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Sukeroku’s double identity : a study in Kabuki dramatic structure Thornbury, Barbara Ellen 1979

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SUKEROKU'S DOUBLE IDENTITY: A STUDY IN KABUKI DRAMATIC STRUCTURE  Barbara E l l e n  Thornbury  A.B., Smith C o l l e g e , 1971 ,A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OP GRADUATE STUDIES  i n the Department of Asian Studies  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1979  ®  Barbara E l l e n Thornbury, 1979  :-6  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s  for  an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the. Head of my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g o r  publication  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my written permission.  Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date  BP  7S-S 1 1 E  Abstract Using the seemingly i l l o g i c a l , double i d e n t i t y of the townsman, Sukeroku, and the samurai, Soga Goro, i n the  play  Sukeroku as the f o c a l p o i n t , t h i s t h e s i s shows t h a t the  drama  t i c s t r u c t u r e of Edo  cycle  The  kabuki was  based on an annual p l a y  c y c l e c o n s i s t e d of s e v e r a l p r o d u c t i o n  periods,  w i t h the kao-mise, or "face-showing," p r o d u c t i o n eleventh month of the l u n a r year and or " f a r e w e l l , " p r o d u c t i o n  i n the  ending w i t h the  i n the n i n t h month.  l a s t e d f o r a month or more and was  beginning  o-nagori  Each p e r i o d  repeated a n n u a l l y  through-  out the Tokugawa p e r i o d . To  show how  the annual c y c l e f u n c t i o n e d  as the framework  of kabuki dramatic s t r u c t u r e and what Sukeroku's double t i t y s i g n i f i e s , the t h e s i s i s d i v i d e d i n t o two One,  "The  Structure  of Edo  Kabuki," has  two  parts.  idenPart  chapters.  The  f i r s t , which i s based mainly on w r i t i n g s of the Tokugawa period,  o u t l i n e s the annual p l a y c y c l e and  t u r e i t contained. sekai  The  ( " t r a d i t i o n " ) and  underlying  the dramatic s t r u c  second then analyzes the shuko ("innovation"),  p r i n c i p l e s of t h a t s t r u c t u r e .  concepts of  which were the  In sum,  kabuki  the product of m a t e r i a l t h a t had  become a f a m i l i a r part  Japanese c u l t u r e by repeated use  and  periods  dramatization  of time ( s t a r t i n g even before  i a l t h a t was  r e l a t i v e l y new  and was  was of  over l o n g  kabuki began) and  used to t r a n s f o r m  mater  the  older,  set material.  about as a r e s u l t o f what was  double i d e n t i t y  Two,  "The  i n S u k e r o k u came  i n t e r p l a y w i t h i n the annual c y c l e  by way  of innovative  a l s o has two the  of t h i s  received  added by way Part  The  of t r a d i t i o n a l  sekai  and what  shuko.  S i g n i f i c a n c e of Sukeroku's Double  chapters.  The  first  Soga s e k a i w h i c h gave r i s e  t o Sukeroku's' s a m u r a i  and k o - j o r u r i , t o t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n The  w h i c h t r a n s f o r m e d S o g a Goro origins  of Sukeroku'and  Ichikawa- D a n j u r o I I . nual  o f Soga G o r o  second then looks  was  conclusion  an i d e a l i z a t i o n  are  of the past.  limited  kowaka,  shuko  In Part  k a b u k i by  i s t h a t w i t h i n the angave Edo  audiences a  o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y Tokugawa  townsman and a t t h e same t i m e a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n god-hero  identity,  i n t o S u k e r o k u by d i s c u s s i n g t h e  c y c l e Sukeroku's double i d e n t i t y  h e r o , who  of  i n kabuki  at the  i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Edo  The  Identity,  t r a c e s the development  f r o m i t s o r i g i n s i n t h e e a r l y d r a m a t i c f o r m s o f no,  by I c h i k a w a D a n j u r o I .  was  Two,  of a samurai  the discussions  on k a b u k i  t o I c h i k a w a D a n j u r o I and h i s s o n , D a n j u r o I I ,  s i n c e t h e i r work was  the basis  of a l l l a t e r  developments.  Table of Contents List  of I l l u s t r a t i o n s  vi  P r e f a t o r y Note  v i i  Acknowledgments  viii  Introduction  1  PART ONE: THE STRUCTURE OF EDO KABUKI  7  Chapter I . The Annual P l a y C y c l e  8  The Idea of an Annual Cycle, i n Japanese C u l t u r e  17  The Annual Cycle of Kabuki Chapter I I .  8  Sekai and Shuko: The P r i n c i p l e s of Edo Kabuki.40  O r i g i n s of the M u l t i - p a r t S t r u c t u r e of Kabuki  40  The J i d a i and Sewa L i n k i n the M u l t i - p a r t S t r u c t u r e 45  of Kabuki The P r i n c i p l e s of Sekai and Shuko  ^-9  The Annual Play Cycle a n d t h e P r i n c i p l e s of Sekai G  62  and' Shuko  PART TWO: THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SUKEROKU'S DOUBLE IDENTITY...65 Chapter I I I . Sukeroku as Soga Goro, a God-hero N a t i o n : The Development  of the  of the Soga Sekai  The Soga B r o t h e r s ' Revenge The O r i g i n s of the Soga S e k a i i n No, Kowaka, and Ko-joruri Ichikawa Danjuro I and t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Soga Goro i n Kabuki Chapter IV. Sukeroku, Flower of Edo: The T r a n s f o r m a t i o n of Soga Goro i n t o Sukeroku  67 68 72 85 102  A Summary of Sukeroku  103  The O r i g i n s of the Sukeroku Innovation  109  Ichikawa Danjuro I I and t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n of the Sukeroku Innovation t o Edo Kabuki. Sukeroku: Flower of Edo  I l l 123  Conclusion  •  P o s t s c r i p t : Reconstructing  Kabuki f o r Performance  136 1^0  Notes Select  133  Bibliography  Appendix I : Kabuki Source M a t e r i a l s of the Tokugawa Period Appendix I I : L i s t  163 173  of Japanese Terms, Names, and T i t l e s . . . . 175  vi  List  of I l l u s t r a t i o n s  S h i k i Sambaso  20  Shichi-fuku.jin  21  Sekai sadame  53  Sakata no K i n t o k i  .88  Ichikawa Danjuro I as Soga Goro and Ichikawa Euzo as Fudo Ichikawa Danjuro I as Soga Goro Scene from f i r s t  98 •  Sukeroku  Ichikawa Danjuro I I as Sukeroku A c t o r s (who  100 113 122  played Sukeroku and Agemaki)  g r e e t i n g patrons  132  Prefatory An study  assumption  of kabuki  I made i n w r i t i n g t h i s  i n t h e West has  necessary to start  out by  or t o d e f i n e j o r u r i Monzaemon and  and  Ichikawa  aragoto, Danjuro.  or t o i d e n t i f y  On  the  b e e n made s i n c e Zoe  The  o f Japan i n 1925.  this and  thesis, concepts.  t r u e i n the  many J a p a n e s e t e r m s retaining  o t h e r hand,  I tried  common This  criticism.  preferable to using a  In  words too  where  cumbersome of  the  i s t o e l u c i d a t e the meaning o f c e r t a i n  key  cance,  do n o t  simple t r a n s l a t i o n s  A major purpose  concepts  a literal  and  titles  used  i n kabuki. figurative  Because signifi-  suffice.  N o t e s f o l l o w t h e body o f t h e t e x t . names, and  major  of the a r t form.  b u t t h e r e were c a s e s  r e p r e s e n t fundamental  Appendix I I .  Kabuki:  to avoid borrowing  s u c h words o f t e n have b o t h  terms,  although  t h e r e i s no  a r e a of dramatic  outright,  t h e o r i g i n a l was  i n fact,  words t h a t  works  w h i c h was' t h e f i r s t  or p o s s i b l y m i s l e a d i n g t r a n s l a t i o n . thesis,  Chikamatsu  t h e r e f o r e , I have i n t r o d u c e d s e v e r a l new I n d o i n g so  longer  kabuki,  K i n c a i d wrote  v o c a b u l a r y f o r d i s c u s s i n g many a s p e c t s  the  G u n j i Masakatsu's  work on t h e s u b j e c t p u b l i s h e d i n E n g l i s h ,  particularly  of  For these purposes,  much p r o g r e s s has  is  i s that  I t i s no  history  Handbook and  ( i n English) serve w e l l .  P o p u l a r Stage  thesis  come o f age.  s u r v e y i n g the  s u c h as t h e H a l f o r d s ' K a b u k i Kabuki  Note  A list  i n the t h e s i s w i l l  of Japanese be  found  in  Acknowledgments I would l i k e dissertation of  t o thank the Japan Foundation f o r t h e  fellowship  s t u d y and r e s e a r c h  Professor Yukio  Gunji  i n Japan.  My t h a n k s go e s p e c i a l l y t o  M a s a k a t s u o f Waseda U n i v e r s i t y  of the National  my many q u e s t i o n s . follow,  w h i c h e n a b l e d me t o s p e n d a y e a r  Theatre f o r taking  As w i l l  t h e i r work was i n d i s p e n s a b l e  so t h o r o u g h l y i n t h e t e c h n i q u e s  studies, sity,  t o my  derstanding  Canada C o u n c i l of the t h e s i s  expertise  like  f o r a fellowship  gratitude  of kabuki  helped g r e a t l y  i n my un-  to the  which supported the w r i t i n g of study i n Japan.  goes t o P r o f e s s o r s  Leon  of the University  Zolbrod, of B r i t i s h  As a l w a y s , t h e y have b e e n g e n e r o u s i n t h e i r  and e n c o u r a g e m e n t .  p r i n c i p a l adviser, the drafts  Finally,  Zolbrod,  especially, criti-  of the t h e s i s .  I would l i k e  k i n d n e s s and  Professor  s p e n t many h o u r s r e a d i n g and  B r o c k , a n d my o t h e r f r i e n d s their  and m a t e r i a l s  and an a d d i t i o n a l p e r i o d  deepest  Columbia.  cizing  also  for instructing  t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n  Matsuo Soga, and Andrew P a r k i n  as  I•am  o f t h e Soga m o n o g a t a r i .  I would a l s o  advice  own.  that  a n d t o Sakuma F.ayumi. o f Ochanomizu Women's U n i v e r -  whose l i n g u i s t i c  My  t h e t i m e t o answer  become c l e a r i n t h e p a g e s  g r a t e f u l t o S a t o E r i o f Waseda U n i v e r s i t y me  and H a t t o r i  help.  t o t h a n k Don T h o r n b u r y , at Princeton  Karen  University f o r  1  Introduction This t h e s i s i s a study i n kabuki dramatic structure. a i m i s t o show t h a t t h e s e e m i n g l y t h e townsman, S u k e r o k u , Sukeroku  illogical,  identity  p l e x and c o h e r e n t s t r u c t u r e b a s e d  o f what was  o n c e a com-  on an a n n u a l p l a y c y c l e .  t h e p r i n c i p a l d r a m a t i c f o r m and a m a i n s t a y  u r b a n p o p u l a r c u l t u r e d u r i n g t h e Tokugawa p e r i o d  of  (1603-1868).  A l a r g e number o f t h e p r a c t i c e s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e d k a b u k i ing  that time are s t i l l  abandoned i n t h e l a s t was in  carried  Japan  the course of modernization. t h e most i m p o r t a n t p r a c t i c e t o be l e f t  behind  or s h i b a i nenju-gyoji•  was  The  cy-  consisted of s e v e r a l production periods, beginning w i t h the  kao-mise,  o r " f a c e - s h o w i n g , " p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e e l e v e n t h month  t h e l u n a r y e a r and  ending w i t h the o-nagori, or  p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e n i n t h month. for  Many, h o w e v e r , w e r e  h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , when  that of the annual p l a y c y c l e ,  of  on t o d a y .  dur-  opened t o t h e West and b e g a n r e j e c t i n g t h e ways o f t h e p a s t  Perhaps  cle  of  and t h e s a m u r a i , S o g a G o r o , i n t h e p l a y  i s a c t u a l l y a s u r v i v i n g element  K a b u k i was  double  Its  a month o r more and was  Tokugawa p e r i o d .  "farewell,"  Each production' p e r i o d  repeated annually throughout  A l t h o u g h t h e a n n u a l p l a y c y c l e was  t h e same i n b o t h Edo  lasted  (Tokyo)  and K a m i g a t a  ( K y o t o and  the  basically Osaka) k a -  b u k i , t h e r e w e r e some i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e d r a m a t i c v e n t i o n s o f t h e two  regions.  The  f o c u s o f t h i s work w i l l  be  conon  2  Edo, which came to be the c e n t e r of c u l t u r e i n the Tokugawa period. The  I t i s a l s o the p l a c e t h a t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c y c l e was  Sukeroku•  e s p e c i a l l y important i n that i t provided the  framework f o r the dramatic s t r u c t u r e of kabuki.  Kabuki was  com-  posed of a s e r i e s of r e l a t i v e l y short p l a y s which were arranged and even rearranged d u r i n g each p r o d u c t i o n p e r i o d a c c o r d i n g t o the d i c t a t e s of dramatic convention ( e s p e c i a l l y those w i t h s e a s o n a l change) and audience response. kabuki d u r i n g the Tokugawa p e r i o d was  connected  The s t r u c t u r e of  not simply t h a t of any  s i n g l e p l a y as such, but r a t h e r , i t was  the way  i n which p l a y s  were arranged w i t h i n the framework of the annual c y c l e as a whole.  The  c y c l e was  so c r u c i a l that u n l e s s i t s r o l e i s under-  stood a s p e c t s of c e r t a i n p l a y s t h a t s u r v i v e i n the  present-day  r e p e r t o r y , such as the double i d e n t i t y i n Sukeroku,  do not make  sense. Sukeroku  i s s a r . primary and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e work of kabuki.  Other p l a y s can be used to study, kabuki dramatic s t r u c t u r e , but few are i t s equal i n h i s t o r i c a l importance. first  time i n 1713  by Ichikawa Danjuro  Performed  I I , Sukeroku  f o r the  still  flour-  i s h e s today as one of the juhachi-ban, or "eighteen f a v o r i t e s , " the best-known group of kabuki p l a y s .  Thus, the h i s t o r y of the  p l a y spans more than two  hundred  kabuki was  as a major dramatic a r t form and  j u s t emerging  t i n u i n g u n t i l now  and f i f t y y e a r s , b e g i n n i n g when  when kabuki i s b e i n g kept a l i v e by  con-  Japanese  awareness of and reverence f o r great a r t forms of the past. a p l a y of such scope, a matter such as the double i d e n t i t y of the hero, which has been part of the p l a y s i n c e i t began, i s n a t u r a l l y of great i n t e r e s t .  In  3  To show how  the annual c y c l e worked and what Sukeroku's  double i d e n t i t y s i g n i f i e s , the t h e s i s i s d i v i d e d i n t o two Part One  has  two  kabuki.  The  first  chapters- t h a t t r e a t of the s t r u c t u r e of chapter,  s t r u c t u r e i t contained.  The  second chapter  the concepts of s e k a i , " t r a d i t i o n , " and  shuko,  the drama-  then  analyzes  "innovation,"  which were the u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s of t h a t s t r u c t u r e . p r i n c i p l e s represent way  Edo  based mainly on w r i t i n g s of the  Tokugawa p e r i o d , o u t l i n e s the annual play cycle,and tic  parts.  an ongoing process  These  t h a t determined  the  i n which the annual c y c l e f u n c t i o n e d as the framework of  kabuki.  In sum,  kabuki was  the product of m a t e r i a l t h a t  had  become a f a m i l i a r part of Japanese c u l t u r e by repeated  use  dramatization  before  over l o n g p e r i o d s  of time ( s t a r t i n g even  kabuki began) and m a t e r i a l t h a t was to transform  r e l a t i v e l y new  the o l d e r , set m a t e r i a l .  The  and was  and what was Part Two,  added by way  r e c e i v e d by way of i n n o v a t i v e  which a l s o has  two  used  double i d e n t i t y i n  Sukeroku came about as a r e s u l t of t h i s i n t e r p l a y w i t h i n annual c y c l e of what was  and  of t r a d i t i o n a l  the sekai  shuko.  chapters,  then c o n s i d e r s  the  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the double i d e n t i t y by a n a l y z i n g i t i n terms • of s e k a i and  shuko.  i d e n t i t y gave Edo  The  c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t Sukeroku's double  audiences a hero who  the contemporary Tokugawa townsman and formation  was  an i d e a l i z a t i o n of  at the same time a t r a n s -  of a samurai god-hero of the past.  c o n c l u s i o n , the f i r s t  chapter  of Part Two  To reach  t r a c e s the  this  develop-  ment of the Soga s e k a i which gave r i s e to Sukeroku's samurai i d e n t i t y , from i t s o r i g i n s i n the  e a r l y dramatic forms of  no,  4  kowaka, and  ko-joruri,  to the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  k a b u k i by I c h i k a w a D a n j u r o  I.  The  o f S o g a Goro i n  second then l o o k s at the  shuko w h i c h  t r a n s f o r m e d S o g a Goro i n t o S u k e r o k u  the  o f Sukeroku  origins  Ichikawa Danjuro are  limited  II.  and  In Part  the b a s i s  discussing  i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n to'Edo Two,  t o Ichikawa Danjuro  t h e i r work was  by  kabuki  the d i s c u s s i o n s  of kabuki  I and h i s s o n , D a n j u r o  of a l l l a t e r  by  I I , since  developments.  * * * My  d e c i s i o n t o approach Sukeroku's  surviving  element  of a dramatic s t r u c t u r e  a n n u a l p l a y c y c l e came a b o u t I my  Sukeroku. by w h i c h  be b a s e d  Knowing t h a t time Japan  p e c t e d t o be  an a c t i v e  able to l o c a t e  surprised to discover that  l a c k of e a r l y texts. bills, and  critiques  a variety  lustrated  solely  w i t h the idea on e a r l y  publishing  We  I was  1713i  since I  ex-  therefore material  conspicuous  have i n abundance c h r o n o l o g i e s , and  performances,  (e-iri  But  play-  screens, prints, aside from the i l -  kyogen-bon) p u b l i s h e d  which  during  the  a r e n o t c o m p l e t e - t e x t s and  pre-date Sukeroku,  an  of  a l t h o u g h much p r i m a r y s o u r c e  of essay-type w r i t i n g s .  Genroku e r a ( l 6 8 8 - 1 7 0 3 ) i  on  that  texts  industry,  a number o f them.  a  way.  i n o t h e r forms, t h e r e i s a  of actors  p l a y books  nevertheless,  almost  as  based  t h e p l a y has been p e r f o r m e d  had  on k a b u k i i s a v a i l a b l e  identity  identity  t h a t was  i n the f o l l o w i n g  began s t u d y i n g t h e d o u b l e  r e s e a r c h would  double  t h e r e a r e a l m o s t no  which,  surviving 2  kabuki t e x t s is  a l m o s t two  until  t h e end  hundred  of the eighteenth century.  years a f t e r  k a b u k i b e g a n and w e l l  This after  5  Sukeroku  and  many o t h e r p l a y s had  become e s t a b l i s h e d  i n the  dramatic r e p e r t o r y . In  a d d i t i o n to t h i s  tigation fact  into  that  the double  Japanese  a general lack d e v i c e used  lack  of t e x t s ,  identity  was  s c h o l a r s view  of l o g i c  to delight  s e n t i n g a wide range  I found that  also  frustrated  i t either  "commoner"  (shomin) a u d i e n c e s  of kabuki r o l e  types.  form  There  on E u r o p e a n  as t o s a y t h a t  vising  the Japanese  a r t forms t h a t  as t h e t h i r t y - o n e  and  waka and  writer  produced  on k a b u k i has  extended,  internally  Feeling that at  kabuki  carry  out  coherent  such  sufficiently  s h o r t and  was, might  Japanese  prior  American by  compari-  terms,  what I t h o u g h t of the t o p i c  have n e v e r  I was  identity  i n de-  cycle.  plays,  evolved  of not  looking  determined  to  even i f i t texts  g u i d e d by.  and  It research  I n o t come a c r o s s s e v e r a l  r e p r i n t e d works o f t h e Tokugawa p e r i o d w h i c h o u t l i n e play  hai-  American  t o know where t o b e g i n , and my  have b e e n i m p o s s i b l e , had  (such  expression."  were i m p o r t a n t t o be  so  syllable  one  c o n c l u s i o n s are the r e s u l t  treatments  however, d i f f i c u l t  As  forms of a r t i s t i c  i n i t s own  who,  restricted  the seventeen  a study of Sukeroku's double  meant d o i n g so w i t h o u t without  "The  to'be  Some have gone  anything outstanding.  said,  a  pre-  drama,  p e o p l e have s u c c e e d e d  are r e l a t i v e l y  syllable  by  ku) , b u t when i t comes t o l o n g e r works o f a r t , s u c h as t h e y have n o t  the  seems  r e a l i s m , - ' have c o n c l u d e d t h a t  son kabuki p l a y s are not w e l l - c o n s t r u c t e d . far  by  i n k a b u k i ^ o r as n o t h i n g more t h a n  ideas of dramatic  social-psychological  inves-  as an i n s t a n c e o f  agreement w i t h t h o s e f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s o f J a p a n e s e basing t h e i r  an  the  newly annual  6  I t i s w e l l known t h a t such a c y c l e e x i s t e d , hut the r e l a t i o n s h i p "between i t and the dramatic s t r u c t u r e o f kabuki has never been f u l l y explored.  With the help of the s u g g e s t i v e ,  though b r i e f , d i s c u s s i o n s o f the t o p i c i n Kabuki no hasso by G u n j i Masakatsu, Kabuki no kozo by H a t t o r i Yukio, and "Soga kyogen no hensen t o kansho" by At sum i Seitaro,'' I came t o see 7  the p l a y c y c l e as the key t o understanding kabuki dramatic structure--and  Sukeroku's double  identity.  What began as a t e x t u a l study o f a s i n g l e p l a y  evolved  i n t o a work which r e q u i r e d t a k i n g i n t o account a broad range of m a t e r i a l .  Even had the e a r l y t e x t s of Sukeroku been a v a i l -  a b l e , my experience has shown me t h a t t o have s t u d i e d the p l a y without r e f e r e n c e  t o the annual p l a y c y c l e would have been  another case of the p r o v e r b i a l f r o g i n the w e l l . been seeing  only a very  I would have  small p a r t o f the whole p i c t u r e .  7  PART ONE: THE STRUCTURE OF EDO KABUKI  8  Chapter I .  The Annual Play Cycle ,  ' The Idea o f an Annual C y c l e  i n Japanese  Culture 1  In s p r i n g i t i s the dawn t h a t i s most "beautiful. ~ S e i ShSnagon, The P i l l o w Book (ca. 1000) In every c u l t u r e c e r t a i n p r a c t i c e s d e f i n e and c e l e b r a t e the n a t u r a l c y c l e of the year.  What form these p r a c t i c e s take  depends on the p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r e .  They range from r e l i g i o u s  r i t e s and seasonal f e s t i v a l s t o h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d poetry and drama.  Japan i s no exception  t o t h i s r u l e ; indeed, the way i n  which Japanese c u l t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y the p r a c t i c e of the a r t s , has  been l i n k e d t o the flow o f time i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y . The  purpose of t h i s chapter, and a p r i n c i p a l aim of the  t h e s i s as a whole, i s t o show t h a t kabuki dramatic was based on a seasonal c y c l e .  structure  Before proceeding, however, a  few  words about the i d e a of an annual c y c l e i n Japanese c u l t u r e  and  the c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n between season and a r t i s t i c  structure  i n Japan w i l l help make the concept of the annual c y c l e o f kabuki more meaningful. The  term annual c y c l e ( n e n j u - g y o j i )  Heian p e r i o d t o d e s c r i b e  was f i r s t  used i n the  the y e a r l y ceremonials c a r r i e d out by  members of the i m p e r i a l c o u r t .  Although the i m p e r i a l  nenju-gyoji  was the p r o t o t y p i c a l c y c l e , i n time the word came t o be a p p l i e d to the annual observances - of any group w i t h i n s o c i e t y as a whole.  9  Scholars believe developed  that  when y o u n g s h o o t s  cycles  i n Japan  that  t i m e s when f i e l d s  Because farmers  were b e y o n d t h e i r  temperature),  certain  and t h a t  had t o be  had t o r e l y  control  the r i p e  on n a t u r a l  (sunshine,  rainfall,  days were s e t a s i d e t o p r a y t h a t  t h e c r o p w o u l d be b o u n t i f u l .  Every  prepared,  had t o be p l a n t e d , a n d so on, u n t i l  g r a i n was h a r v e s t e d .  go w e l l  annual  i n conjunction with the rice-growing process.  y e a r t h e r e were s p e c i a l  elements  the e a r l i e s t  a l l would  And, o f c o u r s e ,  when t h e c r o p was i n , days w o u l d be s e t a s i d e f o r p r a y e r s o f thanksgiving. festivals  w h i c h became t h e f o c a l  The from  I n Japan prayer o f t e n took t h e form  annual  the Heian  flecting  cycle  originated  points of the annual  kinds of cycles  w h i c h had no d i r e c t  rice-growing process.  Outside  ( w h i c h were d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  c y c l e , but  evolved, r e -  connection with the  of s t r i c t l y  religious  f e a t u r e s o f every temple  some o f t h e b e s t examples o f t h e s e a r e f o u n d music,  cycle.  i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l  p e r i o d on d i f f e r e n t  activities  o f community  cycles and s h r i n e ) ,  i n poetry,  prose,  t e a ceremony and i t s complement, f l o w e r a r r a n g i n g , a n d ,  of course, sentation arranged The  drama.  I n each  of these a r t s ,  o f t e n were, and i n many c a s e s  composition  still  and p r e -  are, seasonally  and m o t i v a t e d . r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e a s o n  and a r t i s t i c  structure i n  J a p a n e s e p o e t r y h a s a l o n g h i s t o r y w h i c h c a n be t r a c e d b a c k t o ( c a . 9 0 5 ) . "the f i r s t  the Kokinshu  o f t h e twenty-one  imperial  2 anthologies. divided  into  f o u r seasons  There,  as i n t h e l a t e r  a n t h o l o g i e s , poems were  v a r i o u s b o o k s , among w h i c h t h o s e o c c u p i e d a major p l a c e .  devoted  to the  What i s o f s p e c i a l i n -  terest,  though,  i s how  hooks t h e m s e l v e s . anthologies tion  and  on t h e faint  As  progression.  basis signs  accord  of the  of the  with  the  and  h o o k s was  the  flow  Konishi  that these  uses i s t h a t on  written  the  the  i t was  and  arrangement based  r  tory reference  in their  of the  words,  the  seasonal  traditional of the  weather,  c e r t a i n days o f the  to  The  example  p i c k young s h o o t s first  similar  appropriate  month.  --  he which  Poems  1  ceremonials  place  year"  "were  i n the  progression  anthologies."-^ i n the  imperial  anthologies,  or l i n k e d poetry,  of the  p r a c t i c e o f c o m p o s i n g poems w i t h  season began. of the  The  year  s e a s o n word  that  A n a t u r a l source  f o r s u c h a word was  displayed  room where t h e  i n the  first  J a p a n demanded t h a t c e r t a i n  i n poetry.  and  the renga,  time  . . .  c l e a r l y made  on  "regardless  r a t i n the  a major r o l e  until  to  that  women on  pf t h i s  poems i n t h e  not  out  reflected  of the  subject  place  time.  annual e x c u r s i o n  machi p e r i o d t h a t t h e  expression  was  the  associa-  their  other  a r b i t r a r y but  of ancient  men  day  Season played but  "given  of  of a season from the  not  points  a c t s be  included  of seasonal  of  calendar  of the  took place  invariably  principles  its c l o s e . I n  o f poet;ic  p e r f o r m e d by  on  to  season  shown, poems i n  n e c e s s i t y of t a k i n g i n t o account the  ceremonial  a c t s be  has  w i t h i n the  S e a s o n a l poems were  of i t s a r r i v a l  nen.ju-gyo.ji • the  Jin'ichi  progression  Another aspect f l o w was  Konishi  were i n t e g r a t e d t h r o u g h t h e  structuring to  poems.- were a r r a n g e d  the  the  obliga-  ( k i g o ) was  poem was  name o f t h e  poets of the  an  Muro-  an  written.^ flower  r e n g a sequence  T h i s p r a c t i c e o f i n c l u d i n g s e a s o n words i n e a c h p o e t i c  met.  composi-  7  t i o n found  i t s most c o m p l e t e  e x p r e s s i o n i n what came t o  be  known as t h e h a i k u o f t h e Tokugawa p e r i o d . Haiku  without  would l i k e  a season  to suggest,  poetry of season.  just  in fact,  Although  i t s n a t u r a l imagery more t h a n  word i s a l m o s t  i t .  in a tree!),  listing  very  literally  been used  and  cycle  and  bough  poetry  transcend  expressing  i s rooted i n  the passage of  time  e x i s t e n c e o f volumes o f h a i k u season  t h o u s a n d s o f t h o s e words  i n poetry  represent,  such  I  d e f i n e d ' as  ( t h e crow on t h e w i t h e r e d  a bird  The  t h a t h a i k u be  t h e m e a n i n g o f a h a i k u may  a keen a w a r e n e s s o f t h e a n n u a l within  unthinkable.  s i n c e the Heian  t h e i r meaning,  (many o f w h i c h  p e r i o d ) , the  shows how  words,  season  important  had  they  season  was  g to poetic structure. kasumi tsuki the  From t h e  (mists) of s p r i n g , to the (moon) o f autumn, and  entire  defined the  y e a r was  hotaru  (fireflies)  k a r e - a s h i (dry reeds)  d e f i n e d i n p o e t i c t e r m s and  and  o f summer,  of  winter,  the year  itself  poetry.  In prose  as w e l l s e a s o n  only t h i n k of the  i n t r i c a t e l y woven.  was  very important.  s e a s o n a l p a t t e r n s out  of the G e n j i monogatari  is  hana ( c h e r r y b l o s s o m s )  (The  One  of which the s t r u c t u r e  T a l e o f G e n j i ; c a . 1000)  Perhaps the best  need  single  was  description  the n i n e t e e n t h passage of the Tsurezuregusa  so  of  this  (Essays i n I d l e -  n e s s ; c a . 1 3 3 2 ) , where Y o s h i d a  Kenko  of the aspects  f l o w t h a t have p l a y e d a r o l e  the  i m a g e r y and  period--and  of the  seasonal  (1283-1350)  s t r u c t u r e of the great prose  i n Kenko's own  work as w e l l .  e n u m e r a t e s some  works o f t h e  in  Heian  T h i s passage i s such  a p e r f e c t e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e a s o n  and t r a -  12  ditional quoted at  ,  Japanese a r t i s t i c  sensibility  that i t deserves  to  be  length. The c h a n g i n g o f t h e s e a s o n s i s d e e p l y m o v i n g i n i t s every m a n i f e s t a t i o n . P e o p l e seem t o a g r e e t h a t autumn i s t h e b e s t s e a s o n t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e beauty of t h i n g s . T h a t may w e l l be t r u e , b u t t h e s i g h t s o f s p r i n g a r e e v e n more e x h i l a r a t i n g . The c r i e s o f t h e b i r d s g r a d u a l l y t a k e on a p e c u l i a r l y s p r i n g l i k e q u a l i t y , and-in the gentle s u n l i g h t the bushes b e g i n t o s p r o u t a l o n g the f e n c e s . Then, as s p r i n g deepens, m i s t s s p r e a d over the l a n d s c a p e and t h e c h e r r y b l o s s o m s seem r e a d y t o open, o n l y f o r s t e a d y r a i n s and w i n d s t o c a u s e them t o s c a t t e r p r e cipitously. The h e a r t i s s u b j e c t t o i n c e s s a n t pangs o f e m o t i o n as t h e y o u n g l e a v e s a r e g r o w i n g o u t . Orange b l o s s o m s a r e famous f o r e v o k i n g memories, b u t t h e f r a g r a n c e o f plum b l o s s o m s above a l l makes us r e t u r n t o t h e p a s t and remember n o s t a l g i c a l l y long-ago events. Nor c a n we o v e r l o o k t h e c l e a n l o v e l i n e s s of the yamabuki or the u n c e r t a i n beauty o f w i s t e r i a , and so many o t h e r c o m p e l l i n g s i g h t s . Someone once r e m a r k e d , " I n summer, when t h e F e a s t o f A n o i n t i n g t h e Buddha and t h e Kamo F e s t i v a l come a r o u n d , and t h e y o u n g l e a v e s on t h e t r e e t o p s grow t h i c k and c o o l , o u r s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e t o u c h i n g b e a u t y o f t h e w o r l d and o u r l o n g i n g f o r a b s e n t f r i e n d s grow s t r o n g e r . " Indeed, t h i s i s so. When, i n t h e f i f t h month, t h e i r i s e s bloom and t h e r i c e s e e d l i n g s a r e t r a n s p l a n t e d , c a n anyone r e m a i n unt r o u b l e d by t h e drumming o f t h e w a t e r r a i l s ? Then, i n t h e s i x t h month, y o u c a n see t h e w h i t e n e s s o f m o o n f l o w e r s g l o w i n g o v e r w r e t c h e d h o v e l s , and t h e s m o u l d e r i n g .of...mosquito i n c e n s e i s a f f e c t i n g t o o . ^ The p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t e s o f t h e s i x t h month a r e a l s o engrossing. The c e l e b r a t i o n o f T a n a b a t a i s c h a r m i n g . Then, as t h e n i g h t s g r a d u a l l y become c o l d and t h e w i l d geese c r y , the under l e a v e s o f the h a g i t u r n y e l l o w , and men h a r v e s t and d r y t h e f i r s t c r o p o f r i c e . So many m o v i n g s i g h t s come t o g e t h e r , i n autumn e s p e c i a l l y . And how u n f o r g e t t a b l e i s t h e m o r n i n g a f t e r an e q u i n o c t a l s t o r m ! - - A s I go on I r e a l i z e t h a t t h e s e s i g h t s have l o n g s i n c e b e e n e n u m e r a t e d i n The T a l e o f G e n j i and The P i l l o w Book, b u t I make no p r e t e n s e o f t r y i n g t o a v o i d s a y i n g t h e same t h i n g s a g a i n . . . . W i n t e r d e c a y i s h a r d l y l e s s b e a u t i f u l t h a n autumn. Crimson l e a v e s l i e s c a t t e r e d on t h e g r a s s b e s i d e t h e p o n d s , and how d e l i g h t f u l i t i s on a m o r n i n g when t h e f r o s t i s v e r y w h i t e t o see t h e v a p o r r i s e f r o m a g a r d e n stream. At t h e end o f t h e y e a r i t i s i n d e s c r i b a b l y m o v i n g t o see e v e r y o n e h u r r y i n g a b o u t on e r r a n d s . There i s something f o r l o r n about the waning w i n t e r moon, s h i n i n g c o l d and c l e a r i n t h e s k y , unwatched b e c a u s e i t i s s a i d t o be d e p r e s s i n g . The I n v o c a t i o n  o f t h e B u d d h a Names a n d t h e d e p a r t u r e o f t h e m e s s e n g e r s w i t h t h e i m p e r i a l o f f e r i n g s a r e m o v i n g and inspiring. How i m p r e s s i v e i t i s t h a t so many p a l a c e ceremonials a r e p e r f o r m e d "besides a l l t h e p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t h e New Y e a r ! I t i s s t r i k i n g that the Worship of the F o u r D i r e c t i o n s f o l l o w s d i r e c t l y on t h e E x p u l s i o n o f t h e Demons. On t h e l a s t n i g h t o f t h e y e a r , w h e n i t i s e x t r e m e l y d a r k , p e o p l e l i g h t p i n e t o r c h e s a n d go r u s h i n g a b o u t , p o u n d i n g on t h e g a t e s o f s t r a n g e r s until w e l l a f t e r midnight. I wonder what i t s i g n i f i e s . A f t e r t h e y have done w i t h t h e i r e x a g g e r a t e d s h o u t i n g and r u n n i n g so f u r i o u s l y t h a t t h e i r f e e t h a r d l y t o u c h t h e g r o u n d , t h e n o i s e a t l a s t f a d e s away w i t h t h e c o m i n g o f t h e dawn, l e a v i n g a l o n e l y f e e l i n g o f regret over the departing o l d year. The c u s t o m o f p a y i n g homage t o t h e d e a d , i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e y r e t u r n t h a t n i g h t , has l a t e l y d i s a p p e a r e d from the c a p i t a l , b u t I was d e e p l y m o v e d t o d i s c o v e r t h a t i t was s t i l l p e r f o r m e d i n t h e E a s t . As t h e day t h u s b r e a k s o n t h e New Y e a r t h e s k y s e e m s n o diff e r e n t f r o m w h a t i t was t h e d a y b e f o r e , b u t one f e e l s somehow c h a n g e d a n d r e n e w e d . The m a i n t h o r o u g h f a r e s , decorated t h e i r f u l l l e n g t h w i t h pine boughs, seem c h e e r f u l and f e s t i v e , and t h i s t o o i s p r o f o u n d ly affecting.9 The of  the  Tsurezuregusa  elements  that  Japanese t a s t e - - t h e fect, and,  f o r the  of  clear  just the  also  crucial  that  the  to  to  the  f o r the  bright  over the  p e t a l s , the  passing  days of  transience  spring  of  traditional  over the  and  dying,  c y c l e was  permanent. of  that  the  warm  But  The days as i t  mattered.  would bloom  come o n c e m o r e . f o r the  per-  dazzling,  a l l things.  flowers  summer w o u l d  o f therE.rarte-Bdnd.irif e .  down many  autumn--these were seen  know t h a t  annual  imperfect  impermanent  away, t h e  this  i t sets  essential to  over the  passing  warm d a y s o f  expression  point  chill  because  considered  subdued  spring flower  i n d i c a t i o n s of  not  now  preference  d a r k and  summer i n t o t h e  was  are  e s p e c i a l l y , f o r the  falling of  i s important  Japanese  It  again, Giving a  major  was  14  I n t h e Tokugawa p e r i o d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n  season  and p r o s e t o o k on an a d d e d d i m e n s i o n i n t h e w r i t i n g o f  Ihara  Saikaku (1642-93).  munezan'yo  Almost a l l of the s t o r i e s i n Seken  (Worldly Mental Calculations;  1692), f o r example,  r e c k o n i n g up o f t h e y e a r ' s e x p e n s e s new  year.  The  once b o u g h t  passage  and now  a r e about  the  just before beginning the  of time i s expressed i n terms of items  forgotten.  I t may seem i n s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e t i m e , b u t when one c a l c u l a t e s h i s e x p e n s e s f o r t h e y e a r he w i l l f i n d t h a t much o f h i s p u r c h a s e s h a v e f o u n d t h e i r way t o t h e t r a s h p i l e : t h e New Y e a r a r c h e r y s e t , t h e mass o f r a v e l e d t h r e a d t h a t was o n c e a b a l l , t h e s h a t t e r e d m o r t a r from t h e D o l l ' s F e s t i v a l , t h e sword o f t a r n i s h e d f o i l f r o m t h e Boy's F e s t i v a l , t h e b r o k e n d a n c i n g drum, t h e d i s c a r d e d t o y s p a r r o w t i e d t o a s p r a y o f J o b ' s t e a r s t h a t was u s e d f o r t h e f e s t i v a l on t h e f i r s t day o f t h e E i g h t h M o n t h . There i s also, the o u t l a y f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n of r i c e c a k e s t o c e l e b r a t e M i d d l e B o a r Day, t h e dumpl i n g s f o r the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t e at the shrine of the G u a r d i a n God, t h e c e l e b r a t i o n on t h e f i r s t day o f t h e l a s t month, t h e e x o r c i s m c o i n s wrapped i n paper on t h e Eve o f S p r i n g , and t h e c h a r m s b o u g h t t o d i s p e l b a d dreams.10 E v e r y p e r s o n who  participated i n t h i s cycle could  empathize  w i t h t h i s view of the p a s s i n g of the year. S a i k a k u ' s most e f f e c t i v e u s e o f s e a s o n , h o w e v e r , was a s o u r c e o f humor i n c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . ( F i v e Women Who  I n K o s h o k u g o n i n onna  L o v e d L o v e ; 1686) , f o r e x a m p l e ,  when O n a t s u i s  consumed w i t h l o v e f o r S e i j u r o , S a i k a k u s a y s t h a t s h e aware o f t h e s e a s o n , w h e t h e r  i t was  New  as  "was  un-  Year's or the time f o r  11 t h e midsummer f e s t i v a l n o v e l e v e n an a l m a n a c  o f 0-Bon."  In another story m  m a k e r c a n be b l i n d  "to the  t h e same  flower-fragrant 12  n i g h t s o f s p r i n g and t o t h e r i s i n g cause of h i s overwhelming  o f t h e autumn moon"  a f f e c t i o n f o r a woman.  Saikaku  bewas  15  a master of s a t i r e ,  and i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n a c h a r a c t e r ' s  t i o n t o t h e s e a s o n a l c y c l e were u s e d as a humorous way p i c t i n g the f o l l i e s  of that  w o r k i s b a s e d on t h e a n n u a l c y c l e o f n a t u r e . ter  opens w i t h a c h a r a c t e r ' s  ple  b e l l s a t New  The  first  chap-  Utsukushisa to kanashimi to i s  l i v e s and t h e r e i s no b e t t e r way  are  entire  j o u r n e y t o K y o t o t o h e a r t h e tem-  i n many ways a b o u t t h e p a s t and p r e s e n t o f t h e  The  a  Y e a r ' s and f r o m t h e r e t h e s t o r y f o l l o w s t h e  progression of the seasons.  