PS  Interior com  ' children'  com  'children'  Th Sh  (TTK)  Cm  ccoma? cm, cam  Cv  'small'  Sp  cm *cim  'small  sccamel't ~ cicem'-e?  Ka  (plural)' scca mel't ?  'children'  Fl  'are s m a l l '  For o t h e r examples o f Kootenay / c / c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o S a l i s h a n / c / , see: Set 53  (Kootenay  Set 73  (Kootenay  Set 44  (Kootenay  Set 79  (Kootenay  kaci( ))  under  k' t o k'  under  p to p  cukat)  under  k to k  -qac)  under  q to q  ?  pic-)  w  Cr  57 Kootenay  c  Salishan Set  wicu-  ' w i n g out,  36 Coast  rinse  out by w r i n g i n g '  c  ?ucus-uci-  'wring'  (TTK)  'wipe d r y '  (TTK)  Tw Ti  Tsamosan wuc-n  'wring out ( t r a n s i t i v e ) '  Ch  wuc-1  'wring out'  Ch  58 Kootenay  Salishan  h  Set hu-  'finish,  complete'  h  37  *huy  'finish'  (TTK)  PS  Interior huya  ' A l l r i g h t , (I w i l l ) ;  huy  'finish'  Cv  Okay, ( l e t ' s ) '  hoy  'finish'  Sp  T h i s form i s u s e d i n  hoi  ' t o q u i t d o i n g something'  Ka  hoy  'cease'  Cr  the c o n t e x t o f f i r s t o r  (Rd)  Coast  second p e r s o n . The form hoy  'done, f i n i s h e d '  Cx  huy  'finish'  Se  The word /huya/ has i t s own  huy  'be f i n i s h e d '  Sq  built-in third  hay?  'to f i n i s h '  s u b j e c t . The / - s / s u f f i x  huy-  'finish'  marks a s u b s i d i a r y  third  hoy  p e r s o n and i s o n l y  called  huy(u)  /huya-s/  i s used i n t h e  context o f t h i r d  person.  person  'finish*  (Rf)  Sg CI  (Dr)  Tw  'make, do, f i n i s h ; be t h u s '  Ld  f o r when a sentence has two t h i r d p e r s o n  A l s o note".  entities.  Interior  T h e r e f o r e , we c a n suppose t h a t t h e word /huya/ has  huy  ( t r a n s l a t e d i n a t e x t as) ' t h a t was t h a t '  an u n d e r l y i n g s e n t e n t i a l  Coast  meaning such as ' i t i s f i n i s h e d ' , 'that i s that',  huy -s  or  huya?  something  nature.  of this  Cv  ?  huya  ' l e t us!'  Sq  * depart' ' Let's  Sq *, ' Come on  '  Se  59 S e t 37  hoye? huy  ?  hiya huy  ?  hoy  ?  ?  (continued) Coast  (continued)  'go'  (TTK)  'good-bye'  CI  'depart'  CI  'good-bye' / huyu  huy( ) ?  HI  (Dr)  'good-bye*, f i n i s h '  'good-bye'  Tw (Kd)Tw Ld  Tsamosan huy  'then; good-bye'  Ch  60 Kootenay  Salishan  k  k  S e t 38 -kup,  -ku( )  'fire,  ?  (intransitive  heat'  stems o n l y )  *-kup  'fire'  (TTK)  *-kup  ' f i r e (wood)'  PS (Kp)  PS  Interior -ku,  -k  ' f i r e , l i g h t up'  (transitive  -okp  (as i n ) x u l - a k p x ul w  -ku( )  'wood'  ?  Note t h a t t h i s  suffix  means 'wood' i n d e p e n d e n t l y  -atk up w  -kup  a-qu-qu-ku( ) ?  -qu  fuel'  'raft'  ' i n the water, by  Cr  Coast (as i n ) y a q l c p  'put wood  w  on f i r e ' -ik"up  creek; bridge'  Sh  Cm  'log across  7  ?  'fire'  'fire,  Sh  Cm  ( u n r e t r a n s c r i b e d ) (Rd)  -cp  ^a-qu-kuC )  'fire'  w  of the i d e a o f 'firewood'. F o r example:  'rub f i r e '  w  stems o n l y ) -atk p, -k p  -kup,  'match'  w  -cup -ku  'fire  Sq Sq  1  ' f i r e , firewood' 'to l i g h t '  Ld  (Ed)  Ti  Tsamosan  the water' -k up w  ( a s i n ) mak upw  -cap  ( a s i n ) macap  -cap  'wood'  'fire'  'fire'  Cz Lo  ( a s i n words f o r : ' p o l e ,  axe, s p l i t wood')  Lo  61  Kootenay  Salishan  k  Set ka a ?  ka?  k  39 Interior  'where?' 'where, which, what,  ke (e)  'which?; whatever, w h i c h e v e r ,  ?  any; i t i s t h a t '  how' ka  ?  cen  Th  'where'  Cm  'where, how'  Ka  Coast noca.  'where?'  Se  cad  'where'  Ld  cal  'how, why'  Ld  doca?  'where?'  (Kd)  d o c a d , ~ docad? ?  Tw  'where'  (Dr)  Tw  Tsamosan ca*  Set -ak  Ch  'where'  40  'limb o f body*  B e l l a Coola -ak  'appendage, hand'  (SD)  Coast -ac  'hand'  -aci  ?  'hand, lower arm'  Some o r a l l o f t h e S a l i s h a n forms h e r e a r e taken as support f o r Proto-Salishan  lyl  to / s / .  * - a k i s t or *-akis.  See s e t 30 under t h e correspondence  Sq Ld  62 Kootenay  Salishan  k  k  S e t 41 ka  Interior  'my' kan  'I'  Cm  kn  »I«  Sh  kn  »I'  Th  o n l y w i t h t h e word / x a l i ( ) /  cn  'I'  Sp  'son* and t h e r e l a t e d  kan  kan  'my'  The f o r m /kan/ o c c u r s ?  /xalinalil/  'I'  Cv  Coast  'nephew', i n  Modern Kootenay. Boas ( 1 9 1 8 ) ,  con  however, r e c o r d e d [kan] i n -  c-n  Se  ' I , my'  Sq  'I'  s t e a d o f [ka] i n what i s  (The c- i n Squamish w h i c h K u i p e r s  now / k a t i t q a t m a l /  i d e n t i f i e s as a component o f t h i s  f e l l o w man',  'my  an e x p r e s s i o n  pronoun can a l s o be seen i n cognate s e t 43)  used as an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a challenge to f i g h t .  Ld  cad  'I'  can  »TI  san  ' f i r s t person s i n g u l a r pronominal  Cw  (Hk)  particle'  (Pvf)  Sg  can  ' f i r s t person s i n g u l a r e n c l i t i c '  CI  can  ' f i r s t person s i n g u l a r e n c l i t i c '  Sm  Tsamosan cn  'I'  Ch  kn  'I'  Cz  63  Kootenay  Salishan  k  Set -kin,-kn  42 Interior  'by hand' k i n , kn  T h i s element i s of a set of  k  *cin  one  'to touch'  Sh  'to c a t c h , grab' ( o c c u r s as  con-  i n Vogt's examples)  instrumental *conx  lexical suffixes.  Ka  'to t o u c h w i t h f i n g e r s ' ( o c c u r s  w  as c o n x - i n an example.  The  w  s t a r r e d forms are Vogt's) cen  Ka  'take h o l d o f l a r g e o b j e c t '  Cr  Set 43 k-  'to do,  to  be'  -k  'dummy r o o t element t o  Coast c-  'to be,  which l o c a t i v e p r e f i x e s  See  are a f f i x e d t o form  156,  t o a c t as'  Kuipers and  Sq  (1967, pages 89,  155,  157)  independent l o c a t i v e words'  The  f u n c t i o n o f Kootenay /k-/  above i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h a t o f a  s e m a n t i c a l l y empty r o o t t o which l e x i c a l s u f f i x e s a r e a t t a c h e d e i t h e r v e r b stems o r , w i t h the p r e f i x / ^ a - / , t o form what c o u l d called  'nouns'. The p r e f i x / a - /  p r e f i x a l s o has  ?  i s aspectual  (roughly  t o form be  'stative').  This  a p l a c e i n p u r e l y v e r b a l morphology where i t s a s p e c t u a l  r o l e i s more o b v i o u s .  64 S e t 43 Ccontinued) Examples o f t h e Kootenay r o o t element /k-/:  -qac  'walk, go'  k-qac  ' t o walk, t o go'  s-qac  ' t o be i n t h e a c t o f w a l k i n g o r g o i n g '  -lat' ?  'arm'  a-k-lat'  'arm'  suk-lat -xu -mik ,  ?  'to have a good throwing o r h i t t i n g arm, t o have a good aim'  suk-  'good'  -xu?  ' t r a n s i t i v e l y by whole body  -mik  'middle v o i c e  action'  reflexive'  F o r an a d d i t i o n a l example o f Kootenay /k/ c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o S a l i s h a n see: S e t 17  (Kootenay  -kam)  under  m/n  to  *n  w  65 Kootenay  Salishan  k  Set cuka-t  'to t a k e  k  w  44 Interior  1  cak  //cok // w  ck -um w  cok ck  Sh  'to p u l l '  Cm  drag'  Cv  'pull'  w  'pull'  Sp  'to drag'  Ka  w  w  cok  Th  'pull'  'pull,  w  ck (u) ck  Li  'pull'  w  Cr  'drag, p u l l '  w  Coast cok  cok -n w  Set  Sq  'tug, p u l l '  45 Interior  ?uk- ' a l l ' A l s o r e c o r d e d as:  Sq  'pull'  w  uk  'swarm, crowd  w  ?u-k-  Cr  1  Coast Cx  awk' ' a l l '  7  w  ?uk'  'everything, a l l *  w  7  u*k'  w  ' t o be a l l gone'  (Tm)  Se  (Hr)  Ck  66 Kootenay  k  Salishan Set  -nuk-  w  46  'haul, drag along; g i v e someone a r i d e '  k  Interior ?  uk -  'haul, take, b r i n g '  w  ?uk  'take, b r i n g '  w  ?uk , huk w  ?  uk  Cv  'bring'  w  Sp  ' t o b r i n g , t o take someone  w  ?uk  Cm  w  someplace'  Ka  'carry, bring*  Cr  Tsamosan ?  ik: -  Set -uk, -k  'go a f t e r '  w  Ch  47  'water'  Interior -k  w  'water'  Cm  -k  w  'water'  Sp  -k  w  'water'  Ka  Coast -k  ' ( a s u f f i x used i n a number o f  w  words) connected w i t h the s e a ' -ak  w  (as i n ) s i d a k  cf.  sin-k  cf.  sin-qu cf.  w  'sea'  Sq  (El)  Tw  'ocean, s a l t water'  Cm  'ocean'  Se  -qu 'water*  Se  w  67 Kootenay  k  Salishan  k  w  S e t 48 -ku  'water  Interior  1  The Kootenay form i n t h i s s e t may be t h e same  -k e  'water, l a k e , r i v e r , creek'  w  -k e w  'water, l i q u i d '  ?  morpheme as t h e Kootenay  Sh Cr  Tsamosan  forms i n t h e s e t immediate-  -ci  l y above. M e t a t h e s i s i s a  -k u  'water'  w  'water'  Ch Cz  r e g u l a r p r o c e s s i n Kootenay morphology.  S e t 49 -muk  ( a s i n ) a-k-muk-nam  Interior  ?  'someone's f o r e h e a d ' [Lower -mu( ) ?  Kootenay)  muk  w  muk  w  'hump, humpy, mound'  'bulge'  Cm  'mounds, lumps'  Cv  Coast mok  w  ' t o be lumpy'  Sq  S e t 50 -nuk  'crawl'  Interior uk -t w  'crawl'  Cr  68 Kootenay  k  Salishan  k  w  S e t 51  -lu k ?  'word, language, sound'  -likyaxCa)  'turn of phrase,  verbal expression'  Coast lik a-  'talk to'  left"-  'talk'  lek a-  'speak'  w  w  (Kd)  (Kd) (Dr)  Tw Tw Tw  Set 52  -nuk nu kiy 7  'rock, stone'  Coast  'rock, stone' s-duuk  cuk(u)  'take up food o f f  w  'knife, iron'  Ld  Set 8 Bella  ground' lk  w  Coola  ' p i c k up' (SD) Interior  lk  w  ' t o l a p up'  Ka  69 Kootenay  Salishan  k'  Set  kaciC )  53  ' t o be skinny'  7  Tsamosan ke-c-  kVc  km  ha-  54  'a r o o t o c c u r r i n g w i t h  number o f words m a i n l y r e f e r r i n g  important'  t o p a r t s , esp. t o p a r t s o f the body'  Sh Kuipers  lit-  various  ' t o m a t t e r , t o be  'have'  lit-k'am  Cz  'little'  p r e f i x e s and s u f f i x e s i n a l a r g e  substance' ha-k'am  Cz  Interior  'importance, meaning, sense t o i t ,  Ch  'little'  'little'  kVci  Set  Ch  'little'  ke-ci?  -k'am  k'  lists  59 words  'to not matter,  containing this root involving  t o be o f no  the u s e o f o n l y f o u r  importance'  p r e f i x e s b u t many l e x i c a l s u f f i x e s ,  'without*  cem  different  'word stem o c c u r r i n g w i t h  field  s u f f i x e s i n a g r e a t number o f words, e x p r e s s i n g p a r t s o f the body, p a r t s o f t h e house, and i n a few o t h e r s ' an  'general word stem'  Ka Sp  70  Kootenay  k'  Salishan Set  kan-  (as i n )  -wac  55  kan-wac 'dive'  'swim under  k'  Interior kan  'up a g a i n s t '  Cm  ( a l s o ) kan- (as i n )  water'  (-qln  k'an-qin ' p i l l o w '  'head')  Cm  For an a d d i t i o n a l example o f Kootenay /k'/ c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o S a l i s h a n /k'/ see: Set  1  (Kootenay cik'-)  under  c  to  1  71  Kootenay  k'  Salishan  k'  also  w  k'  S e t 56 ?  uki(7)  'one, f o r t h e r e t o  *nk'-u? / nk'  be one ( o f some-  *nak'  thing) ' uk'-  (Kp)  'one, o t h e r ; t o change'  PS (Kp)  PS  The above items a r e c r o s s r e f e r e n c e d by K u i p e r s .  'one, same'  ?  'one'  w  Interior nok' -u , nak' -  A l s o note: ?  ak'-la-na  7  ak'-la-k la-k  w  ?  nok' -usam  'different'  nek'  'other'  ' t o change'  nok' -  'or'  nek' e?  ' parent ( s ) '  nkHi  - nik'-na ( ) mu ( ) 7  nac-ali  ' ( s u c h and such) ones',  -ali  ' ( s u c h and such) t r i b e ,  nc-u  people'  nac-  wup?  examples: 'something new'  'new'  aq'am-nik'  ' S t . Marys  aqam  ' S t . Marys  Paver'  'one p e r s o n '  Se  'people s u f f i x '  Se  'one'  ?  ?  noc'a? nec  Sq  'change, d i f f e r '  nc-a.y uw am nee  person o r people' ?  Cr  Coast  ' ( s u c h and such) one',  wup-nik'  Cr Ka  'be t r i b e '  w  'relative(s)' -nik'  „  'one'  7  nik'  ?  Cv  'one'  w  Sh  Cm  'one'  w  Sh  Sh  'one'  w  A l s o note:  'one, o t h e r '  'party, family'  w  nk' -  -nik'  w  'family'  ?  'different'  l o c o , loc'e  'one'  Sq Sn  'one' 'different'  Sq  Cw (Mg)  Cw Ck  72  Set 56  (continued) Coast  lec,  loc  Ck  'one'  docu  7  'one'  NLd  docu  ?  one  SLd  dacu-  'one*  Tw  (Kd)  Tsamosan nac-aw-:  'one'  Ch  nak'-aw-  'one'  Cz  There may be an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e l a c k o f i n i t i a l / n / i n t h e Kootenay r o o t s i n t h i s s e t . I n Kootenay t h e r e i s a p r e d i c a t i z i n g p r e f i x / n - / w h i c h i s r e a l i z e d as / n / b e f o r e words w i t h i n i t i a l g l o t t a l and as / n / ( w i t h l o s s o f /h/) b e f o r e words w i t h i n i t i a l /h/.  stop  Before  words w i t h any o t h e r i n i t i a l consonant t h e / n - / p r e f i x i s n o t r e a l i z e d . No Kootenay word b e g i n s w i t h a v o w e l . As i t i s , v e r y few Kootenay r o o t elements w h i c h c o u l d be p r e d i c a t i z e d b e g i n w i t h /n/. The  Kootenay  element / - n i k V , w h i c h does have / n / t o match t h e / n / i n t h e S a l i s h a n r o o t s , i s a l e x i c a l s u f f i x n e v e r o c c u r r i n g word  initially.  73  Kootenay  k'  Salishan Set  ?iskax-mit  k'  1  57  ' t o l o s e some-  Interior  t h i n g , something t o elude  ?isk' l-n  one'  ?isk' l  'scatter'  w  -mit  'throw'  ?  ?  ?isk-xu( )  isk' l-n w  isk' ol w  ' t o h i t some-  ?  ?  ik' ot  -xu(?)  ?  ik' -  ?  ik' -ot  one's body'  w  'to h i t a target  Sp  'I s c a t t e r e d i t '  Sp  ' t o throw away'  Ka  'throw ( i t ) away'  (Hk)  Cw  'lost'  w  w  Ck  'throw i t away, d i s c a r d i t '  ?isk a-  'throw'  ?isk' as  'throw i t away'  v  ?isku(?)  Cm  Coast  t h i n g by throwing' 'by a c t i o n o f  'throw ( p l u r a l o b j e c t s ) *  w  w  (Kd)  Ck Tw  (Kd)  Tw  w i t h a b u l l e t o r arrow, t o guess r i g h t i n t h e s t i c k game' -ku( ) ?  'by a c t i o n o f  pointed ing  object (includ-  fingers)  T h i s i s r e a l l y an example o f Kootenay /k/ t o S a l i s h a n /k' /, and as w  such one o f a number o f p o s s i b l e cognate examples ( n o t e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h i s work) o f S a l i s h a n g l o t t a l i z e d consonants c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o u n g l o t t a l i z e d consonants i n Kootenay. The o n l y Kootenay form i n t h e p r o b a b l e cognate s e t above w i t h /k'/ i s one where t h e g l o t t a l i z a t i o n c a n be  74  Set 57 (continued) construed to be from the s u f f i x /-ku(' )/ with the underlying root as ?  / i s k - / . The loss of /k/ i s not, however, automatic b u t i d i o s y n c r a t i c ?  here. The somewhat obscured h i s t o r y of the stem /" isku(' )/ may have been ?  ?  a factor i n the apparent loss of g l o t t a l i z a t i o n with the stems /^iskax-mit/ and /^isk-xuC )/. 7  75  Kootenay 1  Salishan 1 S e t 58.1  lu( ) ?  lu-  'be none, be 'remove'  absent'  .  Interior Iwel-n-s  ' t o l e a v e somebody  alone,  t a k e o f f and d i s c a r d Cclothing)' (s-)lwel  '(person)  Sh left  alone,  l e f t behind' low  'leave'  Sh Cv  Coast law'  'to leave'  law?  Cx  ' r e c o v e r , r u n away (about a captive)'  Sq  lowal  'leave behind'  log l,  log ol-  w  w  (Kd)  'leave, leave behind'  Tw Ld  Tsamosan lawal-  'leave'  Ch  lawa.1-  'leave'  Cz  76 Kootenay  Salishan  1  Set lu-q'-lam-xu  lu-q'-lam-kin ' t o p u l l someone's head h a i r out' -lam -xu  Interior luq'  w  ( a s i n ) c-x-luq' -ws-qn  loq'  w  'bald headed'  Ka  loq'  w  'be b a l d ,  Cr  w  laq'  'by a c t i o n o f t h e  one o r something' 'by a c t i o n o f t h e hands'  'bald'  bare'  'skin, p u l l o f f  w  Sh  Cr  Coast  'head'  whole body o f some-  -kin  58.2  'head h a i r t o f a l l out'  1  luq', loq'  w  laq' -an w  laq' on w  'come o f f ( o f s k i n , b a r k ) '  Sq  'peel bark'  Sq  'to get undressed'  (Mi)  Sg  77  Kootenay  1  Salishan  1  Set 58.3 lu-  'remove'  lu-qlant  -qlant  Coast  ' t o undress some-  la^gitc'a  one'  luic'a m  'clothes'  luyag yo-  lu-qlant-il-ik  'naked' (intransitive)  2  'undress'  w  ' t o undress oneself  Cx 'undress'  (Kd)  Sq Tw  Tsamosan liw  'take o f f  liw-1  'come o f f  Ch Ch  liw-itamn  ?  'undress'  Ch  ^itamn  7  'clothing'  Ch  liw  'come o f f  liwli'w  'take o f f 'take o f f  li"wx  w  'take out'  Cz Cz Qn Qn  Of s p e c i a l r e l e v a n c e t o cognate s e t 58 a r e K u i p e r s ' comments on t h e Squamish r o o t /law?/  (quoted here i n cognate s e t 58.1). K u i p e r s suggests  a 'zero form' / l u - / f o r t h i s r o o t and f o u r o t h e r p r o b a b l y r e l a t e d Squamish items w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l meaning o f t h e r o o t as 'be removed'. See K u i p e r s (1967) pages 329 and 330.  78  Kootenay  1  Salishan Set  -(h)al  1  59  'grass, plant'  B e l l a Coola -lp  'plant, tree'  (Nt)  Interior -elp  ' t r e e , bush, p l a n t '  -alp, - l p -ilp  Sh  'tree, plant'  Cm  'plant, tree'  Cv  -elp  Sp Coast  -1c -ilc  'tree, plant' 'tree'  Sn  (Rf)  Sg  F o r o t h e r examples o f Kootenay / I / c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o S a l i s h a n / I / see: Set 34  (Kootenay -l(u)ma)  under  m  Set 90  (Kootenay  under  q' t o  -q'lil)  to  n q'  w  79  Kootenay  1  Salishan Set  ?  i la, ?  ?  ila  1  60  ' c r y , weep'  Interior ?  ilel  ' c r y , weep'  Li  Coast ?llel  ' c r y , weep'  ?ilal  ' c r y , weep'  ?ila  Nk (Dr) (TTK)  Tw  'hurt'  Ld  Note a l s o : ?il-al ?  'sing' (reduplicated)  il(i)  (Dr)  'sing, repeat, interpret'  Tw Ld  Set 61 lu  ( a tag f o r questions) 'is  i t not so?'  ' i s n ' t that  right?'  Note a l s o : lula t ?  list  lit-  ' t o deny something'  Interior (Kd)  *lut lut  ' i t i s not'  Ok  lut  'no, n o t '  Cv  lut  'negative'  Cm  ' t o be w i t h o u t some-  lut, l u  thing'  lut  (plus  lexical  suffix)  'to be w i t h o u t '  PIS  'negative'  Cr  (when used as an independent stem)  'refuse,  deny, be  mischievous'  Cr  80  Kootenay  1  Salishan Set  7  alak(i)t  62 Tsamosan  'to s t a l k '  ?alal-  -qalt  'child'  1  Set  'sneak up on'  Cz  63 Sh  Interior  Sh  -elt  'offspring'  -ift  ' c h i l d , young,  Cm  egg'  -alt,-aft,-alt  'child'  Cv  -lit  'stomach,  child'  Ka  -elt  'child'  -ilt  (-alt,-al't)  Cr 'offspring,  See a l s o s e t 80 (Kootenay  child' /-qalt/  p r o b a b l y cognate (?) t o C o l v i l l e  /qa l/)  under t h e correspondence /q/ t o /q/.  ?  81  Kootenay  Salishan  1  1  Set 64 -la( ) ?  'fitted  li?*.  blanket' Note e s p e c i a l l y : yu-kxa-laC?)  yu-  -la -mal  shoe o r  li^  w  moccasin'  lo^  w  'blanket'  ?  -mai  'with'  lat'-laC ) 7  -lat'  lo?"  'from'  'sleeve'  'arm'  'draw on'  t-l?w  'tongue o f  'on t o p s u r f a c e '  -kxa-  Interior  covering,  »  s n 0 e  Sh tongue'  'draw on' 'fit' 'draw t o g e t h e r , make f i t '  Sh Cm Cv Cr  82 Kootenay  1  Salishan  1  Set 65 la  (proclitic)  'again,  Interior  back'  1 ~  l a qawxaxi.  'He went back t h e r e . '  qawxaxi.  ?  'He s a i d i t again.'  qaki ni. ?  'translocative'  al-naw'-olx naw'-olx ?  ?  al  ?  ?  al-wikl  itwu  ?  uki( )  ?  ?  Cm  elcun cun  xa ca  elxui  'four' 'forty'  xui  'eleven'  'ten'  Cm Cm  'one'  (a preverb)  'forty-one'  xa*ca-n-wu  a l naqs  xoXxoX't  el  xa*ca-n-wu-m l a u k i ( )  -  ?  naqs  'one'  Cm  A l s o note e s p e c i a l l y :  'ten' ?  'take back'  w  itwu-m l a ^uk'ip) 'eleven' ?  Cm  'put out a g a i n '  al-k an  Cm Cm  'see a g a i n '  al-Xuwon  'He s a i d i t . '  'He r a n back'  'He r a n '  xoXxoX't ?  Cm  Note t h e f o l l o w i n g Columbian d a t a :  'He went t h e r e . '  la qaki ni.  7  Cm 'back, a g a i n '  'I say t o him a g a i n over' 'I say t o him'  Ka Ka Ka  'He goes back*  Ka  'He goes'  Ka  ul  (a p r e f i x )  'again'  (Jh)  1-  'again'  Ok  1-  'back'  Ok  1-  (directional prefix)  'back'  Cr  Cv  83 Kootenay  Salishan  1  1  F o r a d d i t i o n a l examples o f Kootenay / I / c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o S a l i s h a n /!/ see: S e t 77  (Kootenay  -(a)qlil)  under  q - q  S e t 85  (Kootenay  -qluyit)  under  q - q  S e t 28  (Kootenay  t'aq'mila)  under  t' - C  S e t 29  (Kootenay  -Iwiy)  under  y - s  under  w - w  S e t 107  (Kootenay  walik)  w  5  J  S e t 89  (Kootenay  -ql-)  under  q - q'  S e t 51  (Kootenay  -lu?k)  under  k - k  w  w  84  Kootenay  Salishan  m  m  S e t 66 -min, -mnka-min  Coast  Cas i n ) 'me, m y s e l f , my'  ka-mn-ala( ) ?  mn  'a c l i t i c w h i c h i n i t s emphatic forms ( m a n i l , m a n i l ) forms c e r t a i n  'us, o u r -  a p p o s i t i v e s such as:  s e l v e s , our' ka  /ta  'my'  -ala( ) ?  manil/  / a l i manil/ ?  ' f i r s t person  'he h i m s e l f  Sq  'she h e r s e l f  Sq  See K u i p e r s ' Squamish grammar  plural'  ( K u i p e r s , 1967) V o l . I pages  144-145,  t h e n 209-211. Note i n t h e f o l l o w i n g example t h e way t h a t /mn/ f o l l o w s d i r e c t l y a f t e r /c-n/  ' I ' w h i c h i s p r o b a b l y cognate t o  Kootenay / k a , k a n / 'my' ( c o g n a t e s e t 41)  / i c-n mn nchcuV ?  'Here I am a l l by myself  Sq  85  Kootenay  m  Salishan Set  -am  67 Interior  ' i n d e f i n i t e person suffix'  m  //-(i)m//  'third indefinite recipient suffix'  (as i n )  Cv  //wik -s-t-(i)m// w  /wik stom/  'something was h i d d e n  w  Cv  by someone' 'indefinite  -am  Ok  object'  Coast Hess (1967) d i s t i n g u i s h e s -(a)b  between  'medio-passive' and a d i f f e r e n t  -(a)b which a l s o might be d e s c r i b e d  as  a p a s s i v e marker o r p o s s i b l y even as an i n d e f i n i t e p e r s o n marker. F o r example: k 9da-t-ob w  'He was grabbed'  k odat-ob c o l w  k odad cat w  'We  'We were grabbed' grabbed i t '  Ld Ld Ld  36 Kootenay  m  Salishan  m  F o r a d d i t i o n a l examples o f Kootenay /m/ c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o S a l i s h a n /m/ s e e : S e t 26  (Kootenay  matqul)  under  t - c  Set 4  (Kootenay  maPc)  under  c - 1  Set 9  (Kootenay  cum-)  under  c - 1  S e t 15  (Kootenay  mac-)  under  c - K  S e t 49  (Kootenay  -muk)  under  k - k  S e t 54  (Kootenay  -k'am)  under  k' -k'  under  x - X  under  y -  S e t 113 S e t 32  (Kootenay (Kootenay  -xma) yamasin-)  w  87  Kootenay  Salishan  n  n  Set 68 ?  an  Coast  'more' ?  an  'be o r a c t t o a h i g h degree; v e r y , too  n^an ?  an  (excessively)*  'very, t o o (much)' 'very, t o o much'  Sq (Mg)  Cw So  Set 69 nam  nam , nam  •go'  -na-n-  Coast  'go' 7  nem  •go'  ?  ' t o go'  Sq Cw  'go' (Mg)  Set 70 -nuqka  'sun'  Coast nuq  w  'noon'  Sq  For a d d i t i o n a l examples o f Kootenay /n/ c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o S a l i s h a n /n/ s e e : Set 6  (Kootenay c i n - )  under  c - 1  Set 7  (Kootenay  nictahal)  under  c - 1  Set 16  (Kootenay  -nana)  under  m/n - *r/  Set 21  (Kootenay  -minna)  under  m/n - *n  Set 66  (Kootenay  -min, -mn-)  under  m - m  Set 41  (Kootenay  k a , kan)  under  k - k  under  w - w  Set 110  (Kootenay  wan-)  88  Kootenay  Salishan  p  Set paq-  p  71 Interior  ( p r o b a b l y ) 'white' This root occurs i n a  word f o r a w h i t e - b a r k e d  piq  'white'  Sh  peq  'white'  Sh  A c t u a l l y o c c u m n g Shuswap forms  v a r i e t y o f / aklumak/ ?  ('cottonwood, p o p l a r , o r  i n c l u d e : pq- and paq  aspen*) which has h e a r t  payq  'white'  Cm  shaped  piq-  'white'  Cm  l e a v e s . The word  seems t o be known o n l y t o a  piq  'white'  Sp  few Lower Kootenay  piq  'white'  Ka  and we  people  are not y e t absolutely  paq, p a a q  c e r t a i n o f the c o r r e c t t r a n s -  papqlce?  ?  'fade, g e t w h i t e '  Ka  'weasel, ermine*  ' Ka  c r i p t i o n o f the word.  piq  'white'  Cv  Present t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of the  paq  'be whitened'  Cr  word i n c l u d e : / p a q l a , p a q l a t ,  peq  'be w h i t e , b l e a c h e d '  Cr  p a q l a t / and i n a s e p a r a t e  Coast  ?  i n t e r v i e w / p a q l a k / . The f i r s t  paq'im  'white'  Se  t h r e e forms would be l i t e r a l l y p'aq'  'white'  Sq  '(having) w h i t e f i t t e d c o v e r -  p'oq'  'white'  Cw  i n g ' w h i l e the l a s t would be  paq  'white'  Cx  'white backed'  Kinkade and S l o a t (1972) have  A l s o o f p o s s i b l e r e l e v a n c e Columbian, i s the word /puqulnana/ camas*  'white  Coeur d'Alene, and  Kalispel  each r e f l e c t i n g P r o t o - E a s t e r n - I n t e r i o r "Salishan * i - a ablaut f o r t h i s root.  89  Kootenay  p  Salishan  p  Set 72 ?  upxa  to see* cf.  Interior  'to know, to f i n d out",  ^uCfrJu  pax 'to know  pax, -pxa-  (a person)'  Cm  'smart* 1  think'  Cv  advise'  Sp  pax  'smart,  pax  'to think, d e l i b e r a t e '  Ka  pax  'be w i s e , t h i n k ,  Cr  reflect'  S e t 73 pic-  Coast  'cut o f f a length o f something,  shorten'  poc  'be b e n t , f o l d e d , double up'  Sq  F o r a d d i t i o n a l examples o f Kootenay /p/ c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o S a l i s h a n /p/ s e e : Set 32 CKootenay Set  105  Set 14 Set 3 Set 86  -kup)  (Kootenay ?upt'-) (Kootenay (Kootenay (Kootenay  cup-) pac-) qap-)  under  k - k  under  t' -  under  c -  under  c - i  under  q - q  i  >  >  90 Kootenay  q  Salishan Set  -qsala( ) ?  q  74  'snout'  Bella  Coola  -lxs, -llxs  'nose'  -xs (as i n ) maaxsa  (Nt) 'nose'  Interior -eqs  'nose, p o i n t - s h a p e d  object,  promontory, end o f something' -(sl)qs  'nose, p o i n t '  Sh Cm  -aqs  'nose, r o a d '  Sp  -aqs,  -qs  Ka  -alqs  'nose'  'end'  Cr  Coast -qs  'nose'  -qs-  (as i n ) maqson  'nose'  Se  -qs-  (as i n ) moqsan  'nose'  Cw, Ms  -qs-  ( a s i n ) msqsal  'nose'  Ck  'nose'  Ck  ro(l)qs9l,  Sq  -o(l)qs  -qs  'nose'  So  -qs  'a p o i n t e d  -qs  'nose, p o i n t '  shape'  Sn Ld  Tsamosan -qs  'nose'  Ch  91  Kootenay  q  Salishan Set  -q  75  'water ( l o c a t i v e l y ) '  Tsamosan -iyq  Set  'water'  Ch  76  -quwa t ' f u r '  Interior  ?  qewtn  'hair'  Th  qewtn  ' h a i r (on head)'  Sh  Set -(a)qlil  q  77  'eye'  B e l l a Coola qluq's  'eye' Coast  qolum  'eye'  qlum  'eye'  Se Sq  qolom  'eye'  Cw  qalom  'eye'  Ms  qolam  'eye'  Ck  qalan  7  qolorj qoyon  'eye' ( R f ) 7  qolub qa lub ?  'eye' ( M i )  'eye' 'eye' 'eye'  Sg Sg CI Ld Ld  92 Salishan Set  q  78 Coast  qol'am qolb  Set  'stormy'  Ck  'rain'  Ld  79 Interior  qic  'to run'  qa-qc-olx  ( a l s o ) qc / qac  (as  in)  'trot'  Cv  qec  (as i n ) q e c - I s  'he r a n '  qec  (as i n ) q e c i l s  'run  Sp  (mostly  singular)' According  to I n t e r i o r  Ka  Salishan  vowel correspondence c h a r t s t o be  found  i n Kinkade and Thompson (1974), the  Proto-  Interior Salishan reconstruction of  this  element s h o u l d be  *qac.  93 Kootenay  q  Salishan Set  -qalt  q  80  'child'  Interior  qa l  'children, c h i l d '  ?  Cv  Note a l s o : qoIrain  'parent'  -min (-min)  Sh  'implement, means'  Sh  Perhaps a l s o o f some r e l e v a n c e a r e : q ayl w  'child'  qe eqpal ?  qAhal  Ch  'children'  'children'  (Kd)  (Ed)  Tw Ti  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t i t i s n e i g h b o u r i n g C o l v i l l e which has two apparent cognates t o t h i s one Kootenay l e x i c a l s u f f i x . See s e t 63 (Colville / - i l t /  ' c h i l d ' matching Kootenay / - q a l t / ' c h i l d ' ) under t h e  correspondence / I / t o / l / .  For  an a d d i t i o n a l example o f Kootenay /q/ c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o S a l i s h a n  /q/ s e e : Set  71  (Kootenay paq-)  under  p - p  94 Kootenay  q  Salishan  q  w  S e t 81 -qu -qu'q  'water  (locatively)•  'water  (locatively)'  Coast q u  'water'  w  q«u?  'water'  q ^?qw ? W  q u w  a  'fresh water'  ?  qa*  'water'  qa'qa q 6 w  'drink'  'drink'  'water'  ?  -qu  (Dr)  'water' Tsamosan  qw -?  'drink'  sq 6  'drink'  3  w  q o w  ?  ?  'drink'  S e t 82 -qui  ' w a t e r , by w a t e r '  Bella -qla-  Coola  'water'  (SD)  Coast q ul w  (a root)  'water'  Tsamosan qa'  ?  'water,  river'  qal  ?  'water,  river'  qal  ?  'water'  95 Set  82  (continued) Tsamosan  qal  'water, r i v e r '  Qn  qal'  'water'  Qn  Cognate s e t 82 c o u l d j u s t as w e l l be t a k e n ( i n whole o r i n p a r t ) an example  o f Kootenay / q / c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o S a l i s h a n / q / .  Set -qal-  as  83  'story'  Interior q el  ' t o speak, t a l k '  Sh  q il  'talk'  Cv  q el  ' t a l k , speak'  Sp  q el  'speak, t a l k '  Ka  w  w  w  w  q a q e l w  ?  w  ?  'speak, t a l k '  Cr  Coast q al-  'talk'  w  q al,  q al  w  w  q ol-q l w  w  n-q ol-tn w  q al  ' t h i n k , mind, speak'  Sq  'talk excessively'  Sq  'voice'  'say, speak'  w  sq 9ltan w  q oyl w  Se  Sq Cw  'voice'  Cv;  'say, speak'  Ms  96 Kootenay q  Salishan  q  w  Set 84 -nuq  'prairie'  Tsamosan -(a)q  w  'prairie'  Ch  Note a l s o : *maq a-n w  w  'swamp'  (TTK)  PS  (based on words found i n Sq, Cw, Ms, Ck, Lm, L d , b u t n o t e e s p e c i a l l y , however:) baq ab  'field'  maq am  'prairie, valley*  w  w  (Dr)  Tw Ch, Cz  Note t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e lexical suffix for *fire' elements meaning ' f i r e '  and t h e r o o t  i n certain  languages: *-kup  'fire'  -k up  ( a s i n ) mak up-  w  -cap  (TTK) (Kp) w  ( a s i n ) macap  'fire'  'fire'  Note a l s o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  PS Cz Lo  Salishan  l e x i c a l s u f f i x e s f o r 'nose' ( g e n e r a l l y -qs) and  such forms a s :  maaxsa  'nose'  Be  maqsan  'nose'  Cw  97 Kootenay  q  Salishan Set  -qluyit  w  85 B e l l a Coola  'green, b l u e ' q li  'green, y e l l o w '  w  Set -nuqka  q  (Nt)  70 Coast  'sun' nuq  w  'noon'  Sq  98  Kootenay  q  Salishan  q'  Set 86 q'ap-  'all  Coast  1  qaprt  'group, p u t t o g e t h e r , i n c l u d e '  Cx  q'ap  'to g a t h e r o r c o l l e c t ( o f people) Ck  qop  'to g a t h e r '  qop-  ' t o be t o g e t h e r '  q'(o)p q'op  (Mi)  'assemble' 'gather'  Sg So Lm Ld  S e t 87 q'a-  'break, s e v e r a l i n e a r object, c u t o f f flow'  Interior q'iw, qw  'to break'  qow'-"  ' break ( i n two)'  q'aw'-''  'split'  Sh Cm Cm  qow-am  'crack'  Cm  qW(u)  'broken'  Sp  qa u ?  'break'  q'ew' 'break s t i f f o b j e c t '  Ka Cr  Coast qal  ' o b s t r u c t passage'  Sq  q'aA'  'be stopped'  Sq  99  Kootenay  q  Salishan Set  -q'yu  q'  88  'edge'  Coast q'iw  'go around, round a c o m e r '  ?  q'iw^-it-sut  'move around a promontory*  q'iw -ica ?  Sq  F o r another example o f Kootenay /q'/ c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o S a l i s h a n /q'/ See: 22  (Kootenay  -qwi)  Sq  ' t o s t r i n g up wool on a loom'  Set  Sq  under  w - *n  w  100  Kootenay  q  Salishan  q'  w  Set 89 -q'l-  'berry, f r u i t ;  grain'  Interior q' lew-m  'to p i c k b e r r i e s '  w  q' l  'gather ( b e r r i e s ) '  w  q' lew q' ole u w  Ok  'to p i c k b e r r i e s '  w  Sp  'to p i c k b e r r i e s '  ?  q' oliw  'bear p i c k s b e r r i e s '  w  Sh  Ka Cr  Coast sq' lam  'berry  w  sq' olm' x w  ?  w  sq' oluma  (generic)'  'black b e r r y ' ' f r u i t , berry  w  Sq Sq  (generic)'  Se  Tsamosan s-q' ol-na'mc w  -name  Set -q'lil  'berry'  'body'  Ch Ch  90  'mark'  Tsamosan q' olew  q' al w  'mark, w r i t e , brand, v o t e '  Cz  'a brand, mark'  Cz  q' ale'-ml  'write'  Ch  q' ol-ml  'write'  Ch  w  w  q 9hlm9l >w  'write'  (Sno)  Lo  101  Kootenay  q  Salishan Set  qumi( ) ?  w  91  'the l a r g e r v a r i e t y of s u c k e r f i s h '  q'  Interior q omus  'suckerfish'  ,w  . coq' m-us w  Cm  ' suckerfish'  Sh  Coast sq ub' w  Set -qutal  'fat'  ' sucker f i sh'  Ld  92  *q' ucw  'fat'  (TTK)  PS  ' f a t , stout'  Sh  ' f a t , grease'  Cm  Interior q' uc-t w  q' ucw  q' uc w  'be f a t '  Ka  q' uc  'be f a t '  Cr  w  Coast q uc  'be f a t '  v  Sq  But n o t e the f o l l o w i n g  forms:  Interior q tel  'fat'  q tel  'grease'  w  w  q otel w  'lard'  (TTK) (Kp) (Gb)  Li NSh SSh  Coast k tal w  'elk f a t '  (Dr)  Tw  102 Kootenay  Salishan  q  q'  w  S e t 93 -qu-  Interior  'dirt'  (as i n ) -qu-mal -mai  'dirt'  q ' i y , q' ey  'with'  q ay-  w  1  w  Sh  'black'  w  black  Cm  1  ( a l s o probably in)  q' iy w  'black'  Cm  -qu-qu-kul  q' ay w  'black'  Sp  q' ai w  'black'  Ka  q' ay  'black'  Me  q id  'blacken'  q £d  'black'  'black'  (which occurs stems as) -qu-kul  i n two  w  w  w  (KS) (KS)  Cr Cr  B e l l a Coola q' ay  'to blacken'  w  Coast qeyx q' ix w  'black'  Ck  'blue, dark green'  w  sq' ix w  no-q' ix w  w  w  Ld  'Negro'  Ld  'black*  Lm  The f o l l o w i n g forms a r e a l s o g i v e n by R e i c h a r d f o r Coeur d'Alene: q' ud w  ( a s i n ) qu-q' ud ( n o t r e t r a n s c r i b e d ) w  'black horse' q' ih w  Cr  'be b l a c k ( i n d e s c r i b i n g p e o p l e ) ' Cr  103  S e t 93 ( c o n t i n u e d ) Perhaps a l s o r e l a t e d t o t h e forms above i n some c o n v o l u t e d way a r e the Kootenay and I n t e r i o r S a l i s h a n forms below:  -qui  'excrement'  -qui  'sores, a sore'  Interior q' ol  'smoke c o l o u r e d '  Cm  q*"ol  'dark brown'  Ok  q' ul  'dusty, g r a y , darkened'  Sp  w  w  F o r a d d i t i o n a l d a t a on t h e vowel correspondences e x e m p l i f i e d  above  see t h e correspondence /u/ t o / a / .  