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The death - rebirth myth as the healing agent in music Kenny, Carolyn 1979

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THE DEATH - REBIRTH MYTH AS THE HEALING AGENT  IN MUSIC  by  CAROLYN BEREZNAK KENNY B.A., L o y o l a U n i v e r s i t y ,  1968  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  In THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Educational  Psychology)  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, (£)  C a r o l y n Bereznak  1979 Kenny,  1979.  In presenting this thesis in partial  fulfilment of the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I a g r e e  that  the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying o f this  thesis  for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department o r by his representatives. of  It  is understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n  this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my  written permission.  Department of  d(j tGi~fi&r\ Q/  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  P<<> V tltA  ^ ^j j 6  ii  ABSTRACT The  general  purpose  o f t h e study  a case  f o r use o f t h e c r e a t i v e  second  and more s p e c i f i c  purpose  ample o f how m u s i c c a n be u s e d Death-Rebirth  i s t o p r o v i d e one e x -  as therapy through t h e  of c r e a t i v e  described, the primary  arts therapies are  focus being the dearth of creat-  ivity.  Theoretical  healing  aspects of the Death-Rebirth  foundations are developed  is then r e v e a l e d w i t h i n t h e musical o f t h e music t h e r a p i s t  of t h e mythic  The  o f s t a n d a r d t h e r a p i e s w h i c h c o u l d be  by i n c l u s i o n  the r o l e  in therapy.  Myth.  Inadequacies improved  arts  is to build  approach  Myth. context.  f o r the  T h e myth Finally,  i s discussed in light  f o c u s i n g on t h e m u s i c  therapist  as a r i t u a I i s t . Appendices Death-Rebirth  provide practical  examples u s i n g t h e  Myth a s a h e a l i n g a g e n t  in music.  These  sessions are described with short e v a l u a t i v e q u e s t i o n naires,  descriptions  Musical  examples o f t h e D e a t h - R e b i r t h  on  tape.  o f s e s s i o n s and  photographs. Myth a r e i n c l u d e d  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Rafl  e  Chapter ABSTRACT  i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I  vi  INTRODUCTION  I  Purpose. The  .....2  P r o b I em i  Statement  of the Thesis........  .3  Stimulus f o r the Study.  3  Description  4  Definition II  2  THEORETICAL  of the Study...........  AND  CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS;  REVIEW OF THE A. R a t i o n a l e the 1)  ...............5  o f Terms  LITERATURE  7  f o r Implementation o f  Creative  Arts Therapies  7  L i c e n t i o u s T e c h n o I o g y . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 a) A Q u e s t i o n o f V a l u e s . b)  Illusion  c ) Lack  12  of P r e d i c t a b i I i t y . . . . I 5  of Spiritual  Freedom.....23  d) R e s p o n s i b i l i t y and A c t i o n . . . . . 2 5 2) D e a r t h o f C r e a t i v i t y a) The C r e a t i v e  30  P e r s o n a I i t y . . . . . . 34  b) The N a t u r e and E s s e n c e o f Creativity  40  Chapter  Page  c) C o n d i t i o n s f o r  Creativity........42 45  d) C r e a t i v i t y and the A r t s . .  B.  3) C l o s i n g  47  The D e a t h - R e b i r t h Myth  51  1) The Myth  52  a) Symbolic H e a l i n g . . . .  56  b) The Regenerative  63  Experience  Nature as Teacher and H e a I e r . . . . . 7 4  c)  .....8|  d) Healing P a t t e r n s  Ml  2) The Metaphoric M i n d . . . . . . . . . . . .  85  3) Review  97 99  APPLICATION OF THE MYTH TO MUSIC A.  Relationship  Between D e a t h - R e b i r t h  Myth and T e n s i o n - R e s o l u t i o n  100  Music |)  B. IV  Patterns  in  in the Elements  of  Music  104  a) P i t c h  105  b) Time  107  c)  109  Volume  Music as a V e h i c l e f o r H e a I i n g . . . . . . . . . I I I  THE MUSIC THERAPIST AS A I 18  RITUALIST A. Shamanic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Mus i c Therap i s t  the I 21  V  Chapter  V/  Page  B.  The  Artist  C.  The  Visionary.....  D.  Initiation  SYNTHESIS AND  123  and  •  Transformation.  CONCLUSION  125 ...126 129  BIBLIOGRAPHY  137  APPENDICES  144  A.  C o u r s e O u t l i n e - M u s i c 242  B.  Questionnaire  C.  D i s c u s s i o n o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . . . . . . . . . . . I 48  D.  Examples o f use o f D e a t h R e b i r t h Myth i n M u s i c w i t h M u s i c Therapy Students at Capilano College - Session I.......  E. F. G.  146  f o r A p p e n d i x C,D,F....... 147  Examples w i t h Students Sess ion I I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  150 I 5o  Examples w i t h Students Session III...  164  Examples o f use o f D e a t h R e b i r t h Myth i n M u s i c w i t h P a t i e n t s in t h e Department o f P s y c h i a t r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia - S e s s i o n I . . . . . . .  171  H.  Examples w i t h  Patients - Session  I I....178  I.  Examples w i t h  Patients - Session  Ill...i8l  J. Musical  Examples o f  Death-Rebirth  Myth  C a s s e t t e Tape....  the in Music  on i<  A  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would l i k e t o thank the p a t i e n t s who have passed through the  Dayhouse and Daycare of the Department  Psychiatry,  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  i n i t i a l l y taught me about the  of  These people  importance of the  death-  r e b i r t h myth in music. . { a l s o express my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o David W h i t t a k e r , Robin R i d i n g t o n , Bob Poutt and M a r j o r i e Halpin f o r support,  encouragement  d i s c i p I i nary Finally,  and i n s p i r a t i o n  in t h i s  inter-  effort. I thank E l i z a b e t h M o f f i t t , Music T h e r a p i s t  at the Department of P s y c h i a t r y ,  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia and the Music Therapy students at C a p i l a n o College for cooperation cluded  in the  in producing the s o f t data  Appendices.  in-  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This t h e s i s represents l i t e r a t u r e which s t r i v e t o past t o present  a growing body of s t u d i e s and l i n k c e r t a i n knowledge of  practical situations.  traditional  wisdom is  and r i t u a l s  it  intertwined  is a c h a l l e n g e  to  the  Because much  in c o m p l i c a t e d systems i d e n t i f y the body of  knowledge which can be a b s t r a c t e d from t r a d i t i o n a l structures  v  acceptable  and d e s c r i b e d  in meaningful,  modern terms  in t h i s case both t o the c l i n i c i a n and h e a l t h  care a d m i n i s t r a t o r . T h i s problem might not e x i s t  i f we had always em-  braced the wisdom of the past and kept the  connecting  threads through the e v o l u t i o n of c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y . Because the pendulum of change can make such a sudden and extreme a r c h , throughout h i s t o r y many v a l u a b l e approaches are r e j e c t e d . rather wide-scale  We are p r e s e n t l y  ideas and  i n v o l v e d in a  attempt t o p i c k up some p i e c e s and r e -  i n t e g r a t e many of the  ideas of the  past.  The present work draws information from a v a r i e t y of disciplines  and f i e l d s ,  o l d and new,  in an attempt t o make  a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o a r e l a t i v e l y new f i e l d , Music Therapy. It r e p r e s e n t s across d i s c i p l i n e s .  an i n i t i a l attempt t o s y n t h e s i z e T h i s type of  I  ideas  i n v e s t i g a t i o n tends t o  2  be more general  than s p e c i f i c .  here does represent  a general  s y s t e m a t i c approach. possibility fields  The framework  overview r a t h e r than a  Rather i t  i s an e x p l o r a t i o n  of c r o s s - c l a s s i f y i n g  i n t o the  information from d i f f e r e n t  in order t o take the f i r s t  ion of developing useful  presented  creative  step  ideas f o r the f u t u r e .  in the  direct-  Areas r e -  presented a r e : Music Therapy, Anthropology, P h i l o s o p h y , Religious Studies, uistics,  Psychology, A r t H i s t o r y , M u s i c ,  P s y c h i a t r y , Natural  Ling-  H i s t o r y and E d u c a t i o n .  Purpose T h i s study has a twofold purpose. pose is t o p r o v i d e a r a t i o n a l e f o r Creative Arts Therapies. purpose  The general  implementation of  The second and more  purthe  specific  is the examination of the D e a t h - R e b i r t h Myth as  a H e a l i n g Agent  in music.  The second p a r t w i l l  represent  one example of how the C r e a t i v e A r t s T h e r a p i e s , p a r t i c u l a r ly Music Therapy, can be used  in the t h e r a p e u t i c  environ-  ment . ProbI em The problem is t h a t we have  l o s t the  historical  t h r e a d of the a r t s as h e a l e r s f o r everyman. Argue l i e s  (1975)  As Jose  art h i s t o r i a n and a e s t h e t i c s p h i l o s o p h e r  states: "What began as the h i s t o r y of a r t must end as the h i s t o r y of man's  logically insanity,  3  f o r the degree to which a r t becomes s p e c i a l i z e d as f i n e a r t and dependent f o r  i t s meaning on a r t h i s t o r y ,  is the degree t o which man looses h i s innate wisdom.  In recent times  this  process has been hastened by the machine.  Since expression  the human s p e c i e s  is  innate t o  in denying o u r s e l v e s  our e x p r e s s i v e wisdom we have denied  o u r s e l v e s our own humanity."  (p.290 )  One of the threads from the past which must be connected t o the f u t u r e is the concept of a r t as a p r e v e n t a t i v e and curative resource.  The most profound and immediate need  f o r t h i s change is f e l t Other areas  in the t h e r a p e u t i c environment.  in which the same p r i n c i p l e s apply w i l l  be  education and other p l a c e s where the community comes t o gether t o share Statement of the  ritual. thesis  The forms and p a t t e r n s of music can be used as symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the on-going process of r e g e n e r a t i o n and renewal—the d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth—for healing  in the t h e r a p e u t i c environment.  Stimulus f o r the Study In my experience as a Music T h e r a p i s t  I have n o t i c e d  t h a t p a t i e n t s often produce poems, movements, p a i n t i n g s ,  4  verbal  d e s c r i p t i o n s and  death-rebirth  myth, or  suggests the  own  o f m u s i c and  have been  I discovered death-rebirth  on  which  my  part.  As  about the  main  have  guide  in  influences  instructions to  influences  the  strongly  leading to death-rebirth  two  with  These r e s u l t s  I became c u r i o u s  choice  which may  myth.  suggestion  those sessions,  improvisations  some s i t u a t i o n  death-rebirth  come w i t h o u t any  on my  musical  patients themes.  directing  the  response;  1) D i r e c t i o n s o f t e n  encouraged p a t i e n t s t o  images o f d e a t h - r e b i r t h 2) M u s i c a l w a y s had  an  processes  obvious  develop  in Nature.  tension/resoIution  eIement• Pinpointing  t h e s e two  amine them  in g r e a t e r  cess  I will  of using and  be  the  able  One  conceptualized from p a t i e n t s  Chapter of the  and  within  Hopefully  to describe myth  then a p p l i e d .  through t h i s  i n more d e t a i l in music f o r is that Rather  to  the  expro-  value  therapy  theory i t has  was  not  emerged  formulated  work. Study  attempts t o e s t a b l i s h  expressive  Included  e n c o u r a g e d me  c l i e n t s themselves, then  of the 19  has  important p o i n t  and  present  Description  depth.  death-rebirth  healing.  into the  influences  (or c r e a t i v e ) a r t s therapies  this  describing various  a rationale for  chapter  i s a survey of the  inadequacies  in t h e r a p i e s  in  use  general.  literature  w h i c h do  not  5  employ c r e a t i v e a r t s . particular focus. in general  The dearth of c r e a t i v i t y  Although t h i s  section  is  presented  terms and poses many unanswerable  I hope t h a t  is a  questions,  i t w i l l convince the reader t h a t t h e r e  a s t r o n g need t o c o n s i d e r the advantages  is  of the C r e a t i v e  Arts Therapies. The main p o r t i o n of the work w i l l influences  two  mentioned above, Chapter II w i l l present  D e a t h - R e b i r t h Myth i t s e l f , it's  examine the  and Chapter III  the  the music and  r e l a t i o n t o the Myth. Chapter  IV w i l l c o n s i d e r the Music T h e r a p i s t as a  shamanic p o r t o t y p e and o u t l i n e  some of the  possibilities  f o r t r a i n i n g f u t u r e Music T h e r a p i s t s . Finally,  in Chapter V , t h e r e w i l l be a b r i e f  and s y n t h e s i s and an o u t l i n e  conclusion  of d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e -  search. Appendices i n c l u d e some informal data on p a t i e n t and student  responses t o the d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth in music.  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Archetype - the f i r s t  or primary p a t t e r n or model.  the essence of s i t u a t i o n , no l i m i t s  in time or  c h a r a c t e r or concept  space. solve  methods.  Creative Arts Therapies pressive  is  which has  Creat i v i t y - the a b i l i t y t o produce new forms or t o problems by novel  It  (used interchangeably with Ex-  Arts Therapies) - therapies  which employ the  various  media of the a r t s ; p l a s t i c , sculpture,  drama, costume,  arts,  dance & movement,  masks,  etc,  D e a t h - R e b i r t h Myth- an a r c h e t y p i c a l  s t o r y which symbol-  i z e s the ongoing process of dying and being E s o t e r i c and T r a d i t i o n a l  Psychologies  systems of the East and Native  analogous t o organic  -  re-born.  psychological  Indian c u l t u r e s .  Medical Model - the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n orders and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  music,  of foeHlavToi? d i s -  a b n o r m a l i t i e s as d i s e a s e s  diseases.  Music Therapy - a therapy which employs music as an essential  component  courage growth and  of v a r i o u s r i t u a l s d i r e c t e d t o improvement.  Myth - an a r c h e t y p i c a l context through  en-  s t o r y manifested  within a c u l t u r a l  ritual.  Psychotherapy - the a p p l i c a t i o n of s p e c i a l i z e d  techniques  t o the treatment  problems  of mental d i s o r d e r s or t o the  of everyday adjustment.  Psychotherapy emphasizes  and understanding and i s t h e r e f o r e therapy  in order t o d i s t i n g u i s h  such as behavior  Theme - the myth as manifested  ological  and s t r e s s symptom  therapy. w i t h i n a musical  T h e r a p e u t i c Environments - p l a c e s Therapy - treatment  as a depth  i t from systems which  minimize understanding and i n s i g h t modification,  classified  insight  context.  in which therapy  is p r o v i d e d .  d i r e c t e d toward the cure of a p a t h -  c o n d i t i o n - or in a more general  growth and a m e l i o r a t i o n .  sense  simple  CHAPTER I I THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Rationale for  Implementation of the C r e a t i v e A r t s T h e r a p i e s  In p r o v i d i n g a r a t i o n a l e f o r  i n c r e a s i n g the use of  A r t s T h e r a p i e s w i t h i n h e a l t h care systems, p a r t i c u l a r l y in mental h e a l t h , trends  it  is f i r s t  necessary t o c o n s i d e r some  in the more w i d e l y - a c c e p t e d forms of t h e r a p y .  By w i d e l y - a c c e p t e d forms of t h e r a p y ,  I refer to  niques d e r i v e d from the medical model. c e n t e r s on c u l t u r a l the  largest  trends  percentage  under h e a l t h c a r e .  change and some people  of p a t i e n t s / c l i e n t s  of  affect  presently progressive  in need of help are a b l e t o  l e s s r i g i d forms of t h e r a p y . are  The d i s c u s s i o n  in treatment which  There are pockets of  However, these  l i m i t e d and have not reached the  largest  find  resources populations  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d persons and other persons  forms of treatment  tech-  in v a r i o u s  and t h e r a p y .  