the y e a r l y  has  I n U t s u k u s h i s a t o k a n a s h i m i t o ( B e a u t y and  Sadness; I96I) by Kawabata Y a s u n a r i ( 1 8 9 9 - 1 9 7 2 ) , t h e  of  o f de-  character.  E v e n i n t h e modern n o v e l , s e a s o n a l r h y t h m s t i l l major f u n c t i o n .  atten-  characters'  t o present t h i s t h a n i n terms  cycle.  a r t s o f m u s i c , t e a c e r e m o n y , and f l o w e r  a l s o c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the seasons.  arranging  I n gagaku,  said to  be t h e o l d e s t c o n t i n u o u s m u s i c a l t r a d i t i o n i n t h e w o r l d , t h e 13 tuning of the instruments d i f f e r s according to the season, and i n t r a d i t i o n a l J a p a n e s e m u s i c i n g e n e r a l , t h e of  J  selection  p i e c e s f o r a p e r f o r m a n c e i s made i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e  season.  I n t h e t e a ceremony t h e v e r y shape  of a t e a bowl i s  a m a t t e r o f s e a s o n ; w i d e - m o u t h e d b o w l s a r e u s e d i n summer, small-mouthed bowls i n w i n t e r .  While t h i s  differentiation in  s h a p e has a p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n - - t e a i n a w i d e - m o u t h e d will tea  c o o l o f f more q u i c k l y  bowl  ( w h i c h i s d e s i r a b l e i n summer) a n d  i n a small-mouthed bowl w i l l  s t a y warm l o n g e r  (which  is  desirable i n winter)--the important point i s that the  of  the bowl i s a v i s u a l  symbol  of the season.  shape  The m o s t o b v i o u s  16  indication  of the  which i s found carried of art  out.  the year,  i n the As  however, i s t h e  t e a room e v e r y t i m e  i n poetry, the  while the year  The  t e a ceremony i s the s t r u c t u r e  t h e medium o f t h e  different  I must  means e x h a u s t i v e  the p e r v a s i v e n e s s  emphasize t h a t the  e l e m e n t went b e y o n d t h e  of season  seasonal  o c c a s i o n a l use  of  i n w h i c h i t was  I n what f o l l o w s , I have t r i e d  the r o l e  of season  i n Edo  kabuki.  in  nature  the very s t r u c t u r e of the  used.  and  or, rather,  imagery: i t determined  fy  the  used.  o n l y meant t o s u g g e s t  cyclical  the  arrangement,  gives s t r u c t u r e to  e x a m p l e s g i v e n above a r e by no  Japanese a r t .  flower  flowers express  itself  o f t h e t e a ceremony t h r o u g h  flowers that are  are  season,  art  form to  clari-  17  The The  Annual Cycle  of Kabuki  annual c y c l e of kabuki comprised  altogether  .  Ik two h u n d r e d d a y s o f p e r f o r m a n c e t i m e . six production  periods,  I t was  the t r a d i t i o n a l  about  .  .  divided into  names and  starting  1S dates  o f w h i c h a r e shown  below.  production  starting  kao-mise  11th  spring  ("face-showing")  (haru  1st  or hatsu-haru)  date  month, 1 s t  day  month, 1 5 t h  day  third-month  (yayoi)  3 r d month, 3 r d day  fifth-month  (satsuki)  5 t h month, 5"th day  bon  t o bon f e s t i v a l )  7"th month, 1 5 t h  (refers  farewell  9 t h month, 9 t h day  (o-nagori)  The  third-  and f i f t h - m o n t h  but  i n t h e Tokugawa p e r i o d t h e y  production dates  and w i l l  are given  productions  be r e g a r d e d  according  J a n u a r y 1,  1873,  i s i n u s e t o d a y was a d o p t e d .  the  present The  would f a l l  calendar."'"  production  Also,  calendar  up t o a month o r more l a t e r  on  0  periods  s t a r t e d at approximately  Among them, t h e k a o - m i s e and s p r i n g  constituted  t h e main p o r t i o n o f t h e a n n u a l c y c l e and  s t r u c t u r e s were most f u l l y i n greatest  was  according to  intervals.  outlined  starting  which  when t h e W e s t e r n  Dates g i v e n  separately,  of the spring  to the lunar calendar,  that  calendar  be t r e a t e d  as such here.  i n Japan u n t i l  lunar  may  were o f t e n p a r t  used  the  day  defined.  detail.  They w i l l  two-month  productions their  t h e r e f o r e be  1 8  The  Beginning  The  of the  C y c l e : The  c y c l e began w i t h  the  Kao-mise  Production  kao-mise p r o d u c t i o n ,  which s t a r t e d  17 on t h e  first  day  of the  e l e v e n t h month.  Actors  gawa p e r i o d h e l d o n e - y e a r c o n t r a c t s w i t h and  the  k a o - m i s e was  the  first  production  of the  Toku-  licensed theatres, a f t e r the  settling  18 of for  new  contracts.  As  t h e word  members o f a n e w l y o r g a n i z e d  so t h a t a u d i e n c e s year.  could assess  Accordingly,  the  company t o  was  done t h e  the  i t s best  fullest  implies, this company t o  their  was  f o r the  p r o d u c t i o n was  designed  advantage,  to  p o s s i b l e dramatic  time  "show t h e i r  potential  and  the  faces" coming  to d i s p l a y  ensure t h a t  p r o g r a m was  this  planned,  19 making the  kao-mise p r o d u c t i o n  Before the to  presenting  the  p e r i o d of kao-mise, perform  traditional  dramas d u r i n g t h e One  three  the  head  companied by  his heir  kabuki."  t o be  featured  customary i n each of the  c o n g r a t u l a t o r y and  Shiki  Customarily,  s o u l of  p l a y t h a t was  i t was  first  s u c h p i e c e was  "the  days o f the  —  Sambaso  (also  ceremonial new  of a t h e a t r e took the presumptive  Okina  role  as S e n z a i ,  and  year.  watashi).  of a  theatres  dance-  theatre  called  during  Okina,  20  ac-  relative  — 21 o r one the port  of h i s a p p r e n t i c e s  as Sambaso.  t h e a t r e management's way o f a new Shiki  Taking  of demonstrating  these  roles  was  i t s a c t i v e sup-  company.  Sambaso i s a v a r i a t i o n  of Okina,  an  ancient  drama  — 22 that  predates  sented  as  no.  a very  The o l d man,  central who  character,  i s thought  Okina,  t o be  i s repre-  a god  i n human  23 form. ^ He i s a s y m b o l o f l o n g e v i t y , and h i s i m p o r t a n c e i s s u c h t h a t he was i n v o k e d a t t h e a c c e s s i o n o f a new emperor.  T h i s was  to ensure s u c c e s s f u l r i c e - g r o w i n g  coming r e i g n .  2k  cycles during  In the Tokugawa p e r i o d , when no was  o f f i c i a l ceremonial  entertainment  day's performance was  arranged  the  made the  of the samurai c l a s s ,  a  a c c o r d i n g to a p a t t e r n of  "five  steps plus Okina" ( O k i n a - t s u k i go-ban-date), meaning t h a t p l a y from each'of the f i v e dramatic  c a t e g o r i e s of ,no was  one per-  2 *5 formed, preceded by Okina. was  not u n l i k e that of  J  In p r i n c i p l e , t h i s arrangement  kabuki.  S h i k i Sambaso was  f o l l o w e d on the program by a waki-kyogen, 26 an a u s p i c i o u s "god" p l a y . Because each t h e a t r e had i t s own s p e c i a l waki-kyogen, producing them was an e x p r e s s i o n of the 27 p r i d e of a p a r t i c u l a r t h e a t r e .  '  — Both S h i k i Sambaso and waki-  kyogen were r e s e r v e d f o r only the most s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s , as kao-mise, New  Year's,  and the opening or reopening  such  of a  theatre .building. Since no had a c o n s i d e r a b l e  i n f l u e n c e on the e a r l y d e v e l -  opment of kabuki,  i t i s n a t u r a l to f i n d f e a t u r e s of resem-  blance  arts.  i n the two  Moreover, by p r e s e r v i n g Okina ( i n  the form of S h i k i Sambaso), f o r example, kabuki, which viewed by the samurai ( e s p e c i a l l y those who s e l v e s proper  Confucian  considered  and  accepted  a s s o c i a t i o n with  t h e a t r e year with S h i k i Sambaso  and waki-kyogen, the main p o r t i o n of kao-mise was composed of two  the f i r s t  acti-  conventions.  A f t e r s t a r t i n g the new  I t was  them-  s c h o l a r s ) as a r a t h e r u n d e s i r a b l e  v i t y of the commoners, could c r e a t e a symbolic recognised  was  presented.  major s e c t i o n s , g e n e r a l l y known as  p l a y (ichi-bamme kyogen) and the second p l a y ( n i -  - okina a n d S e n z a i i n S h i k i Sambaso. Costumes and s e t t i n g a r e r i c h l y decorated w i t h &ne,bamboo, t o r t o i s e , a n d c r a n e , s y m b o l i c o f good f o r t u n e a n d l o n g e v i t y I l l u s t r a t i o n f r o m K-hon s h i b a i n e n . i u - k a g a m i . q  a  m  h  Shichi-fuku.jin, a waki-kyogen of the Ichimura-za. The s h i c h i - f u k u . j i n a r e t h e s e v e n gods o f g o o d f o r t u n e . I l l u s t r a t i o n f r o m E-hon s h i o a i nen.ju-kagami.  22  "bamme kyogen) , both of which i n t u r n c o u l d be s u b - d i v i d e d 28 i n t o the f o l l o w i n g p a r t s : S h i k i Sambaso waki-kyogen I.  first  p l a y (ichi-bamme kyogen)  a. opening  (jo-biraki)  b. second step  (futa-tateme)  c. t h i r d s t e p (mi-tateme) d. f o u r t h s t e p (yo-taterne) e. f i f t h , s t e p ( itsu-tateme) f.  .end  s i x t h s t e p (mu-tateme)—  II.  (o-zume)^  30  second p l a y (ni-bamme kyogen) g. sewa scene (sewa-ba) h. grand f i n a l e  In b. to  (o-giri)  . . . f . the word "step" ( t a t e ) i s the same as that used  d e s c r i b e the arrangement of no.  (In O k i n a - t s u k i go-ban-date,  -date i s a phonetic v a r i a t i o n of t a t e . )  In f a c t , w i t h the  exception of g., the s t r u c t u r e i s d e s c r i b e d simply i n terms of consecutive steps.  In Japanese "to compose a p l a y " i s kyogen  o t a t e r u ( t a t e being the nominative  form of the v e r b  tateru),  i n the sense of b u i l d i n g something s t e p by step. The  opening  and  second s t e p s e c t i o n s of the f i r s t  play  were staged e a r l y i n the morning as warm-up e x e r c i s e s , and t h e r e f o r e they commanded the l e a s t share of the attention.  They were composed by low-ranking  l i k e w i s e , were performed by low-ranking  audience's  p l a y w r i g h t s and, 31 actors. The opening  23  was  o f t e n comic, f e a t u r i n g unusual c h a r a c t e r s , such as animals 32  and. o t h e r - w o r l d l y dance p i e c e  beings.  The  (shosagoto) and  second s t e p would o f t e n be  a  the p l o t might concern the unmasking  33  of c o n s p i r a t o r s or r e b e l s . F o l l o w i n g the opening and  the second step, the  featured  p o r t i o n of the program began w i t h the t h i r d step, which,  during  kao-mise, t r a d i t i o n a l l y e n t a i l e d a performance of the  play  Shibaraku•  ,iuhaehi-  ban,  T h i s p l a y , l i k e Sukeroku, i s one  "the eighteen  during kao-mise was What i s now ever,  f a v o r i t e s " of kabuki.  considered  J  the e s t a b l i s h e d t e x t of the p l a y , how-  newly w r i t t e n every year,  p l a y was  Its presentation  s t a r t e d by Ichikawa Danjuro I I i n 1 7 1 4 .  dates only from 1 8 9 5 -  portant  of the  P r i o r to t h a t , Shibaraku  was  a f a c t which i l l u s t r a t e s an  im-  f e a t u r e of kabuki dramatic p r a c t i c e : the exact same not performed twice.  The  b a s i c s i t u a t i o n remained  f i x e d , but the i d e n t i t i e s of the c h a r a c t e r s and  certain ele-  ments of p l o t were changed. As the day progressed creased,  the s i z e of the audience i n -  i n general the work of h i g h e r - r a n k i n g  a c t o r s was a c t o r s , and was  and  performed.  playwrights  For both the l e a d i n g playwright  the audience as w e l l , the focus  of the  and  and  kao-mise  the second p l a y , u s u a l l y a work on a t o p i c a l theme.  T h i s was  i n c o n t r a s t to the f i r s t  about a l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d theme.  p l a y , which was The  generally  p l a y s of kabuki,  as  37  w e l l as those of the puppet t h e a t r e ,  are t y p i c a l l y  classi-  f i e d as e i t h e r jidai-mono (works on l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d themes) or sewa-mono (works on t o p i c a l themes) and  i t i s signficant  24  t h a t the f i r s t  production  of the annual p l a y c y c l e embodied  "both c a t e g o r i e s . A s t r u c t u r a l requirement of Edo p l a y and and  kabuki was  second p l a y be l i n k e d together,  t h a t the  first  even though i n s t y l e  substance they were very d i f f e r e n t from each other.  achieve  t h i s l i n k an important convention  s t r u c t u r e was  of the  To  dramatic  t h a t i n the course of the second p l a y one  or  more c h a r a c t e r s r e v e a l e d t h a t they were r e a l l y c h a r a c t e r s the f i r s t  p l a y who  had  undergone a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  Moreover, the requirement of l i n k i n g was the s e c t i o n s w i t h i n the f i r s t  and  of  identity.  a l s o observed among  second p l a y s themselves.  Thus, d e s p i t e s t y l i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s between dance-dramas " s t r a i g h t " dramas, every s e c t i o n had • .  from  somehow to be  and  integrally  39  j o i n e d to the work as a whole. The  day's p r o d u c t i o n  ended with the grand f i n a l e , which  brought the performance to a s p l e n d i d c o n c l u s i o n . Dance40 dramas were o f t e n staged. The c u r t a i n was f i n a l l y drawn at dusk (the performance having s t a r t e d at s u n r i s e ) , with the announcement "That's a l l f o r today" (Mazu k o n n i c h i  wa  4l k o r e - g i r i ) ..  T h i s sentence seems to imply  t h a t i f there  were more hours i n a day the work would have gone on A work, i n f a c t , d i d not  end  so much as i t was  longer.  cut o f f  (o-giri,  which I have t r a n s l a t e d as grand f i n a l e , l i t e r a l l y means . 42 "great c u t t m g - o f f " ) .  T h i s i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the  " l o g i c a l " c o n c l u s i o n we  have come to expect i n Western drama.  The  kao-mise p r o d u c t i o n  continued  the t w e l f t h month, about a month and  u n t i l the t e n t h day  of  a half after i t started.  Just as the p l a y began i n a c o n g r a t u l a t o r y and ceremonial so too d i d i t end t h a t way  with mai-osame (the " f i n a l  way,  dance").  Mai-osame e n t a i l e d the p r e s e n t a t i o n of Senshuraku, a dance with a chanted accompaniment, which was a n c i e n t a r t of gagaku. g i v e n at the end  o r i g i n a l l y d e r i v e d from the  Most o f t e n used i n the form i t i s  of the no p l a y Takasago, Senshuraku i s s t i l l  used on v a r i o u s f e l i c i t o u s o c c a s i o n s , and it  was  l i k e a s e r v i c e of t h a n k s g i v i n g f o r a s u c c e s s f u l  to the t h e a t r e year.  The  beginning  r e s t of the t w e l f t h month was  cupied with p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r New spring  i n the case of kabuki  Year's and the s t a r t  oc-  of the  production. Kao-mise: the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t r u c t u r e of kabuki  The  kao-mise p r o d u c t i o n  structure i n general.  The  o u t l i n e d above r e p r e s e n t s  kabuki  s p r i n g ( i n c l u d i n g the t h i r d -  and  f i f t h - m o n t h p r o d u c t i o n s ) , bon,  and f a r e w e l l  productions  d i f f e r e d ' from t h a t of kao-mise only i n the degree to which they were p a t t e r n e d  after i t .  J  Kao-mise s t r u c t u r e r e v e a l s two Edo  kabuki.  outstanding  f e a t u r e s of  These are 1) a m u l t i - p a r t , step-by-step  arrange-  ment, and 2) the l i n k i n g of the p a r t s , which were c l a s s i f i e d as e i t h e r j i d a i - or sewa-mono.  A d i s c u s s i o n of these  w i l l c o n s t i t u t e part of the next chapter. necessary  to keep them i n mind as we  features  Meanwhile, i t i s  continue  this  considera-  t i o n of kabuki w i t h i n the framework of the annual p l a y c y c l e .  26  The Long-run S p r i n g J u s t as kao-mise was  Production  i m p o r t a n t "because i t began a  p l a y c y c l e , the s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n g r e e t i n g f o r a new calendar,  calendar  served  year.  as the  According  t h e f i r s t month of the y e a r was  of s p r i n g .  theatres'  t o the  lunar  a l s o the f i r s t month  Thus i t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h began  i n the f i r s t month was  c a l l e d the s p r i n g production.  Pre-  sumably the companies had found t h e i r audience d u r i n g previous  new  two  months and now  mostly to a r t i s t i c  t h e i r energies  c o u l d be  the  devoted  considerations.  The  s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n began w i t h a t w o - p a r t i n t r o d u c t o r y 46 —47 ceremony t h a t c o n s i s t e d of S h i k i Sambaso and maki-bure, a f o r m a l announcement w h i c h e n t a i l e d the r e a d i n g of a by the head a c t o r of a company. title  ( o - n a d a i ) and  The  scroll  s c r o l l gave t h e main  s u b t i t l e s ( k o - n a d a i ) of the upcoming  work, as w e l l as the names of t h o s e who would be t a k i n g the 48 various roles. F o l l o w i n g t h e ceremony, younger members of 49 the company performed c o l o r f u l dances. The I n 1709  spring production  and the Soga s e k a i  a p l a y connected, w i t h the famous s t o r y o f  Soga b r o t h e r s ' revenge was  performed as the s p r i n g  i n each of t h e p r i n c i p a l t h e a t r e s of Edo.-^  These  the  production productions  were so s u c c e s s f u l t h a t from t h e n u n t i l the end of the Tokugawa p e r i o d , S o g a . p l a y s dominated t h e s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n s The  there.  concept of s e k a i , w h i c h i s t h i s r e p e a t e d use of c e r t a i n  s t o r i e s and t h e m a t i c m a t e r i a l i n the c o m p o s i t i o n of p l a y s f o r  kabuki, w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e next chapter and the Soga s e k a i i n p a r t i c u l a r w i l l be d e a l t with i n Chapter I I I .  The  s t r u c t u r e of the s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n , however, cannot be understood without  some r e f e r e n c e t o the r o l e of Soga p l a y s , and,  moreover, without  first  d i s c u s s i n g the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the  terms "main t i t l e " and " s u b t i t l e s " mentioned above. U n l i k e other p e r i o d s i n t h e annual p l a y c y c l e , t h e s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n was designed  t o have a l o n g run, l a s t i n g up t o  h a l f a year, through the time of the t h i r d - and f i f t h - m o n t h productions,  and u n t i l the s t a r t  o f the bon p r o d u c t i o n period.-^  T h i s d i d not mean, however, t h a t the dramatic  content  o f the  s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n remained e x a c t l y the same throughout period.  I n f a c t , kabuki  this  s t r u c t u r e was such t h a t as time went  on c e r t a i n p a r t s of the p r o d u c t i o n c o u l d be m o d i f i e d or taken out a l t o g e t h e r and new p a r t s c o u l d be added. was given a s i n g l e o v e r a l l t i t l e ,  The p r o d u c t i o n  which was the main  (o-nadai l i t e r a l l y means "great t i t l e " ) .  Because the s p r i n g  p r o d u c t i o n was i n v a r i a b l y a Soga p l a y , the main t i t l e expected rei  title  could be  t o i n c l u d e the word "Soga" i n i t s f o r example, S h i k i -  yawaragi Soga (Nakamura-za, 1716) ,. Otoko-moji Soga mono-  gat a r i  (Nakamura-za, 17^9), and Edo murasaki kongen Soga  (Ichimura-za, Subtitles  1761). (ko-nadai  l i t e r a l l y means "small t i t l e s " ) d e s i g -  nated v a r i o u s changes made i n the s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n .  They  were n e i t h e r s u b s t i t u t i o n s f o r the main t i t l e nor t r u e p l a y t i t l e s i n themselves, even though what they stood f o r may have been f u l l y wrought dramas.  Sukeroku y u k a r i no Edo-zakura, f o r  example, was Edo  simply  the name of the third-month p o r t i o n of  murasaki kongen Soga.  Many d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e i n t r y i n g  to i d e n t i f y the p l a y s of kabuki because of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between main t i t l e , represent.  As a r e s u l t , one  shifting  s u b t i t l e s , and what they  p l a y i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d to i n  S3  s e v e r a l ways. The  q u e s t i o n then i s , what determined the manner and  t e n t to which changes were made i n the s p r i n g The  answer i n v o l v e s two  and  t r a d i t i o n a l , the' other Among the seasonal  ex-  production?  s e t s of r e l a t e d f a c t o r s , one  seasonal  financial.  f a c t o r s was  the approach of  the  summer s o l s t i c e , which meant t h a t as the hours of d a y l i g h t i n c r e a s e d more m a t e r i a l c o u l d be presented was  a c c o r d i n g l y lengthened.  and the  Also, t r a d i t i o n d i c t a t e d that  p l a y s somehow r e f l e c t the changing seasons. gave way way  production  As New  to the season of c h e r r y blossoms and  Year's  as t h a t gave  to the heat of summer, m o d i f i c a t i o n s were made i n both  dramatic content  and t h e a t r i c a l  presentation.  F i n a n c i a l f a c t o r s were a l s o of great t h e a t r e management. of backing  was  the  Theatres had to o b t a i n a c e r t a i n amount  i n order to begin a p r o d u c t i o n .  a production ceipts.  concern to  The  then measured i n terms of box  No matter how  success  office re-  much i t cost to open a p r o d u c t i o n , i t  might c l o s e s h o r t l y a f t e r i t began i f audience response insufficient.  was  But u n l i k e the p r a c t i c e i n most commercial  t h e a t r e s today, i f a kabuki p l a y was was  of  necessary, the a c t o r was  secure  not  doing w e l l and  change  i n h i s p o s i t i o n because  he had. a y e a r - l o n g  contract.  I t was the p l a y i t s e l f  that  somehow had t o he changed. In sum, a s t r u c t u r e was r e q u i r e d t h a t c o u l d accomodate 1) expansions i n performance time, 2) dramatic t r a d i t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h seasonal o f f i c e success.  change, and 3) "the v a g a r i e s  o f box  Each o f these requirements could "be met be-  cause the unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of kabuki was that I t had what may be c a l l e d a m u l t i - p a r t a model of f l e x i b i l i t y .  structure.  T h i s s t r u c t u r e was  When performance time became l o n g e r ,  more p a r t s c o u l d be added.  When a new season or l a c k o f  success r e q u i r e d change, t h i s c o u l d be done as w e l l . cause many v a r i a b l e s were i n v o l v e d , ize  i ti s difficult  Beto general-  about the s t r u c t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y from the time o f the  spring production opinion,  until  the end of the e n t i r e c y c l e .  i t i s precisely this difficulty  In my  i n generalization,  a r i s i n g from i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f l e x i b i l i t y ,  that has caused  some people t o conclude that kabuki s t r u c t u r e i s i l l o g i c a l and  incoherent. The  f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of the s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n  assume optimum audience response and f i n a n c i a l  will  conditions.  I t must be noted, however, that f a c t o r s - - s u c h as the death of an a c t o r , a f i r e , governmental r e p r e s s i o n - - c o u l d production  from c o n t i n u i n g  prevent a  or even opening "on time," i n  the sense of beginning on the t r a d i t i o n a l s t a r t i n g date. such cases,  the order  In  o f the annual play c y c l e was s t i l l ad-  hered t o as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e , even i f i t meant some r e arrangement of the schedule.  F o r example, i n the year 1 7 1 3  30  both the Yamamura-za and the M o r i t a - z a began kao-mise productions d u r i n g the f i r s t month as w e l l as d u r i n g the month.  The  Kabuki nempyo, the standard chronology  r e v e a l s t h a t i n 1712 (the  eleventh  of p r o d u c t i o n s ,  n e i t h e r t h e a t r e had a kao-mise p r o d u c t i o n  Nakamura-za's began on the f i f t e e n t h day of the t w e l f t h  month). -5-5 evidence  The  of how  reason f o r the delay i s not c l e a r , but i t i s t h i n g s might be rearranged.  Although  i t ap-  pears t h a t the M o r i t a - z a continued with i t s b e l a t e d kao-mise p r o d u c t i o n through the spring,-5° the Yamamura-za went i n t o spring/third-month (it  p r o d u c t i o n i n the t h i r d or f o u r t h month  i s not c e r t a i n which) with the p l a y Hana-yakata  which contained the f i r s t  The  first  a  Aigo-zakura,  Sukeroku.  and second months of the s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n  57  During the time a l l o t t e d f o r the s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n i n the f i r s t month of the year (a p e r i o d of about two  weeks,  because the p r o d u c t i o n began on the f i f t e e n t h day of the month, the p l a y was  " l i t t l e New  produced.  Year" (ko-shogatsu)),  only the  A f t e r i n t r o d u c t o r y p r e s e n t a t i o n s , the  main p o r t i o n of the f i r s t  p l a y began with the t h i r d s t e p ,  as i n the case of the kao-mise p r o d u c t i o n , and  continued  through the f o u r t h s t e p , the f i f t h step, and an end The  first  step.  p r e c i s e content of the t h i r d , f o u r t h , and f i f t h  steps  d i f f e r e d depending on the p l a y , but the s t o r y g e n e r a l l y concerned the l o y a l t y of Onio Shinzaemon, h i s b r o t h e r Dozaburo, and Onio's wife toward the Soga b r o t h e r s , and t h e i r  efforts  to help the b r o t h e r s c a r r y out t h e i r revenge on Kudo Suketsune.  T h i s was  followed, by Taimen ( l i t e r a l l y ,  "coming f a c e to f a c e " ) ,  which brought the f i r s t month of the s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n a climactic conclusion. Soga b r o t h e r s ' f i r s t probable reason why day  Taimen i s the d r a m a t i z a t i o n  meeting w i t h Suketsune. the s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n  to  of the  In f a c t ,  a  began on the  of the f i r s t month i s t h a t i t i s the a n n i v e r s a r y  fifteenth  of the  59 a c t u a l taimen.  Taimen was  g e n e r a l l y done as a dance p i e c e ,  f e a t u r i n g f a n t a s t i c aragoto poses (mie), which express the c l a s h of the f o e s . first  An example of a s u r v i v i n g  p l a y which c o n t a i n s a l l these p a r t s i s N e n r i k i y a t a t e  s u g i , performed f o r the f i r s t at  wordlessly  the  time i n the f i r s t  month of  1806  Nakamura-za.-  At the end  of Taimen i n the t e x t of N e n r i k i y a t a t e  s u g i , Sukenari (Soga Turo) says:  "Now  the second" p l a y  (Kore y o r i ni-bamme h a j i m a r i ) , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t i t was  no  begins" time  to proceed to the next s e c t i o n of the s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n . l i n e was  i n s e r t e d on the f i r s t  day  beginning  of the I n a r i s h r i n e f e s t i v a l "on the c i v i l calendar. appropriate  t h a t t h e a t r e s s p e c i a l l y mark t h i s day  I n a r i s h r i n e was,  and  still  i s , where business  others, go to pray f o r p r o s p e r i t y .  It  was  since  the  people, among  I f t h i n g s went w e l l at  o f f i c e , the s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n  s i d e r a b l y beyond the second month.  This  of the horse (hatsu-uma)  i n the second month, which a l s o corresponded to the  the box  no  c o u l d be  extended con-  Consequently, a change i n  program would have been part of a t h e a t r e ' s c e l e b r a t i o n of festival.  6 1  Whereas the f i r s t presented  the  play of the s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n  i n the f i r s t month, the second month was  had  been  the time  32  to  add the second play.through  the p r a c t i c e of " i n s e r t i n g what  62 f o l l o w s " (ato o dasu). fied first  The  second p l a y was  added to a modi-  play--something on the order of one  exchanged f o r two  "new"  ones..  " o l d " part  Which " o l d " one,  however,  u n s p e c i f i e d ; i t depended on the r e l a t i v e success dividual section. the b a s i c f i r s t  was  of each i n -  Once the second p l a y had been added, then  (.jidai) and  second (sewa) p l a y s t r u c t u r e  r e v e a l e d , so t h a t the s t r u c t u r e was the kao-mise  being  was  very s i m i l a r t o t h a t of  production.  As i n the case of kao-mise, the second p l a y of the s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n had t o be l i n k e d to the f i r s t the second p l a y d i s c l o s e d who Thus, i n the Soga s e k a i , Ume  play.  Characters  they had been i n the f i r s t no Y o s h i b e i  (a second p l a y  a c t e r ) i s r e v e a l e d to be Onio Shinzaemon (a f i r s t ter),  play  of  play. charcharac-  Yaoya O s h i c h i (a second p l a y c h a r a c t e r ) i s r e v e a l e d t o  be Miura no Katakai  (a f i r s t  p l a y c h a r a c t e r ) , and,  of  course,  Sukeroku (a second p l a y c h a r a c t e r ) i s r e v e a l e d to be Soga Goro (a f i r s t The  play character).  third-month p r o d u c t i o n : the t h i r d and f o u r t h months of the spring The  t h i r d and  production  f o u r t h months of the s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n  responded to what may  be c a l l e d the  "third-month"  cor-  production.  (Yayoi i s the word f o r t h i r d month i n the l u n a r calendar.) as the f i r s t  and  on a s p e c i a l day, (a  second months of the s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n began the third-month p r o d u c t i o n s t a r t e d on the  s p e c i a l f e s t i v a l day), which, i n the t h i r d month, f e l l  third  day.  Just  on  sekku the  33  There were f i v e major sekku i n a y e a r : the seventh of the f i r s t month, the t h i r d day fifth  day  had  of the t h i r d month, the  of the f i f t h month, the seventh day  month, and  the n i n t h day  special  of the n i n t h month.  c e l e b r a t i o n s and  of the  seventh  Each sekku  J  f e s t i v i t i e s associated with i t .  Because each marked an important event on the c i v i l theatres  day  d i d w e l l to take s p e c i a l  and l a r g e r audiences than u s u a l  calendar,  n o t i c e of such h o l i d a y s ,  could be  expected to  attend  plays at such times. Assuming t h a t the s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n to be continued, the t h i r d and transition  was  the third-month p r o d u c t i o n  successful-enough would encompass  (assuming i t went i n t o the f o u r t h month) f o u r t h  p o i n t s - - t h a t i s , the t h i r d and  f o u r t h times f o r  ad-  6k justing  the  production first  contents of the p l a y . was  adjusted  In the t h i r d month the  by dropping a l l t h a t remained of  p l a y , l e a v i n g only the Taimen s e c t i o n .  T h i s was  the  first  on the program, f o l l o w e d by the second p l a y (which had  been  added i n the second month) and  embellished  or had  parts replaced.  which at t h i s time was  Because the t h i r d month was  of cherry blossoms, at t h i s time the p r o d u c t i o n have some connection n a t i o n of s u b t i t l e .  with these flowers .The  costumes.  The  w i t h i n the Soga s e k a i , the Soga connection t a i n e d : Soga Goro as Sukeroku was  season  likely  i n contents and  t h e a t r e , moreover, was  p r o p r i a t e l y i n scenery and  was  the  desig-  decorated  play s t i l l  to  ap-  being  had to be main-  o f t e n done at t h i s  time, 66  i f i t had The  not a l r e a d y been p l a y e d t h i r d month was  of the daimyo i n Edo  had  i n the second month.  a l s o when servants  i n the  a t h r e e to ten-day h o l i d a y  residences (yado-  s a g a r i ) , and the t h e a t r e s c o u l d count on t h e i r attendance. To appeal to t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , p l a y s on the theme of f e u d a l f a m i l y r i v a l r y , such as Kagarni-yama and  Sendai-hagi,  were  68  worked i n t o the Soga p l a y . From the f o u r t h to the s i x t h months the s t r u c t u r e of the s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n  became l e s s d e f i n i t e , r e f l e c t i n g  f a c t t h a t , as summer approached and temperatures r o s e ,  the audi-  69  ences dwindled.  One  expedient f o r drawing a crowd was  to  produce "one-night p i c k l e s " ( i c h i y a - z u k e ) , which were i n s t a n t dramatizations  of c u r r e n t events,  particularly love-suicides.  Because these "one-night p i c k l e s " were h a s t i l y composed, most were not  of high q u a l i t y and  t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y was  short-  lived. "One-night p i c k l e s " or works t h a t were a l r e a d y  popular,  such as Kagekiyo, c o n s t i t u t e d the f o u r t h adjustment of the spring production. Taimen) was  play ( i . e .  e l i m i n a t e d e n t i r e l y , and the p r o d u c t i o n  the second p l a y . was,  What remained of the f i r s t  Thus, by the f o u r t h month, the  began w i t h  production  f o r the most p a r t , a sewa-mono, though s t i l l w i t h i n  framework of a Soga p l a y .  I f box  o f f i c e r e c e i p t s were s u f -  f i c i e n t to c a r r y the s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n month, i t could be  spring The  through the  extended i n t o the f i f t h and  with a p p r o p r i a t e changes. The f i f t h - m o n t h p r o d u c t i o n :  fifth-month  the  the f i f t h  and  fourth  s i x t h months  s i x t h months of the  production  production  ( s a t s u k i i s the word f o r  f i f t h month i n the l u n a r calendar)  was  g e n e r a l l y the time t o  35  conclude t h e s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n . for  There was a symbolic reason  b r i n g i n g a Soga p l a y t o a c l o s e at t h i s time: the a n n i v e r -  sary of the Soga b r o t h e r s ' revenge was the twenty-eighth day of  the f i f t h month.  By then t h e formal s t r u c t u r e had been  abandoned a l t o g e t h e r , and s t a r t i n g on t h e sekku, the f i f t h day o f the f i f t h month, the f i f t h - m o n t h p r o d u c t i o n was c a r r i e d out i n t h e form of a Soga f e s t i v a l  (Soga m a t s u r i ) .  Dances and  comic r o u t i n e s were f e a t u r e d .  Day a f t e r day the program would  change, always keeping a comic  and i n f o r m a l atmosphere.  70 The s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n was f o r m a l l y brought t o an end on 71 the seventh day of the s i x t h month.' for  Theatres then r e c e s s e d  summer, u n t i l t h e s t a r t o f t h e bon p r o d u c t i o n .  During  t h i s r e c e s s p e r i o d t o p - r a n k i n g a c t o r s went t o summer r e s o r t s 72 to escape the heat of the c i t y , which was worst a t t h i s time. Second-rank a c t o r s t o u r e d the p r o v i n c e s as p l a y e r s i n road shows, both i n order t o be out of the c i t y and t o supplement 73 t h e i r incomes. ^ During t h i s p e r i o d , t o o , necessary r e p a i r s were c a r r i e d out on t h e a t r e b u i l d i n g s . or  Theatres were a l s o used by younger  lower-ranking a c t o r s who remained  performed  74  The They performances 75  behind i n Edo.  "summer p l a y s , " mainly p r a c t i c e  Large audiences were not expected t o come, and t i c k e t were cheaper than u s u a l . to  prices  Younger a c t o r s thus got an o p p o r t u n i t y  take l e a d i n g r o l e s , which they would not n o r m a l l y have.  a l s o gave observers a chance t o assess t h e a b i l i t y of up76 coming s t a r s . '  It  36  Summary of S p r i n g  Production  ( I n c l u d i n g T h i r d - and Fifth-month first first  Productions)  month  p l a y , ending with Taimen  second month modified f i r s t  p l a y ( i n c l u d i n g Taimen) + second p l a y  t h i r d month Taimen + m o d i f i e d second p l a y  f o u r t h month second p l a y  f i f t h month Soga f e s t i v a l  s i x t h month end of s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n  summer r e c e s s  Winding Down the C y c l e : The Bon and F a r e w e l l A f t e r the kao-mise and s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n s , p o r t i o n of the annual cycle'was over.  Productions the major  The "bon p r o d u c t i o n ,  which began the winding down o f the c y c l e , was important more because i t c o i n c i d e d with a major c e l e b r a t i o n on the c i v i l calendar The  than because o f the dramas presented  season of bon i s when s p i r i t s  of the dead a r e s a i d t o v i s i t  the world of the l i v i n g and when prayers c a r r i e d out i n t h e i r honor. had  a f i x e d s t a r t i n g point  month), t h e s c h e d u l i n g cise.  at t h a t time.  and ceremonies are  U n l i k e the s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n ,  whic  (the f i f t e e n t h day o f t h e f i r s t  of the bon p r o d u c t i o n was not so pre-  I d e a l l y , i t began on t h e f i f t e e n t h day o f the seventh  month.  L i n g e r i n g summer heat, however, o f t e n discouraged t o p -  ranking a c t o r s and audience members from r e t u r n i n g t o t h e a t r e s at t h a t time--a c o n d i t i o n which would have o b v i a t e d the n e c e s s i t y f o r making any e l a b o r a t e  plans f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n .  Summer 77  p l a y s were f r e q u e n t l y continued  w e l l i n t o the e i g h t h month.  I f new m a t e r i a l were needed, p l a y s adapted from t h e puppet t h e a t r e were o f t e n used.  A f t e r the end of the e i g h t e e n t h cen7 Pi  t u r y , the p r a c t i c e of s t a g i n g newly w r i t t e n p i e c e s began. In t h e e i g h t h month d e c i s i o n s were made on changes i n the company f o r the f o l l o w i n g season. departing  T h i s was done so t h a t  a c t o r s c o u l d plan t h e i r f a r e w e l l s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g  month's p r o d u c t i o n ,  and a l s o so that p r e p a r a t i o n s  dramas f o r the f o l l o w i n g t h e a t r e year c o u l d begin. to compose p l a y s , dramatists be p l a y i n g the p a r t s .  f o r the I n order  had t o know which a c t o r s would  38  Farewell  production  F i n a l l y , the f a r e w e l l p r o d u c t i o n , which began on t h e n i n t h day of the n i n t h month, brought the annual c y c l e t o a c l o s e and gave t h e company one l a s t before changes i n personnel  chance t o perform  were made.  