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Cortazar, Derrida and Rayuela as a parable-parody of writing Jaeck, Lois Marie 1980

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CORTAZAR, DERRIDA AND RAYUELA AS A PARABLE-PARODY OF WRITING by LOIS MARIE JAECK B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in The Department of Comparative L i t e r a t u r e in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required'standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February, 1 9 8 0 .  Q)  Lois Marie Jaeck, I98O  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r  an advanced d e g r e e a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  for extensive  study.  copying of this thesis  be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my written  permission.  Department o f  COMPARATIVE  LITERATURE  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 Date  FEBRUARY 1 $ , 1 9 8 0  ABSTRACT  C o r t a z a r , D e r r i d a and Rayuela as a P a r a b l e - P a r o d y o f W r i t i n g i n t e r p r e t s t h e n o v e l Rayuela as a m e t a p h o r i c a l  representation o f the  f o r c e s which engender t h e movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n i n w r i t i n g . C o r t a z a r i s not a p h i l o s o p h e r hut a n o v e l i s t , I have u t i l i z e d Jacques D e r r i d a ' s t h e o r i e s c o n c e r n i n g  As J u l i o  some o f  t h e o r i g i n , f o r c e and movement o f  s i g n i f i c a t i o n o f w r i t i n g (as o u t l i n e d i n De l a Grammatologie, L ' E c r i t u r e et l a D i f f e r a n c e and "La D i f f e r a n c e " ) i n o r d e r t o c l a r i f y t h e t h e s i s t h a t Rayuela i s a m e t a p h o r i c a l The  d e l i n e a t i o n of a philosophy  of writing."  I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e t h e s i s e x p l a i n s how t h e h o p s c o t c h c h a r t ,  whose g r a p h i c d e s i g n  serves a s a p a t t e r n f o r Rayuela's s t r u c t u r e , movement  and p l o t , embraces t h e same c o u n t e r p o s i t o r y t e n s i o n between t h e o u t s i d e and t h e i n s i d e , t h e p h y s i c a l and t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l Chapter one a n a l y z e s  which w r i t i n g e n t a i l s .  changes i n Rayuela's s t r u c t u r e , c h a r a c t e r  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and m i l i e u s as p a r a l l e l i s m s o f t h e changing p e r c e p t i o n o f the s i g n o f w r i t i n g , a s w r i t i n g p r o g r e s s e d  from b e i n g u n d e r s t o o d w i t h i n  t h e l o g o c e n t r i c i s m o f t h e metaphysics o f p r e s e n c e , t o b e i n g  comprehended  as a non-centered t o t a l i t y whose movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n i s one o f i n f i n i t e r e f l e c t i o n on i t s e l f . Chapter two i n t e r p r e t s Rayuela as a p a r a b l e - p a r o d y  of the rupture  o f w r i t i n g w i t h t h e concept o f a c e n t e r and t h e consequent opening o f t h e f r e e p l a y o f t h e t e x t , which assumes t h e form o f a movement o f supplement a r i t y as a r e s u l t o f t h e need t o supplant  the l a c k o f a center.  Chapter t h r e e examines t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e e x i t o f sense from w r i t i n g , comparing D e r r i d a ' s p o s t u l a t e s on t h e above s u b j e c t w i t h those o f Cortazar  expressed  d i r e c t l y through M o r e i l l i , o r i n f e r r e d by t h e u l t i m a t e ii  outcome o f O l i v e i r a ' s f u t i l e attempt t o r e a c h a m e t a p h y s i c a l c e n t e r  beyond  language. The  Conclusion  chapters one,  two  and  O l i v e i r a constructs  o f the t h e s i s s y n t h e s i z e s  the concepts e x p l a i n e d  t h r e e by  s t r i n g l a b y r i n t h which  i n t e r p r e t i n g the  i n the mental asylum as a symbolic model o f  accomplistic-antagonistic  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f w r i t i n g t o speech or a  p r e s e n c e , which i s r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r engendering the l a b y r i n t h o f  full signifi-  c a t i o n s whichi.the book or w r i t i n g sketches as the n o v e l u n f o l d s  itself.  The  within  Conclusion  p o s i t s Rayuela as the i n c a r n a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e s  which sense r e a l i z e s i t s e l f as an i n e x p r e s s i b l e d i f f e r i n g from  in  itself.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I would l i k e t o thank Dr. C a r l o C h i a r e n z a and Dr. Isaac RubioDelgado f o r having  i n t r o d u c e d me t o ^ t h e works o f Jacques D e r r i d a and  J u l i o Cortazar, respectively.  iv.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  I. II. III.  I n t r o d u c t i o n : Rayuela as a P a r a b l e - P a r o d y o f W r i t i n g Chapter one: R a y u e l a , the S i g n and W r i t i n g . Chapter two:  V. VI.  1 10  C o r t a z a r , D e r r i d a and the Engendering o f the  Movement o f S i g n i f i c a t i o n o f W r i t i n g IV.  ,  ,  Chapter t h r e e : C o r t a z a r , D e r r i d a and the E x i t  ,. . . 50 from the Text....85  Conclusion  101  Bibliography  109  v  INTRODUCTION RAYUELA AS A PARABLE-PARODY OF WRITING M o r e i l l i , Cortazar's double i n Rayuela, l i k e n s w r i t i n g t o sketching his mandala at the same time that he goes through i t , lowering himself i n t o the volcano, approaching the mothers, connecting w i t h the center: Asi por l a e s c r i t u r a bajo a l volcan, me acerco a l a s Madres, me conecto con e l Centro - sea l o que sea. E s c r i b i r es d i b u j a r mi mandala y a l a vez r e c o r r e r l o , inventar l a p u r i f i c a c i o n p u r i f i c a n d o s e . . . .  1  In a s i m i l a r v e i n , Jacques Derrida describes w r i t i n g as the o u t l e t o f the descent of meaning outside of i t s e l f w i t h i n i t s e l f . . . . the moment o f the o r i g i n a l v a l l e y of the other w i t h i n being: L ' e c r i t u r e est 1'issue comme descente hors de s o i en s o i du sens.... L ' e c r i t u r e est l e moment de c e t t e V a l l e e o r i g i n a i r e de 1'autre dans l ' e t r e . Moment de l a profondeur a u s s i comme decheance. Instance et i n s i s t a n c e du grave. 2  Both of the above d e f i n i t i o n s of w r i t i n g imply the f r i c a t i o n o f subject and o b j e c t , outside and i n s i d e , existence and essence, other and being inherent i n w r i t i n g , which i s responsible f o r the movement of s i g n i f i c a t i o n of the t e x t . The hopscotch c h a r t , whose graphic design serves as a p a t t e r n f o r Rayuela's c o n s t r u c t i o n , movement and p l o t , embraces the same counterpository tension between the outside and the i n s i d e , the p h y s i c a l and the metaphysical which w r i t i n g e n t a i l s . Cortazar u t i l i z e s the rulesf.and movement of the game of hopscotch as a metaphor f o r the p l a y of w r i t i n g . I n " L i n g u i s t i q u e et Grammatologie", Derrida comments that c e r t a i n American l i n g u i s t s , who refuse t o bind l i n guistics  t o semantics and e x p e l l the problem o f meaning outside of t h e i r 1  2 researches, r e f e r constantly t o the model of a game when d e s c r i b i n g w r i t i n g . Derrida c l a s s i f i e s play (or the game o f w r i t i n g ) as the absence of a transcendental s i g n i f i e d g i v i n g r i s e t o the l i m i t l e s s n e s s o f the movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n , which c o n s t i t u t e s the d e s t r u c t i o n of ontotheology and the metaphysics o f presence.  I n view o f the undermining of  metaphysics, Derrida explains that i t i s necessary t o t h i n k of w r i t i n g as a game w i t h i n language: On p o u r r a i t appeler jeu 1'absence du s i g n i f i e transcendental comme i l l i m i t a t i o n du j e u , c'est-a-dire, comme ebranlement de l'ontotheologie et de l a metaphysique de l a presence.... expulsant l e probleme du meaning hors de l e u r s recherches, c e r t a i n s l i n g u i s t e s americains se referent sans cesse au modele du jeu. I I faudra i c i penser que l ' e c r i t u r e est l e jeu dans l e langage. (Le Phedre (277e) condamnait precisement l ' e c r i t u r e comme jeu - p a i d i a et opposait cet e n f a n t i l l a g e a. l a g r a v i t e serieuse et adulte (spoude) de l a p a r o l e . ) 3  In the above quotation, Derrida comments that P l a t o i n the Phaedrus opposes the c h i l d i s h play of w r i t i n g t o the adult g r a v i t y of speech. The game of w r i t i n g i s the c h i l d o f , or a f a l l from, the seriousness of a speech that was immediately r e l a t e d t o the logos of a creator or c e n t r a l presence.  I n l i k e manner, the game of hopscotch i s the c h i l d of a former  mystic ceremony whose object was t o e f f e c t a j o i n i n g with a transcendental presence.  In-an i n t e r v i e w , Cortazar explains that the hopscotch chart was  o r i g i n a l l y regarded as the graphic representation of a s p i r i t u a l process: A mandala...is a sort of mystic l a b y r i n t h "a design, l i k e a hopscotch chart, d i v i d e d into sections o f compartments, on which the Buddhists concentrate t h e i r a t t e n t i o n and i n the course o f which they perform a s e r i e s o f s p i r i t u a l exercises. I t ' s the graphic p r o j e c t i o n o f a s p i r i t u a l process. Hopscotch, as almost a l l c h i l d r e n ' s games, i s a ceremony w i t h a mystic and r e l i g i o u s o r i g i n . I t s sacred value has been l o s t . But not e n t i r e l y . Unconsciously  3 some o f i t remains. For i n s t a n c e , the hops c o t c h p l a y e d i n A r g e n t i n a - and i n F r a n c e has compartments f o r Heaven and E a r t h at o p p o s i t e ends o f the c h a r t . " 4  Hopscotch became-a game at the moment t h a t i t ceased t o he r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a s e r i e s o f s p i r i t u a l steps toward a  the  transcendental  p r e s e n c e , and became i n s t e a d t h e i n d i c a t o r o f a p r o g r e s s i o n o f p h y s i c a l jumps toward a heaven which has no r e a l i t y o t h e r than i t s name at the t o p o f a c h a r t drawn on the ground.  sketched  In l i k e manner, w r i t i n g  was  born as a language or a pure f u n c t i o n n i n g when i t ceased b e i n g a s i g n s i g n a l i n d i c a t i n g a presence o u t s i d e o f i t s e l f .  D e r r i d a comments:  C'est quand l ' e c r i t e s t defunt comme s i g n e s i g n a l q u ' i l n a i t comme langage; a l o r s i l d i t ce q u i e s t , par l a meme ne renvoyant qu'a s o i , s i g n e sans s i g n i f i c a t i o n , j e u ou pure fonctionnement, c a r i l cesse d ' e t r e u t i l i s e comme i n f o r m a t i o n n a t u r e l l e , b i o l o g i q u e ou t e c h n i q u e , comme passage d'un e t a n t a l ' a u t r e ou d'un s i g n i f i a n t a un s i g n i f i e . 5  D e r r i d a e x p l a i n s t h a t i n o r d e r t o t h i n k p l a y r a d i c a l l y , the l o g i c a l and t r a n s c e n d e n t a l p r o b l e m a t i c s  must f i r s t be  onto-  s e r i o u s l y exhausted:  the c r i t i c a l movements o f t h e H u s s e r l i a n and Heideggerean q u e s t i o n must f o l l o w e d t o the end,  c o n s e r v i n g t h e i r e f f i c a c i t y and  legibility.  be  Even  under the e r a s u r e o f t h e above movements, however, D e r r i d a p o s t u l a t e s t h a t t h e concepts o f p l a y and w r i t i n g w i l l remain w i t h i n r e g i o n a l l i m i t s ,  and  w i t h i n an e m p i r i c , p o s i t i v i s t i c  very  beginning  or m e t a p h y s i c a l  discourse.  From t h e  o f t h e game, w r i t i n g i s u n d e r s t o o d as t h e becoming-unmotivated  o f the symbol : Pour penser r a d i c a l e m e n t l e j e u , i l f a u t done d'abord e p u i s e r serieusement l a p r o b l e m a t i q u e ontologique et transcendentale, t r a v e r s e r patiemment et rigoureusement l a q u e s t i o n du sens de l ' e t r e , de l ' e t r e de 1'etant et de l ' o r i g i n e t r a n s c e n d e n t a l e du monde - de l a mondanite du monde - s u i v r e e f f e c t i v e m e n t et  k jusqu'au bout l e mouvement c r i t i q u e des q u e s t i o n s h u s s e r l i e n n e et h e i d e g g e r i e n n e , l e u r conserver l e u r e f f i c a c e . et l e u r l i s i b i l i t e . Fut -ce sous r a t u r e , et f a u t e de quoi l e s concepts du j e u e t de l ' e c r i t u r e auxquels on aura r e c o u r s r e s t e r o n t p r i s dans des l i m i t e s r e g i o n a l e s e t dans un d i s c o u r s e m p i r i s t e , p o s i t i v i s t e ou metaphysique.... Nous sommes done d'entree du j e u dans l e devenir-immotive du symbole. 6  In Rayuela,  Cortazar explores the exhaustion of the transcendental  p r o b l e m a t i c , t h e becoming-unmotivated o f t h e symbol and the of  w r i t i n g as i n f i n i t e f r e e p l a y w i t h i n f i n i t e boundaries  former a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a m e t a p h y s i c a l l a t t e r by way  discourse.  d e s i g n a t e d by i t s  He accomplishes  the . -  o f the Club de l a S e r p i e n t e ' s i n t r a - n o v e l a n a l y s i s o f  M o r e i l l i ' s attempted r e d u c t i o n o f matter i n t o s p i r i t - an which has  establishment  investigation  some a f f i n i t i e s w i t h Heidegger's d e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f  metaphysics;  by means of h i s p o r t r a y a l o f O l i v e i r a ' s f u t i l e attempt t o r e j o i n w i t h a metaphysical  c e n t e r , which r e s u l t s i n h i s i r r e v o c a b l e s e p a r a t i o n from t h a t  c e n t e r and h i s consequent suspension  i n a s t a t e of i n f i n i t e  self-reflection  engendered from the c o n t r a d i c t o r y p h y s i c a l - m e t a p h y s i c a l f o r c e s which meet in  him;  and through h i s r e p e a t e d u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e symbol o f t h e  hopscotch  c h a r t , which O l i v e i r a attempts t o r e s t o r e t o i t s former f u n c t i o n as a diagramatic  s i g n i f i e r o f a t r a n s c e n d e n t a l p r e s e n c e , but which remains b e i n g  a pure game.  W r i t i n g , f o r b o t h C o r t a z a r and D e r r i d a , i s a game or pure  f u n c t i o n n i n g which drags manner t h a t hopscotch metaphysical  along with i t i t s metaphysical  i s a game which m a n i f e s t s  of i t s o r i g i n a l  significance.  C o r t a z a r and D e r r i d a conclude roads  evidence  r o o t s , i n t h e same  o f t h e way  of logos  t h a t w r i t i n g i s born at t h e c r o s s -  ( w r i t i n g understood  a c e n t r a l presence) and t h e way  as t h e g r a p h i c i n d i c a t o r  of  o f t h e l a b y r i n t h ( w r i t i n g comprehended as  5 a f i n i t e ensemble o f i n f i n i t e r e f l e c t i o n on i t s e l f whose movement o f n i f i c a t i o n obscures  i r r e v o c a b l y the way  Rayuela may  be regarded  s h o r t p l a y p u b l i s h e d by  out o f  as an expansion  Cortazar i n 1951,  t h a t Los r e y e s  itself), or s e q u e l t o Los r e y e s , a  which d e p i c t s t h e c o n f r o n t a t i o n  o f Theseus and the Minotaur i n t h e l a b y r i n t h . suggests  sig-  Roberto Gonzalez E c h e v a r r l a  i s an a l l e g o r y o f the b i r t h o f w r i t i n g :  T h i s c o n f r o n t a t i o n o f the monster and t h e hero c o n s t i t u t e s t h e p r i m a l scene i n C o r t a z a r ' s mythology o f w r i t i n g : a hegemonic s t r u g g l e f o r t h e c e n t e r t h a t r e s o l v e s i t s e l f i n a mutual c a n c e l l a t i o n and i n the s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n o f b e g i n n i n g s and ends. .::The v e r y image o f man unborn, the Minotaur i s t h e p o s s e s s o r o f t h e immediate but n a i v e knowledge of. man b e f o r e the F a l l . His . speech i s the i n c o h e r e n t , symbolic language o f a savage god. Theseus, on the o t h e r hand, i s not o n l y a d e a l e r i n death, but i s the v e r y image o f death. H i s l i n e a r cogent language i s temporal, discursive - i t i s discourse....If in o t h e r v e r s i o n s o f t h e myth t h e b i r t h o f r e a s o n , morals or p o l i t i c s i s at s t a k e , what we have i n Los r e y e s i s t h e v i o l e n t b i r t h o f w r i t i n g . The c a t a l o g u e o f herbs t h a t t h e Minotaur " t a s t e s " i s a s e r i e s o f d i s c o n n e c t e d words, without s y n t a c t i c a l and t h e r e f o r e temporal s t r u c t u r e , l i n k e d t o t t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l o r i g i n through".their "stems". By k i l l i n g t h e M i n o t a u r , Theseus attempts t o r e p l a c e the p e r i s h a b l e sounds o f i n d i v i d u a l , words w i t h the l i n e a r , d u r a b l e cogency o f d i s c o u r s e , a cogency p r e d i c a t e d not on the stems o f words but on t h e i r d e c l e n s i o n s , on t h e p a r t i c l e s t h a t l i n k them i n a s t r u c t u r e whose mode o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n would not be sonorous but s p a t i a l - w r i t i n g . The i r o n y , o f c o u r s e , i s t h a t once w r i t i n g i s i n s t i t u t e d , Theseus does not g a i n c o n t r o l o f t h e l a b y r i n t h but becomes s u p e r f l u o u s and f l e e s . Because w r i t i n g cannot be dimmed l i k e the s t a r s w i t h each dawn, because i t i s not a memory whose t r a c e s can be e r a s e d , Theseus i s not needed t o r e i n v e n t i t , as the Minotaur r e - i n v e n t e d h i s nomenclatures • .. . every day. W r i t i n g i s t h e empty l a b y r i n t h from which both the Minotaur and Theseus have been banished.  ..  7  In Los r e y e s , C o r t a z a r a l l e g o r i z e s t h e death o f a c e n t e r t o which d i s c o u r s e r e f e r r e d and the consequent emergence o f t h e empty l a b y r i n t h o f w r i t i n g .  In R a y u e l a , C o r t a z a r c o n t i n u e s h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o n f r o n t a t i o n between an i n t u i t i v e and a reasoned d i s c o u r s e which i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r engendering the l a b y r i n t h o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n o f w r i t i n g , and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w r i t e s t h e l a b y r i n t h i t s e l f , brought about by t h e absence o f a m e t a p h y s i c a l In my t h e s i s , R a y u e l a as a Parable-Parody  center.  of Writing, I w i l l  inter-  p r e t C o r t a z a r ' s a l l e g o r i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n o f w r i t i n g as d e s c r i b e d i n R a y u e l a , and compare i t w i t h Jacques D e r r i d a ' s t h e o r i e s about t h e o r i g i n , f o r c e and movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n i n w r i t i n g as o u t l i n e d i n De l a Grammatologie, L ' E c r i t u r e e t l a D i f f e r e n c e , and "La Difference".  The movement o f Rayuela p a r a l l e l s m e t a p h o r i c a l l y  method o f d e c o n s t u c t i o n .  Derrida's  David B. A l l i s o n , t h e t r a n s l a t o r o f L a V o i x e t  l e Phenomene (Speech and Phenomena) d e f i n e s t h e term d e c o n s t r u c t i o n as "a p r o j e c t o f c r i t i c a l thought whose t a s k i s t o l o c a t e and take apart  those  concepts  which serve as t h e axioms o r r u l e s f o r a p e r i o d o f t h o u g h t , t h e s e  concepts  which command t h e u n f o l d i n g o f an e n t i r e epoch o f m e t a p h y s i c s . "  8  C o r t a z a r conducts h i s d e c o n s t u c t i o n o f t h e f o r c e s which c o n s t i t u t e w r i t i n g through h i s p o r t r a y a l o f O l i v e i r a ' s m e t a p h y s i c a l - p h y s i c a l s e a r c h f o r t h e c e n t e r o r o r i g i n o f thought.  C o r t a z a r v e r b a l i z e s h i s t h e o r i e s o f decon-  s t r u c t i o n through h i s c h a r a c t e r - d o u b l e  M o r e i l l i , a w r i t e r w i t h i n the novel.  C o r t a z a r e s t a b l i s h e s M o r e i l l i as h i s double by a t t r i b u t i n g t o him a sentence taken  from t h e s h o r t s t o r y A x o l o t l ( a work p u b l i s h e d by C o r t a z a r i n 1956):  O l i v e i r a comments, "Pero l a r v a tambien q u i e r e d e c i r mascara, M o r e i l l i l o ha e s c r i t o en alguna p a r t e . "  9  Through h i s s u r r o g a t e M o r e i l l i ,  Cortazar  d e c l a r e s t h a t h i s purpose i n w r i t i n g Rayuela i s t o d e c o n s t r u c t w r i t i n g itself.  O l i v e i r a comments t h a t M o r e i l l i d e s t r o y s l i t e r a t u r e and t h e r e b y  shows them a way out o f i t : "por l a p r a c t i c a e l v i e j o se muestra y nos muestra l a s a l i d a .  i P a r a que s i r v e un e s c r i t o r s i no p a r a d e s t r u i r l a  7 literatura?" reflection  1 0  O l i v e i r a a l s o mentions  t h a t a p a r t o f M o r e i l l i ' s work i s a  on'the problem o f w r i t i n g i t : Su problema p r e v i o e r a siempre e l r e s e c a m i e n t o , un h o r r o r mallarmeano f r e n t e a l a p a g i n a en b i a n c o . . . . I n e v i t a b l e que una p a r t e de su obra f u e s e una r e f l e x i o n sobre e l problema de escribirla. 1 1  In t h i s t h e s i s , changes • i n Rayuela's  structure, character r e l a t i o n -  s h i p s and m i l i e u s w i l l be a n a l y z e d as p a r a l l e l i s m s o f t h e changing p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e s i g n , as w r i t i n g p r o g r e s s e d from b e i n g u n d e r s t o o d w i t h i n t h e l o g o c e n t r i c i s m o f t h e metaphysics o f p r e s e n c e , t o b e i n g comprehended as a non-centered t o t a l i t y whose movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n i s one o f i n f i n i t e r e f l e c t i o n on i t s e l f .  The changing p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e s i g n i s i n t e g r a l l y  r e l a t e d t o t h e r u p t u r e o f w r i t i n g w i t h t h e concept o f a c e n t e r . a l l e g o r i z e s t h e above concept, and a l s o demonstrates  Rayuela  t h e consequent  open-  i n g o f t h e f r e e p l a y o f t h e t e x t , which assumes t h e form o f a movement o f s u p p l e m e n t a r i t y brought about by t h e need t o s u p p l a n t t h e l a c k o f a c e n t e r . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e e x i t o f sense from w r i t i n g i s a l s o examined i n Rayuela.  D e r r i d a ' s p o s t u l a t e s on t h e above s u b j e c t w i l l be compared w i t h  t h o s e o f C o r t a z a r expressed d i r e c t l y through M o r e i l l i , o r i n f e r r e d by t h e u l t i m a t e outcome o f O l i v e i r a ' s f u t i l e attempt t o r e a c h a m e t a p h y s i c a l c e n t e r beyond  language.  Why i s Rayuela b o t h a p a r a b l e and a parody o f w r i t i n g ? p a r a b l e o f w r i t i n g f o r t h e reasons mentioned  It is a  above: i t s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n ,  m i l i e u s and t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n f u n c t i o n as an a l l e g o r i c a l ' m i r r o r f o r C o r t a z a r ' s t h e o r i e s o f w r i t i n g expounded d i r e c t l y through  Moreilli.  Rayuela i s a l s o a parody o f w r i t i n g , however, as C o r t a z a r c o n s t a n t l y r i d i c u l e s O l i v e i r a ' s and M o r e i l l i ' s attempts t o r e a l i z e an a u t h e n t i c e x p r e s s i o n w h i l e d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r movement toward  it.  Irony, or the "joke",  8. r e s u l t s from the l a c k o f r e a l c o i n c i d e n c e between O l i v e i r a ' s metaphysical  o b j e c t i v e s , and t h e p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y o f t h e s i t u a t i o n which  he e n v i s i o n s as i n c a r n a t i o n s o f these o b j e c t i v e s . f o r example, r e a c h i n g t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l  In Chapter f o r t y - t h r e e ,  c e n t e r i s l u d i c r o u s l y compared t o  r e a c h i n g t h e c e n t e r o f a b r i d g e o f boards s t r u n g between two Although  intellectual,  the event  h o t e l windows.  i s v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t • f r o m t h e p o i n t o f view o f  establish-  i n g Rayuela: as a p a r a b l e o f w r i t i n g , C o r t a z a r reduces t h e p a r a b l e t o the l e v e l o f parody by c o n t r a s t i n g a c h i l d ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s about t h e event those o f O l i v e i r a .  The  c h i l d ' s remarks u n d e r l i n e t h e l a c k o f  dence between O l i v e i r a ' s m e t a p h y s i c a l  One  witness  comments: "Las  correspon-  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of T a l i t a ' s  t o the c e n t e r of the b r i d g e , and the p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y o f the c r i a t u r a s d i c e n l o que ven, pobres  approach  occurence. inocentes."  O l i v e i r a , by c o n t r a s t , sees what he wants t o see by p r o j e c t i n g h i s l e c t u a l v i s i o n onto the i n c i d e n t , t h e r e b y what i t r e a l l y i s .  1 2  intel-  c a u s i n g i t t o become more than  Reducing t h e p a r a b l e t o t h e l e v e l o f parody does not  c o n s t i t u t e a l o s s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e on t h e p a r a b o l i c l e v e l , however, as parody i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f C o r t a z a r ' s p a r a b l e o f w r i t i n g .  Rayuela  an a f f i n i t y w i t h D e r r i d a ' s G l a s , which G e o f f r y Hartman d e s c r i b e s as jest  with  the has  "a  i n earnest": Every pun i n D e r r i d a i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y account a b l e , every s o t t i e or s o r t i e must c o n t r i b u t e f u r t h e r t o the denaisement o f t h e European m i n d .  C o r t a z a r ' s Rayuela i s a l s o "a j e s t c e i v e s t h e j o k e and  1 3  i n e a r n e s t " i n so f a r as t h a t he  per-  i r o n y as t h e o n l y means o f escape from the unsurmoun-  t a b l e t e n s i o n between t h e p h y s i c a l and the m e t a p h y s i c a l , i n s i d e which w r i t i n g e n t a i l s .  the o u t s i d e and  the  J  9  FOOTNOTES 1  1963,  J u l i o Cortgzar, Rayuela, E d i t o r i a l Sudamericana, Buenos A i r e s ,  p.^58.  Jacques Derrida, "Force et S i g n i f i c a t i o n " , L ' E c r i t u r e et l a D i f f e r e n c e , E d i t i o n s du S e u i l , P a r i s , I 9 6 7 , p. ^ 9 . 2  Jacques Derrida, " L i n g u i s t i q u e et Grammatologie", De.. l a Grammatologie, E d i t i o n s de M i n u i t , P a r i s , 1 9 6 7 , p.73. 3  ^Luis Harss and Barbara Donmann, Into the Mainstream, Earper and Row P u b l i s h e r s , New York, Evanston and London, 1966,'p. 2 1 8 . 5  D e r r i d a , "Force et S i g n i f i c a t i o n " , L ' E c r i t u r e et l a D i f f e r e n c e ,  pp.23-2l+.  D e r r i d a , " L i n g u i s t i q u e et Grammatologie", De l a Grammatologie,  5  pp.73-7^.  Roberto Gonzalez Echevarria, "LPs reyes: Cortazar's Mythology of W r i t i n g " , Books Abroad, 50, 1 9 7 6 , p.551. This a r t i c l e i s also included i n The F i n a l I s l a n d , Ed. Jaime A l a z r a k i and Ivar Ivask, U n i v e r s i t y of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1 9 7 8 . 7  D a v i d B. A l l i s o n , "Translator's Introduction t o Speech and Phenomena", Speech and Phenomena by Jacques Derrida, Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y Press, Evanston, 1 9 7 3 , p . x x x i i . 8  9  C o r t a z a r , Rayuela, p. 5^+1.  1 0  1 1  .  1 2  I b i d , p. 5 0 3 . I b i d , p.501. I b i d , p.5Ul  G e o f f r y Hartman, "Monsieur Texte: On Jacques Derrida and h i s Glas" The Georgia Review, 2 9 , 1 9 7 5 , p . 7 8 l . 13  10 CHAPTER I  RAYUELA, THE  SIGN, AND  WRITING  Jacques D e r r i d a , i n "La f i n du l i v r e et l e commencement de  l'ecri-  t u r e " (De l a Grammatologie) e x p l a i n s t h a t the i d e a o f the hook, as the  idea  o f the t o t a l i t y o f the s i g n i f i e d which p r e - e x i s t s i t , i s p r o f o u n d l y  alien  t o the d i s r u p t i v e energy o f w r i t i n g whose sense i s d e r i v e d from the  play  of d i f f e r e n c e s . L ' i d e e du l i v r e , c ' e s t l ' i d e e d'une t o t a l i t e , f i n i e ou i n f i n i e , du s i g n i f i a n t ; c e t t e t o t a l i t e du s i g n i f i a n t ne peut e t r e ce q u ' e l l e e s t , une t o t a l i t e , que s i une t o t a l i t e c o n s t i t u t e du s i g n i f i e l u i p r e e x i s t e , s u r v e i l l e son i n s c r i p t i o n et ses s i g n e s , en e s t independante dans son i d e a l i t e . L ' i d e e du l i v r e , q u i r e n v o i e t o u j o u r s a une t o t a l i t e n a t u r e l l e , e s t p r o fondement e t r a n g e r e au sens de l ' e c r i t u r e . E l l e e s t l a p r o t e c t i o n e n c y c l o p e d i q u e de l a t h e o l o g i e et du l o g o c e n t r i s m e c o n t r e l a d i s r u p t i o n de l ' e c r i t u r e , c o n t r e son e n e r g i e aphori s t i q u e e t , nous l e p r e c i s e r o n s plus." l o i n , c o n t r e l a d i f f e r e n c e en general.. S i nous d i s t i n g u o n s l e t e x t e du l i v r e , noiis dirons.' que l a d e s t r u c t i o n du l i v r e , t e l l e q u ' e l l e s'annonce a u j o u r d ' h u i dans tous l e s domaines, denude l a s u r f a c e du t e x t e . -  1  Moreilli,.Cortazar's writer-double  w i t h i n Rayuela, expresses thoughts  about h i s book which p a r a l l e l many o f D e r r i d a ' s nounces the n o v e l as a c l o s e d o r d e r , and  opinions.  de-  d e s i r e s t o provoke or assume a  t e x t t h a t i s " u n t i e d " , which would a l l o w f o r an opening. n a r r a t i v e t h a t w i l l not be the p r e t e x t  Moreilli  He  f o r the t r a n s m i s s i o n  but w i l l i n s t e a d be the messenger. P r o v o c a r , asumir un t e x t o d e s a l i n a d o , desanudado, i n c o n g r u e n t e , minuciosamente a n t i n o v e l i s t i c o (aunque no antinovelesco)....Como todas l a s c r i a t u r a s de e l e c c i o n d e l O c c i d e n t e , l a n o v e l a se c o n t e n t a con un orden c e r r a d o . Resueltamente  aspires to a o f a message,  en c o n t r a , busCar tambien a q u i l a a p e r t u r a . . . . Una t e n t a t i v a de e s t e orden p a r t e de una r e p u l s a de l a l i t e r a t u r a ; r e p u l s a p a r c i a l puesto que se apoya en l a p a l a b r a . . . . A s i , u s a r l a n o v e l a como se usa un r e v o l v e r p a r a defender l a paz, cambiando su s i g n o . Tomar de l a l i t e r a t u r a eso que es puehte v i v o de hombre a hombre....Una n a r r a t i v a que no sea p r e t e x t o p a r a l a t r a n s m i s i o n de un mensaje, (no hay mensaje, hay mensajeros y eso es e l mensaje, a s i como e l amor es e l que ama). 2  D e r r i d a ' s and  C o r t a z a r - M o r e i l l i ' s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the  totality  o f the book as i t r e l a t e s t o w r i t i n g springs, from,:the' book's dependency upon the t o t a l i t y o f a s i g n i f i e d which preceeded i t . C o r t a z a r the w r i t e r b o t h p e r c e i v e  the n e c e s s i t y  s i g n " i f i t i s t o be  writing.  an a u t h e n t i c  Derrida  the  philosopher  and  o f the book "changing i t s  Derrida's philosophy of w r i t i n g i s i n t e g r a l l y r e l a t e d to h i s perception can  o f the  s i g n and  how  i t r e l a t e s to w r i t i n g .  Therefore, before  compare C o r t a z a r ' s p h i l o s o p h y o f w r i t i n g , as d e p i c t e d  i n Rayuela, with  D e r r i d a ' s p h i l o s o p h y o f w r i t i n g as e x p r e s s e d i n L ' E c r i t u r e et l a De  l a Grammatologie, and  "La D i f f e r e n c e " ,  Derrida f i e d which the deferred  describes  the  toward the  s i g n e n t a i l s , as t h e  signi-  s i g n e v o l v e s from i t s f u n c t i o n as as d e f i n e d  and A r i s t o t l e ; t o a s e l f - r e f e r r i n g e n t i t y which q u e s t i o n s the presence, r e p l a c i n g presence with d i f f e r e n c e s c l a s s i c a l semiology, the  the  sign.  changing r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s i g n i f i e r t o  presence comprehended w i t h i n l o g o c e n t r i c i s m ,  For  Difference,  i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o examine  n o v e l as an a l l e g o r y o f a changing p e r c e p t i o n  by  Plato  authority  s i g n f o r the  i t s e l f i s b o t h secondary and p r o v i s i o n a l , b e i n g second i n o r d e r from  q u e s t i o n s the basis  secondary and  s i g n would be  p r o v i s i o n a l character  o f Saussure's concept o f the  a  of  i n a n o n - c e n t e r e d system.  s u b s t i t u t i o n o f the  o r i g i n a l or l o s t p r e s e n c e from which t h e  we  sign, Derrida  derived.  o f the  3  s i g n , and  q u e s t i o n s the  thing an  Saussure on  the  metaphysics  12 of presence. Derrida,  i n "La D i f f e r a n c e "  e n t i a l are i n s e p a r a b l e system o f s i g n s  explains  t h a t t h e a r b i t r a r y and  differ-  f o r Saussure; a r b i t r a r i n e s s o c c u r r i n g because t h e  i s c o n s t i t u t e d by 'the d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e terms s i g -  n i f i e r and s i g n i f i e d , and not by t h e i r f u l l n e s s . The elements o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n f u n c t i o n not by v i r t u e o f t h e compact f o r c e o f t h e i r c o r e s , but by the network o f o p p o s t i o n s t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h and r e l a t e them t o one a n o t h e r . Saussure p o s t u l a t e s  that there  are only d i f f e r e n c e s  i n language w i t h o u t  p o s i t i v e terms: ...dans l a r l a n g u e i l n'y a que des d i f f e r e n c e s . B i e n p l u s , une d i f f e r e n c e suppose en g e n e r a l des termes p o s i t i f s e n t r e l e s q u e l s e l l e s ' e t a b l i t : mais dans l a langue i l n'y a que des d i f f e r e n c e s sans termes p o s i t i f s . Qu'on prenne l e s i g n i f i e ou l e s i g n i f i a n t , l a langue ne comporte n i des i d e e s n i des sons q u i p r e e x i s t a i e n t au systeme l i n g u i s t i q u e , mais seulement des d i f f e r e n c e s phoniques i s s u e s de ce systeme. 14  The f i r s t  consequence t h a t D e r r i d a  draws from t h e above premise i s t h a t t h e  s i g n i f i e d concept i s never p r e s e n t i n i t s e l f , t h a t would o n l y r e f e r t o i t s e l f .  i n an adequate presence  -Every concept i s n e c e s s a r i l y a c h a i n  system o f d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n which i t r e f e r s t o o t h e r c o n c e p t s . Saussure, language ( c o n s i s t i n g o n l y o f d i f f e r e n c e s ) the  speaking subject.  