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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The philosophical ideas of N. G. Chernyshevsky Pohoral, Georgine Barbara 1980

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THE PHILOSOPHICAL IDEAS OF N. G. CHERNYSHEVSKY by GEORGINE BARBARA POHORAL B.A. , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 197/7' ) A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Depa r t m e n t o f S l a v o n i c S t u d i e s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1980 (c) G e o r g i n e B a r b a r a P o h o r a l , 198 0 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requ i rement s an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I ag ree t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thou t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 6 ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s d e a l s w i t h t h r e e m a j o r works by N. G. C h e r n y s h e v s k y : h i s f i r s t n o v e l , What I s To Be Done?, and h i s two p h i l o s o p h i c a l e s s a y s , "The A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P r i n c i p l e i n P h i l o s o p h y " and "The A e s t h e t i c R e l a t i o n o f A r t t o R e a l i t y . " C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s t e x t i s c l o s e l y e x amined t o p r e s e n t a f a i r c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f h i s arguments and t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e y a r e f o r m u l a t e d , and t o p o i n t o u r t h e i r s h o r t c o m i n g s . What I s To Be Done?, a l t h o u g h w r i t t e n as a f o r m o f f i c t i o n , l a c k s p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t r i c a c i e s . The p u r p o s e o f t h e work i s p o l i t i c a l p r o p a g a n d a ; h e n c e i t s f o r m i s a p h i l o -s o p h i c a l d i a l o g u e , i n w h i c h C h e r n y s h e v s k y a t t e m p t s t o f o r m u -l a t e h i s own s y s t e m o f e t h i c s . He g r a p p l e s u n s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h u t i l i t a r i a n i s m , a d o p t i n g some o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f J . S. M i l l . I n "The A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P r i n c i p l e i n P h i l o s o p h y , " C h e r n y s h e v s k y a t t e m p t s t o f o r m u l a t e h i s own t h e o r y o f know-l e d g e . He shows h i m s e l f t o be a k i n d o f e m p i r i c i s t , w i t h s t r o n g t e n d e n c i e s t o w a r d m a t e r i a l i s m and p r a g m a t i s m . He a l s o t a c k l e s some m o r a l i s s u e s , a d v o c a t i n g u t i l i t a r i a n i s m . I n "The A e s t h e t i c R e l a t i o n o f A r t t o R e a l i t y , " C h e r -n y s h e v s k y o f f e r s a c r i t i q u e o f H e g e l i a n a e s t h e t i c s . He t h e n p r o c e e d s t o d e v e l o p h i s own a e s t h e t i c t h e o r y . The a p p r o a c h t o a l l t h r e e works i s t o l a y b a r e C h e r n y -s h e v s k y 's s y s t e m , p o i n t o u t h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and show where h i s p r e j u d i c e s l i e . C h e r n y s h e v s k y 1 s work i s d e m o n s t r a t e d t o be o f l i t t l e m e r i t as f a r as i t s p h i l o s o p h i c a l d e p t h and l i t e r a r y s c o p e a r e c o n c e r n e d . I n s t e a d , i t s t a n d s as a monument t o t h e k i n d o f a t t i t u d e s and c o n c e r n s o f t h e R u s s i a n p o s i t i v i s t o f t h e m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION . 1 CHAPTER I . WHAT IS TO BE DONE? 3 I I . "THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL PRINCIPLE IN PHILOSOPHY" 26 I I I . "THE AESTHETIC RELATION OF ART TO REALITY" 4 3 NOTES TO CHAPTER I 61 NOTES TO CHAPTER I I 62 NOTES TO CHAPTER I I I 63 BIBLIOGRAPHY ENGLISH T I T L E S 64 -BIBLIOGRAPHY RUSSIAN T I T L E S 65 V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s I have r e c e i v e d a s s i s t a n c e f r o m many p a r t s , and I am p l e a s e d t o a c k n o w l e d g e my d e b t t o them. I w i s h t o t h a n k my a d v i s e r , Dr. M i c h a e l F u t r e l l , whose en c o u r a g e m e n t , i n s i g h t and a s s i s t a n c e were i n v a l u a b l e . Thanks a l s o t o t h e s e c o n d r e a d e r , Dr. C h r i s t o p h e r T u r n e r , f o r h i s h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s . F u r t h e r , I w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o Ruby T o r e n f o r h e r p a t i e n c e and e x p e r t i s e i n t y p i n g t h i s p a p e r . And f i n a l l y , s p e c i a l t h a n k s a r e due t o J o h n R o w e l l f o r s h a r i n g h i s r e s p o n s e s t o n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y E u r o p e a n p h i l o s -ophy . INTRODUCTION The f i r s t c h a p t e r o f t h i s s t u d y o f N. G. C h e r n y s h e v s k y d e a l s w i t h h i s f i r s t n o v e l , What Is? To Be Done? The r e m a i n i n g two c h a p t e r s d e a l w i t h h i s two m a j o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l e s s a y s , "The A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P r i n c i p l e i n P h i l o s o p h y " and "The A e s t h e t i c R e l a t i o n o f A r t t o R e a l i t y . " T h e s e t h r e e works seem t o be t h e most r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l i n v i e w i n g C h e r n y s h e v -s k y 1 s t h o u g h t , and t h e y c a n s a f e l y be c o n s i d e r e d t h e b a c k b o n e o f a l l h i s l a t e r w o rks. The s t u d y d e a l s c l o s e l y w i t h C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s t e x t t o p r e s e n t t h e r e a d e r w i t h a f a i r c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f h i s arguments and t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e s e a r e f o r m u l a t e d , and p o i n t s o u t t h e i r s h o r t c o m i n g s . A g r e a t d e a l o f s c h o l a r l y work has b een done on C h e r n y -s h e v s k y , b o t h i n t h e S o v i e t U n i o n and i n t h e West. However, t h e s e works do n o t c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e a c t u a l t e x t s o f h i s works and t h e y f a i l t o a n a l y z e and examine them c l o s e l y . M o s t o f t h e S o v i e t l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m c o n c e n t r a t e s on t h e h i s t o r i c a l r e l e v a n c e o f C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s work, on h i s a p p a r e n t h e r o i s m i n f a c e o f t h e r e p r e s s i v e T s a r i s t r e g i m e , and, o f c o u r s e , on b i o g r a p h i c a l s t u d i e s . S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h seem t o f o l l o w a s i m i l a r h i s t o r i c o - b i o g r a p h i c a l p a t t e r n . F o r example, F r a n c o V e n t u r i 1 s l e n g t h y volume R o o t s o f R e v o l u t i o n p r e s e n t s C h e r n y s h e v s k y i n t h e c o n t e x t o f r a d i c a l , p o l i t i c a l a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . E. L a m p e r t 1 s book Sons A g a i n s t F a t h e r s a l s o c o n c e n t r a t e s on p r e s e n t i n g him i n 2 an h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t , and a t t e m p t s t o t r a c e h i s d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h b i o g r a p h i c a l d a t a . W i l l i a m F. W o e h r l i n ' s r e c e n t book C h e r n y s h e v s k y (The  Man and t h e J o u r n a l i s t ) c o n t a i n s two c h a p t e r s , " P h i l o s o p h y " and " A e s t h e t i c s and L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m , " i n w h i c h t h e a u t h o r d e a l s i n some d e t a i l w i t h C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s i d e a s . However, W o e h r l i n c o n c e n t r a t e s on p r e s e n t i n g C h e r n y s h e v s k y 1 s d e v e l o p -ment t h r o u g h t h o s e who i n f l u e n c e d h i m and t h r o u g h t h e l i t e r a r y s c e n e o f h i s t i m e . I n b o t h o f t h e s e c h a p t e r s W o e h r l i n ' s s t u d y o f C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s i d e a s i s t o o g e n e r a l . I t a p p e a r s t h a t C h e r n y s h e v s k y s c h o l a r s a r e n o t k e e n on t a c k l i n g t h e c o n f u s i n g and c o n f u s e d l a b y r i n t h o f h i s p h i l o s o p h y . However, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o l a y b a r e t h e t h e o r y on w h i c h he hoped t o b u i l d h i s s o - c a l l e d "new and j u s t , p r o g r e s s i v e s o c i e t y . " C h e r n y s h e v s k y s t a t e s i n "The A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P r i n c i p l e i n P h i l o s o p h y " t h a t " t h e o r e t i c a l f a l l a c y i n e v i t a b l y l e a d s t o p r a c t i c a l harm" (p. 1 2 5 ) . I r o n i c a l l y , h i s own work became a good i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s p o i n t when i t was l a t e r a d o p t e d as a t e a c h i n g manual by L e n i n . And t o t h i s day C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s "The A e s t h e t i c R e l a t i o n o f A r t t o R e a l i t y " s t a n d s as a p r i n c i p a l s o u r c e o f t h e o f f i c i a l S o v i e t a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s a r t and c u l t u r e . The c r u d e m a t e r i a l i s m o f h i s "The A n t h r o p o l o g -i c a l P r i n c i p l e i n P h i l o s o p h y " a l s o r e m o t e l y v o i c e s t h e o f f i c i a l d o c t r i n e o f t h e K r e m l i n . 3 CHAPTER I WHAT IS TO BE DONE? In mid-nineteenth-century European thought, the voice of authority was very highly regarded.. I t has been said that . . . although the c r i t i c a l s p i r i t was character-i s t i c of the age, nevertheless what es p e c i a l l y distinguished [it] was [its] i n s i s t e n t attitude of acceptance, [its] persistent b e l i e f i n (but only rare examination of) the credentials of authority, i t s innate desire to affirm and conform rather than to r e j e c t or to question . . . the w i l l to believe overrode the desire to question, and p r i -vate judgment was renounced, both de l i b e r a t e l y and unconsciously, for external authority.^ Perhaps the best example of t h i s attitude i n Russia i s the l i t e r a r y endeavour of N. G. Chernyshevsky. In What Is To Be Done?, his f i r s t work of f i c t i o n , Cher-nyshevsky presents a s e l e c t i v e picture of the most advanced philosophical ideas of the time, hoping to show the reader that there were answers at hand. His motto i s to s p e l l out the truth, even at the expense of art and s t y l e : y MeHH HeT H H TeHH x y f l o a c e c T B e H H o r o T a j i a H T a . H name H A3HKOM -TO BJiafleiO ITJIOXO . Ho 3TO B C e ~ T 3 K H HH^iero: iHTafi, Ho6peaiiiaH ny6jiHKa! npo^Teuib He 6e3 n o x i B 3 H . HdHHa — xopouian Beiiu>: O H a B 0 3 H a r p a » c n a e T H e f l O C T a T K H riHcaTeJiH, K O T O P B I H cny>KHT eft. nosTOMy H cica^y T e 6 e : ecjTH 6 H He npeflynpeflHJi Te6n, Te6e, noacajiyft, noKa3a-Jiocb 6 H I , ^iTO n o B e c T b HanncaHa x y a o a t e c T B e H H O , * I T O y a B T o p a MHoro nosTHiecKoro TajiaHTa. Ho H npenynpe^HJi Te6n, ^ I T O TajiaHTa y MeHH H e T , — T H H dyrjeiub 3Haib Tenepb, * I T O Bee flocTOHHCTBa noBecm naHH eft T O J I B K O ee H C T H H H O C T B B . [p. 11] ^ This i s a curious statement at which most contemporary schol-3 ars and c r i t i c s would no doubt cringe, but above a l l , i t i s the kind of statement which i s t y p i c a l of Chernyshevsky's 4 i d e a s and a t t i t u d e s . I t v i r t u a l l y summarizes h i s a e s t h e t i c p r i n c i p l e s as f o r m u l a t e d i n t h e e s s a y on "The A e s t h e t i c R e l a t i o n o f A r t t o R e a l i t y . " F o r C h e r n y s h e v s k y , a r t has no r e l a t i o n t o p h i l o s o p h i c a l and s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . He a s s o -c i a t e s a r t w i t h a r t i f a c t s , w i t h s u p e r f i c i a l e m b e l l i s h m e n t s , h ence he h o l d s t h a t a r t b r i n g s f o r t h a k i n d o f s u g a r - c o a t e d i l l u s i o n w h i c h does n o t e x e m p l i f y t h e l i v i n g r e a l i t y . The H e g e l i a n a e s t h e t i c a g a i n s t w h i c h he a r g u e s i n t h e e s s a y s e e s a r t as a d i a l e c t i c a l p r o c e s s , as a s e r i o u s p o r t r a y a l o f 4 s o c i a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e a l i t i e s . C h e r n y s h e v s k y d i s a g r e e s . I n "The A e s t h e t i c R e l a t i o n o f A r t t o R e a l i t y , " C h e r n y -s h e v s k y c r i t i c i z e s H e g e l : I t i s a l s o n e e d l e s s t o s a y t h a t t h e b e a u t i f u l a c c o r d i n g t o H e g e l i s o n l y a phantom t h a t comes f r o m a s u p e r f i c i a l v i e w , u n e n l i g h t e n e d by p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h i n k i n g , w h i c h o b s c u r e s t h e s e e m i n g p e r f e c t m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e i d e a i n t h e s e p a r a t e o b j e c t , so t h a t t h e more t h i n k i n g i s d e v e l o p e d t h e l e s s r e m a i n s o f b e a u t y u n t i l , a t l a s t , w i t h f u l l y d e v e l o p e d t h i n k i n g , o n l y t r u t h i s l e f t , b e a u t y has v a n i s h e d . ^ P h i l o s o p h i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n o r t h i n k i n g i n g e n e r a l must n e c e s -s a r i l y d e s t r o y any a e s t h e t i c e n t i t y , C h e r n y s h e v s k y a r g u e s . Hence h i s r i g i d d i s t i n c t i o n between e x p r e s s i o n and c o n t e n t . A c c o r d i n g l y , What I s To Be Done? i s w r i t t e n f r o m t h e p e r s p e c -t i v e o f "what i s t o l d " r a t h e r t h a n o f "how i t i s t o l d . " As t h e t i t l e s u g g e s t s , t h e n o v e l i s i n t e n d e d a s a manual o f how t o i m p r o v e one's s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l s i t u a t i o n , o f how t o b r i n g a b o u t t h e U t i l i t a r i a n " g r e a t e s t h a p p i n e s s " f o r o n e s e l f and how t o a i d o t h e r s t o t h i s g o a l . V e r a P a v l o v n a , 5 t h e f e m a l e p r o t a g o n i s t , i s f o u n d i n a s o l i t a r y and p o o r s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n i n t h e e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e s t o r y . She b e g i n s t o f i n d h e r way o u t o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n , when she meets Lopukhov, a m e d i c a l s t u d e n t : . . . I T O 3K CTpaHHoro, * I T O Te6e x o i e T C H 6 H I T B B O J I : B -H H M H c^acTJiHBHM ^ e j i O B e K O M! Beflb 3 T O >Ke.naHne — He 6 o r 3HaeT K a n o e r o J i O B O J i O M H o e O T K p b i T H e , He 6 o r 3HaeT KaKofi noflBHr r e p o f i c T B a . A B O T * I T O CTpaHHO, BepO^Ka, 1 T O eCTb TSKHe 7KB JHORH , y K O T O P H X H e T 3 T o r o xcejiaHHH, y K O T O P H X coBceM ApyrHe ^ c e J i a H H H , H H M , noacajiyK, nonajKeTCH C T p a H H O , . . . A T H H e 3Haeuib, * I T O S T O C T p a H H O , a H 3 H a i o , *ITO 3 T O He CTpaHHO, 1 T O 3 T O O f l H O H HaTypaJIbHO, OflHO H no-'yejioBe ^ e c K H; npocTO no - ^ e J i o B e y;ecKH; — „ H ^lyBCTByiO p a f l O C T B H C i a C T L e " 3HaiHT „MHe XOieTCH, *iT06bI B C e JHOflH C T a j I H paflOCTHbl H C ^ a C T J T H B b l " [p. 57 ] T h i s i s where C h e r n y s h e v s k y 1 s . t h e s i s b e g i n s t o u n r a v e l . H i s f i r s t p r e m i s e i s much l i k e t h a t o f J . S. M i l l i n h i s U t i l i -t a r i a n i s m ; The c r e e d w h i c h a c c e p t s a s t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f m o r a l s " u t i l i t y " o r " t h e g r e a t e s t h a p p i n e s s p r i n c i p l e " h o l d s t h a t a c t i o n s a r e r i g h t i n p r o p o r t i o n as t h e y t e n d t o promote h a p p i n e s s ; wrong as t h e y t e n d t o p r o d u c e t h e r e v e r s e o f h a p p i n e s s . By h a p p i n e s s i s i n t e n d e d p l e a s u r e and a b s e n c e o f p a i n ; by u n h a p p i -n e s s , p a i n and t h e p r i v a t i o n o f p l e a s u r e . . . . p l e a s u r e and f r e e d o m f r o m p a i n a r e t h e o n l y t h i n g s d e s i r a b l e as ends; and t h a t a l l d e s i r a b l e t h i n g s . . . a r e d e s i r a b l e e i t h e r f o r p l e a s u r e i n h e r e n t i n t h e m s e l v e s o r as means t o t h e p r o m o t i o n o f p l e a s u r e and p r e v e n t i o n o f p a i n . 6 S i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h t h e p l o t , t h e s e i d e a s a r e e l a b o r a t e d and e x e m p l i f i e d . The r e a d e r ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s t o a d v a n c e a l o n g w i t h V e r a P a v l o v n a ' s . So, what Lopukhov i s t o V e r a P a v l o v n a , C h e r n y s h e v s k y i s t o t h e r e a d e r . V e r a 1 s a w a r e n e s s d e v e l o p s i n s t a g e s . A t f i r s t Lopukhov a c q u a i n t s h e r w i t h some e s s e n t i a l 6 p r a g m a t i c a x i o m s : "Man i s g o v e r n e d e x c l u s i v e l y by s e l f -i n t e r e s t , " he s t a t e s . — CTajio 6 H T B , npaBjj ;y r o B o p j n xoJioflHHe npaKTH^ie— C K H e jiiop,Kr T I T O TjejiOBeKOM y n p a B J i n e T T O J I B K O pac ^ i e T B H r O f l b l ? — O H H roBopHT n p a B f l y . To, * I T O Ha3biBaK3T B O 3 B B I -UieHHblMH ^ l y B C T B a M H , HfleaJIBHblMH CTpeMJieHHHMH, — B e e S T O B oSmeM xofle J K H 3 H H cosepuieHHO H H ^ I T O K H O nepefl CTpeMneHHeM Kaacfloro K cBoeft n o j i B 3 e , H B KopHe caMO C O C T O H T H3 T O T O >Ke CTpeMJieHHH K n o j i B 3 e . [p. 65] L i k e Hobbes, Hume, and t h e u t i l i t a r i a n s Bentham and M i l l , C h e r n y s h e v s k y p u t s f o r t h a c o m p l e t e l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c p i c t u r e o f human n a t u r e . He d o e s n o t f o l l o w c l o s e l y any one o f t h e s e p h i l o s o p h e r s , b u t shows some s i m i l a r i t i e s t o M i l l . However, C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e u t i l i t a r i a n p h i l o s o p h y i s somewhat muddled. He aims t o p o p u l a r i z e t h e s e t h o u g h t s , and t h i s r e q u i r e s a good g r a s p o f t h e s u b j e c t , y e t o f t e n i t i s n o t c l e a r w h e t h e r he knows what he i s t a l k i n g a b o u t . The manner i n w h i c h he h a n d l e s h i s a r guments o f t e n c a r r i e s w i t h i t a g r e a t d e a l o f n a i v e t e . H i s n o t i o n o f s e l f -i n t e r e s t i s a c a s e i n p o i n t . C h e r n y s h e v s k y e x p l o r e s t h i s t o p i c i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n "The A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P r i n c i p l e i n P h i l o s o p h y , " and i t seems t h a t h i s examples o f s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d a c t i o n s e i t h e r c o n t r a d i c t t h e n o t i o n o r d e s c r i b e a d i f f e r e n t t h i n g a l t o g e t h e r , a s , f o r 7 i n s t a n c e , w i l l % I n What I s To Be Done? h i s i d e a s on t h i s t o p i c a r e b e t t e r e x e m p l i f i e d , y e t he e n c o u n t e r s t h e same k i n d o f p r o b l e m s h e r e , j u s t as h e d i d i n h i s e s s a y . He s t a t e s t h a t "men a r e g o v e r n e d e x c l u s i v e l y by s e l f - i n t e r e s t , " b u t 7 s e l f - i n t e r e s t refers only to "acting from certain motives i n a given type of si t u a t i o n . " The same action done from the same motive i n another type of sit u a t i o n would not be co r r e c t l y characterized as done from s e l f - i n t e r e s t . S e l f - i n t e r e s t i s involved where disregard for legitimate claims of others i s concerned. And besides, Chernyshevsky cannot claim that a l l men w i l l be ready to disregard legitimate claims of others i n a l l s ituations. So what he inf e r s