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The death - rebirth myth as the healing agent in music Kenny, Carolyn 1979

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THE DEATH - REBIRTH MYTH AS THE HEALING AGENT IN MUSIC by CAROLYN BEREZNAK KENNY B.A., Loyo l a U n i v e r s i t y , 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS In THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1979 (£) C a r o l y n Bereznak Kenny, 1979. In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I a g ree t ha t the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying o f this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department o r by his representatives. It is understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of d(j tGi~fi&r\ Q/ P<<> V tltA ^ 6^j j The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 i i ABSTRACT The general purpose of the study i s t o b u i l d a case f o r use of the c r e a t i v e a r t s in th e r a p y . The second and more s p e c i f i c purpose i s t o p r o v i d e one ex-ample of how music can be used as therapy through the Death-Rebirth Myth. Inadequacies of standard t h e r a p i e s which c o u l d be improved by i n c l u s i o n of c r e a t i v e a r t s t h e r a p i e s are d e s c r i b e d , the primary f o c u s being t h e dearth o f c r e a t -i v i t y . T h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s are developed f o r t h e h e a l i n g aspects of the Death-Rebirth Myth. The myth i s then r e v e a l e d w i t h i n the musical c o n t e x t . F i n a l l y , the r o l e of the music t h e r a p i s t i s d i s c u s s e d in l i g h t of t h e mythic approach f o c u s i n g on the music t h e r a p i s t as a r i t u a I i s t . Appendices p r o v i d e p r a c t i c a l examples u s i n g the Death-Rebirth Myth as a h e a l i n g agent in music. These s e s s i o n s are d e s c r i b e d with s h o r t e v a l u a t i v e q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s , d e s c r i p t i o n s of s e s s i o n s and photographs. Musical examples of the Death-Rebirth Myth are included on tape. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Rafle ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i I INTRODUCTION I Purpose. .....2 The Prob I em i 2 Statement of the T h e s i s . . . . . . . . .3 Stimulus f o r the Study. 3 D e s c r i p t i o n of the Study........... 4 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms ...............5 II THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS; REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 7 A. R a t i o n a l e f o r Implementation of the C r e a t i v e A r t s T h e r a p i e s 7 1) L i c e n t i o u s Techno Iogy............ 10 a) A Question of Va l u e s . 12 b) I l l u s i o n of P r e d i c t a b i I i t y . . . . I 5 c) Lack of S p i r i t u a l Freedom.....23 d) R e s p o n s i b i l i t y and Action.....25 2) Dearth of C r e a t i v i t y 30 a) The C r e a t i v e Persona I i t y . . . . . . 34 b) The Nature and Essence of C r e a t i v i t y 40 Chapter Page c) Condit ions for C r e a t i v i t y . . . . . . . . 4 2 d) C r e a t i v i t y and the A r t s . . 45 3) C los ing 47 B. The Death-Rebirth Myth 51 1) The Myth 52 a) Symbolic H e a l i n g . . . . 56 b) The Regenerative Experience 63 c) Nature as Teacher and H e a I e r . . . . . 7 4 d) Healing Patterns . . . . . 8 | 2) The Metaphoric M i n d . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 3) Review 97 M l APPLICATION OF THE MYTH TO MUSIC 99 A. Relat ionship Between Death-Rebirth Myth and Tension-Resolution in Music 100 | ) Patterns in the Elements of Music 104 a) P i tch 105 b) Time 107 c) Volume 109 B. Music as a Vehic le for H e a I i n g . . . . . . . . . I I I IV THE MUSIC THERAPIST AS A RITUALIST I 18 A. Shamanic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Mus i c Therap i st I 21 V Chapter Page B. The A r t i s t 123 C. The V i s i o n a r y . . . . . • 125 D. I n i t i a t i o n and T r a n s f o r m a t i o n . ...126 V/ SYNTHESIS AND CONCLUSION 129 BIBLIOGRAPHY 137 APPENDICES 144 A. Course O u t l i n e - Music 242 146 B. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r Appendix C,D,F....... 147 C. D i s c u s s i o n of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . . . . . . . . . . . I 48 D. Examples of use of Death-R e b i r t h Myth in Music with Music Therapy Students at C a p i l a n o C o l l e g e - S e s s i o n I . . . . . . . 150 E. Examples with Students Sess ion I I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 5o F. Examples with Students S e s s i o n I I I . . . 164 G. Examples of use of Death-R e b i r t h Myth in Music with P a t i e n t s in t h e Department of P s y c h i a t r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia - S e s s i o n I . . . . . . . 171 H. Examples with P a t i e n t s - S e s s i o n I I....178 I. Examples with P a t i e n t s - S e s s i o n I l l . . . i 8 l J . Musical Examples of t h e Death-Rebirth Myth in Music on C a s s e t t e Tape.... i<A v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l ike to thank the pat ients who have passed through the Dayhouse and Daycare of the Department of Psychiatry , Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia. These people i n i t i a l l y taught me about the importance of the death-r e b i r t h myth in music. . {a l so express my appreciat ion to David Whittaker, Robin Ridington, Bob Poutt and Marjorie Halpin for support, encouragement and i n s p i ra t i on in t h i s i n t e r -disc i p I i nary e f f o r t . F i n a l l y , I thank El izabeth M o f f i t t , Music Therapist at the Department of Psychiatry , Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia and the Music Therapy students at Capi lano Col lege for cooperation in producing the soft data i n -cluded in the Appendices. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This thes i s represents a growing body of s tudies and l i t e r a t u r e which s t r i v e to l ink c e r t a i n knowledge of the past to present p r a c t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s . Because much t r a d i t i o n a l wisdom is intertwined in complicated systems and r i t u a l s i t is a challenge to ident i fy the body of knowledge which can be abstracted from t r a d i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s v and described in meaningful, modern terms acceptable in t h i s case both to the c l i n i c i a n and health care adminis trator . This problem might not ex i s t i f we had always em-braced the wisdom of the past and kept the connecting threads through the evolut ion of cu l ture and soc ie ty . Because the pendulum of change can make such a sudden and extreme arch , throughout h i s tory many valuable ideas and approaches are re jec ted . We are present ly involved in a rather wide-scale attempt to pick up some pieces and r e -integrate many of the ideas of the past . The present work draws information from a var ie ty of d i s c i p l i n e s and f i e l d s , o ld and new, in an attempt to make a contr ibut ion to a r e l a t i v e l y new f i e l d , Music Therapy. It represents an i n i t i a l attempt to synthesize ideas across d i s c i p l i n e s . This type of inves t igat ion tends to I 2 be more general than s p e c i f i c . The framework presented here does represent a general overview rather than a systematic approach. Rather i t is an explorat ion into the p o s s i b i l i t y of c r o s s - c l a s s i f y i n g information from d i f f erent f i e l d s in order to take the f i r s t crea t ive step in the d i r e c t -ion of developing useful ideas for the fu ture . Areas r e -presented are: Music Therapy, Anthropology, Philosophy, Re l ig ious Studies , Psychology, Art His tory , Music, L i n g -u i s t i c s , Psychiatry , Natural His tory and Education. Purpose This study has a twofold purpose. The general pur-pose is to provide a ra t iona le for implementation of the Creat ive Arts Therapies . The second and more s p e c i f i c purpose is the examination of the Death-Rebirth Myth as a Healing Agent in music. The second part w i l l represent one example of how the Creat ive Arts Therapies , p a r t i c u l a r -ly Music Therapy, can be used in the therapeutic environ-ment . ProbI em The problem is that we have lost the h i s t o r i c a l thread of the arts as healers for everyman. As Jose Argue l i e s ( 1 9 7 5 ) art h i s t o r i a n and aesthet ics philosopher s ta tes : "What began as the h i s tory of art l o g i c a l l y must end as the h i s tory of man's insani ty , 3 for the degree to which art becomes s p e c i a l i z e d as f ine art and depend-ent for i t s meaning on art h i s t o r y , is the degree to which man looses his innate wisdom. In recent times t h i s process has been hastened by the mach-ine. Since expression is innate to the human species in denying ourselves our expressive wisdom we have denied ourselves our own humanity." (p.290 ) One of the threads from the past which must be connected to the future is the concept of art as a preventat ive and curat ive resource. The most profound and immediate need for t h i s change is f e l t in the therapeutic environment. Other areas in which the same p r i n c i p l e s apply w i l l be education and other places where the community comes t o -gether to share r i t u a l . Statement of the thes i s The forms and patterns of music can be used as symbolic representations of the on-going process of r e -generation and renewal—the death-rebir th myth—for heal ing in the therapeutic environment. Stimulus for the Study In my experience as a Music Therapist I have noticed that pat ients often produce poems, movements, pa in t ings , 4 v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n s and musical i m p r o v i s a t i o n s with the d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth, or some s i t u a t i o n which s t r o n g l y suggests the d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth. These r e s u l t s have come without any suggestion on my p a r t . As guide in those s e s s i o n s , I became c u r i o u s about the i n f l u e n c e s on my own c h o i c e of music and i n s t r u c t i o n s t o p a t i e n t s which may have been l e a d i n g t o d e a t h - r e b i r t h themes. I d i s c o v e r e d two main i n f l u e n c e s d i r e c t i n g the d e a t h - r e b i r t h response; 1) D i r e c t i o n s o f t e n encouraged p a t i e n t s t o develop images of d e a t h - r e b i r t h processes in Nature. 2) Music always had an obvious t e n s i o n / r e s o I u t i o n eIement• P i n p o i n t i n g these two i n f l u e n c e s has encouraged me t o ex-amine them in g r e a t e r depth. H o p e f u l l y through t h i s p r o -cess I w i l l be able t o d e s c r i b e in more d e t a i l the value of u s i n g the d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth in music f o r therapy and h e a l i n g . One important p o i n t i s t h a t theory was not c o n c e p t u a l i z e d and then a p p l i e d . Rather i t has emerged from p a t i e n t s and c l i e n t s themselves, then formulated i n t o the present work. D e s c r i p t i o n of the Study Chapter 19 attempts t o e s t a b l i s h a r a t i o n a l e f o r use of the e x p r e s s i v e ( o r c r e a t i v e ) a r t s t h e r a p i e s in g e n e r a l . Included w i t h i n t h i s chapter i s a survey of the l i t e r a t u r e d e s c r i b i n g v a r i o u s inadequacies in t h e r a p i e s which do not 5 employ creat ive a r t s . The dearth of c r e a t i v i t y is a p a r t i c u l a r focus . Although t h i s sect ion is presented in general terms and poses many unanswerable questions, I hope that i t w i l l convince the reader that there is a strong need to consider the advantages of the Creat ive Arts Therapies . The main port ion of the work w i l l examine the two influences mentioned above, Chapter II w i l l present the Death-Rebirth Myth i t s e l f , and Chapter III the music and i t ' s r e l a t i o n to the Myth. Chapter IV w i l l consider the Music Therapist as a shamanic portotype and out l ine some of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s for t r a i n i n g future Music Therap i s t s . F i n a l l y , in Chapter V, there w i l l be a b r i e f conclusion and synthesis and an out l ine of d i rec t ions for further r e -search. Appendices include some informal data on pat ient and student responses t o the death-rebir th myth in music. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Archetype - the f i r s t or primary pattern or model. It is the essence of s i t u a t i o n , character or concept which has no l imi ts in time or space. Creat i v i ty - the a b i l i t y to produce new forms or to solve problems by novel methods. Creat ive Arts Therapies - (used interchangeably with Ex-press ive Arts Therapies) - therapies which employ the various media of the a r t s ; p l a s t i c , a r t s , dance & movement, music, s cu lpture , drama, costume, masks, e tc , Death-Rebirth Myth- an archetypical story which symbol-izes the ongoing process of dying and being re -born . Esoter ic and T r a d i t i o n a l Psychologies - psychological systems of the East and Native Indian c u l t u r e s . Medical Model - the conceptual izat ion of foeHlavToi? d i s -orders and psychological abnormalit ies as diseases analogous to organic diseases . Music Therapy - a therapy which employs music as an essent ia l component of various r i t u a l s d irected to en-courage growth and improvement. Myth - an archetypical story manifested within a c u l t u r a l context through r i t u a l . Psychotherapy - the app l i ca t ion of spec ia l i zed techniques to the treatment of mental d isorders or to the problems of everyday adjustment. Psychotherapy emphasizes insight and understanding and is therefore c l a s s i f i e d as a depth therapy in order to d i s t ingu i sh i t from systems which minimize understanding and insight and stress symptom modi f i ca t ion , such as behavior therapy. Theme - the myth as manifested within a musical context . Therapeutic Environments - places in which therapy is provided. Therapy - treatment d irected toward the cure of a path-o log ica l condi t ion - or in a more general sense simple growth and amel iorat ion . CHAPTER I I THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Rationale for Implementation of the Creat ive Arts Therapies In provid ing a ra t iona l e for increasing the use of Arts Therapies within health care systems, p a r t i c u l a r l y in mental hea l th , i t is f i r s t necessary to consider some trends in the more widely-accepted forms of therapy. By widely-accepted forms of therapy, I re fer to t e c h -niques derived from the medical model. The d iscuss ion centers on c u l t u r a l trends in treatment which af fect the largest percentage of p a t i e n t s / c l i e n t s present ly under health care . There are pockets of progressive change and some people in need of help are able to f i n d less r i g i d forms of therapy. However, these resources are l imited and have not reached the largest populations of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d persons and other persons in various forms of treatment and therapy. The purpose of t h i s sect ion is to present the idea that there are counter trends a v a i l a b l e through expressive ar t s therapies which would e i t h e r : 1) Be more e f f ec t ive than other current therapies ; 2) Compliment and enrich other forms of therapy; 3) Add a new dimension to therapy through the concept of the ar t s as a heal ing inf luence . 1) Any method or technique^sc ient i f i c or a r t i s t i c t can be misused. A l l s c i e n t i f i c methods are not misused nor are a l l a r t i s t i c methods necessar i ly used properly in therapy. On the contrary , the influence of the tool depends often on the individual using the t o o l . The present d iscuss ion perta ins p r i m a r i l y to c u l t u r a l trends which have brought us to the present s i t u a t i o n . 2) Although the present discuss ion centers on p s y c h i a t r i c treatment, a l l therapies can be considered relevant to the discuss ion since at the base of the argu-ments is the issue of assumptions about what "patients" can and cannot do. For example, one of the issues d i s -cussed is choice . Because society has assigned powers to the profess ional medical community, we are l i k e l y to assume that the handicapped i n d i v i d u a l , or Down's Syndrome c h i l d is jus t as incapable of making decis ions about h im/herse l f as the p s y c h i a t r i c pa t i en t . 3) The material presented is written from the per -spect ive of a Music Therap i s t . I have led Music Therapy sessions in a var ie ty of therapeutic se t t ings over a period of ten years . I have also been teaching and t r a i n ing Music Therapists and other health care pro fes s iona l s . From t h i s perspect ive , the fo l lowing concerns emerge: a ) Present systems of therapy, n o n - a r t i s t i c in nature, often discourage pat ients from recogniz ing and developing t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y , a valuable source of heal ing 9 b) Many members of the medical profess ion , both s t a f f and adminis trators , have d i f f i c u l t y understanding the use of music as a therapeutic medium so explanation and j u s t i f i c a t i o n is often d i f f i c u l t due to something which might be c a l l e d language d i f f erences . c) Standard research methodologies and techniques which I have borrowed from the medical and behavioral sciences have not adequately described or documented s i g n i f i c a n t therapeut ic endeavors within music therapy I sess ions . Most of the fo l lowing c r i t i c i s m s can be traced back to the technological approach to hea l ing . We are in a p e r -iod in which science holds more value than other means of d iscovery . Value placed on the s c i e n t i f i c discovery has f i l t e r e d down into a l l the levels of our l i v e s . There has been an emphasis on s i t u a t i o n s , interact ions and behavior in general which are observable and quan-t i f i a b l e . By observing these phenomena, data can be obtained and conclusions can be drawn p r i m a r i l y through s t a t i s t i c a l methods. Neither the veh ic le of the s c i e n t i f i c method (mean-ing empirical research) nor the exact and prec i se search for conclusions need be c r i t i c i z e d . However, the over-emphasis of these means, perhaps even the misuse of them, deserves c r i t i c a l review. Very few research too l s have been developed s p e c i f i c a l l y for music therapy. Most often too l s are adapted from other d i s c i p l i n e s . L i c e n t i o u s Technology lor en E i s e l ey_(j971 ) comments: " I n h i s enthusiasm f o r a new magic, modern man has gone f a r i n a s s i g n i n g t o s c i e n c e — h i s own i n t e l l e c t u a l i n -v e n t i o n — a r o l e o f omnipotence not i n h e r e n t i n i n v e n t i o n i t s e l f . Bacon e n v i s i o n e d s c i e n c e as a p o w e r f u l and e n l i g h t e n e d s e r v a n t — b u t never t h e master o f man." (p.130) I t i s c l e a r t h a t s c i e n c e has c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e f o r modern man. However, i t i s a l s o becoming c l e a r t h a t i s i s o n l y one means t o s e a r c h f o r knowledge. I t may be a c a s e o f t h e means d i s t o r t i n g t h e end. I f d i s c o v e r y i s t h e aim o f s c i e n c e and i t s r e s u l t -ant t e c h n o l o g y , s c i e n c e / t e c h n o l o g y may appear t o be t h e most e f f i c i e n t means t o t h a t end. However, what o t h e r means a r e we l e a v i n g behind? And more i m p o r t a n t , how has our s t r i v i n g i n t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l age molded our c u l t u r a l v a l u e s i n g e n e r a l , and i n t h i s c a s e as p e r t a i n s t o h e a l t h c a r e s e r v i c e s ? In M e d i c a l Nemesis. (1976) Ivan l l l i c h s t a t e s : " P r i m i t i v e p e o p l e have always r e c o g n i z e d t h e power o f a s y m b o l i c d i m e n s i o n . . . 11 (which) set boundaries. Malinowski claims that only industr ia l society has allowed the use of ava i lab le too l s to t h e i r utmost e f f i c i e n c y ; in a l l other s o c i e t i e s , recognizing sacred l imi t s to the use of sword and plow was a necessary foundation for e t h i c s . Now af ter several gen-erat ions of l i cent ious technology, the f in i t eness of nature intrudes again upon our consciousness ."(p .264) The moral i ty of the issue surfaces in I I I i ch ' s statement. In a powerful indictment of the medical comm-uni ty , I I Iich says that the medical profess ion claims f r e e -dom from the broad world of law and r e l i g i o n and is thus immune to moral c r i t i c i s m by token of i t s base in sc ience . It does not lay i t s e l f open to c r i t i c i s m from soc iety at large but only to i t s own internal codes. I I I ich contends that people are deprived - of t h e i r health because it is l i t e r a l l y taken out of t h e i r hands. He considers t h i s an economic, p o l i t i c a l and moral outrages "The phys ic ian decides what is symptom and who is s i c k . He is a moral entre-preneur, charged with i n q u i s i t i o n a l powers to discover c e r t a i n wrongs to be r i g h t e d . Mora l i ty is as i m p l i c i t in sickness as i t i s in crime or s i n . " (p.p.38-39) Thomas Szasz (1974) a p p l i e s s i m i l a r c r i t i c i s m s t o p s y c h i a t r y and pro c l a i m s the contemporary use of psycho-a n a l y s i s and dynamic p s y c h i a t r y as a means f o r o b s c u r i n g and d i s g u i s i n g moral and p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t s as mere personal problems. He f u r t h e r s t a t e s : " . . . t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n s have two f a c e s : one i s t o heal the s i c k , the other i s t o c o n t r o l the wicked. S i n c e s i c k n e s s i s o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d t o be a form of wickedness and wick-edness a form of s i c k n e s s , contempor-ary medical p r a c t i c e s o f t e n c o n s i s t of c o m p l i c a t e d combinations of t r e a t -ment and s o c i a l c o n t r o l . " (p.69) A Question of Values Using medicine, and p s y c h i a t r y in p a r t i c u l a r , as a form of s o c i a l c o n t r o l i s an attempt t o perpetuate the val u e s of s o c i e t y at large and the i n d i v i d u a l t h e r a p i s t in p a r t i c u l a r . Inherent in t h i s process as i t f u n c t i o n s from day t o day i s the i l l u s i o n t h a t i f a statement or treatment has s c i e n t i f i c grounding i t i s value-free-. On t h i s matter I M i c h (1976, p . 4 l ) says: "The a s s e r t i o n of v a l u e - f r e e cure and care i s o b v i o u s l y malignant non-sense and the taboos t h a t have s h i e l d e d i r r e s p o n s i b l e 13 medicine are beginning t o weaken." Hans Strupp (1977) commentator on the e f f e c t s of psychotherapy in p a r t i c u l a r s t a t e s : "One of the great stumbling b l o c k s i n psychotherapy r e s e a r c h and p r a c t i c e has been a f a i l u r e t o r e a l i z e the importance of v a l u e s . T h e r a p i s t s c o n t i n u e t o assess treatment outcomes on the b a s i s of g l o b a l c l i n i c a l impressions whereas r e s e a r c h e r s have assumed t h a t q u a n t i t a t i v e i n d i c e s can be i n t e r p r e t t e d as i f they were t h e r -mometer r e a d i n g s . Instead v a l u e s i n -f l u e n c e and s u f f u s e every judgement and outcome." (p.8) l l l i c h (1976) has th r e e main o b j e c t i o n s t o the medical system or h e a l t h b u s i n e s s : "I) u n d e s i r a b l e s i d e e f f e c t s of approved, mistaken, c a l l o u s or c o n t r a i n d i c a t e d t e c h -n i c a l c o n t r a c t s ; 2) the medical p r a c t i c e sponsors s i c k n e s s by r e i n f o r c i n g a morbid s o c i e t y t h a t en-courages people t o become consumers of c u r a t i v e , p r e v e n t a t i v e , i n d u s t r i a l and en-vironmental medicine; 3) the s o - c a l l e d h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n s have an even deeper c u l t u r a l l y health-denying e f f e c t i n s o f a r as they d e s t r o y the po-t e n t i a l of people t o deal with t h e i r human weakness, v u l n e r a b i l i t y and uniqueness in a personal and auto-nomous way". (p.24) T h i s leads i n t o the issue of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . S i n c e the average person, encouraged by the t r e n d t o s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , i s overwhelmed by the mystique of medi-c i n e and has f o r f e i t e d r i g h t s t o h i s / h e r own h e a l t h , l i t t l e s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n e x i s t s . The p a t i e n t i s in the hands of the doctor in every r e s p e c t . Because treatments are decided under s o c i e t y ' s and the t h e r a p i s t ' s value system at t h a t moment, the va l u e s of the p a t i e n t and r i g h t s t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n are g r e a t l y i n h i b i t e d . As long as the p a t i e n t i s w i l l i n g t o conform t o the p r e s c r i b e d s o c i a l code in v a r y i n g degrees of s t r i c t n e s s , he/she w i l l be-come cure d . If the p a t i e n t has ways o f being and speak-ing which f a l l o u t s i d e the p r e s c r i b e d behavior f o r a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l code, these strange " b e h a v i o r s " are co n s i d e r e d deviant and t h e r e f o r e symptoms of some i l l -ness.' Szasz (1976) say s : " A c t u a l l y o f t e n the only t h i n g "wrong" with t h e s o - c a l l e d s c h i z o p h r e n i c i s t h a t he speaks in metaphors unaccept-'"The humanistic p s y c h o l o g i s t s are an e x c e p t i o n . The i n -f l u e n c e of the humanistic school i s s t r o n g in education but not in t h e r a p e u t i c environments. able to his audience, in p a r t i c u l a r to his p s y c h i a t r i s t . (p.14) Szasz a l so makes the point that what is considered a schizophrenic thought disorder is merely a person's lack of des ire or a b i l i t y to fol low the form of A r i s t o t e l i a n logic—the acceptable form of th ink ing in soc I ety today. (1974) It is assumed in these cases that the patient is wrong or s ick or wicked. Usually no e f for t is made to respect the novel thought patterns of a pa t i en t , or to interpret these patterns as a s incere e f for t to comm-unicate knowledge or f e e l i n g . The key to al lowing se l f -determinat ion is respect . It seems that once an indiv idual has de l ivered him/ herse l f into the hands of the medical profess ion , l i t t l e choice remains. Thomas Szasz objects to what he c a l l s de termin i s t i c explanations of human behavior in psy-c h a i t r y . He says the aim should be to maximize the scope of v o l u n t a r i s t i c expIanat ions . . . to reintroduce freedom, choice , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y into the conceptual framework and vocabulary of psych ia try . (1976) I l l u s i o n of P r e d i c t a b i l i t y "According to the popular image of science everything is in p r i n c i p l e , predic tab le and c o n t r o l l a b l e ; i f some event or process i s not p r e d i c t -a b l e and c o n t r o l l a b l e in the present s t a t e of our knowledge, a l i t t l e more knowledge and, e s p e c i a l l y , a l i t t l e more know-how, w i l l enable us t o p r e d i c t and c o n t r o l the w i l d v a r i a b l e s . T h i s view i s wrong, not merely in d e t a i l , but in p r i n c i p l e . Under t e n s i o n , a cha i n w i l l break at i t s weakest l i n k . That much i s p r e d i c t -a b l e . What i s d i f f i c u l t i s t o i d e n t -i f y the weakest l i n k before i t breaks, 'the g e n e r i c we can know, but the s p e c i f i c eludes us'." (Bateson, 1979, P.40) Persons who are " d i f f e r e n t " f a l l i n t o the category of " u n p r e d i c t a b l e persons". In a general sense, one of the p o s t u l a t e s o f the b e h a v i o r i s t i c model, one of the most widely-used forms of therapy, i s t h a t human behavior must be p r e d i c t a b l e or i t i s d e v i a n t . The i l l u s i o n of p r e d i c t a b i l i t y c u r r e n t l y r e i g n s in medicine and t h e beh a v i o r a l s c i e n c e s . T h i s i l l u s i o n has a f f e c t e d two p a r t i c u l a r groups: I) the p a t i e n t s or s u b j e c t s ; 2) the p u b l i c at l a r g e . V i k t o r Frankl (1959) has s a i d t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y remains e s s e n t i a l l y u n p r e d i c t a b l e . (p.132) And yet v a r i o u s s c h o o l s of psychology, p s y c h i a t r y and some i n psychotherapy have invented hundreds of systems which determine a standard " f u n c t i o n i n g l e v e l " or s e t of behaviors f o r both normal and " d e v i a n t " p e r s o n a l i t i e s . Even i f one i s c o n s i d e r e d " d e v i a n t " he/she i s expected t o f o l l o w p r e s c r i b e d p a t t e r n s of being. A great deal of p r e s s u r e i s p l a c e d on p a t i e n t s from t h e r a p i s t s , f a m i l y and peers, t o comply with these standards of p r e d i c t a b i l i t y . An i n d i v i d u a l i s r a r e l y encouraged t o d i s c o v e r or develop h i s own unique and perhaps c r e a t i v e 2 pro b l e m - s o l v i n g d e v i c e s . The c r e a t i v e i s the i n n o v a t i v e , the n o v e l , the unusual. T h e r e f o r e p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f t e n p r e c l u d e s c r e a t i v i t y . T h i s r i g i d i t y on the p a r t of t h e r a p i s t s i s in the i n t e r e s t of p e r p e t u a t i n g the medical mystique. The h e a l t h care system implies t h a t the i n -d i v i d u a l does not have the resources t o a i d in h i s / h e r own cure because i f l e f t t o h i s / h e r own d e v i c e s a p a t i e n t / c l i e n t may encounter an " u n p r e d i c t a b l e outcome." The i l l u s i o n i s the b e l i e f by s o c i e t y as a whole t h a t t h i s w i l l not happen i f l e f t under the c a r e of a " p r o f e s s i o n a l , " The more a I I-encompassing e f f e c t of t h i s i l l u s i o n on s o c i e t y i s the present i n c l i n a t i o n t o f o r f e i t i n d i v i -dual r i g h t s and support t h i s system s o c i a l l y , e c o n o m i c a l l y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y . As s o c i e t y f o r f e i t s i t s ' r i g h t s v i a consensus, the i n d i v i d u a l s u f f e r s . I l l i c h (1976) p a s s i o n -a t e l y d e s c r i b e s the u l t i m a t e l o s s as man g i v e s up even h i s r i g h t s t o death: " S o c i e t y , a c t i n g through the medical system, decides when and a f t e r what i n d i g n i t i e s and m u t i l a t i o n s he s h a l l d i e . The m e d i c a I i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y has brought the epoch of n a t u r a l death t o an end. Western man has l o s t the r i g h t t o p r e s i d e at h i s a c t of dy i n g . Health, or t h e autonomous power t o cope, has been e x p r o p r i a t e d down t o the l a s t b r e a t h . Mechanical death has conquered and destroyed a l l other deaths." (p.204) The o v e r - r i d i n g danger f o r s o c i e t y of the i l l u s i o n of p r e d i c t a b i l i t y i s t h a t a l l b e h a v i o r s , i n c l u d i n g death, can and should be p r e d i c t a b l e . And yet Strupp (1978) who h i m s e l f s t i l l hopes f o r a " s c i e n c e of psychotherapy" s t a t e s : "Of course a treatment or set of t h e r a -p e u t i c procedures may work when the theory i s wrong; or the theory may be reasonable, but the techniques may be i n e f f i c i e n t or i n e f f e c t i v e . The p o i n t t o be made i s t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i t i o n e r has no sure way of answering these q u e s t i o n s since he/she must r e l y on the c l i n i c a l method. Furthermore the h i s tory of science amply demonstrates that human-i t y ' s capacity for se l f -decept ions may p e r s i s t for centur ie s ." (p.7) Another major influence on the i l l u s i o n of p r e d i c t -a b i l i t y has been the wide-spread use of s t a t i s t i c a l meth ods. The publ i c at large and most health profess ionals be Ii eve: I) that empirical studies prove things;2) fac ts cannot be manipulated and d i s tor ted under the protect ion of empirical evidence and s t a t i s t i c a l methods. Unfortunately s t a t i s t i c a l methods and empirical f indings are often misused, whether d e l i b e r a t e l y , ignor-ant I y or unconsciously. One r a r e l y f inds a study with-out bias or hidden assumption, whether i t s contained in research design, screening of data or choice of s t a t i s t i al method. The area of i n f e r e n t i a I . s t a s t i c s is p a r t -i c u l a r l y hazardous in t h i s regard. Value-free research is a d i f f i c u l t task. The other obvious concern is regarding the over-use of s t a t i s t i c a l method. In the hierarchy of research, studies employing s t a t i s t i c a l methods carry a lot more value than descr ip t ive methods such as case s tud ies . The assumption is that s t a t i s t i c a l s tudies are more ob-j e c t i v e than descr ip t ive s tud ies . This may or may not be true depending on: 1) who is doing the study 2) i f they have an axe to gr ind 3) i f they are aware of t h e i r own biases and values 4) i f they are e th i ca l and many other cons iderat ions . The only c l ear point is that i t is easier to mask values in s t a t i s t i c s than in descr ipt i ons. In genera I, s t a t i s t i c a I methods should be checked and balanced by the fo l lowing questions: F i r s t , although some parts of man can be observed and behaviors quant i f i ed , there are many i n v i s i b l e parts of man which are equal ly important when drawing conclusions about personal i ty types, diagnoses, even learning . Emotions, f e e l i n g s , values, a t t i tudes and phi losophies are not e a s i l y pinpointed with s t a t i s t i c a l accuracy, even i f they are measured by standardized tes t s c l a i m -ing to describe these kinds of a t t r i b u t e s . These s t a t i s -t i c a l methods sometimes paint a s u p e r f i c i a l p i c t u r e of man, ignoring the deeper levels of existence, the unique i n d i v i d u a l i t y of p e r s o n a l i t i e s which often pertains d i r e c t -ly to d i f f i c u l t i e s in l i f e . Although mathematical p r o -cedures v e r i f y quant i tat ive questions, sometimes, the important "shaping" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of man tend to be q u a l i t a t i v e . There are few t e s t ing devices or systems of discovery which capture these powerful q u a l i t i e s . Second, in order to j u s t i f y use of a p a r t i c u l a r t r e a t -ment or method, therapis t s must provide examples of research documenting the effect iveness of t h e i r chosen treatment or method. In medicine, i t is general ly be-l i e v e d that s t a t i s t i c a l research r a r e l y l i e s . In f a c t , t h e p o s i t i v e ef fect of a c e r t a i n method may very well apply only to the population tested in one study. Repl icat ion is r a r e , and not encouraged by publ i shers of j o u r n a l s . General izat ion is common through the s tructures of in ferent ia l s t a t i s t i c s . T h i r d , s t a t i s t i c s can be made to show a var ie ty of r e -s u l t s . It would take a great deal of in tegr i ty and lack of bias on the part of the researcher who uses s t a t i s t i c a I methods, for h i s /her research not to r e f l e c t person-al a t t i t u d e s , b ia s , values, e t c . These influences are seldom mentioned. In add i t i on , there are many s t a t i s t i c al methods. If one does not show r e s u l t s , i t is common to apply other methods u n t i l landing on the one which does show the re su l t s sought. With the large percentage of research publ ished, researchers have a lot invested in the hope that t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r treatment or theory w i l l work. This c r i t i c i s m should not be construed to include enquiry, or even s c i e n t i f i c enquiry. The point is that s t a t i s t i c a l methods are only appropriate for c e r t a i n as-pects of human personal i ty and behavior. Their use not only f a r exceeds the a p p r o p r i a t e l i m i t s , but a l s o has i n h i b i t e d other types of d i s c o v e r y , e q u a l l y v a l u a b l e and a l s o more a p p r o p r i a t e t o c e r t a i n aspects of man. The f a c t t h a t t h e a r t s are not now widely-used in therapy may be due t o the f a c t t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o observe and q u a n t i f y a r t i s t i c events, experiences and products, except w i t h i n some standard of a c h i e v e -ment- not always the most important c o n s i d e r a t i o n in therapy. And in order t o employ methods, they must be s t a t i s t i c a l l y v e r i f i a b l e . The Task Panel on The A r t s in Therapy and the Environment f o r t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s Commission on Mental Health s t a t e s : (1979, p.1978) "...the measurement t e c h -niques of present s t a t i s t i c a l methodology are not enough t o c a pture the q u a l i t a t i v e and a f f e c t i v e gains made through exposure t o the a r t s . " Although q u a n t i f i a b l e r e s e a r c h techniques have been used in the a r t s , r e s u l t s r a r e l y show s i g n i f i c a n t change. T h i s i s probably due t o the f o l l o w i n g : , 1) Changes i n s p i r e d by the a r t s t h e r a p i e s are not e a s i l y observed, e s p e c i a l l y in a b e h a v i o r a l c o n t e x t . A r t i s t i c experiences o f t e n s t r i k e a deeper l e v e l and change i s more gradual and long-term. Often a c t i o n which occurs from i n s i g h t does not happen immediately. 