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History of the city beautiful movement in Canada, 1890-1930 Meek, Margaret Anne 1979

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HISTORY OF THE CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT IN CANADA 1890-1930 by MARGARET ANNE MEEK B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (THE SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the requ i red standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November, 1979 (c) Margaret Anne Meek, 1979 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r , a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t rny w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . J^L^LJTA C ° » i t y and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2 0 7 5 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 Da t e October . 1979 i i ABSTRACT Thi s t h e s i s looks at the h i s t o r y of the C i t y B e a u t i f u l movement i n Canada. L i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g to the A m e r i c a n - C i t y B e a u t i f u l was reviewed f i r s t i n order to a r r i v e a t a d e f i n i t i o n o f the movement and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , to a s c e r t a i n i t s des ign p r i n c i p l e s . In order to i n v e s t i g a t e Canadian C i t y B e a u t i f u l p h i l o s o p h y , the content of s e v e r a l p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s was examined f o r the p e r i o d 1890-1930. For a case s tudy of e a r l y p l a n n i n g i n the P r a i r i e s , a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l was c o n s u l t e d , i n c l u d i n g C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , Parks Commission and C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission f i l e s , newspaper, r epor t s and a c t u a l p l a n s . The American C i t y B e a u t i f u l movement was most popu la r between 1900 and 1915. Whi le the term " c i t y b e a u t i f u l " i m p l i e d a range of c i v i c improvement e f f o r t s , most p l ann ing h i s t o r i a n s have emphasized the s o - c a l l e d "comprehensive schemes o f c i t y b e a u t i f i c a t i o n " which focussed on the treatment of s t r e e t s , parks and/or c i v i c c e n t r e s . Des ign p r i n c i p l e s i n c l u d e d - a x i a l arrangements, v i s t a s and f o c a l p o i n t s , c l a s s i c a l touches , and a tendency towards order and symmetry. Whi le never denying the importance o f a e s t h e t i c s , u t i l i t a r i a n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s took on g rea te r importance as years passed u n t i l the C i t y B e a u t i f u l was e v e n t u a l l y supplanted by an e ra i n p l a n n i n g tha t has s i n c e been l a b e l l e d the C i t y E f f i c i e n t . In Canada, s e v e r a l major p l ans and c i v i c improvement p r o j e c t s were prepared before World War I w i t h almost a l l be ing c l e a r l y d e r i v e d from American C i t y B e a u t i f u l e f f o r t s . A case s tudy of e a r l y p l ann ing i n P r a i r i e c i t i e s r evea led tha t C i t y C o u n c i l s ' involvement i n p l a n n i n g i i i was probably viewed as a form of p u b l i c i t y . F a i l u r e to implement the p lans was due l a r g e l y to the f a c t tha t Canada entered a major economic depress ion i n 1913, w h i l e i n 1914, energ ies turned towards World War I . Between 1910 and 1913, the j o u r n a l s p u b l i s h e d numerous a r t i c l e s devoted to p l a n n i n g , and w h i l e they d i s p l a y e d v a r y i n g emphases and l e v e l s of d e t a i l , w r i t e r s supported the need f o r beauty and u s u a l l y d i scussed p l a n n i n g i n terms of s t r e e t s , parks and/or c i v i c c e n t r e s . However, arguments were o f ten vague, and Canada l a cked an a r t i c u l a t e spokesman f o r the C i t y B e a u t i f u l . The a r r i v a l i n 1914 o f a B r i t i s h p l a n n e r , Thomas Adams^ served to g ive p l ann ing i n Canada both a focus and a new d i r e c t i o n . Emphasis turned towards the need f o r l e g i s l a t i o n , urban development p l a n s , and adequate hous ing . At the same t ime , w r i t e r s began to i s sue harsh c r i t i c i s m s of the American C i t y B e a u t i f u l . Wi th the' founding of the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e . o f Canada i n 1919, p l ann ing began to be thought of as a p ro fess ion ' . Emphasis was now on zoning and the c l a i m tha t p l a n n i n g i m p l i e d economy and e f f i c i e n c y . The American C i t y B e a u t i f u l cont inued to be . the ob jec t of severe c r i t i c i s m u n t i l the mid-1920 's when the country exper ienced a r e t u r n . t o p r o s p e r i t y . At tha t t ime , c i v i c beauty began.once aga in to be promoted, w h i l e p lanners made d e t a i l e d proposa ls f o r c i v i c improvement schemes which were roo ted i n the des ign p r i n c i p l e s of the C i t y B e a u t i f u l . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 Chapter 1 THE CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES 4 Overview 4 O r i g i n s of the C i t y B e a u t i f u l movement 6 The C i t y B e a u t i f u l : Char l e s Mul fo rd Robinson . . . . 17 The C i t y B e a u t i f u l : D a n i e l B u r n h a m . . . 30 The end o f an e ra 47 2 THE CONCEPT.OF CIVIC BEAUTY AND THE EVOLUTION OF PLANNING THOUGHT IN CANADA.1890-1930 53 The beg inn ing 1890-1909 56 The Canadian C i t y B e a u t i f u l 1910-1913 . . . 72 The war years 1914-1918 - 86 The C i t y E f f i c i e n t 1919-1924 105 A p l a c e f o r beauty 1925-1930 117 3 CITY BEAUTIFUL PLANNING IN CANADA: A CASE STUDY OF THE PRAIRIES. 1900-1915 142 Winnipeg 142 Edmonton 156 Ca lgary 172 Regina. 188 CONCLUSION . 207 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 245 V LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS F i g u r e 1. Chicago W o r l d ' s F a i r : Grounds p l a n 10 2. Chicago W o r l d ' s F a i r : Court of Honor 11 3. Chicago W o r l d ' s F a i r : A r t G a l l e r y 12 4. Washington: The M a l l 42 5. Washington: Smal l square created, where.a d i a g o n a l road has crossed the g r i d i r o n 43 6. C l e v e l a n d : C i v i c cen t re p l a n 44 7. Chicago: C i v i c cen t re 45 8. Chicago: Pa r t o f proposed s t r e e t p l a n 46 9. Toronto : P r o p o s a l f o r F e d e r a l Avenue and c i v i c cent re 82 10. Vancouver: Proposed S tan ley Park entrance 84 11 . Vancouver: P l a n showing S tan ley Park en t rance , Georg ia S t r e e t , c i v i c c e n t r e , and r a i l w a y s t a t i o n 85 12. Adve r t i s emen t - fo r the, N a t i o n a l Conference on C i t y P l a n n i n g , hos ted .by the Commission of Conse rva t ion 89 13. Winning des ign f o r Vancouver c i v i c cent re 98 14. Ottawa: C i v i c cen t re s i t e 103 15. Ottawa: Proposed c i v i c cen t re 104 16. Hami l ton : Proposed c i v i c cen t re 114 17. Hami l t on : Proposed s tadium 115 18. Toronto: Proposed avenue l i n k i n g Union S t a t i o n and Queen S t ree t 115 19. Toronto: Proposed c i v i c cen t re 116 20. Winnipeg: Memorial Boulevard 116 21 . Hami l ton : Entrance to c i t y - F i r s t p r i z e winner . . . . 123 22. Hami l ton : Entrance to c i t y - Second p r i z e winner . . . 124 23. Ottawa: Proposed Vimy Way v 128 24. Ottawa: Proposed c e n t r a l a rea improvements 129 25. Vancouver: Proposed c i v i c cen t re 132 26. Toronto : P l a n of major improvements proposed by A d v i s o r y C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission. 137 27. Toron to : U n i v e r s i t y Avenue 138 v i F igu re 28. Toronto : Vimy C i r c l e 139 29. Toronto : Proposed c i v i c cent re 140 30. Winnipeg: Proposed c i v i c cen t re 149 31. Edmonton: Proposed c i v i c c e n t r e . Look ing n o r t h . . . . 164 32. Edmonton: Proposed c i v i c c en t r e . Looking south . . . . 165 33. Edmonton: Proposed approach to Pa r l i amen t B u i l d i n g . 166 34. '^Edmonton: C i v i c cen t re 167 35. C a l g a r y : Proposed c i v i c cent re 184 36. C a l g a r y : P o r t i o n of s t r e e t p l a n showing c i v i c cen t re . . 185 37. Reg ina : Mawson p l a n f o r grounds of Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t u r e 191 38. Reg ina : Par l i ament B u i l d i n g . Look ing across Wascana Lake 192 39. Reg ina : Pa r l i ament B u i l d i n g . Side view 193 40. Regina : Genera l p l a n 203 1 INTRODUCTION In 1915, Thomas Adams, who at the time was Town P l a n n i n g A d v i s e r to the Canadian government, wro te : " C i t y p l ann ing i n i t s more modern a p p l i c a t i o n probably had i t s genesis i n the grouping and spacious l a y - o u t of the b u i l d i n g s e rec ted f o r the Chicago E x h i b i t i o n of 1893. S p r i n g i n g from such a source i t has developed i n t o a movement f o r r emode l l i ng e x i s t i n g c i t i e s e s p e c i a l l y i n regard to the grouping and ^ s i t u a t i o n of t h e i r p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s and p a r k s . " Not on ly was t h i s v i ewpoin t expressed by Adams and h i s contempo-r a r i e s but i t has become a s tandard o b s e r v a t i o n of urban h i s t o r i a n s i n recent decades. I t i s o f t en s a i d tha t the b u i l d i n g s and grounds of the f a i r d e l i g h t e d a l l who came and p r e c i p i t a t e d a p l e a f o r compre-hens ive schemes of c i v i c b e a u t i f i c a t i o n . Th i s s o - c a l l e d C i t y B e a u t i f u l 2 movement e v e n t u a l l y evolved i n t o " p l a n n i n g " . Th i s t h e s i s attempts to examine the h i s t o r y of the C i t y B e a u t i f u l movement i n Canada. Three major d i v i s i o n s are drawn: (1) the C i t y B e a u t i f u l movement i n the Un i t ed S t a t e s , (2) the concept of c i v i c beauty and the e v o l u t i o n of p l a n n i n g thought i n Canada and (3) Canadian p l ann ing du r ing the C i t y B e a u t i f u l p e r i o d . The C i t y B e a u t i f u l i n the Un i t ed Sta tes Since the C i t y B e a u t i f u l was p r i m a r i l y an American movement, i t was f e l t that an overview of American exper ience would be an appro-p r i a t e s t a r t i n g p o i n t , both i n terms of i t s concerns and i t s des ign p r i n c i p l e s . 2 Major emphasis i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s on the elements and p r i n c i p l e s o f the C i t y B e a u t i f u l , as de f ined by two of i t s c h i e f proponents . In a d d i t i o n there are b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n s of the park and boulevard move-ment, the 1893 Chicago W o r l d ' s F a i r , the European o r i g i n s o f the des ign p r i n c i p l e s and the r o l e of c i v i c beauty w i t h i n i t s successo r , the C i t y E f f i c i e n t movement. The concept o f c i v i c beauty and the e v o l u t i o n of p l ann ing thought i n  Canada 1890-1930 In order to examine the r o l e of c i v i c beauty i n Canadian p l a n n i n g thought , i t was decided to concent ra te on e a r l y p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s . Beg inn ing around 1890, the examinat ion i n c l u d e d not on ly the p e r i o d up to World War I (the t r a d i t i o n a l C i t y B e u a t i f u l ) but through to 1930. Th i s was done f o r s e v e r a l reasons : (1) there may not have been any reason f o r the Canadian C i t y B e a u t i f u l movement to c o i n c i d e w i t h tha t of the Un i t ed S t a t e s , (2) any attempt to examine the concept of c i v i c beauty i n the era which fo l l owed the C i t y B e a u t i f u l would l e a d to a b e t t e r under-s t and ing of the e a r l i e r p e r i o d , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h respec t to i t s f a t e and i n f l u e n c e , and (3) Wal te r van Nus, i n h i s t h e s i s on the h i s t o r y of Canadian p l ann ing i n d i c a t e d tha t c i v i c b e a u t i f i c a t i o n schemes enjoyed a b r i e f r e v i v a l i n the l a t e 1 9 2 0 ' s f and i t was the re fo re f e l t tha t an examina-t i o n of t h i s p e r i o d and the events l e a d i n g up to i t was necessa ry . The major j o u r n a l s used were the Canadian A r c h i t e c t and B u i l d e r (1888-1909), the Canadian Engineer (begun i n 1893) , the Canadian  M u n i c i p a l J o u r n a l (begun i n 1905 and reorgan ized i n 1922 as the 3 M u n i c i p a l Review of Canada), the Cont rac t Record (begun i n 1909) , Town  P l a n n i n g and Conse rva t ion of L i f e (1914-1920) and the J o u r n a l of the  Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e of Canada (1920-1931). The Annual Reports o f the Commission of Conse rva t ion (1910-1919) were a l s o examined. In t h i s s e c t i o n c i v i c beauty i s d i scussed i n terms of (1) p l a n n e r s ' a t t i t u d e s towards beauty and (2) the r o l e of beauty i n the context of the e v o l u t i o n of Canadian p l ann ing thought . S ince the C i t y B e a u t i f u l emphasized c i v i c d e s i g n , a c t u a l p lans and p r o j e c t s are examined whenever p o s s i b l e . C i t y B e a u t i f u l p l a n n i n g i n Canada: A case study o f the P r a i r i e s 1900-1915 Canadian p l a n n i n g h i s t o r i e s have tended to concent ra te on e i t h e r the 4 5 process of p l a n n i n g or on the theory of p l a n n i n g . The p lans themselves have not been s t r e s s e d . I n h i s t h e s i s , van Nus l i s t e d a number o f p re -Wor ld War I c i t y p l a n s . An examinat ion of t h i s l i s t l e d to the d e c i s i o n to concent ra te on the four P r a i r i e c i t i e s of Winnipeg , Reg ina , Ca lgary and Edmonton. F i r s t l y , these c i t i e s appeared to have been p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e i n p l ann ing and second ly , i t was f e l t tha t t h e i r h i s t o r i e s of s i m i l a r development would p rov ide a good b a s i s fo r a comparison of t h e i r p l a n -n i n g e f f o r t s . I n t h i s s e c t i o n , pre-War p l a n n i n g i n the P r a i r i e s i s looked a t i n terms o f (1) the p l a n n i n g process and (2) the content of the p l a n s . Sources i n c l u d e d C o u n c i l minutes , C i t y C l e r k s ' correspondence, Reports to C o u n c i l , newspaper accounts , the p lans themselves and secondary sources where a v a i l a b l e . CHAPTER 1 THE CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES  I. Overview While the 1893 Chicago World's F a i r i s viewed as the main impetus a few have traced planning to an e a r l i e r o r i g i n — the park and boule-vard movement which began i n the 1870's.""" The need for park and boule vard systems enjoyed widespread popular support and conditioned people to the idea of "comprehensive schemes of b e a u t i f i c a t i o n " . I t i s im-portant to stress that C i t y B e a u t i f u l philosophy incorporated that of the parks and boulevard movement. In general, the " C i t y B e a u t i f u l " was an amorphous concept. According to both Mel Scott i n h i s h i s t o r y of American c i t y planning and Jon A. Peterson i n an a r t i c l e on the o r i g i n s of the movement, the 2 term "C i t y B e a u t i f u l " came into popular usage i n the l a t e 1980's. At no time did i t imply a well-defined and agreed-upon set of p r i n c i -p l e s . In f a c t , the term " C i t y B e a u t i f u l " was seen to encompass any attempt (no matter how small) to "improve" or "beautify" a c i t y . The desire f or a "C i t y B e a u t i f u l " would appear to have manifested i t s e l f i n three ways: (1) the p r o v i s i o n of " b e a u t i f u l " and "monumental" public and semi-public bu i l d i n g s such as l i b r a r i e s , museums and railway s t a t i o n s , (2) the e f f o r t s of hundreds of voluntary c i v i c improvement 4 organizations who tended to involve themselves with small scale projects such as the c u l t i v a t i o n of vacant l o t s and the control of billboards,"' and 5 (3) the p r e p a r a t i o n , g e n e r a l l y by a r c h i t e c t s and landscape a r c h i -t e c t s , of a number o f l a r g e - s c a l e b e a u t i f i c a t i o n schemes.^ I t i s t h i s l a s t fea ture which i s of the most i n t e r e s t to p lanners s i n c e these schemes are seen as the forerunner of the master p l a n approach to p l a n n i n g . 7 I t i s a l s o important to mention tha t a f t e r 1901, many of the c i v i c improvement s o c i e t i e s began to s h i f t t h e i r focus away from s m a l l improvements and towards encouraging comprehensive schemes of c i t y b e a u t i f i c a t i o n . ^ C i t y B e a u t i f u l p lans cent red on three elements of the c i t y : (1) s t r e e t s , (2) c i v i c cent res and (3) parks and bou leva rds . Any g iven p l a n might c o n t a i n j u s t one o f these elements ( c i v i c cen t res were the most popular ) or i t might c o n t a i n more than these three ( e . g . t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n improvements or a p l a n for neighbourhood s o c i a l c e n t r e s ) . P lans a l s o d i f f e r e d i n terms of t h e i r emphasis and t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to d e t a i l . One p lanner might be ve ry i n t e r e s t e d i n s t r e e t s w h i l e another might d w e l l on c i v i c c e n t r e s . One might emphasize f o r e s t preserves 9 and another l o c a l parks and p laygrounds . Around 1910, the C i t y B e a u t i f u l movement began to be the ob jec t o f much c r i t i c i s m . I t has been s a i d by both contemporary and present c r i t i c s that the movement met i t s demise not as a r e s u l t of d i senchan t -ment w i t h the n o t i o n of c i v i c beauty but s imply because i t was found l a c k i n g . Many have argued tha t C i t y B e a u t i f u l p lanners main ta ined an a e s t h e t i c focus a t the expense o f u t i l i t a r i a n concerns . The p rob-lems of the growing c o m m e r c i a l / i n d u s t r i a l c i t y were i g n o r e d , and i n -s t ead , e a r l y p lanners presented u n r e a l i s t i c and c o s t l y schemes o f grandeur couched i n prose tha t was both na ive and sen t imen ta l 6 Another f a v o u r i t e c r i t i c i s m has been tha t the C i t y B e a u t i f u l f a i l e d to d e a l w i t h hous ing and s o c i a l concerns . For example, George Hooker, a contemporary c r i t i c of the C i t y B e a u t i f u l , complained that the 1909 Chicago p l a n had not used any s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , i t s recommenda-t i o n s were too g e n e r a l , and no a t t e n t i o n had been p a i d to the housing c o n d i t i o n s of the work ing c l a s s or the d i s t r i b u t i o n of commercial and i n d u s t r i a l areas."*"2 The movement was supplanted by another e ra i n p l a n n i n g : the s o - c a l l e d C i t y E f f i c i e n t or C i t y F u n c t i o n a l . These are modern ap-p e l l a t i o n s ; e a r l y p lanners were more l i k e l y to speak of the " C i t y P r a c t i c a l " a l though t h i s term never enjoyed the same p o p u l a r i t y and widespread r e c o g n i t i o n of i t s p redecessor . A f t e r 1910, p l a n n i n g became more p rob lem-or i en ted and began to address a wide v a r i e t y of i s s u e s i n c l u d i n g s a n i t a t i o n , hous ing , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , l a n d s u b d i v i s i o n and z o n i n g . I I . O r i g i n s of the C i t y B e a u t i f u l F o l l o w i n g are b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n s of the American park and boulevard movement, the Chicago W o r l d ' s F a i r ( f o r m a l l y known as the W o r l d ' s Columbian E x p o s i t i o n ) and the elements of European c i v i c des ign which so impressed Amer icans . A . Park and Boulevard Movement More than anyone e l s e , F r e d e r i c k Law Olmsted S r . (1822-1903) i n -f luenced the development of p u b l i c parks i n Nor th Amer ica , both through 14 h i s w r i t i n g s and the na ture of the parks he des igned . He had toured England i n 1850 and was e s p e c i a l l y impressed by the c i t y park a t 7 Birkenhead (near L i v e r p o o l ) , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i r r e g u l a r l y - s h a p e d a r t i f i c i a l ponds, bo th wooded and grassy s e c t i o n s , p l a y i n g f i e l d s , narrow p e d e s t r i a n paths and a roadway. In the 1 8 5 0 ' s , he and C a l v e r t Vaux (1824-1895) developed the des ign for New Y o r k ' s C e n t r a l Pa rk , the f i r s t l a r g e p u b l i c park i n the Un i t ed S t a t e s . The p a r k ' s topography was preserved and i t s n a t u r a l cha rac te r emphasized i n an e f f o r t to p rov ide c o n t r a s t w i t h the c i t y . I t was the b e l i e f of Olmsted (and o ther park crusaders) that urban parks were a means of b r i n g i n g the count ry i n t o the c i t y . They were seen as n a t u r a l and r e l a x i n g oases i n the mids t o f a r t i -f i c i a l i t y and u n h e a l t h i n e s s . But a " n a t u r a l " park d i d not imply tha t the park was to be l e f t i n i t s n a t u r a l s t a t e ; r a the r every oppo r tun i t y was to be s e i z e d to exaggerate nature and to c rea te a romantic composi-t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , parks p rov ided r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n and " lungs" f o r the c i t y as a whole . Bes ides the " n a t u r a l " p o r t i o n s , pa r t of C e n t r a l Park was g iven over to r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s ( p a v i l i o n s and p l a y i n g f i e l d s ) , and there was one concess ion to formal ism (a one-quar ter m i l e promenade f l anked on e i t h e r s ide by two rows o f elm t r e e s ) C i r c u l a t i o n through the park was by means o f four separate systems - one each f o r p e d e s t r i a n s , e q u e s t r i a n s , and slow and f a s t v e h i c l e s . C e n t r a l Park became a model fo r the Nor th American urban park , and the Olmsted was c a l l e d upon to des ign many others over the next t h i r t y y e a r s , i n c l u d i n g parks i n B u f f a l o , D e t r o i t , Chicago , Washington, Boston and Mont Roya l i n M o n t r e a l . He a l s o l a i d out the u n i v e r s i t y campus a t B e r k e l e y and the grounds of the Columbian E x p o s i t i o n . 8 I t was Olmsted's desire that Central Park become part of a system of parks connected by t r e e - l i n e d boulevards. This never materialized for New York but Olmsted's writings and park designs acted as a d i r e c t influence i n advancing a park and boulevard movement beginning i n the 1870's. By the 1880's Chicago had developed an impressive and much admired park and boulevard system and by 1893 Minneapolis could boast a system 16 comprising twenty-nine parks. George Kessler's 1893 park and boule-vard plan f o r Kansas C i t y , Missouri had been the culmination of a twenty-year public crusade; implementation began immediately with steady progress being made over the next twenty years."'"7 Also i n 1893, a park commission under Charles E l i o t was established i n the Boston area with a view to s e t t i n g up a metropolitan park system; within ten years the commission had acquired 15,000 acres of parkland 18 and had made a s t a r t on connecting boulevards. F i n a l l y , i n i t i a l p ublic acceptance of large parks connected by grand boulevards paved the way for acceptance at the turn of the century of small parks and playgrounds i n working cl a s s areas."'"9 I t can be r e a d i l y seen that the park and boulevard movement i n the l a t e nineteenth century met with considerable success. One c r i t i c has concluded that t h i s success was pr i m a r i l y due to enthusiasm for a r u r a l way of l i f e and the claims that the urban park offered the c i t y 20 dweller a b i t of the country. Support for the establishment of parks was based as much on the b e l i e f that they would contribute to 21 public health as on a desire for c i v i c b e a u t i f i c a t i o n . 9 B. The World's Columbian Exposition The Chicago World's F a i r of 1893 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Columbus' discovery of North America and was the nineteenth century's 22 lar g e s t world's f a i r . Frederick Law Olmsted Sr. was retained as con-s u l t i n g landscape a r c h i t e c t and the partnership of Daniel Burnham and John Root as consulting a r c h i t e c t s . Later Burnham was promoted to Director of Works. Burnham and Root's f i r s t task was to devise a tentative ground plan and t h e i r second to i n v i t e the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of ten other a r c h i t e c t u r a l firms. Each of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g a r c h i t e c t s was responsible for a b u i l d i n g but proposals were always discussed by the whole group and subsequently modified i n an e f f o r t to a t t a i n a u n i f i e d composition. The tentative ground plan was r a t i f i e d and a n e o - c l a s s i c a l theme de-cided upon, with v i r t u a l l y a l l buildings t r a c i n g t h e i r o r i g i n s to the 23 architecture of Greece and Rome. According to Henry Van Brunt, one of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g a r c h i t e c t s , the n e o - c l a s s i c a l s t y l e was one that was "evolved from and expressive of the highest c i v i l i z a t i o n i n 24 h i s t o r y " . In addition, a l l buildings were to be painted white. Burnham's chief design r o l e seemed to be that of giving c r i t i c a l comments. I t was he who considered the r e l a t i o n s h i p of i n d i v i d u a l 25 buildings to the e n t i r e scheme. The composition centred around the Court of Honor - a basin and court surrounded by impressive formal buildings which were s i m i l a r i n s t y l e . The court l a y on an east-west axis and was bisected by another les s monumental a x i s . This second a x i s , a canal, l e d northward to a series of i r r e g u l a r l y shaped lagoons with a wooded i s l a n d i n the centre. 10 M A P <>I THI . v. m woojn C O L D W I A N mrosmn* CKOITXM pi JACISO* PAIS. PUn -li .» IHK ll,r bamwfilou arongcmcnt buildup*. F i g . 1 — Chicago W o r l d ' s F a i r : Grounds p l a n . (Source: D a n i e l Burnham, P l a n of  Chicago) 11 F i g . 2 — Chicago W o r l d ' s F a i r : Court of Honor. (Source: Chicago H i s t o r i c a l Soc i e ty ) 12 F i g . 3 — Chicago W o r l d ' s F a i r : A r t G a l l e r y . Th i s i s now the Museum of Science and Indus t ry and i s the o n l y f a i r b u i l d i n g s t i l l s t a n d i n g . 13 More f l e x i b i l i t y of s t y l e and a l e s s impress ive tone was pe rmi t t ed fo r those b u i l d i n g s f r o n t i n g the l agoons . In a d d i t i o n , a l l b u i l d i n g s cou ld be approached by e i t h e r water or l a n d . The f a i r met w i t h i n s t a n t success . In the words of A . T . T a y l o r , a Canadian a r c h i t e c t : "To pass from the n o i s y , d i r t y , h a l f - p a v e d , ha l f -baked c h a o t i c c i t y of Ch icago , to the f a i r whi te c i t y on the shores of Lake M i c h i g a n , w i t h i t s lagoons and i s l a n d s , p leasan t w i n d i n g w a l k s , f o u n t a i n s , s t a t ua ry and a r c h i t e c t u r e , i s l i k e a t r a n s l a t i o n from Purga tory to P a r a d i s e . " 2 ^ The f a i r opened i n May of 1893 and c l o s e d i n October of the same y e a r . I t was v i s i t e d by over twenty m i l l i o n people and r e c e i v e d e n t h u s i a s t i c p r a i s e i n the newspapers and popular j o u r n a l s of the day. The s o - c a l l e d "White C i t y " had sprung up i n s t a r t l i n g con t r a s t to the grime and greyness of n ine t een th century i n d u s t r i a l Amer i ca . I t p rov ided v i s i t o r s w i t h an immediate sense of c o n t i n u i t y as i f America had d i scove red i t s r o o t s , and i n a time when urban reform was looked on as a d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y , the f a i r gave people a t a n g i b l e example of one of the d i r e c t i o n s which such reform might t ake . The f a i r would appear to have had three major and immediate impac ts : (1) I t educated and i n s p i r e d . The i d e a of c i v i c b e a u t i f i c a t i o n began to be accepted , and more and more Americans s t a r t e d to t h i n k 27 about shaping c i t i e s a c c o r d i n g to a p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d p l a n . (2) The f a i r o f f e r ed a concre te model which r e a l c i t i e s cou ld f o l l o w . The p o p u l a r i t y of the c l a s s i c a l s t y l e was r e v i v e d r e s u l t i n g 28 i n the r e p r e s s i o n of the Chicago School of a r c h i t e c t u r e . In the 14 decades following the f a i r , America embarked on the construction of monumental public and semi-public buildings i n the n e o - c l a s s i c a l s t y l e — state c a p i t o l s , c i t y h a l l s , l i b r a r i e s , museums, r a i l r o a d s t a t i o n s , 29 banks and u n i v e r s i t i e s . (3) I t brought widespread recognition to Daniel Burnham and started him o f f on a highly successful twenty-year crusade as pro-30 motor and designer of the " c i t y b e a u t i f u l " . . C. The Influence of Europe Before continuing an examination of the C i t y B e a u t i f u l movement — i t s p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s — i t might be u s e f u l to explore for a moment the o r i g i n s of those ideas. Consistent with the V i c t o r i a n quest for h i s t o r y and knowledge, i n t e r e s t i n Europe increased i n the l a t e nineteenth century. Travel abroad became more common among the wealthy while others were informed by magazines of the day. Europe was looked at as a model; for example, Harper's Monthly sent Rochester j o u r n a l i s t Charles Mulford Robinson on a European tour i n 1899 i n order that he might report on 31 urban improvements abroad. In the case of established a r c h i t e c t s , i t was common pr a c t i c e to embark on frequent European tours. For example, Burnham made t r i p s almost annually and i n the course of pre-paring a plan for Washington, Burnham and h i s co-workers made an extensive European tour in c l u d i n g P a r i s , Rome, Venice, Vienna, 32 Budapest, Frankfurt, B e r l i n and London. 15 For the n ine teen th cen tury s tudent of a r c h i t e c t u r e , P a r i s was the f a v o u r i t e d e s t i n a t i o n , and beg inn ing i n mid -cen tu ry , Americans had begun to s tudy a t the Eco l e des Beaux A r t s . The Eco l e s t r e s s e d u n i t y of compos i t ion and taught i t s s tudents to view a b u i l d i n g i n terms of a s e r i e s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s . B u i l d i n g s were g e n e r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by two (or sometimes more) axes sugges t ing movement and a symmetr ica l l a y o u t of c l e a r l y de f ined geometric spaces . I n t e r i o r spaces were l i n k e d w i t h e x t e r i o r ones such as gardens and c o u r t y a r d s . A t t e n t i o n was a l s o p a i d to the s i t e - how the b u i l d i n g would be viewed from v a r i o u s vantage p o i n t s and what r e l a t i o n s h i p i t would have to e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s . In keeping w i t h the E c o l e ' s emphasis on the need fo r h i s t o r i c a l c o n t i n u i t y i n a r c h i t e c t u r e , Beaux A r t s b u i l d i n g s e x h i b i t e d a v a r i e t y o f past a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s but the major i n f l u e n c e s were Greece and Rome. Among Americans who had s t u d i e d a t the Eco l e were three who had been i n v o l v e d w i t h the Chicago F a i r — Richa rd M. Hunt, Char les F . McKim and L o u i s S u l l i v a n . In a d d i t i o n , two other W o r l d ' s F a i r a r c h i -t e c t s , Henry Van Brunt and George B . P o s t , had been s tudents of H u n t ' s . Al though Burnham had never s t ud i ed a t the E c o l e , he remained i t s l o y a l suppor te r , sur rounding h i m s e l f w i t h former s tuden ts . One was John M. C a r r e r e , who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the C leve l and c i v i c cen t re p l a n . Another was Edward H . Bennet t , who a s s i s t e d Burnham i n p r epa r ing p lans for San F r a n c i s c o and Chicago and who was l a t e r to become i n v o l v e d w i t h the 1915 p l a n fo r Ottawa. 16 Insofar as c i t y design i s concerned, elements of Baroque planning impressed North Americans the most. The Baroque plan had i t s roots i n the fourteenth century with a new i n t e r e s t i n geometry, perspective, organization, symmetry, the use of v i s t a s and axes, and a return to c l a s s i c a l elements i n architecture. The s t y l e evolved over the next 500 years and reached a pinnacle i n nineteenth century P a r i s . Elements of Baroque planning included s t r a i g h t broad avenues flanked by uniform b u i l d i n g s , whose h o r i z o n t a l roof l i n e s stretched unbroken towards some v i s t a . Emphasis was on the view from the avenue — the entrance and long approach, the v i s t a , the framed p i c t u r e . Squares and other open spaces were commonplace and t y p i c a l l y contained statues, fountains and other monuments. Surrounding the square might be public buildings organized i n a symmetrical fashion while a seri e s of avenues radiated outwards from the square i t s e l f . Greenery was present i n the Baroque c i t y i n the form of parks, formal gardens and t r e e - l i n e d boulevards. P a r i s , the queen of Baroque c i t i e s , had begun i t s transformation from mediaeval town during the reign of Henri IV (1589-1610) when two open spaces were created, a view from the r i v e r was opened up and the Champs Elys£es was l a i d out. Af t e r the French Revolution, Napolean I (1769-1821) attempted to transform Paris into the "new Rome". New streets were created, the f i r s t uniform street facades appeared, and various f o c a l points were l i n k e d . F i n a l l y , under Napolean III (1808-1873), Baron Georges-Eugene Haussman began, i n 1853, to undertake a comprehensive plan of urban improvement. Haussman opened up through streets i n an e f f o r t to 17 f a c i l i t a t e movement, m i l i t a r y and otherwise, and to allow l i g h t and a i r to penetrate the dense c i t y . Two axes were created, and the old c i t y walls were replaced by two concentric boulevards. Open spaces were created which included promenades, squares, public gardens and sub-urban parks. In the c i t y as a whole, unity of composition was a t -tempted; for example, a new square was created i n the southeast to balance the Place de l ' E t o i l e which was situated i n the northwest. On the more p r a c t i c a l side, Hausmann also undertook slum clearance, str e e t paving, st r e e t l i g h t i n g and the i n s t a l l a t i o n of sewers. Although Paris claimed the most admiration, Americans were also impressed by townscape elements of other c i t i e s — the squares of Rome and Venice, the grand avenues and monumental bridges of B e r l i n and the 33 Ringstrasse i n Vienna. One c i t y that generally did not receive praise was London. I t was a common b e l i e f that a grave error had been made i n not implementing Wren's Baroque plan for r e b u i l d i n g the C i t y 34 of London a f t e r the f i r e of 1666. I I I . The C i t y B e a u t i f u l The design p r i n c i p l e s of the C i t y B e a u t i f u l are i l l - d e f i n e d and i n an e f f o r t to provide some d e f i n i t i o n , i t was f e l t appropriate to look at i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r ideas. Among the leaders of the C i t y B e a u t i f u l movement were Daniel Burnham ( a r c h i t e c t ) , Arnold Brunner ( a r c h i t e c t ) , Frederick Law Olmsted J r . (landscape a r c h i t e c t ) , John Nolen (landscape a r c h i t e c t ) and Charles Mulford Robinson (writer/ educator). At l e a s t one of these f i v e men took part i n almost three 35 -quarters of the forty-two pre-1912 comprehensive plans. For t h i s 18 discussion i t was decided to focus on two of them: Charles Mulford Robinson and Daniel Burnham. Charles Mulford Robinson was a Rochester j o u r n a l i s t , and according to Scott, i t was h i s writings which d i r e c t l y stimulated the formation of countless c i v i c improvement organizations and gave d e f i n i t i o n to the 36 term " c i v i c improvement". The Improvement of Towns and C i t i e s , published i n 1901, was intended as a kind of manual and according to one contemporary source, c i t e d by Peterson, i t became the " b i b l e of the 37 be l i e v e r s i n the c i t y b e a u t i f u l " . Daniel Burnham, the man who had headed the design team at the f a i r , went on to undertake plans for Washington, Manila, San Francisco and Chicago. He continued to be an u n t i r i n g and i n f l u e n t i a l crusader for planning u n t i l h i s death i n 1912. His personal fame was widespread while h i s plans for Washington and Chicago were extremely well-known and provided models for other c i t i e s . I t i s Burnham whom c r i t i c s 38 generally regard as the movement's main p r a c t i t i o n e r . Robinson's major writings and Burnham's plans were looked at i n an attempt to uncover the movement's design p r i n c i p l e s . Primary attention was paid to the treatment of s t r e e t s , c i v i c centres and parks. Since the movement has been c r i t i c i z e d for both i t s f a i l u r e to deal with a c i t y ' s p r a c t i c a l problems and i t s f a i l u r e to address housing and s o c i a l issues, attention was also paid to Robinson's and Burnham's views i n these respects. 19 A . Char les Mul fo rd Robinson  (1) H i s l i f e Char les Mul fo rd Robinson (1869-1917) was w r i t e r , educator and p l a n n e r . He wrote e x t e n s i v e l y for newspapers and p e r i o d i c a l s and was a frequent c o n t r i b u t o r on the sub jec t s of " c i v i c improvement" and " c i t y p l a n n i n g " i n such j o u r n a l s as The A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record , Ha rpe r ' s Mon th ly , The N a t i o n a l M u n i c i p a l Review and The Survey (a s o c i a l work j o u r n a l ) . He was the author o f e i g h t books, w i t h the most p l a n n i n g - o r i e n t e d b e i n g : The Improvement o f Towns and  C i t i e s (1901), Modern C i v i c A r t (1903) and C i t y P l a n n i n g (1916). H i s w r i t i n g o b v i o u s l y enjoyed much p o p u l a r i t y . A f t e r comple t ing a s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s on m u n i c i p a l improvements i n Nor th America fo r A t l a n t i c Monthly (1899), H a r p e r ' s Monthly sent him abroad to do a s i m i l a r s e r i e s on Europe. M a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d on tha t tour formed the b a s i s f o r The Improvement of Towns and C i t i e s . By the time of h i s dea th , i t was i n i t s t w e l f t h p r i n t i n g and Modern C i v i c A r t i n i t s 39 f o u r t h . In a d d i t i o n , The Improvement of Towns and C i t i e s had " s t i m u l a t e d the format ion of improvement groups and c i v i c a r t s o c i -40 e t i e s throughout the Un i t ed S t a t e s " . Despi te the f a c t tha t he had never r e c e i v e d any p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g , Robinson was one of the most p roduc t i ve p lanners of h i s day. Between 1902 and 1917, he had ac ted i n the c a p a c i t y of p l ann ing 41 a d v i s e r to t h i r t y c i t i e s , p roducing "improvement r e p o r t s " fo r B u f f a l o , D e t r o i t , Denver, Oakland, Los Ange le s , Hono lu lu and numerous sma l l e r c i t i e s . Approximate ly h a l f of h i s pub l i shed r e p o r t s had been . . , , . . . , . . 42 commissioned by v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l a r t s o c i e t i e s . 20 He belonged to d i v e r s e c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g the American League fo r C i v i c Improvements, the N a t i o n a l A l l i a n c e o f C i v i c Organ iza -t i o n s , the N a t i o n a l M u n i c i p a l League, the N a t i o n a l Housing A s s o c i a t i o n , the N a t i o n a l Conference on C i t y P l a n n i n g , and the Committee on Congest ion of P o p u l a t i o n i n New Y o r k . In a d d i t i o n , he had h e l d the post of P ro fes so r of C i v i c Design a t the U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s s i n c e 1913, a p o s i t i o n that had been c rea ted s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r h im. In tha t c a p a c i t y he taught a course each year on the h i s t o r y and fu ture prospec ts of c i t y p l a n n i n g . Rob inson ' s most important r o l e s were those of p u b l i c i s t and educa tor . F o l l o w i n g h i s dea th , Landscape A r c h i t e c t u r e (the j o u r n a l o f the American S o c i e t y of Landscape A r c h i t e c t s ) r e p o r t e d : " I n v iew of the e x t r a o r d i n a r y t i m e l i n e s s o f h i s w r i t i n g s and of h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l e f f o r t s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l American communit ies , he may, w i t h reason , be regarded as the prophet of c i t y p l a n n i n g i n t h i s c o u n t r y . " 4 3 (2) Elements o f the C i t y B e a u t i f u l The endeavours of Char le s Mul fo rd Robinson spanned both the eras of the C i t y B e a u t i f u l and the C i t y E f f i c i e n t , and he made a s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n between them. For the purposes of t h i s s e c t i o n , emphasis i s on The Improvement of Towns and C i t i e s and Modern C i v i c A r t . S t r e e t s . In Rob inson ' s concep t ion o f the " c i t y b e a u t i f u l " , the s t r e e t system was by f a r the most important element. A complete p l a n of c i r c u l a t i o n was seen as the f i r s t p r i o r i t y of " c i v i c a r t " . In order to do such a p l a n , one was adv i sed to s t a r t w i t h e x i s t i n g f o c a l p o i n t s i n the c i t y ' s bus iness d i s t r i c t (most l i k e l y major p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s ) . From these , a s t r e e t network cou ld be b u i l t up, r e s u l t i n g 21 i n a framework of r a d i a l s and r i n g roads r emin i scen t of "a wheel super-44 imposed on a checkerboard" . R a d i a l s (or d i agona l s ) were seen to have three b e n e f i t s : (1) they f a c i l i t a t e d communication, (2) they opened up v i s t a s , and (3) they presented o p p o r t u n i t i e s to c rea te squares and other p u b l i c open spaces . They were to be wide and s t r a i g h t and wi thou t steep grade but a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s too had a l a r g e r o l e to p l a y . " I n l a y i n g down the p r e c i s e l o c a t i o n of any one o f (the r a d i a l s ) , we s h a l l note what views i t opens, what i t s accents a r e , and, i f p o s s i b l e , we s h a l l p r o p o r t i o n i t s w i d t h to i t s l e n g t h or seeming l e n g t h . V i s t a s and f o c a l p o i n t s comprised an i n t e g r a l pa r t of the s t r e e t p l a n . Robinson opposed the n o t i o n of " i n t e r m i n a b l e d i s t a n c e s " , f e e l i n g tha t main s t r e e t s i n the bus iness d i s t r i c t should be broken at i n t e r v a l s by v i s t a s . I t was a l s o d e s i r a b l e to have a number o f s t r e e t s converg ing upon a f o c a l p o i n t . In both the above i n s t a n c e s , app rop r i a t e t e r m i n i i n c l u d e d p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s , r a i l r o a d s t a t i o n s , monuments and s m a l l parks or squares . In the r e s i d e n t i a l a reas , the i n t e r s e c t i o n of r a d i a l s and l o c a l s t r e e t s c rea ted the o p p o r t u n i t y for l o c a l f o c i — s c h o o l s , churches , p o l i c e s t a t i o n s , f i r e h a l l s and l i b r a r i e s . Every s t r e e t demanded c e r t a i n n e c e s s i t i e s — good pavement and s i d e w a l k s , c l e a n l i n e s s , adequate maintenance, underground w i r i n g , the c o n t r o l o f adver t i sements and the suppress ion of unnecessary smoke and n o i s e . Beyond t h i s there was the matter of s t r e e t f u r n i s h i n g s ; e . g . l i g h t i n g , s t r e e t s i g n s , l e t t e r boxes and f i r e a l a rms . Robinson ad -vocated the development of s tandard des igns which i n c l u d e d a e s t h e t i c touches and hoped that " c l u t t e r " cou ld be minimized by the use of 22 multiple-use f i x t u r e s . I t was proper to locate only p r a c t i c a l items i n the street i t s e l f and on the sidewalk but the numerous public squares would provide ample opportunity for the sort of embellishment that fountains and sculpture could o f f e r . The extension of the r a d i a l s into the r e s i d e n t i a l areas (1) f a c i l i t a t e d future expansion of the downtown core, (2) ensured better communication and (3) brought unity to the c i t y . Between the r a d i a l s , however, the guiding p r i n c i p l e was to be v a r i e t y . There would be a v a r i e t y of st r e e t s (broad and narrow, s t r a i g h t and curving) and a v a r i e t y of open spaces (playing f i e l d s and playgrounds and public gardens). Streets could conform to topography which would be both more a t t r a c t i v e and le s s c o s t l y . Greenery was to be encouraged every-where i n an e f f o r t to bring to the c i t y a b i t of r u r a l landscape. To borrow a much used word from the l a t e nineteenth century, i t was hoped that the end r e s u l t would be "picturesque". F i n a l l y , Robinson conducted a l i f e l o n g crusade against standard-ized s t r e e t s . In the business d i s t r i c t , wide str e e t s would decrease t r a f f i c congestion, l e t i n the fresh a i r and sunlight and accentuate a building's a r c h i t e c t u r a l e f f e c t . In r e s i d e n t i a l areas, str e e t s would be as wide as t r a f f i c demanded. Parkways, connecting the various parks, were seen as true beauty roads while speedways- were of the f i n e s t construction, lacked cross-streets and displayed an "engineering exactness" which was b e a u t i f u l i n i t s own r i g h t . C i v i c centre. A c i v i c centre had several advantages over scattered public b u i l d i n g s : (1) i t saved time by making public 23 bus iness more convenien t , (2) i t symbol ized c o - o p e r a t i o n among the v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f government and among departments w i t h i n the same l e v e l , (3) i t emphasized c i v i c power and the importance o f p u b l i c l i f e , and (4) i t presented a compos i t ion i n which each b u i l d i n g i n the group complemented the o t h e r s , r e s u l t i n g i n more d i g n i t y and importance than each cou ld o f f e r s e p a r a t e l y . F i n a l l y , a l l t h i s was gained a t no e x t r a cos t s i n c e the v a r i o u s s t r u c t u r e s would have to be b u i l t anyway. The c i v i c cent re was seen as c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d or a s s o c i a t e d w i t h some s p e c i a l n a t u r a l fea ture of the c i t y such as a h i l l o r w a t e r f r o n t . The l e a s t d e s i r a b l e l o c a t i o n was a long the g r i d i r o n s i n c e (1) p r i v a t e b u i l d i n g s c o u l d d e t r a c t from the c i v i c c e n t r e ' s impact , (2) there would be no oppor tun i ty f o r c r e a t i n g v i s t a s and (3) the b u i l d i n g s 46 would denote no s p e c i a l impor tance . The most d e s i r a b l e l o c a t i o n s were on a h i l l , a long the wa t e r f ron t , f a c i n g a park or square or sur rounding a c o u r t y a r d . I f none o f these was p o s s i b l e , Robinson suggested a l o c a t i o n a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n of two main s t r e e t s . F i n a l l y , i t was cons idered q u i t e d e s i r a b l e to have more than one ' c e n t r e ' ; e . g . an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and an e d u c a t i o n a l c e n t r e . I t was advised tha t the b u i l d i n g s themselves be of the same s c a l e and e x h i b i t a s i m i l a r s t y l e . White was cons idered the bes t c o l o u r s i n c e i t represented p u r i t y and would stand i n dramatic c o n t r a s t to the " so rd idness" o f the n ine t een th century i n d u s t r i a l c i t y . C l a s s i c was cons ide red the bes t s t y l e i f a v i s t a cou ld be o b t a i n e d . Al though he was g e n e r a l l y vague on a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e t a i l s , Robinson d i d h o l d up 24 the Court of Honor at the Chicago World's F a i r as an appropriate c i v i c centre model. I f s a t i s f a c t o r y public buildings already existed, Robinson suggested that these buildings be made to appear as a group by l i n k i n g them with arcades, colonnades and formal t r e e - l i n e d avenues. Although not s t r i c t l y a public b u i l d i n g , i t was f e l t proper to include a r a i l r o a d s t a t i o n (and most e s p e c i a l l y the Union Station) e i t h e r as part of the c i v i c centre composition or adjacent to i t . The s t a t i o n was a gateway to the c i t y and i t s arch i t e c t u r e and place-ment should be suggestive of as much. For example, a large open space could be located i n front of the s t a t i o n with a number of r a d i a l s converging onto i t . Such a treatment would serve to f a c i l i -tate t r a v e l , a t t r a c t v i s i t o r s to the c i t y and make the c i t y more a t t r a c t i v e . To the v i s i t o r the r a i l r o a d s t a t i o n would be a most s t r i k i n g entrance while to the resident i t would be an important f o c a l point. As an excellent example, Robinson pointed to the new Union Station i n Washington and noted that i t s arch i t e c t u r e emphasized i t s importance and i t s l o c a t i o n i t s role as gateway. Parks. Like the park reformers of the day, Robinson envisioned a system of parks l i n k e d by boulevards (or parkways). He f e l t "no need 47 to present arguments" for such a system since widespread public support already existed. Immediate a c q u i s i t i o n was recommended since t h i s would be the l e a s t c o s t l y procedure i n the long run with f i r s t p r i o r i t y for parks being given to stream banks and d i s t i n c t i v e natural features which once l o s t could never be regained. Large suburban parks, equidistant from the c i t y centre, were i n -tended to "to soothe the s p i r i t and calm t i r e d nerves with peaceful 25 48 ou t looks and b e a u t i f u l v i e w s " . T h e i r t r a n q u i l i t y and n a t u r a l beauty would o f f e r the c i t y d w e l l e r a p l ace of refuge where he c o u l d be r e -f reshed . And l i k e the park re formers , Robinson a l s o adhered to the n o t i o n of l andscap ing a " n a t u r a l " park so that i t became even b e t t e r than na tu r e . " In the treatment o f the water sur face and t h e i r marg ins , that they may not g ive an a i r of f o r m a l i t y to a scene which i s meant to be n a t u r a l , bo th the t a s t e and t r a i n i n g o f the l andscap ing a r c h i t e c t w i l l be r e q u i r e d . In the p l a n t i n g there must be o f ten c l e v e r exaggera t ion o f the suggest ions of Na ture , l e s t the inexpe r i enced over look the n iceness and the f ineness of her d i s -t i n c t i o n and l o s e a charm of the park . ^ But a l l these are p r o f e s s i o n a l q u e s t i o n s . " The connec t ing parkways would t i e the c i t y t oge the r , thus empha-s i z i n g i t s u n i t y . In t h e i r t reatment , beauty was to take precedence over u t i l i t y . A n a t u r a l treatment was app rop r i a t e i f the road l e d to a n a t u r a l park and formal i f i t l e d to a formal pa rk . W i t h i n the c i t y i t s e l f , Robinson saw the need for s m a l l open spaces , which c o u l d take a v a r i e t y o f forms; e . g . , p u b l i c square , garden or p layground. A g iven treatment depended on three c o n s i d e r a -t i o n s : (1) t r a v e l requ i rements , "^ (2) the cha rac te r o f the s u r -rounding neighbourhood and (3) the cha rac te r o f adjacent b u i l d i n g s . " ^ For example, a p u b l i c square i n the c i t y might be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i a g o n a l pathways and a formal geometric des ign w h i l e i n r e s i d e n t i a l areas there would abound f lowers and grass and an " i n v i t a t i o n to 52 i d l e n e s s and l o i t e r i n g " . I t was to be remembered tha t "the beauty of the space i t s e l f i s not the goa l we seek, but r a the r the a d d i t i o n , 53 by i t s suppor t , of the beauty of the c i t y " . 26 In the case of p laygrounds , however, beauty occupied a ve ry secondary r o l e . They were j u s t i f i e d fo r reasons o f p u b l i c h e a l t h ; p u b l i c acceptance and support had a l r eady been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o dozens o f p laygrounds . He d i d suggest some n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p i n g , though, i n order " to g ive c i t y 54 c h i l d r e n a b i t o f coun t ry" . Water f ronts demanded s p e c i a l t rea tment . Robinson f e l t tha t pa rk land was the i d e a l use but recognized that the demands of economics o f t en n e c e s s i t a t e d an i n d u s t r i a l use . In such a case , Robinson f e l t tha t the wa te r f ron t should not be adorned w i t h a few n a t u r a l e lements ; he f e l t i t b e t t e r tha t "the s h o r e l i n e be made r i c h l y urban than a l lowed to become degraded nature"." ' ' ' A p o s s i b l e urban treatment fo r the wate r f ron t might i n c l u d e obse rva t i on p o i n t s , a shaded promenade and a s h o r e l i n e d r i v e , w i t h a grassy s t r i p s epa ra t i ng i t from the b u i l d i n g s . I d e a l l y the b u i l d i n g s would be of s i m i l a r s t y l e w i t h uniform he igh t s and c u r v i n g w i t h the s h o r e l i n e . O v e r a l l the treatment would be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by " u t i l i t y , d i g n i t y and harmony" w h i l e a c u r v i n g s h o r e l i n e presented an ever -changing v i s t a . (3) The wider v iew Robinson ' s v i s i o n had always extended beyond mere c i v i c o r n a -menta t ion , and as time passed h i s concep t ion o f p l a n n i n g grew ever b roader . In a d d i t i o n to the des ign of s t r e e t s , c i v i c cen t res and p a r k s , he devoted a great d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n to p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g ( e . g . conges t i on , l a n d s p e c u l a t i o n ) and the need fo r a comprehensive p l a n o f development — a b l u e p r i n t fo r the fu ture "so tha t there may be 56 n o t h i n g haphazard and c o n f l i c t i n g i n the success ive s t eps" . He t r i e d to ana lyse the dynamics of c i t y growth and to address the 27 ques t ion of the s lums, g i v i n g s e r i o u s thought to the extent of p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . In view of l a t e r c r i t i c i s m s of the C i t y B e a u t i f u l movement i t would be u s e f u l to examine two aspects o f t h i s wider view more c l o s e l y . They are (1) the r e l a t i o n s h i p between beauty and u t i l i t y and (2) the treatment of hous ing problems. