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The science of love in the Middle Ages, the romantic period, and our own time Perry, Robert Graham 1979

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THE SCIENCE OF LOVE IN THE MIDDLE AGES, THE ROMANTIC PERIOD, AND OUR OWN TIME by ROBERT GRAHAM PERRY B.A., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Programme i n Comparative L i t e r a t u r e We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1979. ( c ) Robert Graham Perry, 1979 MASTER OF ARTS m I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g p f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f COMPARATIVE LITERATURE The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 August 8, 1979 Abstract The d i s c i p l i n e or category of the philosophy of love has been pre-c i s e l y defined, i t s diverse t r a d i t i o n s f u l l y documented and compared, and i t s d i s t i n c t i v e r h e t o r i c a l medium—the dialogue—analyzed i n d e t a i l . Another of love's d i s c i p l i n e s , the science of love, has not fared as w e l l : the nature of t h i s d i s c i p l i n e has seldom, i f ever, been defined, few of i t s p a r t i c u l a r t r a d i t i o n s have been documented, l e t alone com-pared, and i t s d i s t i n c t i v e r h e t o r i c a l medium—the l o v e - t r e a t i s e — h a s never been adequately analyzed. Two reasons f o r t h i s neglect suggest themselves. F i r s t , love-science has often been perceived as being merely a f r i v o l o u s , e c c e n t r i c , reductive, or immoral d i s c i p l i n e . I t was i n these terms that, for example, two of the f i n e s t nineteenth century contributions to the d i s c i p l i n e , Goethe's Die Wahlverwandt- schaften and Stendhal's De 1'Amour, were c r i t i c a l l y received. Second, the discourse of love-science i n general and of the l o v e - t r e a t i s e i n p a r t i c u l a r has often been considered to be s t y l i s t i c a l l y impure. What has been, and continues to be, neglected i s a long-enduring and extremely r i c h t r a d i t i o n of colo.urfully hybrid texts. Both the necessity imposed by the length of t h i s essay to take a l i m i t e d focus on t h i s t r a d i t i o n , . a n d at the same time the desire to give an im-pression of i t s sweep and continuity, have been f u l f i l l e d by organizing the study i n terms of a comparison between the love-sciences of two h i s t o r i c a l periods, the Middle Ages and the modern Romantic and post-Romantic Age. A number of f a s c i n a t i n g connections suggest themselves. The Romantic descriptions of love's chemical a f f i n i t i e s and c r i s t a l l i - sations profoundly resemble the grand medieval s c i e n t i f i c e r o t i c themes of the love potion and the malady of love. A l l four topoi f u l f i l an important d u a l i s t i c function: they h i g h l i g h t "both the p h y s i c a l f a t a l i t y of passion as -well as the p o s s i b i l i t y , e x p l i c i t i n the fact of the s c i e n t i s t ' s c o n t r o l over nature, of l i m i t e d c o n t r o l being exercised over that passion. Stendhal's Romantic l o v e - t r e a t i s e De 1'Amour bears a strong family resemblance to medieval l o v e - t r e a t i s e s . The important theory of a comparative science of love which Stendhal a r t i c u l a t e s i s prefigured i n medieval culture, notably i n the Arabic t r a d i t i o n of love-t r e a t i s e s . The form of the l o v e - t r e a t i s e provides the i d e a l medium for comparative studies of how love i s perceived and experienced i n d i f f e r e n t cultures and under d i f f e r e n t conditions. Both the Middle Ages and the Modern Age create s c i e n t i f i c metaphors f or love which possess great beauty. Two of the most b e a u t i f u l of these are the medieval trope of the tree of love and Stendhal's Romantic image of love's c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n s . The mock-science of love of a -writer l i k e Andreas Capellanus provides a medieval antecedent to the mock e r o t i c science created by Thomas Mann in h i s novel Per Zauberberg. F i n a l l y , i n both the Middle Ages and the Modern period, the language of technology often plays a disturbing part i n e r o t i c analogies. Here, the science of love can become the r e v e l a -t i o n of a dehumanized conception of love. The science of love i s not a true science. Neither i s i t a merely f r i v o l o u s or inconsequential kind of l i t e r a r y discourse. The science df love consists of a whole complex of u n v e r i f i a b l e , y e t , nevertheless, extremely useful f i c t i o n s about the nature of love. These f i c t i o n s are useful because they explain the genesis, transformations, and conclusions of love. They are also useful because they express and celebrate the magic compulsion exercised by love. F i n a l l y , the f i c t i o n s of love-science are u s e f u l because they have provided, i n the form of the love-t r e a t i s e , elaborate c o d i f i c a t i o n s of love. But the fictions.>6f love-science hold a f a s c i n a t i o n beyond t h e i r p r o v i s i o n of c o l o u r f u l and useful explanations or c o d i f i c a t i o n s of the notoriously indeterminate phenomenon of love; these f i c t i o n s are com-p e l l i n g because they have shaped and continue to shape the e r o t i c imagination and s e n s i b i l i t y . The experience of love i s f a r from innocent before the discourse of love. Table of Contents Page Introduction . . . . . . . . 1 Part One: ASPECTS OF THE MEDIEVAL SCIENCE OF LOVE Chapter I The Shape of the Love-Treatise: Ibn Hazm's The Dove' s Neck-Ring . h Chapter II The Mock-Science of Love: Ovid's Ars Amatoria and Andreas Capellanus' De Amore . 12 Chapter I II The Tree of Love: Richard de Fournival's Consaus d'Amours 21 Chapter IV The Love Potion 29 Part Two: ASPECTS OF THE ROMANTIC AND MODERN SCIENCES OF LOVE Chapter V Love as a S c i e n t i f i c Experiment: Goethe's Die Wahlverwandtschaften and Stendhal's De 1'Amour . . . . 37 Chapter VI Stendhal and the Idea of a Comparative Science of Love ' 55 Chapter VII Reflections on the Place of Love i n the Techno-l o g i c a l World Picture 67 Conclusion . . . 86 Selected Bibliography 89 v Acknowledgements I wish to thank Professor Manzalaoui f or h i s patient and f r i e n d l y assistance at many stages of the w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s . I also wish to thank Professor Busza and Professor St. C l a i r f o r t h e i r thoughtful readings of the manuscript. v i 1 Introduction I begin with a number of f a s c i n a t i n g and d i f f i c u l t questions. Why did man o r i g i n a l l y create, and why does he continue to create, works on the "science of love"? Can i t even be c l a s s i f i e d as a legitimate science? Would not pseudo-science be more apposite? What kind or kinds of love are included i n the category? What explains the scepticism and uneasiness that the d i s c i p l i n e has always inspired? Given the uncertain status of the d i s c i p l i n e i t s e l f , what may be s a i d of the status of i t s generical and r h e t o r i c a l vehicles? Are we dealing with s c i e n t i f i c , pseudo-s c i e n t i f i c , or l i t e r a r y discourse? In what s p e c i f i c ways have writers extended or manipulated the science-love equation? And f i n a l l y , the most important question, what are the implications for love i t s e l f , of i t s being conjoined with science? I have sought answers, however t e n t a t i v e , to these questions i n the love-sciences of the Middle Ages, the Romantic period, and our own time. How j u s t i f y excluding the important love-sciences of the seventeenth-century and the Renaissance? The answer i s simple: to include these would be to attempt to a r t i c u l a t e a f u l l h i s t o r y of the science of love, which i s no part of my i n t e n t i o n . But why choose to focus on such divergent h i s t o r i c a l periods as the Middle Ages and the Romantic period extending into our own century? Beyond the not i n s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t that a number of the outstanding works which f a l l under the rubric of the science of love were written i n these h i s t o r i c a l periods, l i e several deeper reasons for thus d e l i m i t i n g the f i e l d of inquiry. The f i n e s t Romantic l o v e - t r e a t i s e , Stendhal's De 1'Amour, displays important traces 2 of medieval influence. Two of the most powerful Romantic s c i e n t i f i c e r o t i c metaphors, Goethe's metaphor of the " e l e c t i v e a f f i n i t i e s " of love and Stendhal's metaphor of the c r i s t a l l i g a t i o n s of love, profoundly resemble the grand medieval metaphorical themes of the love potion and the malady of love. Also, i n both t r a d i t i o n s one discovers important instances of mock-scientific d i s c i p l i n e s . F i n a l l y , i n both t r a d i t i o n s one finds i n the work of c e r t a i n writers' on love a rather disturbing preoccupation with the t e c h n i c a l dimensions of the science-love equation. The dramatic increase i n the use of t e c h n i c a l analogies i n the love l i t e r a t u r e of our own age i s a cause for p a r t i c u l a r c r i t i c a l concern. When does the science of love cease to carry humanistic s i g n i f i c a t i o n s and become instead the r e v e l a t i o n of a dehumanized conception of love? In Chapter One I examine Ibn Hazm's The Dove's Neck-Ring, a superb medieval example of that strange generical beast, the l o v e - t r e a t i s e . What possible purposes can be served by pouring the impossible phenom-enon of love into the r i g i d r h e t o r i c a l mould of a s c i e n t i f i c or s c h o l a r l y t r e a t i s e ? In Chapter Two I explore the p o t e n t i a l l y comic implications of studying love i n t r e a t i s e - f a s h i o n by examining Andreas Capellanus' notorious De_ Amore. A short i n i t i a l digression on Ovid, the founding genius of the mock-science of love, helps to place Andreas' t r e a t i s e i n -context. In Chapter Three I examine a little-known medieval t r e a t i s e on love, Richard de Fournival's Consaus d'Amours, which makes c o l o u r f u l use of the s c h o l a s t i c image of the tree of love. Both i n t h i s Chapter, and i n the Chapter on The Dove's Neck-Ring, I make note of some of the p e c u l i a r features of the most per s i s t e n t and, i n c i d e n t a l l y , best documented of medieval s c i e n t i f i c e r o t i c themes: the theme of the malady of love. In Chapter Four I examine the function of that other important 3 medieval s c i e n t i f i c e r o t i c topos: the love potion.. Here, we are obviously i n the realm of pseudo-science or quackery. In the second h a l f of the essay I look at how some of the f i n e s t of Romantic and post-Romantic s c i e n t i s t s of love delineate d i s t i n c t i v e l y modern variations on these medieval themes. In Chapter Five I attempt to e s t a b l i s h the nature of the bonds which l i n k two of the f i n e s t science-inspired Romantic texts on love, Goethe's Die Wahlverwandt- schaften and Stendhal's De_ 1'Amour, and by so doing make e x p l i c i t the implications for love of the use i n e r o t i c analogies, of the experi-mental facet of science. In Chapter Six I r e f l e c t upon a c r u c i a l innovation i n modern e r o t i c science: the development i n Stendhal of an e x p l i c i t l y comparative view of love. The search for the t r a d i t i o n a l o r i g i n s of t h i s comparative impulse i s found to be h e l p f u l i n further r e f i n i n g one's understanding of the nature of the l o v e - t r e a t i s e . In Chapter Seven, the f i n a l chapter of the essay, I attempt to document a p a r t i c u l a r s h i f t of emphasis which occurs i n the s c i e n t i f i c love l i t e r a t u r e written a f t e r Goethe and Stendhal: a s h i f t away from Romantic natural s c i e n t i f i c analogies towards a r t i f i c i a l t e c h n i c a l and even mathematical analogies for love. How s i g n i f i c a n t are these new metaphors? Is modern love i t s e l f becoming more abstract and unnatural? Love i s often considered to be something that not only i s , but also should be innocent before the world of science. In the following pages I challenge both preconceptions. k Chapter I The Shape of the Love-Treatise: Ibn Hazm's The Dove's Neck-Ring Ibn Hazm's monumental t r e a t i s e on love, The Dove's Neck-Ring, provides perhaps the best jumping-off point for a survey of s a l i e n t features of the medieval science of love. This work occupies a v i t a l p i v o t a l p o s i t i o n : i t provides a r i c h conceptual, i f not an actual h i s t o r i c a l , l i n k between early Greek speculations on the science of love, and the l a t e r contributions to the subject of writers i n medieval C h r i s t i a n culture. Within the great Arabic t r a d i t i o n of t r e a t i s e s on love, The Dove's Neck-Ring exists as a representative, although at the same time highly i n d i v i d u a l work. Ibn Hazm simultaneously c r y s t a l l i z e s much that i s best i n the t r a d i t i o n and impresses h i s material with a d i s t i n c t i v e s t y l e and tone. The generical t r a d i t i o n within which Ibn Hazm i s w r i t i n g has been minutely documented by Lois G i f f e n . Composed of a mixture of prosaic and poetic discourse, t r e a t i s e s such as The Dove's Neck-Ring are ultimately defined, according to G i f f e n , by a twofold d i v i s i o n of content into ( l ) a discussion of the essence, nature, causes, names, and kinds of love and the differences between these kinds, and (2) the '"circumstances" (ahwal) of the lovers, a term which covers many kinds of the o r i z i n g about the conduct of.lovers and schemes f o r c l a s s i f y i n g lovers and t h e i r love a f f a i r s . 1 In short, such works subject love to the systematic,.theoretical, a n a l y t i c a l , d e s c r i p t i v e , and c l a s s i f i c a t o r y modes of inquir y of science. At the beginning of The Dove's Neck-Ring, Ibn Hazm writes that h i s study of love had i t s genesis i n a friend's request for "an essay describing love, i t s aspects, i t s causes and i t s accidents; and what 5 happens i n i t and to i t — o n the p r i n c i p l e of t r u t h f u l n e s s . " 2 He then makes claims for the a u t h e n t i c i t y and v e r a c i t y of h i s work: "mention must needs he made of what I saw as an eye-witness, what I learned through assiduous study, and what I was t o l d by trustworthy men of my time."(3) whether the s p e c i f i c r h e t o r i c a l vehicle be one of Ibn Hazm's own poems, a story, or a piece of prose, what connects a l l of these elements l i k e the thread connecting the beads of a n e c k l a c e — t o use a t r a d i t i o n a l Arabic metaphor for a l i t e r a r y work—would appear to be p r e c i s e l y the imperative toward a t r u t h f u l description of the phenomenon of love. Certain of the more straightforward s c i e n t i f i c s t rategies which are employed i n The Dove's Neck-Ring should be mentioned at the s t a r t . The most obvious of these i s the a n a l y t i c a l d i v i s i o n of the subject-matter into a d i v e r s i t y of s p e c i a l i z e d topics such as "Signs of Love" and "Love at F i r s t Sight." Another e x t r i n s i c a l l y s c i e n t i f i c feature i s the l o g i c a l patterning of the unfolding argument, which i n large part conforms to the generical norm abstracted by Gi f f e n . We f i n d catalogues and c l a s s i f i c a -tions of the d i f f e r e n t kinds and degrees of love. In conjunction with these comparative l i s t i n g s , we f i n d precise etymological d i s t i n c t i o n s which r e f i n e the categorizations of e r o t i c phenomena. But i t i s through an examination of the important s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i p l i n e s which furnish Ibn Hazm with d i s t i n c t i v e metaphors and methodologies that we can most e a s i l y a r r i v e at an appreciation of the r i c h character of h i s science of love. The d i s c i p l i n e of medicine provides an appropriate s t a r t i n g point, not just because'of I t s p o s i t i o n of c e n t r a l i t y i n The Dove's Neck-Ring and In the extensive Arabic t r a d i t i o n of works on love, but also because of i t s genetic relevance to 6 the h i s t o r y of the science of love as a whole. The description of love as a disease or madness originates i n the early writings of important Greek physicians l i k e Galen. Lowes gives us a b r i e f summary of the h i s t o r y of t h i s diagnosis: Galen refers to the leanness of l o v e r s , and e s p e c i a l l y to the quickening of the pulse at the sight of the object of the 'lover's passion. In the l a t e w r i t e r s , however, e i t h e r i n connection with the discussion of mania or melancholy, or as c o n s t i t u t i n g a section by i t s e l f , the treatment of epws as one of the recognized cerebral maladies becomes e x p l i c i t . 3 Like other maladies, the sickness of love possesses d i s t i n c t i v e causes, symptoms, and cures. The content of a dubious fragment—although one which i s most l i k e l y rooted i n Greek medicine—found i n a number of Arabic t r e a t i s e s on love, i s neatly summarized by Giffen as being a description.of love as "a serious pathological syndrome a f f e c t i n g the b r a i n , the emotions, and the digestive and c i r c u l a t o r y systems."^ This objective and c l i n i c a l account of the disease provides a f r u i t f u l contrast with Ibn Hazm's more subjective rendering: Love . . . i s an incurable disease and i n i t there i s remedy against i t , according to the manner of dealing with . " i t ; i t i s a d e l i g h t f u l condition and a disease yearned f o r : he who i s . f r e e from the disease does not l i k e to stay immune, he who suffers from i t does not f i n d pleasure i n being cured of i t ; i t makes appear b e a u t i f u l to a man what he has been abstaining from because of shame, and makes appear easy to him what was d i f f i c u l t f o r him, to the extent of changing i n -born c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and innate t r a i t s . . . .(13) A le s s happy picture of the disease i s found i n the chapter i n The Dove's Neck-Ring on " I l l n e s s " . A story of tormented passionate love i s b r i e f l y d e t a i l e d , and then followed by a deft t h e o r e t i c a l a n alysis: This sort of thing . . . originates from a f i x e d idea, and when t h i s idea gets the upper hand, and the un-balancement of mind due to melancholy overpowers the patient, the case gets out of the province of love and 7 enters the province of mental unbalancement and madness; and i f the administering of remedy to help the patient i s neglected i n the beginning the i l l n e s s grows very grave, and there i s no remedy for i t except union.(150) At one point, Ibn Hazm i s the l y r i c a l celebrator of the d e l i g h t f u l disease of love; at another, he i s the l e s s impassioned though no le s s sympathetic observer of the f a t a l progress of a p a r t i c u l a r case of the love malady. The reductive and baneful metaphor of the malady of love has, with no l o s s of i t s t r a g i c i m p l i c a t i o n s , been humanized. Astronomy provides Ibn Hazm with a number of rather curious conceits. In one of his poems, the l o v e r i s described as the guardian of " a l l the f i x e d stars and planets: And they and the night resemble the f i r e s of passion/Which have been kindled i n my thought coming from the dark night." The poem ends with the l i n e s : " I f Ptolemy were l i v i n g he would have been ce r t a i n that I am/ The strongest of men i n the observation of the o r b i t s of stars ."'(20) A s i m i l a r though more sophisticated cosmic metaphor i s elaborated i n another poem which begins with the l i n e s : Burning with an ardent desire, a f f l i c t e d , he does not sleep, a v i c t i m of insomnia: By reason of the wine of f a l s e accusations he i s constantly brooding, And i n a moment he shows you wonderful things: Becomes unfriendly, and amiable, and i s brought near, and i s removed; As i f separation and reproof, and avoidance and r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , Were conjunction and divergence (of s t a r s ) , and calamity and happiness. (20-21) Both poems point forward centuries to the strained and witty e r o t i c science of John Donne.5 Physics provides Ibn Hazm with two analogies for what transpires i n love on a r e f i n e d s p i r i t u a l plane. Love i s defined at the beginning of the t r e a t i s e as "a reunion of parts of the souls, separated i n t h i s 8 creation (world), within t h e i r o r i g i n a l higher element."(7) Love i s a " s p i r i t u a l approval and a mutual commingling of souls. "(9) But how account for a d i s j u n c t i o n or imbalance i n the a t t r a c t i o n ? The explanation put forward i s that "the soul of him who does not love the one who loves him i s surrounded on a l l sides by some mysterious a c c i - .. dents, and by a v e i l of earthly nature which envelops i t , so that i t does not f e e l (come i n sensory contact) with the part which was joined to i t before i t s present dwelling; but i f i t were freed, the two would have an equal share i n the reunion and i n love."(9-10) The free soul must move i n the d i r e c t i o n of the other soul and set i t free from earthly constraints. A densely argued analogy i s here set up between the a t t r a c t i o n s which transpire at a profound l e v e l i n love and the gravitations which occur i n the i n v i s i b l e f i e l d s of force set up between a magnet and an i r o n . S i m i l a r l y , claims Ibn Hazm, the f i r e that i s l a t e n t i n a f l i n t w i l l remain hidden unless f r i c t i o n occurs between the f l i n t and stone. Optics i s another science upon which Ibn Hazm draws to illuminate his subtle i n s i g h t s into the phenomenon of love. The eye, he claims, " i s the vanguard of the s o u l , and i t s right-guiding i n d i c a t o r , and i t s b r i g h t l y shining mirror, by which r e a l i t i e s are known, q u a l i t i e s of things are mastered thoroughly, and sensations are understood."(h h - k ^ ) There follows an elaborate " I l l u s t r a t i o n of the power of perception of the eye" (^5) i n v o l v i n g an experimental use of two mirrors. The science of physiognomy i s invoked during t h i s discussion. The physiognomist can employ his d e l i c a t e science i n making inter p r e t a t i o n s of the subtle signs i n the glance of the eye. In another context, Ibn Hazm claims that an expert physiognomist can r i v a l a shrewd physician i n h i s a b i l i t y 9 to d i s t i n g u i s h the symptoms of love-sickness from those of other i l l n e s s e s . ( i h Q ) Physiology i s another science which contributes to Ibn Hazm's multidimensional t r e a t i s e . We f i n d , for example, a short d i s q u i s i t i o n on the e r o t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e of the lachrymal glands. The description i s quickly modulated into more poetic evocations of the omnipresence i n love of weeping.