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Gustav Mahler and his relationship to the problem of nineteenth century program music Smith, Deborah Lynn 1980

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GUSTAV MAHLER AND HIS RELATIONSHIP TO THE PROBLEM OF NINETEENTH-CENTURY PROGRAM MUSIC by DEBORAH LYNN SMITH B.Mu.s., The U n i v e r s i t y of Western O n t a r i o , 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Music We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the requ i red standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1980 Q Deborah Lynn S m i t h , 1980 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Br i t ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department o f , M u s i c The University of Br i t ish Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 natP A p r i l 25, 1980 E - 6 B P 75-51 I E ABSTRACT The p r e o c c u p a t i o n , by romantic composers, with l i t e r a t u r e and p h i l o s o p h y , and t h e i r b e l i e f in the merging of the a r t s , led to the development of the program symphony and the tone poem in the n ineteenth century . Gustav Mah le r , whose major composit ions span the years 1880-1911, could not avoid being a f f e c t e d by the ensuing controversy over the a e s t h e t i c value of program music . Mah le r ' s views on many musical m a t t e r s , i n c l u d i n g program mus ic , e x i s t in the form of l e t t e r s , concert n o t e s , ' and memoranda. They provide a c l e a r and accurate p i c t u r e of h is thoughts and a t t i t u d e s . A s e l e c t i o n of these documents has been inc luded in t h i s study in order to demonstrate a number of s i g n i f i c a n t aspects in h is approach to musical compos i t ion . It i s shown that he did not waver in h is acceptance of the v a l i d i t y of e x t r a - m u s i c a l i n s p i r a t i o n , whether s u b j e c t i v e (as in emotions and f e e l i n g s ) or o b j e c t i v e (as in the sounds of n a t u r e ) , .;or in h is b e l i e f that a l l symphonies, beginning with and i n c l u d i n g those by Beethoven, contained an inner program. The use of a w r i t t e n program, however, was a source of u n c e r t a i n t y fo r h im. He c o n s t a n t l y quest ioned i t s a b i l i t y to convey adequately the meaning of a work; whether i t s e x i s t e n c e , as an a id to audiences u n f a m i l i a r with the mus ic , was j u s t i f i e d . Mahler d id not wish to be i i known as a composer of program-music ; he hoped that audiences would judge h is music on i t s i n t r i n s i c m e r i t s . In h is f i r s t three.symphonies , Mahler approached the problem of the w r i t t e n program in d i f f e r e n t ways. The. genesis of each work i s t raced in t h i s study i n the l i g h t both of M a h l e r ' s documented comments on i t s meaning and of i t s var ious programs. Furthermore, t h i s data i s c o l l a b o r a t e d with the evidence of contemporary reviews of performances at which a program or p a r t i a l program was p r o v i d e d . The Thi rd Symphony, which demonstrates the most i n t imate connect ion between a program and the actua l mus ic , i s s tud ied in more d e t a i l , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the w r i t i n g s of F r i e d r i c h N ietzsche with t h i s symphony i s examined. This comparison revea ls subt le yet f a s c i n a t i n g p a r a l l e l s between the Th i rd Symphony and N i e t z s c h e ' s Die f r b h l i c h e W i s s e n s c h a f t , which Mahler at one stage used as a t i t l e fo r h is symphony. The u n d e r l y i n g phi losophy of the two works i s s i m i l a r . Mah le r ' s concern with the matter of programs reached a high point from 1895 to 1896, when he was w r i t i n g the Th i rd Symphony, and severa l of h is important l e t t e r s on the sub jec t date from these y e a r s . He continued to modify the programs for the e a r l y symphonies'throughout the 1890s: h is l a s t w r i t t e n program, for the Second Symphony, dat ing from 1901. At the turn of the c e n t u r y , when embarking on a new s t y l e of c o m p o s i t i o n , Mahler presumably regarded the o ld programs as outdated and no longer necessary . He would have had no h e s i t a t i o n s in removing programs which he had been persuaded i i i to w r i t e i n order to comply wi th cur rent t r e n d s . Hence, a l l t r a c e s of w r i t t e n programs were subsequent ly d i scarded and no new ones were devised for the l a t e r symphonies. In s p i t e of t h i s , evidence shows that no accurate a p p r a i s a l of n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y program music can ignore the c o n t r i b u t i o n of Gustav Mahler . TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i PREFACE vi PART I Chapter 1 . INTRODUCTION 2 Program Music in the Nineteenth Century . . . . 2 Mahler and Romanticism 7 The Symphonies and Thei r Programs: A Summary. . 14 2. MAHLER ON PROGRAM MUSIC . . . 19 PART II 3 . THE FIRST SYMPHONY . . . 35 4. THE SECOND SYMPHONY 58 5. THE THIRD SYMPHONY 78 6. A PROGRAMMATIC ANALYSIS OF THE THIRD SYMPHONY . . 93 7. MAHLER AND NIETZSCHE • I l l CONCLUSION . 1 2 5 NOTES 130 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY . 154 APPENDIX 158 SUMMARY OF THE DOCUMENTS . 211 v PREFACE Program music in i t s most elementary sense , that of i m i t a t i o n , has a h i s t o r y long preceding the n ineteenth c e n t u r y . The complex and s o p h i s t i c a t e d form of program mus ic , w i th which we are more f a m i l i a r today , was the r e s u l t of the romantic composers' preoccupat ion with 1 i t . e ra tu re and phi losophy and t h e i r b e l i e f in the merging of the a r t s . This led to the development of the program symphony and the tone poem. In the l a t e n ineteenth and e a r l y twent ie th c e n t u r i e s , f o l l o w i n g the important achievements in these f i e l d s by B e r l i o z , L i s z t and Richard S t r a u s s , the controversy over program music was at i t s h e i g h t . The number of major books and essays which appeared on the subject in the f i r s t ten years of the t w e n t i e t h century a t t e s t s to t h i s i n t e r e s t . Gustav Mahler , whose composi t ions span these very decades, could not avoid being a f f e c t e d by the e n t i r e i s s u e . By c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the programmatic aspect of Mah le r ' s c o m p o s i t i o n s , I hope to a r r i v e at a c l e a r e r _pi.cture of h is r e l a t i o n s h i p to the problem. One does not immediately t h i n k of Mahler as a composer of program music . Today, h is major works are l a b e l l e d as s imply "Symphonies" ; at the most, they have r e t a i n e d d e s c r i p t i v e t i t l e s . For i n s t a n c e , " T i t a n " , the t i t l e o f ten used with the F i r s t Symphony, i s a remnant of one of Mah le r ' s v i programs for the work, but " R e s u r r e c t i o n " (the Second) and "Symphony of a Thousand" (the E ighth) are popular s u p e r s c r i p t i o n s which were added by people other than Mahler . However, when one begins d e l v i n g in to the Mahler ian l i t e r a t u r e , one soon d i s c o v e r s that there i s ample mate r ia l to support the view that he d id indeed compose program music . Most commentators do t o u c h , even i f only b r i e f l y , on the subject of Mahler and program m u s i c . Some are w i l l i n g to take a stand on the i s s u e . They propose e i t h e r that Mahler d e f i n i t e l y d id (Donald M i t c h e l l ) or d id not (Kurt B l a u k o p f , Bruno Walter ) w r i t e music of a programmatic n a t u r e . Others w i tho ld judgment, but s imply report the f a c t s . Without e x c e p t i o n , a l l w r i t e r s agree that M a h l e r ' s music conta ins something " e x t r a " , a h igh l y personal stamp t h a t , al though a common feature in n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y music , was even more pronounced in h is case . Two books, Donald M i t c h e l l ' s Gustav Mahler : The  Wunderhorn Y e a r s , and Henry -Lou is de La Grange's Mah le r , Vol . I, were e s p e c i a l l y h e l p f u l in the p repara t ion of t h i s s tudy . These two men have c o l l e c t e d , sor ted th rough , and presented a great deal of usefu l mate r ia l on the e a r l y symphonies, i n c l u d i n g the var ious programs given to each. Both have made a s i n c e r e e f f o r t to e s t a b l i s h an accurate chronology fo r the composi t ion of these works. La Grange c i t e s quotat ions from many reviews of performances of Mah le r ' s works in the n ineteenth centu ry . S ince I did not have access to o r i g i n a l sources of t h i s t y p e , I thought t h i s aspect of h is book was v i i p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e , and I am indebted to h i s groundwork. La Grange i s the more o b j e c t i v e of the two w r i t e r s , whereas M i t c h e l l i s the more p e r s o n a l . M i t c h e l l ' s book i s l i b e r a l l y s p r i n k l e d with h is o f ten f a s c i n a t i n g o p i n i o n s . He does devote c o n s i d e r a b l e space to d i s c u s s i n g the sources of the e a r l y programs, but t h i s in fo rmat ion i s placed w i t h i n other h i s t o r i c a l and a n a l y t i c a l m a t e r i a l , and i s s t i l l not as complete as i t could be. There i s an obvious need to i s o l a t e the p e r t i n e n t f a c t s , and to examine c e r t a i n of the symphonies from the angle of program music a l o n e . This was accomplished by t r a c i n g the h i s t o r y of each work, with re ferences to M a h l e r ' s comments on the meaning of the work, i t s var ious programs, and contemporaneous rev iews . I t would have been imposs ib le i n a paper of t h i s s i z e to have d e a l t wi th a l l of M a h l e r ' s symphonies in the d e t a i l r e q u i r e d . The f i r s t three were l o g i c a l c h o i c e s ; f i r s t of a l l , because they were a l l given programs and, second ly , because t h i s i s p r i m a r i l y a n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s tudy . Mahler has bequeathed to p o s t e r i t y a c o n s i d e r a b l e body of w r i t t e n evidence r e v e a l i n g h is views on many musical m a t t e r s . These inc lude the myster ies of musical c r e a t i o n , the e x t r a - m u s i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s which c o n t r i b u t e d to h is c r e a t i v e p rocesses , and program music in g e n e r a l . S a l l y O ' B r i e n , the w r i t e r of an a r t i c u l a t e a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "The Programme Paradox in Romantic Music as Epi tomized in the Works of Gustav M a h l e r " , cons iders that jux tapos ing Mah le r ' s statements on program music has some value. ' ' ' I agree and have attempted to do t h i s in Chapter 2. S ince O ' B r i e n ' s paper was of a r t i c l e l e n g t h , she was able to inc lude only a few short examples and, even fo r t h i s l a r g e r s t u d y , i t was necessary to be very s e l e c t i v e . I have chosen a v a r i e t y of documents, which w i l l h o p e f u l l y present a s u f f i c i e n t l y accurate survey of M a h l e r 1 s thoughts . i x PART I 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Program Music in the Nineteenth Century Although i t i s not the purpose of t h i s study to survey the r o l e of program music in the n ineteenth c e n t u r y , a few general remarks should help to p lace M a h l e r ' s a t t i t u d e towards the subject in p e r s p e c t i v e . D e s c r i p t i v e music has been a problemat ic and c o n t r o v e r s i a l t o p i c throughout musical h i s to ry , ' " but i t was not u n t i l the n ineteenth century that i t became a h igh l y developed medium of composi t ion i n i t s own r i g h t . Few composers of t h i s century remained immune to the t r e n d . The medium obv ious l y held some f a s c i n a t i o n fo r composers, a kind of magnetic a p p e a l . Yet a cu r ious l o v e - h a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p developed. Most would w r i t e program music i n some form or other and then f i l l many pages of l e t t e r s to f r i e n d s , c r i t i c s , and f e l l o w composers defending and e x p l a i n i n g t h e i r a c t i o n s , or denying that they had been t a i n t e d by such a " low ly " s t y l e . These ambiguous t a c t i c s were p a r t i a l l y due to the a t t i t u d e of the c r i t i c s , many of whom abhorred program mus ic . Eduard H a n s l i c k of V ienna 's Neue Fre ie P r e s s e , the most outspoken and most o f ten quoted of the c r i t i c s , was the leader in t h i s type of c r i t i c i s m , which d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed what the romantics had been aiming towards i n the f i r s t h a l f of the c e n t u r y : a merging of the a r t s . In f a c t , Winton Dean b e l i e v e s 2 3 that H a n s l i c k ' s work represented a step backward i n the h i s t o r y of musical c r i t i c i s m . ^ Perhaps t h i s c r i t i c and h is f o l l o w e r s f e l t that i t was t h e i r duty to defend music in i t s purest forms, thus d i s p l a y i n g t h e i r s u p e r i o r i t y over the p u b l i c in matters of musical t a s t e . H a n s l i c k deplored the a r t i f i c i a l i t y and p re tent iousness of music which c la imed to d e p i c t . s p e c i f i c emot ions. Typ ica l of h is comments i s the f o l l o w i n g excerpt from a sca th ing review of L i s z t ' s symphonic poems, publ ished in 1857. Too i n t e l l i g e n t not to recognize h is most obvious shor tcomings , j j . i s z t was not g i f t e d at pure ly formal composi t i on 7J he has chosen to approach music from an angle where, i n s p i r e d by e x t e r n a l i d e a s , i t occupies the comparative i n t e l l e c t and s t i m u l a t e s poet ic and p ic tu resque f a n t a s y . . . . A music ian cannot but f i n d t h i s method hazardous from the very s t a r t , s ince i t demonstrates that music i s only the a f t e r t h o u g h t . . . . L i s z t ' s symphonic poems do-not f low from the pure f o u n t a i n of mus ic ; they are a r t i f i c i a l l y d i s t i l l e d . Musical c r e a t i o n does not come f r e e l y and o r i g i n a l l y with L i s z t ; i t i s c o n t r i v e d . . . i n t e l l i g e n c e , poetry and imagery in abundance, but no musical essence. L i s z t belongs to those ingenious but barren temperaments who mistake d e s i r e fo r c a l l i n g . . . .Only those who do not know the works of B e r l i o z or Richard Wagner could mistake L i s z t fo r a musical d i s c o v e r e r or re former .^ Even s o , Hans l i ck was under a misapprehension in s t a t i n g that the music was an a f t e r t h o u g h t . Very few of the romantic programmatic works were a c t u a l l y composed to a d e t a i l e d s p e c i f i c program. Aud iences , on the other hand, of ten seemed to fee l that a program was a n e c e s s i t y . Ar thur S e i d l , a c r i t i c who was f r i e n d l y and sympathetic towards Mah le r , remarked in an essay a f t e r the d i s a s t r o u s premiere of the Fourth Symphony in Munich (November, 1901) : One ends up wondering whether t e x t s and "programs" have not made audiences so deaf they can no longer react spontaneously or make an e f f o r t to understand a work. . . . S e i d l was one of the few people who t r i e d to understand the work and i t s composer. Some c r i t i c s , t o o , r e l i e d h e a v i l y on programs to help them grasp a new work. The f o l l o w i n g comment made by the c r i t i c from Munich 's Al1gemei ne Zei tung a f t e r the occas ion mentioned above, was very t y p i c a l . The grotesquely comic means something in the t h e a t e r , but in the symphony i t must at l e a s t be j u s t i f i e d by a p r e c i s e program on pain of degenerat ing in to a hodgepodge of ins t rumenta l r dissonances and jokes devoid of a r t i s t i c m a t u r i t y . J I t should be pointed o u t , however, that when conven ien t l y provided with such a program, t h i s type of c r i t i c d e l i g h t e d in t e l l i n g the reader how l i t t l e the music f i t the e x p l a n a t i o n ! Many of the problems and misunderstandings r e l a t i n g to program music stem from the fac t that the term has no s tandard ized meaning. Without a doubt , i t i s a d i f f i c u l t concept to v e r b a l i z e , and no s i n g l e d e f i n i t i o n i s p o s s i b l e . F r e d e r i c k N i e c k s , w r i t i n g in the f i r s t years of t h i s c e n t u r y , bemoans the lack of an "adequate, l e t alone good, d e f i n i t i o n . " Most , he f e e l s , are too narrow. They [ d e f i n i t i o n s ] embrace a l l p o s s i b l e k i n d s , degrees , and c h a r a c t e r s : the outward and the inward , the s imple and the complex, the general and the p a r t i c u l a r , the l y r i c a l , e p i c , d r a m a t i c , melodramat ic , d e s c r i p t i v e , s y m b o l i c a l , e t c . They should embrace a l so music with the programme merely i n d i c a t e d by a t i t l e and music the programme of which i s unrevea led . The absence of programme and 5 t i t l e does not prove the music to be a b s o l u t e . This w i l l e x p l a i n my c l a s s i n g so much as programme music that i s more g e n e r a l l y c l a s s e d as absolute music . Indeed, my op in ion i s that whenever the composer ceases to w r i t e pure ly formal mus ic , he passes from the domain of abso lute music i n t o that of programme music . If we are f r u s t r a t e d today by the narrow-mindedness of many of the n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y c r i t i c s , we must remember that they of ten based t h e i r reviews on the premise that program music was merely the i m i t a t i o n of sounds. Nowadays, the r e a l i z a t i o n that the term can encompass many aspects of music i s more g e n e r a l l y accepted . N i e c k s , in the broadest sense , has summed up the h i s t o r y of program music as the " h i s t o r y of the p development of musical e x p r e s s i o n . " Two books and one notable essay were pub l ished on program music e a r l y in t h i s c e n t u r y , dur ing Mah le r ' s l i f e t i m e . N i e c k s ' s - book (1907) , a l ready ment ioned, obv ious l y shows a very o b j e c t i v e and broad-minded approach. Otto K l a u w e l l ' s h i s t o r y of the s t y l e (1910) emphasizes the works of L i s z t and S t r a u s s . Ernest Newman's essay (1905) provides us with a more personal view of the t o p i c . He i s not a f r a i d to adopt a d e f i n i t e stand in favor of program mus ic , a l o g i c a l a t t i t u d e for a 9 Wagner l o v e r . I have inc luded excerpts from these books as Documents 1 and 2 (see Appendix fo r these and a l l subsequent documents) , and i t i s indeed h e l p f u l to keep these worthwhi le thoughts in mind when we come to the more s p e c i f i c mate r ia l on Mah le r . Both excerpts touch on form as opposed to program, an e n t i r e subject in i t s e l f . The most i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s 6 aspect of program music as i t a p p l i e s to M a h l e r ' s works i s provided by Donald M i t c h e l l . He r e l a t e s M a h l e r ' s use of r e c a p i t u l a t i o n s to the form-versus -program p r o b l e m . ^ It i s not w i t h i n the l i m i t s of t h i s study to i n v e s t i g a t e f u l l y the reason that the program emerged as such an important v e h i c l e in the romantic e r a . N i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y program music was d e f i n i t e l y d i f f e r e n t from that of the prev ious c e n t u r i e s and, l i k e most of the important i d e a l s of romant i c i sm, the romantics f e l t that i t o r i g i n a t e d in the works of Beethoven, which conta ined an i n t a n g i b l e " e x t r a " , a type of express iveness l a c k i n g in music of the c l a s s i c a l p e r i o d . These emotional outbursts formed themselves i n t o what i s o f ten termed the " inner program", a q u a l i t y which e x i s t s , e i t h e r c o n s c i o u s l y or subconsc ious ly in the composer's mind, but which cannot be a r t i c u l a t e d e a s i l y . Thus, most of what n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y composers wrote on the sub jec t of program music seems vague, ambiguous, and . inadequate . O 'Br ien c la ims that the inner program i s "the unique property of n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y music" and f e e l s i t i s not enough to examine any music of t h i s per iod s o l e l y in a n a l y t i c a l te rms; that i s , in terms of the language of music per s e Over and over , we w i l l see Mahler conf i rming these b e l i e f s , namely, that romantic music f i r s t of a l l conta ins an inner program and, second l y , that t h i s advance in musical express ion can be a t t r i b u t e d to Beethoven. The inner program, however, does not e x p l a i n the prominence of the w r i t t e n program. It probably developed as a r e s u l t of a general inc rease of i n t e r e s t in a l l the a r t s o r , 7 as O 'Br ien s a y s , s imply because of the Z e i t g e i s t , the s p i r i t of the t i m e s . Thus, as Deryck Cooke s t a t e s in the i n t r o d u c t o r y chapter of h is essay on Mahler , "a programme may be pure ly i n w a r d - e m o t i o n a l , as in Beethoven's E r o i c a , or part i n w a r d - e m o t i o n a l , part o u t w a r d - f a c t u a l , as in Beethoven's 1 2 Pastora l and B e r l i o z ' s F a n t a s t i que." Mahler and Romanticism Mahler i s of ten descr ibed as a composer who i s p a r t i a l l y a romantic and p a r t i a l l y a prophet of the modern age. (In the same way that Beethoven, who a l s o l i v e d to see the tu rn of a new c e n t u r y , i s now l a b e l l e d a c l a s s i c - r o m a n t i c . ) In d i s c u s s i n g h is r e l a t i o n s h i p to program mus ic , we are n a t u r a l l y concerned with the romantic aspects of his c o m p o s i t i o n s . B e s i d e s , those works which are most a p p l i c a b l e to the subject belong c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y to the n ineteenth century . Bruno Walter c a l l s Mahler a mixture of c l a s s i c and romant ic . He c la ims he was c l a s s i c a l because he gave form to h is mus ic , a po in t which many scho la rs would argue, but I fee l that h i s summation of Mah le r ' s romantic q u a l i t i e s i s a c c u r a t e . Romantic, in the wider sense , i s the bold and unbounded range of h is f a n t a s y : h is " n o c t u r n a l " q u a l i t y ; a tendency to excess i n e x p r e s s i o n , at t imes reach ing the g ro tesque ; above a l l , the mixture of poet i c and other ideas in h is musical i m a g i n a t i o n . His was a. t u r b u l a n t inner world of mus ic , impassioned humanism, p o e t i c i m a g i n a t i o n , • p h i l o s o p h i c thought , and re l i g i ou s f eel i n g . The phi losophy behind romantic ism is f u l l of c o n t r a s t s 8 and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . Instrumental mus ic , and e s p e c i a l l y the "massed sound" i d e a , was cons idered the u l t i m a t e express ion of romantic emot ion, yet there was a renewed c o n c e n t r a t i o n on "the w o r d " - - e i t h e r i n i n t i m a t e a r t songs, operas , programs, exp lanat ions of the e x t r a - m u s i c a l e lement , or in the lengthy l e t t e r s which the romantics loved so much to w r i t e . ^ It i s obvious that Mahler admirably syn thes i zes massed sound and the word, both in h is song cyc les and symphonies, thus showing h imse l f to be a t rue romantic at h e a r t . Not a l l r omant i cs , of c o u r s e , thought a l i k e . Donald Ferguson, i n A H i s t o r y of Musica l Thought, d i v i d e s the n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y composers in to two bas ic t y p e s : romantic i d e a l i s t s (Mendelssohn, Schumann, Chop in ) , and romantic r e a l i s t s ( B e r l i o z , L i s z t ) . The d i s t i n c t i o n s between the types are not always c l e a r , but l a t e r in the century these r e s u l t e d i n the o v e r s i m p l i f i e d b a t t l e between abso lute and program mus ic . . . . the r e a l i s t e x h i b i t s h is subject as he sees i t , ask ing us to share his v i s i o n of the sub ject and, through that v i s i o n , his own emotional r e a c t i o n to i t . The i d e a l i s t , on the other hand, shuns d i r e c t reference to his sub ject and asks us to enter at once i n t o that reg ion of f e e l i n g in to which we,-are more c i r c u i t o u s l y in t roduced by the r e a l i s t . As Ferguson n o t e s , both methods are thoroughly r o m a n t i c , and both represent the composer's personal i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h is s u b j e c t . . The d i f f e r e n c e l i e s in h is under l y ing phi losophy of music and h is approach to c o m p o s i t i o n . Where does Mahler f i t in? On the whole , e s p e c i a l l y i n l a t e r years when he had renounced a l l programs, he was an i d e a l i s t , a l though there are moments in the 1880s and 1890s when a b i t of the r e a l i s t shows 9 through. Richard S t r a u s s , on the other hand, was always a r e a l i s t . When Mahler.was born i n 1 860 , the f i r s t phase of the romantic movement was reaching i t s c l i m a x . In the 1850s L i s z t had composed most of h is symphonic poems and Wagner had w r i t t e n h is e a r l y , p r e - R i n g , music dramas. The var ious aspects of the romantic movement which s t i m u l a t e d composers in the f i r s t h a l f of the century a l s o a f f e c t e d Mah le r , e s p e c i a l l y i n h is y o u t h : l i t e r a t u r e , f o l k - p o e t r y , p h i l o s o p h y , and mythology. His choice of reading mate r ia l obv ious l y i n f l u e n c e d the musical content of his composit ions and, s ince t h i s i s r e l a t e d to program music in the broad sense , some background i n f o r m a t i o n in each of the above areas i s an asset to g r a s p i n g t h e meaning of Mah le r ' s symphonic c r e a t i o n s . Richard Specht f e l t that l i t e r a t u r e had more i n f l u e n c e on Mahler in h i s format ive years than i t d id on other great 16 masters . According to W a l t e r , E. T. A, Hoffmann had a great e f f e c t on the youthfu l Mahler . This e a r l y romantic f i g u r e was popular throughout the p e r i o d , and was s t i l l w ide ly read at the end of the centu ry . Hoffmann's h i g h l y i m a g i n a t i v e , f a n t a s t i c , and ra ther grotesque dream world was ak in to the romantic s p i r i t and i t i s only na tu ra l that a young romantic would be drawn to him. Walter mentions that i t was Hoffmann's " n o c t u r n a l " q u a l i t y which i n f l u e n c e d c e r t a i n of Mah le r ' s works, e s p e c i a l l y t h e . T h i r d and Seventh Symphonies. One of Mah le r ' s f a v o u r i t e prose w r i t e r s was Jean P a u l , 10 another e a r l y romantic whose s t y l e had much i n common w i th H o f f m a n n ' s . ^ This w r i t e r ' s i n f l u e n c e f i r s t appears i n Mah le r ' s teenage l e t t e r s , which "echo Jean P a u l ' s ex t ravagances , his love of n a t u r e , h is e x a l t a t i o n , and h i s sudden s h i f t s from the 1 8 sublime to the g ro tesque . " Mah le r ' s e a r l y l e t t e r s are q u i t e important i n the l i g h t of h is l a t e r c r e a t i v e ou tput . They d i s p l a y a sense of melancholy , a d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with l i f e , almost a d e a t h - w i s h . They a l so show that Mahler was aware very e a r l y in h is l i f e of the many moods of n a t u r e . The most-quoted l e t t e r s are those to his f r i e n d Joseph S t e i n e r . He wrote to him at age e i g h t e e n : 0 my beloved e a r t h , when, oh when w i l l you take the forsaken.one to your breast? B e h o l d , mankind has banished him from i t s e l f , and he f l e e s from i t s co ld and h e a r t l e s s bosom to you , to you! 0 care fo r the l o n e l y one, the r e s t l e s s one, Un iversa l Mother ! 1 ^ Newlin s t a t e s that t h i s "Byron ic pessimism" was " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of his generat ion to an e x t r a o r d i n a r y degree. Cer ta in morbid tendencies seemed to be inescapab ly bound up with the t i m e s . In Mah le r ' s c a s e , however, there i s a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the thoughts expressed in these teenage l e t t e r s and those expressed in the symphonic song c y c l e , Das Lied von der Erde> At t h i s l a t e point in h i s l i f e , Mahler had reached t rue r e s i g n a t i o n ; Das L i e d , together with the Ninth Symphony, i s h is musical f a r e w e l l . Das L ied deals with the l o n e l i n e s s of a wanderer who must leave ear th and l i f e f o r e v e r , and h i s 21 c o n s o l a t i o n in n a t u r e . 11 Mahle r ' s love for folk, poetry played a la rge r o l e i n determin ing the content of h i s c o m p o s i t i o n s . His g r e a t e s t source of i n s p i r a t i o n i n t h i s area was undoubtedly the anthology Das Knaben Wunderhorn. Gartenberg suggests wh.y the r o m a n t i c s , and e s p e c i a l l y the Germans, were so a t t r a c t e d to f o l k poems. Insp i red with the i d e a l s of romant i c i sm, the composer had achieved "an i l l u s t r i o u s , e levated p l a t e a u , " far - removed, from the rea l w o r l d . Folksong proved to be an e x c e l l e n t way to come back to earth, aad " r e s t o r e e a r t h i n e s s 22 to otherwise grandiose m u s i c . " The Wunderhorn contained anc ient folk, poetry c o l l e c t e d in the e a r l y n ineteenth century by Achim von Arnim and Clemens Brentano. The anthology summed up the s p i r i t of romant ic ism in i t s e a r l y . s t a g e s , . w i t h i t s " s t r e s s : o n the s i m p l e , a r t l e s s l i f e of the l i t t l e ' p e o p l e ' and on the glamour of bygone 23 d a y s . " A tremendous v a r i e t y of poems was i n c l u d e d : some were a b i t n a i v e , some featured h i g h l y c o l o u r f u l c h a r a c t e r s , others were f u l l of s a t i r e or m y s t i c i s m , and many expressed a love of n a t u r e , l o n e l i n e s s , or y e a r n i n g . The book exerted more i n f l u e n c e on poets dur ing the century than on m u s i c i a n s . Goethe loved i t and thought the poems should be set to mus ic , but only a few Wunderhorn songs were composed p r i o r to M a h l e r ' s e f f o r t s . Mahler probably knew the book from his ch i ldhood ( M i t c h e l l demonstrates t h a t the f i r s t Gesel1 en song has i t s bas is i n . a Wunderhorn poem), but u n t i l r e c e n t l y i t was thought that he did not come across i t u n t i l he met the Webers i n 12 L e i p z i g in 1888, In any c a s e , as Newlin so c l e v e r l y phrases i t , the "magic horn" became Mah le r ' s "horn of p l e n t y " and he 24 adapted many of i t s t e x t s to h i s use. E s p e c i a l l y in h is y o u t h , Mahler modelled h i s own poems on f o l k poetry ra ther than the more s e r i o u s poets such as Goethe or S c h i l l e r . The two prime f r u i t s of t h i s phase were Das klagende Li ed and the song c y c l e L ieder eines fahrenden  G e s e l l e n . Both works are thoroughly i n the romantic v e i n . The f i r s t was Mah le r ' s own adapt ion of a morbid f o l k t a l e . When i t was performed in Vienna in 1901 the c r i t i c Max Kalbeck made the somewhat ambiguous statement that the p iece was " n e i t h e r an o r a t o r i o nor even a symphonic poem but , in the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , a symphonic poem with a program set to m u s i c . " Thus, Mah le r ' s f i r s t mature work i s l a b e l l e d as a p iece of program music . Cooke c a l l s the Gesel1 en c y c l e a "shor t "Spr ing Journey" as.opposed to . Schubert ' s .. 1 ong 'Winter 2 6 J o u r n e y ' , " '•• and two very romantic t h e m e s - - " t h e wanderer" , and 27? "death as a re lease from l i f e ' s t r o u b l e s " are dea l t w i t h . Mythology perhaps had a l ess l a s t i n g i n f l u e n c e on Mahler than e i t h e r l i t e r a t u r e or f o l k poet ry . In h is mature works , i t shows up only in the "Greek" aspects of the Th i rd Symphony.. When, as a student composer, he planned and p a r t i a l 1 y - e x e c u t e d a number of operas , he chose mytho log ica l sub jects bu t , i n f l u e n c e d by Wagner and the other Germaa romantic opera composers, these were based on f o l k mythology, ra ther than on c l a s s i c a l mythology so popular i n the e ighteenth c e n t u r y . L a s t l y , we must b r i e f l y d i scuss Mah le r ' s l i f e l o n g 13 i n t e r e s t in p h i l o s o p h y . A g a i n , he was f o l l o w i n g a romantic t r a d i t i o n , for phi losophy was popular with many n i n e t e e n t h -century composers, e s p e c i a l l y Wagner. This very i n t e l l e c t u a l reading balanced the l i g h t e r works of Hoffmann and Jean P a u l . Walter says that when he f i r s t knew Mahler in Hamburg, he was under the i n f l u e n c e of Schopenhauer. He p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e d Schopenhauer's comments on music in Die Welt a l s W i l l e und  V e r s t e l l u n g , and he wrote very e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y to h is f r i e n d Arnold B e r l i n e r about t h i s work. Walter a lso i n d i c a t e s tha t 2 8" Nietzsche "made a powerful but not a l a s t i n g i m p r e s s i o n . " There was, however, one cur ious aspect to Mah le r ' s l i t e r a r y i n t e r e s t s . Accord ing to W a l t e r , h is f a v o u r i t e reading 29 was the p h i l o s o p h i c a l aspects of s c i e n c e . S i e g f r i e d L i p i n e r , a f r i e n d from his student days , drew Mah le r ' s a t t e n t i o n to Gustav•Theodor Fechner (1304-1887), and t h i s l e s s e r p h i l o s o p h i c a l f i g u r e exerted a l a s t i n g i n f l u e n c e on h im. His ideas were e x p e c i a l l y important fo r Mah le r ' s concept ion of the Th i rd Syrnphony. Newlin admirably assesses the way in which Mahler u t i l i z e d his e n t i r e i n t e l l e c t u a l background when f o r m u l a t i n g the "wor ld" of each symphony. Schopenhauer's phi losophy of music was a source of i n s p i r a t i o n for Mah le r , though i t cannot be too much emphasized t h a t , the p h i l o s o p h i c a l background once e s t a b l i s h e d , Mahler proceeded to create h is scores on pure ly musical te rms, wi thout being hampered at every turn by a cumbersome "program" l i t e r a l l y f o l l o w e d . It i s remarkable to see how Mahler i s capable of welding together Schopenhauerian p h i l o s o p h y , thematic m a t e r i a l both symphonic and l y r i c , German f o l k - p o e t r y , and 14 the abstruse express ion of N ietzsche i n t o a u n i f i e d work of such vast p ropor t ions as the Th i rd Symphony. . . 3 ^ The n ineteenth century i s of ten descr ibed as an era of y e a r n i n g , of a long ing fo r something u n a t t a i n a b l e . This element of search ing i s the bas is of Goethe's Faust , a work t reasured by a l l t rue romant i cs . On one of t h e i r walks together in Ju ly 1899, Mahler made the f o l l o w i n g remark to N a t a l i e Bauer -Lechner : Music should always express y e a r n i n g , a yearn ing beyond the th ings of t h i s w o r l d . With t h i s comment, Mahler sums h i m s e l f up as a romant i c . The Symphonies and The i r Programs: A Summary Mahler approached the problem of the program in var ious ways in h is symphonic works. The f o l l o w i n g summary of the symphonies i s designed to make these d i f f e r e n c e s c l e a r . The f i r s t three symphonies are d e f i n i t e l y r e l a t e d to a d i s c u s s i o n of program mus ic , and i t i s imposs ib le to analyze them adequately without r e f e r r i n g to t h e i r programs. In s p i t e of Mah le r ' s many p r o t e s t a t i o n s to the c o n t r a r y , we can see an i n c r e a s i n g r e l i a n c e on the program, e i t h e r as a conceptual bas is fo r the symphony, or as a p r i n t e d e x p l a n a t i o n . Each of these works w i l l be d iscussed in d e t a i l in Part II of t h i s s tudy . The Fourth Symphony i s l ess outwardly programmatic than e i t h e r the Second of the T h i r d , and we can a l ready see a t u r n i n g away from the w r i t t e n program. It i s the l a s t of the 15 "Wunderhorn" symphonies, and i s connected t h e m a t i c a l l y and p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y wi th the f i r s t t h r e e . The whole work was composed towards a p re -conce ived f i n a l e , a song which descr ibes the d e l i g h t s of heavenly e x i s t e n c e , and the tex t a u t o m a t i c a l l y i m p l i e s some e x t r a - m u s i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . In August 1900, Mahler sa id to N a t a l i e Bauer -Lechner : I know the most wonderful names fo r the movements, but I'm not going to betray them to the rabb le of c r i t i c s and l i s t e n e r s , so that t h e y , in t u r n , can betray them to banal misunderstandings and di s t o r t i o n s He never did reveal the ac tua l t i t l e s , but t h i s d id not prevent him from d i v u l g i n g the usual remarks to N a t a l i e and h is other f r i e n d s , as he d id when composing the Th i rd Symphony. 3 4 C o l l e c t i v e l y , these comments form a f a i r l y d e t a i l e d program. The s i m p l i c i t y of the Fourth Symphony was decept ive and, cont ra ry to M a h l e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s , i t d id not please the c r i t i c s . They found i t completely b e w i l d e r i n g without a commentary, and almost a l l of them condemned i t at i t s f i r s t performance in Munich. The F i f t h , S i x t h , and Seventh Symphonies are reputed to be absolute mus ic , al though the analyses and d e s c r i p t i o n s of w r i t e r s r a r e l y support t h i s c l a i m . No d e t a i l e d programs e x i s t , yet c e r t a i n d e t a i l s e a s i l y lend themselves to e x t r a -musical i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The F i f t h Symphony fol lows, the general dramatic o u t l i n e of a number of n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y symphonies ( e . g . , Brahms's F i r s t Symphony, and Tcha ikovsky ' s Fourth and F i f t h Symphonies) . This form descended from Beethoven's F i f t h Symphony and represents the " t r a d i t i o n a l 16 symbolism of darkness (and a l l of i t s connotat ions ] r e s o l v i n g 3 5 i n t o l i g h t (and a l l of i t s c o n n o t a t i o n s ) . " A c o n f l i c t i s in t roduced in the f i r s t movement; the middle movements are on a more re laxed l e v e l ; the c o n f l i c t i s r e - i n t r o d u c e d and reso lved in the l a s t movement. Although the F i f t h i s not the only symphony i n which Mahler adopts t h i s p l a n , i t i s perhaps the most obvious example. B e s i d e s , u n l i k e some of the other works , t h i s very general " i n n e r program" a n a l y s i s i s the only type of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p o s s i b l e wi th the F i f t h Symphony. Of the three middle symphonies, I f i n d the S i x t h the most f a s c i n a t i n g from a programmatic s t a n d p o i n t , even though there i s l i t t l e in the score i t s e l f to suggest a program. Once a g a i n , Mahler employs a sor t of program for h i s personal use . Alma e x p l a i n s that he "expressed her" in a theme in the f i r s t movement, and the arhythmic games of the two g i r l s i n the t h i r d movement. The vo ices of the g i r l s become more and more t r a g i c , and are reduced to a whimper i n the end. In the l a s t movement, "he descr ibed h i m s e l f and h is d o w n f a l l , as he l a t e r s a i d , that of h is hero : ' I t i s the h e r o , on whom f a l l three blows of f a t e , the l a s t of which f e l l s him as a t r e e i s f e l l e d ' ,." 3 6 Richard St rauss t a c k l e d a s i m i l a r theme much l a t e r , in h is S i n f o n i a Domestica. However, he f l a u n t e d the fami l y connect ions p u b l i c l y , whereas i f Alma had not brought t h i s "program" to the w o r l d ' s a t t e n t i o n , Mah le r ' s thoughts would never have been known. Alma c a l l s the S i x t h Symphony her husband's most personal work and, although Mahler at one time 17 or other made t h i s comment about each of h i s works , she may be c o r r e c t . She desc r ibes how he was a f f e c t e d at one performance, how a g i t a t e d he became dur ing the l a s t movement: "None of his 3 7 works moved him so deeply at i t s f i r s t hear ing as t h i s . " ; L ike many of Alma's remarks, we should be somewhat s c e p t i c a l of t h i s one, e s p e c i a l l y s ince she was not present at the i n i t i a l hear ing of the f i r s t four symphonies. Y e t , somehow, knowing the personal a s s o c i a t i o n s invo l ved as we l l as M a h l e r ' s l a t e r comments about t h i s work, her statement seems b e l i e v a b l e . Mahler was p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned that the c r i t i c s regard t h i s symphony as abso lute mus ic . In November 1906 he wrote a l e t t e r to Alma from Munich, where the work was being performed. The management of the State Theatre had provided an e x c e p t i o n a l l y la rge c o w b e l l , which they i n s i s t e d be s t ruck in f u l l view of the aud ience . Mahler c laimed that i t " q u i t e unmistakably symbol ized the y o d e l " and wrote l a t e r i n the l e t t e r , ra ther r e s i g n e d l y one senses : "In consequence, I must set my face against a l l programmatic e x p l a n a t i o n s . " ^ 8 The prophet ic nature of the S i x t h Symphony has often been n o t e d , as has the f a c t that t h i s " T r a g i c " Symphony was composed dur ing a per iod of great happ iness . The only programmatic i n d i c a t i o n i n the Seventh Symphony i s the t i t l e Nachtmusik fo r the second and four th movements. Alma says of the summer of 1 905 , when the work, was composed: As he wrote the serenade he was beset by E i c h e n d o r f f - i s h v i s i o n s - - m u r m e r i n g spr ings and German romant ic i sm. Apart from t h i s , the symphony has no content . .42: 18 Thus, i n the Nachtmu s i ken , which New!in desc r ibes as " f a s c i n a t i n g romantic c h a r a c t e r - p i e c e s , " ^ 0 Mahler re turns to the romantic ism of his y o u t h . The p rovocat i ve t i t l e Nachtmusik w i t h i n a symphony i s an open i n v i t a t i o n to program-making; but Mahler has conceived no d e t a i l e d program here , e i t h e r as a bas is fo r h is own work or as a g u i d e t o his aud iences . However, the g i v i n g of a t i t l e i s a d e f i n i t e h in t tha t the imag inat ion of the i n d i v i d u a l l i s t e n e r may range widely without v i o l a t i n g the musical i n t e n t i o n s of the composer Although the E ighth Symphony and Das L ied von der Erde' are t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t in o u t l o o k , they are s i m i l a r i n that they both use the vo ice e x t e n s i v e l y . Obviously a separate program i s not necessary i n e i t h e r c o m p o s i t i o n , s i n c e the words e x p l i c i t l y convey the intended meaning. S ince these works go beyond what i s normal ly l a b e l l e d as a program symphony, they would be more a p p r o p r i a t e l y dea l t wi th in a d i s c u s s i o n of the choral or vocal symphony. Both works c o n t a i n a d e f i n i t e dramatic e lement , a concept f i r s t in t roduced to the symphony in B e r l i o z ' s Romeo and J u l i e t . Mahler provides no programmatic i n d i c a t i o n s at a l l fo r the Ninth Symphony. Most b iographers see i t as h is musical fa rewe l l and the m u s i c - - t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s to the l a s t movement of Das Lied and the mood created i n the f i n a l A d a g i o -tends to support t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n a very general sense . A p u r i s t could e a s i l y l a b e l i t as absolute music . CHAPTER 2 MAHLER ON PROGRAM MUSIC O 'Br ien s ta tes that "of a l l n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y composers, Mahler was probably the most a r t i c u l a t e and profuse w r i t e r on the concept of programme." 1 In t h i s chapter I s h a l l d i s c u s s a number of h is more important w r i t i n g s i n an attempt to c r y s t a l i z e h i s views on the s u b j e c t . One of the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n e v a l u a t i n g these documents i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the lack of an adequate d e f i n i t i o n for program mus ic . The problem l i e s i n the f a c t that there i s a d i f f e r e n c e between a program in a general sense, and the w r i t t e n program notes handed out at c o n c e r t s . Mahler never had any t r o u b l e j u s t i f y i n g a general , p h i l o s o p h i c a l type of program as the bas is fo r h is works. It was the quest ion of program notes which o f ten aroused h is wrath . He once sa id to Bruno W a l t e r : There i s indeed noth ing to ob ject [to] concerning a "program" (even i f i t i s not the h ighest rung of the l a d d e r ) - - b u t the composer must express h i m s e l f in i t and not a w r i t e r , p h i l o s o p h e r , or ^ p a i n t e r ( a l l of which are contained i n a composer) . Yet j in 1901, he wrote contemptuously to Alma that the program notes he had w r i t t e n were only a " c r u t c h fo r a c r i p p l e . " This problem of semantics i s not r e s t r i c t e d to Mah le r ' s own comments, but a l s o appears i n books and essays by l a t e r 19 20 w r i t e r s and s c h o l a r s . Of t h e s e , Bruno W a l t e r ' s popular smal l volume i s an idea l example. I t i s sometimes very d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t what W a l t e r . i s s a y i n g , because, i t seems so c o n t r a d i c t o r y on the s u r f a c e . He tak.es the very s p e c i f i c view that program music i s . o n l y music which attempts to d e p i c t or d e s c r i b e . . He i s r i g h t f u l l y aware that Mahler does t h i s very 3 r a r e l y ; but , a t . t h e same time he understands that something ex t ra e x i s t s in the music . He i s opposed to the notion, that Mahler was a composer of program m u s i c , p o s s i b l y because M a h l e r ' t o l d him that he d id not w i s h t o be represented to p o s t e r i t y in t h i s way. The two examples c i t e d i n Document 3 should make h i s p o s i t i o n c l e a r . The l e t t e r to S c h i e d e r m a i r , whom we w i l l meet again l a t e r , was pub l ished i n the January 1902 issue of Die Musi k. I th ink that Walter takes h is ant i -p rogrammat ic stand too s e r i o u s l y . The programs which Mahler wrote of ten do help i n understanding his mus ic , and many of h is .works ( i n c l u d i n g the Fourth Symphony, which uses a Wunderhorn t e x t ) are l i t e r a r y . The re ference i n the second example i s to the love episodes in Mah le r ' s l i f e which served as an i n s p i r a t i o n for the F i r s t Symphony. Thus, the d i f f e r e n c e between program and absolute music depends on where one draws the l i n e . W r i t e r s such as Walter have a narrow d e f i n i t i o n of program music and a broad view of abso lute music ; F reder ick N i e c k s , on the other hand, has a broad d e f i n i t i o n of program music and a narrow concept of abso lute music . Walter c o n s t a n t l y dwel ls upon the personal element that i s a d e f i n i t e aspect of Mahler ' s compos i t iona l s t y l e . 21 Although these a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l re ferences do not prov ide "programs" in the s t r i c t sense of the word, they do a f f e c t our i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Mahler symphonies and have a bear ing on the general type of program which Mahler f e l t was present in most n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y works. P h i l i p Bar fo rd comments on the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s on which personal exper iences a f f e c t var ious composers. What we could bear in mind i s that the q u a l i t y and range of a composer's exper ience are bound to f i n d some sor t of express ion i n h i s works. Between purely a b s t r a c t pat terns which have no e x p l i c i t r e l a t i o n to any d e f i n a b l e idea or v i s u a l image, and themes or progress ions which car ry an e x p l i c i t s y m b o l i c . b u r d e n , there are.many grades of s u b l t e r e l a t i o n s h i p . Perhaps we could accept that whereas some composers work at a great d i s t a n c e of a b s t r a c t i o n from those l i f e - e x p e r i e n c e s which are i n s p i r a t i o n a l to t h e i r work, others i n s t i n c t i v e l y transmute the v i b r a t i o n of every pass ing mood, emotion or a s p i r a t i o n i n t o s o u n d - p a t t e r n s . Mozart i s a good example of the " a b s t r a c t e d " type and Mah le r , as he f r e q u e n t l y a d m i t t e d , i s e x a c t l y the o p p o s i t e . In February 18y 3 , the young F r a u l e i n To lney -Wi t t had w r i t t e n to Mahler and asked : "Why does i t r e q u i r e an apparatus as la rge as an o r c h e s t r a to express a great thought?" Mahler , who had only one symphony completed at the t i m e , wrote a long r e p l y . - e x p l a i n i n g the a r t i s t i c p r i n c i p l e s of the t i m e : Hand in hand with t h i s [the development of a complex w r i t t e n language fo r music] went the a c q u i s i t i o n of new emotional elements as sub jec ts of express ion through sound, i . e . , the composer began to in t roduce i n t o his work the c o n s t a n t l y more complex and deeper face ts of h is emotional l i f e . From then on , not only the bas ic f e e l i n g s such as mere joy or sadness , e t c . , . f o r m the sub jects of musical c r e a t i o n , but a lso t r a n s i t i o n s from one s t a t e to another , inner c o n f l i c t s , surrounding nature and i t s e f f e c t upon u s , humor and poet i c t h o u g h t s . J 22 T h e r e f o r e , t h i s p r a c t i c e was an i n t r e g a l part of the n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Z e i t g e i s t . Mahler r e i n f o r c e d these thoughts i n a l e t t e r he wrote to Oscar R i e , who had w r i t t e n a favourable a r t i c l e in the Neue.Deutsche Rundschau a f t e r three movements of the Second Symphony had been performed in B e r l i n in 1895. My music i s l i v e d [ge leb t } , so how can i t be understood by people who are not " a l i v e " , who haven' t f e l t the s l i g h t e s t breeze from the r a g i n g . g a l e s of our great epoch? Sometimes the exper iences which a f f e c t e d Mahle r ' s composi t ions were very s p e c i f i c . In the summer of 1897, a f t e r three symphonies had been f i n i s h e d , he t a l k e d with N a t a l i e about his use of nature sounds. She s a i d that Mahler had a very f i n e ear for a l l nature sounds; he was compelled to hear them, whether he wished to or n o t . 