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between beauty and u t i l i t y . "There can be on ly one s u c c e s s f u l c i v i c a r t . Th i s w i l l be one which j o i n s u t i l i t y to beauty . C i t i e s are not made to be looked at but to be l i v e d i n . . . ."57 Throughout h i s works , Robinson s t r e s s e d tha t the p r a c t i c a l needs of a c i t y must come f i r s t "as ever" i n c i v i c a r t . "The grea te r p a r t , i f not the be s t , o f c i v i c a r t i s tha t which f i r s t does something e l s e than 58 p lease the senses . " For example, i n the comprehensive p l a n , " c i r c u l a t i o n " was emphasized as the most important c o n s i d e r a t i o n fo l lowed by hygiene and then beauty . In p r e s e n t i n g an i d e a l s t r e e t p l a n , Robinson noted tha t he wasn ' t c r e a t i n g an e x p o s i t i o n l ayou t but r a t h e r a " s i m p l e , p r a c t i c a l , and sys temat ic ground p l a n a v a i l a b l e fo r 59 busy c i t y or q u i e t v i l l a g e " . Diagonals were admired f i r s t l y because they f a c i l i t a t e d communication and o n l y secondly because they opened up o p p o r t u n i t i e s fo r v i s t a s . P u b l i c squares and o ther open spaces were a l s o to meet p r a c t i c a l requirements f i r s t . I t was Robinson ' s con ten t ion tha t "a c i t y square 60 which has no p r a c t i c a l use i s sad , dese r t ed , o u t - o f - p l a c e " . Parks and t r e e s , of course , were f e l t to have obvious " h y g i e n i c " b e n e f i t s . Even beauty i t s e l f was grounded i n r a t i o n a l i t y . I t was psycho-l o g i c a l l y u p l i f t i n g , i t was good fo r h e a l t h , i t i n s p i r e d c h i l d r e n to 28 become better adults. "Modern c i v i c a r t desires the beauty of towns and c i t i e s not for beauty's sake, but for the greater happiness, health and comfort of the c i t i z e n s . Robinson stated time and time again that "clean orderly c i t i e s " took precedence over a l l e l s e . Further, the majority of h i s recom-mendations were supported by both u t i l i t a r i a n and aesthetic r a t i o n a l e s . But despite the importance he e x p l i c i t l y accorded u t i l i t y , Robinson r a r e l y developed h i s u t i l i t a r i a n concepts. Rather i t was beauty that claimed most of h i s attention — at l e a s t i n h i s f i r s t two books. For example, the r a i l r o a d station's a r c h i t e c t u r a l treatment and i t s r o l e as a land p o r t a l were discussed at great length but only f l e e t i n g mention was made of items l i k e the d e s i r a b i l i t y of eliminating grade crossings. Indeed Robinson was prone to complete immersion i n aesthetic d e t a i l s ; for example, i n Modern C i v i c A r t , seventeen pages were devoted to "fountains and sculpture" and eleven to "temporary and occasional decoration". But once something had been deemed necessary, i t was appropriate 6 2 "to clothe u t i l i t y with beauty". To Robinson, c i v i c beauty remained ever the highest state of c i t y b u i l d i n g . However, such a l e v e l could be attained only a f t e r the c i t y ' s u t i l i t a r i a n requirements had been met. "The wish for a b e a u t i f u l s t r e e t w i l l remain always v i s i o n a r y u n t i l the want i s f e l t of a good st r e e t and a clean one. . . Communities that are going about the pr o v i s i o n of adequate water and sewage f a c i l i t i e s , that are spending t h e i r resources i n the opening and paving of stree t s and for keeping them clean, are taking the f i r s t steps, even i f unconsciously, toward municipal a r t . " 63 29 Housing and s o c i a l i s s u e s . In the two years between the p u b l i c a t i o n of The Improvement of Towns and C i t i e s and Modern C i v i c A r t , Robinson's conception of planning (or as he then c a l l e d i t , c i v i c art) broadened considerably. In the former, the slums are written o f f almost i n the same breath as a discussion of appropriate st r e e t names. While an ent i r e chapter i s given over to "the advertisement problem" and another to "sculpture", the problem of the slums i s dealt with i n a few para-graphs. Robinson openly admitted to the existence of "tenement d i s t r i c t s " and f e l t that c i v i c a r t ought to confront them but he lacked strategies for doing so. On the other hand, a whole chapter of Modern C i v i c Art i s devoted to tenement areas, and i t i s evident that Robinson had given consider-able thought to the problem. He cautioned that i t was c i v i c a r t ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to seek solutions — f i r s t l y , by decreasing congestion and secondly, by improving the environment of the slum. Several strategies were off e r e d . These included the establishment of: (a) i n d u s t r i a l suburbs, (b) cheap rapid t r a n s i t to encourage suburbanization for the working c l a s s e s , (c) d i r e c t s t r e e t s so that walking distances would be minimized ( r e s u l t i n g i n le s s congestion), (d) an independent street system so that "formal approaches to better r e s i d e n t i a l areas (would not be) ruined", (e) parks, trees, playgrounds and recreation f a c i l i t i e s , 30 (f) broad, clean sidewalks and t r e e - l i n e d streets to cater to a pleasant street l i f e , and (g) housing regulations (e.g. f i r e safety, a i r wells, maximum l o t coverage). To a present-day observer, the q u a l i t y of Robinson's recommenda-tions varies greatly. Some seem to indic a t e tremendous fo r e s i g h t , 65 while others seem to be mere nonsense. But h i s acceptance of environment as a va r i a b l e i n s o c i a l problems, h i s i n c l u s i o n of tene-ment d i s t r i c t s within the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of c i v i c a r t and h i s generation of a grab-bag of strategies with which to confront the problems a l l indicate Robinson had taken a large step i n two years. By 1909, he was to drop the more nonsensical s t r a t e g i e s and add those of land grants and municipal land banking (to discourage speculation).^ "Modern c i v i c a rt may not have solved the problem, but i t has a dream of doing so. I t has dared to acknowledge the existence of, and then has had the courage to t r y to remedy, that e v i l which the c i v i c a r t of other times did not admit. U n t i l the municipality i s b e a u t i f u l i n every portion; u n t i l there i s complete adaptation to purpose and functions; u n t i l i t s c i t i z e n s , the lowly as well as the r i c h , are rendered as comfortable as municipal science and humanity can make them, modern c i v i c a r t w i l l scorn to c a l l i t s conquest complete. That i s why a discussion of the tene-ment d i s t r i c t i s necessary now as we l l as possible i n considering c i v i c a r t , and that i t ^ i s discussed i s the highest glory of that a r t . " B. Daniel Burnham  (1) His l i f e Daniel Hudson Burnham (1846 - 1912) had been Director of Works at the Chicago World's F a i r and went on to take a leading r o l e i n the 31 development of c i t y p lans f o r Washington, San F r a n c i s c o and Chicago i n the Un i t ed S ta tes and M a n i l a i n the P h i l i p p i n e s . S imul taneous ly w i t h h i s p l a n n i n g work, he main ta ined an a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r a c t i c e — f i r s t i n p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h John Root (1850-1891) and l a t e r i n charge of h i s own f i r m . Al though he wrote no books and on ly a few very shor t a r t i c l e s , he was a p r o l i f i c l e t t e r w r i t e r ( e . g . to government o f f i c i a l s , news-papers) and speech g i v e r (e .g to commercial c l u b s , p l a n n i n g con-f e r e n c e s ) . H i s o ther honours and achievements comprise a v a r i e d l i s t 68 — i n 1884 he founded the Western A s s o c i a t i o n of A r c h i t e c t s , i n 1893 and 1894 he served as p re s iden t of the American I n s t i t u t e o f A r c h i t e c t s , i n 1894 he r e c e i v e d honorary degrees from Harvard and Northwestern U n i v e r s i t i e s - ' a n d i n 1910 he was appointed p re s iden t o f the N a t i o n a l Commission on F i n e A r t s . Th i s l a s t o r g a n i z a t i o n was r e s p o n s i b l e fo r commenting on f e d e r a l b u i l d i n g p r o j e c t s from an a r c h i t e c t u r a l p e r -s p e c t i v e and i n essence concerned i t s e l f w i t h the implementat ion of the Washington p l a n . The f i r m of Burnham and Root was founded i n 1873. The i m a g i n a t i v e Burnham suggested the o v e r a l l concepts and t ook . ca r e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s . Root was the des igne r ; i t was he who developed Burnham's concepts and f i l l e d i n the d e t a i l s but w i t h a degree of 69 c r i t i c a l guidance from Burnham. T h e i r f i r s t commissions were i n the V i c t o r i a n e c l e c t i c s t y l e of H . H . Richardson but they soon moved to b u i l d i n g s w i t h s i m p l e r l i n e s becoming l eaders of the s o - c a l l e d Chicago S c h o o l . Compet i t ion f o r downtown l and and the new a v a i l a b i l i t y of e l e c t r i c i t y and e l e v a t o r s made skyscrapers f e a s i b l e i n the 1880's and the f i r m produced i t s . 32 f i r s t w a l l - b e a r i n g skyscraper i n 1881. In 1890 they were r e s p o n s i b l e fo r the f i r s t a l l s t ee l - f rame b u i l d i n g . 7 ^ The t en - s to r ey s t r u c t u r e was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a minimum of e x t e r n a l d e c o r a t i o n , ex t ens ive use of g l a s s , and masonry c o v e r i n g o n l y the frame — i n shor t a c l e a r p ro to type o f the modern o f f i c e b u i l d i n g . In 1890 Burnham and Root began work on the upcoming Columbian Expos i t i on . 7 " ' " For Burnham the F a i r was a t u r n i n g p o i n t . " I n a number of cu r ious and important ways, i t dominated h i s thought f o r the r e s t of h i s l i f e and i n so do ing a f f e c t e d profoundly the c u l t u r a l landscape he was t r y i n g to t rans form. In h i s own mind, he came to see the White C i t y of 1893 as h i s l i f e ' s most s i g n i f i c a n t watershed. U l t i m a t e l y , bo th for him and fo r American a r c h i t e c t u r e , i t was even more important than he r e a l i z e d . " Root had d i ed i n 1891. Hines has suggested that i f he had l i v e d , the F a i r might have been designed d i f f e r e n t l y , and Burnham may never have 73 l a t c h e d on to c l a s s i c i s m i n a r c h i t e c t u r e . In 1901 Burnham was i n v i t e d to c h a i r a commission r e s p o n s i b l e fo r producing a p l a n o f parks and p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s fo r Washington, D . C . The o ther members were Char les F . McKim and Augustus S t . Gaudens, bo th of whom had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the F a i r , and F r e d e r i c k Law Olmsted J r . , whose fa ther had worked on the F a i r . P u b l i c a t i o n o f the Washington p l a n i n 1902 met w i t h e n t h u s i a s t i c acceptance . In f a c t , America had a l r eady had i t s f i r s t t a s t e of Baroque p l a n n i n g i n 1791 when P i e r r e Char les L ' E n f a n t , a former r e s i d e n t o f P a r i s was commissioned to prepare a p l a n for the new c i t y o f Washington, D . C . A f t e r the fu ture l o c a t i o n of major f o c a l p o i n t s ( e . g . p r i n c i p a l b u i l d i n g s ) had been dec ided , L ' E n f a n t imposed a 33 framework of t r e e - l i n e d boulevards r a d i a t i n g from each f o c a l p o i n t and l i n k i n g the f o c a l p o i n t s toge ther . H i s p l a n a l s o i n c l u d e d a m a l l , a c i v i c c e n t r e , s e v e r a l squares and a p o t - p o u r r i of monuments and f o u n t a i n s . Throughout the 1800 's many of L ' E n f a n t ' s recommendations were c a r r i e d ou t , but as t ime passed, d e v i a t i o n s from the p l a n became common. Burnham's t ask had been to r e v i v e and update the p l a n of 1791. The fame o f . b o t h the f a i r and Washington l e d to p lans fo r o ther c i t i e s . Burnham, a long w i t h a r c h i t e c t s John M. Car re re and A r n o l d W. Brunner , completed a c i v i c cen t re p l a n fo r C leve l and i n 1903. In 1905, a p l a n was p u b l i s h e d fo r M a n i l a and a summer c a p i t a l , Bagu io , some 150 m i l e s away, and i n 1906 there appeared a p l a n f o r San F r a n c i s c o . This l a t t e r p l a n was l a r g e l y prepared by Burnham's a s s i s t a n t , Edward H . 74 Bennet t , a former student a t the Eco l e des Beaux A r t s . A p l a n fo r Chicago , undertaken w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of Bennett and presented i n 1909, was Burnham's f i n a l p l ann ing e f f o r t . I t was both the g rea tes t achievement o f the C i t y B e a u t i f u l and the f i r s t o f the C i t y E f f i c i e n t p l a n s . Burnham's e x p e r t i s e was much i n demand and f o r every p l a n he undertook, there were s e v e r a l more he turned down. 7"' One of these requests had been made by S i r W i l l i a m Van Horne o f the Canadian P a c i f i c Ra i lway and chairman o f M o n t r e a l ' s p l a n commission, who had 76 wanted Burnham to do a p l a n f o r tha t c i t y . Throughout h i s l i f e , Burnham took p leasure i n European tours and c o n s i s t e n t l y looked towards Europe fo r a r c h i t e c t u r a l models. He was e s p e c i a l l y impressed w i t h Rome and P a r i s . He remained a l i f e - l o n g supporter of the E c o l e des Beaux A r t s , and i n the 1890 's he and McKim 34 founded the American Academy o f F ine A r t s i n Rome, a schoo l which would o f f e r young men the o p p o r t u n i t y to study c l a s s i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r e . F i n a l l y , a l ongs ide a l l h i s p l a n n i n g and other endeavours, Burnham mainta ined an a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r a c t i c e . At the time of h i s death i n 1912, D . H . Burnham and Co. employed almost 200 persons i n c l u d i n g as always s e v e r a l graduates o f the Eco le des Beaux A r t s . Over 200 b u i l d i n g s were produced d u r i n g the f i r m ' s twenty-two year e x i s t e n c e , main ly p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s i n the c l a s s i c a l s t y l e and s k y s c r a p e r s , o f ten d i s p l a y i n g c l a s s i c a l elements on the facades . (2) Elements o f the C i t y B e a u t i f u l Emphasis i n t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l be on the p lans for San F r a n c i s c o and Chicago s i n c e o n l y these are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . In format ion about the remaining p lans has been de r ived from secondary sources . S t r e e t s . S t r e e t improvements were always Burnham's f i r s t p r i o r i t y . Large p o r t i o n s of the p lans for San F r a n c i s c o and Chicago were taken up by recommendations fo r the widen ing and ex t ens ion of e x i s t i n g roads and the b u i l d i n g of new ones. He f e l t tha t a complete system o f c i r c u l a t i o n served to (1) f a c i l i t a t e t r a v e l between areas and (2) u n i f y the c i t y by l i n k i n g together the v a r i o u s d i s t r i c t s . A t y p i c a l Burnham p l a n i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g e lements : (a) a x i s and c r o s s - a x i s . Such s t r e e t s e i t h e r o f f e r ed an unob-s t r u c t e d view or were terminated by a v i s t a , u s u a l l y a p u b l i c b u i l d i n g or a s p e c i a l fea ture of the c i t y ( e . g . a p a r k ) . T h e i r i n t e r s e c t i o n was normal ly the s i t e o f the c i v i c c e n t r e . 35 (b) d i agona l s t r e e t s . These were the main element o f any Burnham p l a n and would r a d i a t e outwards from the c i v i c c e n t r e . In the San F r a n c i s c o p l a n , t h i s concept was taken one s tep f u r t h e r ; each of the main r a d i a l s was to " p e r i o d i c a l l y widen i n t o t r a f f i c c i r c l e s and spawn more s u b s i d i a r y r a d i a t i n g s t r e e t s " . 7 7 (c) c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l s t r e e t s . Th i s concept f i r s t appeared i n the San F r a n c i s c o p l a n w i t h the recommendation tha t a l l major s t r e e t s terminate i n an e n c i r c l i n g s h o r e l i n e d r i v e . Then i n the Chicago p l a n , i t was recommended tha t four r i n g roads be cons t ruc ted i n the c i t y and o u t l y i n g r e g i o n . Ins tead of a l l main roads converging on the c e n t r a l co re , the oppo r tun i t y would now e x i s t fo r the r i d e r to s k i r t the con-gested bus iness d i s t r i c t . The f i n a l r e s u l t would be much as Robinson had e n v i s i o n e d — a wheel imposed on a g r i d i r o n . (d) bou l eva rds . Boulevards made up a second road system. L i n k i n g together the v a r i o u s p a r k s , boulevards were green p leasure d r i v e s and were to be cons idered pa r t o f the park system. I t was Burnham's d e s i r e tha t the system o f main roads and b o u l e -vards would ensure tha t " c i r c u l a t i o n s h a l l be everywhere promoted but 78 never inpeded" . H i s s t r e e t s were broad and long and d i r e c t . Order and symmetry were h i s keywords; i n Chicago , he even hoped f o r uniform b u i l d i n g facades such as there e x i s t e d i n P a r i s . But p r a c t i c a l con -s i d e r a t i o n s were important t oo ; the Chicago p l a n c a l l e d fo r n o i s e l e s s s t r e e t s w i t h smooth pavement, s a fe ty i s l a n d s , subway c r o s s i n g s , a t -t r a c t i v e s igns and o f s u f f i c i e n t w i d t h to meet the need. E x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , t oo , were taken i n t o account ; fo r example, some roads i n 36 San Francisco and Baguio adhered to the topography, and i n Manila, he recommended that r e s i d e n t i a l streets continue to be narrow and "picturesque". C i v i c centre. Burnham's e a r l i e s t c i v i c centre plans (Washington and Cleveland) borrowed heavily from the Court of Honor at the f a i r while h i s l a t e r plans adapted elements of the c i v i c centre to the needs of t r a f f i c . Common c i v i c centre elements included: (a) axis and cross-axis. In Washington, the main axis extends from the C a p i t o l to the L i n c o l n Memorial and the cross-axis from the White House to the Potomac. Their i n t e r s e c t i o n was to be marked by fountains and sculpture as w e l l as the already-existing Washington Monument. In Cleveland, the main axis ran north-south while the cross-axis ran along the lake. A r a i l r o a d s t a t i o n was to be b u i l t at the i n t e r s e c t i o n . In Chicago, the two axes were to be roads which converged not on public buildings but on an obelisk. This was recommended i n the i n t e r e s t s of maintaining t r a f f i c flow. (b) a "mall" or open space, around which public buildings were situated. Malls were to be created along the main axis i n both Washington and Cleveland. The former was to receive a formal t r e a t -ment of a long rectangular r e f l e c t i n g pool at the west end and a double row of elm trees flanking a 300-foot wide grass s t r i p at the east end. Roads were permitted to c r i s s - c r o s s the mall. Cleveland's mall was to be park-like and was offered as a contrast to the c i t y ' s a r t i f i c i a l i t y . In San Francisco and Chicago there were to be no malls. 37 (c) b u i l d i n g s . In a l l cases the p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s were to be monu-mental i n s c a l e and c l a s s i c a l i n d e s i g n . They were to be of s i m i l a r h e i g h t , mass and t reatment ; i n f a c t , two o f C l e v e l a n d ' s b u i l d i n g s were to be n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l . The c i v i c cen t res were to d i s p l a y order and harmony. In the C leve l and p l a n , the two n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l b u i l d i n g s were to form a southern terminus and two other b u i l d i n g s faced each o ther across the m a l l . A new r a i l r o a d s t a t i o n was to be the no r the rn te rminus . C h i c a g o ' s c i v i c cent re was to be h indered by the i n t r u s i o n o f roads but b u i l d i n g s would be t i e d together v i s u a l l y through the use of p o r t i c o e s , s t a t u e s , open p l a z a s , subways and b r i d g e s . (d) gateway. I t was f e l t tha t every c i t y should have an impress ive gateway, and Burnham u s u a l l y i n c l u d e d a r a i l r o a d s t a t i o n as pa r t o f or adjacent to the c i v i c c e n t r e . P a r k s . Burnham cons idered parks second on ly to s t r e e t s i n impor t -ance, and as has been mentioned a l r e a d y , the n o t i o n of parks enjoyed cons ide rab l e p o p u l a r i t y . Park systems were recommended i n a l l o f Burnham's p l a n s , i n c l u d i n g the one fo r C leve l and desp i t e the f a c t tha t i t s scope was to be conf ined to a c i v i c c e n t r e . Burnham supported the popular concept of a system o f parks and bou leva rds . A range of parks was e n v i s i o n e d : f o r e s t r e s e r v e s , l a r g e urban pa rks , s m a l l parks and p laygrounds . On the connec t ing bou leva rds , heavy t r a f f i c was to be p r o h i b i t e d and the boulevards themselves l i n e d w i t h f i n e r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s . There would be a p a r k - l i k e q u a l i t y to them — complete w i t h g ras s , shrubs , t r e e s , s ta tues and f o u n t a i n s . 38 Other elements o f Burnham's park system I n c l u d e d : (a) f o r e s t r e s e r v e s . In the Chicago p l a n , Burnham inco rpo ra t ed the proposa ls of the S p e c i a l Park Commission's 1904 r e p o r t i n recommending 79 the cont inued a c q u i s i t i o n of " f o r e s t r e s e r v e s " . He saw such reserves as conse rv ing both p u b l i c h e a l t h and n a t u r a l r e sou rces , p r o v i d i n g r e l i e f from the c i t y , i n c r e a s i n g l and va lues and a t t r a c t i n g t o u r i s t s . Any l andscap ing was to be " n a t u r a l " , and on ly a few count ry roads would be a l lowed to i n t r u d e . (b) l a r g e urban p a r k s . These were the parks tha t were commonly c a l l e d the c i t y ' s l u n g s . I t was f e l t they opened up space to l i g h t and a i r and p rov ided hea l thy r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r urban r e s i -dents . In Chicago , Burnham recommended an even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f such parks so tha t they might be e q u a l l y a c c e s s i b l e to a l l . The l a r g e urban parks might a l s o be l o c a t e d acco rd ing to a c i t y ' s s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s . In San F r a n c i s c o , those h i l l s tha t were u n s u i t a b l e fo r b u i l d i n g were to be transformed i n t o parks c o n t a i n i n g abundant greenery amidst a formal framework of t e r r a c e s , colonnades and s t a t u e s . In Chicago , a wa te r f ron t park system had long been one o f Burnham's s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s . I n the 1909 p l a n he recommended twenty-one m i l e s of wa te r f ron t park w i t h l a n d f i l l be ing used to c rea te i s l a n d s and lagoons . O v e r a l l there would be a n a t u r a l treatment w i t h g ra s s , t r e e s , shrubs and wind ing pathways i n the three major p a r k s . A new lakeshore d r i v e was to p a r a l l e l the s h o r e l i n e and an " a r t i s t i c " cen t re c o n t a i n i n g a museum and l i b r a r y was to be b u i l t i n Grant Park j u s t south o f the c i t y c o r e . Rec rea t i on f a c i l i t i e s would i n c l u d e p l a y i n g f i e l d s and space fo r b o a t i n g , swimming, g o l f i n g , a mar ina , an a u d i t o r i u m and r e s t a u r a n t s . 39 (c) Smal l parks and p laygrounds . These were to be d i s t r i b u t e d acco rd ing to p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y . Intended to be much more than j u s t "b rea th ing spaces" , they were to c o n t a i n a v a r i e t y of r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d i n g p l a y i n g f i e l d s , playground equipment, swimming pools , b a t h s , gymnasiums, c lubhouses , audi tor iums and l i b r a r i e s . Such a system of parks and playgrounds was a l r e a d y be ing developed i n Ch icago , and Burnham suggested tha t a s i m i l a r under t ak ing be i n i t i a t e d i n San F r a n c i s c o . I t was a l s o i n the San F r a n c i s c o p l a n that Burnham made the i n -n o v a t i v e recommendation to r ep l ace backyards w i t h a l i n e a r park system. Such a park would be sa fe r for c h i l d r e n , i t would induce foot t r a v e l and i t would p rov ide green space wi thou t the r i s k of ending up w i t h an unused i l l - m a i n t a i n e d p u b l i c square . (3) The wider view In g e n e r a l , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to eva lua te Burnham 1s o v e r a l l v iew of p l ann ing and whether h i s concep t ion of i t changed over the years s i n c e h i s p lans would tend to r e f l e c t the expec ta t ions of h i s c l i e n t s . I t seems safe to assume, however, tha t h i s c h i e f i n t e r e s t l a y w i t h d e s i g n . H i s p lans t y p i c a l l y conta ined a l i s t o f concre te p r o j e c t s and an i d e a l v i s i o n of tha t c i t y i n the f u t u r e . C o n s i d e r a t i o n of wider i s sues tended to be sparse . R e l a t i o n s h i p between beauty and u t i l i t y . Both of Burnham's com-prehensive p lans (San F r a n c i s c o and Chicago) are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a mix of the a e s t h e t i c and the p r a c t i c a l . F i r s t p r i o r i t y i n both p lans was g iven over to t r a f f i c requi rements . Beauty i n the s t r e e t was 40 desirable but only insofar as i t could be had without impeding t r a f f i c . As Burnham remarked i n the San Francisco plan, "the f i r s t step i n c i v i c improvement should be towards i d e a l s t r e e t s , f a u l t l e s s i n equipment and immaculately clean. U n t i l t h i s i s taken, monuments and statues are out of place; men and events can be much more e f f e c t u a l l y commemorated by st r e e t improvements."80 Accordingly a large part of both plans i s taken up by d e t a i l e d descriptions of road improvements. Yet the long l i s t of recommended widenings and extensions and proposed new streets i s sometimes augmented by descriptions of the view from the road or the v i s u a l impact of the road i t s e l f . In the San Francisco plan, aesthetic considerations often took the forefront. I t was Burnham's hope that San Francisco become a t r u l y 81 monumental c i t y . For example, the suggested treatment of those h i l l s too steep for b u i l d i n g was strongly reminiscent of ancient Greece and 82 Rome, replete with terraces, colonnades, statues and amphitheatres. Elsewhere i n the report he suggested cutt i n g a new parkway through e x i s t i n g blocks merely to create a dramatic view of Twin Peaks while another recommendation involved the c i t y ' s water supply. ". . .a superb e f f e c t might be produced by using a number of reservoirs at successive heights. The water, a r r i v i n g at the highest point through a triumphal entrance, would f a l l from one l e v e l to another i n cascades, g^ thus, producing a v e r i t a b l e 'Chateau d'Eau'." Yet alongside such f a n c i f u l notions, Burnham talked b r i e f l y of p r a c t i c a l concerns — the importance of e f f i c i e n t goods d i s t r i b u t i o n between i n -d u s t r i a l and commercial d i s t r i c t s , problems of factory l o c a t i o n , the need for an even d i s t r i b u t i o n of playgrounds containing extensive recreation f a c i l i t i e s . 41 The same s o r t of dichotomy (but not n e a r l y as pronounced) appeared i n the Chicago p l a n . Here Burnham was devoted to both the C i t y P r a c t i c a l and the C i t y B e a u t i f u l . On the one hand he made d e t a i l e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n recommendations aimed a t e x p e d i t i n g goods movement i n and through Chicago , he recommended the p r o v i s i o n of space f o r s c h o o l s , p laygrounds , l i b r a r i e s and neighbourhood cen t res i n the l a y i n g out o f new s u b d i v i s i o n s , and he o u t l i n e d a great many s p e c i f i c road improve-ment schemes. Yet the e n t i r e r epor t i s permeated by a c e r t a i n v i s i o n of Chicago — a future c i t y of order and u n i f o r m i t y w i t h s t r e e t s tha t were to be broad and s t r a i g h t and b u i l d i n g s tha t were to be o f s i m i l a r s t y l e and equa l h e i g h t . The c i v i c c e n t r e , symbol of C h i c a g o ' s power and d i g n i t y , would g ive the compos i t ion a v i s u a l focus w h i l e park and road systems would t i e a l l the pa r t s together i n symmetr ica l f a s h i o n . Housing and s o c i a l i s s u e s . Burnham e x h i b i t e d some concern fo r housing problems but d i d n ' t expend a great d e a l of energy seek ing s o l u t i o n s . One i s l e f t w i t h the impress ion tha t there r e a l l y was no sense o f urgency. In f a c t , i t wasn ' t u n t i l the Chicago p l a n tha t he devoted any time to the problem of the s lums. In Chicago , he recommended c u t t i n g new s t r e e t s through slum areas and p r o v i d i n g grassy t r e e - l i n e d boulevards on some of the e x i s t i n g s t r e e t s . He recommended tha t s t r i c t s a n i t a r y r e g u l a t i o n s be enforced l e s t Chicago ( l i k e London) be fo rced to p rov ide housing fo r i t s c i t i z e n s a t some date i n the f u t u r e . Th i s suggests e i t h e r tha t Burnham was w i l l i n g to cons ide r p u b l i c hous ing as an even tua l pa r t of government's r e -s p o n s i b i l i t y or that he s imply chose to avo id d e a l i n g w i t h housing problems by p u t t i n g them o f f . 42 F i g . 4 — Washington: The M a l l . Looking towards the Washington Monument from the steps of the C a p i t o l . 4 3 F i g . 5 — Washington: Smal l square c rea ted where a d i agona l road has c rossed the g r i d i r o n . 44 Fig. 6 — Cleveland: Civic centre. (Source: P. Abercrombie, "Cleveland: A Civic Centre Project", Town Planning Review, Vol. 2, 1911, pp. 131-135) 45 F i g . 7 — Chicago: C i v i c c en t r e . (Source: D a n i e l Burnham P l a n of Chicago) 46 F i g . 8 — Chicago: Pa r t o f proposed s t r e e t p l a n . (Source: D a n i e l Burnham, P l a n of Chicago) 47 Al though u n w i l l i n g to t a c k l e hous ing ques t ions head on , he d i d favour the es tab l i shment of ex t ens ive r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e to a l l . He f e l t , t o o , tha t many of the c i t y ' s s p e c i a l fea tures be-longed to the p u b l i c . In r e t r o s p e c t , i t i s easy to conclude tha t Burnham's concern fo r the poor was h a l f - h e a r t e d and tha t h i s recom-mendations were not w e l l thought ou t . Th i s may be t rue but a t l e a s t one o f h i s recommendations f o r Chicago met w i t h support from one of the prominent housing reformers of the day. "On December 4 , 1907, the c e l e b r a t e d s o c i a l worker , Jane Addams, came to l u n c h as Burnham's guest , to see the p lans and d i s c u s s the c i t y ' s problems. Though i n h i s 1897 speech, Burnham had specula ted on the p o s s i b i l i t y of e legant res idences a long the south shore , he had changed h i s mind over the years and by 1907 had determined tha t the shore should remain open and a v a i l a b l e to a l l the peop le . Addams s t r o n g l y approved the n o t i o n and encouraged the development o f l akeshore and o ther parks fo r the p u b l i c b e n e f i t of the poorer , immigrant groups."84 I V . The End o f an E ra Both contemporary and modern w r i t e r s have judged C i t y B e a u t i f u l p lans to be d e f i c i e n t on s e v e r a l counts i n c l u d i n g l a c k o f a t t e n t i o n to both hous ing and s o c i a l concerns . As the preced ing d i s c u s s i o n has shown, C i t y B e a u t i f u l p lanners were indeed concerned w i t h a c i t y ' s p r a c t i c a l needs. How c o u l d something be b e a u t i f u l i f i t were not f i r s t u se fu l? 48 Desp i te the f ac t that recommendations were u s u a l l y based on both u t i l i t a r i a n and a e s t h e t i c grounds, u t i l i t a r i a n concepts tended not to be developed. There was an i m p l i c i t (and o f t en e x p l i c i t ) assumption tha t the engineer a l r eady possessed s u f f i c i e n t e x p e r t i s e to s a t i s f y a c i t y ' s p r a c t i c a l needs, and l i t t l e more need be s a i d . On the o ther hand, both Robinson and Burnham loved to g l o r i f y beauty . However, as t ime passed, the ba lance between the a e s t h e t i c and the p r a c t i c a l a l t e r e d somewhat. I t cou ld have been due to t h e i r changing concept ions of p l ann ing or perhaps i t was s imply a response to the demands of a c o s t - c o n s c i o u s p u b l i c . But whatever the impetus , i t d i d happen. I n h i s l a t e r y e a r s , Robinson became i n c r e a s i n g l y i n v o l v e d w i t h s t r e e t p l a n s , the demands of t r a f f i c , the l a y o u t of r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n s , the development of implementat ion s t r a t e g i e s and the progress o f p l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . Wi th Burnham, the Chicago p l a n p laced more emphasis on p r a c t i c a l needs and l e s s on a e s t h e t i c v i s i o n than any o f h i s p rev ious endeavours. Indeed he h i m s e l f c a l l e d i t a p l a n tha t would b r i n g about the C i t y P r a c t i c a l . Regarding the a l l e g e d l a c k o f concern f o r housing problems, a degree of concern d i d e x i s t but few s t r a t e g i e s were developed to d e a l w i t h the problems, t h i s may be l a r g e l y due to the f a c t tha t many C i t y B e a u t i f u l p lanners conceived o f on ly ve ry l i m i t e d p u b l i c r e -s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r hous ing . But t h e i r views were not w i l d l y d i f f e r e n t from the housing r e -formers o f the day. Jane Addams applauded Burnham's p l a n fo r the Chicago l a k e f r o n t . F u r t h e r , the f i r s t p r i o r i t y of outspoken hous ing 85 reformer , Benjamin C. March, was to decrease p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y , 49 and Robinson, speaking at Marsh's 1909 c i t y planning e x h i b i t i o n , had advocated i n d u s t r i a l suburbs and cheap e f f i c i e n t rapid t r a n s i t , both very e f f e c t i v e means for doing j u s t that. The C i t y E f f i c i e n t planners of l a t e r decades were to show even l e s s concern for housing problems. Harland Bartholomew, one of the C i t y E f f i c i e n t ' s most p r o l i f i c planners, had devoted a section of one of h i s early plans to housing but abandoned i t i n l a t e r planning 86 e f f o r t s . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s simply weren't interested. Over the f i r s t decade of the twentieth century, both Robinson and Burnham exhibited a growing concern for the problems of the poor. Robinson e s p e c i a l l y had given the matter great consideration and had begun to support goals such as l i v a b l e housing for a l l and strategies such as i n d u s t r i a l suburbs patterned a f t e r the English garden c i t y concept. I t seems that far from showing a lack of concern for housing and s o c i a l problems, Ci t y B e a u t i f u l planners had begun to develop a humanity that was l a t e r l o s t . In time the C i t y B e a u t i f u l movement gave way to another era i n planning; the s o - c a l l e d C i t y E f f i c i e n t was both a reaction to the C i t y B e a u t i f u l , as several c r i t i c s have suggested, as w e l l as a natural extension of i t . The development of planning was an evolu-tionary process: over the years the C i t y B e a u t i f u l movement changed and evolved, i t s concepts undergoing continual refinement, with new ideas being added and others dropped. U t i l i t a r i a n concerns had always been present and i n the movement's l a t e r years, planners and writers had begun to devote more attention to them. Housing and s o c i a l issues were also the object of increasing attention for awhile but got l e f t behind i n the new movement. 50 The Chicago plan was followed both by a wider view and a change of focus. Nelson Lewis defined c i t y planning i n 1916 as: "the exercise of such foresight as w i l l promote the orderly and s i g h t l y develop-ment of a c i t y and i t s environs along r a t i o n a l l i n e s with due regard for health, amenity and convenience and for i t s com-mercial and i n d u s t r i a l advancement."87 The keywords of the new movement were "economy" and " e f f i c i e n c y " . There was heightened concern for a c i t y ' s future development and for solving current problems such as t r a f f i c congestion. The concept of planning expanded to include not only s t r e e t s , c i v i c centres and parks but also transportation, rapid t r a n s i t , garden c i t i e s , i n d u s t r i a l suburbs, land subdivision, neighbourhood centres, planning l e g i s l a t i o n and zoning. The f i r s t p r a c t i c a l manuals began to appear: Robinson's C i t y Planning, Nolen's C i t y Planning and Lewis' The Planning of the  Modern Cit y ( a l l 1916). In t h i s new and larger view of planning, one i s l e f t to ask whether beauty had a r o l e to play. The treatment of the core elements of the C i t y B e a u t i f u l — s t r e e t s , c i v i c centres and parks — remained b a s i c a l l y the same but p r a c t i c a l considerations took on a much greater importance. For example, parks became j u s t i f i e d almost s o l e l y on grounds of re c r e a t i o n , "refreshment" and an increase i n property 88 values. C i v i c centres were s t i l l to be monumental and expressive of the c i v i c s p i r i t but t h e i r l o c a t i o n was to depend on a c c e s s i b i l i t y , the need for future expansion and the c r i t e r i o n that business was - . . . . 89 never to be hindered. B e a u t i f u l c i t i e s were s t i l l to be sought but the creation of beauty became l a r g e l y a matter of s e i z i n g opportunities. The B r i t i s h 51 p l anne r , Raymond Unwin, commented a t the London Town P l a n n i n g Conference i n 1910 tha t "we have not r e a l l y l ea rned to do any work u n t i l we have 90 l ea rned to do i t b e a u t i f u l l y " . Even Nelson L e w i s , an eminent ly p r a c t i c a l eng ineer , spoke of the need fo r b e a u t i f u l b r i d g e s , d i g n i f i e d 91 r a i l r o a d gateways and v i s t a s for p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s . Perhaps Olmsted s a i d i t b e s t : "The k i n d of beauty most to be sought i n the p l ann ing of c i t i e s i s tha t which r e s u l t s from s e i z i n g i n s t i n c t i v e l y , w i t h a keen and s e n s i t i v e a p p r e c i a t i o n , the l i m i t l e s s o p p o r t u n i t i e s which present themselves i n the course of the most r i g o r o u s l y p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n of any problem, fo r a cho ice between d e c i s i o n s of s u b s t a n t i a l l y equal economic m e r i t , but of w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y . " 9 2 In p r a c t i c e the C i t y B e a u t i f u l remained a s t rong i n f l u e n c e . In C i t y  P l a n n i n g P r o g r e s s , a 1917 p u b l i c a t i o n of the American I n s t i t u t e of A r c h i t e c t s , more than h a l f of the 227 i l l u s t r a t i o n s dep ic t ed t r a d i -t i o n a l C i t y B e a u t i f u l elements — c i v i c c e n t r e s , parks and parkways, 93 p u b l i c squares , monumental b r i d g e s . The years immediately f o l l o w i n g the C i t y B e a u t i f u l p e r i o d marked a coming toge ther of c e r t a i n ideas and t rends tha t had been deve lop ing s i n c e the n ine t een th cen tu ry , a s o r t of coa lescence . The f i r s t perman-ent c i t y p l ann ing commission was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1907. The Chicago p l a n , p u b l i s h e d i n 1909, became a p r o t o t y p e , and the same year saw the f i r s t c i t y p l ann ing e x h i b i t i o n , the f i r s t N a t i o n a l Conference on 94 C i t y P l a n n i n g , and the f i r s t u n i v e r s i t y course devoted to c i t y 95 p l a n n i n g . Between 1907 and 1917, improvement p lans were developed f o r over 100 urban p laces i n c l u d i n g h a l f of the 50 l a r g e s t American 96 c i t i e s . The year 1917 a l s o marked the format ion of the American C i t y 52 P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e ( forerunner of the American I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s ) ; w i t h an i n i t i a l membership of 52 , i t was a p r o f e s s i o n a l subset o f the 97 N a t i o n a l Conference on C i t y P l a n n i n g . Whi le some ideas and concerns faded, o thers grew c l o s e r together and adapted themselves to one another . The r e s u l t was the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of p l a n n i n g , complete w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g degree o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n . 53 CHAPTER 2 THE CONCEPT OF CIVIC BEAUTY  AND THE EVOLUTION OF PLANNING THOUGHT.IN CANADA  1890-1930 The remaining two chapters are devoted to an e x p l o r a t i o n of the Canadian C i t y B e a u t i f u l movement. Th i s chapter l ooks at the d e s i r e f o r a " c i t y b e a u t i f u l " as i t was r e f l e c t e d i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s of the day (1890-1930) w h i l e the l a s t chapter i s a case study of p l a n n i n g i n four P r a i r i e c i t i e s i n the p e r i o d 1900-1915. the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i n r ead ing the j ourna ls was to a r r i v e at an o u t l i n e o f C i t y B e a u t i f u l ph i losophy i n Canada. But t h i s was soon transformed i n t o a l o o k at the r o l e o f c i v i c beauty w i t h i n the e v o l u t i o n of Canadian p l a n n i n g thought . F i r s t l y , C i t y B e a u t i f u l ph i losophy was never w e l l d e f i n e d . Secondly , between 1890 and 1930, p l a n n i n g underwent tremendous changes — a l l the way from non-ex i s t ence t o master p l a n s . Since the Canadian C i t y B e a u t i f u l l a cked a c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d p h i l o s o p h y , . i t was decided to seek out a r t i c l e s i n which there was any d i s c u s s i o n of a e s t h e t i c s . Sources f o r t h i s chapter were the Annual Reports of the Commission of Conse rva t ion and the major Canadian p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s — the Canadian A r c h i t e c t and B u i l d e r , the Cont rac t Record , the Canadian M u n i c i p a l . R e v i e w , the Canadian  Engineer , Town.Planning and C o n s e r v a t i o n . o f L i f e and.the. J o u r n a l  of the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e of Canada. 54 Many a r t i c l e s were uns igned , and i t has been assumed tha t such a r t i c l e s expressed e d i t o r i a l v i e w p o i n t s . Signed a r t i c l e s g e n e r a l l y came from one of three sources : (1) Some were w r i t t e n e s p e c i a l l y f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . Th i s happened more f r equen t ly a f t e r World War I . (2) Some had been papers read at conferences or addresses g iven to v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s . And w h i l e i t d i d n ' t happen a l l the t ime , there was o f ten q u i t e a b i t o f room f o r e d i t o r i a l i n t e r f e r e n c e . F i r s t l y , the j o u r n a l s would o f ten paraphrase the papers or addresses s e l e c t i n g on ly those aspects which were deemed impor tan t . Secondly , the j o u r n a l s tended to i n c l u d e i n t r o d u c t o r y or c l o s i n g remarks. (3) A r t i c l e s would o f t en be r e p r i n t e d from B r i t i s h and American sources . Such a r t i c l e s were numerous and g e n e r a l l y covered the same range of t o p i c s as those by Canadian p l a n n e r s . In g e n e r a l , these were omit ted from the a n a l y s i s and were on ly i n c l u d e d i f there was some s p e c i a l reason fo r doing so . In the d i s c u s s i o n which f o l l o w s , every e f f o r t i s made to i d e n t i f y the source of any a r t i c l e used. The au thor , i f known, i s always i d e n t i f i e d . Where e d i t o r i a l s have been used, the j o u r n a l ' s t i t l e i s always c i t e d . Based on a read ing of the j o u r n a l s , i t was p o s s i b l e to d i v i d e changing a t t i t u d e s towards the r o l e of c i v i c beauty i n t o f i v e time p e r i o d s : (1) 1890-1909, (2) 1910-1913, (3) 1914-1918, (4) 1919-1924, and (5) 1925-1930. 1890-1909. Th i s corresponds to the " t r a d i t i o n a l " C i t y B e a u t i f u l p e r i o d . However, i n Canada, " p r e - p l a n n i n g " might be a more appropr i a t e 55 phrase . Before 1900, " p l a n n i n g " took the form of (1) r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l c i v i c improvement p r o j e c t s and (2) the es tab l i shment of a park and boulevard system. A f t e r 1900, some a t t e n t i o n was p a i d to the idea of comprehensive schemes of b e a u t i f i c a t i o n but support was not s u s t a i n e d . I n t e r e s t was sporad ic d e s p i t e the f a c t tha t C i t y B e a u t i f u l -s t y l e p lans had been prepared f o r Ottawa, Toronto and M o n t r e a l . 1910-1913. These years saw the f l o w e r i n g of the C i t y B e a u t i f u l i n Canada. P l a n n i n g began to be promoted i n the j o u r n a l s , and a number of p lans and p r o j e c t s were undertaken. Throughout t h i s p e r i o d , a e s t h e t i c s p l ayed a l a r g e r o l e , and w r i t e r s and p lanners spoke f r equen t ly of the need to c rea te a " c i t y b e a u t i f u l " . 1914-1918. The year 1914 marked a major t u r n i n g p o i n t brought about by (1) the a r r i v a l o f Thomas Adams, (2) the Commission of C o n s e r v a t i o n ' s h o s t i n g o f the s i x t h annual N a t i o n a l Conference on C i t y P l a n n i n g and (3) the war. I n t e r e s t turned to p u b l i c - h e a l t h , hous ing , p l ann ing l e g i s l a t i o n and the need f o r c o n t r o l l e d urban growth. The new keyword was "economy". The C i t y B e a u t i f u l began to be c r i t i c i z e d on the grounds that (1) i t was too expensive and (2) i t ignored urban problems. 1919-1924. The year 1919 marked the format ion of the Town P l ann ing I n s t i t u t e o f Canada and the s t a r t of the crusade f o r z o n i n g . In an e r a c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s emphasis on "economy" and " e f f i c i e n c y " , there was a r e l u c t a n c e to address the concept of c i v i c beauty . Whi le the monumental s t y l e o f the C i t y B e a u t i f u l cont inued to be c r i t i c i z e d , o thers f e l t c i v i c beauty had a r o l e to p l a y . However, no one attempted to g ive the concept any d e f i n i t i o n , and i t remained vague. 56 1925-1930. Th i s was a p e r i o d of reawakening. Beauty began to be openly promoted as a l e g i t i m a t e (al though smal l ) pa r t of p l a n n i n g , and the n o t i o n of a r c h i t e c t u r a l . c o n t r o l began to be d i s c u s s e d . A number of b e a u t i f i c a t i o n schemes were conceived du r ing t h i s p e r i o d , and f o r the f i r s t t ime , the j o u r n a l s . h e l d them.up as d e s i r a b l e p l a n n i n g models . I n r ead ing the j o u r n a l s , i t soon became apparent tha t they were not a comple te ly accura te r e f l e c t o r of Canadian p l a n n i n g . Whi le they would p u b l i s h a r t i c l e s on p l a n n i n g , a c t u a l p lans r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n . T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y t rue before World War I . P l ans were be ing undertaken i n s e v e r a l Canadian c i t i e s but at best they r e c e i v e d on ly a b r i e f mention i n the j o u r n a l s . Wherever p o s s i b l e , more i n f o r m a t i o n of these p lans was.sought — e i t h e r from the p lans themselves or from a r t i c l e s i n o ther j o u r n a l s , .notably B r i t a i n ' s Town P l a n n i n g Review. A number,of p lans and p r o j e c t s are summarized at the end of each s e c t i o n w h i l e pre-war p lans f o r four P r a i r i e c i t i e s are d i s c u s s e d . i n d e t a i l i n the next chap te r . I . The beg inn ings : 1890-1909 Of the j o u r n a l s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h r e e . s t a r t e d p u b l i c a t i o n p r i o r to 1909. The Canadian M u n i c i p a l J o u r n a l began i n 1905 but u n f o r t u n a t e l y none o f the f i r s t four volumes were a v a i l a b l e . The Canadian Eng inee r , which began p u b l i c a t i o n , i n 1893, would l a t e r become a major proponent of p l ann ing but d u r i n g . t h i s . p e r i o d , the j ou rna l , ignored both t h e ; C i t y B e a u t i f u l and p l a n n i n g . 57 The Canadian A r c h i t e c t and B u i l d e r , which was p u b l i s h e d between 1888 and 1908, devo ted . cons ide rab le a t t e n t i o n to the area of " c i v i c improvement", and i t i s i n the pages of t h i s j o u r n a l . t h a t the e a r l i e s t threads of Canadian p l a n n i n g are to be found. The campaign f o r c i v i c improvement manifes ted i t s e l f i n four ways. F i r s t l y , the j o u r n a l c o n s i s t e n t l y l e n t i t s support t o the n o t i o n of parks and park systems. Th i s was e s p e c i a l l y t rue du r ing the 1 8 9 0 ' s . Secondly , i t campaigned fo r s e v e r a l c i v i c improvement p r o j e c t s d u r i n g the same p e r i o d . T h i r d l y , there were two b r i e f pe r iods (1893-1894 and.1900-1902) when the grounds o f the Chicago W o r l d ' s F a i r were he ld .up as a p o s s i b l e des ign model f o r p a r k s , u n i v e r s i t y campuses, e x h i b i t i o n grounds and i n one i n s t a n c e , f o r . c i t i e s . F i n a l l y , a f t e r 1900, spo rad i c a t t e n t i o n began to be p a i d to "p l ans" and " p l a n n i n g " as w e l l as a few very b r i e f r epo r t s of contemporary p l a n n i n g endeavours. A . Parks There was widespread and sus t a ined support fo r parks w i t h arguments echoing the parks ph i losophy c u r r e n t l y i n vogue. For example, i n 1892 the e d i t o r s of the j o u r n a l argued f o r the development of a park system i n Toronto . Such a system of parks "more or l e s s connected by d r i v e s " would serve to supply c i t i z e n s w i t h "p leasure grounds, b r ea th ing p l a c e s , and a t the same time gl impses o f nature t o add i n t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral improvement".' ' ' On another o c c a s i o n , F r e d e r i c k G. Todd, a h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l 2 Mont rea l landscape a r c h i t e c t , c a l l e d f o r " r e s t f u l " parks c o n t a i n i n g 58 on ly a few " inconsp icuous" roads . He advocated tha t the "park scenery be kept as n a t u r a l and as r e s t f u l as p o s s i b l e , remembering tha t such scenery g ives us the g rea tes t r e l i e f from the n o i s y confus ion and worry o f the c i t y and tha t on t h i s r e l i e f , not o n l y our comfort depends, but a l s o our a b i l i t y to ma in t a in a temperate, good-natured and h e a l t h y s t a t e of m i n d " . 3 In g e n e r a l , parks were . favoured as a p u b l i c h e a l t h requirement and not because they t i e d the c i t y toge ther or c o n t r i b u t e d to a compos i t i on . I n f a c t , the h e a l t h y q u a l i t i e s of parks and open spaces were deemed more important than even i n d u s t r y . In Toron to , where r a i l w a y t r a c k s run p a r a l l e l to the l a k e and act as a b a r r i e r , the j o u r n a l ' s e d i t o r s argued f o r b e t t e r p u b l i c access to the " c o o l and r e f r e s h i n g l a k e b reezes" , s t a t i n g tha t "the convenience, o f the r a i l w a y s i s of compara t ive ly l i t t l e importance, compared w i t h the 4 convenience t o , and the h e a l t h o f , the c i t i z e n s of Toron to" . A f t e r 1900, parks p lans began to be advocated — both p lans which l a i d out the grounds o f i n d i v i d u a l parks and p lans which l a i d out a system of p a r k s . At one p o i n t , Ottawa and C leve l and were h e l d up as precedents , showing the d i r e c t impact of C i t y B e a u t i f u l p lanners ." ' In 1902, the j o u r n a l presented a summary o f F r e d e r i c k G. Todd's park and boulevard p l a n f o r Ottawa*' and advocated tha t such a p l a n be undertaken i n T o r o n t o . 