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Hin und zurück by Paul Hindemith : a production thesis Riley, Douglas V. 1979

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HIN UND ZURUCK BY PAUL HINDEMITH: A PRODUCTION THESIS by  DOUGLAS V. RILEY B. Mus., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f Music)  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 1979 ©  Douglas V i r g i l R i l e y , 1979  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  f u r t h e r agree  for scholarly by h i s of  this  written  fulfilment of  the U n i v e r s i t y of  make i t  British  freely available  that permission  for  the requirements  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  It  is understood that  for f i n a n c i a l gain shall  permission.  Depa rtment The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 -  Columbia  copying or  for  that  study. thesis  purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  or  publication  not be allowed without my  ABSTRACT  Hin und  Zurtick, a s h o r t , one-act opera w r i t t e n i n  by Paul Hindemith, was by Douglas V-  produced, designed, conducted and  R i l e y , i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the  1927 staged  require-  ments f o r a Master of Music degree i n the Department of Music of the U n i v e r i s t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. on a budget of $232.07 and was November 29 and  30,  performed by a student  19 74 i n the Old Auditorium  seats approximately 55 0 people. record of that production and  T h i s opera was  The  following i s a detailed  score.  s e c t i o n c o n t a i n i n g a b i b l i o g r a p h y and p r o d u c t i o n  itself,  on  with the stage d i r e c t o r ' s a n a l y s i s  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the musical  f i r s t chapter  cast  Theatre which  T h i s r e c o r d i s d i v i d e d i n t o seven chapters  The  produced  and  a  final  appendices.  deals w i t h the reasons f o r choosing  the opera  t a k i n g i n t o account the r e s t r i c t i o n s of an opera work-  shop: t h a t i s , a l i m i t e d number of s i n g e r s , young v o i c e s , i n experienced  a c t o r s and  and p r o d u c t i o n .  T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by a s h o r t h i s t o r i c a l  at the composer and t h i r d chapter  the necessary s i m p l i c i t y of the  a t the opera i t s e l f i n Chapter Two.  contains  s p e c i f i c notes on the d i f f e r e n t  proaches to the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the p r o d u c t i o n  and  design look The apa dis-  c u s s i o n o f the o r i g i n and b a s i s of the f i n a l d i r e c t o r i a l concept.  I t also discusses  i n t e l l e c t u a l and  s i d e r a t i o n s d e a l i n g with dramaturgy and t i o n and d i r e c t o r i a l problems.  other a n a l y t i c con-  the p r o j e c t e d produ-  The of  f o u r t h chapter covers the s p e c i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n  the p r o d u c t i o n and the d e t a i l e d f i n a l r e a l i z a t i o n of the  staging.  Cast s e l e c t i o n and  considered.  i t s r e l a t e d problems are  T h i s chapter a l s o i n c l u d e s a scene-by-scene a n a l -  y s i s which covers purpose, a c t i o n s , m u s i c a l l y - d e n o t e d dominant emotions and the p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s therein.  then  T h i s chapter concludes  encountered  with s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s to  aspects o f a c t i n g by young performers. the conductor's  actions,  Chapter F i v e d e a l s with  p e r s o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n as a b a s i s f o r c o - o r d i n a -  t i n g the work both  i n r e h e a r s a l and d u r i n g performances.  The  chapter then d e a l s with a l l other musical c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s to both the performers ence of Hin und  Zuriick.  The  i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chap-  S i x which a l s o d e s c r i b e s the d i f f e r e n t methods of  lighting.  I t concludes  the a u d i -  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d approach to the  p l a n n i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n of the scenery ter  and  stage  with an assessment of the f i n a l  out-  Chapter Seven i s a s h o r t a p p r a i s a l of the e n t i r e  pro-  come .  d u c t i o n from d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of view, i n c l u d i n g a d i s c u s s i o n of  the opera as i t r e l a t e s to the d i r e c t o r / p r o d u c e r .  s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s of a b i b l i o g r a p h y and v a r i o u s from a scene breakdown to the photo-copied score.  The  final  appendices,  r e p r o d u c t i o n of the  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Choosing the Work  1  A B r i e f H i s t o r y of the Composer and the Opera  6  Notes on the P r o d u c t i o n Concept  10  IV  O r g a n i z a t i o n and R e a l i z a t i o n of the P r o j e c t  21  V  Musical Preparation and R e a l i z a t i o n  41  VI  Planning and C o n s t r u c t i o n o f Scenery and L i g h t i n g  48  VII  Final  54  II  Appraisal  Bibliography  57  Appendices: I  Scene Breakdown  60  II  Rehearsal  62  III  Sketches of the Set  63  IV  Coloured Photos of the Set  66  V  Properties  68  VI  Key t o S t a g i n g Symbols  69  VII  Instrument  70  VIII  L i s t of Expenses  72  IX  L i g h t i n g Cue Sheet  73  X  Photo-copied Reproduction of the Score  74  XI  B l u e - p r i n t o f the Set Design  XII  B l u e - p r i n t o f the L i g h t i n g  Schedule  List Schedule  (in pocket)  Design  (in pocket)  V  " A composer's h o r i z o n  cannot be  far-reaching  enough: h i s d e s i r e t o know, to comprehend, must i n c i t e ,  i n s p i r e , and drench every phase  of h i s works. " Paul Hindemith  1  CHAPTER ONE  Choosing the Work  Paul Hindemith composed Hin und Zuruck, or "There and Back", i n 1927.  T h i s one-act opera i s a c o m i c a l melodrama  which e n t e r t a i n s i n a h a l f - s e r i o u s , h a l f - a b s u r d way.  It i s  based on an E n g l i s h revue sketch and the l i b r e t t o was  written  by M a r c e l l u s S c h i f f e r , a c a b a r e t entrepeneur.  While the  mu-  s i c a l language i s d i s t i n c t i v e l y Hindemithian, i t i s l i g h t hearted and quick-moving, and l a c k s the p e n s i v e and o f t e n ponderous complexity o f some o f the composer's w e i g h t i e r compositions.  But Hindemith d i d possess a wry sense of humour,  which i s r e v e a l e d i n much o f the music o f Hin und Zuruck.  This  opera i s a p l a y f u l and d i v e r t i n g comedy, w i t h something o f an o l d - f a s h i o n e d , music h a l l burlesque f l a v o u r .  However,  mith 's treatment of h i s s u b j e c t has an added s a t i r i c a l  Hindeelement.  As w e l l as i t s i n s t a n t a p p e a l , Hin und Zuruck has t i n c t m u s i c a l and dramatic s t r u c t u r e s and a p r a c t i c a l  dis-  small  c a s t : soprano, two t e n o r s , b a r i t o n e , bass, speaker and mime, t h a t i s i d e a l f o r an opera workshop s i t u a t i o n .  Even though the  s t a g i n g can be complex and the pace can be o f t e n f r a n t i c ,  Hin  und Zuruck's l e n g t h and form p r o v i d e an e x c e l l e n t o p e r a t i c veh i c l e as w e l l as a r e a l i s t i c c h a l l e n g e f o r an opera workshop.  I.  2 Hin und  Zuruck i s an i d e a l way  f o r an opera workshop  t o c o n f r o n t some o f the problems and d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t opera workshops o f t e n p r e s e n t .  F i r s t l y , the s i n g e r s i n v o l v e d are  ;  r a r e l y p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t h e i r l e v e l of t r a i n i n g , and there i s o f t e n a g r e a t d i s p a r i t y i n t r a i n i n g between c a s t members. und  Hin  Zuruck has two major r o l e s of equal complexity t h a t are a  c h a l l e n g e t o undertake, ficulty.  Secondly,  as w e l l as o t h e r r o l e s of l e s s e r  t h i s opera c o u l d be e a s i l y  dif-  sectionalized  to accomodate young performers w i t h more c o n c e n t r a t e d s t a g i n g and m u s i c a l r e h e a r s a l s , and a l s o t o a l l o w c o - o r d i n a t i o n w i t h and s c h e d u l i n g of the workshop's o t h e r operas and e x c e r p t s . A t h i r d advantage i s the e x c l u s i o n of an opera chorus and pernumeraries.  su-  Since most opera workshops do not have a t r a i n -  ed opera chorus a v a i l a b l e , t h i s o f t e n becomes a major c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the c h o i c e o f an opera.  Much v a l u a b l e time i s thus  l e f t f o r concentrated work w i t h i n d i v i d u a l i n e x p e r i e n c e d s i n g ing actors. Hin und  Zuruck p r e s e n t s few problems w i t h stage manage-  ment or t e c h n i c a l s t a f f .  T h i s aspect of choosing an opera i s  important and o f t e n overlooked because few workshops have a f u l l - t i m e back-stage  s t a f f ; thus, f r e q u e n t l y the s i n g e r s are  expected to a s s i s t w i t h t e c h n i c a l d u t i e s d u r i n g a c t u a l p e r f o r mances.  As w e l l as performing and c a r r y i n g out t e c h n i c a l  t i e s , the student c a s t may  be expected  du-  to a i d i n s e t c o n s t r u c -  t i o n and p a i n t i n g of the scenery; a l l of which i s time-consumi n g and o f t e n exhausting.  The problem i s compounded when these  same s i n g e r s have important r o l e s i n o t h e r operas and  excerpts  3  which may  be c o n s i d e r e d  The  of a higher  l e n g t h , complexity  priority.  and nature of the work were con-  s i d e r e d to determine i t s p r a c t i c a l i t y und  Zuruck i s r e l a t i v e l y  teen to f i f t e e n minutes. tic,  f o r performance.  s h o r t , with a running  Hin  time from t h i r -  Although the pace i s sometimes f r a n -  exactness i n movement, as w e l l as v o c a l p r o d u c t i o n ,  imperative  is  because the s c e n a r i o r e q u i r e s the second h a l f of  the  opera to run in r e v e r s e to the f i r s t h a l f ; t h a t i s , the p l o t  and  p h y s i c a l movement advance to a p r e c i s e p o i n t where the are then r e q u i r e d to t u r n the a c t i o n s and and  singers  the t e x t backward  undo what they have done e x a c t l y i n r e v e r s e .  A l l of  i s r e g u l a t e d by the exactness o f the music, so t h a t the of t h i s a b b r e v i a t e d accumlative running  opera becomes a complicated  concentrated  production  e f f o r t and  from beginning  one.  this staging  However,  r e h e a r s a l produced a smooth  to end  and v i c e v e r s a .  Opera workshops u s u a l l y f i n d themselves w i t h a  small  o p e r a t i n g budget which allows only f o r the s i m p l e s t of s e t  de-  signs.  and  T h i s s i m p l i c i t y of design  and  c o n s t r u c t i o n methods  a minumum of b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s must y i e l d a s e t t h a t the proper mood and  atmosphere as w e l l as p r o v i d e s  r e a l i s t i c a c t i n g space f o r the performers. simple, and, may  modern design  indeed,  Hin und  an adequate Zuruck's  f u l f i l l e d these requirements of economy  the q u a l i t y and  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the  have been enhanced by the sparse p r o d u c t i o n  production  budget.  Young s i n g i n g a c t o r s o f t e n become o v e r - e x c i t e d sometimes exhausted by the l e n g t h of s t a g i n g , m u s i c a l , t i o n and  achieves  technical rehearsals.  and produc-  To a l l e v i a t e some of these  4  problems, the opera was  double-cast.  T h i s a s s i s t e d the young  performers to develop t h e i r v o c a l p o t e n t i a l without over-extending i t . D o u b l e - c a s t i n g , and musical  coaching  however, i n c r e a s e d the  directorial  duties.  Although the r e q u i r e d o r c h e s t r a i s s m a l l : s i x wind i n struments and  four p l a y e r s at two  pianos,  use a two-piano r e d u c t i o n of the musical cause the complexity,  speed and  And,  indeed,  Firstly,  be-  students  involved  time a v a i l a b l e f o r e x t r a -  curricular orchestral rehearsals.  Secondly, the use of p r o f e s -  r e n t a l fees f o r the o r c h e s t r a l p a r t s would  have overwhelmed an a l r e a d y system was  to  attempt, r e q u i r e  instrumental  i n r e g u l a r ensembles have l i t t l e  s i o n a l p l a y e r s and  score.  decided  d i f f i c u l t y of the o r c h e s t r a l  p a r t s , which were almost beyond a student extra rehearsals.  i t was  s t r a i n e d budget.  T h i s two-piano  used f o r both r e h e a r s a l s and performances, and  v i d e d not only the adequate and  pro-  c o l o u r f u l accompaniment r e q u i r -  ed, but a l s o accomodated the a d d i t i o n a l r e h e a r s a l s needed f o r s t a g i n g with music.  These e x t r a r e h e a r s a l s were e s s e n t i a l be-  cause of the complex r e v e r s e The  opera Hin und  staging.  Zuruck complemented the U n i v e r s i t y of  B r i t i s h Columbia's opera program. b i n a t i o n s of opera excerpts  The  program's format of com-  and one-act operas p r o v i d e s  not  only a p r o f e s s i o n a l opera t r a i n i n g ground, but a l s o an opport u n i t y f o r each i n d i v i d u a l i n the workshop to prepare and  per-  form s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s of s i n g i n g and  und  Zuruck meets t h i s format requirement and  acting.  Hin  a l s o the others  out-  5 lined  earlier.  challenge  T h i s work proved to be a d i s t i n c t  f o r a student  for a thesis  production.  director/producer  and  and  an i d e a l  unique subject  6  CHAPTER  TWO  A B r i e f H i s t o r y of the Composer and the Opera  Paul Hindemith  was  born on November 16,  1895  i n Hanau,  near Frankf urt-am-Main i n c e n t r a l Germany,. where he l i v e d  until  1927.  He s t u d i e d a t the Hoch Conservatory, F r a n k f u r t , where  he was  known as an e s p e c i a l l y g i f t e d student of s t r i n g  ments and composition.  At the age of twenty, he became c o n c e r t -  master of the F r a n k f u r t Opera and was  founder and v i o l i s t  the Amar Quartet, a prominent European s t r i n g q u a r t e t . ved a year i n the German army i n World War In 1927,  instu-  Hindemith  was  He s e r -  I.  i n v i t e d to become composition  p r o f e s s o r a t the Hochschule f u r Musik  (Berlin State  vatory) and taught there u n t i l the r i s e of H i t l e r . N a z i government forbade any performances of what was d i s s o n a n t and degenerate  of  ConserSince the termed  modern music, he l e f t Germany i n  1938  and spent two years i n Turkey. From 1949  to 1953,  Hindemith  was  and composition a t the School o f Music the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  In 1951,  p r o f e s s o r of theory a t Yale U n i v e r s i t y i n  he accepted the p o s i t i o n o f p r o -  f e s s o r of music at Z u r i c h U n i v e r s i t y i n S w i t z e r l a n d w h i l e r e maining  on the s t a f f a t Y a l e , and f o r two  academic years  divi-  ded h i s time between the u n i v e r s i t i e s , e v e n t u a l l y r e s i g n i n g from Yale i n 1953. Blonay,  In t h a t year, he s e t t l e d i n the v i l l a g e of  S w i t z e r l a n d , o v e r l o o k i n g Lake Geneva.  