i s that men exercise t h e i r w i l l . But what he wants to say i s that men desire happiness; he wants to promote the u t i l i t a r i a n p r i n c i p l e here. Chernyshevsky's promotion of s e l f - i n t e r e s t creates problems i n his system. Had he followed M i l l ' s theory c l o s e l y and dealt with the individual's desire for happiness, happi-ness for the greatest number, and the pleasure and pain factors, he would have been free of major inconsistencies. Luckily, his l a t e r statements tend to c l a r i f y his e a r l i e r ones and put them into perspective. Lopukhov's further i n s t r u c t i o n of Vera Pavlovna introduces a kind of u t i l i t a r i a n calculus: — P a c c ^ H T b i B a f i T e , ^ J T O RJIH. B a c n o j i e 3 H e e . — ^ T O fljiH MeHH n o j i e 3 H e e ! B H 3 H a e T e , H o^ieHb He 6 o r a T a . C oflHOft C T O P O H H , HepacncuicoKeHHe K ^ejioBeny; c flpyroK — r o c n o f l C T B O nap, H U M , 3aBHflHoe nojicoKeHHe B o6mecTBe, fleHbrn, TOJina I I O K J I O H H H K O B . — B3BecbTe Bee; I T O n o J i e 3 H e e H J T H B a c , T O H Bbi6npafiTe. — H ecjiH H B b i 6 e p y — 6 o r a T C T B O Mysca H TOJiny n O K J I O H H H K O B ? H CKa>Ky, 1 T O Bbl B H d p a j l H T O , ^ITO B a M K a 3 a j l O C b coo6pa3Hee c BaniHM HmepecoM. [p. 66] 8 Bentham's hedonic calculus was a doctrine by which one could determine a way to judge between alternative courses of ac-tio n by considering the consequences of each, and assessing them i n terms of the pleasure and pain of a l l the people 9 affected. Chernyshevsky 1s calculus i s at t h i s point concerned only with the one individual's happiness rather than with that of a l l involved. Lopukhov further explains his po s i t i o n : . . . e c j i H B H T a n c c e j i a j i H , 3 H a ^ H T , T a K O B a SbiJia Bama J I H ^ H O C T B , ^ ITO H e J l B 3 H B a M 6bUIO n o c T y x i H T B HHa^ie npn TaKHX 0 6 C T O H T e J I B C T B a X , O H H CKaStyT, 1 T O B b l n O C T y n H J I H no HeoSxoflHMocTH B e m e f i , * I T O , c o S c T B e H H O r o B o p n , BaM H H e 6 B U I O flpyroro Bbi6opa. — H H H K a K o r o n o p H u a H H H M o e M y n o c T y n n y ? — K T O H M e e T n p a B O nopHuaTB B b i B O f l b i H 3 $ a K T a , Korjj;a c y m e c T B y e T $aKT? Bama J I H ^ H O C T B B flaHHOft o S c T a H O B K e — $ S K T ; B a u r a nociynKH — H e o 6 x o f l H M H e B b i B o n f a i H 3 3 T o r p $ a K T a , HeJiaeMbie npHpoHOio B e m e f t . Bbi 3 a H H X H e O T B e i a e i e , a nopuqaTB H X — r j i y n o . [p. 67] This passage i s somewhat confusing. The u t i l i t a r i a n system presents the in d i v i d u a l with choices. The i n d i v i d u a l has to choose, and surely he i s responsible for his actions. Cher-nyshevsky seems to be saying here, just as he did i n "The Anthropological P r i n c i p l e i n Philosophy," that the choice factor i s n e g l i g i b l e . There may be a plausible explanation, however. M i l l argues that knowledge provides greater h o r i -zons, therefore a greater number of choices and a greater moral strength: It i s better to be a human being d i s s a t i s f i e d than a pig s a t i s f i e d ; better to be Socrates d i s s a t i s f i e d than a fool s a t i s f i e d . And i f the f o o l , or the pig, are of a d i f f e r e n t opinion, i t i s because they only 9 know t h e i r own s i d e o f t h e q u e s t i o n . The o t h e r p a r t y t o t h e c o m p a r i s o n knows b o t h s i d e s . ± v A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e r e i s o n l y one ( t h u s i n e v i t a b l e ) c o u r s e o f a c t i o n f o r t h e f o o l , w h i l e t h e r e i s a number o f c h o i c e s f o r someone l i k e S o c r a t e s , who w i l l d e c i d e a c c o r d i n g t o h i s m o r a l s t r e n g t h . A l t h o u g h C h e r n y s h e v s k y i s vague a b o u t t h e q u e s t i o n o f m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h e l a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p l o t o f What I s To Be Done? s u p p o r t s t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . What i s d e s i r a b l e f o r M a r i a A l e x e y e v n a ( V e r a 1 s m o t h e r ) , o r f o r S t o r e s h n i k o v ( V e r a ' s w e l l - t o - d o f o r m e r f i a n c e ) i s n o t d e s i r a b l e , f o r i n s t a n c e , f o r V e r a , Lopukhov, o r K i r s a n o v . Thus t h e more e v o l v e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h e more complex i s h i s r e a s o n i n g i n c h o o s i n g h i s c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n . V e r a P a v l o v n a d e c i d e s n o t t o m a r r y t h e w e a l t h y S t o r e s h n i k o v ; she n e i t h e r l i k e s n o r r e s p e c t s him. W h i l e i n d e p e n d e n c e r a t h e r t h a n money and p o s i t i o n i s V e r a ' s c h o i c e , V e r a ' s m o t h e r , on t h e o t h e r hand, f i n d s s u c h a v i e w i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . V i r t u e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e u t i l i t a r i a n d o c t r i n e , i s n o t n a t u r a l l y and o r i g i n a l l y p a r t o f t h e end, b u t i t i s c a p a b l e o f b e c o m i n g s o ; and i n t h o s e who l i v e i t d i s i n t e r e s t e d l y i t has become s o , and i s d e s i r e d and c h e r i s h e d , n o t as means t o h a p p i n e s s , b u t as a p a r t o f t h e i r h a p p i n e s s . H C h e r n y s h e v s k y , l i k e M i l l , d o e s n o t p l a c e v i r t u e a s e i t h e r a p a r t o r t h e end o f t h e u t i l i t a r i a n h a p p i n e s s , b u t shows by example ( e . g . , L o p u k h o v ' s , K i r s a n o v ' s , V e r a ' s l i f e s t y l e s ) t h a t a l i f e o f v i r t u e i s p r e f e r a b l e . I n "The A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P r i n c i p l e i n P h i l o s o p h y , " C h e r -n y s h e v s k y a r g u e s f o r s e l f - i n t e r e s t t h r o u g h o u t t h e e s s a y , b u t 10 i n t h e end he comes down i n s u p p o r t o f r a t i o n a l c o n d u c t w h i c h , f o r him, means t h e p u r s u i t o f v i r t u e s : " O n l y good a c t i o n s a r e p r u d e n t ; o n l y he who i s good i s r a t i o n a l , and he i s r a t i o n a l 12 o n l y t o t h e d e g r e e t h a t he i s good." A l t h o u g h t h i s may sound as t h o u g h C h e r n y s h e v s k y d e c l a r e s a l l e g i a n c e t o P l a t o , h i s s o u r c e h e r e i s p r o b a b l y F e u e r b a c h . I n 1849 C h e r n y s h e v s k y r e a d F e u e r b a c h and a c c e p t e d h i s a n t h r o p o l o g i s m . The f i r s t p r e m i s e o f a n t h r o p o l o g i s m s t a t e s 13 t h a t o n l y a s e n s i b l e b e i n g i s a r e a l b e i n g . We do n o t know e x a c t l y how f a r F e u e r b a c h ' s i n f l u e n c e on C h e r n y s h e v s k y g o e s . I t seems t h a t C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f F e u e r b a c h i s h i g h l y p r a g m a t i c : f o r i n s t a n c e , C h e r n y s h e v s k y has a t e n d e n c y t o d e i f y m a t t e r ; F e u e r b a c h w o u l d n o t a p p r o v e . This i s e s p e c i a l l y e v i d e n t i n C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s "The A e s t h e t i c R e l a t i o n o f A r t t o 14 R e a l i t y . " We c a n o n l y s a y t h a t C h e r n y s h e v s k y a c c e p t e d F e u e r b a c h ' s v i e w t h a t o n l y a s e n s i b l e b e i n g i s a r e a l b e i n g and, f u r t h e r , h i s o v e r a l l v i e w t h a t man i s a complex c h e m i c a l compound whose b e h a v i o u r i s s t r i c t l y s u b j e c t t o t h e laws o f c a u s a l i t y , and whose c h a r a c t e r i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h i n w h i c h he i s o b l i g e d t o a c t . F e u e r -b a c h , f o r i n s t a n c e , a d v o c a t e s t h a t man i s what he e a t s ; 15 C h e r n y s h e v s k y a l s o h o l d s t h i s v i e w . I n "The A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P r i n c i p l e o f P h i l o s o p h y , " C h e r -n y s h e v s k y a t t e m p t s t o show t h a t r a t i o n a l i t y h as a w i l l o f i t s own. "He [man] may s a y t o h i m s e l f : I w i l l be w i c k e d , I w i l l do p e o p l e harm; b u t he w i l l n o t be a b l e t o do t h a t , any more 1 1 1 6 t h a n a c l e v e r man c a n be a f o o l e v e n i f he wanted t o be one." S i m i l a r l y t h e n , a c c o r d i n g t o C h e r n y s h e v s k y , a good c h e s s p l a y e r w o u l d n o t be c a p a b l e o f making a wrong move i f h i s l i f e d epended on b e i n g a b l e t o l o s e t h e game, ev e n s u p p o s i n g he p l a y e d a g a i n s t a t y r a n t , who was known t o d i s p o s e o f h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l s u p e r i o r s , By t h e same t o k e n , G a l i l e o w o u l d have b e e n i n c a p a b l e o f r e c a n t i n g h i s t e a c h i n g b e f o r e t h e I n q u i s i -t i o n . What happened t o s e l f - i n t e r e s t and t o C h e r n y s h e v s k y 1 s s t a t e m e n t a b o u t t h e f o r c e o f e v e n t s d i c t a t i n g t h e c o u r s e o f a c t i o n ? He b l a t a n t l y c o n t r a d i c t s what he s a y s i n "The A n t h r o -p o l o g i c a l P r i n c i p l e " by h i s l a t e r s t a t e m e n t s i n What I s To Be  Done? L u c k i l y enough, t h e a c t i o n s he a s c r i b e s t o h i s f i c -t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r s redeem him and show h i s r a t i o n a l e t o be c o h e r e n t enough. I n C h e r n y s h e v s k y 1 s c o n c e p t i o n , t h e power o f c l e a r t h i n k i n g g i v e s m o r a l s t r e n g t h . Hence, l i k e S o c r a t e s , h i s c h a r a c t e r s a r e c a p a b l e o f g r e a t s a c r i f i c e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , Lopukhov l e a v e s home and f r i e n d s f o r A m e r i c a and f a k e s s u i c i d e t o f r e e h i s w i f e when he d i s c o v e r s t h a t she i s i n l o v e w i t h a n o t h e r . C h e r n y s h e v s k y makes b o t h t h e r a t i o n a l i s t and t h e u t i l i t a r i a n p r i n c i p l e s c o m p a t i b l e ; t h e r a t i o n a l man c a n n o t b u t f o l l o w h i s r e a s o n (he h a s no o t h e r w i l l , a s i t w e r e ) , e v e n t h o u g h s u c h a c o u r s e o f a c t i o n may p r o v e p h y s i c a l l y p a i n f u l t o him. B u t t h i s , i n t h e u t i l i t a r i a n s e n s e , may be a r i g h t c h o i c e b e c a u s e he m e r e l y s a c r i f i c e s a s m a l l e r p l e a s -u r e f o r a g r e a t e r p l e a s u r e , and t o f o l l o w h i s r e a s o n g i v e s 1 2 him more p l e a s u r e t h a n any o t h e r c o u r s e o f a c t i o n . T h i s i s n o t i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h C h e r n y s h e v s k y 1 s s t a t e m e n t i n What  I s To Be Done? t h a t i f one's a c t i o n i s s u c h and s u c h , t h a t means one i s an i n d i v i d u a l who c o u l d n o t a c t o t h e r w i s e u n d e r t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . C h e r n y s h e v s k y 1 s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e r e a d e r i n t e n s i f i e s as he t r a c e s V e r a P a v l o v n a ' s d e v e l o p m e n t i n s o c i a l a w a r e n e s s . A t f i r s t , c o n v e r s i n g w i t h Lopukhov, she m e r e l y i d e n t i f i e s w i t h h i s i d e a s . L a t e r , as L o p u k h o v ' s w i f e , h e r own u n d e r s t a n d i n g b e g i n s t o c r y s t a l l i z e . C h e r n y s h e v s k y shows t h e p r o g r e s s i o n o f h e r aw a r e n e s s i n V e r a ' s dreams. I n h e r f i r s t dream, V e r a i s a b l e t o i d e n t i f y h e r s i t u a t i o n a t home w i t h a s t a t e o f p a r a l y s i s ; s he l o n g e d f o r i n d e p e n d e n c e b u t h e r s t r u g g l e t o o k p l a c e on t h e s u b c o n s c i o u s l e v e l , l e a d i n g t o m e n t a l a n g u i s h b u t n o t t o a change i n h e r s i t u a t i o n . Lopukhov was t h e f i r s t t o b r i n g i t o u t t o h e r c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and she was a b l e t o c h a n n e l h e r p r e v i o u s l y n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s i n t o p o s i t i v e i d e a s and e f f o r t s w h i c h c u l m i n a t e d i n a t o t a l change i n h e r s i t u a t i o n . L a t e r , a f t e r h a v i n g b een e x p o s e d t o L o p u k h o v ' s p h i l o s -ophy b o o k s , V e r a comes t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t " e v e r y t h i n g r e s t s on money": — Bee ocHOBaHO Ha neHbrax, . . . y K O T O neubra, y T O T O BjtacTb H n p a B O , r o B o p H T BauiH K H H T H ; 3 H a i H T , n o K a sceHinHHa xcHBeT Ha C T O T MyscnuHH, OHa B 3aBHCH— M O C T H O T Hero. [p. 89] L i k e M i l l i n The P r i n c i p l e s o f P o l i t i c a l Economy, C h e r n y s h e v -s k y a d v o c a t e s f i n a n c i a l i n d e p e n d e n c e f o r woman. B u t he i s w e l l aware o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s women o f h i s e r a f a c e d i f t h e y 1 3 t r i e d f o r i n d e p e n d e n c e . V e r a P a v l o v n a summarizes t h e s e t h o u g h t s : HaM O o p M a j i b H O 3aKpbiTbi n o ^ T H B e e nyTH r p a x c n a H C K O H 5KH3HH . H a M n p a K T H H e C K H 3 a K p H T b I O ^ e H b M H o r a e , — no^TH B e e , — R a y m e H 3 T e x n y T e f t o S i n e c T B e H H O f t neHTejib-H O C T H , K O T O p H e _ _ H e , . 3 a r O p O K e H H . flJIH. H a C $ O p M a J I b H b l M H n p e n H T C T B K H M H . H3 B C e X C $ e p } K H 3 H H H a M O C T a B J i e H O T e C H H T B C H T O J I B K O B O f l H O H C $ e p e C e M e f t H O f t JKH3HH , S b l T b MIJieHaMH C e M b H , H T O J I b K O . K p O M e 3 T O T O , KSKHe HCe 3 S H H T H H O T K p f c J T b l H a M ? I l O I T H TOJIbKO O f l H O , 6blTb r y B e p H a H T K a M H ; n a eme p a s B e — a a B a T b K a K H e - H H S y ^ b y p O K H , K O T O P H X H e 3 a X O T H T OTHHTb y H a C M y J K T O H H . H a M T e c H O n o s T O f t e f l H H C T B e H H O f t flopore; M H M e m a e M flpyr flpyry, n o T O M y ^ I T O C J I H W K O M T O J i n H M C H Ha H e f t ; O H a n o ^ T H H e MO>KeT g a B a T b H a M c a M O C T O H T e j i B H O C T H , n o T O M y I T O H a c , npeftnaraioiiiHx C B O H y c j i y r a , C J I H U I K O M M H O T O . . . . H e T , n o K a KeHmHHbi He 6 y j j ; y T C T a p a T b c a o T O M , ^ T o 6 b i p a 3 0 f t T H C b Ha MHoro jaopor, KSHmHHbi He 6yp,yi H M e T b caMOCTOHTejiBHOCTH. K o H e ^ H O , npo6nBaTb H O B y w n o p o r y T H X c e j r o . [p. 259] C h e r n y s h e v s k y knows t h e a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n , y e t he s u s p e n d s t h e a c t u a l t o show t h e p o s s i b l e — t h e f u t u r e h a p p i e r s o c i e t y . He shows V e r a P a v l o v n a a t f i r s t t h r i v i n g i n h e r s e w i n g b u s i -n e s s (a c o - o p e r a t i v e w h i c h employs a number o f young women who manage t h e b u s i n e s s among t h e m s e l v e s and s h a r e t h e p r o f i t s ) , and l a t e r , when f i n a n c i a l l y s e c u r e , e n t e r i n g a m e d i c a l s c h o o l . C h e r n y s h e v s k y d e p l o r e s t h e s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s o f h i s p e r i o d . He s e e s b o t h women and t h e p o o r as t h e most u n d e r -p r i v i l e g e d g r o u p s , and t h e s o l u t i o n s he o f f e r s i n What I s To  Be Done? a r e e s p e c i a l l y o r i e n t e d t o w a r d s t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f p o v e r t y and t h e e m a n c i p a t i o n o f women. He b e l i e v e s t h a t man's e m a n c i p a t i o n s t a r t s w i t h h i s s t r e n g t h and a b i l i t y t o r i s e above a b j e c t p o v e r t y i f c i r c u m s t a n c e s p l a c e h i m i n s u c h 14 a condition, and that man should f i g h t for his i n t e r e s t s , even at the expense of virtuous conduct. Chernyskevsky does not d i r e c t l y advocate lawless conduct, but i s not ready to condemn any se l f - i n t e r e s t e d action. In Vera Pavlovna's second dream, Chernyshevsky reverses Vera's circumstances to show what her l i f e would have been l i k e had her mother been a virtuous woman. The circumstances he paints are much l i k e those of the Marmeladov family i n Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment. The mother i s i l l and broken, the father i s a hopeless drunk, and the daughter i s forced to walk the streets. He then allows Maria Alexeevna to comment on the scene: Tbi y ^ e H a a — H a M O H B o p o B C K H e n e H b r a y i e H a . Tu 06 n;o6poM nyiviaeuiB, a K a x 6BI H He 3JiaH 6bina, T a K 6BI T B I H He 3HaJia, * I T O T a K o e noSpoM Ha3HBaeTCH. noHHMaeuiB? Bee O T MeHH. [p. 123] It i s true that children p r o f i t from parents' s a c r i f i c e s , but i t i s presumptuous to say that Vera's virt u e resulted from her r e l a t i v e l y sheltered l i f e , while her mother's somewhat coarse nature was a product of her poor circumstances. Virtue i s neither inherited nor can i t be taught, nor i s i t a product of one's environment. Virtue i s an i n s t i n c t , but i s not an 17 i n s t i n c t accompanied by reason. It i s very l i k e l y that had Vera Pavlovna been i n her mother's s i t u a t i o n , she would have been an i l l and defeated woman i n the second dream, while her mother would have been the unprotected but enterprising daughter, who would have emerged f i n a n c i a l l y secure by means of her aggressiveness. Chernyshevsky does not take t h i s into 15 c o n s i d e r a t i o n . C h e r n y s h e v s k y a s s e r t s man's s t r i c t c a u s a l d e p e n d e n c y on h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . L i k e R o u s s e a u , he b e l i e v e s t h a t man i s by n a t u r e good and t h a t , i f he p r o v e s t o be o t h e r w i s e , h i s 18 e n v i r o n m e n t i s t o blame f o r t h i s . