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Hin und zurück by Paul Hindemith : a production thesis Riley, Douglas V. 1979

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HIN UND ZURUCK BY PAUL HINDEMITH: A PRODUCTION THESIS by DOUGLAS V. RILEY B. Mus., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Music) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 1979 © Douglas V i r g i l Riley, 1979 In presenting th i s thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is for f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Depa rtment The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 -ABSTRACT Hin und Zurtick, a short, one-act opera written i n 1927 by Paul Hindemith, was produced, designed, conducted and staged by Douglas V- Riley, i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the require-ments for a Master of Music degree i n the Department of Music of the Univeristy of B r i t i s h Columbia. This opera was produced on a budget of $232.07 and was performed by a student cast on November 29 and 30, 19 74 i n the Old Auditorium Theatre which seats approximately 55 0 people. The following i s a d e t a i l e d record of that production with the stage director's analysis and interpretation of the musical score. This record i s divided into seven chapters and a f i n a l section containing a bibliography and production appendices. The f i r s t chapter deals with the reasons for choosing the opera i t s e l f , taking into account the r e s t r i c t i o n s of an opera work-shop: that i s , a l i m i t e d number of singers, young voices, i n -experienced actors and the necessary s i m p l i c i t y of the design and production. This i s followed by a short h i s t o r i c a l look at the composer and at the opera i t s e l f i n Chapter Two. The t h i r d chapter contains s p e c i f i c notes on the d i f f e r e n t ap-proaches to the conceptualization of the production and a d i s -cussion of the o r i g i n and basis of the f i n a l d i r e c t o r i a l con-cept. It also discusses i n t e l l e c t u a l and other analytic con-siderations dealing with dramaturgy and the projected produ-ti o n and d i r e c t o r i a l problems. The fourth chapter covers the s p e c i f i c organization of the production and the detailed f i n a l r e a l i z a t i o n of the staging. Cast selection and i t s related problems are then considered. This chapter also includes a scene-by-scene anal-y s i s which covers purpose, actions, musically-denoted actions, dominant emotions and the p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered therein. This chapter concludes with s p e c i f i c references to aspects of acting by young performers. Chapter Five deals with the conductor's personal preparation as a basis for co-ordina-ti n g the work both i n rehearsal and during performances. The chapter then deals with a l l other musical considerations and t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s to both the performers and the audi-ence of Hin und Zuriick. The straightforward approach to the planning and construction of the scenery i s discussed i n Chap-ter Six which also describes the d i f f e r e n t methods of stage l i g h t i n g . It concludes with an assessment of the f i n a l out-come . Chapter Seven i s a short appraisal of the entire pro-duction from d i f f e r e n t points of view, including a discussion of the opera as i t relates to the director/producer. The f i n a l section consists of a bibliography and various appendices, from a scene breakdown to the photo-copied reproduction of the score. i v II IV V VI VII TABLE OF CONTENTS Choosing the Work 1 A Brief History of the Composer and the Opera 6 Notes on the Production Concept 10 Organization and Realization of the Project 21 Musical Preparation and Realization 41 Planning and Construction of Scenery and Lighting 48 F i n a l Appraisal 54 Bibliography 57 Appendices: I Scene Breakdown 60 II Rehearsal Schedule 62 III Sketches of the Set 63 IV Coloured Photos of the Set 66 V Properties L i s t 68 VI Key to Staging Symbols 69 VII Instrument Schedule 70 VIII L i s t of Expenses 72 IX Lighting Cue Sheet 73 X Photo-copied Reproduction of the Score 74 XI Blue-print of the Set Design (in pocket) XII Blue-print of the Lighting Design (in pocket) V " A composer's horizon cannot be far-reaching enough: his desire to know, to comprehend, must i n c i t e , i n spire, and drench every phase of his works. " Paul Hindemith 1 CHAPTER ONE Choosing the Work Paul Hindemith composed Hin und Zuruck, or "There and Back", i n 1927. This one-act opera i s a comical melodrama which entertains i n a half-serious, half-absurd way. It i s based on an English revue sketch and the l i b r e t t o was written by Marcellus S c h i f f e r , a cabaret entrepeneur. While the mu-s i c a l language i s d i s t i n c t i v e l y Hindemithian, i t i s l i g h t -hearted and quick-moving, and lacks the pensive and often ponderous complexity of some of the composer's weightier com-positions. But Hindemith did possess a wry sense of humour, which i s revealed i n much of the music of Hin und Zuruck. This opera i s a p l a y f u l and d i v e r t i n g comedy, with something of an old-fashioned, music h a l l burlesque flavour. However, Hinde-mith 's treatment of his subject has an added s a t i r i c a l element. As well as i t s instant appeal, Hin und Zuruck has d i s -t i n c t musical and dramatic structures and a p r a c t i c a l small cast: soprano, two tenors, baritone, bass, speaker and mime, that i s id e a l for an opera workshop s i t u a t i o n . Even though the staging can be complex and the pace can be often f r a n t i c , Hin  und Zuruck's length and form provide an excellent operatic ve-h i c l e as well as a r e a l i s t i c challenge for an opera workshop. I. 2 Hin und Zuruck i s an i d e a l way for an opera workshop to confront some of the problems and d i f f i c u l t i e s that opera workshops often present. F i r s t l y , the singers involved are ; rarely professional i n t h e i r l e v e l of t r a i n i n g , and there i s often a great d i s p a r i t y i n t r a i n i n g between cast members. Hin  und Zuruck has two major roles of equal complexity that are a challenge to undertake, as well as other roles of lesser d i f -f i c u l t y . Secondly, t h i s opera could be e a s i l y sectionalized to accomodate young performers with more concentrated staging and musical rehearsals, and also to allow co-ordination with and scheduling of the workshop's other operas and excerpts. A t h i r d advantage i s the exclusion of an opera chorus and su-pernumeraries. Since most opera workshops do not have a t r a i n -ed opera chorus available, t h i s often becomes a major consider-ation i n the choice of an opera. Much valuable time i s thus l e f t for concentrated work with i n d i v i d u a l inexperienced sing-ing actors. Hin und Zuruck presents few problems with stage manage-ment or technical s t a f f . This aspect of choosing an opera i s important and often overlooked because few workshops have a fu l l - t i m e back-stage s t a f f ; thus, frequently the singers are expected to a s s i s t with technical duties during actual perfor-mances. As well as performing and carrying out technical du-t i e s , the student cast may be expected to aid i n set construc-ti o n and painting of the scenery; a l l of which i s time-consum-ing and often exhausting. The problem i s compounded when these same singers have important roles i n other operas and excerpts 3 which may be considered of a higher p r i o r i t y . The length, complexity and nature of the work were con-sidered to determine i t s p r a c t i c a l i t y for performance. Hin  und Zuruck i s r e l a t i v e l y short, with a running time from t h i r -teen to f i f t e e n minutes. Although the pace i s sometimes fran-t i c , exactness i n movement, as well as vocal production, i s imperative because the scenario requires the second half of the opera to run in reverse to the f i r s t h a l f; that i s , the pl o t and physical movement advance to a precise point where the singers are then required to turn the actions and the text backward and undo what they have done exactly i n reverse. A l l of t h i s i s regulated by the exactness of the music, so that the staging of t h i s abbreviated opera becomes a complicated one. However, accumlative concentrated e f f o r t and rehearsal produced a smooth running production from beginning to end and vice versa. Opera workshops usually f i n d themselves with a small operating budget which allows only for the simplest of set de-signs. This s i m p l i c i t y of design and construction methods and a minumum of building materials must y i e l d a set that achieves the proper mood and atmosphere as well as provides an adequate r e a l i s t i c acting space for the performers. Hin und Zuruck's simple, modern design f u l f i l l e d these requirements of economy and, indeed, the quality and effectiveness of the production may have been enhanced by the sparse production budget. Young singing actors often become over-excited and sometimes exhausted by the length of staging, musical, produc-ti o n and technical rehearsals. To a l l e v i a t e some of these 4 problems, the opera was double-cast. This assisted the young performers to develop t h e i r vocal p o t e n t i a l without over-exten-ding i t . Double-casting, however, increased the d i r e c t o r i a l and musical coaching duties. Although the required orchestra i s small: six wind i n -struments and four players at two pianos, i t was decided to use a two-piano reduction of the musical score. F i r s t l y , be-cause the complexity, speed and d i f f i c u l t y of the orchestral parts, which were almost beyond a student attempt, require extra rehearsals. And, indeed, instrumental students involved in regular ensembles have l i t t l e time available for extra-c u r r i c u l a r orchestral rehearsals. Secondly, the use of profes-sional players and rental fees for the orchestral parts would have overwhelmed an already strained budget. This two-piano system was used for both rehearsals and performances, and pro-vided not only the adequate and c o l o u r f u l accompaniment requir-ed, but also accomodated the additional rehearsals needed for staging with music. These extra rehearsals were e s s e n t i a l be-cause of the complex reverse staging. The opera Hin und Zuruck complemented the University of B r i t i s h Columbia's opera program. The program's format of com-binations of opera excerpts and one-act operas provides not only a professional opera t r a i n i n g ground, but also an oppor-tunity for each i n d i v i d u a l i n the workshop to prepare and per-form several d i f f e r e n t styles of singing and acting. Hin und Zuruck meets t h i s format requirement and also the others out-5 l i n e d e a r l i e r . This work proved to be a d i s t i n c t and unique challenge for a student director/producer and an i d e a l subject for a thesis production. 6 CHAPTER TWO A B r i e f History of the Composer and the Opera Paul Hindemith was born on November 16, 1895 i n Hanau, near Frankf urt-am-Main i n central Germany,. where he l i v e d u n t i l 1927. He studied at the Hoch Conservatory, Frankfurt, where he was known as an e s p e c i a l l y g i f t e d student of s t r i n g instu-ments and composition. At the age of twenty, he became concert-master of the Frankfurt Opera and was founder and v i o l i s t of the Amar Quartet, a prominent European string quartet. He ser-ved a year i n the German army i n World War I. In 1927, Hindemith was i n v i t e d to become composition professor at the Hochschule fur Musik (Berlin State Conser-vatory) and taught there u n t i l the r i s e of H i t l e r . Since the Nazi government forbade any performances of what was termed dissonant and degenerate modern music, he l e f t Germany i n 1938 and spent two years i n Turkey. From 1949 to 1953, Hindemith was professor of theory and composition at the School of Music at Yale University i n the United States. In 1951, he accepted the p o s i t i o n of pro-fessor of music at Zurich University i n Switzerland while re-maining on the s t a f f at Yale, and for two academic years d i v i -ded his time between the u n i v e r s i t i e s , eventually resigning from Yale i n 1953. In that year, he se t t l e d i n the v i l l a g e of Blonay, Switzerland, overlooking Lake Geneva. He gave up regu-7 l a r reaching i n order to concentrate on composition and to fos-ter his new-found enthusiasm for conducting. He died on Decem-ber 28, 1963 i n Frankfurt, where he began his career. Hin und Zuruck was premiered at the Baden-Baden F e s t i v a l which superseded the Donaueschingen f e s t i v a l , on July 17, 1927. This p a r t i c u l a r f e s t i v a l of new music featured three other one-act operas; Die Kleine Mahoganny, a s a t i r i c a l s k i t by Kurt Wei l l ; Die Prinzessin auf der Erbse by Ernst Toch, and the world premiere of L'Elevement d'Europe - 'opera minute' by Darius Milhaud. Many of these operas, and e s p e c i a l l y Hin und  Zuruck, were influenced by 'a small c u l t u r a l movement i n Ger-many at that time c a l l e d Zeitkunst or "art of the time". This term was widely used i n the l a t e r 1920's, and described popular works that g l o r i f i e d c e r t a i n contemporary subjects with well-known themes and treated them i n a contemporary and energetic s t y l e . These operas combined popular musical idioms such as music-hall, jazz, revue and cabaret tunes with texts on con-temporary themes. Hin und Zuruck i s also an example of the miniature type of opera i n vogue i n the 1920's, which reacted against the massive dimensions of the music dramas of Wagner and Strauss. Hindemith's l i b r e t t i s t , Marcellus S c h i f f e r , was a variety show producer and vaudeville writer "... and a lead-ing figure of B e r l i n cabaret of the 1920's - a fact which w i l l explain the opera's s u b t i t l e of 'sketch'". A 1 Ian Kemp, Hindemith, Oxford Studies of Composers (London: Oxford University Press, 1970), p. 21. 