Plays g i v e n at t h i s  time f e a t u r e d d e p a r t i n g a c t o r s , e s p e c i a l l y those troupes  together  returning to  i n the Kamigata area, and what was presented  differed  79 depending on the year and the t h e a t r e .  y  The f a r e w e l l p r o gi  d u c t i o n continued  u n t i l the f i f t e e n t h day of the t e n t h month.  * ** By o u t l i n i n g kabuki i n terms o f the annual p l a y we can see t h a t t h e c y c l e gave the dramatic ready-made framework and rhythm.  cycle,  structure a  The framework was the c a l e n -  dar year, and the rhythm was the r e g u l a r passage o f t h e seasons, months, and days w i t h i n the year. As the seasons passed, p l a y s were made t o s u i t t h e conventions  of each time of t h e year.  S i m i l a r l y , within the  seasons the s u c c e s s i o n of m o n t h s - - e s p e c i a l l y p e r i o d of the s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n — p r o v i d e d a d j u s t i n g the contents each s i n g l e p r o d u c t i o n .  of plays.  during the long  l o g i c a l points f o r  Moreover, t h e days d e f i n e d  Plays were made t o f i t the l e n g t h  of the day, and the p l a y changed as the l e n g t h o f the day changed. was  T h i s was a p p r o p r i a t e , s i n c e a day at the t h e a t r e  meant t o be a day wholly  joyment.  Ordinary  given over t o r e l a x a t i o n and en-  time was r e p l a c e d by dramatic  time, and  the e n t i r e day,  or whatever p o r t i o n of i t a person  at the t h e a t r e ,  doubtlessly  passed very q u i c k l y  spent  indeed.  Chapter I I . The  and Shuko: The  P r i n c i p l e s of Edo  annual p l a y c y c l e , as o u t l i n e d i n the  chapter, terms.  Sekai  defined  ordinary  calendar  By so doing, i t provided  novation.  the b a s i s f o r an  shuko--which represent  weaving of t r a d i t i o n a l and  consider  cultural  the p r i n c i p l e s - -  i n n o v a t i v e m a t e r i a l i n Edo at the  multi-part  j i d a i and  at the  sewa l i n k , which  multi-part  f l e x i b i l i t y t h a t was  and  of Kabuki  s t r u c t u r e , which gave kabuki the noted i n the preceding  beginnings i n the dances and These dances and  shuko,  p r i n c i p l e s themselves.  O r i g i n s of the M u l t i - p a r t S t r u c t u r e The  kabuki  o r i g i n s of kabuki's  are e s s e n t i a l to the f u n c t i o n i n g of s e k a i and then by l o o k i n g at the two  tradi-  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n t e r -  I w i l l proceed by l o o k i n g f i r s t s t r u c t u r e and  artistic  updating them by means of i n -  In t h i s chapter I w i l l  s e k a i and  preceding  time i n s p e c i a l dramatic  s t r u c t u r e that could preserve l o n g - s t a n d i n g t i o n s , while a l s o renewing and  Kabuki  chapter,  great had i t s  comic sketches of e a r l y kabuki.  comic sketches are u s u a l l y c a t e g o r i z e d  as  hanare-kyogen, or "separate plays."... T h i s d i s t i n g u i s h e s them from the l a t e r tsuzuki-kyogen, or "continued  plays."  Tsu-  zuki-kyogen appeared a f t e r the a u t h o r i t i e s suppressed kabuki and  closed a l l theatres  i n 1652  f o r v i o l a t i o n s of laws pro-  h i b i t i n g homosexual p r o s t i t u t i o n .  (Up to t h a t time kabuki  had been l a r g e l y a p r o s t i t u t e s ' a r t . )  Theatres  were  allowed  to reopen only on the c o n d i t i o n t h a t v a r i o u s changes i n s t a g i n g 2  and  m  dramatic  form and content  be made.  One of the r e s u l t s  of t h i s r u l i n g was t h a t i t s t i m u l a t e d the development o f kabuki dramatic  s t r u c t u r e , l e a d i n g e v e n t u a l l y t o the appearance  of the s o p h i s t i c a t e d , m u l t i - p a r t tsuzuki-kyogen The  first  form.  p l a y s with a m u l t i - p a r t s t r u c t u r e of which we 4  have any r e c o r d were performed m  1664.  One i s H i n i n no  k a t a k i - u c h i , a t t r i b u t e d t o the a c t o r - p l a y w r i g h t  Fukui  Yagozae-  mon ( f l . 1660-90), and performed i n Osaka at the A r a k i Y o j i b e i za.  The other i s Imagawa shinobi-guruma, a t t r i b u t e d t o the  a c t o r - p l a y w r i g h t Miyako Dennai (dates unknown), and performed i n Edo at the Ichimura-za.  I t i s noteworthy t h a t the  form appeared i n the same year i n both major centers of kabuki. Without extant t e x t s i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o know what plays were l i k e . ^  What i n t e r e s t s us here,  though, i s t h a t  they were both l a b e l e d as e i t h e r two or t h r e e - p a r t (ni-  or san-ban tsuzuki-kyogen),  information.  plays  depending on the source of  I t i s tempting t o use the terminology  drama and simply  these  of Western  d e f i n e a two-part p l a y , f o r example, as a  work i n two " a c t s " or two "scenes," but t h i s can be m i s l e a d i n g . A p a r t of a kabuki p l a y was n e i t h e r an a c t nor a scene i n the sense t h a t a c t s and scenes are d i v i s i o n s of a p l a y t h a t u s u a l l y cannot stand independently The  apart from the p l a y as a whole.  p a r t s of a kabuki p l a y might i n themselves be complete and  p o t e n t i a l l y independent dramas.  By  the  Genroku e r a the  become s t a n d a r d  i n the  three-part  Kamigata area,  play and  structure  the  four-  had  or f i v e -  ;  7 part  structure  that  there  or f i v e fact,  could  parts  as  the  labels  of p a r t s  describe  the  was  (tate)  multiplied,  that  a play  the  the  or, —  basic  as we  o f two  saw  In  s t r u c t u r e was  to r e t a i n of  de-  play,"  a sense  of t r a Q  productions.  of the  became t h e  four,  possible.  "four-part  i n the  multi-part  actual  last way  number  chapter,  the  generally  made up  of r e l a t i v e l y  structure  hanare-kyogen type that  have d e f i n e d  two  the 9  play,  o r more p a r t s .  to that  to  This  this  structure  term, and  structure  a  the  tsuzuki-kyogen  i s the  structure  of renga or haikai--extended and  was  "continued." —  same as  o r more h a n a r e - k y o g e n  way,  short  of  depended  saying  joined  of kabuki verse  self-contained  was  forms  units  that  together.  concept  of c o m p o s i t i o n ture  only  a one-part  similar  The  play,"  d i f f e r e n c e was  Viewed i n t h i s  were l i n k e d  we  of the  a t s u z u k i - k y o g e n was  together.  multi-part  advertisement  eventually  A h a n a r e - k y o g e n was was  even fewer, t h a n t h r e e ,  representations as  mean, however,  parts.  that  retained;  does n o t  Much v a r i a t i o n was  i n the  development  fact  more, o r  were k e p t  literal  these  The on  play"  i n a work and,  "step"  This  "three-part  particularly  T h e y were n o t  word  he  i n a play.  "five-part  dition,  not  i n Edo.  p o t e n t i a l of t h i s  veloped, the and  standard  of b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r  and  semi-independent  m a k i n g them i n t o a s i n g l e a r t i s t i c  i s a c e n t r a l one  i n Japanese a e s t h e t i c s ,  and  one  units structhat  must be recognized, i n order to a p p r e c i a t e forms such as kabuki.  The case has a l r e a d y been made f o r a l i n k e d v e r s e 10  type of s t r u c t u r e i n Saikaku's n o v e l s . s t r o n g e r case can be made f o r kabuki.  I t h i n k an even Although t h i s i s a  t o p i c d e s e r v i n g of much f u l l e r treatment, I have i s o l a t e d below some of the s t r i k i n g elements  common t o the m u l t i - p a r t  s t r u c t u r e s of both l i n k e d verse ( p a r t i c u l a r l y h a i k a i ) and kabuki. 1.  Composition by more than one  artist.  Both l i n k e d v e r s e and kabuki were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the f a c t t h a t more than one a r t i s t t i o n of a s i n g l e work.  c o n t r i b u t e d t o the  composi-  In l i n k e d v e r s e , commonly two, t h r e e ,  or more poets gathered and took t u r n s making l i n k s i n a p o e t i c sequence.  In kabuki a team of p l a y w r i g h t s was  u s u a l l y respon-  s i b l e f o r the making of a p l a y . 2.  Composition c o n t r o l l e d by r u l e s of s t r u c t u r e . Having s e v e r a l people work on one composition might  have r e s u l t e d i n chaos were i t not f o r the f a c t that the s t r u c t u r e s of both l i n k e d v e r s e and kabuki were c o n t r o l l e d by c e r t a i n r u l e s .  T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y apparent 11  f o r which a number of r u l e books s u r v i v e .  i n l i n k e d verse,  The r u l e s of  kabuki were not as o b v i o u s l y s t r i n g e n t nor as apparent to o u t s i d e r s , but they e x i s t e d n e v e r t h e l e s s . one was  The most important  the matter of l i n k i n g the p a r t s of a p l a y , which w i l l  be looked at more c l o s e l y i n the next s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter. 3-  Seasonal  structure.  As has a l r e a d y been p o i n t e d out, both l i n k e d v e r s e and kabuki were d e f i n e d by s e a s o n a l s t r u c t u r e s .  4.  Lack o f l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n . I n kabuki, what most bothers those who expect  to be based  plays  on p r i n c i p l e s of l o g i c a l c a u s a l i t y i s the l a c k  of l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n s .  T h i s i s t r u e as w e l l i n l i n k e d verse, 12  which E a r l Miner  calls  "plotless narrative."  of course, t h a t a r t i s t i c  s t r u c t u r e s may be based  other than l o g i c a l c a u s a l i t y . w e l l , they may be based  on p r i n c i p l e s  As l i n k e d verse and kabuki show  i n s t e a d on seasonal p r i n c i p l e s and on — 13  p r i n c i p l e s of s e k a i and shuko. 5•  I t i s a fact,  y  Strong element of w i t . A d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e o f the h a i k a i form o f l i n k e d  v e r s e , as opposed t o renga, was a s t r o n g element o f w i t .  Wit  i n c l u d e d p a r o d i e s of well-known works, r i d d l e s , puns, and "unexpected  associative leaps."  p o r t a n t f e a t u r e of kabuki.  S i m i l a r l y , w i t was an im-  Kabuki  r e l i e d h e a v i l y on c l e v e r  r e f e r e n c e s t o contemporary s o c i e t y and on the i n n o v a t i v e use of works t h a t had been produced 6.  N e c e s s i t y of audience  i n t h e past. f a m i l i a r i t y with e s t a b l i s h e d  r u l e s and conventions. I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the use o f wit--but going beyond it,  too--was the f a c t t h a t both l i n k e d verse and kabuki de-  pended on audience f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the r u l e s and conventions of t h e i r a r t forms.  An audience's  a p p r e c i a t i o n of a p o e t i c  sequence or a p l a y depended g r e a t l y on i t s p e r c e p t i o n of how the composition was made t o accord w i t h e s t a b l i s h e d p r i n c i p l e s of s t r u c t u r e .  I n the n i n e t e e n t h century, when the world i n  which h a i k a i and kabuki had developed  and f l o u r i s h e d changed  45  so d r a s t i c a l l y end  (with the opening of Japan t o the West and the  of Tokugawa r u l e ) , audiences were no l o n g e r such a c t i v e  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n these a r t forms.  The continued  p r a c t i c e of  h a i k a i and kabuki was more a matter of p r e s e r v a t i o n than one of h e a l t h y The  survival.  list  c o u l d be continued,  but I t h i n k t h a t what i s  given above c l e a r l y shows t h a t many f e a t u r e s o f kabuki were not  i s o l a t e d phenomena, but were part of a broader t r e n d  c a r r i e d on e s p e c i a l l y i n poetry.  To make s u c c e s s f u l m u l t i -  part s t r u c t u r e s , i t was necessary t o have a group o f a r t i s t s working t o g e t h e r ,  t o have c e r t a i n r u l e s and conventions t o  determine the type o f composition,  and t o have an audience  that was knowledgeable about the p r a c t i c e s . many, i f not most, kabuki playwrights  Not s u r p r i s i n g l y ,  and a c t o r s were a l s o  15 p r a c t i c i n g h a i k a i poets. the c u l t u r a l l i f e  Poetry was an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f  of the Tokugawa p e r i o d and a l s o part of 16  the o v e r a l l t r a i n i n g an a r t i s t  i n the t h e a t r e  received.  Although most of t h e i r poetry was not memorable enough t o preserve,  i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the p r a c t i t i o n e r s of kabuki  composed i t and t h a t they knew i t s r u l e s and The  conventions.  J i d a i and Sewa L i n k i n the M u l t i - p a r t S t r u c t u r e  The  o f Kabuki  m u l t i - p a r t s t r u c t u r e was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of both  Kamigata and Edo kabuki,  but i t was the l i n k between the  .jidai and sewa p a r t s of a p l a y which d i s t i n g u i s h e d Edo  kabuki.  Up u n t i l now, works c l a s s i f i e d as ,jidai-mono have u s u a l l y 17 been d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s :  14-6  1. Jidai-mono  concern c h a r a c t e r s and events of past ages  and not of the present 2. Not  age.  j u s t any c h a r a c t e r s and events of the past w i l l  do; they must he drawn mainly from h i s t o r y or legend. amples of such c h a r a c t e r s are Yoshitsune, Sakata no  (Ex-  Kintoki,  and the Soga b r o t h e r s ; examples of such events are the  Gem-  p e i wars and the Soga b r o t h e r s ' revenge.) 3-  However, c h a r a c t e r s and events do not  necessarily  have to be taken from h i s t o r y and legend i f they concern the upper s t r a t a of s o c i e t y , such as the houses of the shogun, daimyo, and other h i g h - r a n k i n g samurai.  Kabuki  were predominantly commoners and when they saw a d i f f e r e n t c l a s s of s o c i e t y the e f f e c t was same as t h a t of a p l a y w i t h a h i s t o r i c a l  audiences  plays concerning  thought t o be the  setting.  Works c l a s s i f i e d as sewa-mono are then d e f i n e d , p r e d i c t a 19 b l y , i n the f o l l o w i n g  way:  1. Sewa-mono concern c h a r a c t e r s and events of the present age, not of the past. 2. However, the c h a r a c t e r s and events do not have t o be of the present age i f they are "unknown," t h a t i s , not  taken  from h i s t o r y or legend. 3-  Again, i t does not matter whether the s e t t i n g i s  present or past as l o n g as the c h a r a c t e r s and events do not concern the upper s t r a t a of s o c i e t y , but r a t h e r commoners 20 and t h e i r  affairs.  In sum,  jidai-mono are s a i d to be " h i s t o r i c a l "  because  they concern c h a r a c t e r s and events t h a t are "known," and  sewa-mono are "contemporary" because they concern and  events t h a t are as y e t "unknown."  t r e a t of " u p p e r - c l a s s "  characters  Moreover, .jidai-mono  (that i s , samurai) s o c i e t y , and sewa21  mono t r e a t of " l o w e r - c l a s s "  (that i s , commoner) s o c i e t y .  Such d e f i n i t i o n s , however, break down f o r two reasons. F i r s t , they t r y t o d i s t i n g u i s h the concepts both i n terms o f time c a t e g o r i e s and  ("past, h i s t o r i c a l " and "present,  i n terms of s o c i a l c l a s s c a t e g o r i e s  contemporary")  ("upper, samurai" and  "lower, commoner"), as i f , i n kabuki, these c a t e g o r i e s were mutually, e x c l u s i v e  (which they are n o t ) .  Second, they t r y  to i s o l a t e the concepts from the dramatic s t r u c t u r e of viewing them as the a r t i s t i c  instead  c a t e g o r i e s t h a t they are.  To avoid t h i s breakdown, I propose i n s t e a d t h a t the terms be looked  at as r e l a t i v e t o each other  mono be d e f i n e d as "plays "plays  of the new order."  of the o l d order"  and that  jidai-  and sewa-mono as  T h i s seems t o match most c l o s e l y  the a c t u a l dramatic s t r u c t u r e of kabuki, which was i n t i m a t e l y bound up w i t h the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of Japan d u r i n g t h e Toku22 23 gawa p e r i o d . F o r the commoners, a t whom kabuki was aimed, v  the o l d order was that, which was e s t a b l i s h e d p r i o r t o t h e i r own  emergence as the new order.  Since  the i d e a of o l d order  i n c l u d e s s o c i a l , h i s t o r i c a l , and a r t i s t i c elements, the samurai c l a s s may be thought of as the o l d order new order  i n r e l a t i o n t o the  of the commoner ( i n p a r t i c u l a r , the townsman), and  the l i t e r a t u r e p r i o r t o t h e Tokugawa p e r i o d as the o l d order i n r e l a t i o n t o works composed d u r i n g that  period.  T h i s a l s o takes i n t o account changes t h a t occurred the Tokugawa p e r i o d .  during  As kabuki developed and as the commoner  48  rose i n the c u l t u r a l and economic h i e r a r c h y , the new i t s e l f became o l d .  order  The u l t i m a t e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h i s i s seen  i n the p r i n c i p l e s of s e k a i and shuko. Support f o r t h i s r e l a t i v e view o f .jidai and sewa comes from G u n j i Masakatsu's approach t o these concepts. 24 suggestions f i r s t made by O r i g u c h i Shinobu,  Following  G u n j i brought  the whole of the Japanese performing a r t s t r a d i t i o n t o bear on the q u e s t i o n , not j u s t c a t e g o r i z i n g i t as a phenomenon of the Tokugawa p e r i o d .  By doing so he has been able t o shed  l i g h t not o n l y on kabuki, but on pre-Tokugawa  p e r i o d dramatic  s t r u c t u r e s as w e l l . G u n j i found the antecedents o f jidai-mono and sewa-mono i n the c o n t r a s t between the r i t u a l i z e d , a r c h e t y p a l forms of a n c i e n t Japanese f e s t i v a l s and p e r f o r m i n g a r t s (as o l d as kagura) and "modernized" v a r i a t i o n s of them.  He sees t h i s 25  c o n t r a s t as one which i s found throughout Japanese c u l t u r e . To G u n j i , r i t u a l i z e d ,  a r c h e t y p a l forms--he uses the  made-up term omo-tadashii-mono--are found i n drama, p o e t r y , and r e l i g i o u s ceremony.  Over a p e r i o d of time they have 26  c r y s t a l l i z e d and been made to r e p r e s e n t the i d e a l In time, they are g i v e n new  interpretations,  a term which commonly means " m o d i f i c a t i o n , " "parody."  practice.  called  modoki--  " i m i t a t i o n , " even  The r i v a l r y of Sukeroku and Ikyu f o r the a t t e n -  t i o n o f Agemaki,  f o r example, may be seen as a modoki o f  t h e i r enmity i n the context of the Soga s e k a i , which i s 27 the r i t u a l i z e d form.  A f e a t u r e o f kabuki s t r u c t u r e  that i t c o n t a i n e d both f i x e d and v a r i a b l e elements.  was  49  The l i n k between jidai-mono  and sewa-mono was  the  logical  f i n a l step i n the development of the m u l t i - p a r t s t r u c t u r e of kabuki.  I t was  i n the nature of a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n : the o l d  o r d e r - - t h a t which was regenerated  through  f i x e d and i d e a l i z e d - - w a s renewed  the new  o r d e r - - t h a t which was  veloped and not yet p e r f e c t e d . the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was nique  of double  newly  de-  As i n the case of Sukeroku,  best accomplished  identity.  and  Part Two  by means of the t e c h -  of t h i s t h e s i s w i l l show  the s i g n i f i c a n c e of b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r Soga Goro and Sukeroku and of thus a c h i e v i n g a l i n k between a .jidai-mono  and a sewa-  mono . The  P r i n c i p l e s of Sekai and Shuko  S h o r t l y a f t e r the s t a r t of the l a s t p r o d u c t i o n of the annual p l a y c y c l e , a t t e n t i o n was year.  d i r e c t e d to the next  Work on the program f o r the coming y e a r  began on the evening  theatre  officially  of the t w e l f t h day of the n i n t h month  at a meeting c a l l e d the kao-mise s e k a i sadame, " d e c i d i n g the s e k a i of the kao-mise p r o d u c t i o n . " the most important  T h i s meeting  p o i n t i n the p l a y c y c l e .  I t was,  where the c y c l e ended and where i t began a g a i n .  The  was i n short, heads  of the t h e a t r e , the head a c t o r s , and the head p l a y w r i g h t gathered to decide the s e k a i t h a t determined the coming year.  I t was  the dramas f o r  then up to the p l a y w r i g h t s , i n  c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the a c t o r s , to work out the shuko f o r those sekai. The  crux of kabuki dramatic  s t r u c t u r e i n the context  the annual p l a y c y c l e l a y i n the process r e p r e s e n t e d by  of  the  p r i n c i p l e s of s e k a i and shuko.  The importance o f these  p r i n c i p l e s was f i r s t made c l e a r i n a b r i e f passage c a l l e d "Matters concerning  v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l p l o t s " ( T a t e - s u j i  yoko-su.ji no koto) found i n t h e Kezairoku  (1801), a manual f o r  28 w r i t e r s of p l a y s and n o v e l s .  In e f f e c t the e a r l i e s t a t -  tempt t o d e f i n e kabuki dramatic s t r u c t u r e , i t says t h a t the p l o t o f a kabuki p l a y i s a product of the i n t e r a c t i o n o f two kinds  of p l o t s , the " v e r t i c a l " and the " h o r i z o n t a l . "  represent, The  These  r e s p e c t i v e l y , s e k a i and shuko.  purpose of s e k a i , as represented  p l o t , was t o provide the g e n e r a l  by the v e r t i c a l  o u t l i n e of a p l a y by u s i n g  c h a r a c t e r s and events of f a m i l i a r works of drama and other forms o f f i c t i o n .  A s e k a i , which l i t e r a l l y means "world,"  was a k i n d o f t r a d i t i o n o r t r a d i t i o n a l framework w i t h i n the drama.  The r o l e of shuko, as represented  p l o t , was t o transform t h i n g new.  by the h o r i z o n t a l  t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l i n t o some-  A shuko was an i n n o v a t i o n .  While the q u a l i t y of  newness i s e s s e n t i a l t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f any k i n d o f drama, the newness o f a kabuki p l a y was not so much a  departure  from past p r a c t i c e as i t was a reworking o f a l r e a d y practice.  The p e r f e c t e x p r e s s i o n  established  o f t h i s i s , of course, i n  the annual p l a y c y c l e where every year new p l a y s were performed but i n s u b j e c t matter and s t r u c t u r e they were a cont i n u a t i o n o f the p l a y s o f the past. But why c a l l zontal plot?  s e k a i the v e r t i c a l p l o t and shuko the h o r i -  I t appears t h a t the words v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n -  t a l were used as graphic  expressions  of dimensions i n time,  thus making i t c l e a r t h a t kabuki had a dual temporal ture.  struc-  The v e r t i c a l r e p r e s e n t e d the past i n i t s complete  and unchanging  form and the h o r i z o n t a l r e p r e s e n t e d the present  i n i t s u n f o l d i n g and ever-changing form.  Although t h e so-  c a l l e d v e r t i c a l p l o t gave primary d e f i n i t i o n t o a p l a y , the h o r i z o n t a l p l o t was' needed t o b r i n g a work out of the past and i n t o the present. Sekai and shuko r e p r e s e n t e d the dynamics of kabuki dramatic  structure.  I n d e f i n i n g .jidai and sewa, which u n d e r l i e  s e k a i and shuko, as the o l d order and the new order, t h e process t h a t took p l a c e was r e f e r r e d t o as one of t r a n s f o r mation.  The o l d was transformed i n t o the new and the new i n  t u r n became o l d .  I t was a c y c l e t h a t might  have c o n t i n u e d  forever. S e k a i : The use of t r a d i t i o n a l frameworks The passage  from t h e K e z a i r o k u showed t h a t the concept  of s e k a i was c e n t r a l t o kabuki. —  I t s o r i g i n as a device i n  29  drama, however, was i n j o r u r i .  Some have suggested t h a t  l a t e i n the seventeenth century kabuki p l a y w r i g h t s t u r n e d t o j o r u r i as a source of m a t e r i a l .  I t was then t h a t works t h a t  had been dramatized f o r j o r u r i were made i n t o new works f o r kabuki.  I n terms o f s e k a i , kabuki'took over those —  traditional 30  frameworks that had o r i g i n a l l y been "made f o r " j o r u r i . I t i s f u r t h e r suggested t h a t kabuki became d e r i v a t i v e of j o r u r i .  Rather than i n v e n t completely new c h a r a c t e r s and  situations, after a l l ,  kabuki r e l i e d i n s t e a d on those which  had. a l r e a d y been t r i e d and  proven i n j o r u r i .  Such a view,  however, does not take i n t o account" a "fundamental f e a t u r e the a r t s i n Japan. to kabuki and  Japanese dramatic a r t s , from no  j o r u r i , are not mutually e x c l u s i v e , but  borrowed or have been borrowed from at one J o r u r i playwrights  the Tokugawa p e r i o d .  be  T r a d i t i o n and  i s desirable.  By so doing, new  f o r one  a r t form t o  i s not  forms and  approaches  at the same time a c e r t a i n c u l t u r a l T h i s i s p r e c i s e l y the thought  underlying  shuko i n kabuki.  s e k a i and  As mentioned above, on the t w e l f t h day  of the  month of the year, the managers, head-actors, and of the t h e a t r e s  the kao-mise s e k a i sadame. been c o n t r a c t e d  and  can  cohesive-  pattern  ninth head-  gathered f o r the event known as Depending on which a c t o r s  had  f o r a company, p l a y s with a c e r t a i n d i s t r i b u -  t i o n of r o l e s were needed. supply  use  only good  ness i s maintained.  playwright  before  c o n t i n u i t y are e s s e n t i a l  of an o l d e r , e s t a b l i s h e d one  developed, and  a l l have  time or another.  dramatized l o n g  elements i n Japanese a e s t h e t i c s , and  but  kowaka  themselves from the b e g i n n i n g used much  m a t e r i a l t h a t had been developed and  the m a t e r i a l s  and  of  The  f u n c t i o n of a s e k a i was  to  these r o l e requirements by p r o v i d i n g the b a s i c p l o t  character  c o n s t e l l a t i o n of a p l a y .  In choosing a s e k a i , the heads of the t h e a t r e s were aided by works such as the Sekai  komoku, which was  probably  31 compiled m  the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h  hundred and  fifty  century.  It l i s t s  s e k a i , g i v i n g the names of the  i n them, as w e l l as the  j o r u r i and  l i t e r a r y or  one  characters  historical  S e k a i sadame. The l e a d i n g a c t o r s o f male and f e m a l e r o l e s ( t h e two f i g u r e s orTt r i g h t ) , t h e h e a d s o f t h e t h e a t r e , and t h e h e a d p l a y w r i g h t ( w i t h b r u s h and p a p e r ) are g a t h e r e d t o d e c i d e t h e t y p e s o f p l a y s t h a t w i l l be performed i n t h e coming year. I l l u s t r a t i o n from E - h o s h i b a i nen.iu-kagami. n  works which were t h e i r sources and t o which p l a y w r i g h t s c o u l d r e f e r f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n . The most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e of the Sekai komoku i s that, it  i s a rough o u t l i n e of the h i s t o r y of Japanese l i t e r a t u r e .  The t i t l e s of the s e k a i are works of f i c t i o n or the names of  c h a r a c t e r s and events which r e p r e s e n t such works.  works of f i c t i o n cover a wide spectrum  The  beginning w i t h the  e a r l i e s t myths and legends, such as those found i n the  Kojiki  (712)  joruri  and Nihon shoki ( 7 2 0 ) ,  and extending t o works of  and kabuki i n the Tokugawa p e r i o d .  While  i t i s true that  the Sekai komoku drew on many of the most famous works i n the h i s t o r y of Japanese l i t e r a t u r e ,  i t was  not  comprehensive.  Only m a t e r i a l s which had a l r e a d y been dramatized, mainly i n the form of no,  kowaka, j o r u r i , and kabuki were i n c l u d e d .  I i z u k a Tomoichiro  has p o i n t e d out t h a t by the l a s t  decades of the Tokugawa p e r i o d choosing the s e k a i f o r the kao-mise p r o d u c t i o n had changed from what was t r u e d i s c u s s i o n meeting t o a merely  probably a  p e r f u n c t o r y and c e r e -  32 monial a f f a i r .  The reason was  t h a t i n time kabuki became  c l a s s i c i z e d , as i s shown by the contents of the Sekai komoku itself.  The Sekai komoku analyzed the e n t i r e  contemporary  r e p e r t o r y of kabuki a c c o r d i n g to t r a d i t i o n a l frameworks, and 33  i s a predecessor of I i z u k a ' s own The Kabuki  Kabuki  saiken (1926)  s a i k e n i s e s s e n t i a l l y an updated v e r s i o n of  the S e k a i komoku.  By simply comparing the number of e n t r i e s  i n each work i t i s easy t o see t h a t s e k a i and shuko d i d i n deed r e p r e s e n t a process i n which new  m a t e r i a l was c o n s t a n t l y  added t o the kabuki r e p e r t o r y . one  Whereas the Sekai komoku  hundred and f i f t y s e k a i , the Kabuki s a i k e n ,  over a century  lists  published  l a t e r , c o n t a i n s two hundred and s e v e n t y - f i v e .  How are the e n t r i e s i n the Sekai komoku c l a s s i f i e d ?  Not  s u r p r i s i n g l y , they are mainly, d i v i d e d i n t o j i d a i and sewa• There was some ambiguity about how t o c a t e g o r i z e p l a y s based on s t r u g g l e s f o r power w i t h i n the houses o f f e u d a l l o r d s (o-ie  kyogen).  Although these p l a y s concerned the samurai  c l a s s , the s t o r i e s of r i v a l r i e s were t i m e l y s u b j e c t s i n the Tokugawa p e r i o d and t h e r e f o r e f a l l Another problematic  category  between j i d a i  and sewa.  was r e l i g i o u s p l a y s , whose time-  l e s s q u a l i t y made i t d i f f i c u l t  t o c l a s s i f y as e i t h e r  jidai  34 or sewa• In the e n t r y f o r each s e k a i were names of i t s c h a r a c t e r s and  titles  o f r e l a t e d works.  The G i k e i k i s e k a i i s t y p i c a l .  I t c o n t a i n s the names of f o r t y - s i x c h a r a c t e r s , i n c l u d i n g Yoshitsune,  Benkei, and Tadanobu, w i t h the note t h a t  are many more and t h a t the reader  should  consult  there  listings  under the Heike monogatari and I z u n i k k i , among others, for  more o f them.  The e n t r y a l s o contains the names o f char-  a c t e r s from t h a t part o f the G i k e i k i t h a t concerns J o r u r i Gozen ( P r i n c e s s J o r u r i ) , which by i t s e l f forms a s m a l l subsekai. for  F o l l o w i n g the c h a r a c t e r s t h e r e i s a l i s t  the G i k e i k i s e k a i .  of sources  The Azuma kagami,(ca. 1270), which i s  the h i s t o r i c a l c h r o n i c l e o f the Kamakura bakufu, i s an example T h i s i n t u r n i s f o l l o w e d by a l i s t joruri t i t l e s  o f approximately  i n that s e k a i , r a n g i n g  from the very  thirty familiar  Yoshitsune sembon-zakura to the l e s s f a m i l i a r Tadanobu gawari monogatari and Kumasaka monogatari. g i v i n g the names of c h a r a c t e r s , or both, and  This pattern  l i t e r a r y or h i s t o r i c a l  of  sources  j o r u r i works i s f o l l o w e d to a g r e a t e r or l e s s e r  degree i n each  entry.  Each t r a d i t i o n a l framework of course was importance to every o t h e r — i m p o r t a n c e being f r e q u e n t l y a framework was plays.  mi-  not  equal i n  determined by  used i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of kabuki  Among a l l the s e k a i t h a t are l i s t e d three- stand  as being used f a r more than any the G i k e i k i , Soga, and,  how  of the others.  out  These are  to a s l i g h t l y l e s s e r degree,  the  35  Heike s e k a i . Speculation  as to why  these three were so  important  r a i s e s some i n t e r e s t i n g i s s u e s about Japanese l i t e r a t u r e i n general.  One  of the most s t i m u l a t i n g of the works along  l i n e s i s Barbara Ruch's a r t i c l e ,  "Medieval Jongleurs  Making of a N a t i o n a l L i t e r a t u r e " - - i n p a r t i c u l a r the entitled  "A N a t i o n a l L i t e r a t u r e . "  machi p e r i o d saw which she  She  and  these the  section  Ruch argues t h a t the Muro-  the development of a n a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e ,  d e f i n e s as: a c e r t a i n core of l i t e r a r y works the content of which i s w e l l known and h e l d dear by the m a j o r i t y of people across a l l c l a s s and p r o f e s s i o n a l l i n e s , a l i t e r a t u r e t h a t i s a r e f l e c t i o n of a n a t i o n a l outlook. Such l i t e r a t u r e never shocks or r e v o l u t i o n i z e s ; i t i s c o n s t i t u t e d of f a v o r i t e themes t h a t r e c u r again and again of which people never t i r e . . T h i s n a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e may, indeed must, c r o s s genre l i n e s .  f u r t h e r p o i n t s out t h a t as a r e s u l t of the  this national literature  development of  " f o r the f i r s t time Japan . . . came 37  to share one  body of heroes and  heroines."  And  the  three  "works" she c i t e s as examples of such a l i t e r a t u r e are, not unexpectedly, the G i k e i k i , Soga monogatari, and Heike mono, . 38 gat a n . The s e k a i of kabuki are, to me, literature.  Moreover,  part of t h i s  national  I t h i n k the f a c t t h a t Ruch has  iden-  t i f i e d such a phenomenon from a p e r s p e c t i v e d i f f e r e n t  from  t h a t of kabuki underscores i t s importance i n Japanese  liter-  ature as a whole. As I have t r i e d to emphasize, s e k a i and shuko was because i t was not.  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  by no means s t a t i c ; i n f a c t , i t worked Time was  the c r u c i a l element.  Shuzui  K e n j i has shown that what are c o n s i d e r e d t r a d i t i o n a l  frame-  works d i f f e r depending on the h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d under con39  sideration.  For a work of f i c t i o n t o be a s e k a i , i t had  to be s a n c t i o n e d by r e p e a t e d d r a m a t i z a t i o n over time.  It  was then f a m i l i a r to audiences and became, e s s e n t i a l l y ,  a  frame of r e f e r e n c e that the p l a y w r i g h t c o u l d presume the a u d i ence possessed.  By the time the S e k a i komoku was  c o n s i d e r a b l e number of such frames were a l r e a d y  compiled a  available.  Of course, t h i s does not mean t h a t a l l of the items l i s t e d i n the Sekai komoku were always s e k a i .  S e k a i of sewa p l a y s  i n p a r t i c u l a r needed time to develop and to g a i n a permanent p l a c e i n the r e p e r t o r y .  To g i v e an example of the importance  of time i n the making o f s e k a i , i n the t h i r d month of the s t o r y of Yaoya O s h i c h i (the l a d y who so she c o u l d be near her l o v e r ) was  1708  burned down Edo  used as a shuko i n a  p l a y based on the s e k a i of Ghujo Hime (a v e r y devout Buddhist  58  p r i n c e s s of a n c i e n t times who  r e p r e s e n t e d the a r c h e t y p a l  step-daughter).  Chujo Hime Kyo-hina,  at  The p l a y was  the Nakamura-za.  performed  In time the s t o r y of Yaoya O s h i c h i gained  the s t a t u s of a s e k a i and came t o be found i n the S e k a i , 40 moku.  Ko-  -  Taking G u n j i ' s analogy one s t e p further,.we may t h a t . t r a d i t i o n a l frameworks are i d e a l i z a t i o n s  say  (omb-tadashii-  mono), i n c o n t r a s t to which shuko work as c o u n t e r p o i n t s (modoki).  T h i s means, of course, t h a t by the end of the  e i g h t e e n t h century, when the S e k a i komoku was  compiled, p l a y s  c l a s s i f i e d as .jidai and those c l a s s i f i e d as sewa were both i d e a l i z a t i o n s . " And t h i s i s e x a c t l y the case.  Around t h a t  time  the kabuki r e p e r t o r y ceased' t o grow, i n e f f e c t becoming entirely traditional. i a l was  One way  to combine two  t o renew the t r a d i t i o n a l mater-  or more s e k a i i n a s i n g l e work.  T r a d i t i o n a l frameworks and the law One  of the most i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e s of the use of t r a -  d i t i o n a l frameworks i n kabuki was  the way  playwrights  em-  ployed them to. circumvent c e r t a i n r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed by government r e g u l a t i o n s .  The government had s t i p u l a t e d  "that  matters concerning [ i t ] must not be p u b l i s h e d , t h a t the names of  contemporary  members of the samurai c l a s s and above must  not be mentioned, nor any i n c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g samurai  occurring  41 a f t e r 1600." 1703 was  These o r d e r s were i s s u e d b e f o r e 1.700, but i n  when the i n c i d e n t of the f o r t y - s e v e n m a s t e r l e s s samurai first  dramatized, i t was  f u r t h e r decreed t h a t  "unusual  events of the times or a c t i o n resembling  them must not  be  42 acted  out."  These laws were a c t u a l l y  bans on d i r e c t  p r e s e n t a t i o n , r a t h e r than on r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i t s e l f , c o u l d be accomplished i n other ways.  Taking  which  the case of the  f o r t y - s e v e n samurai as an example, even though d i r e c t s e n t a t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r Asano of Ako i t was  acceptable  was  not  ^  P u t t i n g what was  Taiheiki to become  p o p u l a r l y known as Chushingura i n t o the framework of T a i h e i k i was  quite different  from g i v i n g a l l the  f i c t i t i o u s names, a t r a n s p a r e n t have been banned immediately.  repre-  permitted,  to have En'ya Hangan from the  s e k a i s u b s t i t u t e d f o r him.  re-  the  characters  device t h a t would  probably  By u s i n g the T a i h e i k i ,  i f the  a u t h o r i t i e s asked they c o u l d j u s t be t o l d t h a t the t h e a t r e p u t t i n g on another T a i h e i k i s a n c t i o n of l o n g use and,  p l a y which, of course,  at any  had  was  the  r a t e , concerned events  before  1600.  Using the framework of the T a i h e i k i i t s e l f dramatically effective. the work and  i n t h i s way  Audiences were f a m i l i a r  c o u l d e a s i l y make the mental l e a p from  to Chushingura.  The  p l a y as we  gay  those c h a r a c t e r s and some p l a y w r i g h t s  events of the T a i h e i k i .  ana-  These  not  just  about  Even i n the West  have found t h i s type of i n d i r e c t  t i o n more d e s i r a b l e than d i r e c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , when speaking of current  Taiheiki  quarters,  e x i s t at the time of the T a i h e i k i .  