(22-2U) The intimate and r e c i p r o c a l nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the poetic and the prosaic elements i n Ibn Hazm's t r e a t i s e cannot be over-stressed. Lowes's idea of "osmosis" between s c i e n t i f i c or t h e o r e t i c a l commentary on love and l i t e r a r y or poetic discourse i s highly apposite here. There i s no d i s j u n c t i o n i n The Dove's Neck-Ring between poetry and science, p r e c i s e l y because Ibn Hazm appreciates both the imaginative p o s s i b i l i t i e s of science and the s c i e n t i f i c p o s s i b i l i t i e s of poetry. What, then, i s the purpose of t h i s imaginative science of love? For an answer we must look i n the d i r e c t i o n s of both science and love. What characterizes science i s i t s f a i t h i n man's a b i l i t y to comprehend and i n c e r t a i n measure control what appears to be incomprehensible or uncontrollable. I t i s p r e c i s e l y these q u a l i t i e s of incomprehensibility and f a t a l i t y which have from the very beginning been a t t r i b u t e d to love. The a p p l i c a t i o n of the sciences to love presents the p o s s i b i l i t y of control and comprehension. In the metaphor of love as a disease we f i n d the implied presence of the physician who can diagnose and cure the malady. In the metaphor of love as the a t t r a c t i o n between magnet and i r o n we discover the hand of the experimenter who takes the i r o n and checks the a t t r a c t i o n . Applied i n a s e n s i t i v e fashion to the phenomenon of love, such metaphors f u l f i l a profoundly d u a l i s t i c function. On the 10 one hand, they h i g h l i g h t the f a t a l i t y or i n e v i t a b i l i t y of passion: on the other, they point to the p o s s i b i l i t y of c o n t r o l of that passion. This d u a l i t y can serve to dramatize the e t h i c a l dimensions of love. I f the disease of love i s viewed i n a p o s i t i v e l i g h t , i t s only necessary cure i s administered by the beloved. I f , however, t h i s disease i s viewed i n a negative l i g h t , the figure of the s p i r i t u a l physician comes to the foreground. In surveying the whole Arabic t r a d i t i o n of profane works on love, G i f f e n invokes the notion of a "great d i v i d e " 6 between . those writers who celebrate passionate and t r a g i c love and those who condemn i t i n the name of sacred Islamic Law. Ibn Hazm, at l e a s t i n The Dove's Neck-Ring, belongs to the former group. In h i s case, the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f f e r e d by science for the understanding and c o n t r o l of passionate love are not exploited for the purpose of r e i n f o r c i n g a s p i r i t u a l condemnation of the phenomenon. What we f i n d i n Ibn Hazm's science of love i s a refinement i n the understanding of the nature of love, and an advocacy of a greater refinement i n the manners and morals of true passionate l o v e r s . 11 Footnotes Theory of Profane Love Among the Arabs: The Development of the  Genre (New York: New York Univ. Press, 1971) p. 67 . Aside from t h i s book and John Charles Nelson's Renaissance Theory of Love: The Context  of Giordano Bruno's E r o i c i f u r o r i (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1958), which surveys the Platonic t r a t t a t i d'amore, very l i t t l e has been written on the s p e c i f i c genre of the l o v e - t r e a t i s e . Perhaps the ambiguous s t a t u s — p a r t l y l i t e r a r y , p a r t l y s c i e n t i f i c — o f the form accounts for the s c a r c i t y of c r i t i c a l studies. The term, i s never included i n catalogues of l i t e r a r y genres. Even Northrop Frye's comprehensive survey of genres, The Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1957) , contains no reference to the form of the l o v e - t r e a t i s e . Nevertheless, Frye's o u t l i n e of the " s p e c i f i c encyclopedic form" (pp. 55-58, 315-26) and his discussion of Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy (pp. 311-12) o f f e r c e r t a i n i n d i r e c t accesses to the subject. 2The Dove's Neck-Ring, trans. A. R. Nykl (Pa r i s : L i b r a i r i e O r i e n t a l i s t e Paul Geuthner, 1931) , p. 2. Hereafter, quotations from t h i s book w i l l be>-documented by page numbers i n parentheses. 3John Livingston Lowes, "The Loveres Maladye of Hereos," Modern  Philology, 11 (191^) , p. 518. This c l a s s i c essay i s one of the very few c r i t i c a l works which seeks to make sense of the mysteries of e r o t i c science. Lowes demonstrates the l i n g u i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two e x t r e m e s — s c i e n t i f i c and p o e t i c — o f the medieval s c i e n t i f i c e r o t i c t r a d i t i o n by pinpointing a basic d u a l i t y i n the term amor hereos : on the one hand, i t e x i s t s as an element i n the discourse of medieval medicine; on the other, i t exists as an element i n l i t e r a r y and poetic discourse, notably i n Chaucer's Knight's Tale. Lowes writes of the "mutual i n f l u e n c e — a sort of 'osmosis'" (p~! 5^3) that characterizes the re l a t i o n s h i p between medieval and Renaissance l i t e r a t u r e which trea t s of the "effects of lo v e " (p. 5^3) and the descriptions of the signa of love i n medical t r e a t i s e s . G i f f e n , p. 66 n. •26.. On the subject of Greek. sources'of the Arabic science of love, see also Richard Walzer's. Greek Into Arabic: Essays on  Islamic Philosophy (Oxford: Bruno Cassirer Ltd., 1962) , pp. U8-59. 5The background to John Donne's use of s c i e n t i f i c analogies f or the experience of love i s explored i n Marjorie Hope Nicolson's The Breaking of the C i r c l e : Studies i n the E f f e c t of the "New Science" Upon Seven- teenth-Century Poetry, rev. ed. (New.York: Columbia Univ. Press, i 9 6 0 ) . 6 G i f f e n , p-. 117. 12 Chapter II The Mock-Science of Love: Ovid's Ars Amatoria and Andreas Capellanus' De_ Amore Such refinement i s hardly i n evidence i n the next Important medieval work which deserves our attention. Although there i s no evidence of actual influence, The Dove's Neck-Ring of Ibn Hazm and the De_ Amore of Andreas Capellanus display a c e r t a i n family resemblance. Both are formal discourses or t r e a t i s e s which employ the modes of Inquiry and analysis appropriate to such texts. In both works we f i n d the elaborate subdivision of the subject-matter into s p e c i a l i z e d t o p i c s , the drawing of d i s t i n c t i o n s among d i f f e r e n t stages and kinds of love, and the marshalling of autho r i t a t i v e and s c h o l a r l y opinion. Neither t r e a t i s e Is purely s c i e n t i f i c i n i t s formal texture; both texts embody a number of n o n - s c i e n t i f i c or l i t e r a r y modes of discourse. In addition, we discover i n both The Dove's Neck-Ring and the De_ Amore a formalization or c o d i f i c a t i o n of appropriate manners and behaviour i n love. But i n the all-important matters of tone and i n t e n t i o n i t would be d i f f i c u l t to think of two more a n t i t h e t i c a l works. Andreas' science of love '. bears only a s u p e r f i c i a l or external s i m i l a r i t y to that of Ibn Hazm. A much more germane antecedent to Andreas' De Amore i s of'course Ovid's Ars Amatoria. We have here an example of influence and continu-i t y not just i n the matter of form or genre but also i n the matter of tone or s p i r i t . The common genre Is of course the "Art of Love." Some j u s t i f i c a t i o n i s therefore obviously required f or speaking of Ovid's or Andreas' "science of love." The apparent contradiction between these two terms dissolves on a c l o s e r examination of what i s actually-comprehended i n the word ars. The basic denotation of the word i s the concept of " s k i l l i n j o i n i n g something, combining, working." 1 However, "with the advancement of Roman cu l t u r e , " the d i c t i o n a r y t e l l s us, the word was " c a r r i e d e n t i r e l y beyond the sphere of the common pursuits of l i f e , into that of a r t i s t i c and s c i e n t i f i c a c t i o n . " Among i t s numerous meanings, ars can r e f e r to: "any p h y s i c a l or mental a c t i v i t y , so far as i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y exhibited"; "the knowledge, a r t , s k i l l , workmanship, employed i n e f f e c t i n g or working upon an object"; "science, knowledge"; "the theory of any a r t or science"; and "cunning, a r t i f i c e , fraud, strategem. •' The Latin word ars has a c e r t a i n semantic expansiveness which i s somewhat l o s t i n modern English t r a n s l a t i o n . We need only look at t r e a t i s e s such as Hesiod's Works and Days or Lucretius' De Rerum  Natura i n order to appreciate how very c l o s e l y intermeshed were the s c i e n t i f i c and poetic enterprises i n C l a s s i c a l culture. The point i s that before Ovid, v i r t u a l l y every subject under the sun had been studied as an " a r t " . The natural medium for such an approach to a subject was the poetic or prosaic technical t r e a t i s e . 2 Ovid was the f i r s t w r i t e r to apply the r h e t o r i c a l formulae and strategies of a d i d a c t i c t e c h n i c a l t r e a t i s e to the subject of love. To heighten the irony, he wrote h i s t r e a t i s e , as L. P. Wilkinson has pointed out, " i n e l e g i a c s , the metre of love-poetry." 3 To speak of Ovid's science of love i s therefore to appreciate the implications of t h i s appropriation, or, more p r e c i s e l y , t h i s travesty of the d i d a c t i c t r e a t i s e . The c r u c i a l i m p l i c a t i on i s that love becomes, or i s seen as being, p r i m a r i l y a technique or a p r a c t i c a l d i s c i p l i n e . The Greek physicians might p i c t u r e love i n terms of the i r r a t i o n a l — a s Ik e i t h e r a f a t a l disease or an uncontrollable madness; the Greek and Roman poets and tragedians might tre a t of the same theme i n an i d e a l i z e d poetic vein; Plato might delineate love i n terms of a contemplative d i s c i p l i n e : but Ovid, at l e a s t i n h i s Ars Amatoria, w i l l have nothing to do with such conceptions. In t h i s f r i v o l o u s t r e a t i s e , there i s no sense of the seriousness or f a t a l i t y of passion. Rather, love i s a p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t y l i k e many others that can be mastered with competent i n s t r u c t i o n . The c o l o u r f u l imagery and analogies used i n the t r e a t i s e reinforce t h i s idea of mastery or c o n t r o l . Love i s compared to such a c t i v i t i e s as s a i l i n g , d r i v i n g a ch a r i o t , hunting, f i s h i n g , and war. Like these a c t i v i t i e s , love i s defined by i t s necessary r u l e s , s t r a t e -gies, and s k i l l s . While these various analogies are. of course invoked i n a s p i r i t of pure f r i v o l i t y , they nevertheless provoke a c e r t a i n moral r e c o i l . This Is p a r t i c u l a r l y true i n the case of the analogy Ovid sets up between love and war. A commonplace of L a t i n poetry, t h i s p a r t i c u -l a r analogy i s extended.to vulgar extremes i n Ovid's t r e a t i s e . Ovid compares the successful lover to a s o l d i e r who through courage, cunning, deception, and reconnaissance, overcomes every obstacle and every danger, and succeeds i n discovering, and then attacking and capturing the enemy. In sexual terms, the m i l i t a r y v i c t o r y t ranslates as assault or rape. As for Ovid's other analogies for love, while they may be l e s s v i o l e n t than the m i l i t a r y analogy,' they are a l l equally instrumental-and u t i l i t a r i a n i n nature. One might c a l l . Ovid a technologist of desire. In The Allegory of Love, C. S. Lewis writes that "the worship of the god Amor had been a mock-religion i n Ovid's Art of Love. I | t f Various medieval writers i n h e r i t e d Ovid's idea of a mock-religion and elaborated i t i n terms of medieval C h r i s t i a n i t y . I t i s possible to see at work i n 15 Ovid's t r e a t i s e an analogous worship of the god Ars, a mock-science of love. I t i s mainly i n the l i g h t of t h i s Ovidian inheritance that we must read Andreas Capellanus' De Amore. It would seem appropriate, before exploring c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c features of Andreas' mock-science of love,.to gain some notion of "the ends that t h i s science was intended to serve. On t h i s question of Andreas' intentions i n - w r i t i n g the De Amore, i t seems sensible to follow the lead of what might be termed the s c e p t i c a l school of Andreas scholarship. Up u n t i l the l a t t e r h a l f of our own century, the long-standing c r i t i c a l tendency had been to read the De_ Amore as a sacred text of the "courtly love" t r a d i t i o n . D. W. Robertson was one of the f i r s t c r i t i c s to challenge t h i s orthodoxy. In Robertson's view, Andreas' t r e a t i s e i s humorously i r o n i c a l . Far from s e r i o u s l y celebrat-ing adulterous love, the work negatively r e i n f o r c e s , through the devices of irony, the values of C h r i s t i a n i t y . Andreas undoubtedly acquired h i s taste for humorous mockery from Ovid. Because of i t , and because of h i s s k i l l f u l and perceptive handling of h i s themes, he belongs to the t r a d i t i o n of Ch r i s t i a n humanistic l i t e r a t u r e which i n -cludes such writers as Jean de Meun, Boccaccio, Chaucer, and Rabelais. The fact that modern scholars have f a i l e d to see h i s humor i s nothing i n h i s d i s f a v o u r . 5 E. Talbot Donaldson i s another c r i t i c who has questioned the v a l i d i t y of the solemn orthodox approach to the De_ Amore, t y p i f i e d by C. S. Lewis. While r e j e c t i n g as unconvincing Robertson's a t t r i b u t i o n of pious i n t e n t i o n to Andreas, Donaldson seconds Robertson's conviction that the De_ Amore i s a completely i r o n i c a l work. Donaldson concludes that "Andreas thought that he was producing a jeu d'esprit by r e -w r i t i n g Ovid's Art of Love and Remedies of Love for h i s own time." 6 Far from being intended as a serious t r i b u t e to Marie de Champagne and 16 her court of immoral love, the De Amore was most probably "designed for c l e r i c a l ears, for e c c l e s i a s t s , probably c e l i b a t e s who were i n no great danger of having t h e i r morals ruined by i t , but who were i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a l e r t and might appreciate a s c h o l a s t i c joke on the l o v e - t a l k i n g l a d i e s of the l a i t y . " 7 A t h i r d c r i t i c who refuses to swallow whole the t r a d i t i o n a l p i e t i e s about Andreas and the subject of c o u r t l y love i s Peter Dronke. A f t e r summarizing some of the more consequential recent c r i t i c a l studies of Andreas and the t r a d i t i o n of l o v e - c a s u i s t r y i n which his t r e a t i s e i s embedded, Dronke concludes: Some a r i s t o c r a t s may well have read t h i s lengthy L a t i n prose t r e a t i s e , yet i t s f i r s t readership must surely have been c h i e f l y among clerks rather than a r i s t o c r a c y , clerks eager for gossip and scandal,.true or invented, about the great and t h e i r way of l i f e — e a g e r for i t because t h i s was not t h e i r own. way of l i f e . What Andreas gave them was a fund of piquant anecdotes and imaginary c o n v e r s a t i o n s — nugae c u r i a l i u m ~ a s well as some motifs of romance and l a i (the purgatory of c r u e l beauties, the Arthurian s e t t i n g f o r the rules of love) seasoning a humorously d i d a c t i c work. In t h i s work as a whole, the positions of the worldly amorist and of the pious misogynist are made to appear equally outrageous, by means of a d i a l e c t i c that i s both a Scholastic Sic et Non and an Ovidian Ars Atr.atoria—Remedia A m o r i s — i n short, an e s s e n t i a l l y c l e r i c a l performance. 8 A l l three of these c r i t i c s , therefore, stress the importance of Ovid as a key to the understanding of the s p i r i t of Andreas'.treatise. Like Ovid, Andreas looks to the most respectable and authori-t a t i v e of genres—the formal d i d a c t i c t r e a t i s e — t o provide the r h e t o r i c a l medium for his mocking treatment of love. Andreas' De  Amore i s c l e a r l y a sophisticated piece of s a t i r e written i n the formal, comprehensive, and systematic r h e t o r i c a l manner of the Schoolmen. The immediately apparent formal differences between Ovid's Ars Amatoria and the De Amore—the conciseness and r h e t o r i c a l uniformity of the former, and the more elaborate and d i v e r s i f i e d texture of the l a t t e r y - a r e no doubt a t t r i b u t a b l e , at l e a s t i n part, to basic differences i n structure between the C l a s s i c a l s c i e n t i f i c t r e a t i s e and i t s medieval counterpart. Rhetorical abbreviation i s of course one of the celebrated virtues of C l a s s i c a l s t y l e : r h e t o r i c a l elaboration or a m p l i f i c a t i o n i s a trademark of medieval s t y l e . This i s not to say that a l l medieval t r e a t i s e s on love are as elaborate as the De Amore, but only to put forward a useful generalization. The t r e a t i s e on love lends i t s e l f to i n f i n i t e extension and expansion not only i n terms of length, but also i n terms of content. In the i n t e r s t i c e s of Andreas' s c i e n t i f i c framework are found a number of l i t e r a r y elements which f u l f i l , i n r e l a t i o n to the m o r e • e x p l i c i t l y s c i e n t i f i c elements, c e r t a i n exemplary or i l l u s t r a t i v e purposes. But i t i s the p s e u d o - s c i e n t i f i c frame which sets the tone for the whole work. Another reason for the r h e t o r i c a l elaborateness of the De Amore suggests i t s e l f : l i k e Chaucer, i n the Nun's P r i e s t ' s11 Tale , Andreas i s indulging i n a parody of the r h e t o r i c a l excesses of medieval t h e o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t e r s . Like Ovid, Andreas i s e s s e n t i a l l y p l aying with the comic implica-tions of reducing love to a d i s c i p l i n e or science. Andreas assumes the role of a pedagogue who displays his expertise i n the doctrina, d i s c i p l i n a , and ars of love, for the e d i f i c a t i o n of h i s "revered" but callow f r i e n d Walter. Scholars have spent a great deal of time t r y i n g to i d e n t i f y t h i s f r i e n d ; but to search for the h i s t o r i c a l ' W a l t e r i s perhaps to miss the point. There i s something, t e r r i b l y conventional about Walter. In other words, i f Walter did not e x i s t i t would have been necessary to invent him—or a reasonable f a c s i m i l e . Given a d i s c i p l i n e or science of love, and given a master or teacher of that d i s c i p l i n e , l o g i c demands the presence of a t h i r d element, which i s obviously the 18 student i n need of i n s t r u c t i o n i n love. Ovid makes use of a sort of c o l l e c t i v e Walter: a l l those who require information on how to love. Ibn Hazm, as we have already noted, writes h i s t r e a t i s e to f u l f i l a friend's demand for a t r u t h f u l d e s c r i p t i o n of love. Richard de Fournival, as we. .shall see, claims that h i s advice on love i s meant for the e d i f i -cation of h i s younger s i s t e r . The use of t h i s convention of claiming to write on the subject of love at the request, or for the e d i f i c a t i o n of a friend.may, however, be of deeper import. The invocation of t h i s convention can create the pretext f o r a broader, more l i b e r a l descrip-t i o n of love than might otherwise seem appropriate. I t can provide the means whereby a writer may d i s s o c i a t e himself from embarrassing material. To what degree i s l o v e — f o r a w r i t e r , an age, or a whole c i v i l i z a t i o n — a taboo subject, profane i n q u i r y into which can be j u s t i f i e d only i n s c i e n t i f i c or educational terms? Every part of the machinery of a serious t e c h n i c a l d i d a c t i c t r e a t i s e i s made to contribute to Andreas' absurd travesty of science, education, and love. A few examples may s u f f i c e to characterize the tenor of h i s science of love. The serious medical diagnosis of love as a disease or malady with c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e symptoms i s given parodic treatment i n the De Amore, most obviously i n a number of the notorious rules of love: "Every lover r e g u l a r l y turns pale i n the presence of h i s beloved"; "When a lover suddenly catches sight of h i s beloved h i s heart p a l p i t a t e s " ; "He whom the thought of love vexes eats and sleeps very l i t t l e . " 9 These and a l l the other rules of love have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been taken completely s e r i o u s l y . An appreciation of Andreas' mock-s c i e n t i f i c tone enables us to reread these rules as a f r i v o l o u s catalogue of c l i c h e s about l o v e — a b s t r a c t e d , no doubt, from.serious '19 romances—set out i n the a u t h o r i t a t i v e , solemn manner of the Schoolmen. The elaborate dialogues between a s p i r i n g lovers of various classes can be read i n the same l i g h t . The point about these dialogues i s that the lovers use the sophisticated r h e t o r i c and l o g i c of scholarship i n a t o t a l l y unscholarly way. The debaters shamelessly f l o u t the basic rules of l o g i c i n an e f f o r t to score points i n an outrageous game of amorous one-upmanship. The same facetious s p i r i t governs the d e s c r i p t i o n of the etymology of the word love: Love gets i t s name (amor) from,the word for hook (amus), which means "to capture" or "to be captured," f o r he who i s in love..is captured'Mn."the. chain's .of desire and wishes to capture someone else with hi s hook. Just as a s k i l l e d fisherman t r i e s to a t t r a c t fishes by h i s b a i t and to capture them on h i s crooked hook, so the man who i s a captive of love t r i e s to a t t r a c t another person by h i s allurements and exerts a l l h i s e f f o r t s to unite two d i f f e r e n t hearts with an intangible bond, or i f they are already united he t r i e s to keep them so f o r e v e r . 