8 Hin und Zuruck i s a sparkling, l i t t l e spoof about a do-mestic murder. The lady of the house i s confronted by her hus-band when he finds a note claimed to be from her m i l l i n e r but in fact from her secret lover. After an exchange of verbal unpleasantries between the jealous husband and his spouse, he shoots her. In a f i t of remorse, he bemoans the s i t u a t i o n and leaps out of the window, presumably to his death. A doctor and his orderly enter, the Doctor pronounces his verdict and they take the dead wife out on the stretcher. This series of i n -tensely over-dramatic scenes i s interrupted by a benevolent "deus ex machina" who declares that something should be done. He points out that truth i s opposed to man destroying himself over t r i f l i n g human emotions. According to his l o g i c , i t makes no difference whether a man begins his l i f e i n the cradle and proceeds to his death or moves i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n . After considering t h i s , he magically reverses the order of the preceding events. The l i b r e t t i s t ' s reversal of t h i s t r a i n of events involves inverting the order of sentences rather than of words so that the sentences r e t a i n l i n q u i s t i c sense. The husband jumps back i n the window, the doctor and orderly back in carrying the dead wife, a l l the events reverse themselves, thus ending the opera as i t began. After mid-point, Hindemith's music "does not mirror the action to the extent of going into s t r i c t retrograde canon but reverses the order of i t s themes, movements and sections thus involving an operation which does require some delicate 9 2 graf t i n g . " This amusingly f l i p p a n t matrimonial tragedy, repre-sentative of the s a t i r i c a l tendencies fashionable i n Germany in the 1920's, was written by Hindemith at the overlapping stage of his Expressionistic and Neo-Classic periods. Like most of his music at t h i s time, including the s l i g h t l y l a t e r Neues vom Tage (1929), the music of Hin und Zuruck i s j a z z - l i k e and l i n e a r i n texture, and i s well-suited to i t s l i v e l y action. Hindemith also composed for the cinema and orchestrated the music for the cartoon F e l i x the Cat at the Circus, which was shown i n the section of the 1927 Baden-Baden F e s t i v a l set aside for f i l m music. I t i s possible that the idea for Hin  und Zuruck was suggested by contemporary f i l m techniques. Con-sidering t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , Morton Siegal, i n the 1940 produc-ti o n at the Berkshire Music Centre, staged Hin und Zuruck i n the st y l e of the early movie comedies. The set and properties were black and white, as were the complementing costumes and make-up. The addition of f l i c k e r i n g strobe l i g h t s heightened the impression of a production of an early movie and helped to emphasize the reversed body movements. Hin und Zuruck proved to be a "tour de force" i n Germany and around the world. The American premiere took place i n Philadelphia i n 192 8, and i t was subsequently performed at Tanglewood i n 1940 and i n London, England i n 1958, as well as by countless university opera workshops and by professional opera companies since then. 2 Donald Jay Grout, A Short History of Opera (New York: Columbia University Press, 1965), p. 547. 10 CHAPTER THREE Notes on the Production Concept Opera brings groups of people together for d i f f e r e n t reasons; perhaps they wish to enjoy the aesthetic experience of an a r t i s t i c performance or to understand and appreciate a s p e c i f i c composer's interpretation of a fragment of l i f e . For opera students, however, opera provides the challenges of understanding the composer's mental processes, of creating o r i g i n a l characterizations and of learning that most exacting type of self-imposed dramatic and musical d i s c i p l i n e : the opera r o l e . For the singer and producer/director, the production of Hin und Zuruck helps develop a c r i t i c a l , creative and or-i g i n a l approach to every production problem. The approach to producing Hin und Zuruck generally takes the following form: an i n t e l l e c t u a l analysis; analytic considerations based on the i n i t i a l dramatic impressions upon reading of the musical score; dramaturgy and some production problems; and the myriad other considerations that the direct o r must face p r i o r to and during the r e a l i z a t i o n of the project. In the i n t e l l e c t u a l analysis, a few questions have to be answered s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . Why did Hindemith compose t h i s opera? Some of his main reasons were based on his associations with the l i b r e t t i s t , Marcellus S c h i f f e r . When the work was to 11 be performed i n a serious music f e s t i v a l , Hindemith and Schif-fer had to turn what was r e a l l y an English revue sketch into an operatic form. The opera Hin und Zuruck was primarily com-posed then as consciously imaginative entertainment with a peculiar insight into a family s i t u a t i o n which was of: a par-t i c u l a r competitive qu a l i t y and proved to be a success at the Baden-Baden F e s t i v a l . The collaboration of Hindemith and Schif-fer also proved to be a success i n a subsequent opera, Neues  vom Tage, composed i n 1929. What are some of the opera's dramatic, t h e a t r i c a l and musical values? The opera i s presented i n a mock-serious form, where i n d i v i d u a l characterizations are almost as important as the development and reversal df the plot i t s e l f . The music moves quickly i n a light-hearted manner which i s i n appropriate contrast to the mock tr a g i c theme. This musical contrast i s further r e f l e c t e d i n the music-hall and burlesque themes, which were r e f l e c t e d on the stage i n our production. The major and minor climaxes are of p a r t i c u l a r dramatic value. There are a number of c r i t i c a l moments when the i n t e r -est climaxes i n each scene. However, t h i s d i r e c t o r chose not to emphasize s p e c i f i c climaxes and concentrated, instead, on a steady building of dramatic in t e n s i t y i n which each scene i s dependent upon the two adjacent ones. One exception i s the end of the confrontation scene where there i s a d e f i n i t e c r i s i s ; namely, the husband shoots the wife, and i t s counterpart, which might be c a l l e d the a n a - c r i s i s , i n the opera's second ha l f . Both c r i s e s were presented with the same in t e n s i t y . The c l i -12 maxes in the confrontation scene were e a s i l y emphasized be-cause the c r i s e s involved were so dramatically related to the music that the singers projected naturally the correct volume, in t e n s i t y , movement and other necessary stage techniques. The f i r s t impressions a f t e r i n i t i a l musical readings and subsequent impressions both a f t e r extensive research and as the project progressed were quite d i f f e r e n t . The better parts of a l l three sets of impressions were u t i l i z e d i n the f i n a l r e a l i -zation of the project. The opera was seen by the d i r e c t o r as d e f i n i t e l y abstract with a c a r n i v a l - l i k e opening, and with jazz-cabaret themes highlighted i n the music. The dire c t o r also used his preliminary dramatic impres-sions i n a few i n d i v i d u a l scenes. For instance the propelling drama of the confrontation scene i n Scene 4 (pp. 8-11) which gently subsides at the end into a more t r a n q u i l , flowing scene suggests a type of wild l y animated storm. The scene with the doctor (Scene 5, pp. 12-13) has the heavy rhythmic accents of a death march which suggest wailing and despair. At the op-era's mid-point, the harmonium accompaniment to the Sage's austere but comical appearance establishes a ghostly and some-what s p i r i t u a l e f f e c t . Many such scenes suggest that r e a l i t y i s being represented as t o t a l l y absurd. The d i r e c t o r sought to r e f l e c t many of these dramatic impressions on stage. The set design was influenced by c e r t a i n f i r s t impres-sions of geometric shapes with accents on Cubism and angles because the opera was composed during a time when these a r t i s -t i c influences were r e f l e c t e d more often i n d a i l y l i f e . Paint-13 ings and other forms of geometric art were being r e l u c t a n t l y accepted by the public at t h i s time along with some examples of mildly dissonant music l i k e Hin und Zuruck. These abstract forms of a r t i s t i c expression could be associated with the ab-s t r a c t absurdism of Hin und Zuruck. As a. r e s u l t , the idea of angles and geometric shapes was incorporated into the set de-sign. The next step i n the analysis was to i s o l a t e some of the chief acting problems i n the opera. Because of the length of the opera, the character's i d e n t i t y was rapidly established by accenting p a r t i c u l a r mannerisms and d i s t i n c t i v e movements that might be emphasized by the character's costume. Helene's fuzzy, pink house coat, f r i z z y blond wig and the exaggerated movements which these a r t i c l e s inspired helped to accent her effervescent nature. In some cases where d i s t i n c t contrasts in mood were required throughout one scene, the character's f a c i a l expressions were considered as the most important factor not to the point of contorted over-acting but d i s t i n c t enough to be quickly convincing to the audience. In-depth conferences about these characterizations were started with the actors at t h i s point. * They were then augmented by subsequent research into the time and period of the opera's idebut as well as by considerations of the o r i g i n a l setting and properties. A few preliminary movement problems had to be considered, es p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n to the reversed actions required i n the opera. Each set of staged forward movements within the f i r s t h alf of the opera had to be s t r i c t l y analyzed and p r e c i s e l y 14 rehearsed i n order to f a c i l i t a t e the creation of the reverse movements needed i n the opera's second h a l f . Each scene was found to be short enough to accommodate these' rehearsals and each set of forward and reverse movements was often rehearsed without music u n t i l f l u i d i t y of actions became second nature to the actors, who could then concentrate on more important matters. The cast's movement within the stage setting naturally came during l a t e r rehearsals when the set was complete. Spe-c i a l attention was paid to the forward and backward entrances and exits through doorways and p a r t i c u l a r l y to Robert's act of leaping out and i n through the window. Working props posed few problems i n handling and the only anticipated d i f f i c u l t y was the choreographic movement of the confrontation scene be-tween Helene and Robert, which involved the l e t t e r and the p i s -t o l . The performer's breath control