For  i s not a f u n c t i o n o f  This i m p l i e s , f o r D e r r i d a , that the subject  s c r i b e d i n t h e language as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e language. f u n c t i o n becomes a s p e a k i n g s u b j e c t  or  The  isin-  subject  o n l y by conforming i t s speech t o t h e  system o f d i f f e r e n c e s ; by conforming t o t h e law o f language which Saussure c a l l s "language w i t h o u t s p e e c h " . Derrida  5  suggests t h a t a p o s s i b l e o b j e c t i o n t o Saussure's p o s t u l a t i o n  o f a language w i t h o u t speech would be the e x i s t e n c e sciousness  o f an i n t u i t i v e  b e f o r e speech o r s i g n s t o which language would r e f e r :  con-  13 On p o u r r a e t r e t e n t e par une o b j e c t i o n : c e r t e s , l e s u j e t ne d e v i e n t p a r l a n t qu'en commergant avec l e systeme des d i f f e r e n c e s l i n g u i s t i q u e s ; ou encore l e s u j e t ne d e v i e n t s i g n i f i a n t (en g e n e r a l , par p a r o l e ou a u t r e s i g n e ) qu'en s ' i n s c r i v a n t dans l e systeme des d i f f e r e n c e s . En ce sens, c e r t e s , l e s u j e t p a r l a n t ou s i g n i f i a n t ne s e r a i t pas p r e s e n t a s o i , en t a n t que p a r l a n t ou s i g n i f i a n t , sans l e j e u de l a d i f f e r e n c e l i n g u i s t i q u e ou s e m i o l o g i q u e . Mais ne peut-oh c o n c e v o i r une presence ou une presence a s o i du s u j e t dans une c o n s c i e n c e s i l e n c i e u s e et i n t u i t i v e ? Une t e l l e q u e s t i o n suppose done qu'avant l e s i g n e et hors de l u i , a 1 ' e x c l u s i o n de t o u t e t r a c e et de t o u t e d i f f e r e n c e , quelque chose de t e l que l a c o n s c i e n c e e s t p o s s i b l e . 6  The  s i l e n t , i n t u i t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s which D e r r i d a proposes as a p o s s i b l e  o b j e c t i o n t o Saussure's  o b j e c t without  t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f the s i g n .  s u b j e c t i s a presence  which  preceeds  I t p a r a l l e l s , t h e r e f o r e , the " c o n c i e n c i a  a n a l o g i c a " which O l i v e i r a and M o r e i l l i attempt t o r e a c h b e h i n d  binary  reasoning. D e r r i d a t e l l s us t h a t t h e p r i v i l e g e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s presence,  i s the other o f metaphysics,  so f a r as i t i s caught up  as a s e l f -  t h e v e r y element o f our thought  i n the language o f m e t a p h y s i c s .  7  in  In most o f  h i s work, however, D e r r i d a d e c o n s t r u c t s the metaphysics o f presence  in  o r d e r t o l e a v e t h e t e x t s b a r e , unburdened by the need t o r e p r e s e n t a subj e c t which preceeded  them.  In "Ce Dangereux Supplement" (De l a Gramma-  t o l o g i e ), he t e l l s us t h a t t h e r e i s no t e x t o u t s i d e o f the  text:  Et p o u r t a n t , s i l a l e c t u r e ne d o i t pas se c o n t e n t e r de r e d o u b l e r l e t e x t e , e l l e ne peut legitimement t r a n s g r e s s e r l e t e x t e v e r s a u t r e chose que l u i , v e r s un r e f e r e n t ( r e a l i t e metaphysique, h i s t o r i q u e , p s y c h o - b i o g r a p h i q u e , e t c . ) ou v e r s un s i g n i f i e hors t e x t e dont l e contenu p o u r r a i t a v o i r l i e u , a u r a i t pu a v o i r l i e u hors de l a l a n g u e , e ' e s t a - d i r e , au sens que nous donnons i c i a ce mot, hors de l ' e c r i t u r e en g e n e r a l . C'est pourquoi l e s cons i d e r a t i o n s methodologiques que nous r i s q u o n s i c i sur un exemple sont e t r o i t e m e n t dependantes des  11+ p r o p o s i t i o n s g e n e r a l e s que nous avons e l a b o r e e s p l u s haut, quant a 1'absence du r e f e r e n t ou du s i g n i f i e transcendental. I I n'y a pas de h o r s texte. 8  In l i k e manner, O l i v e i r a and M o r e i l l i become d i s i l l u s i o n e d w i t h the cept o f an analagous consciousness  beyond o r p r e c e e d i n g  con-  language, and be-  come r e c o n c i l e d w i t h the p l a y o f d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n the t e x t as an expansion of  consciousness. D e r r i d a e f f e c t s t h e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f the p r i v i l e d g e d presence o f  metaphysics w i t h the a p p a r e n t l y p a r a d o x i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n o f the t e x t r e f e r r i n g t o nothing  o u t s i d e o f i t s e l f by p r o v i n g t h a t one cannot r e t a i n  d i f f e r e n c e between s i g n i f i e r and s i g n i f i e d s i g n ) without  the  (which i s the v e r y i d e a o f the  b r i n g i n g with i t i t s metaphysical  roots.  To these  adhere not o n l y the d i f f e r e n c e between the s e n s i b l e and the but a l s o the r e f e r e n c e t o a s i g n i f i e d which e x i s t s b e f o r e  roots  intelligible,  its fall,  before  i t s e x p u l s i o n i n t o the e x t e r i o r i t y o f the s e n s i b l e below: La " s c i e n c e " semiologique ou, p l u s e t r o i t e m e n t , l i n g u i s t i q u e , ne peut done r e t e n i r l a d i f f e r e n c e e n t r e s i g n i f i a n t e t s i g n i f i e - l ' i d e e meme du s i g n e - sans l a d i f f e r e n c e e n t r e l e s e n s i b l e e t 1 ' i n t e l l i g i b l e , c e r t e s , mais sans r e t e n i r a u s s i du meme coup, p l u s profondement e t p l u s i m p l i c i t e ment l a r e f e r e n c e a, un s i g n i f i e pouvant " a v o i r l i e u " dans son i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y , avant s a "chute", avant t o u t e e x p u l s i o n dans 1 ' e x t e r i o r i t e de l ' i c i bas s e n s i b l e . 9  The  p a r a d o x i c a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f the presence o f m e t a p h y s i c s , o r a t r a n s -  cendental  s i g n i f i e d as the primacy o f meaning i n language, w i t h the  r e f e r r i n g t e x t occurs through the concept o f d i f f e r e n c e . . D e r r i d a ;  the t r a n s c e n d e n t a l  non-  regards  s i g n i f i e d as a past o f language t h a t has never been  p r e s e n t which e x i s t s w i t h i n language as a t r a c e .  I n "La D i f f e r a n e e " ,  D e r r i d a d e f i n e s the t r a c e as a simulacrum o f a presence t h a t d i s l o c a t e s , d i s p l a c e s and r e f e r s beyond i t s e l f .  The t r a c e has no p l a c e , f o r effacement  15 i s t h e essence o f t h e t r a c e . o t h e r , t h e enigma o f a b s o l u t e  1 0  Trace i s the absolute  o r i g i n o f sense, t h e  a l t e r i t y , which i s p r e s e n t  i n differance:  La t r a c e e s t en e f f e t l ' o r i g i n e absolue du sens en g e n e r a l . Ce q u i r e v i e n t a d i r e , encore une f o i s , q u ' i l n'y a pas. d ' o r i g i n e absolue du sens en g e n e r a l . La t r a c e e s t l a d i f f e r a n c e q u i ouvre l ' a p p a r a i t r e et l a s i g n i f i c a t i o n . Articulant l e v i v a n t s u r l e n o n - v i v a n t . e n g e n e r a l , o r i g i n e de t o u t e r e p e t i t i o n , o r i g i n e de l ' i d e a l i t e , e l l e n ' e s t pas p l u s i d e a l e que r e e l e , pas p l u s i n t e l l i g i b l e que s e n s i b l e , pas p l u s une s i g n i f i c a t i o n t r a n s p a r a n t e qu'une e n e r g i e opaque e t aucun conc e p t e de l a metaphysique ne peut l a d e c r i r e . 1 1  D i f f e r a n c e i s t h e movement t h a t r e s i s t s t h e o p p o s i t i o n between t h e s e n s i b l e and it  the i n t e l l i g i b l e  ( t h e s i g n i f i e r and t h e s i g n i f i e d ) ; r e s i s t s  s u s t a i n s i t , t a k i n g p l a c e between speech-.and w r i t i n g .  a t r a c e t h a t no l o n g e r belongs t o t h e h o r i z o n c a r r i e s and b o r d e r s t h e sense o f b e i n g .  1 3  1 2  i t while  Differance i s  o f b e i n g , but whose p l a y  Derrida's  concepts o f t r a c e and  d i f f e r a n c e t a l l o w him t o get out o f t h e c l o s u r e o f an o b j e c t without a subject  (which would g i v e r i s e t o no o b j e c t ) without r e s o r t i n g t o t h e  subject  as o r i g i n , as u n d e r s t o o d i n t h e l o g o c e n t r i c system. M o r e i l l i - C o r t c i z a r , l i k e D e r r i d a , acknowledges t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l  o f w r i t i n g , y e t comprehends w r i t i n g as a p r i m a r y p r o c e s s which  roots  creates  i t s e l f w i t h i n a rhythm which preceeds o r bypasses thought, and t h e r e f o r e , has  no d e f i n i t i v e s u b j e c t .  The f o r c e M o r e i l l i d e s c r i b e s  an a f f i n i t y w i t h t h e f o r c e D e r r i d a  as "rhythm" has  calls "differance":  iPor que e s c r i b o esto? No tengo i d e a s c l a r a s , n i s i q u i e r a tengo i d e a s . Hay j i r o n e s , i m p u l s o s , b l o q u e s , y todo b u s c a una forma, entonces e n t r a en juego e l r i t m o y yo e s c r i b o d e n t r o de ese r i t m o , e s c r i b o p o r e l , movido por e l . " y no p o r eso. que llaman e l pensamiento y que hace l a p r o s a , l i t e r a t u r a u o t r a . 1 4  M o r e i l l i - C o r t S z a r - O l i v e i r a ' s quest f o r a u t h e n t i c i t y i n language and expression  follows the progression  o f w r i t i n g from P l a t o n i a n  logocentricism,  16 comprehending a p r e s e n t p r e s e n c e , o r d e r e d by d i f f e r a n c e .  t o D e r r i d a ' s non-centered  system  v M o r e i l l i - C o r t a z a r - O l i v e i r a begins h i s search f o r  "una v i d a s e n t i d a , c r e i d a " u t i l i z i n g  " b e i n g " or t h e " o t h e r " as t h e authen-  t i c p o i n t o f p e r s p e c t i v e f o r the d i s t o r t e d p h y s i c a l foreground the laws o f b i n a r y r e a s o n . as an incomplete  governed by  M o r e i l l i - C o r t a z a r condemns language and thought  o p t i c , incapable of expressing the i n t e r n a l existence of  things: " E l l e n g u a j e , a l i g u a l que e l pensamiento, procede d e l funcionamiento a r i t m e t i c o b i n a r i o de nuestro cerebro. C l a s i f i c a m o s en s i y no, en p o s i t i v o y n e g a t i v e ...JPero que d e c i r de l a ' i n s u f i c i e n c i a de l a i n t e l i g e n c i a b i n a r i a en s i misma? l a e x i s t e n c i a i n t e r n a , l a e s e n c i a de l a s cosas se l e escapa.... P a r a c o n s e g u i r l o , d e b e r i a cambiar de estado, s e r i a n e c e s a r i o que o t r a s maquinas que l a s u s u a l e s se p u s i e r a n a f u n c i o n a r en e l c e r e b r o , que e l razonamiento b i n a r i o fuese s u s t i t u i d o p o r una c o n c i e n c i a a n a l o g i c a que asumiera l a s formas y a s i m i l a r a l o s r i t m o s i n c o n c e b i b l e s de esas e s t r u c t u r a s profundas..." (Le m a t i n des m a g i c i e n s ) 1 5  Even w h i l e he i s e x t o l l i n g t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f essence, o r an analagous c o n s c i o u s n e s s experiencing-doubts out phrase  the other, being,  as t h e o r i g i n o f sense, however, M o r e i l l i i s  about t h e " o t h e r " which f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n h i s c r o s s e d  a t t h e end o f t h e passage: Ese cuerpo que soy yo t i e n e l a p r e s e n c i a de un estado en que a l negarse a s i mismo como t a i , y a l negar simultaneamente e l c o r r e l a t o o b j e c t i v o como t a i , su c o n c i e n c i a a c c e d e r i a a un estado f u e r a d e l cuerpo y f u e r a d e l mundo que s e r i a e l verdadero acceso a l ser....mi cuerpo s e r a porque d e t r a s de l a p u e r t a de l u z . . . , e l s e r s e r a o t r a c o s a que cuerpos y , que cuerpos y almas y , que yo y l o o t r o , que ayer y mafiana. Todo depende de...(una f r a s e t a c h a d a ) . 1 6  M o r e i l l i ' s c r o s s e d out phrase  a t t h e end o f h i s r e f l e c t i o n on t h e " o t h e r "  r e c a l l s Heidegger's h a b i t o f w r i t i n g t h e word " b e i n g " c r o s s e d out, as an i n d i c a t i o n o f a move toward t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f language and a trans-'.  formed r e l a t i o n s h i p o f b e i n g t o the-essence  o f language.  In order t o g i v e language back i t s r i g h t s sus d e r e c h a s " )  1 7  ("devolverle a l lenguaje  M o r e i l l i wishes t o r e p l a c e t h e b i n a r y r e a s o n i n g machines  which produce language i n t h e b r a i n w i t h o t h e r machines governed by analagous c o n s c i o u s n e s s e x i s t e n c e or essence  which would be capable o f e x p r e s s i n g t h e  internal  o f t h i n g s which escape e x p r e s s i o n i n a language  governed by b i n a r y r e a s o n i n g . of  an  Moreilli  i s attempting  the  reconciliation  t h e P l a t o n i a n w r i t i n g o f t r u t h i n t h e s o u l t o bad w r i t i n g ( w r i t i n g i n  t h e l i t e r a l and o r d i n a r y s e n s e ) . s t a t e o f analagous c o n s c i o u s n e s s  1 8  I have p r e v i o u s l y p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h e  which M o r e i l l i - C o r t a z a r - O l i v e i r a w i s h t o  r e g a i n i n language has many a f f i n i t i e s w i t h the s i l e n t , i n t u i t i v e  conscious-  ness or s e l f presence which D e r r i d a suggests  as a p o s s i b l e presence  preceeds  D e r r i d a q u e s t i o n s the  the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f l a n g u a g e .  p r i v i l e g e o f presence presence  -no  o r consciousness  1 9  but t h a t of d i f f e r a n c e ;  2 0  l i k e manner, M o r e i l l i - C o r t a z a r - O l i v e i r a ' s quest  effect  l e a v i n g the  t e x t unburdened by t h e need t o r e p r e s e n t a t r u t h which preceeded  it.  In  f o r an analagous con-  s c i o u s n e s s l e a d s him t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t an analagous f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n the system o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n language. the n e c e s s i t y o f d i g g i n g one's own  absolute  as meaning, however, and r e p o s i t i o n s  l o n g e r the a b s o l u t e l y m a t r i c a l form o f b e i n g - as an  which i s no l o n g e r t h a t o f presence  which  consciousness Moreilli  t u n n e l i n the earth, i n s t e a d of  argues ob-  s t i n a t e l y c o n n e c t i n g w i t h a n o n - e x i s t a n t t u n n e l , "como es e l caso de t a n t o s poetas  asomados con mas  a a l t a s horas of  de medio cuerpo a l a ventana de l a s a l a de e s t a r ,  de l a n o c h e "  2 1  ( o b v i o u s l y a l l u d i n g t o O l i v e i r a l e a n i n g out  the window i n the mental asylum, and t o t h e i n c o n g r u i t y o f w r i t i n g  attempting t o d e r i v e i t s sense from i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a being outside of  itself).  metaphysical  18 M o r e i l l i , l i k e D e r r i d a , ackowledges t h a t w r i t i n g has an i n s i d e , o r an essence, b u t an essence t h a t i s c r e a t e d , g e n e r a t e d by t h e o u t s i d e which c o - e x i s t s and i s i n s e p a r a b l e from t h e i n s i d e , i n t h e manner i n which water e x i s t s i n hydrogen; t h a t i s , t h e i n s i d e i s t h e o u t s i d e i n so f a r as t h a t it  i s t h e s y n t h e s i s o f t h e component p a r t s which a r e t h e o u t s i d e which  '  come t o g e t h e r t o c r e a t e t h e i n s i d e . Puede s e r que haya o t r o mundo dentro de e s t e , pero no l o encontraremos r e c o r t a n d o su s i l u e t a en e l tumulto f a b u l o s o de l o s d i a s y l a s v i d a s , no l o encontraremos n i en l a a t r o f i a n i en l a hipertrofia. E s t e mundo no e x i s t e , hay que c r e a r l o como e l f e n i x . E s t e mundo e x i s t e en e s t e , pero como e l agua e x i s t e . en e l oxigeno y e l hidrogeno....Digamos que e l mundo es una f i g u r a , hay  que l e e r l a . Por l e e r l a entendemos g e n e r a r l a .  Derrida deconstructs stone  2 2  t h e metaphysics o f p r e s e n c e which i s t h e key-  f o r language as p r e v i o u s l y thought w i t h i n a l o g o c e n t r i c i s m , y e t  escapes Saussure's double b i n d o f an o b j e c t without the t r a c e - as a p a s t t h a t has n e v e r been p r e s e n t writing.  a s u b j e c t by p r o p o s i n g  - as t h e o r i g i n o f  S i m i l a r l y , M o r e i l l i a l l o w s h i m s e l f t h e p l e a s u r e o f undermining  and r i d i c u l i n g a l i t e r a t u r e a t i t s v e r y base, y e t acknowledges a t h r e a d coming out o f t h e book t h a t would always be s t r e t c h e d out t o a beyond, c a u s i n g any p e t r i f i e d v i s i o n o f t h e work t o be l e f t sequently,  i n suspense, and, con-  a l l o w i n g t h e t e x t t o open up. M o r e i l l i se daba e l gusto de s e g u i r f i n g i e n d o una l i t e r a t u r a que en e l f u e r o i n t e r n o miraba, contraminaba y e s c a r n e c i a . . . . a l f i n a l h a b i a siempre un h i l o t e n d i d o mas a l i a , s a l i e n d o s e d e l volumen, apuntando a un t a i v e z , a un a l o mejor, a un quien sabe, que dejaba en suspenso t o d a v i s i o n p e t r i f i c a n t e de l a o b r a . 2 3  In the preceeding Derrida's theory  pages, some o f t h e p a r a l l e l s between Jacques  o f s i g n s i n r e l a t i o n t o w r i t i n g and those  of Cortazar  v o i c e d by M o r e i l l i i n Rayuela have been examined. We s h a l l now examine  19 the complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e n o v e l , i t s m i l i e u s , characters  and language as a l l e g o r i c a l s t u d i e s o f t h e systems o f o p p o s i -  t i o n s on which t h e concept o f t h e s i g n i s based.  The changing s t r u c t u r e ,  imagery, m i l i e u s and c h a r a c t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n Rayuela r e f l e c t t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e s i g n t o w r i t i n g from i t s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n a c l a s s i c a l l o g o c e n t r i c i s m i n which t h e s i g n r e p r e s e n t s  a presence  i n i t s absence o r a t r u t h d e f e r r e d o u t s i d e o f i t s e l f , t o i t s present s t a t u s as a s e l f - r e f e r r i n g e n t i t y based on o p p o s i t i o n s whose p o i n t o f origin i s  no l o n g e r d e f i n a b l e , t h e o r i g i n o f t h e s p e c u l a t i o n b e i n g a  difference. The  n o v e l ' s b i n a r y c o n s t r u c t i o n , b i n a r y m i l i e u s , b i n a r y language  and b i n a r y c h a r a c t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e an analogue o f t h e b i - p a r t i t e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e s i g n , and o f t h e i n s i d e and o u t s i d e o f w r i t i n g , which i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s o f l o g o s and t h e l a b y r i n t h , reason reason be  and non-  (madness), t h e o t h e r and b e i n g , meaning and non-meaning which  examined i n chapter  shall  two i n r e l a t i o n , t o t h e movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n s  in writing. R. Jakobsen, whom D e r r i d a quotes i n "La f i n du l i v r e e t l e commencement de l ' e c r i t u r e "  (De l a Grammatologie), t e l l s us t h a t t h e c o n s t i t u t i v e  mark o f any s i g n i s i t s t w o - f o l d c h a r a c t e r i n v o l v i n g two aspects  - one  s e n s i b l e and t h e o t h e r i n t e l l i g i b l e - which n e c e s s a r i l y suppose and r e q u i r e each  other: La pensee s t r u c t u r a l i s t e moderne l ' a c l a i r e ment e t a b l i : l e langage e s t un systeme de s i g n e s , l a l i n g u i s t i q u e e s t p a r t i e i n t e g r a n t e de l a s c i e n c e des s i g n e s , l a semiotique (ou dans l e s termes de Saussure, 'la- s e m i o l o g i e ) . . L a : : d e f i h i t i o h medievale a l i q u i d s t a t p r o a l i q u o - que n o t r e epoque a r e s s u s c i t e e , s ' e s t montree t o u j o u r s v a l a b l e et feconde. C'est a i n s i que l a marque c o n s t i t u t i v e de t o u t s i g n e en g e n e r a l , du s i g n e l i n g u i s t i q u e en p a r t i c u l i e r , r e s i d e dans son c a r a c t e r e double:  chaque u n i t e l i n g u i s t i q u e e s t b i p a r t i t e et comp o r t e deux a s p e c t s ; l ' u n s e n s i b l e et 1'autre i n t e l l i g i b l e - d'une p a r t l e - s i g n a n s ( l e s i g n i f i a n t de S a u s s u r e ) , d ' a u t r e p a r t l e signatum ( l e s i g n i f i e ) . Ces deux elements c o n s t i t u t i f s du s i g n e l i n g u i s t i q u e (et du s i g n e en g e n e r a l ) se supposent et s'appelent necessairement l ' u n l ' a u t r e . 2 4  Rayuela's b i n a r y the  s i g n . The  There are two  novel i s constructed  (or d e c o n s t r u c t e d ) i n u n i t s o f  suggested books c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n  e x t e r i o r i t y and intelligible.  s t r u c t u r e p a r o d i e s the b i - p a r t i t e c o n s t r u c t i o n  the The  one  book, e v o c a t i v e  i n t e r i o r i t y o f w r i t i n g , or o f the f i r s t book a l l e g o r i z e s the  governed by the laws o f l o g o c e n t r i c i s m ,  s e n s i b l e and  c l a s s i c a l view o f  a l i n e a r representation  e x p e r i e n c e f o r the  e x t e r i o r i t y o f the  a passive  signifier.  The  the  the  t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y . i n the t e m p o r a l - s p a t i a l  first  reading, being reader,  second book a l l e g o r i z e s  w r i t i n g as a system o f s p a t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s , and  c r i s i s which the  of  i n which the t o t a l i t y o f the book The  evokes the  two.  writing  i s h o s t i l e t o the d i s r u p t i o n o f w r i t i n g i t s e l f . o f r e a l i t y and  of  i n v i t e s the reader t o par-  past-present,  logos-labyrinth  s i g n and w r i t i n g e n t a i l s , thus evoking the s i g n i f i e d ' s  more immediate r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h essence. The  first  r e a d i n g o f the book i s i n t u r n d i v i s i b l e i n t o two  D e l Lado de A l i a and  D e l Lado de Aca  world.  (Del Lado de Aca)  Thus, P a r i s  has  ( D e l Lado de Alia.) may  lost  i n abstract  perceiving  a gathering  differences.  o f t e n been c a l l e d the P a r i s o f the be r e g a r d e d as the  c i t y , and Buenos A i r e s as i t s "copy" or " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " . c i t y appears t o be  place  The  f o r metaphysical thinkers  new  "original" "original" are  so  searches f o r essence t h a t they are r e n d e r e d i n c a p a b l e  of  who  essence by v i r t u e of the b l i n d s t h e i r r e a s o n i n g c o n s t r u c t s  f r o n t of i t , whereas the  -  -• which r e f l e c t the movement o f w r i t i n g  away from a metaphysics o f presence towards a phenomenology o f Buenos A i r e s  units  "representation",  Buenos A i r e s , appears t o be  in a  21 haven f o r e x i s t e n t i a l i s t s who enjoy l i v i n g more than t h i n k i n g .  D e l Lado  de Aca i s t h e more p h y s i c a l , pragmatic w o r l d - i n s p i t e o f i t s c l o s e a f f i n i t y w i t h c i r c u s e s and mental asylums - and thus p a r a l l e l s some o f Saussure's and D e r r i d a ' s c o n c l u s i o n s text i t s e l f , r a t h e r than a deferred  about t h e essence o f w r i t i n g as t h e t r u t h which p r e - e x i s t e d  the text.  O l i v e i r a ' s move from P a r i s t o Buenos A i r e s p a r a l l e l s t h e displacement o f the  s i g n from a l o g o c e n t i c  deferred  system i n which t h e s i g n i f i e r r e f e r s t o a  presence; t o a non-centric  system i n which t h e p o i n t  of reference  of the s i g n i f i e r i s a difference. At  first  g l a n c e , i t appears p o s s i b l e t o equate D e l Lado de A l i a  ( P a r i s ) w i t h t h e e x t e r i o r i t y o f w r i t i n g - t h e s i g n i f i e r - i n so f a r as that  P a r i s , as an i n t e l l e c t u a l c e n t e r ,  i s the place  o f a b s t r a c t i o n and  removal from t r u t h , whereas D e l Lado de A c a (Buenos A i r e s ) evokes t h e i n t e r i o r i t y o f w r i t i n g r e f e r r e d t o by t h e s i g n i f i e d , b e i n g t h e p l a c e  of a  more a u t h e n t i c  evident,  existence.  The c o m p l e x i t i e s  o f t h e analogy become  however, when one t a k e s i n t o account t h e subsequent d i v i s i o n o f t h e P a r i s and  Buenos A i r e s  within  sections  i n t o two p a r t s  each, each s i d e  incorporating  i t s e l f t h e analogy o f t h e s i g n i f i e r and t h e s i g n i f i e d , o r the ex-  t e r i o r i t y and t h e i n t e r i o r i t y o f w r i t i n g ; e f f e c t i n g t h a t l e e r a Buenos A i r e s y  viseversa."  _"En P a r i s , todo  2 5  D e l Lado de A l i a i s d i v i s i b l e i n t o O l i v e i r a ' s e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h l a Maga, and O l i v e i r a ' s e x p e r i e n c e s apart  from l a Maga.  La Maga and M o r e i l l i  are t h e i n s i d e o r s i g n i f i e d o f D e l Lado de A l i a who i n d i c a t e an analagous c o n s c i o u s n e s s which O l i v e i r a and t h e o t h e r members o f t h e Club de l a S e r piente  - the s i g n i f i e r s - aspire to.  O l i v e i r a ' s attempts t o r e a c h a stage  o f analagous c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r c e s s i o n o f l a Maga a l l e g o r i z e s the  s i g n i f i e r r e f e r r i n g t o t h e s i g n i f i e d as a t r u t h p r e s e n t .  Oliveira's  movement away from l a Maga and h e r i m p l i e d writing  death symbolize t h e movement o f  away from a c e n t r a l s i g n i f i e d toward t h e r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e  o r i g i n o f sense i n w r i t i n g as a Del  difference.  Lado de Aca i s d i v i d e d  i n t o two s e c t i o n s  e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e c i r c u s and h i s e x p l o i t s  also:  Oliveira's  i n t h e mental asylum.  The  c i r c u s p a r o d i e s t h e e x t e r i o r i t y o f t h e s i g n i f i e r which a c t s as a b r i d g e t o t h e i n t e r i o r i t y o f t h e s i g n i f i e d , symbolized by t h e m e n t a l asylum. The  c i r c u s evokes t h e e x t e r i o r i t y o f t h e s i g n i f i e r and w r i t i n g ,  which a l l u d e s  t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a meeting w i t h t h e s i g n i f i e d o r i n s i d e ,  a l t h o u g h i t e x i s t s , by v i r t u e o f i t s i m i t a t i v e n a t u r e , i n o p p o s i t i o n it.  O l i v e i r a d e s c r i b e s t h e c i r c u s as a spangled f r a u d where e v e r y t h i n g  was p e r f e c t secret  - an i m i t a t i o n based on t r i c k s and d e c e p t i o n .  He r e v e a l s t h e  o f the c a l c u l a t i n g c a t who responds t o cardboard cards  previously  with valerian.  of the s i g n i f i e r .  The c a t i s a l u d i c r o u s  The symbolic  takes i n t o account t h a t  significance  f o r e , the contrived  treated  parody o f t h e emptiness  o f t h e c a t deepens i f one  c a t s have t h e h i s t o r i c a l - m y t h o l o g i c a l  animals who are i n touch w i t h t h e m y s t e r i e s o f l i f e .  import o f  Like w r i t i n g ,  The c i r c u s and t h e c a t a r e not o n l y symbolic o f  empty e x t e r i o r i t y o f t h e s i g n i f i e r , but a l s o o f t h e s i g n i f i e r ' s  function  as a b r i d g e t o t h e i n t e r i o r i t y o f t h e s i g n i f i e d .  describes the c e n t r a l hole at the top o f the c i r c u s tent  Oliveira  as t h e escape  h a t c h t o a maybe c o n t a c t , a b r i d g e between t h e eye and l i b e r a t e d "ese  there-  deception of the c a l c u l a t i n g cat brings along with i t  i t s metaphysical roots. the  to  space:  escape h a c i a un quiza, c o n t a c t o , ese c e n t r o , ese o j o como un puente  del suelo a l espacio liberado...." The  2  6  mental asylum evokes t h e i n t e r i o r i t y o f t h e s i g n i f i e d as t h e  haven o f non-reason (madness) which preceeds and t r a n s c e n d s reasoned  discourse.  The s l o g a n o f t h e asylum, "matar a l . p e r r o " , appears t o s i g n i f y  death t o e x t e r i o r laws and conventions (such as t h o s e imposed hy l o g o c e n t r i c i s m on w r i t i n g ) , i n f a v o u r o f " a b r i r p u e r t a s y ventanas a l e s p i r i t u "  2 7  ( e v o c a t i v e o f t h e open movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n s o f w r i t i n g i n a noncentric  system). The f i r s t  r e a d i n g o f Rayuela, whose b i - p a r t i t e s t r u c t u r e i s a d u a l  m i r r o r r e f l e c t i o n o f a s e r i e s o f s e l f - b i s e c t i n g u n i t i e s which f i n a l l y minate i n death - "paf se a c a b o " the  last  2 8  - p a r o d i e s Heidegger's premise t h a t i n  i n s t a n c e , the d i f f e r e n c e between the s i g n i f i e r and s i g n i f i e d i s  nothing.  2 9  The second r e a d i n g o f t h e book, i n so f a r as t h a t i t s t i l l the  ter-  l i n e a r p r o g r e s s i o n o f c h a p t e r s one t o f i f t y - s i x ,  follows  i n t e r s p e r c e d by  ex-  c u r s i o n s i n t o the " C a p i t u l o s p r e s c i n d i b l e s " , embraces t h e above s t r u c t u r e , but  a l l o w s f o r an opening at the end o f c h a p t e r f i f t y - s i x , r a t h e r than  ending i n n o t h i n g or death through t h e t o t a l r e d u c t i o n o f t h e i n t o the s i g n i f i e d .  signifier  The l a b y r i n t h i n e s t r u c t u r e which d i s t i n g u i s h e s the  second book from the f i r s t book o f Rayuela, and the a l l e g o r i c a l  signifi-  cance o f t h i s d i f f e r e n c e w i l l be examined i n c h a p t e r s two and t h r e e . There i s one remarkable d i f f e r e n c e between the s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e first of  and second books which support t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the f i r s t r e a d i n g  the n o v e l p a r o d i e s w r i t i n g as a l o g o c e n t r i c t o t a l i t y , i n which the  o b j e c t r e f e r s d i r e c t l y t o a s u b j e c t ; whereas the second r e a d i n g o f the book a l l e g o r i z e s w r i t i n g as a non-centered t o t a l i t y  i n which s u b j e c t  and  o b j e c t a r e r e f l e c t e d doubles whose o r i g i n i s l o s t i n the p l a y o f d i f f e r ences.  In c h a p t e r f i f t y - f i v e o f the f i r s t book, T a l i t a and T r a v e l e r  d i s c u s s the event o f O l i v e i r a ' s k i s s w i t h T a l i t a i n the mortuarium asylum.  I n t h e second book, c h a p t e r f i f t y - f i v e i s o m i t t e d , and  o f the  instead  ,  2h appears "verbatim as t h e second h a l f o f c h a p t e r one hundred and t h i r t y three; on  the f i r s t  h a l f o f the chapter c o n s i s t i n g o f T r a v e l e r ' s  "La Luz de l a Paz d e l Mundo" by C e r e f i n o  reflections  Paz - a t r e a t i s e which can  o n l y be i n t e r p r e t e d as an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e madness o f pure r e a s o n . I n the  f i r s t book, chapter f i f t y - f i v e r e f e r s d i r e c t l y back t o i t s " o r i g i n " -  the  a c t u a l event o f t h e k i s s as d e s c r i b e d  i n chapter f i f t y - f o u r .  In the  second book, however, T a l i t a ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e k i s s i s s e p a r a t e d from the  a c t u a l "event" i n c h a p t e r f i f t y - f o u r by t h e i n t e r c a l a t i o n o f t h r e e  "Capitulos  p r e s c i n d i b l e s " which parody t h e p l a y o f d i f f e r e n c e s  the o r i g i n a r y s i g n i f i e d i s obscured o r l o s t .  Cerefino  i n which  Paz's t r e a t i s e o f  r e a s o n a b l e madness has many a f f i n i t i e s w i t h O l i v e i r a , who i s approaching a s t a t e o f madness through r e a s o n . and  t h i r t y - t h r e e becomes l o s t  t o t a l l y unrelated into Traveler's  The " o r i g i n " o f chapter one hundred  i n the play of difference, therefore,  t r e a t i s e o f Cerefino  Paz appears t o have as much  as t h e input  and t h e r e a d e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f O l i v e i r a ' s a c t i o n i n  the mortuarium as t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l event d i d . The and  a r b i t r a r y character  figura". everything that  analogy o f t h e second r e a d i n g o f t h e book w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l of signs  M o r e i l l i defines  i s m i r r o r e d i n M o r e i l l i ' s concept o f " l a  the condition  o f " f i g u r a " as t h a t  i n which  has v a l u e as a s i g n and not as a theme o f d e s c r i p t i o n ; a s i g n ,  i s , that  refers to interspacial differences  r a t h e r t h a n t o an a b s o l u t e  h i s t o r i c a l time o r event. M o r e i l l i aflade: "Acostumbrarse a emplear l a e x p r e s i o n f i g u r a en vez de imagen, p a r a e v i t a r confusiones. S i , todo c o i n c i d e . Pero no se t r a t a de una v u e l t a a l a Edad Media n i cosa parecida. E r r o r de p o s t u l a r un tiempo h i s t o r i c o a b s o l u t o : Hay tiempos d i f e r e n t e s aunque paralelos. En ese s e n t i d o , uno de l o s tiempos de l a llamada Edad Media puede c o i n c i d i r con  25 uno de l o s tiempos de l a llamada Edad Moderna. Y ese tiempo es e l p e r c i b i d o y h a b i t a d o por p i n t o r e s y e s c r i t o r e s que rehusan apoyarse en l a c i r c u n s t a n c i a , s e r 'modernos' en e l s e n t i d o en que l o e n t i e n d e n l o s contemporaneos, l o que no s i g n i f i c a que opten p o r s e r anac r o n i c o s ; s e n c i l l a m e n t e e s t a n a l margen d e l tiempo s u p e r f i c i a l de su epoca, y desde ese o t r o tiempo donde todo accede, a l a c o n d i c i o n de f i g u r a , donde todo v a l e como s i g n o y no como tema de d e s c r i p c i o n , i n t e n t a n una obra que puede p a r e c e r a j e n a o a n t a g o n i c a a su tiempo y a su h i s t o r i a c i r c u n d a n t e s , y que s i n embargo l o s i n c l u y e , l o s e x p l i c a , y en u l t i m o termino l o s o r i e n t a h a c i a una t r a n s c e n d e n c i a en cuyo termino e s t a esperando e l hombre." 30  Robert Brody  c i t e s t h e above passage  as an e x c e l l e n t s t a r t i n g p o i n t i n a  d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e expansion o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s : We see here a d e n i a l o f . l i n e a r , c h r o n o l o g i c a l t i m e . M o r e i l l i proposes a p a r a l l e l i s m o f d i f f e r e n t times t h a t may be p e r c e i v e d by those a r t i s t s and w r i t e r s who a r e c a p a b l e o f s e e i n g beyond t h e s u p e r f i c i a l (eg., h i s t o r i c a l t i m e ) , t h o s e who can see t h e f i g u r a t o be formed by t h e f u s i o n o f analagous c o n c e p t s , p e r s o n s , and a c t s e x i s t i n g i n h i s t o r i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s ( M i d d l e Ages, Modern A g e ) . 