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Local government decision-making and community planning : a study based on A.L.R. exclusion applications Boyle, Geraldine Catherine 1980

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LOCAL GOVERNMENT DECISION-MAKING AND COMMUNITY PLANNING: A STUDY BASED ON A.L-.R. EXCLUSION APPLICATIONS by GERALDINE CATHERINE BOYLE B.A., Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS .in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MAY 1980 ( c ) G e r a l d i n e C a t h e r i n e B o y l e , 1980 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u rposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 i i . ABSTRACT The o b j e c t i v e o f the s t u d y i s t o p r o v i d e a f u l l e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e l e c t e d l o c a l government d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g on the use o f l a n d , i n p a r t i c u -l a r , t o examine t h e n o t i o n o f u n i v e r s a l g o a l - p r i o r i t i e s and t h e r o l e o f s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . Such an u n d e r s t a n d i n g h e l p s i n d e t e r m i n i n g the u s e f u l n e s s o f v a r i o u s approaches t o community p l a n n i n g and i s used i n t h e s t u d y to a s s e s s the 'general p l a n ' c o n c e p t . The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s t u d y a r e p u rsued thr o u g h an a n a l y s i s o f R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s on l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n o f l a n d from the A.L.R. The q u e s t i o n o f u n i v e r s a l g o a l - p r i o r i t i e s i s a d d r e s s e d by exam-i n i n g the degree t o which R e g i o n a l Boards e x h i b i t s i m i l a r s u p p o r t f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d and by s t a t i s t i c a l l y a n a l y z i n g t h e e x t e n t t o which d i f f e r e n c e s stem from c e r t a i n r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Importance o f A g r i c u l t u r e t o R e g i o n a l Economy, P o p u l a t i o n Growth P r e s -s u r e s i n the Region and L e v e l o f Urbanism i n the R e g i o n ) . The q u e s t i o n o f the r o l e o f s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s a d d r e s s e d by s t a t i s t i c a l l y a n a l y z i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f c e r t a i n s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n ( C . L . I . R a t i n g f o r A g r i c u l t u r e , L o c a t i o n i n R e l a t i o n to t h e A.L.R.,.Primary E x i s t i n g Use and P r i m a r y S u r r o u n d i n g Land Use) t o R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s . The a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a u n i v e r s a l p r i o r i t y i s not a t t a c h e d to the goal o f p r e s e r v i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , even when r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e r e c o g n i z e d , and t h a t s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n has l i t t l e , i f any, i i i . c o n s i s t e n t e f f e c t on l a n d use d e c i s i o n s . From t h e s e f i n d i n g s i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t e l e c t e d l o c a l government l a n d use d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s c h a r -a c t e r i z e d by a l a c k o f u n i v e r s a l g o a l - p r i o r i t i e s and a l a c k o f a n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n base. In terms o f t h e 'general p l a n ' c o n c e p t , t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e l e c t e d l o c a l government l a n d use d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s u g g e s t t h a t i t i s a u s e f u l approach t o community p l a n n i n g , p r o v i d e d i t i s used as a p r o c e s s composed o f a b l e n d o f p r o c e d u r e s and p a r t i c i p a n t s w h ich v a r y a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n t i m e and from community t o community. In c o n c l u s i o n , t h i s s t u d y i l l u s t r a t e s t h e demanding n a t u r e o f t h e e n v i r o n -ment i n which community p l a n n e r s must o p e r a t e -- an environment i n which u n i v e r s a l g o a l - p r i o r i t i e s a r e l a c k i n g and where n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d i n f o r m a -t i o n i s i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l to d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , e f f e c t i v e n e s s demands e f f o r t s t o u n d e r s t a n d and c l a r i f y the u n i q u e n e s s o f o f each p l a n n i n g environment and t o a d o p t a comprehensive approach t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n base o f p l a n s and recommendations. i v. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES . v i LIST OF FIGURES v i i CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Study Overview 1 1.2 P u b l i c D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Land Use: The C o n s t r a i n t s t o D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g 2 1.3 P u b l i c D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Land Use: The Rol e o f Community P l a n n i n g 6 1.4 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f The Remainder o f T h i s Study 8 2 REGIONAL BOARDS AND THE AGRICULTURAL LAND RESERVE 10 2.1 The A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission A c t 10 2.2 The Role o f L o c a l Governments i n the Management o f the A.L.R. 22 3 • REGIONAL BOARD DECISIONS ON LAND OWNER APPLICATIONS FOR EXCLUSION FROM THE A.L.R. 27 3.1 Data on R e g i o n a l Board D e c i s i o n s 27 3.2 R e g i o n a l Board D e c i s i o n s 28 3.3 R e g i o n a l Board Support f o r t h e P r e s e r v a t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Land 33 3.4 Summary 37 4 PATTERNS OF DECISION-MAKING: AN ANALYSIS OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS 39 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 39 4.2 Methods o f A n a l y s i s , Data S o u r c e s and L i m i t a t i o n s 39 V . CHAPTER Page 4.3 R e s u l t s o f A n a l y s i s 42 4.4 Summary 47 5 PATTERNS OF DECISION-MAKING: AN ANALYSIS OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SITE SPECIFIC INFORMATION 48 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 48 5.2 Methods o f A n a l y s i s , Data Sour c e s and L i m i t a t i o n s 49 5.3 R e s u l t s o f A n a l y s i s 53 5.4 Summary 58 6 LOCAL GOVERNMENT DECISION-MAKING AND COMMUNITY PLANNING . 60 6.1 Summary o f E m p i r i c a l F i n d i n g s and C o n c l u s i o n s o f L o c a l Government D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g 60 6.2 Community P l a n n i n g C o n s i d e r a t i o n s : An Assessment o f t h e 'General P l a n ' Concept 62 7 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 69 APPENDIX A The A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission A c t 74 B Computation o f R e g i o n a l Board Suggested S u p p o r t f o r t h e P r e s e r v a t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Land 88 C S p a t i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e g i o n a l Board S u p p o r t f o r t h e P r e s e r v a t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Land 93 D L i n k a g e s i n t h e R e g r e s s i o n Model 95 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 98 v i . LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page 3-1 Number and Acre a g e o f Land Owner A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r E x c l u s i o n from t he A.L.R., By Region 30 3-2 R e g i o n a l Board D e c i s i o n s on t h e A c r e s R e f e r r e d t o i n Land Owner A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r E x c l u s i o n from the A.L.R., By Region 31 3- 3 R e g i o n a l Board L e v e l o f S u p p o r t f o r t h e P r e s e r v a t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Land, By Region 36 4- 1 R e g i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 40 4-2 Data R e p r e s e n t i n g R e g i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 43 4- 3 Si m p l e R e g r e s s i o n 44 5- 1 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System o f S i t e S p e c i f i c I n f o r m a t i o n Data 51 5-2 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S i t e S p e c i f i c I n f o r m a t i o n Data 54 5-3 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e g i o n a l Board D e c i s i o n s 54 5-4 C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n o f R e g i o n a l Board D e c i s i o n by Each S i t e S p e c i f i c I n f o r m a t i o n V a r i a b l e 56 5-5 S t a t i s t i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e and Measure o f S t r e n g t h Amongst t h e V a r i a b l e s 55 v i i . LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 3-1 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e g i o n a l Boards by D e c i s i o n Type 32 3- 2 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e g i o n a l Boards by L e v e l o f S u p p o r t f o r the P r e s e r v a t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Land 38 4- 1 S c a t t e r g r a m o f R e g i o n a l Board L e v e l o f S u p p o r t f o r t h e P r e s e r v a t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Land by R e g i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 45 c 1. 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Study Overview P l a n n e r s d e a l w i t h t he f o r m u l a t i o n o f p l a n s and t h e i r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , w h i l e p o l i t i c a n s make d e c i s i o n s which l i n k the two. Thus, e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g demands t h a t p l a n n e r s acknowledge and u n d e r s t a n d t he e n v i r -onment i n which t h e y o p e r a t e . The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o pro-v i d e a f u l l e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e l e c t e d l o c a l government d e c i s i o n -making on t h e use o f l a n d , i n p a r t i c u l a r , t o examine t h e n o t i o n o f u n i v e r s a l g o a l - p r i o r i t i e s and t h e r o l e o f s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . Such an u n d e r s t a n d i n g h e l p s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t he u s e f u l n e s s o f v a r i o u s approaches t o community p l a n n i n g and i s used i n t h i s s t u d y t o a s s e s s t h e 'general p l a n ' c o n c e p t . The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e pursued t h r o u g h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the day- t o - d a y d e c i s i o n s o f R e g i o n a l Boards on the use o f a g r i c u l -t u r a l l a n d . The q u e s t i o n o f u n i v e r s a l g o a l - p r i o r i t i e s i s a d d r e s s e d by examining t h e degree t o which R e g i o n a l Boards e x h i b i t s i m i l a r s u p p o r t f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d and by a n a l y z i n g the e x t e n t t o which d i f f e r e n c e s stem from c e r t a i n r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s . T h i s l a t t e r a n a l y s i s i s performed by a n a l y z i n g t he r e l a t i o n -s h i p o f c e r t a i n r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to the l e v e l o f R e g i o n a l Board s u p p o r t f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . The d e c i -s i o n s a n a l y z e d a r e l i m i t e d t o t h o s e on l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n o f l a n d from t he A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve (A.L.R.) from 2. the time o f d e s i g n a t i o n o f an A.L.R. p l a n to A p r i l 1 s t 1978. The q u e s t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d by examining t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f c e r t a i n s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n t o R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s . The d e c i s i o n s a n a l y z e d a r e l i m i t e d t o a sample o f t h o s e on l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n from t he A.L.R. from t he time o f d e s i g n a t i o n to A p r i l 1 s t 1978. Data on d e c i s i o n s was g a t h e r e d from t h e f i l e s o f the P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l -t u r a l Land Commission and from an i n q u i r y t o each Regi o n a l D i s t r i c t . Data on the r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was g a t h e r e d from r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e s o u r c e s such an S t a t i s t i c s Canada, w h i l e t h a t on the s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n v a r i a b l e s was g e n e r a t e d from i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e f i l e s o f the P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission. In p u r s u i n g t he o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e l e c t e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g body d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e l a n d use i n terms o f i t s fundamental purpose and t h e community p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n . 1.2 P u b l i c D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Land Use: The C o n s t r a i n t s t o D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g Land may be used t o grow f o o d o r f i b e r , t o c o n t a i n h o u s i n g , i n d u s t r y and commerce, t o s u p p o r t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a r t e r i e s , t o p r o v i d e a c l e a n w a t e r s h e d , t o o f f e r a t t r a c t i v e s c e n e r y , t o a l l o w r e c r e a t i o n a l use o r to s u p p o r t w i l d l i f e . The demands p l a c e d on i t a r e many and thu s r e s u l t i n c o m p e t i t i o n o v e r i t s u s e . T h i s c o m p e t i t i o n r e f l e c t s n o t o n l y d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l and group c h o i c e s on the a p p r o p r i a t e use o f 3. l a n d , but d i f f e r e n t frameworks f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h a t c h o i c e . In the l i g h t o f h o u s i n g ' s h o r t a g e s ' , l a c k o f open s p a c e , d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f the n a t u r a l and v i s u a l e n v i r o n m e n t , n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e ' s h o r t a g e s ' and the r a t e o f c o n v e r s i o n o f r u r a l and s e m i - r u r a l l a n d s t o urban use, th e p r o c e s s o f a r r i v i n g a t a d e c i s i o n on t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f t h i s l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e t o d i f f e r e n t uses i s f a r from a t r i v i a l m a t t e r . In a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e l a n d use. W h i l e t he i n s t i t u t i o n a l a rrangements f o r c a r r y i n g o u t t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i l l v a r y , t he o b j e c t i v e o f making d e c i s i o n s i n a c c o r d w i t h t he c o l l e c t i v e wishes o f s o c i e t y remains. A c c o m p l i s h i n g t h i s o b j e c t i v e p l a c e s a g r e a t burden on e l e c t e d d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s as i t r e q u i r e s a d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s s i m i l a r t o the c l a s s i c a l model o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . In t h e c l a s s i c a l model o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , d e c i s i o n s a r e a r r i v e d a t by a l o g i c a l r e asoned p r o c e s s which i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as f o l l o w s : i . i d e n t i f y problem i i . c l a r i f y g o a l s and rank them a c c o r d i n g t o r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e i i i . l i s t a l l p o s s i b l e means f o r a c h i e v i n g each o f t h e s e g o a l s i v . p r e d i c t a f u l l and complete s e t o f outcomes f o r each s e t o f a l t e r n a t i v e means v. e v a l u a t e each s e t o f means i n terms o f a b i l i t y t o a c c o m p l i s h the d e s i r e d g o a l s v i . s e l e c t a method o f s o l v i n g t h e problem which i s most a p p r o p r i a t e t o goal a c h i e v e m e n t 4 . T h i s method i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s e p a r a t i o n o f f a c t and v a l u e , c l a r i t y o f g o a l s and g o a l - p r i o r i t i e s , c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s o f a n a l y s i s and c o n c l u s i v e n e s s and c o n s i s t e n c y o f outcome. While t h i s ' r a t i o n a l ' model o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s w i d e l y r e s p e c t e d , i t s p r e s c r i p t i o n s f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a r e such t h a t , f o r complex problems, i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i s i m p r a c t i c a l and i n c o n c e i v a b l e . F i v e major c o n s t r a i n t s s e r v e t o f r u s t r a t e p e r f e c t e m u l a t i o n o f t h i s model: f i n a n c i a l , t e m p o r a l , c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l and human. I n f o r m a t i o n on t h e needs and p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e community and i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n i t and i n f o r m a t i o n on the most e f f i c i e n t ways o f r e a c h i n g g o a l s i s n e c e s s a r y i n a r r i v i n g a t a ' r a t i o n a l ' d e c i s i o n . To o b t a i n and e v a l u a t e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e s f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , but, as t h e s e r e s o u r c e s a r e l i m i t e d , a f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t e x i s t s i n a t t a i n i n g t h e p r e s c r i p t i o n s o f the ' r a t i o n a l ' model. The temporal c o n s t r a i n t t o a t t a i n i n g t he p r e s c r i p t i o n s o f the model i s t h e l i m i t e d time a v a i l a b l e t o accummulate i n f o r m a t i o n , e v a l u a t e a l l p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s and s e l e c t from among them. M a t t e r s a r e a d d r e s s e d by d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s because t h e y have been i d e n t i f i e d as i n need o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I m p l i c i t l y , t h e r e f o r e , i s the need t o a c t w i t h d i s p a t c h . Thus, the temporal c o n s t r a i n t a r i s e s . C o n s t r a i n t s o f money and time a r e r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d com-pared t o t h e c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l and human c o n s t r a i n t s t o a t t a i n i n g the p r e s c r i p t i o n s o f the ' r a t i o n a l ' model o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . The 5. ' r a t i o n a l ' model r e q u i r e s v e r i f i a b l e g o a l s and g o a l - p r i o r i t i e s . T h i s i s p o s s i b l e o n l y t o the e x t e n t t h a t g o a l s can be a g r e e d upon and t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e on how much o f each goa l i s equal t o how much o f each o t h e r g o a l . In a c u l t u r e where p l u r a l i s m and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f g o a l - p r i o r i t i e s a r e v a l u e d , c u l t u r a l c o n s t r a i n t s pose a f o r m i d a b l e h u r d l e t o a t t a i n i n g t h e p r e s c r i p t i o n s o f the ' r a t i o n a l ' model. F u r t h e r , where p l u r a l i s m and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f g o a l - p r i o r i t i e s d ominate, t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f what t o do ab o u t a problem r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y . A c c o u n t a b l e t o t he p u b l i c but l a c k i n g a concensus on g o a l s and g o a l - p r i o r i t i e s , the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r ' s d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f what t o do about a problem i s c o n s t r a i n e d by what w i l l ' s e l l ' t o t h e e l e c t o r a t e . F i n a l l y , u n l e s s one assumes t h a t t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a b i l i t i e s o f men a r e u n l i m i t e d , a human c o n s t r a i n t e x i s t s t o a s s e m b l i n g and e v a l u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on complex problems. Each o f t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s w i l l be p r e s e n t , i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , i n each d e c i s i o n s i t u a t i o n . They t h w a r t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e o b j e c t i v e o f making d e c i s i o n s i n a c c o r d w i t h the c o l l e c t i v e wishes o f s o c i e t y . Thus, the o b j e c t i v e i s an i d e a l w h i c h , i n a p p l i c a t i o n , n e c e s s i t a t e s compromise. In terms o f the p r o c e s s n e c e s s a r y t o a c h i e v e t h e o b j e c -t i v e , t h e compromise i s not one o f s u b s t i t u t i n g i r r a t i o n a l i t y f o r r a t i o n a l i t y ; r a t h e r , i t i s one which r e c o g n i z e s r e a l i s t i c c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t f r u s t r a t e p e r f e c t e m u l a t i o n o f r a t i o n a l i t y as embodied i n t h e ' r a t i o n a l ' model o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . In terms o f the o b j e c t i v e o f 6 . making d e c i s i o n s i n a c c o r d w i t h the c o l l e c t i v e w i s h e s o f s o c i e t y , , t h i s compromise must, however, r e p r e s e n t a f a i t h f u l a t t e m p t t o adher, as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e , t o the p r i n c i p l e e n u n c i a t e d ; i f i t d i d n o t , d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y would be undermined. 1.3 P u b l i c D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Land Use: The Role o f Community P l a n n i n g To a s s i s t d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s i n t h e t a s k o f d e t e r m i n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e l a n d use, the f u n c t i o n o f community p l a n n i n g has e v o l v e d . T h e r e i s , however, no agreement on i t s e x a c t d e f i n i t i o n i n terms o f t h e o r y o r p r a c t i c e . T h i s vacuum has r e s u l t e d i n much c o n f u s i o n f o r p o l i t i c a n s , p r a c t i t i o n e r s and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c on the purpose and meaning o f community p l a n n i n g . G i v e n t h a t , i n a b a s i c s e n s e , p l a n n i n g i s a u n i v e r s a l a c t i v i t y and communities d e v e l o p r e g a r d l e s s o f e x p l i c i t l y u n d e r t a k i n g the f u n c t i o n o f community p l a n n i n g , t h e c o n f u s i o n i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . At the l e v e l o f the i n d i v i d u a l , p l a n n i n g i s c a r r i e d o u t so t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a p a b i l i t i e s may be u t i l i z e d t o t h e i r b e s t advantage. E s s e n t i a l l y i t i s an a c t i v i t y o f a p p l y i n g f o r e t h o u g h t t o a c t i o n . I t i s presumed t h a t t h e more i n t e l l i g e n t l y i t i s c a r r i e d o u t , the g r e a t e r i s one's c o n t r o l o v e r one's envi r o n m e n t , and thus the g r e a t e r w i l l be the b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d from one's environment. What then i s community p l a n n i n g ? While community p l a n n i n g i s s i m i l a r t o p l a n n i n g a t the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l , t he two d i f f e r . A t t h e i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l p e r s o n a l v a l u e s 7. p r o v i d e the framework f o r c h o i c e . S i m i l a r l y , a t the community l e v e l community v a l u e s p r o v i d e t h e framework f o r c h o i c e . However, i n a c u l t u r e where p l u r a l i s m i s v a l u e d , such v a l u e s a r e u n l i k e l y t o e x i s t e x c e p t a t a v e r y g e n e r a l l e v e l . Thus, w h i l e i n d i v i d u a l and community p l a n n i n g a r e a c t i v i t i e s o f a p p l y i n g f o r e t h o u g h t t o a c t i o n , the pur-pose o f community p l a n n i n g c a n n o t s i m p l y be t o d e r i v e g r e a t e r bene-f i t s from the e n v i r o n m e n t . What i t s p u r p o s e i s , however, i s f a r more d i f f i c u l t t o s t a t e , f o r w h i l e t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r has no s u p e r i o r s e t o f v a l u e s f o r d e c i d i n g on one a l t e r n a t i v e o v e r a n o t h e r , he i s c o m p e l l e d t o f o r m u l a t e recommendations on t h e s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a commun-i t y . In t h i s dilemma t h e o n l y v a l i d i t y t o a p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s recommen-d a t i o n appears t o l i e i n . making a r e a s o n e d c a s e i n s u p p o r t o f h i s recommendation. T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p u r p o s e o f community p l a n n i n g l i e s not i n o r g a n i z i n g t h e s p a t i a l e l e m e n t s o f a community, but i n the v a l u e a t t a c h e d t o r e a s o n e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . In t h i s c o n t e x t community p l a n n i n g a p p e a r s t o mean, not t h e outcome o f some p r o c e s s , but t h e p r o c e s s i t s e l f ; s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e s e l e c t i o n and implementa-t i o n o f a l l means r e l e v a n t t o d e v e l o p i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from which r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s can be f o r m u l a t e d (means such as v a r i o u s q u a n t i -t a t i v e methods, l i t e r a r y methods, methods o f p u b l i c c o n s u l t a t i o n , e t c . ) and the f o r m u l a t i o n o f r e a s o n e d d e c i s i o n s on the b a s i s o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . Thus community p l a n n i n g does not remove the dilemmas o f ' r a t i o n a l ' d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g d e r i v i n g from the c o m p l e x i t y o f p r o -blems and the l i m i t s o f human r a t i o n a l i t y . What community p l a n n i n g does do i s f a c i l i t a t e s t r i v i n g f o r ' r a t i o n a l ' d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , and 8. thus the o b j e c t i v e o f making d e c i s i o n s i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e c o l l e c t i v e wishes o f s o c i e t y , by i m p r o v i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . While a u n i t a r y d e f i n i t i o n o f the purpose o f community p l a n n i n g i s s u g g e s t e d h e r e , w i t h i n t h i s u m b r e l l a s p e c i f i c a p p r oaches t o community p l a n n i n g can be i d e n t i f i e d . