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Authentic representation and historical imitation in Prévost’s Mémoires d’un homme de qualité : a… Holdaway, Heather Jeanne 1980

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AUTHENTIC REPRESENTATION AND HISTORICAL IMITATION IN PREVOST'S MEMOI RES D'UN HOMME DE QUALITE: A STUDY OF NARRATIVE TECHNIQUES by HEATHER JEANNE HOLDAWAY B.A.V The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES * (Department o f French)  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August  1980  (c) H e a t h e r Jeanne Holdaway,  1980  In presenting this thesis in partial  fulfilment of the requirements for  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  is understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  FRENCH  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  August 31, 1980  ii  ABSTRACT  PAcvoAt'A canty woniz, MemoiAes et ave.ntun.2A d'.un homme de qu  qui, est fiettAe du monde, hai been to a vexy gn.eat extent Ignored  by the. cAitics who have. concentxated almost exclusively on the. wa  seventh and last tome. Wanon Lescaut; yet these volumes wexe ph.o  at a txansitional pexiod -in the. de.veZopme.nt oh the, Vn.ench novel. a relatively inexpexienced novelist, ?Aevo&t ob^eAved the. trends oh  hii> time, and h^Abished his work with an awta oh reality by mean various synthetic de.vi.aeA. This thesis attempts to analyse, home. o{ Prevoit'6 narrative techniques ^fiom the. peXdpe.ctA.ve, oh authentic representation and historical imitation.  1 have endeavored to i>how  that PrevoAt'a ant oft litexaxy horgery is de.pe.nde.nt upon the. devi commonly associated with the. convention* oh the, memoir-novel ai  as ceAtain techniques which tie.hle.ct Prevo&t'& skill ai, an innovato  The, hirst chapter presents an analysis oh Prevost's imaginary Editor and Harrator togetheA with an examination oh selected example* oh "claim to veAacity". This is ^o-££cwed by a brieh discussion on the  hunction oh the quoted letteA, indirect speech, proper names, geogra phical descriptions and chAonology.  The examples quoted h^-om the  text give some -indication oh the approach taken by Prevost in the  M. H. Q.. whereby Editor and Narrator combinehorces to give an illusion oh extexnal reality to the memoix-novel.  The second chaptex comprises two somewhat dihh^-^-^t aspect!) oh  handling oh matexial borrowed h^om outside sources to authenticate  i i i  pAeudo-memotA.  The iln&t cat2.gon.tj, dealing with hUtonlcal material  sie.ve.al6 the. Important tote. attnlbuted to Hl&toAy In the ilctlon oft peAlod. The. &ouAce oi i>ome oi VAevohf i> factual Inionmation AJ>  dered ah well as the. Aelatlve meAlts oft Including pAecXse details to win the. AeadeA'& bellei.  PAevoAl'& ioActnatlon with HtstoAy and h  InteAest tn. the. "ant" oi the. hlstoAian a/ie. cleanly evident and can  been not only AeAvlng his need to disguise ilctlon bat att>o adding an  extAa dimension to an oiheAwise Lengthy novel, oi adventuAe and A Intnlgue. The. second category oi this chapteA Investigates matenlal  copied, tn borne casei, almost verbatim, iAom the. jouAnatistic 6ouA.a available to Vn.evoi>t.  Here I have attempted to 6how how passage  the. Gazette, de TAance vouched ioA the. presence oi the. author/narr and also provided an Important Iniluence directing the course oi Vrevobt'i, plot.  This boAnowed matenlal presented tn ChapteA I I Illu  an aspect oi VrevobV i> narrative technique not commonly aiAoclated the. authoA oi Manon Lescaut.  Without entering completely tnto the. pAoblem oi whether the. eighte century reader accented  OA  merely  tolerated  the eHonts  oi p&exido-  memonlalists, I have provided tkn.ee examples by ceAtain biographe  both the eighteenth and nineteenth centuAles, which demonstrate tha  Prevo&t Was considered somewhat oi an authoAtty. His authenticatin  techniques, thereioAe, aspects that tend to be. oveAlooked and under  by critics, were multiple, conscious, designed to be tAeated seriousl  and In iact wexe taken beAlously, and, In my view, played a blgnlilc and .'integral. paAl In hli> cAeatlvlty.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  ii  Introduction Notes Chapter  1 6  I  Authentic  Representation  8  A.  The Editor  13  B.  The Author  20  C.  Internal  Veracity:  direct  claims  and mute  27  testimony D.  The Letter  E.  Direct  and Indirect  F.  Proper  Names and Identities  G. H. Notes  B. Notes  Speech  41 44  Geographical and Topographical Details Time: calendar, clock and chronology  Chapter A.  38  II  Factual  Historical  Adaptations  76  Imitation  Borrowed Material  from French  50 60 69  77 Journals  95 109  Conclusion Notes  116 121  Bibliography  122  Appendix  126  -.1 -  Six  tomes o f Prevost's Memoires d'un homme de q u a l i t e ^ were pub-  l i s h e d between 1728 and 1731.  The seventh and l a s t , the H i s t o i r e  du C h e v a l i e r des Grieux e t de Manon Lescaut, appeared as a c o n t i n u a t i o n i n 1731, but soon achieved a q u a s i - s e p a r a t e e x i s t e n c e and by 1756 had been p u b l i s h e d as an independent t e x t e i g h t times. The  success o f Manon Lescaut has continued i n t o the t w e n t i e t h -  century which has witnessed  the p u b l i c a t i o n o f many  separate  2  editions. to six  In c o n t r a s t to the p o p u l a r i t y o f t h i s s i n g l e volume,  date r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been given t o the f i r s t tomes o f the M.H.Q.  F o r example, t h e r e have been o n l y two  complete e d i t i o n s o f the e n t i r e work d u r i n g the l a s t century and a half.  3  (In 1927 there appeared a c r i t i c a l e d i t i o n o f Tome V 4  of  the memoirs prepared  Joseph Ducarre  by Mysie E . I . Robertson,  i n c l u d e d a few b r i e f e x t r a c t s i n h i s s e m i - c r i t i c a l  e d i t i o n o f Manon L e s c a u t . ) 5  in  and i n 1958  The t h i r d complete e d i t i o n was begun  1978 under the d i r e c t i o n o f Jean Sgardf  and Volume I o f the  Oeuvres de Prevost, e s t a b l i s h e d by P i e r r e Berthiaume and Jean Sgard, w i l l be the primary t e x t o f t h i s t h e s i s .  Commentaries and  notes f o r t h i s new e d i t i o n o f the t e x t have y e t t o be p u b l i s h e d and w i l l appear i n the l a s t volume (VIII) o f the Oeuvres. Thus Sgard's Volume I r e p r e s e n t s the f i r s t complete e d i t i o n o f the seven tomes t o emerge s i n c e the Leblanc e d i t i o n i n 1810. F o r the f i r s t time, t h i s t e x t i n c l u d e s the two L e t t r e s de 1 ' e d i t e u r , 7  the Avant-Propos and the A v i s de 1'auteur.  I t uses as i t s base  t e x t the e d i t i o n s o f 1753 f o r Manon Lescaut and o f 1756 f o r the first  s i x tomes, the l a s t e d i t i o n s r e v i s e d and c o r r e c t e d by  Prevost.  - 2 -  The m a j o r i t y o f e a r l i e r c r i t i c a l  s t u d i e s on the M.H.Q. have  examined v a r i o u s aspects o f Manon Lescaut t o the e x c l u s i o n o f the p r e c e d i n g s i x tomes; however, c e r t a i n r e c e n t s c h o l a r s , n o t a b l y Mylnef Monty  9  and S g a r d ,  10  have d e a l t with most o f P r e v o s t ' s work  although emphasis, once again, has o f t e n been given t o the seventh tome o f the M.H.Q. more c l o s e l y the f i r s t  I t seems  useful  t h e r e f o r e t o examine  s i x tomes and t o assess them, i f p o s s i b l e ,  s e p a r a t e l y from the more popular f i n a l volume.  Although my study  w i l l t r y t o f i t the s t o r y o f Manon Lescaut i n t o the framework o f the M.H.Q., tome seven w i l l not be analysed i n depth. The  study o f n a r r a t i v e techniques i n the works o f Prevost has been  of great i n t e r e s t t o s c h o l a r s and l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s .  While  very  few c r i t i c s have focused e x c l u s i v e l y on techniques o f i l l u s i o n , 11  Mylne  12  and Stewart  attempted  have concentrated on t h i s t o p i c and have  t o d e f i n e some o f the conventions o f the memoir-novel.  My own study w i l l , as a r e s u l t , r e s t r i c t examination  i t s e l f p r i m a r i l y t o an  o f some o f the n a r r a t i v e techniques employed by Prevost  to p e r p e t r a t e an i l l u s i o n a r y a u t h e n t i c i t y on h i s r e a d e r s . In my attempt  t o gather and analyse the necessary background  m a t e r i a l , the c r i t i c a l and b i o g r a p h i c a l works o f E n g e l , Roddier, 13  H a r i s s e , Sgard and Mylne were c o n s u l t e d ,  and many a r t i c l e s ,  e s p e c i a l l y those contained i n the Collogue Prevost proved  parti-  14  cularly useful.  As w e l l , two works o f Georges May have provided  some o f the background needed t o understand the important  influence  that h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g had on Prevost's prose f i c t i o n .  As my  1 5  study progressed, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f sources i n the t e x t and  - 3 -  P r e v o s t ' s use o f v a r i o u s  j o u r n a l s and newspapers became a major  area o f i n t e r e s t , an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t h a t was somewhat hampered by the i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f resource m a t e r i a l of l o c a t i n g e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y j o u r n a l s .  and the d i f f i c u l t y  Many s e c t i o n s o f the  M.H.Q. have proved too d i f f i c u l t t o t r a c e beyond P r e v o s t ' s t e x t . Tome V has been thoroughly researched by Robertson, and although the reader's a t t e n t i o n w i l l be f r e q u e n t l y  drawn t o Robertson's  e d i t i o n o f the t e x t , an attempt w i l l be made t o add t o her f i n d i n g s from the p o i n t o f view o f n a r r a t i v e A final  techniques.  source which played an e s s e n t i a l r o l e i n shaping my t h e s i s  i s the study by Stewart, which examines many o f the problems experienced by memoir-novelists i n c r e a t i n g an i l l u s i o n o f r e a l i t y or a u t h e n t i c i t y i n t h e i r f i c t i o n .  Although my t h e s i s accepts and  makes use o f some o f the terminology and c a t e g o r i e s  adopted by  Stewart, t h e i r s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n t o the M.H.Q. w i l l I hope, a f r e s h  provide,  perspective.  A p o s s i b l e problem a r i s i n g i n t h i s type o f t e c h n i c a l study  lies  i n i t s r e s t r i c t i v e nature and the consequent " a r t i f i c i a l i t y " o f such an approach.  Without denying the e x i s t e n c e  o f the many and  v a r i e d f a c e t s o f P r e v o s t ' s a r t and s t y l e , the focus o f my study requires  a t l e a s t a p r o v i s i o n a l narrowing o f p e r s p e c t i v e  that  t h r e a t e n s t o i s o l a t e method from matter, d i s s e c t i n g thereby, the creative  process.  A f u r t h e r danger l i e s i n the normal tendency o f s t u d i e s o f t h i s kind t o go beyond o b j e c t i v e  analysis to speculation,  assigning  - 4 -  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the author t o motives t h a t , i n f a c t , we are n e c e s s a r i l y i n a poor p o s i t i o n t o judge. i n t e n t i o n s o f a p a r t i c u l a r author  P o s t u l a t i n g the  i s a r i s k y p u r s u i t , although  the c r i t i c ' s purpose i n doing so might o r i g i n a l l y seem j u s t i f i e d . In the case o f Prevost, who was w r i t i n g h i s f i r s t novel i n a l i t e r a r y p e r i o d t h a t was very much i n f l u e n c e d by a tendency t o disguise f i c t i o n ,  i t i s d i f f i c u l t not t o g i v e some c r e d i t t o  those m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s which s u r e l y played a r o l e i n determini n g the s t r u c t u r e and n a r r a t i v e techniques t h a t came t o shape the M.H.Q.  Prevost's views on human behaviour,  his descriptions of  f o r e i g n lands and people, h i s o b s e s s i o n with the d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e o f p a s s i o n a t e l o v e and h i s preoccupation with the  cruelty  of f a t e are a l l contained w i t h i n a c e r t a i n framework t h a t was i t s e l f dependent upon the c u r r e n t demands f o r v e r i s i m i l i t u d e and r e a l i s t i c depiction. found  By t a k i n g note o f the techniques  i n the conventions  t o be  o f the memoir-novel and by a n a l y s i n g  Prevost's aim i n the l i g h t o f the obvious  and o f t e n crude  attempts  made t o appeal t o the b e l i e f o f the reader, one can b e t t e r understand the dilemma t h a t he faced; h i s work seems t o r e f l e c t a need f o r both a c o n v e n t i o n a l and an o r i g i n a l approach, one t h a t would s a t i s f y the b a s i c requirements  o f the convention  some measure o f freedom o f s t y l e . important  t o an understanding  Although  and yet a l l o w  both aspects are  o f Prevost's work, the focus o f the  t h e s i s w i l l be on the p a r t i c u l a r d e v i c e s employed p r i m a r i l y f o r the purpose o f l e n d i n g an a i r o f a u t h e n t i c i t y t o the M.H.Q. i s not t o suggest  This  t h a t c r e a t i n g an i l l u s i o n o f r e a l i t y was f o r  Prevost a prime o r major concern;  i n some i n s t a n c e s the  inclusion  - 5-  of  techniques o f i l l u s i o n would be l i t t l e more than an auto-  matic p r e c a u t i o n .  As w e l l , i t i s f a r from c e r t a i n whether  the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y reader was genuinely duped or whether he was s o p h i s t i c a t e d enough t o d i s m i s s Prevost's c l a i m s t o v e r a c i t y as so much c o n v e n t i o n a l twaddle.  While a c l e a r  r e s o l u t i o n o f t h i s problem i s u n l i k e l y , my c o n c l u s i o n w i l l present  some evidence  suggesting t h a t the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  reader was, i n f a c t , f r e q u e n t l y confused  i n h i s attempts t o  s o r t out the v e r a c i t y o f t h i s pseudo-memoir from t h a t of a number of s i m i l a r novels o r a u t h e n t i c b i o g r a p h i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l works w r i t t e n i n the same p e r i o d .  - 6-  NOTES  The Memoires as the M.H.Q.  d'un homme de quality  will  hereafter  be referred  to  2 There are at least eight editions listed in the bibliography of Sgard's Prevost Romancier (Paris: Librairie Jose Corti, 1968) p. 646. 3 L'Abbe PrSvost, Oeuvres Choisies de PrSvost. Avec figures (Paris: de l'imprimerie de Leblanc, 1810-1816, 39 vol. in-8). The Leblanc edition is based on Pierre Bernard d'HSry's Oeuvres Choisies de L'Abbe" Provost published in Amsterdam and Paris 1783-85. 4 L'Abbe Prevost, Memoires et avantures d'un homme de quality qui s'est retire du monde, Tome V Sejour en Angleterre: Edition critique par Mysie Robertson (Paris: Champion, 1934), The first edition was published in 1927. Jean  5 L'Abbe Prevost, M&moires d'un homme de qualitS (extraits). Manon Lescaut, Sdition par Joseph Ducarre, Collection du Flambeau (Paris: Hachette, 1958). ^ L' Abbe Pre vos t',-Memoires et aventures d'un homme de quality qui s'est retire du monde - Histoire du Chevalier des Grieux et de Manon Lescaut, ed. Pierre Berthiaume and Jean Sgard, Tome I of Oeuvres de Provost, ed. Jean Sgard (Grenoble: Presses Universitaires, 1977) 7 Neither the Oeuvres Choisies of 1783-1785 nor the Leblanc edition include the Avis de 1'editeur which appeared in the Delaulne edition of 1728. Sgard's edition, which reproduced the letter placed correctly preceding Tome I, heads it Lettre de 1'editeur. As Sgard has based his text on the revised editions of 1753-1756 and has listed the variants to be found from the 1728 Delaulne edition, one must assume that PrSvost changed the t i t l e at the time of making his corrections and alterations. Unfortunately an asterisk (which indicates that a variant exists) has been placed beside the Lettre de 1'editeur in Sgard's edition but the corresponding entry in the variantes has been omitted. 8  .. Vivienne Mylne, The Eighteenth-Century French Novel: Techniques Illusion (Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 1965). 9 Jeanne R. Monty, "Les Romans de 1'abbe Prevost" in Studies on and the Eighteenth Century, edited by T. Besterman, Vol. 78. (Geneve: Institut et Musee Voltaire, 1970).  of  Voltaire  - 7-  Sgard, Prevost  Romaneier  Mylne, The Eighteenth-Century  French  Novel.  12 Philip Stewart, Imitation and Illusion in the French Novel, 1700 to 1750 (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1969). 13 See 14  Memoir-  Bibliography.  ^ L'Abbe Prevost - Actes du Collogue, Publications des Annales de la Faculte des Lettres,d'Aix-en-Provence, Nouvelle Serie, No 50 (Aix-en-Provence: Editions Ophrys, 1965). 15 Georges May, Le Dilemme du roman au XVIII Siecle (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press et Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1963). "L'histoire a-t-elle engendre le roman? Aspects frangais de la guestion au seuil du siecle des lumieres" Revue d'Histoire Litteraire de la France, Vol. LV, (n.p.: n.p., 1955) pp. 155-176.  - 8 -  Chapter Authentic  I  Representation  I t has been f r e q u e n t l y acknowledged by many c r i t i c s t h a t the reading of f i c t i o n has not always been c o n s i d e r e d a worthy pursuit.  1  The  reasons  closely related  i n Prevost's day to the r o l e of " t r u e " h i s t o r y  i n the a u t h e n t i c the seventeenth have suggested as h i s t o r y  f o r t h i s are complex, and no doubt were  autdb:i'ographi'es>, memoirs and c h r o n i c l e s of and very e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s .  t h a t there was  Scholars  a need f o r f i c t i o n to be d i s g u i s e d  f o r a number of reasons:  h i s t o r i c a l works, being  f a c t u a l , were seen as capable of the moral e d i f i c a t i o n of the reader; n o n - h i s t o r i c a l  or "untrue" works, on the other hand,  i n d u l g e d i n f o r mere p l e a s u r e or i n t e r e s t , c o u l d present  the  reader with moral dilemmas.  the  T h i s i m p l i c i t c e n s o r s h i p on  e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y reader i s not w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d and i s difficult  f o r modern c r i t i c s to a p p r e c i a t e .  Philip  Stewart,  however, has attempted to analyse t h i s problem: The argument that from the implicit being untrue, it has all the moral when the story is the same in either  Rather than s t r e s s  fiction provides only poisoned pleasure proceeds syllogism that fiction, being invented, is untrue; is manifestly the opposite of truth; it therefore probity of a lie. The resistance disappears true -^or thought to be so; the effect would be case.  the moral qualms of the reader, Georges  emphasizes the n o v e l i s t ' s i s h e d and r e s p e c t e d genre.  need to i m i t a t e h i s t o r y ,  an  May  establ-  - 9 -  L 'habitude, si irritante pour le lecteuv moderne, de faire semblant de cacher I' identite reelle des protagonistes ou les noms de lieu sous des initiates, des points de suspension ou des asterisques, n 'etait qu'un procede entre maints autres dans I 'arsenal quasi-inepuisable des romanciers desireux de faire passer leurs ouvrages pour ae qu'ils n'etaient pas. Tous les bons romanciers de l'epoque Prevost, Crebillon, . . . Laclos, etc., recoururent a des procedes techniques de cet ordre pour liberer le roman de I 'hypotheque poetique et tui conferer I'estampille historique.  During  the f i r s t h a l f of the e i g h t e e n t h century,  ment t h a t memoir-novels be presented  this require-  as genuine memoirs seems 4  to have l e d to removing the word Jioman from the t i t l e s .  To  c o n s i d e r such p r e c a u t i o n s  various  techniques  of i m i t a t i o n  as unnecessary, as w e l l as the  t h a t f i n a l l y emerged, i s to ignore  very p r a c t i c a l problem c o n f r o n t i n g the authors who  of the p e r i o d  were faced with the c h a l l e n g e of making t h e i r works accept-  able t o a p u b l i s h e r and t o a f a i r l y wide r e a d e r s h i p . May  the  Georges  p o i n t s out t h a t i n France h i s t o r i c a l works were more f r e e l y  accepted  at the time than were n o v e l s .  Si Prevost voulut en 1731 se faire passer pour historien, ce ne fut pas seulement, pens ons - nou s pour les raisons de mode littiraire et en vue des avantages commerciaux justement soulignes par H. Roddier; ce fut aussi et peut-etre surtout pour des raisons tactiques et pratiques; les ouvrages historiques pouvaient etre imprimis et publies en France plus librement que les romans.^  A comprehensive examination o f the problems surrounding  the  p o p u l a r i t y of f i c t i o n can be s t u d i e d i n May's Dilemme du Roman. His c o n c l u s i o n s p o i n t to a r a d i c a l change i n the number of novels p u b l i s h e d d u r i n g the years 1725-30 and the f i r s t  1731-36.  f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d , which i n c o r p o r a t e s the years  Prevost's M.H.Q., 51 French novels were p u b l i s h e d .  6  The  new  During of second  - 10 -  h a l f decade, however., produced .129 new n o v e l s , but  publication  7  i n the years 1737-44 dropped s h a r p l y . suggest  These trends would  t h a t Prevost's M.H.Q. was w r i t t e n a t a time when the  p o p u l a r i t y o f the n o v e l , though s t r e n g t h e n i n g , was s t i l l tain.  uncer-  One can f u r t h e r assume t h a t h i s l a t e r novels appeared  d u r i n g a p e r i o d t h a t was more t o l e r a n t o f f i c t i o n . h i s t o r i e s , which date roughly between 174 0 and 1745,  Prevost's were again  produced i n years c o n s i d e r e d by May t o be problematic f o r fiction. Thus i t would not seem unreasonable  t o suggest  t h a t , as a r e s u l t  of p u b l i c s c e p t i c i s m concerning f r a u d u l e n t h i s t o r i e s and memoirnovels and the g e n e r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced by n o v e l i s t s i n p u b l i s h i n g t h e i r works i n France, P r e v o s t h i m s e l f f e l l to the conventions  o f the day.  victim  These demands would c l e a r l y have  e x e r c i s e d some i n f l u e n c e (and p o s s i b l y even imposed some form of  r e s t r i c t i o n ) on the s t y l e o f M.H.Q.  n a r r a t i v e techniques  The use o f many o f the  and d e v i c e s would have been determined by  Prevost's d e s i r e t o d i s g u i s e h i s f i c t i o n .  I t must a l s o be  remembered t h a t much o f the M.H.Q. was w r i t t e n i n France  before  Prevost f i n a l l y was able t o work i n and be i n f l u e n c e d by the more l i b e r a t e d atmosphere o f e i t h e r England  o r Holland.  The dilemma f o r the contemporary reader caused f r i v o l o u s nature o f f i c t i o n  i n t h i s period gives r i s e to consid-  e r a t i o n o f a second and e q u a l l y important belief. literal  The c r i t i c  by the presumed  s u b j e c t , the  reader's  today r e f e r s t o the dual processes o f  and i m a g i n a t i v e b e l i e f , concepts  t h a t , when a p p l i e d t o  - l i -  the M.H.Q., help t o e x p l a i n  i n concrete terms the  unconscious r e a c t i o n t o the work. nant i n our and  L i t e r a l b e l i e f i s predomi-  r e a c t i o n t o the p r e s e n t a t i o n  personages, and as readers,  reader's  of historical  events  we are l i k e l y t o b e l i e v e i n  the f a c t u a l t r u t h o f such m a t e r i a l .  Imaginative b e l i e f i s , o f  course, a l s o present i n our  r e a c t i o n t o a l l f i c t i o n and operates  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y with l i t e r a l  b e l i e f to l u l l  comfortable s t a t e o f a s s e n t . and  the reader i n t o a  Although i t may appear  artificial  a r b i t r a r y t o separate i n t o two p a r t s the b e l i e f t h a t a  reader has i n the a u t h e n t i c i t y o f the t e x t , i t i s , no doubt, one of the best methods a v a i l a b l e t o us f o r e x p l a i n i n g  the  develop-  ment t h a t we, i n r e t r o s p e c t , d i s c e r n i n the memoir-novel o f the eighteenth  century.  For example, Stewart uses the two types o f  b e l i e f t o e x p l a i n h i s theory o f an e v o l u t i o n  i n the memoir-novel.  Belief, as defined at the outset of this study, is of two kinds: literal and imaginative. Characteristic of the age of memoirnovels is that the second, while cultivated to be sure, was subordinated to the first by the claim of authenticity. That claim lasted as long as it was needed, then waned:'.. . . "illusion", in other words, was acquiring a new meaning, one no longer dependent upon literal belief, but tending toward a modern definition of imaginative, emphatic, provisional belief.  Stewart then proposes t h a t the modern d e f i n i t i o n o f i l l u s i o n (that based on imaginative the works o f Diderot  b e l i e f ) i s the one best a p p l i e d t o  and t o the  Le Monde Moral, 1760).  l a t e r works o f Prevost  The type o f i l l u s i o n f e l t  (e.g.  t o correspond  most t o the p e r i o d o f the M.H.Q., i s the one based on l i t e r a l belief.  9  Without wishing t o pursue f u r t h e r the d e f i n i t i o n and use terms as belief,  illusion,  le vrai,  la virite",  realism,  authenticity  o f such and  - 12 -  imitation  i n the works of c r i t i c s  other than Stewart, some  acknowledgement should nevertheless be given to the study prepared by Mylne, whose a p p r a i s a l of both the modern and contemporary use of the aforementioned words i s informative and v a l u a b l e .  1 0  In.her d i s c u s s i o n of c e r t a i n n a r r a t i v e  techniques used by memoir-novelists, Mylne supports the emphas i s placed by Stewart on the c r e a t i o n of l i t e r a l  belief.  1 1  Although i t would doubtless be i n t e r e s t i n g to t r y to study i n i s o l a t i o n the techniques of i l l u s i o n  based on l i t e r a l b e l i e f ,  we must recognize that such an approach would depend too h e a v i l y on g e n e r a l i t i e s and would u l t i m a t e l y be too r e s t r i c t i v e i n i t s point of view.  Thus i n t h i s study, no attempt w i l l be  made to d i s t i n g u i s h one type of b e l i e f from another.  It will  be enough to conclude that many of the n a r r a t i v e techniques found operating i n the M.H.Q. were p r i m a r i l y intended to capture the- reader '.s l i t e r a l , b e l i e f . The f o l l o w i n g sections each represent or account f o r a technique or device used by Prevost i n the memoirs.  The f i r s t two ( i . e .  the E d i t o r and the N a r r a t o r ) , emerge as the most important i n c o r p o r a t i n g as they do the v a r i o u s l e t t e r s , Avant-Propos,  foot-  notes, i n t r o d u c t i o n s and n o t i c e s to be found i n the M.H.Q. The subsequent sections of t h i s chapter contain examples that have been s e l e c t e d somewhat at random throughout the t e x t and quotat i o n s exemplifying the p a r t i c u l a r device under d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be provided.  In t h i s , I have been more i n d i c a t i v e than compre-  hensive and i t has not been deemed necessary to include a l l examples i n order to s u b s t a n t i a t e the point being made.  The  Editor  Although the e d i t o r of memoir-novels assumed a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t r o l e s , each was  employed to g i v e an  appearance of a u t h e n t i c i t y to the memoirs.  external  By means of  numerous c l a i m s to v e r a c i t y , the e d i t o r t r i e d to convince the p u b l i c from the o u t s e t and  t h a t the memoirs were genuine  belonged t o a r e a l i n d i v i d u a l , a l b e i t to an i n d i v i d u a l  whose i d e n t i t y c o n v e n i e n t l y main and  had  most obvious r o l e was  manuscript that had  to be kept s e c r e t . to r e v e a l the  been r e c e i v e d  His  source of  for publication.  Often  the documents or l e t t e r s were found, sent i n the m a i l , on the e d i t o r ' s doorstep or c o l l e c t e d from a r c h i v e s as those of the V a t i c a n ) .  As w e l l , s i n c e the  u s u a l l y anonymous or dead, and  therefore  needed to present the memoirs to the reader.  was  explain  the manner i n which the t e x t reached the p u b l i c , an was  left  (such  author  unable to  the  editor  A secondary  r o l e of the e d i t o r was  to act as c r i t i c ,  censor.  of f o o t n o t e s i n many memoir-novels  was  Thus, the use  also  of the  t r a n s l a t o r or  part of the convention which based i t s form on  genuine autobiography where e d i t o r i a l  additions,  that  touch-ups,  d e l e t i o n s or e x p l a n a t i o n s served as a i d s to  the  reader. P r e v o s t ' s ample use  of an e d i t o r i n most of h i s f i c t i o n would  suggest t h a t he c o n s i d e r e d t h i s technique of prime importance. In the M.H.Q., an anonymous e d i t o r i n t r o d u c e s the Marquis de  * ? t  fJ  the reader to  author of the memoirs, who  l a t e r takes  - 14 -  the pseudonym Renoncour.  Subsequently,  i n h i s own t u r n 12  Renoncour becomes e d i t o r o f C l e v e l a n d Killerine  (1731) ,  (1735-40), Memoires de M. de Montcal  Memoires pour s e r v i r a 1 ' h i s t o i r e de Malte in  1745 Prevost r e v e r t e d t o h i s o r i g i n a l  anonymous e d i t o r  Le Doyen de (1741) and  (1741).  However,  i d e a o f u s i n g an  ( i n Memoires d'un honnete homme) and spun  a l e n g t h y and h i g h l y i m a g i n a t i v e t a l e o f d i s c o v e r y . An examination  o f the M.H.Q.'s two l e t t e r s from the e d i t o r  and o f the f o o t n o t e s a t t r i b u t e d t o him sheds a c e r t a i n amount of  l i g h t on the v a r i o u s uses P r e v o s t made o f t h i s d e v i c e .  In the f i r s t of  L e t t r e de l ' e d i t e u r ,  l o c a t e d a t the beginning  Tome I, the e d i t o r p r e s e n t s the author o f the memoirs,  thus e s t a b l i s h i n g from the beginning the separate e x i s t e n c e of ing  the man o f q u a l i t y .  Moreover, circumstances'iof the' meet-b  o f author and e d i t o r are not l e f t  to coincidence or to  chance; t h e e d i t o r , knowing something o f the man o f q u a l i t y ' s r e p u t a t i o n , out o f c u r i o s i t y seeks him i n the abbey where he has chosen t o r e s i d e . or  Thus P r e v o s t ' s author  i s n e i t h e r dead  unknown, though he i s n o t p r e c i s e l y named, and i n order t o  s u b s t a n t i a t e h i s e x i s t e n c e , witnesses  are i n v e n t e d :  first,  the e d i t o r mentions h i m s e l f , then he c i t e s the abbey f a t h e r s and of  f i n a l l y the many people  i n France who had known the man  q u a l i t y f o r some 35 y e a r s .  