7 He t o l d her that in 1894 he had w r i t t e n the c r i e s of ravens i n t o the f i n a l e of the Second Symphony. However, in Ste inach am Brenner i n 1897, the squawking of hens, peacocks , and crows drove him to d e s p a i r , Mahler c laimed that he a l so l i s t e n e d " j u s t as a t t e n t i v e l y to the thunder ing of a w a t e r f a l l , the b e l l s of a herd of c a t t l e [used in the S i x t h and Seventh Symphonies] , and Q even the modulated c reak ing of a door . " I t ' s in nature that we f i n d our i n i t i a l themes and rhythms; she o f f e r s them to us very s u c c i n c t l y in the sounds made by each d i f f e r e n t a n i m a l . Man, the a r t i s t , der ives h i s forms and sub jec t matter from the world around h im, to which he n a t u r a l l y lends a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t and much wider meaning, e i t h e r because he's in a s t a t e of b l i s s f u l harmony with nature or because he 's t r y i n g to r i d h i m s e l f of her by laughing at her from the top of his i vo ry tower . Such are the s o u r c e s , i n the most 23 r e s t r i c t i v e sense of the word, of an a r t i s t ' s s t y l e , which i s sometimes noble and s u b l i m e , sometimes s a t i r i c a l and humorous. Years l a t e r , in 1910, he s ta ted that the rhythm and charac te r of the theme of the i n t r o d u c t i o n to the Seventh was i n s p i r e d by the sound of o a r s . Once t h i s theme came to h im, he went on to complete the res t of the work i n record t i m e . On the whole , he found musical c r e a t i o n a m y s t i c a l p rocess . On February 17 , 1897, he wrote a l e t t e r to Ar thur Se id l d e s c r i b i n g how he had rece ived the i n s p i r a t i o n fo r the F i n a l e of the Second Symphony at von Bi l low's f u n e r a l . He was amazed that he, out of a church f u l l of peop le , had p e r s o n a l l y exper ienced - the moment in that p a r t i c u l a r way. "I only compose when I t r u l y exper ience something, and I only exper ience i t when I c r e a t e . " * ^ M u s i c , he f e l t , had to express something more than words, even i f words formed a part of the musical work. He wrote to Max Marschalk in 1896: "So long as I can sum up my exper ience i n words, I can c e r t a i n l y not create music about i t . " 1 1 A few years l a t e r , wh i le composing the Fourth Symphony, he again confirmed h is b e l i e f i n the s u p e r i o r i t y of music . Wonderstruck at the world of sound in which he was now l i v i n g more happ i l y . than e v e r , he t o l d . N a t a l i e yet again that music seemed to him to be v a s t l y s u p e r i o r to poetry because i t could say e v e r y t h i n g . Thanks to a modulat ion or an i n t e r r u p t e d cadence, i t was able to express and e l u c i d a t e that which could be n e i t h e r descr ibed n o r . h i n t e d at in the other a r t s . "Our modern I m p r e s s i o n i s t poets would love to be able to express a given atmosphere or i m p r e s s i o n , b u t , as ide from the f a c t that t h e y ' r e bunglers^ t h e y ' l l never be able to do so with mere words." 24 He exp la ined to N a t a l i e that he p r e f e r r e d composing l i e d e r to working w i t h i n the w e l l - d e f i n e d l i m i t s of an opera l i b r e t t o , "because there m u s i c c a n express much more than the immediate meaning of the words. The t e x t merely suggests the bur ied r i c h e s that must be uncovered, the t reasures that one 13 must b r ing to l i g h t . " Several documents, mostly in the form of l e t t e r s , stand out as having s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e in understanding Mah le r ' s general a t t i t u d e towards program mus ic . The f i r s t i s a l e t t e r dated May 1 5 , 1894 (.Document 4 ) . I t i s not known fo r c e r t a i n who the r e c i p i e n t was, but La Grange surmises that the addressee was the c r i t i c and m u s i c o l o g i s t August Ferdinand Kretzschmar . The l e t t e r was sent two weeks before the performance of the F i r s t Symphony at Weimar in June 1894. Kretzschmar had asked Mahler to f u r n i s h an a n a l y s i s fo r the concert and Mahler p o l i t e l y r e f u s e d . A g a i n , i t i s program notes which Mahler i s opposed to and, in t h i s c a s e , the more a n a l y t i c a l type of no tes . The l e t t e r i s i l l u m i n a t i n g because i t shows c l e a r l y that Mahler t r u l y d id want a new audience to react to h is music as mus i c . The l i s t e n e r s should fee l something — whether the r e a c t i o n was favourable or unfavourable was l e s s impor tant . His op in ion i s that notes would serve to c o n f u s e , ra ther than to e l u c i d a t e . In s p i t e of these remarks, he d id keep the program which he had w r i t t e n fo r the work the preceding y e a r . The next important documents are the l e t t e r s to Max 25 Marschalk (Document 5 ) . O r i g i n a l l y a p a i n t e r and photographer , Marschalk (1863-1940) became a c r i t i c fo r the B e r l i n Voss ische Z e i t u n g i n 1895. Marschalk was a l s o an amateur composer (he.wrote music fo r the plays of Gerhart Hauptmann), and Mahler f r e q u e n t l y o f f e r e d him advice on composing. The correspondence between the two men began a f t e r the premiere of the e n t i r e Second Symphony in B e r l i n in December . 1 895 . ' M a r s c h a l k ' s review of the concert was p o s i t i v e . We should be g r a t e f u l to t h i s admirer fo r being such a sympathetic l i s t e n e r and exposer of Mahler ' s i l l u m i n a t i n g i d e a s . The l e t t e r s prov ide i n s i g h t in to Mah le r ' s thoughts on program music in^ g e n e r a l , - a s we 11 as d e t a i l s on each of the f i r s t two symphonies. I t i s suggested that the reader r e -consu l t these l e t t e r s at the appropr ia te p laces in the d i s c u s s i o n s of the s p e c i f i c symphonies i n v o l v e d . The excerpt in Document 5 , Part A was w r i t t e n soon a f t e r the premiere of the Second Symphony, and r e f e r s to that work. In i t , Mahler once again sets f o r t h his thoughts on musical c r e a t i o n and the l i n k i n g of l i f e and music . This l e t t e r a l so exp la ins how Mahler was able to devise d e t a i l e d programs for h is composi t ions a f t e r they had been completed, and adds credence to the s i n c e r e t y of the content of these programs. The two most famous Marschalk l e t t e r s were w r i t t e n s i x days a p a r t , i n March 1896, severa l months a f t e r the premiere of the Second Symphony and a few days a f t e r an a l l - M a h l e r program which inc luded the F i r s t Symphony. They c e r t a i n l y r e f l e c t h is f l u c t u a t i n g op in ions at t h i s t i m e . La Grange 26 po ints out that Mahler had r e c e n t l y been working with Richard S t r a u s s , and t h i s contact . .would c e r t a i n l y have caused him to r e - t h i n k the whole concept of programs. Mahler does not condemn program music per se i n the f i r s t l e t t e r (Document 5 , Part E ) , which r e f e r s p r i m a r i l y to the F i r s t Symphony. In f a c t , he admits that he i s a mood p a i n t e r to a c e r t a i n . d e g r e e , and confesses to e x t r a - m u s i c a l i n s p i r a t i o n . He had, however, recognized the inadequacies of t h i s . . p a r t i cul ar program (as the chapter on t h i s symphony should make c l e a r ) , and he was r i g h t to d i s c a r d i t . He r e - a s s e r t s h is b e l i e f in inner programs, a p o s i t i o n on which there was never any doubt. In the second l e t t e r (Document 5 , Part C ) , which i s l o n g e r , he takes a more ant i -p rogrammat ic s t a n d , and i s l e s s c l e a r in h is t h i n k i n g . Although he o s c i l l a t e s back and f o r t h , a r g u i n g . t o h i m s e l f ra ther than to Marscha lk , h is inherent d i s l i k e of program notes shows through c l e a r l y . Is a w r i t t e n program v a l i d ? Does the fac t that a program might help to convert a c e r t a i n type of audience (one used to programs) j u s t i f y going aga ins t h is a e s t h e t i c b e l i e f s ? In the end , he concedes . that i t does. O 'Br ien notes that the two l e t t e r s are a r e v e r s a l . On March 20 , Mahler approves the concept of program, but d ismisses program notes .as . m i s l e a d i n g . On March. 2 6 , he a t t a c k s the whole concept , but f i n a l l y approves program notes as a v e h i c l e 14 to a id the 1i s t e n e r . 27 At t h i s j u n c t u r e , i t i s appropr ia te to include, excerpts from severa l l e t t e r s by Tchaikovsky (Document 6 ) . I f one d id not know b e t t e r , one could e a s i l y b e l i e v e that these l e t t e r s were a lso w r i t t e n by Mahler . Although i t i s u n l i k e l y that Mahler was d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the Tchaikovsky l e t t e r s , the two men had much in common in t h e i r views of program music -Tchaikovsky did wr i te symphonic poems, but he does not immediately come to mind as a composer of program symphonies. His symphonic works are l a b e l l e d e i t h e r as "Symphony" o r , as with the S i x t h , have only a general t i t l e . One must look behind the p u b l i c facade for any d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n s of h is symphonies. He d i d , however, devise " p r i v a t e programs", l i k e those that Mahler wrote for N a t a l i e , Marschalk and, l a t e r , Alma. Document 6 , Part A c o n s i s t s of excerpts from a f a s c i n a t i n g 1 e t t e r which Tchaikovsky wrote to his f r i e n d Nadejda von Meek, A complete program fo r the Fourth Symphony is inc luded in the l e t t e r , j u s t as a d e t a i l e d program for the Second Symphony i s contained w i t h i n Mah le r ' s March 26 l e t t e r to Marscha lk . The l e t t e r reveals that Tcha ikovsky 's mental c o n f l i c t on the whole subject of programs was very s i m i l a r to that which Mahler exper ienced twenty years l a t e r : the mystery of musical c r e a t i o n ; the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of d e l i n e a t i n g a program in words; the inadequacy of the w r i t t e n program once i t had been completed; the s u p e r i o r i t y of music over words as an express ive medium, Niecks f e e l s that " t h i s l e t t e r i s a p r i c e l e s s document, an i l l u m i n a t i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n to a e s t h e t i c s and psychology , and w i l l be s t u d i e d long a f t e r the master ' s 28 composit ions have been f o r g o t t e n . " 1 5 Although Niecks was probably not aware of them when w r i t i n g his book, Mah le r ' s l e t t e r s to Marschalk are e q u a l l y important i n a survey of n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y program music . Part B of Document 6 i s from a l e t t e r to the composer Taneiev . Tchaikovsky cont inues in much the same vein as the previous l e t t e r , with a d d i t i o n a l emphasis on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i s music and h is emotional l i f e . The most s i g n i f i c a n t po int in the l e t t e r , however, i s the fac t that he asks a fundamental q u e s t i o n : Even i f a work does have a program, why i s t h i s n e c e s s a r i l y a bad th ing? Many composers of the p e r i o d , i n c l u d i n g Mah le r , were faced with t h i s di lemma. They may have s e c r e t l y wished to be more open wi th exp lanat ions of t h e i r works, but were concerned about the adverse p u b l i c i t y . Tchaikovsky expressed h is annoyance i n another l e t t e r to Madame von Meek. I f i n d that the i n s p i r a t i o n of a symphonic composer can be of two k i n d s : s u b j e c t i v e [that i s , music with an i n n e r , emotional program] and o b j e c t i v e [that i s , more s p e c i f i c program music i n s p i r e d by a p a r t i c u l a r subject or event] . . . .At any r a t e , from my s t a n d p o i n t , both k inds of music have a r i g h t to e x i s t , and I do not understand the people who w i l l admit the l e g i t i m a c y of only one of them. [Presumably the former type. ] In a l e t t e r to Max K a l b e c k , Mahler once more d iscusses his a r t i s t i c c r e e d . This l e t t e r i s s i m i l a r i n content to the one w r i t t e n to Kretzschmar in 1894. Beginning with Beethoven there e x i s t s no modern music which hasn ' t i t s inner program. But no 29 music i s worth anyth ing when the l i s t e n e r has to be i n s t r u c t e d as to what i s exper ienced i n i t — in other words, what he i s expected to e x p e r i e n c e . And so a g a i n : p e r e a t - - e v e r y program! One must b r ing along one's ears and heart and, not l e a s t , surrender w i l l i n g l y to the r h a p s o d i s t . A b i t of mystery always r e m a i n s - -even fo r the c r e a t o r ! 1 ' S ince Mahler commented so f r e q u e n t l y on the " i n n e r programs" of Beethoven's symphonies, i t i s worthwhi le to inc lude h i s thoughts on Beethoven's F i f t h and S i x t h Symphonies. This i s p o s s i b l e thanks to the c a r e f u l r e p o r t i n g of N a t a l i e Bauer -Lechner . Mahler performed the F i f t h Symphony with the Vienna Phi lharmonic in September 1899. On that occas ion he s a i d : Beethoven's powerful f i r s t movement should be accompanied by " f renzy and stormy r e s t l e s s n e s s . " To him the f i r s t notes resembled "a v i o l e n t a s s a u l t , stemmed by a g i a n t ' s f i s t descending on the pauses . " He thought the famous sentence a t t r i b u t e d to B e e t h o v e n - - " D e s t i n y knocking at the d o o r " - - a pale and i n s u f f i c i e n t d e s c r i p t i o n of the movement's meaning, f o r , as fa r as he was concerned, the f i r s t notes c r i e d o u t , "Here I a m ! " 1 8 I t i s na tu ra l that Mahler would f e e l a s p e c i a l a f f i n i t y for the S i x t h , Beethoven's own "nature symphony", which he conducted at a Phi lharmonic concert in December 1899. His thoughts on t h i s work, as he t o l d them to N a t a l i e in January 1898, are reproduced in Document 7. The comments of the c r i t i c H i r s c h f e l d f o l l o w i n g the concert t e s t i f y to Mah le r ' s success in i n t e r p r e t i n g t h i s work. He c la imed that Mahler "molded and p a i n t e d , b r i n g i n g nature i t s e l f to l i f e in a l l i t s var ied aspects" and thus c reated "a t rue m i r a c l e of s o u n d . " 1 9 30 Many of M a h l e r ' s c r i t i c a l remarks on program music were made before he stopped w r i t i n g programs h i m s e l f . A c l a s s i c example i s the f o l l o w i n g i n c i d e n t which took p lace in October 1900, a f u l l year before h is most d e t a i l e d exp lanatory program—that to the Second Symphony —appeared i n p r i n t . Mah le r ' s Second Symphony was performed i n Munich and the s u b j e c t . o f program music was c l e a r l y i n h is mind on t h i s o c c a s i o n . A f t e r the performance, which had been q u i t e a s u c c e s s , Mahler was more verbose and dogmatic than usual on the t o p i c . His.comments were l a r g e l y a n t i - p r o g r a m m a t i c . While openly a d m i t t i n g the e x i s t e n c e of an inner program, he s t r o n g l y c r i t i c i z e d program music in the narrow sense. Composers of t h i s type of mus ic , he f e l t , "commit one of the b iggest musical and a r t i s t i c e r r o r s and are. not a r t i s t s . " I t ' s a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t matter when a maste r ' s work becomes so a l i v e . a n d . t rans parent that one c a n ' t help reading some a c t i o n or event i n t o i t , or when a composer t r i e s , a s . I ' v e always done, to e x p l a i n h i s work to h i m s e l f by some mental p i c t u r e , or indeed , when h is message takes on a s u b l i m i t y and form such that he can no longer be content wi th mere sound and seeks a more f o r c e f u l means of express ion by r e s o r t i n g to the human voice and the poet i c word, as Beethoven did i n h i s Ninth and I d id i n my own Symphony i n C Minor . This has nothing to do with p i c k i n g a p a r t i c u l a r e p i s o d e . a n d . i l l u s t r a t i n g i t step by step l i k e a program, which i s the wrong way to compose. 0 M a h l e r ' s negat ive a t t i t u d e was r e l a t e d to the f a c t that the c r i t i c Ar thur S e i d l had j u s t pub l i shed Mahle r ' s l e t t e r of February 17, 1897 in the Al1gemeine Ze i tung (See Document 16 ) . Mahler was unhappy to see i t in p r i n t and i t i s not d i f f i c u l t to understand why. In i t he d iscussed h i s own 31 personal i n s i g h t s in to the mystery of musical c r e a t i o n , and he was not prepared to have these revealed to the p u b l i c . Even worse, he was d i s t r e s s e d that the contents of the l e t t e r would be misunderstood and would adverse ly a f f e c t h i s p u b l i c image. . The p o r t i o n of the l e t t e r immediately preceding that quoted in Document 16 concerned Richard S t r a u s s . I t i s strange how, . in a c e r t a i n sense , you help me to understand myse l f . You have p e r f e c t l y def ined my aims as opposed to those of S t r a u s s . You are c o r r e c t in t h i n k i n g that in my "music the program emerges only i n the f i n a l conceptual a n a l y s i s , whereas with S t r a u s s , the program i s assigned to the l i s t e n e r . " .[", . . i s there as a given task" i s a.more accurate t r a n s l a t i o n of the l a s t c l a u s e . ] I t h i n k that thus you touch upon the e s s e n t i a l enigma of our epoch and at the same time set f o r t h i t s a l t e r n a t i v e . 1 This i s an e x c e l l e n t syn thes i s of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two men and a l s o r e i n f o r c e s the importance of the program, the "en igma" , in n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y mus ic . Later in the same l e t t e r , Mahler p ra ised S t r a u s s , who had provided him with a number of o p p o r t u n i t i e s to have h i s works performed. However, he complained to N a t a l i e , the p u b l i c would now cons ider him "an ardent advocate .o f Strauss and that program music which I 've had to f i g h t f i e r c e l y and o p e n l y . " 2 2 As we s h a l l s e e , in. whatever way the programs he wrote fo r h is symphonies a f f e c t e d h is methods of c o m p o s i t i o n , Mahler always adopted an a n t i -programmatic stand in p u b l i c . As a r e s u l t of h is d i s p l e a s u r e w i th S e i d l l s p u b l i c a t i o n , Mahler did not permit the " o l d program" fo r the Second Symphony to be used at the Munich c o n c e r t . S ince the t e x t had been p r i n t e d up, he was o r i g i n a l l y p lann ing to d i s t r i b u t e i t . 2 32 Among the guests at the Park Hotel party was a young m u s i c o l o g i s t named Ludwig S c h i e d e r m a i r . He sooa pub l i shed an essay on Mahler i n Moderne Musiker which inc luded an anecdote r e l a t i n g to t h i s party (Document 8 , Part A).. I t seems obvious that i t was the matter of program notes which aroused Mah le r ' s wrath . A month a f t e r the event , Mahler wrote Sch iedermai r a l e t t e r (Document 8 , Part B ) . He appears s l i g h t l y a p o l o g e t i c about h is hasty comments at the p a r t y , perhaps f e e l i n g that the m u s i c o l o g i s t had dep ic ted him ra ther u n f a i r l y as a f a n a t i c . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note , in view of Mah le r ' s moderate stand in t h i s l e t t e r , that the F i r s t Symphony was performed in Vienna in November 1900, at which time a whole programmatic exp lanat ion of i t was pub l i shed by ICarpath i n the Neues  Wiener T a g b l a t t . A second l e t t e r to Schiedermair i s r e p r i n t e d in Mah le r : A Documentary Study (Document 8 , Part C ) , There i s no d a t e , but one presumes i t was w r i t t e n s h o r t l y a f t e r the f i r s t l e t t e r . This l e t t e r i s noteworthy fo r the fa lsehood i t c o n t a i n s . The t i t l e s fo r the Th i rd Symphony may have been dropped because they were misunderstood, but they d e f i n i t e l y e x i s t e d be fore the music and were not s imply added afterwards. . Was t h i s a s l i p on Mah le r ' s p a r t , or d id he d e l i b e r a t e l y s t r e t c h the t r u t h to uphold h is image as a non -programist? O 'Br ien f e e l s that i t i s " i n d i c a t i v e , of the whole paradox of programme that Mahler c o n s t a n t l y veers from a t t a c k i n g and defending the concept , though h i s a t t a c k and h is 33 defense may be seen to be two complementary rhythms a p p l i e d to the same o b j e c t . " 2 4 A f t e r reading the prev ious s e c t i o n of Mah le r ' s comments, however, one i s struck, more by the s i m i l a r i t i e s in h i s t h i n k i n g than by the d i f f e r e n c e s . His a e s t h e t i c p r i n c i p l e s can be summarized q u i t e s u c c i n c t l y . 1 . Music i s super io r to the other a r ts i n i t s express ive p o s s i b i 1 i t e s . 2 . A very c lose r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between h is music and h is personal e x p e r i e n c e s , which can be e i t h e r o b j e c t i v e (as in nature sounds) or s u b j e c t i v e (as in emotions and f e e l i n g s ) . 3 . A l l symphonies, beginning and i n c l u d i n g those by Beethoven have an inner program. 4. I d e a l l y , Mahler would l i k e audiences to react to his music on i t s own mer i t and to be able to grasp something of the inner program without exp lanatory remarks. 5 . On the whole , a w r i t t e n program is unable to convey adequately the meaning of a work, yet i t can sometimes help an audience to come to gr ips : with u n f a m i l i a r music . This i s the only po int on which Mahler was not c e r t a i n in h i s own mind.. The e n t i r e crux of h is argument on program music l i e s p rec i se.ly he re . With these thoughts in mind, we may now turn to an examination of the programs of the f i r s t three symphonies. PART II 34 CHAPTER 3 THE FIRST SYMPHONY It i s u n l i k e l y that Mah le r , having begun the F i r s t Symphony, h is f i r s t mature work without t e x t , had a program in mind. We can be c e r t a i n t h a t , i n s p i t e of the work's o r i g i n a l t i t l e , he did not set out to w r i t e a symphonic poem in the L i s z t i a n or S t r a u s s i a n sense. The l i t e r a r y program, w r i t t e n in 1893, appears to c o n f l i c t with the obvious a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l events which i n s p i r e d the c o m p o s i t i o n . These personal elements form what.we might term the inner program. However, there are some v i a b l e connect ions between the two types of programs, and i t i s o f ten d i f f i c u l t to separate them. Much l a t e r , in 1896, Mahler admitted that the symphony had been i n s p i r e d by a pass ionate l o v e . Two women played a r o l e i n the concept ion of the work: Johanna R i c h t e r , the Kassel soprano fo r whom the L ieder ein.es fahrenden Gese l len were w r i t t e n , and Marion von Weber, the wi fe of Carl Maria von Weber's grandson, with whom Mahler f e l l in love i n L e i p z i g . The musical quotat ions from the Gesel1 en c y c l e o b v i o u s l y i m p l i c a t e Johanna, e s p e c i a l l y i f we take i n t o account the c la ims of N a t a l i e Bauer -Lechner and Gui.do Ad le r that the symphony was sketched in 1885 in K a s s e l . 1 The work may not have been i n i t i a t e d u n t i l the end of 1887 ( i n L e i p z i g ) , but 35 36 we do kivow that the composi t ion reached i t s completed form in February and March of 1 888 . Dika New! i n s ta tes that the symphony was "conceived at a most t u r b u l e n t per iod i n . M a h l e r ' s emotional l i f e , when h i s mind was dominated by e v e r y t h i n g that the L ieder e ines fahrenden Gese l len stood f o r . " I t i s d i f f i c u l t to know whether the " t u r b u l e n t p e r i o d " i n quest ion i s the Kassel e p i s o d e , or the e a r l y months of 1888 when the symphony was w r i t t e n . One suspects the l a t t e r , f o r Mahler was extremely busy with h is o p e r a t i c d u t i e s , and h i s work on the sketches of Carl Maria von Weber's Die Drei P i n t o s . Moreover, s ince he had not yet embarked upon h is subsequent system of composing i n the summer and r e v i s i n g in the w i n t e r , h is mind c o n s t a n t l y wandered to h is new c r e a t i v e p ro jec ts . . Alma c la ims that i t was Frau Weber who i n s p i r e d Mahler to 3 compose again and La Grange agrees that " t h i s new c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y had undoubtedly been again brought about by a sent imental c r i s i s . " ^ Mah le r ' s mind c e r t a i n l y was in a t u r m o i l v A f r i e n d in Vienna had w r i t t e n asking fo r news and he sent the f o l l o w i n g vague r e p l y : T r i l o g y of passion and wh i r lw ind of l i f e ! Every th ing w i t h i n me and around me u n f o l d s ! Nothing i s ! Just give me a l i t t l e l onger ! Then you s h a l l hear a l l ! A combinat ion of f e e l i n g s and emotions had r e s u l t e d i n the c r e a t i v e fo rce necessary to produce the symphony. The a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l re ferences do not end wi th the p r i n c i p a l love a f f a i r s . The opening of the scherzo uses m a t e r i a l from Hans und Grethe , a song w r i t t e n fo r an e a r l y 37 l o v e , Josephine P o i s l , the daughter of the postmaster at T 1 6 I g 1 a u . The h i s t o r y of the o r i g i n a l second movement, l a t e r e n t i t l e d " B l u m i n e " , sheds f u r t h e r l i g h t on the personal a s s o c i a t i o n s invo lved in t h i s symphony. Jack Diether and Donald M i t c h e l l have both w r i t t e n at length on t h i s r e c e n t l y red iscovered p i e c e . . "In 1 9 0 0 - 1 , Mahler remarked to Bauer -Lechner that the d iscarded movement represented the ' l o v e ep isode ' in h is F i r s t Symphony, that i t was ' f u l s o m e l y s e n t i m e n t a l ' [[ sen t imenta 1-schwa rme r i sch^] i n c h a r a c t e r , r e f l e c t i n g the ' y o u t h f u l a s i n i n i t y ' of h is H e r o . " 7 In the case of the F i r s t Symphony, we have ample grounds fo r assuming that Mahler was h is own hero , and i t l o g i c a l l y f o l l o w s that t h i s b r i e f movement may a lso have had some personal s i g n i f i c a n c e fo r him. M i t c h e l l po in ts out that the movement i s "a not i n v a i u a b l e e x t e n s i o n " of the l i t e r a r y program; that i s , "to supply what on the whole i s absent elsewhere in the symphony, a note of pure , una l loyed romantic l y r i c i s m . " It would be wel l to remember that t h i s program did not e x i s t s when the work was c o n c e i v e d . As I w i l l show l a t e r , i t was not u n t i l 1900 that the program reached i t s most complete and i n t e l 1 i g i b l e form and, b y . t h i s t i m e , Mahler had removed the movement. However, perhaps h i s above-quoted remark to N a t a l i e and the fac t that he inc luded the movement at a l l show that the idea o f . a symphonic "hero" was a l ready t a k i n g shape i n h is mind. For the movement's emotional connotat ions we must re turn 38 to Kassel and Johanna. D iether sets out a d e t a i l e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l h i s t o r y of the piece in h is a r t i c l e , "Notes on Some Mahler J u v e n i l i a . " ^ Accord ing to M a h l e r ' s f r i e n d Max S t e i n i t z e r , he brought with him to L e i p z i g only one number from the music he had w r i t t e n in Kassel fo r a tab leau of J . V. S c h e f f e l ' s poem, Der Trompeter von Sakkingen. In t h i s p i e c e , the opening of which has s ince been shown to be i d e n t i c a l to the f i r s t theme of the "Blumine" movement, the hero Werner p lays a trumpet serenade across the moonl i t Rhine to Margareta 's c a s t l e . A love song is d e f i n i t e l y i n d i c a t e d , very p o s s i b l y another " d e c l a r a t i o n " to Johanna . 1 ^ This could p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n the movement's i n c l u s i o n i n the symphony along with the references to the Gesel1 en c y c l e . Mahler was c o n t i n u a l l y uncer ta in about whether or not to inc lude the movement. D iether t r i e s to e x p l a i n h is h e s i t a t i o n s . Obv ious l y , Mahler was not r a t i o n a l l y r e a c t i n g to a piece of music per s e . Through t h i s mus ic , he seems ra ther to have been unconsc ious ly r e l i v i n g the emotional trauma of h is o f f - a g a i n -on -again a f f a i r with Johanna R i c h t e r , or something very much l i k e i t . The music does appear ( i n John P e r r i n ' s words [whose mother owned the o r i g i n a l manuscr ipt ] ) to have e x p r e s s e d , or at l e a s t to have been t r a n s c h a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h , " h i s innermost f e e l i n g s " about something. "The symphony, t h e n , i s a love s t o r y , " s ta tes ^Kennedy. He f e e l s that Mah le r ' s e a r l y works, beginning with Das klagende L i e d , must be taken t o g e t h e r , "w i th the symphony as a summing-1 2 up." This i s c e r t a i n l y a l o g i c a l statement i n view of the preceding d i s c u s s i o n . He may be c o r r e c t when he s ta tes that these a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l connect ions were "no doubt why Mahler 39 f i r s t descr ibed the symphony as a symphonic poem: he could have c a l l e d i t 'The W a y f a r e r 1 , because i t f o l l o w s the plan of 1 3 the s o n g - c y c l e . ' In other words, Mahler cont inues h i s wander ings, a concept which was l a t e r incorpora ted i n t o the l i t e r a r y p rogram. 1 ^ This answer i s not completely s a t i s f a c t o r y , however. The Symphonie Fantast ique i s c e r t a i n l y the most b l a t a n t example of an a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l symphony, but Harold in  I t a l y and even Mendelssohn's Scotch and I t a l i an symphonies have as many personal a s s o c i a t i o n s as Mah le r ' s F i r s t Symphony. I w i l l re tu rn l a t e r to the quest ion of the e a r l y t i t l e . There i s a tendency, however, to place too much emphasis on the love aspects of the symphony. In the l e t t e r of 1896 mentioned e a r l i e r , Mahler caut ioned the reader that al though the love episodes may have been the i n s p i r a t i o n fo r the work, they were not the subject of the symphony: " the symphony goes fa r beyond the love s to ry on which i t i s based, or r a t h e r , which preceded i t i n the emotional l i f e of i t s c r e a t o r " (See Document 5 , Part C.) . Before under tak ing a c h r o n o l o g i c a l survey of the F i r s t Symphony, i t i s necessary to mention b r i e f l y M a h l e r ' s use of song mate r ia l in h is symphonies. D e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n s of t h i s l y r i c a l aspect of his symphonic w r i t i n g can be found e lsewhere , notab ly i n s t u d i e s by Dika N e w l i n , Moaika T i b b e , 1 c and Zol tan Roman. Mahler was d e f i n i t e l y not the f i r s t to u t i l i z e his own songs i n ins t rumenta l works, but n e i t h e r a h i s t o r y of t h i s p r a c t i c e nor the problems i t c reates when 40 working wi th sonata form are r e l e v a n t to t h i s s t u d y . However, the t e x t s of songs which. Mahler used i n h i s symphonies do a f f e c t our e x t r a - m u s i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these works. The song m a t e r i a l i s e s p e c i a l l y important when ana l yz ing the symphonies which were a lso given l i t e r a r y programs. The second Gesel1 en song, "Ging heut morgen", became the main theme of the f i r s t movement of the F i r s t Symphony. The poet i s tramping g a i l y through the f i e l d s , en joy ing the marvelous beauty around him. This f i t s in e x c e l l e n t l y with the sounds of awakening nature i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n . The ep i logue of the four th song, at which point the wayfarer l i e s down beneath a l i n d e n t r e e , appears in the funera l march. The i m p l i c a t i o n of the l a s t l i n e s of the tex t i s a gent le acceptance of the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of d e a t h , ^ This mus ic , then does have a l o g i c a l p lace in a funera l march. I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, a reviewer at the f i r s t performance commented that t h i s p o r t i o n of the movement was the only one which corresponded to the t rue charac te r of a funera l s e r v i c e . The sounds of nature in the f i r s t movement and the i n s p i r a t i o n for the funera l march in the t h i r d were the two e x t r a - m u s i c a l ideas which were undoubtedly part of the o r i g i n a l concept ion of the work. It i s noteworthy that these are the movements which conta in the p r i n c i p a l song m a t e r i a l . The t e x t of the naive song Hans und Grethe descr ibes a merry dance in which a young man f i n d s h i s sweethear t . Most commentators emphasize the peasant dance charac te r of the music of the t h i r d movement and, in h i s Budapest "program 1 1 , 41 Mahler c a l l s t h i s s e c t i o n a " j o y f u l wedding p r o c e s s i o n . 1 1 1 7 The connect ions h e r e , however, are l e s s tenuous than those i n the Gesefrlen songs. In f a c t , Newlin c la ims that the F i r s t Symphony might have been more a c c u r a t e l y named "Fantasy on 18 Themes from L ieder e ines fahrenden G e s e l l e n . " Thus, the Gesel1 en cyc le i s " i n t i m a t e l y connected , themat i ca l1y and e m o t i o n a l l y , with the Symphony No. 1 i n D, the ;two together making a remarkable a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l commentary on Mahle r ' s . . „ 19 youtn . Although we presume t h a t , p a r t i c u l a r l y in t h i s c a s e , Mahler had personal reasons fo r us ing s p e c i f i c song m a t e r i a l , t h i s does not preclude the assumption that he in t roduced i t s imply fo r thematic convenience. Since h is works were g e n e r a l l y l e n g t h y , some r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l would have been a d e f i n i t e a s s e t . We should a lso keep in mind the fac t that Mahler d id not p u b l i c l y a d v e r t i s e the connect ions between the songs and the symphonies, and general audiences would not have had enough knowledge of h is music to i d e n t i f y t h e s e . Only a few c lose f r i e n d s would have been aware of the a s s o c i a t i o n s . Now that the genesis of the work has been d i s c u s s e d , i t i s necessary to f o l l o w the h i s t o r y of the symphony's e a r l y performances and subsequent development of the l i t e r a r y program. The f i r s t performance took, p lace i n Budapest , on November 2 0 , 1889. The program read as f o l l o w s : 42 Symphonic Poem i n Two Parts 1st P a r t : I n t r o d u c t i o n and A l l e g r o Comodo 2 . Andante 3.- Scherzo 2nd P a r t : A l a pompes funebres* a t t a c a . 5 . Molto appas ionato . u It was c e r t a i n l y f a s h i o n a b l e at t h i s time to c a l l a work a symphonic poem. Yet , I f e e l that Mahler p r e f e r r e d t h i s t i t l e for other reasons as w e l l . . F i r s t of a l l , there was the t y p i c a l n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y reverence for Beethoven's symphonies, which r e s u l t e d in much s o u l - s e a r c h i n g and s e l f -doubt for more than one notable composer. Mahler , perhaps even more than some of his contemporar ies , p laced Beethoven on the h ighest pedes ta l - -Bee thoven and Wagner were the only two composers fo r whom his admi ra t ion never wained- -and he may have f e l t i n c a p a b l e , at t h i s point in h is c a r e e r , of f o l l o w i n g his achievement. We w i l l meet t h i s a t t i t u d e again when we examine the f i n a l e of the Second Symphony. As w e l l , the "symphonic poem" was d e f i n i t e l y a l e s s e r type of ins t rumenta l c o m p o s i t i o n , not as r e s t r i c t i v e in i t s formal s t r i c t u r e s . Recogniz ing h is own formal i d i o s y n c r a s i e s , not to mention h is unprecedented use of song m a t e r i a l , Mahler may have f e l t that t h i s t i t l e more a p t l y descr ibed h i s work. In other words, the t i t l e could e x p l a i n away some of i t s f a u l t s . I t was not u n t i l many years l a t e r that he had the courage to c a l l the work what i t r e a l l y w a s - - a symphony. M i t c h e l l po in ts out that the poem 21 was "of a most unusual o v e r a l l shape . " Symphonic poems were o f ten made up of d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s , but a l l were b a s i c a l l y in the one-movement form and, at l e a s t u n t i l t h i s 43 t i m e , much shor te r than M a h l e r l s work. There i s no avo id ing the f a c t t h a t - - e v e n i n i t s f i v e movement v e r s i o n — the work i s s t r u c t u r e d l i k e a symphony. More cur ious than the t i t l e i t s e l f i s the f a c t that there was no pub l ished program for the f i r s t performance, other than the h i n t that the four th movement was a funera l march. Yet a program is a s p e c i f i c feature of the symphonic poem, i t s r a i s o n d ' e t r e . We know now that the work had an inner program, known only to Mahler and a few f r i e n d s . Perhaps Mahler f e l t that t h i s was enough to j u s t i f y the t i t l e . However, the day before the p remiere , on November 1 9 , the Pester L loyd pub l ished an a r t i c l e by Kornel A b r a n y i . La Grange devotes cons ide rab le space to a summary of t h i s a r t i c l e , which i s worth r e p r i n t i n g here (Document 9 ) . These c lues to the meaning of the symphonic poem must have been suggested by Mah le r , as only he knew the music that w e l l . This e a r l y "program" i s , in f a c t , a very s a t i s f y i n g one, general enough to be b e l i e v a b l e , yet c o n t a i n i n g enough g u i d e l i n e s to be of a s s i s t a n c e to the u n i n i t i a t e d l i s t e n e r . Two points should be noted : the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , though not s p e c i f i c , are c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d ; and the re fe rence to the Huntsman's Funera 1 •-. which i s , as fa r as I know, the e a r l i e s t mention of t h i s i n p r i n t . The Budapest performance w i l l not be the l a s t time the Mahler employed such t a c t i c s to present a program to the p u b l i c . His dilemma i s unders tandab le ; he was not prepared to be cons idered a composer of program mus ic , but he s t i l l f e l t the need to provide some h i n t s fo r 44 his audience . How, t h e n , did the c r i t i c s reac t? Understandably , they were s t i l l at a l o s s as to how to i n t e r p r e t the woric, e s p e c i a l l y the funera l march. Even though t h i s was the only movement with any programmatic i n d i c a t i o n , " the i n d i c a t i o n could hard ly have prepared the audience fo r what they a c t u a l l y heard : an audacious parody of a funera l march. I f anyth ing indeed , the d e s c r i p t i o n 'A l a pompes funebres 1 might have led them to expect the very opposi te of what they heard . In that 2 3 ' • case the shock was a l l the g r e a t e r . " Kornel Abranyi had t h i s to say about the movement: . . . yet we do not know whether we should take t h i s " f u n e r a l march" s e r i o u s l y or i n t e r p r e t i t as parody. We are i n c l i n e d to assume rather the l a t t e r , as the main mot i f of the funera l march i s a wel l -known German student song, Bruder M a r t i n ,  s t e h ' schon a u f , which we ourse lves have f r e q u e n t l y sung, a l b e i t not at f u n e r a l s but whi le happ i l y d r i n k i n g . He was a lso shocked by the beginning of the f i n a l e in wh ich , he c l a i m s , " a l l the instruments run r i o t in a mad w i t c h e s ' dance" and, l a t e r , that the themes are drowned out by a " w i l d B a c c h a n a l . . . . " 2 5 The a s s o c i a t i o n wi th the Symphonie F a n t a s t i que i s unmis takab le . An even more i n t e r e s t i n g and e n l i g h t e n i n g review was 2 6 w r i t t e n by August Beer . Two impress ions emerge from reading the rev iew: f i r s t , due to the t i t l e of the work, Beer does . not seem to cons ider that i t could p o s s i b l y be conceived as abso lute music . He expects a program, and thus complains that the work l a c k s . a " u n i f y i n g , under l y ing n o t e . " (See 45 Document 1 0 , Part A . ) Secondly , h is l a t e r comments suggest that he had c a r e f u l l y read the prev ious day 's a r t i c l e . This must be the program to which he r e f e r s , the one which was "subsequent ly p r o j e c t e d . " We know t h i s to be a f a c t , yet i t i s not improbable that Mahler had s i m i l a r thoughts in mind whi le composing the music . Document 10 , Part B, c o n s i s t s of excerpts from B e e r ' s comments on each movement. Beer i s very p o s i t i v e about the f i r s t three movements, but unable to comprehend the l a s t two. Mahler i s again compared with B e r l i o z , once more, we sense , i n a derogatory manner. Note the c r i t i c ' s commanding s t y l e , i n which he c la ims that "The f i r s t movement i_s_ [ i t a l i c s mine]" rather than "suggests" or "might r e p r e s e n t . " B e e r ' s a t t i t u d e gives the impress ion that he i s accustomed to d e a l i n g with modern music with a s p e c i f i c program. The review i s amazingly d e s c r i p t i v e , c o n s i d e r i n g the m a t e r i a l on which i t i s based. Mahler rev i sed the manuscr ipt in January 1893, and for the second performance in Hamburg (October 2 7 , 1893} the symphony was given the program r e p r i n t e d in Document 1 1 . The symphony now bears the t i t l e " T i t a n " fo r the f i r s t t i m e . Gartenberg s t a t e s : "For the second a n d . t h i r d performances. . . Mahler went to the unusual step of supp l y ing program notes a 27 l a B e r l i o z , " He seems to have missed the p o i n t . It was more usual than unusual to provide notes at t h i s t i m e , e s p e c i a l l y fo r a symphonic poem--and we must remember that the work was not yet c a l l e d a symphony per se . Mahler was s t i l l undecided 46 about the s p e c i f i c genre. Ferdinand Pfohl has l e f t a very cu r ious statement regard i ng" t h i s program. When Gustav Mahler was working on h i s F i r s t Symphony, he o f ten played me the g i s t of the p r e l i m i n a r y sketches and movements j u s t completed, he was f r a n t i c a l l y seeking a grand and s t r i k i n g t i t l e fo r t h i s , h is f i r s t symphony: 'I implore you , f i n d me a name for the symphony! 1 I s a i d to him, ' J u s t c a l l i t "Mature Symphony" or something of the s o r t , and fo r the t h i r d movement add the mark ing : "Funeral March i n the Manner of C a l l o t " . , because i t i s extremely s t r a n g e : g ro tesque , b i z a r r e , a f a n t a s t i c s p e c t a c l e . . . . . ' He h e s i t a t e d , however, because he d id not possess the Fahtas ies tucke in C a l l o t s Manier by E. T. A. Hoffmann. That very same day, by chance, I saw in the window of a bookshop a f i n e e d i t i o n of these famous Fantas i e s ; I bought i t and took i t to him. A few days l a t e r Mahler t o l d me he had at l a s t found an appropr ia te t i t l e for h is symphony: 'I s h a l l c a l l i t T i t a n . 1 d 8 I t i s d i f f i c u l t to know how to i n t e r p r e t such remarks. M i t c h e l l po in ts o u t , for example, that Mahler was r e v i s i n g 29 the work and not composing i t , as Pfohl i m p l i e s . Although Pfohl i s c o r r e c t about the strangeness and grotesqueness of the funera l march, I f ee l he i s probably c l a i m i n g too much c r e d i t fo r suggest ing what proved to be an extremely apt t i t l e . I f t h i s excerpt i s accepted at face v a l u e , the i m p l i c a t i o n i s that Mahler had t r o u b l e a r r i v i n g at a program which he had c e r t a i n l y been persuaded to w r i t e . I t lends a ra ther f a r c i c a l element to the e n t i r e e n t e r p r i s e . M i t c h e l l has examined the l i t e r a r y sources of the program i n great d e t a i l and , wh i le there i s no need to repeat a l l h is f i n d i n g s , a b r i e f overview should prove v a l u a b l e . T i tan by Jean Paul (1763-1825) was w r i t t e n between 1800 and 47 1803. There i s no doubt that Mahler g r e a t l y admired the w r i t i n g s of t h i s man, yet he never admits o u t r i g h t that h is t i t l e r e f e r s to t h i s n o v e l . M i t c h e l l quotes N a t a l i e Bauer -Lechner : "But a l l he had i n mind was a power fu l l y he ro i c i n d i v i d u a l , h is l i f e and s u f f e r i n g , s t rugg les and defeat at 3 0 the hands of f a t e . " Robert Holtzmann e labora tes upon her statement in a 1918 a r t i c l e . In the l a s t a n a l y s i s t h i s hero i s the a r t i s t h i m s e l f t e l l i n g us of the joys and t r o u b l e s of h is youth . Hence Mah le r ' s words: "On the whole , no one has yet understood the F i r s t Symphony except those who have shared my l i f e . " I f Mahler a c t u a l l y sa id t h i s — and in view of some of his other s ta tements , I f i n d i t q u i t e b e i i e v a b l e — i t adds credence to the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l a s p e c t s . However, we must remember that the remark was made to N a t a l i e much l a t e r , i n 1900, when Mahler was p u b l i c l y t a k i n g a stand aga ins t program mus ic . He may very wel l have wished to deny any connect ions at t h i s t i m e , and we have no e a r l i e r d e n i a l s by the composer h i m s e l f . As w e l l , there i s the evidence of Bruno W a l t e r . His g i v i n g the name " T i t a n " to his F i r s t Symphony s i g n a l i z e d h is love of Jean P a u l ; we o f ten t a l k e d about t h i s great n o v e l , and e s p e c i a l l y about the charac te r of R o q u a i r o l , whose i n f l u e n c e i s n o t i c e a b l e in the Funeral March. Mahler would i n s i s t that an element of R o q u a i r o l , of h is s e l f -c e n t e r e d , s e l f - t o r m e n t i n g , s c o r n f u l and i m p e r i l e d s p i r i t , e x i s t s in every g i f t e d i n d i v i d u a l , and has to be conquered before p roduct i ve powers can come i n t o p l a y . The ideas expressed i n t h i s passage lead n a t u r a l l y i n t o another q u e s t i o n . Are there any e x p l i c i t connect ions between Jean P a u l ' s novel and M a h l e r ' s symphony? Blaukopf s t a t e s : 48 "Anyone who has ever read any of the l a t t e r l s [jean Paul 's ] work must conclude that there i s no t r a c e of h i s mannered 3 3 s t y l e in M a h l e r ' s symphony." M i t c h e l l t h i n k s d i f f e r e n t l y , and a sampling of h is remarks i s r e p r i n t e d i n Document 1 Z , Part A. He s u b s t a n t i a t e s h is thoughts with an assessment of Jean Paul w r i t t e n by W. A. Coupe (Document iz, Part B ) . C e r t a i n l y , one can sense a s t rong k indred s p i r i t between Mahler and Jean P a u l . M i t c h e l l i nc ludes a number of excerpts from T i t a n , demonstrat ing Jean P a u l ' s "swooning, e c s t a t i c 34 nature l y r i c i s m , " h is grotesqueness , h is i n t e r e s t i n the r i t e s and ceremonies of d e a t h , h is mixture of tragedy and 3 5 comedy, and the "pronounced c o n f l i c t between man's t r a n s i t o r i n e s s and the e n d u r i n g , blossoming e a r t h . " It i s a f a s c i n a t i n g study which gives s i g n i f i c a n c e to an otherwise somewhat meaningless t i t l e . In a broader sense , a l l of the above are dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of romant ic i sm. Since Jean Paul was the epitome of the romantic w r i t e r , the t rans fe rence of these a t t i t u d e s to Mah le r ' s music was a natura l one. Henry Raynor descr ibes the novel T i tan as "the s to ry of the s p i r i t u a l and emotional development of a young pr ince 37 through the i n f l u e n c e of the two women he l o v e d . " Does t h i s not sound l i k e our "hero" Mahler dur ing h is Kassel and L e i p z i g per iods? I t . i s a f a n c i f u l s u g g e s t i o n , but not beyond the realm of p o s s i b i 1 i t y , that Mah le r , wh i le search ing fo r a t i t l e , may have thought back to the events which i n s p i r e d the symphony and r e c a l l e d a book which expressed h is f e e l i n g s at 49 that t ime . There are two other re fe rences to Jean P a u l ' s works in. the Hamburg program. The s u b t i t l e of the f i r s t p a r t , "Aus den Tagen der Jugend",. B lumen - , F rucht - und Dornst i i cke , r e f e r s to Jean P a u l ' s B lumen- , F ruch t - und Dornenstdicke . foder Ehestand, Tod und Hochzei t des . Armenadvokaten F. St.. Siebenkas] ( 1 796- 97 ) . 3 ^ " B l u m i n e " , the heading of the second movement, i s found in the t i t l e which Jean Paul gave to a three volume c o l l e c t i o n of magazine e s s a y s , Herbst -B lumine oder gesammelte Werkchen, pub l i shed in 1810, 1815, and 1820. Accord ing to La Grange, " ' H e r b s t - B l u m i n e 1 can be approx imately t r a n s l a t e d as a ' C o l l e c t i o n of Autumn f l o w e r s ' . Mahler suppressed 'autumn' but obv ious l y meant to emphasize with t h i s t i t l e the 3 9 l i g h t and decora t i ve charac te r of the p i e c e . " Jack Diether suggests that " f o r Mah le r , 'B lumine ' was above a l l a f a m i l i a r nickname drawn from his f a v o u r i t e author and a p p l i e d to a s p e c i f i c something or someone." P o s s i b l y , but Mahler l e f t 40 no i n d i c a t i o n s and we can never be s u r e . Perhaps the many vague, yet complex connect ions between Jean P a u l ' s works and Mah le r ' s F i r s t Symphony can be summed up in the f o l l o w i n g passage. Dorothea Berger i s d e s c r i b i n g the w r i t e r ' s f i r s t book (1783) , and t h i s excerpt ( B e r g e r ' s paraphrase) i s from the chapter which s a t i r i z e s a u t h o r s . The t i t l e page i s more important than the whole book. As long as i t i s glamorous, the t i t l e does not have to f i t the contents of the book because, l a t e r on , only the t i t l e w i l l be quoted in learned j o u r n a l s . ^ 1 I wonder i f Mahler was aware of t h i s comment when he chose. 