The purpose of t h i s  section  is t o present the  t h a t t h e r e are counter t r e n d s a v a i l a b l e through  idea  expressive  a r t s t h e r a p i e s which would e i t h e r : 1) Be more e f f e c t i v e than other c u r r e n t t h e r a p i e s ; 2) Compliment and e n r i c h other forms of t h e r a p y ; 3) Add a new dimension t o therapy through the concept of the a r t s as a h e a l i n g  influence.  1) Any method or t e c h n i q u e ^ s c i e n t i f i c can be misused.  All scientific  On the c o n t r a r y , the  depends often on the  individual  used p r o p e r l y  i n f l u e n c e of the t o o l  u s i n g the t o o l .  The  present d i s c u s s i o n p e r t a i n s p r i m a r i l y t o c u l t u r a l which have brought us t o the present  trends  situation.  2) Although the present d i s c u s s i o n c e n t e r s p s y c h i a t r i c treatment,  on  a l l t h e r a p i e s can be c o n s i d e r e d  r e l e v a n t t o the d i s c u s s i o n s i n c e at the base of the ments  i s the  issue of assumptions about what  can and cannot do. cussed  is choice.  For example, one of the Because s o c i e t y  t o the p r o f e s s i o n a l  issues d i s -  medical community, we are  is j u s t as  argu-  "patients"  has assigned  t o assume t h a t the handicapped i n d i v i d u a l , Syndrome c h i l d  t  methods are not misused  nor are a l l a r t i s t i c methods n e c e s s a r i l y in t h e r a p y .  or a r t i s t i c  powers  likely  or Down's  incapable of making d e c i s i o n s  about h i m / h e r s e l f as the p s y c h i a t r i c p a t i e n t . 3) The m a t e r i a l presented  is w r i t t e n from the p e r -  spective  of a Music T h e r a p i s t .  sessions  in a v a r i e t y of t h e r a p e u t i c s e t t i n g s over a  p e r i o d of ten y e a r s .  I have led Music Therapy  I have a l s o been t e a c h i n g and t r a i n  ing Music T h e r a p i s t s and other h e a l t h care From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , a)  professionals.  the f o l l o w i n g concerns  emerge:  Present systems of t h e r a p y , n o n - a r t i s t i c  n a t u r e , often discourage p a t i e n t s  in  from r e c o g n i z i n g and  d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y , a v a l u a b l e source of  healing  9  b) Many members of the medical p r o f e s s i o n , staff  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , have d i f f i c u l t y  both  understanding  the use of music as a t h e r a p e u t i c medium so  explanation  and j u s t i f i c a t i o n  something  is often  which might be c a l l e d  difficult  language  due t o  differences.  c) Standard r e s e a r c h methodologies which  and techniques  I have borrowed from the medical and b e h a v i o r a l  s c i e n c e s have not adequately d e s c r i b e d or documented significant  t h e r a p e u t i c endeavors w i t h i n music therapy  I sessions. Most of the f o l l o w i n g c r i t i c i s m s can be t r a c e d back t o the t e c h n o l o g i c a l  approach t o h e a l i n g .  We are  iod in which s c i e n c e holds more value than other of d i s c o v e r y .  Value p l a c e d on the s c i e n t i f i c  has f i l t e r e d down into a l l the There has been an emphasis and behavior tifiable.  in general  on s i t u a t i o n s ,  means  discovery lives.  interactions  which are observable and quan-  By o b s e r v i n g these phenomena, data can be  obtained and c o n c l u s i o n s statistical  l e v e l s of our  in a p e r -  can be drawn p r i m a r i l y through  methods.  Neither the v e h i c l e ing e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h ) for conclusions  of the s c i e n t i f i c  method  (mean-  nor the exact and p r e c i s e  search  need be c r i t i c i z e d .  However, the  over-  emphasis of these means, perhaps even the misuse of them, deserves c r i t i c a l  review.  Very few r e s e a r c h t o o l s have been developed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r music t h e r a p y . Most often t o o l s are adapted from other d i s c i p l i n e s .  Licentious  Technology  lor en  E i s e l ey_(j971 ) comments:  " I n h i s e n t h u s i a s m f o r a new m a g i c , modern man h a s gone f a r i n a s s i g n i n g t o s c i e n c e — h i s own i n t e l l e c t u a l i n vention—a inherent  r o l e o f omnipotence not in invention i t s e l f .  envisioned enlightened  science as a powerful servant—but  m a s t e r o f man." It the  quality of l i f e  knowledge.  never t h e  (p.130)  f o r modern man.  If discovery  i s i s o n l y one means t o s e a r c h f o r  i s t h e a i m o f s c i e n c e and i t s r e s u l t -  science/technology  most e f f i c i e n t means t o t h a t e n d . means a r e we l e a v i n g b e h i n d ? our s t r i v i n g  cultural  values  to health care In M e d i c a l  However, i t i s a l s o  I t may be a c a s e o f t h e means d i s t o r t i n g t h e  ant t e c h n o l o g y ,  has  and  i s c l e a r t h a t s c i e n c e has c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o  becoming c l e a r t h a t  end.  Bacon  may a p p e a r t o be t h e However, what  And more i m p o r t a n t ,  other how  i n t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l age m o l d e d o u r i n g e n e r a l , and i n t h i s c a s e as p e r t a i n s  services?  Nemesis. (1976)  Ivan  lllich  " P r i m i t i v e p e o p l e have a l w a y s t h e power o f a s y m b o l i c  states:  recognized  dimension...  11  (which)  set  boundaries.  claims that  only  Malinowski  industrial  has allowed the use of  society  available  t o o l s t o t h e i r utmost e f f i c i e n c y ; all  other s o c i e t i e s ,  sacred  in  recognizing  l i m i t s t o the use of sword  and plow was a necessary for ethics. erations  Now a f t e r  of  licentious  foundation  several  gen-  technology,  the f i n i t e n e s s of nature  intrudes  again upon our c o n s c i o u s n e s s . " ( p . 2 6 4 ) The m o r a l i t y of the statement. unity,  In a powerful  issue s u r f a c e s  indictment of the medical comm-  I I I i c h says t h a t the medical p r o f e s s i o n c l a i m s  dom from the broad world of  law and r e l i g i o n and is  immune t o moral c r i t i c i s m by token of It does not at  in I I I i c h ' s  lay  itself  large but only t o  its  it  He c o n s i d e r s t h i s  is  open t o c r i t i c i s m from s o c i e t y  its  own i n t e r n a l  codes.  l i t e r a l l y taken out of t h e i r  an economic,  political  "The p h y s i c i a n decides what and who is s i c k .  and moral  is symptom  He is a moral  entre-  p r e n e u r , charged with i n q u i s i t i o n a l  powers  t o d i s c o v e r c e r t a i n wrongs t o be r i g h t e d . Morality  is as  thus  base in s c i e n c e .  I I I i c h contends t h a t people are d e p r i v e d - of h e a l t h because  free-  i m p l i c i t in s i c k n e s s as  it  their hands. outrages  is  i n c r i m e o r s i n . " (p.p.38-39)  Thomas S z a s z psychiatry analysis and  (1974) a p p l i e s  and p r o c l a i m s  t h e contemporary  and dynamic p s y c h i a t r y  d i s g u i s i n g moral  personal  similar criticisms to  a s a means f o r o b s c u r i n g  and p o l i t i c a l  conflicts  states:  "...therapeutic two f a c e s : the  other  Since  interventions  one i s t o h e a l is to control  sickness  t o be a f o r m  i s often  ary medical  the wicked. considered  o f w i c k e d n e s s and w i c k contempor-  practices often  of complicated  consist  combinations  ment and s o c i a l A Question  control."  of t r e a t -  (p.69)  of Values  U s i n g m e d i c i n e , and p s y c h i a t r y of social  control  i n p a r t i c u l a r , as a  i s an a t t e m p t  t o perpetuate the  o f s o c i e t y a t l a r g e and t h e i n d i v i d u a l t h e r a p i s t  in p a r t i c u l a r . from  have  the sick,  edness a form o f s i c k n e s s ,  values  a s mere  problems. He f u r t h e r  form  use o f p s y c h o -  Inherent  in this  day t o day i s t h e i l l u s i o n  treatment  has s c i e n t i f i c  On t h i s m a t t e r of v a l u e - f r e e  IM i c h  p r o c e s s as i t f u n c t i o n s that  grounding  i f a statement or  i t i s value-free-.  (1976, p . 4 l ) s a y s :  c u r e and c a r e  s e n s e and t h e t a b o o s t h a t  i s obviously  have s h i e l d e d  "The a s s e r t i o n malignant  non-  irresponsible  13  medicine are beginning Hans S t r u p p psychotherapy "One  to  weaken."  (1977) commentator  in p a r t i c u l a r s t a t e s : of the great  stumbling  psychotherapy research been a f a i l u r e of v a l u e s .  clinical  impressions  "I)  to  assess  researchers indices  i f t h e y were  every  ther-  values i n judgement and  (p.8)  ( 1 9 7 6 ) has t h r e e  or h e a l t h  continue  Instead  and s u f f u s e  outcome."  system  importance  quantitative  mometer r e a d i n g s .  lllich  and p r a c t i c e has  whereas  i n t e r p r e t t e d as  fluence  in  outcomes on t h e b a s i s o f g l o b a l  have assumed t h a t be  blocks  t o r e a l i z e the  Therapists  treatment  can  on t h e e f f e c t s o f  main o b j e c t i o n s  business:  undesirable  s i d e e f f e c t s of approved,  mistaken, c a l l o u s or c o n t r a i n d i c a t e d nical  tech-  contracts;  2) t h e m e d i c a l by  t o the medical  p r a c t i c e sponsors  r e i n f o r c i n g a morbid  sickness  society that  en-  c o u r a g e s p e o p l e t o become c o n s u m e r s o f curative, vironmental  preventative,  industrial  and e n -  medicine;  3) t h e s o - c a l l e d h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n s an  even deeper c u l t u r a l l y  have  health-denying  effect  i n s o f a r as t h e y d e s t r o y  tential  o f people t o deal  with  the potheir  human weakness, v u l n e r a b i l i t y and uniqueness  in a personal  nomous way". This Since  leads  (p.24)  into the issue of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n .  t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n , e n c o u r a g e d by t h e t r e n d t o  specialization,  i s overwhelmed by t h e m y s t i q u e o f m e d i -  c i n e and has f o r f e i t e d little the  and a u t o -  rights t o his/her  self-determination  hands o f t h e d o c t o r  exists.  in every  t h e r a p i s t ' s value  health,  The p a t i e n t  i sin  respect.  Because t r e a t m e n t s a r e decided the  own  under s o c i e t y ' s and  s y s t e m a t t h a t moment, t h e v a l u e s  o f t h e p a t i e n t and r i g h t s t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n a n d self-actualization the code  patient  in varying  degrees of s t r i c t n e s s ,  If the patient  which f a l l  outside  particular  social  considered  deviant  ness.'  inhibited.  As l o n g a s  i s w i l l i n g t o conform t o t h e p r e s c r i b e d  come c u r e d . ing  are greatly  Szasz  has ways o f b e i n g  the prescribed  code, t h e s e strange and t h e r e f o r e  (1976)  "Actually  he/she w i l l  social be-  and s p e a k -  behavior  fora  "behaviors"  symptoms o f some  are ill-  says: often the only  thing  "wrong"  with  the so-called schizophrenic is  that  he s p e a k s  i n metaphors  unaccept-  '"The h u m a n i s t i c p s y c h o l o g i s t s a r e an e x c e p t i o n . The i n f l u e n c e of t h e humanistic school i s strong in education but n o t i n t h e r a p e u t i c e n v i r o n m e n t s .  able t o h i s audience,  in p a r t i c u l a r  to his p s y c h i a t r i s t .  (p.14)  Szasz a l s o makes the p o i n t t h a t what s c h i z o p h r e n i c thought d i s o r d e r lack of d e s i r e Aristotelian  It  acceptable  is assumed  in these cases t h a t the p a t i e n t U s u a l l y no e f f o r t  the novel thought p a t t e r n s  i n t e r p r e t these p a t t e r n s  self-determination It seems t h a t  is  once an i n d i v i d u a l  has d e l i v e r e d him/  Thomas Szasz o b j e c t s t o what he of human behavior  little calls  in p s y -  He says the aim should be t o maximize the scope  voluntaristic expIanations...to  choice,  allowing  respect.  d e t e r m i n i s t i c explanations  of  or t o  t o comm-  into the hands of the medical p r o f e s s i o n ,  c h o i c e remains.  chaitry.  of a p a t i e n t ,  The key t o  is  is made t o  as a s i n c e r e e f f o r t  u n i c a t e knowledge or f e e l i n g .  herself  form of t h i n k i n g in  (1974)  wrong or s i c k or wicked. respect  is merely a p e r s o n ' s  or a b i l i t y t o f o l l o w the form of  logic—the  soc I ety t o d a y .  is c o n s i d e r e d a  responsibility  r e i n t r o d u c e freedom,  into the conceptual  and vocabulary of p s y c h i a t r y .  (1976)  I l l u s i o n of P r e d i c t a b i l i t y "According t o the popular image of science everything  is  in p r i n c i p l e ,  p r e d i c t a b l e and c o n t r o l l a b l e ;  if  framework  some e v e n t able  or process  and c o n t r o l l a b l e  state  i s not p r e d i c t in the present  o f our knowledge, a  little  more k n o w l e d g e a n d , e s p e c i a l l y , a little us  more know-how,  to predict  will  and c o n t r o l  enable the wild  variables. This  view  detail,  but i n p r i n c i p l e .  tension, weakest able. ify  i s wrong, n o t m e r e l y i n  a chain link.  What  is difficult  generic  specific  break a t  T h a t much  t h e weakest  'the  will  link  Under its  is predictis to  before  ident-  i t breaks,  we c a n know, b u t t h e  e l u d e s u s ' . " ( B a t e s o n , 1979,  P.40) P e r s o n s who a r e " d i f f e r e n t " f a l l of the  "unpredictable postulates  persons".  In a g e n e r a l  must be p r e d i c t a b l e  currently  sciences.  particular  groups:  the  at  Viktor  i s that  or i t i s deviant.  behavioral  public  s e n s e , one o f  o f t h e b e h a v i o r i s t i c m o d e l , one o f t h e  most w i d e l y - u s e d f o r m s o f t h e r a p y ,  predictability  into the category  This  human  behavior  The i l l u s i o n  of  r e i g n s i n m e d i c i n e and t h e illusion  has a f f e c t e d  two  I) t h e p a t i e n t s  or s u b j e c t s ;  2)  large.  Frankl  (1959) has s a i d t h a t  the individual  personality And  remains e s s e n t i a l l y  yet various schools  some  of psychology,  i n p s y c h o t h e r a p y have  which d e t e r m i n e a s t a n d a r d of behaviors Even  f o r both  invented  family  i s placed  and p e e r s ,  predictability.  "deviant"  discover  or develop  he/she  of being.  or s e t  personalities. i s expected  A great  deal  on p a t i e n t s f r o m t h e r a p i s t s ,  t o comply w i t h An  hundreds o f systems  and " d e v i a n t "  to follow prescribed patterns  (p.132)  p s y c h i a t r y and  "functioning level"  normal  i f one i s c o n s i d e r e d  of pressure  unpredictable.  individual  these  standards  is rarely  of  encouraged t o  h i s own u n i q u e and p e r h a p s c r e a t i v e 2  problem-solving the  devices.  The c r e a t i v e i s t h e i n n o v a t i v e ,  novel, the unusual.  precludes  creativity.  Therefore  predictability  This r i g i d i t y  therapists  i s in the interest  mystique.  The h e a l t h c a r e  does n o t have t h e r e s o u r c e s  own c u r e  because  client  will  t o h i s / h e r own d e v i c e s a p a t i e n t /  i f left  rights  under t h e c a r e  is the present and s u p p o r t  intellectually.  outcome."  by s o c i e t y a s a whole t h a t  more a I I - e n c o m p a s s i n g e f f e c t  society  dual and  i s the b e l i e f  n o t happen The  on  t o a i d in his/her  may e n c o u n t e r an " u n p r e d i c t a b l e  illusion  t h e medical  implies that thei n -  dividual  i f left  on t h e p a r t o f  of perpetuating  system  often  system  of t h i s  socially,  As s o c i e t y f o r f e i t s  consensus, the i n d i v i d u a l  suffers.  this  of a "professional," illusion  inclination to forfeit  this  The  indivi-  economically  i t s ' rights via  Illich  (1976) p a s s i o n -  ately his  d e s c r i b e s t h e u l t i m a t e l o s s a s man g i v e s up e v e n  r i g h t s t o death: "Society, acting  through  the medical  s y s t e m , d e c i d e s when and a f t e r indignities  brought an  and m u t i l a t i o n s he s h a l l  The m e d i c a I i z a t i o n  die.  o f s o c i e t y has  t h e epoch o f n a t u r a l death t o  end.  right  what  W e s t e r n man h a s l o s t t h e  t o preside at h i s act of dying.  