and the physical stamina necessary for the performances were considered at an early stage and the performers were asked to move about quite v i -gorously during the early musical rehearsals p r i o r to f i r s t blocking. Other problems related to set and staging were dealt with during l a t e r rehearsals and w i l l be discussed i n subse-quent chapters. Many considerations were involved i n the dramaturgical view of Hin und Zuruck. The compressed nature of the story means that there are no sub-plots co-existing with the main theme. Therefore, the main climax i s the reversal of the plo t i t s e l f and the peculiar e f f e c t s that r e s u l t . Although the 15 opera has apparent s o c i a l and moral overtones which comment wryly on family l i f e , i n f i d e l i t y and t h e i r ultimate unimpor-tance i n the moral hierarchy of human events, the simple comic elements were emphasized at a l l times i n our production. The d i r e c t o r i a l concept was primarily v i s u a l with a cinematic emphasis, that stressed the s a t i r i c a l and humorous elements of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r family encounter. The d i s t i n c t moods of the music helped to depict and emphasize the stage action. The opera has a d e f i n i t e musical form with some c l a s -s i c a l influences i n the well-defined a r i a s , duets and t r i o s . This c l a r i t y of form helped the director's understanding of the opera and his formation of a simple and workable d i r e c t o r i a l concept. Boris Goldovsky states: The staging of an operatic scene involves f i v e steps: (a) The dir e c t o r f a m i l i a r i z e s himself with the plo t , the music, and the scenic se t t i n g of the entire opera, (b) He analyzes the scene i n question and t i e s up whatever loose ends may have been l e f t by the l i -b r e t t i s t , (c) He t r i e s to penetrate the inner l i f e of his characters and to read t h e i r minds, paying special attention to t h e i r thoughts, which take place during the orchestral introductions, interludes, and postludes. (d) He converts a l l t h e i r thoughts, whether spoken or s i l e n t , into action impulses, (e) He sees to i t that the action he selects for his mis-en-scene matches as clo s e l y as possible the mood, energy, timing and form of the ex i s t i n g music. ^ It i s the director's task to r e a l i z e on-stage the f u l l t h e a t r i c a l value of t h i s "inner l i f e of the characters" f i r s t created by the composer. The direct o r must help the in d i v i d u a l singing actor to determine what characterization i s necessary 3 Boris Goldovsky, Bringing Opera to L i f e (New York: Apple-ton-Century-Crofts, 1968), p. 327. 16 to e x t e r i o r i z e the character and to make i t v i s i b l e and com-prehensible to the beholder. He must set up clear and workable reasons for the singing actor's motivations; whether they be i n t e l l e c t u a l reasons or emotional urges. While i t i s es s e n t i a l that the singers think and f e e l i n character, under the direc-tor's guidance, t h e i r thoughts and emotions must be projected to the audience f o r c e f u l l y and c l e a r l y with meaningful actions and movement. At the same time, the direct o r must devise a pattern of movement that s a t i s f i e s his a r t i s t i c f e e l i n g for unity, d i v e r s i t y and balance-just as the composer s t r i v e s for a harmonious musical form. A conscientious dire c t o r should also consider whether or not his staging concepts coincide with those of the o r i g i n a l creators and he should then d i r e c t his actors accordingly. Every attempt was made by t h i s d i r e c t o r to re- e s t a b l i s h the point of view which created the o r i g i n a l Hin und Zuruck. Other aspects of d i r e c t i o n considered at t h i s time were factors influencing the projection of the appearance and the behaviour of the performer: including posture, f a c i a l expres-sion, gesture, placement within the scenic picture, and move-ment i n r e l a t i o n to scenery, props, other characters and l i g h t -ing. In theory, these elements may be subject to the stage directions given by the composers and the l i b r e t t i s t s , but i n r e a l i t y they d i f f e r from performance to performance, depending upon the scenic background and upon the imagination and talent of the stage director and the performers. Much of t h i s i n f o r -mation was given as character analysis i n the early musical and 17 blocking stages of the production. This information was imparted to the performer as a sequence: explaining what happens, or the p a r t i c u l a r actions and movement required for a scene; i n d i c a t i n g when i t happens, or at what point during the scene; questioning why i t happens, or the motivation; and then help may be given, by i l l u s t r a t i o n with how i t happens. It often takes some time before an inex-perienced singing actor can move and act independently on stage. He often cannot f r e e l y create without some assistance, so that the stage dir e c t o r must immediately help to free the singer from the basic concerns of what to think, where to go, when to react and at what speed to perform an action. The performer can assimilate these d i r e c t i v e s during the early rehearsals and i s s t i l l free to b u i l d a believable, v a l i d characterization. Just as the author and the composer free the singer from the necessity of inventing words and tunes, the director's i n f o r -mation and basic d i r e c t i v e s encourage the performer to devote a l l of his energies to b u i l d a given characterization into a unique and meaningful r o l e . This concept of the director's role was sometimes found to be contradictory. Sometimes, while imparting t h i s necessary information, he had to be an authoritarian figure while at other times he had to be a democratic group-leader e l i c i t i n g ideas and building s e l f - r e l i a n c e . A di r e c t o r must know his cast well i n order to adjust his methods accordingly to the person and the s i t u a t i o n . Since he i s i n a position of power, he must learn to use that control for the good of the opera and 18 not for his own aggrandizement. As an a r t i s t - l e a d e r , the d i -rector has to plan the production i n every d e t a i l so that he has a solution for any problem that may a r i s e . But as a group-leader, he has to inspire others so that they grow as perfor-mers and as people. The following d i r e c t o r i a l notes helped i n developing a well-rounded and workable production concept: (A) It was obvious although most of the opera's pacing i s determined by the tempo and i n t e n s i t y of the music, the on-stage action can bey retarded or accelerated as .required within the tempi of the musical framework. The d i r e c t o r ' s contribu-t i o n of his own ideas can thus be added to the o r i g i n a l struc-ture . (B) The singing actors were encouraged to pantomine the d i f f e r e n t scenes. This provided the singers with a good method of learning and perfecting the s p e c i f i c stage techniques re-quired i n the opera without having to worry about vocal tech-nique. The performer could then concentrate on musically mo-tivated and c o r r e c t l y timed stage movements and actions. (E) E s p e c i a l l y to the novice singing actor, the d i r e c t o r could not i n s i s t enough on the importance of p r a c t i s i n g the various vocal, musical and t h e a t r i c a l s k i l l s u n t i l they became automatic. (F) This d i r e c t o r of Hin und Zuruck t r i e d to avoid the role of either of the two extremes of stage d i r e c t o r . The f i r s t i s the d i r e c t o r who i s not well prepared and who too l i t e r a l l y follows only those suggestions offered i n the score. 19 He does not create or interprete the score i n t h e a t r i c a l terms, and often merely acts as prompter and t r a f f i c cop. The other type i s the director who i s over-prepared; he knows the work so well, i s i n such a hurry, and i s so fixed i n his ideas that he acts out every role and i n s i s t s that he be imitated abso-l u t e l y . Although the l a t t e r approach was found to be necessary with some singers, the former method leads to a performance without spark or spontaneity, which may not allow the performer to achieve that confidence i n his own creative a b i l i t y which i s es p e c i a l l y valuable i f the events on stage do not progress ex-a c t l y as planned. (E) Certain stage directions required the incorporation of s p e c i f i c symbols to indicate p a r t i c u l a r movement and physi-c a l a t t i t u d e . A complete symbol l i s t i s contained i n Appen-dix V. (F) In addition to the score, a diary containing thoughts about l i g h t cues, sound e f f e c t s , ideas on character-iz a t i o n s , motivation and stage "business", diagrams of move-ment and groupings, and d e f i n i t i o n s of words or phrases proved most h e l p f u l during the production as well as i n the writing of t h i s production the s i s . (G) The use of a t e l e v i s i o n camera and a video-tape re-corder i n rehearsal enabled the cast to get an accurate, i f p a i n f u l , view of how they were projecting t h e i r characters. The use of these devices underscored what the d i r e c t o r had been saying during rehearsals, but the learning came from a more persuasive source; the performer himself. In Hin und Zuruck, 20 t h i s device was e s p e c i a l l y h e l p f u l to the performer i n master-ing the required reverse movements. The accumulation of the preceding d i r e c t o r i a l notes, con-cepts and analytic approaches over a lengthy period of time provided the director with the confidence to proceed with the project. With a l l these ideas c l e a r l y established, the d e t a i l -ed organization of the production and f i n a l r e a l i z a t i o n of the staging could begin. 21 CHAPTER FOUR Organization and Realization of the Project An extensive analysis of the l i b r e t t o and music was nec-essary before casting could take place. The English t r a n s l a -tion by Marion Farquhar proved to be adequate, and the actual words posed no problems although some vowels proved d i f f i c u l t on s p e c i f i c pitches for many of the young singers. As well as the o v e r - a l l t e s s i t u r a , the i n d i v i d u a l vocal l i n e s were studied to evaluate d i f f i c u l t i e s r e l a t i n g to length of phrase, s p e c i f i c notes, i n t e r v a l s and vocal leaps. However, the proposed work i s not overly d i f f i c u l t and most of the problems were overcome by the practice and persistence of the selected performers. Other vocal and musical problems were then considered. Proficiency i n musical timing and rhythm i s required not only because much of the work involves constantly changing meters, but also because the emphasis i n the work i s on short staccato, colouratura-like phrases. (See example 1) Because the performer was asked to coordinate s p e c i f i c staging and exact movement with s p e c i f i c musical values and t i -mings, much i n t i a l consideration was given to appropriate cast-ing. I t was necessary also to anticipate the d i f f i c u l t y for the performer to move backward i n accompaniment to the retrograde or-der of the music, so that he would appear as natural as i n the 22 Example 1 (Kin und Zuruck - p. 7, Number 10) -earlier forward movement. This was also r e l a t e d to the a b i l i t y to memorize the music quickly and accurately and to remember the p h y s i c a l movements used i n the staging. For example, the d i r e c t o r saw the character of Helene as including vivacious, f l u t t e r y and energetic t r a i t s . The a b i l i t y to project these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and to move quickly both forward and backward as the music d i c t a t e d was required, as well as many other vocal and musical demands. A f t e r the many musical, vocal and dramatic aspects were f u l l y considered, casting was begun. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia opera workshop programme provided enough t a l e n t for the project. I t was found that double-casting of Helene's part was possible, making the production of the work somewhat more involved and complicated, but providing the maximum learning and creative experience f o r both the performers and the pro-ducer/director. The double-casting of t h i s part, however, produced a competitive s p i r i t which had to be a n t i c i p a t e d and developed in t o a constructive force. Since a tenor suitable for the r o l e of Robert was not enrolled i n the opera program, 23 considerable search was required, and the part was eventually f i l l e d by a robust, young singer with a more than adequate voice but with limited acting experience. The role:of the-Doctor i s b r i e f although important i n establishing a strong, leading vocal l i n e i n the ensemble parts. Since the music moves in a rather f r e n e t i c manner, the performers i n the major roles were generally required to adapt quickly to the subtle variations demanded by each performance; for example, a piece of stage business was often created spon-taneously during a performance. An adaptive performer was ex-pected to perceive and u t i l i z e these subtle changes i n a con-struc t i v e manner. The next step was the formal development of i n d i v i d u a l characterizations. I t i s the stage d i r e c t o r ' s duty to have clear concepts of i n d i v i d u a l characters and also to allow his insight and knowledge of the work to guide the singing actors in the development of t h e i r r o l e s . In the development of the characters, the d i r e c t o r must stress that the f i r s t o b l i g a t i o n of a conscientious singing actor i s a c a r e f u l analysis of the opera's text. The l i b r e t t o contains valuable information about scenic description and stage d i r e c t i o n . The performer must interpret t h i s information and combine i t with the direc-tor's contributions i n order to create a character that i s clear, precise, believable and well-projected to the audience. The singing actor must then allow himself to think the thoughts of the character. The l i b r e t t o helps to provide those i n i t i a l ideas upon which the character i s required to comment. However, 24 there.are also important thoughts and feelings, which are subsequently incorporated into the character, that are inspired by: research; the singer's natural day-to-day process of think-ing; the singer's r e c o l l e c t i o n of past experiences, feelings and other less clearly-defined images. A l l of these aspects should unite to create a deeper and more meaningful character-i z a t i o n . In some cases the singing actor should be encouraged to write a complete biography of his character, including his past l i f e and projecting a l l the events not shown on-stage or i n the text. The director then helps him to create meaningful and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c movement and motivation so that the actor can convey clear attitudes and emotional states. A follow-up sketch can help t h i s performer further enrich the characteriza-t i o n and convey subtly to the audience that the opera's charac-ter has an off-stage l i f e which continues on from the one seen on stage. As well as these biographies and character studies from other plays and operas, the singing actor should be asked to study, and perhaps re-create individuals they have encoun-tered who may give a further insight to the characterization. The d i s p a r i t y of experience i n the cast of Hin und  Zuruck created special problems i n the planning of the action and movement on stage. There was limited rehearsal time that could be a l l o t t e d for special sessions to raise the acting l e -v e l of the less experienced to that of the more accomplished. Occasionally a few extra sessions were scheduled for the d i s -cussion of character development through c l a r i f y i n g kinds of 25 movement; i n t h i s case, the forward staging and i t s reverse; simple but d i s t i n c t i v e expressive posture; mannerisms and c l a r i t y of vocal projection. Such extra sessions proved very help f u l i n the f i n a l analysis. The primary approach was to develop an idea of each of the seven characters of the opera and then to adapt and broaden the e x i s t i n g s k i l l s of the participants i n such a way as to best achieve these basic concepts. With the guidance of the direc t o r , the most important emphasis was on expanding the na-t u r a l personality of the singing actor to form an i n d i v i d u a l , complete and e f f e c t i v e characterization. The following i s a thumbnail sketch of each of the characters i n Hin und Zuruck which serves only as a basis of the characterization. Robert - strong, persistent, doubting, a g i l e , prone to the melodramatic, twenty-five years of age. Helene - vivacious, energetic, f l u t t e r y , a g i l e , prone to exaggeration, effervescent, a b i t f l i g h t y , twenty years of age. Aunt Emma - senile, deaf, eccentric, happy, seventy years of age. Sage - philosophic, wise, haunting, comical, calm, a b i t monotonous i n tone, ageless. Doctor - incompetent, slow, precise, sad, t h i r t y years of age. Orderly - robot-like, eccentric, inept, u n i n t e l l i -gent, t h i r t y years of age. Maid - naive, bubbly, a g i l e , eighteen years of age. The characterization of the Maid i s minimal, as her functional role consists only of d e l i v e r i n g a note to Helene, and the musical score did not allow her more than a b r i e f introduction. 26 The brevity of the score allowed only basic chracter-i z a t i o n , often only v i s u a l . In some cases, the characters . were exaggerated l i k e those i n the "Commedia d e l l ' a r t e " . Hin  und Zuruck's dramatic p l o t combines a believable s i t u a t i o n and a t o t a l l y absurd one. The gestures were not quite "semaphoric" but the performers were directed "to think of magnification". These gestures remained clear and meaningful, and expressed each emotion d i s t i n c t l y enough to be remembered by the actor so that they could be also executed i n reverse. Other views of characterization w i l l be discussed l a t e r i n the scene-by-scene analysis. The opera was then broken down into workable scenes. Each scene was c l a s s i f i e d by the following c r i t e r i a : a natural musical or dramatic break; the introduction or change of the leading characters; and one s p e c i f i c complex encounter of characters. Each d i s t i n c t musical or dramatic scene was i s o -lated when i t was necessary to concentrate on movement, charac-t e r i z a t i o n or stage business. This scene breakdown i s included in Appendix I. A deeper scene-by-scene analysis of the actual production i s presented l a t e r i n t h i s chapter. Once a l o g i c a l series of scenes was decided upon, a rehearsal schedule was drawn up by considering the following questions: Is there enough time f a i r l y a l l o t t e d to those who are double-cast? Is the schedule f l e x i b l e enough to han-dle the inevitable i l l n e s s or absences of performers? W i l l i t accomodate the scheduling of other operas and excerpts on the same program? Does i t take into consideration the occa-27 sional u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of those performers who are i n these other works? Does i t give the dire c t o r enough time to rehearse the sequence of scenes i n order to draw the f u l l p o t e n t i a l from the production and i t s members? Does the proposed schedule allow enough time for set and prop construction, l i g h t i n g and technical rehearsals? When these questions were answered, the workable rehearsal schedule was drawn up. (See Appendix II) Before creating the basic "blocking" or planning the acting areas, a set with a workable ground-plan was needed. Based on the production concepts of the d i r e c t o r and the bud-getary r e s t r i c t i o n s of the opera workshop, a set was conceived which also took into consideration the following: what the l i -bretto and score required; the size of the auditorium; and the director's and performer's f i r s t musical and dramatic im-pressions of the opera. The l i b r e t t o required a l i v i n g room, two entrances, a p r a c t i c a l , breakable window, a table and chair, a rocking chair and a small end-table with a drawer where a gun i s kept. The size of the auditorium suggested the set should be at least twenty feet high and twelve feet deep to both accomodate the performer's action and to be v i s u a l l y acceptable to the audi-ence. The director's f i r s t impressions of the opera included: a c i r c u s - l i k e atmosphere; some magical happenings; and absurd realism; a l l of which should combine with the music to c o n t r i -bute to the form of the set. The i n i t i a l sketch i n Appendix III (p. 63) combines these ideas simply, with a main entrance for Helene upstage 28 centre, an i n t e r i o r entrance stage r i g h t and a window stage l e f t . The walls and roof were to be made of small polyfoam b a l l s on e l a s t i c strings and the strings were to be connected both to the roof and to the f l o o r . For the f i r s t f i v e minutes, the set was to be exaggerated l i k e the pl o t , and stretched upwards and s l i g h t l y to the sides out of proportion. In the second half of the opera, the set would s e t t l e back to i t s o r i g i n a l shape. After the direct o r did considerable research into Hin-demith's l i f e , philosophy, ideas and other music, as well as into the times and a r t i s t i c influences surrounding the f i r s t production of Hin und Zuruck, he formed a new concept which u t i l i z e d abstract Functionalism, geometric and p a r t i c u l a r i l y angular shapes, Cubism, Futurism and Expressionism, which was s t i l l an important influence. Early 20th-century design was based on f u n c t i o n a l i s t design which "...often t r i e d to prove that geometric shapes were functional, that i s , comfortable, 4 inexpensive and easy to maintain and fabricate." This design movement included the separate movements of Futurism, Cubism and Constructivism. Although these movements had d i f f e r e n t leaders, they shared the same concept of abstract functional design with "... undecorated and geometric objects symbolizing 5 the machine age ..." and their a rt tended to be smooth-surfaced and made out of i n d u s t r i a l materials such as s t e e l , aluminum, 4 Ann Ferebee, A History of Design from the V i c t o r i a n Era  to the Present, (London: Van Rostrand Reingole & Co., 1970), p.78. 5 Ibid. p. 78 29 rubber and early forms of p l a s t i c . Appendix III (pp. 63-64) traces the search for alterna-t i v e s which combine the many design considerations. I t shows the concept of angles as an i n t e g r a l design factor and the de-velopment of the ideas. The f i n a l design i l l u s t r a t e d i n the coloured photographs i n Appendix IV (pp. 66-67) shows the f i n a l re-thinking of these set-concepts with the addition of a s t y l -ized house-top. As a r e s u l t , the ground-plan on page 65 was developed and the i n i t i a l blocking and staging began. 