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e , C h e r -n y s h e v s k y 's c h a r a c t e r s show how f a l s e t h i s t h e o r y i s . Most o f t h e young p e o p l e i n What I s To Be Done? a r e m o r a l l y u p r i g h t i n d i v i d u a l s who, by and l a r g e , come f r o m p o o r f a m i -l i e s . Why a r e t h e s e p e o p l e v i r t u o u s when, a c c o r d i n g t o C h e r -n y s h e v s k y 1 s t h e o r y , t h e y w o u l d have been made c o r r u p t by t h e i r c o n t i n u o u s s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t p o v e r t y ? Rakhmetov i s t h e o n l y e x c e p t i o n h e r e . He i s t h e o n l y c h a r a c t e r amongst t h e s e new p e o p l e who comes f r o m a w e a l t h y f a m i l y . B u t why i s n ' t S t o r e s h n i k o v , V e r a ' s o n e - t i m e f i a n c e , l i k e Rakhmetov, when t h e i r c i r c u m s t a n c e s a r e s i m i l a r ? I n S t o r e s h n i k o v ' s c a s e , h i s m o t h e r ' s w e a l t h c o n t r i b u t e s t o h i s c o r r u p t i o n . S t o r e s h n i k o v i s b o t h a b a s e man and a f o o l , who has no i n t e r e s t i n e i t h e r s e l f - i m p r o v e m e n t o r t h e improvement o f s o c i e t y . C h e r n y s h e v s k y b e l i e v e s i n t h e f u t u r e p r o g r e s s o f man-k i n d . "The p r e s e n t s t a t e o f k n o w l e d g e , " as he f o r m u l a t e s i t i n "The A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P r i n c i p l e , " i s o n l y a p a r t i c l e o f t h e f u t u r e w h o l e . L i k e w i s e , he a r g u e s a b o u t " p l e n i t u d e o f g o o d n e s s and v i r t u e i n t h e f u t u r e m a n k i n d " : 3 T O C K O P O S y f l e T , B e p o ^ K a . T o r a a 37iBie Y B H E H T , * I T O HM HeJTB3H 6bITB 3JIBIMH ; H T e 3Jlfaie , KOTOpbie 6HUM JIIOflBMH, C T S H y T fl06pbIMH : B e f l B OHH 6bIJIH 3JIBIMH TOJIBKO n O T O M y , *ITO HM B p e f l H O 6bUIO 6bITb fl06pbIMH, a B e f l B O H H 3 H a i o T , ^ T O n;o6po jiyMme 3 J i a , O H H nojiioSHT e r o , K o r j j a M O H C H O 6y,n;eT JIK>6HT& e r o 6e3 B p e f l a . [p. 125] 16 I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o know w h e t h e r C h e r n y s h e v s k y i s as n a i v e as t h e s t a t e m e n t i n d i c a t e s . I t may be a r g u e d t h a t o n c e a g a i n he s u s p e n d s h i s e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e a c t u a l w o r l d i n o r d e r t o e n c o u r a g e t h e r e a d e r . B u t t h i s i s u n l i k e l y b e c a u s e e v e r y t h i n g i n h i s work i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s t a t e m e n t a b o u t t h e good and v i r t u o u s f u t u r e e x i s t e n c e i s t o be t a k e n s e r i o u s l y . He s t a k e s a l l h i s hopes on t h e f u t u r e . E m a n c i p a t i o n f r o m p o v e r t y i s t h e n t h e f i r s t i t e m o f C h e r n y s h e v s k y 1 s manual f o r t h e man o f a c t i o n . The s e c o n d i t e m i s t o work t o w a r d s s e l f - i m p r o v e m e n t . I n V e r a P a v l o v n a ' s s e c o n d d r e a m , • C h e r n y s h e v s k y t a l k s e x t e n s i v e l y a b o u t l a b o u r : — fla, flBH)KeHHe e c T B p e a j i B H O C T B , — T O B O P H T A j i e K c e f i n e T p o B H ^ c , — n o T O M y ^ I T O H B H H c e H H e — 3 T O M C H 3 H B , a p e a j i b -H O C T B H 5 K H 3 H B O f l H O H T O HCe . Ho 5 K H 3 H B H M e e i r J i a B H b l M C B O K M s j i e M e H T O M rpyp., a n o T O M y r v i a B H b i f t 3JieMeHT p e a J I B H O C T H T p y f l , H CaMBlK B e p H b l f t npHSHSK p e a j I B H O C T H fleJIBHOCTB. — fla, O T c y T C T B H e flBHHceHHH e c T B O T c y T C T B H e T p y n a , — r o B o p H T A j i e K c e f i n e T p o B H ^ i , — n o T O M y * I T O T p y j i . n p e n ; -C T a B J i H e T C H B a H T p o n o j i o r H T i e c K O M aHajiH3e K o p e H H o r o $opMoio H B H J K e H H H , .naiomeio O C H O B 3 H H 6 H c o j j e p a c a H H e B c e M J x p y r - H M $ o p M a M : p a 3 B J i e * i e H H i o , O T f l b i x y , 3 a 6 a B e , B e c e j i B i o ; O H H 6 e 3 n p e f l i u e c T B y r o m e r o T p y n a H e H M e i O T p e a J I B H O C T H . A 6 e 3 n ; B H > K e H H H H e T K H 3 H H , . . . [pp. 119-120] R e m i n i s c e n t o f Marx's p h i l o s o p h y , t h i s o u t l o o k a l s o b u i l d s on H e g e l ' s v i e w t h a t f l u x and s t r i f e a r e t h e l i f e o f t h e w o r l d . T h i s i s a n a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e P r e - S o c r a t i c , H e r a c l i t e a n p h i l o s o p h y , w h i c h f i t s w e l l i n t o C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s o v e r a l l v i e w . I n f a c t , i t h e l p s h i m t o t i e a l l h i s t h e o r e t i c a l l o o s e e n d s . H i s r e l a t i v i s t i c " t h e o r y o f t r u t h , " h i s b e l i e f i n t h e f u t u r e p r o g r e s s o f m a n k i n d , and h i s p r a g m a t i c e t h i c s a r e q u i t e 17 c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e b e l i e f t h a t m o t i o n and change a r e t h e e s s e n c e o f l i f e . T h i s v i e w may a l s o be t h e b a s i s f o r h i s a e s t h e t i c s and show why he makes s u c h a h a r s h d i v i s i o n between e x p r e s s i o n and c o n t e n t . H e r a c l i t u s , w i t h a s t a t e m e n t l i k e "you c a n n o t s t e p t w i c e i n t o t h e same r i v e r , " r e a c h e s t h e l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l i s t i c answer. The w a t e r w i l l be d i f f e r e n t w a t e r t h e s e c o n d t i m e , and i f we c a l l t h e r i v e r t h e same, i t i s b e c a u s e we s e e i t s r e a l i t y i n i t s form.18 Hence one c a n s e e why C h e r n y s h e v s k y d e i f i e s t h e i d e a o f c o n -t e n t w h i c h i n t h e H e r a c l i t e a n c o n c e p t i o n i s t h e e l e m e n t o f change, and v i r t u a l l y i g n o r e s f o r m ( e x p r e s s i o n ) , w h i c h i s t h e s t a t i c e l e m e n t . L i k e Marx, C h e r n y s h e v s k y c o n s i d e r s l a b o u r t o be t h e p r i n c i p a l e l e m e n t o f l i f e . I d l e n e s s , he b e l i e v e s , c a u s e s c o r r u p t i o n . The r o o t s o f a p l a n t and t h e s o i l w h i c h a r e im-m e r s e d i n s t a l e w a t e r s r o t . T h i s i s C h e r n y s h e v s k y 1 s m etaphor f o r s t a g n a t i o n employed i n V e r a P a v l o v n a 1 s s e c o n d dream. F u r t h e r , i d l e n e s s i s o l a t e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l f r o m t h e c o l l e c t i v e and l e a d s h i m t o w i t h d r a w i n t o h i s own i m a g i n a r y w o r l d , t h e w o r l d o f p a s s i o n s and dreams. L a b o u r a l o n e i s C h e r n y s h e v s k y 1 s s o l u t i o n t o a l i e n a t i o n . — B O T no^eMy Te6n TaK 3 a H H j i H C T H X H O T O M , K a K KaTH H36aBJiHJiacB O T T O C K H p a d o T o r a . Tbi xo^euib 3 H a T & , HcnuTaji J I H H BepHOCTb 3 T o r o 3aMe^aHHH Ha c e d e ? fla, O H O coBepiueHHO cnpaBeflJiHBO. 9L flOBOJibHO Jier-KO Btmep->KHBaji 6opb6y noxoMy, I T O MHe H e K o r n a Sbino MHoro 3 a H H M a T B C H ero. Bee B p e M H , K o r n a H o6pamaji BHHMaHHe Ha Hee, H C T p a n a j i o i e H B cHJibHO; H O esceflHeBHaa H e o 6 -XOflHMOCTb 3aCTaBJIHJia MeHH Ha SOJIblliyK) ^aCTb BpeMeHH 3 a 6 b I B a T b 0 6 S T O M . . . . . . . H y»HO H M e T B TaKoe n e j i o , O T KOToporo H e x t b 3 H OTKa33TbC3, KOTOpOTO HeJlb3H OTJ lOSCHTb, TOTfla ^ieJlOBeK 1 8 H e c p a B H e H H O T B e p a c e . . . . HysHO J i H ^ H o e neno, Heo6xo,nHMoe .rjejio, O T K O T o p o r o 3 a B H c e j i a 6bi c o 6 c T B e H H a n K H 3 H B , T a K o e jxe.no, K O T O p O e JIH^HO flJIH M e H H , flJIH M O e T O 06pa3a 5KH3HH, flJIH MOHX V B J i e ^ e H H f i CTpaCTbB, TOJIbKO T a K O e fleJIO MOJKeT CJiyXCHTb OnopOK) B 6 O p b 0 e C O C T p a C T b K ) ; TOJIbKO OHO H e B H T e c H H e T C H H 3 » C H 3 H H c T p a c T b r o , a c a M O 3ar \ n y i i i a e T C T p a C T b , TOJIbKO OHO fliaeT C H J i y H O T f l b l X . [pp. 255-256] I n t h i s i n s t a n c e , C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s a t t i t u d e i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e new E n g l i s h b o u r g e o i s i e , whose a n t i - i n t e l l e c t u a l s t a n d i s summarized by C a r l y l e i n one o f h i s l a t e r s t a t e m e n t s : "Man i s s e n t h i t h e r n o t t o q u e s t i o n , b u t t o work; — t h e end o f m a n — i t was l o n g ago w r i t t e n — i s an A c t i o n , n o t a T h o u g h t . " I n V e r a P a v l o v n a ' s t h i r d dream, C h e r n y s h e v s k y makes a t r a n s i t i o n i n c o n c e r n s . The t h i r d dream i s p e r s o n a l , unham-p e r e d by r e f e r e n c e s t o i d e o l o g y . I n t h i s dream V e r a acknow-l e d g e s t h a t she d o e s n o t l o v e Lopukhov, who now i s h e r h u s b a n d She e n c o u n t e r s " s e l f - a w a r e n e s s " i n t h e f o r m o f a famous o p e r a s i n g e r , who m y s t e r i o u s l y c h a n g e s a p p e a r a n c e s . T h i s a p p a r i t i o n f o r c e s V e r a t o r e a d a l o u d f r o m an i m a g i n a r y d i a r y and e n a b l e s h e r t o r e c o l l e c t h e r s u s p i c i o n s and d o u b t s a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Lopukhov. V e r a f i n a l l y has t o c o n c l u d e t h a t she and Lopukhov, a l t h o u g h f r i e n d s who have a g r e a t d e a l o f r e s p e c t f o r one a n o t h e r , do n o t l o v e e a c h o t h e r and n e v e r have done. V e r a ' s p r e d o m i n a n t f e e l i n g f o r Lopukhov i s g r a t e f u l n e s s , b e c a u s e had i t n o t b een f o r h i s o f f e r t o m a r r y h e r , she w o u l d have had t o c o n t i n u e l i v i n g w i t h h e r f a m i l y and e v e n t u a l l y w o u l d have 19 been forced to marry Storeshnikov, whom she despised. Though t h i s dream causes Vera to f e e l g u i l t and anxiety, i t has a f i n a l l i b e r a t i n g e f f e c t on her. Once she admits that she had been deceiving herself, her trauma i s over. It i s i n the open and she can begin to deal with the problem. Chernyshev-sky 's f i n a l concern i n the realm of self-improvement i s to show the importance of personal emancipation. Man should question his hopes and his fears. Chernyshevsky considers human relationships to be i n essence p o l i t i c a l , and makes a strong case for i t here: Vera's i n i t i a l choice between her former misery at home and Lopukhov was s t r i c t l y a u t i l i t a r i a n one. Now Chernyshevsky places her in a d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n : Mbi BHfleJiH nepen coSoro H B V X JiKmeft 3 T o r o rana: Bepy IlaBJiOBHy H JIonyxoBa, H B H f l e J i H , K a K y c T p o H j i H C B O T H O -meHHH Memny H H M H . Tenepb B X O A H T T p e m R ^eJiOBeK. IIOCMOTPHM, KaKHe pa3HOCTH 06Hapy>KaTCH OT B 0 3 M O K -H O C T H O f l H O M y H3 H H X cpaBHHBaTfc flByx flpyrtix. Bepa IlaBJiOBHa B H f l H T nepen; C O 6O H D JIonyxoBa H KapcaHOBa. ripeacfle eft He 6HIJIO BbiSopa; Tenepb e c T b . [p. 14 6] At t h i s point the reader already knows that Vera and Kirsanov, Lopukhov's best fri e n d , are i n love. Both suspect that the fee l i n g i s mutual but neither feels i t ri g h t to in t e r f e r e i n the other's l i f e . But Lopukhov, who i s impartial, because of his friendship with Kirsanov and his brotherly love for Vera, decides to act when he finds out about the s i t u a t i o n . At f i r s t he confronts Kirsanov and i s ready to convince him that he i s obligated to pursue his happiness, implying that K i r -sanov and Vera should be together. But Kirsanov i s outraged; 20 M o r e o v e r , he p r e s e n t s a n argument t h a t Lopukhov c a n n o t d i s p u t e : . . . To, * I T O M H c T O S O K ) n p H 3 H a e M 3 a HopMajibHyro > K H 3 H b , 6yfleT T3K , KOTfla n e p e M e H H T C H nOHflTHH, o6H^iaH o6mecTBa. O H O noxoKHO nepeBOcnHTaTBCH, 3 T O TaK. O H O H n e p e B O c n H T H B a e T C H pa3BHTHeM s t H 3 H H . K T O n e p e B O c n H T a j i C H , n o M o r a e T npyr - H M , S T O TaK. Ho noKa O H O eme He n e p e B O c n H T a j i o c b , He nepeMeHHJiocb c o B e p n i e H H O , T H He HMeeuib n p a B a p n c K O B a T b ^yscoio cynb6oio. . . . H nocTaBJiK) 3 T O T TeopeTHiecKHft B o n p o c B j j tpyroft O o p M e : HMeeT JIH K T O - H H 6 y f l b n p a B O n o f l B e p r a T b ^ l e j i o B e K a p n c K y , e c j i H ^ e j i o B e K y H 6e3 p u c n a x o p o m o ? . . . n p e n r i o j i o K y , ^ C T O S T O T ^ e j i O B e K— a c e H i n H H a ; npef lno j ioacy , onmB-TaKH B CMHone OTEJie^eHHOH rano-Te 3H, 1TO 3TO nOJTOHCeHHe, B KOTOPOM eMy npHBOJIbHO J K H T B , —3aMy » c e c T B O ; npeflnoj iOHcy, ^ T O O H j joBOJieH S T H M n o j i o a c e H H e M , H r o B o p i o : npH TaKHx flaHHHX, no 3 T O H OTBj ie^eHHOfi ranoie3e, K T O HMeeT npaBO noflBepraTB 3Toro ^ e j i o B e K a p H C K y noTepHTB x o p o m e e , K O T O P H M O H HOBOJieH, * I T O 6 H n o c M O T p e T b , He y r j a c T C H J I H 3TOMy ^ l e j i o B e K y n p n o S p e c T H Jiy^mee, 6e3 K O T O P O T O eMy j i e r - K O O S O H T H C B ? [pp- 1 8 1 - 1 8 2 ] Lopukhov c a n n o t b u t a g r e e w i t h K i r s a n o v ' s u t i l i t a r i a n r e a s o n -i n g and i t i s t h e n t h a t he d e c i d e s t o l e a v e . H i s d e c i s i o n f o l l o w s a k i n d o f u t i l i t a r i a n c a l c u l u s a k i n t o Bentham's h e d o n i c c a l c u l u s , w h i c h f a v o u r s t h e h a p p i n e s s o f a l l i n v o l v e d . L o p u k h o v ' s l i f e p r i o r t o h i s d e c i s i o n t o l e a v e was c o m f o r t a b l e and s e c u r e a s f a r as h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l and f i n a n -c i a l a f f a i r s were c o n c e r n e d , b u t h i s p r i v a t e l i f e was u n s a t -i s f a c t o r y . H i s m a r r i a g e and l i f e w i t h V e r a P a v l o v n a were a b u r d e n on him. F i n a l l y , V e r a 1 s and K i r s a n o v ' s u n h a p p i n e s s o u t w e i g h e d a l l t h e r e a s o n s w h i c h m i g h t have made h i m s t a y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , L o p u k h o v ' s a c t i o n i s a h e r o i c d e e d , e s p e c i a l l y so when j u d g e d a c c o r d i n g t o K i r s a n o v ' s u t i l i t a r i a n argument 21 a b o u t l o s s o f s e c u r i t y . L o p u k h o v ' s a c t i o n i s a s t e p away f r o m b o t h f i n a n c i a l and c u l t u r a l s e c u r i t y (when he e v e n t u a l l y l e a v e s f o r A m e r i c a ) , and i t a p p e a r s t o be a b l a t a n t c o n t r a -d i c t i o n o f C h e r n y s h e v s k y 1 s t h e o r y w h i c h a r g u e s a g a i n s t h e r o i s m . In f a c t , most o f C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s young p e o p l e i n What  I s To Be Done? have a h e r o i c s t r e a k i n them. A l l c a n be s a i d t o be c o u r a g e o u s and a s s e r t i v e , w i t h h i g h i d e a s t h a t none a r e w i l l i n g t o s a c r i f i c e t o u n f a v o u r a b l e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . B o t h Lopukhov and Rakhmetov, C h e r n y s h e v s k y * s s u p e r - h e r o , f i t t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , and K i r s a n o v , V e r a P a v l o v n a and l a t e r K a t e r i n a V a s i l i e v n a , a l t h o u g h n o t as f o r c e f u l i n . a c t i o n , a l s o q u a l i f y . C h e r n y s h e v s k y c r e a t e s a w o r l d i n w h i c h a l l a r e v i r t u a l l y superhuman b e c a u s e immune t o " t h e i n e r t i a o f t h e g i v e n , " t o u s e Simone de B e a u v o i r ' s t e r m , and t h e y b u s y t h e m s e l v e s i n r e s t r u c t u r i n g t h e w o r l d , w h i l e t h e a u t h o r a c c o m p a n i e s t h e i r a c t i o n s w i t h v e r y p r a g m a t i c p h i l o s o p h i z i n g , u r g i n g s t r i c t a d h e r e n c e t o s e l f - i n t e r e s t , m o c k i n g h e r o i s m and a l t r u i s t i c d e e d s . T h i s k i n d o f d i c h o t o m y seemed t o have a f f l i c t e d most o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p o s i t i v i s t s . B u t C h e r n y s h e v s k y c o u l d a t l e a s t have r e i t e r a t e d one o f M i l l ' s b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s on d i f f e r e n c e s o f temperament, as s t a t e d i n h i s U t i l i t a r i a n i s m , whereby C h e r n y s h e v s k y w o u l d have made a good c a s e f o r a l l t h e h e r o i c a c t i o n i n What I s To Be Done? The m a i n c o n s t i t u e n t s o f a s a t i s f i e d l i f e a p p e a r t o be two, e i t h e r o f w h i c h by i t s e l f i s ^ o f t e n f o u n d s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h e p u r p o s e : t r a n q u i l i t y and e x c i t e m e n t . W i t h much t r a n q u i l i t y , many f i n d t h a t t h e y c a n be c o n t e n t w i t h v e r y l i t t l e p l e a s u r e ; 22 w i t h much e x c i t e m e n t , many c a n r e c o n c i l e them-s e l v e s t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e q u a n t i t y o f p a i n . H e r e b y C h e r n y s h e v s k y 1 s new young p e o p l e b e l o n g t o t h o s e who t h r i v e on e x c i t e m e n t : i n t e r e s t , a s s e r t i o n , a c t i o n , i n s h o r t , on e x p a n s i o n , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t a l l t h i s may c a u s e some p a i n and o c c a s i o n a l s e t b a c k s . I t i s t e m p t i n g t o s u g g e s t t h a t d e s p i t e t h e p r a g m a t i c t h e o r i z i n g , C h e r n y s h e v s k y r e m a i n s a man o f t h e r o m a n t i c e r a w i t h a p r o b a b l y u n c o n s c i o u s weak-n e s s f o r h e r o e s and h e r o i c a c t i o n . To r e t u r n t o t h e p l o t , t h e r e a d e r a l r e a d y knows o f L o p u k h o v ' s d e p a r t u r e and h i s f a k e d s u i c i d e , s i n c e C h e r n y s h e v -s k y p r e - e m p t s t h i s d r a m a t i c moment i n a k i n d o f p r e f a c e t o t h e s t o r y . C h e r n y s h e v s k y now c l o s e s t h e c y c l e : Lopukhov l e a v e s t o s t a r t a new l i f e , and V e r a and K i r s a n o v a r e f r e e t o s t a r t t h e i r s t o g e t h e r . The s t o r y c o u l d have ended h e r e , b u t C h e r n y s h e v s k y does n o t f e e l t h a t h i s v i s i o n o f t h e new s o c i e t y i s c o m p l e t e d . He goes on t o d e p i c t V e r a ' s c o n t e n t e d l i f e w i t h K i r s a n o v w h i l e she c o n t i n u e s a i d i n g i n t h e s e w i n g b u s i n e s s and b e g i n s h e r s t u d i e s i n m e d i c i n e . C h e r n y s h e v s k y f u r t h e r j u x t a p o s e s t h i s c o u p l e ' s h a p p i n e s s w i t h t h a t o f a n o t h e r c o u p l e , Beaumont and K a t e r i n a . Beaumont i s r e a l l y Lopukhov, who r e t u r n s f r o m A m e r i c a u n d e r a new i d e n t i t y . He now i s a s u c c e s s f u l b u s i n e s s man who r u n s a f a c t o r y i n R u s s i a . K a t e r i n a i s a woman t o h i s l i k i n g , someone he c a n be happy w i t h . The f o u r , i n t h e end, s t a r t a k i n d o f c o - o p e r a t i v e e x i s t e n c e , and t h e book ends w i t h V e r a P a v l o v n a ' s f o u r t h dream, w h i c h p r o p h e s i e s a f u t u r e h a r m o n i o u s e x i s t e n c e o f 23 mankind, a l i f e f r e e f r o m p o v e r t y and i n j u s t i c e . D e s p i t e C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s good i n t e n t i o n s , What I s To Be  Done? ends up as an ambiguous p i e c e o f w r i t i n g , w h i c h f i t s l o o s e l y i n t o b o t h f i c t i o n and p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y , b u t i s a p o o r example o f b o t h . C h e r n y s h e v s k y i s a bad p h i l o s o p h e r . He i s p a i n f u l l y d o g m a t i c ; he needs p o s i t i v e s o l u t i o n s a t a l l c o s t s . He s i m p l i f i e s , d i s t o r t s and m i s r e a d s b o t h t h e works o f p h i l o s o p h y he p r a i s e s and t h o s e he c r i t i c i z e s . B e i n g a p o o r o b s e r v e r o f human r e l a t i o n s , he i s j u s t as bad a f i c t i o n w r i t e r ; h i s w r i t i n g i s c l u m s y and c o n t r i v e d . C h e r n y s h e v s k y has t h e u n f o r t u n a t e t e n d e n c y t o d e a l w i t h a l l s i t u a t i o n s i n t e r m s o f s o l u t i o n s . ' L i f e f o r him i s t o be s o l v e d i n t h e same way as one t a c k l e s a m a t h e m a t i c a l p r o b l e m , o r p r o c e e d s i n a c h e s s game. He seems a b s o l u t e l y o b l i v i o u s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t r i c a c i e s and c a n n o t c o n c e i v e o f i n s o l u b l e s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h , p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a s i d e , one has t o acknow-l e d g e and l e a r n t o l i v e w i t h , b e c a u s e i n t h o s e s i t u a t i o n s a c t i o n i s known t o be a b s u r d . C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s a t t i t u d e , a c t u a l l y , v e r y much u n d e r l i e s t h e p r e s e n t S o v i e t o f f i c i a l v i e w , w h i c h h o l d s t h a t man c a n s u c c e e d i n a l l i f o n l y he i s w i l l i n g . C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s n a i v e p o s i t i v i s m , i n d e e d , became a r e c i p e f o r t h e a r t o f s o - c a l l e d S o c i a l i s t R e a l i s m , w h i c h was t o d e i f y l a b o u r and d o w n play " b o u r g e o i s p a s s i o n s . " The c h a r a c t e r s i n What I s To Be Done? l e n d t h e m s e l v e s e a s i l y t o t h e s e c o n c e r n s : t h e i r p a s s i o n s and i m p u l s e s a r e subdued; t h e y seem as i f d i r e c t e d f r o m above, 24 l i k e p u p p e t s o r r o b o t s . They a p p e a r t o be programmed t o a c t o u t t h e i r l i v e s o n l y t o e l i m i n a t e o b s t a c l e s i n t h