d i r e c t l y underscore the f a c t t h a t the p l a y was  in with  know i t today c o n t a i n s  chronisms, such as r e f e r e n c e s to samisens and which d i d not  was  representaespecially  events t h a t are p a r t i c u l a r l y  shocking  to  the community.  One i s e s p e c i a l l y reminded of A r t h u r  M i l l e r ' s The C r u c i b l e , where M i l l e r used the framework of the Salem w i t c h t r i a l s t o w r i t e about McCarthyism i n the 1950's, and s i m i l a r l y Jean A n o u i l h ' s Antigone, where he used a framework from a n c i e n t Greek drama t o w r i t e about Nazism. Western drama such examples  In  are r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d ones i n  comparison w i t h kabuki, which was  a dramatic form whose founda-  t i o n l a y i n the use of t r a d i t i o n a l  frameworks.  Shuko: Three types of i n n o v a t i o n Compared w i t h s e k a i , shuko was, While t r a d i t i o n a l frameworks may  of course, f a r l e s s  be l a b e l e d and compiled i n  a work l i k e the Sekai komoku, i t i s d i f f i c u l t i n the case of i n n o v a t i o n s . of  fixed.  to do the same  T h i s i s because the p r i n c i p l e  i n n o v a t i o n n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l i e s a s t a t e of constant  Though i n n o v a t i o n s c o u l d i n time become t r a d i t i o n a l  change.  frameworks,  they s t a r t e d out as c o u n t e r p o i n t s t o e x i s t i n g ones. Shuko i s an important p r i n c i p l e i n Japanese a e s t h e t i c s i n g e n e r a l but i t a c q u i r e d p a r t i c u l a r importance i n the Tokugawa p e r i o d , e s p e c i a l l y i n the new  a r t s of h a i k a i , ukiyo-e.  (woodblock p r i n t s ) , and kabuki, each of which was an a r t of 44  innovation.  I t may  even be s a i d t h a t i n n o v a t i o n i s the 45  d e f i n i n g element of Tokugawa l i t e r a t u r e . ^ Innovation makes something new  out of something o l d .  As the K e z a i r o k u suggests, i n kabuki s e k a i are o l d .  I t then  f o l l o w s that t o understand shuko, i t i s n e c e s s a r y to analyze the  ways i n which they made s e k a i new.  been three ways i n which t h i s c o u l d be  There appear t o have done.  The f i r s t  encompasses those changes t h a t were made  w i t h i n a t r a d i t i o n a l framework and i n v o l v e s the technique of kakikae, or the r e w r i t i n g of p l a y s . two  e x c e l l e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h i s type.  works may  Although both  be regarded as part of l a r g e r frameworks, each  possessed i t s own The p r a c t i c e was of  Shibaraku and Taimen are  c h a r a c t e r c o n s t e l l a t i o n and p l o t  outline.  to perform Shibaraku i n the e l e v e n t h month  every year and Taimen i n the f i r s t month.  these p l a y s were r e w r i t t e n .  But every year  While keeping the same b a s i c  framework c e r t a i n changes i n c h a r a c t e r and s i t u a t i o n were made. The most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of t h i s type of i n n o v a t i o n was the l a c k of f i x e d t e x t s , even though a p l a y might produced many times.  have been  Only s i n c e the M e i j i e r a have such p l a y s  as Shibaraku and Taimen a c q u i r e d s e t t e x t s . The second type of i n n o v a t i o n takes p l a c e when a p l a y that was  p r e v i o u s l y unknown or unused i n kabuki was  a s e k a i , as Sukeroku was case f o r the new  t o a Soga p l a y .  I t was  added to  usual i n t h i s  work to be a sewa-mono and f o r i t t o be  j o i n e d to a jidai-mono•  The  j o i n i n g was  done by means of a  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of c h a r a c t e r , accomplished by the technique of 46 double i d e n t i t y .  Besides Sukeroku,  other i n n o v a t i o n s that  were added to the Soga s e k a i i n the same way of  Ume  no Y o s h i b e i , Osome and Hisamatsu,  were the s t o r i e s  and Sankatsu  and  47 Hanshichi. The t h i r d type of i n n o v a t i o n occurs when two s e k a i were j o i n e d .  or more  T h i s i s commonly c a l l e d naimaze  l i t e r a l l y means t o t w i s t - - a s i n making a rope--and  (which to mix).  Naimaze i s a v e r y misunderstood with the second  technique, o f t e n confused  type of i n n o v a t i o n .  means p u t t i n g two  Although naimaze simply  or more s e k a i t o g e t h e r , the c o n f u s i o n  r e s u l t s from i t s o f t e n being thought  of as equal t o the  j o i n i n g of a j i d a i - and sewa-mono•' Though t h i s  certainly  u n d e r l i e s the p r i n c i p l e s of s e k a i and shuko i n g e n e r a l , i t i s not naimaze..  As Urayama Masao has shown, the  different  s e k a i do not r e t a i n t h e i r separate natures as.such but  are  48 brought  t o g e t h e r to form an e n t i r e l y new  Naimaze was  work.  the l a s t type of i n n o v a t i o n t o develop,  i t marked the end of kabuki's  and  growth as a dramatic a r t form.  The technique began t o be employed near the end of the e i g h t e e n t h century, when kabuki was l o o k upon i t s e l f as a c l a s s i c form.  a l r e a d y s t a r t i n g to T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the  f o r m u l a t i o n of the juhachi-ban, the w r i t i n g of the Kezairoku, the c o m p i l a t i o n of the Sekai komoku, and i n the of  kabuki t e x t s .  Naimaze was  publication  a popular technique f o r s e v e r a l  decades, e s p e c i a l l y as used by the p l a y w r i g h t s Tsuruya Namboku  (1755-1829) and Kawatake Mokuami (1816-93)--who i s c o n s i d e r e d to  be the l a s t major playwright of kabuki.  The Annual Play C y c l e and the P r i n c i p l e s of S e k a i and Shuko  To c l o s e t h i s chapter, I r e t u r n to the annual p l a y c y c l e and the concepts  of j i d a i - and sewa-mono t o c o n s i d e r  kabuki dramatic s t r u c t u r e as a whole may of  s e k a i and shuko.  how  be looked at i n terms  The  s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g , i f c o n d i t i o n s were  f a v o r a b l e , the t h i r d - and f i f t h - m o n t h p r o d u c t i o n s ) was nated by the Soga s e k a i . d u c t i o n was the p l a y was  domi-  In the f i r s t month the s p r i n g pro-  a .jidai-mono.  As the months went by, however, and  a l t e r e d , i t became more of a sewa-mono, though  always w i t h i n the framework of a jidai-mono•  L e t us  look at the r e s t of the year i n terms of s e k a i and  now  .jidai-  and sewa-mono. The  kao-mise p r o d u c t i o n was  not dominated <by any  s e k a i , although c e r t a i n ones were more popular than for  use at t h a t time.  single  others  T h i s i s seen i n the work of Sakurada  J i s u k e ( 1 7 3 4 - 1 8 0 6 ) , the foremost  playwright of Edo  during the l a t t e r p a r t of the e i g h t e e n t h century.  kabuki The  sekai  that J i s u k e used can be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : s e k a i of  kao-mise p r o d u c t i o n s , s e k a i of Soga ( i . e . s p r i n g ) produc-  4-9 t i o n s , and s e k a i of "miscellaneous" p r o d u c t i o n s . of  The  naming  these c a t e g o r i e s d e r i v e s from the f a c t t h a t the kao-mise  and s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n s were most s t r u c t u r e d , w h i l e the  other  p r o d u c t i o n s of the annual  both  p l a y c y c l e were l e s s c e r t a i n  i n s t a r t i n g dates and s t r u c t u r e . As shown by J i s u k e ' s use of s e k a i , the kao-mise prod u c t i o n was,  on ."the whole, a .jidai-mono.  by a sewa-mono which, however, was the s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n . kao-mise was  The  I t was  complemented  not as independent as i n  p r e f e r r e d type of i n n o v a t i o n f o r  that, where changes were.made w i t h i n the s e k a i .  J i s u k e a l s o wrote p l a y s f o r Soga p r o d u c t i o n s . mono were predominant.  In these  .jidai-  Sewa-mono. however, evolved as more  independent  pieces i n contrast to t h e i r l e s s  s t a t u s d u r i n g kao-mise.  independent  W i t h i n the' group of m i s c e l l a n e o u s  p l a y s , the l a r g e s t s i n g l e group of s e k a i was those of the revenge-play type  (a sub-category of p l a y s d e a l i n g with s t r u g -  g l e s f o r power w i t h i n samurai c u l a r l y noteworthy  households).  s i n c e they are thought  This i s p a r t i of as f a l l i n g some-  where between . j i d a i - and sewa-mono, w i t h the emphasis on the latter. In sum, from the kao-mise p r o d u c t i o n t o the end of the annual p l a y c y c l e t h e r e was a gradual s h i f t from  .jidai-mono  to sewa-mono and indeed the year i t s e l f may be d i v i d e d .jidai and sewa.  into  Each i n d i v i d u a l p r o d u c t i o n was .jidai or sewa  to a g r e a t e r or l e s s e r degree,  and the way i n which the  p r o d u c t i o n manifested these elements  was a f u n c t i o n of the  p o s i t i o n and r o l e of a p r o d u c t i o n w i t h i n the annual  cycle  as a whole. Kabuki first  dramatic s t r u c t u r e , t h e r e f o r e , must be c o n s i d e r e d  i n terms of an annual c y c l e and then i n terms of the  i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s or p r o d u c t i o n s which made up t h a t c y c l e and whose component p a r t s changed d u r i n g the course of i t .  More-  over, the c y c l e and i t s i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s , l i k e any one of the p r o d u c t i o n s and i t s own component p a r t s , were h e l d t o g e t h e r some might say u n i f i e d — b y the j i d a i and sewa l i n k and were r u l e d o v e r a l l by s e k a i and shuko.  These p r i n c i p l e s , while  e n a b l i n g a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s t o be maintained, at the same time brought  about  c y c l e was repeated.  a renewal  of the drama every time the  PART TWO:  THE SIGNIFICANCE  OF SUKEROKU'S DOUBLE IDENTITY  In Part Two t h a t f o l l o w s , I challenge  the n o t i o n  that  Sukeroku's double i d e n t i t y was i l l o g i c a l and without meaning I propose, i n s t e a d , that i t s i g n i f i e d an important and, i n deed, l o g i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n hero of the present of s e k a i and shuko•  of a hero of the past  into a  through the workings of the p r i n c i p l e s In the f i r s t  chapter I t r a c e the d e v e l -  opment of the Soga s e k a i and show the s i g n i f i c a n c e of Soga Goro as a god-hero of the n a t i o n .  Then, i n the second, I  look at the shuko that transformed Soga Goro i n t o Sukeroku, and  show the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f Sukeroku as the "flower  that i s , as an i d e a l i z a t i o n of the Edo townsman.  of Edo"  Although  Sukeroku i s no l o n g e r performed as part of the Soga s e k a i because of the demise of the annual c y c l e and t r a d i t i o n a l kabuki s t r u c t u r e , i t was the Goro i d e n t i t y which helped make Sukeroku i n t o a c e n t r a l f i g u r e of kabuki.  Chapter I I I .  Sukeroku as Soga Goro, a God-hero of the N a t i o n : The Development  of the Soga S e k a i  To analyze the s i g n i f i c a n c e of Sukeroku's double i d e n tity,  the f i r s t  s t e p i s to e l u c i d a t e the symbolism  of the  c h a r a c t e r Soga Goro as p o r t r a y e d by Ichikawa Danjuro I (16601704) ,. the great a c t o r and playwright who of the...lasting f e a t u r e s of Edo kabuki.  determined many  T h i s w i l l be done  by t r a c i n g the e v o l u t i o n of the Soga s e k a i from i t s o r i g i n s i n no, kowaka, and k o - j o r u r i to i t s appearance i n Edo kabuki. No and kowaka are dramatic forms t h a t began before the Tokugawa p e r i o d .  K o - j o r u r i , or " o l d " j o r u r i , f l o u r i s h e d  during  the e a r l y Tokugawa p e r i o d . An h i s t o r i c a l approach was  chosen because the p r i n c i p l e  of s e k a i i n kabuki i s based on the e x i s t e n c e of c h a r a c t e r s and themes accumulated over a p e r i o d of time, many of which antedated the b i r t h of kabuki. Goro i n Edo kabuki depended  Danjuro's p o r t r a y a l of Soga  on Goro's having been  established  as a c e n t r a l f i g u r e among the dramatis personae of e a r l i e r dramatic forms.  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of Soga Goro b e f o r e Danjuro I  e s t a b l i s h e d the c h a r a c t e r i n the minds of the Japanese people as a s t r o n g and awesome b e i n g . was  Danjuro's great  achievement  t o use the t r a d i t i o n a l framework that had b u i l t up around  Goro, i n combination w i t h a c t i n g techniques i n s p i r e d by Kimpira j o r u r i  (a s h o r t - l i v e d and v e r y v i o l e n t form of seven-  t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Edo puppet and r e c i t a t i v e t h e a t r e ) .  In so  doing he c r e a t e d the aragoto s t y l e of Edo kabuki and brought Goro t o the highest p o s s i b l e l e v e l i n the h i e r a r c h y of dramatic  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n : as a l i v i n g god-hero f o r the people of  Edo. The Soga B r o t h e r s ' Revenge The s t o r y of the Soga b r o t h e r s ' revenge i s one of the most popular and enduring s t o r i e s i n Japan.  Supposedly  based on an a c t u a l event which occurred d u r i n g the Kamakura p e r i o d , i t i s a h e r o i c t a l e of how  two b r o t h e r s , Soga no Juro  Sukenari and Soga no Goro Tokimune, devoted t h e i r young to avenging the murder of t h e i r . f a t h e r .  lives  The d e v o t i o n t h a t  enabled them t o endure e i g h t e e n d i f f i c u l t y e a r s of w a i t i n g b e f o r e they were f i n a l l y able to c a r r y out the revenge, and the f a c t t h a t the revenge cost them t h e i r own l i v e s , combined  t o make the b r o t h e r s i d e a l examples  have  of f i l i a l  piety  and samurai honor. The enemy of the b r o t h e r s was  Kudo Suketsune.  Angered  at the f a t h e r of Kawazu no Saburo Sukeshige over a matter i n v o l v i n g what- he b e l i e v e d to be h i s r i g h t f u l he had Sukeshige k i l l e d .  Sukeshige was  f a t h e r of the Soga b r o t h e r s , who time.  inheritance,  h i s own c o u s i n and the  were small c h i l d r e n at the  Even though Suketsune's d i s p u t e w i t h Sukeshige's f a t h e r  was not u n j u s t , h i s r e s o l u t i o n of the problem was.  And the  only t h i n g the b r o t h e r s could t h i n k of as they were growing up was revenge--to console t h e i r mother and t o r e s t o r e f a m i l y honor.  The revenge was  f i n a l l y c a r r i e d out on the  day of the f i f t h month of 1193, was  killed.  twenty-eighth  eighteen years a f t e r  A f t e r s e v e r a l u n s u c c e s s f u l attempts,  Sukeshige  Juro  and  Goro trapped Suketsune at a hunt arranged "by Minamoto no Yoritomo (114-7-99), the de f a c t o r u l e r of Japan at t h a t time, at the f o o t of Mt.  Fuji.  Juro was  k i l l e d i n the  f i g h t t h a t broke out w i t h Suketsune's r e t a i n e r s . caped, but was  e v e n t u a l l y captured.  He was  even though Yoritomo admired h i s bravery.  ensuing Goro es-  forced to die In c o n f o r m i t y  w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e i n cases of o u t s t a n d i n g a c t s of heroism  and s a c r i f i c e , Yoritomo ordered temples e r e c t e d and  prayers s a i d f o r the Soga b r o t h e r s . The  s t o r y of the Soga b r o t h e r s ' revenge had a number of  f e a t u r e s which c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t s p o p u l a r i t y , w i t h c h a r a c t e r , theme, and g e o g r a p h i c a l appeal predominating.  The l e a d i n g  c h a r a c t e r s were, of course, the b r o t h e r s themselves.  With  t h e i r c o n t r a s t i n g n a t u r e s - - J u r o tended t o be c o o l and  calm  while Goro was  hot-blooded  and quick t o act--which became  more pronounced the more the s t o r y was  t o l d and  dramatized,'  the b r o t h e r s stood f o r a k i n d of h e r o i c Japanese Everyman. In Japan the t r a d i t i o n a l view of human nature i s t h a t i t i s made up of two • i each other. two  s i d e s , one The two  calm and  one v i o l e n t , which balance  b r o t h e r s p e r f e c t l y r e p r e s e n t e d these  sides. The s t o r y ' s theme of vendetta was  Japanese thought  and l i t e r a t u r e .  an important  one i n  Japanese s o c i e t y p l a c e d  h i g h value on " f a c e " and honor, and revenge was  seen as a  n e c e s s a r y course of a c t i o n when the s c a l e s of honor were 2  —  somehow unbalanced. shingura, which was  In c o n t r a s t t o the v e n d e t t a i n Chuc a r r i e d out by almost f i f t y samurai, the  Soga b r o t h e r s ' revenge was help. nal  accomplished w i t h very  little  T h i s of course put even more emphasis on the phenome-  and h e r o i c d e t e r m i n a t i o n of Juro and Goro. The c h a r a c t e r of the b r o t h e r s and t h e i r vendetta had  u n i v e r s a l i n t e r e s t , but the s t o r y ' s s e t t i n g i n the e a s t e r n p a r t of Japan gave i t s p e c i a l g e o g r a p h i c a l a p p e a l — p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Tokugawa p e r i o d when Edo was shogun and a c i t y of the samurai.  the c a p i t a l of the  Soga p l a y s were  performed  i n Kamigata kabuki, but they never occupied the p o s i t i o n of 3  importance  they d i d m  Edo.  The Soga monogatari,  literally  "Soga T a l e , " i s the r e -  p r e s e n t a t i v e w r i t t e n work of the Soga b r o t h e r s ' revenge. began as a work r e c i t e d by s t o r y t e l l e r s . goze  ( b l i n d women) who  It  Some of them were  t o l d - - p o s s i b l y chanted or  sang--the  t a l e , accompanying themselves by b e a t i n g on a drurn.-^  In  time the s t o r y developed a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d c h a r a c t e r cons t e l l a t i o n and g e n e r a l p l o t o u t l i n e - - i n s h o r t , a s e k a i - t h a t c o u l d be used over and over a g a i n as s u i t e d the a r t and purposes  of d i f f e r e n t  storytellers.  Once the s e k a i had been c r e a t e d , the s t o r y t e l l e r , i n order t o s a t i s f y the audience's d e s i r e f o r something  new  and  d i f f e r e n t , found i t necessary to invent i n c i d e n t s , episodes-what we have c a l l e d shuko--and f i t them i n t o the f a m i l i a r framework.  In t u r n , these shuko, i f they c o u l d s u r v i v e the  t e s t of time, c r y s t a l l i z e d and became part of the more shuko c o u l d be made i n counterpoint  to them.  case of the Soga s e k a i , the s t o r y t e l l e r was  j o r u r i , and The  kowaka, and  In  j u s t one  "performers" of the s t o r y , as i n a more l i t e r a l the p l a y e r s of no and  sekai; the of  the  sense were  l a t e r those of k o - j o r u r i ,  kabuki.  question  of how  the w r i t t e n t e x t f i t s  performance process i s an i n t e r e s t i n g one, the scope of t h i s t h e s i s .  into this  although beyond  S u f f i c e i t to say,  however, t h a t  a f t e r the s t o r y had' been developed to a degree as an o r a l tale,  i t was  of m o d i f i e d first  w r i t t e n down, probably by a monk, u s i n g a k i n d Chinese ( h e n t a i kambun) w r i t i n g system.^  This  Soga monogatari, the s o - c a l l e d s h i n j i - b o n , dates from  the Muromachi p e r i o d and versions  i s i n t e n volumes.  Later  written  d i f f e r e d more i n w r i t i n g system than i n a c t u a l con-  t e n t s — u n t i l the twelve volume rufu-bon (popular  edition)  7  was  published  i n the Tokugawa p e r i o d . '  more volumes than previous of i n c i d e n t s not  rufu-bon has  t e x t s because i t c o n t a i n s  found i n the  c i d e n t s are by and  The  earlier editions.  l a r g e the i n n o v a t i o n s  two  a number  These i n -  t h a t had become part  of the Soga t r a d i t i o n a l framework through t h e i r dramatizag t i o n i n no and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n kowaka. The Soga s e k a i was'developed i n the course of dramatic performance, and t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the t e x t u a l development of the Soga o monogatari• the c h a r a c t e r s  Moreover, Y a n a g i t a Kunio hypothesized t h a t T o r a Gozen and  of, r e s p e c t i v e l y , Juro and  Tora no Shosho, the  Goro, were a c t u a l l y  lovers  introduced  by the goze who t r u e or not gest  one  f i r s t t o l d the Soga s t o r y .  is difficult  p o s s i b l e kind of connection  of the s t o r y and The  to prove, but  The  first  i t does at l e a s t sug-  between performances  i t s t e x t u a l development.  O r i g i n s of the Soga Sekai  Whether t h i s i s  i n No,  10  Kowaka, and  Ko-joruri  entry i n the Kabuki nempyo suggests that  Soga p l a y s , along with those based on the G i k e i k i (the of the hero Y o s h i t s u n e ) ,  were a l r e a d y  formed e a r l y i n the h i s t o r y of kabuki. year 1559  and  says that  "Okuni and  based on] the G i k e i k i and  popular and The  being  per-  e n t r y i s f o r the  others performed  [plays  the Soga Revenge i n f r o n t of  —  story  the  11  Shogun [Ashikaga] Y o s h i t e r u . " c l e a r l y anachronistic first  Although the  information  is  (Okuni i s u s u a l l y thought to have  performed kabuki some f o r t y years l a t e r ) ,  out t h a t kabuki made use  i t does p o i n t  of e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i t i o n a l frameworks  r i g h t from the b e g i n n i n g and  among the f i r s t  chosen were  those of the Soga monogatari and G i k e i k i . How  were Soga and  other s e k a i that became popular i n  kabuki e s t a b l i s h e d even before They were formulated forms.  Okuni d i d her f i r s t  i n the r e p e r t o r i e s of other  dramatic  Before d i s c u s s i n g the -Soga 'sekai i n r e l a t i o n to  Danjuro I, i t i s necessary f i r s t  — developed up to h i s time, i n no, B r i e f summaries of plays and below, cannot do tic  play?  to look at i t as i t had  —  —  12  kowaka, and k o - j o r u r i .  r e p e r t o r i e s , such as those  given  j u s t i c e t o the e v o l u t i o n of a major drama-  t r a d i t i o n , but  they w i l l at l e a s t give some i d e a of  the  nature of the m a t e r i a l on which Danjuro "built h i s Soga dramatizations . The Soga S e k a i of No and Kowaka Among the approximately two hundred and f o r t y works i n the  c u r r e n t no r e p e r t o r y , t h e r e are f i v e Soga p l a y s :  Ghobuku  Soga, Gembuku. Soga, Ko-sode Soga, Yo-uchi Soga, and Z e n j i Soga. In  the t o t a l known r e p e r t o r y of more than two thousand t i t l e s ,  there are perhaps t e n a d d i t i o n a l Soga works t h a t are no l o n g e r 13 performed--or perhaps never were'performed. ^ fifty  Among the  s u r v i v i n g t e x t s of kowaka (the mai no hon), seven are  Soga p l a y s .  These are Ichiman Hakoo, Gempuku Soga (note: i n  no the t i t l e  i s Gembuku, i n kowaka i t i s Gempuku), Wada saka-  mori, Ko-sode Soga, T s u r u g i sandan, Yo-uchi Soga, and Juban. . 14  giri. The Soga p l a y s of no The a u t h o r s h i p and dates of composition of the Soga p l a y s of both no and kowaka are not known w i t h c e r t a i n t y . In the case of no, however, i t i s thought t h a t Miyamasu  1^ may have composed the f i v e works t h a t are extant. ^ little  i s known about Miyamasu.  Very  He i s thought t o have l i v e d  s l i g h t l y l a t e r than the p l a y w r i g h t s Mot omasa (ea. 1394-14-32) and  Zenchiku (1405- ca. 1470) and t o have t o u r e d the e a s t e r n  16 p r o v i n c e s of Japan as a member of a sarugaku troupe. the  In  e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s , where the Soga s t o r y was s e t , Miyamasu  may have transformed the a l r e a d y popular t a l e i n t o the no form.  Among the f i v e works, Chobuku Soga most d i s t i n c t i v e , hut i n g way  i s not  only  i t i s a l s o r e l a t e d i n the most i n t e r e s t  to Danjuro I's.kabuki Soga p l a y s .  I t i s the  Taimen play, t h a t i s , a work t r e a t i n g of the f i r s t t i o n between the Soga b r o t h e r s In t h i s case, however, the it  i s only between Goro and  earliest confronta-  and t h e i r enemy Kudo Suketsune  encounter does not Suketsune.  Soga, Goro i s not yet Goro; he i s s t i l l  involve  t r a i n f o r the p r i e s t h o o d  one  a c h i l d named Hakoo  so t h a t he c o u l d devote h i s  f o r the repose of h i s f a t h e r ' s s o u l .  knows, however, Hakoo i s not  As  to life  every-  d e s t i n e d to become a p r i e s t .  He w i l l leave the temple i n order t o c a r r y out the The  Juro;  In f a c t , i n Chobuku  l i v i n g i n the Hakone temple where h i s mother l e f t him  to p r a y i n g  the  revenge.  crux of the p l a y l i e s i n the c o n t r a s t between a  t e r r i b l y s t r o n g - w i l l e d , but  as yet powerless boy  seemingly u n a s s a i l a b l e enemy, who temple one  day  his  a r r i v e s at the Hakone  as a samurai r e t a i n e r i n the  l e s s a f i g u r e of power and  and  entourage of  a u t h o r i t y than Yoritomo.  no  Because  of the tremendous f r u s t r a t i o n that Hakoo experiences i n t h i s momentous meeting, the p r i e s t of the temple performs a chobuku (curse) f o r him,  the outcome of which i s the  highly  symbolic appearance of the guardian d i e t y Fudo Myoo who  as-  sures a l l watching that one  be  day  the revenge w i l l indeed  done. Chobuku Soga i s i n two  parts.  I t opens w i t h the  v a l of Kudo Suketsune and Minamoto no Yoritomo at the  arritemple  i n the Hakone mountains. temple  and Hakoo.  They meet the c h i e f p r i e s t of the  The l a t t e r q u e s t i o n s the p r i e s t  the i d e n t i t y of the v i s i t o r s ,  about  only t o l e a r n t h a t Kudo Suke-  tsune (whom Hakoo had never seen b e f o r e ) i s among those accompanying Yoritomo. HakoO' oon ;  Suketsune  a u d a c i o u s l y addresses  the s u b j e c t of h i s f a t h e r Sukeshige' s death,  he has no i d e a of the powerful emotions up i n the boy.  though  that he i s s t i r r i n g  Hakoo i s readynto c a r r y out the  revenge  on the spot, but the p r i e s t holds him back. In the second part of the p l a y Fudo appears. to popular b e l i e f , Fudo Myoo i s a Buddha who  has been changed  i n t o a being of t e r r i b l e and f r i g h t e n i n g appearance to act as a guardian of men  According  i n order  i n a world f i l l e d w i t h e v i l  s  spirits  Though never so horrendous i n appearance as the T i b e t a n angry d e i t i e s , the f a c e of Fudo i s nevert h e l e s s s t a r t l i n g . . . . One eye g l a r e s downwards, the other s q u i n t s d i v e r g e n t l y upwards. With one upper t o o t h g r a s p i n g h i s upper l i p , h i s mouth i s twisted into a peculiar snarl. His l o n g h a i r hangs i n a c o i l over h i s l e f t shoulder. His r i g h t hand grasps a sword and h i s l e f t a rope, and he stands not on a l o t u s or an animal mount as do many Buddhist d i v i n i t i e s , but on an immovable rock, which r i s e s sometimes from c u r l i n g waves. Always he i s r i n g e d round w i t h f i r e . 1 8 The climax of Chobuku Soga comes when Fudo d e s t r o y s an effigy  ( k a t a s h i r o ) of Suketsune  and b r i n g s the p l a y t o a  c l o s e w i t h the words: "In the end,  [by the power of t h i s  curse] Hakoo w i l l succeed [ i n avenging h i s f a t h e r ' s  murder]."  The p l a y i s a masterpiece of i r o n y and c o n t r a s t .  Great  f o r c e s gather amidst the s e r e n i t y of a mountain temple. tsune b e l i e v e s t h a t the boy Hakoo cannot  do him any harm,  Suke-  but i n the end he w i l l be proved wrong. brilliantly  The p o i n t i s  underscored when Suketsune i s "transformed"  ( t h e a t r i c a l l y , by u s i n g the same a c t o r - - t h e s h i t e ) Fudo, who, ultimate  as we  have seen, makes c e r t a i n of  into  Suketsune's  destruction.  At the same time, i t can be s a i d t h a t Hakoo i s a l s o transformed i n t o Fudo.  A f t e r a l l , n e i t h e r Suketsune nor  Hakoo appear as such i n the second p a r t of the p l a y .  As  the audience knew, Hakoo must wait f o r a l o n g time to c a r r y out h i s revenge,  and i t i s h i s s p i r i t  of r e s o l v e through  those l o n g years that makes him such a tremendous and superhuman f i g u r e i n the Soga s e k a i .  In a broad  even  sense,  Hakoo as Fudo r e p r e s e n t s a d e t e r m i n a t i o n to r i d the world of the a l l too powerful and t h e r e f o r e e v i l f o r c e s ( r e p r e sented by Suketsune) that would overwhelm the l e s s  powerful  f o r c e s ( r e p r e s e n t e d by Hakoo), and t o r e s t o r e the world t o i t s proper balance. his  Danjuro  I's use of the Soga s e k a i ,  and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Soga Goro i n p a r t i c u l a r , came c l o s e  to  a Goro manifested as Fudo. In f a c t , Danjuro c o n s c i o u s l y — io adopted Fudo as the symbolic model, of h i s aragoto a r t . The  other f o u r no p l a y s i n the Soga s e k a i , while  im-  p o r t a n t , do not have'quite the same power as Chobuku Soga. Gembuku Soga concerns Hakoo's l e a v i n g the Hakone temple  and  undergoing the coming-of-age r i t e s  may  finally  c a r r y out h i s revenge  (gembuku) so that he  as a man.  In the p l a y Juro  goes t o Hakone to take Hakoo from the temple,  but b e f o r e  Hakoo can be r e l e a s e d , Juro must get p e r m i s s i o n from the  head p r i e s t .  Although i t means going a g a i n s t t h e i r mother's  w i s h e s - - e v e n t u a l l y l e a d i n g her to disown Hakoo--the p r i e s t , who  i s sympathetic to the b r o t h e r s ' cause, allows Hakoo t o  go.  When the b r o t h e r s s e t out, he comes a f t e r them w i t h a  l o n g sword t o present to Hakoo i n honor of h i s coming o f age, the  the ceremony of which has been performed by Juro on road.  I t i s t h i s sword, which i s s a i d t o be a g i f t  from Yoshitsune, that f i g u r e s so c e n t r a l l y i n Sukeroku. Ko-sode Soga c o n t a i n s the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of Goro and his  mother, which i s a l s o the f a r e w e l l meeting of mother and  sons before the revenge i s c a r r i e d out.  As a r e s u l t  of the  a c t i o n d e p i c t e d i n Gembuku Soga (namely, l e a v i n g the temple where the mother had intended her younger son remain), Hakoo (now Goro) had been disowned. and  A r e c o n c i l i a t i o n takes p l a c e ,  although Juro and Goro r e j o i c e ,  e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r happi-  ness i n music and dance (which are the focus of the p l a y ) , t h i s i s soon supplanted by l a m e n t a t i o n at the thought of imminent s e p a r a t i o n from t h e i r mother. 20 Yo-uchi Soga •• i s concerned w i t h the revenge i t s e l f . The s t r e n g t h of the p l a y l i e s  i n the emotional c o n t r a s t be-  tween the n e c e s s i t y of c a r r y i n g out the revenge i n order to r e s t o r e f a m i l y honor and the s t r o n g attachment Goro and Juro have toward t h e i r mother and toward t h e i r two r e t a i n e r s , Onio and  Dozaburo, who  are prepared t o (but do n o t ) : j o i n  their  masters i n death.' The s t o r y of Z e n j i Soga, the l a s t p l a y of the f i v e , opens w i t h Onio and Dozaburo's v i s i t to the Soga mother t o  "bring her some of her sons' p e r s o n a l ..effects to keep as mementos.  While lamenting the deaths of Goro and Juro,  she i s at the same time concerned about the s a f e t y of her s u r v i v i n g son, Kugami no Z e n j i .  He i s at Kugami Temple,  where she sends Onio and Dozaburo t o look a f t e r him, but before they can get t h e r e he has been captured and sent o f f to Kamakura on the orders of Yoritomo.  T h i s can only upset  the  balance t h a t had been r e s t o r e d when Goro and Juro c a r r i e d  out  t h e i r revenge on Suketsune, and c o n t r i b u t e s t o the  b e l i e f that the Soga b r o t h e r s ' s t r u g g l e c o n t i n u e d even  after  they were dead. The Soga p l a y s of kowaka U n l i k e no, which i s w e l l known and performed by  amateurs  and p r o f e s s i o n a l s a l i k e i n many areas of Japan, kowaka i s not w e l l known and s u r v i v e s today only i n the V i l l a g e .of Oe i n Fukuoka P r e f e c t u r e (Kyushu). for  I t has been performed t h e r e  the past f o u r c e n t u r i e s , s i n c e l a t e i n the s i x t e e n t h cen-  t u r y , when a kowaka master came to t e a c h the a r t to the s a murai r e t a i n e r s of Kamachi Hyogo-no-kami Akimune, l o r d of a , —  21  c a s t l e town near present-day Oe. While the t r a d i t i o n s of kowaka continued to be t r a n s m i t t e d f a i t h f u l l y from g e n e r a t i o n t o g e n e r a t i o n i n the outlying district  of Oe, kowaka was  dying i n Edo.  There, kowaka  masters enjoyed the p r e s t i g e of samurai s t a t u s and seemed to  have spent much e n e r g y - t r y i n g to d i s s o c i a t e  from the c l a s s of e n t e r t a i n e r s by r i d d i n g t h e i r of  themselves performance  i t s dance elements, and r e d u c i n g i t f i n a l l y t o "simply  s i n g i n g to a beat produced by the s l a p p i n g of a f a n . " are  the words of Takizawa  t e e n t h century, who  These  Bakin, a noted w r i t e r of the n i n e -  a l s o observed i n the same e n t r y of N i -  maze no k i (1811) that kowaka--with the dance s u r v i v e d i n Oe v i l l a g e ,  intact--still  "although most people of Edo  do not  22 know i t • " The s u r v i v a l of kowaka remained  p r a c t i c a l l y a secret  u n t i l almost a'century a f t e r Nimaze no k i was  w r i t t e n , when  Takano T a t s u y u k i , a s c h o l a r who  read the e n t r y  and went to Oe. ( i n 1907) deed s u r v i v e d t h e r e .  d i e d i n 1948,  t o see i f the a r t of kowaka had i n -  What he saw  i n the performances,  as  w e l l as i n the h i s t o r i c a l and g e n e a l o g i c a l records.'of the performers, was  the s u b j e c t of many of h i s p i o n e e r i n g s t u d i e s .  Takano's r e s e a r c h must have been s t i m u l a t e d a l s o by the r e p r i n t i n g i n 1900  of Mai no hon, which James A r a k i  i n The B a l l a d Drama of Medieval Japan t r a n s l a t e s as "Texts for  Kowaka Dances,"-and d e s c r i b e s as "an anthology of t h i r t y -  six  standard kowaka compiled i n the e a r l y seventeenth century 24  and p u b l i s h e d as prose t a l e s t o be enjoyed i n r e a d i n g . " Ueda K a z u t o s h i , e d i t o r of t h i s work, s a i d i n the p r e f a c e t h a t kowaka, which had l o n g s i n c e become a v i r t u a l l y gotten dramatic a r t form, was i t s importance  "the equal of the no drama i n 25  to the c u l t u r e ; o f medieval Japan."  An i n d i c a t i o n of the importance m a t e r i a l was  for-  ^  of kowaka i s that i t s  based on two major works of pre-Tokugawa Japan,  the Heike monogatari  and the Soga monogatari.  Kowaka helped  p o p u l a r i z e and e s t a b l i s h the t r a d i t i o n s of these works.  Kowaka are " l i v e l y t a l e s which e x t o l the v i r t u o u s w a r r i o r , e x a l t v a l o r o u s and honorable death, and f i n d charm i n the pathos of tragedy.  pleasurable,  Loyalty, f i l i a l  piety, 26  f a i t h f u l n e s s , courage, and c h i v a l r y are g l o r i f i e d . " are s i g n i f i c a n t  They  p r e c u r s o r s of kabuki.  Summaries of the seven Soga works of kowaka are i n c l u d e d 27 i n A r a k i ' s book. '  . In the matter of s t o r y l i n e , the s i m i l a r i -  t i e s between no and kowaka Soga p l a y s can be r e a d i l y seen. D i f f e r e n c e s are found mainly i n what I c a l l the t i o n " of the s t o r y .  "distribu-  The kowaka Gempuku Soga, f o r example,  c o n t a i n s Hakoo's meeting w i t h Kudo Suketsune at the Hakone temple.  T h i s , as we have seen, was t r e a t e d i n the no  Cho-  buku Soga, which, i n my view, makes more e f f e c t i v e use of the meeting between Hakoo and Suketsune, and Hakoo's subsequent f r u s t r a t i o n .  Another example of a d i f f e r e n c e i n " d i s -  t r i b u t i o n " i s found i n T s u r u g i sandan.  I n kowaka t h i s con-  t a i n s the episode where the p r i e s t gave Goro and Juro a sword which has s p e c i a l v a l u e .  In no t h i s episode i s found i n  Gembuku Soga. Yet another example of such a d i f f e r e n c e i s found i n the no and kowaka Yo-uchi Soga.  Whereas the no v e r s i o n con-  t a i n s the scene of the revenge on Suketsune and ends w i t h Juro's death and Goro's capture, the kowaka v e r s i o n stops j u s t b e f o r e the revenge i s c a r r i e d out, the p o i n t b e i n g t h a t f i n a l l y the revenge can be c a r r i e d out.  The revenge  itself,  the ensuing f i g h t between the b r o t h e r s and Suketsune's r e t a i n e r s , J u r o s death and Goro's capture are then a l l covered 1  i n the kowaka J u b a n - g i r i .  Soga p l a y s of kabuki g e n e r a l l y  stop b e f o r e the a c t u a l c a r r y i n g out of the revenge. Before summarizing  the Soga s e k a i as seen i n the works  of no and kowaka, I would l i k e t o d i s c u s s one kowaka p i e c e i n some d e t a i l .  Just as Chobuku Soga i s of s p e c i a l  among the Soga p l a y s of no, so t o o i s Wada sakamori i n g among those of kowaka.  interest outstand-  And l i k e Chobuku Soga, Wada saka-  mori d i s p l a y s an i n t e r e s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  Danjuro's  Soga works. The s t o r y o f Wada sakamori i s about J u r o s f a r e w e l l t o 1  h i s l a d y - l o v e , the c o u r t e s a n Oiso no Tora (elsewhere to as Tora Gozen).  referred  A r r i v i n g at her house, he encounters  Wada Yoshimori, who had p r e v i o u s l y helped the b r o t h e r s i n an u n s u c c e s s f u l attempt  t o c a r r y out t h e revenge.  Friendship  n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , Yoshimori and Juro are ready t o q u a r r e l over the l a d y .  Goro, whose b r o t h e r l y i n s t i n c t s t e l l him t h a t Juro  i s about t o need h i s h e l p , a r r i v e s on the scene.  (He had  been a t home sharpening arrowheads i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the revenge.  )  Goro .is p o i s e d o u t s i d e the s l i d i n g paper  door  of the room h i s b r o t h e r i s i n , and j u s t as he i s about t o a t t a c k , Yoshimori's son, the strongman Y o s h i h i d e (who, as Asahina, comes t o p l a y a major r o l e i n 'the kabuki Soga s e k a i ) sees Goro's image through the door.  Yoshihide lunges a t  Goro and t r i e s t o drag him by h i s armor i n t o the room. Y o s h i h i d e , f o r a l l h i s s t r e n g t h , cannot budge Goro.  But  The  part o f the armor that he was p u l l i n g a t f i n a l l y g i v e s way and he tumbles  backward i n t o the room.  Goro having the s i t u a t i o n w e l l i n hand.  