30 Scene-by-Scene Analysis -The director divided the opera into scene complexes (see Appendix I) for three reasons. F i r s t l y , each b r i e f scene represents a dramatic or musical entity s t a r t i n g with: an en-trance of one or more characters; an a r i a , duet, or t r i o ; or a complete change of dramatic mood. Such s p e c i f i c d i v i s i o n s helped both the singer and director a l i k e to understand and analyze the dramatic requirements of the opera. Secondly, these b r i e f scenes assisted the singing actor and the di r e c t o r i n the dramatic staging of the opera. Each scene required s p e c i f i c actions or a series of movements .to be completed. However, as the second half of the opera i s musi-c a l l y shorter than the f i r s t h a l f , many of the required re-verse movements needed to be executed a l i t t l e more quickly. Dividing the opera into scenes meant that the performer had to complete his movement within a given scene despite the musical differences of the opera's two halves. The scenic d i v i s i o n s chosen by the direct o r not only helped i n his study and under-standing of what movements were required but also helped to indicate when these movements should occur,, taking into account any musical d i s p a r i t i e s . Thirdly, the system of short scenic d i v i s i o n s assisted i n the creation of rehearsal schedules with-in the opera workshop programme. After a l i v e l y introduction (pp. 3-4), the music i n t r o -duces the f i r s t scene (pp. 4-6). The changing meter patterns 31 of the music and the emphasis on accents indicates extreme a c t i v i t y . As the curtain opens, Aunt Emma i s found i n the l i -ving room, rocking and k n i t t i n g happily i n her rocking chair by the window. At measure 62, she sneezes. Hindemith's music i s i n d i c a t i v e of the sneeze with a crescendoing tremelo (mea-sures 57-61) which suggests the intake of a i r and the r e i t e r a t -ed s y l l a b l e s "ah, ah, ah", the forte and mezzo-forte chords, and the diminishing staccato run (measures 62-64) suggesting the sneeze i t s e l f . The two sy l l a b l e s "Ah-Choo" as well as the appropriate actions should be c l e a r l y enunciated i n order to f a c i l i t a t e the reversal of these actions and s y l l a b l e s i n the second half of the opera. Since these are the f i r s t actions seen by the audience, they should be v i s u a l l y clear, large enough and d i s t i n c t i v e enough to centre the audience's atten-tion on the action so that i t can comprehend immediately the events on stage. Helene enters through the center doorway and places a rose i n a vase already on the table. The music suggests her walk and her movements are quick and a g i l e . She acknowledges Aunt Emma and bundles her up with a shawl. Helene's happy, carefree tone of voice corresponds to the flowing melody l i n e , while the accented and staccato accompaniment i s p a r a l l e l e d by Helene's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y exaggerated, dance-like walk and l i v e l y gestures. Helene's a r i a i n Scene Two (pp. 6-7) builds dynamically from a pianissimo to an eventual fortissimo. Her movements and vocal expression are i n i t i a l l y refined and gradually i n t e n s i -fy u n t i l her f i n a l G# at measure 109. During the beginning 32 measures (80-88), she crosses quickly over to the table, s i t s , casually pours her cup of tea and sings cheerfully about being awake and refreshed; "Now l i k e new I wake . The music then slowly i n t e n s i f i e s and at measure 92, the accompaniment a l t e r -nates with Helene's melody l i n e as she stands and toasts the morning. Both the melody and the accompaniment crescendo as Helene, with hands and napkin fluttering., moves e n t h u s i a s t i c a l -l y around the table i n an exaggerated series of dance-like steps. Many of these steps are emphasized by strong forte chords and accents; for instance, the chords i n measures 104-106 suggest a series of quick steps as Helene crosses downstage center for the aria's f i n a l e . U t i l i z i n g the music as a "stag-ing" medium, the alternation of these quick steps with the accompaniment and her sudden pauses as she sings the staccato phrases provide a comic choreography. Scene Three begins with Robert's entrance (p. 7 -measure 109) on two accented fortissimo chords. Helene i s surprised to have her husband home from work so early and i s visibly, agitated. Robert's actions are swift and decisive as he pre-sents Helene with a birthday g i f t and Aunt Emma with a parcel. Musically, t h i s scene gradually slows down as Helene opens her package and i s obviously disappointed by her g i f t (measure 121 -langsamer). During the following pause, the Maid enters with a note for "Madame". Helene and Robert look at each other ap-prehensively. The dissonance of t h i s fermata (a B against a B1?) supports t h i s tension, which f i n a l l y resolves with the 33 l i v e l y , propelling music of Scene Four. It should be noted here that certain important aspects of the opera must be established i n the f i r s t few scenes i n order to set the mood and general tone of the opera. In the f i r s t three scenes of Hin und Zuruck, the unpredictable and l i v e l y mood i s supported by the dissonant and s p i r i t e d music. Hindemith's highly rhythmic, accented and unpretentious score i s f u l l of musical contrasts which not only sustain the l i v e l y on-stage action but also contribute subtle allus i o n s to a jazz-l i k e s t y l e with his choice and use of orchestral instruments, most of which were included i n a 1920's jazz band. Also, these opening scenes should provide information i n a d i s t i n c t i v e and memorable way about the dramatic questions: who, what, when, where and why. "An expert actor i s a person who i s able to communicate a great variety of thoughts, moods and emotional states to his audience ... an expert opera singer i s a person who, i n addi-ti o n to these s k i l l s , has a well-trained voice and a consider-6 able knowledge of music." A conscientious acting student also s t r i v e s for these s k i l l s . I t i s es s e n t i a l for a performer to have a clear and v i v i d understanding of the motivation behind every action he creates. To be convincing, his actions must have personal motivation rather than be a c t i v i t i e s performed merely because they have been notated i n the score or arranged by the stage d i r e c t o r . One can invariably t e l l when a performer 6 Boris Goldovsky, Bringing Opera to L i f e , p. 17. 34 i s executing a stage movement out of inner compulsion and sincere conviction, or when he i s merely following directions and making a "move". Important also to a student's performance i s the q u a l i -ty of c l a r i t y , the ingredient that allows the happenings on-stage to not only be audible and v i s i b l e , but when highlighted also allows the audience's attention to be concentrated on the characters and events that carry the main dramatic burden. The audience's attention must be primarily drawn to the leading ac-tio n and only secondarily to the unobstrusive background ac-tions. For instance, during her a r i a (pp. 6-7), Helene's dance-l i k e steps downstage should never be overshadowed by Aunt Emma's simple gestures of k n i t t i n g and rocking. Scene Four (pp. 8-11) begins with the dramatic confron-tation between jealous husband and g u i l t y wife. Robert wishes to read the note and questions the i d e n t i t y of i t s author, who i s Helene's lover. The propelling motion of the music i s creat-ed by the many crescendo-diminuendo phrases and the continuous staccato and accented eighth notes i n the accompaniment, with the quarter note at the metronomic reading of 18 6. At measure 160, the use of tremelo adds to the excitement of the on-stage action as the couple snatch the note back and forth i n comic chore-ography while Robert presses the question of the authorship. At the height of t h i s scene, the wife f i n a l l y declares that the note i s indeed from her lover. Robert then produces a p i s t o l and shoots Helene who melodramatically f a l l s , accompanied by a descending staccato l i n e i n the score (measures 200-203). 35 The tempo d r a s t i c a l l y changes at the s t a r t of Scene Five (p. 12, Terzett) with the downward glissando of the trombone suggesting the sighs and lamentation of Robert. The music be-comes ponderous and march-like (number 17, langsam) as the Doctor and his Orderly enter unrequested with a stretcher. This scene portrays comic pathos as the Orderly takes a few bottles out of the Doctor's bag and i d e n t i f i e s them i n a robot-l i k e way. The Doctor examines Helene and declares that "there's nothing I can do" as he places a l i l y i n Helene's folded hands. The musical t r i o i s completed when the remorseful Robert sings his repentence for his act of murder. While the musical l i n e s of Robert and the Doctor double each other i n octaves, the Or-derly's musical l i n e drones on throughout the t r i o l i k e a pe-dal point. The meter sporadically alternates from 3/4 to 4/4 with each beat of the 4/4 measure accented. At measure 141, a few chromatic suspensions and harmonic changes help create a tension which resolves at the next 4/4 measure (144) as the two upper l i n e s double again i n octaves. The r e s u l t i s a peculiar type of remorseful chant which diminishes inconclusively at the end (measure 149). Aunt Emma ignores the proceedings and continues to rock and k n i t . Helene's corpse i s c a r r i e d out and Robert declares that he no longer wishes to l i v e . He tosses the gun out of the window and immediately leaps out through the window himself. The action freezes at the beginning of Scene Six, page 14, as the l i g h t i n g changes dramatically to s h i f t the audi-ence's focus of attention. High above the set, stage r i g h t , 36 a curtain i s s i l e n t l y drawn revealing the deus ex machina, "the Sage" who i s observing the now frozen proceedings with a telescope. To the accompaniment of the eery sound of a harmo-nium he says to the audience that no one would think that a higher power might intervene over such a t r i v i a l human episode. He declares, i n his monotonous voice, that something should be done and as i t doesn't matter whether a man begins his l i f e i n the cradle and proceeds to death or vice versa, the Sage, i n true ancient t h e a t r i c a l s t y l e , w i l l reverse the l o g i c and the action. His singing l i n e i s , for the most part, free and un-restrained by the harmonium accompaniment, thus symbolizing the independence of "higher powers". From Scene Seven (p. 14) to the end of the opera, the action i s a reversal of Scenes one to Five; that i s , each dra-matic and musical section i s produced i n reverse order with the actions, movements, and musical phrases also reversed. As the stage l i g h t i n g returns to normal, Robert leaps on-stage backwards through the window. He catches the p i s t o l which i s tossed through the window from off-stage l e f t , and once again sings of his unwillingness to l i v e , s t a r t i n g on the same A*5 he ended with i n scene f i v e . The Doctor and Orderly back i n with Helene's corpse and deposit her remains i n the o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n . The Orderly r e - i d e n t i f i e s his medicine bot-t l e s as the Doctor sequentially replaces the l i l y into his bag, re i t e r a t e s the hopelessness of Helene's s i t u a t i o n and re- .: examines her with his stethoscope. As t h i s t e r z e t ends on an accelerando, the medical team quickly backs out of the door 37 with the stretcher as Helene melodramically revives, springs up and advances toward Robert. Her husband re-shoots her, moves backward to the side-table and replaces the p i s t o l i n i t s drawer. Scene Eight begins with the couple's l i v e l y duet. The music i s as intense as i n the f i r s t chase scene, as Helene again admits the note i s from her lover, backs towards Robert, who re-reads the note, puts i t back i n the envelope and forces i t into Helene's hands. In a comical and reversed cinematic fashion, the two people c i r c l e the table backwards, g e s t i c u l a -ting wildly and thrusting the note repeatedly into each other's hands. With the approach of Scene Nine, the music again gra-dually slows down as the on-stage action becomes s t a t i c . Dur-ing t h i s pause (number 14), Scene Nine begins as the Maid backs i n the door, curtseys, takes the note from Helene, says "a l e t -ter for Madame" once again, backs out of the door and knocks three times. Robert c o l l e c t s the parcel from Aunt Emma and the birthday g i f t from his wife. Helene's attitude and actions once again range from extreme agita t i o n to surprise at her husband's early a r r i v a l . The short scene ends as Robert wishes her a'"Happy Birthday"and rebounds backwards out of the door by which he entered to the accompaniment of the o r i g i n a l f o r t i s -simo chords. The f i n a l scene (scene 10, p. 21) repeats Helene's a r i a with each section sequentially reversed, while her actions and vocal expression diminish from intense e l a t i o n to refined 38 cheerfulness. Helene dances backwards i n a repeated pattern of quick steps, accompanied by the same musical phrases f i r s t heard i n Scene Two. She pours the tea back i n the tea-pot and then unbundles Aunt Emma. She retrieves the rose from the vase on the table and nimbly exits backwards through the cen-ter door-way. Aunt Emma f i n a l l y r e a l i z e s the reversed action, sneezes a "Choo-Ah" and f r a n t i c a l l y unravels her k n i t t i n g as the curtain closes. From the i n i t i a l scene-by-scene analysis to the staging rehearsals and f i n a l r e a l i z a t i o n of the production, fundamental acting techniques and s k i l l s were emphasized by the di r e c t o r , which helped the actors develop an awarenes of themselves and the i r characters. To ensure the best performances the director and the i n d i v i d u a l singing actor were responsible for incorpo-rating the following acting fundamentals into the rehearsals: (A) The position of the head i n r e l a t i o n to the shoul-ders and the rest of the body proved to be of the greatest dra-matic s i g