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The limited success student in science : a survey of current practices in teaching junior secondary science… Healy, Peter Sinclair Davis 1978

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THE LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENT IN SCIENCE A survey of current practices in teaching jun ior secondary science in B r i t i s h Columbia by PETER SINCLAIR DAVIS HEALY B .Sc , University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES u l ty of Education, Science Education Department) We accept th i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1978 Peter S i n c l a i r Davis Healy, 1978 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary shal l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of Science Education The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e January 19,1979 ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s s tudy was t o : 1. 'Determine the s t a t u s of c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e s used in the t e a c h i n g o f s c i e n c e to l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s in B.C. j u n i o r secondary s c h o o l s 2. Compare the c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e s i n B.C. w i t h those advocated i n the l i t e r a t u r e from o t h e r c o u n t r i e s 3. sProduce a s e t o f recommendat ions f o r the im -provement o f s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s A ma i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e v e l o p e d , based on the i n -f o r m a t i o n ga ined i n a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w of the t e a c h i n g of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i -buted to a s e l e c t e d sample o f 336 j u n i o r s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s in the P r o v i n c e of B.C. E i g h t y - t w o p e r c e n t of the sampled t e a c h e r s (.299) responded to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Teachers responded to q u e s t i o n n a i r e i tems on: s t u d e n t g r oup i ng p r a c t i c e s ; c l a s s s i z e ; c u r r i c u l a ; methods of c o n t e n t d e t e r -m i n a t i o n ; approaches to l e a r n i n g ; s t uden t e v a l u a t i o n ; t e a c h e r background and t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e . The r e s u l t s of the re sponses were r e p o r t e d as f r e q u e n c y of re sponse and pe r cen tage r e spon se . . R e s u l t s p r o v i d e d a p i c t u r e o f c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e s i n B.C. as p e r c e i v e d by the t e a c h e r s sampled. A compar i son was made between the p r a c t i c e s c u r r e n t l y in use i n B»C. (as t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d them) and p r a c t i c e s advoca ted in o t h e r c o u n t r i e s ( p a r t i -c u l a r l y B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s ) as r e p o r t e d i n the 1 i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w . Based upon the compar i son between c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e s i n B.C. and those p r a c t i c e s advoca ted i n the l i t e r a t u r e , t h r e e major c o n c l u s i o n s were a r r i v e d a t : 1. A s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n o f l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s e x i s t s in B.C. j u n i o r seconda ry s c h o o l s 2. A g e n e r a l awareness of the e x i s t e n c e o f a p o p u l a t i o n o f l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s in B.C. i s ev i dent 3. Few s p e c i a l s c i e n c e programs have been deve loped f o r l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s in B.C. Most j u n i o r secondary s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e the p r e s e n t recommended c u r r i c u l u m to be l a r g e l y i n -a p p r o p r i a t e f o r i n s t r u c t i n g l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s . In a d d i t i o n to the c o n c l u s i o n s l i s t e d above a f u r t h e r s i x t e e n recommendat ions were gene ra ted r e l a t i n g to the f o l l o w i n g : s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l u m ; t e a c h e r s and s choo l a d m i n i -s t r a t i o n ; t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g and f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES . i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER 1 LITERATURE REVIEW AND IMPLICATIONS 4 E x t e n t o f the l i m i t e d succes s s t uden t p o p u l a t i o n 5 C a t e g o r i e s of l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s . . . 5 F a c t o r s r e l a t e d to l i m i t e d succes s in s choo l 6 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s 19 Teach i ng methods f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s 2 3 2 DEVELOPMENT OF THE DESCRIPTIVE SURVEY INSTRUMENT 54 Impetus and i n t e n t s of su rvey 54 Survey i n s t r u m e n t de s i gn 56 Sampl ing P l an 60 P rocedu re s 63 A n a l y s i s 6 3' 3 RESULTS - 65 I n t r o d u c t i o n 65 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e re sponse 66 Demographic data 67 E x t e n t and c o m p o s i t i o n of the l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n in B.C 72 Teach ing methods p r e s e n t l y i n use f o r l i m i t e d succes s s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s 77 Teacher a t t i t u d e s and t r a i n i n g 103 • i i CHAPTER Page ' 4" CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 114 I n t r o d u c t i o n ^ ^ C o n c l u s i o n s 115 Recommendations 117 Study C o n c l u s i o n 133 APPENDIX A Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Format B Sampl ing I n f o r m a t i o n C Cove r i n g L e t t e r to S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s 155 D Cove r i n g L e t t e r to P r i n c i p a l s 1^9 E Cove r i n g L e t t e r to Teachers F C o v e r i n g L e t t e r f o r F o l l o w - u p 1^4 G F u r t h e r Teacher Comments 1 6 6 H Summary of Ques t i onna i r e Resu.l t s . . 1 7 1 I Summary of C o n c l u s i o n s and Recommendations 1 7 8 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 8 3 i i i LIST OF TABLES Chapter 1 Page 1.1 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Common to A l l L i m i t e d Success S tudent s 20 1.2 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Unique to Each of the .Three C a t e g o r i e s of L i m i t e d Success S tudent s 21 Chapter 3 1.1 Underg raduate M a j o r ( s ) or C o n c e n t r a t i o n ( s ) . . 67 1.2 H i ghe r Degrees 68 2.1 O v e r a l l Teach ing E x p e r i e n c e 69 2.2 P r e v i o u s E x p e r i e n c e Teach ing L i m i t e d Success S tudent s S c i e n c e i n a Homogeneous C l a s s Group at the J u n i o r Secondary L e v e l . . 69 2 . 3 Year o f Teach ing Ca ree r t h a t Respondents F i r s t Taught S c i e n c e to L i m i t e d Success S tuden t s in a Homogeneous C l a s s Group 7.0 3.1 GradesTaught in S choo l s 71 4.1 Proportion o"f L imi ted Success S tuden t s in B.C. Junior High S choo l s as Reported by Teachers o f rtomogeneousl v Grouped S c i e n c e C l a s s e s . . . 73 4 .2 P r o p o r t i o n of L i m i t e d Success S tuden t s i n B.C. J u n i o r High S choo l s &s Repor ted by Teacher s o f H e t e r o g e n e o u s l y Grouped S c i e n c e C l a s s e s 7 4 4 . 3 P r o p o r t i o n o f L i m i t e d Success S tuden t s i n J u n i o r High S choo l s as Repor ted by A l l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Respondents 74 5.1 R e l a t i v e P r o p o r t i o n of L i m i t e d Success S tuden t s by Sex 76 6.1 Types o f G roup ing Repor ted 78 6.2 Upward M o b i l i t y o f L i m i t e d Success S tuden t s i n Homogeneously Grouped C l a s s e s 79 6 .3 Group ing W i t h i n Heterogeneous S c i e n c e C l a s s e s 8u : 6.4 Average C l a s s S i z e 8/1, 6 .5 Time Tab l e s 83 6.6 Number o f Hours o f S c i e n c e Per Week 84i 7.1 Number of Teachers O f f e r i n g S p e c i a l Programs f o r T h e i r L i m i t e d Success S tuden t s 8-5-; 7.2 S p e c i a l S c i e n c e Programs and A b i 1 i t y Grouping.. 85 7.3 S u b j e c t Areas Taught i n . G r a d e 8 , 9 and 10 S c i en ce 86 7.4 T e x t ( s ) and L a b o r a t o r y Manuals Used in the I n s t r u c t i o n of L i m i t e d Success S tuden t s . . . 87 i v Page 7.5 T e a c h e r s ' O v e r a l l R a t i n g o f Text s and L a b o r a t o r y Manuals Used 88 7.6 T e a c h e r s ' R a t i n g s o f Tex t s and L a b o r a t o r y Manuals Used 89 7.7 S c i e n c e Course Content D e t e r m i n a t i o n f o r L i m i t e d Success S tuden t s 9T 8.1 Frequency o f Invo lvement of L i m i t e d Success . S t u d e n t s in V a r i o u s Approaches to L e a r n i n g . 94 9.1 E v a l u a t i o n of the P rog re s s of L i m i t e d Success S tuden t s 99 9.2 Components Used to Eva lua te L i m i t e d Success S tuden t s 100 9.3 T e s t i n g : F requency Used i n the I n s t r u c t i o n of L i m i t e d Success S tuden t s 101 9.4 Frequency of V a r i o u s Methods o f R e p o r t i n g P r o g r e s s o f L i m i t e d Success S tuden t s 102' 10.1 Teachers o f Homogeneously Grouped C l a s s e s : W i l l i n g n e s s t o Teach L i m i t e d Success S tuden t s i n Homogeneous C l a s s e s . Number of C l a s s e s 1'0 3 10.2 Teachers o f H e t e r o g e n e o u s l y Grouped C l a s s e s : P o s i t i o n on A b i l i t y Group ing 1'04 10.3 Teachers of H e t e r o g e n e o u s l y Grouped C l a s s e s : D e s i r e to Teach L i m i t e d Success S tuden t s S c i e n c e i n a Sepa ra te _C lass Group 105.. 10.4 Teacher s of He te r o geneou s l y Grouped C l a s s e s : W i l l i n g n e s s to Teach L i m i t e d Success S tuden t s i n Homogeneous C l a s s e s . Number o f C l a s s e s I"05" 10.5 Teachers o f H e t e r o g e n e o u s l y Grouped C l a s s e s : D e s i r e to Group and Teach L i m i t e d Success S c i e n c e S tuden t s in a Sepa ra te C l a s s 106; 10.6 Teacher Commitment to Teach ing L i m i t e d Success S tudent s 107 10.7 Method of Teacher Ass ignment to Homogeneously Grouped C l a s s e s o f L i m i t e d Success S c i e n c e S tuden t s 108 10.8 Free Time of J u n i o r Secondary S c i e n c e Teachers 109" 10.9 P r e - S e r v i c e Teacher T r a i n i n g R e l a t e d to L i m i t e d Success S tuden t s IHO 10.10 E x t e n t o f P r e - S e r v i c e Teacher T r a i n i n g R e l a t e d to L i m i t e d Success S tuden t s 10.11 T e a c h e r s ' R a t i n g of P r e - S e r v i c e Teacher T r a i n i n g R e l a t e d to L i m i t e d Success S tuden t s H I 10.12 I n - S e r v i c e Teacher T r a i n i n g R e l a t e d to L i m i t e d .Success S tuden t s 112; 10.13 T e a c h e r s ' R a t i n g of I n - S e r v i c e T r a i n i n g 112" v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The w r i t e r w i shes t o acknowledge the members o f the t h e s i s c ommi t tee , Dr. P, J . G a s k e l l and Dr. A. G. Ryan, f o r t h e i r i n v a l u a b l e a d v i c e , a s s i s t a n c e and s u p p o r t . The w r i t e r wi shes to p a r t i c u l a r l y thank Dr. R. W. C a r l i s l e , p r i m a r y a d v i s e r , f o r h i s t i m e , e f f o r t , s u g g e s t i o n s and e n -couragement t h roughou t the t h e s i s . In a d d i t i o n the w r i t e r w i shes to thank the E d u c a t i o n a l Research I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h Co lumbia f o r t h e i r generous s uppo r t o f the s t u d y . v i INTRODUCTION 1 The impetus f o r t h i s s tudy stems l a r g e l y from the w r i t e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e as a j u n i o r secondary s c i e n c e t e a c h e r f o r a p e r i o d of t h r e e y e a r s . Dur ing t h i s t h r e e yea r p e r i o d the w r i t e r i n s t r u c t e d a number of " m o d i f i e d " s c i e n c e ten c l a s s e s . The s t u d e n t s in t he se c l a s s e s were s p e c i a l l y grouped f o r s c i e n c e due to t h e i r p r e v i o u s low ach i e vement . These s t u d e n t s had e x p e r i e n c e d " l i m i t e d s u c c e s s " in s c i e n c e f o r v a r i o u s reasons and as a r e s u l t showed both poor m o t i v a -t i o n and a t t i t u d e . S tanda rd t e a c h i n g methods and c u r -r i c u l a , used w i t h some succes s w i t h average and above average s t u d e n t s , l a c k e d e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Teach ing s t y l e , c u r r i c u l u m , d i s c i p l i n e , e v a l u a t i o n and homework r e q u i r e d a l t e r a t i o n to s u i t the a b i l i t i e s and n a t u r e of l i m i t e d s ucce s s s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s . Much a l t e r a t i o n o r i g i n a t e d by t r i a l and e r r o r and from o c c a s i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e from more e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s . At b e s t , changes were based on i n t u i t i o n and the e v a l u a t i o n of these changes was h i g h l y s u b j e c t i v e . Teacher t r a i n i n g d i d not seem to a d e q u a t e l y p repa re f o r d e a l i n g w i t h l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s , s p e c i a l c u r r i c u l a seemed to be n o n - e x i s t e n t and r e l a t e d t e a c h i n g methods were not e v i d e n t . The e x p e r i e n c e above prompted an e x a m i n a t i o n of s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s . A l i t e r a t u r e r e -v iew h i g h l i g h t e d the p a u c i t y of r e s e a r c h done i n t h i s a rea i n B r i t i s h Columbia. ( B . C . ) . Only one f o rma l s tudy r e l a t e d to l i m i t e d succes s s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s a t the j u n i o r secondary l e v e l had been c a r r i e d out CQuelch 1975) . The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t , i n B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the s i z e of the l i m i t e d succe s s s t uden t p o p u l a t i o n was in exces s of 20% o f the t o t a l s choo l p o p u l a t i o n . I t seemed r e a s o n a b l e to assume t h a t a p o p u l a t i o n of t h i s s i z e a l s o e x i s t e d i n B.C. G iven the na t u r e of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s , t h e i r p r o b a b l e numbers in the s choo l p o p u l a t i o n and the l a c k of r e s e a r c h done i n B.C., i t seemed a p p r o p r i a t e to i n v e s t i g a t e the c u r r e n t s t a t u s of s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n f o r these s t u d e n t s . By o b t a i n i n g an o v e r a l l p i c t u r e o f s c i e n c e , as t augh t to l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s i n B .C. , needs were i d e n t i f i e d by compar ing B.C. w i t h o t h e r c o u n t r i e s where r e s e a r c h on l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s had a l r e a d y o c c u r r e d . Recom-mendat ions based on these needs were g ene r a t ed to p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of s c i e n c e f o r l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s in the p r o v i n c e . To conduct a p r e l i m i n a r y e x a m i n a t i o n of s c i e n c e f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s in B.C. a ma i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e was deve loped and c i r c u l a t e d to a sample of j u n i o r secondary s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s . P r i o r to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the q u e s t i o n -n a i r e and p r e r e q u i s i t e to i t s deve lopment , a r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to the l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t was c o n -d u c t e d . Chapter one summarizes the f i n d i n g s of the l i t e r a -t u r e r e v i e w . In c h a p t e r two the p roce s s of deve lopment , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s p r e -s e n t e d . Chapter t h r e e o u t l i n e s the r e s u l t s of the q u e s t i n a i r e re sponse i n t a b u l a r f o rm. The c o n c l u s i o n s and r e -commendations of the s tudy are p r e s e n t e d i n c h a p t e r f o u r . CHAPTER !•: L i t e r a t u r e Review and I m p l i c a t i o n s : F a c t o r s which may c o n t r i b u t e to l i m i t e d succe s s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s ; t e a c h i n g methods f o r l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s . In t h i s c h a p t e r the l i t e r a t u r e i s r e v i ewed to i d e n t i f y both the f a c t o r s wh ich may c o n t r i b u t e to l i m i t e d succe s s and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s . ^ In a d d i t i o n a r e v i e w of t e a c h i n g methods c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e i s p r e s e n t e d from the l i t e r a t u r e . A r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t uden t s and s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g d i s c l o s e d l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h . The few s t u d i e s c a r r i e d out i n a s y s t e m a t i c manner aire s p e c i a l l y no ted in the b i b l i o g r a p h y . The r e -ma in ing l i t e r a t u r e a r i s e s f rom a n a l y s e s of p r a c t i c a l e x -p e r i e n c e . The term l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t was chosen t o . ; . d e s c r i b e a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f s t u d e n t s hav ing a v a r i e t y of problems a f f e c t i n g t h e i r l e a r n i n g i n s c i e n c e . For the purpose o f t h i s s t u d y , l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s are d e f i n e d to be those s t u d e n t s who a c h i e v e a c o n s i s t e n t D or E average in s c i e n c e (or e q u i v a l e n t r a t i n g ) , or those s t u d e n t s who a re grouped s p e c i a l l y f o r the purpose of s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n due t o t h e i r low a ch i e vemen t . Whi le i t i s the i n t e n t of t h i s s tudy to examine s c i e n c e f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s , the r e v i e w to f o l l o w i s based on a more g e n e r a l v iew of the l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t . I t i s assumed t h a t l i m i t e d succe s s in s c i e n c e i s the same as l i m i t e d succe s s in g ene ra l as r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . 4 E x t e n t of the l i m i t e d succe s s s t uden t p o p u l a t i o n 5. Many a u t h o r s , w h i l e not u s i ng the term l i m i e d succe s s s t u d e n t , s u g g e s t t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n of such s t u d e n t s i s of a s i g n i f i c a n t s i z e and may compr i se up to 20% of the t o t a l s choo l p o p u l a t i o n (Barbe 1961, Ferguson 1961, Page 1968, N e t t l e s h i p 1972, Oxenhorn 1972, G u l l i f o r d 1975) . O the r s e s t i m a t e the p o p u l a t i o n to range from 15% to 50% (Tanzer 1960, W i t t y 1961, Newsom 1963, H a v i n g h u r s t 1969, J e n k i n s e t a l . 1973). These e s t i m a t e s a re f o r B r i t a i n , the U n i t e d S t a t e s and A u s t r a l i a . I t i s r e a s o n a b l e to s u spec t t h a t such a p o p u l a t i o n a l s o e x i s t s i n B r i t i s h Co l umb ia . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no s y s t e m a t i c e v i d e n c e , the w r i t e r ' s f o u r y e a r s of e x p e r i e n c e in B r i t i s h Co lumbia secondary s c h o o l s s u p p o r t s the 15% to 20% e s t i m a t e s g i v en i n the l i t e r a t u r e . C a t e g o r i e s of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s In the l i t e r a t u r e the term l i m i t e d succe s s s t uden t i s not used by a u t h o r s . A g r e a t number o f d e s c r i p t i v e terms^ have been gene ra ted to d e s c r i b e these s t u d e n t s . The d i v e r s i t y of t e r m i n o l o g y used can be reduced by c o n s i d e r i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of these s t u d e n t s . Based on the Other terms used i n c l u d e : u n d e r a c h i e v e r s ; s low l e a r n e r s ; low a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s ; d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t u d e n t s ; s t u d e n t s of low e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t ; c u l t u r a l l y d e p r i v e d s t u d e n t s ; u n d e r - p r i v i l e g e d s t u d e n t s ; d i s c i p l i n e p r ob l ems ; non-academic s t u d e n t s ; t e r m i n a l s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s ; p o t e n t i a l d r o p - o u t s ; e a r l y s choo l l e a v e r s ; n o n - c e r t i f i c a t e s t u d e n t s ; r e l u c t a n t l e a r n e r s ; n o n - c o l l e g e bound s t u d e n t s ; un-m o t i v a t e d s t u d e n t s and low a c h i e v e r s . 6 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s examined i t i s p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y t h r e e major c a t e g o r i e s , the u n d e r a c h i e v e r , the s low l e a r n e r and the d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t u d e n t . The u n d e r a c h i e v e r i s u s u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d by ach ievement below average i n s p i t e o f h i s above average a b i l i t y (Oxen-horn 1972) . The s low l e a r n e r i s p r e ven ted f rom a t t a i n i n g average or above average ach ievement by l i m i t e d mental c a p a b i l i t i e s or s i m p l y by l e a r n i n g a t a s l owe r r a t e than o t h e r s t u d e n t s (Youn ie 1974). The d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t uden t may be c u l t u r a l l y , e c o n o m i c a l l y , s o c i a l l y or i n t e l l e c t u a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d and i s o f t e n c l a s s i f i e d as an u n d e r a c h i e v e r or a s low l e a r n e r (Reissman 1962, Younie 1974) . S i n ce these s t u d e n t s ( u n d e r a c h i e v e r s , s low l e a r n e r s and d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t u d e n t s ) are s a i d to l a c k s u c c e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e s i n s choo l i t i s l i k e l y t h a t they are the s t u d e n t s who are o f t e n s p e c i a l l y grouped t o g e t h e r f o r the purpose of s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n or a c h i e v e f a i l i n g g rades in an ungrouped s c i e n c e c l a s s . Because u n d e r a c h i e v e r s , s low l e a r n e r s , and d i s advan t a ged s t u d e n t s have not e x p e r i e n c e d succe s s i n s choo l , and as t hey are o f t e n grouped t o g e t h e r or c o n s i d e r e d to be of a p a r t i c u l a r ach ievement l e v e l , the encompass ing term of l i m i t e d succe s s s t uden t i s used. F a c t o r s r e l a t e d to l i m i t e d ' succes s in s choo l The purpose of t h i s s e c t i o n o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i s to examine the f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g l i m i t e d succe s s and the p o s s i b l e c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of t he se f a c t o r s from 7 the p e r s p e c t i v e s of the u n d e r a c h i e v e r , the s low l e a r n e r and the d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t u d e n t . In examin ing some of the p o s s i b l e c a u s a l f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to l i m i t e d succe s s i n s choo l i t i s c l e a r t h a t the problems of l i m i t e d succe s s cannot be w h o l l y s o l v e d i n the c l a s s r o o m . How-e v e r , i t i s t a c i t l y unde r s tood t h a t t e a c h e r s who r e c o g n i z e some o f t he se f a c t o r s w i l l be b e t t e r a b l e to implement any suggest ions f o rwa rded to h e l p t each these s t u d e n t s ( B r i c k l i n and B r i c k ! i n 1967) . The u n d e r a c h i e v e r As p r e v i o u s l y ment ioned the u n d e r a c h i e v e r i s the s t u d e n t who a c h i e v e s below h i s e xpec ted p o t e n t i a l . B r i c k l i n and B r i c k l i n (1967) s t a t e t h a t f rom 15% to 40% of a l l s t u d e n t s f a l l i n t o the underach ievement c a t e g o r y . W e l l i n g t o n and W e l l i n g t o n (1965) b e l i e v e t h a t over one -h a l f o f the u n d e r a c h i e v e r s in s c h o o l s come from average or above average backgrounds s o c i o e c o n o m i c a l l y . F i n e (1967) emphas izes t h a t u n d e r a c h i e v e r s come from a l l wa lk s of l i f e . I f , as W e l l i n g t o n and W e l l i n g t o n s t a t e , ove r one -h a l f o f a l l u n d e r a c h i e v e r s do come from average o r above average backgrounds i t can then be c o n c l u d e d t h a t the r e -ma in i n g u n d e r a c h i e v e r s are from more d i s a d v a n t a g e d back -g rounds . Weider C1973) s uppo r t s the l i n k between under -ach ievement and be ing d i s a d v a n t a g e d by s t a t i n g : "Unde r -ach ievement i s u s u a l l y accompanied w i t h c u l t u r a l d i s -advantagement and i n t e l l e c t u a l d e p r i v a t i o n a t home."^ ^ A r t h u r We ide r , "The S c i e n c e Teacher Assays the Under -a c h i e v e r , "The S c i e n c e Teacher 40 ( Janua r y 1973 ) : 19 - 21 . 8 The c h i l d who comes f rom a d i s a d v a n t a g e d background w i l l no t have the nece s s a r y p r e - s c h o o l s k i l l s and i n t e l l e c t u a l s t i m u l a t i o n to succeed i n a t r a d i t i o n a l s choo l s e t t i n g ( F i n e 1967, Weider 1973) . As a r e s u l t of t h i s e a r l y f a i l u r e the c h i l d tends to f a l l beh ind in the fundamenta l a reas n e c e s -s a r y f o r f u r t h e r s c h o o l i n g ( F i ne 1967, Oxehnorn 1972) . The net e f f e c t o f t h i s f a i l u r e in s choo l may l e a d to the d e v e l o p -ment of the low s e l f - c o n c e p t so e v i d e n t in u n d e r a c h i e v e r s (Smith e t a l . 1 963, F i ne 1 967). Th i s low s e l f - c o n c e p t i s s a i d to produce d i s i n t e r e s t in l e a r n i n g , h o s t i l i t y to l e a r n i n g or w i t h d r a w a l from l e a r n i n g as a s h i e l d to p reven t f u r t h e r f a i l u r e (Smith e t a l . 1963, B r i c k l i n and B r i c k l i n 1967, Weider 1973) . Much of the e a r l y and c o n t i n u e d f a i l u r e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e r s has been a t t r i b u t e d to poor t e a c h e r s ( B r i c k l i n and B r i c k l i n 1967, F i ne 1967, Wong 1978) . The e f f e c t of poor t e a c h i n g in one s u b j e c t i s thought to o v e r l a p i n t o o t h e r s u b j e c t s c a u s i n g a sp read o f underach ievement from one s u b j e c t to ano the r ( F i ne 1967, Oxenhorn 1972). A p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t example of poor t e a c h i n g i n one s u b j e c t a f f e c t i n g o t h e r s i s the a rea of r e a d i n g which i s c o n s i d e r e d to be a c r i t i c a l s k i l l n e c e s s a r y to a l l o t h e r s u b j e c t a reas (Oxenhorn 1972) . Teacher a t t i t u d e toward a s t u d e n t can have a s i g n i f i -cant e f f e c t upon the ach ievement of the s t u d e n t . The t e a c h e r o f d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t u d e n t s may have a p r e c o n c e i v e d i dea c o n c e r n i n g the a b i l i t y of an u n d e r a c h i e v e r . I f t h i s p r e c o n c e i v e d i dea gu ide s the t e a c h e r to hav ing low e x -p e c t a t i o n s f o r the s t u d e n t the s t u d e n t may o n l y a c h i e v e to the e xpec t ed l e v e l . I f the s t uden t has a low s e l f -9 concept and the t e a c h e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s m a i n t a i n a f a i l i n g s i t u a t i o n then the s t u d e n t ' s low s e l f - c o n c e p t i s r e i n f o r c e d i n a s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy CFine 1967, Oxenhorn 1972) . A more d i f f i c u l t t a s k i s i n v o l v e d when t r y i n g to i s o l a t e f a c t o r s l e a d i n g to the underach ievement of s t u d e n t s from average and above average backg rounds . Some o f the more e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e f a c t o r s may be r e l a t e d to p h y s i c a l causes ( v i s i o n and h e a r i n g ) , h i g h l y mob i l e f a m i l i e s , i l l n e s s and poor t e a c h i n g ( F i ne 1967, B r i c k l i n and B r i c k l i n 1 967). B r i c k l i n and B r i c k l i n sugges t t h a t over 80% of t he se u n d e r a c h i e v e r s are due to " c o n f l i c t e d emo t i ona l a t t i t u d e s . " Events such as broken f a m i l i e s and f a m i l y c o n f l i c t s a re seen as c o n t r i b u t o r s to t he se c o n f l i c t e d emo t i ona l a t t i t u d e s . The pa r en t who i s " o v e r - i n v o l v e d " w i t h the s t uden t (pushes too hard f o r p e r f e c t i o n ) may i n i t i a t e n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s t o -wards l e a r n i n g ( B r i c k l i n and B r i c k l i n 1967, F i ne 1967, W e l l i n g t o n and W e l l i n g t o n 1965) . F i ne c i t e s a s tudy by Shaw which i n d i c a t e s t h a t p e r m i s s i v e and u n d e r i n v o l v e d pa ren t s may be f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to unde rach ievement . Shaw B a r r y B r i c k l i n and P a t r i c i a M. B r i c k l i n , B r i g h t C h i l d -Poor G rades , the P s y cho l o gy of Unde rach ievement , ( D e l a c o r t e P r e s s , 1967 ) , p. W. Benjamin F i n e , U n d e r a c h i e v e r s , (New York : E.P'. Dutton and Company I n c ~ 1967 ) , p. 33. 10 found p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between u n d e r a c h i e v i n g s t u d e n t s and pa r en t s who d i d not s u p e r v i s e t h e i r c h i l d r e n , l a c k e d i n t e r e s t in t h e i r c h i l d r e n , had u n c e r t a i n t i e s about r a i s i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n , d i d not know what to e xpec t f rom t h e i r c h i l d r e n and had low a s p i r a t i o n s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . E v i d e n t l y t h e r e must be an optimum p a r e n t a l i n vo l vement which he lp s a v o i d unde rach ievement . B r i c k l i n and B r i c k l i n sugges t t h a t of the 80% of the u n d e r a c h i e v e r s t h a t come from average and above average backgrounds the m a j o r i t y a re boy s . . I t can be c onc l uded t h a t the c o m p o s i t i o n of the unde r -a c h i e v i n g p o r t i o n o f any group o f l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s w i l l depend l a r g e l y upon the s o c i oeconom i c background of the s choo l catchment a r e a . A need f o r d i f f e r e n t k i nd s of approaches w i t h the u n d e r a c h i e v e r w i l l l i k e l y be n e c e s s a r y due to t h e i r d i v e r s e backg rounds . The s low l e a r n e r A lmost a l l l i s t s of s low l e a r n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c l u d e an i tem r e l a t e d to low I.Q. Th i s low I.Q., g e n e r a l l y between 75 and 100, i s thought to be a major f a c t o r under -l y i n g s low l e a r n i n g by some a u t h o r s (Barbe 1961, Oxenhorn 1972, Younie 1974) . These au tho r s propose t h a t a p e r s o n ' s g e n e t i c make-up may l a r g e l y de te rm ine h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e and I.Q. In o t h e r words i n t e l l i g e n c e and I.Q. are f i x e d a t b i r t h . Other a u t h o r s t ake a d i f f e r e n t s tand r e g a r d i n g I.Q. and i n t e l l i g e n c e (Simon 1953, Hughes 1973, Youn ie 1974, 11 Brennan 1975, S tu r ge s 1976) . These au tho r s see i n t e l l i g e n c e and I.Q. as v a r i a b l e s . They p l a c e a heavy emphasis on the impact of the env i ronment upon the development of c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e and I.Q. Th i s i dea i m p l i e s t h a t the i n t e l l i g e n c e o f a s t uden t can change. in S t u r g e s ' w o r d s , " T h i s v iew o f i n t e l l i g e n c e makes i t i m p o r t a n t not to i d e n t i f y low a t t a i n m e n t w i t h low a b i 1 i t y . . . s i n e e the l a t t e r i s a lways capab le o f improvement . "^ The changeab le n a t u r e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e proposed by these au tho r s sugges t s t h a t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a s t u d e n t as a s low l e a r n e r s hou ld be done w i t h g r e a t ca re s i n c e the low i n t e l l i g e n c e com-ponent may o n l y be a tempora ry phenomenon. The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s the e x i s t e n c e of two t ypes o f s low l e a r n e r s . One s low l e a r n e r i s l i m i t e d by an i n n a t e l a c k o f i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a b i l i t y w h i l e the o t h e r may o n l y be l i m i t e d due to e n -v i r o n m e n t a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . S e v e r a l a u t ho r s b e l i e v e t h a t s1ow l e a r n i n g may be e x p l a i n e d i n terms of P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y of i n t e l l e c t u a l d e v e l o p -ment (Johnson 1963, S tu rge s 1976) . P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y em-p h a s i z e s t h a t c h i l d r e n g r a d u a l l y p r o g r e s s to a b s t r a c t t h i n k -i ng th rough a s e r i e s of e a r l i e r s t a g e s . The c h i l d i s o n l y a b l e to cope w i t h c e r t a i n i n t e l l e c t u a l t a s k s a t each s t a g e . The s tages in P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y a re h i e r a r c h i c a l , , t h a t i s , a 1 L . M . S t u r g e s , Non-Streamed S c i e n c e - A T e a c h e r ' s G u i d e , Study S e r i e s No. 7, ( H a t f i e l d : The A s s o c i a t i o n o f S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , 1976 ) , p.5. 1 2 l ower s tage must be f u l l y r e a l i z e d b e f o r e a h i g h e r s tage can be d e v e l o p e d . Johnson (1963) says t h a t the c h i l d w i l l be ready to l e a r n c e r t a i n c oncep t s o n l y when he i s the c o r r e c t "men ta l a g e . " 1 In d i s c u s s i n g s t u d e n t s a t the j u n i o r secondary l e v e l i t s hou l d be remembered t h a t these s t u d e n t s range in age from about t w e l v e to s i x t e e n . P i a g e t ' s s tage t h e o r y s t a t e s t h a t the t r a n s i t i o n to a b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g o c cu r s around the t h i r t e e n t h y ea r (Beard 1969) . S i n c e i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s p r o g r e s s to a b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g at d i f f e r e n t r a t e s and at d i f f e r e n t ages the s low l e a r n e r s may be those s t u d e n t s s t i l l wo r k i n g a t a c o n c r e t e o p e r a -t i o n a l l e v e l . These p r e - a b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g s t u d e n t s un-d o u b t e d l y have d i f f i c u l t y u n d e r s t a n d i n g and d e a l i n g w i t h the many a b s t r a c t i o n s they are asked to dea l w i t h a t the j u n i o r secondary l e v e l ( G u l l i f o r d 1969) . Mahan (1965) proposes t h a t the s low l e a r n e r many not 2 be u n i n t e l l i g e n t but see t h i n g s in a " d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t . " Th i s h y p o t h e s i s i s a l s o - d i s cu s s ed by Weaver ( 1971 ) , Dunn and Dunn (1977) where s t u d e n t s are thought to have t h e i r own p re fe r red method o f l e a r n i n g (or l e a r n i n g s t y l e ) . S t uden t s G. O r v i l l e J ohn son , E d u c a t i o n f o r the Slow L e a r n e r s , (Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 1963 ) , p.44. Thomas W. Mahan, J r . , "The Slow L e a r n e r : Fac t or E x c u s e ? " , School Review 7 3 (Summer 1965) : 77-88. 13 who l e a r n i n t h e i r own s t y l e may appear to be s low l e a r n e r s to the t e a c h e r accustomed to more s t a n d a r d l e a r n i n g s t y l e s . A s t uden t f o r c e d to l e a r n in a s t y l e not h i s own may l e a r n l e s s e f f e c t i v e l y and thus appear to be a s low l e a r n e r . P h y s i c a l d e f e c t s o f v i s i o n and h e a r i n g can have d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s upon the l e a r n i n g of a s t uden t ( F e a t h e r -s tone 1951, K a r l i n 1969, Hughes 1973, Younie 1974) . S t uden t s who come from backgrounds w h e r e ' i n a d e q u a t e h e a l t h and hygiene are p r a c t i c e d may have a h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e of v i s i o n and h e a r i n g d e f e c t s . S i g h t and h e a r i n g d e f e c t s may be more p redominant among d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t u d e n t s . P h y s i c a l needs such as o u t l i n e d by Maslow (.1 954) may e x p l a i n the s low l e a r n i n g of some s t u d e n t s . Maslow s t a t e s t h a t everyone has f o u r l e v e l s of need. These f o u r , p h y s i o l o g i c a l needs , l o v e • needs , esteem needs and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n needs are o r g a n i z e d i n a h i e r a r c h y w i t h p h y s i o l o g i c a l needs r e q u i r i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n b e f o r e l o v e , esteem or s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n needs . A s t u d e n t who comes to s choo l hungry or t i r e d ( i . e . has p h y s i o l o g i c a l needs to be f u l f i l l e d ) w i l l not be ab l e to p roceed to h i g h e r l e v e l s of need and thus to l e a r n i n g u n t i l t he se b a s i c needs are s a t i s f i e d . Many s t u d e n t s may come to s choo l w i t h t he se b a s i c needs u n s a t i s f i e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y those s t u d e n t s f rom d i s a d v a n t a g e d backgrounds ( H u l i c k a 1969) . N o n - p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l e f f e c t s a r i s i n g from the home may be c o n t r i b u t o r y to s low l e a r n i n g . S t uden t s who come from homes where b a s i c s k i l l s and i n t e l l e c t u a l s t i m u l a t i o n nece s s a r y to succeed in s choo l a re not t augh t or p r a c t i c e d may become s low l e a r n e r s when they reach s choo l (Johnson 1963, H u l i c k a 1969, K a r l i n 1969, S he l t on 1971, Weaver 1971, Hughes 1973, Younie 1974, S l a t e r 1975) . G iven t he se v a r i a b l e s i t seems e v i d e n t t h a t s low l e a r n e r s may come from a l l s o c i oeconom i c l e v e l s . A lmost w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n the l i t e r a t u r e c i t e s low s e l f - c o n c e p t as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the s low l e a r n e r . Some au tho r s see t h i s low s e l f - c o n c e p t as a p r oduc t of p r e v i o u s and c o n t i n u a l f a i l u r e i n s choo l (Brandwein e t a l . 