He gave up  regu-  7  l a r r e a c h i n g i n order t o c o n c e n t r a t e on composition and t o f o s t e r h i s new-found enthusiasm f o r c o n d u c t i n g . ber 28, 1963  He d i e d on Decem-  i n F r a n k f u r t , where he began h i s c a r e e r .  Hin und Zuruck was  premiered a t the Baden-Baden F e s t i v a l  which superseded the Donaueschingen  f e s t i v a l , on J u l y 17,  T h i s p a r t i c u l a r f e s t i v a l of new music  1927.  f e a t u r e d t h r e e o t h e r one-  a c t operas; Die K l e i n e Mahoganny, a s a t i r i c a l s k i t by Kurt W e i l l ; Die P r i n z e s s i n auf der Erbse by E r n s t Toch, and the world premiere of L'Elevement Darius Milhaud.  d'Europe  - 'opera minute' by  Many o f these operas, and e s p e c i a l l y Hin und  Zuruck, were i n f l u e n c e d by 'a small c u l t u r a l movement i n Germany a t t h a t time c a l l e d Z e i t k u n s t or " a r t o f the time".  This  term was w i d e l y used i n the l a t e r 1920's, and d e s c r i b e d popular works t h a t g l o r i f i e d c e r t a i n contemporary  subjects with w e l l -  known themes and t r e a t e d them i n a contemporary style.  These operas combined  and e n e r g e t i c  popular m u s i c a l idioms such as  m u s i c - h a l l , j a z z , revue and c a b a r e t tunes w i t h t e x t s on contemporary themes.  Hin und Zuruck i s a l s o an example o f the  m i n i a t u r e type o f opera i n vogue i n the 1920's, which  reacted  a g a i n s t the massive dimensions o f the music dramas o f Wagner and S t r a u s s .  Hindemith's l i b r e t t i s t , M a r c e l l u s S c h i f f e r ,  was  a v a r i e t y show producer and v a u d e v i l l e w r i t e r "... and a l e a d i n g f i g u r e of B e r l i n c a b a r e t o f the 1920's - a f a c t which e x p l a i n the opera's s u b t i t l e o f 'sketch'".  will  A  1 Ian Kemp, Hindemith, Oxford S t u d i e s o f Composers Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970), p. 21.  (London:  8  Hin  und Zuruck i s a s p a r k l i n g , l i t t l e  mestic murder.  spoof about a do-  The lady o f the house i s c o n f r o n t e d by her hus-  band when he f i n d s a note claimed t o be from her m i l l i n e r but in  f a c t from her s e c r e t l o v e r .  A f t e r an exchange o f v e r b a l  u n p l e a s a n t r i e s between the j e a l o u s husband and h i s spouse, he shoots h e r .  In a f i t o f remorse,  leaps out o f the window, presumably his  orderly  he bemoans the s i t u a t i o n and t o h i s death.  e n t e r , the Doctor pronounces  take the dead w i f e out on the s t r e t c h e r .  A d o c t o r and  h i s v e r d i c t and they This s e r i e s of i n -  t e n s e l y over-dramatic scenes i s i n t e r r u p t e d by a benevolent "deus ex machina" who d e c l a r e s t h a t something  should be done.  He p o i n t s out t h a t t r u t h i s opposed t o man d e s t r o y i n g h i m s e l f over t r i f l i n g human emotions.  A c c o r d i n g t o h i s l o g i c , i t makes  no d i f f e r e n c e whether a man begins h i s l i f e  i n the c r a d l e and  proceeds t o h i s death o r moves i n the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n . A f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g t h i s , he m a g i c a l l y r e v e r s e s the order o f the p r e c e d i n g events.  The l i b r e t t i s t ' s r e v e r s a l o f t h i s t r a i n o f  events i n v o l v e s i n v e r t i n g the o r d e r o f sentences r a t h e r than of  words so t h a t the sentences r e t a i n l i n q u i s t i c sense.  The  husband jumps back i n the window, the d o c t o r and o r d e r l y back in  c a r r y i n g the dead w i f e , a l l the events r e v e r s e themselves,  thus ending the opera as i t began. A f t e r mid-point, Hindemith's  music  "does not m i r r o r  the a c t i o n t o the extent o f going i n t o s t r i c t r e t r o g r a d e canon but r e v e r s e s the order o f i t s themes, movements and s e c t i o n s thus i n v o l v i n g an o p e r a t i o n which does r e q u i r e some d e l i c a t e  9  grafting."  2  T h i s amusingly f l i p p a n t m a t r i m o n i a l tragedy, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the s a t i r i c a l t e n d e n c i e s f a s h i o n a b l e i n Germany i n the 1920's, was w r i t t e n by Hindemith a t the o v e r l a p p i n g stage o f h i s E x p r e s s i o n i s t i c and N e o - C l a s s i c p e r i o d s .  Like  most o f h i s music a t t h i s time, i n c l u d i n g the s l i g h t l y  later  Neues vom Tage  (1929), the music o f Hin und Zuruck i s j a z z - l i k e  and l i n e a r i n t e x t u r e , and i s w e l l - s u i t e d to i t s l i v e l y  action.  Hindemith a l s o composed f o r the cinema and o r c h e s t r a t e d the music f o r the c a r t o o n F e l i x the Cat a t the C i r c u s , which was  shown i n the s e c t i o n of the 1927 Baden-Baden F e s t i v a l s e t  a s i d e f o r f i l m music. und Zuruck was  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the i d e a f o r Hin  suggested by contemporary  f i l m techniques.  s i d e r i n g t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , Morton S i e g a l , i n the 1940  Con-  produc-  t i o n a t the B e r k s h i r e Music Centre, staged Hin und Zuruck i n the s t y l e o f the e a r l y movie comedies.  The s e t and p r o p e r t i e s  were b l a c k and white, as were the complementing make-up.  costumes  and  The a d d i t i o n of f l i c k e r i n g strobe l i g h t s heightened  the impression o f a p r o d u c t i o n o f an e a r l y movie and helped t o emphasize  the r e v e r s e d body movements.  Hin und Zuruck proved t o be a " t o u r de f o r c e " i n Germany and around the world.  The American premiere took p l a c e i n  P h i l a d e l p h i a i n 192 8, and i t was Tanglewood  subsequently performed a t  i n 1940 and i n London, England i n 1958, as w e l l as  by c o u n t l e s s u n i v e r s i t y opera workshops and by p r o f e s s i o n a l opera companies  s i n c e then.  2 Donald Jay Grout, A Short H i s t o r y o f Opera Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), p. 547.  (New  York:  10  CHAPTER THREE  Notes on the P r o d u c t i o n Concept  Opera b r i n g s groups o f people  together f o r d i f f e r e n t  reasons; perhaps they wish t o enjoy the a e s t h e t i c experience of  an a r t i s t i c  performance o r t o understand  and a p p r e c i a t e a  s p e c i f i c composer's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a fragment o f l i f e . opera  For  students, however, opera p r o v i d e s the c h a l l e n g e s o f  understanding  the composer's mental p r o c e s s e s , o f c r e a t i n g  o r i g i n a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s and o f l e a r n i n g t h a t most e x a c t i n g type o f s e l f - i m p o s e d dramatic  and m u s i c a l d i s c i p l i n e : the opera  role. For the s i n g e r and p r o d u c e r / d i r e c t o r , the p r o d u c t i o n of  Hin und Zuruck helps develop  a c r i t i c a l , c r e a t i v e and o r -  i g i n a l approach t o every p r o d u c t i o n problem.  The approach t o  producing H i n und Zuruck g e n e r a l l y takes the f o l l o w i n g form: an i n t e l l e c t u a l a n a l y s i s ; a n a l y t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s based on the i n i t i a l dramatic  impressions upon r e a d i n g o f the m u s i c a l  dramaturgy and some p r o d u c t i o n problems; and the myriad  score; other  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t the d i r e c t o r must face p r i o r t o and d u r i n g the r e a l i z a t i o n o f the p r o j e c t . In the i n t e l l e c t u a l a n a l y s i s , a few q u e s t i o n s have t o be answered s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . opera?  Why d i d Hindemith compose t h i s  Some o f h i s main reasons were based on h i s a s s o c i a t i o n s  w i t h the l i b r e t t i s t ,  Marcellus S c h i f f e r .  When the work was t o  11  be performed i n a s e r i o u s music f e s t i v a l , Hindemith and S c h i f fer  had t o t u r n what was r e a l l y an E n g l i s h revue sketch i n t o  an o p e r a t i c form.  The opera Hin und Zuruck was p r i m a r i l y com-  posed then as c o n s c i o u s l y i m a g i n a t i v e entertainment w i t h a p e c u l i a r i n s i g h t i n t o a f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n which was of: a part i c u l a r c o m p e t i t i v e q u a l i t y and proved t o be a success a t the Baden-Baden F e s t i v a l . fer  The c o l l a b o r a t i o n of Hindemith and S c h i f -  a l s o proved t o be a success i n a subsequent opera, Neues  vom Tage, composed i n 1929. What are some o f the opera's dramatic, t h e a t r i c a l and musical values?  The opera i s presented i n a mock-serious form,  where i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s are almost as important as the  development  and r e v e r s a l df the p l o t i t s e l f .  The music  moves q u i c k l y i n a l i g h t - h e a r t e d manner which i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t r a s t t o the mock t r a g i c theme.  This musical contrast i s  f u r t h e r r e f l e c t e d i n the m u s i c - h a l l and burlesque themes, which were r e f l e c t e d on the stage i n our p r o d u c t i o n . The major and minor climaxes are of p a r t i c u l a r dramatic value. est to  There are a number o f c r i t i c a l moments when the i n t e r -  climaxes i n each scene. emphasize  However, t h i s d i r e c t o r chose not  s p e c i f i c climaxes and c o n c e n t r a t e d , i n s t e a d , on  a steady b u i l d i n g o f dramatic i n t e n s i t y i n which each scene i s dependent upon the two a d j a c e n t ones. of  One e x c e p t i o n i s the end  the c o n f r o n t a t i o n scene where there i s a d e f i n i t e  namely, the husband  crisis;  shoots the w i f e , and i t s c o u n t e r p a r t , which  might be c a l l e d the a n a - c r i s i s , i n the opera's second h a l f . Both c r i s e s were presented w i t h the same i n t e n s i t y .  The c l i -  12  maxes i n the c o n f r o n t a t i o n scene were e a s i l y emphasized  be-  cause the c r i s e s i n v o l v e d were so d r a m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o the music t h a t the s i n g e r s p r o j e c t e d n a t u r a l l y the c o r r e c t volume, i n t e n s i t y , movement and o t h e r necessary stage The  first  techniques.  impressions a f t e r i n i t i a l m u s i c a l r e a d i n g s  and  subsequent impressions both a f t e r e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h and as the p r o j e c t progressed were q u i t e d i f f e r e n t .  The b e t t e r p a r t s of  a l l three s e t s of impressions were u t i l i z e d i n the f i n a l z a t i o n o f the p r o j e c t .  The opera was  reali-  seen by the d i r e c t o r  d e f i n i t e l y a b s t r a c t w i t h a c a r n i v a l - l i k e opening,  and  as  with  j a z z - c a b a r e t themes h i g h l i g h t e d i n the music. The d i r e c t o r a l s o used h i s p r e l i m i n a r y dramatic s i o n s i n a few i n d i v i d u a l scenes. drama o f the c o n f r o n t a t i o n scene  impres-  For i n s t a n c e the p r o p e l l i n g i n Scene 4 (pp. 8-11)  which  g e n t l y subsides a t the end i n t o a more t r a n q u i l , f l o w i n g scene suggests a type of w i l d l y animated storm. doctor  (Scene  5, pp.  The  scene w i t h the  12-13) has the heavy rhythmic accents of  a death march which suggest w a i l i n g and d e s p a i r . era's mid-point,  At the  op-  the harmonium accompaniment t o the Sage's  austere but c o m i c a l appearance e s t a b l i s h e s a g h o s t l y and somewhat s p i r i t u a l e f f e c t .  Many such scenes  i s being r e p r e s e n t e d as t o t a l l y absurd. to  r e f l e c t many of these dramatic The  s e t design was  s i o n s of geometric  The d i r e c t o r  impressions on  sought  stage.  i n f l u e n c e d by c e r t a i n f i r s t  shapes w i t h accents on Cubism and  because the opera was tic  suggest t h a t r e a l i t y  impresangles  composed d u r i n g a time when these  i n f l u e n c e s were r e f l e c t e d more o f t e n i n d a i l y l i f e .  artisPaint-  13  ings and  other  forms of geometric a r t were being r e l u c t a n t l y  accepted  by the p u b l i c at t h i s time along w i t h  of m i l d l y d i s s o n a n t  music l i k e Hin und  forms of a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n s t r a c t absurdism of Hin und angles  some examples  Zuruck.  These a b s t r a c t  c o u l d be a s s o c i a t e d with the Zuruck.  ab-  As a. r e s u l t , the i d e a of  and  geometric shapes was  incorporated  The  next step i n the a n a l y s i s was  i n t o the s e t  de-  sign.  the c h i e f a c t i n g problems i n the opera. of the opera, the c h a r a c t e r ' s  to i s o l a t e some of Because of the  i d e n t i t y was  by a c c e n t i n g p a r t i c u l a r mannerisms and  rapidly established  d i s t i n c t i v e movements  t h a t might be emphasized by the c h a r a c t e r ' s fuzzy, pink house coat, f r i z z y blond wig  costume.  and  the  movements which these a r t i c l e s i n s p i r e d helped e f f e r v e s c e n t nature.  f a c i a l expressions  were c o n s i d e r e d  Helene's  exaggerated  to accent  In some cases where d i s t i n c t  i n mood were r e q u i r e d throughout one  length  scene, the  her  contrasts  character's  as the most important f a c t o r  not to the p o i n t of c o n t o r t e d o v e r - a c t i n g but d i s t i n c t enough to be q u i c k l y c o n v i n c i n g to the audience.  In-depth conferences  about these c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s were s t a r t e d w i t h the a c t o r s at this point. *  They were then augmented by  subsequent  research  i n t o the time and p e r i o d of the opera's idebut as w e l l as c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of the o r i g i n a l s e t t i n g and  properties.  A few p r e l i m i n a r y movement problems had e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n to the r e v e r s e d opera.  