n i f i c a n c e . A few singers sang consistently into the stage f l o o r or constantly off-stage into the wings. If the performer was instructed to sing with his head turned s l i g h t l y down-stage, i t was found that the performer could maintain both an i n d i r e c t , but highly e f f e c t i v e , rapport with a partner who was standing behind him and the f l e x i b i l i t y to focus his voice toward the audience at a l l times. (B) The ideas of "taking" and "giving" stage were en-couraged. Whenever a performer was singing i n d i r e c t rapport with his partners, he moved upstage to the r i g h t or l e f t of 39 them, and those "giving" stage were required to "counter" down-stage accordingly. (C) The simple rule of s i g h t - l i n e s was emphasized; that i s , none cannot be seen by the audience i f one cannot see the audience". (D) Using the face as a main expressive mechanism was stressed. The face r e f l e c t s the mental states and makes them v i s i b l e . For instance, i n the scene where Robert takes the note from Helene, he expresses a n t i c i p a t i o n , anger and remorse within a very b r i e f period of time. I t i s the face that most e f f e c t i v e l y communicates these emotions and, i n f a c t , the per-formers were constantly encouraged to emphasize and exaggerate a l l f a c i a l expressions, feelings and movements. Even i n the auditorium theatre used for the performances of Hin und Zuruck, there was considerable distance between the audience and the stage. The performers were encouraged to produce f a c i a l ex-pressions more pronounced and gestures larger than usual i n order that they might be read by the audience. (E) It was found that speaking the musical l i n e s was as important as singing them. Performers were encouraged to exag-gerate the words as well as to a r t i c u l a t e the consonants and phonate the vowels c l e a r l y . (F) Unnecessary physical movement was constantly checked and analyzed for dramatic meaning. During some reh e a r s a l s , \ i t was found that some of the performers were not aware of i n v o l -untary movements of t h e i r arms, wrists and fingers. The a b i l i -ty to act and sing simultaneously without unconscious contor-40 tions came reasonably quickly as the performer developed an awareness of such problems. (G) Learning each other's musical l i n e s as well as mastering one's own was found to be absolutely necessary. Cer-ta i n unexpected mistakes could be quickly and inconspicuously corrected when a l l the singing actors were aware of the entire text and score. (H) Constant thinking i n character was stressed. A character's thoughts and feelings were to be as continuous as possible, and v i s i b l e even when not audible. Greater dimen-sions were added to the character when a performer had a deep understanding and could express t h i s understanding emotionally and physically to the audience. Also important were the actors' reactions to each other which resulted from reasoned motiva-tions and not simply because from stage d i r e c t i o n . (I) Occasionally, "playing the prop" enhanced the i n d i v i -dual characterization. Often a performer acquired strength by using a piece of set furniture properly or by using hand props to the greatest advantage. For instance, the peculiar manner in which Helene holds her tea-cup throughout part of the a r i a helps to delineate a facet of her character. The waving of her napkin through many of the quick steps of her a r i a helps to punctuate her movements. 41 CHAPTER FIVE Musical Preparation and Realization The f i r s t twelve measures of the prelude of Hin und  Zuruck have a meter change i n almost every measure - 3/4, 3/8, 2/4, 3/4, 3/8, 2/4, 5/8, 3/8, 2/4, 2/4, 5/8 and 2/4 (see Appendix X; which i s a copy of the musical score). With the quarter note at the metronomic indicat i o n of 116 ("sehr lebraft', 1; very l i v e -ly) , the student conductor had a challenging task of merely keeping the beat pattern clear and d i s t i n c t , l e t alone develop-in a singular or i n d i v i d u a l interpretation to t h i s part of Hindemith's sketch. Fortunately, with the addition of the vo-c a l l i n e s , t h i s e r r a t i c pattern subsides to some degree and reveals more e a s i l y anticipated patterns. This problem i s com-pounded by the general nature of the "cues", which are neces-sary to help the singer e f f e c t i v e l y achieve the d i f f i c u l t mu-s i c a l entrances. Therefore, the conductor's personal prepara-tion as well as the preparation of the singers with t h e i r i n -terpretation of the music are two main factors i n the musical r e a l i z a t i o n of Hin und Zuruck. The p r i n c i p l e s of conducting as outlined i n Max Ru-dolph's book The Grammar of Conducting and the Handbook of  Conducting by Hermann Scherchen were the textual basis of the conductor's personal preparation. As well as giving special 42 assistance with problems of rhythm, meter and tempo changes, fermatas and the handling of accents and t r a n s i s t i o n s , these texts helped the student conductor to develop the clear, pre-cis e and easy-to-read beat patterns e s s e n t i a l i n conducting the opera. In the course of rehearsals, the conductor achiev-ed greater f l e x i b i l i t y i n the conducting technique. He also learned to make instantaneous decisions, to anticipate and avoid d r a s t i c mistakes and to generally carry out the tasks of the conductor i n as calm, decisive and authoritative manner as possible. Much of the musical preparation had to do with a p a r t i -cular r e l a t i o n s h i p between tempo and energy. For instance, loud sounds may sometimes be interpreted as being more ener-getic than softer ones. Also, some dissonant harmonies and s t a r t l i n g combinations of sound can create the i l l u s i o n of an increase i n energy values. These i l l u s i o n s can delude both the performer and the l i s t e n e r . They can a f f e c t the emotions and even the body. Great composers for centuries have used th i s energy device to create an emotional response i n the au-dience . What i s generally referred to as "tempo" i n much of the music of Hin und Zuruck may be viewed also as a simple element of energy. The faster and louder the music, the more energetic i t seems. When i t becomes softer and slower, the energy seems to subside. Matching the r i s e and f a l l of these musical en-ergies with stage a c t i v i t i e s i s one of the fundamental rules of operatic theatre. With Hin und Zur'uck and i t s forward and 43 reversed action, t h i s energy factor often became as important as the actual tempos themselves. I t was not only important that the forward movements of the actors i n the opera 1s f i r s t h a l f match the reverse movements of the second ha l f , but also that the energy of both halves should correspond. During the early musical rehearsals, tempi were set and any inconsistencies were corrected. The singers and the accom-paniment learned to respond to an anticipated tempo change with an appropriate change i n the size of the conductor's beat for the f i r s t few bars. And for the student conductor, only d i -l i g e n t practice and day-to-day rehearsal experience can esta-b l i s h the correct tempo, complete freedom of the l e f t hand for cueing and the development of constant eye contact with the singers, accompaniment and the musical score. The eye contact between the on-stage performer and the conductor i n the p i t i s extremely important. Because t h i s v i -sual l i n k provides a s p e c i f i c cue for the s t a r t of a singer's musical l i n e given just p r i o r to the singer's breath in-take, the constant eye contact often anticipates and solves memory problems. With the established habit that the performer always sees the conductor, either d i r e c t l y or peripherally, the s i n -ger i s constantly reassured that everything i s proceeding i n a secure and orderly fashion. This constant contact also a l -lows the conductor to take v i s u a l cues from the performer when the stage action warrants i t . Even though a character's feelings can usually be com-municated by the tone of his voice and by his actions, only a 44 few of his thoughts can be transmitted i f his words are not completely i n t e l l i g i b l e . This i s es p e c i a l l y true i n many twentieth-century operatic works. The clear enunciation of the sung text and the d i s t i n c t i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y of these pro-jected words were constantly emphasized to the young singers of Hin und Zuruck. Special attention was devoted to the con-sonants of the text which must be c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d without d i s t o r t i o n , despite some antagonistic harmonic dissonances i n the score. Emphasis was placed upon the vocal projection re-quired for the production i n the large performance space of the Old Auditorium. Constant attention to d i c t i o n enabled the singers to f u l f i l l the d i c t i o n and projection obligations without placing undue s t r a i n on t h e i r voices. The ensemble scenes were c a r e f u l l y studied to develop a workable and balanced blend of tone and volume. In rehearsal, each musical l i n e was often spoken aloud and projected using the technique of c l a s s i c a l spoken drama. This helped create not only expressive and well-controlled i n d i v i d u a l vocal l i n e s but also a u n i f i e d ensemble. A further consideration was one of vocal colouring because the human voice i s capable of pro-ducing an almost endless variety of tonal shadings. This i s often considered as important as the a b i l i t y to handle the mu-s i c a l e f f e c t s dramatically because the creation of s p e c i a l con-t r a s t i n g i n f l e c t i o n s and hues adds in t e r e s t to the musical l i n e s , and guards against any monotony from the repetitious phrases often heard i n opera. "When a gesture or stage movement must coincide exactly 45 with an accent or some other feature of the music, we speak of synchronization. The term contouring i s for acting se-quences that follow the outline of the music more loosely, 7 without having obvious moments of exact coincidence." The exact pacing and spacing of dramatic action according to the music are of primary importance i n Hin und Zuruck. The conductor's aim was to perfect the timing between the action on stage and the music i n the accompaniment. Very often t h i s synchronization had a s p e c i f i c procedure; the action was i n -stigated just before the accompanying music began i n order to make i t appear that the actor's movement brought forth the mu-s i c as a r e s u l t of that action. The orchestra does not merely accompany and support the characters on the stage; i t also re-f l e c t s t h e i r thoughts, feelings and actions. Consequently, the singer's actions must j u s t i f y the music as i f they them-selves are causing the music to be. The accompaniment then seems to underline and i n t e n s i f y the actions of the performers. The p a r t i c u l a r "contouring" involved i n Hin und Zuruck followed the s p e c i f i c outline of musical phrases. The move-ments and gestures of the performer were executed i n such a manner that the ebb and flow of the stage actions corresponded to the various musical dynamic markings and the energy the mu-s i c suggested. With t h i s musical approach, the singing actors and the stage dire c t o r could then acquire and incorporate the habit of thinking i n terms of the phrases and combinations of 7 Boris Goldovsky, Bringing Opera to L i f e , p. 87. 