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , i t has been the c o n c e p t o f the 'general p l a n ' which has r e p r e s e n t e d one o f t h e dominant ap-proaches to community p l a n n i n g . T h i s s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , r e v i e w s and e v a l u a t e s the ' g e n e r a l p l a n ' c o n c e p t i n l i g h t o f the e m p i r i c a l s t u d y o f e l e c t e d l o c a l government d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g on the use o f l a n d . 1.4 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the Remainder o f T h i s Study Chapter 2 p r o v i d e s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the framework w i t h i n which Regio n a l Board d e c i s i o n s on l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n from the A.L.R. a r e made. I t o u t l i n e s the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Com-m i s s i o n A c t and d e s c r i b e s t h e powers and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f l o c a l government i n r e g a r d t o t h e A.L.R. In C h a p t e r 3 R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s on l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n from the A.L.R. a r e examined t o d e t e r m i n e whether R e g i o n a l Boards e x h i b i t s i m i l a r s u p p o r t f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . In C h a p t e r 4 t h e s e same d e c i s i o n s a r e a n a l y z e d i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e whether d i f f e r e n c e s i n s u p p o r t stem from c e r t a i n r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . C h a p t e r 5 examines t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f c e r t a i n s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r -mation t o R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s . C h a p t e r 6 summarizes the f i n d i n g s o f t h e e m p i r i c a l s t u d y and r e v i e w s and e v a l u a t e s the 9. 'general p l a n ' i n l i g h t o f the e m p i r i c a l s t u d y o f e l e c t e d l o c a l government d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g on the use o f l a n d . In the f i n a l c h a p t e r the e n t i r e s t u d y i s summarized and c o n c l u s i o n s drawn. 10. 2. REGIONAL BOARDS AND THE AGRICULTURAL LAND RESERVE 2.1 The A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission A c t 'On J u l y 3rd 1973 t h e Land Commission A c t was p r o c l a i m e d i n i t s e n t i r e t y . In 1977 the l e g i s l a t i o n was amended t o a p p l y o n l y t o a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d and was renamed the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission A c t . The l e g i s l a t i o n and subsequent amendments were d e s i g n e d t o p r e s e r v e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d f o r p r e s e n t and f u t u r e a g r i c u l t u r a l use. I t e s t a b l i s h e d a P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission empowered to d e s i g n a t e , i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h each R e g i o n a l Board and w i t h t h e p r i o r a p p r o v a l o f t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l , an A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve t h r o u g h o u t t h e P r o v i n c e . G e n e r a l l y , a l l l a n d s u i t a b l e f o r farm use, i n terms o f s o i l and/or c l i m a t e , was t o be i n c l u d e d i n the Reserve. The c r i t e r i a used i n d e s i g n a t i n g the Reserve were as f o l l o w s : i . a l l l a n d w i t h a Canada Land I n v e n t o r y ( C . L . I . ) a g r i c u l t u r a l r a t i n g o f C l a s s 1 t o 4 t h a t was n o t i r r e v e r s i b l y d e v e l o p e d , r e g a r d l e s s o f ownership o r t e n u r e , was t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e R e s e r v e ; i i . s u f f i c i e n t l a n d t o a l l o w f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e y e a r s urban growth was t o be c o n s i d e r e d f o r e x c l u s i o n from the Reserve i f n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d was not i m m e d i a t e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r urban e x p a n s i o n ; i i i . l a n d s o f C l a s s 5 and 6 C.L.I, a g r i c u l t u r a l r a t i n g were g e n e r a l l y t o be i n c l u d e d where h i s t o r i c a l l a n d use p a t t e r n s 11. i n d i c a t e d t h a t such l a n d c o u l d be e f f e c t i v e l y used f o r a g r i c u l t u r e i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h C l a s s 1 t o 4 l a n d s ; and i v . s m a l l p o c k e t s o f n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d ( l a n d s w i t h a C.L.I, a g r i c u l t u r a l r a t i n g o f C l a s s 7) were t o be i n c l u d e d wherever e x c l u s i o n o f such l a n d would r e s u l t i n an u n d e s i r a b l e i n t r u s i o n o f i n c o m p a t i b l e uses i n an a r e a o f p r e d o m i n a n t l y a g r i c u l t u r a l u s e s . These Reserves a r e zones w i t h i n which r e s t r i c t i o n s a r e p l a c e d on any p e r s o n on body h a v i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e l a n d . The r e s t r i c t i o n s a p p l y to a l l l a n d i n the Reserve e x c e p t : i . l e g a l l o t s c r e a t e d p r i o r t o December 2 1 s t 1972 which a r e l e s s than 2 a c r e s i n a r e a ( S e c t i o n 1 1 ( 1 ) ) ; and i i . l a n d c o n t i n u o u s l y used f o r o t h e r t h a n farm use f o r a p e r i o d o f s i x months p r i o r t o December 2 1 s t 1972 and p e r m i t t e d t o be used as such ( S e c t i o n 1 1 ( 2 ) ) . ( 1 ) Under t h e p r e s e n t l e g i s l a t i o n t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s a r e as f o l l o w s : i . i t i s p r o h i b i t e d t o use l a n d , a u t h o r i z e l a n d t o be used o r p e r m i t l a n d t o be used f o r any purpose o t h e r than farm use ( S e c t i o n 1 0 ( 1 ) , 1 0 ( 4 ) ( a ) , 1 0 ( 4 ) ( b ) and 1 0 ( 4 ) ( c ) ) ;(2) (1) S e c t i o n 11(2) goes on t o s t a t e t h a t t h i s exemption a p p l i e s " u n l e s s o r u n t i l (d) t h e use o f t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i s changed t o a use o t h e r than farm use w i t h o u t the p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e commission; o r (e) any o t h e r A c t , r e g u l a t i o n , by-law, o r d e r , o r any o t h e r law made a f t e r t h e t w e n t y - f i r s t day o f December, 1972, p r o h i b i t s such u s e ; o r ( f ) p e r m i s s i o n f o r any o t h e r use g r a n t e d under any o t h e r A c t , r e g u l a t i o n , by-law, o r o r d e r i s withdrawn o r e x p i r e s . " (2) The l e g i s l a t i o n d e f i n e s farm use as "an o c c u p a t i o n o r use o f l a n d f o r bona f i d e farm p u r p o s e s , i n c l u d i n g , w i t h o u t l i m i t i n g 12. i i . i t i s p r o h i b i t e d t o a u t h o r i z e o r p e r m i t a b u i l d i n g t o be e r e c t e d on A.L.R. d e s i g n a t e d l a n d , e x c e p t f o r farm use o r farm a s s o c i a t e d use ( S e c t i o n 1 0 ( 4 ) ( a ) and 1 0 ( 4 ) ( b ) ) ; t h e g e n e r a l i t y o f the f o r e g o i n g , husbandry o f the l a n d and the p l a n t s , and a n i m a l s t h e r e o n , and any o t h e r s i m i l a r a c t i v i t y d e s i g n a t e d as farm use by the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l ; " . F u r t h e r , t h e r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e A c t p e r m i t ' o u t r i g h t ' uses (B.C. Reg. 93/75, S e c t i o n B . l ) . ' O u t r i g h t ' uses a r e d e f i n e d a s : (a) The storage and sale on an individual farm of the agricultural prod-ucts grown or reared oh that farm. (fc) One dwelling unit and accessory buildings and structures per Land Registry parcel, including ancillary service and utility installations and connections provided that the Land Registry parcel has existing legal and physical access constructed to the standards required by a bylaw passed pursuant to section 711 of the Municipal Act or the regulations or standards of the Department of Highways, as the case may be, and further provided that the Land Registry parcel was, on the twenty-first day of December, 1972, registered on a separate Certificate of Title, issued under the Land Registry Act. (c) Additional dwelling units and accessory buildings and structures in-cluding all ancillary service and utility installations and connections, where such are necessary for farm use, including dwelling units and accessory buildings, structures or developments required for religious, commune or co-op colony farming. (d) The harvesting of trees and the carrying out of all silvicultural practices. (e) Ecological reserves and public parks where these are established by a Provincial, Regional District or municipal authority. (/) A reserve or area of land designated or required for animals or birds to live or feed, including without limiting the generality of the foregoing, wildlife winter range and waterfowl nesting areas but excluding commercial zoos. (g) Fish farms. (h) Golf courses. (/) Minor highway, road and railway operations and construction in-cluding the following: (afl) Minor improvement of drainage works including cleaning and deepening of ditches. (bb) Easing one curve. (cc) Widening, dedication or construction of highway, road or railway rights-of-way provided that the widening, dedication or area of construction is less than one acre per mile of road. (/) Expanding the workings of an existing gravel pit provided the total of areas already excavated and currently being worked does not ex-ceed a maximum of two (2) acres in area. (k) Construction and maintenance of dykes and related pumphouses and ancillary works, including construction and maintenance of access roads and facilities made necessary by the threat of flooding. (/) Land development works-including clearing, draining, irrigating, construction of reservoirs and ancillary works where such works are required for farm use of the property. 13. i i i . no R e g i s t r a r o f T i t l e s s h a l l a c c e p t an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r d e p o s i t o f a s u b d i v i s i o n p l a n where a l l o r p a r t o f the p a r e n t p a r c e l i s d e s i g n a t e d as A.L.R. ( S e c t i o n 1 0 ( 4 ) ( d ) ( i ) ) ; and i v . no R e g i s t r a r o f T i t l e s s h a l l p e r m i t a new p a r c e l o f l a n d t o be c r e a t e d by a metes and bounds d e s c r i p t i o n , o r an a b b r e v i a t e d d e s c r i p t i o n where a l l o r p a r t o f the p a r e n t ' p a r c e l i s d e s i g n a t e d as A.L.R. ( S e c t i o n 1 0 ( 4 ) ( d ) ( i i ) ) . ( 3 ) In a d d i t i o n t o r e q u i r i n g t he e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f , t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve and t o r e g u l a t i n g the use and s u b d i v i s i o n o f l a n d i n t h e Re s e r v e , the l e g i s l a t i o n and subsequent amendments p e r m i t v a r i o u s amendments t o i t , as f o l l o w s : i . i n c l u s i o n — t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l l a n d as A.L.R.; i i . e x c l u s i o n -- removing l a n d ' s d e s i g n a t i o n as A.L.R. t h e r e b y making i t no l o n g e r s u b j e c t to the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission A c t ; and i i i . exemption -- r e t a i n i n g l a n d ' s d e s i g n a t i o n as A.L.R. but p e r m i t t i n g i t t o be used.and/or s u b d i v i d e d i n a manner o t h e r w i s e g e n e r a l l y p r o h i b i t e d by t h e A c t and i t s r e g u l a t i o n s . I n c l u s i o n Amendments I n c l u s i o n amendments(4) may be i n i t i a t e d as f o l l o w s : under S e c t i o n 8(14) by a l a n d owner i n r e s p e c t t o l a n d . h e owns; and. under S e c t i o n (3) T h i s r e s t r i c t i o n was added i n t h e 1977 amendment t o t h e Land Commission A c t . 14. 8(12) by t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l , t h e Commission o r a M u n i c i p a l i t y o r a Re g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i n r e s p e c t t o l a n d w i t h i n i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . In a l l c a s e s t he L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l makes the d e c i s i o n and no appeal l i e s from t h a t d e c i s i o n . In the ca s e o f l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r i n c l u s i o n , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n i s made t o the Commission and i n c l u s i o n w i l l be approved o n l y i f the Commission s u p p o r t s i n c l u s i o n . Under t h e l e g i s l a t i o n , i n c l u s i o n amendments i n i t i a t e d by a l a n d owner, the Commission o r a M u n i c i p a l i t y o r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i n r e s p e c t t o l a n d w i t h i n i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n p r o c e e d v i a a f o r m a l a p p l i c a t i o n . The p r o c e s s f o l l o w e d on l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r i n c l u s i o n i s as f o l l o w s : . i . l a n d owner submits an a p p l i c a t i o n t o the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i n which t he l a n d i s s i t u a t e d ; i i . t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t c o n s i d e r s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n , making recommendations t o the Commission ( i n d o i n g so i t may h o l d a p u b l i c h e a r i n g and, i f t h e l a n d i s s i t u a t e d i n a M u n i c i -p a l i t y , i t may f o r w a r d t h e a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y f o r comment); i i i . t h e Commission c o n s i d e r s t he a p p l i c a t i o n , e i t h e r recommending o r r e f u s i n g i t ; and (4) I n c l u s i o n amendments were added i n . t h e 1977 amendment t o the Land Commission A c t . P r i o r t o t h a t i n c l u s i o n amendments were p r o v i d e d f o r under B.C. Reg. 93/75, a r e g u l a t i o n p u r s u a n t t o the Land Commission A c t . The p r o v i s i o n s f o r i n c l u s i o n amendments were e s s e n t i a l l y t he same, e x c e p t t h a t no p r o v i s i o n was made f o r the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l t o i n c l u d e l a n d on h i s own. 15. i v . i f t h e Commission recommends the a p p l i c a t i o n , t h e L i e u t e n a n t -G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l c o n s i d e r s the a p p l i c a t i o n , e i t h e r a l l o w i n g o r r e f u s i n g i t . The p r o c e s s f o l l o w e d on i n c l u s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s i n i t i a t e d by t h e Commission o r a M u n i c i p a l i t y o r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i n r e s p e c t t o l a n d w i t h i n i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n i s as f o l l o w s : i . the a p p l i c a n t p r e p a r e s an a p p l i c a t i o n ; i i . t h e a p p l i c a n t h o l d s a p u b l i c h e a r i n g on the a p p l i c a t i o n ; i i i . t h e Commission c o n s i d e r s the a p p l i c a t i o n , making recommenda-t i o n s t o t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l ; and i v . t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l c o n s i d e r s the a p p l i c a t i o n , e i t h e r a l l o w i n g o r r e f u s i n g i t . E x c l u s i o n Amendments E x c l u s i o n amendments may be i n i t i a t e d as f o l l o w s : under S e c t i o n 9(2) by a l a n d owner i n r e s p e c t t o l a n d he owns; and under S e c t i o n 9 ( l ) ( a ) by the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l , the Commission o r a M u n i c i p a l -i t y o r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i n r e s p e c t to l a n d w i t h i n i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . In the c a s e o f l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s where the l a n d r e q u e s t e d f o r e x c l u s i o n was, p r i o r t o December 2 1 s t 1972, zoned f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l o r farm us e , a u t h o r i z a t i o n t o a p p l y to the Commission must be g i v e n by the a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a l government ( S e c t i o n 9 ( 5 ) ) . F u r t h e r , the l o c a l -government d e c i s i o n on t h i s m a t t e r i s f i n a l . On l a n d owner e x c l u s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s which p r o c e e d t o the Commission ( a p p l i c a t i o n s not r e q u i r -i n g l o c a l government a p p r o v a l t o proceed and a p p l i c a t i o n s g i v e n l o c a l 16. government a p p r o v a l to p r o c e e d ) , t h e Commission makes t h e d e c i s i o n , e i t h e r a l l o w i n g o r r e f u s i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r e x c l u s i o n ( S e c t i o n 9 ( 3 ) ) o r p e r m i t t i n g exemption from t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f the A c t ( S e c t i o n 9 ( 4 ) ) . ( 5 ) A l a n d owner d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t he d e c i s i o n o f the Commission may, however, appeal t o the Environment and Land Use Committee (ELUC). T h i s appeal can o n l y be made i f l e a v e t o appeal i s g r a n t e d by any two members o f the Commission, o r , i f r e f u s e d by the Commission, i f ,leave t o appeal i s g r a n t e d by the M i n i s t e r o f the Environment ( S e c t i o n 9(7) and 9 ( 8 ) ) . ( 6 ) The p r o c e s s f o l l o w e d on l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n i s as f o l l o w s : i . l a n d owner submits an a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i n which t h e l a n d i s s i t u a t e d ; i i . i f t h e l a n d i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n i s s u b j e c t t o S e c t i o n 9(5) o f the A c t , t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a l government must g i v e a p p r o v a l f o r t he a p p l i c a t i o n to p r o c e e d f u r t h e r ; i i i . i f t h e l a n d i s s i t u a t e d i n a M u n i c i p a l i t y , t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y c o n s i d e r s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n , making recommendations t o the Commission; (5) P r i o r t o t h e 1977 amendment to t h e Land Commission A c t , the Commission's a u t h o r i t y i n r e g a r d t o l a n d owner e x c l u s i o n a p p l i -c a t i o n s was as f o l l o w s : "may a l l o w t h e a p p l i c a t i o n upon such terms and c o n d i t i o n s as i t c o n s i d e r s a d v i s a b l e , o r may r e f u s e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n " ( S e c t i o n 9 ( 3 ) ) . (6) P r i o r t o t h e 1977 amendment t o the Land Commission A c t , an appeal t o ELUC r e q u i r e d t he f o l l o w i n g : a u t h o r i z a t i o n to appeal f rom t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a l government and g r a n t i n g o f l e a v e t o appeal by any two members o f the Commission ( S e c t i o n 9 ( 8 ) ) . 17. i v . t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t c o n s i d e r s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n , making recommendations t o t h e Commission ( i n d o i n g so the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t may h o l d a p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n m e e t i n g ) ; v. the Commission c o n s i d e r s t he a p p l i c a t i o n , e i t h e r a l l o w i n g i t , r e f u s i n g i t o r a l l o w i n g exemption; v i . i f t h e a p p l i c a n t i s d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t he d e c i s i o n o f t h e Commission, t h e a p p l i c a n t may appeal the d e c i s i o n ; v i i . t h e r e q u e s t f o r l e a v e t o appeal i s c o n s i d e r e d by t h e Commission and, i f r e f u s e d by the Commission and r e q u e s t e d by t he a p p l i c a n t , by the M i n i s t e r o f the Environment; and v i i i . i f l e a v e t o app e a l i s g r a n t e d , ELUC c o n s i d e r s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n . In t h e c a s e o f an e x c l u s i o n amendment i n i t i a t e d by t h e L i e u t e n a n t -Governor i n C o u n c i l , t h e Commission o r a M u n i c i p a l i t y o r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i n r e s p e c t t o l a n d w i t h i n i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n , t h e d e c i s i o n i s made by the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l and no appeal l i e s from t h a t d e c i s i o n . E x c l u s i o n amendments i n i t i a t e d by the Commission o r a M u n i c i p a l i t y o r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i n r e s p e c t to l a n d w i t h i n i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n p r o c e e d v i a a form a l a p p l i c a t i o n . The p r o c e s s f o l l o w e d on such a p p l i c a t i o n s i s as f o l l o w s : i . t he a p p l i c a n t p r e p a r e s an a p p l i c a t i o n ; i i . t he a p p l i c a n t h o l d s a p u b l i c h e a r i n g ; i i i . the Commission c o n s i d e r s t he a p p l i c a t i o n , making recommen-d a t i o n s t o the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l ; and 18. i v . t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l c o n s i d e r s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n . Exemption Amendments Exemption from t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f the A c t i s p e r m i t t e d under r e g u l a -t i o n s made by t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l o r by o r d e r o f t h e Commission o r t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l . At March 1979 t h e • r e g u l a t i o n s i n e f f e c t p e r m i t t e d t he f o l l o w i n g exemption amendments: i . an A p p r o v i n g O f f i c e r may approve and a R e g i s t r a r o f T i t l e s may a c c e p t , w i t h o u t a u t h o r i z a t i o n o f t h e Commission o r L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l , s u b d i v i s i o n p l a n s which c o n s o l i d a t e two o r more l o t s o r which c r e a t e p a r c e l s o f 2 a c r e s o r more, a d j u s t b o u n d a r i e s t o as t o b e n e f i t f a r m i n g a c t i v i t i e s and c r e a t e no more p a r c e l s t h a n e x i s t e d p r i o r t o a p p r o v a l o f the p l a n (B.C. Reg. 93/75, S e c t i o n A . l ) . i i . t h e Commission may a u t h o r i z e a R e g i s t r a r o f T i t l e s t o a c c e p t s u b d i v i s i o n o r s t r a t a p l a n s w h ich, i n t h e o p i n i o n o f the Commission, c r e a t e Land R e g i s t r y p a r c e l s on which economi-c a l l y f e a s i b l e farm u n i t s c o u l d be o p e r a t e d , o r which e s t a b l i s h a l e g a l boundary a l o n g t h e p e r i m e t e r o f the Reserve and, e i t h e r c r e a t e p a r c e l s o f 2 a c r e s o r more, o r c o n s o l i d a t e two o r more l o t s (B.C. Reg. 93/75, S e c t i o n A . 2 ) . :. 