Each set o f staged  h a l f of the opera had  by  to be  considered,  a c t i o n s r e q u i r e d i n the  forward movements w i t h i n the  to be s t r i c t l y analyzed  first  and p r e c i s e l y  14  rehearsed  i n order to f a c i l i t a t e the c r e a t i o n of the r e v e r s e  movements needed i n the opera's second h a l f .  Each scene  was  found to be s h o r t enough to accommodate these' r e h e a r s a l s and each s e t o f forward and r e v e r s e movements was  o f t e n rehearsed  without music u n t i l f l u i d i t y of a c t i o n s became second to  the a c t o r s , who  c o u l d then concentrate on more  nature  important  matters. The c a s t ' s movement w i t h i n the stage s e t t i n g came d u r i n g l a t e r r e h e a r s a l s when the s e t was c i a l a t t e n t i o n was  naturally  complete.  p a i d to the forward and backward  entrances  and e x i t s through doorways and p a r t i c u l a r l y to Robert's l e a p i n g out and i n through  the window.  a c t of  Working props posed  few problems i n h a n d l i n g and the only a n t i c i p a t e d was  Spe-  difficulty  the choreographic movement of the c o n f r o n t a t i o n scene be-  tween Helene and Robert, which i n v o l v e d the l e t t e r and the p i s tol.  The performer's  necessary  breath c o n t r o l and the p h y s i c a l stamina  f o r the performances were c o n s i d e r e d a t an  stage and the performers  were asked  early  to move about q u i t e v i -  g o r o u s l y d u r i n g the e a r l y m u s i c a l r e h e a r s a l s p r i o r to f i r s t blocking.  Other problems r e l a t e d to s e t and  s t a g i n g were d e a l t  w i t h d u r i n g l a t e r r e h e a r s a l s and w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n subsequent c h a p t e r s . Many c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were i n v o l v e d i n the view of Hin und  Zuruck.  dramaturgical  The compressed nature of the s t o r y  means t h a t there are no s u b - p l o t s c o - e x i s t i n g w i t h the main theme.  T h e r e f o r e , the main climax i s the r e v e r s a l of the p l o t  i t s e l f and the p e c u l i a r e f f e c t s t h a t r e s u l t .  Although  the  15  opera has apparent s o c i a l and moral overtones which comment wryly on f a m i l y l i f e ,  i n f i d e l i t y and t h e i r u l t i m a t e unimpor-  tance i n the moral h i e r a r c h y o f human events, the simple comic elements  were emphasized a t a l l times i n our p r o d u c t i o n .  The d i r e c t o r i a l concept was p r i m a r i l y v i s u a l w i t h a c i n e m a t i c emphasis, t h a t s t r e s s e d the s a t i r i c a l and humorous elements  o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r f a m i l y encounter.  The d i s t i n c t  moods o f the music helped t o d e p i c t and emphasize the stage action.  The opera has a d e f i n i t e m u s i c a l form w i t h some c l a s -  s i c a l i n f l u e n c e s i n the w e l l - d e f i n e d a r i a s , duets and t r i o s . T h i s c l a r i t y o f form helped the d i r e c t o r ' s understanding o f the opera and h i s formation o f a simple and workable d i r e c t o r i a l concept.  B o r i s Goldovsky  states:  The s t a g i n g o f an o p e r a t i c scene i n v o l v e s f i v e s t e p s : (a) The d i r e c t o r f a m i l i a r i z e s h i m s e l f w i t h the p l o t , the music, and the s c e n i c s e t t i n g o f the e n t i r e opera, (b) He analyzes the scene i n q u e s t i o n and t i e s up whatever l o o s e ends may have been l e f t by the l i b r e t t i s t , (c) He t r i e s t o p e n e t r a t e the i n n e r l i f e o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s and t o read t h e i r minds, paying s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i r thoughts, which take p l a c e d u r i n g the o r c h e s t r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n s , i n t e r l u d e s , and p o s t l u d e s . (d) He c o n v e r t s a l l t h e i r thoughts, whether spoken or s i l e n t , i n t o a c t i o n impulses, (e) He sees t o i t t h a t the a c t i o n he s e l e c t s f o r h i s mis-en-scene matches as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e the mood, energy, t i m i n g and form of the e x i s t i n g music. ^ It  i s the d i r e c t o r ' s task t o r e a l i z e on-stage  the f u l l  t h e a t r i c a l value o f t h i s " i n n e r l i f e o f the c h a r a c t e r s " f i r s t c r e a t e d by the composer.  The d i r e c t o r must help the i n d i v i d u a l  s i n g i n g a c t o r t o determine what c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i s necessary  3 B o r i s Goldovsky, B r i n g i n g Opera t o L i f e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1968), p. 327.  (New York:  Apple-  16  to e x t e r i o r i z e the c h a r a c t e r and t o make i t v i s i b l e and comp r e h e n s i b l e t o the beholder.  He must s e t up c l e a r and workable  reasons f o r the s i n g i n g a c t o r ' s m o t i v a t i o n s ; whether they be i n t e l l e c t u a l reasons or emotional urges.  While  i t i s essential  t h a t the s i n g e r s t h i n k and f e e l i n c h a r a c t e r , under the d i r e c t o r ' s guidance, t h e i r thoughts and emotions must be p r o j e c t e d to the audience and movement.  f o r c e f u l l y and c l e a r l y w i t h meaningful a c t i o n s A t the same time, the d i r e c t o r must d e v i s e a  p a t t e r n o f movement t h a t s a t i s f i e s h i s a r t i s t i c  feeling for  u n i t y , d i v e r s i t y and b a l a n c e - j u s t as the composer s t r i v e s f o r a harmonious m u s i c a l  form.  A c o n s c i e n t i o u s d i r e c t o r should a l s o c o n s i d e r whether or not h i s s t a g i n g concepts c o i n c i d e w i t h those o f the o r i g i n a l c r e a t o r s and he should then d i r e c t h i s a c t o r s a c c o r d i n g l y . Every attempt was made by t h i s d i r e c t o r t o r e - e s t a b l i s h the p o i n t o f view which c r e a t e d the o r i g i n a l Hin und Zuruck. Other aspects o f d i r e c t i o n c o n s i d e r e d a t t h i s time were f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the p r o j e c t i o n o f the appearance and the behaviour o f the performer: i n c l u d i n g p o s t u r e , f a c i a l s i o n , g e s t u r e , placement  expres-  w i t h i n the s c e n i c p i c t u r e , and move-  ment i n r e l a t i o n t o scenery, props, o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s and l i g h t ing.  In theory, these elements  may be s u b j e c t t o the stage  d i r e c t i o n s g i v e n by the composers and the l i b r e t t i s t s , but i n r e a l i t y they d i f f e r from performance  t o performance,  depending  upon the s c e n i c background and upon the i m a g i n a t i o n and t a l e n t of the stage d i r e c t o r and the performers.  Much o f t h i s  infor-  mation was given as c h a r a c t e r a n a l y s i s i n the e a r l y m u s i c a l and  17  blocking  stages o f the p r o d u c t i o n .  This information  was imparted t o the performer as a  sequence: e x p l a i n i n g what happens, o r the p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n s and movement r e q u i r e d f o r a scene; i n d i c a t i n g when i t happens, or a t what p o i n t d u r i n g the scene; q u e s t i o n i n g or the m o t i v a t i o n ;  and then help may be g i v e n , by i l l u s t r a t i o n  with how i t happens. perienced  why i t happens,  I t o f t e n takes some time before  an inex-  s i n g i n g a c t o r can move and a c t independently on stage.  He o f t e n cannot f r e e l y c r e a t e without some a s s i s t a n c e , so t h a t the stage d i r e c t o r must immediately help t o f r e e the s i n g e r from the b a s i c concerns o f what t o t h i n k , where t o go, when t o r e a c t and a t what speed t o perform an a c t i o n .  The performer  can a s s i m i l a t e these d i r e c t i v e s d u r i n g the e a r l y r e h e a r s a l s and is s t i l l  free to b u i l d a believable, v a l i d c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n .  J u s t as the author and the composer f r e e the s i n g e r from the n e c e s s i t y o f i n v e n t i n g words and tunes, the d i r e c t o r ' s i n f o r mation and b a s i c d i r e c t i v e s encourage the performer t o devote a l l o f h i s energies  t o b u i l d a given c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i n t o a  unique and meaningful r o l e . T h i s concept of the d i r e c t o r ' s r o l e was sometimes found to be c o n t r a d i c t o r y . information, other  Sometimes, w h i l e imparting  t h i s necessary  he had t o be an a u t h o r i t a r i a n f i g u r e w h i l e a t  times he had t o be a democratic group-leader  ideas and b u i l d i n g s e l f - r e l i a n c e . c a s t w e l l i n order  eliciting  A d i r e c t o r must know h i s  t o a d j u s t h i s methods a c c o r d i n g l y  person and the s i t u a t i o n .  t o the  Since he i s i n a p o s i t i o n o f power,  he must l e a r n t o use t h a t c o n t r o l f o r the good o f the opera and  18  not f o r h i s own r e c t o r has has  aggrandizement.  to p l a n the p r o d u c t i o n  a s o l u t i o n f o r any  l e a d e r , he has mers and  As an a r t i s t - l e a d e r , the d i i n every d e t a i l so t h a t  problem t h a t may  to i n s p i r e others  arise.  But  he  as a group-  so t h a t they grow as p e r f o r -  as people.  The  f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t o r i a l notes helped  well-rounded and workable p r o d u c t i o n (A) I t was  i n developing  concept:  obvious although most of the opera's  i s determined by the tempo and  a  i n t e n s i t y of the music,  pacing the  on-stage a c t i o n can bey r e t a r d e d or a c c e l e r a t e d as .required w i t h i n the tempi of the musical t i o n of h i s own  framework.  The  director's contribu-  ideas can thus be added to the o r i g i n a l s t r u c -  ture . (B) The  s i n g i n g a c t o r s were encouraged to pantomine the  d i f f e r e n t scenes. of l e a r n i n g and  This provided  the s i n g e r s with a good method  p e r f e c t i n g the s p e c i f i c stage techniques  q u i r e d i n the opera without having nique.  The  t i v a t e d and  to worry about v o c a l  performer c o u l d then concentrate  tech-  on m u s i c a l l y  c o r r e c t l y timed stage movements and  (E) E s p e c i a l l y to the novice  re-  mo-  actions.  s i n g i n g a c t o r , the d i r e c t o r  c o u l d not i n s i s t enough on the importance of p r a c t i s i n g the v a r i o u s v o c a l , musical  and  theatrical skills  u n t i l they became  automatic. (F) T h i s d i r e c t o r of Hin und  Zuruck t r i e d to a v o i d  r o l e of e i t h e r of the two  extremes of stage d i r e c t o r .  The  first  i s not w e l l prepared and who  too  i s the d i r e c t o r who  literally  f o l l o w s only those suggestions  o f f e r e d i n the  the  score.  19  He does not c r e a t e or i n t e r p r e t e the score i n t h e a t r i c a l and o f t e n merely a c t s as prompter and t r a f f i c cop. type i s the d i r e c t o r who  The  terms, other  i s over-prepared; he knows the work  so w e l l , i s i n such a hurry, and i s so f i x e d i n h i s ideas t h a t he a c t s out every r o l e and i n s i s t s t h a t he be i m i t a t e d lutely.  Although the l a t t e r approach was  found to be  w i t h some s i n g e r s , the former method leads t o a without spark or s p o n t a n e i t y , which may to achieve that confidence i n h i s own  absonecessary  performance  not a l l o w the  performer  c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y which i s  e s p e c i a l l y v a l u a b l e i f the events on stage do not progress a c t l y as  ex-  planned.  (E) C e r t a i n stage d i r e c t i o n s r e q u i r e d the  incorporation  of s p e c i f i c symbols t o i n d i c a t e p a r t i c u l a r movement and p h y s i cal attitude.  A complete  symbol l i s t  i s c o n t a i n e d i n Appen-  d i x V. (F) In a d d i t i o n t o the s c o r e , a d i a r y c o n t a i n i n g thoughts about l i g h t cues, sound e f f e c t s , i d e a s on c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s , m o t i v a t i o n and stage "business", diagrams of movement and groupings, and d e f i n i t i o n s of words or phrases  proved  most h e l p f u l d u r i n g the p r o d u c t i o n as w e l l as i n the w r i t i n g of t h i s p r o d u c t i o n t h e s i s . (G) The use of a t e l e v i s i o n camera and a video-tape r e corder i n r e h e a r s a l enabled the c a s t to get an a c c u r a t e , i f p a i n f u l , view of how  they were p r o j e c t i n g t h e i r c h a r a c t e r s .  The use o f these d e v i c e s underscored what the d i r e c t o r had been saying d u r i n g r e h e a r s a l s , but the l e a r n i n g came from a more p e r s u a s i v e source; the performer h i m s e l f .  In Hin und  Zuruck,  20  t h i s d e v i c e was  e s p e c i a l l y h e l p f u l to the performer  i n master-  i n g the r e q u i r e d r e v e r s e movements. The  accumulation  of the p r e c e d i n g d i r e c t o r i a l notes,  cepts and a n a l y t i c approaches over a lengthy p e r i o d of  time  p r o v i d e d the d i r e c t o r w i t h the confidence to proceed w i t h project.  With a l l these ideas c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d , the  con-  the  detail-  ed o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the p r o d u c t i o n and f i n a l r e a l i z a t i o n of the staging could begin.  21  CHAPTER FOUR  Organization  and R e a l i z a t i o n  of the P r o j e c t  An e x t e n s i v e essary before  a n a l y s i s o f the l i b r e t t o and music was nec-  c a s t i n g c o u l d take p l a c e .  The E n g l i s h t r a n s l a -  t i o n by Marion Farquhar proved t o be adequate, and the a c t u a l words posed no problems although some vowels proved  difficult  on s p e c i f i c p i t c h e s f o r many o f the young s i n g e r s .  As w e l l as  the o v e r - a l l t e s s i t u r a , the i n d i v i d u a l v o c a l l i n e s were s t u d i e d to evaluate notes,  difficulties  r e l a t i n g t o l e n g t h o f phrase,  i n t e r v a l s and v o c a l l e a p s .  specific  However, the proposed work  i s not o v e r l y d i f f i c u l t and most o f the problems were overcome by the p r a c t i c e and p e r s i s t e n c e o f the s e l e c t e d performers. Other v o c a l and musical P r o f i c i e n c y i n musical  problems were then  considered.  t i m i n g and rhythm i s r e q u i r e d not only  because much o f the work i n v o l v e s c o n s t a n t l y changing meters, but a l s o because the emphasis i n the work i s on s h o r t c o l o u r a t u r a - l i k e phrases.  