46 phrases found i n a l l musical forms and convert them into ap-propriate t h e a t r i c a l equivalents. In t h i s production of Hin  und Zuruck, there was an advantage to combining the roles of conductor and stage director; any problems, either musical or dramatic, regarding timing were solved immediately. A p a r t i c u l a r problem was encountered i n the musical preparation of Hin und Zuruck. Occasionally, finding the pit c h of the i n i t i a l note of a new phrase was a source of uncertain-ty and worry to the singer. This was often true when thi s p i t c h could not be found i n or related to the accompaniment which i s a si t u a t i o n common i n twentieth-century works. To as s i s t the singer a s p e c i a l l y conceived melodic l i n e was added that led from the l a s t note of his preceding phrase to the note of a s p e c i f i c p i t c h that caused the d i f f i c u l t y . This melodic l i n e was often hummed s i l e n t l y and was conceived i n the form of a vocal exercise which the singer could e a s i l y understand and to which he could adapt. Any musical passage, vocal or i n -strumental, could serve as a point of departure for building a melodic bridge. Another solution was that the singers were encouraged to learn and sing each other's musical l i n e s , espe-c i a l l y those which preceded t h e i r own. From the l i s t e n e r ' s point of view, singing functions on three separate l e v e l s ; the words that are sung appeal to the i n t e l l e c t , the beauty of the vocal l i n e s give a physical pleasure and the musical, nuances of a well-executed performance s a t i s f y the a r t i s t i c sense. With the preceding aspects of 47 preparation and r e a l i z a t i o n of the music as well as with those precepts c i t e d i n e a r l i e r chapters r e l a t i n g to dramaturgy and staging, t h i s thesis production of Hin und Zuruck attempted to s a t i s f y the demands of the performers as well as the l i s -teners. 48 CHAPTER SIX Planning and Construction of Scenery and Lighting The advantage of the set design chosen for t h i s thesis production of Hin und Zuruck i s that i t was easy to handle and quickly set up. Most of the scenery was painted factory-cotton cloth stretched over ftflat" frames of 1" x 3" clear spruce boards. The doors, side f l a t s , house-top and the window were created from the same materials. The abstract, angled design was inexpensive and simple to construct. Only parts of the set were three-dimensional and many of the household furnish-ings were painted on the walls. The actual set pieces were easy to manipulate as they were b a s i c a l l y three f l a t s lashed together and resting on metal g l i d e s . The weight of the set was r e l a t i v e l y small and the house-top, a white painted t r i -angle frame, was lowered from the f l y - g a l l e r y (see Appendix XI - Set Design). As a part of t h i s contemporary design, the window and doors had to have the appearance of thickness. This was achieved by having 1" x 6" boards attached to the edges of the f l a t walls that were v i s i b l e to the audience. This inexpensive method gave the necessary three-dimensional look without adding appreciably to the set's weight and bulk. Special attention was given to painting the set i n sub-t l e pale colours to re-create the 1920's "pop-art" design. 49 After a white base coat, a.light blue over-coat was applied with a l a t e r addition of darker blue s t r i p e s which gave the set a t a l l e r , busier appearance. Dark blue curtains over the window and center door-way gave emphasis and focus to these areas. Complementary furnishings were sketched on the walls along with special items such as a bird-cage and a clock. The p r a c t i c a l , breakable window was a wooden frame with thin pieces of "adding machine" tape - 2 inch wide white paper attached i n the pattern of small squares (window panes). The whole frame could be removed from the window s l o t and another one could be quickly i n s t a l l e d . As the character Ro-bert leapt out and broke the tape i n the window, an immediate l i g h t i n g change, which helped mask the window from the audience, focussed attention on the Sage's appearance stage r i g h t . Dur-ing t h i s time, a new window frame which was hinged at the top was being i n s t a l l e d . After Robert leapt back through the win-dow, the new frame was immediately lowered as the l i g h t s re-turned to normal. With practice, t h i s procedure proved eff e c -t i v e , although the co-ordination was d i f f i c u l t to achieve with the available materials and man-power. The appropriate 1920's household furnishings: table, table-cloth, chair, rocking chair and side-table, were f o r t u -nately e a s i l y obtained from the University of B r i t i s h Colum-bia's opera and theatre departments. There were a lim i t e d number of hand properties involved, a l l of which were either borrowed or from stock within the opera department. The assistance of many of the singers as builders limited 50 the labour costs involved. Along with minimal expense for the required building materials, t h i s assistance helped to keep the o v e r a l l budget within reason for a small-scale uni-v e r s i t y production. A l i s t of materials and a r t i c l e s u t i l i z e d and costs incurred i s included i n Appendix VIII. The l i s t of properties used i n the production i s found i n Appendix V. The d i r e c t o r i a l conception created a simple, d i r e c t ap-proach for the l i g h t i n g which allowed for the proper i l l u m i -nation of the acting areas. To achieve t h i s , instruments and lenses were chosen which not only assisted i n the proper d i s -t r i b u t i o n of l i g h t to these areas but also added special q u a l i -t i e s of illumination; for instance, a stepped Fresnel lens adds soft, diffused l i g h t and a curved e l l i p s o i d a l lens gives a more d i r e c t , intense il l u m i n a t i o n . Each instrument or com-bination of instruments was selected to give subtle q u a l i t i e s of i llumination for d i f f e r e n t purposes: bright, even l i g h t for the main acting area; special subtle l i g h t i n g used i n the ton-ing and blending of the setting and background areas; and spe-c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n which gave accent, motivation and special e f f e c t s . The combined roles of designer for both setting and l i g h t i n g and of stage dire c t o r proved to be a d i s t i n c t advan-tage. The dire c t o r required v i s i b i l i t y for his performers with proper illumination for the acting areas at a l l times. The designer required the l i g h t i n g to create mood and atmosphere in a p a r t i c u l a r composition for the whole s e t t i n g . Certain compromises had to be made between the director's demands and 51 l i g h t i n g needs as well as compromises with the set design i t s e l f . A fter these decisions were made, the McCandless Method g of Lighting was used, with some references to Richard P i l -9 brow's "key and f i l l " method . The ground-plan was divided into l i g h t i n g areas approximately six feet i n diameter which over-lapped. Each area was illuminated with a "cool" and a "warm" l i g h t from diagonal l i g h t i n g positions using the McCand-less Method. In addition to these areas, there was a basic "wash" from the front l i g h t i n g r a i l (PAR-border) and a few l i g h t i n g instruments from the front-of-house (F.O.H.). :Cer-t a i n s p e c i f i c areas were illuminated with a strong l i g h t from one source at about a 45° angle and supplemented by one or more of lesser i n t e n s i t y from the other angles and positions of source using the key and f i l l method. This provided the neces-sary shaping of the a r t i c l e s and actors i n these areas. In general, instruments with Fresnel lenses were used for general illumination, l i g h t f i l l i n g and "washing", of the set areas, whereas e l l i p s o i d a l lenses were used for s p e c i f i c i l l u m i n a t i o n of the primary acting areas. The dramatic source of illumination came from the stage l e f t window evenly covering the entire set because the time of day varied from 11:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. The basic wash used 8 Stanley McCandless, A Syllabus of Stage Lighting (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University, Stanley McCandless, 1958). 9 Richard Pilbrow, Stage Lighting (London: Studio V i s t a , 1963) . 52 here consisted of l i g h t salmon pinks and l i g h t amber gel tones with a few additional blue gels. A l l gels used.corresponded to the 1960 Cinemoid p l a s t i c colour chart which i s based on a three-colour system. A l l i n d i v i d u a l instruments were of the Strand type. This washing of the set included the primary co-lours from the overhead borders to give the desired three-dimensional look. A s l i g h t halo e f f e c t often set the actors apart from the background. Although three back-lighting i n -struments of white l i g h t complemented t h i s three-dimensional look, t h i s e f f e c t was not s p e c i f i c a l l y noticed by the audience. This white l i g h t was usually between 50% and 75% of f u l l v o l -tage which gave more warm tones of amber-yellow-orange rather than cool bluish ones, thus making gels unnecessary for these instruments. Outside the windows and doors was special illumination o r i g i n a t i n g from the "tormentor" -lighting s l o t s on-stage so that the actors would not appear out of the darkness as they entered. The other special l i g h t was a very intense white one required for the Sage as he appeared above the stage r i g h t f l a t because a heavenly, mystical, a l b e i t comic, f e e l i n g was re-quired. Back-lighting with d i r e c t and diagonal f r o n t - l i g h t i n g helped to create t h i s mirage. When these l i g h t s were employed, the action was frozen while the Sage made his decree. To en-hance t h i s atmosphere, t h i s pure white l i g h t was contrasted and surrounded, with s p e c i f i c bright red l i g h t s which were quite u n r e a l i s t i c i n comparison to the rest of the l i g h t i n g . This special l i g h t i n g s i t u a t i o n was used only for a short time, but 53 i t s contrast to the previous and subsequent sections proved to be very successful. The downstage areas were l i t from the front-of-house c e i l i n g l i g h t i n g positions from an approximately 4 5° angle. Limited illumination from the pocket positions of the audi-torium was employed primarily for the downstage areas as well as used diagonally for some upstage center areas. The front pin r a i l was used for both warm and cool l i g h t s and the second pin r a i l was primarily reserved for back-lighting. Appendix VII i s an instrument schedule of p a r t i c u l a r l i g h t i n g i n s t r u -ments u t i l i z e d , with t h e i r respective gels, and Appendix IX i s a cue sheet used i n the production of Hin und Zuruck. 54 CHAPTER SEVEN F i n a l Appraisal Hin und Zuruck was found to have an appropriate musical and dramatic structure and a p r a c t i c a l small cast that proved an i d e a l choice for an opera workshop.. This opera was e a s i l y divided into sections, allowing for concentrated musical and dramatic rehearsal. The required singing and acting were a considerable, but not overwhelming challenge and at a l l . times the singing actor was encouraged to be consistent and convinc-ing i n the portrayal of his i n d i v i d u a l r o l e . Those cast mem-bers who were dramatically, musically or vocally inexperienced were given extra help, encouragement and added opportunity for rehearsal. The operation of the production i t s e l f required the simplest of modern technical f a c i l i t i e s and only a few back-stage s t a f f members. The short one act format did not over-burden the s t a f f or the individuals who constructed and oper-ated the set. The simple design was found to be inexpensive, but more than adequate i n t h e a t r i c a l i t y and attractiveness. Within the University of B r i t i s h Columbia opera pro-gram, Hin und Zuruck provided substantial opera t r a i n i n g , not only for the singing actors involved, but also because i t pro-vided an opportunity and unique challenge for a director/pro-55 ducer. Under the professional and experienced guidance of the opera program's supervisor, the student director/producer was given a m u l t i p l i c i t y of duties which not only expanded his knowledge and experience but also allowed him to have i n d i v i -dual control of a l l aspects of production. This helped to achieve greater unity i n the work and helped him to carry out his personal concepts and ideas about the opera. This i n d i v i -dual challenge involved many elements: from choosing the opera; to h i s t o r i c a l research and detailed musical analysis; to de-veloping a t o t a l production concept for the stage which was not only t h e o r e t i c a l but p r a c t i c a l . This production concept included: cast selection where great care was taken to protect the young vocal mechanisms; i n -terpretation and r e a l i z a t i o n of the text and music where exten-sive research and study of the musical score i t s e l f was supple-mented by h i s t o r i c a l examination; set design where construction costs and the workability of r e a l i s t i c acting areas were as important as an acceptable appearance; set construction which gave the designer a good p r a c t i c a l knowledge of the basics of carpentry, shop drawings, and of how the set functions!; lighting de-sign where complex l i g h t i n g theories were examined, mixed and applied to solve the problem of how to illuminate acting areas while considering composition and mood; teaching of basic opera acting techniques and staging which encompassed not only physi-c a l movement but included an understanding of the subtle ef-fects of f a c i a l expression; and conducting where the i n t r i c a -cies of the score were brought out and aurally r e a l i z e d i n a 56 sensitive manner. Such immersion i n a l l aspects of opera production made possible a mature and r e a l i s t i c consideration of the demands, rewards and consequences of future employment i n the opera f i e l d . This involvement i n producing opera provided an oppor-tunity to take the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for organizing the entire project with a minimum of assistance and funds. The knowledge gained through t h i s involvement w i l l be invaluable i n dealing with future projects. 