19, i i i . the Commission may a u t h o r i z e uses r e f e r r e d t o as ' c o n d i t i o n a l ' uses when, i n the o p i n i o n o f t h e Commission, such uses a r e i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t o r such uses do not reduce the f u t u r e a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l o f th e l a n d (B.C. Reg. 93/75, S e c t i o n B.2). These ' c o n d i t i o n a l ' uses a r e d e f i n e d a s : (a) The processing of agricultural products. (b) Additional dwelling units and accessory buildings and structures, in-cluding all ancillary service and utility installations, where such arc necessary to provide for joint tenants or tenants in common of a Land Registry parcel. (c) Unpaved airstrips for use of aircraft flying non-scheduled flights. (d) Dedication or construction of new highway, road or railway rights-of-way except as permitted in B 1 (/). (e) Electrical transmission lines and utility installations, including pipe-line pumping stations, automatic telephone exchanges, electrical sub-stations, navigational aids and underground pipelines. (/) Trunk sewer and trunk water lines. (g) Sewage lagoons, treatment plants and other sewage disposal facilities, where these fall within the jurisdiction of the Pollution Control Act. (h) Sanitary land fills. (/) Well drillings and access to well sites not including wells drilled for potable water under B 1 (b). (/) Guest ranches. (k) Open land recreation uses, including campgrounds, fishing and hunt-ing camps, g 3 m e farms, and rifle ranges, provided that not more than five (5) per cent of the area of the Land Registry parcel, or five (5) acres, whichever is the lesser, is physically altered for the develop-ment. Roads, services, paving, parking facilities, buildings, struc-tures, earthworks, shall be deemed physical alteration. (/) Surveying, exploring or prospecting for gravel, oil or minerals, or undertaking soil surveys, provided that all cuts, trenches and similar alterations be restored to the natural ground level and all topsoil be replaced. (m) Gravel pits over two (2) acres in area, peat extractive areas, and turf farms where reclamation and rehabilitation is possible, (n) Schools and other public institutions. Where a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r an exemption amendment p r o v i d e d f o r under the r e g u l a t i o n s o f the A c t i s r e q u i r e d , t h e p r o c e s s i s as f o l l o w s : i . an a p p l i c a t i o n i s s u b m i t t e d t o the Commission; i i . the Commission a d v i s e s t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f the a p p l i c a t i o n ; and 20. i i i . the Commission c o n s i d e r s t he a p p l i c a t i o n , making the f i n a l d e c i s i o n . An o r d e r o f the Commission p e r m i t t i n g exemption from the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e A c t i s made, e x c e p t as noted above, as a r e s u l t o f an a p p l i c a t i o n under S e c t i o n 11(4) o f t h e A c t . Under S e c t i o n 11(4) a l a n d owner may make a p p l i c a t i o n , i n r e s p e c t t o l a n d he owns, f o r exemption from t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f the A c t . Where the l a n d r e q u e s t e d f o r exemption was, p r i o r t o December 2 1 s t 1972, zoned f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l o r farm use, i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a l government t o a u t h o r i z e the making o f such an a p p l i c a t i o n ( S e c t i o n l l ( 4 a ) ) . F u r t h e r , the l o c a l government d e c i s i o n on the m a t t e r i s f i n a l . On l a n d owner exemption a p p l i c a t i o n s which p r o c e e d t o t h e Commission ( a p p l i c a t i o n s not r e q u i r i n g l o c a l government a p p r o v a l to p r o c e e d and a p p l i c a t i o n s g i v e n l o c a l government a p p r o v a l t o p r o c e e d ) , t he Commission may e i t h e r g r a n t o r r e f u s e d such an a p p l i c a t i o n ( S e c t i o n 1 1 ( 4 ) ) . A l a n d owner d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t he d e c i s i o n o f the Commission may, however, a p p e a l , o n l y on a q u e s t i o n o f law o r e x c e s s o r j u r i s d i c t i o n , t o the Supreme C o u r t ( S e c t i o n 1 1 ( 5 ) ) . ( 7 ) The p r o c e s s f o l l o w e d on t h e s e a p p l i c a t i o n s i s as f o l l o w s : i . t h e l a n d owner submits an a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e Re g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i n which the l a n d i s s i t u a t e d ; (7) The l e g i s l a t i o n a l s o . s t a t e s t h a t an appeal from the d e c i s i o n o f the Commission on an a p p l i c a t i o n under S e c t i o n 11(4) i s p r o v i d e d f o r i n S e c t i o n 9 ( l ) ( b ) . S e c t i o n 9 ( l ) ( b ) p r o v i d e s f o r exemption a p p l i c a t i o n s t o t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l by the f o l l o w i n g : a M u n i c i p a l i t y o r Regio n a l D i s t r i c t i n r e s p e c t t o l a n d w i t h i n i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n o r the Commission. 21. i i . i f the l a n d i n the a p p l i c a t i o n i s s u b j e c t to S e c t i o n l l ( 4 a ) , t he a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a l government must g i v e a p p r o v a l f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n t o p r o c e e d f u r t h e r ; i i i . i f t h e l a n d i s s i t u a t e d i n a M u n i c i p a l i t y , the M u n i c i p a l i t y c o n s i d e r s the a p p l i c a t i o n , making recommendations t o t h e Commission; i v . the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t c o n s i d e r s the a p p l i c a t i o n , making recommendations t o the Commission ( i n d o i n g so the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . m a y h o l d a p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n m e e t i n g ) ; v. the Commission c o n s i d e r s the a p p l i c a t i o n , e i t h e r a l l o w i n g i t o r r e f u s i n g i t ; and v i . i f the a p p l i c a n t i s d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the d e c i s i o n o f the Commission, t h e a p p l i c a n t may a p p e a l , o n l y on a q u e s t i o n o f law o r e x c e s s o r j u r i s d i c t i o n , to t h e Supreme C o u r t . An o r d e r o f the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l p e r m i t t i n g exemption from the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e A c t i s made as a r e s u l t o f an a p p l i c a t i o n p u r s u a n t t o S e c t i o n 9 ( 1 ) ( b ) o f the Act.(8) Under S e c t i o n 9 ( l ) ( b ) t h e Commission o r a M u n i c i p a l i t y o r a R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i n r e s p e c t t o l a n d w i t h i n i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n may a p p l y t o the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l f o r exemption from t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f the A c t . No appeal l i e s from the d e c i s i o n o f t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l . The p r o c e s s f o l l o w e d on t h e s e a p p l i c a t i o n s i s as f o l l o w s : i . the a p p l i c a n t p r e p a r e s an a p p l i c a t i o n ; (8) T h i s p r o v i s i o n was added i n the 1977 amendment t o the Land Commission A c t . 22. i i . t he a p p l i c a n t h o l d s a p u b l i c h e a r i n g ; i i i . the Commission c o n s i d e r s the a p p l i c a t i o n , making recommenda-t i o n s t o the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l ; and i v . t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l c o n s i d e r s t he a p p l i c a t i o n . 2.2 The Role o f L o c a l Governments i n the Management o f t h e A.L.R. Wh i l e t r a d i t i o n a l l o c a l government powers i n r e g a r d t o l a n d use management have been m o d i f i e d by the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission A c t , t he r o l e o f l o c a l governments i n the management o f l a n d i n the A.L.R. has not been d i s r e g a r d e d . L o c a l g overnments(9) have both a r e g u l a t o r y and an a d v i s o r y r o l e . The A.L.R. r e g u l a t o r y r o l e o f l o c a l governments i s as f o l l o w s : i . e x c e p t as noted below, l o c a l government and t h e Commission/ L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l r e t a i n j o i n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r any change i n t h e s u b d i v i s i o n p a t t e r n o r use o f l a n d d e s i g n a t e d as A.L.R. I f l o c a l government by-laws and , r e g u l a t i o n s i n r e g a r d to A.L.R. d e s i g n a t e d l a n d a r e c o n t r a r y to t he A c t and i t s r e g u l a t i o n s , l o c a l government by-laws and r e g u l a t i o n s a r e superceded by the A c t and i t s r e g u l a t i o n s . (9) L o c a l government r e f e r s t o both i n c o r p o r a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ( c i t i e s , towns, v i l l a g e s and d i s t r i c t s ) and r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . W h i l e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s encompass b o t h m u n i c i p a l and no n - m u n i c i p a l a r e a s , r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s have a u t h o r i t y t o r e g u l a t e l a n d use i n r e g a r d t o n o n - m u n i c i p a l a r e a s and i n c o r p o r a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have a u t h o r i t y t o r e g u l a t e l a n d use w i t h i n t h e i r b o u n d a r i e s . The A.L.R. r e g u l a t o r y r o l e o f l o c a l governments a p p l i e s to the M u n i c i p a l i t y o r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t t h a t has a u t h o r i t y t o r e g u l a t e l a n d use, w h i l e t h e A.L.R. a d v i s o r y r o l e a p p l i e s t o a l l l o c a l governments which i n c l u d e t he s u b j e c t s i t e i n t h e i r b o u n d a r i e s . 23. I f l o c a l government by-laws and r e g u l a t i o n s i n r e g a r d t o A. L.R. d e s i g n a t e d l a n d p r o v i d e r e s t r i c t i o n s f u r t h e r o r a d d i t i o n a l to t h o s e o f t h e A c t and i t s r e g u l a t i o n s , the A c t and i t s r e g u l a t i o n s a r e s u p e r c e d e d by the l o c a l government by-laws and r e g u l a t i o n s ( S e c t i o n 2 0 ( 4 ) , 20(5) and 2 0 ( 6 ) ) . i i . an A p p r o v i n g O f f i c e r under the M u n i c i p a l A c t may a p p r o v e , w i t h o u t the a u t h o r i z a t i o n o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n / L i e u t e n a n t -Governor i n C o u n c i l , s u b d i v i s i o n p l a n s which c o n s o l i d a t e two o r more l o t s o r which c r e a t e p a r c e l s o f 2 a c r e s o r more, a d j u s t b o u n d a r i e s so as t o b e n e f i t f a r m i n g a c t i v i t i e s and c r e a t e no more p a r c e l s than e x i s t e d p r i o r to a p p r o v a l o f the p l a n (B.C. Reg. 93/75, S e c t i o n A . l ) . i i i . l o c a l government has s o l e a u t h o r i t y to r e g u l a t e c e r t a i n uses r e f e r r e d to as ' o u t r i g h t ' uses (B.C. Reg. 93/75, S e c t i o n B. l ) . ( l O ) i v . t he a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a l government must a u t h o r i z e , by r e s o l u t i o n , l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s t o the Commission under S e c t i o n 11(4) f o r exemption from t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f the A c t where the l a n d was, p r i o r t o December 21 s t 1972, zoned f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l o r farm use ( S e c t i o n l l ( 4 a ) ) . T h i s r o l e does not a p p l y t o exemptions p u r s u a n t to the r e g u l a t i o n s , v. the a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a l government must a u t h o r i z e , by r e s o l u t i o n , l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s t o the Commission f o r (10) See F o o t n o t e (2) f o r a d e f i n i t i o n o f ' o u t r i g h t ' uses. 24. e x c l u s i o n from the A.L.R. where t h e l a n d was, p r i o r t o December 2 1 s t 1972, zoned f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l o r farm use ( S e c t i o n 9 ( 5 ) ) . While l o c a l governments have o n l y l i m i t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f l a n d i n the A.L.R., t h e y have an e x t e n s i v e a d v i s o r y r o l e . The a d v i s o r y r o l e o f l o c a l governments i s e x e r c i s e d on a d i s c r e t i o n a r y b a s i s . Under t h e r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e A c t , l o c a l government may submit recommendations i n r e g a r d t o l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n , exemption and i n c l u s i o n (B.C. Reg. 313/78, S e c t i o n s 10, 32 and 3 8 ) . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r a d v i s o r y r o l e does not a p p l y i n r e g a r d to exemptions p e r m i t t e d under the r e g u l a t i o n s . L o c a l governments may a l s o r e spond t o the m i n i s t e r i n r e g a r d to l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r l e a v e t o appeal a d e c i s i o n o f the Commission r e f u s i n g an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r e x c l u s i o n from the A.L.R. (B.C. Reg. 313/78, S e c t i o n 2 2 ( 5 ) ) . In a d d i t i o n , as l o c a l governments a r e p e r m i t t e d under the A c t to make a p p l i c a t i o n t o the L i e u t e n a n t -G overnor i n C o u n c i l f o r amendments t o the A.L.R., th e y a c t i n an a d v i s o r y r o l e when making such a p p l i c a t i o n s ( S e c t i o n 9 ( 1 ) ( a ) , 9 ( l ) ( b ) and 8 ( 1 2 ) ) . In terms o f t h e f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y , R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s on l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n from the A.L.R., i t i s n e c e s s a r y to summarize t h e r o l e o f R e g i o n a l B o ards. R e g i o n a l Boards p l a y both a r e g u l a t o r y and an a d v i s o r y r o l e i n r e g a r d t o such a p p l i c a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h both r o l e s do not a p p l y i n a l l i n s t a n c e s . The a d v i s o r y r o l e 25. a p p l i e s t o a l l A.L.R. l a n d s w i t h i n t h e Regio n a l D i s t r i c t r e g a r d l e s s o f whether the l a n d s a r e i n a m u n i c i p a l o r n o n - m u n i c i p a l a r e a and t o a l l l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n o f such l a n d from t h e A.L.R. These a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e p e r m i t t e d under S e c t i o n 9(2) o f t h e A c t which r e a d s , " S u b j e c t t o s u b s e c t i o n ( 5 ) , an owner o f l a n d a g g r i e v e d by a d e s i g n a t i o n by t h e commission o f h i s l a n d as p a r t o f a r e s e r v e may, n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h a t he appeared b e f o r e o r made r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o the m u n i c i p a l i t y , o r r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t , o r t h e commission under s e c t i o n 8(3) o r ( 8 ) , a p p l y t o t h e commission i n the p r e s c r i b e d manner t o have h i s l a n d e x c l u d e d from the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e . " The a d v i s o r y r o l e o f R e g i o n a l Boards i n r e g a r d to such a p p l i c a t i o n s i s s p e c i f i e d i n B.C. Reg. 313/78, S e c t i o n 10 which r e a d s , "Where t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t o r m u n i c i p a l i t y c o n s i d e r s i t n e c e s s a r y o r a d v i s a b l e t o t r a n s m i t i t s recommendations, comments, o p i n i o n s , o r any o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n i n r e s p e c t o f any a p p l i c a t i o n t o the commission, i t s h a l l do so w i t h i n t he time l i m i t e d under s e c t i o n 12." The r e g u l a t o r y r o l e o f R e g i o n a l Boards a p p l i e s o n l y to t h e no n - m u n i c i p a l l a n d w i t h i n i t s b o u n d a r i e s and to c e r t a i n l a n d s r e q u e s t e d f o r e x c l u s i o n from t h e A.L.R. T h i s r o l e i s s e t o u t and the l a n d s t o which i t a p p l i e s a r e s p e c i f i e d i n S e c t i o n 9(5) o f the A c t which r e a d s , "Where l a n d o f an owner was, i m m e d i a t e l y p r i o r t o December 21, 1972, zoned f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l o r farm use under a by-law o f a m u n i c i p a l i t y o r a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s u b s i s t i n g on t h a t d a t e , the owner i s not e n t i t l e d t o a p p l y t o t h e commission under s u b s e c t i o n (2) u n l e s s so a u t h o r i z e d by a r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o r r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t , as t h e case may be." 26 . With t h i s o v e r v i e w o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission A c t and the powers and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f l o c a l government i n r e g a r d t o t h e A.L.R., a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n may now be made o f R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s i n r e g a r d t o l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n o f l a n d from t he A.L.R. 27. 3. REGIONAL BOARD DECISIONS ON LAND OWNER APPLICATIONS FOR EXCLUSION FROM THE A.L.R. 3.1 Data on Regi o n a l Board D e c i s i o n s In examining R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s i n r e g a r d t o l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n o f l a n d from t h e A.L.R., two d a t a s o u r c e s a r e used h e r e : u n p u b l i s h e d s t a t i s t i c s o f the B.C. A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission; and the r e s p o n s e s o f i n c o r p o r a t e d R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s t o t h i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s i n q u i r y i n r e g a r d t o a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n r e f u s e d R e g i o n a l Board a p p r o v a l t o p r o c e e d t o t h e Commission. The data o b t a i n e d from the B.C. A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission was as f o l l o w s : i . the number o f l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s t o the Commission f o r e x c l u s i o n o f l a n d from t h e A.L.R. which the Commission and, i n c a s e s o f a p p e a l , ELUC had c o n s i d e r e d up t o A p r i l 1 s t 1978; i i . t he a c r e a g e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each o f t h e s e a p p l i c a t i o n s ; i i i . t he R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t recommendation on each o f t h e s e a p p l i c a t i o n s ; and i v . the Commission and, i n c a s e s o f a p p e a l , ELUC d e c i s i o n on each o f t h e s e a p p l i c a t i o n s . The d a t a c o v e r s the p e r i o d from t he time o f d e s i g n a t i o n ( l l ) t o A p r i l 1 s t 1978. (11) S i x Regi o n a l D i s t r i c t A.L.R.'s were d e s i g n a t e d i n 1973, twenty i n 1974 and two i n 1975. 28. While the, d a t a o b t a i n e d from the Commission i s c o m p l e t e , t h a t o b t a i n e d from t h i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s i n q u i r y i n t o R e g i o n a l Board r e f u s a l s p u r s u a n t t o S e c t i o n 9(5) i s n o t . A l l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s r esponded to the i n q u i r y . However, t h e F r a s e r - F o r t George and N o r t h Okanagan Regional D i s t r i c t s , w h i l e i n d i c a t i n g t h a t some r e q u e s t s f o r a p p r o v a l to make a p p l i c a t i o n t o the Commission f o r e x c l u s i o n were r e f u s e d , were un a b l e t o s p e c i f y the t o t a l number o r a c r e a g e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each. A l l f i g u r e s used t h r o u g h o u t t h i s s t u d y i n r e g a r d t o r e f u s a l s o f t h e s e two R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s a r e , t h e r e f o r e , u n d e r s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . A f u r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n o f the d a t a i s t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n was not a v a i l a b l e on the number o f e x c l u s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s t h a t r e c e i v e d R e g i o n a l Board a u t h o r i z a t i o n under S e c t i o n 9 ( 5 ) . ( 1 2 ) Such i n f o r m a t i o n would p r o v i d e a f u r t h e r b a s i s f o r drawing c o n c l u s i o n s i n r e g a r d t o R e g i o n a l Board s u p p o r t f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . Regional Board D e c i s i o n s R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s i n r e g a r d t o l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n from the A.L.R. r e l a t e t o two c a t e g o r i e s : d e c i s i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h the q u e s t i o n o f whether a p p r o v a l s h o u l d be g i v e n t o p r o c e e d t o the Commission; and d e c i s i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h the q u e s t i o n o f what recemmendation, i f any, to make to the Commission. D e c i s i o n s i n the (12) G a t h e r i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was beyond the scope o f t h i s s t u d y as i t would have r e q u i r e d r e v i e w i n g each o f t h e 1335 l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n r e c e i v e d and c o n s i d e r e d by t h e Commission up t o A p r i l 1 s t 1978. 29. f i r s t c a t e g o r y r e l a t e t o each u n i t o f l a n d c o v e r e d by an e x c l u s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n r e q u i r i n g a p p r o v a l p u r s u a n t t o S e c t i o n 9(5).. A R e g i o n a l Board must make one o f two d e c i s i o n s on t h e s e m a t t e r s : d e c i d e t h a t an a p p l i c a t i o n may be made t o the Commission; o r d e c i d e t h a t an a p p l i c a t i o n may not be made t o t h e Commission, i n which c a s e t h e l a n d i s r e t a i n e d i n the A.L.R. D e c i s i o n s i n the second c a t e g o r y r e l a t e t o each u n i t o f l a n d c o v e r e d by an e x c l u s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n p r o c e e d i n g t o the Commission. On t h e s e m a t t e r s a Re g i o n a l Board may make one o f f o u r d e c i s i o n s : i . recommend t h a t t h e l a n d be r e t a i n e d i n t h e A.L.R.; i i . recommend t h a t t he l a n d be e x c l u d e d ; i i i . recommend t h a t t h e l a n d be exempt from s p e c i f i c p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e A c t ; o r i v . make no recommendation. T a b l e 3-1 shows, f o r each R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , t h e number and a c r e a g e o f l a n d owner e x c l u s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s r e f u s e d R e g i o n a l Board a p p r o v a l , p u r s u a n t t o S e c t i o n 9 ( 5 ) , t o p r o c e e d t o t h e Commission and the number and a c r e a g e o f l a n d owner e x c l u s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d by the Commission o r ELUC. T a b l e 3-2 shows the R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n on th e s e a p p l i c a t i o n s . ' T h i s d a t a i s p r e s e n t e d g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 3-1. The d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 3-2 and F i g u r e 3-1 i n d i c a t e s t h a t R e g i o n a l Boards make d e c i s i o n s o f each t y p e and t h a t t he f r e q u e n c y o f each t y p e o f d e c i s i o n v a r i e s from R e g i o n a l Board t o R e g i o n a l Board. ' R e t a i n ' and ' e x c l u d e ' d e c i s i o n s range from 0 to 88%; 'exemption' d e c i s i o n s 30. TABLE 3-1 NUMBER AND ACREAGE OF LAND OWNER APPLICATIONS FOR EXCLUSION FROM THE A.L.R.*, BY REGION A p p l i c a t i o n s R e f u s e d R e g i o n a l B o a r d A u t h o r i z a t i o n t o A p p l y to Commi ss i on A p p l i c a t i o n s C o n s i d e r e d by t h e C o m m i s s i o n o r ELUC T o t a l No. A c r e a g e No. A c r e a g e No. A c r e a g e A l b e r n i - C I a y o q u o t 0 0 8 158 8 158 B u i k l e y - N e c h a k o 0 0 ' 17 2692 17 2692 C a p i t a l 0 0 80 2298 80 2298 C a r i b o o 0 • 0 52 2476 52 2476 C e n t r a l C o a s t 0 0 - 6 191 6 191 C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y 0 0 100 2528 100. 2528 C e n t r a l K o o t e n a y 0 0 67 1175 67 1175 C e n t r a l Okanagan 0 0 121 2933 121 2933 C o l u m b i a-Shuswap 0 0 107 3490 107 3490 C o m o x - S t r a t h c o n a 0 0 114 4868 114 4868 C o w i c h a n V a l l e y 0 0 127 2534 127 2534 D e w d n e y - A l o u e t t e 14 268 23 1024 37 1292 E a s t K o o t e n a y 0 0 66 11916 66 11916 F r a s e r - C h e a m 14 438 25 734 39 1172 F r a s e r - F o r t G e o r g e 1 + 1400+ 22 2049 23 + 3449 + G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r 0 0 26 859 26 859 Ki t i m a t - S t i k i ne 0 0 8 456 8 456 K o o t e n a y B o u n d a r y 0 0 15 534 15 534 Mount Waddington. 0 0 0 0 0 0 • Nanaimo 0 0 79 2712 79 2712 N o r t h Okanagan a a 81 2481 81 + 2481 + Okanagan S i m i l k a m e e n 19 728 83 2838 102 3566 P e a c e R i v e r - L i a r d 0 0 15 1665 15 1665 Powel1 R i v e r 0 0 7 92 7 92 Skeena-Queen C h a r l o t t e 0 0 2 125 2 125 S q u a m i s h - L i l l o o e t 0 0 13 330 13 330 S t i k i n e ( u n i n c . ) n/a . n/a n/a n/a n/.a n/a S u n s h i n e C o a s t 0 . 0 24 833 24 833 T h o m p s o n - N i c o l a . 0 0 47 2383 47 2383 T o t a l 48+ 2834 + 1335 56374 1383 + 59208+ * T h e s e a p p l i c a t i o n s c o v e r t h e p e r i o d f r o m t h e t i m e o f d e s i g n a t i o n t o A p r i l 1 s t 1978. The l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s r e f e r r e d - t o . a r e : ( i ) a p p l i c a t i o n s p u r s u a n t t o S e c t i o n 9 ( 2 ) w h i c h , p u r s u a n t to S e c t i o n 9 ( 5 ) , have been r e f u s e d R e g i o n a l B o a r d a u t h o r i z a t i o n t o p r o c e e d t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n ; and ( i i ) a p p l i c a t i o n s p u r s u a n t t o S e c t i o n 9 ( 2 ) w h i c h have p r o c e e d e d to t h e C o m m i s s i o n and have been c o n s i d e r e d by t h e C o m m i s s i o n a n d , i n c a s e s o f a p p e a l , ELUC. a A u t h o r i z a t i o n s have been r e f u s e d , b u t t h e number and t h e i r a c r e a g e was n o t a v a i l a b l e . + The number o f a p p l i c a t i o n s and t h e a c r e a g e f i g u r e are, g r e a t e r t h a n t h e number i n d i c a t e d , but were n o t a v a i l a b l e . n/a No A.L.R. has been d e s i g n a t e d . 31. TABLE 3-2 REGIONAL BOARD DECISIONS ON THE ACRES REFERRED TO IN LAND OWNER APPLICATIONS FOR EXCLUSION FROM THE A.L.R.