Health,  o r t h e autonomous power t o  c o p e , h a s been e x p r o p r i a t e d down t o the  last  has  c o n q u e r e d and d e s t r o y e d  deaths." The  breath.  over-riding  and s h o u l d  death a l l other  (p.204)  of p r e d i c t a b i l i t y can  Mechanical  danger f o r s o c i e t y  i s that a l l behaviors,  be p r e d i c t a b l e .  who h i m s e l f s t i l l  of the i l l u s i o n including  And y e t S t r u p p  hopes f o r a " s c i e n c e o f  (1978)  psychotherapy"  states: "Of  course  peutic  a treatment  procedures  or s e t of t h e r a -  may work when t h e t h e o r y  i s wrong; o r t h e t h e o r y may be r e a s o n a b l e , but  the techniques  ineffective.  may be i n e f f i c i e n t o r  T h e p o i n t t o be made i s  that the individual  practitioner  s u r e way o f a n s w e r i n g  these  death,  has no  questions  s i n c e he/she must r e l y on the c l i n i c a l method.  Furthermore the h i s t o r y of  s c i e n c e amply demonstrates  t h a t human-  i t y ' s capacity for self-deceptions persist  for centuries."  may  (p.7)  Another major i n f l u e n c e on the  i l l u s i o n of p r e d i c t -  a b i l i t y has been the wide-spread use of s t a t i s t i c a l ods.  The p u b l i c at  large and most h e a l t h  meth  professionals  be Ii eve: I) t h a t e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s prove things;2) f a c t s cannot be manipulated and d i s t o r t e d under the p r o t e c t i o n of e m p i r i c a l evidence  and s t a t i s t i c a l  Unfortunately s t a t i s t i c a l  methods.  methods and e m p i r i c a l  f i n d i n g s are often misused, whether d e l i b e r a t e l y , ant I y or u n c o n s c i o u s l y .  One r a r e l y f i n d s a study w i t h -  out b i a s or hidden assumption, whether research design, al method.  inferentiaI.stastics  i c u l a r l y hazardous in t h i s is a d i f f i c u l t  i t s contained  s c r e e n i n g of data or c h o i c e of  The area of  regard.  statisti  Value-free research  task.  method.  methods c a r r y a lot more  value than d e s c r i p t i v e methods such as case is that s t a t i s t i c a l  j e c t i v e than d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s . be t r u e depending on:  over-use  In the h i e r a r c h y of r e s e a r c h ,  s t u d i e s employing s t a t i s t i c a l  The assumption  in  is p a r t -  The other obvious concern is r e g a r d i n g the of s t a t i s t i c a l  ignor-  studies.  s t u d i e s are more obT h i s may or may not  1) who i s doing the 2)  study  i f they have an axe t o  grind  3) i f they are aware of t h e i r own b i a s e s and values 4)  i f they are e t h i c a l  and many other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . that  it  is easier  The only c l e a r p o i n t  t o mask values  is  in s t a t i s t i c s than in  descr i p t i ons. In genera I, s t a t i s t i c a I  methods should be checked  and balanced by the f o l l o w i n g First,  questions:  although some p a r t s of man can be observed and  b e h a v i o r s q u a n t i f i e d , t h e r e are many i n v i s i b l e p a r t s of man which are e q u a l l y  important when drawing c o n c l u s i o n s  about p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s , Emotions, f e e l i n g s ,  diagnoses,  values,  even  attitudes  learning.  and p h i l o s o p h i e s  are not e a s i l y p i n p o i n t e d with s t a t i s t i c a l even  accuracy,  i f they are measured by s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s c l a i m -  ing t o d e s c r i b e these kinds of a t t r i b u t e s . tical man,  These  statis-  methods sometimes p a i n t a s u p e r f i c i a l p i c t u r e of i g n o r i n g the deeper  l e v e l s of e x i s t e n c e , the unique  i n d i v i d u a l i t y of p e r s o n a l i t i e s ly t o d i f f i c u l t i e s  in l i f e .  which often p e r t a i n s  Although mathematical  cedures v e r i f y q u a n t i t a t i v e q u e s t i o n s ,  sometimes,  directpro-  the  important "shaping" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of man tend t o be qualitative.  There are few t e s t i n g  devices  of d i s c o v e r y which capture t h e s e powerful  or systems  qualities.  Second,  in order to j u s t i f y  ment or method, t h e r a p i s t s  use of a p a r t i c u l a r t r e a t must p r o v i d e examples  r e s e a r c h documenting the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e i r treatment  or method.  In medicine,  l i e v e d that s t a t i s t i c a l fact,the well  positive  effect  it  is r a r e ,  chosen  is generally  research r a r e l y l i e s .  In  in one s t u d y .  and not encouraged by p u b l i s h e r s  of j o u r n a l s .  G e n e r a l i z a t i o n is common through the  structures  inferential  Third,  of  statistics.  s t a t i s t i c s can be made t o show a v a r i e t y of  sults.  be-  of a c e r t a i n method may very  apply only t o the p o p u l a t i o n t e s t e d  Replication  of  It would take a great deal  of  re-  i n t e g r i t y and lack  of b i a s on the p a r t of the r e s e a r c h e r who uses s t a t i s t i c a I methods, al  f o r h i s / h e r r e s e a r c h not t o r e f l e c t p e r s o n -  attitudes,  bias,  seldom mentioned. al methods.  values,  etc.  These  influences  In a d d i t i o n , there are many s t a t i s t i c  If one does not show r e s u l t s ,  t o apply other methods u n t i l does show the r e s u l t s  it  is common  landing on the one which  sought.  With the  of r e s e a r c h p u b l i s h e d , r e s e a r c h e r s  large  percentage  have a lot  in the hope t h a t t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r treatment will  are  invested  or theory  work. T h i s c r i t i c i s m should not be construed t o  enquiry,  or even s c i e n t i f i c  statistical  enquiry.  The p o i n t  include is  that  methods are only a p p r o p r i a t e f o r c e r t a i n  p e c t s of human p e r s o n a l i t y and b e h a v i o r .  T h e i r use  asnot  only f a r exceeds inhibited and  the  appropriate  other types  fact  t h a t t h e a r t s a r e not  in t h e r a p y  may  be  to  and  quantify a r t i s t i c  observe  products,  due  except  t o the  a l w a y s t h e most  therapy.  And  The  fact  aspects now  that  experiences of  achieve-  c o n s i d e r a t i o n in  Task Panel  niques  of present  on The  Arts  i n T h e r a p y and  statistical  qualitative  exposure t o the  research techniques  show s i g n i f i c a n t  to  following:,  1) C h a n g e s observed,  change  insight  arts."  Although  Mental tech-  not  enough  g a i n s made quantifiable  in the  This  arts,  results  is probably  due  by t h e a r t s t h e r a p i e s a r e in a b e h a v i o r a l  often strike and  a deeper  long-term.  does not  spiritual  a r e vague and  affective  especially  i s more g r a d u a l  2) The  and  change.  inspired  experiences  o c c u r s from  methodology are  have been u s e d  rarely  Artistic  the  (1979, p.1978) " . . . t h e measurement  capture the  easily  be  verifiable.  states:  the  man.  i n o r d e r t o employ methods, t h e y must  Health  through  has  i t is d i f f i c u l t  events,  important  of  E n v i r o n m e n t f o r t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s C o m m i s s i o n on  to  also  widely-used  w i t h i n some s t a n d a r d  ment- not  statistically  but  of discovery, equally valuable  a l s o more a p p r o p r i a t e t o c e r t a i n The  and  limits,  happen  qualities  m y s t i c a l , though  not  context. level  Often  and  action  which  immediately.  of a r t i s t i c  experiences  e q u a l l y v a l u a b l e even  though  they are d i f f i c u l t  t o quantify,,  3) S i n c e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h methods may measure a portion  of the a r t i s t i c  e x p e r i e n c e remains Studies confusing peg Lack  in therapy therefore are often  and g i v e t h e f e e l i n g  Freedom  individual system.  of t r y i n g t o f i t a square  hole.  of Spiritual  medical  i s f r e e t o support or not support t h e  Sometimes p e r s o n s a r e g i v e n t h e c h o i c e  o f w h e t h e r o r n o t t o commit t h e m s e l v e s Viktor  t o choose  and i n t r o d u c e s t h e n e x t d e f i c i e n c y  systems,  Frankl  t o treatment pro-  cedures.  therapy  (1959) emphasizes  t h e lack  of spiritual  one t h i n g ;  freedoms—to any  choose  man  o f t h e human  one's a t t i t u d e i n  one's own way.  spiritual  freedom  t a k e n away t h a t and p u r p o s e f u l . " idea t h a t  It i s t h i s  which  makes  cannot  life  be  meaningful  (p.p.65-66)  m e d i c i n e and p a r t i c u l a r l y  a r e a t y p e o f new r e l i g i o n ularity,  in present  given s e t of circumstances, t o  choose  The  the last  the a b i l i t y  recognition.  " . . . e v e r y t h i n g c a n be t a k e n f r o m but  of the  unaccounted.  of the arts  i n t o a round  An  experience, the rest  only  psychiatry  i s common and g r o w i n g  r e f e r r e d t o by Thomas S z a s z and o t h e r s .  i n popOn  this  issue Frankl  says:  "Continually today  a psychatrist  is  approached  by p a t i e n t s who c o n f r o n t  human p r o b l e m s r a t h e r  than  him w i t h  neurotic  symptoms.  Some o f t h e p e o p l e who now-  adays c a l l  on a p s y c h i a t r i s t  seen a p a s t o r , days so t h a t  priest  emotional Frankl  shares  or r a b b i  the doctor  with philosophical  would  is  in  have former  confronted  questions rather  conflicts."  than  ( p . I 18)  I M i c h ' s and S z a s z ' s v i e w a b o u t t h e  human i z a t i o n o f p s y c h i a t r y  and u r g e s t h e p s y c h i a t r i s t  g i v e up m e c h a n i c a l s y s t e m s o f t r e a t m e n t and s t o p the role dition  of t e c h n i c i a n .  stresses a search for "I  vacuum and  would s t r i c t l y  deny t h a t  s e a r c h f o r meaning t o h i s or h i s doubt  of  it,  d e r i v e d f r o m , or ease. pair,  one's  existence,  in every case  results  is  i n , any  dis-  A man's c o n c e r n , even h i s  des-  over the worthwhiIeness  is a s p i r i t u a l  of  life  d i s t r e s s b u t by no means  a mental d i s e a s e . . . L o g o t h e r a p y i t s a s s i g n m e n t as t h a t  con-  therefore  meaning:  regards  of a s s i s t i n g the  to  playing  He d e s c r i b e s t h e c u l t u r a l  o f man a s an e x i s t e n t i a l  de-  25  patient to find  meaning  in h i s  life."  (p.p.104-105) Frankl  recommends a p e r s o n a l i z e d  meaning t o f i l l  the  the  meaning o f  from  day  to  day  life  from  life  specific a given Current the  Levels levels.  moment."  level,  a r e most o f t e n  of p s y c h o a n a l y s i s ,  claims  physiological to d)  with  behavior  which has f o r the  deeper  so  freedom  conformity,  take  precedent.  last  levels,  observable  and  meaning  Even F r e u d ' s  greatly few  with  system  influenced years,  considers  and  which  primarily  maintains a r i g i d  approach  experience,  Action  Even t h o u g h F r a n k l and  concern  u s u a l l y only  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f f e e l i n g s and  choice  at  little  issues of  a consideration.  i n f l u e n c e s and  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y and  life  l e v e l s of consciousness  treatment  t o deal  Instead,  in therapy are  not  the  (p.110)  appropriate  deeper  man  mean-  rather  methods o f t h e r a p y have  The  the  meaning o f a p e r s o n ' s  d e a l t with  psychiatric  but  to  hour.  i s not  in g e n e r a l ,  i s s u e o f meaning.  functioning  c h a n g e s f r o m man  hour t o  What m a t t e r s t h e r e f o r e of  existential  vacuum:  "For  ing  and  he  (1959) s t r e s s e s  self-determination,  de-emphasizes s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n  as  the u l t i m a t e goal  in t h e r a p y .  self-transcendence. h i s own experience siders  Instead he  encourages  His Logotherapy was born out of in c o n c e n t r a t i o n camps.  He c o n -  s u f f e r i n g as an i n e r a d i c a b l e p a r t of  as f a t e and d e a t h . l i f e cannot be  even  Without s u f f e r i n g and death human  complete.  An u n d e r l y i n g theme f o r Frankl He c l a i m s t h a t  life,  is  responsibility.  only "things" can be determined by o t h e r s .  Each man is unique and must take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o and t o f i n d meaning.  No man and no d e s t i n y can be com-  pared with any other man or any other d e s t i n y . u a t i o n repeats different  itself  response.  act  and each s i t u a t i o n c a l l s Sometimes the s i t u a t i o n  No s i t for a  in which  a man f i n d s h i m s e l f may r e q u i r e him t o shape h i s own f a t e by act i on, The lack of encouragement a c t i o n on the p a r t of the the c a r e e r mental p a t i e n t . business a r a d i c a l  f o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and  individual  helps t o  create  I I I i c h c a l l e d the medical  monopoly which feeds on  itseIf.(p.35)  R i t e s have been mentioned which serve t o p r o t e c t and perpetuate t h i s fluence  monopoly.  Perhaps the s t r o n g e s t  on keeping the system a l i v e  is the  in-  patient's  own loss of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e l f  succumbing t o  seduction  T h i s surrender has  of the medical mystique.  allowed the c a r e e r mental p a t i e n t t o  exist:  the  "'Clinical' of  psychology  the medical  i t s worth mantling For  in case  that be  mental  and  life.  they  are  possible  up  1975,  and  clinical  i t may  be  p.3)  these  t h e mental  methods.  by  they  This s t r i c t  take  own  regimes* • w h i c h clients If  o n l y because  of  because  exception to  control  to  health  therapists.  o t h e r s , but  may  with  people  P a t i e n t s and  dangerous not  the p a t i e n t ' s ignorance,  for their  other treatment  harm t o t h e m s e l v e s and  treatment.  clinical  of encouraging  under r e g u l a r s u r v e i l l a n c e  prescribed  the  h e a l t h c e n t e r s are f i l l e d  responsibility,  p r o v i d e s drug  not,  the  responsibility  Instead  hold of t h e i r  on  are  face  It c r e a t e s  (Hillman,  health  must be  besides, i t  pathology,  must t r e a t .  hospitals,  totally  to  a p p r o a c h c r e a t e s what i t  have g i v e n  rely  dis-  belongs  By t a k i n g  as c l i n i c a l  who  business  by  i s t o be e s t a b l i s h e d :  people  take  prove  soul's pathoIogizings  patients." Clinics,  case  s i c k n e s s f a n t a s y at  clinical then  results  dismantled.  soul's value  after  empiricism;  the  It may  p a t h o l o g i c a l view p o i n t .  assumes what  to  model.  j u d g i n g by  medical  i s a remnant  is  in the  necessary  i f treatments are t o be  effective.  As I I I i c h s a y s : "the m o n o p o l y . , . s e r v e s ize s o c i a l  arrangements  many people  do not f i t .  to  into which It  the handicapped as u n f i t ever new c a t e g o r i e s of People who are angered, impaired by t h e i r  legitimat-  and breeds patients. sickened and  industrial  and l e i s u r e can escape only life  under medical  are thereby  i e r world." Once a person enforcement staff ful  influence of  struggle  disqualified for a health-  ( p . 35) is admitted t o an i n - p a t i e n t  an added h u m i l i a t i o n .  ward the treatment  An even more power-  is d i s c r i m i n a t i o n by s o c i e t y .  lowered s e l f - e s t e e m are often  to "cure" than the  The i l l  more  difficult  i n i t i a l causes of the " i l l n e s s "  precipitated hospital Frankl mentions  admission  in the f i r s t  another bad e f f e c t  a l i z a t i o n and treatment filling  into a  of the v a l u e system of the medical  offers  effects  labour  s u p e r v i s i o n and  seduced or  from p o l i t i c a l  labels  which f u n c t i o n s  of  place. institution-  as a  self-ful-  prophecy: "Our c u r r e n t mental  which  hygiene p h i l o s o p h y  s t r e s s e s t h e idea t h a t t o be h a p p y ,  that  people  ought  unhappiness  symptom o f m a l a d j u s t m e n t .  