50 the t i t l e fo r h is F i r s t Symphony! For the funera l march we are given more s p e c i f i c comments, but the problem of sources i s s t i l l a complex one. As La Grange po in ts o u t , "the very length of the 'program' fo r the 'Funera l March 1 proves that t h i s » .the .mo st 'modern 1 of the f i v e movements, had met w i th c o n s i d e r a b l e incomprehension, and that Mahler was making a desperate e f f o r t to e x p l a i n t h e . p i e c e ' s uncanny atmosphere and 42 ' s c a n d a l o u s ' mixture of s t y l e s . To t r e a t the happy 'Bruder Mar t in 1 , tune in such.a manner was indeed u n u s u a l , but Mahler t o l d N a t a l i e that "even as a c h i l d , 'Bruder M a r t i n ' s t ruck him not as being gay, as i t was always sung, but rather deeply t r a g i c , and that he a l ready heard in i t what i t was l a t e r to.become fo r h i m . " H J I t appears tha t Mahler knew the tune from his you th . Ernst S c h u l z , the son of Mah le r ' s Prague l a n d l o r d , remembered that the c h i l d r e n of h is house of ten sang "Bruder M a r t i n " as a round whi le Mahler was t h e r e , and Theodor F i s c h e r , Mah le r ' s ch i ldhood p laymate, found a s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y between the f i r s t T r i o and a t y p i c a l 4 4 dance of the J i h l a v a neighborhood, the " H a t s c h o " . Can we t r u s t Ernst S c h u l z ' s account? Mahler was t r e a t e d very badly dur ing h is b r i e f s tay in t h i s household as a c h i l d . I t would be only t y p i c a l human nature fo r Ernst to boast of some connect ion once the composer had become famous. M i t c h e l l notes c lose s i m i l a r i t i e s to a parody funera l march by Mendelssohn which forms part of the Midsummer N i g h t ' s Dream i n c i d e n t a l mus ic . Although we have Mahle r ' s word that 51 he was s t imu la ted by a p i c t u r e , he does not s p e c i f i c a l l y iden.t i fy the Mor i t z von Schwind woodcut (1850) which i s g e n e r a l l y shown i n connect ion wi th the F i r s t Symphony. M i t c h e l l po ints out severa l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h i s woodcut and Mah le r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n and thus b e l i e v e s that he had in mind another ve rs ion of the animal f a n t a s y . As fo r the re ference to C a l l o t , the famous French etcher (1592/3-163 5 ) , t h i s "was again perhaps l e s s c l e a r and c l a r i f y i n g than Mahler i m a g i n e d . " ^ 7 Mah le r ' s f r i e d Foerster c l a i m e d : " I f the hearer does not know the c a r i c a t u r e s of C a l l o t , i f he does not know the l u s t y o l d - w o r l d humour with which he speaks , he 48 w i l l not see what Mahler i s d r i v i n g at i n h i s mus ic . . . . " Mahler was probably t h i n k i n g more of the l i t e r a r y s o u r c e , the Phantas i estu-cke in C a l l o t s Manier by E. T. A. Hoffmann, than of the p i c t o r i a l one. Hoffmann was a lso one of M a h l e r ' s f a v o u r i t e s , and thus P f o h l ' s i m p l i c a t i o n tha t he d id not seem to know the work i s a st range one. The t i t l e i s c e r t a i n l y a p p r o p r i a t e . Hoffmann i s concerned with the world of the s u p e r n a t u r a l , h o r r o r , and f a n t a s y , and h is w r i t i n g s c o n t a i n many c o n t r a s t s between the t r a g i c and the everyday. A g a i n , t h i s a c c u r a t e l y descr ibes Mah le r ' s music i n t h i s movement, e s p e c i a l l y as h is contemporar ies saw i t . M a h l e r ' s imaginat ion took the same course as both Hoffmann's and Jean P a u l ' s . Taken i n i t s e n t i r e t y , the T i tan program is confus ing ra ther than e l u c i d a t i n g , . a n d i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that on-one has commented o n . i t s o d d i t i e s . The re fe rence to the Huntsman's Funeral and the note that the i n t r o d u c t i o n d e p i c t s 52 the awakening of nature in sp r ing are ideas which we saw i n 4 9 the Budapest "program". But what i s the meaning of the heading of the s c h e r z o , "With f u l l s a i l s " ["Mit v o l l e n Sege ln" } , a fa r cry from the peasant wedding of Budapest , and "Stranded !" [ 'Gestrandet !'3 at the beginning of the d e s c r i p t i o n of the funera l march? These might wel l r e f e r to the journey of the hero , perhaps a kind of Homeric Odyssey, but why was Mahler not more e x p l i c i t ? Had he commented at g reater length on the t i t l e , p o s s i b l y c l e a r l y p resent ing the idea of the " p o w e r f u l l y hero ic i n d i v i d u a l " , he would have stood a b e t t e r chance of success with both the c r i t i c s and the aud ience . Foers ter desc r ibes audience r e a c t i o n , and we can sympathize with the l i s t e n e r s ' predicament . Among the audience at the Hamburg and Weimar performances there were probably very few readers of Jean Paul (at one time a f a v o u r i t e of the young Schumann) , which was not to be wondered a t ; and so i t appeared t h a t , led as t ray by the t i t l e , " T i t a n " , they expected a new " E r o i c a " , ins tead of which Mahler presented them with the music of a young heart f u l l of hope and despa i r with here and there s a t i r i c a l touches o f , - n parody and an- i ron i cal over lay of " f o l k comedy". One of the c r i t i c s at the Hamburg c o n c e r t , at which s i x Mahler songs were a l so performed, was the w i t t y Joseph S i t t a r d , (He f e l t that the charac te r of "Spr ing without end" was best c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the l a s t two words!) He s t a t e s : The work has nothing at a l l i n common with i t s t i t l e . . .There i s no idea that s e i z e s hold of us , but mere i n t e l l e c t u a l fragments tha t re fuse to add up and.come together i n a m o s a i c . ^ I th ink he i s c o r r e c t . What, for example, does the i n t r o d u c t i o n to the f i r s t movement have i n common with the 53 funera l march, other than a vague connect ion wi th nature? S i t t a r d ' s comments on the funera l march (Document 13 , Part A) show his c o n f u s i o n . His d e s c r i p t i o n of the f i r s t movement (Document 13 , Part B) i s a t y p i c a l l y programmatic one. He reads in to the music d e t a i l s which Mahler does not g i v e . Taking a l l th ings i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i t now appears that the T i tan program was a grave mistake on Mah le r ' s p a r t . The symphony was next performed.at Weimar for the Tonkunstl e r f est des Al lgemeinen Deutschen Musikverein. on June 3 , 1894. The concert was conducted by Richard S t r a u s s . Gartenber.g makes the cur ious statement that " the t i t l e of T i t a n , which Mahler had o r i g i n a l l y given the work and l a t e r abandoned, was r e i n s t a t e d , presumably by S t r a u s s , thus g i v i n g the work a quasirprogrammatic aspect which Mahler no longer wished i t . t o h a v e . " 3 There i s , however, no evidence that Mahler ;wished.to abandon the t i t l e between Hamburg and Weimar, There may have been s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s i n word ing , but the program was e s s e n t i a l l y the same as the one used i n Hamburg . 5 3 The fo l1 owing excerpts from the Weimar c r i t i c a l reviews show that the program obv ious l y d id not lead to a g reater understanding of the work. Otto Lessmann s ta ted that " i n h is op in ion i t was imposs ib le to d i scover any s i m i l a r i t y between the symphony and Jean P a u l ' s novel that was supposed to have 54 i n s p i r e d i t . Otto Nodnagel maintained that "the work contained a few a t t r a c t i v e d e t a i l s , some strange and s t r i k i n g e f f e c t s - , . but -that i t d id not bear even the most s u p e r f i c i a l resemblance to i t s 'confused and incomprehens ib le ' p r o g r a m . " 5 5 54 Max Hess "dec la red the work, s t i l l b o r n , b e w i l d e r i n g , for the movements were .qu i te unconnected and bore no .resemblance to t h e i r " p r o g r a m ' . " The anonymous c r i t i c of the B e r l i n e r  Cour ie r "mainly reproached Mahler fo r having taken h i s f r i e n d s ' ad.vi ce . and . drawn . up a program; i n h i s o p i n i o n the music of the T i tan was understandable without one , " He commented that Mahler "always expressed h imse l f wi th eloquent o r i g i n a l i t y - a n d an ' i n e x h a u s t a b ! e r i chness worthy of Jean P a u l ' . " 5 7 For the B e r l i n performance on March 16 , 1896, the s u b d i v i s i o n i n t o two p a r t s , the program, and the "Blumine" movement a l l d i s a p p e a r e d . The work was f i n a l l y c a l l e d a 5 8 symphony for the f i r s t t i m e . S ince the program had not served i t s c h i e f purpose of making the work more a c c e s s i b l e , i t was r e s c i n d e d . We do know that the problem of programs was s t i l l on Mah le r ' s mind, because t h i s was the time of the famous l e t t e r s on the sub jec t to Max Marscha lk , d i scussed i n Chapter 2 (Document 5 ) . The f i r s t movement of the Second Symphony and the L i e d e r e i n e s fahrenden Gese l len were performed at the B e r l i n concert along with the F i r s t Symphony. It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that on the occas ion (1896) when Mahler renounced the programme for the D major symphony, he int roduced at the same time a longs ide i t . t h e w o r k - - t h e song c y c l e - - o u t of which the symphony m a t e r i a l i z e d , not on ly in a purely musical sense ( i . e . a shared fund of i n v e n t i o n ) . b u t a l s o i n a programmatic sense . Who can doubt that the -hero of the GeselTen c y c l e cont inued h is t r a v e l s i n the F i r s t Symphony, and only stopped when Mahler ' s own. death put an end to his h e r o ' s ep ic c h r o n i c l e ? That Mahler was ab le i n B e r l i n , in 1896.to d ispense wi th a programme for the F i r s t Symphony 55 was su re l y due to the f a c t that the Gesel "I en c y c l e in i t s e l f provided the best of a l l programme notes f o r - - t h e most p e n e t r a t i n g g losses o n — t h e symphony. In the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the f i r s t song-c y c l e , and the F i r s t Symphony we f i n d the c lue to the concept .o f the inner programme (or drama) wh ich , i m p l i c i t l y or e x p l i c i t l y , played from the outset such an important r o l e in Mah le r ' s symphonic music . The reader should c o n s u l t the Marschalk l e t t e r s again at t h i s p o i n t . The s p e c i f i c "remarks conta ined i n -them can then be placed in pe rspec t i ve with the o v e r a l l e v o l u t i o n of the program. M i t c h e l l notes from these l e t t e r s " that Mah le r , in at tempt ing to e x p l i c a t e the symphony without a programmatic prop, in f a c t leans h e a v i l y on the programme that had been issued and then withdrawn. This suggests that the programme d i d , in some major respects at l e a s t , have a rea l bear ing fi n on the contents of the symphony.. The symphony rece ived severa l performances in the succeeding y e a r s . However, the next important landmark i n the h i s t o r y of the program d id not occur u n t i l the Vienna premiere on November 1 8 , 1 900. Meanwhile, i n 1 899 , the score, had been publ ished as we know i t — without t i t l e s and program. I f Mahler was expect ing the Vienna performance to be a d e c i s i v e s u c c e s s , he was again d isappointed . . The work was greeted with l a u g h t e r , h i s s e s , and boos, as wel l as by a few t i m i d bravos . Os tens ib l y there was no program. A notice, was p r i n t e d in which Mahler s ta ted that i t was his wish, that there were no program n o t e s , not even a themat ic a n a l y s i s . Only the few tempo i n d i c a t i o n s and express ion marks remained. 56 On t h i s o c c a s i o n , the program was "conspicuous ( i f at a l l ) by reason of i t s t o t a l s u p p r e s s i o n . " 6 1 Before the performance, however* Ludwig K a r p a t h , c r i t i c of the Neues Wiener T a g b l a t t , pub l i shed a commentary, submitted by N a t a l i e (Document 14 ) . I t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y that she would have taken t h i s step without Mah le r ' s p e r m i s s i o n . In f a c t , he may even have encouraged t h i s act in the va in hope that he could present h is exp lanat ion without being l a b e l l e d as an o u t r i g h t progratnmi s t . The f i r s t few sentences serve to emphasize h i s a t t i t u d e . Mahler c la ims that a l l can be understood in pure ly musical te rms - -an o ld p l o y , used by B e r l i o z and o t h e r s , i n order to avoid t a k i n g a d e f i n i t e stand on the s u b j e c t . The e n t i r e essay i s f u l l of such h e s i t a n c i e s and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . How, t h e n , does t h i s "program" r e l a t e to the previous one? On the whole , i t makes more sense. The hero 's journey becomes a c l e a r l y - s t a t e d c e n t r a l theme. The d e s c r i p t i o n of the second movement helps to e x p l a i n the previous mark ing , "In f u l l s a i l " . The nature mot i f of the f i r s t movement, as was pointed out e a r l i e r , remains c o n s i s t e n t . Note that the r e j e c t e d "Blumine" movement i s e x p l i c i t l y c a l l e d "a love s c e n e " . 6 2 In the "Bruder M a r t i n " movement, the s p e c i f i c Huntsman's Funeral i s rep laced by a country funera l w i th a "cheap" band, Mahler emphasizes the b a n a l i t y and i rony of the movement, presumably so tha t the audience w i l l know what to make of i t . In the l a s t movement, the bas ic idea of the previous program i s m a i n t a i n e d , but i t i s s ta ted much more 57 e x p l i c i t l y and in greater d e t a i l . I f the r e a c t i o n of the c r i t i c s was any i n d i c a t i o n , t h i s s u b t e r f u g e . d i d not seem to h e l p , and the.symphony was s t i l l doomed to f a i l u r e . Hansl ick. admitted t h a t ' " a more thorough knowledge of the score might perhaps have helped him to a be t te r understanding of i t s . s i g n i f i c a n c e , but on l y on c o n d i t i o n that a-program had been a v a i l a b l e to e x p l a i n the connect ing l i n k between i t s d i f f e r e n t movements. [Did he not see the Karpath a r t i c l e ? ] He wondered about the. reason fo r the sudden 6 3 'end of the wor ld 1 a f t e r the Funeral March. . . . . " Theodor Helm of the Deutsche Ze i tung -quoted the program publ ished in Weimar, but s t i l l maintained that "with or without a program, the symphony.was both a ' s t y l i s t i c a b s u r d i t y ' and a ' t o t a l f a i l u r e ' . " 6 4 Gustav Schonaich "had perce ived no l i n k between the movements and dec lared the ' e n t i r e p i c t u r e ' u n i n t e l l i g i b l e . ' I s i t a weasel., a c l o u d . o r a camel?' he asked , paraphras ing Shakespeare (Hamlet , Act I I I , scene 2 ) . 1 , 6 5 Kalbeck s t a t e d : "Cl e a r l y , - hi s symphony had not yet surmounted the ordeal of being depr ived of e i t h e r commentary or a program." CHAPTER 4 THE SECOND SYMPHONY We have evidence that Mahler began to compose what was to become the f i r s t movement of the Second Symphony before he had completed his F i r s t - The two works a r e , however, very d i f f e r e n t in o u t l o o k . A f t e r the F i r s t Symphony, w r i t e s W a l t e r , Mahler "turned as ide from personal e x p e r i e n c e s . The natu ra l bent of his mind s h i f t e d h is gaze to the t r a g i c e x i s t e n c e of m a n . " 1 The Second Symphony occupied Mahle r ' s thoughts from 1888 u n t i l 1894, longer than any other work. The delay was p a r t l y due to his s t rugg les to f i n d s u i t a b l e ideas fo r the f i n a l e , a problem i n t r i c a t e l y connected wi th the whole concept of a program. The music could not be completed u n t i l an o v e r a l l programmatic scheme had been a r r i v e d a t . Thus, the program, both in i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the concept ion of the work and i n i t s ac tua l p r i n t e d forms, played a s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t ro le in t h i s symphony than i t had in the F i r s t . Donald M i t c h e l l has d e t a i l e d the complex h i s t o r y of the Second Symphony at great l e n g t h . I w i l l attempt b r i e f l y to summarize t h i s chrono logy , wi th emphasis on the f a c t s d e a l i n g with the program. The e a r l i e s t document r e l a t i n g to the symphony i s an anecdote i n which N a t a l i e r e c a l l s a v i s i o n which Mahler had in L e i p z i g , wh i le apparent ly 58 59 working on the f i r s t movement, a g i g a n t i c funera l march. This took pi a c e . a f t e r . t h e premiere o f . D i e Drei P in tos on January 2 0 , 1.888. Surrounded by the f l o r a l bouquets and wreaths he had been given a f t e r the performance, he p i c t u r e d h imse l f dead on a funera l b i e r . Although there i s no d e f i n i t e proof that the two i n c i d e n t s — the v i s i o n and the act of 'composi t i on — a r e connected, 1 i t i s probable that t h i s v i s i o n "had a r o l e to play i n the forming of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l drama that ' Todten f e i e r ' [the name l a t e r given to t h i s movement] 3 e n a c t s . " In s p i t e of the t i t l e , the " T o d t e n f e i e r " was o r i g i n a l l y conceived as t h e . f i r s t movement of a symphony. An e a r l y f u l l score of the o r i g i n a l ve rs ion of the movement, dated September 4 10 , 1888, was i n s c r i b e d "Symphonie in C m o l l / I . S a t z " . L a t e r , Mahler crossed out t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n and added the t i t l e " T o d t e n f e i e r " . M i t c h e l l . c l a i m s that examinat ion of the manuscript shows that the t i t l e was d e f i n i t e l y a l a t e r a d d i t i o n . ° T h i s . i s an important po in t in the present d i s c u s s i o n , for i t shows . that the programmatic d e s c r i p t i o n came a f t e r the composi t ion of the movement. This does n o t , of c o u r s e , a l t e r the fac t that Mahler almost c e r t a i n l y had ideas i n mind when composing the work. La Grange i s the only s c h o l a r who has s e r i o u s l y i n v e s t i g a t e d more . s p e c i f i c . m e a n i n g s fo r the t i t l e (Document . 1 5 ) . . . Mahler, was s t i l l contemplat ing the idea of a symphonic poem ( s e e . p . 6 0 ) , a l though.he never d e f i n i t e l y a p p l i e s . t h i s t i t l e to the " T o d t e n f e i e r " . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that he did not remove the " I . Satz " from the i n s c r i p t i o n . 60 (Was he perhaps t h i n k i n g of another multi -movement symphonic poem?) The t i t l e "symphonic poem" a c t u a l l y seems more appropr ia te i n t h i s case than i n that of the F i r s t Symphony. The "poem" i s i n the usual:one-movement fo rmat , conta ins var ious s e c t i o n s , and i s based upon a c e n t r a l p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that Mahler had t r o u b l e f o l l o w i n g the "remarkably s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t and d r a m a t i c a l l y s e l f -conta ined f T o d t e n f e i e r 1 . " 7 Owing to the nature of the f i r s t movement, and the fac t that he e n t i t l e d i t at a l l , Mahler had committed h imse l f to a programmatic work. He now needed a o "program" .which .would complete h is o r i g i n a l c o n c e p t i o n . F i n a l l y , in the summer of 1893, Mahler completed what were to become the second and t h i r d movements, the sketches for which date back a number of y e a r s . Oddly enough, these movements, the t r a d i t i o n a l symphonic Andante and .Scherzo , do not c o n t i n u e . t h e program of the f i r s t movement i n any way. Even t h e n , Mahler complained to N a t a l i e about the sharp q c o n t r a s t between the f i r s t movement and the ensuing Andante. This c o n t r a s t was to plague him a l l h is l i f e . In 1893, Mahler was h e s i t a n t about c a l l i n g the work a symphonic poem and r e l u c t a n t to suggest the contents of the work. L e t 1 s ca l1 them both "symphony" and nothing e l s e l For the name "symphonic poem" i s o l d -fashioned . t 'worn -ou t " i s a more accurate t r a n s l a t i o n ] , wi thout any very p r e c i s e meaning. One always t h i n k s of L i s z t ' s c o m p o s i t i o n s , which ra ther attempt the d e s c r i p t i o n of d e t a i l e d events . [This i s a f ree t r a n s l a t i o n of the l a s t c l a u s e . " . . . i n wh ich , wi thout deeper c o n n e c t i o n s , each movement dep ic t s something 61 for i t s e l f " i s c l o s e r to the G e r m a n W h e r e a s in my.two symphonies, there i s noth ing except the complete substance of my whole l ' i f e . 1 0 C e r t a i n l y not a l l composers cons idered the symphonic poem to be " o l d - f a s h i o n e d " or "worn-out" in 1893. L i s z t , the inventor of the genre, had w r i t t e n h i s l a s t symphonic poem in 1881-81 and had died in 1886, yet many other major composers cont inued to c o n t r i b u t e to the medium. By 1893, St rauss had a l ready w r i t t e n four symphonic poems and he would compose another s i x by 1915. As I s tated e a r l i e r (Chapter 3 , p . 4 2 ) , I be l ieve that Mahler employed t h i s t i t l e as a c r u t c h , pure ly because i t lacked "any very p rec i se meaning." He had now outgrown the need for h is c rutch (at l e a s t u n t i l he began the Th i rd Symphony!), and so the term had become " o l d - f a s h i o n e d " in h is eyes . This quote shows Mah le r ' s bas ic misunderstanding of L i s z t , for t h e i r p h i l o s o p h i e s were a c t u a l l y very s i m i l a r . Both men depic ted a mood or f e e l i n g more of ten than " d e t a i l e d e v e n t s " . A g a i n , Mahler emphasizes the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l , and the i m p l i c a t i o n i s that he does not cons ider t h i s aspect of h is compos i t iona l s t y l e to r e l a t e to a program per s e . The s to ry behind the i n c e p t i o n of the f i n a l e i s we l l known, and supported by the reminiscences of Mah le r ' s f r i e n d s , Ferdinand Pfohl and J . B.. Foe r s t e r The conductor Hans von Btlilow d ied i n Cai ro on February 12 , 1 894 , and his memorial s e r v i c e took place in Hamburg on March 29 . It was no doubt a moving ceremony, for Foers te r a lso speaks of being g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d . Cons ider ing Mah le r ' s ra ther uncer ta in r e l a t i o n s h i p with von Bu low - - the man who openly 62 admired him as a conductor and e q u a l l y openly r e j e c t e d him as a composer—his emotional s t a t e at the funera l s e r v i c e must have been very t e n s e . Among other works , the Chorale from K l o p s t o c k ' s Mes s i as was sung and, in a " f l a s h of l i g h t e n i n g " , Mahler r e a l i z e d how to conclude h is symphony. When Foers te r saw him hard at work l a t e r that day, he c r i e d : " F o e r s t e r , I'v got i 1 1 " 1 2 The answer was R e s u r r e c t i o n , the only answer, one r e a l i z e s wi th the b e n e f i t of h i n d s i g h t , that could o f f e r a c o n t i n u a t i o n a f t e r the massive funera l r i t e s of the f i r s t movement. T h i s , as I suggested e a r l i e r , had created a rea l dramatic problem for Mah le r : what can one do with a Hero whom one has j u s t bur ied? Bi l low's memorial s e r v i c e supp l ied Mahler not only wi th the dramatic idea that enabled him a f t e r years of f u i t l e s s quest ing to compose a f i n a l e fo r the incomplete symphony, but a l so to formulate a programme that r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y made sense of the who!e e n t e r p r i se , N a t a l i e mentions in her reminiscences of the summer of 1893 that Mahler was search ing fo r s u i t a b l e ideas fo r h is f i n a l e . We can only con jec ture as to when he f i r s t decided to use a t e x t . In h is p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l study The Haunting Melody, Theodor Reik c la ims that Mahler subconsc ious ly des i red the death of the man who refused to accept h is compos i t i o n s — and, s p e c i f i c a l l y , the f i r s t movement of the Second Symphony. This statement may seem a b i t f a r - f e t c h e d to many p e o p l e , yet Reik does make some good p o i n t s . For example, i t i s e n t i r e l y l o g i c a l that Mahler would rece ive h is i n s p i r a t i o n at a funera l ceremony, the very t i t l e of h is f i r s t movement. 1 4 Although t h i s f i n a l e episode a f f o r d s va luab le i n s i g h t 63 in to the whole process of musical c r e a t i o n , what does i t t e l l us about M a h l e r ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the "program" problem? F i r s t , Mahler was search ing for an appropr ia te f i n a l e and was, in f a c t , very p a r t i c u l a r . This search conf i rms that he wished the symphony to have a d e f i n i t e meaning and message. Secondly , as with the F i r s t Symphony, the "program" was s t i l l not c l e a r when the work, was f i r s t conce i ved . The a d d i t i o n of a t i t l e to the f i r s t movement led to the n e c e s s i t y of f o l l o w i n g through with a program. Mahler may have had the idea of r e s u r r e c t i o n p r i o r to von Bi l low's f u n e r a l , and t h i s requ i red only a re levant t e x t . We w i l l never know for c e r t a i n T h i r d l y , the e x t r a - m u s i c a l element — in t h i s c a s e , the t e x t -played a necessary ro le in the concept ion of the work. The f i n a l e was completed in the summer of 1894. The score was recopied in the autumn and dated "December 18 , 1 8 9 4 " . 1 6 In t h i s manuscr ip t , "two i n d i c a t i o n s of the movement's programme e x i s t in the form of t i t l e s : at F i g . 3 , Mahler wr i tes 'Der Riifer in der Wuste i ' [The c a l l e r i n the wi lderness] ; and at F i g . 2 9 , 'Der grosse A p p e l l ' [The Last Trump]. Both these t i t l e s from 1894 — w h i c h long preceded the actua l formation of a complete programme for the work —were inc luded i n the f i r s t e d i t i o n (1897) of the s c o r e . . . , and indeed were used on occas ion i n a concert b i l l i n g as part of the d e s c r i p t i o n of the F i n a l e . " 1 7 In the l a s t movement, Mahler becomes both d e s c r i p t i v e and d r a m a t i c , e s p e c i a l l y at the moment of the Last Trump. At t h i s p o i n t , the trumpets and " l a s t n i g h t i n g a l e " are so unmistakable tha t Mahler must 64 | have had these in .mind when composing the movement. The res t of h is d e s c r i p t i o n , which M i t c h e l l c a l l s the " p r e -R e s u r r e c t i o n programmatic b o n a n z a , " 1 8 probably came l a t e r , I have not yet mentioned the four th movement, the Wunderhorn song " U r l i c h t " (0 Rb'schen r o t ! ) . I t seems c e r t a i n that the song was not w r i t t e n s p e c i f i c a l l y fo r the symphony and, indeed , was composed before the second and t h i r d 1 9 movements. I t i s unknown at what po int Mahler decided to inc lude i t in the symphony. Whenever i t was added, the i n c l u s i o n of " U r l i c h t " was a master fu l s t r o k e . It serves as a gent le i n t e r l u d e between the constant motion of the scherzo and the tempestuous f i n a l e opening , "a p i v o t a l po int ? 0 t r a n s f i g u r i n g the symphonic scheme with l i g h t and d e p t h , " The words f i t in b e a u t i f u l l y , "I am from God and w i l l return to God" i s an appropr ia te prelude to a r e s u r r e c t i o n hymn. The Second Symphony i s the f i r s t i n which Mahler employed the human v o i c e , and comparisons between Beethoven's Ninth are i n e v i t a b l e . Mahler h i m s e l f was, n a t u r a l l y , aware of the s i m i l a r i t i e s and l a t e r (see Document 16) admitted that he was a f r a i d of being c a l l e d a s u p e r f i c i a l i m i t a t o r , Dika Newlin provides us wi th a good d i s c u s s i o n of the romant ics ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and bas ic misunderstanding of 21 Beethoven's choral f i n a l e . This i s probably the most appropr ia te place to i n s e r t an excerpt from a l e t t e r which Mahler wrote to Arthur S e i d l on February 17, 1897 (Document 16) , Since i t was w r i t t e n three years a f t e r the event , Mah le r ' s memory may have been somewhat c o l o u r e d , yet there i s 65 no s p e c i f i c reason to doubt i t s accuracy . The l e t t e r does not answer the quest ion of when he f i r s t decided to in t roduce a chorus . C e r t a i n l y , in both Beethoven's N inth and Mahle r ' s ? 7 Second the symphony enters the realm of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l . B laukopf po in ts out that Beethoven expressed the p h i l o s o p h i c a l nature of the symphony only once, by s e t t i n g S c h i l l e r ' s Ode to Joy , but fo r Mahler t h i s "became a c r e a t i v e p r i n c i p l e , 23 an attempt to ' b u i l d a wor ld 1 in every symphony." 3oth composers admirably adapted the vocal parts to the symphonic s t r u c t u r e in two ways: (1) The thematic m a t e r i a l of the vocal s e c t i o n s i s l o g i c a l l y der ived from that of the preceding inst rumenta l passages, "so that the vocal s e c t i o n s do not give 7 H the impress ion of being n o n - f u n c t i o n a l a d d i t i o n s , " and (2) Ne i ther composer set the words of h is r e s p e c t i v e poem in a s t r i c t manner, but changed them to express h is own f e e l i n g s . Rather than compose music to f i t the words, they 25 adapted the words to f i t t h e i m u s i c . IClopstock's Ode became only a s t a r t i n g point for Mah le r ; the i n i t i a l idea ra ther than the tex t per se . B laukopf s t a t e s : Mahler has transformed the pious r e s i g n a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l tex t in to an i n c a n t a t i o n aga ins t the power of death : "Be not a f r a i d l Prepare t h y s e l f to l i v e ! " The e a r t h l y grave has vanished from Mahle r ' s poem. Death does not e x t i n g u i s h l i f e , for r e s u r r e c t i o n i s c e r t a i n . A l l the t o i l of e a r t h l y l i f e i s mean ingfu l . The creed i s : You were not born i n v a i n , nor have you su f fe red in v a i n , 5 A comparison of the IClopstock and Mahler vers ions i s found in B l a u k o p f , pages 9 8 - 1 0 1 . 66 New! in a lso makes a p e n e t r a t i n g comment on. the r o l e of " U r l i c h t " . By us ing f i r s t the solo vo ice and then the chorus [Beethoven a lso did t h i s , though i n one. movement, for the f i r s t entry of the voice, i s a so lo r e c i t a t i v e . ] » Mahler seems to be t r y i n g to sharpen the c o n t r a s t a l ready inherent in h i s l i t e r a r y program~-the cont ras t between the d e s t r u c t i o n of a s i n g l e (though symbol ic) i n d i v i d u a l - - t h e inescapable symphonic " H e r o " - - a n d the vast drama of a l l mankind's r e s u r r e c t i o n . I f such p h i l o s o p h i c a l concepts seem too much of a burden to abso lute mus ic , i t must be remembered that the a b s t r a c t i o n s of an i d e a l may be a s s i m i l a t e d with the a b s t r a c t i o n s of music when the s p e c i f i c a l l y p i c t o r i a l d e t a i l s of an e labora te program may n o t . What connect ions are t h e r e , i f any, between the tex t of the song on which the t h i r d movement i s based and subsequent "programs"? In 1903, Mahler wrote a l e t t e r to J u l i u s Buths , who was p lann ing to conduct the symphony. He ends: Whereas the f i r s t , t h i r d , f o u r t h and f i f t h movements are connected as to theme and atmosphere, the second stands alone and somewhat i n t e r r u p t s the austere p rogress ion of events . Perhaps t h i s i s a weakness in the p l a n , but my i n t e n t i o n i s c e r t a i n l y c l e a r to you by now, thanks to the exp lanat ion suggested above. , . 8 The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between movements one, f o u r , and f i v e are obv ious , but not so with the t h i r d . Raynor would no doubt have agreed wi th these words of Mahler . He. f e e l s that thou the movement i s "not m u s i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d in to the ' w o r l d ' the Second Symphony," i t "belongs p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y to the exper ience which that world e x p r e s s e s . " The movement i s der ived from the Wunderhorn song "Des Antonius von Padua F i s c h p r e d i g t " . The poem desc r ibes how S t . Anthony, f i n d i n g 67 the church empty, goes to the r i v e r and preaches to the f i s h e s . D i f f e r e n t types of f i s h , l i s t e d wi th t h e i r var ious f a u l t s , come to hear the sermon and they a l l enjoy i t immensely. However, when i t i s o v e r , th.ey go back to t h e i r o ld ways and the sermon i s immediately f o r g o t t e n . "The sermon was a success/they stay l i k e everyone e l s e ! " The parable i s c l e a r , for humans, of c o u r s e , are no d i f f e r e n t from f i s h e s . None of the programs to the Second Symphony make s p e c i f i c mention of the song . ' text , but ins tead pick up the mood of the accompaniment- -"man 1 s sense less r e s t l e s s n e s s " and h is " f u t i l e m o t i o n . " 3 1 A p l a u s i b l e connect ion can be made i f you consider- that Mahler i s a l so preaching a sermon in t h i s symphony. Is he a f r a i d that h is message, l i k e S t . An thony ' s , w i l l be fo rgot ten the moment the audience leaves the concert h a l l ? ( I f s o , he would have been pleased to hear that Reik was t r u l y "haunted" by the melody to the choral f i n a l e fo r a long w h i l e . ) U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s theory cannot be s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the chronology of events . When Mahler composed the s c h e r z o , he had only the vaguest idea of what his "sermon" was about . He may have s imply f e l t , and r i g h t l y s o , that the music to t h i s song would make an e x c e l l e n t s c h e r z o . 3 ^ As in the case of the F i r s t Symphony, a number of d i f f e r e n t "programs" e x i s t s fo r the Second. The f i r s t complete performance took place in B e r l i n on December 13 , 1895, The concert was a s u c c e s s , and convinced the young Bruno Walter of M a h l e r ' s importance as a c o m p o s e r . 3 3 No program was 68 p r o v i d e d . Mahler obv ious l y knew what i t was, but he had not set i t down on paper fo r h i s aud ience . As u s u a l , t h i s created c o n f u s i o n . The c r i t i c s were, on the whole , adverse , c r i t i s i z i n g the f a c t that there was , Lno c e n t r a l i d e a " and "no connect ing l i n k s between the movements." Although these comments are unfounded, one can s c a r c e l y blame, the c r i t i c s fo r making them. For example, the f i r s t movement was l a b e l l e d only A l l e g r o maestoso, w i th no mention of a funera l m a r c h . 3 ^ Even t h i s t i n y h in t would have helped the audience to draw the connect ion between the f i r s t and l a s t movements. The c r i t i c of the Borsenze i tunq c a l l e d the symphony "program music without a p r o g r a m . " 3 5 a s u r p r i s i n g l y accurate d e s c r i p t i o n . Perhaps the problem i s best expressed by Ferdinand Pfohl in h is comments i n the December 13 Hamburger  Nachr ichten (Document 1 7 ) . On December 1 7 , 1895, four days a f t e r the p remiere , Mahler wrote to h is new f r i e n d , Max Marscha lk . His l e t t e r conta ins the f i r s t w r i t t e n program (Document 5 , Part A ) , which i s very g e n e r a l . His statement concerning "the o r i g i n a l ' a i m of the work." seems to be ra ther pompous. Cons ider ing the s t rugg les he underwent i n composing and complet ing the symphony, we might wel l ask the q u e s t i o n , "Did t h i s work ever have an o r i g i n a l aim?" At t h i s p o i n t , we can only specu la te as to the passages i n which he imagined dramatic events . Was i t the Last Judgment or perhaps the music of the F i s c h p r e d i g t song? N a t a l i e v i s i t e d Hamburg in January 1896 and, i n order to 69 p lease he r , Mahler arranged t h a t he and Walter would play the Second Symphony at Hermann Behn's house. (Behn made a two-piano arrangement of the Second and had i t p r in ted at h is own e x p e n s e . ) ^ Although she had a l ready heard him play par ts of i t in S t e i n b a c h , the whole work, made an enormous impress ion on her . The next morning Mahler t o l d her the program r e p r i n t e d in Document 18. I t could be c a l l e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n i t s d e s c r i p t i o n of the l a s t movement, a prelude to the " o f f i c i a l " program of 1901, and i s obv ious ly much more d e t a i l e d than the f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that Mahler uses the term "d ramat ic " to d e s c r i b e the l a s t movement, fo r i t has o f ten been pointed out how t h e a t r i c a l h is works a r e . This passage helps to c l a r i f y the comments about the "dramat ic performance" i n the previous l e t t e r to Marscha lk . Mahler must have been t h i n k i n g of t h i s movement i n p a r t i c u l a r , and has now put i n t o words what he had imagined. The next program i s contained in the l e t t e r to Marschalk dated March 26, 1896 (Document 1 9 ) . Remember that t h i s fo l lows a long d iscourse on the sub ject of programs (see Document 5 , Part C) in which Mahler c la imed i t was u n s a t i s f a c t o r y to w r i t e a program f o r a p iece of mus ic , and yet f e l t that a "map of the s t a r s " was usefu l s ince h is s t y l e was s t i l l st range to most l i s t e n e r s . Mewlin f e e l s that i n view of these comments, one should i n t e r p r e t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r program "as a suggest ion of the content of the music ra ther 3 R than a p r e c i s e map of the t e r r i t o r y to be t r a v e r s e d . " These l a s t two d e s c r i p t i o n s have c e r t a i n elements in 70 common, such as the re ferences to the dance i n the t h i r d movement. In the January program the middle movements are c a l l e d " e p i s o d e s " and i n the March program, " i n t e r l u d e s " , which i s b a s i c a l l y the same concept . M i t c h e l l notes that t h i s O Q " n e a t l y s i d e s t e p s the formal i s s u e ; " tha t i s , the f a c t tha t m u s i c a l l y they do not r e a l l y f i t the other movements. La Grange agrees : "In a symphonic work s t a r t i n g with death and ending i n r e s u r r e c t i o n , the middle movements could only be 'memories of the p a s t ' , as they were i n the cor responding program for the F i r s t Symphony."^ 0 There i s no doubt that the moods and f e e l i n g s which Mahler descr ibes f i t the charac te r of the music for these two movements. The most important d i f f e r e n c e between the two.programs has been pointed out by Reik and La Grange. In the January program, the hero i s s t i l l a l i v e at the beginning of the 41 symphony; in a l l l a t e r programs, he i s a l ready dead. It seems l o g i c a l that Mahler would r e l a t e the f i r s t movement of the Second to the F i r s t Symphony, s ince both were composed 42 dur ing the same p e r i o d . Perhaps Mahler was subconsc ious l y d isenchanted with the cont inuous poor r e c e p t i o n of the F i r s t Symphony, and so decided to s y m b o l i c a l l y bury i t s h e r o . The f i r s t movement had been performed on March 16 , 1896 i n B e r l i n (a long with the L ieder e ines fahrenden Gese l len and the F i r s t Symphony) and Mahler had r e s u r r e c t e d i t s o ld t i t l e for the program l i s t i n g : " T o d t e n f e i e r " ( I . Satz aus der Symphonic i n C -Mol l fur grosses Orchester ) In t h i s performance, the movement thus acqui red the s t a t u s of a 71 symphonic poem. A f t e r the c o n c e r t , Mahler inco rpora ted the t i t l e in h is e x p l a n a t i o n fo r Marschalk. , r e l a t i n g i t to the res t of the program for the Second Symphony. Not i ce tha t t h i s i s the only program i n which the t i t l e "Tod ten fe ie r " i s mentioned s p e c i f i c a l l y . The f i r s t two movements of the Second Symphony were performed in L e i p z i g i n December 1896. There i s no mention of a program, but Edmund Wi titer f e l d t , c r i t i c of the An ze i ge r , "compared the ' b r u t a l e f f e c t ' of the f i r s t movement to the 'immense rocky landscape of the fa r n o r t h , surrounded by impenetrable n i g h t ' , a 'powerful but f r o z e n 1 p i c t u r e , the 44 'angry cry of a heart trodden u n d e r f o o t ' . " This obv ious l y romantic d e s c r i p t i o n might wel l have been apprec ia ted by Mahler . Judging by h is f o l l o w i n g comments, t h i s c r i t i c c e r t a i n l y recognized the importance of Mahler as a composer. A p r i l 9 , 1899, was an important landmark i n the h i s t o r y of the Second Symphony, fo r i t was the f i r s t time Mahler conducted one of h is own symphonies in V ienna . The work enjoyed something of a success with the p u b l i c , but was c r i t i c i z e d severe l y by the p r e s s . A g a i n , there i s no i n d i c a t i o n that the audience was aware of the " inner s e c r e t s " of the work. N a t a l i e commented upon the work a f t e r the performance (see Document 20) but she , of c o u r s e , knew the program. Both the audience and the c r i t i c s might have reacted d i f f e r e n t l y had Mahler pub l i shed a program for t h i s symphony e a r l i e r than he d i d . It was shown i n Chapter 3 why the Hamburg program for the F i r s t Symphony was a m i s t a k e , but the 72 s i t u a t i o n here i s d i f f e r e n t . F i r s t of a l l , the audiences g e n e r a l l y found the presence of words con fus ing without some e x p l a n a t i o n of the prev ious movements. In s p i t e of the f a c t that the romantics admired Beethoven's N inth Symphony and adapted i t s innovat ions to t h e i r own purposes , they cont inued to be puzzled by the choral f i n a l e . Secondly , the program (I use the s i n g u l a r because there i s fundamental ly only one program, d e a t h - i n t e r l u d e - r e s u r r e c t i on , which Mahler expressed in severa l ways.) for the Second Symphony f i t s in very wel l with the mus ic . It was more c l e a r - c u t than that fo r the F i r s t Symphony, both in Mah le r ' s mind and in. the actua l wording. Whereas the Hamburg program to the F i r s t Symphony became almost a h inderance , the one to the Second can t r u l y a id unders tand ing . As M i t c h e l l has s t a t e d , "programmes are eminently d i s p e n s i b l e and d i s p o s a b l e - - b u t one needs to know them f i r s t . " 4 5 When the symphony was performed in Munich on October 1 , 1900, i t was apprec ia ted by many of the c r i t i c s , as wel l as by the p u b l i c . N e v e r t h e l e s s , some rather cur ious comments emerged. An a r t i c l e i n the Al lgemeine Zei tung "compared i t to S t r a u s s ' s symphonic poem A lso sprach Z a r a t h u s t r a , i n as much as i t port rayed ' the human being g rapp l ing with the concept of i m m o r t a l i t y 1 through ' e a r t h l y s u f f e r i n g , joy and p a s s i o n ' . The two s u b t i t l e s of the F i n a l e , Der Rufer i n der Wuste (The C a l l i n the Desert) and Per grosse appel1 (The Great Summons), proved that t h i s was a program symphony and belonged to the school of Bruckner . I t s r e l i g i o u s atmosphere, choruses , 73 and abundance of brasses l i k e w i s e confirmed t h i s , even though M a h l e r ' s aims were t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t . . , " 4 6 We know from t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n that the s u b t i t l e s at l e a s t were g i v e n . However, are the ideas of "program symphony" and "school of Bruckner" supposed to be l i n k e d ? ! The w r i t e r obv ious l y must be t h i n k i n g of B ruckner ' s Masses, fo r he never used choruses in h i s symphonies. The c r i t i c of Der Sammler def ined Mahle r ' s music as " l i v e d " ra ther than "manufactured" (a percept i ve remark, of which Mahler would su re l y have approved) , but c la imed i t was " incomprehensib le without a p r o g r a m . " 4 7 The Bay re r i sche Kuri er f e l t that the symphony was e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y rece ived "because i t fo l lowed the great symphonic poems of S t rauss in the l i n e of B e r l i o z , L i s z t , B ruckner , and Wagner, composers 4 8 of whom Mahler had made a p a r t i c u l a r l y thorough s t u d y . " The i n c l u s i o n of Bruckner in t h i s l i s t may seem odd to us now, but at that t i m e , when he was s t i l l considered a d i s c i p l e of Wagner and the a n t i t h e s i s to Brahms, i t would have been qu i te l o g i c a l . The w r i t e r c a l l s Mahler a "symphonic d r a m a t i s t " , an e s p e c i a l l y v a l i d remark when d i s c u s s i n g the Second Symphony. The next program (Document 2 1 ) , the only one to be publ ished at a c o n c e r t , was w r i t t e n fo r the performance i n 49 Dresden on December 2 0 , 1901. The program was apparent ly w r i t t e n a t ' t h e expressed wish of King A l b e r t of Saxony, and Mahler c laimed i t was " intended to be read by someone naive 50 and s u p e r f i c i a l . " This i s r e a l l y an u n f a i r comment, 74 probably made to preserve h is an t i -p rog ram stand in p u b l i c . A f t e r a l l , he had given s i m i l a r programs to Marscha lk , N a t a l i e , and Walter f i v e years e a r l i e r , and took the t r o u b l e to copy i t out for Alma. I am sure that he cons idered none of these people to be naive or s u p e r f i c i a l . The program was publ ished in the Dresdner Nachr ichten on December 2 0 , with, t h i s note . At the very s p e c i a l request of the d i r e c t i o n , Gustav Mahler , who i s averse to a l l exp lanat ions and a l l programs of any kind or d e s c r i p t i o n , has w r i t t e n the f o l l o w i n g general comments i n order to make the world of emotions expressed in h is work more understandable to the audience of the premi e re . A g a i n , his p u b l i c image i s emerging. He c e r t a i n l y found i t necessary to v e r b a l i z e h is f e e l i n g s at an e a r l i e r stage i n the symphony's h i s t o r y , and these v e r b a l i z a t i o n s were not even a c t u a l i z e d for any s p e c i f i c c o n c e r t , as was the case with the F i r s t Symphony. The note which accompanied Alma's copy of the program expresses a more personal v iew. This "very s p e c i a l document", intended fo r h is b e l o v e d , must have had some inner s i g n i f i c a n c e fo r Mahler , in s p i t e of the outward p r o t e s t a t i o n s . I wrote to my s i s t e r y e s t e r d a y , e n c l o s i n g what I 've drawn up as a very s p e c i a l document fo r the Dresden c o n c e r t . I reckoned that the l e t t e r -would a r r i v e j u s t when you were wi th he r . How I envy her! I 've asked J u s t i to hand the document over to you ( f o r whom i t i s a c t u a l l y i n t e n d e d ) , because I would not have drawn i t up fo r the k ing h i m s e l f , I 'm so d i s t r a u g h t now and harassed by eve ry th ing that does not i n c l u d e you . I leave here e a r l y on Thursday fo r Dresden. So from Sunday on w r i t e t h e r e . Hotel Be l levu .e . On the day of the c o n c e r t , Mahler sent Alma a very 75 r e v e a l i n g l e t t e r (Document 2 2 ) , the words of which no doubt a c c u r a t e l y express M a h l e r ' s thoughts on the sub ject of programs at t h i s t i m e . The composi t ion of the Second Symphony was f a r behind him. A new century had dawned and he was ready to begin a d i f f e r e n t phase of h is c r e a t i v e work, w i th the composi t ion of the F i f t h Symphony — one which moved away from programs a l t o g e t h e r . We must not lose s i g h t of the fac t that Mahler h i m s e l f o f ten used programs as a " c r u t c h " . His bracketed comment, "you know whom I mean", may have been c l e a r to A lma, but i t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y c l e a r to us . The obvious reference i s to the King of Saxony, but could not Mahler be r e f e r r i n g to h i m s e l f ? Un l ike many commentators, I do not i n t e r p r e t t h i s passage as an o u t r i g h t condemnation of program mus ic , but ra ther as a r e a l i s t i c a p p r a i s a l of what a program i s capable of conveying — a n d i t c e r t a i n l y i_s capable of l e a d i n g - t o misunders tand ing . The 1901 program i t s e l f , which L e s l i e Orrey desc r ibes 53 as a " t y p i c a l mixture of na ive te and the phantasmagor ic , " i s a synthes is of a l l the previous ones. It i s the most d e t a i l e d program Mahler ever wro te , and negates comments such as "Mah le r ' s e x p l a n a t i o n of the meaning, of h i s Second 5 4 Symphony i s l i m i t e d to the merest noncommittal s u g g e s t i o n . " U n l i k e those fo r the F i r s t Symphony, the programs fo r the Second have some semblance of c o n s i s t e n c y , no doubt due to the nature of concept ion and the composit ion of the work. However, i n both c a s e s , years of acquaintance with the symphony helped Mahler t o . c l a r i f y h i s thoughts and t h i s 76 process cu lminated in a " d e f i n i t i v e " program for each — the one for the F i r s t in 1900, and the one for the Second i n 1 9 0 1 . 5 5 The r e l i g i o u s aspects of the w o r k — i t s fundamental message—must a l so be d e a l t w i t h . Mahler was always concerned with the myst ic ism of r e l i g i o n and the t r a n s i t o r i n e s s and meaning of l i f e . As has o f ten been s t a t e d , he attempted to deal wi th these problems in every symphony, each time a r r i v i n g at a d i f f e r e n t answer. Many f i n d the message of the Second Symphony a b i t d i f f i c u l t to t a k e . Mahler was, "as one wi t 5 6 s a i d , wearing h is e c c l e s i a s t i c a l Lede rho rn . " Alma made the f o l l o w i n g comment a f t e r hear ing Walter conduct the Second i n the winter o f, 1 930-31 . I found i t t ransparent in s p o t s , pa inted too much a l f r e s c o , but grandiose in i t s c o n c e p t i o n , t e x t u a l l y b r i l l i a n t , t r u t h f u l and s incere i n i t s r e l i g i o u s n e s s , " I f you hear the symphonies one a f t e r the o t h e r " , I w ro te , "you may be a l i t t l e unnerved by what I c a l l the constant " g e t t i n g the Lord on the phone". Otherwise i t w i l l g r ip and move you . La Grange has noted that "the idea of a l a s t judgment with no judge and no r e c o g n i t i o n of Good and E v i l " i s very 5 8 unorthodox fo r a C h r i s t i a n , l e t alone a Jew. Mahler expresses "a very i n d i v i d u a l form of the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h " i n the Second Symphony. However,.he obv ious l y had some success with the p u b l i c . This i s perhaps ep i tomized i n an amusing anecdote which Alma r e l a t e s . She i s d i s c u s s i n g the high s o c i e t y they met whi le on t h e i r honeymoon i n R u s s i a . 77 Among them was a b e a u t i f u l o ld lady of h y s t e r i c a l t e n d e n c i e s , who years l a t e r when Mahler was i n Russia by h i m s e l f summoned him and t o l d him that she f e l t her death to be near , and would he e n l i g h t e n her about the other w o r l d , s i n c e he had sa id so much about i t in h i s Second Symphony. He was not qu i te so wel l informed as she supposed and he was made to fee l very d i s t i c t l y when he took h is leave that she was d i s p l e a s e d wi th him. He gave me a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s scene i n a l e t t e r As Kennedy s t a t e s , Mah le r ' s Lederhorn i s "a good f i t CHAPTER 5 THE THIRD SYMPHONY Mahler wrote and spoke more about the Thi rd Symphony than about any of h i s other c o m p o s i t i o n s . 1 The work was composed dur ing the summers of 1895 and 1 8 9 6 - - a remarkably short time span . c o n s i d e r i n g i t s length and c o m p l e x i t y . There i s c e r t a i n l y no l a c k of sources fo r M a h l e r ' s thoughts throughout t h i s p e r i o d . N a t a l i e , who l i v e d with the Mahlers for both summers and kept her usual copious n o t e s , i s perhaps the p r i n c i p a l source fo r i n f o r m a t i o n . At t h i s t i m e , Mahler was a l so invo l ved in a c lose r e l a t i o n s h i p wi th Anna von M i l d e n b u r g , a s i n g e r at the Hamburg opera , and h i s l e t t e r s to her , as wel l as those to var ious other f r i e n d s , prov ide a d d i t i o n a l i n s i g h t in to the whole concept ion of the Th i rd Symphony. In the case of t h i s symphony, the program was conceived before the music . I t was c o n t i n u a l l y adapted , along with the mus ic , u n t i l both reached t h e i r f i n a l form. Mah le r ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the music and the program in t h i s work i s i d e n t i c a l to h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the music and the t e x t in the Second Symphony. In both i n s t a n c e s , he adapted the words (whether they e x i s t e d as a tex t or a program] to the music . La Grange c la ims that " i n t h i s respect [ i . e . , the f a c t that 78 79 he a l t e r e d the program to f i t the mus ic , ra ther than the other way around] Mahler was t r u l y not a "program 1 m u s i c i a n . , " 2 I f e e l that t h i s i s s p l i t t i n g h a i r s , for there can be no doubt that the Th i rd Symphony could not have been composed as such without the i n i t i a l o v e r a l l p l a n . M i t c h e l l i s c o r r e c t when he hypothesizes that the e v o l u t i o n of the Th i rd ran much more smoothly than that of the Second Symphony s imply "because Mahler had a c l e a r e r . i d e a from the outset of the k ind of te rmina l po int at which he wished to a r r i v e . " Once a g a i n , a c h r o n o l o g i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of documents i s the most e f f e c t i v e method of t r a c i n g the e v o l u t i o n of the work. The m a j o r i t y of the documents date from 1895 and 1896. A d e s c r i p t i o n of the f i r s t few performances i s not as important here as i t was in the cases of the F i r s t and Second Symphonies, s ince no changes were made in the program a f t e r the work reached i t s f i n a l musical form. The op in ions of s c h o l a r s and c r i t i c s regard ing t h i s symphony are d e f i n i t e l y d i v i d e d . The f i r s t movement, e s p e c i a l l y , i s u s u a l l y d ismissed as a complete formal d i s a s t e r . Kennedy wr i tes of the work: Not only do I th ink i t shows an advance i n musical power on the Second, but I t h i n k i t i s a be t te r balanced a r t i s t i c d e s i g n , . i n s p i t e of i t s s i x movements, and e s p e c i a l l y that the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the f i r s t movement have been much exaggerated.4 Cooke, on the other hand, s t a t e s : "This naive scheme [ i . e . , the programmatic t i t l e s ] r e f l e c t s the c e n t r a l weakness of the w o r k - - t h e f a i l u r e of the s i x parts to make a u n i t y . " 5 80 However, a l l are in agreement on one i s s u e : because, "of a l l Mah le r ' s symphonies i t i s t h i s one which i s hardest to comprehend from the point of view of pure ly musical l o g i c , " the program not only a ids unders tand ing , but i s necessary to i t . It i s a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l to bear t h i s i n mind [Mahler 's comments as wel l as the actua l program] whi le s tudy ing the Th i rd Symphony and e x p e r i e n c i n g the rag ing h u r r i c a n e s , the d i o n y s i a c marches, and the i c y gales of the f i r s t movement, otherwise i t s t ragedy , i t s w i l d exuberance, i t s r e c k l e s s mixture of s t y l e s would remain a b s o l u t e l y en igmat ic and u n i n t e l l i g i b l e . The formal program c o n s i s t s only of movement t i t l e s , with a few exp lanatory comments. Mahler of ten r e f e r r e d to these t i t l e s as " p o i n t e r s " . Although there are success i ve d r a f t s of the t i t l e s a l o n e , they provide a much more i n t e r e s t i n g study when combined wi th Mah le r ' s comments. These are at times i n c o n s i s t e n t , but are never d u l l r e a d i n g . The huge symphony could not have begun more s i m p l y . Mahler a r r i v e d at Ste inbach on June 5 , 1895, and was immediately i n s p i r e d by the f lowers in the meadow and the surroundings of h i s l i t t l e composing hut . He a p p r o p r i a t e l y t i t l e d the r e s u l t i n g b r i e f movement, Mas mir d ie Blumen auf der Wei se e r z a h l e n . He commented to N a t a l i e : "Those who do not know t h i s p lace should almost be able to p i c t u r e i t from the mus ic , for i t s charm i s un ique , the very place to o f f e r g such an i n s p i r a t i o n . " When Mahler began h i s new p r o j e c t , he i n i t i a l l y intended i t to prov ide some r e s p i t e from the emotional upheavals he underwent dur ing the composit ion of his Second Symphony. This 81 a t t i t u d e i s a t t e s t e d to by h i s statement regard ing "applause and money" which N a t a l i e recorded i n her memoirs (see Document 24 ) . A few days l a t e r , when the f lower movement was f i n i s h e d , Mahler s a i d to N a t a l i e : A stormy wind blows across the f i e l d . . . the leaves and . f lowers moan and cry out on t h e i r stems, begging the s u p e r i o r powers fo r d e l i v e r a n c e , 1 1 ' His view of nature was a l ready changing. He was beginning to be aware of i t s harsh as wel l as i t s d e l i g h t f u l a s p e c t s . He no longer regarded t h e . w o r l d , as i n h is f i r s t two symphonies, "from the po int of view of s t r u g g l i n g , s u f f e r i n g man," but " t h i s time went to the very heart of e x i s t e n c e , where one must fee l every tremor of the world and of G o d . 