3 1  C o r t a z a r , i n t h e second book, attempts t o i n c a r n a t e i n t e r s p a c i a l  differ-  ences which g i v e r i s e t o t h e movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n s o r an expansion o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e t e x t by superimposing t h e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d from p o e t r y , n o v e l s , documentaries,  p h i l o s o p h y , or j u s t o t h e r v i e w p o i n t s  on t h e event a l r e a d y r e l a t e d , on t h e event The  extracts  itself.  s p a t i a l - p h y s i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s that unite the four  principle  c h a r a c t e r s o f Rayuela - L a Maga, O l i v e i r a , T a l i t a and T r a v e l e r - parody the changing r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s i g n i f i e r t o s i g n i f i e d when w r i t i n g e v o l v e s from b e i n g comprehended w i t h i n a c l a s s i c a l l o g o c e n t r i c i s m , t o b e i n g i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h i n a n o n - c e n t r i c system founded on d i f f e r e n c e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f La Maga and O l i v e i r a i n D e l Lado de A l i a  (Paris)  i s the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f the b i n a r y - o p p o s i t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e w r i t t e n  s i g n r e f e r r i n g t o a d e f e r r e d presence o r t r u t h as c l a s s i c a l l y  determined.  The e v o l u t i o n o f t h e concept o f t h e s i g n from i t s f u n c t i o n as a d e f e r r e d presence r e f e r r i n g t o an o r i g i n a l p r e s e n c e ; t o i t s d i f f e r e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r in.which t h e p o i n t o f i t s o r i g i n i s l o s t  i n t h e d i f f e r e n c e s , and presence  i s p r e s e n t o n l y i n e r a s u r e , i s p a r o d i e d i n t h e l a b y r i n t h o f s p a t i a l and temporal bonds which u n i t e l a Maga, O l i v e i r a , T a l i t a and T r a v e l e r . The f i r s t  book o f R a y u e l a commences w i t h t h e h a l f - d o u b t f u l q u e s t i o n ,  " i E n c o n t r a r i a a l a Maga?" - l a Maga s y m b o l i z i n g an essence o f l i f e i n t u i t i v e consciousness that O l i v e i r a i s incapable o f p e r c e i v i n g ,  o r an descri-  b i n g or r e a c h i n g on h i s own terms. The second r e a d i n g o f t h e book, by c o n t r a s t , commences w i t h t h e p h r a s e , "pero q u i e n nos c u r a r a d e l fuego s o r d o " b o l i z i n g the inner l i f e first  3 3  - "fuego" o r f i r e sym-  o r essence t h a t O l i v e i r a , a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e  r e a d i n g a s p i r e d t o through t h e i n t e r c e s s i o n o f l a Maga. The t o t a l i t y o f t h e book, t h e r e f o r e , i n c l u d i n g b o t h t h e f i r s t and  second r e a d i n g s , embraces a p a r a d o x i c a l s e a r c h f o r essence which i s a t t h e same time a moving away o r cure from t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f essence; a move from t r u t h as t h e c e n t e r , t o t r u t h as w r i t i n g : "Todo es e s c r i t u r a . . . . N u e s t r a v e r d a d p o s i b l e t i e n e que s e r i n v e n c i o n , es d e c i r , e s c r i t u r a . . . , " first for  3tt  The  reading o f the novel describes O l i v e i r a ' s hopeful-hopeless search  a t r u t h p r e s e n t (analagous c o n s c i o u s n e s s ) i n d i c a t e d by l a Maga.  The  second r e a d i n g o f t h e book, however, commences w i t h t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t o r i g i n a r y t r u t h i s not o b t a i n a b l e through a d i a l e c t i c , as t h e d i a l e c t i c i t s e l f t r a n s f o r m s t r u t h i n t o something  e l s e t h a n what i t o r i g i n a l l y was:  Que s i , que no, que en e s t a e s t a . . . P a r e c e r i a que una e l e c c i o n no puede s e r d i a l e c t i c a , que su p l a n t e o l a empobrece, es d e c i r l a f a l s e a , es d e c i r l a t r a n s f o r m a en o t r a c o s a . 3 5  27 The  ending o f t h e f i r s t hook i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e was some meeting "between  l a Maga and O l i v e i r a i f o n l y f o r t h a t one t e r r i b l e , sweet i n s t a n t b e f o r e death: " a l f i n y a l cabo algun que  encuentro h a b i a , aunque no p o d i a durar  ese i n s t a n t e t e r r i b l e m e n t e d u l c e . . . p a f  se a c a b o . "  3 6  The ending o f  the second book, by c o n t r a s t , r e v e a l s t h a t t h e meeting d i d not t a k e and O l i v e i r a s u r v i v e s , c o n t i n u i n g h i s s e a r c h  mas  place,  f o r a t r u t h a t t a i n a b l e here  on e a r t h whose o r i g i n i s w r i t i n g ; as i n d i c a t e d by h i s d e s i r e t o become a monk o f " l a c o r p o r a c i o n n a c i o n a l de l o s monjes de l a o r a c i o n d e l s a n t i guamiento" - an o r d e r whose o r i g i n i s t h e t r e a t i s e o f C e r e f i n o Paz d e d i c a t e d t o p r a y i n g f o r and s a n c t i f y i n g " l u g a r e s de p a r a j e s " ( s i t e s o f places).  The e x p r e s s i o n  " l u g a r e s de p a r a j e s " evokes t h e sameness-yet-  d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e d o u b l e , and a l s o appears t o be a m i r r o r - p l a y on t h e expression a-joining.  " l u g a r e s de p a r e j a s " ( s i t e s o f c o u p l e s ) , i n f e r r i n g  doubles-as-  At t h e end o f t h e second book, t h e r e f o r e , O l i v e i r a ' s  search  f o r l a Maga, o r t h e o r i g i n a r y essence, o f .being, i s abandoned i n f a v o u r o f h i s newfound d e d i c a t i o n t o t h e s a n c t i t y o f d i f f e r e n c e s . Before beginning  t o f o r g e t h e analogy between t h e o p p o s i t i o n - u n i t y  o f O l i v e i r a and l a Maga, and t h e a n t a g o n i s t i c - d o u b l e  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the  s i g n i f i e r and t h e s i g n i f i e d which t h e n o t i o n o f t h e s i g n i m p l i e s , i t i s necessary  t o c l a r i f y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t r u t h , l o g o s , mind, v o i c e ,  w r i t i n g , s i g n i f i e r , s i g n i f i e d and s i g n as determined by A r i s t o t l e , and as understood w i t h i n t h e h e r i t a g e o f l o g o c e n t r i c i s m . f i n du l i v r e e t l e commencement de l ' e c r i t u r e " explains that a l l metaphysical logos, o r reason.  determinations  Jacques D e r r i d a , i n "La  (De l a Grammatologie) o f t r u t h are i n s e p a r a b l e  from  W i t h i n l o g o s , t h e o r i g i n a l l i n k t o t h e v o i c e has an  immediate r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e mind. n i f i e r s o f mental e x p e r i e n c e ,  Spoken words are t h e symbols o r s i g -  and w r i t t e n words are t h e symbols o r s i g n i -  f i e r s o f spoken words. A l l s i g n i f i e r s , t h e r e f o r e are d e r i v a t i v e . of i t s proximity at the  t o the mind, the v o i c e as a s i g n i f i e r i s d e r i v a t i v e , y e t  same time has  "by c o n t r a s t , has presentative.  no  a d i r e c t rapport  w i t h meaning.  c o n s t i t u t i v e meaning and  Logocentricism,  i s thus a p h o n o c e n t r i c i s m .  the.being  o f the  character  - one  f i e r and the  signified.  o p p o s i t i o n between the  D e r r i d a reminds us t h a t one  i n t e l l i g i b l e , but i t s expulsion  The  their  sign i s i t s b i - p a r t i t e signi-  cannot r e t a i n the  s i g n i f i e d without b r i n g i n g w i t h i t i t s  the  which e x i s t s b e f o r e  of  the other p a r t i n t e l l i g i b l e - the  To t h e s e r o o t s adhere not  the  separation  o n l y the d i f f e r e n c e between  a l s o the r e f e r e n c e  i n t o the  to a  e x t e r i o r i t y o f the  signified sensible.  As the f a c e o f pure i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y , the t r a n s c e n d e n t a l  signified refers  t o an a b s o l u t e  3 7  logos  t o which i t i s immediately  D e r r i d a does not i s conceivable  governs the  r e j e c t the above n o t i o n s  united. o f the  s i g n , - as  i n t h e h i s t o r y o f metaphysics w i t h o u t t h e s e n o t i o n s -  he does q u e s t i o n sign.  a  reminded us t h a t language i s  metaphysical roots. s e n s i b l e and  as  e x t e r i o r i t y o f meaning.  c o n s t i t u t i v e mark o f any  s i g n i f i e r and  of  epoch o f l o g o s ; an epoch covered  Saussure has  p a r t s e n s i b l e and  substance,  debases w r i t i n g - c o n s i d e r e d  s i g n i f i e d - or the  p a r a l l e l i s m - b e l o n g s , t h e r e f o r e , - t o the  the  written  thus supports the d e t e r m i n a t i o n  m e d i a t i o n of a m e d i a t i o n - as a f a l l i n t o the  by the h i s t o r y o f m e t a p h y s i c s .  re-  historical  as presence (presence as  e n t i t y as p r e s e n c e , and  d i f f e r e n c e between s i g n i f i e r and  signifier,  s i g n i f i e r o f the mind,  P h o n o c e n t r i c i s m merges w i t h the  Logocentricism  a system o f s i g n s , and  written  i n f e r r i n g a system i n which the  o f the meaning o f b e i n g  essence, e x i s t e n c e ) .  The  i s always t e c h n i c a l and  s i g n i f i e r r e f e r s t o the v o i c e , which i n t u r n i s the  determination  Because  the h i s t o r i c a l c l o s u r e o f the p h i l o s o p h y  nothing but  o f presence t h a t  R e c a l l i n g M o r e i l l i ' s a l l u s i o n . t o w r i t i n g as a w a l l  of  29 words w i t h a m i s s i n g b r i c k , D e r r i d a  says t h a t a p h i l o s o p h y o f w r i t i n g  must d e s i g n a t e t h e c r e v i c e through which t h e y e t unnameable glimmer beyond the  c l o s u r e can be glimpsed.  i c s o f presence, Derrida  Through h i s d e c o n s t r u c t i o n  o f t h e metaphys-  t r i e s t o show t h a t t h e r e i s no l i n g u i s t i c  sign  before writing. . . . . i l f a u t e n t o u r e r l e s concepts c r i t i q u e s d'un d i s c o u r s prudent et m i n u t i e u x , marquer l e s cond i t i o n s , l e m i l i e u et l e s l i m i t e s de l e u r e f f i c a c i t e , d e s i g n e r rigoureusement l e u r appartenance a lamachine q u ' i l s permettent de d e c o n s t i t u e r ; et du meme coup l a f a i l l e p a r l a q u e l l e se l a i s s e e n t r e v o i r , encore innommable, l a l u e u r de l ' o u t r e cloture. Le concept de s i g n e e s t i c i e x e m p l a i r e . . . . En s u s p e c t a n t , comme nous venons de l e f a i r e , l a d i f f e r e n c e e n t r e s i g n i f i e ou s i g n i f i a n t ou l ' i d e e de s i g n e en g e n e r a l , nous devons p r e c i s e r a u s s i t o t q u ' i l ne s ' a g i t pas de l e f a i r e depuis une i n s t a n c e de l a v e r i t e p r e s e n t e , a n t e r i e u r e , e x t e r i e u r e ou s u p e r i e u r e au s i g n e , depuis l e l i e u de l a d i f f e r e n c e effacee. B i e n au c o n t r a i r e . Nous nous i n q u i e t o n s de ce q u i , dans l e concept de s i g n e — q u i n'a jamais e x i s t e n i f o n c t i o n n e hors de l ' h i s t o i r e de l a p h i l o s o p h i e (de l a presence) - r e s t e systematiquement e t genealogiquement determine p a r c e t t e h i s t o i r e . • •••  L ' e x t e r i o r i t e du s i g n i f i a n t e s t 1 ' e x t e r i o r i t e de l ' e c r i t u r e en g e n e r a l e t nous t e n t e r o n s de montrer q u ' i l n'y a pas de s i g n e l i n g u i s t i q u e . a v a n t l ' e c r i t u r e . The described  o r i g i n a l , p h y s i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f l a Maga and O l i v e i r a , as i n D e l Lado de A l i a  ( P a r i s ) , i s an a l l e g o r y o f t h e A r i s t o t e l i a n  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f w r i t i n g t o v o i c e t o mind. i n t u i t i v e l y , i s comparable t o t h e v o i c e , the  3 8  La Maga, t h e b e i n g who  lives  s i g n i f i e r o f t h e s o u l which bears  c l o s e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e s i g n i f i e d , as f e e l i n g s o f t h e s o u l , which  constitutes speech.  a s o r t o f u n i v e r s a l language which e f f a c e s  La Maga, as t h e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f v o i c e ,  of w r i t t e n  discourse.  itself  through  i s also the s i g n i f i e d  O l i v e i r a , t h e man o f r e a s o n who i s s p i r i t u a l l y  b a r r e n , b a r r e d by r e a s o n and d i s c o u r s e  from i n t e r p r e t i n g essence  t i v e l y , i s the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f the w r i t t e n  s i g n i f i e r , t h e dead  intuiletter,  30 the e x t e r i o r i t y o f w r i t i n g ; which, a c c o r d i n g o f w r i t i n g , c a r r i e s no  t o the c l a s s i c a l  c o n s t i t u t i v e meaning i t s e l f , hut  t r u t h c o n s t i t u t e d hy and w i t h i n the element of O l i v e i r a r e a l i z e s t h a t l a Maga has  definition  only i n d i c a t e s a  logos.  a personal  life,  whereas he i s  empty, an enormous l i b e r t y : En e l fondo l a Maga t i e n e una v i d a p e r s o n a l . . . . En cambio yo e s t o y v a c i o , una l i b e r t a d enorme, p a r a sonar y andar por a h i , todos l o s juguetes r o t o s , ningun problema. Dame f u e g o . 3 9  With the phrase " a l l the t o y s broken", O l i v e i r a admits h i s t o t a l separa-^:. t i o n from c h i l d h o o d voice to w r i t i n g .  and  innocence, comparable t o the f a l l  H i s request  for a light  or f i r e has  tones : Prometheus brought f i r e from the gods t o man l i k e and for  thus f r e e him  from h i s s u b j u g a t i o n  o f language 'from  promethean o v e r -  t o make him more god-  t o the gods.  In h i s d e s i r e  f i r e or a l i g h t , O l i v e i r a - l i k e w r i t i n g comprehended i n a l o g o c e n t i c  t o t a l i t y - d e s i r e s the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r e v o l u t i o n which he p r e s e n t l y Plato perceives o f the  the v o i c e as h a v i n g a n a t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e . f e e l i n g s  s o u l t h a t p r e c e e d language.  In l i k e manner, O l i v e i r a d e s c r i b e s  Maga as p o i n t i n g toward t h e r a y c a p a b l e o f s h a t t e r i n g the m i r r o r guage and r e a s o n : "La Maga no f i n a r a y a que  lacks.  la  of l a n -  sabra nunca como su dedo apuntaba h a c i a l a  t r i z a e l espejo."  4 0  O l i v e i r a r e a l i z e s t h a t he  i s not  capable o f s e e i n g through the m i r r o r , or o f even h a v i n g f e e l i n g s : "Buscar a t r a v e s de",  penso confusamente.  " S i , es una  h a c e r , eso y l l o r a r y compadecerme.  1,1+1  de l a s cosas que  Whereas O l i v e i r a has  no  se  faith in  d e f i n i t i o n s , i n t e l l i g e n c e , s e e i n g w i t h h i s eyes open - t h e way  of d i s - •  c o u r s e ; l a Maga b e l i e v e s i n t o u c h , i n s t i n c t , s e e i n g b l i n d : the magic route  o f the  soul:  " i T a n c i e g o me "Al  crees?"  (Oliveira)  c o n t r a r i o , t e h a r i a t a n t o b i e n quedarte  un  poco c i e g o . "  ( l a Maga)  " A h , s i ; e l t a c t o que reemplaza l a s . d e f i n i c i o n e s , e l i n s t i n t o que v a mas a l i a de l a i n t e l i g e n c i a . L a v i a magica, l a noche o s c u r a d e l alma." ( O l i v e i r a ) 4 2  La Maga and O l i v e i r a ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p , . l i k e t h e c o - e x i s t e n c e s i g n i f i e r and s i g n i f i e d w i t h i n ' t h e opposition:  of the  concept o f t h e s i g n , i s determined by-  "...nos queriamos en una d i a l e c t i c a de iman y l i m a d u r a , de  ataque y d e f e n s a , de p e l o t a y p a r e d . "  4 3  The s e n s i b l e - i n t e l l i g i b l e  o p p o s i t i o n o f O l i v e i r a t o l a Maga i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e imagery o f oppos i t i o n O l i v e i r a frequently u t i l i z e s i n Paris.  O l i v e i r a attempts t o e r a s e  the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s i g n i f i e r and s i g n i f i e d i n language by p u t t i n g i n t o question  t h e o p p o s i t i o n between t h e s e n s i b l e and t h e i n t e l l i g i b l e .  He attempts t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f d u a l i s t i c c a t e g o r i e s  or r e d u c t i o n o f  d i f f e r e n c e by f r e q u e n t l y combining words whose meanings a r e d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed; - h i s o b j e c t b e i n g  t o express t h e essence o r analagous  ness which preceeded t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f b i n a r y r e a s o n i n g i s based.  O l i v e i r a describes  conscious-  on which language  h i s l i f e w i t h l a Maga as a d i s o r d e r which  was a d i s c i p l i n e : " E l desorden en que viviamos...me p a r e c i a una d i s c i p l i n a necesaria'i" lante."  4 5  "...aquello  4 4  He l i k e n s M o r e i l l i t o "un v i d e n t e  He d e s c r i b e s  l a Maga's l i f e  c i e g o , p a r a d o j a estimu-  e x p e r i e n c e as a l i e t h a t was t r u e :  que p a r e c i a t a n m e n t i r a e r a v e r d a d e r o . "  4 8  Through h i s c l o s e  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h l a Maga, O l i v e i r a b e g i n s t o understand t h a t v e r t e como yo q u e r i a , e r a n e c e s a r i o  "....para  empezar p o r c e r r a r l o s o j o s . "  4 7  O l i v e i r a i d e n t i f i e s t h e h a t e f u l tenderness he f e e l s w h i l e watching l a Maga as something so c o n t r a d i c t o r y t h a t i t must be t r u t h ; " S i n t i o una especie  de t e r n u r a r e n c o r o s a ,  verdad m i s m a . "  algo t a n c o n t r a d i c t o r i o que d e b i a  ser l a  48  O l i v e i r a r e a l i z e s , however, t h a t t h e u l t i m a t e  s y n t h e s i s between  32  o p p o s i t e s - which he equates w i t h t r u t h - i s i n e x p r e s s i b l e i n t h i s w o r l d , because  "the g r e a t Logos i s watching": "Pero en e s t e mundo l a s  s i n t e s i s ultimas estan por descubrirse. vela."  P e r i c o t i e n e r a z o n , e l gran  Logos  O l i v e i r a ' s i n a b i l i t y t o abrogate the d i f f e r e n c e between  4 9  o p p o s i t e s and p e r c e i v e b e i n g i s comparable  t o the i n a b i l i t y of philosophers  t o t r a n s c e n d the o p p o s i t i o n between the s e n s i b l e and the  intelligible  because the concept o f the s i g n , on which the h i s t o r y o f metaphysics r e s t s , i s determined by t h i s o p p o s i t i o n .  Jacques D e r r i d a , i n "La S t r u c t u r e ,  l e S i g n e , et l e J e u dans l e D i s c o u r s des S c i e n c e s Humaines" e x p l a i n s t h a t western p h i l o s o p h y cannot do w i t h o u t the concept o f the s i g n - t h i s metap h y s i c a l c o m p l i c i t y - w i t h o u t t h e r i s k o f e r a s i n g d i f f e r e n c e i n the p r o c e s s of a s i g n i f i e d reducing i t s e l f into i t s s i g n i f i e r .  Oliveira's  hopeful-  h o p e l e s s quest t o reduce d i f f e r e n c e by means o f t h e imagery o f o p p o s i t e s p a r o d i e s Heidegger's attempt t o get out o f the t r a d i t i o n o f metaphysics and emerge i n t o a c l e a r i n g l i g h t e d by b e i n g .  O l i v e i r a also parodies  D e r r i d a ' s attempt t o get out o f Heidegger's double b i n d through word games.  We  can see O l i v e i r a doubly r e f l e c t e d i n R i c h a r d R o r t y ' s d e s c r i p -  t i o n o f Heidegger's dilemma and D e r r i d a ' s way  out o f t h e dilemma:  The i d e a i s t h a t any attempt t o do what Heidegger wanted t o do - t o get out from under the t r a d i t i o n , t o emerge i n t o a c l e a r i n g l i g h t e d by b e i n g - w i l l f a i l , because e v e r y statement o f the attempt can o n l y be i n terms which the t r a d i t i o n c r e a t e d f o r us. So, D e r r i d a t h i n k s , maybe a l l t h a t w i l l h e l p are v e r b a l t r i c k s , fake e t y m o l o g i e s , t y p o g r a p h i c a l gimmicks, puns, a l l u s i o n s , d i r t y j o k e s , what K i e r k e g a a r d c a l l e d "a c e r t a i n nimble d a n c i n g i n t h e s e r v i c e o f t h o u g h t . " 5 0  O l i v e i r a ' s d r i f t i n g away from l a Maga i s a t e m p o r a l , p h y s i c a l  dis-  placement which p a r a l l e l s h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o g r e s s i o n from an attempt t o d e c o n s t r u c t b i n a r y r e a s o n i n g and r e a c h t h e o r i g i n o f meaning i n b e i n g ,  33 over " t h e r e "  ( D e l Lado de A l i a ) , towards an attempt t o l i v e  t h i n k ) a more a u t h e n t i c ,  physical existence  through h i s acceptance o f t h e m i r r o r  (rather than  "here" (.Del Lado de Aca)  of differences.  movements a l l e g o r i z e t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e p h i l o s o p h y  These p a r a l l e l o f w r i t i n g from  Heidegger's h o p e f u l - h o p e l e s s attempt t o get out from under t h e thumb o f presence and i n t o t h e c l e a r i n g o f b e i n g  - which, we have seen, would con-  s t i t u t e a c o l l a p s e o f meaning, r a t h e r t h a n i t s l i b e r a t i o n - t o D e r r i d a ' s consequent d e c o n s t r u c t i o n  o f presence which d i s p l a c e s t h e o r i g i n o f w r i t i n g  from t h e A r i s t o t e l i a n p r e s e n c e as v o i c e - a presence g o v e r n i n g a logocen--: •". t r i e t o t a l i t y h o s t i l e t o t h e d i s r u p t i v e movement o f w r i t i n g i t s e l f - t o i t s re-establishment  as an o r i g i n l o s t  i n the play of d i f f e r e n c e s , or a  f u n c t i o n i n a system whose o r i g i n i s a d i f f e r e n c e , which a l l o w s  f o r an i n -  f i n i t e expansion o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s a r i s i n g from t h e t e x t i t s e l f ,  rather  t h a n a c l o s u r e o f t e x t u a l meaning through i t s r e f e r r a l t o an e x t e r i o r presence. The  evolution o f a philosophy  o f w r i t i n g from t h e confinement o f a  l o g o c e n t r i c i s m t o t h e openness o f a n o n - c e n t r i c t u t e s a changing p e r c e p t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o presence.  system n e c e s s a r i l y c o n s t i -  o f t h e r o l e s o f t h e s i g n i f i e r and t h e s i g n i f i e d  E a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter,  re-defines the determination  we noted t h a t  Saussure  o f s i g n s from t h e p o i n t o f view o f t h e i r  a r b i t r a r i n e s s and d i f f e r e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r , r a t h e r than t h e i r f u l l n e s s ( t h e i r previous  f u l l n e s s r e s i d i n g i n t h e i r reference  voice). Writing presence.  in its "full"  t o t h e d e f e r r e d presence o f  sense r e f e r s t o d i f f e r e n c e r a t h e r  than  The movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n s o f w r i t i n g i s engendered from  differences.  D i f f e r e n c e , which r e s t s i n t h e a r b i t r a r i n e s s between t h e  s i g n i f i e r and s i g n i f i e d , i s comparable t o a r e f l e c t i o n or d o u b l e . D e r r i d a , i n " L i n g u i s t i q u e et Grammatologie" d e s c r i b e s w r i t i n g as a  3h dangerous p r o m i s c u i t y  and n e f a r i o u s c o m p l i c i t y o f t h e r e f l e c t i o n and t h e  r e f l e c t e d : t h e r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n - t h e double - r e d o u b l i n g  itself  u n t i l the o r i g i n o f the s p e c u l a t i o n becomes a d i f f e r e n c e : P r o m i s c u i t e dangereuse, n e f a s t e c o m p l i c i t e e n t r e l e r e f l e t e t l e r e f l e t e q u i se l a i s s e n a r c i s s i q u e ment s e d u i r e . Dans ce j e u de l a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , l e p o i n t d ' o r i g i n e devient i n s a i s i s s i b l e . IIy a des choses, des eaux e t des images, un r e n v o i i n f i n i des unes aux a u t r e s , mais p l u s de source. I I n'y a p l u s d ' o r i g i n e simple. Car ce q u i e s t r e f l e t e se dedouble en soi-meme, e t non seulement comme a d d i t i o n a s o i de son image. Le r e f l e t , 1'image, l e double dedouble ce q u ' i l redouble. L ' o r i g i n e de l a spec u l a t i o n d e v i e n t une d i f f e r e n c e . 5  O l i v e i r a ' s p h y s i c a l s e p a r a t i o n from l a Maga, and h i s s p a t i a l  super-  i m p o s i t i o n o f h e r image on T a l i t a , e f f e c t i n g t h e phenomena t h a t two women are now l a Maga i n s t e a d o f one,  a l l e g o r i z e s the.separation  the l o g o c e n t r i c i s m o f v o i c e - p r e s e n c e , o r i g i n through w r i t i n g .  o f w r i t i n g from  and the consequent r e d o u b l i n g  o f the  The o r i g i n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f O l i v e i r a t o l a Maga  i n D e l Lado de A l i a i s r e f l e c t e d i n f o u r s p a t i a l - p h y s i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n D e l Lado de Aca:  Talita  ( l a Maga) / T r a v e l e r ( O l i v e i r a ) ; O l i v e i r a / T a l i t a  ( l a Maga),/ T r a v e l e r ; O l i v e i r a / T a l i t a ( l a Maga); O l i v e i r a / T r a v e l e r ( l a Maga).  We have p r e v i o u s l y compared l a Maga t o t h e s i g n i f i e d , and O l i v e i r a  to the s i g n i f i e r .  Therefore,  the o r i g i n a l direct relationship of s i g n i f i e r  t o s i g n i f i e d i s l o s t i n t h e p l a y o f r e f l e c t e d d o u b l e s , which c o n s t i t u t e s a difference.  I n o r d e r t o examine t h e l a Maga - O l i v e i r a - T a l i t a - v.  T r a v e l e r r e l a t i o n s h i p as a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e changing r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the  s i g n i f i e r t o s i g n i f i e d as t h e concept o f t h e s i g n evolves  from i t s  p o s i t i o n w i t h i n a l o g o c e n t r i c t o t a l i t y , t o i t s r e p o s i t i o n i n g i n a noncentered  t o t a l i t y where t h e c e n t e r i s a f u n c t i o n w i t h i n a c h a i n o f d i f f e r -  ences; i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o examine t h e a l l e g o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e f o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p s l i s t e d above.  In  D e l Lado de A c a , t h e r e a d e r o f B a y u e l a i s i n t r o d u c e d t o T a l i t a  and T r a v e l e r who appear, a t f i r s t O l i v e i r a and l a Maga.  g l a n c e , t o be a m i r r o r r e f l e c t i o n o f  O l i v e i r a , however, by h i s own d e f i n i t i o n , i s empty,  i n c a p a b l e o f f e e l i n g , an o b s e r v e r r a t h e r than a p a r t i c i p a n t . T r a v e l e r , by c o n t r a s t , b o t h resemble i n t u i t i v e l y i n touch w i t h l i f e  T a l i t a and  l a Maga i n so f a r as t h a t t h e y a r e  and each o t h e r .  The symbolic v a l u e o f  T r a v e l e r and T a l i t a i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e a l l e g o r y o f t h e s i g n and w r i t i n g which we a r e t r y i n g t o c l a r i f y i s d e r i v e d not o n l y from how they r e l a t e t o each o t h e r , but more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , how they r e l a t e s p a t i a l l y o r p h y s i c a l ly  t o O l i v e i r a , the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the s i g n i f i e r .  T a l i t a and T r a v e l e r -  as p a i r e d f a c e t s o f l a Maga's i n t u i t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s - c o n s t i t u t e a double r e f l e c t i o n over "here" o f l a Maga over " t h e r e " . T a l i t a becomes l a Maga's s p a t i a l double when O l i v e i r a  superimposes  l a Maga's p h y s i c a l image on h e r , and r e c o g n i z e s i n h e r t h e same i n t u i t i v e sense t h a t l a Maga p o s s e s s e d .  L i k e l a Maga, T a l i t a i s capable o f l i g h t i n g  o t h e r ' s p a t h s : "da l a i m p r e s i o n de andar l l e v a n d o una v e l a encendida en l a mano, mostrando un c a m i n o . "  52  L i k e l a Maga, T a l i t a i s capable o f expres-  s i n g c o n t r a d i c t o r y concepts t h a t p r e c e e d t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f thought: Soy y o , soy e l , l o h a b i a d i c h o s i n p e n s a r l o , e s d e c i r que e s t a b a mas que pensando, v e n i a de un t e r r i t o r i o donde l a s p a l a b r a s eran como l o s l o c o s en l a c l i n i c a , entes amenazadores o absurdos, v i v i e n d o una v i d a p r o p i a y a i s l a d a . 5 3  The d i f f e r e n c e between l a Maga and T a l i t a , and t h e consequent symbolic v a l u e o f T a l i t a as an e v o l u t i o n from l a Maga, i s i n t e g r a l l y r e l a t e d t o T a l i t a ' s a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h a p h y s i c a l e x i s t e n c e . Maga possesses an i n t u i t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s , she proves h e r s e l f in  t h e game o f p h y s i c a l l i f e down h e r e .  Though l a incompetent  There a r e many a l l u s i o n s i n t h e  n o v e l t o t h e p o s s i b i l t y o f h e r death by s u i c i d e a f t e r h e r baby d i e s  through  36 her  own  n e g l i g e n c e , and  O l i v e i r a l e a v e s her.  w e l l - e d u c a t e d woman who  has  T a l i t a , hy  managed, i n s p i t e o f her  i n g a b i l i t y , -to m a i n t a i n an i n t u i t i v e sense o f l i f e , competent, p h y s i c a l e x i s t e n c e . descent i n t o the  Writing,  contrast,  is a  e d u c a t i o n and and  still  reason-  live  as c l a s s i c a l l y d e f i n e d ,  is a  e x t e r i o r i t y o f meaning from v o i c e , which s i g n i f i e s  f e e l i n g s o f the mind or s o u l .  The  c l a s s i c a l l y determined o r i g i n o f  i n w r i t i n g i s an i d e a l , r a t h e r t h a n a p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y .  a  the sense  Derrida's p h i l o -  sophy o f w r i t i n g , however, proposes t h a t t h e r e i s n o t h i n g o u t s i d e  of  text.  The  signified,  as the  i d e a l sense or the  w i t h the  consequence we  concept r e f e r r e d t o by the  s i g n i f i e r w i t h i n the p h y s i c a l t e x t .  which d i s p l a c e s ity  draw from D e r r i d a ' s premise i s t h a t the  function o f the  co-exists  writing  a logocentric  total-  of w r i t i n g , to i t s r e - e s t a b l i s h -  a non-centered t o t a l i t y i n which presence i s p r e s e n t o n l y as  i n a chain  of d i f f e r e n c e s  s i g n i f i e d from t h e  the t e x t .  A philosophy of  w r i t i n g from i t s comprehension w i t h i n  r e f e r r i n g to a voice-presence outside  ment w i t h i n  signifier,  the  T a l i t a , who  - n e c e s s a r i l y d e s i g n a t e s the movement  i d e a l r e a l m o f the mind t o the p h y s i c a l r e a l m of  i s more p h y s i c a l l y competent and  Maga - even though p o s s e s s i n g the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f the  a  " e x t e r i o r " than l a  same i n t u i t i v e sense - i s C o r t a z a r ' s  s i g n i f i e d o f a w r i t i n g comprehended as a non-centered  totality. O l i v e i r a and  T a l i t a - l a Maga's embrace i n the mortuarium o f the mental  asylum i s a parody o f t h e  s i g n i f i e r meeting w i t h the  c e n t r a l s i g n i f i e d through the medium o f t h e T a l i t a r e a l i z e s t h a t the k i s s was f i r s t t i m e , however, she irony - accepting life.  not  s p a t i a l image o f  s i g n i f i e d o f the w r i t t e n  f o r her, but  f o r l a Maga.  sees O l i v e i r a s m i l i n g openly - w i t h o u t the  something t h a t must have come t o him  T a l i t a describes  For  from the  the sign. the  usual  center  of  t h e i r embrace as a coming t o g e t h e r from somewhere  37 e l s e ; as i f she and O l i v e i r a were t h e golems o f an i m p o s s i b l e between t h e i r m a s t e r s . acceptable  During t h e k i s s t h e s p a t i a l presence o f l a Maga i a  f o r O l i v e i r a , b u t not f o r T a l i t a .  s p a t i a l p r e s e n c e o f l a Maga d e p r i v e s or an automaton.  meeting  T a l i t a r e a l i z e s that the  her of l i f e , rendering  her a golem  T a l i t a r e f u s e s t o be anybody's zombie: "...me empezo  a m i r a r y e r a ' a l a o t r a que, m i r aba. Yo no soy e l zombie de n a d i e , no  quiero  s e r e l zombie de n a d i e . "  5tf  Manu,  The p o l a r i c t e n s i o n engendered from  the c o n t r a d i c t o r y images o f T a l i t a as t h e zombie o f l a Maga, and T a l i t a r e f u s i n g t o be t h e zombie o f l a Maga i s compatible w i t h t h e c o n t r a d i c t o r y o r i g i n o f sense i n w r i t i n g : w r i t i n g as t h e "dead l e t t e r " which i s t h e zombie o f l i f e , y e t which p a r a d o x i c a l l y engenders a l i f e w i t h i n i t s e l f i n dependant o f any l i f e evokes D e r r i d a ' s  outside of i t s e l f .  T a l i t a , as "nobody's zombie",  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f w r i t i n g as a s u r r o g a t e  s u b s t i t u t e i t s e l f f o r anything  which p r e - e x i s t e d  it,  5  5  which does not  a concept which  p a r a l l e l s t h e e x i s t e n t i a l paradox o f e x i s t e n c e p r e c e e d i n g essence,  existence  g i v i n g r i s e t o i t s own essence. In the previous bolic  pages, I have attempted t o i l l u s t r a t e t h a t t h e sym-  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f l a Maga's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o O l i v e i r a  evolves  from h e r r o l e as t h e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s i g n i f i e d as a v o i c e -  presence t h a t i s p r e s e n t , formal  t o h e r s p a t i a l r o l e as t h e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e  essence o f t h e s i g n i f i e d as a presence t h a t i s e f f a c e d and no l o n g e r  present. and  I have a l s o p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e p a r a l l e l between l a Maga  T r a v e l e r as t h e y r e l a t e t o O l i v e i r a : b o t h have a d i r e c t l i n k w i t h an  essence o f l i f e which O l i v e i r a l a c k s . and  (the s i g n i f i e r )  The symbolic import o f T r a v e l e r ' a  l a Maga's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o O l i v e i r a i s e x p l a i n a b l e  symbolic r e l a t i o n s h i p t o m e t a p h y s i c s . i n d i c a t i n g being,  i n terms o f t h e i r  La Maga, p e r s o n i f y i n g a presence  symbolizes t h a t p a r t o f t h e s i g n and w r i t i n g t h a t i s de-  f i n e d by and bound up w i t h t h e h i s t o r y o f m e t a p h y s i c s .  