57 .Bibliography Bernstein, Martin and Martin Picker. An Introduction to Music. Englewood C l i f f s : Prentice-Hall Inc., 1966. Boucher, Francois. 20,000 Years of Fashion. New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc., 19 66. Brockett, O.G. History of the Theatre. Boston: A l l y n and Bacon Inc., 1968. Browne, Arthur G. "Paul Hindemith and the Neo-Classic Music." Music and Letters, 13, No. 1, (1932), 42-55. Bruhn, Wolfgang, and Max T i l k e . A P i c t o r i a l History of Costume. London: A. Zwemmer Ltd., 1955. Burris-Meyer, H. and F. Cole. Scenery for the Theatre. Boston: L i t t l e , Browen and Co., 19 38. Cooper, Martin. The Modern Age 1890-1960. London: Oxford University Press, 1974. Copland, Aaron. Our New Music. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc., 1941. Demar, Irvine. Writing about Music. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1956. Demuth, Norman. Musical Trends i n the 20th Century. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1952. Deri, Otto. Exploring Twentieth-Century Music. New York: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston Inc., 1968. Eaton, Quaintance. Opera Production. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1961. Ea g l e f i e l d - H u l l , A. A Dictionary of Modern Music and Musicians. New York: Da Capo Press, 1971. Ewen, David. The New Encyclopedia of the Opera. New York: H i l l and Wang, 1971. Ferebee, Ann. A History of Design from the V i c t o r i a n Era to  the Present. London: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1970 . 58 Forte, A l l e n . Contemporary Tone-Structures. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1955. Fuerst, W.R. and S. Hume. Twentieth-Century Stage Decoration. New York: Dover Publications Inc., 1928. Goldovsky, Boris. Bringing Opera to L i f e . New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1968. Graf, Herbert. Opera for the People. New York: Da Capo Press, 1973. Grout, Donald Jay. A History of Western Music. New York: Norton & Company Inc., 1965. A Short History of Opera. New York: Columbia University Press, 1965. Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1955. Hansen, Peter S. An Introduction to Twentieth-Century Music. Boston: A l l y n and Bacon Inc., 1961. Hartog, Howard. European Music i n the Twentieth-Century. London: Routledge and Paul Kegan, 1957. Hindemith, Paul. A Composer's World Horizons and Limitations. Gloucester, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969. Hayward, Helena, ed. World Furniture. Toronto: Hamlyn, 1965. Jacobs, Arthur. Opera: A Modern Guide. New York: Drake Publishers Inc., 1972. Kemp, Ian. Hindemith, Oxford Studies of Composers. New York: Oxford University Press, 1970. Kerman, Joseph. Opera as Drama. New York: Vintage Books, 1973. Kozelka, Paul. Directing. New York: Richards Rosen Press, 1968. Lang, Paul Henry. The Experience of Opera. New York: Norton & Co., 1963. Machlis, Joseph. Introduction to Contemporary Music. New York: Norton & Co., 1968. Mysers, Rollo H. Twentieth-Century Music. London: Calder & Boyars, 1968. 59 Parker, W. Oren and Harvey K. Smith. Scene Design and Stage Lighting. Toronto: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston Inc., 1963. Peyser, Joan. The New Music. New York: Dela Corte Press, 1971. Pilbrow, Richard. Stage Lighting. London: Studio V i s t a , 197 0. Rosenthal, Harold. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Opera. London: Oxford University Press, 1964. Rudolph, Max. Grammar of Conducting. New York: G. Schirmer and Co., 1950. Salzman, E r i c . Twentieth-Century Music: An Introduction. Englewood C l i f f s : Prentice-Hall Inc., 1974. Scherchen, Hermann. Handbook of Conducting. London: Oxford University Press, 1940. Schwartz, E l l i o t . Contemporary Composers on Contemporary Music. New York: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, 1967. Slominsky, Nicolas. Music Since 1900. Fourth ed. New: York: Charles. Scribner 1s & Sons, 1971. Veronesi, G. Style and Design 1909-1929. New York: George B r a z i l l e r Co., 1968. Vinton, John, ed. Dictionary of Contemporary Music. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1974. Westerman, Gerhart von. Opera Guide. London: Sphere Books Limited., 1968. 60 APPENDIX I Scene Breakdown (For Rehearsal Purposes) Introduction pp. 3-4 Orchestral Scene 1 pp. 4-6 Aunt Emma Helene Scene 2 pp. 6-7 Aunt Emma Helene Scene 3 pp. 7-8 Aunt Emma Helene Robert Maid Scene 4 pp. 8-11 Aunt Emma Helene Robert Scene 5 pp. 12-13 Aunt Emma Helene Robert Doctor Orderly Aunt Emma, Helene curtain p. 4 enter p. 5 Aunt Emma, Helene pp. 6-7 pp. 6-7 Aunt Emma, Helene, Robert, Maid pp. 7-8 pp. 7-8 enter p. 7 (4:1) enter & e x i t p. 8 (3:3-4) Aunt Emma, Helene, Robert pp. 8-11 pp. 8-11 pp. 8-11 Aunt Emma, Helene, Robert, Doctor, Orderly pp. 12-13 exi t p. 13 (2:1). e x i t p. 13 (2:4) enter p. 12 - ex i t p. 13 (2:1) enter p. 12 - ex i t p. 13 (2:1) 61 Scene Breakdown (continued) Scene 6 pp. 14-15 Aunt Emma Sage Scene 7 pp. 16-17 Aunt Emma Sage Robert Doctor Orderly Helene Scene 8 pp. 17-19 Aunt Emma Sage Robert Helene Maid Scene 9 pp. 19-21 Aunt Emma Sage Robert Helene Scene 10 pp. 21-23 Aunt Emma Sage Helene Curtain Aunt Emma, Sage pp. 14-15 Appearance p. 14 Aunt Emma, Sage,.Robert, Doctor, Orderly, Helene pp. 16-17 pp. 16-17 enter p. 16 enter p. 16 (1:3)- e x i t p. enter p. 16 (1:3)- e x i t p. enter p. 16 (1:3) 17 (1:3-6) 17 (1:3-6) Aunt Emma, Sage, Robert, Helene, Maid pp. 17-19 pp. 17-19 pp. 17-19 pp. 17-19 enter p. 19 (3:7)- e x i t p.19 (3:8) Aunt Emma, Sage, Robert, Helene pp. 19-21 pp. 19-21 pp. 19-20 - exi t p. 20 (3:3) pp. 19-21 Aunt Emma, Sage, Helene pp. 21-23 pp. 21-23 pp. 21-23 - ex i t p. 23 (2:2-4) p.23 (5:3-4) 62 APPENDIX II Rehearsal Schedule Scene breakdown key: Date Rehearsal 1 2 pp. pp. 4-5 6-7 AE, H AE, H Nov. 3 4 pp. pp. 7- 8 8- 11 AE,H,R,M AE , H, R 1 8:00-10:00 Stage 6,7,8 5 6 pp. pp. 12-13 14-15 AE,H,R,D,0 AE,S 4 8:00-10:00 Stage 9,10 7 8 pp. pp. 16- 17 17- 19 AE,S,R,D,0,H AE,S,R,H,M 6 7:00-8:30 Work 3-6 9 10 pp. pp. 19-21 21-23 AE,S, R, H AE,S,H 8 8:30-10:30 Work 6-10 11 7:00-8:30 Work 2-5 Date Rehearsal 12 8:30-10:00 Work 5-10 Oct. 15 7:00-8:30 Work 5-7 9 7 : 00-9:00 Musical 20 7:00-8:30 Run-through 14 7: 00-10:00 Musical 23 2:00-5:00 Run-through 18 7: 00-8:30 Musical 24 7:00-8:30 Run-through 21 7: 00-8:30 Special 25 8:30-10:00 Run-through Coaching 26 Dress Rehearsal: C a l l 23 7: 00-8:30 Musical 6:30 27 Dress Rehearsal: C a l l 26 7: 00-10:00 Musical (All) 28 Technical: 6:30 7 :00 28 8: 30-10:30 Stage 1 & 2 29 8:00 Performance C a l l 6 :30 30 8: 30-10:30 Stage 3,4&5 30 8:00 Performance C a l l 6:30 63 APPENDIX III Plate I I n i t i a l Sketch 64 APPENDIX III P l a t e I I A - idea of angles A Search f o r A l t e r n a t i v e s 65 APPENDIX III Ground-Plan dooh. do oft d-tablo. APPENDIX IV APPENDIX IV 67 68 APPENDIX V' Properties L i s t I Preset on Stage Table (round) with chair 1 vase 2 tea-cups & 2 saucers I tea-pot I napkin Rocking chair " I pair of k n i t t i n g needles 6 foot long piece of k n i t t i n g I shawl (Aunt Emma) Side-table I vase with flowers I wooden box 1 revolver (inside box) II Stage Right Properties Table 2 wrapped boxes (presents - Robert) I envelope with note : I stretcher c. 1927 I doctor's bag (with small coloured medicine bottles and I l i l y ) I stethoscope (Doctor) I telescope (Sage) III Stage Left Properties Table I rose (red) 69 APPENDIX VI; Key To Symbols Used In Staging AE Aunt Emma CS Centerstage H Helene U Upstage R Robert D Downstage M Maid R Stage r i g h t D Doctor L Stage l e f t 0 Orderly X Make a cross S Sage at t h i s time & And Character's name, shoulder l i n e and position of head and eyes. _R_ RSF - Right shoulder forward ( LSB - Left shoulder backing 1 A forward walk or cross A backing movement T A movement on an exact measure APPENDIX VII Lighting Instrument Schedule Number Type Position Use (area) Colour C i r c u i t Dimmer Dimmer Intensity I 264 F .'0. H. G 3 I 5 5 1/2 2 223 F.O.H. F 52 2 2 5 1/2 3 264 F.O.H. A 9 3 2 5 1/2 4 223 F.O.H. D 52 4 6 7 5 264 F.O.H. K 54 5 2 5 1/2 6 223 F.O.H. G 52 , 6 5 5 1/5 7 264 F.O.H. F 3 7 4 6 8 264 F.O.H. E 17 8 6 7 9 264 L. pock. C 51 9 I 7 10 264 L. pock. K 2 10 5 5 1/2 II 264 R. pock A 41 13 I 5 1/2 12 223 L. torm. I 2 31 5 5 1/2 13 223 R. torm. H 6 32 4 7 14 223 R. torm. J 3 33 4 7 15 strip bridge wash clear 17 4 7 16 23 T S t i . I pipe K 6 18 12 10 17 23 II B 53 20 7 6 18 ] 23 II C 41 21 8 5 1/2 19 23 II D I 22 9 6 20 23 II B 39 23 10 4 21 23 •i A 52 24 II 6 22 23 i i B 41 20 7 6 23 23 n C 53 21 8 5 1/2 70 APPENDIX VII Lighting Instrument Schedule (continued) Number Type Position Use Colour C i r c u i t Dimmer Dimmer (area) Intensity 24 123 T s t I pipe D 52 23 10 4 25 23 B 3 24 II 6 26 23 „nd . 2 pipe A 3 52 10 4 27 23 II B 9 53 8 5 1/2 28 23 II F 51 54 10 4 29 23 •I D 3 55 8 5 1/2 A l l l i g h t i n g instruments A l l l i g h t i n g gels - Strand type - Cinemoid 72 APPENDIX VIII L i s t of Incurred Expenses A r t i c l e s ; F l a t s 160' - l"x3" clear spruce'§25* f t . $40.00 Door frame 13' - l"x6" clear spruce @58C f t . 7.34 Door 28' - l"x3" clear spruce @25C f t . 7.00 2 large hinges @ $2.70 5.40 Window 18' - l"x6" clear spruce @58C f t . 10.44 1 sheet, 4 1x8^mahogany 1/8" veneer 4.9 5 16 r o l l s , ticher tape @45£ 5.80 House-top and small window 22' - l"x3" clear spruce @25£ 5.50 26' s t e e l wire @5 f t . 1.30 Factory Cotton c.a. 33 yards @2.95 yd. 95.45 Paint: Walls and Texturing 3 gals, white @$ 8.00 24.00 2 gals, blue @$12.00 24.00 Props: 1 b a l l of wool . 89 Total $232.07 73 APPENDIX IX Lighting Cue Sheet Cue 1 Accompanist & conductor's l i g h t s on and preset (curtain warmers on). 2 House l i g h t s out. 3 P. 4, bar 26 - bring up preset (white r a d i a l t o . l e v e l 8) as curtain r i s e s . 4 P. 8, bar 13 -bring up white r a d i a l to f u l l by p. 13, bar 8. 5 P. 14, bar 1 - white r a d i a l down, red r a d i a l up to f u l l (10). 6 P. 15, bar 14 - red r a d i a l down, white r a d i a l up to f u l l (fast cross-fade). 7 P. 16, bar 1 - bring white r a d i a l down to to 8 by p. 19, bar 22. 8 P. 2 3, l a s t two measures - white r a d i a l down as curtain closes. 9 F.O.H. l i g h t s up for f i r s t curtain ca l l ' (through the curtain on to apron). 10 F.O.H. down as performers exit apron. 11 Stage work l i g h t s on. 12 Repeat 9 and 10 as necessary. 13 House up to f u l l . 74 APPENDIX X. Paul Hindemith, Hin und zuruck (There and Back) in accompanying envelope. r C u r t Travel U hou5€ - t"op 5 b l a c k carta, IN / le5 F 1 \ E —• • • •" 1 1 ~t ; ^ 17 '—r 17 I -V . . \ y G 17 1 V 420-53 22 + 1 53 6 7 17 52 5 t / ormeni or ^^pipe electric b r i d g e i 1 p i p e (?l e ctr j c ) I Side o c k e f 51 Front Of HOUSE Y I Pattern 2 3 S " 0 0 w a T T s D 6" FresneI 12 3 5 0 0 w a T T s Ii 8 P o t t e r 264-looo watts 8" Fresnel 2 23 looo watts 6 * G Strip Licjht C I N E M O I D G E L S S T R A N D I N S T R U M E N T S H IN U N D Z U R U C K : P A U L M I N D E M I T H O P E R A W O R K S H O P OLD A U D I T O R I U M N O V E M B E R av° L I G H T I N G DES IGN ' DOUSLAS V. R , L E Y M A S T E R S PRODUCTION T H E S I S M U S I C 5 4 3 SCALE » % - 1 0 APPENDIX XI I k o u s e -too "3 HIN UND Z U R U C K =-OPERA WORKSHOP OLD AUDITORIU M N O V E M B E R 29. 30 1974. =3 P l a n SET DESIGN : - DOUGLAS V. R I L E Y M A S T E R S PRODUCT ION THESIS MUS IC : 549 S C A L E : W - 1' O" APPENDIX X I 1 X 3 clear 2."- aiding -WINDOW D E T A I L R E A R V I E W E L E V A T I O N 

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