staccato,  (See example 1)  Because the performer was asked t o c o o r d i n a t e s t a g i n g and exact movement with  s p e c i f i c musical  specific  values  mings, much i n t i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n was given t o a p p r o p r i a t e ing.  and t i cast-  I t was necessary a l s o t o a n t i c i p a t e the d i f f i c u l t y f o r the  performer to move backward i n accompaniment t o the r e t r o g r a d e o r der o f the music, so t h a t he would appear as n a t u r a l as i n the  22  Example 1  (Kin und  - e a r l i e r forward movement.  Zuruck - p.  T h i s was  t o memorize the music q u i c k l y  and  the  character  f l u t t e r y and  energetic  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  ability  and  t o remember  staging.  For  example,  The  including  ability  required,  the  vivacious,  to p r o j e c t  t o move q u i c k l y both forward and  as the music d i c t a t e d was and  a l s o r e l a t e d t o the  of Helene as  traits.  10)  accurately  the p h y s i c a l movements used i n the d i r e c t o r saw  7, Number  these  backward  as w e l l as many o t h e r  vocal  m u s i c a l demands. A f t e r the many m u s i c a l , v o c a l and  f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d , c a s t i n g was  begun.  d r a m a t i c a s p e c t s were  The  University  of  British  Columbia opera workshop programme p r o v i d e d enough t a l e n t f o r the p r o j e c t . was  found t h a t d o u b l e - c a s t i n g o f Helene's p a r t  p o s s i b l e , making the p r o d u c t i o n of the work somewhat more  involved and  I t was  and  c o m p l i c a t e d , but  providing  c r e a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e f o r both the performers and  ducer/director.  The  d o u b l e - c a s t i n g of t h i s p a r t ,  produced a c o m p e t i t i v e s p i r i t which had developed i n t o a c o n s t r u c t i v e for  the maximum l e a r n i n g  the  r o l e of Robert was  not  force.  t o be  pro-  however,  anticipated  Since a tenor  enrolled  the  and  suitable  i n the opera program,  23  considerable filled  search was  by a robust,  r e q u i r e d , and  the p a r t was  eventually  young s i n g e r with a more than adequate  v o i c e but w i t h l i m i t e d a c t i n g e x p e r i e n c e .  The  r o l e : o f the-  Doctor i s b r i e f although important i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a  strong,  l e a d i n g v o c a l l i n e i n the ensemble p a r t s . Since  the music moves i n a r a t h e r f r e n e t i c manner, the  performers i n the major r o l e s were g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e d to adapt q u i c k l y to the s u b t l e v a r i a t i o n s demanded by each performance; for  example, a p i e c e o f stage business was  taneously  during  a performance.  pected to p e r c e i v e  and  often created  An adaptive  spon-  performer was  ex-  u t i l i z e these s u b t l e changes i n a con-  s t r u c t i v e manner. The  next step was  characterizations.  the formal  development of i n d i v i d u a l  I t i s the stage d i r e c t o r ' s duty to have  c l e a r concepts of i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s i n s i g h t and  a l s o to allow  knowledge of the work to guide the s i n g i n g  i n the development of t h e i r r o l e s . characters,  and  actors  In the development of  the  the d i r e c t o r must s t r e s s t h a t the f i r s t o b l i g a t i o n  of a conscientious  s i n g i n g a c t o r i s a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s of  opera's t e x t .  l i b r e t t o contains  The  about s c e n i c d e s c r i p t i o n and  t o r ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n order  valuable  stage d i r e c t i o n .  must i n t e r p r e t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n  and  The  information The  to c r e a t e a c h a r a c t e r  s i n g i n g a c t o r must then allow h i m s e l f  of the c h a r a c t e r .  l i b r e t t o helps  ideas upon which the c h a r a c t e r  the  performer  combine i t w i t h the d i r e c -  c l e a r , p r e c i s e , b e l i e v a b l e and w e l l - p r o j e c t e d The  his  that i s  to the  audience.  to t h i n k the  to p r o v i d e  those  i s r e q u i r e d to comment.  thoughts initial However,  24  there.are  a l s o important thoughts and f e e l i n g s , which are  subsequently i n c o r p o r a t e d by:  research;  i n t o the c h a r a c t e r ,  that are i n s p i r e d  the s i n g e r ' s n a t u r a l day-to-day process o f t h i n k -  i n g ; the s i n g e r ' s r e c o l l e c t i o n o f past experiences, and  other  should  l e s s c l e a r l y - d e f i n e d images.  feelings  A l l o f these aspects  u n i t e t o c r e a t e a deeper and more meaningful  character-  ization . In some cases the s i n g i n g a c t o r should be encouraged t o w r i t e a complete biography o f h i s c h a r a c t e r ,  i n c l u d i n g h i s past  l i f e and p r o j e c t i n g a l l the events not shown on-stage o r i n the t e x t .  The d i r e c t o r then helps him t o c r e a t e  and  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c movement and m o t i v a t i o n  can  convey c l e a r a t t i t u d e s and emotional s t a t e s .  sketch  meaningful  so t h a t the a c t o r A  follow-up  can help t h i s performer f u r t h e r e n r i c h the c h a r a c t e r i z a -  t i o n and convey s u b t l y t o the audience t h a t the opera's charact e r has an o f f - s t a g e l i f e which continues on stage.  As w e l l as these b i o g r a p h i e s  on from the one seen  and c h a r a c t e r  from other p l a y s and operas, the s i n g i n g a c t o r should to study, and perhaps r e - c r e a t e  studies be asked  i n d i v i d u a l s they have encoun-  t e r e d who may give a f u r t h e r i n s i g h t t o the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . The  d i s p a r i t y o f experience i n the c a s t o f H i n und  Zuruck c r e a t e d  s p e c i a l problems i n the p l a n n i n g  and movement on stage.  o f the a c t i o n  There was l i m i t e d r e h e a r s a l time t h a t  c o u l d be a l l o t t e d f o r s p e c i a l s e s s i o n s  t o r a i s e the a c t i n g l e -  v e l o f the l e s s experienced t o t h a t of the more accomplished. O c c a s i o n a l l y a few e x t r a s e s s i o n s were scheduled f o r the d i s cussion of character  development through c l a r i f y i n g kinds o f  25  movement; i n t h i s case, the forward s t a g i n g and i t s r e v e r s e ; simple but d i s t i n c t i v e e x p r e s s i v e p o s t u r e ; mannerisms and c l a r i t y of vocal projection. h e l p f u l i n the f i n a l  Such e x t r a s e s s i o n s proved very  analysis.  The primary approach was  to develop an i d e a o f each o f  the seven c h a r a c t e r s o f the opera and then to adapt and the e x i s t i n g s k i l l s o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n such a way best achieve these b a s i c concepts.  as to  With the guidance of the  d i r e c t o r , the most important emphasis was  on expanding the na-  t u r a l p e r s o n a l i t y o f the s i n g i n g a c t o r to form an complete  broaden  and e f f e c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n .  individual,  The f o l l o w i n g i s a  thumbnail s k e t c h o f each o f the c h a r a c t e r s i n Hin und  Zuruck  which serves o n l y as a b a s i s o f the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . Robert  - s t r o n g , p e r s i s t e n t , doubting, a g i l e , prone t o the melodramatic, t w e n t y - f i v e years o f age.  Helene  - vivacious, energetic, f l u t t e r y , agile, prone t o e x a g g e r a t i o n , e f f e r v e s c e n t , a b i t f l i g h t y , twenty years of age.  Aunt Emma  - s e n i l e , deaf, e c c e n t r i c , happy, seventy years o f age.  Sage  - p h i l o s o p h i c , wise, haunting, c o m i c a l , calm, a b i t monotonous i n tone, a g e l e s s .  Doctor  - incompetent, slow, p r e c i s e , sad, t h i r t y years o f age.  Orderly  - robot-like, eccentric, inept, gent, t h i r t y years o f age.  Maid  - n a i v e , bubbly, a g i l e , e i g h t e e n years o f  unintelli-  age. The c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f the Maid i s minimal, as her  functional  r o l e c o n s i s t s o n l y of d e l i v e r i n g a note to Helene, and the m u s i c a l score d i d not a l l o w her more than a b r i e f  introduction.  26  The b r e v i t y o f the score allowed o n l y b a s i c i z a t i o n , often only v i s u a l .  chracter-  In some cases, the c h a r a c t e r s .  were exaggerated l i k e those i n the "Commedia d e l l ' a r t e " .  Hin  und Zuruck's dramatic p l o t combines a b e l i e v a b l e s i t u a t i o n and a t o t a l l y absurd one.  The g e s t u r e s were not q u i t e  "semaphoric"  but the performers were d i r e c t e d "to t h i n k o f m a g n i f i c a t i o n " . These gestures remained each emotion  c l e a r and meaningful, and expressed  d i s t i n c t l y enough t o be remembered by the a c t o r  so t h a t they c o u l d be a l s o executed i n r e v e r s e .  Other  views  of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n the scene-byscene  analysis. The opera was then broken down i n t o workable  scenes.  Each scene was c l a s s i f i e d by the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : a n a t u r a l m u s i c a l o r dramatic break; the i n t r o d u c t i o n o r change o f the l e a d i n g c h a r a c t e r s ; and one s p e c i f i c complex encounter o f characters.  Each d i s t i n c t m u s i c a l o r dramatic scene was i s o -  l a t e d when i t was necessary t o c o n c e n t r a t e on movement, charact e r i z a t i o n o r stage b u s i n e s s . i n Appendix I .  A deeper  T h i s scene breakdown i s i n c l u d e d  scene-by-scene  a n a l y s i s o f the a c t u a l  p r o d u c t i o n i s presented l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . Once a l o g i c a l s e r i e s o f scenes was decided upon, a r e h e a r s a l schedule was drawn up by c o n s i d e r i n g the f o l l o w i n g questions:  Is t h e r e enough time f a i r l y a l l o t t e d t o those  who are double-cast? d l e the  Is the schedule f l e x i b l e enough t o han-  i n e v i t a b l e i l l n e s s or absences  o f performers?  Will  i t accomodate the s c h e d u l i n g o f other operas and e x c e r p t s on the same program?  Does i t take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the occa-  27  s i o n a l u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of those performers who o t h e r works?  are i n these  Does i t g i v e the d i r e c t o r enough time to rehearse  the sequence of scenes i n o r d e r to draw the f u l l p o t e n t i a l the p r o d u c t i o n and i t s members?  Does the proposed  from  schedule  a l l o w enough time f o r s e t and prop c o n s t r u c t i o n , l i g h t i n g  and  t e c h n i c a l r e h e a r s a l s ? When these q u e s t i o n s were answered, the workable  r e h e a r s a l schedule was  Before c r e a t i n g the b a s i c  drawn up.  (See Appendix II)  " b l o c k i n g " or p l a n n i n g the  a c t i n g a r e a s , a s e t w i t h a workable  ground-plan was  needed.  Based on the p r o d u c t i o n concepts of the d i r e c t o r and the budgetary r e s t r i c t i o n s of the opera workshop, a s e t was  conceived  which a l s o took i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the f o l l o w i n g : what the l i b r e t t o and score r e q u i r e d ; the s i z e o f the a u d i t o r i u m ; and the d i r e c t o r ' s and performer's f i r s t m u s i c a l and dramatic  im-  p r e s s i o n s of the opera. The l i b r e t t o r e q u i r e d a l i v i n g room, two e n t r a n c e s , a p r a c t i c a l , breakable window, a t a b l e and c h a i r , a r o c k i n g c h a i r and a s m a l l end-table w i t h a drawer where a gun i s kept.  The  s i z e o f the a u d i t o r i u m suggested the s e t should be a t l e a s t twenty  f e e t high and twelve f e e t deep to both accomodate the  performer's a c t i o n and t o be v i s u a l l y a c c e p t a b l e to the a u d i ence.  The d i r e c t o r ' s f i r s t  impressions of the opera  a c i r c u s - l i k e atmosphere; some magical happenings;  included:  and absurd  r e a l i s m ; a l l of which should combine w i t h the music  to c o n t r i -  bute t o the form o f the s e t . The  i n i t i a l s k e t c h i n Appendix I I I (p. 63)  combines  these ideas simply, w i t h a main entrance f o r Helene  upstage  28  c e n t r e , an i n t e r i o r entrance stage r i g h t and a window stage left.  The w a l l s and r o o f were t o be made o f s m a l l polyfoam  b a l l s on e l a s t i c s t r i n g s and the s t r i n g s were t o be connected both t o the r o o f and t o the f l o o r . the s e t was t o be exaggerated  F o r the f i r s t  five  minutes,  l i k e the p l o t , and s t r e t c h e d  upwards and s l i g h t l y t o the s i d e s o u t o f p r o p o r t i o n .  In the  second h a l f o f the opera, the s e t would s e t t l e back t o i t s original  shape.  A f t e r the d i r e c t o r d i d c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h i n t o H i n demith's l i f e , p h i l o s o p h y , ideas and o t h e r music, i n t o the times and a r t i s t i c  as w e l l as  i n f l u e n c e s surrounding the f i r s t  p r o d u c t i o n o f Hin und Zuruck,  he formed a new concept which  u t i l i z e d a b s t r a c t F u n c t i o n a l i s m , geometric and p a r t i c u l a r i l y angular shapes, Cubism, F u t u r i s m and Expressionism, which was still  an important i n f l u e n c e .  E a r l y 20th-century d e s i g n was  based on f u n c t i o n a l i s t d e s i g n which " . . . o f t e n t r i e d t o prove t h a t geometric  shapes were f u n c t i o n a l , t h a t i s , comfortable, 4  inexpensive and easy t o m a i n t a i n and f a b r i c a t e . "  This design  movement i n c l u d e d the separate movements o f Futurism, Cubism and C o n s t r u c t i v i s m .  Although these movements had d i f f e r e n t  l e a d e r s , they shared the same concept o f a b s t r a c t design with "... undecorated 5 the machine age ..."  functional  and geometric o b j e c t s s y m b o l i z i n g  and their a r t tended t o be  smooth-surfaced  and made out o f i n d u s t r i a l m a t e r i a l s such as s t e e l , aluminum, 4 Ann Ferebee, A H i s t o r y o f Design from the V i c t o r i a n E r a to the Present, (London: Van Rostrand Reingole & Co., 1970), p.78. 5  I b i d . p. 78  29  rubber and e a r l y forms o f p l a s t i c . Appendix I I I (pp. 63-64) t r a c e s the search f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s which combine the many d e s i g n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  I t shows  the concept o f angles as an i n t e g r a l d e s i g n f a c t o r and the development o f the i d e a s .  