1958, Mahan 1965, Crowley 1961, G l a s s e r 1971). They see t h i s f a i l u r e as a cause of both w i t h d r a w a l and a g g r e s s i v e be-h a v i o u r o f t e n e x h i b i t e d by the s low l e a r n e r . G u l l i f o r d (1975) sees t h i s low s e l f - c o n c e p t to be a p r oduc t of p r e v i o u s t e a c h e r s not p r o v i d i n g the needed succes s to produce a h igh s e l f - c o n c e p t in the s t u d e n t . S t uden t s hav ing a low s e l f - c o n c e p t o f t e n l a c k m o t i v a t i o n and are u n w i l l i n g to t r y i n c l a s s . Th i s u n w i l l i n g n e s s to t r y and l a c k o f m o t i v a t i o n i s seen by S l a t e r (1975) as a de fense mechanism to a v o i d f u r t h e r f a i l u r e . C l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the s t u d e n t ' s l a c k of s e l f - c o n c e p t i s the s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g p rophecy . Once :.teachers have e x -p e r i e n c e d or heard o f the f a i l u r e of a s t uden t or group of s t u d e n t s they may ho l d low e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r them. The t e a c h e r c o n t i n u e s t o e xpec t low or f a i l i n g work and does 1 5 not p res s f o r h i g h e r q u a l i t y . As a r e s u l t of t he se low e x p e c t a t i o n s the s t u d e n t c o n t i n u e s to do p o o r l y or even f a i l s and h i s low s e l f - c o n c e p t i s r e i n f o r c e d (Mahan 1965, Ladd 1973, Quelch 1975, S tu rge s 1976) . F e a t h e r s t o n e (1951) and Mahan (1965) suggest t h a t the lower i n t e l l i g e n c e e x h i b i t e d by the s low l e a r n e r may be due e n t i r e l y to l i m i t e d r e a d i n g s k i l l s . , S i n c e most s choo l s u b j e c t s depend l a r g e l y upon r e a d i n g and w r i t t e n e x p r e s s i o n i t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e why s t u d e n t s w i t h o u t these s k i l l s appear to be s low l e a r n e r s . Mahan says t h a t these s o - c a l l e d s low l e a r n e r s may be ab l e t o . "comprehend much more than they can e x p r e s s . " 1 Many o f the c a u s a l f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g the c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s of the s low l e a r n e r appear to be the same f a c t o r s as those r e l a t e d to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of both the unde r -a c h i e v i n g and d i s advan t a ged s t u d e n t . The d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t u d e n t Much has been w r i t t e n about the d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t u d e n t in s c h o o l . In t h i s s tudy the term d i s a d v a n t a g e d i s used synonymously w i t h u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d c u l t u r a l l y d e p r i v e d , s o c i a l l y d e p r i v e d , e d u c a t i o n a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d and c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t . Whi le the w r i t e r r e c o g n i z e s the d i f f e r e n c e s in meaning of the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d terms i t i s l i k e l y t h a t I b i d . , pp. 77-78. 16 s c h o o l s do not make the d i s t i n c t i o n between them. T h e r e f o r e , f o r the purpose o f t h i s s t u d y , these d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l not be made e v i d e n t . The f a c t t h a t much has been a l l u d e d to r e g a r d i n g d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t u d e n t s in the p r e v i o u s two s e c t i o n s i n d i c a t e s the c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n between d i s advan tagement , s low l e a r n i n g and unde rach ievement . Many of the f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t u d e n t s are s i m i l a r i f not the same as those of underach ievement and s low l e a r n i n g . The r e p e t i t i o n of these u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r s i s f e l t n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r to emphas ize the wide base o f agreement between au tho r s w r i t i n g from the t h r e e d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s . Johnson (1970) t a l k s o f : groups of peop le whose ways of l i v i n g -va l ue s y s t ems , language s y s tems , a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s , e x p e r i e n t i a l background e t c . - p r e -vent them from f u n c t i o n i n g in the dominant c u l t u r e . Whi le J o h n s o n ' s s t a tement seems somewhat sweeping and f i n a l i t i s easy to see t h a t as a r e s u l t of t h i s d i f f e r e n t back -ground, d i sadvantaged c h i l d r e n may come to s choo l unequipped w i t h the n e c e s s a r y s k i l l s and e x p e r i e n c e s to be s u c c e s s f u l in a s choo l tuned to the dominant c u l t u r e (Ausubel 1966, H a v i n g h u r s t 1966, Noar 1967, Tuckman and O ' B r i a n 1967, Tuckman 1969, White 1971) . The d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t u d e n t may Kenneth John son , "The C u l t u r a l l y D i s advan taged - S l ow L e a r n e r s or D i f f e r e n t L e a r n e r s ? " , J o u r n a l o f Secondary E d u c a t i o n 45 ( Janua r y 1970) : 43-47. l e a r n i n a d i f f e r e n t manner than o t h e r c h i l d r e n due to h i s d i f f e r e n t background (Reissman 1962, G i d d i n g s 1966, Webster 1970, White 1971) , I t may be t h a t the d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t uden t i s l a r g e l y a p h y s i c a l l e a r n e r ( G i d d i n g s 1966, Reissman 1969, Webster 1970). P h y s i c a l l e a r n i n g i s a s l owe r p roce s s than a b s t r a c t l e a r n i n g and t h e r e f o r e the d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t uden t o p e r a t i n g i n t h i s mode may be i d e n t i f i e d as a s low l e a r n e r . Reissman (1969) adds t h a t d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t u d e n t s may appear s l owe r i n t h e i r work due to t h e i r " c a u t i o u s or m e t i c u l o u s " 1 approach to s choo l work. Ausube l (1 966) and o t h e r au tho r s b e l i e v e t h a t the i n i t i a l d e l a y i n l e a r n i n g the b a s i c s k i l l s of r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g and a r i t h m e t i c due to a d i s a d v a n t a g e d background w i l l l e a d to a s l owe r t r a n s i t i o n to a b s t r a c t r e a s o n i n g than o t h e r s t u d e n t s ( G i d d i n g s 1966, L o r e t an and Umars 1966, M a l k i n 1966, Faunce 1967, Noar 1967, Tuckman and O ' B r i a n 1969, White 1971) . Bloom (1964) r e l a t e s changes in I.Q. t o a d i s a d v a n t a g e d backg round. In h i s s tudy he found t h a t I.Q. may be a f f e c t e d by env i r onment by as much as 2.5 p o i n t s per y ea r f o r the f i r s t f o u r y ea r s of l i f e . I.Q. may change at a r a t e of o n l y 0.4 p o i n t s per y e a r between the ages of e i g h t to f o u r t e e n . Frank Re i s sman, " Teache r s of the Poo r : A F i v e P o i n t P l a n , " in How t o Teach D i s advan taged Y o u t h , eds . A l l a n C . O r n s t e i n and P h i l i p D. V a i r o (New York : David McKay C o . , 1969 ) , pp. 402-417. B loom ' s f i n d i n g s seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t a l t h o u g h i n t e l l i g e n c e i s not f i x e d at b i r t h i t becomes ha rde r to change as a c h i l d ages. I t seems t h a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e d background may have a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t upon t h i s p o t e n t i a l change i n I.Q. P a r t of a d i s a d v a n t a g e d c h i l d ' s p repa rednes s to succeed in s choo l may stem from more b a s i c d e f i c i e n c i e s such as p h y s i o l o g i c a l and l o ve needs (Noar 1967, Tuckman and O ' B r i a n 1967, Tuckman 1969). These needs seem to r e l a t e t o Mas l ow ' s h i e r a r c h y r e l a t e d i n a p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . Most t e a c h e r s do not come f rom d i s a d v a n t a g e d back -g rounds . As a r e s u l t of the d i f f e r e n c e in background be-tween the d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t uden t and the teacher^:-, non -cong ruent v a l u e s may c l a s h CBetteTheim 1966, Goldman 1969, Glasman 1970, Johnson 1970, Webster 1970) . In B e t t e T h e i m ' s words : . . . m i d d l e c l a s s t e a c h e r s , d e s p i t e t h e i r d e s i r e to be h e l p f u l to the c u l t u r a l l y d e p r i v e d c h i l d , and d e s p i t e ; . t h e i r be s t i n t e n t i o n s , o f t e n get bogged down because they cannot transcend t h e i r own v a l u e system to meet t h a t o f the chr iTdren. •••" Th i s v a l u e s c l a s h may make i t s e l f most e v i d e n t in the e x p e c t a t i o n s h e l d by the t e a c h e r . The t e a c h e r e x p e c t s f a i l u r e f rom these s t u d e n t s and r e c e i v e s t h i s f a i l i n g b e h a v i o u r . Th i s c o n t i n u e d f a i l u r e can f u r t h e r depres s the s t u d e n t ' s a l r e a d y low s e l f - c o n c e p t (Faunce 1967, Noar 1967, Bruno B e t t e l h e i m , " T e a c h i n g the D i s a d v a n t a g e d , " in The D i s advan taged Lea rne r , ed. S t a t en W. Webster (San F r a n c i s c o Chand l e r P u b l i s h i n g Co . , 1966 ) , pp . 423-429. 19 Tuckman 1969, White 1971) . A l t hough be ing d i s a d v a n t a g e d i s most commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o v e r t y , o t h e r f a c t o r s such as broken homes and l a c k o f p a r e n t a l a t t e n t i o n are c o n s i d e r e d to be forms of d i s a d v a n t a g e but not n e c e s s a r i l y r e s t r i c t e d to d i s a d v a n t a g e d backgrounds (Ma l k i n 1966) . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s As a r e s u l t o f the p o s s i b l e c a u s a l f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g l i m i t e d s u c c e s s , d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , a number of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s ( unde r -a c h i e v e r s , s low l e a r n e r s and d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t u d e n t s ) be -come a p p a r e n t . Many au tho r s have l i s t e d the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of u n d e r a c h i e v e r s ( Smith e t a l . 1963, W e l l i n g t o n and W e l l -i n g t on 1965, B r i c k l i n and B r i c k l i n 1967, F i ne 1967, Bingham and B r i d g e s 1968, K i n c a i d 1968, Oxenhorn 1972, Weider 1973, M i t c h e l l and P i a t kowska 1 974, James-: 1 975 , S c h i l l i n g e r 1 975 ) , s low l e a r n e r s ( F e a t h e r s t o n e 1951, Brandwein e t a l . 1958, Johnson 1 963 , De Hann and Kough 1 968,'. Karnes 1 970 , M i l s o n 1970, Townsend 1971, Weaver 1971, M a r t i n 1973, Janzen 1973, Younie 1974) and d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t u d e n t s ( H a v i n g h u r s t 1966, Reissman 1962, L o r e t an and Umars 1966, Faunce 1967, McCloskey 1967, Noar 1967, Reissman 1969, Sm i l ey 1968, Tuckman 1969, Webster 1970, I l l i n o i s Department of Occupa-t i o n E d u c a t i o n 1 973) . Upon e x a m i n a t i o n of the numerous^, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l i s t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e i t was found t h a t u n d e r a c h i e v e r s , s low l e a r n e r s and d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t u d e n t s , 20 have many common and some un ique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Tab le 1.1 l i s t s tho se c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are common to unde r -a c h i e v e r s , s low l e a r n e r s and d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t u d e n t s . Tab le 1.2 l i s t s those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which seem to be un ique to each of the t h r e e types o f l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t . A l t hough eve ry l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t would not be e xpec t ed to e x h i b i t a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l i s t e d in Tab le s 1.1 and 1.2, s e v e r a l s hou l d be i d e n t i f i a b l e in an i n d i v i d u a l l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t . TABLE 1.1 CHARACTERISTICS COMMON TO ALL LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENTS L i m i t e d succe s s s t uden t s are below grade l e v e l i n o v e r a l l academic a c h i e v e -ment l a c k b a s i c s k i l l s i n r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g and a r i t h m e t i c have a s h o r t a t t e n t i o n span l a c k powers o f r e t e n t i o n e x h i b i t poor a t t endance and a re f r e q u e n t l y t a r d y have poor work and s tudy h a b i t s are d i s o r g a n i z e d and l a c k ca re o f p e r s o n a l e f f e c t s have n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward s c h o o l , t e a c h e r s and l e a r n i n g have d i f f i c u l t y f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s e x h i b i t poor o r a l and w r i t t e n communicat ion s k i l l s l a c k m o t i v a t i o n to l e a r n l a c k i n t e r e s t in academic work r e s i s t t a s k s t h a t seem n o n - r e l e v a n t are underdeve loped in or l a c k c o g n i t i v e and r e a s o n i n g s k i l l s a re unde rdeve loped in or l a c k a b i l i t y to work i n -dependen t l y l a c k c u r i o s i t y and c r e a t i v i t y have poor h e a r i n g , speech and o t h e r s en so ry - : ' p h y s i c a l problems have a low s e l f - c o n c e p t are a g g r e s s i v e and/or h o s t i l e a re w i thdrawn or detached are behav i ou r ( d i s c i p l i n e ) problems l a c k a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l t h e i r s o c i a l behav i ou r have s h o r t t e r m , u n r e a l i s t i c or low a s p i r a t i o n s TABLE 1.2 CHARACTERISTICS UNIQUE TO EACH OF THE THREE CATEGORIES OF LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENT U n d e r a c h i e v e r s a re average o r above average i n a b i l i t y but a re below average in ach ievement are unable to a c c e p t p r a i s e and c r i t i c i s m r e a d i l y v o l u n t e e r r a r e l y a re o f t e n s e l f i s h and i n c o n s i d e r a t e Slow l e a r n e r s l e a r n w i t h l e s s depth of u n d e r s t a n d i n g than o t h e r s t u d e n t s l a c k t r a n s f e r o f knowledge s k i l l are o f t e n nervous and e x h i b i t marked a n x i e t y a v o i d t h e i r a reas o f weakness and c o n c e n t r a t e on s t r e n g t h s are e a s i l y con fu sed have an I.Q. s co re r a n g i n g from 75 to 100 o f t e n come from f a m i l i e s who p l a c e l i t t l e v a l u e on e d u c a t i o n have s t r o n g f e e l i n g s of h ope l e s s ne s s and f a t a l i s m l i v e i n a w o r l d of c o n c r e t e o b j e c t s and s i t u a t i o n s D i s advantaged s t u d e n t s t end towards e xped i ency in t h e i r work a re o f t e n t i r e d upon a r r i v a l to s choo l o f t e n come from h i g h l y mob i l e f a m i l i e s e x p e r i e n c e c o n s i d e r a b l e f a m i l y d i s r u p t i o n a re o f t e n hungry , u n d e r c l o t h e d and have r e c e i v e d l i t t l e med i c a l or d e n t a l ca re speak E n g l i s h as a second language come from low income f a m i l i e s o f t e n e x p e r i e n c e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n by peers - c o n s i d e r peer group a f f i l i a t i o n s more i m p o r t a n t than f a m i l y t i e s f e e l few o b l i g a t i o n s The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s l i s t e d above have p r o v i d e d e d u c a t o r s w i t h a base from which they have worked toward d e v e l o p i n g a p p r o p r i a t e methods f o r t e a c h i n g t he se s t u d e n t s . Teach ing methods f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s The i n t e n t o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s to r e v i e w those methods thought most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t e a c h i n g l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s . A l l t e a c h i n g methods w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e to the p r e v i o u s l y examined c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t u d e n t s . In o r d e r to c l a r i f y the term t e a c h i n g method the D i c t i o n a r y of E d u c a t i o n ( t h i r d e d i t i o n 1973) was c o n s u l t e d and p r o v i d e d the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n : t e a c h i n g method: (1) a r a t i o n a l o r d e r i n g and b a l a n c i n g i i i the l i g h t of knowledge and pu rpo se , of the s e v e r a l e lements t h a t e n t e r i n t o the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s , the n a t u r e of the p u p i l , the m a t e r i a l s of i n s t r u c t i o n , and the t o t a l l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n (2) a s t a n d a r d p rocedu re in the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l and the c o n t e n t of a c t i v i t i e s . The term t e a c h i n g method encompasses a wide spect rum of a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the t e a c h i n g / l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . W i t h i n t h i s broad d e f i n i t i o n of t e a c h i n g method the f o l l o w i n g areas have been i d e n t i f i e d : g r oup i ng p r a c t i c e s ; c u r r i c u l u m ; t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s ; t e a c h i n g t e c h n o l o g y ; and t e a c h e r 24 a t t i t u d e , e x p e r i e n c e and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . These s p e c i f i c a reas o f t e a c h i n g method w i l l be examined now in more d e t a i l . G roup ing p r a c t i c e s One of the most p r e v a l e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s used i n the t e a c h i n g of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s i s the g r oup i ng o f these s t u d e n t s i n s e p a r a t e c l a s s e s f o r i n -s t r u c t i o n ( E s p o s i t o 1973). In t h e i r r e v i e w of the l i t e r a -t u r e on a b i l i t y g r oup i n g F i n d l a y and Bryan (1975) r e p o r t e d two su r vey s which both e s t i m a t e d t h a t 77% of the s choo l d i s t r i c t s in the U n i t e d S t a t e s were u s i n g some form of a b i l i t y g r oup i ng (Department of H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and We l -f a r e 1968, F i n d l a y and Bryan 1971) . In a more r e c e n t t e a c h e r su r vey W i l son and Schmit s (1978) r e p o r t e d t h a t 74% of the t e a c h e r s they p o l l e d t augh t i n s i t u a t i o n s where a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g was in use. A l t hough data f o r B r i t a i n were not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e a t the t ime of w r i t i n g , i t i s known t h a t a b i l i t y g r oup i n g has been w i d e l y p r a c t i c e d f o r many yea r s in B r i t i s h s c h o o l s ( S tu r ge s 1976) . There has been a g r e a t dea l o f c o n t r o v e r s y s u r r o u n d i n g the use of a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g ove r the pa s t 50 y e a r s . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s c o n t r o v e r s y a number o f arguments f o r and a g a i n s t t h i s p r a c t i c e have been f o r m u l a t e d . In o r d e r to e s t a b l i s h a p o s i t i o n on a b i l i t y g r oup i n g r e l a t i v e to l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s the arguments f o r and a g a i n s t t h i s p r a c t i c e w i l l be examined i n d e t a i l . Few au tho r s r ev i ewed were in s uppo r t o f a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g , i n d e e d , the p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s of t h i s p r a c t i c e were l a r g e l y r e p o r t e d i n l i t e r a t u r e where the au tho r s were g e n e r a l l y n e g a t i v e l y i n c l i n e d to t h i s s t r a t e g y . A b i l i t y g r oup i ng i s s a i d to a l l o w s t u d e n t s to work at t h e i r own pace s i n c e a l l s t u d e n t s . are s uppo sed l y wo rk i ng at the same l e v e l . The t e a c h e r can a d j u s t h i s t e a c h i n g s t y l e and methods to c a t e r to the l e v e l o f the s t u d e n t s he i s i n s t r u c t i n g (Thomas and Thomas 1965, S tu rge s 1976) . The p r a c t i c e o f a b i l i t y g r oup i ng i s s a i d t o be " e c o n o m i c , e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e " 1 ( S tu rge s 1976) . A p p a r e n t l y h igh a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s do ve ry w e l l under an a c a d e m i c a l l y grouped s i t u a t i o n ( E s p o s i t o 1973, F i n d l a y and Bryan 1975, Halderman 1976, M o r r i s o n 1976) . T e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and p a r e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y those pa ren t s of h igh a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s , g e n e r a l l y seem to be in f a v o u r of a b i l i t y g r oup i ng (Thomas and Thomas 1 965., F i n d l a y and Bryan 1975, Halderman 1976, W i l s on and Schmit s 1978 ) . The p o s i t i v e a spec t s of a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g were l a r g e l y r e p o r t e d by p roponent s of hete rogeneous (mixed a b i l i t y ) g r o u p i n g . Th i s may be an i n d i c a t o r of the c u r r e n t f e e l i n g s of e d u c a t o r s r e g a r d i n g a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g . L i t t l e of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i ewed f a v o u r e d a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g . Th i s i s s u r p r i s i n g i n the l i g h t of the f a c t t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e i s so w i d e l y used (W i l s on and Schmi t s 1978) . W i l s on and I b i d . , p. 2. Schmi t s suggest t h a t t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and pa r en t s may not be f a m i l i a r w i t h the r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s and some of the l o g i c a l arguments a g a i n s t a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g . The r e s u l t s of the r e s e a r c h has been r e p o r t e d i n a number o f r e v i ew a r t i c l e s (Eks t rom 1961, Passow 1961, Thomas and Thomas 1965, E s p o s i t o 1973, F i n d l a y and Bryan 1975, M o r r i s o n 1976) . The r e s u l t s of s t u d i e s done on a b i l i t y g r oup i n g a re be s t summarized by Ek s t rom. Ekstrom s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s " a g r e a t v a r i a t i o n i n e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n " r e s u l t i n g i n "no c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n of r e s u l t s . " 1 Th i s s t a tement made in 1961 s t i l l ho ld s t r u e in 1978 (W i l s on and Schmi t s 1978) . There seems to be no c o n c l u s i v e e m p i r i c a 1 e v i d e n c e sup-p o r t i n g the c o n t i n u a t i o n of homogeneous or heterogeneous a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g . There i s a g r e a t number o f arguments oppos ing the p r a c t i c e of a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g . The p roce s s of s e l e c t i n g s t uden t s f o r a b i l i t y l e v e l s i s seen by many a u t h o r s as o f t e n i n v a l i d and u n r e l i a b l e . ( W i l h e m s and Westby -G ibson 1961, Passow 1 966 , Dav ies 1 975., F i n d l a y and Bryan 1 975 , S l a t e r 1975, Halderman 1976, S tu rge s 1976) . S tu rge s c i t e s S imon ' s work (.1 953) which proposes the changeab le n a t u r e of i n t e l l i g e n c e . The f a c t t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e may be a chang ing q u a n t i t y i s f u r t h e r emphas ized by Johnson ( 1963 ) , Ruth B. E k s t r om, " E x p e r i m e n t a l S t u d i e s in Homogeneous G r o u p i n g : A C r i t i c a l Re v i ew , " School Review 69 (Summer 1961) : 216-226. 2 7 Bloom (.1 964 ) , Hughes (1 973) and Youn ie (.1 974) . S i n c e i n -t e l l i g e n c e may be a dynamic q u a n t i t y i t seems d i f f i c u l t to be both v a l i d and r e l i a b l e when p l a c i n g s t uden t s in a b i 1 i t y g roups . In answer to the n o t i o n t h a t s t u d e n t s w i l l s h i f t between groups as i n t e l l i g e n c e changes Dav ie s (1975) s a y s , " i n t e r s t r e a m t r a n s f e r needed to put r i g h t m i s t a k e s i n s e l e c t i o n and g r oup i ng r a r e l y h a p p e n s . " 1 S e v e r a l a u t ho r s submit t h a t the i s o l a t i o n of s t u d e n t s i n t o a b i l i t y groups tends to exagge ra te and m a i n t a i n r a c i a l and s o c i oeconom i c d i f f e r e n c e s . Th i s i s o l a t i o n a l s o r e -duces the s o c i a l c o n t a c t between these v a r i o u s groups r e -s u l t i n g in a l ower l e v e l o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s t i m u l a t i o n (Eash 1961, Thomas and Thomas 1965, Passow 1966, E s p o s i t o 1973, Dav ies 1975, F i n d l a y and Bryan 1975, Darke 1976, Halderman 1976, S tu rge s 1976, W i l s on and Schmit s 1978) . Group ing seems to a i d o n l y the h igh a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s who a t t a i n both a h igh s e l f - c o n c e p t and improved academic ach ievement (Borg 1964, E s p o i t o 1973, F i n d l a y and Bryan 1975, W i l s on and Schmit s 1978) . The succes s of the h i gh a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s may be a t t r i b u t a b l e to t e a c h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s ( s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g p rophecy ) (Douglas 1 964, Go ldbe rg eit a l . 1 966, Passow 1966, Jacobson and Ro sen tha l 1968, Dav ies 1975, Halderman 1976, S tu rge s 1976) . R. P e t e r D a v i e s , Mixed A b i l i t y Group ing (London: Temple Smith L t d . , 1 975 ) , p.8. Rather than be i ng a s i t u a t i o n in which the range i n a b i l i t y i s r e d u c e d , v a r i o u s a u t h o r s see the low a b i l i t y group as be ing a c a t c h a l l f o r many d i f f e r e n t k i nd s of s t u d e n t s . Slow l e a r n e r s , u n d e r a c h i e v e r s , d i s c i p l i n e p r ob l ems , a p a t h e t i c and unmot i va ted s t u d e n t s p r e s e n t a my r i ad o f problems in a homogeneous g r oup i ng which would not be as e v i d e n t i n a mixed a b i l i t y group (Borg 1964, Yates 1964, Thomas and Thomas 1965, Harg raves 1 967 , . S tu rge s 1:976). Eash ( 1961 ) , Wilhems and Westby -G ibson ( 1961 ) , Borg (1964) and S tu r ge s (1976) s t a t e t h a t a b i l i t y g r oup i n g a l one w i l l not i n c r e a s e ach i evement . S u p p o r t e r s of a b i l i t y g roup ing may l ook to s t a t emen t s i m p l y i n g t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a -t i o n of t e a c h i n g methods and m a t e r i a l s a p p r o p r i a t e to each a b i l i t y group may be the answer (Ekst rom 1961, Thomas and Thomas 1965, Passow 1966 ) , S e v e r a l s t u d i e s , r e v i ewed by the w r i t e r , u t i l i z i n g v a r i e d methods and m a t e r i a l s in a b i l i t y g r oup i n g s i t u a t i o n s were l a r g e l y i n c o n c l u s i v e (Moody 1970, K e l l o u g h 1970, M a r t i n 1973, M i l s o n 1973, Bingham and B r i d g e s 1974) . Dav ies ( 1975 ) , S l a t e r (1975) and S tu rge s (1976) sug -gest t h a t the l e a s t e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s are o f t e n a s s i g n e d the l ower a b i l i t y g roups . A p o s s i b l e r e s u l t of t h i s a s s i g n -ment may be a s t a g n a t i o n of t e a c h i n g methods, boredom of both the t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t and s t u d e n t behav i ou r problems (Yates 1964, L e i g h t o n 1970, Re id 1970) . F i n d l a y and Bryan ( 1975 ) , whose r e v i e w of the l i t e r a -t u r e on a b i l i t y g r oup i ng spans 1920 to 1970, c onc l ude t h a t the p r a c t i c e c o n t i n u e s w i t h o u t s y s t e m a t i c j u s t i f i c a t i o n and , i n d e e d , w i t h few notabl.e s t u d i e s t o p o i n t the way to a t e n a b l e s y n t h e s i s of what happens when a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g i s usedA Wi l son and Schmit s (1978) have produced a number o f r e -commendations r e g a r d i n g a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g . Teacher t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s are encouraged to f a m i l i a r i z e t h e i r t r a i n e e s and i n - s e r v i c e c l i e n t s o f the r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d to a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g . A reas se s sment o f the l i t e r a t u r e i s advoca ted to a s c e r t a i n i f c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s wa r r an t the use of a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g . A f i n a l recommendat ion sugges t s i n v e s t i g a -t i o n i n t o the f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g the c o n t i n u e d suppo r t of a b i l i t y g r oup i ng by t e a c h e r s . For the p r e s e n t W i l s on and Schmit s advoca te a s w i t c h f rom homogeneous a b i l i t y groups to heterogeneous sma l l c l a s s r o o m groups in o r de r to l i m i t the p o s s i b l e n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s of a b i l i t y g r oup i ng w h i l e s t i l l a l l o w i n g the p r a c t i t i o n e r b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s to meet i n -d i v i d u a l needs than a re a l l o w e d by l a r g e group i n s t r u c t i o n . 2 Warren G. F i n d l e y and M i r i am M. B r y a n , The Pros and Cons  of A b i 1 i t y Group ing ( B l o o m i n g t o n : Ph i D e l t a Kappa E d u c a t i o n a l F o u n d a t i o n , 1 975 ) , p.6. B a r r y J . W i l s on and Donald W. S c h m i t s , "Wha t ' s New in A b i l i t y G r o u p i n g ? " , Ph i D e l t a Kappan 59 ( A p r i l 1978 ) : 535-536. 30 Th i s l a s t s t a tement seems to u n d e r l y the r e c e n t move i n B r i t a i n away from homogeneous a b i l i t y g r oup i ng to mixed a b i 1 i t y e d u c a t i o n . C u r r i c u l u m , t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s and t e a c h i n g t e c h n o l o g y A g r e a t dea l has been w r i t t e n in the l i t e r a t u r e r e -g a r d i n g the k i n d of c u r r i c u l u m bes t s u i t e d to the l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t . I n e v i t a b l y the c h o i c e of c u r r i c u l u m o f t e n d i r e c t s the t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s and t e c h n o l o g i e s used. For t h i s rea son c u r r i c u l u m , t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s a n d t e a c h i n g t e c h n o l o g y have been i n c l u d e d t o g e t h e r . The e x a m i n a t i o n of the l i t e r a t u r e i n t he se t h r e e a reas sugges ted the f o l l o w i n g se t of s u b c a t e g o r i e s : c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n ; approaches to l e a r n i n g ; e n s u r i n g s u c c e s s ; e v a l u a t i o n and r e p o r t i n g . Be fo re b e g i n n i n g the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w of t h i s s e c t i o n a s t a tement by K e l l y (1974) may he lp to p r e f a c e the i n -f o r m a t i o n to f o l l o w . K e l l y s a y s : I f we a c c e p t t h a t o n l y the o b j e c t i v e s of e d u c a -t i o n are common, we must be p repa red f o r q u i t e d r a m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s of c o n t e n t and method to s u i t the d r a m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t c l e a r l y e x i s t i n c h i l d r e n ' s s t y l e of l e a r n i n g , i n t e r e s t s , back -g rounds , a m b i t i o n s and the many o t h e r f a c e t s of t h e i r unique p e r s o n a l i t i e s . • K e l l y ' s s t a tement sugges t s the k i n d of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ne ce s s a r y f o r t e a c h i n g s t u d e n t s i n a mixed a b i l i t y c l a s s -A.V. K e l l y , Teach ing Mixed Abi T i t y C l a s s e s (London: Harper and Row P u b l i s h e r s , 1 974 ) , p. T0~. room and thus i n c l u d e s l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s . These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r t e a c h i n g l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s are e v i d e n t in the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i ewed i n t h i s s e c t i o n . C u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n . With few e x c e p t i o n s the l i t e r a -t u r e i n d i c a t e s the need f o r a h i g h l y s t u d e n t - r e l e v a n t c u r r i c u l u m when t e a c h i n g l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s . Th i s r e l e v a n c e may r e l a t e to the s t u d e n t s ' own i n t e r e s t s , t h e i r e ve r y day s u r r o u n d i n g s and e x p e r i e n c e s or a d u l t l i f e . I t i s sugges ted t h a t above a l l the c u r r i c u l u m shou ld be at an a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l f o r the s t u d e n t s and be c l o s e to t h e i r r e a l i t y . The use o f r e l e v a n t c o n t e n t i s thought to improve s t uden t m o t i v a t i o n and enhance t h i n k i n g s k i l l s . The f a c t t h a t many s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l a a re not r e l e v a n t may be e v i d e n c e d in p a r t by l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s ' l a c k o f i n t e r e s t and m o t i v a t i o n to l e a r n . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of a r e l e v a n t c u r r i c u l u m i s s a i d to encourage s t u d e n t s t o : be more c u r i o u s ; work i n a more i ndependent manner; become more m o t i v a t e d in t h e i r t a s k s ; improve t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards s c h o o l ; t e a c h e r s and l e a r n i n g ; l e n g t h e n a t t e n t i o n spans ; u t i l i z e p r e v i o u s l y dormant l e a r n i n g s k i l l s and perhaps a c h i e v e at a h i g h e r l e v e l . Many a u t h o r s i n f a v o u r of the r e l e v a n t c u r r i c u l u m see the need to deve l op t h i s c u r r i c u l u m from s t u d e n t s ' needs and i n t e r e s t s (Brandwein e t a l . 1958, K a r l i n and Berger 1969, Darke 1970, Glasman 1970, Webster 1970, T i s h e r e t a l . 1972, K e l l y 1974, S c o t t i s h Cen t re f o r M a t h e m a t i c s , S c i e n c e and T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n 1976, S tu rge s 1976, W i l kenson and Bowers 1976) . K e l l y c a u t i o n s t h a t we s hou ld not o n l y work to s a t i s f y s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r e s t s and needs but a l s o toward the " e x -t e n s i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t " 1 o f t he se i n t e r e s t s . G u l l i f o r d (1969) s t a t e s t h a t r e s e a r c h e s show t h a t the c o n t e n t of cou r se s and methods of t e a c h i n g cannot be d e c i d e d mere l y by c o n s i d e r i n g what the t e a c h e r would l i k e to a c h i e v e . He must a l s o c o n s i d e r what the p u p i l s can bes t s tudy in terms of the s tage o f development i n t h e i r t h i n k i n g . 2 Perhaps the most d e s i r a b l e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of c o n t e n t i s sugges ted by T i s h e r e t a l . (1972) who s t a t e t h a t "new cou r s e s must be a b l e n d i n g o f what s t u d e n t s see as i m p o r t a n t and 3 what t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e a s • d e s i r a b l e . " In o r d e r to deve l op a r e l e v a n t c u r r i c u l u m the s t u d e n t s themse l ve s s hou ld have some say in the t o p i c s to be s t u d i e d . Th i s may i n v o l v e the s t u d e n t s a c t u a l l y g e n e r a t i n g the t o p i c s f o r a s c i e n c e cour se or hav ing some c h o i c e s among a number of h i g h l y r e l e v a n t t o p i c s s e l e c t e d by the t e a c h e r (Newsom 1963, S c o t t i s h E d u c a t i o n Department 1969, Tuckman 1969, 1 I b i d . , p.22. 2 Rona ld G u l l i f o r d , Backwardness and E d u c a t i o n a l F a i l u r e ( S l o ugh : N a t i o n a l Founda t i on of E d u c a t i o n a l Research in Eng land and Wa les , 1969 ) , p.91. 3 R.P. T i s h e r , C.N. Power and L. Endean, e d s . , Fundamental  I s sues in S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n (Sydney: John W i l e y and Sons A u s t r a l i a P t y . L t d . , 1972 ) , p.80. 