2) The s p i r i t u a l q u a l i t i e s of a r t i s t i c experiences are vague and m y s t i c a l , though e q u a l l y v a l u a b l e even though they are d i f f i c u l t t o quantify,, 3) S i n c e present r e s e a r c h methods may measure on l y a p o r t i o n o f the a r t i s t i c e xperience, the r e s t of the experience remains unaccounted. S t u d i e s of the a r t s i n therapy t h e r e f o r e are o f t e n c o n f u s i n g and gi v e the f e e l i n g of t r y i n g t o f i t a square peg i n t o a round h o l e . Lack of S p i r i t u a l Freedom An i n d i v i d u a l i s f r e e t o support or not support the medical system. Sometimes persons are given the c h o i c e of whether or not t o commit themselves t o treatment pro-cedures. V i k t o r Frankl (1959) emphasizes the a b i l i t y t o choose and intro d u c e s the next d e f i c i e n c y i n present therapy systems, the lack o f s p i r i t u a l r e c o g n i t i o n . " . . . e v e r y t h i n g can be taken from man but one t h i n g ; the l a s t of the human f r e e d o m s — t o choose one's a t t i t u d e in any given s e t of circumstances, t o choose one's own way. It i s t h i s s p i r i t u a l freedom which cannot be taken away t h a t makes l i f e meaningful and p u r p o s e f u l . " (p.p.65-66) The idea t h a t medicine and p a r t i c u l a r l y p s y c h i a t r y are a type of new r e l i g i o n i s common and growing in pop-u l a r i t y , r e f e r r e d t o by Thomas Szasz and o t h e r s . On t h i s i s s u e F r a n k l s a y s : " C o n t i n u a l l y a p s y c h a t r i s t i s a p p r o a c h e d t o d a y by p a t i e n t s who c o n f r o n t him w i t h human p r o b l e m s r a t h e r t h a n n e u r o t i c symptoms. Some o f t h e p e o p l e who now-adays c a l l on a p s y c h i a t r i s t wou ld have seen a p a s t o r , p r i e s t o r r a b b i i n f o r m e r days so t h a t t h e d o c t o r i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h p h i l o s o p h i c a l q u e s t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n e m o t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s . " ( p . I 18) F r a n k l s h a r e s I M i c h ' s and S z a s z ' s v i e w about t h e d e -human i z a t i o n o f p s y c h i a t r y and u r g e s t h e p s y c h i a t r i s t t o g i v e up m e c h a n i c a l s y s t e m s o f t r e a t m e n t and s t o p p l a y i n g t h e r o l e o f t e c h n i c i a n . He d e s c r i b e s t h e c u l t u r a l c o n -d i t i o n o f man a s an e x i s t e n t i a l vacuum and t h e r e f o r e s t r e s s e s a s e a r c h f o r m e a n i n g : "I w o u l d s t r i c t l y deny t h a t o n e ' s s e a r c h f o r meaning t o h i s e x i s t e n c e , o r h i s doubt o f i t , i n e v e r y c a s e i s d e r i v e d f r o m , or r e s u l t s i n , any d i s -e a s e . A m a n ' s c o n c e r n , even h i s d e s -p a i r , o v e r t h e w o r t h w h i I e n e s s o f l i f e i s a s p i r i t u a l d i s t r e s s but by no means a m e n t a l d i s e a s e . . . L o g o t h e r a p y r e g a r d s i t s a s s i g n m e n t as t h a t o f a s s i s t i n g t h e 25 p a t i e n t t o f i n d meaning in h i s l i f e . " (p.p.104-105) Frankl recommends a p e r s o n a l i z e d and e x i s t e n t i a l meaning t o f i l l the vacuum: "For the meaning of l i f e changes from man t o man from day t o day from hour t o hour. What matters t h e r e f o r e i s not the mean-ing of l i f e in g e n e r a l , but r a t h e r the s p e c i f i c meaning of a person's l i f e at a given moment." (p.110) Current methods of therapy have l i t t l e concern with t h e issue of meaning. Instead, issues of c o n f o r m i t y , f u n c t i o n i n g l e v e l , a p p r o p r i a t e behavior take precedent. Leve l s d e a l t with i n therapy are u s u a l l y only observable l e v e l s . The deeper l e v e l s of consciousness and meaning are most o f t e n not a c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Even Freud's system of p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , which has so g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d p s y c h i a t r i c treatment f o r the l a s t few y e a r s , and which c l a i m s t o deal with deeper l e v e l s , c o n s i d e r s p r i m a r i l y p h y s i o l o g i c a l i n f l u e n c e s and maintains a r i g i d approach t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of f e e l i n g s and e x p e r i e n c e , d) R e s p o n s i b i l i t y and A c t i o n Even though Frankl (1959) s t r e s s e s s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , c h o i c e and freedom he de-emphasizes s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n as the ult imate goal in therapy. Instead he encourages se l f - transcendence. His Logotherapy was born out of h is own experience in concentration camps. He con-s iders suf fer ing as an ineradicable part of l i f e , even as fate and death. Without su f fer ing and death human l i f e cannot be complete. An underlying theme for Frankl is r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . He claims that only "things" can be determined by others . Each man is unique and must take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to act and to f i n d meaning. No man and no destiny can be com-pared with any other man or any other dest iny . No s i t -uation repeats i t s e l f and each s i t u a t i o n c a l l s for a d i f f erent response. Sometimes the s i t u a t i o n in which a man f inds himself may require him to shape his own fate by act i on, The lack of encouragement for r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and act ion on the part of the individual helps to create the career mental p a t i e n t . I I Iich c a l l e d the medical business a rad ica l monopoly which feeds on i t s e I f . ( p .35) Rites have been mentioned which serve to protect and perpetuate t h i s monopoly. Perhaps the strongest i n -fluence on keeping the system a l i v e is the pa t i en t ' s own loss of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for s e l f succumbing to the seduction of the medical mystique. This surrender has allowed the career mental pat ient to e x i s t : " ' C l i n i c a l ' psychology i s a remnant of the medical model. It may prove i t s worth in case a f t e r case by d i s -m a n t l i n g p a t h o l o g i c a l view p o i n t . For j u d g i n g by r e s u l t s belongs t o medical empiricism; b e s i d e s , i t assumes what i s t o be e s t a b l i s h e d : t h a t the s o u l ' s p a t h o I o g i z i n g s are t o be dismantled. By t a k i n g the s o u l ' s s i c k n e s s f a n t a s y at f a c e value as c l i n i c a l pathology, the c l i n i c a l approach c r e a t e s what i t then must t r e a t . It c r e a t e s c l i n i c a l p a t i e n t s . " ( Hillman, 1975, p.3) C l i n i c s , h o s p i t a l s , mental h e a l t h c e n t e r s are f i l l e d with people who have given up r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own h e a l t h and l i f e . Instead of encouraging these people t o take hold of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the mental h e a l t h business p r o v i d e s drug and other treatment regimes* • which r e l y t o t a l l y on c l i n i c a l methods. P a t i e n t s and c l i e n t s must be under r e g u l a r s u r v e i l l a n c e by t h e r a p i s t s . If they are not, i t may be dangerous not only because of p o s s i b l e harm t o themselves and o t h e r s , but because in the p a t i e n t ' s ignorance, they may take exception t o the p r e s c r i b e d treatment. T h i s s t r i c t c o n t r o l i s necessary i f treatments are to be e f f e c t i v e . As I I I i ch says: "the monopoly. , .serves to l eg i t imat -ize soc ia l arrangements into which many people do not f i t . It labels the handicapped as unf i t and breeds ever new categories of pa t i ent s . People who are angered, sickened and impaired by t h e i r indus tr ia l labour and le i sure can escape only into a l i f e under medical supervis ion and are thereby seduced or d i s q u a l i f i e d from p o l i t i c a l struggle for a hea l th -ier world." (p. 35) Once a person is admitted to an in-pat ient ward the enforcement of the value system of the medical treatment s t a f f of fers an added humi l ia t ion . An even more power-ful influence is d i scr iminat ion by soc i e ty . The i l l e f fects of lowered self-esteem are often more d i f f i c u l t to "cure" than the i n i t i a l causes of the " i l lnes s" which p r e c i p i t a t e d hospital admission in the f i r s t p lace . Frankl mentions another bad ef fect of i n s t i t u t i o n -a l i z a t i o n and treatment which functions as a s e l f - f u l -f i l l i n g prophecy: "Our current mental hygiene philosophy s t r e s s e s t h e i d e a t h a t p e o p l e ought t o be happy , t h a t u n h a p p i n e s s i s a symptom o f m a l a d j u s t m e n t . Such a v a l u e s y s t e m might be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e f a c t t h a t u n a v o i d a b l e u n -h a p p i n e s s i s i n c r e a s e d by u n h a p p i n e s s a b o u t b e i n g h a p p y . " ( p . p . I I 5-116) H i l l m a n (1975) s i m p l i f i e s t h e p r o b l e m : "We c a n n o t r e c o v e r s o u l f r o m i t s a l i e n a t i o n i n p r o f e s s i o n a l t h e r a p y u n t i l we have a v i s i o n o f p a t h -o l o g i z i n g w h i c h does not r e q u i r e p r o f e s s i o n a l t r e a t m e n t i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . " ( p i ? 8 ) Summing u p , i t i s c l e a r f r o m t h e above t h a t c u r r e n t and w i d e l y - a c c e p t e d f o r m s o f t h e r a p y , p a r t i c u l a r l y p s y c h i a t r t r e a t m e n t do not e n c o u r a g e t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1) Freedom - c h o i c e - s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n 2) R e s p o n s i b i l i t y 3) A c t i o n - s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n 4) S p i r i t u a l r e a l i z a t i o n 5) P h i l o s o p h i c a l r e a l i z a t i o n 6) I n n o v a t i v e t h o u g h t and b e h a v i o r The l a s t and most important inadequacy t o be noted i s the lack of encouragement of c r e a t i v i t y in standard treatment forms. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r shortcoming has d i r e c t r e l a t i o n t o the e i g h t p o i n t s mentioned above. It i s d i f f i c u l t t o d i v o r c e the issue of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s or lack of e f f e c t i v e n e s s of therapy from the issue of a lack of c r e a t i v i t y . Although i t may be s a i d t h a t t h e o r i s t s have indulged in a f a i r amount of c r e a t i v i t y in c r e a t i n g systems of therapy ( l i c e n t i o u s t e c h n o l o g y ) , p a t i e n t s are not encouraged t o exert equal amounts of c r e a t i v i t y when breaking away from these systems or in c r e a t i n g t h e i r own. C r e a t i v i t y in r e f e r e n c e t o the p a t i e n t s / c l i e n t s i s i n f l u e n c e d by a l l the above p o i n t s in v a r y i n g degrees. 2) A Dearth of C r e a t i v i t y v tint i I r e c e n t l y l i t e r a t u r e on the t o p i c of c r e a t i v e process and c r e a t i v i t y in general has been l a c k i n g . A l -though a great deal has been w r i t t e n about c r e a t i v i t y in the l a s t two decades, much of i t f a i l s t o capture the essence of c r e a t i v i t y . Rosemary Gordon in her book Dying and C r e a t i n g : A Search f o r Meaning (1978) s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e w i l l always be an element of mystery t o c r e a t -i v i t y and c r i t i c i z e s r e s e a r c h e r s in the ar e a : "Those who have r e c e n t l y t r i e d t o con-s t r u c t c r e a t i v i t y t e s t s have r e a l l y been misled and they mislead, for such tes t s tend to neglect cons id -erat ions of relevance and q u a l i t y , and concern themselves only with quantity or with fluency of as soc ia -t i o n . " ( p . 1 2 9 ) There may be a hidden c u l t u r a l res is tence to descr ib ing c r e a t i v i t y in order to keep mystery and magic in our l i v e s . But s c a r c i t y is a l so due to the s c i e n t i f i c nature of most research, as i l l u s t r a t e d by Gordon, and the e lus ive nature of c r e a t i v i t y i t s e l f . As Koest ler ( 1 9 6 4 ) says: "Laughter and t ears , awe and wonder, r e l i g i o u s and aesthet ic f e e l i n g , the whole ' v o i l e t s i d e ' of the rainbow of the emotions was le f t to the poets, to worry about; the s o - c a l l e d behavior-al sciences had no room for them." ( p , 2 8 5 ) Koestler names these types of emotions " s e l f - t r a n s -cending" and c a l l s them the nourishment of c r e a t i v i t y . "The seIf - transcending emotions are the s t ep-ch i ldren of contemporary psychology. One of the reasons is perhaps that they do not tend toward observable muscular a c t i v i t y but t o -wards q u i e t u d e , g r i e f , l o n g i n g , w o r s h i p , r a p t n e s s , a e s t h e t i c p l e a -s u r e a r e e m o t i o n s consummated not i n o v e r t b u t i n i n t e r n a l i z e d , v i s -c e r a I b e h a v i o r . " (p.299) K o e s t l e r a d d s : "Owing t o t h e p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f o u r c u l t u r a l c l i m a t e t h e p a r t i c i p a t o r y ( s e l f - t r a n s c e n d i n g ) e m o t i o n s have been v i r t u a l l y i g n o r e d by contemp-o r a r y p s y c h o l o g y , a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e as r e a l and o b s e r v a b l e i n t h e i r m a n i -f e s t a t i o n s a s hunger, r a g e and f e a r . " (p.299) Not o n l y a r e t h e s e e m o t i o n s r e a l , b u t t h e y a r e e s s e n t i a t o human l i f e and h e a l t h . W i t h i n t h e p r o c e s s o f l i v i n g c r e a t i v i t y m i g h t be t h o u g h t o f as t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e s e e m o t i o n s . They a r e e s s e n t i a l t o i m p r o v i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e . As R o g e r s (1954) s a y s c o n c e r n i n g a l a c k o f c r e a t i v i t y i n our c u l t u r e : " U n l e s s man c a n make new and o r i g i n a l a d a p t a t i o n s t o h i s e n v i r o n m e n t as r a p i d -l y as h i s s c i e n c e c a n change t h e e n v i r o n -ment, o u r c u l t u r e w i l l p e r i s h . Not o n l y i n d i v i d u a l m a l a d j u s t m e n t and group t e n -s i o n s b u t i n t e r n a t i o n a l a n n i h i l a t i o n w i l l be t h e p r i c e we pay f o r a l a c k of c r e a t i v i t y . " (p.138) There i s cause t o be concerned about t h e i n d i v i d u a l as w e l l . I f as Jung s a y s , c r e a t i v i t y i s one o f t h e b a s i c i n s t i n c t s o f man, i t must be s a t i s f i e d i n a c o n -s t r u c t i v e form or i t w i l l become d e s t r u c t i v e . Rogers has f i v e b a s i c c r i t i c i s m s o f how t h e c u l t u r e m a n i f e s t s a d e a r t h o f c r e a t i v i t y : " I ) In e d u c a t i o n we t e n d t o t u r n out c o n f o r m i s t s , s t e r e o t y p e s , i n d i v i d u a l s whose e d u c a t i o n i s c o m p l e t e d , r a t h e r t h e n f r e e l y c r e a t i v e and o r i g i n a l t h i n k e r s ; 2) In our l e i s u r e t i m e a c t i v i t i e s , p a s s i v e e n t e r t a i n m e n t and regimented group a c t i o n a re o v e r w h e l m i n g l y p r e -dominent, whereas c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s a r e much l e s s i n e v i d e n c e ; 3) In t h e s c i e n c e s , t h e r e i s an ample s u p p l y of t e c h n i c i a n s , but t h e number who can c r e a t i v e l y f o r m u l a t e f r u i t f u l h ypotheses and t h e o r i e s i s s m a l l indeed; 4) In i n d u s t r y , c r e a t i o n i s r e s e r v e d f o r t h e few...whereas f o r t h e many l i f e i s d e v o i d o f o r i g i n a l or c r e a t i v e en-deavor; 5) In i n d i v i d u a l and f a m i l y l i f e the same p i c t u r e holds t r u e . . . t o be o r i g i n a l or d i f f e r e n t i s f e l t t o be dangerous". (p.137) S i n n o t t (1959) c o n s i d e r s c r e a t i v i t y (as does Jung) t o be d i r e c t l y connected t o the processes of l i f e i t s e l f "Here, we should remember, i s t h e p l a c e where matter, l i f e and mind are most i n e x t r i c a b l y mixed. Here the n a t u r a l t e n d e n c i e s and p r e d i l e c t i o n s of l i v i n g s t u f f come t o e x p r e s s i o n " , ( p . l l l ) a) The C r e a t i v e P e r s o n a l i t y P i c k e r i n g i n h i s book, The C r e a t i v e Malady (1974), o f f e r s the t h e s i s t h a t i l l n e s s , in p a r t i c u l a r p s y c h o l o g i c a l i l l n e s s , may sometimes be an a i d t o c r e a t i v e work, which can b e n e f i t s o c i e t y and the " v i c t i m " . He s t a t e s t h r e e reasons why t h i s t h e s i s has been n e g l e c t e d up unt iI now: " I ) The d i f f i c u l t y in d i s t i n g u i s h i n g an i l l n e s s of the body from one of the m i nd; 2) Ignorance of the nature and c a u s a t i o n of mental i l l n e s s ; 3) The extent t o which s o c i e t y f e a r e d and s t i l l f e a r s mental i l l n e s s " , (p.p. 17-21) As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , mental p a t i e n t s and the " p a t i e n t s " in g e n e r a l , who r e c e i v e therapy, are not encouraged t o acknowledge or develop t h e i r c r e a t i v e i n c l i n a t i o n s , but instead t o f o l l o w p r e s c r i b e d ways of b e i n g . A l l i n d i v i d u a l s s u f f e r from t h i s approach, but those who s u f f e r most are those who do have p a r t -i c u l a r l y c r e a t i v e p e r s o n a l i t i e s . These people are most misunderstood and i n h i b i t e d by t h e r a p e u t i c p r o -cedures. An acceptance of the value of c r e a t i v i t y must be ever present f o r these people t o develop t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y towards c o n s t r u c t i v e ends. Throughout h i s t o r y , c r e a t i v e people are seldom reco g n i z e d f o r t h e i r o p i n i o n s and products w i t h i n t h e i r l i f e t i m e . T h i s i s probably due t o the f a c t t h a t c r e a t i v i t y , by i t ' s nature, implies a type of r e b e l l i o u s n e s s , a breaking away from the usual way of doing t h i n g s . S o c i e t y , in order t o preserve the s t a t u s quo maintains a r e s i s t e n c e t o change and wiI I r e a c t on d e f e n s i v e cue c o n s i d e r i n g the " n o v e l " ideas and the i c o n o c l a s t i c per s o n a l i t y d e v i a n t . Because a r t i s t s are so i n t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e d in the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s , they r e c e i v e a s i z e -able p o r t i o n of the c r i t i c i s m . I r o n i c a l l y , as long as they are c o n s i d e r e d by the s o c i e t y t o be bona f_i de a r t i s t s , they are pe r m i t t e d t o be a b i t more strange than the average man. If one of the assumptions of the a r t s t h e r a p i e s i s t h a t Everyman i s an A r t i s t , t h i s c r e a t e s a problem in s o c i e t y ' s acceptance of the p r o-cess and r e s u l t s of a r t therapy s e s s i o n s as manifested by the p e r s o n a l i t y of the p a t i e n t / c l i e n t / a r t i s t : " A r t i s t s . . . h a v e tended t o behave odd-l y . T h i s probably r e l a t e d t o t h e i r r e j e c t i o n of the ideas of c u r r e n t s o c i e t y and the technique of c l a s s i c a l a r t and the f o u n d a t i o n of r e v o l u t i o n -ary new s c h o o l s . . . i t i s important t o maintain a d i s t i n c t i o n between non-co n f o r m i t y and mental i l l n e s s i f we are not t o f i l l our mental h o s p i t a l s with those who c r i t i c i z e s o c i e t y . " ( P i c k e r i n g , 1974, p.288) Freud's (1920) d e s c r i p t i o n of the a r t i s t : "The a r t i s t i s an i n c i p i e n t i n t r o v e r t who i s not f a r from being a n e u r o t i c . He i s impel Led by too powerful i n -s t i n c t i v e needs. He wants t o achieve honour, power, fame and the love of women. But he lacks the means of a c h i e v i n g these s a t i s f a c t i o n s . So l i k e any other u n s a t i s f i e d person, he t u r n s away from r e a l i t y and t r a n s -f e r s a l l h i s i n t e r e s t s , h i s l i b i d o , 37 too , to the e laborat ion of his imagin-ary wishes, a l l of which might e a s i l y point the way to neurosis; i t is w e l l -known how often a r t i s t s e s p e c i a l l y suffer from a p a r t i a l i n h i b i t i o n of t h e i r cap-a c i t i e s through neurosis ." (P icker ing , p .289) Freud implies here that the th inking processes and products of a r t i s t s are re su l t s of pathological condi t ions . Considering the far-reaching influence of Freud, i t is not s u r p r i s i n g that the arts are not widely-accepted as a therapeut ic mode. He considered art as a f l i g h t from r e a l i t y instead of a symbolic representation which captures meaning and s ign i f i cance both for the indiv iudal and the c u l t u r e . Of course, art can be used as a f l i g h t from r e a l i t y , just as psychoanalysis can be a f l i g h t from r e a l i t y . The di f ference is found in the "how" the a p p l i c a t i o n . If the indiv idual is encouraged to develop creat ive dr ives in a construct ive manner, the r e a l -i ty of the world and the r e a l i t i e s of the arts can be one in the same. S torr (l972) bel ieves that the sch izo id character a i ds in c r e a t i v i t y in the fol lowing ways: " I) Most c r e a t i v i t y is s o l i t a r y ; 2) Creat ive a c t i v i t y enables a sch izo id person to reta i n at I east part of his f a n t a s y of omnipotence; 3) C r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y , f o r the s c h i -z o i d person, r e f l e c t s h i s own scheme of values in which the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e i s t h a t a g r e a t e r importance i s a t t r i b u t e d t o inner r e a l i t y than t o the e x t e r n a l world; 4) C e r t a i n kinds of c r e a t i v i t y are p e c u l i a r l y apt f o r overcoming the sense of a r b i t r a r y u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y ; 5) C r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y can undoubtedly act as a defense a g a i n s t the t h r e a t which overhangs the s c h i z o i d person of f i n d i n g the world meaningless." ( P i c k e r i n g , p.p a 297 - 8 ) From S t o r r ' s comments i t can be seen that the s c h i -z o i d person has c r e a t e d a s a f e p l a c e in which t o express h i m s e l f , a p l a c e needed in f a c t f o r everyone. The other s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t made by S t o r r i s t h a t the s c h i z o i d person runs the r i s k of f i n d i n g the world meaningless, e x p e r i e n c i n g i s o l a t i o n and anomie., T h i s danger can be g e n e r a l i z e d t o i n c l u d e Everyman. Frankl d e s c r i b e d h i s " e x i s t e n t i a l vacuum" as being a c u l t u r a l t r e n d . Although i t can be assumed t h a t everyone has t r a c e s of c r e a t i v i t y , the e a s i e s t p l a c e t o i d e n t i f y the personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s necessary f o r c r e a t i v e i n c l i n a t i o n are with the c r e a t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y . Once d i s c o v e r e d , these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can then be encouraged in Everyman. In a study done by Maduro with East Indian f o l k p a i n t e r s , the h i g h l y c r e a t i v e group had: " I) a p a r t i c u l a r l y r i c h f a n t a s y l i f e ; 2) c o u l d t o l e r a t e ambiguity; 3) were capable of very complex symbolie i dent i f i c a t i ons; 4) had more f l u i d and permeable outer and inner ego boundaries with a s t r o n g ego-core, r e q u i r i n g l e s s unconscious d e f e n s i v e manoeuvers". (Gordon, 1978, p.135) Maduro a l s o noted t h a t in t h e i r works the a r t i s t s were a b l e t o r e f l e c t the c u l t u r e and the environment, while s t i l l adding t h e i r own unique a n d " n o v e l " person-a l i t y t o t h e i r work. It i s t h i s combination of inner and outer e x p l o r a t i o n which i s necessary i f the a r t s are t o be u s e f u l in therapy. The a r t i s t s / p a t i e n t s should be f r e e t o comment on the c o n d i t i o n or s i t u a t i o n s of t h e i r l i v e s which c a l l f o r e x p r e s s i o n through t h e i r own p e r c e p t i o n s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . The Nature and Essence of C r e a t i v i t y There are many d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n s about the nature and e s s e n t i a l elements of c r e a t i v i t y . Rogers (1970) c l a i m s t h a t an acc u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n of the c r e a t i v e act i s u n l i k e l y f o r by i t s very nature i t i s i n d e s c r i b a b l e . A l l t h a t i s p o s s i b l e i s t o attempt t o b r i n g out the essence. (p.145) P i c k e r i n g (1974) names pass i on as the e s s e n t i a l element in the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . He says t h a t "a psy-choneurosis r e p r e s e n t s a p a s s i o n thwarted, a good c r e a -t i v e work, a p a s s i o n f i l l e d . It i s t h i s t h w a r t i n g of p a s s i o n which takes p l a c e in the name of medical t r e a t -ment." (p.309) Rogers says t h a t the mainspring of c r e a t i v i t y i s s e I f - a c t u a I i zat i on and c l a i m s t h a t t r u e c r e a t i v i t y must y i e l d a product as opposed t o others who would c o n s i d e r process a l e g i t i m a t e f u n c t i o n i n g of c r e a t i v i t y . Gordon (1978) says t h a t a search f o r meaning i s e s s e n t i a l t o the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . She f u r t h e r says: "Engagement in a c r e a t i v e process de-pends, I b e l i e v e , on a person's cap-a c i t y t o m o b i l i z e c o n t r a d i c t o r y but mutually r e c i p r o c a l q u a l i t i e s . A person must be open t o new exper-iences no matter how b e w i l d e r i n g or unknowable." (p.130) But perhaps the most i n t e r e s t i n g e x p l a n a t i o n of c r e a t i v i t y i s p r o v i d e d by S i n n o t t (1959) in an a r t i c l e on "The C r e a t i v e n e s s of L i f e . " He p o i n t s t o imag i nat i on and f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n as the keys to c r e a t i v i t y and says t h e r e are two d i s t i n c t types of c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s : 1) An accumulation of a l l i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e , then p u t t i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n together i n t o unrecognized re I at i onsh i ps; 2) A more common process in which a new idea a r i s e s , almost spontaneously in t h e mind, o f t e n seemingly out of nothing and at a time when a person might be t h i n k i n g of something q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . T h i s second type of c r e a t i v i t y i s d e a l t with through a r a t h e r romantic p e r s p e c t i v e in Bob Samples book The  Metaphoric Mind. (1976) He d e s c r i b e s the c r e a t i v e p r o -cess d e v e l o p i n g through metaphoric r a t h e r than l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . F u r t h e r d e s c r i b i n g t h i s p o s s i b l e metaphoric type of c r e a t i v e process S i n n o t t says: "The l i v i n g system here i s e x e r c i s i n g i t s a b i l i t y t o i n t e g r a t e and organize a p a t t e r n out of f o r m l e s s n e s s , a n i achievement which r a t i o n a l thought, being somewhat removed from i t s p r i m i -42 t i v e being source and bound with habit and convention, may be incap-able of d o i n g . . . t h e s t r i v i n g of the unconscious to create patterns out of formlessness is the same process used by the body so that mind and body share t h i s creat ive element. ' C r e a t i v i t y ' thus becomes an a t -t r i b u t e of l i f e . " (p.107) S innot t , therefore , does