e most e f f i -c i e n t and r a t i o n a l manner. B u t , w h i l e endowed w i t h e l e m e n t a r y e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s , t h e y l a c k s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . C h e r n y s h e v s k y 1 s i n t e n d e d s u p e r - h e r o , Rakhmetov, i s a good example o f t h i s . C h e r n y s h e v s k y wanted Rakhmetov t o a p p e a r as an i n t e l l e c t u a l w i z a r d and a superman, a man whose " g r e a t e s t h a p p i n e s s " was t o s e r v e h u m a n i t y and a s s i s t i n t h e improvement o f s o c i e t y . Rakhmetov, whose nickname i s , f i t -22 t i n g l y , N i k i t a Lomov, i s no d o u b t m o d e l e d a f t e r t h e h e r o e s o f R u s s i a n b y l i n y ( f o l k t a l e s o r m y t h o l o g i c a l t a l e s ) , someone l i k e I l y a Muromec. The h e r o e s o f t h e s e s t o r i e s a l w a y s a p p e a r when t h e o p p r e s s e d a r e i n g r e a t need o f a p r o t e c t o r and a l i b e r a t o r . T h e s e l e g e n d a r y f i g u r e s , however, a r e b e t t e r known f o r t h e i r s t r e n g t h t h a n f o r t h e i r w i t s , and Rakhmetov, d e s p i t e C h e r n y s h e v s k y 1 s e f f o r t s , a l s o f i t s t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n . He l a c k s s o c i a l g r a c e and f i n e s s e , a l w a y s a c t s f r o m a p o s i -t i o n o f s t r e n g t h , i n s u l t s p e o p l e and o r d e r s them a r o u n d ; i n 23 argument he i s f o r c e f u l and d o g m a t i c . B e s i d e t h i s , he e a t s i n c r e d i b l e q u a n t i t i e s o f f o o d and i s known t o have s l e p t on n a i l s . Rakhmetov do e s a l l t h i s s u p p o s e d l y t o p r e p a r e h i m s e l f f o r a f u t u r e r e v o l u t i o n . B u t a l l t h i s a p p e a r s l u d i c r o u s r a t h e r t h a n p r a i s e w o r t h y and, t o t h e p e r c e p t i v e r e a d e r , Rakh-metov seems more l i k e Dr. F r a n k e n s t e i n ' s l e g e n d a r y m o n s t e r t h a n a man o f i n t e g r i t y . What I s To Be Done? i s u n d o u b t e d l y a c h a l l e n g e t o t h e 25 c r i t i c , s i n c e i t l a c k s t h e " w r i t e r l y " on w h i c h t h e a n a l y s t o f l i t e r a t u r e d o t e s . The " w r i t e r l y , " a c c o r d i n g t o R o l a n d B a r t h e s , i s t h e n o v e l i s t i c w i t h o u t t h e n o v e l , p o e t r y w i t h o u t t h e poem, t h e e s s a y w i t h o u t t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n , w r i t i n g w i t h o u t s t y l e , p r o d u c t i o n w i t h o u t p r o d u c t , s t r u c t u r a t i o n w i t h o u t 24 s t r u c t u r e . B u t What I s To Be Done? m e r e l y p r e s e n t s " t h e p r o d u c t and n o t t h e p r o d u c t i o n . " Had i t s p h i l o s o p h i c a l s i d e been d e v e l o p e d t o p e r f e c t i o n , What I s To Be Done? c o u l d have been a modern f o r m o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i a l o g u e , o n l y s l i g h t l y more a p p l i e d t h a n t h o s e o f P l a t o and B e r k e l e y . As i t s t a n d s , i t d oes n o t come anywhere c l o s e t o t h a t . S a d l y enough, i d e o l o g y " r e f l e c t s , i t d o e s n ' t do work." C h e r n y s h e v s k y d i d n o t f o r e s e e t h i s when he s t a t e d t h a t he was t o p r e s e n t n o t h i n g b u t t h e t r u t h . 26 CHAPTER I I "THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL PRINCIPLE IN PHILOSOPHY" In t h e e x p o s i t i o n t o h i s "The A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P r i n c i p l e i n P h i l o s o p h y , " C h e r n y s h e v s k y s k e t c h e s a p i c t u r e o f t h e new n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y man, t h e man o f t h e P o s t - N a p o l e o n i c e r a . He i s a man o f i n t e l l e c t , s e l f - t a u g h t , and w i t h o u t means, b u t who had j u s t awakened t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t i n t e l l e c t and a m b i t i o n a r e as g r e a t a w e a l t h as' t h a t o f t h e i n h e r i t e d , m a t e r i a l o r d e r . C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s a s s e s s m e n t o f t h i s phenemenon i s some-what a t y p i c a l i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h a t o f h i s t i m e : The w e a l t h y c l a s s e s a r e a t f i r s t moved t o p i t y a t t h e s i g h t o f i n t e l l i g e n t , h o n e s t and i n d u s t r i o u s p e o p l e l i v i n g i n h o p e l e s s p o v e r t y and d e g r a d a t i o n . Out o f p u r e human k i n d n e s s t h e g r e a t h e l p t h e i r l e s s f o r t u n a t e b r o t h e r s . Thanks t o t h e c h a r i t a b l e c o n c e r n o f w e l l - t o - d o p e o p l e , t h e s o n o f a p o o r a r t i s a n , s h e p h e r d and c o o p e r ' s a p p r e n t i c e goes t o s c h o o l and e n t e r s t h e r o a d t h a t l e a d s him t o h o n o u r and o u t o f p o v e r t y . B u t p r a i s e w o r t h y t h o u g h i t i s , t h i s a s s i s t a n c e i s i n a d e q u a t e ; . . . The y o u t h ' s n a t u r a l t a l e n t s a r e g r e a t , however; he has n o t y e t l e a r n e d a n y t h i n g , b u t he knows, a t a l l e v e n t s , t h a t o n l y l e a r n i n g c a n s a v e him. He w i l l n o t abandon i n t e l l e c t u a l work no m a t t e r how s t r a i t e n e d h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e s may be. . . . E v e n w h i l e h i s hands a r e engaged i n d r u d g e r y , h i s mind i s t a k e n up w i t h g e n e r a l human p r o b l e m s and w i t h t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e w h o l e c l a s s t o w h i c h he b e l o n g s . . . . A t f i r s t t h e s e new t h o u g h t s p l e a s e t h e l e a r -n ed men i n r e s p e c t a b l e s o c i e t y i n t h e same way as t h e y had been p l e a s e d by t h e g i f t e d v i l l a g e l a d . They e n c o u r a g e h i s l a b o u r s , he c o n t i n u e s h i s i n t e l -l e c t u a l o c c u p a t i o n s , he d e v e l o p s h i s i d e a s . B u t a t l a s t h i s p a t r o n s awaken t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s a p e r n i c i o u s s i d e t o h i s t h o u g h t s , . . . B u t t o o l a t e : he no l o n g e r needs p a t r o n a g e , he i s a l r e a d y s t r o n g e r t h a n h i s p e r s e c u t o r s , . . . he c r u s h e s e v e r y b o d y a g a i n s t whom he i s c o m p e l l e d t o r a i s e h i s 27 hand. T h i s b i o g r a p h y o f a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l i s t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e c l a s s t o w h i c h he b e l o n g s . [pp. 6 4 - 6 6 ] 1 I n C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s c o n c e p t i o n , t h e aware i n d i v i d u a l immedi-a t e l y i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f w i t h h i s s o c i a l c l a s s and i s r e a d y t o e n t e r t h e p a t h o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t r u g g l e t o o v e r t h r o w t h e r u l i n g c l a s s . The e v o l u t i o n a r y o u t l o o k , on t h e o t h e r hand, s e e s t h i s i n d i v i d u a l a t f i r s t d i s s o c i a t i n g h i m s e l f f r o m h i s own s o c i a l s t r a t u m , f i n d i n g h i m s e l f an i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e u n i v e r s a l s e n s e . He i s n o t a member o f a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s b u t a man o f p a r t i c -u l a r m e r i t s , who by v i r t u e o f h i s m e r i t s e l e v a t e s h i m s e l f t o t h e r a n k s o f t h e r u l i n g c l a s s . T hus, by i n f i l t r a t i o n , t h o s e w i t h a new d i v e r g i n g o u t l o o k and e x p e r i e n c e f o r m t h e new r u l i n g c l a s s and a new s o c i a l o r d e r i s e s t a b l i s h e d . I n C h e r n y s h e v s k y 1 s p e r s p e c t i v e t h e change i s p o s s i b l e o n l y by means o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y c h a n n e l s . He i n f e r s t h a t e a c h e n l i g h t e n e d i n d i v i d u a l c a n , and p e r h a p s i s m o r a l l y o b l i g a t e d t o , i n v o l v e h i m s e l f w i t h s u c h a c t i v i t i e s . He i s t o p r e p a r e an e n v i r o n m e n t f o r a r e v o l u t i o n . The change w i l l happen by a r t i f i c i a l means. What p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s t h i s w o u l d have f o r a s o c i e t y i s n o t C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s c o n c e r n . The a s s u m p t i o n h e r e w o u l d be t h a t t h e s o c i e t y w o u l d d e a l w i t h t h a t p a r t i c u -l a r i s s u e when i t a r o s e . However, t h i s change i s s t i l l i n t h e d i s t a n t f u t u r e , C h e r n y s h e v s k y g a t h e r s , b e c a u s e t h e aware i n d i v i d u a l i s f u l l o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . He i s n o t r e a d y t o g u i d e h i s s o c i e t y 28 t o w a r d a new s o c i a l o r d e r : He has n o t y e t g r a s p e d t h e s c i e n t i f i c c o n c e p t s w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d most t o h i s p o s i t i o n , i n c l i n a t i o n s and n e e d s , a n d , we t h i n k , t h a t c o r r e s p o n d most t o t h e t r u t h , b u t a t a l l e v e n t s t o t h e p r e s e n t s t a t e o f knowledge. [p. 68] We have s e e n what s t a g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t h a s b e e n r e a c h e d by t h e t r e n d o f t h o u g h t o f a p l e b e i a n i n W e s t e r n E u r o p e . He has n o t y e t g r a s p e d t h e g e n e r a l i d e a s o f p r e s e n t - d a y s c i e n c e , t h e d e d u c t i o n s f r o m w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d t o h i s n e e d s . He s t i l l c l i n g s t o t h e o b s o l e t e p r i n c i p l e s . . . and c o n s t a n t l y p a s s e s f r o m j a u n d i c e d r e p u d i a t i o n o f them t o s u b m i s s i o n t o them. He c a n n o t r e m a i n i n t h i s s t a t e o f s u b m i s s i o n l o n g and a g a i n b u r s t s o u t i n c a u s t i c t i r a d e s o n l y t o s u b m i t t o r o u t i n e o nce a g a i n . T h i s j a u n d i c e d i n d e c i s i o n , t h i s v a c i l l a t i o n , i s t o t a l l y a l i e n t o t h e s p i r i t o f t h e new i d e a s . [p. 86] What a r e t h e o b s o l e t e p r i n c i p l e s t h a t C h e r n y s h e v s k y t a l k s a b o u t ? P e r h a p s t h o s e t h a t a r e p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y sound b u t have n e g a t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e s o c i a l r e a l m . C h e r n y s h e v s k y b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e s e have t o be r e j e c t e d . The j a u n d i c e d image o f t h e l e a r n e d man w i t h o u t means i s a c c u r a t e l y d e p i c t e d . The n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y man s t i l l l o o k s f o r a b s o l u t e s . He i s n o t a p r a g m a t i s t and w i l l n o t be i n c l i n e d t o a d o p t ready-made s o l u t i o n s . What i s i t t h a t C h e r n y s h e v s k y expounds h e r e ? He s t a t e s t h a t one's p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s d e t e r m i n e , o r s h o u l d d e t e r m i n e , h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l v i e w s . F u r t h e r , he i n f e r s t h a t knowledge s e r v e s t h e p u r p o s e o f f u r t h e r i n g o n e ' s p o l i t i c a l s t r e n g t h , t h u s p r e s u m a b l y t h e s t r e n g t h o f h i s s o c i a l c l a s s , w h i c h w i l l h e l p h i m i n h i s p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t a n o t h e r c l a s s . Knowledge, i n C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s o p i n i o n , i s r e l a t i v e . The t r u t h , he states , v*>wi'll p e r h a p s be e v i d e n t : i n t h e , ~ d i s t a n t 29 f u t u r e . "The p r e s e n t s t a t e o f k n o w l e d g e " s h o u l d be c o n s i d -e r e d t h e c l o s e s t t o k e n o f t h e t r u t h , a l t h o u g h i t a f f o r d s o n l y a g l i m p s e o f i t . C h e r n y s h e v s k y h o l d s some s o r t o f b e l i e f i n p r o g r e s s , b u t e x a c t l y what t h i s n o t i o n e n t a i l s f o r him i s i m p o s s i b l e t o j u d g e . The m a t e r i a l he p r e s e n t s on t h i s t o p i c i n t h i s e s s a y i s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o make any c o n c l u s i o n s . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t C h e r n y s h e v s k y 1 s v i e w i s i n f l u e n c e d by h i s t o r i c i s t i d e a s and i t r e t a i n s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y e m p h a s i s on t h e s t r u g g l e between r e a s o n and s u p e r s t i t i o n , on t h e movement o f mankind away f r o m t h e o l o g i c a l and m e t a p h y s i c a l modes o f t h o u g h t t o p o s i t i v e o r e m p i r i c a l h a b i t s o f mind, and on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e x t e n d i n g t h e s t a n d a r d s and methods o f t h e 2 s c i e n c e s t o a l l d o m a i n s . However, t h i s i s j u s t a g u e s s . What i s r e a l l y l e f t a f t e r a n a l y s i s o f "The A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P r i n c i p l e i n P h i l o s -ophy" i s t h a t C h e r n y s h e v s k y seems t o d enounce a l l p a s t t h e o r i e s o f knowledge i n f a v o u r o f t h e " p r e s e n t s t a t e o f k n o w l e d g e , " t h a t i s , t h e v e r y l a t e s t v i e w . C h e r n y s h e v s k y was known t o be a f o l l o w e r o f F e u e r b a c h . F e u e r b a c h i s , o f c o u r s e , n o t m e n t i o n e d by name i n t h i s e s s a y . C h e r n y s h e v s k y was aware t h a t t h e name w o u l d n o t p a s s t h e c e n s o r s . However, t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e o f C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s p r e c i s e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f F e u e r b a c h b e y o n d t h e f u n d a m e n t a l a s s e r t i o n t h a t man l i v e d i n a m a t e r i a l u n i v e r s e and t h a t a d u a l i s t i c o p p o s i t i o n between man and God, o r any o t h e r 30 s u p e r n a t u r a l power o r e s s e n c e , s i m p l y d i d n o t e x i s t . "J I f C h e r n y s h e v s k y i s r e f e r r i n g t o F e u e r b a c h i n t h i s e s s a y , t h e r e f e r e n c e s a r e e x t r e m e l y e s o t e r i c , e . g . , " t h e s c i e n t i f i c c o n c e p t s w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d most t o h i s p o s i t i o n , i n c l i n a t i o n s and n e e d s , " " t h e s p i r i t o f t h e new i d e a s , " " t h e p r e s e n t s t a t e o f knowledge," e t c . I t a p p e a r s t h a t C h e r n y s h e v s k y b e l i e v e s t h a t s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y w i l l f u r t h e r man's s o c i a l and m o r a l p r o g r e s s , and t h a t t h e o b s t a c l e s t h a t hampered man i n t h e p a s t w i l l t h u s be e l i m i n a t e d . A l r e a d y , e a r l i e r i n t h e e s s a y , C h e r n y s h e v s k y b e g i n s t o o u t l i n e h i s v i e w on " t h e o r d e r o f t h i n g s . " H i s o b j e c t i v e i s t o e n l i g h t e n h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s w i t h h i s s o - c a l l e d " s p i r i t o f t h e new i d e a s " : T h a t p a r t o f p h i l o s o p h y w h i c h d e a l s w i t h t h e p r o b -lem o f man, j u s t l i k e t h e o t h e r p a r t w h i c h d e a l s w i t h t h e p r o b l e m s o f e x t e r n a l n a t u r e , i s b a s e d on t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s . The p r i n c i p l e u n d e r l y i n g t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l v i e w o f human l i f e and a l l i t s phenomena i s t h e i d e a worked o u t by n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s o f t h e u n i t y o f t h e human o r g a n i s m ; t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f p h y s i o l o g i s t s , z o o l o g i s t s and m e d i c a l men have d r i v e n away a l l t h o u g h t o f d u a l i s m i n man. P h i l o s -ophy s e e s h i m as m e d i c i n e , p h y s i o l o g y and c h e m i s t r y s e e him. T h e s e s c i e n c e s p r o v e t h a t no d u a l i s m i s e v i d e n t i n man, and p h i l o s o p h y adds t h a t i f man p o s s e s s e d a n o t h e r n a t u r e , i n a d d i t i o n t o h i s r e a l n a t u r e , t h i s o t h e r n a t u r e w o u l d r e v e a l i t s e l f i n some way, b u t s i n c e i t do e s n o t r e v e a l i t s e l f i n any way, s i n c e e v e r y t h i n g t h a t t a k e s p l a c e and m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n man o r i g i n a t e s s o l e l y f r o m h i s r e a l n a t u r e , he c a n n o t have a n o t h e r n a t u r e . T h i s p r o o f i s b e y o n d d o u b t . [p. 70] What i s t h i s r e a l n a t u r e o f man? Do t h e s e named s c i e n c e s r e a l l y p r o v e t h a t no d u a l i s m i n man i s e v i d e n t ? C h e r n y s h e v s k y 31 d o e s n o t e l a b o r a t e on t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s . He i s f o n d o f t h e s c i e n c e s b u t i s n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s i s . The c h i e f i n t e n t o f h i s j o u r n a l i s t i c a p p r o a c h i s t o g e t a r e a c t i o n f r o m h i s r e a d e r . S i n c e t h e r e a d e r c a n n o t be c l e a r on what i s s a i d , he i s t h u s u r g e d t o do h i s own r e s e a r c h t o g e t a b e t t e r i n s i g h t i n t o t h e i s s u e s p r e s e n t e d . F u r t h e r , C h e r n y s h e v s k y t a l k s o f t h e p r o g r e s s made i n t h e s c i e n c e s and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s : I n t h e same way, t h e u n i o n o f t h e e x a c t s c i e n c e s , u n d e r t h e government o f m a t h e m a t i c s , t h a t i s , c o u n t i n g , w e i g h i n g and m e a s u r i n g , i s y e a r a f t e r y e a r s p r e a d i n g t o new s p h e r e s o f k n o w l e d g e , i s g r o w i n g by t h e i n c l u s i o n o f newcomers. C h e m i s t r y was g r a d u a l l y f o l l o w e d by a l l t h e s c i e n c e s c o n -c e r n e d w i t h p l a n t and a n i m a l o r g a n i s m s : p h y s i o l o g y , c o m p a r a t i v e anatomy, v a r i o u s b r a n c h e s o f b o t a n y and z o o l o g y . Now t h e m o r a l s c i e n c e s a r e j o i n i n g i t . [p. 91] The n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s have a l r e a d y d e v e l o p e d t o s u c h an e x t e n t t h a t t h e y p r o v i d e m a t e r i a l f o r t h e e x a c t s o l u t i o n o f m o r a l p r o b l e m s t o o . A l l t h e p r o -g r e s s i v e t h i n k e r s among t h o s e who a r e s t u d y i n g t h e m o r a l s c i e n c e s have begun t o work o u t t h e s e p r o b -lems w i t h t h e a i d o f p r e c i s e methods s i m i l a r t o t h o s e by w h i c h t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s a r e b e i n g worked o u t . [p. 94] . . . i n t h e m o r a l s c i e n c e s , a s t r i c t d i s t i n c t i o n h as b e e n drawn between what i s known and what i s n o t known, a n d on t h e b a s i s o f what i s known t h e u n s o u n d n e s s o f some o f t h e p r e v i o u s a s s u m p t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g what s t i l l r e m a i n s unknown has b een p r o v e d . [p. 94] T h e r e i s a number o f p r o b l e m s i n t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s . F i r s t o f a l l , C h e r n y s h e v s k y lumps s c i e n c e , p h i l o s o p h y and p s y c h o l o g y t o g e t h e r as i f t h e y were one d i s c i p l i n e w i t h i d e n t i c a l modes o f i n q u i r y ; he a l s o i d e n t i f i e s p h i l o s o p h y w i t h p s y c h o l o g y . B u t t h e two a r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s . P s y c h o l o g y i s 32 an e m p i r i c a l s c i e n c e w h i c h t r i e s t o d i s c o v e r how o u r minds work, i . e . , what t h e v a r i o u s m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s a r e and what c a u s a l laws o p e r a t e among them, w i t h t h e o b j e c t o f g i v i n g as c o m p l e t e an e x p l a n a t i o n as p o s s i b l e o f m e n t a l h a p p e n i n g s , b o t h n o r m a l and a b n o r m a l . I t s methods a r e t h o s e o f n a t u r a l s c i e n c e , w i t h t h e h a n d i c a p t h a t i t s s u b j e c t m a t t e r i s n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r d i r e c t i n s p e c t i o n ( e x c e p t i n t h e c a s e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r h i m s e l f ) , b u t has t o be i n f e r r e d f r o m t h e o b s e r v e d a p p e a r a n c e and b e h a v i o u r o f human ( o r sometimes non-human) b o d i e s . P s y c h o l o g y , t h e n , i s i n t e r e s t e d i n c a u s a l q u e s t i o n s , i n f i n d i n g o u t how minds work. P h i l o s o p h y , on t h e o t h e r hand, i s i n t e r e s t e d i n q u e s t i o n s a b o u t what minds work on, what t h e i r m a t e r i a l i s , what t h e i r r e l a t i o n i s t o o b j e c t s i n t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d , t o o t h e r p e r s o n s ' m i n d s , t o t h e e v e n t s o f h i s t o r y , and so o n . 