As w e l l as i n t r o d u c i n g the  author t o the reader, the e d i t o r performs a second f u n c t i o n by e s t a b l i s h i n g a t t h i s time t h e i n t e g r i t y and s i n c e r i t y o f the man o f q u a l i t y , which h e l p s t o c r e a t e a pact o f t r u s t and r e s p e c t between the author and the reader.  Furthermore,  - 15 -  the author's impeccable r e p u t a t i o n q u a l i f i e s him f o r the task o f i n s t r u c t o r .  T h i s i s an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n as  Renoncour s motives become i n c r e a s i n g l y d i d a c t i c . 1  contemporary  For the  reader e x p e c t i n g moral e d i f i c a t i o n , the e d i t o r ' s  l e t t e r serves as a w r i t t e n form o f c h a r a c t e r r e f e r e n c e . For those seeking entertainment and enjoyment, the l e t t e r r e v e a l s t h a t the author was an illustre  aventuriev  also  (M.H.Q. ,  p. 9); as such h i s memoirs promised t o p r o v i d e i n t e r e s t i n g reading.  In e i t h e r case the o p i n i o n s o f the e d i t o r are  l i k e l y t o i n f l u e n c e the reader, and thus i t might t h a t the e d i t o r has a t w o f o l d purpose:  be argued  f i r s t , t o present an  i m p a r t i a l or t h i r d - p e r s o n p o i n t o f view and, secondly, t o shape the important f i r s t  impressions o f h i s reader and i n  t h i s way t o mould the reader's a t t i t u d e t o both t e x t and author. Using a " l i v e " author presented P r e v o s t with the problem of h i d i n g the i d e n t i t y o f h i s man of q u a l i t y . to  It i s interesting  note t h a t the author was d e p i c t e d as a gentleman o f means  r a t h e r than as a person o f l e s s e r s o c i a l s t a n d i n g , s i n c e the l a t t e r i d e n t i t y , though  l e s s i n t r i g u i n g , would have been  e a s i e r t o hide or d i s g u i s e from the reader.  Furthermore, the  l e t t e r c a r e f u l l y denies the reader a l l the p e r t i n e n t  details  needed f o r t r a c i n g the author; f o r example, suspension p o i n t s are  used a f t e r the word abbaye t o d i s g u i s e the author's r e t r e a t ,  the f a t h e r s are c a l l e d upon as witnesses but are not named, the a c t u a l l o c a t i o n of the monastery i s not g i v e n , and f i n a l l y , the e d i t o r r e v e a l s t h a t the author h i m s e l f asked t o remain  - 16 -  anonymous, thus o f f e r i n g a p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n use  o f a s t e r i s k s i n the t i t l e Marquis de ***.  f o r the indeed, while  making a semblance o f producing evidence, the l e t t e r , i n r e a l i t y , r e v e a l s nothing t a n g i b l e , thus p r o v i n g the mere conventionality  o f the d e v i c e .  A f i n a l use o f the e d i t o r ' s f i r s t  l e t t e r i s the r e f e r e n c e  made t h e r e i n t o the s t y l e o f the memoirs. f i n d i n the p r e f a c e t o a p u b l i s h e d e d i t o r o b s e r v e s : Le style  attentive  d'une  personne  est simple  de condition,  de la vevite,  qu'aux  ovnements  observation  contributes  qui s'attache  du langage.  gives  (M.H.Q. , p.  a  le  doit  1'exactitude  9)  Such an  i t excuses any s t y l i s t i c  s k i l l s o f the author, s i n c e he secondly,  the reader the impression t h a t t r u t h f u l n e s s  and an  o f the f a c t s were the author's prime  The e d i t o r a l s o prepares h i s reader f o r some o f  the unusual events t h a t are reported claiming  plus  a p r o f e s s i o n a l w r i t e r nor a n o v e l i s t ;  exact r e p r e s e n t a t i o n concern.  tel qu'on  i n s e v e r a l ways t o the a u t h e n t i c  shortcomings i n the n a r r a t i v e  it  manuscript, P r e v o s t ' s et naturel,  appearance o f the memoirs: f i r s t ,  is neither  Much as one might  by the man o f q u a l i t y ,  t h a t i t i s t h e i r strangeness t h a t renders them  worthy o f mention - the commonplace does not m e r i t exposure. Here the e d i t o r f u n c t i o n s and  as a f i l t e r through which improbable  u n l i k e l y t a l e s o f adventure may be passed t o the reader.  In the second L e t t r e de l ' e d i t e u r , l o c a t e d a t the beginning of the f i f t h tome, the death o f the author i s announced, thereby p r o v i d i n g  a convenient and l o g i c a l e x i t f o r the man  - 17 -  of q u a l i t y . eulogy.  The e d i t o r ' s praise i s thus something of a  The function of the e d i t o r i s s i m i l a r i n both  l e t t e r s , the second appearing as an extension of the  first.  Those witnesses claiming to have had contact with the author i n the second l e t t e r are the e d i t o r himself, who  i s now  a  close f r i e n d , and the members of the p u b l i c who v i s i t e d the author at the abbey and obliged him to engage i n lengthy 13  and tedious correspondence.  We l e a r n that the p o p u l a r i t y  of the f i r s t part of the memoirs (Tomes I to IV) caused the author to regret h i s fame and we are thus given a f u r t h e r reason f o r the concealment of the man  of q u a l i t y ' s i d e n t i t y  as w e l l as a p l a u s i b l e excuse f o r the delay i n p u b l i c a t i o n 14  of the l a s t part of the memoirs (Tomes V and V I ) .  The  author's advancing age no longer permitted the continuation of such p u b l i c acclaim and therefore the e d i t o r was  obliged  t o delay p u b l i c a t i o n of the l a s t tomes u n t i l a f t e r h i s death. The e d i t o r ' s comments i n the second L e t t r e de  1'editeur  concerning the n a r r a t i v e s t y l e of the memoirs are expanded to include a more serious d i s c u s s i o n of the author's c r e a t i v e ambitions.  The e d i t o r exposes the author's inner s t r u g g l e ,  which i s caused on the one hand by h i s d e s i r e to record f o r d i d a c t i c purposes v i r t u a l l y a l l examples of human weakness, and on the other hand by h i s fear of being accused of unnecessary frankness and p o s s i b l e sensationalism.  This l a s t i s a  s k i l f u l strategem intended to draw the reader not only i n t o the soul of the author (thus c l o s i n g the distance between the  - 18 -  two) The  but a l s o to set up a system of defence  f o r Prevost.  assumption of the r o l e of c r i t i c by the e d i t o r  allows  Prevost to p l a y author a g a i n s t e d i t o r i n such a way  t h a t the  author's m i s g i v i n g s , which would l i k e l y echo those of Prevost's r e a l l i f e c r i t i c s , are d i s m i s s e d as unnecessary who  by the e d i t o r  i s a spokesman f o r Prevost's p e r s o n a l views.  Realizing  t h a t the p u b l i c might f i n d some of h i s m a t e r i a l d e p i c t i n g the d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e of e x c e s s i v e passions somewhat shocking, Prevost allowed the e d i t o r to a n t i c i p a t e h i s c r i t i c s  and  launch a campaign i n favour of u s i n g e x p l i c i t examples to i n s t r u c t the naive and unwary p u b l i c . The e d i t o r i a l f o o t n o t e s to be found i n the M.H.Q. do c o n t r i b u t e e i t h e r to the p l o t or to the reader's of the memoirs.  not  understanding  They are e x t e r n a l d e c o r a t i o n s t h a t were  c o n v e n t i o n a l l y used i n the memoir-novels of o t h e r w r i t e r s . The  f i r s t note, l o c a t e d a t the end of Tome I I , pretends  1 6  to  o f f e r more i n s i g h t i n t o the background surrounding the s t o r y of the c o n s u l and h i s two the e n t i r e adventure  was  wives.  The e d i t o r e x p l a i n s t h a t  added a f t e r p u b l i c a t i o n of the  first  e d i t i o n and, more s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the p o i n t of view of  vraiserriblance, The  a f t e r the death of the c o n s u l ' s second w i f e .  e d i t o r a l s o i n c l u d e s i n the note  i n f o r m a t i o n concerning  events t h a t o c c u r r e d a f t e r the death of the author. apparent  updating of i n f o r m a t i o n shows the e d i t o r  executing the expected  This  dutifully  f u n c t i o n s of h i s p r o f e s s i o n ; from the  p o i n t of view of a u t h e n t i c i t y , appearances are upheld.  The  - 19 -  second footnote, a near d u p l i c a t i o n of those commonly found i n most e d i t i o n s of authentic memoirs, i s located at the beginning of Tome V I I and simply states that c e r t a i n correct i o n s have been made i n order t o e l i m i n a t e some of the many 17  e r r o r s that had crept i n t o e a r l i e r e d i t i o n s .  Although the  two footnotes do not play a major part i n lending an a i r of v e r a c i t y t o the memoirs, they c o n t r i b u t e nevertheless  to the  t o t a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the pseudo-editor. The r e l a t i v e success of subsequent n a r r a t i v e techniques i n s i d e the main n a r r a t i v e of the M.H.Q. depends l a r g e l y on the e d i t o r ; i t i s h i s r o l e to shape the reader's f i r s t impressions, and t o f u l f i l l the functions of h i s profession such as e d i t i n g the manuscript or i n t r o d u c i n g i t to the reader.  In the M.H.Q.  Prevost has t r i e d to achieve t h i s by making use of l e t t e r s and footnotes.  Both devices contribute considerably t o  Prevost's f i c t i t i o u s  mise-en-saene  where author and e d i t o r both  assume the proportions of r e a l i n d i v i d u a l s c o l l a b o r a t i n g i n the production of memoirs f o r the e d i f i c a t i o n and pleasure of the reading p u b l i c .  - 20 -  The Author The author or narrator i n the memoir-novel shared with the e d i t o r an equal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s o l i c i t i n g the reader's belief.  His reasons f o r penning the memoirs should correspond  i n some degree to the explanation o f f e r e d by the e d i t o r concerning the discovery of the manuscript.  In pseudo-memoirs,  several d i f f e r e n t reasons were g e n e r a l l y given f o r the author's writing:  a desire to r e l i e v e boredom, a wish to w r i t e one's  l i f e - s t o r y f o r a f r i e n d , a need t o c l e a r one's name or to prove one's innocence, a d e s i r e f o r vengeance, or a d e s i r e to r e l i v e one's misfortunes  by w r i t i n g about them.  Although the  n o v e l i s t could exercise a c e r t a i n freedom i n h i s choice of motivation, i f he was at a l l influenced by the current demands for authentic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , he had to proceed c a u t i o u s l y . Problems could a r i s e i f he chose a motive that excluded the presence of a reader; f o r instance, i f a memorialist to be w r i t i n g f o r h i s own  s a t i s f a c t i o n alone, h i s r e i t e r a t i o n  of a u t h e n t i c i t y would be nonsensical.  A f u r t h e r problem f o r  the author might a r i s e from h i s "excessively point of view.  claimed  omniscient"  The perspective of the author had to be care-  f u l l y thought out i n advance to avoid embarrassing chronologic a l or o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e r r o r s . something he was  Whenever the author r e l a t e d  incapable of knowing, hearing about or reading  the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of such a s i t u a t i o n might become apparent to the  reader.  - 21 -  The M.H.Q. r e v e a l s the author's m o t i v a t i o n i n the opening paragraph o f Tome I : Je n'ecvis mes maVheurs que pour ma propre satisfaction: ainsi je serai content si je retire, pour fruit de mon ouvrage, un peu de tranquillite dans les moments que j'ai dessein d'y  employer.  (M.H.Q. , p. 13)  The man o f q u a l i t y ' s need t o r e c o r d h i s misfortunes  suggests  a form o f c a t h a r t i c h e a l i n g t h a t one might w e l l expect t o observe i n a man who sought peace o f mind i n a monastery. His motives a l s o show him t o be as humble, unambitious, and honest as the reader had a l r e a d y been l e d t o expect  from the  b r i e f i n d i c a t i o n s p r o v i d e d i n the f i r s t L e t t r e de l ' e d i t e u r . Such c o n t i n u i t y o r " c o l l a b o r a t i o n " o f ideas i s , o f course, an important  f a c t o r i n c r e a t i n g a b e l i e v a b l e author.  Once  the reader has p l a c e d h i s t r u s t i n the b a s i c honesty o f the a u t h o r / n a r r a t o r i t i s o n l y reasonable  that h i s expectations 18  should not be too badly d i s a p p o i n t e d .  The author  a c h a r a c t e r i n a novel t h a t can withstand t a t i o n ; he i s a n a r r a t o r and, to  i s not  like  analysis or interpre  as such, has a p a r t i c u l a r  role  fulfil.  I f the man o f q u a l i t y ' s f i r s t e x p r e s s i o n s o f purpose are unabashedly understated his  confidence  i n the opening paragraph o f the M.H.Q.,  and ambitions  show a marked i n c r e a s e i n the  Avant-Propos and the A v i s de 1'auteur.  The former was p l a c e d  at  the beginning o f Tome I I I and d i v i d e s the f i r s t  of  the M.H.Q. i n t o two p a r t s .  "Privileges  i n April  1728,  four tomes  Tomes I and I I r e c e i v e d t h e i r  reaching the p u b l i c some time i n  - 22 -  August or September of t h a t y e a r . ^ I I I and  On the other hand Tomes  IV were approved by Maunoir o n l y on 19 November  and were not a v a i l a b l e t o the p u b l i c u n t i l 1729.  These  l a t t e r tomes were i n i t i a l l y p u b l i s h e d under the t i t l e des Memoires et Avantures d'un Propos o f f e r s an e x p l a n a t i o n memoirs.  The  reader,  author grew t i r e d and lost to  Homme de Q u a l i t e " .  f o r t h i s apparent gap  "Suite  The  Avant-  i n the  then regained h i s s t r e n g t h , or We  temporarily  l e a r n t h a t the author was  leave h i s r e t r e a t and t u t o r the son  age,  two  f o r example, i s not l e f t to wonder i f the  i n t e r e s t i n h i s work.  great d i s t i n c t i o n .  1728  of  asked  a c e r t a i n Duke of  Although r e l u c t a n t to t r a v e l at an advanced  Renoncour agrees to accompany the young Rosemont on a tour 20  of Spain and England; are w i t h h e l d  the memoirs, w r i t t e n d u r i n g the voyage,  from the p u b l i c u n t i l a f t e r the death of Renoncour  (revealed i n the second L e t t r e de 1 ' e d i t e u r ) .  Thus, the Avant-  Propos p r o v i d e s the reader with a not i m p l a u s i b l e of the d i f f i c u l t y and Prevost's  consequently  explanation  helps to solve some of  s t r u c t u r a l problems.  A secondary r o l e of the n a r r a t o r i n the Avant-Propos i s t h a t of forecaster.  Since, at t h i s stage of the memoirs, a major s h i f t  of emphasis w i l l occur, t l y prepare the reader. p u p i l , the reader pronoun vous) concerning  i t i s u s e f u l to have Renoncour i n d i r e c When Rosemont becomes Renoncour's  ( l a r g e l y through the ambiguous use of the  21  becomes an equal r e c i p i e n t o f h i s l e c t u r e s 22  the rewards of v i r t u o u s and moral  However, i f the Avant-Propos has  behaviour.  r e v e a l e d Renoncour i n a  new  - 23 -  r o l e , i t i s not Tome VII  t h a t one  b i l i t i e s , and The  u n t i l the  how  l e a r n s how  1'auteur d i r e c t l y preceding  seriously  he  took h i s  memoirs was  added i n 17 31 a f t e r  supposedly been d e f i n i t i v e l y terminated.  l i k e l y and  q u i t e b e l i e v a b l e manner i n which the  Grieux and  Manon Lescaut could be  to admit openly t h a t he the  past and  insert  i t at the  travelled  Grieux and A v i s de the  had  i n c l u d e d was  recorded Des  t h a t , because of  h i s reader of h i s he  c o n c l u s i o n of h i s memoirs.  to v i s i t h i s daughter.  One Des  f o r Renoncour  Grieux's s t o r y i n  i t s l e n g t h , he  f i r s t sojourn at the  the  s t o r y of  had  chosen to  Renoncour reminds  monastery, from where  En  route he meets  r e c o r d s immediately h i s v e r s i o n of the  Des  story.  The  1'auteur thus serves as P r e v o s t ' s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r  position  of t h i s lengthy ' .histoire^-vrhich  have seemed an o b j e c t i o n a b l e d i g r e s s i o n . learn  responsi-  ambitious h i s i n t e n t i o n s have become.  Seventh Tome of the  memoirs had  A v i s de  otherwise might Significantly,  we  that Renoncour, a f t e r years of w r i t i n g h i s memoirs,  concurs with the  p o i n t of view taken o r i g i n a l l y by  moral behaviour can  be  taught through the  use  of  the  Il ne veste done que 1 ' exemple qui puisse servir de regie a quantite de personnes dans I'exeroioe de la vertu. C'est preaisement pour oette sorte de lecteurs que des ouvrages tels que celui-oi peuvent etre d'une extreme utilite; du moins lorsqu'ils sont ecrits par une personne d'honneur et de bon sens . . . L 'ouvrage entier est un traite de morale, reduit agreablement en exeroioe. (M.H.Q. , p. 364) 1  editor:  examples  which d e p i c t human weakness.  now  - 24 -  Des Grieux's e d i f y i n g s t o r y consequently can even p r o v i d e some form o f p u b l i c  service.  Outre le plaisir d'une lecture agreable, on y trouvera peu d' evenements qui, ne puissent servir a I 'instruction des moeurs; et c 'est rendre, a mon avis, un service considerable au public, que de I'instruire en I'amusant. (M.H.Q. , p. 363)  In view o f such ambitions one i s l e d t o compare Renoncour s 1  new motives as expressed i n the A v i s de 1'auteur revealed e a r l i e r .  with those  Whereas a t one time he had chosen t o w r i t e  f o r h i s own peace o f mind, he now r e f e r s t o the p u b l i c as the main b e n e f i c i a r y o f h i s work.  O r i g i n a l l y Renoncour had s t a t e d  t h a t h i s s t o r y would be read si l'on trouve  lue  qu'elle  merite  (M.H.Q., p. 13), but i n the A v i s de 1'auteur  his: reader entertainment.  d'etre  he promises  Renoncour began h i s memoirs with  the d e s i r e t o r e c o r d f a i t h f u l l y a l l events as they o c c u r r e d ; the complete  t r u t h based on o b j e c t i v e  the reader.  The A v i s de 1'auteur  reporting  was assured  does not echo such  intentions;  instead, the emphasis s h i f t s t o Renoncour s p r e o c c u p a t i o n with 1  the c h a r a c t e r p o r t r a y a l le fond  du tableau  o f Des Grieux.  que je presente  Phrases  and j 'ai d peindre  such as tel est  un jeune  aveugle  (M.H.Q., p. 363) suggest the c r e a t i v e n o v e l i s t a t work. candid r e v e l a t i o n s  Such  are new i n the M.H.Q. and the hand o f Prevost  i s consequently more d i s c e r n i b l e . The techniques which seemed p r e v a l e n t e a r l i e r i n the M.H.Q., such as the f a b r i c a t i o n o f an e d i t o r , the naming o f witnesses to g i v e the author's e x i s t e n c e some degree o f c r e d i b i l i t y , c l a i m s t o v e r a c i t y and h i s t o r i c a l reportage are not repeated i n Tome V I I , with the e x c e p t i o n o f a s i n g l e r e f e r e n c e a t the  - 25 -  beginning of the f i r s t part which s t a t e s : le lecteur  que j 'ecris  et qu 'on peut fidele  son histoire  s 'assurer  que cette  narration.  presque  par consequent  aussitot  que rien  Je dois apres  n 'est plus  avertir  iei  I'avoir exact  entendue, et  plus  (M.H.Q. , p. 367) Obviously, Prevost  s t i l l wished to give a c e r t a i n impression of a u t h e n t i c i t y t o h i s Seventh Tome but the i n i t i a l gesture, l a r g e l y symbolic, i s not c a r r i e d t o any great length t h e r e a f t e r . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t , having already e s t a b l i s h e d Renoncour as a respectable and trustworthy author, Prevost f e l t that he could r e l y upon the e x i s t i n g pact between author and reader i n order t o e x e r c i s e h i s c r e a t i v i t y to a greater degree, f o r example, i n the development of areas such as character p o r t r a y a l , suspense, and dramatic dialogue.  I t i s Des G r i e u x s s t o r y that i s now being t o l d ; h i s 1  words, and, most importantly, h i s personal involvement /with the s t o r y , draw the reader i n t o the n a r r a t i v e i n such a way that allowed Prevost t o explore areas o f n a r r a t i v e techniques not 23  dependent upon the c r e a t i o n of an i l l u s i o n of a u t h e n t i c i t y . The reader becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y involved emotionally with Des Grieux, while Renoncour, along with h i s i n t e r r u p t i o n s and 24  digressions  fades i n t o the background.  Our b r i e f review of the various uses Prevost made of h i s author throughout the seven tomes of the M.H.Q. leads us t o conclude that i n the f i r s t s i x tomes Prevost e x p l o i t e d many of the techniques commonly used by other memoir-novelists of the day. The idea of using a l i v e author, the i n c l u s i o n of an Avant-Propos, the t i m e l y death of the author, and the A v i s de 1'auteur a l l  - 26 -  i n d i c a t e an awareness of the need f o r c h r o n o l o g i c a l  consistency.  Even the manner i n which the Seventh Tome was integrated i n t o the M.H.Q. shows that Prevost maintained both concern f o r appearances and respect f o r a l i t e r a l v e r i s i m i l i t u d e .  However,  the Seventh Tome i t s e l f r e f l e c t s a p o s s i b l e maturation of Prevost's s t y l e .  I t i s perhaps i r o n i c t o observe that Tome V I I ,  with i t s r e l a t i v e lack of a u t h e n t i c a t i n g reassurances, has caught the imagination of both the c r i t i c and the p u b l i c , i n c o n t r a s t t o the h e a v i l y documented yet comparatively  neglected  Tomes I t o VI that preceded i t and the somewhat s i m i l a r Cleveland 25  that followed.  This i l l u s t r a t e s , perhaps, that the i l l u s i o n of  a u t h e n t i c i t y i s not created s o l e l y by mechanical means but by the force of the f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t o r which supercedes the reader's awareness of an enclosing framework.  - 27 -  C.  Internal Veracity:  d i r e c t claims and mute testimony  I n t e r n a l v e r a c i t y i s the term I have chosen t o i d e n t i f y  the  numerous p r o t e s t a t i o n s o f t r u t h t h a t are t o be found w i t h i n the M.H.Q.  Most o f t e n they are p l a c e d  an episode t h a t i n i t s e l f flow o f the memoirs.  immediately  preceding  i s a s l i g h t d i g r e s s i o n from the main  A t other times, the preamble i s given  p r i o r t o a major Histoire  and then doubles i n f u n c t i o n as an  i n t r o d u c t i o n as w e l l as a promise o f t r u t h . under t h i s r u b r i c seems t o f a l l  i n t o two groups; the  comprises o v e r t claims t h a t i n t r o d u c e probable o r u n l i k e l y events  considered first  f r a n k l y i n c r e d i b l e , im-  (such as s t o r i e s concerning  wolves, c l a i r v o y a n c e , c o i n c i d e n c e s second group i n c o r p o r a t e s  Material  devices  were-  and the s u p e r n a t u r a l ) . s c a t t e r e d throughout  The  the  M.H.Q. which bear witness t o the t r u t h o f the t a l e by i m p l i c a t i o n o n l y and;. as such, impinge l e s s d i r e c t l y on the attention.  reader's  A t y p i c a l example might i n v o l v e the presence o f a  named c e l e b r i t y i n Renoncour's company a t a r e c e p t i o n . a person i s unknown t o the reader,  i t matters not;  I f such  conversely,  i f the reader i s f a m i l i a r with the named c e l e b r i t y o r i s s u f f i c i e n t l y c u r i o u s t o i n v e s t i g a t e the d e t a i l s , i t i s l e f t t o him  t o i n f e r t h a t the event r e l a t e d d i d , i n f a c t , take  and  t h a t Renoncour was present.  I t i s c l e a r t h a t such  place devices  work r a t h e r s u b t l y on a v a r i e t y o f l e v e l s and most probably escaped the d i r e c t n o t i c e o f the average reader o f the  day.  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , whenever premonitions were used i n memoir-novels, an i n t r o d u c t o r y e x p l a n a t i o n  (in the guise of! a c l a i m t o v e r a c i t y )  - 28 -  was o f t e n a l s o given. in  There are r e l a t i v e l y few premonitions  the M.H.Q., although examples o f c l a i r v o y a n c e  the  form o f dreams can be found.  I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, Renon-  cour's dreams always f o r e c a s t death, power, p r e s t i g e and p o l i t i c a l fall  foresees 22). XIV,  disasters or loss of  influence.  from r o y a l favour i n France  expressed i n  He dreams o f Law's  (M.H.Q., p. 2 93)  the b r u t a l murder o f h i s s i s t e r J u l i e  and he a l s o  (M.H.Q., pp. 21-  Renoncour's t h i r d dream, f o r e t e l l i n g the death o f L o u i s i s introduced  with the f o l l o w i n g  comment:  Je ne sais si je dois raconter ce qui m'arriva la nuit, parce que nous somrnes dans un siecle delicat, ou I 'on ne cvoit pas les choses extraordinaires; mais comme j 'ecris sans interet, je me satisferai du moins moi-meme, en rapportant fidelement  la verite.  The  (M.H.Q. , p. 133)  extraordinary  premonition i s c l e a r l y r e a l i z e d when a few  pages l a t e r the reader i s t o l d t h a t on the 11th o f September a c o u r i e r a r r i v e d i n Madrid b e a r i n g the news o f the King's demise. (M.H.Q., p. 135) In the example c i t e d , Renoncour humbly pleads a d e s i r e t o remain true t o himself an u n b e l i e v i n g  despite public.  the opposition  he expects t o face  In a d d i t i o n , he r e p e a t e d l y  c l a i m t h a t he i s w r i t i n g sans interet,  a r e f r a i n that  from  makes the repeated  throughout the M.H.Q. presumably leaves the reader i n l i t t l e doubt as t o the unbiased and innocent motives o f the author. The  c l a i m a l s o serves as a warning t o the reader, preparing him  for  the s t a r t l i n g f u l f i l l m e n t o f Renoncour's dream.  reader against  a possible  Arming the  r e a c t i o n o f s u r p r i s e o r even shock was 27  a c o n v e n t i o n a l device o f the memoir-novel, p o s s i b l y , an e x p l a n a t i o n  and we have here,  f o r P r e v o s t ' s ample use o f forewarnings.  - 29 -  The foremost coincidence to be found i n the M.H.Q. centres around the reunion between Renoncour and h i s nephew and n i e c e , whose r e a l i d e n t i t i e s are not d i s c l o s e d u n t i l Amulem ( t h e i r father) sees Renoncour and reveals t o the c h i l d r e n t h e i r true r e l a t i o n s h i p with Renoncour.  In view of the e x c e p t i o n a l circum-  stances surrounding t h i s reunion, Prevost prepares h i s reader with the f o l l o w i n g d e c l a r a t i o n : La foi du public ne manque pas de se revolter contre les evenements extraordinaires. Cette reflexion, qui me navt i c i tout d'un coup, est presque capable d'arreter ma plume, et de m'oter I'envie d'achever cette premiere partie de nos voyages. J'avoue que ce qui me reste a dire est capable de surprendre par sa singularity; mais c'est un fait dont mille personnes peuvent rendre cencore:. temoignage, soit en Eollande oil il est arrive, soit en France oil il a ete connu de la plupart de ceux dont je suis connu moi-meme. (M.H.Q. , pp. 212-213)  The shock experienced by Amulem i n f i n d i n g h i s brother-in-law a f t e r many years of separation, causes him to f a l l i n t o a profound f a i n t , followed by a high fever.  In the midst of  r e p o r t i n g Amulem's recovery, Renoncour again i n t e r r u p t s h i s story t o d e c l a r e : Je repete cencare.'. i c i que cette complication d''evenements extraordinaires, la rencontre d'Amulem, sa maladie, sa guerison et le deguisement de sa fille pourront sembler diffidles a croire; mais je ne dois point alterer la verite, pour menager la delicatesse d'un lecteur trop incredule.  (M.H.Q., p. 214)  I t i s d i f f i c u l t to a s c e r t a i n the reasoning behind the second example quoted, which seems extraneous.  I t i s p o s s i b l e that  Prevost followed the conventional method of supporting such a coincidence with claims of t r u t h , or i t i s p o s s i b l e that he i n t e n t i o n a l l y i n t e r r u p t e d the recovery scene to prolong h i s reader's suspense.  Assuming, however, that Prevost's predominant  concern was with maintaining b e l i e f , i t would seem i n t h i s case  - 30 -  that he r i s k e d betraying to h i s reader the very problem strove  to solve.  he  Even i f we f e e l t h a t Prevost i s heavy-  handed i n h i s attempt to authenticate the coincidence, there i s no suggestion that b e l i e f i s endangered; Prevost's method of approach i s here merely more evident. A t h i r d and even more u n l i k e l y or impossible s e r i e s of events involves the supernatural. S t o r i e s of magicians, werewolves and supernatural phenomenon would have appealed immensely to the reader whose f a s c i n a t i o n with such f a b r i c a t i o n s , paradoxic a l l y , probably helped to s u s t a i n h i s b e l i e f i n the memoirs. One p a r t i c u l a r episode i n v o l v i n g Renoncour and werewolves demonstrates  by i t s numerous claims to v e r a c i t y the precautions  taken by Prevost to avoid d i s r u p t i n g h i s reader's complacency. The example i s l o c a t e d i n Tome IV; Renoncour and Rosemont are en route to Lisbon.  They spend the f i r s t night at a h o t e l  near P l a z e n t i a where they meet two Spaniards who e n t e r t a i n them with s t o r i e s of strange and unnatural happenings that have r e c e n t l y occurred i n the Kingdom of Leon.  Before repeating  the Spaniard's s t o r i e s Renoncour cautions the reader: Rien ne me parut plus extraordinaire que ce qu 'ils nous des magiciens ou .sorciersdont ce pays est rempli. En ces sovtes d''histoires ge n'en gavantis pas la verite: suffit d'etre fidele dans la relation que j'en fais et les choses telles que je les ai entendues. (M.H.Q. , s  3  Prevost's strategem i s q u i t e c l e a r .  apprirent rapportant il me d'ecrire  p.  186)  He has s h i f t e d the onus  f o r " t r u t h " from Renoncour to the Spaniards.  Renoncour's  i n t e g r i t y i s a l l the more i n t a c t i n that he himself shows scepticism; the author and reader become partners i n doubt.  28  - 31 -  The  story  i n v o l v e s the mysterious t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f two wolves  back i n t o the shape o f men, a f e a t witnessed by one o f the Spaniards.  