7 I t was a l s o r epor ted tha t Todd had been h i r e d by the Park Committee of Sherbrooke to dev i se a p l a n f o r parks and squares and make an annual r epo r t on c i t y growth and i t s fu ture needs r ega rd ing the l o c a t i o n of s t r e e t s and g p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s and the " b e a u t i f y i n g o f the c i t y " . A f t e r 1903, however, parks were r a r e l y mentioned. 59 B . Other urban improvements In the p e r i o d p r i o r to 1900, the .Canadian A r c h i t e c t and B u i l d e r made sugges t ions f o r a number o f c i v i c improvement p r o j e c t s . The p roposa l s r e f l e c t e d a d e s i r e f o r p u b l i c squares , open space around p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s , "nob le" avenues and impress ive c i t y gateways. For example, the j o u r n a l recommended tha t a grand avenue be b u i l t to connect To ron to ' s proposed Union S t a t i o n and the Pa r l i amen t B u i l d i n g , thereby adding to the c i t y ' s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s and c r e a t i n g 9 a dramat ic c i t y en t rance . In 1891, the j o u r n a l conducted a campaign to improve what was then To ron to ' s main i n t e r s e c t i o n — K i n g and Yonge."'"^ I t was argued tha t the i n t e r s e c t i o n needed to be widened i n order to a l l e v i a t e conges t ion . In the c e n t r e , a p u b l i c square cou ld be p rov ided — complete wi th , a f o u n t a i n or s t a t ue . I t would be "an o a s i s or s tand where a person cou ld w a i t f o r a c a r , or take refuge i n c r o s s i n g the busy and crowded thoroughfare . These corners -the p r i n c i p a l ones i n Toronto - w i l l have to be d i g n i f i e d i n appearance, and w i l l never cease to be dangerous and overcrowded t i l l they are widened and b e a u t i f i e d " . H The development o f To ron to ' s wa te r f ron t was one o f the Canadian A r c h i t e c t and B u i l d e r ' s major campaigns. Between 1888 and 1893, no l e s s than s i x a r t i c l e s appeared on t h i s q u e s t i o n . V a r i o u s schemes were p resen ted . Whi le adequate p u b l i c access to the wa te r f ron t remained the j o u r n a l ' s c h i e f concern , a t t e n t i o n was a l s o p a i d to the importance of i n d u s t r y . Continued i n d u s t r i a l use was recommended w i t h p u b l i c access be ing assured by means of some or a l l o f the 60 f o l l o w i n g (depending on the p a r t i c u l a r scheme under c o n s i d e r a t i o n ) : a l akeshore d r i v e , a promenade, a p u b l i c square , and e l i m i n a t i o n 12 of l e v e l c r o s s i n g s w i t h convenient access to the f e r r y docks . 13 A proposed p u b l i c square f o r downtown Toronto was the one improvement campaign tha t had c i v i c cent re over tones . However, i t owed i t s support j u s t as much to the p e r c e i v e d need for. "b rea th ing spaces" as to the d e s i r e to set o f f p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s . The s o - c a l l e d V i c t o r i a Square was to be l o c a t e d on the southeast corner of Queen and Bay S t r ee t s across from the new C i t y H a l l and Court -House. "A p u b l i c b r e a t h i n g and r e s t i n g p l a c e i n the bus iness d i s t r i c t i s one of the g rea te s t needs of the c i t y at the present t ime , and w i l l become more v i t a l l y necessary i n years to come. The square i s a l s o r e q u i r e d to enhance the appearance of the new c i v i c b u i l d i n g s . " 1 4 The p roposa l was o f f i c i a l l y turned down by the C i t y of Toronto because of f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n . 1898"^ but the Canadian. A r c h i t e c t and B u i l d e r cont inued to campaign fo r the square u n t i l 1901. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note tha t de sp i t e the j o u r n a l ' s advocacy of a means to view the c i t y ' s m u n i c i p a l b u i l d i n g s , the v i s t a o f fe red by C i t y . H a l l down Bay S t r ee t was recognized f o r i t s " f i n e e f f e c t " but cons idered 16 of min imal importance compared to the des ign of C i t y H a l l i t s e l f . C. The af termath of the Chicago W o r l d ' s F a i r The impac t . o f the 1893 f a i r was immediate, a l though not endur ing . 17 I t s b u i l d i n g s and grounds r e c e i v e d h i g h p r a i s e but the o n l y p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n l a y i n a sugges t ion to use i t as a model f o r l a y i n g out 61 Toronto I s l a n d . To A . T . T a y l o r , of the P r o v i n c e of Quebec A s s o c i a t i o n of A r c h i t e c t s ( P . Q . A . A . ) , the F a i r suggested p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r . i d e a l c i t i e s but he d i d n ' t b e l i e v e the v i s i o n s to be p r a c t i c a l . " I t i s not the happy l o t of any members of our p r o f e s s i o n to b e . c a l l e d upon to des ign an i d e a l c i t y . The average modern c i t y i s not planned - l i k e Topsy, i t j u s t grows, and we are on ly a l lowed to touch w i t h the f i n g e r of beauty a spot here and there . "19 One year l a t e r , T a y l o r ' s views had changed somewhat, and h i s 20 a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Notes on Some Aspects of the C i t y of the Fu ture" cou ld be c a l l e d Canada's f i r s t p l a n n i n g a r t i c l e . In i t , he po in t ed out tha t the " c i t y of the fu tu re" would be c o n t r o l l e d by "wise and comprehensive b u i l d i n g bylaws" and "wise and a r t i s t i c guidance i n the l a y i n g out and b e a u t i f y i n g of i t s conformat ion , i t s b u i l d i n g s and t h e i r surroundings and genera l embel l i shments" . H i s emphasis, however, was on the second f e a t u r e . He c la imed tha t the g r i d i r o n p l a n was " p r o s a i c and i n a r t i s t i c " and tha t b u i l d i n g s had g e n e r a l l y been "planted-down wi thout any regard to v i s t a s " . P a r i s and Washing-ton r e c e i v e d h i s h ighes t p r a i s e , and an a r t committee was advocated as the means by which the necessary " a r t i s t i c guidance" cou ld be p r o v i d e d . " A l l c i t i e s of the fu ture . . . w i l l be l a i d out w i t h some regard to numerous open spaces , r a d i a t i n g bou levards .and noble b u i l d i n g s , p l a c e d . i n . s u c h p o s i t i o n s as to a f f o r d v i s t a s . There w i l l be more gardens and p a r k s , because men w i l l have l e a r n t tha t these are g rea te r moral f a c t o r s i n the w e l l - b e i n g of mankind, than crowded tenements and low sa loons . "21 62 In 1900, the Chicago W o r l d ' s F a i r was once aga in brought to l i g h t , and f o r a few y e a r s , i t was h e l d up as an appropr i a t e des ign 22 model f o r e x h i b i t i o n s and u n i v e r s i t i e s . The On ta r io A s s o c i a t i o n o f A r c h i t e c t s took up the cause and developed a grounds p l a n f o r the Toronto I n d u s t r i a l E x h i b i t i o n (now the Canadian N a t i o n a l E x h i b i -t i o n ) . I t boasted a main no r th - sou th a x i s ex tending through a c i r c u l a r open space and te rminated by the l a k e . A s e r i e s o f avenues converged on the c e n t r a l space, f ocus s ing on a s c u l p t u r e or f o u n t a i n " a f t e r the manner o f the axes i n Washington". At the end o f each avenue 23 was some s o r t of v i s t a ; e . g . a tower or a rcade . I t was a l s o suggested tha t the b u i l d i n g s e x h i b i t harmony, both i n the s i m i l a r i t y 24 of t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r e and i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to one another . But desp i t e the j o u r n a l ' s acceptance o f a balanced des ign f o r e x h i b i t i o n s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , the i d e a was never extended to e n t i r e c i t i e s . D. P l a n n i n g the b e a u t i f u l c i t y Wi th the e x c e p t i o n of T a y l o r ' s 1894 a r t i c l e , the f i r s t s m a l l burs t of i n t e r e s t i n p l a n n i n g occur red du r ing 1901 and 1902 w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n o f a few s igned a r t i c l e s devoted to genera l d i s -cuss ions of p l a n n i n g . The impetus i s unc l ea r but the a r t i c l e s i n ques t ion r e l i e d h e a v i l y on a e s t h e t i c s . For example, A l b e r t E . K e l s e y argued tha t "modern c i t y making" e n t a i l e d three aspects — c i r c u l a t i o n , hygiene and beauty; however most of the a r t i c l e was devoted to beauty and the need to c rea te a d e s i r e f o r beauty i n the genera l p o p u l a t i o n . 2 " ' 63 W.A. Langton , p re s iden t of the Onta r io A s s o c i a t i o n of A r c h i t e c t s , s t a t e d i n h i s a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d " C i t y P l a n n i n g " : " I want to beg in at the ve ry f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s and f i n d out what i t i s that makes a c i t y b e a u t i f u l ; f o r i f you f i l l a c i t y w i t h s ta tues and f o u n t a i n s , you have but f i l l e d i t w i t h b e a u t i f u l o b j e c t s . What we want to do i s to make the c i t y i t s e l f b e a u t i f u l . At the bottom o f e v e r y t h i n g tha t i s b e a u t i f u l , there i s a p l a n . " 2 6 To Langton , p l a n n i n g i n v o l v e d a d i v e r s e mix ture of e lements : segrega-t i o n of l and uses , the r e l o c a t i o n of f a c t o r i e s to the suburbs, the development of workingmen's v i l l a g e s , the r o l e o f the r a i l w a y s t a t i o n as c i t y gate , the r e s e r v a t i o n o f the bes t s i t e s f o r p u b l i c purposes 27 and the b u i l d i n g of d i a g o n a l roads . A l s o about t h i s t ime , the j o u r n a l r epor ted on the p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s of an o r g a n i z a t i o n known as the Toronto G u i l d o f C i v i c A r t . In 1901, i t s members e s t a b l i s h e d a. committee which would attempt to ga in C i t y C o u n c i l ' s support i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f "a genera l improvement p l a n " to i n c l u d e p a r k s , squares , bou leva rds , w e l l - d e s i g n e d 28 b u i l d i n g s and. the l a y o u t of s t r e e t s . The G u i l d had come a long way s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n four years e a r l i e r . At tha t time i t s s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s were: " to promote and encourage a r t , to arrange f o r the e x e c u t i o n o f works of a r t by competent a r t i s t s to be chosen by compe t i t i on or o the rwi se , and to h o l d . e x h i b i t i o n s o f a r c h i t e c t -u r a l and s t a i n e d g l a s s de s igns , mural d e c o r a t i o n , e t c . " 2 9 In t u r n - o f - t h e - c e n t u r y p l a n n i n g i s s u e s , the Canadian A r c h i t e c t and B u i l d e r ' s p r imary (and almost e x c l u s i v e ) focus was a e s t h e t i c s . 64 In f a c t , the need f o r beauty was v i r t u a l l y never ques t ioned . I t would seem t h a t , i n the e d i t o r s ' v i e w , u t i l i t y came f i r s t i n many of the c i v i c improvement p r o j e c t s but tha t u t i l i t y was s imply not the main concern of a r c h i t e c t s . Perhaps the sentiment was best expressed i n 1900 when the Canadian A r c h i t e c t and B u i l d e r c r i t i c i z e d the Toronto G u i l d of C i v i c A r t f o r not t a k i n g a s u f f i c i e n t l y a c t i v e r o l e i n the campaign f o r c i v i c beauty . " I t may no doubt be assumed tha t every or n e a r l y every proposed improvement has a good reason at i t s back, but i n c a r r y i n g i t out some thought i s necessary to make i t serve beauty as w e l l as convenience . Here i s the f i e l d f o r a body which concerns i t s e l f w i t h the beauty of the c i t y . " 3 0 A f t e r 1902, i n t e r e s t waned. P l a n n i n g a r t i c l e s s topped, and there appeared to be l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n park developments or c i v i c improvement p r o j e c t s . There were a few cu r so ry r epo r t s of cu r ren t p l a n n i n g endeavours but few d e t a i l s and no sus t a ined i n t e r e s t . In 1901, the j o u r n a l had repor ted e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y of the G u i l d of C i v i c A r t ' s e f f o r t s to prepare a p l a n . When the p l a n was 31 f i n a l l y completed i n 1906, i t s d e t a i l s were never s p e c i f i e d i n the j o u r n a l . A l s o i n 1906, the P r o v i n c e of Quebec A s s o c i a t i o n o f 32 A r c h i t e c t s completed a " ske tch p l a n " of M o n t r e a l , which was comprised of (1) two d i agona l roads r a d i a t i n g l e f t and r i g h t from V i c t o r i a Square to S t . Ca the r ine S t r ee t and (2) "a number of f i n e avenues forming u n i n t e r r u p t e d c i r c u i t s and connec t ing the p r i n c i p a l parks 33 and open spaces . " No f u r t h e r d e t a i l s were g i v e n , and a l though the scheme had been put f o r t h as a t e n t a t i v e p r o p o s a l , the Canadian  A r c h i t e c t s and B u i l d e r noted a few months l a t e r tha t even i t s c r e a t o r s , 65 the C i v i c Improvement Committee o f the P . Q . A . A . appeared to have . . 34 l o s t i n t e r e s t m i t . E . The p lans For the Canadian A r c h i t e c t and B u i l d e r , p l a n n i n g was never more than a minor concern . Th i s may have been a r e f l e c t i o n of e i t h e r low p u b l i c support or the b e l i e f tha t p l a n n i n g . c o u l d on ly be of ve ry p e r i p h e r a l i n t e r e s t to a r c h i t e c t s and b u i l d e r s . But these were the years o f the American C i t y B e a u t i f u l and Canada, t o o , had begun to be i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g . For the p e r i o d 1890-1909, the Canadian A r c h i t e c t and B u i l d e r noted the e x i s t e n c e o f three c i t y p l a n s : Ottawa, Toronto and M o n t r e a l . There i s evidence to suggest tha t the Mont rea l " ske tch p l a n " may have been no more than a map of M o n t r e a l , on which was superimposed two new d i a g o n a l roads and a number of s t r e e t w iden ings . When the Canadian M u n i c i p a l J o u r n a l 35 presented t h i s p l a n , i t p r i n t e d o n l y t h i s map. Todd's parks p l a n f o r Ottawa (1903) and the Toronto G u i l d of C i v i c A r t ' s two c i t y p lans (1906 and 1909) were l a r g e r e f f o r t s . These p lans have been summarized i n the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs. Whi le both r e f l e c t American C i t y B e a u t i f u l t h i n k i n g , the Toronto p l a n was the most ambi t ious and had been c l e a r l y model led a f t e r American c i t y p l a n s . (1) Ottawa The Ottawa Improvement Commission, appointed by the f e d e r a l government i n 1899, owed i t s ex i s t ence to W i l f r e d L a u r i e r ' s d e s i r e 36 to see Ottawa transformed i n t o the "Washington o f the N o r t h " . 66 I t r e c e i v e d an annual grant of $60,000 to be used i n the development of a park and boulevard system. Th i s move was h e a r t i l y applauded by the Canadian A r c h i t e c t and B u i l d e r , which s t a t e d tha t "a fea ture of our n a t i o n a l ambi t ion should be to make the c a p i t a l . . . i n the 37 h ighes t degree a t t r a c t i v e and i n t e r e s t i n g " . F r e d e r i c k G. Todd was commissioned to prepare a p l a n , and h i s "comprehensive scheme 38 f o r the sys temat ic improvement of the c i t y " was submit ted i n 1903. The Todd r epor t recommended a park system comprised o f f o r e s t r e se rves , suburban p a r k s , connec t ing bou leva rds , waterway p a r k s , c i t y parks and squares , and p laygrounds . Emphasis was p l aced on the f i r s t three f e a t u r e s . The f o r e s t r e s e r v e s , two or three i n number, were to be "p i c tu re sque" and w i t h " d i v e r s i f i e d scenery" , o f f e r i n g people the oppo r tun i t y to enjoy na tu r e . A balanced system of suburban parks would surround the c i t y , e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e to the "great masses of peop le" . Two r e c e i v e d p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n — the e x i s t i n g R o c k c l i f f e Park i n the east w i t h i t s "rugged animated scenes" and the proposed Chaudiere Park i n the west which was to abound w i t h "qu i e t peace and r e s t f u l v i e w s , the p l a y of l i g h t and 39 shadow among the groups of t r ees and over the sunny green sward" . A number o f connec t ing boulevards were recommended but s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n was p a i d to a p r o p o s a l to l i n k Rideau H a l l and the P a r l i a -ment B u i l d i n g s . " P a r i s may spend a for tune on her grand avenues, Washington and Chicago may spend m i l l i o n s on c o n s t r u c t i n g boulevards but none o f them can equal i n grandness or impress ive scenery , a bou levard cons t ruc ted a long t h i s bank of the Ottawa R i v e r . " 4 0 67 In a d d i t i o n to s c e n i c views up and down the r i v e r and past the c i t y to the L a u r e n t i a n s , the bou levard would o f f e r a most impress ive t e r m i n a l v i s t a — "an imposing monumental c i r c l e " , above which would 41 r i s e the Pa r l i amen t B u i l d i n g s . F i n a l l y , i n h i s conc lud ing remarks, Todd s t r e s s e d the r i g i d i t y of the p l a n and the sense tha t one was c r e a t i n g a compos i t i on . " . . . ( I ) t i s a b s o l u t e l y necessary tha t the improvements be c a r r i e d out i n a thoroughly sys temat ic manner and i n s t r i c t accordance w i t h a p re -conce ived p l a n , which once approved must on no account be subjec t to a l t e r a t i o n s to meet the wishes or whims o f s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s . I cannot w e l l conceive of any th ing more d i s a s t r o u s than that when once i t has been sanc t ioned and p a r t i a l l y c a r r i e d out the genera l i dea should be l i a b l e to a l t e r a t i o n , and the genera l e f f e c t o f the whole thereby destroyed."42 (2) Toronto The p l a n f o r Toronto , f inanced by the Toronto G u i l d of C i v i c A r t and prepared i n con junc t ion w i t h the Onta r io A s s o c i a t i o n o f A r c h i t e c t s , was presented a t the O . A . A . ' s 1906 meeting and i l l u s t r a t e d 43 w i t h s l i d e s d e p i c t i n g American improvement p l a n s . Three years l a t e r , the Toronto G u i l d of C i v i c A r t p u b l i s h e d a r e v i s e d v e r s i o n 44 of the p l a n . I t was an impress ive document; p r i n t e d on the best paper , i t i n c l u d e d numerous f u l l - p a g e engravings o f the p r o j e c t s and p lans o f o ther p l aces and a l a r g e f o l d - o u t c o l o u r map o f the proposed p l a n f o r Toronto . There were no. i l l u s t r a t i o n s f o r Toronto . I t s c r ea to r s conceived the p l a n i t s e l f to be a r i g i d b l u e p r i n t 68 f o r the f u t u r e . P r o p e r t i e s were to be acqu i red now before the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r doing so had passed. The improvements cou ld be undertaken g r a d u a l l y and i f the technique of "excess condemnation" was used, many would pay f o r themselves . "Excess condemnation", which was ve ry popula r among C i t y B e a u t i f u l p l a n n e r s , i n v o l v e d • e x p r o p r i a t i n g more p roper ty than was needed f o r the improvement and s e l l i n g the excess lands l a t e r at a p r o f i t . S e v e r a l examples of "comprehensive" b e a u t i f i c a t i o n schemes were c i t e d : C l e v e l a n d ' s c i v i c c e n t r e , the park systems of Chicago and S t . P a u l , the l ayou t o f the F a i r , and t h e . p l a n s o f P a r i s and Washington. I n p r a i s i n g the p l a n of Washington, Byron E . Walker , Genera l Manager of the Canadian Bank o f Commerce and one of the founders of the Toronto G u i l d o f C i v i c A r t , asked: "What k i n d o f people are we i n Toronto i f we have not something s e r i o u s to d o ? . . . . . . I t i s not a ques t i on of the c i t y b e a u t i f u l , i t i s j u s t a ques t ion o f p r a c t i c a l common sense. Do we r e a l l y b e l i e v e i n the c i t y o f Toronto ; do we b e l i e v e i t i s going ^ to be one o f the great c i t i e s o f Nor th Amer ica?" W.A. Langton noted tha t the p l a n would save fu tu re expense by "doing t h i n g s . . . w e l l i n the f i r s t p l a c e " . I t would a l s o f a c i l i t a t e ^communication, and g ive the c i t y c h a r a c t e r . L i k e o ther C i t y B e a u t i f u l t h i n k e r s , Langton acknowledged the pre-eminence of u t i l i t a r i a n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s but was apparen t ly s a t i s f i e d tha t such matters would be taken care of a u t o m a t i c a l l y . The time was r i g h t f o r c i t i e s to t u rn to beauty. 69 "The f i r s t step i n c i t y p l ann ing was to l o o k a f t e r the s a n i t a t i o n o f the c i t y . A couple o f hundred years ago such a t h i n g was unknown. No one thought o f d r a i n s or roads or l i g h t i n g . But tha t became a mat ter of course ; and i t i s to us a commonplace tha t i f a c i t y i s to be founded i t must have d ra inage , l i g h t i n g , water supply and th ings which to our ances tors would have been a dream. Now we have advanced a s t ep ; the w o r l d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n making c i t i e s b e a u t i f u l . . . W h a t i n t e r e s t s us most as be ing neares t i n c i rcumstances to our own case i s what i s happening i n the Un i t ed S t a t e s , i t i s the progress of c u l t u r e , i n what was, from want of o p p o r t u n i t y , the uncu l tu red c l a s s . . . A n d the r e s u l t i s the e f f o r t to make t h e i r surroundings b e a u t i f u l which i s at the bottom o f these p r o d i g i o u s schemes which we see go ing on i n the U n i t e d S ta tes now. I t i s a movement which has the mark o f a l l great and l a s t i n g movements — tha t i t comes from the people . "46 The 1906 p l a n had three components — wate r f ron t t rea tment , two d i agona l roads , and a park and boulevard system. C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the wate r f ron t was subsequent ly omi t ted from the 1909 p l a n because of the " r a i l w a y problem". No fu r the r d e t a i l s were g i v e n . Wate r f ron t . In 1906, T o r o n t o ' s York S t ree t was one of o n l y a ve ry few which c rossed the r a i l w a y t r a c k s by means of a grade s e p a r a t i o n . I t began at Queen S t ree t j u s t east o f the Court House (Osgoode H a l l ) and te rminated at the l a k e . The p l a n recommended that the s t r e e t be widened i n such a manner tha t an a x i a l l i n e be c rea ted between Osgoode H a l l and a new wate r f ron t pa rk , which i n t u r n would be approached "by a grand f l i g h t o f s t eps" . The park i t s e l f would be " n a t u r a l " — a broad and l e v e l expanse p l an t ed w i t h t r e e s ; i t was seen as an attempt " to redeem the wa te r f ron t we have 47 l o s t " . The widened York S t ree t would run past the proposed Union 70 S t a t i o n . No attempt was made to have the s t r e e t te rmina ted by the s t a t i o n . In f a c t , Langton r e f e r r e d to the c r e a t i o n o f such "gateways" or " p o r t a l s " as "nonsense" and " f a l l i n g i n t o the v u l g a r i t y of swaggering p r e t e n t i o u s n e s s " . Ins tead i t was decided to emphasize the " n a t u r a l cha rac te r of such a p l a c e " . 4 8 Adjacent to Osgoode H a l l and running n o r t h from Queen S t r ee t was a s t r e e t r e f e r r e d to i n the 1906 p l a n on ly as the Avenue. S ince the 19th cen tu ry , U n i v e r s i t y Avenue had been a wide , t r e e - l i n e d boulevard w i t h the Onta r io L e g i s l a t u r e p r o v i d i n g an. impres s ive v i s t a a t i t s no r the rn end. I t was now recommended tha t a new heavy t r a f f i c s t r e e t be cons t ruc ted to the ea s t , l e a v i n g the Avenue open f o r "the l a r g e s t type o f b u i l d i n g " . "The Avenue i s meant to be used f o r some f i n e purpose. I t should not be wasted. I t i s one of our c i v i c cen t res and t h i s i s a means of b r i n g i n g i t i n t o use ."49 The wate r f ron t park , widening of York S t ree t and treatment of the Avenue were the c l o s e s t the 1906 p l a n came to the n o t i o n of a c i v i c c e n t r e . A l l three were omi t ted i n the 1909 e d i t i o n o f the p l a n . S t r e e t s . Two d iagona l s were conce ived . Each began at Queen S t ree t and cont inued fo r some m i l e s outward — one i n a no r thwes t e r l y and one i n a n o r t h e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n . Both were e v e n t u a l l y te rmina ted by r i v e r s . The a c t u a l routes of the d iagona l s were s p e c i f i e d i n d e t a i l . E x i s t i n g roads were not to be used , and the improvements would pay f o r themselves u s ing "excess condemnation". The major purpose o f the d iagona l s was to f a c i l i t a t e t r a f f i c . 71 They would be comprised of a c e n t r a l b o u l e v a r d , four se t s of s t r e e t car t r a c k s , three lanes o f t r a f f i c i n each d i r e c t i o n and wide s i d e -w a l k s . T o t a l w id th would be i n the neighbourhood of 130 f ee t . The d i agona l s were c i t e d as be ing a p a r t i c u l a r l y s a t i s f a c t o r y improvement because they served to meet the needs .o f t r a f f i c and make the c i t y a t t r a c t i v e , g i v i n g Toronto much of i t s needed c h a r a c t e r . " I t i s easy to see how much v a r i e t y w i l l be in t roduced i n t o our u n i n t e r e s t i n g s t r e e t p l a n when every s t r e e t no r th o f Queen S t ree t i s c rossed by one o f the d i a g o n a l s , making p leasan t i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , s t r i k i n g b u i l d i n g s i t e s , s m a l l open spaces , p l aces f o r monuments, founta ins and seats under t r e e s . And wherever there i s a j u n c t i o n o f s t r e e t cars which makes a l a r g e space necessary , n a t u r a l squares or c i r c l e s w i l l be opened up, to form landmarks and p laces of d i s t i n c t i o n . " 5 0 Park system. In 1909, Toronto had 1600 acres o f pa rk land ranging from one-acre squares to the 389 acres of Toronto I s l a n d Pa rk . F i v e parks were g rea te r than 100 acres i n s i z e . The G u i l d proposed tha t 13 major parks and 250 acres o f s m a l l parks and p l a y -grounds be added to the system."''' ' The major parks would preserve some of To ron to ' s s p e c i a l fea tures — r i v e r s and r a v i n e s , the w a t e r f r o n t , an escarpment (the anc ien t s h o r e l i n e of Lake Onta r io ) and v a r i o u s he igh t s of l a n d . The e n t i r e system ( i n c l u d i n g cemeter ies) was to be connected by p leasure d r i v e s . 72 I I . The Canadian C i t y B e a u t i f u l : 1910-1913 A . P l a n n i n g thought Three o f the j o u r n a l s were be ing p u b l i s h e d du r ing t h i s p e r i o d — the Canadian Eng inee r , the Canadian M u n i c i p a l J o u r n a l and the Cont rac t  Record , the l a t t e r hav ing absorbed the Canadian A r c h i t e c t and B u i l d e r i n 1909. I t would appear tha t p l a n n i n g thought i n Canada had i t s r e a l . beg inn ing du r ing these y e a r s . Between 1910 and 1913, these j o u r n a l s pub l i shed about seventy a r t i c l e s devoted to p l a n n i n g . Al though the term " c i v i c improvement" s t i l l r e c e i v e d some ment ion , almost everyone now spoke of "town p l a n n i n g " or " c i t y p l a n n i n g " , depending g e n e r a l l y on whether the impetus f o r the a r t i c l e was B r i t i s h o r American . Reasons f o r the sudden surge of i n t e r e s t are not g iven i n the j o u r n a l s ; i t w i l l be remembered, however, tha t p l a n n i n g thought and p r a c t i c e was a l s o beg inn ing to take shape elsewhere at t h i s t ime . In 1909, the Chicago p l a n had been p u b l i s h e d , the f i r s t N a t i o n a l Conference on C i t y P l a n n i n g had been h e l d , and Great B r i t a i n had passed i t s Housing and Town P l a n n i n g A c t . In the Canadian concep t ion of p l a n n i n g , i t s r o l e was vague and i t s elements i l l - d e f i n e d . A r t i c l e s covered a wide v a r i e t y o f t o p i c s and o f t en seemed to be j u s t a "grab-bag" of ideas r e l a t e d to c i v i c improvement. Some campaigned f o r town p l a n n i n g commissions, some s t r e s sed hous ing , some concent ra ted on c i v i c d e s i g n , one urged-z o n i n g , s e v e r a l r e s t r i c t e d t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s e n t i r e l y to s t r e e t s , and o thers presented a mix of any th ing tha t might c o n c e i v a b l y " improve" 73 the c i t y . I f there was any common thread among w r i t e r s i t was the tendency to d i s c u s s e i t h e r the r o l e o f beauty i n town p l ann ing or the " t rue" meaning of the " c i t y b e a u t i f u l " . In the Canadian Eng inee r , f o r example, the w r i t e r s of v i r t u a l l y a l l the major p l ann ing a r t i c l e s had entered i n t o t h i s s o r t of d i s c u s s i o n , w h i l e i n most o f the remain ing a r t i c l e s , the concept of b e a u t i f i c a t i o n r e c e i v e d at l e a s t pas s ing ment ion. A r t i c l e s devoted to genera l d i s c u s s i o n s o f p l a n n i n g e x h i b i t e d v a r y i n g emphases and v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f d e t a i l . However, they e x e m p l i -f i e d the C i t y B e a u t i f u l i n s e v e r a l ways. F i r s t l y , i t was u s u a l l y recogn ized tha t p l a n n i n g e n t a i l e d more than b e a u t i f i c a t i o n , and many w r i t e r s were c a r e f u l to emphasize tha t u t i l t a r i a n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s always came f i r s t . Secondly , p lanners had a v i s i o n of an i d e a l c i t y , one tha t was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by convenience, h e a l t h and beauty . In f a c t , t h i s t r i o of goals was to be repeated aga in and aga in throughout t h i s and the next decade. T h i r d l y , f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were r a r e l y mentioned. Al though r e d u c t i o n o f fu ture expendi tures was sometimes c i t e d as a b e n e f i t , p l a n n i n g ' s major j u s t i f i c a t i o n l a y i n the f a c t tha t i t he lped c rea te b e t t e r c i t i e s , where people would be h e a l t h i e r and 'happ ie r . Th i s v iewpoin t was h e l d by almost a l l w r i t e r s r ega rd l e s s o f whether t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r emphasis was a e s t h e t i c or u t i l i t a r i a n . F i n a l l y , when the elements o f p l a n n i n g were p resen ted , the arguments e i t h e r depended on a e s t h e t i c s or were a mix tu re of u t i l i t y 74 and beauty. But whatever the c l a i m , w r i t e r s u s u a l l y f e l l back on the p r i n c i p a l elements of C i t y B e a u t i f u l t h i n k i n g — d i a g o n a l s t r e e t s , c i v i c cen t res and p a r k s . Whi le there was evidence o f a growing i n t e r e s t i n the more u t i l i t a r i a n aspects of p l a n n i n g , most a r t i c l e s tended to be grounded i n the ideas and. p r i n c i p l e s o f the C i t y B e a u t i f u l movement. Summarized below are four major p l a n n i n g a r t i c l e s — a l l from 1912 and 1913. They a l s o serve to i l l u s t r a t e some o f the v a r y i n g emphases adopted by w r i t e r s . 52 Thomas Mawson, an E n g l i s h landscape a r c h i t e c t , presented a l e c t u r e on the "main p r i n c i p l e s o f s t r e e t p l a n n i n g " a t the U n i v e r -s i t y o f Toronto . He argued tha t the g r i d i r o n p l a n fo rced people to take a z i g - z a g rou t e ; i n a d d i t i o n , i t was monotonous, wi thout oppor tun i ty f o r v i s t a s . In i t s p l a c e he advocated the C i t y B e a u t i f u l concept of a system o f d i agona l and c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l roads . Where a l l the d iagona l s coverged at the c i t y c en t r e , a v i s u a l focus was recommended i n the form o f an important b u i l d i n g surrounded by a p l a z a . However, to a v o i d conges t i on , t r a f f i c was to be d i v e r t e d by means o f a r i n g road i n a p a r k - l i k e s e t t i n g . Numerous t r a f f i c c i r c l e s were a l s o advocated i n order to a l l e v i a t e conges t ion and 53 to p rov ide s i t e s f o r f o c a l p o i n t s . Malcolm Ross , Reg ina ' s Parks Super in tendent , de f ined landscape a r t as i n v o l v i n g not on ly t r ees and grass but a l s o " a l l the ob jec t s tha t go to make up the surroundings o f a c i t y " . In c i t y d e s i g n , he s t r e s sed tha t u t i l i t y was o f f i r s t importance and tha t town p l ann ing i n c l u d e d " p r o v i s i o n f o r s a n i t a r y d ra inage , means o f 75 communication (roads and car l i n e s ) , s u i t a b l e b u i l d i n g s , spaces f o r r e c r e a t i o n and the supply of those conveniences such as water 54 and l i g h t " . But beauty was seen as an i n t e g r a l p a r t . In both the man-made and the n a t u r a l environments , he s t r e s sed the need f o r con t r a s t and v a r i e t y . H i s concep t ion of c i v i c beauty had no th ing to do w i t h p r i n c i p l e s of order and symmetry; he c a l l e d u n i f o r m i t y but "another name f o r monotony". Nowhere d i d he advocate grandiose schemes of d i agona l s t r e e t s , c i v i c cen t res and park systems; r a t h e r he seemed to suggest tha t c i t y des ign should be approached i n much the same manner as a landscape a r c h i t e c t would approach the des ign of a l a r g e urban or suburban pa rk . Whi le not advoca t ing the monumental s t y l e o f p l a n n i n g , he d i d subsc r ibe to the v iew tha t c i v i c beauty he lped c rea te r e a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and happiness . A b e a u t i f u l c i t y was as necessary to the s o u l as was a convenient and hea l t hy c i t y to one ' s s t a t e of p h y s i c a l w e l l -b e i n g . "The great d i f f i c u l t y here i n fo rmu la t i ng any p lans f o r improvements i s to overcome the o p p o s i t i o n o f the ' p r a c t i c a l ' man, the man who p r i d e s h i m s e l f tha t he i s above a l l such p e t t y mat ters as those which we have been c o n s i d e r i n g . . . N o sane man w i l l pre tend that we should spend l a v i s h sums on p u r e l y ornamental parks and surroundings w h i l e money i s u r g e n t l y needed f o r such e s s e n t i a l s as water and roads , but the danger i s that having spent our money on these t h ings and having p rov ided a l l the means whereby popu-l a t i o n may be a t t r a c t e d and money made, and having ob ta ined b o t h , we may then be d i s a p -po in t ed to f i n d tha t there i s something m i s s i n g , and tha t i t i s the ve ry t h i n g tha t we have been unconsc ious ly s t r i v i n g and f i g h t i n g f o r a l l our l i v e s . " 5 5 76 Chr i s tophe r J . Y o r a t h , a C i t y Commissioner i n Saskatoon, d i s cus sed a number o f p l ann ing elements . This a r t i c l e was repeated i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s at l e a s t once i n each j o u r n a l . Y o r a t h had had B r i t i s h p l a n n i n g expe r i ence , and h i s concep t ion o f the i d e a l c i t y was i n f l u e n c e d by garden c i t y p h i l o s o p h y . He c la imed tha t the aim of every c i t y should be "the one i m p l i e d by the term 'Garden C i t y ' , b e a u t i f u l , w e l l - p l a n t e d , and f i n e l y l a i d ou t , known and c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the charm which i t can o f f e r to those who seek a res idence or d w e l l i n g removed from the t u r m o i l , s t r e s s and d i scomfor t s of a manufactur ing d i s t r i c t " . 5 6 The elements of p l a n n i n g , as c i t e d by Y o r a t h , con ta ined a mix tu re of a e s t h e t i c and u t i l i t a r i a n f e a t u r e s . In order to f a c i l i t a t e t r a f f i c , he advocated a system of r a d i a l and c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l roads w i t h p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s and open spaces be ing used to break up the monotony of l o n g , s t r a i g h t avenues. The c i v i c c e n t r e , as "one o f the most important matters to be cons ide red" , was seen to be " d i g n i f i e d . a n d i m p r e s s i v e , w h i l s t at the same time i n harmony w i t h t h e . c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the town i t s e l f and i n keeping w i t h the resources of the p u b l i c " . " ' 7 As f a r as parks were concerned, he s t r e s sed , the p r e s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l beauty and the.need, f o r parks " w i t h i n easy access o f the p u b l i c " . Parks were seen as p r o v i d i n g some o f the b e n e f i t s o f country l i f e , which Y or a th acknowledged.-to.be "more h e a l t h f u l , more, r e s t f u l , more 58 n a t u r a l and l e s s wear ing than tha t of the town". F i n a l l y , he recommended the encouragement o f i n d u s t r i a l suburbs pa t t e rned a f t e r B o u r n v i l l e and the i n s t i t u t i o n o f . b u i l d i n g . r e g u l a t i o n s ; e . g . the 77 number of houses per a c r e , maximum he igh t o f b u i l d i n g s , and some segrega t ion o f l and uses . C . H . M i t c h e l l , v i c e - p r e s i d e n t o f the Toronto G u i l d : of C i v i c A r t , d i scussed a number, of aspects o f p l a n n i n g i n c l u d i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n of d i agona l roads to f a c i l i t a t e t r a f f i c , the es tab l i shment o f s t r e e t wid ths a c c o r d i n g to need, the c o n t r o l o f s i g n s , the removal of p o l e s a n d w i r e s underground or to .back l a n e s , the c r e a t i o n of a t t r a c t i v e c i t y gateways ( r a i l w a y s t a t i o n s , w a t e r f r o n t s ) , the encouragement of t r ees and f l o w e r s , the development o f a park and bou levard system, the b u i l d i n g o f a c i v i c c e n t r e , the i n s t i t u t i o n of b u i l d i n g r e g u l a -59 t i o n s and the encouragement of garden suburbs. Beauty was seen as on ly one pa r t o f a p l a n n e r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . " I t has been a common i d e a i n . A m e r i c a n c i t i e s u n t i l q u i t e r e c e n t l y tha t c i t y p l ann ing .has been almost e x c l u s i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h c i t y b e a u t i -f y i n g . Th i s v iew i s not f a i r to the whole subjec t because i t l o se s s i g h t of the p r a c t i c a l s i des of the q u e s t i o n , which are ve ry many and complex, as can r e a d i l y be seen. C i t y p l a n n i n g should.mean the a c q u i r i n g : of the c i t y conven ien t , u s e f u l , economical and h e a l t h f u l , as w e l l as a c i t y b e a u t i f u l . " 6 0 B . Other t rends Some w r i t e r s began to speak o f the " C i t y P r a c t i c a l " and of p l a n n i n g ' s change i n emphasis away from " a r t i s t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s " to " p r a c t i c a l " ones. I t would appear that , t h i s was l a r g e l y a r e s u l t of the N a t i o n a l Conferences on C i t y P l a n n i n g . I n 1911, the Cont rac t Record p u b l i s h e d shor t synopses of the papers g iven at the t h i r d annual conference h e l d i n P h i l a d e l p h i a . 78 " I t w i l l be seen tha t these papers were conf ined almost e x c l u s i v e l y to the p r a c t i c a l phases of c i t y p l ann ing and not to the a e s t h e t i c s of the sub j ec t . The i d e a of the new c i t y p l ann ing movement i s not so much the ' c i t y b e a u t i f u l ' as the b a s i c p lans of the c i t y , i n c l u d i n g s t r e e t s and p a r k s , and the r e l a t i o n of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e b u i l d i n g s to each. I t i s the p r a c t i c a l s i d e of the work which demands the more s e r ious c o n s i d e r a t i o n at t h i s s tage ."61 A f t e r a t t e n d i n g the 1912 N a t i o n a l Conference on C i t y P l a n n i n g i n Bos ton , G. .Wray Lemon, the s e c r e t a r y o f C a l g a r y ' s C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission, r epor ted that the conference marked "a new epoch i n the h i s t o r y of c i t y p l a n n i n g . We are now i n the e r a o f the P r a c t i c a l . The great ou t s tand ing fea ture o f the recent con-ference was tha t so much t ime was devoted to p r a c t i c a l everyday mat te rs" .62 However, he f a i l e d to i n d i c a t e j u s t what those " p r a c t i c a l everyday mat te rs" were. In g e n e r a l , the c e l e b r a t i o n o f the " C i t y P r a c t i c a l " seemed to be more a d e s i r e than an i n d i c a t i o n o f knowing how to proceed. C. The p r a c t i c e of p l ann ing Based on i n f o r m a t i o n conta ined i n the j o u r n a l s , i t would seem that f o r many, " b e a u t i f y i n g the c i t y " meant the i n t r o d u c t i o n of n a t u r a l touches — p a r k s , bou leva rds , t r e e s , f l o w e r s . Th i s i s apparent both from a r t i c l e s ( e . g . on the "va lue of t r ees" ) and from 63 the number of such improvement e f f o r t s underway across Canada. In f a c t , e a r l y p l a n n i n g endeavours were o f ten undertaken under the auspices of a parks commission. For example, i n 1909, a c i t i z e n s ' committee i n Toronto was appointed to work w i t h the C i t y Parks 79 Committee on a "comprehensive p l a n f o r improving and b e a u t i f y i n g 64 the c i t y " . In M o n t r e a l , a M e t r o p o l i t a n Parks Commission was appointed 65 "to p l a n a b e a u t i f u l and convenient M o n t r e a l " w i t h one of i t s f i r s t t asks be ing to r epor t on an underground r a i l w a y s c h e m e . ^ And i n C a l g a r y , the f i r s t d u t i e s of the C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission were to " b e a u t i f y " playgrounds and vacant l o t s , p l a n t t r ees and f l o w e r s , acqu i re more playgrounds and boulevard some of the s t r e e t s . ^ 7 However, i t s p e r c e i v e d r o l e was much broader ; i t s o b j e c t i v e s were l i s t e d as (1) b e t t e r t r a f f i c f a c i l i t i e s , (2) b e t t e r hous ing c o n d i -t i o n s , (3) equipped playgrounds f o r c h i l d r e n , (4) a system of parks connected by d r i v e s and (5) an "economical and convenient grouping 68 of our p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s " . The j o u r n a l s a l s o repor ted on a few c i v i c improvement p r o j e c t s . These tended to be i n the t r a d i t i o n a l C i t y B e a u t i f u l manner. For example, the c i t y of Ottawa was c o n s i d e r i n g the c r e a t i o n of a p u b l i c square. To be c a l l e d P l a z a L a u r i e r , i t was^-to c o n t a i n a c e n t r a l s ta tue and be bounded on i t s s i des by Par l i ament H i l l , the Chateau 69 L a u r i e r and the new r a i l w a y s t a t i o n . A l s o i n Ottawa, the f e d e r a l government had announced a compe t i t i on f o r the des ign of new government b u i l d i n g s . Competi tors were to take i n t o account the need f o r harmony w i t h the Par l i ament B u i l d i n g s , Chateau L a u r i e r and the r a i l w a y s t a t i o n and the p r o v i s i o n of v i s t a s a long main s t ree t s . 7 ^* In Vancouver, the winning des ign f o r the new U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia e x h i b i t e d an a x i s and c r o s s - a x i s and b u i l d i n g s which were s i m i l a r i n s t y l e . ^ F i n a l l y , To ron to ' s wate r f ron t p l a n ( d e t a i l e d i n f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n ) was r emin i scen t of Burnham's Chicago . 80 D. The p lans Whi le the number of p l ann ing a r t i c l e s had inc reased d r a m a t i c a l l y du r ing these y e a r s , r epor t s of p l ann ing a c t i v i t i e s were r e l a t i v e l y few. For example, Edmonton, C a l g a r y , Regina , Winnipeg and Ottawa became i n v o l v e d i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of c i t y p lans but Ca lgary and Ottawa were the on ly ones to r e c e i v e any mention i n the j o u r n a l s . The p lans f o r the P r a i r i e c i t i e s are d i scussed i n d e t a i l i n the next chapter . The Ottawa p l a n was not submit ted u n t i l 1915 and w i l l be summarized i n the next s e c t i o n . F o l l o w i n g are shor t summaries of three schemes: the Toronto wate r f ron t p l a n , a Toronto c i v i c cent re scheme, and a p l a n of improvements to the entrance o f Vancouver ' s S tan ley Park . The Toronto wa te r f ron t was a f a v o u r i t e t o p i c i n the j o u r n a l s du r ing these years but no mention was ever made of the o ther two schemes. (1) Toronto: Waterfront The p l a n f o r the development of To ron to ' s w a t e r f r o n t , as proposed by the Toronto Harbour Commission, was concerned w i t h the development 72 of po r t f a c i l i t i e s , i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s and p a r k l a n d . Mon t r ea l and Vancouver were a l s o engaging i n harbour improvement schemes at t h i s 73 time but parks were absent from them. Whi le p r o v i d i n g f o r docks , warehouses, a sh ip channel and two new i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s , the Toronto p l a n made ample p r o v i s i o n f o r pa rks , much i n the manner o f Burnham's Chicago p l a n . A t o t a l of 900 acres of new pa rk land was recommended i n c l u d i n g an e x t r a 350 acres on the I s l a n d . A lakeshore d r i v e was to be b u i l t on l a n d -81 f i l l i n the eas t e rn and western s e c t i o n s w h i l e i t t r a v e r s e d the I s l a n d i n the c e n t r a l s e c t i o n . Other fea tures i n the eas te rn and western s e c t i o n s i n c l u d e d a p ro t ec t ed waterway f o r s m a l l c r a f t , a park and lagoon system, b r i d l e p a t h s , footpaths and s i t e s f o r aqua t i c c l u b s . The western s e c t i o n was to be f u r t h e r developed w i t h a p u b l i c square and p layground , a ba th ing beach and a t e r r a c e promenade 1 1/3 m i l e s l o n g . . By the end of the 1920 ' s , pa r t of the lakeshore d r i v e had been cons t ruc ted and many of the park improve-ments completed. (2) Toronto: Proposed F e d e r a l Avenue In 1909, the Toronto G u i l d of C i v i c A r t had. induced. C i t y C o u n c i l to appoint a C i v i c Improvement-Committee. T h e i r 1911 r epor t i n c l u d e d a c i v i c cent re p r o p o s a l , prepared by John M. L y l e , an a r c h i t e c t 74 t r a i n e d at the E c o l e des Beaux A r t s . A p l a n . o f the scheme appears on the. f o l l o w i n g page.. Proposed b u i l d i n g s are i n b l a c k . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note tha t U n i o n . S t a t i o n was b u i l t i n the recommended l o c a t i o n i n 1918 and the b u i l d i n g bounded by A l b e r t , Chestnut , L o u i s a and Terauley some time before t h a t . Both were i n the Beaux A r t s s t y l e . Fed e ra l Avenue was never cons t ruc ted but the c i v i c cent re s i t e i s now occupied by C i t y H a l l and Nathan P h i l l i p s Square, both b u i l t i n the mid -1960 ' s . (3) Vancouver: Entrance to S tan ley Park In Thomas Mawson's 1912 p l a n f o r the improvement of C o a l Harbour , he recommended tha t a p o r t i o n of i t be dammed, thus c r e a t i n g a c i r c u l a r 82 F i g . 9. — Toron to : P roposa l f o r Fede ra l Avenue and c i v i c c e n t r e . (Source: Report o f the  A d v i s o r y C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission, 1929) 83 pond (now Los t Lagoon) . The a x i a l l i n e o f Georgia S t r ee t extended through a s t a tue i n the cent re o f the pond and was te rminated on the o ther s i d e by a museum. A c r o s s - a x i s through the s ta tue would be c rea ted by the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a s tadium and r e s t a u r a n t / s o c i a l c en t r e , f a c i n g each o ther across the pond. "The e n t i r e scheme i s conceived a s . a grea t compos i t ion i n which ordered balance and symmetry predominate, the great museum which c lo se s the a x i a l l i n e down George ( s i c ) S t ree t be ing supported on the c r o s s - a x i s by the r e s t au ran t on the east and. the s tadium on the west , the f o r e s t p r o v i d i n g a unique background to the whole and a h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e s e t t i n g f o r the a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s . " ^ A b o u l e v a r d , 150 fee t wide and accommodating both v e h i c l e s and p e d e s t r i a n s , e n c i r c l e d the pond w h i l e i t was suggested tha t the c e n t r a l s t a tue should be an o b e l i s k 180 feet h i g h . Such a height- was needed " i n order to o b t a i n the c o r r e c t ba lance between (the s ta tue) and i t s su r round ings" . In g e n e r a l , Mawson. fe l t tha t S tan ley Park should be l e f t as n a t u r a l as p o s s i b l e over most o f i t s a r ea , the o n l y m o d i f i c a t i o n s b e i n g the improvement.of roads and footpaths and a " l i t t l e opening out of d i s t a n t views here and . the re" . Mawson's b e l i e f tha t the C o a l Harbour, scheme, should be l i n k e d to t h e . c i t y cent re i n some grand way l e d him to propose tha t Georg ia S t r ee t be.widened over i t s e n t i r e . l e n g t h and tha t a . r a i l w a y s t a t i o n be b u i l t a t the F a l s e Creek end and a c i v i c cent re somewhere i n the midd le . The c i v i c cent re would c o n s i s t o f a four-^block open square, around which, would be s i t u a t e d . . p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s . w h i l e a monument s tood i n the^cen t re . The a x i a l l i n e o f . G e o r g i a S t ree t wou ld . t he r e fo r e extend from the c l a s s i c a l columns o f . t h e museum entrance and the 84 imposing o b e l i s k to the c i v i c cent re monument and from there the -plaza, and entrance o f the r a i l w a y s t a t i o n . S C H E M E No 4 V I S U A L I S E D '•homing formal treatment of Coal Harbour F i g . 10 — Vancouver: Proposed S tan ley Park en t rance . (Source: T . H . Mawson, "Vancouver: A C i t y of O p t i m i s t s " , Town P l a n n i n g Review) 85 F i g . 11 — Vancouver: Plan showing Stanley Park entrance, Georgia Street, c i v i c centre, and railway s t a t i o n . (Source: T.H. Mawson, "Vancouver: A C i t y of Optimists", Town Planning Review) 86 I I I . The war y e a r s : 1914-1918 With the advent of the war, p l a n n i n g - a c t i v i t y i n Canadian m u n i c i p a l i t i e s l a r g e l y ceased w h i l e many of those who had been c o n t r i b u t i n g a r t i c l e s to the j o u r n a l s were now s i l e n t . Dur ing these y e a r s , p l a n n i n g thought was dominated by Thomas Adams and the Commission of Conse rva t i on , an o r g a n i z a t i o n appointed by the f e d e r a l government i n 1909.. The Commission's h o s t i n g of the 1914 N a t i o n a l Conference on C i t y P l a n n i n g and the subsequent h i r i n g o f Thomas Adams as Town P l ann ing A d v i s e r went a long way towards g i v i n g p l a n n i n g thought i n t h i s country a focus . A e s t h e t i c arguments began to be brushed a s i d e , and there arose a new concern f o r economy. Emphasis turned towards g u i d i n g fu ture growth r a t h e r than " c o s t l y r e p l a n n i n g " . The Commission made Annual Reports to the f e d e r a l government and p u b l i s h e d i t s own magazine, Town. P l a n n i n g and Conse rva t ion o f  L i f e . Dur ing t h i s p e r i o d , Thomas Adams wrote almost a l l the a r t i c l e s . The other three j o u n a l s — the Canadian Eng inee r , the .Canadian  M u n i c i p a l J o u r n a l and the Cont rac t Record — r e l i e d h e a v i l y on the Commission as a source of i n f o r m a t i o n . . Over o n e - h a l f of the Canadian p l ann ing a r t i c l e s p r i n t e d du r ing t h i s . p e r i o d had e i t h e r appeared o r i g i n a l l y i n Town P l a n n i n g and-Conserva t ion of L i f e or were r epor t s of the a c t i v i t i e s of the C i v i c Improvement.League — a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n set up by the Commission o f Conse rva t i on . In l a t e 1913, Canada had entered a p e r i o d of economic depress ion w h i l e 1914 marked the s t a r t of World War I . These events p robab ly a f f ec t ed p l ann ing thought i n a number of ways. F i r s t l y , the r e a l i t i e s 87 of Canada's economic s i t u a t i o n would have l e n t support to the p r a c t i c a l views be ing espoused by the Commission. Secondly , some p l a n n i n g advocates would undoubtedly have r e d i r e c t e d t h e i r energ ies to the war e f f o r t . T h i r d l y , most Canadian p l ann ing advocates had been employees o f e i t h e r m u n i c i p a l or p r o v i n c i a l governments; the economic c o n s t r a i n t s be ing exper ienced by these l e v e l s o f government would have s t i f l e d much of the enthusiasm — both at a p e r s o n a l and at an o f f i c i a l l e v e l . A l l these f a c t o r s would he lp to e x p l a i n the dominance o f Thomas Adams and the r e l a t i v e absence o f o ther v o i c e s . A . Thomas Adams and the Commission of Conse rva t ion The Commission o f Conse rva t ion had been, c rea ted by the L a u r i e r government i n 1 9 0 9 . 