33 Webster 1970, Ladd 1972, S tu r ge s 1973, Weider 1973, Youn ie 1974, Kershaw and S c o t t 1975, Darke 1976, S t u r ge s 1976, Wragg 1976, W i lde and Sommers 1978) . S tuden t s i n -v o l v e d in a d e c i s i o n making p roce s s where t h e i r d e c i s i o n s are non - token may improve the low s e l f - c o n c e p t o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t . The p a r t i c i p a -t i o n in d e c i s i o n making may a l s o he lp to improve unde r -deve l oped s o c i a l s k i l l s . A number of au tho r s have extended the d e c i s i o n making by s t u d e n t s t o i n c l u d e the s e t t i n g of o b j e c t i v e s and even the r u l e s and t h e i r consequences f o r the c l a s s r o o m (Noar 1967, Tuckman 1969, Newsom 1963, Doohan 1970, T i s h e r e t a l . 1972, Younie 1974, W i lde and Sommers 1978) . Ano the r method by which r e l e v a n t t o p i c s may be chosen i s th rough s t uden t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g in p r o j e c t work. Not o n l y can p r o j e c t work p r o v i d e r e l e v a n c e f o r the s t u d e n t , i t a l s o may enhance s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n between s t u d e n t s who may work i n groups of two or more (Newsom 1963, Thomas and Thomas 1965, Noar 1967, S c o t t i s h E d u c a t i o n Department 1969, C o l l e t t e 1973, K e l l y 1974, S choo l s C o u n c i l 1975, S tu rge s 1976). S i n ce many l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s l e a v e s choo l one or two y e a r s e a r l i e r than o t h e r s t u d e n t s a number of a u t h o r s see the need f o r j o b or v o c a t i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d s c i e n c e c o u r s e s . Mahan (1965) argues t h a t r s i n c e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d f o r those who i n t e n d to p roceed to u n i v e r s i t y i t 34-shou ld a l s o be p r o v i d e d f o r those who i n t e n d to p roceed d i r e c t l y to the wo rk i ng w o r l d . Both Webster (1970) and Younie (1974) propose t h a t j o b - o r i e n t e d c u r r i c u l a may p r o v i d e more r e l e v a n c e and thus m o t i v a t i o n to l e a r n . Wh i le a j o b - o r i e n t e d c u r r i c u l u m i s what s t u d e n t s and pa r en t s want , Newsom (1963) and Schoo l s C o u n c i l (1971) s t a t e t h a t t h i s c u r -r i c u l u m shou ld not be thought of as a gua rantee of a j o b . The r a t e of t e c h n o l o g i c a l change o f t e n e x c l u d e s the po s -s i b i l i t y of p r e p a r i n g s t u d e n t s f o r j o b s which may not e x i s t i n the f u t u r e or e x i s t at the p r e s e n t . S e v e r a l a u t ho r s advocate an emphasis on the e f f e c t s of s c i e n c e on s o c i e t y and on h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s to l i v e i n a t e c h n o l o g i c a l age (Johnson 1 963, L i s o n bee 1 963 , Newsom 1963, L o r e t an and Umars 1966, Oxenhorn 1972, M a r t i n 1973, The S c o t t i s h Cen t re f o r M a t h e m a t i c s , S c i e n c e and T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n 1976, Wi l kenson and Bowers 1976) . The l i t e r a t u r e sugges t s a move towards a broad c u r r i c u l u r n in s c i e n c e which w i l l promote f l e x i b i l i t y i n s t u d e n t s who w i l l be cop i ng w i t h a r a p i d l y chang ing f u t u r e . Webster (1970) s t a t e s t h a t an emphasis s hou ld be p l a c e d on the q u a l i t y of l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s as opposed to the q u a n t i t y of m a t e r i a l c o v e r e d . When we l ook at the v a s t and r a p i d changes t h a t are t a k i n g p l a c e i n a l l segments of our h i g h l y complex s o c i e t y , we r e a l i z e t h a t i t i s more i m p o r t a n t f o r c h i l d r e n to have q u a l i t a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s than mere l y memor i z ing f a c t s t h a t may q u i c k l y become obsolete.! _ ^ _ J.W. Webster , "A S c i e n c e Program f o r the D i s advan taged C h i l d , " S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n 54 ( Janua r y - March 1970) : 51 - . 35. The l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t o f t e n r e c e i v e s a wate red down or d i l u t e d s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l u m compared to o t h e r s t u d e n t s . In some cases the l i t e r a t u r e seems to s uppo r t the i d ea of reduced c o n t e n t and c o m p l e x i t y f o r these s t u d e n t s ( F e a t h e r -stone 1951, Shadrach 1970, M a r t i n 1973, M i l l e r 1974) . In o t h e r i n s t a n c e s t h i s d i l u t e d c u r r i c u l u m i s seen t o l a c k r e l e v a n c e and i n t e r e s t to s t u d e n t s (Ladd says t h a t as a r e s u l t o f the reduced c o n t e n t and c o m p l e x i t y a " d u l l , u n m o t i v a t e d " 1 s t uden t i s p roduced . Most au tho r s seem to advoca te a r e l e v a n t c u r r i c u l u m w i t h i n which a s t uden t may pursue c o n t e n t to a l e v e l o f c o m p l e x i t y cong ruent w i t h h i s c a p a b i 1 i t i e s . The b a s i s f o r a b r o a d , r e l e v a n t c u r r i c u l u m can be found i n the r a t i o n a l e u n d e r l y i n g the i n t e g r a t e d or 2 i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y c u r r i c u l u m . A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the l i t e r a t u r e r ev i ewed s uppo r t s the use of an i n t e g r a t e d or i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y c u r r i c u l u m w i t h l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s ( F e a t h e r s t o n e 1951, Johnson 1963, Lange and Jo rgensen 1969, Newsom 1 963 , Feshbachi 1 969 , G u l l i f o r d 1 969 , S c o t t i s h E d u c a t i o n Department 1969, Darke 1970, Schoo l s C o u n c i l ]George .1 .Ladd,"Who C a r e s ! ! (The Slow L e a r n e r : O b j e c t i v e s and E v a l u a t i o n ) , " School S c i e n c e and Mathemat i c s 72(March 1972):251-3. 2 . Some c o n f u s i o n i n the d e f i n i t i o n o f these two terms e x i s t s w i t h d i f f e r e n t meanings be ing used on each s i d e of the A t l a n t i c . For the purposes of t h i s paper the term i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y refers to a s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l u m which d i s r e g a r d s the t r a d i t i o n a l bound-a r i e s between the a rea s o f s c i e n c e in the s tudy of c e n t r a l themes or p rob lems . I n t e g r a t e d s t u d i e s f u r t h e r ex tends the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y bounda r i e s t o o t h e r n o n - s c i e n c e a rea s such as E n g l i s h , s o c i a l s t u d i e s and ma themat i c s . 36 1970, S c o t t i s h Cent re f o r M a t h e m a t i c s , S c i e n c e and T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n 1976, S tu r ge s 1976, Wi l kenson and Bowers 1976) . S tu rge s s t a t e s : 'The wholeness of a p u p i l ' s w o r l d s hou ld not be o v e r l o o k e d in the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . As a p u p i l e x p l o r e s t h i n g s t h a t have a roused h i s c u r i o s i t y he w i l l u n c o n s c i o u s l y c r o s s bounda r i e s between s u b j e c t s . I n t e r e s t and m o t i v a t i o n i n s c i e n c e l e s s o n s may stem from c u r r i c u l a wh ich r e f l e c t these p o i n t s .1 •  Hughes (1973) adds f u r t h e r we igh t to the use o f an i n t e g r a t e d / i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y c u r r i c u l u m by s t a t i n g : S p e c i a l s k i l l s in v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s w i l l o n l y be u s e f u l i f they are an i n t e g r a l p a r t of a comprehens ive ' w h o l e ' . T h e r e f o r e i t i s n e c e s -s a r y to i n t e g r a t e s u b j e c t s w i t h each o t h e r in such a way t h a t they p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l f r ame -work o f the event s of eve ryday l i v i n g . 2 In a r e c e n t a r t i c l e d e f i n i n g the i n t e g r a t e d c u r r i c u l u m and o f f e r i n g a r a t i o n a l e f o r i t s use Brown (1977) s t a t e s t h a t these c u r r i c u l a a r e : more adequate f o r d e a l i n g w i t h many s o c i a l or t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s , r e f l e c t b e t t e r the s t r u c t u r e s and p r o ce s s e s of s c i e n c e , enab l e s t r o n g e r t e a c h e r - p u p i 1 r e l a t i o n s h i p s to be b u i l t up, remove boredom f o r t e a c h e r s of r e -p e t i t i o n of s p e c i a l i s t m a t e r i a l . 3 I b i d . , p. 17. John M. Hughes, The Slow Lea rne r i n Your C l a s s (London: Thomas Ne l son and Sons L t d . , 1 973) , p.32. S a l l y A. Brown, "A Review of the Meanings o f , and Arguments f o r , I n t e g r a t e d S c i e n c e , " S t u d i e s in S c i en ce E d u c a t i o n 4 ( 1977 ) : 31-62. The t r a d i t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m i s thought to a l l o w the t e a c h e r to work in an a rea s u i t e d to h i s t r a i n i n g and i n t e r e s t s , w i l l h e l p s t u d e n t s p repa re f o r f i n a l e x a m i n a t i o n s and u n i v e r s i t y cou r se s and i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the appa ra tu s and m a t e r i a l s a l r e a d y i n the s c h o o l s . B rown ' s a n a l y s i s of i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y and d i s c i p l i n a r y s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n l ead s t h i s w r i t e r to advocate the use o f the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n -a ry approach e s p e c i a l l y in the case o f the l i m i t e d s ucce s s s tu dent . Newsom ( 1963 ) , S choo l s C o u n c i l ( 1 970 ) , Hughes ( 1973 ) , . W i l kenson and Bowers (1976) are o f the o p i n i o n t h a t the o v e r l a p o f v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s ( i n t e g r a t i o n ) s e r ve s to r e i n -f o r c e b a s i c communicat ion and computa t i on s k i l l s o f t e n l a c k i n g in the l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t . Wh i le most au tho r s agree t h a t r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g and a r i t h m e t i c s hou ld p l a y an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n , s e v e r a l au tho r s submit t h a t t h e r e shou ld be reduced emphasis on these s k i l l s ( C o l l e t t e 1973, M i l s o n 1973, Munro 1974) . Au tho r s who advocate reduced dependence on b a s i c s k i l l s do so to a l l o w f o r the a b i l i t i e s o f the l i m i t e d succe s s s t uden t and to ensure t h a t succe s s in the s c i e n c e cou r se i s not t o t a l l y dependent upon these s k i l l s . The advocacy of an i n t e g r a t e d / i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p r o a c h , the n e c e s s i t y f o r t o o l s of communicat ion and a n a l y s i s in s c i e n c e and the weakness of l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s in the b a s i c s u b j e c t s seem to make the i n c l u s i o n o f r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g and a r i t h m e t i c manda-38 t o r y i n a s c i e n c e cour se f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s . F u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e m e n t of language s k i l l s i s thought to be e n -hanced by s t uden t o r a l work (Newsom 1 963 , Tuckman 1 9 6 9 i Karnes 1970, Oxenhorn 1972, K e l l y 1974, S choo l s C o u n c i l 1975, S c o t -t i s h Cent re f o r M a t h e m a t i c s , S c i e n c e and T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n 1976, S tu rge s 1976) . K e l l y says t h a t a s t u d e n t ' s s ucce s s in one mode o f communicat ion ( e . g . o r a l ) may l e a d to i n c r e a s e d communicat ion in o t h e r modes ( e . g . r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g ) . Approaches to l e a r n i n g : L i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s seem to l e a r n best th rough an i n d u c t i v e r a t h e r than a d e d u c t i v e approach (Texas E d u c a t i o n a l Agency 1972) . I n d u c t i v e l e a r n i n g (making g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s or p r o v i n g laws u s i ng s p e c i f i c examples ) i s thought to be bes t f a c i l i t a t e d th rough a d i r e c t e d i n q u i r y or p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g approach (Reissman 1965, Reissman 1969, S c o t t i s h E d u c a t i o n Department 1969, Webster 1970, Van Deventer 1972, Texas E d u c a t i o n a l Agency 1972, Wi l kenson and Bowers 1976, Wong 1976) . In c o n t r a s t to the i n q u i r y or d i s c o v e r y approach where s t u d e n t s pursue a problem by d e s i g n i n g t h e i r own e x p e r i m e n t s , t a k i n g t h e i r own data and d e r i v i n g t h e i r own c o n c l u s i o n s , the d i r e c t e d i n q u i r y approach he lp s to ensure the succe s s of s t u d e n t s th rough p r e - s e l e c t e d m a t e r i a l s and p r o c e d u r e s . The comb ina -t i o n of the i n d u c t i v e and d i r e c t e d i n q u i r y approach shou ld he lp to p r o v i d e the i n i t i a l c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s need to a i d the development of t h e i r i n -t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s . In a d d i t i o n t h i s approach may f a c i l i t a t e 39 the growth of the s t u d e n t ' s s e l f - c o n c e p t due to succe s s a t a p r e - d e v i s e d l e a r n i n g t a s k . I f a c o n c r e t e , s t u d e n t c e n t e r e d , a c t i v i t y - o r i e n t e d p roce s s i s to p roceed e f f e c t i v e l y then the c l a s s s hou l d be broken up i n t o sma l l groups or i n d i v i d u a l s (Noar 1967, S c o t t i s h E d u c a t i o n Department 1 969 , Marus.ek : 1 969, M i l s o n 1970, S choo l s C o u n c i l 1970, C o l l e t t e 1973, Hughes 1973, M a r t i n 1973, Bosworth 1975, C l a r k 1975, Fab ino and L i b e r s o n 1975, Darke 1976, S tu r ge s 1976, Wragg 1976) . S t u r ge s i d e n t i f i e s the p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s of sma l l group or i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g as a l l o w i n g f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t d i f f e r e n c e s , e n a b l i n g f u r t h e r t ime f o r p e r s o n a l a t t e n t i o n , and imp rove -ment of t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Other a u t h o r s f o c u s on the c o m p o s i t i o n of sma l l g roups . K e l l y (1974) sugges t s the use o f f r i e n d s h i p g r oup i n g by s o c i o m e t r i c t e c h n i q u e s , to enhance the " s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n " 1 of t he s t u d e n t . S e v e r a l a u t ho r s b e l i e v e t h a t g r oup i n g b r i g h t e r s t u d e n t s w i t h s l owe r or l e s s m o t i v a t e d s t u d e n t s w i l l improve the l e a r n i n g in both the b r i g h t and the s low s t uden t ( K a r l i n and Berger 1969, S h e l t o n 1971 , S tu r ge s 1 973) . Due to the na t u r e o f c o n c r e t e l e a r n i n g i n a s c i e n c e l a b o r a t o r y i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o m a i n t a i n sma l l c l a s s s i z e (Ausubel 1967, Reissman 1969, Whipple 1969, Oxenhorn 1972, I b i d . , p. 80. 40 Texas E d u c a t i o n a l Agency 1972, C o l l e t t e 1973, Younie 1974) . The v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s f o r s t u d e n t s in i n d i v i d u a l or sma l l group work r e q u i r e s the t e a c h e r to g i v e a t t e n t i o n to the i n d i v i d u a l s or groups i n v o l v e d . In o r d e r t h a t the t e a c h e r has adequate t ime to s u p e r v i s e a l l groups he s hou l d have a r e l a t i v e l y sma l l number of s t u d e n t s . Younie sug -ge s t s t h a t a h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped c l a s s s hou ld be no l a r g e r than t w e n t y - f i v e s t u d e n t s even when taught by an e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r . Both Younie and Oxenhorn advoca te t h a t a homogeneously grouped class: should be le s s ' thantwenty -f i v e s t uden t s in s i z e . In a d d i t i o n , the t e a c h e r must have a sma l l enough c l a s s to enab l e adequate s a f e t y of s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g in a number o f d i f f e r e n t e xpe r imen t s a t one t ime (Oxenhorn 1972, C o l l e t t e 1973) . One p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n to r e d u c i n g the s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o i s team t e a c h i n g (Newsom 1963, Thomas and Thomas 1965, Quayle 1970, S choo l s C o u n c i l 1971, Weaver 1971, J e n k i n s e t a l . 1973, K e l l y 1974, S c h i l l i n g e r 1975, S tu rge s 1976, Wragg 1976) . In team t e a c h i n g two or more t e a c h e r s i n s t r u c t the same group of s t u d e n t s . The a d d i t i o n of ano the r t e a c h e r reduces the s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o by a f a c t o r o f two a l l o w i n g t w i c e the t ime f o r i n d i v i d u a l h e l p and imp rov i n g l a b o r a t o r y s a f e t y . Not o n l y can t e a c h e r s work in the a rea s o f t h e i r own e x p e r t i s e and i n t e r e s t they a l s o can b e n e f i t by c l o s e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s . S tu rge s (1976) i s qu i c k to p o i n t out the n e c e s s i t y f o r harmony among team 41 members and the need f o r a f l e x i b l e t i m e t a b l e to implement t h i s t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e . A common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of many l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s i s t h e i r unde rdeve loped or reduced i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s , i n c l u d i n g t h e i r a b i l i t y to a b s t r a c t and make g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . These s t u d e n t s a re a l s o thought to l e a r n more e a s i l y i n a f i r s t h a n d and e x p e r i e n t i a l mode r a t h e r than th rough a b s t r a c -t i o n ; A number o f a u t h o r s t h i n k t h a t a c u r r i c u l u m wh ich a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e s s t u d e n t s i n m a n i p u l a t i o n of c o n c r e t e m a t e r i a l s can f a c i l i t a t e the development of concep t s and a b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g ( .Featherstone 1951, Johnson 1 963 , Newsom 1 963 , Mahan 1 965 , Reissman 1 969 , S t u r ge s 1 973., T i s h e r e t a l . 1972. Younie 1974, S choo l s C o u n c i l 1975, S c o t t i s h Cen t re f o r M a t h e m a t i c s , S c i e n c e and T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n 1976, S tu rge s 1976). I t i s f u r t h e r sugges ted t h a t an i n i t i a l c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e i s n e c e s s a r y to compensate f o r those s t u d e n t s from d i s a d v a n t a g e d backgrounds who have not y e t had the b e n e f i t of tihi s e x p e r i e n c e (Reissman 1 969, Tuckman 1969). Th i s approach to l e a r n i n g l end s i t s e l f to the l a b o r a t o r y - o r i e n t e d s i t u a t i o n in s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g . F u r t h e r c o n c r e t e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s are found i n a c t i v i t i e s such as f i e l d t r i p s , d i s p l a y i n g s t uden t work , r o l e p l a y i n g , c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s , d e m o n s t r a t i o n s and hav ing guest s p e a k e r s . These a c t i v i t i e s a re thought to f a c i l i t a t e concept deve lopment , language development and t r a n s f e r o f l e a r n i n g . In a d d i t i o n t he se a c t i v i t i e s a re seen to be p a r t i c u l a r l y b e n e f i c i a l to s t u d e n t s from d i s advan taged backgrounds ( F e a t h e r s t o n e 1951, W i t t y 1961, K a r l i n and Be rge r 1 969, Schoolis Counc i 1 1 970, Webster 1 970 , Oxenhorn 1972, Janzen 1973, K e l l y 1974, S tu rge s 1976) . Ano the r d imens ion o f c o n c r e t e l e a r n i n g i s a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l and a i d s . In both t e a c h e r - c e n t e r e d and s t u d e n t -c e n t e r e d 1 s i t u a t i o n s mode l s , s l i d e s , p i c t u r e s , f i l m s , a ud i o r e p r o d u c t i o n s and t e l e v i s i o n p r o v i d e a more c o n c r e t e base f o r l e a r n i n g . A c o m b i n a t i o n o f a u d i o v i s u a l a i d s used to convey one concept p r o v i d e s many modes of l e a r n i n g and r e l a t e s to a v a r i e t y of l e a r n i n g s t y l e s . App roach i ng s t u d e n t s i n a v a r i e t y of modes i s o f t e n termed m u l t i s e n s o r y l e a r n i n g in the l i t e r a t u r e ( F e a t h e r s t o n e 1951, Ausubel 1965, Bloom 1966, S c o t t i s h E d u c a t i o n Department 1969, Webster 1970, S h e l t o n 1971, J e n k i n s e t a l . 1973, T i s h e r et a l . 1972, K e l l y 1974, Youn ie 1974, S choo l s C o u n c i l 1975, S tu r ge s 1976, Wragg 1976) . A move to i n d i v i d u a l i z e d o r sma l l group l e a r n i n g r e -qu i re s ' t h a t s t u d e n t s p roceed at t h e i r own pace and f r e e s the t e a c h e r to work on a o n e - t o - o n e b a s i s w i t h s t u d e n t s . The use of work sheet s i s advoca ted to a l l o w f o r t h i s f l e x i -b i l i t y in s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . By p r o v i d i n g c a r e f u l l y w r i t t e n T e a c h e r - c e n t e r e d l e a r n i n g i s a more t r a d i t i o n a l o r d i d a c t i c approach to l e a r n i n g in c o n t r a s t to s t u d e n t -c e n t e r e d l e a r n i n g where t h e r e i s much s t uden t a c t i v i t y and i n vo l vement in the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . 43 co re m a t e r i a l s supp lemented w i t h e x t e n s i o n s f o r en r i chment the t e a c h e r can c a t e r to a whole range of a b i l i t i e s w i t h i n h i s c l a s s . Worksheets are a l s o seen as a i d s to c i r c u m -vent need l e s s note t a k i n g , a r e f e r e n c e and r e c o r d f o r the s t u d e n t , and an a i d to both the s t uden t and t e a c h e r p a r t i -c u l a r l y i f the s t uden t has been absent f rom s choo l (Newsom 1963, Kamm 1969, S c o t t i s h E d u c a t i o n Department 1969, J e n k i n s e t a l . 1973, Schoo l s C o u n c i l 1975, Ross 1975, Darke 1976, S tu rge s 1976, Wi l kenson and Bowers 1976) . R e l a t e d to the need f o r i n d i v i d u a l i z e d or sma l l group l e a r n i n g i s the concept of i n d i r e c t t e a c h i n g . 1 In c o n -t r a s t to an i n d i r e c t t e a c h i n g s t y l e , d i r e c t t e a c h i n g i n -v o l v e s the t e a c h e r be ing more d i d a c t i c and c r i t i c a l o f s t u d e n t s . Us ing m o d i f i c a t i o n s of the F lander s - , System of I n t e r a c t i o n A n a l y s i s Campbel1 ( 1971 ) , C i t r o n and Barnes (1970) examined the d i f f e r e n c e s r e s u l t i n g i n s t u d e n t s i n -s t r u c t e d in a d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t manner. Campbel l found t h a t " t he i n d i r e c t group was shown to be s u p e r i o r on both 2 a f f e c t i v e and c o g n i t i v e l e v e l s f o r low a c h i e v e r s . " ^The F l a n d e r s ' System of I n t e r a c t i o n A n a l y s i s d e f i n e s an i n -d i r e c t t e a c h e r as one who f r e q u e n t l y q u e s t i o n s s t u d e n t s , a c -c ep t s and uses s t u d e n t i d e a s , p r a i s e s and encourages s t u d e n t s and a c c e p t s the i r f e e l i n g s . The d i r e c t t e a c h e r f r e q u e n t l y uses the l e c t u r e t e c h n i q u e , g i v e s d i r e c t i o n s t o s t u d e n t s , c r i t i -c i z e s s t u d e n t s , and a t t empt s t o j u s t i f y a u t h o r i t y . 2 James R. C a m p b e l l , " C o g n i t i v e and A f f e c t i v e P roce s s D e v e l o p -ment and i t s R e l a t i o n to a T e a c h e r ' s I n t e r a c t i o n R a t i o , " J o u r n a l o f Research i n S c i e n c e Teach ing 8 (December 1971 ) : 31 7-323. 44" C i t r o n and Barnes found t h a t " p r ob l em s o l v i n g a b i l i t y " and " t o t a l s choo l p e r f o r m a n c e " 1 was s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r f o r s t u d e n t s t augh t in an i n d i r e c t manner. I t seems t h a t the use o f t h i s approach depends l a r g e l y upon the p e d a g o g i c a l b e l i e f s h e l d by the t e a c h e r . I n d i v i d u a l i z e d o r sma l l group i n s t r u c t i o n seems to bes t f a c i l i t a t e the i n d i r e c t t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e . As l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s have a poor a t t endance r e c o r d , s h o r t a t t e n t i o n span and poor powers of r e t e n t i o n , a n o n - s e q u e n t i a l c u r r i c u l u m i s recommended by a number o f au tho r s (Tanzer 1960, L e r n e r 1965, Fab ino 1975, Kershaw and S c o t t 1975). The n o n - s e q u e n t i a l c u r r i c u l u m s e t s each l e s s o n as an e n t i t y unto i t s e l f . Th i s type of c u r r i c u l u m i s i n t ended to reduce the p o s s i b i l i t y of f a i l u r e by h e l p i n g to ensure t h a t a s t u d e n t ' s ab sence , s h o r t a t t e n t i o n span and poor memory w i l l not be f a c t o r s c a u s i n g him to f a l l beh ind o r become b o r e d , f r u s t r a t e d and h o s t i l e . In c o n -t r a s t o t h e r au tho r s advoca te a sma l l s t e p , l o g i c a l l y • sequenced program f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s ( F e a t h e r -s tone 1951, L e i b h e r r 1966, L o r e t a n and Umars 1966, Moore 1962, Ausubel 1967, Reissman 1969, S h e l t o n 1971, Oxenhorn 1972, Hughes 1973, Younie 1974, S tu rge s 1976, Wong 1976) . I r v i n M. C i t r o n and Cyrus W. Ba rne s , "The Search f o r More E f f e c t i v e Methods of Teach ing High School B i o l o g y to Slow Lea rne r s Through I n t e r a c t i o n A n a l y s i s . P a r t I: The E f f e c t s of V a r y i n g Teach ing P a t t e r n s , " J o u r n a l o f Research i n S c i e n c e  Teach ing 7 (March 1970 ) : 9-19. 45" F e a t h e r s t o n e sugges t s t h a t t h e r e w i l l be l i t t l e memory deve lopment i f s t u d e n t s a re not r e q u i r e d to remember im -p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f a s u b j e c t f rom l e s s o n to l e s s o n . Ausube l (1 966 ) , Bloom (.1 976) and M a r s h a l l (.1 977) b e l i e v e t h a t a s t u d e n t shou ld a c h i e v e a g i v en l e v e l o f mas te ry be f o r e he proceeds t o the next s tage o f a s e q u e n t i a l program. S tu r ge s (1976) recommends t h a t s t r o n g l i n k s be made to f a c i l i t a t e concept f o r m a t i o n when u s i ng a s e q u e n t i a l c u r r i c u l u m . Both S choo l s C o u n c i l (1975) and Wi l kenson and Bowers (1976) submit t h a t an i n t e r m e d i a t e approach u s i ng s h o r t s e l f -c o n t a i n e d u n i t s or module's, may be the o p t i m a l methodo logy . Many t eenage r s do not have o r d e r e d l i v e s o u t s i d e the c l a s s -room and a p p r e c i a t e the s e c u r i t y of a s t r u c t u r e d , s e q u e n t i a l s c i e n c e c o u r s e . In o r de r to he lp s t u d e n t s succeed i n the s e q u e n t i a l l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n the s t ep s of the sequence s h o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t l y c h a l l e n g i n g , n o n - t r i v i a l and w i t h i n the c a p a b i l i t i e s o f the s t u d e n t s concerned (Johnson 1963, K a r l i n and Berger 1969, Lange and Jo rgensen 1969, Reissman 1969, Tuckman 1969, Oxenhorn 1972, G l a s s e r 1971, T i s h e r e t a l . 1972, S tu rge s 1976, W i l kenson and Bowers 1976) . E n s u r i n g s u c c e s s . There are s t ep s the t e a c h e r may take to f a c i l i t a t e succes s f o r s t u d e n t s who have e x p e r i e n c e d l i m i t e d succes s in the p a s t . The c r e a t i o n of a c o m f o r t a b l e c l a s s r o o m atmosphere i s one sugges ted by the l i t e r a t u r e ( Tan s l e y and G u l l i f o r d 1965, C rowley 1969, O r n s t e i n 1969, S tu rge s 1976) . S i n c e many l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s do not have o r d e r e d l i v e s o u t s i d e the c l a s s r oom i t i s advoca ted t h a t the s choo l can c r e a t e g r e a t e r f e e l i n g s of s e c u r i t y by p r o v i d i n g a s t r u c t u r e d , c o n s i s t e n t r o u t i n e in the c l a s s -room. Wh i le the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of r o u t i n e s i s sugges ted i t i s a l s o thought i m p o r t a n t to c r e a t e a s i t u a t i o n where the s t uden t has a degree o f independence and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ( d e c i s i o n mak ing ) . Independence and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y may h e l p the development o f a s t u d e n t ' s s e l f - c o n c e p t and h i s a b i l i t y to be s e l f - d i r e c t i n g ( T a n s l e y and G u l l i f o r d 1965, Tuckman 1 969, Hughes 1 973, J e n k i n s et a l . 1 973) . L i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s need to e x p e r i e n c e succe s s th rough immediate and r e a l g oa l s and r e w a r d s , ( F e a t h e r s t o n e 1951, Johnson 1963, Tuckman 1969, Oxenhorn 1972) . P o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t i s one t e c h n i q u e used to encourage s t u d e n t s t o a t t a i n g oa l s s e t by the t e a c h e r or s t u d e n t . I t i s recommended t h a t s t u d e n t s s hou ld a p p r e c i a t e the n a t u r e and purpose o f the goa l s s e t ( L e r n e r 1965, Bloom 1966, Crowley 1969, H u l i c k a 1969, Tuckman 1969, Whipple 1969, Karnes 1970, Janzen 1970, S tu rge s 1976, Wong 1976) . C o n t i n u a l p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t ( i n an o r a l or w r i t t e n form) f o r s i n c e r e e f f o r t and ach ievement may r e v e r s e the p a t t e r n o f f a i l u r e and improve s e l f - c o n c e p t . The i dea of mastery ,:1 earn ing advoca ted by Ausubel ( 1966 ) , Bloom (1976) and M a r s h a l l (1977) seems to sug -ges t the p r o v i s i o n of c o n t i n u a l r e p e t i t i o n and r e v i e w in a v a r i e t y of mean ing fu l ways. O t h e r s , not s p e c i f i c a l l y 47. a d v o c a t i n g mas te ry l e a r n i n g , a l s o p o i n t out the need f o r r e p e t i t i o n and r e v i e w ( F e a t h e r s t o n e 1951, Brandwein e t a l . 1 958, Moore 1 962 , Johnson 1 963, Crowley 1 969, Karnes 1 970, T i s h e r e t a l . 1972, Oxenhorn 1972, M a r t i n 1973, Hughes 1973, Munro 1974, S c o t t i s h Cen t re f o r M a t h e m a t i c s , S c i e n c e and T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n 1976, S tu r ge s 1976) . R e p e t i t i o n and r e v i e w may not o n l y he l p to • f a c i l i t a t e r e t e n t i o n and concept deve lopment but may a l s o p r o v i d e the r e i n f o r c e -ment needed by l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s to a c h i e v e a t a h i g h e r l e v e l o f a t t a i n m e n t . The use o f a v a r i e t y o f mean^ i n g f u l c o n t e x t s and modes of r e p e t i t i o n and r e v i e w f u r t h e r he lp s to p r o v i d e f o r d i f f e r e n t l e a r n i n g s t y l e s . Programmed l e a r n i n g i s t hough t to f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g and succes s f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s (Ausubel 1967, Noar 1967, S c o t t i s h E d u c a t i o n Department 1969, J e n k i n s e t a l . 1973, C o l l e t t e 1973, S tu r ge s 1976) . Most au tho r s advoca te programmed l e a r n i n g as a supplement to o t h e r c l a s s r oom a c t i v i t i e s . A l t hough programmed l e a r n i n g may p r o v i d e t he nece s s a r y sequences and s t ep s t h a t gua ran tee succes s i t reduces the need f o r v e r b a l r e sponse s by s t u d e n t s ( L o r e t a n and Umars 1966). To f i n d a p p r o p r i a t e programmed l e a r n i n g u n i t s [ c o n t e n t , r e a d i n g l e v e l and l e v e l o f d i f -f i c u l t y ) or w r i t e programmed l e a r n i n g sequences i s g e n e r a l l y a d i f f i c u l t and a t ime consuming t a s k . (Ausubel 1966, L o re t an and Umars 1966, Younie 1974) . Each s t uden t s hou ld be made c o n t i n u a l l y aware o f h i s p rog re s s (Whipp le 1969, Janzen 1970) . Th i s s e r ve s to p o i n t out the s t u d e n t ' s s t r e n g t h s ( p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t ) and makes e v i d e n t weaknesses f o r f u r t h e r r e p e t i t i o n and r e v i e w . A g r a p h i c a l r e c o r d of p r o g r e s s by s t u d e n t s i s sugges ted by Karnes (1970) so t h a t a t a l l t imes s t uden t s a re aware of s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses . E v a l u a t i o n and r e p o r t i n g . The ve r y n a t u r e o f e v a l u a -t i o n and r e p o r t i n g may cause a i nx i e t y and l e a d to l i m i t e d s u c c e s s . G l a s s e r (1971) s t a t e s "any grade l e s s than an A or a B i s a f a i l i n g g r a d e . " 1 Most au tho r s who have w r i t t e n about e v a l u a t i o n tend to advoca te a t ype o f f o r m a t i v e 2 e v a l u a t i o n (Johnson 1963, Thomas and Thomas 1965, G l a s s e r 1971, S c r i v e n 1967, Darke 1976, S tu rge s 1976, Wragg 1976) . Wragg sugges t s the grade of C as a s t a n d a r d b a s e l i n e . S tudent s making p o s i t i v e p r o g r e s s would r e c e i v e A ' s or B ' s , o t h e r s t u d e n t s not making headway would r e c e i v e D's or E ' s . In Wragg ' s p l an a s t u d e n t o f low a b i l i t y c o u l d r e c e i v e an A w h i l e a h i g he r a b i l i t y s t uden t might o n l y a c h i e v e a B s t a n d i n g or l e s s . Darke (1976) b e l i e v e s t h a t e v a l u a t i o n s hou l d be conducted on a week to week b a s i s 1 Wi11 iam G l a s s e r M.D., " Reach i ng the U n m o t i v a t e d , " The  S c i e n c e Teacher 38 (March 1971 ) : 18-22 2 Fo rma t i v e e v a l u a t i o n , i n c o n t r a s t to summative e v a l u a t i o n (where s t u d e n t s are e v a l u a t e d and graded based on t h e i r s t a n d i n g compared to o t h e r s t u d e n t s ) , a s s e s se s the p r o g r e s s o f a s t u d e n t r e l a t i v e to h i s p r e v i o u s ach ievement and t a k -ing i n t o account h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses . c o n c e n t r a t i n g on i d e n t i f y i n g s t u d e n t ' s s t r e n g t h s and weak-ne s se s . G l a s s e r (1971) and Darke (1976) sugges t the r e -p lacement o f f o rma l l e t t e r grades in f a v o u r of t e a c h e r -s t uden t i n t e r v i e w s and a n e c d o t a l r e p o r t s . A more r e a l i s t i c approach may be t h a t advoca ted by S tu r ge s (1976) . S t u r ge s sugges t s t h a t a s t u d e n t ' s mark be a compos i te of both a t t a i n m e n t and e f f o r t . Whatever e v a l u a t i o n and r e p o r t i n g p roce s s i s chosen a l l a u tho r s s t r e s s the need f o r a b r o a d l y based e v a l u a t i o n scheme. Hughes (1973) s t a t e s t h a t we must take i n t o account the p s y c h o l o g i c a l , p h y s i c a l , e m o t i o n a l and s o c i a l a s p e c t s i n o r d e r to he lp p r o v i d e a. tota l i m p r e s s i o n of a s t uden t f o r e v a l u a t i o n . A move to mixed a b i l i t y t e a c h i n g w i l l l i k e l y r e q u i r e a c l o s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of e v a l u a t i o n and r e p o r t i n g p r o c e d u r e s . One such c o n s i d e r a -t i o n may r e v o l v e about the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of an e s s e n t i a l l y n o n - c o m p e t e t i v e s choo l s i t u a t i o n w i t h i n a h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e s o c i e t y . Summary of a p p r o p r i a t e t e a c h i n g methods The l i s t below d e l i n e a t e s those t e a c h i n g methods t h a t are advocated in the l i t e r a t u r e as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t e a c h i n g l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t u d e n t s . Not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s summary l i s t a re those methods where t h e r e seems to be a d i f f e r e n c e of o p i n i o n amongst the au tho r s of the l i t e r a t u r e ( f o r example , the use of a s e q u e n t i a l or n o n - s e q u e n t i a l p rog ram) . so" A s c i e n c e cour se f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s shou ld i n -c l ude c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the f o l l o w i n g p r a c t i c e s and app roache s : - m i x e d - a b i 1 i t y c l a s s e s - a r e l e v a n t c u r r i c u l u m based on s t uden t needs and i n t e r e s t s - an e lement of s t uden t d e c i s i o n - making . - a component o f s t uden t p r o j e c t s - a j ob or v o c a t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d program - an i n t e g r a t e d o r i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approach - an i n d u c t i v e l e a r n i n g mode i n a d i r e c t e d i n q u i r y approach - a c o n c r e t e , a c t i v i t y - o r i e n t e d approach - a sma l l group or i n d i v i d u a l i z e d l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n - a use o f team t e a c h i n g - a use o f f i e l d t r i p s , s t u d e n t d i s p l a y , r o l e p l a y i n g , c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s , d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , guest speaker s and o r a l work - a.use of a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s - a- use o f work sheet s - a more i n d i r e c t t e a c h i n g approach - a c o n s i s t e n t c l a s s r o u t i n e - a use o f p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t - a use o f r e p e t i t i o n and r e v i e w - a use of programmed l e a r n i n g - e n s u r i n g s t u d e n t s ' awareness of t h e i r p r o g r e s s - an eva l u a t i o n scheme which a c coun t s f o r the p r o g r e s s of the i n d i v i d u a l . 