1 0 The invocation of t h i s analogy between love and f i s h i n g , and of other t e c h n i c a l analogies—analogies which compare love and hunting and love and war—leaves us i n "no doubt that we are i n Ovidian' t e r r a i n . Andreas, l i k e Ovid, reduces love to the l e v e l of mundane p r a c t i c a l i t y . We are now i n a better p o s i t i o n to appreciate just how r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t are the uses to which the love-science equation may be put. In The Dove's Neck-Ring, as I have t r i e d to show, Ibn Hazm uses the dis s e c t i v e and symbolic powers of science to point to the subtle phases and solemn mysteries of passionate love. Ovid and Andreas Capellanus, on the other hand, use science i n order to l i m i t , i n mocking fashion, the subtlety and mystery of love. 20 Footnotes Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short, eds., A Lat i n Dictionary (1879; rpt. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, I969), pp. 166-67. For a b r i e f h i s t o r y of the l i f e of the te c h n i c a l t r e a t i s e i n C l a s s i c a l c u l t u r e , see A. S. H o l l i s ' • "Ars Amatoria and Remedia Amoris," i n Ovid, ed. J . W. Binns (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1955) , pp. 8*1-115. 3 0 v i d Recalled (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1955) , p. 118. ^The Allegory of Love (1936; rpt. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1959) , p. 20. 5A Preface to Chaucer: Studies i n Medieval Perspectives (Prince-ton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1962) , p . T U 8 . 6"The Myth of Courtly Love," i n Speaking of Chaucer by E. Talbot Donaldson (New York: W. W. Norton & Co. 1970) , p. 160. 7Donaldson, p. l 6 l . 8Peter Dronke, rev. of Andre l e Chapelain: T r a i t e de 1'amour  courtois, trans, and ed. Claude Buridant, Medium Aevum, 1*5 (1976) , • p. 320. 9Andreas Capellanus, The Art of Courtly Love, trans. John Jay Parry (19^1; rpt. New York: Frederick Ungar .Publishing Co., 196)4), p. 185. 1 0Andreas Capellanus, p. 31. 21 Chapter I II The Tree of Love: Richard de Fournival's Consaus d'Amours . A good antidote to the c y n i c a l science of love that we f i n d i n Andreas' De Amore can be discovered i n a r e l a t i v e l y unknown medieval French t r e a t i s e , the Consaus d'Amours of Richard de Fournival (1201-60). Richard was the son of Roger de Fournival, physician to the king of France. Trained as a physician himself, Richard l a t e r became deacon, then, ultimately, chancellor of the cathedral of Amiens. Richard's ta l e n t s opened up i n a number of d i r e c t i o n s . He was an important b i b l i o -g r a p h e r — o f medical books i n p a r t i c u l a r . He was adept i n the composi-t i o n of chansons. He was probably the author of a long pseudo-Ovidian poem e n t i t l e d De_ Vetula, t r a n s l a t e d as The Old Woman or Ovid's Last  Love. His main obsession, however, seems to have been the subject of love. In addition to the Consaus d'Amours, Richard wrote a B e s t i a i r e  d'Amours and a Poissance d'Amours. The pi c t u r e that we get of Richard i s of a rather worldly c l e r i c with c a t h o l i c i n t e r e s t s . 1 There can be l i t t l e doubt that Richard studied and was influenced by Andreas' t r e a t i s e . Although they are worlds apart i n the matter of tone, the Consaus d'Amours and the De_ Amore share important conventional s i m i l a r i t i e s . These conventional s i m i l a r i t i e s are the "by now f a m i l i a r d e f i n i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the genre of the formal d i d a c t i c t r e a t i s e on love. Like Andreas, Richard appropriates the form and r h e t o r i c a l strategies of a d i d a c t i c t e c h n i c a l t r e a t i s e i n order to study, i n a comprehensive, a n a l y t i c , and systematic manner, the subject of love. Love .in general i s defined, a n a l y t i c d i s t i n c t i o n s are drawn among 22 d i f f e r e n t kinds of love, the d i f f e r e n t stages of love are pinpointed, and the conditions or circumstances of love and lovers are explored. Also, l i k e Andreas, Richard claims to he w r i t i n g h i s discourse at the prompting, and for the e d i f i c a t i o n of a young person new to the experience of love: i n h i s case, for the enlightenment of h i s "bele tres douce suer . " ( 5 ) As i n the case of Andreas, a callow student i s invented i n order to round out an educational enterprise i n v o l v i n g an e r o t i c d i s c i p l i n e and an earnest pedagogue. This whole strategy enables Richard to mask what turns out to be a serious celebration of passionate romantic l o v e — s u r e l y a questionable occupation for a c l e r i c — b e h i n d the objective and dispassionate imperatives of science and education. In s p i t e , or perhaps p r e c i s e l y because of t h i s imposition of s c i e n t i f i c r e s t r a i n t , the emotional bias of Richard i s strongly displayed. In t h i s respect, and i n a number of others, Richard i s c l o s e r to the e r o t i c science of Ibn Hazm than to that of Andreas. Unlike Andreas or Ovid, Richard does not presume or pretend to be able to reduce love completely to s c i e n t i f i c explanation or p r e s c r i p t i o n . Like Ibn Hazm, Richard uses science both to describe c e r t a i n c u l t u r a l or r a t i o n a l dimensions of love as well as to express or suggest what i s i r r a t i o n a l , uncontrollable, or natural about love. The c e n t r a l informing metaphor i n the Consaus d'Amours—that of the tree of l o v e — b e a u t i f u l l y f u l f i l s t h i s profoundly d u a l i s t i c r o l e . On the one hand, love i s compared to a r e a l , branching, blossoming, flowering t r e e — a n i n c r e d i b l y suggestive and c o l o u r f u l image. On the other hand, love i s described i n terms of an a r t i f i c i a l , schematic, or genealogical tree superimposed on the r e a l t r e e . We therefore have love viewed simultaneously as both a b e a u t i f u l and f r u i t f u l natural process, and also as something that i s 23 involved i n the a r t i f i c e s of culture. This d u a l i t y was already present i n the Trees of the Virtues which had been elaborated by medieval r e l i g i o u s writers. At the root of these Good Trees was the force of C h r i s t i a n love, from which a l l the other virtues branched and blossomed. In the Consaus d'Amours Richard adapts "the r e l i g i o u s imagery to profane purposes." 2 In h i s scheme of things, i t i s passionately i n d i v i d u a l profane love, not C h r i s t i a n love, which i s at the root of the tree of love: . . . toutes l e s autres amours naissent de ceste amour. Car c'est l i estos dont l e s f l o u r s et l i f r u i t des autres amours naissent et est l a droite racine de toutes vertus et matere de tous biens. . . .(8) This passage i s p i v o t a l i n the conceptual development of Richard's t r e a t i s e . I t marks the d i v i s i o n between a b r i e f i n i t i a l survey of the d i f f e r e n t kinds of love which spring from passionate personal love, and the l a r g e r second section of the t r e a t i s e which presents a d e t a i l e d analysis of the nature of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r kind of love, and an apprecia-t i o n of the conditions and circumstances that are required i n order to sustain i t . A f t e r b r i e f prefatory remarks, love i n general i s defined; good or virtuous love, i s distinguished from e v i l love; s p i r i t u a l love i s distinguished from temporal love; temporal love i s divided i n t o f a m i l i a l love " k i vient de force de nature"(8) and love for mankind " k i n a i s t simplement de volente de cuer";(8) and then, f i n a l l y , t h i s love which springs from the heart i s divided into two types: . . . i l est amours de volente simple et amours de volente enracinee. Amours de volente simple est l a commune volentes c'on a as gens. Amours de volente" enracinee • s i est quant on a une boine volente en aucune personne sur toutes autres, et ceste amours ne puet estre dounee fors k'a une personne, car 2k i l convient que tous l i cuers s ' i mete, et cuers ne se peut p a r t i r en divers l i u s . ( 8 ) "Richard has thus l e d us s k i l l f u l l y down the branches of the genealogical tree of love, to the one love that t r u l y i n t e r e s t s him here, the heart-f e l t love for one person alone." 3 The schematic or genealogical tree of love i s an instance of science attempting to r a t i o n a l i z e , order, comprehend, and evaluate the natural impulses of the heart, the organic blossoming of which i s comprehended i n the metaphor of the r e a l tree of love. The second part of the Consaus d'Amours, which i s a d e s c r i p t i o n and celebration of Richard's conception of romantic, personal love, displays a number of further s c i e n t i f i c features. The i n i t i a l d e f i n i t i o n of love —"Amours en general n'est autre cose fors que ardeurs de pensee k i gouverne l e v o l e n t i du c u e r " ( 6 ) — i s r e f i n e d through the subtle delinea-t i o n and exposition of a number of a n t i t h e t i c a l , paradoxical statements about l o v e — d e f i n i t i o n s which Richard ascribes to John of Garland: Amours est une foursenerie de pensee, fus sans estaindre, fains sans soeler, cous mals, boine douchours, plaisans f o l i e , travaus sans repos, et repos sans travel. ( 9 ) Richard then proceeds to describe "comment amours se congoit es cuers des amants."(10) Love se concoit es cuers des gens en molt mervelleuse maniere, car concevemens d*amours n'est autre cose fors que boine volentes k i vient soudainement de l e racine du cuer . . .(12) Good repute, envy, and greed may be the sources of other kinds of love. These l a s t two causes are quickly dismissed as having nothing to do with authentic and true love. Love conceived through good repute lacks the naturalness and spontaneity of true love. Richard now proceeds to show "quel doivent estre l i cuer u amours se herberge."(12) Love i s seen as the merit of the noble soul who possesses humility, refinement, g e n t i l i t y , 25 t a c t f u l n e s s , and honesty: " L i cuer des amans doivent estre p l a i n de nohlece." (12) We are here very close to the s p i r i t of Ibn Hazm's The  Dove's Neck-Ring, and a l s o , as we s h a l l see, to the s p i r i t of Stendhal's De 1'Amour. Richard then goes on to discuss the nature of the process of f a l l i n g i n love. According to Richard, " l a droite voie d'amours sont l i oeul car ce sont l e s fenestres dou cuer et ont l o r racines u cuer."(l.U) The glance, which expresses the language of the heart, i s therefore the medium of love. I f the beloved possesses a l o v i n g heart, she w i l l wel-come the love conveyed by a noble lover's glance into her heart: En t e l e maniere que vous oes, 1'amour k i vient des iex de l'un entre par l e s iex et se concoit u cuer de 1 'autre et molt de gens s'esmervellent comment ce puet estre. Mais certes on ne s'en doit point esmervellier. S'amours k i est dame et royne de toutes l e s vertus a aucune especialite" sur toutes autres vertus, et nous trouvons d'Aristote qui conte es natures des bestes que l i c o c a t r i s a s i f o r t et s i vertueus venin que de son regart envenime i l et tue les gens, et puis que des malvaises vertus on trueve que l'une a especial vertu sur l e s autres, on ne se doit pas m e r v e l l i e r se des boines vertus est aucune k i a especial vertu ke l e s autres n'ont pas.(l^) The l o g i c o f . h i s argument mirroring the l o g i c a l development of love i t s e l f , Richard now pinpoints the three stages of love: "amours encommencie, amours affremee et amours acomplie."(lU) This section of the Consaus d'Amours c l e a r l y displays the influence of Andreas, e s p e c i a l l y when Richard goes on to r e j e c t the idea that there i s a fourth stage of love " k i est apelee amours estable, c'est a savoir quant 1'amours vient jusques au mariage et qu'ele est confremee par l e s sacremens de Sainte E g l i s e . " ( l 5 ) V i r t u a l l y paraphrasing Andreas, and echoing Heloise's famous remarks on the subject, Richard writes that . . . amours de mariage est amour de dete et 1'amours dont je vous parole est amours de grace et j a s o i t ee que ce s o i t . 26 courtoise cose de bien p a i i e r ce c'on d o i t , nepourquant ce n'est mie amours dont on doive savoir tant de gre con de c e l l e amour k i vient de grace et de pure franquise de cuer.(15) The next section of Richard's t r e a t i s e outlines three kinds of love-sickness: "La premiere maladie Cd'amoursl s i est apelee blance f i e v r e , l a seconde l i maus sans repos, l a t i e r c e l i maus desguises." (15 ) Richard's terms neatly categorize the stages i n the progress of the f a m i l i a r malady of love. The f i r s t stage i s marked by the paleness of the l o v e r and his i n a b i l i t y to eat or sleep; the second stage i s marked by the lover's r e s t l e s s pilgrimages to wherever the beloved might be; and the t h i r d stage involves the lover's seeming loss of memory and mind and hi s absolute f i x a t i o n on the beloved. Richard remarks that love-sickness, unlike other i l l n e s s e s , i s not p h y s i c a l l y induced, but rather arises from the "grant d e s i r r i e r k i carcent l e cuer." (15) Richard then discusses c e r t a i n obstacles to the f r u i t i o n of love and the s p e c i f i c ways i n which these obstacles may be overcome. There i s l i t t l e of s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t i n t h i s discussion. In some respects i t i s a pleasantly abbreviated version of Andreas' interminable debates between lovers of d i f f e r e n t classes. I t d i f f e r s from them, however, i n the highly moral nature of i t s conclusions. Richard brings his t r e a t i s e to a close with an account of the moment of h i s personal conversion to love: "II avint que quant je f u i nouvelement chevaliers j ' e s t o i e l i plus orguelleus horn envers amours k i onques fust. . . ."(19) One day, Richard suddenly found himself i n " l e forest de longue pensee" i n which he d i s -covered " l e court l e dieu d'amours."(19) Here he was p r i v i l e g e d i n witnessing the indescribable delights of true l o v e r s , the dreadful sufferings of the promiscuous, and the torments of the proud who scorn love. The whole episode i s treated i n a highly a l l e g o r i c a l vein. The 27 precedent for t h i s epilogue to Richard's t r e a t i s e i s c l e a r l y the i n t e r -polated narrative i n Andreas' De Amore which describes the adventures of a callow squire i n the land of the King and Queen of Love. Richard's numerous borrowings from Andreas, and also from Ovid, A r i s t o t l e , and Cicero and h i s twelfth-century C h r i s t i a n i n t e r p r e t e r s Pierre de B l o i s and Aelred of Rievaux, point us i n the d i r e c t i o n of another important convention of the genre of the l o v e - t r e a t i s e : i t s p l a g i a r i s t i c or encyclopaedic dimension. This dimension i s c l e a r l y r e l a t e d to the s c i e n t i f i c aspect of these t r e a t i s e s , f or the simple reason that any t r e a t i s e , by d e f i n i t i o n , takes as i t s purpose the exhaustive and comprehensive treatment of Its subject. An important part of the rhet o r i c of t r e a t i s e s i s p r e c i s e l y the marshalling of t r a d i t i o n a l , s c h o l a r l y , a u t h o r i t a t i v e , and authentic opinion. For example, i n the Arabic t r a d i t i o n of l o v e - t r e a t i s e s , one finds the invocation of whole chains of aut h o r i t i e s i n obvious i m i t a t i o n of the prac t i c e of writers of theo l o g i c a l t r e a t i s e s who transmit the names of authenticating authorii'" t i e s . The r h e t o r i c of a t t r i b u t i o n i s not nearly so elaborate i n writers such as De Fournival. Indebtedness i s often not even acknowledged. The point i s that our cherished modern conception of o r i g i n a l i t y i s l a r g e l y i r r e l e v a n t to the l o v e - t r e a t i s e . When judged by.the c r i t e r i o n of l i t e r a r y o r i g i n a l i t y , Richard de Fournival's Consaus d'Amours appears to be of rather l i m i t e d i n t r i n s i c merit. When studied i n terms of the conventions of i t s genre, the work acquires an i n t e r e s t out of a l l proportion to i t s s i z e . 28 Footnotes *For biographical information on Richard de Fournival see Richard de Fournival, Advice on Love, i n The Comedy of Eros: Medieval French  Guides to the Art of Love, ed. James B.. Wads-worth, trans. Norman R. Shapiro (Urbana: Univ. of I l l i n o i s Press, 1971) , pp. 93-98; and also William M. McLeod, ed., "The Consaus d'Amours of Richard de Fournival," Studies i n Philology, 32, No. 1 (1935) , pp. 1-3. Hereafter, quotations from t h i s e d i t i o n w i l l be documented by page numbers i n parentheses. 2The Comedy of Eros, p. 97 . 3 I b i d . , p. 95. 29 Chapter IV The Love Potion Although the formal t r e a t i s e i s the most common r h e t o r i c a l vehicle . of love-science i n the Middle Ages, i t i s by no means the only one. The discourse of medieval e r o t i c science can also he discovered integrated into the r h e t o r i c of more imaginative forms of w r i t i n g . The language of disease and madness, for instance, permeates not only the love t r e a t i s e — as we have seen i n several examples—hut also the poetry of love. John Livingston Lowes, as already noted, 1 provided a c l a s s i c account of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . A l e s s obvious medieval example of a s c i e n t i f i c e r o t i c theme being present i n both the- l o v e - t r e a t i s e and more imaginative l i t e r a t u r e i s the love potion. The love potion or p h i l t r e has from .Cl a s s i c a l times been one important part of the general pseudo-science of a p h r o d i s i a c s . 2 Greek physicians claimed expertise not only i n the subject of the malady of love but also i n the matters of inducing and preserving love. Just as love-sickness took i t s place i n catalogues of p h y s i c a l and mental diseases, so the love potion was studied as part of the pharmacological d i s c i p l i n e . Though dressed up i n the a u t h o r i t a t i v e c l o t h i n g of science, the love potion had from the very beginning rather more to do with medical quackery and magic than with true science. This ambiguity per-s i s t s into the Middle Ages—the period i n which the love potion acquires i t s r i c h e s t l i t e r a r y applications—where we f i n d physicians dealing, as a matter of course, i n sundry magical and .herbal amatory a r t s . This uncertain existence between s c i e n t i f i c and magical discourse i s just one 30 of the important ambiguities i n the love potion. Another c r u c i a l ambiguity i s discovered i n the etymology of the word potion. The L a t i n potio refers to a draught, e i t h e r of poison or medicine. This dualism i s f u l l y e x p l i c i t i n the Old French poison. This l i n g u i s t i c ambiguity r e f l e c t s the p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous, often poisonous aspects of love magic. Charlatans, witches, magicians and quacks have for centuries preyed on f o o l i s h , g u l l i b l e , and desperate lovers with a whole arsenal of amatory panaceas. But i t i s the workings of the love potion i n serious l i t e r a t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the story of T r i s t a n and I s e u l t , which concerns us here, because i t i s only with the imprint of poetic genius that the love potion acquires i t s deepest ambiguities. The question of the immediate source of the love potion theme i n the story of T r i s t a n and I s e u l t need not detain us. As Gertrude Schoepperle has written, "There appears no reason to a f f i r m any more than to deny that there may have been a love-potion i n the C e l t i c s t o r i e s of T r i s t a n . Love potions are universal i n p r i m i t i v e l i t e r a t u r e and occur frequently i n C e l t i c t r a d i t i o n . " 3 When-ever and however the motif of the love potion entered the T r i s t a n story, the important thing i s to appreciate the transmutation of the purely instrumental aphrodisiac into an i n c r e d i b l y suggestive symbol of the nature and power of passionate love. What are some of the s a l i e n t features of the love potion as we f i n d i t described i n the T r i s t a n story? F i r s t , and before a l l , the love potion i s the a c t u a l , even i f magical, cause of^the..love of T r i s t a n and Iseult... This fact tends to be obscured i n modern purely psychological analyses of the theme. Within the bounds of the f i c t i o n a l s e t t i n g the love potion i s not purely a symbol of passionate love, but i t s r e a l cause. The love potion 31 i s therefore unique among e r o t i c metaphors i n that i t i s r e a l l y more than just a metaphor—it i s a technique, an instrument that i s productive of love. By mistake, the lovers drink the love potion meant o r i g i n a l l y to seal the marriage.of King Mark and h i s bride I s e u l t . What kind of love does the drinking of the love potion i n i t i a t e ? Does the love potion as we f i n d i t at work i n the T r i s t a n s t o r i e s i n i t i a t e j u s t any kind of love, or does i t i n i t i a t e a s p e c i a l kind? C l e a r l y the l a t t e r . One of the f i r s t things that s t r i k e s one about t h i s love i s that the lovers f a l l i n love with one another absolutely simultaneously. While some aphrodisiacs have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been intended to create love i n one or the other i n d i v i d u a l i n a p a i r o f . p o t e n t i a l l o v e r s , the love potion i n the T r i s t a n story i s intended to create a t r u l y r e c i p r o c a l love. The lovers are absolutely u n i f i e d i n t h e i r love. Another funda-mental feature of the love i n s p i r e d by t h i s love potion i s i t s completely involuntary and i r r e s i s t i b l e character: the lovers are viewed as being caught up i n a f a t e f u l course of events which they are completely power-le s s to c o n t r o l . We are here f a r from other c l a s s i c descriptions of love i n which the w i l l , the imagination, and the i n t e l l e c t — t h a t i s , d i s t i n c t -l y human or c u l t u r a l c a p a c i t i e s — p l a y a dominant r o l e . The workings of the love potion are delineated i n s t a r k l y dehumanized terms. Dehumanized both i n the sense of "inhumane"—Iseult's perfect willingness to murder her maid Brangane because there was a p o s s i b i l i t y that she might betray the lovers to Mark, i s the obvious i n s t a n c e — a n d also i n the sense of the word i n Ortega's famous phrase "the dehumanization of a r t . " That i s , the love potion describes love not with a human face, but i n terms of i r r a t i o n a l magical chemistry. As already noted, love magic had had from the very beginning c e r t a i n negative features. On t h i s t o p i c , E r i c Maple