In a second paragraph, more t a l e s are t o l d t o  Renoncour concerning the e x i s t e n c e o f werewolves and the strange death o f the innkeeper's w i f e . these s t o r i e s o f couleur  locale  Having d u l y recorded  i n h i s memoirs Renoncour comments:  J'ai naturellement un peu d'incredulite pour tous les evenements surnaturels: ainsi, quelque bonne idee que j 'eusse de nos deux Espagnols, je regardais leur recit comme un conte invent^ pour nous divertir, et je ne pus m'empecher de leur en temoigner quelque chose en badinant. Ils continuerent de me protester qu'ils etaient sinceres; mais ils ne m'auraient pas persuade davantage, si je n 'eusse ete force par ce que je vis un moment apres, a croire qu 'il se passe effectivement des.choses etranges dans cette partie de I'Espagne. (M.H.Q. , p. 187)  Renoncour, i n f a c t , does not p e r s o n a l l y see anything out o f the 29  ordinary.  He observes the e f f e c t s o f shock on a young t r a v e l l e r  who has j u s t witnessed the s l a y i n g the  o f a young woman.  I t i s on  b a s i s o f t h i s man's c o n d i t i o n t h a t Renoncour decides the  murder must have taken p l a c e .  Only i n a f i n a l paragraph con-  c l u d i n g the t r a v e l l e r ' s t a l e does Renoncour admit a r e a d i n e s s to b e l i e v e i n the events t o l d t o him. C'est assez  I'unique fois de ma vie que j'ai cru trouver des apparences fortes pour me reconcilier un peu avec les idees de magie  et de sorciers.  (M.H.Q. , p. 188)  The  adventures i n Leon are presented i n such a way that  the  s e n s i b i l i t i e s nor t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e o f the reader are under-  mined. but  neither  Renoncour promises a f a i t h f u l r e p o r t o f h i s sources,  o f f e r s no guarantee o f the events themselves.  He c o n t i n u -  a l l y expresses doubt and not u n t i l t h e end admits t h a t events seem to have been happening i n Spain.  strange  Renoncour's  p a r t i a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n with ideas concerning magic and s o r c e r y  - 32 -  i s not over-emphasized.  Of course, the e x t r a o r d i n a r y subject  matter depicted i n these episodes required that some promise of t r u t h be made and since Prevost s h i f t e d the onus of t r u t h from h i s trustworthy "author" onto the Spaniards, Renoncour was saved thereby from appearing credulous although, q u i t e p o s s i b l y , he might have been considered naive or impressionable by the eighteenth century reader.  Prevost has thus managed to  t a n t a l i z e h i s reader without destroying the f r a g i l e t i e s that bind the memoirs to a pretense of t r u t h . In c o n t r a s t with such ways of softening the impact of the fant a s t i c , we f i n d a second group of devices each of which contains some form of promise of f a c t u a l i t y .  The f o l l o w i n g examples  3 0  have been chosen to i l l u s t r a t e Prevost's s k i l l i n t h i s area of authentic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .  In f i c t i o n i f something i s described y  that i s hard to b e l i e v e , the n a r r a t o r can always i n s i n u a t e that the reader's lack of knowledge i s to blame.  When the n a r r a t o r  then f u r n i s h e s an explanation that enlightens the reader, the s i t u a t i o n i s rendered b e l i e v a b l e . Although i t might a l s o be a good technique o c c a s i o n a l l y to leave the reader  uninformed  (at l e a s t he would have to withhold judgement f o r lack of s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n ) , Prevost u s u a l l y comes to h i s reader's rescue.  An example of such a stratagem can be found i n the  adventures of Tusculum.  Having j u s t discovered a new  burial  chamber at the s i t e of the ancient r u i n s , Renoncour and  two  companions (convenient witnesses) leave to report t h e i r success. Renoncour's h a i r becomes suddenly and mysteriously i g n i t e d , a s i g h t that t e r r i f i e s the onlookers and plunges the three  men  - 33 -  i n t o a deep f e a r o f the unknown.  The reader i s t o l d t h a t  adventure, enlarged by exaggerated v e r s i o n s o f the s t o r y n i s h e d by the l o c a l s ,  p.  95).  sera  longtemps  celebre  a Frascati  Although the r e s i d e n t s o f F r a s c a t i  this fur-  (M.H.Q. ,  supposedly are l e f t  to ponder f o r many years the mystery a t Tusculum, Renoncour f u r n i s h e s f o r the reader o f the memoirs a p l a u s i b l e  explanation  of the f i r e : Cependant je suis persuade, en y faisant aujourd'hui reflexion, qu'il n'y eut rien que de naturel dans eet evenement. J'avais un flambeau d la main en remuant les aendres: I'humidite grasse qu'elles oonservaient encore put s 'enflammer aisement; et, par la meme raison, la flamme dut se communiquer facilement a mes cheveux qui etaient fort longs et charges d'essence. (M.H.Q. ,  p. 95)  The  passage d e s c r i b i n g a n a t u r a l cause o f the f i r e i s necessary  i f the reader i s t o be l e f t natural,  a stratagem t h a t allows the reader t o enjoy both the  fascination safely  f r e e o f doubt concerning the super-  and mystery o f the unknown and y e t t o be returned  i n the end t o the r a t i o n a l and r e a l i s t i c world o f  Renoncour s memoirs. 1  An even balance i s achieved between the 31  h i s t o r i c a l v a l i d i t y o f the Roman tombs presence o f a s u p e r n a t u r a l power. by and  and the suggested  The e x t r a i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d  Renoncour i s l i k e a s i l e n t f o r c e working on the unwary reader helps t o render the episode  believable.  Denying the genre o f t h e i r w r i t i n g favoured by many m e m o r i a l i s t s . r a t h e r c l e v e r l y by P r e v o s t . could necessarily  was another c u r i o u s d e v i c e  As a procedure, i t i s handled  Well aware t h a t a d e n i a l  imply an a s s e r t i o n  of f i c t i o n  o f the memoir, he i s able  i n t h i s way t o exact a k i n d o f double duty from t h i s technique.  - 34 -  Furthermore, the to act to  repetition  of the  almost s u b l i m i n a l l y on  become "true biography".  the In  p r o t e s t s t h a t h i s work i s not more obvious.  We  1'editeur the comings  (due  very word reader u n t i l  .'memoirtends i t metonymizes  i n s t a n c e s when Renoncour  f i c t i o n , the  i n t e n t i o n i s even  have a l r e a d y examined i n the  first  Lettre  a p o l o g i e s made f o r Renoncour's s t y l i s t i c to  his  l a c k of  skill  T h i s v e i n c o n t i n u e s i n s i d e the  as  a professional  short-  writer).  n a r r a t i v e when Renoncour e d i t s  some of h i s own  m a t e r i a l by  appropriate for  i n c l u s i o n , i n memoirs.  c l a i m i n g to be  de  d e c l a r i n g what he For  c o n s i d e r s to  example, although  p e r f e c t l y capable of d e s c r i b i n g h i s  J u l i e , Renoncour r e f r a i n s from doing so  be  sister  i n the M.H.Q.  J'ai encore le portrait de mon aimable Julie si bien grave dans le coeur, depuis plus de trente ans que je I 'ai perdue, que je tracerais i c i sans peine les charmes de son visage, de sa taille et de son esprit, si ces sortes de descriptions ne convenaient plus a un roman qu'a une histoire serieuse. (M.H.Q. , p. 18)  In other cases Prevost uses the  word roman  When Renoncour c o n f r o n t s Rosemont w i t h the r e t r e a t to a nunnery, the d e s c r i b e d as  parattrait  being le dernier  pas vraisemblable  variation in this censors h i s own omitted from the  s a c r i f i c e of effort  type of d e v i c e can  work, and memoirs.  monuments i n a l l the  humain,  un effort  (M.H.Q. , p.  be  advantage.  p o s s i b i l i t y of  freedom made by  du coeur  dans un roman.  to d i f f e r e n t  349)  Nadine s 1  Nadine i s qui A  ne slight  seen when Renoncour  s t a t e s t h a t some t h i n g s are Rather than d e s c r i b e the  better  tombs  and  E n g l i s h c a t h e d r a l s v i s i t e d while t o u r i n g  Southern England, Renoncour d e c l a r e s : ces descriptions seraient ennuyeuses, et par consequent, peu convenables a ces memoires. Je n'ai pas meme dessein d'entrer dans le detail de toutes les villes que nous visitdmes. Il pourrait faire la matiere d'un ouvrage particulier, si le peu de  - 35 -  temps qui me veste  (M.H.Q., p.  a vivre  263)  me pevmet de  I'entvepvendve.  3 2  Throughout the memoirs Renoncour a p o l o g i z e s f o r d i g r e s s i o n s i n h i s s t o r y , or f o r t a l e s t h a t might be b o r i n g . omits and  some of h i s adventures  He f r e q u e n t l y  f o r f e a r of o f f e n d i n g h i s reader  i n some cases he d e c l a r e s t h a t he i s not at l i b e r t y to  reveal certain information. supposedly guilty.  T h i s self-imposed c e n s o r s h i p i s  to p r o t e c t the innocent or to avoid a g i t a t i n g  Although  the  Renoncour c l a i m s to have recorded many s t o r i e s  concerning the p r i v a t e l i v e s of the P r i n c e de Conde, of C h r i s t i n e of Sweden, and of the many nobles at the Spanish  court  (M.H.Q., p. 138), he e l e c t s to w i t h h o l d such i n f o r m a t i o n from the p u b l i c u n t i l a more favourable p e r i o d i n time.  Thus, by  d i r e c t i n g the reader's a t t e n t i o n to the memoirs and the a d d i t i o n s , r e v i s i o n s , and d e l e t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with i t , Prevost i s c o n t i n u ally  (although o f t e n i n d i r e c t l y ) reminding  the reader t h a t he i s  not reading a n o v e l . One  final  suggestion of a u t h e n t i c i t y can be seen i n the appear-  ance of witnesses to  and c e l e b r i t i e s i n the M.H.Q.  Without  having  c a l l d i r e c t l y upon someone to v e r i f y the t r u t h of h i s s t o r y ,  Renoncour can provide the reader with witnesses s u b t l e ways.  i n a v a r i e t y of  For example, i n f o r m i n g the reader t h a t h i s peers  a l r e a d y possess  c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n i s enough to i n s t i l l i n  the reader a d e s i r e to be e q u a l l y "knowledgeable", convinced he i s through the s i t u a t i o n .  as  h i s sense of inadequacy and h i s d e s i r e to remedy Circumstances  are sometimes r e v e r s e d when the  -  reader  36 -  i s made t o f e e l p r i v i l e g e d f o r being the f i r s t to  receive: information. This i s the technique used when the Prince of: Portugal t e l l s Renoncour about the death of Donna C l a r a . Renoncour passes on t o the reader information de tout  le monde a Lisbonne  (M.H.Q. , p. 2 08) .  qui est encore  ignore  By using t o h i s  advantage the p u b l i c love of scandal and gossip Prevost o f t e n i n s e r t e d j u s t the r i g h t amount of " s o c i e t y " p r a t t l e t o capture his reader's complete i n t e r e s t .  Truth i n such matters i s r a r e l y  of concern t o a l o v e r of gossip.  Although, as we have already  noted, naming.'.celebrities was a common p r a c t i c e i n memoir-novels, some methods were obviously more subtle than others.  Quite often  i t can be reduced t o a simple matter of name-dropping  {le  nous fit roi  remontrer  de Sicile.  a Fontainebleau  M. le marquis  M.H.Q. , p. 2 95)  d ' Antremont,  hasard  ambassadeur  du  In other cases, Prevost showed  more i n t e r e s t i n the presentation of h i s c e l e b r i t y .  Cardinal  Janson, f o r example, plays a major r o l e i n the baptism of Selima, Renoncour's Turkish w i f e .  The circumstances are such that the  reader's a t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d away from the c e l e b r i t y witness and onto the event i t s e l f , although, i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, despite the presence of C a r d i n a l Janson, Prevost a l s o includes a number of d i s t i n g u i s h e d people t o witness the ceremony: Le Cardinal etait d'abord dans le dessein de faire cette ceremonie. de sa propre main, et de la rendre la plus eclatante qu 'il lui serait possible; mais j 'y marquai de la repugnance, et Selima peu d'inclination. Il fut resolu que tout se passerait sans bruit dans I 'eglise d 'un petit couvent de Benedictines, qui n 'etait pas eloigne de notre logement . . . Quelque soin que nous eussions pris pour tenir la ceremonie secrete, nous ne pumes empecher quantite de personnes de distinction-d'y.'assister. (M.H.Q. , p. 88)  - 37 -  One  f i n a l example t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n d i c a t e s the degree of  f l e x i b i l i t y t o be found i n P r e v o s t ' s use of witnesses and celebrities.  Shortly after arriving  i n Madrid, Rosemont and  Renoncour a t t e n d a p a r t y a t the home o f don Antonio de Salcedo, Governor  of Madrid.  Renoncour d e s c r i b e s the event:  L'assemblee y etait des plus illustres, et nous y fumes vus avec plaisir. Nous y trouvames entve autves monsieur le Comte de Charni et monsieur le Marquis de Leide, qui nous firent mille civilites. Nous aurions pu aisement nous faire connai-tre d 'eux, en leur apprenant nos v'Sri.tablesnoms; ils n'ignoraient ni celui du Marquis ni le mien: Mais je n'y noyais aucune utilite, et j'etais bien aise d'attendre le retour de Monsieur le due de Saint-Aignan, Ambassadeur de France, qui etait absent de Madrid depuis quelques semaines.  (M.H.Q., p. 144)  The unspoken message o f t h i s passage g i v e s witness t o v e r a c i t y ; two  Spanish gentlemen and the French Ambassador h i m s e l f vouch  s i l e n t l y f o r Renoncour's attendance. Renoncour's r e a l i d e n t i t y  The n o t i o n of w i t h h o l d i n g  (which had i t been r e v e a l e d , would  have been immediately recognized) i s a s l i g h t departure from the standard l i n e of r e a s o n i n g .  The t o t a l e f f e c t i s one o f  c o n v i n c i n g r e a l i s m , suggested r a t h e r than b o l d l y claimed.  - 38 -  D. The L e t t e r One of the most popular a u t h e n t i c a t i n g devices used by pseudomemorialists o f the period was the quoted l e t t e r , a technique dependent, however, on several f a c t o r s .  F i r s t , the reader had  to a l l o w the author of the memoirs an e x c e l l e n t g i f t of memory. (Verbatim r e c a l l i n memoir-novels was, perhaps, not viewed as c r i t i c a l l y by Prevost's contemporaries as by the modern reader.) Secondly, the omniscient viewpoint of the author became an important f a c t o r .  The memoir-novelist had t o ensure t h a t h i s  author d i d not quote correspondence he had never seen; thus, when the l e t t e r belonged t o a t h i r d person, the author-narrator had t o discover some means of viewing the contents.  In the  M.H.Q., f o r example, Renoncour, although r e p e l l e d by h i s own behaviour, p i c k s Rosemont's pockets i n order to read h i s 1  4-4-  3  3  letters. The advantages to be gained by i n c l u d i n g correspondence i n memoirs such as the M.H.Q. are many.  The reader can bypass  the author and share the views of the l e t t e r w r i t e r , thus developing a c l o s e r intimacy with him. The l e t t e r can also be used as a t o o l t o influence the reader's p o i n t of view, as segments quoted out of context can change the meaning of the l e t t e r and a l s o the reader's o p i n i o n of the w r i t e r .  An e x t r a  dimension i s added t o the M.H.Q., f o r example, when we are shown Manon's l e t t e r s ; we are conscious that she i s never given the opportunity to address Renoncour or the reader i n order t o e x p l a i n her point of view.  But the quoted l e t t e r i s  - 39 -  a l s o a form o f documentary proof p r o v i d i n g the means f o r winning  the reader's b e l i e f .  Hasty words penned by Renoncour  i n a note t o King James I I a i d the monarch i n h i s s u c c e s s f u l f l i g h t to safety.  Expressions of passionate love i n l e t t e r s  between Selima and Renoncour are reproduced p l e a s u r e o f the reader.  i n t a c t f o r the  (Remembering the l o v e l e t t e r s w r i t t e n  i n h i s past i s p a r t o f Renoncour's c a t h a r t i c h e a l i n g . )  What-  ever Renoncour c l a i m s t o be t r u e can be supported by "object i v e " evidence c o n t a i n e d i n a l e t t e r . O c c a s i o n a l l y Renoncour does t e l l the reader how he i s able t o convey the exact terms o f a l e t t e r . f a i t h o f the reader i s undoubtedly  In these cases the good rewarded.  Renoncour, a t  the monastery where h i s f a t h e r chose t o r e t i r e , i s denied visiting privileges. father.  The reader i s allowed t o d i s c o v e r i t s contents and  Renoncour e x p l a i n s :  la conserve  Instead he i s g i v e n a l e t t e r from h i s  encore.  It":m'est  aise  de Za transovive  (M.H.Q. , p. 142)  ici, puisque  je  The e x p l a n a t i o n not o n l y  p r o t e c t s t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l e t t e r but a l s o the s e v e r a l others belonging t o Rosemont t h a t are r e p o r t e d verbatim i n the M.H.Q. Such comments as ta voioi,  je la transcris  je n'y change rien  (M.H.Q. , p. 3 02) , o r  mot a mot (M.H.Q. , p. 2 75) are t o be found  frequen-  t l y i n the memoirs and although i t would be an overstatement to c o n s i d e r them p a r t i c u l a r l y important  i n winning  belief,  they n e v e r t h e l e s s are meant t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the o v e r a l l One  effect.  f i n a l p o i n t t o be r a i s e d concerning the use o f l e t t e r s i n  the M.H.Q. i s P r e v o s t ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o n f r o n t the problem  - 40 -  of Renoncour s verbatim r e c a l l of l e t t e r s to which he no  longer  1  has  access.  Not  o n l y i s the  represents a refreshing  f o l l o w i n g example c o n v i n c i n g , i t  change from the  more t r a d i t i o n a l  approach: It me presenta la lettve qui attaoha effeotivement toute mon attention. Elle n'a pu se conserver dans ma memoire: mais 0 'en fus asses frappe pour me souvenir qu' aprSs. I'aveu d'une vive passion et mille serments de Constance, Madame de C . . . ne laissait pas de se reprocher la faiblesse qu'elle avait  eue . . .  By  (M.H.Q., p.  221)  a d m i t t i n g t h a t h i s memory has  h i m s e l f as a very human and not  expect the  f a i l e d him,  o r d i n a r y author.  Renoncour exposes The  reader would  terms of most correspondence to be f a i t h f u l l y 34  recalled  from the  past.  Thus l e t t e r s t h a t c o u l d not  be  r e p o r t e d verbatim become as a u t h e n t i c as those t h a t are and  both helped to f u l f i l l  creating  the  b e l i e v a b l e memoirs.  necessary requirements  quoted  for  - 41 -  D i r e c t and I n d i r e c t  Speech  The use o f d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t speech i n memoir-novels  varied  g r e a t l y depending on the degree o f concern shown by the n o v e l ist  f o r matters o f v e r i s i m i l i t u d e .  I t i s beyond the scope o f  t h i s t h e s i s t o c o n s i d e r the m u l t i p l e advantages o r d i s a d v a n t ages o f one p a r t i c u l a r mode o f speech over another. i f one examines of  However,  the n o v e l i s t ' s c h o i c e from the p o i n t o f view  a u t h e n t i c i t y , i n d i r e c t speech  (used as f r e q u e n t l y as  p o s s i b l e ) would appear t o be the most c o n v i n c i n g .  It corres-  ponds most c l o s e l y t o our own powers o f r e c a l l and r e f l e c t s as w e l l the p a t t e r n o f speech most commonly used when we 35  r e l a t e a c o n v e r s a t i o n from the past. in  C l e a r l y , the f a c t  that  r e a l l i f e one does not remember long d i a l o g u e s h e l d with  o t h e r people.makes  indirection a realistic  choice.  5 6  P r e v o s t made ample use o f d i a l o g u e i n Manon Lescaut by a l t e r n a t i n g passages o f i n d i r e c t speech with b r i e f r e p o r t e d i n the f i r s t  person.  conversations  Although we gain the impression  t h a t he used i n d i r e c t i o n more f r e q u e n t l y i n Tome V I I than he 37  did  i n the e a r l i e r tomes o f the M.H.Q.,  examples  o f both  modes o f speech can be found i n Tomes I through VI, along with e x p l a n a t o r y statements which supposedly account f o r Renoncour' e x t r a o r d i n a r y powers o f r e c a l l . in  When d i r e c t speech.is quoted  the M.H.Q. some fundamental and p r e l i m i n a r y p r e c a u t i o n s are  u s u a l l y observed.  For example some e f f o r t i s u s u a l l y made t o  e x p l a i n how Renoncour  came t o know the exact words spoken i n  - 42 -  private  between two i n d i v i d u a l s .  In the case o f the d e c l a r a -  t i o n o f love made by Rosemont t o Diana, Renoncour simply eavesdrops.  Whether t h i s manner o f o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n was  deemed r e s p e c t a b l e by the reader i s immaterial a t t h i s stage; it  i s i n d i c a t i v e o f Prevost's awareness o f the problems  a s s o c i a t e d with an omniscient author. phrases such as Ce discours p.  125) i n d i c a t e s  that  fit quelque  The frequent use o f  impression  sur moi  (M.H.Q. ,  Prevost f o l l o w e d the c o n v e n t i o n a l  approach to passages r e p o r t e d i n d i r e c t speech.  At other  times, however, a s l i g h t l y more e l a b o r a t e e x p l a n a t i o n i s offered. father  The t o u c h i n g , f i n a l words s a i d t o Renoncour by h i s  dans sa chambre, dme pour  II me fit  leave a l a s t i n g impression on the son:  qu'il  et me tint en puisse  oe disaours,  jamais  etre  qui fit  efface.  trop  d'impression  (M.H.Q. , p. 19)  appeler:sur mon Interest  Vin the c o n v e r s a t i o n t a k i n g p l a c e i s o f t e n another reason given by Renoncour t o e x p l a i n  h i s c a p a c i t y f o r verbatim  recall.  When found a t t h e commencement o f a lengthy histoire  such as  the.one t o l d by the Marquis de Rosambert, the e f f e c t on the :'reader would be minimal.  le sincere  interet  (M.H.Q., p. 30)  Nous nous assumes,  que j 'y ai toujours  \p.ris  et voici  ce qu 'il me dit;  ne m'a pas permis  de  I'oublier.  Another approach was t o s h i f t the focus o f  i n t e r e s t away from Renoncour's reasons f o r remembering and onto his desire  t o please the reader by a l l o w i n g a second n a r r a t o r  to t e l l h i s own  story:  Comme ce fut par lui-meme que je me fis raconter cette histoire, je puis la mettre dans sa bouche, pour epargner au lecteur I 'ennui d'un recit trop simple, et denue d'action et de sentiments.  (M.H.Q., p. 335)  - 43 -  T h i s i s probably one o f P r e v o s t ' s most frank admissions i n the M.H.Q. and touches upon a major problem f a c i n g the novelist.  He must choose e i t h e r the i n d i r e c t mode o f speech  which conforms t o r e a l - l i f e  standards o f e x p e c t a t i o n s concern-  i n g the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f r e c a l l o r the d i r e c t mode which o f f e r s a more i n t i m a t e and l i v e l y , i f l e s s b e l i e v a b l e , of  style  speech.  When Prevost does use i n d i r e c t i o n , i t i s o f t e n u n o b t r u s i v e l y blended i n t o the surrounding n a r r a t i o n . occasionally  However, he does  admit t o u s i n g approximations, a t which time the  reader i s o f f e r e d  an example i n summary.  (This d e v i c e ,  referred  to as the d peu pr£s by Stewart, was not used f r e q u e n t l y by ;  38  -other memoir^novelists.)  The f o l l o w i n g  example o f i n d i r e c t  speech i s based on the same p h i l o s o p h y o f d i s c o u r s e as the one used i n the quoted l e t t e r ; i t admits t o an i n a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l the  words verbatim.  Renoncour, w r i t i n g  Rosemont d e c l a r e s h i s love f o r Diana; h i s memoirs years l a t e r , cannot remember  what was s a i d :  J 'aura-is peine a rapporter son discours, quoique j 'aie toujours eu soin, dans nos voyages, d'ecrire le soir ee qui nous etait arrive d' interessant pendant le jour. Jamais 1 'amour ne s 'exprima avec plus de grace et d 'eloquence, ni d'une maniere plus tendre et plus touchante. (M.H.Q. , p. 15 3)  The  e x p l a n a t i o n i m p l i e d f o r Renoncour's d i f f i c u l t y i n remember-  ing Rosemont's exact words, i s the young l o v e r ' s  verbosity.  In many circumstances, t h i s excuse would seem q u i t e probable. The  additional  i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the " n i g h t l y  reports"  w r i t t e n by Renoncour would a l s o account f o r many d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n s used throughout the M.H.Q.  - 44 -  F.  Proper Nouns and I d e n t i t i e s The  number o f d i f f e r e n t methods a v a i l a b l e t o memoir-novelists  f o r naming t h e i r c h a r a c t e r s would suggest t h a t t h i s aspect o f the convention  received careful attention.  The very common  p r a c t i c e o f u s i n g the name o f a c e l e b r i t y had the obvious advantage o f g i v i n g a sense o f h i s t o r i c a l  f a c t u a l i t y t o the  memoirs and when the a c t i v i t i e s o f Renoncour are shared  with  some h i s t o r i c a l l y r e a l ' p e r s o n , the reader has a f e e l i n g o f c o n f r o n t a t i o n with a known f a c t .  However, as i t was not always  p o s s i b l e t o o f f e r names t o the reader was  (a wish f o r anonymity  u s u a l l y given as a reason), a number o f d e v i c e s were  brought i n t o p l a y t o suggest o r h i n t a t the r e a l i d e n t i t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l .  T h i s , indeed,  i s the approach taken i n the  M.H.Q. when the author requests t h a t h i s name be w i t h h e l d the p u b l i c and we have a l r e a d y examined i n t h i s r e s p e c t e d i t o r ' s l e t t e r s , which not only e x p l a i n the author's  from  the  point of  view but which, a t the same time, provide a u t h e n t i c a t i n g w i t nesses who know the author by name. i n the M.H.Q. about h i s ancestors  Renoncour g i v e s  information  and f a m i l y background t h a t i s  so p r e c i s e t h a t i t a l l but exposes h i s r e a l i d e n t i t y . Prevost wished t o c r e a t e the appearance o f an a u t h e n t i c gy t o s u b s t a n t i a t e the author's provide  noble t i t l e .  Clearly genealo-  A d d i t i o n a l items  i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o the p o s s i b l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  of the author's  r e a l name.  f o r example, the reader  A t the beginning  o f the memoirs,  i s t o l d t h a t Renoncour's  grandfather,  - 45 -  who  o r i g i n a l l y came from a province  voisine  de la France  (M.H.Q. ,  p. 13), p r o f i t e d from h i s l o y a l s e r v i c e to L o u i s XIV  by  a c q u i r i n g land t o s e t t l e i n the t e r r i t o r y which f e l l  under  French domination.  At t h i s time the t i t l e o f Count was  l i s h e d and given to the male h e i r . disagreement, Marquis de  Renoncour's f a t h e r  estab-  Then, a f t e r a f a m i l y  (using the honorary  title  . . .) l e f t h i s home and s e t t l e d a c r o s s the border,  i n a town beginning w i t h N  L a t e r i n the memoirs,~when  the f a t h e r r e t i r e s to a monastery, we are t o l d i t i s a Carthus i a n house, near N. ... . .  Without  too much s p e c u l a t i o n i t i s  p o s s i b l e f o r the reader to deduce t h a t the a n c e s t r a l home was owned by a count, and was  l o c a t e d somewhere i n F l a n d e r s or  39  Artois; was  the town s i t u a t e d c l o s e to a C a r t h u s i a n monastery  probably Namur.  When Renoncour, as a young man,  leaves  France to t r a v e l t o B r u s s e l s , he makes the acquaintance of some Spanish-speaking o f f i c e r s :  d'un  parent  qui tenaient  (M.H.Q., p. 52) to  lis  connaissaient  un rang distingue  mon nom,  dans les armees de leur  plus maxtre.  A f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e to the author's name i s  be found when Renoncour i s captured by the Turks; he i s  given the name Salem as i t c l o s e l y resembles his  J'avais  French t i t l e .  The Avant-Propos  the meaning of  then r e v e a l s t h a t the  author i n f a c t t r a v e l l e d under an assumed name d u r i n g h i s tour of  Spain, P o r t u g a l and England.  Although t h i s pseudonym  complicates f u r t h e r the reader's attempts t o i d e n t i f y the author, the p u b l i c o f P r e v o s t ' s day would not have c o n s i d e r e d i t unusual f o r a man of  of q u a l i t y to t r a v e l i n c o g n i t o .  The names  Renoncour's daughter, h i s son-in-law and s e v e r a l d i s t a n t  - 46 -  r e l a t i v e s are a l l c a r e f u l l y w i t h h e l d from the reader.  While  it  i s t r u e t h a t i n one episode i n which Renoncour i s asked  to  v i s i t a d i s t a n t r e l a t i v e , an unusual number of  initials  and suspension p o i n t s are used, no doubt to g i v e an e x t r a dimension pp.  of r e a l i t y and i n t r i g u e to the memoirs (M.H.Q.,  334-335), b u t t h i s i s e x c e p t i o n a l .  In the second  editor's  l e t t e r the announced death of the author terminates any  specula-  t i o n concerning Renoncour's name; the reader i s not e n l i g h t e n e d and i s not given any reason f o r f u r t h e r hope.  Although  mystery surrounding Renoncour's f a m i l y name may unnecessary,  the  seem to be  i t must be remembered t h a t e s t a b l i s h i n g the  e x i s t e n c e of the author was  an important p a r t of the  real  convention  at  t h a t time.  Therefore Prevost's t a s k , i t would seem,  to  g i v e as much r e a l i s t i c background as p o s s i b l e t o the  was author  i n order t o suggest h i s p l a c e among the n o b i l i t y of France. I t would have been p o s s i b l e f o r Prevost simply to t e l l reader a l l the aforementioned i n a form of guessing game. appealed  the  i n f o r m a t i o n without engaging  him  However, t h i s approach would have  f a r l e s s to a r e a d i n g p u b l i c q u i t e f a m i l i a r with  these p r a c t i c e s and accustomed to such i n d i r e c t c h a l l e n g e s to i t s powers of d e d u c t i o n .  4 0  The methods used by Prevost f o r naming c h a r a c t e r s (other than Renoncour) vary somewhat.  For example, f i c t i t i o u s c h a r a c t e r s  are not always named by i n i t i a l s .  Some i n i t i a l s  belong to  h i s t o r i c personnages and were probably easy to decipher by the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y reader. of  the Due  d'Orleans  Two  l a d i e s found i n the company  (the Comtesse de P. and the Marquise  de  F.)  - 47 -  might w e l l have been c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d as the Comtesse de ParabSre and the Marquise de F l a v a c o u r t . such as these are i n t e r m i n g l e d with nary c h a r a c t e r s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t f a c t from f i c t i o n .  