51' Teacher a t t i t u d e s , t r a i n i n g and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s In t e a c h i n g the l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t Brandwein e t a l . (.1 958) s t a t e t h a t " t h e t e a c h e r i s the k e y . " 1 Of p r i m a r y impor tance i s the a t t i t u d e of the t e a c h e r toward h i s s t u d e n t s . The two predominant a t t i t u d e s t e a c h e r s of l i m i t e d succes s s t uden t s s hou ld possess are the d e s i r e to t each the se s t u d e n t s and a t r u e r e s p e c t f o r t he se s t u d e n t s ( F e a t h e r s t o n e 1951, Johnson 1963, Ausubel 1967, Reissman 1969, G l a s s e r 1971, Younie 1974). A t e a c h e r h o l d i n g the se a t t i t u d e s w i l l l i k e l y be p a t i e n t ; f i r m ; c o n s i s t e n t ; s y m p a t h e t i c ; u n d e r s t a n d i n g ; s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d ; warm; f a i r and d e m o c r a t i c as the l i t e r a t u r e has sugges ted they shou ld be. Whi le these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may seem to be those of a l l good t e a c h e r s , S tu rge s (1976) sees them as e s s e n t i a l to the s e c u r i t y needs o f the l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t . Many a u t h o r s a d v i s e t h a t t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g , a t both the p re - and i n - s e r v i c e l e v e l , i s n e c e s s a r y to f a c i l i t a t e the growth and development o f the a p p r o p r i a t e a t t i t u d e s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the l e a r n i n g of the n e c e s s a r y s k i l l s and methods f o r t e a c h i n g the l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t (Johnson 1963, L e i b h e r r 1966, Ausubel 1967, Reissman 1969, Tuckman 1969, Whipple 1969, Janzen 1970, S choo l s C o u n c i l 1970, .Schools C o u n c i l 1971, C o l l e t t e 1 973, M a r t i n 1 973 , K e l l y 1 974 , ^ a u l F. B r andwe i n , F l e t c h e r G. Watson and Paul E. B l a c kwood , Teach ing High School S c i e n c e : A Book o f Methods (New York : H a r c o u r t , Brace and Wor ld I n c . , 1958) , p.150. Younie 1974, Quelch 1975, S choo l s C o u n c i l 1975). Not o n l y do t e a c h e r s need t e a c h i n g s k i l l s which are s t i m u l a t i n g they s hou ld a l s o be " i m m a g i n a t i v e i n t u i t i v e and r e s o u r c e f u l " ( S choo l s C o u n c i l 1 9 7 0 ) . 1 Teachers s hou ld a l s o know " t h e 2 t h e o r e t i c a l u n d e r p i n n i n g s " of e d u c a t i o n ( K e l l y 1974) . K e l l y sugges t s t h a t t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g shou ld not " t a k e too many s u b j e c t s . " He s t a t e s t h a t i f too many d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s are taken then the p r e - s e r v i c e t e a c h e r " w i l l not become e x p e r t in a n y . . . a n d , t h e r e f o r e , w i l l be in no p o s i t i o n to p r o v i d e the p u p i l s w i t h an educa -3 t i o n of any r e a l m e r i t . " Many a u t h o r s s t a t e t h a t the e x -p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r o f t e n does not t each the l i m i t e d s u c -cess s t uden t ( i f homogeneously g r ouped ) . The t e a c h i n g of these groups i s o f t e n l e f t to the l e a s t e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s in the s choo l ( S tu r ge s 1976) . A move to mixed a b i l i t y g r oup i ng as sugges ted by many a u t h o r s , w i l l c r e a t e a s i t u a t i o n i n which a l l t e a c h e r s wi11 have l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r c l a s s e s . Mixed a b i l i t y s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g w i l l n e c e s s i t a t e t h a t p r e - s e r v i c e and i n - s e r v i c e i n s t r u c t i o n S choo l s C o u n c i l , C u r r i c u l u m B u l l e t i n 3: Changes in Schoo l  S c i e n c e Teach ing (London: Evans , Methuen E d u c a t i o n a l , 1970) , p.112. 2 1 b i d. , p. 115. 3 I b i d . , p. 117. 53. be p r o v i d e d to new and e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s CSchools C o u n c i l 1970, S choo l s C o u n c i l 1971, K e l l y 1974, S choo l s C o u n c i l 1975, S tu rge s 1976) . Conc lu s ion Th i s r e v i e w has i n d i c a t e d the e x i s t e n c e of a group o f s t u d e n t s who have d i f f i c u l t y in s choo l and i n p a r t i c u l a r in s c i e n c e . Some f a c t o r s l e a d i n g to these d i f f i c u l t i e s and the s t uden t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e s u l t i n g have been o u t -l i n e d . A number of t e a c h i n g methods have been i d e n t i f i e d to h e l p dea l w i t h the se s t u d e n t s who have e x p e r i e n c e d l i m i t e d succe s s in s c i e n c e . The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i ewed p r o v i d e d the b a s i s f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e de s i gned to e l i c i t i n -f o r m a t i o n on c u r r e n t t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s in j u n i o r secondary s c i e n c e i n B.C. CHAPTER 2 Development o f the D e s c r i p t i v e  Survey I n s t rument Impetus and i n t e n t s of s u r vey At the p r e s e n t t ime i n B.C. t h e r e i s one c u r r i c u l u m sugges ted f o r a l l j u n i o r seconda ry s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s . Th i s c u r r i c u l u m has been in use s i n c e 1968. Any m o d i f i c a t i o n of t h i s c u r r i c u l u m and development of r e l a t e d t e a c h i n g methods i s c a r r i e d out by i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s or t e a c h e r s w i t h l i t t l e d i s c u s s i o n or commun i ca t i on . A s ea r ch o f the l i t e r a t u r e has r e v e a l e d o n l y one s tudy in B.C. of j u n i o r secondary l i m i t e d succes s s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s (Quelch 1975) . as opposed to the l a r g e volume of l i t e r a t u r e from B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The p r o b a b l e s i z e of the l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n in B.C. and the l a c k of l o c a l i n f o r m a t i o n and communicat ion r e g a r d i n g the se s t u d e n t s and t h e i r s c i e n c e c o u r s e s , has prompted the w r i t e r to be-come more f a m i l i a r w i t h t h i s a rea o f s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n in B.C. s c h o o l s . As a f i r s t s t ep i n d e v e l o p i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s a de -s c r i p t i v e su r vey has been conducted at the j u n i o r secondary l e v e l , grades e i g h t , n i ne and t e n . The su rvey add re s sed i t s e l f to the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 54 1. What i s the s i z e o f the l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n at the j u n i o r secondary l e v e l , i n B.C.? 2. What e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s ( g r o u p i n g , c u r r i c u l u m , approaches to l e a r n i n g , e v a l u a t i o n and r e p o r t i n g ) are p r e s e n t l y be i ng used to t each s c i e n c e to l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s ? 3. What i s the e d u c a t i o n a l background and e x p e r i e n c e of t e a c h e r s of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s ? Us ing the data o b t a i n e d from the answers to the q u e s t i o n s above i t was p o s s i b l e to addres s the f o l l o w i n g b roader i s s u e s : 1. How do e s t a b l i s h e d s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s in B.C. compare w i t h tho se deve l oped o u t s i d e B.C.? What i m p l i c a t i o n s , i f any, do d i f f e r e n c e s in p r a c t i c e have f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s ? 2. In what ways can s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n be enhanced f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s ? 3. What f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h shou ld be conducted? A d d i t i o n a l i n t e n t s of the s u r vey were: to p r o v i d e a f o u n d a t i o n f o r f u r t h e r communicat ion w i t h the t e a c h i n g community; to expose the i s s u e s debated i n the l i t e r a t u r e and p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on r e l e v a n t c u r r i c u l a and t e a c h i n g methods from B r i t a i n , the U n i t e d S t a t e s and A u s t r a l i a. 5:6. Survey i n s t r u m e n t de s i gn In o r de r to addres s the broad q u e s t i o n s o u t l i n e d in the i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s c h a p t e r , a t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e v e l o p e d . Source of q u e s t i o n n a i r e i tems The r e v i ew of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l e d a number of a reas p e r t i n e n t to the t e a c h i n g of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s . These a reas i n c l u d e d : the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l i m i t e d sue? cess s t u d e n t s ; a p p r o p r i a t e t e a c h i n g methods f o r l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s and a p p r o p r i a t e t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s , c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s and t r a i n i n g . The most p r e v a l e n t s t a tement s and s u g g e s t i o n s o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n the i d e n t i f i e d a reas were used to gene ra te the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s . For examp le , the l i t e r a t u r e sugges ted a number of d i f f e r e n t ways in which a s c i e n c e cou r se f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s c o u l d be de -v e l o p e d . Teachers were asked to e s t i m a t e the e x t e n t to which they based t h e i r s c i e n c e cou r se s on the v a r i o u s methods of cou r se development sugges ted i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Other q u e s t i o n n a i r e i tems were produced by the w r i t e r to f i l l i n a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . For examp le , t e a c h e r s were asked to p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on the s choo l s i z e and t i m e -t a b l e f o r s c i e n c e i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l . S p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n cove red by q u e s t i o n n a i r e i tems The i tems o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e asked f o r s p e c i f i c 57 i n f o r m a t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : 1. S t uden t s - s i z e of the l i m i t e d succes s s t uden t p o p u l a t i o n - d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s by sex - ach ievement of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s 2. Teachers - unde rg radua te and g radua te back -grounds - t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g r e l a t e d to l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t u d e n t s - t o t a l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . - t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e w i t h l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s ; - p r e s e n t s u b j e c t a reas and grades t augh t 3. S c i e n c e Programs - a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s and use o f t e x t ( s ) and l a b o r a t o r y manua l ( s ) - cou r se c o n t e n t d e t e r m i n a t i o n - t e a c h i n g methods - s t u d e n t e v a l u a t i o n - s c i e n c e program e v a l u a t i o n 4. S choo l s - grade l e v e l range. - p o p u l a t i o n of s c h o o l . - s choo l t i m e t a b l e f o r s c i e n c e ( f u l l y e a r / s e m e s t e r ) . - number of hours of s c i e n c e per week ,. - s c i e n c e c l a s s s i z e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e fo rmat I n f o r m a t i o n was e l i c i t e d from t e a c h e r s t h rough m u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s . Whenever a p p r o p r i a t e , space was p r o v i d e d to a l l o w f o r t e a c h e r comment. The f o rmat of each i t em was chosen by c o n s i d e r i n g the na t u r e of the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d and by m o d e l l i n g q u e s t i o n s on p r e v i o u s l y s u c c e s s -f u l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (Hambleton 1970, B.C. L e a r n i n g A s s e s s -ment J u n i o r Secondary S c i e n c e Teacher Survey 1978, Nasr 1977) The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r ee major s e c t i o n s : 1. The f i r s t s e c t i o n d e a l t w i t h t e a c h e r background and s choo l i n f o r m a t i o n , . 2. The second s e c t i o n was p receded by a s t a tement i n d i c a t i n g the d o u b l e - b r a n c h e d n a t u r e of the q u e s t i o n -n a i r e . One branch was answered by t e a c h e r s who t augh t s c i e n c e to l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s i n homogeneously grouped c l a s s e s . The p a r a l l e l branch was responded to by t e a c h e r s who taught s c i e n c e to these s t u d e n t s in h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped c l a s s e s 3. The t h i r d s e c t i o n was responded to by a l l t e a c h e r s . Th i s s e c t i o n d e a l t w i t h the s t r u c t u r e and c o n t e n t o f t e a c h e r s ' j u n i o r s c i e n c e programs E v a l u a t i o n of q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r i o r to d i s t r i b u t i o n I n i t i a l v e r s i o n s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were examined and r e v i s e d th rough c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e s i s committee mem-b e r s . A d d i t i o n a l comments were e l i c i t e d th rough a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e to seven j u n i o r secondary s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s i n Richmond Schoo l D i s t r i c t . Three of t he se t e a c h e r s t augh t s c i e n c e i n homogeneously grouped c l a s s e s w h i l e the r e m a i n i n g f o u r t e a c h e r s t augh t i n h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y 59-grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . The seven t e a c h e r s were asked to complete a p i l o t v e r s i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and comment on i t s c o n t e n t and f o r m a t . F u r t h e r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e s i s committee members and use o f the i n f o r m a t i o n from the p i l o t r e s u l t e d in the f i n a l v e r s i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . (Append ix A ) . Due to the l a c k of major a m b i g u i t y e v i d e n c e d in the f i r s t p i l o t a second p i l o t was deemed unnece s s a r y . Re 1 i ab i 1 i t y The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was de s i gned to sample t e a c h e r s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the na t u r e and s t r u c t u r e of t h e i r s c i e n c e cou r se s f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s . Teachers a l s o r e -p o r t e d on t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l background and t e a c h e r t r a i n -i n g . Most of the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u e s t e d was f a c t u a l i n o r i g i n . K e r l i n g e r ( 1973 ) , i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n on c h e c k i n g su r vey d a t a , c i t e s Pa r t en (1950) whose work on su r vey s has shown t h a t the r e l i a b i l i t y of " p e r s o n a l f a c t u a l i t e m s " 1 i s h i g h . I t was a l s o assumed t h a t the k i n d of i n f o r m a t i o n r e -ques ted would not change r a d i c a l l y over the 1978 p o r t i o n of the s choo l y e a r . G iven the na t u r e of the data c o n s t a n c y and the p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s on r e l i a b i l i t y of su r vey s the q u e s t i o n -n a i r e was judged to have a s u f f i c i e n t l y h igh l e v e l of r e l i a b i 1 i t y . F red N. K e r l i n g e r , Founda t i on s of B e h a v i o r a l Research 2nd e d . , (New York : H o l t R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , Inc . 1973 ) , p. 417. Sampl ing pIan The p o p u l a t i o n sampled was d e f i n e d to be those t e a c h e r s t e a c h i n g at l e a s t one of s c i e n c e e i g h t , n i ne or ten i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s of B.C. Many j u n i o r s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s t e a ch more than one grade l e v e l o f s c i e n c e , f o r example grade e i g h t and t e n . M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s 1 r e p o r t the t o t a l number of t e a c h e r s i n s t r u c t i n g s c i e n c e e i g h t , n i ne and t e n . Hence a t e a c h e r might appear i n the M i n i s t r y l i s t i n g up to t h r e e t i m e s . Some form o f s amp l i ng was r e -q u i r e d to chose t e a c h e r s o n l y once and to ensure an equa l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t e a c h e r s a t each grade l e v e l . P e r m i s s i o n was g r an ted by the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n to use the s amp l i n g frame r e c e n t l y employed by the S c i e n c e L e a r n i n g Assessment 2 Su rvey . Th i s s amp l i ng f r ame , deve l oped by B.C. R e s e a r c h , u t i l i z e d the i n f o r m a t i o n t e a c h e r s s u b m i t t e d to the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n i n September 1977. The s amp l i ng frame l a b e l l e d each t e a c h e r as a grade e i g h t , n i ne or ten t e a c h e r a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r t e a c h i n g l o a d . For examp le , a t e a c h e r t e a c h i n g two grade e i g h t s c i e n c e c l a s s e s , one grade n ine s c i e n c e c l a s s and f o u r c l a s s e s in o t h e r s u b j e c t a reas would have a two-At the b e g i n n i n g of each s choo l y e a r a l l B.C. t e a c h e r s are r e q u i r e d to complete form " J " f o r the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . Th i s form r e q u i r e s t e a c h e r s to l i s t the t r a i n i n g and t e a c h -i ng e x p e r i e n c e they have had i n a d d i t i o n to the s u b j e c t s and t e a c h i n g l o a d they p r e s e n t l y c a r r y . B.C. R e s e a r c h , 3650 Wesbrook M a l l , Vancouve r , Canada V6S 2L2. 61 t h i r d s p r o b a b i l i t y of be ing chosen as a s c i e n c e e i g h t t e a c h e r and a o n e - t h i r d p r o b a b i l i t y of be ing chosen as a s c i e n c e n i n e t e a c h e r . When cho sen , each t e a c h e r was a s s i g n e d a grade l e v e l f o r s c i e n c e by p r o b a b i l i t y and was removed from the p o p u l a -t i o n t o p reven t a second s e l e c t i o n . The p o p u l a t i o n s i z e de te rm ined by the s amp l i ng frame y i e l d e d the f o l l o w i n g numbers: S c i e n c e -8 S c i e n c e 9 S c i e n c e 10 N = 439 N = 425 N = 444 T o t a l N =1308 Us ing t h i s t o t a l i t was p o s s i b l e t o c a l c u l a t e the sample s i z e (n) by a p p l y i n g C o c h r a n ' s (1963) f o r m u l a 1 and g i v en the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n : l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e = 95% (z = 2.00) maximum a l l o w a b l e e r r o r = 5% (e = 0.05) maximum v a r i a n c e = 50% (p = 0.5) n - N z 2 pq w h e r e = 1 _ — 2 — ~ ~ 2 ~ ~ Ner + z pq s u b s t i t u t i n g f o r N, z , p and q n = 306 or 23.4% of the p o p u l a t i o n . W i l l i a m G. Coch ran , Sampl ing T e c h n i q u e s , 2nd e d . , (New Yo rk : John W i l e y and Sons Inc . 1 96 3 ) , p.75. T h i r t e e n p e r c e n t o f B.C. s choo l d i s t r i c t s d i d not wish to p a r t i c i p a t e in the s u r vey . To ensure an adequate sample s i z e i n advance o f - c o n t a c t i n g a l l s choo l d i s t r i c t s i t was d e c i d e d to add a minimum of 10% more t e a c h e r s to the sample. B.C. Research sugges ted a sample s i z e of 25% or 33% f o r the random s y s t e m a t i c s amp l i ng method used (Append ix B ) . A 33% sample was chosen to a l l o w f o r non -p a r t i c i p a t i n g s choo l d i s t r i c t s and to p r o v i d e a g r e a t e r base f o r g e n e r a l i z a b i 1 i t y of r e s u l t s . The s amp l i ng p r o -cedure used a randomly chosen s t a r t i n g p o i n t and then s e l e c t e d eve ry t h i r d t e a c h e r a t each grade l e v e l . The number o f t e a c h e r s sampled at each grade l e v e l was: S c i e n c e 8 : n = 146 S c i e n c e 9 ': n = 142 S c i e n c e 10 ': n = 148 T o t a l n = 436 A f i n a l sample s i z e of 366 (28%) was u t i l i z e d a f t e r the t e a c h e r s from the n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i n g s choo l d i s t r i c t s were d e l e t e d . The f i n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of t e a c h e r s was: S c i e n c e 8 : n = 125 S c i e n c e 9 : n = 122 S c i e n c e 10 : n = 119 T o t a l n = 366 6 3' P rocedu re s S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s of a l l B.C. s choo l d i s t r i c t s were c o n t a c t e d by ma i l p r i o r to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s (Append ix C) . Once a u t h o r i z a t i o n was o b t a i n e d from the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s t o conduct the su rvey in t h e i r d i s t r i c t , P r i n c i p a l s of the t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d were n o t i f i e d of the i n t e n t o f the s tudy and asked to c oope r a t e (Appendix D). S h o r t l y a f t e r the l e t t e r s to the P r i n c i p a l s were m a i l e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d to the s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s . Sampled t e a c h e r s r e c e i v e d a c o v e r i n g l e t t e r (Append ix E) a q u e s t i o n n a i r e and a p r e - s t a m p e d , s e 1 f - a d d r e s s e d r e t u r n e n v e l o p e . A l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were coded w i t h a t h r e e d i g i t number i n o r d e r to implement f o l l o w - u p p r o c e d u r e s . These f o l l o w - u p p rocedu re s were i n i t i a t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y ten days a f t e r the i n i t i a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e m a i l i n g (Append ix F ) . A n a l y s i s Upon r e c e i p t of the comp le ted q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , the re sponses were coded and punched on computer c a r d s . The U.B.C. M u l t i v a r i a t e Con t i n gency T a b u l a t i o n s computer p r o -gram (MVTAB) was used to c a l c u l a t e both f r e q u e n c y of r e -sponse and pe r cen tage re sponse to i tems of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Most a n a l y s i s r e q u i r e d o n l y u n i v a r i a t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . How-e v e r , c e r t a i n compar i sons between re sponse i tems were r e -q u i r e d , such as between p r o v i s i o n s f o r l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t u d e n t s and n o n - l i m i t e d succes s s t uden t s i n homogeneously 64 grouped c l a s s e s . To make compar i sons such as t h i s the b i v a r i a t e o p t i o n of the MVTAB program was used. The r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s a re d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . CHAPTER 3 RESULTS I n t r o d u c t ion In t h i s c h a p t e r the r e s u l t s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a s r e p o r t e d by the sample o f B.C. j u n i o r secondary s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s , a r e p r e s e n t e d . Tab le s of r e l a t e d r e s u l t s a re grouped t o g e t h e r under the f o l l o w i n g h e a d i n g s : - Q u e s t i o n n a i r e re sponse (page 66) - Demographic data (page 67) _ Teach i ng e x p e r i e n c e (page 69) - S choo l s (page 71 ) - E x t en t and c o m p o s i t i o n o f the l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n in B.C. (page 72) - Teach ing methods p r e s e n t l y in use f o r l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t u d e n t s in B.C. (page 77) - Teacher att i tudes .and . t r a in ing (page 103) Tab l e s of r e s u l t s a re not n e c e s s a r i l y l i s t e d i n the o r de r t h a t the c o r r e s p o n d i n g i tems of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e o c c u r . To a i d c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e w i t h the c o r r e s p o n d i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e i tem the number o f the i tem appears i n p a r -e n t h e s i s p r e c e e d i n g the t a b l e t i t l e . Each t a b l e r e p o r t s both the f r e q u e n c y and p e r c e n t re sponse to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m . A number of q u e s t i o n n a i r e i tems were m u l t i p l e re sponse i tems ( e . g . i tem one and t h i r t e e n ) . Teachers had the o p t i o n 65 to check more than one a l t e r n a t i v e w i t h i n such an i t e m . The a n a l y s i s o f these i tems r e q u i r e d each a l t e r n a t i v e t o be c o n s i d e r e d as a s e p a r a t e i t e m . T h e r e f o r e the p e r c e n t re sponse r e p o r t e d in a r e l a t e d t a b l e does not n e c e s s a r i l y t o t a l 100. The t a b l e s r e p o r t i n g m u l t i p l e re sponse i tem r e s u l t s have an a s t e r i s k (*) f o l l o w i n g the t a b l e number. A summary of the major f i n d i n g s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e may be found i n Append ix H. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e re sponse A t o t a l o f 336 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were m a i l e d on May 15, 1978 to the sample t e a c h e r s . The s choo l d i s t r i c t s p a r t i c i -p a t i n g (87% o f B.C. s choo l d i s t r i c t s ) r e p r e s e n t e d a wide range o f r u r a l / u r b a n and s o c i oeconom i c a reas in the P r o v i n c e . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 220 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e t u r n e d by May 26, 1978 a t which p o i n t 145 f o l l o w - u p l e t t e r s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were m a i l e d . By June 30, 1978 310 (85%) q u e s t i o n n a i r e s had been r e t u r n e d . A t o t a l o f 299 (82%) of the r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s were s u i t a b l e f o r a n a l y s i s p u r p o s e s . 1 A p p r o x i m a t e l y an equa l number of grade e i g h t (n=98'.. o r 33%),, grade n i ne (n = 94 0 r 31%) and grade ten (n=107 or 36%) t e a c h e r s completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Of the 299 t e a c h e r s r e s pond i n g to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e twen ty - two s a i d t h a t both homogeneous and heterogeneous s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g o c c u r r e d in t h e i r s c h o o l . These t e a c h e r s r e p l i e d to both branches o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . ^E leven sample t e a c h e r s d i d not t each s c i e n c e at the j u n i o r secondary l e v e l or were not a t the s choo l i n d i c a t e d by the samp! m g . Demographic Data E d u c a t i o n background o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e sponden t s Tab le s 1.1 and 1.2 o u t l i n e the underg raduate and g raduate background o f the r e s p o n d e n t s . ( l a ) TABLE 1.1 * UNDERGRADUATE MAJOR(S) OR CONCENTRATION(S) S u b j e c t F requency of Pe r cen tage o f Area Response Response (%) B i o l o g y 152 51 Chemi s t r y 11 7 39 Phys i cs 64 21 E a r t h S c i e n c e 26 9 Space S c i e n c e 7 2 Other 104 35 Of the 104 t e a c h e r s r e p o r t i n g o t h e r underg radua te m a j o r s ( s ) or c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , , t w e n t y - n i n e (10%) had o t h e r a reas of s c i e n c e l i s t e d , f o r t y - s i x (.15%) l i s t e d a non-s c i e n c e and s c i e n c e background ( e . g . E n g l i s h and b i o l o g y ) and t w e n t y - e i g h t (9%) r e p o r t e d a n o n - s c i e n c e background ( e . g . math, p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , h i s t o r y ) . ( l b ) TABLE 1.2 * HIGHER DEGREES 68 Degree Obta ined Frequency of Res pon se Pe r cen tage of Response (%) No h i g h e r degree 239 80 M.Sc. 21 7 M.A. 1 0 3 M.Ed. 21 7 Ph.D. (or e q u i v a l e n t ) 5 2 Other 7 2 Of the seven t e a c h e r s r e p o r t i n g o t h e r h i g he r degrees one r e p o r t e d an M.Sc. i n e d u c a t i o n , ano the r an M.B.A. and one M.A.Sc. Four r e sponden t s d i d not i n d i c a t e the na tu re o f t h e i r h i g h e r deg ree . Teach ing e x p e r i e n c e The t o t a l t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e of the r e sponden t s and t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e t e a c h i n g s c i e n c e to l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s i n homogeneous groups can be de te rm ined by e x a m i n a t i o n o f t a b l e s 2.1 , .2.':2 and 2.3. 6.9 (3) TABLE 2.1 OVERALL TEACHING EXPERIENCE Years of E x p e r i e n c e Frequency of Response Pe r cen tage o f Response (%) (n=299) F i r s t 21 7 Second o r t h i r d 48 16 Fou r th to n i n t h 117 39 Tenth or over 112 38 No re sponse 1 < 1 Tota 1s 299 1 00 (4a) TABLE 2.2 PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE TEACHING LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENTS SCIENCE IN A HOMOGENEOUS CLASS GROUP AT THE JUNIOR SECONDARY LEVEL P r e v i o u s Exper i en ce F requency of Response Pe r cen tage o f Response {%) (n=299) Yes 169 57 No 129 43 No Response 1 <1 T o t a l s 2 99 . 1 00 70 (4b) TABLE 2.3 YEAR OF TEACHING CAREER THAT RESPONDENTS FIRST TAUGHT SCIENCE TO LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENTS IN A HOMOGENEOUS CLASS GROUP Year o f Teach ing Career Frequency of Response Pe r cen tage o f Response (%) (n=299) F i r s t 64 21 Second 23 8 T h i r d 27 9 Fou r th 1 0 3 F i f t h or above 45 15 No re sponse 1 < 1 T o t a l s 169 57 Tab le 2.1 shows t h a t 77% o f a l l r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d f o u r y e a r s or more t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . Only 23% r e p o r t e d t h r e e y e a r s or l e s s t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . F i f t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t of r e sponden t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they d i d have p r e -v i ou s e x p e r i e n c e t e a c h i n g l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s s c i e n c e i n a homogeneous c l a s s g roup. Of the t e a c h e r s who d i d r e -p o r t t h i s p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e 51% s a i d they f i r s t t a u gh t t he se c l a s s e s in t h e i r f i r s t or second yea r o f t e a c h i n g . S i n ce more than h a l f of the r e sponden t s (.51%) r e p o r t e d t h e i r f i r s t e x p e r i e n c e w i t h homogeneously grouped 1 i m i t e d succe s s s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r f i r s t or second yea r i t seems e v i d e n t t h a t o f t e n p r e v i o u s t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e has not been c o n s i d e r e d b e f o r e a s s i gnment to these c l a s s e s . 71 Schoo1s Tab le 3.1 i n d i c a t e s the t ype s of s choo l ( i n terms of grades t augh t ) in which the r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d t e a c h i n g . For compar i son purposes t a b l e 3.1 a l s o g i v e s f i g u r e s as r e p o r t e d by I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s of the B.C. M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . (6a) TABLE 3.1 GRADES TAUGHT IN SCHOOLS Number and Percentage of Schools Grades Taught Reported by the Ministry of Education^ Reported by Respondents2 8 - 10 1.12 (34) 123 (41) 8 - 1 2 96 (29) 106 (36) 10 - 12 27 (8) 20 (7) 9 - 12 7 (2) 9 (3) 8 - 9 11 (3) 6 (2) K - 12 10 (3) 4 (1) Other 68 (21) 27 (9) No Response - 4 (1) Totals 331 (100) 299 (100) Numbers in pa ren the se s r e f e r to pe r cen tage of t o t a l s c h o o l s in the c a t e g o r i e s l i s t e d . Numbers in pa ren the se s r e f e r to pe r cen tage of r e s pon se . 72 Tab le 3.1 shows more re sponses than s c h o o l s t h a t a c t u a l l y e x i s t i n the grade e i g h t t o ten c a t e g o r y , the ten to t w e l v e c a t e g o r y and the n i ne to t w e l v e c a t e g o r y . Because some s c h o o l s had more than one s c i e n c e t e a c h e r r e s p o n d i n g to the q u e s t i o n -n a i r e the numer o f re sponses i s in some i n s t a n c e s g r e a t e r than the number o f s c h o o l s . I t can be seen t h a t the t ype s of s c h o o l s , as r e p o r t e d by r e s p o n d e n t s , c l o s e l y r e f l e c t s the a c t u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n as r e p o r t e d by the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . E x t e n t and c o m p o s i t i o n of the l i m i t e d succes s s t uden t  p o p u l a t i o n i n B.C. P o p u l a t i o n s i z e An e s t i m a t i o n of the s i z e o f the l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t uden t p o p u l a t i o n was p r o v i d e d by t e a c h e r s in both homogeneous and heterogeneous t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s . Teacher s of h e t e r o -geneous l y grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s e s t i m a t e d pe r cen t age s d i r e c t l y ( t a b l e 4 . 2 ) . I n f o r m a t i o n from t e a c h e r s of homo-geneous l y grouped l i m i t e d succe s s s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s i n -c l u d e d the t o t a l number o f c l a s s e s t augh t at each grade l e v e l wh i ch , iwh.en d i v i ded i n t o the t o t a l number of l i m i t e d succes s s c i e n c e c l a s s e s t a u g h t , y i e l d e d a t o t a l pe r cen tage of t e a c h i n g l o ad ( t a b l e 4 . 1 ) . The e s t i m a t e s of t e a c h e r s from both homogeneous and heterogeneous t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s were merged to p r o v i d e an o v e r a l l e s t i m a t e f o r the P r o v i n c e ( t a b l e 4 . 3 ) . S i n ce some re sponden t s t e a ch more than one grade l e v e l of homogeneously grouped l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s and o t h e r s t e a ch both h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y c l a s s e s , . t he e f f e c t i v e t o t a l re sponse 7 3 and homogeneously grouped i n t a b l e 4.3 was 338. ( 8 ) - ( 9 ) TABLE 4.1 PROPORTION OF LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENTS IN B.C. JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS AS REPORTED BY TEACHERS OF H0M0GE-NEOUSLY GROUPED SCIENCE CLASSES Percentage of Teaching Load Frequency of Response Percentage of Response (%) (n = 146) Grade 8 Grade 9 Grade 10 Total " Up to 20% 1 4 4 9 6 Up to 33% 13 12 8 33 23 Up to 50% 11 7 23 41 28 Over 50% 13 18 18 49 33 No Response 0 6 8 14 10 Sub-totals 38 47 61 146 100 Sub-percentages 26 32 42 100 (.17) TABLE 4.2 74' PROPORTION OF LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENTS IN B.C. JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS AS REPORTED BY TEACHERS OF HETEROGENEOUSLY GROUPED SCIENCE CLASSES Pe r cen tage of Frequency of Pe r cen tage o f "...Students, . Response Response (%) (n = 1 9 2 ) Up to 10% 78 41 Up to 20% 75 39 Up to 33% 25 1 3 Up to 50% 8 4 Over 50% 4 2 No Response 2 1 T o t a l s 1 92 1 00 TABLE 4.3 PROPORTION OF LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENTS IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS AS REPORTED BY ALL •i QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONDENTS. P e r c e n t of Overa l1 F requency of Pe r cen tage o f S tudent P o p u l a t i o n Response Response (%) (n = 338) Up to 10% 78 23 Up to 20% 84 25 Up to 33% 58 1 7 Up to 50% 49 14 Over 50% 53 1 6 No Response 1 6 5 T o t a l s 338 1 00 75 . Tab le 4.1 shows an i n c r e a s e i n r e p o r t e d a b i l i t y g r oup i n g from grade e i g h t to grade t e n . Teachers o f h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s ( t a b l e 4.2) seem to i d e n t i f y a s m a l l e r p o p u l a t i o n of l i m i t e d succe s s s t uden t s than do t e a c h e r s o f homogeneously grouped c l a s s e s ( t a b l e 4 . 1 ) . F o r t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t of a l l r e -spondents r e p o r t a l i m i t e d succe s s s t uden t p o p u l a t i o n of 2'0%-or h i g h e r . The f i g u r e s l i s t e d in t a b l e s 4.1 to 4.3 i n d i c a t e t h a t a 1 i m i t e d succe s s s t uden t p o p u l a t i o n of s i g n i f i c a n t s i z e e x i s t s i n B.C. j u n i o r secondary s c h o o l s . Compos i t i on of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n Tab le 5.1 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of l i m i t e d succe s s s t uden t s by sex as r e p o r t e d by t e a c h e r s of grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . Th i s t a b l e a l s o shows an o v e r a l l d i s t r i b u t i o n of l i m i t e d succe s s s t uden t s by sex o b t a i n e d by comb in ing the f i g u r e s f o r t e a c h e r s o f homogeneous and heterogeneous c l a s s e s . Numbers in p a r en the se s r e f e r to pe r cen tage r e -sponse, these are p receeded by f i g u r e s of f r e q u e n c y of r e spon se . 