T r a v e l e r .per-  s o n i f i e s , t h e h i s t o r y o f metaphysics as i t adheres t o t h e s i g n i f i e r o r t h e exteriority of writing.  Robert Brody suggests t h a t T r a v e l e r i s a  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n based on O l i v e i r a ' s p a s t : T r a v e l e r i s what O l i v e i r a would have been had he not gone t r a v e l l i n g .  5 6  A f t e r h i s p h y s i c a l separ-  a t i o n from l a Maga, O l i v e i r a p e r s o n i f i e s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s i g n i f i e r o r t h e e x t e r i o r i t y o f w r i t i n g which r e f e r s t o a p r e v i o u s  presence  ( l a Maga) o n l y as a f u n c t i o n i n a c h a i n o f d i f f e r e n c e s ; t h e non-center p e r m i t t i n g t h e f r e e p l a y o f t h e t e x t , and t h e consequent movement o f s i g nifications.  T r a v e l e r , by c o n t r a s t , p e r s o n i f i e s t h e s i g n i f i e r as compre-  hended w i t h i n a l o g o c e n t r i c i s m whose movement i s l i m i t e d , d e f i n e d by a center. O l i v e i r a compares T r a v e l e r and h i m s e l f t o two twins p l a y i n g on a see-saw, or a m i r r o r  reflection:  - Pero siempre en p o s i c i o n e s s i m e t r i c a s , - d i j o O l i v e i r a . - Como dos m e l l i z o s que juegan un sube y b a j a , o simplemente como c u a l q u i e r a d e l a n t e d e l espejo. iNo t e l l a m a l a a t e n c i o n , d o p p e l g a n g e r ?  57  O l i v e i r a and T r a v e l e r a r e p h y s i c a l doubles , i n so f a r as t h a t t h e y have the same c o l o u r i n g and b u i l d .  They a r e not p s y c h o l o g i c a l d o u b l e s , however,  as T r a v e l e r , b e i n g more i n t u i t i v e l y i n t o u c h w i t h l i f e t h a n O l i v e i r a , has a " f u l l n e s s " which O l i v e i r a l a c k s .  Even T r a v e l e r ' s l a c k o f t r a v e l l i n g i s  l i k e n e d t o a substance: "Pero de todas maneras no h a b i a v i a j a d o , y e r a como una p i e d r a negra en e l medio de su a l m a . "  5 8  Traveler's  "black  stone"  which i s a " f u l l n e s s " t h a t i s r e a l l y a " l a c k " i s comparable t o t h e c e n t e r as t h e metaphysics o f p r e s e n c e , which g i v e s t h e s i g n ( s i g n i f i e r t o s i g n i f i e d ) ' i t s . f u l l n e s s , y e t a t t h e same time l i m i t s i t s movement o f s i g n i f i cation.  Although T r a v e l e r  senses t h a t t h e b l a c k stone i n h i s s o u l i s t h e  39 weight o f h i s i n e f f e c t u a l l y , essence o f l i f e .  i t i s a l s o the weight which, l i n k s him t o an  O l i v e i r a denounces T r a v e l e r f o r b e i n g c o r r a l l e d , whereas  T r a v e l e r denounces O l i v e i r a f o r b e i n g something disembodied, a w i l l i n the form o f a weather-vane who wants e v e r y t h i n g without making any commitment; j u s t because he mixes up memories and r e a l i t i e s non-euclidean  " t o such a  extent":  -Yo no t e o d i o - d i j o T r a v e l e r - Solamente que me has a c o r r a l a d o a un punto en que y a no se que h a c e r . ...Yo tampoco t e o d i o , hermano, pero t e denuncio, y eso es l o que vos l l a m e i s a c o r r a l a r . -Yo e s t o y v i v o - d i j o T r a v e l e r m i r a n d o l o en l o s o j o s -. E s t a r v i v o parece siempre e l p r e c i o de a l g o . Y vos no queres pagar nada. Nunca l o quisiste. Una e s p e c i e de c a t a r o e x i s t e n c i a l , . un puro E l verdadero doppelganger sos v o s , porque e s t a s como desencarnado, sos una v o l u n t a d en forma de v e l e t a , a h i a r r i b a . Quiero e s t o , quiero aquello, quiero e l norte, y e l sur. Y todo a l mismo tiempo, q u i e r o a l a Maga, q u i e r o a T a l i t a . . -.<.. Todo porque se l e mezclan l a s r e a l i d a d e s y l o s recuerdos de una manera sumamente noeuclidiana. 5 9  The d i f f e r e n c e between O l i v e i r a and T r a v e l e r i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e f u l l n e s s o f the s i g n as c l a s s i c a l l y d e f i n e d and t h e a r b i t r a r i n e s s o f t h e s i g n as d e f i n e d by Saussure. O l i v e i r a compares T r a v e l e r t o a f i v e thousand y e a r o l d man w i t h whom he no l o n g e r f e e l s i n harmony, b u t from whom he can never -  completely  escape; - who causes him t o v a s c i l l a t e between h i s past and h i s p r e s e n t , p r e v e n t i n g him from r e a c h i n g b e i n g a t t h e v e r y moment t h a t he approaches it: Hablando de s u s t i t u c i o n e s , nada me e x t r a n a r i a que vos y yo fueramos e l mismo, uno de cada l a d o . . . Una s o l a cosa se y es que de t u l a d o y a no puedo e s t a r , todo se me rompe e n t r e l a s manos, hago cada b a r b a r i d a d que es p a r a v o l v e r s e l o c o suponiendo que  fuera tan f a c i l . Pero vos que e s t a s en armonla con e l t e r r i t o r i o no queres entender e s t e i r y v e n i r , doy un empujon y me pasa a l g o , entonces c i n c o m i l afios de genes echados a perder me t i r a n p a r a a t r a s y r e c a i g o en e l t e r r i t o r i o . . . . En f i n , c i n c o m i l afios me t i r a n o t r a vez p a r a a t r a s y hay que v o l v e r a empezar. Por eso s i e n t o que sos mi doppelganger, porque todo e l tiempo estoy yendo y v i n i e n d o de t u t e r r i t o r i o a l mio, y en esos p a s a j e s l a s t i m o s o s me parece que vos sos mi forma que se queda a h i mirandome con l a s t i m a , . sos l o s c i n c o m i l afios de hombre amontonados en un metro s e t e n t a , mirando a ese payaso que q u i e r e s a l i r s e de su c a s i l l o . 6 0  In t h e above passage, T r a v e l e r p e r s o n i f i e s t h e f i v e thousand y e a r o l d h i s t o r y o f metaphysics from which w r i t i n g , p e r s o n i f i e d by O l i v e i r a , t r i e s escape but  can't.  The  dilemma o f w r i t i n g which C o r t a z a r  expresses  to  meta-  p h o r i c a l l y through t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f T r a v e l e r t o O l i v e i r a i s e x p l a i n e d by D e r r i d a i n "La S t r u c t u r e , l e Signe, S c i e n c e s Humaines".  e t l e J e u dans l e D i s c o u r s  D e r r i d a s t r e s s e s t h a t a t o t a l r u p t u r e between language  and metaphysics i s i m p o s s i b l e , because p h i l o s o p h e r s d e s t r u c t i v e p r o p o s i t i o n which does not e x a c t l y what i t seeks t o  cannot u t t e r a s i n g l e  s l i p i n t o t h e form and language o f  contest:  Or tous ces d i s c o u r s d e s t r u c t e u r s et tous l e u r s analogues sont p r i s dans une s o r t e de c e r c l e . Ce c e r c l e e s t u n i q u e et i l d e c r i t l a forme du r a p p o r t e n t r e l ' h i s t o i r e de l a metaphysique et l a d e s t r u c t i o n de l ' h i s t o i r e de l a metaphysique: i l n'y a aucun sens a se p a s s e r des concepts de l a metaphysique pour e b r a n l e r l a metaphysique; nous ne disposons d'aucun langage - d'aucune syntaxe e t d'aucun l e x i q u e - q u i s o i t e t r a n g e r a c e t t e h i s t o i r e ; nous ne pouvons enoncer aucune p r o p o s i t i o n d e s t r u c t r i c e q u i n ' a i t d e j a du se g l i s s e r dans l a forme, dans l a l o g i q u e et l e s p o s t u l a t i o n s i m p l i c i t e s de c e l a meme q u ' e l l e v o u d r a i t c o n t e s t e r . The  i n a b i l i t y of w r i t i n g to separate  metaphysical  des  roots i s parodied  i t s e l f completely  i n T r a v e l e r ' s and  Oliveira's  6 1  from i t s  confrontation  i n the s t r i n g l a b y r i n t h O l i v e i r a c o n s t r u c t e d , e v o c a t i v e o f the l a b y r i n t h  writing constructs. escaping  T r a v e l e r reminds O l i v e i r a o f the i m p o s s i b i l i t y  of  from h i s p a s t , even i f i t i s on the o t h e r s i d e o f h i s "damned  threads": iHablabas de un doppelganger, no? Ya ves que a l g u i e n t e s i g u e , que a l g u i e n es como vos aunque e s t e d e l o t r o l a d o de t u s condenados p i o l i n e s . 6 2  Seconds b e f o r e h i s death o r a c c i d e n t , O l i v e i r a and T r a v e l e r meet i n r e c o n ciliation. T r a v e l e r ' s and O l i v e i r a ' s meeting i n space p a r o d i e s the  abolishment-  r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f speech and w r i t i n g i n each o t h e r , which c o n s t i t u t e s "differance".  The  first  r e a d i n g o f t h e n o v e l commences w i t h  Oliveira's  d o u b t f u l q u e s t i o n , " i E n c o n t r a r i a a l a Maga?" - l a Maga p e r s o n i f y i n g the s i g n i f i e d as v o i c e - p r e s e n c e referred.  t o which the s i g n i f i e r as w r i t i n g d i r e c t l y  O l i v e i r a r e a l i z e s at t h e end o f t h e f i r s t book t h a t some  meeting w i t h l a Maga was  p o s s i b l e , but o n l y w i t h l a Maga p r e s e n t  a c h a i n o f r e f l e c t e d doubles:  within  T a l i t a - T r a v e l e r - l a Maga - Manu ( T r a v e l e r )  T a l i t a e s t a b a parada s i n darse c u e n t a - e n - l a c a s i l l a t r e s , y T r a v e l e r t e n i a un p i e metido en l a s e i s , de manera que l o u n i c o que e l p o d i a hacer e r a mover un poco l a mano derecha en un saludo t i m i d o y quedarse mirando a l a Maga,a Manu, d i c i e n d o s e que a l f i n y a l cabo algun encuentro h a b i a . . . . 5 3  The  second r e a d i n g o f the n o v e l commenced w i t h O l i v e i r a ' s open q u e s t i o n ,  " S i , pero q u i e n nos  c u r a r a d e l fuego sordo, d e l fuego s i n c o l o r . . . . ? -  f i r e t r a d i t i o n a l l y h a v i n g the symbolic substance,  t h e agent o f t r a n s m u t a t i o n  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the  fundamental  which a l l t h i n g s are d e r i v e d from  and r e t u r n t o ; - a m e d i a t o r between forms which v a n i s h and  forms i n  c r e a t i o n - a symbol o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and r e g e n e r a t i o n .  Cortazar  6 4  answers h i s second q u e s t i o n i n the sentence which f o l l o w s i t , and the  "open" ending  o f the second book: t h e r e i s no cure f o r the  also i n  deaf,  c o l o u r l e s s f i r e , but o n l y a b u r n i n g without  surcease:  A r d i e n d o a s i s i m t r e g u a , soportando l a quemadura c e n t r a l que avanza como l a madurez. p a u l a t i n a en e l f r u t o , s e r e l p u l s o de una hoguera en e s t a maraha de p i e d r a i n t e r m i n a b l e , caminar por l a s noches de n u e s t r a v i d a con l a obedencia de l a sangre en su c i r c u i t o c i e g o . 6 5  O l i v e i r a l i k e n s t h e b u r n i n g without me  pregunto s i esto no es mas  Cortazar's philosophy  que  surcease  escritura?"  o f w r i t i n g and  D i f f e r e n c e , . De l a Grammatologie and substitutes Cortazar's  for Derrida's  6 6  The  veces  p a r a l l e l between  s i g n s , as expressed  i n Rayuela, and t h a t o f D e r r i d a as expressed  one  t o w r i t i n g : "iCuantas  metaphorically  i n L ' E c r i t t i f e et l a  "La D i f f e r a n c e " becomes v e r y c l e a r i f  image o f the "fuego sordo, d e l fuego s i n c o l o r "  comcept o f " d i f f e r a n c e " .  In "La D i f f e r a n c e " , D e r r i d a  e x p l a i n s t h a t i n a language, t h e r e are o n l y d i f f e r e n c e s which on the hand, p l a y a r o l e i n language and selves e f f e c t s .  speech, and on the o t h e r hand are them-  D e r r i d a d e f i n e s " d i f f e r a n c e " as the movement o f play, t h a t  produces d i f f e r e n c e s as e f f e c t s , but  e f f e c t s produced t h a t do not have as  t h e i r cause a s u b j e c t , substance or a b e i n g p r e s e n t of d i f f e r e n c e .  t h a t escapes the  play  D e r r i d a e x p l a i n s t h a t the concept o f d i f f e r e n c e s as  effects-without-a-cause language and  one  speech.  r e s i d e s i n the i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e  historicity  D e r r i d a extends what Saussure w r i t e s about  t o language i n g e n e r a l : Comme i l n'y a pas de presence avant l a d i f f e r e n c e semiologique et hors d ' e l l e , on peut etendre au s i g n e en g e n e r a l ce que Saussure e c r i t de l a langue: "La langue est n e c e s s a i r e pour que l a p a r o l e s o i t i n t e l l i g i b l e , et p r o d u i s e tous ses e f f e t s ; mais c e l l e - c i est n e c e s s a i r e pour que l a langue s ' e t a b l i s s e ; h i s t o r i q u e m e n t , l e f a i t de p a r o l e precede t o u j o u r s . " Retenant au moins l e schema s i n o n l e contenu de 1'exigence formulee par Saussure, nous designerons par d i f f e r a n c e l e mouvement s e l o n l e q u e l l a langue, ou t o u t code, t o u t systeme de r e n v o i s en  of  signs  g e n e r a l se c o n s t i t u e differences.  " h i s t o r i q u e m e n t " comme t i s s u de  6 7  Derrida  explains  that  founding opposition sustains  " d i f f e r a n c e " i s the order that r e s i s t s philosophy's  between t h e s e n s i b l e and t h e i n t e l l i g i b l e because i t  i t ; r e s i s t i n g and s u s t a i n i n g i t because d i f f e r a n c e t a k e s  between speech and w r i t i n g .  6 8  C o r t a z a r ' s "deaf, c o l o u r l e s s  fire"  place i s the  fundamental substance oi* o r i g i n , but an o r i g i n as t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and regeneration.  S i m i l a r l y , Derrida's " d i f f e r a n c e " i s the o r i g i n o f  d i f f e r e n c e , but an o r i g i n as t h e d i f f e r e n c e between d i f f e r e n c e s  that  a l l o w s them t o be d i f f e r e n c e s : "L'un n ' e s t que l ' a u t r e d i f f e r e , l ' u n d i f f e r a n t de l ' a u t r e . L'un e s t l ' a u t r e en d i f f e r a n c e , l ' u n e s t l a d i f f e r a n c e de l ' a u t r e . "  6 9  Differance  - as t h e o r i g i n o f d i f f e r e n c e  which makes p o s s i b l e t h e movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e t e x t - i s e q u a t a b l e t o " e l fuego sordo, d e l fuego s i n c o l o r " as t h e o r i g i n or fundamental substance which i s a l s o t h e agent o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and r e generation.  O l i v e i r a proposes t h e i n c a r n a t i o n  advocates t h e n e c e s s i t y remaining abolished  o f he and T r a v e l e r  o f " d i f f e r a n c e " when he  - as a n t a g o n i s t i c  i n themselves i n each o t h e r : "Digamos dos maneras,  n e c e s i t a d e s • deque l a una quede a b o l i d a  en l a o t r a y v i s e v e r s a . "  analogy assumes i t s f u l l s i g n i f i c a n c e when i t i s i n t e r p r e t e d to the previously  doubles -  established  analogy t h a t T r a v e l e r  of the s i g n i f i e r r e f e r r i n g t o the full'presence  The  7 0  i n relation  i s the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n  o f speech, whereas  O l i v e i r a i s t h e s i g n i f i e r as w r i t i n g r e f e r r i n g t o t h e a r b i t r a r i n e s s o f difference.  The s u s t a i n e d  abolishment o f O l i v e i r a and T r a v e l e r  other p e r s o n i f i e s the sustaining between speech and w r i t i n g ...en  i n each  and abolishment o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e  i n "differance":  e l s i l e n c i o extraordinario  que s i g u i o a su  admonicion, e l encuentro de l a s miradas de T r a v e l e r y O l i v e i r a f u e como s i dos. p a j a r o s chocaron en p l e n o v u e l o y cayeron enredados en l a c a s i l l a nueve, o p o r l o menos a s i l o d i s f r u t a r o n los- i n t e r e s a d o s . 7 1  The  m e t a p h o r i c a l meeting-abolishment o f t h e a n t a g o n i s t i c  doubles o f  speech and w r i t i n g i n each o t h e r o c c u r s a t t h e moment t h a t T a l i t a the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s i g n i f i e d o f w r i t i n g - r e f u s e s  t o allow  O l i v e i r a ' s s e a r c h f o r s i g n i f i c a t i o n i n t h e l a b y r i n t h o f h i s own t o be t e r m i n a t e d and reduced t o t h e l e v e l o f c o f f e e  creation  and c r o i s s a n t s  l a t t e r b e i n g symbolic o f a c e n t e r as "substance",which c l o s e s  - the  and l i m i t s  the movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n s o r i g i n a t i n g i n " d i f f e r a n c e " . The  e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f d i f f e r a n c e - as p e r s o n i f i e d by t h e s u s t a i n e d  abolishment/meeting o f T r a v e l e r  and O l i v e i r a - a l l o w s w r i t i n g t o f u n c t i o n  as a system o f d i f f e r e n c e s which makes t h e movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n o f the t e x t p o s s i b l e , without i n c o r p o r a t i n g would l i m i t p l a y ; y e t a l l o w i n g  p o s i t i v e terms o r a c e n t e r which  f o r the condition  o f p o s s i b i l i t y o f the  sign. O l i v e i r a ' s meeting w i t h t h e s i g n i f i e d  ( l a Maga) i s not a meeting  w i t h a s i n g l e e n t i t y , b u t a meeting w i t h a c h a i n - T a l i t a - Traveler  of differences  ( l a Maga -  - l a Maga - Manu) who a l l r e f e r t o each o t h e r and t o  o t h e r c o n c e p t s , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e o r i g i n a r y s i g n i f i e d o f presence ( l a Maga) i s no l o n g e r p r e s e n t i n i t s e l f , but o n l y chain  of differences.  as a f u n c t i o n  C o r t a z a r ' s p o r t r a y a l o f t h e changes t h a t  w i t h i n t h e s p a t i a l and p h y s i c a l doubles r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t O l i v e i r a , T a l i t a and T r a v e l e r  in a occur  connect l a Maga,  i s an a l l e g o r y o f t h e changes t h a t  occur  ••within--'the concept o f t h e s i g n as i t evolves from i t s f u n c t i o n as a mediator r e f e r r i n g t o p r e s e n c e as speech, t o i t s f u n c t i o n as an i n d i c a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e , i n which t h e s i g n i f i e d concept i s not p r e s e n t i n i t s e l f ,  u but o n l y i n a system o f d i f f e r e n c e s . A f t e r t h e f a i l u r e o f T a l i t a ' s attempt t o b r i d g e t h e gap between O l i v e i r a and T r a v e l e r by means o f two boards a c r o s s t h e open space between t h e i r windows, T r a v e l e r remarked t h a t t h e boards were no l o n g e r t h e r e ; t h e r e was no way a c r o s s .  The b o a r d s , however, a r e symbolic  o f the  d i r e c t b r i d g e which e x i s t e d between speech and w r i t i n g , when w r i t i n g was comprehended as a s i g n s i g n i f y i n g t h e s i g n i f i e r o f v o i c e .  W r i t i n g , as  i n t e r p r e t e d by D e r r i d a and C o r t a z a r , no l o n g e r needs t h e p h y s i c a l b r i d g e between o b j e c t and s u b j e c t , and i n f a c t , i s a l i e n t o i t .  During  O l i v e i r a ' s and T r a v e l e r ' s c o n f r o n t a t i o n a c r o s s t h e a l l e y , T a l i t a  notices  t h a t T r a v e l e r and O l i v e i r a have another b r i d g e between them - a s p a t i a l b r i d g e t h a t r e n d e r s extraneous a b r i d g e o f two boards t i e d t o g e t h e r by a rope.  O l i v e i r a and T r a v e l e r meet i n " d i f f e r a n c e " r a t h e r t h a n through t h e  mediation of a s i g n i f i e d The  (Talita) referring to voice.  concept o f d i f f e r a n c e a l l o w s  a system o f o p p o s i t i o n s  t h e s i g n o f w r i t i n g t o f u n c t i o n as  t h a t a r e accomplices t o each o t h e r , r a t h e r t h a n as  an i n d i c a t o r o f a p r e s e n c e o u t s i d e o f i t s e l f .  5  FOOTNOTES  Jacques Derrida, "La f i n du. l i v r e et l e commencement de l ' e c r i t u r e " , De l a Grammatologie, Les E d i t i o n s de M i n u i t , P a r i s , I 9 6 7 , pp.30-31. 1  2  1973,  J u l i o Cortazar, Rayuela, E d i t o r i a l Sudamericana, Buenos A i r e s ,  PP.U52-1+53.  Jacques Derrida, "La D i f f e r a n c e " , Marges de l a PhilOsophie, Les E d i t i o n s de M i n u i t , P a r i s , 1 9 7 2 , C.'F."p.9,10. 3  I b i d . , p. 1 1 . The quotation of Saussure i s o r i g i n a l l y from h i s book Cours de l i n g u i s t i q u e generale. 4  5  6  7  8  I b i d . , C.'F. p. 1 2 . I b i d . , pp.  16-17•  I b i d . , C F . p. 1 7 . D e r r i d a , "Ce Dangereux Supplement", De l a Grammatologie, p.227.  D e r r i d a , "La f i n du l i v r e et l e commencement de l ' e c r i t u r e " , De l a Grammatologie, p. 25. 9  10  D e r r i d a , "La D i f f e r a n c e " , p.25.  11  D e r r i d a , " L i n g u i s t i q u e et Grammatologie", De l a Grammatologie,  p. 9 5 . 1 2  1 3  D e r r i d a , "La D i f f e r a n c e " , p. 5. X b i d . , p. 2 3 .  ^ C o r t a z a r , Rayuela, p. U58. 1 5  1 6  1 7  I b i d . , pp. U66-U67. I b i d . , pp. U 1 3 - U 1 L . I b i d . , p. 500  D e r r i d a , "La f i n du l i v r e et l e commencement de l ' e c r i t u r e " , De l a Grammatologie, p. 2 7 . 1 8  19 Derrida, "La D i f f e r a n c e " , C F . p. 1 7 . 2 0  21  I b i d . , p. 1 7 . C o r t a z a r , Rayuela, p. h3h.  ^7 2 2  I b i d . , pp.  2 3  I b i d . , pp. 6 0 2 - 6 0 3 .  k3h-k35.  D e r r i d a , "La f i n du l i v r e et l e commencement de l ' e c r i t u r e " , pp. 2^-25. The quotation, of Jakobsen i s o r i g i n a l l y from h i s book Essais de l i n g u i s t i q u e generale. 2i+  25  C o r t a z a r , Rayuela, p. 32.  2 6  I b i d . , p. 310.  2 7  2 8  I b i d . , P. 3 5 2 . I b i d . , p. kOh.  D e r r i d a , "La f i n du l i v r e et l e commencement de l ' e c r i t u r e " , C F . p. 3 6 . 2 9  30  C o r t a z a r , Rayuela, p. 5^5.  R o b e r t Brody, J u l i o Cortazar:Rayuela C C r i t i c a l Guides t o Spanish Texts),rGrant and Cutler L t d . , London, 1 9 7 6 , p.53. 31  on  ^  Cortazar, Rayuela, p. 1 5 . 3 3  3 4  3 5  I b i d . , p. U 3 8 . I b i d . , p. U39. Ibid:,  pp. U 38-1+39  I b i d . . p. kOh. D e r r i d a , "La f i n du l i v r e et l e commencement de l ' e c r i t u r e " De l a Grammatologie, C F . pp. 2 1 - 2 5 3 6  3 7  3 8  39  4 0  4 1  4 2  4 3  4 4  4 5  I b i d . , pp. 2 5 - 2 6 C o r t a z a r , Rayuela, p. 6 3 5 . T b i d . , p. 1+99. I b i d . , p. 105 I b i d . , p. 1 0 6 . I b i d . , p. 26 I b i d . , p. 2 5 . I b i d . , p. 1 9 .  18,  ^ I h i d . , p. 1 + 7  r b i d . , p. 1 8 ,  ^ I b i d . , p.  52.  I b i d . , p.  52.  1 + 9  R i c h a r & R o r t y , " D e r r i d a on Language, Being and Abnormal' P h i l o s o p h y " . , The J o u r n a l o f P h i l o s o p h y , th, 1 9 7 7 , p. 6 7 7 . 5 0  5  p.  derrida,  " L i n g u i s t i q u e et Grammatologie", De l a Grammatologie,  555 2  Cortazar,  5 3  I b i d . , p.  33h.  I b i d . , p.  377.  5 t +  Rayuela, p.  LUg,  D e r r i d a , "La s t r u c t u r e , l e Signe. et l e J e u dans l e D i s c o u r s des S c i e n c e s Humaines", L ' E c r i t u r e et l a D i f f e r e n c e , E d i t i o n s du S e u i l , P a r i s , 1 9 6 7 , p. hll. 5 5  56  R.  5 7  Brody, J u l i o C o r t a z a r : R a y u e l a ,  Cortazar,  Rayuela, p.  5 8  I b i d ., p.  258.  5 9  I b i d . , p.  39^.  6 0  I b i d . , p.  hOO.  6  Sciences  p.  39-  393.  d e r r i d a , "La S t r u c t u r e , l e Signe et l e Jeu dans l e D i s c o u r s Humaines", p. hl2.  6 2  Cortazar,  Rayuela, pp.  I b i d . , p.  6 3  398-399-  hok.  J . E . C i r l o t , A D i c t i o n a r y o f Symbols, t r a n s . Jack Sage, P h - l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , New York, 1 9 6 2 , p. 1 0 0 . 6 l +  6 5  6 6  6 7  Cortazar,  Rayuela, p. U38.  I b i d . , p. Derrida,  U38.  "La D i f f e r a n c e " , p.  6 8  Ibid. , C F .  6 9  I b i d . , pp.  p.  5-  19-20.  12.  des  °Cortazar, R a y u e l a , p , 7 1  rbid.,  p.  k03.  393.  CHAPTER I I  CORTAZAR, DERRIDA, AND THE ENGENDERING OF THE MOVEMENT OF SIGNIFICATION IN WRITING  In one o f t h e c h a p t e r s o f Rayuela e n t i t l e d M o r e i l l i a n i , a l l u d e s t o t h e new v i s i o n towards which s c i e n c e  Cortazar  seems t o he heading — t h a t  of renouncing m o r t a l i t y : B a s t a m i r a r un momento con l o s ojos de todos l o s d i a s e l comportamiento de un gato o de una mosca p a r a s e n t i r que esa nueva v i s i o n a que, t i e n d e l a c i e n c i a . . . n o es o t r a cosa que l a remota, a i s l a d a , i n s i s t e n t e voz con que c i e r t a s l i n e a s d e l budismo, d e l vedanta, d e l sufismo, de l a m i s t i c a o c c i d e n t a l , nos i n s t a n a r e n u n c i a r de una v e z p o r todas a l a mortalidad. 1  M o r e i l l i - Cortazar's  double i n Rayuela - i s d e d i c a t e d  opening i n t h e c l o s e d order immortality  o f t h e t e x t through t h e i n f i n i t e f r e e p l a y o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n s o f  Jacques D e r r i d a , des S c i e n c e s  o f a t e x t no l o n g e r totalization. infinite  i n "La.Structure,  Humaines" e x p l a i n s  2  l e Signe et l e J e u dans l e t h a t t h e concept o f t o t a l i z a t i o n  has any meaning because t h e n a t u r e o f language excludes  The f i e l d o f language i s t h a t o f f r e e p l a y , o r a f i e l d o f  substitutions i n the closure of a f i n i t e  postulates  f o r an  o f t h e novel;''an opening t h a t would permit t h e  the t e x t : "Un a j e d r e z ^ i n f i n i t o , t a n f a c i l p o s t u l a r l o , "  Discours  to searching  ensemble.  Derrida  t h a t t h e f i e l d o f language p e r m i t s these s u b s t i t u t i o n s o n l y  because i t i s f i n i t e : i n s t e a d o f b e i n g c l a s s i c a l hypothesis,  there  t o o l a r g e as i s t h e case i n t h e  i s a center missing  from i t - a c e n t e r  c l a s s i c a l l y a r r e s t s and founds t h e f r e e p l a y o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n s : S i l a t o t a l i s a t i o n a l o r s n'a p l u s de sens, ce n'est pas parce que 1 ' i n f i n i t e d'un champ ne peut e t r e 50  which  51 couverte p a r un r e g a r d ou un d i s c o u r s f i n i s , mais parce que l a n a t u r e du champ - a s a v o i r l e langage et un langage f i n i - e x c l u t l a t o t a l i s a t i o n : ce champ e s t en e f f e t c e l u i d'un j e u , c ' e s t - a - d i r e de s u b s t i t u t i o n s i n f i n i e s dans l a c l o t u r e d'un ensemble fini. Ce champ ne permet ces s u b s t i t u t i o n s i n f i n i e s que p a r c e q u ' i l e s t f i n i , c ' e s t - a - d i r e parce qu'au l i e u d ' e t r e un champ i n e p u i s a b l e , comme dans l ' h y p o t h e s e c l a s s i q u e , au l i e u d ' e t r e t r o p grand, i l l u i manque quelque chose, a s a v o i r un c e n t r e q u i a r r e t e e t fonde l e j e u des s u b s t i t u t i o n s . 3  Derrida describes  a changing p e r c e p t i o n  o f s t r u c t u r e and w r i t i n g a f t e r an  event o r moment i n t h e h i s t o r y o f s t r u c t u r e which he c l a s s i f i e s as a rupture  or redoubling. Cortazar,  i n R a y u e l a , expounds many i d e a s  movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n Cortazar his  about t h e s t r u c t u r e and  i n w r i t i n g which p a r a l l e l those o f D e r r i d a .  expresses h i s p h i l o s o p h y  o f w r i t i n g d i r e c t l y through M o r e i l l i -  spokesman w i t h i n t h e n o v e l , and a l s o m e t a p h o r i c a l l y  s t r u c t u r e , c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and movement o f t h e book For both Cortazar  and D e r r i d a , t h e r u p t u r e  concept o f a c e n t e r i s d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e ment o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n  being  itself.  o f w r i t i n g with the  f o r t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e move-  o r f r e e p l a y o f t h e t e x t , which assumes t h e form o f a  movement o f s u p p l e m e n t a r i t y . result  through t h e  The movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n occurs as a  o f t h e t e n s i o n o f f r e e p l a y w i t h h i s t o r y and w i t h presence - f r e e p l a y a p l a y o f absence and p r e s e n c e . D e r r i d a and C o r t a z a r b o t h conclude t h a t t h e r e  a r e two i n t e r p r e t a -  t i o n s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : one t u r n i n g toward a l o s t , i m p o s s i b l e  o r i g i n , and  the o t h e r a f f i r m i n g t h e f r e e p l a y o f a w o r l d o f s i g n s without t r u t h o r an origin  present. Derrida  commences h i s a r t i c l e "La S t r u c t u r e , l e Signe et l e J e u  dans l e D i s c o u r s  des S c i e n c e s  Humaines" w i t h t h e p o s t u l a t e t h a t t h e r e was  an event i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e concept o f s t r u c t u r e t h a t t o o k t h e e x t e r i o r  52 form o f a r u p t u r e and r e d o u b l i n g : r u p t u r e b e i n g a b r e a k w i t h a c e n t e r o r p r e s e n t presence  as the o r i g i n o f w r i t i n g , and r e d o u b l i n g b e i n g the  of the s t r u c t u r a l i t y o f s t r u c t u r e b e i n g thought  result  or repeated, causing the  o r i g i n o f s p e c u l a t i o n t o become a d i f f e r e n c e r a t h e r than a: presence. • In the absence o f a c e n t e r o r o r i g i n , e v e r y t h i n g became d i s c o u r s e . ^ manner, C o r t a z a r commences the f i r s t book o f Rayuela w i t h the q u e s t i o n , "iEncontr.ar.Ca a l a . Maga?" c e n t e r t h a t may  o r may  5  In l i k e  conditional  - l a Maga s i g n i f y i n g a presence  or  not be p r e s e n t , and b e g i n s t h e second book w i t h the  p o s t u l a t e t h a t t h e d i a l e c t i c a l method u t i l i z e d t o e s t a b l i s h a t r u t h present falsifies  and t r a n s f o r m s t h a t t r u t h at t h e v e r y moment t h a t i t attempts t o  determine i t , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e r e i s no o r i g i n a r y truth".  In the  absence o f t r u t h , e v e r y t h i n g i s w r i t i n g : E l s o l o hecho de i n t e r r o g a r s e sobre l a p o s i b l e e l e c c i o n v i c i a y e n t u r b i a l o e l i g i b l e . . . . P a r e c e r i a que una e l e c c i o n no puede s e r d i a l e c t i c a , que su p l a n t e o l a empobrece, es d e c i r l a f a l s e a , es d e c i r l a t r a n s f o r m a en o t r a cosa....Todo es e c r i t u r a . 6  In  c h a p t e r one o f t h i s t h e s i s , O l i v e i r a was  w r i t i n g , and l a Maga was  compared t o t h e s i g n i f i e r  as  l i k e n e d t o the s i g n i f i e d , v o i c e - p r e s e n c e o r c e n t e r  to which O l i v e i r a r e f e r r e d .  O l i v e i r a ' s s e p a r a t i o n from l a Maga a f t e r the  death o f Rocamadour p a r o d i e s t h e r u p t u r e o f w r i t i n g and s t r u c t u r e w i t h the concept  of a center.  The b i n a r y s t r u c t u r e o f the n o v e l p a r o d i e s t h e  event as r e d o u b l i n g : D e l Lado de Aca b e i n g a r e d o u b l i n g o f D e l Lado de Alia. D e r r i d a e x p l a i n s t h a t s t r u c t u r e always found i t s e l f reduced  neutralized,  and l i m i t e d by i t s r e f e r e n c e t o a f i x e d o r i g i n or p o i n t o f  presence, u n t i l t h e moment o f t h e "event". t h a t i t o r i g i n a l l y opens and makes p o s s i b l e :  The  center closes the p l a y  53 Ce c e n t r e a v a i t pour f o n c t i o n non seulement d ' o r i e n t e r et d ' e q u i l i b r e r , d ' o r g a n i s e r l a s t r u c t u r e . . . m a i s de f a i r e s u r t o u t que l e p r i n c i p e d ' o r g a n i s a t i o n de l a s t r u c t u r e l i m i t e ce que nous p o u r r i o n s a p p e l e r l e j e u de l a s t r u c t u r e . .Sans doute l e c e n t r e d'une s t r u c t u r e , en o r i e n t a n t e t en o r g a n i s a n t l a coherence du systeme, p e r m e t - i l l e j e u des elements a l ' i n t e r i e u r de l a forme totale.... P o u r t a n t l e c e n t r e ferme a u s s i l e j e u q u ' i l ouvre e t r e n d p o s s i b l e . 7  O l i v e i r a , i n D e l Lado de A l i a , p e r s o n i f i e s a s i g n i f i e r which has i t s movements d e f i n e d and governed by i t s r e f e r e n c e t o a c e n t e r .  Oliveira's  e n t i r e e x i s t e n c e i n P a r i s i s o r d e r e d around a d e s i r e t o connect metaphysical  with a  c e n t e r , which he l i k e n s t o t h e heaven o f the'•hopscotch! c h a r t ,  t h e c e n t e r o f t h e Yin-Yang symbol, t h e c e n t e r o f a chess b o a r d , Yonder, the K i b b u t z  of desire.  reaching the center  O l i v e i r a r e l a t e s t o l a Maga as a b e i n g capable o f  intuitively.  " C i e r r a l o s o j o s y da en e l b i a n c o , " pensaba Oliveira. "Exactamente e l s i s t e m a Zen de t i r a r a l arco. Pero da en e l b i a n c o simplemente porque no sabe que ese es e l s i s t e m a . Yo en cambio..." 8  O l i v e i r a attempts t o r e a c h c e n t e r by making l o v e w i t h l a Maga and by attempting  a more i n t u i t i v e e x i s t e n c e governed by chance, r a t h e r than  l o g i c , which m i r r o r s l a Maga's way o f l i f e .  L a Maga, as O l i v e i r a ' s  i n s p i r e s h i s movement toward h e r s e l f and a more a u t h e n t i c e x i s t e n c e .  center, Like  the c e n t e r o f a c l a s s i c a l s t r u c t u r e , however, l a Maga i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c l o s i n g o f f O l i v e i r a ' s movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n - h e r memory i n c i t i n g him t o jump t o h i s death i n o r d e r t o meet w i t h h e r : ...mirandolo a l a Maga, a Manu, d i c i e n d o s e que a l f i n y a l cabo algun encuentro h a b l a , aunque no p u d i e r a durar mas que ese i n s t a n t e t e r r i b l e m e n t e d u l c e en e l que l o mejor s i n l u g a r a dudas h u b i e r a s i d o i n c l i n a r s e apenas h a c i a a f u e r a y d e j a r s e i r , p a f se a c a b o . 9  D e r r i d a e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e c e n t e r , f o r c l a s s i c a l thought about s t r u c -  t u r e , i s p a r a d o x i c a l l y b o t h w i t h i n t h e s t r u c t u r e and o u t s i d e o f i t .  The  c e n t e r , t h e r e f o r e , i s not t h e c e n t e r : On a done t o u j o u r s pense que l e c e n t r e , q u i p a r d e f i n i t i o n e s t unique, c o n s t i t u a i t , dans une s t r u c t u r e , c e l a meme q u i , commandant l a s t r u c t u r e , echappe a l a s t r u c t u r a l i t e . C'est p o u r q u o i , pour une pensee c l a s s i q u e de l a s t r u c t u r e , l e c e n t r e peut e t r e d i t , paradoxalement, dans l a s t r u c t u r e et hors de l a s t r u c t u r e . 