4 M o r a l p h i l o s o p h y , t o w h i c h C h e r n y s h e v s k y e s p e c i a l l y r e f e r s , i s a d i s c i p l i n e w h i c h c o n c e r n s i t s e l f w i t h j u d g e m e n t s o f a p p r o v a l o r d i s a p p r o v a l , j u d g e m e n t s as t o t h e r i g h t n e s s and w r o n g n e s s , g o o d n e s s o r b a d n e s s , v i r t u e o r v i c e , d e s i r a -b i l i t y o r wisdom o f a c t i o n s , d i s p o s i t i o n s o r o b j e c t s o r 5 s t a t e s o f a f f a i r s . So, a l t h o u g h i t may be i n t e r e s t e d i n d i s p o s i t i o n s , t h a t i s , t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e f r a i l t i e s o f t h e human c o n d i t i o n , i t s c h i e f c o n c e r n i s i n what i s j u s t . E v e n u t i l i t a r i a n i s m , t o w h i c h C h e r n y s h e v s k y a l l u d e s i n t h e f i r s t p a r a g r a p h when t a l k i n g a b o u t q u a n t i t a t i v e a s s e s s m e n t s , 33 a l t h o u g h a p r a g m a t i c p h i l o s o p h y , d o e s n o t s p r i n g f r o m a d e t e r -m i n i s t i c p o s i t i o n . The g r e a t e s t h a p p i n e s s , i n u t i l i t a r i a n t e r m s , i s a s o l u t i o n worked o u t f r o m t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f a b s o l u t e v a l u e s and t h o s e r e p r e s e n t i n g i n c l i n a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h p a i n , as i n h e d o n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y , i s u n d e s i r a b l e , u t i l i t a r -i a n i s m i n c o r p o r a t e s a b s o l u t e v a l u e s , t h a t , i s , h u m a n i t a r i a n i m p e r a t i v e s . S e c o n d l y , C h e r n y s h e v s k y seems t o i m p l y t h a t "what i s k n o w n " — r e f e r r i n g p r e s u m a b l y t o human i n c l i n a t i o n s — w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y c a u s e a man t o a c t . C h e r n y s h e v s k y b e l i e v e s t h a t man i s g e a r e d t o w a r d s s e l f i s h n e s s and t h a t a l l h i s a c t i o n s w i l l t h e r e f o r e f o l l o w t h i s p a t t e r n . T h i s i s why he s u g g e s t s t h a t m o r a l s c i e n c e s w i l l become l a b o r a t o r y s c i e n c e s , where more w i l l be f o u n d o u t a b o u t t h e s e i n c l i n a t i o n s , and what i m p l i c a t i o n s t h e y w i l l h a v e . He d i s c u s s e s t h e s e m a t t e r s i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l : . . . i s man a good o r an e v i l b e i n g ? L o t s o f p e o p l e r a c k t h e i r b r a i n s i n an e n d e a v o u r t o s o l v e t h i s p r o b l e m . N e a r l y h a l f o f them d e c i d e t h a t man by n a t u r e i s good; o t h e r s , a l s o c o n s t i t u t i n g n e a r l y h a l f o f t h e b r a i n - r a c k e r s , d e c i d e o t h e r w i s e : t h e y s a y t h a t man i s by n a t u r e b a d . . . . B u t a t t h e v e r y f i r s t a p p l i c a t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s i s t h e w hole t h i n g t u r n s o u t t o be as c l e a r as c l e a r c a n be. A man l i k e s what i s p l e a s a n t and d i s l i k e s what i s u n p l e a s a n t — . . . a man i s good when, i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n p l e a s u r e f o r h i m s e l f , he must g i v e p l e a s u r e t o o t h e r s . A man i s bad when, i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n p l e a s u r e f o r h i m s e l f , he i s o b l i g e d t o c a u s e u n p l e a s a n t n e s s f o r o t h e r s . H e r e , human n a t u r e c a n n o t be b lamed f o r one t h i n g o r p r a i s e d f o r t h e o t h e r ; e v e r y t h i n g depends on c i r c u m s t a n c e s , . . . [pp. 98-99] C h e r n y s h e v s k y 1 s p o s i t i o n i s v e r y p e c u l i a r . He d o e s j o i n t h e camp o f t h o s e who a s s e r t t h a t man i s by n a t u r e good, d e s p i t e 34 h i s c l a i m t h a t t h e two b a s i c d i s t i n c t i o n s a r e i m m a t e r i a l . B u t h i s p o s i t i o n i s a l t o g e t h e r q u i t e e x t r e m e . I n h i s v i e w , man c a n n o t be a t a l l m o r a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s a c t i o n s . Man s e e k s p l e a s u r e and r e f r a i n s f r o m p a i n , and t h e s e a r e t h e o n l y c r i t e r i a w h i c h w i l l d i r e c t h i s c o n d u c t . Man c a u s e s p l e a s u r e when he knows t h a t t h i s w i l l h e l p h i m t o a t t a i n p l e a s u r e ; he c a u s e s p a i n o n l y when he c a n o b t a i n p l e a s u r e f r o m i t . C h e r n y s h e v s k y i s e n t i t l e d t o s a y t h a t man p r e f e r s t o do what i s p l e a s u r a b l e t o him, b u t he c a n n o t have p l e a s u r e as a m o r a l p r i n c i p l e u n l e s s he c a n p r o v i d e some s a n c t i o n a g a i n s t men d o i n g p l e a s u r a b l e t h i n g s w h i c h a r e b a d . I f t h e p l e a s u r e p r i n c i p l e i s r i g h t , a man c a n n o t r e f r a i n f r o m d o i n g s o m e t h i n g bad i f i t g i v e s him p l e a s u r e . I t w o u l d f o l l o w t h a t t h e g i v i n g o f p l e a s u r e o r p a i n t o o t h e r s i s q u i t e i r r e l -e v a n t t o d e c i d i n g what i s p l e a s u r a b l e , b e c a u s e p e o p l e w i l l a l w a y s do what i s p l e a s u r a b l e t o them r e g a r d l e s s o f what p l e a s u r e o r p a i n i s c a u s e d t o o t h e r s . Thus i t i s q u i t e a r b i t r a r y t o c a l l an a c t i o n w h i c h g i v e s p l e a s u r e t o o t h e r s "good" when i t c a n n e v e r be p a r t o f t h e p l e a s u r e g i v e r ' s u l t i m a t e i n t e n t i o n s , w h i c h a r e a l w a y s h i s own h a p p i n e s s . T h i s p l a c e s C h e r n y s h e v s k y i n a dilemma, b e c a u s e i f he d e f i n e s p l e a s u r a b l e a c t i o n s as t h o s e a c t i o n s w h i c h g i v e p l e a s u r e t o o t h e r s (and t h e r e b y i n t r o d u c e s t h e i m p o r t a n t s a n c t i o n ) , he c a n n o t m a i n t a i n a s t r i c t p l e a s u r e p r i n c i p l e s u c h ; a s M i l l V s : . . . t h a t p l e a s u r e and f r e e d o m f r o m p a i n a r e t h e o n l y t h i n g s d e s i r a b l e as ends; and t h a t a l l d e s i r -a b l e t h i n g s . . . a r e d e s i r a b l e e i t h e r f o r p l e a s u r e i n h e r e n t i n t h e m s e l v e s o r as means t o t h e p r o m o t i o n o f p l e a s u r e and t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f p a i n . F o r M i l l , t h e s t a n d a r d o f m o r a l c o n d u c t i s n o t t h e agent's own h a p p i n e s s , b u t t h e g r e a t e s t amount o f h a p p i n e s s a l t o g e t h e r . Thus i t w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e f o r a p l e a s u r e - s e e k i n g a g e n t t o g e t p l e a s u r e f r o m h a r m i n g o t h e r s u n l e s s t h e r e was a g r e a t e r number o f p e o p l e y e t who w o u l d b e n e f i t . I f C h e r n y s h e v s k y i s u s i n g M i l l a s t h e s o u r c e o f h i s own f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e p l e a s u r e p r i n c i p l e , t h e n he has l e f t o u t t h e s t a n d a r d w h i c h a l l o w s u t i l i t a r i a n i s m t o be c a l l e d a m o r a l t h e o r y . A l t h o u g h he w o u l d l i k e t o t h i n k h i m s e l f a u t i l i t a r i a n / C h e r n y s h e v s k y i s n o t a d h e r i n g t o any m o r a l t h e o r y . He i s n e i t h e r a u t i l i t a r i a n w i t h a d e f i n e d n o t i o n o f h a p p i n e s s , n o r a h e d o n i s t who w o u l d a r g u e f o r p l e a s u r e t o be t h e u n i v e r s a l good'. S p e a k i n g ' o f ^  s e l f i n t e r e s t> -he . s t a t e s : . . . t h e s t r o n g e s t p a s s i o n g e t s t h e u p p e r hand o v e r t h o s e t h a t a r e l e s s s t r o n g , w h i c h a r e s a c r i -f i c e d t o t h e f o r m e r . A c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e m o t i v e s t h a t prompt p e o p l e ' s a c t i o n s shows t h a t a l l d e e d s , good and bad, n o b l e and b a s e , h e r o i c and c r a v e n , a r e prompted by one c a u s e : a man a c t s i n t h e way t h a t g i v e s h i m most p l e a s u r e . He i s g u i d e d by s e l f i n t e r e s t , w h i c h c a u s e s him t o a b s t a i n f r o m a s m a l l e r g a i n , o r a l e s s e r p l e a s u r e , i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a l a r g e r g a i n o r a g r e a t e r p l e a s u r e . The f a c t t h a t good and bad a c t i o n s a r e prompted by t h e same c a u s e does n o t , o f c o u r s e d i m i n i s h t h e d i f f e r e n c e between them. [p. 124] Her e C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s p o s i t i o n seems t o be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m h i s i n i t i a l argument on t h i s i s s u e . He f i n a l l y a d m i t s t h a t s a t i s f a c t i o n c a n be g a i n e d f r o m an a c t i o n t h a t may a c t u -a l l y c a u s e p a i n , b e s i d e s t h a t w h i c h a c t u a l l y c a u s e s p l e a s u r e . 36 F u r t h e r , he p o s t u l a t e s t h a t man p a s s e s up a s m a l l e r g a i n , l e s s e r p l e a s u r e , f o r a l a r g e r g a i n , g r e a t e r p l e a s u r e . Does t h i s mean t h a t C h e r n y s h e v s k y i d e n t i f i e s w i t h P l a t o ' s p o s i t i o n 7 as f o r m u l a t e d i n The P r o t a g o r a s ? I f t h i s i s t r u e , t h e n he c o n t r a d i c t s h i s e a r l i e r c l a i m . I f , however, he doe s n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h e i d e a o f g r e a t e r g a i n , g r e a t e r p l e a s u r e i n t h i s c o n t e x t , t h e n h i s who l e p o s i t i o n i n i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . The i d e a o f g r e a t e r g a i n , g r e a t e r p l e a s u r e i s i n e s s e n c e u t i l i -t a r i a n . I n M i l l ' s U t i l i t a r i a n i s m t h i s c o n c e p t c a n be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h a t o f P l a t o ' s P r o t a g o r a s , t h a t i s , t h e good i s t h e g r e a t e r p l e a s u r e . However, what "good" i s f o r C h e r n y s h e v s k y i s n o t c l e a r . He f a i l s t o a s s e r t t h a t t h e c a t a l y s t s o f a l l u t i l i t a r i a n a s s e s s m e n t s a r e m o r a l i m p e r a -t i v e s . I t i s n o t ev e n c l e a r w h e t h e r he u n d e r s t a n d s t h a t t h e u t i l i t a r i a n p o s i t i o n i n v o l v e s m o r a l d e c i s i o n s . The u t i l i -t a r i a n h as t o c h o o s e , b u t c a n C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s d e t e r m i n i s t i c p o s i t i o n . a l l o w f o r t h i s ? U t i l i t a r i a n i s m i s an answer t o t h e p l u r a l i s t i c b e l i e f t h a t m o r a l c h o i c e i s a r b i t r a r y ; t h a t , g i v e n two a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n s , an a g e n t h a s no c r i t e r i o n b y w h i c h t o make a m o r a l d e c i s i o n . C h e r n y s h e v s k y d e n i e s p l u r a l i s m b u t , l i k e p l u r a l i s m , h i s n o t i o n o f s e l f - i n t e r e s t e x c l u d e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f making m o r a l d e c i s i o n s . I f an a g e n t c a n w i l l i n g l y a c t o n l y i n h i s own i n t e r e s t s , he c a n n o t w i l l i n g l y s a c r i f i c e h i s i n t e r e s t s f o r t h e s a k e o f o t h e r s . M i l l was aware t h a t any t h e o r y o f m o r a l b e h a v i o u r must i n c l u d e n o t i o n s o f what i s r i g h t , good, j u s t , and so on; t h a t any m o r a l t h e o r y must t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t n o t o n l y s e l f -i n t e r e s t b u t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f o t h e r s . A t t h e v e r y l e a s t , a m o r a l d e c i s i o n i s one t h a t must t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t a p o s s i b l e c o n f l i c t between what an a g e n t b e l i e v e s t o be h i s own i n t e r e s t , and what he b e l i e v e s t o be t h e i n t e r e s t s o f o t h e r s I f , as i n C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s n o t i o n o f s e l f - i n t e r e s t , no s u c h c o n f l i c t c a n e v e r be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t when making a d e c i s i o n t o a c t , t h e n t h e d e c i s i o n i s n o t a m o r a l one. F u r t h e r , C h e r n y s h e v s k y s t a t e s t h a t good and e v i l a r e c u l t u r a l l y r e l a t i v e (p. 1 2 4 ) . Then he goes on t o s t a t e t h a t The i n t e r e s t s o f mankind as a w h o l e s t a n d h i g h e r t h a n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f an i n d i v i d u a l n a t i o n ; t h e common i n t e r e s t s o f a w h o l e n a t i o n a r e h i g h e r t h a n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f an i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s ; t h e i n t e r e s t s o f a l a r g e c l a s s a r e h i g h e r t h a n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f a s m a l l one. I n t h e o r y , t h i s g r a d a t i o n i s b e y o n d d o u b t ; i t i s m e r e l y t h e a p p l i c a t i o n t o s o c i a l p r o b l e m s o f t h e g e o m e t r i c a l a x i o m s : " t h e w h o l e i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e p a r t , " " t h e l a r g e r q u a n t i t y i s b i g g e r t h a n t h e s m a l l e r q u a n t i t y . " [p. 125] T h i s g r a d a t i o n , t h e n , w o u l d s a c r i f i c e t h e i n t e r e s t s o f a m i n o r i t y and t h o s e o f an i n d i v i d u a l . C h e r n y s h e v s k y i s aware t h a t f u r t h e r c r i t e r i a w i l l be n e c e s s a r y . And h e r e , f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , he m e n t i o n s one o f t h e i m p e r a t i v e s o f t h e u t i l i t a r i a n p o s i t i o n : T h e o r e t i c a l f a l l a c y i n e v i t a b l y l e a d s t o p r a c t i c a l harm. I n t h o s e c a s e s when, f o r i t s own a d v a n t a g e , an i n d i v i d u a l n a t i o n t r a m p l e s upon t h e i n t e r e s t s o f mankind, o r when an i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s t r a m p l e s upon t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e n a t i o n , t h e r e s u l t i s a l w a y s d e t r i m e n t a l n o t o n l y t o t h e s i d e whose i n t e r e s t had been e n c r o a c h e d upon, b u t a l s o t o t h e s i d e t h a t had hoped t o g a i n by t h i s . [p. 125] 38 A p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p , t h e n , c a n n o t a r b i t r a r i l y . trample upon a n o t h e r g r o u p t o f u l f i l l t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . C h e r n y s h e v s k y , however, d o e s n o t m e n t i o n t h a t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e p r i n c i p l e , i t w o u l d be t h e m i n o r i t y and t h e i n d i v i d u a l whose i n t e r e s t s w o u l d be s a c r i f i c e d . He c h o o s e s t h e o p p o s i t e c a s e , where a m i n o r i t y e x e r c i s e s power o v e r a m a j o r i t y ; t h a t i s why he c a l l s i t a t h e o r e t i c a l f a l l a c y . No d o u b t , he has i n mind t h e r u l i n g c l a s s i n R u s s i a , whose c o n d u c t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e u t i l i t a r i a n q u a n t i t a t i v e p r i n c i p l e , i s o u t r a g e o u s . I t i s b e c o m i n g c l e a r t h a t C h e r n y s h e v s k y d o e s n o t aim a t t h e o r e t -i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f any p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n , b u t r a t h e r a t p o l i t i c a l a g i t a t i o n . C h e r n y s h e v s k y w i n d s up h i s e s s a y by e x p l o r i n g what t h e good i s : Good i s , as i t w e r e , ' t h e . s u p e r l a t i v e .of ^ u t i l i t y , v e r y u s e f u l u t i l i t y , as i t were. [p. 129] I f we t h i n k t h a t "good i s h i g h e r t h a n u t i l i t y " we o n l y s a y " v e r y b i g u t i l i t y i s h i g h e r t h a n n o t v e r y b i g u t i l i t y , " we o n l y e x p r e s s a m a t h e m a t i c a l t r u i s m , . . . O n l y good a c t i o n s a r e p r u d e n t ; o n l y he who i s good i s r a t i o n a l , and he i s r a t i o n a l o n l y t o t h e d e g r e e t h a t he i s good. [p. 130] T h i s s e r i e s o f s t a t e m e n t s i s v e r y c o n f u s i n g . C h e r n y s h e v s k y i n i t i a l l y s t a t e s t h a t good i s t h e g r e a t e s t u t i l i t y . T h i s i s n o t e x p l a i n e d . I t m e r e l y g i v e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t q u a n t i t y i s t h e e s s e n c e o f what i s good, b u t n o t h i n g i s m e n t i o n e d a b o u t what q u a l i t i e s a r e i n v o l v e d . I t i s e l e m e n t a r y t h a t t h e r e c a n be an abundance o f b a d t h i n g s as w e l l as o f good t h i n g s . What i s bad w i l l n o t be 39 made b e t t e r o r g o o d by v i r t u e o f i t s q u a n t i t y . T h u s , l e a v i n g t h e u t i l i t a r i a n g o od u n e x p l a i n e d , C h e r n y s h e v s k y jumps t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t w h a t i s g o o d i s r a t i o n a l a nd v i c e v e r s a . T h i s i s a n u n e x p e c t e d t u r n . F r o m U t i l i t a r i a n i s m , C h e r n y s h e v -s k y seems t o t u r n t o P l a t o n i c i d e a l i s m . B o t h c o n c e p t s o f t h e g o od and t h e r a t i o n a l a r e s t i l l u n d e f i n e d . So w h a t we a r e l e f t w i t h i s a t a u t o l o g y . I n C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s s y l l o g i s m , i t w o u l d f o l l o w t h a t t o o b t a i n t h e g r e a t e s t u t i l i t y i s r a t i o n a l . I n o t h e r w o r d s , h e , who t a k e s t h e g r e a t e s t , l a r g e s t p o r t i o n o f a l l t h e r e i s , i s r a t i o n a l . How w o u l d t h i s be r a t i o n a l ? Of w h a t d o e s C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s n o t i o n o f r a t i o n a l i t y c o n s i s t ? H o wever, C h e r n y s h e v s k y 1 s f i n a l c l a i m r e s e m b l e s one o f M i l l ' s i n h i s U t i l i t a r i a n i s m . M i l l ' s a r g u m e n t i n f a v o u r o f t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e c o n t e n t i o n g o e