For a d d i t i o n a l examples o f Kootenay /q"/ c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o S a l i s h a n  /qV s e e : S e t 12 Set 5  (Kootenay (Kootenay  qucac) que)  under  c - 1  under  c - 1  S e t 26  (Kootenay  matqul)  under  t - c  S e t 28  (Kootenay  taqmila)  under  i - c  Set 23  (Kootenay  waqa)  under  w -  >  104 Kootenay  s  Salishan Set  'to  be i n t h e a c t o f d o i n g  certain  'continuative'  a  way'  94 Tsamosan  something, t o be i n the c o n d i t i o n of being  s  Cz,  Ch  Cognates no doubt e x i s t i n o t h e r S a l i s h a n languages. S e v e r a l S a l i s h a n languages have a p r e f i x s- d e s c r i b e d a n o m i n a l i z e r . See  as  the d i s c u s s i o n on page  25.  Note the f o l l o w i n g usage i n Kootenay w i t h an a p p a r e n t l y l e x i c a l s u f f i x (-qat  'tail'):  'Mermaid' s - q a t - n i kyakxu^s.  'Mermaids have f i s h  S-qat-ni  'That's a dog's  xa lcin. ?  S-qat-ni x a l c i n - s . ?  nominal  'He's  tails.'  tail.'  got a dog's t a i l ,  (such  as  a f r e a k w o l f might h a v e ) '  -ni  'declarative verbal  kyakxuC?)  'fish'  xa lcin  'dog'  ?  enclitic'  'subsidiary t h i r d person (subject) s u f f i x ' See  cognate s e t  96.  105  Kootenay  s  Salishan  s  Set 95 - is ?  ' t h i r d person possessive suffix'  Interior -s  ' t h i r d person p o s s e s s i v e s u f f i x '  Th  -s  ' h i s , her, i t s , t h e i r '  Sh  -s  ' t h i r d person p o s s e s s i v e s u f f i x '  Sp  -s  ' t h i r d person possessive s u f f i x '  Ok  Coast -s  ' t h i r d person possessive  suffix' (Rf)  Sg  -s  ' t h i r d person possessive s u f f i x '  Se  -s  ' t h i r d person possessive s u f f i x '  Sq  -as  ' t h i r d person possessive ( a l s o -s)  suffix  (Dr)  Tw  -s  ' t h i r d person possessive s u f f i x '  Ld  -s  ' t h i r d person possessive'  Ti  (Ed)  Tsamosan -s  ' t h i r d person possessive s u f f i x '  Ch  -s  ' t h i r d person possessive s u f f i x '  Cz  -i  ' t h i r d person possessive s u f f i x '  Cz  106 Kootenay  s  Salishan  s  Set 96 -s  'subsidiary t h i r d person subject  suffix'  Interior -  (e)s  'general  t h i r d person  subject  suffix' Given that the primary  -s/-es  Th  ' t h i r d person subject s u f f i x '  or f i r s t mentioned t h i r d  -s  ' t h i r d person subject s u f f i x '  p e r s o n i s unmarked, t h e  -s  'general t h i r d person  -as 'subsidiary third person s u f f i x indefinite  (after  person  s u f f i x or t h i r d possessive  Sp  Coast  o b v i a t i v e marker.  -is  Ok  subject  suffix'  s u f f i x / - s / a c t s as an  Sh  person  suffix)'  -as -s -as  ' i t / h e / s h e , t h i r d s i n g u l a r secondary pronominal s u f f i x ( s u b j e c t ) '  Se  ' t h i r d person subject s u f f i x '  Sq  ' t h i r d person subject'  So  'he, him, she, h e r , i t , they, them'  Ld  107 Kootenay  s  Salishan Set  ?  as  97  'two, f o r t h e r e t o be two  ( o f something)'  s  Interior sosele sal-  'two' 'two'  (bound form)  esel  'two'  Sp  ?  asil  'two'  Cv  ?  esel  'two'  Cr  ?osali(h)  ' t o be  saan-, san-  sali  ?  Set  98  bad' 'bad'  Cm  ?  Coast  sahan  Sh  'two'  'two'  ' (Dr)  Tw Ld  Coast sa?  'bad'  NLd  108 Kootenay  Salishan  s  Set -s-  s  99  'causative'  Interior -st-  Sh  'causative'  //-s-//  'causative'  Th  //-s-//  'causative'  Cv  -s-  'causative'  Sp  Coast -s  Sq  'causative'  -stox  w  -stox  w  Se  'causative' 'causative'  (Hk)  Cw  Tsamosan stw-  For a d d i t i o n a l  Ch  'causative'  examples o f Kootenay / s / c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o S a l i s h a n  / s / see: Set 57  (Kootenay  Set  27  (Kootenay  sitO  Set 74  (Kootenay  -qsalaC ))  ?  iskax-)  under  7  k' - k'  w  under  t' - c  under  q - q  109 Kootenay  t  Salishan Set  -t  100  'transitive'  Interior -t-  ?apisi( ) 7  7  apisi' -t ?  t  'transitive'  ' t o be s t r a i g h t '  //-t-//  'to s t r a i g h t e n  //-t//  something'  Sh  'transitive'  Th  'transitive suffix'  (also other I n t e r i o r  Cv  languages)  Coast -( )t  'transitive suffix'  v  Se  -t  ' v o l i t i o n a l t r a n s i t i v e s u f f i x ' ( R f ) Sg  -t  'directed transitive'  So  ( a l s o o t h e r Coast languages)  Set ta( )?  101  'know how t o , be able t o '  ta-(?)l  Coast tol( )  ' a c q u i r e knowledge,  ?  (Adverb) ' a b l e t o do'  learn,  study'  Sq  t o l - 'learn' tol^nox"  Ck  ' f i n d ( i t ) out'  (Hk)  Cw  Tsamosan talx ?  'something one i s a b l e t o do'  ac-talx  Ch  'dependable, a b l e t o t a k e care o f  Ch  110  Kootenay  t  Salishan Set  ta ?  102  ' r a i n hard'  Interior taw-  Set 7i(?)t-  t  'rain*  Cm  103  'make, do, cause  Coast  something t o be  i t 'be f i n i s h e d , done*  ?  (as s p e c i f i e d by  Sq  Tsamosan  a following l e x i c a l  ?itx-k  w  'do w i t h *  Cz  s u f f i x ) , become (as s p e c i f i e d by a following  lexical  suffix)'  For a d d i t i o n a l examples o f Kootenay / t / c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o S a l i s h a n  ft/  see: Set 117 Set 20 Set 7  (Kootenay (Kootenay (Kootenay  tuwxa)  under  x - x  tamuxu)  under  m/n  nictahal)  under  c - 1  w  - *n  Set 63  (Kootenay  -qalt)  under  1 - 1  Set 19  (Kootenay  -mat)  under  m/n  - *n  w  w  Ill Kootenay  Salishan  t'  Set it'i-  ?  t'  104  'stretch'  Interior sut' su^t'  Cm  'stretch' 'stretch'  (TTK)  Cr  Coast ''ut'-un? at'  'to s t r e t c h '  ?at'  'to s t r e t c h '  7  ?  ut'  Set ?  upt'-  'lengthen, extend,  'twist'  stretch'  Sq Ck  (Rf)  Sg CI  'stretch'  105 Interior  tup-  'twist'  Th  tup-  'spin, t w i s t , wring'  Sh  tup-  'to t w i s t  Ka  i n t o a t h r e a d , rope'  For  another example o f Kootenay /t'/ c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o S a l i s h a n /t'/  Set  109  see: (Kootenay  wit'-)  under  w - w  112 Kootenay  w  Salishan  w  S e t 106 -wick-  'see, watch,  look  *wik  'see' (TTK)  PS  Interior  after' wik  'see'  Th  wik  'see'  Sh  wik  'see'  wik-  'see'  wic-  (TTK)  Cm  ' t o see, f i n d , d i s c o v e r '  g ic-  Ka Cr  'see'  w  Ok  Set 107 walik  ' t o ask f o r something'  Coast wal-  'ask'  wiliq (i) w  Se 'ask a q u e s t i o n '  Ld  S e t 108 -wac  Coast  'swim underwater' wacal g acil w  'swim'  (Kd)  Tw  'wade o r s t a n d i n s h a l l o w water'  Ld  113  Kootenay  Salishan  w  w  Set 109 wit'-  Tsamosan  'steep s i d e d , b r u s h wit'i-  side o f  'climb'  Cz  Set 110 wan-  Tsamosan  'move'  wan-aca-n-m  'move hands and arms ( f o r s i g n language)'  -aca-  'hand'  Ch Ch  For a d d i t i o n a l examples o f Kootenay /w/ c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o S a l i s h a n /w/ s e e : Set 36  (Kootenay  wicu-)  under  c - c  Set 11  (Kootenay  wicwic)  under  c - 1  Set  (Kootenay  -Iwiy)  under  y - s  29  114 Kootenay  x  Salishan  x  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e Kootenay phoneme /x/ i s p h o n e t i c a l l y uvular  [x] and i s t h e r e f o r e n o t i d e n t i c a l t o t h e S a l i s h a n phoneme /x/  which i s p h o n e t i c a l l y a f r o n t [ x ] . T h i s does n o t make any d i f f e r e n c e , however, i n terms o f t h e sound c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s , as b o t h S a l i s h a n /x/ and /x/ would be expected t o appear as /x/ i n Kootenay even i n a borrowed word.  S e t 111 -x(a)  'directive  Interior  suffix*  This s u f f i x indicates a  -x(i)t  ' r e f e r i n g t o a secondary human obj e c t ( u s u a l l y b e n e f a c t i v e ) '  l o c a t i v e goal, k'an-wac  'to dive'  kan-wac-xa  'to dive a t  //-xi//  //-x(i)-//  something'  Th  'benefactive'; ' s u f f i x e d  t o any base, t o i n d i c a t e a c t i o n  Often the goal i s l o c a t i v e only  'indirective'  Sh  on b e h a l f o f (even i f t h e a c t i o n  figuratively  i s d i r e c t e d against or to the  as i n 'make something f o r  detriment of) the r e c i p i e n t . I t  someone'.  i s a s o r t o f 'dative o f i n t e r e s t ' Cv  -xax(a)  'malefactive suffix',  ' t o do  -xi-  ' i n d i r e c t i v e ' ( t r a n s l a t e s as ' f o r ' as i n 'buy f o r ' , 'haul f o r ' )  something a g a i n s t  ( a l s o see t h e Columbian  examples  the i n t e r e s t s o f  l i s t e d below o f / x i x / and /xax/) Cm  115 S e t 111 ( c o n t i n u e d ) someone' cukat  ' t o take  cukat-xaxa  -s,  ' i n the s u f f i x stressed verbs'  something'  -sis-,  ' t o take some-  t h i n g away from  takes p l a c e f o r someone' -sit  ik  ?  ik-xaxa  ( t h i s l a s t vowel n o t r e t r a n s c r i b e d ) )  ' t o e a t (something)'  'something  ' t o e a t someone else's  Ka  'as a f a v o r t o ' , - s i s (-sos, -sEs  someone' ?  'expresses t h a t t h e a c t i o n  share'  f o r someone'  (Rd)  Cr  Coast -sit  ' ( a complex t r a n s i t i v i z e r )  refers  t o t h e d e s t i n e e o f t h e a c t i o n (do f o r , g i v e t o , take from; i n a l l examples t h e d e s t i n e e i s human)' Sq Tsamosan -si-  'indirective'  q' ale*-ml w  q^ale^-s-n  'write' 'write t o '  Ch Ch Ch  Note e s p e c i a l l y t h e f o l l o w i n g Columbian examples:  k an-xax  'take something  pan-xix-m-on  'I a c c i d e n t a l l y bent something n o t  w  b e l o n g i n g t o me' xos-xix-m-an  away from someone*  Cm  Cm  'We l o s t i t f o r them ( n o t d e l i b e r a t e l y ) ' Cm  116 Kootenay  Salishan  x  x  w  S e t 112 -nuxu -nuk ?  -nuk  'creek, stream' 'rock'  Tsamosan nox -  'river,  w  creek  1  But see a l s o s e t 118 w i t h : Bella -anux um w  Coola  'river'  (SD)  117 Kootenay  x  Salishan Set  -xma  'weight, h e a v i n e s s '  *xam  x  113 'heavy*  (TTK)  Interior xemt  'heavy' Coast  xam  'heavy'  xab  'heavy'  xam, xam  'heavy'  Tsamosan xam  Set -xax  'heavy'  114  ( q u i t e p o s s i b l y once) 'house* (found kaxax  only in) 'turtle'  (which c o u l d  be)  //k-ha-xax//,/kaxax/ (lit:  ' t h a t which has  a house)  Tsamosan xax  'house'  xas  'house'  -ulxs xas  'house'  'house'  118  Kootenay  x  Salishan  x  Set 115 xa'ca  'four'  wu-xa'ca wu-  Interior  'eight' This  ?  xec  'be companion, always t o g e t h e r '  element  Cr  may have o r i g i n a l l y  Coast  meant ' f o u r ' w h i l e  xa ucn  /xa'ca/ may have  xa a0on  o r i g i n a l l y meant  xo?a'0ol  'two'  xo0-9lsx^e  cf.  o r 'both'.  xacin-  'both'  xanca-  'both'  'four objects*  ?  'four  ?  Sq Cw  1  'four'  Ck  'forty'  Ck  A l s o see s e t 24  S e t 116 xa( )  'uncle'  ?  Interior  Boas (1919) h a s :  xa  ?  ( a s i n ) s-xa^-xa?  'father's brother -  xe  ?  ( a s i n ) s-xa^xe?  brother's c h i l d '  speakers today / x a ( ) / ?  'stepfather'.  'father-in-law'  Sp  Coast  For some Kootenay  means  ' f a t h e r - i n - l a w ' Cv  sxaxa?  'spouse's  father - child's  husband'  (El)  Tw  119 Kootenay  x  Salishan  x  F o r an a d d i t i o n a l example o f t h i s correspondence see:  Set 72  (Kootenay  ?  upxa)  under  p - p  120 Kootenay  Salishan  x  x  w  Set 117 tuwxa  'really,  tuxa  truly'  Coast tux  ' almost'  'merely'  w  tux -ux w  to?x  'not much'  w  'just'  w  t u V  (Rf)  'just'  Note, however: taxta  'later'  Coast  qanta  ' f i n a l l y , eventually'  tax -  'later'  w  S e t 118 -nuxu  '(to) f l y ' This s u f f i x also  as a c e n t r a l  occurs  f o l l o w i n g stem: ha-l-nuxu-naq-nam  'to race  a g a i n s t one another' Note a l s o s e t 112 w i t h : 7  -nuk  'to g a l l o p , t o run (also o f  w  water)'  to fast  o f h o r s e s and i n t h e  -nuxu -nuk  -nux  l e x i c a l element  i n stems r e l a t i n g gaits  Interior  'creek' 'rock'  Bella -anux um w  Coola  'river'  (SD)  121 Kootenay  y  Salishan Set  ?ay  'to s t e a l  1  y  119  * ay  ' t o exchange, b a r t e r , pay'  ?  *?ay( )  'change'  7  (Kp) PS  (TTK)  PS  Interior ?  ez-  'pay, buy'  ?  ey-  'exchange, g i v e i n r e t u r n , meet' Sh  ?  ay s  ?  id  Th  'trade'  ?  Cm  'exchange, b a r t e r ' Bella  ?ay-aw-  Cr  Coola  'change something'  (TTK)  Coast ?  ayiw-at  nox - ay w  ?  'change something'  Se  'exchange'  Sq  ?  ay  'change'  ?  a.ytx  w  Ld  'trade i t , exchange i t '  Ld  Tsamosan ?ay?si-  'trade'  Ch  ?ay?si-  'trade'  Cz  ?ay(si)-  'change'  Cz  For another example o f Kootenay /y/ c o r r e s p o n d i n g  t o S a l i s h a n /y/  see*. Set 33  (Kootenay  -yax(a))  under  x - ?  122  Kootenay  Salishan  ?  Set -i( )  120  Coast  a s u f f i x which forms  ?  v e r b stems out o f bound v e r b  - i  ?  roots.  as an a d j e c t i v e  -oy sometimes  'be i n a s t a t e ' ( v e r b a l i z e r )  often  translate into  seldom - i and ( s t r e s s e d ) 'become, assume a s t a t e ' ,  The r e s u l t i n g v e r b stems most  7  English  pac  'hot'  pac-i  ?  'become h o t '  Sq Sq Sq  with t'iq  'cold'  w  Sq  the c o p u l a 'to be' t'iq -i w  waq-  'thick'  waq-i( ) ?  mac-  'to be t h i c k '  'dirty'  mac-iC?)  'to be d i r t y '  Although the g l o t t a l stop o f t h i s element i s s u b j e c t  to  d e l e t i o n t h i s i s a completely regular  phonological process.  ?  'become c o l d '  Sq  123 Kootenay  Salishan  ?  ?  F o r o t h e r examples o f Kootenay / / c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o S a l i s h a n / ? / ?  see: S e t 39  (Kootenay  ka?a)  Set 45  (Kootenay  ?uk-  Set 57  (Kootenay  ?  Set 60  (Kootenay  S e t 62  under  k - k  under  k - k  under  k' -  ?ila)  under  1 - 1  (Kootenay  ?alak(i)t)  under  1 - 1  S e t 68  (Kootenay  ?an)  under  n - n  Set 97  (Kootenay  ?as)  under  s - s  'know' under  t - t  'all')  iskax-)  k  V  S e t 101  (Kootenay  ta(?)-  S e t 103  (Kootenay  ?  ?  under  t - t  S e t 104  (Kootenay  ?it'i-)  under  i -  S e t 116  (Kootenay  xa(?))  under  x - X  S e t 119  (Kootenay  ?  under  y - y  i( )t-)  ay)  w  t?  124  There a r e f i v e main K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n vowel correspondences f o r which t h e r e a r e a l a r g e number o f examples. These a r e l i s t e d below w i t h the numbers o f t h e cognate s e t s where t h e correspondences o c c u r . There a r e u n c e r t a i n t i e s about some o f t h e i n t e r n a l S a l i s h a n vowel c o r r e s p o n dences, p a r t i c u l a r l y on t h e Coast.  The s e t s below which i n v o l v e a b l a u t  a r e s i m p l y t h o s e cases where t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e f o r a t l e a s t two d i f f e r e n t vowels on t h e P r o t o - S a l i s h a n l e v e l , one o f which c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e Kootenay vowel.  Kootenay  i  Salishan  i  S e t s : 11, 13, 27, 30, 31, 51, 53, 57, 60, 95, 103, 106, 109,  120  S e t s i n v o l v i n g a b l a u t : 1, 6  Kootenay  a  Salishan  a  S e t s : 7, 16, 19, 20, 23, 26, 33, 37, 39, 40, 53, 59, 60, 62, 68, 69, 72, 79, 92, 98, 102, 110, 114, 116, Sets i n v o l v i n g a b l a u t : 3, 15, 56, 87, 107,  Kootenay  u  Salishan  119 111  u  S e t s : 10, 24, 25, 26, 37, 38, 45, 52, 58.2, 61, 70, 81, 92, 118 Sets i n v o l v i n g a b l a u t : 36, 46, 48, 49, 91,  117  105,  125 Kootenay  a  Salishan  a  S e t s : 17, 23, 28, 32, 35, 4 1 , 44, 54, 57, 67, 78, 80, 108, 117 S e t s i n v o l v i n g a b l a u t : 64, 71  Kootenay  u  Salishan  9  S e t s : ( 8 ) , 12, 44, 47, 112 S e t s i n v o l v i n g a b l a u t : 9, 14, 49, 56, 91, 93, 117  I t w o u l d c e r t a i n l y seem t h a t P r o t o - K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n must have had the f o l l o w i n g v o w e l s : *i  *u *9  *a  There a r e a l s o a number o f m i n o r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s s u c h a s :  Kootenay  Salishan  Examples  i  a  ( 2 1 , 28, 29, 96)  i  a  (73)  i  u  ( 7 , 36, 104)  a  i  C4)  u  (a)  (84)  These minor c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s do n o t seem t o c a l l f o r t h e r e c o n s t r u c -  126 t i o n o f any a d d i t i o n a l P r o t o - K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n vowels. The f a i r l y number o f examples ;vhich i n v o l v e o r a p p a r e n t l y  involve Salishan  however, seem t o form a p a t t e r n which suggests t o me S a l i s h a n may ablaut  have had i t s own  examples  Kootenay vowels i n e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same way t o Kootenay vowels. R e l e v a n t examples below:  ablaut,  t h a t Proto-Kootenay-  system o f a b l a u t . The p a t t e r n t h a t t h e  form i s one where S a l i s h a n a b l a u t  ablaut are l i s t e d  large  seems t o r e l a t e t o  t h a t S a l i s h a n schwa r e l a t e s  apparently  involving Salishan  127 Kootenay  Type o f a b l a u t i n d i c a t e d f o r P r o t o - S a l i s h a n  Set 1  cik'-  *i  - a - 9  Set 6  cin-  *i  - a  S e t 15  mac-  *i  - a - o  S e t 87  qa-  *i  - a - o  Set 3  pac-  S e t 107  walik  S e t 111  -xax(a)  S e t 64  -la(?)  Set 71  paq-  fe  Set 9  cum-  5  S e t 14  cup-  *i  S e t 49  -muk  ^u  Set 91  qumiC?)  "u - 9  Set  112  -nuxuC )  Set  117  tuxa  5  ?  i  -  5  i  -  *i  s  7  i  - 9  i - 9  1 - 9 - a  9 ni - 9  adjacent to  PS * ?  w  ( f o r PEIS)  before  PS  *m  before  PS *p  adjacent to  PS  *k  w  it  it  PS *q' o r * q  n  II  PS  *x  w  II  it  PS  *x  w  w  S e t s (46, 82), (36, 4 8 ) , and (83, 93) a l s o have o r may have a b l a u t on t h e P r o t o - S a l i s h a n l e v e l .  v  128 Most o f t h e examples  i n v o l v i n g S a l i s h a n a b l a u t seem a l s o t o i n v o l v e  schwa on t h e P r o t o - S a l i s h a n l e v e l . Perhaps on t h e P r o t o - K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n (PKS) l e v e l a l l o f t h e r o o t s and s u f f i x e s i n q u e s t i o n had schwa o r had schwa a l t e r n a t i n g i n some way w i t h a f u l l vowel. In a l l o f t h e s e c a s e s the Kootenay vowel can be a t l e a s t t e n t a t i v e l y e x p l a i n e d w i t h t h e assumption t h a t PKS had schwa which developed i n t o / a / , / i / ,  o r /u/ i n  Kootenay depending on c o n s o n a n t a l environment. The c a s e s i n v o l v i n g Kootenay / a / would presumably be those where PKS  *o was n o t i n f l u e n c e d by an a d j a c e n t l a b i a l i z e d v e l a r o r u v u l a r  consonant o r a f o l l o w i n g l a b i a l consonant t o become /u/ i n Kootenay. There a r e c a s e s w i t h o r w i t h o u t a b l a u t where such a l a b i a l  environment  would presumably have e x i s t e d i n PKS but where Kootenay has / a / . See 17, 23, 32, 54, 64, and 83. I t i s n o t c l e a r i n t h e s e c a s e s why  sets  Kootenay  does n o t have /u/ but cognate s e t 56 i s v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h i s r e g a r d . I t i n v o l v e s a correspondence o f Kootenay /u/ t o S a l i s h a n schwa i n a l a b i a l environment as w e l l as Kootenay / a / t o S a l i s h a n / a / i n a n o n - l a b i a l environment. I t a l s o shows Kootenay / i /  c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o S a l i s h a n schwa  i n a l a b i a l environment where one language, Coeur d'Alene, has / i / . t h i s s e t , which i s r e c a s t below a c c o r d i n g t o i t s apparent vowel pondences, Coeur d'Alene i n d i c a t e s * i  In  corres-  - o a b l a u t on a t l e a s t t h e P r o t o -  E a s t e r n - I n t e r i o r S a l i s h a n l e v e l where Kootenay shows what amounts t o i  - u a b l a u t . R e c a s t i n g t h i s s e t i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s by vowel c o r r e s p o n -  dence a l s o has t h e e f f e c t o f s t r a i g h t e n i n g out t h e c o n f u s e d consonant correspondences o f s e t 56 as g i v e n under t h e correspondence k' t o k' . I w  may  n o t have succeeded i n e v e r y case i n my  attempt t o i n c l u d e o n l y  129  s t r i c t l y cognate S a l i s h a n items i n each subset.  Kootenay  u  Salishan  o  Set 56a ?uk'i( ) ?  'one , ' f o r t h e r e t o 1  %ik'-uVnk'  be one ( o f something)' uk'-  ?  'one, some'  (Kp)  PS  'one, o t h e r '  Sh  'one'  w  Interior n9k' -u , nok'" w  ?  n9k' -  Cm  'one'  w  nk' -  Cv  'one'  w  nek' e w  nkMi  7  Cr  'one'  ?  Ka  'one' Coast  nc-u  ?  'one'  Sq  n9ca  ?  'one'  Cw  19C9, l a c e doou?  'one'  NLd  dScu  'one'  SLd  7  daoi-  Kootenay  'one'  Salishan  a  Ck  'one'  Tw  (Kd)  a  Set 56b ?  ak'-la-na-  ^ak'-la-k  'different'  *nak'  'one, o t h e r ; change'  (Kp)  PS  Interior  'other' nek'  ' t o change' Coast  Sh  130  Set  56b  nac-  (continued)  'change, d i f f e r '  nec  'different'  nec  'different'  lee, l o c  Sq Sn  (Mg)  Cw  'one'  Ck  Tsamosan nac-  'one'  nak'-aw-  Ch  'one'  Cz  Set 56c Kootenay -nik'  i  Salishan  'parent(s)'  -nik'-na mu( ) ?  -nik'  ?  also i  Interior  'relative(s)'  n9k' -us9m w  '(such  and such) o n e ( s ) ' ,  '(such  and such) t r i b e ,  people'  9  nik'  w  'party,  Sh  family'  Cr  'be t r i b e ' Coast  nc-ay^w^am  'family'  x n9calw9m  Cw  'people, t r i b e '  w  d9ca(' )k mix ?  Cw  'family'  w  n9C9wm9x  Sq  w  w  'from a d i f f e r e n t t r i b e , group, c l a s s '  The Coeur d'Alene element /nik' / i s g i v e n by Kinkade and S l o a t w  (1972) as an a b l a u t p a r t n e r  t o t h e Coeur d'Alene form /nek* e / w  ?  'one'.  Ld  131 Set 51 may  a l s o be an example o f what amounts t o i - u a b l a u t i n  Kootenay and a b l a u t i n a S a l i s h a n language. The  two  Kootenay s u f f i x e s  i n t h a t s e t , / - l u ? k / 'word, language, sound' and / - l i k y a x ( a ) /  'turn of  phrase, v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n ' can o n l y be r e l a t e d w i t h some u n c e r t a i n t y , however. There i s , f o r example, another  Kootenay s u f f i x / - k y a x ( a ) /  'tell  about what someone d i d ' . Another apparent example o f Kootenay a b l a u t i s p r o v i d e d by i n g s e t 71 w i t h the now  newly i n t r o d u c e d s e t  Set 71 Kootenay paq-  combin-  121.  (abbreviated)  Salishan  '(probably)  white'  Interior *piq  'white'  (KS)  PEIS  *poq  'white'  (KS)  PEIS  Coast poq  'white'  Set puqul-nana -nana  121  'white camas' 'diminutive'  Cx  Coast q lu i w  ?  ?  'camas'  (TTE)  CI  q l6?ol(?)  "  Lm  q la?ol(?)  "  Sn  q la?ol?  "  •»  Sg  q lo?i?  "  "  So  w  w  w  w  132 There a r e a few  cases,  s e t s 1, 6, and  c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o S a l i s h a n a b l a u t and  56c, where Kootenay has / i /  t h e r e i s a c a s e , s e t 73, where  Kootenay / i / corresponds t o schwa i n a lone Squamish form. These cases do not r e a l l y c r y out f o r e x p l a n a t i o n , are i n s t a n c e s  o f / i / i n one  s i n c e i n s e t s 1, 6, and  however, e x p l a i n why  be a f a c t o r i n the o c c u r r e n c e o f / i / . i n s e t 3 Kootenay has  languages have / p i l / ,  /pil/,  Whatever e x p l a n a t o r y consonants may  or may  there  o r more S a l i s h a n language i n each s e t . On  o t h e r hand, the a d j a c e n c y o f the d e n t a l consonants / c / and vowel i n q u e s t i o n may  56c  or  /n/ t o  the  the  T h i s does not,  /pac-/ w h i l e S a l i s h a n  /pal/.  power the a d j a c e n c y o f one  or more d e n t a l  n o t have f o r the Kootenay vowels i n s e t s 1, 6,  56c,  and  73,  such a c o n s o n a n t a l environment i s a l s o i n v o l v e d i n s e t s 42,  and  34.  These t h r e e s e t s , which are s k e t c h e d out below, a r e a l l examples  o f / i / i n Kootenay which d e l e t e i n c e r t a i n u n s t r e s s e d e f f e c t , t h e y are examples o f i - 0 a b l a u t also involve ablaut  i n Salishan  66,  environments. In  i n Kootenay. S e t s 42 and  66  languages.  Kootenay  Salishan  Set  42  -kin,  -kn-  i/0  (Sh),  Set  66  -mm,  -mn-  a/0  (Sq)  Set  34  - l i m a , -Ima-  (Lower Kootenay)  -luma, -Ima-  (Upper Kootenay)  Additional relevant information  0 (Sq,  Ld  i/o  Ch,  (Ka)  Cz,  Lo)  on these s e t s can be found  by  l o o k i n g them up under the consonant correspondences, k - k f o r s e t  42,  m - m f o r s e t 66, and m - n f o r s e t 34. The b e h a v i o r o f t h e v o w e l s i n t h e Kootenay s u f f i x e s i n s e t s 42, 66, and 34 s u g g e s t t h a t i n t h e s e c a s e s an e a r l i e r f o r m o f Kootenay may v e r y w e l l have had an e p e n t h e t i c v o w e l o f n e u t r a l q u a l i t y w h i c h c o u l d be d e l e t e d when u n s t r e s s e d . There a r e t h r e e o t h e r examples w h i c h p o i n t t o t h e p o s s i b l e e x i s t e n c e o f schwa i n an e a r l i e r f o r m o f Kootenay. These a r e s e t s 77, 89, and 90 w i t h s e t 85 p o s s i b l y o f some r e l e v a n c e . I n t h e s e s e t s e a r l i e r Kootenay schwa i s i m p l i e d o n l y v e r y i n d i r e c t l y by t h e absence o f any v o w e l on t h e Kootenay s i d e where i n s e t s 77, 89, and 90 some S a l i s h an languages have schwa. On t h e Kootenay s i d e i n t h e s e s e t s t h e m i s s i n g v o w e l i s between / q / o r /q'/ and a f o l l o w i n g /!/. I t i s p r o b a b l y s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e s e examples i n v o l v e s u f f i x e s i n Kootenay.  134 There a r e f i f t e e n cognate s e t s , 4, 7, 21, 28, 29, 36, 58.1, 58.3, 73, 76, 84, 88, 96, 104 and 115 w h i c h a r e g r i s t f o r t h e m i l l o f f u t u r e work on K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n v o w e l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s . These s e t s y i e l d some seven i n c i p i e n t v o w e l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s . Some o f t h e s e i n c i p i e n t c o r r e s p o n dences, s u c h as Kootenay / a / t o Tsamosan / i / ( s e t 4 ) , may s i m p l y be examples o f S a l i s h a n a b l a u t where a n a b l a u t p a r t n e r w i t h a r e g u l a r l y c o r r e s p o n d i n g v o w e l i s n o t known o r no l o n g e r e x i s t s . Some i n c i p i e n t correspondences may be e x p l a i n e d as t h e r e s u l t o f minor sound changes i n t h e development o f Kootenay o r s p e c i f i c S a l i s h a n languages. S e t s 58.1, 58.3, 76, and 88, whatever e l s e t h e y may i n v o l v e , show Kootenay / u / m a t c h i n g S a l i s h a n /w/. S e t 88 a l s o has Kootenay / y / m a t c h i n g Squamish / i / . T h i s i s i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p  between  v o w e l s and semivowels i n Kootenay and i n S a l i s h a n . F o r a s t a t e m e n t on t h i s m a t t e r , see Kuipers (1976). S e t 28 has Kootenay / i / c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o / a / i n Squamish. I n t h i s c a s e , t h e e x p l a n a t i o n may be t h a t t h e Kootenay word and t h e Squamish word a r e n o t cognate. Kootenay has / t a q m i l a / ' d e e r f l y ' w h i l e  Squamish  has / c o - c o q ' a l s / ' s m a l l b l a c k f l i e s * . The /m/ o f t h e Kootenay word does w  n o t c o r r e s p o n d r e g u l a r l y t o a n y t h i n g i n t h e Squamish word, w h i l e t h e correspondence o f Kootenay / t ' / t o S a l i s h a n / c / i s s u p p o r t e d o n l y b y one o t h e r example, s e t 27, w h i c h l o o k s s u s p i c i o u s l y l i k e an example o f b o r r o w i n g as was a c t u a l l y s u g g e s t e d b y Haas ( 1 9 6 5 ) . Perhaps t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g minor v o w e l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i s t h a t o f Kootenay / a * / c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o / a u / i n Squamish i n s e t 115. The ?  Squamish f o r m may be c l o s e t o what one w o u l d e x p e c t i n P r o t o - S a l i s h a n  135 f o r t h i s word, g i v e n t h e vowel correspondences o b s e r v a b l e  i n s e t s 81 and  104. S e t 115 i s p a r t i a l l y r e p r o d u c e d below:  Set Kootenay xa'ca  115  Salishan  'four'  Coast xa ucn ?  xa a0on ?  xo^a'Gol  'four objects'  Sq Cw  'four'  Ck  'four'  xoG-olsx^e  Ck  'forty'  What i s so i n t e r e s t i n g i s t h a t t h e l o n g / a ' / i n t h e Kootenay word i s one o f a v e r y s m a l l number o f l o n g vowels i n Kootenay which a r e n o t p r e d i c t a b l e . Most l o n g vowels i n Kootenay a r e q u i t e p r e d i c t a b l e , a l t h o u g h vowel l e n g t h may be f o r any one o f a number o f r e a s o n s , compensatory l e n g t h e n i n g the c o a l e s c e n c e  such as  ( w i t h s p e c i f i c types o f consonant d e l e t i o n ) and  o f two vowels on e i t h e r s i d e o f a d e l e t e d l a r y n g e a l .  Cognate s e t 115 o f f e r s t h e hope t h a t t h e o t h e r few i n s t a n c e s o f unpred i c t a b l e vowel l e n g t h i n Kootenay may be e x p l a i n e d w i t h a d d i t i o n a l Kootenay-Salishan  comparative work.  136 A d d i t i o n a l Consonant  Correspondences  The p r o b a b l e cognate s e t s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s work i n c l u d e t h e Kootenay i t e m s : / u k i ( ) / ?  ?  'one', / uk'-/ 'one', / a s / 'two', /wu-/ ?  ?  ' ( q u i t e p o s s i b l y once) f o u r ' , and /xa*ca/ ' f o u r ' w i t h t h e p r o b a b l y r e l a t e d elements / x a c i n - / /qalsa/  'both' and /xanca-/ 'both*. The Kootenay word  ' t h r e e ' a l s o appears t o have cognates i n S a l i s h a n . The matching  S a l i s h a n words f o r ' t h r e e ' , however, have /k/ where Kootenay has / q / . T h i s i s n o t a r e g u l a r sound correspondence b u t c o u l d be due t o a s h i f t o f o r i g i n a l /k/ t o / q / i n Kootenay under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e u v u l a r /x/ [ x ] o f t h e word / x a c a / ' f o u r ' when t h e two words were spoken one -  a f t e r t h e o t h e r i n c o u n t i n g . T h i s same s o r t o f t h i n g has happened i n Indo-European where E n g l i s h 'four* and ' f i v e * b o t h have i n i t i a l  [ f ] and  L a t i n q u a t t u o r ' f o u r ' and quinque ' f i v e ' b o t h have i n i t i a l qu. [kw]. By r e g u l a r sound s h i f t s E n g l i s h [ f ] i n t h e s e words would have come from Proto-Indo-European *p w h i l e L a t i n [kw] would have come from Proto-IndoEuropean * k . What Proto-Indo-European had, however, was w  *k etwo:res w  ' f o u r ' and * p e n k e ' f i v e ' which means t h a t i r r e g u l a r o r a n a l o g i c w  s h i f t s occurred  s e p a r a t e l y i n two branches o f t h e f a m i l y .  sound  Bloomfield  (1933, c h a p t e r 23, pp. 422-423) g i v e s t h i s and two o t h e r examples o f a n a l o g i c change w i t h Indo-European numerals. I f we c a n e x p l a i n t h e correspondence o f Kootenay / q / t o S a l i s h a n /k/ i n t h i s way t h e f o l l o w i n g set  c a n be counted as an a d d i t i o n a l p r o b a b l e cognate s e t :  137 Kootenay  Salishan Set  qalsa  'three',  122  'for there to  be t h r e e ( o f something)'  Interior ke les ?  koles  'three'  Th  'three'  Sh  ka las  'three'  Cm  ka Iis  'three'  Cv  ce les  'three'  Sp  ce les  'three'  Ka  7  ?  ?  ?  ce les, ?  ci les ?  ce le ?  'three'  'three''  Fl Cr  Coast calas  'three*  Se  138 In  t h e p r o b a b l e cognate s e t s a l r e a d y p r e s e n t e d t h e r e a r e o n l y a few  pronominal elements. There a r e , i n f a c t , a d d i t i o n a l pronominal which a r e p r o b a b l y cognate and s t i l l  elements  o t h e r s which a r e p o s s i b l y cognate.  Some o f t h e s e elements, however, appear t o have been i n f l u e n c e d b y K o o t e n a y - I n t e r i o r S a l i s h a n b i l i n g u a l i s m o r t o have been reshaped under the  i n f l u e n c e o f o t h e r elements i n t h e paradigms  of individual  languages.  I t was thought b e s t n o t t o u s e such pronominal elements i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the  sound correspondences. None t h e l e s s , one i n t e r e s t i n g sound  corres-  pondence c a n be drawn u s i n g a pronominal element as a p r i m a r y example. The sound correspondence i s between Kootenay /h/ and S a l i s h a n / ? / • I t i s drawn on t h e b a s i s o f forms from Newman (1976). The f i r s t  three sets  below a r e t h e e v i d e n c e f o r t h e correspondence. The f o r t h s e t i s o f independent i n t e r e s t b u t a l s o has some r e l e v a n c e t o t h e t h i r d , s e t below.  Kootenay  Salishan Set  hin  'you.  1  *?on-  Set his  'feed'  123 ' t h y ' (Newman)  PS  ' e a t ' (Newman)  PS  124  * is?  ?is?iis-  'eat, d r i n k , gather' 'eat, eater'  (Newman)  Be  "  Ti  139 Kootenay  Salishan Set 125  ha-  'have'  * as-  'have'  ?  (Newman)  PS  ?  as-  'have'  "  Be  ?  as-  'have, owner o f  "  Ti  S e t 126 -1-  'carry'  *1-  'have'  (x)l-  'have'  k'il-  (Newman)  PS  "  Be  "  Be  'have n o t , l a c k '  k'ax , a x  'no, n o t '  "  epl-  'have, t h e r e i s '  "  Ka  epl  'have, t h e r e i s '  "  Cr  w  ?  ?  w  Newman b a s e s h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p r o n o m i n a l element * s n ?  on t h a t o f Hoard (1971). A d d i t i o n a l r e l e v a n t d a t a b e a r i n g on t h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n a r e g i v e n below a l o n g w i t h a few o t h e r p r o n o m i n a l elements t e n t a t i v e l y s e t up i n t h e f o r m o f cognate s e t s .  Be  140 Kootenay  Salishan Set 123  hin  'second p e r s o n p r o nominal  -in  *?an ' t h y '  proclitic'  'imperative s u f f i x '  (Newman)  PS  (Newman)  Th  Interior (h)e??., ? -  Sh  ?in-  Cm  e  ?  