writes, 32 The h i s t o r y of love magic had i t s darker side, . . . for. many of the aphrodisiacs which were peddled to the public were poisonous. The Roman poet Lucretius i s sa i d to have commit-ted suicide during a bout of sexual frenzy brought on by a love potion. The magicians of Thessaly, who were the p r i n c i p a l s p e c i a l i s t s i n t h i s l i n e i n Southern Europe, used drugs which were capable of d r i v i n g a man insane, according to Juvenal. The "magical" aspects of the love i n s p i r e d by the love potion are pror-. foundly r e l a t e d to i t s poisonous aspects. One analogy f o r the magical yet dangerous compulsion which i s exercised by the love potion i s with the song of the Sirens which also entices those who f a l l under i t s s p e l l to t h e i r destruction. With the potion, T r i s t a n and Iseult drink both t h e i r joy and t h e i r destruction and death. Perhaps another appropriate analogy for the e f f e c t s of the potion can be seen i n the forces that are unleashed i n the r i t e s associated with the worship of Dionysus, as these are depicted i n Greek tragedies such as Euripides' The Bacchae. The Dionysian power, l i k e the love potion, has dark and t r a g i c as well as p o s i t i v e and l i f e - a f f i r m i n g aspects: ecstasy and i n t o x i c a t i o n coupled with madness and destruction. Both powers exercise a fr i g h t e n i n g compulsion over those who come f u l l y under t h e i r sway. Also l i k e the Dionysian power, the love potion plunges i t s victims into a sort of moral t w i l i g h t zone i n which t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s , moral, and p o l i t i c a l constraints cease to tug at the conscience. The love potion therefore provides an excellent excuse or a l i b i f o r a passionate adulterous love which at many points f l o u t s these moral imperatives. As long as the influence of the love potion p e r s i s t s , the lovers can claim that they are under a magical compulsion which r e l i e v e s them of g u i l t and moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y — m u c h as the plea of i n s a n i t y , when j u s t i f i e d i n a modern court of law, r e l i e v e s persons of moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r cri m i n a l actions committed while insane. The i r r a t i o n a l and uncontrollable aspects of the love potion have been stressed. However, one of the fundamental pretensions of science i s the b e l i e f that the natural and the i r r a t i o n a l can not only be named and explained, but also subjected to control. This i l l u s i o n of control over the workings of passionate love i s discovered.in the love potion when we consider i t s purely t e c h n i c a l dimensions. The very nature of a love potion or aphrodisiac i s to i n t e r f e r e in.or supplement the natural workings of desire. The love potion was o r i g i n a l l y concocted by Iseult's mother for a d e f i n i t e purpose: to e s t a b l i s h love between King Mark and his bride I s e u l t . That t h i s c o n t r o l i s an i l l u s i o n i s sh o r t l y revealed when love, or, rather, the love potion, becomes a t o o l i n the hands of fate. Because they are t h i r s t y , T r i s t a n and I s e u l t a c c i d e n t a l l y drink the p h i l t r e . Another element of control i n the love potion i s t h e ' p o s s i b i l i t y of l i m i t i n g the duration of i t s e f f i c a c y . In two of the e a r l i e s t versions of the T r i s t a n story the e f f i c a c y of the love potion i s subjected to c l e a r l y s p e c i f i e d l i m i t a t i o n . In E i l h a r t ' s version of the story, the lovers could be separated a f t e r four years;•in Beroul's version, a f t e r three years. Vinaver has convincingly argued that these l i m i t a t i o n s i n the potency of the love potion have everything to do with the formal and moral problems created by the conjoining of the theme of a " t r a g i c c o n f l i c t between vassal and over-l o r d " 5 with the theme of the love of T r i s t a n and I s e u l t . The l i m i t i n g of the force of the love potion allows T r i s t a n to come.to his senses, become conscious of his wrongdoing, and return .to a l o y a l observance of feudal law;:'it also allows I s e u l t to come to her senses and return to her husband Mark. Vinaver describes t h i s ambiguous status of the love potion 31+ — p r o d u c t i v e of a love at once eternal and l i m i t e d — a s the natural r e s u l t of an i n t r i n s i c a l l y incoherent l i t e r a r y aesthetic. Without questioning Vinaver's account of the ambiguous nature of the love potion, l e t us examine t h i s ambiguity i n the terms of e r o t i c science. The l i m i t a t i o n of the e f f i c a c y of the love potion represents another t e c h n i c a l dimension of the metaphor; i t represents the pretension of science or quasi-science to be able not only to understand but also to control passionate love. But once again t h i s c o n t r o l of the workings of passionate love i s shown to be of s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d i f not i l l u s o r y effectiveness. The lovers might suddenly come to t h e i r senses and attempt to subordinate t h e i r love to feudal and moral o b l i g a t i o n s , nevertheless they do seem to be the playthings of a f a t e f u l course of events. The love potion seems s t i l l to be at work long a f t e r i t s power has supposedly diminished. Even a f t e r the deaths of the l o v e r s , the love potion appears to maintain i t s influence. I t was the potion that was responsible f o r the p e r s i s t e n t growing together of the rose and vine over the graves of T r i s t a n and I s e u l t . The dehumanized s c i e n t i f i c drama of the love potion i s a mirror i n which one finds r e f l e c t e d the outlines of the whole human tragedy of passionate love as i t i s elaborated i n the story of T r i s t a n and I s e u l t . The love potion i s therefore very much analogous to the other c e n t r a l e r o t i c metaphor of the Middle Ages, that of the sickness of love. The magician or quack-scientist with h i s love potion plays a r o l e s i m i l a r to that of the physician with h i s explanations and cures for love. Both metaphors view love i n terms of a depersonalized a f f l i c t i o n . The symptoms of the love-sickness are profoundly s i m i l a r to the i n t o x i c a t i n g e f f e c t s of the love potion. Also, both a f f l i c t i o n s are 35 p o t e n t i a l l y f a t a l . The only true cure f o r the l o v e - s i c k n e s s — leaving aside the p o s s i b i l i t y of submission to the cure offered by the s p i r i t u a l p h y s i c i a n — i s to be found i n the love bestowed by the beloved. S i m i l a r l y , i n the case of the love potion: the lovers w i l l and l i t e r a l l y do die when they are unable to possess one another. A fas c i n a t i n g f e a t u r e — c o i n c i d e n t a l yet perfectly, l o g i c a l — o f the medieval science of love i s the simultaneous treatment of the two themes of the love potion and the malady of love to be discovered not only i n the various versions of the T r i s t a n romance, but i n other great imaginative works on love such as Chaucer's T r o i l u s and Criseyde. In both s t o r i e s , a science of questionable, u n l i k e l y , or peripheral status becomes the r h e t o r i c a l vehicle f o r the most d e l i c a t e and imaginative insights i n t o the t r a g i c destinies of passionate l o v e r s . 36 Footnotes iSee Chapter One, n. 3 above. 2Harry E. Wedeck, Love Potions Through the Ages: A Study of Amatory  Devices and Mores (New York: Phi l o s o p h i c a l Library Inc., 1963) . 3"The Love Potion i n T r i s t a n and I s e u l t , " Romania, 39 (1910) , p. 29h. ^ E r i c Maple, "Love Magic,". Man, Myth and Magic: An I l l u s t r a t e d  Encyclopedia of the Supernatural (New York: BPC Publishing Ltd., 1970) , p. I658. 5The Rise of Romance (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1971) , p. ki. 37 Chapter V Love as a S c i e n t i f i c Experiment':. Goethe's Die Wahlverwandtschaften and Stendhal's De 1'Amour L i v e l y c u r i o s i t y , bafflement, and even moral outrage greeted the appearance i n 1809 i n Germany of a Novelle by Goethe bearing the in-: :. t r i g u i n g t i t l e Die Wahlverwandtschaften. Readers and c r i t i c s had a r i g h t to be b a f f l e d not only by the o r i g i n and meaning of the strange te c h n i c a l concept named i n the t i t l e , but also by the a p p l i c a t i o n ' o f t h i s term to a story of love. As i t turned out, i n 1775 the Swedish chemist Torbern Bergmann had published a t r e a t i s e e n t i t l e d De  a t t r a c t i o n i s e l e c t i v i s . This t e c h n i c a l concept of what English p r e c i s e l y translates as " e l e c t i v e a f f i n i t i e s " was rendered rather more imprecisely i n German by the term Wahlverwandtschaft. The idea of " a f f i n i t y " was the key innovation i n chemistry of the early eighteenth-century. In 1718 Etienne Frangois Geoffroy, a French physician, drew up tables which displayed the r e l a t i v e degrees of a f f i n i t y e x i s t i n g between acids and c e r t a i n bases and between various metals and sulphur. . Torbern Bergmann elaborated the most important r e v i s i o n of Geoffroy's tables. Besides describing and cataloguing thousands of possible chemical combinations, Bergmann sought to explain why a f f i n i t i e s developed between c e r t a i n substances and did not develop between others. Bergmann found himself r e s o r t i n g to an e s s e n t i a l l y metaphysical explanation for these phenomena — t h e " e l e c t i v e " i n h i s t i t l e suggesting that some sort of choice or preference was involved i n the development of a f f i n i t i e s . 1 In the p i v o t a l fourth chapter of Die Wahlverwandtschaften, Goethe has two of h i s characters attempt to elucidate the meaning of t h i s paradoxical idea of " e l e c t i v e a f f i n i t i e s . " But i f the purely s c i e n t i f i c meaning of t h i s concept was d i f f i c u l t to comprehend, how much more ambiguous was i t s status as the t i t l e of a t a l e of romantic passion. A profound act of conceptual d e f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n was involved i n the bringing together of Romantic e r o t i c discourse and the discourse of modern chemistry. While some c r i t i c s admired the love story, they saw the s c i e n t i f i c inter-' polations as awkward and i r r e l e v a n t . Further, and perhaps i n e v i t a b l y , Goethe was charged by some with immoral materialism and reductionism for a l l e g e d l y reducing love to a mere matter of chemistry. French readers, for example, were v i r t u a l l y unanimous i n t h e i r r e j e c t i o n of Goethe's N o v e l l e . 2 In the mind and emotions of one important French contemporary of Goethe's, however, Die Wahlverwandt- schaften.struck a profoundly sympathetic chord. In February 1810, a year a f t e r the appearance of Goethe's Novelle in" Germany, and s h o r t l y a f t e r the appearance of a French t r a n s l a t i o n , we f i n d Stendhal noting i n h i s journal, "Le s o i r du 18 , je l i s l e s A f f i n i t e s de Goethe, roman d'un homme d'un grand t a l e n t . " 3 A month l a t e r , Stendhal again r e f e r s to Goethe's Novelle, and i n terms which suggest that the work' w i l l long reverberate i n h i s own l i f e and w r i t i n g s : to a c e r t a i n Mile Jules, an acquaintance of Stendhal's, Goethe's Novelle "semble r i d i c u l e . Passe. II f a u d r a i t , avec une tete francaise, une ame a l a Mozart (de l a s e n s i b i l i t e l a plus tendre et l a plus profonde) pour gouter ce roman."4 Twenty years l a t e r , i n November 1830, Stendhal's great novel Le Rouge  et l e Noir i s published; an e a r l y chapter, d e t a i l i n g the nascent love of J u l i e n Sorel and Madame de Renal, i s appropriately e n t i t l e d "Les A f f i n i t e s E l e c t i v e s . " But i t i s an e a r l i e r work of Stendhal's, the t r e a t i s e De_ 1'Amour ( . 1 8 2 2 ) , which most powerfully echoes Goethe's Die  Wahlverwandtschaften. On f i r s t glance, these two great works would appear to bear l i t t l e resemblance. Goethe's work i s an u n t y p i c a l l y long Novelle which yet possesses that genre's t y p i c a l features: the focus on an unusual." happening, a symmetrical, a r t i f i c i a l , and f a t a l i s t i c p l o t development, and a n o n - n a t u r a l i s t i c s e t t i n g and action. Stendhal's De 1'Amour i s an encyclopaedic t r e a t i s e . Yet i n a curious way, both genres work, at l e a s t on one l e v e l , i n a s i m i l a r fashion. By d e f i n i t i o n , a s c i e n t i f i c t r e a t i s e i s a systematic, methodical, highly formalized exposition of the p r i n c i p l e s of a p a r t i c u l a r subject. Novellen, too, are t y p i c a l l y characterized by an intensive focusing o f - a t t e n t i o n upon one p a r t i c u l a r theme or s i t u a t i o n . In both De_ 1'Amour and Die Wahlverwandtschaften the concentrated focus of i n t e r e s t , the overwhelming concern, i s passionate love. A number of other r h e t o r i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s can be noted. In both works we f i n d c o l l e c t i o n s of aphorisms on love and diverse r e l a t e d subjects. In Die Wahlverwandtschaften the aphorisms' form part of O t t i l i e ' s Journal. Stendhal also makes use of the form of the personal diary or journal. Both works contain important theories of love as well as interpolated Novellen which provide f i c t i o n a l v e r i f i c a t i o n of these abstract theories. Stendhal's theory of love i s of course the famous one of love's c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n s . This metaphor i s a b e a u t i f u l d e s c r i p t i o n of the lover's imaginative and i n t e l l e c t u a l i d e a l i z a t i o n or t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n of the beloved. The l o v e r delights i n endowing the beloved with a thousand perfections. Here i s the concrete image: ho Laissez t r a v a i l l e r l a tSte d'un amant pendant vingt-quatre heures, et v o i c i ce que vous trouverez: Aux mines de s e l de Salzbourg, on j e t t e , dans l e s profondeurs abandonnees de l a mine, un rameau d'arbre e f f e u i l l e par l ' h i v e r ; deux ou t r o i s mois apr£s on l e r e t i r e couvert de c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n s b r i l l a n t e s : l e s plus p e t i t e s branches, c e l l e s qui ne sont pas plus grosses que l a patte d'une me"sange, sont garnies d'une i n f i n i t e de diamants, mobiles et eblouissants; on ne peut plus reconnaitre l e rameau p r i m i t i f . Ce que j'appelle c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n , c'est l'ope"ration de 1 ' e s p r i t , qui t i r e de tout ce qui se pre"sente l a de"couverte que l ' o b j e t aime a de nouvelles perfections. ( 8 , 9 ) Both Die Wahlverwandtschaften and De.1'Amour had t h e i r genesis i n p i v o t a l c r i s e s i n the l i v e s of t h e i r authors. Shortly a f t e r his marriage on October 17 , 1806 to Christiane Vulpius, the woman with whom he had l i v e d for more than eighteen years and with whom he had had f i v e c h i l d r e n , Goethe f e l l passionately i n love with a young woman of eighteen named Minna Herzlieb. Die Wahlverwandtschaften represents Goethe's attempt somehow to come to grips with, and to i l l u s t r a t e , the r e s u l t i n g c o n f l i c t s . Stendhal's De 1'Amour was born from h i s hopelessly unhappy love for Me"tilde Dembowski. Both of these works are p a i n f u l l y intimate and confessional. Stendhal confesses that he wept while cor r e c t i n g the proofs of De 1'Amour, the work which remained, throughout h i s l i f e , h i s favourite among those he had written. Die Wahlverwandt- schaften, s i m i l a r l y , was for i t s author a work replete with personal s i g n i f i c a n c e ; a work of which "Goethe . . . himself spoke innthe-.. gravest terms, always with a sense of awe and humility before a spectacle that surpasses human understanding." 5 Goethe confessed to Eckermann: "Indeed, there i s not a l i n e i n the Wahlverwandtschaften that i s not taken from my own experience, and there i s more i n i t than can be gathered by any one from a f i r s t reading." 6 Rhetorical appearances would seem to deny any confessional aspects to these texts. To v e i l h i s kl e r o t i c confession, Stendhal pretends: merely to be r e p r i n t i n g the diary of a martyr to love named S a l v i a t i . Other pseudonymous figures appear throughout the t r e a t i s e . The whole work i s modelled on, and framed by, the impersonal r h e t o r i c a l strategies of a s c i e n t i f i c t r e a t i s e . Of h i s work Stendhal writes, "C'est tout uniment une d e s c r i p t i o n exacte et s c i e n t i f i q u e d'une sorte de f o l i e t res rare en France."(321) Goethe masks h i s confession i n the guise of a highly i r o n i c a l and f o r m a l i s t i c f i c t i o n . Further, he employs s c i e n t i f i c discourse, i n a way s i m i l a r to Stendhal, seemingly i n order to depersonalize his account of love. It i s t h i s r e a l l y quite extraordinary encompassment and fusion of s c i e n t i f i c discourse and intimate e r o t i c discourse which constitutes the e s s e n t i a l s i m i l a r i t y between Die Wahlverwandtschaften and De_ 1'Amour. The masking and mastering of profound private s u f f e r i n g gives us only a part of the explanation for t h i s strange intermixture of love and science. A broader i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s required. The f i r s t , great t i d e of Romanticism and of Romantic love l i t e r a t u r e had flooded and ebbed. The subjective poetic excesses of e a r l i e r Romantic works such as Goethe's own Die Leiden des jungen Werthers demanded some sort of objective d i s c i p l i n e d understanding, dissection,-and c o d i f i c a t i o n . An analogy for t h i s evolution can be discovered i n the medieval e r o t i c t r a d i t i o n . The medieval l o v e - t r e a t i s e i n both Arabic and Latin cultures analyzes, and dissects the o r i g i n a l poetic impulse of r e f i n e d courtly poetry. There exists a s t i l l broader explanation for the c r u c i a l role of science i n the e r o t i c discourse of Goethe and Stendhal. The dominant mode of discourse i n post-Enlightenment culture has quite obviously been the s c i e n t i f i c . E r o t i c discourse, l i k e other modes of discourse, has tended to appropriate and mirror t h i s dominant language. I t seems clear that Stendhal, sharing with Goethe an endless f a s c i n a t i o n with both love and science, and d e s i r i n g to imitate his great contemporary by inventing his own c o l o u r f u l s c i e n t i f i c symbol for love, h i t upon the metaphor of love as c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n as a worthy r i v a l theory to the theory of love's a f f i n i t i e s . Both t h i s theory of rv,«.v.. Stendhal's and Goethe's theory of the . a f f i n i t i e s — p e r h a p s the greatest Romantic theories of l o v e — a c q u i r e d v i t a l status p r e c i s e l y because of the c o l o u r f u l d e f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n s that they embodied. U n t i l the p u b l i c a t i o n of Die Wahlverwandtschaften i n 1 8 0 9 and De_ 1'Amour i n 1 8 2 2 neither the chemical term appropriated i n the former work, nor the mineralogical term exploited i n the l a t t e r possessed s i g n i f i c a n c e or a p p l i c a b i l i t y outside of s c i e n t i f i c discourse. However, since the p u b l i c a t i o n of these two works, both terms have permeated the r h e t o r i c of love. But aside from the s t i l l p erceptible and refreshing element of strangeness i n these two e r o t i c metaphors, one i s struck by a number of other d i s t i n c t i v e common elements. What exactly are the terms of each of these metaphors? I f we con-s u l t the c r i t i c s we are i n v a r i a b l y t o l d that the nature of love i s being compared to, r e s p e c t i v e l y , the natural inanimate phenomenon of chemical a f f i n i t i e s and the natural process of c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n . Goethe's metaphor i s viewed as turning on a profound perception of the existence of a fundamental analogy or p a r a l l e l i s m between two spheres or l e v e l s of r e a l i t y : the animate and the inanimate. Just as chemical substances display a f f i n i t i e s f o r c e r t a i n other substances, so, s i m i l a r l y , human beings show a f f i n i t i e s f o r c e r t a i n of t h e i r fellows. So marked and d i s t i n c t , even v i o l e n t , are these a f f i n i t i e s , that i t i s tempting to see more than natural necessity at work. Chemical substances, l i k e human h3 beings, appear to demonstrate e l e c t i v e preferences for c e r t a i n combina-tions or a f f i n i t i e s . The chemical term Wahlverwandtschaft i t s e l f suggests t h i s ambiguity. Wahl means choice and Verwandtschaft means kins h i p , both f a m i l i a l and general. This i s indeed a paradox: a necessity which i s chosen, an a f f i n i t y which i s e l e c t i v e . Stendhal's metaphor i s also viewed as turning on an analogy between the inanimate world and the human. The process of c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n provides a natural c o r r e l a t i v e for the workings of the imagination, and i n p a r t i c u l a r the imagination of the lover. But on closer inspection, these inte r p r e t a t i o n s are seen to compre-hend only h a l f the t r u t h . I f Goethe and Stendhal were merely o f f e r i n g us two more n a t u r a l i s t i c explanations of love, t h e i r claims to o r i g i n a l i t y would have to be r e s t r i c t e d merely to the novelty of t h e i r choices of natural analogies. But i f we look again at the two phenomena with which love i s being compared, we see that both possess a c r u c i a l d u a l i t y or ambiguity: the f a c t , e x p l i c i t i n both Die Wahlverwandtschaften and De  1'Amour, that c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n and chemical bonding occur n a t u r a l l y , yet can be experimentally simulated and to a degree c o n t r o l l e d through r a t i o n a l s c i e n t i f i c agency. I t i s therefore not only with natural processes that love i s being compared but a l s o , simultaneously, with those same processes a r t i f i c i a l l y created and c o n t r o l l e d . Love as a s c i e n t i f i c experiment! Here we have the f u l l measure of dehumanization that i s i n t r i n s i c to both metaphors: love described i n terms of inanimate natural processes as well as i n terms of s c i e n t i f i c experiments. What defines the experimental s i t u a t i o n i s of course the t e c h n i c a l , or human intervention i n natural processes. In the course of the hh discussion of the a f f i n i t i e s i n Die Wahlverwandt s eha f t e n, the figure of the chemist i s invoked at several points. When the Captain a t t r i b u t e s the human q u a l i t i e s of choice, preference, or e l e c t i o n to chemical substances, Charlotte responds with a s c e p t i c a l s c i e n t i f i c view: . . . I would never see a choice here but rather a natural necessity and indeed hardly that; f or i n the. l a s t resort i t i s perhaps only a matter of opportunity. Opportunity makes rela t i o n s h i p s just as much as i t makes thieves; and where your natural substances are concerned, the choice seems to me to l i e e n t i r e l y i n the hands of the chemist who brings these substances together. Once they have been brought together, though, God help them.'7 Not only can the chemist b r i n g together a f f i n e d substances, he can also unify, by means of intermediaries, substances which n a t u r a l l y repulse one another. F i n a l l y , he can break up chemical combinations through the introduction of a substance which, .has an a f f i n i t y f o r one of the elements i n a p a r t i c u l a r combination. Goethe's complex e r o t i c metaphor therefore possesses two dimensions: the f i r s t being what might be termed the anthropomorphic or na t u r a l , and the second, the experimental or s c i e n t i f i c . What does the metaphor t e l l us about love? As already noted, a c e r t a i n ambiguity or incoherence seems to characterize the natural p h i l o s o p h i c a l analogy. In a prefatory note, Goethe sought to elucidate the terms of t h i s analogy: I t may be that the author was l e d to the adoption of t h i s curious t i t l e by h i s long continued studies i n physics. He knew that the natural s c i e n t i s t s quite frequently use e t h i c a l analogies i n order to illuminate phenomena that are not immediately within human experience; he wished, i n t h i s case of a moral issue, to reduce a chemical analogy to i t s e s s e n t i a l s p i r i t u a l meaning. This has seemed a l l the more proper, as nature i s one everywhere and as even the c l e a r realm of r a t i o n a l choice.is i n e v i t a b l y shot through with those traces of the confusing compulsion of passion which only a higher power—possibly not i n t h i s l i f e — c a n remove completely. 