7 7 I t was charged w i t h c o n s i d e r i n g " a l l ques t ions which may be brought to i t s n o t i c e r e l a t i n g to the conse rva t i on and 78 b e t t e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f the n a t u r a l resources o f Canada". The Commiss ion ' s . concep t ion o f n a t u r a l resources encompassed tha t of human r e sou rces , and one of i t s f i r s t a c t i o n s was to appoint 79 D r . Char les A . Hodgetts as i t s A d v i s e r on P u b l i c H e a l t h . Hodge t t s ' c o n v i c t i o n tha t bad housing and conges t ion were c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to 80 c r ime , s o c i a l problems and d isease prompted the Commission to become i n v o l v e d i n the j o i n t f i e l d of housing and town p l a n n i n g . B r i t a i n ' s garden c i t i e s and suburbs and i t s Housing and Town P l a n n i n g Act were h e l d up as examples o f appropr i a t e ways to dea l w i t h hous ing 81 problems. The American n o t i o n o f the C i t y B e a u t i f u l was soon d i s m i s s e d . As e a r l y as 1912, Hodgetts c r i t i c i z e d t h i s s t y l e of p l a n n i n g , c a l l i n g i t 88 "a washing and a d e c o r a t i n g of the ou t s ide of the m u n i c i p a l p l a t t e r - a good t h i n g i n i t s way - w h i l e l e a v i n g the i n s i d e a slumdom, and the suburbs a pa rad i se for the l and s p e c u l a t o r " . Th i s passage appeared i n 1912 as pa r t o f the Commission's Annual Report and hence, few would have been exposed to i t . I t was not u n t i l two years l a t e r that the Commission began c o n t r i b u t i n g r e g u l a r a r t i c l e s to eng inee r ing and m u n i c i p a l j o u r n a l s . In 1914, the Commission d e c i d e d . " t o take up more a c t i v e l y the ques t i on o f housing and town p l a n n i n g " by h o s t i n g the s i x t h annual N a t i o n a l Conference on C i t y P l a n n i n g . I t was hoped tha t the conference would " s t reng then" and "advance" the p l a n n i n g move-ment " i n favour of a more s c i e n t i f i c town p l a n n i n g and more v igo rous a t t e n t i o n to the hous ing requirements o f the p o p u l a t i o n " . Shor t - t e rm goals were the " a r o u s a l o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t and the s e c u r i n g of l e g i s l a t i o n " . 8 3 F i g . 12 i s an advert isement f o r the conference which appeared 84 i n the Canadian M u n i c i p a l J o u r n a l . The degree of c l a r i t y and conciseness which i t e x h i b i t e d was new to Canadian p l a n n i n g thought . In a d d i t i o n , i t s substance was an accura te r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Commission's p l ann ing p e r s p e c t i v e . Throughout i t s l i f e , the Commission would cont inue to be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s emphasis on c o n t r o l l i n g fu ture devlopment, i t s c r i t i c i s m s o f c o s t l y and s u p e r f i c i a l improve-ment p r o j e c t s which aimed at r ep l ann ing a l r eady b u i l t - u p a r eas . I t s concern f o r maximiz ing "convenience, c l e a n l i n e s s , happiness and h e a l t h " i n c i t i e s and i t s o v e r r i d i n g emphasis on educa t ion and implementa t ion . 194 89 THE CANADIAN MUNICIPAL JOURNAL Vol. X., No. IV. CITY PLANNING IN CANADA WHAT CITY PLANNING IS It is the selection and adaptation of the site of a city o as to obtain the maximum of convenience, cleanliness, and health of alt the citizens. It i» a definite plan of orderly development into which improvement wilt fit as it is needed. cewM-rinM or coA-stRVA-ncm WHAT CITY PUNNING IS NOT It is not merely superficial beautificati&n. town so n j S n o t extravagance, dreams or fads, happiness It is not the immediate execution ui the whole plan. It is not wholesale alterations at great expanse* with no assured financial returns. It is not merely expensive boulevards and parks available only to the rich. CITY PLANNING AIMS 1— To provide a clean aad beal'.hy home for each and every citizen. 2 — To epuipt cities with good streets with proper provision for rapid trans-portation to and from business sections, ar.dv.ith properly planned and boulevard-ed residential streets. 3 — To diagnose the troubles of a commun-ity from all points of view, social, political, economic and aesthetic. 4'—It would determine the relative urgency of the various needs, and plan a constant programme of procedure cover-ing every phase of the subject. 5—It would concentrate on these matters in turn and get concrete results. WHAT HAS BEEN DONE IN CANADA. 1— Legislation covering certain aspects cf the problem has been passed by the legislatures of New Brunswick. Quehcc, Ontario and^ 'AIberta. 2— A few instances of plans for garden cit.es, and small suburban areas; incomplete and some-times ill-advised "park and driveway systems, etc. WHAT REMAINS TO BE DONE CANADA. 1—Arouse public interest and sentiment. 9—Get at the actual conditions. 3 — Create an organized community •pirit-4— Cultivate civic foresight. 6—Make planning worth while by giving a large degree of municipal control. 6—Provide and enforce carefully con-sidered legislation in each of the provin-ces. Finally, will your city or town be represented by a delegation at the great International Conference on City Planning to be held in Toronto, on May 25-27, 1914? The Dominion Government will act as hosts and every Canadian city and town should have its delegates in attendance. : Write the Commission of Conservation, Ottawa, for particulars. F i g . 12 — Advert isement fo r the N a t i o n a l Conference on C i t y P l a n n i n g , hosted by the Commission o f Conse rva t i on . (Source: Canadian M u n i c i p a l J o u r n a l , V o l . 10, A p r i l 1914) 90 Papers read at the conference covered a v a r i e t y of t o p i c s i n c l u d i n g German d i s t r i c t i n g (the forerunner o f z o n i n g ) , garden c i t i e s , r a p i d t r a n s i t , the s i z e and d i s t r i b u t i o n of p laygrounds , Eng land ' s exper iences w i t h p l ann ing l e g i s l a t i o n and a d r a f t Town P l a n n i n g Ac t f o r Canada. A e s t h e t i c concerns were consp icuous ly 85 absent , and there was g rea te r concern f o r economy and e f f i c i e n c y . In h i s c l o s i n g address to the conference , C l i f f o r d S i f t o n stated:" " . . . ( 0 ) u r people must apprec ia t e the i d e a tha t town p l ann ing i s not born w i t h the i n t e n t of spending money, i t i s not s imply a new k i n d of ext ravagence, but i s conceived w i t h the i d e a o f p r even t ing extravagence and p reven t ing waste and g e t t i n g good va lue f o r the money which i s expended."86 F o l l o w i n g the conference, o ther j o u r n a l s spoke e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y of new d i r e c t i o n s i n p l a n n i n g , t h e i r arguments be ing presented w i t h a new-found f o r c e f u l n e s s . . The 'Canadian Engineer p o i n t e d to the conference as evidence o f progress "toward an i n t e l l i g e n t and s c i e n -87 t i f i c treatment of the growth o f our towns and c i t i e s " w h i l e the Canadian M u n i c i p a l J o u r n a l commented: "Perhaps the keynote of the thought tha t permeated the Conference was expressed by the Hon. Mr . S i f t o n at the Banquet when he c la imed tha t Town P l a n n i n g today was not the fad o f i d e a l i s t s , nor the expendi ture of money f o r the sake o f change or show, but tha t i t meant tremendous economy both i n money and i n l i v e s . " ^ 8 89 Thomas Adams had represented the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e of Great B r i t a i n at the conference, and i n October 1814, he was h i r e d as Town P l a n n i n g A d v i s e r to the Commission. H i s r e p u t a t i o n preceded h im. An attempt to secure h i s s e r v i c e s had been made the p rev ious 91 year but the request tha t he be loaned by the L o c a l Government Board of Great B r i t a i n f o r a few months was turned down. At tha t t ime , the chairman o f the P u b l i c Hea l th Committee (of the Commission of Conserva t ion) had c a l l e d him "the one man (at the t h i r d annual N a t i o n a l Conference on C i t y P l a n n i n g i n P h i l a d e l p h i a ) who appa ren t ly had ve ry sound and b u s i n e s s - l i k e ideas on the subjec t o f housing . . i . „ 90 and town p l ann ing . Adams, who was born i n Edinburgh i n 1871, had been t r a i n e d as a l awyer . P r i o r to h i s a r r i v a l i n Canada, he had spent almost f i v e years as an Inspec to r o f the L o c a l Government Board of Great B r i t a i n , the body tha t had done a l l the p r e l i m i n a r y work f o r and was now charged w i t h a d m i n i s t e r i n g the 1909 Housing and Town P l a n n i n g A c t . He had r e c e n t l y been e l e c t e d f i r s t p r e s iden t o f the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e of Great B r i t a i n and was a l s o an Honorable F e l l o w o f the Garden C i t i e s and Town P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , an E x t e r n a l Examiner o f C i v i c Design at the U n i v e r s i t y o f L i v e r p o o l , and a F e l l o w o f the Surveyors ' I n s t i t u t e . In the past he had been s e c r e t a r y of the F i r s t Garden C i t y Company at Letchworth and had worked on s e v e r a l garden suburbs. Throughout h i s years i n Canada, Adams s t r e s s e d B r i t i s h p l a n n i n g models — garden suburbs, c o n t r o l l i n g new development, and the need f o r l e g i s l a t i o n . Emphasis was on l e g i s l a t i o n , r e s e a r c h , demonstra t ion p r o j e c t s , educa t ion and a d v i c e . One o f h i s major concerns was that recommendations be implementable . Adams' f i r s t p r i o r i t y was g iven to s e c u r i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . By the end o f 1918, he cou ld c l a i m to have had a hand i n e i t h e r d r a f t i n g 92 o r amending the Town P l a n n i n g Ac t s of seven o f the n ine p r o v i n c e s . Dur ing these y e a r s , Adams t r a v e l l e d w i d e l y across the count ry g i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e and adv ice to a l l l e v e l s o f government, o r g a n i z i n g conferences and l e c t u r i n g to u n i v e r s i t y and c i t i z e n s ' groups. H i s involvement i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of a number o f s p e c i f i c p lans was viewed as under tak ing demonstra t ion p r o j e c t s ; c h i e f among these were (1) a r e g i o n a l p l a n f o r Sa in t John, (2) the r ep l ann ing o f H a l i f a x ( a f t e r the e x p l o s i o n ) , (3) a p l a n f o r Kipawa, a resource town to be b u i l t on Lake Temiskaming i n Nor thern Quebec and (4) a model "garden suburb" i n Ottawa ( L i n d e n l e a ) . In 1916, he i n i t i a t e d the format ion of a n a t i o n a l C i v i c Improve-ment League; i t s aims were to encourage and p u b l i c i z e the cause o f " c i v i c improvement", to undertake resea rch and to p rov ide a means by. which a l l the v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s across Canada cou ld exchange v i e w s . Founding members i n c l u d e d Adams, S i f t o n , J . S . Woodsworth o f the Canadian Welfare League (Winnipeg) , F . G . Todd, G. Frank Beer o f the Toronto Housing Company, and Noulan Cauchon, an Ottawa eng inee r , l a t e r to become an o r i g i n a t o r of the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e o f Canada and chairman of the Ottawa Town P l a n n i n g Commission. In h i s w r i t i n g s , Adams was a f o r c e f u l arid a r t i c u l a t e spokesman 92 f o r p l a n n i n g . He was a l s o p r o l i f i c , w r i t i n g most o f the p l a n n i n g a r t i c l e s which appeared du r ing these y e a r s . H i s w r i t i n g s and work w i t h the Commission went a long way towards o r g a n i z i n g p l a n n i n g i n t h i s country and g i v i n g i t d i r e c t i o n . 93 B. The r o l e of c i v i c beauty In g e n e r a l , beauty was r e l ega t ed to a ve ry minor r o l e du r ing t h i s p r i o d . There was no more t a l k of c r e a t i n g a " c i t y b e a u t i f u l " except i n the i d e a l sense of a b e a u t i f u l c i t y be ing f i r s t and foremost a hea l t hy and convenient c i t y . But the n o t i o n o f c i v i c beauty wasn ' t e n t i r e l y absent . Beg inn ing i n 1914, i t became a l l o f a sudden f a sh ionab le to c r i t i c i z e the monumental p l ann ing a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the C i t y B e a u t i f u l movement. Such c r i t i c i s m was u s u a l l y fo l l owed by a d i s c u s s i o n o f o ther areas of p l ann ing endeavour. Cha r l e s A . Hodgetts q u a l i f i e d as the movement's severes t c r i t i c when, i n 1914, he wrote i n the Canadian M u n i c i p a l J o u r n a l : "We do not want the t h r i l l s of the American method which parades i n a l l the noon-day ef fu lgence of the C i t y B e a u t i f u l , and pays no a t t e n t i o n to the great e s s e n t i a l which i s the Town H e a l t h y . A system which p rov ides f o r boulevards and parks f o r the m i l l i o n s , w h i l e i t permi ts them be ing herded together i n skyscraper o f f i c e s and monstrous tenements and apartment houses i s not good enough f o r C a n a d a . " 9 3 Thomas Adams, w h i l e c r i t i c a l o f the C i t y B e a u t i f u l , always f e l t tha t beauty (and e s p e c i a l l y n a t u r a l beauty) had a r i g h t f u l (a l though sma l l ) p l a c e i n p l a n n i n g . He f a u l t e d the C h i c a g o - i n s p i r e d Ottawa plan" and o thers l i k e i t not so much f o r what they d i d do but f o r what they d i d n ' t do. I n p a r t i c u l a r , they f a i l e d to d e a l w i t h cur ren t problems. They d i d n ' t address the ques t i on of c o n t r o l l i n g urban development, c o n c e n t r a t i n g i n s t e a d on the r e p l a n n i n g o f e x i s t i n g a reas . They made no attempt at comprehensiveness, hav ing ignored 94 eng inee r ing and h e a l t h p e r p e c t i v e s . F i n a l l y , implementat ion cos t s 94 were beyond a c i t y ' s f i n a n c i a l r e sources . Whi le the C i t y B e a u t i f u l - s t y l e o f p l a n n i n g was found l a c k i n g on a l l these, counts , Adams po in t ed out tha t " t h i s does not mean 95 tha t the a e s t h e t i c fea tures of town p l a n n i n g are to be i g n o r e d " . In f a c t , he thought t r a d i t i o n a l C i t y B e a u t i f u l elements were d e s i r a b l e urban fea tures but tha t they were p rec luded at the present t ime 96 by economic c o n s t r a i n t s and other needs tha t were more p r e s s i n g . In h i s r epor t on . the r ep l ann ing o f H a l i f a x , Adams s t a t e d tha t "one must be p r a c t i c a l i n method to get a t h i n g done at a l l - and i t i s a waste of t ime to set up i d e a l i s t i c Utop ias o f what we would 97 l i k e to do but cannot" . The f o l l o w i n g passage i l l u s t r a t e s w e l l Adams' genera l a t t i t u d e * towards c i v i c beauty . I t i s from a 1915 i s sue of Town P l a n n i n g and Conse rva t ion o f L i f e . "The worthy d e s i r e of many c i t i z e n s to make t h e i r c i t i e s and towns b e a u t i f u l , to secure wide roads , f i n e groups o f b u i l d i n g s , l a r g e open spaces , e t c . , must not be l o s t s i g h t o f , but a f t e r a l l these a r e , to some extent at l e a s t , the l u x u r i e s and not the n e c e s s i t i e s of the c i t y or town. We should p l a n to have a r t i f i c i a l beauty but not at the expense of bus iness e f f i c i e n c y , or h e a l t h , or c l e a n l i n e s s . N a t u r a l beauty can u s u a l l y be ob ta ined by mere p l a n n i n g and wi thou t e x t r a c o s t . A c i t y tha t i s h e a l t h y and c l e a n may be b e a u t i f u l even i f i t be wi thou t expensive ornament; i t can never be r e a l l y b e a u t i f u l i f i t i s unheal thy or unc lean , however o s t e n t a t i o u s i t s p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s may be."98 Whi le there may have been l i t t l e room f o r the C i t y B e a u t i f u l , t h e - i d e a of adding n a t u r a l touches to the c i t y cont inued to r e c e i v e 95 support i n the j o u r n a l s . However, goals had been s c a l e d down c o n s i d e r -a b l y . There was no longer any t a l k o f ex t ens ive park and boulevard systems; r a t h e r i t was t r e e - p l a n t i n g and s m a l l e r s c a l e b e a u t i f i c a t i o n e f f o r t s which were advocated. For example, M o n t r e a l ' s C i t y Improvement League sponsored a c lean-up week and undertook the c u l t i v a t i o n of a 99 vacant l o t as a demonstra t ion p r o j e c t w h i l e the S t . Thomas H o r t i -c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y was p r a i s e d on a number o f occas ions f o r hav ing p l an t ed 20,000 t u l i p s a long r o a d s i d e s . F i n a l l y , there were a few anomal ies . For example, A . A . Stoughton d i scussed the subjec t o f s t r e e t b e a u t i f i c a t i o n i n the Cont rac t Record . Stoughton was a p ro fe s so r o f a r c h i t e c t u r e at the U n i v e r s i t y o f Mani toba and was a member of the Grea ter Winnipeg P l a n Commission. H i s e f f o r t s a f t e r the war would r e s u l t i n the c r e a t i o n o f a bou levard approach to the Mani toba L e g i s l a t u r e w h i l e i n the l a t e 1920 's he would become a s t rong advocate of a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n t r o l . In t h i s a r t i c l e , Stoughton lamented the d e c l i n e of the C i t y B e a u t i f u l , s t a t i n g tha t " f o r the l a s t few years we have been so i n d u s t r i o u s i n t e l l i n g c i t y o f f i c i a l s and commissions tha t c i t y p l ann ing does.not mean the c i t y b e a u t i f u l tha t we have almost persuaded ou r se lves tha t i t i s t r u e " . He went on to t a l k o f the importance o f s t r e e t a m e n i t i e s : " . . . t h e chance to pause i n the mad rush to get a gl impse of n o b l e r t h ings than t r o l l e y c a r s ; to get a new h o l d on common l i f e by a sugges-t i o n of greatness from a monument or of grace from an objec t of a r t ; to get the u p l i f t i n g e f f e c t of a noble colonnade or tower seen at the end o f a v i s t a ; or to get a refreshment of mind from the greenness o f ordered t r ees or sward".101 96 C. The p lans Wi th the excep t ion of the work of the Commission of C o n s e r v a t i o n , most p l ann ing a c t i v i t y i n Canadian c i t i e s had d r i e d up because o f the war. Reference cou ld be found to on ly two p l a n n i n g p r o j e c t s : (1) a c i v i c cent re scheme f o r Vancouver, f o r which a compe t i t i on was h e l d i n l a t e 1914, and (2) the p l a n f o r Ottawa, which had been commissioned i n 1913 but wasn ' t completed u n t i l two years l a t e r . The c i v i c cent re compe t i t i on was w r i t t e n up on ly i n the Cont rac t  Record , and no diagram accompanied the a r t i c l e . The d i s c u s s i o n here i s based main ly on an a r t i c l e i n the Town P l a n n i n g Review, a contem-porary B r i t i s h j o u r n a l . S i m i l a r l y , the Ottawa p l a n r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n . When the Fede ra l P l a n Commission was e s t a b l i s h e d , the Canadian Engineer noted tha t " f e d e r a l b u i l d i n g s , p a r k s , r a i l r o a d s , s t r e e t s , boulevards and the genera l v iew from C a p i t a l H i l l w i l l be w i t h i n the scope of the Commission's a c t i v i t i e s " . Then, i n a somewhat contemptuous f a s h i o n , the j o u r n a l ' s e d i t o r s wondered a loud whether Ottawa would ever have pure water . Th i s was a re ference to s e v e r a l c h o l e r a outbreaks i n the f i r s t years o f the cen tury ; the Canadian Engineer^cons idered the s e c u r i n g o f an adequate water supply to be f a r more important 102 than any p l a n to make Ottawa a " r e a l c a p i t a l " . When the p l a n was f i n a l l y submi t ted , the Canadian Engineer summarized i t s c e n t r a l fea tures wi thout comment w h i l e the o ther j o u r n a l s p a i d no a t t e n t i o n . (1) Vancouver: C i v i c cent re In 1914, a C i t y B e a u t i f u l A s s o c i a t i o n (soon renamed the P l a n n i n g 97 and B e a u t i f y i n g A s s o c i a t i o n ) sponsored a c i v i c cent re compe t i t i on fo r the e i g h t - a c r e s i t e bounded by Pender , B e a t t y , Georgia and Hami l ton . When C i t y C o u n c i l refused to grant $1500 f o r p r i z e money, the B . C . Telephone Company made the funds a v a i l a b l e . T h i r t y - s e v e n 103 e n t r i e s were r e c e i v e d , and Thomas Adams chose the winner . The winn ing des ign belonged to Theodor Korner .and R . H . Mat tocks , draftsmen i n the o f f i c e of T . H . Mawson and Sons. 104 Korner and Mattocks proposed a scheme which would r e q u i r e the c l o s i n g of p o r t i o n s o f Cambie and Dunsmuir S t r ee t s and the opening of two shor t new d i a g o n a l roads , o r i g i n a t i n g at the corner of Cambie and Pender. The apex of the t r i a n g l e formed by the d iagona ls was to be occupied by a c i r c u l a r - s h a p e d formal garden set aga ins t a new C i t y H a l l . As can be seen i n F i g . 13, the arrangement of s t r e e t s , open space and p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s , p rov ided the oppor tun i ty f o r a very e f f e c t i v e v i s t a . The d iagona l s were viewed both as pa r t of a compo-s i t i o n and as a means to f a c i l i t a t e t r a f f i c . A modern c r i t i c would be qu ick to note tha t the roads a l s o served to fragment the nor the rn end.of the c i v i c cen t re but t h i s was apparen t ly not a c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n 1915. The area behind C i t y H a l l was to be. f ree of through t r a f f i c , n e c e s s i t a t i n g the c l o s u r e of two s t r e e t s . The c e n t r e ' s main a x i s fo l lowed the l i n e of Cambie S t ree t and c o n s i s t e d of two p l azas connected by a broad avenue. The c r o s s - a x i s was a l i g n e d approximate ly w i t h Dunsmuir, and the proposed p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s were to be arranged symmet r i ca l l y around the two axes . Thomas Adams cons idered the scheme to be-a very f i n e one d e s p i t e 98 the cons ide rab le expendi ture tha t would be i n v o l v e d . At the same time he was a s t rong b e l i e v e r i n the n o t i o n tha t p l ann ing should not be approached i n t h i s manner and took "the l i b e r t y o f v o l u n t e e r i n g a separate r e p o r t " on the need f o r a comprehensive p l a n f o r Greater Vancouver. Th i s r epor t s a i d i n p a r t : "However e x c e l l e n t separate schemes may be f o r c r e a t i n g c i v i c and u n i v e r s i t y c e n t r e s , new harbours , r a i l w a y t e r m i n a l s , i n d u s t r i a l areas and means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , they w i l l a l l l a c k the c h i e f q u a l i t y o f a proper c i t y p l a n i f they are not cons idered i n r e l a t i o n to the genera l bus iness i n t e r e s t s and h e a l t h o f the c i t i z e n s . " - ' - 0 - ' F i g . 13 — Winning des ign f o r Vancouver c i v i c c en t r e . (Source: Thomas Adams, "Vancouver C i v i c Centre Compe t i t i on" , Town P l a n n i n g Review) 99 (2) Ottawa: Report of the F e d e r a l P l a n Commission The Fede ra l P l a n Commission had been e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1913 to take " a l l necessary s teps to draw up and pe r f ec t a comprehensive scheme or p l a n l o o k i n g to the fu ture growth of the C i t y o f Ottawa and the C i t y of H u l l , and t h e i r e n v i r o n s , and p a r t i c u -l a r l y p r o v i d i n g f o r the l o c a t i o n , l a y i n g out and b e a u t i f i c a t i o n o f parks and connec t ing bou leva rds , the l o c a t i o n and a r c h i t e c t u r a l cha rac t e r of p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s and adequate and convenient arrangements f o r t r a f f i c and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i t h i n the area i n q u e s t i o n . " E . H . Bennet t , Burnham's a s s i s t a n t on both the Chicago and San F r a n c i s c o p l a n s , was h i r e d as Consul tan t on the C i t y P l a n and E . L . Cousins o f Toronto as C o n s u l t i n g Eng inee r . Drawings were done by J u l e s G u e r i n , the man who pa in t ed the wa te rco lours f o r the Chicago p l a n . As one might n a t u r a l l y expec t , Washington was c i t e d as "one of the f i n e s t c a p i t a l s i n the w o r l d " and an . app rop r i a t e model f o r Ottawa^while many o f the p l a n ' s fea tures were c l e a r l y de r i ved from the Chicago p l a n . Recommendations covered seven major a reas : (1) s t r e e t s , (2) r a i l w a y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , (3) government b u i l d i n g s , (4) d i s t r i c t c o n t r o l ( z o n i n g ) , (5) p a r k s , parkways and p laygrounds , (6) water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and (7) s t r e e t r a i l w a y s and o ther u t i l i t i e s . Both u t i l i t a r i a n and a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were deemed impor tan t . "The two c h i e f f a c t o r s i n making a c i t y a t t r a c t i v e a re , f i r s t , the convenience o f i t s arrangements i n respec t to the b u s i n e s s , comfort and enjoyment of i t s i n h a b i t a n t s , and, secondly , i t s genera l aspect i n regard to d i g n i t y and beauty."107 100 I t was s t r e s s e d that the p l a n was not to be undertaken a t once, tha t i t was merely a guide f o r c o n t r o l l i n g growth. I t was s t r o n g l y recommended, however, tha t a F e d e r a l D i s t r i c t Commission be e s t a b l i s h e d to oversee t h i s growth and c a r r y out the p l a n . Bennett s t a t ed tha t 108 the p l a n cou ld be implemented wi thout great cos t but nowhere i n the repor t was the ques t i on of expendi ture or the problems o f implement-a t i o n r e a l l y addressed. S t r e e t s . I n order to f a c i l i t a t e t r a f f i c i n a c i t y fragmented by waterways and r a i l l i n e s , a number o f recommendations were made i n v o l v i n g w iden ings , e x t e n s i o n s , connec t ions , grade s e p a r a t i o n s , the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f b r i d g e s , the rearrangement o f b r idge approaches and the development of highways u s ing abandoned r a i l w a y r i g h t s - o f - w a y . No attempt was made to superimpose.a system o f d iagona l s on the p r e - e x i s t i n g road network because the c i t y was viewed as be ing adequately s u p p l i e d w i t h a s e r i e s o f r a d i a l s converging i n the v i c i n i t y o f the Par l i ament B u i l d i n g s . A few of the recommendations had an a e s t h e t i c b a s i s ; f o r example, i t was suggested tha t L a u r i e r S t r ee t be developed as a heavy t r a f f i c a r t e r y i n order to r e l i e v e W e l l i n g t o n S t r e e t . Th i s l a t t e r s t r e e t ran past the Par l i ament B u i l d i n g s caus ing a s i t u a t i o n f e l t to be " o b j e c t i o n a b l e " . I t was a l s o recommended tha t a shor t d i agona l be b u i l t across the c a n a l , p r o v i d i n g a d e f i n i n g edge to the proposed m u n i c i p a l c e n t r e . C i v i c c e n t r e . I t was recommended tha t a m u n i c i p a l c i v i c cent re be developed i n the v i c i n i t y o f the Grand Trunk S t a t i o n ( future Union S t a t i o n ) . ..The r a i l w a y s t a t i o n and post o f f i c e were to be on 101 one s ide of the cana l . and C i t y H a l l , Court House and other b u i l d i n g s on the o the r . The r a i l w a y t r acks and cana l would be l a r g e l y covered over by a p l a z a , which i n t u r n would open up more area f o r t r a f f i c . "The t r a v e l l e r who a r r i v e s i n Ottawa w i l l s tep out upon an a t t r a c t i v e scene as he emerges on the P l a z a from the s t a t i o n . The view n o r t h -ward w i l l be f r e e , f o r the present Post O f f i c e w i l l have been removed. At h i s r i g h t he w i l l see the Chateau L a u r i e r and the East B l o c k of the Par l i ament B u i l d i n g s , w i t h t rees i n the open spaces and t h e . r i v e r and the d i s t a n t L a u r e n t i a n mountains i n the f a r t h e r background."109 With respec t to the f e d e r a l government, the Par l i ament B u i l d i n g s were p r a i s e d fo r t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r e and harmony. P a r t i c u l a r mention was made of the s i l h o u e t t e c rea ted by the arrangement of "towers and p a v i l i o n s " se t aga ins t a background of "wooded s l o p e s " and "sweeping" h i l l s . Al though i t was r e g r e t t e d tha t the Par l i ament B u i l d i n g s l acked a main a x i a l approach, there were no recommendations made to r e c t i f y the s i t u a t i o n . Since fu r the r expansion of government o f f i c e s was i n e v i t a b l e , the Commission recommended tha t space be reserved ..west a long W e l l i n g t o n S t r ee t and no r th a long .Sussex S t r e e t , fo rming .a ve ry e longated L-shaped arrangement. "The v a r i o u s s u b d i v i s i o n s of the e n t i r e compos i t ion are connected, not on ly by W e l l i n g t o n S t r ee t and Sussex S t r e e t , but a l s o by a succes s ion of cou r tya rds , walks and d r i v e s . " H O I t was f e l t t ha t new b u i l d i n g s should be made to harmonize w i t h e x i s t i n g ones, "never competing w i t h , but always r e c a l l i n g the present group". F i n a l l y , s i n c e the government b u i l d i n g s would on ly occupy one s i d e o f W e l l i n g t o n S t r e e t , i t would.be necessary to acqu i re 102 a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n t r o l over the o ther s i d e — c o n t r o l over " h e i g h t , c o l o u r , m a t e r i a l and genera l a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n , and to some extent the uses to which the b u i l d i n g s may be put"."'""'"''' P a r k s . The Commission env i s ioned a comprehensive system o f pa rks , parkways and p laygrounds . To t h i s end, numerous recommendations were made tha t i f c a r r i e d ou t , would inc rease park area from 1720 to 3160 a c r e s , bou levard area from 3 1/2 to 10 square m i l e s and wa te r -112 f ron t parkway area from 10 1/2 to 46 square m i l e s . Major recom-mendations i n c l u d e d the a c q u i s i t i o n o f an ext remely l a r g e f o r e s t r ese rve i n the Gat ineau H i l l s and a l a r g e suburban r e c r e a t i o n ground i n the southern pa r t of the c i t y . S p e c i a l mention was made of the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f a parkway connec t ing the Pa r l i amen t B u i l d i n g s and 113 Rideau H a l l , a p o r t i o n o f which had a l r eady been completed by the Ottawa Improvement Commission ( accord ing to one of Todd's p rev ious recommendations). F i n a l l y , the Commission s t r e s s e d the need to acqu i r e as much o f the H u l l wa te r f ron t as p o s s i b l e . Th i s was neces-sary i n order to ensure a good view from the Par l i ament B u i l d i n g s a l though the Commission a l s o warned aga ins t i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h industry. ' ' '" '" 4 Other elements o f the p l a n . These comprised a ve ry l a r g e pa r t o f the p l a n . Some o f the more important recommendations d e a l t w i t h the implementa t ion o f a zoning scheme,. the s e t t i n g up o f i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s , the p r o t e c t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l a reas , the rearrangement of r a i l l i n e s and the b u i l d i n g of r a p i d t r a n s i t l i n e s to make more l and a v a i l a b l e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l use . 103 F i g . 14 — Ottawa: C i v i c cent re s i t e . (Source: Fede ra l P l a n Commission, Report) 104 F i g . 15 — Ottawa: Proposed c i v i c c en t r e . (Source: Fede ra l P l a n Commission, Report) 105 I V . The C i t y E f f i c i e n t : 1919-1924 A. P l a n n i n g thought P l a n n i n g a r t i c l e s cont inued to appear i n the Canadian M u n i c i p a l  J o u r n a l (renamed the M u n i c i p a l Review of Canada i n 1922) and to a l e s s e r extent i n the Cont rac t Record . A f t e r World War I , the number of a r t i c l e s devoted to p l a n n i n g i n the Canadian Engineer i nc reased d r a m a t i c a l l y , t r ans forming i t i n t o a major v e h i c l e f o r the promotion of p l a n n i n g thought . I n a d d i t i o n , each j o u r n a l r e g u l a r l y r e p r i n t e d a r t i c l e s from the J o u r n a l of the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e of Canada, which began p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1920. In 1918 Adams had taken on four a s s i s t a n t s : A . G . D a l z e l l and H . L . Seymour to he lp w i t h town p l ann ing schemes i n the west and east r e s p e c t i v e l y , W.D. Cromarty to work on model house designs"'""'"^ 116 and A l f r e d B u c k l e y , as h i s s e c r e t a r y . A f t e r the war , Adams h i m s e l f focussed l e s s on the theory of town p l a n n i n g and more on housing ( e . g . drawing up a d ra f t Housing A c t , a d v i s i n g on a $25 m i l l i o n f e d e r a l housing loan) and on what he cons idered to be demonstra t ion p r o j e c t s ( e . g . L i n d e n l e a ) . C l i f f o r d S i f t o n r e s igned as chairman i n 1919, which was the 117 same year the Commission made i t s l a s t Annual Repor t . The Com-m i s s i o n was a b o l i s h e d i n 1921, apparen t ly because i t was f e l t to 118 be d u p l i c a t i n g the s e r v i c e s of o ther departments. Thomas Adams was r e t a i n e d as Town P l a n n i n g A d v i s e r to the f e d e r a l government, a post tha t he h e l d u n t i l 1923. Between 1923 and 1930, he was D i r e c t o r of the Reg iona l P l a n o f New York and E n v i r o n s . 106 In 1919 the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e o f Canada was founded by a group of e igh teen p r o f e s s i o n a l s , f i v e o f whom were Adams and h i s 119 four a s s i s t a n t s . At the group 's second meeting i n 1920, bylaws and a c o n s t i t u t i o n were adopted, and p u b l i c a t i o n of the J o u r n a l was begun a few months l a t e r . The o r g a n i z a t i o n was aimed p r i m a r i l y a t a r c h i t e c t s , engineers and surveyors a l though p r a c t i s i n g a r t i s t s and ' s o c i o l o g i s t s ' were e q u a l l y e l i g i b l e f o r membership. I n i t i a l member-sh ip s tood at over 100, and Thomas Adams was i t s f i r s t p r e s i d e n t . Other p r e s iden t s would i n c l u d e J . P . Hynes, Noulan Cauchon, James Ewing, Horace L . Seymour, Percy E . Nobbs and A r t h u r G. D a l z e l l . The I n s t i t u t e ' s o b j e c t i v e s were o u t l i n e d i n the f i r s t i s s u e . These were: "(a) to advance the study of town p l a n n i n g , c i v i c des ign and k i n d r e d s u b j e c t s , and of the a r t s and sc iences a p p l y i n g to these s u b j e c t s , (b) to promote the s c i e n t i f i c and a r t i s t i c development of l and i n urban and r u r a l d i s t r i c t s , (c) to secure the A s s o c i a t i o n o f those i n t e r e s t e d i n the study of Town P l a n n i n g and to promote t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . " 1 2 0 These o b j e c t i v e s were r e f i n e d i n 1923. The i n t e n t o f the I n s t i t u t e remained e s s e n t i a l l y the same but the new o b j e c t i v e s e x p l i c i t l y emphasized p l a n n i n g as a p r o f e s s i o n and the c r e a t i o n of job o p p o r t u n i -t i e s . The I n s t i t u t e ' s o r i g i n a l o b j e c t i v e s gave equa l emphasis to both the a r t i s t i c and the s c i e n t i f i c but by 1923, these concepts had g iven way to p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge, p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and 121 the p r o f e s s i o n a l p l anne r . By 1919 Canadian p l ann ing thought had entered the e ra o f the 107 C i t y E f f i c i e n t . F a v o u r i t e t o p i c s i n c l u d e d z o n i n g , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , hous ing , the c o n t r o l of suburban development, r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of i n d u s t r y , skyscrapers and garden c i t i e s . Many a r t i c l e s had become very t e c h n i c a l i n na tu re ; e . g . the s p e c i f i -c a t i o n o f app rop r i a t e symbols and co lou r s f o r a zoning map. To most w r i t e r s du r ing t h i s p e r i o d , town p l a n n i n g i m p l i e d f o r e s i g h t , a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r fu ture growth. I t was seen as a s t r a t egy that would b r i n g about the needed order and e f f i c i e n c y w h i l e m i n i m i z i n g the cos t to the taxpayer . Zoning was i t s c h i e f t o o l , and i n f a c t , the two concepts (town p l ann ing and zoning) were v i r t u a l l y i n s e p a r a b l e . W r i t e r s never seemed to t i r e o f p r o c l a i m i n g that town p l a n n i n g , l a r g e l y through zoning and b u i l d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s , p a i d i t s own way and even y i e l d e d monetary r e t u r n s . They argued tha t i t would s t a b i l i z e and enhance p rope r ty v a l u e s , thus ensur ing the l and owner o f h i s investment w h i l e p r o v i d i n g the m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h inc reased tax revenue. I t would a l s o enable the m u n i c i p a l i t y to p rov ide the necessary s e r v i c e s wi thou t wasted expense; the money cou ld then be put towards e x t r a p u b l i c improvements such as connec t ing s t r e e t s tha t jogged. In the words of Frank Buck, of Vancouver, p l ann ing 122 was "fundamental ly and a l l the t ime a bus iness p r o p o s i t i o n " . Whi le i t was c la imed tha t town p l a n n i n g ' s c h i e f v i r t u e was f i n a n c i a l j - w r i t e r s a l s o asse r t ed i t cou ld a t t a c k problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h conges t ion and ' jumble b u i l d i n g ' . For example, ensur ing minimum l e v e l s of a i r and s u n l i g h t would l e a d to b e t t e r h e a l t h . Town p l ann ing would a l s o ensure an o r d e r l y environment and hence, one tha t was " s i g h t l y " or " b e a u t i f u l " . These views were r e f l e c t e d i n the d e f i n i t i o n 108 of p l a n n i n g adopted by the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e o f Canada i n 1923: "Town p l ann ing may be def ined as the s c i e n t i f i c and o r d e r l y d i s p o s i t i o n o f l and and b u i l d i n g s i n use and development w i t h a view to o b v i a t i n g conges t ion and s e c u r i n g economic and s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y , h e a l t h and w e l l - b e i n g i n urban and r u r a l communit ies."123 B. The r o l e o f c i v i c beauty This p e r i o d was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c o n f l i c t i n g o p i n i o n s . Some ignored the concept c o m p l e t e l y - w h i l e many w r i t e r s were anxious to d i s p e l the b e l i e f tha t p l a n n i n g was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b e a u t i f i c a t i o n . Some o f these c r i t i c i z e d "embel l ishment" schemes s p e c i f i c a l l y w h i l e o thers s t a t ed that they had p u r p o s e f u l l y omi t ted such schemes from t h e i r p r o p o s a l s . Many f e l t tha t beauty had a proper p l a c e i n town p l ann ing but weren ' t at a l l sure what tha t p l a c e was. Some argued tha t i t was a n a t u r a l by-product o f economy w h i l e o thers encouraged on ly those schemes which cos t no money. There was a r e l u c t a n c e to approach the i s s u e of c i v i c beauty d i r e c t l y and hence, i t remained a vague concept . I n f a c t , i t was q u i t e p o s s i b l e f o r the same w r i t e r to appear to take s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t v i ewpo in t s i n d i f f e r e n t a r t i c l e s . Many w r i t e r s cont inued to i s s u e sharp c r i t i c i s m s of the C i t y B e a u t i f u l movement. I t was a s s a i l e d aga in and aga in as be ing "mere embel l ishment" and an "expensive d e c o r a t i v e l u x u r y " . F u r t h e r , i t ignored urban problems; readers were reminded on more than one occas ion tha t "behind the great European boulevards the people were 124 crowded i n t o monstrous tenements". These w r i t e r s b e l i e v e d tha t town p l a n n i n g ' s progress was be ing h indered by those who a s s o c i a t e d 109 i t w i t h the C i t y B e a u t i f u l and were eager to po in t out tha t the two were not l i n k e d . In the words of J . P . Hynes, a one-t ime member of the Toronto G u i l d o f C i v i c A r t : "The o b j e c t i v e o f town p l a n n i n g i s to promote b e t t e r l i v i n g and work ing c o n d i t i o n s . The e a r l i e r p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the subjec t as the a r t i s t i c embellishment o f c i t i e s has c h i l l e d p u b l i c sympathy and i t i s now our task to convince the p u b l i c tha t town p l a n n i n g i s not a d e c o r a t i v e l u x u r y . Town p l a n n i n g i s an urgent and economic n e c e s s i t y and a ve ry e f f e c t i v e means f o r the p r e v e n t i o n o f waste i n c i v i c expendi ture and i n human l i f e . " 1 2 5 Some p lanners noted tha t they h a d . p u r p o s e f u l l y omi t ted C i t y B e a u t i f u l concepts from t h e i r a r t i c l e s . H . L . Seymour, i n address ing a group of eng ineers , s a i d : " I hope you w i l l note that I have s a i d no th ing t h i s evening of a Union S t a t i o n , o f s t r e e t w i d e n i n g , o f a c i v i c c e n t r e . I have t r i e d to conf ine my remarks to those th ings which can be done w i t h l i t t l e or no expense and which w i l l form a s t a b l e foundat ion f o r f u r t he r c o n s t r u c t i v e town p l a n n i n g work."126 Some, no t ab ly Thomas Adams, i n d i c a t e d tha t c i v i c beauty was d e s i r a b l e i f i t c o u l d be had wi thou t c o s t . For example, Adams complained tha t the b u i l d i n g s on Ottawa 's Sparks S t ree t were ove r -shadowing those on W e l l i n g t o n and r u i n i n g the v iew from the P a r l i a -ment B u i l d i n g s ; through c o n t r o l of b u i l d i n g he igh t s on Sparks S t r e e t , 127 beauty cou ld have been had wi thou t c o s t . I n another a r t i c l e , he caut ioned m u n i c i p a l i t i e s aga ins t e r e c t i n g "ext ravagant" p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s when "a b e a u t i f u l b u i l d i n g should cos t no more than an 128 ug ly one". In h i s p l a n f o r L i n d e n l e a , a r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n of Ottawa, economy and u t i l i t y were h i s pr imary o b j e c t i v e s when 110 des ign ing the road l ayou t but o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a e s t h e t i c touches at no e x t r a cos t were s e i z e d upon; e . g . a v i s t a of downtown Ottawa and the Par l i ament B u i l d i n g s and the c r e a t i o n of a s m a l l square 129 and f i v e converging s t r e e t s . S t i l l o thers argued tha t beauty was a n a t u r a l by-product of e f f i c i e n c y . I n an a r t i c l e on h i s home c i t y , James Ewing, of M o n t r e a l , s t a t e d : "Before c l o s i n g I would l i k e to say a word or two r ega rd ing the embell ishment of M o n t r e a l , about which a good d e a l has l a t e l y been spoken. C a n d i d l y , I have no l i k i n g f o r the word, i t savors i n my mind e n t i r e l y too much o f a r t i f i c i a l i t y , and i n any case i s beg inn ing at the wrong end. I f we can p l a n w i s e l y and w e l l on u s e f u l , economica l , o r d e r l y and symmetr i -c a l l i n e s , the c i t y w i l l n a t u r a l l y e m b e l l i s h i t s e l f . " 1 - 3 0 A few s t a t ed tha t beauty was a l e g i t i m a t e pa r t o f p l a n n i n g but 131 f a i l e d to e l abora t e f u r t h e r . For example, M o r r i s Knowles c la imed that p l a n n i n g must concern i t s e l f w i t h "the development of the e n t i r e c i t y f o r use as w e l l as beauty" but nowhere e l s e i n the a r t i c l e 132 d i d he mention beauty . And f i n a l l y , there were anomal ies . H e n r i Heber t , a s c u l p t o r , recommended an a r t j u r y f o r M o n t r e a l , hoping the t ime had gone by 133 when men would put the p r a c t i c a l before the b e a u t i f u l . Burn Helme, a s tuden t , i n h i s g lowing d e s c r i p t i o n of P a r i s , commented tha t "the n o b l e r i d e a l s are the b e t t e r ones and there i s no th ing mean or p e t t y about the p l a n of P a r i s ' 1 . 1 ^ 4 I l l C. The p lans U n l i k e past y e a r s , the p l ann ing p r o f e s s i o n now had i t s own v o i c e i n the form o f the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e of Canada. P lans prepared by the I n s t i t u t e ' s members were o f ten p u b l i s h e d i n one or more of the p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s . Th i s p e r i o d saw the p u b l i c a t i o n of two 'mode l ' p lans — K i t c h e n e r and Ottawa. Whi le they were d e f i n i t e l y not C i t y B e a u t i f u l p l a n s , they are summarized below i n order to i l l u s t r a t e the so r t of p lans deemed to be a p p r o p r i a t e . (1) K i t c h e n e r - W a t e r l o o : Comprehensive p l a n The major p l a n n i n g event i n Canada du r ing these years was the development o f a comprehensive p l a n and zon ing bylaw f o r K i t c h e n e r 135 and Wate r loo . I t s au thors , Thomas Adams . and H . L . Seymour, s t r e s sed tha t the p l a n was on ly a genera l g u i d e l i n e and tha t p l a n n i n g was a c o n t i n u a l p roces s . The p l a n c a l l e d f o r f i v e zon ing d i s t r i c t s : heavy i n d u s t r i a l , l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l and commercia l , b u s i n e s s , r e s i d e n t i a l and detached p r i v a t e r e s i d e n t i a l . In a d d i t i o n , a number of s p e c i f i c c o s t - c o n s c i o u s recommendations were made which the p lanners f e l t would a l l e v i a t e problems and he lp accommodate fu ture growth. For example, they advocated the a c q u i s i t i o n o f a l a r g e r i v e r f r o n t park on l and u n s u i t a b l e f o r o ther development and 160 acres of o ther pa rk land f o r fu ture needs. I n order to dea l w i t h t r a f f i c conges t ion on the main s t r e e t , i t was recommended tha t the b u i l d i n g l i n e be set back when l o t s were redeveloped and tha t a he igh t r e s t r i c t i o n be en fo rced . Widening 112 was not recommended because o f the cos t a l though a number of new s t r e e t s were proposed i n suburban areas which would serve to a l l e v i a t e some o f the conges t ion . A e s t h e t i c s weren ' t e n t i r e l y f o r g o t t e n . The p lanners recommended that i n order to c rea te a " d i g n i f i e d entrance to the c i t y " , two p r e s e n t l y - o c c u p i e d b l o c k s should g r a d u a l l y be acqu i red and redeveloped as a s t a t i o n approach. F i n a l l y , they recommended tha t "the l a n d around the new C i t y H a l l should be c a r e f u l l y planned under exper t a d v i c e , so as to make a d i g n i f i e d approach to the new b u i l d i n g and c rea te an environment tha t w i l l add to i t s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s as a monumental s t r u c t u r e . A s m a l l expendi ture i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n i n s e c u r i n g a proper des ign w i l l save the c i t y much money and by the d i s p l a y i t g ives to the b u i l d i n g add to i t s appearance. Some a c t i o n w i l l have to be taken by the c o u n c i l to p r o t e c t the C i t y H a l l Square from the e r e c t i o n o f undes i r ab l e s t r u c t u r e s on the frontages f a c i n g the square".136 The J o u r n a l of the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e o f Canada and to a l e s s e r e x t e n t , the Canadian Engineer devoted a great d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n to t h i s p l a n . I t was cons idered a model of app rop r i a t e p l a n n i n g w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n be ing p a i d to the zoning bylaw. A C i t y H a l l Square and s t a t i o n approach happened to be pa r t o f the p l a n but they r e c e i v e d no s p e c i a l emphasis. (2) Ottawa The o ther 'mode l ' p l a n of t h i s p e r i o d was prepared i n 1922 by Noulan Cauchon, chairman o f the r e c e n t l y - a p p o i n t e d Ottawa Town P l a n n i n g Commission. He wrote i n the J o u r n a l o f the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e o f 113 Canada: "Every Canadian c i t i z e n who v i s i t s Ottawa has the r i g h t t o f e e l , t h a t i n some r e a l sense he i s a c i t i z e n of the c a p i t a l c i t y and he has a r i g h t to expect tha t some e f f o r t w i l l be expended by. the_Dominion Government t o make the n a t i o n a l seat o f i t s opera t ions conform to the d i g n i t y , order and beauty which every count ry demands from i t s c a p i t a l c i t y . " 1 3 7 Desp i te what the p r o p o s a l appears to i m p l y , the r e s u l t i n g p l a n emphasized r a i l r o a d s , c a n a l s , a r t e r i a l roads , i n d u s t r i a l areas and z o n i n g . N a t i o n a l parks were advocated but o n l y on l and too low f o r inexpens ive sewerage or too h i g h f o r normal water p r e s su re . Thus, i n 1922, a p l a n to g ive Ottawa " d i g n i t y , o rder and beauty" emphasized h i g h l y u t i l i t a r i a n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . A e s t h e t i c s were not even mentioned. (3) Other p r o j e c t s Desp i t e the ' p r a c t i c a l ' emphasis of the j o u r n a l s and the obvious t r end towards p l a n n i n g tha t was both p rob lem-or i en ted and aware o f c o s t s , there i s some evidence tha t C i t y B e a u t i f u l - s t y l e p r o j e c t s were s t i l l be ing proposed or undertaken. Some were, i n f a c t , r e v i v a l s or c o n t i n u a t i o n s o f p r o j e c t s tha t had been begun before the war. For example, the Toronto G u i l d o f C i v i c A r t was s t i l l promoting a 138 new avenue l i n k i n g Union S t a t i o n and a proposed c i v i c c en t r e . In Vancouver, an "e labora te approach to the Canadian Nor thern and 139 Great Nor thern r a i l w a y s t a t i o n " was be ing c o n s i d e r e d , and i n Winnipeg, Memoria l Boulevard was made i n t o an approach to the 140 Pa r l i amen t B u i l d i n g . But such p r o j e c t s were on ly mentioned i n p a s s i n g . Very l i t t l e 114 importance was a t tached to them. One such example was Noulan Cauchon's scheme f o r Hami l ton . I l l u s t r a t i o n s i n the Canadian Engineer i n d i c a t e d a wide avenue f l anked on e i t h e r s i d e by a double row of t rees and w i t h a v i s u a l terminus at e i t h e r end. At one end was a c i v i c cent re c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c l a s s i c a l - s t y l e b u i l d i n g s f a c i n g a c i r c u l a r p l a z a and o b e l i s k . The o ther terminus was a s tadium s i t t i n g atop Hamil ton Mountain and evoking images of a Greek temple. The accompanying a r t i c l e , however, was c a l l e d the "Economics of town p l a n n i n g " and 141 conta ined no mention whatsoever of the i l l u s t r a t i o n s . F i g . 16 — Hami l ton : Proposed c i v i c c e n t r e . (Source: Noulan Cauchon, "Economics of Town P l a n n i n g " , Canadian Engineer) 115 F i g . 17 — H a m i l t o n : Proposed s tadium. (Source: Noulan Cauchon, "Economics of Town P l a n n i n g " , Canadian Engineer) F i g . 18 — Toronto : Proposed avenue l i n k i n g Union S t a t i o n and Queen S t r e e t . (Source: Toronto M u n i c i p a l Yearbook, 1919) 116 F i g . 20 — Winnipeg: Memorial Bou leva rd . Approach to the Manitoba L e g i s l a t u r e . 117 V. A p l ace f o r beauty: 1925-1930 Th i s p e r i o d i s covered here by f i v e j o u r n a l s : the Canadian Eng inee r , the M u n i c i p a l Review of Canada, the Cont rac t Record , the J o u r n a l of the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e o f Canada and the J o u r n a l  of the Royal A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e of Canada. The l a s t mentioned had begun p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1926; however i t s i n t e r e s t i n p l ann ing was main ly conf ined to the odd a r t i c l e on a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n t r o l . Dur ing these y e a r s , a r t i c l e s devoted to p l a n n i n g cont inued to encompass a broad range of t o p i c s . In p a r t i c u l a r , the p r o - z o n i n g debate cont inued unabated a l though i t had begun to be argued tha t zoning was j u s t one pa r t of a comprehensive p l a n . Whi le not en joy ing the same degree of support as z o n i n g , a few i n d i v i d u a l s campaigned c o n s i s t e n t l y fo r b e t t e r housing c o n d i t i o n s and an end to l and specu-l a t i o n . Many a r t i c l e s appeared which repor ted on the progress o f p l ann ing i n Canada ( l e g i s l a t i o n , es tabl i shment of town p l ann ing commissions, the under tak ing of, zoning by laws , the progress of Vancouver ' s comprehensive p l a n , p roposa l s f o r To ron to ' s U n i v e r s i t y Avenue e x t e n s i o n ) . ' The move away from a r t i c l e s e n t i r e l y devoted theory i n d i c a t e d tha t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were a c t u a l l y becoming i n v o l v e d w i t h p l ann ing p r o j e c t s . Al though the j o u r n a l s ' pr imary i n t e r e s t s t i l l l a y w i t h economic e f f i c i e n c y and the f i n a n c i a l b e n e f i t s of p l a n n i n g , these years saw a renewed i n t e r e s t i n the concept o f c i v i c beauty . I t r e c e i v e d the most a t t e n t i o n i n the J o u r n a l of the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e o f Canada and the l e a s t i n the Canadian Eng inee r . One cou ld argue tha t o n l y a j o u r n a l e n t i r e l y devoted to p l ann ing would have seen f i t to p u b l i s h 118 a number of a r t i c l e s e i t h e r address ing the ques t ion of c i v i c beauty or o u t l i n i n g the d e t a i l s of some improvement p r o j e c t . A . The r e v i v a l of beauty The reawakening f i r s t appeared i n 1924. Harsh c r i t i c i s m s of c i v i c beauty at the annual conference of the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e of Canada prompted A l f r e d B u c k l e y , e d i t o r of the J o u r n a l , t o w r i t e : " I t does not seem to occur to many of our l awles s town b u i l d e r s tha t people w i l l not l i v e among them because they cannot bear the i n t o l e r a b l e u g l i n e s s tha t c h a r a c t e r i z e s most of the new towns of Canada. Much was s a i d at the conference i n dep reca t ion of the demand f o r beauty and the u s u a l c l a ims f o r u t i l i t y were set i n v i o l e n t con t r a s t to i t . I t i s a f a l s e and mischievous a n t i t h e s i s and what good there was i n i t - the i n s i s t e n c e that town p l a n n i n g was not a d e c o r a t i v e l u x u r y but an urgent economic n e c e s s i t y -has by t h i s time s u r e l y been absorbed. R u s k i n , M o r r i s , Rodin and Carpenter have spoken and w r i t t e n i n v a i n i f we do not ye t r e a l i z e tha t beauty i s as u s e f u l as love and hope and happiness and r e l i g i o n and that these make the s p i r i t u a l dynamic which i s the r e a l source of even p h y s i c a l energy."142 The next i n d i c a t i o n of c i v i c beau ty ' s r i s i n g s t a tu s appeared i n the June 1925 i s s u e o f the same j o u r n a l . Noulan Cauchon, i n 143 the P r e s i d e n t ' s address , noted tha t people.wanted beauty , W.W. Cory wrote that " u t i l i t y , comfort and beauty" were p r e r e q u i s i t e s to "decent" 144 c i t y l i f e , and George B . F o r d , an American p l a n n e r , c e l eb ra t ed the f ac t tha t " c i v i c a r t i s r a p i d l y r e g a i n i n g i t s p l a c e i n c i t y , • .. 