*, BY REGION' R e t a i n i n A.L.R. T o t a l E x c l u d e Recomm. E x e m p t i o n Recomm. No Recomm. T o t a l Ac r e s A l b e r n i - C I a y o q u o t B u i k l e y - N e c h a k o C a p i t a l C a r i boo C e n t r a l C o a s t C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y C e n t r a l K o o t e n a y C e n t r a l Okanagan C o l u m b i a - S h u s w a p C o m o x - S t r a t h c o n a C o w i c h a n V a l l e y D e w d n e y - A l o u e t t e E a s t K o o t e n a y F r a s e r - C h e a m F r a s e r - F o r t G e o r g e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r K i t i m a t - S t i k i ne K o o t e n a y B o u n d a r y Mount W a d d i n g t o n . Na na i mo N o r t h Okanagan Okanagan S i m i 1 k a m e e n P e a c e R i v e r - L i a r d P o w e l l R i v e r S keena-Queen C h a r l o t t e S q u a m i s h - L i . l l . o o e t S t i k i ne ( u n i nc . ) S u n s h i n e C o a s t T h o m p s o n - N i c o l a T o t a l MEAN** MEDIAN MINIMUM MAXIMUM 0 5 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 21 0 37 41 + 0 0 0 n/a 0 a 20 0 0 0 0 n/a 0 0 14 ! 53 59 18 12 51 0 34 43 31 44 23 b 6 20-88 29 7 n/a 38 7-5 14 38 58 16 n/a 52 2 14 : 53 59 18 12 51 0 34 43 31 44 44 b 43 61 + 88 29 7 n/a 38 7 + 25 14 38-58 16 n/a 52 2 33 + 34 0 37 % 45 30 44 88 39 0 59 50 50 49 19 9 21 8-12 50 88 n/a 57 51-63 44 62 42 79 n/a 3 23 41-44 0 3 % 2 0 b 0 10 0 6 7 2 7 35 b 9 26-0 21 2 n/a 5 36-2 0 0 0 5-n/a 0 2 7-2 0 36 46 % 0 11 38 0 0 100 1 0 17 0 2 91 27 5-0 0 3 n/a 0 6-10. 42 0 0 0 n/a 45 73 19-3 0 100 158 2692 2298 2476 191 2528 1175 2933 3490 4868 2534 1292 11916 1172 3449 + 859 456 534 0 2712 2481 + 3566 1665 92 125 330 n/a 833 2383 59208+ T h e s e a p p l i c a t i o n s c o v e r t h e p e r i o d from t h e t i m e o f d e s i g n a t i o n t o A p r i l 1 s t 1978 The l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s r e f e r r e d t o a r e : ( i ) a p p l i c a t i o n s p u r s u a n t t o S e c t i o n 9 ( 2 ) w h i c h , p u r s u a n t to S e c t i o n 9 ( 5 ) , have been r e f u s e d R e g i o n a l B o a r d a u t h o r i z a t i o n t o p r o c e e d t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n ; and ( n ) a p p l i c a t i o n s p u r s u a n t t o S e c t i o n 9 ( 2 ) w h i c h have p r o c e e d e d t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n and have been c o n s i d e r e d by t h e C o m m i s s i o n and, i n c a s e s o f a p p e a l , ELUC R e g i o n a l B o a r d a p p r o v a l t o a p p l y t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n , r e f u s e d . as r e q u i r e d u n d e r S e c t i o n 9 ( 5 ) , has been a b n/a R e g i o n a l B o a r d has recommended t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n t h a t t h e l a n d be r e t a i n e d i n t h e A.L.R. A r i t h m e t i c Mean: t h e sum o f t h e d e c i s i o n t y p e p e r c e n t a g e i n e a c h R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t where l a n d owner e x c l u s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s have been made d i v i d e d by t h e number o f R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s where s u c h a p p l i c a t i o n s have been made. T h i s method o f c a l c u l a t i n g t h e mean p e r m i t s c o m p a r i s o n o f the p e r f o r m a n c e o f R e g i o n a l B o a r d s . As a c r e a g e s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e , '+' and '• number on t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d e c i s i o n s . A u t h o r i z a t i o n s have been r e f u s e d b u t t h e a c r e a g e was n o t a v a i l a b l e . L e s s t h a n 1% In Mount W a d d i n g t o n l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n have n o t been made. In S t i k i n e an A.L.R. has n o t been d e s i g n a t e d . a r e u s e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e e f f e c t o f t h i s unknown 32. FIGURE 3-1 DISTRIBUTION OF REGIONAL BOARDS BY DECISION TYPE 2 7 2 0 10 2 7 2 0 10 0 0 - 2 0 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100 Retain Decision - Percent 0 - 2 0 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100 Exclude Decision - Percent 27r 2 0 T3 o o CO ~o tz o cn CD or o o 10 0-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81- 100 Exemption Decision - Percent 27 2 0 10 0 n n r - n n 27 2 0 10 0 - 2 0 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100 No Recommendation Decision — Percent 33. range from 0 t o 36%; and 'no recommendation' d e c i s i o n s range from 0 to 100%. Most R e g i o n a l Boards make d e c i s i o n s to ' e x c l u d e ' o r ' r e t a i n ' l a n d i n the A.L.R. F o r the r e m a i n d e r , most d e c i s i o n s a r e 'no recommendation'. A m a j o r i t y o f R e g i o n a l Boards make 'exemption' d e c i s i o n s but t h e number o f such d e c i s i o n s i s s m a l l . T h e i r low f r e q u e n c y s u g g e s t s t h a t R e g i o n a l Boards may t e n d t o c o n s i d e r s o l e y t he q u e s t i o n o f whether l a n d s h o u l d be e x c l u d e d from t h e A.L.R. and n o t whether t h e a p p l i c a n t ' s p u r p o s e ( 1 3 ) r e q u i r e s e x c l u s i o n . In summary, the a v a i l a b l e d a t a on R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s i n r e g a r d t o l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n f r o m t h e A.L.R. i n d i c a t e s the f o l l o w i n g : i . R e g i o n a l Boards tend t o make ' e x c l u d e ' d e c i s i o n s , f o l l o w e d i n r a n k i n g by ' r e t a i n ' , 'no recommendation' and 'exemption' d e c i s i o n s ; and i i . t h e f r e q u e n c y o f each t y p e o f d e c i s i o n v a r i e s from R e g i o n a l B o ard t o R e g i o n a l Board. 3.3 Re g i o n a l Board S u p p o r t f o r the P r e s e r v a t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Land The purpose o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s t o i d e n t i f y t h e l e v e l o f Re g i o n a l Board s u p p o r t f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s u g g e s t e d by the p r e c e d i n g d a t a . To do so i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e f i n e R e g i o n a l (13) In making an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r e x c l u s i o n t h e a p p l i c a n t i s r e q u i r e d t o i n d i c a t e t he r e a s o n ( s ) why e x c l u s i o n from t h e A.L.R. i s r e q u e s t e d . 34. Board d e c i s i o n s s u g g e s t i v e o f s u p p o r t f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n . In t h i s s t u d y such d e c i s i o n s a r e d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : i . a l l R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s which r e f u s e an a p p l i c a n t under S e c t i o n 9(5) o f the A c t ; i i . a l l R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s which recommend t h a t l a n d , i n a S e c t i o n 9(2) a p p l i c a t i o n , be r e t a i n e d i n t h e A.L.R.; i i i . a l l R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s which recommend t h a t l a n d , i n a S e c t i o n 9(2) a p p l i c a t i o n , be exempt from the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e A c t ; and i v . a l l R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s which recommend t h a t l a n d , i n a S e c t i o n 9(2) a p p l i c a t i o n , be e x c l u d e d from t h e A.L.R. where the l a n d was e x c l u d e d by the Commission o r ELUC. T h i s d e f i n i t i o n r e c o g n i z e s t h a t s e v e r a l t y p e s o f R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s a r e b r o a d l y s u p p o r t i v e o f the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s on e x c l u s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s p r o c e e d i n g t o the Commission and the Commission o r ELUC d e c i s i o n on such a p p l i c a t i o n s r e q u i r e s some e l a b o r a t i o n . ' R e t a i n ' recommendations o f a R e g i o n a l Board would have e i t h e r t h e same u l t i m a t e e f f e c t as the Commission/ELUC d e c i s i o n o r p r o v i d e g r e a t e r r e s t r i c t i o n s than t h o s e imposed by the Commission/ELUC d e c i s i o n . These a r e c l e a r l y s u p p o r t i v e o f the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d as t h e y r e t a i n l a n d i n the A.L.R. 'Exemption' recommendations o f a R e g i o n a l Board would have e i t h e r the same 35. e f f e c t as the Commission/ELUC d e c i s i o n , p r o v i d e g r e a t e r r e s t r i c t i o n s t h a n the Commission/ELUC d e c i s i o n o r p r o v i d e l e s s r e s t r i c t i o n s than the Commission/ELUC d e c i s i o n . They a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s c o n s i d e r e d s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d as t h e y r e t a i n l a n d i n t h e A.L.R., even though t h e l a n d may be used and/or s u b d i v i d e d i n a manner d i r e c t l y p r o h i b i t e d by the A c t . ' E x c l u s i o n ' recommenda-t i o n s o f a R e g i o n a l Board which were s u p p o r t e d by the Commission/ELUC d e c i s i o n a r e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d s u p p o r t i v e o f the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . A l l o t h e r e x c l u s i o n recommendations a r e not c o n s i d e r e d s u p p o r t i v e as t h e y would have t h e e f f e c t o f p e r m i t t i n g the i r r e v e r s i b l e removal o f l a n d from a g r i c u l t u r a l use. 'No recommenda-t i o n ' d e c i s i o n s o f a R e g i o n a l Board do not i n d i c a t e a p o s i t i o n on the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . Thus, t h e y a r e not c o n s i d e r e d s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . U s i n g t h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s s u g g e s t i v e o f s u p p o r t f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , the s u p p o r t l e v e l s shown i n T a b l e 3-3 r e s u l t . ( 1 4 ) The c o m p u t a t i o n s made i n a r r i v i n g a t t h e s e f i g u r e s a r e shown i n Appendix B. The l e v e l o f R e g i o n a l Board s u p p o r t f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d ranges from 0 t o 100% w i t h a mean s u p p o r t l e v e l o f 58%. W h i l e t h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t R e g i o n a l Boards t h r o u g h o u t the P r o v i n c e have a l i m i t e d l e v e l o f s u p p o r t f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , the d i s t r i b u t i o n (14) A map showing the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e g i o n a l Board s u p p o r t f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i s p r o v i d e d i n Appendix C. TABLE 3-3 36. REGIONAL BOARD LEVEL OF SUPPORT* FOR THE PRESERVATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND, BY REGION  A l b e r n i - C I a y o q u o t 17 % B u i k l e y - N e c h a k o 60 C a p i t a l 74 C a r i b o o 34 C e n t r a l C o a s t 40 C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y 77 C e n t r a l Kootenay 0 C e n t r a l Okanagan 55 Columbia-Shuswap 92 Comox-Strathcona 60 Cowichan V a l l e y 74 Dewdney-Alouette 84 E a s t Kootenay 3 Fraser-Cheam 53 F r a s e r - F o r t George 87+ G r e a t e r Vancouver 98 K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e 50 Kootenay Boundary 90 Mount Waddington n/a Nanaimo 63 N o r t h Okanagan 64+ Okanagan Simi1kameen 38 Peace R i v e r - L i a r d 19 Powell R i v e r 99 Skeena-Queen C h a r l o t t e 100 S q u a m i s h - L i l l o o e t 58 S t i k i n e Region ( u n i n c . ) n/a S u n s h i n e C o a s t 52 Thompson-Nicola 23 MEAN** 58 MEDIAN 60 RANGE 100 * The c o m p u t a t i o n s made i n a r r i v i n g a t t h e s e f i g u r e s a r e shown i n Appendix B. + As the a c r e a g e f i g u r e on R e g i o n a l Board r e f u s a l s was not a v a i l a b l e , the a c t u a l p e r c e n t a g e i s h i g h e r than the f i g u r e shown. n/a In Mount Waddington l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n have not been made. In S t i k i n e an A.L.R. has not been d e s i g n a t e d . ** A r i t h m e t i c Mean: the sum o f t h e l e v e l o f R e g i o n a l Board s u p p o r t ( i n each R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t where l a n d owner e x c l u s i o n a p p l i c a -t i o n s have been made) d i v i d e d by the number o f R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s (where such a p p l i c a t i o n s have been made). T h i s method o f c a l c u -, l a t i n g the mean p e r m i t s c o m parison o f t h e performance o f R e g i o n a l Boards. 37. o f R e g i o n a l Boards by s u p p o r t l e v e l s , as shown i n F i g u r e 3-2, i n d i c a t e s o t h e r w i s e : 7(26%) o f t h e 27 Boards have s u p p o r t l e v e l s g r e a t e r than 80% and 12 (44%) o f t h e Boards have s u p p o r t l e v e l s g r e a t e r than 6 0 % ) . 3.4 Summary The f o r e g o i n g has i d e n t i f i e d R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s on l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n from the A.L.R. and the l e v e l o f R e g i o n a l Board s u p p o r t f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d t h a t i s s u g g e s t e d by t h e s e d e c i s i o n s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s and t h e l e v e l o f R e g i o n a l Board s u p p o r t f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d were a n a l y z e d . The s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g o f t h e a n a l y s i s was t h a t R e g i o n a l Boards d i f f e r i n t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d e c i s i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e g a r d t o 'exclude' and ' r e t a i n ' t y p e d e c i s i o n s , and i n t h e i r l e v e l o f s u p p o r t f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . 38. FIGURE 3-2 DISTRIBUTION OF REGIONAL BOARDS BY LEVEL OF SUPPORT [OR THE PRESERVATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND 27 , 27 •s 6 o o CD D c g or 0 - 20 61 - 100 2 1 - 4 0 4 1 - 6 0 6 1 - 8 0 Regional Board Decisions Suggesting Support for the Preservation of Agricultural Land - Percent 39. PATTERNS OF DECISION-MAKING: AN ANALYSIS OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o d e t e r m i n e the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f c e r t a i n r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h a t may be r e l a t e d t o a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d p r e s e r v a t i o n , to t h e l e v e l o f R e g i o n a l Board s u p p o r t f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . 2 Methods o f A n a l y s i s , Data S o u r c e s and L i m i t a t i o n s The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o the l e v e l o f R e g i o n a l Board s u p p o r t f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i s d e t e r m i n e d t h r o u g h c o r r e l a t i o n and l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s . These t e c h n i -ques i n d i c a t e the degree t o which d i f f e r e n c e s i n a dependent v a r i a b l e a r e e x p l a i n e d by a number o f i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . They were used on c r o s s s e c t i o n a l d a t a w i t h o b s e r v a t i o n s f o r each v a r i a b l e taken f o r the twenty-seven R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s i n the P r o v i n c e which have an A.L.R. p l a n and have had l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n . The l e v e l o f R e g i o n a l Board s u p p o r t f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l -t u r a l l a n d , as d e t e r m i n e d i n S e c t i o n 3.3 and shown i n T a b l e 3-3, i s the dependent v a r i a b l e . The i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a r e t h r e e r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t may be r e l a t e d t o a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d p r e s e r v a -t i o n . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h e i r r e l e v a n c e t o a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d p r e s e r v a t i o n , the d a t a used t o r e p r e s e n t each and the d a t a s o u r c e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4-1. TABLE 4-1 REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS Region a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Importance o f A g r i c u l t u r e to R e g i o n a l Economy P o p u l a t i o n Growth P r e s s u r e s i n the Region Level o f Urbanism i n the Region R e l e v a n c e t o A g r i c u l t u r a l Land P r e s e r v a t i o n  P r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d a s s i s t s i n e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r o f a r e g i o n a l economy i s m a i n t a i n t e d . H i s t o r i c a l l y , r e s i d e n t i a l , commercial and i n d u s t r i a l growth has been accommodated p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h the c o n v e r s i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d t o urban use. As t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f an urban a r e a i n c r e a s e s , so does i t s dependence on a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s . Data The p e r c e n t a g e o f the r e g i o n a l l a b o u r f o r c e employed i n a g r i c u l t u r e The p e r c e n t a g e change i n the r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n over the p e r i o d 1966-1976 The p o p u l a t i o n s i z e o f the l a r g e s t urban c e n t r e i n the r e g i o n rounded to the n e a r e s t thousand Data Sources 1971 Census o f Canada 1966 and 1976 Census o f Canada 1976 Census o f Canada and R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Review Committee d a t a on urban f r i n g e p o p u l a t i o n s o 41. There a r e s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s to t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n which s h o u l d be noted. The p r i m a r y l i m i t a t i o n i s t h a t i n some c a s e s t h e d a t a used t o r e p r e s e n t a p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a b l e i s o n l y a proxy f o r more s p e c i f i c d a t a which was not a v a i l a b l e . F o r example, the p e r c e n t a g e o f the r e g i o n a l economy g e n e r a t e d by a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s u s i n g l o c a l r e s o u r c e s would have been more d e s i r a b l e d a t a t o r e p r e s e n t t h e Importance o f A g r i c u l t u r e t o the R e g i o n a l Economy and a r e g i o n ' s L e v e l o f Urbanism might be b e t t e r r e p r e s e n t e d by some c o m b i n a t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s . The r e m a i n i n g l i m i t a t i o n s o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r i s e from t he s p e c i f i c d a t a used. The p e r c e n t a g e o f the r e g i o n a l l a b o u r f o r c e employed i n a g r i c u l t u r e r e f e r s t o t h o s e i n t h e p r i m a r y s e c t o r and does not i n c l u d e t h o s e employed i n t h e p r o c e s s i n g and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l o c a l p r o d u c e . In r e g a r d t o t h e d a t a on t h e p o p u l a t i o n s i z e o f the l a r g e s t urban c e n t r e i n a r e g i o n , t he i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e was not t h e same f o r each R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . The a v a i l a b l e Census d a t a p r o v i d e d t h e d i s t r i b u -t i o n o f a R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t p o p u l a t i o n by urban s i z e groups r a t h e r than by the s i z e o f i n d i v i d u a l urban c e n t r e s . U s i n g t h i s Census d a t a and t he 1976 Census d a t a on the p o p u l a t i o n o f i n c o r p o r a t e d m u n i c i p a l i -t i e s , t h e s i z e o f t h e l a r g e s t urban c e n t r e was d e t e r m i n e d f o r a l l b u t t h r e e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s . F o r t h e s e t h r e e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s t h e f o l l o w i n g d a t a was used: i . t h e Census d a t a r e f e r r e d t o above; and i i . t he R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Review Committee d a t a on urban f r i n g e p o p u l a t i o n s . 42. The f i n a l l i m i t a t i o n i s t h a t the d a t a f o r t h e t i m e s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s (Importance o f A g r i c u l t u r e and L e v e l o f Urbanism) does not r e f e r t o the s p e c i f i c time o f a R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n ; r a t h e r , t h e l a t e s t a v a i l a b l e d a t a was used. 4.3 R e s u l t s o f A n a l y s i s The c o r r e l a t i o n and l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s a t t e m p t s t o - e x p l a i n the ' v a r i a t i o n i n the l e v e l o f R e g i o n a l Board s u p p o r t f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d as a f u n c t i o n o f v a r i a t i o n s i n the v a l u e s o f the t h r e e r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p r e v i o u s l y m e ntioned. The d a t a s e t used f o r the i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s shown i n T a b l e 4-2. The d a t a s e t f o r the dependent v a r i a b l e ( Y ) , R e g i o n a l Board s u p p o r t f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , was d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 3.3. From t h i s d a t a the f o l l o w i n g r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s were c a l c u l a t e d : Y = 51.053 - .39A = .166B - .037C P o p u l a t i o n C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t = .338 P o p u l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t o f M u l t i p l e D e t e r m i n a t i o n = .114 S t a n d a r d E r r o r o f E s t i m a t e = 27.159 P r o b a b i l i t y = .3 The a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d a t a and R e g i o n a l Board s u p p o r t f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i s weak.(15) Only 11% o f the (15) For a d i s c u s s i o n o f the l i n k a g e s i n the r e g r e s s i o n model see Appendix D. 43. TABLE 4-2 DATA REPRESENTING REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS* A B C A l b e r n i - C l a y o q u o t .65 12.1 21000 Bui kley-Nechako 6.53 53.0 4000 C a p i t a l 1.30 26.6 187000 C a r i b o o 6.46 57.9 10000 C e n t r a l C o a s t 3.77 -32.1 •1000 C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y 19.22 112.8 24000 C e n t r a l Kootenay 4.35 8.6 10000 C e n t r a l Okanagan 8.15 110.0 42000 Columbia-Shuswap 4.80 38.1 6000 Comox-Strathcona 1.87 44.3- 13000 Cowichan V a l l e y 2.92 37.5 8000 Dewdney-Alouette 8.81 60.7 20000 E a s t Kootenay 2.28 51.1 14000 Fraser-Cheam 9.24 26.7 18000 F r a s e r - F o r t George 1.47 54.5 52000 G r e a t e r Vancouver .80 21.5 1014000 K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e .54 30.2 15000 Kootenay Boundary 2.64 -1.3 12000 Mount Waddington .29 26.6 2000 Nanaimo 1.94 56.8 37000 North Okanagan 9.55 69.3 19000 Okanagan-Simi1kameen 12.02 42.6 21000 Peace R i v e r - L i a r d 10.40 8.2 11000 Powell R i v e r .32 19.0 14000 Skeena-Queen C h a r l o t t e .16 5.9 14000 S q u a m i s h - L i l l o o e t 1.60 33.6 5000 S t i k i n e Region ( u n i n c . ) .63 -4.3 1000 Sunshine C o a s t 1.74 51.2 2000 Thompson-Nicola 4.48 58.0 48000 MEAN 4.45 37.2 58000 MEDIAN 2.64 37.5 14000 MINIMUM .16 -32.1 1000 MAXIMUM 19.22 112.8 1014000 * A = t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e r e g i o n a l l a b o u r f o r c e employed i n a g r i c u l t u r e i n 1971 ( i t r e p r e s e n t s t h e v a r i a b l e Importance o f A g r i c u l t u r e t o Regio n a l Economy) B = t h e p e r c e n t a g e change i n the r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n o v e r t h e p e r i o d 1966-1976 ( i t r e p r e s e n t s t h e v a r i a b l e P o p u l a t i o n Growth P r e s s u r e s i n the Region) C = t h e 1976 p o p u l a t i o n s i z e o f the l a r g e s t urban c e n t r e i n the r e g i o n , rounded t o the n e a r e s t thousand ( i t r e p r e s e n t s t h e v a r i a b l e L e v e l o f Urbanism i n t h e Region) 44. v a r i a t i o n i n R e g i o n a l Board s u p p o r t i s e x p l a i n e d by t h e r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d a t a . At a p r o b a b i l i t y o f chance p r o c e s s e s a t work o f 30% t h e a n a l y s i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n R e g i o n a l Board s u p p o r t f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d a r e not e x p l a i n e d by d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d a t a . F u r t h e r , as the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s a v e r y weak r e l a t i o n -s h i p , i t would n o t be e x p e c t e d t h a t the use o f o t h e r than minimum f i g u r e s f o r t h e l e v e l o f s u p p o r t i n the F r a s e r - F o r t George and N o r t h Okanagan R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s would improve t h e e x p l a n a t o r y powers o f the r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s v a r i a b l e s t o a s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l . The r e s u l t s do, however, r e q u i r e f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e whether some o f the i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s have e x p l a n a t o r y powers. T h i s a n a l y s i s was u n d e r t a k e n t h r o u g h the c a l c u l a t i o n o f s i m p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s . The r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4-3 and F i g u r e 4-1. TABLE 4-3 SIMPLE REGRESSION C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t P r o b a b i l i t y -.122 .3 .068 .4 .294 .1 Y and A Y and B Y and C They i n d i c a t e t h a t the d a t a s e t f o r the v a r i a b l e P o p u l a t i o n Growth P r e s s u r e s (B) has the l e a s t e x p l a n a t o r y powers and i s h i g h l y s u b j e c t t o chance p r o c e s s e s , w h i l e t h a t f o r the L e v e l o f Urbanism (C) has FIGURE 4-1 SCATTERGRAM OF REGIONAL BOARD LEVEL OF SUPPORT FOR THE PRESERVATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND BY REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS 100 80 70 50 40 20 -1100 90 80 70 50 40 yi_J„ ' 100 P 5 10 15 20 25 f 100 IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE TO REGIONAL ECONOMY - PERCENT 100 90 80 60 50 < 30 20 10 -4° "20 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 80 PERCENTAGE POPULATION GROWTH ilOO 90 H80 160 -150 30 120 10 100 —'0 120 REGIONAL BOARD SUPPORT O -r-PERCENT S 3 TO g 8 CD m i o o c+ c 05 Q-917 47. the g r e a t e s t and i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t a l e v e l o f 90%. Thus, t h e above c o n c l u s i o n must be tempered t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t , w h i l e t h e r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d a t a as a whole does not e x p l a i n v a r i a t i o n s i n Re g i o n a l Board s u p p o r t f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , the data s e t f o r L e v e l o f Urbanism o f f e r s m a r g i n a l e x p l a n a t i o n , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t , t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t R e g i o n a l Board s u p p o r t f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n c r e a s e s w i t h i n c r e a s e s i n the L e v e l o f Urbanism i n a Region. 