not separate physical and mental processess of c r e a t i v i t y but considers them one v itaI Ii fe f orce . c) Condit ions for C r e a t i v i t y If an indiv idual has the essent ia l elements of c r e a t i v i t y , which could be pass ion, imagination, a sear-ching for meaning, a des ire for s e I f - a c t u a I i z a t i o n , a p r e d i l e c t i o n to free a s soc ia t ion , considerat ion of c r e a t i v i t y as a l i f e force , i t only remains to set up the condit ions to foster c r e a t i v i t y . This must take place on the part of the indiv idual and the society i t s e l f . Commenting on the individual Gordon says: "The process of creat ion demands f i r s t and foremost that a person be ava i lab le to those f r e e l y moving, o s c i l l a t i o n s between control and surrender, between d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and d e - d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , that is between periods of act ive con-scious work on the one hand and periods of passive acceptance on the other." (P.140) So Gordon describes a state in which a person has time for both app l i ca t ion and r e f l e c t i o n , or nourishing and being nourished. Rogers (1970) claims that c r e a t i v i t y ex i s t s in every indiv idual and awaits only the proper condit ions to be released and expressed. He out l ines three condit ions necessary for c r e a t i v i t y to emerge: " I) an openess to experience and lack of r i g i d i t y ; 2) the product must have the "feel" of being me- in-act ion; 3) an a b i l i t y to toy with the elements and concepts, to play spontaneously with ideas, c o l o r s , shapes, r e l a t i o n -ships", (p .143) Rogers also describes the condit ions which must be provided by society to fos ter c r e a t i v i t y . He says that psychological safety must be present, i . e . , accepting the indiv idual as having unconditioned worth and p r o v i d -ing a cl imate in which no external evaluation is present. The second c o n d i t i o n which must be p r o v i d e d by s o c i e t y i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l freedom t o allow f o r symbolic ex-p r e s s i on. Although I would ques t i o n Roger's issue of a b s o l -u t e l y "no e x t e r n a l " e v a l u a t i o n , both in s o c i e t y and in therapy, f o r the most p a r t , both Roger's and Gordon's c o n d i t i o n s can be a p p l i e d t o t h e r a p e u t i c s e t t i n g s as well as t o s o c i e t y . These c a l l f o r more freedom echo Frank I's i n -s i s t e n c e on p r o v i d i n g c h o i c e , freedom and the r i g h t t o se If-determ i nat i on. Rothenberg (1979) in an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d " C r e a t i v e C o n t r a d i c t i o n s " says t h a t c r e a t i v e people are drawn t o t e n s i o n s between o p p o s i t e s , and have a t o l e r a n c e and an a b i l i t y t o work with paradox. He d e s c r i b e s t h i s p r o -cess as " j a n u s i a n t h i n k i n g " and, c l a i m s t h a t i t i s a conscious as opposed t o unconscious a c t i v i t y . Opposites or a n t i t h e s e s are conceived s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . One n o v e l -i s t interviewed by Rothenberg r e f e r r e d t o the source of h i s novel as being one l i n e i n d i c a t i n g t h a t love and hate were the same. He notes Taoism with i t s o p p o s i t e s of Y i n and Yang and Buddhism with n i r v a n a being the end of the c y c l e of r e b i r t h as being s i m i l a r t o the concept of j a n u s i a n t h i n k i n g of the c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s approach has p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e here. Paradox i s o f t e n what b r i n g s people i n t o t h e r a p e u t i c environments. Because of lack of ins ight , understanding or problem so lv ing a b i l i t y they are immobilized by paradox i n -stead of challenged to growth—"through i t R o t h e n b e r g suggests that janusian th ink ing is often outside of or beyond l o g i c . Therefore i t fol lows that pat ients and c l i e n t s should be encouraged to experiment with novel ideas to ponder what Rothenberg c a l l s irreconceiIabIe constructs . d) C r e a t i v i t y and the Arts The r e l a t i o n between the arts and c r e a t i v i t y is not exc lus ive . On the contrary , c r e a t i v i t y l ives in Everyman, whether in a dormant and yet undiscovered stage or funct ioning at f u l l capac i ty . On the other hand, Music Therapy is no more a science than Physics is an a r t , as Physics in a sense is no more a science than Music Therapy is an a r t . The element of c r e a t i v i t y s i g n i f i e s an approach or a t t i t u d e , e . g . , Physics is an art and Music Therapy a sc ience, when des-c r i b i n g approach as opposed to essence. As Gordon s tates : " . . . t h e crea t ive process can be appl ied to anything but i t is true that a r t i s t s , probably more than anyone e lse have been interested and concerned with the actual pro -cess . . . furthermore, making ' a r t ' i n v o l v e s perhaps a p a r t i c u l a r l y large number of d i f f e r e n t mental a c t i v i t i e s , such as making, forming, i n v e n t i n g , d i s c o v e r i n g , l e a r n i n g and experiment-ing, f e e l i n g , t h i n k i n g and doing," (P.129) It seems t h a t the a r t s encourage "easy a c c e s s " t o c r e a t i v i t y . By e x p e r i e n c i n g the c r e a t i v e a r t s t h e r a p i e s , p a t i e n t s / c l i e n t s are able t o p a r t i c i p a t e in symbolic h e a l i n g experiences and may a l s o apply these newly-p r a c t i c e d processes in c r e a t i v i t y t o other p a r t of t h e i r l i f e f o r growth and change. The 1978 Task Panel f o r the Use of the A r t s in Therapy and the Environment of the P r e s i d e n t ' s Commission on Mental Health has s t a t e d : "The a r t s , i f presented in a s e t t i n g of t h e i r own under the s u p e r v i s i o n and guidance of the c r e a t i v e p r o f e s s -i o n a l , can p r o v i d e the necessary oppor-t u n i t y f o r t h e i r inherent h e a l i n g powers t o support the innate s t r e n g t h s and i n -t e g r i t y of the p a t i e n t . If such a h e a l -ing experience i s made p o s s i b l e f o r the p a t i e n t t o c a r r y the knowledge and s t r e n g t h s gained from the c r e a t i v e ex-p e r i e n c e i n t o the l i f e he w i l l take up o u t s i d e the h o s p i t a l . " (p.I 96 I) CIos i ng It i s unfortunate t o make d i s t i n c t i o n s between s c i e n c e and a r t f o r they can be c o n s i d e r e d one in the same as a v e h i c l e f o r d i s c o v e r y . However, in order t h a t the l i f e and p o t e n t i a l of the " t o t a l man" be a p p r e c i a t e d j i t i s important f o r a while t o take an a t t i t u d e of c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m . Such c r i t i c i s m i s important t o make use of other v e h i c l e s of d i s c o v e r y which f a l l under the heading of "the a r t s " , r a t h e r than under " l i c e n t i o u s technology", manned by I I I i c h . To be s p e c i f i c , i t may be more u s e f u l f o r the i n -d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y , f o r man t o u t i l i z e the processes, t e c h n i q u e s , methods and a t t i t u d e s of a l l the a r t s in more areas, p a r t i c u I a r i I y those concerned with h e a l i n g . Because of a consensus in the medrca4-Tprofessi6nal , s o c i e t y has taken on c e r t a i n f i x e d a t t i t u d e s about what can and cannot be c o n s i d e r e d therapy. Thomas Szasz (1974) c a l l s f o r new s o l u t i o n s : "The only v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h i s f a m i l i a r but f a l s e p e r -s p e c t i v e i s t o abandon the e n t i r e approach t o mental i l l ness and t o s u b s t i t u t e new approaches f o r i t . " (p.79) In many cases, the a r t s c o u l d p r o v i d e t h i s a l t e r n -a t i v e . Spinoza has s a i d t h a t "emotion, which i s s u f f e r -ing, ceases t o be s u f f e r i n g as soon as we form a c l e a r and p r e c i s e p i c t u r e of i t . " ( F r a n k l , 1959, p.74) The a r t s p r o v i d e powerful ways in which t o fo c u s and c l a r i f y " p i c t u r e s " , whether in sound, movement, c o l o r , or shape. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e in the spectrum of emotions. The a r t s can even be c o n s i d e r e d the lang-uage of emotion. In a d d i t i o n "the a r t s with t h e i r inherent a b i l i t y t o e l i c i t involvement and personal a c t i o n , may be em-ployed as a c o u n t e r f o r c e t o the widespread p a s s i v i t y in our s o c i e t y , the u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l and assume personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . " (Task Panel, 1978, p.1942) Wit h i n the experiences o f f e r e d in the a r t s t h e r a p i e s not only i s t h e r e a meaningful e x p r e s s i o n of emotion, but a l s o an i n v i t a t i o n t o personal a c t i o n . As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y the issue of the e f f e c t i v e -ness or i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s of v a r i o u s t h e r a p i e s cannot be separated from the issue of c r e a t i v i t y . It should be c l e a r by now t h a t the major concern w i t h i n t h i s document i s the r i g i d i t y p r o v i d e d w i t h i n medical treatment as opposed t o the p o t e n t i a l c r e a t i v i t y which c o u l d be o f f e r -ed through the a r t s and m o d i f i c a t i o n of present t h e r a p i e s . As A r i e t i (1976) s t a t e s : "Although c r e a t i v i t y i s by no means the o n l y way in which the human being can grow, i t i s one of the most irapor-49 t a n t . The growth o c c u r s not o n l y i n t h e c r e a t i v e p e r s o n but i n a l l t h o s e who a r e a f f e c t e d by t h e i n -n o v a t i o n " , (p.41 3) The f o l l o w i n g i I I u s t r a t i o n shows t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between important c o n s i d e r a t i o n s n e g l e c t e d i n s t a n d a r d n o n - a r t t h e r a p i e s and c r e a t i v i t y . freedom sp i r i t u a I r e a I i z a t i ons ph i I o s o p h i c a I r e a I i z a t i ons C R E A T I V respons i b i I i t y f o r s e l f a c t i o n and s e I f - e x p r e s s i on I n n o v a t i v e t h o u g h t and b e h a v i o r cho i c e d e t i r r i i f nat i on This i l l u s t r a t i o n indicates both an inward and outward movement. A l l of these q u a l i t i e s or functions or phenomenon (which w i l l be c a l l e d categories) feed c r e a t i v i t y and are fed by c r e a t i v i t y . They are a l l necessary for c r e a t i v i t y and the successful funct ioning of c r e a t i v i t y bui lds on each p a r t i c u l a r category. The inward and outward motion can be considered in another analogy. The outside categories are g i f t s which society allows the pat ient to receive through an a t t i tude of support and a s p i r i t of d iscovery . The indiv idual represents c r e a t i v i t y . If the flow is per -mitted, both society and the individual benefit from any products of the creat ive process . Every element of the model is inherent in ex-periences with the a r t s . Although these processes could na tura l ly be d i s tor ted by poor leadership or lack of wisdom and respect , the potent ia l for a r t s , and ar t s therapies experiences to heal are great . The next sect ion w i l l provide some examples of how native cu l tures use the arts for hea l ing . 51 SECTION B THE DEATH-REBIRTH MYTH \ I am the tree And in t h i s moment of being tree I experience both the endless s truggle and profound beauty of l i f e in the same breath. We are engaged in a quest for surv iva l and baIance. I hear the music of our dance even through the s i l ence of dark hours. Soon the leaves on my brother w i l l turn many shades And l e a v e . . . t o replenish the earth again . I too change. I sometimes die and am reborn. As long as we share connecting patterns we are one, Not I, nor he . . . b u t whole and sweet l i f e . - C. Kenny 1979 (unpublished) I) Myth Before the implementation of the Death-Rebirth Myth, i t i s important t o r e i n s t a t e the concept of myth as h e a l e r . T h i s p r e s e n t s some d i f f i c u l t y both because of the present popular d e f i n i t i o n of myth and c e r t a i n c u l t u r a l a s s o c i a t i o n s a t t a c h e d t o the concept of myth. The most s i m p l i f i e d d e f i n i t i o n of myth i s t h a t i t i s a widespread c u l t u r a l s t o r y . There i s u s u a l l y a mess-age in the myth beyond the s t o r y , a h e l p f u l h i n t about how t o l i v e . Perhaps because we experience myth through r i t u a l s and r i t u a l s are a s s o c i a t e d with "magic", modern man f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t t o accept the concept of myth. Myth has been d i s t o r t e d in general usage t o mean an j j n t r u e s t o r y , something which seems t r u e , but i s not. Larsen (1976) holds s c i e n t i s t s accountable f o r some of t h i s d i s t o r t i o n . " S c i e n c e has in f a c t rendered ' m y t h o l o g i c a l ' a l l a s s e r t i o n s about the nature of the u n i -v e r s e which are not v e r i f i a b l e by e x p e r i -ment. From the a n i m i s t i c b e l i e f s of prim-i t i v e s t o the highest metaphysics of p h i l -osophers, theo Iog i ans, a l l mode Is of the u n i v e r s e or the workings of r e a l i t y which cannot be e x p l i c i t l y v a l i d a t e d tn the ex-perimental paradigm of s c i e n c e become un-v e r i f i a b l e t h e o r y — m y t h f o r s h o r t . And t h e most p r e v a l e n t modern meaning f o r myth i s , i n f a c t , a t t r a c t i v e f i c t i o n , t e m p t i n g , but i n p r o v a b l e . " (p.3) C u l t u r a l l y , t h i s i s how we f i n d o u r s e l v e s i n r e l a t i o n myth a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . But we a r e coming i n t o a t i m e o f myth once a g a i n . Larsen (1976) c o n t i n u e s : "But a g a i n s t t h e background o f h i s t o r y , t h e eye-opening y e a r s o f our r a t i o n a l , s c i e n t i f i c e n l i g h t e n m e n t seem a b r i e f moment i n t h e morning o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . We have c u l t u r a l l y yawned and s t r e t c h e d a l i t t l e , but t h e shadow, myt h - s u s c e p t -i b l e dreamer i s s t i l l t h e r e j u s t below the s u r f a c e o f our new-found awareness." (P.3) Dimmitt-Church (1975) o f f e r s a c u r r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f myth: "Myth i s a s y n t h e t i c mode o f e x p e r i e n c e and e x p r e s s i o n t h a t d e r i v e s from t h e r i g h t b r a i n , h o l i s t i c mode of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I t r e l a t e s t o t h a t p a r t o f man's psyche t h a t i s l a r g e -l y i n a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e e x t e r n a l e m p i r i c a l w o r l d , i s l a r g e l y n o n - v e r b a l , and i s more c l o s e l y i n to u c h w i t h t h e r e p o s i t o r y o f i n a r t i c u l a t e , i n s t i n c t u a l p a t t e r n s , or a r c h -types t h a t a f f e c t e x t e r n a l l i f e i n -d i r e c t l y through symbolic a c t i v i t y but are not d i r e c t l y a c c e s s i b l e t o co n s c i o u s n e s s . " (p.5 I) Thus through myth we are abl e t o e x t e r n a l i z e our i n d i v i d -ual human hopes and f e a r s i n t o the c u l t u r a l context and experience them as "shared" phenomena. Weekamn (1975) p r o v i d e s a c o n t r a s t i n g idea about myth and mode: "I do not even t h i n k t h a t we have t o change our mode of consciousness in order t o f i n d meaning in myths as well as h i s t o r y and s c i e n c e . We need only broaden the world of our data, have a f u l l e r n o t i o n of what makes up r e a l i t y , and in c l u d e the uniquely human and p s y c h i c elements of l i f e in our no t i o n o f t h e f a c t u a l . Then the o l d p o l a r i t i e s of myth and f a c t , r e l i g i o n and s c i e n c e , r e v e l a t i o n and r a t i o n a l i t y d i s a p p e a r . Myth i s seen to be as o r d i n a r y and as e x t r a o r d i n a r y as any attempt t o express the mystery of the world, and as f r u i t f u l . " (p.106) T h i s i s a s e n s i b l e way of d i s m i s s i n g the imagined p o l a r -i t i e s of myth and f a c t . Regarding the f unct i on of myth, Joseph Campbell expresses one of the f u n c t i o n s t o be a s h i f t of em-p h a s i s from the i n d i v i d u a l t o the group. Myth i s a wonder which man cannot e x p l a i n , an informing energy, a reminder t h a t the whole world i s D i v i n e . ^ For the Navaho people, myths a f f i r m t h a t t h e r e i s rhyme and reason in a wor Id f u l l of hazards (Kluckholm, 1946, p.233). Malinowski (1948) s t a t e s t h a t f o r p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s in genera I : "Myth f u l f i l l s an i n d i s p e n s a b l e f u n c t i o n : i t expresses, enhances and c o d i f i e s be-l i e f ; i t safeguards and e n f o r c e s m o r a l i t y ; i t couches f o r the e f f i c i e n c y of r i t u a l and c o n t a i n s p r a c t i c a l r u l e s f o r the guidance of man. Myth i s thus a v i t a l i n g r e d i e n t of human c i v i l i z a t i o n . " (p.101) He a l s o s t r e s s e s the intimate r e l a t i o n s h i p between myth and r i t u a l , t o gether p r o v i d i n g a l i v i n g r e a l i t y . (1948) R i t u a l i s the form through which we experience myth. In the Melanesian c u l t u r e "an intimate connection e x i s t s between the word, the mythos. the sacr e d t a l e s of a t r i b e , on the one hand, and t h e i r r i tuaI a c t s , t h e i r moral deeds, t h e i r s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , and even t h e i r p r a c t i c a l a c t -i v i t i e s on the o t h e r . " (Sandner, 1978) S i n c e our i n t e r e s t in both myth and r i t u a l comes from a d e s i r e t o r e i n s t a t e them f o r present day h e a l i n g , i t i s necessary again t o develop a c u r r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t -i o n . Sandner (1978) through h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of Navaho symbols of h e a l i n g p r o v i d e s us with t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y . "The myth makes do with what " f a c t s " , i t has, and goes about i t s business of c r e a t i n g an i n t u i t i v e emotional i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of them. The r i t u a l s embody s a c r e d a c t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e t o the s t r u c t u r e of the world b u i l t up by myths. They go hand in hand, com-p l e t i n g and complementing each o t h e r — the.mythic r e a l i t y and the r i t u a l r e s -ponse." (p.13) In other words we go with what we have, s e a r c h i n g f o r the bare bones of mythic content l e f t f o r us, the common t e r r i t o r y which u n i t e s people, and a l s o begin t o c r e a t e r i t u a l s in which t o r e l i v e myth. a) Symbolic HeaIi ng " I f we l i s t e n s e n s i t i v e l y , p a t i e n t l y , t o the symbol code of the mythic mess-ages, c o u l d they in f a c t change us by changing the way we look at our l i v e s and o u r s e l v e s , by changing the angle, the p o s i t i o n in which we "Stand under" them? ( D o o l i n g , 1976, p.51) Integral t o the use of the Myth of Death-Rebirth i s the concept of symbolic h e a l i n g . W i t h i n symbolic h e a l i n g , the symbol, in t h i s case the music embodying the Death-Rebirth Myth, has some s p i r i t u a l , phys-c h o l o g i c a l , p h y s i c a l e f f e c t and i n s p i r e s a h e a l i n g of some damaged p a r t o f p e r s o n a l i t y . In t h i s case, by s t i m u l a t i n g the person t o i d e n t i f y with the process, of d e a t h - r e b i r t h , t h e person i s ab l e t o experience a meta-p h o r i c dying and r e b i r t h . Metaphoric dying engages the psyche on some l e v e l , whether through c o g n i t i v e r e -c o g n i t i o n or s p i r i t u a l i n s p i r a t i o n . T h i s r e a c t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t t o monitor from behavior and may take the form of l e a r n i n g from c o r r e c t i v e experience, a c q u i r i n g new i n s i g h t , i d e n t i f y i n g the s i m i l a r i t i e s ebetween symbolic d e a t h - r e b i r t h and some present l i f e d ilema. S i n c e t h e r e are many i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of what con-s t i t u t e s a "symbol", i t i s important t o c l a r i f y i t s meaning here. Whitmont (1969) in The Symbolic Quest, d e f i n e s symbol as "the e x p r e s s i o n of a spontaneous ex-pe r i e n c e which p o i n t s beyond i t s e l f t o a meaning not conveyed by a r a t i o n a l term, owing t o the l a t t e r ' s i n -t r i n s i c l i m i t a t i o n . " ( p . l 8 ) He says t h a t a symbol i s the best r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a r e l a t i v e l y unknown t h i n g . "The symbolic approach by d e f i n i t i o n p o i n t s beyond i t s e l f and beyond what can be made immediately a c c e s s i b l e t o our o b s e r v a t i o n . While t h i s approach i s not a b s t r a c t or r a t i o n a l , n e i t h e r can i t be regarded as i r r a t i o n a l , r a t h e r i t has laws and a s t r u c t u r e of i t s own which correspond t o the s t r u c t u r a l laws of emotion and i n t u i t i v e r e a l i z a t i o n . " (P.14) Both D o o l i n g and E l i a d e c l a i m t h a t "symbolism i s a r e -v e l a t i o n of r e a l i t y , a message t h a t speaks o f passage from one world o f meaning t o another, sometimes D i v i n e t o human." (p.50) For present purposes, a l l o f these ideas shed some understanding on "symbol". But Suzanne Langer's (1953) s i m p l i f i e d d e f i n i t i o n w i l l s erve both t o c l a r i f y the meaning and t o e s t a b l i s h an important l i n k which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r : Symbol i s any t h i n g which may f u n c t i o n as the v e h i c l e f o r a c o n c e p t i o n . In t h i s case the music i s the v e h i c l e which e s t a b l i s h e s a r e -l a t i o n between the mythic concept o f d e a t h - r e b i r t h and the people p a r t i c i p a t i n g in the musical e x p e r i e n c e . Dimmitt-Church (1973) adds a new dimension in des-c r i b i n g symbolic a c t i v i t y : "'Symbolic a c t i v i t y ' " i s manifest as a s y n t h e s i s of r i g h t and l e f t b r a i n f u n -c t i o n s , both in experience i t s e l f and in the e x p r e s s i o n o f t h a t e x p e r i e n c e . 59 Both knowledge and meaning in v o l v e the e n t i r e psyche, both w h o l i s t i c and a n a l y t i c f u n c t i o n s , both inner mythic and outer h i s t o r i c a l dim-ensions of e x i s t e n c e . " (p.51) Symbols are necessary v e h i c l e s f o r h e a l i n g in n a t i v e c u l -t u r e s . Again Sandner e x p l a i n s the f u n c t i o n of symbols f o r the Navaho: "Symbols not o n l y p r o v i d e a vocabulary and an e x p l a n a t i o n but a l s o change the psyche by con-v e r t i n g energy i n t o a d i f f e r e n t form, a form t h a t can h e a l . " (Sandner, 1978, p.14) Here he r e f e r s t o a Navaho " s i n g " . A " s i n g " means a h e a l i n g ceremony t o the Navaho people. D e s c r i b i n g a h e a l i n g ceremony of the Cuna Indians of Panama, L e v i - S t r a u s s (1967) notes: "Once the s i c k woman understands, she does more than r e s i g n h e r s e l f , she gets w e l l . But no such t h i n g happens t o our s i c k when the causes of t h e i r d i s e a s e s have been e x p l a i n e d t o them in terms of s e c r e t i o n s , germs or v i r u s e s . We s h a l l perhaps be accused of paradox i f we ans-wer t h a t the reason l i e s in the f a c t t h a t microbes e x i s t and monsters do not. And y e t , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between germ and d i s e a s e i s e x t e r n a l t o the mind of the 60 the p a t i e n t , f o r i t i s a cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p ; whereas the r e l a t i o n s h i p between monster and d i s -ease i s i n t e r n a l t o h i s mind, whether conscious or unconscious; i t i s a r e -l a t i o n s h i p between ..symbol and t h i n g symbolized, or between s i g n and mean-ing . The shaman p r o v i d e s the s i c k woman with a language, by means of which unexpressed, and otherwise i n -e x p r e s s i b l e , p s y c h i c s t a t e s can be immediately expressed." (p.193) Whitmont (1964) p r e s e n t s two p o s s i b l e approaches t o the problems and d i s t u r b a n c e s which l i f e p r e s e n t s : 1) s y m p t o m a t i c — d e v i a t i o n s from normalcy; 2) s y m b o l i c — m e a n i n g f u I n e s s yet u n r e a l i z e d . Again on the Navaho use of symboISeSandner sa y s : "By the p r e s e n t a t i o n of these symbols man i s put in touch with h i s inner r e s o u r c e s . If the h e a l i n g images are s t r o n g enough, i f the medicine man i s s k i l l f u l and unwavering in h i s purpose, and i f the p a t i e n t ' s involvement i s deep and urgent, then h e a l i n g can c o n f i d e n t l y be expected t o occur." (p.22) The same pro c e s s can be a p p l i e d t o c u r r e n t " t h e r a p i e s " . T h i s b r i n g s up the quest i o n o f s p e c i f i c d i s a b i l i t i e s . In l i g h t o f present medical knowledge, Sandner's des^ c r i p t i o n c o u l d be read as d e a l i n g with p s y c h o l o g i c a l or s p i r i t u a l " l a c k of r e s o u r c e s " o n l y . However, enough r e s e a r c h has accumulated t o s a f e l y conclude t h a t the mind-body s e p a r a t i o n theory i s a dubious id e a . These areas of r e s e a r c h i n c l u d e biofeedback, a l t e r e d s t a t e s of consciousness and neurophysiology. It i s becoming c l e a r t h a t mind and body are p a r t of the same whole and are mutually e f f e c t e d by s t i m u l u s . The category of i l l n e s s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s the area of psychosomatic " d i s e a s e s " . Moerman (1979) in an a r t i c l e on "Symbolic H e a l i n g " s t a t e s : " R e search...in psychosomatic medicine, biofeedback, and hostpathogen i n t e r -a c t i o n a l l i n d i c a t e in a general way t h a t t h e r e are s u b s t a n t i a l pathways which l i n k p h y s i o l o g i c a l and c o g n i t i v e s t a t e s , t h a t these two realms of human e x i s t e n c e , body and mind, are l i n k e d , and moreover, t h a t these pathways are the stage on which metaphoric concepts of performance are E f f e c t i v e and i n -f l u e n c e b i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s . " (p.62) He d i s c u s s e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between symbol and sub-sta n c e , mind and body, psycho 1 0 9 i c a I / s o c i o l 0 9 i c a I phenomena and p h y s c i a l symptoms, mental a c t s and phy-s c i a l l i f e . S t u d i e s in neurophysiology have iden-t i f i e d one of the l i n k s between mind and body in t h e ce n t e r of the autonomic nervous system, the hypothalamus. "...the power of the metaphor, a ' s t r a t e g i c p r e d i c t i o n ' can move us, t h a t i s , change our minds and lead us t o behavior change. Metaphorical s t r u c t u r e , the system of meaning of a h e a l i n g d i s c i p l i n e i s d e c i s i v e in i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s as much as drugs... as in Native h e a l i n g r i t u a l s where both drugs and songs and dances are f e l t t o have equal impact." (Moerman, 1979, p.60) Si n c e symbolic h e a l i n g occurs both in and between mind and body, t h e metaphoric and the p h y s i o l o g i c a l , i t r e -p r e s e n t s a h o l i s t i c approach. The r e l a t i o n between symbolic h e a l i n g and the d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth i s t h a t the whole person experiences or learns about the value of the d e a t h - r e b i r t h p r o c e s s , on i t s v a r i o u s l e v e l s from a c t u a l death t o some temporary s i t u a t i o n a l l o s s . Sandner (1978) d e s c r i b e s f o u r b a s i c forms or a r c h t y p i c a l p r i n c i p l e s of symbolic h e a l i n g : 1) a r e t u r n t o the o r i g i n . o r source, the C r e a t i o n of the world; 2) management of " e v i l " ; 3) the r e s t o r a t i o n o f a s t a b l e u n i v e r s e ; 4) the theme of d e a t h - r e b i r t h . We w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e on the l a s t c a t e g o r y . b) The Reoenerative Experience W i t h i n r e l i g i o u s and c u l t u r a l systems, the regen-e r a t i v e experience has always been valued as one of man' b a s i c h e a l e r s . In some, as w i l l be i l l u s t r a t e d , the c y c l e o f r e g e n e r a t i o n p r o v i d e s the r a i s o n d / e t r e , the essence of meaning t o l i f e . Buddhism i s based on the continuous c y c l e of death and r e b i r t h . One never r e a l l y d i e s . One i s born again many times u n t i l the achievement of Nirvana, T h i s p r o -cess may take a person through many bodies and many ages. Each l i f e i s r e l a t e d t o the past l i v e s and each l i f e s t r i v e s t o complete the u n f i n i s h e d business of the past (karma). "...the wish f o r perpetual s u r v i v a l i s perhaps the most powerful d e s i r e m o t i v a t i n g the o r d i n a r y person's l i f e . It i s very i n t e r e s t i n g t o see how t h i s problem i s handled in the Zen system. To begin with the idea of being dead vers e s being a l i v e i s l a b e l l e d a f a l l a c i o u s concept based on dualism. The Buddhist cosmology of constant change, of a b a s i c Nothing t h a t takes a v a r i e t y of forms says t h a t the student i s p a r t of a process t h a t does not end but simply changes or f l o w s . " (Deikman, 1971, p.78) In t h e Hindu t r a d i t i o n the Bhagavad G i t a says: c ^For c e r t a i n i s death f o r the born, and c e r t a i n i s b i r t h f o r the dead. The poet Maul ana J a l a l u d d i n Rumi (1207-1273) con-s i d e r e d t o be the most i n f l u e n t i a l f i g u r e in t h e develop-ment of Islamic thought sees t h a t : " E v e r y t h i n g f o l l o w s the r u l e t h a t s a c r i f i c e i s necessary t o reach a higher g o a l . The f i e l d has t o be ploughed, be t o r n m e r c i l e s s l y , so v t h a t i t can r e c e i v e the seed; the seed grows and i s harvested and the g r a i n s are crushed under the m i l l -stone; the f l o u r then has t o endure the process of baking in order t o become bread, which w i l l be crushed again by man's t e e t h . But by t h i s c o nstant s u c c e s s i o n of s a c r i f i c e s the g r a i n w i l l f i n a l l y become p a r t and p a r c e l of the human nature and w i l l thus p a r t i c i p a t e t o a c e r t a i n extent in the human soul and s p i r i t . " (Schimmel, 1978, p.7) Another Eastern p h i l o s o p h e r , G u r d j i e f f (1949) says: ...the appearance of one i n d i v i s i b l e I . ..But in order t o be a b l e t o a t t a i n t h i s or at l e a s t t o begin t o a t t a i n i t , a man must die...Attachment t o things...keeps a l i v e a thousand u s e l e s s I's in a man. These I's must d i e in order t h a t the b i g I may be born...continuaI c o n s c i o u s -ness of h i s nothingness and of h i s h e l p l e s s n e s s w i l l e v e n t u a l l y give a man the courage t o " d i e " , t h a t i s , t o d i e , not merely mentally or in theory, but t o d i e in f a c t and t o renounce a c t u a l l y and f o r e v e r those aspects of h i m s e l f which are e i t h e r unnecessary from the p o i n t -of view of h i s inner growth or which hinder i t . (Pababola, 1977, p.7) C h r i s t i a n p h i l o s o p h y and p r a c t i c e i s based on the model of C h r i s t who d i e d , only t o be born a g a i n , t r a n s c e n d i n g l i f e on e a r t h , a c h i e v i n g a higher s t a t e of e x i s t e n c e . The baptism r i t u a l a l l o w s a person t o become born again by dying t o o r i g i n a l s i n . Brother David S t e i n d l - R a s t (1977) a B e n e d i c t i n e monk, p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the C h r i s t i a n app^ roach t o death, f o c u s i n g on the s i m i l a r i t i e s between Eastern and Western thought. He says t h a t one of the b a s i c approaches t o d a i l y l i f e in the monastery i s t o have death at a l l times before one's eyes, " I t i s see-ing of every l i f e a g a i n s t the h o r i z o n of death, and a c h a l l e n g e t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h a t awareness of dying i n t o every moment so as t o become more f u l l y a l i v e , (p.22) He makes a d i s t i n c t i o n between purpose and meaning. And as Frankl in our f i r s t chapter c l a i m s , we l i v e by meaning and o f t e n loose the meaning by g e t t i n g l o s t in purpose. He lends a C h r i s t i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o the non attachment p r i n c i p l e s we hear so o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with the Zen t r a d i t i o n , "Whenever we give o u r s e l v e s t o what-ever p r e s e n t s i t s e l f i n s t e a d of grasp-ing and h o l d i n g i t , we flow with i t , . , e v e r y t h i n g i s a l i v e as long as we l e t i t go...For t h i s seems t o be one of the b a s i c laws of l i f e ; we have only what we g i v e up." (p.25) He uses the example of a mother and c h i I d and t h e i r per sonal r e l a t i o n s h i p . "Even a f t e r (a c h i l d ) i s born phy-s c i a l l y i t has t o be set f r e e and l e t go over and over again...I t h i n k mothering i s j u s t l i k e d y i n g . . . i t i s 67 something t h a t we must do a l l through I i f e. .