76 (11,18) TABLE 5.1 RELATIVE PROPORTION OF LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENTS BY SEX Frequency and Percentage Response' Proportion Homogeneously Grouped Classes (n=127) Heterogeneously Grouped Classes (n=192) Homogeneous ly and Heterogeneously Grouped Classes (n=321) A l l boys 1 « D 1 « 1 ) 2 11) Well over half boys 28 (22) 53 (28) 81 (25) About half boys and half g i r l s 77 (61) 124 (65) 201 (63) Well over ha l f g i r l s 5 (4) 9 (5) 14 (4) A l l g i r l s 1 « D 1 « D 2 (1) No response 15 (12) 4 (2) 19 (7) T w e n t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o f t e a c h e r s of heterogeneous c l a s s e s s a i d t h a t the c o m p o s i t i o n o f t he se c l a s s e s ranged from w e l l over h a l f to a l l boys. Twen t y - t h r ee p e r c e n t of t e a c h e r s of homogeneous c l a s s e s r e p o r t e d s i m i l a r c l a s s c o m p o s i t i o n . T w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t of a l l r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d Un le s s o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e d i tems n i ne to twenty -one were a n a l y z e d on the b a s i s of 321 r e s p o n d e n t s . S i n ce t w e n t y -two re spondent s r e p l i e d to both homogeneous and h e t e r o -geneous g r oup i ng q u e s t i o n n a i r e branches the number o f e f f e c t i v e re sponses i n c r e a s e d from 299 to 321. The t e a c h e r s an swer i ng both of these branches r e p o r t e d do ing so because both forms o f g r oup i ng were p r a c t i c e d i n the c l a s s e s they t a u g h t . 77 t h a t w e l l over h a l f o f t h e i r l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s were boys w h i l e o n l y 4% r e p o r t e d w e l l over h a l f g i r l s . E v i d e n t l y more boys e x p e r i e n c e l i m i t e d succe s s in s c i e n c e than g i r l s . Teach ing methods p r e s e n t l y in use f o r l i m i t e d succe s s  s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s G roup ing p r a c t i c e s Th i s s e c t i o n o u t l i n e s the re sponse s of t e a c h e r s t o a number of q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g homogeneous and h e t e r o -geneous g r oup i n g p r a c t i c e s . Tab le s 6.1 and 6.3 show the e x t e n t t o wh ich v a r i o u s g r oup i n g p r a c t i c e s a re u t i l i z e d by r e s p o n d e n t s . Tab le 6.2 r e p o r t s on the e x t e n t to which l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s are promoted to a h i g he r a c h i e v e -ment l e v e l w i t h i n a homogeneous g r oup i ng sy s tem. Tab le 6.4 i n d i c a t e s the d i f f e r e n c e s in c l a s s s i z e e x i s t i n g between homogeneously and h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped c l a s s e s . F u r t h e r compar i sons between t ime t a b l e s and number of hours of s c i e n c e f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s in heterogeneous and homogeneous c l a s s e s are r e p o r t e d i n , t a b l e s 6.5 and 6.6 r e s p e c t i v e l y . TABLE 6.1 TYPES OF GROUPING REPORTED Type o f Group ing Frequency of Respon se Pe r cen tage of Response (%) (n=299) Homogeneous 105 35 Heterogeneous 1 70 57 Homogeneous and Heterogeneous 22 7 No da ta 2 1 Tota1s 299 1 00 T e a c h e r s ' comments i n d i c a t e d t h a t both homogeneous and heterogeneous g r oup i ng does occur w i t h i n a s i n g l e s c h o o l . Comments showed t h a t o f t e n grade e i g h t and n i ne s c i e n c e were h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped w h i l e grade ten s c i e n c e was homogeneously g rouped. Teacher r e p o r t s i n d i c a t e t h a t a b i l i t y g r oup i ng i s be ing p r a c t i c e d i n 42% of a l l r e s p o n d e n t s ' s c h o o l s . 7.9 (12) TABLE 6.2 UPWARD MOBILITY OF LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENTS IN HOMOGENEOUSLY GROUPED CLASSES P r o p o r t i o n of Upward Moving S tuden t s F requency of Response Pe r cen tage o f Response {%) (n=321) A l l 4 1 Much more than h a l f 1 5 5 About h a l f 7 2 Wei 1 under h a l f 31 10 None 57 1 9 No re sponse 1 5 4 T o t a l s 129 40 Tab le 6.2 shows t h a t the m a j o r i t y of l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t u d e n t s do not p r o g r e s s t o h i g h e r ach ievement l e v e l s w i t h i n a homogeneously grouped sy s tem. I t seems t h a t many l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s tend to remain l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s w i t h i n a homogeneous g r oup i ng s y s tem. Th i s f i n d i n g may a l s o be t r u e f o r l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t u d e n t s i n h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped c l a s s e s , however t h i s was not examined i n t h i s s t udy . 80 (19) TABLE 6.3 GROUPING WITHIN HETEROGENEOUS SCIENCE CLASSES Occu r rence of Group ing F requency of Response Pe r cen tage o f Response (%) (n=321) Group ing does occu r 14 4 Group ing does not o ccu r 121 38 Group ing occu r s sometimes 55 1 7 No re sponse 4 1 T o t a l s 1 94 60 T h i r t y - s i x p e r c e n t of the r e sponden t s from h e t e r o -geneous t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s , group a t l e a s t sometimes in t he se c l a s s e s . The t ypes of g r oup i ng used (as i n d i c a t e d by t e a c h e r comments) are v a r i e d , i n c l u d i n g : the p a i r i n g of a l i m i t e d succe s s s t uden t w i t h a b r i g h t e r s t u d e n t ; an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d l e a r n i n g program and the p r o v i s i o n of co re m a t e r i a l s f o r a l l s t u d e n t s w i t h more c h a l l e n g i n g e x t e n s i o n s f o r b r i g h t e r s t u d e n t s . Other t e a c h e r comments show the f o l l o w i n g f u r t h e r accommodations t e a c h e r s make f o r l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s : 871 - a more l e n i e n t mark ing scheme - a reduced e x p e c t a t i o n f o r t he se s t u d e n t s - a g r oup i n g based on r e a d i n g a b i l i t y and p r e v i o u s math ach ievement - a g r oup i n g based on f r i e n d s h i p - a g r oup i ng f o r s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s Some t e a c h e r s s a i d t h a t g r oup i ng was a ve r y d i f f i c u l t and t ime consuming. A number o f t e a c h e r s s a i d t h a t the a v a i l -a b l e l a b o r a t o r i e s and m a t e r i a l s were i n a p p r o p r i a t e . A few s a i d t h a t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s was a d i f f i c u l t t a s k s i n c e they were not i n fo rmed i n advance who the se s t u d e n t s were. (10a, 15a, 16) TABLE 6.4 AVERAGE CLASS SIZE Class Size Frequency and Percentage Response Homogeneously Grouped Limited Success Students (n=321) Homogeneously Grouped Non-Limited Success Students (n=321) Heterogeneously Grouped Classes (n=323) Less than 16 29 (9) 4 (1) 8 (2) 16 - 20 37 (11) 3 (1) 13 (4) 21 - 25 36 (11) 41 (13): 54 (17) 26 - 30 12 (4) 62 (19) 101 (31) Over 30 2 (1) 3 (1) 13 (4) No response 13 (4) 16 (5) 5 (2) Totals 129 (40) 129 (40) 194 (60) 8.2-Tab le 6.4 i n d i c a t e s t h a t 80% o f homogeneously grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s have t w e n t y - f i v e o r fewer s t u d e n t s i n them. Tab le 6.4 a l s o shows l a r g e r c l a s s e s f o r n o n - l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s in homogeneously grouped c l a s s e s . N i n e t y p e r c e n t of the t e a c h e r s of homogeneously grouped n o n - l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s s t a t e t h a t the s i z e of these c l a s s e s i s in exces s of twenty -one s t u d e n t s . A m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s (59%) in heterogeneous g r oup i ng s i t u a t i o n s r e p o r t e d s c i e n c e c l a s s s i z e s i n exces s of t w e n t y - s i x s t u d e n t s . S i n c e a c l a s s s i z e not e xceed i ng t w e n t y - f i v e s t u d e n t s i s advoca ted i n the l i t e r a t u r e (Oxenhorn 1972, C o l l e t t e 1973, Youn ie 1974) i t appears as i f many s c i e n c e c l a s s e s of h e t e r o -geneous l y grouped s t u d e n t s and homogeneously grouped non -l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s exceed t h i s recommended c l a s s s i z e . 83 (10b, 15b, 20a) TABLE 6.5 TIME TABLES Frequency and Percentage Response Type of T *i mo f a hi Q Homogeneously Grouped Science Classes Heterogeneously Grouped Science Classes (n=321) 1 lillc LaU 1 c Limited Success Students(n=321) Non-Limited Success Students (n=321) Regular or fu l l yea r 65 (20) 59 (18) 90 (28) Semestered 30 (9) 34 (11) 65 (20) Quartered 13 (4) 14 (4) 18 (5) Other 8 (2) 8 (2) 12 (4) No Response 13 (4) 14 (4) 9 (3) Totals 129 (40) 129 (40) 194 (60) A b i v a r i a t e compar i son between the re sponses r e l a t e d to l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s and n o n - l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d few t ime t a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s (4%) . Teachers of h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s r e p o r t a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of semester system t ime t a b l e s than do t e a c h e r s of 'homogeneous s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . (10c , 15c, 20b) TABLE 6.6 NUMBER OF HOURS OF SCIENCE PER WEEK 84 Hours of Science Per Week Frequency and Percentage Response Homogeneously Grouped Science Classes Heterogeneously Grouped Science Classes (n=321) Limited Success Students(n=321) Non-Limited Success Students (n=321) 0 - 1 hour 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 « D 1 - 2 hours 3 (1) 1 « D 0 (0) 2 - 3 hours 25 (8) 22 31 (10) 3 - 4 hours 50 (16) 47 (15) 71 (22) 4 - 5 hours 24 (7) 27 (8) 56 (17) 5 - 6 hours 13 (4) 15 (5) 22 (7) Over 6 hours 2 (1) 2 « D 7 (2) No Response 1:2 (4) 15 (5) 6 (2) Totals 129 (40) 129 (40) 194 (60) A b i v a r i a t e compar i son between the re sponse s r e l a t e d to l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s and n o n - l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s i n -d i c a t e d few d i f f e r e n c e s (4%) in the number of hours of s c i e n c e t augh t per week. Few major d i f f e r e n c e s seem to e x i s t between heterogeneous and homogeneous g r oup i ng i n the number of hours of s c i e n c e p r o v i d e d per week. D i l u t i o n of s c i e n c e by r e d u c -ing the number of hours per week does not appear to be a w i d e -sp read p r a c t i c e i n the i n s t r u c t i o n of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s . 85 . C u r r i c u l u m , t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s and t e a c h i n g t e c h n o l o g y C u r r i c u l urn (25a) TABLE 7.1 NUMBER OF TEACHERS OFFERING SPECIAL PROGRAMS FOR THEIR LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENTS Programs Frequency o f Respon se Pe r cen tage o f Response (%) S p e c i a l program o f f e r e d 74 25 No s p e c i a l program 206 69 No response 19 6 T o t a l s 299 100 (25a) TABLE 7.2 SPECIAL SCIENCE PROGRAMS AND ABILITY GROUPING Type of Group ing Frequency and Pe r cen tage Response S p e c i a l Rrogra (n=299 m O f f e r e d ) Yes No No Response Homogeneou s ' He te rogeneou s Homogeneous and heterogeneous 43 (14) 23 (8) 8 (3) 50 (17) 143 (48) 12. (4) 12 (4) 4 (1) 2 ( 1) 86 Teacher r e p o r t s show t h a t a lmos t 70% of r e sponden t s do not p r o v i d e a s p e c i a l s c i e n c e cou r se f o r t h e i r l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s ( t a b l e 7 . 1 ) . Of the t e a c h e r s t h a t do p r o v i d e a s p e c i a l s c i e n c e program f o r these s t u d e n t s 58% are t e a c h e r s of homogeneously grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s w h i l e 31% teach i n h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . E v i d e n t l y even i f a b i l i t y g r oup i ng i s p r a c t i c e d many t e a c h e r s do not d i f f e r e n t i a t e the s c i e n c e program f o r t h e i r l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s . (7) TABLE 7.3 * SUBJECT AREAS TAUGHT IN GRADE 8, 9 AND 10 SCIENCE Subj e c t F requency and Pe r cen tage Response Grade 8 Grade 9 Grade 10 P h y s i c s C hem i s t r y B i o l o g y E a r t h S c i e n c e Space S c i e n c e I n t e g r a t e d S c i en ce I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y S c i e n c e 149 (50) 163 (55) 152 (51) 125 (42) 7 (2) 4 (1) 159 (53) 161 (54) 150 (50) 22 (7) 75 (25) 138 (46) 147 (49) 146 (49) 83 (28) 9 (3) 5 (2) 1 (<T) 7 (2) 8 (3) 15 (5) 87 (22a) TABLE 7.4 * TEXT(S) AND LABORATORY MANUALS USED IN THE IN-STRUCTION OF LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENTS Text or Laboratory Manual Frequency of Response Percentage of Response (%) Introducing Science Concepts in the Laboratory 152 51 Developing Science Concepts in the Laboratory 146 49 Extending Science Concepts in the Laboratory 133 45 Pathways in Science (Oxenhorn) 31 10 Invitat ions to Investigate Science (Wong) 14 5 Other 100 33 A combination of the above 46 15 A modification of the above 47 16 O n e - t h i r d (33%) o f the t e a c h e r s r e s pond i n g to t h i s s u r vey r e p o r t e d the use of o t h e r t e x t s , l a b o r a t o r y manuals and sou rces than those l i s t e d in i tem t w e n t y - t w o . A f u r t h e r 15% of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d m o d i f i c a t i o n s of e x i s t i n g c u r r i c u l a . Over t h i r t y - s e v e n d i f f e r e n t t e x t s , l a b o r a t o r y manuals and sou rce s were l i s t e d by t e a c h e r s commenting on t h i s i t e m . Among the more p r e v a l e n t of t he se a l t e r n a t e c u r r i c u l a a r e : 88 - t e a c h e r p repa red w o r k s h e e t s , no tes and l a b o r a t o r i e s - Concepts and C h a l l e n g e s in S c i e n c e ( W i n k l e r e t a l . ) - Modern Genera l S c i e n c e S e r i e s - I n t e r m e d i a t e S c i en ce C u r r i c u l u m Study - M i x t u r e s i n Chem i s t r y - l o c a l l y deve l oped u n i t s - Cambridge Work -A -Text s - S c i e n c e in A c t i o n S e r i e s - Space sh ip E a r t h S e r i e s - Ginn P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e and L i f e S c i e n c e (22b) TABLE 7.5 TEACHERS' OVERALL RATING OF TEXTS AND LABORATORY MANUALS USED R a t i n g Frequency of Response Pe r cen tage of Response {%) (n=299) Very s u i t a b l e 8 3 Su i t a b l e 36 1 2 Somewhat s u i t a b l e 101 34 Un su i t a b l e 1 21 40 No re sponse 33 11 Teacher re sponses to i tems 22a and 22b were compared to p r o -duce an i n d i v i d u a l t e x t r a t i n g shown in t a b l e 7.6. 89 ( 22a ) - ( 22b ) TABLE 7.6 TEACHERS'RATINGS OF TEXTS AND LABORATORY MANUALS USED Text or Frequency and Percentage Response Laboratory Manual Very Suitable Suitable Somewhat Suitable Un-suitable No Response Introducing Science Con-cepts in the Laboratory 4 (3) 17 (11) 57 (37) 67 (44) 7 (5) Developing Science Con-cepts in the Laboratory 3 (2) 17 (1:2) 59 (40) 58 (40) 9 (6) Extending Science Con-cepts in the Laboratory 2 (1) 11 (8) 50 (38) 64 (48) 6 (5) Pathways in Science (Oxenhorm) 2 (6) 6 (20) 17 (55) 5 (16) 1 (3) Invitations to In-vestigate Science (Wong 1 (7) 3 (22) 8 (57) 2 (14) 0 (0) Others 4 (4) 16 (16) 37 (37) 35 (35) 8 (8). S e v e n t y - f o u r p e r c e n t of r e sponden t s s a i d t h a t the t e x t s a n d l a b o r a t o r y manuals they were u s i n g were o n l y somewhat s u i t a b l e to u n s u i t a b l e f o r t e a c h i n g s c i e n c e to l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s ( t a b l e 7 . 5 ) . Tab le 7.6 shows t h a t the m a j o r i t y of t he se p o o r l y r a t e d t e x t s and l a b o r a t o r y manuals are those sugges ted and s u p p l i e d by the B.C. M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . Teachercom-ments sugges ted the f o l l o w i n g reasons f o r r a t i n g the t e x t s and l a b o r a t o r y manuals in the way they d i d : 90. - r e a d i n g l e v e l i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t uden t s (some say t h i s i s t r u e f o r most s t u d e n t s ) - concep t s and i n s t r u c t i o n s a re too d i f f i c u l t - c o n t e n t b o r i n g , i r r e l e v a n t and too academic - some t e x t s ( e . g . Concepts and C h a l l e n g e s i n S c i e n c e ) are i n s u l t i n g to s t u d e n t s ' i n t e l l i g e n c e - Read ing About S c i e n c e t e x t s are not r e l a t e d to l a b o r a t o r y work - t e x t l a y o u t i s d u l l , more d iagrams a re needed Whi le a m a j o r i t y of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d the use of the s c i e n c e t e x t s sugges ted by the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n and the a s s o c i a t e d c u r r i c u l u m ( t a b l e s 7.3 and 7.4) i t seems e v i d e n t t h a t most t e a c h e r s r a t e the se t e x t s (and i n d i r e c t l y the c l o s e l y r e l a t e d c u r r i c u l u m ) p o o r l y ( t a b l e s 7.5 and 7 . 6 ) . These r e s u l t s imp ly the need f o r a new c u r r i c u l u m in s c i e n c e . Tab le 7.7 shows the e x t e n t to which t e a c h e r s of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s use v a r i o u s means to de te rm ine s c i e n c e cou r se c o n t e n t f o r t he se s t u d e n t s . (23) TABLE 7.7 SCIENCE COURSE CONTENT DETERMINATION FOR LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENTS Frequency and Percentage Response Proportion of Course Based on Student Interest (n=299) Based on Student Choice (n=Z99) Based on Job-Oriented Science (n=299) Based on Content Reduction (n=299) Based on Reduction of Complexity (n=299) Based on Core Curriculum (n=299) Ba snd nn an A1 tern. i t. i ve Sequent ia l Proijram (n=299) None of the course 62 (21) 159 (53) 140 (47) 58 (19) 56 (19) 19 (6) 131 (44) Less than half the course 120 (40) 76 (26) 93 (31) 60 (20) 58 (19) 29 (10) 48 (16) About half the course 46 (16) 7 (2) 13 (4) 53 (18) 45 (15) 74 (25) 32 (11) More than half the course 19 (6) 1 « 1 ) 6 (2) 42 (14) 35 (12) 65 (22) 10 (3) Almost al1 the course 9 (3) 2 (1) 3 (1) 42 (14) 63 (21) 73 (24) 22 (7) No response 43 (14) 54 (18) 44 (15) 44 (15) 42 (14) 39 (13) 56 (19) _ . 1 The results of item twenty-three above show a re la t ive ly high non-response. This non-response is possibly due to teachers neglecting to c i r c le the zero option of this item. 92 Only 29% of r e sponden t s s a i d t h a t they based a p o r t i o n of t h e i r s c i e n c e cou r se f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s on s t uden t c h o i c e . S i x t y - f i v e p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d t h a t they d i d use s t uden t i n t e r e s t to p r o v i d e some b a s i s f o r t h e i r s c i e n c e c o u r s e . A p p a r e n t l y few t e a c h e r s a l l o w t h e i r l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s s i g n i f i c a n t d e c i s i o n making powers in cour se c o n t e n t d e t e r m i n a t i o n . However, a m a j o r i t y (65%) seem to see a need to work from s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t s i n t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g . The use of s c i e n c e cou r se c o n t e n t r e d u c t i o n and a r e d u c t i o n of c o n t e n t c o m p l e x i t y appears to be w i d e - s p r e a d . F o r t y - s i x and 48% o f r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d t h a t o n e - h a l f or more o f t h e i r cou r se was based on a r e d u c t i o n of c o n t e n t or c o m p l e x i t y . Few t e a c h e r s (7%) r e p o r t e d t h a t o n e - h a l f or more of t h e i r s c i e n c e cou r se f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t uden t s was based on j o b - o r i e n t e d s c i e n c e . Seventy -one p e r c e n t of a l l r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d ba s -ing o n e - h a l f or more of t h e i r s c i e n c e cou r se f o r l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s on the p r e s e n t B.C. Core C u r r i c u l u m . Only 21% o f r e sponden t s s a i d they used an a l t e r n a t i v e s t r u c t u r e d s e q u e n t i a l program as a b a s i s f o r o n e - h a l f o f t h e i r cou r se or more. 93 Teacher comments r e l a t e d to s c i e n c e programs T e a c h e r s ' comments i n d i c a t e d t h e i r d e s i r e f o r changes in the p r e sen t s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l u m s p e c i f i c a l l y o r i e n t e d towards l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s . The comments of t he se t e a c h e r s o u t l i n e d the f o l l o w i n g a rea s of need: - a need f o r v a r i e t y r e q u i r e s a modular approach - a need f o r a s imp l e s t r u c t u r e d t e x t w i t h d iagrams to supplement l a b o r a t o r y t e x t - a need to d i l u t e the e x i s t i n g cou r se - a need f o r a h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d program w i t h s h o r t s tep s - a need f o r programmed l e a r n i n g and f i 1 1 - i n - t h e - b l a n k s work sheet s - a need to mod i f y the e x i s t i n g program on an i n -d i v i d u a l i z e d b a s i s - a need f o r an a p p r o p r i a t e r e a d i n g l e v e l , w r i t i n g to be kept to a minimum and l e s s ma themat i c a l emphasis - a need f o r a hands on approach i n c l u d i n g a more g e n e r a l l a b o r a t o r y manual and t e x t book - a need f o r a more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d program. Approaches to l e a r n i n g Tab le 8.1 o u t l i n e s the re sponses of t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t i n g the f r e q u e n c y t h a t they i n v o l v e t h e i r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s in a v a r i e t y of approaches to l e a r n i n g . (24) TABLE 8.1 FREQUENCY OF INVOLVEMENT OF LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENTS IN VARIOUS APPROACHES TO LEARNING F requency of I nvo l vement F requency and P e r c e n t a g e Response Teacher Arranged Experiments (n=299) Discovery Method Experiments (n=299) Small Group-Indiv idual ized Learning (n=299) Project Approach (n=299) Lecture and Notes (n=299) Worksheets (n=299) Class Discussion (n=299) Audio-Visual Aids (n=299) Never 3 (1) 40 (13) 115 (39) 79 (26) 17 (6) 34 (11) 2 (1) 10 (3) Once or twice a term 11 (4) 58 (19) 64 (21) 143 (48) 30 (10) 60 (20) 28 (9), 37 (12) Once or twice a month 36 (12) 70 (23) 46 (15) 39 (13) 72 (24) 116 (39) 55 (18) 131 (44) Once or twice a week 166 (55) 69 (23) 23 (8) 10 (3) 128 (43) 57 (19) 121 (41) 89 (30) Almost every c lass 63 (21) 34 (12) 22 (7) 3 (1) 31 (10) 12 (4) 71 (24) 15 (5) No response 20 (7) 28 (10) 29 (10) 25 (9) 21 (7) 20 (7) 22 (7) 17 (6) F requency of I nvo l vement F requency and P e r c e n t a g e Response Demonstrations (n=299) F i e l d Trips (n=299) Oral Presentations (n=299) Review (n=299) Programmed Learning (n=299) Never 5 (2) 120 (40) 170 (57) 8 (3) 178 (60) Once or twice a term 45 (15) 127 (43) 77 (26) 30 (10) 52 (18) Once or twice a month 130 (44) 20 (7) 13 (5) 102 (34) 18 (6) Once or twice a week 84 (28) 3 (1) 10 (3) 109 (36) 7 (2) Almost every c lass 13 (4) 4 (1) 4 (1) 29 (10) 7 (2) No response 22 (7) 25 (8) 25 (8) 21 (7) 37 (12) The r e s u l t s of i t e m t w e n t y - f o u r show a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h n o n - r e s p o n s e . Th i s non - r e spon se i s p o s s i b l y due to t e a c h e r s n e g l e c t i n g to c i r c l e the ze ro o p t i o n o f t h i s i t e m . 95 Labwork. S e v e n t y - s i x p e r c e n t of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d u s i ng t e a c h e r a r r anged labwork to i n s t r u c t l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s at l e a s t once or t w i c e a week w h i l e o n l y 35% s a i d they use the d i s c o v e r y method to the same e x t e n t . Smal l group and i n d i v i d u a l i z e d l e a r n i n g . S i x t y p e r c e n t of a l l r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d t h a t they never o r r a r e l y (once or t w i c e a term) use a sma l l group or i n d i v i d u a l i z e d approach w h i l e 15% say they use t h i s k i n d o f approach a t l e a s t once a week. The use o f e i t h e r of these approaches to l e a r n i n g to a major e x t e n t does not appear to be w ide sp read in B.C. These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e a p r e f e r e n c e to whole c l a s s t e a c h i n g a good dea l of the t i m e . P r o j e c t work. T w e n t y - s i x p e r c e n t o f r e sponden t s r e -p o r t e d t h a t they never i n v o l v e t h e i r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s in p r o j e c t work d u r i n g the s choo l y e a r . G iven t h i s s i g n i f i -can t p r o p o r t i o n o f r e sponden t s i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t many l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s may not have the o p p o r t u n i t y to chose a t o p i c of i n t e r e s t to them which p r o j e c t work can f a c i l i t a t e . L e c t u r e and n o t e s . F i f t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d t h a t they use the l e c t u r e and notes approach at l e a s t once a week w i t h t h e i r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s . These r e s u l t s s uppo r t those r e l a t e d to sma l l group and i n d i v i d u a l i z e d l e a r n i n g . Worksheet s . T w e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f a l l r e sponden t s s a i d t h a t they use work sheet s a t l e a s t once or t w i c e a week w h i l e 70% use work sheet s once or t w i c e a month or l e s s to i n s t r u c t t h e i r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s . A p p a r e n t l y work sheet s are not in w i de sp read use on a f r e q u e n t b a s i s f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s in B.C. A u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s . T h i r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d u s i ng a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s a t l e a s t once a week w h i l e 59% s a i d they use a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s once or t w i c e a month or l e s s to i n s t r u c t t h e i r l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s . The use of a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s , on a d a y - t o - d a y b a s i s , seems r e l a t i v e l y r a r e among a m a j o r i t y of s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s . C l a s s d i s c u s s i o n . E i g h t y - t w o p e r c e n t of a l l r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d i n v o l v i n g t h e i r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s i n c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n on a t l e a s t a month ly b a s i s . A f u r t h e r 76% s a i d t h a t they p r e s e n t e d d e m o n s t r a t i o n s w i t h a t l e a s t the same f r e q u e n c y as c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s . F o r t y p e r c e n t of a l l r e sponden t s s a i d t h a t they d i d not i n v o l v e t h e i r l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s i n f i e l d t r i p s . E v i d e n t l y many l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s are not exposed to the c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e s f a c i l i t a t e d th rough a f i e l d t r i p . O ra l p r e s e n t a t i o n s . T h i r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f r e sponden t s p o r t e d u s i ng o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s w h i l e 57% s a i d they never used t h i s approach w i t h t he se s t u d e n t s . S i n ce o r a l s k i l l s may work to enhance o t h e r communicat ion s k i l l s i t seems t h a t many l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s may not have the o p p o r t u n i t y to improve these 97 n o n - o r a l s k i l l s in t h e i r s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . Rev iew. E i g h t y p e r c e n t o f r e sponden t s ind icatetf t h a t they r e v i ewed once or t w i c e a month or more when i n s t r u c t i n g l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s . F o r t y - s i x p e r c e n t s a i d they r e v i ew on a week ly or d a i l y b a s i s . R e l a t i v e l y f r e q u e n t s c i e n c e r e v i ew seems to be a common o c c u r r e n c e i n the t e a c h i n g of l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s . Programmed l e a r n i n g . S i x t y p e r c e n t of r e sponden t s s a i d t h a t they never used programmed l e a r n i n g to i n s t r u c t t h e i r l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s w h i l e 28% r e p o r t e d u s i n g t h i s approach at l e a s t once o r t w i c e a t e r m . F u r t h e r d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n g between t e a c h e r s of homogeneously and h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s Some compar i sons have a l r e a d y been made between the p r a c t i c e s o f t e a c h e r s of homogeneously and h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . F u r t h e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n both c o n t e n t d e t e r m i n a t i o n and approaches t o l e a r n i n g were e v i d e n t between these two groups of t e a c h e r s . Upon com-p a r i s o n of t e a c h i n g methods w i t h t ype of g r oup i ng i t was found t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r pe r cen tage ( i n exces s o f 10%) of t e a c h e r s of h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s r e p o r t e d u s i ng the l a b o r a t o r y t e x t s sugges ted by the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n than d i d t e a c h e r s of homogeneously 98 grouped c l a s s e s . Teachers of homogeneously grouped c l a s s e s r e p o r t e d u s i ng both s t uden t c h o i c e and s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t t o de te rm ine cour se c o n t e n t to a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than d i d t e a c h e r s of h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped c l a s s e s . Teachers of homogeneously grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s r e p o r t e d r e d u c i n g c o n t e n t and c o m p l e x i t y of cou r se c o n t e n t f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s to a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than d i d t e a c h e r s of h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped c l a s s e s . Teachers of h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s r e p o r t e d u s i n g the co re c u r r i c u l u m to a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than d i d t e a c h e r s of homogeneously grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . Teachers of h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s r e p o r t e d u s i n g a l e c t u r e and notes approach to a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than d i d t e a c h e r s o f homogeneously grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . I t i s appa ren t t h a t more freedom of c h o i c e i s e x -p e r i e n c e d by both t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s of homogeneously grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . More a t t e n t i o n appears to be p a i d to the i n t e r e s t s of the s t u d e n t s in homogeneous c l a s s e s than heterogeneous c l a s s e s . E v i d e n t l y r e d u c i n g c o n t e n t and c o m p l e x i t y of a cou r se f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s i s more common in homogeneously than h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . -99 E v a l u a t i o n and r e p o r t i n g Tab le s 9.1 to 9.4 o u t l i n e t e a c h e r s ' r e sponses to q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d to the e v a l u a t i o n and r e p o r t i n g of the p r o g r e s s of t h e i r l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t u d e n t s . Tab le 9.1 r e p o r t s on the e x t e n t of s t u d e n t i n vo l vement in e v a l u a t i o n . Tab le 9.2 r e p o r t s the major a reas i n wh ich l i m i t e d succe s s s t uden t s are e v a l u a t e d . Tab le 9.3 shows the e x t e n t to which t e s t i n g i s used when i n s t r u c t i n g l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s . Tab le 9.4 shows the usage o f the v a r i o u s methods of r e p o r t i n g s t uden t p r o g r e s s . (26a) TABLE 9 . 1 1 EVALUATION OF THE PROGRESS OF LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENTS Evaluator(s) Frequency of Response Percentage of Response (%) (n=299) Teacher only 132 44 Mainly by teacher, p a r t i a l l y by student 21 7 Equally by student and teacher 0 0 Mainly by student, p a r t i a l l y by teacher 0 0 Student only 0 0 Other 1 <1 No response 145 49 Item t w e n t y - s i x had a h i gh i n c i d e n c e of n on - r e spon se . An e r r o r o f numbering f o l l o w i n g i tem 25a r e s u l t e d in the;, l a c k of t e a c h e r re sponse to t h i s i t e m . TOO E i g h t y - s i x p e r c e n t of r e sponden t s r e p o r t i n g on the e v a l u a t i o n of s t u d e n t p r o g r e s s s t a t e d t h a t t h i s e v a l u a t i o n was based s o l e l y on the t e a c h e r w h i l e 14% i n d i c a t e d some l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t i n vo l v emen t i n t h e i r own e v a l u a t i o n . (26b) TABLE 9.2 * COMPONENTS USED TO EVALUATE LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENTS E v a l u a t i o n Frequency and Pe r cen tage Response Component Component Used Component Not Used S tudent l a b o r a t o r y w r i t e - u p s 145 (93) 11 (7) P r o j e c t s 99 (63) 57 (37) Ora l t a l k s 44 (29) 111 (71) Tes t s 141 (90) 15 (10) A t t i t u d e 102 (66) 53 (34) A t t endance 69 (44) "87 (56) Other 35 (23) 1 20 (77) S tudent l a b o r a t o r y w r i t e - u p s and t e s t s were r e p o r t e d to be used by the m a j o r i t y (93% and 90% r e s p e c t i v e l y ) o f r e sponden t s an swer i ng t h i s i tem (26b ) . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 65% of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d i n c l u d i n g components of a t t i t u d e and p r o j e c t work in t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n of l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t u d e n t s . F o r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t of r e sponden t s s a i d t h a t they i n c l u d e d a t t endance i n t h e i r a s ses sment w h i l e l e s s than 30% r e p o r t e d i n c l u d i n g o r a l t a l k s or o t h e r forms of as ses sment . Most t e a c h e r s appear to use two to t h r e e d i f f e r e n t e v a l u a t i o n components to a s se s s the p r o g r e s s of t h e i r l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s . Teachers a l s o r e p o r t e d e v a l u a t i o n based on : work shee t s and no t ebook s ; p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n c l a s s ; w o r k h a b i t s ; s t u d e n t a s s i gnment s and o r a l e x p l a n a t i o n to the t e a c h e r ; a f i n a l exam on the co re c u r -r i c u l u m ; e f f o r t ; r e a d i n g a s s i g n m e n t s ; w r i t i n g s k i l l s w i t h l ong term l e a r n i n g and f i e l d work by s t u d e n t s . (24) TABLE 9.3 TESTING: FREQUENCY USED IN THE INSTRUCTION OF LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENTS Frequency of Use F requency of Response Pe r cen tage of Response (%) (n=299) Never 14 5 Once or t w i c e a term 40 1 3 Once or t w i c e a month 180 60 Once or t w i c e a week 41 14 A lmost eve r y c l a s s 4 1 No re sponse 20 7 S e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t of r e sponden t s s a i d t h a t they t e s t e d w i t h a month ly to d a i l y f r e q u e n c y . Th i s r e s u l t seems t o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the r e s u l t r e p o r t e d i n t a b l e 9.2 where t e s t i n g was s a i d to have a heavy emphasis in the o v e r a l l e v a l u a t i o n of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s . 1.02 (26c) TABLE 9.4 * FREQUENCY OF VARIOUS METHODS OF REPORTING PROGRESS OF LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENTS Reporting Method Frequency of Response Percentage of Response [%) (n=299) Formal l e t t e r grades (A,B,C,D,E) 150 50 Sat isfactory/unsatisfactory 12 4 Pass/fail/incomplete 19 6 Anecdotal 53 18 Other 15 5 Many t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d the use of a n e c d o t a l r e p o r t i n g in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h f o rma l l e t t e r g r ade s . Some of the o t h e r r e p o r t i n g schemes t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d were : - c o m p l e t e / i n c o m p l e t e - H ( h o n o u r s ) , S ( s a t i s f a c t o r y ) , S- (min imal pass ) I ( i n c o m p l e t e / f a i l ) - P a s s / F a i l used o n l y i n f i n a l r e p o r t i f mark i s below a C+ - A ,B ,C,D/not mas te red or i n c o m p l e t e - C / P a s s / F a i l - 1 ,2 ,3 ,4 ,5 s c a l e 1 be ing the bes t F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s of the da ta showed t h a t f o rma l l e t t e r .1 0 3 grades were used by a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n (16% more ) of t e a c h e r s of homogeneous than heterogeneous s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . Teacher a t t i t u d e s and t r a i n i n g T a b l e s l O . l to 10.1:3 o u t l i n e the t r a i n i n g t h a t r e sponden t s r e c e i v e d r e l a t e d to l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s and i n a d d i t i o n examine some o f the f a c t o r s which may r e l a t e to the a t t i t u d e s of these t e a c h e r s . (14) TABLE 10.1 TEACHERS OF HOMOGENEOUSLY GROUPED CLASSES: WILLINGNESS TO TEACH LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENTS IN HOMOGENEOUS CLASSES. NUMBER OF CLASSES Number o f F requency of Pe r cen tage of C l a s s e s Response Response (%) (n=321) 0 51 16 1 33 10 2 10 3 3 4 1 4 1 — 5 0 1 : 6 1 7 1 8 2 1 No Response 26 8 T o t a l s 129 40 F o r t y - t w o p e r c e n t of the t e a c h e r s f rom homogeneously grouped c l a s s s i t u a t i o n s r e p o r t e d t h a t they would be w i l l i n g to teach a t l e a s t one homogeneously grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s . F o r t y p e r c e n t of the t e a c h e r s of homogeneously grouped c l a s s e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t they d i d not wish to teach these s t u d e n t s in a s p e c i a l s c i e n c e c l a s s . (21a) TABLE 10.2 TEACHERS OF HETEROGENEOUSLY GROUPED CLASSES: POSITION ON ABILITY GROUPING Posit ion on A b i l i t y Grouping Frequency of Response i Percentage of Response (%) (n=321) Wish to group a l l l imi ted ; success students 94 29 Do not wish to group l imi ted success students 91 28 No response 9 3 Totals 194 60 (21b) TABLE 10.3 105 TEACHERS Of HETEROGENEOUSLY GROUPED CLASSES: DESIRE TO TEACH LIMITED- SUCCESS STUDENTS SCIENCE IN A SEPARATE CLASS GROUP Desire to Teach Limited Success Students in a Separate Class Frequency of Response Percentage of Response (%) (n=321) Would teach these classes 64 20 Would not teach these classes 114 36 No response 1 4 Totals 194 60 (21c) TABLE 10.4 TEACHERS OF HETEROGENEOUSLY GROUPED CLASSES: WILLINGNESS TO TEACH LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENTS IN HOMOGENEOUS CLASSES. NUMBER OF CLASSES Number of Classes Frequency of Response Percentage of Response {%) (n=321) 0 78 24 1 64 20 2 32 10 3 6 2 4 0 0 No response 14 4 Totals 194 60 .1 06 About o n e - h a l f ( 49% ) . o f the t e a c h e r s of h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s i n d i c a t e d t h e i r d e s i r e to group l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s i n t o a s e p a r a t e s c i e n c e c l a s s ( t a b l e 1 0 . 