145 p l ann ing . From t h i s p o i n t , c i v i c beauty became openly promoted. For example, John M. L y l e c la imed tha t the "appeal of e f f i c i e n c y alone i s n e a r l y 119 over" and tha t "beauty i s the n a t u r a l and l o g i c a l n e x t . s t e p " . Noulan Cauchon presented a most f o r c e f u l argument. Note tha t he blames the p o l i t i c i a n s f o r past i n a t t e n t i o n to beauty . "Engineers should ge t , as an i n d i s p e n b l e par t of t h e i r educa t i on , a s e r i o u s grounding i n the p r i n c i p l e s of A r t ; wi thou t t h i s they are not safe to have at l a r g e . Look a t the r e s u l t a n t a t r o c i t i e s of the merely u t i l i t a r i a n which some of them have pe rpe t ra t ed on the unsuspec t ing democracy. . . . I t i s the c i v i c power which i s always s k i n n i n g the eng inee r ' s es t imates to the bone and g e n e r a l l y l e a v i n g us wi thout f l e s h and b lood to f a t t e n our ske le tons i n t o those forms and co lou r s wi thout which there can be no appeal to beauty."147 The q u e s t i o n of c i v i c beauty was even addressed, by A . G . D a l z e l l , a p lanner whose pr imary i n t e r e s t was hous ing and.whom, i n the pa s t , had never e x h i b i t e d any concern f o r a e s t h e t i c s . In 1926, he encouraged a r c h i t e c t s to pay more a t t e n t i o n , t o . t h e c r e a t i o n of i n t e r e s t i n g s k y l i n e s . Whi le he d i d n ' t cons ider , a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n t r o l to be a pa r t of p l a n n i n g , he thought tha t "a more v a r i e d and i n t e r e s t i n g 148 s k y l i n e " might be a so r t of bonus. D a l z e l l ' s views are i n d i c a t i v e of a d e s i r e to f i n d a p l a c e f o r beauty i n the c i t y w i thou t v i o l a t i n g b e l i e f s about e f f i c i e n c y and economics. B. The p r a c t i c a l va lue of beauty For the f i r s t t ime , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c i v i c beauty and cost took on new meaning. P lanners began w r i t i n g of the " s o c i a l c o s t s " o f u g l i n e s s and the m a t e r i a l va lue of beauty. G. Gordon W h i t n a l l , D i r e c t o r of C i t y P l a n n i n g f o r Los Ange le s , t o l d members 120 o f the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e o f Canada i n 1927 tha t beauty "means 14 more to the average community than probably any o ther s i n g l e t h i n g " . The same y e a r , Thomas Adams attempted to show "the f a l l a c y of assuming that merely ornamental improvements are l u x u r i e s and not good economy". Us ing the R o c k c l i f f e Park and Parkway ou t s ide Ottawa as an example, he c la imed tha t "the va lue of . . . a combined park and driveway i s not f u l l y apprec ia t ed by those i n t e r e s t e d i n deve lop-i n g and. ' improving highway systems, o r i n i n c r e a s i n g l and v a l u e s " . I t was argued tha t i n a d d i t i o n to i n c r e a s i n g a c c e s s i b i l i t y over a l a r g e a rea , a roadway such as t h i s would p rov ide v i e w s , i nc r ea se p roper ty va lues and make the suburbs a t t r a c t i v e to the middle c l a s s e s . I n another a r t i c l e , he addressed the ques t i on o f "the d i e - h a r d economist and the subjec t of c i v i c beauty" . Ten years e a r l i e r Adams had omit ted a e s t h e t i c s from h i s H a l i f a x p l a n be cause o ther needs were thought to be more p res s ing . ' ^ " ' ' Now he c la imed tha t the t ime had passed when economics alone should be cons ide red , p o i n t i n g to the r e l a t i v e p r o s p e r i t y of the t imes and a p u b l i c d e s i r e f o r beauty. "With the changes be ing wrought and the new d e s i r e s be ing c r e a t e d , people have more means to s a t s f y t h e i r t a s t e s than they ever had be fo re . They have the money to 'get; what they want and to t r a v e l . And so e v e r y t h i n g takes on a new meaning, and money-making ceases to be a s a t i s -f a c t i o n i n i t s e l f . " 1 5 2 C. A r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n t r o l The n o t i o n of an a r t j u r y or a r t commission had been advocated from time to time s i n c e the 1890 ' s . Before World War I i t was seen 121 as a body which would g ive a r c h i t e c t u r a l adv ice both to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s on proposed p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s or c i v i c improvement schemes and to p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s who wished to endow the c i t y with" monuments, concer t h a l l s , e t c . S ince the war, a r t j u r i e s had been suggested i n f r e q u e n t l y but i t became more of a campaign i n the l a t e 1920 ' s . However, t h e i r pe rce ived r o l e had broadened c o n s i d e r a b l y . In l a t e 1927, Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l was c o n s i d e r i n g making " a l l new b u i l d i n g s conform to ; . 153 the p r i n c i p l e s o f good t a s t e i n a r c h i t e c t u r e " . In 1928, Ot tawa 's Fede ra l D i s t r i c t Commission ob ta ined a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n t r o l over 154 E l g i n S t r e e t , w h i l e i n Quebec C i t y , an a r t j u r y was e s t a b l i s h e d which had c o n t r o l over a l l b u i l d i n g s . I t had "powers of v e t o , on the d e s i g n , spac ing , l o c a t i o n , h e i g h t , a rea o f l and to be covered , access of l i g h t and a i r and genera l s u i t a b i l i t y o f a l l b u i l d i n g s proposed from the p o i n t of v iew not on ly o f s a f e ty o f s t r u c t u r e , but a l s o of a r c h i t e c t u r a l harmony and the r i g h t s of the community and o f ne ighbour ing p roper ty owners". Percy Nobbs, o f the Department of A r c h i t e c t u r e at M c G i l l U n i v e r -s i t y , argued aga ins t the concept o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n t r o l i n favour of " e l a s t i c " by laws ; e . g . s p e c i f y i n g b u i l d i n g he igh t s as a p r o p o r t i o n o f s t r e e t w i d t h , or s p e c i f y i n g f l o o r space r a t i o s . Other than t h a t , he f e l t i t was the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n to determine a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f an a r c h i t e c t s ' a s s o c i -a t i o n to q u a l i f y competent a r c h i t e c t s . A r t h u r Stoughton, of the Department o f A r c h i t e c t u r e at the U n i v e r s i t y of Mani toba , was a s t rong suppor ter of a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n t r o l over (1) c o n s t r u c t i o n , (2) h e a l t h and amenity, and (3) a e s t h e t i c s . 122 He f e l t that i f a c i t y were to achieve some " o v e r a l l c o m p o s i t i o n " , 157 p u b l i c c o n t r o l over p r i v a t e b u i l d i n g s was mandatory. In an e a r l i e r l e t t e r to the Winnipeg Free Press and r e p r i n t e d i n the J o u r n a l o f the Town P l ann ing I n s t i t u t e o f Canada, he asked: "Why c rea te avenues l i k e Memoria l Boulevard and Osborne S t r ee t ex t ens ion i f the q u a l i t y of t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r e i s not safeguarded by be ing subjec t to the approva l o f some a u t h o r i t y such as was urged on the c i t y c o u n c i l by the Mani toba S o c i e t y . o f A r c h i t e c t s ? Why b u i l d a c a p i t o l , a u n i v e r s i t y , a church and a war memorial on three corners i f a f i l l i n g s t a t i o n i s to occupy the four th? Why t r y to c rea te r e s i d e n t i a l or o ther neighbourhoods wi thou t the p r o t e c t i o n to the owners o f a zoning ordinance?"158 I t can be r e a d i l y apprec ia t ed from the arguments of Nobbs and Stoughton j u s t how l i t t l e c o n t r o l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s had over p r i v a t e b u i l d i n g . In 1930, on ly a few m u n i c i p a l i t i e s had zoning by laws . The f i g h t f o r a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n t r o l seemed to emphasize not on ly c o n t r o l over a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e but a l s o a s t r u g g l e f o r the seg rega t ion of l and uses , adequate access to l i g h t and a i r , and maximum d e n s i t i e s . D. The p lans In the past c i v i c beauty had been a vague concept . I t i s t r ue tha t a number of C i t y B e a u t i f u l p lans and p r o j e c t s had been suggested over the years but i n g e n e r a l , they had r e c e i v e d ve ry l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i n the j o u r n a l s . Now, f o r the f i r s t t ime , a c t u a l p lans and p r o j e c t s were be ing d i s c u s s e d . C i v i c beauty was beg inn ing to become b e t t e r d e f i n e d . 123 Following are summaries of four schemes presented i n 1928 and 1929. Each was presented i n the journals although much of the discussion on Toronto i s based on the actual planning document. (1) Hamilton: Highway entrance The competition for a Hamilton highway entrance had been sponsored by the c i t y ' s Board of Park Management. While highway considerations were to take precedence over aesthetics, i t was stressed that "an adequate and d i g n i f i e d highway i s of paramount importance, and that the purpose i s not only to advertise the c i t y , but also to provide enjoyment and pleasure for i t s citizens".159 As indicated by the i l l u s t r a t i o n s , the designs of the winners depended on C i t y B e a u t i f u l concepts, including long and broad t r e e - l i n e d avenues, v i s t a s , monumental structures and c l a s s i c a l d e t a i l s . A m »4 • j . ( " • % I • .- • F i g . 21 — Hamilton: Entrance to c i t y . F i r s t p r i z e winner. (Source: Journal of the Royal A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e of Canada, A p r i l 1928) 124 F i g . 22 — Hami l ton : Entrance to c i t y . Second p r i z e winner . (Source: J o u r n a l of the Royal A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e of Canada, A p r i l 1928) 125 (2) Ottawa: C e n t r a l area improvements The C i t y o f Ottawa had appointed a Town P l a n n i n g Commission i n 1921 w i t h Noulan Cauchon as chairman, a p o s i t i o n he would r e t a i n u n t i l h i s death i n 1935. In 1924, he prepared a zoning bylaw f o r the c i t y but i t was she lved by C i t y C o u n c i l two.years l a t e r . In 1926, he p u b l i s h e d a number o f p l ann ing p r i o r i t i e s f o r Ottawa and H u l l i n c l u d i n g r a i l w a y r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , the development of an express -way system, a zoning by law, a n a t i o n a l park i n the L a u r e n t i a n s , a system of i n n e r parks and parkways (the parks to be on l and unsu i t ed f o r o ther uses) and the l a y i n g out o f new r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n s i n such a way tha t the s t r e e t s formed hexagons ( l e s s s t r e e t a rea , g rea te r v i s i b i l i t y at i n t e r s e c t i o n s , i nc reased s u n l i g h t , the p r o v i s i o n o f r e s t f u l t r a f f i c - f r e e i n t e r i o r spaces ) . The a r t i c l e was devoid . . 160 of a e s t h e t i c s . Whi le u t i l i t y was undoubtedly Cauchon's pr imary emphasis, he a l s o produced a number o f b e a u t i f i c a t i o n schemes du r ing these y e a r s . However, as i t w i l l s h o r t l y be seen, Cauchon's schemes were in tended 161 to take both a e s t h e t i c and t r a f f i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t o account . Vimy Way. Conceived as a "great highway" ex tending f a r beyond the Par l i ament B u i l d i n g s , Vimy Way would a l s o be a n a t i o n a l war memoria l . In Cauchon's p l a n , which on ly dea l t w i t h the Par l i ament H i l l a r ea , he recommended tha t the Vimy Way be s i t u a t e d between the b u i l d i n g s and the r i v e r . At o n e . p o i n t , where the road i s o l a t e d "a l a r g e b l o c k of r o c k " , he recommended tha t i t be s c u l p t e d i n t o a " s o a r i n g , c o l o s s a l , unique cenotaph", s i t u a t e d at the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Vimy Way and a proposed b r idge across the Ottawa R i v e r . I n order 126 to accentuate the e f f e c t of the cenotaph, he suggested tha t the s l o p i n g ground between i t and the proposed government b u i l d i n g s be t e r r a c e d . Confedera t ion P l a c e . Th i s was seen as both a " c l e a r i n g house fo r t r a f f i c and as the forum of p u b l i c and o f f i c i a l r e c e p t i o n s " . At i t s c e n t r e , a n a t i o n a l war memorial would be the focus o f a number of converging s t r e e t s . Cauchon emphasized the need f o r a sense o f enc lo su re , recommending tha t p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s be p l aced around i t ( C i t y H a l l , Post O f f i c e , r a i l w a y s t a t i o n ) . Whi le the space cou ld be used as a p u b l i c meeting ground on ceremonious o c c a s i o n s , i t would u s u a l l y be used by s t r e e t cars and automobiles as a s o r t of huge t r a f f i c c i r c l e . I n f a c t , the p l a c e ' s a d a p t a b i l i t y to t r a f f i c was s t r o n g l y s t r e s s e d . "The route p l a n n i n g thus presented f o r Confedera t ion P lace a f fo rds a comple te ly o rgan ic and r a p i d one-way t r a f f i c c i r c u -l a t i o n r e l a t i v e l y free from cross i n t e r -r u p t i o n s and d e l a y s . Every fea ture o f t h i s p l a n i s p r e d i c a t e d on the r e c o g n i t i o n of the n e c e s s i t y o f p r o v i s i o n . f o r t r a f f i c d i f f u s i o n so e s s e n t i a l i n the s o l e connect-i n g channel and t r a f f i c l i n k between Upper Town and Lower Town."162 E l g i n S t r e e t . I t was recommended tha t E l g i n S t r ee t be widened to 159 feet, from Confedera t ion P l a c e to C a r t i e r Square, a d i s t a n c e of f i v e b l o c k s . The N a t i o n a l War Memorial i n Confedera t ion P l a c e and a c i v i c war memorial i n C a r t i e r Square would be s i t u a t e d at e i t h e r end of the a x i a l l i n e , v i s u a l l y l i n k e d by the new E l g i n S t r ee t w i t h i t s c e n t r a l bou leva rd . However, Cauchon was qu ick to note tha t the s t r e e t improvements had been "designed to meet the economic 127 requirements of t r a f f i c t r e n d , volume and d i s t r i b u t i o n " . Approach to Par l iament B u i l d i n g s . C o n s i d e r a t i o n was g iven to a " c l a s s i c a l " approach where a broad and d i r e c t avenue would form an a x i s l e a d i n g to the Par l i ament B u i l d i n g s , which i n t u r n would be symmet r i ca l l y arranged on e i t h e r s i d e of the a x i s . However, t h i s was r e j e c t e d as be ing too c o s t l y ; Cauchon reasoned tha t i n order to o b t a i n e x a c t l y the r i g h t p e r s p e c t i v e , i t would be necessary to lower the e x i s t i n g s t r e e t (Metca l fe) by s e v e r a l f e e t . The recommended approach was f e l t to be more " i n the Go th i c s p i r i t " . I t i n v o l v e d - b u i l d i n g a new s t r e e t adjacent to the Rideau Canal which would t r a v e r s e Confedera t ion P l ace . and en te r Par l i ament H i l l a t the southeast c o r n e r , the entrance demarcated by s ta tues of L a u r i e r and Macdonald. " I t s s i t e and m o t i f i s m a g n i f i c e n t , sweeping up a long the western b r i n k o f the deep r a v i n e w i t h the Chateau L a u r i e r r i s i n g i n t e r r aced beauty on the oppos i te bank, w i t h the M a j o r ' s H i l l - P a r k , Nepean.Point and the Ottawa R i v e r as a r a p i d l y changing .panorama - the L a u r e n t i a n H i l l s m e l t i n g i n t o a d i s t a n t haze . On approaching the nor the rn end of the -East B lock and there l o s i n g the d i s t a n t v i e w , t h i s avenue sweeps i n a wide g r a c e f u l curve towards the West, the Par l iament B u i l d i n g s w i t h the V i c t o r y Tower looming suddenly i n t o v iew tower ing above the oncoming obse rve r , the B u i l d i n g s and the Tower a l l appearing i n echelon and g i v i n g t h e i r most e f f e c t i v e impress ion of angle and deep shadow, a t r u l y Goth ic r ender ing i n i t s element of s u r p r i s e o f changeful massing and i r r e g u l a r sky l i n e . " 1 6 3 128 F i g . 23 — Ottawa: Proposed Vimy Way. (Source: "Ottawa Memorial D r i v e " , Canadian Engineer) F i g . 24 — Ottawa: Proposed c e n t r a l a rea improvements. (Source: "Improvement of C e n t r a l A r e a ; Ottawa", Canadian Engineer) ' 130 (3) Vancouver: C i v i c Centre The 1929 Bartholomew p l a n encompassed a number of a reas : major s t r e e t s , t r a n s i t , r a i l w a y s , harbours , parks and r e c r e a t i o n , z o n i n g , c i v i c a r t and the c i v i c c e n t r e . The J o u r n a l of the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e of Canada repor ted i n d e t a i l on one aspect o f tha t p l a n i n an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d the "Vancouver C i v i c Centre and E n g l i s h Bay Development Scheme". J . F . D . Tanqueray, of the Vancouver Town P l ann ing Commission, p o i n t e d . t o Chicago as the o r i g i n of p l a n n i n g and spoke o f the c i v i c cent re i n language r emin i scen t of the f i r s t years of the cen tu ry . "To the o r d e r l y grouping o f the b u i l d i n g s and arrangement of the grounds at the Chicago W o r l d ' s F a i r of 1893 can be a t t r i b u t e d the concep t ion and r e a l i z a t i o n of the tremen-dous Chicago P l a n . Indeed, the whole p l a n n i n g movement on t h i s con t inen t i s t r a c e a b l e to tha t ou t s t and ing example of e f f e c t i v e a r range-ment and d e s i g n . The C i v i c Centre i s a gauge of c i t i z e n r e a l i z a t i o n of the communal nature of the c i v i c organism, and i s i n d i c a t i v e o f c i v i c i d e a l s , c u l t u r e and p rog re s s . I t i s the h a l l mark of the at ta inment o f m e t r o p o l i t a n s t a t u s . Any development of t h i s nature w i l l cos t money, but money so spent w i l l be f u l l y j u s t i f i e d by the r e tu rns rendered i n the consequent f o s t e r i n g of c i v i c p r i d e and community consc iousness ."164 The p o s s i b i l i t y was a l s o r a i s e d tha t the scheme cou ld be made to pay f o r i t s e l f through the use of "excess condemnation" but no great s t r e s s was p l aced on t h i s ; the fame o f the c i t y and the p r i d e o f i t s c i t i z e n s were cons idered s u f f i c i e n t . The c i v i c cent re was to be l o c a t e d on the n o r t h shore o f F a l s e Creek near Bur ra rd S t r e e t . The b u i l d i n g s appear to b e . s i t u a t e d on 131 three s ides o f a c i t y b l o c k , l e a v i n g an open space i n the middle and on the fou r th s i d e . Between t h i s and the water was to be a s u b s t a n t i a l expanse o f s l o p i n g lawn. Approach to the main entrance was by a s e r i e s o f t e r r a c e s . I t was recommended tha t a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n t r o l over b u i l d i n g s adjacent to the s i t e be secured and tha t the e n t i r e s h o r e l i n e o f E n g l i s h Bay ( i n c l u d i n g K i t s i l a n o ) be acqu i red fo r park purposes . A monumental Bur ra rd S t ree t b r i d g e was conceived as an i n t e g r a l pa r t of the scheme, the importance o f which "cannot be too emphati-c a l l y s t r e s s e d " . As w e l l as be ing "the.most conspicuous u n i t i n the e n t i r e p r o j e c t " , i t would serve to screen from view ne ighbour ing i n d u s t r i a l development. Tanqueray made an i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t r egard ing p u b l i c r e a c t i o n to the scheme. In h i s words, the. c i v i c cen t re was regarded "as a medium by which Community i n t e r e s t i n the P l a n can be aroused" . To t h i s end, the p lans were e x h i b i t e d i n the windows of two l a r g e department s t o r e s , whereupon they were "thronged by i n t e r e s t e d spec ta to r s both .day a n d . n i g h t " . A c c o r d i n g to Tanqueray, " ( t )hese d i s p l a y s were c o i n c i d e n t w i t h the c l o s i n g days of a keen ly contes ted e l e c t i o n campaign . in which the i s s u e was between the o l d unordered c i v i c p o l i c y and one of p r o g r e s s i v e n e s s , the C i v i c Centre and i t s e a r l y c o n s t r u c t i o n be ing one o f the p l a n k s . o f the l a t t e r p a r t y . I t should be a source of s a t i s f a c t i o n to l o c a l p lanners tha t the l a t t e r p a r t y was v i c t o r i o u s " . 1 6 5 Desp i t e the p l e a not "to l e t t h i s magni f icen t oppo r tun i t y pass" , the c i v i c cent re as env i s ioned was never r e a l i z e d . F i g . 25 — Vancouver: Proposed c i v i c c e n t r e . (Source: J . F . D . Tanqueray, "Vancouver C i v i c Centre and E n g l i s h Bay Development Scheme", J o u r n a l of the  Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e of Canada) 133 (4) Toronto : Report of the A d v i s o r y C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission In 1928, Toronto C i t y C o u n c i l appointed an A d v i s o r y C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission and i n 1929, i t presented i t s f i r s t r e p o r t . I t noted tha t the "pr imary need (of Toronto) i s the development of a s e r i e s of through s t r e e t s fo r motor v e h i c l e t r a f f i c and t h i s need i s p a r t i -c u l a r l y f e l t i n the downtown a rea" . To t h i s end, a number o f s p e c i f i c recommendations were made r ega rd ing s t r e e t widen ings , ex t ens ions , d i agona l connect ions and the e l i m i n a t i o n of j o g s . A f t e r a l l recom-mendations had been made, the repor t went on to s t a t e : "When completed the c i t y w i l l have a downtown s e c t i o n which i n beauty and d i g n i t y , ease of t r a f f i c f l o w , and business u t i l i t y , w i l l be equal to tha t of any c i t y on the con t inen t . "166 The r e p o r t ' s p r imary focus was the proposed U n i v e r s i t y Avenue e x t e n s i o n . Other major elements were p roposa l s f o r a gateway s t r e e t (Cambrai Avenue) , c i v i c cent re (S t . J u l i e n . P l ace ) and a memorial p l a z a (Vimy C i r c l e ) . U n i v e r s i t y Avenue e x t e n s i o n . I n A p r i l 1928, the C i t y of Toronto had obta ined the necessary l e g i s l a t i o n to extend U n i v e r s i t y Avenue, the cos t to be p a i d through the use o f "excess condemnation". Acco rd ing to the 1929 r e p o r t , the U n i v e r s i t y Avenue Ex tens ion Ac t " c r y s t a l l i z e d the growing demand f o r the opening o f a new a r t e r y to p r o v i d e t r a f f i c r e l i e f to downtown Toron to , as w e l l as f o r the 167 development o f a noble s t r e e t at the main entrance to the c i t y " . S ince the Ac t would e x p i r e at the end o f 1929, the Commission had chosen to concent ra te i t s energ ies on a scheme, fo r t h i s s t r e e t . Wi th respec t to the al ignment o f the e x t e n s i o n , three op t ions 134 were cons ide red . In the favoured scheme, the 180-foot wide U n i v e r s i t y Avenue would be extended one b l o c k south to a l a r g e c i r c u l a r p l a z a (Vimy C i r c l e ) . From there i t would cont inue i n a s o u t h e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n to a p o i n t j u s t west of Union S t a t i o n ; t h i s s e c t i o n would be 100 feet w ide . The ex t ens ion would serve to make U n i v e r s i t y Avenue, w i t h i t s ample w id th and l a c k o f s t r e e t car t r a c k s , a major through a r t e r y fo r automobile t r a f f i c . But i t was a l s o to be a "noble s t r e e t " , s i m i l a r to New Y o r k ' s F i f t h Avenue. To t h i s end, i t would be necessary to secure a degree of a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n t r o l over b u i l d i n g s both on the Avenue and v i s i b l e from i t . A uni form c o r n i c e l i n e of 100 fee t was recommended; i f i nc reased he igh t was d e s i r e d , the Commission suggested the use of 168 towers and setbacks "or s i m i l a r d i v e r s i f i e d t reatment" (as i n New Y o r k ) . At t h i s p o i n t i n t ime , U n i v e r s i t y Avenue was a l r eady a wide t r e e - l i n e d boulevard focus s ing on the Par l i ament B u i l d i n g s j u s t n o r t h of Col lege . S t r e e t . To. improve the compos i t i on , the Commission recommended a monument i n . t h e cen t re of Vimy C i r c l e . Al though the s t r e e t i t s e l f would curve a t t h i s p o i n t , i t was f e l t tha t an impress ive b u i l d i n g should be p l aced on the s t r e e t ' s a x i a l l i n e , thus, p r o v i d i n g a t e r m i n a l v i s t a as viewed from the Par l i ament B u i l d i n g s Whi le the ex t ens ion would not focus d i r e c t l y on the r a i l r o a d s t a t i o n , the need to see i t from the s t a t i o n was f e l t to be i m p e r a t i v e . I t was in tended tha t U n i v e r s i t y Avenue would f u l f i l the f u n c t i o n of a "noble gateway s t r e e t " . ^ ® F i n a l l y , comparisons were made between e x p r o p r i a t i o n cos t s 135 and the s e l l i n g p r i c e of the excess l a n d s . The recommended o p t i o n would r e a l i z e an es t imated $900,000 p r o f i t w h i l e the o thers showed 171 l o s s e s . I t must be emphasized tha t the cos t comparisons were not based s o l e l y on the cos t of a c t u a l l y c a r r y i n g out the work. The o p t i o n tha t would most l i k e l y r e s u l t i n a monumental s t r e e t ( c l o s e r to the c e n t r a l bus iness d i s t r i c t , l i n k e d to Union S t a t i o n , e t c . ) would a l s o c a r r y w i t h i t h ighe r p rope r ty va lues and hence, more money cou ld be r e a l i z e d from the. s a l e o f excess l a n d s . The promise o f monetary r e tu rns was a p p e a l i n g . In the M u n i c i p a l Review o f Canada's synopsis o f t h i s r e p o r t , t h i s was c i t e d as a pr imary j u s t i f i c a t i o n . f o r implementa t ion . The a r t i c l e went on to say tha t i f Mon t rea l had c a r r i e d out the 1906 p l a n , the c i t y 172 would have r e a l i z e d a "handsome p r o f i t " . The U n i v e r s i t y Avenue ex t ens ion was c a r r i e d out w i t h the excep t ion o f Vimy C i r c l e . A r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n t r o l was a l s o secured over c o r n i c e h e i g h t , e x t e r i o r c o l o u r s and m a t e r i a l s w h i l e overhead w i r i n g . , b i l l b o a r d s and i l l u m i n a t e d s igns were p r o h i b i t e d . However, the depress ion put an end to development, l e a v i n g the Canada L i f e B u i l d i n g , begun i n 1929, as the on ly example o f the type of monu-173 mental s t r u c t u r e envis ioned , f o r the Avenue. Vimy C i r c l e . Th i s was conceived as a c i r c u l a r p l a z a w i t h a war memorial at i t s c e n t r e . I t would-be. the focus of s e v e r a l wide roads i n c l u d i n g a new 100-foot wide d i agona l ex tending to the 174-E x h i b i t i o n Grounds (to be c a l l e d Passchendaele Road). Cambrai Avenue. Th i s was s imply a r e v i v a l o f the o l d F ede ra l Avenue p r o p o s a l . S ince the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f major b u i l d i n g s now 136 prevented the avenue from be ing d r i v e n through i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e to Queen S t r e e t , i t was recommended tha t the s t r e e t be cons t ruc t ed around them — one d i r e c t i o n on e i t h e r s i d e . V i s u a l focus would be p rov ided by Union S t a t i o n at the southern end and these r e c e n t l y -cons t ruc ted b u i l d i n g s a t the nor the rn end."^"' S t . J u l i e n P l a c e . F o r . y e a r s a p u b l i c square.had been advocated i n the v i c i n i t y o f Queen and .Bay .S t r ee t s — the C a n a d i a n : A r c h i t e c t  and B u i l d e r ' s campaign f o r V i c t o r i a Square, the C i v i c Improvement Committee 's p roposa l f o r a p u b l i c - s q u a r e t e r m i n a t i n g . F e d e r a l Avenue and the Toronto G u i l d o f C i v i c A r t ' s scheme f o r Dominion Square. S t . J u l i e n P l a c e was a d i r e c t descendant o f these . As can be seen from the i l l u s t r a t i o n , the scheme was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a balanced arrangement of b u i l d i n g s , harmony o f d e s i g n , v i s t a s and a p u b l i c square. I n a d d i t i o n , seven roads are shown as converging i n the v i c i n i t y of the monument, i n c l u d i n g . a proposed d i agona l ex t ens ion o f York S t r e e t , recommended as a heavy t r a f f i c r o u t e . N e i t h e r Vimy C i r c l e nor Cambrai Avenue were b u i l t . Nor was S t . J u l i e n P l a c e but the s i t e i s p r e s e n t l y o c c u p i e d . b y . t h e C i t y H a l l and Nathan P h i l l i p ' s . Square, b u i l t i n . t h e mid -1960 ' s . F a i i ] LSI ST. L____:|L_J! i; U CARLTON' iiST.' i E1CZZ3CZ •a I PAS st OD I E • 3 "I i— >! L J 1:1 • l : r " • C f l S I C g l 51 §1 Ob n DVJ.VPAS S t BUID I n •11 2 a — O. (O a: 111 X u ( a • P ID r = H r~in L T - ^ J J kP/sn n n n ~ i r_zi L Z Z • S E T T ] x a _ > l • g a c •it -5i 1  f i L~ZL [si PfiONT ST. i n r n n F i g . 26 — Toronto : P l a n of major improvements proposed by A d v i s o r y C i t y P l ann ing Commission. (Source : "Toronto C i t y P l ann ing Recommendations", Canadian Engineer) 138 F i g . 27 — Toronto : U n i v e r s i t y Avenue. A d v i s o r y C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission) (Source: Report of the 139 B U S Iff'g?^^^as%i>v£-. LOOUJIGJ3I&.ACRQif JIM CIfXLt F i g . 28 — Toronto: Vimy C i r c l e . (Source: Report o f the A d v i s o r y  C i t y P l ann ing Commission) O i ST-J0L1LN Fua _____ F i g . 29 — Toronto: Proposed c i v i c c e n t r e . (Source: Report of the  P l a n n i n g Commission) 141 E . .A f i n a l note In c o n c l u s i o n , the concept of beauty had gained tremendously i n importance du r ing the l a s t few years o f t h i s p e r i o d but i t s p l a c e a longs ide o ther aspects o f p l a n n i n g must not be exaggerated. I t was s t i l l ve ry much the age o f e f f i c i e n c y , except tha t fo r many, c i v i c beauty now. occupied a r i g h t f u l p l a c e . When a p l a n n i n g commis-s i o n was appointed f o r Quebec C i t y , Noulan Cauchon argued tha t i t should be c a l l e d ' comi te d 'urbanisme ' r a t h e r than 'comite^ d ' embel -l i s s e m e n t ' . "Th i s comment i s not a c a l l fo r the neg lec t o f beauty but a p l e a to c o r -r e l a t e i t w i t h o ther e q u a l l y important elements o f town p l a n n i n g . Th i s has got to be s a i d aga in and a g a i n . The impulse to c a l l fo r more beauty i s r i g h t and sound but town p l a n n i n g i s the sc i ence o f the s o c i a l organism and has as much to do w i t h sewers and water supply and the r e g u l a t i o n and encouragement of bus iness a c t i v i t y and r a i l w a y r e o r g a n i z a t i o n as i t has to do w i t h parks and boulevards . "176 142 CHARTER 3 CITY BEAUTIFUL PLANNING IN CANADA:  A CASE STUDY OF THE PRAIRIES  1900-1915 The Canadian C i t y B e a u t i f u l movement peaked i n the years j u s t p r i o r to World War I . P a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e i n , p l a n n i n g du r ing these years were the P r a i r i e c i t i e s • Th i s l a s t chapter looks at pre-war p lans prepared f o r Winnipeg, Edmonton, Ca lga ry and Reg ina . The order i s a cco rd ing to the date the p lans were commissioned. For P r a i r i e c i t i e s , the f i r s t decade of the 20th century was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by tremendous p o p u l a t i o n growth, l and s u b d i v i s i o n fa r i n excess of need and a c o n v i c t i o n tha t fu ture decades promised even more growth and more p r o s p e r i t y . P r a i r i e c i t i e s competed v i g o r o u s l y w i t h one another i n an attempt to a t t r a c t i n d u s t r y and p o p u l a t i o n ; to t h i s end, many thousands of d o l l a r s were spent on v a r i o u s p u b l i c i t y measures. Involvement i n p l a n n i n g ..can be viewed as one such measure. I . Winnipeg A . E a r l y parks p l a n n i n g In 1893, C i t y C o u n c i l e s t a b l i s h e d a Parks Board . I t s i n i t i a l o b j e c t i v e s were to acqu i r e " s m a l l urban p a r k s , ornamental squares , or b r e a t h i n g spaces" even ly d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the c i t y , "^ and w i t h i n two y e a r s , the Board had ob ta ined 8 park s i t e s , compr i s ing some 33 a c r e s . By 1910 the c i t y cou ld boast 500 acres of pa rk l and 143 i n c l u d i n g two l a r g e r suburban parks (282 acres and 97 acres) and 2 26 o ther parks and squares . The c i t y had a l so undertaken an ex t ens ive bou leva rd ing program whereby the m a j o r i t y of paved s t r e e t s had r e c e i v e d a s t r i p o f grass and t r ees between the curb and s idewa lk . B. Events l e a d i n g up to the p l a n In 1910 two .p l ann ing o r g a n i z a t i o n s were founded: a seven-member c i t i z e n s ' group.and the town p l a n n i n g committee o f . t h e Winnipeg Development and I n d u s t r i a l Bureau. At the request of these two committees, C i t y C o u n c i l appointed a C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission i n 4 June 1911 "to cons ide r and r epor t . . . upon a C i t y P l a n n i n g Scheme". A r t i b i s e has po in t ed out tha t i n 1910, the n o t i o n of " c i t y p l a n n i n g " was a l l o f a sudden ve ry popular i n Canada.^ Whi le s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s i n Winnipeg and elsewhere e x h i b i t e d a genuine commitment, many o thers d i d n o t . For these , p l a n n i n g may have been no more than a f a d . " . . . o n e suspects the concept (of c i t y p lanning) was o f ten accepted s imply because i t was a new and e x c i t i n g i d e a r a the r than a s i nce re . a t t emp t to improve l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . Involvement i n ' p l a n n i n g the c i t y b e a u t i f u l ' was suddenly the accep tab le t h i n g to do."7 A r t i b i s e has suggested tha t f o r many i n Winnipeg , p l ann ing was seen as a way to i nc r ea se p r o s p e r i t y and f o s t e r economic growth. S t i l l o thers saw the c i t y ' s formal involvement i n p l a n n i n g as a means of p u b l i c i t y which i n t u r n would l ead to i nc reased economic . 8 growth. 9 The C i t y P l ann ing Commission was e s t a b l i s h e d on June 5, 1911. 144 In order to c a r r y out t h e i r work, a sum of $15,000 was reques ted; $9,500 was granted over a twelve-month p r i o d , out of which had to be p a i d a f u l L - t i m e s e c r e t a r y . However, funds were cut o f f a f t e r the expendi ture of $7119."'"^ S i x t e e n people were appointed to the Commission a long w i t h the Mayor and s i x aldermen and/or c o n t r o l l e r s . In a d d i t i o n , o ther members i n c l u d e d the P r o v i n c i a l M u n i c i p a l Commissioner and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the f o l l o w i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s : A s s o c i a t i o n of . A r c h i t e c t s , Winnipeg Rea l Es t a t e Exchange, Trades and Labour C o u n c i l , Board of Trade, I n d u s t r i a l Bureau, P r o v i n c i a l Board of H e a l t h , Parks Board and Winnipeg E l e c t r i c S t r ee t Rai lway Committee. Since the Commission f e l t a d j o i n i n g areas should be i n c l u d e d , i n v i t a t i o n s were sent ou t , and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from f i v e ne ighbour ing m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were taken on as honorary members. F i n a l l y , a number of c i t i z e n s were i n v i t e d to s i t on the committees."'"''" The C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission's r epor t was submit ted to C i t y C o u n c i l i n January 1913. Accord ing to A r t i b i s e , "the on ly recom-mendation ac ted on was tha t p ropos ing an inc rease i n the s t a f f of 12 the Hea l th Department". C - The p l a n The Commission r e a d i l y admit ted t h a t . t h e whole f i e l d of p l a n n i n g was a new one, l a c k i n g " d e f i n i t e guidance as to the best methods to be f o l l o w e d " . I t was a l s o noted tha t C i t y C o u n c i l ' s i n s t r u c t i o n s had been "broad and i n d e f i n i t e " and tha t Mani toba had no Housing and Town P l a n n i n g A c t , under which to c a r r y out any recommendations. 145 Given a l l these c o n s t r a i n t s , the Commission concluded tha t i t "had to r e l y upon i t s own judgment as to the methods and p l a n of a c t i o n wh ich .bes t s u i t e d i t s own resources and the s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s 13 p r e v a i l i n g i n - t h i s C i t y and P r o v i n c e " . The r epor t l i s t e d the three main ob jec t s of p l a n n i n g . a s h e a l t h , convenience and. beauty . F o l l o w i n g i s a r a t h e r . l o n g passage but i t e x p l a i n s the meaning o f these three goals b e t t e r perhaps than anywhere e l s e . "The i d e a l c i t y must be l a i d out as to assure f o r a l l the c i t i z e n s proper l i g h t and a i r , r e c r e a t i o n spaces and s a n i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s , and must i n a d d i t i o n have such r e s t r i c t i v e r e g u l a t i o n s and such equipment f o r i n s p e c t i o n as w i l l tend to secure to a l l c i t i z e n s the maximum of good h e a l t h . The i d e a l c i t y must be as convenient as i t i s p o s s i b l e to make i t , and t h i s w i l l i n v o l v e the proper w i d t h and d i r e c t i o n o f main highways and s u b s i d i a r y s t r e e t s , adequate and p r o p e r l y d i s t r i b u t e d " t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , e t c . , and these ques t ions must be s t u d i e d w i t h a view to the present and probably fu ture movements o f the people between t h e i r homes and the p laces o f r e c r e a t i o n , and would i n v o l v e u l t i m a t e l y the p l a n n i n g o f zones which would b r i n g about an economic d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p l aces of work and p l aces o f r e s i d e n c e . In respec t to a l l changes the a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be kept i n v i e w , f o r the element o f beauty i n a r c h i t e c t u r e , i n the arrangement of s t r e e t s , b r i d g e s , b o u l e -vards and p a r k s , i n the proper treatment of f o c a l p o i n t s and the c r e a t i o n of a t t r a c t -i v e v i s t a s , as w e l l as i n the d e t a i l o f s t r e e t lamps and o f e v e r y t h i n g e l s e a l lowed upon the s t r e e t s i s a most important f a c t o r , i n educa t ing the t a s t e and s t i m u l a t i n g the p r i d e o f c i t i z e n s and a t t r a c t i n g the b e t t e r c l a s se s of those who t r a v e l and those who seek homes."14 146 Al though the repor t conta ined many s p e c i f i c recommendations, the Commission p l aced i t s g rea tes t emphasis on data c o l l e c t i o n and in tended t ha t - t he r epor t should be the foundat ion fo r a more complete p l a n to be done by ' e x p e r t s ' . "The Commission should as a f i r s t s tep i n v e s t i g a t e a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s i n the C i t y and c o l l e c t the many and va r i ed - f a c t s which must form the b a s i s f o r a p l a n tha t w i l l c o r r e c t e x i s t i n g defec ts and p r o p e r l y p r o v i d e f o r fu ture development. I t was recognized tha t i t would.be w i s e , and, indeed , necessary to submit the f i n a l d r a f t i n g o f a p l a n to exper ts of wor ld-wide exper ience , but the elementary l o c a l m a t e r i a l f o r such work must f i r s t be g a t h e r e d . " 1 5 S i x committees were e s t a b l i s h e d . The f i r s t f i v e were i n s t r u c t e d to gather data i n s p e c i f i c subjec t areas and.make recommendations, w h i l e the s i x t h was to i nco rpo ra t e the suggest ions o f the o ther f i v e . The s i x committees were: (1) S o c i a l Survey Committee (3 members), (2) Housing Committee (7 members), (3) T r a f f i c and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Committee.(28 members), (4) R i v e r Frontage and Dockage Committee ( u n s p e c i f i e d ) , (5) A e s t h e t i c Development Committee (10 members), (6) P h y s i c a l P l a n Committee (8 members). The membership l e v e l s of each committee g ive some i n d i c a t i o n of the r e l a t i v e importance of each sub j ec t , as pe rce ived by Commission members. In v iew of the l i m i t e d funds, i t was decided to l i m i t the work of the. R i v e r Frontage and Dockage Committee to some genera l observa t ions and recommendations, l e a v i n g any d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s to 147 e x p e r t s . S i m i l a r l y , the A e s t h e t i c Development Committee l i m i t e d i t s data c o l l e c t i o n to on ly those documents p rov ided free by o ther c i t i e s ; such an a c t i o n was f e l t necessary "so tha t o ther Committees, whose work was of a more p r e s s i n g na tu re , might have s u f f i c i e n t f u n d s ' 1 . ^ The t e r m i n a t i o n of funds a l s o served to c u r t a i l some of the surveys of other committees, no t ab ly tha t o f T r a f f i c and 18 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Al though a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were an important par t of the Winnipeg r e p o r t , i t cou ld not be c a l l e d a ' C i t y B e a u t i f u l ' p l a n . To d i scus s i t i n terms o f a s t r e e t s / c i v i c cen t r e /pa rks frame-work i s not a p p r o p r i a t e . Ins tead the work of each of the s i x com-mi t t ees p lu s the J o i n t Committee's Report on. the Proposed C i v i c Centre w i l l be summarized b r i e f l y . Major emphasis w i l l be on the c i v i c cen t re p r o p o s a l and on the r epor t of the A e s t h e t i c Development Committee but i t must be s t r e s sed tha t these s e c t i o n s were presented as n e i t h e r l e s s nor more important than any of the o ther committee r e p o r t s . J o i n t Committee 's Report on Proposed C i v i c Cent re . The J o i n t Committee was comprised of the A e s t h e t i c Development, the T r a f f i c and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and the P h y s i c a l P l a n Committees. The f ac t tha t the ques t i on of a c i v i c cent re r e c e i v e d s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n and tha t the p roposa l i t s e l f was f a i r l y d e t a i l e d i s i n d i c a t i v e of i t s pe rce ived importance. In g e n e r a l , c i v i c cent re schemes f o r o ther c i t i e s had r e c e i v e d widespread r e c o g n i t i o n and a p p r o v a l ; i t i s probable that committee members were s i m i l a r l y s u p p o r t i v e . o f the concept w h i l e the schemes themselves, p rov ided ready-made models . 148 " I n a l l schemes designed f o r . t h e improvement of c i t i e s an e f f o r t should be made to so l o c a t e b u i l d i n g s of a p u b l i c . c h a r a c t e r tha t each w i l l be seen to advantage, and the e n t i r e group of b u i l d i n g s w i l l represent the. p u b l i c a c t i v i t i e s , and taken*'.together w i l l form a C i v i c Cen t re . Such b u i l d i n g s w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y be of such importance tha t they w i l l be monumental i n . c h a r a c t e r and o f the h ighes t s tandard of a r c h i t e c t u r e , i n con t ra s t w i t h b u i l d i n g s . e r e c t e d by p r i v a t e ^ i n d i v i d u a l s fo r p u r e l y commercial purposes . " The r epor t s t r e s s e d tha t the c i v i c cen t re should be begun immediately — the p r o v i n c i a l government was about to b u i l d the new Par l iament B u i l d i n g , the C i t y would soon .be i n need of a C i t y H a l l , and as y e t , there was on ly one s u b s t a n t i a l b u i l d i n g on the s i t e . The main a x i s of the c i v i c cent re would be .a . " m a l l " or " p l a z a " — i n r e a l i t y , a t r e e - l i n e d road 134 fee t w ide . C l o s i n g the v i s t a at the south end would be the Pa r l i amen t . B u i l d i n g ..and a t the n o r t h end C i t y H a l l . L i n i n g the s t r e e t would be . impor tant , p u b l i c . b u i l d i n g s ; e . g . p u b l i c l i b r a r y , museum, a r t g a l l e r y , Post O f f i c e , a u d i t o r i u m . Seve ra l s t r e e t s c rossed the main a x i s but Portage Avenue was shown as a main, a r t e r i a l w h i l e Broadway, which i s immediate ly i n f ron t of the Par l i ament B u i l d i n g , was shown w i t h a row of t r ees down e i ther , s ide and another down the c e n t r e . Immediately adjacent t o the western edge o f the scheme was the proposed " T r a n s - C i t y Highway", the r e s u l t of a number of s t r e e t s be ing widened so tha t together they formed a. reasonably d i r e c t n o r t h - s o u t h t r a f f i c a r t e r y . A e s t h e t i c Development Committee. The committee d i d not suggest a comprehensive scheme of b e a u t i f i c a t i o n ; r a the r i t made a number of 149 150 i n d i v i d u a l recommendations on a ve ry wide v a r i e t y of concerns . I t was the committee 's b e l i e f that " a r t i s t i c r e s u l t s " cou ld be secured 20 w i t h very l i t t l e money. The committee had hoped to purchase documents and books i n order tha t i t might d i s c o v e r what o ther c i t i e s had done i n the way of c i v i c a r t . Th i s request was turned down; however the committee noted tha t many c i t i e s had p rov ided i n f o r m a t i o n free of charge. The recommendations are summarized below. I t w i l l be seen tha t w h i l e not t a l k i n g about park systems and r a d i a l road systems, C i t y B e a u t i f u l p r i n c i p l e s p l a y a l a r g e pa r t i n the recommendations. In f a c t , v i r t u a l l y a l l o f them had appeared ±.n the w r i t i n g s of Char les Mul fo rd Robinson. (1) B u i l d new C i t y H a l l on the s i t e of the proposed c i v i c c e n t r e . (2) Secure l e g i s l a t i o n so that the c i t y cou ld c o n t r o l "the c l a s s of b u i l d i n g s to be e rec ted on f o c a l p o i n t s , so tha t our o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f s e c u r i n g the e r e c t i o n of commanding s t r u c t u r e s at such p o i n t s would not be l o s t i n the f u t u r e " . (3) Change the al ignment of s t r e e t s " to break the dreary monotony of an endless v i s t a " . (4) Sponsor an a r c h i t e c t u r a l compe t i t i on f o r workingmen's houses. (5) E s t a b l i s h an even d i s t r i b u t i o n of s m a l l squares adjacent to busy r o a d si (6) On c e n t r a l s t r e e t s and i n new suburbs, put u t i l i t y po les underground and i n back lanes r e s p e c t i v e l y . (7) Secure l e g i s l a t i o n to c o n t r o l s igns and b i l l b o a r d s ( s i z e , h e i g h t , s t y l e , s i z e of l e t t e r s ) . 151 (8) Enact bylaws r e q u i r i n g b u i l d i n g s to be .1.1/2 t imes the s t r e e t w id th — fo r " p u r e l y a e s t h e t i c reasons" . (9) Enforce the smoke p r e v e n t i o n bylaw " to preserve the b u i l d i n g s , pa rks , s t r e e t s and lawns of the C i t y from dis f igurement due to soo t , and to preserve the p u r i t y o f the atmosphere". (10) E s t a b l i s h r i v e r d r iveways . (11) In b u i l d i n g new b r i d g e s , cons ide r t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r e . (12) Encourage S t r ee t Improvement A s s o c i a t i o n s ( t o . p l a n t lawns, co -o rd ina t e house c o l o u r s , e t c . ) . (13) Appoint a permanent Board of A d v i s e r s on C i v i c A e s t h e t i c s " to g ive p r o f e s s i o n a l adv ice to the C o u n c i l on such "matters as the treatment o f s t a t ua ry and monuments, b u i l d i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s , b r i d g e 21 d e s i g n , docks and r i v e r banks, bou leva rds , parks and s t r e e t s " . S o c i a l Survey Committee. Over 2000 houses were v i s i t e d j o i n t l y by t h i s committee and the Housing Committee, c o m p i l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on n a t i o n a l i t y , l eng th o f t ime i n Winnipeg , n a t i o n a l i t y o f l a n d l o r d , k i n d of house, r e n t , c o n d i t i o n of e x t e r i o r and i n t e r i o r , number and sex of r e s i d e n t s i n c l u d i n g lodgers and c h i l d r e n , number of rooms, number of bedrooms, s i z e o f rooms, number o f rooms wi thou t windows, number of people l i v i n g i n c e l l a r s , p lumbing, ba th , s i n k , t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s , c o n d i t i o n of yards and type o f house ( p r i v a t e , tenement, board ing house, p r i v a t e house conver ted i n t o tenement h o u s e ) . ^ The committee concluded tha t bad environmenta l c o n d i t i o n s "no tab ly i n s a n i t a r y p remises , overcrowding and i n s u f f i c i e n c y o f f r e sh a i r and s u n l i g h t " were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a h i g h r a t e of i n f a n t 152 m o r t a l i t y and a h i g h degree of " p a r e n t a l ignorance" . I t recommended the es tabl i shment of a C h i l d Welfare Bureau, educa t ion "on the laws o f domestic hygiene and c h i l d care" and the encouragement o f p h i l a n -23 t h r o p i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Housing Committee. This committee u t i l i z e d the above survey as w e l l as the " b u i l d i n g codes and tenement house bylaws of a great number o f c i t i e s i n Nor th A m e r i c a " , r epo r t s of t h e . N a t i o n a l Housing A s s o c i a t i o n s of Great B r i t a i n and. Amer i ca , . and . i n f o r m a t i o n on model towns and suburbs. Va r ious problems were p i n p o i n t e d : i n s u f f i c i e n t l i g h t and a i r , overcrowding , poor c o n s t r u c t i o n ( r e s u l t i n g i n f rozen plumbing, inadequate h e a t ) , unders ta f fed H e a l t h and B u i l d i n g I n s p e c t o r ' Departments and a h i g h i nc idence of bad. r e p a i r i n those houses be ing h e l d fo r commercial s p e c u l a t i o n . Recommendations i n c l u d e d s e v e r a l s p e c i f i c amendments to Winn ipeg ' s tenement house by law, cheap r a p i d t r a n s i t to the suburbs, the encouragement o f model suburbs, the e s t a b l i s h m e n t . o f a zone system (because bad housing was found to 2 be r e l a t e d to. mixed.use areas) and more v i g o r o u s . b u i l d i n g i n s p e c t i o n s . T r a f f i c and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Committee. Th i s committee surveyed over 4000 houses and prepared maps l i n k i n g res idence w i t h workp lace . I t was o r i g i n a l l y in tended to survey the. e n t i r e c i t y but t h i s was prevented by l a c k o f funds. F a c i l i t a t i o n of t r a f f i c was the major (almost s o l e ) g o a l . Recommendations t o o k . t h e form o f a number of s p e c i f i c s t r e e t improvements — connec t ions , widen ings , s t r a i g h t e n i n g s , 25 ex t ens ions , b r idges and. subways. The on ly excep t ion was a sugges t ion to develop a p a r t i c u l a r s t r e e t as a r i v e r d r i v e i n a p a r k - l i k e s e t t i n g . Some a t t e n t i o n was a l s o p a i d to a l l e v i a t i n g conges t ion on the s t r e e t 153 r a i l w a y system and d i s c u s s i n g c o n f l i c t s o c c u r r i n g between t r a f f i c 27 and the m u l t i t u d e of r a i l l i n e s . Dockage and R i v e r Frontage Committee. I t was b e l i e v e d at t h i s t ime that the Red R i v e r was des t i ned to become an important n o r t h -south water r o u t e . . Lack of funds caused the committee to abandon a survey here , b e l i e v i n g i t to be a mat ter f o r e x p e r t s . However, i t was s t a t e d tha t the water f rontage should n o t . o n l y accommodate s h i p p i n g but should be a t t r a c t i v e as w e l l . A number o f recommendations were made, which dea l t p r i m a r i l y w i t h the appearance of the b u i l d i n g s and docks P h y s i c a l P l a n Committee. Charged w i t h the t a sk o f i n t e g r a t i n g the o ther f i v e r e p o r t s , t h i s committee presented a number o f recom-mendations which the c i t y was i n a p o s i t i o n to implement. They i n c l u d e d r e s e r v i n g the c i v i c cen t re s i t e , o b t a i n i n g - t h e l e g a l r i g h t to cons t ruc t highways by means o f "excess condemnation", b u i l d i n g an a u d i t o r i u m , under tak ing a model hous ing scheme f o r workmen as a demonstrat ion p r o j e c t , s e t t i n g b u i l d i n g he igh t as a p r o p o r t i o n of s t r e e t w i d t h , and e s t a b l i s h i n g a system of p a r k s , playgrounds and 29 s m a l l superv i sed neighbourhood c e n t r e s . Th i s l a s t recommendation was a product of the P h y s i c a l P l a n Committee 's own resea rch and was based on the b e l i e f tha t parks and r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s would p rov ide enjoyment, improve h e a l t h , decrease j u v e n i l e de l inquency and o f f e r a number-of l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . 3 ^ The P h y s i c a l P l a n Committee recommended tha t the r epo r t be turned over to an exper t who would prepare a comprehensive p l a n . This exper t was to be a "master des igner — a landscape a r c h i t e c t — 154 a man to take the a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l a n d - b u i l d i t up i n t o . a convenien t , 31 b e a u t i f u l mass wi thout waste o f m a t e r i a l " . Over and above the v a r i o u s committee r e p o r t s j there were a few genera l recommendations. These i n c l u d e d . t h e es tab l i shment o f a permanent p l a n n i n g commission, the enactment of p l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , 32 and the encouragement o f v o l u n t a r y c i t i z e n s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n s . D. F o l l o w i n g - t h e p l a n Very l i t t l e came o f the p l a n , and A r t i b i s e has suggested tha t t h i s was due . to C o u n c i l ' s l a c k o f commitment. F i r s t l y , the Commission had r e c e i v e d l e s s than h a l f the money i t had requested, , desp i t e the f ac t tha t seven o f the e igh teen members a l s o sat on C o u n c i l . Secondly , these seven p o l i t i c i a n s had a ve ry poor attendance r eco rd at committee meet ings; two had never at tended and the o thers a t tended on ly once. F i n a l l y , the C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission hos ted . the Winnipeg Town P lann ing , and Housing Congress i n 1912.but requests f o r funds to send delegates to the annual N a t i o n a l . Conferences .on C i t y . P l a n n i n g and i n 1912 to the f i r s t convent ion of Western Canada b u i l d i n g i n s p e c t o r s 33 were a l l den ied . In A r t i b i s e ' s v i e w , the above .ac t ions served to i l l u s t r a t e tha t C o u n c i l ' s concern f o r ' p l a n n i n g ' . w a s s imply a means of g a i n i n g p u b l i c i t y fo r .Winn ipeg and not a . s i g n of any genuine commitment. A r t i b i s e has fu r t he r suggested t h a t . t h e genera l t h r u s t of the Commission's endeavours would have d i s p l e a s e d C o u n c i l c o n s i d e r a b l y . The Commission was i n t e r e s t e d i n p i n p o i n t i n g urban problems and deve lop ing s t r a t e g i e s to he lp so lve them. C o u n c i l was. i n t e r e s t e d 155 i n growth, p r o s p e r i t y and b o o s t i n g Winnipeg ' s image. "Through 1911 and pa r t o f 1912 the s e t t i n g up and support of a c i t y . p l a n n i n g commission and even the h o s t i n g o f a p l a n n i n g conference had been cons idered u s e f u l moves, a c t i o n s that cou ld be po in t ed to as examples o f the c i t y ' s coming of age. But w i t h the f i r s t i n t i m a t i o n i n 1912 tha t many o f the Commis-s i o n ' s f i n d i n g s showed.Winnipeg was f a r from a p r o g r e s s i v e c i t y i t was decided to s t r a n g l e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s by c u t t i n g o f f f u n d s . . . To a body as concerned w i t h growth as was C o u n c i l , the type o f p u b l i c i t y be ing presented by the Commission was l e s s than, s a t i s f a c t o r y and C o u n c i l thus refused to accede to that body ' s request f o r f i n a n c i a l suppor t . "34 In 1913, f o l l o w i n g the demise of the C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission, a v o l u n t a r y group, known as the Winnipeg Housing and Town P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , was o rgan i zed . One o f i t s p r i n c i p a l s , W i l l i a m Pearson , had c h a i r e d both the C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission and the seven-member c i t i z e n s ' group which had preceded i t . The new o r g a n i z a t i o n "urged c i v i c a u t h o r i t i e s to c a r r y out the Commission's recommendations and supported p u b l i c educa t i on , the promotion of governmental housing and town p l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , , and. the improvement o f l o c a l housing through p r o g r e s s i v e b u i l d i n g bylaws and promotion of a model hous ing 35 p r o j e c t " . The A s s o c i a t i o n ' s e f f o r t s went a long way towards (1) the appointment by C o u n c i l i n 1914 o f the Greater Winnipeg P l a n Commission and (2) the enactment of a p r o v i n c i a l Town P l a n n i n g Act The Greater Winnipeg P l a n Commission, was charged w i t h the task of p r epa r ing a comprehensive c i t y p l a n . Funds were .cu t o f f w i t h the advent of World War I b u t . t h e commission cont inued to meet 37 throughout the war. I t s P r o f e s s i o n a l A d v i s e r , A r t h u r A . Stoughton, 156 38 has been c r e d i t e d as the d r i v i n g fo rce behind the commission. Al though no r epor t was ever p u b l i s h e d , the Commission had concerned i t s e l f w i t h the proposed Cross-Town Highway (as recommended e a r l i e r i n the C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission's r e p o r t ) , the a r c h i t e c t u r a l treatment o f a v i a d u c t and three b r i d g e s , an approach to the Par l i ament B u i l d i n g , 39 and a comprehensive s t r e e t p l a n aimed at f a c i l i t a t i n g c i r c u l a t i o n . One o f the Commission's recommendations was c a r r i e d out a f t e r the war , and Memorial Boulevard from Portage to Broadway became.an approach 40 to the Par l i ament B u i l d i n g and pa r t o f a fu ture Cross-Town Highway. A f t e r 1920, when two members moved away and another d i e d , the Commission • 4 1 became i n a c t i v e . In 1927, a town p l a n n i n g committee o f C i t y ' C o u n c i l was set up w i t h the Grea ter Winnipeg branch o f the Town.Planning I n s t i t u t e o f Canada a c t i n g as an a d v i s o r y body. The committee began by s t udy ing prev ious p lans and i n p a r t i c u l a r , a r i v e r d r i v e and the. Cross-Town Highway. However, i t s pr imary emphasis was on the p r e p a r a t i o n of a zoning bylaw, and i n 1936, such a bylaw was p a s s e d . ^ I I . Edmonton A. E a r l y parks p l a n n i n g In 1906, both Edmonton (nor th o f the r i v e r ) and St ra thcona (south of the r i v e r ) h i r e d F r e d e r i c k G. Todd, o f M o n t r e a l , to prepare parks p l a n s . Separate (but s i m i l a r ) r epor t s were submit ted i n A p r i l and May of 1907 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Each p l a n c o n s i s t e d o f w r i t t e n recom-mendations and a map i n d i c a t i n g the l o c a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g and proposed parks and b o u l e v a r d s . ^ 3 157 In h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y remarks, Todd.spoke o p t i m i s t i c a l l y of the "great fu tu re s " of both c i t i e s . Edmonton, i n p a r t i c u l a r , was des t i ned to become an i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l c en t r e . Todd.urged each c i t y to p rov ide f o r fu ture needs now w h i l e l and was r e l a t i v e l y inexpens ive and as yet undeveloped. He po in t ed out tha t the American government was c u r r e n t l y spending many m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s i n an e f f o r t to r e a l i z e L ' E n f a n t ' s p l a n f o r Washington, drawn up over a hundred years 44 be fo re . L i k e o ther parks e n t h u s i a s t s , Todd supported the need f o r na ture i n the c i t y . " I f we examine c a r e f u l l y the r epor t s .and - s t a t i s t i c s o f . t h e l a r g e r c i t i e s we f i n d tha t they prove no th ing more c l e a r l y than tha t a crowded p o p u l a t i o n , i f they are t o . l i v e i n h e a l t h and happiness , must have space f o r the enjoyment of tha t peace fu l beauty of nature which because i t i s the oppos i t e of a l l tha t i s s o r d i d and a r t i f i c i a l , i n our c i t y l i v e s , i s so .wonde r fu l l y r e f r e s h i n g to the t i r e d sou l s of c i t y d w e l l e r s . I n developing , l a r g e p a r k s , f o r example, he recommended tha t "as much as p o s s i b l e o f t h e i r present n a t u r a l , beauty be r e t a i n e d , and tha t t h e i r n a t u r a l p i c t u r e s q u e -ness be fu r t he r i nc reased by the p l a n t i n g of many t rees and shrubs i n an i r r e g u l a r and n a t u r a l w a y " . ^ In 1907, Edmonton a l ready had. two l a r g e suburburban. parks (100 and 148 acres) tha t had been acqu i red a few years e a r l i e r , ^ and St ra thcona had made a s t a r t on a bou levard o v e r l o o k i n g the Nor th 48 Saskatchewan R i v e r . Todd recommended.a balanced d i s t r i b u t i o n of l a r g e parks (one i n each d i r e c t i o n ) as w e l l as the a c q u i s i t i o n of as much r av ine l a n d as p o s s i b l e . The r a v i n e s , w i t h t h e i r wooded 158 s lopes and w a l k i n g paths and s c e n i c d r i v e s atop t h e i r r i d g e s , would serve to i nc rease the va lue o f adjacent p r o p e r t y , w h i l e be ing unsu i t ed to any development themselves . A boulevard system connec t ing a l l parks and f o l l o w i n g creeks and r i v e r s wherever p o s s i b l e was proposed f o r each c i t y . That pa r t o f the bou levard system which approached the L e g i s l a t u r e cou ld be g iven a s p e c i a l p l a n t i n g treatment i n order to enhance the v i s t a . F i n a l l y , he u rged . tha t s e v e r a l c i t y b l o c k s be acqu i red at t ax s a l e s and developed i n t o s m a l l parks and p laygrounds . When Todd's Edmonton r epor t was submit ted to. C i t y C o u n c i l , no a c t i o n was recommended o ther than read ing i t at a Canadian Club l u n c h e o n . T h e r e the mayor t o l d h i s audience t h a t . " t h e c i v i c a u t h o r i t i e s should keep the p l a n i n mind, a n d . g r a d u a l l y c a r r y i t 51 52 i n t o e f f e c t " . O f f i c i a l l y the repor t was f i l e d , and over the next few yea r s , ve ry l i t t l e parks a c q u i s i t i o n and development a c t u a l l y took p l a c e . B . Events l e a d i n g up to the c i t y p l a n In 1911, a c t i n g on a recommendation o f i t s Parks Committee, 54 C i t y C o u n c i l e s t a b l i s h e d a Parks Commission " to manage, c o n t r o l and e m b e l l i s h " a l l pa rks , playgrounds and a t h l e t i c f i e l d s i n Edmonton. Three months l a t e r , P a u l A . von Aueberg was h i r e d . a s Superintendent of Parks and on A p r i l 1, 1912 was put i n charge o f the n e w l y - e s t a b l i s h e d 56 Parks Department. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the Parks Commission were expanded on A p r i l 30, 1912: 159 "The P a r k s . C o m m i s s i o n . s h a l l have an i n i t i a t i v e and a d v i s o r y s t a tu s w i t h and under the C i t y Commissioners i n the genera l management, r e g u l a t i o n and c o n t r o l of a l l p a r k s , bou leva rds , d r i v e s and p u b l i c p l a c e s . . . ( I t ) may i n i t i a t e , p l a n , develop and recommend to the C o u n c i l , through the C i t y Commissioners such c i v i c improvement schemes, c i t y p l a n n i n g and c i v i c cent re p r o j e c t s , and such o ther betterment move-ments as may be deemed worthy of t h e i r recommendations."57 C i t y C o u n c i l went on r eco rd as s a y i n g : "The work o f i n i t i a t i n g , p l a n n i n g and a d v i s i n g o n . c i v i c betterment schemes and on C i t y p l a n n i n g , parks and p laygrounds , i s we f e e l an important work which i n the hur ry o f a r a p i d l y growing C i t y has been too much neg lec ted and r e q u i r e s the thought-f u l care and a t t e n t i o n of a permanent i n i t i a t o r y and a d v i s o r y body such as. a .Parks Commission, i f our C i t y i s to a t t a i n to tha t beauty w h i c h . i t s p o s i t i o n as our C a p i t a l e n t i t l e s i t . " 5 8 Throughout 1912, the Parks Commission c a r r i e d out a v igorous program o f parks a c q u i s i t i o n and development. P u b l i c support was s u b s t a n t i a l , as evidenced by a referendum whereby-voters a u t h o r i z e d 59 the spending of $150,000 to ex tend . the park .and boulevard system. A l a r g e t r a c t of r i v e r f ron tage , l and f o r a f i f t e e n - m i l e r i v e r d r i v e and s e v e r a l s m a l l p a r c e l s were a c q u i r e d . Depending.on the nature o f the park , t r ees were p l a n t e d , footpaths l a i d ou t , p i c n i c f a c i l i t i e s b u i l t , p layground equipment i n s t a l l e d and a t h l e t i c f i e l d s graded. By the end o f 1912, Edmonton (St ra thcona had amalgamated w i t h Edmonton tha t year) cou ld boast of 800 acres of pa rk land and a system of connec t ing bou leva rds . The Commission a l s o o u t l i n e d s p e c i f i c . p r o p o s a l s to acqu i re more r av ine l and and r i v e r f rontage i n the next few y e a r s . 160 Smal l p a r c e l s would cont inue to be secured by means of a bylaw which r e q u i r e d a l l l and s u b d i v i d e r s to d o n a t e . f i v e per c e n t . o f t h e i r h o l d i n g s f o r parks p u r p o s e s . ^ The Parks Commission had a l s o been a c t i v e i n the area o f town p l a n n i n g . I t s F i r s t Annual Report s t a t e d t h a t : "The Committee on C i v i c P l a n n i n g and Housing put i n a great d e a l o f t ime i n endeavoring to secure the bes t ideas on t h i s subjec t and i t was f i n a l l y recommended to the C i t y C o u n c i l tha t the s e r v i c e s o f the bes t C i v i c P l a n n i n g Exper t be secured to l a y out a p l a n of the C i t y improvements, which would i n c l u d e the whole Parks and boulevards systems and p o s s i b l y housing a l s o , i n the C i t y . " 6 1 On J u l y 11 , 1912, l e t t e r s were sent to s e v e r a l landscape a r c h i t e c t s , i n c l u d i n g Thomas.H.. Mawson and Sons, the Canadian f i r m of Grubb and H a r r i e s , F r e d e r i c k G. Todd o f M o n t r e a l , the American.John N o l e n , and the Minneapo l i s f i r m of M o r e l l and N i c h o l s . In p a r t , these l e t t e r s read : "The Parks Commission o f t h i s C i t y are c o n s i d e r i n g the appointment o f a C i v i c P l a n n i n g expert to co-operate w i t h t h e i r super intendent i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of p l ans f o r fu ture growth and to a d v i s e , g e n e r a l l y , as to the best methods f o r development on h e a l t h y , convenient and a r t i s t i c l i n e s and i n d e t a i l as to c e r t a i n s p e c i a l f ea tu re s . "^^ Three weeks e a r l i e r , Edmonton had sent four delegates to the Winnipeg town p l ann ing conference — von Aueberg, a member of the 63 Parks Commission, the mayor and one of. the aldermen. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t what they saw and heard at Winnipeg s t r o n g l y . i n f l u e n c e d the d e c i s i o n to employ a " c i v i c p l a n n i n g expe r t " . The i d e a o f " c i t y p l a n n i n g " and " c i v i c bet terment" had been mentioned i n the past but 161 i t wasn't until after the conference that von Aueberg (and the others) began, to give definition to these.concepts. On July 12, 1912, one day after the letters were sent, City Council reserved a three-block area adjacent to the central business d i s t r i c t for a civic centre. The Parks Commission was requested "to make a report as to the proper development and beautification 64 of the said d i s t r i c t as a civ i c centre". On August 6, 1912, Morell and Nichols were hired to prepare a plan for Edmonton.^ It was to be primarily concerned with parks and boulevards but they were also instructed to report on a civic centre, an approach to the Parliament Building, street furnishings, street railway development and "any feature of growth which appears 66 undesirable and which might be remedied by civic legislation". The press associated the proposed plan with the concept of beautification, calling i t "a large park, boulevarding and city 67 beautification scheme". ~ Anthony U. Morell visited Edmonton in September and returned with a "preliminary" report some two months 68 later. City Council "placed i t s e l f on record as being heartily in accord with the general outline" of the plan and on the recom-mendation of the Parks Commission, decided that "a further sum of 69 $8500 be authorized to make a complete report". Such a report would focus only on those projects deemed desirable by the Commis-s i o n . ^ The b i l l for the firm's preliminary report was $3274.^ C. The plan The Morell and Nichols plan could not be located. However, i t 162 i s p o s s i b l e to r e c o n s t r u c t a good pa r t o f i t u s ing a v a r i e t y of sources . The Edmonton D a i l y B u l l e t i n pub l i shed a summary o f the 72 p l a n when i t was f i r s t submi t ted . In a d d i t i o n , M o r e l l wrote a s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s f o r the same newspaper which appeared approximate ly 73 weekly between November 25 , 1912 and January 27, 1913; the news-paper had announced tha t M o r e l l ' s a r t i c l e s would be "on town p l ann ing g e n e r a l l y and h i s recommendations i n regard to Edmonton more p a r t i c u -l a r l y " and tha t each a r t i c l e would focus on "one i n d i v i d u a l phase of 74 the r e p o r t " . F i n a l l y , the i n v o i c e f o r the f i r m ' s p l ann ing work i n c l u d e d a l i s t o f s i x t e e n maps and ske tches , s e v e r a l o f which were photographed. f o r newspaper p u b l i c a t i o n . In h i s newspaper a r t i c l e s , M o r e l l assured readers o f Edmonton's cont inued growth and p r o s p e r i t y . He t o l d them tha t o ther c i t i e s i n Canada and the w o r l d were p r epa r ing p l ann ing schemes and i m p l i e d tha t Edmonton would not want to be l e f t beh ind . Improvements cou ld be under taken.over t ime ensur ing that growth would be guided. " P l a n n i n g . . . i s not p r i m a r i l y a matter of a e s t h e t i c s but of -economics . The main-object i s to prevent or remedy the p h y s i c a l or moral e v i l s and l o s s e s which accompany the growth of any c i t y or town i n a haphazard way." 76 S t r e e t s . Wi th the o b j e c t i v e o f i n c r e a s i n g a c c e s s i b i l i t y over the c i t y , M o r e l l e n v i s i o n e d a comprehensive system o f n o r t h - s o u t h , east-west and d i agona l roads . To t h i s end, a number o f e x i s t i n g roads were designated- as main and secondary a r t e r i e s , and s p e c i f i c improvements were.recommended — widen ings , connect ions and ex tens ions — i n order to complete the system. I t was fu r t he r recommended tha t four e x i s t i n g d i agona l roads be l i n k e d w i t h o ther main a r t e r i e s 163 and tha t s e v e r a l new d iagona ls be b u i l t i n . areas not yet developed. No new b r idges were f e l t to be necessary . Other recommendations i n c l u d e d the widening o f s idewalks a long busy s t r e e t s , the i n s t a l l a t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l s t r e e t l i g h t i n g and the b u i l d i n g o f a "speedway" f o r f a s t t r a f f i c . The c i t y was a l s o urged to h i r e e x p e r t s . t o make a study of the r a i l r o a d s i t u a t i o n and. r epor t on ways to s o l v e the problem of l e v e l c r o s s i n g s . ^ C i v i c c en t r e . Two separate schemes were produced fo r the same s i t e ; however, the d i f f e r e n c e s between, them appear to be ve ry minor . In g e n e r a l , the proposed c i v i c cent re was ve ry s i m i l a r to Burnham's schemes: b l o c k a f t e r b l o c k . o f i d e n t i c a l f l a t - r o o f e d b u i l d i n g s s t r e t c h i n g to the h o r i z o n , a grassy r e c t a n g u l a r m a l l w i t h a t e r m i n a l v i s t a at e i t h e r end, a c e n t r a l o b e l i s k , a symmetr ica l l ayou t and an abundance of c l a s s i c a l elements ( b u i l d i n g facades , colonnaded p a v i l i o n s ) . In a d d i t i o n to the c i v i c c e n t r e , a formal approach to. the e x i s t i n g Par l i ament B u i l d i n g was a l s o . p r o p o s e d . P a r k s . Proposed improvements to Edmonton's park and boulevard system i n c l u d e d the a c q u i s i t i o n of more r av ine l a n d , more l a n d f o r s m a l l parks throughout the c i t y , and. the e n t i r e r i v e r f r o n t . M o r e l l spoke o f the need " to r e s t o r e and preserve the n a t u r a l b e a u t i f u l appearance of the r i v e r " . a n d recommended.that e x i s t i n g i n d u s t r i e s be g r a d u a l l y r e - l o c a t e d . In the meantime the i n d u s t r i e s cou ld be encouraged to reduce t h e i r smoke, output by means of " s c i e n t i f i c methods of burn ing c o a l and o ther s c i e n t i f i c arrangements". F i n a l l y , the system was to be completed by 35 m i l e s of boulevards connec t ing the v a r i o u s p a r k s . 164 F i g . 31 — Edmonton: Proposed c i v i c c en t r e . Looking n o r t h . (Source: Glenbow-Alber ta I n s t i t u t e ) 165 F i g . 32 — Edmonton: Proposed c i v i c c e n t r e . Looking sou th . (Source: Glenbow-Alber ta I n s t i t u t e ) 166 F i g . 33 — Edmonton: Proposed approach to Par l iament B u i l d i n g . (Source: Glenbow-Alber ta I n s t i t u t e ) 167 F i g . 34 — Edmonton: C i v i c c e n t r e . Today 's c i v i c cent re i s on the 1913 s i t e . The b u i l d i n g i n the foreground i s the l i b r a r y . Across the park i s C i t y H a l l w h i l e to the l e f t the C . N . r a i l w a y s t a t i o n te rminates the s t r e e t 168 Other elements o f the p l a n . In the f i e l d o f hous ing , the f o l l o w i n g recommendations were made: (1) the enactment of b u i l d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s which .would ensure adequate l i g h t and a i r , (2) the es tab l i shment of a m u n i c i p a l housing scheme f o r c i t y employees which would set an example f o r p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y , and (3) the es tab l i shment of "workmen's c o l o n i e s " (garden suburbs) under m u n i c i p a l or c o - o p e r a t i v e o w n e r s h i p . 7 9 F i n a l l y , M o r e l l urged tha t the c i t y be d i v i d e d i n t o zones — i n d u s t r i a l , b u s i n e s s , w h o l e s a l e , r e s t r i c t e d r e s i d e n t i a l ( fo r the b e t t e r c l a s s o f h o u s i n g ) , workingmen's areas and u n r e s t r i c t e d areas 80 ( fo r s m a l l bus ines ses , apartments, e t c . ) . D. F o l l o w i n g the p l a n E a r l y i n 1913, o b v i o u s l y e n t h u s i a s t i c about the fu ture of p l ann ing i n Edmonton, von Aueberg-recommended t h a t . t h e Parks Commission expand i t s name to the Parks and C i v i c P l a n n i n g Commission and tha t a former v i c e - p r e s i d e n t o f the Canadian. Housing and Town P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n be taken on as a new member. In a d d i t i o n , he suggested that the Parks Department should become the Parks and C i t y P l a n n i n g 81 Department. A few days l a t e r , von Aueberg recommended tha t the a p p r o p r i a t i o n 82 of $8500 be used i n . the f o l l o w i n g manner: 169 To h i r e M o r e l l and N i c h o l s to prepare a f i n a l r epor t $7500 To p r i n t 2000 copies o f M o r e l l ' s f i r s t p l a n 500 To p r i n t 500 copies of the F i r s t Canadian Housing and Town P l a n n i n g Congress 250 To p r i n t 500 copies of the F i r s t A l b e r t a Housing and Town P l a n n i n g Congress. 250 There i s no r eco rd tha t any a c t i o n was ever taken on e i t h e r of von Aueberg 's recommendations. I t seems tha t few at C i t y H a l l were w i l l i n g to l end a c t i v e support to the n o t i o n o f p l a n n i n g . . The f i r s t request was f a i r l y inocuous and the second was on ly a recommendation of how to spend money tha t had a l r eady been.approved.. I t may have been. that , von Aueberg was the o n l y one who was t r u l y committed to p l ann ing or that Edmonton's economic for tunes had a l r eady begun to t u r n . But w h i l e C i t y C o u n c i l may not. have b e e n . w i l l i n g to spend $7500 f o r a f i n a l r epor t from M o r e l l and N i c h o l s , i t s members had no i n t e n t i o n o f abandoning the c i v i c cent re scheme. Rather they 83 v i g o r o u s l y promoted i t . E . C i v i c cen t re p roposa l I n d i v i d u a l a sk ing p r i c e s f o r the s i t e ranged between $700 and $1800 per f o o t . ^ ^ T o t a l cost would be. $2.7 m i l l i o n , ^ a f i g u r e 86 which was over $1 m i l l i o n i n excess of the 1912 assessment. Most of the f i f t e e n owners were w i l l i n g to. accept 40-year debentures i n 87 l i e u of cash but the h i g h cos t of a c q u i r i n g the p rope r ty soon became a c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e . 170 At C i t y C o u n c i l , everyone seemed i n . favour o f a c q u i r i n g the p r o p e r t i e s , and the i s s u e of cos t was brushed a s i d e . As one alderman commented, " . . . i t i s up to us to buy t h i s p roper ty w h i l e we have the o p p o r t u n i t y . Le t us put i t up to the r a t epaye r s . A i d . T i p t o n says tha t i n f i v e y e a r s , the p o p u l a t i o n of the c i t y w i l l be 250,000. I f tha t be the case , then the cos t per year of g e t t i n g t h i s c i v i c cen t re w i l l on ly be a d o l l a r per year per head."88 When i t was f i n a l l y decided to submit- the p roposa l to the r a t epaye r s , a l l but one alderman v o t e d . i n favour ; the d i s s e n t i n g v o i c e abs ta ined not because he opposed the p r o j e c t but because he thought p r o v i s i o n should have been made to acqu i re or c o n t r o l p r o p e r t i e s 89 f r o n t i n g the c i v i c c e n t r e . A l l o f t h i s occur red desp i t e a recommendation from, the C i t y Commissioners tha t the e n t i r e p r o j e c t be she lved — the a sk ing p r i c e 90 was too much and the t ime not r i g h t to undertake such a scheme. The Edmonton.Daily B u l l e t i n . i n t e r v i e w e d "a number of w e l l known c i t i z e n s and p rope r ty owners" and asked t h e i r o p i n i o n o f the scheme. Most supported the concept but con t rover sy cont inued to . surround the p r i c e . Some thought the a sk ing p r i c e s q u i t e reasonable , o thers c la imed they would never be cheaper , and s t i l l o thers . thought them too h i g h , one man going so f a r as to c l a i m tha t " i n v iew o f the f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n , i t would be a s u i c i d a l bus iness on the pa r t of 91 the c i t y . . . The cos t i s a l t o g e t h e r out o f our r each" . A money bylaw t o . r a i s e the necessary $2.7 m i l l i o n was submit ted to the ra tepayers on March 28, 1913. I n what was the l a r g e s t v o t e r 171 turnout Edmonton had.ever seen, 54% of the votes cas t opposed the 92 bylaw. A few days l a t e r , C i t y C o u n c i l attempted to r e s u r r e c t the p r o j e c t by c a l l i n g fo r "a more d e s i r a b l e scheme" to be prepared . 93 The motion l o s t and the scheme was l a i d to r e s t . f o r another twelve y e a r s . By t h i s t ime , the boom would appear to have ended. The Parks 94 Commission was reduced to suggesting.names f o r . c i t y p a r k s , and 95 the Parks Department was a b o l i s h e d . The annual r epor t f o r 1913 i n d i c a t e d tha t parks expendi tures had.been w e l l below the amount budgeted owing " to the f i n a n c i a l s t r i n g e n c y which n e c e s s i t a t e d the 96 abandoning o f a l l permanent work" . In February 1914, the Parks Department was r e - e s t a b l i s h e d , on ly to be a b o l i s h e d aga in a few 97 months l a t e r . I t was to. remain dormant u n t i l 1947. F. The 1920's The c i v i c cen t re concept was r e v i v e d i n 1925. By t h i s t ime , some of the l and had r e v e r t e d to the c i t y f o r non-payment.of taxes w h i l e the es t imated cost of a c q u i r i n g the r e s t had f a l l e n to $165,200. 98 However, two money bylaws were defea ted . There was a renewed i n t e r e s t i n a e s t h e t i c s i n the mid -1920 ' s . Acco rd ing to E . H . D a l e , the L o c a l C o u n c i l o f Women p e t i t i o n e d C i t y C o u n c i l to undertake a number o f a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g the p r o v i s i o n of "a d i g n i f i e d and a t t r a c t i v e approach from the proposed Canadian N a t i o n a l Rai lway s t a t i o n to Jasper Avenue and the Macdonald H o t e l " and the a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n t r o l o f b u i l d i n g s around. the h o t e l i n 99 order to ensure harmony. No a c t i o n was t aken . 172 In 1929, a Town P l a n n i n g Commission, was e s t a b l i s h e d and i n 1930, i t pub l i shed i t s f i r s t r epor t — a major s t r e e t plan."*"^ I t s au thor , J . D . Tanqueray, had p r e v i o u s l y worked on Bartholomew's Vancouver p l a n . Emphasis i n the repor t was on the c r e a t i o n of a system of r a d i a l a r t e r i a l roads w i t h s p e c i f i c recommendations t a k i n g cos t , topography and the e x i s t i n g road network i n t o account . L i t t l e came of the s t r e e t p l a n . The Commission's next e f f o r t was a zoning bylaw, adopted i n 1930 and i n e f f e c t u n t i l 1950."^^ Throughout the Depres s ion , the C i t y cont inued to acqu i re land f o r a c i v i c c e n t r e , and by the end of World.War I I owned three b l o c k s of continuous f ron tage . Two c i v i c cen t re p lans were drawn up i n 1947 and another i n 1950; a l l were defeated when submit ted to the r a t epaye r s . In 1962, C i t y C o u n c i l adopted a new c i v i c cen t re p l a n , 102 which has g e n e r a l l y been f o l l o w e d . Today 's c i v i c c e n t r e , a combi-n a t i o n of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e development, i s approximate ly on the s i t e of the 1913 p r o p o s a l . I I I . Ca lgary A . C i t y P lanning .Commiss ion 103 C a l g a r y ' s C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission was appointed by C i t y C o u n c i l i n November 1911."'"^ I n i t i a l membership s tood at 34. persons and i t r e c e i v e d a grant of $3000 to cover i t s f i r s t y e a r ' s a c t i v i t i e s , 106 of which $1700 went to pay the s e c r e t a r y ' s s a l a r y . I t s terms of re fe rence were: 173 "to o b t a i n data and i n f o r m a t i o n on the subjec t of town p l a n n i n g and to prepare and recommend a comprehensive scheme of c i t y p l ann ing which w i l l meet the r e q u i r e -ments of t h i s C i t y f o r i t s fu ture deve lop-ment. "107 Al though s p e c i f i c a l l y i n s t r u c t e d to prepare a p l a n , the C i t y P l ann ing Commission had no i n t e n t i o n of r e s t r i c t i n g i t s a c t i v i t i e s to t h i s a l one . From the b e g i n n i n g , i t e x h i b i t e d a much broader view of p l a n n i n g . I t saw i t s e l f i n two r o l e s : (1) educa t ing both i n d i v i d u a l s and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s about p l a n n i n g and (2) a c t i n g as an adv i so ry body to be consu l t ed by C i t y C o u n c i l on a wide v a r i e t y of 108 i s s u e s . There were e i g h t s t and ing committees, which were r e q u i r e d to r epor t monthly at genera l meet ings . They were: (1) Housing and s a n i t a t i o n , (2) A r t s and b u i l d i n g s ( i n c l u d i n g a c i v i c cent re and .genera l p l a n ) , (3) T r a f f i c and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , (4) P a r k s , boulevards and p laygrounds , (5) D r a f t i n g , (6) L e g i s l a t i v e , (7) S t r ee t improvements ( i n c l u d i n g s t r e e t w iden ing , e l e c t r i c l i g h t i n g and s t r e e t c l e a n i n g ) , and 109 (8) P u b l i c i t y . In the f i r s t f i v e months of i t s e x i s t e n c e , the Commission was i n v o l v e d i n a number of a c t i v i t i e s . I t was a t tempt ing to secure f o r the C i t y l e g a l power to c l e a n up vacant l o t s , adding the cos t 174 to the absentee owner 's t axes . C o n s i d e r a t i o n was a l s o be ing g iven to t u r n i n g some of the vacant l o t s i n t o playgrounds u n t i l such t ime as the land, was needed f o r development. The Commission had begun to pressure C i t y C o u n c i l to take a c t i o n on a c i v i c c e n t r e , and members were c u r r e n t l y n e g o t i a t i n g w i t h v a r i o u s c i t y o f f i c i a l s i n an attempt to ga in , b u i l d i n g code amendments; e . g . h e i g h t , se tback , r e s i d e n t i a l - • 1 1 0 r e s t r i c t i o n s . C i t y C o u n c i l minutes r e v e a l tha t i n the Commission's f i r s t yea r , i t had made a number of recommendations to C o u n c i l , some s e l f -i n i t i a t e d and others at C o u n c i l ' s r eques t . P roposa l s f o r an ornamental l i g h t i n g scheme were adopted and c a r r i e d ou t . A l s o , at the Commission's reques t , C i t y C o u n c i l went on r eco rd as f avour ing the n o t i o n o f a c i v i c cent re and w i t h i n the month, i t had appointed a s p e c i a l committee to confer w i t h the Parks Board and the C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission on the subjec t of s i t e s f o r open a i r spaces , playgrounds and a c i v i c c en t r e . Wi th respec t to s ecu r ing a comprehensive p l a n f o r the c i t y , the Commission recommended tha t Thomas Mawson, an E n g l i s h . l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t , be h i r e d . B . Events l e a d i n g up to the p l a n Thomas Mawson f i r s t v i s i t e d Ca lga ry i n A p r i l 1912 when he spoke at a Canadian Club luncheon. The Calgary H e r a l d proc la imed him "to be a man thoroughly conversant w i t h h i s s u b j e c t , and h i s hearers 112 were d e l i g h t e d w i t h the way i n which the sub jec t was hand led" . Mawson. t o l d h i s audience: 175 "There are three broad p r i n c i p l e s on which a l l c i t y b u i l d e r s must proceed, and each of such vas t importance as to deserve a separate l e c t u r e . The C i t y B e a u t i f u l can on ly be r e a l i z e d by the due observance of each and t h e i r proper c o r r e l a t i o n . " 1 1 3 The concerns i n ques t ion were t r a n s p o r t a t i o n (convenient t r a n s i t , road s u r f a c i n g , s e p a r a t i o n of modes), hygiene ( c o n t r o l l i n g d e n s i t y , open spaces , food, water , s a n i t a t i o n ) and beauty ("the pe r f ec t o r c h e s t r a t i o n . . . o f na tu re , a r t and s c i e n c e " ) . The l e c t u r e concen-t r a t e d on the i d e a l o f beauty but on beauty tha t was a n a t u r a l by -product of u t i l i t y . " I h o l d tha t beauty to be beauty must be r e a l and not superimposed, and tha t every ob jec t which i s needfu l ' and e f f i c i e n t i s , at l e a s t , p o t e n t i a l l y b e a u t i f u l . . . What more b e a u t i f u l t h i n g i s there than a yacht i n f u l l s a i l , every pa r t o f which i s designed w i t h mathematical p r e c i s i o n -not to c rea te beauty , but to secure s t a b i l i t y and speed. Or take an au tomobi le , as i t approaches a g rea te r degree o f p r o f i c i e n c y so i t becomes more b e a u t i f u l . . . I n s h o r t , u g l i n e s s a r i s e s from two causes o n l y , i n e f f i c i e n c y and waste , and even d i r t , i f you w i l l but l ook deep enough, i s on ly matter i n the wrong p lace . "114 Mawson v i s i t e d Ca lgary aga in i n October 1912, at which time he was i n t e r v i e w e d by the C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission f o r the job o f p r epa r ing a p l a n . H i s presence i n the c i t y d i d not go unno t i ced . Mawson's 116 p i c t u r e appeared on the f ront page of the Calgary H e r a l d , and i n an e d i t o r i a l , the same paper c la imed tha t "town p l ann ing i s a sub jec t i n which we are a l l v i t a l l y i n t e r e s t e d , and ve ry p r o p e r l y so — i t means a l l the d i f f e r e n c e between l i g h t , a i r , and s a n i t a t i o n , and the absence of them". ^ -Mawson pa in t ed v i s i o n s of an i d e a l c i t y and 176 c la imed tha t town p l a n n i n g would save money; indeed , i t cou ld even 118 make money. He emphasized tha t i t was not "a ques t ion of a e s t h e t i c s 119 . . . ( b u t ) . . . b a s e d on u t i l i t a r i a n n e c e s s i t y " . "For i n s i s t i n g on the p r a c t i c a l pa r t of the a r t of town p l a n n i n g , Mr . Mawson should be thanked. For he, l i k e the H e r a l d , must have found tha t most d i s c u s s i o n s on t h i s subjec t have a tendency to get l o s t i n the c l o u d s . The h y g i e n i c par t of the a r t i s almost always threatened w i t h e x t i n c t i o n under the f r i l l s . " 1 2 0 On October 12, 1912, the C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission recommended tha t Thomas Mawson "or some o ther exper t " be h i r e d to prepare a p l a n f o r C a l g a r y . "We b e l i e v e tha t the best man ob t a inab l e i s none too good f o r C a l g a r y , and t h a t , furthermore i t would be g r e a t l y to the C i t y ' s advantage i n every respect i f , i n c a l l i n g i n an expert to p l a n f o r the future needs of t h i s C i t y , fo r many years to come, we secured a man who i s at the t o p . o f h i s p r o f e s s i o n and who i s , t he re fo re capable of accompl i sh ing the bes t work. We a l s o b e l i e v e tha t the r e p u t a t i o n tha t our C i t y would o b t a i n by announcement tha t we were employing an exper t o f t h i s wor ld-wide repu te , would redound to our c r e d i t and tha t t h i s , i n i t s s e l f , would be o f g r e a t ^ _ va lue to us from a p u b l i c i t y s t a n d p o i n t . " I t was suggested tha t a sum o f at l e a s t $10,000 be app rop r i a t ed f o r comple t ion of a p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n and tha t i f the p l a n were s a t i s -f a c t o r y , c o n s i d e r a t i o n cou ld be g iven at tha t t ime to spending another $25,000 on a f i n a l r e p o r t . In the p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t , the p l a n n i n g expert would be r e q u i r e d " to i n v e s t i g a t e c o n d i t i o n s i n Calgary and make a repor t cove r ing the t r a f f i c and hous ing problems and a compre-hens ive scheme.for pa rks , p laygrounds , boulevard d r i v e s , a proposed 177 c i v i c cent re and such o ther matters as g e n e r a l l y come under the 122 head o f ' C i t y P l a n n i n g " 1 . C o u n c i l adopted the r e p o r t , g i v i n g i t s approva l to the s e t t i n g as ide o f $10,000 to pay f o r both the 123 expert and the p u b l i c a t i o n of h i s r e p o r t . The employment of 124 Mawson was o f f i c i a l l y approved on February 3 , 1913. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note tha t both newspapers made mention of the d e c i s i o n to h i r e Mawson but r e f r a i n e d from g i v i n g any arguments 125 about the d e s i r a b i l i t y of p l ann ing as they had done, i n the pa s t . I t seems tha t w i t h o u t . t h e i n s p i r a t i o n of one o f Mawson's p u b l i c l e c t u r e s , the newspapers found themselves q u i t e speech less . Mawson's o f f i c i a l appointment the f o l l o w i n g February was ignored e n t i r e l y . Mawson a r r i v e d i n Ca lgary i n mid-May and s tayed approximate ly s i x weeks. James C r o s s l a n d , an employee from Mawson's Vancouver 126 o f f i c e had a l r eady been i n the c i t y f o r two months. Mawson gave p u b l i c l e c t u r e s and met s e v e r a l t imes w i t h the C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission 127 and va r i ous c i v i c o f f i c i a l s . The press gave some coverage to h i s a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g repor t s on s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s . Upon.h is a r r i v a l , Mawson s t r e s s e d the importance o f u t i l i t a r i a n concerns . The H e r a l d repeated Mawson's promise " that whatever changes i n fu tu re a r range-ments h i s p lans p rov ide f o r , they w i l l not e n t a i l any more expendi ture 128 than the c i t y would have made under o ther c i rcumstances" w h i l e the A l b e r t a n p r o c l a i m e d : "The proper d i r e c t i o n o f t r a f f i c , the p l a c i n g of p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s f o r convenience and u t i l i t y , the comprehensive p l a n n i n g of s t r e e t s , parks and boulevards f o r usefulness and s e r v i c e w i l l be c a r e f u l l y cons idered f i r s t of a l l . " 1 2 9 I t i s extremely probable tha t the newspapers were not exp re s s ing 178, t h e i r own views but r a the r paraphras ing Mawson, a p r a c t i c e tha t was very common. Mawson. l e f t Ca lgary i n June 1913, hav ing completed h i s i n s p e c t i o n of the c i t y . Over the next few months, he made s e v e r a l requests f o r funds i n order to have the repor t p r i n t e d . At f i r s t the C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission i n s i s t e d on o b t a i n i n g the repor t i n t y p e w r i t t e n form but e v e n t u a l l y succumbed to Mawson's arguments tha t co loured 130 p r i n t s cou ld not be done i n Canada. F i n a l l y , i n December, the Commission recommended tha t the C i t y spend $500 to have the p l a n p r i n t e d i n England , c l a i m i n g tha t " cons ide rab le revenue w i l l be de r i ved from the s a l e of the r e p o r t " . C i t y C o u n c i l approved the recommendation. D e s p i t e . t h e C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission's impress ive r eco rd o f achievement i n 1912, t h ings began to s low down the f o l l o w i n g yea r . I t made fewer recommendations to C o u n c i l , and i t was not be ing consu l t ed by C o u n c i l . At the same t i m e , p u b l i c enthusiasm f o r p l a n n i n g seemed to be d e c l i n i n g . In February 1914, f o r example, the Commission's P u b l i c i t y Committee dec l a r ed i t s i n t e n t i o n to o rgan ize a s e r i e s o f p l a n n i n g l e c t u r e s . A week l a t e r the same committee r epor ted hav ing made an arrangement w i t h the newspapers whereby the Commission would submit 132 weekly p l ann ing a r t i c l e s . However, n e i t h e r s p e c i a l l y - w r i t t e n a r t i c l e s nor r epo r t s on l e c t u r e s appeared i n any o f the papers . In June 1914, the A l b e r t a Town P l a n n i n g and Housing A s s o c i a t i o n h e l d a three-day convent ion i n C a l g a r y ; the H e r a l d p u b l i s h e d on ly 133 a couple of ve ry shor t r epor t s on the conference and the A l b e r t a n 179 none at. a l l . Th i s occur red desp i t e the f a c t tha t the C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission had d i s p l a y e d Mawson p lans f o r C a l g a r y , Vancouver, Regina and Banff as w e l l as p l ann ing m a t e r i a l from other Canadian c i t i e s at the conven t ion . In A p r i l , Mawson requested $100 to have e x t r a copies of the 135 p l a n p r i n t e d and put on* e x h i b i t i o n i n London. He was turned down. Mawson's f i n a l r epor t was submit ted to C i t y C o u n c i l on August 3 , 1 9 1 4 . 1 3 6 F i n a l cos t had been $ 6 0 0 0 . 1 3 7 C. The p l a n Mawson c la imed tha t h i s p l a n f o r Ca lgary was not the v i s i o n of an i d e a l c i t y . Rather i t was a v i s i o n of the best fu ture p o s s i b l e g iven e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . Improvements were to be undertaken over a long p e r i o d of t ime as the need and oppor tun i ty a rose . In t h i s way, cost would be min imized ; the on ly expendi tures would be those tha t were r e q u i r e d anyway. "Th i s i s how P a r i s has been-made b e a u t i f u l , and there i s no doubt tha t Ca lgary can do i t too wi thou t i t r e a l l y c o s t i n g you . a cent i f you on ly have the pa t i ence f o r the sus t a ined e f f o r t which i s necessa ry . "138 Cost was one of Mawson's g rea tes t concerns . P l a n n i n g was s a i d to pay both i n terms o f not hav ing to c o r r e c t e r r o r s i n .the fu ture and i n terms of r a i s i n g p rope r ty va lues and encouraging the best c l a s s o f development. He s t r e s s e d tha t u t i l i t y was h i s f i r s t concern but tha t even beauty by i t s e l f had p r a c t i c a l v a l u e . 180 " I t h i n k I s a i d enough i n my v a r i o u s l e c t u r e s i n C a l g a r y , and i n my i n t e r -views w i t h the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of your newspapers, to d i s p e l the idea tha t c i t y p l a n n i n g deals on ly w i t h c i v i c a r t , and has no d i r e c t b e a r i n g on . the l i f e and d a i l y occupat ions o f the peop le . Of course , even those p o r t i o n s which tend on ly to produce the b e a u t i f u l as opposed to the u s e f u l , have an i n d i r e c t cash v a l u e , not on ly because beauty makes f o r happiness and happiness makes f o r h e a l t h , but a l s o because anyth ing you can do fo r the b e a u t i f i c a t i o n o f your c i t y enhances the va lue o f the l a n d . o n which i t s tands , and makes i t a more d e s i r a b l e p l a c e to come and l i v e a t . "139 S t r e e t s . I n Mawson's v i e w , Ca lgary had three major t r anspo r -t a t i o n problems: (1) the ex i s t ence of a g r i d i r o n s t r e e t p l a n which ignored topography and. made no p r o v i s i o n f o r d i a g o n a l s , (2) s t anda rd -i z e d road w i d t h s , and (3) numerous r a i l w a y l i n e s which d i v i d e d the 140 c i t y . T r a f f i c needs were v iewed.as a c i t y ' s f i r s t p r i o r i t y , the o b j e c t i v e be ing to maximize a c c e s s i b i l i t y throughout the c i t y and to minimize downtown conges t ion . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , C a l g a r y ' s c i t y cen t re had a l ready been b u i l t up, making s t r e e t improvements downtown l m p o s s i b l e . He d i d propose, however, two " g y r a t o r y " or c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l roads , from which r a d i a l s would o r i g i n a t e at v a r i o u s p o i n t s . The r i v e r prevented the development o f a c r o s s - a x i s , b u t . 4 t h . S t r e e t S .W. , 142 a no r th - sou th road , was suggested as the c i t y ' s main a x i s . Other suggest ions i n c l u d e d rounding corners a t i n t e r s e c t i o n s , e l i m i n a t i n g l e v e l c r o s s i n g s by c o n s t r u c t i n g subways, and b u i l d i n g b r idges at s e v e r a l s p e c i f i c p o i n t s . I n r e s i d e n t i a l a reas , Mawson recommended tha t the roads be narrower than a t p resen t ; the e x t r a 181 width could be given over to grass and trees un t i l such time as 143 the road widening might become necessary. Civic centre. A civic centre was defined as "a great place or plaza, round which to group a l l those large public buildings 144 which are essential to every modern - city". Mawson stressed that a civic centre was a composition; buildings would be added as needed but always with a view to the fi n a l picture. He envisioned a mall, extending the four blocks from 4th Street S.W. to Centre Street, terminated at either end by an impressive building. Both. 4th and:Centre Streets would be lined with fine buildings and be adorned with an obelisk or some other monument at the point where the.mall was crossed. Centre Street was to be made particularly attractive since i t was terminated on the south by the C.P.R. station and " f i r s t impressions count for so-much". In the case of 4th Street S.W., Mawson recommended that: "a fine church or other monumental building should stand on the axial line of the street at the top of the. bluffs in the oval space provided on our-plans. Such a building would be a landmark-for a distance of several miles and would give great dignity to the whole composition".146 Both 4th and Centre Streets crossed the river, and Mawson stressed that the aesthetic treatment of these bridges was most important since each was part of the civi c centre composition. At the time the plan was being.prepared, Calgary had been considering a new Centre Street bridge. Mawson approved.of a "low level" bridge since i t would help make Centre Street."a self-contained a r t i s t i c composition". In contrast, a "high level" bridge would not close 182 Centre S t r ee t " i n an e f f e c t i v e m a n n e r " . ^ 7 He chose a " low l e v e l " b r i d g e on a e s t h e t i c grounds, assuming tha t both were e q u a l l y f e a s i b l e . I t was mentioned tha t the " low l e v e l " b r i d g e would r e q u i r e an e l e v a t o r tower to take p e d e s t r i a n s , 148 s t r e e t cars and automobiles up to s t r e e t l e v e l . I t apparen t ly never occur red t o Mawson to cons ide r whether such an e d i f i c e would be p o s s i b l e from an eng inee r ing p o i n t o f view or d e s i r a b l e from the v iewpoin t of t r a f f i c needs. In a d d i t i o n to the main c i v i c c e n t r e , Mawson urged tha t a number o f s m a l l s o c i a l cent res be cons t ruc ted i n the suburbs. Each cent re would accommodate an assembly h a l l , c lub house, branch l i b r a r y , and both indoor and outdoor r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . I t was hoped tha t no new p u b l i c s c h o o l would be b u i l t w i thou t a s o c i a l , centre , be ing b u i l t a longs ide i t . Mawson j u s t i f i e d the cent res on. the grounds tha t they 149 would he lp to c rea te a s p i r i t o f c i t i z e n s h i p and e s p r i t - d e - c o r p s " . P a r k s . "What we propose to do i s to e x p r o p r i a t e a l l ground which i s too low and marshy to be hea l t hy and convenient f o r b u i l d i n g upon, and a l s o a l l ground which i s too steep fo r the purpose. I t i s fo r tuna te that these are the ve ry p i eces of ground which w i l l make the f i n e s t and most p i c tu resque parks . "150 S p e c i f i c recommendations i n c l u d e d the a c q u i s i t i o n of a l l r i v e r f r o n t l and f o r a dr iveway, the a c q u i s i t i o n o f "many spots o f r a r e n a t u r a l beauty" and the es tabl i shment of two l a r g e suburban parks — one i n the east and one i n the west . An even d i s t r i b u t i o n of s m a l l parks and playgrounds was recommended i n order to i n t roduce v a r i e t y i n t o 183 the landscape and to ensure tha t playgrounds were e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e to a l l c h i l d r e n . Connect ing these s m a l l open spaces would be "p leasure promenades", which would a t t r a c t the best r e s i d e n t i a l development. The b l u f f s surrounding Ca lgary would p rov ide both a green b e l t and a s cen i c d r i v e . F i n a l l y , Mawson recommended that a s cen i c highway to the mountains be b u i l t . Other elements o f the p l a n . Cons iderab le a t t e n t i o n was devoted to the mat ter of housing f o r the work ing c l a s s e s . Mawson recommended tha t i n d u s t r y be encouraged to r e l o c a t e i n suburban manufactur ing cent res and tha t work ing c l a s s communities be e s t a b l i s h e d adjacent to these cen t res "on garden suburb l i n e s " . To t h i s end, he presented d e t a i l e d p lans f o r two such suburbs."'""^ 184 F i g . 35 — C a l g a r y : Proposed c i v i c c e n t r e . (Source: T . H . Mawson and Sons, C a l g a r y : A P r e l i m i n a r y Scheme) 185 ^ 4 ^ ? ,i 11 I T F i g . 36 — C a l g a r y : P o r t i o n o f s t r e e t p l a n showing c i v i c c en t r e . (Source: T . H . Mawson and Sons, C a l g a r y : A  P r e l i m i n a r y Scheme) 186 D. F o l l o w i n g the p l a n With the p l a n ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n , the C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission o f fe red i t s r e s i g n a t i o n s i n c e the terms of the o r i g i n a l con t r ac t had now been f u l f i l l e d . In terms o f o v e r a l l achievement, the Com-m i s s i o n had been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the Mawson p l a n , i t had he lped enact a Town P l a n n i n g Act f o r A l b e r t a , i t had prepared a B i l l f o r cheaper hous ing , i t had helped the B u i l d i n g Department amend the b u i l d i n g code, and i t had " c a r r i e d out a cont inuous e d u c a t i o n a l 152 campaign". Some o f i t s o ther i n t e r e s t s had i n c l u d e d . b i l l b o a r d c o n t r o l , ornamental l i g h t i n g , s tockya rd l o c a t i o n , w id th o f r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s , a s c e n i c G l a c i e r - B a n f f - J a s p e r highway, c u l t i v a t i o n of vacant l o t s , s t r e e t sand ing , open a i r s k a t i n g r i n k s , and schoo ls as s o c i a l c en t r e s . In a d d i t i o n , i t sent de legates to three N a t i o n a l Conferences on C i t y P l a n n i n g (1912-1914); i n Boston (1912) , a p r e s e n t a t i o n was 153 g iven w h i l e i n Toronto (1914), i t s u p p l i e d an e x h i b i t . Upon t ende r ing i t s r e s i g n a t i o n , the Commission immediately recommended tha t i t be r e c o n s t i t u t e d as an A d v i s o r y Board . Both ,the p l a n and the recommendation were r e f e r r e d to the Rec rea t i on and 154 Playgrounds Committee. Disappointment w i t h the p l a n ran h i g h . . The Ca lgary H e r a l d covered C i t y C o u n c i l ' s response to the p l a n i n i t s r e g u l a r r epor t on C o u n c i l meet ings . The h e a d l i n e on Page 9 read i n p a r t : "Mawson Report i s Treated C a s u a l l y — Noth ing Accomplished Beyond P r e t t y P i c t u r e s and Noble P l a n s " . 