* . (p >25 ) Brother Steinda I-Rast g i v e s us h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c u r r e n t s t a t e of c u l t u r e w i t h i n the context of h i s a r t i c l e " L e a r n i n g t o D i e"i "Our problem at the moment seems t o be t h a t we have outgrown our c h i l d -l i k e i n t e g r i t y in d e a l i n g with escha-t o l o g i c a l myths, but have not yet achieved the i n t e g r i t y of mature minds capable of a c c e p t i n g these myths more f u l l y than the c h i l d c o u l d . We are I ike awkward a d o l e s c e n t s who laugh at f a i r y t a l e s t h a t were deeply meaning-f u l t o them not <Long ago and w i l l be more meaningful s t i l l a s h o r t time hence." (p.29) Sandner d i s c u s s e s the d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth and i t s f u n c t i o n in Navaho I i f e : "Death and r e b i r t h are t h e m y t h o l o g i c a l symbol f o r a p s y c h o l o g i c a l event: l o s s o f - c o n s c i o u s c o n t r o l , and submission t o an i n f l u x of symbolic m a t e r i a l from the un-c o n s c i o u s . T h i s i s always f e l t t o be a great s a c r i f i c e , a dying t o one's own s e l f . L ike the sun, the ego must prepare i t s e l f f o r a plunge into the darkness of the unconscious world, t h e r e t o ex-p e r i e n c e r e j u v e n a t i o n . The symbolic process of death and r e b i r t h i s found wherever t h e r e i s a l i f e c r i s i s n e c e s s i t a t i n g r i t e s of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n r e c h a n n e l i n g p s y c h i c energy from o l d p a t t e r n s t o more f u n c t i o n a l new ones." (157) W i t h i n Sandner's d e s c r i p t i o n i t i s easy t o i d e n t i f y the r e l e v a n c e of the d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth f o r man today. The a p p l i c a t i o n would be the same. Not only does the myth have g r e a t meaning f o r each person in i n d i v i d u a l l i f e , but i t a l s o s e r v e s the other important group f u n c t i o n through i d e n t i f y i n g what Campbell c a l l s an elementary idea, t h a t i s , an idea which a p p l i e s t o a l l people, a human c o n s t a n t . T h i s second f u n c t i o n adds depth and mean-ing and encourages people t o c o n s i d e r themselves ,i n r e -l a t i o n t o other beings. One person i s not alone in s u f f e r -ing. Sandner d i s c u s s e s the matter of " s u f f e r i n g " . " S u f f e r i n g i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of human l i f e . To the doctor or medi-c i n e man who works with people in d i s t r e s s , t h i s has an immediate d a i l y r e a l i t y . He lear n s t h a t man can accept a tremendous amount of l e g i t i m a t e s u f f e r i n g ; what he can-not accept i s s u f f e r i n g t h a t has no purpose. To be endured and ac-cepted, s u f f e r i n g must be given a meaning," (p.157) The d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth, i f accepted and experienced through c u l t u r a l r i t u a l o f some k i n d , can be "meaningful". Death and r e b i r t h connect the psyche t o the on-going processes and rhythms of l i f e . Any one of l i f e ' s s i t -u a t i o n s can p r o v i d e a context f o r t h i s u n i v e r s a l myth, V i c t o r Frankl speaks of l i f e in the c o n c e n t r a t i o n camp. He says t h a t in order t o s u r v i v e and f i n d some meaning f o r e x i s t e n c e , the p r i s o n e r s went through a phase of apathy or what he c a l l s "emotional death". Once they had " d i e d " and reduced t h e i r psyche t o the most b a s i c l e v e l of e x i s t e n c e , they were prepared t o be reborn again in the c o n c e n t r a t i o n camp. Frankl suggests t h a t people do not need a tens ion I ess s t a t e , but ins t e a d r e q u i r e a s t r i v i n g and s t r u g g l i n g f o r some worthy g o a l . The S a l i s h Guardian S p i r i t Dance Ceremonies pro-v i d e an example of how the r e g e n e r a t i v e experience i s used as a h e a l e r within.ja soc i a I/sp i r i tua I system. The i n i t i a t e s , who are u s u a l l y young people having some pro-blem in l i f e , are encouraged t o d i e t o the white man's ways and be reborn again as a t r u e Indian. ( J i l e k , 1972) Through the r i t u a l s of Guardian S p i r i t Ceremonials, p a r t i c i p a n t s s i n g , dance, f a s t , costume, t r a i n and undergo a type of symbolic death which f r e e s them from both c o r r u p t i n f l u e n c e s , such as drugs and a l c o h o l and anomie r e s u l t i n g from a lack of c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . Once a person has been i n i t i a t e d in these ceremonials he or she i s e l i g i b l e t o dance every season in order t o renew personal h e a l i n g . Guardian S p i r i t Dances are r i t u a l s which have been r e i n s t a t e d i n t o the Longhouse by the S a l i s h people t o add h e a l i n g f o r members of the band today. R i t u a l s of i n i t i a t i o n , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , c r e a t i o n , the hero myths a l l r e l a t e t o d e a t h - r e b i r t h . Each r e -enacted s i t u a t i o n i m p l i e s going through some d i f f i c u l t e x p erience, dying t o part of s e l f or l e t t i n g t o of some-t h i n g or someone and being transformed, reborn, or g r e a t -ly changed in some way. E l i a d e (1958) s t a t e s : " I n i t i a t i o n l i e s at the core of any genuine human l i f e . And t h i s i s t r u e f o r two reasons. The f i r s t i s t h a t any genuine human l i f e implies profound c r i s e s , o r d e a l s , s u f f e r i n g , l o s s , and reconquest of s e l f , "death and r e s u r r e c t i o n " . The second i s t h a t , whatever degrees of f u l f i l l m e n t i t may have brought him at a c e r t a i n moment, every man sees h i s I i f e as a f a i l u r e . The hope and dream of these moments of t o t a l c r i s i s are t o o b t a i n a de-f i n i t i v e and t o t a l " r e n o v a t i o " , a renewal capable of t r a n s m u t t i n g l i f e . " (p.135) T h i s a p p l i e s t o a l l mankind, whether a n c i e n t or modern. Becker (1973) s i t e s Ad I er on t h i s human c o n d i t i o n : " I t was AdIer who saw t h a t low s e l f -esteem was the c e n t r a l problem of mental i l l n e s s . When does the person have the most t r o u b l e with h i s s e l f -esteem? P r e c i s e l y when h i s h e r o i c transcendence of h i s f a t e i s most in doubt, when he doubts h i s own immortal-i t y , t he a b i d i n g value of h i s l i f e , when he i s not convinced t h a t h i s hav-ing l i v e d r e a l l y makes any cosmic d i f -f e r e n c e . " (p.209-10) Robert O r s t e i n (1972) s i m p l i f i e s the idea: "Our own death i s something which we u s u a l l y ignore; yet the w r i t e r s of the t r a d i t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i e s suggest, i t s lessons can be taken while we are s t i l l a l i v e . " ( p . l 6 l ) S i n c e the medical community f u n c t i o n s p r i m a r i l y as a c l o s e d body or s o c i e t y , i t s own i n t e r n a l systems are c o n s i d e r e d more re I event than the ways of the p a s t , c e r -t a i n e s o t e r i c p s y c h o l o g i e s or r e l i g i o u s p h i l o s o p h i e s . These res o u r c e s are r a r e l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the s c i e n t i f i c body of knowledge. The r e g e n e r a t i v e or t r a n s f o r m a t i v e experience as d e s c r i b e d here, i s not employed on a con? s c i o u s l e v e l . C e r t a i n l y the f u l l p o t e n t i a l of the death-r e b i r t h myth as a h e a l e r has not as yet been e x p l o r e d in t h e r a p e u t i c s e t t i n g s . However, in the past f i v e y e a r s , the t o p i c s of a c t u a l death and symbolic death have r e -c e i v e d a t t e n t i o n on a t h e o r e t i c a l and in some cases p r a c -t i c a l l e v e l . T h i s change h o p e f u l l y r e p r e s e n t s a c a t a l y s t which in t h e near f u t u r e wiI I produce a d i r e c t r e s u l t i n the world of " t h e r a p i e s " . The b a s i c message of t h i s l i t -e r a t u r e i s t o c o n s i d e r the act of p h y s i c a l d e a t h - r e b i r t h as one step in many " d y i n g " steps in l i f e . The assumption i s t h a t death i s one of the i n e v i t a b l e laws of nature. Instead of t h i n k i n g about death with f e a r and d e n i a l i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c o n s i d e r i t i n s t e a d as p a r t of the on-going process of l i f e . Without death t h e r e i s no l i f e , without l i f e t h e r e i s no death. An a t t i t u d e about death r e f l e c t s an a t t i t u d e about l i f e . It i s hoped t h a t i f one comes t o accept the i n e v i t a b i l i t y , n e c e s s i t y and even value of death, the same i n s i g h t w i l l apply t o l i f e and p a r t i c u l a r l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . S t a n l e y Keleman (1974) des-73 c r i b e s some of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n h i s book, L i v i n a  Your Dying: " D i s c o v e r i n g our dying i s a t u r n i n g p o i n t . Dying evokes the h e l p l e s s -ness, the unexpected, c h a l l e n g i n g the unknown. Dying e s t a b l i s h e s new d i r e c t i o n s , g a i n i n g new powers, l o o s i n g the o l d . G i v i n g up a c t i o n p a t t e r n s , thought p a t t e r n s , being unsure, being e x c i t e d , knowing something i s emerging but not knowing where i t i s going. Dying, l i k e any t u r n i n g p o i n t , i s a p l a c e of t r a n s i t i o n , a f a c i n g of the un-known and the emerging complexity of new ways of being .hew^actions,. thoughts, f e e l i n g s . Each t u r n i n g p o i n t i s the r e a l i z a t i o n of l o s s , an encounter with the unknown." (p.23) The c o n n e c t i o n between p h y s i c a l death and symbolic death, p h y s i c a l r e b i r t h and symbolic r e b i r t h r e p r e s e n t s a l e v e l of acceptance and understanding which all o w s f o r the n u r t u r i n g of i n s i g h t about c o n c r e t e s i t u a t i o n s in l i f e . Nature as Teacher and Healer "The human b r a i n , so f r a i l , so p e r i s h -a b l e , so f u l l of i n e x h a u s t i b l e dreams and hungers, burns by the power of the l e a f . A few moments l o s s of v i t a l a i r and the phenomenon we know as c o n s c i o u s -ness goes down in t o the black night of in o r g a n i c t h i n g s . The human body i s a magical v e s s e l , but i t s l i f e i s l i n k -ed with an element i t cannot produce. Only t h e green p l a n t knows the s e c r e t of t r a n s f o r m i n g the l i g h t t h a t comes t o us a c r o s s t h e f a r reaches of space. There i s no b e t t e r i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the intimacy of man's r e l a t i o n s h i p with other I i v i n g t h i n g s . " ( E i s e l e y , 1978, p.I I 8) E i s e l e y speaks of t h e " s e c r e t o f t r a n s f o r m i n g " . The p r o -cess of r e g e n e r a t i o n i s e v i d e n t at every t u r n i n g as man c o n f r o n t s h i s e n v i r o n m e n t — t h e process of b i r t h , m a t u r i t y , decay, r e b i r t h . P h y s i c a l elements never d i e , but are aiways r e c y c l e d i n t o another form. T h i s process i s v i s i -b l e in a f o r e s t , a t i d a l pool and in man's own c r e a t i o n s . In a sense these s i t u a t i o n s are metaphors of man's own l i f e . Both must l e a r n how t o s u r v i v e by g i v i n g i n t o t h e process of I i f e and death. S u r v i v a l f o r a great p e r c e n t -75 age of the n a t u r a l world i s a matter of automatic i n -s t i n c t . Every Winter leaves w i l l f a l l , decay and nour-ish new growth f o r S p r i n g . Bears w i l l h i b e r n a t e through i n s t i n c t . Salmon w i l l spawn. However, because of the nature of human i n t e l l i g e n c e , t h i s s u r v i v a l i n s t i n c t i s not always so c l e a r in the human. Men and women can manipulate t h e i r enviornment and o f t e n do so without c o n s i d e r i n g the consequences in terms of s u r v i v a l . Therapy can be c o n s i d e r e d as a type of t r a i n i n g in s u r -v i v a l s k i l l s f o r the human being. Taking examples from Nature, which E i s e l e y c a l l s the hidden teacher allows people t o learn about s u r v i v a l from Nature. " P e r h a p s . . . i t i s e a s i e r f o r us today to speak of (our hidden) teacher as "nature", t h a t omnipresent a l l . . . But nature does not simply r e p r e s e n t r e a l i t y . In the shapes of l i f e , i t prepares the f u t u r e ; i t o f f e r s a l t e r n -a t i v e s . Nature teaches, though what i t teaches i s o f t e n hidden and ob-s c u r e . " (p.121) Another value of a c c e p t i n g Nature as te a c h e r , i s t h a t by a p p r e c i a t i n g our connections t o the Earth and f e l l o w l i v i n g c r e a t u r e s , we are a b l e t o shed our f e e l i n g of a l i e n a t i o n . One can r e c o g n i z e t h a t he or she i s pa r t of a framework ( o f Nature) and t h a t the same processes, in f a c t c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s e s , going on around a person are a l s o going on in o n e s e l f . People r e a l i z e t h a t they are connected t o t h e i r enviornment, not alone, and in f a c t are p a r t of a whole, shared e x i s t e n c e of L i f e . Native Indian c u l t u r e s a c t i v e l y acknowledge t h i s v i t a l l i n k and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a p p r e c i a t i n g the l i n k f o r s u r v i v a l . C h i e f S e a l t h spoke of i t in a l e t t e r t o P r e s i d e n t F r a n k l i n P i e r c e in 1855: "There i s no q u i e t p l a c e in the white man's c i t i e s , no p l a c e t o hear the leaves of S p r i n g or the r u s t l e of i n -s e c t s wings. And what i s t h e r e t o l i f e i f a man cannot hear the l o v e l y c r y of a whipporwill or the arguments of the f r o g s around a pond at ni g h t ? The Indian p r e f e r s the s o f t sound of t h e wind d a r t i n g over the f a c e of the pond, and the smell of the wind i t s e l f c l e a n s e d by a mid-day r a i n , or scented with a pinon p i n e . The a i r i s p r e c i o u s t o the redman. For a l l t h i n g s share t h e same breath-the beasts, the t r e e s , the man. The white man does not seem t o n o t i c e the a i r he breathes. Like a man dying f o r many days, he i s numb t o the s t e n c h . What i s man without the beasts? If a l l the beasts were gone, men would d i e from great l o n l i n e s s of s p i r i t , f o r whatever happens t o the beast a l s o happens t o man. A l l t h i n g s are connected. Whatever be-f a l l s the e a r t h b e f a l l s the sons of e a r t h . " (Greenpeace C h r o n i c l e s , 1979, p.5) The Indian c o n s i d e r e d Nature, and man as p a r t of Nature, D i v i n e and Sacred. C h i e f S e a l t h ' s comment t h a t " a l l t h i n g s are connected" p o i n t s t o e s s e n t i a l needs in our p s y c h o l o -g i c a l and p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . He i m p l i e s t h a t in order t o s u r v i v e people must a p p r e c i a t e the l i n k between them-s e l v e s and t h e n a t u r a l world. The importance of t h e l i n k t o Nature i s d i s c u s s e d by Sandner and compared t o modern per s p e c t i ve: "The Navaho h e a l i n g process at times goes beyond the symbolic work we are a b l e to achieve in modern psychother-apy. It does t h i s through i t s approach t o nature as a v i t a l , harmonious e n t i t y a l i v e in every p a r t and a b l e , through i t s i n e x h a u s t i b l e power, t o r e s o l v e inner c o n f l i c t s . T h i s i s no mastery of nature, such as adherents t o the s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i p l i n e seek t o a c q u i r e , but a s t r i v i n g f o r u n i t y with na t u r a l f o r c e s . The Navaho does not r e l a t e t o "raw" nature as s c i e n c e sees i t , but t o a h i g h l y r e f i n e d symbolic nature which i s i n t e n s e l y a l i v e and imbued with an inner form of r a d i a n t beauty. At the core of t h i s mystery i s Changing Woman. She i s the a r c h -t y p i c a l symbol of the n a t u r a l c y c l e of b i r t h , death, and r e b i r t h . " (p.271) And f u r t h e r : " S c i e n t i f i c f a c t can never "prove" human v a l u e s . It may r e s t o r e the s p e c i f i c organ (and we are g r a t e f u l f o r t h a t ) , but i t does not s a t i s f y the i n d i v i d u a l in h i s quest f o r harm-ony with h i s surroundings and f o r peace of mind w i t h i n . " (p. 17) For t h e Navaho, r e l i g i o n p r o v i d e s the r i t u a l f o r h e a l i n g through a profound m e d i t a t i o n on nature and i t s c u r a t i v e powers. In f a c t , h e a l i n g i s the main focus of a I I r e l -i g i o u s a c t i v i t y . And h e a l i n g i s not d i r e c t e d toward s p e c i f i c symptoms or b o d i l y organs, but toward b r i n g i n g the psyche i n t o harmony with the whole gamut of n a t u r a l and s u p e r n a t u r a l f o r c e s around i t . Sandner, h i m s e l f a p s y c h i a t r i s t s t a t e s : "I saw th a t t h e i r use of s t r i k i n g symbolic images c o u l d c r e a t e harmony-g i v i n g changes in t h e i r p a t i e n t and t h a t , from the p s y c h i a t r i c p o i n t o f view, we might learn much from t h e i r s k i l l in t h i s a r e a . " (p.3) Kluckholn (1946) a l s o mentions the i n e f f i c i e n c y of white man's h e a l i n g techniques f o r t h e Navaho and d e s c r i b e s the unique c h a r a c t e r of a Navaho " s i n g " , or h e a l i n g ceremony: "...the evidence i s good t h a t i n d i v -i d u a l s who obtained no r e l i e f from white medicine have been cured by chants...The s i n g e r i s more than a mortal and at times becomes iden-t i f i e d with the supe r n a t u r a I s , speaking in t h e i r v o i c e s and t e l l -ing t he hearer t h a t a l l i s w e l l . The p r e s t i g e , mysticism, and power of the ceremonial i t s e l f are a c t i v e , coming d i r e c t l y from the sup e r n a t u r a l powers t h a t b u i l d up the growing e a r t h in s p r i n g , drench i t with r a i n , or t e a r i t apart with l i g h t e n i n g . In the height o f t h e chant t h e p a t i e n t h i m s e l f becomes one of the Holy People, puts h i s f e e t in t h e i r moccassins and breathes in the s t r e n g t h of the sun. He comes in t o complete harmony with the u n i v e r s e . " (p.231 ) The themes of Nature as teacher and h e a l e r are themes of water, a i r , f o r e s t , wind, growth. When the death-re-b i r t h myth i s used in h e a l i n g , i t i s r a r e l y i d e n t i f i e d as "the d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth". Instead i t i s c o n t a i n e d in t h e images of Nature suggested by the t h e r a p i s t or p a r t i c i p a n t s themselves. T h i s encourages the u n i t y which i s accomplished in the Navaho " s i n g s " and other ceremonials " R e l i g i o n r e v o l v e s around a great open s e c r e t which we a l l know but want t o hear again and a g a i n . ( In t h i s regard) Navaho dogma connects a l l t h i n g s , n a t u r a l and experienced, from man's s k e l e t o n t o u n i v e r s a l d e s t i n y , which encompasses even i n -c o n c e i v a b l e space, in a c l o s e l y i n -t e r l o c k i n g u n i t y which omits nothing, no matter how small or how stupendous, and in which each i n d i v i d u a l has a s i g n i f i c a n t f u n c t i o n u n t i l , at h i s f i n a l d i s s o l u t i o n , he not only be-comes one with the u l t i m a t e harmony but he i s t h a t harmony." (Sandner, 1 9 7 8 , p . 2 7 3 ) P a t t e r n s Two key word concepts which emerge from the above d i s c u s s i o n s of myth, d e a t h - r e b i r t h and Nature are con-n e c t i o n s and p a t t e r n s . These two words are not o f t e n heard in t h e r a p e u t i c models i n i t i a t e d by the medical community. However, they re p r e s e n t key concepts in the on-going h e a l i n g , whether p r e v e n t a t i v e or c u r a t i v e , of Native c u l t u r e s . Gregory Bateson ( 1 9 7 9 ) c o n s i d e r s " p a t t e r n i n g " t o be an a e s t h e t i c p r o c e s s . R i d i n g t o n ( 1 9 7 9 ) ment ions them in r e l a t i o n t o knowledge f o r the Dunne-za. Regarding the d i f f e r e n c e between knowing something and knowing about something he says: "Knowing f o r the Dunne-za was based upon a person's i n t e l l i g e n t i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of information and p a t t e r n s of c o n n e c t i o n t h a t come t o him or her through d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e . The fundamental p a t t e r n t h a t u n d e r l i e s t h e i r system of knowledge i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . As people whose l i v e s were i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the n a t u r a l c y c l e s o f t h e i r environment, they i d e n t i f i e d the changes in t h e i r own ways of s e e i n g with the changes in the world around them". T h i s r e l a t i o n a l way of viewing both s e l f and c u l t u r e pro-v i d e s h e a l i n g which i s n a t u r a l l y b u i l t i n t o the c u l t u r e i n s t e a d of the modern Western system of t a k i n g people out of the c u l t u r e and environment f o r h e a l i n g . T h i s modern r e v e r s a l s e t s up a type of d e p r i v a t i o n which works a g a i n s t h e a l i n g . Detaching or s e p a r a t i n g in t h i s way permeates our present systems and s t r u c t u r e s . Bateson (1979) sees i t i n the e d u c a t i o n a l system: " ( C h i l d r e n ) are taught at a tender age t h a t the way t o d e f i n e something i s by what i t supposedly i s in i t s e l f , not by i t s r e l a t i o n t o other t h i n g s " . ( p . l 6 ) He s t r e s s e s the importance of connect-ing p a t t e r n s , of e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e world through r e l a t i o n -a l d e f i n i t i o n s of people, o b j e c t s and s i t u a t i o n s . " I s our reason f o r admiring a d a i s y the f a c t t h a t i t shows--in i t s form, in i t s growth, in i t s c o l o r i n g and in i t s d e a t h — t h e symptoms of being a l i v e ? Our a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r i t i s t o t h a t ex-t e n t an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f i t s s i m i l a r i t i e s t o o u r s e l v e s . " (p.127) 83 Whorf (1956 ) ana l y z e s language development through the p a t t e r n i n g p r i n c i p I e . and e x p l a i n s every stage as a p a t t e r n i n g p r o c e s s . He then s a y s : "Speech i s the best show man puts on. But we suspect the watching Gods p e r -c e i v e t h a t the order in which t h i s amazing set of t r i c k s b u i l d s up t o a great climax, has been s t o l e n — from the Un i v e r s e ! Nature and language are inwardly a k i n . (Another r e l a t i o n ) i s the one between Ma n t r i c a r t and nature. On i t s h i g h -e s t l e v e l t h e mantram becomes a mani-f o l d of conscious p a t t e r n s , c o n t r i v e d t o a s s i s t the consciousness i n t o the noumenaI p a t t e r n world—whereupon i t i s in t h e d r i v e r ' s s e a t . It can then c o n t r o l and a m p l i f y a t h o u s a n d f o l d f o r c e s which t h a t organism normally t r a n s m i t s only at unobservable low i n t e n s i t i e s . We hear the mantra as song p a t t e r n " , (p.330) Bateson i s concerned about the loss of systems which remind us of our r e l a t i o n t o Nature. 84 "We have l o s t the core of C h r i s t i a n i t y . We have l o s t S h i v a , t h e dancer o f Hindu-ism whose dance at the t r i v i a l l e v e l i s both c r e a t i o n and d e s t r u c t i o n but in whole i s beauty. We have l o s t Abraxas, the t e r r i b l e and b e a u t i f u l god of both day and night i s G n o s t i c i s m . We have l o s t totemism, the sense of p a r a l l e l i s m be-tween man's o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h a t of the animals and p l a n t s . We have l o s t even the dying God". (p.17) In h i s l a t e s t book, Mind and Nature. Bateson attempts t o t r a i n the mind t o use p a t t e r n i n g in a l l c o n t e x t s . P a t t e r n i n g a l s o r e - i n t r o d u c e s • t h e issue of c r e a t i v i t y . The unconscious s t r i v e s t o c r e a t e p a t t e r n s out of form-l e s s n e s s . S i n n o t t (1959) says t h a t : "...the a b i l i t y t o i n t e g r a t e and o r g a n i z e a p a t t e r n out of formlessness i s an a c h i e v e -ment which r a t i o n a l thought, being some-what removed from i t s p r i m i t i v e being source and bound with h a b i t and c o n vention, may be incapable of doing...the reason t h a t such a f r o n t a l a t t a c k o f t e n f a i l s seems t o be t h a t the f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n present in the unconscious, i s blocked in v a r i o u s ways and the r e a l l y c r e a t i v e new r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h e r e f o r e are not seen m (P-113) Bateson a l s o d i s c u s s e s r e l u c t a n c e of l o g i c t o employ e f f e c t i v e p a t t e r n i n g . " . . . l o g i c i s a poor model of cause and e f f e c t . I suggest t h a t i t i s the attempt t o deal with l i f e in l o g i c a l terms and the compulsive nature o f t h a t attempt which p r o -duce in us the p r o p e n s i t y f o r t e r r o r when i t i s even h i n t e d t h a t such a l o g i c a l approach might break down". (p.120) Even though Bateson mourns the loss of S h i v a , he does see hope f o r t h e f u t u r e , i f we are a b l e t o learn from the p a s t . "There i s at l e a s t an impulse s t i l l in the human br e a s t t o u n i f y and thereby s a n c t i f y the t o t a l n a t u r a l world, 2) The Metaphoric Mind In the past f i v e y e a r s , s t u d i e s on the unique f u n c -t i o n s of the l e f t and r i g h t hemispheres of the b r a i n have thrown some l i g h t on the more mysterious areas of human con s c i o u s n e s s . The most b a s i c d i s c o v e r y i s t h a t the two hemispheres rep r e s e n t two separate and d i s t i n c t modes of of which we a r e . (P.18) 86 c o n s c i o u s n e s s . The l e f t r e p r e s e n t s t h e l o g i c a l a n a l y -t i c a l , v e r b a l , l i n e a r f u n c t i o n s such as language. The r i g h t r e p r e s e n t s t h e more i n t u i t i v e , w h o l i s t i c , r e -l a t i o n a l , a r t i s t i c f u n c t i o n s such as m u s i c a l p e r c e p t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e s e two modes have been r e c o g n i z e d f o r c e n -t u r i e s i n p h i l o s o p h y , r e l i g i o n and some o f t h e e s o t e r i c p s y c h o l o g i e s (The I C h i n g b e i n g t h e most p o p u l a r exam-p l e ) , t h e new s t u d i e s c o n f i r m a p h y s i o l o g i c a l d i s t i n c -t i o n as w e l l . T h i s e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e l i b e r a t e s t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s c i p l i n e s t o t a k e t h e r i g h t b r a i n o r t h e me t a p h o r i c mind, more s e r i o u s l y . "An i m p e r s o n a l , o b j e c t i v e , s c i e n t i f i c , a p p r o a c h , w i t h i t s e x c l u s i v e emphasis on l o g i c and a n a l y s i s , makes i t d i f -f i c u l t f o r most o f us even t o c o n c e i v e o f a p s y c h o l o g y which c o u l d be based on t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a n o t h e r , i n t u i t i v e , " g e s t a I t " mode o f t h o u g h t " . ( O r n s t e i n , 1972, p.96) Deikman (1971) d e s c r i b e s t h e n a t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f t h e r i g h t "mode" or s i de: " . . . t h e r e c e p t i v e mode ( r i g h t b r a i n hemis-phere) i s a s t a t e o r g a n i z e d around i n t a k e o f t h e environment r a t h e r t h a n m a n i p u l a -t i o n . The s e n s o r y - p e r c e p t u a l system i s 87 t h e d o m i n a n t a g e n c y r a t h e r t h a n t h e m u s c l e s y s t e m , a n d p a r a s y m p a t h e t i c f u n c t . i o n s t e n d t o b e m o s t p r o m i n e n t . T h e EEG t e n d s t o w a r d a l p h a w a v e s a n d b a s e l i n e m u s c l e t e n s i o n i s d e c r e a s e d . O t h e r a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e r e c e p t i v e m o d e a r e d i f f u s e a t t e n d i n g , p a r a l o -g i c a l t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s , d e c r e a s e d b o u n d a r y p e r c e p t i o n , a n d t h i s m o d e w o u l d a p p e a r t o o r i g i n a t e a n d f u n c -t i o n m a x i m a l l y i n t h e i n f a n t s t a t e . T h e r e c e p t i v e m o d e i s g r a d u a l l y d o m -i n a t e d , i f n o t s u b m e r g e d , h o w e v e r , b y t h e p r o g r e s s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s t r i v i n g a c t i v i t y o f t h e a c t i o n m o d e . . . . d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e a c t i o n m o d e h a s l e d u s t o r e g a r d t h e a c t i o n m o d e a s t h e p r o p e r o n e f o r a d u l t l i f e , w h i l e w e h a v e t e n d e d t o t h i n k o f t h e m o r e u n u s u a l r e c e p t i v e s t a t e s a s p a t h o l o g i c a l o r r e g r e s s i v e " . (P.69) I n s t e a d o f c o n s i d e r i n g t h e l e f t b r a i n h e m i s p h e r e t h e m a j o r m o d e a n d t h e r i g h t b r a i n h e m i s p h e r e t h e m i n o r m o d e , s t u d i e s n o w s h o w b o t h s i d e s a r e m a j o r i n t h a t a p e r s o n n e e d s b o t h s i d e s t o f u n c t i o n . D i f f e r e n t t a s k s and s i t u a t i o n s may r e q u i r e t h a t one or the other mode take temporary dom-inance, but in the end t h e r e i s balance. Bogan (1969) comments on d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s of each hemisphere: "The r i g h t hemisphere r e c o g n i z e s s t i m u l i ( i n c l u d i n g words), apposes and c o l l a t e s t h i s data, compares t h i s with p r e v i o u s data, and while a r r i v i n g at d i f f e r e n t r e -s u l t s . The r i g h t i s a more d i f f u s e as opposed t o the l e f t which i s more d i s -c r e t e " , (p.109) Other general c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s are i n t e r e s t i n g : L e f t Right Bruner r a t i o n a l metaphoric L e v i - S t r a u s s p o s i t i v e mythic P r i c e a n a l y t i c s y n t h e t i c "Over t h i r t y years ago, Dide (1938) e s-poused a r i g h t h e m i s p h e r e . s u p e r i o r i t y f o r " k i n e s t h e t i c " f u n c t i o n . Lunia con-s i d e r e d "the r i g h t hemisphere dominent with r e s p e c t t o c e r t a i n mental processes i n c l u d i n g music...he has p u b l i s h e d a case of a composer whose best work was done a f t e r he was rendered aphasic by by a massive s t r o k e in the l e f t b r a i n hem i sphere ". (Bogan, 1969, p.194) Although some r e s e a r c h was done in s p l i t - b r a i n s t u d i e s t h i s long ago, t h e r e has been an e c l i p s e of the s p l i t -b r a i n view u n t i l r e c e n t l y . Bogan accounts f o r the lack of i n t e r e s t in t h e s p l i t - b r a i n phenomena t o an i n c r e a s -ing p r e o c c u p a t i o n of n e u r o l o g i s t s with the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of the l e f t hemisphere, the dominant s i d e , which d i v e r t e d them from a more comprehensive view. O r s t e i n (1972) c o n s i d e r s each hemisphere t o be the major one, depending on the mode of consciousness under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . " I f one i s a wordsmith, a s c i e n t i s t , or a mathematician, damage t o t h e l e f t hemisphere may prove d i s a s t r o u s . If one i s a musician, a craftsman, or an a r t i s t , damage t o the l e f t hemisphere does not i n t e r f e r e with one's c a p a c i t y t o c r e a t e music, c r a f t s or a r t s , yet damage t o the r i g h t hemisphere may well o b l i t e r a t e a c a r e e r " . (p.54) For present purposes the f a c t t h a t the b r a i n i s s p l i t i s not of great i n t e r e s t . However, the f a c t t h a t c e r t a i n human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p r e f e r e n c e s , and a c t i v i t i e s have been i d e n t i f i e d as f u n c t i o n s of the b r a i n i s important. T h i s new e m p i r i c a l evidence p r o v i d e s an entrance f o r con-cepts of e s o t e r i c psychology, i n t o modern Western c l i n i -c a l c i r c l e s . For i t may soon be proven t h a t human per-c e p t i o n which has up u n t i l now been l a b e l e d as "vague", e.g., i n t u i t i o n or a r t i s t i c s e n s i t i v i t y , l i v e s in the b r a i n as a c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n . As mentioned e a r l i e r , t h i s r e a s s u r e s p s y c h o l o g i s t s and permits them t o "look a t " t h e s e f u n c t i o n s . The r i g h t b r a i n hemisphere i s the focus of a t t e n t i o n in the present study. In f u r t h e r d e s c r i b i n g the r i g h t hemisphere Deikman say s : "The r e c e p t i v e mode i s not a " r e -g r e s s i v e " i g n o r i n g of the world or a r e t r e a t from i t — a l t h o u g h i t can be employed f o r t h a t p u r p o s e — but i s a d i f f e r e n t s t r a t e g y f o r en-gaging the world, in p u r s u i t of a d i f f e r e n t g o a l . . . T h i s d i f f e r e n t mode of p e r c e p t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r -ized by a sense of u n i t y of the person jwith h i s environment". ( p . 