When cryptonyms  i n i t i a l s depicting  f o r the reader  imagi-  t o s o r t out  C e r t a i n l y we might l e g i m a t e l y expect t h a t  h i s e f f o r t s would be concentrated  on the problem o f i d e n t i f i c a -  t i o n and not on the q u e s t i o n o f a u t h e n t i c i t y .  41  F i c t i t i o u s names a r e a l s o used f r e q u e n t l y i n the M.H.Q. f o r minor c h a r a c t e r s , and an assortment o f languages are c a l l e d i n t o play to depict foreign t i t l e s .  For i n s t a n c e , Renoncour s t a t e s  he w i l l not use Spanish terms i n h i s memoirs {Je me sers qui  sont en usage en France  espagnols. reader Yet  pour ne pas herisser  ma narration  des noms  de termes  M.H.Q., p. 131). T h i s , supposedly, i s t o appease the f o r the l a c k o f a u t h e n t i c  Prevost  f o r e i g n names i n the M.H.Q.  o f t e n combined names, employing, i n some cases,  those used by memoir-novelists o f an e a r l i e r p e r i o d , s i n c e a v a r i a t i o n b u i l t around some e x i s t i n g name would be more c o n v i n c i n g , p o s s i b l y , than one based on pure i n v e n t i o n .  Prevost's  Comtesse d'Orozuna i s perhaps d e r i v e d from the names Oropesa 42  and Osuna, both used by Madame d'Aulnoy.  As w e l l , there i s a  c e r t a i n resemblance between the names given t o the p r i e s t s a t the E s c o r i a l , and those belonging Saint-Germain-des-Pres. ' 4  Frequently  t o Prevost's  friends i n  3  i n the M.H.Q., r a t h e r than d i s g u i s e a name by i n i t i -  a l s o r invent one, Prevost  chose t o have i t w i t h h e l d .  This  was done not o n l y i n the case o f the author, but was used a l s o  48  as a popular  device i n the case of minor c h a r a c t e r s .  p l e a s as Permettez-moi  192)  de vous eadhev mon nom . . .  Such  (M.H.Q., pp.  37,  were e f f e c t i v e as a means of s i d e s t e p p i n g problems of  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and and  -  a l s o as a means, of i n c r e a s i n g the mystery  i n t r i g u e surrounding  the event.  The  names of v i c t i m s of  p i r a t e s , of those i n v o l v e d i n f i n a n c i a l r u i n or unhappy love a f f a i r s were u s u a l l y not r e v e a l e d , o s t e n s i b l y to p r o t e c t good name of the f a m i l y i n v o l v e d .  In one  Renoncour r e f r a i n s from naming a p r i e s t  the  p a r t i c u l a r instance,  (who  becomes romanti-  c a l l y i n v o l v e d with a young woman) out of r e s p e c t f o r the C a t h o l i c Church. the reader, who  T h i s guarantees the t r u t h of h i s account to might l e g i t i m a t e l y suppose t h a t i f Renoncour  wished i n t h a t way  to p r o t e c t the church's r e p u t a t i o n , then  s u r e l y the scandal  took p l a c e .  •  A f u r t h e r advantage to be found i n Prevost's  .  \  use of names  d e r i v e s from the i n c l u s i o n of f a l s e names f o r the purpose of c r e a t i n g suspense and  f o r the development of the p l o t .  f a l s e name i s assumed by the P r i n c e dom t r y i n g t o c o u r t Donna C l a r a .  The  A  Manuel . . . while  Marquis de Rosambert assumes  the name o f Ars§ne when he r e t i r e s to a T r a p p i s t monastery, a move which momentarily confuses Renoncour and reunion.  forestalls  The most prominent example, perhaps, i n v o l v e s  young T u r k i s h adolescent c a l l e d Memisces.  He  their the  t h a t Renoncour meets on board s h i p ,  i s introduced  under t h i s name and becomes  a c l o s e f r i e n d of the young Rosemont.  When i t i s f i n a l l y  r e v e a l e d t h a t the l a d i s a young woman named Nadine,  and  - 49 -  furthermore that she i s Renoncour's niece, the r e l a t i o n s h i p once shared with Rosemont i s c l e a r l y not permitted to continue. The l o v e r s t r y to hide the f a c t that Rosemont has discovered Memisces' s e c r e t , a t w i s t which adds considerably to the comp l i c a t i o n s of Renoncour's l i f e and consequently to the p l o t of the M.H.Q. The f a c t that s e v e r a l methods are used i n the M.H.Q. to suggest the r e a l - l i f e names of well-known f i g u r e s i n s o c i e t y makes the task of s o r t i n g f a c t from f i c t i o n much more d i f f i c u l t . The reader can never be sure i n which cases the unnamed i n d i v i d u a l i s real or f i c t i t i o u s ;  the i n i t i a l s to be found  throughout  the M.H.Q. might or might not represent a r e a l person and the reader, both contemporary and eighteenth-century, would be none the wiser.  - 50 -  G.  Geographical and Topographical D e t a i l s Geographical and even topographical d e s c r i p t i o n s i n memoirnovels had the dual purpose of s a t i s f y i n g the  travel-minded  reader's c u r i o s i t y and of vouching i n d i r e c t l y f o r the authentic experience of the w r i t e r ; such d e t a i l e d information about f o r e i g n countries i n p a r t i c u l a r was u n l i k e l y to provoke the reader to v e r i f i c a t i o n , thus a l l o w i n g the n o v e l i s t c e r t a i n l i b e r t i e s that he could not a f f o r d to take i n the case of desc r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l about France.  The p o p u l a r i t y of the t r a v e l  genre meant that the reader was at once f a m i l i a r with t h i s form of w r i t i n g and l e s s l i k e l y to be c r i t i c a l of minor discrepancies or e r r o r s .  In matters concerning reports of a c u l t u r a l or  geographical nature, the a v i d i n t e r e s t of the reader was, course, a decided advantage f o r the memoir-novelist  of  wishing to  use t h i s aspect of authentic representation to maintain h i s reader's  belief.  In the M.H.Q., the amount of d e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l given over to geographical considerations i s unevenly dispersed throughout the s i x tomes which, by and l a r g e , represent i n turn the various countries v i s i t e d by Renoncour.  Tome I , set mainly i n France,  provides l i t t l e d e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l of a geographical  nature.  Renoncour's f i r s t v i s i t to P a r i s , f o r example, gives the reader only a vague notion of the c i t y ' s layout or i t s places of i n t e r e s t . Regarding h i s p r i v a t e residence, Renoncour has only the f o l l o w i n g to  say:  Le fond de melaneoUe  demeure dans une  rue  eaartee  que j e  du faubourg  portais  sans eesse me f i t ehoisir  ma  (M.H.Q. , p.  29)  Saint-Germain.  - 51 -  The greater degree of r e a l i s m imparted by the geographical exactitude of Des Grieux's P a r i s provides a notable c o n t r a s t , a d i f f e r e n c e q u i t e p o s s i b l y l i n k e d t o a s h i f t of i n t e r e s t on 44  the part of Prevost.  The remaining events of Tome I take  place i n B r u s s e l s , i n various E n g l i s h l o c a l i t i e s , and i n Vienna, and are narrated with a d e f i n i t e focus on h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y , even i f the a t t e n t i o n given t o a c t u a l events  (predominantly  concerning wars) o v e r r i d e s any passing references that might be made t o geographical l o c a t i o n s . i s apparent i n the second tome.  A new emphasis, however,  The capture of Renoncour by  the Turks and h i s long t r e k t o Adrinople i s w r i t t e n with an eye t o the e x o t i c appeal of f o r e i g n lands.  F a i r l y precise  d e t a i l s are f r e q u e n t l y given which would undoubtedly have impressed a reading p u b l i c l a r g e l y ignorant of l i f e i n the Turkish Empire.  The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n , f o r example, i s  c l e a r l y informative i f not a c t u a l l y e d u c a t i o n a l :  Cette ville (Amasie) est la capitate de la province du meme nom. Elle est grande, riche et fort peuplee. Sa situation me parut charmante: r.elle est au milieu d'une plaine de dix lieues de long et large de quatre, entouree d'une chavne de montagnes, qui la defendent des vents du nord et du midi. La riviere de Cusalmach coule dans la plaine, et passe au travers de la ville, oil elle procure mille commodites. (M.H.Q. , p. 67)  Renoncour s eventual r e t u r n voyage t o France takes him f i r s t 1  to I t a l y , where he s e t t l e s temporarily with h i s wife Selima. The account of h i s I t a l i a n sojourn i s comparatively free of geographical d e s c r i p t i o n s and l o c a l c o l o r i s depicted mainly through a s e r i e s of adventures and h i s t o r i e s i n v o l v i n g the I t a l i a n n o b i l i t y whose customs, manners and l i f e - s t y l e are  - 52 -  indirectly related. the  One e x c e p t i o n , however, i s p r o v i d e d by  b r i e f paragraph d e s c r i b i n g the home o f Madame de S a n a t i : Cette dame avait une maison de aampagne a huit ou neuf milles de Rome, du cote de Frascati....... La maison de Madame de Sanati est situee pves.de la ville d'Aldobrandini, qu'on appelle Belvedere a cause de ta beaute de sa vue. (M.H.Q. , p. 93)  The  t h i r d and f o u r t h tomes o f the memoirs (dealing  and  Portugal) r e v e a l P r e v o s t ' s ever i n c r e a s i n g  descriptive  writing.  p.  au public  interest i n  Despite t h e opening sentence  aux geograph.es , et a ceux qui ne voyagent donner  w i t h Spain  la description  que par curiosite,  des pays qu'its  ( Je  laisse  le soin  ont parcourus.  de  (M.H.Q. ,  119) Renoncour p r o v i d e s h i s reader with an i n t e r e s t i n g  account o f h i s t r a v e l s  from Bordeaux t o Bayonne, on through  Bidossa and Iron, S a i n t - S e b a s t i e n , V i t t o r i a  (in C a s t i l l e ) ,  45  Burgos and f i n a l l y Madrid.  The c a p i t a l i s r e v e a l e d by  Renoncour t o be w e l l s u p p l i e d with promenades ( cours)] such as ..the  Prado  neuvo,  y el Prado  viejo  Mancanaris i s a l s o mentioned.  (M.H.Q. , p. 125) .  The t i n y  river  Such d e t a i l s along with informa-  t i v e views concerning the c u l t u r e  and customs o f the Spanish  people are not uncommon i n the t h i r d and f o u r t h tomes, and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on the reader should not be underestimated.  Indeed  we need o n l y c o n s i d e r the s u c c e s s f u l l i t e r a r y f o r g e r y o f Mme. d'Aulnoy's Voyage d'Espagne t o r e a l i z e the p o t e n t i a l t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e f o r duping the p u b l i c .  o f such  Foulche-Delbosc,  who e d i t e d the Voyage d'Espagne i n 192 6 r e v e a l e d f o r the f i r s t 46  time t h a t Mme. d'Aulnoy probably never s e t foot Ironically^  i n Spam.  i f P r e v o s t d i d borrow from the Voyage d'Espagne  (as:well as from de B r u n e i ) , he would have done so under t h e  impression t h a t Mme. d'Aulnoy's m a t e r i a l was f a c t u a l and based on f i r s t - h a n d o b s e r v a t i o n s . Tome V o f the M.H.Q. i s , i n t h i s r e s p e c t , u n l i k e any o f those preceding i t ; i t i s f a c t u a l , p r e c i s e and presumably  based  mainly on Prevost's own f i r s t - h a n d impressions and o b s e r v a t i o n s . Renoncour's v i s i t t o London and the journey through England  i s dated from February  end o f June i n the same year.  Southwestern  9, 1716 t o approximately  the  Although o r a l sources are  g e n e r a l l y agreed t o have f u r n i s h e d much o f the m a t e r i a l not p e r s o n a l l y experienced by P r e v o s t , the t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e o f contemporary w r i t e r s such as John Macky, Guy Miege and D a n i e l 47  Defoe was a v a i l a b l e f o r P r e v o s t ' s use.  Prevost a r r i v e d i n  London some time i n November 1728 and l e f t under circumstances  l a t e i n 1730.  mysterious  A second v i s i t , which allowed  him t o s t a r t p u b l i c a t i o n o f Le Pour e t Contre, l a s t e d u n t i l h i s second departure i n the autumn o f 1734.  The f i f t h tome o f the  M.H.Q. was thus probably roughly put together i n note d u r i n g h i s sojourn o f 1728-30.  form  D e s p i t e i t s l a r g e amount o f  p r e c i s e and a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l , there are a l s o a number o f c h r o n o l o g i c a l e r r o r s suggesting t h a t Renoncour's "earlier" visit  i s modeled on t h a t made by Prevost i n 1728-30.  For example, The Provoked Husband supposedly  attended by  Renoncour i n 1715 d i d not appear i n London u n t i l 1728. i n h i s enthusiasm his  Prevost  t o d i s c u s s the E n g l i s h t h e a t r e and t o convey  own c r i t i c a l views,  demands o f chronology.  48  f o r g o t i n t h i s i n s t a n c e the e x a c t i n g I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the time l a p s e , while  i t caused  some problems can a l s o be seen as working i n P r e v o s t ' s  favour; the p e r i o d d e s c r i b e d i s remote enough f o r the contemporary reader t o have f o r g o t t e n exact d e t a i l s and y e t s u f f i c i e n t l y r e c e n t f o r Prevost t o be able t o e n l i s t h i s reader's a c q u i r e d knowledge as a p o i n t o f departure. M.H.Q.'s f i f t h tome i s given approximately  The reader o f the 34 pages o f informa-  t i o n about London, the l i f e and customs o f i t s people, Wells and the s o c i e t y t h a t frequented the spa.  Tunbridge  Included are  P r e v o s t ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s concerning l o c a l monuments  (he g i v e s  the h e i g h t o f the monument t o the Great F i r e , f o r example, and comments on the commemorative plaque which blames the P a p i s t s ) , landmarks, parks, squares, shops, churches, of  s t r e e t s and p l a c e s  amusement such as bath-houses, dance h a l l s , t h e a t r e s and  amphitheatres  f o r boxing, w r e s t l i n g and c u d g e l - p l a y i n g .  Quite  apart from the i n f o r m a t i v e value o f t h i s m a t e r i a l the r e a c t i o n of  Renoncour/Prevost  t o E n g l i s h customs i s o f p a r t i c u l a r  i n t e r e s t t o the modern reader.  For example, when d e s c r i b i n g  the park and gardens surrounding Saint-James Palace, Prevost comments on the c u r i o u s t i t l e g i v e n t o M. de Saint-Guremont, "governor  o f ducks" at Saint-James,  a p a i d o f f i c e which  appealed a p p a r e n t l y t o the sense o f humour o f King George. P r e v o s t ' s v e r s i o n awards the humour o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n t o Saint-Guremont, who not o n l y supposedly  approached the King  about the governorship, but a l s o o f f e r e d t o pay 100 guineas for  the p r i v i l e g e .  (M.H.Q., p. 247)  Prevost a l s o remarked  - 55 -  on  the  strange custom p r a c t i c e d  la plus  of a l l o w i n g  vile  populace  f r e e l y with them i n the similar reaction  by Englishmen of (M.H.Q. , p.  parks, squares and  of s u r p r i s e  (and  247) on  distinction to mingle  P a l l Mall.  probably censure) i s  A  regis-  t e r e d by Prevost when d i s c u s s i n g the  E n g l i s h t h e a t r e ' s famed  actress,  open love a f f a i r with  of the the  Mrs.  Oldfield.  Churchills,  a r e l a t i v e to the  f a c t t h a t they had  O l d f i e l d had  Despite her  an  i l l e g i t i m a t e son  a second l o v e r  and  actress,  Renoncour informs us,  meilleures  compagnies  se ..fa'isaventfois  des duchesses  leur  loges  apres  very open and c o u l d be  d'etre  et d'autres la comedie...  vue avec plaisiv  Les damesi.de la plus en liaison  personnes . .  avec elle: du premier  An  (and  anecdote i n v o l v i n g  masquerades at Haymarket and  haute  distinction  et.j'ai  vu  plusieurs  I'appeler  240)  dans  Clearly,  E n g l i s h regarding  accepted at s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s of the to Prevost  the  dans les  rang  (M.H.Q. , p.  of the  and  (in f a c t Anne  a second c h i l d as well) was  l i b e r a l attitude  been a r e v e l a t i o n reader).  de Londres.  un honneur  Duke of Marlborough,  one  the  who  g e n t e e l must have  q u i t e probably to h i s French  the  King  (who  frequented  l a t e r Vauxhall) and  the  a masked lady 49  who  addressed him  w i t h a t o a s t to the  h e a l t h of the  p r o v i d e s another example of P r e v o s t ' s i n t e r e s t not  merely f a c t s and  l i t y of the We  figures,  but  E n g l i s h monarch and  Pretender,  i n recording  more i m p o r t a n t l y , the  h i s people  (M.H.Q., p.  f i n d , however, c u r i o u s a d d i t i o n s made by Prevost to  memoirs which do to be  not  enhance a u t h e n t i c i t y  c o r r o b o r a t e d by any  known f a c t s .  nor  do  persona246). the  they appear  John James Heydigger,  - 56 -  the person responsible f o r organizing successful masquerades at Haymarket, a one-time d i r e c t o r of the Opera, and an extremely ugly-looking i n d i v i d u a l , i s a c c u r a t e l y portrayed i n the M.H.Q. However, i n the memoirs he i s given a brother, a  medeoin  du meme nom, dont  (M.H.Q., p. 243)  les remedes ont fait  tant  de bruit  a  Paris.  Robertson was unable to v e r i f y the existence  of such a brother and one cannot help but wonder to what purpose t h i s a d d i t i o n a l information was intended.  Heydigger  enjoyed a n a t i o n a l reputation i n England and surely d i d not need a brother whose remedies were famous i n P a r i s to help him achieve some degree of n o t o r i e t y . Our l i s t of f a c t s from Tome V concerning not only London's celebrated n o b i l i t y but also the c i t y i t s e l f , could be continued at some length and we can only conclude that f o r the sake of g i v i n g an impression of r e a l i t y to the memoirs, Prevost's s e c t i o n on London goes w e l l beyond the conventional demands for geographical r e a l i s m favoured by contemporaries.  For  example, Renoncour's f i r s t impressions of the boxing matches held at the amphitheatres are r e l a t e d i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l to include mention of one p a r t i c u l a r match between James Figg ( p u g i l i s t and cudgel-player) and reeemment de Gibraltar  un sergent  (M.H.Q. , p. 252) .  irlanddds,  arrive  Such a d d i t i o n a l informa-  t i o n i s i n t e r e s t i n g because the match must, i n f a c t , have taken place (although Robertson was unable to assign a precise date to the event).  Prevost e i t h e r saw the match, heard about i t  from a spectator or found a reference to the event i n a source  - 57 -  not yet d i s c o v e r e d by h i s modern commentators. long semi-exotic t a l e s of adventure  In view of the  t o l d only a few tomes  e a r l i e r i n the M.H.Q., i t i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Prevost expended such e n e r g i e s here i n r e c o r d i n g r e l a t i v e l y minor i n such  occurences  detail.  The t o u r of Southwestern England  d e s c r i b e d by Renoncour  was  q u i t e l i k e l y undertaken by Prevost although there seem to be no r e c o r d s i n d i c a t i n g the date or the l e n g t h of i t .  Prevost  was  employed as t u t o r to F r a n c i s E y l e s , son of S i r John E y l e s .  The  f a m i l y , of W i l t s h i r e o r i g i n , a l s o had r e l a t i v e s i n Somerset  and at some stage a v i s i t was We  made to them by F r a n c i s E y l e s .  know from Le Pour et Contre t h a t Prevost s t a r t e d on  such  a journey with a copy of Camden and t h a t i n d i s g u s t he  dis-  carded the book, choosing observations.  i n s t e a d to make h i s own  notes  In the absence of documentary proof, we  o n l y assume t h a t Renoncour s c a r e f u l l y recorded 1  can  observations  resemble, at l e a s t i n p a r t , the notes taken by Prevost as we might expect, once again we  and  and,  find chronological errors  i n Renoncour s m a t e r i a l b e t r a y i n g the date of Prevost's 1  observations. i n 1716,  When d i s c u s s i n g the c o u n t r y - s e a t s he  visited  oetle  a Down  Renoncour t a l k s about  Husband, proche  de . . .  de Mylord  (M.H.Q. , p. 264).  Hurstbourne i n Hampshire which belonged Only i n 1720  was  The  Leyminton  e s t a t e was  Down  to the Wallop f a m i l y .  the t i t l e c r e a t e d and g i v e n to John Wallop, 50  F i r s t V i s c o u n t Lymmgton.  C l e a r l y Prevost was  with both the e s t a t e and the V i s c o u n t .  familiar  Another c h r o n o l o g i c a l  - 58 -  e r r o r , i n v o l v i n g the Bishop of C h i c h e s t e r , i s of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t because of what i s r e v e a l e d of P r e v o s t ' s p e r s o n a l views.  Renoncour r e p o r t s d i n i n g with Edward Waddington,  Bishop of C h i c h e s t e r (he became Bishop o n l y i n 1724) , h i s wife  (who  d i e d i n 1728  and t h e i r daughters The  dignes  daughters  before Prevost a r r i v e d i n England),  (the Bishop d i e d i n 1731  qui nous pavuvent  du rang episcopal  d'une sagesse  (M.H.Q. , p. 263)  Prevost- o b v i o u s l y never:: met)  without  et d'une  issue).  modestie  and the wife (whom  help t o b u i l d up P r e v o s t ' s under-  standably e x a l t e d p o r t r a y a l of the freedom and d i g n i t y of the English clergy.  One  can i n t h i s i n s t a n c e understand  reasoning behind P r e v o s t ' s adjustment  of the f a c t s ; h i s f e e l i n g s  of f r u s t r a t i o n with the French c l e r g y o v e r r u l e d h i s i n t h i s tome t o be f a c t u a l .  the  tendency  Despite the number of years  s e p a r a t i n g the r e a l and the imaginary  journey, the M.H.Q. i s  amply e n r i c h e d as w e l l with i n t e r e s t i n g s t o r i e s about r u r a l towns, E n g l i s h barrows, Roman c a s t l e s , Wheatears probably evolved from the t y p i c a l l y t i n mines.  (a name  "white-arsed" b i r d s ) and  Renoncour seems to observe  the t i n i e s t d e t a i l s  comments with w e l l - d e s e r v e d s c e p t i c i s m on some of the  and  sights,  f o r example, King A r t h u r ' s round t a b l e d i s p l a y e d i n Winchester. To l i s t ,  along with some c r i t i c s , the g r e a t number of p l a c e s  and b u i l d i n g s t h a t are not mentioned by Renoncour seems, however, an e x e r c i s e i n f u t i l i t y .  Prevost was  not an a v i d  a n t i q u a r i a n , nor would one expect t o f i n d an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the p i c t u r e s q u e nor a l o v e f o r nature from a man  of q u a l i t y i n  - 59 -  the e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h century.  P r e v o s t ' s Tome V r e f l e c t s the  i n t e r e s t s o f i t s author i n a number o f s u b t l e ways a l l o w i n g the reader t o enjoy England through the eyes o f one o f i t s most candid and eloquent French s u p p o r t e r s . Tome VI which concludes the memoirs i s a somewhat confused a r r a y o f adventures, i n v o l v i n g chases, r e t r e a t s t o nunneries, vengeance and drama.  There i s no g e o g r a p h i c a l i n t e r e s t i n  t h i s tome which seeks, through a s e r i e s o f prolonged minor  histaires,  t o draw the memoirs t o a f i n a l c l o s e .  The reader  notes a tremendous s h i f t o f i n t e r e s t and o n l y the q u i c k l y moving pace o f the l a s t pages helps t o prevent a f e e l i n g o f confusion.  Renoncour's c o l o u r f u l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f l i f e i n  f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s are terminated; t h e facts,, f i g u r e s , and i m p r e s s i v e l y r e a l o b s e r v a t i o n s are r e p l a c e d by a n a r r a t i v e s t y l e dependent almost e n t i r e l y on p l o t and a c t i o n .  - 60 -  H.  Time:  Calendar, Clock, and Chronology  References t o hours and dates, as w e l l as good c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , c o n t r i b u t e much t o the i n memoir-novels. covered by the  While e r r o r s  critical  reader's sense o f r e a l i t y  o f t h i s k i n d are  reader, there are  positive  of time r e f e r e n c e s which m e r i t d i s c u s s i o n . of the  In these circumstances the  dis-  aspects  The l a t e r tomes  M.H.Q. were supposedly w r i t t e n i n d i a r y  Renoncour r e c o r d i n g each evening the  easily  form with  events o f the  same day.  problem o f remembering twenty years  a f t e r an event whether i t took p l a c e on a Wednesday o r Thursday  o r remembering whether Renoncour a r r i v e d  precisely  s i x o ' c l o c k i s on the  whole a minor one i n the  M.H.Q.  Prevost f r e q u e n t l y notes the  qui  un jour  etait  matin  de fete,  que le euvieux  suvpvis  etait  que je ne le puis  qu 'il etait La Brie  parti  entra  cour i s a l s o  Scoti  vint  sur les trois  heures  ete assure  ation  ville  j 'appris du matin  heures.  trois  de mon evasion  que peu de jours  dans cette  le lendemain pour  d mon  se rendre  reveil  aN. . .  (M.H.Q. , p. 27)  . . .  apres  semaines  que quatre  . . . Je demeurai  entieres;  jours  Renon-  (M.H.Q., p. 56) i n d i c a t e  o f time and i t s i n t e r e s t  f o r the  apres  Il me dit  qu'on  . . . Il ne  encore-? quelques  jours  an obvious a p p r e c i -  author.  j u s t c i t e d d e p i c t s Renoncour a t a d i f f i c u l t life;  du  number o f days o r weeks s e p a r a t i n g two events.  Phrases such as Je I'attendis  raconta  heures  p a r t i c u l a r l y aware o f d u r a t i o n and f r e q u e n t l y  a l l u d e s t o the  n 'y avait  sur les huit  le lendemain,  (M.H.Q. , p. 2 9) ; Je fus plus  lovsque  dans ma chambre a sept  p r e c i s e time:  m'avertir  a ma porte dive,  f o r dinner a t  The example  juncture i n  he has escaped from England, awaited i m p a t i e n t l y  his the  - 61 -  a r r i v a l o f h i s servant, and then decided t o leave Cologne f o r more happy prospects i n Vienna.  Temporal p r e c i s i o n  the f e e l i n g o f f r u s t r a t i o n and impatience by the young man o f q u a l i t y .  reinforces  so o b v i o u s l y f e l t  A second example found  i n Tome  V, adds t o the reader's sense o f w i t n e s s i n g h i s t o r y i n the making.  Renoncour, engaged i n attempts  to o r g a n i z e the escape  of Mylady R . . . , has n o t been able t o keep abreast o f the local  scene.  ude que j 'avais Londres.  J'avais  passe  ete capable  Il y etait  arrive  les huit  premiers  de peu d 'attention de grands  jours  avec tant  d  1  pour ce qui se faisait  changements.  inquieta  (M.H.Q. , p. 24 0)  T h i s example, i n f a c t , a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s to the c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the M.H.Q. and along with most o f the "dates" g r a t u i t o u s l y o f f e r e d i n the t e x t , enhances the temporal r e a l i s m of the n o v e l .  To achieve t h i s temporal  r e a l i s m , Prevost,  r e a l i z i n g f u l l w e l l t h a t the h i s t o r i a n s ' t r a d e f l o u r i s h e s on s p e c i f i c dates and well-known v e r i f i a b l e events  (a f a r e t h a t  i s l a r g e l y ignored by the t r a d i t i o n a l n o v e l i s t ) , has s t r a t e g i c a l l y s p r i n k l e d h i s n a r r a t i v e with f a c t u a l o f f e r i n g s . h i s t o r i c a l t i d b i t s serve him i n two ways: p r a c t i c a l l e v e l t o punctuate  These  they f u n c t i o n on a  and t h e r e f o r e d e l i n e a t e h i s p l o t  s t r u c t u r e with a r e a l temporal  focus and more g e n e r a l l y , they  r e i n f o r c e and, i n f a c t , support h i s claims f o r t r u t h because h i s n a r r a t i v e becomes " h i s t o r i c a l l y a c c u r a t e " .  An example o f  t h i s can be seen i n P r e v o s t ' s shaping o f Tome V with  dates  e i t h e r g i v e n d i r e c t l y o r i m p l i e d through t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n with h i s t o r i c a l l y prominent events.  - 62 -  Renoncour and Rosemont's a r r i v a l  i n England  c o i n c i d e s with  the r e b e l S c o t t i s h c h i e f s ' s e n t e n c i n g , which e s t a b l i s h e s the temporal  s t a r t i n g p o i n t of the E n g l i s h sojourn  not i n c l u d e the a c t u a l date, February  9, 1716,  because the n o t o r i e t y of the event was his  purpose).  his  V f i r s t e i g h t days",  (Prevost does probably  s u f f i c i e n t evidence f o r  Once i n London, Renoncour c a s u a l l y r e f e r s to and a number of events,  correctly  sequenced, are i n c l u d e d i n h i s i t i n e r a r y to a u t h e n t i c a t e t h i s : the Pretender's departure from S c o t l a n d Ryder  i n d i c a t e s t h a t rumours surrounding the C h e v a l i e r ' s  5i  flight  (the D i a r y of Dudley  from Montrose had been c i r c u l a t i n g i n some London s o c i a l  c i r c l e s as e a r l y as February 14th), N i t h s d a l e ' s escape  from  p r i s o n , February 2 3rd, and the e x e c u t i o n of Derwentwater and Kenmure, February sal  24th.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y Prevost added the d i s m i s -  of Nottingham and A y l s f o r d , February 28th and 29th, which  somewhat s t r e t c h e s a l i t e r a l  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s e i g h t day  reference. L a t e r i n Tome V, the J a c o b i t e cause i s again mentioned by Renoncour, t h i s time s e r v i n g as a temporal  marker f o r h i s f i r s t  appearance at c o u r t and h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n with the King  (M.H.Q.,  53  p. 241) .  As w e l l , on the day of t h i s v i s i t  (March 6, 1716) ,  the Duke of A r g y l e a r r i v e d at c o u r t w i t h the w r i t t e n surrender 54  of  many r e b e l c h i e f s .  Renoncour a l s o mentions t h a t d u r i n g  the same p e r i o d the c i t y was E a r l of Oxford  preoccupied with the t r i a l of the  (M.H.Q., p. 241).  In t h i s case, Prevost  probably very p r e c i s e as the t r i a l , which was  ongoing  was  from  - 63 -  1715-1717, reached a p a r t i c u l a r h i g h p o i n t when i n l a t e February 1716  new  evidence was  brought forward by the E a r l of S t a i r  55  (against O x f o r d ) .  T h i s event i s undoubtedly  the cause of  the c i t y ' s renewed i n t e r e s t i n the p l i g h t of Oxford, which Prevost i n s e r t e d i n t o the c o r r e c t c h r o n o l o g i c a l s l o t of the M.H.Q. Renoncour then departs London f o r a t o u r of the p r o v i n c e s , r e s u l t i n g i n an absence  of approximately two months (M.H.Q.,  p. 268), and upon h i s r e t u r n , he r e p o r t s t h a t the a f f a i r s i n London had undergone much change.  political  The debates  c e r n i n g the r e p e a l of the T r i e n n e l Act were c u r r e n t l y place  con-  taking  (ca. l a t e A p r i l ) and Renoncour witnessed the escape of 56  Mackintosh  from the Tower  on the eve of May  3rd.  