1 0  L i k e t h e c l a s s i c a l concept o f a c e n t e r , l a Maga i s b o t h i n s i d e and o u t s i d e her s o c i a l c i r c l e .  Although l a Maga f e e l s t h a t she i s an o u t s i d e r  i n t h e Club de l a S e r p i e n t e , and would l i k e t o e n t e r i n t o t h e c h a l k  circle  t h a t surrounds O l i v e i r a and E t i e n n e , O l i v e i r a r e a l i z e s t h a t l a Maga i s t h e o n l y member o f t h e c l u b who i s i n s i d e t h e c i r c l e : " O l i v e i r a se daba cuenta de que l a Maga se asomaba a cada r a t o a esas grandes t e r r a z a s s i n tiempo que  todos e l l o s buscaban  dialecticamente."  1 1  D e r r i d a i n t e r p r e t s t h e e n t i r e h i s t o r y o f t h e concept o f s t r u c t u r e , b e f o r e t h e r u p t u r e he r e f e r s t o , as a s e r i e s o f s u b s t i t u t i o n s o f c e n t e r f o r center.  1 2  The above concept i s a l l e g o r i z e d i n Rayuela when O l i v e i r a  s u b s t i t u t e s M o r e i l l i , P o l a , Emmanuel and T a l i t a f o r l a Maga. D e r r i d a e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e event o f r u p t u r e takes p l a c e a t t h e moment t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r a l i t y o f s t r u c t u r e begins moment, t h e s u r r o g a t e  t o be thought: a t t h i s  o f t h e c e n t e r does not s u b s t i t u t e i t s e l f f o r any-  t h i n g which p r e - e x i s t e d i t .  Henceforth,  cannot be thought o f as a b e i n g p r e s e n t  t h e r e i s no c e n t e r ; t h e c e n t e r or a f i x e d l o c u s , but as a  f u n c t i o n - a non-locus i n which an i n f i n i t e number o f s i g n s u b s t i t u t i o n s come i n t o p l a y . The  1 3  events o f Rayuela metaphorize t h e above premise.  Just  before  commencing h i s e o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e b r i d g e o f boards a c r o s s t h e a l l e y , O l i v e i r a begins  t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e r e i s no c e n t e r , but j u s t a  continuous  ondulation of m a t e r i a l : Wo hay c e n t r o , hay una e s p e c i e de c o n f l u e n c i a c o n t i n u a , de o n d u l a c i o n de l a m a t e r i a . 1 4  Oliveira persist  i n h i s hopeless  attempts t o make T a l i t a h i s new l a Maga's image upon h e r . o f metaphysics,  s e a r c h f o r a c e n t e r , however, and i n d i c a t o r o f the c e n t e r by  T a l i t a , l i k e w r i t i n g a f t e r the d e c o n s t r u c t i o n  r e f u s e s t o be a s u r r o g a t e f o r l a Maga: "...me empezo a  m i r a r y e r a a l a o t r a que miraba. no q u i e r o s e r e l zombie de n a d i e . " f o r l a Maga marks the e s t a b l i s h m e n t non-centered  superimposing  Yo no soy e l zombie de n a d i e , Manu, 1 5  T a l i t a ' s r e f u s a l t o be a  substitut  o f C o r t a z a r ' s p a r a b l e , o f w r i t i n g as  system.  D e r r i d a e s t a b l i s h e s the h i s t o r i c a l causes o f the event  of rupture  r e d o u b l i n g and d e c e n t e r i n g as the Wietschean c r i t i q u e o f m e t a p h y s i c s , which the concepts  o f p l a y , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and  s i g n (without  truth  p r e s e n t ) were s u b s t i t u t e d f o r b e i n g and t r u t h ; t h e F r e u d i a n c r i t i q u e s e l f - p r e s e n c e , c o n s c i o u s n e s s , the s u b j e c t and Heideggerean d e s t r u c t i o n o f  metaphysics.  in  self-identity;\and  of  the  1 5  D e r r i d a e l u c i d a t e s the c i r c u l a r paradox i n which the above d e s t r u c t i v e d i s c o u r s e s are caught: p h i l o s o p h e r s cannot u t t e r a s i n g l e d e s t r u c t i v e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t does not have i t s r o o t s i n e x a c t l y what i t seeks t o c o n t e s t . o f presence  He p r o v i d e s the p a r a d o x i c a l example o f the metaphysic  b e i n g a t t a c k e d w i t h the h e l p o f the concept  o f the s i g n :  as  soon as one t o t a l l y negates the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a t r a n s c e n d e n t a l or p r i v i l e g e d s i g n i f i e d , one metaphysical The  a l s o r e f u s e s the concept  o f the s i g n :  the  r e d u c t i o n o f the s i g n needs the o p p o s i t i o n i t i s r e d u c i n g ,  o p p o s i t i o n i s p a r t o f the system a l o n g w i t h the r e d u c t i o n .  1 7  Cortazar, l i k e Derrida, implies that deconstructive discourses  56  need the o p p o s i t i o n they are r e d u c i n g .  The  c i r c u l a r paradox o f decon-  s t r u c t i v e d i s c o u r s e i s e x p l a i n e d by C o r t a z a r through M o r e i l l i . attempts t o escape the c o n f i n e s o f a t r a n s c e n d e n t a l e t h i c and  Moreilli d i s c o v e r an  a x i a l or t h r e s h o l d which would a l l o w a d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h r e a l i t y the i n t e r p o s i t i o n of myths, r e l i g i o n s , systems or r e t i c u l a .  without  In p l a c e o f  the former d u a l i s m , M o r e i l l i advocates a common r e d u c t i o n o f matter s p i r i t t o n o t i o n s o f energy.  and  Consequently, the c h a r a c t e r s o f h i s n o v e l  r e t r e a t more and more i n t o themselves; n u l l i f y i n g on one hand the f a b r i c a t i o n s o f a c o n t r o l l e d r e a l i t y , but a l s o n u l l i f y i n g t h e i r own.mythop o e t i c f o r c e t o the p o i n t t h a t they are reduced which c o n s t i t u t e s a t o t a l l o s s o f meaning and  to nothing; a  signification.  situation Moreilli's  w r i t i n g cannot d i v o r c e i t s e l f t o t a l l y from d u a l i s m , as i t needs the o p p o s i t i o n i n order to  signify.  E r a c u r i o s a que M o r e i l l i abrazaba con entusiasmo l a s h i p o t e s i s de t r a b a j o mas r e c i e n t e s de l a c i e n c i a f i s i c a y l a b i o l o g i a , se mostraba convencido de que e l v i e j o dualismo se h a b i a a g r i e t a d o ante l a e v i d e n c i a de una comun r e d u c c i o n de l a m a t e r i a y e l e s p i r i t u a nociones de e n e r g i a . En c o n s e c u e n c i a , sus monos s a b i o s p a r e c i a n querer r e t r o c e d e r cada vez mas h a c i a s i mismos, anulando por una p a r t e l a s quimeras de una r e a l i d a d m e d i a t i z a d a y t r a i c i o n a d a por l o s supuestos instrumentos c o g n o s c i t i v o s , y anulando a l a vez su p r o p i a f u e r z a m i t o p o e t i c a , su "alma" para acabar en una e s p e c i e de encuentro ab ovo, de encogimiento a l maximo, a ese punto en que v a a p e r d e r s e l a u l t i m a c h i s p a de ( f a l s a ) humanidad. P a r e c i a proponer - aunque no l l e g a b a a f o r m u l a r l o nunca - un camino que empezaba a p a r t i r de esa l i q u i d a c i o n e x t e r n a e i n t e r n a . Pero h a b i a quedado c a s i s i n p a l a b r a s , s i n gente, s i n c o s a s , y potencialmente, c l a r o , s i n l e c t o r e s . 1 8  In "La S t r u c t u r e , l e Signe  et l e J e u dans l e D i s c o u r s des  Humaines" D e r r i d a i n t e r p r e t s L e v i - S t r a u s s ' s e a r c h f o r a new  Sciences  status of  d i s c o u r s e - an i n q u i r y which r e s t s on the abandonment o f a l l r e f e r e n c e t o a c e n t e r , s u b j e c t , p r i v i l e d g e d r e f e r e n c e , o r i g i n or a b s o l u t e  arche.  1 9  57 Levi-Strauss  postulates  that there  i s no a b s o l u t e  source o f t h e myth, but  o n l y shadows o r v i r t u a l i t i e s which a r e e l u s i v e , u n a c t u a l i z a b l e  and non-  existent : Les themes se<dedoublent a l ' i n f i n i . Quand on c r o i t l e s a v o i r demeles l e s uns des a u t r e s e t l e s t e n i r s e p a r e s , c ' e s t seulement pour o o n s t a t e r q u ' i l s se r e s s o u d e n t , en reponse aux s o l l i c i t a t i o n s d ' a f f i n i t e s imprevues....Mais, a l a d i f f e r e n c e de l a r e f l e x i o n p h i l o s o p h i q u e , q u i p r e t e n d remonter j u s q u ' a sa s o u r c e , l e r e f l e x i o n s dont i l s ' a g i t i c i s ' i n t e r e s s e n t des rayons p r i v e s de t o u t a u t r e f o y e r que v i r t u e l . . . 2 0  Cortazar  a l s o e n v i s i o n s t h e o r i g i n o f w r i t i n g as a v i r t u a l  Some members o f t h e Club de l a S e r p i e n t e  imagine M o r e i l l i  a s i t u a t i o n comparable t o two myths f a c i n g each o t h e r : Caronte. two  Un m i t o f r e n t e a l o t r o . "  mirrors  f a c i n g each o t h e r ,  image, r e s u l t i n g i n no focus The  " M o r e i l l i mirara  Two myths f a c i n g each other  a  resemble mirror  f o r e i t h e r image o t h e r than a v i r t u a l  focus.  b i n a r y d i v i s i o n o f t h e f i r s t book o f Rayuela i n t o D e l Lado de  f a c i n g each o t h e r .  graspable - P a r i s being  t h e o r i g i n o f w r i t i n g as two myths o r  O l i v e i r a ' s r e a l p o i n t o f o r i g i n becomes un-  Buenos A i r e s and Buenos A i r e s b e i n g  P a r i s , todo l e e r a Buenos A i r e s y v i s e v e r s a . "  2 2  t h e l a c k o f a r e a l focus  Derrida  P a r i s : "En  Oliveira's i n a b i l i t y to  r e l a t e t o e i t h e r P a r i s o r Buenos A i r e s as an a u t h e n t i c parodies  f a c i n g Charon -  each m i r r o r r e f l e c t i n g t h e o t h e r  A l i a and D e l Lado de Aca p a r o d i e s mirrors  2 1  focus.  point of reference  or o r i g i n f o r discourse.  e x p l a i n s t h a t due t o t h e l a c k . o f an o r i g i n o r c e n t e r f o r  w r i t i n g , t h e concept o f t o t a l i z a t i o n as c l a s s i c a l l y d e f i n e d has no meaning when a p p l i e d t o d i s c o u r s e .  Instead,  the f i e l d of w r i t i n g i s that o f  freeplay, or a f i e l d o f i n f i n i t e substitutions i n the closure o f a f i n i t e ensemble: S i l a t o t a l i s a t i o n n'a p l u s de sens, ce n'est pas parce que 1 ' i n f i n i t e d'un champ ne peut e t r e c o u v e r t e  . p a r un r e g a r d ou un d i s c o u r s f i n i , mais parce que l a n a t u r e du champ - a s a v o i r l e langage e t un langage f i n i - e x c l u t l a t o t a l i s a t i o n : ce champ e s t en e f f e t c e l u i d'un j e u , c ' e s t - a - d i r e , de s u b s t i t u t i o n s i n f i n i e s dans l a c l o t u r e d'un ensemble f i n i . Ce champ ne permet ces s u b s t i t u t i o n s i n f i n i e s que parce q u ' i l e s t f i n i , c ' e s t - a - d i r e parce. qu'au l i e u d'etre un champ i n e p u i s a b l e , comme dans l ' h y p o t h e s e c l a s s i q u e , au l i e u d ' e t r e t r o p grand, i l l u i manque quelque chose, a s a v o i r un c e n t r e q u i a r r e t e e t fonde l e j e u des s u b s t i t u t i o n s . D e r r i d a d e f i n e s t h e movement o f f r e e p l a y p e r m i t t e d of a center o r o r i g i n  as s u p p l e m e n t a r i t y .  2 3  by t h e absence  He e x p l a i n s t h a t one cannot de-  termine t h e c e n t e r o r t h e s i g n which supplements i t , o r t a k e s i t s p l a c e in  i t s absence because t h i s s i g n adds i t s e l f , o c c u r s as a supplement.  movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n adds something, which r e s u l t s there  i n the fact  The  that  i s always one more, b u t t h i s a d d i t i o n i s a f l o a t i n g one because i t  adds something, supplements a l a c k on t h e p a r t o f t h e s i g n i f i e d . superabundant n a t u r e o f t h e s i g n i f i e r o c c u r s as a r e s u l t absence o f a c e n t e r ) which must be s u p p l e m e n t e d . The Talita's  ment o f d i s c o u r s e  The  o f a lack (the  25  d i s p u t e which occurs between O l i v e i r a and T r a v e l e r  attempted c r o s s i n g o f t h e b r i d g e  2 4  during  o f boards marks t h e e s t a b l i s h -  as a f i e l d o f f r e e p l a y r a t h e r t h a n a c e n t e r e d  totality.  T r a v e l e r , whom O l i v e i r a accuses o f coming r i g h t up t o t h e edge o f t h i n g s and  r e t r e a t i n g , p e r s o n i f i e s t h e s i g n i f i e r o f w r i t i n g as p r e v i o u s l y thought  w i t h i n a l o g o c e n t r i c i s m , whose movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n o r f r e e p l a y was l i m i t e d by i t s r e f e r r a l t o a p r e s e n t  presence o r c e n t e r .  Traveler  O l i v e i r a t h a t he does not f e e l o b l i g a t e d t o p l a y h i s game. T r a v e l e r -'.being more committed t o l i f e playing Oliveira's  game.  tells  In f a c t ,  than O l i v e i r a - i s incapable o f  Oliveira replies  t h a t games p l a y t h e m s e l v e s , a  statement which evokes t h e f r e e p l a y o f w r i t i n g .  O l i v e i r a accuses  Traveler  o f t h r o w i n g a s t i c k i n t h e spokes o f h i s wheel, t o slow down t h e movement  59 o f the  game.  In the  same manner, a c e n t e r or presence c l o s e s or  the movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n o f d i s c o u r s e . O l i v e i r a ' s making and.must he p l a y e d  clean  limits  J u s t as the game i s o f (without  i n t e r f e r e n c e from  an  e x t e r n a l r e f e r e n t ) , the p l a y o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n i s engendered from w r i t i n g i t s e l f , i n s t e a d o f a r i s i n g from the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f w r i t i n g t o an e x t e r i o r truth.  T a l i t a remarks t h a t no m a t t e r what O l i v e i r a and  t h e y o n l y t a l k about h e r . p a r e d t o the  signified.  In c h a p t e r one The  Traveler  discuss,  o f t h i s t h e s i s , T a l i t a was  fundamental q u e s t i o n  of a philosophy  com-  of  w r i t i n g i s i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a presence or t r u t h s i g n i f i e d ; whether the l a t t e r p r e - e x i s t s w r i t i n g , or i s i n s c r i b e d by  it.  f u t u r e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o themselves - whether she and hand the package (.symbolizing the whether she debate the  s h o u l d throw i t and  In d i s c u s s i n g T a l i t a ' s  should  r e t u r n t o T r a v e l e r - O l i v e i r a and  d i f f e r e n c e between w r i t i n g as a p h o t o c e n t r i c i s m  a c e n t e r , whereby the  s i g n i f i e d i s no  longer  s i g n i f i e r must supplement.  bridge  and  i t t o break a p a r t ,  i n a b i l i t y to bridge  between O l i v e i r a and  t o a l a c k o f f u l l n e s s on the p a r t o f the Traveler's  confrontation  only  a  Instead,  the  she throws i t , Talita's  T r a v e l e r i s comparable  signified.  of  superabundant nature  O l i v e i r a ' s and  - which T a l i t a compares t o a t r i a l or ceremony -  evokes the t e n s i o n which engenders the r e p e t i t i v e , r i t u a l i s t i c movement of supplementarity of the  a  w i t h the concept  s c a t t e r , and become m i n g l e d w i t h d i r t .  the gap  Traveler  T a l i t a does not manage t o c r o s s  d e l i v e r the package t o O l i v e i r a i n t a c t .  or  r e f e r r i n g to  a f u l l p r e s e n c e , but  f u n c t i o n i n a c h a i n o f d i f f e r e n c e s ; a l a c k which the o f the  crossing  sense o f w r i t i n g ) t o O l i v e i r a ,  f u l l p r e s e n c e , and w r i t i n g as thought a f t e r the' r u p t u r e  causing  complete the  text.  - A h i e s t a - d i j o O l i v e i r a -. T e n i a que suceder a vos no t e cambia n a d i e . L l e g a s a l borde de l a s cosas y uno p i e n s a que por f i n vas a entender, pero es i n u t i l , che, empezas a d a r l e s l a v u e l t a  6o a 'leerles l a s etiquetas. pibe.  Te quedas en e l pr©specto, ;  -£Y que? - d i j o T r a v e l e r . - i P o r que t e tengo hacer e l juego, hermano?  que  - Los juegos se hacen s o l o s , sos vos e l que mete un p a l i t o p a r a f r e n a r l a rueda. - La rueda que vos f a b r i c a s t e , s i vamos a eso. - No creo - d i j o O l i v e i r a -. Yo no h i c e mas que s u s c i t a r l a s c i r c u n s t a n c i a s , como d i c e n l o s entendidos. E l j u e g o , h a b i a que j u g a r l o l i m p i o . T a l i t a s a b i a que de alguna manera-estaban hablando de e l l a . . . . " H a b l e n l o que h a b l e n , en e l fondo es siempre de mi, pero tampoco es eso, aunque es c a s i eso"...."Es como un j u i c i o , " penso T a l i t a . "Como una ceremon'ia. " 2 6  : O l i v e i r a ' s u n r e s o l v e d , unending book p a r o d i e s the supplementary,  s e a r c h f o r a u t h e n t i c i t y w i t h i n the  superabundant  n a t u r e o f the  signifier,  whose movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n r e s u l t s from i t s l a c k o f a c e n t e r as a p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e - a l a c k which must be supplemented.  Oliveira is in  constant movement; from Buenos A i r e s t o P a r i s , from P a r i s t o Buenos A i r e s , from l a Maga t o P o l a t o Emmanuel t o T a l i t a , from one h o t e l t o another h o t e l , from one d i v e r s i o n - i n t e l l e c t u a l debate, m u s i c a l c o n c e r t s , making l o v e , word games, b u i l d i n g board b r i d g e s and l a b y r i n t h s - t o the n e x t , from one job - working  as a salesman,  attendant - t o the next.  c i r c u s l a b o u r e r , mental  asylum  O l i v e i r a r e a l i z e s t h a t b e h i n d every one o f h i s  a c t i o n s , t h e r e i s a p r o t e s t , an admission o f a l a c k t h a t he f e e l s he must supplant: Pero d e t r a s de t o d a a c c i o n h a b i a una p r o t e s t a , porque todo hacer s i g n i f i c a b a s a l i r de p a r a l l e g a r a, o mover a l g o p a r a que e s t u v i e r a a q u i o no a l i i , o e n t r a r en esa casa en vez de no e n t r a r o e n t r a r en l a de a l l a d o , es d e c i r que en todo a c t o h a b i a l a admision de una c a r e n c i a , de a l g o no hecho t o d a v i a y que e r a p o s i b l e h a c e r , l a p r o t e s t a t a c i t a f r e n t e a l a c o n t i n u a evedencia de l a f a l t a , de l a merma, de l a parvedad d e l p r e s e n t e .  O l i v e i r a i s condemned t o an i n f i n i t e s e a r c h f o r s i g n i f i c a t i o n because the sum  o f a l l h i s a c t s can never  add up t o a whole  life:  C r e e r que l a a c c i o n p o d i a colmar, o que l a suma de l a s a c c i o n e s p o d i a realmente e q u i v a l e r a una v i d a d i g n a de e s t e nombre, e r a una i l u s i o n de m o r a l i s t a .  2 8  O l i v e i r a ' s i n c e s s a n t movements through t h e l a b y r i n t h s o f P a r i s i a n  streets,  the c i r c u s and the c o r r i d o r s o f the mental asylum t r a c e a temporal  laby-  r i n t h which p a r a l l e l s t h e s p a t i a l l a b y r i n t h t r a c e d by the r e a d e r o f Rayuela as he jumps from one  chapter t o the n e x t .  I f numbers one t o  hundred and f i f t y - f i v e were e v e n l y p l a c e d i n o r d e r on t h e  one  circumference  o f a c i r c l e , and i f the p o i n t s were j o i n e d t o g e t h e r i n the o r d e r o f the chapter sequence o f Book two  o f RayUela, the r e s u l t would be a g r a p h i c  l a b y r i n t h which would mimic the l a b y r i n t h o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n s engendered by the movement o f s u p p l e m e n t a r i t y o f the book. Two  o f the " C a p i t u l o s p r e s c i n d i b l e s " m i r r o r the l a b y r i n t h o f  n i f i c a t i o n s engendered by the t e x t .  M o r e i l l i ' s u n f i n i s h e d book i s  d e s c r i b e d as t h e " r e p e t i c i o n o b s e s i v a de una e s p i r a l Chapter  sig-  temblorosa".  one hundred and t e n c o n s i s t s on an excerpt from A n a i s  2 9  Bin's  Winter o f A r t i f i c e i n which she d e s c r i b e s the movement o f a"-dream as a tower o f i n f i n i t e l a y e r s which s p i r a l e n d l e s s l y upon themselves.  The  movement o f the dream p a r a l l e l s t h e movement o f w r i t i n g : E l sueno e s t a b a compuesto como una t o r r e formada por capas s i n f i n que se a l z a r a n y se p e r d i e r a n en e l i n f i n i t o , o b a j a r a n en c i r c u l o s perdiendose en l a s entraflas de l a t i e r r a . Cuando me a r r a s t r o en sus ondas, l a e s p i r a l comenzo y esa e s p i r a l e r a un laberinto. No h a b i a n i t e c h o , n i fondo, n i paredes, n i r e g r e s o . Pero h a b i a temas que se r e p e t i a n con exactitud. 3 0  The g r a p h i c d e s i g n o f the h o p s c o t c h  c h a r t - which m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n  the book's c o n s t r u c t i o n , imagery and c h a r a c t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s - p a r o d i e s the movement o f s u p p l e m e n t a r i t y o f the t e x t .  The h o p s c o t c h p r o g r e s s i o n o f  one  to  two u n i t s , which t o g e t h e r  form a group o f t h r e e , which g i v e s r i s e t o  another r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e p r e v i o u s p a t t e r n p a r a l l e l s t h e p a t t e r n t r a c e d by t h e r e d o u b l i n g o f t h e o r i g i n through w r i t i n g , and t h e consequent movement o f s u p p l e m e n t a r i t y  o f t h e t e x t engendered from t h e l o s s o f an  o r i g i n through r e p e t i t i o n .  D e r r i d a e x p l a i n s t h a t a t t h e moment t h a t t h e  c e n t e r o r o r i g i n repeats to  t h e simple  i t s e l f , t h e double does not simply add i t s e l f  o r i g i n , but i t d i v i d e s and supplements i t , c r e a t i n g a  double o r i g i n , p l u s i t s r e p e t i t i o n ; t h r e e thus becoming the f i r s t number o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , but a l s o t h e l a s t ; t h e abyss o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n remaining  dominated by i t s rhythm, t o i n f i n i t y : Des l o r s que l e c e n t r e ou 1 ' o r i g i n e ont commence par se r e p e t e r , par se r e d o u b l e r , l e double ne s ' a j o u t a i t pas seulement au simple. II le divisait et l e s u p p l e a i t . I I y a v a i t a u s s i t o t une double o r i g i n e plus sa r e p e t i t i o n . T r o i s e s t l e premier c h i f f r e de l a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Le d e r n i e r a u s s i car.1'abime de l a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n r e s t e t o u j o u r s domine par son rythme, a 1 ' i n f i n i . 3 1  The  c h a r a c t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f Rayuela m i r r o r t h e supplementary hop-  s c o t c h - l i k e p a t t e r n d e s c r i b e d above. Maga. The  The couple  The s o l i t a r y O l i v e i r a i s j o i n e d by l a  i s j o i n e d by G r e g o r o v i u s ,  same p a t t e r n r e p e a t s  effeeting'a unity of three.  i t s e l f i n the following r e l a t i o n s h i p s : O l i v e i r a -  l a Maga-Pola-, T r a v e l e r - T a l i t a - O l i v e i r a , O l i v e i r a - T a l i t a — l a Maga, and Oliveira-Moreilli-Cortazar.  The descending movement o f t h e c h a r a c t e r  groupings from a group o f t h r e e p h y s i c a l e n t i t i e s , t o a p h y s i c a l t r i a d c o n t a i n i n g a p h y s i c a l double ( O l i v e i r a and T r a v e l e r ) , t o a t r i a d  con-  t a i n i n g a s p a t i a l double ( T a l i t a and l a Maga) w i t h o n l y two p h y s i c a l e n t i t i e s p r e s e n t , t o a t r i a d c o n t a i n i n g two s p a t i a l doubles M o r e i l l i - C o r t a z a r ) w i t h o n l y one p h y s i c a l e n t i t y p r e s e n t  (Oliveira-  parodies the  t r i a d as t h e f i r s t and l a s t number o f r e p e t i t i o n - t h e abyss o f r e p e t i t i o n remaining  dominated by i t s rhythm.  Robert Brody notes t h a t t h e  63  t r i p l e patterns of the character r e l a t i o n s h i p s contribute a c y c l i c rhythm to the novel.  He a l s o equates the ubiquitous patterns of two's which  become three's to an expansion of consciousness which transcends the d u a l i s t i c t r a d i t i o n of western p h i l o s o p h y .  32  Just as the movement of supplementarity r e s u l t s from a l a c k on the part of the s i g n i f i e d , the o r i g i n a r y binary r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the novel evolve to t r i a d s because of a l a c k f e l t by one of the partners i n the binary group.  In the l a Maga-Oliveira-Gregorovius t r i a d , Gregorovius  a human understanding which O l i v e i r a l a c k s .  has  In the l a Maga-Oliveira-Pola  t r i a d , Pola has the education and reasoning a b i l i t y which l a Maga l a c k s . In the T a l i t a - T r a v e l e r - O l i v e i r a t r i a d , T a l i t a and Traveler have a f u l l ness or attachment to l i f e which O l i v e i r a l a c k s . has a freedom of movement which they l a c k .  O l i v e i r a , by c o n t r a s t ,  In the O l i v e i r a - T a l i t a - l a Maga  t r i a d , O l i v e i r a attempts to supplant l a Maga's absence by  superimposing  her image on T a l i t a . In the f i r s t chapter of the second book of Rayuela, Cortazar a l l e g o r i z e s the movement of supplementarity of the t e x t : O l i v e i r a r e l a t e s the story of a n e o p o l i t a i n who spent years l o o k i n g at a screw. thought that the screw was p o s s i b l y a god.  Moreilli  Oliveira rejects this solution,  and suggests that p o s s i b l y the error was i n accepting that the object was a screw j u s t because i t looked l i k e one.  Instead, O l i v e i r a perceives the  screw as a symbol of transformation, i n the manner that Picasso could take a toy car and t u r n i t i n t o the chin of a baboon: M o r e i l l i pensaba que e l t o r n i l l o debia ser o t r a cosa, un dios o algo a s i . Solucion demasiado f a c i l . Quiza e l e r r o r e s t u v i e r a en aceptar que ese objeto era un t o r n i l l o por e l hecho de que t e n i a l a forma de un t o r n i l l o . Picaaso toma un auto de juguete y 16 convierte en e l menton de un c i n o c e f a l o . A l o mejor e l neopolitano era un i d i o t a pero tambien pudo ser e l inventor de un mundo. Del t o r n i l l o a un o j o ,  de un ojo a una e s t r e l l a . . . O l i v e i r a compares the screw to an invented f i r e , a phoenix that burns without surcease w i t h i n the work.  The f i r e symbolizes the i n f i n i t e , free'  play of the t e x t which assumes the form and movement of the great screw or supplementarity: succeeding l e v e l s of s i g n i f i c a t i o n which b u i l d upon and are derived from each other. There are many examples of enumerative d e s c r i p t i o n i n the t e x t which parody the movement of supplementarity.  The m u l t i p l e layers of  c l o t h i n g which camoflage the o r i g i n a l b o d i l y shape of the clocharde Emmanuelle parody the accumulative movements of supplementarity which obscure the o r i g i n of w r i t i n g : Sobre un fondo i n d e s c i f r a b l e donde se acumularian camisones pegados a l a piel-.,; blusas regaladas y algun corpifio capaz de contener unos senos ominosos, se iban sumando, dos, t r e s , qui'za cuatro v e s t i d o s , e l guardarropas completo, y por encima un saco de hombre con una manga c a s i arrancada, una bufanda sostenida por un broche de l a t o n con una piedra verde y o t r a r o j a , y en e l pelo increiblemente tefiido de rubio una especie de vincha verde de gasa, colgando de un l a d o . 3 4  The contradictory enumerative opinions about the cause of M o r e i l l i ' s accident parody both the tension which engenders the movement of supplementarity, and the consequent movement of s i g n i f i c a t i o n i t s e l f : Las opiniones eran que e l v i e j o se habia resbalado, que e l auto habia "quemado" l a l u z r o j a , que e l v i e j o habia querido s u i c i d a r s e , que todo estaba cada vez peor en P a r i s , que e l t r a f i c o era monstruoso, que e l v i e j o t e n i a l a culpa, que l o s frenos d e l auto no andaban b i e n , que e l v i e j o ' era de una imprudencia temeraria, que l a v i d a estaba cada vez mas cara, que en P a r i s habia demasiados extranjeros que no- entendian l a s leyes d e l t r a f i c o y l e s quitaban e l trabajo a l o s franceses. 35  O l i v e i r a ' s i n a b i l i t y to communicate with Traveler i s compared to p u l l i n g at a b a l l of yarn, with the r e s u l t that one gets a long thread of wool,  65 but never t h e b a l l o f y a r n . b a l l of yarn parodies  The i n t e r m i n a b l e t h r e a d i s s u i n g from t h e  t h e movement o f s u p p l e m e n t a r i t y  resulting  from  the t e n s i o n o f f r e e p l a y ( O l i v e i r a ) w i t h h i s t o r y and presence ( T r a v e l e r ) : Porque en r e a l i d a d e l no l e p o d i a c o n t a r nada a T r a v e l e r . Se empezaba a t i r a r d e l o v i l l o i b a a s a l i r una hebra de l a n a , metros de l a n a , l a n a g n o r o s i s , l a n a t u r n e r , lannapurna, l a n a t o m i a , l a n a t a , l a n a t a l i d a d , l a n a c i o n a l i d a d , l a n a t u r a l i d a d , l a l a n a hasta lanausea pero nunca e l o v i l l o . 3 6  D e r r i d a , i n t e r p r e t i n g L e v i - S t r a u s s , e x p l a i n s t h a t any r e f e r e n c e t o the f r e e p l a y o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n i n d i s c o u r s e i s always caught up i n t e n s i o n : the t e n s i o n o f f r e e p l a y w i t h h i s t o r y , and t h e t e n s i o n o f f r e e p l a y w i t h presence. trophe.  3 7  The t e n s i o n o f f r e e p l a y o r i g i n a t e s i n a r u p t u r e o r c a t a s -  Levi-Strauss, l i k e  Rousseau, always c o n c e i v e s  a new s t r u c t u r e on t h e b a s i s o f c a t a s t r o p h e nature  - an o v e r t u r n i n g o f nature i n  - which r e s u l t s i n t h e n e u t r a l i z a t i o n o f time and h i s t o r y .  D e r r i d a , t h e event o f r u p t u r e occurs with  o f the o r i g i n o f  as an i n v e r s i o n .  3 8  lbr  I n an i n t e r v i e w  D i a c r i t i c s , Derrida explains that a strategy of deconstruction  should a v o i d simply n e u t r a l i z i n g t h e b i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n o f m e t a p h y s i c s , and simply r e s i d i n g i n t h e c l o s e d sphere o f these., o p p o s i t i o n s . i s necessary  t o put forward  Instead, i t  a double g e s t u r e : t o pass through a phase o f  i n v e r s i o n which b r i n g s down t h e s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n o f one o f t h e terms o f an o p p o s i t i o n , and then t o mark t h e gap between t h e i n v e r s i o n and t h e emergence o f a new system which no l o n g e r allows i n the previous  regime.  i t s e l f t o be u n d e r s t o o d  3 9  O l i v e i r a explains'the process  and e f f e c t s o f i n v e r s i o n m e t a p h o r i -  c a l l y , when he compares t h e opening o f t h e movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n t o t u r n i n g around a k a l e i d o s c o p e  and l o o k i n g out from t h e o t h e r  s i d e ; a move  which b r i n g s down t h e p r e v i o u s l y s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n o f a t r a n s c e n d e n t a l s i g n i f i e d , and a l l o w s t h e movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n t o open up i n a w o r l d  66 where " e a r t h i s on the same l e v e l as heaven",  evoking Saussure's concept  o f the s i g n i f i e r and s i g n i f i e d f u n c t i o n i n g as a network o f o p p o s i t i o n s or system o f d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n w r i t i n g , r a t h e r than the s i g n i f i e r  as  w r i t i n g d e r i v i n g i t s sense from i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a s i g n i f i e d o u t s i d e o f itself. . . . . t a i vez e l u n i c o camino a l k i b b u t z , eso no p o d i a s e r e l mundo, l a gente a g a r r a b a e l c a l i d o s c o p i o por e l mai l a d o , entonces h a b i a que d a r l o v u e l t a . . . . y desde a h i empezar a m i r a r desde l a montana de b o s t a , m i r a r e l mundo a t r a v e s d e l o j o d e l : ' • c u l o , and y o u ' l l see p a t t e r n s p r e t t y as can be, l a p i e d r i t a t e n i a que pasar por e l o j o d e l c u l o , metido a patadas por l a punta d e l zapato, y de l a Tierra a l Cielo las casillas estarian abiertas, e l l a b e r i n t o se d e s p l e g a r i a como una cuerda de r e l o j r o t a haciendo s a l t a r e l m i l pedazos e l tiempo de l o s empleados, y por l o s mocos y e l semen y e l o l o r de Emmanuele, y l a b o s t a d e l oscuro se e n t r a r i a a l camino que l l e v a b a a l k i b b u t z d e l deseo, no y a subir a l Cielo (subir, palabra h i p o c r i t a , Cielo, flatus v o c i s ) , s i n o caminar con pasos de hombre por una t i e r r a de hombres h a c i a e l k i b b u t z a l i a l e j o s pero en e l mismo p i a n o , como e l C i e l o e s t a b a en e l mismo piano que l a T i e r r a . . .  4 0  The event o f r u p t u r e and the consequent movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n in  Rayuela  from death.  i s f r e q u e n t l y metaphorized as a p h o e n i x - l i k e  resurrection  The p a r a d o x i c a l c o m p l i c i t y o f death and the opening o f s i g -  n i f i c a t i o n i s e x p l a i n e d by de l ' e c r i t u r e "  L e r r i d a i n "La f i n du l i v r e et l e commencement  C Ie l a Grammatologie)  : the death o f the book i s a death  of speech, and t h e r e f o r e a new mutation i n the h i s t o r y o f w r i t i n g : M a l g r e l e s apparences, c e t t e mort du l i v r e n'annonce sans'.'doute ,.(et d'une c e r t a i n e maniere depuis t o u j o u r s ) qu'une mort de l a p a r o l e (d'une p a r o l e s o i - d i s a n t p l e i n e ) et une n o u v e l l e m u t a t i o n dans l ' h i s t o i r e de l ' e c r i t u r e , d a n s ' l ' h i s t o i r e comme ecriture. 4 1  The death o f speech and the death o f the book as c l a s s i c a l l y d e f i n e d i s metaphorized i n R a y u e l a through the death or d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f l a Maga a t the end o f D e l Lado de A l i a , and the death o f O l i v e i r a a t the end o f D e l '  67 Lado de Aca; - O l i v e i r a ' s death r e s u l t i n g from h i s f i n a l attempt t o r e connect h i m s e l f w i t h h i s l o s t  c e n t e r o r p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e , l a Maga.  D e r r i d a e x p l a i n s , however, t h a t t h e death o f t h e l i v i n g presence i s t h e dawn o f w r i t i n g "because e v e r y t h i n g a l'aube p a r c e que t o u t earlier i n this  chapter,  begins w i t h r e p e t i t i o n : "La mort e s t  a commence p a r l a r e p e t i t i o n . "  1 + 2  As  explained  the s i g n i f y i n g p o t e n t i a l o f discourse  was  pre-  v i o u s l y l i m i t e d by i t s d i r e c t r e f e r r a l t o t h e f u l l presence o f v o i c e .  At  the moment t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r a l i t y o f s t r u c t u r e began t o be t h o u g h t , t h e c e n t r a l s i g n i f i e d was t r a n s m i t t e d  outside  o f i t s e l f i n i t s surrogate  which e f f e c t e d t h e m e t a p h o r i c a l death o r absence o f a c e n t e r .  -  The l a c k  o f a c e n t r a l s i g n i f i e d p e r m i t s t h e superabundant, supplementary n a t u r e o f t h e s i g n i f i e r whose i n f i n i t e movement o f f r e e p l a y i s t h e r e s u l t o f a need t o supplant  the l a c k o f a center.  mirror Derrida's  concept o f death as t h e dawn o f r e p e t i t i o n ; and t h e r e f o r e ,  writing.  Cortazar's  L a Maga d e s i r e s a p h o e n i x - l i k e  a l l u s i o n s t o t h e phoenix  death from O l i v e i r a when he makes :  love to her: Se l l e g o a s i a saber que l a Maga esperaba v e r d a d e r a mente que H o r a c i o l a matara, y que e s a muerte d e b i a s e r de f e n i x , e l i n g r e s o a l c o n c i l i o de l o s f i l o s o f o s .  4 3  A f t e r h e r disappearance o r death by drowning, l a Maga e x p e r i e n c e s a s p a t i a l phoenix-like  r e s u r r e c t i o n a t t h e moment t h a t O l i v e i r a superimposes h e r  image on T a l i t a . the t e r m i n a t i o n two  The s p a t i a l r e s u r r e c t i o n o f l a Maga, however, i s a l s o o f t h e o r i g i n a r y r e a l e x p e r i e n c e o f l a Maga: t h e r e  l a Maga's, e f f e c t i n g t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l l a Maga no l o n g e r  are now  e x i s t s as  such, b u t i s o n l y a f u n c t i o n i n a c h a i n o f d i f f e r e n c e s . Cortazar, writing. at audi'. ^ 11  l i k e Derrida, recognizes  t h e c o m p l i c i t y o f death and  M o r e i l l i ' s w r i t i n g s are described  as "una f r a s e hueca...pequeno  M o r e i l l i i s p i c t u r e d as l o o k i n g a t Charon, t h e c a r r i e r o f dead  s o u l s : t h e i r c o n f r o n t a t i o n resembling  two. myths f a c i n g each o t h e r .  We  have p r e v i o u s l y noted t h a t t h e occurence o f two myths f a c e t o f a c e cons t i t u t e s t h e d o u b l i n g o f a v i r t u a l f o c u s , which amounts t o s a y i n g t h a t t h e r e i s no r e a l o r i g i n .  W r i t i n g i s Charon o r t h e c a r r i e r o f death i n  so f a r as t h a t w r i t i n g b e g i n s w i t h t h e death o f , o r r u p t u r e w i t h a c e n t r a l presence,.  W r i t i n g i s a phoenix death, however, as t h e movement o f s i g n i - .  f i c a t i o n o f d i s c o u r s e a r i s e s from t h e death o f a c e n t e r . The m e t a p h o r i c a l  superimposition o f the hole i n the circus tent  onto t h e h o l e o f t h e e l e v a t o r s h a f t i n t h e asylum i l l u s t r a t e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n v e r s i o n , death ( o r t h e debasement o f t h e s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n o f one term o f an o p p o s i t i o n ) and t h e consequent f r e e p l a y o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n i n t h e absence o f a r e f e r e n t .  O l i v e i r a compares t h e h o l e at t h e t o p o f  the c i r c u s t e n t t o a c e n t e r o r opening: "ese escape h a c i a un quiza, cont a c t o , ese c e n t r o , ese o j o como un puente d e l s u e l o a l e s p a c i o l i b e r a d o .  1 , 1 + 5  He p e r c e i v e s t h e e l e v a t o r s h a f t going down t o t h e mortuarium i n t h e asylum as t h e i n v e r s i o n o r r e v e r s e image o f t h e h o l e at t h e t o p o f t h e t e n t : "En  e l c i r c o h a b i a s i d o a l r e v e s , un agujero  en l o a l t o , l a a p e r t u r a  comunicando con e l e s p a c i o a b i e r t o , f i g u r a de consumacion, ahora a l borde d e l pozo, agujero  de E l e u s i s .  1 , 1 + 6  p o s i t i o n o f t h e image o f t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l  estaba  O l i v e i r a ' s i n v e r s e d superimcenter  (the h o l e a t t h e t o p o f  the t e n t ) onto t h e metaphor o f t h e h o l e o f E l e u s i s ( t h e e l e v a t o r s h a f t t e r m i n a t i n g i n t h e basement next t o t h e mortuarium) s i g n i f i e s a n e u t r a l i z a t i o n o r death o f t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l  center.  Cortazar explains  i c a l l y , however, t h a t t h e absence o f a c e n t e r i s not t h e ending course.  J u s t as t h e h o l e o f E l e u s i s s i g n i f i e s both  allegorof dis-  death and r e s u r r e c t i o n  E l e u s i s b e i n g t h e s i t e where t h e a n c i e n t Greeks c e l e b r a t e d t h e phoenixl i k e death and r e s u r r e c t i o n o f v e g e t a t i o n - O l i v e i r a d i s c o v e r s t h a t t h e  death o f a r e f e r e n t does not t e r m i n a t e when he descends the e l e v a t o r and  the s i g n i f y i n g power o f  d i s c o v e r s the man  t o h i s dead f r i e n d i n the f r e e z e r .  discourse  w i t h the dove t a l k i n g  O l i v e i r a comments t h a t i n such pseudo-  d i a l o g u e s , i t does not matter what i s o p p o s i t e t o the speaker: i t may f e e t s t i c k i n g out o f the i c e .  4 7  he  In l i k e manner, w r i t i n g does not have t o  r e f e r t o a f u l l presence i n o r d e r t o A l i n e a r r e a d i n g o f chapters  signify. f i f t y - s i x to f i f t y - e i g h t  illustrates  the paradox o f death as a phoenix or an opening onto an i n f i n i t e movement of s i g n i f i c a t i o n , and  e l u c i d a t e s a l l e g o r i c a l l y the reason  f o r the  f r e e p l a y o f the t e x t i n the absence o f a c e n t r a l p r e s e n c e . chapter  At the end  of  f i f t y - s i x , O l i v e i r a f a l l s out o f t h e window and d i e s because o f a  f i n a l desperate Maga.  infinite  Two  attempt t o r e u n i t e h i m s e l f w i t h h i s p r e v i o u s  chapters  l a t e r , however, the r e a d e r  center, l a  discovers O l i v e i r a  c u l o u s l y r e s u r r e c t e d , w i t h c o l d compresses on h i s head.  Chapter  mirafifty-  seven - c o n s i s t i n g o f O l i v e i r a ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f h i s o n e - l i n e poem, "Yo  entresuefio, buzo de l a v a b o s "  - e x p l a i n s m e t a p h o r i c a l l y the  4 8  reason  f o r h i s s u r v i v a l , which i s a l s o the cause o f the i n f i n i t e movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n i n discourse. iences while  O l i v e i r a d e s c r i b e s the s e n s a t i o n s he  i n a t r a n s i t o r y s t a t e between s l e e p and wakefulness: he  h i m s e l f go, hoping t o r e t u r n to the o t h e r t h i n g - t o what he was he woke up.  exper-  He  falls  lets  before  inward f o r a moment u n t i l the defenses o f wakefulness  - words, language - stop  him:  . . . t e vas dejando i r con l a esperanza de q u i z a v o l v e r a l o o t r o , a eso que eras antes de d e s p e r t a r y que t o d a v i a f l o t a , t o d a v i a e s t a en v o s , es vos mismo, pero empieza a i r s e . . . S i , t e caes por un momento h a c i a adentro, h a s t a que l a s defensas de l a v i g i l i a , oh l a b o n i t a e x p r e s i o n , oh l e n g u a j e , se encargan de d e t e n e r . 49  O l i v i e r a , suspended i n a s t a t e o f t e n s i o n between s l e e p and  wakefulness,  p e r s o n i f i e s t h e sense o f w r i t i n g h e l d i n the c r o s s t e n s i o n o f absence ' and p r e s e n c e .  O l i v e i r a ' s a s l e e p s t a t e s i g n i f i e s the subconscious  o r i g i n a r y e x p e r i e n c e which preceeds w r i t i n g . represents discourse. presence  O l i v e i r a cannot  fall  or  O l i v e i r a ' s awake s t a t e inward' and r e g a i n  full  or h i s o r i g i n a r y e x p e r i e n c e because the primary e x p e r i e n c e i s  no l o n g e r p r e s e n t as such. o r i g i n a r y , subconscious  Language has d u p l i c a t e d and obscured  e x p e r i e n c e at t h e moment t h a t i t was  the  thought,  c a u s i n g i t t o become ungraspabl'ev". In ••like manner ,= O l i v e i r a ' can :never r e u n i t e h i m s e l f w i t h l a Maga by f a l l i n g out o f the window because l a Maga i s no l o n g e r t h e r e . r e d o u b l i n g brought  Her death was  the "dawn o f r e p e t i t i o n " - a  about when O l i v e i r a attempted  t o r e s u r r e c t her or  r e l i v e t h e i r r e a l e x p e r i e n c e t o g e t h e r by superimposing  her image on  T a l i t a - a r e p e t i t i o n which o n l y s e r v e d t o obscure t h e o r i g i n a l l a Maga, c a u s i n g her t o be i r r e v o c a b l y l o s t of  i n a chain of d i f f e r e n c e s .  l a Maga launches O l i v e i r a i n t o a never-ending  The  absence  search f o r s i g n i f i c a t i o n ,  as "indicated by the non-ending o f t h e second r e a d i n g o f the book: C o r t a z a r does not i n d i c a t e t h a t the book i s f i n i s h e d at t h e end o f c h a p t e r hundred and t h i r t y - o n e .  /Instead, the r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d back t o  f i f t y - e i g h t , which r e f e r s the r e a d e r back t o c h a p t e r one hundred t h i r t y - o n e , ad i n f i n i t u m . dow or  We may  but never h i t s t h e ground.  one chapter and  say t h a t O l i v e i r a f a l l s out o f t h e win-  The r e a l i t y o f the book becomes i n v e n t i o n ,  a t r u t h engendered by w r i t i n g i t s e l f , r a t h e r than an e x t e r n a l p r e s e n c e .  O l i v e i r a becomes a p h o e n i x ^ l i k e c o n s c i o u s n e s s who w i t h i n the work.  evolves  incessantly  O l i v e i r a and the book e l e c t t h e "great screw" or the  movement o f s u p p l e m e n t a r i t y as t h e i r p o s s i b l e t r u t h : "Ardemos en n u e s t r a o b r a . . . a l t o d e s a f i o d e l f e n i x . . . . e l e g i m o s p o r t u r a e l Gran T o r n i l l o . "  5 0  The t e n s i o n o f f r e e p l a y o f the t e x t w i t h i n h i s t o r y and w i t h p r e -  71 sence i s r e s p o n s i b l e c a t i o n o f the b o o k .  f o r engendering the i n f i n i t e movement o f  5 1  The l a s t  two c h a p t e r s  o f the  second book o f  a l l u d e m e t a p h o r i c a l l y t o t h e s e two c o u n t e r p o s i t o r y t e n s i o n s . fifty-eight  signifi-  Chapter  t e r m i n a t e s w i t h the s l o g a n o f the mental asylum, "muera e l  perro" -  an e x p r e s s i o n which evokes the t e n s i o n o f the f r e e p l a y  with:.its  history,  nifies  Rayuela  the metaphysics  a defiance  of presence,  o f imposed systems  of writing  i n so f a r as t h a t  and c o n v e n t i o n s .  it  sig-  Chapter one hundred  and t h i r t y - o n e ends w i t h O l i v e i r a ' s r e s o l u t i o n t o become a monk o f an o r d e r whose o r i g i n i s t h e t r e a t i s e to e t e r n a l l y  o f C e r e f i n o Paz and whose purpose  combat s p i r i t u a l i l l s on e a r t h -  a v o c a t i o n which evokes t h e  t e n s i o n o f f r e e p l a y w i t h p r e s e n c e i n so f a r as t h a t reasoned madness and i t s  duties  The t e n s i o n - o f the ducible difference  freeplay  springs  on t h e same  outside that  Derrida explains  that  there  the second i n t e r p r e -  i s no l a n g u a g e ,  roots i n t h i s h i s t o r y .  of writing is  a l i e n t o the l i m i t a t i o n s  presence,  its  roots  differ-  from t h e  i r r e v o c a b l y bound up w i t h t h e h i s t o r y  l e x i c o n which does not have i t s  yet  system  of a chain of  t a t i o n o f w r i t i n g i s never a b l e t o e n t i r e l y d i v o r c e i t s e l f  metaphysics:  irre-  comprehended  and w r i t i n g as a n o n - c e n t e r e d  from t h e p a r a d o x i c a l f a c t  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , as w r i t i n g i s  difference  o f :the: t e x t w i t h h i s t o r y i s t h e  where t h e c e n t r a l s i g n i f i e d i s never p r e s e n t Tension a r i s e s  from  level.  between w r i t i n g as a l o g o c e n t r i c i s m  w i t h i n the h i s t o r y o f m e t a p h y s i c s ,  ences.  it  suggest the a r b i t r a r i n e s s o r  between m a t t e r and s p i r i t c o - e x i s t i n g  5 2  presence.  past,  i n a b i l i t y t o escape  the h i s t o r y o f m e t a p h y s i c s ) ,  In R a y u e l a ,  and h i s  from him ( s y m b o l i z i n g the i n e s c a p a b l e  no  of the  ( s y m b o l i z i n g the i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f the movement and sense  w r i t i n g from i t s  of  The d i s r u p t i o n  c o u n t e r p o s i t o r y t e n s i o n engendered from O l i v e i r a ' s w i l l f u l r e j e c t i o n Traveler  first  no s y n t a x ,  imposed by the metaphysics  s p r i n g from a f u l l  is  of of  paradoxical  complicity  of  72 w r i t i n g w i t h t h e metaphysics o f p r e s e n c e ) p a r o d i e s t h e t e n s i o n o f f r e e p l a y with h i s t o r y i n w r i t i n g .  5 3  D e r r i d a e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e t e n s i o n o f f r e e p l a y w i t h presence i s t h e d i s r u p t i o n o f presence: presence being  a s i g n i f y i n g and s u b s t i t u t i v e r e -  f e r e n c e i n s c r i b e d i n a system o f d i f f e r e n c e s and t h e movement o f a c h a i n . F r e e p l a y i s an i n t e r p l a y o f absence and p r e s e n c e . * 51  the meaning o f b e i n g a transcendental  Presence i m p l i e s  i n general, the o r i g i n a r y t r u t h i n representation,  s i g n i f i e d which i s e f f a c e d w h i l e making v i s i b l e t h e v e r y  idea o f the s i g n .  5 5  Absence i s t h e non-presence o f a t r a n s c e n d e n t a l  s i g n i f i e d , f u l l p r e s e n c e o r r e f e r e n t , which a l l o w s t h e f i e l d o f w r i t i n g to  f u n c t i o n as a f i e l d o f i n f i n i t e f r e e p l a y .  5 6  Derrida, interpreting  Edmond J a b e s , e x p l a i n s t h a t absence i s t h a t which g i v e s l e t t e r s  per-  m i s s i o n t o s i g n i f y as s i g n s , b u t i t i s a l s o t h a t which a l l o w s l e t t e r s own  life  independent o f any r e f e r e n t - a l i f e  o f movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n  engendered from the t u r n i n g o f w r i t i n g on i t s e l f . l i f e t o t h e l e t t e r , i s t h e b r e a t h o f the  their  Absence, as t h e g i v e r o f  letter:  L'absence e s t l a p e r m i s s i o n donnee aux l e t t r e s de s ' e p e l e r e t de s i g n i f i e r , mais c ' e s t a u s s i , dans l a t o r s i o n s u r s o i de l a n g a g e , ce que disent l e s l e t t r e s : e l l e s disent l a l i b e r t e et l a vancance a c c o r d e e , ce q u ' e l l e s "formeht" en l'enfermant dans l e u r f i l e t . Absence e n f i n comme s o u f f l e de l a l e t t r e , c a r l a l e t t r e v i t . . . . S i g n i f i a n t l'absence e t l a s e p a r a t i o n , l a l e t t r e v i t comme a p h o r i s m e . 57  M i c h e l F o u c a u l t , whom D e r r i d a i n t e r p r e t s i n " C o g i t o e t H i s t o i r e de l a F o l i e " l i k e n s t h e absence o f work, o r what cannot be s a i d , t o madness: "Or  l a f o l i e , c ' e s t p a r essence ce q u i ne se d i t pas;  de l ' o e u v r e " d i t profondement The to  Foucault."  c'est  "l'absence  5 8  p l a y o f absence and p r e s e n c e i n Rayuela i s i n t e g r a l l y l i n k e d  t h e p l a y o f reason  and madness - p r e s e n c e b e i n g t h e p o i n t o f p e r s p e c t i v e  for  r e a s o n and t h e h i s t o r y o f m e t a p h y s i c s , and absence b e i n g  w i t h madness.  synonymous  The f r e e p l a y o f absence and p r e s e n c e , r e a s o n and madness  i n Rayuela i s engendered from O l i v e i r a ' s d e s i r e t o r e a c h a c e n t e r o r l i b e r a t e d space f r e e from t h e d i s t o r t i o n and incompleteness o f b i n a r y reasoning.  O l i v e i r a ' s quest f o r a u t h e n t i c i t y evokes t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l  objectives o f Michel Foucault  and A n t o n i n A r t a u d .  reach the point o f D e c i s i o n , or t h e point  Foucault  wishes t o  a t which r e a s o n and madness  became d i f f e r e n t i a t e d : I I s ' a g i t done d'acceder au p o i n t ou l e d i a l o g u e a ete rompu, s ' e s t p a r t a g e en deux s o l i l o q u e s : a ce que F o u c a u l t a p p e l l e d'un mot t r e s f o r t l a Decision. La D e c i s i o n l i e e t separe du m§me coup r a i s o n e t folie';- e l l e d o i t , s' entendre i c i a l a f o i s comme l ' a c t e o r i g i n a i r e d'un o r d r e , d'un f i a t , d'un d e c r e t , e t comme une d e c h i r u r e , une c e s u r e , une s e p a r a t i o n , une d i s c e s s i o n . 5 9  A n t o n i n A r t a u d , whom D e r r i d a e l u c i d a t e s i n "La P a r o l e  S o u f f l e e " attempts  to r e a l i z e through t h e a t r i c a l h e i r o g l y p h i c s a w r i t i n g o f t h e body which would c o n s t i t u t e a system o f s i g n s no l o n g e r i n s t i t u t i o n of voice. breath being outside and  c o n t r o l l e d by t h e  A r t a u d wishes a w r i t i n g which would p r e v e n t h i s  s p i r i t e d from, h i s body i n t h e a c t o f r e f e r r i n g t o something  of i t s e l f .  6 0  Artaud'sproject  i s an attempt t c p r e v e n t  absence,  t h e r e b y a n n i h i l a t e t h e double and t h e p l a y o f d i f f e r e n c e s ,  describes  itself,  Artaud's p r o j e c t as t h e v e r y  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned F o u c a u l t ' s extend D e r r i d a ' s  essence o f m a d n e s s ,  61  Derrida  Having  premise t h a t madness i s absence, we may  argument and say t h a t Artaud's p r o j e c t i s t h e essence  o f absence, i n so f a r as t h a t i t i s t h e a n n i h i l a t i o n o f absence, desires full-presence, or non-difference,  which i s madness.  M o r e i l l i and O l i v e i r a , l i k e F o u c a u l t , D e c i s i o n which, preceeded t h e s p l i t  Artaud  wish t o r e a c h the p o i n t o f  o f r e a s o n and madness - t h e p o i n t o f  D e c i s i o n b e i n g analogous w i t h O l i v e i r a ' s concept o f a c e n t e r , and Moreilli's  concept o f an analogous  c o n s c i o u s n e s s capable o f embracing  both b i n a r y r e a s o n i n g and t h e i n t e r n a l essence o f t h i n g s which escapes r e a s o n .  (non-reason)  L i k e A r t a u d , M o r e i l l i and O l i v e i r a wish t o p r e v e n t  d i f f e r e n c e , t h e double, or the p l a y o f absence  and presence by c r e a t i n g  a language t h a t does not r e f e r t o a n y t h i n g o u t s i d e o f i t s e l f . D e r r i d a e x p l a i n s , however, t h a t Artaud's p r o j e c t o f d e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n which he c l o s e s h i m s e l f i n presence and annuls d i f f e r e n c e - i s caught up i n the m e t a p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e he hopes t o a b o l i s h : A r t a u d d e s t r o y s metaphysics  a t t h e same time t h a t he c o n s t r u c t s and p r e s e r v e s i t w i t h i n  the movement o f d e c o n s t r u c t i o n .  5 2  S i m i l a r l y , Foucault t e l l s  us t h a t  t h e r e are c r i s e s o f reason i n s t r a n g e c o m p l i c i t y with, what t h e w o r l d c r i s e s of madness. manner t h a t absence  53  calls  Madness i s i n s e p a r a b l e from r e a s o n , i n t h e same i s i n t e g r a l l y l i n k e d t o presence.  L i k e A r t a u d and  F o u c a u l t , M o r e i l l i and O l i v e i r a f a i l t o r e a l i z e madness, and i n s t e a d , are  caught up i n t h e c r o s s t e n s i o n o f absence  and p r e s e n c e , r e a s o n and  non-reason. C o r t a z a r ' s p h i l o s o p h y o f w r i t i n g , as expressed m e t a p h o r i c a l l y i n Rayuela, founds t h e movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e t e x t on t h e p o l a r i c t e n s i o n between absence  and p r e s e n c e , r e a s o n and madness; r a t h e r t h a n a  displacement o f w r i t i n g t o e i t h e r one p o l e o r t h e o t h e r w h i c h would e f f e c t a l o s s o f a l l s i g n i f i c a t i o n through the t o t a l r e d u c t i o n o f absence i n t o p r e s e n c e , o r r e a s o n i n t o madness, . The p l a y o f absence  and p r e s e n c e , reason and'madness i n Rayuela i s  a movement o f i n v e r s i o n o r r e v e r s e p o l a r i z a t i o n which, b r i n g s down t h e p r e v i o u s l y s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n o f one o f t h e terms o f o p p o s i t i o n ,  Oliveira's  s e a r c h f o r a c e n t e r i s u l t i m a t e l y a movement away from the c e n t e r , r a t h e r  75 than toward i t .  A f t e r h i s s e p a r a t i o n from l a Maga (symbolic o f t h e  s e p a r a t i o n o f w r i t i n g from a f u l l p r e s e n c e ) , O l i v e i r a attempts t o r e d i s cover l a Maga ( h i s p r e v i o u s c e n t e r ) by superimposing her image on and T r a v e l e r .  Talita  O l i v e i r a ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h the m u l t i p l e r e f l e c t i o n s o f  l a Maga do not a f f e c t h i s r e u n i o n w i t h h e r , but o n l y serve t o remove him f a r t h e r from h e r , her r e a l presence becoming l o s t doubles.  i n the p l a y o f r e f l e c t e d  O l i v e i r a ' s p a r a d o x i c a l movement toward a c e n t e r which  is really  a movement away from a c e n t e r i s m i r r o r e d i n h i s i n a b i l i t y t o r e - i n t e g r a t e h i m s e l f i n h i s p l a c e o f o r i g i n - Buenos A i r e s - a f t e r v i s i t i n g P a r i s : dio  cuenta de que l a v u e l t a e r a realmente l a i d a en mas  de un  "Se  sentido."  6 4  O l i v e i r a ' s movement away from presence ( l a Maga) and r e a s o n (the i n t e l l e c t u a l c e n t e r o f P a r i s , the Club de l a S e r p i e n t e ) i s a l s o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f h i s o v e r t c o m p l i c i t y w i t h absence  (the absence o f l a  Maga) and madness (the mental asylum and c i r c u s o f Buenos A i r e s ) . The  i n v e r s i o n o f r e a s o n and madness, presence and absence i n  Rayuela i s not a simple d i s p l a c e m e n t from the p o l e o f presence and reason to  the p o l e o f absence and madness, however, as the p l a y o f absence  and  p r e s e n c e , r e a s o n and madness m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f on b o t h s i d e s o f the book. The s i d e o f r e a s o n and O l i v i e r a ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h a f u l l (Del  Lado de A l i a ) s h e l t e r s the essence o f madness and absence i n the  form o f l a Maga, who but  presence  who  f u n c t i o n s as the presence t o which O l i v e i r a  refers,  i s a l s o the epitomy o f madness, absence or what cannot be  b e i n g the one who  l i v e s i n t u i t i v e l y and doesn't b e l i e v e i n names.  presence t o which O l i v e i r a  said; The  ( w r i t i n g ) r e f e r s i s the essence o f absence.  C o n v e r s e l y , the s i d e o f madness and absence  ( D e l Lado de Ac&)  - although  m a n i f e s t l y the i r r a t i o n a l w o r l d o f the c i r c u s and the mental asylum - i s governed by a n a t u r a l l o g i c which t r a n s c e n d s the e x t e r i o r , l o g i c a l  con-  v e n t i o n s o f D e l Lado de A l i a : r e a s o n i s the essence  o f madness.  s t r u c t i o n o f the second r e a d i n g o f the book m i r r o r s the  The  con-  cross-counter-  b a l a n c i n g o f r e a s o n and madness, absence and presence, i n so f a r as t h a t a chapter d e s c r i b i n g T r a v e l e r and Buenos A i r e s ( c h a p t e r lk3]  is inter-  c a l a t e d i n t o D e l Lado de A l i a , and a c h a p t e r d e a l i n g w i t h l a Maga and P a r i s (chapter 138)  i s i n s e r t e d i n t o D e l Lado de Aca.  w i t h i n reason and presence, madness and absence.  and  Madness and absence are  c o n v e r s e l y , reason and presence  The,, c o u h t e r p o s i t o r y - i n t e r i o r - e x t e r i o r  o f reason and madness, absence and presence  i n Rayuela  are w i t h i n  relationship  recalls  Foucault's  o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t madness i s c o n f i n e d t o t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e e x t e r i o r , the e x t e r i o r o f the The  interior.  6 5  c r i s i s o f the book and w r i t i n g i s m i r r o r e d i n M o r e i l l i ' s d e s i r e  t o r e a c h a t h r e s h o l d or a x i a l by t u r n i n g i n s i d e out l i k e a g l o v e : deducia una  and  i n c i t a c i o n a a l g o c o m o d a r s e v u e l t a a l modo de un  "Se  guante."  6 6  F o r C o r t a z a r , F o u c a u l t or "Derrida, however, the t h r e s h o l d or p o i n t o f D e c i s i o n which marks the s e p a r a t i o n between reason and madness i s never r e a l i z a b l e , as the two  e x i s t i n each o t h e r .  The  c l o s e s t one  comes t o  r e a l i z i n g the p o i n t o f D e c i s i o n i s through w r i t i n g : D e r r i d a e x p l a i n s t h a t language, b e i n g the break with'madness, adhers more c l o s e l y t o i t s essence. The more i t i s s e p a r a t e d from madness, the c l o s e r i t approaches i t , u n t i l it  i s o n l y s e p a r a t e d from madness by the t r a n s p a r e n t sheet a l l u d e d t o by  Joyce, which i s language and  sense  itself.  6 7  O l i v e i r a ' s p r o g r e s s i o n from a s t a t e o f reason t o a c o n d i t i o n o f madness metaphorizes  the break o f language w i t h madness, which, paradox-  i c a l l y becomes a movement toward madness,  Oliveira, like writing,  i n a s u s t a i n e d s t a t e o f t e n s i o n between reason and madness. reason  exists  On the s i d e o f  (.Paris), O l i v e i r a i s caught between the p u l l o f h i s f o r m a l  education  i n methods o f r e a s o n , and h i s p r e s e n t d e s i r e t o throw o f f the conventions o f l o g i c and l i v e i n t u i t i v e l y .  imposed  On t h e s i d e o f madness  (Buenos  A i r e s ) , the l a b y r i n t h which O l i v e i r a c o n s t r u c t s w h i l e one degree away from madness embodies h i s own  s t a t e o f t e n s i o n and t h a t o f language; b e i n g an  i r r a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e b o r n o f a r a t i o n a l method, produced by a r a t i o n a l l y mad  person who  has reached a s t a t e o f i r r a t i o n a l i t y through r e a s o n .  The  movement o f O l i v e i r a and w r i t i n g toward the p o i n t o f D e c i s i o n i s i n f i n i t e and the a x i a l i s unreachable because'reason and madness e x i s t back t o back c o n v o l u t i n g on each o t h e r . O l i v e i r a ' s movement from r e a s o n t o madness - which i s a l s o the displacement o f h i s p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e from a p r e s e n t presence t o an absence or l o s t presence - i s marked by h i s i n c r e a s i n g tendency t o enact or r e n d e r i n t o a p h y s i c a l symbol h i s d e s i r e t o r e a c h a m e t a p h y s i c a l c e n t e r a p r o j e c t t h a t r e c a l l s Artaud's attempt to' c r e a t e a language t h a t not d e c l i n e i n t o a s i g n through the medium o f t h e a t r i c a l  would  heiroglyphics.  O l i v e i r a d i r e c t s T a l i t a t o the " c e n t e r " by h a v i n g her s t r a d d l e a b r i d g e o f boards suspended a c r o s s an a l l e y between two h o t e l windows.  Oliveira  imagines the h o l e at the t o p o f the c i r c u s t e n t t o be an opening onto the l i b e r a t e d space o f a m e t a p h y s i c a l c e n t e r , and contemplates c l i m b i n g the c e n t r a l p o l e t o r e a c h i t .  up  He attempts t o r e a c h the c e n t e r by p l a y i n g  hopscotch i n the t i l e d ' h a l l w a y s o f the mental asylum.  Oliveira's  attempts  t o encarnate. t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l c e n t e r , however, o n l y serve t o r e n d e r ludicrous h i s search f o r a u t h e n t i c i t y , e f f e c t i n g a l o s s of s i g n i f i c a t i o n r a t h e r than a g a i n .  L i k e A r t a u d , O l i v e i r a i s never capable o f a n n i h i l -  a t i n g absence and a c h i e v i n g f u l l presence t h r o u g h t h e a t r i c a l  heiroglyphics  as the r e s t o r a t i o n o f breath, t o the body i s the a n n i h i l a t i o n o f b r e a t h from the body; the absence o f presence b e i n g the b r e a t h o f the l e t t e r or  t h a t which allows i t t o s i g n i f y . In an is neither neither  interview  with D i a c r i t i c s , Derrida  a s i g n i f i e r nor  a p o s i t i o n nor  opposition  at the  same time t h a t The  6 8  i n the  sence, r e a s o n and m a d n e s s  interminable  a s i g n nor  a  separation  y  gramme  thing, philosophical  i t inhabits  i t , without ever c o n s t i t u t i n g  gramme, the  supplement, w r i t i n g  In Rayuela, C o r t a z a r i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t w r i t i n g ,  by O l i v e i r a , r e s i d e s  irrevocable  t h a t the  a n e g a t i o n ; e s c a p i n g i n c l u s i o n i n the  a t h i r d term or s o l u t i o n . as t e n s i o n .  a s i g n i f i e d , neither  explains  counterpository the p h y s i c a l and  from l a Maga and  tension  exists  personified  o f presence and  the m e t a p h y s i c a l .  ab-  After  his  h i s consequent acceptance o f h i s  s e a r c h f o r a u t h e n t i c i t y without l a Maga p r e s e n t , O l i v e i r a  experiences a sort of e l e c t r i c i t y - a l l sorts of phosphorescences, phenomena seen by  O l i v e i r a can be  explained  D e r r i d a ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f a f o r c e as the O l i v e i r a ' s energy f i e l d p a r o d i e s the w r i t i n g which e x i s t s as the p r e s e n c e , r e a s o n and Derrida  d i f f e r e n c e between  forces,  and 7 0  force f i e l d of s i g n i f i c a t i o n s of  d i f f e r e n c e between the  forces  o f absence  and  madness.  explains  s t r u c t u r e , s i g n and  by means o f N i e t s c h e ' s  The  69  t h a t t h e r e are two' p o s s i b l e  f r e e p l a y : the  which i s f r e e from f r e e p l a y , and toward the o r i g i n - a f f i r m i n g  interpretations  of  f i r s t t u r n i n g toward a t r u t h or o r i g i n the  s e c o n d - being:no l o n g e r t u r n e d  freeplay:  Tournee v e r s l a p r e s e n c e , perdue ou  impossible,  de 1 ' o r i g i n e absente, c e t t e thematique s t r u c t u r a l i s t e de 1'immediatete rompue est done l a f a c e t r i s t e , n e g a t i v e , n o s t a l g i q u e , coupahle, r o u s s e a u i s t e , de l a pensee du j e u dont 1 ' a f f i r m a t i o n n i e t z c h e a n n e , 1 ' a f f i r m a t i o n joyeuse du j e u du monde et de l ' i n n o c e n c e du d e v e n i r , 1 ' a f f i r m a t i o n d'un monde de s i g n e s sans f a u t e , sans v e r i t e , sans o r i g i n e , o f f e r t a une interpretation active, serait l'autre f a c e . , 7 1  Rayuela as a p a r a b l e o f w r i t i n g a l l e g o r i z e s b o t h o f the above i n t e r p r e -  79 tations.  The  f i r s t book o f Rayuela p a r o d i e s the R o u s s e a u i s t d e f i n i t i o n  of f r e e p l a y , a l l u d i n g constantly  to the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a meeting w i t h a  l o s t p r e s e n c e , as i n d i c a t e d by the "iEncontraria a l a Maga?" proposition  72  The  c o n d i t i o n a l t e n s e o f the  first  second book o f Rayuela commences w i t h  t h a t t r u t h i s an i n v e n t i o n ,  engendered and  nos  s i r v e l a verdad que  v e r d a d p o s i b l e t i e n e que second book, t h e r e f o r e ,  iPero  t r a n q u i l i z a a l p r o p i e t a r i o honesto?  ser i n v e n c i o n ,  the  inscribed in writing  r a t h e r than p r e c e e d i n g i t : "Todo es e s c r i t u r a , es d e c i r f a b u l a . que  sentence:  es d e c i r e s c r i t u r a . . . "  de  Nuestra The  7 3  a l l e g o r i z e s the N i e t s c h e a n a f f i r m a t i o n o f  freeplay  without t r u t h p r e s e n t . Derrida  emphasizes t h a t  i t i s not  p r e t a t i o n o f s i g n or f r e e p l a y over the common ground and  the  a q u e s t i o n o f choosing one  o t h e r , but  of conceiving  i r r e d u c i b l e d i f f e r e n c e between the two  of  interthe  interpre-  tations : Je ne c r o i s pas pour ma p a r t , b i e n que ces deux i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s d o i v e n t a c c u s e r l e u r d i f f e r e n c e et a i g u i s e r l e u r i r r e d u c t i b i l i t e , q u ' i l y a i t a u j o u r d ' h u i a c h o i s i r . . . . p a r c e q u ' i l f a u t e s s a y e r d'abord de penser l e s o l commun, et l a d i f f e r a n c e de. c e t t e d i f f e r e n c e irreductible. 7 4  Cortazar's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of w r i t i n g , l i k e Derrida's, two  d i f f e r e n t , i r r e c o n c i l i a b l e worlds e n t e r i n g  Derrida,  however, C o r t a z a r does not  between the two  w o r l d s , hut  comprehends  into discourse.  attempt t o mark the  Unlike  ••  common ground  simply l i k e n s t h e i r i r r e c o n c i l i a b i l i t y  to  a joke: Dos mundos d i s t a n t e s , a j e n o s , c a g i siempre i n c o n c i l i a b l e s , e n t r a n en n u e s t r a s p a l a b r a s , y como de comun acuerdo, nace l a b u r l a . 7 5  Cortazar envisions comparable t o the  the two  worlds i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h each o t h e r i n a manner  shadow o f a dove (evoking the  joyous, Nietschean  a f f i r m a t i o n o f f r e e p l a y w i t h o u t t r u t h p r e s e n t ) r u b b i n g up a g a i n s t dog's excrement ( s i g n i f y i n g w r i t i n g as a debasement o r f a l l from an a b s o l u t e truth.) -Un a j e d r e z i n f i n i t o , t a n f & c i l p o s t u l a r l o , Pero e l f r i o e n t r a por una s u e l a r o t a , en l a v e n t a n a de ese h o t e l una c a r a como de payaso hace muecas d e t r a s d e l v i d r i o . La sombra de una paloma r o z a un excremento de p e r r o . 7 6  81  FOOTNOTES J u l i o Cortazar, Rayuela, E d i t o r i a l Sudamericana, Buenos A i r e s , p. 6 2 0 . 1  1973,  I b i d . , p. 5^0.  2  Jacques D e r r i d a , "La S t r u c t u r e , l e Signe et l e Jeu dans l e Discours des Sciences Humaines", L ' E c r i t u r e et l a D i f f e r e n c e , E d i t i o n s du S e u i l , P a r i s , 1 9 6 7 , p. U23. 3  4  I b i d . , C. F. p. k09.  5  C o r t a z a r , Rayuela, p. 15. I b i d . , p. U 3 8 .  6  D e r r i d a , "La S t r u c t u r e , l e Signe et l e Jeu", p. U 0 9 .  7  8  C o r t a z a r , Rayuela, p. L o .  9  I b i d . , p. koh.  1 0  D e r r i d a , "La S t r u c t u r e , l e Signe et l e Jeu", p. L 1 0 .  ^ C o r t a z a r , Rayuela, p. l a . 1 2  D e r r i d a , "La S t r u c t u r e , l e Signe et l e Jeu", C F . p. hlO.  1 3  Ibid. , CF.  11+  1 5  1 6  1 7  18  p.1*11.  C o r t a z a r , Rayuela, p . 2 8 U .  I b i d . , p. 3 7 7 . D e r r i d a , "La S t r u c t u r e , l e Signe et l e Jeu", C F . pp. U l 2 - l i l 3 . I b i d . , C F . pp. L12-U13. C o r t a z a r , Rayuela, p. 5 5 8 .  