7 l ) Deikman a l s o v o i c e s the theme of c o n n e c t i n g . In an ex-periment which increased r i g h t b r a i n hemisphere a c t i v i t y through Yoga c o n c e n t r a t i o n , Deikman r e p o r t s t h a t s u b j e c t s p e r c e p t i o n of a vase changed in the f o l l o w i n g ways: I) an increase in the v i v i d n e s s and r i c h -ness of the vase percept ( f o r example they described i t as "luminous, more v i v i d " ) ; 2) the vase seemed to acquire a kind of l i f e of i t s own, to be animated; 3) there was a decrease in the sense of being separate from the vase, e .g . , "The vase and I were merging"; 4) a fus ing and a l te ra t i on of normal perceptual modes, e.g. , "when the vase changes shape, I fee l t h i s in my body". Subjects claimed to have learned some-th ing but could not spec i fy what \k was. "I ' v e experienced...new experiences, and I have no vehicle, to communicate them to you. I expect that t h i s is probably the way a baby fee l s when he is fuI I of some-th ing to say about an experience or an awareness and he has not learned to use the words ye t " . The experience was i n -ef fab le in the sense of not being suited for verbal communication, not f i t t i n g the customary categories of language of the act ion mode ( l e f t brain hemisphere)." (p. 7 5 - 7 6 ) I n t u i t i o n may be a f u n c t i o n of the r i g h t b r a i n . There i s a connec t i o n between i n t u i t i o n and symbol r e l e v a n t t o the present study. " . . . i t was Jung's concern and indeed t h e very p o i n t of p a r t i n g with Freud, t o show t h a t i n t u i t i o n and emotion and the c a p a c i t y t o apperceive and c r e a t e by way of symbols are b a s i c modes of human f u n c t i o n i n g , no l e s s so than p e r c e p t i o n through the sense organs and through t h i n k i n g " . (Whitmont, 1979, p.18) A s s a g i o l i (1971) a s s i g n s the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o i n t u i t i o n : " I t i s immediate and d i r e c t , not mediate and p r o g r e s s i v e as i s t h i n k i n g . It i s s y n t h e t i c or h o l i s t i c , i . e . , i t i s an immediate comprehension of the whole", (p.338) Whitmont i d e n t i f i e s the r i g h t hemisphere as the symbolic mode and l i n k s myth, image and i n t u i t i o n : "...a c o g n i t i v e mode which our r a t i o n -al development has tended t o by-pass; th e symbolic mode, which in the h i s -t o r i c a l development of the human mind i s found t o be the a c t i v e element in the formation o f r e c u r r e n t m y t h o l o g i c a l images...the images t r a n s m i t a know-93 ledge of a s o r t , not through the I n -t e l Iect but through the e f f e c t of the image upon f e e l i n g and i n t u i t i o n , thus mediating another, perhaps deeper or profound k i n d of knowing than the i n -t e l l e c t u a l one". (p.34) Bateson p o i n t s out an even deeper r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r i g h t hemisphere and symbol: "...with the dominant hemisphere, we can regard such a t h i n g as a f l a g as a s o r t of name of the country or o r -g a n i z a t i o n t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s . But the r i g h t hemisphere does not draw t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n and regards the f l a g as sacramentaI Iy i d e n t i c a l with what i t r e p r e s e n t s " . ( p . 3 l ) Another important c o n s i d e r a t i o n concerning the symbolic mode i s i t s tendency toward a r t i s t i c p e r c e p t i o n , mentioned e a r l i e r as a type of a e s t h e t i c understanding by Bateson. Teaching of the t r a d i t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i e s include work in the t a c t i c language of t h a t mode ( r i g h t hemisphere), i n -c l u d i n g body movement, music, s p a t i a l forms, sounds, c r a f t s , dreams, and s t o r i e s which f u n c t i o n as word p i c t u r e s . ( O r s t e i n , 1972, p.163) T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n would u n i t e myth and music. 94 A l a j o u a n i n e r e p o r t e d as e a r l y as 1948 t h a t : " R a vel, s t r u c k down at the peak of h i s c a r e e r , l o s t ' a n a l y t i c r e c o g n i -t i o n ' of musical n o t a t i o n and piano / p l a y i n g at s i g h t were g r o s s l y d i s -a b led; on the other hand, melodic, rhythmic and s t y l i s t i c sense were unimpaired and p l a y i n g or s i n g i n g from memory was l a r g e l y r e t a i n e d " . (Bogan, 1969, p.106) Bogan (1969) quotes Hecaen, A j u r i a g u e r r a and Angelergues s u g g e s t i n g t h a t r i g h t hemisphere r e p r e s e n t s a p r e - v e r b a l mode of communication. It f o l l o w s t h a t a r t may a l s o r e p r e s e n t a p r e - v e r b a l or more p r i m i t i v e l e v e l of communication, p r i m i t i v e here meaning prime and b a s i c . Both Bob Samples (1976) in The Metaph o r i c Mind and Joseph C h i l t o n - P i e r c e (1971) in The MagicaI Ch i I d present the view t h a t the development of Western consciousness has s u f f e r e d from an over-emphasis on the l e f t - b r a i n hemisphere f u n c t i o n s and t h e r e f o r e both s o c i e t y and the i n d i v i d u a l have been de-p r i v e d from many c o n t r i b u t i o n s of r i g h t - b r a i n hemisphere b e n e f i t s . They both c l a i m that present value systems encourage the c h i l d t o under-deveI op the r i g h t b r a i n and thus over-develop the l e f t . In t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e s , the metaphoric mind has been put t o more e f f e c t i v e use. The Navaho leave us many a r t s , c r a f t s and songs t o support t h i s idea. Because of recent s t u d i e s , we are able t o formulate a k i n d of new psychology, when in f a c t we have c r e a t e d a new way of s t a t i n g o l d knowledge. Beyond these general c o n s i d e r a t i o n s the s p l i t -b r a i n s t u d i e s have p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e t o the present study f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons: I) Use of the d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth in music f o r h e a l -ing r e p r e s e n t s a r e l a t j o n a l mode of understanding. The fo u r areas d i s c u s s e d in t h i s s e c t i o n (the r e g e n e r a t i v e experience, symbolic h e a l i n g , nature as hea l e r and teacher and the importance of p a t t e r n s ) a l l r e q u i r e r e l a t i o n a l i n s i g h t . For example: How does nature r e l a t e t o d e a t h - r e b i r t h ? How do I r e l a t e t o nature? How do I r e l a t e t o d e a t h - r e b i r t h ? How do we (both nature and I) r e l a t e t o p a t t e r n s ? How do p a t t e r n s r e l a t e t o "us"? In other words the h e a l i n g r e s u l t i n g from use of .the death-r e b i r t h myth depends on r e l a t i o n a l c o n n e c t i o n s , a path t o h e a l i n g . As we have seen both in the d i s c u s s i o n on symbolic h e a l i n g and s p l i t - b r a i n s t u d i e s , those r e l a t i o n s go beyond the psyche i n t o the p h y s i c a l encompassing the .whole, oerson. One theory d e s c r i b e s the l e f t b r a i n hemis-phere as p e r t a i n i n g t o a con s c i o u s l e v e l and the r i g h t , the unconscious l e v e l ( O r s t e i n ) , If t h i s i s the case, the Music Therapy s e s s i o n may be thought of as a type of dream, which d e l v e s i n t o the unconscious s t a t e on a conscious l e v e l , 2) The r i g h t s i d e of the b r a i n can be a v a l u a b l e resource f o r growth and h e a l i n g . In other words, in therapy, i n t u i t i o n can be as important as l o g i c . Making music can be as h e l p f u l as verbal language, e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e music communicates c e r t a i n ideas or "thoughts" or f e e l i n g s which are d i f f i c u l t t o d e s c r i b e a c c u r a t e l y in verbal language. 3) F i n a l l y , f o r u l t i m a t e b e n e f i t of both s o c i e t y and the i n d i v i d u a l , both s i d e s of the b r a i n should be developed. If a c c o r d i n g t o Samples, C h i l t o n - P i e r c e , A r g u e l l e s , O r s t e i n , E i s e l e y and many others a c r o s s d i s -c i p l i n e s , the c o n c e n t r a t i o n on l o g i c a l , s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y -t i c a l endeavors has dominated the recent h i s t o r y o f our development, the time i s now approaching t o balance with the r e l a t i o n a l , i n t u i t i v e , a r t i s t i c endeavors. O r n s t e i n (1972) p o i n t s the d i r e c t i o n f o r the f u t u r e : "We are j u s t at the f i r s t moments of t h i s new s y n t h e s i s , from which an ex-tended concept of man i s beginning t o emerge. Two major r e s u l t s f o r the f u t u r e a r e : 1) two major modes of consciousness e x i s t in man and f u n c t i o n in a com-pl i m e n t a r y manner; 2) the concepts of "normal" and "paranormal" are in process of change. 3) Review In review, one of the premises of the Music T h e r a p i s t i s t h a t t h e inherent q u a l i t i e s and processes of music can be a p p l i e d and e f f e c t i v e in therapy. It has been shown t h a t the myth of deathr*rebirth i t s e l f can be a h e a l i n g agent. A review of the l i t e r a t u r e has i l l u s t r a t e d the f e a s i b i l i t y of t h i s approach both in c u r r e n t psychology and in a n c i e n t c u l t u r e s . W i t h i n music t h e r e i s a r e c u r r e n t pro-cess of t e n s i o n / r e s o l u t i o n on many l e v e l s . In e s t a b l i s h i n g a connection between the d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth and the pro-cess of musical t e n s i o n / r e s o l u t i o n , the Music T h e r a p i s t i s p r o v i d e d with many p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a p p l i c a t i o n and r e s u l t s in the t h e r a p e u t i c environment. Chapter one des-c r i b e d the need f o r a l t e r n a t e approaches, in f a c t , a r t -i s t i c approaches, t o therapy. Chapter two has d e s c r i b e d some of the s i g n i f i c a n t elements of the ways of the past in r e l a t i o n t o c u r r e n t h e a l i n g t e c h n i q u e s and some r e -cent developments which serve t o r e - a f f i r m t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s in the area o f growth, s u r v i v a l , change, adapt-a t i o n , h e a l i n g and p r e v e n t i o n . In a sense t h i s s e c t i o n has developed a non-medical r a t i o n a l e f o r implemen-t a t i o n of the a r t s t h e r a p i e s . Campbell says t h a t through the a r t s we are introduced t o the m y s t e r i e s . Chapter t h r e e w i l l show how music can be one v e h i c l e through i t s t e n s i o n r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s e s , f o r heaIi which may not only lead t o m y s t e r i e s but i s a k i n d of magic in i t s e l f . 99 CHAPTER I I I APPLICATION OF THE MYTH TO MUSIC Stream of consciousness Wending through open space Leaf-1 ike c a s c a d i n g over around through pebbles Rocky s u r f a c e s submerged Water s u r f a c e m i r r o r s green t r e e s blue sky S w i r l i n g in the r e f l e c t i o n of God's country. Cast ashore, wind d r i e d and tumbling over sweet s m e l l i n g e a r t h , i n h a l i n g the warm sun, dancing death t o urban s t r e s s b i r t h p a i n f u l l y t o the s p i r i t s of w e l l - b e i n g the s p i r i t of s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n c r i e s out f o r revenge. But the na t u r a l s e l f s p i r a l s deeper i n t o i t s e l f , reborn c a s t a d r i f t again t o c h a l l e n g e the natu r a l element on i t s own terms. Not t o win but t o succumb s u c c e s s f u l l y Being one, s t r o n g i n t h a t n a t u r a l p a r t n e r s h i p . Transcending s e l f . P a t i e n t poem t o Pink Floyd's "Echoes" (Dept. of P s y c h i a t r y , U.B.C., 1977) 100 A. Relat ionship Between Death-Rebirth Myth and Tension-Resolution in Music The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Death-Rebirth Myth and Tension-Resolution in music is one of r e f l e c t i o n . The music r e f l e c t s the myth and v i sa versa . In p r a c t i c a l terms, the music serves as a veh ic l e for the myth, p lac ing the myth in time and space by provid ing i t with a l i v i n g , symbolic form. This can happen through the s tructure of the music. Music expresses the myth by making i t ava i l ab l e through sense percept ion . In a way i t s o l i d i f i e s myth and gives i t a workable form. In t h i s way myth t r a v e l s to us through music. One of the basic considerat ions in musical composi-t i o n is the concept of tension and r e s o l u t i o n . Most musical compositions contain the process of tension and reso lu t ion within a l l the elements. One or several of the components of the piece "bui ld up" to a climax po int , then reso lve . This is a lso the pattern taken by many l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . We experience a type of transformation through a peak level of in tens i ty . This l i f e movement can be appl ied to any number of circumstances as discussed e a r l i e r . Each day can be considered a ser ies 66 t r a n s -formations through our various a c t i v i t y , or as the many overlapping motifs in some musical piece.•••nOne's en t i re l i f e might have one major transformation. Or both of these circumstances may happen s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . There may be many peaks, c l i m a x e s , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s w i t h i n one I i f e . The idea t h a t a type of g i v i n g over or loss must occur, in order f o r change or growth t o be accomplished, c o n s t i t u t e s the connec t i o n t o myth. The musical symbol serves as an example of r e g e n e r a t i o n , renewal, b u i l d i n g and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . It does not deny the p a s s i o n i n -herent in these encounters. Rather i t acknowledges the t e n s i o n s of p a i n , anger, hate, meloncholy, c o n f u s i o n , f r u s t r a t i o n , hurt, d e s p a i r and the r e s o l u t i o n of j o y , love, f u l f i l l m e n t , c l a r i t y , hope. Musical encounters allow the p a s s i o n or f e e l i n g t o become e x t e r n a l i z e d , t h e r e f o r e p r o v i d i n g form. One i n i t i a l example w i l l i l l u s t r a t e , A composer who c l e a r l y m a n i f e s t s the d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth through musical t e n s i o n and r e s o l u t i o n i s Chopin, e x p e c i a l l y in h i s Etudes and P r e l u d e s . His Prelude in E minor ( s e l e c t i o n #1 on t a p e ) , p r o v i d e s a simple example. The t e n s i o n - r e s o l u t i o n process in melody b u i l d s and r e s o l v e s once in the Pre l u d e . The music b u i l d s t o one p o i n t of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , one clim a x , in which death and r e b i r t h occur in the same moment. The movement changes from moving away from the t o n a l focus t o a p o i n t which leads toward t o n i c . At t h e p o i n t of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , one c h o r d , or one moment in time and space, t h e r e i s a r e s o l u t i o n of t h e t e n s i o n produced by the p r e v i o u s 15 measures. L e v i - S t r a u s s d i s c u s s e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between music and myth w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t of s t r u c t u r a l i s m . In an a r t i c l e on "The Homology of Music and Myth: Views of L e v i - S t r a u s s on M u s i c a l S t r u c t u r e " (Hopkins 1977), he s t a t e s : "Music and myth, w h i l e both u n t r a n s l a t a b l e i n t o terms o t h e r than t h e m s e l v e s , are b a s i c a l l y s t r u c t u r a l , t h e component p a r t s o f each are i n f i n i t e l y c o n v e r t i b l e , each w i t h i n i t s own sphere. Each c o n t a i n s a b a s i c d i c h o -tomy, theme, co u n t e r theme, both of which can be i n v e r t e d , r h y t h m i c a l l y d i s t o r t e d , modally t r a n s f o r m e d or p r e s e n t e d in a new timbre". (p.250) In Mythologies (1971), L e v i - S t r a u s s s i n g l e s out f o u r f i e l d s as being e f f i c a -c i o u s f o r s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s (language, mathematics, music and myth). He f u r t h e r s i n g l e s out music as being most c l e a r l y r e l a t e d t o myth in t h i s r e s p e c t . The p o i n t made by L e v i - S t r a u s s in r e f e r e n c e t o the dichotomies e x i s t i n g in music and myth are p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o the d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth. Music and myth both acknowledge and accept paradox. The p o i n t of t r a n s f o r m -a t i o n in Chopin's E minor p r e l u d e r e p r e s e n t s both death and r e b i r t h in t h e same chord, moment or space. Both e x i s t t o g e t h e r and become one another. For at the moment of r e b i r t h another death has in f a c t begun. Another i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n noted by L e v i - S t r a u s s in the Homology a r t i c l e and which I have observed myself i s t h a t these m y t h i c a l , musical p a t t e r n s o f t e n manifest themselves d e s p i t e the avowed i n t e n t i o n of the composer, (p.254) L e v i - S t r a u s s ' s example of t h i s lack of i n t e n t i o n i s Ravel and h i s c l a s s i c " B o l e r o " , a r e p e t i t i o u s b u i l d i n g of t e n s i o n s and r e s o l u t i o n s . It i s known t h a t Ravel never took the p i e c e s e r i o u s l y , c o n s i d e r e d i t "empty of music" (Hop-k i n s , p.254) and was extremely s u r p r i s e d at i t s p o p u l a r -i t y . T h i s b r i n g s up the p o s s i b i l i t y of myth t r a v e l l i n g through composers without t h e i r knowledge. Myths can be r e f l e c t e d in music without i n t e n t on the p a r t of the com-poser, i . e . , not only program music c o n t a i n s myth. Rather the s t r u c t u r e and p a t t e r n s of the music are a v a i l -a b l e t o communicate myth. Although L e v i - S t r a u s s does not d i s c u s s t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , he c o n s i d e r s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between music and myth one of analogy w i t h i n t h e i r common s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n i n g . He i s i n t e r e s t e d in the p a t t e r n -forming nature of the mind. P a t t e r n i n g again becomes an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n . P a t t e r n s in the Elements of Music The l i n k between human p a t t e r n i n g and musical p a t t e r n -ing i s s t a t e d by Terence McLaughlin in Music and Communi- c a t i o n (1970): "...the f i r s t step in e x p l a i n i n g the meaning of musical p a t t e r n s i s the f a c t t h a t they are t r a n s l a t e d in the b r a i n i n t o general l i n g u a f r a n c a of a l l other p a t t e r n s — m e n t a l p a t t e r n s such as g r i e f , e x p e c t a t i o n , f e a r , d e s i r e and so f o r t h , and b o d j l y p a t t e r n s such as hunger, p a i n , r e t e n t i o n , sexual excitement, any of the t e n s i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with a r a i s i n g of the a d r e n a l i n l e v e l in the b l o o d — a n d the c o r r e s p o n d i n g r e s o l u t i o n s — a l l o w us t o see the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the musical p a t t e r n s and tK©se more personaL.ones which form the constant undercurrent of our thought", (p.87) P a t t e r n s form the b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of music. Hindemith (1952) and Meyer (1956 and 1973), as well as McLaughlin (1970) d i s c u s s the importance of p a t t e r n i n g both in composition of music and the subseq-uent e f f e c t s of music. A l l t h r e e a l s o emphasize the e s s e n t i a l element of t e n s i o n - r e s o l u t i o n as i t develops in t he p a t t e r n i n g p r o c e s s . McLaughlin i d e n t i f i e s p i t c h , time and volume as the key modes which u t i l i z e and communicate t e n s i o n - r e s o l u -t i o n p a t t e r n s . W i t h i n these t h r e e modes we experience the elements of music: melody, harmony, rhythm, meter, timbre, dynamics and t e x t u r e . In a musical composition these modes o f t e n i n t e r - r e l a t e , s e t t i n g up complex c r o s s i n g s of p a t t e r n s . The f o l l o w i n g i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of each mode and how i t communicates the p a t t e r n of t e n s i o n - r e s o l u t i o n . Musical examples, r e f e r r e d t o as " s e l e c t i o n s " are included on a c a s s e t t e tape enclosed with t h i s document, a) P i t c h Tension — P i t c h t e n s i o n s i n c l u d e melody ( i n -t e r v a l l i c t e n s i o n s and r e s o l u t i o n s ) and harmony (tonal t e n s i o n s and r e s o l u t i o n s ) . An i n t e r v a l l i e t e n s i o n r e -pre s e n t s the d i s t a n c e between two or more c o n s e c u t i v e notes. A t o n a l t e n s i o n r e p r e s e n t s the d i s t a n c e between two or more notes played s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . Both of these t e n s i o n s seek eventual r e s o l u t i o n . In general melody 106 seeks a r e s o l u t i o n of r e t u r n i n g t o the t o n i c note, a f t e r b u i l d i n g a s e r i e s of "near" r e s o l u t i o n s by r e t u r n i n g t o other tones in the t o n i c chord, such as the t h i r d or f i f t h . The t o n a l t e n s i o n s seek some combinations of the t o n i c chord as a r e s o l u t i o n . Meyer (1973) c a l l s these p i t c h p a t t e r n s " a r c h t y p i c a l p a t t e r n s " or " t r a d i t i o n a l schemata". He r e f e r s t o the s e r i e s of unresolved t e n s i o n s "uncomsummated" u n t i l they do in f a c t r e s o l v e t o t o n i c . A need f o r u l t i m a t e r e s o l u t i o n b u i l d s as the f a l s e r e s o l u t i o n s t o a t h i r d or f i f t h , or other steps on a s c a l e b u i l d more and more t e n s i o n and a n t i c i p a t i o n . T h i s may occur over the length of an e n t i r e p i e c e , i . e . , a melodic l i n e would never r e t u r n t o t o n i c u n t i l the end of a p i e c e . Or i t may occur in the form of r e p e t i t i o n ©f m o t i f s , phrases, or a rondo., or bar form, i . e . , a r e s o l u -t i o n t o t o n i c comes many times,, An example of both i n t e r v a l l i e t e n s i o n - r e s o l u t i o n and tonal t e n s i o n - r e s o l u t i o n and the i n t e r p l a y between melody and harmony i s i l l u s t r a t e d by Y".iijsef: "Lateef's "Lowland L u l l a b y " ( s e l e c t i o n #2 on t a p e ) . It i s b a s i c a l l y a simple duet between f l u t e and bass. It p r o v i d e s slow melodic movement by the f l u t e and harmonic movement by bass, each r e t u r n s e p a r a t e l y s e v e r a l times t o t o n i c , but culminate in a t o n a l r e s o l u t i o n with the f l u t e and bass both r e t u r n i n g t o t o n i c s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . T h i s is the p o i n t of t r a n s f o r m -* Atonal music does not f o l l o w these t e n d e n c i e s . However, q u i t e o f t e n , atonal music does invent e q u a l l y p r e d i c t a b l e r u l e s which b u i l d t e n s i o n and s t r i v e f o r r e s o l u t i o n , e.g., Schoenberg's tone row. 107 at ion, a death and r e b i r t h in the same moment. b) Time T e n s i o n s — T i m e t e n s i o n s are r e a l i z e d through tempo and meter, d i v i s i o n s of even d u r a t i o n . McLaughlin suggests t h a t t h e r e i s a u n i v e r s a l tendency towards simple time u n i t s of two, t h r e e and f o u r steady b e a t s . (1979/ p.38) He then concludes t h a t any d e p a r t -ure from t h e normal p u l s e of the music comes as a p o i n t of t e n s i o n , e.g., when t h e r e are f i v e , seven or e l e v e n beats in the bar, syncopated rhythms (where an expected accent i s d i s p l a c e d ) and cross-rhythm e f f e c t s . The p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r c r e a t i o n of t e n s i o n become even more complicated with the i n t e r p l a y between p i t c h and time. Another c o n s i d e r a t i o n in the c r e a t i o n of time t e n -s i o n not d i s c u s s e d by McLaughlin, but s t u d i e d by J i I e k (1971) and Neher (1962) and o t h e r s , i s the e f f e c t of rhythmic r e p e t i t i o n in p r o d u c t i o n of a t r a n c e s t a t e or a l t e r e d s t a t e of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y i s a l s o d i s c u s s e d by George Leonard in The S i I e n t PuIse (1978) and W iI I i am Johnston i n S i I e n t Mus i c (1974). The p h y s i c a l e f f e c t s of music, a s s o c i a t e d t o a great extent with rhythmic t e n s i o n s , have been documented by many. Helmholtz (1862); Seashore (1938); Revesz (1954); Ludin (1967); Rosenboom (1976) and o t h e r s . These s t u d i e s are many and v a r i e d , but agree on the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s on t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s of music: 1) increase or decrease in metabolic r a t e ; 2) increase or decrease in muscular energy; 3) a c c e l e r a t i o n or d e c e l e r a t i o n in b r e a t h i n g and increase or decrease in i t s r e g u l a r i t y ; 4) a marked but v a r i a b l e e f f e c t on blood volume, p u l s e and blood p r e s s u r e ; 5) a lowering of the t h r e s h o l d f o r sensory s t i m u l a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t modes. The r e p e t i t i o n of a rhythmic p a t t e r n can suggest a type of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n through a t r a n c e l i k e s t a t e . In other words, t e n s i o n i s c r e a t e d not so much through de-v i a t i o n s in r e g u l a r i t y of beat as suggested by McLaughlin, but r a t h e r through a c o n t r a s t between a normal f u n c t i o n -ing s t a t e of c o n s c i o u s n e s s , experienced p r i o r t o a d j u s t -ment t o r e p e t i t i o u s rhythmic p a t t e r n i n g , and d i f f e r e n t or a l t e r e d s t a t e of consciousness produced by t h a t p a r t i c u l a r rhythmic p a t t e r n and i t s r e p e t i t i o n . To s i m p l i f y , a p e r -son maintains a r e g u l a r or normal s t a t e of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Through e x p e r i e n c i n g r e p e t i t i o u s rhythmic p a t t e r n i n g , one t r a v e l s t o and through an a l t e r e d or transformed s t a t e of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . At a c e r t a i n p o i n t the music ends, the rhythmic, t r a n c e - i n d u c i n g s t i m u l u s removed, and a person r e t u r n s t o t h e i r normal f u n c t i o n i n g s t a t e . T h i s can con-s t i t u t e a d e a t h - r e b i r t h or t r a n s f o r m a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . Musical examples of t h i s type of rhythmic a c t i v i t y are obvious in H a i t i a n ( s e l e c t i o n #4 on t a p e ) . How-ever these rhythmic r e p e t i t i o n s are a l s o communicated through rock and r o l l , soul music, d i s c o music and j a z z . S p e c i f i c examples of t h i s k i n d of time t e n s i o n are Donna Summer's "I Feel Love" ( s e l e c t i o n #4 on tape) and Art Blakey's "Tobi I l u " ( s e l e c t i o n #5 on t a p e ) . Donna Summer i l l u s t r a t e s both McLaughlin's idea through syncopation, and t h e t r a n c e - l i k e e f f e c t , through t h e simultaneous r e p e t i o u s rhythm. Blakey combines A f r i c a n musicians with s t u d i o j a z z musicians t o p r o v i d e an example of the t r a n c e -Ii ke repet i t i on. c) c) Volume Tensions — Volume t e n s i o n s and r e s o l u t i o n s ar perhaps the most obvious t o hear. They take the form of dynamics timbre, t e x t u r e in a p i e c e . Dynamics are mani-f e s t e d i n the p,pp,ppp,pppp (degrees of s o f t n e s s ) and f , f f , f f f , f f f f (degrees of loudness) or crescendos and diminuendos. A s i m p l i f i e d example of how the t e n s i o n may b u i l d and r e s o l v e would be f , f f , f f f , f f f f , p,pp,ppp,pppp The 4f r e p r e s e n t s the p o i n t of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . The dyna-mics of a p i e c e are r a r e l y t h i s simple and again u s u a l l y c o n s t i t u t e a s e r i e s of dynamic t e n s i o n s and r e l e a s e s . The more s u b t l e e f f e c t s of volume conie through the i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n of timbre or c o l o r and t e x t u r e o f a p i e c e . These elements are o f t e n l e f t t o the d i s c r e t i o n of the a r t i s t p l a y i n g the p i e c e . An example of volume t e n s i o n and r e s o l u t i o n , which a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s the i n t e r p l a y between p i t c h , time and volume, i s Samuel Barber's "Adagio f o r S t r i n g s " ( s e l e c t i o n on t a p e ) . It i s a long p i e c e which g r a d u a l l y b u i l d s in volume t o one extremely intense peak with f u l l s t r i n g s in unison (adding the p i t c h element,a change in d i r e c t i o n toward t o n i c ) i n a f u l l f o r t i s s i m o . Barber s t r i k i n g l y em-p l o y s a f u l l r e s t a f t e r t h i s intense climax before savour-ing t h e r e s o l u t i o n in degrees of s o f t n e s s . T h i s p i e c e communicates the d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth in dramatic form. It i s extremely d i f f i c u l t t o disengage the complex webs of musical p a t t e r n i n g . However, I hope these few examples w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the p o s s i b l e connections be-tween mythic form and musical form through the one myth of d e a t h - r e b i r t h and one of the important aspects of musical form, t e n s i o n - r e s o l u t i o n . As McLaughlin (1970) perhaps o v e r s t a t e s , but with an important element of t r u t h : "The a b i l i t y t o e x t r a c t the important p a t t e r n from a wealth of extraneous de-t a i l , t o see the e s s e n t i a l s of a s i t -u a t i o n s t r i p p e d of s u p e r f i c i a l d i f f e r -ences, and t o g e n e r a l i z e from experiences is a key t o the whole coherency of our mental l i f e " . (p.89) In t h i s r e g a rd the musical elements of t e n s i o n - r e s -o l u t i o n become symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of some of the 111 most b a s i c l i f e p r o c e s s e s . They p r o v i d e a reminder o f our common and profound c o l l e c t i v e e'ondition. The pr o -cesses d e s c r i b e d in pa r t I IB of t h i s paper are remembered and experienced s y m b o l i c a l l y w i t h i n music. The music, as the v e h i c l e t o inyth, becomes as well the brid g e be-tween the p r e v e n t a t i v e and c u r a t i v e powers of myth and the c o n c r e t e s i t u a t i o n s of l i f e . B. Music As A V e h i c l e f o r He a l i n g S u f i Inyat Khan (1971) t e l l s us: " . . . h e a l t h i s a c o n d i t i o n of p e r f e c t rhythm and tone. And what i s music? Music i s rhythm and tone. When the he a l t h i s out of order, i t means the music i s out of order (p.87) ... In a l l the occupations of l i f e where beauty has been the i n s p i r a t i o n , where the d i