8 I f Goethe were merely promoting the idea of a natural chemistry of love, arguing, that human beings, l i k e chemical elements, are bound by natural a f f i n i t i e s , there would be l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y of comprehension. The idea of a f f i n i t y makes sense on both the chemical and human planes. But Goethe i s attempting more: to demonstrate not only the na t u r a l , but also the " e l e c t i v e " q u a l i t y of these a f f i n i t i e s . What sense can be made of t h i s highly problematic and ambiguous notion of " e l e c t i v e a f f i n i t i e s " ? Charlotte sensibly argues that the sole element of choice i n chemical a f f i n i t i e s rests with the p o t e n t i a l intervention, of the chemist. Here, she i s merely following l o g i c a l sense, which would see chemical a f f i n i -t i e s as either e x i s t i n g or not e x i s t i n g — n o t i n any meaningful sense to be chosen. But what sense can be made of the notion of e l e c t i v e human a f f i n i t i e s ? When the word " a f f i n i t y " i s f i r s t mentioned i n conversation, Charlotte immediately thinks of a p a i r of her cousins. Obviously, one can i n no sense of the word he s a i d to " e l e c t " one's cousins. One must turn to the more general, non-familial meaning of a f f i n i t y i n order to te s t the notion of e l e c t i v e a f f i n i t y . An i r r e d u c i b l e ambiguity i s seen to characterize t h i s notion. On the one hand, common sense t e l l s us that human, l i k e chemical, a f f i n i t i e s e i t h e r exist or they do not e x i s t . On the other hand, we have the human a t t r i b u t e of choice or e l e c t i o n . What the chemical analogy succeeds i n demonstrating i s that because man p a r t i c i p a t e s In the a f f i n i t i e s of nature, h i s loves bear an element of the necessary about them. Choice i n love i s therefore not absolute but l i m i t e d ; love involves a mixture of choice and compulsion. To make more precise sense of the idea of " e l e c t i v e a f f i n i t i e s " i t i s necessary to appreciate the second dimension of the metaphor—that i s , 1+6 the experimental, s c i e n t i f i c analogy. The terms of t h i s analogy are much more evenly balanced, and coherent than the terms of the anthropomorphic account of the a f f i n i t i e s . Human intervention i n natural processes l i n k s the two terms of t h i s equation: the chemist's attempt to c o n t r o l chemical a f f i n i t i e s and the lover's attempt to control human a f f i n i t i e s . The element of e l e c t i o n or choice i n the a f f i n i t i e s of love begins to make more sense when one becomes aware of the implications of the chem4 i s t ' s intervention i n natural chemical a f f i n i t i e s . The l i m i t e d e x t r i n s i c controls which the chemist can exercise over natural processes mirror those which the lover can exercise over'.-the course of his a f f i n i t i e s . A f f i n i t i e s i n love are e l e c t e d or chosen not i n any absolute sense, but i n the l i m i t e d senses implied by the experimental model. Quite simply, one can decide or refuse to introduce new i n d i v i d u a l s into an established s o c i a l s e t t i n g . The p l o t of Die Wahlverwandtschaften i s i n large part generated from such a p o s i t i v e choice. Once O t t i l i e and the Captain are introduced into the domestic s i t u a t i o n of Eduard and h i s wife Charlotte, natural a f f i n i t i e s develop between Charlotte and the Captain, and Eduard and O t t i l i e . But just as the chemist can keep a f f i n e d substances apart, so, s i m i l a r l y , the lover can renounce h i s love. This i s what happens with the love of Charlotte and the Captain, as Goethe makes e x p l i c i t : The Captain was already beginning to f e e l that, because she was always near him, he was becoming attached to her i r r e s i s t i b l y . He made himself avoid appearing during the hours Charlotte was usually i n the park. He got up early i n the morning, took care of everything, and then r e t i r e d to work i n h i s wing of the mansion. The f i r s t days on which t h i s happened Charlotte thought h i s absence accidental and looked for him everywhere. Then she believed she understood him, and on that account esteemed him a l l the more highly.(80) This i s of course not by any means the end of t h e i r love. A l a t e r g i v ing way to the i r r e s i s t i b l e a f f i n i t i e s of love c a l l s for an even greater hi resistance or: renunciation on the part of the lovers: the departure of the Captain from the estate. C l e a r l y , the love r , l i k e the chemist, i s not innocent before nature. Love, marriage, and adultery are within l i m i t e d human co n t r o l , just as the fusion and divorce of chemical substances are within the l i m i t e d c o n t r o l of the chemist. The v i r t u e of Goethe's experimental analogy i s that i t illuminates love as being a natural process which i s subject to c u l t u r a l , a r t i f i c i a l constraints. In the context of the whole of Die Wahlverwandtschaften, t h i s experimental account of love and marriage must be viewed as just one important l i n k i n a complex chain of symbolic descriptions of enter-prises which seek not only to control and understand, but to supplement and improve upon the contours of raw nature: landscape gardening, g r a f t i n g of trees, manners, law, and education are just a few examples. The a f f i n i t i e s must also be seen i n the l i g h t of other mysterious and elemental e l e c t r i c a l and magnetic phenomena r e f e r r e d to by Goethe: phenomena which are to a greater or l e s s e r extent open to s c i e n t i f i c comprehension. Turning again to Stendhal's metaphor of c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n — w h i c h i s simpler than Goethe's i n the one fact that i t i s unclouded by any anthropomorphizing tendency—we discover that here also the c r i t i c s tend to see only the invocation of a natural image or c o r r e l a t i v e for the nature of love. However, i f one looks c l o s e l y at those passages i n De 1'Amour which describe c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n , one discovers that what i s being described i s not just the natural phenomenon of c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n , but also the natural phenomenon a r t i f i c i a l l y created. That the c r y s t a l s are fabricated, i s made clear i n the i n i t i a l account of the phenomenon": Aux mines de s e l de Salzbourg, on j e t t e , dans l e s profondeurs abandonnies de l a mine, un rameau d'arbre e f f e u i l l e par l ' h i v e r ; deux ou t r o i s mois apre~s on l e r e t i r e couvert de c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n s brillantes.(8) Love's c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n s also display a d u a l i s t i c nature. On...the..one hand we f i n d Stendhal claiming that love springs from nature: "Ce phenomene, que je me permets d'appeler l a c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n , vient de l a nature qui nous commande.d*avoir du p l a i s i r et qui nous envoie l e sang au cerveau . . ."(9) Stendhal writes that "En 1922, l a physiologie nous donnera l a desc r i p t i o n de l a p a r t i e physique de ce phenomene" and gives hi s own explanation of the lover's overwrought c o n d i t i o n — a n explanation which resembles nothing more c l o s e l y than the descriptions of love furnished by the. Greek physicians: "II y a une cause physique, un commencement de f o l i e , une affluence du sang au cerveau, un desordre dans l e s nerfs et dans l e centre cerebral."(32) On t h i s view, love works at a n a t u r a l . l e v e l beyond the control of reason or w i l l . Stendhal claims that "L'amour est comme l a f i e v r e , i l n a i t et s'eteint sans que l a volonte y. a i t l a moindre part."(.l6) The other dimension of the metaphor of c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n implies a rather d i f f e r e n t picture of the nature of loye. The a r t i f i c i a l or tec h n i c a l account of the c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n process suggests that loye i s something unnatural and fabricated. Just as the miners at Salzbourg make b e a u t i f u l c r y s t a l s form around branches, so the lover creates about a r e a l woman a complex array of "beauties and perfections. I f the lover can make these c r y s t a l s , he can also destroy them: Le moment l e plus d^chirant de 1'amour jeune encore est c e l u i ou i l s'apergoit q u ' i l a f a i t un faux raisonnement et q u ' i l faut de"truire tout un pan de c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n . (11) This control over natural process i s not absolute; i t i s l i m i t e d i n the way that control over the a f f i n i t i e s i s l i m i t e d . Stendhal claims, f o r instance, that for various reasons women have l e s s control over the c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n process than do men. Like Goethe, Stendhal sees love as involved i n both nature and culture. Love springs from nature and yet i t i s the miracle of c i v i l i z a t i o n . As we s h a l l see,, Stendhal ' s i d e a of a comparative science of love h i g h l i g h t s t h i s d u a l i t y . What i s natural and e s s e n t i a l to love must be compared with what i s var i a b l e and uncertain. For example, Stendhal writes that Toutes l e s femmes sont l e s memes pour l e fond des mouvements du coeur et des passions; l e s formes des passions sont d i f f e r e n t e s . I I y a l a difference que donne une plus grande fortune, une plus grande culture de 1 ' e s p r i t , l'habitude de plus hautes pensees, et par-dessus tout, et malheureusement, un o r g u e i l plus i r r i t a b l e . ( 7 1 n. 1) A chapter i n De 1'Amour e n t i t l e d "Le Rameau de Salzbourg" further reinforces the idea of the te c h n i c a l or experimental, and therefore c u l t u r a l , dimension to c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n . This chapter i s astonishingly s i m i l a r to the notorious fourth chapter of Die Wahlverwandtschaften, the chapter i n which the a f f i n i t i e s are f i r s t introduced. In both, we discover a small c i r c l e of highly r e f i n e d and c u l t i v a t e d people involved i n witty and extremely self-conscious conversation on the subject of the nature of love. In both conversations, a s c i e n t i f i c theory about the nature of love i s f i r s t advanced and';then demonstrated or v e r i f i e d through i t s being applied to the actual experiences of those present. Goethe has the Captain reduce Charlotte, Eduard, O t t i l i e , and himself to A, B, C:, and D, i n order to si m p l i f y the terms of the chemical analogy. This formulaic and abstract p i c t u r e of human a f f i n i t i e s i s of course highly dehumanizing and i s introduced with a c e r t a i n measure of 50 irony. Stendhal, too, i t should he noted, claims to he describing love mathematically: "Imaginez une figure de geometrie assez compliquee, trace"e avec du crayon blanc sur une grande ardoise: eh bien! je vais expliquer cette figure de ge'ome'trie . . ."(325) In "Le Rameau de Salzbourg" there i s a great deal of amusing conversation about who i s c r y s t a l l i z i n g whom. Goethe has the Captain promise to show the gathering some actual chemical experiments, and Stendhal has h i s lovers a c t u a l l y descend into the mines i n order to appreciate i n concrete terms how c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n s occur and are made. What these experiments do, or w i l l do, i s show i n concrete v i s u a l terms the r e a l dynamics of the two processes. For, i f anything, both the theory of the a f f i n i t i e s and the theory of c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n convey a profoundly dynamic conception of love. Whether natural or c u l t u r a l , love's a f f i n i t i e s and c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n s involve change and transformation. Just as a f f i n e d i n d i v i d u a l s , l i k e a f f i n e d chemical elements, change and transform one another when.runited, so, s i m i l a r l y , the lover's c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n of the beloved, l i k e the c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n of s a l i n e solutions around a branch, transforms both the object and the c r y s t a l l i z i n g agent. Goethe:hasnthe Captain say to his l i s t e n e r s : One has'to have these e n t i t i e s before one's eyes, and see how, although they appear to be l i f e l e s s , they are i n fact perpetually ready to spring into a c t i v i t y ; one has to ' watch sympathetically how they seek one another out, a t t r a c t , seize, destroy, devour, consume one another, and then emerge again from t h i s most intimate union i n renewed, novel and unexpected shape.(56) Stendhal's narrator describes to Madame Gherardi how a young o f f i c e r has f a l l e n i n love with her: L'e f f e t que produit sur ce jeune homme l a noblesse de vos t r a i t s i t a l i e n s , de ces yeux t e l s q u ' i l n'en a jamais vus, est precisement semblable a. c e l u i que l a c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n 51 a opens' sur l a p e t i t e branche de charmille que vous tenez et qui vous semble s i j o l i e . De"pouillee de ses f e u i l l e s par l ' h i v e r , assure"ment e l l e n'e"tait r i e n moins qu'eblouis-sante. La c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n du s e l a recouvert l e s branches noiratres de ce rameau avec des diamants s i b r i l l a n t s et en s i grand nombre, que l'on ne peut plus v o i r qu'a un p e t i t nombre de places ses branches t e l l e s qu'elles sont.(3^*0 The basic difference between the two processes i s that whereas the changes wrought by the a f f i n i t i e s are profoundly r e c i p r o c a l — " A l l a t t r a c t i o n i s mutual,"(212) claims Goethe—those made by the c r i s t a l l i s a - t i o n process are e s s e n t i a l l y subjective, occuring i n the mind and imagination of the l o v e r . This s c i e n t i f i c love conversation has medieval precedents: the debating of t h e o r e t i c a l questions about the nature and modes of love i n the Arts d'aimer, and the discussion of such t h e o r e t i c a l topics as the pathology of love and the love potion i n romance and poetry. Both De_ 1'Amour and Die Wahlverwandtschaften involve attempts to give f i c t i o n a l v e r i f i c a t i o n to these abstract theories of love. The whole of Goethe's f i c t i o n must be seen i n the!,light, even i f somewhat i r o n i c a l , of the s c i e n t i f i c discussion. But one also discovers, i n t e r -polated i n Goethe's Novelle, an abbreviated Novelle c a l l e d "The Wayward Young Neighbours" which gives an- example of the v i o l e n t and i r r e s i s t i b l e workings of love's a f f i n i t i e s . An exact p a r a l l e l can be found i n the in t e r p o l a t e d story "Ernestine Ou La Naissance de L'Amour" i n De_ 1'Amour, which f u l f i l s the same function of demonstrating or v e r i f y i n g , i n f i c t i o n a l terms, the elements of an abstract theory of l o v e . 9 How are we to explain the general f a i l u r e to appreciate the experimental or t e c h n i c a l nature of both Goethe's and Stendhal's descriptions of love? Some l i g h t can perhaps be shed on t h i s question i f we juxtapose these modern accounts with the t y p i c a l medieval s c i e n t i f i c or p s e u d o - s c i e n t i f i c accounts of love i n terms of the love potion and the malady of love. Here, too, c r i t i c s have been reluctant to see the tec h n i c a l dimensions to the metaphors. Witness the c r i t i c a l abhorrence at the idea that the e f f i c a c y of the love potion can i n any way be l i m i t e d , and the emphasis i n accounts of the disease of love on i t s f a t a l symptomology. The point i s that not only are the c r i t i c s reluctant to acknowledge the r o l e of human intervention i n the process of love, but the lovers are as w e l l . The i r r e s i s t i b l e natural workings of the a f f i n i t i e s , and of the c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n process, l i k e the deadly compul-sion of the love potion and the in s i d i o u s e f f e c t of the disease of love are exploited by lovers i n a s i m i l a r way: to r a t i o n a l i z e and excuse a passionate love which i s o f t e n — o b v i o u s l y so i n both the T r i s t a n story and Die Wahlverwantschaften—destructive of the moral c o n s t i t u t i o n of marriage and of much else besides, i n c l u d i n g the lovers themselves. E r o t i c martyrdom requires r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n and j u s t i f i c a t i o n . Just as Tri s t a n and Ise u l t invoke the accidental drinking of the love potion as the root cause of t h e i r s u f f e r i n g , so, s i m i l a r l y , the lovers i n Goethe's f i c t i o n trace t h e i r woes to the chance workings of chemical a f f i n i t i e s . The brighter l i g h t i s shed on the n a t u r a l i s t i c side of the s c i e n t i f i c symbol—the side which can show the t r a g i c i n e v i t a b i l i t y of p a s s i o n — and the a r t i f i c i a l , t e c h n i c a l dimensions of the symbol, which can suggest the o p p o s i t e — t h a t the lovers are not quite as innocent before passion as they might care to b e l i e v e — a r e l e f t i n r e l a t i v e darkness. So that, i n a curious way, these s c i e n t i f i c symbols undercut, at the same time as they i l l u m i n a t e , the t r a g i c conception of passion. Ultimately,: however, above and beyond the d e s c r i p t i v e , a n a l y t i c a l , and experimental aspects of Goethe's and Stendhal's powerful e r o t i c 53 metaphors, one must appreciate t h e i r aesthetic value. I f science i s of l i m i t e d value i n understanding and c o n t r o l l i n g love i t i s of i l l i m i t a b l e value i n providing poetic signs of the ultimately i r r e d u c i b l e , mysterious, and inexpressible nature of love. Footnotes I F o r the s c i e n t i f i c background to Goethe's novel, see Charles Singer's A Short History of S c i e n t i f i c Ideas to 1900 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1959), pp. 335, 3h2; and also, E r i c A. B l a c k a l l ' s Goethe and the  Novel (Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 1976), p. 307. 2Ferrand Baldensperger, Goethe en France, 2© ed. reyisee (Paris: L i b r a i r i e Hachette, 1920), pp. I85 - I 9 I 4 . 3Stendhal, Journal, E d i t i o n de V i c t o r Del L i t t o et Ernest Abravanel (Paris: L i b r a i r i e Ancienne Honore" Champion, I969K 11:361. ^Journal, p. 368. 5Goethe, E l e c t i v e A f f i n i t i e s , trans. Elizabeth. Mayer and Louise Bogan, i n t r o . V i c t o r Lange (Chicago: Henry'Regnery, 1963), p. v i i i . 6Goethe, Conversations With Eckermann (New York: M. Walter Dunne, 1901), p. 296. 7Goethe, E l e c t i v e A f f i n i t i e s , trans. R. J . Hollingdale (London: Penguin Books Ltd., 1971), p. 5k. Hereafter, quotations from t h i s book w i l l be documented by page numbers i n parentheses. 8Quoted i n Goethe, E l e c t i v e A f f i n i t i e s , trans. El i z a b e t h Mayer and Louise Bogan, p. i x . ' 9 I t i s worth noting that while Stendhal creates a f i c t i o n to v e r i f y his theory of love, he also, l i k e h i s medieval predecessors, invokes t r a d i t i o n a l s t o r i e s and anecdotes to serve the same purpose. The purely invented character of Goethe's text points us i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n , towards the modern era where much of the s c i e n t i f i c speculation about love that t r a d i t i o n a l l y was centred i n the l o v e - t r e a t i s e has been taken up into the f a b r i c of the novel. Proust's A l a recherche du temps  perdu i s an obvious example. 