1 , 1 1 Soon a f t e r the B1 umenstuck. was complete , he s t a r t e d to evolve the g i g a n t i c o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e . Paul Bekker , in h is 1921 study of the symphonies, quotes two d r a f t s of the programmatic t i t l e s , which have s i n c e been r e p r i n t e d by other scho la rs (Document 2 3 ) . Bekker s ta tes that the o u t l i n e s are found on a sheet of music [Notenbl a t t ] amongst the few e a r l y sketches which have been preserved . The d i f f e r e n c e s between these d r a f t s and the f i n a l v e r s i o n show that they were drawn up before the composit ion of the s c o r e . 1 2 The " f o r e s t " , " t w i l i g h t " , and "cuckoo" movements were never composed as such ; and the "ange ls " and "man" movements were not inc luded at a l l in t h i s s t a g e . I t h i n k i t i s qu i te p o s s i b l e that these d r a f t s were evolved before Mahler had decided to use the vo ice at a l l i n t h i s symphony. The t i t l e "What the c h i l d t e l l s me" l a t e r became in te rchangeab le wi th 82 "Das himmlische Leben" , but there i s nothing at t h i s po int to i n d i c a t e . t h a t . M a h l e r had the song in mind. The main d i f f e r e n c e s between the two e a r l y d r a f t s are the removal of the f i r s t " t w i l i g h t " movement from the second o u t l i n e and the a d d i t i o n of "Summer Marches I n " , which remained c o n t i n u a l l y as the t i t l e of the f i r s t movement, to the second o u t l i n e . I t i s noteworthy that a "gay" march i s s p e c i f i e d , with no h i n t of the s i n i s t e r connotat ions . i t l a t e r a c q u i r e d . N a t a l i e ' s r e m i n i s c e n c e s . o f the summer of 1895 (Document 24) conta in many i d e a s , which presumably were accumulated over severa l months. She begins by commenting upon Mah le r ' s emphasis on humour and g a i e t y , which he. exper ienced at the s t a r t of h is work, and concludes with a l i s t of t i t l e s which correspond to those sent to F r i e d r i c h Lohr at the. end of the summer. As with the F i r s t and Second Symphonies, Mahler h e s i t a t e s about us ing the term "symphony" to d e s c r i b e the T h i r d . 1 3 The exact terminology of the t i t l e c e r t a i n l y seemed to be a major problem in the e a r l y symphonies b u t , judging by h i s remarks to N a t a l i e , he i s beginning to de f ine "symphony" i n a very personal .way. Such mental torments.were no doubt a necessary stage i n h is t h i n k i n g , and helped him to a r r i v e at h i s own phi losophy fo r c o m p o s i t i o n . Five o u t . o f the present s i x movements, as- -wel l as the sketches fo r the f i r s t movement and the song "Das himmlische Leben" , which was e v e n t u a l l y used in the Fourth Symphony, were composed in 1895. Accord ing to La Grange, Mahler sent the 83 speculated "program" of the f i r s t movement to some f r i e n d s , " a s k i n g for t h e i r impress ions as to whether i t succeeded in 'conveying i t s hearers i n the d i r e c t i o n , he meant them to t a k e ' . " 1 4 One of these l e t t e r s , dated August 2 9 , 1895, was addressed to F r i e d r i c h Lohr (Document 2 5 ) . I t was w r i t t e n at the end of the summer, a f t e r Mahler had had time to s y n t h e s i z e h is thoughts and a r r i v e at h i s "orders of b e i n g s " , and i t thus presents a s u r p r i s i n g l y c l e a r statement on the s u b j e c t . Alma claimed that Mahler could i d e n t i f y every p lant and t ree in h is g a r d e n . 1 5 S ince Mahler was f a m i l i a r w i t h , and i n f l u e n c e d by , the w r i t i n g s of Goethe, B a r f o r d specu la tes as to whether he knew Goethe's " theory of the ' a r c h e t y p a l p l a n t ' . " 1 6 Goethe, who, l i k e Mahler , was always i n t e r e s t e d in s c i e n c e , had formed a l o f t y v i s i o n of a t o t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d natu ra l order of b e i n g , in which eve ry th ing evolved from one primeval substance. A whole h i e r a r c h y of p lan t forms was developed through organic t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . This theory c e r t a i n l y f i t s in wel l with the phi losophy of the Th i rd Symphony. "Love" and "heavenly l i f e " are the l o g i c a l c u l m i n a t i o n s of the h ie ra rchy and hence of the symphony. This l i s t s s t i l l i nc ludes the seventh movement, but the other t i t l e s are now i n t h e i r f i n a l o rder . This i s the f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n of the N ietzsche t i t l e and of the motto for the s i x t h movement. 1 7 One cannot help but n o t i c e the personal element c reep ing in to Mah le r ' s correspondence yet a g a i n . I t i s no wonder that biographers have emphasized the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l aspect of h is works. Mahler c e r t a i n l y l e f t them with p len ty of m a t e r i a l . 84 When he returned to Hamburg in the autumn, Mahler spoke wi th h i s f r i e n d F o e r s t e r , comparing the Th i rd Symphony to a " ' g i g a n t i c hymn to the g lo ry of every aspect of c r e a t i o n ' ; i t was to evoke ' the v i c t o r i o u s appearance of H e l i o s and the m i r a c l e of s p r i n g , thanks to which a l l th ings l i v e , b r e a t h e , f l o w e r , s ing and r i p e n , a f t e r which appear those imper fec t beings who have p a r t i c i p a t e d in t h i s m i r a c l e - - t h e men. 1 ." Mahler returned to Ste inbach i n June of 1896, a f t e r a .b r ie f t r i p to V ienna , and d iscovered that he had l e f t h i s s k e t c h e s , fo r the symphony in Hamburg. He sent fo r the sketches which a r r i v e d a week l a t e r , on June 19.. He immediately began work, but was not happy with i t , as the f o l l o w i n g statement t e s t i f i e s . Who knows i f i t i s not a l l to the good? Perhaps j u s t such an atmosphere i s r i g h t fo r the i m m o b i l i t y of the f i r s t movement, perhaps i f every th ing had gone e x a c t l y as I wanted i t to go I would suddenly have produced a f l o u r i s h i n g summer, b u r s t i n g with l i f e , which would not have s u i t e d the s p i r i t of my work, which would have negated the e f f e c t of the other movements and would have destroyed the general concept ion? So l e t us put up with the hardships i n f l i c t e d by myster ious d e s t i n y , whose power over my l i f e I understand bet te r each d a y . 1 9 The next important document i s an excerpt from a l e t t e r which Mahler wrote to Anna von Mi ldenburg on Ju ly 1 , 1896, which concerns not the f i r s t movement, on which he was working at the t i m e , but the l a s t . . . . the symphony i s concerned w i th another k ind of love than that which you imagine. The motto of t h i s movement (no. 7) reads : " F a t h e r , gaze on my bed of p a i n l Let no c reature be l o s t a g a i n ! " 85 Do you know what t h i s i s about? It i s supposed to symbol ize the peak, the h ighest l e v e l from which one can view the w o r l d . I could almost c a l l the movement. "What God t e l l s m e l " - - i n the sense that God can only be comprehended'as Love. And so my work i s a musical poem embracing a l l stages of development i n p r o g r e s s i v e o r d e r : I t begins w i th inanimate Nature and r i s e s to the love of Godl Men w i l l have to work a long time at c r a c k i n g the nuts that I'm shaking down from the t ree fo r them. . . . 2 0 He c u r i o u s l y l a b e l s t h i s movement No. 7 . Newlin s t a t e s that a l though the seventh movement was never composed, " the apotheosis of love was t r a n s f e r r e d to the s i x t h movement, with i t s tender reminiscences of Beethoven- -and' , perhaps, of Bruckner as w e l l . " 2 1 B u t , in the Lohr and Bauer -Lechner documents of 1895, the motto a l ready belonged to the s i x t h movement. Moreover , d r a f t number seven in La Grange's t a b l e ( a g a i n , what i s the source fo r t h i s d r a f t ? ) shows that the seventh movement had been de leted by June 1896. My exp lanat ion fo r the cur ious numbering i s qu i te s i m p l e . La Grange d r a f t number seven a lso shows that Mahler was t h i n k i n g of s e p a r a t e l y t i t l i n g the i n t r o d u c t i o n . I f the i n t r o d u c t i o n was number one, and the f i r s t movement proper number two, then the actual s i x t h movement would be number seven. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s excerpt e x i s t s as a f u r t h e r example of M a h l e r 1s phi 1osophy, which was becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r as the symphony took s h a p e . 2 2 On Ju ly 2 , 1896, Mahler wrote to Bruno W a l t e r , h i s a s s i s t a n t at the Hamburg opera , i n v i t i n g him to come to Steinbach for a v i s i t and to hear the Th i rd Symphony. This was qu i te an honour for the young conductor to r e c e i v e , and 86 Walter t a l k s e x c i t e d l y about h i s s t a y . Mahler had long ago r i d h imse l f of the not ion that the Th i rd would b r i n g him app lause , as the f o l l o w i n g excerpt from the J u l y 2 l e t t e r shows. The whole t h i n g i s , of c o u r s e , t a i n t e d with my d e p l o r a b l e sense of humor and " o f t e n takes the oppor tun i t y to submit to my dreary t a s t e for dreary n o i s e . " The p layers f r e q u e n t l y "do not pay the l e a s t a t t e n t i o n to one another , and my e n t i r e gloomy and b ru ta l nature i s nakedly exposed." It i s wel l known that I cannot do without t r i v i a l i t i e s . This time , however, a l l p e r m i s s i b l e bounds have been passed . " 0 n S o f ten f e e l s one has got in to a pub, or a s t y ! " 3 At S t e i n b a c h , Walter saw a d i f f e r e n t Mahler from the one who i n h a b i t e d the opera house. "Close to n a t u r e , f ree of the cares of the o p e r a , whol ly occupied with h is own work and thoughts , he was r e l a x e d : he could and did l e t the r i c h e s w i t h i n him play over h is s u r r o u n d i n g s . " He then gives a d e s c r i p t i o n of M a h l e r ' s summer composing r o u t i n e . W a l t e r ' s famous anecdote regard ing his a r r i v a l at Steinbach i s worth r e p r i n t i n g in a d i s c u s s i o n of program mus ic . I a r r i v e d by steamer on a g l o r i o u s Ju ly day1, Mahler was there on the j e t t y to meet me, and desp i te my p r o t e s t s , i n s i s t e d on c a r r y i n g my bag u n t i l he was r e l i e v e d by a p o r t e r . As on our way to h is house I looked up to the HB l1engeb i rge , whose sheer c l i f f s made a grim background to the charming landscape , he s a i d : "You don ' t need to l o o k - - I have composed a l l t h i s a l r e a d y ! " 2 5 The quote emphasizes j u s t how much Mahler was invo lved with na tu re . The e x t r a - m u s i c a l was more than mere i n s p i r a t i o n ; i t was e s s e n t i a l and became the mus ic . That Walter sensed t h i s i s borne out by h i s comments when he f i n a l l y d id hear the 87 Th i rd Symphony i n i t s e n t i r e t y (.Document 2.6). N a t a l i e ' s reminiscences of 1896 (Document 27] are even more d e t a i l e d than those of 1896. I s h a l l r e f e r to these memoirs l a t e r , when d i s c u s s i n g i n d i v i d u a l movements, but I would l i k e to deal wi th one po in t at t h i s t i m e . In the middle of the summer of 1896, Mahler decided to c a l l the work "Pan : Symphonic Poems". For the t h i r d time i n a row, he was s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r i n g t h i s t e r m i n o l o g y . I t i s amusing to r e c a l l that three years p r e v i o u s l y , in 1893, he had d ismissed the term as " o l d - f a s h i o n e d " . I t h i n k Mahle r ' s h e s i t a t i o n s in t h i s matter prove that h i s se l f -acknowledged formal i d i o s y n c r a s i e s were s t i l l caus ing him a great deal of mental angu ish . This was perhaps p a r t l y because h is f i r s t three symphonies were so d i f f e r e n t from a formal s t a n d p o i n t . I f i n d i t h igh l y s i g n i f i c a n t that he cons idered the symphonic poem idea a f t e r he had composed the monstrous f i r s t movement. T r e a t i n g the work as a s e r i e s of symphonic poems c e r t a i n l y had i t s m e r i t s . In t h i s c a s e , i t would have conveyed the proper atmosphere as much as the t i t l e symphony, and maybe 2 6 even more s o , W i l l i a m McGrath, in h i s essay "The Metamusical Cosmos of Gustav M a h l e r , " proposes another theory fo r Mah le r ' s change of mind, one more d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the program problem. In M a h l e r ' s eyes , Pan [the r o l e of Pan w i l l be d iscussed in Chapter 6] was now the c e n t r a l f i g u r e in the symphony and i n d e c i d i n g to c a l l i t symphonic poems, he was express ing his b e l i e f i n the importance of the metaphysical s t r u c t u r e under l y ing the work; by d e s c r i b i n g i t as p o e t r y , a t t e n t i o n would be s h i f t e d from the musical to 88 the i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n n e c t i v e s . 2 7 A t h i r d point to note i s Mah le r ' s remark, about the lack of i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the movements (Document 2 7 , paragraph 3 ) . In the l a r g e - s c a l e works of the l a t e n ineteenth centu ry , and in Mah le r ' s previous symphonies, some thematic l i n k s were common, and o f ten necessary to hold the long works t o g e t h e r . Thus, a s e r i e s of "symphonic poems" s t rung together expresses the independence of the i n d i v i d u a l movements moreso than the t i t l e "symphony". On August 6 , Mahler wrote to Marschalk (Document 2 8 ) . The l e t t e r i s unremarkable in many ways, but i t does present the program in i t s f i n a l form. Mahler had a l ready planned a performance for the autumn, and he l e f t i t to Marschalk to devise h is own d e t a i l e d program from the t i t l e s . He may have been in a hurry when w r i t i n g , and he almost c e r t a i n l y would have planned on p e r s o n a l l y d i s c u s s i n g the work with Marschalk p r i o r to the B e r l i n premiere . I t was only the f lower movement which was performed that f a l l , on November 9 . Before the c o n c e r t , Mahler wrote to a f r i e n d , the c r i t i c Annie Sommerfeld: The piece to be performed i s the s m a l l e s t and most " i n a r t i c u l a t e " ( i t symbol izes that moment in e v o l u t i o n when the c r e a t i o n s t i l l cannot speak a word or make a sound) . But a beggar such as I, who i s turned away from every day, must be content wi th a s t o v e , though he begs fo r b r e a d . 2 ° I f i n d t h i s a ra ther unique way to d e s c r i b e h i s f l o w e r s , but d e f i n i t e l y a v a l i d one in terms of the h i e r a r c h y . 89 Soon a f t e r the c o n c e r t , on November 14 , Mahler wrote to R ichard Batka , another c r i t i c , at t h i s t ime e d i t o r of the Prager Neue m u s i k a l i s c h e Rundschau (Document 29). Batka had w r i t t e n Mah le r , ask ing him about h i m s e l f and h i s composing procedures . This l e t t e r i s o f ten r e f e r r e d t o , and i t c r y s t a l i z e s qu i te s u c c i n c t l y what Mahler has p r e v i o u s l y s a i d about the Th i rd Symphony. He begins by compla in ing about the fac t that the B1umenstuck had been performed s e p a r a t e l y . Although he disapproved in p r i n c i p l e , Mahler o b v i o u s l y wanted as much exposure fo r h i s composit ions as p o s s i b l e . Newlin f e e l s that t h i s passage summarizes the meaning of the work in 29 terms of a Nietzschean c o n c e p t i o n . The B1umenstuck was next performed at Hamburg in December 1896. Thie piece was always wel l rece ived when presented on i t s own and even S i t t a r d , one of Mah le r ' s devout enemies among the Hamburg c r i t i c s , found i t p leasant and 3 p l a y f u l . He termed i t " 'pure music ' in an o r i g i n a l language" and, i ndeed , t h i s movement, and perhaps the l a s t , r e l y the l e a s t on s p e c i f i c e x t r a - m u s i c a l e lements . S t i l l , there i s no doubt that Mahler succeeded in c r e a t i n g a c e r t a i n mood. S i t t a r d wrote of one s e c t i o n : The f lowers have absorbed so many dew-drops that they become drunk and, beneath the s m i l i n g rays of the sun, perform a w i l d dance that reaches i t s c l imax at the beginning of the t h i r d theme, when the ga ie ty grows w i l d e r . . . A few months l a t e r , in March 1897, F e l i x Weigartner conducted three movements of the new symphony i n B e r l i n . Movements I I , I I I , and VI were chosen, probably because these 90 were the most s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d from a performance s t a n d p o i n t . Otto Nodnagel of the Musi k a l i sches Mochenbl a t t •; who l a t e r became an ardent f o l l o w e r of M a h l e r ' s , f e l t that the composer was going his own way, a way d i f f e r e n t from other music ians of the day. He wrote : Although h is "programs" [He probably r e f e r s to the one La Grange mentions in h is footnote to the Moos rev iew. Since he mentions the Second, he might have been f a m i l i a r with Mah le r ' s programs for the other symphonies were sometimes awkward, h is music stood on i t s own f e e t , and the Second Symphony was obv ious ly a m a s t e r p i e c e . The Blumenstuck was " d e l i c a t e , g r a c e f u l , e x q u i s i t e , " and the T ie rs t t l ck a "humoresque fo r o r c h e s t r a . . . f u l l of i n s o l e n t humor," only s l i g h t l y weakened by the s e n t i m e n t a l i t y of t h e T r i o . [This l o v e l y posthorn so lo was once cons idered "the very essence of Mahler ian b a n a l i t y . " (La Grange, p. 805 .)"] As for the l a s t movement, a l though the s o n o r i t y was somewhat monotonous, i t sprang from the -depths of the soul and set the o r c h e s t r a s i n g i n g . Paul Moos wrote a s c a t h i n g review of t h i s concer t i n the B e r l i n Neuste Machr ichten (Document 3 0 ) . Moos i s obv ious l y not sympathetic to Mah le r , but one cannot help but note that i t i s the programs that seem to incu r h i s w r a t h . Knowing the depth of Mah le r ' s emot ions , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to accept Moos's charge that he i s "a man who i m i t a t e s and pretends f e e l i n g s . " I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to specu la te as to what Moos would have thought of the music had no program been provided (I suspect that he may have used the program as an excuse to a t tack the m u s i c . i t s e l f ) , and a l s o as to h i s f e e l i n g s fo r Richard S t r a u s s . Once a g a i n , M a h l e r ' s programs have caused him to have d i f f i c u l t i e s wi th the c r i t i c s . . That same month, Mahler conducted a concert in 91 Budapest , i n which he inc luded the B l umenstuck.. The c r i t i c s enjoyed the mus ic , and Beer c a l l e d i t a " b r i g h t , p leasant sp r ing p i c t u r e of s imple design and d e l i c a t e s h a d i n g . " 3 3 H e r z f e l d , who had condemned the F i r s t Symphony i n 1889, "marveled at the B1umenstuck, the 'mus ica l symbolism' of which made him t h i n k of contemporary l i t e r a r y and p i c t o r i a l symbolism ra ther than the programs of S t r a u s s . ' M a h l e r ' s o r c h e s t r a coos and c a r e s s e s , whispers and r u s t l e s , buzzes and chuckles u n t i l i t l u l l s the l i s t e n e r i n t o the i n d e s c r i b a b l e 3 4 enchantment of a f resh s p r i n g d a y 1 . " The f i r s t p u b l i c performance of the e n t i r e Th i rd Symphony d id not take place u n t i l June 12 , 1902 in C r e f e l d . This was soon a f t e r Mah le r ' s mar r iage , and Alma descr ibes the excitement of the event . I have not been able to l o c a t e any reviews of t h i s c o n c e r t , but Alma's remark about t h e i r u n w i l l i n g hosts in C r e f e l d , "some wealthy s i l k manufac tu re rs , " i s perhaps i n d i c a t i v e . They regarded Mahler as the great D i r e c t o r of the Opera, who to please h i m s e l f had composed a monstrous symphony and now to pain everybody e l s e was having i t performed. This c h r o n o l o g i c a l survey of the Th i rd Symphony w i l l be concluded with two s i g n i f i c a n t documents, both from 1904. The f i r s t i s an account by W i l l i b a l d fCaehler who conducted a performance of the Th i rd in Mannheim in February. He ate lunch in He ide lburg one day with Mahler and Wolfrum, who conducted the Th i rd in He ide lburg immediately f o l l o w i n g the Mannheim c o n c e r t s . Mahler had d iscussed St rauss 92 " a p p r e c i a t i v e l y but wi th somewhat caut ious r e s t r a i n t . " but had spoken l i t t l e about h i s own c o m p o s i t i o n s . I asked him whether he had intended to express anyth ing of a s p e c i f i c k ind wi th the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c trumpet theme at the beginning of the symphony's f i r s t movement (D minor t r i a d r i s i n g in semiquavers ) . [F ig . 2 , m. 5\ Mahler confessed h i m s e l f an adversary of programme mus ic , and only a f t e r a long h e s i t a t i o n he e x p l a i n e d : In order to understand what he meant one must know a t h i n g or two about Greek mythology. "Think of the t r i t o n s blowing on conch s h e l l s in the c l a s s i c a l Wa lpurg i snacht , N a t u r a l l y , Mahler would adopt h is an t i -p rog ram stance i n p u b l i c , but the important point i s that e igh t years a f t e r the composit ion of the work, and although the s p e c i f i c imagery has changed, h is b a s i c a l l y Greek concept ion of nature remains s t r o n g . The second document i s a l e t t e r from Schoenberg to Mahler a f t e r a performance of the Th i rd i n Vienna i n December 1904 (Document 3 1 ) . Judging by the romantic s t y l e of h is language, Schoenberg i s f u l l of you th fu l exc i tement . The l e t t e r provides a va luab le comment on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of music and what a program is capable of doing or not d o i n g . CHAPTER 6 A PROGRAMMATIC ANALYSIS OF THE THIRD SYMPHONY The Thi rd Symphony represents M a h l e r ' s c l o s e s t approach to a program; t h e r e f o r e , a more d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the work produces r e v e a l i n g r e s u l t s . How c l o s e l y are the music and the program r e l a t e d ? Aside from c e r t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t tempo i n d i c a t i o n s , there are no remarks i n the pub l i shed score to help us . However, M i t c h e l l has examined a complete manuscript f u l l s c o r e , now i n the P ierpont Morgan L i b r a r y , and notes some f a s c i n a t i n g d e t a i l s which Mahler added to t h i s score at one p o i n t . 1 1ST MOVEMENT (opening) F i g . 11 F i g . 12 F i g . 44 F i g . 4 9 F i g . 51 3RD MOVEMENT F i g . 14 and three bars before F i g . 27 4TH MOVEMENT F i g . 6 , two bars a f t e r F i g . 8 , and one bar a f t e r F i g . 11 TITLES Der Weckruf! R e v e i l i e ! Pan s c h l a f t [Pan sleeps] Der H e r o l d ! LThe Herold!] Das G e s i n d e l ! LThe Mob!] Die Sch lacht beginnt ! [The B a t t l e begins! ] Der Sudsturm! [The South storm!] Der P o s t i l l i o n ! \jhe P o s t i . l l i on Der Vogel der Nacht! jjhe B i r d of N ight ! ] 93 94 Cardus w r i t e s of the f i r s t movement. One German a u t h o r i t y has s ta ted tha t the main theme of t h i s f i r s t movement extends to three bars o n l y ; but another argues that i t c o n s i s t s of no fewer than one-hundred-and t h r e e . Cardus does not name h is a u t h o r i t i e s , but h i s statement admirably po ints o u t . t h e f a c t that t h i s movement i s the most d i f f i c u l t to analyze f o r m a l l y . La Grange notes that Mahler had employed a " d r a m a t i c , ra ther than symphonic" form in the f i n a l e of the Second Symphony, l a r g e l y because of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the t e x t , but that he returned to a very 3 l a r g e - s c l a e sonata form in t h i s movement. His o u t l i n e of the s t r u c t u r e of the movement can be found on pages 801 to 802, While i t presents a p l a u s i b l e s o l u t i o n to the movement's formal problems, i t has l i t t l e bear ing on the programmatic o u t l o o k . Perhaps t h i s type of formal a n a l y s i s i s not even adv i sab le in t h i s c a s e . Kennedy f e e l s that the movement i s e a s i e r to grasp i f the l i s t e n e r does not t r y to a n a l y z e , but i n s t e a d "concent ra tes on absorb ing i t s atmosphere, i t s 4 a s t o n i s h i n g c r e a t i o n of protean energy un leashed . " The bas ic program of the movement, as Mahler s ta ted many times in h i s l e t t e r s , i s "summer emerging v i c t o r i o u s from the death of w i n t e r . " One concept permeates Mah le r ' s comments and correspondence dur ing the composi t ion of the Th i rd Symphony: h i s seeming i d e n t i t y wi th the fo rces of n a t u r e ; h is emphasis that the music i_s n a t u r e . W i l l i a m McGrath has po inted out an i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l between the program and the time element of the c o m p o s i t i o n . A f t e r 95 w r i t i n g the l a s t f i v e movements i n 1895, Mahler had to postpone the w r i t i n g of the f i r s t movement u n t i l 189,6. Thus, the c r e a t i v e force of summer t r u l y d id blossom from the drudgery of the winter opera season. "The co inc idence of h i s own exper ience as .an a r t i s t wi th the sub jec t of a r t was c o m p l e t e . " 6 Added to t h i s , was the important r o l e played by the Greek god Pan in t h i s movement. The p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the a b s t r a c t concept of the a r r i v a l of summer in the form of t h i s musical nature -god may wel l have been the e s s e n t i a l step in the process by which Mahler so d r a m a t i c a l l y came to i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f with the sub ject of h i s c o m p o s i t i o n . ' The re ference to the m i l i t a r y band, found in N a t a l i e ' s reminiscences of 1895, i s c e r t a i n l y borne out i n the f i n a l ve rs ion of the mus ic . The "grotesque" aspect was a l s o r e t a i n e d - - i n the movement's l e n g t h , i t s sheer volume of sound, and in the ra ther t r i v i a l and common march m a t e r i a l . There i s , however, one important d i f f e r e n c e between the 1895 d e s c r i p t i o n and the actua l music . I t i s amusing to th ink that Mahler o r i g i n a l l y planned t h i s movement—the longest he ever wrote — as a mere i n t r o d u c t i o n ! As i t turned o u t , he l a t e r decided to d i v i d e the movement in to an i n t r o d u c t i o n and a f i r s t movement proper . At one p o i n t , in June 1896, the i n t r o d u c t i o n even had a separate t i t l e : "What the Rocks and p Mountains T e l l Me." Cardus coined the term (Jrmusik (pr imeval or p r i m i t i v e music) to d e s c r i b e the i n t r o d u c t i o n . Th is i s an apt t i t l e in two ways. As i s the case wi th most Mahler themes, the opening motive generates a great deal of other m a t e r i a l . 96 The t i t l e a l s o f i t s the program, s ince the i n t r o d u c t i o n represents the e a r l i e s t , most p r i m i t i v e stage of e v o l u t i o n in Mah le r ' s h i e r a r c h y . Mahler r e f e r r e d to the opening horn c a l l as " R e v e i l l e ! " , a l o g i c a l t i t l e for a f a n f a r e - l i k e passage and, played i n unison by e ight French horns , i t must have c e r t a i n l y had an "awakening" e f f e c t on the aud iences . Rewl in c la ims that t h i s melody and Bruder Mar t in are the only ac tua l popular melodies which can be t raced i n Mah le r ' s symphonies, even though the Q f o l k l o r i s t i c element pervades h is works. There a r e , however, d i f f e r i n g op in ions as to the exact o r i g i n of t h i s melody. Several authors have t raced the o r i g i n of the i n i t i a l opening march theme to other wel l -known m e l o d i e s ; Krenek to an A u s t r i a n school march, others to the s tudents ' song "Wir hat ten gebaut  e in s t a t t l i c h e s Haus" , used by Brahms i n h is Academic Over tu re , whi le i t s resemblances to the twin melodies of the f i n a l e s of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony and Brahm's Fi rs t are more obvious s t i l l . 1 0 A c lose r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between Mahle r ' s comments on the i n t r o d u c t i o n , found in paragraph one of Document 2 7 , and the actua l music . The "brooding summer midday heat" and "suspended l i f e " are depic ted by the prolonged chords , themselves almost suspended in t i m e , which begin three measures 11 before F i g . 1 , immediately f o l l o w i n g the opening horn c a l l . Zur i ickhal tend ( h o l d i n g back) and molto r i t e n . are the i n s t r u c t i o n s . The drawn-out phrases are accentuated by the myster ious sound of the ve ry , Nvery low notes i n the horn and the 0>p markings three before 1 . The t r e m b l i n g and v i b r a t i n g "sun-drenched a i r " i s represented by the t r i l l f i g u r e i n the 97 bassoon, which f i r s t appears i n the second measure of F i g . 2 . I t becomes an important motive i n the. movement, e s p e c i a l l y i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n . (These remarks about the heat and s t i l l n e s s are somewhat c u r i o u s , s i n c e summer t h e o r e t i c a l l y has not yet even a r r i v e d . ) The "moans of the youth" i s obv ious l y the c l a r i n e t and o b o e . f i g u r e i n the four th measure, of F i g . 2 . The rap id upward crescendo ( p p < d f and i t s inverse are f r e q u e n t l y used by Mahler in the i n t r o d u c t i o n ) , the c lose t h i r d s of the harmony, and the combinat ion of the tones of these inst ruments c e r t a i n l y produce a very s t r i d e n t sound. The f i g u r e i s echoed by the horns in the e ighth measure of F i g . 2 and, as the commentary so c a r e f u l l y s t a t e s , i t re turns p e r i o d i c a l l y . The trumpet (m. 5 of F i g . 2) and c e l l o ( F i g . 3 ) , which a l t e r n a t e on s i m i l a r motives a l l through t h i s passage, are most probably " r i g i d n a t u r e " . The youth "breaks through" in the n i n t h measure of F i g . 4 , but h is motive has not triumphed y e t , fo r the c e l l o and trumpet cont inue very p r o m i n e n t l y . Between F i g . 7 and F i g . 8 , the "youth" s inks back i n t o the depths . The downward decrescendos of an octave and a h a l f , the reverse of the concept presented in the oboe and c l a r i n e t f i g u r e , are extremely e f f e c t i v e . The horn motive i s s t rong once more at F i g . 8 , and the trumpet and horn motives are combined at F i g , 9. However, the trumpet motive, i s sho r te r than b e f o r e . It s t a r t s three t i m e s , but i s never completed and i t f i n a l l y d isappears c o m p l e t e l y . The ' youth" motive tr iumphs at F i g . 10 (the second part of the horn theme), and march rhythms in the percuss ion br ing us up to F i g . 11 . 98 The type of s p e c i f i c a n a l y s i s which I have j u s t completed i s most c e r t a i n l y e x a c t l y what Mahler wished to a v o i d . Why, t h e n , did he leave us the " c l u e s " ? The r e s u l t of f o l l o w i n g h is d e t a i l e d program i s almost too r i d i c u l o u s . I cannot help wondering i f he was being f a c e t i o u s when he spoke to N a t a l i e . o f t h i s passage. A f t e r a l l , N a t a l i e was ra ther naive in her devoted admira t ion of Mahler and would have r e l i g i o u s l y copied down every th ing he s a i d , without n e c e s s a r i l y ques t ion ing the c o n t e n t s . Mahler may have been en joy ing a p r i v a t e j o k e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , l e t us proceed with t h i s programmatic a n a l y s i s of the f i r s t movement. It i s d i f f i c u l t to determine at what po int Mahler o r i g i n a l l y intended the i n t r o d u c t i o n to end and the movement proper to beg in . F i g . 11 i s one p l a u s i b l e p l a c e . The new m a t e r i a l i s of a r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r . The woodwinds and s t r i n g s , ra ther than the b r a s s , come to the f o r e ; high rather than low sounds predominate; "nature sounds" f i r s t appear in the form of tremolos and t r i l l s . Mahler l a b e l l e d t h i s s e c t i o n "Pan s l e e p s " . Indeed, we can imagine Pan awakening from a long w i n t e r ' s s l e e p , accompanied by a l o v e l y melody in major , marked f l i e s s e n d ( f l o w i n g ) . Since t h i s i s . P a n ' s f i r s t appearance i n the movement, i t i s a good spot at which to d i g r e s s and d i scuss the r o l e of t h i s god, .and the god Dionysus , i n . t h e Th i rd Symphony. In paragraph two of Document 2 7 , Mahler mentions changing the f i g u r e of•Dionysus—he had cons idered us ing the s p i r i t of Dionysus in l a t e r summer, 1895 ( footnote to Document 2 4 ) — t o 99 Pan, but he never complete ly separates the two gods. Gar tenberg , a n d . o t h e r s , f e e l that the change i s s i g n i f i c a n t . In t h i s connect ion M a h l e r ' s d e c i s i o n to s u b t l y change the f i g u r e of Dionysos to that of Pan i s s i g n i f i c a n t . Although there i s a measure of i n t e r c h a n g e a b i 1 i t y between the two gods, the more s p i r i t u a l lack, of i n h i b i t i o n of Dionysos gives way to the r e a l i s t i c courseness of Pan, and the s h i f t i s d e c i s i v e — at l e a s t i n terms of understanding Mah le r ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . . . .The f i g u r e of Pan i s markedly present i n the f i r s t movement in h i s many g u i s e s : the god of mus ic , the god of pas to ra l poets , the god of f e r t i l i t y , the god of the f o r e s t . I ts prominence in the por t ion "Summer marches i n " points up the importance of that season in Mah le r ' s l i f e ; for summer was for him the time of c r e a t i o n , to which he l o n g i n g l y looked forward throughout the w i n t e r . 2 Pan, who i s g e n e r a l l y p i c t u r e d as h a l f man and h a l f goat , was f i r s t worshipped as a p a s t o r a l god, and the god of f l o c k s , shepherds and f e r t i l i t y , but he l a t e r became the god of a l l na tu re . He was a r u s t i c god, a l ove r of woods, caves , mountains, and other l o n e l y p l a c e s . (I f i n d i t i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t i n the f i f t h measure of F i g . 1 1 , where the c l a r i n e t s repeat the f l u t e chords , . Mahler" has marked the word "echo" . Pan's cave , perhaps?) He l i k e d to hunt , f i s h , dance with the mountain nymphs, and lead the sa ty r s i n t h e i r r e v e l s . He loved music , invented the shepherd's p i p e , and considered h i m s e l f to be a f i n e p l a y e r . In one legend , Pan was s a i d to have become a f a v o u r i t e of the gods on Olympus, e s p e c i a l l y of Dionysus , and he boasted that he was a l o v e r of D ionysus 's maenads dur ing t h e i r w i l d mountain- top o r g i e s . Perhaps important from the s tandpoint of c r e a t i v i t y , was the fac t that Pan possessed the power of i n s p i r a t i o n , and prophecy, and he 100 was s a i d to have i n s t r u c t e d Apo l lo i n the l a t t e r a r t . Two other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Pan seem to have d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d Mahler . Pan s l e p t at noon, and the Greeks b e l i e v e d that he would be very angry i f d i s t u r b e d . McGrath po ints out the s i g n i f i c a n c e , in t h i s r e s p e c t , of the change of the o v e r a l l t i t l e from "A Summer N i g h t ' s Dream" (Document 2 3 ] , to "A Summer Morning 's Dream" (Document 2 5 ) , to "A Summer Noon's i 3 Dream" (Document 2 8 ) . Pan was a l s o prone to making unexpected appearances, and could induce sudden t e r r o r ( "pan ic " ) in to men without reasonable cause. One cannot help but th ink of the many d e s c r i p t i o n s of Mahler , "the man possessed . " 1 4 One amusing anecdote demonstrates how much Mahler was caught up in the whole mythology a s p e c t . Just a f t e r he had decided to c a l l the work " P a n " , he rece i ved a l e t t e r from Anna von Mi ldenburg . He looked at the postmark and, to his s u r p r i s e , saw the three l e t t e r s P. A. N. Only af terwards did he decipher them as Post Amt Nr. 30 (he c la imed he d id not see the "30" underneath at f i r s t g l a n c e ) . 1 5 Dionysus , or Bacchus, although worshipped p r i m a r i l y as the god of w ine , as a l so a god of the e a r t h , and a god of f e r t i l i t y and v e g e t a t i o n . Pan was a m u s i c - l o v e r and Dionysus, t o o , was a s s o c i a t e d w i th the a r t s . The d i thy ramb, the form used by p o e t s , was apparent ly invented i n h is honour, and music ians were f reed from paying taxes on h i s account . L ike Pan, he could e i t h e r be merry and g e n t l e , or powerful and r u t h l e s s . 101 It i s t rue that Pan was a more l o g i c a l choice as the s p i r i t u a l generator of the Th i rd Symphony, but Dionysus i s never t o t a l l y i g n o r e d . In h is August 6 l e t t e r to Marschalk. , Mahler c a l l s the i n t r o d u c t i o n "Pan awakes" and the march "Bacchanal ian c o r t e g e " . In h i s November 18 l e t t e r to B a t k a , he speaks of the two gods i n the same b r e a t h . McGrath sees Pan's i n f l u e n c e as dominating the e n t i r e symphony. Note that he, t o o , combines Dionysian and Panic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s in h i s desc r i p t i on . I t i s c l e a r , t h e n , that the two parts of the symphony are intended to present the two d i f f e r e n t phases of Pan's e x p e r i e n c e . In the f i r s t , Pan's awakening symbolizes the newly born l i f e - w i l l s t r u g g l i n g in to ex i s tence aga inst the forces of l i f e l e s s n a t u r e , and t h i s i s then fo l lowed by a Bacchic v i c t o r y p r o c e s s i o n . In the second s e c t i o n the music communicates Pan's midday dream, i n s p i r e d by the Dionysian i n t o x i c a t i o n of the p r o c e s s i o n . 5 Mahle r ' s excurs ion i n t o Greek, mythology d id not end wi th Pan and Dionysus. In the autumn of 1896, when he had returned to Hamburg, he played the opening movement to N a t a l i e . He s t a t e d : Zeus overthrowing Kronos, the s u p e r i o r form c a s t i n g down the i n f e r i o r - - t h a t i s what i s expressed . i n t h i s movement. I see more and more that my concept ion of nature here i s b a s i c a l l y G r e e k . 1 7 At F i g . 11 we are in t roduced to Pan and h is mot i ves , but i t i s not yet time for him to awake. Mahler l a b e l l e d F i g . 1Z "The H e r a l d " , and he must mean the c l a r i n e t s . This i s another of h i s l i t t l e j o k e s , fo r the trumpet would be the most obvious c h o i c e . f o r the h e r a l d . A f t e r another percuss ion 102 t r a n s i t i o n , the tempo slows down and the music re turns to the s t y l e of the i n t r o d u c t i o n . The bassoon motive from F i g . 2 reappears but the trombone melody i s new. L ike the opening f a n f a r e , t h i s melody has a minor/major f e e l . It o f t e n centres around F and A , the notes common to both, chords . The a l t e r n a t i o n of progress and regression, i s a constant theme in t h i s movement, for the f i n a l v i c t o r y cannot take place u n t i l the end. Mahler descr ibed t h i s e f f e c t to Anna in a l e t t e r of Ju ly 6 , 189 6. Summer i s marching i n , and i t s ings and r ings in a way that you cannot even imagine' Everywhere, every th ing s t a r t s to grow, and then a g a i n , dur ing a pause, there are m y s t e r i o u s , sor rowfu l sounds; inanimate n a t u r e , mot ion less and s i l e n t , i s awa i t ing the advent of l i f e . It i s imposs ib le to descr ibe t h i s in words. . . l 8 The trombone a p t l y dep ic t s the sor rowfu l sound of inanimate natu re . At F i g . 1 7 , the trumpet f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t i n g r i g i d nature ( F i g . 2 , m. 5) appears once more, but again i t i s never completed, and we are led back to the previous tempo and the Pan motives at F i g . 18. The t r i l l s , the l o v e l y f l ow ing melody (which appears in the c e l l o s and basses before i t re turns in the oboe) , and the hera ld (two measures before F i g . 19 , us ing trumpets and c l a r i n e t s t h i s time) are now a l l deve loped. T h i s , t h e n , i s Pan's awakening. The p i c c o l o f i g u r e a f t e r F i g . 20 i s to be played as i f from a great d i s t a n c e , and 'w i thout keeping e x a c t l y to the b e a t . " This i n t e n s i f i e s i t s "nature" c h a r a c t e r , ra ther than i t s s t r i c t l y musical one. The under l y ing rhythm and melody of "Pan 's P r o c e s s i o n " (or the Bacchus March, i f one p r e f e r s ) begins at F i g . 2 0 , and 103 i t very g r a d u a l l y begins to gather s t rength and momentum at F i g . 2 1 . The horn melody from the opening returns at F i g . 2 3 , but with a much gayer and more p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r . Even the .trumpet fanfares at F i g . 24 — c o n t i n u a l l y r i s i n g and u p l i f t i n g -are of a very d i f f e r e n t type from those used i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n . A l l the "Pan" motives are. combined and reworked in t h i s march. At F i g . 27 there i s an important change of key to D major (as Newlin po ints o u t , the major/minor dual ism i s an important aspect of the thematic c o n f l i c t 1 ^ ) , and a c l imax i s reached in the t w e l f t h measure of F i g . 28. An i n t e n s i f i e d use of woodwind t r i l l s , e s p e c i a l l y those i n the ten th and e leventh measures of F i g . 2 8 , help accentuate the d r i v i n g 20 energy dur ing the c l i m a c t i c b u i l d - u p . Immediately a f t e r the c l i m a x , Mahler wr i tes Zuri lckhal t e n , and at F i g . 29 we are back in D minor wi th the m a t e r i a l of the i n t r o d u c t i o n . The horn motive ( F i g . 4 , m.. 9) and the trumpet motive ( F i g . 2 , m. 5) are once again in c o n f l i c t and the trombone j o i n s in four measures before F i g . 32 (the downward leaps in the bass trombone are remin iscent of F i g . 7 ) , The trombone becomes more subdued at F i g . 33 and the la rge leap to the low note at F i g . 34 i s almost one of d e s p a i r . At t h i s po int the mournful E n g l i s h horn takes over the horn moti ve. The motives from Pan's awakening reappear f i v e measures before F i g . 3 5 , wi th the main melody in the so lo v i o l i n . A f t e r more "nature sounds" , the march s low ly begins a g a i n . Mahler l a b e l s F i g . 44 "The Mob", but the " h e r a l d " motive i s a c t u a l l y 104 the prominent one. Although the nature sounds are not l o s t c o m p l e t e l y , t h i s march music i s much more v i o l e n t , i n p repara t ion for the b a t t l e which b e g i n s , accord ing to Mah le r , at F i g . 4 9 . In the measure before F i g . 4 9 , the c l e a r l y s ta ted rhythm ) ) /").J in the bass drum and cymbals i s l i k e a s i g n a l fo r the b a t t l e to s t a r t . These, instruments cont inue to punctuate the b a t t l e ; . f o r example, from the f i f t h measure of F i g . 51 to the measure before F i g . 5 3 , and i t does not take much imag inat ion to turn t h e i r sounds in to gun s h o t s . (Cooke's d e s c r i p t i o n , the "subterranean rumblings of 21 percuss ion" comes to mind at t h i s p o i n t . ) The "southern storm" i s represented at F i g . 5 1 , obv ious l y in the v i o l i n s . This was apparent l y i n s p i r e d by a rea l event , fo r Mahler d iscussed i t with N a t a l i e (Document 2 7 ) . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that he emphasized the f e r t i l e q u a l i t i e s of the s torm, fo r of course Pan was a god of f e r t i l i t y . I f ee l tha t t h i s passage i s more e f f e c t i v e and meaningful when viewed in l i g h t of the storm and the b a t t l e . Otherwise , in s p i t e of the b r i l l i a n t m o t i v i c w r i t i n g , i t can be very no isy and c o n f u s i n g . The b a t t l e ends at F i g . 54 , wi th the c l a r i n e t s speaking the l a s t word. Once a g a i n , the percuss ion inst ruments prov ide the t r a n s i t i o n to the next s e c t i o n , beginning at F i g . 55. Here , the motives of the i n t r o d u c t i o n are r e c a p i t u l a t e d . Programmati cal 1 y , t h i s does not make a l o t of sense , fo r one. would expect summer to immediately emerge v i c t o r i o u s . At t h i s point musical l o g i c , ra ther than the program, must have been 105 uppermost in Mah le r ' s mind. The e n t i r e s e c t i o n i s ra ther c o m i c a l l y played o u t , remin iscent of an o p e r a t i c death scene. Beginning at F i g . 6 0 , the motives are e l o n g a t e d , s t r e t c h e d out , held back, and f i n a l l y die away c o m p l e t e l y . Natu re ' s i n e r t i a has been vanquished. At F i g . 62 there i s a long pause, then the Pan march begins to p ick i t s e l f up o f f the b a t t l e f i e l d (complete with pauses, which I fee l adds to the comedy!) and s low ly r e v i v e s . The opening horn motive becomes joyous once more, and eve ry th ing progresses happ i l y to the end of the movement. It would be i m p r a c t i c a l to t r e a t a l l the movements of the Th i rd Sjniiphony in such d e t a i l and, i ndeed , i t i s an examination of the f i r s t movement which y i e l d s the most i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s . Several contemporaneous views of the Blumenstuck wh ich , p rogrammat ica l l y s p e a k i n g , i s no more than 7 7 a piece of mood mus ic , can be found in the concert review por t ion of Chapter 5. However, the t h i r d movement, "What the beasts of the f o r e s t t e l l me," once more r e l i e s on. s p e c i f i c programmatic d e t a i l s . E rnst S c h u l z , the author of the anonymous "Memoirs of a Prague M u s i c i a n " [see Chapter . 3 ] , c la ims that t h i s movement i s an. evocat ion of V lass im Park , which lay between Schiemenen-s t rang and Benesov. Accord ing to h im, Mahler o f ten went there w i th Gustav Franck to v i s i t the l a t t e r ' s p a r e n t s . In the park were animals and b i r d s of every k ind that composed between them a " n a t u r a l symphony". As i n olden t i m e s , one could a lso hear the post horn of a coach on the nearby r o a d , as i n the Scherzo of the Th i rd Symphony. -106 La Grange seems to take these memoirs s e r i o u s l y , but I am a f r a i d that my e a r l i e r o p i n i o n on t h e i r t r u t h f u l n e s s s t i l l stands . This scherzo i s comparable to the scherzo of the Second Symphony, both in key (C minor] and because i t i s a l s o based on an animal song from the Wunderhorn c o l l e c t i o n . "Ablosung im Sommer" ("Replacement i n Summer"] r e l a t e s the s t o r y of the cuckoo who f e l l to h i s death on a green meadow. The other b i rds and animals begin to wonder who s h a l l e n t e r t a i n them a l l summer. They decide that the replacement would be Madame N i g h t i n g a l e , a dear , sweet b i r d who, always gay, s i t s on a green bough. When the cuckoo has stopped and a l l the 24 other b i rds are s i l e n t , the n i g h t i n g a l e begins to s i n g . The connect ion between the program and the i m p l i e d song tex t i s more tenable here than in the case of the Second Symphony. B i rds do have a l o g i c a l p lace in a "beasts of the f o r e s t " movement, and i t gives Mahler a p e r f e c t oppor tun i t y to inc lude more nature sounds in h is nature symphony. The movement i s a scherzo , but has a complex f o r m - -2 5 ABACABCA—which i s r e a l l y more ak in to a rondo, Gartenberg says that t h i s movement, i n i t s d e p i c t i o n of the " r u s t l i n g and murmuring of the f o r e s t , " represents tone p a i n t i n g at i t s bes t . The v i o l i n f i g u r a t i o n s , beginning at F i g . 2 , do f u n c t i o n as appropr ia te background noises fo r the b i r d c a l l s . The songs of the cuckoo and the n i g h t i n g a l e are l i f t e d from the corresponding por t ions of the song s e t t i n g . As i n the F i r s t Symphony, the cuckoo c a l l i s s t y l i z e d , and i n both works 107 Mahler presents i t f i r s t in the c l a r i n e t . The b a s i c c a l l , which f i r s t appears i n measure t h r e e , .is r e a l l y an e laborated descending f o u r t h , and the d i v i d e d second v i o l i n s emphasize t h i s f o u r t h . As e a r l y as measure s i x and measure e i g h t , t h i s bas ic c a l l i s a l t e r e d , and i t i s c o n s t a n t l y t ransformed in 2.7 the course of the movement. The n i g h t i n g a l e ' s motive f i r s t appears in the oboe in F i g . 2 , measure f o u r , and i t i s taken over four measures l a t e r by the c l a r i n e t . As might be expec ted , i t i s more melodic than the cuckoo mot i ve . In the t r a n s i t i o n to the B s e c t i o n , at F i g . 3 , measure t e n , we f i n d the bray of the donkey. As La Grange po in ts o u t , t h i s i s taken from the song "Lob des hohen Verstandes" , 28 mentioned in footnote 24. The "bray" i s found in measure e ighty - two of the song. The B s e c t i o n , in 8 , i s new m a t e r i a l , not from any song. It cont inues the prev ious " r u s t l i n g " mood, and t r i l l s seem to dominate. It reminds Cooke of young animals at p l a y , " a thought which c e r t a i n l y c o i n c i d e s with the program, but i t i s perhaps the l e a s t 3 0 i n s p i r e d p o r t i o n of the movement. The re tu rn of the A s e c t i o n at F i g . 6 develops the cuckoo and n i g h t i n g a l e mot ives . The f i r s t i n k l i n g of the pos thorn ' appears in the trumpet in the four th measure before F i g . 12. It recurs p e r i o d i c a l l y u n t i l F i g . 14 , when the posthorn solo proper b e g i n s , but i t never t o t a l l y i n t e r r u p t s the b i r d mot ives . However, the b i r d c a l l s do become sparser beginning at F i g . 