2 ) . F i f t y - n i n e p e r c e n t of these t e a c h e r s a l s o s a i d t h a t they would not choose to teach t he se s e p a r a t e c l a s s e s of l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s ( t a b l e 1 0 . 3 ) . F i f t y -t h r e e p e r c e n t s a i d t h a t they would be w i l l i n g to teach at l e a s t one c l a s s of s e p a r a t e l y grouped l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s ( t a b l e 1 0 . 4 ) . In o r de r to i n t e r p r e t t e a c h e r s ' p o s i t i o n an a b i l i t y g r oup i ng more c l e a r l y the r e s u l t s of t a b l e s 10.2 and 10.3 have been compared and r e p o r t e d in t a b l e 10.5 which shows f o u r p o s s i b l e p o s i t i o n s t e a c h e r s may ho l d r e g a r d i n g a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g . ( 21a ) - ( 21b ) TABLE 10.5 TEACHERS OF HETEROGENEOUSLY GROUPED CLASSES: DESIRE TO GROUP AND TEACH LIMITED SUCCESS SCIENCE STUDENTS IN A SEPARATE CLASS Teachers' posit ion Frequency of Response Percentage of Response (%) (n=321)' Would group and teach 1 imited'success students Would group but not teach 1 imited success students Would not group but would teach separate groups of l imi ted success students Would not group and not teach separate groups of l imi ted success students No response 45 14 48 15 19 6 Totals 66 16 194 21 4 60 TO 7 Twenty -n i ne p e r c e n t of r e sponden t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they would group l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s i n t o s e p a r a t e c l a s s e s f o r s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n . About h a l f of these t e a c h e r s in f a v o u r o f a b i l i t y g r oup i ng r e p o r t e d t h a t they were w i l l i n g to t each the se c l a s s e s . S i x t y p e r c e n t of t e a c h e r s of h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped c l a s s e s s a i d they would not be w i l l i n g to t each l i m i t e d succe s s s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s in a s e p a r a t e c l a s s g roup. By comb in ing the r e s u l t s of t a b l e s 10.1 and 10.4 a p a r t i a l p i c t u r e of t e a c h e r commitment to t e a c h i n g l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s may be gene ra ted ( t a b l e 1 0 . 6 ) . TABLE 10.6 TEACHER COMMITMENT TO TEACHING LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENTS Commitment Frequency of Response Percentage of Response {%) (n=321) Show a desire to teach l imi ted success students 116 36 Prefer not to teach l imi ted success students 48 15 Not analysable 117 37 No response 40 12 108 The 117 r e sponden t s not a n a l y s a b l e were those t e a c h e r s in t a b l e 10.1 who i n d i c a t e d t h a t they d i d not wish to t each any s e p a r a t e c l a s s e s of l i m i t e d succe s s s t uden t s p l u s those t e a c h e r s in t a b l e 10.5 who s a i d they would not group or t each l i m i t e d succes s s t uden t s i n a s e p a r a t e c l a s s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t number of B.C. j u n i o r secondary s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s do not ho l d a commitment to t e a c h i n g l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s . (13) TABLE 10.7 * METHOD OF TEACHER ASSIGNMENT TO HOMOGENEOUSLY GROUPED CLASSES OF LIMITED SUCCESS SCIENCE STUDENTS Method o f Ass ignment Frequency of Response Pe r cen tage o f Response (%) (n=321 ) Own c h o i c e 35 11 S c i e n c e department d e c i s i o n 2 7 8 As s i gnment by department head 16 5 As s i gnment by p r i n c i p a l 59 1 8 Other 1 5 5 Most t e a c h e r s checked o n l y one of the methods l i s t e d in t a b l e 10 .7 . The r e s u l t s show t h a t t e a c h e r s r e p o r t t h a t ass ignments to s p e c i a l l y grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s f o r l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s are made by e i t h e r the p r i n c i p a l or de -1 0 9 par tment head (23%) . By c o n s i d e r i n g o n l y those t e a c h e r s of homogeneously grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s the p r o p o r t i o n i n -c r ea se s to 68%. Only 1 1 % ' o f a l l r e sponden t s (.28% o f t e a c h e r s in homogeneous g r oup i ng s i t u a t i o n s ) r e p o r t hav ing the o p t i o n to teach the se c l a s s e s . The l i s t below p r e s e n t s some of the a l t e r n a t e methods of a s s i gnment r e p o r t e d by r e s p o n d e n t s : - a s s i gnment on a r o t a t i o n a l b a s i s by s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s - a s s i gnment by c o u n s e l l o r recommendat ion - a s s i gnment by random t ime t a b l i n g - a s s i gnment by v i c e - p r i n c i p a l Teachers were asked to r e p o r t the number o f s e p a r a t e s c i e n c e and n o n - s c i e n c e c l a s s e s t h a t t hey t a u g h t . In a d d i t i o n the t o t a l number o f b l o c k s i n t e a c h e r s ' t i m e t a b l e s was r e -p o r t e d . Us ing these two f i g u r e s i t was p o s s i b l e to d e t e r -mine what f r e e t ime t e a c h e r s had a v a i l a b l e per t i m e t a b l e c y c l e ( t a b l e 1 0 . 8 ) . (6) TABLE 10.8 FREE TIME OF JUNIOR SECONDARY SCIENCE TEACHERS Number of Classes Per Cycle Frequency of Response Percentage of Response (%) (n=299) 0 32 11 1 1 72 58 2 27 9 3 1 3 4 M i s c e l l a n e o u s 36 1 2 No Response 1 9 6 1 1.0 F i f t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d one spare c l a s s per t i m e t a b l e c y c l e w h i l e 1T% s a i d they d i d no t have any f r e e t i m e . T h i r t e e n p e r c e n t had two to t h r e e spare c l a s s e s per c y c l e . T h i r t y - s i x r e sponden t s (12%) o b v i o u s l y m i s i n t e r p r e t e d the na tu re o f i t em s i x and so were c l a s s i f i e d as m i s c e l l a n e o u s in t a b l e 10.8. (2a) TABLE 10.9 PRE-SERVICE TEACHER TRAINING RELATED TO LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENTS Pre-Service Training Frequency of Percentage of Response Response (%) (n=299) Have received pre-service t ra in ing 64 21 Have not received pre-service t ra in ing 233 78 No response 2 1 (2b) TABLE 10.10 EXTENT OF PRE-SERVICE TEACHER TRAINING RELATED TO LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENTS Amount of Pre-Service Training Frequency of Percentage of Response Response (%) (n-299) A whole course 15 5 Half a course 4 1 A few hours of a course 23 8 An hour of a course 1 <1 Incidental ly during a course 18 6 No response 3 1 :i 11 (2c) TABLE 10.11 TEACHERS' RATING OF PRE-SERVICE TEACHER TRAINING RELATED TO LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENTS R a t i n g Frequency, of Response. Percentage of Response (%) (n=299) Very u s e f u l 4 1 Of some use 41 14 Of l i t t l e use 1 5 5 Of no use 1 <T No response 3 1 The r e s u l t s in t a b l e 10.9 show t h a t 78% o f r e s p o n d e n t s r e -p o r t e d no p r e v i o u s t r a i n i n g r e l a t e d to l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t u d e n t s . Of the t e a c h e r s who d i d r e p o r t some s p e c i a l t r a i n -ing ( o n l y 21%) 30% s a i d they r e c e i v e d a whole cou r se or h a l f a cou r se r e l a t e d to t he se s t u d e n t s . The ba l ance of these t e a c h e r s w i t h s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g (69%) r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g a few hours or l e s s of t h i s t r a i n i n g ( t a b l e 10 . 10 ) . Seventy p e r c e n t o f t e a c h e r s who did r e c e i v e p r i o r t r a i n i n g i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s t r a i n i n g was a t l e a s t of some use to t h e i r sub-sequent t e a c h i n g of l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s ( t a b l e 1 0 . 11 ) . (5a) TABLE 1.0.12 IN-SERVICE TEACHER TRAINING RELATED TO LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENTS I n - s e r v i c e T r a i n i n g Frequency of Response Pe r cen tage o f Response (%) (n=299) Has been p r o v i d e d 57 1 9 Has not been p r o v i d e d 242 81 (5b) TABLE 10.13 TEACHERS' RATING OF IN-SERVICE TRAINING R a t i n g F requency of Res pon se Pe r cen tage o f Response (%) (n=299) Very u s e f u l 5 2 U s e f u l 40 13 Of l i t t l e use 9 3 Of no use 3 1 No re sponse 242 81 Most t e a c h e r s (81%) r e p o r t e d t h a t they d i d not r e c e i v e i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g r e l a t e d to l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s ( t a b l e 10 .12 ) . Of the t e a c h e r s who s a i d they d i d r e c e i v e .1.1 3 some s p e c i a l i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g 77% r e p o r t e d t h a t they had found t h i s t r a i n i n g to be at l e a s t of some use (.table 1 0 . 1 3 ) . The r e s u l t s o u t l i n e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r have sugges ted a number o f c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendat ions which are p r e s e n t e d in the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . CHAPTER 4 Cone 1 us ion s and Recommendations I n t r o d u c t ion Th i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s the major c o n c l u s i o n s and r e -commendations d e r i v e d from the s u r vey . C o n c l u s i o n s and recommendat ions were o n l y g ene r a t ed on the b a s i s of (1) 10% or more re spondent s r e p o r t i n g under one o p t i o n of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e i tem or (2) where a d i f f e r e n c e o f 10% or more responses e x i s t e d between the o p t i o n s of a q u e s t i o n -n a i r e i t e m . The same 10% l e v e l was used when b i v a r i a t e compar i sons were made between q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s . The use of 10% as a g u i d e l i n e was based upon t h i s pe r cen tage as the l ower l i m i t f o r the a ccep tance of a problem a rea as hav ing e d u c a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . . Th i s c h a p t e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s ; t h e . ' f i r s t s e c t i o n d e t a i l s the r e s u l t s and d i s c u s s i o n l e a d i n g to the c o n c l u s i o n s and s e c t i o n two d e t a i l s the r e s u l t s and d i s c u s -s i o n l e a d i n g to the recommendat ions a l s o l i s t e d in t h i s " s e c t i o n . S i n ce a l l c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendat ions are based on t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n and not v a l i d a t e d o b s e r v a t i o n c a u t i o n must be e x e r c i s e d be fo re a c c e p t a n c e , r e j e c t i o n or im -p l e m e n t a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s . 114 115 Conc lu s i on s F o r t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t o f r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d the p r o -p o r t i o n of l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t u d e n t s in t h e i r s c i e n c e c l a s s e s to be in exces s of 20% ( t a b l e 4 . 3 ) . F o r t y - t w o p e r c e n t of r e spondent s s a i d t h a t they t augh t l i m i t e d succe s s s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s in homogeneously grouped c l a s s e s ( t a b l e 6 . 1 ) . A f u r t h e r 21% of t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d some form of g r oup i n g w i t h i n t h e i r h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped c l a s s e s ( t a b l e 6 . 3 ) . In t o t a l 63% of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d u s i n g some form of a b i l i t y g r oup i ng f o r the l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t u d e n t s they t a u g h t . The numbers of l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d and the w ide sp read a t tempt to dea l w i t h the se s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e s both the s i g n i f i c a n t s i z e of t h i s p o p u l a t i o n and a g e n e r a l awareness of i t s e x i s t e n c e . T w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d u s i n g a s p e c i a l program to t ea ch t h e i r l i m i t e d succe s s s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s ( t a b l e 7 . 1 ) . The r e m a i n i n g t e a c h e r s s a i d they used the c u r r i c u l u m and l a b o r a t o r y t e x t s p r e s e n t l y sugges ted by the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n 1 ( t a b l e s 7 . 3 , 7.4 and 7 . 7 ) . ^ C u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s : B r i t i s h Co lumbia M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n J u n i o r S c i e n c e C u r r i c u l u m Guides - Grade 8, Grade 9, Grade 10, 1970. L a b o r a t o r y t e x t s : Manf red :C. Schmi d , e d . , E x t e n d i n g S c i e n c e  Concepts i n the L a b o r a t o r y ( S c a r bo r ough : P r e n t i c e - H a l l o f Canada, 1 9 7 0 ) . W a l t e r H.Rasmussen and Manfred C . Schmid , e d s . d e v e l o p i n g S c i e n c e Concep t s ' in the L a b o r a t o r y ' ( S c a r -borough": P r e n t i ce -Ha l1 of Canada , 1 968 ) . Manfred C . Schmid ,ed . i n t r o d u c i n g Science  Concepts i n the L a b o r a t o r y ( S c a r b o r o u g h : P r e n t i c e H a l l o f Canada, 1973) . 116 An average o f 82% of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t he se l a b o r a -t o r y t e x t s were o n l y somewhat s u i t a b l e to u n s u i t a b l e f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n o f l i m i t e d s ucce s s s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s ( t a b l e 7 . 6 ) . Teacher comments ( i n Chapter t h r e e and Appendix G) f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e a d d i t i o n a l drawbacks o f the p r e s e n t c u r -r i c u l u m and the need and d e s i r e f o r an a p p r o p r i a t e new c u r r i c u l u m f o r these s t u d e n t s . Based on the da ta c o l l e c t e d t h r e e major c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn: 1. A s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s e x i s t in B.C. j u n i o r secondary s c h o o l s 2. A gene ra l awareness o f the e x i s t e n c e of a p o p u l a t i o n of l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t u d e n t s in B.C. i s e v i d e n t 3. Few s p e c i a l s c i e n c e programs have been d e - . ' v e l oped f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s in B.C. Most j u n i o r secondary s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e the present recommended c u r r i c u l u m to be l a r g e l y i n -a p p r o p r i a t e f o r i n s t r u c t i n g l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s 11 7 Recommendations C u r r i culurn Only one q u a r t e r (25%) of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d the development of a s p e c i a l s c i e n c e program f o r t h e i r l i m i t e d succe s s s t uden t s ( t a b l e 7 . 1 ) . Of the t e a c h e r s r e p o r t i n g s p e c i a l programs 14% were t e a c h e r s of homogeneously grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s (33% of a l l homogeneous t e a c h e r s ) w h i l e 8% were t e a c h e r s of h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s ( t a b l e 7 . 2 ) . The m a j o r i t y o f r e sponden t s r e -p o r t e d the use o f the c u r r i c u l u m and a s s o c i a t e d l a b o r a t o r y t e x t s sugges ted by the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n ( t a b l e s 7 . 3 , 7.4 and 7 . 7 ) . An average o f 82% o f r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d t h a t the sugges ted l a b o r a t o r y t e x t s (and the c l o s e l y r e l a t e d c u r r i c u l u m ) were o n l y somewhat s u i t a b l e to un-s u i t a b l e f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n o f l i m i t e d succe s s s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s ( t a b l e 7 . 6 ) . From 5% to 33% of r e sponden t s r e -p o r t e d u s i n g o t h e r c u r r i c u l a and sou rce s than those sug -ges ted by the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n ( t a b l e s 7.4 and 7 . 7 ) , however these a l t e r n a t i v e c u r r i c u l a were not r a t e d more s u i t a b l e than the recommended c u r r i c u l u m ( t a b l e 7 . 6 ) . F o r t y - s i x p e r c e n t of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d t h a t a t l e a s t o n e - h a l f o f t h e i r s c i e n c e cour se f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s was based on reduced c o n t e n t compared to o t h e r s t u d e n t s , w h i l e 48% r e p o r t e d t h a t s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f r e -duced c o m p l e x i t y compr i sed at l e a s t o n e - h a l f of t h e i r s c i e n c e cour se f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s ( t a b l e 7 . 7 ) . F i f t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f r e sponden t s s a i d they d i d not base any p o r t i o n of t h e i r s c i e n c e cou r se f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t uden t s on s t u d e n t c h o i c e ( t a b l e 7 . 7 ) . Twenty-one p e r -cent s a i d they d i d not base any p o r t i o n o f t h e i r s c i e n c e cour se f o r these s t u d e n t s on s t uden t i n t e r e s t s . The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g w i t h i n a b i 1 i t y g r oup i ng r e q u i r e s t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e m a t e r i a l s and c u r r i c u l u m be p r o v i d e d to each a b i l i t y l e v e l (Eks t rom 1961, Thomas and Thomas 1975, Passow 1966) . The l a c k of s p e c i a l l y deve l oped s c i e n c e programs in B.C., the adherence to the e x i s t i n g t e x t s and c u r r i c u l u m and the r e s p o n d e n t s ' l a c k of f a i t h in the e x i s t i n g c u r r i c u l u m i n d i c a t e s a major v a r i a n c e w i t h the s u g g e s t i o n s of the l i t e r a t u r e . Two major c u r r i c u l u m approaches f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s c i e n c e s t uden t s in B.C. appear to be r e d u c t i o n of cou r se c o n t e n t and c o m p l e x i t y compared to o t h e r s t u d e n t s . The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s the i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of such a d i l u t e d c u r -r i c u l u m (Johnson 1963, Ladd 1972, C o l l e t t e 1973, S tu r ge s 1973, Younie 1974) . The f a c t t h a t many t e a c h e r s say they mod i f y or r e j e c t the e x i s t i n g c u r r i c u l u m i n d i c a t e s a concern among t e a c h e r s r e g a r d i n g the adequacy of t h i s c u r -r i c u l u m . A l l o w i n g s t u d e n t s c h o i c e w i t h i n a c u r r i c u l u m , b a s i n g p a r t o f a c u r r i c u l u m on s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r e s t s and the j o b - o r i e n t e d a s p e c t s of s c i e n c e i s s a i d to he lp improve the s e l f - c o n c e p t o f l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s and p r o v i d e 1.1 9 them w i t h a more r e l e v a n t and m o t i v a t i n g c u r r i c u l u m (Newsom 1963, L a r l i n and Berger 1969, Webster 1970, T i s h e r e t a l . 1972, K e l l y 1974, S tu rge s 1976, Wragg 1976) . The l a c k o f s t u d e n t i n vo l vemen t in c u r r i c u l u m d e t e r m i n a -t i o n i n d i c a t e s a l e s s s t u d e n t - c e n t e r e d approach to l e a r n i n g as compared to the recommendat ions in the l i t e r a t u r e . 1. I t i s recommended that a new s c i e n c e c u r -r i c u l u m be deve loped which r e f l e c t s the  wide a b i l i t y range o f B.C. j u n i o r s e - condary s t u d e n t s i n g e n e r a l and 1 i m i t e d  succes s s t u d e n t s in p a r t i c u l a r . Teachers and s choo l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n T e a c h e r s ' s c i e n c e backg round . Nine p e r c e n t of a l l r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d a n o n - s c i e n c e underg radua te back -ground ( t a b l e 1 .1) . The l i t e r a t u r e sugges t s t h a t t e a c h e r s of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s s hou ld have e x p e r t i s e in s c i e n c e r a t h e r than be ing g e n e r a l i s t s . A c c o r d i n g l y s t u d e n t s w i l l b e n e f i t from a t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r t i s e in one area ( K e l l y 1974) . 2. I t i s recommended t h a t t e a c h e r s w i t h  s c i e n c e background be chosen to t ea ch  s c i e n c e at the j u n i o r secondary l e v e l . Teach ing e x p e r i e n c e . F i f t y - o n e p e r c e n t of t e a c h e r s who had p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h homogeneously grouped c l a s s e s of l i m i t e d succes s s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t they f i r s t t augh t these c l a s s e s i n t h e i r f i r s t or second yea r o f t e a c h i n g ( t a b l e 2 . 3 ) . The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t o f t e n the l e a s t e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s are a s s i g n e d to i n s t r u c t c l a s s e s of homogeneously grouped l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s ( S tu rge s 1 976) . In choos ' i ng, t e a c h e r s of homogeneously grouped l i m i t e d succes s s c i e n c e c l a s s e s i t i s not e v i d e n t t h a t t e a c h e r s w i t h some e x p e r i e n c e are s e l e c t e d f o r t he se a s s i g nmen t s . 3. I t i s recommended' t h a t t e a c h e r s s o t T i e  t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e be a s s i g n e d to teach  s p e c i a l s c i e n c e c l a s s e s f o r l i m i t e d  succes s s t u d e n t s . • Teacher commitment. At l e a s t 151 of r e sponden t s i n -d i c a t e d t h a t they would be w i l l i n g to group l i m i t e d succe s s s t uden t s f o r s c i e n c e but were not w i l l i n g to teach these c l a s s e s ( t a b l e 1 0 . 5 ) . T h i r t y - s i x p e r c e n t s a i d t h a t they would be w i l l i n g to i n s t r u c t these s t u d e n t s under any g r oup i ng c i r c u m s t a n c e s ( t a b l e 1 0 . 6 ) . S i x t y p e r c e n t of r e sponden t s who t augh t homogeneously grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s s a i d t h a t they were a s s i g n e d to these c l a s s e s by a P r i n c i p a l or department head. Only 28% of these t e a c h e r s s a i d they chose to t e a ch such c l a s s e s ( t a b l e 1 0 . 7 ) . E l even p e r c e n t of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d t h a t they d i d not have any spare c l a s s t ime d u r i n g the week., ( t a b l e 1 0 . 8 ) . The l i t e r a t u r e s t a t e s t h a t t e a c h e r s of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s s hou l d be committed to t e a c h i n g t he se s t u d e n t s ( F e a t h e r s t o n e 1951, Johnson 1963, Ausubel 1967, Reissman 1969, G l a s s e r 1971, Younie 1974) . Teacher r e p o r t s i n d i c a t e t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n o f B.C. j u n i o r secondary s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s do not appear to be committed to i n s t r u c t i n g these s t u d e n t s . The l i t e r a t u r e a l s o s t a t e s t h a t the i n s t r u c t i o n o f l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s i s d i f -f i c u l t and t ime consuming , r e q u i r i n g adequate p r e p a r a t i o n t ime ( K e l l y 1974) . E v i d e n t l y a s i g n i f i c a n t number of B.C. j u n i o r secondary s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s do not have spare t i m e . 4. I t i s recommended t h a t t e a c h e r s be a s s i g n e d  to c l a s s e s of homogeneously grouped l i m i t e d  s ucce s s s t u d e n t s o n l y i f they ho l d a com- mitment to t e a c h i n g these s t u d e n t s . . I t i s  f u r t h e r recommended t h a t t e a c h e r s be a s - s i gned to h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped c l a s s e s  o n l y i f they ho l d a commitment to t e a c h i n g  s t u d e n t s of a wide a b i l i t y r ange . 5. I t i s recommended t h a t t e a c h e r s be g i v en  some c h o i c e in the c l a s s e s they t each and  adequate spare t ime f o r p r e p a r a t i o n . C l a s s s i z e . E i g h t y p e r c e n t of t e a c h e r s of homogeneous grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s r e p o r t e d c l a s s s i z e s of t w e n t y - f i v e s t u d e n t s or l e s s w h i l e 11% r e p o r t e d c l a s s s i z e s in exces s of t w e n t y - f i v e s t u d e n t s ( t a b l e 6 . 4 ) . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 38% o f t e a c h e r s of both homogeneously grouped n o n - 1 i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s and h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped c l a s s e s r e p o r t e d c l a s s 12 2 s i z e s of t w e n t y - f i v e s tudent s ;or l e s s . The 1 i t e r a t u r e recommends t h a t a l l s c i e n c e c l a s s e s , whether homogeneously or h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y g r ouped , s h o u l d not exceed t w e n t y - f i v e s t u d e n t s (Oxenhorn 1972, Younie 1974). A l t h o u g h the m a j o r i t y of homogeneously grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s in B.C. f a l l w i t h i n the sugges ted g u i d e l i n e s of the l i t e r a t u r e , 11% s t i l l m a i n t a i n a c l a s s s i z e of t w e n t y - s i x s t u d e n t s or more. The m a j o r i t y of h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s and homogeneously grouped c l a s s e s f o r n o n - l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t uden t s seem to exceed the s u g g e s t i o n s i n the l i t e r a t u r e . 6. I t i s recommended t h a t a l l s c i e n c e c l a s s e s  be reduced to t w e n t y - f i v e s t u d e n t s and i n  p a r t i c u l a r homogeneously grouped s c i e n c e  c l a s s e s f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s . S tudent e v a l u a t i o n . E i g h t y - s i x p e r c e n t of r e sponden t s r e p o r t i n g on the e v a l u a t i o n of 1 i m i t e d succe s s s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t e v a l u a t i o n was de te rm ined s o l e l y by the t e a c h e r w h i l e on l y 14% r e p o r t e d min ima l s t uden t i n -vo lvement ( t a b l e 9 . 1 ) . Most t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d u s i n g t e s t s (90%) and s t uden t l a b o r a t o r y w r i t e - u p s (93%) to e v a l u a t e t h e i r l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s , w h i l e fewer used p r o j e c t s ( 60% ) , s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e ( 66% ) , s t u d e n t a t t e n d a n c e ( 44% ) , o r a l t a l k s (29%) and o t h e r e v a l u a t i o n components (23%) ( t a b l e 9 . 2 ) . S e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t of t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t they t e s t e d w i t h a f r e q u e n c y of a t l e a s t once or 123 t w i c e a month ( t a b l e 9 . 3 ) . The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t s t uden t i n vo l vement i n d e c i s i o n making may improve s t u d e n t s e l f - c o n c e p t , he lp remove s t uden t f e e l i n g s of h ope l e s s ne s s and f a t a l i s m and, by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e i r own e v a l u a t i o n , g i v e an o p p o r t u n -i t y f o r r e a l i s t i c s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n (Newsom 1963, S c o t t i s h E d u c a t i o n Department 1969, Ladd 1972, S tu rge s 1973, Younie 1974, S tu rge s 1976, Wragg 1976) . A wide e v a l u a t i o n base i s advoca ted to p r o v i d e both a broad p i c t u r e o f s t uden t p r o g r e s s and to ensure t h a t a s t uden t has an op-p o r t u n i t y to do w e l l at someth ing cong ruent w i t h h i s l e a r n -ing s t y l e (Hughes 1973). By t e s t i n g f r e q u e n t l y (and in gene ra l e v a l u a t i n g f r e q u e n t l y ) the s t u d e n t i s made aware of h i s s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses which may be b u i l t upon or r emed i a t ed as n e c e s s a r y (Darke 1976) . The su rvey r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s a r a r e o c c u r r e n c e where t e a c h e r s r e l i n q u i s h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of e v a l u a t i o n to s t u d e n t s . E v a l u a t i o n of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s i n B.C. s c i e n c e c l a s s e s seems to be based upon o n l y two or t h r e e d i f f e r e n t components. A l t hough the se components i n -c l u d e both c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e ( a t t i t u d e ) a reas i t would seem t h a t a narrow base of e v a l u a t i o n i s i nadequa te to e v a l u a t e the p o t e n t i a l o f any s t u d e n t . 7. I t i s recommended t h a t t e a c h e r s i n c r e a s e the number o f components they use to  e v a l u a t e the p r o g r e s s o f t h e i r l i m i t e d 1 2 4 s ucce s s s t u d e n t s and i n c l u d e more op- p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s t u d e n t s t o e v a l u a t e t h e i r  own work and p r o g r e s s . Teacher t r a i n i n g P r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . Twenty-one p e r c e n t of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d t a k i n g some p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g r e l a t e d to l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s ( t a b l e 1 0 . 9 ) . T h i r t y p e r c e n t of these t e a c h e r s s a i d they took a h a l f cour se or more w h i l e 70% r e p o r t e d t h a t they e x p e r i e n c e d a min ima l amount (a few hours or l e s s ) of s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g ( t a b l e 1 0 . 10 ) . Seventy p e r c e n t o f t e a c h e r s who e x p e r i e n c e d some p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n -ing s a i d t h a t t h i s t r a i n i n g was of some use to t h e i r sub-sequent t e a c h i n g of l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s ( t a b l e 1 0 . 11 ) . The l i t e r a t u r e sugges t s t h a t p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g s hou l d i n c l u d e some components r e l a t e d to l i m i t e d s u cce s s s t uden t s ( S choo l s C o u n c i l 1970, S choo l s C o u n c i l 1971, K e l l y 1974, S choo l s C o u n c i l 1975, S tu rge s 1976) . S i n c e i t seems t h a t few B.C. j u n i o r secondary s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s have had l i t t l e , i f any, p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n t h i s a r e a , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t they w i l l t ake some t ime to a c q u i r e the s k i l l s of t e a c h i n g these s t u d e n t s . 8. I t i s recommended t h a t a r e q u i r e d cou r se  or p o r t i o n of a c o u r s e , r e l a t e d to l i m i t e d  s ucce s s s t u d e n t s , be i n c l u d e d i n the p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g of s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s . 125 I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . Less than o n e - f i f t h (19%) of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d hav ing r e c e i v e d any i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g r e l a t e d to l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s ( t a b l e 10 .12 ) . Seven ty - seven p e r c e n t of these t e a c h e r s s a i d t h a t t h i s t r a i n i n g was of some use to t h e i r t e a c h i n g of l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t u d e n t s ( t a b l e 10 . 13 ) . S i n ce l i t t l e p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g was r e p o r t e d i t i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t more compensatory i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g has not been p r o v i d e d . 9. I t i s recommended t h a t i n - s e r v i c e  t r a i n i n g r e l a t e d to l i m i t e d succe s s  s t u d e n t s be i n c r e a s e d . Approaches to l e a r n i n g . E i g h t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d u s i ng a d i r e c t e d i n q u i r y approach ( t e a c h e r d i r e c t e d e x p e r i m e n t s ) at l e a s t once or t w i c e a month ( t a b l e 8 . 1 ) . Only 58% r e p o r t e d u s i n g a d i s c o v e r y approach as f r e q u e n t l y ( t a b l e 8 . 1 ) . F o r t y p e r c e n t of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d t h a t they never i n v o l v e d t h e i r l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s i n f i e l d t r i p s ( t a b l e 8.1) and 76% s a i d they u t i l i z e d c l a s s d e m o n s t r a t i o n s at l e a s t once or t w i c e a month ( t a b l e 8 . 1 ) . T h i r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d t h a t they used a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s f r e q u e n t l y (a t l e a s t once or t w i c e a week) w h i l e 59% r e p o r t e d l e s s f r e -quent use (once or t w i c e a month or l e s s ) ( t a b l e 8 . 1 ) . T h i r t y - n i n e p e r c e n t of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d t h a t they never used a sma l l group or i n d i v i d u a l i z e d approach and over o n e - h a l f (53%) s a i d they used the l e c t u r e and no te s approach f r e q u e n t l y (a t l e a s t once or t w i c e a week) ( t a b l e 8 . 1 ) . Worksheets were r e p o r t e d to be used at a maximum of once or t w i c e a month by 70% of r e spondent s and a t l e a s t once o r t w i c e a week by o n l y 23% of r e sponden t s ( t a b l e 8 . 1 ) . F o r t y - s i x p e r c e n t of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d the use of f r e q u e n t r e v i ew ( a t l e a s t once or t w i c e a week) ( t a b l e 8.1) and 60% s a i d they never used programmed l e a r n i n g ( t a b l e 8 . 1 ) . Seventy -one p e r c e n t of r e sponden t s s a i d they i n v o l v e d t h e i r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s i n c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n at l e a s t once or t w i c e a month ( t a b l e 8 . 1 ) , however, 97% r e p o r t e d they never i n v o l v e d t he se s t u d e n t s in o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s ( t a b l e 8 . 1 ) . T w e n t y - s i x p e r c e n t of r e sponden t s s a i d they never used the p r o j e c t approach in the i n s t r u c t i o n of l i m i t e d succe s s s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s ( t a b l e 8 . 1 ) . The l i t e r a t u r e advoca te s t h a t l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s s h o u l d l e a r n by c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e ( F e a t h e r -s tone 1951, Johnson 1963, Newsom 1963, Reissman 1969, Younie 1974, S tu r ge s 1976) . L a b o r a t o r y work, f i e l d t r i p s and d e m o n s t r a t i o n s are seen to he lp p r o v i d e the se c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e s . A u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s are thought to be an e x t e n s i o n to c o n c r e t e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s and he lp p r o v i d e a l t e r n a t e modes of l e a r n i n g to a l l o w f o r s t u d e n t s ' d i v e r s e l e a r n i n g s t y l e s ( F e a t h e r s t o n e 1951, Ausubel 1965, Bloom 1966, Webster 1970, J e n k i n s e t a l . 1973, K e l l y 1974, Youn ie 1974, S tu rge s 1976) . I n d i v i d u a l and sma l l group l e a r n i n g i s s a i d to he lp the t e a c h e r to dea l more i n -d i v i d u a l l y w i t h the s t u d e n t s , r e s u l t i n g i n b e t t e r t e a c h e r -s t uden t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i m p r o v e d i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n to a l l o w f o r s t u d e n t d i f f e r e n c e s and a more i n d i r e c t t e a c h i n g s t y l e ( S c o t t i s h E d u c a t i o n Department 1969, M i l s o n 1970, S choo l s C o u n c i l 1970, C o l l e t t e 1973, Hughes 1973, Darke 1976, S tu rge s 1976, Wragg 1976) . The use o f work sheet s ( e s p e c i a l l y in a sma l l group or i n d i v i d u a l i z e d l e a r n i n g ) i s advoca ted to f r e e the t e a c h e r to deal w i t h s t u d e n t s on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s , to a l l o w s t u d e n t s to p roceed at a pace congruent w i t h t h e i r a b i l i t y and to p r e v e n t n e e d l e s s s t uden t n o t e - t a k i n g (Newsom 1963, Kamm 1969, J e n k i n s e t a l . 