s a s f o l l o w s : The o n l y p r o o f c a p a b l e o f b e i n g g i v e n t h a t an o b j e c t i s v i s i b l e i s t h a t p e o p l e a c t u a l l y s e e i t . The o n l y p r o o f t h a t a s o u n d i s a u d i b l e i s t h a t p e o p l e h e a r i t ; and s o o f t h e o t h e r s o u r c e s o f o u r e x p e r i e n c e . I n l i k e m anner, I a p p r e h e n d , t h e s o l e e v i d e n c e i t i s p o s s i b l e t o p r o d u c e t h a t a n y t h i n g i s d e s i r a b l e i s t h a t p e o p l e do a c t u a l l y d e s i r e i t . I f t h e end w h i c h t h e u t i l i t a r i a n d o c t r i n e p r o p o s e s f o r i t s e l f w e r e n o t , i n t h e o r y and i n p r a c t i c e , a c k n o w l e d g e d t o be a n e n d , n o t h i n g c o u l d e v e r c o n v i n c e any p e r s o n t h a t i t was s o . No r e a s o n c a n be g i v e n why t h e g e n e r a l h a p p i n e s s i s d e s i r a b l e , e x c e p t t h a t e a c h p e r s o n , s o f a r a s he b e l i e v e s i t t o be a t t a i n a b l e , d e s i r e s h i s own h a p p i n e s s . ^ I n t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e i d e a o f t h e g e n e r a l g o o d w o u l d a l s o b e g i v e n a f r e e h a n d . M i l l , h o w e v e r , i n t r o d u c e s a n i m p o r t a n t q u a l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i d e a . H i s i n i t i a l c o n c e r n i s t o d e f i n e w h a t i t i s t o be f u l l y human: I t i s b e t t e r t o be a human b e i n g d i s s a t i s f i e d t h a n 40 a p i g s a t i s f i e d ; b e t t e r t o be S o c r a t e s d i s s a t i s f i e d t h a n a f o o l s a t i s f i e d . And i f t h e f o o l , o r t h e p i g , a r e o f a d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n , i t i s b e c a u s e t h e y o n l y know t h e i r own s i d e o f t h e q u e s t i o n . The o t h e r p a r t y t o t h e c o m p a r i s o n knows b o t h s i d e s . ^ C h e r n y s h e v s k y 1 s own s t a t e m e n t t h a t good i s p r u d e n t and r a t i o n a l r e m o t e l y v o i c e s t h e c o n c e r n s o f t h i s p a s s a g e . As y e t , C h e r n y s h e v s k y s a y s n o t h i n g on t h e s u b j e c t o f v i r t u e s . B u t i n t h e end o f h i s e s s a y he t o u c h e s on t h e s u b j e c t : He [a man] may s a y t o h i m s e l f : I w i l l be w i c k e d , I w i l l do p e o p l e harm; b u t he w i l l n o t be a b l e t o do t h a t , any more t h a n a c l e v e r man c a n be a f o o l e v e n i f he wanted t o be one. [p. 131] T h i s shows t h a t i n C h e r n y s h e v s k y 1 s t h e o r y t h e r e i s no p l a c e f o r m o r a l weakness. He assumes t h a t a man who c a n c o n c e p -t u a l i z e m o r a l r i g h t c a n n o t b u t p u t i t i n t o a c t i o n . What happened t o C h e r n y s h e v s k y 1 s n o t i o n o f s e l f - i n t e r e s t ? W i l l a man whose s e l f - i n t e r e s t i s i n j e o p a r d y n o t p r e t e n d t o be a f o o l who d o e s n o t know m o r a l r i g h t i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t h i s s e l f - i n t e r e s t ? What happened t o s e l f - d e c e p t i o n ? t o w i l l ? C h e r n y s h e v s k y 1 s c o n c e p t i o n o f r a t i o n a l i t y comes c l o s e t o t h e P l a t o n i c c o n c e p t i o n , where t h e r a t i o n a l man c a n n o t be s u b j e c t t o m o r a l weakness, b e c a u s e i f he were he c o u l d n o t be r e f e r r e d t o as a f u l l y r a t i o n a l p e r s o n . B u t i n P l a t o ' s p h i l o s o p h y m o r a l weakness i s a c k n o w l e d g e d . " ^ I n a d d i t i o n , C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n i s c e r t a i n l y i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h e i t h e r t h e h e d o n i s t i c o r t h e u t i l i t a r i a n p o s i t i o n . F u r t h e r , C h e r n y s h e v s k y a r g u e s t h a t v i r t u e has t h e g r e a t e s t u t i l i t y v a l u e : 41 E x t e r n a l o b j e c t s , no m a t t e r how c l o s e l y t h e y may be a t t a c h e d t o man, n e v e r t h e l e s s , o n l y t o o o f t e n p a r t f r o m him: . . . I f , however, he i s u s e f u l t o o t h e r p e o p l e b e c a u s e o f h i s own v i r t u e s , b e c a u s e o f h i s own s p i r i t u a l q u a l i t i e s . . . he c a n n o t c e a s e t o be u s e f u l t o o t h e r p e o p l e — . . . [p. 131] V i r t u e , i n C h e r n y s h e v s k y 1 s v i e w , has a p e r m a nent u t i l i t y v a l u e . B u t why w o u l d an i n d i v i d u a l s e ek v i r t u e and a c t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h i t , r a t h e r t h a n a d h e r e t o s e l f - i n t e r e s t ? C h e r n y s h e v s k y f a i l s t o e x p l a i n . The u t i l i t a r i a n p o s i t i o n , a s f o r m u l a t e d by M i l l , i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e a b s o l u t e s y s t e m o f m o r a l s , b u t does n o t p u t i t f o r w a r d as t h e p a r t o r t h e end o f t h e u t i l i t a r i a n g r e a t e s t good: V i r t u e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e u t i l i t a r i a n d o c t r i n e , i s n o t n a t u r a l l y and o r i g i n a l l y p a r t o f t h e end, b u t i t i s c a p a b l e o f b e c o m i n g s o ; and i n t h o s e who l i v e i t d i s i n t e r e s t e d l y i t has become s o , and i s d e s i r e d and c h e r i s h e d , n o t as a means t o h a p p i n e s s , b u t as a p a r t o f t h e i r h a p p i n e s s . 1 2 T h i s l a t t e r s t a t e m e n t o f M i l l ' s i n some way d e t r a c t s . f r o m h i s s t a t e m e n t on what i s e n t a i l e d i n b e i n g f u l l y human. I t shows t h a t u t i l i t a r i a n i s m d e s i g n s d i f f e r e n t h a p p i n e s s f o r t h o s e l i k e S o c r a t e s , who a r e f u l l y human, and f o r t h o s e u n l i k e S o c r a t e s , who a r e n o t . C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s s i m i l a r . I n h i s n o v e l What I s To Be Done? he shows t h a t t h e r e i s d i f f e r e n t h a p p i n e s s f o r d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e . I t i s one t h i n g f o r L opukhov and a n o t h e r f o r someone l i k e S t o r e s h n i k o v . I n c o n c l u s i o n , C h e r n y s h e v s k y r e v e a l s why he c a l l s h i s e s s a y "The A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P r i n c i p l e i n P h i l o s o p h y " : " I t i s t h a t a man must be r e g a r d e d as a s i n g l e b e i n g h a v i n g o n l y one n a t u r e " (pp. 132-133). I n o t h e r w ords, C h e r n y s h e v s k y s t a t e s 42 h i s o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l d u a l i s m ; b u t he p r e s e n t s no argument f o r t h i s o p p o s i t i o n . C h e r n y s h e v s k y b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p r i n -c i p l e i s e v i d e n t i n a l l a r e a s o f human a c t i v i t y . I n summary o f h i s main p o i n t s : 1. S e l f - i n t e r e s t d e t e r m i n e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s p h i l o -s o p h i c a l and t h e r e f o r e h i s p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n (pp. 64-66, 68, 86) . 2. Man's m o r a l c o n d u c t i s d e t e r m i n e d by c i r c u m s t a n c e s (pp. 91-92, 9 4 ) . 3. Man c a n n o t be blamed f o r e v i l . He s e e k s p l e a s u r e and r e f r a i n s f r o m p a i n (pp. 8 8 - 8 9 ) . 4. Good and e v i l a r e c u l t u r a l l y r e l a t i v e (pp. 124-125). 5. Man has o n l y one n a t u r e (pp. 70, 132-133). "The A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P r i n c i p l e i n P h i l o s o p h y " does n o t p r e s e n t a c o n s i s t e n t p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n ; n e i t h e r does i t a r g u e p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y . I t i s , r a t h e r , a d e c l a r a t i o n o f p r i n c i p l e s , w h i c h amount t o vehement, i n e s s e n c e a l m o s t r e l i g i o u s , b e l i e f s i n p r o g r e s s and a new s c i e n t i f i c s o c i a l o r d e r . 4 3 CHAPTER I I I "THE AESTHETIC RELATION OF ART TO REALITY" C h e r n y s h e v s k y 1 s t r e a t i s e on a e s t h e t i c s d e a l s w i t h methods and a s p i r a t i o n s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e d e s c r i b e d i n "The A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P r i n c i p l e i n P h i l o s o p h y . " "The A e s t h e t i c R e l a t i o n o f A r t t o R e a l i t y " was o r i g i n a l l y C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s . I n t h i s e s s a y he d e f e n d s n a t u r e a g a i n s t a r t . He e n d e a v o u r s t o p r o v e t h a t n a t u r e i s f a r s u p e r i o r i n b e a u t y ( i d e a and c o n t e n t ) and p e r f e c t i o n ( e x e c u t i o n ) t o a r t (p. 3 7 9 ) . C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s i n i t i a l t a s k i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e a e s t h e t i c r e l a t i o n o f works o f a r t t o t h e phenomenon o f l i f e , t o t e s t t h e German R a t i o n a l i s t s c h o o l ' s v i e w t h a t b e a u t y , t h e h i g h e s t a i m o f a r t , i s n o t p r e s e n t i n n a t u r e b u t i s a t t a i n e d o n l y by a r t . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , C h e r n y s h e v s k y examines t h e H e g e l i a n c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e s u b l i m e and t h e t r a g i c . I n a d d i t i o n , he s t a t e s h i s own v i e w s on t h e q u e s t i o n s o f t h e e s s e n c e o f b e a u t y and t h e c o n t e n t and a i m o f a r t . C h e r n y s h e v s k y i s h i g h l y c r i t i c a l o f H e g e l ; t h e r e f o r e i t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t h e r e t h a t t h e r e i s no c l e a r e v i d e n c e t h a t he e v e r r e a d any o f H e g e l ' s w o r k s . W i l l i a m F. W o e h r l i n ' s comments on t h i s s u b j e c t a r e h e l p f u l h e r e : H i s [ C h e r n y s h e v s k y 1 s ] l a s t two y e a r s a t t h e u n i v e r -s i t y had w i t n e s s e d a c o l l a p s e o f h i s e a r l i e r r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s , and a f t e r a b r i e f a t t e m p t t o u n d e r s t a n d H e g e l , h i s r e j e c t i o n o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a l i s m . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h e b a s i s f o r h i s r e j e c t i o n o f H e g e l had b een t h e p h i l o s o p h e r ' s 44 d i f f i c u l t y , w h i c h t h e young C h e r n y s h e v s k y r e a d i l y a d m i t t e d , and h i s f e e l i n g t h a t H e g e l was "a s l a v e o f t h e e x i s t i n g o r d e r o f t h i n g s , " t h e e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y . ^ C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s t h e s i s a d v i s e r , A. V. N i k i t e n k o , had o b j e c t e d t o h i s i d e n t i f y i n g i d e a s f r o m V i s c h e r as H e g e l i a n p h i l o s o p h y . N i k i t e n k o a d v i s e d C h e r n y s h e v s k y e i t h e r t o o m i t h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f H e g e l i a n i s m o r t o r e v i s e i t . S i n c e C h e r n y s h e v s k y p r e f e r r e d t o r e t a i n most o f t h e b a s i c d e f i n i t i o n s t a k e n f r o m V i s c h e r , he a d o p t e d t h e t e r m " p r e v a i l i n g v i e w " t o s u g g e s t a c o n n e c t i o n w i t h H e g e l and y e t a v o i d t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r g i v i n g a c o h e r e n t p i c t u r e o f H e g e l ' s v i e w s o r q u o t i n g him d i r e c t l y . 2 J u d g i n g f r o m t h i s , one c a n o n l y assume t h a t t h e o n l y s c h o l a r l y work t o w h i c h C h e r n y s h e v s k y r e f e r s i n t h i s e s s a y i s F. T. V i s c h e r ' s " A e s t h e t i k o d e r W i s s e n s c h a f t d e s Sch5nen" (1846-1857). A l t h o u g h V i s c h e r was an H e g e l i a n o f a s o r t , C h e r n y s h e v s k y c o u l d n o t have g a i n e d a f u l l p e r s p e c t i v e o f H e g e l ' s a e s t h e t i c s f r o m t h i s s o u r c e . C l e a r l y , V i s c h e r ' s work d i d n o t embrace t h e s c o p e o f a l l t h e i s s u e s r a i s e d i n H e g e l ' s l e c t u r e s on a e s t h e t i c s and c o u l d n o t have p r e s e n t e d them i n s u c h d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s as d i d t h e o r i g i n a l . Thus i t seems t h a t C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s c r i t i c i s m o f H e g e l i s n o t q u i t e j u s t i f i e d , c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t he may n o t have e v e n r e a d H e g e l ' s t e x t . However, C h e r n y s h e v s k y does r e f e r t o H e g e l by name i n t h i s e s s a y and t o h i s l e c t u r e s on a e s t h e t i c s , h e n c e t h e a n a l y s i s o f "The A e s t h e t i c R e l a t i o n o f A r t t o R e a l i t y " must t a k e t h i s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 45 C h e r n y s h e v s k y a c t u a l l y opens t h e e s s a y w i t h c r i t i c i s m o f H e g e l : . . . t h e b e a u t i f u l a c c o r d i n g t o H e g e l i s o n l y a "phantom" t h a t comes f r o m a s u p e r f i c i a l v i e w , u n e n l i g h t e n e d by p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h i n k i n g , w h i c h o b s c u r e s t h e s e e m ing p e r f e c t m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e i d e a i n t h e s e p a r a t e o b j e c t , so t h a t t h e more t h i n k i n g i s d e v e l o p e d t h e l e s s r e m a i n s o f b e a u t y u n t i l , a t l a s t , w i t h f u l l y d e v e l o p e d t h i n k i n g , o n l y t r u t h i s l e f t , b e a u t y h a s v a n i s h e d . [p. 283] C h e r n y s h e v s k y o p p o s e s H e g e l ' s a s s e r t i o n t h a t s p i r i t i s t h e m o ving f a c t o r i n a l l o f human a c t i v i t y . He d i s l i k e s t h e i d e a t h a t b e a u t y s h o u l d be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d . T h r o u g h o u t t h e e s s a y he e m p h a s i z e s t h a t b e a u t y i s i n m a t t e r , t h a t i s , i n n a t u r e , t h a t i t i s e x p o s e d t o human v i s i o n , h e a r i n g , t o u c h , e t c . , f o r g e t t i n g t h a t p e r c e p t i o n i s a m e n t a l p r o c e s s and t h a t c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i s i n e v i t a b l e . H i s vehement a n t i - i n t e l l e c -t u a l s t a n d e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s . C h e r n y s h e v s k y wants t o do away w i t h p e r c e p t i o n as a m e n t a l p r o c e s s . He wants i t t o be a p u r e l y s e n s u a l e x p e r i e n c e . H e g e l ' s h i g h l y a b s t r a c t t h e o r y seems t o him t o be an i m p o s t o r i n p l a c e o f t h e s e n s u o u s b e a u t y o f n a t u r e . C h e r n y s h e v s k y deems t h a t p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h i n k i n g p r e s e n t s m e r e l y a b s t r a c t p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n c e p t s w h i c h a r e b a r r e n o f t h e s e n s u a l forms t h a t t h e y u n d e r t a k e t o c o n t e m p l a t e . H e g e l ' s v i e w on t h i s m a t t e r i s a c t u a l l y s i m i l a r . A l t h o u g h H e g e l h o l d s t h a t o n l y t h e I d e a ( t h a t i s , t h e c o n c e p t ) i s t h e t r u t h , he p o s t u l a t e s t h a t o n l y a c o n c r e t e , l i v i n g t h i n g c a n r e p r e s e n t i t : We spoke ( i n C h a p t e r One) o f t h e b e a u t i f u l as I d e a i n t h e same s e n s e as we spoke o f t h e good and t h e t r u e as I d e a , i n t h e s e n s e t h a t . . . t h e i d e a i s 46 t h e p u r e l y s u b s t a n t i a l and u n i v e r s a l , t h e a b s o l u t e m a t t e r ( n o t s e n s u a l l y p e r c e p t i b l e a t a l l ) , t h e s u b -s t r a t u m o f t h e w o r l d . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , however, as we have s e e n a l r e a d y . . . t h e I d e a i s n o t o n l y s u b s t a n c e and u n i v e r s a l i t y , b u t p r e c i s e l y t h e u n i t y o f t h e C o n c e p t w i t h i t s r e a l i t y , t h e c o n c e p t r e b u i l t as c o n c e p t w i t h i n i t s o b j e c t i v e r e a l i z a t i o n . I t was P l a t o . . . who e m p h a s i z e d t h e i d e a as a l o n e t h e t r u t h and t h e u n i v e r s a l and i n d e e d as t h e i n h e r e n t l y c o n c r e t e u n i v e r s a l . Y e t t h e P l a t o n i c i d e a i s i t s e l f n o t y e t g e n u i n e l y c o n c r e t e ; f o r , a l t h o u g h , a p p r e h e n d e d i n i t s c o n c e p t and u n i v e r -s a l i t y , i t d o e s c o u n t as t h e t r u t h , s t i l l t a k e n i n t h i s u n i v e r s a l i t y , i t i s n o t y e t a c t u a l i z e d and, i n i t s a c t u a l i t y , t h e t r u t h e x p l i c i t t o i t s e l f . I t g e t s no f u r t h e r t h a n t r u t h m e r e l y i m p l i c i t . B u t j u s t as t h e c o n c e p t w i t h o u t i t s o b j e c t i v i t y i s n o t g e n u i n e l y c o n c e p t , so t o o t h e i d e a i s n o t g e n u i n e l y i d e a w i t h o u t and o u t s i d e i t s a c t u a l i t y . T h e r e f o r e t h e i d e a must go f o r t h i n t o a c t u a l i t y , and i t a c q u i r e s a c t u a l i t y o n l y t h r o u g h t h e a c t u a l s u b j e c -t i v i t y w h i c h i n h e r e n t l y c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h t h e c o n c e p t and t h r o u g h s u b j e c t i v i t y ' s i d e a l b e i n g f o r i t s e l f . So, f o r example, t h e s p e c i e s i s a c t u a l o n l y as a f r e e c o n c r e t e i n d i v i d u a l ; l i f e e x i s t s o n l y as a s i n g l e l i v i n g t h i n g , t h e good i s a c t u a l i z e d by i n -d i v i d u a l men, and a l l t r u t h e x i s t s o n l y as k n o w i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a s p i r i t c o n f r o n t i n g i t s e l f as s p i r i t . F o r o n l y c o n c r e t e i n d i v i d u a l i t y i s t r u e and a c t u a l ; a b s t r a c t u n i v e r s a l i t y and p a r t i c u l a r i t y a r e n o t . ^ P h i l o s o p h i c a l t h i n k i n g i s m e r e l y c o n c e p t - m a k i n g and w i l l n o t become any more t h a n t h a t , H e g e l a r g u e s . A l t h o u g h b e a u t y i s a c o n c e p t , i t i s n o t enough t o p u t i t f o r t h as u n d e r s t a n d i n g . B e a u t y c a n be a c t u a l i z e d o n l y when p r e s e n t e d i n i t s s e n s u a l e x t e r n a l f o r m . I n "The A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P r i n c i p l e i n P h i l o s o p h y " C h e r -n y s h e v s k y s t a t e s t h a t t h e good i s t h e r a t i o n a l . I t a p p e a r s t h a t he t a k e s a f a v o u r a b l e s t a n d t o w a r d s P l a t o . Hence i t seems p e c u l i a r t h a t he c h o o s e s t o a t t a c k H e g e l ' s a e s t h e t i c s , u n l e s s he i s n o t aware t h a t t h e a b s t r a c t i d e a s o f t h e good and t h e b e a u t i f u l a r e i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d . H e g e l ' s a e s t h e t i c s 47 a r e , a f t e r a l l , g r o u n d e d i n P l a t o ' s p h i l o s o p h y . A l t h o u g h C h e r n y s h e v s k y a r g u e s a g a i n s t t h e H e g e l i a n a e s t h e t i c s , he o f t e n i d e n t i f i e s w i t h H e g e l ' s i d e a s i n e i t h e r p r i n c i p l e o r d e t a i l . I t seems t h a t whenever C h e r n y s h e v s k y m i s u n d e r s t a n d s H e g e l ' s t h e o r y h i s c r i t i c i s m becomes t h e s t r o n g e s t . The f o l l o w i n g example i s a c a s e i n p o i n t : " T h a t b e i n g i s b e a u t i f u l i n w h i c h t h e i d e a o f t h i s b e i n g i s f u l l y e x p r e s s e d " — t r a n s l a t e d i n t o o