The episode ends w i t h  82  The  importance of Wada sakamori i s t h a t i t i s the  first  play i n which Goro i s c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d as a being of g r e a t , even superhuman, s t r e n g t h .  T h i s scene of h i s encounter  Yoshihide i s r e m i n i s c e n t of Yoshitsune's w i t h Benkei  on the b r i d g e .  Although  i n other r e s p e c t s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t , encounters  famous  i n o r d i n a r y circumstances hide encounter,  we  encounter  Yoshitsune  and Goro are  i n both cases a  someone whose s t r e n g t h i s legendary be the v i c t o r .  see the beginnings  with  youth  and who  In t h i s  should  Goro-Yoshi-  of the s t y l e t h a t gave  29 r i s e to Danjuro's aragoto  art.  y  In summarizing the Soga s e k a i as i t i s found i n works of no and kowaka, i t can be s a i d f i r s t  of a l l t h a t the b a s i c  c h a r a c t e r c o n s t e l l a t i o n and p l o t o u t l i n e s t h a t were used i n l a t e r Soga d r a m a t i z a t i o n s have been e s t a b l i s h e d .  The  main  c h a r a c t e r s are Soga Goro and h i s b r o t h e r Juro, t h e i r mother, t h e i r two  l o y a l r e t a i n e r s Onio and Dozaburo, the  Oiso no Tora, and f i n a l l y , Kudo Suketsune.  The  courtesan plot re-  v o l v e s around p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r the revenge, c a r r y i n g i t out, and to a degree, what happens a f t e r the deed was  done.  The  focus of the s t o r y i s the c o n f l i c t between the l a r g e r f o r c e s of  the s t a t e , as r e p r e s e n t e d somewhat a b s t r a c t l y and  dis-  t a n t l y by Yoritomo, and p e r s o n a l l y and c l o s e l y by Suketsune, and the two  b r o t h e r s who  a g a i n s t these f o r c e s .  s t r u g g l e to a s s e r t t h e i r  I t i s not simply a s t r u g g l e between  e v i l and good, but between the more powerful powerful.  rights  and the  less  I t i s a c o n f l i c t between the f o r c e s of s o c i e t y - -  the k i n d of theme t h a t was drama i n g e n e r a l .  so important  in classical  Japanese  What made the Soga s e k a i of no ever, was  the way  and  kowaka s p e c i a l , how-  i n which the c h a r a c t e r  of Goro was  In p l a y s l i k e Chobuku Soga and Wada sakamori, we first  steps toward the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  i n s t a t u r e and  the  As Goro i n -  s t r e n g t h through r e p e a t e d dramatiza-  t i o n s , the c o n t r a s t between him lished.  see  of Goro as a superman,  a god-hero, s y m b o l i c a l l y connected with Fudo. creased  treated.  and  Juro was  firmly  U n l i k e the aragoto Goro, Juro came to be  as a r a t h e r feminine type,  a character  estab-  depicted  e s p e c i a l l y s u i t e d to  a s o f t e r , wagoto s t y l e of kabuki. The  Soga Sekai  of K o - j o r u r i  K o - j o r u r i , or o l d j o r u r i , i s the term t h a t i s a p p l i e d to j o r u r i p r i o r to the p a r t n e r s h i p  of Chikamatsu Monzaemon  (1653-1724) and Takemoto Gidayu (1651-1714), and their 1685-  particularly  j o i n t work on the p l a y Shusse kagekiyo, performed i n Just as the term hanare -kyogen was  a f t e r the i d e a of tsuzuki-kyogen was j o r u r i was  used once the  moto Gidayu was  "new"  developed.  the v a r i o u s terms d e s c r i b e  no  do jib t  conceived  developed, the term  j o r u r i of Chikamatsu and  In cases of t h i s k i n d , trends  and  Take-  of course,  tendencies rather  c l e a r - c u t d i v i s i o n s that i r r e v o c a b l y d i v i d e one  ko-  than  group from  another. In h i s t o r i c a l terms, a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the Soga p l a y s —  —  —  of k o - j o r u r i f o l l o w s that of no and terms, however, the Soga s e k a i was any  further in ko-joruri.  the Soga s e k a i was  The  kowaka.  31  In  artistic  not a c t u a l l y developed  c o n t r i b u t i o n of k o - j o r u r i to  to b r i n g i t , i n many cases u s i n g kowaka  t e x t s , i n t o the Tokugawa p e r i o d .  Although kowaka f o r the  most part d e c l i n e d a r t i s t i c a l l y soon a f t e r the b e g i n n i n g of the Tokugawa p e r i o d , at the same time i t was being metamorphosed  i n t o the j o r u r i of t h a t  "reborn" by period.  At the same time as the popular e d i t i o n (rufu-bon) of the Soga monogatari was being p u b l i s h e d i n the e a r l y sevent e e n t h century, k o - j o r u r i Soga playbooks (shohon) were  also  32 being p r i n t e d .  The e a r l i e s t known examples o f these are  Ko-sode Soga, used by Satsuma Dayu ( o r Joun) (1595-1672), and thought to have been p r i n t e d some time b e f o r e 1650, and Wada sakamori, a l s o used by Satsuma Dayu, and dated the f i r s t month of 1664.  A c c o r d i n g to Takano Masami, these t e x t s are  almost e x a c t l y the same as the kowaka t e x t s of the same  33 names. Another k o - j o r u r i Soga p l a y i s O-Soga F u j i k a r i ,  per-  formed by Inoue Harima-nb-Jo (1632-85). and which i s a comp o s i t e of the kowaka Yo-uchi Soga and J u b a n - g i r i •  The  joruri  r e c i t e r U j i Kaga-no-Jo (1635-1711) a l s o performed Soga works, but u n t i l Chikamatsu began w r i t i n g f o r him, h i s Soga works are s a i d to be almost d u p l i c a t e s of those of Harima-no-Jo, although U j i Kaga-no-Jo d i d change the t i t l e s 34 he adopted as h i s own.  of the works  Takano concludes t h a t n e i t h e r  Harima-no-Jo nor Kaga-no-Jo progressed beyond the Soga works of kowaka.  They simply l i f t e d s e c t i o n s from the popular  edi-  t i o n of the Soga monogatari, which, i n any case, was probably c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the Soga p l a y s of kowaka. A f i n a l noteworthy f e a t u r e of the Soga s e k a i of k o - j o r u r i i s the e x i s t e n c e of a c y c l e of seven Soga works which are s a i d  to be among the best examples of k o - j o r u r i .  D  T h e i r dates  and a u t h o r s h i p are u n c l e a r , although Watsuji T e t s u r o makes the case t h a t t h e author i s Inoue Harima-no-Jo, which, i f so, would then make him the p r i n c i p a l  "author" o f Soga ko-  .. 36 joruri. Ichikawa Danjuro I and the R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Soga Goro i n Kabuki Ichikawa Danjuro I made Soga Goro i n t o a god-hero f o r the people of Edo. had b u i l t  To do t h i s he used the t r a d i t i o n t h a t  up behind Goro i n other dramatic forms and combined  i t w i t h a c t i n g techniques i n s p i r e d by Kimpira j o r u r i , a form of k o - j o r u r i which f l o u r i s h e d i n Edo i n the mid-seventeenth century.  Danjuro's achievement  may be summarized i n the  word a r a g o t o - - f o r he was t h e founder of that  "rough"  of kabuki, which not only made Edo kabuki d i s t i n c t i v e the wagoto, or " g e n t l e " s t y l e , of Kamigata  style from  kabuki, but a l s o  helped make kabuki as a whole a d i s t i n c t i v e form of world drama. Aragoto, which was i n l a r g e part based on and r e p r e s e n t e d — 37 by the Soga s e k a i , p a r t i c u l a r l y the c h a r a c t e r Soga Goro, ' was  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by "the exaggerated movement and bombastic  language a p p r o p r i a t e t o the superhuman prowess of w a r r i o r heroes"  such as Goro.  I n kabuki today the exaggerated  movement and b o m b a s t i c language s t i l l  s u r v i v e , but a u d i -  ences no l o n g e r r e a l l y b e l i e v e i n the superhuman prowess of w a r r i o r heroes, which once made f a n t a s t i c a c t i o n and s t y l e of speech necessary and a p p r o p r i a t e .  My purpose i n the r e -  mainder of t h i s chapter i s to complete  the p i c t u r e of Soga  Goro as god-hero of the n a t i o n by i n t e r p r e t i n g the Soga s e k a i i n terms of Japanese popular b e l i e f which, d u r i n g the Tokugawa p e r i o d , gave credence t o aragoto god-heroes. begin by l o o k i n g at what Danjuro  I will  gained from Kimpira  joruri.  I n t e r p r e t i n g the Soga S e k a i : The Aragoto Hero as God-hero Kimpira j o r u r i and Danjuro  I performed  aragoto  the r o l e of Soga Goro i n the p l a y  K a c h i d o k i homare Soga (1675) when he was old.  only s i x t e e n y e a r s  His stage c a r e e r , however, had a c t u a l l y begun two  e a r l i e r , when, a c c o r d i n g t o the Kabuki n e n d a i k i , he  years  performed  the r o l e of the legendary strongman and monster-slayer, —  39  Sakata no K i n t o k i , i n the p l a y Shitenno osanadachi. though the t e x t of the work does not s u r v i v e , t h i s mance i s commonly viewed  as the b e g i n n i n g of the  Alperfor-  aragoto  s t y l e of kabuki. As the t i t l e  i n d i c a t e s , Shitenno osanadachi was  the Shitenno s e k a i .  T h i s s e k a i p r o v i d e d the b a s i s and a  good d e a l of the m a t e r i a l f o r Kimpira j o r u r i , which brought  t o Edo from Kyoto by Sugiyama Shichirozaemon  unknown)', Satsuma Dayu, and other j o r u r i r e c i t e r s . j o r u r i was  p a r t of  was (dates Kimpira  g i v e n i t s d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s by Satsuma Dayu's  p u p i l Izumi Tayu (dates unknown), who  i n 1662  took the r a t h e r  imposing name S a k u r a i Tamba no Shojo T a i r a no Masanobu, and h i s son, Izumi Tayu I I .  In drama the Shitenno s e k a i can be t r a c e d to such no plays as Shut en D o j i and  Oeyama, which dramatize how  Minamoto  - 4l no Raiko, together  with the shitenno,  Sakata no K i n t o k i , Usui no  Watanabe no Tsuna,  Sadamitsu, and  Urabe no  Suetake,  along w i t h the w a r r i o r H i r a i Yasumasa, went to Mount where they subdued the monster Shuten D o j i .  Oe  U n t i l the Toku-  gawa p e r i o d the p o p u l a r i t y of the Shitenno s e k a i came c l o s e 42 to t h a t of the Soga and G i k e i k i sekai« Kimpira j o r u r i , u s i n g t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l framework, made the e x p l o i t s of Sakata no K i n t o k i ' s son, i t s featured innovations,  which i n time assumed the  t i o n s of a s e k a i i n i t s own was  brave^ and  less.  He was  s t r o n g , but portrayed  Kimpira, one  right.  i t was  as being  to the point of being short-tempered and  Kimpira  i n the way  i n houses  t o s s e d up i n the a i r , t r e e s being t o r n out by the  roots,  enemies having t h e i r heads and v a r i o u s limbs r i p p e d from  their-bodies. was  both i n  puppets  were made to enact great b a t t l e scenes c u l m i n a t i n g  and  reck-  inclined  a v i o l e n t type of dramatic p r e s e n t a t i o n ,  the rough s t y l e of j o r u r i d e l i v e r y and  being  propor-  L i k e K i n t o k i , Kimpira  to plunge i n t o s i t u a t i o n s w i t h h i s eyes c l o s e d . j o r u r i was  of  Danjuro, who  at the height  by what he saw  and  was  a youth when Kimpira  of i t s p o p u l a r i t y , was  reportedly  joruri influenced  l a t e r adapted some of i t s techniques t o  kabuki. When Danjuro appeared on stage f o r the f i r s t  time as  K i n t o k i , i t i s s a i d that h i s s t y l e of a c t i n g and make-up were 43 at l e a s t m part d e r i v e d from Kimpira j o r u r i . ^ He d i d a  88  Sakata no K i n t o k i subduing a tengu. I l l u s t r a t i o n by T o r i i K i y o nobu from Masters of the Japanese P r i n t ; Moronobu t o Utamaro.  f i g h t scene  (tachi-mawari) w i e l d i n g an ax i n one hand, and  p a i n t e d h i s whole "body r e d w i t h crimson and b l a c k l i n e s  de-  44 corating h i s face  --thereby b e g i n n i n g the s t y l e of make-up  that came t o be known as kumadori and which i s now  one of the  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s of aragoto. From the outset these techniques (and o t h e r s that were to f o l l o w ) appealed g r e a t l y to Edo audiences. was  powerful and shocking--and  Their  effect  j u s t what the r e s i d e n t s of  the samurai c i t y wanted to see.  Danjuro, however, needed  something more than what K i m p i r a j o r u r i p r o v i d e d i n order t o e s t a b l i s h the s t y l e that would determine the course of kabuki. What he needed was  found i n the Soga s e k a i , which,  as we  have a l r e a d y seen, had by the e a r l y Tokugawa p e r i o d g i v e n much m a t e r i a l t o other dramatic  forms.  Soga Goro as god-hero Soga Goro was  the aragoto hero par e x c e l l e n c e .  But the  d i s p l a y of p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h and the b o l d p r e s e n t a t i o n coming from Kimpira j o r u r i were not the most important elements i n the power he had when r e p r e s e n t e d on stage by Danjuro. power came from the b e l i e f audiences had that he was hero.  His  a god-  To understand t h i s , we must l o o k at the r o l e of the  hito-garni, "man  god,"  i n kabuki.  Y a n a g i t a Kunio f i r s t  suggested the importance  of a con-  n e c t i o n between hito-garni and kabuki when he s a i d that the name Goro, which i s used f o r s e v e r a l aragoto kabuki (such as Soga Goro and Kamakura Gongoro),  heroes  a c t u a l l y stands f o r  goryo.  . As d e f i n e d by H o r i I c h i r o , O r i g i n a l l y , the goryo were the malevolent s p i r i t s of noble persons who died i n p o l i t i c a l i n t r i g u e s . They were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i s a s t e r s , epidemics_, and wars. . . . O r i g i n a l l y , the b e l i e f i n goryo was a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by the Chinese i d e a t h a t i f the s p i r i t s of the dead d i d not have memorial s e r v i c e s performed by t h e i r descendants, they would becomes e v i l s p i r i t s or demons. . . . The b e l i e f i n goryo was a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by the Buddhist i d e a that every human b e i n g has Buddha nature w i t h i n him and thus has the p o s s i b i l i t y , of becoming a Buddha. L a t e r , the i d e a of goryo was g r a d u a l l y expanded through the r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n that even an o r d i n a r y person c o u l d become a goryo or g o r y o - s h i n (goryo d e i t y ) by h i s own w i l l power, ardent wish on the verge of death, or a c c i d e n t a l death under unusual circumstances. B e l i e f i n goryo . . . has . . . s u r v i v e d i n f o l k b e l i e f s , r i t u a l s , and customs as w e l l as i n f o l k a r t s , dancing, and music. Even the most r e f i n e d c l a s s i c a l dramas or p l a y s are_thought t o have o r i g i nated from the b e l i e f i n goryo or the hito-garni complex.46  The b e l i e f t h a t a person has the p o t e n t i a l to become a god or a c q u i r e g o d - l i k e power i s what u n d e r l i e s the concepts -  of goryo and hito-garni. were s t i l l  4 7  Knowledge of these b e l i e f s , which  important and i n f l u e n t i a l d u r i n g the Tokugawa  p e r i o d , has helped s c h o l a r s take a new  look at aragoto  and  4 8  its  heroes. The most'famous hito-garni or goryo i n h i s t o r y  Sugawara no Michizane  ( 8 4 5 - 9 0 3 ) ,  a nobleman who  was  d i e d i n ex-  i l e a f t e r being accused of p l o t t i n g a g a i n s t the emperor"." Some twenty years a f t e r he d i e d - - a p e r i o d i n which many d i s a s t e r s ' s t r u c k Kyoto that were s a i d to be due t o Sugawara's v e n g e f u l s p i r i t - - S u g a w a r a was Kyoto and worshipped was  enshrined at K i t a n o S h r i n e i n  as a god throughout the country.  presumed t h a t such worship would appease the angry  It spirit  Sugawara was  a nobleman, but samurai and commoners  could a l s o become superhuman beings.  Soga Goro i s perhaps  the most famous example of such a b e i n g without nobie l i n e a g e He and h i s brother-spent eighteen-years p l o t t i n g and c a r r y i n g out t h e i r revenge, Japanese  finally  o n l y to die. themselves.  In  -  b e l i e f , the great' s p i r i t they showed d u r i n g t h e i r  l i f e t i m e s and t h e i r untimely deaths combined t o make godheroes of them.' L i k e Sugawara, the Soga b r o t h e r s are worshipped at c e r t a i n s h r i n e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y at Hakone. The b e l i e f in- goryo r e q u i r e d t h a t the s p i r i t be peased through worship.  I t i s very i n t e r e s t i n g , however,  that worship of the s p i r i t s  of the departed d i d not  take the form of enshrinement, form of dramatic performances god-heroes.  ap-  just  but c o u l d a l s o take the based on the l i v e s of the  Dramatic performances  i n c l u d e the t e l l i n g of  o r a l t a l e s i n the Muromachi p e r i o d , which,  as we  have seen,  were l a r g e l y concerned w i t h the s t o r y of the Soga b r o t h e r s . Ruch has s a i d t h a t  "Muromachi v o c a l l i t e r a t u r e was  than entertainment or d i v e r s i o n ; i t was  a magico-religious  and p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c ceremony f o r a r t i s t Something s i m i l a r may period.  more  and  audience.  be said- of kabuki i n the Tokugawa  In the world of pre-modern Japan t e l l i n g  and performing dramas about  heroes were viewed  stories  both as  ways t o e n t e r t a i n audiences and at the same time as ways to worship those heroes and acknowledge t h e i r powers.  Dan-  juro -I-.brought t o g e t h e r both of - these -aspects on the kabukistage.  T h i s s p e c i a l way of viewing helps  dramatic c h a r a c t e r  also  i n understanding the nature of the p r i n c i p l e of s e k a i  and the c o n t i n u i t y i n Japanese c u l t u r e that u n d e r l i e s i t . In s h o r t , Soga Goro's s t o r y had t o he t o l d and at the same time because i t was t o l d i t began t o acquire a k i n d of momentum that would c a r r y i t through v a r i o u s  transformations  from o r a l n a r r a t i v e , t o no and kowaka, and on t o k o - j o r u r i (and  j o r u r i ) , and kabuki forms.  Soga Goro a c q u i r e d ness simply  I t might even be s a i d t h a t  importance and, by extension,  because h i s s t o r y was r e p e a t e d l y  god-like-  told.  It  thus became'so c e n t r a l to the c u l t u r e that i t formed part of what Ruch has c a l l e d the n a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e . I t was mentioned e a r l i e r that the f i r s t  entry i n the  Kabuki nempyo r e f e r s t o Okuni performing Soga p l a y s .  It  i s thought that Okuni began kabuki by doing nembutsu (a prayer t o Amida Buddha) songs and dances. out  H o r i has p o i n t e d  that: the p r a c t i c e of Nenbutsu . . . and the b e l i e f i n Amida-butsu t o whom Nenbutsu was o f f e r e d as a prayer appeared i n about the n i n t h century and f l o u r i s h e d i n the t e n t h and eleventh c e n t u r i e s ; ' they_were connected' with the r i s i n g b e l i e f i n goryo. Many magical Nenbutsu dances and dramas s t i l l exist i n rural villages. They have the f u n c t i o n of d r i v i n g o f f e v i l s p i r i t s of the dead . [ i n time] popular Nenbutsu b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s degenerated i n t o m a g i c o - a r t i s t i c entertainments and l o s t t h e i r r e l i g i o u s character.51  Even though the r e l i g i o u s c h a r a c t e r may have been j u s t as the a g r i c u l t u r a l connection  lost-  was l o s t i n the case of  the annual play c y c l e — s o m e entertainments d i d s t a r t as  "magic a g a i n s t the goryo. at  I t can he supposed  that  kahuki  l e a s t i n part had t h i s magical f u n c t i o n when Okuni per-  formed .' T h i s heing the case,' we can then understand why Okuni may have performed Soga p l a y s , even i f the f a c t t u a l l y he proven. nembutsu r i t u a l , for  cannot a c -  She'would have done them as part of a a l b e i t s e c u l a r i z e d and c a r r i e d out mainly  entertainment purposes.  But i s t h a t not how drama has  g e n e r a l l y s t a r t e d — w i t h the c a r r y i n g out of some r e l i g i o u s r i t u a l which i n time moved out of the realm of r e l i g i o n and i n t o t h e realm of "pure" drama? J u s t as goryo i s l i n k e d w i t h Goro ( a c c o r d i n g t o Yanag i t a ) , the word ara-hito-garni may be l i n k e d w i t h aragoto. Although the a r a i n both words i s u s u a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d as "violent,"  "angry," or simply "rough," t h e r e i s another  way t o read i t s meaning and t h a t i s i n the sense of " e x i s 53  tence" or "appearance."  •  .  .  .  D e s p i t e t h e seeming d i s p a r i t y  of these i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , I t h i n k i t i s very important that both be c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r . a being, namely the god-hero, pear b e f o r e us i n human form.  The l a t t e r t e l l s us t h a t  e x i s t s and that he can apThe i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s f o r  the drama i s t h a t t h i s b e i n g may be r e p r e s e n t e d by a human a c t o r on a stage.  The former then g i v e s us an i d e a of  the being's n a t u r e , which i s that' he i s s t r o n g and prone to v i o l e n t d i s p l a y s of s t r e n g t h . of that s t r e n g t h i s anger.  Of course, a great source  To a p p r e c i a t e how t h i s works,  i t must be remembered that s p e c i a l anger-producing circum-  stances were r e q u i r e d f o r f i g u r e s such as Sugawara no M i c h i zane and Soga Goro t o g a i n the s u p e r n a t u r a l powers that were b e l i e v e d t o be the source of c a l a m i t y i n the world df men. Thus, we have i n the aragoto hero a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a superhuman being--or god-hero--in human form.  In  h i s p o r t r a y a l s of Soga Goro, Kimpira, K i n t o k i , Kamakura G o n g o r o . a n d o t h e r s , Danjuro  I brought t h i s k i n d of b e i n g  to the kabuki stage.. The kumadori make-up and the poses were not a c c i d e n t a l developments. juro 's way  mie  They were Dan-  of g i v i n g ' h i m s e l f a f i e r c e and a w e - i n s p i r i n g  presence' l i k e t h a t of F,udo or l i k e the s t a t u e s t h a t Buddhist temples, whose a g g r e s s i v e stance and  guard  violent  e x p r e s s i o n s are o f t e n compared'to those of the aragoto hero. Danjuro's  c h a r a c t e r s may  have been f i c t i o n a l ,  but  h i s p o r t r a y a l s of them were r e a l and from the b e g i n n i n g • audiences responded  e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y t o them.  Having  first  seen the t e c h n i c a l p o s s i b i l i t y of b r i n g i n g "ara" c h a r a c t e r s to the stage i n Kimpira j o r u r i , Danjuro then brought them to the kabuki stage.  He d i d t h i s by means of the Soga  s e k a i and the popular b e l i e f s that l a y behind i t , c r e a t i n g the god-hero Goro who  thus  could'be c o n t i n u a l l y t r a n s 54  formed  and renewed by l a t e r g e n e r a t i o n s of Danjuro's.  The Our  Soga Sekai and the Annual Play C y c l e  d i s c u s s i o n of Danjuro's use  of the Soga s e k a i  must' take i n t o account the p l a c e of t h a t s e k a i i n the  an-  nual p l a y c y c l e . Records show t h a t Danjuro's f i r s t doki homare Soga, was of  1675•"^  Soga p l a y , K a c h i -  produced "beginning i n the f i f t h month  In f a c t , with one  e x c e p t i o n , ^ p l a y s which  f e a t u r e d Danjuro as Soga Goro began i n the f i f t h month of  the year.  for  the bon  Although  the t r a d i t i o n a l s t a r t i n g  date  p r o d u c t i o n p e r i o d came to be i n the middle of  the seventh month, i n the Genroku era—when Danjuro I was  a c t i v e — p r o d u c t i o n s beginning  i n the f i f t h month  were thought of as bon p r o d u c t i o n s .  T h i s i s shown by  an entry i n the Yakusha mannenreki, a c r i t i q u e in  1700,'  published  which says t h a t every year Soga p l a y s were per-  formed d u r i n g the bon  ( i . e . beginning  in-the  fifth  CO  month) p r o d u c t i o n p e r i o d . f o r e Danjuro I was  From about 1703  (a year  k i l l e d on stage by a f e l l o w a c t o r ) ,  Soga p l a y s began to be used f o r s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n s , i n 1709  a l l t h e a t r e s i n Edo  productions.  KQ  be-  and  f e a t u r e d Soga p l a y s as s p r i n g "  '  '  '  .  From t h a t time on s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n s i n  Edo were based on the Soga s e k a i . Why  Soga p l a y s were f i r s t  used f o r bon  and then used f o r s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n s clear. was  i s not  productions entirely  There i s no doubt, however, t h a t e i t h e r season  appropriate.  As the e n t r y i n the Yakusha mannenreki  a l s o s a i d , the purpose of Soga p l a y s was t o worship (matsuru)  the s o u l s of the dead b r o t h e r s .  0 0  I n Japan the two  s p e c i a l seasons of the y e a r f o r honoring departed are  New Year's ( i . e .  s p r i n g ) and bon.  spirits  P o r t r a y i n g the Soga  b r o t h e r s i n drama was one way of honoring them.  Moreover,  s i n c e the b r o t h e r s c a r r i e d out t h e i r revenge between t h e seasons of s p r i n g and bon, i t was l o g i c a l t o have p l a y s which concerned t h e revenge e i t h e r b e g i n or end at those times. at  Whether  first,  produced at t h e time of bon, as they were  or whether produced d u r i n g the s p r i n g , as they  came t o be, Soga p l a y s were a f i x e d part of the y e a r l y cycle . An Example  of Danjuro I's R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Soga Goroi Tsuwamono kongen Soga  For  s e v e r a l reasons, Tsuwamono kongen Soga p r o v i d e s a  good example First,  of Danjuro I's r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Soga Goro.  i t i s one of the major p l a y s i n which Danjuro I  p o r t r a y e d Soga Goro.  Second, i t s u r v i v e s as an e - i r i kyo-  gen-bon, an i l l u s t r a t e d playbook of the Genroku e r a ,  and  among the i l l u s t r a t i o n s are s e v e r a l e x c e l l e n t ones which show Danjuro as the a r c h e t y p a l aragoto Soga Goro.  Third,  an i n c i d e n t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t r e v e a l s t h e god-hero nature of  Danjuro's Soga Goro.  And f o u r t h , i t i s the p l a y i n  which Danjuro I I , who w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the next chapter,  made h i s stage debut.  Danjuro as Goro was  t r u l y an aragoto f i g u r e , as  i l l u s t r a t i o n oh the f o l l o w i n g page shows. p a r t of h i s kimono p u l l e d down and up.  it  freedom of movement.  has  the lower part  In terms of the a c t i o n t h a t was  allowed him  He  the  the  upper  tucked  taking place,  this  More important, however,  conveyed the sense of Goro's p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h hy  let-  t i n g the audience get a good view of the a c t o r ' s body. i s a l s o shown w i t h p r o t r u d i n g b a r i n g mouth, and forward.  eyes, a turned-down,  a stance w i t h one  He  tooth-  leg aggressively  A l l of these are unmistakable f e a t u r e s of  thrust the  aragoto hero. The  k i n d of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  i n the Soga s e k a i i s best  t h a t Danjuro c a r r i e d out  s e e n ' i n t h a t part of Tsuwamono  kongen Soga which t e l l s the same s t o r y as i n the no Soga.  A f t e r Goro has met  Chobuku  h i s enemy Kudo Suketsune f o r the  f i r s t time, h i s only thought i s to c a r r y out the revenge as soon as p o s s i b l e . wait.  But  the time i s not r i g h t and  he must  In the no the p r i e s t takes over at t h i s p o i n t  prays to Fudo on b e h a l f pearance of Fudo who  of Goro.  and  T h i s r e s u l t s i n the  ap-  assures everyone t h a t i n time Goro w i l l  be granted the s t r e n g t h to c a r r y out the deed.  In Tsuwamono  kongen Soga, however, Fudo's i n t e n t i o n s are more g r a p h i c a l l y shown. terities  Goro undergoes t h i r t y - s e v e n days of r e l i g i o u s aus(aragyo, l i t e r a l l y "rough a c t i o n ; " n o t i c e the  which i s the He  acquires  same as t h a t i n aragoto and f a n t a s t i c s t r e n g t h and,  ara  ara-hito-gami).  as the next f i g u r e i l -  l u s t r a t e s , as proof of t h i s he p u l l s out a l a r g e bamboo by i t s r o o t s .  (This famous scene i s c a l l e d Takenuki Soga,  the bamboo-pulling Soga.)  As i n the case of Chobuku Soga,  Fudo a l s o makes h i s appearance here (as shown i n the f i g u r e above).  What i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g i s that Danjuro's  son, Kuzo, who  l a t e r became Danjuro I I , played the r o l e of  ^2 Fudo.  The c l o s e t i e between Goro and Fudo was  thus  heightened by the u n d e r l y i n g f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p of Danjuro and h i s son. f e e t of the p l a y . was  'Undoubtedly, t h i s i n t e n s i f i e d the e f D  In f a c t , when Tsuwamono kongen Soga  being performed people f l o c k e d t o the t h e a t r e from  N a r i t a ( i n present-day Chiba P r e f e c t u r e ) w i t h money they 64 had c o l l e c t e d t o present t o Danjuro.  I t was as i f they  viewed Danjuro and h i s son themselves as god-heroes--as a c t u a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of Goro and Fudo.  Following t h i s  zealous d i s p l a y , the a c t o r s l e d a p r o c e s s i o n out t o S h i n s h o j i temple i n N a r i t a (where Fudo i s worshipped) and i n 6K  t u r n c o n t r i b u t e d money t h e r e .  I t i s s a i d that from that  time the Danjuro l i n e of a c t o r s began t o be r e f e r r e d t o as " N a r i t a - y a " (House of N a r i t a ) . ^ h i s immediate  L a t e r on Fudo l o s t  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Goro, but i n the b e g i n n i n g  at l e a s t , t h a t a s s o c i a t i o n helped b u i l d up the power of Goro as a god-hero of the n a t i o n .  * * * In the world of modern-day Japan i t i s perhaps hard to conceive that people once b e l i e v e d i n god-heroes.  It i s  100  even more d i f f i c u l t  t o go back i n t o h i s t o r y and d i s c o v e r  what a god-hero such as Soga Goro once symbolized.  As a  s o c i e t y changes i t s heroes change, and what I have t r i e d t o suggest i n t h i s chapter i s t h a t the s i g n i f i c a n c e of Soga Goro as p o r t r a y e d by Ichikawa Danjuro I must be understood both i n terms of accumulated dramatic  tradition  and contemporary popular b e l i e f - - i n s o f a r as i t sheds l i g h t on the meaning of t h a t t r a d i t i o n .  I t remains now t o show  how Soga Goro underwent f u r t h e r change, by becoming Sukeroku.  Chapter IV.  Sukeroku,  Flower of Edo: The T r a n s f o r m a t i o n of  Soga Goro i n t o  Sukeroku  Among the p l a y s that s u r v i v e i n the present-day r e p e r t o r y , Sukeroku  o f f e r s one of the' "best examples of kabuki  dramatic s t r u c t u r e at the peak of i t s development. s t a t e was  This  reached i n the e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h century when  Ichikawa Danjuro  I I .(1688-1758) combined a jidai-mono  and  a sewa-mono i n t o a s i n g l e work w i t h i n the framework of the annual p l a y c y c l e , thereby g i v i n g Edo kabuki a u n i f i e d structure.  In the case of Sukeroku  (a sewa-mono) t h i s  meant making i t part of a s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n Soga p l a y (a jidai-mono) through the technique of double  identity.  Chapter I I I began the d i s c u s s i o n of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of Sukeroku's double i d e n t i t y by showing that Soga Goro as p o r t r a y e d by Ichikawa Danjuro to the people of Edo. the symbolism  The  present chapter w i l l  of the c h a r a c t e r Sukeroku.  of Goro behind him, Sukeroku Danjuro two  I I was  I symbolized a god-hero examine  With the image  as p o r t r a y e d by  Ichikawa  p e r c e i v e d by Edo audiences as  idealizing  of the most c o l o r f u l townsman types of his- day: the  otokodate, or c h i v a l r o u s commoner, and the- f u d a s a s h i , or wealthy r i c e - b r o k e r .  As such, Sukeroku  was  the q u i n t e s s e n -  t i a l f i g u r e of Edo kabuki--the f l o w e r of Edo.  A Summary of Sukeroku  Sukeroku i s s e t i n f r o n t of the Miura-ya, Yoshiwara gay q u a r t e r s of Edo.  There Sukeroku  1 . i n the confronts  Ikyu when both a r r i v e e x p e c t i n g t o meet Agemaki, a grand courtesan of the q u a r t e r s .  Although Ikyu i s a powerful,  a l b e i t b l u s t e r y , samurai w i t h a r e t i n u e of u n d e r l i n g s to do h i s b i d d i n g , Agemaki i s enamoured of the townsman, Sukeroku.  In one of the most famous speeches of the p l a y ,  she says of the two men: s i d e by s i d e .  Here i s the one, a young s t a g , here i s  the other, an o l d crab. ink.  "Compare Sukeroku and Ikyu,  White and b l a c k , l i k e snow and  One the broad ocean, one a mire of mud;  one  deep,  one shallow, as the courtesan's beloved and the p r o s t i 2 tute's  customer."  The c o n f r o n t a t i o n between Sukeroku and Ikyu c o u l d be seen simply as the r i v a l r y of two men  from d i f f e r e n t  c l a s s e s of s o c i e t y over the a f f e c t i o n s of the same woman, were i t not f o r the r e v e l a t i o n that Sukeroku i s r e a l l y the samurai Soga Goro.  The p l a y , i n f a c t , i s not about  c l a s s r i v a l r y as much as i t i s about matters of i d e n t i t y and revenge.  Goro has come i n t o the gay q u a r t e r s i n the  i d e n t i t y of Sukeroku t o s e a r c h f o r the s t o l e n sword he must have t o c a r r y out the revenge. l o o k i n g f o r i s Tomokirimaru, which was tsune.  that  The sword he i s a g i f t from Y o s h i -  Goro's aim i s to provoke samurai p a s s i n g through  the q u a r t e r s to draw t h e i r weapons so t h a t he can check to see whether they have the one he i s l o o k i n g f o r .  As  Sukeroku he can do t h i s without r a i s i n g s u s p i c i o n about the revenge.  H i s c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h Ikyu, who  the Heike g e n e r a l Iga H e i n a i Zaemon and who proves to-have the sword, may it  start  i s actually  i n the end  out l o o k i n g as though  i s about matters of l o v e but i t i s r e a l l y about' matters  of revenge. Once Agemaki, her f r i e n d Shiratama, and the other courtesans of the Miura-ya, and Ikyu and h i s men i n t r o d u c e d , Sukeroku  have been  e n t e r s by performing h i s famous  dance on the hanamichi.  The chorus s i n g s i n accompaniment:  Hear the shamisen sounding b r i g h t Sugagakij Arousing our memories i n the gay q u a r t e r . . . Impregnated kimono c r e s t of F i v e Seasons; Symbol of year's w a i t i n g , steeped deeply i n l o v e . Do not hurry, do not rush; The world i s t r a n s i e n t , a wheel t h a t t u r n s ; Time passes by day by day as expected . . • You are charming! You are marvelous!3 Sukeroku's tesans.  coming had been e a g e r l y awaited by a l l the cour-  Each welcomes him by o f f e r i n g him a pipe t o smoke.  In c o n t r a s t , Ikyu, who  i s s i t t i n g nearby, r e c e i v e s n o t h i n g .  And when he p r o t e s t s , Sukeroku  i n s u l t s him by  "handing"  him a pipe stuck between the toes of h i s f o o t . The pipe scene i s f o l l o w e d by an amusing  scene i n -  v o l v i n g a noodle vendor, Sukeroku, Kampera Mombei (a samurai r e t a i n e r of I k y u ) , and Mombei's s e r v a n t , Asagao Sembei. When Mombei comes out of the Miura-ya drunk and out of s o r t s because no c o u r t e s a n came t o serve him i n the bath, a  noodle vendor a c c i d e n t a l l y bumps i n t o him. a c t s by p r e p a r i n g to s t r i k e him. of  samurai versus commoner.  Mombei r e -  I t i s a c l a s s i c case  Sukeroku, however, steps i n  on b e h a l f of the vendor and t e l l s Mombei to f o r g i v e  him.  Since Sukeroku t o a l l appearances i s not a samurai, he has no r i g h t to t e l l Mombei what t o do.  An  argument  then breaks out between them and ends when Sukeroku dumps a bowl of noodles on Mombei's head. for  Mombei i s shown  a f o o l when, t h i n k i n g t h a t the noodles are a c t u a l -  l y h i s b r a i n s , c r i e s out t h a t he has been m o r t a l l y wounded.  Once the s i t u a t i o n i s made c l e a r he orders h i s  gang to a t t a c k Sukeroku. to  Sukeroku, however, t u r n s out  be so imposing that they s l i n k away without t o u c h i n g  him.  Even when Sembei t r i e s t o a t t a c k Sukeroku, he i s  e a s i l y d r i v e n back. N e i t h e r Sembei nor Mombei can understand who roku i s . to  Suke-  In contrast' to the samurai s t y l e Mombei uses  i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f i n the heat of h i s c o n f r o n t a t i o n  with Sukeroku ("Taking the Kan of my name from Kan'u, the  Chinese g e n e r a l of the Three Kingdoms whose f l o w i n g  Cloud Beard reminds us of L o r d Ikyu, and the Mon  of my  name s i g n i f y i n g a t r e a s u r e d temple gate, I am the s a lt, murai Kampera Mombei, wealthy powerful Kampera Mombei!" ), Sukeroku takes h i s time b e f o r e he f i n a l l y  tells  i n h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c akutai ("insult") styles  everyone  No one but an ass s e t s f o o t i n Yoshiwara not knowing my name. So hear i t w e l l . A headband of p u r p l e , the p r i d e of Edo, dyed i n Edo, b i n d s my h a i r , the s t r a n d s of which as you l o o k through them frame a f a c e which, i f i t graced an ukiyoe(p r i n t , would make t h a t p i c t u r e famous i n Japan! Who does not know t h i s dragon i n the water, growing s t r o n g e r as h i s enemies i n c r e a s e ? From the carousers at the p l e a s u r e houses of the Golden Dragon Mountain to the grim image of the f e r o c i o u s god Fudo i n Meguro, a l l Edo's eight-hundred-and-eight d i s t r i c t s do not hide the man who does not know t h i s wearer of the c r e s t of peonies, t h i s d w e l l e r among the c h e r r y blossoms of Yoshiwara, t h i s y o u t h f u l Sukeroku, Agemaki's Sukeroku! Scum! Bow b e f o r e t h i s f a c e ! Worship i t ! -5 Sukeroku i s the man best weapon.  of Edo par e x c e l l e n c e .  Words are h i s  He has manipulated Sembei and Mombei by h i s  a c t i o n s and extravagant i n t r o d u c t i o n of h i m s e l f .  Fright-  ened, they do e x a c t l y as Sukeroku wanted them t o do. draw t h e i r swords, which he has a chance to i n s p e c t  They be-  f o r e c h a s i n g them away. Sukeroku's i d e n t i t y as Soga Goro i s c l e a r l y r e v e a l e d to the audience i n a scene w i t h h i s b r o t h e r , Juro, a l s o has another i d e n t i t y - - t h a t Shimbei.  who  of the sake p e d d l e r ,  In the effeminate and u n - s a m u r a i - l i k e Shimbei,  we see a parody of the wagoto Juro.  