The f i n a l design i l l u s t r a t e d i n the  c o l o u r e d photographs i n Appendix IV (pp. 66-67) shows the f i n a l r e - t h i n k i n g o f these set-concepts w i t h the a d d i t i o n o f a s t y l i z e d house-top. developed  As a r e s u l t , the ground-plan  on page 65 was  and the i n i t i a l b l o c k i n g and s t a g i n g began.  30  Scene-by-Scene A n a l y s i s  -The d i r e c t o r d i v i d e d the opera i n t o scene complexes (see  Appendix I) f o r t h r e e reasons.  F i r s t l y , each b r i e f  scene  r e p r e s e n t s a dramatic o r m u s i c a l e n t i t y s t a r t i n g w i t h : an ent r a n c e o f one o r more c h a r a c t e r s ; an a r i a , duet, o r t r i o ; o r a complete  change o f dramatic mood.  Such s p e c i f i c  divisions  helped both the s i n g e r and d i r e c t o r a l i k e t o understand and analyze the dramatic requirements o f the opera. Secondly, these b r i e f scenes a s s i s t e d the s i n g i n g a c t o r and the d i r e c t o r i n the dramatic s t a g i n g o f the opera.  Each  scene r e q u i r e d s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s o r a s e r i e s o f movements .to be completed.  However, as the second h a l f o f the opera i s musi-  c a l l y s h o r t e r than the f i r s t h a l f , many o f the r e q u i r e d r e verse movements needed t o be executed a l i t t l e more q u i c k l y . D i v i d i n g the opera i n t o scenes meant t h a t the performer had t o complete  h i s movement w i t h i n a g i v e n scene d e s p i t e the m u s i c a l  d i f f e r e n c e s o f the opera's two h a l v e s .  The s c e n i c d i v i s i o n s  chosen by the d i r e c t o r not o n l y helped i n h i s study and unders t a n d i n g o f what movements were r e q u i r e d but a l s o helped t o i n d i c a t e when these movements should occur,, t a k i n g i n t o any m u s i c a l d i s p a r i t i e s .  account  T h i r d l y , the system o f s h o r t s c e n i c  d i v i s i o n s a s s i s t e d i n the c r e a t i o n o f r e h e a r s a l schedules w i t h in  the opera workshop programme. After a l i v e l y introduction  duces the f i r s t  scene  (pp. 3-4), the music  intro-  (pp. 4-6). The changing meter p a t t e r n s  31  of  the music and the emphasis on accents i n d i c a t e s extreme  activity.  As the c u r t a i n opens, Aunt Emma i s found i n the l i -  v i n g room, r o c k i n g and k n i t t i n g h a p p i l y i n her r o c k i n g c h a i r by the window.  A t measure 62, she sneezes.  Hindemith's music  i s i n d i c a t i v e o f the sneeze w i t h a crescendoing tremelo sures 57-61) which suggests the i n t a k e o f a i r and the ed s y l l a b l e s "ah, ah, ah", the f o r t e and mezzo-forte and the d i m i n i s h i n g s t a c c a t o run the sneeze i t s e l f .  (mea-  reiteratchords,  (measures 62-64) suggesting  The two s y l l a b l e s "Ah-Choo" as w e l l as the  a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n s should be c l e a r l y enunciated i n order t o facilitate  the r e v e r s a l o f these a c t i o n s and s y l l a b l e s i n the  second h a l f o f the opera. seen by the audience,  Since these are the f i r s t a c t i o n s  they should be v i s u a l l y c l e a r , l a r g e  enough and d i s t i n c t i v e enough t o c e n t r e the audience's a t t e n t i o n on the a c t i o n so t h a t i t can comprehend immediately the events on stage. Helene e n t e r s through  the c e n t e r doorway and p l a c e s a  rose i n a vase a l r e a d y on the t a b l e .  The music suggests her  walk and her movements are quick and a g i l e . Aunt Emma and bundles her up w i t h a shawl. c a r e f r e e tone o f v o i c e corresponds  She acknowledges Helene's happy,  t o the f l o w i n g melody  line,  while the accented and s t a c c a t o accompaniment i s p a r a l l e l e d by Helene's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y exaggerated, lively  d a n c e - l i k e walk and  gestures. Helene's a r i a i n Scene Two (pp. 6-7) b u i l d s dynamically  from a p i a n i s s i m o t o an e v e n t u a l f o r t i s s i m o .  Her movements and  v o c a l e x p r e s s i o n are i n i t i a l l y r e f i n e d and g r a d u a l l y i n t e n s i fy u n t i l her f i n a l G# a t measure 109.  During the beginning  32  measures (80-88), she c r o s s e s q u i c k l y over t o the t a b l e ,  sits,  c a s u a l l y pours her cup o f t e a and s i n g s c h e e r f u l l y about being awake and r e f r e s h e d ; "Now l i k e new I wake .  The music  slowly i n t e n s i f i e s and a t measure 92, the accompaniment  then  alter-  nates w i t h Helene's melody l i n e as she stands and t o a s t s the morning.  Both the melody and the accompaniment crescendo as  Helene, w i t h hands and napkin f l u t t e r i n g . , moves e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y around the t a b l e i n an exaggerated s e r i e s o f d a n c e - l i k e steps. Many o f these steps are emphasized  by s t r o n g f o r t e  chords and accents; f o r i n s t a n c e , the chords i n measures 104106  suggest a s e r i e s o f quick steps as Helene c r o s s e s downstage  c e n t e r f o r the a r i a ' s f i n a l e .  U t i l i z i n g the music as a " s t a g -  i n g " medium, the a l t e r n a t i o n o f these q u i c k s t e p s w i t h t h e accompaniment and her sudden pauses as she s i n g s the s t a c c a t o phrases p r o v i d e a comic  choreography.  Scene Three begins w i t h Robert's entrance 109)  on two accented f o r t i s s i m o chords.  Helene  (p. 7 -measure i s surprised  to have her husband home from work so e a r l y and i s v i s i b l y , agitated.  Robert's a c t i o n s are s w i f t and d e c i s i v e as he p r e -  sents Helene w i t h a b i r t h d a y g i f t and Aunt Emma w i t h a p a r c e l . M u s i c a l l y , t h i s scene g r a d u a l l y slows down as Helene opens her package and i s o b v i o u s l y d i s a p p o i n t e d by her g i f t langsamer).  During the f o l l o w i n g pause, the Maid e n t e r s w i t h  a note f o r "Madame". prehensively.  (measure 121 -  Helene and Robert look a t each other ap-  The dissonance o f t h i s fermata  (a B  against  a B ?) supports t h i s t e n s i o n , which f i n a l l y r e s o l v e s with the 1  33  l i v e l y , p r o p e l l i n g music o f Scene Four. It of  should be noted here t h a t c e r t a i n important aspects  the opera must be e s t a b l i s h e d i n the f i r s t  few scenes i n  order t o s e t the mood and g e n e r a l tone o f the opera. first  t h r e e scenes o f H i n und Zuruck,  In the  the u n p r e d i c t a b l e and  l i v e l y mood i s supported by the d i s s o n a n t and s p i r i t e d Hindemith's is  music.  h i g h l y rhythmic, accented and u n p r e t e n t i o u s score  f u l l o f m u s i c a l c o n t r a s t s which not o n l y s u s t a i n the l i v e l y  on-stage  a c t i o n but a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s u b t l e a l l u s i o n s t o a j a z z -  l i k e s t y l e w i t h h i s c h o i c e and use o f o r c h e s t r a l instruments, most o f which were i n c l u d e d i n a 1920's j a z z band.  A l s o , these  opening scenes should p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n i n a d i s t i n c t i v e and memorable way about the dramatic q u e s t i o n s : who, what, when, where and why. "An expert a c t o r i s a person who i s a b l e t o communicate a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f thoughts, moods and emotional s t a t e s t o h i s audience  ... an expert opera s i n g e r i s a person who, i n a d d i -  t i o n t o these s k i l l s ,  has a w e l l - t r a i n e d v o i c e and a c o n s i d e r 6  able knowledge o f music."  A c o n s c i e n t i o u s a c t i n g student  a l s o s t r i v e s f o r these s k i l l s . to  I t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r a performer  have a c l e a r and v i v i d understanding o f the m o t i v a t i o n behind  every a c t i o n he c r e a t e s . To be c o n v i n c i n g , h i s a c t i o n s must have p e r s o n a l m o t i v a t i o n r a t h e r than be a c t i v i t i e s  performed  merely because they have been notated i n the score or arranged by the stage d i r e c t o r . 6 B o r i s Goldovsky,  One can i n v a r i a b l y t e l l when a performer  B r i n g i n g Opera t o L i f e , p. 17.  34  i s e x e c u t i n g a stage movement out o f i n n e r compulsion and s i n c e r e c o n v i c t i o n , o r when he i s merely  following directions  and making a "move". Important  a l s o t o a student's performance i s the q u a l i -  t y o f c l a r i t y , the i n g r e d i e n t t h a t allows the happenings onstage t o not o n l y be a u d i b l e and v i s i b l e , but when h i g h l i g h t e d a l s o allows the audience's  a t t e n t i o n t o be c o n c e n t r a t e d on the  c h a r a c t e r s and events t h a t c a r r y the main dramatic burden. audience's  The  a t t e n t i o n must be p r i m a r i l y drawn t o the l e a d i n g ac-  t i o n and o n l y s e c o n d a r i l y t o the u n o b s t r u s i v e background actions.  For i n s t a n c e , d u r i n g her a r i a  (pp. 6-7), Helene's dance-  l i k e steps downstage should never be overshadowed by Aunt Emma's simple gestures o f k n i t t i n g and r o c k i n g . Scene Four  (pp. 8-11) begins w i t h the dramatic  t a t i o n between j e a l o u s husband and g u i l t y w i f e .  confron-  Robert wishes  to read the note and q u e s t i o n s the i d e n t i t y o f i t s author, who i s Helene's l o v e r .  The p r o p e l l i n g motion o f the music i s c r e a t -  ed by the many crescendo-diminuendo phrases and the continuous s t a c c a t o and accented e i g h t h notes i n the accompaniment, w i t h the q u a r t e r note a t the metronomic r e a d i n g o f 18 6. 160,  the use o f tremelo adds t o the excitement  A t measure  o f the on-stage  a c t i o n as the couple snatch the note back and f o r t h i n comic choreography w h i l e Robert presses the q u e s t i o n o f the a u t h o r s h i p . At the h e i g h t o f t h i s scene, the w i f e f i n a l l y d e c l a r e s t h a t the note i s indeed from her l o v e r .  Robert then produces a p i s t o l  and shoots Helene who m e l o d r a m a t i c a l l y f a l l s , descending  s t a c c a t o l i n e i n the score  accompanied by a  (measures 200-203).  35  The  tempo d r a s t i c a l l y changes a t the s t a r t of Scene F i v e  (p. 12, T e r z e t t ) w i t h the downward g l i s s a n d o of the trombone suggesting the s i g h s and  lamentation of Robert.  comes ponderous and march-like  The music  be-  (number 17, langsam) as the  Doctor and h i s O r d e r l y e n t e r unrequested T h i s scene p o r t r a y s comic pathos  with a stretcher.  as the O r d e r l y takes a  few  b o t t l e s out of the Doctor's bag and i d e n t i f i e s them i n a r o b o t l i k e way.  The Doctor examines Helene and d e c l a r e s t h a t "there's  nothing I can do" as he p l a c e s a l i l y The m u s i c a l t r i o i s completed h i s repentence  i n Helene's f o l d e d hands.  when the r e m o r s e f u l Robert  f o r h i s a c t o f murder.  While the m u s i c a l  sings lines  of Robert and the Doctor double each other i n octaves, the d e r l y ' s m u s i c a l l i n e drones on throughout dal point.  Or-  the t r i o l i k e a pe-  The meter s p o r a d i c a l l y a l t e r n a t e s from 3/4  to  4/4  w i t h each beat of the 4/4  measure accented.  few chromatic  and harmonic changes help c r e a t e a  suspensions  t e n s i o n which r e s o l v e s a t the next 4/4 upper l i n e s double again i n o c t a v e s .  At measure 141,  measure (144)  as the  a  two  The r e s u l t i s a p e c u l i a r  type of r e m o r s e f u l chant which d i m i n i s h e s i n c o n c l u s i v e l y a t the end  (measure  149).  Aunt Emma i g n o r e s the proceedings and continues to rock and k n i t .  Helene's corpse i s c a r r i e d out and Robert d e c l a r e s  t h a t he no l o n g e r wishes t o l i v e . window and immediately  He t o s s e s the gun out of the  leaps out through the window h i m s e l f .  The a c t i o n f r e e z e s a t the beginning o f Scene S i x , page 14, as the l i g h t i n g changes d r a m a t i c a l l y to s h i f t the a u d i ence's focus of a t t e n t i o n .  High above the s e t , stage  right,  36  a c u r t a i n i s s i l e n t l y drawn r e v e a l i n g the deus ex machina, "the Sage" who telescope.  i s o b s e r v i n g the now  f r o z e n proceedings w i t h a  To the accompaniment of the eery sound of a harmo-  nium he says to the audience t h a t no one would t h i n k t h a t a h i g h e r power might i n t e r v e n e over such a t r i v i a l human episode. He d e c l a r e s , i n h i s monotonous v o i c e , t h a t something done and as i t doesn't matter whether a man the c r a d l e and proceeds  should be  begins h i s l i f e i n  to death or v i c e v e r s a , the Sage, i n  t r u e a n c i e n t t h e a t r i c a l s t y l e , w i l l r e v e r s e the l o g i c and  the  action.  un-  H i s s i n g i n g l i n e i s , f o r the most p a r t , f r e e and  r e s t r a i n e d by the harmonium accompaniment, thus s y m b o l i z i n g the independence o f "higher powers". From Scene Seven  (p. 14) to the end of the opera, the  a c t i o n i s a r e v e r s a l o f Scenes one to F i v e ; t h a t i s , each d r a matic and m u s i c a l s e c t i o n i s produced  i n r e v e r s e order w i t h the  a c t i o n s , movements, and m u s i c a l phrases a l s o r e v e r s e d . As the stage l i g h t i n g r e t u r n s t o normal, on-stage backwards through the window.  Robert  He catches the p i s t o l  which i s tossed through the window from o f f - s t a g e l e f t , once again s i n g s of h i s u n w i l l i n g n e s s to l i v e , same A* he ended w i t h i n scene f i v e . 5  back i n w i t h Helene's original position.  leaps  and  s t a r t i n g on the  The Doctor and O r d e r l y  corpse and d e p o s i t her remains  i n the  The O r d e r l y r e - i d e n t i f i e s h i s medicine  t l e s as the Doctor s e q u e n t i a l l y r e p l a c e s the l i l y r e i t e r a t e s the hopelessness of Helene's examines her w i t h h i s s t e t h o s c o p e .  bot-  i n t o h i s bag,  s i t u a t i o n and r e - .:  As t h i s t e r z e t ends on an  accelerando, the medical team q u i c k l y backs out of the door  37  w i t h the s t r e t c h e r as Helene m e l o d r a m i c a l l y r e v i v e s , up and advances toward Robert. moves backward its  springs  Her husband r e - s h o o t s her,  t o the s i d e - t a b l e and r e p l a c e s the p i s t o l i n  drawer. Scene E i g h t begins w i t h the couple's l i v e l y duet.  The  music i s as i n t e n s e as i n the f i r s t chase scene, as Helene again admits the note i s from her l o v e r , backs towards Robert, who r e - r e a d s the note, puts i t back i n the envelope and f o r c e s it  i n t o Helene's hands.  