Thus h i s  two month's absence  f i t s almost e x a c t l y the p e r i o d designated  by A r g y l e ' s a r r i v a l  i n London  (May  (March 6) and Mackintosh's  escape  3), r e v e a l i n g c l e a r l y t h a t Prevost r e s p e c t e d the demands  of chronology.  As w e l l Renoncour s d e c i s i o n to r e t u r n t o France 1  c o i n c i d e s with the E n g l i s h King's v i s i t to h i s German h o l d i n g s (M.H.Q., p. 269), an event announced i n one of h i s speeches 57  which was ally,  recorded i n the London Gazette of June 2 4-20.  when Renoncour r e v e a l s  24 de juin,  Nous fixdmes  le jour  de notre  depart  Finau  he c i r c u m s c r i b e s the sojourn between February 9th and  June 24th, a p e r i o d of about t h r e e and one h a l f months, which c o n v e n i e n t l y matches the pronouncement a t the beginning of Tome V t h a t Renoncour expected to remain months.  i n England f o r t h r e e to four  C o n s i d e r i n g the m u l t i t u d e of events and a c t i v i t i e s  are woven i n t o Tome V, the c h r o n o l o g i c a l arrangement of the  that  - 64 -  m a t e r i a l seems to be of a f a i r l y high standard. time  The passage of  (even without a c r i t i c a l confirmation of Renoncour's  h i s t o r i c a l references) seems to blend w e l l with the type o f a c t i v i t i e s reported and the temporal p r e c i s i o n i n t h i s case adds to the general impression of Renoncour s involvement 1  i n the  s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l London scene. The o v e r a l l c h r o n o l o g i c a l arrangement of the M.H.Q. presents some discrepancies which serve as a reminder that f i c t i o n cannot be a r b i t r a r i l y organized i n a l i n e a r progression when the author i s attempting a s t y l e of n a r r a t i v e based on r e c a l l . Perhaps the problem i s even more d i f f i c u l t than usual i n the M.H.Q. where we are given a f i r s t glimpse of the author a f t e r two tomes, and a second look a f t e r two more tomes when he has already w r i t t e n part of h i s l i f e s t o r y .  The idea of p i c k i n g up  the pen once again i s a challenge to the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a b i l i t i e s of any memoir-novelist.  Despite such d i f f i c u l t i e s , Prevost has  nevertheless attempted to pinpoint p a r t i c u l a r stages i n Renoncour s l i f e by g i v i n g p r e c i s e dates and at other times by 1  r e v e a l i n g Renoncour s age. 1  Although we are not t o l d the year  of Renoncour's birth,(we are encouraged by the information given us to f i g u r e i t o u t ) , the general chronology i n the M.H.Q. can be b r i e f l y set out as f o l l o w s . sent  (The underlined numbers repre-  deduction's _based. on s p e c i f i c . references i n the text to  the duration of time.)  - 65 -  AGE Birth  YEAR  EVENTS  1661  17  1678  V i s i t t o g r a n d f a t h e r (M.H.Q. , p. 18) .  18  1678  J u l i e dies, h i s father returns to the monastery.  18-19  1679  Loss o f h i s i n h e r i t a n c e and f i n a l vows are taken by the f a t h e r .  19  1680  A r r i v e s i n P a r i s i n 1680 (M.H.Q., p. 29).  27  1688  Arrives  27  16 8 8  i n The Hague vers  le mois d'avril  de  I'annee 1688 (M.H.Q. , p. 52) (As Renoncour goes d i r e c t l y from P a r i s t o the Hague, c l e a r l y e i g h t years have suddenly d i s a p peared'.) Renoncour a r r i v e s i n Cologne  Noel  de I'annee  1688  te jour de  (M.H.Q. , p.  56).  28  168 9  He f i g h t s i n the A u s t r i a n army i n 1689 and i s taken p r i s o n e r .  39  17 00  The number o f y e a r s spent i n Turkey are not mentioned. One can o n l y deduce t h a t approximately 10 years e l a p s e d . When Renoncour a r r i v e s i n I t a l y he meets Rosamberg who took h i s vows i n 17 00 (M.H.Q., p. 86). The reunion can be dated s h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s time.  39  1700  Death o f Selima.  Concerning her death,  Renoncour s t a t e s , Quatorze ans entiers passes dans la douleur n 'ont pu m'accoutumer a ma perte, qui semble se renouveller tous les jours. (M.H.Q. ,  p. 96) Thus, a t the time o f w r i t i n g t h i s p a r t o f h i s memoirs Renoncour would be 53-54 and Selima's death would have taken p l a c e i n 1699-1700. The Avant-Propos r e v e a l s t h a t Renoncour had been happy f o r t h r e e years i n the monastery (at the age o f 53; M.H.Q., p. 115) when he was then encouraged t o leave and t r a v e l with the young Rosemont. They depart a f t e r the T r e a t y o f U t r e c h t (M.H.Q., p. 117) and a r r i v e i n Spain ( t h e i r f i r s t country) i n 1715.  - 66 -  AGE  YEAR  EVENTS  53- 54  1712-15 '  The p e r i o d d u r i n g which the f i r s t tomes were w r i t t e n .  54  1715  They are i n Spain i n September 1715 Louis XIV d i e s . (M.H.Q., p. 135)  54- 55  1715-16  Renoncour meets Selima's brother at the Hague and t e l l s him of her death which had taken p l a c e 19 to 20 years e a r l i e r (M.H.Q., p. 214). Thus Selima's death, a c c o r d i n g to t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , o c c u r r e d i n 1697 (which i s f a i r l y c l o s e t o the date of the death as c a l c u l a t e d e a r l i e r by o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n from the M.H.Q.).  54  1716  They a r r i v e i n London February 9, 1716, and depart June 24, 1716. (At the beginning of Tome V the second e d i t o r ' s l e t t e r announces the death of the author. Before he d e s c r i b e s h i s v i s i t to England Renoncour s t a t e s t h a t he i s now 6 0 years o l d (M.H.Q., p. 22 9) thus approximately s i x years separate the w r i t i n g and the experiences i n England.)  60  two when  Renoncour claims to be 6 0 at the time he decides to r e t i r e once again t o h i s monastery. Much has taken p l a c e s i n c e h i s departure from England, although the d u r a t i o n of s i x years which i s i m p l i e d does not seem to f i t the short p e r i o d suggested by the f a s t pace of the f i n a l few e p i s o d e s .  - 67 -  T h i s b r i e f o u t l i n e of the c h r o n o l o g i c a l arrangement of  the  M.H.Q. demonstrates Prevost's  aspect  r e l a t i v e success i n t h i s  of n o v e l - w r i t i n g , e s p e c i a l l y when one appeared i n v a r i o u s  considers  forms between 1728  p e r i o d t h a t must to a c e r t a i n extent  and  1731,  that the work a  lengthy  correspond : to  the  period  of composition. In the preceding  e i g h t s e c t i o n s we  have, by means of examples  t h a t are reasonably t y p i c a l , attempted to show how w h i l e p u b l i s h i n g anonymously, was  at pains to d e v i s e  f o r h i s e d i t o r as d i s t i n c t from the c h a r a c t e r not o n l y to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the two r e i n f o r c e the impression  Prevost,  of h i s n a r r a t o r ,  i n d i v i d u a l s , but  of Renoncour's " r e a l i t y " .  e d i t o r remains somewhat shadowy but  a "persona"  to  Prevost's  forms an i n t e r e s t i n g  f i l t e r between the c o l o u r f u l n a r r a t o r and  the reader.  This  d i s t a n c i n g would seem u s e f u l to a n o v e l i s t i n d u l g i n g , perhaps, i n a l i t e r a r y version of  trompe I'oeil.  Furthermore there  are  i n s t a n c e s J i n the t e x t where Renoncour i s e s s e n t i a l l y a l s o e d i t o r i n t h a t he  an  i s n a r r a t i n g , or r e l a y i n g , another's t a l e .  We [have seen t h a t t h i s device may  w e l l serve to remove Renoncour  "from d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e l a t i n g the u n l i k e l y . -Renoncour i s permitted  Thus  to become somewhat avuncular i n h i s  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the reader - an e l d e r l y member of a r e l i g i o u s order with memoirs to r e l a t e , quoting  from l e t t e r s ,  p l a c e s , g i v i n g exact  remembering t i t l e s  times and  dates,  describing and  (names - f u r n i s h i n g , i n s h o r t , a l l of those elements t h a t combine tcxcreate the image of a r e a l person, held up as r e a l ,  yet  - 68 -  s h i e l d e d from d i r e c t view by the e d i t o r ' s hand.  To t r e a t  these d e v i c e s as merely c o n v e n t i o n a l t r i c k s i s t o u n d e r e s t i mate Prevost; admittedly many of them are p a r t o f the s t o c k i n - t r a d e o f many w r i t e r s o f the e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h  century.  But Prevost combines them t o a u t h e n t i c a t e both h i s n a r r a t o r and h i s n a r r a t o r ' s t a l e s i n ways t h a t we are p o s s i b l y o n l y beginning  to appreciate.  - 69 -  NOTES  Mylne (to mention just one critic) discusses reserved for the novel in the hierarchy of literary seventeenth century. See Mylne, p. 15. 2 3  Stewart, May,  p.  the "humble forms of the  place"  25.  Dilemme du roman, p.  145.  4 A review of the actual numbers of titles that bore the words Histoire and MSmdire as opposed to Roman, can be found in Georges May's Dilemme du roman, pp. 143-144. A complete l i s t has also been compiled and is readily available in S. P. Jones, A List of French Prose Fiction from 1700-1750. (New York: H. W. Wilson Co., 1939), pp. 1-107. 5  Collogue 6  Georges May, Prevost, p. May,  "Contribution 209.  Dilemme du roman, p.  h la vie d'un  roman: Manon  Lescaut"  75.  7 The actual number works out May's Dilemme du roman, p. 93. Q Stewart, p. 307.  to 39.  For  a complete  chart  see  g Stewart, p. 307. In his Introduction Stewart sets apart the two levels of illusion, designating the "more literal illusion" as the one primarily relevant to the period 1700-1750. See also Stewart, p. 5. ^  Mylne, pp.  3-18.  On this particular point Mylne states: "Interspersed among these facts, it is common to find some assurances as to the authenticity of the whole work, plus possibly a pointed reminder: that truth is stranger than fiction. Thus the novelists were apparently trying to evoke literal rather than imaginative belief." See Mylne, p. 43. 1  1  12 There seems to be some difference of opinion between Mylne and Stewart regarding the identity of Cleveland's editor. The t i t l e page names the translator as "auteur des memoires d'un homme de gualite". Due to the fact that Provost signed the second lettre de 1'editeur in the  - 70 -  M.H.Q., "D'Exiles", Mylne considers the auteur in Cleveland to be Prevost D'Exiles. Stewart refers to the Preface of Cleveland where the editor states "L'histoire de M. Cleveland m'est venue d'une bonne source: je la tiens de son f i l s . . . XI avait lu mes Memoires . . . Je veux vous faire connaltre, me d i t - i l un jour en me les prSsentant, un homme gui avait le coeur fait a peu pres comme le vdtre, et qui a fait le me"me usage que vous des aventures d'une vie fort malheureuse." Stewart considers that it is Renoncour, author of the forementioned Memoires, that is designated as editor. See Mylne, p. 74 and Stewart, p. 70. 13 These additional details would encourage the reader to conclude that his peers had actually met with the author despite his desire to remain anonymous, thus substantiating the editor's claims. 14 Tomes I to IV were published between 1728-1729. Tomes V and VI did not appear until 1731. 15 Monty discusses the editor's contribution m the M.H.Q. to the reader's belief in the author. She sees a direct correlation between believing in the author and believing in the authenticity of his memoirs. The author's death exemplified Provost's efforts to present a real individual (see Monty, p. 21). Stewart analyses various uses of footnotes and editorial touch ups. Translator's comments, corrections of grammar, intentional minor errors and reorganization of chronological difficulties were some of the devices favoured by memoir-novelists. See Stewart, pp. 73-83. 17 The two footnotes probably date from the period of corrections made by Prevost between 1753-1756. 18 I raise this point at this stage because later in the memoirs Renoncour's actions will seem to render him somewhat of a hypocrite. The first Lettre de 1'editeur expands on Renoncour's strength of character and his steadfastness in the fact of future uncertainties and changing fortunes. The pact between author and reader is based on Renoncour's integrity. Although the personality of a scoundrel or the ever-changing nature of a man of adventure might suit the author of a novel in another literary period, in this case r e l i a b i l i t y and constancy are necessary personality attributes of Prevost's author. If the reader were confronted with an act on the part of the author that was drastically out of character, the very basis of the pact would be undermined. Although Renoncour is a fictitious character in his own right, his function as author seems to dominate his appeal to the reader as an interesting personality. Frequently the reader is only too happy to bypass Renoncour in order to concentrate more completely on the action of the narrative.  - 71 -  19 Collogue  Max Brun, "Contribution Prevost, pp. 211-212.  a la vie d'un  roman: Manon  Lescaut",  20 It is at this time that the man of guality assumes the name "Renoncour" and the young Marguis that of "Rosemont" in order to travel incognito. 21 Renoncour instructs the young Rosemont m the following example which is typical of the many lessons taught. "Vous voila bien instruit du peril. Veillez sur votre coeur, et souvenez-vous surtout de ne perdre jamais de vue 1'honneur et la religion." (M.H.Q., p. 122) 22 Immediately following the Avant-Propos is a passage which reconfirms the didactic role of the memoirs. The fact that Rosemont, :. now a Duke, gives his permission to Renoncour to record their adventures adds a touch of reality to the seguence of events previously outlined in the Avant-Propos concerning Renoncour's new responsibilities and the eventual publication of the memoirs. C'est par suite des memes sentiments, gue dans 1'SlSvation oh il se trouve aujourd'hui par la mort du due son pere, il me permet d'^crire librement les aventures de notre voyage. II consent m£me gue pour le plaisir ou l'utilite' du public, je raconte les fautes oh 1'ardeur de la jeunesse le f i t tomber. (M.H.Q., p. 120) 23 Many separate histoires are to be found in the text before Tome VII. However, although potentially capable of involving the reader to the same degree as occurs in Manon Lescaut, these minor histoires are are not long enough to allow any appreciable development of plot or character. 24 The involvement of the reader with the author/narrator is a factor considered by Stewart to be of prime importance. He considers that Prevost's best works are those based on the presence of an interlocutor. The author continually addresses the reader directly thus encouraging his participation in the action of the narrative. From the point of view of winning belief, the reader's involvement is essential. See Stewart, p. 158. 25 A comparison of Tome VII with those preceding would present an interesting and possibly worthwile study. Certain scholars have briefly touched on some of the differences to be found. For example, the use of indirect speech, the lack of interpolated stories, the brevity of the work, the use of an interlocutor, characterization, and the more balanced ratio between characterization and plot are some of the advantages awarded to Manon Lescaut. A few points of comparison may be found in the following: Monty, pp. 43-47, p. 63; Mylne, pp. 102-103; Stewart, p. 158; Sgard, pp. 227-232. Sgard, despite the attention he has given to a study of  - 72 -  PrSvost's complete works, refrains from drawing comparisons between Tome I-VI of the M.H.Q. and Tome VII. Although there are many points of comparison available (thematic similarities for example) Sgard has preferred to compare Manon Lescaut with Cleveland. 26 Prevost's ability to foresee the cause of his own death is the subject of speculation by Robertson. She quotes a passage from the Pour et Contre (1736) in which Prevost expresses his fear of apoplexy; the very cause of death attributed to Prevost by his contemporaries. It is interesting to consider the following epitaph' traditionally attributed to Provost which states: Ci-glt, qui, toujours energique, / IntSressant et path£tique, / Mais toujours sombre et respirant la mort, / Semble, dans ses Merits, avoir pr§vu son sort. See Abb£ PrSvost, Adventures of a Man of Quality, translated with an introduction by Mysie E.I. Robertson, (London: George Routledge & Sons, 1930) pp. 27-28. 27 Stewart suggests that some novelists rather than burden their memoirs with too many protestations of truth, choose to "do no more than take the edge off the reader's imminent astonishment by warning him that he will have cause for it." See Stewart, p. 181. 28 Renoncour does not always show scepticism; 'in some cases he remains noncommittal. For instance while visiting his father at the monastery an incredible tale is told to him by one of the fathers. Not wishing to doubt the word of a priest Renoncour tells the reader: "Le pbre prieur me parut fort persuade de la v§ritS de cette histoire. Je ne la contestai point." (M.H.Q., p. 49) A similar example can be found in Tome V when Renoncour travels to Winchester. The legendary Round-table is reputed to be authentic. Renoncour stresses these are the opinions of the local people, not his own (M.H.Q., p. 264). 29 The .werewolf' tale is discussed by most critics at some stage in their studies. Engel, to quote but one, uses this episode to ridicule the naivety that she presumes to be Prevost's concerning the inclusion of factual details with fiction. "Dans l'homme de Quality, a quelques pages de distance, le heros rencontre le Regent Philippe d'Orleans, puis des loups-garous. Le Regent a existe et, par consequent, il en est de meme des loups-garous, estime Prevost." See C.E. Engel, Le Veritable Abb& Prevost, p. 238. The line of reasoning which Engel suggests Pr&vost followed is not particularly applicable to the example quoted. The number of pages separating the two episodes is considerable and although Renoncour did speak with the Regent he merely reported hearing strange stories about werewolves from another source. This is an important difference which certainly renders Prevost's supposed line of reasoning less questionable. (  -73 -  Was the eighteenth-century reader conscious of these hints or suggestions? Possibly we cannot even assume that he was interested in the technigues employed to convince him, any more than the average novel reader of our own times is aware of being manipulated by the tricks of contemporary novelists. The technigues and motivation may be different, but the reader is, of course, s t i l l manipulated. One might cite W. Golding's Pincher Martin as a contemporary example of reader manipula^ tion. 31 The relative pp. 194-197.  Engel,  accuracy  of Prevost's  information  is assessed  by  32 The ouvrage particulier referred to by Renoncour in Tome V of the M.H.Q. (1730) becomes a reality for PrSvost. In 1735 the Pour et Contre (volume 6, pp. 242-243) announces Provost's desire to publish'some memoirs which will serve as a replacement for the type of guide book prepared by Camden. While travelling through Southern England Prevost consulted Camden and found the work to be incomplete. Although the memoirs mentioned in the Pour et Contre were never published, it would seem that Provost had by then compiled most of the material. An interesting similarity may be seen in both the M.H.Q. and the Pour et Contre concerning Prevost's gloomy view of the l i t t l e time remaining to him. Renoncour's descriptive passages of churches, their tombs and monuments are intended to help furnish "un ouvrage particulier, si le peu de temps gui me reste a vivre me permet de .1'entreprendre. (M.H.Q., p. 263). The ouvrage PrSvost referred to in the Pour et Contre is shadowed by a similar sense of uncertain future: "Mais comme rien n'est si incertain, gue le terns auguel cette faveur du ciel m'est reservSe, je puis d'avance detacher guelgues morceaux de mon Ouvrage. (Pour et Contre, Volume 6, p. 243). 33 The manner chosen for obtaining the letters might well have bothered the reader. Not that he would have been shocked by the act itself (eavesdropping and letter-snatching were regularly reported in memoir-novels of the period), rather he might have found the behaviour at odds with the noble character portrayal insisted upon time and time again by the editor and Renoncour himself. From the point of view of belief it would seem to be undesirable for the reader to suddenly discover midway through the memoirs that the author is unreliable. 34 Although Renoncour does not always admit he cannot recall the letters verbatim, he does freguently summarize their contents for the benefit of the reader. Such is the case with the letter written by Nadine to Rosemont. Renoncour outlines the essential parts and even comments on her grammatical shortcomings. (M.H.Q., p. 246) 35 See Stewart, pp. 109-110.  - 74 -  36  See Mylne, p.  96.  37 Both Mylne and Stewart indirection in the M.H,Q. 38 See  Stewart,  p.  raise  this  point  in their  discussion  of  109.  39 ' , Prevost's own family history reveals that his ancestors settled in Artois as early as the fifteenth century. Although Renoncour is supposedly from this region, there is no reason to suggest that there is any substantial autobiographical content in the M.H.Q. 40 The number of readers who beseeched Rousseau to make known the name of Julie in La Nouvelle Helo'ise, suggests that even after 1730 the public remained highly interested in making actual identification. 41 The case of a not so well hidden name involving Provost and the Grand Duke of Florence resulted in a lettre de cachet being issued against PrSvost. The names of not only the Grand Duke but also his brother Jean-Gaston de Medecis were barely disguised behind i n i t i a l s and titles; when the identity of these scandalous individuals portrayed in the M.H.Q. became obvious to all, Prevost had to resort quickly to more subtle means of naming the culprits. Sgard's Variantes (M.H.Q., p. 449) reveal the changes made by Prevost. 42 J. Molino, "L'Espagne Romanesque de Pre'vost", Collogue Provost, p. 73. 43  Ibid.  44 It is interesting to speculate along these lines when one considers that Tome V (rich in factual information about England).' and Tome VII, were both written in 1730-31, corresponding perhaps to a stage in Prevost's career that would eventually see an increased emphasis on historical imitation in his writing. 45 This itinerary as well as many of the accompanying descriptions suggest that Prevost's source for the geographical and cultural material on Spain was Antoine de Brunei's Voyage d'Espagne cu.rieux, historique et politique. Fait en 1'annee 1655. Although Mme. d'Aulnoy's Voyage d'Espagne was also available to Prevost, de Brunei's text shows a closer resemblance. See Molino, Collogue Prevost, pp. 71-72. 46 Madame d'Aulnoy, "Relation du Voyage d'Espagne", edited by Foulche-Delbosc in Revue Hispanique, Vols. LXVII-LXVIII, (New York: n.p., 1926) p. 90. 47 The tour of rural England which was quite probably undertaken by Prevost sometime between 1728 and 1730.  - 75 -  48  Robertson has pointed out a few of Prevost's chronological errors but at the same time has highlighted some of the pitfalls he managed to avoid, indicating that Prevost did, in fact, pay heed to such details in the M.H.Q. (see Robertson, pp. 30-31). 49  . . A similar account is to be found in Amusements of Old London which includes the King, a masked ball, and a joke played involving a musical salute to the Pretender and there is a fair chance that Prevost's anecdote was based on some version of the affair told to him during his first visit to England. See William Boulten, The Amusements of Old London, (London: J.C. Nimmo, 1901) pp. 102-104. 50 Lord  The Complete Peerage, edited by H.A. Doubleday, Howard de Walden, (London: 1945) vol. 8, p. 297. 5 1  William  O.H.  White  Dudley Ryder, The Diary of Dudley Ryder 1715-1716, edited Matthews (London: Methuen and Co. Ltd., 1939) p. 181.  and by  52 When Prevost revised his text m 1756 the few chronological errors or discrepancies that he might have corrected remained untouched. One can but assume that after years of success and public acclaim as an author and translator, Prevost took l i t t l e notice of minor chronological problems in his first novel written over twenty-five years earlier. 53 One should remember that Renoncour's first encounter with the Spanish monarch and his court also coincided with a special day, the feast day of Saint Francis. 54 -The Jacobites and the Union - Being a Narrative- of the Movements of 1708, 1715, 1719 by Several Contemporary Hands. Edited by Charles Sanford Terry (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1922) p. 171. 55 Dudley Ryder, p. 182. t  Ibid, pp. 219-220. The escape reported to have been witnessed Renoncour took place from Newgate and not the Tower. 5 6  57  Robertson,  p.  195.  by  - 76 -  Chapter II F a c t u a l Adaptations  The f o l l o w i n g chapter has been d i v i d e d i n t o two  parts,  each d e a l i n g with a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t aspect of Prevost's use of borrowed m a t e r i a l .  'Historic imitation  upon the events taken from h i s t o r y  touches  ( l a r g e l y concerned with  wars and conquests) which, although predominantly  factual,  have been i n t e r p r e t e d or s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d t o f i t i n t o the context of the memoirs.  The m a t e r i a l c o p i e d from  journals  which i s d i s c u s s e d i n the second p a r t , r e v e a l s an unusual aspect of Prevost's technique; here c e r t a i n passages  have  been taken d i r e c t l y from o t h e r sources and i n many cases copied verbatim i n the t e x t .  Both of these c a t e g o r i e s of  "borrowed" m a t e r i a l s combine to form a v i t a l p a r t of my thesis.  They serve as a convention i n our d i s c u s s i o n of  the v a r i o u s d e v i c e s used t o c r e a t e an i l l u s i o n of r e a l i t y . However, due to t h e i r importance was  and r e l a t i v e s i z e , i t  e a s i e r t o present these techniques s e p a r a t e l y .  Their  c o n t r i b u t i o n to the reader's b e l i e f and t o the a u t h e n t i c appearance  of the memoirs must not be  underestimated.  - 77 -  A.  H i s t o r i c a l Imitation H i s t o r y played a s u b s t a n t i a l r o l e i n i n f l u e n c i n g the memoirnovel and indeed i n p r o v i d i n g the m e m o r i a l i s t with an i n t e r e s t i n g and c h a l l e n g i n g t o o l f o r shaping the b e l i e f of h i s reader.  P o l i t i c a l events, c u r r e n t s o c i a l i s s u e s of  importance,  wars, the a c t i v i t i e s o f m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s and  statemen, were a l l woven i n t o the novel f o r purposes o f authenticity.  For some n o v e l i s t s , e s p e c i a l l y P r e v o s t , merely  u s i n g h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i n works o f f i c t i o n was  less  s a t i s f y i n g than the more d i f f i c u l t c h a l l e n g e of a c t u a l l y i m i t a t i n g the method o f the h i s t o r i a n .  P r o v i d i n g evidence to  s u b s t a n t i a t e a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t , r e f e r r i n g t o h i s sources, r e f u t i n g the o p i n i o n s of e s t a b l i s h e d s c h o l a r s and h i s t o r i a n s and l i s t i n g h i s own q u a l i f i c a t i o n s or c r e d e n t i a l s as a s c h o l a r were popular d e v i c e s used by Prevost.  The pose assumed by  C l e v e l a n d ' s e d i t o r / h i s t o r i a n i s a p e r f e c t example of Prevost's d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o i m i t a t e the h i s t o r i a n ; he enumerates dubious p o i n t s , s u b s t a n t i a t i n g them subsequently sources, even i n v e n t i n g authors  by c i t i n g  historical  f o r a u t h o r i t a t i v e documents  t h a t he has s t u d i e d .  1  In o t h e r i n c i d e n t s , he a l l u d e s t o h i s  own s c h o l a r l y works  (such as h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s and h i s t o r i e s )  a l l the while a d m i t t i n g t h a t e a r l y i n h i s c a r e e r he had 2  indulged i n works of f i c t i o n .  Prevost's success a t h i s t o r i -  c a l i m i t a t i o n i s a t t e s t e d t o by the f a c t t h a t h i s Voyages du C a p i t a i n e Robert  Lade (1745) was "unmasked" o n l y i n 1936; i t  i s s i g n i f i c a n t too t h a t o f seven works o f f i c t i o n p u b l i s h e d  - 78 -  between 1740-1745, two are not catalogued as novels by the 3  Bibliotheque Nationale.  I t i s l i t t l e wonder then that  Prevost's eighteenth-century readers had d i f f i c u l t y i n accurately assessing the proportions of t r u t h and f i c t i o n i n h i s various h i s t o r i e s , voyages and t r a n s l a t i o n s .  What i s  most s u r p r i s i n g , perhaps, i s the amount of e f f o r t that went i n t o producing these l i t e r a r y f o r g e r i e s and we may l e g i t i m a t e l y speculate whether Prevost wished  finally  to be regarded as  an h i s t o r i a n rather than as a w r i t e r of f i c t i o n or whether, i n f a c t , he enjoyed the greater freedom associated with c r e a t i n g l i t e r a r y f o r g e r i e s , duping both reader and  critic  alike. The evidence suggests that Prevost, i n the M.H.Q., was  merely  beginning h i s e x p l o r a t i o n of techniques dependent on h i s t o r i c a l material.  The references, f o r the most p a r t , are comprised o f  data p e r t a i n i n g to p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e s and events.  They are  g e n e r a l l y presented without preamble, are unobtrusive, and subtly woven i n t o the f i c t i o n and, at the same time, are r e l a t i v e l y accurate, suggesting that Prevost was not simply making casual use of events that were common knowledge.  (Occasionally  more obscure recent events are c i t e d , widening, to the author's advantage, the gap i n p u b l i c knowledge, but f o r many of the i n c i d e n t s described the sources are p r e d i c t a b l e , i f not a c t u a l l y known.)  However, the numerous b a t t l e s , p o l i t i c a l power  struggles and current events are incorporated i n the M.H.Q., to form a background s t r u c t u r e f o r Renoncour's adventures, and u n l i k e Prevost's l a t e r works which are often viewed as " r e a l "  - 79 -  biographies or autobiographies, i s o f f e r e d as evidence The  o n l y evidence  no h i s t o r i c a l  t o support  Renoncour's a c t u a l e x i s t e n c e .  we are given i s the testimony  even though the M.H.Q. i s completely this fictitious  documentation  o f the e d i t o r ,  devoted t o the l i f e o f  "man o f the c l o t h " .  