55 Chapter VI Stendhal and the Idea of a Comparative Science of Love Indeterminacy has long been considered an e s s e n t i a l feature of love. In Plato's Symposium, Socrates delineates a c o l o u r f u l p i cture of the uncertain nature of Love. From Diotima he had learned that Love i s neither b e a u t i f u l nor ugly, neither good nor bad. Lacking goodness and beauty, Love cannot be a god. But i f Love i s not a god, neither i s he a mortal. Love i s a daemon, a being intermediate between mortal men and the immortal gods. An account of the genealogy and the circum-stances surrounding the b i r t h of Love confirms his highly dubious nature. Love was conceived at a feast of the gods, held to celebrate the birthday of Aphrodite. Plenty, drunk on nectar, had f a l l e n into a heavy sleep. Poverty came begging about the doors. Considering her sorry s t a t e , Poverty p l o t t e d to conceive a c h i l d by Plenty. Love, the o f f s p r i n g of the conjunction, i s therefore indebted to Aphrodite for his obsession with beauty and to Plenty and Poverty for his fortunes. Not only i s Love always poor, hard, rough, unshod and homeless, possessing his mother's nature, but also he i s brave and ambitious, having h i s father's designs upon b e a u t i f u l and good things. He i s by nature neither mortal nor immortal, but a l i v e and f l o u r i s h i n g at one moment when he i s i n plenty, and dead at another moment' i n the same day, and again a l i v e by reason of h i s father's nature. But that which i s always flowing i n i s always flowing out, and so he i s never i n want and never i n wealth. 1 In addition, Love, l i k e the philosopher, i s by h i s very nature caught between the two worlds of ignorance and wisdom. Once again, the b i r t h of Love provides an explanation: the resourcefulness and -wisdom of h i s father, and the poverty and foolishness of his mother. In short, the lover as_ lover i s possessed of, and defined by, a number of uncertainties that are i n t r i n s i c to the nature of Love i t s e l f . The Platonic account of the scope of the uncertainties of love remained e s s e n t i a l l y d e f i n i t i v e and exhaustive u n t i l the beginning of the nineteenth century when Stendhal published his t r e a t i s e De_ 1'Amour (1822). One of the elements of genius i n Stendhal's multifaceted theory of love i s h i s systematic d e s c r i p t i o n of another order of uncertainties centring upon the experience of love. Whereas the innovation of Plato was to pinpoint the i n t r i n s i c indeterminacy of love, that of Stendhal i s to hi g h l i g h t the e x t r i n s i c uncertainties of love. A new comparative science should be established, claims Stendhal, which w i l l take as i t s subject-matter the patterns which d i f f e r e n t kinds of love assume under the impress of d i f f e r e n t forms of government or national character, d i f f e r e n t climates, d i f f e r e n t temperaments, and the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of i n d i v i d u a l character. Stendhal draws an analogy between t h i s new d i s c i p l i n e and the science of comparative anatomy: Or, comme en physiologie l'homme ne s a i t presque r i e n sur lui-mgme que par l'anatomie comparee, de m@me dans l e s passions, l a vanite et plusieurs autres causes d ' i l l u s i o n font que nous ne pouvons §tre e"claires sur ce qui se passe dans nous que par l e s faiblesses que nous avons observers chez l e s a u t r e s . 2 The broad implication or premise of t h i s new science i s that man never loves innocently: love i s coloured and q u a l i f i e d by the d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i t s s p a t i a l , temporal, and i n d i v i d u a l psychological locus. The subject-matter of Stendhal's new comparative i n q u i r y i s t"-.ox-there fore not something f i x e d , unitary and constant, but something protean and inconstant. 5 7 This b e l i e f i n the v a r i a b i l i t y - o f l o v e . i s b e a u t i f u l l y r e g i s t e r e d and confirmed i n the c e n t r a l informing metaphor of De_ 1'Amour—the q u i n t e s s e n t i a l l y Romantic d e s c r i p t i o n of love as c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n . The lover's i d e a l i z a t i o n of the beloved finds an appropriate image i n the accretion of b e a u t i f u l c r y s t a l s around a bare branch l e f t i n the s a l t mines of Salzbourg. Just as the miners make these b e a u t i f u l c r y s t a l s , so, s i m i l a r l y , every lover fabricates or creates the q u a l i t i e s and structure of h i s love. The beauties, v i r t u e s , and perfections which the lover delights i n a t t r i b u t i n g to the beloved often, therefore, though not always, bear a highly dubious r e l a t i o n to the r e a l q u a l i t i e s of the beloved. In large part, the beauties of the beloved o r i g i n a t e i n the unique s u b j e c t i v i t y of the lo v e r ; they are the expression of the d i s -t i n c t i v e e r o t i c imagination or s e n s i b i l i t y of the lover as t h i s has been informed and coloured by p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l conditions. Far from being grounded i n mere i d l e c u r i o s i t y or i n a naively reductive passion f o r categorization, Stendhal's new comparative science finds i t s j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n the t r u l y humanistic ends of happiness and self-knowledge. A comparative study of the modes, r i t u a l s , and s e n s i -b i l i t i e s of love which f l o u r i s h i n diverse circumstances can serve to diminish the d i s t o r t i o n , inherent i n any purely subjective perspective on love. I t can also serve.to inform e t h i c a l and aesthetic d i s c r i m i -nations i n matters of love. Stendhal's new d i s c i p l i n e therefore possesses simultaneously both de s c r i p t i v e and p r e s c r i p t i v e dimensions. Stendhal refines a c o l o u r f u l typology as well as a topology of love; but, c l e a r l y , only c e r t a i n landscapes or c i v i l i z a t i o n s are viewed as conducive to the free and f r u i t f u l growth of that d e l i c a t e plant c a l l e d love. 58 F i r s t , Stendhal surveys the l o v e - l i f e of a number of modern European countries. He begins by lamenting the r a r i t y of grand passions i n France. This fact i s due, he claims, to the excessive vanity of the French: "Un jeune homme de Paris prend dans une maitresse une sorte d'esclave, destinee surtout a l u i donner des jouissances de vanite". "(138) This obsession with the opinion of others m i l i t a t e s against the ex-pression of authentic desire. Stendhal concludes h i s p o r t r a i t of love among the French with a d e f i n i t i o n : "L'homme passionne" est comme l u i et non comme un autre, source de tous l e s r i d i c u l e s en France, et de plus i l offense l e s autres, ce qui donne des a i l e s au r i d i c u l e . "(11+5) Stendhal's next example could not o f f e r more of a contrast to the example of France. In I t a l y , p ublic opinion i s the servant not the master of passionate love. There, true passion i s not considered to be r i d i c u l o u s but only natural. Stendhal catalogues some of the other features of I t a l i a n l i f e that are conducive to true passion: D'autres avantages de l ' l t a l i e , c'est l e l o i s i r profond sous un c i e l admirable et qui porte a §tre sensible a l a beaute sous toutes l e s formes. C'est une defiance extr§me et pour-tant raisonnable qui augmente l'isolement et double l e charme de l ' i n t i m i t e ; c'est l e manque de l a lecture des romans et presque de toute lecture qui l a i s s e encore plus a 1'inspira-t i o n du moment; c'est l a passion de l a musique qui excite dans l'ame un mouvement s i semblable a c e l u i de 1'amour.(1U7) The l o v e - l i f e of England presents a dismal picture of t y p i c a l l y proud husbands demanding excessive modesty and u n o r i g i n a l i t y i n t h e i r wives: "C'est tout simple, l a pudeur des femmes en Angleterre, c'est l ' o r g u e i l de leurs maris."(152) The l o v e - l i f e of Spain i s painted i n i d y l l i c terms. The b e a u t i f u l gardens of Andalusia form the centre of the p i c t u r e . La. w'ivent et recoivent l e s charmantes Andalouses a l a demarche s i vive et s i le"gere; une simple robe de soie noire garnie de franges de l a m§me couleur, et l a i s s a n t apercevoir un cou-de-pied charmant, un t e i n t pale, des 59 yeux ou se peignent toutes les nuances l e s plus f u g i t i v e s des passions l e s plus tendres et l e s plus ardentes.(l60-6l) The l o v e - l i f e of Germany i s completely d i f f e r e n t again. Love "est regarde par l e s Allemands comme une vertu, comme une emanation de l a d i v i n i t e , comme...quelque chose de mystique . . . II est profond et ressemble a 1'illuminisme." ( l 6 U ) The only non-European modern country that Stendhal brings into his comparative study i s America. Although he never v i s i t e d the United States, Stendhal draws an i n c i s i v e sketch of i t s l o v e - l i f e . Americans, Stendhal claims, are an extremely unromantic people. He relates t h i s assertion to America's republican form of government. T r a n q u i l i t y and security might be the f r u i t s of free government, but not passion or imagination: these are s t i f l e d by the r a t i o n a l and u t i l i t a r i a n habits of mind which characterize such a body p o l i t i c : "II y a tant d'habitude de  raison aux Etats-Unis, que l a c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n en a ete rendue impossible." ( 1 7 6 ) Stendhal also garners comparative illuminations of love from a number of h i s t o r i c a l sources. De 1'Amour contains b r i e f chapters on both the courtly l o v e - l i f e of Provence and the r e f i n e d manner of lo v i n g of medieval Arabia. Stendhal describes how an appealing formality, g a l l a n t r y , gaiety, and grace characterized the former world, while great generosity, n o b i l i t y , and ardour defined the l a t t e r . Yet a t h i r d source of i l l u s t r a t i v e examples f o r Stendhal's compara-t i v e science of love i s the realm of l i t e r a t u r e . The best example of t h i s s p e c i f i c type of comparison i s found i n the chapter i n De 1'Amour on "Werther et don Juan." Here, we f i n d an almost archetypal comparison between two r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t e r o t i c s t y l e s . 6o Like many other f r u i t f u l ideas, the idea of studying love compara-t i v e l y d i d not spring full-grown from the mind of one i s o l a t e d thinker. Stendhal i s important because he synthesized ideas from a number of d i f f e r e n t sources. The immediate i n s p i r a t i o n f o r Stendhal's idea of a comparative science of love can be discovered i n c e r t a i n i n t e l l e c t u a l movements of his own and of the previous age. Stendhal himself acknowledges his indebtedness to Cabanis' T r a i t e du physique et du moral  de 1'homme ( l 8 0 2 ) for the theory of the s i x d i f f e r e n t temperaments. To Montesquieu's L'Esprit des Lois Stendhal i s indebted for the theory of the decisive influence of d i f f e r e n t climates and environments on human a f f a i r s . Montesquieu's comparative-science of government, which sought h i s t o r i c a l understanding through an appreciation of the i n t e r p l a y of diverse s o c i o l o g i c a l factors or v a r i a b l e s , finds a strong echo i n what Stendhal terms "mon systeme de 1 'influence des gouvernements sur les passions."(7 6 - 7 7 ) It i s the l a t t e r influence which points us i n the d i r e c t i o n of the truly, decisive modern o r i g i n of.Stendhal's science: the idea of h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l r e l a t i v e l y so e s s e n t i a l to the thought of the Enlightenment and to the philosophy of the Romantics. In his f i r s t book L'H i s t o l r e de l a Peinture en I t a l i e ( l 8 l 7 ) Stendhal had r e v o l u t i o n -i z e d art c r i t i c i s m by viewing a r t i s t s and works of art not i n r e l a t i o n to absolute standards of beauty and accomplishment, but i n r e l a t i o n to the flux' of h i s t o r y . E s s e n t i a l to such a s o c i o l o g i c a l perspective was an appreciation of how d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l and c l i m a t i c circumstances created . r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t conceptions of beauty. This r e l a t i v i s t i c conception of beauty provides an associative l i n k between Stendhal's theory of art and his comparative theory of.love. The i d e a l of beauty celebrated by 61 lovers i n one country may be very d i f f e r e n t from the i d e a l that i s lauded by lovers i n other parts of the world. The following passage, describing the delights of Naples, which i s found i n Stendhal's t r e a t i s e on pa i n t i n g , contains the seeds of the theory that i s l a t e r more f u l l y elaborated i n De 1'Amour: Des qu'on s'ennuie au Forum, ou q u ' i l ne faut plus prendre son arquebuse pour s ' a l l e r promener,.. l e seul p r i n c i p e d ' a c t i v i t e qui reste, c'est 1'amour. On a beau dire,, l e climat de Naples f a i t autrement s e n t i r l e s finesses .de cette passion que les b r o u i l l a r d s de Middelbourg. Rubens, pour donner l e sentiment, du beau, a ete oblige a. un etalage d'appas qui en I t a l i e ne p l a i t que comme s i n g u l i e r . 3 Art, beauty, climate, and love are not independent categories, but are a l l interfused. Love, l i k e the work of a r t , and the l o v e r , l i k e the a r t i s t , appear as the expressions of p a r t i c u l a r cultures. What the German c r i t i c Weigand wrote about Stendhal's view of art could equally w e l l describe his view, of love: "Stendhal was the f i r s t man who conceived of art as the flower of an enti r e culture and.who pointed to the climate and the moral customs of society as the source of o r i g i n of a r t i s t s . " 4 Love also i s "the flower of an en t i r e culture," profoundly shaped i n i t s s t y l e s , conventions, and s e n s i b i l i t y by the whole c o n s t i t u t i o n or world-picture of a p a r t i c u l a r age. These c r o s s - f e r t i l i z a t i o n s go f a r . i n accounting for the genesis of Stendhal's idea of studying love comparatively. But i s one j u s t i f i e d i n l i m i t i n g one's quest for the origins of t h i s f r u i t f u l theory purely to eighteenth century and Romantic i n t e l l e c t u a l backgrounds? There must surely e x i s t older influences and formative f a c t o r s . A closer look at the generical. status of De 1'Amour w i l l perhaps provide some genetic clues. As early as 1803 Stendhal had expressed his desire to write, 62 among other works, one i n verse c a l l e d L'Art d'Aimer. To t h i s Ovidian sounding t i t l e he appended these notes: "en d'autres termes l ' a r t de seduire. Sujet d e l i c i e u x . I I faut pour 1'entreprendre, bien connaitre les femmes. Une te i n t e de douce s e n s i b i l i t e . H i s t o i r e de l ' a r t d'aimer.. H i s t o i r e de 1'amour au temps de l a c h e v a l e r i e . " 5 In the pages of De  1'Amour, Stendhal categorizes his work as a " t r a i t e philosophique,"(326) an "Essai sur 1 'Amour,"(331) a " d i s c o u r s sur l e s sentiments ,"(-13) as "L'histoire", ( 1 1 5) and as a "Physiologie de 1'Amour." An immediate model— though hardly one that i s s t r i c t l y adhered t o — f o r the form and methodo-logy employed i n De_ 1'Amour was a rigorous p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r e a t i s e entitled.Elements d'ideologie by Destutt de Tracy, a work which was something of a sacred text to the young Stendhal. E a r l y i n De_ 1'Amour, Stendhal acknowledges his debt by terming his own study "un l i v r e d'ideologie": S i 1'ideologie est une description d e t a i l l e e des idees et de toutes les parties qui peuvent l e s composer, l e present l i v r e est une description d e t a i l l e e et minutieuse de tous les sentiments qui composent l a passion nommee 1'amour.(13 n. l ) The most frequently used t i t l e , however, i s simply " t r a i t e " . Treatise on love i s c l e a r l y the best generical d e f i n i t i o n f o r the work, encom-passing or subsuming a l l the other d e f i n i t i o n s , including Stendhal's f i r s t choice, L'Art d'Aimer. In the f i r s t three chapters of the present study, a number of the important formal impulses—encyclopedic, p l a g i a r i s t i c , c a t a l o g i c , c l a s s i f i c a t o r y — t h a t are t y p i c a l l y present i n the l o v e - t r e a t i s e , have been pinpointed. One important consequence or implication of these generical features has not, however, been made s u f f i c i e n t l y e x p l i c i t : t h e i r tendency n a t u r a l l y to generate comparative illuminations of love. 63 In a fundamental sense, then, the seeds of Stendhal's c o l o u r f u l compara-t i v e science of love l i e deep within the very nature and form of De  1'Amour i t s e l f . Antecedents—however rudimentary and unsystematic—to Stendhal's science must therefore he present i n l o v e - t r e a t i s e s written many centuries "before the nineteenth. It i s f a s c i n a t i n g to see how Stendhal traces his indebtedness to a t r a d i t i o n which contains some of the e a r l i e s t . l o v e - t r e a t i s e s and, consequently, some of the e a r l i e s t comparative illuminations of love. "J'aimerais mieux etre un Arabe du v e s i e c l e qu'un Francais du x i x e , " writes Stendhal... In the second Book.of De 1' Amour, i n the sections e n t i t l e d "Des Nations Par Rapport A L'Amour," Stendhal,, as I have already noted, devotes a chapter to the celebration of love i n Arabia. Along with diverse anecdotes about the amorous practices of the Bedouin A r a b — most of which information Stendhal received from his f r i e n d , the scholar F a u r i e l — S t e n d h a l includes fragments, tr a n s l a t e d i n t o French, from an Arabic t r e a t i s e on love, the Diwan as-Sababa (The Anthology of  Ardent Love) written by Ibn Abi Hajala (1325-1375). The fragments which Stendhal borrows from t h i s t r e a t i s e consistsof b r i e f s t o r i e s about lovers who have died for love. Two of these lovers belonged to the t r i b e of Banu 'Udhra, the.members of which were famous for the tenderness of t h e i r l o v i n g and the frequency with which they died of the sickness of love. The point i s that Stendhal i s appropriating, for his own comparative ends, material from a medieval Arabic t r e a t i s e on love which i n i t s e l f i s i n . s i g n i f i c a n t part comparative i n nature. As Giffen writes of the Diwan  as-Sababa: The book begins with a long introduction f i l l e d with d i c t a and theories about love, i t s nature and causes, followed by 6k t h i r t y chapters on the ahwa.1 [circumstances 1 of love and lovers. These- contain s t o r i e s about c e r t a i n kinds of l o v e r s : the caliphs and kings, those who f e l l i n love at f i r s t s i g h t , chaste l o v e r s , martyrs of love, and men of h i s time sorely t r i e d by l o v e . 5 But to argue that the comparative science of love originates i n , and i s generated by the very form of such encyclopedic t r e a t i s e s , i s to leave unanswered the question of the ultimate o r i g i n s of t h i s view of love. In other words, what can.be said.of the o r i g i n a l impetus behind the choice of t h i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y comparative genre as a medium of speculations about love? A p l a u s i b l e answer to t h i s question can be discovered i f we go back even further i n the medieval Arabic t r a d i t i o n to the figure of Ibn Hazm (993-1064), who was the author of the monumental l o v e - t r e a t i s e The Dove's Neck-Ring. 7 Ibn Hazm was, s i g n i f i c a n t l y , also the author of The Book of Religious and P h i l o s o p h i c a l Sects, the f i r s t comprehensive study of the diverse sects and schools which comprise the various r e l i g i o n s of mankind. He i s credited, therefore, with being the o r i g i n a -to r of the d i s c i p l i n e of Comparative Religion. H. A. R. Gibb claims that Surprising though i t may seem that i t i s i n Arabic l i t e r a t u r e that we f i n d the f i r s t works on t h i s subject, the reasons for i t are not f a r to seek. The tolerance of the Arab conquerors had l e f t i n t h e i r midst large communities holding v a r i e d r e l i g i o u s opinions, Jews, C h r i s t i a n s , Zoroastrians, and even semi-pagans. Their b e l i e f s a t t r a c t e d the attention of Muslim scholars at an early date and l e d f i r s t to a large contro-v e r s i a l l i t e r a t u r e . . . and later.on to a more s c i e n t i f i c c u r i o s i t y about them. 8 The same m i l i e u and a s i m i l a r s c h o larly c u r i o s i t y i n s p i r e d Ibn Hazm and l a t e r Arabic writers to encyclopedic and comparative i l l u m i n a t i o n s of the d i f f e r e n t kinds of love which f l o u r i s h e d i n the c i t y , i n courtly s o c i e t y , among the bedouins, and among various non-Islamic peoples. But to invoke scholarly c u r i o s i t y as the fount o f the comparative science of love i s perhaps to take rather too prosaic a view of the 65 matter. At l e a s t i n the case of Ibn Hazm, comparative perspectives on love would appear to have been born equally of the pains of n o s t a l g i a . The whole of The Dove's Neck-Ring i s b u i l t on a nostalgic comparison between the r e f i n e d way of l i f e which f l o u r i s h e d i n the old courts of the petty Spanish Arab kingdom, and the uncultivated mode of l i f e which followed upon the destruction of t h i s world by p u r i t a n i c a l and m i l i -t a r i s t i c r u l e r s from North A f r i c a . I t i s f a s c i n a t i n g to see how a s i m i l a r n o s t a l g i a informs Stendhal's comparative speculations. I t a l y , s p e c i f i c a l l y Milan, where Stendhal spent h i s happiest years and where he f e l l hopelessly i n love with Metilde Dembowski , i s celebrated i n De  1'Amour as the locus of true passionate love, i n contrast with France, whither Stendhal was unhappily e x i l e d , "pays ou. l a plante nommee amour a toujours peur du r i d i c u l e , est etouffee par l e s exigences de l a passion nationale, l a vanite, et n'arrive presque jamais a toute sa hauteur." Both Stendhal and Ibn Hazm invoke e r o t i c touchstones—times and places when great s e n s i b i l i t y and delicacy have characterized the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of love. S i t u a t i n g Stendhal's comparative science i n the wider context of the h i s t o r y of ideas and the study of genre places one i n a better p o s i t i o n to appreciate the unparalleled e x p l i c i t n e s s and.coherence of his c o l o u r f u l Romantic account of the v a r i a b i l i t y of love. Footnotes The Dialogues of Plato i n k v o l . , trans. Benjamin Jowett, 4th ed. (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1953) , 1=535. 2Stendhal, De 1'Amour, ed i t i o n de Henri Martineau (P a r i s : Garnier Freres, 1959) , P- 137- Hereafter, quotations from t h i s e d i t i o n -will be documented.by page numbers i n parentheses. 3Stendhal, H i s t o i r e de l a Peinture en I t a l i e , e d i t i o n de Henri Martineau (Paris: Le Divan, 1929) , 1:205. ^Quoted i n Matthew Josephson's Stendhal or The Pursuit of Happiness (New York: Doubleday & Co., 1946) , p. 222. 