In a comical and r e v e r s e d c i n e m a t i c  f a s h i o n , the two people c i r c l e the t a b l e backwards,  gesticula-  t i n g w i l d l y and t h r u s t i n g the note r e p e a t e d l y i n t o each o t h e r ' s hands. With the approach o f Scene Nine, the music again g r a d u a l l y slows down as the on-stage a c t i o n becomes s t a t i c . ing t h i s pause  Dur-  (number 14), Scene Nine begins as the Maid backs  i n the door, c u r t s e y s , takes the note from Helene, says "a l e t t e r f o r Madame" once again, backs out o f the door and knocks three times.  Robert c o l l e c t s the p a r c e l from Aunt Emma and  the b i r t h d a y g i f t  from h i s w i f e .  Helene's a t t i t u d e and a c t i o n s  once again range from extreme a g i t a t i o n t o s u r p r i s e a t her husband's  early a r r i v a l .  The s h o r t scene ends as Robert wishes  her a'"Happy B i r t h d a y " a n d rebounds backwards out o f the door by which he entered t o the accompaniment o f the o r i g i n a l  fortis-  simo chords. The f i n a l scene  (scene 10, p. 21) repeats Helene's a r i a  w i t h each s e c t i o n s e q u e n t i a l l y r e v e r s e d , w h i l e her a c t i o n s and v o c a l e x p r e s s i o n d i m i n i s h from i n t e n s e e l a t i o n t o r e f i n e d  38  cheerfulness. of quick  Helene dances backwards i n a repeated  steps, accompanied by the same m u s i c a l  heard i n Scene Two.  pattern  phrases  first  She pours the t e a back i n the tea-pot and  then unbundles Aunt Emma.  She r e t r i e v e s the rose from the  vase on the t a b l e and nimbly e x i t s backwards through the cent e r door-way.  Aunt Emma f i n a l l y r e a l i z e s the r e v e r s e d  sneezes a "Choo-Ah" and f r a n t i c a l l y unravels  action,  her k n i t t i n g as  the c u r t a i n c l o s e s . From the i n i t i a l  scene-by-scene a n a l y s i s t o the  r e h e a r s a l s and f i n a l r e a l i z a t i o n o f the p r o d u c t i o n , a c t i n g techniques which helped  fundamental  and s k i l l s were emphasized by the d i r e c t o r ,  the a c t o r s develop an awarenes o f themselves and  their characters. and  staging  To ensure the best performances the d i r e c t o r  the i n d i v i d u a l s i n g i n g a c t o r were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  r a t i n g the f o l l o w i n g a c t i n g fundamentals i n t o the  incorpo-  rehearsals:  (A) The p o s i t i o n o f the head i n r e l a t i o n t o the  shoul-  ders and the r e s t o f the body proved t o be o f the g r e a t e s t matic s i g n i f i c a n c e .  dra-  A few s i n g e r s sang c o n s i s t e n t l y i n t o the  stage f l o o r o r c o n s t a n t l y o f f - s t a g e i n t o the wings. performer was i n s t r u c t e d t o s i n g with h i s head turned  I f the slightly  down-stage, i t was found t h a t the performer c o u l d maintain  both  an i n d i r e c t , but h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e , rapport with a p a r t n e r who was  standing behind him and the f l e x i b i l i t y t o focus h i s v o i c e  toward the audience a t a l l times. (B) The ideas o f " t a k i n g " and " g i v i n g " stage were encouraged.  Whenever a performer was s i n g i n g i n d i r e c t  rapport  with h i s p a r t n e r s , he moved upstage t o the r i g h t o r l e f t o f  39  them, and those " g i v i n g " stage were r e q u i r e d t o "counter" downstage a c c o r d i n g l y . (C) The simple r u l e o f s i g h t - l i n e s was emphasized; t h a t i s , one cannot be seen by the audience i f one cannot see the n  audience". (D) Using the face as a main e x p r e s s i v e mechanism was stressed. visible.  The face r e f l e c t s the mental  s t a t e s and makes them  For i n s t a n c e , i n the scene where Robert takes the  note from Helene, he expresses a n t i c i p a t i o n , anger and remorse w i t h i n a very b r i e f p e r i o d o f time.  I t i s the face t h a t most  e f f e c t i v e l y communicates these emotions formers were c o n s t a n t l y encouraged all  and, i n f a c t , the per-  t o emphasize and exaggerate  f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s , f e e l i n g s and movements.  a u d i t o r i u m t h e a t r e used f o r t h e performances  Even i n the  o f Hin und Zuruck,  there was c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e between the audience and the stage.  The performers were encouraged  p r e s s i o n s more pronounced  t o produce  f a c i a l ex-  and g e s t u r e s l a r g e r than u s u a l i n  order t h a t they might be read by the audience. (E) I t was found t h a t speaking the m u s i c a l l i n e s was as important as s i n g i n g them.  Performers were encouraged  t o exag-  gerate the words as w e l l as t o a r t i c u l a t e the consonants and phonate the vowels c l e a r l y . (F) Unnecessary  p h y s i c a l movement was c o n s t a n t l y checked  and analyzed f o r dramatic meaning.  During some r e h e a r s a l s , \ i t  was found t h a t some o f the performers were not aware o f i n v o l untary movements o f t h e i r arms, w r i s t s and f i n g e r s .  The a b i l i -  ty t o a c t and s i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y without unconscious c o n t o r -  40  t i o n s came reasonably  q u i c k l y as the performer developed an  awareness o f such problems. (G) L e a r n i n g each o t h e r ' s musical mastering  l i n e s as w e l l as  one's own was found t o be a b s o l u t e l y necessary.  Cer-  t a i n unexpected mistakes c o u l d be q u i c k l y and i n c o n s p i c u o u s l y c o r r e c t e d when a l l the s i n g i n g a c t o r s were aware o f the e n t i r e t e x t and s c o r e . (H) Constant t h i n k i n g i n c h a r a c t e r was s t r e s s e d .  A  c h a r a c t e r ' s thoughts and f e e l i n g s were t o be as continuous p o s s i b l e , and v i s i b l e even when not a u d i b l e .  Greater  as  dimen-  s i o n s were added t o the c h a r a c t e r when a performer had a deep understanding  and c o u l d express t h i s understanding  and p h y s i c a l l y t o the audience.  A l s o important  emotionally  were the a c t o r s '  r e a c t i o n s t o each other which r e s u l t e d from reasoned motivat i o n s and not simply because from stage  direction.  (I) O c c a s i o n a l l y , " p l a y i n g the prop" enhanced the i n d i v i dual c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n .  Often a performer a c q u i r e d s t r e n g t h by  u s i n g a p i e c e o f s e t f u r n i t u r e p r o p e r l y o r by u s i n g hand props to the g r e a t e s t advantage.  F o r i n s t a n c e , the p e c u l i a r manner  i n which Helene holds her tea-cup throughout p a r t o f the a r i a helps t o d e l i n e a t e a f a c e t o f her c h a r a c t e r .  The waving o f her  napkin through many o f the quick steps o f her a r i a h e l p s t o punctuate her movements.  41  CHAPTER FIVE  M u s i c a l P r e p a r a t i o n and R e a l i z a t i o n  The  f i r s t twelve measures of the prelude of Hin  und  Zuruck have a meter change i n almost every measure - 3/4, 3/8, 3/4,  3/8,  2/4,  5/8,  3/8,  2/4,  2/4,  5/8  which i s a copy of the m u s i c a l s c o r e ) . at  the metronomic i n d i c a t i o n of 116  ly) , the student conductor keeping  and  2/4  2/4,  (see Appendix  X;  With the q u a r t e r note  ("sehr lebraft', ; very 1  live-  had a c h a l l e n g i n g task of merely  the beat p a t t e r n c l e a r and d i s t i n c t ,  l e t alone  develop-  i n a s i n g u l a r or i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to t h i s p a r t of Hindemith's sketch. cal  F o r t u n a t e l y , with the a d d i t i o n o f the  l i n e s , t h i s e r r a t i c p a t t e r n subsides to some degree  r e v e a l s more e a s i l y a n t i c i p a t e d p a t t e r n s .  vo-  and  T h i s problem i s com-  pounded by the g e n e r a l nature of the "cues", which are necessary to help the s i n g e r e f f e c t i v e l y achieve the d i f f i c u l t s i c a l entrances.  T h e r e f o r e , the conductor's  personal  mu-  prepara-  t i o n as w e l l as the p r e p a r a t i o n of the s i n g e r s with t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the music are two main f a c t o r s i n the r e a l i z a t i o n of Hin und  Zuruck.  The p r i n c i p l e s of conducting dolph's  book The  Conducting conductor's  musical  as o u t l i n e d i n Max  Grammar of Conducting  Ru-  and the Handbook of  by Hermann Scherchen were the t e x t u a l b a s i s of personal preparation.  the  As w e l l as g i v i n g s p e c i a l  42  a s s i s t a n c e w i t h problems of rhythm, meter and tempo changes, fermatas and the h a n d l i n g of accents and t r a n s i s t i o n s ,  these  t e x t s helped the student conductor to develop the c l e a r , p r e c i s e and easy-to-read beat p a t t e r n s e s s e n t i a l i n conducting the opera.  In the course of r e h e a r s a l s , the conductor a c h i e v -  ed g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y  i n the conducting technique.  He  l e a r n e d t o make instantaneous d e c i s i o n s , t o a n t i c i p a t e  also and  a v o i d d r a s t i c mistakes and to g e n e r a l l y c a r r y out the tasks of the conductor i n as calm, d e c i s i v e and a u t h o r i t a t i v e manner as p o s s i b l e . Much o f the m u s i c a l p r e p a r a t i o n had to do w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between tempo and energy. loud sounds may  For i n s t a n c e ,  sometimes be i n t e r p r e t e d as b e i n g more ener-  g e t i c than s o f t e r ones. s t a r t l i n g combinations  A l s o , some d i s s o n a n t harmonies and o f sound can c r e a t e the i l l u s i o n of an  i n c r e a s e i n energy v a l u e s .  These i l l u s i o n s can delude  the performer and the l i s t e n e r . and even the body.  both  They can a f f e c t the emotions  Great composers f o r c e n t u r i e s have used  t h i s energy d e v i c e t o c r e a t e an emotional response  i n the au-  dience . What i s g e n e r a l l y r e f e r r e d t o as "tempo" i n much of the music of Hin und Zuruck may of energy. it  seems.  to subside.  The  be viewed  a l s o as a simple element  f a s t e r and louder the music,  the more e n e r g e t i c  When i t becomes s o f t e r and slower, the energy Matching  the  r i s e and f a l l of these m u s i c a l en-  e r g i e s w i t h stage a c t i v i t i e s i s one of the fundamental of o p e r a t i c t h e a t r e .  seems  With Hin und  rules  Zur'uck and i t s forward  and  43  r e v e r s e d a c t i o n , t h i s energy  f a c t o r o f t e n became as important  as the a c t u a l tempos themselves.  I t was  not o n l y important  t h a t the forward movements of the a c t o r s i n the o p e r a s 1  first  h a l f match the r e v e r s e movements of the second h a l f , but a l s o t h a t the energy of both h a l v e s should correspond. During the e a r l y m u s i c a l r e h e a r s a l s , tempi were s e t and any i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s were c o r r e c t e d .  The  s i n g e r s and the accom-  paniment l e a r n e d t o respond to an a n t i c i p a t e d tempo change with an a p p r o p r i a t e change i n the s i z e of the conductor's beat f o r the f i r s t  few b a r s .  And  f o r the student conductor, o n l y d i -  l i g e n t p r a c t i c e and day-to-day  r e h e a r s a l experience can e s t a -  b l i s h the c o r r e c t tempo, complete  freedom of the l e f t hand f o r  cueing and the development of constant eye c o n t a c t w i t h the s i n g e r s , accompaniment and the m u s i c a l s c o r e . The eye c o n t a c t between the on-stage performer and the conductor i n the p i t i s extremely important.  Because t h i s v i -  s u a l l i n k p r o v i d e s a s p e c i f i c cue f o r the s t a r t of a s i n g e r ' s m u s i c a l l i n e given j u s t p r i o r t o the s i n g e r ' s b r e a t h i n - t a k e , the constant eye c o n t a c t o f t e n a n t i c i p a t e s and s o l v e s memory problems.  With the e s t a b l i s h e d h a b i t t h a t the performer  always  sees the conductor, e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or p e r i p h e r a l l y , the s i n ger i s c o n s t a n t l y r e a s s u r e d t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i s p r o c e e d i n g i n a secure and o r d e r l y f a s h i o n .  T h i s constant c o n t a c t a l s o a l -  lows the conductor t o take v i s u a l cues from the performer when the stage a c t i o n warrants i t . Even though a c h a r a c t e r ' s f e e l i n g s can u s u a l l y be communicated  by the tone of h i s v o i c e and by h i s a c t i o n s , o n l y a  44  few  o f h i s thoughts can be t r a n s m i t t e d  completely i n t e l l i g i b l e . twentieth-century  i f h i s words a r e not  T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n many  o p e r a t i c works.  The c l e a r e n u n c i a t i o n o f  the sung t e x t and the d i s t i n c t i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y o f these p r o j e c t e d words were c o n s t a n t l y emphasized t o the young s i n g e r s of Hin und Zuruck.  S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n was devoted t o the con-  sonants o f the t e x t which must be c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d without d i s t o r t i o n , despite the s c o r e . quired  some a n t a g o n i s t i c harmonic dissonances i n  Emphasis was p l a c e d  f o r the p r o d u c t i o n  the O l d Auditorium. singers to f u l f i l l  upon the v o c a l p r o j e c t i o n r e -  i n the l a r g e performance space o f  Constant a t t e n t i o n t o d i c t i o n enabled the the d i c t i o n and p r o j e c t i o n o b l i g a t i o n s  without p l a c i n g undue s t r a i n on t h e i r The  voices.  ensemble scenes were c a r e f u l l y s t u d i e d t o develop a  workable and balanced blend o f tone and volume. each m u s i c a l  In r e h e a r s a l ,  l i n e was o f t e n spoken aloud and p r o j e c t e d  the technique o f c l a s s i c a l spoken drama. not only e x p r e s s i v e  T h i s helped  using create  and w e l l - c o n t r o l l e d i n d i v i d u a l v o c a l  but a l s o a u n i f i e d ensemble.  lines  A f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n was one  o f v o c a l c o l o u r i n g because the human v o i c e i s capable o f producing an almost endless often considered  v a r i e t y o f t o n a l shadings.  This i s  as important as the a b i l i t y t o handle the mu-  s i c a l e f f e c t s d r a m a t i c a l l y because the c r e a t i o n o f s p e c i a l cont r a s t i n g i n f l e c t i o n s and hues adds i n t e r e s t t o the musical l i n e s , and guards a g a i n s t any monotony from the r e p e t i t i o u s phrases o f t e n heard i n opera. "When a gesture o r stage movement must c o i n c i d e  exactly  45  w i t h an accent or some other f e a t u r e o f the music, we speak of s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n . The term c o n t o u r i n g i s f o r a c t i n g sequences t h a t f o l l o w the o u t l i n e o f the music more l o o s e l y , 7 without having obvious moments o f exact c o i n c i d e n c e . " The exact p a c i n g and s p a c i n g o f dramatic a c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o the music are o f primary importance  i n Hin und Zuruck.  