1 3 , measure f i v e , and they d isappear completely whi le the posthorn p l a y s . 108 The posthorn solo lends i t s e l f we l l to programmatic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Accord ing to La Grange, Mahler at one t ime admitted " that he had meant to suggest the i d y l l i c l i f e of the animals of the f o r e s t and the panic that se i zes them at man's approach. 1 h This i s c e r t a i n l y a p o s s i b i l i t y , a l though La Grange r i g h t l y po in ts out that the posthorn i s "hard to f i t in to t h i s program, for t h i s e s s e n t i a l l y human sound seems to c reate no panic whatsoever among the a n i m a l s , but ra ther a mood of happy n o s t a l g i a . " This b e a u t i f u l and sent imenta l so lo i s for me, and many other commentators, the h i g h l i g h t of the movement. Kennedy s ta tes that the ' m o o d - p a i n t e r ' s magic takes over" at t h i s 33 p o i n t , and Cooke f e e l s i t "evokes a l l the heat and romantic 34 atmosphere of the A u s t r i a n summer." This view i s remin iscent of M a h l e r ' s own comments on the f i r s t movement: "not a breath s t i r s , a l l l i f e i s suspended" (Document 2 7 ) . A very l o n g , drawn-out melody i s accompanied for twenty -n ine 3 5 measures by only high chords in the v i o l i n . Mahler may have had some ch i ldhood memory such as a m i l i t a r y bugle in mind when he composed the s o l o . Kennedy suggests that i t could be the "Youth 's Magic Horn i t s e l f . " 3 6 I f i n d t h i s f a n c i f u l idea a t t r a c t i v e . It s u i t s the r o m a n t i c , d i s t a n t , and d r e a m - l i k e q u a l i t i e s of the mus ic , and p o s s i b l y sums up M a h l e r ' s mood dur ing his Wunderhorn p e r i o d . The use of the f l u g e l h o r n ra ther than the trumpet i s important i n c r e a t i n g the proper mood, and Mahler apparent ly thought he 3 7 would have t r o u b l e in f i n d i n g such an i n s t r u m e n t . The solo 109 reminds me of the many symphonies w r i t t e n dur ing the c l a s s i c a l and romantic per iods in which horns were employed i n the t r i o to add to the " r u s t i c " , peasant q u a l i t y of the minuet or scherzo . Beethoven's Th i rd Symphony i s a prime example. I th ink Mahler uses t h i s same p r i n c i p l e h e r e , but on a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d l e v e l . One l a s t , but d e f i n i t e l y not l e a s t , aspect of the posthorn so lo i s that i t shows Mah le r ' s t h e a t r i c a l tendencies emerging once a g a i n . At F i g . 14 he w r i t e s , "Wie aus we i te r Feme" (as i f from a great d i s t a n c e ) ; at F i g . 1 5 , measure e i g h t , "Wie aus der Feme" Cas i f from a d i s t a n c e ) ; at F i g . 1 5 , measure n i n e , " s i c h etwas hahernd" (approaching) ; and at F i g . 16 , measure t h i r t y - t w o , " s i c h ent fernend" ( r e c e d i n g ) . This produces a three dimensional e f f e c t , and emphasizes the programmatic concept of a stagecoach pass ing by. The m a t e r i a l of the A s e c t i o n appears at F i g . 16 fo r a b r i e f twelve measure episode before the posthorn r e t u r n s . The "an imals" are s t i l l very gay at t h i s p o i n t . At F i g . 1 8 , the A s e c t i o n proper r e t u r n s . At F i g . 2.3, marked " r o u g h " , the n i g h t i n g a l e motive i s played f f f by s i x hornsl By F i g . 2 5 , the music has become very c h a o t i c , and t r u l y does sound l i k e animals s c u r r y i n g away. This obv ious l y must be the s e c t i o n where the animals become f r i g h t e n e d . In the t h i r d measure of F i g . 26 , the trumpet s i g n a l s another a r r i v a l of the posthorn s o l o . The b i r d noises i n the f l u t e s , p i c c o l o s and c l a r i n e t s , again marked to be played not e x a c t l y on the b e a t , and the descending chromatic f i g u r e in the v i o l i n s , give the 110 impression that the b i r d s have l e f t i n a f l u r r y , l e a v i n g the coast c l e a r for "man". It i s i r o n i c that a f t e r the animals have l e f t , the v i o l i n repeat ing the posthorn solo produces the most peaceful and gent le sound that one could ask f o r i At F i g . 30 , when the stagecoach has d e p a r t e d , the animals r e t u r n . The A mater ia l begins s o f t l y and, with the cuckoo motive p redominat ing , b u i l d s up q u i c k l y to a cry of despa i r on an Eb minor chord at F i g . 3 1 . Mahler t a l k e d about the re turn to a s ta te of i n e r t i a at the end of the animal movement (Document 2 7 ) , and t h i s i s s u r e l y the s p o t . Although there i s no d i r e c t thematic l i n k with the f i r s t movement, the low brass ent ry i n measure f i v e of F i g . 3 1 , which develops in to a drawn-out f a n f a r e , i s r e m i n i s c e n t . Cooke w r i t e s : "Near the end, a f i e r c e o u t b u r s t . o n an E f l a t minor chord seems to 3 8 tea r a v e i l as ide r e v e a l i n g the great god Pan h i m s e l f . " Is t h i s perhaps Pan b r i e f l y awakening from his midday nap? The f a n f a r e s , s i g n i f y i n g "man" cont inue u n t i l the end of the movement and the b i r d s are a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o the f a n f a r e s . At 3 9 F i g . 3 3 , a t r i p l e t fan fa re motive and the. n i g h t i n g a l e motive are combined i n t o one f i g u r e . -CHAPTER 7 MAHLER AND NIETZSCHE No commentary on t h e Th i rd Symphony w o u l d be complete without a d i s c u s s i o n of the connect ions between the w r i t i n g s of F r i e d r i c h N ie tzsche and Mah le r ' s mus ic . N ie t zsche i s represented in the program of the Th i rd i n two obvious ways: the t i t l e of one of h is works , Die f r B h l i c h e W i s s e n s c h a f t , was at one time a lso the t i t l e of the symphony (from mid-summer 1895 u n t i l the end of June 1896) ; and a poem from Also Sprach Zarathust ra was used by Mahler as the tex t fo r the four th movement. Before I d i scuss each of these po ints in more d e t a i l , some background i n f o r m a t i o n i s h e l p f u l . Cons ider ing the i n s t a b i l i t y of Mah le r ' s f e e l i n g s about most composers and w r i t e r s , i t should not come as any s u r p r i s e to l e a r n that h is a t t i t u d e towards N i e t z s c h e ' s w r i t i n g s was ambiguous. S i e g f r i e d L i p i n e r , a great admirer of N i e t z s c h e , encouraged Mahler t o read.some of the p h i l o s o p h e r ' s works dur ing t h e i r student days t o g e t h e r , N i e t z s c h e ' s books were not e s p e c i a l l y popular at t h i s t i m e , but Mahler appears to have reacted f a v o u r a b l y . 1 La Grange po in ts out that s ince Mahler was always an avowed Wagnerian, he must have been shocked when N ietzsche broke o f f r e l a t i o n s wi th Wagner and began to a t tack him. We do not know fo r c e r t a i n what Mahler 111 112 thought of N ie tzsche in 1895 and 1896 when he was composing the Th i rd Symphony. McGrath r e f e r s to passages i n h i s l e t t e r s of the e a r l y 1890s ' which i n d i c a t e an i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm for the w r i t e r . Un l ike other por t ions of the symphony, Mahler did not t a l k much about the fou r th movement to h is f r i e n d s - - p e r h a p s he f e l t that the t e x t i t s e l f was s e l f -e x p l a n a t o r y . As for the Nietzschean t i t l e , the few comments which he d id make can hard ly be considered e n l i g h t e n i n g , because they i n d i c a t e n e i t h e r why the t i t l e was chosen nor i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e . It i s important to r e a l i z e that the w r i t i n g s of N ietzsche were d e f i n i e l y in vogue by the 1890s. Richard Strauss was g rapp l ing with Nietzschean phi losophy i n h is tone poem A lso Sprach Z a r a t h u s t r a at the same time as Mahler was composing the Th i rd Symphony. The p u b l i c ' s knowledge of N ietzsche dur ing t h i s per iod was based on a f a l s e legend created p a r t i a l l y by the p h i l o s o p h e r ' s s i s t e r and p a r t i a l l y by a rather cur ious w r i t e r named J u l i u s Langbehn. P r i o r to the 1890s, N ie tzsche had very few r e a d e r s . In f a c t , he o f ten used his own funds to pub l i sh h is books. Alma wrote tha t in 1901 Mahler wished her to burn her complete set of N i e t z s c h e ' s w r i t i n g s . Her set was probably the one " rear ranged" and publ ished by the s i s t e r ; the f a c t that she owned i n at a l l t e s t i f i e s to the p o p u l a r i t y of the f a d . Mah le r ' s extreme change i n a t t i t u d e could p o s s i b l y have been a r e s u l t of the nature of the Nietzschean propoganda being c i r c u l a t e d at t h i s time ( e . g . , N ie tzsche was port rayed as an a n t i - s e m i t e , a 113 phi losophy to which he was a c t u a l l y v i o l e n t l y opposed) . La Grange has w r i t t e n a good o v e r a l l a p p r a i s a l of the connect ions between the Nietzschean and Mahler ian works (Document 3 2 ) . However, the sub jec t i s more f a s c i n a t i n g and complex than one would at f i r s t imag ine , and requ i res a more d e t a i l e d examinat ion than that which La Grange was able to provide in h is general s tudy . For the bulk, of my i n f o r m a t i o n on N ietzsche I am indebted to the e x c e l l e n t t r a n s l a t i o n s and commentaries by Walter ICaufmann, a noted N ie tzsche s c h o l a r . I s h a l l f i r s t d iscuss the N ietzsche t i t l e which Mahler borrowed. Kaufmann dwel ls at length on the symbolism of the t i t l e in the i n t r o d u c t i o n to h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of the book. His comments are very i l l u m i n a t i n g and, I t h i n k , have a bear ing on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Mah le r ' s Th i rd Symphony. The work i s t i t l e d Die f r 'oh l iche Wissenschaft and s u b t i t l e d " l a gaya s c i e n z a " . Kaufmann emphasizes that the t i t l e should d e f i n i t e l y be t r a n s l a t e d as The Gay S c i e n c e , ra ther than The Cheerful S c i e n c e , because the a d j e c t i v e " f r o h l i c h " has subt le c o n n o t a t i o n s . 4 "Gay s c i e n c e " , u n l i k e " c h e e r f u l s c i e n c e " , has overtones of a l i g h t - h e a r t e d def iance of c o n v e n t i o n ; i t suggests N i e t z s c h e ' s " immoral ism" and h is " r e v a l u a t i o n of v a l u e s . " The phrase " l i g h t - h e a r t e d def iance of convent ion" s t ruck me immediately as an e x c e l l e n t d e s c r i p t i o n of Mah le r ' s compos i t iona l s t y l e . From the s tandpo int of form, the Th i rd Symphony c e r t a i n l y represents a r e - t h i n k i n g and r e v a l u a t i o n of the normal convent ions , moreso than any other Mahler 114 symphony with perhaps the except ion of the E i g h t h . A v a r i e t y of moods, ranging from mockery and parody to utmost s e r i o u s n e s s , are present i n t h i s symphony. The " l i g h t -hearted" aspects are found e s p e c i a l l y . i n movements two, t h r e e , f i v e , and por t ions of one. It was e x a c t l y t h i s emphasis on the "gay" , t h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n of the t r i v i a l and the s e r i o u s , and the seeming d i s r e g a r d for the usual symphonic convent ions , that so annoyed Mah le r ' s c r i t i c s . Even the charge of " immoral ism" can be l a i d aga inst t h i s symphony. Mah le r ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l approach was u n u s u a l , to say the l e a s t : an e x u l t a t i o n of pantheism (which would have s u i t e d N i e t z s c h e ' s b e l i e f s ) and a t r i b u t e to God and love (which i s not at a l l Nietzschean) combined in the same work. To many of Mah le r ' s contemporar ies , t h i s was a s t a r t l i n g , and even s h o c k i n g , i d e a . Kaufmann cont inues with f u r t h e r exp lanat ions of the t i t l e , i n c l u d i n g the o r i g i n s of the te rm. The passage (Document 33) i s ra ther l o n g , but does provide i n t e r e s t i n g r e a d i n g . He s t r e s s e s the point that "Wissenschaf t " i s any s c h o l a r l y p u r s u i t undertaken i n a l o g i c a l or s c i e n t i f i c manner. The d i r e c t t r a n s l a t i o n of " s c i e n c e " i s m i s l e a d i n g for E n g l i s h speaking people . Mah le r ' s quest in the case of the Th i rd .Symphony was h is usual theme- - the whole problem of human ex i s tence (and N i e t z s c h e , as a p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h i n k e r , was always concerned with t h i s as w e l l ) . The fac t that t h i s type of quest does not need to be "s todgy , heavy, or dusty" would d e f i n i t e l y f i t i n w i th Mah le r ' s t h i n k i n g . What does not f i t i s the ant i -German o u t l o o k . N ie tzsche could not abide 115 Wagner's obsess ion with th ings German, and h i s a t t i t u d e n a t u r a l l y c o n t r i b u t e d to the s p l i t between the two men. There i s no evidence that Mahler was ever a n t i - G e r m a n , nor that he was f a n a t i c a l l y pro-German, as Wagner was. His admi ra t ion fo r Wagner and Beethoven never wavered and, though h i s views of other composers were always chang ing , the general impression i s one of open-mindedness. Whether or not Mahler was aware of the troubadour o r i g i n of the s u b t i t l e i s pure c o n j e c t u r e . He could not have read the comments in Ecce Homo, s ince the book was s t i l l u n p u b l i s h e d , and i t i s h igh l y u n l i k e l y that the l e t t e r which Nietzsche wrote to his f r i e n d (see Kaufmann's footnote in Document 33) would have been a v a i l a b l e to him. At a l l e v e n t s , s ince he was wel l r e a d , he could have known t h i s from other sources . L ike a l l romant i cs , Mahler f e l t a k i n s h i p w i th the medieval world of s i n g e r s , poe ts , and k n i g h t s , a l though t h i s i s more obvious in h is youth fu l w o r k s - - t h e two u n f i n i s h e d operas , Das klagende L i e d , Der Trompeter von S a k k i n g e n - - t h a n in the Th i rd Symphony. N ietzsche wrote poems remin iscent of troubadour poetry (as did Mahler i n h is youth) and these "Songs of P r ince V o g e l f r e i " were added as an Appendix to the n 6 second e d i t i o n of Die f r o h l i c h e W i s s e n s c h a f t , N ie tzsche s t a t e s in the preface to the second e d i t i o n that these are "songs i n which a poet makes fun of a l l poets in a way that may be hard to f o r g i v e . " 7 Sarcasm and parody are very ev ident and, as the t i t l e may i n d i c a t e , the mention of b i rds i s f requent . The Wunderhorn anthology i s i n the same 116 s p i r i t as the troubadour poet r y , and yet i s f u l l of the s i l l i n e s s , general nonsense, and mockery that are ha l lmarks of the N ietzsche poems. Only one vocal song from the anthology i s used in the Th i rd Symphony, but tunes from other songs are used (notably one about b i r d s ! ) , so that the " a r t of poetry" permeates the s p i r i t of the symphony i n the same way that i t does Die f r f l h l i c h e Wissenschaf t . N i e t z s c h e ' s preface to the second e d i t i o n revea ls f u r t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l s with Mahler . It b e g i n s : This book may need more than one p r e f a c e , and i n the end there would s t i l l remain room for doubt whether anyone who had never l i v e d through s i m i l a r exper iences could be brought c l o s e r to the exper ience of t h i s book by means of p r e f a c e s . I f one s u b s t i t u t e s "program" for " p r e f a c e " , t h i s statement could have been w r i t t e n by Mahler.. It i s remin iscent of h is constant comments on how he " l i v e d " each of h is symphonies; how no-one who had not known h i s l i f e could p o s s i b l y understand h is works; how each symphony grew out of the preceding one. By t h i s time he had a l ready wres t led with the programs for the F i r s t and Second symphonies, and was plagued with doubts regard ing t h e i r accuracy . N ie tzsche c o n t i n u e s : It seems to be w r i t t e n i n the language of the wind that thaws i c e and snow: high s p i r i t s , u n r e s t , c o n t r a d i c t i o n , and A p r i l weather are present i n i t , and one i s i n s t a n t l y reminded no less of the p rox imi ty of w inter than of the triumph over the winter that i s coming, must come, and perhaps has a l ready come. The p a r a l l e l here i s s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y . The phi losophy of the book i s the phi losophy of the symphony. Mahler , read ing t h i s , 117 must have been s t r u c k by the s i m i l a r i t i e s . The next quotat ion has a l e s s s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n to Mahler . N ietzsche descr ibes the mood i n which he wrote the book, and provides his: own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the t i t l e . "Gay S c i e n c e " : that s i g n i f i e s the s a t u r n a l i a of a s p i r i t who has p a t i e n t l y r e s i s t e d a t e r r i b l e , long pressure — p a t i e n t l y , s e v e r e l y , c o l d l y , wi thout s u b m i t t i n g , but a lso without hope—and who i s now a l l at once a t t r a c t e d by hope, the hope for h e a l t h , and the i n t o x i c a t i o n of conva lescence . [See La Grange's opening comments i n Document 3Z on N i e t z s c h e ' s s ta te of hea l th . ] Is i t any wonder that in the process much that i s unreasonable arid f o o l i s h comes to l i g h t , much p l a y f u l tenderness that i s l a v i s h e d even on problems that have a p r i c k l y hide and are not made to be caressed or en t i ced? This whole book i s noth ing but a b i t of merry-making a f t e r long p r i va t ion , and power fu l n e s s , the r e j o i c i n g of s t rength that i s r e t u r n i n g , of a reawakened f a i t h in a tomorrow and the day a f t e r tomorrow, of a sudden sense and a n t i c i p a t i o n of a f u t u r e , of impending adventures , of seas that are open a g a i n , of goals that are permit ted a g a i n , b e l i e v e d a g a i n . 0 In s p i t e of the amusing t w i s t s and turns w i t h i n the movements, the o v e r a l l concept ion of the Th i rd Symphony i s extremely se r ious and to c a l l i t "noth ing but a b i t of merry-making" would be t o t a l l y to miss the p o i n t . 1 1 However, some 1 p of the other, phrases are remin iscent of Mah le r ' s p h i l o s o p h y , the mood of hope i s c e r t a i n l y present i n the Th i rd ( i t i s o f ten sa id that of a l l the Mahler symphonies, only the S i x t h ends in t r a g e d y ) , and I fee l that the s p i r i t of r e j u v e n a t i o n expressed in t h i s passage i s ak in to what Mahler f e l t each time he was f ree from his o p e r a t i c d u t i e s and was able to compose once a g a i n . I f the two men and the two.works are so s i m i l a r i n 118 t h e i r o u t l o o k , why d id Mahler cons ider us ing the t i t l e only b r i e f l y ? The t i t l e d isappeared.wel1 before the movement headings , so i t was not s imply a d i s l i k e of programs i n general that led him to d i s c a r d i t . Perhaps he f e l t tha t the connect ions were too s u b t l e fo r the m a j o r i t y of the p u b l i c to comprehend, e s p e c i a l l y s ince Die f r o h l i c h e Wissenschaf t was never one of N i e t z s c h e ' s more popular works. As i n the case of T i t a n , he probably decided that keeping the t i t l e was not worth the exp lanat ions which i t would i n v o l v e - - e x p l a n a t i o n s that would most l i k e l y be f u t i l e . Then, there were elements of N i e t z s c h e ' s t h i n k i n g which Mahler could not p o s s i b l y have agreed w i t h : the ant i -German tendency and, more i m p o r t a n t l y , N i e t z s c h e ' s r e j e c t i o n of t h e . e t e r n a l quest for God. As has been. previous1y mentioned, Mahler may have begun to turn aga inst a l l th ings a s s o c i a t e d wi th the. w r i t e r because of the f a l s i f i e d N ie tzsche legend of the 1890s, but i f he was a l ready so r e p e l l e d , s u r e l y he would have removed the four th movement tex t as w e l l . S ince the Greek aspect of the Th i rd Symphony i s very important to i t s unders tand ing , N i e t z s c h e ' s thoughts on the god Dionysus prov ide us with f u r t h e r connect ions between the w r i t e r and the composer. N ie tzsche changed h i s views on Dionysus throughout h i s l i f e . E s p e c i a l l y in. l a t e r l i f e , he i d e n t i f i e d h i m s e l f wi th Dionysus and, i n c i d e n t l y , Cosima i 3 Wagner wi th Ar iadne and Wagner with Theseus. In h is e a r l i e r works, N ie t zsche was p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d 119 in the A p o l 1 o n i a n - D i o n y s i a n c o n f l i c t . This concept has been much d iscussed throughout h i s t o r y . The content ion i s that the g reatest per iods of.Greek, c u l t u r e (and no doubt other c u l t u r e s as we l l ) e x i s t e d when the two forces were in. b a l a n c e , and N ie tzsche f e l t that both fo rces were necessary fo r t rue a e s t h e t i c v a l u e . He d i scusses the problem in Die Geburt der  Tragodie aus dem Geiste der Musik (pub l i shed 1872) . Here, N ie tzsche s l i g h t l y favours Apo l lo and Dionysus becomes the "symbol of that drunken f renzy which threatens to destroy a l l forms and codes. The cease less s t r i v i n g which apparent l y d e f i e s a l l l i m i t a t i o n s ; the u l t i m a t e abandonment we sometimes f i n d in m u s i c . " ^ T h i s , I b e l i e v e , i s the Dionysus/Pan f i g u r e which Mahler represents in the f i r s t movement of the Th i rd Symphony (see Chapter 6 ) . N i e t z s c h e ' s l a t e r view of Dionysus i s qu i te d i f f e r e n t . Now he i s a god who i s a " s y n t h e s i s of the two forces 15 represented by Dionysus and Apo l lo in The B i r t h of Tragedy." He " represents passion cont ro l 1ed as opposed to the e x t i r p a t i o n of the passions which N ie tzsche more and more 1 ft assoc ia ted with C h r i s t i a n i t y . " The f i n a l l i n e of N i e t z s c h e ' s l a s t book concerns "Dionysus versus the C r u c i f i e d . " Mahler could not have known t h i s s tatement , of c o u r s e , s i n c e the book went u n p u b l i s h e d , but i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g in view of the fac t that the symphony touches on both the Greek and the r e l i g i o u s sent iments . A p o l l o , g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d wi th c a l m , harmony, and beauty, i s not among the gods which Mahler connected with the 120 Thi rd Symphony. However, i f Dionysus dominates the f i r s t movement, then A p o l l o dominates the l a s t , an i n s p i r e d , hymn-l i k e Adag io . (Mahler t o l d N a t a l i e that i n an Adagio , every th ing was reso lved in to peace and q u i e t . ) However, the l a s t movement i s much shor te r than the f i r s t , so that the A p o l l o n i a n elements in the work do not balance the Dionysian. ones. Perhaps t h i s i s why, o v e r a l l , many do not f i n d t h i s symphony whol ly s a t i s f y i n g as a work of a r t . Dionysus i s too p r o m i n e n t , 1 7 The f i n a l point to be d e a l t wi th i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n of N ietzsche and Mahler i s the r o l e of the poem from A lso Sprach  Z a r a t h u s t r a . Most books on Mahler note that he used the t i t l e of one book and a p o r t i o n of the tex t from another , but none mentions that the two works are connected. Die f r o h l i c h e wi ssenschaf t was w r i t t e n p a r t l y before and p a r t l y a f t e r A lso 1 8 Sprach Zarathust ra and the f i r s t e d i t i o n ended with Z a r a t h u s t r a 1 s Pro logue. Thus, i t was conce ivab le fo r Mahler to take a l i t t l e b i t from both b o o k s . 1 9 Mahler set a short poem from the t h i r d part of Also Sprach Z a r a t h u s t r a , from a s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d ''The Other 2 0 Dancing Song" . N i e t z s c h e ' s s o - c a l l e d theory of the "superman" i s h is most widely known and probably h i s most misunderstood p h i l o s o p h i c a l concept . I t makes i t s f i r s t important appearance i n t h i s work. Kaufmann c la ims that "overman" would be a more accurate and b e t t e r t r a n s l a t i o n . Z a r a t h u s t r a s a y s : "Man i s something tha t s h a l l be overcome." 121 One should aim to.overcome human shor tcomings , and anyone who achieves t h i s task i s an overman. 2 - 2 La Grange f e e l s that the poem i t s e l f i s the c l imax of A lso Sprach Z a r a t h u s t r a . I t s y n t h e s i z e s the ideas u n d e r l y i n g t h i s great work. The hero s ings of h is d i sgus t wi th contemporary man, h is f a i t h in. the fu tu re of the human r a c e , the hidden depths of the w o r l d , i t s deep woe, i t s joys t h a t are deeper s t i l l , and i t s long ing for e t e r n i t y . Rather than attempt the imposs ib le task of express ing p h i l o s o p h i c a l ideas in music a l o n e , Mahler r e s t r i c t e d h i m s e l f to a s p e c i f i c t e x t . Even t h e n , he used the poem to f i t in with h is own o v e r a l l c o n c e p t i o n , not N i e t z s c h e ' s . Mah le r ' s symphony ends by a f f i r m i n g r e l i g i o u s f a i t h , whereas N ie tzsche renounced God--two ideas which at f i r s t seem i r r e c o n c i l a b l e . This p a r t i c u l a r poem a c t u a l l y shows no t race of the o v e r m a n . 2 4 Z a r a t h u s t r a i s very human and depressed at t h i s p o i n t . He i s t a l k i n g to l i f e , who c la ims that he i s not f a i t h f u l to h e r , that he does not love her as much as he says he does, and that she knows he i s t h i n k i n g of l e a v i n g her soon by committ ing s u i c i d e . She then asks him to t h i n k c a r e f u l l y between the s t rokes one to twelve of the midnight chimes. Although the poem promises the joy of deep e t e r n i t y , N ie tzsche i n t e r p r e t e d the term not i n the C h r i s t i a n sense , but w i t h i n the context of " e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e " . This i s another of h is p h i l o s o p h i c a l concepts which makes i t s f i r s t important appearance i n Also Sprach Z a r a t h u s t r a . 2 5 The f i f t h movement leaves no doubt that Mahler i n t e r p r e t e d " e t e r n i t y " in the C h r i s t i a n sense. The morning b e l l s chime and a c h o i r 122 of angels s t a t e that heavenly joy was prepared for Peter by Jesus and for the b e a u t i f i c a t i o n of a l l . 2 5 The mood changes c o m p l e t e l y ; l i g h t symbo.l i c a l 1 y tr iumphs over darkness . There i s an i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l i n N i e t z s c h e . The midnight poem appears again at the end of Part IV of Also Sprach Z a r a t h u s t r a , j u s t before the f i n a l s e c t i o n when the sun r i s e s and Zara thus t ra sees the s igns fo r which he was t o l d to wait at the beginning of the book. Za ra thus t ra has r i p e n e d , my hour has come: t h i s i s mj^  morning, my_ day i s b r e a k i n g : r i s e now, r i s e , thou great noon! When composing the movement, Mahler must have been, i n f luenced by N i e t z s c h e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the midnight b e l l , an " o l d heavy, heavy g r o w l - b e l l that growls at n ight a l l the way up to your c a v e . " ^ . E s p e c i a l l y at the beginning of the movement, a l l the sounds are low: the c e l l o s and basses are given an o s t i n a t o which "growls" throughout the e n t i r e f i r s t s e c t i o n ( u n t i l F i g . 5 ) ; a l o t of horn and trombone i s used; and, of course , there i s the l o g i c a l choice of the a l t o v o i c e . The actua l b e l l i s played by the harp and i t , t o o , s t a r t s out very low, although Mahler l a t e r uses harp and v i o l i n harmonics, with a r e s u l t i n g high sound. N ie tzsche places a b e l l s t roke a f t e r each l i n e of the poem, but Mahler does not do t h i s . His b e l l appears more or l e s s at random. The low r e g i s t e r not only f i t s the d e s c r i p t i o n of the b e l l , but emphasizes the c e n t r a l word of the poem--deep. " T i e f " appears in seven out of the eleven l i n e s of the poem. The symbolism of n ight and darkness i n t h i s movement i s 123 mentioned by La Grange and B a r f o r d . Th is was a common theme dur ing the romantic per iod and the magical q u a l i t i e s of n ight are d iscussed by E i n s t e i n i n h i s study of the n ineteenth 2 9 c e n t u r y . He speaks of the " t o t a l immersion i n the unconscious" which n ight p r o v i d e s , an apt d e s c r i p t i o n of the phenomena which Zara thus t ra i s e x p e r i e n c i n g . Mahler even l a b e l s the movement " M i s t e r i o s o " . La Grange sums up: Midnight i s the deepest , the d a r k e s t , the most opaque hour , an hour of doubt, that i n which man comes c l o s e s t to disowning l i f e , and t h e r e f o r e c l o s e s t to ga in ing access to a higher form of e x i s t e n c e . 3 ( J I f the midnight poem can be cons idered the c l imax of A lso Sprach Z a r a t h u s t r a , so i t can b e . r e a d i l y argued that the b r i e f four th movement i s the t u r n i n g po int of Mah le r ' s symphony. "Man" may make h is f i r s t b r i e f appearance i n the posthorn so lo of the t h i r d movement, but he now comes to the f o r e . He i s the c r u c i a l l i n k between nature and love and, e v e n t u a l l y , God. Mahler has handled the t r a n s i t i o n a d m i r a b l y , as he has r e t a i n e d some nature sounds i n the movement. Since Zara thus t ra i s l i s t e n i n g to the b e l l s in a cave , these are l o g i c a l . The f i r s t , a r i s i n g minor t h i r d , "wie e in N a t u r l a u t " , appears in the oboe at F i g , 2 . This i s l a t e r expanded and recurs throughout the movement. The importance of t h i s movement i s s u b t l y s t ressed by l i n k i n g i t t h e m a t i c a l l y with the monumental f i r s t movement. (I f i n d i t i n t e r e s t i n g that both movements have "cave" symbol i sm- -Pan/Dionysus l : s cave in the f i r s t and Z a r a t h u s t r a ' s in the f o u r t h — a n d that these are the two movements c o n t a i n i n g Nietzschean e lements . ) Compare 124 the opening measure of the f o u r t h movement wi th Fi„g„ 1 of the f i r s t movement. The p l a i n t i v e f a l l i n g oboe passage at F i g . 6 i s d e f i n i t e l y remin iscent of p o r t i o n s of the mournful horn and trombone march themes i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to movement one. CONCLUSION The preceding d i s c u s s i o n and documentation has shown that Mahler cannot be ignored in a study of n i n e t e e n t h -century program music . However, h is a t t i t u d e towards the s t y l e d i f f e r e d fundamental ly from that of B e r l i o z , L i s z t , or S t r a u s s , the c h i e f exponants of program music dur ing the century . Although they a l so seemed aware of i t s l i m i t a t i o n s , they f r e q u e n t l y defended program m u s i c . 1 I t h i n k that they f i r m l y be l ieved in the l e g i t i m a c y of the s t y l e per s e , and f e l t comfortable us ing a w r i t t e n program in some form or o t h e r . Mah le r , on the other hand, never t r e a t e d program music as a s t y l e in i t s own r i g h t , and i t seems obvious that he always f e l t s l i g h t l y embarrassed p r o v i d i n g w r i t t e n programs for p u b l i c d i s t r i b u t i o n . This i s not to say that the programs he devised were not important to him. M i t c h e l l makes t h i s s tatement , when d i s c u s s i n g the Second Symphony. . . .but one fac t must s u r e l y dominate a l l o t h e r s : the importance fo r him s t i l l at t h i s stage of a coherent dramatic programme; f o r , as we have seen , without a v i a b l e programme, he was unable to complete the great work that he had begun. This shows without doubt how deeply invo l ved he was in the idea of the dramatic a s s o c i a t i o n between music and a developing programme, and how e s s e n t i a l i t i s not to over look h is f i r s t four symphonies when survey ing the f i e l d of the symphonic poem at -the end of the n ineteenth century . They represent a very s i g n i f i c a n t s t rand in the c u l m i n a t i o n of the new form fathered by L i s z t . 125 126 M a h l e r ' s concern wi th the matter of programs reached a d e f i n i t e peak. The programs for the F i r s t Symphony e x i s t i n one form or another from 1893 to 1900; those for the Second from 1895 to 1901. The Thi rd Symphony's program was more c o n c i s e , developed over the two year per iod of 1895 to 1896.. Other than the programs themselves , the f o l l o w i n g four l e t t e r s represent the most s i g n i f i c a n t personal documents by Mahler on the t o p i c of program mus ic . 1 . to Richard Batka February 1 8 , 1896 2. to Max Marschalk March 2 0 , 1896 3 . to Max Marschalk March 2 6 , 1896 4 . to Ar thur S e i d l February 17, 1897 The f i r s t three were w r i t t e n w i t h i n the space of a few weeks. On March 16, between the l e t t e r to Batka and those to Marscha lk , a concert was presented in B e r l i n which was p a r t i c u l a r l y important from a programmatic s t a n d p o i n t . The a l l - M a h l e r program c o n s i s t e d of the L ieder e ines fahrenden  Gesel 1 en , the F i r s t Symphony, and the f i r s t movement of the Second Symphony. The Gesel1 en songs e l u c i d a t e the emotional meaning of the F i r s t ( i t s w r i t t e n program was not u s e d ) , and t h i s was the only performance ati which the t i t l e " T o t e n f e i e r " for the f i r s t movement of the Second, r e p r e s e n t i n g the b u r i a l of the hero of the F i r s t , was a c t u a l l y p r i n t e d on a concert program. The e x t r a - m u s i c a l connect ions among these e a r l y works could not :have been more e x p l i c i t l y l a i d o u t . Moreover, t h i s concert and the w r i t i n g of the three l e t t e r s took place between the two summers of work on the composi t ion of the 127 Th i rd Symphony. The Th i rd without a doubt shows the most i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a program and the ac tua l mus ic , so the whole problem of programs must have been very much on M a h l e r ' s mind. I t i s no wonder that most of h is doubts and f l u c t u a t i n g op in ions date from t h i s per iod. . The peak "program p e r i o d " , t h e n , l a s t s from 1895, when the f i r s t programs for the Second Symphony appear ( a f t e r the e a r l y rough and awkward attempts at a program fo r the F i r s t ] , up to the S e i d l l e t t e r of 1897. The l a t e r programs for the F i r s t and Second Symphonies, as p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , were s imply c l a r i f i c a t i o n s of previous thoughts . There were severa l reasons which impe l led Mahler to stop us ing programs. When he embarked on a new s t y l e of composit ion in the e a r l y 1900s, he most l i k e l y regarded the o ld programs as outdated and no longer necessary . He would have had no qualms about removing programs which he had been persuaded to w r i t e in order to comply wi th the general end-o f - t h e - c e n t u r y f a s h i o n , and the programs which he had devised for h is personal use wh i le composing the works (as with the Th i rd Symphony) had long s ince served t h e i r purpose. His d e c i s i o n to c a l l h is works "symphony" was a lso a d e f i n i t e step towards abandonning the programs. The symphonic poem was s t i l l an acceptab le medium for program music at the tu rn of the c e n t u r y ; the symphony, l e s s so . A l s o , the harsh r e a c t i o n s of c r i t i c s would have caused Mahler to have, second thoughts on the s u b j e c t . He s imply could not win w i th the c r i t i c s . When he provided a program he was c r i t i c i z e d , 128 e i t h e r on p r i n c i p l e or because the w r i t e r f e l t the program did not f i t the mus ic ; i f he d id not prov ide a program, the c r i t i c s complained that the music was imposs ib le to unders tand . F i n a l l y , he gave up the attempt and refused to g ive h i s audiences any h i n t s at a l l . I think, the f o l l o w i n g passage conf i rms h i s a t t i t u d e towards the c r i t i c s , as wel l as the fac t that he f e e l s programs are now outdated . In November 1901, exasperated by the c r i t i c s ' reviews a f t e r a performance of h i s Fourth Symphony i n Munich (no program p r o v i d e d ) , Mahler "dec la red that ' co r rupted by program mus ic , t h e y ' r e incapable of a p p r e c i a t i n g any work from a purely musical po int of v i e w . ' He f e l t that i t had a l l begun with L i s z t and B e r l i o z , 'who at l e a s t had t a l e n t and who, with t h e i r "programs" , a r r i v e d at new means of e x p r e s s i o n . . .S ince they ' ve now become u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d , 3 what f u r t h e r purpose do such crutches s e r v e ? ' " Judging by the comments of Niecks and IClauwel l , Mahler d id succeed in h is des i re not to be considered a composer of program music . K lauwel l w r i t e s only one paragraph about Mahler . He mentions that the programs e x i s t and s t a t e s that Mahler was an opponent of program mus ic , even though there was a tendency to look at h i s symphonies from a programmatic s t a n d p o i n t . 4 N i e c k s ' s book i s extremely comprehensive and he d iscusses many minor composers . for gotten today . He devotes three pages to M a h l e r , as compared to over twenty on S t r a u s s . He t a l k s mostly about the Second Symphony and the l e t t e r to Se id l wh ich , as mentioned in Chapter 2 , had been p u b l i s h e d . 129 He w r i t e s : . .. .Mahler i s an enemy of exp lanatory programmes and programme-books. T h i s , however, prevents n e i t h e r h i m s e l f from composing what may r i g h t l y be c a l l e d programme music , nor others from w r i t i n g comments on the composi t ions which he leaves without comments. This i s a very percept i ve statement and an e x c e l l e n t summation of the s i t u a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y c o n s i d e r i n g that i t was w r i t t e n dur ing Mah le r ' s l i f e t i m e . Another commentator w i th an open mind was F r i e d r i c h Brandes, c r i t i c of the Dresden Anzei ger . La Grange summarizes h i s comments on the Second Symphony, a f t e r three movements were performed there i n January 1897. There was no "system" in the work, which was n e i t h e r c l a s s i c a l nor "program" music . " I t i s whol ly Mah le r , who i s a real p e r s o n a l i t y [Charakterkopf] among present -day composers." The " remin iscences" always took on a personal aspect and.Mahler composed as he should compose, wi thout worry ing about the general p u b l i c or c a r i n g for what a l ready e x i s t e d . " A l l great a r t i s t s draw on the past in t h e i r own way. . . With or without a program, the composer wants us to l i s t e n to his tone poem as pure mus ic , and t h i s i s p o s s i b l e thanks to the express i ve q u a l i t y of h is themes and the c l a r i t y of h is c o n s t r u c t i o n . " 6 Mahler would have g r e a t l y apprec ia ted hi s thoughts .. NOTES Preface •''Sally O ' B r i e n , "The Programme Paradox in Romantic Music as Epi tomized in the works of Gustav M a h l e r , " Stud ies i n  Music 5 (1974) : 61 . Chapter 1 1 A good summary of var ious views on the a e s t h e t i c s of musical r e p r e s e n t a t i o n — both p o s i t i v e and negat i ve — c a n be found in Richard Thurs ton , "Mus ica l Representat ion in the Symphonic Poems of Richard S t r a u s s " (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Texas, 1971) . He notes that the problem has rece ived scanty a t t e n t i o n as a s c h o l a r l y t o p i c , (p . I:) ^Grove's D i c t i o n a r y of Music and M u s i c i a n s , 5th ed. , s . v . " C r i t i c i s m , " by Winton Dean. 3 Egon Gartengerg , Mahler : The Man and His Music (New York: Schirmer Books , 1 978) , p. 191 . 4 H e n r y - L o u i s de La Grange, Mah le r , V o l . I (New York : Doubleday and Company, 1973) , p. 654. 5 Ib i d . , p. 652. ^F reder i ck N i e c k s , Programme Music in the Last Four  Centur ies (London: Novel 1o , 1 907) , Preface , i i i . 7 I b i d . , P r e f a c e , i i i - i v . 8 1 b i d . , p . 1 . g Most peop le , i f asked to l i s t the major composers of program music in the n ineteenth c e n t u r y , would probably not mention Wagner, s ince he wrote operas almost e x c l u s i v e l y . Yet Wagner cannot be ignored i n a d i s c u s s i o n of the t o p i c . L e s l i e Orrey w r i t e s : "Wagner was the great c o l o u r i s t , the musical i l l u s t r a t o r who could b r ing to l i f e aural g iants and k o b o l d s , b i rdsong and f o r e s t murmurs, the f low 130 131 of the Rhine , the abode of the gods, c r a c k l i n g f l a m e s , heroism and coward ice , honor and d u p l i c i t y . Wagner's operas are programme music on a grand s c a l e , the o r c h e s t r a as much a p r o t a g o n i s t as the s i n g e r s on the s t a g e . " ( L e s l i e Orrey , Programme M u s i c : A B r i e f Survey  from the S i x t e e n t h Century to the Present Day [London : Da v i s - Poynte r , 1 97 5 ] , p. 13 0.) The two l a t e r o m a n t i c s , Mahler and S t r a u s s , f e l t that they i n h e r i t e d t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r musical language from Beethoven through Wagner, who had developed the express ive elements in Beethoven's s t y l e to a high degree. Mahler wrote to Max Marschalk in 1896: " Indeed, Wagner made the means of exp ress ion of symphonic music h is own, j u s t as now the symphonist f u l l y q u a l i f i e d in and completely conscious of h is medium, w i l l take over from the wealth of express ion which music gained through Wagner's e f f o r t s . (See Document 5 , Part C.) 1 0 S e e Donald M i t c h e l l , Gustav Mahler : The Wunderhorn  Years (London: Faber and Faber , 1 975 ) , pp~! 207-8 , and a lso Chapter 6 , p . 104 . ^ O ' B r i e n , p. 55 . 1 2 D e r y c k Cooke, Gustav Mahler , 1860-1911: A Companion  to the BBC's Ce leb ra t ions of the Centenary of h is B i r t h ( B r i t i s h B roadcas t ing C o r p o r a t i o n , 1960) , p. TTI 1 3 Bruno W a l t e r , Gustav Mahler , t r a n s . Lot te Walter L i n d t (New York: Schocken , 1 957 ) , pp. 1 0 1 - 2 . ^ E i n s t e i n ( A l f r e d E i n s t e i n , Music in the Romantic Era [New York: W. W. Nor ton , 1 9 4 7 ] , p. 35. ) f e e l s that the fac t that the accompaniments prov ided a commentary f o r the words conf i rms ra ther than c o n t r a d i c t s the supremacy of ins t rumenta l music . i 5 D o n a l d Ferguson, A H i s t o r y of Mus ica l Thought, 3rd e d . (New York: A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1959] , p. 425 . See a lso pp. 401 and 426. 1 6 L a Grange, p. 100. There i s perhaps some t r u t h i n t h i s s tatement , a l though I t h i n k that a love of l i t e r a t u r e was qu i te t y p i c a l for composers of the p e r i o d . Orrey , fo r i n s t a n c e , desc r ibes how Schumann was i n f l u e n c e d by Jean Paul and E. T. A. Hoffmann. (Or rey , pp. 8 6 - 9 0 . ) 1 7 T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between Mahler and Jean Paul w i l l be d iscussed in more d e t a i l in Chapter 3 . 132 18 La Grange, p. 102. l 9 M i c h a e 1 Kennedy, Mahler (London: J 1 974 ) , p. 11 . M. Dent and Sons , 20, Dika N e w l i n , B ruckner , Mah le r , Schoenberg (New York : K ing ' s Crown P r e s s , 1947; rev i sed e d . , New York : W. W. Nor ton , 1978) , p. 113. She c o n t i n u e s : •". . . i t i s not without i t s unpleasant s i g n i f i c a n c e that Mah le r ' s three c l o s e s t school f r i e n d s , Anton K r i s p e r , Hans R o t t , and Hugo Wol f , a l l died i n s a n e , and at a comparat ive ly e a r l y age. B u t , in M a h l e r ' s c a s e , fami l y h i s t o r y and prev ious exper iences c o n t r i b u t e even more to h i s t o r t u r e d s ta te of mind than does the Z e i t g e i s t . " 2 1 E n g e 1 (Gabr ie l E n g e l , Gustav Mahler: ' Song-Symphonist [New York , 1 932 ; r e p r i n t e d . , New York : David Lewi s , 1 970] , pp. 46-7) quotes one of the poems which Mahler wrote for Johanna R i c h t e r but d id not use in the Gesel1 en c y c l e . This poem a l s o expresses f e e l i n g s explored l a t e r in Das Lied, von der Erde. 22 23 Gartenberg , p. 193, N e w l i n , p. 119. ^ I b i d . Good d i s c u s s i o n s of t h i s f a s c i n a t i n g t o p i c can be found in N e w l i n , pp. 1 1 9 - 2 0 ; Gar tenberg , pp. 2 5 9 - 6 0 ; and Donald M i t c h e l l , i n t r o d u c t i o n to the 1968 e d i t i o n of Alma Mahle r , Memories and L e t t e r s , t r a n s , B a s i l Creighton (London John Murray, 1973) , x x i i i - x x v . 25 26 La Grange, p. 611 . Cooke, p. 22 . 2 7 T h e progress i ve t o n a l i t y of the work - -D minor to mino i—emphas izes the fac t that the wanderer cannot be s a t i s f i e d . See Henry Raynor, Mahler (London: Macmil lan 1975) , pp. 7 9 - 8 2 . 2 8 W a l t e r , p, 154, The N ie tzsche problem w i l l be d iscussed more f u l l y in Chapter 7 , 2 9 W a l t e r , p. 153 3 0 In h is myst ic works, Fechner "expressed h i s i d e a l i s t i c and romantic phi losophy of nature" in which even the s t a r s and p lanets were given a s o u l . (La Grange, p. i l O l . ) It was no wonder that Mahler became so e n t h u s i a s t i c about Fechner. Thei r concept ions of the un iverse were very s i m i l a r . 133 3 l N e w l i n , p. 124. 3 2 L a Grange, p. 254. 3 3 R a y n o r , pp. 9 4 - 5 ; N a t a l i e Bauer -Lechner , Er innerungen  an Gustav Mahler ( L e i p z i g , V ienna , and Z u r i c h : E. P. Tal , 1 923) , p. 144. 3 4 T h e s e comments can be found in La Grange, pp. 813-14 and pp. 5 8 1 - 8 3 , and in Bauer -Lechner , pp. 153-54 and pp. 1 4 3 - 4 6 . 3 5 0 ' B r i e n , p. 57 . 3 6 A l m a Mahle r , pp. 7 0 - 1 . 3 7 1b i d . , p. 100. 3 8 I b i d . , p. 278. The c o w b e l l s , which are a l so present in the Seventh Symphony, are s y m b o l i c , and are an important part of Mah le r ' s o v e r a l l concept ion of n a t u r e . They represent the l a s t man-made sound one hears as one h ikes up the mountain to be alone with n a t u r e . 3 9 I b i d . , p. 89 . Joseph F r e i h e r r von E i c h e n d o r f f (1788-1857) was a wel l -known l y r i c poet . L ike Mah le r , he was i n f l u e n c e d by f o l k song, e x a l t e d the wandering l i f e , exp lored the many moods of n a t u r e , and showed a c h i l d - l i k e t r u s t in God. Schubert and Schumann set many of h is l y r i c s . 4 0 N e w l i n , p. 186. 41 I b i d . ^ T e c h n i c a l l y a song c y c l e , but the l i n e between song c y c l e and symphony i s very f i n e in t h i s c a s e , and the work i s o f ten c l a s s i f i e d as a symphony. Chapter 2 ^ ' B r i e n , p. 57. 2 G a r t e n b e r g , p. 12 . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , as h e r e , Gartenberg 's book lacks proper f o o t n o t e s . The appropr ia te l e t t e r can be found in Gustav Mah le r , B r i e f e : : 1879-1911 , e d . Anna Maria Mahler ( B e r l i n , Vienna and L e i p z i g : Paul Zso lnay , 1952; r e p r i n t e d . , H i ldesheim and New York : Georg 01ms, 1978) , p. 277. An e d i t o r ' s note e x p l a i n s that t h i s was "the answer to a l e t t e r in which Walter polemizes aga ins t program mus ic , s p e c i f i c a l l y aga ins t a point i n Richard Wagner's l e t t e r about L i s z t ' s symphonic poems. Mahler answered him a f t e r f i n i s h i n g the S i x t h Symphony, the re fo re in the summer of 1906, and the L34 l e t t e r breathes the j o y f u l and almost f r o l i c s o m e vo ice which commanded him a f t e r the complet ion of each work." Mahler c la imed that the Wagner quote was f u l l y c l e a r to him, and he did not perce ive W a l t e r ' s misunders tand ing . The passage in quest ion was obv ious l y r e l a t e d to the n i n e t e e n t h -century view of the merging of the a r t s . Mahler d id not deny that t h e i r music invo lved the "pure human b e i n g . " i f one wished to w r i t e mus ic , he s a i d , one should not want to d e p i c t , p o e t i z e , or d e s c r i b e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i f one d id compose, the whole ( t h e r e f o r e f e e l i n g , t h i n k i n g , b r e a t h i n g , s u f f e r i n g ) being was i n v o l v e d . 3 Examples of Mah le r ' s d e s c r i p t i v e music can be found in the l a s t movement of the Second Symphony, the f i r s t movement of the F i r s t Symphony, and the t h i r d movement of the Th i rd Symphony. ^ P h i l i p B a r f o r d , Mahler 5ymphohie~s "and Songs ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y of Washington P r e s s , 1971) , p. 2 3 . 5 L a Grange, p. 27 0 . 6 I b i d . , p. 322; Mahler B r i e f e , p. 170. , 7 B a u e r - L e c h n e r , p. 8 1 . 8 L a Grange, p. 630. g I b i d . ; Bauer -Lechner , pp. 8 1 - 2 . 1 0 L a Grange, p. 295 ; Mahler B r i e f e , p. 229 . . "—nur wenn ich e r l e b e , ' t o n d i c h t e ' i c h - - n u r , wenn i ch t o n d i c h t e , e r lebe i c h i " 11 See Document 5 , Part C. Remember that the supremacy of ins t rumenta l music was a hal lmark of the romantic p e r i o d . La Grange, p. 583; from the unpubl ished supplement of N a t a l i e Bauer -Lechner ' s E r innerungen. In l i g h t of t h i s s tatement , i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to know what Mahler thought of Debussy's mus ic . We know from Alma's account that Debussy d id not have much use for Mah le r , b u t , accord ing to M i t c h e l l , Mahler performed some of Debussy's l a t e r works in the United States when they were s t i l l new. (Note to Alma Mah le r , p. 169.) Edward Lockspe iser f e e l s t h a t , even though Mahler conducted cur rent French operas o c c a s i o n a l l y , he r e a l l y d id not have much knowledge of the French music of h is t i m e : the works of Debussy, R a v e l , and Faure. (Edward L o c k s p e i s e r , Debussy, His L i f e and Mind , V o l . I I ; 1 902-1 91 8.. [London : Cassel 1 , 1 965] , pp. 1 0 7 - 8 . ) l 3 L a Grange, pp. 2 7 3 - 4 . This analogy could a l s o hold t rue fo r an opera t e x t , but i t does summarize Mah le r ' s 135 opin ions of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between words and mus ic . 1 4 0 ' B r i e n , p. 62 . 1 5 N i e c k s , p. 444. Niecks seemed to th ink that Tcha ikovsky ' s works would f a l l i n t o ' o b i i v i o n very q u i c k l y . 1 6 I b i d . , p. 437 . 1 7 Sam Morgenstern , e d . , Composers on Music (New York : Pantheon, 1956) , p. 307; Mahler B r i e f e , p. 296. The l e t t e r i s undated, but was w r i t t e n from M a i e r n i g g . In the c o l l e c t e d l e t t e r s , Alma places i t between one from 1901 and one from 1 903. 1 Pi La Grange, p. 538; Bauer -Lechner , p. 130. 1 9 I b i d . . pp. 543-4 . 2 0 I b i d . , p. 596. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , La Grange does not i d e n t i f y h is source fo r t h i s quote. 2 1 1 b i d - , p. 358 ; Mahler B r i e f e , p. 228. 2 2 I b i d . , p. 596 . 2 ^ I b i d , La Grange t h i n k s that the famous 1901 program was o r i g i n a l l y w r i t t e n fo r t h i s c o n c e r t , but the " o l d program" could be the one sent to Marschalk in 1896. 2 4 0 ' B r i e n , pp. 5 7 - 8 . Chapter 3 *La Grange, p. 746. 2 N e w l i n , p. 144. The theme of the wanderer was very a p p l i c a b l e to Mah le r ' s l i f e at t h i s t i m e , both in h i s personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s and in h i s c a r e e r . J Alma Mahler , p. .110. We r e a l l y cannot t r u s t Alma here as the whole paragraph concerning the F i r s t Symphony i s f u l l of e r r o r s . 4 L a Grange, p. 172. As wel l as the F i r s t Symphony, Mahler was w r i t i n g h is f i r s t Wunderhorn songs and the Toten f e i e r . 5 K.urt B l a u k o p f , . Gustav Mahler , t r a n s . Inge Goodwin (New York: P raeger , 1 9 73 ) , p. 74 . 