is a  Such a  v a l u e s y s t e m m i g h t be r e s p o n s i b l e for  the fact  happiness  that  unavoidable u n -  i s i n c r e a s e d by u n h a p p i n e s s  about being h a p p y . "  ( p . p . I I 5-116)  H i l l m a n (1975) s i m p l i f i e s t h e p r o b l e m : "We c a n n o t  recover  alienation  in professional  until  we have a v i s i o n  ologizing  first  treatment  place."  Summing u p , i t widely-accepted  from  its  therapy  of p a t h -  which does not  professional  treatment  soul  require  in the  (pi?8)  i s c l e a r from t h e above t h a t forms of t h e r a p y ,  particularly  do n o t e n c o u r a g e t h e f o l l o w i n g :  1)  Freedom -  choice  -  self-determination  2) R e s p o n s i b i l i t y 3)  Action -  self-expression  4) S p i r i t u a l  realization  5) P h i l o s o p h i c a l 6)  c u r r e n t and  realization  I n n o v a t i v e t h o u g h t and b e h a v i o r  psychiatr  The  last  i s t h e lack treatment relation  and most  o f encouragement  forms.  This  t o the eight  difficult  to divorce  of effectiveness  lack  of c r e a t i v i t y . have  in c r e a t i n g patients  points  of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s or  i t may be s a i d  in a f a i r  systems o f t h e r a p y  when b r e a k i n g  in v a r y i n g  It i s  o f t h e r a p y from t h e i s s u e  indulged  patients/clients  has d i r e c t  mentioned above.  Although  c r e a t i n g t h e i r own.  in standard  p a r t i c u l a r shortcoming  of a  that  amount o f c r e a t i v i t y  (licentious  a r e not encouraged t o exert  creativity  2)  i n a d e q u a c y t o be n o t e d  of c r e a t i v i t y  the issue  lack  theorists  important  equal  technology), amounts o f  away from t h e s e s y s t e m s o r i n  C r e a t i v i t y in reference  is influenced  t o the  by a l l t h e above  points  degrees.  A Dearth of C r e a t i v i t y v tint i I  recently  literature  p r o c e s s and c r e a t i v i t y though a great the  last  deal  there  will  and c r i t i c i z e s  researchers  creativity  (1978)  in t h e area:  t e s t s have  states  o f mystery t o c r e a t -  " T h o s e who have r e c e n t l y t r i e d struct  Al-  i n h e r book  f o r Meaning  a l w a y s be an e l e m e n t  lacking.  t o capture the  Rosemary Gordon  A Search  of creative  about c r e a t i v i t y i n  two d e c a d e s , much o f i t f a i l s  D y i n g and C r e a t i n g :  ivity  h a s been  has been w r i t t e n  essence of c r e a t i v i t y .  that  in general  on t h e t o p i c  t o con-  really  been m i s l e d and they m i s l e a d , such t e s t s tend t o n e g l e c t erations and  of r e l e v a n c e  concern themselves only with  tion."  of  But s c a r c i t y  most r e s e a r c h ,  Koestler  resistence to  as  (1964)  religious whole  nature  itself.  says: awe and wonder,  and a e s t h e t i c f e e l i n g ,  'voilet  side'  the emotions was  the  of the rainbow left  t o the  poets,  behavior-  s c i e n c e s had no room f o r them."  (p,285)  K o e s t l e r names these types of emotions cending" and c a l l s "The  in our  i l l u s t r a t e d by Gordon, and the  t o worry about; the s o - c a l l e d al  describing  i s a l s o due t o the s c i e n t i f i c  "Laughter and t e a r s ,  of  associa-  in order t o keep mystery and magic  e l u s i v e nature of c r e a t i v i t y As  of  (p.129)  There may be a hidden c u l t u r a l  lives.  consid-  and q u a l i t y ,  q u a n t i t y or with f l u e n c y  creativity  for  them the nourishment of  seIf-transcending  "self-transcreativity.  emotions are  the s t e p - c h i l d r e n of contemporary psychology.  One of the  reasons  is  perhaps t h a t they do not tend toward observable muscular a c t i v i t y  but  to-  wards  quietude,  worship, sure in  raptness,  a r e emotions  overt  cera I Koestler  grief,  longing,  aesthetic  plea-  consummated n o t  but in i n t e r n a l i z e d ,  behavior."  vis-  (p.299)  adds: "Owing t o t h e p e c u l i a r i t i e s cultural  climate the participatory  (self-transcending) been orary as  virtually  emotions  ignored  psychology,  real  of our  by  festations  contemp-  although  and o b s e r v a b l e as hunger,  have  they are  in their rage  and  manifear."  (p.299) Not to  only  are these  human  life  and h e a l t h .  creativity  might  emotions.  They  of  life.  but they  Within  are essentia  the process  o f as t h e product  are essential  t o improving  (1954) says  concerning  of  man  adaptations  c a n make  new a n d  the quality a  lack o f  as h i s s c i e n c e c a n change  ment,  our c u l t u r e  individual sions  original  t o h i s environment  will  rapid-  the environ-  perish.  maladjustment  but international  as  Not o n l y  and group  living  of these  in our c u l t u r e :  "Unless  ly  real,  be t h o u g h t  As Rogers  creativity  emotions  ten-  annihilation  will  be t h e p r i c e we p a y f o r a  of c r e a t i v i t y . " There as w e l l . basic  lack  (p.138)  i s c a u s e t o be c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e i n d i v i d u a l I f a s J u n g s a y s , c r e a t i v i t y i s one o f t h e  i n s t i n c t s o f man,  i t must be s a t i s f i e d  s t r u c t i v e form or i t w i l l  become  R o g e r s has f i v e b a s i c  in a con-  destructive.  c r i t i c i s m s o f how t h e c u l t u r e  manifests a dearth of c r e a t i v i t y : "I)  In e d u c a t i o n we t e n d t o t u r n o u t  conformists,  stereotypes,  whose e d u c a t i o n  individuals  i s completed,  rather  t h e n f r e e l y c r e a t i v e and o r i g i n a l thinkers; 2)  In o u r l e i s u r e t i m e  activities,  p a s s i v e e n t e r t a i n m e n t and r e g i m e n t e d group a c t i o n  are overwhelmingly p r e -  dominent, whereas c r e a t i v e a r e much l e s s  activities  in evidence;  3 ) In t h e s c i e n c e s ,  there  supply of t e c h n i c i a n s ,  i s an a m p l e  b u t t h e number  who c a n c r e a t i v e l y f o r m u l a t e h y p o t h e s e s and t h e o r i e s 4 ) In i n d u s t r y , for  creation  fruitful  i s small  indeed;  i s reserved  t h e f e w . . . w h e r e a s f o r t h e many  life  is devoid of o r i g i n a l or c r e a t i v e endeavor;  5)  In  the to  individual  same p i c t u r e be  felt  to  be  and  natural  dangerous".  s h o u l d remember, mind a r e  most  t e n d e n c i e s and  come t o e x p r e s s i o n " , a)  The  Creative  o f f e r s the  may  c r e a t i v i t y (as processes of  i s the  place  predilections  does  Jung)  life  itself  where m a t t e r ,  i n e x t r i c a b l y mixed. of  Here  living  the  stuff  (p.lll)  illness,  sometimes be  benefit  t h r e e r e a s o n s why unt iI  (p.137)  i n h i s book, The  thesis that  illness,  which can  is  Personality  Pickering  cal  different  (1959) c o n s i d e r s  life  true...  d i r e c t l y connected t o the  " H e r e , we life  be  family  holds  o r i g i n a l or  Sinnott to  and  society  Creative  Malady  in p a r t i c u l a r  an  (1974), psychologi  aid to creative  and  the  "victim".  He  this thesis  has  been n e g l e c t e d  work, states up  now: "I) an  The  difficulty  illness  of the  in  distinguishing  body from  one  of  the  m i nd; 2)  Ignorance of the  o f mental 3)  The  still  n a t u r e and  causation  illness;  extent t o  which s o c i e t y  f e a r s mental  illness",  feared (p.p.  and 17-21)  As  discussed  "patients"  earlier,  in general,  mental  patients  who r e c e i v e  and t h e  t h e r a p y , a r e not  encouraged t o acknowledge or develop t h e i r inclinations, of being. but  but instead  to follow  creative  prescribed  A l l i n d i v i d u a l s s u f f e r from t h i s  ways  approach,  t h o s e who s u f f e r most a r e t h o s e who do have  icularly  creative personalities.  part-  These people a r e  most m i s u n d e r s t o o d and i n h i b i t e d by t h e r a p e u t i c cedures.  An a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e v a l u e  must be e v e r p r e s e n t creativity history, their  ends.  c r e a t i v e p e o p l e a r e seldom and p r o d u c t s w i t h i n  This  i s p r o b a b l y due t o t h e f a c t  it's  nature,  implies  of c r e a t i v i t y  f o r these people t o develop  towards c o n s t r u c t i v e  opinions  away f r o m t h e u s u a l  Society,  in order  their  that  t o preserve the status  the "novel"  ideas  involved  in the c r e a t i v e process,  they  artists,  Because a r t i s t s  of the c r i t i c i s m .  are considered  the  arts therapies  things. quo m a i n t a i n s  on d e f e n s i v e  cue  are so  intimately  they r e c e i v e Ironically,  as  a  size-  long  by t h e s o c i e t y t o be bona f_i de  they are permitted  t h a n t h e a v e r a g e man.  by  and t h e i c o n o c l a s t i c p e r  deviant.  as  lifetime.  creativity,  way o f d o i n g  sonality  portion  Throughout  recognized f o r  a r e s i s t e n c e t o c h a n g e and wiI I r e a c t  able  their  a type of rebelliousness, a  breaking  considering  pro-  t o be a b i t more  strange  I f one o f t h e a s s u m p t i o n s o f  i s that  Everyman  i s an A r t i s t ,  this  creates  a problem  c e s s and by  the  in s o c i e t y ' s  r e s u l t s of  personality  art therapy  This  of the  and  the  art  and  the  foundation  ary  new  schools...it  and  are  fill  to  (Pickering,  1974,  artist  who He  i s not  i s an  stinctive  mental  by  needs.  achieving like he  any  he  of  fers  if  the  artist:  too He  a  introvert neurotic.  powerful wants t o  the  the  love  means  other u n s a t i s f i e d reality  interests, his  inachieve  these s a t i s f a c t i o n s .  a l l his  we  hospitals  incipient  lacks  t u r n s away f r o m  non-  p.288)  h o n o u r , power, fame and But  to  society."  f a r from b e i n g  i s i m p e l Led  women.  revolution-  illness  criticize  (1920) d e s c r i p t i o n "The  of  classical  i s important  mental our  odd-  current  technique of  of  of So  person, and  trans-  libido,  pro-  manifested  their  a d i s t i n c t i o n between  conformity not  as  behave  ideas of  society  w i t h t h o s e who  Freud's  tended t o  probably r e l a t e d to  rejection  maintain  sessions  of the p a t i e n t / c l i e n t / a r t i s t :  "Artists...have ly.  acceptance of the  37  too,  t o the e l a b o r a t i o n of h i s  ary wishes,  all  of which might  p o i n t the way t o n e u r o s i s ; known how often from a p a r t i a l  artists  it  easily is  well-  especially  suffer  i n h i b i t i o n of t h e i r  a c i t i e s through n e u r o s i s . " Freud  imagin-  cap-  (Pickering, p.289)  implies here t h a t the t h i n k i n g processes and  products of a r t i s t s  are r e s u l t s  C o n s i d e r i n g the f a r - r e a c h i n g  of p a t h o l o g i c a l  influence  conditions.  of F r e u d ,  it  is  not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the a r t s are not w i d e l y - a c c e p t e d a t h e r a p e u t i c mode. reality  He c o n s i d e r e d a r t as a f l i g h t  instead of a symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  c a p t u r e s meaning and s i g n i f i c a n c e and the c u l t u r e . from r e a l i t y , reality.  Of c o u r s e ,  just  The d i f f e r e n c e  application. creative  If the  drives  in the Storr  a i ds  the  from  the  is encouraged to  in a c o n s t r u c t i v e manner,  develop  real-  of the a r t s can be  same. ( l 9 7 2 ) b e l i e v e s t h a t the s c h i z o i d c h a r a c t e r  in c r e a t i v i t y "  flight  can be a f l i g h t  is found in the "how"  i t y of the world and the r e a l i t i e s one  indiviudal  a r t can be used as a  individual  from  which  both f o r the  as p s y c h o a n a l y s i s  as  in the f o l l o w i n g  I) Most c r e a t i v i t y  is  2) Creat ive a c t i v i t y person t o r e t a i n at  ways:  solitary; enables a s c h i z o i d  I east p a r t of  his  fantasy  of  omnipotence;  3) C r e a t i v e  activity,  f o r the  schi-  zoid person, r e f l e c t s  h i s own  scheme  of values feature  i n which t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  is that  a greater  is a t t r i b u t e d to t o the  external  inner  reality  than  world;  4) C e r t a i n k i n d s peculiarly  importance  apt  of c r e a t i v i t y  f o r overcoming  are the  sense of a r b i t r a r y u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y ; 5) C r e a t i v e act  as  activity  of f i n d i n g the ( P i c k e r i n g , p.p  himself,  has  a place  significant  experiencing  risk  "existential  i t can  in f a c t Storr  include  and  Everyman.  of c r e a t i v i t y ,  i t can the  be  seen t h a t  i s t h a t the world This  Frankl  a cultural  assumed t h a t  easiest place  to  the  in which t o  f o r everyone.  anomie.,  vacuum" as b e i n g  Although  be  of f i n d i n g the  isolation to  meaningless."  a safe place  p o i n t made by  person runs the  generalized  needed  threat  297-8)  a  created  the  s c h i z o i d person  world  From S t o r r ' s comments person  undoubtedly  a defense against  which o v e r h a n g s t h e  zoid  can  schi-  express  The  other  schizoid  meaningless, danger can described  be  his  trend.  e v e r y o n e has i d e n t i f y the  traces personal  characteristics  necessary f o r c r e a t i v e  with t h e c r e a t i v e characteristics  personality.  Once d i s c o v e r e d , t h e s e  c a n t h e n be e n c o u r a g e d  In a s t u d y done by Maduro w i t h painters,  the highly  "  creative  I) a p a r t i c u l a r l y  group  rich  2) c o u l d t o l e r a t e  i n c l i n a t i o n are  i n Everyman.  East  Indian  folk  had:  fantasy  life;  ambiguity;  3) were c a p a b l e o f v e r y complex symbolie  i dent i f i c a t i ons;  4) had more f l u i d outer with  and  i n n e r ego  (Gordon, Maduro a l s o  and  in t h e i r  the culture  work.  own  which  in therapy.  l i v e s which c a l l  own p e r c e p t i o n s and  environment,  and"novel"  combination  i s necessary  person-  of inner  i f the arts are  The a r t i s t s / p a t i e n t s  be f r e e t o comment on t h e c o n d i t i o n their  works t h e a r t i s t s  and t h e  unique  It i s t h i s  outer exploration  t o be u s e f u l  d e f e n s i v e manoeuvers".  noted t h a t  adding t h e i r  to their  requiring  1978, p.135)  were a b l e t o r e f l e c t  ality  boundaries  a strong ego-core,  less unconscious  while s t i l l  and p e r m e a b l e  or s i t u a t i o n s o f  f o r expression through  interpretations.  should  their  The  Nature and Essence  of Creativity  T h e r e a r e many d i f f e r e n t and  essential  o p i n i o n s about t h e n a t u r e  elements o f c r e a t i v i t y .  c l a i m s t h a t an a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n is u n l i k e l y All  that  f o r by i t s v e r y  i s p o s s i b l e i s t o attempt  essence.  of the creative act i t is  indescribable.  t o b r i n g out t h e  (1974) names p a s s i on a s t h e e s s e n t i a l  in the creative process.  choneurosis tive  (1970)  (p.145)  Pickering element  nature  Rogers  He s a y s  t h a t "a p s y -  represents a passion thwarted,  work, a p a s s i o n f i l l e d .  passion  which t a k e s p l a c e  ment."  (p.309)  It i s t h i s  a good c r e a -  thwarting of  i n t h e name o f m e d i c a l  Rogers says t h a t t h e m a i n s p r i n g  treat-  of c r e a t i v i t y i s  s e I f - a c t u a I i z a t i on a n d c l a i m s t h a t t r u e c r e a t i v i t y yield  a product  process  must  a s o p p o s e d t o o t h e r s who would c o n s i d e r  a legitimate functioning of c r e a t i v i t y .  Gordon essential  (1978) s a y s  t h a t a s e a r c h f o r meaning i s  t o the creative process.  "Engagement pends,  She f u r t h e r  i n a c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s de-  I believe,  on a p e r s o n ' s  cap-  a c i t y t o m o b i l i z e c o n t r a d i c t o r y but mutually person  reciprocal  must  qualities.  