In order t o b e t t e r our understanding  o f Prevost's  handling o f  h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i n the M.H.Q. t h e r e f o r e , we w i l l events s e p a r a t e l y : War  ing  the Conquest o f 1688, the A u s t r o - T u r k i s h  o f 1689 and the J a c o b i t e R e b e l l i o n o f 1716-17.  quest  consider  The Con-  o f 1688 i s r e p o r t e d i n Tome I which was w r i t t e n f o l l o w -  Prevost's  Les Aventures de Pomponius, C h e v a l i e r Romain, ou  1 ' H i s t o i r e de notre terns.  The H i s t o i r e de notre terns was  p u b l i s h e d d u r i n g Prevost's  sojourn a t Sees  o n l y was t h i s h i s f i r s t allowed passions  (1724-25) and not  major attempt a t w r i t i n g , i t a l s o  him t o work i n an area t h a t was "une des grandes de sa v i e :  s i n g t o f i n d Prevost,  l'Histoire".  I t i s t h e r e f o r e not s u r p r i -  i n 1728, i n c l u d i n g an h i s t o r i c a l  event  t h a t not o n l y served t o give Renoncour, through h i s a s s o c i a t i o n with w e l l known h i s t o r i c a l personages, a touch o f a u t h e n t i c i t y , but a l s o allowed  Prevost t o indulge i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  h i s t o r y from a p e r s o n a l p o i n t o f view. was  Prevost by t h i s time  s t a r t i n g t o f e e l the r e s t r i c t i v e c o n f i n e s o f h i s r e l i g i o u s  l i f e - s t y l e and was i n r e v o l t a g a i n s t the censure upon h i s o p i n i o n s and freedom o f speech.  inflicted  In the t e x t Renoncour  becomes an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n the s i l e n t  invasion of  England, s e r v i n g as both a common s o l d i e r and a l s o as a s p e c i a l  - 80 -  envoy f o r W i l l i a m o f Orange.  S u r p r i s i n g l y , the hero o f the  M.H.Q., although a Frenchman and a C a t h o l i c , i s a p p a r e n t l y not d i s t u r b e d by the p o t e n t i a l t h r e a t a g l o r i o u s r e v o l u t i o n posed t o the power o f a King who was both a f e l l o w C a t h o l i c and a French a l l y .  Instead Renoncour e x h a l t s the P r i n c e ,  supports h i s i n t e n t i o n s t o save England  from  religious  tyranny and o n l y c r i t i c i z e s the P r i n c e ' s methods when i t appears  t h a t the d e f e a t e d monarch's l i f e may be i n danger.  T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the Conquest o f 1688 i n the M.H.Q. i s not a t a l l r e f l e c t e d i n the Mercure Galant, the Gazette de France, o r the Nouveau J o u r n a l U n i v e r s e l ( l a t e r the Gazette d'Amsterdam).  Indeed, an examination  o f the r e l e v a n t passages  i n these j o u r n a l s l e a d s us t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t P r e v o s t ' s v e r s i o n o f the Conquest and h i s p r a i s e o f W i l l i a m run counter to the usual French a t t i t u d e o f t h i s time.  One c o u l d s p e c u l a t e  t h a t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the author's wish t o s t r i k e a blow a t the establishment he was a l r e a d y i n the process o f r e j e c t i n g .  Rapin's  H i s t o i r e d'Angleterre  (based i n  p a r t on the impressions o f Dr. Burnet who s a i l e d with W i l l i a m ' s f l e e t ) i s r e l a t i v e l y o b j e c t i v e (in s p i t e o f a s l i g h t Huguenot bias) and c o n t a i n s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f e s s e n t i a l l y the same s e r i e s of events and manoeuvres as are found again i n Renoncour's account.  Although  Rapin  source o f h i s t o r i c a l  i s c o n s i d e r e d by Sgard t o be the prime  i n f o r m a t i o n i n C l e v e l a n d , the same cannot  be s a i d f o r the M.H.Q.  For example, Renoncour's r e p o r t o f the  Conquest does not r e f l e c t the same tone, c a r r y the same b i a s ,  - 81 -  nor even i n c l u d e some o f the same s t a t i s t i c s t h a t are i n c l u d e d i n Rapin's h i s t o r y .  Prevost often gives s p e c i f i c f i g u r e s that  are not found i n the H i s t o i r e d ' A n g l e t e r r e ,  such as the exact  number o f D e c l a r a t i o n s t h a t were d i s t r i b u t e d i n E n g l a n d . w e l l , there i s a major d i s c r e p a n c y  5  As  i n the two accounts o f  W i l l i a m o f Orange's r e c e p t i o n by the E n g l i s h people i n the Torbay and Exeter r e g i o n s o f the country.  Prevost  describes  the P r i n c e ' s s u c c e s s f u l l a n d i n g and then h i s immediate a c c l a i m by the m a j o r i t y o f noblemen ready t o g i v e t h e i r arms" to the P r o t e s t a n t cause  "hearts and  (M.H.Q., p. 53). Rapin, on the  other hand, d e s c r i b e s at some l e n g t h the P r i n c e ' s ment and f r u s t r a t i o n a t having  r e c e i v e d no support  discouragefrom the  E n g l i s h army and, i n f a c t , s t a t e s t h a t the e n t i r e campaign was on the b r i n k o f d i s a s t e r when by the t e n t h day, no help had yet a r r i v e d .  6  Although most o f the sources  Prevost were impossible eenth-century had  t o wait  available to  f o r me t o o b t a i n , at l e a s t three e i g h t -  j o u r n a l s t h a t were c o n s u l t e d i n d i c a t e W i l l i a m some time before r e c e i v i n g the support  counted on from the moment o f l a n d i n g at Torbay. f o r e i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t Prevost s e v e r a l l e a d i n g contemporary sources  he had so I t i s there-  a l t e r e d the concensus o f and chose i n s t e a d t o  p o r t r a y t h e P r i n c e as a " s a v i o u r " r a t h e r than as a conqueror. To balance  t h i s s u b j e c t i v e outlook, Prevost a l s o ensured t h a t  the Conquest episode  i n c l u d e d a number o f well-known f a c t s :  the tempest which delayed W i l l i a m o f Orange's f l e e t , t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f the three p r i n c i p a l f i g u r e s who swore t h e i r  - 82 -  a l l e g i a n c e to the P r i n c e , and the movements of the King (his aborted f i r s t escape and h i s t r i p to Rochester) are t o l d with s u f f i c i e n t regard f o r accuracy t h a t , f o r the reader, Renoncour's a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a f f a i r would seem very r e a l .  Thus,  although Rapin was not Prevost's prime source, there i s no doubt that he was consulted to some degree. One i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t o r regarding t h i s h i s t o r i c event i s the use Prevost made of the speculations regarding King James I I ' s escape from p r i s o n .  The King was l e d to Rochester and confined  i n h i s personal chambers u n t i l W i l l i a m could decide upon h i s eventual f a t e .  When, a f t e r being l i g h t l y guarded by a few  men,  the King was able to q u i e t l y depart f o r France, rumours arose that W i l l i a m had s e c r e t l y arranged f o r h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w ' s safe escape.  Renoncour i s p e r s o n a l l y involved i n t h i s mysterious  drama at Rochester when he i s commissioned by the Prince to perform a s p e c i a l s e r v i c e , and w r i t e s to warn the King to f l e e while he i s at Rochester.  Renoncour, i n t u r n , a f r a i d of the  consequences of h i s act of mercy, escapes to the continent. Although the Conquest episode occupies only a few pages i n the t e x t , Prevost was able to obtain good mileage from i t .  As w e l l  as touching upon a f a s c i n a t i n g aspect of William's s t r a t e g y , the account of the Rochester i n t r i g u e , while d i r e c t l y i n v o l v i n g h i s hero (and v i c a r i o u s l y the r e a d e r ) , at the same time provided a convenient means of terminating the episode and arranging f o r Renoncour's future a c t i v i t i e s i n other c o u n t r i e s .  This  personalized " i n s i d e r ' s " view of h i s t o r y , t h e r e f o r e , when used  - 83 -  i n t h i s i n s t a n c e i n f i c t i o n , allowed Prevost t o capture  both  the i m a g i n a t i v e and l i t e r a l b e l i e f o f the reader. The  second h i s t o r i c a l b a t t l e i n Tome I i s a l s o witnessed by  Renoncour, who p l a y s a c o n s i d e r a b l y more humble r o l e i n the success o f the conquering army. ended  The A u s t r o - T u r k i s h war t h a t  (temporarily) i n 1689.with the v i c t o r y o f the Imperial  Army, i s recorded i n c o n s i d e r a b l e d e t a i l i n the t e x t .  The  sources f o r t h i s m a t e r i a l are q u i t e p o s s i b l y the v a r i o u s j o u r n a l s t h a t were a v a i l a b l e t o P r e v o s t , such as the Mercure 9 Galant, Gazette de France and Nouveau J o u r n a l U n i v e r s e l . A l l r e p o r t e d the major skirmishes and gave f i g u r e s f o r the number o f men k i l l e d , wounded, o r captured; i n c l u d e d a l s o were f i r s t - h a n d r e p o r t s as recorded i n the p r i v a t e of i n d i v i d u a l s o l d i e r s . found  correspondence  Despite the b a s i c s i m i l a r i t i e s t o be  i n these j o u r n a l s , there are few exact d u p l i c a t i o n s i n  the M.H.Q. p e r t a i n i n g t o f a c t s and f i g u r e s t h a t would Prevost r e l i e d on any s i n g l e  suggest  source.  Renoncour a r r i v e s i n Cologne on Christmas Eve i n 1688 amidst c e l e b r a t i o n s o f the f e s t i v e season and i n honour o f the new appointment o f Clement de B a v i e r e as Archbishop E l e c t o r .  1 0  He  notes the proclamation by Herman of Baden, on b e h a l f o f the Emperor, avait  11  declare  d e c l a r i n g war a g a i n s t France: la France  et le cardinal  la Diete  de Furstemberg  de Ratisbonne •  ennemis de I 'Empereur  12  (M.H.Q., p. 56).  Not wishing t o become d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n  a s t r u g g l e between France and Germany, Renoncour t r a v e l s to  - 84 -  Vienna where he meets some i n f l u e n t i a l noblemen who arrange f o r h i s e n t r y i n t o the army o f Ludwig o f Baden, the o f f i c e r 13  i n charge o f the T u r k i s h campaign. adventures and m i l i t a r y achievements  Renoncour s 1  subsequent  are d e s c r i b e d i n the  M.H.Q. with c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e c i s i o n ; he r e p o r t s , f o r example, the a c t u a l number o f cannons captured, the exact time o f t h e i r a t t a c k on Nyssa, and the number o f enemy s o l d i e r s  encountered.  J  He a l s o r e v e a l s the m i l i t a r y s t r a t e g y o f Ludwig o f Baden by s h a r i n g with the reader the o p t i o n s t h a t were l e f t open t o the German commander.  References t o the f l i g h t o f the enemy,  the l a c k o f r e s i s t a n c e a t the t a k i n g o f Nyssa and the l a t e r p i l l a g i n g o f Widin are found i n s i m i l a r d e t a i l i n both the M.H.Q. and j o u r n a l i s t i c v e r s i o n s o f the campaign. one i n t e r e s t i n g rumour t h a t was c i r c u l a t e d  However,  (only i n the  Gazette de France) concerning a p l o t a g a i n s t the l i f e o f the 15  Margrave Ludwig was a p p a r e n t l y overlooked by P r e v o s t .  It  i s u s u a l l y i n s i t u a t i o n s l i k e t h i s t h a t Prevost chose t o i n t e r m i x hearsay and complete  f i c t i o n , drawing the reader  more c l o s e l y i n t o the n a r r a t i v e . Although i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s p e c u l a t e upon the a l t e r a t i o n s e v i d e n t i n P r e v o s t ' s account o f the Conquest  o f 1688, the  m i l i t a r y campaign i n Turkey does not r e f l e c t any obvious b i a s . The A u s t r o - T u r k i s h war as d e p i c t e d i n the memoirs p r o v i d e s no p a r t i c u l a r i n s i g h t i n t o the p e r s o n a l i t y o f the hero, o r i n t o the c h a r a c t e r o f the German people.  There i s no i n s i d e  story  r e v e a l e d by the hero, nor i s t h e r e any dramatic appeal, sus-  - 85 -  pense or i n t r i g u e and,  t h e r e f o r e , the episode  s e p a r a t e l y from others  i n the n o v e l , s e r v i n g mainly as a  f a c t u a l h i s t o r i c base f o r the f i c t i o n .  seems to e x i s t  A t h i r d and  distinctly  d i f f e r e n t approach can be seen i n Prevost's handling of the J a c o b i t e r e b e l l i o n which i s found i n Tome V of the M.H.Q. The m a t e r i a l which comprises Prevost's  f i f t h tome has  already  been touched upon from the p o i n t of view of i t s g e o g r a p h i c a l r e a l i s m and  i t s c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , and  s i n c e Rober-  son's e x c e l l e n t c r i t i c a l e d i t i o n provides a good assessment of the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of Prevost's my  own  factual  information,  d i s c u s s i o n of such h i s t o r i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t h i s  volume w i l l be centred around Prevost's ard  sources.  The  first  d e v i a t i o n s from  stand-  and most e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e to be noted about  Renoncour s p o l i t i c a l adventures of 1716  as opposed to  1  those  of 1688-89, i s h i s l a c k of p e r s o n a l  involvement or a c t i v e  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l a t e r events.  The  becomes an impersonal  observer  author of the memoirs  i n a foreign c i t y that i s  s u f f e r i n g from i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l  strife.  U n l i k e the  accounts provided of e a r l i e r h i s t o r i c a l events, what were s t i l l spersed  brief  r e f e r e n c e s to  f a i r l y recent J a c o b i t e a f f a i r s are here  throughout the e n t i r e tome, and  Prevost takes  inter-  advantage  of the p r o x i m i t y of such events by adding to h i s t e x t exact r e f e r e n c e s and p r e c i s e d e t a i l s t h a t he knew would be at l e a s t vaguely  f a m i l i a r , i f not a c t u a l l y known by h i s  reader.  17  - 86  -  Renoncour's a r r i v a l i n England, as mentioned e a r l i e r , c o i n c i d e s with the day of sentencing of the J a c o b i t e r e b e l s and t h e i r supporters.  London was a l i v e with p o l i t i c a l fervor and Renon-  cour soon becomes swept up i n the emotional atmosphere that preceded the execution of two rebel l o r d s .  Significantly,  Prevost's p o r t r a i t of George I i s t h a t of a sympathetic monarch who,  fliohi  -'par "les  ':l~arrrie;si de leurs  I'execution  pendant  quelques  plus  de leur  crime,  etendu  (M.H.Q., p. 231).  jours,  (les  prisonniers)  sous pretexte  et des ressorts  de tirer  secrets  de la  epouses, d'eux  suspendit un  detail  conspiration;  By most accounts the King was r e s o l u t e i n  h i s determination to execute Lords Derwentwater and Kennure, and was n e i t h e r moved by, nor i n t e r e s t e d i n , the t e a r s of t h e i r wives.  Lady Derwentwater managed to gain access to the King  on February 17, but her pleas and.prayers were disdained and he d i d not receive her p e t i t i o n .  Yet, determined to save her  husband, she gained the support of enough Lords to r a i s e a debate i n the House on February 22, at which time i t was decided to read her p e t i t i o n to the King.  This he received on February 18  23, and by a l l accounts, was d i s p l e a s e d . place the f o l l o w i n g day.  The execution took  Thus, the delay was a c t u a l l y  caused  by the House debates, which were lengthy and very heated; the tears went unnoticed.  The pleas of another w i f e , Lady N i t h s -  dale,(according to a l e t t e r sent to her s i s t e r ) , were also brushed aside; although she approached the monarch on bended knees and clutched at h i s robes, she was rudely ignored and a f t e r being dragged some d i s t a n c e , was f o r c i b l y removed from 19  the room.  Prevost's p o r t r a y a l of Lady N i t h s d a l e ' s encounter  - 87 -  with the King does not suggest  the f r u s t r a t i o n and h u m i l i a t i o n  no doubt experienced by the w i f e ; i n s t e a d , i n h i s p o r t r a y a l , her e x a s p e r a t i o n was surpassed o n l y by her d e t e r m i n a t i o n and, a c c o r d i n g t o Renoncour, she a l s o p e r s i s t e d i n her appeals t o the other members o f the c o u r t , a l l o f whom r e f u s e d t h e i r s e r vices.  The account  i n the M.H.Q. o f N i t h s d a l e ' s escape from  p r i s o n does n o t , a p p a r e n t l y , correspond or p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n s .  t o any o f the popular  Moreover, perhaps i n order t o g i v e  s o l e c r e d i t t o the e n t e r p r i s i n g young w i f e , Prevost  avoids  20  mentioning  two female accomplices.  He a l s o b a r e l y mentions  the guard without whose a s s i s t a n c e the escape c o u l d not have been accomplished.  Thus, Prevost has chosen t o expand upon  the h i s t o r i c a l event by p o r t r a y i n g Lady N i t h s d a l e as a romantic  h e r o i n e , p a s s i o n a t e l y i n l o v e and desperate t o save  her husband.  Renoncour s supposed meeting with the t e a r f u l 1  w i f e a t the French Embassy and h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o share her g r i e f are d e t a i l s which do not correspond account, story.  t o any h i s t o r i c a l  but which do c o n t r i b u t e t o the dramatic  impact  o f the  An i n t e r e s t i n g c o i n c i d e n c e i s t h a t Lady N i t h s d a l e  r e t i r e d t o La F l e c h e i n 1717, the same year t h a t Prevost i s known t o have been t h e r e .  Although  there i s no evidence t o  prove t h a t they met, i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t Prevost spoke then with Lady N i t h s d a l e , and t h a t she was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r shaping  some o f h i s ideas a decade l a t e r i n the M.H.Q.  21  Another example o f the use made by Prevost o f known f a c t s i s the romance between Mylady R. and Renoncour.  The executed  - 88 -  Lord Derwentwater was  r e p o r t e d i n the t e x t to have had a l o v e r 22  whose i d e n t i t y i s given as Lady R.  I t would seem t h a t  Prevost used Derwentwater s name and then invented a l o v e r 1  who  becomes i n v o l v e d i n a s e r i e s of adventures; she implores Renoncour t o h e l p arrange her escape t o France, she proposes a romantic involvement with the author, and she l a t e r becomes the well-meaning of N a d i n e s 1  but i n t e r f e r i n g romantic who  husband.  causes the death  Lady R. i s one of the n o v e l ' s more v i v i d  and i n t e r e s t i n g c h a r a c t e r s , remaining  through  her a s s o c i a t i o n  with Derwentwater, n e v e r t h e l e s s c l o s e l y connected with the 1  h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t i e s of the M.H.Q.  Today one s t i l l  seeks to  v e r i f y her e x i s t e n c e and we continue t o ponder the degree of t r u t h c o n t a i n e d i n P r e v o s t ' s account. U n c e r t a i n t y as t o where t o d i v i d e f a c t from f i c t i o n i n P r e v o s t ' s memoir-novel i s perhaps most c l e a r l y f e l t when we examine the case of S i r Roger Mostyn.  Having  spent n e a r l y two weeks i n  London and having r e p o r t e d the e x e c u t i o n of the r e b e l  lords,  Renoncour updates h i s memoirs by reviewing some recent developments:  the Whigs and T o r i e s were a t t a c k i n g each other over the  support given by some l o r d s t o the J a c o b i t e cause.  As a  r e s u l t , Lords Nottingham, F i n c h and Guernsey, with the E a r l of A y l e s f o r d and S i r Roger Mostyn, were d i s m i s s e d from duties.  2 3  their  From t h i s h i s t o r i c a l s t r u g g l e of the Peers as d e p i c -  t e d by P r e v o s t emerges the s t o r y of S i r Roger Mostyn, whose tender attachment  to the a c t r e s s Anne O l d f i e l d l e d him to  depart from London i n g r e a t d e s p a i r .  We  are t o l d t h a t Mostyn  - 89 -  was  C a p t a i n of the Fourth Company of S c o t t i s h Guards, t h a t he  proposed marriage to Anne O l d f i e l d , and t h a t having been turned down (Anne p r e f e r r e d the a t t e n t i o n s o f B r i g a d i e r chill,  Chur-  b r o t h e r of Marlborough), S i r Roger r e t i r e d to h i s  estates.  Some of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s supposedly communicated  by Mostyn t o Renoncour at a d i n n e r p a r t y h e l d at the home of the  Duke of Devonshire  (M.H.Q., p. 240).  Robertson concludes  that Prevost's information i n t h i s respect i s inaccurate; i n 1716 Mostyn was married t o the daughter of the Duke of N o t t i n g ham  and thus i n no p o s i t i o n to o f f e r matrimony t o Anne.  Furthermore, i n t h a t same year Lord Dundonnel was  C a p t a i n of 24  the  m i l i t a r y company supposedly b e l o n g i n g to Mostyn.  Robertson h e r s e l f has p o i n t e d out, many such p r e c i s e given i n the t e x t f o r the year 1716  As details  i n f a c t took p l a c e i n l a t e r  y e a r s , years c o i n c i d i n g with P r e v o s t ' s own  v i s i t , to England.  In -contrast, however,-! researched Anne\s e a r l y .years .instead, hoping to f i n d a p o s s i b l e l i n k w i t h the account i n the M.H.Q., and d i s c o v e r e d t h a t , i n 1700 Anne O l d f i e l d , S i r Roger Mostyn and George Farquhar were c l o s e l y connected.  Farquhar was i n 25  l o v e with Anne and i t appears t h a t she became h i s m i s t r e s s . Furthermore, Farquhar's p l a y , The Constant Couple or A T r i p to the  J u b i l e e , which c e n t r e d around the s t o r y of t h r e e men  a l l had the same m i s t r e s s , Lady L u r e w e l l , was Roger i n 1699.  who  dedicated to S i r  In the d e d i c a t i o n , Farquhar a t t r i b u t e d to S i r  Roger, "the f i r e of youth, the sedateness o f a Senator, the modern g a i e t y of a f i n e E n g l i s h gentleman, d i t y o f the a n c i e n t B r i t o n . "  26  and the noble  soli-  I f , w i t h i n t h i s t r i a n g l e of  - 90 -  youth and passion, Mostyn f e l l  i n love with O l d f i e l d ,  histori-  27  cal  r e c o r d s do not, a p p a r e n t l y , t e l l  us.  In 1700  was unmarried and c o u l d , no doubt, have been moved t o propose matrimony. in  Mostyn  sufficiently  The p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s too that  1730 Prevost might have heard some o f the rumours t h a t were  still  c i r c u l a t i n g about the love a f f a i r s o f the famed a c t r e s s ,  renowned f o r both her p a s s i o n a t e nature and u p r i g h t Although her l i a i s o n s with Mainwaring  character.  and C h u r c h i l l were known,  even her contemporaries seem t o have been unable t o d i s c o v e r d e t a i l s o f her other l o v e r s and the reason O l d f i e l d married.  never  What i s o f prime importance, however, i s t h a t Pre-  v o s t ' s contemporaries found t h i s episode o f the M.H.Q. t o be s u f f i c i e n t l y c o n v i n c i n g t o use i t as a p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e ' f o r t h e i r own works. prompter  In 1749,  f o r example, W.R. Chetwood, former  a t Drury Lane, p u b l i s h e d A General H i s t o r y o f the  Stage, i n c l u d i n g , i n a s e c t i o n d e d i c a t e d t o Mrs. O l d f i e l d , the f o l l o w i n g comment:  "You may read i f you p l e a s e , what a French  Author wrote on t h i s i n i m i t a b l e a c t r e s s , as w e l l as some 28  Touches on our E n g l i s h drama."  The s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s an a c -  count taken from the M.H.Q. and i s a near t r a n s l a t i o n o f 29  Prevost's text  (M.H.Q., pp. 240-241).  Can we assume t h a t  Chetwood's French Author was Prevost o r was he r e f e r r i n g t o the of the  author o f the memoirs who met Mostyn?  The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  a t l e a s t one modern biographer suggests t h a t the author was man who dined with S i r R o g e r ;  30  i n e i t h e r case, the French  Author's s t o r y was regarded as r e l i a b l e .  The f a c t t h a t the  - 91 -  i n f o r m a t i o n about Mostyn's m i l i t a r y c a r e e r i s i n c o r r e c t not  does  seem t o have bothered Chetwood o r l a t e r s c h o l a r s .  Chetwood was w i l l i n g t o t r u s t the  account o f the  Either  French Author  without q u e s t i o n i n g h i s sources, o r he knew t h a t the r e p o r t e d i n the M.H.Q. a c c u r a t e l y of 1730.  31  For  r e f l e c t e d the  the modern reader i n t e r e s t e d  illusion, historical  imitation  London g o s s i p  i n techniques o f  and a u t h e n t i c i t y  i n the memoir-  n o v e l , t h i s p a r t i c u l a r episode demonstrates t h a t the b e l i e f was sometimes e a s i l y won;  affair  reader's  h i s t o r y used as a t o o l t o  lend v e r a c i t y t o f i c t i o n c o u l d be e f f e c t i v e t o a degree s u r p a s s i n g what some authors c o u l d have p o s s i b l y Although n e a r l y r e f l e c t e d the  a l l of Prevost's Jacobite information r e l i a b l y  c u r r e n t news and o p i n i o n s o f London, one episode  contains a noticeable error: B r i g a d i e r Mackintosh from  d'autres 1716  rebelles  imagined.  Renoncour witnesses the  la tour  (M.H.Q. , p. 268).  de Londres,  escape o f  avec un grand  nombre  Mackintosh escaped May 4,  from Newgate and Prevost used t h i s escape t o f u l l  advan-  tage, making Renoncour's eye-witness account a f u r t h e r  proof  J'ai dit que nous fumes temoins  de cet  of  his  presence i n London.  evenement,  parce  qu 'ayant  ete invites  demeurait  pres  de Tower-Hill,  maison.,  (M.H.Q., p. 269)  in his version  o f the  a souper  par un de nos amis, qui  nous vvmes le combat,  des fenetres  de sa  C l e a r l y Prevost wished t o be p r e c i s e  escape and we note t h a t the M.H.Q.  account resembles very c l o s e l y i n s t y l e and substance one written was  by the  a possible  h i s t o r i a n Lamberty, suggesting that source.  32  Lamberty  P r e v o s t , l i k e other authors who  ~ 92 -  tampered w i t h f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l i n memoir-novels, o c c a s i o n a l l y made a c a r e l e s s and obvious The  remainder  error.  o f J a c o b i t e r e f e r e n c e s i n the t e x t are of a more  g e n e r a l nature, and once again i n d i c a t e t h a t Prevost was w e l l informed even about the more obscure c l o s i n g moments of the Scottish rebellion. Robertson  One p a r t i c u l a r passage not d i s c u s s e d by  i n d i c a t e s the f a t e o f some o f the r e b e l  chiefs:  En effet,'-qn regut,, au bout de quelques jours, des avis certains que les comtes Marshall et de Southesk, le Marquis de Tullibardine, le vicomte de Kilsiek et trente autres chefs des rebelles avaient mis pied a terre sur les cotes de France. (M.H.Q. , p. 269)  As with a l l o f the J a c o b i t e m a t e r i a l used i n the M.H.Q., t h i s newsworthy item i s r e p o r t e d t o the reader by someone who supposedly was there a t the r i g h t time and who bore witness t o the r e a c t i o n o f ^Englishmen  t o the i n t e r n a l u n r e s t .  One c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t should be made i n connection with P r e v o s t ' s use o f p r e c i s e h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l concerns lem t h a t occurs when the t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y c r i t i c assess the impact  the prob-  t r i e s to  o f such m a t e r i a l on the reader o f 1730.  To  what e x t e n t , f o r example, can we assume t h a t such f a c t s d i d indeed enhance the e d i t o r ' s claims t o v e r a c i t y ?  How many o f  P r e v o s t ' s readers were i n a p o s i t i o n t o d e t e c t i n the t e x t a c a r e l e s s use o f f a c t s o r an erroneous known events?  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of w e l l -  Mylne, s e n s i t i v e t o the e f f e c t t h a t " d i s t a n c e  i n time" has on the reader o f f i c t i o n , assesses the problem i n the f o l l o w i n g manner:  - 93 -  In the majority of cases, the factual detail.which, by its familiarity, might help the eighteenth-century reader to believe in the book, has now lost its force and has acquired instead the remoteness of history. (This is a necessary consequence of systematic 'realism' which all too few writers and critics seem to remember.) , 34  When Renoncour t e l l s the exact number o f enemy cannons capt u r e d , can we applaud P r e v o s t ' s use o f such minor d e t a i l s , assuming t h a t i t was f o r the sake o f a u t h e n t i c i t y t h a t p r e c i s i o n arose?  such  One c o u l d d i s c u s s t h i s , or s i m i l a r examples,  from many p e r s p e c t i v e s ,  but t o do so would r e q u i r e an exten-  s i v e examination of a l l aspects o f P r e v o s t ' s n a r r a t i v e  tech-  n i q u e s , an undertaking beyond the scope o f my t h e s i s . We must conclude, I t h i n k , t h a t the minor d e t a i l was i n s t r u mental  i n l e n d i n g an a i r o f a u t h e n t i c i t y t o the memoirs, and  as w e l l , t h a t the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y reader f o r the most p a r t was capable o f responding t o these d e t a i l s which he (even more than today's reader) accepted as t r u e .  I f , on the other hand,  we take the view t h a t the reader o f t h a t p e r i o d was o f t e n i n no p o s i t i o n t o a p p r e c i a t e  the r e l a t i v e accuracy of c e r t a i n  minor d e t a i l s , we can s t i l l  propose t h a t the mere presence of  " t r i v i a " had a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on h i s unconscious  response.  T h i s i s not t o say t h a t other f a c t o r s d i d not a l s o a f f e c t the reader's response; i n f a c t , the very use o f t h e f i r s t mode., i s an example. problem of d i s t a n c e encouraged  person  However, once again we r e t u r n t o the i n time.  While today's c r i t i c a l reader i s  t o examine the form, the i n t e r n a l l o g i c , and the  techniques t h a t work w i t h i n the n a r r a t i v e t o give an i l l u s i o n  - 94 -  of r e a l i t y t o the n o v e l , i t must be remembered t h a t t h i s modern approach i s taken by readers who are s c h o l a r s equipped to analyse P r e v o s t ' s technique and not by the popular reader, the audience, we can assume, f o r whom Prevost c r e a t e d h i s novel.  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  e v i d e n t when one c o n s i d e r s the  numerous e x t e r n a l t r a p p i n g s t h a t were deemed necessary by the conventions of t h a t p e r i o d , t r a p p i n g s t h a t today are r a t h e r too obvious and can i n t e r f e r e with our a p p r e c i a t i o n of the work as a whole.  - 95 -  B.  