ah-  Cv  'your'  an-  (Newman)  Ok  han-  Sp  an-  Ka  in-  Cr Coast (Newman)  n?-  CI  ITO-'I han  'your'  (Rf)  (Hs)  ad-  -ad  Sg So  'your'  ?  ad?  Sq  (Hs)  'your ( s g . ) ' ' s u f f i x marking  (Newman)  Ld Ld  second p e r s o n  f o l l o w i n g - ( u ) b u l thus -(u)bulad ?  i(s)-  ?isTsamosan  'you ( p i . ) '  (Hs)  Ld  (Newman)  Tw  "  Ti  141 Set 123  (continued) (Tsamosan) (Newman)  Set hu  -u  Interior  proclitic'  Cv  k u  'me',  ' f i r s t person object  k o  '1st sg. and 1 s t p i . o b j e c t '  s u f f i x i n the imperative'  k u-  ' 1 s t sg. o b j e c t '  Ka  k u  'me'  Sp  w  w  w  w  Set •is  127  ' f i r s t person pronominal  Ch  'second p e r s o n p r o nominal o b j e c t 'second  suffix',  person  possessive  suffix'  'we'  Ok  128 Interior  //-si-//  'second p e r s o n s i n g u l a r object  suffix'  Sp  142 Kootenay  Salishan Set  -ala  ' f i r s t person  plural  129  *-at,  -al  '1st p e r s o n p l u r a l p o s s e s s i v e  s u b j e c t and p o s s e s s i v e suffix'  and s u b j e c t ' *-ul/l  PS  '1st person p l u r a l o b j e c t ' Bella  -(i)l  (Kp)  (Kp)PS  Coola  'our, we'  (Newman)  Coast col  'we,  cod cox w •ali  us'  ' I,  me'  t you'  'we,  us'  Ld Ld Ld Ld  143 The f o l l o w i n g twenty-one s e t s a r e almost c e r t a i n l y the r e s u l t o f word borrowing,  o r a r e onomatopoetic, i m i t a t i v e , o r e c h o i c words  i n f l u e n c e d by K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n b i l i n g u a l i s m . The f i r s t ones most l i k e l y  t o be the r e s u l t o f borrowing  two  s e t s a r e the  from Kootenay i n t o  S a l i s h a n . The n e x t f o u r t e e n s e t s a r e most p r o b a b l y the r e s u l t o f borrowing  from S a l i s h a n languages  i n t o Kootenay, a l t h o u g h some o f t h e s e s e t s  appear a t t h e same time t o be i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f i m i t a t i v e words.  The  last  echoic  f i v e s e t s a r e more s e c u r e l y i n the c a t e g o r y o f i m i t a t i v e and  i t e m s , b u t even w i t h them i t i s d i f f i c u l t o r i m p o s s i b l e t o r u l e out cognacy, on the b a s i s o f p r e s e n t d a t a . I t i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t o r i m p o s s i b l e , on t h e b a s i s o f p r e s e n t d a t a , t o determine  t h e most p r o b a b l e donor  language i n some o f the cases where borrowing  from S a l i s h a n seems  likely.  144 Kootenay  Salishan Set B l  palkiC ) 7  'woman'  pelplk' i w  'women'  ?  Ka  T h i s s e t was f i r s t n o t e d as an example o f p r o b a b l e borrowing from Kootenay i n t o a S a l i s h a n language b y Haas (1965). Presumably, t h e K a l i s p e l form would be a r e d u p l i c a t i o n o f something l i k e t h e Kootenay form.  S e t B2 nanka  'orphan'  Interior s-nen-eke?  'orphan'  s-nenen-eke s-nenke  Th  'orphans'  7  Th  'orphan'  s-noknenke  Sh  'orphans'  Sh  The Kootenay i t e m above has been suggested by K u i p e r s (1970) as a p o s s i b l e borrowing from Shuswap. I t c o u l d n o t , however, have been from the v a r i e t y o f Shuswap r e c o r d e d by K u i p e r s . There would need t o have been a form i n Shuswap something l i k e *nenke. Laurence Thompson ( p e r s o n a l communication)  n o t e s t h a t a number o f words i n Thompson d e s i g n a t i n g  p e o p l e have v o c a t i v e forms w i t h o u t t h e s- p r e f i x . F o r example, ' f r i e n d , r e l a t i v e ' w i t h t h e v o c a t i v e form nuk' e . w  ?  s-nuk^e  7  145 Kootenay  Salishan Set B3  stalam  'dug-out canoe  1  //s-talm// stalom stilom  'boat'  stilom  'boat'  s-til-m  'a b o a t '  s-telom  'boat'  s-tolom  'boat'  ' I t ' s a boat'  Set B4 luk'  'wood, firewood'  luk'  w  'wood'  luk'  w  'wood, s t i c k of wood'  luk'  w  ' s t i c k of wood'  Set B5 xa lcin  'dog'  ?  Interior  kqallaxa^lcin ka x a l c i n ?  'horse'  'my horse, my dog'  k q a l l a x a l c i n i s said to ?  xTc-cin  xA'Ci), (xeA'(i)) xoA'-cin  ' b u l l elk'  plus x a ^ l c i n 'dog'.  'to chew, t o e a t '  'horse'  xxoft'-cin  be a contracted form of kilqalliC?)  'horse'  'dog*  Coast dx s-xAalik w  xoA'  w  'biter*  'bite' Tsamosan  xoA'  'dog s m e l l '  ( i . e . vicious  146 Kootenay  Salishan Set B6  swa  ?  'cougar, mountain  lion'  Interior s^a?  'cougar'  (KS)  Cv  s-wa?  'cougar'  (KS)  Cr  s^a^a  7  ' cougar'  Cm  N o t a b l y , Shuswap and F l a t h e a d have q u i t e d i f f e r e n t words*. sk tisomiye  'cougar*  w  s-muwe  7  'cougar'  Fl Sh  Coast (n-)s-wu' -wu ?  swowa  'cougar, mountain l i o n '  'cougar'  ?  Sq Ld  Tsamosan swa'wa swawa cwa a ?  'cougar'  ?  7  ?  Ch  'cougar'  Cz  'cougar'  Qn  Set B7 lu u ?  'awl'  lu^-nana - nana  'needle'  Interior lu (u) ?  ' diminut i v e '  'to stab, t o p i e r c e '  lu -min ?  lu -mn ?  lu  ?  'a spear' 'a s p e a r '  Sp Sp Sp  ' t o s t i n g , wound w i t h a p o i n t e d instrument'  Ka  147 Set  lu  B7 Ccontinued)  ?  ' t o poke, s t a b , s t i n g '  //luty/  It the  Sh  'stab'  Th  i s n o t v e r y l i k e l y t h a t t h e Kootenay word / l u u / i s cognate t o ?  S a l i s h a n r o o t s o f l i k e form above, as those r o o t s a r e p r o b a b l y  cognate t o t h e Kootenay r o o t / c u - / ' s t i c k i n ' . the  See cognate s e t 10 under  correspondence / c / t o / I / . I t appears l i k e l y t h a t t h e word  /±u?u/  may have been borrowed  into  Kootenay b e f o r e t h e word /swa /. The word /swa / s t a n d s out i n Kootenay ?  7  because o f i t s word f i n a l g l o t t a l s t o p , which i s n e v e r d e l e t e d s i n c e i t i s always p r e c e d e d by a f u l l y s t r e s s e d vowel. Other Kootenay words which are  m o n o s y l l a b i c and end i n g l o t t a l s t o p i n c l u d e o n l y t h e p a r t i c l e s  /ni?/  (which f o r t h e moment c a n be l a b e l l e d ) ' d e m o n s t r a t i v e ' and / k a / ?  'where'. These forms o f t h e s e words o n l y o c c u r as t h e f i r s t s t r e s s - g r o u p , i n o t h e r words, p h r a s e i n i t i a l l y . i n d e p e n t e n t l y f o r m i n g one-word /ni i/ ?  element i n a  When t h e s e words o c c u r  s t r e s s - g r o u p s on t h e i r own, t h e y o c c u r as  and / k a a / . ?  A c c o r d i n g t o i n f o r m a t i o n i n T e i t (1930), t h e now e x t i n c t P l a i n s Kootenay d i a l e c t seems t o have had t h e f o l l o w i n g m o n o s y l l a b i c words ending i n g l o t t a l s t o p . The e x t a n t v a r i e t i e s o f Kootenay have forms w i t h a f u l l y phonemic vowel a f t e r t h e g l o t t a l s t o p . The modern Kootenay forms are  l i s t e d below under t h e h e a d i n g 'Mountain Kootenay':  148 P l a i n s Kootenay  Mountain Kootenay  ku?  'abondoned  wu?  'water'  /wu u/  lu?  'awl'  /lu?u/  camp s i t e '  /ku?u/ ?  T e i t ' s t r a n s c r i p t i o n l e a v e s much t o be d e s i r e d b u t i t does appear t h a t T e i t h e a r d forms ending i n g l o t t a l s t o p , w i t h o r w i t h o u t a s l i g h t echo vowel. P a r t o f t h e e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s i s t h a t he was b e i n g g i v e n a l i s t o f t h e P l a i n s Kootenay words which c o u l d be remembered which d i f f e r e d i n some way from Modern o r Mountain Kootenay usage. S i n c e t h e P l a i n s Kootenay words above a r e i d e n t i c a l i n meaning  t o s i m i l a r Modern  Kootenay words t h e y must have d i f f e r e d i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n . I t would appear from t h e s e P l a i n s Kootenay forms, whatever t h e i r t r u e p r o n u n c i a t i o n , and from t h e b e h a v i o r o f t h e words / n i ? , n i i / ?  and /ka?, ka?a/ t h a t Mountain  Kootenay e x p e r i e n c e d a sound s h i f t which t r a n s f o r m e d p h o n e t i c echo vowels i n t o f u l l y phonemic vowels. The word / l u u / ?  'awl' and i t s p a r t n e r  / l u n a n a / 'needle' seem t o have come i n t o u s e b e f o r e o r d u r i n g t h e time ?  when t h i s sound s h i f t o c c u r r e d . The word /swa^, on t h e o t h e r hand, p r o b a b l y e n t e r e d t h e language a f t e r t h e s h i f t was completed.  149  Kootenay  Salishan S e t B8  saptin  'Nez Perce  Indian(s)  A l s o recorded as:  sa aptni  'Nez p e r c e I n d i a n s '  ?  [shaptanox ] w  'Nez P e r c e Indians*  Sp Cm  saptin  S e t B9 kulilu, kululu  'butterfly'  The l ' s i n t h i s word a r e v o i c e d . A l l o t h e r words  Interior kM-ule  7  k' elu  'butterfly'  w  'butterfly'  Sp Fl  Coast  w i t h v o i c e d 1 i n Kootenay are e i t h e r i m i t a t i v e or  kilala  'butterfly'  (Bt)  Se  a r e from F r e n c h perhaps by  kilala  'butterfly'  (Im)  Se  way o f Chinook J a r g o n .  kilala  'butterfly'  Sq  S e t BIO ququskiC ) 7  'blue j a y ' (i.e. S t e l l e r ' s jay)  Interior q asqi w  ?  q asq ey w  w  q asqi q asq i  'blue j a y '  Sp  'Steller's jay'  w  q a.sq ay w  Cv  'blue j a y '  w  w  'blue j a y '  w  ?  'blue j a y '  Ka Fl Cm  The Kootenay word must be from a r e d u p l i c a t e d form o f t h e word i n a Salishan  language.  150  Kootenay  Salishan Set B l l  sya?va  'a v a r i e t y o f s e r v i c e berry'  Interior  ( i . e . saskatoon  siya?  berry)  'saskatoon b e r r i e s '  s-yeye  ?  s-yaya?  Set sxayik'  'an o n i o n - l i k e p l a n t '  (Bd)  Cv  'a k i n d o f s a r v i s b e r r y '  Sp  'service berry'  Cm  B12  sxayk'  'onion'  w  Cm  There i s another Kootenay word which r e f e r s t o w i l d and domestic o n i o n s , and s t i l l  a n o t h e r word which r e f e r s t o a k i n d o f p o i s o n o u s  onion.  Set 7  an?an  B13  'magpie'  Interior ann  'American magpie'  ?anii ?w  9 n  'magpie'  9w p a  S  'magpie'  Fl Sp Cm  Coast ?elol  'magpie'  Ck  Tsamosan ?ana ana  'magpie'  Ch  ?ana?an  'magpie'  Cz  ?  ?  151 Kootenay  Salishan S e t B14  sinxumana  'Spokane I n d i a n ( s ) '  s9nx omeno i w  ?  'people o f t h e S t e e l h e a d r i v e r ( L i t t l e Spokane R i v e r ) ' which means t h e 'Middle Spokanes'  Sp  S e t B15 skicu k ?  'Coeur d'Alene  skico ux  Indian(s)'  s-cicu ums  ?  ?  w  'Coeur d'Alene' 'Coeur d'Alene'  Cm (KS)  Cr  152 Kootenay  Salishan Set  suyapi  B16  'white p e r s o n , white people'  Interior suyapi  'whiteman'  Fl  suyapi  'whiteman'  Ka  suyapi  'whiteman'  Sp  suyepoms  'whiteman*  suyapanux"  (KS)  Cr  'whiteman'  swiyaponux™  Cm Cm  'whiteman'  swyep-mx  'white p e r s o n , Frenchman'  Sh  suyapix™  'whiteman'  Me  A p r o b a b l e s o u r c e f o r the S a l i s h a n forms i s e i t h e r Nez P e r c e o r S a h a p t i n . Note: Sahaptian so'ya'po' -po*,  'whiteman'  -pu'  'suffix for tribal names'  suyapu  Nez P e r c e  'whiteman'  Nez P e r c e Sahaptin  See A o k i (1970) f o r s p e c u l a t i o n on the u l t i m a t e s o u r c e o f t h e S a h a p t i a n words.  