be open t o new  i e n c e s no m a t t e r  A  exper-  how b e w i l d e r i n g o r  says:  unknowable." But  perhaps  creativity on "The and  (p.130)  t h e most  i s p r o v i d e d by S i n n o t t  C r e a t i v e n e s s of  free  interesting  association  t h e r e a r e two 1) An  Life."  distinct  points to  article  imag i n a t i on  to c r e a t i v i t y  types of c r e a t i v e  accumulation  then p u t t i n g the  (1959) i n an  He  as t h e k e y s  explanation of  and  says  process:  of a l l information a v a i l a b l e ,  information together  into  unrecognized  r e I a t i onsh i p s ; 2) A more common p r o c e s s almost  spontaneously  n o t h i n g and something This a rather  idea  seemingly  when a p e r s o n m i g h t  arises, out  of  be t h i n k i n g  of  different.  second romantic  Metaphoric  i n t h e mind, o f t e n  at a time  quite  i n w h i c h a new  type of c r e a t i v i t y  is dealt  p e r s p e c t i v e i n Bob  Mind.  (1976)  cess developing through  He  with  Samples book  through The  d e s c r i b e s the c r e a t i v e  metaphoric  rather  than  pro-  logical  classifications. Further  describing  this  c r e a t i v e process Sinnott "The its  living ability  says:  system to  p o s s i b l e metaphoric  here  is exercising  i n t e g r a t e and  organize  a p a t t e r n out of f o r m l e s s n e s s , a n i achievement  which r a t i o n a l  b e i n g somewhat removed f r o m  thought, its primi-  type  of  42  t i v e being source and bound with h a b i t and c o n v e n t i o n , may be i n c a p a b l e of d o i n g . . . t h e s t r i v i n g of  the  unconscious t o c r e a t e p a t t e r n s out of formlessness  is the same process  used by the body so t h a t mind and body share t h i s c r e a t i v e  element.  ' C r e a t i v i t y ' thus becomes an a t t r i b u t e of  life."  Sinnott, therefore,  (p.107) does not separate p h y s i c a l and  mental p r o c e s s e s s of c r e a t i v i t y but c o n s i d e r s them one v itaI  Ii fe  force.  c) Conditions for C r e a t i v i t y If an i n d i v i d u a l creativity,  has the e s s e n t i a l  which c o u l d be p a s s i o n ,  elements of  imagination, a sear-  c h i n g f o r meaning, a d e s i r e f o r s e I f - a c t u a I i z a t i o n , p r e d i l e c t i o n to free a s s o c i a t i o n , a life force, to foster of t h e  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of c r e a t i v i t y as  i t only remains t o set  creativity.  individual  Commenting on the  a  up the  conditions  T h i s must take p l a c e on the p a r t  and the s o c i e t y individual  itself.  Gordon s a y s :  "The process of c r e a t i o n demands f i r s t and foremost t h a t a person be a v a i l a b l e t o those f r e e l y moving,  oscillations  between c o n t r o l and s u r r e n d e r , between  differentiation that  and  de-differentiation,  is between p e r i o d s of a c t i v e  con-  s c i o u s work on the one hand and p e r i o d s of p a s s i v e acceptance  on the  other."  (P.140) So Gordon d e s c r i b e s  a state  in which a person  time f o r both a p p l i c a t i o n and r e f l e c t i o n ,  has  or n o u r i s h i n g  and being n o u r i s h e d . Rogers (1970) c l a i m s t h a t c r e a t i v i t y e x i s t s individual released  and awaits only the proper c o n d i t i o n s t o be  and e x p r e s s e d .  necessary "  in every  He o u t l i n e s  for c r e a t i v i t y to  three  conditions  emerge:  I) an openess t o experience  and lack  of r i g i d i t y ; 2) the product must have the  "feel"  of being m e - i n - a c t i o n ; 3) an a b i l i t y t o toy with the and c o n c e p t s , with  ideas,  ships",  to play  colors,  individual  ing a c l i m a t e  shapes,  relation-  the c o n d i t i o n s  p r o v i d e d by s o c i e t y t o f o s t e r  the  spontaneously  (p.143)  Rogers a l s o d e s c r i b e s  psychological  elements  which must be  creativity.  s a f e t y must be p r e s e n t ,  i.e.,  He says that accepting  as having unconditioned worth and p r o v i d in which no e x t e r n a l  evaluation  is  present.  The  s e c o n d c o n d i t i o n w h i c h must be  is psychological  freedom t o a l l o w  provided  by  society  f o r symbolic  ex-  p r e s s i on. I would q u e s t i o n  Although utely  "no  therapy,  e x t e r n a l " e v a l u a t i o n , both  as  issue of  be  absol-  i n s o c i e t y and  f o r t h e most p a r t , b o t h R o g e r ' s and  c o n d i t i o n s can well  Roger's  applied to therapeutic  in  Gordon's  settings  as  to society.  These c a l l sistence  on  f o r more f r e e d o m  providing choice,  e c h o F r a n k I's  freedom  and  the  in-  right  to  s e I f - d e t e r m i nat i on. Rothenberg Contradictions" tensions an  as  t o work w i t h  "janusian  conscious  as  or a n t i t h e s e s ist  h a t e were t h e o f Y i n and of the  are  "Creative drawn  have a t o l e r a n c e  paradox.  as  conceived  by  He  describes  claims  that  being  same.  one  simultaneously.  He  line  indicating  notes Taoism  Buddhism w i t h  c y c l e of r e b i r t h  particular  what b r i n g s p e o p l e  as  being  this  creative  One  being  novel-  source love  and  the  end  t o the concept  individual.  s i g n i f i c a n c e here. into therapeutic  pro-  i t s opposites  nirvana similar  and  Opposites  that  with  to  i t is a  Rothenberg r e f e r r e d t o the  j a n u s i a n t h i n k i n g of the  often  and  t h i n k i n g " and,  Yang and  a p p r o a c h has  entitled  opposed t o u n c o n s c i o u s a c t i v i t y .  interviewed  of h i s novel  article  says t h a t c r e a t i v e people are  between o p p o s i t e s ,  ability  cess  (1979) i n an  This  Paradox  is  environments.  of  Because of  lack of  insight,  s o l v i n g a b i l i t y they are stead of c h a l l e n g e d t o  understanding or problem  immobilized by paradox i n -  growth—"through  itRothenberg  suggests t h a t j a n u s i a n t h i n k i n g is often or beyond l o g i c . and c l i e n t s novel  Therefore i t follows  outside  that  of  patients  should be encouraged to experiment  ideas t o ponder what Rothenberg c a l l s  with  irreconceiIabIe  constructs. d) C r e a t i v i t y and the  Arts  The r e l a t i o n between the a r t s and c r e a t i v i t y exclusive. whether  On the c o n t r a r y , c r e a t i v i t y  in a dormant and yet  f u n c t i o n i n g at f u l l  lives  is  not  in Everyman,  undiscovered stage or  capacity.  On the other hand, Music Therapy is no more a s c i e n c e than P h y s i c s  is an a r t , as P h y s i c s  in a sense is no more  a s c i e n c e than Music Therapy is an a r t . creativity signifies Physics  The element of  an approach or a t t i t u d e ,  is an a r t and Music Therapy a s c i e n c e ,  c r i b i n g approach as opposed to  essence.  As Gordon s t a t e s : " . . . t h e c r e a t i v e process can be a p p l i e d t o anything but that a r t i s t s ,  it  is  true  probably more than  anyone e l s e have been  interested  and concerned with the a c t u a l  pro-  c e s s . . . f u r t h e r m o r e , making ' a r t '  e.g., when d e s -  involves  perhaps a p a r t i c u l a r l y  number o f d i f f e r e n t mental s u c h a s making, f o r m i n g , discovering, ing,  large  activities, inventing,  l e a r n i n g and e x p e r i m e n t -  feeling, thinking  and d o i n g , "  (P.129) It  seems t h a t  creativity.  By e x p e r i e n c i n g  patients/clients healing  are able  processes  the creative arts  to  therapies,  t o p a r t i c i p a t e in symbolic  e x p e r i e n c e s and may  practiced life  t h e a r t s encourage "easy access"  a l s o apply  in c r e a t i v i t y  these  newly-  t o other part  of their  f o r growth and c h a n g e . The  1978 Task P a n e l  f o r t h e Use o f t h e A r t s i n  T h e r a p y and t h e E n v i r o n m e n t on M e n t a l  Health  "The  arts,  i f presented  own  under t h e s u p e r v i s i o n  ional,  can provide  tunity  for their  inherent  patient  powers  and i n -  If such a h e a l -  i s made p o s s i b l e f o r t h e  t o c a r r y t h e knowledge and  strengths perience  oppor-  healing  strengths  of the patient.  experience  profess-  the necessary  t o support the innate  ing  in a s e t t i n g  guidance o f t h e c r e a t i v e  tegrity  Commission  has s t a t e d :  of t h e i r and  of the President's  g a i n e d from t h e c r e a t i v e exinto the l i f e  he w i l l  t a k e up  outside the hospital."  (p.I 96 I)  C I o s i ng It  i s u n f o r t u n a t e t o make d i s t i n c t i o n s  s c i e n c e and a r t f o r t h e y same a s a v e h i c l e that  the life  appreciatedj attitude  c a n be c o n s i d e r e d one i n t h e  f o r discovery.  and p o t e n t i a l  However,  of the "total  i t i s important  of constructive  important  in order man" be  f o r a w h i l e t o t a k e an  criticism.  Such c r i t i c i s m i s  t o make u s e o f o t h e r v e h i c l e s  which f a l l  between  under t h e h e a d i n g  of discovery  of "the arts",  rather  than  u n d e r " l i c e n t i o u s t e c h n o l o g y " , manned by I I I i c h . To dividual  be s p e c i f i c , and s o c i e t y ,  i t may be more u s e f u l f o r man t o u t i l i z e  t e c h n i q u e s , methods and a t t i t u d e s more a r e a s , p a r t i c u I a r i I y Because o f a consensus society can  has taken  and c a n n o t  only  viable  spective ness  fixed  (1974) c a l l s  alternative  ing,  ceases  healing.  attitudes  to this familiar  what  for i t . "  "emotion,  "The per-  t o mental i l l  could provide t h i s  that  t o be s u f f e r i n g  but f a l s e  approach  new a p p r o a c h e s  has s a i d  about  f o r new s o l u t i o n s :  i s t o abandon t h e e n t i r e  Spinoza  with  therapy.  In many c a s e s , t h e a r t s ative.  of a l l the arts in  i n t h e medrca4-Tprofessi6nal ,  on c e r t a i n  and t o s u b s t i t u t e  in-  the processes,  those concerned  be c o n s i d e r e d  Thomas S z a s z  f o r the  which  a s soon a s we f o r m  (p.79) altern-  is suffera clear  and  precise picture of i t . "  The  arts provide  clarify  powerful  ways  " p i c t u r e s " , whether  or shape.  This  of emotions.  ( F r a n k l , 1959, p . 7 4 ) i n which t o f o c u s a n d  i n s o u n d , movement,  is particularly  true  color,  i n t h e spectrum  T h e a r t s c a n even be c o n s i d e r e d  the lang-  uage o f e m o t i o n . In a d d i t i o n " t h e a r t s w i t h to e l i c i t ployed our  involvement  their  and p e r s o n a l  inherent  ability  a c t i o n , may be em-  as a c o u n t e r f o r c e t o t h e widespread p a s s i v i t y i n  s o c i e t y , t h e u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l and  assume p e r s o n a l  responsibility."  (Task  Panel,  1978,  p.1942) Within not  only  the experiences  i s t h e r e a meaningful  a l s o an i n v i t a t i o n As  offered  t o personal  in the a r t s t h e r a p i e s  expression  o f emotion, but  action.  mentioned p r e v i o u s l y t h e issue o f t h e e f f e c t i v e -  n e s s o r i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f v a r i o u s t h e r a p i e s c a n n o t be separated clear  from t h e i s s u e o f c r e a t i v i t y .  by now t h a t t h e m a j o r c o n c e r n  is the r i g i d i t y  provided  opposed t o t h e p o t e n t i a l  within this  w i t h i n medical creativity  It s h o u l d  creativity  the  o n l y way  can  grow,  as  w h i c h c o u l d be  (1976) s t a t e s :  "Although  document  treatment  ed t h r o u g h t h e a r t s and m o d i f i c a t i o n o f p r e s e n t As A r i e t i  be  i s by no means  i n w h i c h t h e human  being  i t i s one o f t h e most irapor-  offer-  therapies.  49  tant.  The  growth o c c u r s not  in t h e c r e a t i v e p e r s o n but t h o s e who  between  ina l l  a r e a f f e c t e d by t h e i n -  novation", The  only  (p.41 3)  following  i I I u s t r a t i o n shows t h e  relationship  important c o n s i d e r a t i o n s neglected in standard  n o n - a r t t h e r a p i e s and  creativity.  respons i b i I i t y for self  freedom  sp i r i t u a I r e a I i z a t i ons  a c t i o n and s e I f - e x p r e s s i on C  R  E A T  ph i I o s o p h i c a I r e a I i z a t i ons  I V  Innovative t h o u g h t and b e h a v i o r cho i c e  d e t i r r i i f n a t i on  This  illustration  outward movement.  indicates  both an inward and  A l l of these q u a l i t i e s  or  functions  or phenomenon (which w i l l be c a l l e d c a t e g o r i e s ) c r e a t i v i t y and are fed by c r e a t i v i t y . necessary  feed  They are a l l  f o r c r e a t i v i t y and the s u c c e s s f u l  functioning  of c r e a t i v i t y b u i l d s on each p a r t i c u l a r c a t e g o r y . The inward and outward motion can be c o n s i d e r e d another a n a l o g y .  The outside  c a t e g o r i e s are  which s o c i e t y allows the p a t i e n t t o r e c e i v e an a t t i t u d e individual  gifts through  of support and a s p i r i t of d i s c o v e r y . represents  creativity.  m i t t e d , both s o c i e t y and the products of the c r e a t i v e  If the flow  individual benefit  The  is p e r from any  process.  Every element of the periences  in  with the a r t s .  model  is  inherent  in ex-  Although these processes c o u l d  n a t u r a l l y be d i s t o r t e d by poor leadership or lack of wisdom and r e s p e c t , therapies will  the p o t e n t i a l  experiences  t o heal are g r e a t .  p r o v i d e some examples  the a r t s f o r  healing.  for arts,  and a r t s  The next  of how n a t i v e c u l t u r e s  section use  51  SECTION B THE DEATH-REBIRTH MYTH \  I am the  And  tree  in t h i s moment of being t r e e  I experience both the endless and profound beauty of  struggle  life  in the same  breath. We are engaged  in a quest f o r s u r v i v a l and  baIance. I hear the music of our dance even through the s i l e n c e Soon the  of dark h o u r s .  leaves on my brother w i l l  turn  many shades And  leave...to  r e p l e n i s h the e a r t h a g a i n .  I t o o change. I sometimes d i e and am r e b o r n . As  long as we share c o n n e c t i n g p a t t e r n s we are one,  Not  I, nor he . . . b u t whole and sweet  life. - C. Kenny 1979 (unpublished)  I)  Myth Before the Myth,  implementation  of the  i t i s important t o r e i n s t a t e t h e concept  as h e a l e r .  T h i s p r e s e n t s some d i f f i c u l t y  of the present popular d e f i n i t i o n cultural The  Death-Rebirth  both  o f myth and  a widespread  definition  cultural  story.  o f myth There  how  to  rituals man  and  finds  Myth has  rituals  this  we  been d i s t o r t e d something  a mess-  hint  e x p e r i e n c e myth  are a s s o c i a t e d  it difficult  jjntrue story, Larsen  because  i t is  is usually  i n t h e myth b e y o n d t h e s t o r y , a h e l p f u l Perhaps  o f myth.  is that  age  live.  because certain  a s s o c i a t i o n s attached to the concept  most s i m p l i f i e d  o f myth  about through  w i t h " m a g i c " , modern  t o accept the concept  o f myth.  i n g e n e r a l u s a g e t o mean an w h i c h seems t r u e ,  (1976) h o l d s s c i e n t i s t s  but  i s not.  a c c o u n t a b l e f o r some o f  distortion. " S c i e n c e has all  in f a c t  rendered 'mythological'  a s s e r t i o n s about  the nature of the  v e r s e which a r e not v e r i f i a b l e ment.  From t h e a n i m i s t i c  by  uni-  experi-  beliefs  of  prim-  i t i v e s t o the highest metaphysics  of  phil-  osophers, theoIog i ans,  a l l mode Is  u n i v e r s e or the workings cannot  be  explicitly  of the  of r e a l i t y  validated  tn  which  the  ex-  o f s c i e n c e become  un-  perimental  paradigm  verifiable  theory—myth  for short.  And  t h e most p r e v a l e n t modern m e a n i n g f o r myth i s , i n f a c t , a t t r a c t i v e tempting,  but inprovable."  Culturally, this  i s how we f i n d  myth a t t h e p r e s e n t But Larsen  "But  (p.3)  ourselves  in relation  time.  we a r e c o m i n g  (1976)  fiction,  i n t o a t i m e o f myth o n c e  again.  continues: a g a i n s t t h e background o f h i s t o r y ,  the eye-opening years scientific moment  of our r a t i o n a l ,  e n l i g h t e n m e n t seem a b r i e f  i n t h e morning o f  consciousness.  