v i n e wine has been poured out, t h e r e i s music. But among a l l the d i f f e r e n t a r t s , the a r t of music has been s p e c i a l l y c o n s i d e r e d d i v i n e , because i t i s the exact m i n i a t u r e of the law working through the whole u n i v e r s e " . (p.2) T h i s summarizes the S u f i philosophy r e g a r d i n g the h e a l i n g powers of music. Music i s l i f e and h e a l t h , a r e f l e c t i o n of the grand scheme, d i v i n e i t s e l f . Many an c i e n t c u l -t u r e s have used music as a h e a l e r . C e r t a i n processes and q u a l i t i e s inherent in music have h e a l i n g p o t e n t i a l . Beyond the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l aspects of music o u t l i n e d above (and the t e n s i o n - r e s o l u t i o n process i s only one of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l aspects which are a p p l i c a b l e ) t h e r e are more general c o n s i d e r a t i o n s into the h e a l i n g powers of music as used in Music Therapy, The f i r s t i s magic, or mystery, or perhaps the d i v -ine and s p i r i t u a l aspect of music so o f t e n jgnored in a c l i n i c a l s e t t i n g . The magical s i d e of music compliments the c l i n i n c a l s i d e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y the words magic ( i n t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l sense) mystery, d i v i n e and s p i r i t u a l do not get a p o s i t i v e response in c l i n i c a l s e t t i n g s . However t h e r e are other p l a c e s w i t h i n our c u l t u r e where such concepts are accepted. The most obvious example i s w i t h i n a r e l i g i o u s c o n t e x t . I t ' s a c c e p t a b l e t o hear v o i c e s , or speak in t o n -gues in some s i t u a t i o n s . In o t h e r s , p l a c e s , of course, hearing v o i c e s or speaking in tongues becomes a symptom and a s i g n f o r increase of m e d i c a t i o n . To the Nahavo, music i s both a v e h i c l e t o and a c e l e b r a t i o n of our d i v i n e c o l l e c t i v e nature. The Indian does not know th a t the m a g i c i o f music wil b r i n g h e a l i n g i n s t e a d he t r u s t s t h a t i t w i l l . The c u l -t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e emerges in the d i s t i n c t i o n between known and unknown. A n t h r o p o l o g i s t Malinowski (1948) t e l l s us we f i n d magic wherever the element of chance and a c c i d e n t and t h e emo-t i o n a l p l a y between hope and f e a r have a wide and exten-s i v e range. We do not f i n d magic whenever the p u r s u i t i s c e r t a i n , r e l i a b l e and well under the c o n t r o l of r a -t i o n a l methods and t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s . Within our c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t , one of the v e h i c l e s f o r magic i s r e l i g i o n and f o r s c i e n c e , t h e rapy. T h i s s e p a r a t i o n be-tween r e l i g i o n and therapy has taken us t o our present unmagical s t a t e . Within the v a r i o u s t h e r a p e u t i c meth-od o l o g i e s s a n c t i o n e d by the s c i e n t i f i c o r i e n t a t i o n , magic i s denied f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons: I) i t cannot be observed; 2) i t o f t e n cannot be analyzed or understood; 3) i t o f t e n implies s p i r i t u a l or p s y c h i c f u n c t i o n i n g l e v e l s ; 4) i t cannot be d e f i n e d ; 5) most important, i t takes us t o l e v e l s of depth f o r which t h e r e are no word symbols. No matter how i l l u s i v e , j t i s s t i l l t h e r e . Music a f f e c t s most people s u b j e c t i v e l y . It can a l s o a f f e c t people o b j e c t i v e l y , but w i t h i n the s u b j e c t i v e r e -a c t i o n s the magic i s found. It conveys symbolic meanings which are d i f f i c u l t t o d e s c r i b e in verbal language and are i n t i m a t e l y t i e d t o our emotions. In some ways, the symbolic meanings of music are s i m i l a r t o verbal lang-uage, but one d i f f e r e n c e i s the immediate power of music t o move on an emotional l e v e l . It d i r e c t l y a f f e c t s our f e e l i n g s , those human r e a c t i o n s which r e s i d e in the sub-114 j e c t i v e p a r t s of man's being, perhaps p a r t of r i g h t b r a i n hemisphere a c t i v i t y . A second c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t e n neglected in music therapy i s the a e s t h e t i c nature of musical e x p e r i e n c e . Music f u l f i l l s man's need f o r beauty, and can s a t i s f y h i s search f o r meaning in the world. Many a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , d o c t o r s , t e a c h e r s , nurses, t h e r a p i s t s , and some music t h e r a p i s t s do not r e a l i z e t h a t a e s t h e t i c experience can have a p r e v e n t a t i v e and c u r a t i v e e f f e c t . They do not value the use of a r t s in therapy. Sometimes they have not been encouraged by s o c i e t y t o develop t h e i r own a r t -i s t i c d r i v e s . O c c a s i o n a l l y they may pursue a r t i s t i c endeavors in t h e i r p r i v a t e l i v e s , but c l a s s i f y a r t as play and therapy as work, t h e r e f o r e l e a v i n g out t h i s im-port a n t v e h i c l e f o r h e a l i n g . One of the b a s i c premises f o r the music t h e r a p i s t i s t h a t everyone i s an a r t i s t , but s o c i e t y d i c t a t e s t h a t the l i v i n g , working s t u f f of a r t i s f o r "the a r t i s t " , a person removed and s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d . In many o l d e r c u l t u r e s , l e i s u r e time was not a time f o r meaningless a c t i v i t y . L e i s u r e time was time given t o a e s t h e t i c experiences such as p l a y i n g or l i s t e n -ing t o music. When n a t i v e and t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e s made music, danced and costumed, they were u s u a l l y performing r i t u a l s necessary f o r the h e a l t h and w e l l - b e i n g of the community, coming t o g e t h e r t o express t h e i r b e l i e f s and *^ Play i s used here i n the broader sense not as in the concept of Play Therapy. f e e l i n g s about l i f e . These a c t i v i t i e s were i n t i m a t e l y t i e d t o man's search f o r meaning. "The average Navaho male spends 75% of h i s time in ceremonials and r i t u a l s " , (Campbell)' Our c u l t u r e does not maintain these aes-t h e t i c values f o r the average man or the p a t i e n t in the p s y c h i a t r i c ward, or the c e r e b r a l p a l s i e d c h i l d . Many of our treatments ignore the problem of man's search f o r meaning, on l y encouraging the r e t u r n of a l i e n a t i o n . These methods deal with changes on a s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l , only what i s seen, or can be ovserved by an o u t s i d e r . Often behavior i s a r e f l e c t i o n of one's inner being. But i t cannot be assumed t h a t i t i s the t o t a l p i c t u r e of man, or the only p a r t t o which t o respond. A e s t h e t i c s tends t o be somewhat n e g l e c t e d . I t ' s d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e and r e s i d e s in t h a t grey r i g h t hemisphere. A e s t h e t i c experiences are unique and p e r s o n a l . A e s t h e t i c s i s i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y and c r o s s e s l i n e s or v a l u e s , b e l i e f s , p e r s o n a l i t y q u a l i t i e s , p e r c e p t i o n s k i l l s , e d u c a t i o n , a t t i t u d e s . But through a e s t h e t i c experience i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r each man t o f i n d h i s own frame of r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e u n i v e r s e . Through V a l u i n g beauty, one can f i n d ways of absorbing s t r e n g t h from the world in which one l i v e s . In a music therapy s e s s i o n , the tunes or e x p r e s s i o n s may not always sound b e a u t i f u l t o a c r i t i c ; however, the music t h e r a p i s t " Quoted from Joseph Campbell's c l a s s l e c t u r e U.B.C., Wednesday, September 19, 1979. hears these e x p r e s s i o n s as profound r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of human ex p e r i e n c e . Through the p r o f u n d i t y comes b e a u t y — an a r t i s t ' s s y m b o l i z a t i o n through sound of the b a s i c elements which make up l i f e e x p e r i e n c e — p a i n , sorrow, jo y , sadness, l o s s , r e b i r t h . It accepted with t h i s a t -t i t u d e , such p r i m i t i v e e x p r e s s i o n s can form the found-a t i o n f o r a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward l i f e f o r a person d i s a b l e d in any way. The c l i e n t and t h e r a p i s t work t o -gether t o c r e a t e and experience beauty. They f i n d sym-b o l i c forms, p a t t e r n s , shapes, t e x t u r e s in improvised music which convey s i g n i f i c a n t meanings. They hear h e a l -ing themes in recorded p i e c e s which t r a n s f e r t o l i f e o u t s i d e t h e music therapy s e s s i o n . The t h i r d h e a l i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n in music therapy s e s s i o n s i s the n a t u r a l a b i l i t y of music t o p r o v i d e ex-p e r i e n c e s in the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s e s . As mentioned e a r l i Jung c o n s i d e r e d c r e a t i v i t y one of man's b a s i c i n s t i n c t s . It can be implied from h i s theory t h a t a l l men not only have the p o t e n t i a l t o develop c r e a t i v i t y in some area, t o some degree, but a l s o t h a t everyone has a d r i v e t o be c r e a t i v e which must be s a t i s f i e d . T h i s d r i v e can c r e a t e products b e n e f i c i a l both t o the i n d i v i d u a l and t o s o c i e t y i f the proper channels are d i s c o v e r e d . If the c r e a t i v e i n s t i n c t i s not used or p r o p e r l y channeled, i t can have a harmful e f f e c t on both. Even though music may not be 11: the n a t u r a l v e h i c l e f o r everyone's c r e a t i v i t y , i t can be an experimental ground in which t o t r y out c r e a t i v e p r o -cesses and apply them t o a powerful medium. C r e a t i v e processes can be a p p l i e d t o an y t h i n g . The music t h e r a -p i s t can p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a person t o t r y a l t e r -n a t i v e s in pr o b l e m - s o l v i n g , have c o r r e c t i v e experience in communication and learn about new sources of regen-e r a t i o n and enrichment and develop new s k i l l s . The music t h e r a p i s t combines r e s o u r c e s f o r maximum b e n e f i t t o a l l , or in other words, c r e a t e s the most b e a u t i f u l a r t work. A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s engage in a journey t o d i s c o v e r the r i g h t sound q u a l i t y , shape or c o l o r which d e s c r i b e s and symbolizes an important p a r t of the beings in the s e s s i o n and which other kinds of symbols cannot adequately des-c r i b e and communicate. The good t h e r a p i s t leaves adequate space and time f o r the c l i e n t s t o f u l f i l l t h e i r own c r e a -t i v e processes as p a r t of the c r e a t i o n . Many t h e r a p i s t s and methods presume they have a l l the knowledge about where and how a person must be healed. Most forms of therapy d i c t a t e e x a c t l y the way a person must a l t e r be-h a v i o r , a t t i t u d e and mood t o conform with the c u l t u r e . W i t h i n c r e a t i v i t y t h e r e i s a way t o adapt t o the c u l t u r e and express one's uniqueness, i f c l i e n t s have a sa f e p l a c e in which t o experiment. CHAPTER IV THE MUSIC THERAPIST AS A RITUALIST If music p r o v i d e s a v e h i c l e f o r the myth, r i t u a l c r e a t e s a context f o r any subsequent m y t h i c a l , musical event. As the guide or leader in t h i s s i t u a t i o n , the Music T h e r a p i s t then must become a r i t u a l i s t . Before d i s c u s s i n g the s k i l l s necessary f o r the music therapy r i t u a l i s t , the phenomenon of r i t u a l i t s e l f deserves some c o n s i d e r a t i o n . At i t s most b a s i c l e v e l r i t u a l i s d e f i n e d as a p r e -s c r i b e d form or method f o r the performance of a r e l i g i o u s or solumn ceremony. From the tone of t h i s d e f i n i t i o n we can assume t h a t r i t u a l would be a s e r i o u s and meaningful event. Beyond t h i s , one i n t e r e s t i n g r e l a t i o n a l i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d by Kapferer (1979). He r e l a t e s the r i t u a l performance t o the c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l c o n t e x t , which in f a c t would be the o b j e c t of a music therapy s e s s i o n . R i t u a l without c a r r y o v e r i n t o the p r a c t i c a l concerns of day-to-day l i f e would hold l i t t l e meaning. Kapferer d i s c u s s e s the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l process w i t h i n r i tua I : "...many r i t u a l s d e r i v e t h e i r power t o t r a n s f o r m i d e n t i t i e s and contexts of a c t i o n and meaning, which are l o c a t e d in the mundane order of everyday l i f e , though e f f e c t i n g t r a n s f o r m -a t i o n s w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e i r performance..." (p.3) Kapferer concludes t h a t " r i t u a l d i a I e c t i c a I Iy and t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n a l l y r e l a t e s t o the r e a l i t i e s which are b u i l t around i t , and which c o n t i n u e in t h e i r processes a f t e r t h e completion of a r i t u a l performance." (p.3) Of course t h i s i s the intended r e s u l t of a Music Therapy s e s s i o n , t h a t through symbolic a s s o c i a t i o n s and perform-ance of some type, c l i e n t s w i l l become transformed not only w i t h i n the context of the r i t u a l or s e s s i o n , but s i t u a t i o n s in t h e i r l i v e s . Another important p o i n t made by Kapferer i s t h a t "The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of a context must involve a t r a n s -formation o f i t s c o n s t i t u e n t elements. T h i s i s e f f e c t -ed by these elements being r e l a t e d in ways d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r r e l a t i o n in a context in which they were p r e -v i o u s l y c o n s t i t u t e d " . (p.4) 'n terms of a Music Therapy s e s s i o n t h i s may mean a rearrangement of c o n s t i t u e n t s , an a d d i t i o n or s u b t r a c t i o n of c o n s t i t u e n t s , changing the q u a l i t y of c e r t a i n elements. The r i t u a l p r o v i d e s a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e as well as new i n f o r m a t i o n . The key t o t h i s simultaneous or co n t i n g e n t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s found in o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n of problems, or i l l n e s s , or even more s p e c i f i c a l l y an externa I i z a t i o n . Problems or i l l n e s s r e c e i v e a co n c r e t e form through performance. T h i s idea of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of context through the power of r i t u a l r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y t o the m y t h i c a l , musi-c a l framework as o u t l i n e d above, s i n c e the d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth r e s t s at the base of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . As a r i t u a l i s t the music t h e r a p i s t must develop r e -spect f o r both convention and s p o n t a n e i t y . The r i t u a l p r o v i d e s a b a s i c s t r u c t u r e which should be s p e c i f i c , r e a s s u r i n g and s u p p o r t i v e , but not i n h i b i t i v e t o the i n -d i v i d u a l needs of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The human s p i r i t at i t s most b a s i c l e v e l d e s i r e s t o be healed. A p e r -son w i l l i d e n t i f y with the h e a l i n g elements of music and r i t u a l and venture towards growth and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . Music i s only a r e f l e c t i o n of man h i m s e l f . In t h i s sense music w i l l not v i o l a t e the impulses of man but p r o v i d e i n s t e a d # a framework from which t o make c h o i c e s . Music i s a resource p o o l . It c o n t a i n s many t h i n g s images, p a t t e r n s , mood sug g e s t i o n s , t e x t u r e s , f e e l i n g s , p r o c e s s e s . If s e l e c t e d , c r e a t e d and used with r e s p e c t and wisdom, the c l i e n t s w i l l hear what they need t o hear in the music, and use the r i t u a l as a s u p p o r t i v e c o n t e x t . The Music T h e r a p i s t as r i t u a l i s t must a l s o develop r e s p e c t f o r : l ) h j s / h e r own persona I i t y r e s o u r c e s 2) those of the c l i e n t 3) processes inherent in music 4) processes inherent in s t r u c t u r e o f f e r e d 5) s i l e n c e 6) t i m e 7) space 8) and h i s t o r y In a d d i t i o n , the r i t u a l i s t must develop c o n f i d e n c e in s e l f , o t h e r s and the p r o c e s s of growth; f l e x i b i l i t y and a d a p t a b i l i t y ; empathy; s t r e n g t h ; knowledge; h u m i l i t y ; enthusiasm, humour and warmth. The Shamanic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Music T h e r a p i s t For the sake of l i b e r a t i o n , the Music T h e r a p i s t can be c o n s i d e r e d a Shaman. There are many r e f e r e n c e s t o the p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t as Shaman. Jerome Frank says: "At f i r s t glance, the dramatic and emotional a c t i v i t i e s of the Shaman appear t o have nothing in common with the detached, q u i e t l y competent m i n i s -t r a t i o n s of the modern p h y s i c i a n " . (K i e v , 1964, P .7) But l o o k i n g more c l o s e l y , t h e r e are many: I) He d e r i v e s h i s h e a l i n g powers from h i s s t a t u s and r o l e w i t h i n the s u f f e r e r ' s s o c i e t y . 2) He i s an evoker of h e a l i n g f o r c e s . 3) A mentor. 4 ) A r o l e mode I. 5) A mediator between the s u f f e r e r and h i s group, (p. In general h i s task i s t o help the p a t i e n t , whether A f r i c a n tribesman or North American s t o c k h o l d e r t o m o b i l -i z e h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s p i r i t u a l as well as b o d i l y r e -sour c e s . E s p e c i a l l y important f o r h e a l i n g i s the element of f a i t h and t r u s t p l a c e d in the therapist/shaman by the p a t i e n t . S t u d i e s in the placebo e f f e c t (Shapino, 1964) have shown us how important f a i t h r e a l l y i s . But in add-i t i o n t o the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t and the shaman, t h e music t h e r a p i s t as a shaman i s a l s o an a r t i s t / m u s i c maker. Areas shared between the shaman and the music t h e r a -p i s t would be t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1) Both work with a magic phenomenon or a r t which i s not t o t a l l y understood. 2) Both work i n p r o f e s s i o n s having r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o oversee the h e a l t h o f the community, p r e v e n t a t i v e and c u r a t i v e . 3) Both r e q u i r e the f a i t h and t r u s t of t h e i r commr u n i t i e s in order t o achieve r e s u l t s . 4 ) Both learn t h e i r s k i l l s and r e l y on t h e i r own judgement and i n t u i t i o n about when and where t o apply them. They serve an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p and r e c e i v e i n -s p i r a t i o n l e a d i n g t o i n s i g h t about t h e i r work. 5) Both are dynamic p e r s o n a l i t i e s in t h a t they are e n e r g e t i c and v i g o r o u s . Whether shy, g r e g a r i o u s , con-s e r v a t i v e or e c c e n t r i c , they are s t i l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g in a c t i v i t i e s i n i t i a t e d by themselves. 6) Both heal themselves by p a r t i c i p a t i o n in t h e i r s h a m a n i s t i c a r t , e i t h e r p r i o r t o or engaging in t h e i r vocat i o n . 7) Both o f f e r r i t u a l s and ceremonies i n t i m a t e l y con nected t o myth and v a r i o u s a r t f o r m s — m u s i c , dance, c o s -tume, c o l o r , e t c . B. The A r t i s t The Music T h e r a p i s t i s an a r t i s t by token of musica a b i l i t y . But the value of the a r t i s t i c nature of the musician w i t h i n a context of r i t u a l transcends t e c h n i c a l and i n t e r p r e t i v e competence. As an a r t i s t , the r i t u a l -i s t has a c e r t a i n way of p e r c e i v i n g the world which can be u s e f u l i n h e a l i n g and therapy. The sensual p e r c e p t -ions of the a r t i s t a llow the r i t u a l i s t t o guide the c e r e monies and a c t i v i t i e s i n t o profound r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of myth and I i f e . Kapferer mentions the va l u e of o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n or externa I i z a t i o n in the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of c o n t e x t . The Music T h e r a p i s t both e x t e r n a l i z e s and guides others t o e x t e r n a l i z e f e e l i n g s , thoughts, s i t u a t i o n a l dilemmas, p e r s o n a l i t y dynamics i n t o musical form. The music i s immediate and c o n s t a n t l y changing. As an a r t i s t the Music T h e r a p i s t i s a r e s o u r c e combiner, experimenting and p l a y i n g with a l t e r n a t i v e s . G rinder and BandIer (1976) in The S t r u c t u r e s of Magic hypothesize t h a t therapy i s merely being exposed t o a l t e r n a t i v e s . The a r t i s t draws together a l l the r e s -ources and m a t e r i a l s which w i l l c r e a t e a music therapy r i t u a l . These resources would include e v e r y t h i n g which can be in the room at the time of the c r e a t i o n of the work of a r t : the p e r s o n a l i t y q u a l i t i e s of a l l persons in t h e s e s s i o n , the environmental q u a l i t i e s of the space, the time of day, m a t e r i a l s used (whether instruments, p a i n t s , r e c o r d p l a y e r or other), f sk i I I s of a l l persons in the room, a t t i t u d e s , c u l t u r a l t r e n d s , h i s t o r y , be-l i e f s , f e e l i n g s , p h i l o s o p h i e s . In t h i s s i t u a t i o n the r i t u a I i s t / a r t i s t becomes a f a c i l i t a t o r . One of the most e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s of the Music T h e r a p i s t as a r t i s t i s musical s e n s i t i v i t y . The a b i l i t y t o e x p l o r e sound and s i l e n c e f r e e l y and encourage r i t u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s t o do the same i s e s s e n t i a l . The a r t i s t should be a b l e t o hear and i n t e r p r e t unspoken moods, t r a i n e d in both the form and f l e x i b i l i t y of h i s i n s t r u -ment, ab l e t o combine h i s s k i l l s in unconventional ways, aware of the i n f i n i t e v a r i e t y o f the language of music ^  He/she must use music as a meeting ground, a p l a c e in which t o step o u t s i d e c o n v e n t i o n a l r o l e s and p a t t e r n s . If the Music T h e r a p i s t c o n s i d e r s h i m / h e r s e l f an a r t i s t , f u l f i l l i n g h i s / h e r own c r e a t i v e i n s t i n c t s , and each music therapy s e s s i o n as a work of a r t , most probably c l i e n t s w i l l be i n s p i r e d t o f o l l o w s u i t . If t h i s t r a n s f e r i s accomplished, the c l i e n t s a l s o become a r t i s t s i n v o l v e d in c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s e s . If allowed t o be a r t i s t s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s accom-p l i s h t h e i r own h e a l i n g . The V i s i o n a r y If the Music T h e r a p i s t does assume the c h a r a c t e r and r o l e of the r i t u a l i s t / a r t i s t then Campbell and A r g u e l l e s as mentioned above would imply the r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y of v i s i o n as w e l l . For the a r t i s t t akes some i n i t i a t i v e in the u n f o l d i n g of the f u t u r e through v i s i o n . T h i s v i s i o n c o n s t i t u t e s a p l a n , a scheme, a method of f a c i l i t a t i n g t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s and the c u l -t u r e i t s e l f . W i t h i n the present paper, the v i s i o n takes th e simple form of b e l i e f in the va l u e of myth. There are an i n f i n i t e number of p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r other v i s i o n s . V i s i o n endows t h e Music T h e r a p i s t with p a s s i o n , con-v i c t i o n and moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , a sense of d e s t i n y and purpose, c h a r i s m a t i c l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s , an essen-t i a l r o l e in the e v o l u t i o n and improvement of c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y . The presence of a l t e r n a t i v e s i s a s i g n of v i s i o n . V i s i o n has some unspeakable s p i r i t u a l q u a l i t y which i s hard t o d e f i n e but can be heard with-in the music of the a r t i s t , a Ch'i (Chi nese V i t a l Breath), The v i s i o n a r y must be s t r o n g , yet s u b t l e ; c l e a r yet undogmatic; the v i s i o n a r y must a l s o r e s p e c t the v i s i o n s of o t h e r s . I n i t i a t i o n and Transformation The Music T h e r a p i s t as R i t u a l i s t r e q u i r e s a p a r t -i c u l a r type of t r a i n i n g . T h i s t r a i n i n g i s not necess-a r i l y a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the present academic i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r i n g t r a i n i n g in music therapy. B r i e f l y the Music T h e r a p i s t as r i t u a l i s t / a r t i s t / v i s i o n a r y must r e c e i v e the foI Iowi ng: 1) Experiences in a l l the v a r i o u s musical r i t u a l s present Iy a v a i I a b I e and encouragement t o c r e a t e new r i t u a l s d i c t a t e d by t h e s i t u a t i o n a l needs of each unique t h e r a p e u t i c environment. A t r a i n e e must p e r s o n a l l y ex-p e r i e n c e the power of music and r i t u a l . 2) Knowledge and s k i l l s In as many d i s c i p l i n e s as p o s s i b l e , e s p e c i a l l y , Music Therapy, Music, Philosophy, Psychology, R e l i g i o u s S t u d i e s , Anthropology, H i s t o r y , C r e a t i v e A r t s , e t c . E q u a l l y important i s a knowledge of one's own personal r e s o u r c e s even before t r a i n i n g begins. 3) Experiences in the f i e l d , <i,e., in t h e r a p e u t i c environments, from the onset of t r a i n i n g . T h i s g i v e s the t r a i n e e many l e v e l s of understanding, which can be guided by c l i e n t s , other Music T h e r a p i s t s and p r o -f e s s i onaIs. There must be a balance between the t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s and information, and the c h a r a c t e r and p e r s o n a l i t y who can accept and use the magic. At the core of the m u s i c a l , mythical framework as presented here i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . The r i t u a l i s t must embrace t r a n s f o r m a t i o n before and d u r i n g r i t u a l s which present t h i s p rocess t o o t h e r s . If a p r o s p e c t i v e Music T h e r a p i s t a p p l i c a n t has not experienced some type of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e experience p r i o r t o t r a i n i n g , t h i s p r o -cess i s r e q u i r e d d u r i n g i n i t i a t i o n . Again we are r e -minded of the shaman,'.* Argue I l e s c o n t r a s t s r i g o r o u s t r a i n i n g and r e c e i p t of a diploma with p u r i f i c a t i o n and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . He then says: "The shaman and the y o g i , the s o r c e r e s s and the p r i e s t e s s , a l l d e r i v e t h e i r s t r e n -gth from an i n i t i a t o r y death and r e b i r t h experience they must each undergo before they can t r u l y be themselves. It i s t h i s t r a n s f i g u r a t i v e experience t h a t endows them with t h e i r unique v i s i o n . In t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s t h i s experience was h i g h l y valued and the r i g h t t o undergo i t was safeguarded r e l i g i o u s -l y . But modern t e c h n o - h i s t o r i c a I s o c i e t y a b o l i s h e d the r i g h t t o v i s i o n as well as the r i t u a l f o r g a i n i n g i t with a f e a r f u l s e I f - r t g h t e o u s veng-ence, thus e n s u r i n g i t s own fan^-t a s t i c r i s e t o power but a l s o s e a l -ing i t s own doom. In denying t h e v a l i d i t y of t h e v i s i o n and the v i s i o n - q u e s t , modern s o c i e t y denied i t s e l f any r e b i r t h s h o r t of apo-c a l y p s e - an event i t s own shamans and v i s i o n a r y prophets, e x i l e d t o the s i d e l i n e s , have c o n t i n u a l l y f o r e t o l d and prepared f o r " . (p.288) He f u r t h e r notes t h a t o f t e n those who do choose the path of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f o r t r a i n i n g are l a b e l l e d d e v i e n t . The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the t r a i n e e may be s l i g h t or extreme, but deep i n s i g h t and understanding of the t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n a l p r o c e s s must occur, i f he or she i s t o a f f e c t -i v e l y employ the m y t h i c a l , musical framework. CHAPTER V SYNTHESIS AND CONCLUSIONS Synthes i s As Argue I l e s speaks o f our s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e urges toward apocalypse, Jerome Frank (1978) in h i s book Psychotherapy and the Human Predicament, p r e d i c t s the form of t h i s eventual d i s a s t e r as nuclear d e s t r u c t i o n and the cause, a type of s o c i a l d i s e a s e c a l l e d t e c h -nology. In Ivan l l l i c h ' s words, we have heard t h i s s o c i a l d i s e a s e c a l l e d l i c e n t i o u s t e chnology. Because of t h i s rampant technology, we are f a c e d with the d a i l y p o s s i b i l i t y o f nuc l e a r d i s a s t e r , c o n t r o l l e d by the emotions of p o l i t i c a l r i s i n g s and f a l l i n g s . While t h i s c l o u d hangs over our d a i l y l i v e s , a f a c t which Frank sees in d i r e c t r e l a t i o n t o t h e s t a t e of our mental h e a l t h , we observe t h e simultaneous disappearance o f f e l l o w l i f e on ea r t h through the i n c r e a s i n g disappearance of p l a n t and animal s p e c i e s , i n c l u d i n g human s p e c i e s , a l l around us. The s i c k and d i s t r e s s e d ones in our p o p u l a t i o n are in d i r e c t r e l a t i o n t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n . They are pa r t of our essence. They are a r e f l e c t i o n and i n t e n s i f i c a -t i o n of our own c o l l e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n . The p o i n t i s t h a t something has gone wrong and, i n . G r i n d e r and Bandler's words, what are the a l t e r n a t i v e s ? What does the s t r u c t u r e of magic have t o o f f e r a s i c k c u l t u r e , a c u l t u r e which Joseph Campbell has claimed " I s on the way out"?' One c l u e i s suggested in the word magic. As Malinowski s a i d above, we f i n d magic where we do not have c o n t r o l of the elements of our l i v e s . In t h i s s i t u a t i o n , perhaps we t h i n k we have c o n t r o l , by v i r t u e of our i n t e l l e c t u a l arrogance, when in f a c t we do not. Another c l u e i s pr o v i d e d by G a b r i e l M arcel, e x i -s t e n t i a l p h i l o s o p h e r : "What I t h i n k we need today i s to r e a c t with our whole s t r e n g t h a g a i n s t t h a t d i s s o c i a -t i o n of l i f e from s p i r i t which a b l o o d l e s s r a t i o n a l i s m has brought about". (Sykes, 1964, P«656) Marcel sug-gests t h a t we have overdosed on mind, consequently leav-ing too much s p i r i t behind. The q u e s t i o n f o r some i s : Where have vje^gone wrong? The q u e s t i o n used in the present document i s : What have we l e f t behind? In t h i s s i t u a t i o n of lack of balance, which elements of knowledge can we r e - i n t e g r a t e i n t o today's l i f e in order t o r e - e s t a b l i s h balance? The p a r t i c u l a r context used t o address the qu e s t i o n here i s the t h e r a p e u t i c environment. But as s t a t e d e a r l i e r , t h e s e s e t t i n g s are only a r e f l e c t i o n of the c u l t u r e at lar g e ; and the people w i t h i n those s e t t i n g s , r e f l e c t i o n s of the i n d i v i d u a l s o u t s i d e . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s have ''Joseph Campbell, l e c t u r e , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columb September, 19, 1979. been.noted by Jerome Frank ( 1 9 7 8 ) . Any a l t e r n a t i v e s would apply t o us a l l . The f i r s t q u estion asked in Chapter II i s : What has been l e f t behind by overuse of the medical model? The two predominent areas in t h i s s e c t i o n are a lack of s p i r i t u a l freedom, which might even be c a l l e d a negation of s p i r i t u a l i t y , and a dearth of c r e a t i v i t y , which from most a r t i s t s ' view is r e l a t e d t o s p i r i t u a l negat i on. Here again we f i n d the word s p i r i t . S p i r i t im-p l i e s m y s t i c a l , magical and r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s . Un-f o r t u n a t e l y the medical model has v i r t u a l l y ignored t h i s s i d e of the nature o f man. Some i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of p s y c h o a n a l y s i s have gone one step f u r t h e r and l a b e l l e d r e l i g i o n as n e u r o s i s . T h i s has c r e a t e d u n f o r t u n a t e i n -adequacies in h e a l t h c a r e . The word r e l i g i o n , d e r i v e d from the L a t i n r e - , "back" and Iingare, " t o b i n d " , means in i t s broadest sense "a b i n d i n g back t o g e t h e r " . The o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r h e a l i n g aspects of r e l i g i o n are obvious w i t h i n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n . As Sandner says of the Nahavo: " R e l i g i o n , medicine and a r t are i n e x t r i c a b l y i n t e r t w i n e d in an a s t o n i s h i n g u n i t y of purpose". (p,4) And Marvin H a r r i s : " I t i s c l e a r t h a t a r t , r e l i g i o n and magic s a t i s f y s i m i l a r p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs in human beings,..They seek t o p e n e t r a t e behind the facade of o r d i n a r y appearance i n t o t h e t r u e cosmic s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i n g s " , (p.583^ A more formal d e f i n i t i o n s t a t e s t h a t r e l i g i o n i s the mixture of b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s , emotions, behavior, e t c . , c o n s t i t u t i n g man's r e l a t i o n s h i p with the powers or p r i n c i p l e s of the u n i v e r s e . T h i s may or may not imply some f u n c t i o n of d e i t i e s . However i t a s s u r e d l y does imply a seeking of o n t o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s and frameworks which r e l a t e man t o the broader u n i v e r s e . Frankl c a l l s t h i s man's search f o r meaning, and i d e n t i f i e s t h i s search as the e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t in mental h e a l t h or i l l n e s s . The primary aspect of c r e a t i v i t y which emerges as a c o n s i d e r a t i o n in h e a l i n g i s acknowledgement and u t i l -i z a t i o n of paradox, being able t o accept and use mixed f e e l i n g s c o r c o n t r a d i c t o r y circumstances f o r growth and change. The Death-Rebirth Myth and i t s i n f i n i t e number of a n a l o g i e s in l i f e of course i s one example of such paradox. Again, e f f e c t i v e r i t u a l c o n t e x t s f o r t h i s myth have been l e f t behind. Although t h e r e are some c u l t u r a l r i t u a l s which, w i t t i n g l y or u n w i l l i n g l y , employ t h i s myth and other myths, t h e r e are not enough t o r e a s s u r e us or remind us of the b a s i c ever-constant p a t t e r n s of l i f e , which Campbell c a l l s t h e elementary forms or human c o n s t a n t s . W i t h i n t h e t h e r a p e u t i c s e t t i n g s , t h e r e are even l e s s mythical r i t u a l s because of c e r t a i n s c i e n -t i f i c , as opposed t o s p i r i t u a l , o r i e n t a t i o n s mentioned in Chapter I I . The a n t i c i p a t e d product of r i t u a l based on the Death-Rebirth Myth i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , growth and change. If we are a b l e t o c o n s i d e r t h i s process in our-s e l v e s as a r e f l e c t i o n , and p a r t , of the world and u n i v e r s e around us, o n t o l o g i c a l questions are answered, and added s t r e n g t h and r e s o u r c e s r e c e i v e d . S i m i l a r l y i f we view the environment and f e l l o w l i f e around us as a r e f l e c t i o n of and part of o u r s e l v e s , h e a l i n g or p r e -v e n t i o n i s r e c i p r o c a l . What Frank r e f e r s t o as the " t h r e a t e n e d s u i c i d e of humanity through p o i s o n i n g of the environment" ( p i x i x ) w i l l be l e s s l i k e l y t o occur. In order f o r t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n t o develop between tsan and nature, which surrounds him and i s in him, connecting p a t t e r n s must be a p p r e c i a t e d . As C h i e f S e a l t h says above " A l l t h i n g s are connected. Whatever b e f a l l s the e a r t h b e f a l l s the sons of e a r t h " . (Greenpeace Chron-i c l e s , p . 5 ) . Perhaps the metaphoric mind can see t h i s v i s i o n more c l e a r l y than the l o g i c a l mind. Music i s only one v e h i c l e in t h i s framework, but i t does p r o v i d e easy access because of the inherent h e a l i n g processes in music: - music r e f l e c t s nature forms and structure of music provide symbolic order music provides a framework from which to make choices music acknowledges both su f fe r ing and joy music is profound music is both an ex i s ten t i a l r e a l i t y and is t imeless music is a place to be alone music is a place to be together music provides high motivational st imulat ion music stimulates man's emdtions, i n t e l l e c t and body music provides a re l a t i ona l context for man music is a preverbal or p r im i t i ve perception and thus broadens the p o s s i b i l i t i e s for comm-unicat ions and el iminates boundaries music r e f l e c t s a l l the impulses of man music captures form and goes beyond form to s p i r i t . music is flow and v ibra t ion and therefore remi man of his e a r l i e s t existence music is a sensuous perception music has an immediate e f fec t 135 -,music can p r o v i d e a s o c i a l context - music can be c e n t e r i n g or d i s i n t e g r a t i v e - music i s a resource pool of images - music i s process and product - music i s l i q u i d and s o l i d U n f o r t u n a t e l y some of the processes inherent in music which can be used f o r h e a l i n g have been ignored e n t i r e l y because of s t r i c t l y c l i n i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . In general these a r e : 1) Music c o n t a i n s magic 2) Music i s an a e s t h e t i c experience and t h e r e f o r e conducive t o p a t t e r n i n g 3) Music can introduce and develop c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s e s . The Music T h e r a p i s t as r i t u a l i s t p r o v i d e s a context f o r the t r a n s f o r m a t i v e experiences of mythical musical forms. In order t o f u n c t i o n in t h i s r o l e the music t h e r a p i s t must be not only c l i n i c i a n but a l s o magician, a r t i s t as well as s c i e n t i s t and a v i s i o n a r y f o r the i n d i v i d u a l and the c u l t u r e . He/she must understand and know the process of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p e r s o n a l l y in order t o encourage others in t h i s endeavor. Cone I us i on T h i s t h e s i s does not represent a p u r e l y s y s t e m a t i c approach. Rather i t re p r e s e n t s a s y n t h e s i z e d group of ideas which become a l i v e w i t h i n the use of the Death-R e b i r t h Myth in Music. It i s a framework t o be sug-gested r a t h e r than imposed w i t h i n c e r t a i n s e s s i o n s w i t h -in c e r t a i n t h e r a p e u t i c environments when deemed approp-r i a t e by the music therapy r i t u a l i s t . The t h e s i s s t r o n g l y a d v i s e s a p e r v a s i v e change in present systems of therapy - a move t o implement c r e a t i v e a r t s t h e r a p i e s . It suggests the f e a s i b i l i t y of employing music as one of the v e h i c l e s f o r h e a l i n g , in p a r t i c u l a r , the Death-R e b i r t h Myth, It a l s o suggests c e r t a i n q u a l i f i c a t i o n s necessary in i n i t i a t i o n and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of Music T h e r a p i s t s c r e a t i n g r i t u a l c o n t e x t s f o r the m y t h i c a l , musical s t r u c t u r e . On a broader l e v e l i t suggests an equal emphasis on a r t and s c i e n c e , a l e a r n i n g from, and i n c o r p o r a t i n g o f , c e r t a i n t r a d i t i o n a l ideas w i t h i n our present s i t u a t i o n , a b i n d i n g back t o nature. Music and myth are suggested as only one of the means through which t o r e t u r n t o these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , S u f i Inayat Khan says "Music i s the harmony of the u n i v e r s e in microcosm; f o r t h i s harmony i s l i f e i t s e l f , and in man, who i s h i m s e l f a microcosm of the u n i v e r s e " . (Hamel, 1976, p.212) BIBLIOGRAPHY A p e l , W i l l i a m . Harvard Dict ionary of Music. Cambridge Mass.: The Belkap Press of Harvard Univers i ty Press , 1969. Argue l l e s , Jose. The Transformative V i s i o n . Shambhala, Berkeley and London, 1975-New York: Basic Books Inc . , 1976. A s s a g i o j i , Robert. 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The Dynamics of C r e a t i o n . London: Seeker and Warburg, 1972, In, P i c k e r i n g , G., The C r e a t i v e Malady. S u i I i v a n , J.W.N. Beethoven. His S p i r i t u a l Development. New York: Vintage Books, 1960, Sykes, G e r a l d . A l i e n a t i o n , The C u l t u r a l Climate of our  Time. New York: George B r a z i l Ier, 1964. Szasz, Thomas S., M.D. The Myth of Mental I l l n e s s . New York: Harper & Row P u b l i s h e r s , 1974. Szasz, Thomas S., M.D. The Sacred Symbol of P s y c h i a t r y . New York: B a s i c Books Inc., 1976. Weckman, George. " B e l i e v i n g Myth as Myth", Myth the C r i s i s  of H i s t o r i c a l Consciousness, ed. Lee W. Gibbs & W. T a y l o r Stevenson, M i s s o u l a , Mont.: U.S.A. P r i n t i n g Dept., 1975. Van Genner, A r n o l d . The R i t e s of Passage. Chicago: Chicago U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960. Vernon, P.E. Creat iv i t y . Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1970. Whitmont, Edward C. The Symbolic Quest. P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1969. Whorf, Benjamin Lee. "Language/ Mind, R e a l i t y " , J.B. C a r r o l l , ed. Language. Thought & R e a l i t y : S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s o f Benjamin Lee Whorf, Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press, 1956, In, O r n s t e i n ed., The Nature  of Human Consciousness. W i l l ems, Edgar. " I n t r o d u c t i o n a la t h e r a p i o musicale", in S c h w e i z e r i s c h a Muzikzeitung, Vol.3, 1963. APPENDICES 145 APPENDIX A 146 APPENDIX A C A P I L A N O C O L L E G E  COURSE OUTLINE TERM FALL 1979 COURSE NUMBER MUSIC 242 INSTRUCTOR CAROLYN KENNY NAME OF COURSE MUSIC & THE CREATIVE ARTS OBJECTIVES OF COURSE: Genera I: I n s t r u c t i o n a l : COURSE CONTENT: To develop an a p p r e c i a t i o n and understanding of the r e -l a t i o n s h i p between Music, Dance and Art in the t he rapeu t i c environment. 1. To develop an a r t i c u l a t e r a t i o n a l e f o r implementation of the C r e a t i v e A r t s The rap ie s . 2. To app rec i a te the unique resources of each of the a r t s (Music, Dance, A r t ) and the r e l a t e d i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e i r t h e r a p e u t i c use; 3. To understand how t o use in con junc t i on with music in therapy se s s i on s , t o increase p o t e n t i a l f o r growth and change; 4. To learn s p e c i f i c techniques of combining the a r t s in therapy with music as a pr imary t o o l ; 5 . To develop observa t ion s k i l l s in n o t i c i n g which p a r t -i c u l a r a r t medium w i l l c rea te the most e f f e c t i v e v e h i c l e f o r the c l i e n t ; 6. To learn s p e c i f i c techniques of gu id ing groups through c r e a t i v e a r t s t h e r a p i e s ses s ions with music as a base. Music & Co lo r A. Overview - Ra t iona le f o r C r e a t i v e A r t s Therap ies Concept B. Synathaes ia - the i n teg r a t i on of sense p e r c e p t i o n , emotion & i n t e l l e c t . S I) Music & Co lor - P a i n t i n g , Drawing &• Poetry 2) Mus ic , Co lo r & Movement - the Mask ( i n t r o . t o v ideo usage) II. Music & Dance: A. Q u a l i f i e d quest leaders in Dance Therapy (1) Movement with the c h i l d (2) Movement with the adu l t and e l d e r l y B. Combining music, movement, c o l o r , s c u l p t u r e in a r e -source pool t o exp lore d e a t h / r e b i r t h theme in music. III. Mus i c i n a D i f f e r e n t P e r s p e c t i v e : A. Rhythm - a L i f e Force in Music & Dance B. The Human V i b r a t i o n - v o i c e , the c e l l o , the bass combined with c o l o r , shape p o e t i c word C. Nature as Healer & Integrator of the A r t s NOTE: C la s ses w i l l be p r i m a r i l y e x p e r i e n t i a l and d i s c u s s i o n t ime with some l e c t u r e . APPENDIX B Q u e s t i o n n a i r e - Music 242 1) Were you i n i t i a l l y a b l e t o experience a f e e l i n g of "nothingness"? 2) What theme d i d the music communicate t o you? 3) Were you a b l e t o connect t o the musical theme as a symbolic metaphor of some stage or s i t u a t i o n in your Ii f e ? 4) Did you experience r e g e n e r a t i o n or renewal through your musical encounter? 5) Did you experience a " b u i l d i n g " f e e l i n g ? 6) Did the musical experience have "meaning" f o r you? If yes, b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e . 7) Can you d e s c r i b e the q u a l i t i e s in the music which " i n s p i r e d " you? 8) If other m a t e r i a l s i n s p i r e d you, what were they? 9) Any f u r t h e r comments? APPENDIX C D i s c u s s i o n of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e purpose of items used in q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix B): 1) Were you i n i t i a l l y a b l e t o experience a f e e l i n g of "noth i ngness"? The "nothingness" i s meant t o s i m i l a t e the death p o r t i o n of the myth. A person ventures t o the lowest s t a t e , a s t a t e of numbness, before a r e b i r t h or i n s i g h t can occur. 2) What theme d i d the music communicate t o you? T h i s q u e s t i o n seeks the d e a t h - r e b i r t h theme or some analogous growing theme. 3) Were you a b l e t o connect t o the musical theme as a symbolic metaphor of some stage or s i t u a t i o n in your I i f e ? T h i s q u e s t i o n seeks evidence t h a t t h e r e has been a conscious c o n n e c t i o n between symbol and c o n c r e t e l i f e s i t u a t i o n so t h a t symbolic h e a l i n g or at l e a s t c l e a r i n s i g h t has occured. 4) Did you experience r e g e n e r a t i o n or renewal through your musical encounter? T h i s q u e s t i o n t r i e s t o f i n d out i f a s o r t of r e -b i r t h d i d in f a c t occur. 149 5) Did you experience a " b u i l d i n g " f e e l i n g ? T h i s q u e s t i o n asks s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s : a) d i d you f e e l " c r e a t i v e " , i . e . , c r e a t i n g a product? b) d i d you f e e l in c o n t r o l of b u i l d i n g ? c) d i d your b u i l d i n g of product t r a n s f e r i n t o a b u i l d i n g " f e e l i n g " i n s i d e — a suggestion f o r personal growth? 6) Did the musical experience have "meaning" f o r you? T h i s q u e s t i o n has two purposes: a) t o encourage th e p a r t i c i p a n t t o i d e n t i f y mean-ing and i t s importance in growing b) t o serve as a second check on i d e n t i f y i n g any f u n c t i o n of the d e a t h - r e b i r t h theme. 7) Can you d e s c r i b e the q u a l i t i e s in the music which " i n s p i r e d " you? 8) If other m a t e r i a l s i n s p i r e d you, what are they? 9) Any f u r t h e r comments? Questions 7,8,9, are open-ended and seek information beyond or o u t s i d e of the d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth. APPENDIX D Appendices D,E, and F in c l u d e d e s c r i p t i o n of s e s s i o n s and r e s u l t s of general e v a l u a t i v e q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s on use of the Death-Rebirth Myth in Music with second year Music Therapy students of C a p i l a n o C o l l e g e , Vancouver, B.C. The study was conducted as p a r t of a r e q u i r e d course f o r Music Therapy t r a i n e e s c a l l e d Music and the C r e a t i v e A r t s . (see course o u t l i n e in Appendix A) W i t h i n t h i s course students are encouraged t o use and develop Music Therapy techniques which i n -c o r p o r a t e a v a r i e t y of a r t media, using music as a base in a l l a c t i v i t i e s . The combination of more than one a r t form, i . e . , music and movement, music and c o l o r , music and p o e t r y , music and s c u l p t u r e , i n c r e a s e s : 1) the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r symbolic a s s o c i a t i o n and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ; 2) the i n t e n s i t y of the experience, which s t r i v e s toward g r e a t e r l e v e l s of depth. Students agreed t o p a r t i c i p a t e in t h r e e Music Therapy s e s s i o n s u s i n g t h e Death-Rebirth Myth. They had been introduced t o the concept in t h e i r f i r s t year s t u d i e s . However the focus of these t h r e e s e s s i o n s was e x p e r i e n t i a l as opposed t o academic. The myth theory was not r e - e x p l a i n e d nor mentioned duri n g the s e s s i o n . Rather the myth was suggested through the two i n f l u e n c e s mentioned in t h i s t h e s i s i n t r o d u c t i o n and e l a b o r a t e d upon throughout Chapters II & I I I. If the myth and music framework i s imposed upon a group the r e s u l t s w i l l be q u e s t i o n a b l e in l i g h t of the d i s c u s s i o n in Chapter IIA. It was merely a v a i l a b l e in a t r u s t i n g and s u p p o r t i v e r i t u a l form. If people are ready t o hear and use the d e a t h - r e b i r t h concept, they w i l l . If not, they may have d i f f e r e n t a s s o c i a t i o n s with t h e -matic c o n t e n t . Or they may not be i n s p i r e d t o use the s i t u a t i o n a t a l l a t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r moment. S e s s i o n s were r e l a t e d in the f o l l o w i n g ways: a) They a l l employed th e d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth as d e s c r i b e d in the body of t h i s t h e s i s . b) They b u i l t from a s o l i t a r y experience in the f i r s t s e s s i o n t o a mixture of s o l i t a r y and group ex-p e r i e n c e in the second, t o a group experience in the t h i r d s e s s i o n . c) Increasing demands and e x p e c t a t i o n s were p l a c e d on the p a r t i c i p a n t s t o v e r b a l l y d e s c r i b e and share t h e i r f e e l i n g s and i n s i g h t s w i t h i n the group. The leader d i d not d i r e c t questions t o p a r t i c i p a n t s d u r i n g d i s c u s s i o n in the f i r s t s e s s i o n , m a i n t a i n i n g an atmosphere of p l a y f u l n e s s . A few q u e s t i o n s were asked d u r i n g the second s e s s i o n s . Questions in t h e t h i r d s e s s i o n s were d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o v e r b a l i z i n g t h e r a p e u t i c i n s i g h t . Even though s e s s i o n s employed the same p h i l o s o p h i c a l theme, d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l s and methods were used f o r each s e s s i o n . The b a s i s f o r t h i s v a r i e t y i s t h a t w i t h i n a group, d i f f e r e n t people w i l l be a b l e t o e f f e c t i v e l y use d i f f e r e n t media and d i f f e r -ent degrees of s t r u c t u r e , e.g., one person may be able t o employ movement b e t t e r , another c o l o r . Students were given a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o document t h e i r experience of each s e s s i o n . (see Appendix B) The t w o f o l d purpose of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was: 1) t o e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the use of Death-Rebirth Myth in Music 2) t o teach students how t o r e c o g n i z e thematic content in Music and i t s u s e f u l n e s s in therapy. It should be noted t h a t the f i r s t two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were given t o students t o take home and r e t u r n the f o l l o w i n g week. ( C l a s s e s met once a week) The l a s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e was f i l l e d out in the c l a s s d i r e c t l y f o l l o w i n g the s e s s i o n . Several students commented t h a t t h i s made a d i f f e r e n c e in the type of answers s i n c e the symbolic experience or metaphor stayed with them s e v e r a l 153 days and only l a t e r d i d they r e c e i v e i n s i g h t about what i t meant in terms of the broader p i c t u r e of t h e i r l i v e s and p e r s o n a l i t i e s . The data i n c l u d e s : 1) d e s c r i p t i o n of the s e s s i o n s ; 2) r e s u l t s o f student q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ; 3) b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of r e s u l t s . D e s c r i p t i o n of S e s s i o n I - November 13, 1979. The f i r s t s e s s i o n combined music with s a n d - s c u l p -t u r e . Each student was pro v i d e d with a l a r g e , deep t r a y , f i l l e d with dry sand and a large g l a s s o f water. They were asked t o f i n d a spot in the room which was comfortable and p r i v a t e ; and t o s i t in t h a t spot p l a c i n g the m a t e r i a l s in f r o n t of them on the f l o o r . I n s t r u c t i o n s were: "Breathe deeply, experience the q u i e t . Relax, l e t y o u r s e l f f i n d a f e e l i n g of no-th i n g n e s s in the q u i e t . When the music begins, p l a y with the dry sand, e x p e r i e n c i n g i t s t e x t u r e , temper-ature and movement. Play as long as you wish. When you are ready, add water t o the dry sand and begin t o b u i l d something out of or in the sand. Think of the music as coming i n t o the sand through your hands". Music used was a 21 minute s e l e c t i o n e n t i t l e d Hergest Ridge by Mike O l d f i e l d . ( s e l e c t i o n #8 on tape) A f t e r the music was over, students were asked t o s l o w l y complete t h e i r sand s c u l p t u r e s and come t o g e t h e r in a c i r c l e f o r d i s c u s s i o n . One person s t a r t e d d e s c r i b -ing h i s s c u l p t u r e and each in t u r n s e l e c t e d another student they would l i k e t o hear from. Each p a r t i c i p a n t was given as much time t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r work as they wished. If someone c o u l d not f i n d words t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r s c u l p t u r e they were not persuaded t o do so. R e s u l t s of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I Fourteen out of f o u r t e e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e t u r n e d . Table of Responses f o r Yes-No Items Quest ion Yes Part ia I I y No I (nothingness) 8 3 3 3 (connect) 10. - 4 4 ( r e g e n e r a t i o n ) II 2 I 5 ( b u i l d i n g ) 12 I I 6 (meaning) 10 2 2 Table of Responses f o r Items 2.7.8.9. There were m u l t i p l e responses on a l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s in items 2,7,&9 and some in item 8. Question 2: What theme d i d t h e music communicate t o you? The f o l l o w i n g responses were mentioned a t o t a l of t h r e e times each on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s : e x p l o r a t i o n , p l a y f u l n e s s , movement, f l o a t i n g , bu i I d i ng, f u n . Two times each: s e c r e t , mysticism, t r a v e l l i n g . 155 One; "time each: h i d i n g , c o n n e c t i o n s , moving up, music had only a s u b t l e i n f l u e n c e , no awareness of the music, p a i n , space and openness, the onset of g e n e s i s , s t r e n g t h . Question 7: Can you d e s c r i b e the q u a l i t i e s in the music which " i n s p i r e d " you? The general comment: "The music was p a r t of the whole, r a t h e r than a f o c u s " , was mentioned a t o t a l o f f o u r t i m e s . " S p i r i t u a l i s m " was mentioned a t o t a l of t h r e e t imes. " P l a y f u l n e s s " was mentioned a t o t a l of two t i m e s . The f o l l o w i n g responses were mentioned one t ime: f l o w i n g , m e l t i n g , joyous, p a i n f u l , space, a drone, s w e l l i n g , s e c u r i t y , comfort, t r u s t ; p e r m i s s i o n t o e x p l o r e , develop and change, l i g h t n e s s , u n o b s t r u s i v e n e s s , none. Question 8: If other m a t e r i a l s i n s p i r e d you, what were they? "Sand" was mentioned a t o t a l of twelve times. "Water" was mentioned a t o t a l of f i v e t i m e s . "Sun i n the room" was mentioned a t o t a l of f o u r t i m e s . Question 9: Any f u r t h e r comments: The f o l l o w i n g are d i r e c t quotes of 12 responses t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . - I was very moved by the t o t a l e x p e r i e n c e -sand and music c r e a t i o n . It was p o s i t i v e and e n e r g y — g i v i n g . - I loved doing t h i s a c t i v i t y . The experience of b u i l d i n g p a r t s of me in the sand has stayed with me and brought some "hidden" p a r t s of me c l o s e r t o the s u r f a c e . - The f e e l i n g evoked by the sand - the touch of i t s c o o l n e s s , the memories c o n s c i o u s l y and unconscious-ly were c a l l e d up through t h a t touch played a b i g p a r t in the e x p e r i e n c e . They helped t o lead into myself -t o f o r g e t and f i n d myself. - The sand' I have never f e l t so drawn t o and connected with any other m a t e r i a l t o date. It was a l l -consuming. The music was both i n c i d e n t a l and yet f u n -damental t o my e x p e r i e n c e . I n c i d e n t a l because I was a l r e a d y one with the sand; fundamental, as I was aware of some asp e c t s of i t (e.g., f l o a t i n g sequence) which d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d the way I i n t e r a c t e d with the sand. - My sand s c u l p t u r e was " I n t e r m i n g l i n g , Bound-a r i e s , the Sea". - My p i e c e was "Mountains and V a l l e y s " , - I'm sure the music i n s p i r e d me in some ways, but I t h i n k i t was more unconscious than conscious as i t d i d n ' t stand out as much t o me as the sand. - I was i n t o myself too much. The only time I r e a l l y heard the music was r i g h t at the beginning and a f t e r I had destroyed my f i r s t s c u l p t u r e . - More time f o r m e d i t a t i o n before the music. - I f e e l we should have spoken more about our sand c r e a t i o n s as a c l a s s . People would have commented on others works and maybe shared some symbolic commonaIiti which people expressed. What do these images mean and how do they r e l a t e t o us in our l i f e r i g h t now? It seemed we never shared c o l l e c t i v e l y and thus t h e exper-ience was somewhat i s o l a t i n g — a sense of o v e r v a l u i n g something l i k e t h i s c o n t r i b u t e s t o the f e a r of s h a r i n g more openly or c o n f i d e n t l y . The sense of p r i v a t e and e x c l u s i v e was dominent and I wish we c o u l d have gotten beyond t h a t . - My words f o r my p i e c e were: Paths coming from d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s converging t o g e t h e r t o go up t o the mountain peak. A cave t o s h e l t e r in and holes t o hide i n , from l i f e , but a path l e a d i n g out t o the mounta i n. - I n t e r a c t i o n was almost n o n - e x i s t e n t . To my thoughts, a larg e p a r t o f t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h i s ex-e r c i s e was l o s t through lack of attempt f o r mutual understanding of one another's work. Had the group decided t o f e e d back impressions, f a n t a s i e s t o one another, I b e l i e v e t h a t a g r e a t e r sense of simply being human might have occured. D i s c u s s i o n of R e s u l t s of S e s s i o n I: It i s obvious t h a t the sand became a powerful v e h i c l e f o r most p a r t i c i p a n t s . The music took a second-ary r o l e , i f any f o r some people. In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y , the music was intended t o be used as a s u b t l e , shaping i n f l u e n c e which people c o u l d t r a v e l i n t o and out of when so i n c l i n e d , but which would not i n h i b i t any unique i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s or forms which might emerge o u t s i d e of the musical s u g g e s t i o n . It was meant t o c r e a t e a dream-1 ike a f f e c t . The experience was intended t o be a s o l i t a r y , i n t r o s p e c t i v e t a s k , but with room l e f t in d i s c u s s i o n f o r as much s h a r i n g as d e s i r e d by p a r t i -c i p a n t s . Most people were ab l e t o experience a r e g e n e r a t i v e , b u i l d i n g , meaningful f e e l i n g from the s e s s i o n with sand and music. 158 APPENDIX E D e s c r i p t i o n of S e s s i o n II - November 20, 1979. The second s e s s i o n used shadow dancing in combin-a t i o n with musical i m p r o v i s a t i o n . A large t h e a t r i c a l spot l i g h t was r e f l e c t e d onto a blank, white w a l l . A l l other l i g h t s were turne d o f f , A v a r i e t y of musical instruments were set up in an o r c h e s t r a form. I n s t r u -ments inc l u d e d t i m p a n i , bass drum, bongos, 2 pianos, b e l l t r e e , gong, f l u t e s , c e l l o , s t r i n g bass, v i o l i n , s i l v e r f l u t e , g u i t a r and tambourine. Students were a l s o encouraged t o use t h e i r v o i c e in musical improvi-s a t i o n . I n s t r u c t i o n s were as f o l l o w s : "Form two groups. Those who f e e l l i k e being alone, and those who f e e l l i k e being t o g e t h e r . Those of you-who are " t o g e t h e r - f e e l i n g " form groups of p a i r s , t h r e e s or l a r g e r amongst y o u r s e l f . Today we work with t h e shadow. Become aware of your shadow s i d e — p e r h a p s the dark s i d e or s e c r e t s i d e of yourse I f — w h a t e v e r "shadow" suggests. Each person or group wiI I have a t u r n c r e a t -ing a shadow dance. S t a r t £rom a s t a t e of s t i l l n e s s or nothingness. S e l e c t a person or persons from the group t o improvise t o you dancing. If you wish you may t e l l them which instruments t o p l a y . I n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s f o l l o w the dance or dancers, r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r movement in your music. If you need more of a musical d i r e c t i o n , t h i n k of making an " u n d u l a t i n g " sound. The g o a l s f o r t h e second a c t i v i t y were s i m i l a r t o the f i r s t . It was hoped t h a t though the shadow and music, people would experience a symbolic or metaphoric d e a t h - r e b i r t h , which they c o u l d i d e n t i f y with some s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n or p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . T h i s a c t i v i t y encouraged more of a group or person-to-person i nterchange. Each shadow dance and improv was d i s c u s s e d by the performers immediately a f t e r the p i e c e was completed. Group members were encouraged t o share f e e l i n g s of what i t meant f o r them. R e s u l t s of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 2 Ten out of twelve q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e t u r n e d : Table of Responses f o r Yes-No Questions 1.3.4.5.6. Quest i on Yes Part t a l l y No I (nothingness) 7 - 3 3 (connect) 5 I 4 4 ( r e g e n e r a t i o n ) 7 I 2 5 ( b u i l d i n g ) 7 3 -6 (meaning) 10 - -Table of Responses f o r Items 2.7.8.9. There were m u l t i p l e responses on q u e s t i o n 2. Question 2: What theme d i d the music communicate t o you? The f o l l o w i n g responses were mentioned a t o t a l of t h r e e times on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s : mystery, spooky, wind. " P l a y f u l " was mentioned one time. The f o l l o w i n g responses were mentioned once: s t r u g g l e between two p a r t s of myself, chaos, jo y , t o g e t h e r n e s s , d e a t h - r e b i r t h , s t r u g g l i n g , t e s t i n g , expanding, freedom, j o y , peace, no c o n t a c t , a g g r e s s i o n , d i s t a n c e , i r r i t a t i o n , love, present but w i t h - h e i d ; the music was me. It s i m u l t a n e o u s l y enveloped me and was absorb-ed by me. Question 7: Can you d e s c r i b e the q u a l i t i e s in the music which " i n s p i r e d " you? There was one response each f o r Question 7« - spooky v o i c e s and c e l l o . - the music supported me and allowed me t o throw away t h i n g s . - t h e t e n s i o n s and r e l e a s e s in the music a f f e c t -ed me along with the s i l e n c e s and breaks. The i n -struments very much matched my mood and f e e l i n g s . I f e l t as one with the music. - gentleness and warmth in the f l u t e sound, ceI Io and bass. - beginning and e x l p o r i n g sounds, of f l u t e , dancing and t w i r l i n g of p e r c u s s i o n . I f e l t the d r i v i n g energy of the congo r i g h t through me. The music was f o r me and in me at t h e same time—my body became one with i t . - an i n t e r f l o w between dances and musicians. T I was s t r u c k by a sense of support, - the p o l a r i t i e s of sound produced by f l u t e / t o n e bass and guitar/bongos. The long breath of the f l u t e i n s p i r e d me, calmed me and opened me. The bongos i n s t i g a t e d movement-agitation and d i r e c t i o n . - p e r f e c t i o n otherwise because i t d i d not d i s -t u r b my flow. i t was a s t r e t c h i n g f e e l i n g , the i n t e r a c t i o n between the music and my shadow, urgi n g growth, b u i l d i Question 8: If other m a t e r i a l s i n s p i r e d you, what were they? There was a t o t a l o f seven responses t o Question 8. "Shadow" was mentioned f o u r t i mes. " I n t e r a c t i o n with o t h e r s " was mentioned t h r e e t imes. Question 9: F u r t h e r comments? The f o l l o w i n g are d i r e c t quotes from ten responses t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . - loved i t . - I f e l t I c o u l d l e t loose and be supported by the music. - I found t h i s t o be extremely powerful a c t -i v i t y and the t h i n g s which happened were meaningful. P l a y i n g f o r others t o move a l s o had a great amount of meaning f o r me which was e x t r a t o my own moving. It was not an easy a c t i v i t y f o r me t o do, but was bene-f i c i a l . At one p o i n t , I almost d i d n ' t complete the a c t i v i t y , but am g l a d t h a t I decided t o do so, and f i n i s h e d f o r myself. I f e l t a l o t of support from the music in t h a t I t r u s t e d people p l a y i n g f o r me and heard t h e i r support. - My r e g r e t with t h i s a c t i v i t y i s t h a t I d i d not f i n d a way t o complete my encounter with my own shadow. I was very aware however, of how e x h i l e r a t i n g and complete i t was f o r many other people, and f e e l e x c i t e d at t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of using i t in my practicum with a d o l e s c e n t s . - T h i s a c t i v i t y was one of the most e x c i t i n g I have ever taken p a r t i n . I have never given myself over t o movement and music in such a f r e e way, i n my l i f e — a t r u l y t r e a s u r e d moment. - The dance between myself and my p a r t n e r merged t o g e t h e r . I was more aware of t h e shadows than the music. Sometimes the music was more i n h i b i t i n g than c a l l i n g out and I seemed t o be working a g a i n s t i t . 