4.4 Summary Through t h e use o f c o r r e l a t i o n and r e g r e s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s an attempt was made t o d e t e r m i n e whether v a r i a t i o n s i n R e g i o n a l Board s u p p o r t f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d by t h r e e r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : Importance o f A g r i c u l t u r e t o the R e g i o n a l Economy, P o p u l a t i o n Growth P r e s s u r e s i n the Region and L e v e l o f Urbanism i n the Region. The r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d a weak r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t had a h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y o f o c c u r r i n g by chance. F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d , however, t h a t t h e L e v e l o f Urbanism i n th e R e g ion had m a r g i n a l e x p l a n a t o r y powers. 48. 5. PATTERNS OF DECISION-MAKING: AN ANALYSIS OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SITE SPECIFIC INFORMATION 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o d e t e r m i n e the d e g r e e t o which R e g i o n a l B o a r d d e c i s i o n s on a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d can be e x p l a i n e d by c e r t a i n s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s based on a 10% sample o f t h e 1335 l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n c o n s i d e r e d by t h e Commission and, i n c a s e s o f a p p e a l , ELUC p r i o r t o A p r i l 1 s t 1978. The sample was s e l e c t e d from f o u r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s : C a r i b o o , C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y , Comox-S t r a t h c o n a and N o r t h Okanagan. The c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i n g t h e s e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s were as f o l l o w s : i . t h e r e g i o n must have e x p e r i e n c e d a growth r a t e equal t o o r above the median f o r a l l ; i i . t h e t o t a l A.L.R. a c r e a g e i n the r e g i o n must be equal t o o r above t h e median f o r a l l ; i i i . t h e number o f l a n d owner e x c l u s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d by t h e Commission o r ELUC must be equal to o r above the median f o r a l 1 ; and i v . t h e r e g i o n s s h o u l d be s p a t i a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h o u t the P r o v i n c e . The number o f a p p l i c a t i o n s s e l e c t e d from each o f t h e f o u r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s was based on t h e a c t u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a p p l i c a t i o n s f i l e d from t h e s e r e g i o n s . The sample d i s t r i b u t i o n by r e g i o n i s as f o l l o w s : 49. C a r i boo 20 c a s e s C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y 38 c a s e s Comox-Strathcona 44 c a s e s N o r t h Okanagan 31 c a s e s The s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n s used i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n were s e l e c t e d u s i n g a s t r a t i f i e d s y s t e m a t i c t e c h n i q u e . T h i s t e c h n i q u e was used t o e n s u r e t h a t the sample c o v e r e d the f u l l t ime span under c o n s i d e r a t i o n and t h a t a d i s t i n c t d e c i s i o n had been made on each a p p l i c a t i o n ( i . e . , d i f f e r e n t d e c i s i o n s a r e not made f o r d i f f e r e n t a r e a s i n the same a p p l i c a t i o n ) . 5.2 Methods o f A n a l y s i s , Data Sources and L i m i t a t i o n s The r e l a t i o n s h i p between R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s on a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d and c e r t a i n s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n i s d e t e r m i n e d t h r o u g h c o r r e l a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a p p r o p r i a t e t o q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a . The d a t a used i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n was g e n e r a t e d from the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l -a b l e i n the f i l e s o f the B.C. A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission. Re g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s were c l a s s i f i e d as f o l l o w s : s u p p o r t i v e , n o n - s u p p o r t i v e and o t h e r . S u p p o r t i v e d e c i s i o n s were d e f i n e d i n the same manner as i n C h a p t e r 3 (see S e c t i o n 3.3). 'No recommendation' d e c i s i o n s were c l a s s i f i e d s e p a r a t e l y and a l l o t h e r d e c i s i o n s were c l a s s i f i e d as n o n - s u p p o r t i v e . The s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n used i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n was l i m i t e d t o f o u r t y p e s o f d a t a r e q u i r e d t o be p r o v i d e d on each a p p l i c a t i o n t o the Commission: 50. i . Canada Land I n v e n t o r y ( C . L . I . ) R a t i n g f o r A g r i c u l t u r e ; i i . L o c a t i o n i n R e l a t i o n t o the A.L.R.; i i i . P r i m a r y E x i s t i n g Use; and i v . P r i m a r y S u r r o u n d i n g Land Use. As each o f t h e s e f o u r t y p e s o f d a t a i s q u a l i t a t i v e r a t h e r than quan-t i t a t i v e , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o d e v e l o p a system o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r each. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 5-1. While c o n s i s t e n c y i n the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system was a t t e m p t e d , some i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on the p a r t o f the r e s e a r c h e r was n e c e s s a r y as a r e s u l t o f the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the terms used on each a p p l i c a t i o n . T h i s l i m i t a t i o n a p p l i e s i n r e g a r d t o the d a t a t y p e s P r i m a r y E x i s t i n g Use and P r i m a r y S u r r o u n d i n g Land Use. They a r e u n f o r t u n a t e . W hile t h e y c o u l d not be e l i m i n a t e d , an att e m p t was made t o m i n i m i z e them t h r o u g h a c a r e f u l t r a n s l a t i o n o f terms and the use o f a g e n e r a l i z e d system o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . A f u r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n o f the s t u d y i s t h a t t h e r e i s no c e r t a i n t y t h a t t he a p p l i c a t i o n s s e l e c t e d a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the u n i v e r s e , i n terms o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n v a r -i a b l e s and R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , l a c k i n g knowledge o f t h e u n i v e r s e and i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f s e l e c t i n g u n ique a p p l i c a t i o n s , use o f a s t r a t i f i e d s y s t e m a t i c t e c h n i q u e i n the drawing o f the sample from a few r e g i o n s r e p r e s e n t s a v a l i d approach f o r s e l e c t i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n s . 51. TABLE 5-1 CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM OF SITE SPECIFIC INFORMATION DATA X} = Canada Land I n v e n t o r y ( C . L . I . ) R a t i n g f o r A g r i c u l t u r e Prime Prime Dominant Where the u n i t i s r a t e d t o t a l l y as C l a s s e s 1 t o 3 Where the u n i t i s r a t e d as 50% o r more C l a s s e s 1 t o 3 Prime S u b o r d i n a t e Where t h e u n i t i s r a t e d as l e s s than 50% C l a s s e s 1 t o 3 S e c o n d a r y Where the u n i t i s r a t e d as C l a s s e s 4 t o 7 X2 = L o c a t i o n i n R e l a t i o n t o t h e A.L.R. W i t h i n L a r g e A.L.R. On F r i n g e o f Large A.L.R. Area W i t h i n an A.L.R. P o c k e t On F r i n g e o f an A.L.R. Po c k e t The u n i t i s l o c a t e d i n an a r e a where a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25 a c r e s o r more a r e d e s i g n a t e d as A.L.R. The u n i t i s l o c a t e d on t h e b o r d e r o f a l a r g e a r e a o f A.L.R. d e s i g n a t e d l a n d s The u n i t i s l o c a t e d i n an a r e a where a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25 a c r e s o r l e s s a r e d e s i g n a t e d as A.L.R. The u n i t i s l o c a t e d on t h e b o r d e r o f a p o c k e t o f A.L.R. d e s i g n a t e d l a n d s X 3 = P r i m a r y E x i s t i n g Use* Farming C l e a r e d and Unimproved Unci e a r e d The major p o r t i o n o f the u n i t i s used f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s The major p o r t i o n o f the u n i t has been c l e a r e d but n e i t h e r a g r i c u l t u r a l , urban open space nor urban-suburban a c t i v i t i e s t a k e p l a c e The major p o r t i o n o f the u n i t has not been c l e a r e d and i s not used as urban open space ( c o n t i n u e d on f o l l o w i n g page) 52. TABLE 5-1 ( c o n t i n u e d ) Urban Open Space The major p o r t i o n o f t h e u n i t i s used f o r purposes o f s e r v i n g p r i m a r i l y r e s i d e n t s o f urban c e n t r e s , e.g., r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d uses Urban-Suburban The major p o r t i o n o f t h e u n i t i s used f o r r e s i d e n t i a l purposes a t d e n s i t i e s g r e a t e r than 1 u n i t per a c r e o r f o r i n d u s t r i a l o r commercial purposes X 4 = P r i m a r y S u r r o u n d i n g Land Use* Farming P o t e n t i a l Farming Rural T r a n s i t i o n Urban-Suburban A g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s p r e d o m i n a t e on s u r r o u n d i n g l a n d s The s u r r o u n d i n g l a n d s a r e p r i m a r i l y i n t h e A.L.R. and a g r i c u l t u r a l and ur b a n - s u b u r b a n uses do n o t dominate t h e a r e a The s u r r o u n d i n g l a n d s a r e p r i m a r i l y n o t i n t h e A.L.R. and a g r i c u l t u r a l and urban-suburban uses do not dominate the a r e a No one l a n d use dominates t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a ; r a t h e r , a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , v a c a n t l a n d and urban-suburban uses o c c u r The s u r r o u n d i n g l a n d s a r e p r i m a r i l y used f o r urban-suburban p u r p o s e s , t h a t i s , r e s i d e n t i a l uses a t d e n s i t i e s g r e a t e r than 1 u n i t p er a c r e o r i n d u s t r i a l o r commercial uses * In d e s c r i b i n g t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system f o r P r i m a r y E x i s t i n g Use and P r i m a r y S u r r o u n d i n g Land Use, g e n e r a l terms such as ma j o r , p r i m a r i l y and s u r r o u n d i n g a r e used. I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e s e terms a r e i m p r e c i s e . However, t h e i r use c o u l d n o t be a v o i d e d as the d a t a used f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d i d not p e r m i t more s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s i s ; i n o t h e r w o r d s , the raw d a t a used f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was i t s e l f i n t e r p r e t a t i v e . 53. An a d d i t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y r e s u l t s from t h e sample s i z e and the q u a l i t a t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e d a t a . C o r r e l a t i o n was l i m i t e d t o the R e g i o n a l Board D e c i s i o n v a r i a b l e and each s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r -mation v a r i a b l e . A m u l t i - c o r r e l a t i o n i n v o l v i n g a l l o r more than one o f the s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n v a r i a b l e s would have p r o v i d e d g r e a t e r i n s i g h t i n t o t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n i n R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . However, i t c o u l d not be u n der-taken g i v e n t h e l i m i t e d sample. F i n a l l y , the p r i m a r y l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y i s t h a t f o u r t y p e s o f s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n a r e used t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r o l e o f a l l types o f s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n . R e s u l t s o f A n a l y s i s The c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s a t t e m p t s t o d e t e r m i n e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s on a g r i c u l t u r e l a n d and c e r t a i n s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n d a t a i s shown i n T a b l e 5-2. T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t the t y p i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n used i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o v e r s a u n i t o f l a n d : t h a t has a C . L . I , a g r i c u l t u r e r a t i n g o f C l a s s 4 t o 7; t h a t i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n o r on t h e f r i n g e o f a l a r g e A.L.R. a r e a ; t h a t i s e i t h e r u n c l e a r e d o r c l e a r e d and n o t used f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l , urban open space o r u r b a n - s u b u r b a n u s e s ; and t h a t i s l o c a t e d i n an a r e a where the A.L.R. domin a t e s and u rban-suburban uses a r e l i m i t e d . The e x t e n t t o which t h i s p r o f i l e i s t y p i c a l o f l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n c o n s i d e r e d by t h e Commission may, however, be l i m i t e d TABLE 5-2 DISTRIBUTION OF SITE SPECIFIC INFORMATION DATA 54. = C.L.I. R a t i n g f o r A g r i c u l t u r e Prime 23% Prime Dominant 23% Prime S u b o r d i n a t e 11% Secondary 43% T o t a l A p p l ' n s 133 X3 = P r i m a r y E x i s t i n g Use Farming 17% CI eared-Unimproved 33% U n c l e a r e d 45% Urban Open Space 2% Urban-Suburban 3% T o t a l A p p l ' n s 133 X? = L o c a t i o n i n R e l a t i o n t o A.L.R. W i t h i n L a r g e 45% F r i n g e L a r g e 48% W i t h i n P o c k e t 3% F r i n g e P o c k e t 4% T o t a l A p p l ' n s 133 X/| = P r i m a r y S u r r o u n d i n g Land Use Farming 25% P o t e n t i a l Farming 32% Ru r a l 1.2% T r a n s i t i o n 23% Urban-Suburban 8% T o t a l A p p l ' n s 133 TABLE 5-3 DISTRIBUTION OF REGIONAL BOARD DECISIONS Sample* S u p p o r t i v e 61% N o n - S u p p o r t i v e 25% No Recommendation 14% A l l Sec. 9(2) A p p l i c a t i o n s C o n s i d e r e d by Commission/ELUC 46% 22% 32% A l l Sec. 9(2) A p p l i c a t i o n s C o n s i d e r e d by Commission/ELUC and R e g i o n a l Board R e f u s a l s Under Sec. 9(5) 49% 21% 30% T o t a l A c r e a g e 5365 56374 59208 * The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the sample on the b a s i s o f a p p l i c a t i o n s i s as f o l l o w s : 55% S u p p o r t i v e ; 32% N o n - S u p p o r t i v e ; and 13% No Recommendation. 55. as d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n t h e u n i v e r s e and sample d i s t r i b u t i o n o f Region a l Board d e c i s i o n s ( s e e T a b l e 5-3). N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e above p r o f i l e o f t h e sample d i s t r i b u t i o n does s u g g e s t t h a t management o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s o u r c e does not end w i t h t h e p a s s i n g o f the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission A c t ; r a t h e r , d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n s o f the a p p r o p r i a t e use o f l a n d must be a d d r e s s e d on an on g o i n g b a s i s . The c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n o f R e g i o n a l Board D e c i s i o n w i t h e a c h s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n v a r i a b l e ( C . L . I . R a t i n g f o r A g r i c u l t u r e , L o c a -t i o n i n R e l a t i o n t o the A.L.R., P r i m a r y E x i s t i n g Use and P r i m a r y S u r r o u n d i n g Land Use) i s shown i n T a b l e 5-4 and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e and measure o f s t r e n g t h i n T a b l e 5-5. TABLE 5-5 STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND MEASURE OF STRENGTH AMONGST THE VARIABLES* Y h x2 X 3 X 4 Y 1 .9 (.016) .8 (.020) .7 (.023) .2 (.042) h 1 .5 (.023) .5 (.034) .7 (.028) h 1 .001 (-207) .001 (.152) X 3 1 .02 (.056) x4 1 * S t a t i s t i c a l s t r e n g t h i s s i g n i f i c a n c e i s based on Cramer 1 based on 's V2 and C h i - s q u a r e , i s shown i n Measure o f b r a c k e t s . TABLE 5-4 CROSSTABULATION OF REGIONAL BOARD DECISION BY EACH SITE SPECIFIC INFORMATION VARIABLE REGIONAL BOARD DECISION BY C . L . I . RATING FOR AGRICULTURE Count Row % Col % T o t % Prime Prime Dominant Prime Subord. S e c o n d a r y T o t a l 16 15 7 35 73 S u p p o r t i v e 21 51 .9 .6 20 50 .5 .0 9 46 .6 .7 47 61 .9 .4 54.9 12 .0 11 .3 5 .3 26 .3 9 11 5 18 43 N o n - S u p p o r t i v e 20 29 .9 .0 25 36 .6 .7 11 33 .6 .3 41 31 .9 .6 32.3 6 •8 8 .3 3 .8 13 .6 6 4 3 4 17 No 35 .3 23 .5 17 .6 23 .5 12.8 Recommendation 19 .4 13 .3 20 .0 7 .0 4 .5 3 .0 2 .3 3 .0 T o t a l 31 30 15 57 133 23 .3 22 .6 11 .3 42 .9 100.0 REGIONAL BOARD DECISION BY LOCATION IN RELATION TO A.L.R. Count Row % Col % T o t % W i t h i n L a r g e F r i n g e L a r g e W i t h i n P o c k e t F r i n g e P o c k e t T o t a l 32 34 2 5 73 S u p p o r t i v e 43 53 .8 .3 46 53 .6 .1 2 50 .7 0 6 100 .8 .0 54.9 24 .1 25 .6 1 5 3 .8 19 22 2 0 43 N o n - S u p p o r t i v e 44 31 .2 .7 51 34 .2 .4 4 50 7 0 0 0 0 0 32.3 14 .3 16 .5 1 5 0 0 9 8 0 0 17 No 52 .9 47 .1 0 0 0 0 12.8 Recommendation 15 .0 12 .5 0 0 0 0 6 .8 6 .0 0 0 0 0 T o t a l 60 64 4 5 133 45 .1 48 .1 3 0 3 8 100.0 TABLE 5-4 ( c o n t i n u e d ) 57. REGIONAL BOARD DECISION BY PRIMARY EXISTING USE Count Row % Col % Tot % Farming C I e a r e d -Unimpr. Unci e a r e d Urban Urban Op. Space Suburban T o t a l 11 27 29 2 4 73 S u p p o r t i v e 15 50 .1 .0 37.0 61.4 39 48 .7 .3 2 66 .7 .7 5 100 .5 .0 54.9 8 .3 20.3 21 .8 1 .5 3 0 8 13 21 1 0 43 Non-Supportive 18 36 .6 .4 30.2 29.5 48 35 .8 .0 2 33 .3 .3 0 0 .0 .0 32.3 6 .0 9.8 15 .8 0 .8 0 .0 3 4 10 0 0 17 No 17 .6 23.5 58 .8 0 .0 0 .0 12.8 Recommendation 13 .6 9.1 16 .7 0 .0 0 0 2 .3 3.0 7 .5 0 .0 0 .0 T o t a l 22 44 60 3 4 133 16 .5 33.1 45 .1 2 .3 3 0 100.0 REGIONAL BOARD DECISION BY PRIMARY SURROUNDING LAND USE Count Row % Farming P o t e n t i a l R u r a l • T r a n s ' n Urban Col % Farming Suburban T o t a l T o t % 21 16 12 18 6 73 S u p p o r t i v e 28 63 .8 .6 21.9 37.2 16 75 .4 .0 24 60 .7 .0 8 54 2 5 54.9 15 .8 12.0 9 .0 13 .5 4 5 9 18 4 8 4 17 Non - S u p p o r t i v e 20 27 .9 .3 41.9 41.9 9 25 .3 .0 18 26 .6 .7 9 36 3 4 32.3 6 .8 13.5 3 .0 6 .0 3 0 3 9 0 4 1 17 No 17 .6 52.9 0 .0 23 .5 5 9 12.8 Recommendation 9 .1 20.9 0 .0 13 .3 9 1 2 .3 6.8 0 .0 3 .0 0 8 T o t a l 33 43 16 30 11 133 24 .8 32.3 12 .0 22 .6 8 3 100.0 58. On the b a s i s o f the r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 5-5, t h e r e appears t o be no r e l a t i o n s h i p between R e g i o n a l Board D e c i s i o n and the f o l l o w i n g s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n v a r i a b l e s : C . L . I . R a t i n g f o r A g r i c u l t u r e , P r i m a r y E x i s t i n g Use and L o c a t i o n i n R e l a t i o n t o t h e A.L.R. In the c a s e o f P r i m a r y S u r r o u n d i n g Land Use a weak r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s a t a s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l o f 80%. As i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s u s i n g c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s t o c l a r i f y r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o u l d not be under-taken g i v e n t h e s m a l l sample s i z e . In r e g a r d t o the a s s o c i a t i o n between R e g i o n a l Board D e c i s i o n and P r i m a r y S u r r o u n d i n g Land Use, t h e a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s the f o l l o w i n g : i . R e g i o n a l B oard d e c i s i o n s s u p p o r t i v e o f the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a P r i m a r y S u r r o u n d i n g Land Use o f ' r u r a l 1 , f o l l o w e d i n r a n k i n g by ' f a r m i n g ' , ' t r a n s i t i o n ' , 'urban-suburban' and ' p o t e n t i a l f a r m i n g ' ; and i i . n o n - s u p p o r t i v e d e c i s i o n s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a P r i m a r y S u r r o u n d i n g Land Use o f ' p o t e n t i a l f a r m i n g ' , f o l l o w e d i n r a n k i n g by 'urban-suburban', ' f a r m i n g ' , ' t r a n s i t i o n ' and ' r u r a l ' . Summary Through the use o f c o r r e l a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s an attempt was made to d e t e r m i n e whether R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s on a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f o u r s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n v a r i a b l e s : C . L . I . R a t i n g f o r A g r i c u l t u r e , L o c a t i o n i n R e l a t i o n t o t h e A.L.R., Prim a r y E x i s t i n g Use and P r i m a r y S u r r o u n d i n g Land Use. The a n a l y s i s 59. i n d i c a t e d t h a t R e g i o n a l Board D e c i s i o n was not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h r e e o f the v a r i a b l e s : C . L . I . R a t i n g f o r A g r i c u l t u r e , L o c a t i o n i n R e l a -t i o n t o the A.L.R. and P r i m a r y E x i s t i n g Use. F u r t h e r , i t i n d i c a t e d t h a t a weak r e l a t i o n s h i p , s i g n i f i c a n t a t a l e v e l o f 80%, e x i s t e d between R e g i o n a l Board D e c i s i o n and P r i m a r y S u r r o u n d i n g Land Use. LOCAL GOVERNMENT DECISION-MAKING AND COMMUNITY PLANNING 60. 1 Summary o f E m p i r i c a l F i n d i n g s and C o n c l u s i o n s on L o c a l Government Deci s i o n - M a k i n g  The f o r e g o i n g has a n a l y z e d R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s i n r e g a r d t o la n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n o f l a n d from t h e A.L.R. The o b j e c t i v e o f the a n a l y s i s has been to p r o v i d e a f u l l e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e l e c t e d l o c a l government d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g on t h e use o f l a n d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t o examine t he n o t i o n o f u n i v e r s a l g o a l - p r i o r i t i e s and the r o l e o f s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . The a n a l y s i s o f R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s has i n d i c a t e d t h a t R e g i o n a l Boards d i f f e r i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n t y p e d i s t r i b u t i o n and i n t h e i r l e v e l o f s u p p o r t f o r t h e goal o f p r e s e r v i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . T h r e e s e l e c t e d r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Importance o f A g r i c u l t u r e t o the Regiona l Economy, L e v e l o f P o p u l a t i o n Growth P r e s s u r e s i n t h e Region and L e v e l o f Urbanism i n the Region) were a n a l y z e d f o r t h e i r a b i l i t y to e x p l a i n v a r i a t i o n s i n the l e v e l o f R e g i o n a l Board s u p p o r t f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . The s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s i n d i c a -t e d t h a t t h e l e v e l o f R e g i o n a l Board s u p p o r t f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d was a s s o c i a t e d , and then o n l y m a r g i n a l l y , w i t h t h e r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c L e v e l o f Urbanism. S u b j e c t t o t h e l i m i t a -t i o n s o f the a n a l y s i s , t h e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e l e v e l o f s u p p o r t , even when r e g i o n a l ' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e r e c o g n i z e d , i n d i c a t e s t h a t a u n i v e r s a l p r i o r i t y i s not a t t a c h e d t o the goal o f p r e s e r v i n g a g r i -c u l t u r a l l a n d . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g l a c k s u n i v e r s a l g o a l - p r i o r i t i e s . 61. A sample o f R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s i n r e g a r d t o l a n d owner a p p l i -c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n f r o m t h e A.L.R. was t h e n a n a l y z e d t o d e t e r m i n e the r o l e o f f o u r s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n v a r i a b l e s ( C . L . I . R a t i n g f o r A g r i c u l t u r e , L o c a t i o n i n R e l a t i o n t o t h e A.L.R., P r i m a r y E x i s t i n g Use and P r i m a r y S u r r o u n d i n g Land Use) i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . The s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o n l y one o f t h e f o u r s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n v a r i a b l e s -- P r i m a r y Sur'rounding Land Use -- and t h a t t h i s a s s o c i a -t i o n was weak. S u b j e c t t o the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the a n a l y s i s , t h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n has l i t t l e , i f any, co n -s i s t e n t e f f e c t on l a n d use d e c i s i o n s . T h i s i m m e d i a t e l y s u g g e s t s t h a t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n c o n s i s t e n c y . However, r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t t h e a n a l y s i s i s c o n f i n e d t o s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a -t i o n r a t h e r than t o a l l t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e s e f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g l a c k s a n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n base. In summary, the e m p i r i c a l a n a l y s i s s u g g e s t s t h a t e l e c t e d l o c a l g o v e r n -ment l a n d use d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l a c k o f u n i v e r s a l g o a l - p r i o r i t i e s and a l a c k o f a n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n base. These c o n c l u s i o n a r e n o t a new i n s i g h t i n t o e l e c t e d l o c a l g o v e r n -ment d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g -- a l a c k o f u n i v e r s a l g o a l - p r i o r i t i e s i s but one o f t h e c o n s t r a i n t s t o making d e c i s i o n s i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e c o l l e c t i v e w i s h e s o f s o c i e t y w h i l e a l a c k o f a n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n base r e p r e s e n t s an att e m p t t o a c h i e v e t h e p r e s c r i p t i o n s o f ' r a t i o n a l ' d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and thus t he o b j e c t i v e o f making 62. d e c i s i o n s i n a c c o r d w i t h the c o l l e c t i v e w i s h e s o f s o c i e t y . These c o n c l u s i o n s , and the f i n d i n g s on which t h e y a r e based, a r e , however, u s e f u l as t h e y remind community p l a n n e r s o f a s p e c t s o f e l e c t e d l o c a l government l a n d use d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g w h i c h t e n d t o be ' f o r g o t t e n ' i n t h e p r o c e s s o f ' g e t t i n g t h i n g s done'. 6.2 Community P l a n n i n g C o n s i d e r a t i o n s : An Assessment o f the 'General P l a n ' Concept  From t h e e m p i r i c a l a n a l y s i s i t has been c o n c l u d e d t h a t e l e c t e d l o c a l government l a n d use d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l a c k o f u n i v e r s a l g o a l - p r i o r i t i e s and a l a c k o f a n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d i n f o r m a -t i o n base. Based on t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e l e c t e d l o c a l government d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , t h i s s e c t i o n examines one o f the p r i n c i p l e p l a n n i n g i n s t r u m e n t s , namely, the g e n e r a l p l a n . The g e n e r a l p l a n i s r e f e r r e d t o by a v a r i e t y o f names i n c l u d i n g master p l a n , o v e r a l l p l a n and c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n and has been a t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e r n o f p l a n n e r s . A l t h o u g h t h e wording may v a r y , the purpose o f a g e n e r a l p l a n a p p e a r s t o be t o g u i d e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g on community development t h r o u g h a s t a t e m e n t on the l o n g range s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the community. However, w h i l e t h i s purpose o f a g e n e r a l p l a n has not changed o v e r t i m e , t h e manner i n which i t i s t o be a c h i e v e d has. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the o b j e c t i v e o f a g e n e r a l p l a n has been c a r r i e d o u t by p r e p a r i n g ' e n d - s t a t e ' p l a n s a r r i v e d a t by a v a r i e t y o f s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l p r o c e d u r e s . T h i s a p p r o a c h has g i v e n r i s e t o t h e 63. t h e p r i m a r y c r i t i c i s m s o f the g e n e r a l p l a n . These c r i t i c i s m s a r e g e n e r a l l y o f t h r e e t y p e s : i . t h o s e r e l a t e d to the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f a c h i e v i n g t h e p r e s c r i p t i o n s o f the r a t i o n a l model o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ( i n t e l l i g e n c e i s i n s u f f i c i e n t , i n f o r m a t i o n i s unknown, p l u r a l i s m o f v a l u e s , l a c k o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s ( 1 6 ) ) ; i i . t h o s e r e l a t e d t o the i n o p e r a t i v e n a t u r e o f such p l a n s ( u t o p i a n v i s i o n s , r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l i n l i b r a r y s h e l v e s r a t h e r than g u i d e s to d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s , s t a t i c p i c t u r e s o f the f u t u r e ( 1 7 ) ) ; and i i i . t h o s e r e l a t e d t o the p r o c e s s o r method used i n p r e p a r i n g such p l a n s ( 1 8 ) . The f i r s t c r i t i c i s m i s not a c r i t i c i s m o f a g e n e r a l p l a n but a r e v i e w o f t h e c o n s t r a i n t s t o a c h i e v i n g t h e p r e s c r i p t i o n s o f the r a t i o n a l model o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . The c r i t i c i s m i s v a l i d as a r e m i n d e r t h a t ' o b j e c t i v e ' answers do not e x i s t and t h a t unknowns and c o n f l i c t i n g views must be a d d r e s s e d ; however, i t s a c c e p t a n c e as a b a s i s f o r i n -v a l i d a t i n g a c t i o n would be i m m o b i l i z i n g . The second c r i t i c i s m stems (16) See A l a n A. A l t s h u l e r , The C i t y P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s ( C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s : I t h a c a , N.Y., 1965); D. Braybrooke and C.E. L i n d b l o m , A S t r a t e g y o f D e c i s i o n (The F r e e P r e s s : New York, 1963); and H.W.J. R i t t e l and M.M. Webber, "Dilemmas i n a Gener-a l Theory o f P l a n n i n g " , P o l i c y S c i e n c e s , 4 ( 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. 155-169. (17) See M. Meyerson, " B u i l d i n g t h e Middle-Range B r i d g e f o r Comprehensive P l a n n i n g " , J o u r n a l o f American I n s t i t u t e o f  P l a n n e r s , 2 2 ( S p r i n g 1956), pp. 58-66. (18) See B a r c l a y M. Hudson, "Comparison o f C u r r e n t P l a n n i n g T h e o r i e s : C o u n t e r p a r t s and C o n t r a d i c t i o n s " , J o u r n a l o f American I n s t i t u t e  o f P l a n n e r s , ( O c t o b e r 1979), pp. 387-398. 64. from t he p l a n s t h a t have been p r o d u c e d . I t i s a v a l i d h i s t o r i c a l c r i t i c i s m and can o n l y be e l i m i n a t e d i f the needs o f d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s a r e r e c o g n i z e d when f o r m u l a t i n g a g e n e r a l p l a n . T h i s does not mean t h a t p l a n s s h o u l d not i n c l u d e an e n d - s t a t e , f o r i n the words o f A l l a n J a c o b s , "Why s h o u l d n ' t a community have a view, a v i s i o n o f what i t wants t o be, and then t r y t o a c h i e v e i t ? " ( 1 9 ) ; r a t h e r i t means t h a t p l a n s must i n c l u d e means f o r a c h i e v i n g t h i s e n d - s t a t e , t h a t t h e y must p r o v i d e a b r i d g e between t h e p r e s e n t and t h e d e s i r e d f u t u r e . The t h i r d c r i t i c i s m i s a l s o v a l i d i n the h i s t o r i c a l s e n s e , t h a t i s , p l a n s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been produced on the b a s i s o f s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l d a t a w i t h no e x p l i c i t s u b j e c t i v e r e a l i t i e s . So l o n g as p l a n s c o n t i n u e t o be f o r m u l a t e d on such a b a s i s t h i s c r i t i c i s m w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be v a l i d . However, i t i s not an i n h e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a g e n e r a l p l a n . With t h e development o f community p l a n n i n g , t h e g e n e r a l p l a n has a l s o changed.(20) The e n d - s t a t e o r i e n t a t i o n o f such p l a n s has been modi-f i e d t o one o f r e l a t i n g ends to means and t h e s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i -c a l p r o c e d u r e s f o r p r e p a r i n g such p l a n s has been m o d i f i e d t o i n c l u d e p r o c e d u r e s which r e c o g n i z e s u b j e c t i v e r e a l i t i e s . T h i s l a t t e r change, w h i l e e v i d e n t i n the p r a c t i c e o f community p l a n n i n g , has g e n e r a l l y (19) A l l a n B. J a c o b s , Making C i t y P l a n n i n g Work (American S o c i e t y o f P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s : C h i c a g o , 1978), p. 307. (20) I b i d . v 65. gone u n n o t i c e d i n p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h approaches t o community p l a n n i n g . ( 2 1 ) T. J . Kent, J r . i n The Urban G e n e r a l P l a n ( 2 2 ) s e t s out a d e t a i l e d and e x t r e m e l y demanding model o f a g e n e r a l p l a n which r e l a t e s ends to means. He i n d i c a t e s t h a t a g e n e r a l p l a n s h o u l d be an e x p l i c i t , u n d e r s t a n d a b l e , amendable s t a t e m e n t o f the p u b l i c d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s broad g o a l s f o r t h e community and a s e t o f p o l i c i e s which a r e d e s i g n -ed t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e g o a l s w h i l e a c k n o w l e d g i n g e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s and f u t u r e needs. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e g e n e r a l p l a n a r e t h a t i t i s : i . o r i e n t e d t o the p h y s i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a community i i . g e n e r a l i i i . 1ong range i v . c o m p r e h e n s i v e v. a c l e a r s t a t e m e n t o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f p o l i c i e s to t h e c o n c e p t u a l o u t l i n e o f the major p h y s i c a l - d e s i g n p r o p o s a l s The o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l p l a n t o t h e p h y s i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e community i s based on T. J . Kent, J r . ' s p e r s o n a l judgement t h a t the ' p r o f e s s i o n a l ' a c t i v i t y o f community p l a n n i n g i s a f i e l d o f s p e c i a l competence.(23) The p l a n s h o u l d be g e n e r a l because i t i s (21) See B a r c l a y M. Hudson w i t h comments by.Thomas D. G a l l o w a y and Jerome L. Kaufman, "Comparison o f C u r r e n t P l a n n i n g T h e o r i e s : C o u n t e r p a r t s and C o n t r a d i c t i o n s " , J o u r n a l o f American P l a n n i n g  A s s o c i a t i o n , ( O c t o b e r 1979), pp. 387-406. (22) T. J . Kent, J r . , The Urban G e n e r a l P l a n ( C h a n d l e r P u b l i s h i n g Company: San F r a n c i s c o , 1964) (23) I b i d . , pp. .92-95. 66. not a p i c t u r e (a b l u e p r i n t ) o f what t h e f u t u r e s h o u l d be but .a p o l i c y document d e s i g n e d t o g u i d e d a y - t o - d a y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and thus shape t h e f u t u r e . The p l a n s h o u l d be l o n g r a n g e , meaning " t h a t the p l a n s h o u l d be f o r w a r d - l o o k i n g , t h a t i t s h o u l d a t t e m p t t o p r o -v i d e f o r t h e f u t u r e needs o f the community i n s o f a r as i t i s p o s s i b l e to make r e a s o n a b l e judgements as t o what t h e s e needs w i l l b e " ( 2 4 ) . T h i s l o n g range c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t h a t t h e "community can make s u s t a i n e d p r o g r e s s i n one d i r e c t i o n " ( 2 5 ) . The p l a n s h o u l d be c o m p r e h e n s i v e , meaning " t h a t t h e p l a n s h o u l d encom-pass a l l t h e s i g n i f i c a n t p h y s i c a l elements o f the urban e n v i r o n m e n t , t h a t t he p l a n s h o u l d be r e l a t e d t o r e g i o n a l - d e v e l o p m e n t t r e n d s , and t h a t t he p l a n s h o u l d r e c o g n i z e and t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l and economic f a c t o r s " ( 2 6 ) . T h i s i s n e c e s s a r y f o r " i n o r d e r to be a l o g i c a l , r e a s o n a b l e and u s e f u l p l a n , ( i t ) must r e c o g n i z e and d e f i n e i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a l l s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s , p h y s i c a l and n o n p h y s i c a l , l o c a l and r e g i o n a l , t h a t a f f e c t t h e p h y s i c a l growth and d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e community"(27). The f i n a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c o f t h e p l a n , t h e c l e a r s t a t e m e n t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i s ne c e s -s a r y because a p l a n i s "an e x p r e s s i o n , o f v a l u e j u d g e m e n t s " ( 2 8 ) . In a c u l t u r e where p l u r a l i s m i s v a l u e d , a u n i v e r s a l l y a g r e e d upon (24) I b i d . , P. 95. (25) I b i d . , P.- 98. (26) I b i d . , P- 95. (27) I b i d . , P- 99. (28) I b i d . , P- 104. 67. s e t o f v a l u e s i s u n l i k e l y t o e x i s t . However, w h i l e v a l u e s a r e not u n i v e r s a l does not mean t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be i g n o r e d , r a t h e r i t n e c e s -s i t a t e s t h a t t h e y be s t a t e d . S i m p l y s t a t e d , u n l e s s a f u l l awareness and r e c o g n i t i o n i s g i v e n t o the n o n t e c h n i c a l v a l u e judgements upon which t h e p l a n i s b a s e d , t h e f u l l meaning o f t h e p r o p o s a l s i n the p l a n c a n n o t be u n d e r s t o o d . A g e n e r a l p l a n such as t h a t s u g g e s t e d by Kent i s c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e f o r community p l a n n i n g f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s : i . i t has been f o r m u l a t e d a f t e r c a r e f u l and t h o r o u g h a n a l y s i s ; i i . i t has been f o r m u l a t e d w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e e l e c t e d d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s whose p l a n i t i s t o be; i i i . i t d e a l s w i t h a l l e l e m e n t s o f the s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a community and t h u s a t t e m p t s to c o - o r d i n a t e t h e s e e l e m e n t s w i t h one a n o t h e r ; i v . i t p r o v i d e s a c o n s i s t e n t framework f o r e v a l u a t i n g s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s and t h e r e b y f a c i l i t a t e s c o - o r d i n a t e d and c o n s i s t e n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ; and v. i t i s an e x p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t o f the d i r e c t i o n community development i s t o t a k e . However, w h i l e t h e model r e p r e s e n t s a major attempt t o overcome t h e weaknesses o f i t s p r e d e c e s s o r s , t h e advantages i t o f f e r s f o r commun-i t y p l a n n i n g can be f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d by expanding the p r o c e d u r e s used i n i t s f o r m u l a t i o n . As i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , g e n e r a l p l a n s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been d i s c u s s e d as e v o l v i n g from s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l 68. p r o c e d u r e s and have been e x t e n s i v e l y c r i t i c i z e d f o r t h i s o b j e c t i v e a p p r o a c h t o a s u b j e c t i v e m a t t e r . T. J . Kent, J r . expands t h i s p r o -c e s s o f g e n e r a l p l a n f o r m u l a t i o n by c o m b i n i n g s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i -c a l a n a l y s i s w i t h e x t e n s i v e debate and c o n s i d e r a t i o n by t h e e l e c t e d d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s whose p l a n i t i s t o be. T h i s e x p a n s i o n o f t h e p r o -c e s s o f p l a n f o r m u l a t i o n r e c o g n i z e s t h a t l a n d use d e c i s i o n s cannot be t e c h n i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d and, as s u c h , t h a t c o n s t r a i n t s e x i s t to ' r a t i o n a l ' d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . The approach r e m a i n s , however, somewhat narrow as i t c o n f i n e s p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n to community p l a n n e r s and e l e c t e d d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s and f o c u s e s on o b j e c t i v e a n a l y t i c a l t e c h n i -ques r a t h e r than r e c o g n i z i n g the p o t e n t i a l f o r a f a r g r e a t e r and v a r y i n g b l e n d o f p r o c e d u r e s and p a r t i c i p a n t s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e g e n e r a l p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n p r o c e s s c o u l d be one: where p r o c e d u r e s v a r y a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n time and from community t o community; where p r o c e d u r e s i n v o l v e p r o f e s s i o n a l s , e l e c t e d d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c ; and where both o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e p r o c e d u r e s a r e u s e d . Such an approach t o the g e n e r a l p l a n i s d e s i r a b l e because i t o f f e r s community p l a n n i n g the a d d i t i o n a l advantage o f b e i n g a d a p t i v e t o the r e a l i t y o f the c o n s t r a i n t s t o ' r a t i o n a l ' d e c i s i o n -making and i n so d o i n g a s s i s t i n g d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s i n s t r i v i n g f o r the o b j e c t i v e o f making d e c i s i o n s i n a c c o r d w i t h the c o l l e c t i v e w i s h e s o f s o c i e t y . 69. 7. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION T h i s s t u d y was c o n c e r n e d w i t h e l e c t e d l o c a l government l a n d use d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . As p l a n n e r s d e a l w i t h t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f p l a n s and t h e i r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n w h i l e p o l i t i c a n s make d e c i s i o n s which l i n k t he two, the m a t t e r i s s i g n i f i c a n t i f p l a n n i n g i s t o be e f f e c t i v e . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e st u d y was t o p r o v i d e a f u l l e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e l e c t e d l o c a l government d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g on the use o f l a n d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , to examine the n o t i o n o f u n i v e r s a l g o a l - p r i o r i t i e s and the r o l e o f s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . Such i n f o r m a t i o n a s s i s t s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t he u s e f u l n e s s o f v a r i o u s ap-proaches t o community p l a n n i n g and was used i n the s t u d y t o a s s e s s the 'general p l a n ' c o n c e p t . In p u r s u i n g t he o b j e c t i v e s o f the s t u d y , e l e c t e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g body d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e l a n d use was f i r s t c o n s i d e r e d i n terms o f i t s fundamental purpose and the community p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n . The d i s c u s s i o n on the o b j e c t i v e o f p u b l i c d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f appro-p r i a t e l a n d use f o c u s e d on the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s r e q u i r e d t o a c h i e v e t he o b j e c t i v e o f making d e c i s i o n s i n a c c o r d w i t h t he c o l l e c -t i v e wishes o f s o c i e t y . T h i s p r o c e s s , t h e c l a s s i c a l ' r a t i o n a l ' model o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , was d e t a i l e d , as were the c o n s t r a i n t s f r u s t r a t i n g p e r f e c t e m u l a t i o n o f r a t i o n a l i t y as embodied i n the model f i n a n -c i a l , t e m p o r a l , c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l and human c o n s t r a i n t s . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s n e c e s s i t a t e compromises. In terms o f the p r o c e s s n e c e s s a r y t o a c h i e v e t he o b j e c t i v e , the compromise i s 70. one which r e c o g n i z e s t h e r e a l i s t i c c o n s t r a i n t s t o a c h i e v i n g r a t i o n a l i t y as embodied i n the ' r a t i o n a l ' model o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . In terms o f t h e o b j e c t i v e o f making d e c i s i o n s i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e c o l l e c t i v e w i s h e s o f s o c i e t y , t h i s compromise must r e p r e s e n t a f a i t h f u l a t t e m p t t o adher, as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e , to t h e p r i n c i p l e e n u n c i a t e d ; i f i t d i d n o t , d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y would be undermined. The d i s c u s s i o n o f e l e c t e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g body l a n d use d e t e r m i n a t i o n and t h e community p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n a t t e m p t e d t o f o r m u l a t e a s t a t e -ment on the purpose and meaning o f community p l a n n i n g . Through an a n a l y s i s o f i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l p l a n n i n g and community l e v e l p l a n n i n g i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t community p l a n n i n g a p p e a r s t o mean t h e s e l e c -t i o n and u n d e r t a k i n g o f a l l means r e l e v a n t t o d e v e l o p i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from which r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s on t h e s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a com-munity can be f o r m u l a t e d and the f o r m u l a t i o n o f re a s o n e d d e c i s i o n s on the b a s i s o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . Thus, community p l a n n i n g does not remove the dilemmas o f ' r a t i o n a l ' d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ; however, i t does f a c i l i t a t e s t r i v i n g f o r ' r a t i o n a l ' d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , and thu s t he o b j e c t i v e o f making d e c i s i o n s i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e c o l l e c t i v e w ishes o f s o c i e t y , by i m p r o v i n g the q u a l i t y o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s t u d y , to examine t h e n o t i o n o f u n i v e r s a l g o a l - p r i o r i t i e s and the r o l e o f s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , were then pursued t h r o u g h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the day - t o - d a y d e c i s i o n s o f Re g i o n a l Boards on t h e use o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . The q u e s t i o n o f u n i v e r s a l g o a l - p r i o r i t i e s was a d d r e s s e d by 71. e xamining the d e g r e e t o which R e g i o n a l Boards e x h i b i t s i m i l a r s u p p o r t f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d and by a n a l y z i n g t h e e x t e n t t o which d i f f e r e n c e s stem from c e r t a i n r e g i o n a l c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s (Importance o f A g r i c u l t u r e t o t h e R e g i o n a l Economy, L e v e l o f P o p u l a t i o n Growth P r e s s u r e s i n the Region and L e v e l o f Urbanism i n t h e R e g i o n ) . T h i s l a t t e r a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d by a n a l y z i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e s e r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o the l e v e l o f R e g i o n a l Board s u p p o r t f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . The d e c i s i o n s a n a l y z e d were l i m i t e d t o t h o s e on l a n d owner a p p l i c a -t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n o f l a n d from t h e A.L.R. from t h e time o f d e s i g -n a t i o n o f an A.L.R. p l a n t o A p r i l 1 s t 1978. The q u e s t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g was a d d r e s s e d by examining the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f c e r t a i n s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n ( C . L . I . R a t i n g f o r A g r i c u l t u r e , L o c a t i o n i n R e l a t i o n t o the A.L.R., Pr i m a r y E x i s t i n g Use and P r i m a r y S u r r o u n d i n g Land Use) to R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s . The d e c i s i o n s a n a l y z e d were l i m i t e d t o a sample o f t h o s e on l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n from the A.L.R. from the time o f d e s i g n a t i o n to A p r i l 1 s t 1978. The e m p i r i c a l s t u d y commenced by r e v i e w i n g the framework w i t h i n which R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s on l a n d owner a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u -s i o n a r e made. I t o u t l i n e d t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission A c t and d e s c r i b e d t h e powers and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f l o c a l government i n r e g a r d t o the A.L.R. The e m p i r i c a l a n a l y s i s o f R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t R e g i o n a l Boards d i f f e r i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n t y p e d i s t r i b u t i o n and i n t h e i r l e v e l o f s u p p o r t f o r the goal o f 72. p r e s e r v i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . The s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f c e r t a i n r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o the l e v e l o f Regional Board s u p p o r t f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e l e v e l o f R e g i o n a l Board s u p p o r t was a s s o c i a t e d , and then o n l y m a r g i n a l l y , w i t h t h e r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c L e v e l o f Urbanism. The v a r i a t i o n i n t h e l e v e l o f s u p p o r t , even when r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e r e c o g n i z e d , i n d i c a t e d t h a t a u n i v e r -s a l p r i o r i t y i s not a t t a c h e d t o t h e goal o f p r e s e r v i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . T h i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g l a c k s u n i v e r s a l g o a l -p r i o r i t i e s . The e m p i r i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e r o l e o f c e r t a i n s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n v a r i a b l e s i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n d i c a t e d t h a t R e g i o n a l Board d e c i s i o n s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o n l y one v a r i a b l e -- P r i m a r y S u r r o u n d i n g Land Use -- and t h a t t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n was weak. T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n has l i t t l e , i f any, c o n s i s t e n t e f f e c t on l a n d use d e c i s i o n s . T h i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g l a c k s a n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n base. F i n a l l y , an e v a l u a t i o n o f the. u s e f u l n e s s o f the 'general p l a n ' c o n c e p t was u n d e r t a k e n i n l i g h t o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n s on e l e c t e d l o c a l government l a n d use d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . Key t o the d i s c u s s i o n was t h e e v o l v i n g n a t u r e o f the 'g e n e r a l p l a n ' c o n c e p t . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e 'ge n e r a l p l a n ' c o n c e p t i s a u s e f u l a p p roach t o community p l a n n i n g , p r o v i d e d i t i s used as a p r o c e s s composed o f a b l e n d o f p r o c e d u r e s and p a r t i c i p a n t s w hich v a r y a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n time and from community t o community. I t o f f e r s community p l a n n i n g t h e 73. a b i l i t y t o be a d a p t i v e t o the r e a l i t y o f t h e c o n s t r a i n t s t o ' r a t i o n a l ' d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n a d d i t i o n t o the advantages o f : being f o r m u l a t e d a f t e r c a r e f u l and thorough a n a l y s i s and t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h o s e whose p l a n i t i s t o be; d e a l i n g w i t h a l l elements o f the s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the community; f a c i l i t a t i n g c o - o r d i n a t e d and c o n s i s t e n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ; and b e i n g an e x p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t o f t h e d i r e c t i o n community development i s t o t a k e . In c o n c l u s i o n , t h i s s t u d y i l l u s t r a t e s the demanding n a t u r e o f t h e environment i n which community p l a n n e r s must o p e r a t e -- an e n v i r o n -ment i n which u n i v e r s a l g o a l - p r i o r i t i e s a r e l a c k i n g and where n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l to d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , e f f e c t i v e n e s s demands e f f o r t s t o u n d e r s t a n d and c l a r i f y the u n iqueness o f each p l a n n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t and t o adopt a comprehensive approach t o the i n f o r m a t i o n base o f p l a n s and recommendation. A P P E N D I X A The A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission A c t 75. 1973 A G R I C U L T U R A L L A N D COMMISSION C H A P . 46 Interpreta-tion. Provincial Agricultural Land Commission. Agricultural Land Commission Act [Consolidated for convenience only, January 20, 1978.] 1. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, "agricultural land" means land designated under section 8; "commission" means the commission established under section 2 ; "commission land" means land acquired by the commission for the purposes of this Act; "farm use" means an occupation or use of land for bona fide farm purposes, including, without limiting the generality of the fore-going, husbandry of the land and the plants, and animals thereon, and any other similar activity designated as farm use by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council; "land" includes any estate or interest in land; "land reserve plan" means a plan prepared pursuant to this Act in the manner prescribed by the regulations, which sets out clearly the areas within a municipality or regional district that, subject to the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, may be designated by the commission as an agri-cultural land reserve; "minister" means that member of the Executive Council charged by Order of the Lieutenant-Governor inCouncil with the admin-istration of this Act; "regulation" means a regulation or order of the Lieutenant-Gover-nor in Council made under this Act; "reserve" means a reserve of land established under section 8 of this Act. 1973, c. 46, s. 1; 1977, c. 73, s. 2. . . -2. (1) The Provincial Land Commission established under the Land Commission Act is continued as a corporation under the name "Provin-cial Agricultural Land Commission", consisting of not less than 5 mem-bers appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, and, on their appointment, the members constitute the corporation and are its direc-tors. (2) The Lieutenant-Governor in Council shall designate one of the members as chairman and may designate one other member as vice-chairman. (3) The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may appoint such persons as he considers advisable as regional advisers to the cornmission, and the commission may designate one or more of the regional advisers so appointed to assist and advise the commission in respect of a matter pertaining to a resource management region established by the Environ-ment and Land Use Committee under the Environment and Land Use Act. 20/1/78 1 76. C H A P . 46 AGRICULTURAL L A N D COMMISSION 21-22 E L I Z . 2 (4) Each member of the commission and each regional adviser shall be reimbursed for reasonable travelling and out-of-pocket expenses necessarily incurred by him in discharging his duties, and in addition may be paid such remuneration for his services as a member of the commission or as a regional adviser as the Lieutenant-Governor in Council may determine. (5) At any meeting of the commission a majority of the members constitutes a quorum. 1977, c. 73, s. 3. 3. (1) The term of office of the chairman is during the Lieutenant-Governor in Council's pleasure. (2) The term of office of the other members is during the Lieutenant-Governor in Council's pleasure, but not exceeding 4 years after their respective appointments. (3) The term of office of a regional adviser is during the Lieutenant-Governor in Council's pleasure, but not exceeding 2 years after his appointment. 1977, c. 73, s. 4. 4. (1) The commission is for all purposes an agent of the Crown. (2) The cornmission may, on behalf of the Crown, carry out its powers and duties under this Act in its own name without specific refer-ence to Her Majesty and may hold in its own name any land or other real or personal property, and likewise may dispose of, mortgage, hy-pothecate, pledge, and assign any such property. 1973, c. 46, s. 4. 5. (1) The commission may, pursuant to the Civ/7 Service Act, ap-point such officers and employees as it considers necessary for the pur-pose of this Act, and may determine their duties. (2) The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may appoint a general manager of the commission, to be appointed during pleasure, and may fix his remuneration and may declare that the Civil Service Act applies to him. (3) The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may declare that the Civil Service Superannuation Act applies to the members of the commission and to the general manager. (4) The commission may, with the approval of the minister, engage and retain such experts, consultants, or specialists as it considers advis-able and fix their remuneration. 1973, c. 46, s. 5. By-iawi, etc. Q The commission may make such by-laws and pass such resolutions, not contrary to law or this Act, as it considers necessary or advisable for the conduct of the affairs of the commission and, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, may make by-laws and pass resolutions with respect to the time and place of calling and holding meetings, the Term of office. Agent of Crown. 20/1/78 77. 1973 AGRICULTURAL L A N D COMMISSION C H A P . 46 Objects and powers. Agricultural land reserves. procedure to be followed at the meetings, and generally with respect to the conduct, in all respects, of the affairs of the commission; and may repeal, amend, or re-enact them. 1973, c. 46, s. 6. 7. It is the object of the commission to (a) preserve agricultural land, (b) encourage the establishment, maintenance and preservation of farms, and encourage uses of land in an agricultural land re-serve compatible with agricultural purposes, and (c) advise and assist municipalities and regional districts in the preparation and production of the land reserve plans required for the purpose of this Act; and, for these objects, it has the power and capacity, by itself, or in co-operation with the Government of Canada, or any of its agencies or corporations, or with a ministry of the Government, or with a munici-pality or regional district, to (d) acquire and dispose of land and personal property, and (e) if authorized by any other Act, acquire and dispose of land, including Crown land, for the purposes of that other Act. 1977, c. 73, s. 5. 8. (1) For the purposes of section 7, the commission may, subject to this section, with the prior approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, designate land, including Crown land, that is suitable for farm use, as agricultural land, and, upon being so designated, the agricultural land is established as an agricultural land reserve and shall be subject to this Act and the regulations. (2) The regional board of every regional district, either alone, or in co-operation with its member municipalities, shall, with the advice and assistance of the commission if required, including such financial assis-tance as may be determined by the commission, within ninety days after the coming into force of this Act or within such further time as the com-mission may allow, by by-law, adopt a land reserve plan prepared in accordance with the regulations and file the by-law and land reserve plan with the commission. (3) The council or regional board, as the case may be, shall not adopt a by-law for the purpose of this section until it has held a public hear-ing, notice of which has been published in the manner prescribed in sec-tion 703 of the Municipal Act, and except upon the affirmative vote of a majority of all members of council or of all the directors of a regional board. (4) The provisions of section 703 of the Municipal Act apply, with the necessary changes and so far as are applicable, to a hearing under subsection (3). (5) Where the commission considers that the land reserve plan filed under subsection (2) carries out the intent and purpose of this Act, it 3 20/1/78 78. C H A P . 46 AGRICULTURAL L A N D COMMISSION 21-22 E L I Z . 2 shall, after approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, designate the agricultural land shown therein as an agricultural land reserve. (6 ) Where the commission considers it necessary or advisable to amend the land reserve plan filed under subsection (2 ) to better carry out the intent and purpose of this Act, it may recommend to the Lieuten-ant-Governor in Council amendments to the land reserve plan, and shall, after approval by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council of the land re-serve plan or the land reserve plan as amended, designate the agricul-tural land therein as an agricultural land reserve. ( 7 ) Where the council or regional board of a municipality or re-gional district, as the case may be, fails or refuses to prepare and file a land reserve plan with the commission in accordance with subsection ( 2 ) , the commission shall, subject to subsections ( 8 ) , ( 9 ) , and ( 1 0 ) , prepare a land reserve plan and submit the land reserve plan to the Lieutenant-Governor in Council for approval. (8 ) The commission shall not submit the land reserve plan prepared under subsection ( 7 ) to the Lieutenant-Governor in Council until it has held a public hearing, notice of which has been published in the manner prescribed in subsection ( 1 ) of section 703 of the Municipal Act, and the provisions of subsections ( 2 ) , ( 3 ) , and (4 ) of section 703 of the Municipal Act apply, with the necessary changes and so far as are ap-plicable, to a hearing under this subsection. (9 ) For the purpose of a hearing under subsection ( 8 ) , (a) the commission has and may exercise all the powers of a Commissioner under sections 7, 10, and 11 of the Public In-quiries Act; (6 ) the commission may accept written submissions or any other form of evidence; and (c) notwithstanding section 2 (5), three members of the commis-sion have and may exercise all the powers of the commission. ( 1 0 ) The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may approve a land re-serve plan as submitted by the commission under subsection ( 7 ) , or with such alterations or variations as he may consider necessary or advisable to carry out the intent and purpose of this Act, and the commission may thereupon, pursuant to subsection ( 1 ) , designate the agricultural land shown therein as an agricultural land reserve. (11 ) Notwithstanding the other provisions of this section, pending the establishment of an agricultural land reserve in a municipality or regional district under this section, all land that is zoned for agricul-tural or farm use under a by-law of the municipality or regional district subsisting immediately prior to the twenty-first day of December, 1972, shall be deemed to be an agricultural land reserve and subject to this Act and the regulations, unless excepted by the commission. (12) The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may, on his own, or on the application in the prescribed manner of a municipality or regional district in respect of land within its jurisdiction, or on the application of 4 20/1/78 79. 1973 AGRICULTURAL L A N D COMMISSION C H A P . 46 Exclusion from agricul-tural land reserve. the commission, by order, approve land for addition to a designated land reserve plan, and the commission may, pursuant to subsection (1), designate the land as or as part of the designated agricultural land re-serve. (13) Before an application is made under subsection (12), the municipality, regional district, or commission, as the case may be, shall hold a public hearing respecting the application in such manner and after such notice as is prescribed, and a report of the meeting shall accompany the application. (14) The commission, on the application in the prescribed manner of an owner of land, may, pursuant to subsection (1), (a) if it considers that the application carries out the intent and ; purpose of this Act, and (b) on approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, designate all or part of the land described in the application as or as part of a designated land reserve plan. 1973, c. 46, s. 8; 1977, c. 73, s. 6. 9. (1) The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may, (a) on his own, or on the application in the prescribed manner of a municipality or regional district in respect of land within its jurisdiction, or on the application of the commission, by order, exclude land from a reserve, on such terms and con-ditions as he considers advisable, or (b) on the application in the prescribed manner of a municipality or regional district in respect of land within its jurisdiction, or on the application of the commission, by order, without ex-cluding the land from a reserve, grant permission under sec-tion 10 (1) or (4) or section 11 (2), on such terms and con-ditions as he considers advisable subject to compliance by the owner or occupier with the Acts and regulations and (c) the by-laws of the municipality or regional district, and (d) the decisions and orders of any person or body having juris-diction over the land under an enactment that apply to the land; but before an application is made under this subsection, the municipality, regional district, or commission, as the case may be, shall hold a public hearing respecting the application in such manner and after such notice as is prescribed, and a report of the public hearing shall accompany the application. (2) Subject to subsection (5), an owner of land aggrieved by a desig-nation by the commission of his land as part of a reserve may, notwith-standing that he appeared before or made representations to the munici-pality, or regional district, or the commission under section 8 (3) or (8), apply to the commission in the prescribed manner to have his land excluded from the agricultural land reserve. 20/1/78 5 80. C H A P . 46 A G R I C U L T U R A L L A N D COMMISSION 21-22 E L I Z . 2 ( 3 ) The commission may, after a hearing held in such manner and after such notice as is prescribed, (a) allow the application on such terms and conditions as it con-siders advisable, or (b) refuse the application. (4 ) The commission may, in its discretion, prior to or subsequent to a hearing held under subsection ( 3 ) , with the consent of the applicant, grant relief to the applicant as if the application had been made pursuant to section 11 ( 4 ) . (5 ) Where land of an owner was, immediately prior to December 21, 1972, zoned for agricultural or farm use under a by-law of a municipal-ity or a regional district subsisting on that date, the owner is not entitled to apply to the commission under subsection ( 2 ) unless so authorized by a resolution of the municipality or regional district, as the case may be. • • (6) The commission shall, at the request of the owner, (a) deliver to him its decision in writing, and (b) allow him to examine and make available to him copies of all relevant documents in the custody of the commission per-taining to his application. ' (7 ) A person who is dissatisfied with the decision of the commission . on an application under subsection ( 2 ) , or under section 5 of the Soil Conservation Act, on being granted leave to appeal by any 2 members of the commission, may appeal in the prescribed manner to the Environ-ment and Land Use Committee established under the Environment and Land Use Act. , (8) Where (a) an application under this section is received by the commission after this subsection comes into force, and (ft) a person is refused leave to appeal under subsection ( 7 ) , the person may, not later than 30 days after he is refused leave to appeal, apply in the prescribed manner to the minister for leave to appeal, and, if granted, he may appeal in the prescribed manner to the Environment and Land Use Committee. (9 ) The Environment and Land Use Committee may, after a hear-ing, allow the appeal subject to such terms and conditions as it may con-sider advisable, or refuse the appeal, and, in the event the appeal is refused may order that costs of the hearing, as determined by the En-vironment and Land Use Committee, be paid by the appellant, and, in the event the appeal is allowed may order that reasonable costs incurred by the appellant, as determined by the Environment and Land Use Committee, be paid by the commission. . . (10) The commission is entitled to be a party on the hearing of the appeal arid may take part in the proceedings. (11) Where land is excluded from a land reserve plan by order of (a) the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, or 20/1/78 81. 1973 A G R I C U L T U R A L L A N D COMMISSION C H A P . 4 6 (fc) the commission, or (c) the Environment and Land Use Committee under this section, the commission shall amend the land reserve plan accordingly and notify the municipality or regional district, as the case may be, and the appropriate Registrar of Titles. 1977, c. 73, s. 7. undre'Jem. (*) No person shall occupy or use agricultural land designated as an agricultural land reserve pursuant to section 8 for any purpose other than farm use, except as permitted by this Act or the regulations or by order of the commission upon such terms and conditions as the commission may impose. (2) In addition to the exceptions, reservations, or limitations set out in subsection (1) of section 38 of the Land Registry Act, a certificate of title heretofore issued under that Act in respect of agricultural land that is designated as an agricultural land reserve shall be subject, by implication and without special endorsement on the certificate of title, to this Act and the regulations respecting the reserve and farm use of the land contained therein; and the Registrar under the Land Registry Act shall note on every certificate of title of agricultural land hereafter issued that is designated as an agricultural land reserve an endorsement that the certificate of title may be affected by this Act. (3) Notwithstanding subsection (2), a covenant, whether of a nega-tive or positive nature, -(a) in respect of (i) the use of land, or . (ii) the use of a building on or to be erected on land, or , (iii) the subdivision of land, or (fc) that land is or is hot to be built on, or (c) that several parcels of land designated in the covenant and registered under one or more certificates of title are not to be sold or transferred separately in favour of the commission in this section referred to as the "covenan-tee", may, with the consent of the covenantor, be registered as a charge against the title to that land and is enforceable against the covenantor and his successors in title, even if the covenant is not annexed to land owned by the covenantee. , (3a) A charge registered under subsection (3) may be (a) modified by the commission and the owner of the land charged, or (fc) discharged by the commission by an agreement or instrument in writing the execution of which is proved in accordance with the Land Registry Act. (4) On, from, and after the twenty-first day of December, 1972, "- •'• except as permitted by this Act, or the regulations, or by an order of the commission upon such terms and conditions as the commission may impose, 7 20/1/78 82. C H A P . 46 AGRICULTURAL L A N D COMMISSION 21-22 E L I Z . 2 (a) no municipality, or regional district, or any authority, board, or other agency established by it shall authorize or permit agri-cultural land in an agricultural land reserve to be used for a purpose other than farm use, or authorize or permit a build-ing to be erected thereon, except (i) for farm use; or (ii) for residences necessary for farm use; or (iii) such residences for an owner of the agricultural land as may be permitted to be erected by the regulations; (b) no person, designated or appointed under the Local Services Act, shall authorize or permit agricultural land in an agricul-tural land reserve to be used for a purpose other than farm use, or authorize or permit a building to be erected thereon, except (i) for farm use; or (ii) for residences necessary for farm use; or (iii) such residences for an owner of the agricultural land as may be permitted to be erected by the regulations; . (c) no approving officer under the Land Registry Act and no approving officer or Board of Variance under the Municipal Act shall authorize or permit agricultural land in an agricul-tural land reserve to be used for a purpose other than farm use; and (d) no Registrar of Titles shall (i) accept an application for deposit of a subdivision plan, reference plan, explanatory plan, or other plan evi-dencing the subdivision of land, or (ii) permit a new parcel of land to be created by a metes and bounds description, or an abbreviated description, under the Land Registry Act, Strata Titles Act, or Real Estate Act, all or part of which consists of land in an agricultural land reserve. 