The  conductor's aim was t o p e r f e c t the t i m i n g between the a c t i o n on stage and the music  i n the accompaniment.  Very o f t e n  this  s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n had a s p e c i f i c procedure; the a c t i o n was i n s t i g a t e d j u s t b e f o r e the accompanying music began i n order t o make i t appear t h a t the a c t o r ' s movement brought f o r t h the mus i c as a r e s u l t o f t h a t a c t i o n .  The o r c h e s t r a does not merely  accompany and support the c h a r a c t e r s on the stage; i t a l s o r e f l e c t s t h e i r thoughts, f e e l i n g s and a c t i o n s . the s i n g e r ' s a c t i o n s must j u s t i f y the music s e l v e s are c a u s i n g the music  t o be.  Consequently, as i f they them-  The accompaniment then  seems t o u n d e r l i n e and i n t e n s i f y the a c t i o n s o f the performers. The p a r t i c u l a r  " c o n t o u r i n g " i n v o l v e d i n H i n und Zuruck  f o l l o w e d the s p e c i f i c o u t l i n e o f m u s i c a l phrases.  The move-  ments and gestures o f the performer were executed i n such a manner t h a t the ebb and flow o f the stage a c t i o n s  corresponded  to the v a r i o u s m u s i c a l dynamic markings and the energy the mus i c suggested.  With t h i s m u s i c a l approach,  the s i n g i n g a c t o r s  and the stage d i r e c t o r c o u l d then a c q u i r e and i n c o r p o r a t e the h a b i t o f t h i n k i n g i n terms o f the phrases and combinations o f 7  B o r i s Goldovsky,  B r i n g i n g Opera t o L i f e , p. 87.  46  phrases found i n a l l musical  forms and convert  propriate t h e a t r i c a l equivalents. und  them i n t o ap-  In t h i s p r o d u c t i o n  o f Hin  Zuruck, there was an advantage t o combining the r o l e s o f  conductor and stage d i r e c t o r ; any problems, e i t h e r m u s i c a l o r dramatic, r e g a r d i n g  t i m i n g were s o l v e d  immediately.  A p a r t i c u l a r problem was encountered i n the musical p r e p a r a t i o n o f Hin und Zuruck.  O c c a s i o n a l l y , f i n d i n g the p i t c h  of the i n i t i a l note o f a new phrase was a source o f u n c e r t a i n t y and worry t o the s i n g e r .  T h i s was o f t e n t r u e when t h i s  p i t c h c o u l d not be found i n o r r e l a t e d t o the accompaniment which i s a s i t u a t i o n common i n twentieth-century a s s i s t the s i n g e r a s p e c i a l l y conceived  works.  To  melodic l i n e was added  t h a t l e d from the l a s t note o f h i s preceding  phrase t o the note  o f a s p e c i f i c p i t c h t h a t caused the d i f f i c u l t y .  T h i s melodic  l i n e was o f t e n hummed s i l e n t l y and was conceived  i n the form  of a v o c a l e x e r c i s e which the s i n g e r c o u l d e a s i l y understand and  t o which he c o u l d adapt.  strumental,  Any musical  passage, v o c a l or i n -  c o u l d serve as a p o i n t o f departure  a melodic b r i d g e .  for building  Another s o l u t i o n was t h a t the s i n g e r s were  encouraged t o l e a r n and s i n g each other's musical  l i n e s , espe-  c i a l l y those which preceded t h e i r own. From the l i s t e n e r ' s p o i n t o f view, s i n g i n g on three separate  functions  l e v e l s ; the words t h a t are sung appeal t o  the i n t e l l e c t , the beauty o f the v o c a l l i n e s give a p h y s i c a l pleasure  and the musical, nuances o f a well-executed  s a t i s f y the a r t i s t i c  sense.  With the preceding  performance  aspects o f  47  preparation precepts  and  r e a l i z a t i o n of the music as w e l l as w i t h those  c i t e d i n e a r l i e r chapters r e l a t i n g  staging, t h i s t h e s i s production  of Hin und  to dramaturgy  Zuruck attempted  to s a t i s f y the demands of the performers as w e l l as the teners.  and  lis-  48  CHAPTER SIX  P l a n n i n g and C o n s t r u c t i o n of Scenery  The  advantage of the s e t design chosen f o r t h i s  p r o d u c t i o n of Hin und q u i c k l y s e t up.  The  Zuruck i s t h a t i t was  Most of the scenery was  c l o t h s t r e t c h e d over boards.  ft  flat"  spruce  doors, s i d e f l a t s , house-top and the window were The  a b s t r a c t , angled  inexpensive and simple to c o n s t r u c t .  ings were p a i n t e d on the w a l l s . easy to manipulate  The  design  Only p a r t s of the furnish-  a c t u a l s e t p i e c e s were  as they were b a s i c a l l y three f l a t s  together and r e s t i n g on metal g l i d e s .  lashed  The weight of the s e t  r e l a t i v e l y small and the house-top, a white p a i n t e d  angle frame, was XI - Set  and  painted factory-cotton  s e t were t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l and many of the household  was  thesis  easy to handle  frames of 1" x 3" c l e a r  c r e a t e d from the same m a t e r i a l s . was  and L i g h t i n g  lowered  from the f l y - g a l l e r y  tri-  (see Appendix  Design).  As a p a r t of t h i s contemporary design, the window and doors had to have the appearance of t h i c k n e s s . achieved by having  This  was  1" x 6" boards attached to the edges of the  f l a t w a l l s t h a t were v i s i b l e to the audience. method gave the necessary  three-dimensional  a p p r e c i a b l y to the s e t ' s weight and S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n was  This  inexpensive  look without  adding  bulk.  given to p a i n t i n g the s e t i n sub-  t l e p a l e c o l o u r s to r e - c r e a t e the 1920's "pop-art"  design.  49  A f t e r a white base coat, a . l i g h t blue o v e r - c o a t was  applied  w i t h a l a t e r a d d i t i o n o f darker b l u e s t r i p e s which gave the set  a t a l l e r , b u s i e r appearance.  Dark blue c u r t a i n s over the  window and c e n t e r door-way gave emphasis and focus t o these areas.  Complementary f u r n i s h i n g s were sketched on the w a l l s  along w i t h s p e c i a l items such as a b i r d - c a g e and a c l o c k . The p r a c t i c a l , breakable window was  a wooden frame  w i t h t h i n p i e c e s o f "adding machine" tape - 2 i n c h wide white paper a t t a c h e d i n the p a t t e r n o f s m a l l squares  (window panes).  The whole frame c o u l d be removed from the window s l o t another one c o u l d be q u i c k l y i n s t a l l e d .  and  As the c h a r a c t e r Ro-  b e r t l e a p t out and broke the tape i n the window, an  immediate  l i g h t i n g change, which helped mask the window from the audience, focussed a t t e n t i o n on the Sage's appearance  stage r i g h t .  ing  t h i s time, a new window frame which was  hinged a t the top  was  being i n s t a l l e d .  dow,  the new  frame was  turned to normal.  A f t e r Robert l e a p t back through the winimmediately lowered as the l i g h t s r e -  With p r a c t i c e , t h i s procedure proved  t i v e , although the c o - o r d i n a t i o n was the  Dur-  difficult  effec-  to achieve with  a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l s and man-power. The a p p r o p r i a t e 1920's household f u r n i s h i n g s :  table,  t a b l e - c l o t h , c h a i r , r o c k i n g c h a i r and s i d e - t a b l e , were f o r t u n a t e l y e a s i l y obtained from the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columb i a ' s opera and t h e a t r e departments.  There were a l i m i t e d  number of hand p r o p e r t i e s i n v o l v e d , a l l of which were e i t h e r borrowed  o r from stock w i t h i n the opera  department.  The a s s i s t a n c e of many o f the s i n g e r s as builders l i m i t e d  50  the labour c o s t s i n v o l v e d .  Along w i t h minimal  expense f o r  the r e q u i r e d b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , t h i s a s s i s t a n c e helped to keep the o v e r a l l budget w i t h i n reason f o r a s m a l l - s c a l e u n i v e r s i t y production.  A list  of m a t e r i a l s and a r t i c l e s  and costs i n c u r r e d i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix V I I I .  The  utilized list  of  p r o p e r t i e s used i n the p r o d u c t i o n i s found i n Appendix V. The d i r e c t o r i a l c o n c e p t i o n c r e a t e d a simple, d i r e c t proach f o r the l i g h t i n g which allowed f o r the proper n a t i o n of the a c t i n g a r e a s .  ap-  illumi-  To achieve t h i s , instruments  and  l e n s e s were chosen which not o n l y a s s i s t e d i n the proper  dis-  t r i b u t i o n o f l i g h t to these areas but a l s o added s p e c i a l  quali-  t i e s of i l l u m i n a t i o n ;  f o r i n s t a n c e , a stepped F r e s n e l l e n s  adds s o f t , d i f f u s e d l i g h t and a curved e l l i p s o i d a l l e n s g i v e s a more d i r e c t , i n t e n s e i l l u m i n a t i o n . b i n a t i o n of instruments was of  Each instrument or com-  s e l e c t e d to g i v e s u b t l e q u a l i t i e s  i l l u m i n a t i o n f o r d i f f e r e n t purposes: b r i g h t , even l i g h t f o r  the main a c t i n g area; s p e c i a l s u b t l e l i g h t i n g used i n the t o n ing  and b l e n d i n g of the s e t t i n g and background areas; and  c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n which gave accent, m o t i v a t i o n and  spe-  special  effects. The combined r o l e s of d e s i g n e r f o r both s e t t i n g  and  l i g h t i n g and of stage d i r e c t o r proved t o be a d i s t i n c t advantage. The d i r e c t o r r e q u i r e d v i s i b i l i t y  f o r h i s performers w i t h  proper i l l u m i n a t i o n f o r the a c t i n g areas a t a l l times.  The  d e s i g n e r r e q u i r e d the l i g h t i n g t o c r e a t e mood and atmosphere i n a p a r t i c u l a r composition f o r the whole s e t t i n g .  Certain  compromises had t o be made between the d i r e c t o r ' s demands and  51  l i g h t i n g needs as w e l l as compromises w i t h the s e t d e s i g n itself.  of  A f t e r these d e c i s i o n s were made, the McCandless Method g Lighting was used, w i t h some r e f e r e n c e s to R i c h a r d P i l 9  brow's "key and f i l l "  method  .  The  i n t o l i g h t i n g areas approximately over-lapped.  Each area was  ground-plan  was  divided  s i x f e e t i n diameter  which  i l l u m i n a t e d w i t h a " c o o l " and  a  "warm" l i g h t from d i a g o n a l l i g h t i n g p o s i t i o n s u s i n g the McCandl e s s Method.  In a d d i t i o n to these areas, t h e r e was  "wash" from the f r o n t l i g h t i n g r a i l l i g h t i n g instruments  a basic  (PAR-border) and a  from the f r o n t - o f - h o u s e  (F.O.H.).  few :Cer-  t a i n s p e c i f i c areas were i l l u m i n a t e d w i t h a s t r o n g l i g h t one of  source a t about a 45° angle and supplemented by one  from or more  l e s s e r i n t e n s i t y from the o t h e r angles and p o s i t i o n s of  source u s i n g the key and  fill  method.  T h i s p r o v i d e d the  sary shaping of the a r t i c l e s and a c t o r s i n these areas.  necesIn  g e n e r a l , instruments w i t h F r e s n e l l e n s e s were used f o r g e n e r a l i l l u m i n a t i o n , l i g h t f i l l i n g and  "washing", o f the s e t areas,  whereas e l l i p s o i d a l l e n s e s were used f o r s p e c i f i c of  the primary The  illumination  a c t i n g areas.  dramatic  source o f i l l u m i n a t i o n came from the  stage  l e f t window evenly c o v e r i n g the e n t i r e s e t because the time of day v a r i e d from 11:00  a.m.  to 4:00  p.m.  The b a s i c wash used  8 Stanley McCandless, A S y l l a b u s of Stage L i g h t i n g (New Haven, Conn.: Yale U n i v e r s i t y , S t a n l e y McCandless, 1958). 9 R i c h a r d Pilbrow, Stage L i g h t i n g (London: S t u d i o V i s t a , 1963) .  52  here c o n s i s t e d o f l i g h t salmon p i n k s and l i g h t amber g e l tones with a few a d d i t i o n a l b l u e g e l s .  A l l g e l s used.corresponded  to the 1960 Cinemoid p l a s t i c c o l o u r c h a r t which i s based on a t h r e e - c o l o u r system. Strand type.  A l l individual  instruments were o f the  T h i s washing o f the s e t i n c l u d e d the primary co-  l o u r s from the overhead borders t o g i v e the d e s i r e d dimensional l o o k .  three-  A s l i g h t h a l o e f f e c t o f t e n s e t the a c t o r s  apart from the background.  Although t h r e e b a c k - l i g h t i n g i n -  struments o f white l i g h t complemented t h i s t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l look, t h i s e f f e c t was not s p e c i f i c a l l y n o t i c e d by the audience. T h i s white l i g h t was u s u a l l y between 50% and 75% o f f u l l tage which gave more warm tones o f amber-yellow-orange than c o o l  bluish  vol-  rather  ones, thus making g e l s unnecessary f o r these  instruments. Outside the windows and doors was s p e c i a l originating  illumination  from the "tormentor" - l i g h t i n g s l o t s on-stage so  t h a t the a c t o r s would not appear out o f the darkness as they entered.  The o t h e r s p e c i a l  l i g h t was a very i n t e n s e white one  r e q u i r e d f o r the Sage as he appeared above the stage r i g h t  flat  because a heavenly, m y s t i c a l , a l b e i t comic, f e e l i n g was r e quired.  B a c k - l i g h t i n g w i t h d i r e c t and d i a g o n a l f r o n t - l i g h t i n g  helped t o c r e a t e t h i s mirage. the  When these l i g h t s were employed,  a c t i o n was f r o z e n w h i l e the Sage made h i s decree.  hance t h i s atmosphere,  To en-  t h i s pure white l i g h t was c o n t r a s t e d and  surrounded, w i t h s p e c i f i c b r i g h t r e d l i g h t s which were q u i t e unrealistic special  i n comparison t o the r e s t o f the l i g h t i n g .  This  l i g h t i n g s i t u a t i o n was used o n l y f o r a s h o r t time, but  53  its  c o n t r a s t t o the p r e v i o u s and subsequent  s e c t i o n s proved t o  be very s u c c e s s f u l . The downstage areas were l i t from the f r o n t - o f - h o u s e c e i l i n g l i g h t i n g p o s i t i o n s from an approximately 4 5 ° angle. L i m i t e d i l l u m i n a t i o n from the  pocket p o s i t i o n s o f the a u d i -  torium was employed p r i m a r i l y f o r the downstage areas as w e l l as used d i a g o n a l l y f o r some upstage c e n t e r a r e a s .  The f r o n t  pin  r a i l was used f o r both warm and c o o l l i g h t s and the second  pin  r a i l was p r i m a r i l y r e s e r v e d f o r b a c k - l i g h t i n g .  