1 9  D e r r i d a , "La S t r u c t u r e , l e Signe et l e Jeu", C. F. pp. U12-I113.  2 0  I b i d . , p. h20.  2  C o r t a z a r , Rayuela, p. 5^0.  2 2  2 3  I b i d . , p. 3 2 . D e r r i d a , "La Structure l e Signe et l e Jeu", p. lj-23.  I b i d . , C F . p. h23.  2 i +  2 5  I b i d . , C F . p. 1+25.  26  C o r t a z a r , Rayuela, pp. 2 9 1 - 2 9 2 .  2 7  I b i d . , p. 31.  2 8  I b i d . , p. 31.  2 9  I b i d . , p. U 2 5 . I b i d . , p. 53^.  3 0  31  Jacques D e r r i d a , " E l l i p s e " , L ' E c r i t u r e et l a D i f f e r e n c e , p. U35•  R o b e r t Brody, J u l i o Cortazar:Rayuela ( C r i t i c a l Guide t o Spanish Texts), Grant and Cutler L i m i t e d , i n ass'n with Tamesis Books L t d . , London, 32  1976, C 33  F. pp. 53-5^.  C o r t a z a r , Rayuela, p. U 3 9 .  3 t t  3 5  I b i d . , p. 1 1 8 . I b i d . , p. 3 5 8 .  3 6  3 7  3 8  I b i d . , p. 5 2 8 .  D e r r i d a , "La S t r u c t u r e , l e Signe et l e Jeu", C F. p. U 2 5 . I b i d . , C. F. p. U 2 6 .  -Interview. with Jacques D e r r i d a , " P o s i t i o n s " , D i a c r i t i c s , 2 , no. h, (Winter 1972), pp. 35-36. 39  ^ C o r t a z a r , Rayuela, p. 2 5 3 . ^ D e r r i d a , "La f i n du l i v r e et l e commencement de l ' e c r i t u r e " De l a Grammatologie, p. l 8 . ^ D e r r i d a , " E l l i p s e " , p. U35 ^ C o r t a z a r , Rayuela, p. U 5 . ^ r b i d . , p. 5U0. t t 5  I b i d . , p. 310.  t + 6  I b i d . , p. 367.  " i b i d . , C F . p. 371. 4 8  I b i d . , p. kOJ.  83 4 9  I b i d . , p.  1+08.  5 0  I b i d . • , p.  1+1+0  5  derrida,  5 2  "La S t r u c t u r e , l e Signe et l e J e u " ,  C. F. p.  1+26.  I b i d . , p.. 1+12  I have a l r e a d y mentioned the p a r a d o x i c a l r e j e c t i o n - c o m p l i c i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p o f w r i t i n g w i t h the h i s t o r y o f metaphysics i n chapter one pp. 1+0-1+1. o f t h i s t h e s i s . P l e a s e check the above r e f e r e n c e I f you wish a more complete development o f the above argument. 5 1 +  Derrida,  "La S t r u c t u r e , l e Signe et l e J e u " , p.  55 De  1+26.  . . .  These d e f i n i t i o n s of presence are d e r i v e d from Jacques l a Grammatologie and L ' E c r i t u r e et l a D i f f e r e n c e .  Derrida's  T h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f absence i s d e r i v e d from Jacques D e r r i d a ' s "La S t r u c t u r e , l e Signe et l e Jeu dans l e D i s c o u r s des S c i e n c e s Humaines". 5 6  v  57  Jacques D e r r i d a , "Edmond Jabes et l a Q u e s t i o n du L i v r e " , L ' E c r i t u r e et l a D i f f e r e n c e , p. 1 0 8 . 58 Jacques D e r r i d a , l a D i f f e r e n c e , p. 6 8 . 59  "Cogito  et H i s t o i r e de l a F o l i e " , L ' E c r i t u r e et  62  Ibid,.,, p.  60  Jacques D e r r i d a , CF.  "La P a r o l e  S o u f f l e e " , L ' E c r i t u r e et l a D i f f e r e n c e ,  26l.  p. 6 1  Ibid. , CF.  6 2  I b i d . , p.  6 3  Derrida,  6 4  Cortazar,  6 5  Derrida,  6 6  Cortazar,  6 7  Derrida,  p.  290.  291. "Cogito  et H i s t o i r e de l a F o l i e " , p.  R a y u e l a, "Cogito  p.268.  et H i s t o i r e de l a F o l i e " , C. F. p.  R a y u e l a , p. "Cogito  97.  80.  558.  et H i s t o i r e de  la Folie", CF.  p.  85.  J . L . Houbedine and Guy S c a r p e t t a , " P o s i t i o n s : I n t e r v i e w w i t h D i a c r i t i c s , 2 , No. h. (Winter 1 9 7 2 ) , p.36. 5 8  6 9  Cortazar,Rayuela,  CF.  Derrida','  p. 1+19•  70 Jacques D e r r i d a , "La D i f f e r a n c e " , Marges de l a P h i l o s o p h i e , E d i t i o n s de M i n u i t , P a r i s , 1 9 7 2 , p . l 8 .  Les  7  derrida,  7 2  7 3  "La S t r u c t u r e , l e Signe et l e J e u " , p.  C o r t a z a r , R a y u e l a , p.  1+27.  15.  I b i d ., p. 1+39..  7 4  Derrida,  "La S t r u c t u r e , l e Signe e t l e J e u " , pp.  7 5  C o r t a z a r , R a y u e l a , p.  7 6  I b i d . , p.  5^0.  596.  1+27  85  CHAPTER I I I  CORTAZAR, DERRIDA AND THE EXIT FROM THE TEXT  As a p a r a b l e o f w r i t i n g , Rayuela q u e s t i o n s t h e meaning o f meaning, the  engendering o f meaning, o r t h e c o n d i t i o n s which render p o s s i b l e t h e  e x i t o f sense from t h e t e x t . Rayuela i s based upon O l i v e i r a - M o r e i l l i - C o r t a z a r ' s d e s i r e t o f i n d a way out o f t h e c o n f i n e s o f b i n a r y r e a s o n i n g o r language, i n t o a c l e a r i n g or  analagous c o n s c i o u s n e s s capable o f embracing t h e i n t e r n a l essence o f  t h i n g s which elude language.  We saw i n c h a p t e r s one and two t h a t  O l i v e i r a ' s journey toward a u t h e n t i c i t y o r s e l f - d i s c o v e r y p a r o d i e s t h e c o n d i t i o n s which permit t h e i n f i n i t e movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e t e x t w i t h i n t h e c l o s u r e o f a f i n i t e ensemble. suspended for  O l i v e i r a appears t o remain  i n a l a b y r i n t h o f h i s own c r e a t i o n , o r a never-ending s e a r c h  a u t h e n t i c i t y which p a r a o d i e s t h e i n e s c a p a b l e l a b y r i n t h o f s i g n i f i -  c a t i o n s engendered  by t h e movement o f t h e book, d e s c r i b e d by D e r r i d a i n  "Ellipse": "Le l i v r e e s t l e l a b y r i n t h e . Tu c r o i s en s o r t i r , t u t ' y enfonces.. Tu n'a aucune chance de t e sauver. I I t e f a u t d e t r u i r e 1'ouvrage. Tu ne peux t ' y r e s o u d r e . J e note l a l e n t e , mais sure montee de t o n a n g o i s s e . Mur apres mur. Au bout qui t ' a t t e n d ? - Personne...Ton nom s ' e s t r e p l i e sur soi-meme..." 1  Although escape from t h e l a b y r i n t h o f t h e book appears t o be i m p o s s i b l e , C o r t a z a r and D e r r i d a b o t h d e s i g n a t e an opening o r e x i t from t h e t e x t V Chapter s i x t y - s i x o f Rayuela- d e s c r i b e s t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f M o r e i l l i ' s u n f i n i s h e d hook, c o n s i s t i n g o f a s i n g l e sentence r e p e a t e d t h e l e n g t h o f the  page: "En e l fondo s a b i a que no se puede i r mas a l i a porque no l o  hay."  2  C o r t a z a r e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e r e p e a t e d sentence appears t o s i g n i f y  86 a w a l l o f words b e h i n d which t h e r e i s n o t h i n g .  An a t t e n t i v e o b s e r v e r ,  however, would be capable o f n o t i c i n g t h a t one word i s m i s s i n g , and through t h i s h o l e , the l i g h t from beyond p a s s e s : P r o y e c t a uno de l o s muchos f i n a l e s de su l i b r o i n c o n c l u s o , y d e j a una maqueta. La p a g i n a c o n t i e n e una s o l a f r a s e : "en e l fondo s a b i a que no se puede i r mas a l i a porque no l o hay." La f r a s e se r e p i t e a l o l a r g o de t o d a l a p a g i n a , dando l a i m p r e s i o n de un muro, de un impedimiento. No hay puntos n i comas n i margenes. De hecho un muro de p a l a b r a s i l u s t r a n d o e l s e n t i d o de l a f r a s e , e l choque c o n t r a una b a r r e r a d e t r a s de l o c u a l no hay nada. Pero h a c i a a b a j o , y a l a derecha, en una de l a s f r a s e s f a l t a ' l a p a l a b r a l o . Un o j o s e n s i b l e descubre e l hueco e n t r e l o s l a d r i l l o s , l a l u z que p a s a . 3  In t h i s manner, C o r t a z a r suggests t h a t w r i t i n g i s a seemingly  closed  system which has an opening w i t h i n i t s e l f onto another r e a l i t y beyond i t s e l f .  possibly  S i m i l a r l y , D e r r i d a - e l u c i d a t i n g Edmond Jabes - comments  t h a t the e x i t from the book has i t s t h r e s h o l d i n the book: "On.dit l a s o r t i e hors du l i v r e , on d i t l ' a u t r e et l e s e u i l dans l e l i v r e . "  4  D e r r i d a e x p l a i n s t h a t w r i t i n g i s both an opening and a c l o s i n g : a nonsymmetrical d i v i s i o n d e s i g n a t i n g on the one hand the c l o s u r e o f the book, and on the o t h e r hand^ the opening o f the t e x t : I c i ou l a , nous avons d i s c e r n e l ' e c r i t u r e : un partage sans symetrie d e s s i n a i t d'un c o t e l a c l o t u r e du l i v r e , de 1'autre 1'ouverture du t e x t e . D',un c o t e 1' e n c y c l o p e d i e t h e o l o g i q u e et sur son modele, l e l i v r e de l'homme. De l ' a u t r e un t i s s u de t r a c e s marquant l a d i s p a r i t i o n d'un Dieu excede ou d'un homme e f f a c e ^ La q u e s t i o n de l ' e c r i t u r e ne p o u v a i t s ' o u v r i r qu'a l i v r e f e r m e . 5  The one book o f Rayuela c o n t a i n i n g two books w i t h i n i t s e l f p a r o d i e s w r i t i n g as b o t h an opening and a c l o s i n g : the f i r s t book - t e r m i n a t i n g i n O l i v e i r a ' s death - evokes the c l o s u r e o f the book; whereas the second book - ending w i t h O l i v e i r a ' s pledge t o d e d i c a t e h i m s e l f t o a new founded on w r i t i n g - r e p r e s e n t s the opening o f the t e x t .  career  For both  87 C o r t a z a r and D e r r i d a , t h e c l o s u r e i s an opening: as e x p l a i n e d i n chapters one and. two o f t h i s t h e s i s , t h e c l o s i n g o f t h e hook as t h e death o f speech o r t h e r u p t u r e w i t h a c e n t r a l s i g n i f i e d e f f e c t s t h e opening o f the f r e e p l a y o f t h e t e x t .  6  D e r r i d a e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e e x i t from t h e book i s through d i f f e r e n c e , which occurs as a r e s u l t o f r e p e t i t i o n . r e d o u b l i n g pronounces n o n c l o s u r e ,  The r e t u r n t o t h e book through  as r e p e t i t i o n e f f e c t s a l o s s o f o r i g i n  which a l l o w s t h e book t o become a movement o f i n f i n i t e r e f l e c t i o n on itself.  The r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e book doubles t h e c l o s u r e o f t h e book, and  between t h e i m p e r c e p t i b l e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two c l o s u r e s , meaning emerges from t h e t e x t : Des l o r s que l e c e r c l e t o u r n e , que l e volume s'enroule sur lui-meme, que l e l i v r e se r e p e t e , son i d e n t i t e a s o i a c c u e i l l e une i m p e r c e p t i b l e d i f f e r e n c e q u i nous permet de s o r t i r e f f i c a c e m e n t , rigoureusement, c ' e s t a - d i r e discretement de l a c l o t u r e . En redoublant l a c l o t u r e du l i v r e , on l a dedouble. On l u i echappe a l o r s f u r t i v e m e n t e n t r e deux passages par l e meme l i v r e , p a r l a meme l i g n e , s e l o n l a meme b o u c l e . . . . L e r e t o u r au l i v r e est 1'abandon du l i v r e , i l s ' e s t g l i s s e e n t r e Dieu et Dieu, l e L i v r e e t l e L i v r e , dans l ' e s p a c e neutre de l a s u c e s s i o n , dans l e suspens de 1 ' i n t e r v a l l e . Le r e t o u r a l o r s ne reprend pas p o s s e s s i o n . I I ne se r e a p p r o p i e pas l ' o r i g i n e . C e l l - c i n'est p l u s en elle-meme.... A i n s i entendu, l e r e t o u r au l i v r e e s t d'essence elliptique. Q u e l q u e c h o s e . d ' i n v i s i b l e manque dans l a grammaire de c e t t e r e p e t i t i o n . . . . E t p o u r t a n t t o u t l e sens e s t a l t e r e p a r ce manque. 7  C o r t a z a r i l l u s t r a t e s t h e above premise m e t a p h o r i c a l l y through t h e d u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e book.  As e x p l a i n e d i n chapter two o f t h i s  D e l Lado de Aca may be regarded  thesis,  as a r e d o u b l i n g o r r e p e t i t i o n o f D e l Lado  de A l i a , i n so f a r as t h a t t h e same themes - t h e r e v e r s e p o l a r i t y o f reason and madness, t h e o u t s i d e and t h e i n s i d e , t h e same p a t t e r n o f c h a r a c t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s (groups  o f two which evolve t o a u n i t y o f t h r e e ) ,  and some o f t h e same c h a r a c t e r s ( l a Maga and O l i v e i r a ) o r o t h e r s who  resemble - p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y another c h a r a c t e r book - o c c u r on b o t h s i d e s o f t h e book. e f f e c t s the redoubling  on t h e o p p o s i t e  The r e d o u b l i n g  side o f the  o f t h e book a l s o  o f t h e c l o s u r e o f t h e book: O l i v e i r a i s s e p a r a t e d  from h i s o r i g i n a l e x p e r i e n c e o f l a ' Maga a t t h e end o f D e l Lado de A l i a , and  t h i s separation  r e p e a t s i t s e l f w i t h l a Maga's s p a t i a l image a t t h e  end  o f D e l Lado de A c a .  A f t e r chapter f i f t y - s i x , l a Maga i s no l o n g e r  p r e s e n t i n t h e book. The  d i f f e r e n c e between O l i v e i r a ' s o r i g i n a l e x p e r i e n c e o f l a Maga  i n P a r i s , and h i s secondary e x p e r i e n c e o f her through h e r s u r r o g a t e i n Buenos A i r e s i s t h a t which a l l o w s O l i v e i r a t o escape from- t h e o f her i n f l u e n c e .  Talita  enclosure  Through r e p e t i t i o n , t h e o r i g i n a r y l a Maga i s l o s t i n  the p l a y o f r e f l e c t e d d o u b l e s , and O l i v e i r a i s a b l e t o embark on h i s open movement o f s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n through t h e gap c r e a t e d by l a Maga's absence. D e r r i d a reminds us t h a t t h e opening o f t h e book as r e f l e c t i o n i s an opening without e x i t - t h e book i n f i n i t e l y r e f l e c t i n g on itself'.' l a b y r i n t h o f t h e book e n c l o s e s w i t h i n opens onto  The  i t s e l f a way out' o f i t s e l f , which  itself: Comme i l d e v a i t l ' e t r e , en r e s t a n t o u v e r t , en d i s a n t l a n o n - c l o t u r e , a l a f o i s i n f i n i m e n t ouvert e t ' s e r e f l e c h i s s a n t i n f i n i m e n t s u r l u i - m e m e . . . l i v r e sans cesse entame e t r e p r i s depuis un l i e u q u i n'est n i dans l e l i v r e n i hors du l i v r e , se d i s a n t comme l ' o u v e r t u r e meme q u i e s t r e f l e t sans i s s u e , r e n v o i , r e t o u r e t detour du l a b y r i n t h e . C e l u i - c i e s t un chemin qui enferme en s o i l e s . s o r t i e s hors de s o i , q u i comprend ses p r o p r e s i s s u e s , q u i ouvre lui-meme ses p o r t e s , c ' e s t - a - d i r e , l e s ouvrant s u r lui-meme, se c l o t de penser s a p r o p r e o u v e r t u r e . 8  S i m i l a r l y , O l i v e i r a ' s way out o f t h e p h y s i c a l l a b y r i n t h o f s t r i n g i n t h e mental asylum i s h i s way i n t o t h e s p a t i a l l a b y r i n t h o f w r i t i n g , as t h e book once a g a i n f o l d s over on i t s e l f  i n the Capitulos  prescindibles.  the T a b l e o f I n s t r u c t i o n s t h a t preceeds R a y u e l a , C o r t a z a r  alludes t o  In  the hook as i n f i n i t e r e f l e c t i o n on i t s e l f when he t e l l s the r e a d e r t h a t h i s hook c o n s i s t s o f many hooks: "A su manera e s t e l i b r o es muchos libros. O l i v e i r a ' s desperate plunge  out o f the window i n t o  darkness,  f o l l o w e d by h i s serene r e t u r n t o l i f e p a r o d i e s the w r i t i n g o f the h o l e , t h e chance o f the book - which i s meaning - a l l e g o r i z e d by Edmond  Jabes  i n Le r e t o u r au l i v r e and i n t e r p r e t e d by D e r r i d a i n " E l l i p s e " : "Ce n ' e t a i t qu'un t r o u dans l e mur s i e t r o i t que t u n'a jamais pu t ' y i n t r o d u i r e pour f u i r . Mefiez-vous des demeures. E l l e s ne sont toujours h o s p i t a l i e r e s . "  pas  Etrange s e r e n i t e d'un t e l r e t o u r . Desesperee par l a r e p e t i t i o n , et joyeuse p o u r t a n t d ' a f f i r m e r 1'abime, d ' h a b i t e r l e l a b y r i n t h e en p o e t e , d ' e c r i r e l e t r o u , " l a chance du l i v r e " dans l e q u e l on ne peut que s'enfoncer, qu'on d o i t garder en l e d e t r u i s a n t . A f f i r m a t i o n dansante et c r u e l l e d'une economie d e s e s p e r e e . 9  F o r both C o r t a z a r and D e r r i d a , the chance o f the book as the w r i t i n g o f the h o l e (which i s the c o n c e p t i o n o f meaning) o c c u r s as the descent the o t h e r i n b e i n g .  of  In "Force et S i g n i f i c a t i o n " , D e r r i d a p o s t u l a t e s t h a t  " L ' e c r i t u r e e s t l e moment de c e t t e V a l l e e o r i g i n a i r e d e l ' a u t r e dans 1  l'etre.  Moment de l a profondeur  a u s s i comme d e c h e a n c e . "  10  The meetings  between l a Maga and O l i v e i r a i n Rayuela parody the d e s c e n t . o f the o t h e r i n being.  As e x p l a i n e d i n c h a p t e r one, l a Maga p e r s o n i f i e s b e i n g as  presence.  In D e l Lado de Aca, O l i v e i r a becomes the " o t h e r " i n so f a r  t h a t he m a n i f e s t s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f madness, which i s the i n n e r r e a l i t y o f d i s c o u r s e and r e a s o n .  1 1  When O l i v e i r a makes l o v e w i t h l a Maga,  and when he jumps out o f the window o f the mental asylum i n o r d e r t o meet w i t h her s p a t i a l image on the hopscotch  c h a r t below, h i s a c t i o n s parody  90 l u d i c r o u s l y the descent o f the o t h e r i n b e i n g . awareness and the e l e c t r i c a l phosphorescences his  fall  The h e i g h t e n e d s t a t e o f O l i v e i r a experiences a f t e r  symbolize meaning as the product o f the f r i c a t i o n o f the o t h e r i n  being. D e r r i d a e x p l a i n s t h a t meaning becomes what i t i s by from i t s e l f :  differing  "Le sens d o i t a t t e n d r e d'§tre d i t ou e c r i t pour s ' h a b i t e r  lui-meme e t d e v e n i r ce qu'a d i f f e r e r de s o i i l e s t : l e s e n s . "  In h i s  1 2  h e i g h t e n e d s t a t e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s a f t e r h i s f a l l , O l i v e i r a p e r s o n i f i e s the sense o f w r i t i n g as d i f f e r i n g  from i t s e l f i n so f a r as t h a t he  now  m a n i f e s t s a human warmth t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t from h i s p r e v i o u s l y c o l d , r a t i o n a l , emotional  state.  D e r r i d a proposes  t h a t meaning o r the secondary  e x p e r i e n c e o f the  t e x t p r e s e n t s i t s e l f as such a t the moment'that'the o t h e r i s t h e r e ; the other who  m a i n t a i n s b o t h the v i g i l and the back and f o r t h motion,  the  i r r e d u c i b l e work between r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g : ...1'experience'de s e c o n d a r i t e ne t i e n t - e l l e pas a ce redoublement etrange par l e q u e l l e sens c o n s t i t u e e c r i t - se donne comme l u , prealablement ou simultanement, ou 1'autre e s t l a q u i v e i l l e et rend i r r e d u c t i b l e l ' a l l e r et r e t o u r , l e t r a v a i l - e n t r e l ' e c r i t u r e e t l a lecture?  1 3  L i k e the " o t h e r " a l l u d e d t o by D e r r i d a , O l i v e i r a has m a i n t a i n e d both, the vigil  (the never-ending  quest f o r a u t h e n t i c i t y ) and the back and  motion between h i s p a s t h i s t o r y and pure s u r f a c e ( w r i t i n g ) ,  1 L +  forth  Oliviera's  r e a l i z a t i o n o f genuine human emotions i n D e l Lado: de Aca" ( e s p e c i a l l y his  fall  after  out of the window) p a r o d i e s the o t h e r as t h e r e , or the p r e s e n -  t a t i o n o f meaning, i n so f a r as t h a t h i s i r r a t i o n a l e m o t i o n a l  interior  s u r f a c e s , and c o u n t e r b a l a n c e s h i s former o v e r - r e l i a n c e on r e a s o n ; a s i t u a t i o n which evokes the movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n o f w r i t i n g away .  91 from the e x t e r n a l conventions o f l o g o s towards an i n n e r r e a l i t y  (the o t h e r )  which preceeded l o g o s ; meaning o c c u r r i n g a t the moment t h a t these forces  two  interact. D e r r i d a p o s t u l a t e s t h a t sense r e a l i z e s i t s e l f  i n the  interval  between absence  and p r e s e n c e , h i s t o r y and pure s u r f a c e , self-knowledge  self-discovery:  "Le sens n'est n i avant n i apres l ' a c t e . "  1 5  and  In "Ontolo-  g i c a l F a b u l a t i o n " , S a r a C a s t r o - K l a r e n s suggests t h a t the o b j e c t i v e o f C o r t a z a r ' s w r i t i n g i s " t o ' s e e ' o r l i v e the t e x t as the i n t e r v a l i n which meaning becomes m a n i f e s t . " acknowledges Mallarme's  1 6  She notes t h a t i n U l t i m o Round, C o r t a z a r  work on the t h e o r y t h a t meaning r e s i d e s i n the  a r t i c u l a t i o n s o f what i s betweeen the s i g n s , i n the gaps and c r e a t e d by t h e m . between absence  1 7  In R a y u e l a , the s u s t a i n e d s u s p e n s i o n o f O l i v e i r a  and p r e s e n c e , h i s t o r y and pure s u r f a c e ,  and s e l f - d i s c o v e r y demonstrates writing. In  intervals  self-knowledge  m e t a p h o r i c a l l y the p o s i t i o n o f sense i n  1 8  R a y u e l a , C o r t a z a r i s concerned not o n l y w i t h the engendering  meaning or the e x i t o f sense from the t e x t i t s e l f , but a l s o w i t h how r e a d e r p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the meaning o f the t e x t , and c o n s e q u e n t l y , how r e a d e r e x i t s from the t e x t .  C o r t a z a r attempts  of  the the  t o i n v o l v e the r e a d e r  a c t i v e l y i n the book and make him a w r i t e r - a c c o m p l i c e , and'consequently, a protagonist-accomplice: P o s i b i l i d a d t e r c e r a : l a de hacer d e l l e c t o r un c o m p l i c e , un camarada de camino. Simultaneizarlo, puesto que l a l e c t u r a a b o l i r a e l tiempo d e l l e c t o r y lo trasladera, a l d e l autor. A s i , e l l e c t o r podria l l e g a r a s e r c o p a r t i c i p e y c o p a d i c i e n t e de l a e x p e r i e n c i a por l a que pasa e l n o v e l i s t a , en e l mismo momento y en l a misma forma....da ( a l l e c t o r ) como una f a c h a d a , con p u e r t a s y ventanas d e t r a s de l a s c u a l e s se e s t a operando un m i s t e r i o que e l l e c t o r complice debera b u s c a r (de a h i l a c o m p l i c i d a d ) y q u i z a no e n c o n t r a r a (de a h i e l c o p a d i c i m i e n t o ) . Lo que e l a u t o r de esa n o v e l a haya  l o g r a d o p a r a s i mismo, se r e p e t i r a (agigantandose, y eso s e r i a m a r a v i l l o s o ) en e l l e c t o r c o m p l i c e .  quiza,  1 9  D e r r i d a suggests t h a t because i t s f o r e t h o u g h t  (or the i n p u t . o f t h e  r e a d e r ) cannot be p r e d i c t e d , the a c t o f r e a d i n g makes a h o l e i n the a c t o f w r i t i n g , and i t i s through t h i s h o l e t h a t t h e r e a d e r escapes:  "Parce  qu'on  ne peut p r e v e n i r sa prevenance, l ' a c t e de l e c t u r e t r o u e l ' a c t e de p a r o l e ou d ' e c r i t u r e .  Par ce t r o u , j e m'echappe a moi-meme."  C o r t a z a r ' s attempt  20  Although  t o induce t h e r e a d e r i n t o a s t a t e o f c o m p l i c i t y and  c o - s u f f e r i n g w i t h the w r i t e r appears  t o advocate  e n t r a p p i n g the r e a d e r i n  the t e x t r a t h e r than a l l o w i n g him t o escape through h i s own a more c a r e f u l examination C o r t a z a r ' s r e a d e r escapes  experience,  o f C o r t a z a r ' s t h e o r i e s on w r i t i n g r e v e a l s t h a t from the t e x t by a r o u t e v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t  suggested by D e r r i d a above.-  M o r e i l l i - C o r t a z a r e x p l a i n s t h a t he  attempts  t o induce t h e r e a d e r i n t o the w r i t e r ' s s t a t e i n o r d e r t h a t the r e a d e r e x p e r i e n c e what the w r i t e r succeeded  i n for himself.  Moreilli  can  suggests  t h a t w r i t i n g sketches a mandala (or l a b y r i n t h ) a t the same time t h a t i t a l l o w s the w r i t e r t o escape from i t : A s i por l a e s c r i t u r a b a j o a l v o l c a n , me a c e r c o a .las Madres, me conecto c o n . e l Centro - sea l o que sea. E s c r i b i r es d i b u j a r mi mandala y a l a v e z recorrerlo. 2 1  In l i k e manner, C o r t a z a r e x p l a i n s i n "Del cuento breve y.sus  alrededores"  t h a t the author e x o r c i s e s h i m s e l f from h i s o b s e s s i o n - which i s the work through the a c t o f w r i t i n g : ....en c u a l q u i e r cuento breve memorable se p e r c i b e esa p o l a r i z a c i o n , como s i e l a u t o r h u b i e r a q u e r i d o desprenderse l o antes p o s i b l e y l a manera mas a b s o l u t a de su c r i a t u r a e x o r c i s a n d o l a en l a u n i c a forma que l e e r a dado h a c e r l o : e s c r i b i e n d o l o . . . , d e su c a p a c i d a d de t r a n s v a s a r l a o b s e s i o n dependia e l r e g r e s o a c o n d i c i o n e s mas t o l e r a b l e s . 2 2  93 Assuming t h a t C o r t a z a r does succeed accomplice  i n Rayuela, then  the r e a d e r ' s  exit  i n i n d u c i n g t h e r e a d e r t o become h i s  C o r t a z a r ' s exorcism  from t h e book i s a l s o  from t h e book..  On t h e l e v e l o f meaning i t s e l f ,  C o r t a z a r - M o r e i l l i proposes opening  up t h e c l o s e d o r d e r o f t h e n o v e l through i r o n y , c e a s e l e s s incongruency,  self-criticism,  and i m a g i n a t i o n i n t h e s e r v i c e o f no-one:  Como todas l a s c r i a t u r a s de e l e c c i o n d e l O c c i d e n t e , l a n o v e l a se c o n t e n t a con un orden c e r r a d o . Resueltamente en c o n t r a , b u s c a r tambien aqui l a a p e r t u r a y p a r a eso c o r t a r de r a i z t o d a c o n s t r u c c i o n s i s t e m a t i c a de c a r a c t e r e s y s i t u a c i o n e s . Metodo: l a i r o n i a , l a a u t o c r i t i c a incesante, l a incongruencia, l a i m a g i n a c i o n a l s e r v i c i o de n a d i e . 2 3  For t h e r e a d e r and w r i t e r , C o r t a z a r p e r c e i v e s l a u g h t e r o r t h e joke as a means o f t u n n e l i n g out o f , o r e s c a p i n g  from t h e l a b y r i n t h o f t h e book:'  " . . . l a r i s a e l l a s o l a ha cavado mas t u n e l e s u t i l e s que todas de l a t i e r r a . "  2 4  Harss and Dohmann suggest  dimensions i s t h e key t o Rayuela . guard, p e n e t r a t e h i s d e f e n s e s , Part o f the e f f e c t  l a s lagrimas  that "laughter, i n a l l i t s  I t s aim i s t o c a t c h t h e r e a d e r o f f  and s e t . o f f u n c o n t r o l l a b l e r e f l e x e s . . . .  (Cortazar) achieves  i n h i s best  scenes i s t h e r e s u l t  o f t h e enormous d i s t a n c e t h a t e x i s t s between: t h e n a r r a t i v e s u r f a c e , and the u n d e r l y i n g r e a l i t y i t e n c l o s e s and encompasses. occurs: p a r a l l e l l i n e s i n t e r s e c t . a l r e a d y noted  At moments, a meeting  There i s a b u r s t o f l i g h t . "  2 5  We  i n chapter two t h a t C o r t a z a r compares t h e i r r e c o n c i l i a b i l i t y  o f t h e two w o r l d s which e n t e r d i s c o u r s e - t h a t o f joyous o f a n o s t a l g i c t u r n i n g toward a l o s t  f r e e p l a y and t h a t  c e n t e r - t o a j o k e : "Dos mundos d i s -  t a n t e s , a j e n o s , c a s i siempre i n c o n c i l i a b l e s , e n t r a n en n u e s t r a s p a l a b r a s , y como de comun acuerdo, nace l a b u r l a . "  2 6  In R a y u e l a , l a u g h t e r i s t h e erup-  t i o n o f t h e i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f two l e v e l s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  I n an i n t e r v i e w  r e c o r d e d by Harss and Dohmann, C o r t a z a r e x p l a i n s t h a t "There's a t e r r i b l e  9^ paradox i n b e i n g  a w r i t e r , a man  It.'s^.a k i n d o f s u i c i d e . " t a s k he  2 7  o f words, and  Cortazar  s e t s h i m s e l f by l a u g h i n g  f i g h t i n g against  escapes from the  at h i m s e l f .  Cortazar  words.  insurmountable acknowledges the  joke which pervades R a y u e l a when he p o i n t s out t h e r i d i c u l o u s n e s s  of  M o r e i l l i ' s attempts t o r e a l i z e an a u t h e n t i c  language t h a t would do away  w i t h the l o g i c a l a r t i c u l a t i o n s o f d i s c o u r s e  (the l a t t e r b e i n g  c r i t i c i s m on the p a r t o f C o r t a z a r ,  as M o r e i l l i i s C o r t a z a r ) :  de sus l e c t o r e s (y p a r a e l mismo) r e s u l t a b a i r r i s o r i a e s c r i b i r una del  especie  discurso."  2 8  de n o v e l a p r e s c i n d i e n d o  self"Para algunos  l a intencion  de  de l a s a r t i c u l a c i o n e s l o g i c a s  D e r r i d a e x p l a i n s t h a t even though t h e h i g h e s t  objective  o f l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m i s t o embrace the  f o r c e and movement which d i s p l a c e s  the l i n e s o f the t e x t , c r i t i c i s m i s not  a b l e t o exceed i t s e l f t o  p o i n t , as comprehending the  this  s t r u c t u r e o f a f o r c e i s t o l o s e meaning  by  finding i t : Comprendre l a s t r u c t u r e d'un d e v e n i r , l a forme d'une f o r c e , c ' e s t p e r d r e l e sens en l e gagnant. Le sens du d e v e n i r et de l a f o r c e , dans l e u r pure et propre q u a l i t e , c ' e s t l e repos du commencement et de l a f i n , l a p a i x d'un s p e c t a c l e , h o r i z o n ou v i s a g e . En ce repos et en c e t t e p a i x , l a q u a l i t e du d e v e n i r et de l a f o r c e est o f f u s q u e e par l e sens meme. 29  By  a t t e m p t i n g a l i t e r a t u r e t h a t w i l l comprehend b o t h the b i n a r y  o f language and the  essence o f t h i n g s t h a t eludes i t , C o r t a z a r - M o r e i l l i -  O l i v e i r a attempts t o express the In o r d e r  to release himself  Cortazar bursts by l a u g h i n g  f o r c e o f the work w i t h i n the work  from t h i s i n s u p e r a b l e ,  out l a u g h i n g .  at the w r i t e r - and  s e r i o u s l y - and the  reasoning  paradoxical  problem,  In t u r n , the r e a d e r escapes from the hook a l s o at h i m s e l f  c r i t i c laughs at the  f o r t a k i n g the  f u t i l i t y o f h i s own  writer  attempt t o  f i n d an e x i t from the problem f o r b o t h t h e w r i t e r and t h e r e a d e r . interview,  Cortazar  comments:  itself.  In  an  95 ...I want t o s t r e s s t h a t a t bottom I don't f i g h t a g a i n s t words as a whole or i n essence. I fight a g a i n s t a c e r t a i n usage, a language t h a t I t h i n k has been f a l s i f i e d , debased, made t o s e r v e i g n o b l e ends. I t ' s a b i t l i k e the a c c u s a t i o n - a mistaken a c c u s a t i o n , i t t u r n e d out t o be f i n a l l y - t h a t was brought up a g a i n s t the s o p h i s t s i n t h e i r day. Of c o u r s e , I have t o f i g h t by means o f words themselves. That's why R a y u e l a , from a s t y l i s t i c p o i n t o f view, i s very badly w r i t t e n . There's even a p a r t ( c h a p t e r 75) where the language s t a r t s t o become v e r y e l e g a n t . O l i v e i r a remembers h i s p a s t l i f e i n Buenos A i r e s and does so i n a p o l i s h e d , h i g h l y c h i s e l e d language. I t ' s an episode t h a t ' s w r i t t e n f u s s i n g over every word, u n t i l , a f t e r about h a l f a page, suddenly O l i v e i r a breaks out laughing. He's r e a l l y been watching h i m s e l f a i r the time i n the m i r r o r . So then he takes h i s s h a v i n g cream and s t a r t s t o draw l i n e s and shapes on the m i r r o r , making f u n o f h i m s e l f . I t h i n k t h i s scene f a i r l y w e l l sums up what the book i s t r y i n g t o d o . 3 0  J u s t as O l i v e i r a b u r s t s out l a u g h i n g a t t h e p r e t e n t i o u s , " w r i t t e n " he uses t o d e s c r i b e h i s p a s t l i f e ,  C o r t a z a r laughs a t h i s own  style  contrived  attempts t o produce an a u t h e n t i c e x p r e s s i o n : many o f the d e v i c e s C o r t a z a r Oliveira utilizes  i n Rayuela t o evoke the essence which  eludes language  -  word games, e t y m o l o g i e s , i n v e n t e d words, the combination o f o p p o s i t e s , the  s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r s and events on one a n o t h e r , stream o f  c o n s c i o u s n e s s passages, an i n v i t a t i o n t o the r e a d e r t o jump from c h a p t e r to c h a p t e r i n o r d e r t o e x p e r i e n c e second-hand  the c r e a t i v e l e a p o f the  author from v i s i o n t o words - r e v e a l themselves t o be as pondered  (and hence c o u n t e r f e i t ) as the t r a d i t i o n a l n o v e l i s t i c  which C o r t a z a r p u r p o r t s t o d i s t a i n as f a l s i f i e d and The  techniques  debased.  exorcism o f the w r i t e r and t h e r e a d e r .from the book o c c u r s  through language specific  deliberate,  itself.  Harss and Dohmann' suggest t h a t  "language has a  f u n c t i o n i n Rayuela: t o t a l k the problem out u n t i l i t has been  exhausted, or a n n u l l e d - or e x o r c i s e d . "  3 1  Every hypothesis of O l i v e i r a -  M o r e i l l i - C o r t a z a r c o n c e r n i n g an a u t h e n t i c language  i s t e s t e d , and then  96 discarded  as a f a i l u r e :  as p r e v i o u s l y e x p l a i n e d  attempts t o r e a c h a c e n t e r  e f f e c t his irrevocahle separation  M o r e i l l i ' s attempts t o negate the matter i n t o s p i r i t  i n c h a p t e r two,  falsity  from a  o f e x t e r n a l l o g i c by  c o n s t i t u t e the t o t a l l o s s o f meaning and  Oliveira's center;  reducing  signification,  r a t h e r than i t s opening. L i k e D e r r i d a , O l i v e i r a - C o r t a z a r concludes t h a t the w r i t e r i s unable t o d e s c r i b e the because t h e r e  f o r c e o f the work, or the i n t e r v a l i n which meaning r e s i d e s ,  are no words f o r a m a t e r i a l between word and pure v i s i o n :  y .en ese i n s t a n t e se l o que soy porque e s t o y exactamente sabiendo l o que no soy (eso que i g n o r a r e l u e g o astutamente). Pero no hay p a l a b r a s p a r a una m a t e r i a e n t r e p a l a b r a y v i s i o n p u r a , como un bloque de e v i d e n c i a . Imposible o b j e c t i v a r , p r e c i s a r esa d e f e c t i v i d a d que aprendi en e l i n s t a n t e y que e r a c l a r a a u s e n c i a ,o claro:. e r r o r o c l a r a i n s u f i . c i e n c i a . . .  3 2  In "Force et S i g n i f i c a t i o n " , D e r r i d a e x p l a i n s t h a t o n l y pure absence can  i n s p i r e , and  i t i s f o r t h i s reason t h a t one  the  i n v i s i b l e i n t e r i o r o f p o e t i c freedom t h a t i s absence, i f one  grasp the o p e r a t i o n proximity.  of c r e a t i v e imagination  itself,  takes on meaning and  toward i s to  at i t s c l o s e s t p o s s i b l e  Upon t h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f n o t h i n g ,  t h i n g enriches  must t u r n o n e s e l f  a l l c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f some-  shape by  Meaning as pure absence becomes t a n g i b l e o n l y by  d i f f e r i n g from  d i f f e r i n g from  it.  3  itself.  