r d i n a r y l a n g u a g e t h i s means: " t h a t i s b e a u t i f u l w h i c h i s e x c e l l e n t o f i t s k i n d ; t h a t o f w h i c h n o t h i n g b e t t e r o f i t s k i n d c a n be i m a g i n e d . " I t i s q u i t e t r u e t h a t a t h i n g must be e x c e l l e n t o f i t s k i n d t o be c a l l e d b e a u t i f u l . F o r example, a wood may be b e a u t i f u l , b u t o n l y a " f i n e " wood, one i n w h i c h t h e t r e e s a r e t a l l and s t r a i g h t , a t h i c k wood, i n s h o r t , an e x c e l l e n t wood; . . . I n s h o r t , a l l b e a u t i f u l t h i n g s a r e e x c e l l e n t o f t h e i r k i n d . B u t n o t e v e r y t h i n g t h a t i s e x c e l l e n t o f i t s k i n d i s b e a u t i f u l . A mole may be an e x c e l l e n t s p e c i m e n o f i t s k i n d , b u t i t w i l l n e v e r seem " b e a u t i f u l . " . . . N o t e v e r y t h i n g t h a t i s e x c e l l e n t o f i t s k i n d i s b e a u t i f u l b e c a u s e n o t a l l t h i n g s a r e b e a u t i f u l . The d e f i n i t i o n o f b e a u t y g i v e n by H e g e l , v i z . , t h e c o m p l e t e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f an o b j e c t t o t h e i d e a o f i t , i s t o o b r o a d . I t m e r e l y s a y s t h a t among t h o s e c a t e g o r i e s o f o b j e c t s , o r phenomena, t h a t c a n a c h i e v e b e a u t y , i t i s t h e b e s t o f them t h a t seem b e a u t i f u l ; b u t i t does n o t e x p l a i n why t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s o f o b j e c t s and phenomena a r e d i v i d e d i n t o s u c h i n w h i c h b e a u t y a p p e a r s and o t h e r s i n w h i c h we see n o t h i n g b e a u t i f u l . [p. 284] I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t f o r C h e r n y s h e v s k y n a t u r e i s t h e r e a l m o f c r e a t i v i t y , h e n c e o f b e a u t y . L a t e r , he d e c l a r e s t h a t b e a u t y i s l i f e (p. 2 8 7 ) , b u t u n d e r t h i s v i e w a mole c a n be b e a u t i f u l b e c a u s e i t i s a l i v e , a l s o t h e c r o o k e d and weak t r e e s i n t h e f o r e s t w i l l be b e a u t i f u l by t h e same t o k e n . I t l o o k e d as t h o u g h C h e r n y s h e v s k y u n d e r s t o o d t h a t H e g e l i s n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h n a t u r e and p e r f e c t i o n i n t h e r e a l m o f 48 p h y s i c a l phenomena (p. 2 8 3 ) . Now i t a p p e a r s t h a t he d i d n o t comprehend t h i s , s i n c e he i n f e r s t h a t t h e H e g e l i a n a e s t h e t i c i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l p e r f e c t i o n o f phenomena and t h i n g s , and t h i s i s i t s e s s e n t i a l c r i t e r i o n f o r b e a u t y . A n o t h e r e x p r e s s i o n , . . . " b e a u t y i s t h e u n i t y o f t h e i d e a and t h e image, t h e c o m p l e t e m e r g i n g o f t h e i d e a w i t h t h e image," has an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t m e a ning. T h i s e x p r e s s i o n d o e s , i n d e e d , p o i n t t o an e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , n o t , however, o f t h e i d e a o f b e a u t y i n g e n e r a l , b u t o f what i s c a l l e d a work o f a r t . [p. 285] I n t h i s i n s t a n c e , C h e r n y s h e v s k y a g r e e s w i t h H e g e l ' s p r e m i s e t h a t t h e u n i t y o f t h e i d e a and t h e image i s e s s e n t i a l i n a work o f a r t . B u t he b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s has n o t h i n g t o do w i t h b e a u t y . He s e e s b e a u t y as s e p a r a t e f r o m , o r n o t p r e s e n t i n a r t , and he assumes t h a t t h e H e g e l i a n a e s t h e t i c c o u l d n o t p o s s i b l y a r g u e t h a t o n l y a r t c a n l a y c l a i m t o b e a u t y . F u r -t h e r , he s t a t e s h i s own t h e s i s on t h e s u b j e c t : b e a u t y i s l i f e , C h e r n y s h e v s k y d e c l a r e s : The s e n s a t i o n t h a t b e a u t y r o u s e s i n man i s s e r e n e j o y , l i k e t h a t w h i c h f i l l s us i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f someone we l o v e . (I am s p e a k i n g o f what i s i n t r i n -s i c a l l y b e a u t i f u l and n o t what i s d e p i c t e d by a r t ; o f b e a u t i f u l o b j e c t s and phenomena and n o t o f t h e b e a u t i f u l way t h e y a r e d e p i c t e d i n works o f a r t : t h e a r t i s t i c m e r i t s o f a work o f a r t may g i v e one a e s t h e t i c p l e a s u r e , b u t t h e e s s e n c e o f what i s d e p i c t e d i n i t may c a u s e s a d n e s s and e v e n r o u s e d i s g u s t . Such, f o r example, a r e many o f L e r m o n t o v ' s poems, and n e a r l y a l l t h e works o f G o g o l . ) We d i s -i n t e r e s t e d l y l o v e b e a u t y , we a d m i r e i t ^ i t f i l l s us w i t h j o y , and t h e one we l o v e f i l l s us w i t h j o y . From t h i s i t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g i n b e a u t y t h a t i s n e a r and d e a r t o o u r h e a r t s . B u t t h i s " s o m e t h i n g " must be a l l - e m b r a c i n g , must be c a p a b l e o f a s s u m i n g t h e most d i v e r s e f o r m s , must be e x t r e m e l y g e n e r a l , b e c a u s e t h e most d i v e r s e t h i n g s and b e i n g s , h a v i n g no r e s e m b l a n c e t o one a n o t h e r w h a t e v e r , seem b e a u t i f u l t o u s . 49 The most g e n e r a l t h i n g t h a t i s d e a r t o a man, t h a n w h i c h t h e r e i s n o t h i n g d e a r e r i n t h e w o r l d , i s l i f e ; f i r s t t h e l i f e a man w o u l d l i k e t o l e a d , t h e l i f e he l o v e s , and t h e n , any l i f e ; f o r , a f t e r a l l , i t i s b e t t e r t o be a l i v e t h a n d e a d : by t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e , a l l l i v i n g t h i n g s have a h o r r o r o f d e a t h , o f n o n e x i s t e n c e ; t h e y l o v e l i f e . And i t seems t o us t h a t t h e d e f i n i t i o n : " b e a u t y i s l i f e " ; " b e a u t i f u l i s t h a t b e i n g i n w h i c h we s e e l i f e as i t s h o u l d be a c c o r d i n g t o o u r c o n c e p t i o n s ; b e a u t i -f u l i s t h e o b j e c t w h i c h e x p r e s s e s l i f e , o r r e m i n d s us o f l i f e , " — seems t o be one t h a t s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e x p l a i n s a l l c a s e s t h a t r o u s e i n us t h e s e n s e o f b e a u t y . [pp. 286-287] C h e r n y s h e v s k y g r a n t s t h a t a r t may d e p i c t l i f e t r u t h f u l l y . B u t b e c a u s e i t may evoke s a d n e s s and e v e n d i s g u s t , i t c a n n o t p r o p e r l y r e p r e s e n t b e a u t y . B e a u t y has t o evoke j o y and e c s t a s y . B u t how w o u l d one know what i s b e a u t i f u l w i t h o u t c o n -t r a s t i n g i t t o u g l i n e s s ? A l s o , u g l i n e s s h i g h l i g h t s b e a u t y , as i t were, so a r t w i l l d e p i c t b e a u t y more s t r i k i n g l y i f i t i n c o r p o r a t e s u g l i n e s s . T h i s i s where C h e r n y s h e v s k y d e p a r t s f u n d a m e n t a l l y .from H e g e l . - Hegel, v i e w s n a t u r e , f r o m an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t a n g l e : Now as t h e p h y s i c a l l y o b j e c t i v e I d e a , l i f e i n n a t u r e i s b e a u t i f u l b e c a u s e t r u t h , t h e I d e a i n i t s e a r l i e s t n a t u r a l f o r m as l i f e , i s i m m e d i a t e l y p r e s e n t t h e r e i n i n d i v i d u a l and a d e q u a t e a c t u a l i t y . Y e t , b e c a u s e t h i s i s p u r e l y t h e s e n s u o u s immediacy, t h e l i v i n g b e a u t y o f n a t u r e i s p r o d u c e d n e i t h e r f o r n o r o u t o f i t s e l f and b e a u t i f u l and f o r t h e s a k e o f b e a u t i f u l a p p e a r a n c e . The b e a u t y o f n a t u r e i s b e a u t i f u l o n l y f o r a n o t h e r , i . e . , f o r u s , f o r t h e m ind w h i c h a p p r e h e n d s b e a u t y . Hence a r i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n i n what way and by what means l i f e i n i t s i m m e d i a t e e x i s t e n c e a p p e a r s b e a u t i f u l . ^ N a t u r e , i n H e g e l ' s v i e w , i s a r e a l m o f n e u t r a l i t y . N e i t h e r 50 beauty nor ugliness can be attributed to i t . Nature i s there of necessity, and only the mind makes use of i t . Nature i s in i t s e l f whereas the mind i s for i t s e l f . That i s to say, the mind has a capacity to reason and to w i l l . Therefore the mind, not matter, i s creative and attributes such as beauty are applicable to i t and to i t s creations. Chernyshevsky states that beauty must be all-embracing, extremely general, because the most diverse things and beings, having no resemblance to one another whatever, seem bea u t i f u l to us. Here again, Chernyshevsky i s i n agreement with Hegel. This corresponds with Hegel 1s view that beauty as the Idea i s all-embracing and general, yet i t s a c t u a l i z a t i o n must take diverse forms, forms which draw upon external appearance. Chernyshevsky dismisses art as the proper representa-t i v e of beauty, because art often depicts ugliness and evokes sadness or disgust. Hegel builds on these factors i n his theory. He argues that i f unseemliness i s part of existence, then i t has a proper place i n a r t . Since truth, i n the Platonic sense, can lay claim to goodness, i t w i l l also be beautiful by the same token. Es p e c i a l l y when the unseemly i s incorporated i n a work of a r t , when the idea, that i s , the way the a r t i s t comprehends l i f e , corresponds with the image, that i s , with the expression the a r t i s t gives i t , then the work i s good and therefore b e a u t i f u l . Beauty, Chernyshevsky claims, must evoke joy and ecstasy. Hegel i s of that same view. However, t h e i r 51 c o n c e p t i o n s s p r i n g f r o m d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s . H e g e l ' s i s a g a i n f o u n d e d i n P l a t o : t h e t r u e i s t h e good and t h u s t h e b e a u t i f u l . Whether t h i s f i n a l c r e a t i o n e n t a i l s a p p a r e n t u g l i n e s s i s i m m a t e r i a l . J u s t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e t h i n k i n g mind i s c a p a b l e o f c o m p r e h e n d i n g e x i s t e n c e i n i t s e n t i r e t y i s a f a c t o r t h a t e v o k e s j o y and e c s t a s y , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t e x i s t e n c e may be s a d and u g l y . W i t h f u r t h e r a t t a c k s on H e g e l ' s a e s t h e t i c s , t h e r e a d e r becomes c o n v i n c e d t h a t C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s e n t i r e t h e s i s i s b u i l t on a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h a t i s , on h i s m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f H e g e l . The f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s : The c o m p l a i n t t h a t b e a u t y i n r e a l i t y i s r a r e i s n o t , however, a l t o g e t h e r j u s t i f i e d ; b e a u t y i s by no means as r a r e i n r e a l i t y as t h e German a e s t h e -t i c i a n s a s s e r t . T h e r e a r e v e r y many b e a u t i f u l and m a g n i f i c e n t l a n d s c a p e s ; i n some c o u n t r i e s t h e y a r e met w i t h a t e v e r y t u r n , f o r example, F i n l a n d , t h e C r i m e a . . . n o t t o speak o f S w i t z e r l a n d , t h e A l p s , I t a l y . [p. 321] C h e r n y s h e v s k y b e l i e v e s t h a t H e g e l i a n a e s t h e t i c s i s contemp-t u o u s o f n a t u r e , and t h a t , i n i t s d r a w i n g - r o o m a t t i t u d e , i t v i e w s t h e n a t u r a l r e a l m w i t h o u t i n t e r e s t and a d m i r e s o n l y a r t i f a c t s . C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s p o s i t i o n i n t h i s e s s a y i s b a s e d e n t i r e l y on t h i s a s s u m p t i o n . He a s s e r t s t h a t n a t u r e i s more a n i m a t e d and more abun-d a n t t h a n i m a g i n a t i o n , t h a t t h e images o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n a r e o n l y p a l e and o f t e n u n s u c c e s s f u l i m i t a t i o n s o f n a t u r e : I n d e e d , i n a n i m a t e n a t u r e does n o t t h i n k a b o u t t h e b e a u t y o f i t s c r e a t i o n s , a n y m o r e t h a n a t r e e t h i n k s a b o u t making i t s f r u i t d e l i c i o u s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t must be a d m i t t e d t h a t o u r a r t has b e en u n a b l e t o t h i s day t o c r e a t e a n y t h i n g l i k e an o r a n g e o r 52 an a p p l e . . . man's f o r c e s a r e much weaker t h a n t h o s e o f n a t u r e ; h i s work i s e x c e e d i n g l y r o u g h , c r u d e and c l u m s y compared w i t h t h e work o f n a t u r e . [p. 320] N a t u r e i s more p o w e r f u l and c r e a t i v e t h a n man, C h e r n y s h e v s k y a r g u e s , b e c a u s e i t p r o d u c e s f o o d ( o f a l l c o l o u r s , s h a p e s , l u x u r i o u s s m e l l s , e t c . ) f o r man's s u s t e n a n c e . N a t u r e d o e s t h i s w i t h o u t i n t e n t and e f f o r t , he a d d s . I t w o u l d seem t h a t , s i n c e n e i t h e r i n t e n t n o r e f f o r t i s i n v o l v e d h e r e , t h e whole argument w o u l d be m e a n i n g l e s s . C h e r n y s h e v s k y does n o t p e r c e i v e t h i s , s i n c e he b u i l d s h i s argument on t h e u n i n t e n t i o n a l i t y o f n a t u r e . F u r t h e r , i t seems p o i n t l e s s t o m e n t i o n t h a t a r t i s i n c a p a b l e o f c r e a t i n g a r e a l a p p l e o r an o r a n g e . By t h e same t o k e n , i t w o u l d be p o i n t l e s s t o m e n t i o n t h a t n a t u r e i s i n c a p a b l e o f c r e a t i n g a M o z a r t symphony o r a L e o n a r d o p a i n t i n g . A s i m i l a r answer c a n be f o u n d i n H e g e l ' s a e s t h e t i c s . A c c o r d i n g t o H e g e l , t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f a r t and n a t u r e i s m e a n i n g l e s s , s i n c e we c a n n o t a t t r i b u t e w i l l , t h a t i s , i n t e n -t i o n a l i t y , t o n a t u r e . And b e s i d e s , why wo u l d man want t o c r e a t e a r t i n s u c h a way as t o i m i t a t e n a t u r e ? Would t h a t n o t be a s u p e r f l u o u s l a b o u r ? Why i m i t a t e a n i m a l s , n a t u r a l s c e n e s , e t c . , when we a l r e a d y p o s s e s s t h e s e i n o u r g a r d e n s , f o r e s t s , e t c . ? B e s i d e s , t h i s s u p e r f l u o u s l a b o u r may even, be r e g a r d e d as a pres u m p t u o u s game w h i c h f a l l s f a r s h o r t o f n a t u r e . 7 H e g e l h i n t s a t what a r t must d e a l w i t h : . . . t h e T u r k s , as Mohammedans, do n o t , as i s w e l l 53 known, t o l e r a t e any p i c t u r e s o r c o p i e s o f men, e t c . James B r u c e i n h i s j o u r n e y t o A b y s s i n i a showed p a i n t i n g s o f f i s h t o a T u r k . A t f i r s t t h e T u r k was a s t o n i s h e d , b u t q u i c k l y enough he f o u n d an answer: " i f t h i s f i s h s h a l l r i s e up a g a i n s t y ou on t h e l a s t day and s a y : 'you have i n d e e d g i v e n me a body b u t no l i v i n g s o u l , ' how w i l l y o u j u s t i f y y o u r s e l f ? " 8 C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s c o n t r a r y t o t h i s . He c l a i m s t h a t , a l t h o u g h i m i t a t i o n o f n a t u r e i s f a r i n f e r i o r t o n a t u r e i t s e l f , s t i l l t h i s o c c u p a t i o n may be w o r t h w h i l e i n c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s : The s e a i s b e a u t i f u l ; . . . B u t n o t a l l p e o p l e l i v e n e a r t h e s e a ; . . . b u t t h e y w o u l d l i k e v e r y much t o s e e and a d m i r e i t , . . . Of c o u r s e , i t i s much p r e f e r a b l e t o s e e t h e s e a i t s e l f r a t h e r t h a n p i c t u r e s o f i t ; b u t when a good t h i n g i s n o t a v a i l a b l e , man i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h an i n f e r i o r one, . . . [p. 364] T h i s c l a i m i t s e l f i s s o b e r enough.. B u t C h e r n y s h e v s k y c o n -c l u d e s t h a t i m i t a t i o n o f n a t u r e i s t h e s o l e p u r p o s e o f a r t : T h i s i s t h e s o l e a i m and o b j e c t o f v e r y many ( t h e m a j o r i t y ) o f works o f a r t : t o g i v e t h o s e p e o p l e who have n o t been a b l e t o e n j o y b e a u t y i n r e a l i t y t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c q u a i n t t h e m s e l v e s w i t h i t a t l e a s t t o some d e g r e e ; t o s e r v e as a r e m i n d e r , t o prompt and r e v i v e r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f b e a u t y i n r e a l -i t y [ i . e . , n a t u r e ] i n t h e minds o f t h o s e p e o p l e who a r e a c q u a i n t e d w i t h i t by e x p e r i e n c e and l o v e t o r e c a l l i t . [p. 364] T h i s i s r e d u c t i o n i s t . Would C h e r n y s h e v s k y s a y t h a t M i c h e l -a n g e l o ' s L a s t Judgement was an i m i t a t i o n o f n a t u r e ? He seems t o c o n f i n e a r t t o i m i t a t i v e p a i n t i n g . C h e r n y s h e v s k y t h e n p r o c e e d s t o c r i t i c i z e H e g e l f o r c l a i m i n g t h a t i m i t a t i o n o f n a t u r e i s a s u p e r f l u o u s l a b o u r . He s t a t e s t h a t " t h i s argument i s v a l i d o n l y when i t i s assumed t h a t a r t wants t o compete w i t h r e a l i t y [ n a t u r e ] and 54 n o t s i m p l y s e r v e as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r i t " (p. 3 6 6 ) . C h e r n y -s h e v s k y b e l i e v e s t h a t a l l forms o f a r t , p e r h a p s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e , s e r v e as r e m i n d e r s o f , and s u b s t i -t u t e s f o r , n a t u r e . I n f i n e a r t s , l a n d s c a p e s and p o r t r a i t s s e r v e as r e m i n -d e r s o f t h a t w h i c h i s d e a r t o us when i t i s n o t a v a i l a b l e , C h e r n y s h e v s k y a r g u e s . I n m u s i c , w h e t h e r v o c a l o r i n s t r u m e n -t a l , men a t t e m p t t o i m i t a t e n a t u r e , t h a t i s , s i n g i n g o f b i r d s , e.g., t h e n i g h t i n g a l e . L i t e r a t u r e , he a d m i t s , has a g r e a t e r s c o p e . He s e e s t h e H e g e l i a n c o n c e p t i o n o f a r t as a h i g h l y c o n t r i v e d t h e o r y . A c c o r d i n g t o C h e r n y s h e v s k y , a r t , e s p e c i a l l y l i t e r a t u r e , d e a l s w i t h a n y t h i n g t h a t i s o f i n t e r e s t t o man. L i t e r a t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y , p r e s e n t s m ankind w i t h a k i n d o f u s e f u l m a nual, a t e a c h i n g a i d on how t o c o p e w i t h e x i s -t e n c e . The i d e a o f b e a u t y i n l i t e r a t u r e , a c c o r d i n g t o C h e r -n y s h e v s k y , i s , i f n o t s e c o n d a r y , a l t o g e t h e r i r r e l e v a n t . A g a i n , h i s argument i s b a s e d on h i s m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f H e g e l ' s t h e o r y . H e g e l c e r t a i n l y b e l i e v e s t h a t a r t must embrace t h e g r e a t e s t s c o p e o f e x i s t e n c e , t h a t i t must d e a l w i t h a l l t h a t i s o f i n t e r e s t i n i t . B u t what i s i n q u e s t i o n h e r e i s how t h i s w i l l a l l be a r r a n g e d . W i l l t h e r e be harmony between t h e e x p r e s s i o n and t h e i d e a ? H e g e l m e r e l y a r g u e s t h a t t h e I d e a b e h i n d a p a r t i c u l a r work and i t s e x p r e s s i o n must be i n harmony f o r i t t o c l a i m any a s p i r a t i o n s t o b e a u t y . He b e l i e v e s t h a t a l l a r t s h o u l d have t h i s p r i n c i p l e as i t s g o a l . 