153 Kootenay  Salishan Set B17  cucu  ' f i s h hawk'  Interior c'ix cix  w  ' f i s h hawk'  cix cux  w  ' f i s h hawk'  w  w  Cm (KS)  Cr  Coast c'ix c'ix w  cixc'ix  ' f i s h hawk'  w  Ld  ' f i s h hawk'  c'ix b c i x b 9  Ld  'what f i s h hawk says i n a story'  Ld  Tsamosan cix  Set p'iq  ' f i s h hawk'  w  B18  'nighthawk' Also recorded as: piq  Ch  Interior s -piq' p'is  ' nighthawk'  w  'nighthawk'  pVste? pas spas  Sh  'nighthawk'  'nighthawk' 'nighthawk'  p's-p'^as  'nighthawk*  Cm  (KS)  Cr Me Sp Cv  Coast piq'  'nighthawk'  Sq  piq'  'nighthawk'  Cw  p i • q'  ' nighthawk'  Ck  154 Set B18  (continued) Tsamosan  piw?  1  nighthawk'  S e t B19 xa'xa"  'crow'  (Upper Kootenay)  Lower Kootenay has: nana ki ?  Interior xa^xa?  'crow'  Set kin  'crow'  B20  'pika'  Interior s-k'in  'pika'  s-cim  'pika'  s-kil'  'pika'  scin  'pika'  (KS)  155 Kootenay  Salishan Set B21  t'a-  The base o f v e r b  Interior  stems f o r : ' t o explode,  t9k p  ' ( t o ) explode'  Cm  r o c k t o s p l i t from h e a t ,  t'iq -  'explode, shoot, go o f f  Cm  t o shoot, animal t o make  teq  i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c sound,  tap  to  t'ek  slap'  w  w  w  w  w  tq w  Cr  'shoot'  toq taq  'explode, go o f f  w  Cr  ' p i . c r y o u t , make n o i s e  like  a colt'  Cr  'slap'  Cm  'slap' 'slap'  (KS)  Cr Ka  156  G i v e n t h e evidence  presented  i n t h i s work, i t can h a r d l y be  t h a t Kootenay and t h e S a l i s h a n languages a r e r e l a t e d . Some o f evidence  the  i s s p e c i f i c a l l y i n d i c a t i v e of a genetic r e l a t i o n s h i p , while  o t h e r evidence The  denied  i s s p e c i f i c a l l y i n d i c a t i v e of recent l i n g u i s t i c  r e s t o f t h e evidence  i s o f an i n d e t e r m i n a t e  f u r t h e r f a c t s , c o u l d be seen as due  nature  and,  diffusion.  without  to e i t h e r genetic inheritance or to  o l d e r l i n g u i s t i c d i f f u s i o n . A d d i t i o n a l f a c t s , however, can be  expected  t o come t o l i g h t as more d e s c r i p t i v e work i s done on Kootenay and S a l i s h a n languages, and as P r o t o - S a l i s h a n and  the i n t e r m e d i a t e  the  Salishan  p r o t o l a n g u a g e s a r e r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n g r e a t e r and g r e a t e r d e t a i l .  It  s h o u l d e v e n t u a l l y be p o s s i b l e t o s o r t out most o f the d i f f u s e d elements from the cognates w i t h a h i g h degree o f c e r t a i n t y . Even a t the stage o f r e s e a r c h , we  can be  s u r e t h a t t h e r e once was  present  a common a n c e s t o r  language, w h i c h can be known as P r o t o - K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n .  We  a l s o know  t h a t t h e r e has been l i n g u i s t i c d i f f u s i o n between Kootenay and c e r t a i n I n t e r i o r S a l i s h a n languages. I t may I n t e r i o r S a l i s h a n groups had  be p o s s i b l e t o determine w h i c h  the g r e a t e s t l i n g u i s t i c contact w i t h  the  Kootenay and r o u g h l y when t h i s c o n t a c t took p l a c e i n the development and  spread o f I n t e r i o r S a l i s h a n languages from P r o t o - I n t e r i o r S a l i s h a n .  There may,  i n f a c t , have been l i n g u i s t i c c o n t a c t between the  o f t h e Kootenay and  S a l i s h a n speaking  the time when P r o t o - S a l i s h a n was S a l i s h a n i s t s seem t o be  ancestors  p e o p l e almost c o n t i n u o u s l y  since  spoken.  i n g e n e r a l agreement on the  probable  l o c a t i o n o f t h e P r o t o - S a l i s h a n homeland. S u t t l e s and Elmendorf (1963) p l a c e i t on t h e Coast between the s o u t h e r n  end o f Puget Sound and  the  157  F r a s e r D e l t a , w h i l e Kinkade (1976a) suggests s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e F r a s e r D e l t a . I t i s o n l y n a t u r a l t o suppose t h a t P r o t o - K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n was spoken a t an e a r l i e r time e i t h e r t h e r e o r somewhere between t h a t l o c a t i o n and t h e p r e s e n t miles  homeland o f t h e Kootenay some t h r e e hundred  t o t h e e a s t . Most o f t h e t e r r i t o r y i n between i s o c c u p i e d  s i n g l e language, O k a n a g a n - C o l v i l l e ,  by a  w h i c h may w e l l have had t h e most  i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Kootenay o f any S a l i s h a n language, n o t o n l y r e c e n t l y b u t perhaps f o r some time i n t h e p a s t . No m a t t e r how s e c u r e l y Kootenay and S a l i s h a n may be shown t o be r e l a t e d by t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d h e r e o r i n t h e f u t u r e , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s n o t c l o s e enough t o j u s t i f y c l a s s i f y i n g Kootenay as an o u t l y i n g S a l i s h a n language. I t would even be m i s l e a d i n g  t o speak o f Kootenay as  a p a r t o f a new M a c r o - S a l i s h a n g r o u p i n g . The S a l i s h a n languages a r e verymuch more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r  than t h e y a r e t o Kootenay. Many  g e n e r a l i t i e s w h i c h c a n be made about S a l i s h a n languages do n o t a p p l y t o Kootenay. I t would be b e s t  t o c o n s i d e r Kootenay as a s i n g l e member  language f a m i l y which i s c o o r d i n a t e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e S a l i s h a n f a m i l y i n a language s t o c k which can, Kootenay-Salishan.  a t l e a s t f o r the present,  be known as  158  FOOTNOTES  1.  The name 'Kootenay' has been s p e l l e d some f o r t y d i f f e r e n t ways i n  p r i n t s i n c e 1820. The s p e l l i n g o f t h e name used i n t h i s work i s s t a n d a r d i n Canada. I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e s p e l l i n g  'Kootenai' i s s t a n d a r d ,  w h i l e t h e s p e l l i n g ' K u t e n a i ' has been common i n a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and linguistic  literature.  My Kootenay l i n g u i s t i c r e s e a r c h was supported f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s b e g i n n i n g i n 1968 by g r a n t s from t h e N a t i o n a l Museum o f Man i n Ottawa. More r e c e n t l y I have worked f o r t h e Kootenay I n d i a n A r e a C o u n c i l on t h e Kootenay Language P r o j e c t . T h i s p r e s e n t study would n o t have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t the i n t e r e s t and support o f t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  2.  T h i s i s one o f a number o f cases i n S a l i s h a n where t h e r e a r e  d o u b l e t s i n v o l v i n g an a l t e r n a t i o n o f / I / and / l / . a d d i t i o n a l forms a r e p r o v i d e d by K u i p e r s  The f o l l o w i n g  (1979):  Interior pal-  'to smear, smudge'  Sh  Coast poy-it  'scatter'  Cx  pil-it  'scatter'  Se  There a r e a l s o cases o f S a l i s h a n d o u b l e t s i n v o l v i n g / I / and /n/.  159 A good example i s the S a l i s h a n r o o t element i n s e t 1 where Squamish has /lie/ also  'be c u t ' a l o n g w i t h / l a c - t n /  ' k n i f e ' . The  f o l l o w i n g forms w i t h  /n/  occur:  Interior //nik'//  'cut'  nik'  'cut'  nic  'cut w i t h  nic  'to c u t ,  Th Sh blade'  Cr  saw'  Ka  N o t i c e t h a t b o t h Shuswap and Coeur d'Alene p r o v i d e a form w i t h /n/ and a form w i t h / I / .  3. /e-/  F o r example, b o t h / a / i n Upper C h e h a l i s and C o w l i t z ( s e t 114) i n Upper C h e h a l i s and C o w l i t z ( s e t 53)  seem t o c o r r e s p o n d  and  to  Kootenay / a / . I do n o t know whether one o f these Tsamosan vowels comes from P r o t o - S a l i s h a n *a. Nor do I know the h i s t o r y o f Upper C h e h a l i s i n s e t 46  w h i c h appears t o have an a b l a u t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h /u/ i n  several Interior  languages.  I t does appear t h a t some i n s t a n c e s o f Twana / a / can be w i t h P r o t o - S a l i s h a n *a on t h e b a s i s o f s e t s 12, 47, and  108.  56,  57,  T h i s and a number o f o t h e r assumptions about Coast  equated  58,  84,  i n t o the K o o t e n a y - S a l i s h a n  probable  95,  Salishan  vowel correspondences a r e based o n l y on the items w h i c h have found way  /i/  cognate s e t s . F o r t h e  their  Interior  languages i t i s p o s s i b l e t o r e l y on t h e vowel correspondence c h a r t s o f  160 Kinkade and Thompson (1974) and Kinkade and S l o a t (1972).  161 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES  Kootenay forms quoted i n t h i s work a r e from my own f i e l d n o t e s o r a r e from t h e d i c t i o n a r y f i l e s o f t h e Kootenay Language P r o j e c t .  One  a d d i t i o n a l source i s Boas (1918) which p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e f o r one a r c h a i c p r o n u n c i a t i o n which has n o t s u r v i v e d i n t o t h e most r e c e n t s t a t e o f t h e language. Another a d d i t i o n a l s o u r c e i s an a r t i c l e by James T e i t  (1930)  e d i t e d by Boas. T h i s a r t i c l e p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s o f an i n t e r v i e w between T e i t and a Kootenay woman named / k y u n a l u p i l / , who ?  seems t o  have been t h e l a s t p e r s o n t o remember a n y t h i n g o f P l a i n s Kootenay  speech.  The Kootenay Language P r o j e c t has c o l l e c t e d a d d i t i o n a l b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on h e r from t h o s e who  knew h e r .  When u n s p e c i f i e d by a u t h o r a b b r e v i a t i o n s S a l i s h a n forms a r e a t t r i b u t a b l e t o a u t h o r s as f o l l o w s :  Columbian  Kinkade  Coeur d'Alene  Reichard  Flathead  Krueger  Kalispel  Vogt  Spokane  Carlson  Colville  Mattina  Methow  Kinkade and S l o a t  162 Okanagan  Watkins  Shuswap  Kuipers  Thompson  Thompson  Lillooet  Swoboda  B e l l a Coola  Nater  Comox  Davis  Pentlatch  Thompson, Thompson and Kinkade  Sechelt  Beaumont  Squamish  Kuipers  Nooksack  Thompson, Thompson and Kinkade  Halkomelem  (when n o t s p e c i f i e d a s : Ck, Ms, o r Cw) Thompson,  ( g e n e r a l l y N o r t h e r n Shuswap)  Thompson and Kinkade Chilliwack  Galloway  Musqueam  Elmendorf and S u t t l e s  Cowichan  Elmendorf and S u t t l e s  Saanich  Pidgeon  Sooke  Efrat  Samish  Thompson, Thompson and E f r a t  Lummi  Thompson, Thompson and E f r a t  Clallam  Thompson and Thompson  Lushootseed  Hess  Cowlitz  Kinkade  Upper C h e h a l i s  Kinkade  Lower C h e h a l i s  Kinkade  Quinault  Gibson  163 BIBLIOGRAPHY  A b b r e v i a t i o n s used i n B i b l i o g r a p h y :  ICSL  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference on S a l i s h  IJAL  I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f American L i n g u i s t i c s  A o k i , Haruo.  1970.  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