187 "Although the Mawson report was accepted by the Council, there seemed an under-current of dissatisfaction to pervade the gathering. The prevalent idea is that although the city planners started out with good intentions, beyond reports and schemes, nothing has been, accomplished, the presentation of pretty pictures and noble plans in book form not.placing the city any nearer the practical accomplish-ment of i t s ideal... As the. Council did not appear to wish to be worried with the matter i t was. pushed. along to the playgrounds committee to worry them." Two days after the submission of the Mawson report, Britain entered World War I. From that point on, the city of Calgary (as reflected both in newspaper coverage and in the minutes of City Council) became increasingly involved with.the war. In November 1914, the Recreation, and Playgrounds Committee submitted i t s report to Council. There was no mention of the Mawson plan, so one.must assume that i t had been abandoned completely. However, the Committee did recommend that City Council appoint a permanent town planning committee of 5-10 members "to prepare and formulate a definite town planning scheme". Council adopted the 156 recommendation. It was felt that such a scheme was necessary in order to comply with the requirements of the Town Planning and Housing A c t . ^ 7 However, a reading of City Council minutes over the next six months revealed no mention.of either the planning committee or of planning in general. 188 I V . .Regina A . Grounds of the Par l i ament B u i l d i n g In 1907, the Saskatchewan government h i r e d F r e d e r i c k G. Todd to des ign a landscape treatment f o r the grounds of the soon-to-be cons t ruc ted Par l iament B u i l d i n g . He recommended tha t the b u i l d i n g be l o c a t e d "at the a x i s of Smith S t r e e t , on the h ighes t e l e v a t i o n across the l a k e " . Landscaping adjacent to the b u i l d i n g would i n c l u d e t e r r a c e s , "broad lawns bordered w i t h shrubbery" and a d i r e c t t r e e - l i n e d avenue l e a d i n g up to the en t rance . The s h o r e l i n e i n f ron t o f the b u i l d i n g was to be " s t r a i g h t and f o r m a l " , and across the l a k e on a h igh po in t o f l a n d , there was to b e . b u i l t a p a v i l i o n , from which one c o u l d . v i e w the Par l i ament B u i l d i n g . The p lans a l s o r e v e a l r a the r e l abora te bou leva rd ing of those s t r e e t s b o r d e r i n g the park — each w i t h four rows o f t r e e s . Elsewhere the park was to b e . g i v e n a " n a t u r a l " appearance. The grounds were to be h e a v i l y t r eed and the remainder of the Wascana Lake s h o r e l i n e l e f t "as i s " . A boat house on the l a k e was to be con-c e a l e d . Two c i r c u l a t i o n systems were proposed..-— one fo r pedes t r i ans and one f o r v e h i c l e s — w i t h each one wind ing i t s way around the 158 l ake and through the grounds. Work on the grounds proceeded over the next few y e a r s , and 159 by 1912, some 18,000 t r ees and shrubs had been p l a n t e d . However, Todd's p l a n had not been c a r e f u l l y f o l l o w e d , and c o n s i d e r a t i o n was 160 g iven to the p r e p a r a t i o n o f a new scheme. In mid-1912, Thomas Mawson d e l i v e r e d a w e l l r e c e i v e d town p l a n n i n g l e c t u r e i n Regina , and there i s evidence t o suggest tha t t h i s l e d 189 d i r e c t l y to h i s employment by the p r o v i n c i a l - government. The f i r m of Thomas H. Mawson and Sons was h i r e d to work i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h Malcolm Ross , the p r o v i n c i a l government's landscape a r c h i t e c t . Ross , who had on ly r e c e n t l y r e s igned as Parks Superintendent fo r the C i t y of Reg ina , may have been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the d e c i s i o n to h i r e Mawson. He had a l r eady shown a g r e a t e r . t h a n average i n t e r e s t i n p l ann ing ma t t e r s . E a r l i e r tha t year he had at tended the Winnipeg 162 housing and town p l ann ing conference and had c o n t r i b u t e d a r t i c l e s to v a r i o u s Canadian j o u r n a l s on .the r e l a t i o n s h i p between landscape a r t and c i t y d e s i g n . " ^ 3 Compared w i t h Todd'.s o r i g i n a l scheme, Mawson's p l a n (submit ted i n l a t e 1913) r e l i e d much l e s s on the " n a t u r a l " and much more on the "monumental C i t y B e a u t i f u l " s t y l e of landscape t rea tment . Trees were r e l ega t ed to the margins of Wascana Lake . But those p o r t i o n s of the l a k e immediately i n f ron t of and across from the Par l i ament B u i l d i n g were l e f t open, e v i d e n t l y i n .order to a f f o r d good views of the L e g i s l a t u r e . Both a footpa th and t r e e - l i n e d d r i v e surrounded the l a k e but n e i t h e r made a complete c i r c u i t . Elsewhere the park was to be comprised o f d i r e c t t r e e - l i n e d roads , grassy open s t r e t ches and numerous b u i l d i n g s and o ther s t r u c t u r e s . The e n t i r e scheme was conceived as a geometric compos i t i on , r e p l e t e w i t h axes , c r o s s - a x e s , r a d i a t i n g avenues, f o c a l p o i n t s and v i s t a s . The p l a n ' s main a x i s fo l lowed the l i n e o f Smith S t ree t and took the form o f a l ong and broad p e d e s t r i a n m a l l , w i t h v a r y i n g treatment suggested over i t s l eng th — monuments, framed v i s t a s , rows of t r ees — a l l sugges t ive of movement towards some end. What seemed to be 190 d e s i r e d most was a dramat ic v i s t a o f the Par l i ament B u i l d i n g . The area immediately adjacent to the L e g i s l a t u r e e x h i b i t e d a much more i n t e n s i v e use of l and and a much more human, s c a l e . I t was almost a microcosm, of the o v e r a l l p l a n — the formal approach to the b u i l d i n g ' s en t rance , the a l i gnmen t . o f the s i d e wings w i t h the monuments, the l ong views to be had-down the v a r i o u s axes , the clumps of t r ee s and s m a l l open squares . F i n a l l y , Mawson i n c l u d e d a p l a n of a r e s i d e n t i a l . s u b d i v i s i o n — a fan-shaped arrangement of s t r e e t s w i t h adequate p r o v i s i o n fo r numerous i n t e r n a l f o c a l p o i n t s and views i n t o Wascana. One s t r e e t was d e l i b e r a t e l y l a i d out i n d i r e c t al ignment w i t h the dome of the 164 Par l iament B u i l d i n g . The next decades saw few improvements made t o . t h e grounds at Wascana Lake but Todd and Mawson were not e n t i r e l y f o r g o t t e n . A 1961 p l a n , which has formed the b a s i s f o r present -day development, pa id t r i b u t e to both i t s p redecessors , but e s p e c i a l l y to Mawson. "The wonderful Mawson.Plan of 1 9 1 3 . . . has l ong ago set the theme to the. whole south end o f Wascana Lake . The .Par l iament B u i l d i n g and i t s b e a u t i f u l surroundings form the base on which any p l a n must be l a i d . Thus the p l a n which i s proposed here i s an ex t ens ion of the Mawson P lan . "165 The present -day Wascana Cent re , compr i s ing some 2000 ac re s , i s a d i r e c t descendent of both the Todd and Mawson p l a n s . B . Events l ead ing .up to c i t y p l a n In connec t ion w i t h the Wascana p l a n , Thomas Mawson v i s i t e d . Regina i n A p r i l 1913. At t ha t t ime , he a l s o met w i t h Reg ina ' s C i t y Commissioners, F i g . 37 — Regina : Mawson p l a n f o r grounds o f Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t u r e . (Source: Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s ) 192 F i g . 38 — Regina : Par l iament B u i l d i n g . Looking across Wascana Lake . Such a view was env i s ioned by Todd. 193 F i g . 39 — Regina : Par l iament B u i l d i n g . Side v iew showing a x i a l l i n e from foun ta in to s ide w i n g . This i s a r e a l i z a t i o n of pa r t of the Mawson p l a n . 194 who subsequently repor ted to C i t y C o u n c i l : "Your Commissioners have had r ep resen ta t ions made to them on s e v e r a l occas ions r e c e n t l y to the e f f e c t tha t the t ime has a r r i v e d when i t i s necessary to have c o n s i d e r a t i o n g iven to the ques t ion of p r epa r ing and d e c i d i n g upon a concre te scheme f o r the b e a u t i f i c a t i o n of the C i t y by. the p r o v i s i o n of Pa rks , Bou leva rds , P laygrounds , e t c . Mr. Mawson's r e p u t a t i o n . i n h i s p r o f e s s i o n i s beyond ques t i on and your Commissioners are o f the o p i n i o n tha t i f h i s s e r v i c e s can be obta ined so tha t h i s p l a n might cover the whole o f the C i t y . . . the genera l p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s would be b e t t e r se rved . than by t h e ^ s e l e c t i o n of another C i t y P l ann ing E x p e r t . " In June 1913, C i t y C o u n c i l voted to h i r e Mawson to prepare such a-scheme fo r a fee of $8000. Th i s f i g u r e can be put i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e i f one cons ide r s that i n 1914, the Board of Trade ' s 168 annual grant was $20,000. P l ann ing a c t i v i t y at t h i s t ime was sporad ic and wi thout focus . C i t y C o u n c i l sent Malcolm -Ross to the Winnipeg Housing and Town 169 P l a n n i n g Congress i n 1912 and two years l a t e r , another delegate 170 to the N a t i o n a l Conference on C i t y P l a n n i n g i n Toronto . A c i t i z e n s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n , known as the C i t y P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , 171 had been founded i n 1913. Armed w i t h a $250 grant from C i t y C o u n c i l , t h e i r f i r s t task was to o rgan ize a "Clean-Up Day", du r ing 172 which 15,000 b a r r e l s o f r ubb i sh were c o l l e c t e d . A few months l a t e r , the a s s o c i a t i o n asked C i t y C o u n c i l to h i r e a s u p e r v i s o r fo r 173 a l o c a l park w h i l e the next month i t po in t ed out to C o u n c i l "the d e s i r a b i l i t y of the C i t y o b t a i n i n g from the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e at the present S e s s i o n , the necessary powers to exp rop r i a t e l and 195 i n excess of tha t r e q u i r e d f o r c a r r y i n g out of any scheme f o r the b e a u t i f i c a t i o n of the C i t y , to compel a l l owners of p roper ty that had been enhanced i n va lue through such a scheme to share w i t h the C i t y the p r o f i t r e s u l t i n g therefrom, and to g ive the Parks Commission the necessary power and j u r i s d i c t i o n over e v e r y t h i n g a p p e r t a i n i n g 174 to s c i e n t i f i c C i t y P l a n n i n g " . The appearance of the d e l e g a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n a meeting between the C i t y S o l i c i t o r and r ep re sen t a t i ve s of the A s s o c i a t i o n , h e l d s i x months l a t e r i n May 1914. S p e c i f i c l e g i s l a t i v e changes were proposed but no th ing was to come of i t ." '" 7 " ' By mid-1914, the Mawson p l a n was nea r ing complet ion, but Reg ina ' s economic for tunes had undergone cons ide rab l e change. The C i t y P l ann ing A s s o c i a t i o n became the Vacant Lot Garden A s s o c i a t i o n and devoted i t s energies to demonstrat ion p r o j e c t s , main ly to show how food cou ld be grown on vacant lots."*" 7^ In 1915, the Board of Trade asked fo r a grant of $5000; i t r e c e i v e d one -ha l f tha t amount " i n view of 177 e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s " . In 1916, C i t y C o u n c i l decided i t was unable to send a delegate to the C i v i c Improvement League conference, hosted 178 by the Commission of Conse rva t ion . In a l e t t e r dated June 3 , 1914, Thomas Mawson's son , John, informed the C i t y Commissioners tha t the p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n was now f i n i s h e d . He f e l t Regina would be eager to go.ahead w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n of a j o i n t r e p o r t , c o v e r i n g both the c i t y p l a n and. the work undertaken fo r the p r o v i n c i a l government. I t was suggested tha t a volume s i m i l a r i n format to the Ca lgary p l a n would be a p p r o p r i a t e ; i n f a c t , i t would 179 probably make a p r o f i t . The c h r o n i c l e o f events which was to f o l l o w t h i s l e t t e r i s h i g h l y i l l u s t r a t i v e o f the degree o f m u n i c i p a l commitment 196 to p l ann ing i n the years du r ing and a f t e r World War I . In response, the Parks and P u b l i c P roper ty Committee requested tha t the p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n be sent from England. The Committee a l so wanted more i n f o r m a t i o n on p u b l i c a t i o n cos ts and a copy of the Calgary 180 p l a n . J .W. Mawson r e p l i e d tha t the p l a n was on i t s way, and p u b l i -181 c a t i o n , would cos t -about $1.00 per copy fo r a minimum of 1000 c o p i e s . Up u n t i l t h i s t ime , Regina e x h i b i t e d at l e a s t some i n t e r e s t i n the p l a n . However, tha t i n t e r e s t . s o o n dropped o f f comple te ly . C i t y C o u n c i l ' s a c t i o n s w i t h respec t to Mawson became more and more charac-t e r i z e d by d e l a y i n g t a c t i c s and.an ev ident u n w i l l i n g n e s s to honour i t s commitments. As t ime passed, mere avoidance of the i s sue turned i n t o d e l i b e r a t e d i s i n t e r e s t . On January 26, 1915, the Parks.-and P u b l i c P rope r ty Committee recommended tha t Thomas H . Mawson and Sons be p a i d an i n i t i a l sum of $2000 fo r work done on the " p r e l i m i n a r y town planning.scheme", t h i s a c t i o n having probably been i n i t i a t e d i n response t o . a payment request from Mawson. However, there was no r e a l i n t e r e s t i n a c t u a l l y see ing the p l a n . The Committee had a l s o recommended tha t "having i n view the danger o f the proposed p l a n r e c e i v i n g any p u b l i c i t y before the necessary l e g i s l a t i o n governing such schemes has been ob ta ined tha t Mawson be requested to h o l d the d e l i v e r y of the f i n a l p l a n u n t i l such t ime as he i s n o t i f i e d by the C i t y tha t the necessary l e g i s l a t i o n has been ob ta ined and the C i t y i s ready to take d e l i v e r y of the p l a n and tha t the p lans a l ready prepared remain i n the custody o f Mr. Mawson u n t i l d e l i v e r y of the f i n a l p l a n i s requested".182 197 These recommendations were not favourably r e c e i v e d at the Mawson o f f i c e , and J .W. Mawson responded: "To b r i n g the scheme to i t s present stage has i n v o l v e d an o u t l a y on our pa r t of approx-ima te ly $5000.00 ( i f d e s i r e d we can g ive you the exact f i g u r e s ) . The recommendation of your Committee the re fo re to. pay us $2000.00 on account o f work done and a l l o w the balance to l a y over i n d e f i n i t e l y i s tantamount to ask ing us to c a r r y the l i a b i l i t i e s of your C o u n c i l to the extent o f $3000.00. Under o r d i n a r y c i rcumstances such a p roposa l would have worked no hardsh ip on us and indeed we would probably have agreed to i t wi thout h e s i t a t i o n but today such a course i s m a n i f e s t l y imposs ib l e and a f t e r our e x p l a n a t i o n we cannot imagine you w i l l p e r s i s t i n i t . To de lay the comple t ion of the scheme would be i n i t s e l f a s e r i o u s blow to us inasmuch as i t would n e c e s s i t a t e the d i s m i s s a l of s e v e r a l members of our s t a f f who have been r e t a i n e d at a l o s s w i t h the idea of devo t ing t h e i r whole time to your work as soon as the p lans were r e c e i v e d from England."183 In v iew o f t h i s l e t t e r , C o u n c i l decided to inc rease the amount p a i d from $2000 to $3000. A cheque was i s s u e d i n M a r c h , s o m e two months l a t e r , a l though i t was not p a i d wi thou t some p rodd ing . In a l e t t e r dated on ly Thursday, J .W. Mawson i n d i c a t e d both a d e s i r e to be p a i d and an u n w i l l i n g n e s s to abandon the scheme when he wrote : "We need t h i s money, need i t bad ly and i f you can secure f o r us a cheque f o r three thousand d o l l a r s you w i l l f i n d us du ly g r a t e f u l and i n a p o s i t i o n to g ive you much more c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n to the d e t a i l s of t h i s scheme than we would be should we be compelled to f i n i s h i t e n t i r e l y before drawing our commission."185 In e a r l y 1916, J .W. Mawson wrote to adv i se C i t y C o u n c i l that h i s f a the r would soon be v i s i t i n g the c i t y , at which time arrangements 198 could be made to finish the scheme. He pleaded and cajoled, warning City Council that his father would be resigning his private practice after the war to become involved in reconstruction while he was heading for the Front next week where he could.very li k e l y be k i l l e d . "The City has already invested $3000.00 in a scheme of which only two people -my Father and myself - have any knowledge and which i t would be impossible for any third party to complete."186 The City Commissioners replied: "It i s regretted that the City is in no better position at the present.time to arrange for the completion of this scheme, owing to the lack of adequate legislation governing the carrying out of any proposals which might be embodied therein. The Coun-c i l duly appreciates the advisability of taking advantage of your Father's v i s i t to Canada, in connection with the scheme, but is unable to make such necessary arrange-ments whereby this might at present be affected."187 Nothing more was heard of Mawson's plan un t i l mid-1919 when Thomas Mawson wrote to enquire whether the city was interested in having the scheme completed. City Council directed the City Commissioners "to reply to Mr. Mawson's letter ... that the Council at the present time is not prepared to have him proceed with the said work". Several thousand dollars were s t i l l owing to Mawson and in December 1919, City Council resolved to settle the outstanding account and take possession of the plan. A Town Planning Act requiring a l l cities to f i l e plans with the provincial government had been in effect for some eighteen months, and City Council was of the opinion that 199 the Mawson p l a n cou ld be used to meet those requi rements . When the p roposa l was presented to C i t y C o u n c i l , ques t ions from aldermen i n c l u d e d : "Who i s Mawson?" and "What i s he i n the p r o f e s s i o n of 189 Town P l ann ing?" In October , 1920, C o u n c i l o f f e red to pay Mawson $2000 now fo r the p lans i n t h e i r present form and another $1000 on. comple t ion 190 of an I n t e r i m Report . Mawson agreed, and.a cheque fo r $2000 was 191 i s sued the f o l l o w i n g month. There i s no r eco rd tha t the p l a n was r e c e i v e d however; at t h i s p o i n t C i t y C o u n c i l had p a i d $5000, s t i l l $3000 shor t o f the o r i g i n a l $8000 c o n t r a c t . In J u l y 1921, C o u n c i l r e so lved to pay the e x t r a $1000; i t a l so appointed a s p e c i a l committee to cons ide r the ques t i on of committ ing 192 the f i n a l $2000 i n order to o b t a i n a completed r e p o r t . The matter was brought before the S p e c i a l Committee and t a b l e d and t a b l e d aga in . Eighteen months l a t e r , i t was s t i l l be ing t a b l e d a l though 193 Mawson had w r i t t e n i n the i n t e r i m w i t h a fu r the r request f o r payment. F i n a l l y , i n January 1923, C o u n c i l viewed the p l a n f o r the f i r s t 194 time — almost t en years a f t e r i t s comple t ion . C. The p l a n L i k e o ther e a r l y p l ann ing documents, the Mawson repor t expounded at l eng th on the .promise of an e x a l t e d and prosperous future fo r the c i t y i n q u e s t i o n . 200 " I t i s d i f f i c u l t to overes t imate the p o s s i -b i l i t i e s of development i n your P r o v i n c e . But i f there be one prospect upon t h i s Globe more assured than another i t i s tha t w i t h i n the next few cen tu r i e s Canada w i l l rank as a Giant Country nob ly f i l l e d and r i c h i n a l l d e s i r a b l e th ings beyond the dreams of the most v i v i d imag ina t i on -i n shor t a l eade r among the w o r l d ' s most famous and i n f l u e n t i a l N a t i o n s . Saska tch-ewan cannot but loom l a r g e i n such an a s s o c i a t i o n , and Regina must be equal to i t s s t a tus - i n f a c t , i t cannot a f f o r d to be l e f t behind."195 Mawson never in tended tha t h i s p l a n be r i g i d l y fo l l owed but tha t i t be used as a genera l guide over the next f i f t y y e a r s . He emphasized tha t i t was a p l a n of p o s s i b i l i t i e s , the c e n t r a l o b j e c t i v e be ing the c r e a t i o n of a "great and comprehensive compo-s i t i o n " . D e v i a t i o n s . f r o m the p l a n were q u i t e acceptab le as long as i t s s p i r i t was r e t a i n e d . I t was t h i s no t ion , o f . " c o m p o s i t i o n " 196 tha t was o f paramount importance. Mawson's p l a n was aimed at making Regina "an ou ts tand ing example 197 of the ' C i t y B e a u t i f u l ' " . A e s t h e t i c s were h i s pr imary i n t e r e s t . He often claimed to have taken p r a c t i c a l considerations into account but f o r one reason or another , they tended e i t h e r to be dea l t w i t h inadequa te ly or s imply brushed a s i d e . S t r e e t s . In Mawson's v i e w , the t r a d i t i o n a l g r i d i r o n s t r e e t l ayou t was l a c k i n g on two counts : (1) i t was u n a e s t h e t i c , and 198 (2) i t d i d not accommodate t r a f f i c adequate ly . Emphasis was p laced on the f i r s t reason. 201 "(The g r i d i r o n ) does not attempt to s e i z e h o l d o f the l i t t l e i n t r i c a c i e s of the s i t e i n order to produce an e f f e c t which w i l l make a c i t y a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t from a l l o ther c i t i e s . I t produces on ly the ' C i t y of magni f icent d i s t a n c e s ' ; whereas, i f the s t r e e t v i s t a s were c lo sed i n here and the re , b e a u t i f u l s t r e e t p i c t u r e s would be produced and the c i t y would be brought down to a more human sca l e . "199 Cons i s t en t w i t h C i t y B e a u t i f u l thought , Mawson .proposed tha t a system o f r a d i a l and c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l roads be superimposed on the g r i d i r o n p a t t e r n . Such a system would p rov ide many o p p o r t u n i t i e s to c rea te v i s t a s ^ ^ ^ and l i n k a l l the v a r i o u s neighbourhoods by means 201 of d i r e c t roads . S p e c i a l mention was made o f the needs o f the c e n t r a l area where m i n i m i z i n g conges t ion and ensur ing convenient 202 access were the most important c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Examinat ion of the "genera l p l a n " , however, r evea l s Mawson's major i n t e r e s t was the c r e a t i o n of f o c a l p o i n t s . The c i t y cent re was t r e a t ed e n t i r e l y as a geometric compos i t ion . I t was based on a t r i a n g l e , w i t h a s i x t e e n - b l o c k s e c t i o n of the e x i s t i n g 16th (now Co l l ege ) Avenue forming the base and two new d iagona l s compr is ing the s i d e s . A j o i n t r a i l w a y s t a t i o n , a new Grand Trunk P a c i f i c s t a t i o n and another important p u b l i c or s e m i - p u b l i c b u i l d i n g were to occupy 203 the v e r t i c e s of the t r i a n g l e . B i s e c t i n g the t r i a n g l e was Broad S t r e e t , one o f Reg ina ' s major roads ; Elsewhere i n the c i t y , Mawson p rov ided f o r a number of d i agona l roads r a d i a t i n g from s e v e r a l nodes a l though very few o f the d iagona ls extended i n t o the downtown c o r e . Implementation o f Mawson's. recom-mendations would not have maximized a c c e s s i b i l i t y or minimized conges t ion . 202 I t would , however, have r e s u l t e d i n some dramatic v i s t a s . C i v i c cen t r e . Mawson env i s ioned a c i v i c cen t re which would be planned i n con junc t ion w i t h the Par l iament B u i l d i n g and the landscape treatment he had e a r l i e r recommended f o r the grounds. The L e g i s l a t u r e dome a l ready p rov ided a v i s t a from Smith S t ree t but Mawson argued tha t the e f f e c t l e f t much to be d e s i r e d . "The gap between the c i t y end of the s t r e e t and t h i s b u i l d i n g i s too g rea t . The s t r e e t p i c t u r e i s not p r o p e r l y framed, the proper e f f e c t be ing l o s t through the l i a b i l i t y of the eye to wander too much over the open middle d i s t a n c e , i s n t e a d of be ing focussed on the c l imax o f the v i s t a . " 2 0 4 To remedy the i m p e r f e c t i o n , Mawson suggested tha t a c i v i c cent re be c rea ted on the a x i s o f Smith S t ree t between 16th Avenue and the Lake . "Bes ides framing i n the view o f the P a r l i a -ment B u i l d i n g , the H a l l and Courts would be w e l l p l aced f o r performing t h e i r c i v i c func t ions w h i l e they would unmistakeably add to the d i g n i t y o f 16th A v e n u e . " 2 0 5 Railway s t a t i o n s were not omi t ted from Mawson's v i s i o n o f downtown. The new Grand Trunk P a c i f i c s t a t i o n , c l o s i n g 16th Avenue, would be an i n t e g r a l par t o f the c i v i c c en t r e , w h i l e the j o i n t s t a t i o n would 206 be d r a m a t i c a l l y l i n k e d w i t h 16th by means of the two d i a g o n a l s . Mawson s t r e s sed tha t " p o r t a l e n t r a n c e ( s ) . . . should be so t r ea t ed as 207 to make a favourable f i r s t impress ion upon v i s i t o r s " . S p e c i f i c a l l y , he env i s ioned r a i l w a y s t a t i o n s which f ron ted spacious p l a z a s , and r a d i a l roads which o r i g i n a t e d at those p l azas and were terminated by " s p l e n d i d " v i s t a s . ^ 8 In h i s recommended treatment o f suburban a reas , Mawson. suggested the c r e a t i o n of community cent res c o n t a i n i n g assembly h a l l s , t hea t r e s , F i g . 40 — Reg ina : General p l a n . (Source: T . H . Mawson and Sons, Reg ina : A  P r e l i m i n a r y Report on the Development of the C i t y ) 204 s c h o o l s , churches and s t o r e s . They would be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s i m i l a r s i g n s , s i m i l a r facades, a s i m i l a r s c a l e and an al ignment o f b u i l d i n g f r o n t s . " In o ther words, each centre i f i t can be done, should be the r e s u l t of a p r o p e r l y co -o rd ina t ed a r t i s t i c con-c e p t i o n and each community ought to show i n a minor key the d i g n i t y and c i v i c consciousness which should govern the great c i v i c cent re ."209 Pa rks . Parks were cons idered the p l a n ' s most important f ea tu re ; they t i e d the c i t y toge ther g i v i n g i t cohes ion and c h a r a c t e r . " I t i s t h i s Park System which, we hope w i l l r a i s e Regina from i t s present t r e e l e s s c o n d i t i o n and so adorn i t w i t h s y l v a n beauty tha t i t w i l l become the Garden C i t y o f the P r a i r i e s , a worthy C a p i t a l of a Great P rov ince . "210 He recommended an outer b e l t of suburban pa rk land comple te ly e n c i r c l i n g the c i t y — to be transformed from a t r e e l e s s p r a i r i e by ex tens ive p l a n t i n g . In a d d i t i o n to Wascana Lake , Wascana Creek was seen as a l i n e a r park connect ing at e i t h e r end w i t h the outer park b e l t -A l l o ther parks and open spaces were grouped under the ca tegory of "b rea th ing spaces" , but s e r v i n g a v a r i e t y of needs. S p e c i f i c recommendations i n c l u d e d l a y i n g out the E x h i b i t i o n grounds fo r " s p e c t a c u l a r " e f f e c t , e s t a b l i s h i n g p laygrounds , c r e a t i n g ornamental , 211 n a t u r a l , and r e c r e a t i o n pa rks , and b u i l d i n g - c o n n e c t i n g bou levards . Mawson apparen t ly saw no i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y between parks and t r a f f i c . Rather they complemented one another . He f e l t tha t people would be a t t r a c t e d to one major park because a number o f r a d i a l s converged 212 on i t w h i l e i n another park , b i s e c t i o n by a major road was seen as 205 p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a formal landscape t rea tment . F i n a l l y , no d i s t i n c t i o n was made between the connec t ing boulevards-and elements o f the major road system. "How beauty and usefulness go hand i n hand w i l l become evident i f a study i s made o f the bou leva rds . These have been ar ranged, not on ly to meet the need f o r connect ions w i t h the Govern-ment r a d i a l s and the n e c e s s i t y of p r o v i d i n g c r o s s - t r a f f i c rou t e s , but f o r the purpose of connec t ing by a s e r i e s o f shady roads the v a r i o u s elements of the Park System, thus making i t p o s s i b l e to pass from Park to Park , wi thou t l o s i n g on. the journey a l l sugges t ion of t h e i r s y l v a n charm."214 Other elements o f the p l a n . Th i s was not a p rob lem-or ien ted p l a n and on the few occas ions when Mawson attempted to dea l w i t h problems, he d i d n ' t fa re very w e l l . For example, h i s downtown s t r e e t p l a n would have made l i t t l e impact on t r a f f i c conges t ion . On another o c c a s i o n , he spoke o f the problem of l e v e l r a i l w a y c ros s ings but 215 admit ted tha t he d i d n ' t know what to do about them. Other p l a n elements r e c e i v e d on ly the b r i e f e s t of mention. For example, Mawson i n d i c a t e d the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f b u i l d i n g a model suburb adjacent to an i n d u s t r i a l area but e l abora t ed no f u r t h e r . Yet i n the midst of h i s grandiose schemes f o r p a r k s , c i v i c cent res and the c r e a t i o n of v i s t a s , Mawson added z o n i n g , almost as i f i t were an a f t e r though t . S ince no. surveys had been done, he s t a t ed that a zoning map would be i m p o s s i b l e . He d i d , however, i n c l u d e a "rough 216 t h e o r e t i c a l diagram" i n the r e p o r t . 206 D. F o l l o w i n g the p l a n Before making any fu r the r payment to Mawson, C o u n c i l decided i n January 1923 to e x h i b i t the p l a n fo r two weeks i n order to ga in 217 "an expres s ion from Regina r a t epaye r s" . A newspaper e d i t o r i a l , appearing a few days l a t e r , i l l u s t r a t e s w e l l the fac t tha t the popular concept of p l a n n i n g had changed s i n c e the Mawson p l a n was f i r s t comis-s ioned . Emphasis was now on c o n t r o l l i n g development. "A good many changes have taken p l ace i n the c i t y s i n c e the Mawson p l a n was f i r s t formulated and i t i s open to s e r i o u s ques t i on whether i t cou ld be a p p l i e d at t h i s t ime i n i t s e n t i r e t y and wi thout a d d i t i o n s , wi thout handicapping the c i t y . Th i s i s a matter o f no l i t t l e impor tance . to p roper ty .owners . Q u i t e . l i k e l y the Mawson p l a n cou ld be made the b a s i s of a s a t i s f a c t o r y scheme o f develop-ment. The Town P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , which i s a body .o f d i s i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s a iming s o l e l y to so p r o v i d e f o r the future growth of the c i t y tha t i t may progress unhampered by mis t akes , would seem to be t h e . l o g i c a l body to examine i t and pass.upon i t . " 2 1 8 And tha t i s p r e c i s e l y what was done. The newly-organ ized Regina Town P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n was g iven the task of s tudy ing Mawson's 219 p l a n . Thereaf te r i n t e r e s t i n p l ann ing inc reased but Mawson's ideas 220 were soon l a i d a s i d e . A Town P l a n n i n g Board , appointed by C o u n c i l 221 i n 1924, adopted the whole ques t i on o f zoning as i t s f i r s t concern. 222 In 1927, the Boa rd ' s f i r s t r epo r t d e t a i l e d a zoning by law, and i n 223 1928, C i t y C o u n c i l gave i t s a p p r o v a l . 207 CONCLUSIONS The C i t y B e a u t i f u l movement was p r i m a r i l y a Nor th American phenomenon which enjoyed i t s g rea tes t p o p u l a r i t y between 1900 and 1915. The term " c i t y b e a u t i f u l " came i n t o popula r usage at the t u r n of the century and was used to desc r ibe a l l manner of b e a u t i -f i c a t i o n proposa ls — e v e r y t h i n g from the c u l t i v a t i o n . o f vacant l o t s to ornamental s t r e e t l i g h t i n g to park systems to l a r g e - s c a l e b e a u t i -f i c a t i o n schemes. P l a n n i n g h i s t o r i a n s have u s u a l l y been i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s l a s t aspect of the movement s i n c e these s o - c a l l e d "compre-hens ive" schemes of c i t y b e a u t i f i c a t i o n are seen as the forerunner of the master p l a n approach to p l a n n i n g . The movement i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d i n . t h e l i t e r a t u r e w i t h the works of D a n i e l Burnham, e s p e c i a l l y the Columbian E x p o s i t i o n and the p lans of Washington and Chicago . A few h i s t o r i a n s have a l s o drawn a t t e n t i o n to the w r i t i n g s of Char les Mul fo rd Robinson. Both these men were recognized by t h e i r contemporaries as be ing major spokesment f o r the movement. Whi le the campaign f o r a " c i t y b e a u t i f u l " cou ld take d i v e r s e forms, i t o f ten r evo lved around the design, of s t r e e t s , c i v i c cent res and p a r k s . Features tha t were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of C i t y B e a u t i f u l p l ann ing i n c l u d e d d i agona l roads , a h i e r a r c h y of p a r k s , a x i a l arrangements fo r both s t r e e t systems and c i v i c cent re p l a n s , the c r e a t i o n of f o c a l p o i n t s , and an o v e r a l l tendency towards u n i f o r m i t y and symmetry. F o l l o w i n g an i n s p e c t i o n of Burnham's works and Robinson ' s w r i t i n g s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to make two statements which c o n t r a d i c t the popular 208 n o t i o n of the C i t y B e a u t i f u l movement as expressed i n the l i t e r a t u r e . F i r s t l y , the movement has been c r i t i c i z e d on s e v e r a l grounds i n c l u d i n g excess ive c o s t , neg l ec t of the growing c i t y ' s u t i l i t a r i a n needs and a f a i l u r e to d e a l w i t h housing and s o c i a l i s s u e s . Whi le C i t y B e a u t i f u l p lanners d i d emphasize beauty and recommend c o s t l y expend i tu res , both Burnham and Robinson c o n s i s t e n t l y po in t ed out tha t t h e i r recommenda-t i o n s were based on both a e s t h e t i c and u t i l i t a r i a n grounds. In t h e i r e a r l i e s t p lans and w r i t i n g s , emphasis was c l e a r l y on a e s t h e t i c s . However, as t ime passed, more a t t e n t i o n began to be p a i d to u t i l i t a r i a n concerns . In a d d i t i o n , Robinson devoted a great d e a l of a t t e n t i o n to housing and s o c i a l i s s u e s . Secondly , some modern c r i t i c s have c la imed tha t r e a c t i o n to the c o s t l y and grandiose dreams of C i t y B e a u t i f u l p lanners went a long way towards b r i n g i n g about an e ra i n p l a n n i n g that has s i n c e been l a b e l l e d the C i t y E f f i c i e n t , an e ra c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s concern f o r " e f f i c i e n c y " , " u t i l i t y " and "economy". However, such c la ims are mi s l ead ing s i n c e i n r e a l i t y , there was no c l e a r boundary between the two s t y l e s of p l a n n i n g . The change from C i t y B e a u t i f u l to C i t y E f f i c i e n t had been an e v o l u t i o n a r y p roces s . P lanners l i k e Burnham and Robinson had always s t r e s s e d the importance of u t i l i t y w h i l e over the y e a r s , they g r a d u a l l y expanded t h e i r concept ion of p l ann ing to i n c l u d e a g rea te r v a r i e t y of concerns . Whi le i t i s t rue tha t C i t y E f f i c i e n t p lanners d i d reassess the r o l e o f a e s t h e t i c s , one can v iew the C i t y E f f i c i e n t not so much as a r e a c t i o n to the C i t y B e a u t i f u l but more as an expansion of i t . The C i t y E f f i c i e n t s t y l e of p l ann ing encompassed a wide v a r i e t y of concerns , one of which was the need fo r beauty. 209 When, t r a n s l a t e d i n t o concrete p r o p o s a l s , t h i s d e s i r e f o r beauty tended to f i n d exp re s s ion in .ways not u n l i k e the C i t y B e a u t i f u l p lanners of the p rev ious decade; e . g . c i v i c cen t re p l a n s , monumental b r i d g e s , e t c . For the purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s , the h i s t o r y of the American C i t y B e a u t i f u l was looked at i n an e f f o r t to shed l i g h t on the movement i n Canada. As o u t l i n e d i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n , there i s l i t t l e Canadian secondary m a t e r i a l on the sub j ec t . Hence the American C i t y B e a u t i f u l was i n v e s t i g a t e d i n order to g ive d e f i n i t i o n to the movement and to d i s c o v e r i t s des ign p r i n c i p l e s . Such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n was seen as both an i d e a l s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r a Canadian study and a y a r d s t i c k aga ins t which Canadian exper ience cou ld be compared. I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the Canadian C i t y B e a u t i f u l r e l i e d almost s o l e l y on pr imary sources . The content o f a number o f . p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s was looked a t . f o r the p e r i o d 1890-1930. A time span w e l l beyond the t r a d i t i o n a l demise o f . t h e C i t y B e a u t i f u l was chosen fo r s e v e r a l reasons: (1) the Canadian C i t y B e a u t i f u l p e r i o d might not c o i n c i d e w i t h tha t i n the Un i t ed S t a t e s , (2) an examinat ion of l a t e r years would shed l i g h t on the fa te o f C i t y B e a u t i f u l thought, and (3) there was a r e v i v a l o f C i t y B e a u t i f u l ideas i n Canada i n the l a t e 1920 ' s . In a d d i t i o n to r ead ing the j o u r n a l s , a number of p l ann ing r epo r t s were examined l e a d i n g , i n t u r n , to a case study of the p l ann ing process i n P r a i r i e c i t i e s i n the years p r i o r to World War I . In read ing the j o u r n a l s , a t t e n t i o n was p a i d . t o any d i s c u s s i o n of the r o l e o f c i v i c beauty w i t h i n the context o f p l ann ing thought. From t h i s , f i v e pe r iods emerged which r e f l e c t e d changing a t t i t u d e s towards c i v i c beauty . .These pe r iods are rough ly . a s f o l l o w s : the 210 beg inn ing (1890-1909), the Canadian C i t y B e a u t i f u l (1910-1913), the war years (1914-1918), the C i t y E f f i c i e n t (1919-1924), and the r e v i v a l o f the C i t y B e a u t i f u l (1925-1930). Whi le some a t t e n t i o n was p a i d to the area o f " c i v i c improvement" i n the p e r i o d 1890-1909, i t was i n 1910 that p l ann ing enjoyed a sudden inc rease i n p o p u l a r i t y , p robably due to events e lsewhere; e . g . the heightened i n t e r e s t i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Great B r i t a i n and Europe, the implementat ion of B r i t i s h p l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , the i n i t i a t i o n o f the N a t i o n a l Conferences on C i t y P l a n n i n g , the v i s i t s to Canada o f B r i t i s h p l a n n e r s . The years between 1910 and 1913 can.be termed the Canadian C i t y B e a u t i f u l . P l ann ing a r t i c l e s were abundant, and w h i l e they e x h i b i t e d - v a r y i n g emphases and l e v e l s of d e t a i l , a r t i c l e s devoted t o . g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n s of p l a n n i n g tended. to r e f l e c t C i t y B e a u t i f u l p r i n c i p l e s . Canada l a cked a spokesman of Robinson ' s c a l i b r e however. Canadian . w r i t e r s tended. to be vague and f a i l e d to put f o r t h c l e a r and f o r c e f u l arguments f o r c r e a t i n g a " c i t y b e a u t i f u l " . Desp i t e the f a c t t ha t the j o u r n a l s presented no c l e a r l y a r t i c u -l a t e d ph i losophy of the C i t y B e a u t i f u l du r ing these yea r s , s e v e r a l Canadian c i t i e s undertook p lans or p r o j e c t s , most of which were i n the t r a d i t i o n a l C i t y B e a u t i f u l manner. In f a c t , s i x major p lans were completed between 1909 and 1915 i n a d d i t i o n to p lans f o r a number o f c i v i c improvement p r o j e c t s . Sometimes these e f f o r t s would r e c e i v e b r i e f mention i n the j o u r n a l s ; sometimes they would.be ignored comple te ly . The j o u r n a l s ' low commitment to p l ann ing may have been i n d i c a t i v e o f low p u b l i c support but another e x p l a n a t i o n seems more l i k e l y . The 211 j o u r n a l s represented v a r i o u s p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t s , and i t was not q u i t e c e r t a i n t o . w h i c h o f these i n t e r e s t s ( i f any) p l a n n i n g belonged. The d i s t ance between p l a n n i n g thought (as r e f l e c t e d i n the j o u r n a l s ) and p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e would not d isappear u n t i l the 1920's when the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e of Canada was founded and.a j o u r n a l e n t i r e l y devoted to p l a n n i n g begun. Of these s i x major p l a n s , four were prepared f o r P r a i r i e c i t i e s . A c l o s e r i n s p e c t i o n o f p lans and p l ann ing i n these c i t i e s served to r e v e a l fu r the r i n s i g h t s i n t o the Canadian C i t y B e a u t i f u l movement. T y p i c a l l y , the P r a i r i e c i t y ' s f i r s t exper ience w i t h "p l ann ing" occur red i n connec t ion w i t h the development of a park system. Formal involvement w i t h the p r e p a r a t i o n o f a c i t y p l a n took p l ace e i t h e r under the auspices of a parks commission or a p l a n n i n g commission which had been appointed s p e c i f i c a l l y to o b t a i n a p l a n . Each o f the four c i t i e s wanted an expert who was the b e s t , and i t was g e n e r a l l y assumed tha t "p lann ing exper t s " were a l so landscape a r c h i t e c t s . Perhaps the assumption was a n a t u r a l one. Landscape a r c h i t e c t s had o r i g i n a l l y been i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g park systems (cons idered by many to be the c h i e f way to b e a u t i f y the c i t y ) . When other ways to b e a u t i f y the c i t y were conceived ( e . g . c i v i c c e n t r e s ) , landscape a r c h i t e c t s s imply absorbed the new task u n t i l e v e n t u a l l y , landscape a r c h i t e c t s became " p l a n n i n g e x p e r t s " . M u n i c i p a l involvement i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f c i t y p lans was c l o s e l y a l l i e d to the concept of "boos te r i sm" . Beginning at the t u r n of the cen tu ry , P r a i r i e c i t i e s grew very r a p i d l y , each one competing v i g o r o u s l y f o r more p o p u l a t i o n , more i n d u s t r y , more p r o s p e r i t y . 212 Expendi tures f o r p lans were apparen t ly au tho r i zed wi thout a second thought . These were boom t imes , and . c i t y p lans were seen as a form of p u b l i c i t y . S i m i l a r l y , the even tua l implementat ion o f monumental C i t y B e a u t i f u l p r o j e c t s was seen as an i n d i c a t i o n o f a c i t y ' s g rea t -ness . I n gene ra l , C i t y C o u n c i l s expressed l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n problem s o l v i n g desp i t e the f ac t tha t the tremendous growth exper ienced by each of the four c i t i e s must have brought w i t h i t severe problems. In C a l g a r y , Edmonton and Regina , the p l a n n i n g expert was h i r e d and the process set i n mot ion . The r e s u l t i n g p lans had s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n common: (1) they promised a weal thy and prosperous fu ture which cou ld be augmented by a p l a n , (2) they presented a v i s i o n o f the fu ture which cou ld be g r a d u a l l y implemented, (3) they e x h i b i t e d a v a r y i n g mix o f a e s t h e t i c and u t i l i t a r i a n d e t a i l s but the b u l k of the p lans was devoted to the t r a d i t i o n a l C i t y B e a u t i f u l elements o f s t r e e t s , parks and c i v i c c en t r e s , presented i n a Burnham-l ike f a s h i o n , (4) l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n was p a i d to problem s o l v i n g , implementat ion or f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , and (5) other elements o f the p l a n were mentioned ( u s u a l l y zoning and i n d u s t r i a l suburbs) but the concepts were not adequately developed. Winnipeg ' s p l a n was prepared by members o f the C i t y P l ann ing Commission, which was comprised o f a number of i n d i v i d u a l s who had v a r y i n g pe r spec t i ve s and p r i o r i t i e s . Desp i te devo t ing cons ide rab le 213 a t t e n t i o n to t r a d i t i o n a l C i t y B e a u t i f u l e lements , the Commission's r epor t stands a l o n e . i n s o f a r as i t made a genuine attempt to f i n d ways to make the c i t y more h e a l t h f u l , more convenient and more b e a u t i f u l . I t i s n e i t h e r a C i t y B e a u t i f u l p l a n nor a forerunner of l a t e r e f f o r t s . However, i f the repor t had been turned over as in tended to a landscape a r c h i t e c t i n order tha t a f i n a l p l a n cou ld be prepared , the r e s u l t i n g e f f o r t would probably have resembled the o ther three p l a n s . F i n a l l y , none o f the four p lans was implemented. Whi le Winnipeg ' s C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission had been h i g h l y c r i t i c a l caus ing C i t y C o u n c i l to c u r t a i l funding before a f i n a l p l a n was prepared , the p lans for the o ther c i t i e s were not p rob lem-or ien ted o r c r i t i c a l o f the c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Al though the o r i g i n a l terms o f reference had g e n e r a l l y been vague, the r e s u l t i n g p lans seemed to respond w e l l to the expec-t a t i o n s of the v a r i o u s C o u n c i l s . In each case, t i m i n g was the c r i t i c a l f a c t o r . They were a l l commissioned when times were good, and they were a l l submit ted a f t e r the boom had peaked. Not on ly was there .no money f o r c i v i c b e a u t i -f i c a t i o n schemes but there wasn ' t enough money fo r more t r a d i t i o n a l endeavours l i k e Board o f Trade grants and Parks Commissions. One suspects tha t i f the p lans had been submit ted e a r l i e r , some o f the suggested improvements would have been undertaken. Th i s seems even more l i k e l y when one remembers the a c t i v i t y o f a few years e a r l i e r : v igorous park a c q u i s i t i o n programs and the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f impress ive Par l iament B u i l d i n g s . Dur ing the war yea r s , p l ann ing a c t i v i t y i n Canada was r e l a t i v e l y dormant. The j o u r n a l s were dominated by the w r i t i n g o f Thomas Adams 214 and the Commission o f Conse rva t ion . Other v o i c e s were l a r g e l y absent . I t was d u r i n g these years tha t the C i t y B e a u t i f u l began to be openly c r i t i c i z e d w h i l e the prospect o f a l e g i t i m a t e r o l e fo r c i v i c beauty was r a r e l y d i s c u s s e d . In the years d i r e c t l y f o l l o w i n g the war (1919-1924), Canada entered the e r a o f the C i t y E f f i c i e n t . The most . important p l ann ing event du r ing t h i s p e r i o d was the es tab l i shment of the Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e of Canada and hence the beg inn ing o f p l a n n i n g . a s a p r o f e s s i o n . In the j o u r n a l s , the monumental C i t y B e a u t i f u l s t y l e of p l ann ing was c r i t i c i z e d , again and aga in . Those w r i t e r s who. d i d ment ion . the d e s i r a -b i l i t y o f c i v i c beauty r a r e l y e l a b o r a t e d ; there was a r e luc t ance to approach the subjec t d i r e c t l y . There was l i t t l e p l a c e f o r beauty u n t i l the f i n a l p e r i o d (1925-1930) when the n a t i o n exper ienced a r e t u r n to p r o s p e r i t y . C i v i c beauty began to be openly, promoted a l though i t remained a s m a l l pa r t o f the t o t a l p i c t u r e . P l a n n i n g a c t i v i t y reached a peak dur ing these y e a r s , and the j o u r n a l s devoted c o n s i d e r a b l e . s p a c e . t o the p u b l i c a t i o n of v a r i o u s p lans and p r o j e c t s , a number o f which were rooted i n the des ign p r i n c i p l e s o f the C i t y B e a u t i f u l . Fur the r r esea rch i s needed i n t o the l egacy o f the C i t y B e a u t i f u l movement. Quest ions come to mind concerning (1) the degree to which c i v i c cent re p roposa l s and p lans f o r park and s t r e e t systems have s i n c e been implemented, (2) the date o f implementat ion and.the surrounding c i rcumstances , (3) the r o l e o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n promoting aspects of the p l a n s , and (4) the r e l a t i o n s h i p between monumental p l ann ing and pe r iods of p r o s p e r i t y . O f f i c i a l l y most of the e a r l y p lans were she lved ; 215 however, at l e a s t some elements o f those p lans have s i n c e found t h e i r way i n t o the modern urban landscape . For example, the Calgary Tower ( b u i l t i n the 1960 's) i s on the exact s i t e o f a tower proposed by Mawson. A l s o i n C a l g a r y , C i t y C o u n c i l i s c u r r e n t l y a c q u i r i n g s e v e r a l b l o c k s of downtown l and f o r a l a r g e c i v i c cent re p r o j e c t (al though not on the s i t e recommended by Mawson). Edmonton began b u i l d i n g a c i v i c cent re i n the 1960's on the same l o c a t i o n as the 1913 scheme. Th i s was h a r d l y c o i n c i d e n t a l . Desp i t e l o s i n g the 1913 c i v i c cen t re referendum, C i t y C o u n c i l i n i t i a t e d a p o l i c y o f a c q u i r i n g t a x - f o r f e i t e d l and and r e v i v e d the scheme every 10-15 yea r s , s u f f i c i e n t l y frequent to remain i n publ ic .memory. Whi le the b u i l d i n g s i n the present c i v i c cent re r e f l e c t the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the 1960's and 1970 ' s , t h e i r arrangement i s r emin i scen t of the C i t y B e a u t i f u l — formal park surrounded by p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s , v i s u a l l i n k w i t h the r a i l w a y s t a t i o n some b l o c k s d i s t a n t by means of the combined s t a t i o n and o f f i c e tower (topped w i t h a l a r g e neon C . N . s ign ) t e r m i n a t i n g a s t r e e t v i s t a . Winnipeg ' s c i v i c cent re p l a n c a l l e d f o r a formal approach to the L e g i s l a t u r e and a .bou leva rd l i n k between the L e g i s l a t u r e and the r a i l w a y s t a t i o n . Both these e x i s t today, the former having been b u i l t around 1920. The date o f the l a t t e r improvement was not a sce r t a ined but i t was probably undertaken around the same t ime . In Regina , most of the landscape treatment i n the immediate v i c i n i t y o f the Par l i ament B u i l d i n g . c a n b e . d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t e d to e i t h e r Todd's 1907 or Mawson's 1913 p l a n . The Par l i ament B u i l d i n g 216 i s today pa r t of Wascana Cent re , a 2000-acre park c o n t a i n i n g s e v e r a l p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s and a u n i v e r s i t y campus. Al though Wascana Centre was l a r g e l y developed i n the 1960 ' s , Mawson had made the o r i g i n a l recommendations f o r such a cen t r e , and the major promoter of the present development had i n s i s t e d tha t the Mawson scheme be r e v i v e d . A l l the above obse rva t ions suggest tha t the C i t y B e a u t i f u l movement may have had a more t a n g i b l e impact on the urban landscape than has p r e v i o u s l y been supposed. The legacy bears fu r t he r examina t ion . 217 FOOTNOTES Abbreviations used: ARCC Annual Report' of the Commission of Conservation CA & B Canadian Architect and Builder CE Canadian Engineer CMJ Canadian Municipal Journal CR Contract Record JRAIC Journal of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada JTPIC Journal of the Town Planning Institute of Canada MRC Municipal Review of Canada TP & CL Town Planning and Conservation of Life Introduction ^Thomas Adams, "The Meaning and Practical Application of Town Planning", TP & CL, 1(4), July 1915, p. 74. 2 Examples of those who have supported this view include: (1) Thomas S. Hines, Burnham of Chicago: Architect and Planner (New York: Oxford University Press, 1974), p. 74; (2) John W. Reps,. The Making of  Urban America: A History of City Planning in the United States (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965), p. 497; (3) Arthur B. Gallion and Simon Eisner, The Urban Pattern: City Planning and  Design (Princeton: D. Van Nostrand Co. Ltd., 1950), pp. 81-82; (4) John L. Hancock, "Planners in the Changing American City, 1900-1940", Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 3(5), 1967, p. 293. 