136 D Kennedy, p. 9 1 . The song was composed i n 1880 and was o r i g i n a l l y t i t l e d Maitanz im Grunen.. Three songs out of a proposed set o f . f i v e s u r v i v e . Accord ing to Cooke, t h i s was the f i r s t song which Mahler thought h i g h l y enough of to p r e s e r v e . He a lso notes that t h i s s imple song, w r i t t e n in f o l k t r a d i t i o n , represents a very e a r l y example of "the keck (cheeky) popular vein which w i l l permeate the symphonies." (Cooke, p. 22. ) Mahler used another song dedicated to Joseph ine , Im Lenz. i n Das klagende L i e d . (Kennedy, p. 91. ) B l a u k o p f , however, c la ims that Hans und Grethe was w r i t t e n i n K a s s e l . ( B l a u k o p f , p. 75. ) Perhaps he i s r e f e r r i n g to the v e r s i o n with that t i t l e ra ther than to the one w r i t t e n in 1880. 7 M i t c h e l l , p. 222 ; Bauer -Lechner , p. 149. p ° I b i d . He c o n t i n u e s : "Thus on the r e c k o n i n g , the innocent uncompl icated l y r i c i s m of the C major Andante, w i th the Hero port rayed i n an a rch - romant i c posture , brought a touch of romance to Mah le r ' s Symphonic Poem that was otherwise absent . We must remember that the Symphonic Poem concept was i t s e l f a somewhat loose one and t h e r e f o r e the i n t e r p o l a t i o n of a movement--the a d d i t i o n of an eposode in Mah le r ' s l i f e of an a r t i s t - - w o u l d not have presented a major prob lem." ( I b i d . , pp. 222-23 .) 9 J a c k D i e t h e r , "Motes on Some Mahler J u v e n i l i a , " Chord and Discord 3 (1969) : 3 - 1 0 0 . 1 0 L a Grange d isagrees with t h i s hypothes is (La Grange, p. 753.) and Mi tche l1 r e p l i e s to h is comments. ( M i t c h e l l , p. 301.) Many scho la rs fee l that Mahler s imply l i f t e d . t h e movement from t h e . t a b l e a u , although t h i s cannot be proven. ^ D i e t h e r , p. 89 . 1 2 K e n n e d y , p. 9 1 . 1 3 l b i d . 1 4 Kennedy makes a pe rcept i ve comment when d i s c u s s i n g the s t rengths and weaknesses of Das klagende L i e d . "But the reason that the cantata f a i l s to g r ip the l i s t e n e r as much as i t might i s , I t h i n k , that i t i s too o b j e c t i v e . The tragedy happens to someone e l s e , not to Mahler h i m s e l f , and n e i t h e r he nor we fee l s u f f i c i e n t l y i n v o l v e d . " In the Gesel 1 en c y c l e , "we know the wanderer i s Mahler h i m s e l f . " (Kennedy, pp. 8 9 - 9 0 . ) 137 l 5 M o n i k a T ibbe , L ieder und Liedelemente i n  ins t rumenta l en Symphonies&tzen Gustav Mahlers ["Munich: Mus ikve r lag Emil f C a t z b i c h l e r , 1971] Zo l tan Roman, " M a h l e r ' s Songs and Their In f luence on His Symphonic Thought" (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto , 1970) ^ 6 B a r f o r d notes that "a long with the 'way fa re r ' image in the n ineteenth century goes that of the l ime t r e e . " ( B a r f o r d , p. 14. ) The hero in Schuber t ' s Mi n te r re i se a lso s leeps under a l i n d e n t r e e , and the young man'in Das klagende  L ied i s k i l l e d by his o lder brother whi le r e s t i n g under a 1 inden t r e e . 1 7 L a Grange, p. 203. 1 8 N e w l i n , p. 144. 1 9 K e n n e d y , pp. 9 0 - 9 1 . 2 0 L a Grange, p. 746. "The i n d i c a t i o n that the f i r s t movement opened with an In t roduct ion , was probably something that Mahler thought might help his f i r s t aud ience , e s p e c i a l l y in view of the absence of a more d e t a i l e d programme." (Mi tche l1 , p. 262.) 2 1 M i t c h e l 1 , p. 156. 2 2 Some of S t r a u s s ' s l a t e r poems, such as Also Sprach  Z a r a t h u s t r a , are almost equal to Mah le r ' s F i r s t Symphony i n l e n g t h . 2 3 M i tchel . l , p . 156. ? 4 H K u r t B l a u k o p f , e d . , with c o n t r i b u t i o n s by Zo l tan Roman, Mahler : A Documentary Study (London: Thames and Hudson, 1 976 ) , p. 186. 2 5 I b i d . 2 5 T h e e n t i r e a r t i c l e i s reproduced in M i t c h e l l , pp. 152-54. 2 7 G a r t e n b e r g , p. 252. 2 8 B l a u k o p f , e d , , A Documentary Study , p. 195. " M i t c h e l 1 , pp. 264-65 . 3 0 1 b i d . , p. 225 ; Bauer -Lechner , p. 148. 3 1 1 b l d . , pp. 225-26 . 138 3 2 W a l t e r , p. 15 6 . 3 3 B l a u k o p f , p. 7.6. 3 4 M i t c h e l 1 , p. 228. 3 5 I b id . , p. 231. 3 6 I b i d . , p. 232. 3 7 R a y n o r , p. 14. 3 8 D o r o t h e a Berger desc r ibes how Jean Paul d i v i d e d h is f i c t i o n in to three c a t e g o r i e s . Mahler u t i l i z e d t i t l e s from two of these ca tegor ies in h i s program and, i n both c a s e s , Jean P a u l ' s summary of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the novels i n each category a p t l y p a r a l l e l s the sent iments which Mahler expressed in h is F i r s t Symphony. T i tan i s one of the " I t a l i a n " n o v e l s , which deal wi th " i d y l l i c scenery , noble f e e l i n g s , sublime p a s s i o n s , and hero ic c h a r a c t e r s . " (Dorothea B e r g e r , Jean Paul F r i e d r i c h R i c h t e r [New York : Twayne P u b l i s h e r s , 19723, P r e f a c e , i i i . ) The e a r l y c r i t i c s probably would have laughed at t h i s s ta tement ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , I fee l i t summarizes Mah le r ' s i n t e n t , even i f not h i s ac tua l achievement. S i benkas, a s to ry about a p r o v i n c i a l town, f a l l s i n to t h e . c a t e g o r y of "German" n o v e l s . These are " n e i t h e r subl ime nor comical but a l low a r i c h l y tex tu red p r e s e n t a t i o n of the everyday l i f e of middle c l a s s p e o p l e . " ( I b i d . ) The f i r s t p a r t . o f the symphony, which takes i t s t i t l e from t h i s work, '.is . c e r t a i n l y the more "bourgeois" s e c t i o n : the enjoyment of n a t u r e ; the s i m p l i s t i c "Blumine" movement; the peasant dance q u a l i t y of the t h i r d movement. Although the c o n t e n t . o f the Huntsman's Funeral movement may appear bourgeois on the s u r f a c e , I th ink that i t s s p e c i a l , s o p h i s t i c a t e d brand of humour pushes i t beyond the realm of t h i s ca tegory . The t h i r d ca tegory , which Mahler d id not draw from, i s the "Dutch" n o v e l s . They are s h o r t , s p a r s e , m o r a l i s t i c , and descr ibe the o r d i n a r y l i f e of s imple peop le . ( I b i d . ) 3 9 L a Grange, p. 752. 4 0 D i e t h e r , p. 85 . D iether goes on to quote the Mahler e n t h u s i a s t , Gerald S . Fox, who "has o f f e r e d the suggest ion that 'B1umine' s i g n i f i e d , for the composer, h is own pet name for Johanna R i c h t e r . As wi th the myster ious 'Rosebud 1 of Orson W e l l e s ' f i l m c l a s s i c , C i t i z e n Kane, I am sure i t i s nothing l ess i n t i m a t e and p e r s o n a l . " ( D i e t h e r , p. 89 . ) Fox i s obv ious l y reading too much i n t o the s l i g h t e v i d e n c e . Mahler may have t o l d someone what he meant by the te rm, but i f s o , t h i s evidence has now been l o s t . 4 1 B e r g e r , pp. 2 0 - 2 1 . 139 piece 4 2 L a Grange, p. 748. 4 3 L a Grange, p. 755. 4 4 I b i d . 4 5 S e e Mi tche l1 , pp. 294-96, in mind when composing the 46, He t h i n k s Mahler had t h i s F i r s t Symphony. ' M i t c h e l l , p. 236. Mahler c e r t a i n l y would have known t h i s a r t i s t ' s work. . M o r i t z von Schwind "showed. in h is a r t a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l 1 y Romantic preoccupat ion wi th death (shades of Jean.Paul and Hoffmann). . .There may be no d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between Schwind and Mahler but they undeniably breathed the same a i r . " ( M i t c h e l l , p. 237.) 47 48 I b i d , , p. 235 . I b i d . 4 9 ^ On p. 748, La Grange po ints out that these two features were constant for as long as Mahler pub l ished a program. He i s not t o t a l l y c o r r e c t . In the 1900 Vienna program, Mahler descr ibes a country funera l and does not s p e c i f i c a l l y mention the Huntsman's Funeral wi th animals , 50 51 52 Mi tche l1 , p. 301 . I b i d . , pp. 239-40 Gar tenberg , p. 42 f e e l s that " s i g n i f i c a n t the i n t r o d u c t i o n to the m o d i f i c a t i o n s were f i r s t movement was 5 3 M i t c h e l 1 i n t roduced, e . g . no longer evoking Nature 's - awakening from the s leep of w inter but d e p i c t i n g the onset of e a r l y dawn, a minor m o d i f i c a t i o n of the programme, but one of rea l subs tance . " ( M i t c h e l l , p. 263. ) I f a i l to see that t h i s makes much d i f f e r e n c e to the o v e r a l l plan of the work. 5 4 L a Grange, p. 300, Where d id these c r i t i c s o b t a i n the i n f o r m a t i o n that the symphony was connected wi th Jean Paul? It must have been from Mahler h i m s e l f or a c lose f r i e n d such as P f o h l . 55 56 57 I b i d , , pp. 3 0 0 - 3 0 1 . I b i d . , p. 301 . I b i d , , p. 300. 5 8 S e e M i t c h e l l , pp. 2 6 3 - 6 4 , fo r a d i s c u s s i o n of the e v o l u t i o n of the var ious t i t l e s . 140 5 9 M i t c h e l 1 , p.p. 266-67 . 6 0 I b i d . , p. 267. 6 1 I b i d . , p. 28.7. 6 2 M i t c h e l l f e e l s t h a t , with, the e l i m i n a t i o n of " B l u m i n e " , the l y r i c a l melody in the f i n a l e , w i th i t s Tchaikovsky -1 i k e c h a r a c t e r , takes i t s p l a c e . "But Mahler found room i n h i s e p i s o d i c F i n a l e for an i n s e r t of music without which the exper ience of h is pass ionate Hero would be i n c o m p l e t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d . " ( M i t c h e l l , pp. 291 -92 . ) 6 3 L a Grange, P- 600. 6 4 1 b i d. , p. 601. 6 5 1 b i d . 6 6 I b i d . , p. 602. One 1ast contemporaneous review i s of mi ld i n t e r e s t . Mahler conducted the F i r s t Symphony in New York in 1909 and was severe l y c r i t i c i z e d by the c r i t i c H. E. K r e h b i e l , I f Mr. Gustav Mahler were not the conductor of the Phi lharmonic S o c i e t y . . . . the product ion of h is symphony. . . cou ld be disposed of wi th very few words indeed . . .Mr. Mahler i s a composer of programme mus ic , and h is Symphony i n D i s of that c l a s s . . The fac t does hot save i t from c r i t i c i s m , but i f i t were . not so the condemnation which would have to be meted out would be s w i f t , summary and, for the sake of a r t , v igorous , . ... .The symphony has no j u s t i f i c a t i o n without a programme. . . (Alma Mahle r , pp. 1 6 7 - 6 8 . ) We must remember, though, that Krehb ie l was an enemy of M a h l e r ' s . Accord ing to Gar tenberg , Mahler had incu r red h is wrath by f o r b i d d i n g the program annotator to wr i te program notes for h is symphonies. (Gar tenberg , pp. 1 6 4 - 6 5 . ) Thus, Mahler had s t i l l not escaped the " f o l l i e s " of h is you th . Krehbie l i m p l i c i t l y condemns program music as a whole . I t i s u n l i k e l y that he knew the e a r l i e r programs. Did he make t h i s assumption from the music i t s e l f ? He c e r t a i n l y does not attempt to e x p l a i n the program which he f e e l s the symphony has . Chapter 4 W a l t e r , p. 122. 2 B a u e r - L e c h n e r , p. 34 . It i s i n t e r e s t i n g that Jean Paul once had a s i m i l a r v i s i o n . This i s noted by M i t c h e l l on p. 302 , note .112. Dorothea Berger s t a t e s : 141 "On November 1 5 , 1 790, Jean.Paul .had a v i s i o n which a f f e c t e d him p ro found l y . He saw h i m s e l f a s - d e a d , saw h i s l i f e l e s s hand hanging down from the bed, and in that moment gained an i n s i g h t i n t o the t r a n s i e n c e of human l i f e and v a l u e s . He promised h i m s e l f to love a l l h i s f e l l o w c r e a t u r e s , who had only such a short t ime to enjoy t h e i r l i v e s . ( B e r g e r , p. 22..) 3 M i t c h e 1 1 , p. 162. 41 b i d . M i t c h e l l notes that the work, could not have been c a l l e d Number 2 as Number 1 d id not e x i s t as a symphony at t h i s t i m e . Mahler obv ious l y intended to w r i t e a d d i t i o n a l movements. 5 See A Documentary Study , documents 80 and 8 1 . 6 M i t c h e l 1 , p. 269. 7 I b i d . , p . 163. ^ M i t c h e l l po in ts out that "Mahler created rea l problems for h imse l f by c a s t i n g the f i r s t movement i n the form of an ep ic funera l r i t e . I t i s in a sense p u t t i n g l a s t th ings f i r s t , always a r i s k y business . 1 ( M i t c h e l l , p.. 162.) 9 B a u e r - L e c h n e r , pp. 116—17. 1 0 L a Grange, p. 781 ; Bauer -Lechner , p. 8 . La Grange s ta tes that by 1893 Mahler had a l ready suppressed the t i t l e T i tan for the F i r s t Symphony. This i s not s o - - h e used i t for the 1894 Weimar c o n c e r t . i ^ F o r the l a t t e r , see A Documentary Study , pp. 1 9 8 - 9 9 . 1 2 I b i d . , p. 198. 1 3 M i t c h e l 1 , p. 168. 14 La Grange summarizes R e i k l s account on p.p. 295-97 l 5 M i t c h e l l enters i n t o a long d i s c u s s i o n as to whether or not Mahler had completed the l a s t movement up u n t i l the entry of the chorus before the f u n e r a l . He quotes evidence fo r both s ides and f i n a l l y , on the b a s i s of the music i t s e l f -the choral R e s u r r e c t i o n theme i s s ta ted i n one of i t s many forms very e a r l y in the movement — decides that the e n t i r e f i n a l e was composed at one t i m e . He f e e l s that the r e s u r r e c t i o n idea was not present p r i o r to the s e r v i c e . ( M i t c h e l l , pp. 1 72-78.") This argument i s p a r t i a l l y c o n v i n c i n g , but s t i l l does not prec lude the p o s s i b i l i t y that a vague, o v e r a l l plan e x i s t e d . 142 1 6 La Grange, p. 7 82 . 1 7 M i t c h e l l , p. 274. 1 8 I b i d . , p. 177. 1 9 S e e La Grange, p. 782. La Grange th inks that the song " U r l i c h t " may have been o rches t ra ted dur ing the p r o l i f i c summer of 1893. 20 B a r f o r d , p, 25. Bar fo rd has some i n t e r e s t i n g comments on the symbolism of the poem The poem i s a strange one, na ive i n symbolism and profound in i m p l i c a t i o n . It can be read i n the l i g h t of Psalm 1 8 , verse 2 8 . ["For thou w i l t l i g h t my c a n d l e ; the Lord my God w i l l e n l i g h t e n my d a r k n e s s . " ] Is the m y s t i c a l rose an a l l u s i o n , to the Rose of Sharon, or the rose in C h r i s t i a n symbolism which has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a s s o c i a t e d with both Jesus C h r i s t and the V i r g i n Mary? A German t i t l e of Mary i s "Marien Rose len" . Dante, in the P a r a d i s o , Canto XX I I , r e f e r s to the Rose in which the Logos became inca rnate [that i s , in which C h r i s t became Man]. The symbolism is c l e a r : there i s an inner l i g h t of the soul which w i l l lead mankind out of death i n t o the l i g h t of God, ( B a r f o r d , p. 25. ) See N e w l i n , pp, 157-61 t h i s [Mew issue York : Paul Henry Lang a l so makes (Paul Henry Lang, Music in. Nor ton , 1941] , pp, 755-56 ,) 21 va luable comments on Western C i v i l i z a t i o n ?? Lang f e e l s that in s p i t e of the t e x t , Beethoven's Ninth Symphony i s not program mus ic . He argues that Beethoven used the vo ices s imply as other i n s t r u m e n t s , and a l s o t h a t , because the tex t i s f u l l of g e n e r a l i t i e s and a b s t r a c t i o n s and lacks t h e o l o g i c a l c o n n o t a t i o n s , i t conta ins an " i d e a l i s t i c yet imprec ise message," (Paul Henry Lang , ,1ecture at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, January 1979.) 23 24 25 26 27 B l a u k o p f , p, 98 Newl i n 159. I b i d . , pp. 1 5 8 - 5 9 . B l a u k o p f , p. 101. N e w l i n , pp. 16 0-61 28 La Grange, p. 783 ; Mahler B r i e f e , pp. 3 1 5 - 1 6 . 143 29 Raynor, p. 8,9. 3 0 L a Grange, p. 78,9. 3 1 N e w l i n , p. 155. 3 2 Kennedy f e e l s that the nature of the song prevents any l i t e r a l connect ions between i t and the s c h e r z o . "The song and the tex t are i r o n i c and s a t i r i c a l , but can music express s a t i r e and i rony in pure ly ins t rumenta l sound? A few racous woodwind squawks do not convey s a t i r e . So on tha t l e v e l the movement f a i l s , I t h i n k , but succeeds (which i s more important) as a b r i l l i a n t l y o r i g i n a l scherzo wi th very potent suggest ions of t e r r o r and d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t . " (Kennedy, p. 100.) 3 3 W a l t e r , p. 2 3 . 3 4 T h i s i s s u p p o s i t i o n , as I cannot l o c a t e a r e p r i n t of the program n o t i c e for the f i r s t performance. However, when the f i r s t three movements were given e a r l i e r in the y e a r , the movement was l a b e l l e d that way, and i t appears as such in the score and a l l l a t e r performance n o t i c e s that I can f i n d . (With one notable e x c e p t i o n , to be commented upon 1 a t e r . ) 3 5 La Grange, p. 346. 3 6 S e e document 132 i n A Documentary Study . 3 7 S e e e s p e c i a l l y N e w l i n , pp. 1 5 9 - 6 0 . 3 8 I b i d . , p. 141. 3 9 M i t c h e l 1 , p. 165. 4 0 L a Grange, p. 786. 4 1 I b i d . 42 Mewlin i s o l a t e s a bass motive i n t h i s movement which i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to one used i n the F i r s t Symphony. "Here, the thematic r e l a t i o n s h i p implements Mah le r ' s own a s s e r t i o n that the Second Symphony i s i n a s p i r i t u a l sense the l o g i c a l c o n t i n u a t i o n of the F i r s t . " ( N e w l i n , p. 153.) As f u r t h e r proof of the " s p i r i t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p " between the two works , she po ints out that both use fami l i a r mot i ves : Dies I rae i n the Second, and Bruder M a r t i n i n the F i r s t . 43 See M i t c h e l l , p. 265. 144 4 4 L a Grange, p. 38.8. 4 5 M i t c h e l l , p. 288. 4 6 L a Grange, .p. 597 . 4 7 I b i d . 4 8 lb i d . , p. 5 98 . 4 9 A c c o r d i n g to La Grange, the program was a c t u a l l y w r i t t e n for Munich, but suppressed. (.La Grange, p. 785 .) 5 0 L a Grange, p. 661 . 5 1 I b i d . , p. 945 . 5 2 A l m a Mah le r , p. 212. 5 3 0 r r e y , p. 137. 5 4 E n g e l , p. 92. 5 5 I t i s perhaps noteworthy that both works were begun at approx imate ly the same t i m e , and that t h e i r f i n a l programs were w r i t t e n w i t h i n a year of each o t h e r . 5 6 K e n n e d y , p. 102. I t i s unfor tunate that he does not name the w i t . 5 7 A l m a Mahler Werfel , And the Br idge i s Love (London: Hutch inson , 1958), p. 192. 5 8 L a Grange, p. 786. 5 9 A l m a Mahler , Memories and L e t t e r s , p. 35 . 6 0 K e n n e d y , p. 102. Chapter 5 1 P a u l Bekker , Gustav Mahlers S i n f o n i e n ( . B e r l i n , 1921 ; r e p r i n t e d . , T u t z i n g : Hans S c h n e i d e r , 1969) , p. 106. La Grange, p. 796. 3 M i t c h e l l , p. 187. M i t c h e l l says that t h i s i s a l so t rue of the Fourth Symphony. 4 Kennedy, p. 102. 5 C o o k e , p. 28 . 145 6Newl i n , ,p. 16.5 . 7 L a Grange, p. 79-5. 8 I n h is book on program mus ic , Niecks makes an i n t e r e s t i n g comment regard ing works whose formal program c o n s i s t s only of t i t l e s . He c la ims many people approve of a t i t l e "but ob jec t to a poem or prose n a r r a t i v e p r e f i x e d to a piece of music . . . .And y e t , a t i t l e may imply a great deal more than a poem or a prose n a r r a t i v e . What vast s u b j e c t s , for i n s t a n c e , are i n d i c a t e d by s i n g l e words such as Faust , Hamlet, Manfred, Hebr ides , E r o i c a , Hungaria e t c ! " ( N i e c k s , pp. 2 - 3 . ) g La Grange, p. 328; B a u e r - L e c h n e r , p. 34. l 0 I b i d . , Bauer -Lechner , p. 33. ^ I b i d . , Bauer -Lechner , p. 34 . 1 2 B e k k e r , p. 106. l 3 S t r a u s s a lso had d i f f i c u l t i e s a r r i v i n g at s u i t a b l e l a b e l s fo r h is symphonic works. Although h i s ten o r c h e s t r a l p i e c e s , w r i t t e n between 1886 and 1915, vary in formal o r g a n i z a t i o n , they can a l l be c a l l e d symphonic poems. (Thurs ton , 1.) St rauss v a r i e d the termino logy throughout the y e a r s : one " S i n f o n i s c h e Fantas ie " , four "Ton.dichtun.gen", one " S i n f o n i s c h e D i c h t u n g " , two " S i n f o n i e n " (one movement works , with d i v i s i o n s roughly l i k e those in a symphony), one " F a n t a s t i c h e V a r i a t i o n e n uber e in Thema r i t t e r l i c h e n Charakters" (Don Qui xote) , and one l a b e l l e d only "Rondeau form" ( T i l l E u l e n s p i e g a l ) . If a l l these works belong " g e n e r i c a l l y among the symphonic poems," ( Thurs ton , p. 35. ) then i t i s e q u a l l y t rue that Mah le r ' s symphonic works, i n s p i t e of any o r i g i n a l t i t l e s , belong g e n e r i c a l l y among the symphonies. l 4 L a Grange, p. 330. La Grange s p e c i f i c a l l y mentions Lohr , N a t a l i e (see footnote to Document 2 4 ) , B e r l i n e r , and Behn. 1 5 B a r f o r d , p. 3 3 . 1 6 I b i d . 1 7 0 n pp. 7 9 7 - 8 0 0 , La Grange d i s c u s s e s and t a b u l a t e s the var ious d r a f t s i n . o r d e r . Sources fo r some of the d r a f t s would have been h e l p f u l , however. For example, we are not t o l d from where numbers three and four came. 1 ft La Grange, p. 330. H e l i o s was the sun. god i n Greek mythology. The anc ient Greeks b e l i e v e d he was.the phys ica l 146 phenomenon of s u n l i g h t , whereas Phoebus Apo l lo was a symbol of the- l i g h t of knowledge, t r u t h , and r i g h t . The re fe rence to the sun god i s ra ther i n t e r e s t i n g . Bar fo rd expands upon the i d e a . The Symphony was-wel l named when Mahler c a l l e d i t The Joy fu l S c i e n c e . It i s a v i s i o n a r y dream of world harmony, l i k e the one which led Kepler [German astronomer and mathemat ic ian , 1571 -1630] to p lace the Sun, as the "throne of God", at the centre of a geometr ical system c o n s i s t i n g of the f i v e r e g u l a r E u c l i d i a n s o l i d s which d e f i n i e d the r e l a t i v e o r b i t s of the p l a n e t s . For geometr ica l f i g u r e s Mahler s u b s t i t u t e d . s ta tes of l i f e and c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and even made room for the Abyss , the non-being h inted at in Z a r a t h u s t r a 1 s Night Song. Y e t , l i k e K e p l e r , the composer s y m b o l i c a l l y e levated the Sun as an o rder ing p r i n c i p l e . It i s the s o l a r forces of summer which "march i n " to impose harmony upon the chaos of the e lements . To deepen the symbol , i t i s the d i v i n e i n man. which u l t i m a t e l y masters the f l u x of c r e a t i v e energ ies in h i s . s o u l . ( B a r f o r d , p. 32. ) 1 Q La Grange, p. 364 ; Bauer -Lechner , p. 37.. c N e w l i n , p. 164; Mahler B r i e f e , p. 161 . ? 1 M b i d . Bekker quotes t h i s po r t ion of the l e t t e r on p. 107, where the movement i s a l s o designated as No. 7 . He a lso seems to b e l i e v e that the motto was t r a n s f e r r e d to the s i x t h movement, so perhaps Newlin got t h i s not ion from him. ? 2 I found c o n f i r m a t i o n of t h i s numbering system in N a t a l i e ' s manuscr ip t , p. 4 2 . This i s probably the source fo r La Grange d r a f t number 7 . 23 W a l t e r , p. 27 ; Mahler B r i e f e , p. 220 . 2 4 I b i d . , p. 29. 2 5 I b i d . , p. 28 . 2 6 I cannot help wondering i f Mahler might not have saved h i m s e l f much abuse l a t e r o n - - a t l e a s t on matters of f o r m - - i f he had re ta ined t h i s t i t l e . Of c o u r s e , i t on ly .would have been v a l i d i f he had a l so kept the program. 2 7 W i 1 1 i am J . McGrath, Dionys ian Ar t and P o p u l i s t  P o l i t i c s in A u s t r i a (New Haven and London: Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974) , p. 132. 147 2 8 L a Grange, p. 38.6. 2 9 N e w 1 i n , p. 121. 3 0 L a Grange, p. 387. 3 1 I b i d . 3 2 I b i d . , p. 4 00. 3 3 I bi d , , p. 407 . 3 4 I b i d . 3 5 A l m a Mah le r , p. 40. 3 6 M i t c h e l l , pp. 299 -300 . The anecdote i s found i n W i l l i b a l d K a e h l e r , 150 Jahre M u s i k a l i s c h e Akademie des  N a t i o n a l t h e a t e r - O r c h e s t e r s Mannheim, 1779-1929 (Mannheim. 1929) , pp. 63-66 . : Chapter 6 M i t c h e l l , p. 194. He s t a t e s : "This t a b l e unfolds almost a complete scenar io fo r the f i r s t movement — as i t were, a c a s t - l i s t i n t r o d u c i n g the characte rs in order of t h e i r appearanee- -and when confronted by t h i s k ind of ev idence , i t i s imposs ib le not to recognize the dual worlds that Mah le r ' s works i n h a b i t e d at t h i s t i m e : the symphonic poem and the symphony, i n e x t r i c a b l y mixed t o g e t h e r . " ( M i t c h e l l , p. 194.) ^ N e v i l l e Cardus, Gustav Mahler : His Mind and His  Mus ic , V o l . I (London: V i c t o r Gol1ancz , 1972 ) , p . 85 . 3 L a Grange, p. 801 . K e n n e d y , pp. 1 0 2 - 3 . •^"Winter" and the concept .o f " n a t u r e ' s i n e r t i a " seem to be i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e . 6 M c G r a t h , p. 130. 7 I b i d . , p. 131. 8 See La Grange's t a b l e , p. 799. Q N e w l i n , p. 170. Mahler t o l d N a t a l i e : 148 "The Bohemian music of my ch i ldhood homeland has found i t s way i n t o many of my works. It i n f l u e n c e d me p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the " F i s c h p r e d i g t " . The n a t i o n a l s t y l e - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s inc luded there may be h e a r d , . i n t h e i r crudest form, in the p i p i n g of the Bohemian m u s i c i a n s . " ( N e w l i n , p. 170; Bauer -Lechner , p. 11. ) i^La Grange, p. 803. The re ference to fCrenek can be found . in Ernst Krenek, Gustav Mahler (New York : The Greystone P r e s s , 1949 ; r e p r i n t ed . , New York : Da Capo P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 ] , p. 193, ^ A l l re ferences to the score of the Th i rd Symphony are from the Un ive rsa l E d i t i o n , Band I I I of the Gustav Mahler Samtl i che Werke. 12 Gar tenberg , p. 279. 1 3 M c G r a t h , p. 136. 14 anecdote B a r f o r d . movement " of Pan, wh ( B a r f o r d , t e l l s how, the house, horror 1 . " An i n t e r e s t i n g s i d e l i g h t on these of A l m a ' s , which i s mentioned by 1 ast both po ints i s Cooke and an Bar fo rd s t a t e s . t h a t , accord ing to Alma, the dep ic t s the composer's r e a c t i o n s to the awakening ich he exper ienced at noonday outs ide h is h u t ; " p. 29. I t a l i c s mine. ) and Cooke w r i t e s : "h i s w i fe composing in h is summer h u t , he would run back to 'overcome by the h e a t , the s t i l l n e s s , the panic (Cooke, p. 2 8 . I t a l i c s mine,) This s to ry may not be t o t a l l y r e l i a b l e s ince Alma d id not know Mahler t h e n . 1 5 M c G r a t h , pp in h is rep ly l e t t e r B r i e f e , p. 162. 132-33 to Anna Mahler mentioned these r e a c t i o n s which i s found i n the Mahler 16 17 I b i d . , pp. 136-37 La Grange, the fa the r of Zeus G i a n t s , and T i tans v i c t o r i ous , Kronos ready fo r movement. 18 p. 385 ; Bauer -Lechner , p. 6 0 . (Cronos was Zeus e n l i s t e d the help of the Cyc lops , , and waged war on. Kronos. He was disappeared from myth, and the stage, was the Olympians. The analogy i s very apt for t h i s I b i d . , p. 370 ; Mahler B r i e f e , .p. 161 . N e w l i n , p. 170. Richard S t r a u s s , concerned wi th r e a l i t y wh i le Mahler was occupied with mythology, c laimed that t h i s " p r o l e t a r i a n " type march reminded him of thousands of s o c i a l i s t workers p rocess ing to the Prater to c e l e b r a t e May Day. This comment 19 20 149 can be found in ,H, F. R e d l i c h , J . M. Dent and Sons, 1963 ) , ,p. Bruckner and Mahler 191 : and i n Cardus , 2 1 C o o k e , p. 2.9. 22-( London p. 9.1. .even i f t inged by the ' f l o w e r mood' , i t i s designed as music and r e q u i r e s no thought of f lowers to be unders tood . " ( W a l t e r , p. 131.) 2 3 L a Grange, p. 897, note 64 , 2 4 M a h l e r must have found cuckoo and n i g h t i n g a l e s t o r i e s amusing, for in June 1896, wh i le w a i t i n g fo r the sketches of t h e . T h i r d Symphony to a r r i v e , he wrote another song on the s u b j e c t . "Lob des hohen Verstandes" t e l l s of a s i n g i n g contest between the cuckoo and.the n i g h t i n g a l e . The cuckoo chose a donkey to be the judge , and n a t u r a l l y he dec lared the cuckoo the winner! Mahler t o l d N a t a l i e he was poking fun at c r i t i c s in t h i s song. 25 26 La Grange, p. 804. Gartenberg , p. 283. 2 7 S e e La Grange, p. 804. 28 29 30 I b i d . , p. 805. Cooke, p. 2 9. Newlin w r i t e s of t h i s s e c t i o n : "This D 8 s e c t i o n , which modulates away from the major , and conta ins Here , perhaps , i s a the new s e c t i o n had the requirements of b r i e f song has been expanded." (Newl in , i s 52 measures l o n g , never ton ic -dominant region of C no se r ious thematic development, case in which we might fee l that been. in t roduced merely to f u l f i l a form in to which the o r i g i n a l more or l e s s s u i t a b l y , p. 167.) 31, La Grange, p. 805. See La Grange's footnote to Paul Moos's review of the Th i rd Symphony (Document 3 0 ) . 32 33 34 I b i d . Kennedy, p. 104. Cooke, p. 29. 3 5 A r n o l d Schoenberg descr ibed the movement t h u s : "This i s the mood of n a t u r e , of 'Greek s e r e n i t y 1 150 i f i t must be s o - - o r , more simply* of the most marvelous beauty , fo r one who does not need such s l o g a n s ! " (Arnold Schoenberg, S t y ! e and Idea [London: Faber and Faber , 1975] , p. 457 .) A g a i n , n o t i c e . t h e emphasis on the Greek aspects of the work. Schoenberg's thoughts remind me of McGrath's i d e a . t h a t t h i s s e c t i o n represents Pan's midday dream. 3 6 K e n n e d y , p. 104. 3 7 L a Grange," p. 3 7 1 ; Bauer -Lechner , p. 4.3. 3 8 C o o k e , p. 29 . 3 9 S e e a lso the trumpet f i g u r e ( F i g . 2 , m. 5) i n the f i r s t movement. Chapter 7 ^ L i p i n e r showed promise in h i s youth with the drama Prometheus Unbound, which N ietzsche p ra i sed h i g h l y . N ie tzsche and Mahler both l o s t t rack o f . h i m in l a t e r y e a r s . However, N a t a l i e mentions that she and Mahler v i s i t e d L i p i n e r i n August 1896, a f t e r the complet ion of the Th i rd Symphony. (Bauer -Lechner , p. 55. ) 2 M c G r a t h , p. 121 . 3 W a l t e r Kaufmann, N i e t z s c h e : P h i l o s o p h e r , P s y c h o l o g i s t ,  Ant i c h r i s t , 4th ed . ( P r i n c e t o n , Pr inceton U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974) , p. 4 . N ie tzsche wrote a number of important works in 1888, many of which were not pub l ished u n t i l a f t e r h is death . In 1889, he became hope less l y insane and remained in that s ta te u n t i l h is death in 1900. Greg Brandes presented the f i r s t l e c t u r e s on N ietzsche in 1888 in Copenhagen and the w r i t e r ' s fame "began to spread l i k e w i l d f i r e . " ( I b i d . ) Thus, h is a c t i v e l i f e was over before he achieved r e c o g n i t i o n . His s i s t e r r e a l i z e d that her b r o t h e r ' s growing p o p u l a r i t y was a tremendous o p p o r t u n i t y , and she began the c r e a t i o n of the Nietzschean legend , most .of which f a l s i f i e d h is thoughts . She exerted a great deal of i n f l u e n c e wi thout apparent ly understanding her b r o t h e r ' s phi losophy at a l l . She d e l i b e r a t e l y d id not p u b l i s h N i e t z s c h e ' s l a s t works fo r a long t i m e , but d id p u b l i s h her own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t h e s e . The delay in p u b l i c a t i o n of Ecce Homo ( w r i t t e n 1888] was e s p e c i a l l y c r i t i c a l in perpetuat ing misunders tand ings . N ie tzsche reviewed h i s l i f e and h i s books i n t h i s work and i t d e f i n i t e l y repudiates many of the ideas which h is s i s t e r had a l ready incorporated in to the Nietzschean legend . J u l i u s Langbehn's phi losophy i s d iscussed by B l a u k o p f , 151 pp. 1 2 0 - 2 2 . He once claimed that he could cure N ie tzsche of h is madness, but h i s o f f e r was r e f u s e d . (Kaufmann, N ie tzsche pp. 6 7 - 6 8 . ) L ike the s i s t e r , Langbehn adapted N i e t z s c h e ' s thoughts to h is own v iews . ^Walter Kaufmann, i n t r o d u c t i o n to F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e , The Gay S c i e n c e , t r a n s . Walter Kaufmann (New York.: Random House, 1974) , p. 4 . He notes that " f r o h l i c h " means gay, whereas " h e i t e r " means c h e e r f u l . Donald M i t c h e l l t r a n s l a t e s the t i t l e as The Joy fu l S c i e n c e , which i s a l s o not s t r i c t l y c o r r e c t . 5 I b i d . , p. 5 , The f i r s t e d i t i o n was pub l ished i n 1882, the second e d i t i o n in 1887. The name " V o g e l f r e i " , as Kaufmann po ints out , i s s i g n i f i c a n t for i t " u s u a l l y s i g n i f i e s an outlaw whom anybody may shoot at s i g h t . " (Kaufmann, note to N i e t z s c h e , The Gay S c i e n c e , p. 348.) N ie t zsche saw h i m s e l f as an outlaw from s o c i e t y and, i n c e r t a i n r e s p e c t s , so d id Mahler . 7 N i e t z s c h e , The Gay S c i e n c e , p. 3 3 . 8 1 b i d. , p. 3 2. 9 1 b i d . 1 0 I b i d . ^ P e r h a p s , however, one should bear in mind Mah le r ' s e a r l y remark on the character of his symphony: " I t i s nothing but humour, g a i e t y , and an enormous laugh at the e n t i r e w o r l d . " 12 For example, I th ink " p l a y f u l tenderness that i s l a v i s h e d even on problems that have a p r i c k l y h ide" r e f l e c t s Mah le r ' s a t t i t u d e towards form and c o n t e n t . 1 3 Kaufmann, N i e t z s c h e , p. 3 2 . 1 4 1 bi d . , p. 128. 1 5 I b i d . . , p. 129. N ie tzsche thought Tr is tan, was the most per fec t example of the a r t i s t i c r e s u l t s of the f u s i o n of the two wor lds . ( N e w l i n , p. 120.) 1 6 l b id . 17 Newlin r a i s e s other i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t s . "Never , he [Nietzsche] s a i d , would the German nat ion f i n d i t s e l f s p i r i t u a l l y u n t i l i t fo l lowed 152 Dionysiart impulses f r e e l y . I t i s c l e a r from M a h l e r ' s l i f e , mus ic , and w r i t i n g s that t h i s e x a l t a t i o n of the D ionys ian v iewpoint made a profound impress ion on h im. It may be tha t when he used the f o l k poetry of Das Knaben  Wunderhorn he unconsc ious l y remembered N i e t z s c h e ' s dictum tha t f o l k - s o n g i s the perpetuum vestigum of a union of Dionys ian and A p o l l o n i a n , and as such h i g h l y to be p r i z e d ^ - This cannot be proved. . . ( N e w l i n , p. 120. ) 1 ft i 0 K a u f m a n n , i n t r o d u c t i o n to N i e t z s c h e , The Gay S c i e n c e , p. 1 2 . 1 °. There i s another connect ion worthy of no te , a l though i t has noth ing to do with Mahler . N ie t zsche always admired Ralph Waldo Emerson, and the f i r s t e d i t i o n of Die f r o h l i c h e  Wissenschaft uses .a quote from Emerson as an e p i g r a p h . At one p o i n-t (To u rnal s , Ju ly 6 , 1841) Emerson had c a l l e d h i m s e l f a " p r o f e s s o r of the Joyous Sc ience" and, fu r the rmore , assoc ia ted his Joyous Science with Z o r o a s t e r , the Greek ve rs ion of the Pers ian prophet Z a r a t h u s t r a . Kaufmann debates whether o r . n o t N ietzsche would have known t h i s . He t h i n k s not , but Emerson used the connect ion once in a l e c t u r e and N ie tzsche could have read the t r a n s l a t i o n . (Kaufmann, i n t r o d u c t i o n to The Gay S c i e n c e , pp. 8 - 9 . 2 0 The poem is found in The Por tab le N i e t z s c h e , ed . and t r a n s . Walter Kaufmann (New York : The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) , pp. 339 -40 . La Grange notes that t h i s i s the only song Mahler composed between 1884 and 1901 in which he d id not set a Wunderhorn t e x t . (La Grange, p. 806.) 2 1 T h e Por tab le N i e t z s c h e , p. 124. Such noble aims and the s t r i v i n g for p e r f e c t i o n were part of Mah le r ' s phi losophy as w e l l , at l e a s t i n the opera house! 2 3 L a Grange, p. 329. 2 4 B l a u k o p f , p. 123. 2 5 K a u f m a n n , N i e t z s c h e , p. 309 . See Chapter 11 of t h i s book fo r more i n f o r m a t i o n on the overman and e t e r n a l recurrence t h e o r i e s . Just before the poem appears , Z a r a t h u s t r a has whispered in the ear of l i f e . She r e p l i e s , "Nobody knows t h a t . " Kaufmann b e l i e v e s that Za ra thus t ra has whispered that he knows he w i l l recur e t e r n a l l y a f t e r h is death . (The  Por tab le N i e t z s c h e , p. 263.) Q C When determin ing the o v e r a l l ph i losophy of the symphony, one must not neg lec t the proposed seventh movement, 153 which a lso desc r ibes the joys of heaven. I t was re legated to the Fourth Symphony because the Th i rd was a l ready unusua l l y l o n g , and perhaps because i t was redundant. ? 7 The Por tab le N i e t z s c h e , ..p. 439. It i s tempting to i n t e r p r e t t h i s passage w i t h i n the e t e r n a l recur rence theme s i n c e i t i s at the end of the work. However, one must not be too hasty as N ie tzsche d id not in tend Part IV to be the end, but only an i n t e r l u d e . 2 8 I b i d . , p. 338 . 2 9 E i n s t e i n , p. 34 . 3 0 L a Grange, p. 806. Conclu s i on *A defense of program music by Strauss can be found in Michael Kennedy, R ichard St rauss (London: J.. M. Dent and Sons, 1975) , p. 11 . He expresses i t s l i m i t a t i o n s in Richard S t r a u s s , R e c o l l e c t i o n s and R e f l e c t i o n s , ed.. W i l l i Schuh, t r a n s . L. J . Lawrence (London: Boosey and Hawkes, 1953 ) , pp.. 3 9 - 4 0 . B e r l i o z ' s v iews , combining both a defense of the s t y l e and a statement of i t s l i m i t a t i o n s , con be found in Hector B e r l i o z , F a n t a s t i c Symphony, ed . Edward T. Cone (New York : W. W. Nor ton , 1971) , pp. 28-29 and p. 31 . L i s z t ' s op in ions can be found in N i e c k s , pp. 2 7 6 - 8 3 , and E i n s t e i n , p. 24 . 2 M i t c h e l l , p. 183. 3 La Grange, p. 658. 4 0 t t o K l a u w e l l , Geschichte der Programmusik von ihrem  Anfangen bis zur Gegenwart ( L e i p z i g : B r e i t k o p f und HaVtel , 1910; r e p r i n t e d . , Wiesbaden: Dr. Mar t in S a n d i g , 1968) , p. 417. 5 N i e c k s , p. 519. 6 L a Grange, p. 392. Mahler may not have l i k e d Brandes c a l l i n g h is symphony a tone poem, b i t s i n c e the whole work was not performed, Brandes may have been j u s t i f i e d . SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY I. On Mahler Bar f o r d , Phi 1 i p . Mahler Symphonies and Songs. S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y of Washington P r e s s , 1971. Bauer -Lechner , N a t a l i e . Er innerungen an Gustav Mahler . L e i p z i g , Vienna and Z u r i c h : E. P. T a l , 1923. Bekker , P a u l . Gustav Mahlers S i n f o n i e n . B e r l i n , 1921; r e p r i n t ed . , T u t z i n g : Hans S c h n e i d e r , 1969. B l a u k o p f , K u r t . Gustav Mahler . T rans la ted by Inge Goodwin. New York: Praeger , 1973. , e d . , with c o n t r i b u t i o n s by Zo l tan Roman. Mahler : A Documentary Study. London: Thames and Hudson, 1976. Cardus, N e v i l l e . Gustav Mahler : His Mind and His M u s i c ,  V o l . I. London: V i c t o r G o l l a n c z , 1972. Cooke, Deryck. Gustav Mah le r , 1860-1911: A Companion to the  BBC's Ce leb ra t ions of the Centenary of h is B i r t h . B r i t i s h Broadcast ing C o r p o r a t i o n , 1960. D i e t h e r , Jack. "Notes on Some Mahler J u v e n i l i a . " Chord and  Discord 3 (1969) : 3 - 1 0 0 . E n g e l , G a b r i e l . Gustav Mahler : Song-Symphonist . New York , 1932; r e p r i n t e d . , New York : David Lewis , 1970, Gar tenberg , Egon. Mahler : The Man and His Mus ic . New York : Schirmer Books, 1978. Kennedy, M i c h a e l . Mahler . London: J . M. Dent and Sons, 1974, Krenek, E r n s t . Gustav Mahler . New York : The Greystone P r e s s , 1941; r e p r i n t e d . , New York: Da Capo P r e s s , 1970. La Grange, Henry -Lou is de. Mah le r , V o l . I. New York : Doubleday and Company, 1973. Mah le r , Alma. Gustav Mah le r , Memories and L e t t e r s . Ed i ted by Donald M i t c h e l l ; t r a n s l a t e d by B a s i l C r e i g h t o n . London: John Murray, 1973. 154 155 Mahler , Gustav. B r i e f e : 1879-1911. Ed i ted by Anna Maria Mahler . B e r l i n , Vienna and L e i p z i g : Paul Z s o l n a y , 1952; r e p r i n t e d . , H i ldesheim and New York: Georg 01ms, 1978. Mah le r , Gustav. Symphonie Nr . 3 . Ed i ted by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l e Gustav Mahler G e s e l 1 s c h a f t , V ienna. Un i ve rsa l E d i t i o n , 1974 . [Band I I I of the Gustav Mahler Samtl i che Werke J\ M i t c h e l l , Donald. Gustav Mahler : The Wunderhorn Y e a r s . London: Faber and Faber , 1975. Morgenstern , Sam, ed . Composers on Mus ic . New York : Pantheon, 1956. N e w l i n , D i k a . B ruckner , Mah le r , Schoenberg. New York : K ing ' s Crown P r e s s , 1947; rev i sed e d . , New York : W . W . Norton , 1978 . Raynor, Henry. Mahler . London: M a c m i l l a n , 1975. R e d l i c h , H. F. Bruckner and Mahler . London: J . M. Dent and Sons , 1963 . R e i k , Theodor. The Haunting Melody. New York : F a r r a r , Straus and Young, 1953. T r u s c o t t , H a r o l d . "Gustav M a h l e r . " In The Symphony, Vol . I I :  E lgar to the Present Day, pp. 2 9 - 5 1 . Ed i ted by Robert Simpson. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1967. W a l t e r , Bruno. Gustav Mahler . T rans la ted by Lot te Walter L i n d t . New York: Schocken, 1957. W e l l e s z , Egon. "The Symphonies of Gustav M a h l e r . " The Music  Revi ew I (February , 1940) : 2-23 . W e r f e l , Alma Mahler . And the Br idge i s Love. London: Hutch inson , 1958. Wiesmann, S i g r i d , ed . Gustav Mahler in V ienna. T rans la ted by Anne S h e l l e y . New York : R i z z o l i , I n t e r n a t i o n a l Pu b l i c a t i o n s , 1976. 11• On Program Music and Other Related Topics Berger , Dorothea, Jean Paul F r i e d r i c h R i c h t e r . New York : Twayne P u b l i s h e r s , 1972. 156 B e r l i o z , Hec to r , F a n t a s t i c Symphony. Ed i ted by Edward T. Cone. New York : W. W. Nor ton , 1971. [A Norton C r i t i c a l Score.3 Tcha ikovsky , Modeste. The L i f e and L e t t e r s of Peter I l i c h Tcha i kovsky, 2 v o l s . Ed i ted by Rosa Newmarch. New York : Haske l l House, 1970 . [ F i r s t publ ished i n 1905 .] E i n s t e i n , A l f r e d . Music in the Romantic E r a , New York : W. W. Nor ton , 1947. Ferguson, Donald. A H i s t o r y of Mus ica l Thought, 3rd e d . New York : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1959. Kaufmann, Walter . - ' N i e t z s c h e ; P h i l o s o p h e r , P s y c h o l o g i s t , Ant i c h r i s t , 4th ed . P r i n c e t o n : Pr inceton U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974. , ed . and t r a n s . The Por tab le N i e t z s c h e . New York : The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1968. K l a u w e l l , O t to . Geschichte der Programmusic von ihrem Anfangen b is zur Gegenwart. L e i p z i g : B r e i t k o p f und Harte l , 1910; r e p r i n t e d , , Wiesbaden: Dr, Mar t in Sand ig , 1968. Lang, Paul Henry. Music in Western C i v i l i z a t i o n . New York : W. W. Nor ton , 1941. McGrath, W i l l i a m J . Dionys ian Art and P o p u l i s t P o l i t i c s i n  Au s t r i a . New Haven and London: Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974. Newman, E r n e s t . "Programme M u s i c . " In Musical S t u d i e s , pp. 103 -186 . London and New York : John Lane, The Bodley Head, 1905. N i e c k s , F r e d e r i c k . Programme Music i n the Last Four  Centur i e s . London: N o v e l l o , 1 907 . N i e t z s c h e , F r i e d r i c h . The Gay S c i e n c e . T rans la ted by Walter Kaufmann. New York: Random House, 1974. O ' B r i e n , S a l l y . "The Programme Paradox in Romantic Music as Epi tomized in the works of Gustav M a h l e r . " Stud ies in Music 5 Cl974) : 54-65 , Orrey , L e s l i e . Programme M u s i c : A B r i e f Survey from the  S i x t e e n t h Century to the Present Day. London: D a v i s - P o y n t e r , 1975. 157 Stockmeier , Wolfgang. Program M u s i c . T rans la ted by A. C. Howie. Cologne: Arno Volk V e r l a g , 1970 . [ i n t r o d u c t i o n to Vol . 36 of Anthology of Music! ] S t r a u s s , R i c h a r d . R e c o l l e c t i o n s and R e f l e c t i o n s . Ed i ted by W i l l i Schuh, t r a n s l a t e d by L. J . Lawrence. London: Boosey and Hawkes, 1953. Thurs ton , R i c h a r d . "Mus ica l Representat ion i n the Symphonic Poems of Richard S t r a u s s . " Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y of Texas, 1971. APPENDIX 158 159 DOCUMENT 1 From Ernest Newman's Essay on Program M u s i c 3 Programme m u s i c - - b y which we mean pure ly ins t rumenta l ( i . e . non -voca l ) music that has i t s r a i s o n d ' e t r e in a d e f i n i t e l i t e r a r y or p i c t o r i a l s c h e m e - - i s not an i d e a l term for t h i s kind of a r t ; but s ince a l l names which we can give i t are open to o b j e c t i o n s of some k i n d , we may as wel l use t h i s , as any o t h e r . It must be remembered, t o o , that though programme or r e p r e s e n t a t i v e music i s indeed d i f f e r e n t i a b 1 e from a b s t r a c t or s e l f - c o n t a i n e d music , i t i s not a b s o l u t e l y d i f f e r e n t i a b l e . A l l programme music must indeed be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , but i t must a l so be, in p a r t , s e l f - c o n t a i n e d ; that i s , a given \ phrase must not only be appropr ia te to the charac te r of ' Hamlet or Dante, or suggest ive of a c e r t a i n ex te rna l phenomenon such as the wind, or the f i r e , or the wate r , but i t must a l s o be i n t e r e s t i n g as m u s i c . 0 On the other hand, in thousands of works that have been w r i t t e n without a formal programme, the e x p r e s s i o n — i t may be throughout the work, or only in par ts of i t — "is so v i v i d , so s t renuous , so suggest ive of something more than an a b s t r a c t d e l i g h t in making a b e a u t i f u l t o n e - p a t t e r n , that i t spontaneously evokes in us images of d e f i n i t e scenes or charac te rs or a c t i o n s . Sure ly no one can l i s t e n to the C minor symphony, fo r example, and fee l that Beethoven's only concern was with the i n v e n t i o n and interweav ing of a b s t r a c t musical themes; here at any rate we fee l that there i s much t r u t h in Wagner's c o n t e n t i o n , that "Ernest Newman, "Program M u s i c , " i n Musical S t u d i e s , pp. 1 1 2 - 1 3 . ^There i s room for some diagreement h e r e , fo r not a l l program music i s s t r i c t l y i n s t r u m e n t a l . When vocal par ts are added to a form.which i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y i n s t r u m e n t a l , namely the symphony or symphonic poem, they accentuate and help to d e l i n e a t e the program. In some c a s e s , words to vo ice par ts rep lace an a f f i x e d exp lanatory program. I th ink F reder i ck Niecks would agree. He s t a t e s that "a programme may be r e c i t e d or sung before or with the music as wel l as p r i n t e d . " ( N i e c k s , Programme Music in the Last Four C e n t u r i e s , p. 4 . ) The sentence i s a b i t ambiguous, but I understand "wi th the music" to mean words to vocal p a r t s . Mah le r ' s programmatic works f a l l somewhere in between t h i s ra ther narrow d e f i n i t i o n and the much broader one Newman o f f e r s l a t e r in the paragraph. cNewman's f o o t n o t e : "The reader w i l l of course not take t h i s to mean that a piece of programme music should sound j u s t as wel l when played as abso lute mus ic , i . e . should be as 160 behind the mere tones a k ind of in fo rmal drama i s going on . The express ion comes, at t i m e s , as c l o s e to the suggest ion of d e f i n i t e thought and d e f i n i t e a c t i o n as any symphonic poem could do. Thus some of the q u a l i t i e s of programme music are found in abso lute mus ic , and v i c e v e r s a ; there i s no h a r d - a n d - f a s t l i n e of d i v i s i o n between the two. But we a l l understand what we.mean by the broad d i s t i n c t i o n of absolute and poet i c mus ic . In the l a t t e r we have a d e f i n i t e l i t e r a r y or p i c t o r i a l scheme c o n t r o l l i n g (a) the shape and co lour of the phrases , (b) the order in which they appear , (c) the way in which they are played o f f aga ins t each o t h e r , (d) t h e i r r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s at the end. This i t i s , roughly speak ing , that d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t from abso lute mus ic , where the manner i n which the themes are handled depends upon no c o n c e p t i o n , ex te rna l to the themes themselves , that could be phrased in words. i n t e r e s t i n g to the man who does not know the programme as to the man who does. Against that cur rent f a l l a c y I argue f u r t h e r o n . " ^Newman's f o o t n o t e : "The term ' p o e t i c ' i s used as a k ind of verbal shorthand. A piece of music may be suggested by a drama, a n o v e l , a h i s t o r i c a l event , a poem, a p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r e a t i s e ( l i k e A lso sprach Z a r a t h u s t r a ) , or anything e l s e . The one phrase ' p o e t i c music ' w i l l conven ien t l y cover the a e s t h e t i c f a c t s invo lved in a l l these modes of s u g g e s t i o n . " 161 DOCUMENT 2 From Freder ick N i e c k s ' s Study on Program M u s i c 3 In f a c t , you may have programme music without even as much as a t i t l e . I f the composer had a programme i n h i s mind whi le composing, the composi t ion i s programme mus ic , whether he revea ls h is programme or n o t . I t used to be very common with composers to conceal t h e i r programmes. They were e i t h e r a f r a i d of the p re jud iced c r i t i c s , and kept t h e i r s e c r e t , l i k e Weber in the C o n c e r t s t u c k ; or were themselves a f f e c t e d by the p r e v a i l i n g p r e j u d i c e , and t r i e d , l i k e Schumann, to excuse t h e i r p r a c t i c e by exp lanat ions intended to a l l y t h e i r own doubts as wel l as the wrath of o t h e r s . The p r e j u d i c e , however, which has led to the l a r g e s t amount of misconcept ion and to an i n f i n i t u d e of preposterous c r i t i c i s m i s the assumption tha t the composer g ives in h i s music a l l that i s set f o r t h in the programme, whereas in r e a l i t y the music i s intended only as a commentary and i l l u s t r a t i o n , not as a d u p l i c a t e or t r a n s l a t i o n of i t . Indeed, the programme would be a s u p e r f l u i t y i f i t did not conta in something that music i s unable to express at a l l or e q u a l l y w e l l . We cannot reason , give o r d e r s , and t e l l s t o r i e s i n music . I t cannot name persons , t i m e s , and places connected with what i t communicates , a l t h o u g h , i t may c h a r a c t e r i z e them and h i n t at them. On the other hand, we can express the i n f i n i t e shades and degrees of moods and emotions b e t t e r by tones than by any other medium. Of c o u r s e , composers have o f t e n , from ignorance or presumpt ion , attempted the i m p o s s i b l e . But misuse does not j u s t i f y the condemnation of use . Next , l e t us note the var ious charac te rs of programmes. Three main d i v i s i o n s are e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . - - t h e predominat ing ly d e s c r i p t i v e , the predominat ing ly e m o t i o n a l , and the predominat ing ly s y m b o l i c a l . The d e s c r i p t i v e (the m a t e r i a l l y d e s c r i p t i v e ) i s the lowest k ind of programme mus ic ; and i s best used in combination with and s u b o r d i n a t i o n to one of the o t h e r s . To make up fo r the absence of the emotional element i s a d i f f i c u l t and r a r e l y s u c c e s s f u l t a s k . I t i s the musical e lement .par e x c e l l e n c e . L a s t l y , although a programme i n v i t e s and admits d e v i a t i o n from the s t r u c t u r a l methods of abso lu te mus ic , i t n e i t h e r n e c e s s a r i l y demands abandonment of the c l a s s i c a l forms, nor in any conce ivab le case excuses fo rmlessness . a F r e d e r i ck C e n t u r i e s , pp. 3 -Niecks , 4 . Program Music i n the Last Four 162 DOCUMENT 3 PART A L e t t e r from Bruno Walter to Ludwig Schiedermair , December 5 , 1 9 0 1 a In order to c h a r a c t e r i z e the d i f f e r e n c e between programme mus ic , in which music becomes re legated to such a t r i v i a l e x i s t e n c e , and M a h l e r ' s music (and a i i absolute m u s i c ) , I should l i k e to d e s c r i b e b r i e f l y the b i r t h of the Fourth Symphony (which i s c e r t a i n l y s i m i l a r to the genesis of the e a r l i e r works ) : Mahler , who had set to music the l y r i c Das himmlische Leben years ago, was s t i r r e d by t h i s d e l i g h t f u l , c h i l d - l i k e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of l i f e i n Heaven and f e l t h i m s e l f t ranspor ted in to j u s t such an u t t e r l y se rene , strange and d i s t a n t sphere ; and the thematic m a t e r i a l which came to him from t h i s very personal world of f e e l i n g he worked in to a symphony. S ince t h i s was of course a world of h is own i n which he l i v e d , . , , s o a lso i t s musical c o u n t e r -part presented much that was new and s u r p r i s i n g . Here as always Mahler had no i n t e n t i o n of i l l u s t r a t i n g any p a r t i c u l a r events or i d e a s . The themes which o r i g i n a t e d i n t h i s sphere were developed along symphonic p r i n c i p l e s i n accordance with t h e i r own unusual c h a r a c t e r i s t i e s . a n d n a t u r a l l y r e s u l t e d in e q u a l l y unusual combinat ions . No programme would ever help you to understand t h i s work, or any other symphony by Mahler . It i s absolute mus ic , u n l i t e r a r y from beginning to end, a four-movement symphony, o rgan ic in every movement and e n t i r e l y a c c e s s i b l e to anyone wi th a f e e l i n g for s u b t l e humour. PART B From the R e c o l l e c t i o n s of Bruno Wal ter^ There [in the F i r s t Symphony] a h e a r t - r e n d i n g exper ience f i n d s a r t i s t i c r e l e a s e . I do not mean that he expresses in tone something he has l i v e d — that would be program mus ic ; what happens i s that a mood born of r e c o l l e c t i o n and of present f e e l i n g produces themes and a f f e c t s the whole shape of the musical development without breaking the musical con tex t . Thus a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d composi t ion becomes a personal message from his h e a r t . . . P r o l i f e r a t i n g i n i n v e n t i o n and p u l s i n g with p a s s i o n , i t i s music that has been l i v e d . a K u r t B l a u k o p f , e d . , Mahler : A Documentary Study , p. 230. b Bruno W a l t e r , Gustav Mah le r , pp. 1 2 0 - 2 2 . 