Shimbei u p b r a i d s Suke-  roku: Every day mother and I heard s t o r i e s of your f i g h t i n g i n Yoshiwara . . . The day the crow's don't caw i s the day Sukeroku doesn't f i g h t i n Yoshiwara, they say. She c o u l d not b e l i e v e _ t h i s w a s t r e l c a l l e d Sukeroku was her son, Goro. So she sent me t o the q u a r t e r to see. . . . For e i g h t e e n years we have waited to avenge f a t h e r ' s murder at Hakone Mountain, but now t h a t the time has  come, you d i s g r a c e y o u r s e l f w i t h q u a r r e l i n g and debauchery. Honor your parents i s the f i r s t precept of m o r a l i t y , honor your e l d e r b r o t h e r i s the second. You esteem n e i t h e r . The bond between us i s , b r o k e n . You are no l o n g e r my b r o t h e r Goro. But Sukeroku r e p l i e s t h a t he only f i g h t s out of h i s f i l i a l duty, f o r t h e purpose of f i n d i n g the s t o l e n sword. bei  (Juro) i s convinced  his  search. The  Shim-  and decides' t o j o i n h i s b r o t h e r i n  p l a y continues with two comic scenes i n which  the b r o t h e r s encounter f i r s t a gay q u a r t e r s dandy.  two country samurai and then  Both t h e samurai bumpkins and the  dandy l e t Sukeroku and Shimbei get the best of them--the former because they a r e ignorant i n the ways of the c i t y and the l a t t e r because he i s o v e r l y c l e v e r and e f f e t e . A more s e r i o u s chord i s then s t r u c k when the b r o t h e r s ' are d i s c o v e r e d by t h e i r mother, who has come i n t o the Yoshiwara d i s g u i s e d as a samurai.  T h i n k i n g t h a t both o f  her sons a r e now engaged i n q u e s t i o n a b l e behavior  i n the  gay q u a r t e r s , she admonishes them: " V i r t u o u s sons would be t a k i n g vengeance on t h e i r f a t h e r ' s s l a y e r .  My sons  7  take a l i a s e s and brawl i n p u b l i c places.V f i n a l l y appeased when she hears t h e i r The and Ikyu.  p l a y ends w i t h a l a s t  The mother i s  explanation.  encounter between Sukeroku  Ikyu, who has somehow d i s c o v e r e d t h a t Sukeroku  i s Soga Goro, draws his'sword  i n a moment of emotion, and  Sukeroku sees that he has Tomokirimaru.  Ikyu swears t h a t  he w i l l never part w i t h the sword.  (As a Heike g e n e r a l  he plans t o use the sword t h a t once belonged t o Minamoto no Yoshitsune  t o d e s t r o y the Minamoto c l a n . )  He a t t a c k s  Sukeroku, who k i l l s him and takes p o s s e s s i o n of the sword. The  p l a y c l o s e s with Sukeroku and Agemaki w a i t i n g f o r  n i g h t f a l l i n order t o escape from the Yoshiwara and t o go on t o f i n d the b r o t h e r s enemy, Suketsune. 1  In terms of p l o t very l i t t l e happens i n Sukeroku. But the p o i n t of the p l a y i s not i n a c t i o n . the r e v e l a t i o n of c h a r a c t e r i d e n t i t y .  It i s i n  Only when the p l a y  i s c o n s i d e r e d i n i t s proper • c o n t e x t — t h a t  i s , w i t h i n the  Soga s e k a i — i s the f u l l meaning of the v a r i o u s made c l e a r .  identities  The O r i g i n s of the Sukeroku I n n o v a t i o n  When Sukeroku was performed f o r the f i r s t time'"by Ichikawa Danjuro I I i n 1713» t h e p l a y was new t o t h e Edo kabuki stage, thus- f u l f i l l i n g an i n n o v a t i o n . new.  a primary requirement o f  However, the p l a y was not completely  P r e v i o u s l y , t h e s t o r y of Sukeroku and Agemaki had  been an e s t a b l i s h e d theme of Kamigata kabuki and, e s p e c i a l g ly,  joruri.  I n c r e a t i n g h i s own Sukeroku,  Danjuro're-  moved the l o v e s u i c i d e element, and put the focus i n s t e a d on Sukeroku as a pure Edo c h a r a c t e r . The importance of the Kamigata o r i g i n s o f Sukeroku is threefold.  F i r s t , they r e a f f i r m a point about the  c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s e s of Japanese dramatic a r t s t h a t was made e a r l i e r i n t h i s t h e s i s : t h a t what i s "new" i n one art  form may be based on themes and c h a r a c t e r s t h a t are  a l r e a d y known i n another a r t form.  Second, they are  reminders that i n the e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h century the Kamigata area was s t i l l  the c e n t e r o f Japanese c u l t u r e , but  j u s t as Sukeroku s h i f t e d t o Edo, so was the c e n t e r o f c u l t u r e moving t h e r e - a s w e l l .  And t h i r d , they show t h e  d i v e r g e n t i n t e r e s t of Kamigata and Edo audiences: whereas the former wanted t h e i r Sukeroku t o be a t r a g i c the  lover,  l a t t e r wanted t h e i r s t o be a triumphant hero. The s t o r y of Sukeroku and Agemaki began t o be drama-  t i z e d i n the Kamigata a r e a as e a r l y as I 6 7 8 i n the p l a y  Yorozuya Sukeroku s h i n j u , t h i r t y - f i v e years b e f o r e the — —  first  9  p r o d u c t i o n of Sukeroku i n Edo by Danjuro I I .  Yorozuya Sukeroku s h i n j u was f o l l o w e d by a number o f other works,  i n c l u d i n g Kyo Sukeroku s h i n j u ( 1 7 0 7 ) , Semi 1  Q  no nukegara ( 1 7 0 7 ) , and S e n n i c h i - d e r a s h i n j u ( 1 7 0 9 ) • How Danjuro I I became a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the Kamigata Sukeroku i s a q u e s t i o n t h a t i s s t i l l  b e i n g debated.  Most s c h o l a r s b e l i e v e , however, t h a t the j o r u r i  reciter  Miyako I t c h u journeyed from t h e Kamigata a r e a t o Edo i n 1712  and performed one or more of the works mentioned  above, which Danjuro I I heard and then had made i n t o a 11  work f o r h i m s e l f . Mention should a l s o be made o f a t h e o r y t h a t t h e r e was a c t u a l l y someone named Sukeroku l i v i n g i n Edo, who — — 12 was t h e model f o r Danjuro.  S t o r i e s about a r e a l  Sukeroku,  however, sound more l i k e v e r s i o n s of l a t e r kabuki p l a y s than a c t u a l h i s t o r i c a l accounts.  Ichikawa Danjuro I I and the I n t r o d u c t i o n of the Sukeroku Innovation  to Edo  Kahuki  In h i s l i f e t i m e Danjuro I I performed the r o l e of Sukeroku t h r e e times.  The  f i r s t was  p l a y Haha-yakata Aigo-zakura. S h i k i r e i yawaragi Soga.  And  i n 1713.  The  as p a r t of the  second was  the t h i r d was  i n 1716  i n 17^9>  in as  13 part of Otoko-moji Soga monogatari. ^ roku Danjuro was  twenty-five;  For h i s f i r s t  Suke-  for his last--his so-called  i c h i d a i i s s e i performance--he was  sixty-one.  In s t u d y i n g the three p r o d u c t i o n s  which c o n s t i t u t e  Danjuro I I ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Sukeroku i n n o v a t i o n Edo  kahuki,  one  to  i s a l s o f o l l o w i n g the development of Dan-  juro I I ' s c a r e e r , as he grew from a young man  who  begun to show h i s p o t e n t i a l to a f u l l y mature man top of h i s p r o f e s s i o n .  What makes these t h r e e  had at  just the  productions  even more s i g n i f c a n t i s t h a t they a l s o p a r a l l e l the  de-  velopment of what came to be thought of as the c h a r a c t e r i s tic  c u l t u r e of Edo--that i s , the c u l t u r e of the s o - c a l l e d  Edokko, or " c h i l d of The not (for  Edo."  word Edokko was  an e x p r e s s i o n  of p r i d e .  It  was  only p r i d e i n growing up and l i v i n g i n the c i t y of  Edo  r e g a r d l e s s of place of b i r t h only the townsman-commoner,  the chonin,  c o u l d be an Edokko), but  t a i n manner and sented  s t y l e of l i v i n g .  by Danjuro I I m  also pride i n a cer-  Such p r i d e was  repre14 h i s p o r t r a y a l s of Sukeroku.  Danjuro I I ' s F i r s t Sukeroku: Before  the Soga Connection  Records show t h a t Danjuro I I f i r s t i n the t h i r d month of 1713  performed Sukeroku  at the Yamamura-za.  time he wore a kimono of h l a c k pongee and reddish-yellow  cotton.  He  showed h i s samurai nature c a r r y two  a headband of  a l s o c a r r i e d a l o n g sword, which s i n c e samurai were p e r m i t t e d  swords, a l o n g and  a short one,  could only c a r r y a short one.  The  s e t t i n g was  r o o f - t o p f i g h t scene between Sukeroku and men,  .  .  w i t h Ikyu g e t t i n g k i l l e d The  to  while townsmen  Yoshiwara gay q u a r t e r s and the a c t i o n focussed  —  At t h a t  i n the on a great  Ikyu and  his  15  m ' t h e end.  c l e a r e s t image of t h i s f i r s t  ^  Sukeroku comes from  an e x c e l l e n t i l l u s t r a t i o n t h a t i s found i n Sukeroku kyogen1  ko by Santo Kyoden (1761-1816).  Kyoden a t t r i b u t e s the  p i c t u r e to the a r t i s t Kondo Sukegoro Kiyoharu eighteenth  c e n t u r y ) , and the only reason  because Kyoden i n c l u d e d i t i n h i s own  ( f l . early  i t survives i s  work.  Sukeroku  has  his.kimono top p u l l e d down, l e a v i n g the upper part of h i s body bare. t h r u s t out. hero.  His muscles are b u l g i n g and h i s l e g s are The  of the  aragoto  T h i s Sukeroku seems somewhat out of p l a c e i n the  gay- q u a r t e r s ; we him  pose i s unmistakably one  can see the s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y between  and Soga Goro i n Tsuwamono kongen Soga. Sukeroku, however, was  not  a " t o t a l l y aragoto  figure.  An entry i n the Yakusha i r o k e i z u , a c r i t i q u e p u b l i s h e d i n  L. to r . , Hige no Ikyu, Kantera Mombei, K e i s e i Kisegawa, Agemaki, S a k e - u r i Shimbei, Otokodate Sukeroku, two o n l o o k e r s , and a_gay q u a r t e r s ' v i s i t o r who i s f i g h t i n g w i t h Sukeroku. I l l u s t r a t i o n from Sukeroku kyogen-ko.  the second month of 1714, says t h a t he was an aragoto s a t t e 17 nuregoto g a k a r i otokodate.  T h i s means t h a t the aragoto  s t y l e , which normally c h a r a c t e r i z e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of otokodate, was dispensed w i t h and Sukeroku was i n s t e a d an otokodate i n the nuregoto s t y l e .  Nuregoto, which i s r e -  l a t e d t o , but not the same as, the wagoto, or " g e n t l e " style,  of kabuki, i s an e r o t i c type of  s o c i a t e d w i t h l o v e r s , not heroes. to be represented  presentation—as-  In time Sukeroku came  as a p h y s i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e  as w e l l as an a w e - i n s p i r i n g  one.  character  T h i s was the r e s u l t of  refinements made by Danjuro I I i n h i s f a t h e r ' s aragoto art.  I t i s important t o r e a l i z e , however, t h a t from the  b e g i n n i n g the s t y l e  of p r o d u c t i o n  ( i f we use the i l l u s t r a -  t i o n as evidence) was very much i n the h e r o i c and  despite  outward changes t h a t s t y l e always remained  a significant coincidence  tradition  part of the play.  S u r e l y i t i s not a  t h a t Soga Goro, the f i r s t  Sukeroku, and Dan-  j u r o ' s l a t e r Sukeroku's are a l l shown i n e x a c t l y the same way--with one l e g t h r u s t forward, a t t a c k i n g the enemy or appearing ready t o a t t a c k , p r e s s i o n on the f a c e . ly  present The  and w i t h a determined ex-  The god-hero nature i s c o n s i s t e n t -  i n a l l of these d e p i c t i o n s .  s i m i l a r i t y between Soga Goro and the f i r s t  Suke-  roku has been suggested, but Sukeroku was not y e t p a r t of the Soga s e k a i .  As the t i t l e Hana-yakata Aigo-zakura i n -  d i c a t e s , the p l a y was based on the Aigo s e k a i .  Although  we  know the Aigo s e k a i t r e a t e d of themes of f e u d a l  r i v a l r y , there therefore  i s no  extant  p l a y which uses t h i s s e k a i  i t i s very d i f f i c u l t  e i t h e r the p l a y or how Despite  to know anything  the s e k a i was  t h i s d i f f i c u l t y , we  f i r s t made p a r t of a p l a y not since records  family and  about  used.  can ask why  Sukeroku  was  i n the Soga s e k a i - - e s p e c i a l l y  show t h a t the p l a y was  performed i n the  t h i r d month of the year and  should  t h e r e f o r e be  to be part of the t h e a t r e ' s  s p r i n g production,  expected which  was  u s u a l l y i n the Soga s e k a i . There are two pointed  ways to answer t h i s .  First,  as  was  out above, the Yamamura-za d i d not have a proper  spring production  i n 1713-  I t s kao-mise p r o d u c t i o n  s t a r t e d i n the f i r s t month of the new late--and  i t was  l a t e r , according  not  year--two months  u n t i l the t h i r d month (or p o s s i b l y  to some accounts) that the s p r i n g produc-  t i o n a c t u a l l y began. time was  had  Second, kabuki s t r u c t u r e at t h a t  j u s t emerging from i t s formative  p e r i o d and a l -  though t h e a t r e managers were g e n e r a l l y i n c l i n e d to produce Soga p l a y s i n the  s p r i n g , exceptions  c o u l d be made.  A l s o , plays based on the Aigo s e k a i seem to have been popular j u s t at that time; i n the f o l l o w i n g year, i  Danjuro again Despite  d i d an Aigo p l a y at the  identity.  Morita-za.  the l a c k of a Soga connection  s t r u c t u r e of the p l a y was  1714, g  i n 1713,  such t h a t Sukeroku had  Sukeroku's other i d e n t i t y was  the  a double  t h a t of the  samurai  D a i d o j i Tahatanosuke, and S h i r a z a k e - u r i Shimbei (who was l a t e r Juro) was a samurai named A r a k i Saemon. Aside from Sukeroku and Shimhei, who were t o continue as  major c h a r a c t e r s i n l a t e r Sukeroku p l a y s , the other  c h a r a c t e r s who a l s o appeared i n t h i s f i r s t Agemaki,  Ikyu, Sukeroku- s mother 1  Sukeroku were:  (sometimes known as Manko) ,  Sembei, K e i s e i Kisegawa (the c o u r t e s a n Kisegawa, who l a t e r became Shiratama), and Kantera Mombei ( l a t e r , Kampera Mombei) . The importance of t h i s f i r s t  Sukeroku i s that i t  brought the Sukeroku i n n o v a t i o n t o the Edo kabuki stage and e s t a b l i s h e d the s e t t i n g and g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r cons t e l l a t i o n f o r a l l l a t e r Sukeroku p l a y s .  Moreover, i n  terms of dramatic s t r u c t u r e , i t was one of the p i o n e e r i n g p l a y s i n which the j i d a i and sewa. s e c t i o n s of a l o n g p l a y were l i n k e d together, as i s evidenced by Sukeroku's double i d e n t i t y as otokodate and samurai. In the now.  costume, a c t i n g s t y l e , and, no doubt, contents,  first  Sukeroku was very;; d i f f e r e n t from -the way i t i s  What i s important about i t , however, i s t h a t i t  passed the c r u c i a l t e s t of i t s f i r s t did  production.  If i t  not have p o t e n t i a l as a good p l a y , i t would never have  been heard of again.  i n s t e a d , i t was taken out of the Aigo  s e k a i and made part of a Soga p l a y .  Danjuro I I ' s Second Sukeroku: The  Soga  Connection  Danjuro I I performed Sukeroku f o r the second time i n the second month of 1716 agree t h a t t h i s was of  at the Nakamura-za.  the t u r n i n g p o i n t i n the  Scholars production  the p l a y and that many elements of the s t a g i n g and  tumes that are s t i l l  cos-  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Sukeroku, i n c l u d i n g  the connection with the Soga s e k a i , were formulated  at  19 t h i s time.  '  T h i s second Sukeroku a l s o helped  preserve  an event which happened i n Edo:  c h e r r y t r e e s were p l a n t e d  in  They were immediately  the Yoshiwara gay q u a r t e r s .  made  part of the s e t t i n g of the p l a y , and not only i r r e v o c a b l y f i x e d the seasonal a s s o c i a t i o n of Sukeroku but they a l s o underscored  the i n t i m a t e connection between kabuki i n 20 g e n e r a l and the gay q u a r t e r s . In t h i s second Sukeroku Danjuro used the snake's eye 21 umbrella t h a t i s now  one  of Sukeroku's trademarks.  a l s o had a shakuhachi (bamboo f l u t e ) tucked of  h i s obi,._which  is s t i l l  used.  He  i n t o the back  Other changes t h a t  be-  came, standard f o r Sukeroku are the purple headband, which r e p l a c e d the r e d d i s h - y e l l o w one  of the f i r s t  production,  and the b l a c k , s h o r t - s l e e v e d kimono, which r e p l a c e d the 22 one made of black., pongee. costume, Sukeroku was  becoming e l e g a n t .  The most symbolic p r o d u c t i o n was  A t t i r e d i n a more l a v i s h  change i n costume f o r the second  the r e p o r t e d replacement of the l o n g samurai  sword with a short one,  the only sword a commoner c o u l d  carry.  J  There i s a l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n  f o r t h i s change.  When Sukeroku became Soga Goro, as he d i d i n t h i s product i o n , h i s reason f o r coming i n t o the gay quarters and f i g h t i n g w i t h others t h e r e was t h a t he was  searching  f o r the sword that he needed t o c a r r y out the revenge. The  sword he was l o o k i n g f o r was, of course, a l o n g  sword, and i t was n a t u r a l then t h a t he be c a r r y i n g  samurai only  a short one. There i s , however, another p o s s i b l e reason f o r h i s having only a short sword--that i t was part of the process of s o f t e n i n g Sukeroku, of making him l e s s l i k e the warrior  he appeared t o be i n t h e f i r s t  an o b s e r v a t i o n  production.  r e q u i r e s some mention of the d i f f e r e n c e  i n the aragoto a r t ( p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t presentation  Such  t o the r e -  of Soga Goro) of Danjuro I and Danjuro I I .  Danjuro I I had made h i s stage debut i n the p l a y Tsuwamono kongen Soga. juro I played  In that work, as we have seen, Dan-  a s t r o n g l y aragoto Soga Goro.  Goro was a l s o  a r o l e t h a t Danjuro I I made famous; i n f a c t , i t was the p r i n c i p a l r o l e of h i s a c t i n g c a r e e r .  Danjuro I I d i d a l -  most f o r t y Soga p l a y s i n h i s l i f e t i m e and many had e x t r a 24 o r d i n a r i l y l o n g performance runs. The  Goro that Danjuro I I made famous was not,  the same Goro that h i s f a t h e r had done.  however,  Danjuro I I began  w i t h h i s f a t h e r ' s aragoto s t y l e and reworked i t w i t h  ele-  ments of t h e wagoto s t y l e t h a t Sakata T o j u r o had developed  so s u c c e s s f u l l y i n the Kamigata a r e a .  Beginning  in  (two y e a r s b e f o r e t h e f i r s t S u k e r o k u ) , i n the p l a y  1711 Yunzei  y o m e - i r i Soga, i n s t e a d of the r e d - f a c e d Goro of Danjuro I , 25 he used w h i t e make-up w i t h r e d l i n e s around the eyes. T h i s s i g n i f i e d a new  approach t o the r o l e .  Whereas Soga  Goro had been t o t a l l y f i e r c e and a w e - i n s p i r i n g , w i t h Danj u r o I I he began t o a c q u i r e a s o f t e r , more sensuous n a t u r e . From t h i s b e g i n n i n g , Danjuro I I t o o k t h e i d e a t o i t s f u l l e s t e x t e n t f i v e y e a r s l a t e r i n the y a w a r a g i Soga, or " g e n t l e " Soga, of t h e p l a y S h i k i r e i y a w a r a g i Soga which c o n t a i n e d the second Sukeroku.  A l t h o u g h we  f r u s t r a t e d i n our attempt t o know the f u l l  details  p l a y because of the l a c k of a t e x t , contemporary s e r v e r s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s p l a y was  a complete  (1716), are  of the ob-  departure  from Danjuro I's Soga p l a y s (even the t i t l e , w i t h t h e 26 of the word " g e n t l e , " i n d i c a t e s as much).  again  A great  use deal  of the importance of t h i s p l a y , of c o u r s e , can be accounted f o r by the f a c t t h a t i t was r o k u i n n o v a t i o n was I n 1716 does now,  t h e f i r s t t i m e t h a t the Suke-  j o i n e d t o a Soga p l a y .  the main p o r t i o n o f ' S u k e r o k u opened, as i t  w i t h Sukeroku's dance-entrance on the h a n a m i c h i .  I n t h a t y e a r , i t was  done t o t h e accompaniment of Edo  dayu B u s h i , a l t h o u g h  o t h e r forms of j o r u r i , e s p e c i a l l y Kato  B u s h i , were l a t e r used. i n the 1713  The  Han-  c h a r a c t e r s t h a t were i n t r o d u c e  p r o d u c t i o n are a l s o i n the 1716  production,  though i n s t e a d of b e i n g i d e n t i f i e d as a sake s e l l e r , Shimbe  "became an o i l s e l l e r (Abura-uri Shimbei) .  More important,  though, i s t h a t Shimbei became i d e n t i f i e d as Soga Juro, b r o t h e r of Sukeroku/Goro. —  Moreover, Agemaki here  —  was  —  2'  s a i d t o be T o r a no Shosho (Goro's l o v e r i n the Soga s e k a i ) . Agemaki's double i d e n t i t y  d i d not l a s t , however.  The s i g n i f i c a n c e of Danjuro I I ' s second Sukeroku i s the use of the Sukeroku i n n o v a t i o n i n a Soga p l a y and the  s o f t e r approach t o both Sukeroku and.the Soga s e k a i  i n general.  Both of these a s p e c t s were c o n t i n u e d i n  Danjuro I I ' s t h i r d and l a s t  Sukeroku.  Danjuro I I ' s T h i r d Whereas the f i r s t  Sukeroku  and second times t h a t Danjuro I I  d i d Sukeroku were the f i r s t  and second times i t had ever .  been done, by the t h i r d time, t h r e e other-factors had t a ken the l e a d i n g r o l e . the  A l l of the a c t o r s performed at  Ichimura-za, where Danjuro had not done Sukeroku.  The f i r s t  was  Ichimura Takenojo  (dates u n c l e a r ) , who  ap-  peared as Sukeroku i n the t h i r d month of 1733 i n the p l a y 2g Hanafusa bunshin Soga, the second was Ichikawa Danjuro I I I who  performed Sukeroku i n the t h i r d month of 1739  i n the  29 p l a y Hatsumotoyui k a y o i Soga, Kikugoro I  (1717-83),  month of 17^-6  who  and the t h i r d was Onoe  p o r t r a y e d Sukeroku i n the t h i r d  i n the p l a y Kikeba mukashi  Soga monogatari.  With each p r o d u c t i o n , the p l a y became more developed and e s t a b l i s h e d , paving the way come the Sukeroku  sekai.  f o r the Sukeroku shuko t o be-  1  The t i t l e  of the p l a y i n which Danjuro I I performed  h i s t h i r d and f i n a l Sukeroku was  Otoko-moji Soga monoga-  t a r i , performed i n the t h i r d month of 17^-9 at the Nakamura-za.  I t seems f a i r l y c e r t a i n t h a t the p l a y w r i g h t  i n t h i s case was Fujimoto Tobun, and indeed, Kawatake S h i g e t o s h i c a l l s the p l a y one of Tobun's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e 31 works. Judging by the i l l u s t r a t i o n of .Sukeroku•that s u r v i v e s from t h i s p r o d u c t i o n , and by what has been w r i t t e n about i t , Danjuro I I ' s t h i r d Sukeroku was an "up-to-date" Sukeroku, one who  ima no  Sukeroku-  had changed w i t h the  32 times.  One major source of change was the c l o s e asso-  ciation  i n the mid-eighteenth century between Danjuro I I  (who was  at the height of h i s c a r e e r ) and the wealthy  Edo r i c e brokers (who were f l o u r i s h i n g Not only i s Sukeroku s a i d  to be modeled  at t h a t t i m e ) . on Oguchiya Gyou,  a r i c e broker, but a change i n the t h i r d p r o d u c t i o n the  was  use of Kato Bushi to p r o v i d e the j o r u r i accompaniment  f o r Sukeroku's entrance.  Kato Bushi were drawn from the  ranks of the wealthy merchants who of kabuki.  were the main patrons  When Danjuro performs Sukeroku today, des-  cendants of these Kato Bushi musicians p r o v i d e the accompaniment .  122  Ichikawa Danjuro I I as Sukeroku, t h i r d month 17^-9 • t i o n by Okumura Masanobu.  Illustra-  Sukeroku: Flower of Edo As the "flower of Edo," Sukeroku was  an Edo townsman  33 m  h i s most i d e a l i z e d form. ^  In the context of t r a d i t i o n -  a l Japanese c u l t u r e , f l o w e r i s a very e v o c a t i v e  image.  While i t c e r t a i n l y denotes n a t u r a l beauty--as expressed i n the youth and p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of Sukeroku-i t means much more.  Most obvious i s the image of the  c h e r r y blossom, the Japanese f l o w e r of f l o w e r s , which not  only r e p r e s e n t e d the season of s p r i n g when Sukeroku 34  was  performed,  but m  the Tokugawa p e r i o d was a l s o the  s i n g l e , g e n e r a l symbol f o r the world of the t h e a t r e s and gay q u a r t e r s . or  These comprised the s o - c a l l e d u k i y o ,  f l o a t i n g world, and were p e r f e c t l y brought t o g e t h e r  i n Sukeroku.  Not q u i t e so obvious, however, are the  f l o w e r s , which, m a n i f e s t e d i n Sukeroku, r e p r e s e n t e d (1) the s p i r i t  of r e s i s t a n c e of the Edo townsman--  what I c a l l Sukeroku as otokodate, and (2) the Edo man's attainment by v i r t u e of wealth, of the most  townsinflu-  e n t i a l p o s i t i o n i n the c u l t u r a l order of Tokugawa Japan-what I c a l l Sukeroku as f u d a s a s h i . Sukeroku as Otokodate: The S p i r i t J  of R e s i s t a n c e  In Edo a r t and l i t e r a t u r e the otokodate- was p i o n of the people, a hero, one who,  a cham-  as the c h a r a c t e r s f o r  otoko and date s i g n i f y , evoked the model image of a  man.  He was a Robinhood f i g u r e who helped defend the weak a g a i n s t the s t r o n g .  He was a,man of honor, c h i v a l r o u s ,  dedicated--  37 and he had s t y l e .  He was Sukeroku.  The r e a l - l i f e counterpart of the otokodate was the machi-yakko.  Machi-yakko were groups of commoners who  banded t o g e t h e r i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the samurai (bannerman  " f e l l o w s " ) i n the c i t y of Edo.  hatamoto-yakko  While c l a s h e s  between machi-yakko and hatamoto-yakko may at times have had overtones o f c l a s s c o n f l i c t , many o f the machi-yakko O Q  were o r i g i n a l l y low-ranking samurai.  U n l i k e those hata-  moto i n the s e r v i c e of the shogun, however, these samurai found jobs as shopkeepers, a r t i s a n s , and other types of businessmen i n the r a p i d l y d e v e l o p i n g commercial s e c t o r of the c i t y .  The hatamoto, who s u r v i v e d on handouts  i n the form of r i c e s t i p e n d s from the shogun, were underp a i d , underworked  (there were no wars i n which they c o u l d  e x e r c i s e t h e i r samurai s k i l l s ) and, as a r e s u l t , they formed t h e i r yakko groups which went l o o k i n g f o r t r o u b l e i n the busy s t r e e t s of the c i t y . We must be very c a r e f u l ,  of course, about t r y i n g t o  i n f e r the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the f i c t i o n a l otokodate from the h i s t o r i c a l evidence c o n c e r n i n g the machi-yakko.  Such  an attempt may l e a d t o the f o l l o w i n g type of c o n c l u s i o n : For what reason i t i s not q u i t e c l e a r , the [machi-] yakko are c r e d i t e d i n romantic l i t e r a t u r e w i t h r e markable v i r t u e s . They are d e p i c t e d as p a t t e r n s of c h i v a l r y , and s t y l e d Otokodate. . . . I t i s t r u e t h a t some of the bands of [machi-]yakko were governed by severe codes of l o y a l t y among them-  s e l v e s , and no doubt from time t o time they performed q u i x o t i c a c t s ; but . . . they seem t o have been d i s o r d e r l y rogues and to owe t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n c h i e f l y t o the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y stage p l a y s i n which they f i g u r e as heroes. I t i s indeed a c u r i o u s f a c t that the t h e a t r e i n Japan owed i t s development t o i t s p o r t r a y a l of [these people] and t h e i r exploits.39 The problem  here i s t h a t the w r i t e r t r i e d t o make a r t i s t i c  works f i t a l i m i t e d s e t of h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s , a not  en-  t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y method of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m .  More-  over, the w r i t e r seems t o have t r i e d to understand  Japan-  ese c u l t u r e from the p o i n t of view of h i s own n a t u r a l l y , t h e r e f o r e , what he saw was however, we take Japan's  culture  quite " c u r i o u s .  and n :  If,  c u l t u r e as the given--and we must  do t h i s - - a n d study the a r t i s t i c works i n t h e i r proper context, we  f i n d that there were good reasons why,  for  example, Sukeroku as otokodate became a major hero i n the drama. The proper context f o r understanding the s i g n i f i c a n c e of Sukeroku as otokodate i s the Soga s e k a i .  Unless we  keep  i n mind the f a c t t h a t Sukeroku i s Soga Goro, Sukeroku's a c t i o n s have no meaning. c i s e l y because  Sukeroku i s an otokodate  he i s Soga Goro.  l e t us l o o k at the f i r s t  To make t h i s  pre-  clearer,  encounter between Sukeroku and  Ikyu. As we have seen, when Sukeroku enters the stage the courtesans a l l o f f e r him a p i p e . by, does not r e c e i v e a s i n g l e one'.  Ikyu, who  i s s i t t i n g near-  When he p r o t e s t s , Suke-  roku b o l d l y o f f e r s him one w i t h h i s f o o t .  Ikyu i s incensed  and proceeds t o l e c t u r e Sukeroku an otokodate.  on what i t means t o be  A c c o r d i n g t o Ikyu t h e r e are f i v e  qualities  t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h a t r u e otokodate: r i g h t e o u s n e s s , m o r a l i t y , 40 courtesy, reasonableness, and a s p i r i t of honor and who  pride.  His  i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t Sukeroku,  ety  by f i g h t i n g with a l l and sundry i n the gay q u a r t e r s  and behaves i n such an i n s u l t i n g way  has achieved n o t o r i -  al  toward him, i s not  an otokodate. Sukeroku's has assumed.  r e p l y i s i n c h a r a c t e r w i t h the r o l e  He says t h a t f o r him the p r i d e of an otoko-  date i s simply i n drawing h i s sword on any man to  r e s i s t him. 42 am? Fool!"  b o l d enough  And he ends by s a y i n g , "Who do you t h i n k I At t h i s point Ikyu does not know who Sukeroku  i s and t h a t he i s a c t u a l l y t a l k i n g t o Soga Goro. Soga Goro as Sukeroku and w i t h purpose.  What  i s doing i s a l l c a r e f u l l y planned  The f i g h t i n g and the i n s u l t s are t r u l y  m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of r i g h t e o u s n e s s and other otokodate ties, will  he  quali-  f o r he i s u s i n g them as ways to f i n d the sword that enable him to c a r r y out the revenge.  In sum,  Sukeroku  i s an otokodate i f one understands the m o t i v a t i o n of h i s a c t i o n s i n terms of h i s i d e n t i t y as Soga Goro. < T h i s aspect of Sukeroku r e c a l l s the I c h i r i k i  teahouse  scene i n Chushingura, where Yuranosuke i s spending h i s time i n apparent d i s s i p a t i o n i n the gay q u a r t e r s i n s t e a d of working toward c a r r y i n g out the revenge Soga Goro, who  as Sukeroku  on Moronao. ^  Like  seems t o be wasting h i s time i n  the gay off  q u a r t e r s , Yuranosuke o n l y wants t o put h i s enemies  t h e i r guard.  The  key  question  i n both Sukeroku  and  Chushingura i s , as Sukeroku asks Ikyu, Dare da to omou? 44 "Who  do you  -  t h i n k I am?"  Sukeroku's own  Ikyu does not  mother and  brother  are  know, and  even  fooled.  Given Sukeroku's i d e n t i t y as Soga Goro, then, spirit  of r e s i s t a n c e t h a t Sukeroku as otokodate symbol-  i z e d can be understood. was  resistance f i r s t  In terms of the Soga s e k a i , i t  of a l l a g a i n s t Kudo Suketsune  the powerful f o r c e s (represented it  d i f f i c u l t f o r Goro and  revenge. against  a l l d e s t r u c t i v e and  generalized  just  resistance  overwhelming f o r c e s .  Soga  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the g u a r d i a n d e i t y Fudo,  himself  and  by Yoritomo) t h a t made  Juro t o c a r r y out t h e i r  Going f u r t h e r , i t was  Goro was was  the  a god-hero--becoming so by means of 45  and  the  aragoto a r t of Danjuro I. ^ Sukeroku was Goro.  a hero i n the same t r a d i t i o n as Soga  Sukeroku, however, was  w h i l e Soga Goro was was  a pure Edo  of the o l d order  order  (jidai).  (sewa) Sukeroku  f i g u r e — i n essence, a contemporary  t i o n of Soga Goro. against  of the new  i n c l u d e d not  gawa p e r i o d , but  The  f o r c e s he represented  manifesta-  resistance  only the p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s of the Toku-  also e v i l  " f o r c e s " such as f i r e ,  earth-  quake, business u n c e r t a i n t y — a l l of them contemporary problems.  L i f e i n the Tokugawa p e r i o d was  uncertain.  Earth-  46 quake and  fire  were c o n s t a n t l y t h r e a t e n i n g  and  frequent-  l y d e s t r u c t i v e , and b u s i n e s s , which was on a f u l l  s c a l e i n Edo was  often risky.  just developing Just as t h e i r  f o r e f a t h e r s d i d , the people of the Tokugawa p e r i o d t u r n e d to t h e i r heroes, t h e i r gods, t o p r o t e c t them a g a i n s t the u n c e r t a i n t i e s and to g i v e them the power and s t r e n g t h 47 t h a t they themselves  d i d not otherwise have.  What are the elements t h a t are evidence of the spirit  of r e s i s t a n c e of Sukeroku  as otokodate?  he d i v i d e d i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s : ( l ) a c t i o n , and make-up, and (3) speech.  They  may  (2) costume  Sukeroku's a c t i o n s are  those of the aragoto hero, but they are a c t i o n s  appro-  p r i a t e to a hero of the modern c i t y of Edo--not  to a  w a r r i o r from a p r e v i o u s age l i k e Soga Goro. posture i s always a s s e r t i v e , yet e l e g a n t .  Sukeroku's H i s dance  entrance on the hanamichi, which i s a s e r i e s of a s s e r t i v e poses done w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of h i s snake's brella,  i s a good example of t h i s .  the p l a y , Sukeroku  eye  In the course of  engages i n a number of f i g h t  w i t h Ikyu and h i s men,  and always  um-  scenes  emerges calmly as the  winner. Sukeroku's costume and make-up are a l s o those of an a g g r e s s i v e hero. hachimaki  Most o u t s t a n d i n g are the kenka no  ( " f i g h t headband") and the kumadori make-up.  Not only does the headband i d e n t i f y i t s wearer as an a r a goto hero, but i t s p u r p l e c o l o r a l s o s i g n i f i e s " a b i d i n g 48 ties" --the t i e s of l o v e (toward Agemaki) and the t i e s  129  of  duty t o h i s f a m i l y and t o t h e revenge.  Sukeroku's mu-  k i m i s t y l e o f kumadori, which i s the p r i n c i p a l  visual  f e a t u r e o f the aragoto hero, i s e s p e c i a l l y noteworthy — 49 s i n c e i t i s the same as that of Soga Goro.  Thus, the  make-up makes c l e a r the a s s o c i a t i o n between the two characters. F i n a l l y , Sukeroku's speech p r o v i d e s t h e f i n e s t examples of h i s s p i r i t  of r e s i s t a n c e .  The s t y l e o f speech  i s c a l l e d a k u t a i , and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by b a r r a g e s o f i n s u l t s d e l i v e r e d i n a r a p i d - f i r e manner.  The best i n -  stance i s Sukeroku's i n t r o d u c t i o n of h i m s e l f , quoted e a r l i e r i n the summary of the p l a y .  Other i n s t a n c e s are  when Sukeroku says: reason w i t h a wise man, but k i c k a mule i n the ass. I d e f l a t e the pompous braggard w i t h a touch of my clog.51  52 Blockhead!  Beanpaste b r a i n !  Outhouse  ass!  J  There are even times when Sukeroku w i l l use meaningless syllables  j u s t because they sound menacing.  t o t c h a " i s a good example. In  "Yattoko,  y  a l l , Sukeroku's a c t i o n s , costume, make-up, and  speech e s t a b l i s h e d him as the u l t i m a t e Edokko--that s p e c i a l c l a s s of Edo townsman, born and bred i n Edo, and, most important of a l l , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i k i and h a r i — t h e  spirit  54 of r e s i s t a n c e . say  S c h o l a r s do not seem t o be able t o  enough about Sukeroku and the i d e a o f r e s i s t a n c e .  T o i t a Y a s u j i sums i t up by simply l a b e l i n g Sukeroku "the champion o f the Edokko."-^  Sukeroku as Fudasashi s A Change i n the View of Sukeroku as Otokodate As the c a r e e r of Danjuro I I matured and as the p o s i t i o n of the townsman i n Edo became more s t a b l e and secure, the  image of Sukeroku as otokodate was m o d i f i e d t o one of  Sukeroku as f u d a s a s h i .  T h i s was not so much a break w i t h  past p r a c t i c e as i t was a refinement of i t .  Sukeroku as  otokodate had been a hero of r e s i s t a n c e ; Sukeroku as f u d a s a s h i was  still  a hero of r e s i s t a n c e , but one who  had reached  the  p i n n a c l e 6 f success.  By the mid-eighteenth century,  the  economic success of the townsmen of Edo had enabled  them t o e s t a b l i s h themselves as the c u l t u r a l l e a d e r s of t h e i r age. the  The samurai may  have occupied f i r s t p l a c e i n  o f f i c i a l h i e r a r c h y , but the wealthy merchants, and  e s p e c i a l l y the f u d a s a s h i , had the r e a l power and  influ-  ence i n "popular" s o c i e t y . Proof of t h i s m o d i f i e d view of Sukeroku i s t h a t at the time of Danjuro I I ' s t h i r d Sukeroku, Sukeroku was modeled  on Oguchiya Gyou, a l e a d i n g Edo f u d a s a s h i ,  one of the s o - c a l l e d d a i h a c h i d a i t s u - - t h e eight townsman-merchant Edokko.  great  Moreover, by t h i s time  Kato Bushi musicians, who were f u d a s a s h i by occupation, were p r o v i d i n g the accompaniment f o r Sukeroku s !  impor-  57  t a n t dance entrance.  In kabuki, where there i s usu-  a l l y no p l a c e f o r n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l performers, the presence of the amateur Kato Bushi was  evidence of the  c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n between Sukeroku and the f u d a s a s h i .  S i n c e the f u d a s a s h i were major patrons of kabuki, Sukeroku as f u d a s a s h i may  be viewed not only as a statement of  townsman s u c c e s s , but a l s o as-the t h e a t r e ' s way  of t h a n k i n g  these townsmen f o r t h e i r patronage and support.  T h i s can  be seen i n the s e l e c t i o n of Oguchiya Gyou as the model f o r Danjuro I I ' s t h i r d Sukeroku.  Other evidence i s a drawing  by Utagawa Toyokuni i n E-hon s h i b a i nenju-kagami the  a c t o r s who  accompanied pended to  p l a y e d the r o l e s of Sukeroku and Agemaki,  by the teahouse managers whose b u s i n e s s de-  on the t h e a t r e s , making f o r m a l rounds of g r e e t i n g s  t h e i r patrons. In  the  showing  sum,  Sukeroku as f u d a s a s h i was  townsmen of the kabuki audience.  an e x a l t a t i o n of Edo kabuki was  a  m i r r o r of the success that the Edo townsmen had a c h i e v e d and Danjuro's p o r t r a y a l of Sukeroku was i n that m i r r o r .  the image they saw  In works such as Edo murasaki h i i k i  no  hachimaki (1810), [Hana no Edo] Kabuki n e n d a i k i (the t i t l e s of which are e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e s t o Danjuro and Sukeroku), and i n a s s o r t e d p r i n t s , we see t e s t i m o n i e s to Edo  itself.  The kabuki t h e a t r e , a f t e r a l l , was where so many of the energies of Edo converged. Sukeroku as f u d a s a s h i was the f i n a l  s t e p i n the evo-  l u t i o n of the Sukeroku i n n o v a t i o n w i t h i n the Soga t r a d i t i o n a l framework.  