3 Walter van Nus, "The Plan-Makers and the City: Architects, Engineers, Surveyors and Urban Planning in Canada, 1890-1939". Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toronto, 1975. 4 For example: Alan F.J. Artibise, "Winnipeg and the City Planning Movement, 1900-1915", in Western Perspectives, ed.. by David Bercuson (Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1974), pp. 10-18. ^For example: Van Nus, "The Plan-Makers and the City" 6 l b i d . , pp. 38-47. 218 Chapter 1 "'"For example: (1) Charles N. Glaab and A. Theodore Brown, A History  of Urban America (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1967), pp. 260-261; (2) William H. Wilson, The City Beautiful Movement in Kansas City, University of Missouri Studies, Vol. XL (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1964), pp. x i i - x i v . 2 Mel Scott, American City Planning Since 1890 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1964), p. 45. Jon A. Peterson, "The City Beautiful Movement: Forgotten Origins and Lost Meanings", Journal of Urban History, 2(4), August 1976, p. 419. Peterson has indicated that the term was originally derived from the English arts and crafts movement and was f i r s t applied to the American "municipal art" movement in 1897. "The new slogan, never before used in municipal art discussion, quickly took hold. By March 1898, Charles R. Lamb, an architect active in New York art circles, was exhorting his city to realize 'the dream of the idealist, the City Beautiful'. ' Municipal Affairs conferred f u l l blessing upon the term in i t s December 1899 issue, splashing the work across i t s front cover." (Peterson, p. 419) 3 Christopher Tunnardand Henry Reed, American Skyline (New York: The New American Library of American Literature, 1953), p. 137. 4 Peterson has indicated that there were nearly 1000 such organizations in the U.S. in 1900, and by 1905 the number had increased to almost 2500. (Peterson, p. 429) 5Peterson,"The City Beautiful Movement", pp. 415-434. Most c r i t i c s have chosen to interpret the movement in terms of i t s impact on city plans. 7James G. Coke, "Antecedents of Local Planning" in Principles and  Practice of Urban Planning, ed. by William I. Goodman and Eric C. Freund (Washington: International City Managers' Association, 1968), p. 18. Q Peterson, "The City Beautiful Movement", pp. 428-429. 9 Scott has presented brief summaries of many of these plans. (Scott, American.City Planning Since 1890, pp. 47-109) "^For example: (1) Gallionand Eisner, The.Urban. Pattern, p. 84; (2) Harvey A. Kantor, "Benjamin C. Marsh and the Fight over Popu-lation Congestion", Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 40(4), 1974, p. 428. 219 For example: (1) Glaab and Brown, A H i s t o r y of Urban Amer ica , p . 262. (2) Jane Jacobs , The Death and L i f e of Great American C i t i e s (New Y o r k : Random House, 1961) , pp. 24-25. 12 George E . Hooker, "A P l a n f o r Ch icago" , The Survey, V o l . 22, 1909, pp. 788-790. 13 For example: (1) John N o l e n , e d . , C i t y P l a n n i n g : A Se r i e s of Papers  P r e sen t i ng the E s s e n t i a l Elements o f a C i t y P l a n (New York and London: D. Apple ton and C o . , 1916); (2) Nelson P . L e w i s , The P l a n n i n g o f the  Modern C i t y : A Review o f the P r i n c i p l e s Governing C i t y P l ann ing (New Y o r k : John W i l e y and Sons I n c . , 1916). ^ T h e r e were o thers before h im. Andrew Jackson Downing (1815-1852), Nor th Amer i ca ' s l e a d i n g a u t h o r i t y on landscape gardening, had i n f l u e n c e d many i n c l u d i n g Olmsted. At the t ime o f h i s sudden death i n 1852, he was i n the midst o f c rusad ing fo r a l a r g e p u b l i c p leasure ground i n New York C i t y — the present-day C e n t r a l Pa rk , designed by Olmsted and C a l v e r t Vaux, Downing's p u p i l . '''^One c r i t i c has s a i d tha t b u i l d i n g s and formal elements i n Olmsted 's parks were not i n keeping w i t h h i s ph i losophy but merely i n response to popular demand. (Leonard J . S i m u t i s , " F r e d e r i c k Law Olmsted: A Reassessment", J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s , 38(2) , 1972, p . 278) 16 S c o t t , American C i t y P l a n n i n g Since 1890, p . 12. 17 W i l s o n , The C i t y B e a u t i f u l Movement i n Kansas C i t y . 18 S c o t t , American C i t y P l a n n i n g Since 1890, pp. 19-23. 19 I b i d . , p . 11 . 20 Coke,"Antecedents of L o c a l P l a n n i n g " , pp. 17-18. 21 I b i d . ; S i m u t i s , " F r e d e r i c k Law Olmsted, S r . " , p . 276; Glaab and Brown, A H i s t o r y o f Urban Amer ica , pp. 70-71. 22 *• H i n e s , Burnham of Chicago , p . 73. 23 The d i s s e n t i n g v o i c e was L o u i s S u l l i v a n ' s T r a n s p o r t a t i o n B u i l d i n g . 24 Tunnard and Reed,-American S k y l i n e , p . 143. 25 H ines , Burnham of Chicago , pp. 73 -91 . 26 A . T . T a y l o r , " B r i e f Notes on the A r c h i t e c t u r e o f the W o r l d ' s F a i r " , CA & B , . 6 ( 1 0 ) , October 1893, pp. 104-105. 220 27 Glaab and Brown, A .H i s to ry of Urban Amer ica , pp. 260-261. 28 L o u i s S u l l i v a n had. been a b i t t e r ofbserver of the F a i r ' s a b i l i t y to a l t e r p u b l i c t a s t e . "The v i r u s of the W o r l d ' s F a i r , a f t e r a p e r i o d of i n c u b a t i o n i n the a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r o f e s s i o n and i n the p o p u l a t i o n at l a r g e . . . began to show unmistakable s igns of the nature of the con tag ion . There came a v i o l e n t outbreak of the C l a s s i c and the Renaissance i n the E a s t , which s l o w l y spread westward, contaminat ing a l l tha t i t t o u c h e d . . . The danger wrought by the W o r l d ' s F a i r w i l l l a s t f o r h a l f a century from i t s da te , i f not l o n g e r . " (Louis H . S u l l i v a n , The Autobiography of an Idea , New Y o r k , Press of the American I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s , 1926, pp. 324-325) 29 Tunnard and Reed, American S k y l i n e , p . 137. 30 H i n e s , Burnham of Chicago ; Glaab and Brown, A H i s t o r y of Urban  Amer ica , p . 261. 31 S c o t t , American C i t y P l a n n i n g Since 1890, p . 65 . 32 H ines , Burnham of Chicago , p . 146. 33 The U . S . had i t s own Baroque c i t y — Washington. D e t a i l s of t h i s 1791 p l a n w i l l be presented l a t e r . 34 For .example : Char les Mul fo rd Robinson, .Modern C i v i c A r t (New York and London: G . P . Putnam's Sons, 1903) , pp. 110-111. 35 Norman J . Johns ton , "Har land Bartholomew: Precedent f o r the P r o f e s s i o n " , J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s , 39 (2 ) , 1973, p . 116. 36 S c o t t , American C i t y P l a n n i n g Since 1890, p . 66 37 Pe te r son , "The C i t y B e a u t i f u l Movement", p . 428. 38 For example: Coke, "Antecedents of L o c a l P l a n n i n g " , p . 18. 39 "American S o c i e t y of Landscape A r c h i t e c t s . M i n u t e on the L i f e and S e r v i c e of Char les Mul fo rd Robinson" , Landscape A r c h i t e c t , 9 ( 4 ) , 1919, p . 189. 40 . S c o t t , A m e r i c a n . C i t y P l a n n i n g Since 1890, p . 66. 41 Nolen , C i t y P l a n n i n g , p re face . 42 " . . . M i n u t e on the . L i f e and S e r v i c e of Char les . Mul fo rd . Robinson" , pp. 192-193. A b i b l i o g r a p h y of Robinson ' s w r i t i n g s appears i n t h i s a r t i c l e . 43 I b i d . , p . 189. 221 ^ C h a r l e s Mul fo rd Robinson, The Improvement.of Towns.and C i t i e s (New York and London: G . P . Putnam's Sons, 1901), p . 24. ^ R o b i n s o n , M o d e r n . C i v i c A r t , p . 114. 46 L a t e r Robinson would oppose such a l o c a t i o n on the grounds that i t would h inde r bus iness by caus ing a break i n the s t r e e t . (Char les Mul fo rd Robinson, C i t y P l a n n i n g , New Y o r k , G .P . Putnam's Sons, 1916, p . 193.) ^ 7 R o b i n s o n , The Improvement of Towns and C i t i e s , p . 153. ^ R o b i n s o n , Modern C i v i c A r t , p . 342. 49 I b i d . , p . 344. 5 0 S i n c e p u b l i c open spaces were most l i k e l y to be used as s h o r t c u t s , Robinson saw t r a v e l pa t t e rns as the f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . "^Robinson, Modern C i v i c A r t , p . 293. 5 2 I b i d . , p . 299. 53 I b i d . , p . 30. "^Robinson, The Improvement of Towns and C i t i e s , p . 181. " ^ I b i d . , p . 21 . 5 6 I b i d . , p . 208. "^Robinson , Modern C i v i c A r t , p . 29. 5 8 I b i d . , p . 30. 59 Robinson, The Improvement of Towns and C i t i e s , p . 25. 6 0 I b i d . , p . 174. 61 Robinson, Modern C i v i c A r t , pp . 305-306. 6 2 I b i d . , p . 29. 63 Robinson, The Improvement of Towns and C i t i e s , p . 10. 64' Robinson, Modern C i v i c A r t ; pp. 247-266. 222 65 One of the most n o n s e n s i c a l ( i n l i g h t , o f cur ren t op in ion) appeared i n a p rev ious chap te r . " I t has been found tha t of ten there i s no b e t t e r way to redeem a slum d i s t r i c t than by c u t t i n g i n t o i t a great highway that w i l l be f i l l e d w i t h the through t r a v e l of a c i t y ' s i n d u s t r y . L i k e a s tream of pure water c l e a n s i n g what i t touches , t h i s t i d e o f t r a f f i c , p u l s i n g w i t h the j o y o u s -ness of the c i t y ' s l i f e o £ t o i l .and purpose, when f l owing through an i d l e or s u f f e r i n g d i s t r i c t wakes i t t o l a r g e r i n t e r e s t s and h ighe r purpose ." (Robinson,-Modern C i v i c A r t , p . 120.) 6 6 C h a r l e s Mul fo rd Robinson, "The C i t y P l a n E x h i b i t i o n " , The Survey, V o l . 22 , 1909, pp. 313-318. 67 Robinson, Modern C i v i c A r t , pp. 267-268. 68 Th i s o r g a n i z a t i o n merged w i t h the American I n s t i t u t e of A r c h i t e c t s i n 1889. 69 H i n e s , Burnham of Chicago, pp. 22-25. 7 ^They were not the f i r s t to use s t e e l frame however. I n 1885, W i l l i a m Jenny ' s Home Insurance B u i l d i n g i n Chicago was the f i r s t skyscraper to use s t e e l s t r u c t u r a l l y . He had begun h i s b u i l d i n g us ing cas t i r o n and swi tched to s t e e l mid-s t ream. (Hines , Burnham  of .Chicago, pp . .61 -62) 7''"Root d i ed a few months l a t e r but neve r the les s was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the ground p l a n . 72 H ines , Burnham of Chicago , p . 124. 7 3 I b i d . , pp . 71-72. 74 Bennett would l a t e r work on the 1915 p l a n f o r Ottawa. 7~*A l i s t of r e f u s a l s compiled by Hines from Burnham's l e t t e r s i n c l u d e S p r i n g f i e l d (Mass . ) , Oakland ( C a l i f . ) , For t Worth, A t l a n t i c C i t y , S t . L o u i s , M i n n e a p o l i s , D u l u t h , P o r t l a n d , South Bend, D e t r o i t , N a s h v i l l e , Memphis, Newark, B r o o k l y n , Grand Rapids ( M i c h . ) , E l m i r a ( N . Y . ) , Trenton , E r i e ( P a . ) , Tampa, M o n t r e a l , Amherst Co l l ege (Mass and the U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s at Champaign. (Hines , Burnham of  Chicago , p . 347.) 76 D a n i e l H. Burnham, "A C i t y of the Future under a Democratic Govern-ment" i n The Royal I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s , Town P l a n n i n g  Conference Transac t ions (London: 1910), p . 369. 77 H ines , Burnham of Chicago , p . 183,. 78 D a n i e l H . Burnham, P l a n of Chicago.(New Y o r k : Da Capo P r e s s , 1970) Th i s i s a r e p r i n t of the 1909 p l a n undertaken f o r the Commercial Club o f Chicago . 223 79 I b i d . , p . 86. 80 D a n i e l H. Burnham, Report on a P l a n fo r San F r a n c i s c o (Berke ley : Urban Books, 1971), p . 67. Th i s i s a r e p r i n t of the 1906 p l a n . 81 The San F r a n c i s c o p l a n ' s r e l a t i v e l y g rea te r emphasis on a e s t h e t i c s may have been due to d i f f e r e n c e s i n c l i e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s . The San F r a n c i s c o p l a n had been commissioned by the A s s o c i a t i o n fo r the Improvement and Adornment of San F r a n c i s c o w h i l e the Chicago p l a n had been done fo r that c i t y ' s Commercial C l u b . 82 The connec t ion to the anc ien t w o r l d was h a r d l y s u b t l e . For example, " t h i s amphitheatre would r e c a l l by i t s l o c a t i o n the stadium i n the h i l l s at D e l p h i , which over looks the G u l f of C o r i n t h and the thea t re of Dionysos , at the foot of the A c r o p o l i s , from which the P i raeus and the sea o f Aegina come f i n e l y i n t o v i e w . " (Burnham, Report on a P l a n f o r San F r a n c i s c o , p . 158.) 8 3 I b i d . , p . 182. 84 H i n e s , Burnham o f Chicago , p . 324. 85 Benjamin C. Marsh , a member o f the r e fo rm-or i en ted Committee on Congest ion of P o p u l a t i o n , was a f o r c e f u l suppor ter o f lower d e n s i t i e s , e f f i c i e n t inexpens ive r a p i d t r a n s i t , parks and p laygrounds , b u i l d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s , s p e c u l a t i o n t axes , and some segrega t ion o f l and uses ( f ac to ry a reas , r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s ) . For a b r i e f p e r i o d , Marsh ' s Committee on Congest ion and the p lanners came toge the r . In 1909, Robinson spoke at Marsh ' s c i t y p l a n n i n g e x h i b i t i o n , and l a t e r tha t same y e a r , both groups took pa r t i n the f i r s t N a t i o n a l Conference on C i t y P l a n n i n g . Marsh became d i s i l l u s i o n e d soon a f t e r , however, and abandoned p l a n n i n g . ( S c o t t , American C i t y P l a n n i n g S ince 1890, pp. 84-99, 164; K a n t o r , "Benjamin C. Marsh and the F igh t over P o p u l a t i o n Conges t ion" , pp. 422-429.) 86 S c o t t , American C i t y P l a n n i n g Since 1890, p . 228. 8 7 Lewi s , The P l a n n i n g of the Modern C i t y , p . 11 . 88 John N o l e n , "Park Systems" i n C i t y P l a n n i n g : A Se r i e s of Papers  P r e sen t i ng the E s s e n t i a l Elements of a C i t y P l a n , ed. by John Nolen (New York and London: D. Apple ton and C o . , 1916), p . 159. 89 Edward H. Bennet t , " P u b l i c and Q u a s i - P u b l i c B u i l d i n g s " i n C i t y  P l a n n i n g , ed. by John N o l e n , pp. 105-109. 90 Raymond Unwin, "The C i t y Development P l a n " i n The Royal I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s , Town Planning .Conference Transac t ions (London: 1910) , p . 265. 224 Unwin was highly c r i t i c a l of the kind of beauty conceived by City Beautiful planners. He thought Americans had placed too much emphasis on a grand design of order and symmetry without worrying about the characteristics of a particular site or whether an effective space had been created on that site. (Ibid., p. 259.) 91 Lewis, The Planning.of the Modern City, pp. 149-172. 92 F.L. Olmsted, Jr., "Introduction" in City Planning, ed. by John Nolen, pp. 17-18. According to Scott, Olmsted was not able to follow his own advice. He remained firmly entrenched in the City Beautiful. (Scott, American City Planning Since 1890, pp. 118-120, 125.) 93 .... Scott, American City Planning Since 1890, pp. 166-167. 94 The exhibition and.conference saw the brief.coming together of both planners and housing reformers. The following year, the housing reformers l e f t the movement while city planning took a decided turn towards the City Efficient. 95 Britain was undergoing much the same process but with much greater commitment to planning.. The year 1909 saw the f i r s t city planning department established at a university.and the passage of the f i r s t Town Planning Act. This Act authorized local authorities to prepare comprehensive plans for development. 96Hancock, "Planners.in the Changing American City, 1900-1940", p. 294. 97 Scott, American Citv Planning. Since 1890, pp.. 163-164. Chapter 2 "'""North West Toronto Growing Rapidly", CA & B, 1(6), June 1888, p. 4. 2 Todd's work in the f i r s t fifteen years or so of this century included preparing plans for park and boulevard systems (e.g. Ottawa, Edmonton, St. John's), plans for individual parks (e.g. Regina, Winnipeg, Stratford, Montreal), other types of grounds plans (e.g. St. James Cemetery and Trinity College in Toronto, the grounds of the Saskatch-ewan Legislature), and plans for residential, subdivisions (e.g. Tuxedo Park in Winnipeg, Shaughnessy and part of Point Grey in Vancouver). 3 Frederick G. Todd, "Landscape Architecture", CA & B, 14(4), April 1901, p. 79. This was the journal's only signed article on parks. 4 "The City of Toronto Waterfront", CA & B, 2(8), August 1889, p. 87. 225 5 " O n t a r i o A s s o c i a t i o n of A r c h i t e c t s " , CA & B, 16(11) , November 1903, p . 186. "The Improvement of the C a p i t a l " , CA & B, 16(11) , November 1903, p . 180. ^"Ontar io A s s o c i a t i o n of A r c h i t e c t s " , CA & B , 16(11) , November 1903, p . 186. 8 "The B e a u t i f y i n g o f C i t i e s " , CA & B , 1 5 ( 3 ) , March 1902, p . 46. 9 C A & B , 7 ( 5 ) , May 1894, p . 61 . 1 0 C A & B , 4 ( 1 ) , January 1891, p . 2; CA & B , 4 ( 4 ) , A p r i l 1891, pp. 42-43. 1 1 C A & B , 4 ( 4 ) , A p r i l 1891, p . 42. 12 See e s p e c i a l l y : CA & B, 1 (3 ) , March 1888, p . 2 ; "The C i t y of Toronto Wate r f ron t " , CA.& B , 2 ( 8 ) , August 1889, pp. 87-89; CA & B, 2 ( 9 ) , September 1889, p . 98; CA & B , 2 ( 1 0 ) , October 1889, pp. 113-114; CA & B , 6 ( 7 ) , J u l y 1893, p . 73; "Toronto Esplanade Improvement", CA & B, 6 ( 1 0 ) , October 1893, p . 101. 13 See: "A C e n t r a l Park Proposed f o r Toron to" , CA & B , 10(7) , J u l y 1897, pp. 125-126; CA & B , 10(11) , November 1897, p . 206; CA & B , 11(1 ) , January 1898, p . 1; CA & B , 1 1 ( 4 ) , A p r i l 1898, pp. 61-62; CA & B , 1 1 ( 5 ) , May 1898, p . 82; "A Work f o r the G u i l d o f C i v i c A r t " , CA & B , 13 (4 ) , A p r i l 1900, p . 70; CA & B , 1 4 ( 9 ) , September 1901, p . 164. 14 "Proposed V i c t o r i a Square", CA & B, 10(11) , November 1897, p . 206. 1 5 " V i c t o r i a Square", CA & B , 11 (5 ) , May 1898, p . 82. 1 6"Toronto City H a l l " , CA & B, 12(10), October 1899, pp. 193-195. 1 7 " N o t e s from the W o r l d ' s F a i r " , CA & B , 6 (10) , October 1893, p . 102; A . T . T a y l o r , " B r i e f Notes on the A r c h i t e c t u r e of the Wor ld ' s F a i r " , CA & B, 6 (10 ) , October 1893, pp. 104-105. On these and o ther o c c a s i o n s , the F a i r was mentioned because of the good i n f l u e n c e i t would l i k e l y exer t i n the f i e l d of a r c h i t e c t u r e . 18 "Toronto I s l a n d " , CA & B , & ( 3 ) , March 1894, pp. 38-39. 19 T a y l o r , " B r i e f Notes on the A r c h i t e c t u r e o f the W o r l d ' s F a i r " , p . 104. 20 This paper was read at the annual meeting of the P . Q . A . A . 21 A . T . T a y l o r , "Notes on Some Aspects o f the C i t y of the Fu tu re" , CA & B , 7 (10) , October 1894, pp. 130-131. 226 22 See : . "Compet i t ion f o r E x h i b i t i o n B u i l d i n g s " , CA & B , 13(12) , December 1 9 0 0 , . p . 227; " O . A . A . , Proceedings o f the Annual Con-v e n t i o n Jan 29-30, 1901" , CA & B, 1 4 ( 2 ) , February 1901, pp. 33-47; "The Toronto E x h i b i t i o n " , CA & B, 15 (1 ) , January 1902, pp. 1-2. 23 Edmund.Burke, "Improvement of the Grounds of the T o r o n t o . I n d u s t r i a l E x h i b i t i o n " , CA..& B , 15 (2 ) , February 1902, p . 29. 24 "Compet i t ion f o r E x h i b i t i o n B u i l d i n g s " , p . 227. 2 5 A l b e r t E . K e l s e y , "Modern C i t y Mak ing" , CA &.;B, 1 4 ( 4 ) , A p r i l 1901, p . 80. 2 6 W . A . Langton, " C i t y P l a n n i n g " , CA & B , 15 (4 ) , A p r i l 1902, p . 49. 2 7 I b i d . , pp . 49-51 . 28 " M u n i c i p a l Improvements: Toronto G u i l d of C i v i c A r t " , CA & B , 14(5) , May 1901, p . 100; "Toronto G u i l d of C i v i c A r t " , CA & B , 14(6 ) , June 1901, pp. 113-114. 29 "Toronto G u i l d o f C i v i c A r t Inco rpora t ed" , CA & B , 10 (4 ) , A p r i l 1897, p . 67. 30 "A Work f o r the G u i l d of C i v i c A r t " , CA & B , 13(4)., A p r i l 1900, p . 70. 31 " O . A . A . Annual Conven t ion" , CA & B , 1 9 ( 1 ) , January 1906, pp. 5-10. 32 The p l a n was prepared by the P . Q . A . A . ' s Committee o f C i v i c Improvement. I t s chairman was Percy E . Nobbs, a p ro fe s so r o f a r c h i t e c t u r e at M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y . 33 " M o n t r e a l . N o t e s ? , CA & B , 1 9 ( 6 ) , June 1906, pp. 88-89. 34 " C i t y Improvement Committee of P . Q . A . A . " , CA & B , 19(12) , December 1906, p . 179. 3 5 " P l a n of Improvement of M o n t r e a l " , CMJ, 3 ( 4 ) , A p r i l 1907 , .pp . 152-153. 36 W i l f r e d E g g l e s t o n , The Queen's Cho ice : A Story of Canada's C a p i t a l (Ottawa: N a t i o n a l C a p i t a l Commission, 1961), pp . . 154-155 . 37 "Improvement.of the C a p i t a l " , CA & B , 1 2 ( 8 ) , August 1899, p . 159. 38 F r e d e r i c k G. Todd, P r e l i m i n a r y Report to the Ottawa Improvement  Commission, 1903. 39 I b i d . , p . 14. ^ I b i d . , p . 18. 4 1 I b i d . , pp. 17-18. 227 4 2 I b i d . , pp. 38-39. 43 W.A. Langton, "The Plan of Improvements to Toronto", Proceedings  of the Ontario Association of Architects, 1906, pp. 90-99. (See also banquet discussion, pp. 49-76.) 44 Toronto.Guild of Civic Art, Report on a.Comprehensive Plan for  Systematic Civic Improvement in Toronto, 1909 45 Proceedings of the Ontario Association of Architects, (Banquet discussion), 1906, pp. 66, 70. 46 Ibid., pp. 52-53. 47 Langton, "The Plan of Improvements to Toronto", p. 91. 4 8 I b i d . 49 Ibid., p. 95. "^Toronto Guild of Civic Art,.Report on a Comprehensive Plan for...  Toronto, pp. 13. "'"'"Ibid. , fold-out map. 52 In the years immediately prior to World War I, Thomas Mawson made several lecture tours in Canada.and produced planning reports for Vancouver, Banff, Calgary and Regina. In.addition to his English planning practice, he maintained? a Canadian office in Vancouver, headed by.his son. 53 Thomas H. Mawson, "The Main Principles.of Street Planning", CR, 26(7), 1912, pp. 51-53. 54 Malcolm N. Ross, "Landscape Art and Civic Design", CE, 22(13), 1912, p. 457. 55 Ibid., p. 457. 56 Christopher J. Yorath, "Important Elements, in Town Planning", CR, 27(31), 1913, p. 41. 5 7 I b i d . , p. 43. "^Ibid., p. 43. 59 C.H. Mitchell, "Town Planning and.Civic Improvement", CE. 23(26), 1912, pp. 911-915. 6°Ibid., p. 911. 228 "The P r a c t i c a l Phases of C i t y P l a n n i n g " , CR, 25(23) , 1911, p . 44. 62 G. Wray Lemon, "Boston - an Example and a Warning" , CMJ, 8 (10) , 1912, p . 471. 63 The Canadian M u n i c i p a l J o u r n a l ' s r e g u l a r fea ture e n t i t l e d " C i v i c Notes" i s the main source of these r e p o r t s . 64 " B e a u t i f u l Toron to" , CMJ, 5 ( 6 ) , 1909, p . 240. 6 5 " C i v i c Notes" , CMJ, 6 ( 9 ) , 1910, p . 355. 6 6 " C i v i c No tes" , CMJ, 6 ( 1 2 ) , 1910, p . 519. 6 7 " C i v i c No tes" , CMJ, 8 ( 5 ) , 1912, p . 185. 6 8 " T o w n P l a n n i n g " , CMJ, 9 ( 9 ) , 1913, p . 350. 69 "The P l a z a L a u r i e r , Ottawa", CMJ, 7 ( 5 ) , 1911, pp. 187-188. ^ " C o n d i t i o n s f o r the Compet i t ive Designs of Government B u i l d i n g s , Ottawa", CE, 27(35) , 1913, pp. 50-53. 7 ' ' ' " P r i z e - W i n n i n g Des ign f o r the New U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia" , CR, 27 (2 ) , 1913, pp. 42-43 . 72 See: E . L . Cous ins , A Comprehensive Report to the Toronto Harbor Commissioners", CR, 26(30) , 1912, pp. 54-55; "Toronto Harbor Improvements", CE, 23(21) , 1912, pp. 771-776; "Toron to ' s Compre-hens ive Harbor Scheme: D e t a i l s of a Great P l a n " , CR, 26(47) , 1912, pp. 53-56. 73 " B e t t e r Harbor F a c i l i t i e s f o r Vancouver" , CE, 21(6 ) , 1911, p . 471; "Harbor Development at M o n t r e a l , Quebec", CR, 25(47) , 1911, pp. 42-45; F.W. Cowie, "The Great N a t i o n a l P o r t of Canada: Features of the Important Ex tens ion Work i n Progress i n Mont rea l Harbor" , CE, 22(3) , 1912, pp . .178-183 ; "Development o f M o n t r e a l ' s P o r t " , CE, 1912, p . 390. 74 W i l l i a m Dendy, Los t Toronto (Toronto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1978) . 7 Thomas H . Mawson, "Vancouver: A C i t y o f O p t i m i s t s " , Town P l a n n i n g  Review, V o l . 4, 1913, pp. 7-12. 7 ^ I b i d . , p . 10. 7 7 A n Act E s t a b l i s h i n g the Commission.of C o n s e r v a t i o n , Assented to 19th May, 1909, 8-9 Edward V I I , Chapter 27, pp. v i i - x . I b i d . , p . v m . 229 79 A l a n H. Armstrong, "Thomas Adams and-the Commission.of Conse rva t ion" i n P l a n n i n g the Canadian Environment, ed . by L . O . G e r t l e r (Mont rea l : Harvest House, .1968) , p . 21 . 80 For example: Char les A . Hodget t s , "Unsan i ta ry Hous ing" , ARCC, 1911, pp. 50-80. 81 I b i d . ; Char les A . Hodget ts , "Housing and Town P l a n n i n g " , ARCC, - 1912, pp. 130-148. 82 Hodget ts , "Housing and Town P l a n n i n g " , pp. 140. 83 "The Conserva t ion Commission and . I t s P u b l i c H e a l t h Measures", CE, 2 6 ( 8 ) , 1914, p . 350. 84 " C i t y P l a n n i n g i n .Canada" , CMJ, 10 (4 ) , 1914, p . 194. ARCC, 1915, pp. 233-234. 86 ARCC, 1915, p . 243. 87 "Progress o f . t h e C i t y P l a n n i n g Movement", CE, V o l . 26, 1914, p . 829. 88 " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Town P l a n n i n g Conference", CMJ, 10(6 ) , 1914, p . 227. 89 B i o g r a p h i c a l , m a t e r i a l i s based on':. (1) Armstrong, "Thomas Adams and the Commission o f C o n s e r v a t i o n " ; (2) "Town P l ann ing A d v i s e r to the Commission.of C o n s e r v a t i o n " , TP & CL, 1 ( 2 ) , October 1914, pp. 27-28. 9°ARCC, 1913, pp. 9-10. 91 B r i t i s h Columbia and Quebec were the except ions a l though Adams had prepared a d ra f t Ac t f o r t h e . l a t t e r . B r i t i s h Columbia would e n a c t ' l e g i s l a t i o n i n 1925 but Quebec was s t i l l wi thout i t i n 1930. 92 Ian Cooper a n d . J . D a v i d - H u l c h a n s k i , Canadian Town P l a n n i n g , 1900-1930: .A H i s t o r i c a l B i b l i o g r a p h y , ( V o l . 1: P l a n n i n g ) , Centre f o r Urban and Community S t u d i e s , - B i b l i o g r a p h i c Se r i e s No. 7, U n i v e r s i t y o f Toron to , A p r i l 1978, p . 5 . 93 Char les A . Hodget t s , "Town P l a n n i n g i n Canada",. .CMJ, 1 0 ( 8 ) , 1914, p . 321. 94 Thomas Adams, "The Meaning and P r a c t i c a l A p p l i c a t i o n of Town.Planning" , TP & CL, 1 ( 4 ) , J u l y 1915, p . 74. 95 I b i d . , p . 74. 96 Thomas. Adams, " C i v i c and S o c i a l . Quest ions . i n .Canada"., TP & . CL, 2 ( 3 ) , A p r i l - J u n e 1 9 1 6 , . p . 57. 230 97 Thomas Adams, "P l ann ing the Greater H a l i f a x " , ARCC, 1917, p . 107. 98 Thomas Adams, " C i v i c Improvement O r g a n i z a t i o n fo r Canada", TP & CL, 2 ( 1 ) , October .1915, p . 4 . 99 W.H. A t h e r t o n , " C i t y Improvement League, M o n t r e a l : 7th Annual Repor t " , CMJ, 12(8) , 1916, pp. 440-441. 1 0 0 " A C i t y B e a u t i f u l " , CMJ, 12(5) , 1916, pp. 260^-261; "The Garden as a Fac to r i n S o c i a l W e l l - B e i n g " , TP & CL, 2 ( 2 ) , January-March 1916, pp. 35-39. 1 0 1 A . A . Stoughton, " B e a u t i f y i n g Our S t r e e t s " , CR, 29(28) , 1915, p . 723. 102 "Fede ra l C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission", CE, 26(3 ) , 1914, pp. 181-182. 103 "The Proposed C i v i c Centre at Vancouver", CR, 28(4 ) , 1914, p . 1244. 104 "The Proposed C i v i c Centre fo r Vancouver" , CR, 2 9 ( 1 ) , 1915, p . 8; Thomas Adams, "Vancouver C i v i c Centre C o m p e t i t i o n " , Town P l a n n i n g  Review, V o l . 6, 1915 , .pp . 31-33. Thomas Adams, "Report on the P l a n n i n g of Grea ter Vancouver", CR, 29 (5 ) , 1915, p . 122. "^^Federa l P l a n Commission, Report on a Genera l P l a n . f o r the C i t i e s  of Ottawa and H u l l , S i r H e r b e r t - S . H o l t , Chairman (Ottawa, 1915) , p . 10. 1 0 7 - . , . . I b x d . , p . 23. 108_, . , 0 Q  I b i d . , p . 28. 109_, . , 0 , I b i d . , p . 25. 1 1 0 I b i d . , p . 110. I l l I b i d . , p . 110. U 2 I b i d . , pp. 127-130. I b i d . , p . 27. ^ ^ I b i d . , p . 27. "'""'"^Armstrong, "Thomas Adams and the Commission.of Conse rva t i on" , p . 31 . 116 Van Nus, "The Plan-Makers and the C i t y " , p . 75. 1 1 7 A R C C , 1919, p . 5 . 231 118 Memorandum.Re S i r James Lougheed's Speech . in . the Senate, F r i d a y ,  May 13, Regarding the Commission.of Conse rva t ion , 1922 ( P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada, F i l e 16488). 119 Van Nus, "The Plan-Makers and the C i t y " , p . 94. 120 Town P l a n n i n g . I n s t i t u t e of Canada, C o n s t i t u t i o n and Bylaws, Adopted J u l y 5, 1920. 121 "Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e of Canada Inco rpora t ed" , JTPIC, 2 ( 6 ) , 1923, pp. 1-2. 122 Frank E . Buck, "Advantages of Town P l a n n i n g and Zon ing" , CE, 47(5 ) , 1924, p . 197. 123 "Town P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e of Canada Inco rpo ra t ed" , pp. 1-2. 124 "Town P l a n n i n g A P e o p l e ' s Movement", JTPIC, 1 ( 8 ) , 1922, p . 10. 125 J . P . Hynes, " P r o f e s s i o n of Town P l a n n i n g " , CE, 46(23) , 1924, p . 576. 126 H . L . Seymour,. "Commercial Town P l a n n i n g Urge" , CE, 4 6 ( 5 ) , 1924, p . 198. 1 27 Thomas Adams, "Annexa t ion" , JTPIC, 1 (10) , 1922, p . 19. 1 28 Thomas Adams, "Modern C i t y P l a n n i n g " , JTPIC, 1(11) , 1922, p . 13. 129 " S i t e P l a n n i n g at L i n d e n l e a , O n t a r i o " , JTPIC, 1 ( 3 ) , 1921, pp. 4 - 5 . 130 James Ewing, "The Mont rea l S i t u a t i o n w i t h Reference to Town P l a n n i n g " , JTPIC, 1 (4 -5 ) , 1921, p . 5. 131 At the time Knowles was C h i e f Engineer f o r the Essex Border U t i l i t i e s Commission ( i n the Windsor a r e a ) . He would soon l e a v e , however, to become a C o n s u l t i n g Engineer i n P i t t s b u r g h . 132 M o r r i s Knowles, "Community P l a n n i n g " , CE, 4 0 ( 2 ) , 1921, p . 128. 133 Henr i Heber t , " C i v i c A r t from the P o i n t o f View of the S c u l p t o r " , JTPIC, 1 ( 6 ) , 1921, pp. 21-22. 134 Burn„Helme, "European Impressions - Imagina t ion i n Town P l a n n i n g " , JTPIC, 3 ( 1 ) , 1924, p . 10. 135 For example: Horace L . Seymour, "P lann ing of K i t c h e n e r and Wate r loo , O n t a r i o " , CE, 4 7 ( 2 ) , 1924, pp. 125-130. 1 3 6 I b i d . , . p . 129. 137 Noulan Cauchon, ."A Fede ra l D i s t r i c t f o r Ottawa", JTPIC, 1 (9 ) , 1922, p . 3. 232 138 "Proposed Avenue from the New S t a t i o n " and "Proposed. Dominion Square", To ron to .Mun ic ipa l .Yea rbook , 2 ( 2 ) , 1919, p . 20. 139 "Rai lway Centre at Vancouver i s Scene o f Ex tens ive Improvements", CR, 36(28) , 1922, p . 682. 140 R . H . Avent , "Town P l a n n i n g S i t u a t i o n i n Winn ipeg" , CE, 55(13) , 1928, p . 329. 141 Noulan Cauchon, "Economics o f Town P l a n n i n g " , CE, V o l . 40, February 24, 1921, pp. 252-252. 142 A l f r e d Buck l ey , nnua l . Conference Number", JTPIC, 3 ( 3 ) , 1924, p . 1. 143 Noulan Cauchon, "The P r e s i d e n t ' s Addres s" , JTPIC, 4 ( 3 ) , 1925, p . 3. 144 W.W. Cory , "Town P l a n n i n g i n Canada", JTPIC, 4 ( 3 ) , 1925, p . 34. 145 George B . F o r d , "Progress i n P l a n n i n g 1925", JTPIC, 4 ( 3 ) , 1925, pp. 30-31. 1 4 6 J o h n M. L y l e , " C i v i c B e a u t i f i ca t ion ! . ' , JRAIC, 5 ( 7 ) , 1928, p . 238. 147 Noulan Cauchon, "Conference i n A b s e n t i a " , JTPIC, 5 ( 5 ) , 1926, p . 14. 148 A . G . D a l z e l l , "Are the A r c h i t e c t s Out o f S tep?" , CR, J u l y 28, 1926, pp. 714-716. 149 G. Gordon W h i t n a l l , "The Uses of Beauty" , JTPIC, 6 ( 4 ) , 1927, p . 149. 1 5 0 Thomas Adams., "Town P l a n n i n g No te s " , . MRC, December 1927, pp.502-503. 1 5 1 Thomas Adams, " P l a n n i n g the Greater H a l i f a x " , ARCC, 1917, pp. 106-107. 152 Thomas Adams, "The Die -Hard Economist and the Subject of C i v i c Beauty" , MRC, May.1928, p . 199. 153 "Vancouver C o n s i d e r i n g P roposa l to P r o h i b i t E r e c t i o n . o f U n s i g h t l y B u i l d i n g s " , JRAIC, 4 ( 1 2 ) , 1927, p . 454. 154 "World Wide Movement f o r A r c h i t e c t u r a l . C o n t r o l " , JTPIC, 7 ( 2 ) , 1928, p . 30. 1 5 5 " T o w n P l a n n i n g Commission f o r Q u e b e c . C i t y " , JTPIC, 7 ( 2 ) , 1928, p . 29. 156 Percy E . Nobbs, "On the C o n t r o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e " , JTPIC, 8 ( 3 ) , 1928 , .pp . 120-122. • ^ A r t h u r A . Stoughton, "The C o n t r i b u t i o n o f A r c h i t e c t u r e and i t s C o n t r o l " , JTPIC, 8 ( 3 ) , 1929, pp. 49-51 . 233 1 CO "Winnipeg" , JTPIC, 6 ( 6 ) , 1927, p . 198. 159 "Awards i n the Compet i t ion f o r a Nor th Western Entrance to ..the C i t y of H a m i l t o n " , JRAIC, 5 ( 4 ) , 1928, p . 133. • ^ N o u l a n Cauchon, " P l a n n i n g the Canadian. C a p i t a l " , MRC, May 1926, pp. 156-158. 161 "Ottawa Memorial D r i v e " , CE, 4 8 ( 6 ) , 1925, p . 215; "Report No. 1 o f the Town P lann ing .Commiss ion" , JTPIC, 4 ( 4 ) , 1925 , .pp . 9-11. 162 Noulan Cauchon, "The Ottawa P l a n n i n g . S i t u a t i o n " , JTPIC, 7 ( 4 ) , 1928, p . 101. 1 6 3 I b i d . , p . 102. 164 J . F . D . Tanqueray, "Vancouver C i v i c .Centre and E n g l i s h Bay Development Scheme", JTPIC, 8 ( 1 ) , 1929, p . 2 . I b i d . , p . 3 . 166 Report o f . t h e A d v i s o r y C i t y P lann ing .Commiss ion , .1929 , p . 16. 1 6 7 I b i d . , p . 23 1 6 8 I b i d . , pp. 28-29. 169_, I b i d . , p . 32. 1 7 0 _ , . , 0 0  I b i d . , p . 32. I b i d . , p . 34 172 " T o r o n t o ' s . C i t y . P l a n n i n g . C o m m i s s i o n " , MRC, V o l . 25, A p r i l 1929, p . 143. 173 Dendy, Los t Toronto , p . 147. 174 Report of t h e . A d v i s o r y . C i t y P lann ing .Commiss ion , p . 41 . ^ 7 ~*Ib id . , pp. 13, 43 . 176 " P r o v i n c e . o f Quebec", JTPIC, 6 ( 6 ) , 1927, p . 206. Chapter 3 ^ " A l a n . F . J . A r t i b i s e , Winnipeg: .A S o c i a l H i s t o r y o f Urban Growth  1874-1914 (Montreal and London: M c G i l l - Q u e e n ' s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975),, p . 268. 234 2 George Champion, "The Parks and Boulevards o f . W i n n i p e g " , CE, 20 (3 ) , 1911, p . 167. 3 I b i d . , p . 169. 4 A l a n F . J . A r t i b i s e , "Winnipeg and the C i t y P l a n n i n g Movement" i n Western P e r s p e c t i v e s , ed . by David Bercuson (Toronto: H o l t , R inehar t and-Winston, 1974) , p . 12. ^ I b i d . , p . 11 . 6 I b i d . , pp. 11-12. 7 I b i d . , p;. 11 . 8 I b i d . , p . 12. 9 C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission, .Report ( C o u n c i l . Communication 9700%, January 1913), p . 1. I b i d . , P- 2. I b i d . , P- 2. • ^ A r t i b i s e , Winnipeg , p . 278. 13 C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission, . R I b i d . , P- 2. 1 5 I b i d . , P . 1. I b i d . , P- 7. 1 7 I b i d . , P- 11. I b i d . , P- 28. I b i d . , P- 6. I b i d . , P- 12. I b i d . , PP . 11-12. 22 I b i d . , P- 9. 2 3 I b i d . , P- 10. 2 4 I b i d . , PP . 13-17. I b i d . , PP . 21-23. 235 2 6 I b i d . , p . 22. 2 7 I b i d . , pp. 23-24. 28 I b i d . , pp. 7-8 . 29 I b i d . , pp. 18-20. 3 ° I b i d . , pp. 19-20. 31 I b i d . , p . 31 . 32 I b i d . , p . 4 . 33 A r t i b i s e , "Winnipeg and the C i t y P l a n n i n g Movement", p . 14. 34 A r t i b i s e , Winnipeg , p . 279. 35 A r t i b i s e , . " W i n n i p e g and. the . C i t y P l a n n i n g Movement1!, p . 16. 3 ^ I b i d . , p . 16. 37 R . H . Aven t , "Town P l a n n i n g S i t u a t i o n i n Winnipeg" , CE, 55(13) , 1928, p . 329. I b i d . 39 I b i d . 4 0 T . . . I b i d . 4 1 I b i d . , p . 330. 42 M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Commission.and Winnipeg. Town P l ann ing Commission, Background for. P l a n n i n g Greater . Winnipeg, 1946, p . 18. 43 The maps were not a v a i l a b l e . 44 F r e d e r i c k G. Todd, Report to Edmonton C i t y C o u n c i l , A p r i l s 5 . , 1907, pp. 1-3; F r e d e r i c k G. Todd, Repor t - to S t ra thcona C i t y C o u n c i l , May 6, 1907, pp . 1-2. Both r epor t s , were a c t u a l l y u n t i t l e d s i n c e . t h e y were w r i t t e n i n the form o f l e t t e r s to C i t y C o u n c i l . 45 Todd, Edmonton.Report, p . 3 . 4 ^ I b i d . , p . 4 . 47 A H i s t o r y o f . t h e Parks and Recreat ion-Depar tment , February 1969, p . 2 . 48 Todd , .S t ra thcona Repor t , pp. 6-7. 236 49 Todd, Edmonton Repor t , pp. 4-10; Todd, S t ra thcona Repor t , pp. 4 -9 . " ^ C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , A p r i l 12, 1907. "^"Comprehensive Scheme f o r B e a u t i f y i n g C i t y " , Edmonton B u l l e t i n , A p r i l 15, 1907. 52 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , A p r i l 16, 1907. 53 Edmonton.- E i g h t h Annual F i n a n c i a l and -Departmental Report f o r Year  Ending October 31 , 1912. This r epor t conta ined a Parks Department map which showed parks i n ex i s t ence before A p r i l 1, 1912, parks acqu i red s ince that da te , proposed pa rks , and connec t ing dr iveways . I t can be seen that the parks system as o f A p r i l 1, 1912 i s almost i d e n t i c a l to the one desc r ibed .by Todd. 54 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , September 3 , 1911. " ^B y - l a w E s t a b l i s h i n g Parks Commission, 1911. ~^A H i s t o r y of the Parks and. iRecreat ion Department, p . 5. "^Commissioners ' Report No. 78, A p r i l 29, 1912; Adopted by C i t y C o u n c i l on A p r i l 30, 1912. 58 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , A p r i l 30, 1912. 59 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , August 23, 1912. Dur ing the p e r i o d under d i s c u s s i o n , Edmonton.operated by a system whereby money bylaws had to be submit ted to the ra tepayers f o r a p p r o v a l . Only p rope r ty owners were, pe rmi t t ed to v o t e , the number o f votes a l lowed v a r y i n g w i t h the amount of p roper ty owned. ^ P a r k s Commission. F i r s t Annual Repor t , December 30, 1912, pp. 6-13. ^ I b i d . , p . 11 . 62 L e t t e r s to v a r i o u s landscape a r c h i t e c t s , Sent J u l y 11 , 1912 ( In Parks Commission f i l e s ) 63 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , June 21, 1912. 64 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , J u l y 12, 1912. 65 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , August 6, 1912. 66 L e t t e r from Parks Commission to C i t y C o u n c i l , August 2, 1912; Adopted by C i t y C o u n c i l , August 6, 1912. 67 "Park P lanner Completes Study L o c a l C o n d i t i o n s " , Edmonton D a i l y  C a p i t a l , September.5, 1912. 237 68 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , November 19, 1912. 69 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , December 3, 1912. ^ C o m m i s s i o n e r s ' Report No. 296, November 21 , 1912. Adopted by C i t y C o u n c i l December 3 , 1912. ^ L e t t e r from M o r e l l and N i c h o l s to P . A . von Aueberg, November 29, 1912. 72 " B e a u t i f i c a t i o n o f C i t y Shown on Broad P l a n " , Edmonton D a i l y B u l l e t i n , November 20, 1912; "He Presents P l a n f o r a C i v i c Cen t re" , Edmonton  D a i l y B u l l e t i n , November 16, 1912. 73 Seven a r t i c l e s were l o c a t e d . Note tha t they do not cover a l l aspects o f the p l a n . ' . ' C i t y ' s Growth i n R e l a t i o n to Town P l a n n i n g " , Edmonton D a i l y B u l l e t i n , November 25, 1912. "How Four Main A r t e r i e s of the C i t y Should Be Improved", Edmonton  D a i l y B u l l e t i n , November 30, 1912. "How an Exper t Proposes to Cut Diagona l S t r e e t s " , Edmonton D a i l y  B u l l e t i n , December.13, 1912. "How M o r e l l Would Solve T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Problem", Edmonton D a i l y  B u l l e t i n , December 23, 1912. "How M o r e l l Would Dea l w i t h the Housing Problem", Edmonton D a i l y i c c B u l l e t i n , January 7, 1913. " M u n i c i p a l Hous ing" , Edmonton D a i l y B u l l e t i n , January 11, 1913. "Industries and the Zone System -±n City Planning", Edmonton Dally  B u l l e t i n , January 27, 1913. 74 " C i t y ' s Growth i n R e l a t i o n to Town P l a n n i n g " , Edmonton-Daily B u l l e t i n , November 25, 1912. 7 ^ F o u r of these photographs are i n the McDermid photographic c o l l e c t i o n at C a l g a r y ' s Glenbow-Alber ta I n s t i t u t e . 76 " C i t y ' s Growth i n R e l a t i o n to Town P l a n n i n g " , Edmonton D a i l y B u l l e t i n , November 25 , 1912. 77 " B e a u t i f i c a t i o n of C i t y Shown on Broad P l a n " ; "How Four Main A r t e r i e s of the C i t y Should be Improved"; "How an Exper t Proposes to Cut Diagona l S t r e e t s " . 78 "He Presents P lans f o r a C i v i c Cen t re" ; " B e a u t i f i c a t i o n of C i t y Shown on Broad P l a n " . 238 Parks were supposed to be the c e n t r a l fea ture of M o r e l l ' s p l a n . Unfo r tuna te ly no i n d i v i d u a l a r t i c l e devoted to parks cou ld be l o c a t e d so tha t i t was necessary to depend on-the above genera l summaries. 79 " B e a u t i f i c a t i o n . o f C i t y Shown on Broad P l a n " ; "How M o r e l l Would Deal With the Housing Problem"; " M u n i c i p a l Hous ing" . 80 "How M o r e l l Would-Deal Wi th the Housing Problem"; " I n d u s t r i e s and the Zone System i n C i t y P l a n n i n g " . 81 L e t t e r from P . A . von Aueberg to the C i t y Commissioners, January 3 , 1913. 82 L e t t e r from P . A . von Aueberg to the Parks Commission, January 8, 1913. 83 One can on ly specu la te about the motives of aldermen i n suppor t ing the scheme. Seve ra l p o s s i b i l i t i e s come to mind. Dreams of "great c i t i e s o f the fu tu re" and " h i g h e r . c i v i c i d e a l s " may have genuine ly caught t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n . They may have thought tha t such a c i v i c cent re would g ive Edmonton an edge over o ther c i t i e s i n a t t r a c t i n g i n d u s t r y and p o p u l a t i o n . They may have owned land i n the v i c i n i t y and expected to p r o f i t from inc reased proper ty v a l u e s . 84 " C i v i c Centre Shelved f o r Two Weeks", Edmonton D a i l y B u l l e t i n , February 27, 1913. 85 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , March 4 , 1913. 86 " C i t y Centre P r i c e s Show M i l l i o n Increase Over 1912 Assessment", Edmonton D a i l y B u l l e t i n , February 26, 1913. 87 "Accept Bonds f o r P rope r ty C i v i c Cen t r e " , Edmonton D a i l y B u l l e t i n , February 8, 1913. 88 " C i v i c Centre Shelved f o r Two Weeks", Edmonton D a i l y B u l l e t i n , February 27, 1913. 89 "Ratepayers W i l l Vote on C i v i c Cen t r e " , Edmonton D a i l y B u l l e t i n , March 5, 1913. 90 "Edmonton Business Men Discuss $2,500,000 C i v i c Centre P r o p o s a l " , Edmonton D a i l y B u l l e t i n , February 28, 1913. 9 L . . . I b i d . 92 "Not Yet Say C i t i z e n s as to C i v i c Cen t re" , Edmonton D a i l y B u l l e t i n , March 29, 1913. 5715 votes were cas t out o f a p o s s i b l e t o t a l of 22,304 v o t e s . 6235 ra tepayers had one v o t e , 2631 had two v o t e s , 925 had three v o t e s , and 2008 had four v o t e s . 239 93 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , A p r i l 8, 1913. 94 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , May 8, 1913. 95 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , August 19, 1913. 96 Edmonton. N i n t h Annual F i n a n c i a l and Departmental Report fo r 14  Months Ended December 31 , 1913, p . 247. 97 A H i s t o r y of the Parks and Rec rea t i on Department, p . 8. 98 Edmund. H . D a l e , "Edmonton's C i v i c Cen t re" , Community P l ann ing Review, Summer 1970, p . 2 . 99 Edmund H . D a l e , "Dec i s ion -Mak ing at .Edmonton, A l b e r t a 1913-1945: Town P l a n n i n g Without a . P l a n ' ' , P l a n Canada, 11 (2 ) , 1971, pp. 135, 137. ^^Edmonton. Town P l a n n i n g Commission. I n t e r i m Report on a Major S t r ee t  P l a n f o r the C i t y o f Edmonton, A l b e r t a , 1930. ^ ' ' D a l e , "Dec i s ion -Mak ing at Edmonton", pp. 141-142. 102 Dale,"Edmonton 's C i v i c Cen t r e " , p p . . 2 - 9 . By 1962 i t was no longer necessary to submit money bylaws to the r a t epaye r s . 103 O r i g i n a l l y c a l l e d the Town P l a n n i n g Commission. 104 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , November 13 , 1911. ^ ^ L e t t e r from Town P l a n n i n g Commission.to C i t y C o u n c i l , December 12, 1911. 106 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , May 17, 1917. In the same budget, almost tw ice t h i s amount was a l l o t t e d to buy feed f o r the c i t y ' s 35 ho r ses . ^ ^ C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , November 13, 1911. 108 C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission. Minute Book, 1911-1914. 109 Proposed C o n s t i t u t i o n and Bylaws of t h e . C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission, October 29, 1912. ^ ^ G . W . Lemon, " C i t y P l a n n i n g i n C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a " , Proceedings of the  Four th Annual Na t iona l .Confe rence on C i t y P l a n n i n g (Boston, 1912) , pp. 86-88. * ^ ' ' C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , October 14, 1912. 112 " I t Pays to Create a C i t y B e a u t i f u l " , Ca lgary H e r a l d , A p r i l 9, 1912. 1 1 3 T , . , I b i d . I b i d . 240 ^ ^ L e t t e r from C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission to C i t y C o u n c i l , September 30, 1912. 116 " D i s t i n g u i s h e d C i t y P lanner Whose Se rv ices May Be Secured by. C a l g a r y " , Ca lgary H e r a l d , .October 5, 1912. (Capt ion to photograph) ^ ^ " N o t e and Comment Re L e c t u r e Tonight on Town P l a n n i n g " , Ca lgary  H e r a l d , October 4, 1912. 118 " T . H . Mawson D e l i v e r s Most I n t e r e s t i n g Lec tu re on C i t y P l a n n i n g to Large Audience" , Ca lgary H e r a l d , October 5 , 1912. 119 "The Town P l ann ing L e c t u r e " , Ca lgary H e r a l d , October 5 , 1912. 1 2 0 T , . , I b i d . 121 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , October 14, 1912. 122 1 I b i d . 123 X " i b i d . 124 L e t t e r from C i t y C l e r k to Thomas H . Mawson, February 4, 1913. 125 "Give Mawson $10,000 to Complete Repor t " , Ca lgary H e r a l d , October 15, 1912; "Town Planners Suggest Employment of Mawson", Ca lgary A l b e r t a n , October 15, 1912. 126 "Thomas H . Mawson, C i t y P l a n n e r , Is In C a l g a r y " , Calgary A l b e r t a n , May 14, 1913. 127 C i t y P lann ing .Commiss ion . S e c r e t a r y ' s S p e c i a l Repor t , June 20, 1913. 128 " T r a f f i c Congest ion Problem i n Ca lgary Dec la res T . H . Mawson", Ca lgary Hera ld , .May 14, 1913. 129 "Thomas H . Mawson, C i t y P l anne r , Is In C a l g a r y " , Ca lgary A l b e r t a n , May 14, 1913. 130 C i t y P l ann ing Commission. Minute Book. 131 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , December 22, 1913. 132 C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission. Minute Book. 133 "Delegates are Welcome", Ca lgary H e r a l d , June 16, 1914; "Town P l a n n i n g Act To Be Draf ted A g a i n " , .Calgary H e r a l d , June 18, 1914. 134 C i t y C l e r k ' s f i l e s re Second A l b e r t a Town P l a n n i n g and.Housing Convent ion . to be h e l d June 16-18, 1914. The con ten t ion tha t these m a t e r i a l s were d i s p l a y e d i s based on t h i s r e fe rence , which i n e f f e c t was a statement of i n t e n t . 241 135 City Planning Commission. Minute Book. 136 City Council minutes, August 3, 1914. 137 "Disposition of Mawson's Plan Puzzles Council", Calgary News Telegram, August 4, 1914. 138 Thomas H. Mawson and Sons, Calgary: A Preliminary-Scheme for Controlling 1914), P- 38. Ibid., P. 59. Ibid., PP . 7-8. Ibid., P. 40. Ibid., PP . 17-18. Ibid., PP . 21-22. Ibid., P. 37. Ibid.., P- 32. Ibid., P- 33. 147T, ., Ibid., P- 30. 148T... Ibid., P- 30. 149 Ibid., P- 48. Ibid., P- 50. 151T. . j Ibidj, PP . 51-55. 152 City Planning Commission. Report to City Council, 1914. 153 City Planning Commission. Minute Book. 154 City Council minutes, August 3, 1914. ^^"Mawson Report is Treated Casually - Nothing Accomplished Pretty Pictures Is Feeling", Calgary Herald, August 4, 1914. ^ ^ C i t y Council minutes, November 3, 1914. ^ 7 " C i t y Planning to be Left to Committee", Calgary Herald, November 10,. 1914. 242 158 L e t t e r from F . G . Todd to F . J . Robinson, Department.of P u b l i c Works, Saskatchewan, January 30, 1907; F r e d e r i c k G. Todd, " P l a n Showing L o c a t i o n of Par l i ament B u i l d i n g and Design f o r Surrounding Pa rk" , 1907. 159 Marguer i t e E . Robinson , H i s t o r y . o f Wascana Creek Development, n . d . , p . 21 . 160 L e t t e r from George Watt , Gardener to Deputy M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Worksi August 12, 1912. 161 "Notes of an Address D e l i v e r e d by P ro fe s so r L . H . Thomas", 1960. Address g i v e n . a t Annual Banquet o f R e g i n a . O l d . T i m e r s ' • A s s o c i a t i o n . 162 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , October 21 , 1912. 163 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , J u l y 15, 1912. 164 Thomas H . . Mawson, "Proposed S u b d i v i s i o n . o f P rope r ty Near Wascana L a k e " , 1913. (Drawing) T . H . McLeod, The Wascana Centre A u t h o r i t y , i n Reg ina : A Case Study  i n Planned Development, A Paper prepared f o r the 1971 conference of the I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . o f Canada, Regina , 1971. 166 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , June 17, 1913. 167 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , June 17, 1913. 168 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , March 12, 1914. 169 . C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , J u l y 15, 1912. ^ 7 ^ F i l e s o f the Parks a n d . P u b l i c P r o p e r t y Committee, 1914. 171 Summary of Mat te rs Brought Before the Parks Committee by. the Vacant  Lot Garden A s s o c i a t i o n . D u r i n g the Years 1913, 1914 and 1915, 1915. 172 L e t t e r from C i t y P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n t o . C i t y C l e r k , May 19, 1913. 173 Summary of M a t t e r s , 1915. 174 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , November 25, 1913. Summary of M a t t e r s , 1915. 176 Summary o f M a t t e r s , 1915; F i l e s o f the Parks and P u b l i c P rope r ty Committee re Vacant Lot Gardening. ^ 7 7 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , A p r i l 6, 1915. 243 178 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , January 5, 1916. 179 L e t t e r from J .W. Mawson to L . A . Thornton, C i t y Commissioner, June 3, 1914. 180 Minutes o f Parks and P u b l i c P roper ty Committee meet ing, June 12, 1914. 181 Minutes of Parks and P u b l i c P roper ty Committee meet ing, J u l y 2 , 1914. 182 Minutes of Parks and P u b l i c P rope r ty Committee meet ing, January 26, 1915. 183 Let ter- from J.W. Mawson to L . A . Thornton, C i t y Commissioner, January 28, 1915. 184 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , March 16, 1915. 185 L e t t e r from J.W. Mawson to L . A . Thornton, C i t y Commissioner, dated Thursday. 186 L e t t e r from J .W. Mawson to Mayor, January 27, 1916. This l e t t e r had been mis -da ted 1915. 187 L e t t e r from L . A . Thornton, C i t y Commissioner to J .W. Mawson, January 27, 1916. 188 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , J u l y 15, 1919. 189 " C o u n c i l to Reach Set t lement Over C i t y B e a u t i f u l " , Regina Leade r -Pos t , December 11 , 1919. 190 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , October 19, 1920. 191 C i t y C o u n c i l minutes , November 2 , 1920. 192 "Pay Another $1000 on Mawson P l a n s " , Reg ina .Leade r -Pos t , January 5 , 1923. 193 F i l e s of S p e c i a l Committees of C o u n c i l , 1921 and 1922. 194 Regina D a i l y P o s t , January 11 , 1923. 195 T . H . Mawson and Sons, Reg ina : A P r e l i m i n a r y Report on. the Development  of the C i t y , 1913, p . 48. I b i d . , pp. 1-4. I b i d . , p . 9. 198 i y ° I b i d . , pp. 13-14. 199 I b i d . , p . 13. 244 200 ] 201 202 ] 203 ] 204 ] 205 206, j 207 ] 208, 209, 210 211, 212, 213 214 215 216 217 I b i d . , P- 14. I b i d . , P- 16. I b i d . , PP • 15, 25. I b i d . , P- 29. I b i d . , P- 27. I b i d . , P- 27. I b i d . , P- 29. I b i d . , P- 26. I b i d . , PP. . 28-29. I b i d . , P- 24. I b i d . , P . 32. I b i d . , PP . 34-35. I b i d . , PP . 42-43 . I b i d . , P . 42. I b i d . , PP . 37-38. I b i d . , P- 17. I b i d . , P- 12. D a i l y P o s t , January 1 1 , 1923. 218,, 219,, Town P l a n n i n g " , Regina Leader , January 13, 1923. Town P l a n n i n g i n Regina , Saskatchewan", MRC, 24(3 ) , 1928, p . 113. 220 A . C . Garner , Chairman of Reg ina ' s Town P l ann ing Board dur ing the 1920 ' s , compiled a c l i p p i n g f i l e of p l ann ing i n Regina between 1922 and 1928. H i s i n t e n t had been-to r eco rd the o r i g i n and e v o l u t i o n of p l a n n i n g i n Reg ina . These c l i p p i n g s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e an i n c r e a s i n g degree o f awareness and i n t e r e s t w i t h respect to p l ann ing i n g e n e r a l . Mawson's p l a n , however, ceased to be mentioned a f t e r i t s e x h i b i t i o n a t C i t y H a l l e a r l y i n 1923. 221,, 222,, 223,, Town P l a n n i n g i n R e g i n a " , p . 113. Regina Town P lann ing Board Repor t " , CE, 52(24) , 1927, p . 588. Town P l a n n i n g i n Reg ina" , p . 113. 245 SELECTED- BIBLIOGRAPHY  The American C i t y B e a u t i f u l Books Burnham, D a n i e l H . and Benne t t , Edward H . P l a n of Chicago. New York : Da Capo P r e s s , 1970. Repr in t of 1909 p l a n prepared fo r the Commercial Club of Chicago . Burnham, D a n i e l H . and Bennet t , Edward H . Report on a P l a n f o r San F r a n c i s c o . B e r k e l e y : Urban Books, 1971. Rep r in t of 1906 p l a n . Choay, F r a n c o i s e . The Modern C i t y : P l a n n i n g i n the Nine teenth Century . New Y o r k : George B r a z i l l e r , 1969. D r e x l e r , A r t h u r , ed . The A r c h i t e c t u r e o f the E c o l e des Beaux A r t s . Cambridge, M a s s . : M . 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