In Rayuela, O l i v e i r a p e r s o n i f i e s the w r i t e r , the r e a d e r and the t e x t i t s e l f who  t u r n themselves toward absence i n o r d e r t o e x p e r i e n c e meaning.  M o r e i l l i - C o r t a z a r explains that  sometimes the m i s s i n g  important ones, as the r e a d e r must complete the  l i n e s are the most  figure with his  imagination: E l l i b r o d e b i a s e r como esos d i b u j o s que proponen l o s p s i c o l o g o s de l a G e s t a l t , y a s i c i e r t a s l i n e a s i n d u c i r i a n a l observador a t r a z a r imaginativamente l a s que c e r r a b a n l a f i g u r a . Pero a veces l a s l i n e a s ausentes eran l a s mas i m p o r t a n t e s , l a s ' u n i c a s que  own  3  97 realmente  contahan.  3 4  A l t h o u g h C o r t a z a r does not e x p l a i n why t h e m i s s i n g l i n e s are t h e most important ones, we may complete h i s argument w i t h some o f D e r r i d a ' s post u l a t e s , and suggest t h a t  i t i s t h e r e a d e r ' s completion.iof  the missing  l i n e s - h i s c o m p l i c i t y w i t h absence - t h a t p r e c i p i t a t e s meaning as absence differing..from i t s e l f ,  a t t h e same time t h a t t h e r e a d e r ' s i n p u t  the  act o f w r i t i n g i t s e l f ,  the  opening o f h i s own  and a l l o w s him t o e x i t from t h e t e x t  pierces through  creation.  In t h i s c h a p t e r we summarized t h e c o n d i t i o n s  which permit t h e e x i t  o f sense from t h e t e x t , and then a n a l y z e d Rayuela as an a l l e g o r i c a l exp r e s s i o n ...of t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s .  We a l s o examined t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f an  e x i t f o r t h e w r i t e r and r e a d e r from t h e l a b y r i n t h o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e t ext. The is  t e x t , f o r b o t h C o r t a z a r and D e r r i d a ,  comprehends a c l o s i n g which  a l s o an opening o f i n f i n i t e r e f l e c t i o n on i t s e l f :  the r e p e t i t i o n o f  w r i t i n g e f f e c t s t h e c l o s i n g o f t h e book as t h e death o f speech o r t h e l o s s o f an o r i g i n , w h i l e i t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a l l o w s t h e t e x t - i n t h e absence o f a c e n t e r - t o open and r e f l e c t  i n f i n i t e l y on i t s e l f .  The  e x i t o f sense o r meaning from t h e a p p a r e n t l y c l o s e d l a b y r i n t h o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e t e x t o c c u r s through t h e i n t e r v a l o f d i f f e r e n c e , c r e a t e d i n the moment o f r e p e t i t i o n o r r e d o u b l i n g  when t h e book f o l d s over on i t s e l f  i n t h e a c t o f w r i t i n g and r e a d i n g . The  e x o r c i s m o f t h e w r i t e r and t h e r e a d e r from Rayuela o c c u r s  through t h e gap c r e a t e d expectations,  by t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e w r i t e r ' s  and t h e u l t i m a t e  r e a l i t y o f h i s achievement.  g o a l s and  T h i s gap  p a r o d i e s t h e i n t e r v a l which s e p a r a t e s t h e two i r r e c o n c i l i a b l e worlds which enter discourse:  t h e joyous a f f i r m a t i o n o f f r e e p l a y w i t h no t r u t h p r e s e n t  98 v e r s u s the h o p e l e s s , n o s t a l g i c t u r n i n g towards writing previously referred.  a l o s t p r e s e n c e t o which  The r e a d e r and the w r i t e r o f R a y u e l a are  e x p u l s e d from t h e t e x t through t h e i r r e c o g n i t i o n o f the joke i n h e r e n t i n C o r t a z a r ' s s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s i n w r i t i n g the n o v e l - l a u g h t e r b e i n g t h e e r u p t i o n o f the e x c e s s i v e c o u n t e r p o s i t o r y t e n s i o n engendered  from C o r t a z a r -  M o r e i l l i - Q l i v e i r a ' s attempt t o f o r c e language t o exceed i t s own b o u n d a r i e s , and t h e i n n a t e n a t u r e o f language t o p u l l , back toward t h e c o n f i n e s o f l o g o s and the h i s t o r y o f m e t a p h y s i c s , which must be r e c o g n i z e d i n o r d e r f o r language t o be m e a n i n g f u l . D e r r i d a e x p l a i n s t h a t the r e a d e r e x i t s from the t e x t t h r o u g h h i s c o m p l i c i t y with the t e x t : the i n d i v i d u a l input of the reader perforates the a c t o f w r i t i n g , and through t h i s p e r f o r a t i o n , t h e r e a d e r escapes. C o r t a z a r attempted t o c o n s t r u c t Rayuela i n such a manner t h a t the r e a d e r was  o b l i g a t e d t o become a w r i t e r - a c c o m p l i c e .  The doors opening onto the  t e x t which C o r t a z a r attempted t o u n l o c k f o r t h e r e a d e r by f o r c i n g him t o p r o j e c t h i m s e l f i n t o the t e x t are the same doors 'which a l l o w him t o escape from the book and i n t o h i m s e l f .  99  FOOTNOTES Jacques Derrida, " E l l i p s e " , L ' E c r i t u r e et l a D i f f e r e n c e , E d i t i o n s du S e u i l , P a r i s , 196*7, P«U3U. This quotation was o r i g i n a l l y from Le Livre'des Questions by Edmond Jabes. 2  p.  1963,  3  J u l i o Cortazar, Rayuela, E d i t o r i a l Sudamericana, Buenos A i r e s , U25.  I b i d . , p.  U25.  ^Jacques Derrida, "Edmond Jabes et l a Question du L i v r e " , L ' E c r i t u r e et l a D i f f e r e n c e , p. 113. d e r r i d a , " E l l i p s e " , p.  U29.  ^Derrida explains the postulate set f o r t h i n t h i s sentence most s u c c i n c t l y i n "La f i n du l i v r e et l e commencement de l ' e c r i t u r e " (De l a Grammatologie) and i n "La S t r u c t u r e , l e Signe et l e Jeu dans l e Discours des Sciences Humaines" (.L'Ecriture et l a Difference)  10  p.  7  D e r r i d a , " E l l i p s e " , pp. U30-U31.  8  I b i d . , pp.  L33.I1.3U.  9  I b i d . , p.  U3U.  D e r r i d a , "Force et S i g n i f i c a t i o n " , L ' E c r i t u r e et l a D i f f e r e n c e ,  U9.  *In h i s book, Julio'Cortazar:Rayuela, Robert Brody suggests that O l i v e i r a becomes the other i n the second reading of the novel, i n so f a r as that he experiences a profoundly human.reality, or a f u l l range of human s i t u a t i o n s and emotions, which Cortazar perceives as part of the second inner human r e a l i t y . See Robert Brody, J u l i o Cortazar:Rayuela, ( C r i t i c a l Guides to Spanish Texts) , Grant and Cutler Ltd. London, 1976, p. 2k. 1  12  Derrida, "Force et S i g n i f i c a t i o n " , p. I b i d . , p.  1 3  22.  22.  14  See chapter one, p. 39 of t h i s t h e s i s f o r a more complete development of the theme of O l i v e i r a ' s (and w r i t i n g ' s ) v a s c i l l a t i o n between the past and the present. 15  D e r r i d a , "Force et S i g n i f i c a t i o n " , p.  22.  S a r a Castro-Klaren, "Ontological Fabulation". The F i n a l I s l a n d , ed. Jaime A l a z r a k i and Ivar Ivask, U n i v e r s i t y of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1 9 7 9 , 16  P.1U9.  1 7  I b i d . , p. l U 2 .  1 ft  For a more complete development of the theme of O l i v e i r a ' s sustained state of suspension between absence and presence, h i s t o r y and f r e e p l a y , see chapter two of t h i s t h e s i s , e s p e c i a l l y p. 78. C o r t a z a r , Rayuela, pp. - ^ 5 3 - ^ 5 ^ .  19  2 0  D e r r i d a , "La Parole S o u f f l e e " , p. 2 6 5 .  21  Cortazar, Rayuela, p. U58.  22  •Julio Cortazar, "Del cuento breve y sus alrededores", La C a s i l l a de l o s M o r e i l l i , Tusquets E d i t o r , Barcelona, 1973, pp.108-10923  Cortazar, Rayuela, p. U52. of t h i s t h e s i s . 2Lt  This t o p i c was explored i n chapter one  I b i d . , p.  L u i s Harss and Barbara Dohmann, Into the Mainstream, Harper and Row, P u b l i s h e r s , New York , Evanston and London, 1966, p.232. 2 5  26  27  29  30  3 1  D e r r i d a , "Force et S i g n i f i c a t i o n " , p. hh. Harss and Dohmann, Into the Mainstream, p. 23^. I b i d . , p. 233-  C o r t a z a r , Rayuela, p. U62.  33  3  Harss and Dohmann, Into the Mainstream, p. 23^Cortazar, Rayuela, p. h-90.  2  3  C o r t a zar, Rayuela, p. 596.  D e r r i d a , "Force et S i g n i f i c a t i o n " , C F . p. 17-  C o r t a z a r , Rayuela, p. 533-  CONCLUSION In "Edmond Jabes et l a Question du L i v r e " , Jacques Derrida suggests that w r i t i n g simultaneously sketches and recognizes an i n v i s i b l e l a b y r i n t h , a c i t y i n the sand: Sans l e s a v o i r , l ' e c r i t u r e dessine a l a f o i s et reconnait dans l e desert, un l a b y r i n t h e i n v i s i b l e , une v i l l e dans l e s a b l e . " 1  1  In t h i s t h e s i s , I examined how Cortazar's Rayuela, l i k e w r i t i n g  itself,  engenders a l a b y r i n t h of s i g n i f i c a t i o n s as i t simultaneously explains metaphorically or recognizes the forces which give r i s e t o i t . Although Cortazar i s not a philosopher., I attempted to'prove that Rayuela i s an a l l e g o r i c a l expression of a philosophy of w r i t i n g w h i c h ' p a r a l l e l s that of Jacques Derrida, The l a b y r i n t h of s t r i n g s and washbasins which O l i v e i r a constructs i n the f i n a l chapter of the f i r s t reading of the book parodies the l a b y r i n t h of s i g n i f i c a t i o n s which the book or w r i t i n g has sketched as the novel unfolded i t s e l f , and also provides a symbolic synopsis o f the main problems about w r i t i n g which C o r t a z a r - O l i v e i r a - M o r e i l l i attempt t o resolve i n Rayuela.  O l i v e i r a f i n d s i t ' "bastante d i v e r t i d o " t h a t the  washbasins and s t r i n g s should come together at the end of h i s reasoning, and not at the beginning.  He a l s o asks himself which came f i r s t : the  waterbasins or the s t r i n g s : ....todo acababa por encontrarse, era bastante d i v e r t i d o que l a palangana con agua y l o s p i o l i n e s se encontraron a l f i n a l d e l razonamiento y no a l p r i n c i p i o , pero aqui Horacio se permetia conjecturar que e l orden de l o s razonamientos no t e n i a a) que seguir e l tiempo f i s i c o , e l antes y e l despues, y b) que a l o mejor e l razonamiento se habia cumplido inconscientemente para l l e v a r l o de l a nocion de 101  p i o l i n a l a de l a palangana acuosa)....De todas maneras, ique v e n i a p r i m e r o , e l p i o l i n o l a palangana? Como e j e c u c i o n , l a palangana, pero e l p i o l i n habia sido decidido antes. No v a l i a l a pena s e g u i r preocupandose cuando e s t a b a eh juego la vida... 2  J.E. C i r l o t , i n A D i c t i o n a r y o f Symbols, d e f i n e s water as t h e " p r e s e r v e r o f l i f e . . . . t h e b e g i n n i n g and end o f a l l t h i n g s on e a r t h . . . . t h e "fons e t o r i g o " which preceeds  a l l form and a l l c r e a t i o n . "  origin.  i s a r e c e p t a c l e o f water; o r , i f we s u b s t i t u t e f o r  A waterbasin  water i t s symbolic origin.  I n f a c t , water i s t h e  3  s i g n i f i c a n c e , then t h e w a t e r b a s i n  i s the c a r r i e r o f the  Speech, as d e f i n e d by P l a t o i n t h e Phaedrus, i s a l s o t h e c a r r i e r  o f t h e origin,..as: i t i s t h e l i v i n g memory which has a d i r e c t w i t h t h e mind o r t h e f e e l i n g s o f t h e s o u l .  4  connection  Therefore, the waterbasins  which b o r d e r O l i v e i r a ' s s t r i n g l a b y r i n t h r e p r e s e n t speech.  Threads,  a c c o r d i n g t o C i r l o t ' s d e f i n i t i o n , denote "the e s s e n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n between any o f t h e d i f f e r e n t p l a n e s - t h e s p i r i t u a l , t h e b i o l o g i c a l , t h e s o c i a l , etc."  5  L i k e t h e symbolic  between two p l a n e s .  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f threads, w r i t i n g i s the connection  In c h a p t e r s one and two o f t h i s t h e s i s , I e x p l a i n e d  t h a t D e r r i d a and C o r t a z a r p o s i t w r i t i n g i n t h e i n t e r v a l between t h e p h y s i c a l and t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l .  We may deduce, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e s t r i n g s  o r t h r e a d s O l i v e i r a uses t o c o n s t r u c t h i s l a b y r i n t h symbolize  writing.  When O l i v e i r a asks h i m s e l f whether t h e s t r i n g s o r t h e w a t e r b a s i n s  came  f i r s t , he i s q u e s t i o n i n g m e t a p h o r i c a l l y t h e h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f speech t o . w r i t i n g ; a q u e s t i o n a l s o posed by Saussure  i n Cours de L i n g u i s -  t i q u e Generale, and u t i l i z e d by Jacques D e r r i d a t o e x p l a i n t h e o r i g i n o f the concept  of differance.  Saussure  concludes t h a t language i s n e c e s s a r y  i n o r d e r f o r speech t o be i n t e l l i g i b l e , but speech language t o be e s t a b l i s h e d :  i s necessary f o r  103 La langue e s t n e c e s s a i r e pour que l a p a r o l e s o i t i n t e l l i g i b l e , e t p r o d u i s e t o u s ses e f f e t s ; mais c e l l e - c i e s t n e c e s s a i r e pour que l a langue s ' e t a b l i s s e ; h i s t o r i q u e m e n t , l e f a i t de p a r o l e precede t o u j o u r s . ' 6  In l i k e manner, O l i v e i r a concludes t h a t from t h e p o i n t o f view o f e x e c u t i o n , the w a t e r b a s i n s (speech) came f i r s t , - b u t t h e s t r i n g s ( w r i t i n g ) had been decided  previously.  A f t e r commencing c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e l a b y r i n t h ,  however, O l i v e i r a no l o n g e r p r e o c c u p i e s h i m s e l f w i t h t h e temporal  distinc-  t i o n between t h e w a t e r b a s i n s and t h e s t r i n g s , b u t r e g a r d s t h e game, i n which h i s l i f e preoccupations. question  i s at stake,  as t h e p r i o r i t y which t r a n s c e n d s a l l . p r e v i o u s  I n o p t i n g f o r a p o s i t i o n which s i t u a t e s t h e u n r e s o l v a b l e  o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l r e c i p r o c i t y o f speech and w r i t i n g i n o p p o s i t i o n  t o t h e game o r f r e e p l a y o f t h e t e x t which has a r i s e n from t h a t  unresolved  c o n f r o n t a t i o n o f speech and w r i t i n g , O l i v e i r a d u p l i c a t e s t h e p o i n t o f perspective  o f many contemporary p h i l o s o p h i e s  o f w r i t i n g - one o f them  being  t h a t o f Jacques D e r r i d a - which p o s t u l a t e t h a t t h e movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n o f w r i t i n g a r i s e s from t h e f r e e p l a y o f t h e t e x t i t s e l f , r a t h e r than from i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a speech o u t s i d e  itself.  O l i v e i r a expresses s u r p r i s e t h a t t h e s t r i n g s ( w r i t i n g ) and t h e waterbasins  (speech) came t o g e t h e r  a t t h e end o f h i s r e a s o n i n g ,  and n o t a t t h e  b e g i n n i n g ; an a s s e r t i o n which c o n s t i t u t e s a m e t a p h o r i c a l c o n c l u s i o n f o r one  o f t h e main problems e x p l o r e d  by C o r t a z a r  i n Rayuela - t h a t o f t h e  n e c e s s i t y o f t h e book "changing i t s s i g n " i f i t i s t o be compatible w i t h the  d i s r u p t i v e energy o f w r i t i n g i t s e l f .  w r i t i n g and speech were s e p a r a t e d  D e r r i d a and Saussure e x p l a i n t h a t  w i t h i n t h e h i s t o r y o f metaphysics  (which  i s t h e h i s t o r y o f r e a s o n ) as w r i t i n g was r e g a r d e d as t h e "dead l e t t e r " which r e f e r r e d t o a l i v i n g come t o g e t h e r  speech which preceeded i t . W r i t i n g  at t h e end o f r e a s o n i n g ,  and speech  however, ~.as,. D e r r i da;': SL. concept f o f  d i f f e r a n c e breaks down t h e b i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n s between speech and a l l o w them t o f u n c t i o n as accomplices  and'writing,  o f each o t h e r : t h e one becomes  the o t h e r i n d i f f e r a n c e . Whereas t h e movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n o f w r i t i n g was p r e v i o u s l y dependent upon t h e t o t a l i t y o f a s i g n i f i e r which preceeded it  i n accordance w i t h t h e c l a s s i c a l c o n c e p t u a l  o p p o s i t i o n s o f metaphysics  ( s i g n i f i e r - s i g n i f i e d , s e n s i b l e - i n t e l l i g i b l e , writing-speech)  t h e concept  o f d i f f e r a n c e a l l o w s w r i t i n g t o r e f e r t o d i f f e r e n c e i t s e l f without  incor-  p o r a t i n g p o s i t i v e terms t h a t would l i m i t t h e f r e e p l a y o f t h e t e x t . In " L a D i f f e r a n c e " , D e r r i d a e x p l a i n s t h a t w i t h i n a language t h e r e are o n l y d i f f e r e n c e s .  The p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e o f t h e movement o f s i g n i f i -  c a t i o n o f language becomes d i f f e r e n c e i t s e l f :  every concept i n a language  i s i n s c r i b e d i n a c h a i n w i t h i n which i t r e f e r s t o o t h e r concepts by t h e play of d i f f e r e n c e s .  C o r t a z a r ' s Rayuela encarnates  d i f f e r e n c e or the  d i a l e c t i c a l f o r c e s which w r i t i n g b r i n g s i n t o p l a y by means o f i t s b i n a r y c o n s t r u c t i o n , b i n a r y c h a r a c t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , b i n a r y imagery, b i n a r y m i l i e u s , and b i n a r y themes which a l l i l l u s t r a t e t h a t each term o f an o p p o s i t i o n has i t s o r i g i n i n t h e o t h e r : reason  i s the i n t e r i o r i t y o f  madness and madness i s t h e i n t e r i o r i t y o f r e a s o n , t h e p a s t i s i n t h e p r e sent and t h e p r e s e n t life  i s i n t h e p a s t , death i s engendered from l i f e and  i s engendered from d e a t h , absence as madness i s a p r e s e n c e i n r e a s o n ,  and presence becomes absence i n madness.  The a n t a g o n i s t i c - c o m p l i s t i c  r e l a t i o n s h i p r e s u l t i n g 'from- t h e r e v e r s e p o l a r i t y o f a l l s t r u c t u r a l and conceptual  o p p o s i t i o n s i n Rayuela breaks down t h e o p p o s i t i o n between t h e  terms o f t h e d i a l e c t i c which l i m i t s t h e i r movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n , and allows t h e sense o f t h e book t o r e f e r t o " d i f f e r a n c e " i t s e l f .  The p l o t  o f Rayuela i s based on O l i v e i r a ' s s e a r c h f o r a c e n t e r , o r i g i n o r u l t i m a t e meaning t h a t t r a n s c e n d s  the l i m i t a t i o n s o f b i n a r y reasoning.  Although  105 O l i v e i r a does not  succeed i n r e a c h i n g  from d i f f e r e n c e , he sustained  the  c e n t e r o r the u n v a r y i n g mean/free  does succeed i n r e a l i z i n g d i f f e r a n c e , o r a s t a t e  abolishment o f h i m s e l f  a n n i h i l a t i n g the  the  i n h i s antagonist  T r a v e l e r , thereby  s t a t e o f o p p o s i t i o n between them, at the v e r y moment t h a t  s t a t e o f d i f f e r a n c e i t s e l f which they have c r e a t e d  tains i t .  In the  of  same manner t h a t the  i n each o t h e r  concept o f d i f f e r a n c e a l l o w s  suswriting  t o r e f e r t o d i f f e r e n c e i t s e l f without i n c o r p o r a t i n g p o s i t i v e terms or a c e n t e r t h a t would l i m i t the abolishment o f h i m s e l f  f r e e p l a y o f the t e x t , O l i v e i r a ' s s u s t a i n e d  i n T r a v e l e r allows  him  to continue h i s  infinite  movement o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n w i t h o u t l a Maga - h i s i n d i c a t o r o f the present.  O l i v e i r a ' s unending s e a r c h  for s i g n i f i c a t i o n within  " C a p i t u l o s p r e s c i n d i b l e s " o f the book p a r o d i e s bundant n a t u r e o f the  center  -  the  t h e supplementary, s u p e r a -  s i g n i f i e r whose i n f i n i t e , u n r e s o l v e d  movement o f  s i g n i f i c a t i o n r e s u l t s from i t s ; l a c k o f a c e n t e r or a p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e a l a c k which must be  -  supplemented.  I attempted t o i l l u s t r a t e i n t h i s t h e s i s t h a t f o r b o t h C o r t a z a r  and  D e r r i d a , t h e comprehension o f w r i t i n g as a non-centered system i s based a paradox: a l t h o u g h the  d i s r u p t i v e energy o f the  f i e l d of freeplay of  w r i t i n g i s h o s t i l e t o the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by d i v o r c e i t s e l f e n t i r e l y from the its  a center,  i t can  never  concept o f a f u l l p r e s e n c e , as i t has  r o o t s i n the m e t a p h y s i c a l o p p o s i t i o n o f s i g n i f i e r t o s i g n i f i e d .  s t r i n g l a b y r i n t h which O l i v e i r a c o n s t r u c t s  i n the mental asylum i s a  symbolic model o f the a c c o m p l i s t i c - a n t a g o n i s t i c t o speech or a f u l l p r e s e n c e : the  r e l a t i o n s h i p of w r i t i n g  c i r c u m f e r e n c e o f the  ( w r i t i n g ) i s d e f i n e d by the w a t e r b a s i n s (speech); even though the  f i e l d of freeplay of  The  string labyrinth  thereby implying  w r i t i n g i s a l a b y r i n t h of  r e f l e c t i o n on i t s e l f w i t h i n i t s e l f , i t s f i n i t e b o u n d a r i e s are  that  infinite  still  de-  on  io6 terminer! by i t s former r e l a t i o n s h i p t o speech and t h e h i s t o r y o f metaphysics.  Derrida  power d e r i v e d  explains  that  i n order t o maintain both i t s s i g n i f y i n g  from i t s p l a c e w i t h i n  a metaphysical opposition, :  i t s a p h o r i s t i c energy which i s h o s t i l e t o t h i s m e t a p h y s i c a l  and a l s o  opposition,  w r i t i n g must e x i s t i n a s t a t e o f u n r e s o l v e d t e n s i o n between i t s former r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e metaphysics o f p r e s e n c e , and i t s p r e s e n t r e a l i t y as a s i g n without s i g n i f i c a t i o n , a game o r a pure f u n c t i o n n i n g . writing resides ducible  i n the inexpressible  The sense o f  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e two i r r e -  differences. In c h a p t e r two o f t h i s t h e s i s , I e x p l a i n e d  that  C o r t a z a r and D e r r i d a  r e c o g n i z e two i r r e c o n c i l i a h l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f w r i t i n g and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : one  t u r n i n g toward a l o s t , i m p o s s i b l e o r i g i n - t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  w r i t i n g metaphorized by t h e f i r s t book o f Rayuela - and t h e o t h e r a f f i r m i n g t h e f r e e p l a y o f a w o r l d o f s i g n s without t r u t h o r an o r i g i n p r e s e n t - t h e r e n d i t i o n o f w r i t i n g which t h e second r e a d i n g o f R a y u e l a evokes.  C o r t a z a r and D e r r i d a b o t h imply t h a t t h e ever e l u s i v e  o f sense i t s e l f r e s i d e s worlds.  i n t h e i n t e r v a l between t h e s e two i r r e c o n c i l i a h l e  The book o f R a y u e l a , l i k e w r i t i n g i t s e l f ,  toward an o r i g i n a t t h e same time t h a t the  origin.  possibility  i t comprises t h e t u r n i n g  The r e a d e r who reads c o n s e c u t i v e l y  Rayuela e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h i n h i m s e l f  embraces a t u r n i n g away from  books one and two o f  the unresolvable tension  e x i s t i n g be-  tween these two i r r e c o n c i l i a h l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f w r i t i n g , which i s t h e o r i g i n o f w r i t i n g as d i f f e r a n c e i t s e l f . philosophy o f w r i t i n g , Cortazar implies writing i s neither  I n accordance w i t h D e r r i d a ' s i n Rayuela t h a t t h e sense o f  a r e g a i n e d p r e s e n c e n o r a pure absence; n e i t h e r  a f f i r m a t i o n o f h i s t o r y nor a p l a y o f pure s u r f a c e ;  neither  a re-r  r e a s o n n o r ab-  sence; b u t t h e t e n s i o n which i s b o r n from t h e r e v e r s e p o l a r i c i n t e r a c t i o n  107  of  these  opposing  poles.  The p l o t o f Rayuela i s based on  Oliveira's  s e a r c h f o r the c e n t e r , which I i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s as an a l l e g o r y of  t h e movement o f w r i t i n g toward t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f meaning.  Oliveira  never succeeds i n r e a c h i n g a c e n t e r o r o r i g i n , but accepts the p l a y o f d i f f e r e n c e s as h i s u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y . i s never p r e s e n t differences.  in itself  The  In l i k e manner, t h e sense o f w r i t i n g  as such, but o n l y as the d i f f e r e n c e between  r e a d e r o f R a y u e l a never succeeds i n d i s c o v e r i n g an  u l t i m a t e meaning o f the book i t s e l f , but becomes swept up i n the p l a y o f d i f f e r e n c e s which i s the book i t s e l f .  R a y u e l a i s the e n c a r n a t i o n  d i f f e r e n c e s , w i t h i n which sense, r e a l i z e s i t s e l f d i f f e r i n g from  of  as an i n e x p r e s s i b l e  itself.  Whereas D e r r i d a the p h i l o s o p h e r accepts t h e i n t a n g i b l e i n e x p r e s s i bility  o f sense, C o r t a z a r t h e w r i t e r b u r s t s i n t o l a u g h t e r when overwhelmed  by h i s i n a b i l i t y t o express  the i n e x p r e s s i b l e .  L i k e the sense o f w r i t i n g  i t s e l f , however, l a u g h t e r i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y or d i f f e r e n c e between two  l e v e l s of consciousness.  Consequently, the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f R a y u e l a as a parody o f w r i t i n g i s congruous w i t h e x p l i c a t i o n o f R a y u e l a as a p a r a b l e o f w r i t i n g , as the  the  "joke" inherent i n  C o r t a z a r ' s attempts t o r e a l i z e an a u t h e n t i c e x p r e s s i o n i s o n l y one more m a n i f e s t a t i o n i n Rayuela o f the t e n s i o n between i r r e c o n c i l i a b l e ences which i s t h e f i e l d o f f r e e p l a y o f w r i t i n g i t s e l f .  differ-  108  FOOTNOTES  "•Jacques Derrida, "Force et S i g n i f i c a t i o n " , L ' E c r i t u r e et l a D i f f e r e n c e , E d i t i o n s du S e u i l , P a r i s , 196T, p. 105. J u l i o Cortazar, Rayuela, E d i t o r i a l Sudamericana, Buenos A i r e s , p. 380. 2  1963,  J . E. C i r l o t , A D i c t i o n a r y Of Symbols, t r a n s . Jack Sage, P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , New York, 1962, p, 3^5. 3  1967,  ^Jacques Derrida, De l a Grammatologie, E d i t i o n s de M i n u i t , P a r i s , p. 55. 5  C i r l o t , A D i c t i o n a r y of Symbols, p, 323,  Jacques Derrida, "La D i f f e r a n c e " , Marges de l a P h i l o s o p h i e , Les E d i t i o n s de M i n u i t , P a r i s , 1972, p, 12, 6  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY I. Works of J u l i o Cortazar d i r e c t l y relevant to the t h e s i s : Cortazar, J u l i o . La C a s i l l a de l o s M o r e i l l i . Barcelona: Marginales 30, Tusquets E d i t o r , 1973. Cortazar, J u l i o .  Rayuela.  Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l Sudamericana, 196k.  Cortazar, J u l i o . Los reyes. 19^9; Sudamericana, 1970. Cortazar, J u l i o .  Cuadernos '  Ultimo Round.  r p t . Buenos  Aires:Editorial  Mexico: S i g l o XXI Editores  Cortazar, J u l i o . La v u e l t a a l d i a en ochenta mundos. XXI E d i t o r e s , S.A., 1967.  1969.  Mexico: S i g l o  I I . Books, a r t i c l e s and interviews about Cortazar's work: Ed. Jaime A l a z r a k i and Ivar Ivask. The F i n a l I s l a n d . of Oklahoma P r e s s ,  1978.  Norman: -University  The f o l l o w i n g a r t i c l e s i n the above anthology are e s p e c i a l l y relevant to t h i s t h e s i s : A l a z r a k i , Jaime. "Introduction: Toward the Last Square of the Hopscotch". Castro-Klaren, Sara. "Ontological Fabulation: Toward Cortazar's Theory of L i t e r a t u r e " . Gonzalez Echevarria, Roberto. of W r i t i n g " . Rabassa, Gregory. Fiction". Yukievich, Saul.  "Los reyes: Cortazar's Mythology  "Lying to Athena: Cortazar and the A r t of "Eros Ludens: Games, Love and Humour i n Hopscotch".  Barrenechea, Ana M a r i a . "La estructura de Rayuela, de J u l i o Cortazar". L i t t e r a e Hispanae* e t Lusitanae. Ed. Hans Flas'che. Munich: Max Hueber Verlag, 1968, pp.69-8U. Broden, B r i t a . Criaturas F i c t i c i a s y su Mundo en "Rayuela" de J u l i o Cortazar. Sweden: CWK Gleerup, 1975 Brody, Robert. J u l i o Cortazar: Rayuela. C r i t i c a l Guide to Spanish Texts, ed. J.E. Varey and A. D. Deyermond. London: Grant and Cutler L i m i t e d , 1975. 109  110 G a r c i a F l o r e s , M a r g a r i t a . " S i e t e r e s p u e s t a s de J u l i o C o r t a z a r " . R e v i s t a de l a U n i v e r s i d a d de Mexico, 21, No. 7. :(March 1967), pp. 10-13. Fuentes, C a r l o s .  "Rayuela: l a n o v e l a como c a j a de  Pandora".  Mundo Nuevo, 9, No. 9. (March 1967), pp. 67-69. G a r f i e l d . E v e l y n P i c o n . Es J u l i o C o r t a z a r un S u r r e a l i s t a . Madrid: B i b l i o t e c a Romanica H i s p a n i c a , E d i t o r i a l Gredos, 1975. Genover, K a t h l e e n . Claves de una n o v e l i s t i c a e x i s t e n c i a l (en Rayuela de C o r t a z a r ) . Madrid: C o l e c c i o n P l a z a Mayor S c o l a r , 1973. Ed. Helmy F. Giacoman. Homenaje a C o r t a z a r . Company I n c . , 1972.  New  York: L.A.  Publishing  The f o l l o w i n g a r t i c l e s i n the above anthology are e s p e c i a l l y relevant to this thesis: A l e g r i a , Fernando. Copeland, John G.  "Rayuela o e l orden d e l caos". "Las imagenes de Rayuela".  Giacoman, Helmy F.  "Prefacio".  Giordano, E n r i q u e . "Algunas aproximaciones a "Rayuela" de C o r t a z a r , a t r a v e s de l a dinamica d e l juego". Lima. Jose Lezama.  Julio  " C o r t a z a r y e l comienzo de l a o t r a n o v e l a " .  V i l l a n u e v a , Marcelo A l b e r t o . " E l salto hacia adelante, o l a razon de l a s i n r a z o n " . H a r s s , L u i s . a n d Dohmann, B a r b a r a . " J u l i o C o r t a z a r , o r the S l a p i n the Face". Into t h e Mainstream: C o n v e r a t i o n s w i t h L a t i n American W r i t e r s . New York: Evanston and Harper Row P u b l i s h e r s , 1966, pp.206-2^5. K e r r , L u c i l l e ; Gonzalez E c h e v a r r i a , Roberto; G r o s s v o g e l , D a v i d I . ; t r a n s . T r i l l e r , Jonathan. "Interview with J u l i o C o r t a z a r " . D i a c r i t i c s , h, No. k. (Winter 197*0 pp.35-^0. Sosnowski, S a u l . J u l i o C o r t a z a r : una busqueda m i t i c a . E d i c i o n e s Noe, 1973. I I I . Works o f Jacques  Buenos A i r e s :  Derrida:  D e r r i d a , Jacques.  De l a Grammatologie.  D e r r i d a , Jacques.  La D i s s e m i n a t i o n .  P a r i s : E d i t i o n s de M i n u i t ,  P a r i s : E d i t i o n s du S e u i l ,  D e r r i d a , Jacques. L ' E c r i t u r e e t l a D i f f e r e n c e . Seuil, 1967.  Paris: Editions  1972. du  1967.  Ill D e r r i d a , Jacques.  Glas.  Paris:  Editions Galilee,  D e r r i d a , Jacques. La V o i x et l e Phenomene. v e r s i t a i r e s de F r a n c e , 1 9 6 7 .  Paris:  D e r r i d a , Jacques. Marges de l a P h i l o s o p h i e . de M i n u i t , 1 9 7 2 . D e r r i d a , Jacques.  Positions.  Paris:  Paris:  197L. Presses  Uni-  Les. E d i t i o n s  E d i t i o n s de M i n u i t ,  1972.  IV. Works o f Jacques D e r r i d a i n E n g l i s h T r a n s l a t i o n : D e r r i d a , Jacques. Of Grammatology. T r a n s l a t e d and w i t h an by S p i v a k , G a y a t r i .Chakrovorty. B a l t i m o r e and The Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 2 -  Introduction London:  D e r r i d a , Jacques. Speech and Phenomena, and Other E s s a y s on H u s s e r l ' s Theory o f Signs.. T r a n s l a t e d and w i t h an I n t r o d u c t i o n by A l l i s o n , D a v i d B. P r e f a c e d by G a r v e r , Newton. Evanston: Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 2 • D e r r i d a , Jacques. W r i t i n g and D i f f e r e n c e . T r a n s l a t e d and w i t h an I n t r o d u c t i o n by Bass, A l a n . Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1 9 7 8 . V. A r t i c l e s and  Interviews  Garver, Newton.  about D e r r i d a ' s . work:  " D e r r i d a on Rousseau on W r i t i n g " .  P h i l o s o p h y , lh  Gelley, Alexander. 1972),  (1977),  pp.  "Form as F o r c e " . pp.  The  Journal  of  663-673.  Diacritics, 2,  No.  h,  (Spring  9-13.  Hartman, G e o f f r y H. "Monsieur T e x t e : On Jacques D e r r i d a , h i s The G e o r g i a Review, 2 1 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , pp. 7 5 9 - 7 9 5 .  Glas".  Hartman, G e o f f r y H. "Monsieur Texte I I : Epiphony i n E c h o l a n d " . The G e o r g i a Review, 3 6 ( 1 9 7 6 ) , pp. 1 6 9 - 1 9 7 Houbedine, J . L . and S c a r p e t t a , Guy. " P o s i t i o n s : Interview with Jacques Derrida".- D i a c r i t i c s ^ 2 , No. k.(Winter'1972), pp.  35-U3.  Houbedine, J.L. and S c a r p e t t a , Guy. " P o s i t i o n s : Interview with Jacques D e r r i d a " . D i a c r i t i c s , 3 , No. 1 ( S p r i n g 1 9 7 3 ) , pp.  K l e i n , Richard.  33-U6.  "Prolegomenon t o D e r r i d a " .  (Winter 1 9 7 2 ) ,  Rorty, Richard. The  Diacritics, 2,  No.  k  pp.29-3U.  " D e r r i d a on Language, B e i n g , and Abnormal P h i l o s o p h y " . J o u r n a l of. P h i l o s o p h y , jh ( 1 9 7 7 ) , pp. 6 7 3 - 6 8 1 .  112  Rorty, Richard. Mew  " P h i l o s o p h y as a K i n d o f W r i t i n g : An Essay on D e r r i d a " L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y , . 1 0 , Ho. 1 ( 1 9 7 8 ) , p p . l U 2 - l 6 0 .  S a i d , Edward W. "Abecedarium C u l t u r a e : Absence, W r i t i n g , Statement, Discourse, Archeology, S t r u c t u r a l i s m " . Beginnings. Hew York: B a s i c Books I n c . , 1 9 7 5 , pp. 2 7 7 - 3 U L . Other Works  Consulted:  Artaud, Antonin.  Oeuvres Completes.  Paris.  Editions Gallimard, 1 9 5 6 .  B a r t h e s , Roland. Le Degre Zero de l ' E c r i t u r e , s u i v i Semiologie. P a r i s : Gonthier, 1 9 6 5 . C i r l o t , J.E.  de Elements  A D i c t i o n a r y o f Symbols. T r a n s . Jack Sage. Philosophical Library, 1962.  F o u c a u l t , M i c h e l . F o l i e et Deraisori: H i s t o i r e de l a F o l i e Classique. Paris: Plon, 1 9 6 l .  New  de  York:  a'l'Age  Ronse, H e n r i . "Le L a b y r i n t h e : Espace S i g n i f i c a t i f " . Cahiers I n t e r . n a t i o n a u x de SymbOlisme^ , 9 - 1 0 ( 1 9 6 5 - 6 6 ) , pp. 27-1+3. Saussure,  F e r d i n a n d de. Cours de L i n g u i s t i q u e G e n e r a l e . and A. Sechaye ( P a r i s : Payot, 1 9 l 6 ) .  Ed.  C.  Bally  

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