Except f o r p a r o d i e s i n the n i n e t e e n t h century, to  t h i s view of Sukeroku has remained the same. ' 7  A c t o r s who p l a y e d t h e r o l e s greetings to t h e i r patrons.  o f S u k e r o k u and Agemaki m a k i n g f o r m a l ^ o u n d s l ) f I l l u s t r a t i o n f r o m E-hon s h i h l i  nenjJkaS.  Conclusion By s t u d y i n g  kabuki dramatic s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n  framework of the annual p l a y c y c l e and p r i n c i p l e s of s e k a i and  shuko, we  i n terms of the  have been able to  t a i n the s i g n i f i c a n c e of Sukeroku's double As we was  d u c t i o n , was  i n t h e ' f i r s t months of the s p r i n g  who pro-  transformed i n t o Sukeroku, the townsman  appeared i n the l a t t e r months of the p r o d u c t i o n . change w i t h i n the c y c l e was of the  ascer-  identity.  have seen, Soga Goro, the samurai god-hero  presented  the  a movement from the  .jidai-mono (works of the  " o l d order") t o  realm of the sewa-mono (works of the  "new  who  This realm the  order").  The  double i d e n t i t y served as a s t r u c t u r a l l i n k between the two  realms. Even to a p p r e c i a t e what remains of kabuki today,  we must understand the s t r u c t u r e of kabuki d u r i n g Tokugawa p e r i o d .  I t was  a complex s t r u c t u r e , based  m a r i l y on a c y c l i c a l p a t t e r n . p a t t e r n was  pri-  As I have shown, t h i s  an outgrowth of the s i n g u l a r l y i n t i m a t e  r e l a t i o n s h i p i n Japanese c u l t u r e between' a r t i s t i c t u r e g e n e r a l l y and the p e r c e p t i o n  of seasonal  Even l o n g a f t e r major urban centers had and people were generations perience  the  of growing r i c e  struc-  rhythms.  been e s t a b l i s h e d  removed from the a c t u a l  (which had  g i v e n r i s e to  ex-  the  p r o t o t y p i c a l c y c l e ) , novels, "being made a c c o r d i n g  poems, and  p l a y s were  to a p a t t e r n of seasonal  still  movement.  At the same time, the s t r u c t u r e accomodated a n o n - c y c l i c a l or l i n e a r time.  This represented  the accumulation of  t r a d i t i o n - - w h i c h p l a y s an important r o l e not kabuki, but  only i n  i n a l l Japanese c l a s s i c a l a r t forms.  have seen that the t r a d i t i o n of Soga plays was i n the  e a r l y dramatic forms of no,  We  established  kowaka, and k o - j o r u r i  and t h a t i t came to occupy a major place i n kabuki. To keep t r a d i t i o n s a l i v e , p l a y w r i g h t s types of i n n o v a t i o n s ,  used  various  an example of which i s the  joining  of Sukeroku t o the Soga framework. Once kabuki i s understood i n terms of the c y c l e and  the p r i n c i p l e s of s e k a i and  of "a p l a y " i n kabuki becomes c l e a r . Sukeroku was but  one  not  shuko, the meaning "A p l a y " such as  a s i n g l e work, complete unto  s e c t i o n of the c y c l e as a whole.  p l a y " i n kabuki was  annual  itself,  Moreover,  not a f i n i s h e d product but  part  "a of  a c o n t i n u i n g process wherein every p r o d u c t i o n d i f f e r e d from, but  r e c a l l e d , e a r l i e r productions.  Thus, i t  was  not u n t i l l a t e i n the h i s t o r y of kabuki ( s t a r t i n g around the end  of the eighteenth  were preserved,  century) t h a t  "definitive"  texts  which thereby removed a work from the  process of change.  I t i s at t h a t p o i n t t h a t we  begin to  r e f e r t o kabuki as a c l a s s i c . By l o o k i n g at kabuki s t r u c t u r e from the of the annual p l a y c y c l e , we  perspective  can see t h a t i t was  neither  i l l o g i c a l nor i n c o h e r e n t , as some have suggested. i t was the  Rather,  an extended, i n t r i c a t e l y hound s t r u c t u r e b u i l t  rhythms of the changing year.  Take away t h a t  of c y c l e and the s t r u c t u r e becomes fragmented, The very l o g i c double i d e n t i t y  on  idea  unintelligible.  of kabuki i s p e r f e c t l y r e v e a l e d i n the  of Soga Goro and Sukeroku.  t u r e of kabuki t o s t r i k e present and time past.  I t was the na-  a harmonious balance between time When audiences saw Danjuro as Sukeroku,  they saw the present i n i t s most v i t a l form, as the s p r i n g time, as the f l o w e r of Edo. Danjuro as Soga Goro, who of the past.  At the same time they saw  r e p r e s e n t e d the power and weight  In Japanese c u l t u r e , the past l i v e s  present; Soga Goro was a god-hero and the l o g i c  on i n the  of kabuki  enabled Sukeroku, the courtesan's i d o l , t o appear as h i s contemporary m a n i f e s t a t i o n .  Postscript Reconstructing  Kabuki For Performance  To understand the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the Sukeroku and Goro double i d e n t i t y , i t was  Soga  necessary to r e c o n s t r u c t the  An-  nual p l a y c y c l e of the Tokugawa p e r i o d and the dramatic s t r u c t u r e i t contained.  As a p o s t s c r i p t t o t h i s t h e s i s , I would  l i k e to say a few words about the attempt by Japan's N a t i o n a l Theatre,  the K o k u r i t s u G e k i j o , to r e c o n s t r u c t kabuki f o r a c t u  p r e s e n t a t i o n on The  stage.  N a t i o n a l Theatre opened i n November 1966  aim of p r o v i d i n g a center f o r the study and  with  performance of  t r a d i t i o n a l a r t s , e s p e c i a l l y kabuki and the puppet of bunraku, or n i n g y o - j o r u r i . saw  As supporters  i t , the most e x c i t i n g undertaking  the  theatre  of the p r o j e c t  of the new  theatre,  and the f e a t u r e t h a t promised to make i t unique among e x i s t i n theatres, was  the p r o d u c t i o n  of kabuki i n i t s " o r i g i n a l  s i c a l form," as r e c o n s t r u c t e d The  f i r s t undertaking  clas-  — — 1 toshi-kyogen.  of the new  t h e a t r e was  the  toshi-  kyogen v e r s i o n of Sugawara denju t e n a r a i kagami, which i s regarded as one buki r e p e r t o r y shingura) .  p l a y s i n the  ka-  (along with Yoshitsune sembon-zakura,and Chu-  Because the l e n g t h of time r e q u i r e d to do  whole work was ences do not  of the t h r e e most popular  around twelve hours, and  the  because modern a u d i -  have the time nor the d e s i r e to spend an e n t i r e  day  at the t h e a t r e , i t was decided  t o produce only the f i r s t  h a l f one month and t o do the r e s t the f o l l o w i n g month.  After  that the p r a c t i c e of d i v i d i n g extremely l o n g works i n t o two p a r t s and p r e s e n t i n g them i n consecutive i n N a t i o n a l Theatre  months became  usual  productions.  When Sugawara was produced i n November and December 1966, audiences were able t o see s e c t i o n s of the p l a y t h a t had not been performed i n decades--such as the dai,jo, or prologue — along w i t h s e c t i o n s that are done q u i t e o f t e n , such as Kuruma-biki and Terakoya.  In January 1967. when Narukami  Fudo Kitayama-zakura was produced as the second work of the new t h e a t r e , the Kenuki, Narukami, and Fudo s e c t i o n s were given i n the same p r o d u c t i o n  as they had two hundred and  2  twenty-five  years b e f o r e .  Although the p r a c t i c e of recon-  s t r u c t i n g p l a y s became w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d at the N a t i o n a l it  has not been accepted  and a c t o r s  without c r i t i c i s m by  theatregoers  alike.  A review of the opening of the very f i r s t is representative.  The c r i t i c  production  found t h a t although the pro-  d u c t i o n was " f a i t h f u l t o the o r i g i n a l " the  Theatre,  (koten n i chu.jitsu) ,  "kabuki f e e l i n g " was somehow l a c k i n g .  The tremendous  amount of r e s e a r c h t h a t went i n t o the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of p l a y s made the p r o d u c t i o n seem p e d a n t i c .  of kabuki at the N a t i o n a l Theatre  L a t e r , some commentators suggested t h a t a  s o l u t i o n l a y i n i n v e s t i n g more time, money and t a l e n t i n t o each p r o d u c t i o n .  T h i s had the r e s u l t  of making kabuki at  the N a t i o n a l Theatre and  e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y l a v i s h , both s c e n i c a l l y  i n amount of h i s t o r i c a l d e t a i l , but i t s t i l l  dissatisfied.  l e f t many  As Onoe Baiko, ,a t o p a c t o r who has f r e q u e n t l y  played l e a d i n g r o l e s i n N a t i o n a l Theatre  productions,  said  about the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of kabuki •: " I f , over a l o n g p e r i o d of time,  our predecessors  dropped c e r t a i n p l a y s and sec-  t i o n s o f p l a y s from the r e p e r t o r y , they had t h e i r T h e i r reasons,  of course,  reasons.""'  d e r i v e d from the way- kabuki  was s t r u c t u r e d d u r i n g the Tokugawa p e r i o d , which was not s u f f i c i e n t l y taken i n t o account i n the new On the one hand, the N a t i o n a l Theatre  productions..  had assumed t h a t the  p a r t s of p l a y s which had been produced independently f o r decades, even c e n t u r i e s , c o u l d and, moreover, should be r e t u r n e d t o some s o r t of o r i g i n a l context.  And, on the  other hand, i t had been thought t h a t p l a y s from which p a r t s had been taken c o u l d be. e a s i l y r e c o n s t r u c t e d 5  i t was only  a matter of r e s e a r c h and reworking t o put t h i n g s back together.  But, as we have seen, kabuki s t r u c t u r e was  based on r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t , p o t e n t i a l l y independent u n i t s t h a t c o u l d be' moved from context out of the r e p e r t o r y a l t o g e t h e r . problem of balance difficult  or taken  Because of t h i s the  i n the p l a y s was n a t u r a l l y the most  o b s t a c l e t o overcome.  so s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t  t o context  dramatic  Some s e c t i o n s had become  from performance "out of context"  that  they r e s i s t e d being put back i n with other s e c t i o n s t h a t had been l o n g neglected..  T h i s could have an adverse  effect  on "both a c t o r s and audience when i t was f e l t t h a t p a r t s o f a play had t o be gotten through j u s t f o r the sake of t h e idea that everything  should  be done.  Another assumption t h a t was made was t h a t t h e concept of r e c o n s t r u c t i n g a play c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o a l l works i n the r e p e r t o r y .  I n p r a c t i c e , however, as G u n j i has p o i n t e d  out, t h i s concept a p p l i e s f o r the most part t o j o r u r i - d e r i v e d kabuki and kabuki i n a s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r a l t r a d i t i o n Kamigata kabuki),  and not t o Edo kabuki--that  (mainly  i s , kabuki  —  6  i n the t r a d i t i o n of Danjuro, which i n c l u d e s Sukeroku. Gunji  observes t h a t , l o o k i n g back over t h e years t h a t  the N a t i o n a l Theatre has been i n o p e r a t i o n ,  the emphasis  has been on p l a y s such as Sugawara denju t e n a r a i kagami, Yoshitsune sembon-zakura, and C h u s h i n g u r a — a l l the  j o r u r i theatre.  derived  from  He argues that the s t r u c t u r e of these  plays appears "modern" and " l o g i c a l , " w h i l e the s t r u c t u r e of Edo  kabuki embodies f e a t u r e s - - s u c h  that today's s o c i e t y w i l l Edo  as double  identities--  only f i n d i l l o g i c a l .  Of course,  kabuki was not i l l o g i c a l but was based on an annual  play c y c l e which provided  t h e c o n t r o l l i n g context  p l a y t h a t was produced i n t h e course of i t . us r i g h t at the p o i n t where t h e t h e s i s began.  f o r each  And t h i s  leaves  140  Notes Introduction See Appendix I f o r a summary o f kabuki s o u r c e - m a t e r i a l s of the Tokugawa p e r i o d . x  2  —  Twenty-four examples o f Edo e - i n kyogen-bon are publ i s h e d i n Genroku kabuki kessaku shu, ed. Takano T a t s u y u k i and K u r o k i Kanzo (Tokyo: Waseda Daigaku Shuppan-bu), I . The l a c k o f s u r v i v i n g kabuki t e x t s i s r e l a t e d t o the p r a c t i c e s of the annual p l a y c y c l e . ^ I n Kawatake S h i g e t o s h i , Nihon engeki zenshi (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1959). p- 39_2_ the double i d e n t i t y phenomenon i s r e f e r r e d t o as absurd (koto-mukei) and i n c o h e r e n t ( s h i r i metsuretsu). k _ _ ' See G u n j i Masakatsu, Kabuki no hasso (Tokyo: Kobundo, k  1959), pp. 69-70.  For an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n of how the t r a d i t i o n o f s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i s m has a f f e c t e d our view o f dramatic form i n g e n e r a l , see the essay by Robert B r u s t e i n , "Drama i n the Age of E i n s t e i n , " New York Times, 7 Aug. 1977, Sec. 2, pp. 1, 22. E a r l e E r n s t , The Kabuki Theatre (1956; r p t . Honolulu: The Univ. Press o f Hawaii, 1974), pp. 221-22. ^ G u n j i , Kabuki no hasso; H a t t o r i Yukio, Kabuki no kozo (Tokyo: Chuo Koron_Sha, 1970); and Atsumi S e i t a r o , "Soga kyo"gen no hensen t o kansho," E n g e k i - k a i , 8, No. 2 (1950), 11-19- F o r s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s , see Part One. Chapter I S e i Shonagon, The P i l l o w Book o f S e i Shonagon, t r a n s , and ed. Ivan M o r r i s ( B a l t i m o r e : Penguin Books, 1971), P- 21. x  2  _ There were r e f e r e n c e s t o season i n the poems o f the Man'yoshu (compiled ca. 760), t h e e a r l i e s t anthology o f Japanese poetry, but the poems were not arranged on a seasonal basis. See K o n i s h i J i n ' i c h i , " A s s o c i a t i o n and Prog r e s s i o n : P r i n c i p l e s o f I n t e g r a t i o n i n A n t h o l o g i e s and Sequences o f Japanese Court Poetry, A.D. 900-1350," t r a n s , and  141  adapt, by Robert H. Brower and E a r l Miner, Harvard J o u r n a l o f A s i a t i c S t u d i e s , 21 (1958), 106. 3  Ibid.,74.  4 5  Ibid., Ibid.  77-  I n Azuma mondo (?146?), the poet S o g i (1421-1502) says t h a t the nun Abutsu ( ? - 1283), a l s o a poet, emphasized the n e c e s s i t y o f making poems correspond t o the a c t u a l season o f composition. Howard S. H i b b e t t , "The Japanese Comic L i n k e d Verse T r a d i t i o n , " Harvard J o u r n a l o f A s i a t i c S t u d i e s , 23 (196061), 83, note 10. 6  ' See H a i k a i and Haiku, ed. Ichikawa S a n k i , .et. a l . (Tokyo: Nippon Gakujutsu S h i n k o k a i , 195&), p. 173Q  An example of such a book i s Daigo Yoshiyasu, Kigo t e n (Tokyo: Tokyodo, I968).  ,ji-  9 — _ Yoshida Kenko, Essays i n I d l e n e s s : The Tsurezuregusa o f Kenko, t r a n s . Donald Keene (New York: Columbia Univ. P r e s s ,  i W T , PP- 18-21. 10 I h a r a Saikaku, W o r l d l y Mental C a l c u l a t i o n s : An Annotat e d T r a n s l a t i o n o f I h a r a Saikaku's Seken munezan'yo, t r a n s . Ben Befu ( B e r k e l e y : Univ. o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1976), pp. 33-  .34.  11  I h a r a Saikaku, F i v e Women Who Loved Love, t r a n s . Wm. Theodore deBary (Rutland, Vt.: C h a r l e s E. T u t t l e , 1956), p. 51I b i d . , p. 128. 1  2  13  — T o g i Masataro, Gagaku: Court Music and Dance, t r a n s . Don Kenny (New York: W a l k e r / W e a t h e r h i l l , 1971), p. 72. 14 — — H a t t o r i , Kabuki no genzo (Tokyo: Asuka Shobo, 1974), P- 153J  15 Information on names and s t a r t i n g dates based on Takamura C h i k u r i , E-hon s h i b a i nen.ju-kagami (1803; r p t . i n Shlbai-nen.ju^gyo j i shu; Tokyof' K o k u r i t s u G e k i j o , 1976), p. 190.  16  Because t r a n s l a t i o n s seem i n a p p r o p r i a t e , the kao-mise and bon p r o d u c t i o n s w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o by t h e i r Japanese names. In the Kamigata area the s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n was c a l l e d the "second p r o d u c t i o n change" ( n i no kawari kyogen) and the third-month p r o d u c t i o n was c a l l e d the " t h i r d p r o d u c t i o n change" (san no kawari kyogen). Such d e s i g n a t i o n s s t r e s s the annual c y c l e nature of kabuki s t r u c t u r e .  142  17  The q u e s t i o n o f why the annual c y c l e o f kabuki began i n the e l e v e n t h month i s an open one. Although we w i l l probably never have a d e f i n i t e answer, my guess i s t h a t i t goes back to ancient p r a c t i c e s i n drama which were r e l a t e d t o the r i c e harvest c y c l e . According t o the Heian p e r i o d Engi s h i k i , f o r example, the e l e v e n t h month was the time t o o f f e r new r i c e t o Amaterasu-o-mikami and other heavenly d e i t i e s . See E n g i - S h i k i s Procedures of the Engi E r a , t r a n s . F e l i c i a G r e s s i t t Bock (Tokyo: Sophia Univ., 1970), I , p. 97- I n Japan, as elsewhere, the m y t h o l o g i c a l beginnings of drama are i n o f f e r i n g s t o the gods.  18  In Edo, from 1714 u n t i l the end o f the Tokugawa p e r i o d , the l i c e n s e d t h e a t r e s which were empowered t o make one-year c o n t r a c t s with a c t o r s were the Nakamura-za, Ichimura-za, and Morita-za. Together they comprised Edo no sanza, "the three t h e a t r e s o f Edo." The p r a c t i c e df kao-mise began around the Manji and Kambun eras (ca. 1660-70") and l a s t e d u n t i l the end o f the Tokugawa p e r i o d . Waseda Daigaku Engeki Hakubutsukan, Engeki hyakka d a i j i t e n (Tokyo: Heibonsha, 196'6) , I , p. 53319 — — . kabuki no s e i m e i . H a t t o r i , Kabuki no kozo, p. 161. The importance o f t h i s p r o d u c t i o n i n the annual p l a y c y c l e i s i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t t h a t i t was on a kao-mise p l a y b i l l i n 1680 t h a t Tominaga H e i b e i had h i s name i n s c r i b e d as " p l a y wright" ( k y o g e n - t s u k u r i ) , thus becoming the f i r s t person t o be so r e c o g n i z e d . P r i o r t o t h a t t h e r e had been no s p e c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f those who had c o n t r i b u t e d t o the composition of kabuki p l a y s . I n Tominaga H e i b e i ' s time i t was u s u a l f o r kabuki a c t o r s (such as H e i b e i h i m s e l f ) t o compose t h e i r own plays. As time went on, p l a y w r i g h t i n g became a f u l l - t i m e occupation f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s . See Ted Takaya, "An I n q u i r y i n t o the Role o f the T r a d i t i o n a l Kabuki P l a y w r i g h t , " D i s s . Columbia 1969.  20  —  — —  Mimasuya N i s o j i , Sakusha nen.ju-gyo.ii (1852; r p t . i n  Kabuki, v o l . VI of Ninon shomin bunka s h i r y o s h u s e i , Tokyo: S a n ' i c h i Shobo, 1973), P- 695. Shokado Hajo, S h i b a i n e n j u - g y o j i (1777; r p t . i n Kyogen sakusha s h i r y o - s h u (1): Sekai komoku, S h i b a i n e n j u - g y o j i , Tokyo: K o k u r i t s u G e k i j o , 1974), p. 94. In Edo, the head of a t h e a t r e was a l s o the h e r e d i t a r y h o l d e r df the t h e a t r e l i c e n s e . T h e i r names were Nakamura Kanzaburo (Nakamura-za), Ichimura Hanzaemon ( I c h i m u r a - z a ) and M o r i t a Kan'ya ( M o r i t a - z a ) . See H a t t o r i , Kabuki no genzo, p. 152. I t appears t h a t at times other than kao-mise and New Year's S h i k i Sambaso was performed by low-ranking a c t o r s (bandachi). See G u n j i , Kabuki, t r a n s . John B e s t e r (Palo A l t o : Kodansha, 1969), p. 52. 2 1  x  143  77  -  1  An e n t r y i n the Kadensho ( c a . 1400) by Zeami (13'64-l443) says t h a t the predecessor o f Okina (or S h i k i Samba) goes back to the t e n t h century. Waseda Daigaku Engeki Hakubutsukan, Engeki hyakka d a i . j i t e n , I , p. 4 2 1 . 23 Inoura Yoshinobu, A H i s t o r y o f Japanese Theater, I : Up t o Noh and Kyogen (Tokyo: Kokusai Bunka S h i n k o k a i , 1971), p. 1724 See I b i d . , p. 50. -5 Gondo Yoshikazu, No no mikata (Kyoto: Toyo Bunka Sha, 1975), PP- 53-54. The f i v e c a t e g o r i e s of no p l a y s are genera l l y g i v e n as works concerning gods, w a r r i o r s , women, mad persons, and c o n c l u d i n g works. J  2  A waki p l a y i s the f i r s t o f the f i v e " s t e p s " o f no. Though kabuki waki-kyogen were d i f f e r e n t , i t i s p_robable t h a t the concept and terminology were borrowed from no. Waseda Daigaku Engeki Hakubutsukan, Engeki hyakka d a i . j i t e n , VI, p. 63. 27 ' Such p r i d e i s a f u n c t i o n o f the f a c t t h a t m Edo-u n l i k e Kyoto and 0 s a k a - - t h e system o f h e r e d i t a r y ownership of the t h e a t r e s was s t r o n g . Nishiyama Matsunosuke and Takeuchi Makoto, Edo, V o l . I I , V o l . V o f Edo j i d a i zushi (Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo, 1 9 7 6 1 , p. 151. _ _ A c c o r d i n g t o Shokado, S h i b a i nen ju-gyo,ji, p. 9 4 , examples o f waki-kyogen o f the p r i n c i p a l Edo t h e a t r e s a r e : Nakamura-za Ichimura-za Morita-za  Shut en Do.ji : S h i c h i - f uku.jin Fukujin-asobi  For more on kabuki waki-kyogen, see Atsumi, Kabuki nyumon (Tokyo: T o k a i Shobo, 1 9 4 9 ) , p p . 124-25, Takamura, E-hon s h i b a i nenju-kagami, pp. 22-7-28, and H a t t o r i , "Waki-kyogen no k e i s e i , " i n h i s Kabuki s e i r i t s u no kenkyu (Tokyo: Kazama Shobo, 1968), pp. 501-30.  2g  Based on H a t t o r i ' s a n a l y s i s _ i n Kabuki no kozo, pp. 193and Takamura, E-hon .shibai nenju-kagami, pp. 228-2929 _ Depending on the work, t h e end o f the f i r s t p l a y (the o-zume) might come a f t e r the f o u r t h s t e p (and thus be e q u i v a l e n t t o a f i f t h step) or a f t e r the f i f t h s t e p (and thus be e q u i v a l e n t t o a s i x t h s t e p ) . 94,  30  In the Kamigata area the f i r s t p l a y was c a l l e d the "beginning" p l a y (mae-kyogen) and the second p l a y was c a l l e d the "end" p l a y ( k i r i - k y o g e n ) . U n l i k e Edo kabuki s t r u c t u r e , however, the Kamigata "beginning" and _^end" p l a y s were unrel a t e d t o each other. G u n j i , Kabuki nyumon, new ed. (Tokyo: Shakai Shiso Kenkyukai Shuppan-bu, 1962), p. 139-  31  — Takamura, E-hon s h i b a i nenju-kagami ," p. 228. There was a s t r i c t h i e r a r c h y among a c t o r s and p l a y w r i g h t s . In the case o f the l a t t e r , f o r example, each t h e a t r e had a p l a y w r i g h t i n g "team" p r e s i d e d over by the head p l a y w r i g h t ( t a t e - s a k u s h a ) . Each p l a y was a c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t between the head p l a y w r i g h t and l o w e r - r a n k i n g members o f t h e team. 32 H a t t o r i , Kabuki no kozo, p. 193» and Takamura, E-hon s h i b a i nenju-kagami, pp. 228-29. Ibid: 34 Takamura, E-hon s h i b a i nen.ju-kagami, p. 229. 3  3  35  — —  P r e v i o u s l y , Danjuro I had performed Shibaraku sometimes i n the f i r s t month and sometimes i n the f i f t h month of the year. Kabuki .juhachi-ban shu, ed. G u n j i , Nihon koten bungaku t a i k e i " 98 (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1965)1 P- 30. ^ Kawatake, K a b u k i - s h i no kenkyu (Tokyo: Tokyodo, 1943). p. 442. 3  37 In  .— Japanese, n i n g y o - j o r u r i , o r now, more commonly,  bunraku. 0 0  Kabuki kyakuhon shu, ed. Urayama Masao and Matsuzaki H i t o s h i , Nihon koten bungaku t a i k e i , 54 (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten,  1961), p.~4T  39 — 1 ' See Atsumi, K a b u k i nyumon, p. 147. Consult Chapter I I a f u l l e r treatment of t h i s s u b j e c t . 40 — Kabuki kyakuhon shu, p. 513' J  for  4l K o r e - g i r i (not k i r i ) i s t h e proper r e a d i n g . See Kabuki juhachi-ban shu, ed. G u n j i , p. 13342 P l a y s c o n t i n u e d f o r about t h i r t e e n hours each day. For i n f o r m a t i o n on time r e s t r i c t i o n s , see H a t t o r i , Kabuki no genzo, p. 6. I t was not u n t i l t h e M e i j i p e r i o d (at t h e end of t h e n i n e t e e n t h century) t h a t performances o f kabuki were permitted at night. See G u n j i , Kabuki t o Yoshiwara (Tokyo: Awaji Shobo, 1956), p. 49. 43 Takamura, E-hon s h i b a i nenju-kagami, p. 230.  44  -  Senshuraku was a l s o used at the end o f the e n t i r e p l a y c y c l e , and t h e word became equated w i t h the l a s t day o f the cycle. See G u n j i , Kabuki, t r a n s . B e s t e r , p. 35. 45 H a t t o r i , Kabuki no kozo, p. 193. and Takamura, E-hon s h i b a i nenju-kagami, pp. 228-29.  1 4 5  46  T h i s ceremony was c a l l e d shizome, which means "opening."  literally  47 Performed f o r three_days, from the f i r s t t o t h e t h i r d day o f the f i r s t month. Shokado, S h i h a i n e n j u - g y o j i , p. 8748 — — For a d e s c r i p t i o n of Ichikawa Danjuro's shizome, see T o i t a Y a s u j i , Kabuki juhachi-ban (Tokyo: Chuo Koron Sha, 1969)1  pp. 19-20. 49  — Takamura, E-hon s h i b a i nenju-kagami, p. 1895° The t h r e e t h e a t r e s and,the Soga p l a y s performed i n 1709 were: M o r i t a - z a , F u k u b i k i Soga; Ichimura-za, M e i s e k i Soga; Yamamura-za, A i z e n Soga. I h a r a T o s h i r o , Kabuki nempyo (Tokyo; Iwanami Shoten, 1956), I , P- 3797  Tachikawa Emba, [Hana no Edo] Kabuki n e n d a i k i r p t . Tokyo: O t o r i Shuppan, 1976), p. 35-  (1815;  52 — — • Atsumi, "Soga kyogen no hensen t o kansho,"  J  53 T h i s m u l t i p l i c i t y of t i t l e s  17-  i s a l s o r e l a t e d t o the  f a c t that when p l a y s were r e - w r i t t e n they were g i v e n new t i t l e s . Atsumi, "Soga kyogen no hensen t o kansho," 16. Also, see note 42 above.  55  i h a r a , Kabuki nempyo, I , pp.  408-10.  5° Matsuzaki H i t o s h i , ^Kabuki kyogen no kozo," Kokubungaku kaishaku t o k y o z a i no kenkyu, 20, No. 8 (June 1975)1 P- 52. 57 The f o l l o w m g _ m a t e r i a l i s based l a r g e l y on . the work of Atsumi i n "Soga kyogen no hensen t o kansho," lt)-19. ' I t i s a l s o based_on the same author's e x p l a n a t o r y notes t o t h e p l a y s i n Soga kyogen gappei-shu, V o l . XIV o f Nihon gikyoku zenshu (Tokyo: Shun'yodo, 1929), pp. 805-11. C" Q  Atsumi, Kabuki nyumon, p. 123.  p.  5^  15. 60  G u n j i , Namari t o s u i g i n  (Tokyo: Nishizawa Shoten,  Text of p l a y i n Soga kyogen gappei-shu, pp. 1-140.  £^ Shokado, S h i b a i n e n j u - g y o j i , p. 88.  £2 Takamura, E-hon s h i b a i . nenju-kagami,  p. 202.  /To  The names o f t h e f i v e major sekku a r e j i n j i t s u , tango, tanabata, and choyo. J  joshi,  1975).  146  64  As the p r a c t i c e of l o n g - r u n s p r i n g p r o d u c t i o n s was abandoned toward the end of the Tokugawa p e r i o d , the i d e a of separate and independent t h i r d - and f i f t h - m o n t h p r o d u c t i o n s developed. Atsumi, "Soga kyogen no hensen t o kansho," 17Ibid. £z  See a l s o Mimasuya, Sakusha n e n j u - g y o j i , p. 6 7 8 .  See Mimasuya, Sakusha nen.ju-gyo.ji, p. 6 7 8 .  Kokugeki yoran, ed. Engeki Hakubutsukan (Tokyo: Azusa Shobo, 1 9 3 2 ) , P- 2 2 7 . See a l s o G u n j i , Kabuki t o Yoshiwara, p. 5568  See Atsumi, "Soga kyogen no hensen t o kansho," 1 6 - 1 7 .  69 Mimasuya, Sakusha n e n j u - g y o j i , p. 6 7 9 70 Takamura, 71  E-hon s h i b a i nenju-kagami, p. 2 0 9 -  I b i d . , p. 2 1 0 .  72 _ The word f o r summer r e c e s s i n Japanese i s doyo-yasumi doyo r e f e r r i n g t o the h o t t e s t p e r i o d of the summer (and yasumi meaning rece,ss) . A popular p l a c e f o r a c t o r s to go was the baths ( t o j i ) i n Hakone. H a t t o r i , Kabuki no genzo, p. 18. 73 — ^ Takamura, E-hon s h i b a i nenju-kagami, p. 212. Thanks to these road shows, people l i v i n g i n the country had the o p p o r t u n i t y t o see p r o f e s s i o n a l kabuki a c t o r s perform. There i s a passage i n Fukuzawa Y u k i c h i ' s Autobiography where he d e s c r i b e s the welcome that samurai gave to t r a v e l i n g players: In the summer time . . . t h e r e would sometimes be a s e r i e s of p l a y s l a s t i n g seven days t o g e t h e r when the t r a v e l i n g a c t o r s s e t up t h e i r temporary stage i n the Sumiyoshi temple-yard. Then t h e r e would a l ways be a p r o c l a m a t i o n that the samurai of our c l a n should not a t t e n d the p l a y s or even go beyond the stone w a l l of the temple. Though the proclamat i o n sounded very s t r i c t , i t amounted t o a mere f o r m a l i t y . Many of- the l e s s scrupulous samurai would go t o the p l a y s w i t h t h e i r f a c e s wrapped i n towels, wearing only the s h o r t e r of the two swords which a l l samurai wore--thus making themselves appear l i k e common people. These d i s g u i s e d samurai broke over the bamboo fence of the t h e a t e r , whereas the r e a l common people p a i d t h e i r f e e s . When the management t r i e d to stop the i n t r u d e r s , they would u t t e r a menacing r o a r and go s t r i d i n g on to take the best s e a t s . Fukuzawa Y u k i c h i , The Autobiography of Fukuzawa Y u k i c h i , r e v . t r a n s , by E i i c h i Kty°oka (New York: Shocken Books, I 9 6 6 ) , pp. 4-5..  Although Fukuzawa s a i d t h a t he d i d not j o i n the " l e s s scrupul o u s samurai" at those times, he l a t e r became a r e g u l a r patron of kabuki. 7k ' During the summer about h a l f of the members of a company stayed behind i n the c i t y . Atsumi, Kabuki nyumon, p. 138. 7c .  Miyamasu, Sakusha n e n j u - g y o j i , p. 6 8 0 . Summer p l a y s were v a r i o u s l y known as d o y o - s h i b a i , n a t s u - s h i b a i , and n a t s u kyogen. Ibid. ( J  7 6  77 7  Takamura, E-hon s h i b a i nenju-kagami, p.  214.  o  ' S p e c i a l summer p l a y s were not w r i t t e n u n t i l Tsuruya Namboku IV (1755-18291 composed h i s ghost p l a y s (kaidan-mono). See Atsumi, Kabuki nyumon, p. 138. In g e n e r a l , i t was c o n s i d e r e d u n d e s i r a b l e f o r kabuki p l a y w r i g h t s to adapt p l a y s from the puppet t h e a t r e , but i n times of poor attendance at the t h e a t r e (such as i n the l a t e summer and e a r l y autumn months), t h i s type of a d a p t a t i o n was done. See Atsumi, Kabuki nyumon, p. 138. A f t e r the M e i j i r e s t o r a t i o n , t h i s type of p l a y became an important p a r t of the r e p e r t o r y . 79  — Takamura, E-hon s h i b a i nenju-kagami, p. 215, lists s e v e r a l p l a y s t h a t were performed at t h i s time. These i n clude Shichi-henge, a s p e c t a c u l a r dance-drama, which, as the t i t l e suggests, r e q u i r e s the performer to make seven changes of costume—and c h a r a c t e r . T h i s would have p r o v i d e d an exc e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r an a c t o r to d i s p l a y h i s t a l e n t s . V a r i a t i o n s of the work have been performed o f t e n throughout the h i s t o r y of kabuki. 7  gQ  Yamamoto J i r o , K i k u c h i A k i r a , and Hayashi Kyohei, Kabuki j i t e n (Tokyo: J i t s u g y o no Nihon Sha, 1972), p. 206. Chapter I I E a r l y kabuki i n c l u d e s the p e r i o d s of women's (anna), young men's (wakashu), and the f i r s t decade of mature men's (yaro) kabuki. Women's kabuki f l o u r i s h e d d u r i n g the f i r s t q u a r t e r of the seventeenth century, u n t i l women were banned from the stage i n 1629. Young men's kabuki s t a r t e d d u r i n g the time of women's kabuki. I t e s p e c i a l l y f l o u r i s h e d d u r i n g the administ r a t i o n of the t h i r d shogun Tokugawa Iemitsu i n the mid-sevent e e n t h century. T h i s p e r i o d of kabuki' ended when young men were banned from the stage. Mature men's kabuki f o l l o w e d and continues to the present day.  2  — I t was r u l e d t h a t kabuki had t o become monomane kyogen zukushi, which means something l i k e "a more f u l l y developed r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l dramatic a r t form." See Kawatake_j_ Nihon engeki z e n s h i , p. 290• I n h i s K a b u k i - s h i no kenkyu, Kawatake c a l l s the development of kabuki r e b y u - s h i k i no buyo kara sha, j i t s u - t e k i na s e r i f u - g e k i e ( [ a movement] from revue-type dance drama t o r e a l i s t i c drama), p. 383A f t e r 1652 (when young men were banned from the stage) kabuki became known as kyogen. Kyogen, of course, o r i g i n a l l y r e f e r r e d t o the contemporary-set, o f t e n comic p l a y s that were p a r t o f the t r a d i t i o n a l no program. C a l l i n g kabuki kyogen was symbolic of the f a c t t h a t kabuki was being f o r c e d t o become more a c c e p t a b l e i n the eyes o f the a u t h o r i t i e s — a n d s o c i e t y at l a r g e . Today the word kyogen g e n e r a l l y r e f e r s . t o any type o f p l a y .  3  H a t t o r i argues that even without the s t i m u l a t i o n of governmental e d i c t s , kabuki would have developed a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d s t r u c t u r e as a matter o f course. H a t t o r i , "Kabuki: kozo no k e i s e i , " i n Kabuki, V o l . VIII o f Nihon no koten geino, ed. Geino-shi:'Kenkyukai (Tokyo: Heibonsha, 1971). p. 45.  4  A l l evidence, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , dates from a f t e r the Genroku e r a . I b i d . , p. 47. 5 W a t s u j i T e t s u r o has t r i e d t o r e c o n s t r u c t these works by b a s i n g h i s e f f o r t s on l a t e r a d a p t a t i o n s . W a t s u j i , Nihon g e i j u t s u - s h i ' k e n k y u : kabuki t o a y a t s u r i - j o r u r i (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1971), p. 469. ^  "Kabuki: kozo no k e i s e i , " p. 477 — G u n j i , Kabuki, i n Iwanami koza: Nihon bungaku-shi, V o l . V I I I , K i n s e i (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1958), p. 28. The f o u r - p a r t p l a y and f i v e - p a r t p l a y were i n t r o d u c e d i n l696_by_ Ichikawa Danjuro I . _ Nishiyama Matsunosuke, Ichikawa Danjuro (Tokyo: Yoshikawa Kobunkan, i960) , p. 35. g T h i s can be seen even today on the t r a d i t i o n a l - s t y l e kabuki b i l l b o a r d s (kamban) d i s p l a y e d i n f r o n t o f t h e a t r e s . 9 H a t t o r i , Kabuki no kozo, p. 177- . Hattori,  10 See "Haikai p r i n c i p l e s i n 'Nippon E i t a i - g u r a ' " i n G.W. Sargent's i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Ihara Saikaku, The Japanese Family Storehouse, t r a n s . G.W. Sargent (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. P r e s s , 1959). PP- x x i x - x x x i x . 11  1653)86.  For example, Gosan....(1651) o f Matsunaga T e i t o k u (1571H i b b e t t , "The Japanese Comic Linked-Verse T r a d i t i o n , "  12  E a r l Miner, Japanese L i n k e d Poetry, An Account w i t h T r a n s l a t i o n s of Renga and H a i k a i Sequences ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e ton Univ. Press, 1979), p. x. 13 In "The Japanese Comic Linked-Verse T r a d i t i o n , " 81, Hibbett echoes s e k a i and.shuko when he speaks of the p r i n c i p l e s of "change and c o n t i n u i t y " i n l i n k e d v e r s e . J  l U f  I b i d . , 78,  83-  15  — — Ichikawa-Danjuro I, f o r example, on a t r i p t o Kyoto i n l 6 9 , j o i n e d the h a i k a i group of Shiinomoto no Saimaro, and took the name Saigyu. Nishiyama, Ichikawa Danjuro, pp. 3637v  k  1  6  I b i d . , p. 37-  17 — — — _ _ I h a r a T o s h i r o , "Sewa-kyogen no k o s a t s u , " i n h i s Danjuro no s h i b a i (Tokyo: Waseda Daigaku Shuppan-bu, 193^), pp. 308-918 Of course, t h e r e were laws a g a i n s t the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of c e r t a i n contemporary people and events. (See below) 19 — — I h a r a , "Sewa-kyogen no k o s a t s u , " pp. 308-97  20 As i n the case of jidai-mono, t h e r e were r e s t r i c t i o n s on the p r e s e n t a t i o n of some types of m a t e r i a l ( p a r t i c u l a r l y l o v e s u i c i d e s ) , although v i o l a t i o n s of these r e s t r i c t i o n s were common. 21 Sometimes i t i s a l s o s a i d t h a t jidai-mono are "nonr e a l i s t i c / r o m a n t i c " and sewa-mono are " r e a l i s t i c . " Strictly speaking, however, the terms "romantic" and " r e a l i s t i c " do not have much r e l e v a n c e t o kabuki. 22 The s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of Japan d u r i n g the Tokugawa p e r i o d was r e p r e s e n t e d by a f o u r - t i e r c l a s s h i e r a r c h y . Samurai were at the top, f o l l o w e d by the commoners: farmers, a r t i s a n s , and merchants. Jidai-mono, which came f i r s t on a kabuki program, were s a m u r a i - r e l a t e d , and sewa-mono, which came second, were commoner-related. 23 ^ The term "commoner" i n r e l a t i o n t o kabuki mainly r e f e r s t o the a r t i s a n s and merchants who l i v e d i n the c i t i e s where kabuki was performed. Farmers, because they d i d not l i v e i n the c i t i e s , d i d not a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n kabuki ( e i t h e r as audience members--except i n the summer—or as c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t e d i n the dramas). _ A r t i s a n s and merchants made up the newly-emergent townsman (chonin) c l a s s of the Tokugawa p e r i o d .  150  24 H a t t o r i , Kabuki no kozo, p. 178. 25 — ^ G u n j i , Kabuki no hasso, pp. 71-72.  26 G u n j i , l i k e others b e f o r e him, sees Japanese c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y as a process whereby past p r a c t i c e becomes i d e a l i z e d and c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e i n c o n t r a s t i s regarded as imperfect and corrupt. An e x c e l l e n t , o l d e r e x p r e s s i o n o f such an a t t i t u d e i s Yoshida Kenko s Tsurezuregusa (Essays i n I d l e n e s s ) (see Chapter I ) . For Kenko, the i d e a l was the age o f the Heian court. 27 — Another example i s Sambaso, which i s a modoki o f Okina. Inoura, A H i s t o r y o f Japanese Theater Is Up t o Noh and Kyogen, p. 27. 28 Complete! i n 1801, the Kezairoku was t r a n s m i t t e d i n manuscript form u n t i l 1908, when i t was p u b l i s h e d f o r the f i r s t time. There i s some u n c e r t a i n t y about who wrote the Kezairoku: the only c l u e t o the author's i d e n t i t y i s the pen name-palindrome, Nyugatei Ganyu. While i t i s g e n e r a l l y accepted t h a t t h i s i s the s i g n a t u r e o f the minor p l a y w r i g h t Namiki Shozo I I ( ? - 1807) and t h a t i t was he who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the work i n i t s present form, i t i s l i k e l y that the contents r e f l e c t the teachings of Namiki Shozo I (1730-73), Nagawa Kamesuke ( f l . ca. 1765-90), Namiki Gohei I (1747-1808), and other major p l a y w r i g h t s of Shozo_II's day. The K e z a i r o k u i s r e p r i n t e d i n K i n s e i geido-ron, ed. Nishiyama Matsunosuke, et. a l . , Nihon s h i s o t a i k e i , 6l (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1972), pp. 493-532. The passage r e f e r r e d t o i s on pp. 511-12. 1  29  —  S h u z u i _ K e n j i , Kabuki-geki gikyoku kozo no kenkyu (Tokyo: Hokuryukan, 1947), p. 37. 