Borrowed M a t e r i a l from French J o u r n a l s The  s i x t h volume of Le Pour e t Contre c o n t a i n s not o n l y  P r e v o s t ' s frank a p p r a i s a l of the h i s t o r i c value of the M.H.Q., C l e v e l a n d and Le Doyen de K i l l e r i n e , but a l s o some comments on the nature of works w r i t t e n by o t h e r contemporary authors  authors;  who  prennent ainsi plaisir plaire ils sgavent que et qu 'un reait de pure non plus les personnes  a oonfondre paroe qu' eorivant pour la verite seule ne pla'€t pas toujours, imagination ne sgauroit satisfaire de bons sens. 3  35  I t would seem t h a t P r e v o s t ' s concept of a melange de fictions  et  36  de veritez  i n v o l v e s b a s i c a l l y a q u e s t i o n of p r o p o r t i o n s , d e t e r -  mining what degree of t r u t h i s r e q u i r e d t o s a t i s f y the demands of a d i s c r i m i n a t i n g reader. history  Because he d e a l t mainly with  (which by i t s very nature i s both f a c t u a l and  Prevost was  arbitrary)  able t o a l t e r events or at l e a s t i n t e r p r e t them to  s u i t h i s p a r t i c u l a r purpose.  T h i s i s not so much the case f o r  those s e c t i o n s of the memoirs c o p i e d d i r e c t l y from newspapers or j o u r n a l s .  S e v e r a l passages,  f o r example, were transposed  almost verbatim from the Gazette de France and the Mercure Galant.  For the most p a r t the borrowed m a t e r i a l c o n s i s t s of  a few b r i e f sentences d e s c r i b i n g s o c i a l events such as f u n e r a l s , c e l e b r a t i o n s , or the r e c e n t a c t i v i t i e s of f o r e i g n  celebrities.  Seldom does Renoncour become i n v o l v e d d i r e c t l y i n the event. Although t r y i n g to i d e n t i f y such borrowed passages  i n Prevost's  work,can be a d i f f i c u l t , even f u t i l e t a s k , such a study, i f s u c c e s s f u l , can r e v e a l i n t e r e s t i n g c l u e s about the author and  - 96 -  h i s memoirs.  We know t h a t i n 1735, f o r example, Prevost  denounced w r i t e r s who r e s o r t e d t o copying from o t h e r sources. C i t i n g the wealth o f o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l from which t o draw, P r e v o s t , i n f a c t , s t a t e d t h a t he wished never t o f a l l la neoessite travail,  de piller  soit  en leur  les autres, servant  37  Ouvrages.  soit  d 'Echo,  en m' appropriant par de longs  ^  sources i n the same category,  le fruit  extraits .  Obviously Prevost d i d not p l a c e  into de leur  de leurs .  .  journalistic  s i n c e d i r e c t newspaper  accounts  p r o v i d e d him an e f f e c t i v e means f o r a c h i e v i n g a u t h e n t i c i t y , and i n some cases one suspects t h a t they a c t u a l l y shaped the d i r e c t i o n o f the rambling p l o t .  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , nearly a l l of  the newspaper sources i d e n t i f i e d  so f a r date from 1729, j u s t  p r i o r t o P r e v o s t ' s hasty departure from France.  Tome IV,  c o v e r i n g Renoncour's sojourn i n Spain and P o r t u g a l , p r o v i d e s the m a j o r i t y o f examples. The departure o f the man o f q u a l i t y from h i s monastic  retreat  takes p l a c e some time a f t e r the s i g n i n g o f the T r e a t y o f Utrecht.  H i s f i r s t noteworthy s o c i a l appearance i n Madrid i s  made at the f u n e r a l o f a C a r m e l i t e nun, the i l l e g i t i m a t e daughter  o f C a r d i n a l I n f a n t Don Fernand.  Perhaps i n order t o  ensure t h a t Renoncour was i n the r i g h t p l a c e a t the r i g h t  time,  or perhaps a l s o t o g i v e some c h r o n o l o g i c a l shape t o t h i s volume, Prevost sought out an event which was not o n l y w e l l attended i n Madrid, the French j o u r n a l s .  but more i m p o r t a n t l y , was a l s o c a r r i e d i n Although P r e v o s t ' s n a r r a t i v e i s not an  exact d u p l i c a t i o n of t h a t recorded i n the newspaper, the c l o s e  -  similarity  leaves l i t t l e  97 -  doubt  as t o t h e c o n n e c t i o n between  38 the  two accounts.  Vers le commencement de septembre, nous eumes la curiosite d'assister a un spectacle qui attira toute la cour et une partie du peuple de Madrid. Ce fut I'enterrement d'une religieuse carmelite qui etait la fille naturelle du C.J.D.F. Elle s 'appelait soeur Marianne de la croix D. . . .. Elle etait nee a Bruxelles en 1641, et ayant ete amenee a Madrid des I 'age de cinq ans, elle avait ete renfermee dans le monastere des Carmelites dechaussees de cette ville, ou elle avait vecu avec beaucoup de piete jusqu'a I'age de soixantequinze ans. Tous les grands assisterent a ses funerailles par ordre du roi; et le meme jour, sa majeste donna la grandesse aux abbesses de ce monastere, qui est de fondation royale. (M.H.Q., p. 135) From t h e Gazette de France appeared  De Madrid,  the following  announcement.  le 9 Septembre 1715.  Le 3 de ce mois, Soeur Marianne de la Croix et d' Austriche, mourut au Monastere des Religieuses Carmelites Deschaussees de cette Ville, dgee de soixante et quinze ans. Elle estoit fille naturelle du Cardinal Infant Don Fernand, et elle estoit nee a Bruxelles le 26 de Juillet 1641. Elle fut mise dans ce Monastere a I 'age de cinq ans, ou elle prit I 'habit, et elle a vescu tousjours avec une grand, piete. Tous les Grands assisterent a ses funerailles, par^ ordre du Roy; et le meme jour, sa Mayeste donna la Grandesse aux Abbesses de ce Royal Monastere. ^ 3  There  i s nothing p a r t i c u l a r l y  significant  t i o n s made by P r e v o s t ; he d i d d i s g u i s e bother t o g i v e ) Marianne's  complete  about  (or p o s s i b l y d i d n o t  name, choosing i n s t e a d t o  adopt the c o n v e n t i o n a l p r a c t i s e o f g i v i n g o n l y Immediately is  f o l l o w i n g t h i s borrowed  the few a l t e r a -  passage  initials.  from the Gazette  another announcement, t h i s time reproduced i n almost  perfect  word o r d e r .  Le onzieme du meme mois, un courrier depeche de Paris par le prince de Cellamare, ambassadeur d'Espagne a la cour de France, apporta au roi la nouvelle de la mort du roi tres-chretien, son grand-pere. Des le lendemain, on publia ordre d'en porter le grand deuil . . . (M.H.Q. , p. 135)  - 98 -  The Gazette c o n t a i n e d the Be Madrid,  following:  le 16 Septembre  1715.  Le 11 de ce mois, un Courier depesche de Paris par le Prince de Cellamare Ambassadeur d'Espagne a la Cour de France, apporta au Roy la nouvelle de la mort du Roy Tres-Chrestien son grandpere, arrivee le Ier de ce mois, a huit heures et un quart du matin. Le 12, on publia ordre d'en porter le grand deuil . . . 4 0  Although the news about the King's death was completing the sequence i n v o l v i n g gift  of f o r e s i g h t ,  contribution  instrumental i n  Renoncour's dream and h i s  i t i s not immediately apparent what other  t h i s episode makes t o the memoirs.  Reasons f o r  P r e v o s t ' s q u a s i - p l a g i a r i s m of t h i s event from the Gazette on grounds Other than convenience, are d i f f i c u l t own  v e r s i o n would s u r e l y  t o imagine.  His  have s u f f i c e d .  A t h i r d c o n s e c u t i v e r e f e r e n c e from the Gazette i n t r o d u c e s the f i r s t paragraph of L i v r e Septieme  (the s i x t h book c l o s e s with  the announcement of L o u i s XIV's death).  In t h i s  particular  case, the borrowed m a t e r i a l c o n t r i b u t e s t o the n a r r a t i v e that  Prevost uses the King's attendance at mass as an  in  oppor-  tunity  f o r Renoncour t o make the acquaintance of the monarch.  I t was  a common p r a c t i c e  f o r the King and h i s f a m i l y t o attend  mass at the church of a p a r t i c u l a r Thus on the f e a s t day of S a i n t  s a i n t on h i s f e a s t  F r a n c i s of A s s i s i  the King made h i s a n t i c i p a t e d  appearance.  verbatim, i t i s p o s s i b l e  Prevost's text  that  day.  (October 4 t h ) ,  Although not c o p i e d again comes from  the Gazette de France. J'appris chapelle de tous  que le jour de Saint Frangois, le roi devait tenir dans I'eglise de ce saint, et qu'il y serait accompagne les grands. Il faut y paraxtre, dis-je au marquis . . .  (M.H.Q., p.  137)  - 99 -  De Madrid,  le 7 Octobre  1715.  Le jour de Saint Frangois, tint Chapelle dans I 'Eglise  It  le Roy aaaompagne de tous de oe Saint.  les Grands,  i s not improbable t h a t P r e v o s t , wishing t o p r o v i d e a f a c t u a l  base f o r Renoncour s Spanish sojourn i n 1715, sought h i s mat-':', 1  erial  from t h e Gazette and then o r g a n i z e d h i s hero's  around the major events r e p o r t e d . of  activities  Searching through back 'issues  a newspaper i n search o f a u t h e n t i c a t i n g touch-ups  for this  tome o f the M.H.Q. i s a p u r s u i t not commonly a s s o c i a t e d with the  author o f Tome V I I .  A f u r t h e r example, a l s o found i n the f o u r t h tome, i l l u s t r a t e s the  use Prevost made o f j o u r n a l s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f h i s  novel. the  The event i n v o l v e s the t a k i n g of Majorca i n the War of  Spanish S u c c e s s i o n .  Renoncour, some time around the b e g i n -  n i n g o f October, encounters a young Frenchman, B r i s s a n t , who has r e c e n t l y a r r i v e d i n Madrid.  When asked t o e x p l a i n h i s  presence i n Spain, B r i s s a n t launches i n t o the s t o r y of h i s departure from P a r i s , h i s c o r r u p t i o n as a r e s u l t o f h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the p i r a t e Andredi and, f i n a l l y , h i s unavoidable encounter with the f l e e t of the C h e v a l i e r d ' A s f e l d .  histoire  which; occupies  Brissant's  j u s t . over. four, pages i n the t e x t , i s  l a r g e l y taken from the French j o u r n a l s and i t would appear the  that  v a r i o u s components o f h i s adventure were worked together  a c c o r d i n g t o a c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence.  F o r example, B r i s s a n t  c l a i m s that he l e f t France approximately e i g h t months before meeting Renoncour i n the month o f October.  H i s departure  - 100 -  c o i n c i d e d with t h a t o f l e marquis de Durazzo.  Brissant  explains: J'appris que le marquis de Durazzo, envoye extraordinaire de la republique de Genes, avait regu d Versailles son audience de conge et qu'il se preparait a partir; cette occasion me parut favorable. (M.H.Q. , p. 156)  The  Gazette de France r e p o r t e d e s s e n t a l l y De Versailles,  le 4 Janvier  the same  thing.  1715  le Marquis Durazzo Envoye Extraordinaire de la Republique de Genes, eut audience de conge de Madame et de Monsieur le Due d'Orleans, conduit par le Chavalier Sainclot, Introducteur des Ambassadeur.  I f B r i s s a n t was i n Madrid i n l a t e September-early October and  l e f t Paris  i n January  (the date suggested i n the G a z e t t e ) ,  the  r e f e r e n c e t o e i g h t months would f i t i n t o t h i s time p e r i o d .  Furthermore, B r i s s a n t i n d i c a t e s Majorca  t h a t , a f t e r the t a k i n g o f  (July 1715), he spent two t o three months i n Cadix  before f i n a l l y going t o Madrid; again t h i s would put him i n the  c a p i t a l c i t y i n l a t e September or e a r l y  October.  It i s  understandable t h a t Prevost wished t o i n c l u d e b r i e f l y some r e f e r e n c e t o the War o f the Spanish Succession. interesting  i s t h a t t h i s m a t e r i a l , which seems t o have been  transposed verbatim from the j o u r n a l s ,  has been handled by  Prevost d i f f e r e n t l y from the " f a c t s and f i g u r e s " f o r the m i l i t a r y compaigns used i n Tome I. early and  stage i n the M.H.Q., he r e f e r r e d  h i s t o r i c a l chronicles,  h i s source.  What i s  he p r o v i d e d  Clearly,  a t an  t o v a r i o u s newspapers  but l a t e r c o p i e d d i r e c t l y from  The f o l l o w i n g t e x t u a l  P r e v o s t ' s dependency on the French  comparison demonstrates journals.  - 101  -  Notre navigation fut courte et heureuse; mais nous etant avances sans precaution vers Palma, nous tombdmes dans la flotte du chevalier d'Hasfeld, qui etait parti de Barcelone pour aller soumettre cette ville au roi d'Espagne . . . Le chevalier Hasfeld avait dessein d'abord de faire, sa descente sur une plage du cote de Palma, ou les rebell.es s'etaient retranches ; mais le vent etant devenu contraire, on tourna vers le nord, Le comte de Lescherenne, marechal de camp, eut ordre d'aller reconnaxtre la cote' et les haut- . eurs; . . . le debarquement commenga d cinq heures du soir, et fut adheve d dix ou onze heures sans la moindre resistance. Nous marchdmes vers Alcudia . . . c'est une ville assez forte, a I'orient de l'%le, environ a sept lieues de Palma. Le chevalier d'Hasfeld prit le devant, a la tete d'un detachement dont j'etais, pendant que le reste des troupes suivait en diligence . . . Il se trouva dans la place cinquante-deux pieces de canon, et quantite de munitions et de vivres. Nous primes de Id le chemin de la capitale, qui ne fit pas plus de resistance. Milord Forbes et un officier allemand en sortirent pour traiter des conditions . . . On fit avancer I'artillerie, qui avait debarque a la baie de Porras. Lorsqu'on eut tout dispose pour 1'attaque, dom Rubi, colonel espagnol, qui comrnandait dans la place, offrit de capituler . . . Dds le soir, dom Rubi fit sortir un officier avec quelques articles de la capitulation qu'il pretendait obtenir . . . Je quittai le regiment de la marine lorsque je vis la guerre presqu 'aussitdt finie que commencde. (M.H.Q. , pp. 159-160)  The  Gazette de  France and  t a i n e d n e a r l y a l l of the  the Mercure Galant together conabove i n f o r m a t i o n from the M.H.Q.  La flote chargee de vingt-quatre Bataillons sous les ordres du Chevalier d'Hasfelt Lieutenant General,' partit de Barcelone le 10 Juin, et arriva le 14 a la veue de I'Isle. On avait dessein de faire descente en une plage du coste de Palma, ou les Rebelles estoient retranchez: mais le vent estant contraire, on tourna vers Nord . . . on depeche une Lance avec le comte de Lecherenne pour reconnoitre ce Port. Le debarquement commenga a cinq heures du soir et fut acheve d dix heures avec beaucoup d' ordre, sans bruit et sans resistance . . . ~* elles marcherent le 17 vers Alcudia. Le Chevalier d'Asfeldprit les devants avec un detachement pendant que le reste des troupes debarquees suivoit avec toute la diligence possible. L'on y a trouve 22 petites pieces de canon de fonte, et 30 de :.f.er, pour 20 jours ,de~vivres et de.poudre . .: . .its parurent avoir grande peur, et Milord Forbus en sortit avec un. Colonel Allemand pour aller parlementer avec M. le Chevalier d'Asfeld. Le Marquis de Ruby Commandant les troupes de I'Empereur . . . 45  44  4  46  4 7  48  4 9  - 102 -  Renoncour's sojourn i n P o r t u g a l r e p r e s e n t s a small p o r t i o n :of Tome IV.  The main adventure c e n t r e s around the sudden  departure o f the P r i n c e Don Manuel from L i s b o n .  Having  convinced Renoncour t o s a i l w i t h him t o The Hague, the p r i n c e selects  a few s e r v a n t s , a t r u s t e d f r i e n d , and then leaves  L i s b o n , supposedly t o go hunting i n the country. particular  A l l o f the  d e t a i l s are g i v e n i n the M.H.Q., w i t h most o f them  probably c o p i e d from the Gazette de France. Le soir du troisieme de novembre, nous fumes avertis par dom Telles que nous nous mettrions en mer le tendemain. Pour cadher mieux notre depart, le prince fit courir le bruit qu'il irait de grand matin a ta chasse, et qu'il ne voutait etre accompagne que de dom Tellds et de deux domestiques. Il sortit en effete de ta ville en equipage de chasseur; et ayant pris le chemin de Belem, it y trouva une chatoupe qui t'attendait, et sur taquette il se rendit d bord du vaisseau anglais. Nous y etions d§s la pointe du jour. Le vent se trouva favorable, et 1 'on tenait aussitdt les voiles pour nous eloigner promptement. (M.H.Q. ,  p. 196)  The  French j o u r n a l ' s v e r s i o n i s a near d u p l i c a t e although not  r e p o r t e d i n the same word order as P r e v o s t ' s De Madrid,  le 25 Novembre  text.  5(0  1715  On escrit de Lisbone du 11 de ce mois, que le Prince Don Manuel, frere du Roy, estoit sorti le 4, sous pretexte d'aller d la chasse vers Belem: qu'apres y avoir fait ses devotions, il s'estoit mis dans une chaloupe qu'il avoit fait preparer, et qu'il estoit alle s'embarquer sur un Vaisseau Anglois qui I'attendoit et qui partit aussi-tost, avec un vent favgrable. , Il n'avoit avec luy que Don Manuel Telles de Sylva, fits du Comte de Tarouca et deux domestiques. 51  By  a r r a n g i n g f o r Renoncour t o board a s h i p i n L i s b o n t h a t  s a i l e d from C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , Prevost was able t o b r i n g together h i s hero and the T u r k i s h n e i c e and nephew who p l a y such a major r o l e i n the f i f t h  and s i x t h tomes o f the memoirs.  ing the sea voyage, the ship c a r r y i n g Renoncour i s n e a r l y  Dur-  - 103 -  a t t a c k e d by p i r a t e s , not an unusual occurrence i n the works of f i c t i o n o f t h i s p e r i o d .  I t i s quite l i k e l y ,  however,  t h a t the i d e a came t o Prevost once again from an item i n the Gazette de France of 5 December 1715 which s t a t e s Don Manuel  frire  du Roy de Portugal,  27 du mois dernier  ayant  arriva  este poursuivi  I'infant  that  icy par mer de Lisbone  quelque  temps par un  le  Corsaire  52  d'Alger.  Further confirmation that  t h i s announcement may  have  been read by P r e v o s t i s suggested by the date i n d i c a t e d .  The  preceding Gazette e n t r y i s dated December 5; i n the M.H.Q. Renoncour states:' Le lendemain  si ma memoire est fid§le,  p.  213).  de notre  le cinquiizme  I t i s probable that  jour  arrivee  ct La Haye,  de decembre  qui  . . .  etait  (M.H.Q. ,  Prevost confused the date given  i n the j o u r n a l  f o r Don Manuel's a r r i v a l ( i . e . November 27)  with the a c t u a l  date t h a t  the news came from La Haye  ( i . e . Dec-  ember 5) . After  h i s a r r i v a l at The Hague and subsequent reunion w i t h  h i s T u r k i s h b r o t h e r - i n - l a w Amulem, Renoncour attends s o c i a l functions.  One i n p a r t i c u l a r , to which both men are  i n v i t e d , takes p l a c e a t the home of le marquis  ambassadeur  de France  (M.H.Q. , p. 214).  de Chateauneuf,  Here again, a b r i e f  e n t r y i n the Gazette de France may have caught the of  several  attention  Prevost: De La Haye,  le 12 Decembre 1715  Le soir du mesme jour, un Officier Turc envoye par le Bacha et qui est icy depuis quelque temps, alia rendre au Marquis de Chasteauneuf, Ambassadeur de France. 53  Capitaine visite  - 104 -  Not only does the news come from The Hague, but considering that Renoncour remained some two months i n Holland (M.H.Q., p. 215), the s o c i a l engagement quoted from the j o u r n a l would f i t i n t o the time period of the novel.  Later i n the  t e x t another gala a f f a i r , the b i r t h of Don C a r l o s , p r i n c e of P o r t u g a l , i s reported, t h i s time by Le oomte (M.H.Q., p. 280).  de  Ribeira  The French journals c a r r i e d a d e s c r i p t i o n  of the party and, although there i s no close s i m i l a r i t y i n content between the Gazette  and Prevost's narrative,, xn  t h i s instance, i t seems c l e a r that Prevost methodically scanned such o l d newssheets t o f i n d a c t u a l s o c i a l events that would f i t i n t o Renoncour's busy i t i n e r a r y . Quite apart from the passages that have so f a r been discussed which suggest that Prevost copied d i r e c t l y from some sources, there i s good reason to b e l i e v e that many of the Spanish noblemen mentioned i n the M.H.Q. also came from the pages of the Gazette de France.  The appointments of many of the more  important members of the Spanish court were r e g u l a r l y announced i n the French press.  For example, although the governor of  Madrid, Don Antonio de Salcedo, might w e l l have been a known f i g u r e i n a f o r e i g n c a p i t a l c i t y , the manner i n which h i s name appears i n the M.H.Q. p o i n t s to the i n f l u e n c e of a Gazette a r t i c l e ; both accounts r e f e r to him as frere  de la Gouvernante  du Prince,  55  Antonio  de Salcedo,  In March 1715, the Gazette  announced an exchange of ambassadors between France and Spain  - 105  -  thus h i g h l i g h t i n g the importance of the P r i n c e of C e l l a mare and the Due  de S a i n t - A i g n o n .  was made of the new  At the same time,  mention  p o s i t i o n given to the Marquess of L e d e .  The Duke of Montalto, a c e l e b r i t y i n h i s time, was r e f e r r e d t o i n the Gazette as was  56  frequently  the Marquess of Gromaldo.  The promotion of Don Antonio de V a l l e , a r a t h e r minor f i g u r e 57  in  Spanish s o c i e t y , was  r e p o r t e d i n November 1715.  A l l of  the aforementioned members of the Spanish a r i s t o c r a c y were b e f r i e n d e d by Renoncour along with s e v e r a l other men supposed  d i s t i n c t i o n , whose a u t h e n t i c i t y , i t would  of appear,  cannot be v e r i f i e d e i t h e r through j o u r n a l s or peerage Here as elsewhere  lists.  i n the M.H.Q., Prevost has gathered together  a f a i r number of c e l e b r i t y witnesses able to vouch f o r Renoncour. F o r t u n a t e l y f o r P r e v o s t , the year 1715 s i n g l e events of major importance  p r o v i d e d not o n l y  such as the death of L o u i s  XIV, but witnessed a l s o the c o n t i n u a t i o n of such l a r g e occurrences as the War to  of the Spanish S u c c e s s i o n .  the French j o u r n a l s of t h a t year, Prevost was  By  scale turning  able t o  gather a very r e a l p i c t u r e of the p o l i t i c a l upheavals  and  the s o c i a l l i f e  i n Spain.  In many r e s p e c t s h i s novel at t h i s  stage resembles  a documented survey i n t e r l a c e d with imaginary  adventures and romantic i n t r i g u e s .  The l o v e a f f a i r between  Donna Diana and the young Rosemont, which occupies most of the f o u r t h tome, i s c a r e f u l l y interwoven between passages of a c t u a l h i s t o r y c o p i e d from v a r i o u s sources.  There i s a  - 106 -  r a d i c a l and obvious change between the two types o f m a t e r i a l and  one o f t e n has  the impression  t h a t the borrowed passages  from the Gazette were somewhat i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y s c a t t e r e d throughout the tome.  Assessing  their a r t i s t i c effect i s  d i f f i c u l t , but by and l a r g e they c o n t r i b u t e  substantially to  the s t r u c t u r a l o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l harmony o f the n o v e l . c h i e f f u n c t i o n throughout o f these borrowed m a t e r i a l s of course, t h a t o f a u t h e n t i f i c a t i o n , i l l u s t r a t i n g bid  t o a c h i e v e a melange de fictions  One  f i n a l p o i n t should  information  given  et de  The remains,  Prevost's  vevitez.  perhaps be r a i s e d r e g a r d i n g  historical  i n the M.H.Q. t h a t appears t o be based on  the absence, r a t h e r than the presence, o f m a t e r i a l from such published  sources.  In 1711,  there appeared i n France two  t r a n s l a t i o n s o f an I t a l i a n biography  (one w r i t t e n by Dom  Francesco) on the l i f e o f F r a n c o i s Toussaint nephew o f C a r d i n a l Janson.  de F o r b i n ,  In the M.H.Q., Prevost  wrote the  H i s t o i r e o f a c e r t a i n marquis de Rosambert, the assumed name 58  of F o r b i n .  A. Coimbra M a r t i n s  has compared the  authentic  biography w r i t t e n by Dom Francesco t o the one i n the and  comments on Prevost's  information  tendency t o provide  about r e l a t i v e l y unknown p e r i o d s  real individuals. years o f F o r b i n ' s  text,  fictitious i n the l i v e s o f  M a r t i n s has been' able t o show t h a t the two l i f e covered by Prevost  when l i t t l e was recorded  were the very  years  by the biographer Dom F r a n c i s c o :  - 107  -  II faut bien reconnoitre que cela donnait a 1'anecdote avancee, d§s le debut, un semblant de verite, independamment meme de ta vraisemblance de 1 'intrigue. Le recit etait a. la bonne place. Il n'etait pas un supplement <l la biographie d'un personnage connu: il en etait I'element manquant, ou une contrefagon qui en tenait lieu et s ' accordait bien, en apparence tout au moins, avec la partie connue de cette biographie qu'il parfaisait. 1  59  Never w i s h i n g to expose h i s hand, however, Prevost  cleverly  guides h i s reader i n t o a p o s i t i o n where acceptance of " f a c t s " becomes i n e v i t a b l e ; H i s t o i r e de  Rosambert, Renoncour t e l l s the  r e s t of the marquess l i s h e d form and memoirs.  immediately f o l l o w i n g  1  own  story  (M.H.Q., p.  47)  i n another pub-  be d u p l i c a t e d  in  i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t he  " f i r s t hand", an approach a k i n to the  the  case of dom  believe  that  Renoncour was  i n P o r t u g a l and Although the critics,  same  r e a l reason behind  Prevost would have the  t o l d by the  P r i n c e of  p r i n c e c o u l d no  journals,  a l l d i s c u s s e d the  of the  p r i n c e and  behaviour of Dom  from any  reader  Once she  longer endure h i s  contemporary w r i t e r s ,  members of the Manuel there was the  had life  lands.  historians  of these sources as to why  the  Portugal  decided to ease h i s sorrow i n f o r e i g n  friends  indication  the  revealing  The  about h i s unhappy love a f f a i r w i t h Donna C l a r a . committed s u i c i d e  received  Manuel of P o r t u g a l , o n l y  unknown f a c t o r p r o v i d e s the  sudden departure from L i s b o n .  has  i n t e r e s t by  "never before p u b l i s h e d t r u t h about . . . "  here the  the  c l a s s i c technique of  reader's c u r i o s i t y and  t a c t i c i s used i n the  the  In other words, Renoncour i s  supposedly p r o v i d i n g only t h a t  a p p e a l i n g to the  the  reader t h a t  i s available  t h e r e f o r e w i l l not  the  and  household no  clear  prince  - 108 -  l e f t home.  Prevost  provided  t h e a n s w e r w h i c h he  interwove  w i t h t h e a u t h e n t i c announcements from t h e newspapers. most i n t e r e s t i n g really  fact  i s that nothing  "incorrect"  could  be p o i n t e d o u t , n o r c o u l d a n y f a l s e i n f o r m a t i o n  be p r o v e n .  P r e v o s t was t h u s a b l e t o p r e s e r v e  The  really  h i s novel's  i l l u s i o n o f r e a l i t y a n d a t t h e same t i m e c r e a t e an a r e a o f interest  f o r the reader  t h a t was p u r e l y f i c t i o n a l .  - 109 -  NOTES  L'Abbe Prevost, Le Philosophe anglais ou Histoire de Monsieur Cleveland, ed. Philip Stewart, Tome II of Oeuvres de Prevost, p. 17. M  2 The admission is freely given in the Pour et Contre. Prevost was asked by "1'Auteur de la Bibliothegue Belgigue" to clarify any doubts that might exist (both then and in the future) about three of his works. Prevost immediately replied: Mais gu'il se rassure en apprenant de moi-meme, gue les Memoires d'un Homme de Qualite et leur suite, Cleveland et le Doyen de Killerine, dont je prepare la seconde Partie, sont autant de Livres inutiles pour 1'Histoire, et dont tout le merite est de former une lecture honnete et amusante. (Pour et Contre, VI, pp. 353-354) Although one need not suspect Prevost of setting the stage for later literary forgeries by disarming the public, nevertheless his statement should be interpreted in the light of certain factors; for example, the admission was made in 1735 during a period thought by G. May to have seen an increase in the number of novels published and a momentary lessening of the critical attitude towards "fiction". A second significant point to consider is the speed with which Prevost produced new literary forgeries after making this admission: as early as 1740, two pseudo-histories had appeared and by 1741 three more were written (see Sgard, Prevost Romaneier, pp. 611-612). One cannot help but feel that Prevost suited his words to the literary climate of the day and then engaged his efforts to create historical forgeries a few years later. 3 4  May, Dilemme du Roman, p. 160. • Sgard, Prevost  \ • Roma'ncier, p. 60.  ~* There were also no numerical"references to the Declaration found in the three journals consulted (Gazette de France, Mercure Galant, and Nouveau Journal Universel). I am inclined to consider the existence of another source as inventing the "plus de guinze mille exemplaires" (M.H.Q., p. 53) is inconsistent with Prevost's practices throughout the M.H.Q. Paul Rapin, Histoire d'Angleterre par M. de Rapin Rogissart, 1724-1727, 10 vol.) Vol. 10, pp. 130-131. 6  Thoyras  (La Haye:  7 The Gazette de France (du 27 November 1688, pp. 640-641) told of the retreat of the citizens in Torbay and later (du 4 Decembre 1688, pp. 651-653) reported the burning of William's Declaration in the city of Exeter. The Mercure Galant (Novembre 1688) covered the retreat of the citizens, the fear of the peasants and conseguently, their complete loyalty to the King (pp. 321-327).  - 110 -  The Nouveau Journal Universel i n i t i a l l y reported a favourable reception but soon published a brief retraction stating that the earlier information had been inaccurate. See Nouveau Journal Universel, (Amsterdam) 16 Decembre 1688, pp. 34-35. The retraction appears on p. 41.  Q  For example, one point in common is the number of troops attributed to William. Both accounts specify "de treize ou quatorze mille hommes" (M.H.Q., p. 53). See Rapin, Vol. 10, p. 121. 9 For specific references see Gazette de France, Nouveau Journal, and Mercure Galant, ca. de 22 May - du 10 Decembre 1689. Relations between the Austrian Empire and France were already strained and the Christmas festivities did not slow down early preparations for war. Renoncour's reference to the enthusiasm and joy of the people is not dissimilar to the idea conveyed in one journal of concurrent "Fetes de Noel" and "preparatifs de guerre". See Nouveau Journal Universel, 20 Janvier 1689, p. 74. Herman of Baden was, in fact, the Emperor's spokesman in this and gave his decision to the Diet of Ratisbon in February 1689.  affair  12 A similar phrase was found in the Gazette de France; "la France et ses adherans, entre autres le Cardinal de Furstemberg, sont declarez ennemis de 1'Empire. See Gazette de France, du 5 Mars 1689, p. 101. 13 Renoncour's original contact is made during an evening party held by the Count of Caprara, a leading statesman and a military man of renown. Count Vieneratsz (spelt Windischgraetz), also a prominent figure in Vienna, befriends Renoncour and eventually introduces him to his brother, Baron Rosech (the only one whose existence has not been verified). An episode involving Renoncour, the son of Windischgraetz, and a duel fought by the young German, also appears to be the only non-historical digression in Prevost's account of this military episode. 