We h a v e c u l t u r a l l y yawned a n d s t r e t c h e d a  little,  b u t t h e shadow, m y t h - s u s c e p t -  i b l e dreamer  isstill  there just  below  t h e s u r f a c e o f o u r new-found awareness."  (P.3) Dimmitt-Church  (1975) o f f e r s a c u r r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  of myth: "Myth  i s a s y n t h e t i c mode o f e x p e r i e n c e  expression holistic  t h a t d e r i v e s from t h e r i g h t  mode o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  and brain,  Itrelates  to  t h a t p a r t o f man's p s y c h e t h a t  ly  inaccessible t o the external empirical  world, closely  i s largely non-verbal, i n touch  inarticulate,  i s large-  a n d i s more  with the repository of  instinctual  patterns, or arch-  types that a f f e c t directly but  through  external symbolic  a r e not d i r e c t l y  consciousness."  (p.5 I)  human hopes and f e a r s  experience Weekamn and  activity  accessible to  T h u s t h r o u g h myth we a r e a b l e ual  life in-  t o e x t e r n a l i z e our  into the cultural  individ-  context  and  them a s " s h a r e d " phenomena.  (1975) p r o v i d e s  a contrasting  idea about  myth  mode: "I  do n o t even t h i n k  that  we have t o  c h a n g e o u r mode o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s order  to find  meaning  i n myths a s  well  a s h i s t o r y and s c i e n c e .  only  broaden t h e world  have a f u l l e r reality,  notion  the  our notion  o f what makes up  elements o f  life Then  o f myth and f a c t ,  and s c i e n c e , r e v e l a t i o n and  rationality  disappear.  Myth  i s seen  to  be a s o r d i n a r y  and a s e x t r a o r d i n a r y  as  any a t t e m p t t o e x p r e s s t h e m y s t e r y  o f t h e w o r l d , and a s f r u i t f u l . " This ities  need  o f our data,  of the factual.  oldpolarities  religion  We  and i n c l u d e t h e u n i q u e l y  human and p s y c h i c in  in  i s a s e n s i b l e way o f d i s m i s s i n g o f myth and f a c t .  (p.106)  t h e imagined  polar-  R e g a r d i n g t h e f u n c t i on o f myth, J o s e p h e x p r e s s e s one  o f t h e f u n c t i o n s t o be a s h i f t  p h a s i s from the wonder which  individual  man  a reminder t h a t  cannot  t o the group.  explain,  t h e whole w o r l d  Navaho p e o p l e , myths a f f i r m reason  Campbell  i n a wor Id f u l l  an  of  Myth  is a  informing energy,  is Divine.^  that  em-  For the  t h e r e i s rhyme  of hazards  (Kluckholm,  and  1946,  p.233). Malinowski  (1948) s t a t e s t h a t  for primitive cultures  in  genera I : "Myth f u l f i l l s it  and  couches  In  function:  codifies  be-  enforces morality;  f o r the e f f i c i e n c y  of  ritual  and c o n t a i n s p r a c t i c a l  r u l e s f o r the  g u i d a n c e o f man.  i s thus a  Myth  vital  o f human c i v i l i z a t i o n . "  stresses the  ritual,  Ritual  and  i t s a f e g u a r d s and  ingredient He a l s o  indispensable  e x p r e s s e s , enhances  lief; it  an  intimate r e l a t i o n s h i p  together providing  a  i s t h e f o r m t h r o u g h which  t h e M e l a n e s i a n c u l t u r e "an  living we  (p.101) between myth  reality.  e x p e r i e n c e myth.  intimate connection e x i s t s  between t h e word, t h e m y t h o s . t h e s a c r e d t a l e s on t h e one their  hand, and  social  ivities  their  organization,  on t h e o t h e r . "  Since  our  interest  r i tuaI a c t s , and  (1948)  even  (Sandner,  their  their  of a  tribe,  moral  deeds,  practical  act-  1978)  i n b o t h myth and r i t u a l  comes  from it  a d e s i r e t o r e i n s t a t e them f o r p r e s e n t day h e a l i n g ,  i s necessary  ion.  again to develop  a current  (1978) t h r o u g h h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f Navaho  Sandner  s y m b o l s o f h e a l i n g p r o v i d e s us w i t h t h i s "The it  myth makes do  has,  and  with  goes about  of c r e a t i n g  an  interpretation  the s t r u c t u r e by m y t h s . pleting  the.mythic ponse."  o f them.  The  a)  Symbolic  rituals  appropriate to  of the world hand  built  reality  and  up  i n hand, com-  complementing each  go  bones o f m y t h i c  rituals  i t s business  other—  the r i t u a l  res-  (p.13)  In o t h e r words we  territory  "facts",  emotional  They go  and  what  opportunity.  intuitive  embody s a c r e d a c t i o n  bare  interpretat-  w i t h what we  have, s e a r c h i n g f o r t h e  content  f o r u s , t h e common  left  which u n i t e s p e o p l e ,  i n which t o r e l i v e  and  a l s o begin t o c r e a t e  myth.  H e a I i ng "If  we  listen  t o t h e symbol ages,  sensitively,  code o f t h e mythic  c o u l d they  changing  t h e way  ourselves, position (Dooling,  in f a c t we  i n w h i c h we  by  lives  the angle,  "Stand  p.51)  mess-  c h a n g e us  look a t our  by c h a n g i n g  1976,  patiently,  and  the  u n d e r " them?  Integral  t o t h e u s e o f t h e Myth o f D e a t h - R e b i r t h i s  the concept  of symbolic  h e a l i n g , t h e symbol, the Death-Rebirth chological,  healing.  in this  Within  symbolic  case t h e music  embodying  Myth, h a s some s p i r i t u a l ,  physical  effect  and i n s p i r e s  phys-  a healing of  some damaged p a r t o f p e r s o n a l i t y .  In t h i s  stimulating  with t h e process, o f  the person  to identify  d e a t h - r e b i r t h , t h e person phoric  d y i n g and r e b i r t h .  psyche  on some  level,  or s p i r i t u a l  difficult  t o monitor  of  learning  insight,  from  Metaphoric  inspiration.  from  experience, acquiring  and some p r e s e n t  a "symbol",  cognitive r e -  b e h a v i o r and may t a k e t h e form  corrective  S i n c e t h e r e a r e many  d y i n g engages t h e  This reaction is  identifying the s i m i l a r i t i e s  death-rebirth  stitutes  i s a b l e t o e x p e r i e n c e a meta-  whether through  cognition  c a s e , by  life  ebetween  symbolic  dilema.  interpretations  i t i s important  new  o f what  con-  to clarify i t s  meaning h e r e .  Whitmont  defines  as " t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f a spontaneous ex-  perience conveyed trinsic  symbol  ( 1 9 6 9 ) i n The S y m b o l i c  which p o i n t s beyond by a r a t i o n a l limitation."  term,  itself  t o a meaning n o t  owing t o t h e l a t t e r ' s i n -  (p.l8)  He s a y s t h a t  the best r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a r e l a t i v e l y "The  symbolic  points can  beyond  be made  approach itself  Quest,  a symbol i s  unknown t h i n g .  by d e f i n i t i o n  and beyond what  immediately  accessible to  our is  observation. not a b s t r a c t  can it  While  this  approach  or r a t i o n a l ,  neither  i t be r e g a r d e d a s i r r a t i o n a l , has laws and a s t r u c t u r e  o f i t s own  which c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e s t r u c t u r a l o f emotion  and i n t u i t i v e  rather  laws  realization."  (P.14) Both  D o o l i n g and E l i a d e c l a i m t h a t  velation from  of r e a l i t y ,  "symbolism  a message t h a t  speaks  one w o r l d o f m e a n i n g t o a n o t h e r ,  t o human." ideas shed Langer's  (p.50)  (1953) s i m p l i f i e d  definition  will  t h e meaning and t o e s t a b l i s h  which w i l l  be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r : as t h e v e h i c l e  case t h e music lation  between t h e m y t h i c  Dimmitt-Church symbolic  serve  both  an i m p o r t a n t i s any t h i n g  f o r a conception.  concept  link which  In t h i s  o f d e a t h - r e b i r t h and  in the musical  experience.  (1973) adds a new d i m e n s i o n  activity:  "'Symbolic  activity'"is  synthesis of right ctions,  Symbol  B u t Suzanne  i s t h e v e h i c l e which e s t a b l i s h e s a r e -  the people p a r t i c i p a t i n g  cribing  a l l o f these  on " s y m b o l " .  to c l a r i f y  may f u n c t i o n  o f passage  sometimes D i v i n e  For present purposes,  some u n d e r s t a n d i n g  is are-  both  manifest as a  and l e f t  in experience  in the e x p r e s s i o n o f t h a t  brain  fun-  i t s e l f and experience.  i n des-  59  B o t h k n o w l e d g e and  meaning  the  e n t i r e psyche, both  wholistic  and  analytic functions,  both  m y t h i c and  outer h i s t o r i c a l  ensions of existence." Symbols a r e  Again Sandner e x p l a i n s  f o r the  Navaho:  an  explanation  v e r t i n g energy heal."  "Symbols not but  inner dim-  (p.51)  necessary v e h i c l e s  tures.  and  involve  for healing the only  function provide a  a l s o change t h e  1978,  p.14)  Here he  Navaho p e o p l e .  Describing  a healing  Panama, L e v i - S t r a u s s  "Once t h e  But  no  when t h e  secretions, p e r h a p s be that  germs o r accused  the  reason  the  disease  of paradox  We  m o n s t e r s do  ans-  fact not.  mind o f  of  shall  i f we  in the  t o the  our  in terms  viruses.  lies  gets  diseases  r e l a t i o n s h i p between germ is external  she  happens t o  causes of t h e i r  m i c r o b e s e x i s t and yet,  (1967) n o t e s :  t o them  can a  ceremony o f t h e  h e r s e l f , she  such t h i n g  have been e x p l a i n e d  wer  con-  ceremony t o  s i c k woman u n d e r s t a n d s ,  d o e s more t h a n r e s i g n  sick  vocabulary  refers to  A " s i n g " means a h e a l i n g  cul-  symbols  p s y c h e by  Navaho " s i n g " .  well.  of  i n t o a d i f f e r e n t form, a form t h a t  (Sandner,  Indians of  in native  that And  and the  the Cuna  60  the p a t i e n t , effect  relationship;  relationship ease  f o r i t i s a cause  whereas t h e  between m o n s t e r and  is internal  ing.  The  i t is a re-  between ..symbol and  symbolized,  dis-  t o h i s mind, w h e t h e r  conscious or unconscious; lationship  and  thing  o r between s i g n and  shaman p r o v i d e s t h e  woman w i t h a  language,  which unexpressed,  and  mean-  sick  by means o f otherwise i n -  e x p r e s s i b l e , p s y c h i c s t a t e s can immediately Whitmont  expressed."  Again  p o s s i b l e approaches  d i s t u r b a n c e s which  1) s y m p t o m a t i c — d e v i a t i o n s 2)  (p.193)  ( 1 9 6 4 ) p r e s e n t s two  t h e p r o b l e m s and  symbolic—meaningfuIness  be  life  from yet  presents:  normalcy; unrealized.  on t h e Navaho u s e o f symboISeSandner "By  the p r e s e n t a t i o n of these  man  i s put  If the h e a l i n g  s t r o n g enough, and  images a r e  i f the medicine  unwavering  in h i s  and  i f the p a t i e n t ' s  and  urgent, then h e a l i n g can  be  expected  symbols  in touch with h i s inner  resources.  skillful  says:  man  purpose,  involvement  to occur."  is  i s deep  confidently  (p.22)  to  The  same p r o c e s s c a n be a p p l i e d t o c u r r e n t  This In  brings  light  cription  up t h e q u e s t i o n  o f present could  or s p i r i t u a l research  medical  be r e a d  "lack  of specific  disabilities.  knowledge, Sandner's d e s ^  as d e a l i n g  of resources"  with  psychological  only.  However, enough  has a c c u m u l a t e d t o s a f e l y c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e  mind-body s e p a r a t i o n areas of research  theory  include  i s a dubious  biofeedback,  idea.  These  altered  states  o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s and n e u r o p h y s i o l o g y . clear and of  "therapies".  that  mind and body a r e p a r t  It i s becoming  o f t h e same whole  a r e m u t u a l l y e f f e c t e d by s t i m u l u s . illness pertaining to this  of psychosomatic Moerman  The c a t e g o r y  information  i s t h e area  "diseases".  (1979) i n an a r t i c l e  on " S y m b o l i c  states: "Research...in psychosomatic biofeedback, action that  a l l indicate  there  which  and h o s t p a t h o g e n  medicine, inter-  i n a general  are substantial  way  pathways  l i n k p h y s i o l o g i c a l and c o g n i t i v e  states,  t h a t t h e s e two r e a l m s o f human  existence,  body and m i n d , a r e l i n k e d ,  and  moreover, t h a t  t h e s e pathways a r e  the  s t a g e on which m e t a p h o r i c  concepts  o f p e r f o r m a n c e a r e E f f e c t i v e and i n fluence  biological  processes."  (p.62)  Healing"  He d i s c u s s e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p  between symbol  and sub-  s t a n c e , mind and body, p s y c h o 1 0 9 i c a I / s o c i o l 0 9 i c a I phenomena and p h y s c i a l scial  life.  Studies  symptoms, m e n t a l a c t s and p h y -  in neurophysiology  have  iden-  tified  one o f t h e l i n k s between mind and body  center  o f t h e autonomic nervous system, t h e hypothalamus. " . . . t h e power  in the  o f t h e metaphor, a  ' s t r a t e g i c p r e d i c t i o n ' c a n move u s , that us  i s , change o u r minds and  t o behavior change.  lead  Metaphorical  s t r u c t u r e , t h e s y s t e m o f meaning o f a  healing d i s c i p l i n e  its as  effectiveness  i s decisive in  a s much a s d r u g s . . .  in Native healing  rituals  where  b o t h d r u g s and s o n g s and d a n c e s a r e felt  t o have e q u a l  (Moerman, Since symbolic and  1979, p . 6 0 )  healing  occurs both  i n and between  body, t h e m e t a p h o r i c and t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l ,  presents a h o l i s t i c symbolic  healing  whole p e r s o n the  impact."  approach.  and t h e d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth  Sandner  it re-  between i s that the  e x p e r i e n c e s or l e a r n s about t h e v a l u e o f  death-rebirth process,  actual  The r e l a t i o n  mind  on i t s v a r i o u s  d e a t h t o some t e m p o r a r y s i t u a t i o n a l (1978) d e s c r i b e s  four  basic  levels  from  loss.  forms or a r c h t y p i c a l  principles  of symbolic h e a l i n g :  1) a r e t u r n t o t h e o r i g i n . o r of  source, the Creation  t h e world; 2) management o f " e v i l " ; 3) t h e r e s t o r a t i o n  of a stable  universe;  4) t h e theme o f d e a t h - r e b i r t h . We w i l l b)  c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e l a s t  The R e o e n e r a t i v e Within  category.  Experience  religious  erative experience  and c u l t u r a l  systems,  has a l w a y s been v a l u e d a s one o f man'  basic  healers.  cycle  of regeneration provides the raison  essence  and  In some, a s w i l l  o f meaning t o  Buddhism rebirth.  many t i m e s  i s based  ages. life past  Each  on t h e c o n t i n u o u s  life  really  dies.  t h e achievement  c e s s may t a k e a p e r s o n  be i l l u s t r a t e d , t h e d/etre, the  life.  One n e v e r  until  through  cycle  One  perhaps  f o r perpetual  lives  how t h i s  survival  t h e most p o w e r f u l  It i s very problem  This  pro-  and e a c h  the unfinished business of the  motivating the ordinary life.  again  many b o d i e s and many  (karma). " . . . t h e wish  o f death  i s born  o f Nirvana,  i s r e l a t e d t o the past  s t r i v e s t o complete  is  t h e regen-  desire  person's  i n t e r e s t i n g t o see i s handled  in the  Zen  system.  To  begin with the  idea  o f b e i n g dead v e r s e s b e i n g a l i v e labelled  a f a l l a c i o u s concept  on d u a l i s m .  The  Buddhist  based  cosmology  o f c o n s t a n t change, o f a b a s i c that  takes a v a r i e t y  that the that  Hindu  ^For c e r t a i n for  the  i s death  the  Nothing says  of a process  simply changes  1971,  or  p.78)  Bhagavad G i t a s a y s :  f o r the born,  and  certain  c  is birth  dead.  The  p o e t Maul ana  Jalaluddin  s i d e r e d t o be t h e most ment o f  but  (Deikman,  tradition  of forms  is part  d o e s n o t end  flows." In t h e  student  is  influential  Islamic thought "Everything sacrifice higher  vthat seed  sees  (1207-1273)  figure  in the  that:  follows the rule  that  i s necessary t o reach a  goal.  ploughed,  Rumi  has t o  be  be t o r n m e r c i l e s s l y ,  so  i t can  The  field  r e c e i v e the seed;  grows and  i s h a r v e s t e d and  g r a i n s a r e c r u s h e d under t h e stone; the f l o u r  then  the process of baking become b r e a d ,  the the  mill-  has t o e n d u r e in order t o  which w i l l  be  crushed  condevelop-  again  by man's t e e t h .  