VII i s an instrument schedule o f p a r t i c u l a r l i g h t i n g  Appendix instru-  ments u t i l i z e d , w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e g e l s , and Appendix IX i s a cue sheet used i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f H i n und Zuruck.  54  CHAPTER SEVEN  Final Appraisal  Hin und and  Zuruck was  found to have an a p p r o p r i a t e  dramatic s t r u c t u r e and  an i d e a l c h o i c e  a p r a c t i c a l small c a s t t h a t proved  f o r an opera workshop.. T h i s opera was  d i v i d e d i n t o s e c t i o n s , a l l o w i n g f o r concentrated dramatic r e h e a r s a l .  The  r e q u i r e d s i n g i n g and  c o n s i d e r a b l e , but not overwhelming c h a l l e n g e the s i n g i n g a c t o r was ing  and  a c t i n g were a and  at a l l . times convinc-  Those c a s t mem-  were d r a m a t i c a l l y , m u s i c a l l y or v o c a l l y  were given e x t r a h e l p , encouragement and  easily  musical  encouraged to be c o n s i s t e n t and  i n the p o r t r a y a l of h i s i n d i v i d u a l r o l e .  bers who  musical  inexperienced  added o p p o r t u n i t y  for  rehearsal. The  o p e r a t i o n of the p r o d u c t i o n  i t s e l f required  the  s i m p l e s t of modern t e c h n i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and o n l y a few  back-  stage s t a f f members.  over-  The  s h o r t one  a c t format d i d not  burden the s t a f f or the i n d i v i d u a l s who  found to be  oper-  The  but more than  adequate i n t h e a t r i c a l i t y and a t t r a c t i v e n e s s .  gram, Hin und  design was  and  ated the s e t .  Within  simple  constructed  inexpensive,  the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia opera Zuruck p r o v i d e d  pro-  s u b s t a n t i a l opera t r a i n i n g ,  not  only f o r the s i n g i n g a c t o r s i n v o l v e d , but a l s o because i t prov i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y  and  unique c h a l l e n g e  for a director/pro-  55  ducer.  Under the p r o f e s s i o n a l and experienced  opera program's s u p e r v i s o r , the student  guidance o f the  d i r e c t o r / p r o d u c e r was  given a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f d u t i e s which not only expanded h i s knowledge and experience  but a l s o allowed  dual c o n t r o l o f a l l aspects achieve  him t o have  of production.  T h i s helped t o  g r e a t e r u n i t y i n the work and helped  him t o c a r r y out  h i s p e r s o n a l concepts and ideas about the opera. dual c h a l l e n g e  This  i n v o l v e d many elements: from choosing  to h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h and d e t a i l e d musical veloping a t o t a l production  indivi-  indivi-  the opera;  a n a l y s i s ; t o de-  concept f o r the stage which was  not only t h e o r e t i c a l but p r a c t i c a l . This production  concept i n c l u d e d : c a s t s e l e c t i o n where  great care was taken t o p r o t e c t the young v o c a l mechanisms;  in-  t e r p r e t a t i o n and r e a l i z a t i o n o f the t e x t and music where extens i v e r e s e a r c h and study o f the musical  score i t s e l f was  supple-  mented by h i s t o r i c a l examination; s e t design where c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s and the w o r k a b i l i t y o f r e a l i s t i c a c t i n g areas were as important as an acceptable gave the designer carpentry,  appearance; s e t c o n s t r u c t i o n which  a good p r a c t i c a l knowledge o f the b a s i c s o f  shop drawings, and of how the set functions!; lighting de-  s i g n where complex l i g h t i n g t h e o r i e s were examined, mixed and a p p l i e d t o s o l v e the problem o f how t o i l l u m i n a t e a c t i n g areas while c o n s i d e r i n g composition a c t i n g techniques  and mood; t e a c h i n g o f b a s i c opera  and s t a g i n g which encompassed not only  physi-  c a l movement but i n c l u d e d an understanding o f the s u b t l e e f fects of f a c i a l expression;  and conducting  where the i n t r i c a -  c i e s o f the score were brought out and a u r a l l y r e a l i z e d i n a  56  s e n s i t i v e manner. Such immersion i n a l l aspects p o s s i b l e a mature and rewards and field.  realistic  of opera p r o d u c t i o n made  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the demands,  consequences of f u t u r e employment i n the opera  T h i s involvement i n producing  opera p r o v i d e d  an oppor-  t u n i t y to take the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r o r g a n i z i n g the  entire  p r o j e c t with a minimum of a s s i s t a n c e and  knowledge  gained with  funds.  The  through t h i s involvement w i l l be i n v a l u a b l e i n d e a l i n g  future projects.  57  .Bibliography  B e r n s t e i n , M a r t i n and M a r t i n P i c k e r . An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Music. Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., 1966. Boucher, F r a n c o i s . 20,000 Years o f F a s h i o n . N. Abrams Inc., 19 66. B r o c k e t t , O.G. H i s t o r y o f the T h e a t r e . Bacon Inc., 1968.  New York: Harry  Boston: A l l y n and  Browne, A r t h u r G. 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Lang, Paul Henry. Co., 1963.  The Experience o f Opera.  New York: Norton &  M a c h l i s , Joseph. I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Contemporary Music. Norton & Co., 1968. Mysers, Rollo H. Twentieth-Century Music. Boyars, 1968.  New York:  London: C a l d e r &  59  Parker, W.  Oren and Harvey K. Smith.  Lighting. Peyser, Joan.  Scene Design and  Toronto: H o l t , Rhinehart and Winston The New  Music.  New  Stage  Inc.,  1963.  York: Dela C o r t e P r e s s ,  1971.  P i l b r o w , R i c h a r d . Stage L i g h t i n g . London: S t u d i o V i s t a , 197 0. Rosenthal, H a r o l d . The Concise Oxford D i c t i o n a r y o f Opera. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964. Rudolph, Max. and Co.,  Grammar o f Conducting. 1950.  New  York: G.  Schirmer  Salzman, E r i c . Twentieth-Century Music: An I n t r o d u c t i o n . Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., 1974. Scherchen, Hermann. Handbook o f Conducting. U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1940.  London: Oxford  Schwartz, E l l i o t . Contemporary Composers on Contemporary Music. New York: H o l t , Rhinehart and Winston, 1967. Slominsky, N i c o l a s . Music Since 1900. Charles. S c r i b n e r s & Sons, 1971.  F o u r t h ed.  New: York:  1  V e r o n e s i , G. S t y l e and Design 1909-1929. B r a z i l l e r Co., 1968.  New  York: George  V i n t o n , John, ed. D i c t i o n a r y o f Contemporary Music. E.P. Dutton & Co., 1974. Westerman, Gerhart von. L i m i t e d . , 1968.  Opera Guide.  New  York:  London: Sphere Books  60  APPENDIX I  Scene Breakdown (For Rehearsal Purposes)  Introduction  pp. 3-4  Orchestral Scene 1  Scene 2  Scene 3  Scene 4  Scene 5  pp. 4-6  Aunt Emma, Helene  Aunt Emma  c u r t a i n p. 4  Helene  e n t e r p. 5  pp.  Aunt Emma, Helene  6-7  Aunt Emma  pp. 6-7  Helene  pp. 6-7  pp. 7-8  Aunt Emma, Helene, Robert, Maid  Aunt Emma  pp. 7-8  Helene  pp. 7-8  Robert  enter p. 7  Maid  enter & e x i t p. 8 (3:3-4)  pp.  8-11 Aunt Emma, Helene, Robert  Aunt Emma  pp. 8-11  Helene  pp. 8-11  Robert  pp. 8-11  pp.  (4:1)  12-13Aunt Emma, Helene, Robert, Doctor, O r d e r l y  Aunt Emma  pp. 12-13  Helene  e x i t p. 13 (2:1).  Robert  e x i t p. 13  Doctor  e n t e r p. 12 - e x i t p. 13  (2:1)  Orderly  e n t e r p. 12 - e x i t p. 13  (2:1)  (2:4)  61  Scene Breakdown  Scene 6  Scene 7  Scene 8  Scene 9  Scene 10  pp.  (continued)  14-15 Aunt Emma, Sage  Aunt Emma  pp. 14-15  Sage  Appearance p. 14  pp. 16-17 Aunt Emma, Sage,.Robert, Doctor, O r d e r l y , Helene Aunt Emma  pp. 16-17  Sage  pp. 16-17  Robert  enter p. 16  Doctor  enter p. 16 (1:3)- e x i t p. 17  (1:3-6)  Orderly  e n t e r p. 16 (1:3)- e x i t p. 17  (1:3-6)  Helene  enter p. 16  (1:3)  pp. 17-19 Aunt Emma, Sage, Robert, Helene, Maid Aunt Emma  pp. 17-19  Sage  pp. 17-19  Robert  pp. 17-19  Helene  pp. 17-19  Maid  e n t e r p. 19 (3:7)- e x i t p.19 (3:8)  pp. 19-21Aunt Emma, Sage, Robert, Helene Aunt Emma  pp. 19-21  Sage  pp. 19-21  Robert  pp. 19-20 - e x i t p. 20  Helene  pp. 19-21  (3:3)  pp. 21-23 Aunt Emma, Sage, Helene Aunt Emma  pp. 21-23  Sage  pp. 21-23  Helene  pp. 21-23 - e x i t p. 23 (2:2-4)  Curtain  p.23  (5:3-4)  62  APPENDIX I I  Rehearsal Schedule  Scene breakdown key: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10  Date  pp. pp. pp. pp. pp. pp. pp. pp. pp. pp.  4-5 6-7 7- 8 8- 11 12-13 14-15 16- 17 17- 19 19-21 21-23  AE, H AE, H AE,H,R,M AE , H, R AE,H,R,D,0 AE,S AE,S,R,D,0,H AE,S,R,H,M AE,S, R, H AE,S,H  Rehearsal  Oct. 9  7 :00-9:00  Date  Rehearsal  Nov. 1  8:00-10:00  Stage 6,7,8  4  8:00-10:00  Stage 9,10  6  7:00-8:30  Work 3-6  8  8:30-10:30  Work 6-10  11  7:00-8:30  Work 2-5  12  8:30-10:00  Work 5-10  15  7:00-8:30  Work 5-7  20  7:00-8:30  Run-through  23  2:00-5:00  Run-through  24  7:00-8:30  Run-through  25  8:30-10:00  Run-through  26  Dress Rehearsal:  27  Dress Rehearsal:  28  T e c h n i c a l : 7 :00  Musical  14  7:00-10:00 M u s i c a l  18  7:00-8:30  Musical  21  7:00-8:30  Special Coaching  23  7:00-8:30  Musical  26  7:00-10:00 M u s i c a l ( A l l )  28  8:30-10:30 Stage 1 & 2  29  8:00 Performance  30  8:30-10:30 Stage 3,4&5  30  8:00 Performance  Call 6:30 Call 6:30 Call 6 :30 Call 6:30  63 APPENDIX I I I  Plate I  Initial  Sketch  64  APPENDIX I I I  Plate II  A - i d e a of angles  A Search f o r A l t e r n a t i v e s  65 APPENDIX I I I  Ground-Plan dooh.  do oft  d-tablo.  APPENDIX IV  APPENDIX IV  67  68 APPENDIX V' Properties  I  List  P r e s e t on Stage Table 1 2 I I  (round) with c h a i r  vase tea-cups & 2 saucers tea-pot napkin  Rocking c h a i r  "  I p a i r o f k n i t t i n g needles 6 f o o t long p i e c e o f k n i t t i n g I shawl (Aunt Emma) Side-table I vase with flowers I wooden box 1 r e v o l v e r ( i n s i d e box) II  Stage Right P r o p e r t i e s Table  :  III  2 I I I  wrapped boxes (presents - Robert) envelope with note s t r e t c h e r c. 1927 d o c t o r ' s bag (with small c o l o u r e d medicine b o t t l e s and I l i l y ) I stethoscope (Doctor) I t e l e s c o p e (Sage)  Stage L e f t P r o p e r t i e s Table I rose (red)  69  APPENDIX VI;  Key To Symbols Used In S t a g i n g  AE  Aunt Emma  CS  Centerstage  H  Helene  U  Upstage  R  Robert  D  Downstage  M  Maid  R  Stage  right  D  Doctor  L  Stage  left  0  Orderly  X  S  Sage  Make a c r o s s at t h i s time  &  And  Character's name, shoulder l i n e  A forward walk or c r o s s  and p o s i t i o n o f head and eyes. _R_  RSF  - Right shoulder forward  ( LSB  - L e f t shoulder backing  1  A backing movement  T A movement on an exact measure  APPENDIX V I I L i g h t i n g Instrument Schedule  Number  Type  Position  Use  Colour  Circuit  Dimmer  (area)  Dimmer Intensity  I  264  F .'0. H.  G  3  I  5  5 1/2  2  223  F.O.H.  F  52  2  2  5 1/2  3  264  F.O.H.  A  9  3  2  5 1/2  4  223  F.O.H.  D  52  4  6  7  5  264  F.O.H.  K  54  5  2  5 1/2  6  223  F.O.H.  G  52 ,  6  5  5 1/5  7  264  F.O.H.  F  3  7  4  6  8  264  F.O.H.  E  17  8  6  7  9  264  L. pock.  C  51  9  I  7  10  264  L. pock.  K  2  10  5  5 1/2  II  264  R. pock  A  41  13  I  5 1/2  12  223  L. torm.  I  2  31  5  5 1/2  13  223  R. torm.  H  6  32  4  7  14  223  R. torm.  J  3  33  4  7  15  strip  wash  clear  17  4  7  K  6  18  12  bridge St  i .  16  23  17  23  II  B  53  20  7  6  18  ] 23  II  C  41  21  8  5 1/2  19  23  II  D  I  22  9  6  20  23  II  B  39  23  10  4  21  23  •i  A  52  24  II  6  22  23  ii  B  41  20  7  6  23  23  n  C  53  21  8  5 1/2  T  I  pipe  70  10  APPENDIX V I I  L i g h t i n g Instrument  Number  Type  24  123  25  23  26  23  27  23  28 29  Position  Schedule  Use Colour (area)  st I pipe  (continued)  Circuit  Dimmer  Dimmer Intensity  D  52  23  10  4  B  3  24  II  6  A  3  52  10  4  II  B  9  53  23  II  F  51  54  23  •I  D  3  55  T  „nd . 2 pipe  All  lighting  instruments - Strand  All  lighting  gels  -  type  Cinemoid  8 10 8  5 1/2 4 5 1/2  72  APPENDIX V I I I  L i s t o f Incurred Expenses  Articles; Flats 160' - l " x 3 " c l e a r spruce'§25* f t .  $40.00  Door frame 13'  - l " x 6 " c l e a r spruce @58C f t .  7.34  28' - l " x 3 " c l e a r spruce @25C f t . 2 l a r g e hinges @ $2.70  7.00 5.40  Door  Window 18' - l " x 6 " c l e a r spruce @58C f t . 1 sheet, 4 x8^mahogany 1/8" veneer 16 r o l l s , t i c h e r tape @45£ 1  10.44 4.9 5 5.80  House-top and small window 22' - l " x 3 " c l e a r spruce @25£ 26' s t e e l wire @5 f t . F a c t o r y Cotton c.a. 33 yards @2.95 yd.  5.50 1.30 95.45  Paint: Walls and T e x t u r i n g 3 g a l s , white @$ 8.00 2 g a l s , blue @$12.00  24.00 24.00  Props: 1 b a l l of wool  . 89 Total  $232.07  73  APPENDIX IX  L i g h t i n g Cue Sheet Cue 1  Accompanist & conductor's l i g h t s on and p r e s e t ( c u r t a i n warmers o n ) .  2  House l i g h t s o u t .  3  P. 4, b a r 26 - b r i n g up p r e s e t (white r a d i a l t o . l e v e l 8) as c u r t a i n r i s e s .  4  P. 8, bar 13 - b r i n g up white to f u l l by p. 13, bar 8.  5  P. 14, b a r 1 - white r a d i a l down, red r a d i a l up t o f u l l (10).  6  P. 15, b a r 14 - r e d r a d i a l down, white r a d i a l up t o f u l l ( f a s t c r o s s - f a d e ) .  7  P. 16, b a r 1 - b r i n g white r a d i a l down to t o 8 by p. 19, bar 22.  8  P. 2 3, l a s t two measures - white r a d i a l down as c u r t a i n c l o s e s .  9  F.O.H. l i g h t s up f o r f i r s t c u r t a i n (through the c u r t a i n on t o apron).  10  F.O.H. down as performers e x i t  11  Stage work l i g h t s on.  12  Repeat 9 and 10 as necessary.  13  House up t o f u l l .  radial  call'  apron.  74  APPENDIX X.  Paul Hindemith, Hin und zuruck (There and Back) i n accompanying envelope.  r  Y  Travel U  Curt  hou5€ - t"op  I  5  Pattern S"00  23  w a T T s  / ormeni or  6" FresneI  D  5 0 0  12 3  w a T T s  ^ ^ p i p e electric  Ii  black  8 P o t t e r 264looo watts  carta, IN /  le  5  8" Fresnel 2 2 3 looo watts  F  6 * G  1  ^  17  \  E —• • •  '—r  •"  17  11  ~t I V  G  ; .  bridge  17  .  \ y  Strip Licjht  CINEMOID  GELS  STRAND  INSTRUMENTS  1 i  V 420-  22 + 1  53  53  1  pipe  (?l e ctr j c  6  HIN U N D Z U R U C K OPERA  :  )  DESIGN  MASTERS  PRODUCTION  543  I 51  SCALE » % Front Of  7  17  52 5 t  APPENDIX HOUSE  NOVEMBER  LIGHTING MUSIC  MINDEMITH  WORKSHOP  OLD A U D I T O R I U M  Side oc k e f  PAUL  - 1 XII  0  '  av°  DOUSLAS V. , L E Y R  THESIS  HIN U N D Z U R U C K =OPERA kouse  WORKSHOP  OLD AUDITORIU M  -too  NOVEMBER  29. 30 1974.  "3  SET D E S I G N MASTERS MUSIC  -  :  : 549  APPENDIX =3  Plan  clear  2."- aiding -  WINDOW REAR  ELEVATION  V.  PRODUCTION  SCALE : W  1X3  DOUGLAS  DETAIL VIEW  - 1' O"  XI  RILEY  THESIS  

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