1973, Schoo l s C o u n c i l 1976, Darke 1976, S tu rge s 1976) S i n ce l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s l a c k s u c c e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e s in s choo l the p r o v i s i o n of a d i r e c t e d i n q u i r y a p p r o a c h , f r e q u e n t r e v i ew and s upp lementa l programmed l e a r n i n g are thought to he lp p r o v i d e s h o r t s t ep s l e a r n i n g w i t h p r e -a r r a n g e d , but n o n - t r i v i a l , s ucce s s (Reissman 1969, Webster 1970, Texas E d u c a t i o n Agency 1972, W i l kenson and Bowers 1976, Ausubel 1967, J e n k i n s e t a l . 1973, C o l l e t t e 1973, S tu rge s 1976) . S t u d e n t s ' c ommun i ca t i on , i n o t h e r than o r a l modes, i s thought to be promoted by both o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s and c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n . These o r a l approaches are a l s o c o n s i d e r e d to be u s e f u l f o r the l i m i t e d succe s s •12 8 s t u d e n t who i s a poor r e a d e r and/or w r i t e r (Newsom 1963, Tuckman 1969, Karnes 1970, Oxenhorn 1972, K e l l y 1974, S tu rge s 1 976) . S tudent p r o j e c t s are" s a i d to p r o v i d e : the s t uden t w i t h both r e l e v a n c e and the o p p o r t u n i t y to make d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g a p o r t i o n of h i s s c i e n c e cour se (New-som 1963, Thomas and Thomas 1965, C o l l e t t e 1973, K e l l y 1974, S choo l s C o u n c i l 1975, S tu rge s 1976) . Wh i le i t appears as i f some B.C. j u n i o r secondary s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s are i n v o l v e d i n a l l approaches d i s c u s s e d above i t i s appa ren t t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t pe r cen tage of r e sponden t s do not i n v o l v e t h e i r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s in the f o l l o w i n g app roache s : sma l l group or i n d i v i d u a l i z e d l e a r n i n g ; s t u d e n t p r o j e c t s ; work sheet s (on a week ly b a s i s ) ; f r e q u e n t use of a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s ; f i e l d t r i p s ; o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s and f r e q u e n t r e v i e w (at l e a s t once or t w i c e a wee k ) . 10. I t i s recommended t h a t p r e - s e r v i c e and  i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n c l u d e i n s t r u c t i o n  on the methods n e c e s s a r y to f a c i l i t a t e  s t u d e n t i n vo l v emen t i n : sma l l group  and i n d i v i d u a l i z e d l e a r n i n g ; p r o j e c t  work; o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s and r e v i e w . Th i s t r a i n i n g s hou ld encourage t e a c h e r s  to use and/or produce a p p r o p r i a t e a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s , work shee t s and programmed  1 earn i n g . A b i l i t y g r o u p i n g . S i x t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d the e x i s t e n c e o f some form of a b i l i t y g r oup i n g i n t h e i r s c i e n c e c l a s s e s ( t a b l e s 6.1 and 6 . 3 ) . F o r t y - t w o p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d homogeneously grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s ( t a b l e 6 . 1 ) . Twenty-one p e r c e n t s a i d they grouped o c c a s i o n a l l y w i t h i n t h e i r h e t e r o -geneous l y grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s ( t a b l e 6 . 3 ) . F o r t y p e r c e n t o f the t e a c h e r s of homogeneously grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s r e p o r t e d t h a t they would teach at l e a s t one c l a s s of s e p a r a t e l y grouped l i m i t e d succes s s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s ( t a b l e 1 0 . 1 ) . F i f t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t of the t e a c h e r s of h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s r e p o r t e d t h a t they were w i l l i n g to teach at l e a s t one of t he se c l a s s e s ( t a b l e 1 0 . 4 ) . N e a r l y o n e - h a l f (49%) of t e a c h e r s of h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s w i s h e d . t o group a l l l i m i t e d succe s s s t uden t s i n t o s e p a r a t e s c i e n c e c l a s s e s ( t a b l e 1 0 . 2 ) . Wh i le t h e r e i s no c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e i n s uppo r t of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f e i t h e r homogeneous or heterogeneous a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g , the l a t t e r p r a c t i c e i s the most f a v o u r e d i n the r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e ( E s p o s i t o 1973, Dav ies 1975, F i n d l a y and Bryan 1975, W i l s on and Schmi t s 1978) . A l t hough the p r a c t i c e of a b i l i t y g r oup i ng i n B.C. i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s than i n d i c a t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the p r a c t i c e i s s t i l l f a v o u r e d i n many B.C. j u n i o r secondary s c h o o l s . The t ypes of g r oup i ng o c c u r r i n g i n h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped c l a s s e s (see c h a p t e r three") i n d i c a t e •1 30 t h a t a v a r i e t y of methods i s used w i t h no c o n s i s t e n t p r o v i n c e -wide p a t t e r n e v o l v i n g . The exp re s sed w i l l i n g n e s s o f many t e a c h e r s to t each s e p a r a t e c l a s s e s o f l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s and the s t a t e d d e s i r e o f many re sponden t s f o r s p e c i a l l y grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s i n d i c a t e s a l a r g e body of t e a c h e r a c cep tance o f a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g . P r e s e n t l y i n B.C. t h e r e appears t o be mismatch between what t e a c h e r s t h i n k and the p o s i t i o n advoca ted i n the l i t e r a t u r e on a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g . 11. I t i s recommended t h a t debate and d i s - c u s s i o n be s t i m u l a t e d on the c u r r e n t s t a t u s  o f r e s e a r c h and e d u c a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g on a b i 1 i t y g r o u p i n g . 12. I t i s a l s o recommended t h a t p r e - s e r v i c e  and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g p r o v i d e i n - s t r u c t i o n in a p p r o p r i a t e methods of  g r oup i n g w i t h i n heterogeneous c l a s s e s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h Compos i t i on of the l i m i t e d succe s s s t uden t p o p u l a t i o n . T w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d t h a t w e l l over h a l f o f t h e i r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s were boys w h i l e o n l y 4% r e p o r t e d t h a t w e l l o ve r h a l f were g i r l s ( t a b l e 5 . 1 ) . Th i s h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of male l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s i s r e p o r t e d by t e a c h e r s of both h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y and homo-geneous l y grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . The imba lance of boys and g i r l s i s a l s o noted i n the l i t e r a t u r e but l i t t l e e x p l a n a -t i o n i s f o rwa rded f o r i t s o c c u r r e n c e ( B r i c k l i n and B r i c k l i n 1967). I t seems d e s i r a b l e t h a t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n be c a r r i e d out i n t h i s a r e a . 13. I t i s recommended t h a t r e s e a r c h be c a r - r i e d out to he lp i d e n t i f y some of the  c a u s a l f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g the h i g h e r p r o - p o r t i o n of male l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s . Once these f a c t o r s have been i d e n t i f i e d i t w i l l then be p o s s i b l e to deve lop a p p r o p r i a t e measures to reduce the o v e r a l l numbers o f l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s and i n p a r t i c u l a r the number of boys in t h i s c a t e g o r y . I n t e r - g r o u p t r a n s f e r i n homogeneous a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g . Less than o n e - f i f t h (18%) of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d t h a t any of t h e i r homogeneously grouped l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s advanced to a h i g h e r a b i l i t y group at the same grade l e v e l ( t a b l e 6 . 2 ) . Th i s l a c k of i n t e r - g r o u p t r a n s f e r i s a l s o a l l u d e d to i n the l i t e r a t u r e (Dav ie s 1975) . Two i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s o f t h i s r educed upward m o b i l i t y a re p o s s i b l e : the na tu re of p r e s e n t systems of g r oup i ng may be too i n -f l e x i b l e to a l l o w m o b i l i t y of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s or the s t u d e n t s themse l ve s may p r og re s s ve ry l i t t l e and thu s not wa r r an t i n t e r - g r o u p t r a n s f e r . 14. I t i s recommended t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h  be conducted to de te rm ine the c a u s a l  f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g the tendency f o r  l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s to remain i n  s p e c i a l s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . J 32 I n c rea se of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s w i t h h i g h e r grade  l e v e l . Of the t e a c h e r s r e p o r t i n g homogeneously grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s 26% r e p o r t e d g r oup i ng in grade e i g h t , 32% r e p o r t e d g r oup i ng in grade n ine and 42% r e p o r t e d g r oup i ng in grade ten ( t a b l e 4 . 1 ) . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e i n the i n c i d e n c e of s p e c i a l g r oup i ng w i t h h i g h e r grade l e v e l . The ^ i n c r e a s e i n the number o f s p e c i a l s c i e n c e c l a s s e s i n d i c a t e s an i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s w i t h h i g h e r grade l e v e l . The n a t u r e and causes o f the i n c r e a s e w i t h grade l e v e l i s not known a t t h i s t i m e . 15. I t i s recommended t h a t f u r t h e r i n - v e s t i g a t i o n be. i n i t f a t e d to de te rm ine  the c a u s a l f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g the r e - p o r t e d i n c r e a s e o f l i m i t e d succe s s  s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g grade  1 e v e ! . L i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n homogeneously  grouped c l a s s e s . S i x p e r c e n t o f t e a c h e r s of homogeneously grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s r e p o r t e d t h a t 20% or l e s s of t h e i r s t u d e n t s were l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s ( t a b l e 4 . 1 ) . E i g h t y p e r c e n t o f t e a c h e r s of h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s r e p o r t e d t h a t 20% or l e s s of t h e i r s t u d e n t s were i n the l i m i t e d succes s c a t e g o r y ( t a b l e 4 . 2 ) . E i g h t y - f o u r p e r c e n t of t e a c h e r s of homogeneously grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r c l a s s e s were composed of 20% or 1 more l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s ( t a b l e 4 . 1 ) . Less than one-f i f t h of t e a c h e r s of h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s r e p o r t e d a l i m i t e d succes s s t uden t p o p u l a t i o n i n exces s of 20% ( t a b l e 4 . 2 ) . Homogeneous g r oup i ng seems to i d e n t i f y a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s than h e t e r o geneous g r o u p i n g . 16. I t i s recommended t h a t f u r t h e r i n - v e s t i g a t i o n be conducted to de te rm ine  the f a c t o r s c a u s i n g the h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e  o f l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  i n homogeneously grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s  compared to h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped s c i e n c e  c l a s s e s . Study C o n c l u s i o n Two hundred and n i n e t y - n i n e j u n i o r secondary s choo l s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s responded to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e (82%~of a sample of 336) . A p r e v i o u s l y t e s t e d s amp l i ng frame was used. The h i gh l e v e l of re sponse and the t e s t e d s amp l i ng frame gave s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s and the da ta s hou ld p r o v i d e a good b a s i s f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e c u r r i c u l a and t e a c h i n g methods f o r l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s i n B.C. As w i t h any s u r v e y , c a u t i o n i s urged be f o r e a c c e p t a n c e , r e j e c t i o n or i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the f i n d i n g s . APPENDIX A Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Format 1 34 The L i m i t e d Success Student* i n Science: A survey of current p r a c t i c e s i n j u n i o r secondary science i n B r i t i s h Columbia For the purposes of t h i s study l i m i t e d usccess students are defined as: a) those students a c h i e v i n g a c o n s i s t e n t D or E average i n science or b) those students s p e c i a l l y grouped f o r the purposes of science i n s t r u c t i o n due to previous low achievement. 1 36 In order to obtain a c l e a r p i c t u r e of current p r a c t i c e s i n B.C. j u n i o r secondary science f o r l i m i t e d success students, we ask you f o r a few minutes of your time to complete t h i s questionnaire. The questionnaire has a branching pattern so t h i s means you w i l l not be required to do every page. Your response i s completely c o n f i d e n t i a l . The number on t h i s questionnaire i s s o l e l y f o r follow-up purposes. The data obtained w i l l be used only by the p r i n c i p a l researcher and h i s advisor. Our report w i l l c o n s i s t only of group percentages and no i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l teachers, schools or school d i s t r i c t w i l l be made. NOTE: Please check or c i r c l e the appropriate response f o r each item. On some items, more than one choice may be marked. Such items w i l l be preceded by 1 ( M u l t i p l e Response Item)'. A l l other items are to be responded to only once. Please r e t u r n the completed questionnaire i n the self-addressed, pre-stamped envelope provided. The r e t u r n of t h i s questionnaire i s requested by May 24, 1978. 2 LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENTS Limited success students are defined as: a) those students achieving a consi s t e n t D or E (or equivalent r a t i n g ) i n science or average b) those students s p e c i a l l y grouped f o r science due to t h e i r low achievement. i n s t r u c t i o n PLEASE PROVIDE THE FOLLOWING BACKGROUND INFORMATION (M u l t i p l e Response Item) a) Pleace check your undergraduate major(s) or concentration(s), b i o l o g y r~] chemistry Q physics . . f—] earth science Q space science r ~ j other (please s p e c i f y ) . . Q b) ( M u l t i p l e Response Item) Higher degrees no higher degree [~J M. Sc r-j M.A • M.Ed r-] Ph.D. (or equivalent) . . .| [ Other (please s p e c i f y ) . . . r-j 1 38 a) Did you rec e i v e any i n s t r u c t i o n i n the teaching of l i m i t e d success students at your teacher t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n ? Yes Q N o Q ( i f No please proceed to question 3) b) Since you received s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n at your teacher t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n , approximately how much i n s t r u c t i o n was provided? a whole course Q h a l f a course Q a few hours of a course Q an hour of a course Q i n c i d e n t a l y during a course . . . [ — ] c) Since you received s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n at your teacher t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n , how u s e f u l has t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n been to your teaching? very u s e f u l Qj of some use rn of l i t t l e use r n of no use Q In what year of your teaching career are you at present? f i r s t Q second or t h i r d f o u r t h to n i n t h Q tenth or over [j a) Have you taught j u n i o r science (grade 8, 9 or 10) to l i m i t e d success students i n a separate c l a s s group, at any previous time i n your teaching career? Yes • NoQ ( i f No please proceed to question 5) b) Since you have taught j u n i o r science to l i m i t e d success students i n separate c l a s s groups, i n what year of your teaching career d i d you f i r s t teach these students? f i r s t Q second t h i r d Q f o u r t h Q f i f t h or above . . . • 4 1 39 5. a) Have you attended any i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g to a s s i s t you i n teaching l i m i t e d success students? Yes [j No [ j ( i f No please proceed to question 6) b) Since you have received some i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g how u s e f u l has t h i s t r a i n i n g been to your teaching? very u s e f u l • of some use Q — of l i t t l e use f—] of no use . rj 6. a) What grades are taught i n your school? K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 b) What i s the t o t a l student population of your school? • • 2 0 0 - 4 0 0 • • • • 4 0 0 - 6 0 0 • • • • 6 0 0 - 8 0 0 • • • • 800 -1000 • • • • 1000 -1200 More than 1200 . . . How many separate classes teach? i n a l l subject areas 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 d) What i s the t o t a l number of separate blocks i n your timetable? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 5 7. ( M u l t i p l e Response Item) Please check the subject areas you p r e s e n t l y teach i n j u n i o r science. Science 8 Science 9 Scienc • • • • • • • • • • • • * • • ** • • • i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y . . . . • • • other (please s p e c i f y ) . . . • integrated - d i s c i p l i n e s of science (eg. chemistry and biology) merged to study themes of i n t e r e s t , i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y - subject areas other than science (eg. s o c i a l s tudies) enter i n t o the study of themes of a s c i e n t i f i c nature. 8. Please i n d i c a t e number of classes p r e s e n t l y taught at each grade l e v e l . Science 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Science 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Science 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TO COMPLETE THIS QUESTIONNAIRE PLEASE READ THE FOLLOWING PRESENT TEACHING RESPONSIBILITIES I f your l i m i t e d success students are grouped i n separate  cl a s s e s f o r science i n s t r u c t i o n please proceed to Question 9 of t h i s questionnaire. I f your l i m i t e d success students are not grouped i n  separate classes f o r science i n s t r u c t i o n please proceed to Question 16 of t h i s questionnaire. 6 141 LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENTS: SPECIALLY GROUPED DUE TO THEIR LOW ACHIEVEMENT 9 . Of the j u n i o r science classes you teach how many are grouped  s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r l i m i t e d success students? Science 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Science 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Science 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 0 . a) What i s the average s i z e of your classes f o r l i m i t e d success students? l e s s than 16 r~| 1 6 - 2 0 • 2 1 - 2 5 D 26 - 30 Q over 30 r-] b) How i s science p r e s e n t l y timetabled f o r l i m i t e d success students i n your school? regular or f u l l year . semestered quartered other (please s p e c i f y ) c) Approximately how many hours of science per week are provided f o r your l i m i t e d success students? 0 - 1 hour r j 1 - 2 hours Q 2 - 3 hours Q 3 - 4 hours Q 4 - 5 hours Q 5 - 6 hours (~J over 6 hours • • • • 7 1 42 11. Of the l i m i t e d success science students you teach what i s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of these students by sex? a l l boys Q w e l l over h a l f are boys f—| about h a l f boys and h a l f g i r l s f—] w e l l over h a l f are g i r l s Q a l l g i r l s • 12. Over the period of a year what proportion of your l i m i t e d success science; students are promoted to a higher achieving group at the same grade l e v e l ? a l l Q w e l l over h a l f . . . . Q about h a l f Q w e l l under h a l f . . . . Q none Q 13. ( M u l t i p l e Response Item) How were you chosen to teach these l i m i t e d success students? own choice f—j science department d e c i s i o n r—j assignment by department head . . . . f—] assignment by p r i n c i p a l f—[ other (please s p e c i f y ) D 14. Given your choice and your present teaching load, how many clas s e s of science f o r l i m i t e d success students would you be w i l l i n g to teach? 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 15. a) What i s the average s i z e of your non-limited success science classes? l e s s than 16 Q 1 6 - 2 0 • 2 1 - 2 5 • 26 - 30 . Q over 30 Q 8 1 4 3 b) How i s science presently timetabled f o r non-limited success students i n your school? regular or f u l l year Q semestered Q quartered r j other (please s p e c i f y ) Q c) How many hours of science per week are provided f o r your non-limited  success students? 0 - 1 hour r j 1 - 2 hours Q 2 - 3 hours r j 3 - 4 hours Q 4 - 5 hours [~J 5 - 6 hours . . • over 6 hours Q Comments r e l a t e d to t h i s p o r t i o n of the questionnaire: PLEASE PROCEED TO QUESTION 22 9 144 LIMITED SUCCESS STUDENTS: NO SPECIAL GROUPING 16. What i s the average s i z e of your science classes? l e s s than 16 Q 1 6 - 2 0 • 2 1 - 2 5 • 26 - 30 • Over 30 • 17. Approximately what percentage of the science students you teach are l i m i t e d success students? up to 10% • up to 20% . . . . Q up to 33% • up to 50% • over 50% r j 18. Of those students you consider to be l i m i t e d success what i s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of these students by sex? a l l boys Q w e l l over h a l f boys Q about h a l f boys and h a l f g i r l s . r_j w e l l over h a l f g i r l s [j] a l l g i r l s Q 19. Do you group students according to t h e i r a b i l i t y w i t h i n your science classes? Yes • No Q Sometimes • Comments 10 145 20. a) How i s science p r e s e n t l y timetabled i n your school? regular or f u l l year Q semestered r-] quartered r-j other (please s p e c i f y ) • b) Approximately how many c l a s s hours of science per week are provided f o r your j u n i o r science students? ' • • • • • over 6 hours r~J 21. a) Given the choice would you group a l l l i m i t e d success students i n t o separate c l a s s e s f o r science? Yes • No • b) Given the choice would you opt to teach these separate science classes f o r l i m i t e d success students? Yes • No • c) Given the choice and your present teaching load, how many separate classes of l i m i t e d success students would you be w i l l i n g to teach? 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 - 1 1 - 2 hours 2 - 3 hours 3 - 4 hours 4 - 5 hours 5 - 6 hours Comments r e l a t e d to t h i s p o r t i o n of the questionnaire PLEASE TURN TO QUESTION 22 11 146 PLEASE PROVIDE THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION ABOUT YOUR JUNIOR SCIENCE PROGRAM (M u l t i p l e Response Item) What t e x t ( s ) or lab manual(s) do you use with your l i m i t e d success students (grouped or ungrouped)? Introducing Science Concepts i n the Laboratory (Schmid et al.) Q Developing Science Concepts i n the Laboratory (Schmid et al.) r j Extending Science Concepts i n the Laboratory (Schmid et al.) Q Pathways i n Science (Oxenhorn et al.) Q I n v i t a t i o n s to In v e s t i g a t e Science (Wong et al.) Q Other(s) (please s p e c i f y ) Q A combination of the above Q A m o d i f i c a t i o n of the above (please s p e c i f y ) . . . Q Other comments How do you r a t e the t e x t ( s ) and/or lab manual(s) you are using f o r your l i m i t e d success students? very s u i t a b l e Q s u i t a b l e Q somewhat s u i t a b l e Q u n s u i t a b l e Q Comments 12 23. How much of your science course f o r l i m i t e d success students (grouped or ungrouped) i s based on the fol l o w i n g ? SCALE: 1 47 0 1 2 3 4 none of much l e s s than about h a l f much more than almost a l l the course h a l f the course the course h a l f the course the course Job-oriented science 0 1 2 3 4 Reduced content compared to other classes and students. Present B.C. M i n i s t r y of Education Core Curriculum An a l t e r n a t i v e s t r u c t u r e d , s e q u e n t i a l science program Content determined by teacher through students' i n t e r e s t s . Content chosen by students. Less complex a c t i v i t i e s compared to other classes and students. 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 24. How often do you i n v o l v e your l i m i t e d success students i n the f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s and approaches? SCALE: 0 1 2 3 4 Never Once or twice Once or twice Once or twice Almost every a Term a month a week c l a s s period Students doing experiments (teacher arranged) 0 1 2 3 4 Discussion 0 1 2 3 4 Lecture and notes 0 1 2 3 4 Demons t r a t i o n s 0 1 2 3 4 Students doing experiments (discovery method) 0 1 2 3 4 Programmed l e a r n i n g 0 1 2 3 4 P r o j e c t work 0 1 2 3 4 Work sheets 0 1 2 3 4 F i e l d t r i p s 0 1 2 3 4 I n d i v i d u a l i z e d or small group l e a r n i n g 0 1 2 3 4 Testing 0 1 2 3 4 Oral presentations 0 1 2 3 4 Review to r e i n f o r c e s k i l l s and concepts 0 1 2 3 4 Use of a u d i o - v i s u a l aids (eg. f i l m s , overheads, 0 1 2 3 4 s l i d e s ) 13 25. a) Have you developed a s p e c i a l science program f o r your l i m i t e d success students? b) 148 Y e s Q NoD ( M u l t i p l e Response Item) ( i f No please proceed to question 27) Since you have developed a s p e c i a l science program f o r your l i m i t e d success students ( i n a grouped or ungrouped s i t u a t i o n ) , i n what way i s t h i s program evaluated? Evaluated by student achievement based on standardized t e s t s Evaluated by student achievement based on teacher designed t e s t s • • • • • . . . • Evaluated through formal science department discussions Q Not f o r m a l l y evaluated Q Other (please s p e c i f y ) Evaluated through student a t t i t u d e and i n t e r e s t 26. a) Who evaluates the progress of your i i m i t e d success students? E v a l u a t i o n s o l e l y by teacher Evaluation mainly by teacher, p a r t i a l l y by student . . Eva l u a t i o n equally by teacher and student Evaluation mainly by student, p a r t i a l l y by teacher . . Evaluation s o l e l y by student Other (please s p e c i f y ) • • • • • • b) Approximately what percentage do each of the f o l l o w i n g c o n t r i b u t e to the evaluation of your l i m i t e d success science students? Student lab write-ups Proj ects Or a l t a l k s Tests A t t i t u d e Attendance 0 up to 20% up to 40% up to 60% up to 80% up to 100% 14 c) ( M u l t i p l e Response Item) How i s the progress of your l i m i t e d success students reported? formal l e t t e r grades (A, B, C, D, E) . . .Q s a t i s f a c t o r y / u n s a t i s f a c t o r y Q Pa s s / f a i l / i n c o m p l e t e r~] Anecdotal . Q Other (please s p e c i f y ) r j 1 49 Comments r e l a t e d to t h i s p o r t i o n of the questionnaire: THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR TIME AND COOPERATION Please r e t u r n t h i s questionnaire i n the self-addressed, pre-stamped envelope provided. The re t u r n of t h i s questionnaire i s requested by May 24, 1978. For f u r t h e r information or i n q u i r i e s please contact: Mr. P.S. Healy (phone 228-4969) or Dr. R.W. C a r l i s l e (phone 228-5056) c/o Faculty of Education Science Education Department U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1W5 I f you wish to rece i v e a copy of the f i n a l report r e s u l t i n g from t h i s survey please contact the people above or w r i t e your name and address i n the space provided below. 15 APPENDIX B Sampl ing I n f o r m a t i 150 151 D e s c r i p t i o n of Sampl ing Frame Used f o r Mr. P e t e r Hea ly Phase I : D e t e r m i n i n g the e l i g i b l e s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s and a s s i g n i n g them to one of the c a t e g o r i e s of s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s . 1. C a t e g o r i e s : 1) Grade 8 S c i e n c e t e a c h e r 2) Grade 9 S c i e n c e t e a c h e r 3) Grade 10 S c i e n c e t e a c h e r 2. The September 30, 1977 Form J t e a c h e r i n f o r m a t i o n f i l e , s o r t e d by s choo l code , was used to ensure a g e o g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the f i n a l sample. A l l t e a c h e r r e c o r d s were examined to de te rm ine which secondary g rade/ s u b j e c t s were t augh t by each t e a c h e r . 3. Teachers who had l i s t e d t h e i r t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n ( i t e m 33) a s : Other School I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t a f f (code 6) P r i n c i p a l of More than One School (code 7) D i s t r i c t - w i d e S u p e r v i s o r (code 8) Other D i s t r i c t - w i d e I n s t r u c t i o n a l s t a f f (code 9) were r e j e c t e d from f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 4. Remain ing t e a c h e r s were examined to de te rm ine the number of t imes they q u a l i f i e d as a t e a c h e r of one of the 3 c a t e g o r i e s . (A t e a c h e r may teach s e v e r a l c l a s s e s of secondary s c i e n c e programs and may t h e r e f o r e q u a l i f y f o r s e v e r a l c a t e g o r i e s . ) Secondary l e v e l grades and s u b j e c t s were p i c k e d from i tems 46-59. Example: A t e a c h e r who has f i l l e d in i tems 46-59 w i t h 1 c l a s s S c i e n c e 8 2 c l a s s e s S c i e n c e 9 1 c l a s s S c i e n c e 10 q u a l i f i e s 4 t imes ( f o r the 4 s c i e n c e c l a s s e s ) . 5. Teachers are s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a s s i g ned to one o f the c a t e g o r i e s i n wh ich they have q u a l i f i e d . Example: In the above case the t e a c h e r q u a l i f i e d f o u r t i m e s . He t h e r e f o r e has a 1/41h chance o f be ing a s s i g n e d to each of these c a t e g o r i e s . Teachers who q u a l i f y f o u r t imes a re s y s t e -m a t i c a l l y a s s i g n e d as f o l l o w s : the f i r s t 1 52 t e a c h e r i s a s s i g n e d to the f i r s t c a t e g o r y where he q u a l i f i e s , the second to the s e cond , . . . t h e f o u r t h ' t e a c h e r t o the f o u r t h , the f i f t h t e a c h e r t o the f i r s t c a t e g o r y , e t c . In the above example the t e a c h e r has the f o l -l ow i ng p r o b a b i l i t i e s of a s s i gnmen t : 1/4 to Grade 8 2/4 to Grade 9 1/4 to Grade 10 6. F o l l o w i n g the above p r o c e d u r e , t e a c h e r s are a s s i g n e d to one and o n l y one c a t e g o r y . (Note : i f the t e a c h e r t eaches none of the Secondary Leve l S c i e n c e cou r se s and grade c o m b i n a t i o n s , he i s r e j e c t e d from c o n s i d e r a t i o n . ) The a t t a c h e d t a b l e shows the number of t e a c h e r s a s s i g n e d to each o f these c a t e g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g to the Geog raph i c Zone i n wh ich they teach and f o r the P r o v i n c e as a who le . Phase I I : S e l e c t i n g the a c t u a l sample of t e a c h e r s i n each of the c a t e g o r i e s . 1. Because of the numbers of t e a c h e r s a s s i g n e d to each c a t e g o r y , the f o l l o w i n g p rocedu re was adopted in o r d e r to s e l e c t an a p p r o p r i a t e sample s i z e : The l i s t o f t e a c h e r s was s o r t e d i n t o the a p p r o p r i -a te c a t e g o r i e s and l i s t e d by zone ( r e g i o n ) w i t h i n c a t e g o r y . P i c k i n g a number a t random between 1 and 3, t h i s t e a c h e r was chosen from the f i r s t zone in each c a t e g o r y . Every 3rd t e a c h e r t h e r e a f t e r in each c a t e g o r y was p i c k e d to a r r i v e at a 33% sample , p r o p o r t i o n to zones . Codes Used m Items 46-59 50300 A g r i c u l t u r e 14214 Genera l S c i e n c e 12700 Human L i f e S c i e n c e s ( H e a l t h ) 50900 B i o l o g y ) 81500 Chem i s t r y ) 83000 P h y s i c s ) 81800 Earth Sciences/Geology ) o n l y these codes used f o r S e n i o r Leve l c a t e g o r i e s A l l codes used f o r J u n i o r L e v e l c a t e g o r i e s . 1 53 Reasons f o r E x c l u d i n g Teach i ng P o s i t i o n Codes '6-9 S p e c i a l t e a c h e r s such as m u s i c , l i b r a r y a re code 6 and are g e n e r a l l y not t e a c h i n g any S c i e n c e . Codes 7-9 are t e a c h e r s w i t h more than one s choo l and t h e r e -f o r cannot p r o p e r l y answer the f a c i l i t y q u e s t i o n s on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . o cc 01 LO "3" O CO CM <ST ^" 1^-CO o CO CO to LO o o o CD to o CM CO CM CO to cn o r-» i — co oo CM o-> o to CM o CO •3- O ID CO LO LO o O CO CO CM co LO CO CM o cn co r-~ to co L O o o CM o o cn CD • _ i s: CJ> s: _ J <c r—' CM CO LO to • • O LU >- CO C UJ o r -O <_> o • »—t UJ O UJ UJ LU LU UJ LU LU co CO CO 00 o LU CO <_> Q- CD 1— Q Q Q Q O Q <C <c <: cC <C <c <C 00 cn o r— 1 ,— i — CM CM CM CM • at C£. cn CC Cd ,— , 1 i — i — i — I— 1 r— CD CD CD CD CD CD CD CD CD CD CD CD CD CD CD CD CD CD 1 CM CO LO to CO cn o CM CO LO to 00 cn „ o CM APPENDIX C C o v e r i n g L e t t e r to S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s 155 156 THE UNIVERS ITY OF BRITISH COLUMB IA 2075 WESBROOK MALL VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1W5 F A C U L T Y O F EDUCATION We are writing to you to obtain permission to survey some of the junior secondary science teachers of your d i s t r i c t . By means of a mail questionnaire (Appendix 1), our intent i s to develop an understanding of science teaching for limited success students in B r i t i s h Columbia. For the purpose of this study limited success students are defined as those students who achieve a consistent D or E average in science, or those students specially grouped for science instruction due to previous low achievement. In addition to defining the 'state of the art' i n B.C. i t i s our intent to outline particular needs of limited success students, relate the f i n d -ings to practices worldwide, and suggest some lines of action which might enhance the teaching of science to these students. In surveying the province the most effective methodology w i l l be to use a sampling frame* whereby one-third to one-half of the junior secondary science teachers i n any one school d i s t r i c t would be involved. The sample w i l l cover grades eight, nine and ten, and some twenty minutes w i l l be needed to complete the questionniare. We therefore request permission to mail this questionnaire to s p e c i f i c teachers in your school d i s t r i c t . Once having gained your permission we w i l l proceed to contact the principals and teachers involved. We anticipate that the questionnaire w i l l be ready for mailing by May 1978. Complete anonymity of teachers, schools and school d i s t r i c t i s guaranteed as we are only interested in group data. Your cooperation i s greatly appreciated. Should you require further information please contact us at the numbers l i s t e d below. Yours sincerely, Mr. P.S. Healy Dr. R.W. C a r l i s l e Science Education Department 158 Appendix 1 The items of the questionnaire are designed to e l i c i t the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n : 1 . Teachers - undergraduate and graduate background. - teacher t r a i n i n g r e l a t i v e to l i m i t e d success students - t o t a l teaching experience - teaching experience w i t h l i m i t e d success students - subject areas and grades p r e s e n t l y teaching 2. School - grade l e v e l ranges - p o p u l a t i o n s i z e - school timetable f o r science (e.g. f u l l year/semester) 3. Students - s i z e of l i m i t e d success student p o p u l a t i o n - science c l a s s s i z e - number of hours of science per week - d i s t r i b u t i o n of l i m i t e d success students according to sex: - achievement of l i m i t e d success students - e v a l u a t i o n procedures 4. Science Program - t e x t ( s ) and l a b manual(s) used and appropriateness - course content determination - teaching methods used - program e v a l u a t i o n APPENDIX D Cove r i n g L e t t e r to P r i n c i p a l s 159 1 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMB IA 2075 WESBROOK MALL VANCOUVER. B.C., CANADA V6T 1W5 F A C U L T Y O F EDUCATION Dear Pr i n c i p a l : We are writing you to obtain your cooperation in a province-wide survey we are conducting. The d i s t r i c t superintendent has been contacted and has agreed to permit us to survey i n this d i s t r i c t . We ask for your further assistance in the implementation of this study. Certain junior secondary science teachers i n your school have been selected to answer a questionnaire (Appendix 1) related to science for limited success students. For the purpose of this study limited success students are defined as those students achieving a consistent D or E average in science, or those students specially grouped for science instruction due to previous low achieve-ment. In addition to defining the 'state of the art' in B.C. i t i s our intent to o u t l i n particular needs of limited success students, relate the findings to practices world-wide and suggest some lines of action which might enhance the teaching of science to these students. The sample of teachers w i l l cover grades eight, nine and ten, and some twenty minutes w i l l be needed to complete the questionnaire. We anticipate that the questionnaire w i l l be ready for mailing by May 1978. Complete anonymity of teachers, school and school d i s t r i c t i s guaranteed as we are only interested i n group data. Since we are sampling a fraction of the t o t a l science teacher population i t i s important that we obtain a good response. Your school's partic i p a t i o n w i l l be greatly appreciated. Thank you in advance for your cooperation. Yours sincerely, Mr. P.S. Healy Dr. R.W. C a r l i s l e Science Education Department 161 Appendix 1 The items of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e are designed to e l i c i t the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . 1. Teachers - undergraduate and graduate background - teacher t r a i n i n g r e l a t i v e to l i m i t e d success students - total":teachi:ng::experience - teaching experience w i t h l i m i t e d success students - subject areas and grades p r e s e n t l y teaching. 2. School - grade l e v e l range - po p u l a t i o n of school - school timetable f o r science (e.g. f u l l year/semester) 3. Students - s i z e of the l i m i t e d success student p o p u l a t i o n - science c l a s s s i z e - number of hours of science per week - d i s t r i b u t i o n of l i m i t e d success students according to sex - achievement of l i m i t e d success students - e v a l u a t i o n procedures 4. Science Programs - t e x t ( s ) and lab manual(s).'used and appropriateness - course content determination - teaching methods used - program e v a l u a t i o n APPENDIX E Cove r i n g L e t t e r to Teachers 162 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMB IA 2075 WESBROOK MALL VANCOUVER, B.C. CANADA V6T 1W5 F A C U L T Y O F EDUCATION Dear Colleague: In the interest of improving junior science for what we c a l l limited success students we ask for help in completing the enclosed questionnaire. For the purpose of this survey we define limited success students as those students achieving a consistent D or E average in science or those students specially grouped for science instruction due to previous low achievement. In addition to defining the 'state of the art' in B.C. i t i s our intent to outline particular needs of limited success students, relate the findings to practices worldwide and suggest some lines of action which might enhance the teaching of science to these students. Your response to this questionnaire i s confidential and w i l l be used s t r i c t l y for research purposes. The number on the questionnaire i s for follow-up purposes only. As we are sampling a fraction of the total junior science teacher population i t i s important that we obtain a good response. Your participation w i l l be greatly appreciated. The d i s t r i c t superintendent and your principal have been contacted regarding this questionnaire and have agreed to your participation. Please return the completed questionnaire by May 24, 1978 in the self-stamped, pre-addressed envelope provided. Your cooperation i s greatly appreciated. Yours sincerely, Mr. P.S. Healy PSH/had Enclosure Dr. R.W. C a r l i s l e Science Education Department APPENDIX F Cove r i n g L e t t e r f o r F o l l o w - u p 164 THE UNIVERS ITY O F BRITISH COLUMBIA 2075 WESBROOK MALL VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1W5 F A C U L T Y O F EDUCATION Dear Colleague: Approximately two weeks ago a l e t t e r and a questionnaire were mailed to you. We have not, as yet, received your reply. In the event you have not received or misplaced the previous questionnaire we have included a second copy with this l e t t e r . In the interest of improving junior science for what we c a l l limited success students we ask for help in completing the enclosed questionnaire. For the purpose of this survey we define limited success students as those students achieving a consistent D or E average i n science or those students specially grouped for science instruction due to previous low achievement. In addition to defining the 'state of the art' in B.C. i t i s our intent to outline particular needs of limited success students, relate the findings to practices worldwide and suggest some li n e s of action which might enhance the teaching of science to these students. Your response to this questionnaire i s confidential and w i l l be used s t r i c t l y for research purposes. The number on the questionnaire i s for follow-up purposes only. As we are sampling a fraction of the t o t a l junior science teacher population i t i s important that we obtain a good response. Your partici p a t i o n w i l l be greatly appreciated. The d i s t r i c t superintendent and your p r i n c i p a l have been contacted regarding this questionnaire and have agreed to your participation. Please return the completed questionnaire by May 31, 1978 in the self-stamped, pre-addressed envelope provided. Your cooperation i s greatly appreciated. Yours sincerely, Mr. P.S. Healy PSH/had Enclosure Dr. R.W. C a r l i s l e Science Education Department APPENDIX G F u r t h e r Teacher Comments 166 167 F u r t h e r t e a c h e r comments Teachers r e spond i ng to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e o f t e n p r o -v i d e d ex tended comment at the end of the t h r e e major s e c t i o n s . The comments of these t e a c h e r s are i n c l u d e d to f u r n i s h a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g j u n i o r s c i e n c e p r a c t i c e s and programs f o r l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s i n B.C. These comments may a l s o be used to he lp i n d i c a t e t e a c h e r o p i n i o n and a t t i t u d e . Wh i le many of the f o l l o w i n g comments he l p to e l a b o r a t e on the r e s u l t s p r e s en ted o t h e r comments are s p e c u l a t i v e and o p i n i o n - o r i e n t e d and s hou ld not be c o n s i d e r e d as p r o v i n c e - w i d e i n f o r m a t i o n . Causes and c o n t i n u a t i o n of l i m i t e d succe s s - the c u r r e n t program f r u s t r a t e s l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s l e a d i n g to d i s c i p l i n e problems - f a i l u r e in t h i s s choo l i s due to non -pe r fo rmance or u n w i l l i n g n e s s to p a r t i c i p a t e ( s t r e a m i n g does not change t h i s s i t u a t i o n ) - l i m i t e d succe s s in s c i e n c e i s based on l i m i t e d succes s in e n g l i s h and mathemat i c s (need some form of i n t e g r a t i o n ) 168 S e l e c t i o n and g r oup i ng of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s - l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s are g i v en a c h o i c e i n cou r se s g i ven c e r t a i n p r e r e q u i s i t e s ( l i m i t e d succe s s s t uden t s a c t u a l l y have more c h o i c e than, o t h e r s t u d e n t s ) - s p e c i a l c l a s s e s t i m e t a b l e d f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s s t a r t out as sma l l groups but mushroom in s i z e - s t u d e n t s are grouped by c o u n s e l l o r s and the s c i e n c e department head - s m a l l e r c l a s s e s a re needed to teach l i m i t e d succe s s s t uden t s - they are b a s i c a l l y a chore to t each -g r oup i ng seems to lower these s t u d e n t s ' s e l f - c o n c e p t r e s u l t i n g in poor b e h a v i o u r - a t h r e e l e v e l system used i n t h i s s c h o o l : be s t s t u d e n t s - top 20 p e r c e n t ; average s t u d e n t s -m idd l e 55 p e r c e n t and l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t u d e n t s -bottom 25 p e r c e n t . - s t uden t s and pa r en t s chose the l i m i t e d s ucce s s c l a s s w i t h c o u n s e l l o r and t e a c h e r recommendat ion - l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t c l a s s e s are composed o f many t ypes of s t u d e n t s (some s l o w , p r e v i o u s f a i l u r e s , " f r e e l o a d e r s " , c l a s s d i s t u r b e r s , " s l e e p e r s " ) -the main cause: of l i m i t e d succe s s i s s low r e a d i n g - an o p t i o n f o r non-academic s c i e n c e e x i s t s a f t e r grade e i g h t 169 - l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s seem t o b e n e f i t and l e a r n from t h e i r p re sence in heterogeneous c l a s s e s - s m a l l e r c l a s s s i z e s are needed to g i v e l i m i t e d s u c -cess s t u d e n t s the n e c e s s a r y a t t e n t i o n , i f c l a s s e s are '. too b i g then these s t u d e n t s w i l l l o s e i n t e r e s t and the w i l l to s u c ceed . - s e p a r a t e c l a s s e s are deaden ing f o r the t e a c h e r -C u r r i c u l u m - l ower r e a d i n g l e v e l and s imp l e e xpe r imen t s seem to be s u c c e s s f u l w i t h grouped l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s ( l i t t l e t r a n s f e r between l e v e l s o c c u r s ) - s t u d e n t s t ake f o u r h a l f cou r se s of t h e i r own c h o i c e ( they tend to a v o i d academics such as p h y s i c s and c h e m i s t r y i n f a v o u r of space s c i e n c e and c o n -s e r v a t i o n ) , - i n grade e i g h t l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s l e a r n co re m a t e r i a l i n a d e m o n s t r a t i o n - o r i e n t e d c l a s s . I f t hey pass t h i s cou r se then they may take academic s c i e n c e mi x - s t u d e n t s must take t h r e e of f o u r semeste r s of s c i e n c e - p r o v i s i o n f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s when ha rde r units o c cu r ( e . g . . Chem i s t r y becomes Household C h e m i s t r y ) - l ower l e v e l non -compu l so ry cou r se s are a v a i l a b l e to a l l s t u d e n t s - s t u d e n t s must take s i x q u a r t e r s i n s c i e n c e n i ne and ten ( c h e m i s t r y , b i o l o g y , p h y s i c s and e a r t h s c i e n c e ar.e' compu l so ry p l u s two o p t i o n s ) - non-academic s c i e n c e i s p o s s i b l e by s t u d e n t c h o i c e - i f g r oup i ng o c c u r r e d a s p e c i a l cou r se such as I IS would be u s e f u l - a more p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d than c o n t e n t - o r i e n t e d cour se p r o v i d e s more succes s f o r l i m i t e d s ucce s s s tuden t s - the p r e s e n t s c i e n c e program i s to a c a d e m i c a l l y o r i e n t e d - need a j o b or l i f e - o r i e n t e d program. E v a l u a t i o n and r e p o r t i n g of 1 i m i t e d . succes s s t u d e n t s ' p r og re s s - l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s are not dumb but are too l a z y to hand i n l a b o r a t o r y r e p o r t s which make up most of t h e i r grade - l i m i t e d succe s s s t uden t s are t r e a t e d and marked d i f f e r e n t l y but need to be i n a mixed group Other comments - s e p a r a t e c l a s s e s o f l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s t ake tremendous t e a c h e r t ime - o n l y one c l a s s a t a t ime per t e a c h e r to ensure a good j o b - t he M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n s hou ld r e c o g n i z e the e x i s t e n c e o f l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t u d e n t s and p r o v i d e s p e c i a l m a t e r i a l s and programs APPENDIX H Summary of Survey R e s u l t s 171 1 72 Summary o f su rvey r e s u l t s -The f o l l o w i n g 1 i s t s ' summarize, the more s t r i k i n g r e -s u l t s r e p o r t e d i n t h i s s u r v e y . I t must be emphas ized t h a t f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d are based on t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s and not v a l i d a t e d o b s e r v a t i o n . Some r e s u l t s may have r e i n f o r c e d v a l i d i t y upon p u b l i c a t i o n o f o t h e r r e s u l t s such as the 1978 L e a r n i n g Assessment Su rvey . The r e s u l t s l i s t e d below have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g , s choo l o r g a n i z a t i o n , s choo l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t e a c h e r t r a i n -ing and f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . For c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e purposes each s t a t e d r e s u l t i s f o l l o w e d by the number o f the a s s o c i a t e d t a b l e in p a r a n t h e s e s . Demographic data - 9% o f r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d no unde rg radua te s c i e n c e e x p e r i e n c e (.1.1) - l e s s than 20% o f a l l r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d g radua te degrees (1.2) - 77% of r e spondent s r e p o r t e d f o u r y ea r s or more t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e (2.1) - 51% o f r e sponden t s who had t augh t s c i e n c e to s e p a r a t e groups o f l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s s a i d they d i d so f o r t h e i r f i r s t t ime in t h e i r f i r s t or second y e a r of t e a c h i n g (2.3) E x t e n t and c o m p o s i t i o n of the l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n i n B.C. - 47% of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d the l i m i t e d succes s s t uden t p o p u l a t i o n to be 20% or more o f the s choo l p o p u l a t i o n sampled (4 .3) - 25% of re spondent s r e p o r t e d t h a t more than 50% o f t h e i r l i m i t e d succe s s s t uden t s were boys w h i l e o n l y 4% r e p o r t e d t h a t w e l l over h a l f were g i r l s C5.1) Teach ing methods p r e s e n t l y i n use f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s Group ing - 42% of re spondent s r e p o r t e d the use of a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g i n t h e i r s c i e n c e c l a s s e s , ( 6 .1 ) - 80% o f t e a c h e r s of homogeneously grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s r e p o r t e d c l a s s s i z e s of t w e n t y - f i v e or l e s s s t u d e n t s [6 .4) - 59% of t e a c h e r s of h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s r e p o r t e d c l a s s s i z e s i n exces s of t w e n t y -s i x s t u d e n t s (.6.6) Cur r i culurn - 25% of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d t h a t they o f f e r e d s p e c i a l s c i e n c e programs f o r t h e i r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s (.7.1) 1 74 - 1 Mo of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d t h a t the t e x t s and l a b o r a t o r y manuals they were u s i n g were o n l y some-what s u i t a b l e to u n s u i t a b l e f o r t e a c h i n g s c i e n c e to l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s (7 .5) - 65% of r e spondent s r e p o r t e d t h a t they used s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t to some e x t e n t i n o r d e r to de te rm ine t h e i r s c i e n c e cou r se c o n t e n t (7 .7) - 29% of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d t h a t they used s t u d e n t c h o i c e to some e x t e n t in o r d e r to de te rm ine t h e i r s c i e n c e cou r se c o n t e n t (7 .7 ) - 33% of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d the use of a l t e r n a t i v e c u r r i c u l a to teach t h e i r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s (7 .4 ) - 46% of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d t h a t they based a t l e a s t h a l f t h e i r s c i e n c e cou r se f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s on reduced c o n t e n t compared to o t h e r s t u d e n t s (7.7) - 48% o f r e spondent s r e p o r t e d t h a t they based a t l e a s t h a l f t h e i r s c i e n c e cou r se f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s on reduced c o m p l e x i t y compared to o t h e r s t u d e n t s (.7.7) - 71% of r e spondent s r e p o r t e d ba s i n g one h a l f o f t h e i r s c i e n c e cou r se f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s on the p r e s e n t B.C. co re c u r r i c u l u m w h i l e o n l y 21% r e -p o r t e d the use o f an a l t e r n a t i v e s t r u c t u r e d sequen-t i a l c u r r i c u l u m (7 .7 ) 1 75 Approaches to ' Lea rn ing - 76% of r e spondent s r e p o r t e d u s i ng t e a c h e r a r r anged l a b o r a t o r y work to i n s t r u c t l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s at l e a s t once o r t w i c e a week w h i l e o n l y 35% s a i d they used the d i s c o v e r y method to the same e x t e n t •(8.1) - 60% of a l l r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d t h a t they never or r a r e l y (once or t w i c e a term) used a sma l l group or i n d i v i d u a l i z e d approach w i t h t h e i r l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s w h i l e 15% s a i d they used t h i s approach a t l e a s t once a week (8.1) - 26% of r e spondent s r e p o r t e d t h a t they d i d not i n v o l v e t h e i r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s in p r o j e c t work (8.1) - 53%.of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d t h a t they used the l e c t u r e and notes approach at l e a s t once a week w i t h t h e i r l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s (8 .1) - 70% of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d the use of work shee t s to i n s t r u c t t h e i r l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s once or t w i c e a month or l e s s (8 .1) - 40% of r e spondent s r e p o r t e d t h a t they d i d not i n -v o l v e t h e i r l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t u d e n t s i n f i e l d t r i p s ( 8 .1 ) - 57% o f r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d t h a t they d i d not i n -v o l v e t h e i r l i m i t e d succe s s s t uden t s i n o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s (8.1) 1 76 - 60% of re spondent s r e p o r t e d t h a t they never used programmed l e a r n i n g to i n s t r u c t t h e i r l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s (8 .1) E v a l u a t i o n and R e p o r t i n g - 86% of r e sponden t s who r e p o r t e d on the e v a l u a t i o n of s t u d e n t p r og re s s s t a t e d t h a t t h i s e v a l u a t i o n was based s o l e l y on t e a c h e r judgment (9 .1) - the major components of s t u d e n t e v a l u a t i o n as r e p o r t e d by re sponden t s were s t u d e n t l a b o r a t o r y w r i t e - u p s , t e s t s ; a t t i t u d e and p r o j e c t s (.9.2) -'."75% o.T re sponden t s r e p o r t e d the t e s t i n g of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s a t l e a s t once a month (.9.3) - 50% o f re spondent s r e p o r t e d the use of f o rma l l e t t e r g rades (A ,B,C,D,E) to r e p o r t l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t u d e n t p r og re s s (9 .4 ) Teacher a t t i t u d e s and t r a i n i n g - 49% of heterogeneous c l a s s s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d be ing i n f a v o u r of a b i l i t y g roup ing of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s (10.2) - 36% of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d t h a t they would be w i l l i n g to t each l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t u d e n t s under any g r oup i ng s i t u a t i o n (10.6) - 15% of re spondent s r e p o r t e d t h a t they would not be w i l l i n g to t each l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s i n any g r oup i ng s i t u a t i o n (10:6) 68% of t e a c h e r s of homogeneously grouped l i m i t e d succe s s s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d be ing a s s i g n e d by a p r i n c i p a l or depar tment head to teach these c l a s s e s w h i l e o n l y 28% of these t e a c h e r s chose to t each these c l a s s e s (10,7 ) 11% of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d no spare t ime (.10.8) 78% of r e sponden t s r e p o r t e d no p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n -ing r e l a t e d to l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s (10.9) 70% of r e sponden t s w i t h some p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g r e p o r t e d t h a t t h i s t r a i n i n g was a t l e a s t of some use to t h e i r t e a c h i n g of l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t u d e n t s (10.11) 81% of r e spondent s r e p o r t e d no i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n -ing r e l a t e d to l i m i t e d succes s s t uden t s (10.12) 77% o f r e spondent s who d i d r e c e i v e some i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g r e p o r t e d t h a t t h i s t r a i n i n g to be of at l e a s t some use (10.13) APPENDIX I Summary of C o n c l u s i o n s and Recommendations 178 1 79 Summary o f c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendat ions C o n c l u s i o n s Based on the data c o l l e c t e d t h r ee major c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn: 1. A s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n of l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t u d e n t s e x i s t i n B.C. j u n i o r seconda ry s c h o o l s 2. A gene ra l awareness o f the e x i s t e n c e of a p o p u l a t i o n o f l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t u d e n t s in B.C. i s e v i d e n t 3. Few s p e c i a l s c i e n c e programs have been de -ve l oped f o r l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t u d e n t s in B.C. Most j u n i o r secondary s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e the p r e s e n t recommended c u r r i c u l u m to be l a r g e l y i n -a p p r o p r i a t e f o r i n s t r u c t i n g l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s Re commen da t i on s 1. I t i s recommended t h a t s t ep s be taken towards the development o f a new s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l u m which r e f l e c t s the wide a b i l i t y range of B.C. j u n i o r secondary s t u d e n t s in g e n e r a l and l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t u d e n t s i n p a r t i c u l a r 180 2. I t i s recommended t h a t t e a c h e r s w i t h s c i e n c e background be chosen to t each s c i e n c e a t the j u n i o r seconda ry l e v e l 3. I t i s recommended t h a t t e a c h e r s w i t h some t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e be a s s i g n e d to t each s p e c i a l s c i e n c e c l a s s e s f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s 4. I t i s recommended t h a t the as s i gnment of t e a c h e r s to homogeneously grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s of l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s be done o n l y i f the t e a c h e r ho lds a commitment to t e a c h i n g the se s t u d e n t s . I t i s f u r t h e r recommended t h a t as s ignment of t e a c h e r s to h e t e r o g e n e o u s l y grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s be done o n l y i f the t e a c h e r ho lds a commitment to t e a c h i n g s t u d e n t s of a wide a b i l i t y range 5. I t i s recommended t h a t t e a c h e r s be g i v e n some c h o i c e i n the c l a s s e s they t each and adequate spare t ime f o r p r e p a r a t i o n 6. I t i s recommended t h a t a l l s c i e n c e c l a s s e s , r e g a r d l e s s of s t u d e n t g r o u p i n g , be reduced to a maximum of t w e n t y - f i v e s t u d e n t s 7. I t i s recommended t h a t t e a c h e r s i n c r e a s e the number of components they use to e v a l u a t e the p r o -g re s s of t h e i r l i m i t e d s ucce s s s t u d e n t s . 8. I t i s recommended t h a t a r e q u i r e d cou r se or p o r t i o n of a c o u r s e , r e l a t e d to l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t s , be i n c l u d e d i n the p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g of s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s . 181 9. I t i s recommended t h a t the amount of i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g r e l a t e d to l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s be i n -creased., 10. I t i s recommended t h a t p r e - s e r v i c e and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n c l u d e i n s t r u c t i o n in the methods n e c e s -sa ry to f a c i l i t a t e s t u d e n t i n vo l vemen t i n : sma l l group and i n d i v i d u a l i z e d l e a r n i n g ; p r o j e c t work; o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s , and r e v i e w . Th i s t r a i n i n g s hou ld encourage t e a c h e r s to use and/or produce ap -p r o p r i a t e a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s , wo rk shee t s and p r o -grammed l e a r n i n g . 11. I t i s recommended t h a t debate and d i s c u s s i o n be s t i m u l a t e d on the c u r r e n t s t a t u s of r e s e a r c h and e d u c a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g on a b i l i t y g r oup i n g 12. I t i s recommended t h a t p r e - s e r v i c e and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g p r o v i d e i n s t r u c t i o n which i n c l u d e s ap -p r o p r i a t e methods of g r oup i ng w i t h i n heterogeneous c l a s s e s 13. I t i s recommended t h a t r e s e a r c h be c a r r i e d out to he lp i d e n t i f y some of the c a u s a l f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g the h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of male l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s . 14. I t i s recommended t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h be c o n -duc ted to de te rmine the c au sa l f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g the tendency f o r l i m i t e d succe s s s t u d e n t s to remain i n s p e c i a l s c i e n c e c l a s s e s 15. I t i s recommended t h a t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n be i n i t i a t e d to de te rm ine the c au sa l f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g the r e p o r t e d i n c r e a s e o f l i m i t e d succe s s s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g grade l e v e l 16. I t i s recommended t h a t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n be conducted to de te rm ine why t h e r e i s a h i gh i n c i d e n c e of l i m i t e d succes s s t u d e n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n homo-geneous l y grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s compared to h e t e r o -geneous l y grouped s c i e n c e c l a s s e s SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY B i b l i o g r a p h i c r e f e r e n c e s a re l i s t e d under the f o l l o w -ing h e a d i n g s : books ; r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s ; t he se s and d i s -s e r t a t i o n s ; j o u r n a l s and o t h e r r e f e r e n c e s . Those r e f e r e n c e s marked w i t h an a s t e r i s k (*) denote e m p i r i c a l l y based s t u d i e s . Books A u s u b e l , Dav id P. "A Teach ing S t r a t e g y f o r C u l t u r a l l y Dep r i ved P u p i l s : C o g n i t i v e and M o t i v a t i o n a l Con-s i d e r a t i o n s . " In The D i s advan taged L e a r n e r , pp. 467-475. E d i t e d by S t a t e n W. 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" S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n 53 ( A p r i l 1969 ) : 217-219. M i l l e r , I. "The Slow Lea rne r and the New S c i e n c e S y l l a b u s . " A c t i v i t y B u l l e t i n f o r Teacher s i n Secondary S choo l s 22 ( 1974 ) : 46-48. M i l s o n , James Lee. " S c i e n c e and the Below Average S t u d e n t : The E f f e c t of C u r r i c u l a r M a t e r i a l s on A t t i t u d e s . " J o u r n a l of E x p e r i m e n t a l E d u c a t i o n 41 (September 1973 ) : 37-48. (*) "The Development and E v a l u a t i o n of P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e C u r r i c u l u m M a t e r i a l s Des igned to Improve S tuden t s A t t i t u d e s . " J o u r n a l o f Research in  S c i e n c e Teach ing 9 (March 1972) : 289-304. (*) M i t c h e l l , Kenneth R. a n d . P i a t k o w s k a , Olga E. " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s A s s o c i a t e d w i t h Unde rach ievement : Ta r ge t s f o r T r e a t m e n t . " A u s t r a l i a n P s y c h o l o g i s t 9 (November 1 974) : 1 9-41. 194 Moore, A r n o l d J . " S c i e n c e I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s f o r the L o w - A b i l i t y J u n i o r High School S t u d e n t . " Schoo l S c i e n c e and Mathemat ic s 62 (November 1962 ) : 556-563. Munro, J . K. "The Low A c h i e v e r S c i e n c e . " Lab T a l k 1.8 (Oc tober 1 974) : 45. N e t t l e s h i p , John . " T e a c h i n g S c i e n c e to Slow L e a r n e r s . " Remedia l E d u c a t i o n 7 (June 1972) : 5-7. Okey, James R. " D i a g n o s i n g L e a r n i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s . " The S c i e n c e Teacher 37 (May 1970 ) : 59 -61 . Pa lme r , E. C. " S c i e n c e and the D i s advan taged C h i l d . " Probe 3 (June 1974) : 3-13. Quay l e , T h e r a l d P. " I n d i v i d u a l i z e d S c i e n c e f o r the Slow L e a r n e r . " Todays E d u c a t i o n 59 (March 1970) : 50 -51 . Re i s sman, F rank. " E d u c a t i o n of the C u l t u r a l l y Dep r i ved C h i l d . " The S c i e n c e Teacher 32 (November 1965 ) : 14-16. ~~ Ross , D. L. "An Approach to Mixed A b i l i t y S c i e n c e Teach ing in the Secondary S c h o o l . " Schoo l  S c i e n c e and Ma themat i c s . 57 (September 1976 ) : 776-779. . "M i xed A b i l i t y T e a c h i n g . " School S c i e n c e Review 57 (September 1976 ) : 776-779. Shad rach , John P. and Henson, C. M. " S c i e n c e f o r the Low A c h i e v e r . " Schoo l and Community 56 (March 1 970) : 34>=. S l a t e r , C. W. "The Slow L e a r n e r . " E d u c a t i o n a l  Development Center Review 17 (Autumn 1975) : 10-15. Sturges.,. L. M. " P rob lems i n Teach ing S c i e n c e to Non-Streamed C l a s s e s . " S c h o o l S c i e n c e Review 55 (December 1973 ) : 224-232. T a n z e r , C. " U t i l i z i n g Our T o t a l P o t e n t i a l : S c i e n c e f o r the Slow L e a r n e r . " Schoo l S c i e n c e and Mathemat i c s 60 (March 1960) : 181-186. 195 Tho rnbu r g , He r she l D. " A t t i t u d e De te rm inan t s in H o l d i n g Dropouts in S c h o o l . " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Re sea rch " 68 ( Janua ry 1975) : 181-185. (*) Townsend, Ian J . " S c i e n c e f o r the S p e c i a l C h i l d P a r t I: I n t r o d u c t i o n and D e f i n i t i o n . " School S c i e n c e Review 52 (June 1971) : 768-771. . " S c i e n c e f o r the S p e c i a l C h i l d P a r t I I : Development o f Some A p p r o p r i a t e T e c h n i q u e s . " School S c i e n c e Review 53 (March 1972 ) : 475-496. Webs te r , J . W. "A S c i e n c e Program f o r the D i s advan taged C h i l d . " S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n 54 ( Janua ry - March 1970 ) : 49 -53. We ider , A r t h u r . "The S c i e n c e Teacher As says the Under -a c h i e v e r . " The S c i e n c e Teacher 40 ( Janua ry 1973 ) : 19 -21. W i l d e , John W. and Sommers, Peggy. " T e a c h i n g D i s r u p t i v e A d o l e s c e n t s : A Game Worth W i n n i n g . " Ph i D e l t a  Kappan 59 ( J anua r y 1978) : 342-343. Wi lhems, Fred T. and W e s t b y - G i b s o n , Do ro thy . " G r o u p i n g : Research O f f e r s L e a d s . " E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p 18 ( A p r i l 1961) : 410-413. W i l s o n , Ba r r y J . and S c h m i t s , Donald W. "Wha t ' s New in A b i l i t y G r oup i n g ? " Ph i D e l t a Kappan 5 9 ( A p r i l 1978) : 535-536. W i t t y , P. "Needs of Slow L e a r n i n g P u p i l s . " E d u c a t i o n 81 ( Feb rua r y 1961 ) : 331-335. Research Repor t s Charach , . La rpy , Us ing M a i l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s : The Opt ima l Methodo logy and an Example. Vancouver : E d u c a t i o n a l Research I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 975. Doug la s , M.W.B. The Home and S c h o o l . Macgibbon and Kee, [ 1964 ] . C i t e d i n S t u r g e s , L. M. , Non-Streamed  S c i e n c e - A T e a c h e r ' s G u i d e , p. 3. H a t f i e l d : The A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S c i en ce E d u c a t i o n , 1976. 196 Feshbach, Seymour e t a l . A T r a i n i n g , Demons t r a t i on and  Research Program f o r the Remed ia t i on o f L e a r n i n g  D i s o r d e r s i n CuTturaTTy ' D i s advan taged Y o u t h , Los A n g e l e s : C a l i f o r n i a U n i v e r s i t y , Department of P s y c h o l o g y , C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e Department of Educa -t i o n , O f f i c e of Compensatory E d u c a t i o n ; ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e , ED 34237, 1968. Hamble ton , D. C.; W r i g h t , E r i c a ; D o o l i t t l e , G ins and B u r b i d g e , S c o t t . A Survey of Outdoor E d u c a t i o n  i n M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o : A t t i t u d e s , A c t i v i t i e s  and F a c i 1 i t i e s . T o r o n t o : Research Depar tment : The M e t r o p o l i t a n Schoo l Boa rd , 1970. James, R i c h a r d . A H o l i s t i c M i l i e u Approach to H igh  R i s k S t u d e n t s : A T i t l e I I I ESEA P r o j e c t ERIC Document R e p o r d u c t i o n S e r v i c e , ED 116116, 1975. Newsom, John H. H a l f Our F u t u r e . London: Her M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1964. Page, W i l l i a m R. I n s t r u c t i o n a l Systems f o r S tuden t s  w i th L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s ; ' J u n i o r High Schoo l  Program. Wash ing ton : ERIC Documentat ion S e r v i c e , ED 035138, 1968. S c h i l l i n g e r , Sue, C o o r d i n a t o r . Focus : A S u c c e s s f u l High School Program f o r D e a l i n g w i t h D i s a f f e c t e d  Youth . R o s e v i l l e M i n n . : ERIC Documentat ion S e r v i c e , ED 118714, 1975. Schoo l s C o u n c i l . Working Paper No. 2 R a i s i n g the School  L e a v i n g Age. London: Her M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1965. S choo l s C o u n c i l . Work ing Paper No. 27 ' C r o s s ' d w i t h A d v e r s i t y : The E d u c a t i o n o f S o c i a l l y D i s advan taged  C h i l d r e n in Secondary S c h o o l s . London: Evans and Methuen E d u c a t i o n a l , 1970. S choo l s C o u n c i l . Working Paper No. 33 Choos ing a C u r r i c u l u m f o r the Young S c h o o l L e a v e r . London: Evans and .Methuen E d u c a t i o n a l , 1971. S choo l s C o u n c i l . C u r r i c u l u m B u l l e t i n 3 Changes i n  School S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g . London: Evans and Methuen E d u c a t i o n a l , 1974. \ 197 Schoo l s C o u n c i l . C u r r i c u l u m B u l l e t i n 5 Teach ing M a t e r i a l s f o r D i s advan taged C h i l d r e n . London: Evans and Methuen E d u c a t i o n a l , 1975. Shaw, M e r v i l l e C. A t t i t u d e s and C h i l d Rea r i n g • p r a c t i c e s  o f the Pa ren t s o f B r i g h t Academic U n d e r a c h i e v e r s . Wash ing ton : U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Texas E d u c a t i o n Agency. S o c i a l S t u d i e s and the D i s - advantaged . A u s t i n : ERIC Documentat ion S e r v i c e , ED 086564, 1972. Theses and d i s s e r t a t i o n s Magnes, F r a n k l i n M., " L i f e S c i e n c e C u r r i c u l a r M a t e r i a l s f o r the Slow L e a r n e r a t the N i n t h Grade L e v e l . " Ed. D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , B a l l S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1973. Moody, John C. , "The E f f e c t s of L i n e a r and M o d i f i e d L i n e a r Programed M a t e r i a l s on Ach ievement of Slow L e a r n e r s in Tenth Grade B.S.C.S. S p e c i a l M a t e r i a l s S t u d y . " Ph.(D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of V i r g i n i a , 1 970. Na s r , GamelE. I., "The Imp lementa t i on of Chem Study in B r i t i s h Co lumbia Secondary S c h o o l s : A Survey, M a s t e r s ' t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , 1 977. Q u e l c h , T e r r y P. , "A Set o f G u i d e l i n e s f o r an A l t e r n a t e S c i e n c e Course f o r Low A c h i e v e r s a t the N i n t h Grade L e v e l . " Major paper towards M a s t e r s ' t h e s i s , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1975. Other r e f e r e n c e s Dunn, R i t a ; Dunn Kenneth and P r i c e , Gary E. " I d e n t i f y i n g I n d i v i d u a l L e a r n i n g S t y l e s and the I n s t r u c t i o n a l Methods and/or Resources to wh ich They Respond. " Paper p r e s e n t e d at the annual meet ing of the Amer ican E d u c a t i o n a l Research A s s o c i a t i o n , New Yo rk , N.Y., 1977. 198 J e n k i n s , E. W.; C a r t e r , D. C; B rennan , K; Lawson, K; L e i g h , R. and S c o t t , P. J . "The Teach ing of S c i e n c e to P u p i l s of Low E d u c a t i o n a l A t t a i n m e n t . " Pamphlet produced by the Cen t re f o r S t u d i e s i n S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y of Leed s , 1973. S o a r e s , L o u i s e M. and S o a r e s , Anthony T. " P e r s o n a l i t y and O c c u p a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t C o r r e l a t e s of D i s -advantaged S t u d e n t s . " Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the annual meet ing of the Amer ican E d u c a t i o n a l Research A s s o c i a t i o n , C h i c a g o , A p r i l 1972. S c o t t i s h E d u c a t i o n Department. " C u r r i c u l u m Pape r s - 7 S c i e n c e f o r Genera l E d u c a t i o n - f o r the f i r s t two yea r s and the e a r l y s choo l l e a v e r . " Her M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1969. The S c o t t i s h Cen t re f o r M a t h e m a t i c s , S c i e n c e and T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n . " O c c a s i o n a l Paper Number 3 S c i e n c e i n SI and S2 A s c i e n c e cou r se f o r p u p i l s of a l l a b i l i t i e s in the f i r s t two y e a r s of S c o t t i s h Secondary S c h o o l s . " 1976. Wong, Ha r r y K. D i r e c t o r I IS p r o j e c t , Redwood C i t y , C a l i f o r n i a . P e r s ona l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , Feb rua r y 1978. 

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