constant  succession of  the  grain will  and  parcel of the  will  thus  extent  ...the be  in the  or at  I's  order  I may  t h a t the  big  g i v e a man  fact  and  view of h i s  p.7)  in theory,  Brother  but  in  consciouswill  that  i s , to  to die  forever those  unnecessary  The  again  David  of C h r i s t  life  of e x i s t e n c e .  become b o r n  and  alive  I's must d i e  of his helplessness  Christian  model  again, transcending  to  attain  to things...keeps These  to  in  aspects  from t h e  point  i n n e r growth or which h i n d e r i t .  1977,  on t h e  either  in order to  born...continuaI  t o renounce a c t u a l l y  h i m s e l f which a r e  state  or  (1949) s a y s :  I...But  the courage t o " d i e " ,  not m e r e l y m e n t a l l y  is based  be and  die,  (Pababola,  spirit."  least t o begin  i n a man.  ness of h i s nothingness  -of  certain  indivisible  must d i e . . . A t t a c h m e n t  eventually  and  Eastern philosopher, G u r d j i e f f  a thousand u s e l e s s  of  human n a t u r e  p.7)  a p p e a r a n c e o f one  a man  become p a r t  human s o u l and  1978,  this  sacrifices  finally  able to a t t a i n t h i s  it,  by  participate to a  (Schimmel, Another  But  by  on  philosophy who  and  d i e d , o n l y t o be  earth, achieving a  baptism  practice  ritual  higher  allows a  dying t o o r i g i n a l  born  person  sin.  S t e i n d l - R a s t ( 1 9 7 7 ) a B e n e d i c t i n e monk,  provides roach  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the C h r i s t i a n  t o d e a t h , f o c u s i n g on  Eastern basic  a useful  and  the  Western thought.  approaches t o d a i l y  He  life  have d e a t h a t a l l t i m e s b e f o r e ing  of every  challenge every He And  life  to  against  similarities  the  says t h a t  in t h e  as  Frankl  i n our  is to  "It is  awareness o f d y i n g alive,  between p u r p o s e and  first  chapter  the  see-  o f d e a t h , and  moment so a s t o become more f u l l y  makes a d i s t i n c t i o n  of  monastery  horizon  incorporate that  between  one  one's e y e s ,  app^  into (p.22)  meaning.  claims,  l o o s e t h e meaning by  we  live  often  p u r p o s e . He  lends a C h r i s t i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o the  the  Zen  ever ing  presents and  h e a r so o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d  it  we  in non  with  uses the  up."  again...I  as  we  i t has think  t o be  grasp-  with  long  as  we  one  have o n l y  it,., let of  the  what  (p.25)  example o f a mother and  relationship.  what-  flow  seems t o be  life;  to  instead of  i t , we  is alive  laws o f  give  ourselves  itself  go...For t h i s  basic  scially  give  holding  everything  sonal  lost  tradition, "Whenever we  He  we  getting  by  meaning and  attachment p r i n c i p l e s  a  "Even a f t e r s e t f r e e and  mothering  is just  c h i I d and  their  (a c h i l d ) i s b o r n l e t go like  o v e r and  per phy-  over  dying...it is  67  s o m e t h i n g t h a t we Brother the  SteindaI-Rast  current  article  must do  a l l through  gives  us  his  "Our  like  we  achieved  have o u t g r o w n our  capable fully  integrity  of accepting  than the  child  more m e a n i n g f u l  these  myths more  could.  hence."  <Long ago still  yet  o f m a t u r e minds  We  who  are  laugh  t a l e s t h a t were d e e p l y  t o them not  escha-  have n o t  I i k e awkward a d o l e s c e n t s fairy  at  meaning-  and  will  a short  be  time  (p.29)  Sandner d i s c u s s e s t h e  d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth and  i t s function  Iife:  " D e a t h and symbol  rebirth  c o n t r o l , and  of symbolic  conscious. great  are the  mythological  for a psychological  of-conscious influx  his  child-  in d e a l i n g with  myths, but the  of  a t t h e moment seems t o  integrity  tological  context  e"i  to D i  problem  be t h a t  i n Navaho  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  s t a t e of c u l t u r e within the  "Learning  ful  I i f e. .* . (p >25 )  This  sacrifice,  Like the  sun,  the  event: submission  material  ego  to  from t h e  i s always f e l t a dying  loss  un-  t o be  t o o n e ' s own  must p r e p a r e  an  a self.  itself  for  a plunge  into the darkness  the  unconscious world, there t o  perience rejuvenation. p r o c e s s of death found  and  rites  of transformation  new  description  would be t h e same.  identifying  idea, that  i s , an  human c o n s t a n t .  ing.  i t i s easy t o  This  second  the  today.  The  "Suffering  One  daily can  i s an  life.  distress,  in individual  calls  an  life,  function  elementary  applies to a l l people, a function  person  Sandner d i s c u s s e s the matter  c i n e man  o n l y does t h e myth  adds d e p t h  and  mean-  p e o p l e t o c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s ,i n r e -  t o other beings.  human  (157)  identify  important group  what C a m p b e l l  idea which  encourages  Not  person  i t also serves the other  lation  ones."  o f t h e d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth f o r man  have g r e a t meaning f o r e a c h  and  crisis  p a t t e r n s t o more f u n c t i o n a l  application  ing  life  from o l d  relevance  through  is  r e c h a n n e l i n g p s y c h i c energy  W i t h i n Sandner's  but  is a  ex-  symbolic  rebirth  wherever t h e r e  necessitating  The  of  who  integral  i s not a l o n e of  "suffering".  part  of  To t h e d o c t o r o r m e d i works w i t h p e o p l e  this  has  reality.  He  an  in  immediate  learns that  in s u f f e r -  man  a c c e p t a t r e m e n d o u s amount o f  legitimate  suffering;  not  is suffering  accept  no p u r p o s e . cepted,  The through  must be g i v e n a  (p.157)  d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth, cultural  ritual  D e a t h and r e b i r t h processes  t h a t has  T o be e n d u r e d and a c -  suffering  meaning,"  what he c a n -  i f accepted  o f some k i n d , c a n be  connect  and r h y t h m s o f l i f e .  F r a n k l speaks o f l i f e  He s a y s t h a t for  Any one o f l i f e ' s universal  i n o r d e r t o s u r v i v e and f i n d  had  o r what he c a l l s  " d i e d " and r e d u c e d  level  "emotional  t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n camp.  do  n o t need a t e n s i o n I e s s s t a t e , and s t r u g g l i n g Salish  some meaning a phase o f  death".  were p r e p a r e d  in  The  myth,  Once  they  t h e i r p s y c h e t o t h e most b a s i c  of existence, they  striving  sit-  i n t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n camp.  e x i s t e n c e , t h e p r i s o n e r s went t h r o u g h  apathy  "meaningful".  t h e psyche t o t h e on-going  uations can provide a context f o r t h i s Victor  and e x p e r i e n c e d  Guardian  Frankl  t o be r e b o r n  suggests  that  again  people  but i n s t e a d r e q u i r e a  f o r some w o r t h y g o a l . Spirit  Dance C e r e m o n i e s  pro-  v i d e an example o f how t h e r e g e n e r a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e i s used  a s a h e a l e r w i t h i n . j a s o c i a I/sp i r i t u a I s y s t e m .  initiates, blem  who a r e u s u a l l y  in l i f e ,  young p e o p l e  having  some  a r e encouraged t o d i e t o t h e white  ways a n d be r e b o r n  again as a t r u e  Indian.  The pro-  man's  (Jilek,  1972)  Through t h e r i t u a l s participants  sing,  undergo a t y p e both  of Guardian dance, f a s t ,  of symbolic  corrupt influences,  anomie r e s u l t i n g Once a p e r s o n  from  a lack  h a s been  to  renew p e r s o n a l h e a l i n g .  as drugs  identity.  in these  ceremonials  t o dance e v e r y s e a s o n Guardian  from  and a l c o h o l and  of cultural  w h i c h have been r e i n s t a t e d  by t h e S a l i s h band  w h i c h f r e e s them  initiated  or she i s e l i g i b l e  Ceremonials,  c o s t u m e , t r a i n and  death  such  he  rituals  Spirit  Spirit  in order Dances a r e  i n t o t h e Longhouse  p e o p l e t o add h e a l i n g  f o r members o f t h e  today. Rituals  of i n i t i a t i o n ,  transformation, creation,  t h e h e r o myths a l l r e l a t e t o d e a t h - r e b i r t h .  Each r e -  enacted  difficult  situation  experience, thing ly  implies  going through  dying t o part  of s e l f  some  o r l e t t i n g t o o f some-  o r someone and b e i n g t r a n s f o r m e d ,  changed  i n some way.  "Initiation genuine  lies  human  Eliade  (1958) s t a t e s :  a t t h e c o r e o f any  life.  And t h i s i s  t r u e f o r two r e a s o n s .  The f i r s t  that  life  any g e n u i n e  profound loss, and  crises,  human  ordeals,  and r e c o n q u e s t  resurrection".  whatever degrees  reborn, or great-  is  implies  suffering,  of self,  "death  The s e c o n d  of f u l f i l l m e n t  i s that, i t may  have b r o u g h t  him a t a c e r t a i n  e v e r y man s e e s h i s I i f e The hope and dream of  total  crisis  finitive  as a  moment, failure.  o f t h e s e moments  a r e t o obtain a de-  and t o t a l  "renovatio", a  renewal  capable of transmutting  life."  (p.135)  T h i s a p p l i e s t o a l l m a n k i n d , whether a n c i e n t o r modern. Becker  (1973) s i t e s "It  Ad I e r on t h i s  was A d I e r  who saw t h a t  esteem was t h e c e n t r a l mental  illness.  Precisely  transcendence doubt, ity,  low s e l f -  problem o f  with h i s s e l f -  when h i s h e r o i c  of his fate  when he d o u b t s  i s most i n  h i s own  lived  ference." Robert is the  Orstein  something  immortal-  the abiding value of h i s l i f e ,  when he i s n o t c o n v i n c e d t h a t ing  condition:  When does t h e p e r s o n  have t h e most t r o u b l e esteem?  human  really  makes any c o s m i c  dif-  (p.209-10)  (1972) s i m p l i f i e s  w h i c h we u s u a l l y  traditional  h i s hav-  t h e i d e a : "Our own  ignore; yet the writers of  psychologies suggest,  t a k e n w h i l e we a r e s t i l l Since t h e medical  death  alive."  community  i t s l e s s o n s c a n be  (p.l6l) functions primarily  as a  closed  body o r s o c i e t y , i t s own  considered tain  more r e I e v e n t  than  e s o t e r i c psychologies  These r e s o u r c e s  are  rarely  body o f k n o w l e d g e . experience scious  The  the  C e r t a i n l y the  therapeutic  settings.  has  i s not full  However,  a t t e n t i o n on  as  transformative  symbolic and  of the  five  T h i s change h o p e f u l l y r e p r e s e n t s  which  in the  n e a r f u t u r e wiI I p r o d u c e a d i r e c t  erature  of " t h e r a p i e s " .  i s t o consider the  as  one  is  t h a t death  step  Instead is  i s one  of the  reflects  life an  of  life.  there  of death,  particular  life  the  the same  a  prac-  catalyst  result  in lit-  act of p h y s i c a l d e a t h - r e b i r t h steps  in l i f e .  inevitable  The  laws o f  f e a r and  assumption nature.  denial i t  i t i n s t e a d as p a r t o f t h e  on-  Without  life,  death.  a t t i t u d e about  comes t o a c c e p t  value  i s no  re-  b a s i c message o f t h i s  of t h i n k i n g about death with  process  without  one  i n many " d y i n g "  possible to consider  going  The  in  years,  i n some c a s e s  level.  world  death-  d e a t h have  tical  the  a con?  been e x p l o r e d  in the past  a theoretical  scientific  employed on  yet  cer-  philosophies.  potential  not  t h e t o p i c s o f a c t u a l d e a t h and ceived  or  are  past,  i n t e g r a t e d into the  regenerative  r e b i r t h myth a s a h e a l e r  systems  ways o f t h e  or r e l i g i o u s  as d e s c r i b e d h e r e ,  level.  internal  life.  death t h e r e An  a t t i t u d e about  situations.  death  I t i s hoped t h a t i f  inevitability, insight  i s no  will  Stanley  n e c e s s i t y and apply  Keleman  to  life  (1974)  even and des-  73  cribes Your  some o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s  i n h i s book,  Livina  Dying: "Discovering point.  our d y i n g  is a turning  Dying evokes t h e h e l p l e s s -  ness, t h e unexpected, the  unknown.  directions,  Dying e s t a b l i s h e s gaining  loosing the old. patterns,  new  new powers,  Giving  up a c t i o n  thought p a t t e r n s ,  unsure, being something  challenging  excited,  being  knowing  i s emerging but not  k n o w i n g where i t i s g o i n g . l i k e any t u r n i n g of t r a n s i t i o n ,  point,  Dying,  is a  place  a f a c i n g o f t h e un-  known and t h e e m e r g i n g  complexity  o f new ways o f b e i n g .hew^actions,. thoughts, f e e l i n g s . point an The  i s the r e a l i z a t i o n  turning of loss,  e n c o u n t e r w i t h t h e unknown."  connection  physical  Each  between p h y s i c a l  r e b i r t h and s y m b o l i c  (p.23)  d e a t h and s y m b o l i c  r e b i r t h represents  o f a c c e p t a n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h i c h a l l o w s nurturing  o f i n s i g h t about c o n c r e t e  a  death, level  f o r the  situations in l i f e .  N a t u r e a s T e a c h e r and H e a l e r "The  human b r a i n ,  able, and  so f u l l  hungers,  leaf.  so f r a i l ,  so p e r i s h -  of inexhaustible  dreams  b u r n s by t h e power o f t h e  A few moments l o s s o f v i t a l a i r  and t h e phenomenon we know a s c o n s c i o u s n e s s goes down  into t h e black  inorganic things.  T h e human body i s  a magical v e s s e l , ed  but i t s l i f e  w i t h an element  i t cannot  Only t h e green p l a n t of  night of  is link-  produce.  knows t h e s e c r e t  transforming the light  that  comes t o  us a c r o s s t h e f a r r e a c h e s o f s p a c e . There  i s no b e t t e r  intimacy  o f man's r e l a t i o n s h i p  Iiving things." Eiseley  speaks  illustration  (Eiseley,  of the "secret  cess of regeneration  aiways r e c y c l e d ble In  in a forest,  Physical  B o t h must  process of I ife  1978, p.I I 8)  of transforming".  The p r o -  process of b i r t h ,  elements  a tidal  pool  maturity,  This process i s v i s i -  and i n man's own  creations.  a r e m e t a p h o r s o f man's own  l e a r n how t o s u r v i v e by g i v i n g and d e a t h .  a s man  never d i e , but a r e  into another form.  a sense these s i t u a t i o n s  life.  with other  i s evident a t every t u r n i n g  confronts h i s environment—the decay, r e b i r t h .  of the  Survival  in t othe  f o r a great percent-  75  age  of the natural  stinct. ish  Every Winter  new growth  instinct.  leaves w i l l  Salmon w i l l  not always  i s a matter of automatic i n -  f o r Spring.  n a t u r e o f human is  world  manipulate t h e i r  Bears w i l l  spawn.  c o n s i d e r i n g t h e consequences T h e r a p y c a n be c o n s i d e r e d vival  skills  Eiseley  people t o learn  about  "Perhaps...it speak  i s easier  from  of s u r v i v a l . in sur-  T a k i n g examples  from  Nature.  f o r us t o d a y  omnipresent  all...  not simply represent  i t offers  altern-  Nature t e a c h e s , though i s often  what  h i d d e n and o b -  (p.121)  Another v a l u e o f a c c e p t i n g  creatures,  do s o w i t h o u t  In t h e s h a p e s o f l i f e , i t  teaches  appreciating  instinct  t h e hidden teacher allows  prepares the future;  scure."  of the  o f (our hidden) t e a c h e r as  reality.  it  through  Men and women c a n  i n terms  survival  n a t u r e does  atives.  survival  as a t y p e o f t r a i n i n g  calls  "nature", that But  and n o u r -  hibernate  and o f t e n  f o r t h e human b e i n g .  Nature, which  to  this  i n t h e human.  enviornment  decay  However, b e c a u s e  intelligence,  so c l e a r  fall,  N a t u r e a s t e a c h e r , i s t h a t by  o u r c o n n e c t i o n s t o t h e E a r t h and f e l l o w  we a r e a b l e t o s h e d o u r f e e l i n g  One c a n r e c o g n i z e t h a t  he o r s h e i s p a r t  living  of alienation.  o f a framework  (of  N a t u r e ) and t h a t t h e same p r o c e s s e s ,  processes,  going  in o n e s e l f . their  enviornment, not a l o n e ,  actively  are a l s o going  People r e a l i z e t h a t they  whole, shared  of  on a r o u n d a p e r s o n  existence  vital  Native  are part  appreciating the link f o r s u r v i v a l .  