5Stendhal, Journal, e d i t i o n de Henri Martineau (Paris: Le Divan, 1937) , 1=70-71. 6Theory of Profane Love Among The Arabs, pp. 39-40. 'See Chapter One, above, for a d e t a i l e d examination of the s c i e n t i f i c basis of Ibn Hazm's t r e a t i s e . 8Arabic L i t e r a t u r e : An Introduction, 2nd revised ed. (1963; rpt Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1970) , pp. 114-115. 67 Chapter VII Reflections on the Place of Love i n the Technological World Picture The language of Romantic love l i n g e r s on and leaves important traces i n the love l i t e r a t u r e of the l a t e nineteenth and bur own centuries. Just as the medieval themes of the love potion and the malady of love p e r s i s t i n the discourse of Romantic love, so, s i m i l a r l y , the Romantic topoi of love's a f f i n i t i e s ' a n d c r i s t a l l i s at ions recur i n the discourse of Modern love. But t h i s Romantic language i s not our language. The terms a f f i n i t y and c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n now sound s l i g h t l y archaic: they suggest resources of poetic i d e a l i z a t i o n and mystical communion that one does not r e a d i l y associate with the modern s e n s i b i l i t y . In e r o t i c science, as i n so many areas, i t i s Baudelaire who st r i k e s the au t h e n t i c a l l y modern note. Only a few decades a f t e r the appearance of Goethe's and Stendhal's great dissections of love, Baudelaire provided h i s own analysis. In the grim l i n e s of Fusees (composed 1855-62) , the f i r s t part of his Journaux intimes, Baudelaire writes of how 1'amour ressemblait f o r t a. une torture ou a une operation c h i r u r g i c a l e . . . . Quand meme l e s deux amants seraient tres epris et tres pleins de desirs reciproques, l'un des deux sera toujours plus calme ou moins possede que 1'autre. C e l u i - l a , ou ce l l e - l a . , c'est l'operateur, ou l e bourreau; 1 'autre, c'est l e sujet, l a victime. Entendez-vous ces soupirs, preludes d'une tragedie de deshonneur, ces gemissementes, ces c r i s , ces rales? Qui ne le s a profe"res, qui ne l e s a i r r e s i s t i b l e m e n t extorques? Et que trouvez-vous de p i re .dans l a question applique"e par de soigneux tortionnaires? Ces yeux de somnambule revulses, ces membres dont l e s muscles j a i l l i s s e n t et se r o i d i s s e n t comme sous l ' a c t i o n d'une p i l e galvanique . . - 1 There i s no need here to i n s i s t upon the perverse, s a d i s t i c , morbid, and satanic elements i n t h i s and s i m i l a r passages i n Fusees and i n Mon Coeur 68 mis a. nu. The whole question-of the influence of the Marquis de Sade and Edgar A l l a n Poe on Baudelaire has "been b r i l l i a n t l y documented by Mario Praz. 2 What i s of i n t e r e s t for the present discussion i s a dimension of i n t e l l i g e n c e i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r d e f i n i t i o n of love: an aspect neglected by Baudelaire's commentators who see only c o l o u r f u l l y perverse r h e t o r i c and anguished p r i v a t e confession i n his metaphors. I t i s also necessary to stress the point that Baudelaire i s presenting a d e f i n i t i o n of love, however disagreeable, and not just a woeful picture of sexual a c t i v i t y . Sexual symbols are never innocent of emotional or metaphysical implica-t i o n s . In the medieval l o v e - r e l i g i o n p h y s i c a l love was seen as r e l i g i o u s communion; i n Baudelaire, as t o r t u r e : sex i s indeed the mirror of a view of love. Let us immediately note what dimension of science provides Baudelaire with a source of analogy for love. The mirror i n which Baudelaire per-ceives the delineations of passion i s c l e a r l y the a r t i f i c i a l world of technique. Technique has twice loomed large i n our analysis. But we have here neither the v i t a l and e s s e n t i a l l y p l a y f u l equation of love and t e c h n i q u e — i n p a r t i c u l a r , m i l i t a r y — f o u n d i n the Ovidian t r a d i t i o n , nor the imaginative and i n t e l l e c t u a l use of experimental technique discovered i n the e r o t i c science of Goethe and Stendhal. In Ovid we f i n d a technique of love. In Goethe arid Stendhal we f i n d a poetry of technique. In Baudelaire, love i s technique. Baudelaire can only r e g i s t e r i n despair-ing tones the depressing extent to which the technological has i n s i d i o u s l y permeated the very heart of the e r o t i c experience. The d e l i c a t e balance between natural and a r t i f i c i a l elements in.the e r o t i c theories of Goethe and Stendhal i s destroyed i n Baudelaire's science of love. How account for t h i s except .in terms of the mimetic p r i n c i p l e which we have e a r l i e r 6 9 adduced? Baudelaire, the f i r s t great poet of the modern c i t y , gives us an account of the character and place of love i n the technological world pi c t u r e . What characterizes t h i s world i s p r e c i s e l y i t s unnaturalness. Technique has to a large extent eroded the natural not only i n the external world hut i n human nature as well.. Modern consciousness i s governed by t e c h n i c a l modes of thought and perception and shaped by the nervous rhythms, destructive energies, and mechanical r e p e t i t i o n s i n -herent i n the dynamism of our urban and technological world. E r o t i c experience cannot innocently transcend t h i s omnipresent s e n s i b i l i t y . A new kind of a r t i f i c e moulds the r i t u a l s and gestures of modern love; an unnaturalness r a d i c a l l y unlike the unnaturalness which characterized, f o r example, the r i t u a l s and gestures of love i n the Middle-Ages or.vthe . Renaissance. One c r u c i a l implication of the technological e r o t i c metaphor i s that the category of w i l l as opposed to the categories or f a c u l t i e s of imagination or mind has primary status i n modern love. This mirrors the p r i o r i t i e s of technological culture i n which sovereign status i s granted to dynamic manifestations of the w i l l and i n f e r i o r status given to t r a d i t i o n a l , non-technical ways of perceiving, r e f l e c t i n g upon, and describing the universe. One consequence of the primacy of w i l l i n modern love i s the disturbing element, e x p l i c i t in. the tone and imagery of Baudelaire's d e s c r i p t i o n s , of violence, manipulation, and e x p l o i t a t i o n : a l l of which .clearly f i n d t h e i r mimetic equivalent i n the larger t e c h n i -c a l c i v i l i z a t i o n . Related to these prosaic implications i s the discovery that a new experience.of distance operates between the lover and the beloved. This new kind of distance can be sharply distinguished from the distance that i s celebrated by, for example, the Provengal lover-poets, i n p a r t i c u l a r Jaufre Rudel, and by the lover-poets of the Arabic t r a d i t i o n . In these two t r a d i t i o n s , the ph y s i c a l distance between the lover and the beloved i s bridged by. a simultaneous aesthetic and moral t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n of the loved one and an ennoblement' of the lover. The distance i s therefore rendered p o e t i c , with a l l the feeli n g s of n o s t a l g i a , despair, and longing which are attendant upon such a mood. The poetic celebration of distance discovered among the Arabic and Provengal lover-poets proved to be one of the most enduring motifs i n the h i s t o r y of refined Eros. Although the language of e r o t i c distance had obviously changed, and new nuances of s e n s i b i l i t y been fashioned over the years separating the twelfth from the nineteenth centuries, Stendhal's notion of c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n , with i t s elements of aesthetic transmutation and moral i d e a l i z a t i o n , s t i l l preserves a v i t a l r h e t o r i c of distance. The modern l i t e r a t u r e of love also possesses a r h e t o r i c of distance. This fact i s t o t a l l y obscured or ignored by writers who subscribe to the f a c i l e notion that since modern man has cut through a l l the unreal r h e t o r i c of Romanticism he i s now capable of completely unmediated intimacy.and communication i n love. Quite the opposite conclusion can be drawn. The hold over'.the imagination of the rh e t o r i c of Romantic love may have diminished under the impact of a prosaic and u t i l i t a r i a n world-view, but, paradoxically, t h i s new realism has been p a r a l l e l e d by an increasing .consciousness of the existence of frightening emotional distances between lovers. I f Baudelaire's bleak metaphors are authentic, then these new distances between lover and beloved are l a r g e l y instrumen-t a l rather than imaginative, manipulative rather than contemplative. T l Just as t e c h n i c a l ways of responding to r e a l i t y have sundered man's-intimate t i e s with external nature, so s i m i l a r l y the t e c h n i c a l and mechanistic have destroyed intimacy and harmonious r e c i p r o c i t y i n the sphere of human nature and human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In short, modern love replaces Romantic abstraction with a new t e c h n i c a l kind of abstraction. Yet another serious implication of the technological e r o t i c metaphor i s the increasing i d e n t i t y of the lover and the beloved, and, by extension, of the two sexes. C l e a r l y , the processes of increasing abstraction and increasing dehumanization i n e r o t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s involve an erosion of the contours of i n d i v i d u a l i t y and of sexual i d e n t i t y . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Baudelaire's lovers are neither sexually d i f -f e r e n t i a t e d nor i n d i v i d u a l l y distinguished. Differences between the lovers are only marked by functional categories which can be f i l l e d at any one point i n time by either of the two. 3 That the example of Baudelaire i s not hopelessly i d i o s y n c r a t i c i s confirmed by a reading of The Waste Land of T. S. E l i o t . 1 * S u r p r i s i n g l y l i t t l e has been written about the profound complementarity of perception and tone that can be discovered i n Baudelaire's and T. S. E l i o t ' s versions of e r o t i c l i f e i n a modern urban and technological s e t t i n g . The dreary encounter between a t y p i s t and a clerk which i s rendered i n the section of The--Wast e r Land e n t i t l e d "The F i r e Sermon" i s s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r to the encounter between Baudelaire's lovers. The time i s now p r o p i t i o u s , as he guesses, The meal i s ended, she i s bored and t i r e d , Endeavours to engage her i n caresses Which s t i l l are unreproved, i f undesired. Flushed and decided, he assaults at once; Exploring hands encounter no defense; His vanity requires no response, And makes a welcome of indifference.(235-^2) The technological dimensions of the experience, u n i f i e d i n . t h i s descrip-t i o n by a mechanistic m i l i t a r y metaphor, 5 are reinfo r c e d by the metaphors that are discovered i n two juxtaposed passages. A f t e r the departure of the c l e r k , the t y p i s t . . . smoothes her h a i r with automatic hand, And puts a record on the gramophone.(255-56) both of which actions further emphasize the l i n k between man and machine. The whole episode i s introduced by a b r i l l i a n t passage that not only introduces the theme or motif of the dehumanization and mechanization of human nature, but also points to the p e c u l i a r l y urban character of the e r o t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p . . The profoundly intimate nature of the a f f i n i t y between the rhythms of human a c t i v i t y and the rhythms of the c i t y i s made e x p l i c i t : At the v i o l e t hour, when the eyes and back Turn upward from the desk, when the human engine waits Like a t a x i throbbing waiting. . . (215-217) According to E l i o t i t i s T i r e s i a s "throbbing between two l i v e s , " the figure i n whom the "two sexes meet," who perceives t h i s scene: an immensely s i g n i f i c a n t mythical 'comment on the v i r t u a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the cl e r k and the t y p i s t . Neither of the two lovers i s a c l e a r l y delineated i n d i v i d u a l (the impersonal occupational designations " c l e r k " and " t y p i s t " r e i n f o r c e the p o i n t ) ; both are i d e n t i c a l i n t h e i r i n -difference and boredom. Here, as i n Baudelaire's d e s c r i p t i o n , the apparent presence of two lovers i s r e a l l y an absence; one becomes aware of a v i r t u a l l y t o t a l deprivation of d i s t i n c t l y human emotions and at t r i b u t e s . These uncompromisingly stark l i n e s of.Baudelaire and T. S. E l i o t have been d e l i b e r a t e l y chosen to provide dramatic evidence of a marked 7 3 evolution i n modern e r o t i e science. Mirroring the general h i s t o r i c a l development of nineteenth and twentieth century science as a whole, e r o t i c science has become incr e a s i n g l y denaturalized and abstract, invoking, l e s s and l e s s , n a t u r a l , whether organic or inanimate, images, and, more and more, experimental, t e c h n i c a l , and mathematical images. This last-mentioned order of modern s c i e n t i f i c metaphors—the mathematical—requires s i n g l i n g out as a s p e c i a l consequence of the t e c h n i c a l . In modern science the increasing r e l i a n c e of the s c i e n t i s t on mathematical and s t a t i s t i c a l descriptions of nature i s p r i m a r i l y the consequence of the almost i n f i n i t e extension of the f r o n t i e r s of p h y s i c a l knowledge by t e c h n i c a l invention. The elusive microphenomena of quantum physics, which remain notoriously r e s i s t a n t . t o objective physical d e s c r i p t i o n , but are capable of p r e d i c t i v e s t a t i s t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n , are a case in point. S i m i l a r l y , i n modern e r o t i c science the mathematics of love manifests i t s e l f concurrently with, or as a consequence of, the growing.dominion of the t e c h n i c a l . In love, the mathematical i s but an extreme formalization or measurement of the distances • l a i d bare by the t e c h n i c a l or experimental a l i e n a t i o n of the e r o t i c analyst from natural., love. Increasingly, the human r e a l i t i e s of love and l o v e r s , l i k e the r e a l i t i e s of nature, are being dissolved into the purely abstract formulations of mathematics. Again, just as was the case with the technological v i s i o n of love, the mathematical v i s i o n of love was pre-figured i n the e r o t i c sciences of Goethe and Stendhal. Note has already been made of Stendhal's use of the word mathematical to describe his way of analyzing love, as well as h i s invocation of a geometrical image to delimit love's r e l a t i v e complexities. Goethe's reduction of his lovers to the elements A, B, C, and D i n a chemical experiment i s a 7^ motif of the same order. The simultaneous presence of natural philosoph-i c a l , experimental, t e c h n i c a l , and mathematical accounts of love i n Goethe and Stendhal encapsulates some of the c r u c i a l evolutionary stages of modern e r o t i c science. It should be noted that t h i s evolution i n the modern e r o t i c t r a d i t i o n toward increasing abstraction, unnaturalness, and dehumanization i s broadly p a r a l l e l e d by analogous developments i n the modern l i t e r a r y and v i s u a l a r t s . Abstract, Symbolist, and non-objective art a l l involve the progressive d i s s o l v i n g of the concretely human and n a t u r a l i s t i c . In The  Dehumanization of Art Ortega y Gasset c r y s t a l l i z e s his thoughts on modern poetry, and i n p a r t i c u l a r the work of the French Symbolist poet Mallarme, in a s t r i k i n g l i n e : "Poetry has become the higher algebra of metaphors." 6 The modern language of love has also transcended the d i s t i n c t l y human and natural and dissolved i t s e l f into abstract s c i e n t i f i c symbols. Further to substantiate t h i s argument, I w i l l b r i e f l y examine several of the dominant modern e r o t i c motifs. E l e c t r i c i t y What i s of i n t e r e s t i n the l i f e of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e r o t i c metaphor is the dramatic s h i f t , which begins to occur i n the l a t t e r part of the nineteenth century, from the natural e l e c t r i c a l analogy to the techno-l o g i c a l e l e c t r i c a l analogy. In Romantic natural philosophy the e l e c t r i c a l analogy for love has v i t a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . For example Goethe, i n speaking of astonishing unconscious communications which occur between lo v e r s , invokes an e l e c t r i c a l explanation: "We have a l l something of e l e c t r i c a l and magnetic forces within us, and we put f o r t h , l i k e the magnet i t s e l f , an a t t r a c t i v e or repulsive power, accordingly as we come 75 i n contact with something s i m i l a r or d i s s i m i l a r . " 7 Shelley, as Graho has convincingly shown,8 also v i t a l l y l i n k s e l e c t r i c i t y and love. In our own century, Ortega has written of the "magic e l e c t r i c i t y " of love. As early as the middle of the nineteenth century a new kind of e l e c t r i c a l analogy f o r love begins to surface. In the long passage from Baudelaire's Fusees quoted above, we f i n d the grim image "ces membres dont l e s muscles j a i l l i s s e n t et se r o i d i s s e n t comme sous l ' a c t i o n d'une p i l e galvanique." .Here, the obvious lack of natural v i t a l i t y finds an objective c o r r e l a t i v e i n thernew e l e c t r i c a l technology. In T o l s t o i ' s Kreutzer Sonata, a s i m i l a r l y dehumanizing picture of e r o t i c desire i s to be found. The jealous narrator-husband, an obvious mouthpiece for the mo r a l i s t i c older T o l s t o i , c r y s t a l l i z e s h i s hatred of Romantic passion by looking into the mirror of the a r t i f i c i a l world of technology— technology with i t s homogenizing, automatizing, and depersonalizing tendencies: I saw that her. eyes gleamed with a p e c u l i a r brightness from, the moment she f i r s t saw .him, and that owing, perhaps, to my jealousy an e l e c t r i c current seemed to connect them and es t a b l i s h uniformity i n t h e i r looks and smiles; so that when she would blush he would blush, and as soon as she smiled he smiled a l s o . 9 I t i s curious to see how Proust s i m i l a r l y invokes e l e c t r i c a l imagery i n an e r o t i c context. Marcel's love for women does not originate i n t h e i r human q u a l i t i e s or i n t h e i r sexual attractiveness; rather, i t i s governed by a strangely autonomous force or power, a force analogous to e l e c t r i c i t y i n i t s potency: On aur a i t d i t qu'une vertu n'ayant aucun rapport avec e l l e s l e u r avait ete accessoirement adjointe par l a nature, et que cette vertu, ce pouvoir s i m i l i - e l e c t r i q u e avait pour e f f e t sur moi d'exciter mon amour, c'est-a-dire de d i r i g e r toutes mes actions et de causer toutes mes souffrances. Mais de c e l a l a beaute, ou 1'in t e l l i g e n c e , ou l a bonte de 76 ces femmes etaient entierement d i s t i n c t e s . Comme par un courant 6lectrique qui vous meut, j ' a i ete secoue par mes amours, je les a i vecus, je les a i se n t i s : jamais je n'ai pu a r r i v e r a le s v o i r ou a les penser. J ' i n c l i n e meme a cro i r e que dans ces amours (je mets de cSte l e p l a i s i r physique, qui les accompagne d ' a i l l e u r s habituellement, mais ne s u f f i t pas a, l e s c o n s t i t u e r ) , sous l'apparence de l a femme, c'est a ces forces i n v i s i b l e s dont e l l e est accessoirement accompagnee que nous nous adressons comme a d'obscures d i v i n i t e s . ( I I 1127) D. H. Lawrence, undoubtedly influenced by the Russian and I t a l i a n F u t u r i s t s ' celebration of technology and science, created a modern Romantic e r o t i c language out of e l e c t r i c a l technology. Joseph Warren Beach has noted the extensive use which Lawrence makes of " e l e c t r i c a l phenomena: p o s i t i v e and negative, p o l a r i z a t i o n , incandescent wires, voltage, interference, short c i r c u i t s . " 1 0 This passage which Beach quotes from Women i n Love i s t y p i c a l : It was a dark f l o o d of e l e c t r i c passion she released from him, drew into h e r s e l f . She had established a r i c h new c i r c u i t , a new current of passional e l e c t r i c energy, between the two of them,, released from the darkest poles of the body and established i n perfect c i r c u i t . I t was a dark f i r e of '• e l e c t r i c i t y that rushed from him to her, and flooded them both with r i c h peace, s a t i s f a c t i o n . 1 1 Intended as images of v i t a l i s t i c communication, Lawrence's e l e c t r i c a l analogies often function i n the opposite way—as signs of a love which i s abstract and dehumanized. Psychoanalysis One might have thought that, at l e a s t by the nineteenth century, i f not before, the centuries-old metaphor of love as a disease would have become moribund, that i t would have v i r t u a l l y disappeared from serious love l i t e r a t u r e . This appears not to have been the case!.. The analogy between love and disease even i n i t s t r a d i t i o n a l guises, shows no signs of dying out; and i n d i s t i n c t l y modern vari a t i o n s on the theme, has even 77 taken on a c e r t a i n new l i f e . The contributions of three modern s p e c i a l -i s t s i n t h i s area must be b r i e f l y noted. Once again i t i s Baudelaire who s t r i k e s the modern note. In h i s Fusees, as we have seen, Baudelaire likens love to an "operation c h i r u r g i c a l e " with the lovers a l t e r n a t i n g i n the roles of operating surgeon and patient. Whereas t r a d i t i o n a l l y , f or example i n medieval l i t e r a t u r e , the emphasis i n accounts of the l o v e -disease tended to be on i t s f a t a l symptomology, i n modern accounts of the disease emphasis i s centred upon technique and c l i n i c a l c o n t r o l . Here we have a grim v a r i a t i o n on the t r a d i t i o n a l trope of the beloved as the only person, or physician, who can cure a lover's lovesickness. In t e r e s t i n g l y enough, t h i s Baudelairean theme recurs i n Proust's great novel. As would be expected, the whole theme becomes even more s o l i p -s i s t i c i n Proust. In Proust, the l o v e r himself i s h i s own doctor: "ceux qui souffrent par 1'amour sont, comme on d i t de certains malades, l e u r propre medecin."