163 DOCUMENT 4 L e t t e r from Mahler to Unknown R e c i p i e n t , May 15. 1894 Please accept my thanks fo r your k ind o f f e r . However, i t i s hard ly my i n t e n t i o n to confuse the audience at a musical performance with t e c h n i c a l r e m a r k s , - - a n d in my o p i n i o n i t amounts to nothing e l s e when one s t u f f s a "program book le t " i n t o the aud ience 's hands, thereby f o r c i n g i t to see ra ther than to hear! C e r t a i n l y I cons ider i t necessary that the web of motives be c l e a r to every l i s t e n e r . But do you r e a l l y b e l i e v e that in a modern work the s i n g l i n g out of severa l themes i s s u f f i c i e n t for t h i s ? One must achieve the c o g n i t i o n and r e c o g n i t i o n of a musical work through e x h a u s t i v e - s t u d y , and the more profound a work, the harder i t i s , and the longer the study t a k e s . At a f i r s t performance, however, the p r i n c i p a l t h i n g i s to give o n e s e l f with pleasure or d i s p l e a s u r e to the work, to a l low the human-poetic in general to a f f e c t one, and i f one then f e e l s drawn to i t , to occupy o n e s e l f with i t more thorough ly . How does one do when one meets a person , who i s c e r t a i n l y much more profound and be t te r than h is work? Where i s the program booklet here? Here a lso i t means sedu lous ly c u l t i v a t i n g him and z e a l o u s l y s tudy ing him. Of c o u r s e , he grows and changes, whereas the work always' remains the same. But at some point or o t h e r , comparisons always l i m p . aSam Morgenstern , e d . , Composers on M u s i c , pp. 3 0 6 - 7 ; Gustav Mahler , B r i e f e : 1879-1911 , pp. 1 4 6 - 4 7 . 164 DOCUMENT 5 PART A L e t t e r from Mahler to Max Marscha lk , December 17 , 1895 a The o r i g i n a l aim of t h i s work was never to d e s c r i b e an event in d e t a i l ; ra ther i t concerns a f e e l i n g . I ts s p i r i t u a l message i s c l e a r l y expressed i n the words of the f i n a l chorus . The unexpected appearance of the a l t o so lo casts a sudden i l l u m i n a t i o n on the f i r s t movement. It i s easy to understand t h a t , because of the nature of the mus ic , I have imagined in c e r t a i n passages something l i k e the dramatic performance of a real event . The p a r a l l e l between l i f e and music i s perhaps deeper and more ex tens ive than can be drawn at p r e s e n t . Yet I ask no one to f o l l o w me along t h i s t r a c k , and I leave the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of d e t a i l s to the imag inat ion of each i n d i v i d u a l 1 i s t e n e r . . . PART B L e t t e r from Mahler to Max Marscha lk , March 2 0 , 1896 b There i s some j u s t i f i c a t i o n fo r the t i t l e ( " T i tan" ) and for the program; that i s , at the time my f r i e n d s persuaded me to provide a kind of program for the D major Symphony in order to make i t e a s i e r to understand. T h e r e f o r e , I had thought.up t h i s t i t l e and exp lanatory m a t e r i a l a f t e r the ac tua l compos i t i on . I l e f t them out fo r t h i s performance .-fin B e r l i n , March 16 , 1 8 9 6 ] , not only because I th ink they are qu i te inadequate and do not even c h a r a c t e r i z e the music a c c u r a t e l y , but a l so because I have learned through past exper iences how the p u b l i c has been mis led by them. But that i s the way with every program! B e l i e v e me, the symphonies of Beethoven, t o o , have t h e i r inner program, and when one gets to know such works bet te r one's understanding fo r the proper success ion of the emotions and ideas i n c r e a s e s . In the end , that w i l l be t rue of my works a l s o . In the t h i r d movement ( funera l march) i t i s t rue that I got the immediate i n s p i r a t i o n from the wel l -known c h i l d r e n ' s p i c t u r e ("The Huntsman's F u n e r a 1 . " ) - - B u t in t h i s place i t i s i r r e l e v a n t what i s represented — the only important t h i n g i s the mood which should be expressed and from which the four th a H e n r y - L o u i s de La Grange, Mah le r , V o l . I, p. 784 ; Gustav Mahler , B r i e f e , pp. 1 7 9 - 8 0 . b D i k a N e w l i n , B ruckner , Mah le r , Schoenberg, p. 139; Gustav Mah le r , B r i e f e , pp. 185-86 . 165 movement then spr ings suddenly , l i k e l i g h t e n i n g from a dark c l o u d . I t i s s imply the cry of a deeply wounded h e a r t , preceded by the ghast l y brooding oppress iveness of the funera l march. PART C L e t t e r from Mahler to Max Marscha lk , March 2 6 , 1896 c I should l i k e to s t r e s s that the symphony [the F i r s t ] goes fa r beyond the love s to ry on which i t i s based, or r a t h e r , which preceded i t in the emotional l i f e of i t s c r e a t o r . The ex te rna l event was only the occas ion — so cannot be the the sub jec t of the w o r k . . . . .We are faced with the e s s e n t i a l quest ion of knowing . how, o r ,even why, the contents of a musical work should be def ined in words. [ I t fo l l ows from a remark in your esteemed l e t t e r that we agree on t h i s po int and s u r e l y understand each o t h e r . A l low me to b r i e f l y e x p l a i n my viewpoint?] - - F o r myself I know that so long as I can sum up my exper ience i n words, I can c e r t a i n l y not c reate music about i t . My need to express myself in music symphonical1y begins p r e c i s e l y where dark f e e l i n g s hold sway, at the gate which leads i n t o the "other w o r l d " , the world in which th ings no longer are d i v i d e d by time and space. So, j u s t as I f i n d i t i n s i p i d to invent music to a program, so I view i t as u n s a t i s f a c t o r y and u n f r u i t f u l to wish to give a program to a p iece of mus ic . That does not a l t e r the fac t that the motive for a musical p i c t u r e i s c e r t a i n l y an exper ience of the a u t h o r ' s , indeed an actua l one, which might a f t e r a l l be concrete enough to be c lo thed in words. We stand now — o f that I am c e r t a i n — a t the great crossroads which d i v i d e s fo rever the d i v e r g i n g paths of symphonic and dramatic music so e a s i l y v i s i b l e to the eye of him who i s c l e a r about the d i r e c t i o n of mus ic . Even now, should you hold up a Beethoven symphony aga ins t the tone p i c t u r e s of Wagner, you w i l l e a s i l y recognize the essence of the d i f f e r e n c e between them. Indeed, Wagner made the means of express ion of symphonic music h i s own, j u s t as now the symphonist f u l l y q u a l i f i e d in and complete ly conscious of h is medium, w i l l take over from the wealth of express ion which c Gustav Mah le r , B r i e f e , pp. 1 8 6 - 8 8 . The p o r t i o n of the l e t t e r up to the square brackets was t r a n s l a t e d by La Grange, p. 357. The p o r t i o n w i t h i n the square brackets was t r a n s l a t e d by t h e . a u t h o r . The res t of the l e t t e r was t r a n s l a t e d by Morgenstern , pp. 3 0 7 - 8 . The round brackets near the end are i n the o r i g i n a l l e t t e r , but not i n the t r a n s l a t i o n . The l e t t e r does not end here . A program for the Second Symphony, r e p r i n t e d in Document 19, f o l l o w s . 166 music gained through Wagner's e f f o r t s . In t h i s sense , a l l the a r t s , y e s , even a r t and nature hang t o g e t h e r . However, t h i s has not been thought about enough as y e t , because up to now not enough p e r s p e c t i v e has been gained on the s u b j e c t . I have not concocted t h i s "system" and then adapted my c r e a t i o n to i t e i t h e r ; but on ly a f t e r w r i t i n g severa l symphonies (with rea l b i r t h pangs) , and forever coming up aga ins t the same misunderstandings and q u e s t i o n s , d id I f i n a l l y — f o r me at l e a s t — g a i n t h i s i n s i g h t in to t h i n g s . In s p i t e of e v e r y t h i n g , i t i s t h e r e f o r e good that at the b e g i n n i n g , when my s t y l e i s s t i l l f o r e i g n to h im, the l i s t e n e r be p r o v i d e d . w i t h a few s ignposts and mi les tones a l o n g . h i s journey , or s h a l l we say : a map of the s t a r s to comprehend the n ight sky with i t s s h i n i n g wor lds . But such an e x p o s i t i o n cannot o f f e r more. A person must fas ten upon something he knows, or he gets l o s t . Consequent ly , I s h a l l be g r a t e f u l to you i f you p u b l i s h your essay . ( I l i k e i t b e t t e r than anything e l s e which has been s a i d of me up to now.) [Marschalk had w r i t t e n program notes fo r the F i r s t Symphony 167 DOCUMENT 6 PART A L e t t e r from Tchaikovsky to Nadejda von Meek, February 17 , 1878 a You ask i f . in composing t h i s symphony [the Fourth] I had a s p e c i a l programme i n view. To such quest ions regard ing my symphonic works I g e n e r a l l y answer: noth ing of the k i n d . In r e a l i t y i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to answer t h i s q u e s t i o n . How to i n t e r p r e t those vague f e e l i n g s which pass through one dur ing the composi t ion of an ins t rumenta l work, without re ference to any d e f i n i t e sub jec t? It i s a purely l y r i c a l p rocess . A kind of musical s t r i v i n g of the s o u l , i n which there i s an e n c r u s t a t i o n of mate r ia l which f lows f o r t h again i n n o t e s , j u s t as the l y r i c a l poet pours h i m s e l f out in ve rse . The d i f f e r e n c e c o n s i s t s in the fac t that music possesses fa r r i c h e r means of e x p r e s s i o n , and i s a more s u b t l e medium in which to t r a n s l a t e the thousand s h i f t i n g moments i n the mood of a s o u l . Genera l l y s p e a k i n g , the germ of a fu tu re composit ion comes suddenly and unexpected ly . I f the s o i l i s r e a d y — t h a t i s to say , i f the d i s p o s i t i o n for work i s t h e r e -i t takes root with e x t r a o r d i n a r y force and r a p i d i t y , shoots up through the e a r t h , puts f o r t h branches , l e a v e s , and, f i n a l l y , blossoms. I cannot de f ine the c r e a t i v e process in any other way than by t h i s s i m i l e . The great d i f f i c u l t y i s that the germ must appear at a favourable moment, the res t goes of i t s e l f . I t would be vain to t r y to put i n t o words that immeasurable sense of b l i s s which comes over me d i r e c t l y a new idea awakens in me and begins to assume a d e f i n i t e form. I fo rget eve ry th ing and behave l i k e a madman. Every th ing w i t h i n me s t a r t s p u l s i n g and q u i v e r i n g ; hard ly have I begun the sketch ere one thought fo l lows another . However, I have wandered from the point without answering. your q u e s t i o n . Our symphony [the work was ded icated to von Meek] has a programme. That i s to say , i t i s p o s s i b l e to express i t s content in words, and I w i l l t e l l you—and you a l o n e — t h e meaning of the e n t i r e work and of i t s separate movements. N a t u r a l l y I can only do so as regards i t s general f e a t u r e s . a Modeste Tcha ikovsky , The L i f e and L e t t e r s of Peter  I l i c h Tcha ikovsky , 2 v o l s . , ed . Rosa Newmarch, pp. 2 7 4 - 7 8 , I t i s noteworthy that the program which Tchaikovsky wrote fo r the Fourth (pp. 275-77) bears s i m i l a r i t i e s to some of Mah le r ' s programs. This " p r o c e s s i o n of o ld memories" in the second movement i s comparable to M a h l e r ' s summing up the Andante of the Second Symphony as the "mournful memory of youth and l o s t innocence . " 1 6 8 I can t e l l you no more, dear f r i e n d , about the symphony. N a t u r a l l y my d e s c r i p t i o n i s not very c l e a r or s a t i s f a c t o r y . But there l i e s the p e c u l i a r i t y of ins t rumenta l mus ic ; we cannot analyse i t . "Where words leave o f f , music b e g i n s , " as Heine has s a i d . P . S . - - J u s t as I was p u t t i n g my l e t t e r i n t o the enve lope . I began to read i t a g a i n , and to f e e l m i s g i v i n g s as to the confused and incomplete programme which I am sending you. For the f i r s t time in my l i f e I have attempted to put my musical thoughts and forms i n t o words and phrases . I have not been very s u c c e s s f u l . I was h o r r i b l y out of s p i r i t s a l l the time .I was composing t h i s symphony l a s t w i n t e r , and t h i s i s a t rue echo of my f e e l i n g s at the t i m e . But only an echo. How i s i t p o s s i b l e to reproduce i t in c l e a r and d e f i n i t e language? I do not know, I have a l ready fo rgot ten a good d e a l . Only the general impress ion of my pass ionate and sorrowful exper iences has remained. PART B L e t t e r from Tchaikovsky to Serge Tane iev , March 2 7 , 1878 b With a l l that you say as to my Symphony having a programme, I am qu i te in agreement. [In h i s l e t t e r to Tchaikovsky on March 1 8 , Taneiev c laimed that "the fanfare for trumpets in the i n t r o d u c t i o n , which i s repeated in other p l a c e s , the frequent change of tempo in the t r i b u t a r y t h e m e s - - a l l t h i s makes me t h i n k that a programme i s being t rea ted h e r e . " ] But I do not see why t h i s should be a m i s t a k e . I am fa r more a f r a i d of the c o n t r a r y ; I do not wish any symphonic work to emanate from me which has nothing to express , and c o n s i s t s merely of harmonies and a purposeless design of rhythms and modu la t ions . Of c o u r s e , my Symphony i s programme mus ic , but i t would be imposs ib le to give the programme i n words; i t would appear l u d i c r o u s and on ly r a i s e a s m i l e . Ought not t h i s to be the case with a symphony which i s the most l y r i c a l of a l l musical forms? Ought i t not to express a l l those th ings fo r which words cannot be found, which never the less a r i s e in the heart and clamour for express ion? . . .Let me add that there i s not a s i n g l e bar in t h i s Fourth Symphony of mine which I have not t r u l y f e l t , and which i s not an echo of my most i n t i m a t e s p i r i t u a l l i f e . D Modeste Tcha ikovsky , pp. 2 9 2 - 4 , '"• • -Taneiev was a composer and p i a n i s t , and a good f r i e n d of Tchai kovsky. 169 DOCUMENT 7 M a h l e r ' s Thoughts on Beethoven's S i x t h Symphony3 In order to understand i t , one must have a f e e l i n g fo r  na tu re , which most people l a c k . From the very s t a r t of the p i e c e , one must be able to share Beethoven's somewhat naive thoughts on the s u b j e c t : the p leasure of breath ing f resh a i r and admir ing the s u n l i g h t breaking through a f o r e s t , or the open sky above an open f i e l d . In p a r t i c u l a r , no one seems able to render the scene by the brook, which i s taken e i t h e r too f a s t ( i n four b e a t s ) , or too s low ly ( in twelve b e a t s ) . The former i s u s u a l l y the c a s e , because .o f Beethoven's joke at the end of i t : s u r p r i s e d by the r a i n the nature l o v e r s run for s h e l t e r and the tempo a c c e l e r a t e s . This i s why most un th ink ing people play the whole movement too f a s t , whereas most of i t should f low as t r a n q u i l l y as the stream i t s e l f , in keeping with the uniform and continuous f low of the accompaniment, which must be monotonous i n the extreme. However, the theme running p a r a l l e l to t h i s monotonous accompaniment i s of such beauty and spontane i ty that only those l a c k i n g in humor and s e n s i t i v i t y could f i n d i t b o r i n g -Mahler f e l t that Beethoven's " s u b j e c t i v e f e e l i n g " and "pass ionate emotion" came across only twice i n the e n t i r e work- - two measures i n the slow movement, and four measures in the l a s t movement. In the r e s t of the symphony, "nature spoke fo r i t s e l f . " In Munich in 1910, when asked how one should conduct the slow movement, he answered, "With a f e e l i n g fo r n a t u r e ! " H i r s c h f e l d , . in h is comments f o l l o w i n g the December 1899 c o n c e r t , noted the slow tempo of the Andante, but admitted that he had never found t h i s movement "so e n c h a n t i n g , nor the s i n g i n g of the b i rds so n a t u r a l . " 1 3 a L a Grange, p. 542 ; N a t a l i e Bauer -Lechner , Er innerungen  an Gustav Mah le r , pp. 1 0 0 - 1 0 1 . b L a Grange, pp. 5 4 2 - 4 4 . N a t a l i e mentions H i r s c h f e l d ' s review and h is comments on the tempo i n her r e m i n i s c e n c e s , p. 134. 170 DOCUMENT 8 PART A From Ludwig S c h i e d e r m a i r 1 s Essay on Mahler A f t e r the concert an i l l u s t r i o u s company gathered , c o n s i s t i n g of l e a d i n g a r t i s t s , s c h o l a r s and w r i t e r s , to spend what was l e f t of the .even ing with Mahler i n an atmosphere of r e l a x a t i o n and merr iment. Somebody in t roduced the sub jec t of programme notes . It was as though l i g h t e n i n g had s t ruck in a b r i g h t and sunny landscape. M a h l e r ' s eyes l i t up more than e v e r , he r a i s e d h is fo rehead , jumped up from the t a b l e in h is excitement and c r i e d out i m p a s s i o n a t e l y : "Away with programmes, they arouse f a l s e i m p r e s s i o n s . Leave the p u b l i c to t h e i r own thoughts about the work they are to hear , do not force them to read whi le they are l i s t e n i n g and f i l l t h e i r minds with p re -conce ived ideas ! I f a composer h i m s e l f has forced on h i s l i s t e n e r s the f e e l i n g s which overwhelmed him, then he has achieved h i s o b j e c t . The language of music has then approached that of the word, but has communicated immeasurably more than the word i s able to e x p r e s s . " And Mahler took up h i s g lass and emptied i t with a cry of "Death to programmes!" And the res t of us looked at one another understandi n g l y . PART B L e t t e r from Mahler to Ludwig S c h i e d e r m a i r , November 2 , 1900 I p r a t t l e d a great deal of what I t h i n k i n that j o v i a l company that got together a f t e r the c o n c e r t - - y o u must have heard ; i n c l u d i n g what I sa id about "programmes". This i s not the place for me to present a connected statement of what I t h i n k on the s u b j e c t . Thanks to my p r o f e s s i o n I am in such a t e r r i b l e rush that I l i t e r a l l y do not have time even to eat or s leep p r o p e r l y . . . . In any case I hope I have expressed myself s u f f i c i e n t l y c l e a r l y in my works and that you can absorb the emotion and the exper ience they embody without verbal e x p l a n a t i o n s , i f you approach them with your inner eyes and ears open. I t would be a genuine re lease fo r me to f i n d someone who was able to see and hear s imply from the score and from his own s e l f . One t h i n g you w i l l a l so a l ready have n o t i c e d , that j u s t as my phys ica l l i f e develops ra ther than s imply p r o g r e s s i n g , so a lso that l i f e expresses i t s e l f i n the sequence of my works — and when I say that I begin a new symphony roughly where the previous one f i n i s h e d I do not mean a A l 1 three excerpts can be found i n Mahler : A Documentary  Study , p. 225. 171 simply t y i n g a-new thread on to the end of the o ld one that i s a l ready f u l l y spun o u t . In a word - - I hope that you w i l l approach the tender c r e a t i o n s of the a r t i s t (however i n t r a c t a b l e . t h e i r content may malce them) not as a b o t a n i s t but as a poet . . . . PART C L e t t e r from Mahler to Ludwig S c h i e d e r m a i r , undated Many thanks for your l i t t l e book, which I have read with i n t e r e s t , I have the impress ion I come o f f q u i t e wel l in i t . I f y o u . r e a l l y mean to do essays on the F i r s t and T h i r d , then please be c a r e f u l 1 You seem to be qu i te wide of the mark, as fa r as I can judge from your b r i e f comments. The Th i rd has nothing to do with the s t r u g g l e s of an i n d i v i d u a l . It would be more accurate to say : i t i s n a t u r e ' s path of development (from s t i f f m a t e r i a l i t y to the g reates t a r t i c u l a t i o n ! , but.above a l l the l i f e of nature ! ) Di onysu s - - t h e d r i v i n g , c r e a t i v e f o r c e , - - T h e t i t l e s that I o r i g i n a l l y added to the work are i n d i c a t i v e , but they are so inadequate . and have been so thoroughly misunderstood that I have dropped them a g a i n . They may perhaps help to l i g h t e n the darkness for you a 1 i t t l e - - b u t - - c a r e f u l how you use them and i n t e r p r e t them! Let me emphasize again what I have a l ready s a i d : j u s t as they were in any case only added afterwards because.the work was not understood , they have been dropped again because they were misunderstood. . . . The F i r s t has not yet been grasped by anyone who has not l i v e d with me. 172 DOCUMENT 9 Summary of an A r t i c l e by K.ornel Abranyi i n the Pester L l oyd , November 19 , 1 8 8 9 a Abranyi wrote at length on the d i f f e r e n c e between program mus ic , pure music , and dramatic mus ic . In h is o p i n i o n , Mahler belongs to that c l a s s of c r e a t o r s whose e n t i r e p e r s o n a l i t y i s expressed in each of t h e i r works and whose o r i g i n a l i t y appears everywhere. The impressions and passions they express c reate an atmosphere and a s p i r i t u a l world that i s complete ly p e r s o n a l , that " i n c l u d e s every th ing from naive i l l u s i o n to doubt a n d . s k e p t i c i s m . " . . .The "Symphonic Poem" might be c a l l e d L i f e , i l l u s t r a t i n g as i t does the l i f e of one "who s e e s , who f e e l s , who e x p e r i e n c e s , that l i f e which throws e a r t h ' s marvels i n t o the paths of youth" and wh ich , with "the f i r s t breath of autumn, takes back p i t i l e s s l y every th ing that has been given e a r l i e r . " In the f i r s t p a r t , the rosy c louds of youth and the f e e l i n g of s p r i n g ; in the second, happy daydreams, in the t h i r d a j o y f u l wedding p r o c e s s i o n . But these fade away and, in the f o u r t h , tragedy appears without warn ing . The funera l march represents the b u r i a l of the poet ' s i l l u s i o n s , i n s p i r e d by the wel l -known "Hunter 's F u n e r a l " . This b o l d , power fu l l y conceived movement i s made up of two c o n t r a s t i n g moods. The f i n a l s e c t i o n br ings to man redemption and r e s i g n a t i o n , harmony of l i f e , work and f a i t h . Beaten to the ground, he r i s e s again and wins t h e . f i n a l v i c t o r y . The p h i l o s o p h i c r e s i g n a t i o n imposes i t s e t e r n a l v e r i t i e s and i t s c o n c i l i a t i n g harmony upon the end of the work. a L a Grange, p. 203. 173 DOCUMENT 10 Review of the F i r s t Symphony by August Beer , November 1 8 8 9 a PART A Even in a symphonic poem,, a l though i t permits of incomparably g reater freedom in form and l a y o u t , we requ i re the music to be s e l f - c o n t a i n e d and to show a cor responding tendency fo r a s p e c i f i c t r a i n of thought to predominate, whether t h i s be the i l l u s t r a t i o n of a poe t i c i d e a , or a sequence of mental and p h y s i c a l events s tanding in a causal r e l a t i o n s h i p to each o t h e r . . In t h i s way, B e r l i o z , L i s z t and Sa in t -Saens have reproduced in symphonic form the main features of a drama, a poem, a h i s t o r i c a l event or an event imagined by the composer h i m s e l f , Mah le r 1 s cdmposi t ion gives the impress ion that a programme for t h i s music was only subsequently p r o j e c t e d , PART B The f i r s t movement i s a p o e t i c a l l y conceived f o r e s t i d y l l , which catches our i n t e r e s t by the d e l i c a t e , hazy co lours in which i t i s p a i n t e d . Hunting horns r i n g o u t , the voices of b i r d s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y i m i t a t e d by f l u t e s and oboes, become l o u d e r , and a warm v i o l i n melody, b reath ing d e l i g h t and g o o d w i l l , enters e x u l t a n t l y . Spread over the movement there i s a genuine f e e l i n g of s p r i n g t i m e . The serenade.which f o l l o w s i s a h e a r t f e l t , rapturous trumpet melody which a l t e r n a t e s with melancholy song on the oboe; i t i s not hard to recognize the lovers exchanging t h e i r tender f e e l i n g s in the s t i l l n e s s of the n i g h t . The t h i r d movement takes us in to the v i l l a g e i n n . It bears the t i t l e Scherzo , but i s a rea l genuine peasant dance, a piece f u l l of h e a l t h y , t r u e - t o - l i f e r e a l i s m with w h i r r i n g , humming basses , sc reech ing v i o l i n s and squea l ing c l a r i n e t s to which the peasants dance t h e i r " h o p s " . The subsequent funera l march suddenly j e r k s the l i s t e n e r out of the i d y l l i c vernal mood which the composer has h i t h e r t o been able to por t ray wi th such f e l i c i t y . Moreover, the note of parody which i s s t r u c k in the f i r s t two sec t ions produces a strange-enough i m p r e s s i o n . The funera l march begins with the wel l -known song "Bruder M a r t i n , a Donald M i t c h e l l , Gustav Mahler : The Wunderhorn Years , pp. 1 5 3 - 5 4 . 174 s c h l a f s t so s c h o n " , reproduced note fo r n o t e , a humorous canon which in Germany gets ree led o f f in amusingly psalmodical tones in glee c lubs and s tudents ' t a v e r n s . . .Only the t r i o , wi th i t s b e a u t i f u 1 , gent l y conso la to ry c a n t i l e n a , corresponds to the t rue charac te r of a funera l s e r v i c e . . . . the F i n a l e , whose un leash ing or o r c h e s t r a l fury i n some places even outdoes the Orgy of Ch i lde Harold and the music of He l l in the Symphonie Fantast ique of B e r l i o z . 175 DOCUMENT 11 Program for the F i r s t Symphony Used for the Hamburg Performance, October 2 7 , 1893 a TITAN, A tone poem in the form of a symphony 1st Part "Aus den Tagen der Jugend," B lumen - , F rucht - und Dornstucke. [From the days of y o u t h , f l o w e r , f r u i t , and thorn pieces] I. " F r t l h l i n g und keine Ende" ( E i n l e i t u n g und A l l e g r o Comodo) . [.Endless Spr ing ( I n t r o d u c t i o n and A l l e g r o Comodo)]. The I n t r o d u c t i o n d e p i c t s the awakening of Nature from i t s 1ong wi nter s ieep . I I . "Blumine" (Andante) I I I . "Mit v o l l e n Segeln" (Scherzo) [under f u l l sa i l ] 2nd Part "Commedia humana" IV. " G e s t r a n d e t ! " [Stranded] (e in Todtenmarsch i n " C a l l o t s M a n i e r " . ) For t h i s movement, the f o l l o w i n g e x p l a n a t i o n w i l l h e l p : the bas ic i n s p i r a t i o n for i t was found by the author in a humorous e n g r a v i n g , wel l known to a l l A u s t r i a n c h i l d r e n : "The Huntsman's F u n e r a l , " from an o ld book of f a i r y t a l e s . The f o r e s t animals accompany the dead hunte r ' s c o f f i n to the grave . Hares c a r r y the banner, in f ront of them march a group of Bohemian m u s i c i a n s , accompanied by s i n g i n g c a t s , t o a d s , crows, e t c . S t a g s , deer , f o x e s , and other f o u r - l e g g e d and feathered animals f o l l o w the funera l p rocess ion i n a l l kinds of f a r c i c a l p o s i t i o n s . The mood expressed i s sometimes i r o n i c and merry , sometimes gloomy and uncanny, then suddenly . . . V. "Dal 1 ' . I n f e r n o " ( A l l e g r o Fur ioso) f o l l o w s , l i k e the l a s t d e s p a i r i n g cry of a deeply wounded h e a r t . a L a Grange, pp. 7 4 7 - 4 8 . 176 DOCUMENT 12 Mahler and Jean Paul PART A: Remarks by Donald M i t c h e l l 3 A much more worthwhi le approach, which I t h i n k may wel l provide the c o r r e c t answer, i s t o . v i e w the use of the " T i t a n " t i t l e as an attempt to d i vu lge a . c l u e to the s i n g u l a r kind of world which the symphony i n h a b i t s ; and I b e l i e v e that i f we look at the novel from t h i s a n g l e , we can f i n d i n i t s s t y l e and cur ious p h i l o s o p h y , in Jean P a u l ' s hand l ing of h i s m a t e r i a l s , a n d . i n the nature of h is imagery , a remarkably i n t e r e s t i n g a n d . i 1 1 u m i n a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between the world of the novel and the world of the symphony. This i s a fa r cry from a s s e r t i n g that the music " t e l l s the s t o r y " of the novel . (which' Mahl er would have been r i g h t to defend h i m s e l f a g a i n s t ) , and indeed no way excludes i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the t i t l e such a s . H o i t z m a n n ' s , e . g . Mah le r ' s T i t a n i s "s imply a t i t a n i c hero who appears on the scene as a g l o r i o u s c h i l d of n a t u r e " , e t c . , e t c . , o r . B a u e r - L e c h n e r 1 s (and a lso M a h l e r ' s ? ) submission of a "he ro ic i n d i v i d u a l , h i s l i f e and s u f f e r i n g " , e t c . I do not doubt . tha t in the symphony we do encounter a p r o t a g o n i s t , . and . that the p ro tagon is t was i n a very r e a l sense Mahler h i m s e l f . But the world in which the t i t a n i c hero plays out h is r o l e , - t h e kind of exper iences he undergoes, and the unique savour of those e x p e r i e n c e s , and the imagery which embodies thenw-these seem to me to owe a l o t to the world of . Jean P a u l . a s revealed i n h is Ti tan novel ; and i t i s at t h i s l e v e l that the common t i t l e takes on rea l s i gni f i c a n c e . . PART B: An Assessment of Jean Paul by W. A. Coupe b His p r o l i f i c w r i t i n g s (60 volumes) are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a h igh ly devel oped . sense of humour and an extreme formlessness — the p lo t i s o f ten s l i g h t and tends to be o v e r l a i d by a mass of d i g r e s s i o n s and i n t e r p o l a t i o n s . The mood of his works a l t e r n a t e s between s c e p t i c i s m and emotional i sm, between the "Turk ish bath of s e n t i m e n t a l i t y and the co ld show of s a t i r e ; " s i m i l a r i l y h is s t y l e v a r i e s between over -ornamentat ion worthy of the Baroque and passages of great l y r i c a l beauty. His great n o v e l s . . . a l l deal with the a M i t c h e l 1 , p. 227. b T h i s passage . i s quoted by M i t c h e l l , p. 227 . I t can be f o u n d . i n the Penguin-Companion to L i t e r a t u r e , I I : European  L i t e r a t u r e , ed . Anthony Thor lby , p. 399 . 177 same c e n t r a l problem: the achievement of a harmonious p e r s o n a l i t y , the dangers of one-s idedness and the c o n f l i c t of the idea l and the r e a l . PART C: An Assessment of Jean Paul from the Encyc lopedia B r i t a n n i c a c He stands between Sturm und Drang and Romantic ism, but h is work inc ludes r a t i o n a l i s t elements taken from the Enl ightenment , and in c e r t a i n respects i t i s remin iscent of Baroque w r i t i n g . He un i ted the great c o n t r a s t s of humour and s e n t i m e n t a l i t y , reason and i m a g i n a t i o n . His ove r f low ing c r e a t i v i t y of ten produced fo rmlessness . He was incapab le of e i t h e r poe t i c or dramatic form, but as a prose w r i t e r he wrung from the language, to quote Stefan George, "d ie gl'dhendsten Farben und die t i e f s t e n Klange" ( " the most glowing co lours and the r i c h e s t m u s i c " ) . He had a great i n f l u e n c e on h i s contemporar ies , p a r t i c u l a r l y on women and young men, and on l a t e r generat ions down to the middle of the n ineteenth c e n t u r y . Then for a long time he appeared to be almost f o r g o t t e n . Thus, a knowlege of the works of Jean Paul was not fash ionab le in the 1890s. Mahler could not r e a l i s t i c a l l y have expected the audiences to grasp the connect ions without more e x p l i c i t e x p l a n a t i o n . c Encyc1opedia B r i t a n n i c a , 1968 e d . , s . v . " R i c h t e r , Johann Paul F r i e d r i c h , " by Eduard Beren.d. 178 DOCUMENT 13 Review of the Hamburg Performance of the F i r s t Symphony (October 2 7 , 1893) by Joseph S i t t a r d 3 PART A The four th movement i s c a l l e d "Aground" , and the programme f u r t h e r gives the d e s i g n a t i o n Commedia humana as a s p e c i a l heading . In order to be qu i te e x p l i c i t , the composer a l so adds: "A funera l march i n the manner of C a l l o t . " But s i n c e desp i te t h i s the l i s t e n e r might s t i l l e a s i l y get the wrong i d e a , a f u r t h e r annotat ion i n s t r u c t s us that the author was s t i m u l a t e d to wr i te t h i s tone p a i n t i n g by the p a r o d i s t i c p i c t u r e "The Hunter 's Funeral P r o c e s s i o n " from an o ld book of c h i l d r e n ' s t a l e s . . . . . I n s p i t e of t h i s we did not under-stand t h i s Commedia humana. At f i r s t , we thought we had to understand the s u p e r s c r i p t i o n "Aground" as i f i t prepared us for a p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c p i c t u r e , perhaps l i k e that produced by Raff in h is symphony having the motto : " L i v i n g , contend ing , a s p i r i n g , d y i n g . " But t h i s i s not e n t i r e l y how i t has turned out h e r e , and the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s the composer gets in to with h is t i t l e s and the commentary t e s t i f y to the f a c t that he h i m s e l f was not c l e a r . Hares , t o a d s , crows and other animals have t h e i r say in t h i s "human comedy". PART B The v i o l i n s s u s t a i n the note A fo r some f i v e minutes ; sometimes other sounds of l i f e are added; muted horns and trumpets are h e a r d . i n the d i s t a n c e . The ear th begins to come t r u l y a l i v e ; here and there the chaos i s i n t e r r u p t e d by the sound of an i n q u i s i t i v e b i r d , but the monotony of w in te r does not r e l i n q u i s h i t s dominion. F i n a l l y , we hear a wealth of musical sounds of s p r i n g , yet the bare f i f t h of the t r i a d , r e p r e s e n t i n g f i e r c e w i n t e r , r e t a i n s the upper hand, even though a bold, snowdrop peeps out c a u t i o u s l y from time to t i m e . We imagine we are i n the i ce age. Then f i n a l l y i t a p p r o a c h e s - - s p r i n g , with i t s t i m p a n i , drums and t rumpets , with no c h i r r u p i n g , u n t i l the former b r ing the movement to a sudden end with a bad-tempered b u r s t . a M i t c h e l l , pp. 2 4 0 - 4 1 . 179 DOCUMENT 14 A r t i c l e on the F i r s t Symphony by Ludwig fCarpath i n the Neues  Wiener T a g b l a t t , November 1900 Mahler o r i g i n a l l y c a l l e d h i s Fi r s t : " T i t a n " , but he has s ince r e j e c t e d t h i s , together with a l l other t i t l e s and i n s c r i p t i o n s , wh ich , l i k e a l l "programs" , are always m i s i n t e r p r e t e d . He d i s l i k e s and d i s c a r d s them .as being " a n t i a r t i s t i c " and " a n t i m u s i c a l " d e s p i t e t h e i r au thor ' s i n t e n t i o n s . The t i t l e s appeared to r e l a t e Mah le r ' s " T i t a n " to Jean P a u l ' s n o v e l , although he d id not have t h i s in mind, but imagined rather a s t rong hero ic man, h is l i f e and s u f f e r i n g s , h is b a t t l e s and defeat at the hands of Fa te . In M a h l e r ' s own words: "The r e a l , t h e , c l i m a c t i c denouement comes only in the Second Symphony! The Fi r s t was conceived and composed from the standpoint of a defense less young man, who e a s i l y f a l l s prey to any a t t a c k e r s . In the f i r s t movement, the l i s t e n e r i s se i zed by a d i o n y s i a c f e e l i n g of j u b i l a t i o n , which i s n e i t h e r d i s tu rbed nor i n t e r r u p t e d . Here , as l a t e r , Gustav never ceases to repeat that i t i s q u i t e unnecessary to have t h i s " T i t a n " in mind, t h i s young " F e u e r g e i s t " i n whom the world i s r e f l e c t e d , but that a l l can be understood and enjoyed in pure ly musical te rms. The f i r s t sound, the l o n g - h e l d A harmonics, sets the scene in the midst of n a t u r e , i n a f o r e s t where the s u n l i g h t of a l o v e l y day spark les and shimmers. "The 1 i s t e n e r s wi11 c e r t a i n l y not understand the end of t h i s movement," Mahler c o n t i n u e s . " I t w i l l not be s u c c e s s f u l , yet I could e a s i l y have made i t more ' e f f e c t i v e ' . My hero bursts out laughing and runs away. I am sure that no one w i l l n o t i c e the theme t h a t , at the end, i s given to the t i m p a n i ! " In the second movement, the young man roams about the world in a more r o b u s t , s t rong and conf ident way. The wonderful dance rhythms in the T r io are p a r t i c u l a r l y noteworthy , "because a l l music proceeds from the dance , " as Mahler once s a i d . "But everyone w i l l condemn me as a t h i e f because, in the f i r s t two b a r s , my memory f a i l e d me and they resemble a Bruckner symphony that i s very wel l known i n V i e n n a . " Here a sent imenta l and rapturous piece was o r i g i n a l l y i n s e r t e d , a love scene that Mahler j o k i n g l y c a l l e d h i s hero 's "b lunder of youth" and that he l a t e r e l i m i n a t e d . Of the t h i r d , Bruder M a r t i n movement, Mahler r e c e n t l y s a i d : "Now he (my hero) has found a h a i r i n h i s soup and h i s e n t i r e meal i s r u i n e d . " . . .The s i t u a t i o n can be imagined t h u s : A funera l La Grange, p. 749. This program, wi th a few changes in word ing , can be found in N a t a l i e ' s r e m i n i s c e n c e s , pp. 1 4 8 - 4 9 . 180 process ion passes by; a l l the misery and a l l the sorrow of the world s t r i k e s our hero with i t s b i t i n g c o n t r a s t s and i t s dreadfu l i r o n y . The Bruder Mar t in funera l march must be "'. -imagined piayed by .a cheap band, such as one hears at country f u n e r a l s i t . draws near , takes shape and d i s a p p e a r s , thus f i n a l l y becoming what i t i s . In the midst of t h i s , a l l the c o a r s e n e s s , . t h e mi r th and the b a n a l i t y of the world are heard in the sound of a Bohemian v i l l a g e band, together with the hero 's t e r r i b l e c r i e s of p a i n . In i t s b i t i n g i rony and c o n t r a s t i n g polyphony, i t i s the most moving moment! P a r t i c u l a r l y when, a f t e r a wonderful i n t e r l u d e , the funera l p rocess ion r e t u r n s . a n d a s o u l - p i e r c i n g "gay tune" i s heard . The l a s t movement fo l lows without pause, on a t e r r i f y i n g s h r i e k . Our hero i s now exposed to the most f e a r f u l combats and to a l l the sorrows of the w o r l d . He and h is tr iumphant mot i fs are " h i t on the head again and aga in" by d e s t i n y . Once more he seems fo r a moment to get to h is feet and become the master of h is f a t e . a g a i n . But only when he has triumphed over d e a t h , and when a l l the g l o r i o u s memories of youth.have returned with themes from the f i r s t movement, does.he get the upper hand: and there i s a great v i c t o r i o u s c h o r a l e ! . . . 1.81 DOCUMENT 15 The S i g n i f i c a n c e of " T o t e n f e i e r " a S i e g f r i e d L i p i n e r , Mah le r ' s c lose f r i e n d from the Vegetar ian S o c i e t y days , pub l ished i n L e i p z i g , where Mahler was then l i v i n g , a complete t r a n s l a t i o n , named T o t e n f e i e r , of Adam M i c k i e w i c z ' s great poem Dz i ady. It was the f i r s t appearance in p r i n t of any work by L i p i n e r , and i t cannot have escaped Mah le r ' s n o t i c e . Consequent ly , there must have been some connect ion in h is mind between the Mick iew icz poem and the composi t ion to"which he gave the same t i t l e . In the preface he wrote for the t r a n s l a t i o n , L i p i n e r de f ines T o t e n f e i e r as "a feast that i s s t i l l held by people in many prov inces of L i t h u a n i a , East P r u s s i a and K u r l a n d i a . I ts o r i g i n can be t raced back to the hero ic age. I t was then c a l l e d ' B o c k f e s t ' . . .These r i t e s are s t i l l performed in chapels and deserted houses, not fa r from the cemetary . " This funera l feast was, t h e r e f o r e , a very pagin ceremony, s p r i n g i n g from man's anc ient b e l i e f that banquets o f f e r e d in honor of the dead can soothe them and bet te r t h e i r c o n d i t i o n . Although t h i s feast plays an e s s e n t i a l part i n the poem, the exact t r a n s l a t i o n of the P o l i s h word Dziady i s not "Funeral F e a s t " , but "The E l d e r s " or "The F o r e f a t h e r s " . M i c k i e w i c z ' s poem i s c u r i o u s l y d i v i d e d i n t o four d i f f e r e n t p a r t s , the f i r s t of which i s fragmentary and remained unpubl ished u n t i l a f t e r h is d e a t h . Part 3 , the l o n g e s t , was w r i t t e n in France and publ ished i n 1830. I t s main charac te r i s a p a t r i o t i c hero c a l l e d Conrad, whi le the e a r l i e r Parts 2 and 4 are about an u l t r a - r o m a n t i c Werther f i g u r e , c u r i o u s l y named Gustav. Both heroes are known to be l i t e r a r y t r a n s p o s i t i o n s of the poet h i m s e l f . In the Gustav poem, he t e l l s the s to ry of h is own hopeless pass ion fo r Maria Wereszcak, a young g i r l who, although she was i n love wi th him, marr ied someone e l s e . The shock was so great that i t drove the poet to the b r ink of madness. L ike h i s hero Gustav, he became obsessed with the idea of s u i c i d e , a recur ren t theme in the poem. Knowing that l i t e r a t u r e (and p a r t i c u l a r l y the works of h is f r i e n d S i e g f r i e d L i p i n e r ) was dear to Mah le r ' s h e a r t , one can be c e r t a i n that M i c k i e w i c z ' s poem was i n h i s mind when he composed the great march or at l e a s t when he chose the t i t l e . I t i s a l s o imposs ib le not to draw a p a r a l l e l between the poet ' s love fo r Maria Wereszcak (mentioned by L i p i n e r in h is preface) and the composer's fo r Marion Math i lde von Weber, who was l i k e w i s e marr ied to another man. When a L a Grange, pp. 780-81 . 182 Mahler had morbid v i s i o n s of death in L e i p z i g , whi le composing, i t was Marion h e r s e l f who d i s p e l l e d them by v i s i t i n g him and removing the f lowers strewn around h is room. Although there i s no connect ion between M i c k i e w i c z ' s poem and the program that Mahler l a t e r devised fo r the f i r s t movement of h is symphony, Mahler probably s e c r e t l y ded icated T o t e n f e i e r , l i k e the F i r s t Symphony, to M a r i o n , as a kind of requiem for t h e i r thwarted love a f f a i r . 183 DOCUMENT 16 L e t t e r from Mahler to Ar thur S e i d l , February 17 , 1897 a When I conceive a great musical i d e a , I always come to the point where I must make the "word" the bearer of the (musical ] i d e a . - - T h a t i s what must have happened to Beethoven in h i s Ninth - - o n l y that era could not yet f u r n i s h him with appropr ia te m a t e r i a l . For , b a s i c a l l y , S c h i l l e r ' s poem i s not f i t t e d for the express ion of the unheard-of concept ion which was in Beethoven's m i n d . c Furthermore, I r e c a l l that Wagner says t h i s somewhere in q u i t e uncompromising f a s h i o n . What happened to me with the l a s t movement of the Second Symphony i s s imply t h i s : I r e a l l y looked through a l l the w o r l d ' s l i t e r a t u r e , even the B i b l e , to f i n d the redeeming Word — and was f i n a l l y forced to express my f e e l i n g s and thoughts in my own words. The way i n which I rece ived the i n s p i r a t i o n to t h i s act i s very i n d i c a t i v e of the t rue nature of a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n . At that time I had long planned to in t roduce the chorus in to the l a s t movement, and only h e s i t a t e d i n fear that t h i s might be i n t e r p r e t e d as a s u p e r f i c i a l i m i t a t i o n of Beethoven. Just t h e n , Billow d i e d , and I attended h is funera l h e r e . — The mood in which I sat there and thought of the departed one was e x a c t l y that of the work which occupied me c o n s t a n t l y t h e n . - - A t that moment, the chorus , near the o rgan , intoned the K lopstock chora le " A u f e r s t e h n ! " It s t ruck me l i k e a b o l t of l i g h t n i n g , ; ' and every th ing stood c l e a r and v i v i d before my s o u l . The c r e a t o r wai ts fo r t h i s b o l t of 1 i ghtni ng.; t h a t i s , h is "Holy A n n u n c i a t i o n . " a N e w l i n , p. 158. b I t was Wagner who claimed that Beethoven used vo ices because he had "exhausted the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of express ion inherent in ins t rumenta l m u s i c , " ( N e w l i n , p. 158.) and t h i s myth was perpetuated throughout the centu ry . Wagner j u s t i f i e d h is own work with t h i s symphony, c l a i m i n g that h i s operas were the only na tu ra l f u l f i l l m e n t of what was in the N i n t h . He played the Ninth on a l l great occas ions i n h is c a r e e r , such as the opening of Bayreuth . (Paul Henry Lang, l e c t u r e at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia , January 1979 .) c Y e t Beethoven a lso adapted the tex t and wrote some words h i m s e l f . Sure ly Mahler must have known t h i s . 184 DOCUMENT 17 A r t i c l e by Ferdinand Pfohl i n the Hamburger N a c h r i c h t e n , December 13 , 189 5 a We are e v i d e n t l y i n the presence of a work that belongs to the genre of program music . This i s e s t a b l i s h e d beyond a l l doubt. But how does the programme go? It i s not at a l l easy to answer t h i s quest ion and to e l u c i d a t e the poet i c ground-plan of the work. R e a l l y only one person can do that — the composer h i m s e l f . And u n f o r t u n a t e l y he has hidden h i m s e l f away in impenetrable darkness and wi thhe ld from h is ins t rumenta l movements the i l l u m i n a t i n g ray of any exp lanatory words. This r e t i c e n c e i s a l l the more r e g r e t t a b l e s ince the sequence of i n d i v i d u a l movements s imply cannot be understood without f u r t h e r in fo rmat ion and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s to the bas ic idea of the whole work cannot at a l l times be brought in to c l e a r , l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . a Mitche11 , p. 288 , note 76. 185 DOCUMENT 18 Program for the Second Symphony, January 1896 a The f i r s t movement d e p i c t s the t i t a n i c s t r u g g l e aga ins t l i f e and d e s t i n y fought by a superman who i s s t i l l a p r i s o n e r of the w o r l d ; h is e n d l e s s , constant defeats and f i n a l l y h is death . The second and t h i r d movements are episodes f rom.the l i f e of the f a l l e n hero. The Andante t e l l s of h is l o v e . What I have expressed in the Scherzo can only be desc r ibed v i s u a l l y . When one watches a dance from a d i s t a n c e , wi thout hear ing the mus ic , the r e v o l v i n g motions of the par tners seem absurd a n d . p o i n t ! e s s . L i k e w i s e , to someone who has l o s t h i m s e l f and h is happ iness , the world seems crazy and confused , as i f deformed by a concave m i r r o r . The Scherzo ends with the f e a r f u l scream, of a soul that has exper ienced t h i s t o r t u r e . In " U r l i c h t " the quest ions and s t rugg le of the human soul fo r God, as wel l as i t s own d i v i n e nature and e x i s t e n c e , come to the f o r e f r o n t . Whereas t h e . f i r s t three movements are n a r r a t i v e , the l a s t i s a l t o g e t h e r d r a m a t i c . Here, a l l . i s motion and occur rence . The movement s t a r t s wi th the. same dreadfu l death cry which ended the Scherzo . And now, a f t e r these f r i g h t e n i n g q u e s t i o n s , comes the answer, redemption. To begin w i t h , as f a i t h and the church p i c t u r e i t : the day of judgment, a huge tremor shakes the e a r t h . The c l imax of t h i s t e r r i f y i n g event i s accompanied by drum r o l l s . Then the l a s t trump sounds. The graves burst open, a l l the c rea tu res a L a Grange, pp. .784-85: Bauer -Lechner , pp. 22-24 . bWhen examining the 1894 manuscr ip t , M i c h e l ! came across a cur ious comment of M a h l e r ' s . "At F i g . 1 2 , the d e l i c i o u s p i z z i c a t o passage, there i s a f a s c i n a t i n g note from Mahler (omit ted in the pub l ished score) which i n s t r u c t s the v i o l i n i s t s and v i o l a p layers to hold t h e i r inst ruments l i k e g u i t a r s and strum with the thumb. The conductor , says Mahler , i s to i n s i s t on t h i s . No doubt he was seeking to convey, in sound but a l so perhaps v i sua!1y , the consp icuous ly se renade -1 ike charac te r of the movement, and at t h i s moment wanted the s t r i n g body to turn i t s e l f i n t o a g i g a n t i c g u i t a r . " M i t c h e l l f e e l s t h i s represents a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n of the atmosphere Mahler wanted to c reate at t h i s moment. ( M i t c h e l l , p. 283 , note 68 -[B] .) 186 s t r u g g l e out of the ground, moaning and t r e m b l i n g . Now they march in mighty p r o c e s s i o n s : r i c h and poor , peasants and k i n g s , the whole church with bishops and popes. A l l have the same f e a r , a l l cry and tremble a l i k e because, i n the eyes of God, there are no j u s t men. As though from another w o r l d , the l a s t trump sounds a g a i n . F i n a l l y , a f t e r they have l e f t t h e i r empty graves and the ear th l i e s s i l e n t and d e s e r t e d , there comes on ly the 1ong-drawn note of the b i r d of death . Even he f i n a l 1 y di es . What happens now i s fa r from expected : no d i v i n e judgment, no b lessed and no damned, no Good and no E v i l , and no judge . . Everyth ing has ceased to e x i s t . So f t and s i m p l e , the words g e n t l y . s w e l l . u p : " R i s e a g a i n , yet r i s e a g a i n , w i l t t h o u , my d u s t , when res t i s o ' e r . " Here the words s u f f i c e as commentary and I w i l l not add one s y l l a b l e . The b ig crescendo which s t a r t s at t h i s po int i s so tremendous and unimaginable that I do not myself know how I achieved i t . 