14 Although sources for the report of 60 cannons, 10,000 Turkish soldiers at Jogodin, and 18,000-20,000 Imperial soldiers cannot all be traced, the figure of 40,000 enemy men at Nyssa does appear in both the Gazette de France and the Nouveau Journal Universel. The version in the former journal most closely resembles Prevost's: both mention the 40,000 men, but the Gazette allows 15,000 Imperial soldiers to Prevost's 18,00020,000; both state the hour at which the battle commenced (see Gazette de France, du 22 Octobre 1689, p. 508; M.H.Q., p. 59).  - Ill  -  Ludwig of Baden was to have been the victim of a plot that demanded his delivery (dead or alive) to the camp of the enemy. See Gazette de France, du 12 Novembre 1689, p. 545. For purposes of easy reference, listing the principal figures mentioned the Jacobite rebellion.  an appendix has been provided in the M.H.Q. in connection  with  17 It is guite probable that Prevost researched and gathered the Jacobite material while visiting England. Although he was interested in history before 1730 and would have been familiar with certain details pertaining to the uprising, the facts included in the M.H.Q. suggest a more in-depth knowledge. Prevost did not begin to learn English until 1728, therefore most of the published accounts of the Rebellion (such as those of Peter Rae and Robert Patten) were not likely to have been read by him.before 1728. The Gazette de France and the Mercure Galant both were obviously available sources but neither dealt with the events in sufficient detail. Robertson, after examining amongst other possible sources the London journals available to Prevost, concludes that his sources for the Jacobite material were mostly oral. The testimony of witnesses, the gossip that circulated and the opinions of critics provided him with a vivid picture of l i f e in London in 1715-1716. See Robertson, p. 142. It must also be remembered that Prevost, in writing Tome V, was not necessarily thinking in terms of a French reader in France. 18 Dudley Ryder managed to gain access to the House during the sentencing and also witnessed the execution of the Lords. He was in constant communication with court lawyers. Whig supporters and House representatives. Ryder portrayed George I throughout the affair as steadfast and firm. The King's displeasure with Lady Derwentwater and her petition is mentioned by Dudley Ryder and Lady Cowper. See The Diary of Dudley Ryder 1715-1716, edited by William Matthews, (London: Methuen, 1939) p. 187; Diary of Mary Countess Cowper (London: John Murray, 1864) p. 85. 19  The contents cal works are guoted 20  See Robertson,  of the letter by Robertson, p.  which later p. 143.  appeared  in several  . histori-  144.  21 Engel suggests that Lady Nithsdale might be one of the oral sources mentioned by Robertson. In the M.H.Q., the wife fainted upon hearing the news of her husband's condemnation; also there is no information given in the text about the escape to France, two facts cited by Engel in forming her hypothesis: only Lady Nithsdale herself was in a position to know how she reacted to the terrible news (and thus she told Prevost); Lady Nithsdale  - 112 -  was not in a position to tell Prevost about her husband's escape to France as she had not accompanied him. In view of Prevost's tendency to dramatize other historical moments, it is not particularly surprising that he chose this heroic deed as one that he could expand on. His ability to create such scenes did not require first hand accounts to stimulate his imagination. Although Pr§vost may well have met Lady Nithsdale at La Fleche, the reasons cited by Engel are not particularly convincing; one need only remember the apparent difference between Lady Nithsdale's own version of her treatment by the King and that recorded in the M.H.Q. to realize that Prevost interpreted history to suit his own requirements for the memoirs. See Engel, Collogue Prevost, p. 103. 22 Robertson was unable to verify any romantic intrigue in connection with Lord Derwentwater and, further, was unable to suggest any name corresponding to the i n i t i a l used by Prevost. See Robertson, pp. 145-146. 23 Except for the additional reference made to the dismissal of Lords Portmore and Windsor, and the Earl of Orkney (M.H.Q., p. 240), all the information about Nottingham and the others named is historically correct. See Robertson, pp. 150-151. 24 Robertson, p. 151. 25 One biographer of George Farquhar who examined Farquhar's correspondence , concluded that Anne was the Penelope of the playwright's love poems. Although it would appear she was his lover, she in fact did not lose both her head and her heart. The affair would have taken place approximately 1699-1700. See Willard Connely, Young George Farquhar, (London: Cassell and Co. 1949), pp. 113-117. 2  6  Ibid., p. 103.  27 Another romance that occupies a minor place m the M.H.Q. concerns a certain Baron Spalding, a Swedish nobleman who, while visiting England, fell in love with Miss Perry. Very l i t t l e has been discovered about the Spalding affair and Robertson was able to contribute only the name of the Baron's uncle who was Resident in Paris. I found a possibly significant reference to a Baron John Spalding (Spaldincreutz), an Englishman who was ennobled in Sweden in 1678 (see Nobilities of Europe, p. 385). A young Lieutenant Spalding participated in the campaigns of the Swedish King Charles XII in January 27, 1708. If, indeed, a Baron Spalding (son or grandson of John Spalding) existed and met Prevost in 1730, once again history has hidden the fact. The entire romance might well be based on an actual event which has escaped detection for the present. Engel sees a certain similarity between the Spalding affair of the M.H.Q. and a romantic adventure described in Steele's The Conscious Lovers (1723). Perhaps this literary source might also have inspired Prevost (see Engel, Figures et aventures du XVIII Siecle, pp. 194-196). e  - 113 -  IV..R.  1749), p. 29  Chetwood, A General  History  of the Stage  (London: W. Owen,  203. Ibid.,  pp.  203-204.  Robert Gore-Browne, Gay was the Pit - The l i f e and times of Anne Oldfield, Actress 1683-1730 (London: Max Reinhardt,1957), pp. 144-145. In attempting to sort- out the truth of Chetwood's references to the Mostyn'/Oldfield affair,' Gore-Browne has guestioned whether the French author was not, in fact, Voltaire; but since the dates did not correspond, the biographer was unable to trace Chetwood's source. Gore-Browne, following the same logic as Robertson, thus guestions the Mostyn connection because of his marriage with Nottingham's daughter. However, the dismissal of Mostyn from his appointment, and the fact that he was a strong Tory, are two matters not recognized by Gore-Browne, who apparently does not know what is to be distinguished as fact or fiction in the French Author's tale. .Another/ scholar, Edward Robins, has repeated Prevost's account, expanding on the dinner scene and the dramatic separation of Mostyn from his beloved. Robins: refers to Mostyn's hopes for an acceptance in the following glowing words: 3  0  Heroic measures were necessary unless he were to lose the dear charmer forever, and so away he went to the obdurate lady hoping to soften her heart by a proposal of marriage. They should wed at once, and the happy pair could pass their honeymoon on the estates to which an unkind Government had ordered the too talkative baronet. See Edward Robins, Jr., Echoes Putnam, 1895), pp. 140-141.  of the Playhouse  (N.Y. and London:  G.P.  31" Anne died in 1730 and within a day of her burial no less than two authentic memoirs were ready for publication. The Daily Post, and the Daily Journal carried the promises of both authors (one of them William Egerton) to reveal a true portrait of the l i f e and amours of the famed actress. One edition even claimed to have letters which pointed to an intrigue between Mrs. Oldfield and the late D. . . of B. . ., also "an epitaph and a full account of her amour with one Mr. F. . . , gent, formerly belonging to the receipt of H.M. Customs." The biographer from whom this information came concludes that, "Before the actress had been a month beneath the flagstones of the Abbey, so great.an interest did the public feel'in her lo'velife thai .a f i f t h .edition of .these .revelations was called for..". (See Robert Gore-Browne, p. 14). Little wonder that the name of Anne Oldfield crept into the pages of the M.H.Q.; Prevost's visit in London took place at the height of this London gossip surrounding the recently deceased actress's rather secretive, private life.  - 114 -  32  Robertson discusses Lamberty's account and that of the M.H.Q. There is a striking resemblance between the two. Lamberty's work appeared in 1731, barely in time for Prevost to have seen it in print. Robertson suggests that there may have been a third common source that both men used. See Robertson, pp. 193-194 for a textual comparison. 33 The following was found in the Gazette de France and although this journal was not believed by Robertson to be a major source for Tome V, in this case the similarities are quite evident. On adjouste qu'on avait receu avis que les Comtes Marshal, de Seaford et de Southesk, le Marquis de Tullibardine, le Vicomte de Kilsith et d'autres, jusqu'au nombre de trente persons de consideration, s'estoient embarquez dans les Isles de:L'Ouest, pour se retirez aux pais estrangers. (Gazette 34 35 36 37  de France Mylne, p.  du 6 Juin,  1715,  p.  274).  81.  Pour et Contre•; Vol.  VI, p.  353.  Ibid. Ibid.,  p.  360.  It is interesting to note that in 1965 Molino referred to the passage in the M.H.Q. describing the funeral of Soeur Marianne in the light of the popular tradition set by Mme. d'Aulnoy and de Brunei of mentioning in their works the illegitimate children of the Spanish royal family. Although Molino is probably correct in pointing out this practice, he seems to have neglected to mention the likely source of Prevost's material. See J. Molino, "L'Espagne Romanesque de Prevost", Collogue Prevost, pp. 71-74. 39 Gazette de France du 28 Septembre 1715, p. 460. All the passages quoted from the Gazette in this thesis have been reproduced verbatim; omission of accents or agreements are in the original and have not been altered. 40 1715, P- 472. Gazette de France du 5 Octobre 41 42 43 44 45  Gazette  de France  du 28 Octobre  Gazette  de France  du 5 Janvier  Gazette  de France  du 6 Juillet  Mercure  Galant,  Gazette  de France  July 1715,  p.  du 6 Juillet  1715, P- 508 1715, P- 11. 1715, 'P- 324. 141. 1715, P- 324.  - 115 -  46 47 48 49  . , . Gazette- de-France Mercure  Galant  Mercure  Galant  Mercure  Galant  du 6 Juillet  1715,  p.  340.  In his study on Prevost and Don Manuel, Martins, who is interested in the Prince's love affair, suggests a number of possible sources, amongst others,'the Journal de Verdun and the Quintessence. However, he does not mention Prevost's use of the Gazette de France nor does he examine any of the material taken from the journal which provided a factual base for the romance. See A. Cblmbra Martins, "Prevost et le Prince du Portugal", Collogue Prevost, 'p. 66. 51 52 53 54 55 56 57  Gazette  de France  du 14 Decembre 1715,  Gazette  de France  du 5 Decembre 1715,  Gazette  de France  du 21 Decembre 1715,  Gazette  de France  du 3 Mai  Gazette  de France  du 28 Octobre  Gazette  de France  du 16 Mars 1715,  Gazette  de France  du 16 Novembre, p.  1715,  p.  p. 593. p. 597. p. 611.  276.  1715,  p. 508.  pp. 124-125 544.  58 A. Cb'imbra Martins, "L'Histoire du Marguis de Rosambert par 1'abbe Prevost", Aix Annales, Vol. 34 (Marseilles: Universite d'Aix-Marseilles, 1961), pp. 53-86. 59 Ibid., p. 64.  - 116 -  The  study o f n a r r a t i v e techniques presented  i n the  preceding  chapters i s r e l a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the l i t e r a r y p e r i o d o f the M.H.Q., when many authors d i s g u i s e d t h e i r f i c t i o n o r a t l e a s t attempted t o a u t h e n t i c a t e i t by b a s i n g much o f i t on historical realities.  The s p e c i f i c d e v i c e s used f o r appealing  to the b e l i e f o f the reader became p a r t o f a l i t e r a r y convent i o n which today may seem somewhat quaint and even  simplistic.  C e r t a i n l y t o approach modern f i c t i o n from the narrow p o i n t o f view o f a u t h e n t i c i t y , o r more e s p e c i a l l y o f claims t o v e r a c i t y , would make l i t t l e  sense t o most s o p h i s t i c a t e d readers;  today  one does not take i n t o s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n the q u a n t i t y o r , f o r t h a t matter,  the q u a l i t y o f " t r u t h " claimed by the  to be contained i n h i s n o v e l .  author  P r e v o s t ' s M.H.Q., on the other  hand, lends i t s e l f w e l l t o t h i s type o f t e c h n i c a l  dissection  as i t s very foundation i s based on the n e c e s s i t y o f being seriously. one  taken  One: p a r t i c u l a r advantage gained by f o c u s i n g on t h i s  aspect o f Prevost's n a r r a t i v e s t y l e i s t h a t i o n l y  s i f t i n g through the v a r i o u s d e v i c e s  (both o r i g i n a l and conven-  t i o n a l ) used by Prevost, can we emerge with a c l e a r i n g o f the s t r u c t u r e o f the M.H.Q.; the seemingly journey made by Renoncour through  after  understand-  endless  the v a r i o u s f o r e i g n c a p i t a l s  of Europe i s very much dependent upon, f i r s t , P r e v o s t ' s own g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n a t the time o f w r i t i n g , a n d ,  secondly,  the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f resource m a t e r i a l such as contemporary h i s t o r i e s and j o u r n a l s .  The unusual  and c l e a r l y  approach taken i n Tome V t o the p o l i t i c a l , p h i c a l r e a l i t i e s o f England  premeditated  s o c i a l and geogra-  i s d i r e c t l y connected  t o Prevost's  - 117 -  p e r s o n a l experiences and f i r s t hand o b s e r v a t i o n s . the account of Prevost/Renoncour s 1  resembles period.  In f a c t ,  sojourn i n England  a d i a r y rearranged t o f i t i n t o a d i f f e r e n t In Tome I I , the r e l a t i v e l a c k of d e t a i l s ,  time  facts,  f i g u r e s , or c l a i m s to v e r a c i t y , can p o s s i b l y be e x p l a i n e d i n terms of the remoteness of the T u r k i s h Empire where the takes p l a c e . dangers,  Here an adventure  story  u n f o l d s t h a t r e f l e c t s a l l the  p a s s i o n and enchantment of an e x o t i c romance vaguely  r e m i n i s c e n t of those i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the t a l e s from Arabian N i g h t s .  the  Although c a r r i e d away by f a n t a s i e s of t r a v e l  i n remote c o u n t r i e s i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r tome, Prevost r e f r a i n e d from f u r t h e r attempts  of t h i s k i n d .  later  It i s interest-  i n g t o note t h a t Spain and P o r t u g a l , probably l e s s f o r e i g n t o the French reader than some other c o u n t r i e s , are the  two  p l a c e s t h a t Prevost chose t o r e p r e s e n t by means of newspaper reports.  One  has the f e e l i n g t h a t from the moment Renoncour  a r r i v e d i n Spain u n t i l he disembarked at The Hague, h i s every step was  guided by a r t i c l e s and r e p o r t s from o l d c o p i e s of the  Gazette de France.  The use of j o u r n a l s as a p o s s i b l e method  f o r p r o v i d i n g the reader with some measure of found e x t e n s i v e l y elsewhere  i n the M.H.Q.  vevite  i s not  Thus, i t seems t h a t  P r e v o s t ' s concern with a u t h e n t i c i t y or c r e a t i n g an i l l u s i o n of r e a l i t y f l u c t u a t e d t o some extent throughout  the n o v e l , and  t h a t each tome r e p r e s e n t s an experimental phase i n h i s work.  In the d i s c u s s i o n of P r e v o s t ' s a u t h e n t i c a t i n g techniques, I have t r i e d t o keep i n mind and attempted  t o assess what might  - 118 -  have been h i s requirements i n the i s l e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t the and  unsophisticated.  was r e l a t i v e l y naive  same " t r i c k s " i t seems c l e a r  writer's anticipated  j o u r n a l s o f the  end, one  other hand, w i t h so many w r i t e r s  most readers must have been aware o f the i n d u l g e the  In the  reader o f 1730  On the  a l l u s i n g more o r l e s s the  matter.  game and w i l l i n g t o  promises o f t r u t h .  Even  the  p e r i o d seem t o have been obsessed with t a k i n g  note o f o n l y a u t h e n t i c works, and when they were the of a c l e v e r  that  victims  w r i t e r ' s hoax, they immediately p u b l i s h e d an  erratum f o r the  public.  1  D e s p i t e such an apparent need t o  expose f r a u d u l e n t works, and d e s p i t e the authors themselves t o b r i n g the  e f f o r t s made by  whole problem t o the  f i c t i o n was o c c a s i o n a l l y  attention  of the  public,  In the  case o f P r e v o s t ' s M.H.Q., a t l e a s t three such i n s t a n c e s  can  be c i t e d .  The  f i r s t and  was  made by Chetwood.  accepted as hard  fact.  most f a r - r e a c h i n g misuse o f P r e v o s t ' s m a t e r i a l The romance taken from the  M.H.Q. about  S i r Roger Mostyn and Anne O l d f i e l d passed from Chetwood's supposed a u t h o r i t a t i v e  work i n t o the  Dictionary of National 2  Biography.  Only very r e c e n t l y  has  the matter been c o r r e c t e d .  A second example, u s i n g m a t e r i a l about the also  indicates  authority.  P r i n c e Dom Manuel,  t h a t Prevost was c o n s i d e r e d somewhat o f an  The f o l l o w i n g i s c i t e d by M a r t i n s :  3  En 1937 I 'eminent iconographe Ernesto Soures publia une notice bibUographique sur le prince Manuel-Jose (1697-1766) frere du roi Jean V du Portugal. On y lisait, parmi les references de documents authentiques et d'ouvrages excessivement .savant's^.- cetitre inattendu: Memoires et aventures d'un Homme de Qualite qui s  - 119 -  s'est retire du monde. Quelle satisfaction I 'abbe Prevost, qui justement se pretendait moraliste, et non point romancier.  en eut eprouve historien et  A t h i r d case i n v o l v e s m a t e r i a l from Tome V (in f a c t , i t i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t other examples have not been uncovered from t h i s same s e c t i o n o f the memoirs). published  In a biography o f George IV  i n 1830, L l o y d d e s c r i b e d  a scene a t a masquerade b a l l  attended by George I t h a t i s a near t r a n s l a t i o n o f an episode from the M.H.Q., and there  i s a f a i r chance t h a t L l o y d , a t  the time o f w r i t i n g h i s Memoirs o f George IV, thought he was 4  borrowing t h i s anecdote from a r e l i a b l e It  i s d i f f i c u l t t o imagine Prevost,  novels,  being  source.  author o f s e v e r a l popular  quoted as a source, r e f e r r e d t o and l i s t e d i n the  bibliography of serious scholars.  We can assume, i f i n d i v i d u a l  biographers have been l e d a s t r a y by Prevost's devices  arsenal of  and c l a i m s t o v e r a c i t y , t h a t the average reader a l s o  f e l l under the same s p e l l .  I f Georges May,can r e f e r t o Mme. 5  d'Aulnoy's t r a v e l s through Spain, l i t t l e doubt t h a t she ever ing  when i n f a c t there  i s now  l e f t home, then i t i s not s u r p r i s -  t h a t s o r t i n g the r e a l from the imaginary i n the f i c t i o n o f  the p e r i o d was and s t i l l  i s a major problem.  We can presume  t h a t through the accumulation o f minor p o i n t s , Prevost was able t o convince some o f h i s readers a t l e a s t some o f the time. Studying the p o s s i b l e methods used f o r winning h i s reader's b e l i e f i n the M.H.Q. has r e v e a l e d  a s i d e o f Prevost's  creati-  v i t y t h a t w i l l continue t o deserve c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  In  the end, one senses t h a t h i s e a r l y n a r r a t i v e s t y l e r e f l e c t s  - 120 -  the combined e f f o r t s of a young and i n e x p e r i e n c e d n o v e l i s t , an ardent l o v e r of h i s t o r y and a devoted  student of c u r r e n t  affairs.  However, i n P r e v o s t ' s a r t o f l i t e r a r y  the f i r s t  s i x tomes of the M.H.Q., t h e r e are glimpses of a  maturing  forgery i n  a r t i s t - one who would become the esteemed author of  Manon Lescaut.  - 121 -  NOTES  See,  for  example, the Mercure  Galant,  July  1715,  pp.  245-246.  2 Joanne Lafleur, a scholar at Berkeley,.is in the process of completing a new biography on the l i f e of Anne Oldfield. She is actively pursuing the original source of the Mostyn/Oldfield affair and will be the first biographer to trace the romance to Prevost. She also is responsible for recently informing Edward Langhans, co-editor of the Biographical Dictionary of Actors, 1660-1800, of the misuse of Prevost's fiction in connection with the Mostyn/Oldfield romance. 3 A. Coimbra Martins, "Prevost et le Prince du Portugal", Collogue Prevost, p. 63. 4 See Robertson, p. 160. Georges  May,  "L'Histoire  a-t-elle  engendre  le roman", p.  170.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  L'Abbe Prevost - Actes du Collogue. Publication des Annales des Lettres d'Aix-en-Provence, Nouvelle Serie, No. 50. Provence: Editions Ophrys, 1965. Aulnoy, Madame d'. "Relation du voyage d'Espagne." nigue. Ed. Foulche-Delbosc. Vols. LXVII-LXVIII.  de la Faculte Aix-en-  In Revue HispaNew York, 1926.  Bengtsson, Trans.  Frans G. The Life of Charles XII King of Sweden 1697-1718. Naomi Waiford. London: MacMillan & Co. Ltd., 1960.  Biographie Paris.  Universelle  Ancienne  et Moderne Nouvelle  Edition.  Boulten, William. The Amusements of Old London, XVIII Century. 2 vols. London: J.C. Nimmo, 1901. Brunei, Antoine de. "Voyages d'Espagne Curieux, fait en 1'annee.T655.. " In Revue Hispanigue. Vol. XXX. New York, 1914. :  Vols. I-XLV.  Century  th  to  XIX  th  historigue et politigue Ed. Foulche-Delbosc.  Cherpack, Clifton. "Literature and belief: the example of PrSvost's Cleveland." In XVIII Century Studies. Vol. 6, 1972-73, pp. 186-202. th  Chetwood, William 1749. The Complete Connely,  R.  Peerage.  Willard.  A General  History  By G.E.C. Vols.  Young George Farguhar.  Cowper, Mary, Countess. Murray, 1864.  Diary  I-XII.  A Dictionary of Universal Biography. and Kegan Paul, 1951. Le Veritable  London: W. Owen,  London, 1910 - .  London: Cassell  of Mary Countess  The Dictionary of National Biography Vols. I-XXI. London, 1917 - .  Engel, Claire-Elaine. Rocher, 1957.  of the Stage.  Cowper.  From the Earliest  London: John  Times to 19001  Ed. A.M. Hyamson.  Abb& Provost.  Figures et Aventures du XVIII Siecle: de 1'Abbe Pr&vost. Paris: Editions "Je Sers," Labor, 1939.  and Co., 1949.  London:  Monaco: Editions  Routledge  du  Voyages et decouvertes et Geneva, Editions  - 123. -  Francis, Richard A. "First-person Narrator in Memoires d'un homme de gualite." In Studies in XVIIlth Century Culture.' Ed. R.C. Rosbottom. Vol. 6. Wisconson, 1977.  Memoires Studies. Gazette  "The Additional Tales•in. the 1756/Edition of .'Prevost' s '' • '" d'un homme de gualite: technique and function." In French Vol. 34, 1978, pp. 408-419.  de France.  Paris:  1689, 1715-1716.  Gore-Browne, Robert. Gay was the Pit - The Life and Times of Anne Actress 1683-1730. London: Max Reinhardt, 1957. Harisse, Henry. .• L'Abbe Prevost: Histoire Geneva: Slatkine Reprints, 1970.  de sa vie et de ses '  Oldfield,  oeuvres.  The Jacobites and the Union - Being a Narrative of the Movements of 1708, 1715, 1719 by Several Contemporary Hands. Ed. Charles Sanford Terry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1922. Jones, Silas P. A List of French H.W. Wilson Co., 1939.  Prose  Kamen, Henry. The War of Succession feld and Nicolson, 1969. Martins, A. Colmbra,. "L'Histoire Prevost." In Aix Annales. Marseille,.-19612 .  Fiction  in Spain  from 1700-1750.  1700-1715.  New York:  London: Weiden-  du Marquis de Rosambert par L'Abbe Vol. 34. Marseilles: Universite d'Aix-  May, Georges. Le Dilemme du roman au XVIII sibcle. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press et Paris, Presses Universitalres de France, 1963. "L'Histoire a-t-elle engendre le roman? de la guestion au seuil du sibcle des lumibres." Litteraire de la France. Vol. LV. 1955. Le Mercure  Galant.  Paris:  Aspects In Revue  frangais d'Histoire  chez M. Guerout, 1689.  Monty, Jeanne R. "Les Roman de l'abb£ Provost." In Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century. Ed. Theodore Besterman. Vol. 78. Geneva: Institut et Musee Voltaire, 1970. Mylne, Vivian. Manchester: The Nobilities Melville  The Eighteenth-century French Novel: Manchester Univ. Press, 1965.  of Europe. & Co., 1910.  Nouveau Journal  Universel.  Ed. Marguis  de Ruvigny.  Amsterdam, 1689.  Technigues  Vol. 2.  of  London:  Illusion.  - 124 -  Nouveau Mercure  Galant.  Paris:  chez D. Jollet  et J. Lamesle,  1715-16.  Prevost, Abbe Antoine-Frangois. Adventures of a Man of Quality. Mysie E.I. Robertson. London: George Routledge & Sons, 1930.  Lescaut. 39 vols.  Memoires et aventures d'un homme de gualite; Vols. I-III of Oeuvres choisies de Prevost. Paris: Leblanc, 1810-1816.  MSmoires et adventures d'un homme de quality du monde. Tome V Sejour en Angleterre. Ed. Mysie Paris: Champion, 1934.  suivi Avec  Trans.  de Manon figures.  gui s'est Robertson.  Memoires d'un homme de gualite (extraits). Ed. Joseph Ducarre, Collection du Flambeau. Paris:  retire  Manon Lescaut. Hachette, 1958.  Memoires et aventures d'un homme de gualite gui s'est retire du monde - Histoire du Chevalier des Grieux et de Manon Lescaut. Tome I of Oeuvres de Prevost. Ed. Jean Sgard. Grenoble: Presses Universitaires, 1977 -.. . Le Philosophe anglais Tome II of Oeuvres de Prevost. Universitaires, 1977 - .  ou Histoire de Monsieur Cleveland. Ed. Jean Sgard. Grenoble: Presses  . Le Pour et Contre. Tome II comprenant Geneva: Slatkine Reprints, 1967. Robins, Edward Jr. Putnam, 1895. Roddier, Henri. 1955.  Echoes  of the Playhouse.  L'Abbe Provost,  les volumes VI-X.  New York and London: G.P.  l'homme et l'oeuvre.  Ryder, Dudley. The Diary of Dudley Ryder 1715-1716. London: Methuen and Co. Ltd., 1939. Saint-Simon, Louis Vols. IV-VII. The Scots  Peerage.  Paris:  Ed. William  de Rouvroy, Due de. Memoires. Ed. Gonzaque Paris: Bibliotheque de la Pleiade, 1953. Vols.  I-XVIII.  Edinburgh,  Hatier-Boivin,  Matthews.  True.  1904,- .  Sinclair-Stevenson, Christopher. Inglorious Rebellion: The Jacobite of 1708, 1715 and 1719. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1971. Stewart, Philip. 1700-1750.  Imitation and Illusion in the French New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1969.  Memoir-Novel,  Risings  - 125 -  Thoyras, Paul Rapin de. Histoire d'Angleterre par M. de Rapin Vols. I-X. The Hague: Rogissart, 1724-1727. Voltaire's Correspondence. Ed. Theodore Besterman. Geneva: Institut et Musee Voltaire, 1953.  Vols.  Thoyras.  I-II.  - 126 —  APPENDIX  Argyll  Argile John  (Prevost's Campbell,  (1678-1743)  spelling) 2nd Duke  Ref:  of Argyll  The Jacobites  and 1st Duke and the Union,  of  Greenwich  p. ix.  M.H.Q., p. 241. Atholl  Athol John Murray, 2nd Marguess and 1st Duke of Atholl (1660-1724) Ref: The Jacobites and the Union, p. 255. M.H.Q., p. 241.  Aylesford  Ailesfort Heneage Finch, 1st Earl of Aylesford (1647-1719) Ref: DNB,V61, 7, p. 12. M.H.Q., p. 240.  Buckingham John Sheffield, 3rd Earl and Normandy (1648-1721) M.H.Q., p. 241. Cholmondeley Cholmdley George Cholmondeley, January 18, 1724/5) M.H.Q., p. 269.  of Mulgrave and 1st Duke of Ref: DNBj.Vol. 8, p. 13.  Earl Cholmondeley (cl666-1733) Ref:  Derwentwater James Radcliffe, 3rd Earl of (1689-1716) Ref: The Jacobites M.H.Q., p. 240. Devonshire  Dewonshire William Cavendish, (cl673-1729) Ref: M.H.Q., p. 240.  2nd Duke of The Complete  Buckingham  (Succeeded to t i t l e DNB,.Vol. 4, p. 271.  Derwentwater and the Union,  p. 256.  Devonshire Peerage, Vol. 4, p. 344.  Finch Daniel  Finch,  (1689-1769)  Lord Ref:  (Styled  1701-30)  The Complete  Peerage,  Vol. 12:2, pp. 786,  M.H.Q., p. 240. Forster Thomas Forster, M.P. (1675-1738) Ref: The Jacobites M.H.Q., p. 269.  and the Union,  p. 257.  787  - 127 -  Guernsey Heneage Finch, Lord Guernsey (1687-1757) Ref: The Complete Peerage, M.H.Q., p. 240. Kenmure  Vol. 5, p. 365.  Kilmur William Gordon, 6th Viscount Kenmure ( -1716) Ref: The Complete Peerage, M.H.Q., p. 232.  Vol. 7, p. 119.  Kilsyth  Kilsiek William Livingston, 3rd Viscount Kilsyth (1650-1733) Ref: The Scots Peerage, Vol. 5, pp. 192-4. M.H.Q., p. 269.  Mackintosh  Mackinstot William Mackintosh of Borlum (1662-1743) Ref: The Jacobites M.H.Q., pp. 268-269.  (Brigadier) and the Union, p. 260.  Marischal  Marshal George Keith, 10th Earl Marischal (1694-1778) Ref: DNB, Vol. 10, p. 1209. M.H.Q., pp. 241, 268, 269.  Mostyn  Mostings Roger Mostyn, (Sir) (1675-1739) Ref: DNB, Vol. 13, p. M.H.Q., pp. 240-241.  1088.  Nairn William Murray, 2nd Baron Nairn (Son of Marguess of Atholl) (1664-1726) Ref: The Complete Peerage, Vol. 9, pp. 445-446. M.H.Q., p. 238. Nithsdale  Nithisdale William Maxwell, 5th Earl of Nithsdale (1676-1744) Ref: The Jacobites and the Union, p. 261. M.H.Q., pp. 231-232.  Nottingham Daniel Finch, 2nd Earl of Nottingham and 6th Earl (1647-1730) Ref: DNB, Vol. 7, pp. 3-4. M.H.Q., p. 240. Orkney George Hamilton, Earl of Orkney (1666-1737) Ref: DNB, Vol. 8, p. M.H.Q., p. 240.  1040.  of  Winchilsea  - 128 -  Ormonde  Ormond James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde (1665-1745) Ref: The Jacobites and the Union, p. x. M.H.Q., p. 268.  Oxford Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford (1661^1724) Ref; The Jacobites and the Union, p. 261. M.H.Q., p. 241. Portmore Sir David Colyear, (cl656-1730) Ref: M.H.Q., p. 240. Pretender,  1st Earl of Portmore The Scots Peerage, Vol. 7, pp. 91-3.  The James Francis Edward Stewart, Chevalier de St. George (1688-1766) Ref: The Jacobites and the Union, p. 258. M.H.Q., pp. 231, 232, 241, 246, 268.  Southesk James Carnegie, 5th Earl of Southesk (1692-1740) Ref: The Scots Peerage, Vol. 8, pp. 73-74. M.H.Q., pp. 241, 268, 269. Tullibardine William Murray, Marguess of Tullibardine (1689-1746) Ref: DNB, Vol. 13, p. 1305. M.H.Q., p. 269. Widdrington Widrington William Widdrington, 4th Baron (1678-1743) Ref: The Jacobites M.H.Q., p. 238.  Widdrington and the Union, p. 263.  Windsor Other Windsor, 2nd Earl of Plymouth and Lord Windsor (1679-1725) Ref: 'The Complete Peerage, Vol. 12, part M.H.Q., p. 240. Wintoun  Winton George Seton, 5th Earl of Wintoun (1678-1749) Ref: The Scots Peerage, M.H.Q., p. 238.  2, p. 800.  Vol. 8, pp. 602-605.  

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