(l 63l) Proust l i k e n s the v i c t i m of love to a doctor experimenting on himself: "Certes, nous sommes obliges de revivre notre souffranee p a r t i c u l i e r e avec le courage du medecin qui recommence sur lui-meme l a dangereuse p i q u r e . " ( l l l 905) We also f i n d the extraor-dinary idea of Swann "Considerant son mal avec autant de sagacite que s ' i l se 1 ' e t a i t inocule" pour en f a i r e l ' e t u d e . " ( l 300) In Proust a curious r e v e r s a l takes place i n the love-disease metaphor. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , i t i s love which i s s a i d to resemble disease. Proust, of course, has . endless refinements on t h i s ancient theme. But occasionally he w i l l reverse the terms of the t r a d i t i o n a l trope and write of how disease resembles love. This idea points, us. i n the. d i r e c t i o n of that most notorious of modern v a r i a t i o n s on the theme of the l o v e - d i s e a s e — t h a t which i s found i n the science or pseudo-science of psychoanalysis. For i t i s i n the s p e c i a l i z e d conceptual world of Freudian psychoanalysis that the Proustian reversal of the terms of the love-disease equation r e a l l y comes into i t s own. For Freud, neurotic diseases i n e v i t a b l y a r i s e as a re s u l t of the necessary constraints exacted upon Eros by c i v i l i z a t i o n . 1 2 But i t i s not Dr. Freud who concerns us here, but Dr. Krokowski, the f i c t i o n a l Freudian figure or caricature i n Thomas Mann's Per Zauberberg. Mann i s to Freud what Ovid was to the Greek physicians who wrote about the disease of love i n c l i n i c a l terms. For what one finds i n Per Zauber- berg i s a v e r i t a b l e modern mock-science of love. At the International Sanatorium Berghof, the locus of the main action i n Mann's novel, an important diversion for the patients i s a "series of p o p u l a r - s c i e n t i f i c l e c t u r e s , under the general t i t l e : 'Love as a force contributory to d i s e a s e . ' " 1 3 For the innocent and hypochondriacal young engineer-hero Hans Castorp, attendance at these lectures i s an eye-opening experience: "It was a b i t odd, to be sure, l i s t e n i n g to a lec t u r e on such a theme, when previously Hans Castorp's courses had dealt only with such matters as geared transmission i n shipbuilding. " ( 1 2 6 ) How did the l e c t u r e r tackle such a taboo subject as love? "Dr. Krokowski d i d i t by adopting a mingled terminology, p a r t l y poetic and p a r t l y erudite; r u t h l e s s l y s c i e n t i f i c ; Yet with a v i b r a t i n g singsong de l i v e r y . . .(126) Dr. Krokowski's thesis i s simple: bourgeois constraints over "love" are f u t i l e because "The love thus suppressed was not dead; i t l i v e d , i t laboured a f t e r f u l f i l m e n t i n the darkest and secretest depths of the being. I t would break through the ban of cha s t i t y , i t would emerge— i f i n a form so a l t e r e d as to be unrecognizable.. But what then was th i s form, t h i s mask, i n which suppressed, unchartered love would reappear?"(128) The answer to t h i s question s t a r t l e s the audience: "In the form of i l l n e s s . Symptoms of disease are nothing hut a disguised manifestation of the power of love; and a l l disease i s only love trans-formed. "(128) The whole production i s of course a parody of the psycho-a n a l y t i c d e s c r i p t i o n of the ins i d i o u s nature of the sexual drive. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that here too, ju s t as i n Proust, the disease of love i s hardly f a t a l : the bourgeois analyst i n e v i t a b l y triumphs over the temptation of the Liebestod. Geometry In h i s role of the dispassionate analyst of the passion of love, Stendhal likens himself to a mathematician intent on explaining "une figure de geometrie assez compliquee, trace"e avec du crayon blanc sur une grande ardoise." Like Ovid and numerous medieval pedagogues, Stendhal claims expertise i n the a r t or science of love. His use of mathematical language and images r e g i s t e r s a passion for c l a r i t y and p r e d i c t a b i l i t y i n a subject notoriously l a c k i n g i n these q u a l i t i e s . In a modern v a r i a t i o n on t h i s theme, Don Juan, oder Die Liebe zur  Geometrie, a play by Max F r i s c h , love and geometry are brought together p r e c i s e l y i n order to ''show that love and geometry have nothing whatever to do with one another. Don Juan i s depicted as a man who loves one thing more than women—the c l e a r , pure, sober, transparent world of geometry. In Frisch's binary dramatic a n a l y s i s , woman and love belong to a world which i s anything but geometrical. Truly to love a woman, Don Juan would have to do what he cannot d o — g i v e up the c e r t a i n t i e s of geometry for the uncertainties of love. Frisch's play i s not completely f r i v o l o u s . At the heart of the work i s the delineation of a moral ambiguity. In a Po s t s c r i p t to the play F r i s c h writes: 8o I f he l i v e d i n our day, Don Juan (as I see him) would pro'--, bably concern himself with atomic physics: i n search of ultimate t r u t h . And the c o n f l i c t with women, that i s with the unconditional w i l l to maintain l i f e , would remain the same. As an atomic p h y s i c i s t too he would sooner or l a t e r he faced with the choice: death or c a p i t u l a t i o n — c a p i t u l a t i o n of that masculine s p i r i t which obviously, i f i t remains au t o c r a t i c , i s going to blow up Creation as soon as i t possesses the tec h n i c a l a b i l i t y to do s o . 1 4 The binary structure of the argument i s c l e a r : masculine s p i r i t , geo-metry, atomic physics, technology, death, and destruction are equated; the feminine s p i r i t i s equated with the w i l l to l i v e . The whole argument, even treated humorously, seems too f a c i l e . Are not women equally capable of geometry? Does not an idea such as the indeterminacy p r i n c i p l e s e r i o u s l y compromise the cliche" that the modern atomic p h y s i c i s t i s " i n search of ultimate truth"? Frisch's whole argument i s flawed by a too schematic separation of love and s c i e n c e — i n p a r t i c u l a r , geometry. After a l l , as Stendhal has taught us, even love has i t s l o g i c and a cert a i n patterned coherence. An example of just how i l l u m i n a t i n g a geometrical approach to love can be i s discovered i n the work of Rene G i r a r d , 1 5 who i s a kind of e r o t i c d i s c i p l e of Stendhal. Girard's study of Romantic desire centres on the geometrical figure of the t r i a n g l e . Romantic desire, claims Girard, i s nearly always mediated by a t h i r d person or a f i c t i o n a l i d e a l . One loves, i n Shakespeare's words, "by another's e y e s . " 1 6 Girard i s quick to point out that "The t r i a n g l e i s no 1 Gestalt. The r e a l structures are i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e . They cannot be l o c a l i z e d anywhere; the t r i a n g l e has no r e a l i t y whatever; i t i s a systematic metaphor, systematically pursued." 1 7 However, such models can "allude to the mystery, trans-parent yet opaque, of human r e l a t i o n s . " 1 8 Girard does not make the connection, but surely i t i s no accident that t r i a n g u l a r desire, although 81 a perennial theme, reaches i t s most intense and abstract manifestations i n the l i t e r a t u r e of the nineteenth and of our own c e n t u r y — i n works by writers such as Stendhal, Dostoyevsky and P r o u s t — p r e c i s e l y i n the age when man's rel a t i o n s h i p s with nature have become in c r e a s i n g l y mediated and abstract. There i s therefore nothing innocent about the choice of the t r i a n g l e as an e r o t i c symbol. Quantum Mechanics Roger Shattuck i n a book on P r o u s t , 1 9 and Olga Bernal i n a study of the novels of A l a i n R o b b e - G r i l l e t 2 0 have both argued the analogical relevance to t h e i r respective subjects' works, of Werner Heisenberg's famous indeterminacy p r i n c i p l e . Since t h i s p r i n c i p l e was not formulated u n t i l 1927, the exact year i n which Proust's Le Temps retrouve, the f i n a l volume of A l a recherche du temps perdu, was published, i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to his work i s n e c e s s a r i l y retrospective. We have here an example of a great creative w r i t e r p r e f i g u r i n g and a n t i c i p a t i n g an important i n -t e l l e c t u a l and s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e . B r i e f l y , Heisenberg's p r i n c i p l e , one of the fundamental p r i n c i p l e s of modern quantum mechanics, gives precise mathematical expression to the l i m i t a t i o n s i n accuracy which plague the p h y s i c i s t ' s observations and predictions of the behaviour of microphenomena. Not only do c e r t a i n microphenomena behave i n a not f u l l y predictable fashion, but also the very attempt to measure t h e i r behaviour modifies that behaviour. 2 1 According to Shattuck and Bernal, t h i s p r i n c i p l e illuminates the profound epistemological uncertainty which so obviously q u a l i f i e s the human rela t i o n s h i p s found i n novels such as Proust's masterpiece and Robbe-G r i l l e t 's La Jalo u s i e . Although neither c r i t i c i s o l a t e s the analogy 82 i n terms of i t s bearing a p a r t i c u l a r relevance to the depiction of love i n these novels, t h i s would seem to be a p o t e n t i a l l y f r u i t f u l undertaking. The uncertainty r e l a t i o n s of physics imply that the s c i e n t i s t ' s r e l a t i o n to nature, f a r from being d i r e c t , i s a profoundly mediated one. It i s not nature i n i t s e l f , but man's uncertain knowledge of nature with which the modern p h y s i c i s t i s forced to work. Taking a broad imaginative leap, one can see Proustian love i n terms of a kind of equivalent poetic language of uncertainty. In Proust, two complementary uncertainties are always i n s i s t e d upon: the uncertain nature and behaviour of the beloved, and the uncertain, deceptive, and d i s t o r t i n g perceptions of the lo v e r . Contemplating h i s love f o r G i l b e r t e , the narrator concludes: Devant l e s pensdes, l e s actions d'une femme que nous aimons, nous sommes aussi de"sorientes que l e pouvaient gtre devant les phenomenes de l a nature, l e s premiers physiciens (avant que l a science fut constitute et etlt mis un peu de lumiere dans l'inconnu), ou p i s encore, comme un etre pour l ' e s p r i t de qui l e principe de ca u s a l i t y e x i s t e r a i t a peine, un §tre qui ne s e r a i t pas capable d ' e t a b l i r un l i e n entre un phSno-mene et un autre et devant qui l e spectacle du monde s e r a i t incertain.comme un r e v e . ( l 586) But whereas i n physics such epistemological uncertainty i s a matter f o r despair, i n love i t i s both a reason for despair and a reason for love i t s e l f . For Proust, i t i s p r e c i s e l y the uncertainty and mystery of the woman that provokes and defines love. Albertine's departure for Touraine provokes these r e f l e c t i o n s i n the narrator: . . . je me representais Albertine commencant une vie qu'elle avait voulue separee de moi, peut-§tre pour longtemps, peut-Stre pour toujours, et ou e l l e r e a l i s e r a i t cet inconnu qui autrefois m'avait s i souvent trouble", alors que pourtant j'avais l e bonheur de posseder, de caresser ce qui en e t a i t l e dehors, ce doux visage impenetrable et capte. C'etait cet inconnu qui f a i s a i t l e fond de mon amour, ( i l l 4-31-32) Proust i s ca t e g o r i c a l i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n of Romantic passion, w r i t i n g of the time "quand nous aimons, c'est-a-dire quand 1'existence d'une autre 8 3 personne nous semble mys t6 r i euse."(III 551) Love i s made up of " i n c e r t i -tudes" that are " d e l i c i e u s e s " . This Proustian theme i s strongly echoed i n a number of works on love written i n our own time. The most subtle of these texts i s undoubtedly A l a i n Robbe-Grillet's La Jalousie ( f i r s t published in.1957) . In t h i s novel the t r a d i t i o n a l love t r i a n g l e i s reduced to the s o l i p s i s t i c con-sciousness of a jealous husband. The r e a l i t y of a possible adultery i s thoroughly d i f f u s e d into the uncertain, d i s t o r t i n g perceptions of the narrator. I t i s curious to see how a s i m i l a r tormenting epistemological uncertainty centres on the e r o t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n some of Harold Pinter's plays, notably The C o l l e c t i o n and The Lover. Footnotes Charles Baudelaire, Journaux intimes: Fusees, Mon Coeur mis si nu, Carnet, E d i t i o n c r i t i q u e e t a b l i e par Jacques Crepet et George B l i n . ( L i h r a i r i e Jose C o r t i , 19I19), p. 10. 2 The Romantic Agony, trans. Angus Davidson, 2nd ed. (I95I; r p t . London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1970) . 3 The l o g i c a l extension or i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s instrumental view i s the kind of mechanical promiscuity or u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d e r o t i c i s m which i so t e l l i n g l y delineated by Proust when he writes of women as being "comme des instruments interchangeables d'un p l a i s i r toujours identique. A l a recherche du temps perdu, e d i t i o n de Pierre Claroc et Andre.Ferre (Pa r i s : L i b r a i r i e Gallimard, 195*0, 11:157. Subsequent quotations from t h i s e d i t i o n w i l l be documented by volume and page numbers i n parenthese The Waste Land,- i n C o l l e c t e d Poems 1909-I962 (London: Faber and FaberrLtd., 1963) . Quotations from t h i s poem w i l l be documented by l i n e numbers i n parentheses. 5 C f . Baudelaire, "L'amour veut s o r t i r . d e s o i , se confondre avec sa victime, comme l e vainqueur avec l e vaincu, et cependant conserver des p r i v i l e g e s de conque"rant. " Fusses ,""p. 8. Jose Ortega y Gasset, "The Dehumanization of A r t , " i n The  Dehumanization of Art, and Other Writings on Art and Culture, trans. W i l l a r d R. Trask (.19l;8; r p t . New York: Doubleday and Co. , 1956) , p. 30. 7 Conversations with Eckermann, p. 2^1 . g Carl Grabo, A Newton Among Poets : Shelley's Use of Science i n Prometheus Unbound (1930; r p t . New York: Gordian Press, 1968. 9 Leo Tolstoy, The Kreutzer Sonata (London: The Walter Scott Publishing Co., n.d.), p. 106. 10 , The Twentieth Century Novel: Studies i n Technique (1932; : .rpt. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, i 9 6 0 ) , p. 372. Women i n Love (1921;.rpt. England: Penguin Books, i 9 6 0 ) , p. 353. 12 . . Freud argues t h i s point at length i n C i v i l i z a t i o n and Its Dis- contents , trans. James Strachey (1930; r p t . New York: W. W. Norton & Co. 1961) . 1 3The Magic Mountain, trans. H. T. Lowe-Porter (.1927; rpt. New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, Inc., I969), p. 116. Hereafter, quotations from t h i s book w i l l be documented by page numbers i n parentheses. Don_ Juan or The Love of Geometry i n Four Plays, by Max F r i s c h trans. Michael Bullock (London: Methuen and Co., Ltd., 1969) , pp. 158 59. 1 5 D e c e i t , Desire, and the Novel: S e l f and Other i n L i t e r a r y  Structure, trans. Yvonne Freccero (1966; rpt. John Hopkins Univ. Press 1976) . 1 6 A Midsummer Night's Dream, ed. Madeleine Doran (Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1959) , I , i , l U o . 1 7 G i r a r d , p. 2. 1 8 G i r a r d , p. 3. 1 9 M a r c e l Proust (New York: The Viking Press, 1974) , pp. 103 -05 . 2 0 A l a i n Robbe-Grillet: l e roman de 1'absence (Pa r i s : Gallimard, 196k), pp. 39'^. 2 1See Werner Heisenberg's The Physicist's Conception of Nature, trans. Arnold J . Pomerans (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1958. 86 Conclusion What, f i n a l l y , i s one to make of t h i s strange s c i e n c e — t h e science of love? What, exactly, i s i t s epistemological status? Throughout t h i s study, a number of d e f i n i t i o n a l terms have "been, rather h e s i t a n t l y , invoked. Groping, towards a precise categorization of e r o t i c science, I have var i o u s l y defined i t s discourse as s c i e n t i f i c , p s e u d o - s c i e n t i f i c , p o e t i c , metaphoric, ana l o g i c a l . However, none, of these categories seems to do f u l l j u s t i c e to the p e c u l i a r character of t h i s discourse. On r e f l e c t i o n , perhaps the happiest way of categorizing erotic•science . would he i n terms of the theory of f i c t i o n s . Here, I take my cue from the work of Hans Vaihinger who wrote at length on the importance of f i c t i o n s to c u l t u r e . 1 In Vaihinger's view, f i c t i o n - m a k i n g — t h a t i s , the construction of n o n - v e r i f i a b l e but useful "as i f " p r o p o s i t i o n s — i s indispensable to morality, theology, metaphysics, p o l i t i c s , and science. By making s i m p l i f i e d sense of extremely c o m p l i c a t e d . r e a l i t i e s , f i c t i o n s can help man to l i v e i n t h i s world. Vaihinger gives as examples of useful f i c t i o n s the Platonic myths, the s c i e n t i f i c ideas of the atom and the b i o l o g i c a l v i t a l force, and the idea of an o r i g i n a l s o c i a l contract. The f i c t i o n s of e r o t i c science, i t can be argued, possess t h i s unveri-f i a b l e , yet, nevertheless, extremely useful status. The grand medieval themes of the love potion and the malady of love, and the Romantic accounts of love's c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n s and a f f i n i t i e s are pure inventions, but inventions of deep f a s c i n a t i o n and consequence. A f t e r a l l , nothing can be more serious than f i c t i o n . One important function of these f i c t i o n s has been to make sense of the r e a l sufferings caused by love. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , then, the o r i g i n a l Greek love-science was medical i n character. The Greek poets' and physicians' d e s c r i p t i o n of eros i n terms of madness or disease somehow made understandable i t s t e r r i f y i n g l y complex and disruptive manifestations. Viewed through the g r i d of medical science, love acquires a e t i o l o g i c a l and symptomatological comprehensibility. S i m i l a r l y , the love potion and the Romantic de-s c r i p t i o n s of the a f f i n i t i e s and c r i s t a l l i s a t i o n s of love provide explanatory f i c t i o n s of the genesis, transformations and conclusions of love. Another important function of such f i c t i o n s has been to express and celebrate the magic compulsion exercised by love. A t h i r d u s eful function of love-science has been i t s p r o v i s i o n , i n the form of the l o v e - t r e a t i s e , of elaborate c o d i f i c a t i o n s of love. But the f i c t i o n s of love-science hold a f a s c i n a t i o n beyond t h e i r furnishing of c o l o u r f u l and useful explanations or c o d i f i c a t i o n s of the notoriously indeterminate phenomenon of love; these f i c t i o n s are com-p e l l i n g because they have shaped and continue to shape the e r o t i c imagination and s e n s i b i l i t y . The experience of love i s f a r from innocent before the discourse of love. Footnotes The Philosophy of 'As I f , A System of the T h e o r e t i c a l , P r a c t i c a l  and Religious F i c t i o n s of Mankind, trans. C. K. Ogden (New York: Har-court, Brace and Co., 1924) . 89 Selected Bibliography Babb, Lawrence. The Elizabethan Malady: A Study of Melancholia i n English L i t e r a t u r e from 1580 to 1642. East Lansing: Michigan State College Press, 1951. Baldensperger, Ferrand. Goethe en France. 2 e ed. revised. P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Hachette, 1920. Barthes, Roland. Fragments d'un discours amoureux. P a r i s : Editions du S e u i l , 1977. Barzun, Jacques. "Stendhal On Love." In h i s The Energies of Art:  Studies of Authors Classic and Modern. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1956, pp. 101-30. Baudelaire, Charles. Journaux intimes: Fusees, Mon Coeur mis a, nu,  Carnet. E d i t i o n c r i t i q u e € t a b l i e par Jacques Crepet et George B l i n . L i b r a i r i e Jose" C o r t i , 19U9. Bayley, John. The Characters of Love: A Study i n the L i t e r a t u r e of  Personality. London: Constable, i 9 6 0 . Beach, Joseph Warren. The Twentieth Century Novel: Studies i n Tech- nique. 1932; rpt. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, i 9 6 0 . Beaty, Frederick L. Light from Heaven: Love i n B r i t i s h Romantic  L i t e r a t u r e . Northern I l l i n o i s Univ. Press, 1971. Bernal, Olga. A l a i n Robbe-Grillet: l e roman de 1'absence. P a r i s : Gallimard, 1964. Beroul. The Romance of T r i s t a n , and The Tale of Tristan's Madness. Trans. Alan S. Fedrick. Penguin Books, 1970. B l a c k a l l , E r i c A. Goethe and the Novel. Ithaca and London: Cor n e l l Univ. Press, 1976. Boas, George. "Love." Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 1967. Boase, Roger. The Origin and Meaning of Courtly Love: A C r i t i c a l Study  of European Scholarship. Manchester: Manchester Univ. Press, 1977. Burton, Robert. Anatomy of Melancholy. Ed. Floyd D e l l and Paul Jordan-Smith.. 1927; r p t . Tudor Publishing Co., 1955. Capellanus, Andreas. The Art of Courtly Love. Trans, and Intro, by John Jay Parry. 1941; rpt. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., 1964. 90 The Comedy of Eros: Medieval French Guides, to the Art of Love. Trans. Norman R. Shapiro. Ed. James B. Wadsworth. Urbana: Univ. of I l l i n o i s Press, 1971. D'Arcy, Martin C y r i l . The Mind and Heart of Love: Lion and Unicorn: A Study i n Eros and Agape. 2nd ed. 1956; rpt. Cleveland: World Publishing Co., 1967. De Rougemont, Denis. "Love." Dictionary of the History of Ideas:  Studies of Selected P i v o t a l Ideas. 1973. . Love Declared:- Essays on the Myths of Love. Trans. Richard Howard. 1963; rpt. Boston: "Beacon Press, T96F. . Love i n the Western World. Trans. Montgomery Belgion. 2nd ed. New York: Pantheon Books, 1956. Denomy, Alexander J. The Heresy of Courtly Love. New York: The Declan X McMullen Company, 19^7. Donaldson, E. Talbot. "The Myth of Courtly Love." In h i s Speaking of  Chaucer. New York: W. W. Norton, 1970, pp. 154-163. Dronke, Peter. Medieval L a t i n and the Rise of European Love-Lyric. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, I 965 , 1966. . Rev. of Andr6 l e Chapelain : Traite" de 1' amour courtois , trans, and ed. Claude Buridant. Medium Aevum, 45 (1976) , 317-321. E l i o t , T. S. The Waste:.hand. In h i s Collected Poems 1909-1962. London: Faber and Faber, I963 . Epton, Nina. Love and the French. Cleveland: The World Publishing Co., 1959. F l a c e l i e r e , Robert. Love i n Ancient Greece. 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