187 DOCUMENT 19 L e t t e r from Mahler to Max Marscha lk , March 2 6 , 1896 I have c a l l e d the f i r s t movement T o t e n f e i e r and, i f you are i n t e r e s t e d , i t i s the hero of my F i r s t D Major Symphony who i s being c a r r i e d to h is grave and whose l i f e I imagine I can see r e f l e c t e d i n a mi r ro r from a high watchtower. At the same time the b ig quest ion i s being asked : Wherefore hast thou l i v e d ? Wherefore has thou s u f f e r e d ? Is i t a l l some g r e a t , f e a r f u l joke? We must answer these quest ions in some way i f we are to cont inue l i v i n g - - y e s , even i f we must only cont inue d y i n g . The man in whose l i f e t h i s c a l l resounds must give an answer, and I g ive i t in the l a s t movement. The second and t h i r d movements are conceived as an i n t e r l u d e : the second, a memoryl A ray of sun, c l e a r and u n t r o u b l e d , from the hero 's l i f e . I am sure you have exper ienced t h i s whi le you were c a r r y i n g to h is grave someone who was near to your h e a r t ; perhaps on the way back there suddenly appeared the image of an hour of happiness long passed, which l i t up your soul and which no shadow can s p o i l . One p r a c t i c a l l y fo rgets what has happened! That i s the second movement! When you awaken from t h i s malancholy dream and must re turn to l i f e ' s c o n f u s i o n , i t can e a s i l y happen that the cease less a g i t a t i o n , the meaningless bus t le of l i f e , seems to you unreal , l i k e dancing forms in a b r i g h t l y l i t b a l l r o o m : you watch them from the darkness and from a d i s t a n c e , so that you cannot hear the accompanying music! And so l i f e seems without meaning, a f e a r f u l nightmare from which you awaken with a cry of h o r r o r . This i s the t h i r d movement! What f o l l o w s af terwards i s c l e a r to you. . . a L a Grange, p. 784 ; Gustav Mahler B r i e f e , pp. 1 8 8 - 8 9 . 188 DOCUMENT 20 From the Reminiscences of N a t a l i e Bauer -Lechner" . . . the Scherzo , with i t s macabre humour, was perhaps the most d i f f i c u l t for people to unders tand , and the end of i t came so unexpectedly that for a wh i le they were death ly s i l e n t , and then only a few people c l a p p e d . The U r 1 i c h t made a very deep i m p r e s s i o n . It was applauded fo r so long that Mahler was even cons t ra ined to repeat i t - - b u t t h i s was not because of the applause but because he wanted to have the t h i r d , four th and f i f t h movements played without a break , and by repeat ing the U r l i c h t he was at l e a s t able to preserve the c o n t i n u i t y of the l a s t two. The l a s t movement, with i t s t e r r i b l e d in at the beginning and the c r i e s of fear and t e r r o r of a l l the s o u l s ; the ma'rch to which the hosts swarm up to the Last Judgment from a l l s i d e s ; and the complete ly inexpected r e s o l u t i o n and redemption in the most s u b l i m e , soar ing Chorus of Resur rec t ion ( A u f e r s t e h e n ) - - a l 1 t h i s had a most powerful e f f e c t on the g reates t part of the p u b l i c . The remainder of the a u d i e n c e -unconverted, indeed perhaps outraged at the work, t h e i r d i sapprova l w r i t t e n a l l over t h e i r faces — d i d not however d a r e , as in e a r l i e r t i m e s , to express themselves with h i s s i n g or c a t c a l 1 s . a M a h l e r : A Documentary Study , p. 219; B a u e r - L e c h n e r , pp. 1 1 4 - 1 6 . 189 DOCUMENT 21 L e t t e r from Mahler to Alma S c h i n d l e r , December 1 9 0 1 a PROGRAMME OF THE SECOND SYMPHONY BY GUSTAV MAHLER We are standing beside the c o f f i n of a man be loved . For the l a s t t ime h is l i f e , h i s b a t t l e s , h is s u f f e r i n g s and h is purpose pass before the mind's eye . And now, at t h i s solemn and deeply s t i r r i n g moment, when we are re leased from the p a l t r y d i s t r a c t i o n s of everyday 1 i f e , out hearts are gr ipped by a vo ice of a w e - i n s p i r i n g s o l e m n i t y , which we seldom or never hear above the deafening t r a f f i c of mundane a f f a i r s . What next? i t says . What i s l i f e - - a n d what i s death? Have we any c o n t i n u i n g e x i s t e n c e ? Is i t a l l an empty dream, or has t h i s l i f e of o u r s , and our d e a t h , a meaning? I f we are to go on l i v i n g , we must answer t h i s q u e s t i o n . The next three movements are conceived as i n t e r m e z z i . Second Movement. Andante. A b l i s s f u l moment in h is l i f e and a mournful memory of youth and l o s t innocence. Th i rd Movement. Scherzo . The S p i r i t of u n b e l i e f and negat ion has taken possess ion of him. Looking in to the tu rmoi l of appearances, he loses together with the c l e a r eyes of ch i ldhood the sure foo tho ld which love alone g i v e s . He despa i rs of h imse l f and of God. The world and l i f e become a w i t c h ' s brew; d i s g u s t of ex i s tence in every form s t r i k e s him with i ron f i s t and d r i ves him to an outburst of d e s p a i r . Fourth Movement. The pr imal dawn. ( A l t o s o l o . ) The moving vo ice of ingenuous b e l i e f sounds in our e a r s . "I am from God and w i l l re tu rn to God! God w i l l give me a candle to l i g h t me to the b l i s s of e te rna l l i f e . " F i f t h Movement. We are confronted once more by t e r r i f y i n g q u e s t i o n s . A vo ice i s heard c r y i n g a l o u d : The end of a l l l i v i n g a Alma Mahle r , Gustav Mah le r , Memories and L e t t e r s pp. 213 -14 . 190 beings i s come- - the Last Judgement i s at hand and the horror of the day of days has come. The earth quakes, the graves burst open, the dead a r i s e and stream on t n . e n d l e s s p r o c e s s i o n . The great and the l i t t l e ones of the ear th — kings and beggars , r ighteous and g o d l e s s -a l l press o n — t h e cry for mercy and fo rg iveness s t r i k e s f e a r f u l l y on our e a r s . The w a i l i n g r i s e s h i g h e r — o u r senses desert u s , consciousness d ies at the approach of the e t e r n a l s p i r i t . T h e "Last Trump" i s heard—the trumpets of the Apocalypse r i n g o u t ; i n the e e r i e s i l e n c e tha t fo l lows .we can j u s t catch the d i s t a n t , bare ly aud ib le song .of a n i g h t i n g a l e , a l a s t tremulous echo of e a r t h l y l i f e ! A chorus of s a i n t s and heavenly beings s o f t l y breaks f o r t h : "Thou s h a l t a r i s e , s u r e l y t h o u s h a l t a r i s e . " Then appears the g lo ry of God! A wondrous, s o f t l i g h t penetrates us to the h e a r t - r - a l l i s holy calm! And b e h o l d - M t . i s no judgement—there are no s i n n e r s , no j u s t . None i s g r e a t , none i s s m a l l . There i s no punishment and no reward. An overwhelming love l i g h t e n s our b e i n g . We know and a r e . 191 DOCUMENT 22 L e t t e r from. Mahler to Alma S c h i n d l e r , December 20 , 1901 a . . . 1 only drew up the programme as a c rutch for a c r i p p l e (you know whom I mean). I t only gives a s u p e r f i c i a l i n d i c a t i o n , a l l that any programme can do fo r a musical work., l e t alone t h i s one, which i s so much a l l of a piece that i t can no more be exp la ined than the world i t s e l f . - - I ' m qu i te sure that i f God were asked to draw up a programme of the world he had created he could never do i t . - - A t best i t would say as l i t t l e about the nature of God and l i f e as my a n a l y s i s says about my C minor symphony. In f a c t , as a l l r e l i g i o u s dogmas do, i t leads d i r e c t l y to misunders tand ing , to a f l a t t e n i n g and c o a r s e n i n g , and in the long run to such d i s t o r t i o n that the work, and s t i l l more i t s c r e a t o r , i s u t t e r l y u n r e c o g n i z a b l e . - - 1 had a s e r i o u s t a l k with Strauss in B e r l i n and t r i e d to show him the b l i n d - a l l e y he had got i n t o . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , he could not qu i te f o l l o w what I meant. a A1 m a Mah le r , Gustav Mah le r , Memories and L e t t e r s , pp. 2 1 7 - 1 8 . ^ S t r a u s s ' s " b l i n d - a l l e y " , of c o u r s e , was h is p e r s i s t e n c e in composing tone poems with s p e c i f i c programs i n mind. Accord ing to Mah le r , t h i s would lead nowhere. 192 DOCUMENT 23 F i r s t Draf ts of the Program for the Th i rd Symphony' Das gl l ickl i che Leben, e i n Sommernachtstraum ( n i c h t nach Shakespeare, Anmerkungen eines K r i t i k e r s [im Text durch gest r ichen] Rezensenten) : [The Happy L i f e , A Midsummer N i g h t ' s Shakespeare, annotat ions by a C r i t i c t e x t ] Reviewer) :] Dream (not a f t e r [ s t ruck out i n the I I , I I I , I I I , IV V VI Was mi r der Wa1d e r z a h l t , Was mir d ie Dclmmerung erzelhl t Was mir d ie Liebe e r z a h l t ^ Was mir d ie Dclmmerung erza'hl t Was mir d ie Blumen auf der • W i e s e • e r z a h 1 e n , Was mir der Kuckuck e r z a ' h l t , Was mir das Kind e r z S h l t . [What What me , What What me, What the f o r e s t t e l l s me the t w i l i g h t t e l l s love t e l l s me, the t w i 1 i ght t e l 1 s in the the f lowers meadow t e l l me. What the cuckoo t e l l s me, What the c h i l d t e l l s me.] I. Der Sommer marsch ie r t e in ( F a n f a r e - - l u s t i g e r Marsch. E i n l e i t u n g nur B l a s e r und konzer t ie rende K o n t r a b a s s e ) , [Summer marches in ( F a n f a r e - - ! i v e l y March. I n t r o d u c t i o n o n l y w i t h Wind and so lo Doub le -basses ) , ] I I . Was mir der Wald erza'hlt ( I . Satz) [What the f o r e s t t e l l s me (1st movement),] I I I . Was mir die Liebe erzelhlt (Adagio) [What love t e l l s me (Adagio)] IV. Was mir d ie Dclmmerung e r z a h l t (Scherzo , nur S t r e i c h e r ) , [What the t w i l i g h t t e l l s me (Scherao^ s t r i n g s on l y ) , ] V. Was mir d ie Blumen auf der Wiese erz 'ah len , [What the f lowers in the meadow t e l l me,] V I . Was mir der Kuckuck e r z a ' h l t , [What the cuckoo t e l l s me,] V I I . Was mir das Kind e r z a h l t . J k h a t the c h i l d t e l l s me.] M i t c h e l l quotes Paul Bekker , Gustav Mahlers S i n f o n i e n , p. 106, e x a c t l y and prov ides a t r a n s l a t i o n . These e a r l y programs can a l so be found in La Grange, p. 328 , and Alma a M i t c h e l 1 , p. 189. 193 Mah le r , pp. 38-3.9. M i t c h e l l notes that the programs which Alma quotes are " v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l " to the Bekker d r a f t s . I t occurs to me that both A. M. and Bekker may have used a common documentary source , i n which case A. M. 's t r a n s c r i p t i o n s . s e e m to be a shade l e s s a c c u r a t e . t h a n B e k k e r ' s , which make b e t t e r musical sense . The E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n i s f a i t h f u l . to ..the o r i g i n a l , but I would advise students to consu l t the Bekker d r a f t s , which seem to me to be more a u t h e n t i c . I compared Alma with Bekker and found two important d i f f e r e n c e s , both in the f i r s t d r a f t . T h e . f i r s t d i f f e r e n c e i s in the annotat ion a f t e r the t i t l e . The German at t h i s po in t r e a d s : Ni cht nach Shakespeare, Anmerkung fur Rezensenten und Shakespearekenner. (The d r a f t s are found on pp. 51-5Z of the German e d i t i o n of Alma's book.) The second d i f f e r e n c e i s the omiss ion of the f lower movement i n Alma's v e r s i o n . This must be a s l i p , s ince the movement was composed before the d r a f t s were d e v i s e d . I f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to understand why M i t c h e l l would c a l l the two ve rs ions " v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l " , when c l e a r l y they are not . 0 Note by Donald Memories and L e t t e r s , M i t c h e l 1 Append i x in Alma Mahle r , Gustav Mahler , and Chronology, p. 360. 194 DOCUMENT 24 N a t a l i e B a u e r - L e c h n e r 1 s Reminiscences of the Summer of 1895" Almost before he had a r r i v e d , Mahler got to work, on h is Th i rd Symphony. "This one, I hope," w i l l b r ing me applause and money," he s a i d to me j o k i n g l y on one of the e a r l y days , " f o r t h i s i s humour and g a i e t y , an enormous laugh at the whole w o r l d . " But by the next day he had a l ready changed h is tune : "You know, t h e r e ' s no money to be earned from the Th i rd e i t h e r ! I ts ga ie ty i s not going to be understood or a p p r e c i a t e d : i t ' s the ga ie ty tha t soars above the world of the F i r s t and Second, with t h e i r c o n f l i c t and p a i n , and i t can e x i s t only as the product of that w o r l d . " I t s not r e a l l y appropr ia te to c a l l i t a symphony, for i t doesn ' t s t i c k to the t r a d i t i o n a l form at a l l . But 'symphony' means to me b u i l d i n g a world wi th a l l the resources of the a v a i l a b l e t e c h n i q u e s . The c o n t e n t , c o n t i n u a l l y new and changing , determines i t s own form. This being s o , I must always f i r s t l e a r n again to r e - c r e a t e my medium of express ion even though I can , I b e l i e v e , now cons ider myself complete ly master of the t e c h n i q u e . " Coming s t r a i g h t from h is work, a l l emotional and e x c i t e d , Mahler sa id to me whi le we were t a k i n g a wa lk : "That was how I cut the Gordian knot , by'.the idea of i n t r o d u c i n g language and human vo ices in to my Second Symphony, where I needed them to make myself understood. A p i t y I d i d n ' t have t h i s in my F i r s t ! However, I s h a n ' t h e s i t a t e i n the T h i r d , I s h a l l use two poems from Pes Knaben Wunderhorn and a g l o r i o u s poem by N ie tzsche as the b a s i s f o r the songs i n the short movements. "'Summer comes i n 1 w i l l be the p ro logue . For t h i s I need a m i l i t a r y band, to achieve the crude e f f e c t of the a r r i v a l of my m a r t i a l hero . I t w i l l r e a l l y be as i f the g a r r i s o n band were marching i n . You get a rabble hanging around at such a time which you never catch s igh t of otherwi se . Mah le r : A Documentary Study , pp. 2 0 1 - 2 ; B a u e r - L e c h n e r , PP. 1 9 - 2 0 . D o c u m e n t 135 i n A Documentary Study reproduces an o r i g i n a l l e t t e r to N a t a l i e , dated September 2 , 1895, which conta ins the proposed t i t l e s . I t i nc ludes the motto fo r the s i x t h movement. There i s a quest ion mark beside the f i r s t movement. B e s i d e . t h e quest ion mark the word "Dionysus" can be d e c i p h e r e d , and underneath "sommer marsch ie r t e i n . " 195 " N a t u r a l l y , there has to be a s t r u g g l e wi th the adversary , W in te r ; but he i s e a s i l y vanquished, and Summer, i n the f u l l n e s s of power, gains the undisputed mastery . This movement, as an i n t r o d u c t i o n , w i l l be kept humorous, even grotes que. "The t i t l e s of the consecut ive par ts of the Th i rd w i l l be : 1 . Summer marches i n . 2. What the f lowers in the meadow t e l l me. 3 . What the c reatures in the f o r e s t t e l l me. 4. - What the n ight t e l l s me (Mankind) . 5 . . What the morning b e l l s t e l l me (The A n g e l s ) . 6. What love t e l l s me. 7. What the C h i l d t e l l s me. "And the whole t h i n g I s h a l l c a l l 'my Joyous S c i e n c e ' - -i t i s t h a t , t o o ! " 196 DOCUMENT 25 L e t t e r from Mahler to F r i e d r i c h Lohr , August 29 , 1895 a . . .My new symphony w i l l l a s t about 1% hours — i t i s a l l in la rge symphonic form. The emphasis on my personal emotional l i f e ( i n the form o f , "what th ings t e l l me") i s a p p r o p r i a t e to the work 's s i n g u l a r i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t e n t . 11 - V i n c l u s i v e are to express the success ive orders of b e i n g s , which I s h a l l co r respond ing ly express t h u s : II What the f lowers t e l l me II I What the beasts t e l l me IV What the n ight t e l l s me (man) V What the morning b e l l s t e l l me (angels) VI What love t e l l s me, i s a synopsis of my f e e l i n g s towards a l l b e i n g s , in which deeply p a i n f u l s p i r i t u a l paths are not avo ided , but g r a d u a l l y lead through to a b lessed f a i t h : "the j o y f u l s c i e n c e " . F i n a l l y d [as\ hprnmlische] L [eben] ( V I I ) , which I have f i n a l l y however e n t i t l e d "What the chi1d t e l 1 s me" . Nro. I, Summer marches i n , should i n d i c a t e the humorously s u b j e c t i v e content . Summer i s thought of as a v i c t o r — i n the midst of every th ing that grows and b lossoms, crawls and speeds, t h i n k s and d e s i r e s and f i n a l l y a l l that we sense without s e e i n g . (Angel s — b e l l s — i n a t ranscendenta l sense. ) Over and above e v e r y t h i n g , e t e r n a l love acts w i t h i n u s — j u s t as rays come together in a foca l p o i n t . Do you understand now? It i s my most i n d i v i d u a l and r i c h e s t work. Nro. I i s not yet done and must be kept in reserve fo r a 1 ate r da t e . . . . Mahler enclosed on a quarto sheet , the f o l l o w i n g : Symphony Nro, I I I "THE JOYFUL SCIENCE" A SUMMER MORNING'S DREAM I Summer marches i n . II What the f lowers in the meadow t e l l me. I l l What the beasts of the f o r e s t t e l l me. IV What the n ight t e l l s me (A l to s o l o . ) a M i t c h e l l , pp. 188-89 ; Gustav Mahler B r i e f e , pp. 1 0 6 - 7 . 197 V What the morning b e l l s t e l l me. (Women's chorus with a l t o s o l o . ) VI What love t e l l s me. Mot to : "Father behold these wounds of mine! Let no c reature be unredeemed!" (from Des K.naben Wunderhorn) VII L i f e in heaven. (Soprano s o l o , humorous.) A l l but Nro. I i s f i n i s h e d i n s c o r e . 198 DOCUMENT 26 From the R e c o l l e c t i o n s of Bruno W a l t e r 3 At l a s t , at the end of the summer, came the day when he could play me the completed Th i rd Symphony. Thanks to our t a l k s , f u l l of the over f low of the c r e a t i v e f renzy of h is morning's work, I was f a m i l i a r wi th the s p i r i t u a l atmosphere of the Symphony long before I knew i t s musical content . Yet i t was a musical exper ience of an undreamed-of and s h a t t e r i n g kind to hear him play i t on the p i a n o . I was l i t e r a l l y dumfounded by the-power and nove l ty of t h i s mus ic , and bowled over by the c r e a t i v e ardor and l o f t i n e s s of the work as he played i t to me. This music made me fee l that I recognized him for the f i r s t t i m e ; h is whole being seemed to breathe a myster ious a f f i n i t y with the forces of n a t u r e . I had a l ready guessed . at i t s depths , i t s elemental q u a l i t y ; now, in the range of h is c r e a t i v i t y I f e l t i t d i r e c t l y . Had he been an o r d i n a r y "nature l o v e r " , a devotee of gardens and a n i m a l s , h is music would have been more " c i v i l i z e d " . Here however, the D ionys iac possess ion by n a t u r e , which I had learned to r e c o g n i z e , sounded through music that expressed the very root of h is b e i n g . How I seemed to see him in the round: I saw him as possessed a l i k e by the s ta rk power of the crags and by the tender f l o w e r s , as f a m i l i a r with the dark secre ts of the l i f e of the animals i n the woods. Notably in the t h i r d movement, he brought e v e r y t h i n g - -a loofness and whimsy, c r u e l t y and u n t a m a b i 1 i t y - - t o 1 i f e . I saw him as Pan. At the same t i m e , h o w e v e r , - - t h i s i n the l a s t three movements-- I was in contact wi th the long ing of the human s p i r i t to pass beyond i t s e a r t h l y and temporal bonds. L ight streamed from him onto h is work and from his work onto him. a W a l t e r , pp. 3 1 - 3 2 . 199 DOCUMENT 27 N a t a l i e B a u e r - L e c h n e r ' s Reminiscences of the Summer of 1896 a He. . . d r a f t e d the i n t r o d u c t i o n to the f i r s t movement of the T h i r d . Of t h i s , he s a i d : " I t has almost ceased to b e . m u s i c ; i t i s hard ly anyth ing but sounds of n a t u r e . I could e q u a l l y wel l have c a l l e d the movement "What the Mountain t e l l s m e " - - i t ' s e e r i e , the way l i f e g r a d u a l l y breaks th rough , out of s o u l - l e s s , r i g i d m a t t e r . And, as t h i s . 1 i f e r i s e s from stage to s t a g e , i t takes on ever more h i g h l y developed forms: f l o w e r s , b e a s t s , man, up to the sphere of the s p i r i t s , the " a n g e l s " . Over the i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s movement, there l i e s again tha t atmosphere of brooding summer midday heat ; not a breath s t i r s , a l l l i f e i s suspended, and the sun-drenched a i r t rembles and v i b r a t e s . At i n t e r v a l s there come the moans.of the .youth — that i s , cap t i ve l i f e -s t r u g g l i n g fo r r e l e a s e from the c l u t c h e s of l i f e l e s s , r i g i d Nature . At l a s t he breaks through and t r i u m p h s — i n the f i r s t movement, which fo l lows the i n t r o d u c t i o n a t t a c c a . "The t i t l e 'Summer marches i n ' no longer f i t s the shape of th ings i n t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n ; ' P a n ' s P r o c e s s i o n ' would be b e t t e r — n o t the process ion of Dionysus! I t i s no Dionysian mood; on the c o n t r a r y , Satyrs and other such rough c h i l d r e n of nature d i s p o r t themselves in i t . " On another o c c a s i o n , Mahler remarked whi le t a l k i n g about the symphony: "Nothing came of the profound i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the var ious movements which I had o r i g i n a l l y dreamed o f . Each movement stands a l o n e , as a s e l f -conta ined and independent whole: no r e p e t i t i o n s or remin i scences . Only at the end of t h e . . . ' a n i m a l ' . . . movement, there f a l l s once more the heavy shadow of l i f e l e s s Nature , of s t i 1 1 - u n c r y s t a l 1 i z e d , i n o r g a n i c mat te r . But h e r e , i t represents a re lapse i n t o the lower forms of animal c r e a t i o n before the mighty leap towards the S p i r i t which takes place in the h ighest e a r t h l y c r e a t u r e , Man. There i s another l i n k , between the f i r s t , and l a s t movements —wh i ch w i l l , however, hardly be not i ced by the aud ience . What was heavy and r i g i d at the beginning has , at t h e . e n d , advanced to the h ighest s ta te of c o n s c i o u s n e s s ; i n a r t i c u l a t e sounds have become the most p e r f e c t l y a r t i c u l a t e d speech . " ^ M i t c h e l l , pp. 1 9 2 - 9 3 . . The f i r s t entry can be found in Bauer -Lechner , pp. 40V41; the second ent ry (June 28) i n Bauer -Lechner , p. 4 2 ; and the t h i r d ent ry ( J u l y 4) in Bauer -Lechner , p. 4 5 . 2 0 0 Entry of 28 June: "Having such a d r a f t (of the f i r s t movement] f i n i s h e d [sa id Mahler] i s l i k e being a g i r l wi th a dowry in her pocket . Now, I 've found the r i g h t t i t l e fo r the i n t r o d u c t i o n : ' P a n ' s awakening ' , fo l lowed by 'Summer marches i n ' . I wonder how on ear th i t w i l l tu rn out! It i s the maddest t h i n g I ever wrote ! " A l a t e r ent ry [ J u l y 4 ] : "To my genuine h o r r o r , I d iscovered only today that t h i s f i r s t movement l a s t s h a l f an hour , perhaps l o n g e r . . . .1 s h a l l cons ider the f i r s t movement as Part I, and I s h a l l have a long i n t e r v a l a f t e r i t . But I have decided to c a l l the whole th ing ' P a n : Symphonic Poems' . " La Grange quotes other po r t ions of these memoi rs , 0 i n c l u d i n g excerpts from the unpubl ished part of N a t a l i e ' s manuscr ip t . When d i s c u s s i n g the f i r s t movement, Mahler descr ibed Pan: " . . . h u r t l i n g down h i s unfathomable chasm, roams i n regions fa r from the e a r t h , l e a v i n g the d e s t i n i e s of men to vanish in the d i s t a n c e . . . . In the f i r s t movement, the southern storm blows w i l d l y , as i t has done here these l a s t few days . Coming from warm, f e r t i l e l a n d s , I am sure i t c a r r i e s more f e r t i l i t y w i t h i n i t than the e a s t e r l y winds men so d e s i r e . In march tempo the movement never stops advanc ing ; as i t approaches , i t becomes louder and l o u d e r , gathers s t rength and grows l i k e an avalanche u n t i l i t s d in breaks above our heads in powerful r e j o i c i n g . . .1 would never have had the courage , I t h i n k , to f i n i s h t h i s g i g a n t i c task i f the other movements had not a l ready been completed. . . " "To d e s c r i b e the m o b i l i t y and s u b t l e v a r i e t y of the themes in t h i s f i r s t movement, Mahler used the image of water f low ing over r a p i d s , a r i v e r w i t h i n which m i l l i o n s of drops are i n c e s s a n t l y t ransformed. ' E v e r y t h i n g i s c a r r i e d away in an endless w h i r l i n g t o r r e n t that s c a r c e l y touches the r i v e r bed, r i s i n g c o n s t a n t l y h igher as i t b o i l s up to the s k y , encounter ing on ly the r e s i s t a n c e of immobile m a t t e r , the stones and f a l l e n rocks in the path of the s t ream, which slow or stop i t o c c a s i o n a l l y . ' " La Grange, pp. 3 6 6 - 6 7 . 201 "While composing the hymn to the g lory of summer, Mahler had seemed a man possessed : 'The f l o w e r s , the b reezes , the sounds and the c o l o r s , a l l the l i f e of summer, f i l l e d me, 1 he s a i d , ' t o the po int at which I became conscious of i t as a person and thought that I could see i t s body and f a c e . The f l o w e r s , which m u s i c a l l y are q u i c k l y descr ibed in repose , I observed shaken by wind and s to rm, then l u l l e d by s o f t b reezes , su f fused and caressed by the sun's r a y s . Every form of the animal world appeared to me as d i s t i n c t , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , and a l i v e , and humorous sub jec ts were not l a c k i n g among t h e m . ' " 202 DOCUMENT 28 L e t t e r from Mahler to Max Marschalk. , August 6 , 1 8 9 6 a My work i s qu i te f i n i s h e d . It has the f o l l o w i n g t i t l e s , from which you can probably put together something of a gu ide . A Summer Noon's Dream 1st s e c t i o n . I n t r o d u c t i o n No I Ind No No No No No I : Summer s e c t i o n . Pan awakes marches in (Bacchanal ian cortege) II I I I IV V : VI What the f lowers of the : What the beasts of the What man t e l l s me. What.the angels t e l l me. What love t e l I s me. meadow f o r e s t t e l 1 t e l l me. me. I s h a l l not get to know bother with any the work before commentary on t h i s . I take i t to B e r l i n You should a M i t c h e l l , p. 191 ; Gustav Mah le r , B r i e f e , p. 198. 203 DOCUMENT 29 L e t t e r from Mahler to Richard B a t k a , February 1 8 , 1896" That t h i s l i t t l e p iece (more of an intermezzo i n the whole th ing ) must c reate misunderstandings when detached from i t s connect ion with the complete work, my most s i g n i f i c a n t and vas tes t c r e a t i o n , c a n ' t keep me from l e t t i n g i t be performed a l o n e . I have no c h o i c e ; i f I ever want to be h e a r d , I c a n ' t be too f u s s y , and so t h i s modest l i t t l e p iece w i l l doubt less . . .p resent me to the p u b l i c as the "sensuous" , perfumed " s i n g e r of n a t u r e " . - - T h a t t h i s nature hides w i t h i n i t s e l f eve ry th ing that i s f r i g h t f u l , g r e a t , and a l s o l o v e l y (which is e x a c t l y what I wanted to express i n the e n t i r e work, in a s o r t of e v o l u t i o n a r y deve lopment ) - - o f course no one ever understands t h a t . It always s t r i k e s me as strange that most peop le , when they t a l k about " N a t u r e " , t h i n k only of f l o w e r s , b i r d s , f o r e s t b reezes , e t c . Nobody knows the god Dionysus, Great Pan. [in mythology, Pan i s f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d to as "the Great Pan". ] So! there you a l ready have a so r t o f prommame--that i s , a sample of how I make music . I t i s always and everywhere j u s t natura l sound! This seems to be what Blilow once desc r ibed to me with the s i g n i f i c a n t words "symphonic problem". There i s no other kind of programme that I r e c o g n i z e , at l e a s t for my own works. I f I have given them t i t l e s , o f f and o n , t h i s i s because I have wanted to set up a few s ignposts to show emotion where to t ransform i t s e l f i n t o i m a g i n a t i o n . I f words are necessary fo r t h i s purpose, then we have the a r t i c u l a t e d human v o i c e , which can enable the bo ldest i n t e n t i o n s to be r e a l i z e d - - j u s t by combinat ion with the exp lanatory word! But now i t i s the w o r l d , Nature as a whole, that i s a roused , so to speak, from unfathomable s i l e n c e to sound and resonance. . . Gustav Mah le r , B r i e f e , pp. 2 1 4 - 1 5 . The f i r s t paragraph was t r a n s l a t e d by N e w l i n , p. 1 2 1 ; the second paragraph i s found in Mah le r : A Documentary Study , p. 204. Mahler inc ludes an a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l sketch i n the f i r s t part of the l e t t e r . He r e f e r s Batka to M a r s c h a l k - - h e t r u s t s Marschalk to t a l k about h is works and h i s o b j e c t i v e s as a composer. This l e t t e r was w r i t t e n a month p r i o r to the one to Marschalk in which he a l s o mentions " s i g n p o s t s " . Here , he r e f e r s to programs as a "symphonic prob lem" ; a year l a t e r he w i l l speak of them to S e i d l as the "enigma of the epoch" . 204 DOCUMENT 30 Review of Three Movements of the Th i rd Symphony by Paul Moos of the B e r l i n Neuste N a c h r i c h t e n , March 1897 a . . .The t h i r d movement i s a very wicked f e l l o w , i n which Mahler a l lows the animals of the f o r e s t to speak. The composer adds a program here that a f f o r d s a glimpse in to the depths of h is s o u l . He who i s tormented by such strange not ions i s c e r t a i n l y no o r d i n a r y man. In t h i s t h i r d movement, the animals are rov ing the f o r e s t , happy and c a r e -f r e e , when man appears and walks calmly by. At once , a sudden t e r r o r g r ips t h e . a n i m a l s , because "they guess the p e r i l that man represents fo r t h e i r l i v e s . " So much fo r the p rogram. b The music i s even worse; here and there i t apparent ly t r i e s to be humorous and to dep ic t the language of the a n i m a l s . The donkey brays "heehaw" on var ious inst ruments (see A Midsummer N i g h t ' s Dream); there i s b l e a t i n g , w h i s t l i n g , c r y i n g , sc reaming , groaning and r a v i n g . A f t e r having abused the o r c h e s t r a t h u s , Mahler i n t r o d u c e s , i n the form of a weak, u n i n t e r e s t i n g melody, " M a n " - - o b v i o u s l y some sent imenta l f e l l o w who i s a worthy coute rpar t of the Mahler ian animal w o r l d . The worst i s not that a Kapel1mei s t e r l a c k i n g imaginat ion should w r i t e bad mus ic , but that h i s l u c u b r a t i o n s should be presented in a l l ser iousness to a se r ious p u b l i c in the course of a se r ious c o n c e r t ; That i s what i s so w o r r y i n g : have we reached t h i s . p o i n t ? Richard Wagner would tu rn in h is grave at such goings on. T rue , one s e c t i o n of the audience honored the T i e r s t u c k with i t s a p p l a u s e , but another g r o u p - -the l a r g e r , I bei iever^showed i t s d isapprova l by means of energe t i c boo ing . The f i n a l movement, "Was mir die Liebe e r z a h l t " , was a lso booed. Mahler has had the audac i ty to give t h i s piece the "exergue" : " F a t h e r , behold my wounds; no c reatu re should be l o s t . " A f t e r t h a t , h is music must seem blasphemous; i t i s so verbose , s u p e r f i c i a l , t h e a t r i c a l , u n r e a l , that the composer should be denied the r i g h t to suggest any r e l a t i o n s h i p whatever between those grave words and h is thoughts , thereby a L a Grange, pp. 399 -400 . b L a Grange's f o o t n o t e : "This 'program' was undoubtedly w r i t t e n by Mahler for the o c c a s i o n , to help the l i s t e n e r s through the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the Scherzo . It was o f ten r e p r i n t e d l a t e r . " 205 g i v i n g the l a t t e r a semblance of p r o f u n d i t y . Without w ish i i t or even r e a l i z i n g i t , Mahler i s a musical comedian, a p r a c t i c a l j oker of the worst k i n d , a man who i m i t a t e s and pretends f e e l i n g s . And t h i s i s the " a r t i s t " to whom F e l i x Weingartner accords h is suppor t , who he judges worthy of a t t e n t i o n as a symphonist? Bad , very bad! . . . 206 DOCUMENT 31 L e t t e r from Schoenberg to Mah le r , December 1 2 , 1 9 0 4 a My dear D i r e c t o r , I must not speak as a . m u s i c i a n to a music ian i f I am to give any idea of the i n c r e d i b l e impress ion your symphony made on me: I can speak only as one human being to another . For I saw your very s o u l , n a k e d , . stark, naked. It was revealed to me as a s t r e t c h of w i l d and secre t c o u n t r y , w i th e e r i e chasms and abysses neighboured by s u n l i t , s m i l i n g meadows, haunts of i d y l l i c repose. I f e l t i t as an event of n a t u r e , which a f t e r scourging us w i th i t s t e r r o r s puts a rainbow in the sky . What does i t matter that what - I was t o l d afterwards of your "programme" did not seem to correspond a l t o g e t h e r with what I had f e l t ? Whether I am a good or a bad i n d i c a t o r of the f e e l i n g s an exper ience arouses in me i s not the p o i n t . Must I have a c o r r e c t understanding of what I have l i v e d and f e l t ? And I b e l i e v e I f e l t your symphony. I shared in the b a t t l i n g for i l l u s i o n ; I s u f f e r e d the pangs of d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t ; I saw the fo rces of e v i l and good w r e s t l i n g with each o t h e r : I saw a man in torment s t r u g g l i n g towards inward harmony; I d i v ined a p e r s o n a l i t y , a drama, and t r u t h f u l n e s s , the most uncompromising t r u t h f u l n e s s . I had to l e t myself go. Forgive me. I cannot fee l by h a l v e s . With me i t i s one t h i n g or the o ther ! In a l l devot ion Arnold Schoenberg Alma Mah le r , pp. 2 5 6 - 5 7 . M i t c h e l l po ints out that the Th i rd was performed in Vienna on December 14 and 2 2 , so the date must have been wrongly t r a n s c r i b e d . Schoenberg wrote another l e t t e r to Mahler on December 29, 1909, a f t e r hear ing the premiere of the Seventh, i n which he c laimed that h i s f i r s t impress ions of the Th i rd and Seventh would remain permanent. (Alma Mahler , pp. 3 2 5 - 2 7 . ) The contents of t h i s l e t t e r remind me of a problem which Thurston.ment ions in h i s St rauss d i s s e r t a t i o n : the f a c t that i t i s imposs ib le fo r the composer to arouse the same f e e l i n g i n every l i s t e n e r in every performance. James L. M u r s e l l , in The Psychology of Music (New York : N o r t o n , 1937) , c i t e s an experiment which invo lved peop le ' s r e a c t i o n s to works such as Chopin 's Funeral March and Nocturne. The sub jects could not even agree on any p r e c i s e meaning fo r the March. Thus, r e a c t i o n s cannot be guaranteed, even with a very graphic musical d e s c r i p t i o n . The l i s t e n e r needs a verbal g u i d e l i n e of the composer's i n t e n t i o n . (R ichard Thurs ton , "Musica l Representat ion in the Symphonic Poems of Richard S t r a u s s , " pp. 1 5 - 1 6 . 207 DOCUMENT 32 On Nietzsche and Mah1er a Die f r b h l i c h e W i s s e n s c h a f t , the book whose t i t l e Mahler borrowed for h is l a s t programs of the Th i rd Symphony, was w r i t t e n by N ie tzsche in 1 8 8 0 - 8 1 , whi le he was r e c o v e r i n g from a per iod of moral and p h y s i c a l s t r e s s , one of the darkest moments of h is l i f e . I t bears witness to a great t r a n s f o r -mation w i t h i n h im: now he assumed a ' w h o l l y p o s i t i v e , a f f i r m a t i v e a t t i t u d e , t a k i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and accept ing the consequences of a l l h i s former b reaks , whether with Wagner, with the romantic movement, wi th German ph i lsophy or with s o c i e t y , which cont inued to ignore him. The poe t ' s "Gay Sc ience" reaches beyond Good and E v i l , beyond quest ions and answers. I t condemns man's e t e r n a l quest fo r God and the a b s o l u t e , h is t r a d i t i o n a l concept of "Truth" and h is p ropens i t y to romantic unhappiness. To h i s mind, r e l i g i o u s , p h i l o s o p h i c , and s c i e n t i f i c thought a l l reveal an a t t i t u d e c o n d i t i o n e d by s u f f e r i n g and d i s g u s t . By t r y i n g always to penetrate the e s s e n t i a l t r u t h and the myster ies of the w o r l d , they are the very negation of l i f e . I n s t e a d , N i e t z s c h e ' s "Gay Sc ience" i s nothing but happy q u e s t i o n i n g . I t accpets i t s ignorance of e s s e n t i a l t r u t h s . I ts aim is to s e i z e upon one thought , then leap to the nex t ; t o . s i n g and dance, l i k e Z a r a t h u s t r a , and to be joyous without seeking comfort or p r o t e c t i o n from any o u t s i d e s o u r c e . The aphorisms i n Die f r o h l i c h e Wissenschaft are as Nietzschean as anyth ing in h i s work. Mahler cannot at that time have been shocked and repulsed by them, otherwise he would have s e l e c t e d a d i f f e r e n t t i t l e . Furthermore, the symphony i t s e l f conta ins other Nietzschean t r a i t s besides the 1896 t i t l e and the tex t fo r the four th movement. The t r a g i c undertones of the "nature" episodes in the f i r s t movement are thoroughly in keeping wi th N i e t z s c h e ' s concept ion of a tragedy that i s inherent to the cosmic p r i n c i p l e and that surrounds man but i s not created by h im, a tragedy that i s n e i t h e r unhappy nor hopeless but cannot be "redeemed". In N i e t z s c h e ' s work, as in M a h l e r ' s , humor i s a consequence, an o f f s p r i n g of t h i s t r a g i c f e e l i n g ; i t i s born of a deep a f f e c t i o n fo r the th ings i t mocks. N ie tzsche reproached Wagner fo r h is i n e v i t a b l y noble and ser ious approach to e v e r y t h i n g , for he be l ieved that a l i g h t and humorous tone could e q u a l l y wel l do j u s t i c e to great s u b j e c t s . The r u p t u r e s , the abrupt a L a Grange, pp. 8 0 0 - 8 0 1 . 208 changes of tone in Mah le r ' s mus ic , are thus q u i t e i n keeping with N i e t z s c h e ' s thought , as are the var ious g l a r i n g excesses in h is mus ic , i t s l e n g t h , the dimension of the o r c h e s t r a l f o r c e s , and such i n s u l t s to t r a d i t i o n as composing an adagio f i n a l e or a four -minute choral movement. Z09 DOCUMENT 33 On the S i g n i f i c a n c e of the T i t l e , The Gay S c i e n c e 9 What N ie tzsche h i m s e l f wanted the t i t l e to convey was that se r ious t h i n k i n g does not have to be s todgy , heavy, d u s t y , o r , in one word, Teuton ic . The German Wissenschaft does not b r ing to mind o n l y - - p e r h a p s not even p r i m a r i l y — the natura l sc iences but any s e r i o u s , d i s c i p l i n e d , r i go rous quest for knowledge; and t h i s need not be of the t r a d i t i o n a l German type o r , as N ie tzsche i s fond of say ing i n t h i s book, " n o r t h e r n " ; i t can a l s o be " s o u t h e r n " , by which he means Mediterranean — and he r e f e r s again and again to Genoa and the Provence. Those who cannot r e a d i l y understand N i e t z s c h e ' s f e e l i n g s f o r "the south" should t h i n k of another Northener who d iscovered the Provence at the same t i m e : Van Gogh. It was in the Provence that modern European poetry was born . W i l l i a m IX, Count of P o i t i e r s around 1100 A.D. , i s sa id to be the poet whose verses are the o l d e s t s u r v i v i n g , l y r i c s in a modern European language. He was fo l lowed by-other, g reater troubadours of which the most famous are probably Ber t ran de Born (1140-1215) and Arnaut DanieT, h is contemporary. Both are encountered in Dante's Inferno (Canto 2 8 f . ) ; Ber t ran de Born i s a l so the hero of two remarkable German poems, one by Ludwig Uhland, the other by H e i n r i c h Heine . The A l b i g e n s i a n Crusade (1209-1229) a l l but destroyed the c u l t u r e of the t roubadours ; but in the four teenth century the gai saber or gaia sc iensa was s t i l l c u l t i v a t e d in the Provence by l e s s e r p o e t s ; and under "gay" The Shor ter  Oxford E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y (1955) duly l i s t s "The gay sc ience (=Pr [p vencal] gai saber : the ar t of p o e t r y . " N i e t z s c h e , of c o u r s e , meant not only the ar t of p o e t r y ; but he d e f i n i t e l y meant t h i s , t o o , and there fo re began h is book with the "Pre lude in German Rhymes" 0 and l a t e r , in the second e d i t i o n , added the Appendix of songs. In the l a s t poem we even encounter the t roubadours . I t i s a lso of some i n t e r e s t that in Beyond Good and E v i l N ietzsche says that " love as p a s s i o n - - w h i c h i s our European s p e c i a l t y - - " was invented by "the Provencal k n i g h t - p o e t s , those magni f i cent a W a l t e r Kaufmann, i n t r o d u c t i o n to F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e , The Gay S c i e n c e , pp. 5 - 7 . b Kaufmann's f o o t n o t e : ' " A s fo r the t i t l e "Gay Sc ience" , I thought on ly of the gaya s c i e n z a of the troubadours — hence a l so the l i t t l e v e r s e s , ' N ie t zsche wrote i n a l e t t e r to h is f r i e n d Erwin Rohde, in the winter 1 8 8 2 - 8 3 . " 210 and i n v e n t i v e human beings o f . t h e "gai saber" to whom Europe owes so many th ings and almost owes i t s e l f . " In the s e c t i o n on The Gay Sc ience in Ecce Homo, N ie tzsche says s p e c i f i c a l l y that the songs i n the Appendix , " w r i t t e n fo r the most part i n S i c i l y , are qu i te e m p h a t i c a l l y remin iscent of the Provencal concept of gaya s c i e n z a - - t h a t un i t y of s i n g e r , k n i g h t , and f ree s p i r i t which d i s t i n g u i s h e s the wonderful e a r l y c u l t u r e of the Provencals from a l l equ ivoca l c u l t u r e s . The very l a s t poem above a l l , "To the M i s t r a l , " an exuberant dancing song i n wh ich , i f I may say so , one dances r i g h t over m o r a l i t y , i s a pe r fec t Pro ven qal i. sm." The second s e c t i o n of the second chapter of Ecce Homo i s a l s o r e l e v a n t . A f t e r d e r i d i n g the Germans, N ie tzsche says : " L i s t the places where men w i t h . e s p r i t are l i v i n g or have l i v e d , w h e r e w i t , s u b t l e t y , and mal ice belonged to happiness , where genius found i t s home almost of n e c e s s i t y : a l l of them have e x c e l l e n t dry a i r . P a r i s , Provence, F l o r e n c e , Je rusa lem, A t h e n s — t h e s e names prove something. . . " Thus the t i t l e of the book has po lemica l ove r tones : i t i s meant to be anti -German , c a n t i - p r o f e s s o r i a l , an t i - academic and goes wel l wi th t h e . i d e a of " the good European" tha t i s encountered in these pages. I t i s a l s o meant to suggest " l i g h t f e e l , " " d a n c i n g , " " 1 a u g h t e r " - - a n d r i d i c u l e of " the s p i r i t of g r a v i t y . " c Kaufmann's f o o t n o t e : "C f . the l e t t e r in which N ietzsche informed h is f r i e n d Franz Overbeck that The Gay  Science was on i t s . w a y to h im: ' Th is book i s in every way agai nst German t a s t e and the p r e s e n t ; and I myself even more so ' (August 2 2 , 1882) . DOCUMENTS Document 1 Document 2 Document 3 Document 4 Document 5 From Ernest Newman, "Program M u s i c , " i n Musica l S t u d i e s , pp. 1 1 2 - 1 3 . From Freder i ck N i e c k s , Programme Music in the  Last Four C e n t u r i e s , pp. 3 - 4 . Part A, L e t t e r from Bruno Walter to Ludwig S c h i e d e r m a i r , December 5 , 1901; in Kurt B l a u k o p f , e d . , Mahler ; A Documentary Study , p. 230. Part B, from Bruno W a l t e r , Gustav Mahler , pp. 1 2 0 - 2 2 . L e t t e r from Mahler to Unknown 1894; i n Sam Morgenstern , e d . Reci pi e n t , May Composers on 15 Music 1911 , PP pp. 306-7 146-47 Gustav Mahler , B r i e f e : 1879-Part A, L e t t e r from December 1 7 , 1895; Mah le r , V o l . I, p. pp. 1 7 9 - 8 0 . Mahler to Max Marscha lk , in Henry -Lou is de La Grange, 784; Gustav Mahler , B r i e f e , Part B, L e t t e r from Mahler to Max Marscha lk , March 20 , 1896; in Dika N e w l i n , B r u c k n e r , Mah le r ,  Schoenberg, p. 139; Gustav Mah le r , B r i e f e , pp. 1 8 5 - 8 6 . Part C, L e t t e r March 26 , 1896 pp. 1 8 6 - 8 8 . A i s found in La has t r a n s l a t e d M u s i c , pp. 307 a program for Document 19. Marscha lk , B r i ef e , paragraph from Mahler to Max ; in Gustav Mah le r , t r a n s l a t i o n of the f i r s t Grange, p. 357. Sam Morgenstern the main por t ion in Composers on - 8 . The l a s t part of the l e t t e r i s the Second Symphony, r e p r i n t e d in Document 6: Part A, L e t t e r from Tchaikovsky to Nadejda von Meek, February 17 , 1878; i n Modeste Tcha ikovsky , The L i f e and L e t t e r s of Peter I l i c h Tcha ikovsky ,  2 v o l s . , ed . Rosa Newmarch, pp. 2 7 4 - 7 8 . Part B, L e t t e r from Tchaikovsky to Serge .Taneiev, March 2 7 , 1878; in Modeste Tcha ikovsky , pp. 2 9 2 - 9 4 . 211 212 Document 7: M a h l e r ' s Thoughts on Beethoven's S i x t h Symphony; in La Grange, pp. 5 4 2 - 4 4 . Document 8 : Part A, From Ludwig S c h i e d e r m a i r ' s Essay on Mahler Part B, L e t t e r from Mahler to Ludwig S c h i e d e r m a i r , November 2 , 1900 Part C, L e t t e r from Mahler to Ludwig S c h i e d e r m a i r , undated A l l three excerpts can be found in Mahler : A  Documentary Study , p. 225, Document 9 : Summary of an A r t i c l e by (Cornel Abranyi i n the Pester L l o y d , November 1 9 , 1889; i n La Grange, p, 203 . Document 10 : Review of the F i r s t Symphony by August Beer , November 1889; in Donald M i t c h e l l , Gustav Mahler :  The Wunderhorn Y e a r s , pp. 1 5 3 - 5 4 , Document 1 1 : Program for the F i r s t Symphony used fo r the Hamburg Performance, October 2 7 , 1893; in La Grange, pp. 7 4 7 - 4 8 . Document 12 : Mahler and Jean Paul Part A , Remarks by Donald M i t c h e l l ; i n Gustav  Mahler : The Wunderhorn Years , p. 227. Part B, An Assessment of Jean Paul by W. A. Coupe The passage i s quoted i n M i t c h e l l , p. 227. I t can be found in the Penguin Companion to  L i t e r a t u r e , I I : European L i t e r a t u r e , ed . Anthony Thor lby , p. 399. Part C, An Assessment of Jean Paul from the Encyc lopedia B r i t a n n i c a , 1968 e d . , s . v . " R i c h t e r , Johann Paul F r i e d r i c h , " by Eduard Berend, This excerpt s t a t e s that a knowledge of Jean Paul was not f a s h i o n a b l e in the l a t e n ineteenth c e n t u r y . Mahler could not r e a l i s t i c a l l y have expected the audiences to grasp the connect ions between the t i t l e of h i s symphony and Jean P a u l ' s book without more e x p l i c i t e x p l a n a t i o n s . Document 1 3 : Review of the Hamburg Performance of the F i r s t Symphony (October 2 7 , 1893) by Joseph S i t t a r d ; in M i t c h e l l , pp. 2 4 0 - 4 1 . 213 Document 14 Document 15 : Document 16 : Document 17 : Document 18: Document 19: Document 20: Document 21 Document 22 Document 23 A r t i c l e on the F i r s t Symphony by Ludwig ICarpath i n the Neues Wiener T a g b l a t t , November 1900; in La Grange, p. 749 . This program, wi th a few changes in word ing , can be found i n N a t a l i e Bauer -Lechner , Er innerungen an Gustav  Mahl e r , pp. 148-4.9. The S i g n i f i c a n c e of " T o t e n f e i e r " ; i n La Grange, pp. 7 8 0 - 8 1 . L e t t e r from Mahler to Ar thur 17 , 1897; in N e w l i n , p. 158. f a i r l y small p o r t i o n The e n t i r e l e t t e r i s B r i e f e , pp. 2 2 8 - 3 2 . S e i d l , February Newlin quotes a of t h i s lengthy l e t t e r , found in Gustav Mah le r , A r t i c l e by Ferdinand Pfohl i n the Hamburger  Nachri c h t e n , December 13 , 1895 ; i n M i t c h e l l , p. 288, note 76. Program fo r the Second Symphony, January 1896; in La Grange, pp. 7 8 4 - 8 5 ; B a u e r - L e c h n e r , pp. 2 2 - 2 4 . L e t t e r from Mahler to Max Marscha lk , March 2 6 , 1896; in La Grange, p. 784; Gustav Mahler , B r i e f e , pp. 1 8 8 - 8 9 . From the Reminiscences of N a t a l i e B a u e r - L e c h n e r ; in Mahler : A Documentary Study , p. 219; Bauer -Lechner , pp. 1 1 4 - 1 6 . L e t t e r from Mahler to Alma S c h i n d l e r , December 1901; in Alma Mahle r , Gustav Mahler , Memories  and L e t t e r s , pp. 2 1 3 - 1 4 . L e t t e r from Mahler to Alma S c h i n d l e r , December 20, 1901; in Alma Mahle r , pp. 2 1 7 - 1 8 . F i r s t Draf ts of the Program for the Th i rd Symphony; in M i t c h e l l , p. 189. M i t c h e l l quotes Paul Bekker , Gustav Mahlers  S i n f o n i e n , p. 106, e x a c t l y and prov ides a t r a n s l a t i o n . These e a r l y programs can a l s o be found i n La Grange, p. 328 , and Alma M a h l e r , pp. 3 8 - 3 9 . M i t c h e l l notes that the programs which Alma quotes are " v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l " to the Bekker d r a f t s . I compared Alma with Bekker and found two important d i f f e r e n c e s , both i n the f i r s t d r a f t . The f i r s t d i f f e r e n c e i s i n the annotation a f t e r the t i t l e . The German at t h i s 214 point reads : N icht nach Shakespeare, Anmerkung fUr Rezensenten and Shakespearekenner. (The d r a f t s are found on pp. 51-52 of the German e d i t i o n of A lma's book.) The second d i f f e r e n c e i s the omiss ion of the f lower movement in Alma's v e r s i o n . This must be a s l i p , s i n c e the movement was composed before the d r a f t s were d e v i s e d . I f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to understand why M i t c h e l l would c a l l the two vers ions " v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l " when c l e a r l y they are not . N a t a l i e Bauer -Lechner ' s Reminiscences of the Summer of 1895; i n Mah le r : A Documentary Study , pp. 2 0 1 - 2 ; Bauer -Lechner , pp. 1 9 - 2 0 . Document 135 i n A Documentary Study reproduces an o r i g i n a l l e t t e r to N a t a l i e , dated September 2 , 1895, which conta ins the proposed t i t l e s . I t inc ludes the motto for the S i x t h movement. There i s a quest ion mark beside the f i r s t movement. Beside the quest ion mark the word "Dionysus" can be d e c i p h e r e d , and underneath "sommer marsch ie r t e i n " . L e t t e r from Mahler to F r i e d r i c h Lohr , August 2 9 , 1895; i n M i t c h e l l , pp. 1 8 8 - 9 ; Gustav M a h l e r , B r i e f e , pp . 106-7 . From Bruno W a l t e r , Gustav Mah le r , pp. 3 1 - 3 2 . N a t a l i e Bauer -Lechner ' s Reminiscences of the S u m m e r o f l 8 9 6 N a t a l i e kept d e t a i l e d notes that summer. Excerpts can be found i n M i t c h e l l , pp. 1 9 2 - 9 3 ; Bauer -Lechner , pp. 4 0 - 4 5 . La Grange quotes from the unpubl ished por t ion of N a t a l i e ' s memoirs, pp. 3 6 6 - 6 7 . L e t t e r from Mahler to Max Marscha lk , August 6 , 1896; in M i t c h e l l , p. 191 ; Gustav Mah le r , B r i e f e , p. 198. L e t t e r from Mahler to Richard B a t k a , February 18, 1896 ; in Gustav Mah le r , B r i e f e , pp. 2 1 4 - 1 5 . Mahler i n c l u d e s an a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l sketch in the f i r s t part of the l e t t e r . He r e f e r s Batka to M a r s c h a l k - - h e t r u s t s Marschalk to t a l k about h is works and h is o b j e c t i v e s as a composer. A por t ion of the l e t t e r can be found in N e w l i n , p. 121 ; another p o r t i o n i s in Mahler : A  Documentary Study , p. 204. 215 Document 30: Review of Three Movements of the Th i rd Symphony by Paul Moos of the B e r l i n Neuste N a c h r i c h t e n , March 1897; i n La Grange, pp. 3 9 9 - 4 0 0 . Document 3 1 : L e t t e r from Schoenberg to Mah le r , December 1 2 , 1904; in Alma M a h l e r , pp. 2 5 6 - 5 7 . Document 32 : On N ie tzsche and Mah le r ; i n La Grange, pp. 800-801. Document 33 : On the S i g n i f i c a n c e of the. T i t l e The Gay Sci ence ; in Walter Kaufmann, i n t r o d u c t i o n to F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e , The Gay S c i e n c e , pp. 5 - 7 . 

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