30 — — — Shuzui, K i n s e i gikyoku kenkyu (Tokyo: Chukokan, 1932) p. 3331 — The a u t h o r s h i p o f the Sekai komoku i s u n c e r t a i n , but l i k e the Kezairoku s e v e r a l p l a y w r i g h t s probably c o n t r i b u t e d t o _ i t . _ I t was most r e c e n t l y r e p r i n t e d _ i n Kyogen sakusha s h i ryo-shu (1): Sekai komoku, S h i b a i n e n j u - g y o j i , pp. 7-84. See a l s o s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d "Sekai komoku no s e i r i t s u n e n d a i " _ i n the a r t i c l e "Naimaze t o _ s e k a i ^ by Urayama Masao i n Geino no kagaku, Vol._V o f Geino ronko I I , ed. Tokyo K o k u r i t s u Bunkazai Kenkyujo Geinobu (Tokyo: Heibonsha, 1974),  pp. 103-20. 32  — I i z u k a Tomoichiro,  1928), pp. 495-97.  Kabuki  g a i r o n (Tokyo: Hakubunkan,  3  I i z u k a , Kabuki s a i k e n (Tokyo: D a i i c h i Shobo,  3  1927).  34 Urayama, "Naimaze t o s e k a i , " pp. 108-10. 35 A c c o r d i n g t o Atsumi, " S e i k a i t o t o j o ^ j i m b u t s u , " i n Kabuki zensho, ed. T o i t a Y a s u j i (Tokyo: Sogensha, 1956), I I , 78, the Soga s e k a i has the g r e a t e s t number;of p l a y s a s sociated with i t .  ?6  Barbara Ruch, "Medieval J o n g l e u r s and the Making o f a N a t i o n a l L i t e r a t u r e , " i n Japan i n the Muromachi Age, ed. John Whitney H a l l and Toyoda Takeshi ( B e r k e l e y : Univ. of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1977). PP- 291-92. I b i d . , p. 293. 3  7  3  8  I b i d . , p. 292.  39 — — — ^ Shuzui, Kabuki-geki gikyoku kozo no kenkyu, pp. 36-3740 Okazaki Yoshie r e f e r s t o i n n o v a t i o n s as b e i n g " f r a g mentary" (dampen-teki) at f i r s t and g i v e s the Yaoya O s h i c h i shuko i n the Chujo Hime s e k a i as a p a r t i c u l a r example. Okazaki Yoshie, "Genroku kabuki no s e k a i kozo," i n h i s Nihon bungeigaku (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1935), P- 336. 41 Donald H. S h i v e l y , "Bakufu versus Kabuki," Harvard J o u r n a l o f A s i a t i c S t u d i e s , 18 (1955), 35142 I b i d . , 352. 43 On the same page c i t e d i n note 42 above, S h i v e l y mentions some of the conventions a s s o c i a t e d w i t h name s u b s t i tution. The i n c i d e n t o f the f o r t y - s e v e n m a s t e r l e s s samurai was f i r s t dramatized as part o f the Soga s e k a i , but i t was banned immediately. See Chushingura (The T r e a s u r y of L o y a l R e t a i n e r s ) , t r a n s . Donald Keene (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1971), pp- 3-4. 44 G u n j i , Kabuki no bigaku (Tokyo: Engeki Shuppansha, y  1975), P- 74. 45  cal to  Nakamura Y u k i h i k o , "Modes of E x p r e s s i o n i n a H i s t o r i Context," A c t a A s i a t i c a , 28(1975), 8-10. 46 T h i s second type of i n n o v a t i o n i s sometimes r e f e r r e d i n47Japanese as y a t s u s h i , " d i s g u i s i n g . " Urayama, "Naimaze t o s e k a i , " p. 107.  152  Ibid. 49  For a breakdown of J i s u k e ' s use of s e k a i , see I b i d , pp. 113-14, Chapter I I I As Anesaki Masaharu put i t , "The s o u l was b e l i e v e d to be composed of two p a r t s , one m i l d , r e f i n e d , and happy, the other rough,' b r u t a l , and r a g i n g (the m i l d , nigi-mitama, and the rough, ara-mitama). The former cares f o r i t s poss e s s o r ' s h e a l t h and p r o s p e r i t y , w h i l e the l a t t e r performs adventurous t a s k s or even m a l i c i o u s deeds." Anesaki, H i s t o r y of Japanese R e l i g i o n (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1930), p. 40. 2 — Okakura Yoshisaburo found a c o n n e c t i o n between r e venge and Japanese l o v e of p u r i t y : Many of the s o - c a l l e d mental p e c u l i a r i t i e s of 'the"" Japanese owe t h e i r o r i g i n t o the l o v e of p u r i t y and i t s complementary h a t r e d of d e f i l e ment. But, pray, how c o u l d i t be otherwise, being t r a i n e d , as we a c t u a l l y a r e , t o l o o k upon s l i g h t s i n f l i c t e d , e i t h e r on our f a m i l y honour or on the n a t i o n a l p r i d e , as so many d e f i l e m e n t s and wounds t h a t would not be c l e a n and h e a l up again, u n l e s s by a thorough washing through v i n d i c a t i o n ? You may c o n s i d e r the cases of vend e t t a so o f t e n met w i t h i n the p u b l i c and p r i vate l i f e of Japan, merely as a k i n d of morning tub which a people take w i t h whom l o v e of c l e a n l i n e s s has grown i n t o a p a s s i o n . Quoted by Ruth Benedict i n The Chrysanthemum and the Sword, P a t t e r n s of Japanese C u l t u r e (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1946), pp. 161-62. 3  Soga p l a y s were performed i n Kamigata kabuki by the great a c t o r Sakata Tojuro (1647-1709). See G u n j i , Namari to s u i g i n , p. 16. U n l i k e Ichikawa Danjuro I, Tojuro d i d not have a male h e i r or capable p u p i l t o c o n t i n u e h i s work, which may be one reason why_ Soga p l a y s l o s t p o p u l a r i t y i n the Kamigata area a f t e r T o j u r o died. 4 Ruch, "Medieval J o n g l e u r s and the Making of a N a t i o n a l L i t e r a t u r e , " p. 295. Soga monogatari, ed. I c h i k o T e i j i and Oshima T a t e h i k o Nihon koten bungaku t a i k e i , 88 (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1966),  pp. 5-6._ Among the o r i g i n a l sources of the i n f o r m a t i o n are S h i c h i - . j u - i c h i - b a n uta-awase ( d a t i n g from the e a r l y 1500's) and the no p l a y M o c h i z u k i , i n which a_woman becomes a b l i n d s t o r y t e l l e r and t e l l s how Ichiman Hakoo (Soga Goro) avenged h i s f a t h e r ' s murder. Soga monogatari, p. 7« 7  Among the v a r i o u s e d i t i o n s , the rufu-bon i s o f most i n t e r e s t both t o students of drama and_to r e a d e r s i n g e n e r a l . See G u n j i , "Soga monogatari t o Soga kyogen," E n g e k i - k a i , 8, No. 2 (1950), 5With the b i r t h o f the p u b l i s h i n g t r a d e and the d e v e l opment of a widespread r e a d i n g p u b l i c i n the e a r l y seventeenth century, the Soga monogatari became a b e s t - s e l l e r i n i t s rufu-bon e d i t i o n . By the Genroku p e r i o d , i t had gone through at l e a s t s i x p r i n t i n g s . The e a r l i e s t known one was i n the Kan'ei e r a (1624-41). I t s p o p u l a r i t y i s t e s t i f i e d t o i n an anecdote which r e l a t e s t h a t even courtesans kept c o p i e s o f i t i n the toko-no-ma o f t h e i r rooms. Ibid. Q  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between kowaka--as p r e s e r v e d i n mai no hon t e x t s - - a n d the t e x t s of the Soga monogatari has been of i n t e r e s t t o s c h o l a r s . I t has been s a i d t h a t kowaka are the l i n k between the shin,ji-bon and rufu-bon v e r s i o n s and are p e r h a p s , _ i n f a c t , the d i r e c t source o f the rufu-bon. _ Muroki Yataro, Katarimono (mai, sekkyo, ko-.joruri) no kenkyu (Tokyo: Kazama Shobo, 1970), p. 163. 9  See Kobayashi Shizuo, "Soga monogatari t o kusemai,_|l Koten kenkyu, 6, No. 4 (1941), 2.6-101, and Sakamoto Setcho, "Soga monogatari t o yokyoku," Nogaku, 2, No. 6 (1951), 2-12, and No. 7, 2-13.  10 Soga monogatari, p. 10.  —  For more i n f o r m a t i o n on Shosho and Tora Gozen as s t o r y t e l l e r s , see G u n j i , "Soga monogatari to Soga kyogen," 5T h i s a l s o suggests a p o s s i b l e source o f the e r o t i c , "womanly" i n n o v a t i o n s i n the Soga s e k a i . See Ruch, "Medieval J o n g l e u r s and the Making o f a N a t i o n a l L i t e r a t u r e , " p. 301.  11  —  —  Ihara, Kabuki nempyo, I , p. 3. Y o s h i t e r u (1536-65) was' the t h i r t e e n t h Ashikaga shogun. The o r i g i n a l source o f the i n f o r m a t i o n i s the Kabuki j i s h i ^ r e p r i n t e d i n Kabuki, V o l . VI of Nihon shomin bunka s h i r y o s h u s e i , 87-133, r e l e v a n t passage on pp. 93-94. The Kabuki j i s h i i s an i n t e r e s t i n g though, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , not wholly r e l i a b l e work on v a r i o u s aspects of kabuki h i s t o r y and performance. I t was w r i t t e n by Tamenaga I t c h o and p u b l i s h e d i n 1762.  154  12  ——  Before the time o f Danjuro I, the only dramatic a r t forms t o t r e a t the Soga s e k a i i n an important way were no, kowaka, and k o - j o r u r i . 13 ^ P l a y s f o r which t h e r e i s no r e c o r d o f performance may have been used only f o r c h a n t i n g purposes, a c c o r d i n g t o Tanaka Makoto. M o r e o v e r , _ i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine the number of Soga p l a y s of no u s i n g only the t i t l e s o f p l a y s because some p l a y s w i t h d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s had the same c o n t e n t s . See Tanaka, "Yokypku no haikyoku," i n Nogaku zensho, ed. Nogami T o y o i c h i r o (Tokyo: Sogensha, 1942), I I I , 337-80. 14 See James T. A r a k i , The B a l l a d Drama of' M e d i e v a l Japan ( B e r k e l e y : Univ. of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1964), pp. 133-  39-  15 J  Tanaka,  — — "Soga-mono yokyoku n i t s u i t e , " Hosei, 19,  No. 11 (1943), 73j i ^  Gondo, No no mikata, p. 52. 17 — ' Chobuku Soga has been t r a n s l a t e d by Laurence B r e s l e r i n Monumenta Nipponica, 29, No. 1 (1974), 69-81. 18 Carmen B l a c k e r , The C a t a l p a Bow: A Study o f Shamanistic P r a c t i c e s i n Japan (London: George A l l e n and Unwin, 1975)> p. 175. 19 —— See Nishiyama, Ichikawa Danjuro, pp. 17-18. 7  20 Yo-uchi Soga has been t r a n s l a t e d , by Laurence Kominz i n Monumenta Nipponica, 33, No. 4 (1978), 441-59.  21  A r a k i , The B a l l a d Drama o f Medieval Japan, p. 80. 22 Nimaze no k i i s t r a n s l a t e d by A r a k i as " P o t p u r r i of Records." The r e l e v a n t passage i s on I b i d . , p. 6. 23 S e e , _ f o r example, Takano T a t s u y u k i , Nihon e n g e k i - s h i , Vol.11, (Tokyo: Tokyodo, 1948), pp. 89-132. 24 A r a k i , The B a l l a d Drama o f Medieval Japan, p. 4. 2  5  2  6  2  7  Ibid. I b i d . , p. 13. I b i d . , pp.  136-39.  2Q T h i s scene i s the f o r e r u n n e r of the p l a y Ya no ne Goro.  155  29  — Shimazu Hisamoto, "Kowaka no Soga-mono," Kokugo t o koku-bungaku, 10, No. 4 (1933), 465. "Without w a i t i n g f o r K i m p i r a j o r u r i , without w a i t i n g f o r Danjuro I, aragoto had a l r e a d y begun." 30 — The S e k a i komoku l i s t s about seventy c h a r a c t e r s m the Soga s e k a i . 31 _ Even before Chikamatsu began working w i t h Takemoto Gidayu, he had a l r e a d y i n f l u e n c e l t h e development o f j o r u r i by means o f a work on t h e _ s u b j e c t o f the Soga b r o t h e r s ' r e venge. His f i r s t known j o r u r i p i e c e i s Y o t s u g i Soga. Because t h i s came a f t e r Danjuro I's Soga p l a y s had a l r e a d y reached the kabuki stage, i t i s not necessary t o c o n s i d e r Chikamatsu's Soga p l a y s here. T h i s i s not t o deny, however, t h a t _ h i s treatment o f the Soga s e k a i i s an important t o p i c i n j o r u r i s t u d i e s and i n drama s t u d i e s i n g e n e r a l . Evidence of i t s importance i s the number o f s t u d i e s devoted t o i t . See, f o r example, the e x t e n s i v e treatment o f the_top_ic i n Takano Masami, K i n s e i engeki no kenkyu (Tokyo: Tokyodo, 1941). 32 — U n l i k e kabuki, the s c r i p t s o f j o r u r i were p u b l i s h e d f o r the use o f the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . y  30  3  k  Takano Masami, K i n s e i engeki no kenkyu, I b i d . , p. 39-  p. 36.  35  — — — K o - j o r u r i shohon shu, ed. Yokoyama S h i g e r u (Tokyo: Kadokawa Shoten, 1964), I I , 490. J  _ W a t s u j i , Nihon g e i j u t s u - s h i kenkyu: kabuki t o a y a t s u r i j o r u r i , p. 528. _ _ _ The c y c l e i s r e p r i n t e d i n K o - j o r u r i shohon shu and i s based mainly on e d i t i o n s from the M e i r e k i era (mid-seventeenth c e n t u r y ) , although two works are based on r e p r i n t s from the Genroku e r a . _Watsuji views t h i s c y c l e as an attempt at a s setting Soga j o r u r i i n the f a c e o f the growing p o p u l a r i t y o f Kimpira j o r u r i i n the seventeenth century. The c y c l e i s d i v i d e d i n t o seven p l a y s so t h a t one p l a y may be performed on each o f seven days. J  37 _ See:Gunji; "Aragoto no s e i r i t s u , " i n h i s Kabuki: y o s h i k i t o densho (Tokyo: Gakugei S h o r i n , 1969), p! 16, f o r a r e f e r e n c e t o Soga Goro as the aragoto hero par e x c e l lence . James R. Brandon, W i l l i a m P. Malm, and Donald H. S h i v e l y , S t u d i e s i n Kabuki: I t s A c t i n g , Music, and H i s t o r i c a l Context (Hawaii: The Univ. Press o f Hawaii, 1978), p. 40.  156  39  p. 15— Ibid. See Suwa Haruo, Genroku kabuki no kenkyu (Tokyo: Kasama Shoin, 1967)1 p. 363, f o r an entry s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t i n the Nendaiki. Tachikawa, [Hana no Edo]  Kabuki n e n d a i k i ,  40  2j,i  —  .  —.  . .  The word shitenno (the f o u r tenno) o r i g i n a l l y r e f e r r e d t o the Buddhist d e i t i e s who guarded each o f the f o u r directions. I n Japanese c u l t u r e the-word came t o be a p p l i e d g e n e r a l l y t o any_group of f o u r outstanding personages. Minamoto no Raiko's f o u r tenno are perhaps the most famous shitenno. See Kawatake, Nihon engeki z e n s h i , p. kkO.  ;  43 _•_ ^ I n "Aragoto no s e i r i t s u , " p. 15. Gunji_says that Danjuro I got a " h i n t " f o r aragoto from Kimpira j o r u r i . Tachikawa, l.Haria. no Edo]  Kabuki n e n d a i k i ,  p. 15-  ^5  According t o G u n j i , "Aragoto no s e i r i t s u , " p._l8, t h i s was f i r s t suggested by Yanagita i n h i s essay "Imoto no c h i k a r a . " 46  • H o r i I c h i r o , F o l k R e l i g i o n i n Japan: C o n t i n u i t y and Change, ed. Joseph M.'. Kitagawa and Alan L. M i l l e r (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1968) , pp.. 43-44. 47 For our purposes here, goryo and hito-garni stand f o r e s s e n t i a l l y the same concept. 48 P a r t i c u l a r l y . G u n g i . Mention should a l s o be made here of a n ^ a r t i c l e by Umehara Takeshi c a l l e d "The Genealogy of A v e n g i n g . S p i r i t s , " t r a n s . Susanna C o n t i n i , Diogenes, no. 84 (1974), 17-30, the t h e s i s of which i s t h a t the concept of avenging s p i r i t s forms the b a s i s of Japanese c i v i l i z a t i o n . I t i s a general summary of the ideas of O r i g u c h i Shinobu and h i s d i s c i p l e s . 49 The b e l i e f t h a t a man c o u l d somehow become a god i s a u n i v e r s a l phenomenon: Even i n the conscious p e r i o d there was the t r a d i t i o n t h a t gods were men o f a previous age who had died. Hesiod speaks o f a golden race o f men who preceded h i s own g e n e r a t i o n and became the "holy demons upon the e a r t h , b e n e f i c e n t , a v e r t e r s o f i l l s , guardians o f mortal men." S i m i l a r r e f e r e n c e s can be found up t o f o u r c e n t u r i e s l a t e r , as when P l a t o r e f e r s t o heroes who a f t e r death become the demons that t e l l people what t o do. J u l i a n Jaynes, The O r i g i n o f Consciousness i n the Breakdown o f the Bicameral Mind (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1977) , p. 164.  •5° Ruch, "Medieval J o n g l e u r s and the Making a l L i t e r a t u r e , " p. 306.  of a N a t i o n -  51 P-  73 Hon,  F o l k R e l i g i o n i n Japan! C o n t i n u i t y and Change,  53  bi i ds . ,a l p. TI h t e r7 n a4t. i v e r e a d i n g was suggested t o me m a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h G u n j i . The a n a l y s i s t h a t f o l l o w s , however, i s mine. 5  2  54  Speaking of renewal, i t may a l s o be noted t h a t a t h i r d p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a r a i s "new." J  Ihara, Kabuki nempyo, I, p.  123.  The e x c e p t i o n was Kokon kyodai tsuwamono Soga, which produced i n the t h i r d month. D  was  57  -  Two examples are Tsuwamono kongen Soga, produced I697, and Dainihon t e k k a i s e n n i n , produced i n 1700. Jl  m  Yakusha mannenreki, i n Kabuki hyobanki s h u s e i , ed. Kabuki Hyobanki Kenkyukai (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1973)1 II> 518. 59 J 7  See Chapter I, note  50.  ^ Yakusha mannenreki, 518. ^ Tsuwamono kongen"Soga i s i n c l u d e d i n Genroku kabuki kessaku shu, pp. 55-91. Playbooks are not complete t e x t s . I n s t e a d , they are r e c a p i t u l a t i o n s of p l a y s u s i n g a n a r r a t i v e format, though cont a i n i n g many l i n e s of what seems to be a c t u a l d i a l o g u e . I l l u s t r a t i o n s , of course, are important p a r t s of these works. For twenty pages of ;text s i n Tsuwamono kongen Soga, t h e r e are twelve pages of i l l u s t r a t i o n s showing scenes from the p l a y . More than words, these p i c t u r e s communicate the s p i r i t of act u a l performance.  62  —  Kuzo f i r s t appeared i n _ t h e p l a y i n the r o l e of the mountain p r i e s t (yamabushi) T s u r i k i b o , who, at the end of the t h i r d p a r t of the p l a y , i s transformed i n t o Fudo. I b i d . , p. 56 _ An i n t e r e s t i n g aspect of the i l l u s t r a t i o n of Goro and Fudo i s i t s resemblance to h o n j i - s u i j a k u - t y p e S h i n t o p a i n t i n g s , which d e p i c t a Buddhist d e i t y and h i s S h i n t o _ c o u n t e r p a r t . I f we l o o k at the i l l u s t r a t i o n i n t h i s way, Fudo and Goro can be i n t e r p r e t e d as one and the same. T h i s f u r t h e r strengthens the argument t h a t has been put forward thus f a r . For d i s c u s s i o n s  158  )  of the t h e o r y o f h o n j i - s u i j a k u and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o S h i n t o p a i n t i n g , see A l i c i a Matsunaga, The Buddhist P h i l o s o p h y o f A s s i m i l a t i o n ; The H i s t o r i c a l Development, of the Hon.ji-Sui.jaku Theory (Rutland, Vt.s C h a r l e s E. T u t t l e , 1969), and Kageyama Haruki, The A r t s of S h i n t o , t r a n s , and adapt, hy C h r i s t i n e Guth (New Yorks W e a t h e r h i l l , 1973)64  .  .  .  Nishiyama, Ichikawa Danjuro, p. 18. 5  Ibid.  6 6  Ibid.  6  Chapter IV 1  — — The Miura-ya was an ageya (Kabuki juhachi-ban shu, ed. G u n j i , p. 7 8 ) , a p l a c e where courtesans e n t e r t a i n e d t h e i r guests. Courtesans d i d not l i v e i n ageya.  2  "Sukeroku: Flower o f Edo," i n Kabuki: F i v e C l a s s i c P l a y s , trans.. James R.. Brandon (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , P- 61. 3  I b i d . , pp. 62-63-  ^ I b i d . , p. 69.  5  6 7  I b i d . , pp. 71-72. I b i d . , p. 7 5 . I b i d . , p.  81.  8  Danjuro I I d o u b t l e s s l y worked w i t h one or more p l a y wrights, but t h e i r i d e n t i t y i s t h e s u b j e c t o f much c o n t r o v e r s y . Many suggest T s u u c h i J i h e i I I (1679-1760). ° Atsumi, "Sukeroku no yurai,^_ E n g e i gaho, March 1925, pp. 26-54; r p t . i n , [ K o k u r i t s u G e k i j o ] Joen s h i r y o shu, No. 134 (Jan. 1977) , P.'- 33;' • 1  0  1 1  Ibid. I b i d . , p. 36.  12 See Tachikawa, [Hana no Edo] Kabuki n e n d a i k i , p. 38, which says that t h e r e was a grave o f someone by the name of Hanakawado no Sukeroku (which i s the same as Sukeroku s f u l l name i n the p l a y ) i n the S h i n t o r i g o e l'gyo-in (temple) i n Edo. 1  \  13 — ^ The t h r e e p l a y t i t l e s g i v e n here are o-nadai. In 17^9 the Sukeroku s e c t i o n was performed under the t i t l e Sukeroku kuruwa no i e - z a k u r a , which i s a c t u a l l y the t i t l e o f the j o r u r i p i e c e used as the accompaniment f o r Sukeroku's dance entrance. _ There i s some d i s p u t e about t h e o-nadai t i t l e o f the p l a y t h a t was produced i n 1713Kawatake, Nihon engeki zenshi, p. 513» c a l l s i t Hana-yakata Aigo no waka. 14 The term Edokko i s vague and wide-ranging, and i t appears t h a t t h e best way t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e f l a v o r o f _ i t i s to study Sukeroku. As the M e i j i w r i t e r Sasagawa Rimpu s a i d , "Those who do not understand Sukeroku do not_understand t h e s p i r i t o f Edo." Quoted i n Nishiyama, Edo chonin no kenkyu (Tokyo: Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 1973). I I , 14. 15 Atsumi, "Sukeroku no y u r a i , " p. 37. .4  /  Santo Kyoden, Sukeroku kyogen-ko, i n K i n s e i k i s e k i - k o z u i h i t s u zenshu, Tokyo: Kokumin Tosho,  (1804; r p t . i n Nihon 1929, 17XI., 125-28.)  — — ' Yakusha i r o k e i z u , m Kabuki hyobanki s h u s e i , ed. Kabuki Hyobanki Kenkyukai (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1974), V,  409. Ihara, Kabuki nempyo, I , p. 43519  1  Kawatake, Nihon engeki zenshi, p. 514.  20 For more on the c o n n e c t i o n between kabuki and the gay q u a r t e r s , see G u n j i , Kabuki t o Yoshiwara.  21  —  I h a r a , Kabuki nempyo, I , p. 463-  22 Atsumi, "Sukeroku no y u r a i , " pp. 38-39Ibid. 24 — — In Ichikawa Danjuro, pp. 54-56, Nishiyama p r o v i d e s 2  3  a chart o f Danjuro I I ' s Soga p l a y s . 25 26 2  7  Atsumi, "Sukeroku no y u r a i , " pp. 38-39— Ihara, Kabuki nempyo, I , pp. 463-64. Ibid.  2g Ihara., Kabuki nempyo, I I , p. 186. When Takenojo d i d Sukeroku_in 1733. Danjuro I I p l a y e d S h i r a z a k e - u r i Shimbei/ Soga Juro i n the same p r o d u c t i o n .  160  29  I h a r a , K a b u k i nempyo, I I , p. 3 0 4 ,  30  I b i d . , pp.  511-12.  31  32  K a w a t a k e , N i h o n e n g e k i z e n s h i , p. 563 N i s h i y a m a , I c h i k a w a D a n j u r o , p. 69-  " F l o w e r o f Edo" a p p l i e s t o b o t h S u k e r o k u a n d D a n j u r o . G u n j i ,33K a b u k i t o Y o s h i w a r a , p. 6534 When t h e S u k e r o k u s e c t i o n o f a l o n g p l a y was i d e n t i f i e d by a s e p a r a t e t i t l e , i t u s u a l l y c o n t a i n e d a word i n d i c a ting flower. F o r example, t h e t i t l e o f Sukeroku i n t h e I c h i kawa f a m i l y ' s j u h a c h i - b a n i s S u k e r o k u y u k a r i no E d o - z a k u r a . Z a k u r a ( o r s a k u r a i n i t s u n v o i c e d f o r m ) means c h e r r y b l o s s o m . 35 The u k i y o was t h e w o r l d o f b e a u t y and i m p e r m a n e n c e , and t h e c h e r r y b l o s s o m was i t s s y m b o l . Cherry blossoms come e v e r y s p r i n g , b u t a l m o s t a s s o o n a s t h e l o n g - a w a i t e d f l o w e r s . b e g i n t o bloom the p e t a l s drop t o t h e ground. F l o w e r ( h a n a ) i n t h e c a s e o f t h e o t o k o d a t e was p r i m a r i l y a m e t a p h o r f o r t h e f i g h t s t h a t he engaged i n . T h e s e f i g h t s were, o f c o u r s e , t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s r e s i s t a n c e . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e f u d a s a s h i , f l o w e r does n o t h a v e s o o b v i o u s a m e a n i n g , b u t i f t h e f u d a s a s h i w e r e t h e most s u c c e s s f u l merchant-townsmen, t h e n f l o w e r , w h i c h i s o f t e n u s e d t o connote c o m p l e t e n e s s , i s a p p r o p r i a t e h e r e . 37 O t o k o d a t e c a n n o t be e x p l a i n e d w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o S u k e r o k u . _ D i c t i o n a r i e s s u c h a s Maeda I s a m u , E d o g o d a i j i t e n ( T o k y o : K o d a n s h a , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 2 0 0 , r e f e r ' t o S u k e r o k u i n o r d e r to d e f i n e otokodate• O  Q  O r i g u c h i S h i n o b u , " A k u t a i no g e i j u t s u , " i n T o m i t a lT e et xs su un no os su u kk ee ,, "bS uu kk ee rr oo kk uu yyuukkaarr ii no E d o - z a k u r a : S a i k e n , " K i k a n k a b u k i , No. 1 (1969) , 142-43. ^ G e o r g e Sansom, A H i s t o r y o f J a p a n , S t a n f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1963), p. 60. 3  40  1615-1867  (Stanford:  — — K a b u k i n u h a c h i - b a n s h u , ed. G u n j i , p. 95-  41 T h e r e was a p r o v e r b a s s o c i a t e d w i t h S u k e r o k u w h i c h w e n t : A i t e k a w a r e d o , s h u k a w a r a z u ("Though t h e o p p o n e n t c h a n g e d , t h e p r i n c i p a l was t h e s a m e " ) , m e a n i n g t h a t S u k e r o k u was a l w a y s f i g h t i n g , t h o u g h w i t h d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e . I b i d . , p. 86 42 I b i d . , p. 95-  43 pp.  -  Chushingura (The T r e a s u r y of L o y a l R e t a i n e r s ) ,  lOk-W. 44  _  _  K a b u k i j u h a c h i - b a n shu, ed. G u n j i , p. 9 5 -  45  Aragoto was i n i t s e l f an e x p r e s s i o n of r e s i s t a n c e . Tomita, "Sukeroku y u k a r i no Edo-zakura: S a i k e n , " 133* 46 There was, f o r example, the M e i r e k i f i r e of 1657, i n which more t h a n h a l f of Edo was d e s t r o y e d . See Sansom, A H i s t o r y of Japan, 1615-1867, pp. 61-62. r  47  Nishiyama and T a k e u c h i , Edo, p. 32. ^ "Sukeroku: F l o w e r of Edo," p. 63- The chorus s i n g s : "A headband such as t h i s one i n t i m e s l o n g ago; Spoke t h r o u g h i t s p u r p l e c o l o r of a b i d i n g t i e s . " 48  49  —  .  T o i t a , K a b u k i j u h a c h i - b a n , p. 114. _ 5® T o i t a emphasizes t h a t s i n c e Sukeroku was r e a l l y Soga Goro, i t was o n l y n a t u r a l t h a t t h e i r s t y l e of make-up be t h e same. I b i d . , p. 115y  5  1  5 2  5 3  "Sukeroku: F l o w e r of Edo," p. 66. I b i d . , p.  72.  Ibid.  54  ^ Edo, ed. K a s a i Harunobu (Tokyo: Y o m i u r i Shimbun Sha, 1978), pp. 129-30. 55 T o i t a , K a b u k i j u h a c h i - b a n , ' J p . 11956 Kawatake, Nihon e n g e k i z e n s h i , p. 5155? T o i t a , K a b u k i j u h a c h i - b a n , pp. 104, 118. Tachikawa Emba, Edo m u r a s a k i h i i k i no h a c h i m a k i . M a n u s c r i p t owned by Waseda U n i v e r s i t y ' s E n g e k i Hakubutsukan. M u r a s a k i ( p u r p l e ) and h a c h i m a k i (headband_)_ r e f e r , of c o u r s e , to Sukeroku's p u r p l e headband (which Danjuro wore i n the r o l e ) . Hana no Edo ("Edo t h e f l o w e r " ) i n Tachikawa, :Q.Hana no Edo] K a b u k i n e n d a i k i means both Sukeroku and Danjuro. 59  An example i s Kurodegumi kuruwa no t a t e h i k i by Kawat a k e Mokuami.  162  Postscript  T e r a n a k a Sakuo, " O p e r a t i o n and p r o j e c t s o f t h e N a t i o n a l T h e a t r e , " i n N a t i o n a l Theatre of Japan, t r a n s . Kimura Kimi and K a r a s h i m a A t s u m i ( T o k y o : K o k u r i t s u G e k i j o , 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 12.  2 See  Kabuki: F i v e C l a s s i c  3  Asahi  4  pp.  95-97.  —  A k i y a m a Y a s u s a b u r o , " K o t e n n i c h u j i t s u da Shimbun, Yukan, 12 Nov. 1966, p. 12.  26 Nov. 5  Plays,  —  _  _  "Toshi-kyogen n i genkai-setsu,"  1970, p. 9. Ibid. G u n j i , Namari t o s u i g i n ,  p.  95.  Asahi  ga  'usuaji,'"  • _  Shimbun, Yukan,  163  Select Akiba Y o s h i m i ^ v ^ ^ R . t }H *)&)f^ 'rt Feb. 1930, pp. 1-7-  Bibliography "Keihan no Sukeroku kogyo nempyo" . Engei gekkan •£ fl *1  Akiyama Yasusaburo fc& <U \% =- &} . "Koten n i c h u j i t s u da ga ' usua j i ' " & f r. t-"r > t «*. . Asahi Shimbun, Yukan p , 12 Nov. 1 9 6 6 , p. 12. Uj  Ando Toan mono" \'t H  %to  "Yokyoku oyobi kowaka-mai no SogaUM . Yokyoku-kai jfe & %•  10, No. 6 (1919) , 37- 8. k  Anesaki. Masaharu. H i s t o r y of Japanese R e l i g i o n . Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1930.  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K i k a n k a b u k i b e s s a t s u , No.  "Gashu S u k e r o k u " & f\ 1 ( S e p t . 1969), 188-95.  Appendix I Kabuki Source M a t e r i a l s of the Tokugawa P e r i o d For the puposes of my study, the most important types of kabuki source m a t e r i a l s of the Tokugawa p e r i o d were c r i t i q u e s of a c t o r s and performances (hyobanki), (nendaikiy.and  nempyo) , p l a y b i l l s  on t h e a t r i c a l matters  chronologies  (banzuke) , and w r i t i n g s  (gekisho).  C r i t i q u e s of kabuki a c t o r s and performances i n the c i t i e s - o f Edo, Kyoto, and Osaka were p u b l i s h e d from the middle o f the seventeenth century the Tokugawa p e r i o d .  Although they focus  nique r a t h e r than on the dramatic content  annually  t o the end o f on a c t i n g t e c h of t h e p l a y s ,  they were u s e f u l ( e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of Danjuro I I ' s Sukeroku) f o r f i n d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n Chronologies  1  onrthe;..productions.  are i n v a l u a b l e year-by-year l i s t i n g s of  what was produced i n each major t h e a t r e throughout the Tokugawa p e r i o d .  The most u s e f u l ones where Tachikawa Emba  [Hana no Edo] Kabuki n e n d a i k i , which, i n a d d i t i o n t o i t s annual l i s t i n g s , a l s o c o n t a i n s u s e f u l i l l u s t r a t i o n s and o c c a s i o n a l comments on p l a y s and p l a y e r s , and I h a r a Kabuki nempyo, which was compiled from m a t e r i a l  Toshiro  contained  i n works d a t i n g from the Tokugawa p e r i o d . P l a y b i l l s e i t h e r a d v e r t i s e d p l a y s i n advance of t h e i r opening or were handed out at t h e a t r e s , teahouses, and book  shops at the time of performance.  T h e i r f u n c t i o n was the  same as t h a t of p o s t e r s , h a n d b i l l s , and t h e a t r e today.  programs  Because t e x t s are not a v a i l a b l e f o r many p l a y s of  the Tokugawa p e r i o d , c e r t a i n p l a y b i l l s  ( e s p e c i a l l y those  of the e-hon, or " p i c t u r e book," v a r i e t y , which c o n t a i n summaries of plays) were h e l p f u l i n a s s e s s i n g the contents and dramatic form of p l a y s .  Many p l a y b i l l s have been  duced by Shuzui K e n j i i n Kabuki Writings  repro-  zusetsu.  on t h e a t r i c a l matters cover a v a r i e t y of  t o p i c s and range i n s t y l e from h i s t o r i c a l t o t h e o r e t i c a l . The most u s e f u l ones f o r my purposes were the K e z a i r o k u , the S e k a i  komoku, and the works on the annual p l a y c y c l e .  I a l s o used a number of items i n c l u d e d i n the s i x t h volume (Kabuki) of Nihon shomin bunka s h i r y o s h u s e i , which i s a c o l l e c t i o n of r e p r i n t s of w r i t i n g s on t h e a t r i c a l matters. In l i s t i n g the kabuki source m a t e r i a l s p e r i o d which I employed,  of the Tokugawa  I cannot omit t o mention p r i n t s ,  s e v e r a l of which are reproduced i n the t h e s i s .  Some are  the work of prominent a r t i s t s , who made them e i t h e r t o i l l u s t r a t e w r i t i n g s of the s o r t that are mentioned or made them as independent works of a r t .  above,  Kabuki p r i n t s ,  which s t i l l remain t o be s y s t e m a t i c a l l y s t u d i e d , are an important part of the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e  of Tokugawa Japan.  175  Appendix I I List The l i s t  of Japanese  Terms, Names, and T i t l e s  excludes authors and t i t l e s a l r e a d y i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y .  Abura-uri Shimbei  $  ^ Jfr & Iff  Agemaki ageya  \% If  Aigo  t l  ^  A i z e n Soga  & v.> €'A. 1  akutai  *<>,  aragoto  ^ 7r 11  aragyo  u  ara-hito-garni  7 r ^ ?t  A r a k i Saemon  %„ # £ 'iff PI  u  "f  Araki Yojibei-za  Asagao Sembei ft  Asano  f^^Uf  it $ ?f  ato o dasu  $ L £ ;£ t  Azuma kagami ^ ^ bandachi  ^ IL.  banzuke  % fa It  Benkei bon  £ £ ivC &  1j£P A/L  ara-mitama  Asahina  u  ^  inz^  $5  0  'l$f/fe.  C h i k a m a t s u Monzaemon Chobuku  "1^1  Soga  chonin  A  C h u j o Hime  v  t  ^  2fy  flL  C h u j o Hime k y o - h i n a Chushingura  f  %%i_  >||'  %  D a i d o j i T a h a t a n o s u k e Aj£ daihachi  ^1|f W  i£ f£  X  daitsu  )  V  3f S? X®  T^ifl,  d a i jo Dainihon tekkai  % Q  sennin  ^  % ^>L.  dampen-teki doyo  i - ^  doyo-yasumi Dozaburo  (5!  ^  Edo Handayu  Bushi  It f  3f  7\7\^ It  Edo m u r a s a k i kongen S o g a It  Edo no s a n z a e-iri  kyogen-bon 12  E n ' y a Hangan fudasashi  ^  Fudo Myoo  ^  f <n 3-fii_ JsSi X ^ la  t  ^_ ^  8ft £ . ^  F u j i m o t o Tobun F u k u b i k i Soga  -^j- ^  ^ | ?| ^  Fuku.jin-asobi  ^ —  4  C  ft^JL^^j  F u k u i Yagozaemon ^ |  futa-tateme  %  jl_ %  it %  gekisho  %  gembuku  7u Mil 7C, #l£ ¥  Gembuku Soga Gempeigun  %•  Gempuku Soga (see Gembuku Soga)  %  Gikeiki  j&  H  'jgf  goryo Gosan goze  %  Hanafusa bunshin Soga  73 ^  ^  #  Hanakawado no Sukeroku -fthanare-kyogen "^t, ^  Hana-yakata Aigo no waka Hana-yakata Aigo-zakura  ^  tit ^  Hanshichi hari  36- ^  haru kyogen  ^  jl£ t  hatamoto-yakko hatsu-haru kyogen Hatsumotoyui kayoi Soga ty) "t| hatsu-uma  ^  / ;  f  Heike monogatari  ^f" 'lc % t#  h e n t a i kambun  fa  H i n i n no k a t a k i - u c h i H i r a i Yasumasa  ^  Hisamatsu  ^  hito-garni  ' ^  ^ ff  Q  X  ^  |1  fe^ii^.  honji-suijaku hyobanki  ^  %*\ %l  ichi-bamme kyogen ichidai issei  — % B it f  — 4V  ^ \ 3) "T~ ffi  Ichikawa Danjuro Ichikawa Kuzo  n  M A. jt£  ^  Ichiman Hakoo  —  ~  %a ~£~  Ichimura Hanzaemon  ^ /ft  Ichimura-za  ^ /ft £ .  ichiya-zuke  ~~ %K it  Iga H e i n a i Zaemon i f f?  Ikyu  1*1  ^  5ft /v  (Hige no Ikyu ft  Imagawa shinobi-guruma ^  ima no Sukeroku  ^  itsu-tateme  3L i.  8  Izumi Tayu  £fl &  ^ 7v  <t j$  Izu n i k k i  \f f. 9 I L  jidai  03 ft' % ft},  jo-biraki J o r u r i Gozen #  Juban-giri  #  t I§ I *  f "f %  ^ff  A  ^ I' I A?. tA" ^  $ ±1 ^  I t c h u Bushi  jidai-mono  ^ &  <n £fl 7\  Inoue Harima-no-Jo  Joun  IfJ PI  $ %^^Z,jk_  Ichimura Takenojo  iki  tf\  1£?  /|f  179  juhachi-ban  ~Y /  %  v  Kabuki j i s h i  % \\ # i%  kabuki no seimei  $X % ^% ^  K a c h i d o k i homare Soga  % ft  ^0 f| { l lU  Kagami-yama Kagekiyo  1# \%\ %  |;  k a i dan-mono  ^  ^ ^ i_  kakikae  Kamachi Hyogo-no-kami Akimune  i l l i|t  * t£  Kamakura Gongoro kamban 4 PI £  Kampera Mombei Jf|l  kao-mise  ^  u  kao-mise s e k a i sadame katashiro  ^  Kato Bushi  $S  !?L Ht t£ ?f  ft IS  V*i ^  Kawatake Mokuami  V*i  ?*j &  Kawazu no Saburo Sukeshige K e i s e i Kisegawa tt  V 1  kenka no hachimaki \>  Kenuki kigo  Iff  \*\ $ -  &  "t- «• * -t l» \ 1  ®t 0-  tyf^  \fy  jfp | f  Kikeba mukashi Soga monogatari Kimpira j o r u r i  i¥ ^ 4  ft  (i)'A f i f £Q  kiri-kyogen  <1\ \i- \  ko-joruri  % \%  Kokon kyodai tsuwamono Soga  ^ ?u %  a ft  %  lS  K o k u r i t s u Geki jo ko-nadai  jl  ^  >\- %*  Kondo Sukegoro Kiyoharu ko-shogatsu  i t ft  Ko-sode Soga  f  '1- H  koto-mukei  J§  ^  II  ^  ^7  "7"  Kudo Suketsune  X  Kugami no Z e n j i kumadori  ^  £ $  koten n i c h u j i t s u  kowaka  W £ ftf $ 4-  ft  |$. ^fi  ^ _L ^  ^ ^  j^f<_ ^ '1  Kumasaka monogatari  ^  g%  Kurodegumi kuruwa no t a t e h i k i Kuruma-biki Kusazuri-biki % kyogen .  Q  ^  kyogen o t a t e r u  £  fe  ti-n  kyogen-tsukuri % Bfi 7^  Kyo Sukeroku s h i n j u machi-yakko mae-kyogen  a  mai no hon ^ ^(^I  mai-osame maki-bure  ^  Manko  \%  ^ >I-  Matsunaga T e i t o k u matsuru  ^  5  ^  ^/ ^  / u >  S  ^  $ ^  ^ ^1  181  M e i s e k i Soga mie  To t A£  ^  /u 13  Minamoto no Raiko  ^  ^  Minamoto no Yoritomo v mi-taterne  it 9  Miura no K a t a k a i  £•  ° # ft  Miyako Dennai  ^ j ^ ft  Miyako I t c h u  #f —  Miyamasu  %  a -fcfl  a  21  ™  Mochizuki modoki  5  " i £' *  mono-mane kyogen-zukushi M o r i t a Kan'ya Morita-za  ©  ##  jjsfc ®  & 'tH  ifl  /4  Moronao Mot omasa mukimi  t"  - ?f l\  mu-tateme  JL ^  Nagawa Karnesuke naimaze  %  \*\  "t  Nakamura Kanzaburo Nakamura-za Namiki Gohei  5jL ^  Namiki Shozo  %_ jf j£  Narita-ya  ^£  3L Tf^  if. if  Narukami Fudo Kitayama-zakura nembutsu nempyo  %  ^  ? f f |# ;|t LU ffi  nendaiki  %  il  nenju-gyoji  "rMf^  ^  N e n r i k i y a t a t e no s u g i  ^ ^  — %.  ni-bamme kyogen  fi  n i - b a n tsuzuki-kyogen  Nimaze no k i  I  ^- %  ^"0 ^£p  nigi-mitama  7NIL  ;fj  iff. %.  ^ ^ St. ') 3 l  n i no kawari kyogen nuregoto  i  j  ^  Nyugatei Ganyu A  Oe  >1  Oeyama o-giri Oguchiya Gyou o-ie  ^  kyogen  ^  Oiso no T o r a  0 yf. 0& ^  \  ^  «oy^  Okina O k i n a - t s u k i go-ban-date Okina watshi  y/t L  Okumura Masanobu  ^  Okuni  fc-  fcf  j££ i a  ^•tjLL^^to  % ?a  o-nagori  ^  Onio Shinzaemon  »| %, £  Jff 7i 'if I  onna kabuki Onoe Baiko  £ |j  if)  omo-tadashii-mono o-nadai  7\h  ^  Jl ^  ^  183  Onoe Kikugoro  /t,  O-Soga F u j i k a r i Osome  f>-  J  ^  ^  L  ^  f  1 tf$  jfL  % jjj^  otokodate Otoko-moji  Soga monogatari  jc 3" W ^  ^  &n  o-zume rufu-bon  ^  u  ^  ^  baigyu Sakata no K i n t o k i  ill  Sakata To juro  # fljji. ft?  Sakurada  fl*  ( £ ) fit  ifl  Jisuke  S a k u r a i Tamba no Shojo T a i r a no Masanobu — g?  samban tsuzuki-kyogen  3i- a  — §j j£  Sambaso Sankatsu  san no kawari kyogen  —  ^ »3 '1 3±- 5  Santo Kyoden Sasagawa Rimpu  ''I ^ «  5L £)  satsuki  (4 fl)  Satsuma Dayu  7^  sekai sekku  A-'T  /-i  g^-p 9 j  jinjitsu joshi  _L_  tango  jTi^  tanabata choyo  i f *  lU  ^  184  ^Jp  Semi no nukegara  H" V  <o  h  %, \\> ^ j c  Sendai-hagi  S e n n i c h i - d e r a shin.ju  4" £  ^  Senshuraku Senzai  T /^L  sewa  t £i§  sewa-ba sewa-mono  ^  shibai nenju-gyoji Shibaraku  ^ g7  Shichi-fuku.iin  -t f § f t  Shichi-henge  -L  £  S h i c h i - . j u - i c h i - b a n shokunin uta-awase -t + — § Ijf £ A Shiinomoto  no Saimaro  S h i k i r e i yawaragi  |ff £  Shimbei  ^  Soga 4  A."  S h i k i Sambaso"  %  #7  shinji-bon Jff  Shinshoji  f#.f  Shintorigoe Igyo-in Shiratama  Shitenno  I It  ^  #  'TL iff & 4f T t  i <27 %  £  Shitenno osanadachi shizome  6  Shimbei  shiri-metsurets u hi  ft  f3 3v  Shirazake-uri  shite  % 17  f<C\ %  ®  ?v £  il  shohon  jh  shomin  J»»  &  shosagoto shuko Shusse Kagekiyo  &  Shut en Do.ji  JjSj £  Soga mat s u r i  %  •£|r J  ^  ^  %  %i  Soga monogatari  i%  Soga no Goro Tokimune  ^ 4 £ :£  Soga no Juro Sukenari  ^  -fa -f t} \t?  Sugawara den.ju t e n a r a i kagami Sugawara no Michizane  ^  ^  if-  ^  ^- ^ ' f ^  /f-I^,^ ^ -t, itf 7t  Sugiyama Shichirozaemon ^ Sukeroku  0^  p] 6  f\  jW  Sukeroku kuruwa no i e - z a k u r a  r> /ff  ^ ^  Sukeroku y u k a r i no Edo-zakura  ^"  ^  JL £]HJ, ')  tachi-mawari Tadanohu  Tadanobu mi-gawari monogatari j£. k% 00  Taimen  \5)  Takasago  /fa'jf  Takemoto Gidayu Takenuki^Soga Takizawa Bakin tate  i  tate-sakusha  Y] fa ^ TT ^  f/fc f  jkK #  >X •§  7 tf*  %  Tate-su.ji y o k o - s u j i no koto  %  ffi  ^  '  ^  If \ fe  Terako-ya toji  ?§• -A J«\ "fe 7L.  Tokugawa I emit su  *J f)c  Tominaga H e i b e i  jk t7) fl  Tomokirimaru T o r a Gozen  4^  £  ft o ,J,-  T o r a no Shosho toshi-kyogen  £ <)f7  a  JJL I  Tsurikibo ^'1 t^f" t'k  T s u r u g i sandan  Tsuruya Namboku t | 1 rfi -It Tsuuchi J i h e i  $  tf la £ Iff fu  Tsuwammno kongen Soga tsuzuki-kyogen U j i Kaga-no-Jo ukiyo  1!  ^  &  i t $ih " ^  Ume no Y o s h i b e i Urabe no Suetake  ^  % $C  Usui no Sadamitsu "1 % Ifl  Utagawa Toy okuni Wada sakamori  )J]  Wada Yoshimori wagoto  ^  £,j ffl j | ^  ^qa ^  wakashu kabuki  ^  if ,y *  waki-kyogen Watanabe no Tsuna yado-sagari  V§  ^  vJ* ^ ')  ^  yamabushi  LU uU  Yamamura-za  Y a n a g i t a Kunio  ftfl &  Ya no ne Goro  £  Yaoya O s h i c h i  j \ § ^fc.-fc  yaro kabuki  ID $  o  £ ft?  • ^ ^ ft? ^ -3" * I  yatsushi yayoi  Yorozuya Sukeroku s h i n j u Yoshihide  ^  ^  Yoshitsune  ^1.  Yoshitsune sembon-zakura yo-tateme  @  t  Y o - t s u g i Soga  "t£ fclfc ^  H  Yunzei y o m e - i r i Soga  ^ ^  /ijL ;£i&  zatsu-kyogen  Z e n j i Soga  £lt jfl. t  J|- YT ^  #  $ %  Yuranosuke za-gashira  ^  §  Yo-uchi Soga  Zenchiku  /f. &j) f\ >e.  #  ^  ¥  ^  

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