1973, c. 46, s. 10; 1977, c. 73, s. 8. Ewmption. J_J_< ( i ) Section 10 does not apply in respect of agricultural land in an agricultural land reserve that, on the twenty-first day of December, 1972, was, by separate certificate of title issued under the Land Registry Act, less than two acres in area. (2) Where a use of agricultural land that is within an agricultural land reserve (a) is a use other than farm use; and (b) was established and carried on continuously for a period of at least six months immediately prior to the twenty-first day of December, 1972; and 8 20/1/78 83. 1973 AGRICULTURAL L A N D COMMISSION C H A P . 46 (c) is permitted by, or is not in contravention of, any other Act, regulation, by-law, order, o r any other law respecting land use, that agricultural land is exempted from section 10 unless and until (d) the use of that agricultural land is changed to a use other than farm use without the permission of the commission; or (e) any other Act, regulation, by-law, order, or any other law made after the twenty-first day of December, 1972, prohibits such use; or (/) permission for any other use granted under any other Act, regulation, by-law, or order is withdrawn or expires. (3) [Repealed. 1977, c. 73, s. 9.] (4) The commission may, in accordance with the regulations, hear and determine applications for permission under subsection (2), and under subsections (1) and (4) of section 10, and may grant or refuse permission for a use of the land for other than farm use, and may im-pose whatever terms and conditions it considers advisable, and, except as provided in subsection (5) or in section 9 (1) (6), the decision of the commission is final and no appeal lies from that decision. (4a) Where land of an owner was, immediately prior to the twenty-first day of December, 1972, zoned for agricultural or farm use under a by-law of a municipality or regional district subsisting on that date, the owner is not entitled to apply to the commission under subsection (4), unless so authorized by a resolution of a municipality or a regional dis-trict, as the case may be. (5) An owner of land aggrieved (a) by an order or decision of the commission refusing permission under subsection (1) or (4) of section 10 or under this sec-tion; or (b) by the terms and conditions imposed by the commission in an order made under subsection (1) or ( 4 ) of section 10, o r a permission granted under this section, may appeal, on a question of law or excess of jurisdiction only, by way of stated case to the Supreme Court, and the provisions of the Summary Convictions Act respecting appeals by way of stated case apply, with the necessary changes and so far as are applicable, t o the appeal, and t o any further appeal therefrom, and a reference in that Act t o a Justice shall be deemed to be a reference to the commission. 1973, c. 46, s. 11; 1977, c. 73, s. 9. powers0!*1 With respect to agricultural land designated as a n agricultural hSdC u l t u r a l ' a n c * reserve, the commission may (a) [Repealed. 1977, c. 73, s. 10.] (b) carry on farming operations on commission land o r agree with other persons t o do so; (c) withdraw from an agricultural land reserve, agricultural land owned by the commission and, with the prior approval of the 9 20/1/78 C H A P . 46 AGRICULTURAL L A N D COMMISSION 21-22 E L I Z . 2 Lieutenant-Governor in Council, dispose of such land to the Crown to be dealt with under the Land Act; and (d) dispose of agricultural land owned by the commission, with the prior approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, to private ownership for permanent farm use, or any other use considered by the commission to be in the public interest, sub-ject to such terms and conditions as the commission may deter-mine. (e) [Repealed. 1977, c. 73, s. 10.] 1973, c. 46, s. 12; 1977, c. 73, s. 10. provkments The commission may make, place, or construct on or bring onto, or cause to be made, placed, or constructed on or brought onto, any com-mission land such capital improvements as it considers necessary or desirable for the efficient development or use of the commission land or other land in the vicinity, and pay for or purchase any capital improve-ments made, placed, or constructed on or brought onto any commission land by any person. 1973, c. 46, s. 13. • ' T a x " - 14. Where commission lands are unoccupied or a lease of commis-sion land does not provide for the payment of tax by the lessee, the commission may pay to the municipality or regional district a grant in lieu of taxes. 1973, c. 46, s. 14. Fees. 15 The commission may establish, with the approval of the Lieuten-ant-Governor in Council, a schedule of fees to be paid to the commission for the preparation of leases and other documents, for appraisals and evaluations of.land, and for copies,of documents of the commission. 1973, c. 46, s. 15. rom'plSsation Land shall be deemed not to be taken or injuriously affected by resen^Snd r e a s o n °f t n e designation by the commission of that land as an agricul-tural land reserve. ; 1973, c. 46, s. 16. Agreements. j[7_ p o r the purposes of this Act, the minister may, subject to the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, enter into such agree-ments as the minister considers advisable with (a) the Government of Canada; (ft) a municipality; • (c) a regional district; (d) an agent of the Crown; or (e) any other ministry or department of Government. 1973, c. 46, S..17; 197.7, c. 75, s. 9 (proc. eff. O c t 21, 1977). Report*. 18/ (i) The commission shall submit annually to the Lieutenant-Governor in Council (a) a report respecting the operations of the commission for the immediately preceding fiscal year; 10 20/1/78 85. 1973 A G R I C U L T U R A L L A N D COMMISSION C H A P . 46 Regulations, Application of other Act i . (fc) a financial statement showing the business of the commission for that fiscal year, in such form as may be required by the Comptroller-General. (2) The report shall be laid before the Legislative Assembly within fifteen sitting days from the commencement of the session next following the end of the fiscal year for which the report is made; but the commis-sion is not required to submit its annual report less than ninety days after the end of its fiscal year. 1973, c. 46, s. 18. 19. The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may make regulations. 1977, c. 73, s. 11. 20. (1) This Act is subject to the Environment and Land Use Act, and the Pollution Control Act, 1967, but otherwise, except as provided in this Act or in the regulations, this Act and the regulations are not subject to any other Act or regulations, whenever enacted or made, and no Minister, ministry of Government, or agent of the Crown shall exercise any power granted under any other Act or regulation except in accordance with this Act and the regulations. (2) [Repealed. 1977, c. 73, s. 12.] (3) Notwithstanding subsection (1), where Crown land that is estab-lished as an agricultural land reserve under section 8 has been leased by the Crown, or sold by agreement for sale by the Crown and not trans-ferred to the purchaser before the twenty-first day of December, 1972, and on that date was being used for a purpose other than farm use, but as permitted by, or not in contravention of, the terms and conditions of the lease or agreement for sale, that use may continue until the termin-ation of the lease or the issue of title to the purchaser under the agree-ment for sale. (4) Subject to subsection (5), nothing in this Act or the regulations affects or impairs the validity of a by-law of a municipality or regional district relating to the use of agricultural land in an agricultural land reserve except in so far as the by-law is contrary to, or is in conflict with, inconsistent with, or repugnant to, this Act, or the regulations, or an order of the commission; and in case of any conflict, inconsistency, or repugnancy between the by-law and this Act, or the regulations, or order of the commission, this Act or the regulations or the order of the com-mission prevails. (5) A by-law or regulation of a municipality or regional district, or any provision thereof, that is, in any manner, in conflict with, incon-sistent with, or repugnant to this Act, or the regulations, or order of the commission is suspended and of no effect to the extent of such conflict, inconsistency, or repugnancy. . . . . (6) A by-law or regulation of a municipality or regional district that provides for further or additional restrictions or conditions respecting farm use or agricultural land than those provided by this Act and the 11 20/1/78 86. C H A P . 46 A G R I C U L T U R A L L A N D COMMISSION 21-22 E L I Z . 2 Appropria-tion. Enforcement measures. Determination and order. 12 regulations is not, for that reason alone in conflict with, inconsistent with, or repugnant to this Act and the regulations. (7) Subject to subsection (8), the Companies Act does not apply to the commission. (8) The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may, by order, declare that any of the provisions of the Companies A ct apply to the commission, and those provisions thereupon apply to the commission. 1973, c. 46, s. 20; 1977, c. 73, s. 12; 1977, c. 75, s. 1 (proc. eff. Oct. 21,1977). 21. (1) For the purposes of this Act and the establishment of an agricultural land reserve under section 8, the Minister of Finance shall, from time to time as required by the commission, pay out of the Consoli-dated Revenue Fund, or the Revenue Surplus Appropriation Account of the Consolidated Revenue Fund, or partly from the Consolidated Revenue Fund and partly from the Revenue Surplus Appropriation Account, to the commission, an amount approved by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council. (2) [Repealed. 1977, c. 73, s. 13.] (3) Further moneys required for the purposes of this Act shall be paid out of the Consolidated Revenue Fund with moneys authorized by an Act of the Legislature to be paid and applied for such purposes. 1973, c. 46, s. 21; 1977, c. 73, s. 13. 22. (1) The Lieutenant-Governor in Council or the commission may require an applicant under this Act, whose application has been allowed or granted on certain terms and conditions, to post a bond pur-suant to the Security Bonding Act and the regulations to ensure com-pliance with those terms and conditions. (2) Where the commission has reason to believe that an activity, or use of land, in an agricultural land reserve is reasonably likely to be or is being carried on in a manner that may or does contravene this Act, the regulations, or an order of the commission, the commission (a) may order the owner or occupant (i) to refrain from commencing or continuing the ac-tivity, or use of land, for a period not exceeding 60 days, and (ii) to make such written or oral submissions to the commission as it may require to determine whether or not the activity, or use of land, would be likely to impair or reduce the agricultural capability of the land, (b) may apply to the Supreme Court for an order restraining or preventing the owner or occupant from commencing or con-tinuing the activity, or use of land, in contravention of this Act, the regulations, or an order of the commission. 1977, c. 73, s. 15. 23. Where (a) a submission has been made under section 22 (2) (a) (ii), and the commission determines that the activity, or use of 20/1/78 87. AGRICULTURAL L A N D COMMISSION C H A P . 46 land, would be reasonably likely to impair or reduce the agricultural capability of the land, or (fc) no submission is made under section 22 (2 ) (a) (ii), the commission may, by order, (c) impose on the owner or occupant such terms and conditions of activity, or use of land, as it considers advisable, or (d) require that the land be restored to its former condition as agricultural land, to the satisfaction of the commission, or (e) require a bond pursuant to section 22 ( 1 ) to ensure compli-ance with paragraph (c) or (d), and, in case of default under paragraph (d), the commission may per-form the work, and the cost of it is a debt due to the commission by the owner or occupant, as the case may be. 1977, c. 73, s. 15. 24. Service of an order of the commission may be made (a) by personal service, or (fc) by registered mail, in which case service shall be deemed to be made 7 days after mailing. 1977, c. 73, s. 15. [NOTE—Sections 1 to 7, inclusive, sections 13 to 15, inclusive, and section 17 to 21, inclusive, proclaimed in force May 18, 1973, Part II Gazette Vol. 16, p. 211; sections 8 to 12, inclusive, and 16, proclaimed in force July 3, 1973, Part II Gazette Vol. 16, p. 359.] Printed by K. M. MACDONALD, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty in right of the Province of British Columbia. 1 9 7 8 2,500-278-7825 13 20/1/78 A P P E N D I X B Computation o f R e g i o n a l Board S u g g e s t e d S u p p o r t f o r t he P r e s e r v a t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Land COMPUTATION OF REGIONAL BOARD SUGGESTED SUPPORT FOR THE PRESERVATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND (PART 1 Of 4) ALBERNI-CLAYOQUOT BUCKLEY-NECHAKO CAPITAL CARIBOO CENTRAL COAST CENTRAL FRASER.. VALLEY CENTRAL KOOTENAY A. LAND OWNER A P P L I C A T I O N S FOR EXCLUSION TO APRIL 1 s t 1978 -- TOTAL A . l A c r e s o f l a n d r e f e r r e d t o i n S e c . 9 ( 2 ) a p p l ' n s r e f u s e d , p u r s u a n t t o S e c . 9 ( 5 ) , R e g i o n a l B o a r d a u t h o r i z a t i o n t o p r o c e e d t o C o m m i s s i o n A.2 A c r e s o f l a n d r e f e r r e d t o i n S e c . 9 ( 2 ) a p p l ' n s c o n s i d e r e d by t h e C o m m i s s i o n / E L U C 158 158 2692 2692 2298 2476 2298 2476 191 191 2528 2528 117 5 1175 REGIONAL BOARD RECOMM./DECISIONS SUGGESTING SUPPORT FOR THE PRESER-VATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND -- TOTAL B . l A c r e s o f l a n d r e f e r r e d t o i n A . l B.2 A c r e s o f l a n d w h e r e R e g i o n a l B o a r d made a ' r e t a i n ' recomm. B.3 A c r e s o f l a n d w h e r e R e g i o n a l B o a r d made an ' e x e m p t i o n ' recomm. B.4 A c r e s o f l a n d w h e r e R e g i o n a l B o a r d made an ' e x c l u d e ' recomm. and t h e C o m m i s s i o n / E L U C made an ' e x c l u d e ' d e c i s i o n 27 0 22 1614 0 1440 41 133 1706 0 1355 351 841 0 436 20 385 77 0 22 55 1938 0 1277 253 408 TOTAL NUMBER OF ACRES WHERE REGIONAL BOARD RECOMM./DECISION SUGGESTS SUPPORT FOR THE PRESERVATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND AS A PER CENT OF TOTAL NUMBER OF ACRES SUBJECT TO A LAND OWNER EXCLUSION A P P L I C A T I O N 27% 60% 74% 34% 4 0 % 77% a The number o f a c r e s r e f u s e d a u t h o r i z a t i o n i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e number i n d i c a t e d b u t i s n o t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . + As i n f o r m a t i o n i n r e g a r d t o A . l i s n o t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t h e s e numbers a r e minimums. co co COMPUTATION OF REGIONAL BOARD SUGGESTED SUPPORT FOR THE PRESERVATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND (PART 2 o f 4) CENTRAL OKANAGAN COLUMBIA COHOX- COWICHAN DEWDNEY- EAST SHUSWAP STRATHCONA VALLEY , ALOUETTE KOOTENAY FRASER-CHEAM LAND OWNER A P P L I C A T I O N S FOR EXCLUSION TO APRIL 1 s t 1978 -- TOTAL 2933 3490 4868 . 2534 1292. 11916 1172 A . l A c r e s o f l a n d r e f e r r e d t o i n S e c . 9 ( 2 ) a p p l ' n s r e f u s e d , p u r s u a n t t o S e c . 9 ( 5 ) , R e g i o n a l B o a r d a u t h o r i z a t i o n t o p r o c e e d t o C o m m i s s i o n 268 438 A.2 A c r e s o f l a n d r e f e r r e d t o i n Se c . 9 ( 2 ) a p p l ' n s c o n s i d e r e d by t h e C o m m i s s i o n / E L U C 2933 3490 4868 2534 1024 11916 734 B. REGIONAL BOARD RECOMM./DECISIONS SUGGESTING SUPPORT FOR THE PRESER-VATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND -- TOTAL B . l A c r e s o f l a n d r e f e r r e d t o i n A . l B.2 A c r e s o f l a n d w h e r e R e g i o n a l B o a r d made a ' r e t a i n ' recomm. B.3 A c r e s o f l a n d w h e r e R e g i o n a l B o a r d made an ' e x e m p t i o n ' recomm. B.4 A c r e s o f l a n d w h e r e R e g i o n a l B o a r d made an ' e x c l u d e ' recomm. and t h e C o m m i s s i o n / E L U C made an ' e x c l u d e ' d e c i s i o n . , -1603 3216 2940 0 0 0 955 1490 ' 1532 190 247 85 418 1479 1323 1878 1085 394 625 0 268 . 0 438 1102 304 13 64 181 ' 452 10 106 595 61 371 17 C. TOTAL NUMBER OF ACRES WHERE REGIONAL BOARD RECOMM./DECISION.SUGGESTS SUPPORT FOR THE PRESERVATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND AS A PER CENT OF TOTAL NUMBER OF ACRES S U B J E C T TO A LAND OWNER EXCLUSION A P P L I C A T I O N 55% 92% 60% 74% 84% 3% 53% a The number o f a c r e s r e f u s e d a u t h o r i z a t i o n i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e number i n d i c a t e d b u t i s n o t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . + As i n f o r m a t i o n i n r e g a r d t o A . l i s n o t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t h e s e numbers a r e minimums.' to O COMPUTATION OF REGIONAL BOARD SUGGESTED SUPPORT FOR THE PRESERVATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND (PART 3 o f 4) FRASER-FORT GEORGE GREATER VANCOUVER KITIMAT-S T I K I N E KOOTENAY MOUNT NORTH BOUNDARY HADDINGTON NANAIMO OKANAGAN A. LAND OWNER APP L I C A T I O N S FOR EXCLUSION TO APRIL 1 s t 1978 -- TOTAL 3449 + A . l A c r e s o f l a n d r e f e r r e d t o i n S e c . 9 ( 2 ) a p p l ' n s r e f u s e d , p u r s u a n t t o S e c . 9 ( 5 ) , R e g i o n a l B o a r d a u t h o r i z a t i o n t o p r o c e e d t o C o m m i s s i o n 1400a A.2 A c r e s o f l a n d r e f e r r e d t o i n S e c . 9 ( 2 ) a p p l ' n s c o n s i d e r e d by t h e C o m m i s s i o n / E L U C 204 9 859 456 534 859 456 534 2712 2712 2481 + 2 4 8 H B. REGIONAL BOARD RECOMM./DEC ISIONS SUGGESTING SUPPORT FOR THE PRESER-VATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND -- TOTAL B . l A c r e s o f l a n d r e f e r r e d t o i n A . l B.2 A c r e s o f l a n d w h e r e R e g i o n a l B o a r d made a ' r e t a i n ' recomm. B.3 A c r e s o f l a n d where R e g i o n a l B o a r d made an ' e x e m p t i o n ' recomm. B.4 A c r e s - o f l a n d w h e r e R e g i o n a l B o a r d made an ' e x c l u d e ' recomm. and t h e C o m m i s s i o n / E L U C made an ' e x c 1 u d e ' d e c i s i o n 3015+ 846 226 1400a 0 0 684 753 130 913 0 96 18 93 0 481 0 1697 1578+ 0 0 0 a 36 • 0 1027 172 11 0 135 907 434 0 535 499 C. TOTAL NUMBER OF ACRES WHERE REGIONAL BOARD RECOMM./DECISION SUGGESTS SUPPORT FOR THE PRESERVATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND AS A PER CENT OF TOTAL NUMBER OF ACRES SUBJECT TO A LAND OWNER EXCLUSION A P P L I C A T I O N 87 + % 98% 50% 90% n/a 63% 64 + % The number o f a c r e s r e f u s e d a u t h o r i z a t i o n i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e number i n d i c a t e d b u t i s n o t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . As i n f o r m a t i o n i n r e g a r d t o A . l i s n o t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t h e s e numbers a r e minimums. COMPUTATION OF REGIONAL BOARD SUGGESTED SUPPORT FOR THE PRESERVATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND (PART 4 o f 4) OKANAGAN-SIMILKAMEEN PEACE RIVER POWELL RIVER SKEENA-QUEEN SQUAMISH-CHARLOTTE L I L L O O E T SUNSHINE COAST THOMPSON NICOLA LAND OWNER APP L I C A T I O N S FOR EXCLUSION TO APRIL 1 s t 1978 -- TOTAL A . l A c r e s o f l a n d r e f e r r e d t o i n S e c . 9 ( 2 ) a p p l ' n s r e f u s e d , p u r s u a n t t o S e c . 9 ( 5 ) , R e g i o n a l B o a r d a u t h o r i z a t i o n t o p r o c e e d t o C o m m i s s i o n A.2 A c r e s o f l a n d r e f e r r e d t o i n S e c . 9 ( 2 ) a p p l ' n s c o n s i d e r e d by t h e C o m m i s s i o n / E L U C 3566 728 2838 1665 1665 92 92 125 125 330 330 833 833 2383 2383 REGIONAL BOARD RECOMM./DECISIONS SUGGESTING SUPPORT FOR THE PRESER-VATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND -- TOTAL B . l A c r e s o f l a n d r e f e r r e d t o i n A . l B.2 A c r e s o f l a n d w h e r e R e g i o n a l B o a r d made a ' r e t a i n ' recomm. B.3 A c r e s o f l a n d w h e r e R e g i o n a l B o a r d made an ' e x e m p t i o n ' recomm. B.4 A c r e s o f l a n d w h e r e R e g i o n a l B o a r d made an ' e x c l u d e ' recomm. and t h e C o m m i s s i o n / E L U C made an ' e x c l u d e ' d e c i s i o n 1364 728 159 83 394 314 0 236 91 0 35 125 0 • 73 78 56 52 193 0 54 15 124 434 0 434 557 0 47 46 . 464 TOTAL NUMBER OF ACRES WHERE REGIONAL B.OARD RECOMM./DECISION SUGGESTS SUPPORT FOR THE PRESERVATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND AS A PER CENT OF TOTAL NUMBER OF ACRES SUBJECT TO A LAND OWNER EXCLUSION A P P L I C A T I O N 38% 19% 99% 100% 58% 52% 23% The number o f a c r e s r e f u s e d a u t h o r i z a t i o n i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e number i n d i c a t e d b u t i s n o t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . As i n f o r m a t i o n i n r e g a r d t o A . l i s n o t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t h e s e numbers a r e minimums. ro A P P E N D I X C S p a t i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e g i o n a l Board S u p p o r t f o r t he P r e s e r v a t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Land R E G I O N A L B O A R D S U P P O R T FOR T H E P R E S E R V A T I O N OF A G R I C U L T U R A L L A N D Kootenay Boundary -P* 95. A P P E N D I X D L i n k a g e s i n t h e R e g r e s s i o n Model 96. W h i l e the r e g r e s s i o n model p r o v i d e s o n l y m a r g i n a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f the v a r i a n c e i n R e g i o n a l Board s u p p o r t f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , i t i s u s e f u l t o examine the l i n k a g e s t h e model s u g g e s t s . The s i m p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s were p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4-3. The i n t e r c o r r e l a -t i o n s a r e shown i n T a b l e I. At a s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l o f 80% the a n a l y s i s s u g g e s t s t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s : i. Y and C ( r = .294; p = .1) ii. A and C ( r - -.164; p = .2) iii. A and B ( r = .538; p = .001) Through c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the l o g i c o f t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and an examin-a t i o n o f t h e s c a t t e r g r a m s (see F i g u r e 4-1) and t h e r e s u l t s o f the p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s ( s e e T a b l e I I ) , the l i n k a g e s i n t h e model can be c l a r i f i e d as f o l l o w s : i . H i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e o f t h e p r o p e n s i t y o f urban growth to t a k e p l a c e i n a r e a s h i g h l y s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t the h i g h (.538) c o r r e l a t i o n between A and B i s l o g i c a l , a l t h o u g h a t t r i b u t a b l e t o some o t h e r v a r i a b l e , such as p h y s i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s t o development. i i . The p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n between R e g i o n a l Board S u p p o r t f o r t h e P r e s e r v a t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Land (Y) and t h e L e v e l o f Urbanism (C) c o n t r o l l i n g f o r the Importance o f A g r i c u l t u r e t o the Region-a l Economy (A) (.278) i s l e s s than t h e t o t a l c o r r e l a t i o n (.294). T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t e i t h e r some o f t h e v a r i a n c e i n C i s due t o A o r C and A a r e i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r by a t h i r d v a r i a b l e . TABLE I INTERCORRELATIONS* A B A 1 B 1 C .538 -.164 (.001) (.2) -.07 (.4) * The c o r r e l a t i o n f i g u r e s a r e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i -c i e n t s . The p r o b a b i l i t y i s shown i n b r a c k e t s . TABLE II PARTIAL CORRELATIONS* Y and C o n t r o l 1ed By A B C A + B A + C B + C .1547 .278 (.4) (.2) .1843 .3024 (.4) " (.2) .0704 .1005 (.7) (.5) .159 (.5) -.1422 (-5) .2803 (.2) * S i g n i f i c a n c e i n d i c a t e d i n b r a c k e t s . 98. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY B. C. AGRICULTURAL LAND RESERVE B. C. Land Commission A c t , S t a t u t e s o f B. C , 1973, c.46. B. C. Amendments t o the Land Commission A c t , S t a t u t e s o f B. C , 1977,  c. 73 and c. 75. B. C. R e g u l a t i o n s under the Land Commission A c t and Amendments t o May  1 s t , 1978. B. C. Land Commission. Seminar Notes on the A.L.R., S p r i n g , 1978. U n p u b l i s h e d . B. C. Land Commission: Keeping The O p t i o n s Open. Manning, Edward W. and Sandra S. Eddy. 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"Comparison o f C u r r e n t P l a n n i n g T h e o r i e s : C o u n t e r p a r t s and C o n t r a d i c t i o n s . " J o u r n a l o f American P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , ( O c t o b e r 1979), pp. 387-406. J a c o b s , A l l a n B. Making C i t y P l a n n i n g Work. American S o c i e t y o f P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s : C h i c a g o , 1978. Kent, T. J . , J r . The Urban G e n e r a l P l a n . C h a n d l e r P u b l i s h i n g Company: San F r a n s i s c o , 1964. 99. Meyerson, M a r t i n . " B u i l d i n g The Middle-Range B r i d g e f o r Comprehensive P l a n n i n g . " J o u r n a l o f American I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , 2 2 ( S p r i n g 1956), pp. 58-66. M i l n e r , J . B., ed. "The Meaning o f P l a n n i n g . " Community P l a n n i n g : A  Casebook on Law and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s : T o r o n t o , 1963, pp. 54-87. S k j e i , Stephen S. 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