55 Chernyshevsky continues his attack on Hegel. This time, he attempts to dismantle the concept of "the sublime." He argues that preponderance of the idea over the image can not produce sublimity but that i t produces nebulousness, indefiniteness, hence ugliness. Again, his argument i s b u i l t on his misinterpretation of Hegel. The term "sublime" i s the cause of t h i s contro-versy. Chernyshevsky follows the popular dictionary use of t h i s word when he analyzes the Hegelian use of t h i s concept. Hegel uses the word i n a very s p e c i f i c context to account for a p a r t i c u l a r trend i n art, usually associated with primitive and ancient art. Despite t h i s , Chernyshevsky's value judgement of the sublime comes very close to Hegel's own. The sublime, as a pure form, i s a substratum. It i s the Idea, truth, without shape, without i n d i v i d u a l i t y [Hegel argues]. Art begins when the Idea, s t i l l i n i t s indeterminacy and obscurity, or i n bad and untrue determinacy, i s made the content of a r t i s t i c shapes. Being indeterminate, i t does not yet possess i n i t s e l f that i n d i v i d u a l i t y which the i d e a l demands; i t s abstraction and one-sided-ness leaves i t s shape externally defective and a r b i t r a r y . The f i r s t form of art i s therefore rather a mere search for portrayal than a capacity for true presentation. . . . We may c a l l t h i s form, i n general terms, the symbolic form of art.9 Thus, l i k e Chernyshevsky, Hegel i d e n t i f i e s the sublime with indefiniteness, which i s not, on examination, a e s t h e t i c a l l y pleasing. Chernyshevsky's c r i t i c i s m of the category l i e s i n his interpretation of the term "sublime" i t s e l f . He associates 56 and i d e n t i f i e s i t w i t h p e r f e c t i o n o f phenomena, e s p e c i a l l y w i t h p h y s i c a l phenomena i n t h e i r g r a n d e u r , e.g., m o u n t a i n s , p y r a m i d s , e t c . , and a l s o w i t h g r a n d e u r o f e m o t i o n s , p a s s i o n s ( e . g . , p a t r i o t i s m ) . S u b l i m i t y c a n be u n d e r s t o o d i n s u c h c o n t e x t s ; however, H e g e l ' s c o n t e x t i s d i f f e r e n t . F o r h i s p u r p o s e , H e g e l b o r r o w s t h e m e a n i n g " l y i n g n e a r t h e s u r f a c e , " w h i c h i s a l s o one o f t h e d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s o f " s u b l i m e . " H e g e l ' s c o n c e r n i s t o d e f i n e , and f i n d , a s u i t a b l e t e r m f o r a p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n , namely, f o r a r t i n i t s i n i t i a l o r p r i m i t i v e s t a g e s , and c l a s s i t as a t r e n d . T h i s t r e n d i s e i t h e r t o r e m a i n an h i s t o r i c a l p a s t o r t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n f u t u r e a r t t r e n d s . S u b s e q u e n t l y , C h e r n y s h e v s k y d e a l s w i t h t h e c a t e g o r y o f " t r a g i c " : I n r e a l l i f e t h e t r a g i c i s most o f t e n a d v e n t i t i o u s , i t d oes n o t s p r i n g f r o m t h e e s s e n c e o f p r e c e d i n g e v e n t s . The f o r m o f n e c e s s i t y i n w h i c h i t i s c l o t h e d by a r t s p r i n g s f r o m t h e o r d i n a r y p r i n c i p l e o f works o f a r t : " t h e denouement must f o l l o w f r o m t h e p l o t , " o r e l s e i s due t o t h e a r t i s t ' s m i s p l a c e d s u r r e n d e r t o t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f f a t e . [p. 380] He g i v e s some examples t o e x p l a i n h i s v i e w : The f a t e o f C r o e s u s , Pompey and J u l i u s C a e s a r was t r a g i c ; b u t t h e c a r e e r s o f Numa P o m p i l i u s , M a r i u s , S u l l a and A u g u s t u s were v e r y happy t o t h e end. What was t r a g i c i n t h e f a t e o f C h a r l e m a g n e , P e t e r t h e G r e a t , F r e d e r i c k I I , i n t h e l i v e s o f L u t h e r , V o l t a i r e o r H e g e l h i m s e l f ? T h e r e was much s t r u g g l e i n t h e l i v e s o f t h e s e men; b u t , s p e a k i n g g e n e r a l l y , i t must be a d m i t t e d t h a t s u c c e s s and good f o r t u n e were on t h e i r s i d e . T r u e , C e r v a n t e s d i e d i n p o v e r t y , b u t i s n o t t h i s t h e l o t o f t h o u s a n d s o f o b s c u r e p e o p l e who, no l e s s t h a n C e r v a n t e s , c o u l d c o u n t on a happy c l i m a x i n t h e i r l i v e s and who, b e c a u s e o f t h e i r o b s c u r i t y , c o u l d n o t a t a l l come u n d e r t h e law o f t r a g e d y ? [p. 309] 5 7 The t r a g i c i s a d v e n t i t i o u s i n r e a l l i f e , s u p p o s e d l y b e c a u s e a t r u l y g r e a t t r a g e d y has a l o f t y s i d e t o i t . I t has t h e power t o d i m i n i s h o r t r a n s c e n d t h e t e d i u m and o r d i n a r i n e s s o f e x i s t e n c e . The o r d i n a r y i s t h e r e a l l y t r a g i c : i t c a r r i e s w i t h i t p o v e r t y and o b s c u r i t y and t h i s i s t h e t r u l y t r a g i c s i d e o f l i f e , C h e r n y s h e v s k y a r g u e s . T h i s i s an i n t e r e s t i n g v i e w , b u t i t i s h i g h l y i n c o m -p a t i b l e w i t h h i s arguments i n What I s To Be Done? and "The A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P r i n c i p l e i n P h i l o s o p h y . " I n b o t h t h e s e works C h e r n y s h e v s k y c o n s i d e r s p o v e r t y as a t r a g i c phenomenon, as s o m e t h i n g t o s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t . A s i d e f r o m t h i s , h i s a r g u -ment i s a g a i n a c a s e o f m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . H e g e l i a n a e s t h e t i c s d e a l s w i t h t h e " t r a g i c " as an a r t t r e n d , b u t C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s c o n t e x t i s t h a t o f e v e r y d a y e x i s t e n c e . H e g e l v i e w s t r a g e d y as a c o n f l i c t between e t h i c a l powers o f v a r i o u s u n i v e r s a l e n d s ; o r e l s e no s u b s t a n t i a l o r u n i v e r s a l ends c o l l i d e , b u t t h e c o n f l i c t i s c e n t r e d on p e r s o n a l i t i e s : The e s s e n t i a l l y t r a g i c f a c t i s t h e s e l f - d i v i s i o n . . . o f t h e e t h i c a l s u b s t a n c e , n o t so much t h e war o f good w i t h e v i l as t h e war o f good w i t h good. Two o f t h e s e i s o l a t e d powers f a c e e a c h o t h e r , m aking i n c o m p a t i b l e demands. The f a m i l y c l a i m s what t h e s t a t e r e f u s e s , l o v e r e q u i r e s what h o n o u r f o r b i d s . The c o m p e t i n g f o r c e s a r e b o t h i n them-s e l v e s r i g h t f u l , and so f a r t h e c l a i m o f e a c h i s e q u a l l y j u s t i f i e d ; b u t t h e r i g h t o f e a c h i s p u s h e d i n t o wrong, b e c a u s e i t i g n o r e s t h e r i g h t o f t h e o t h e r , and demands t h a t a b s o l u t e sway w h i c h b e l o n g s t o n e i t h e r a l o n e , b u t t o t h e whole o f w h i c h e a c h i s b u t a p a r t . And one r e a s o n why t h i s happens l i e s i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s t h r o u g h whom t h e s e c l a i m s 58 a r e made. I t i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t r a g i c h e r o , a t once h i s g r e a t n e s s and h i s doom, t h a t he knows no s h r i n k i n g o r h a l f h e a r t e d n e s s , b u t i d e n t i f i e s him-s e l f w h o l l y w i t h t h e power t h a t moves him, and w i l l a d m i t t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f no o t h e r p o w e r . ^ The end o f t h e t r a g i c c o n f l i c t i s t h e d e n i a l o f b o t h t h e e x c l u s i v e c l a i m s . . . i t i s t h e a c t o f t h e e t h i c a l s u b s t a n c e i t s e l f , a s s e r t i n g i t s a b s o -l u t e n e s s a g a i n s t t h e e x c e s s i v e p r e t e n s i o n s o f i t s p a r t i c u l a r p owers. I n t h a t s e n s e , . . . i t may be c a l l e d t h e a c t o f " e t e r n a l j u s t i c e . " H H e g e l p l a c e s e m p h a s i s on t h e a c t i o n and c o n f l i c t i n t r a g e d y r a t h e r t h a n on m i s f o r t u n e and t h e s u f f e r i n g . No mere s u f f e r i n g and m i s f o r t u n e i s t r a g i c , however p i t i f u l o r d r e a d f u l i t may be, u n l e s s i t s p r i n g s i n a g r e a t p a r t f r o m human a g e n c y , and i n some d e g r e e f r o m t h e a g e n c y o f t h e s u f f e r e r . However, . . . t h e r e i s one p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f m i s f o r t u n e n o t o b v i o u s l y due t o human a g e n c y , w h i c h u n d o u b t -e d l y may a f f e c t us i n a t r a g i c way. [ I t i s ] t h e k i n d w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h e i d e a o f f a t e . . . . B u t where t h o s e f a c t o r s o f t r a g e d y a r e p r e s e n t w h i c h H e g e l e m p h a s i z e s , t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f s o m e t h i n g f a t e f u l i n what we c a l l a c c i d e n t , t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e h e r o n o t o n l y i n v i t e s m i s f o r t u n e by h i s e x c e p t i o n a l s t a t u r e and d a r i n g , b u t i s a l s o . . . s t r a n g e l y and t e r r i b l y u n l u c k y , i s i n many p l a y s a g e n u i n e i n g r e d i e n t i n t r a g i c e f f e c t . I t i s so . . . i n dramas l i k e S h a k e s p e a r e ' s , w h i c h e x e m p l i f y t h e s a y i n g t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s d e s t i n y . 1 2 T h i s i s H e g e l ' s t h e o r y o f t h e " t r a g i c " i n a n u t s h e l l . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t C h e r n y s h e v s k y was n o t a c q u a i n t e d w i t h i t , s i n c e he does n o t comment on any o f H e g e l ' s c o n t e n t i o n s . He m e r e l y s t a t e s t h a t he f e e l s t h a t t h e " t r a g i c " has no e s s e n t i a l c o n -n e c t i o n w i t h t h e i d e a o f f a t e o r n e c e s s i t y (p. 3 8 0 ) . H e g e l ' s argument shows t h i s t o be a v e r y weak p o i n t ; b e s i d e s , -Cherny-s h e v s k y i s n o t e v e n p r e p a r e d t o a r g u e f o r h i s a s s u m p t i o n . 5 9 S i n c e C h e r n y s h e v s k y t a l k s o f t h e " t r a g i c " i n t h e c o n -t e x t o f l i f e r a t h e r t h a n t h a t o f a r t , i t i s c u r i o u s t h a t i n h i s c o n c e p t i o n t h e r e i s no p l a c e f o r d e a t h as s u c h . Y e t e a r l i e r , when he d e f i n e s b e a u t y as l i f e (any l i f e e v e n ) , he c l a i m s t h a t l i f e i s t h e d e a r e s t , most p r e c i o u s t h i n g and d e a t h i s i t s o p p o s i t e . I f t h e " t r a g i c " i s d e f i n e d as a f a l l — w h e r e man i s o n c e p l a c e d h i g h , he a c h i e v e s power and w e a l t h , and l a t e r he i s d e t h r o n e d — t h e n by a n a l o g y a l l men a r e s u b j e c t t o t h i s f a t e : y o u t h i n i t s s t r e n g t h r e p r e s e n t s t h e f i r s t s t a g e and o l d age and d e a t h r e p r e s e n t t h e s e c o n d s t a g e . I n t h i s s e n s e , t h e " t r a g i c " i s i n e v i t a b l y l i n k e d w i t h n e c e s s i t y , and i t d o e s s p r i n g f r o m t h e e s s e n c e o f p r e c e d i n g e v e n t s . C h e r n y s h e v s k y d e n i e s t h i s . He c o n c l u d e s t h e e s s a y w i t h a summary o f h i s m a i n p o i n t s (pp. 3 8 0 - 3 8 1 ) . I n "The A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P r i n c i p l e i n P h i l o s o p h y , " C h e r -n y s h e v s k y c o u l d h a r d l y be s a i d t o a r g u e f o r h i s p o s i t i o n ; i n "The A e s t h e t i c R e l a t i o n o f A r t t o R e a l i t y " he a t t e m p t s t o be more s c h o l a r l y , b u t t h e outcome i s t h e same: he i s g u i l t y o f many t h i n g s . H i s e s s a y s a r e b a d l y r e s e a r c h e d , and h i s arguments a r e a l m o s t a l w a y s f a u l t y . C h e r n y s h e v s k y was an i n t e l l e c t u a l magpie, who p i c k e d up odd b i t s and p i e c e s f o r what t h e y were w o r t h and t h e n — s o m e t i m e s — d i s c a r d e d , t h e m . H i s a t t i t u d e was t h a t t h e end j u s t i f i e d t h e means. U n l i k e M i l l , he d i d n o t r e a l i z e t h a t 60 "No one c a n be a g r e a t t h i n k e r who does n o t r e c o g n i s e , t h a t as a t h i n k e r i t i s h i s f i r s t d u t y t o f o l l o w h i s i n t e l l e c t t o w h a t e v e r c o n c l u s i o n s i t may l e a d . " " ^ C h e r n y s h e v s k y 1 s p a s -s i o n a t e d o g m a t i c s t a n d i n b o t h "The A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P r i n c i p l e i n P h i l o s o p h y " and "The A e s t h e t i c R e l a t i o n o f A r t t o R e a l i t y " p r o v e s t h i s . 61 NOTES TO CHAPTER I 1 W a l t e r E. Houghton, The V i c t o r i a n Frame o f M i n d (New Haven and London: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , p. 94. 2 H. T. ^epHbmieBCKHH, nojiHoe coSpaHHe co^HHeHHH (MocKBa: rocynapcTBeHHoe H3ji ;aTeJibeTBO XyfloacecTBeHHaH J t a T e p a -T y p a , 1939), V o l . 11, 9-336. R o l a n d B a r t h e s h o l d s t h a t " a l l t e l l i n g m o d i f i e s what i s b e i n g t o l d , so t h a t what t h e l i n g u i s t s c a l l t h e message i s a p a r a m e t e r o f i t s p e r f o r m a n c e . [Hence] what i s t o l d i s a l w a y s t h e t e l l i n g . " S/Z, p. x i , t r a n s , by R i c h a r d M i l l e r , p r e f a c e by R i c h a r d Howard (New Y o r k : H i l l and Wang, 19 7 4 ) . 4 • • S e e p a g e s 44-45, 51-55 o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y : c r i t i q u e o f C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s "The A e s t h e t i c R e l a t i o n o f A r t t o R e a l i t y . " 5 N. G. C h e r n y s h e v s k y , S e l e c t e d P h i l o s o p h i c a l E s s a y s (Moscow: F o r e i g n L a n guages P u b l i s h i n g House, 1 9 5 3 ) , p. 283. 6 J . S. M i l l , U t i l i t a r i a n i s m (New Y o r k : The L i b r a r y o f L i b e r a l A r t s , 1 9 5 7 ) , p. 10. 7 See pages 32-37 o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y : c r i t i q u e o f C h e r n y s h e v s k y ' s "The A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P r i n c i p l e i n P h i l o s o p h y . 1 p P a u l Edwards, e d . , The E n c y c l o p e d i a o f P h i l o s o p h y (New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., I n c . , 1 9 6 7 ) , V o l . 2, 466. 9 I b i d . , V o l . 1, 281-283. M i l l , U t i l i t a r i a n i s m , p. 14. I b i d . , p. 46. 12 C h e r n y s h e v s k y , E s s a y s , p. 150. 13 Edwards, E n c y c l o p e d i a o f P h i l o s o p h y , V o l . 3, 191. See pages 44-55 o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y : c r i t i q u e o f "The A e s t h e t i c R e l a t i o n o f A r t t o R e a l i t y . " 15 Edwards, E n c y c l o p e d i a o f P h i l o s o p h y , V o l . 3, 192. 16 C h e r n y s h e v s k y , E s s a y s , p. 131. 17 B. J o w e t t , e d . and t r a n s . , The D i a l o g u e s o f P l a t o (New Y o r k : Random House, 1 9 2 0 ) , V o l . 1, 367-380. 18 Edwards, E n c y c l o p e d i a o f P h i l o s o p h y , V o l . 7, 220-221. 62 x : 7 I b i d . , V o l . 6, 443. 20 Houghton, V i c t o r i a n Frame o f M i n d , p. 110. 21 M i l l , U t i l i t a r i a n i s m , p. 18. 22 Lomov: as i n l o m i t ' = To bend, b r e a k , b u r s t , f o r c e , s p l i t . 23 l e p H b i m e B C K H H , noj iHoe co6paHne c o ^ H H e H U H , V o l . 11, 195-223. 24 B a r t h e s , S/Z, pp. 3-5. NOTES TO CHAPTER I I ^ C h e r n y s h e v s k y , E s s a y s . 2 Edwards, E n c y c l o p e d i a o f P h i l o s o p h y , V o l . 6, 4 84 3 W. F. W o e h r l i n , C h e r n y s h e v s k y (Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971), p. 122. 4 A. D. Woozley, T h e o r y o f Knowledge (London: H u t c h i n -son U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 15. 5 D a g o b e r t D. Runes, D i c t i o n a r y o f P h i l o s o p h y (New J e r s e y : L i t t l e F i e l d Adams Co., 1972), p. 98. ^ M i l l , U t i l i t a r i a n i s m , pp. 10.11. 7 J o w e t t , D i a l o g u e s o f P l a t o , V o l . 1, 120-125. g M i l l , U t i l i t a r i a n i s m , p. 44. 9 I b i d . , p. 14. 1 0 J o w e t t , D i a l o g u e s o f P l a t o , V o l . 1, 356-380. 1 1 I b i d . , 120-125. 12 M i l l , U t i l I t a r i a n i s m , p. 46. 63 NOTES TO CHAPTER I I I ^ W o e h r l i n , C h e r n y s h e v s k y , p. 122. 2 I b i d . , p . 147. 3 C h e r n y s h e v s k y , E s s a y s . 4 G. W. F. H e g e l , A e s t h e t i c s , t r a n s . T. M. Knox ( O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , V o l . 1, 143. 5. J o w e t t , D i a l o g u e s o f P l a t o , V o l . 1, 263-280. H e g e l , A e s t h e t i c s , V o l . 1, 123. 7 I b i d . , 42. 8 I b i d -9 I b i d . , 7 6 . M o r r i s W e i t z , P r o b l e m s i n A e s t h e t i c s ( s e c o n d e d i t i o n ; New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., I n c . , 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 714. 1 1 I b i d . , p. 715. 12 I b i d . , p. 721. 13 J . S. M i l l , U t i l i t a r i a n i s m , L i b e r t y , and R e p r e s e n - t a t i v e Government, w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by A. D. L i n d s a y (new e d i t i o n ; New Y o r k and L ondon: Everyman's L i b r a r y , 1 9 5 0 ) , p. 125. 64 BIBLIOGRAPHY ENGLISH T I T L E S B a r t h e s , R o l a n d . S/Z. New Y o r k : H i l l and Wang, 1974. C h e r n y s h e v s k y , N. G. S e l e c t e d P h i l o s o p h i c a l E s s a y s . Moscow: F o r e i g n Languages P u b l i s h i n g House, 1953. E dwards, P a u l ( e d . ) . The E n c y c l o p e d i a o f P h i l o s o p h y . 8 v o l s . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., I n c . , 1967. H e g e l , G. W. F. A e s t h e t i c s . T r a n s . T. M. Knox. O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975. Houghton, W a l t e r E. The V i c t o r i a n Frame o f M i n d . New Haven and L o n d o n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957. J o w e t t , B. (ed. and t r a n s . ) . The D i a l o g u e s o f P l a t o . V o l . 1. New Y o r k : Random House, 1920. L a m p ert, E. Sons A g a i n s t F a t h e r s . London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965. M i l l , J . S. U t i l i t a r i a n i s m , L i b e r t y , and R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Government. New e d i t i o n . I n t r o d . A. D. L i n d s a y . New Y o r k and London: Everyman's L i b r a r y , 1950. . U t i l i t a r i a n i s m . New Y o r k : The L i b r a r y o f L i b e r a l A r t s , 1957. Runes, D a g o b e r t D. D i c t i o n a r y o f P h i l o s o p h y . New J e r s e y : L i t t l e F i e l d Adams Co., 1972. V e n t u r i , F r a n c o . R o o t s o f R e v o l u t i o n . New Y o r k : K n o p f , 1960. W e i t z , M o r r i s . P r o b l e m s i n A e s t h e t i c s . S e c o n d e d i t i o n . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., I n c . , 1970. W o e h r l i n , W. F. C h e r n y s h e v s k y . C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r -s i t y P r e s s , 1971. W o o zley, A. D. T h e o r y o f Knowledge. London: H u t c h i n s o n U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , 1967. 65 BIBLIOGRAPHY RUSSIAN T I T L E S BOJIOJ4HH, A. H. H n p y r n e . qepHbnneBCKHft HJIH He^aeB? MocKBa: H3naTeJibCTBO „MbicJib", 1976. KaMeHeB, Jl, E. qepHHUieBCKHfi. MocKBa: )KypHajibHO-ra3eTHoe OeiseflHHeHHe, 19 33. JleSefleB, A. repoft ^epHHtueBCKoro. MocKBa: CoBeTCKHft IlHca-Tejib, 1962. ^TepenaxoB, M. C. H. r. qepHbmieBCKHf t . M o c K B a : H3BaTejibCTBO „Mbicjib", 19 77. ^epHbiuieBCKHH, H. H3flaTeJTbCTBO r . LTojiHoe co6paHHe coieHeHHfi. MocKBa: XyfloxecTBeHHaa J l H T e p a T y p a , 1939. T. 11. 

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