162 - I f e e l t h a t "nothingness" i s a l o t t o ask f o r . Would i t be p o s s i b l e t o approach the s t a t e you are i n -t e r e s t e d in by other means? e.g., awareness of b r e a t h -ing, f a n t a s y , e t c . - I would l i k e t o have danced alone in r e t r o -s p e c t , in r e l a t i o n t o my own shadow. It seems t o r e -q u i r e some guts t o look at y o u r s e l f so d i r e c t l y . - Words from the dance: sorrow, c o v e r i n g , need, f o r g i v e n e s s , s t r e n g t h . It was e s p e c i a l l y wonderful t o p l a y f o r and with you, C a r o l y n . It w i l l be a memory t r e a s u r e of you. - The most powerful f o r me was the oneness with the music. I chose the people t o p l a y and d i r e c t e d them t o instruments t h a t expressed what I had t o say at t h a t moment. It was a complete and t o t a l e x p r e s s i o n , with the music and my shadow as one. D i s c u s s i o n of R e s u l t s of S e s s i o n I I : The musical i m p r o v i s a t i o n added a new dimension t o t h e s e s s i o n s . Whereas a re c o r d e d p i e c e s e l e c t e d by the leader f o r i t s s t r o n g suggestion of d e a t h - r e b i r t h , i n a sense guides the r e s u l t s , the musical i m p r o v i s a t i o n p r o v i d e s more freedom. The two key words in the i n -s t r u c t i o n s which suggested the d e a t h - r e b i r t h d i r e c t i o n were I) t o the dancers, f i n d a s t a t e of "nothingness"; 2) t o the i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s , l e t your music "undulate". T h i s new dimension i s r e f l e c t e d in the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , so t h a t thematic content r e f l e c t e d g r e a t e r v a r i e t y . The musical i m p r o v i s a t i o n , a l s o added a f e e l i n g of c l o s e n e s s between shadow dancers and i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s , a f e e l i n g of r e s p e c t , n u r t u r i n g , s h a r i n g , understanding, mutually c r e a t i n g . Comments on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e -f l e e t an i n c r e a s e of demands and t e n s i o n . T h i s may have come from a t t i t u d e of the leader, s e r i o u s n e s s o f the media, or a w i l l i n g n e s s on the p a r t of some group p a r t i c i p a n t s t o use the s e s s i o n f o r personal growth. C e r t a i n l y , the shadow i s a powerful medium. I n c l u s i o n of the gong and s t r i n g bass a l s o may have suggested a deeper l e v e l or dimension of e x p e r i e n c e . Students had not had much experience with the c e l l o and s t r i n g bass in p a r t i c u l a r . S e veral students mentioned d e a l i n g with a s p l i t in t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s . Some mentioned coming f a c e to face with dark p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , which they f e e l r e s i s t e n t t o change. In a sense they engaged in a con-f r o n t a t i o n with some shadowy s i d e . The a p p l i c a t i o n of the deathr-reb i r t h myth here i s t h a t something must be l o s t , or g r e a t l y transformed i n order f o r new growth t o o c c u r . APPENDIX F D e s c r i p t i o n of S e s s i o n III - November 2 7 , 1979. The t h i r d and f i n a l s e s s i o n combined group move-ment with p r e - r e c o r d e d music. Students p a r t i c i p a t e d in a warm-up in which they were e n c i r c l e d by a large m a t e r i a l rope. They moved as a u n i t t o some of the l i g h t e r q u i c k e r Chopin Etudes, Then l i g h t s were dimmed. T h i s a c t i v i t y was used both as a warm-up and t o p r o v i d e a p l a y f u l g i v e and take t a s k . I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e main a c t i v i t y were as f o l l o w s : "Form a c i r c l e on the f l o o r , head t o the i n s i d e , each person in the c u r l i n g l e a f p o s i t i o n , but h o l d i n g hands with those on e i t h e r s i d e . Relax, Take even, normal b r e a t h s . Empty your mind of a l l thoughts. F i n d a f e e l i n g of s t i l l n e s s or nothingness. imagine your-s e l v e s as one seed under the ground i f you wish. Only be aware of the warmth in the hands on e i t h e r s i d e . When the music begins, t h i n k of i t as coming along the f l o o r and i n t o your body as nourishment. Let t h e music move you, only when you are ready and as s l o w l y as you wish, in your own time. Keep your eyes c l o s e d and con-t i n u e t o hold hands with the people on e i t h e r s i d e " . During the movement, people were encouraged t o move in t h e i r own time, s l o w l y , g r a d u a l l y . They moved as one u n i t , some "growing" slower, some more q u i c k l y . Chopin's Etude in A f l a t major was played t h r e e con-s e c u t i v e times. A f t e r t h e t h i r d time, a b r i e f p e r i o d of s i l e n c e and s t i l l n e s s f o l l o w e d . Then students were asked t o come t o a s i t t i n g p o s i t i o n in the c i r c l e when they were ready. Each person was given paper and c o l o r -ed pen of t h e i r c h o i c e . The Etude was played again t w i c e and people were asked t o t r y t o capture t h e i r f e e l i n g s in p o e t i c f o r m — e i t h e r in c o n n e c t i o n with p r e -v i o u s movement or from the new l i s t e n i n g . P a r t i c i p a n t s were then asked t o share t h e i r poems or any other f e e l i n g s about the a c t i v i t y . At the end I p a i r e d the students up, u s i n g t h e i r comments as a guide. The a c t i v i t y seemed incomplete f o r some. The two c r i t e r i o n f o r p a i r i n g were: 1) People who shared a common f e e l i n g . They would have a time of no r e s t r i c t i o n which had been d i c t a t e d through group movement. 2) People who would share a balance and learn from each other through t h e i r d i f f e r e n t q u a l i t i e s . Students were asked t o s i t on the f l o o r back t o back, arms j o i n e d as a s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n . Again they moved t o the A f l a t Chopin Etude. R e s u l t s of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e M l S i x t e e n out of s i x t e e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e t u r n e d . Table of Responses f o r Yes-No Items 1.3.4.5.6. Quest i on Yes Par i t a I I y No I (nothingness) 14 - 2 3 (connect) 14 - 2 4 ( r e g e n e r a t i o n ) 14 2 5 ( b u i l d i n g ) 12 3 I 6 (meaning) 12 I 3 Table of Responses f o r Items 2 f7.8.9. There were m u l t i p l e responses on items 2 and 7 and some on item 8. Question 2: What theme d i d the music communicate t o you? "Growing" was mentioned a t o t a l of f i v e times on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The f o l l o w i n g responses were each mentioned one time: f l o w i n g c y c l e s and c i r c l e s , f l i g h t and f l y i n g , s o a r i n g ; r i s i n g , f a l l i n g , l i k e an ocean with waves coming i n ; c i r c l e s in r e p e t i t i o n with a s t r o n g d i r e c t i o n a l undercurrent, s t r u g g l i n g t o be f r e e v s. comfort, n u r t u r i n g of c o n t a c t and warmth; calmness, s w i r l i n g b i r t h , l i g h t -ness and s o l i d a r i t y , d e a t h - r e b i r t h , r e l a x -a t i o n , tender f e e l i n g s , love, s e c l u s i o n and breaking away, connected and alone at the same time. Question 7: Can you d e s c r i b e the q u a l i t i e s in the music which " i n s p i r e d " you? " L i f t i n g and f a l l i n g " was mentioned a t o t a l of f i v e t i m e s. The f o l l o w i n g responses were each mentioned a t o t a l of t h r e e times: f l u i d , crescendos, f l o w i n g , b u i l d i n g . "Balance" was mentioned a t o t a l of two times. The f o l l o w i n g responses were each mentioned one t i me: g a t h e r i n g and expanding, i n t r o s p e c t i v e , g e n t l e / a s s e r t i v e , deep bass b r i n g i n g v i b r a t i o n through the f l o o r , spaciousness allowed f o r high sen-s i t i v i t y o f touch, the q u i e t ending soothed me, r e p e t i t i o n , c o n t r a s t between high and low tones, c o l o r in music, l i g h t n e s s . Question 8: If other m a t e r i a l s i n s p i r e d you, what were they? "Other peoples hands" was mentioned a t o t a l of e i g h t t i m e s . "The e x e r c i s e i t s e l f " was mentioned a t o t a l of t h r e e t i m e s . The f o l l o w i n g responses were each mentioned one time: w r i t i n g a poem, darkened l i g h t s , sun. Question 9: F u r t h e r comments? The f o l l o w i n g are d i r e c t quotes from nine responses t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . - I found s h a r i n g my poem harder than the r e s t of t h e a c t i v i t y . - I wish the music had been longer. - My image was of f a l l o p i a n tubes, l e a d i n g t o the n o u r i s h i n g hands, another way t o get f u l l . - I was aware of g i v i n g and t a k i n g . - It was d i f f i c u l t t o b r i n g myself out of the c u r l e d p o s i t i o n , so I was g l a d t o be h o l d i n g hands. That c o n t a c t stopped me from l o s i n g c o n n e c t i o n with other people. I was shaky and warm; i n t r o s p e c t i v e . - T h i s a c t i v i t y was not i n t r o s p e c t i v e f o r me as others had been. It was very meaningful and f u I -f i l l i n g t o experience the s e n s a t i o n of balance and oneness with the music, my p a r t n e r and myself. My body f e l t b i g g e r , extended. - I l i k e the idea of moving t o g e t h e r , in a c i r c l e — t h e s u g g e s t i o n t o keep in touch with o t h e r s a l l the time r e s t r i c t e d me. On the other hand, i t i s a l i f e s i t u a t i o n which occurs o f t e n . - The a c t i v i t y seemed d i s j o i n t e d — i n sense of c o n n e c t i o n with each other and experience of music. My p a i r e d movement, on the other hand, was a very p l e a s u r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e . I t h i n k the w r i t i n g en-a b l e d me t o leave a past experience c l e a r l y . - The more'I am s u c c e s s f u l in e x p e r i e n c i n g these s e s s i o n s with a deeper, p r e - v e r b a l c o n s c i o u s -ness, the more d i f f i c u l t I f i n d i t i s t o c a l l i t up and back t o s u r f a c e , l i n e a r thought. I f e e l con-t e n t e d f o r the most p a r t t o l e t the experience r o o t deep and take i t s time coming up. The s c r a t c h e s on the r e c o r d were i r r i t a t i n g and d i s r u p t i v e . D i s c u s s i o n of R e s u l t s of S e s s i o n III The t a b l e on page 166 i n d i c a t e s the h i g h e s t degree of p o s i t i v e response f o r S e s s i o n I I I . Many people were a b l e t o experience a f e e l i n g of growing, whether in a sense of moving with the flow or s t r u g g l i n g t o maintain one's own i d e n t i t y under the p r e s s u r e of group movement. Several mentioned the f e e l i n g of being s p l i t and having t o make d e c i s i o n s about whether t o a s s e r t one's own movements, or conform with the group movement. Most experienced a sense of renewal. The theme of a b i l i t y t o accept n u r t u r i n g or new l i f e from o t h e r s ' a c t i v i t y was p r e v a l e n t . 169 Cone I us ions In r e f e r e n c e t o the t h r e e s e s s i o n s in Appendix D, E, & F, c e r t a i n q u a l i f i c a t i o n s should be made about t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group. They were music therapy students who are being t r a i n e d t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y r e c e p t i v e and imaginative with music. They were in a student-teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p with the l e a d e r . Even though t h i s course is o f f e r e d in an e x p e r i e n t i a l , not an academic way, these two c o n s i d e r a t i o n s would have some a f f e c t on the r e s u I t s . The t h r e e s e s s i o n s were designed in e s c a l a t i n g degree of demand on p a r t i c i p a n t s . In general the f i r s t s e s s i o n allowed people t o be t o t a l l y i n t r o s p e c t i v e and alone; the second allowed a c h o i c e about being alone or p a r t of a group, the l a s t was a group t a s k . Pre-recorded music was s e l e c t e d f o r suggestion of d e a t h - r e b i r t h through musical c o n t r a s t and p a t t e r n -i ng. From the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s , most people were a b l e t o use music and other r e s o u r c e s as a v e h i c l e f o r personal i n s i g h t and h e a l i n g . The d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth takes many forms throughout the responses. Imagery and analogy t o l i f e s i t u a t i o n s or p e r s o n a l i t y c o n f l i c t are m a n i f e s t e d in a great v a r i e t y of d e s c r i p t i o n . The l e v e l of i n t e n s i t y v a r i e s from s e s s i o n t o s e s s i o n and from person t o person. In g e n e r a l , the f i r s t s e s s i o n was more p l a y f u l than the l a s t . The music used in the f i r s t s e s s i o n was more s u b t l e and le s s demanding than the music used in the l a s t . In any case t h i s documentation p r e s e n t s t h r e e examples of us i n g the d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth in music and subsequent r e s u l t s from immediate or short-term p a r t -i c i p a n t feedback. APPENDIX G T h i s s e c t i o n documents t h r e e Music Therapy s e s s i o n s (Appendices G,H,&l), at U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Dept. of P s y c h i a t r y , Day Treatment program, conducted by E l i z a b e t h M o f f i t t , Music T h e r a p i s t . The day treatment program at U.B.C. accepts p a t i e n t s who agree t o p a r t i c i p a t e in therapy programs f i v e days a week from 9-4. It i s an on-going program in which new p a t i e n t s are admitted t o the c o n t i n u i n g group as others are d i s c h a r g e d . These people are not d i s t u r b e d enough t o r e q u i r e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n , but s t i l l in need of i n t e n s i v e therapy. The program uses a v a r i e t y of treatment techniques i n c l u d i n g Psycho-therapy, non-rverbal groups, Music Therapy, Chemotherapy, R e c r e a t i o n Therapy and Occupational Therapy. Ninety-minute Music Therapy s e s s i o n s are p r o v i d e d once a week. P a t i e n t attendence i s r e q u i r e d . The f o l l o w i n g music therapy r e p o r t s were pro-v i d e d by Ms. M o f f i t t in c o - o p e r a t i o n with me t o docu-ment t h e d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth in music and i t s e f f e c t -iveness in therapy. She agreed t o conduct t h r e e music therapy s e s s i o n s u s i n g the d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth. S e s s i o n I - September 10, 1079. D e s c r i p t i o n of S e s s i o n I. 1) P a r t i c i p a n t s were asked t o w r i t e down one main area they were working on p e r s o n a l l y in the day program, e i t h e r f o r t h a t hour/day or more g e n e r a l l y , f o r t h e i r time in the program. 2) They were asked t o imagine p h y s i c a l l y being able t o shake o f f , push away, k i c k away, c o n f r o n t , e t c . , t h i s p a r t of themselves, or t o accept i t in such a way t h a t i t would no longer be a problem. 3) In a c i r c l e , each person took a t u r n at moving in t h e above way, while a l l others in the c i r c l e r e -f l e c t e d or i m i t a t e d the movement. Pre-recorded music used was "Get Away" by Earth, Wind and F i r e and "Respect Y o u r s e l f " by Arethea F r a n k l i n . 4) The group l i s t e n e d t o "Adagio f o r S t r i n g s " ( s e l e c t i o n §7 on t a p e ) , by Samuel Barber. The group was asked t o imagine themselves e i t h e r as a seed or a f e t u s or any e a r l y l i f e form l a y i n g on the f l o o r , f e e l i n g the surroundings, n o t i c i n g sounds, emotions, v i s u a l s , e t c . , and then a l l o w i n g the music t o soak i n , moving i f they f e l t l i k e i t . 5) The group heard the r e c o r d a second time, while w r i t i n g down images, f e e l i n g s , memories, e t c . 6) The group had a s h o r t d i s c u s s i o n p e r i o d in which they shared t h e i r f e e l i n g s and poems, (see poems attached) 7) They then d i d shoulder massage in p a i r s . General R e s u l t s : There was much laughter, high energy, p l a y f u l -ness, and p h y s i c a l expansiveness in the movement p a r t . Reactions t o the Barber "Adagio" had the usual s p l i t between death and loss images, and inner s t r e n g t h , l i f e f o r c e and c o n n e c t i o n with n a t u r a l p r o c e s s e s . 1. P a t i e n t E., diagnosed s c h i z o p h r e n i c : A few weeks ago, t h i s lady f e l t t h a t i f anyone so much as t a l k e d t o her she would d i e . T h i s poem t o me, i s a b e a u t i f u l statement of her growth. TO GAIN MORE CONFIDENCE As a seed under the ground I f e l t alone, darkness was a l l around and I had no f r i e n d s . G r a d u a l l y as I sprouted out of the ground I began t o see how b e a u t i f u l the world was. I saw the sun i t was warm and good, I saw the t r e e s swaying in the breeze, the cl o u d s r o l l i n g in t h e sky a l l of nature was so f r i e n d l y and i t f e l t so good j u s t t o be t h e r e . 2. P a t i e n t J . , diagnosed adjustment r e a c t i o n : T h i s was her f i r s t day in the program. She i s a q u i e t , shy woman, having r e c e n t l y had one leg amputated; perhap h e r s e l f at the stage of j u s t beginning a g a i n . GAIN SELF CONFIDENCE IN ALL AREAS The seed i s p l a n t e d with l o v i n g c a r e The sun and the r a i n they are t h e r e And the f l o w e r s t h a t began the same p r o t e c t i v e l y c i r c l e and care But the seed remembers the c o l d of Ii f e before and c r i e s not t o grow Just t o be in nothingness no more pain no more ache no more I i f e G ently the f l o w e r s g i v e t h e i r happiness away so t h a t the new seed may f o r g e t t h e p a i n and grow warm in t h e i r sun the seed q u i v e r s and begins a g a i n . 3, P a t i e n t T., diagnosed b i p o l a r a f f e c t i v e d i s o r d e r : She was extremely c r e a t i v e in her movement, p e r c e p t i v e of h e r s e l f and o t h e r s . Her t h i r d drawing i n c o r p o r a t e s l i f e - d e a t h symbols f o r her. TO PUT SOME STRUCTURE INTO MY LIFE I wish I c o u l d be as I am But I am l e a r n i n g t h a t others are t e l l i n g me t h a t i t i s l i k e t h i s . But I w i l l always look at i t t h i s way. 4. P a t i e n t S., diagnosed s c h i z o p h r e n i c - acute p s y c h o t i c e pisode: She can be q u i t e s c a t t e r e d and de-l u s i o n a l . She d e s c r i b e d her w r i t i n g as being s p l i t i n t o two a s p e c t s . There are l o t s of elements here which I t h i n k can repr e s e n t b i r t h ( s p i r i t u a l i t y , i d e a l i s m ) and death ( p a i n , pessimism, hopelesness and aloneness) t o her. GAIN SELF CONFIDENCE becoming more s o c i a b l e having a steady a d u l t l e v e l don't you change t u r n time can't we a l l do t h a t t o g e t h e r don't you know we can't go back but we can push on. no, no, no, only now and when can we change never, i t s t o o l a t e , go back, can't go back We'I I t r y reaI hard and make i t work. So l e t ' s l i v e , be d e f i n i t e , say f i n e , answer back r i ght away. 175 Everyone t h i n k s di f f e r e n t I y g i v e i t time f o r urn unan -swered questions no one person t h i n k s the same as I myself do. No one no one no one no one the t r u t h Its not f o r g o t t e n i t s not t o be d i s c a r d e d i t s t o be re c o g n i z e d and t o be r e a l i z e d p l u s love, v i t a l i t y and oneness needs t o be t h e r e . be t h e r e w i l l you a I ways come t o my rescue says the g i r l maiden t o the boy brave h u r t , drawn, c r i m i n a l , t i m e l e s s , p e s s i m i s t i c , i r r e l e v a n t , d i s t i n g u i s h e d , a n c i e n t , o r i e n t a l , l o r d , w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g , no one, no one. 5. P a t i e n t B., diagnosed p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r -manic/depressive: She i s a very b r i g h t , powerful young woman with severe mood swings. She entered the s e s s i o n by s a y i n g she'd had a headache f o r 4 days and d i d n ' t t h i n k she c o u l d do much today. Soon she became very l i v e l y in the movement p a r t with laughter, a g i t a t e d and f a s t body movement. She h i d under the t a b l e w hile l i s t e n i n g t o the Adagio and l e f t the room h a l f way through the second l i s t e n i n g . During d i s c u s s i o n , she s a i d she had f e l t v ery low l i s t e n i n g t o the music and angry at God f o r c a u s i n g death and l e a v i n g people behind t o s u f f e r f o r loved ones and angry at the music f o r having such an e f f e c t on her being t h a t one minute she was r e a l l y high and the next r e a l l y low. She c a l l e d i t "morbid music", and asked how she c o u l d s u r v i v e l i k e t h a t . TO OVERCOME MY ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION AND BEING SO MOODY Let me out of t h i s because i t ' s d r i v i n g me c r a z y , and i f I don't get out of here, I'm goi ng t o d i e , and t h e r e won't be a parade, j u s t a l o t of r e l i e v e , Because you can't go on, If l i f e won't l e t you, It seems so s t u p i d , That a f e e l i n g can overcome you, How do you in touch with your f e e l i n g s ? I guess you r e a l l y can't How do you get r i d of something you can't put your f i n g e r on? Is t h e r e a way out? 6. P a t i e n t J . , diagnosed d e p r e s s i v e n e u r o s i s : T h i s was h i s f i r s t day in the program. EXPRESSING MY FEELINGS WITH CONFIDENCE The seed has i t ' s p r o p e r t i e s and message t o grow in a harsh world around a s t r u g g l e so d i f f i c u l t t o l i v e and easy t o d i e i t c o n t i n u e s t o f i g h t f o r i t knows why. It uses the elements in short supply with no qu e s t i o n or doubt but j u s t t o t r y t o s u r v i v e and f l o u r i s h day t o day, and fl o w e r and pass on the process t h i s way. 7 . P a t i e n t G., diagnosed d e p r e s s i v e n e u r o s i s : He i s a very q u i e t , shy, intense and i n t e l l i g e n t man. His poem speaks of l i f e and death, mysticism and con-f I i c t s . TO GAIN SELF CONFIDENCE AND LEARN TO RELATE TO PEOPLE Man c o l d ch i I d coId Superman? Is t o r n i n t o c l o u d s The sun r i s e s and b r i n g s death t o darkness The warmth of the womb. Growth hot, v i t a l s t r o n g . There i s an end. Slowly they become st r o n g e r moving t o meet themselves. Alone, independent, a t t a c h e d by the p u l s e . My mind wanders at wonders. A p e a r l , heavy with layered c o a t i n g s man h i s l i f e . There i s a v i s i o n t h a t comforts a r e t u r n t o the womb, warm, t h r o b b i n g , enduring. The r e s i d u a l warmth c o o l s s l o w l y in the head. The j o i n i n g of l i v e s , b r a i d s our c o l l e c t i v e sou I . Co l d , empty blackened husk, i t s germ s h r i v e l l e d and burnt. APPENDIX H Sess i on II - September 17, 1979. D e s c r i p t i o n of S e s s i o n I I . 1) The group moved spontaneously in a c i r c l e t o French Canadian F i d d l e music. (warm-up) 2) People then p a i r e d up and i n i t a t e d or r e f l e c t e d each other's movements. a) with l i v e l y large movements b) with eyes c l o s e d , in slower movements t o c e l t i c harp music. 3) P a r t i c i p a n t s were asked t o f i n d t h e i r own space, and while s t a n d i n g , accept the music and imagine the years are r o l l i n g back s l o w l y , u n t i l you become a f e t u s or a baby a g a i n . Let your body get s m a l l e r u n t i l you are l y i n g on the f l o o r . Notice memories and f e e l -ings, p h y s i c a l and emotional. Music used was a) Psy-c h o l o g i c a l l y U l t i m a t e Seashore (sounds of sea) and b) Sound of Main A r t e r y of the Mother from L u l l a b y from the womb. 4) With p a r t n e r s from 2B above, rock each other t o the music and in c h i l d ' s v o i c e , ask f o r e x a c t l y what you want from your "parent". Music used was "Mood" by Roberta F l a c k and Donny Hathaway and the slow movements from V i v a l d i ' s T r i o f o r G u i t a r , V i o l i n and C l a v i c a n , Concerto in D. major. 5) With the sarnie p a r t n e r , members were asked t o s c u l p t u r e t h e i r p a r t n e r , as i f they were c l a y , i n t o some p o s i t i o n of s t r e n g t h or symbolic of some other q u a l i t y they admire. Music used was P a c h e l b e l ' s Canon. General R e s u l t s : T h i s was a powerful s e s s i o n f o r everyone, in one way or another. It was q u i t e unusual t h a t people ran out of the s e s s i o n . T h i s time f o u r l e f t c l e a r l y being f a c e d with t h e i r usual t a c t i c ' s when repressed f e e l i n g s were s t i r r e d up. Many s u r p r i s e d themselves with t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o g i v e and t o r e c e i v e . Others were reminded of e a r l y I i f e experiences and f e e l i n g s which h o p e f u l l y can be used f o r t h e i r present understanding. 179 S p e c i f i c R e s u l t s : 1. P a t i e n t B and C., diagnosed p e r s o n a l i t y d i s -order - manic/depressive: For #1 both came in very e n e r g e t i c and led c i r c l e a c t i v i t i e s - very happy -good group f e e l i n g - l i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t i o n and o r -g a n i z a t i o n . 2B was extremely d i f f i c u l t f o r B. -"I can't slow down, I don't l i k e being touched, I'm g e t t i n g angry with myself - I'm not doing t h i s " . She d i d keep t r y i n g , s t o p p i n g and s t a r t i n g s e v e r a l t i m e s . In d i s c u s s i o n , she s a i d she f e l t l i k e dying; t h a t she c o u l d n ' t remember anything from age 10-14 years (too many d r u g s ) . S i n c e her f a t h e r d i e d t h r e e years ago, she f e l t r e a l l y mixed up. She d i d n ' t want anyone t o come near her. She s a i d she f e l t she was "going t o b i t s " — n o hope. She s a i d she f e l t sad but don't want t o t h i n k about why, 2, P a t i e n t S I . , undiagnosed: Had memories of being locked in an a t t i c when she was 3 years o l d . She a l s o remembered being h i t , waking up in h o s p i t a l . She was so f r i g h t e n e d she l e f t t he room, r e t u r n e d , then l e f t a g a i n . A f t e r t a l k i n g t o myself and other s t a f f , she ret u r n e d f o r the r o c k i n g . We l a t e r d i s c u s s e d her w r i t i n g down her memories and f e e l i n g s f o r her f a m i l y t o share with t r u s t e d group members. She has very s t r o n g d e t e r -180 mi n a t i o n t o c o n f r o n t h e r s e l f and work through her f e a r s . 3. P a t i e n t Go., undiagnosed: He d i d n ' t want t o remember t h e past 10 years and l e f t the room t w i c e , s a y i n g " t h i s i s c r a z y s t u f f " . When c o n f r o n t e d about h i s escapes and withdrawal from a c t i v i t i e s , he denied t h a t anything had any s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r him. " T h i s i s too a b s t r a c t f o r me". Yet he i s very i n t e l l e c t u a l and very c l o s e d o f f t o h i s emotions and has l i t t l e body awareness. 4. P a t i e n t L., undiagnosed: She i s u s u a l l y very speedy. Today she slowed down and enjoyed being in a mother r o l e . 5. P a t i e n t L,, diagnosed o b s e s s i o n a l n e u r o s i s : He f e l t suddenly angry d u r i n g the r o c k i n g and h i t both hands on the f l o o r s a y i n g "I'm mad". He d i d n ' t know why but co n t i n u e d with t h i s theme through f a n t a s y and wr i t i ng. 6. P a t i e n t Ge., diagnosed s c h i z o p h r e n i c : T h i s was h i s f i r s t day. He s a i d he c l e a r l y f e l t what i t was l i k e being in h i s mothers w o m b — f e a r f u l , p a n i c - s t r i c k e n and angry. "She i s an e v i I person". He di d n ' t want t o be r o c k e d — b u t r a t h e r wanted t o meditate, t r y i n g t o g i v e h i m s e l f necessary nourishment. He had a f e a r of being touched. APPENDIX I Sess i on III - September 24, 1979. D e s c r i p t i o n of S e s s i o n I I I . 1) Warm-up - Two c i r c l e s danced s i m u l t a n e o u s l y - -one e n e r g e t i c , one slower. People asked t o s h i f t from one c i r c l e t o another. Music was improvised on tam-bourine, drums and xylophone. 2) Prone r e l a x a t i o n and l i s t e n i n g t o Wagner's Prelude t o Lohengrin. P a t i e n t s were asked t o allow f e e l i n g s , images, memories t o come from the music. 3) I n d i v i d u a l p a i n t i n g s t o the same music (see x e r o x ) . 4) D i s c u s s i o n - 3 words t o d e s c r i b e t h e f e e l i n g s from each p a i n t i n g . 5) Musical i m p r o v i s a t i o n from p a i n t i n g s and d i s -cuss ion. General R e s u l t s : E x c e l l e n t use of both c i r c l e s by many people; l o t s of e n e r g e t i c musical i m p r o v i s a t i o n , laughter, c l a p p i n g at the end. It was a good p h y s i c a l r e l e a s e f o r more q u i e t a c t i v i t y t o f o l l o w . G e n e r a l l y , people were f r e e with t h e p a i n t s using bold b r i g h t , c o l o r s . The p a i n t i n g s g e n e r a l l y seemed t o show l i f e - d e a t h f o r c e s through the d i v i s i o n s and c o l o r use. S p e c i f i c R e s u l t s : Most p a t i e n t s chose not t o v e r b a l l y d e s c r i b e t h e i r a r t work. Three d i d comment: I. P a t i e n t S I . , diagnosed s c h i z o p h r e n i c , acute p s y c h o t i c eposide: She l e f t the room s e v e r a l times in t e a r s a f t e r p a i n t i n g her "mother's red blood" on the paper. 2. P a t i e n t C., diagnosed c h a r a c t e r d i s o r d e r : She s a i d her p a i n t i n g represented "angry, trapped, hurt' 3. P a t i e n t V,, diagnosed acute s c h i z o p h r e n i c r e -a c t i o n : She d e s c r i b e d her p a i n t i n g as sy m b o l i z i n g s e r e n i t y and growth. P a t i e n t p a i n t i n g s were photographed on 35mm s l i d e s and are presented here in c o l o r xerox. The o r i g i n a l p a i n t i n g s which were approximately 13x15 in s i z e , were ret u r n e d t o p a t i e n t s , at t h e i r r e q u e s t . 188 

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