Chief  significance Sealth  Franklin Pierce in  1855: "There  i s no q u i e t p l a c e  man's c i t i e s ,  s e c t s wings. life cry of  in t h e white  no p l a c e t o h e a r t h e  leaves of S p r i n g  or the r u s t l e  And what  i f a man c a n n o t  lovely  or t h e arguments  t h e f r o g s a r o u n d a pond a t n i g h t ?  The  Indian p r e f e r s t h e s o f t  the  wind d a r t i n g over  pond, and t h e s m e l l cleansed with to  ofi n -  i s there t o  hear t h e  of a whipporwill  a pinon  pine.  t h e redman.  same b r e a t h - t h e man.  sound o f  the face of the  o f t h e wind  by a mid-day r a i n ,  itself  or scented  The a i r i s p r e c i o u s  For a l l t h i n g s share t h e beasts,  the trees, the  T h e w h i t e man d o e s n o t seem t o  n o t i c e t h e a i r he b r e a t h e s .  of a  Indian c u l t u r e s  l i n k and t h e  spoke o f i t i n a l e t t e r t o P r e s i d e n t  on  are connected t o  and i n f a c t  of Life.  acknowledge t h i s  in fact c r e a t i v e  L i k e a man  dying  f o r many d a y s , he  i s numb t o  the  stench. What the  i s man beasts  great  are  would d i e  of s p i r i t ,  for  c o n n e c t e d . Whatever  things the  are earth  and  a l s o happens t o  b e f a l l s the  Sacred.  N a t u r e , and  man  Chief Sealth's  physical  well-being.  Nature  the  natural world.  is discussed  by  be-  of 1979,  as p a r t  needs  He  s u r v i v e p e o p l e must a p p r e c i a t e  man.  p.5) of  Nature,  comment t h a t " a l l t h i n g s  connected" points to essential and  sons  (Greenpeace C h r o n i c l e s ,  considered  from  whatever  All  s e l v e s and to  If a l l  beast  Indian  gical to  beasts?  happens t o t h e  earth."  Divine  the  were gone, men  lonliness  falls  The  without  i n our  implies that the  The  link  psycholoin  between them-  importance of t h e  S a n d n e r and  compared t o  perspect i ve: "The  Navaho h e a l i n g p r o c e s s  goes b e y o n d t h e  symbolic  able to achieve  i n modern  apy. to  nature  alive its  as  a vital,  in every  at  times  work we  It does t h i s t h r o u g h  are  psychotheri t s approach  harmonious  p a r t and  able,  entity  through  i n e x h a u s t i b l e power, t o r e s o l v e  conflicts.  This  order  i s no m a s t e r y o f  inner  nature,  link  modern  such  as a d h e r e n t s  discipline  to the  seek t o a c q u i r e ,  striving  for unity  forces.  The  t o "raw"  n a t u r e as s c i e n c e  nature  which  refined  inner  of  relate  sees i t ,  symbolic  radiant  At t h e c o r e o f t h i s  mystery  symbol  birth,  form  and  of  i s C h a n g i n g Woman. typical  a  natural  is intensely alive  imbued w i t h an beauty.  with  but  Navaho d o e s n o t  but t o a h i g h l y  And  scientific  She  of the  death,  is the  natural  and  rebirth."  can  never  archcycle (p.271)  further: "Scientific  fact  human v a l u e s .  It may  specific  (and we  organ  f o r t h a t ) , but  restore  i t does not  satisfy  the  i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s quest  ony  with h i s surroundings  For t h e  Navaho, r e l i g i o n  through  a profound  powers.  In f a c t ,  igious a c t i v i t y .  And  f o r harm-  and f o r  ( p . 17)  provides the r i t u a l  m e d i t a t i o n on healing  the  are g r a t e f u l  p e a c e o f mind w i t h i n . "  specific  "prove"  n a t u r e and  for  healing  i t s curative  i s t h e main f o c u s o f a I I r e l -  healing  i s not d i r e c t e d  symptoms o r b o d i l y o r g a n s ,  but t o w a r d  toward bringing  the  psyche  i n t o harmony w i t h t h e w h o l e gamut o f n a t u r a l  and  supernatural  forces  around  it.  Sandner,  himself  a psychiatrist states: "I  saw t h a t  symbolic giving that,  their  images c o u l d  changes  Kluckholn  create  in their  harmony-  p a t i e n t and  from t h e p s y c h i a t r i c p o i n t o f  v i e w , we m i g h t skill  use o f s t r i k i n g  in t h i s  l e a r n much f r o m area."  their  (p.3)  (1946) a l s o m e n t i o n s t h e i n e f f i c i e n c y  man's h e a l i n g  t e c h n i q u e s f o r t h e Navaho and d e s c r i b e s t h e  unique c h a r a c t e r  o f a Navaho " s i n g " , o r h e a l i n g  "...the evidence iduals  i s good t h a t  who o b t a i n e d  indiv-  no r e l i e f  from  w h i t e m e d i c i n e have been c u r e d by chants...The singer  i s more t h a n a  mortal  and a t t i m e s becomes  tified  with t h e  speaking  iden-  supernaturaIs,  in t h e i r  voices  and t e l l -  ing  t h e hearer that  The  p r e s t i g e , m y s t i c i s m , and power  of t h e ceremonial coming d i r e c t l y powers t h a t in  o f white  a l l i s well.  itself  are active,  from t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l  b u i l d up t h e g r o w i n g  s p r i n g , drench  earth  i t with r a i n , or  ceremony:  tear  i t apart with  lightening.  In t h e h e i g h t o f t h e c h a n t t h e patient the  h i m s e l f becomes one o f  Holy People, puts h i s f e e t i n  their  moccassins  the strength  of the sun.  i n t o complete universe." The  (p.231 )  a i r , forest,  myth  i s used  a s t e a c h e r a n d h e a l e r a r e themes  wind, growth.  in healing,  a s " t h e d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth". i n t h e images o f N a t u r e  identified  Instead i t i s c o n t a i n e d  T h i s encourages  r e v o l v e s around  open s e c r e t  which  want t o h e a r  all  i t is rarely  the unity  which  i n t h e Navaho " s i n g s " and o t h e r c e r e m o n i a l s  "Religion  this  When t h e d e a t h - r e -  s u g g e s t e d by t h e t h e r a p i s t o r  p a r t i c i p a n t s themselves. is accomplished  He comes  harmony w i t h t h e  themes o f N a t u r e  o f water, birth  and b r e a t h e s i n  a great  we a l l know b u t  a g a i n and a g a i n .  (In  r e g a r d ) Navaho dogma c o n n e c t s things,  natural  and e x p e r i e n c e d ,  f r o m man's s k e l e t o n t o u n i v e r s a l destiny,  which  e n c o m p a s s e s even i n -  conceivable space, terlocking no m a t t e r  unity  in a closely i n -  which  omits nothing,  how s m a l l o r how  stupendous,  and  in which  significant final  individual  function until,  dissolution,  comes one but  each  he  with  at h i s  not o n l y  the ultimate  is that  be-  harmony  harmony."  1978,  (Sandner,  he  has a  p.273)  Patterns Two  k e y word c o n c e p t s w h i c h  emerge f r o m t h e  above  d i s c u s s i o n s o f myth, d e a t h - r e b i r t h and N a t u r e a r e c o n nections heard  and p a t t e r n s .  These  i n t h e r a p e u t i c models  community.  words a r e n o t  initiated  However, t h e y r e p r e s e n t  o n - g o i n g h e a l i n g , whether Native  two  cultures.  by t h e m e d i c a l  key c o n c e p t s  preventative  Gregory Bateson  ment i o n s them  Dunne-za. something  in r e l a t i o n  (1979)  Ridington  t o knowledge f o r t h e  about  something  he  "Knowing f o r t h e Dunne-za was a person's of  considers  R e g a r d i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e between and knowing  intelligent  information  that  experience.  The  underlies their transformation.  says:  based  of  upon  connection  or her through fundamental system  knowing  internalization  and p a t t e r n s  come t o him  in the  or c u r a t i v e , of  " p a t t e r n i n g " t o be an a e s t h e t i c p r o c e s s . (1979)  often  direct  pattern  that  o f knowledge i s  As p e o p l e whose  lives  were  integrated  of t h e i r the  natural  environment, they  changes  with  i n t o the  the  in t h e i r  changes  own  in the  cycles  identified  ways o f world  seeing  around  them". This  relational  vides  healing  instead of the  s e t s up  it  in the  it  things".  that  ing p a t t e r n s , al  separating  way  itself,  He  not  by  in  fact  that  the  i t shows--in  Bateson  death—the  Our  appreciation for  modern  (1979) s e e s taught  at  i s by  what  to  other  connect-  world through  relation-  and s i t u a t i o n s . a  daisy  i t s form, in  alive?  i t is to that  (p.127)  against  permeates  something  symptoms o f b e i n g  appreciation of  to ourselves."  are  i n i t s c o l o r i n g and  its  an  way  out  importance of  reason f o r admiring  i t s growth,  tent  culture  This  its relation  s t r e s s e s the  d e f i n i t i o n s of people, objects  the  in t h i s  to define  pro-  of taking people  structures.  of experiencing  " I s our  into the  system: " ( C h i l d r e n )  the  i s in  (p.l6)  culture  a t y p e o f d e p r i v a t i o n w h i c h works  educational  supposedly  and  environment f o r h e a l i n g .  s y s t e m s and  a t e n d e r age  self  is naturally built  D e t a c h i n g or  present  both  modern W e s t e r n s y s t e m  c u l t u r e and  healing.  of viewing  which  of the  reversal  our  way  ex-  its similarities  83  Whorf  (1956 ) a n a l y z e s  language development t h r o u g h t h e  patterning  p r i n c i p I e . and e x p l a i n s e v e r y  patterning  process.  "Speech But  He t h e n  t h e watching  ceive that the order amazing s e t o f t r i c k s a great climax, from  puts Gods  i n which builds  has been  Mantric  relation)  up t o  stolen—  level  the consciousness  seat.  It c a n t h e n  and a m p l i f y a t h o u s a n d f o l d  transmits  We  song p a t t e r n " , i s concerned  o f our r e l a t i o n  normally  only at unobservable  intensities.  us  into the  pattern world—whereupon i t  f o r c e s which t h a t o r g a n i s m  Bateson  i t s high-  patterns, contrived  in the driver's  control  On  t h e mantram becomes a m a n i -  of conscious  noumenaI  akin.  i s t h e one between  a r t and n a t u r e .  to assist  is  per-  the Universe!  (Another  fold  on.  this  N a t u r e and l a n g u a g e a r e i n w a r d l y  est  as a  says:  i s t h e b e s t show man  we s u s p e c t  stage  hear  low  t h e mantra as  (p.330)  about t h e l o s s o f systems which  to  Nature.  remind  84  "We We  have  lost  have  ism  the  core  lost Shiva,  the  whose d a n c e a t t h e  b o t h c r e a t i o n and is beauty. terrible and  We  and  night  of C h r i s t i a n i t y . dancer of trivial  destruction  have  lost  beautiful  god  the In h i s train  dying  latest the  Patterning The  plants.  God".  We  use  of both  that  of  have  lost  even  patterning  in a l l  to  issue of  patterns  i n t e g r a t e and  that  be  incapable  seems t o be present  that  in the  and  of doing...the  such a f r o n t a l the  out  of  form-  organize  i s an  its primitive  bound w i t h h a b i t  attack free  often  achievesome-  being convention, reason fails  association  unconscious,  is  to  creativity.  that:  of formlessness  what removed f r o m  may  the  contexts.  ment which r a t i o n a l t h o u g h t , b e i n g  s o u r c e and  be-  Nature. Bateson attempts  (1959) s a y s  out  lost  (p.17)  "...the a b i l i t y a pattern  day  have  also re-introduces•the  Sinnott  the  and  unconscious s t r i v e s t o create  lessness.  is  i n whole  sense of p a r a l l e l i s m  book, M i n d and  mind t o  but  We  tween man's o r g a n i z a t i o n a n i m a l s and  level  Abraxas,  is Gnosticism.  totemism, the  Hindu-  blocked  in v a r i o u s  ways and t h e r e a l l y  new r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h e r e f o r e seen  a r e not  (P-113)  m  Bateson a l s o d i s c u s s e s effective  creative  reluctance  o f l o g i c t o employ  patterning.  "...logic  i s a p o o r model  and  effect.  the  attempt t o deal  logical  of cause  I suggest that with  it  is  l i f e in  t e r m s and t h e c o m p u l s i v e  nature o f that  attempt  which  duce  i n us t h e p r o p e n s i t y  when  i t i s even h i n t e d t h a t  logical  pro-  forterror such a  a p p r o a c h m i g h t b r e a k down".  Even t h o u g h B a t e s o n mourns t h e l o s s o f S h i v a , hope f o r t h e f u t u r e , "There  i n t h e human  t o u n i f y and t h e r e b y s a n c t i f y t h e t o t a l  2)  The M e t a p h o r i c  world,  (P.18)  five  of the left  t h r o w n some l i g h t consciousness.  natural  breast  Mind  In t h e p a s t tions  he d o e s s e e  i f we a r e a b l e t o l e a r n f r o m t h e p a s t .  i s a t l e a s t an i m p u l s e s t i l l  o f w h i c h we a r e .  (p.120)  years,  and r i g h t  s t u d i e s on t h e u n i q u e  func-  hemispheres o f t h e b r a i n  have  on t h e more m y s t e r i o u s a r e a s o f human  The most b a s i c  hemispheres represent  discovery  two s e p a r a t e  i s that  and d i s t i n c t  t h e two modes o f  86  consciousness. tical,  The l e f t  represents t h e logical  v e r b a l , l i n e a r f u n c t i o n s such  r i g h t r e p r e s e n t s t h e more i n t u i t i v e , lational, artistic Although turies  these  f u n c t i o n s such  analy-  as language.  The  wholistic, r e -  as musical  perception.  t w o modes have been r e c o g n i z e d f o r  cen-  i n p h i l o s o p h y , r e l i g i o n a n d some o f t h e e s o t e r i c  psychologies  (The I C h i n g  b e i n g t h e most p o p u l a r  p l e ) , t h e new s t u d i e s c o n f i r m a p h y s i o l o g i c a l t i o n as w e l l . psychological metaphoric "An  This e m p i r i c a l evidence  distinc-  liberates the  d i s c i p l i n e s t o take the right brain or t h e  m i n d , more  seriously.  impersonal, o b j e c t i v e , s c i e n t i f i c ,  approach, with on  exam-  i t s e x c l u s i v e emphasis  l o g i c a n d a n a l y s i s , makes i t d i f -  ficult  f o r most o f us e v e n t o c o n c e i v e  of a psychology  w h i c h c o u l d be b a s e d  on t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a n o t h e r ,  intuitive,  " g e s t a I t " mode o f t h o u g h t " . (Ornstein,  1972, p . 9 6 )  Deikman ( 1 9 7 1 ) d e s c r i b e s t h e n a t u r e a n d f u n c t i o n o f t h e r i g h t "mode" o r s i d e : "...the  r e c e p t i v e mode ( r i g h t b r a i n h e m i s -  phere) i s a s t a t e organized around of t h e environment r a t h e r than tion.  The s e n s o r y - p e r c e p t u a l  intake  manipulasystem i s  87  t h e  d o m i n a n t  m u s c l e  s y s t e m ,  f u n c t . i o n s  T h e  t e n d  b a s e l i n e  O t h e r  t h o u g h t  b o u n d a r y  w o u l d  o f  r e c e p t i v e  i f  n o t  a c t i o n  m o d e  h a s  a c t i o n  m o d e  a s  l i f e ,  t h i n k  o f  s t a t e s  a s  i n f a n t  i s  o f  t h e  t h e  u s  m o r e  s t a t e .  o f  h a v e  m o d e .  f o r  t h e  r e g a r d  o n e  t h e  f o r  t e n d e d  u n u s u a l  b y  t h e  a c t i o n  t o  p a t h o l o g i c a l  d o m -  h o w e v e r ,  p r o p e r  w e  f u n c -  g r a d u a l l y  p r e f e r e n c e  l e d  m o d e  a n d  d e v e l o p m e n t  w h i l e  t h e  t h i s  s u b m e r g e d ,  a c t i v i t y  p a r a l o -  d e c r e a s e d  a n d  t h e  m o d e  . . . d e v e l o p m e n t a l  a d u l t  r e c e p t i v e  a t t e n d i n g ,  i n  a n d  d e c r e a s e d .  o r i g i n a t e  p r o g r e s s i v e  s t r i v i n g  w a v e s  i s  t h e  p e r c e p t i o n ,  t o  t h e  p r o m i n e n t .  a l p h a  p r o c e s s e s ,  a p p e a r  i n a t e d ,  m o s t  t e n s i o n  m a x i m a l l y  T h e  b e  d i f f u s e  t h a n  p a r a s y m p a t h e t i c  t o w a r d  m u s c l e  a r e  g i c a l  t h e  t o  a t t r i b u t e s  m o d e  r a t h e r  a n d  t e n d s  EEG  t i o n  a g e n c y  t o  r e c e p t i v e  o r  r e g r e s s i v e " .  (P.69) I n s t e a d  m o d e  n o w  a n d  s h o w  o f  c o n s i d e r i n g  t h e  b o t h  r i g h t  s i d e s  t h e  b r a i n  a r e  l e f t  b r a i n  h e m i s p h e r e  m a j o r  i n  h e m i s p h e r e  t h e  t h a t  a  m i n o r  p e r s o n  t h e  m o d e ,  n e e d s  m a j o r  s t u d i e s  b o t h  sides  t o function.  require that inance,  one o r t h e o t h e r  b u t i n t h e end t h e r e  Bogan each  Different  ( 1 9 6 9 ) comments  tasks  and s i t u a t i o n s  mode t a k e  temporary  may dom-  i s balance.  on d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s o f  hemisphere: "The  right  hemisphere r e c o g n i z e s  stimuli  (including  words), apposes and c o l l a t e s  this  compares t h i s w i t h  data,  data,  and w h i l e  sults.  arriving at different r e -  The r i g h t  i s a more d i f f u s e a s  opposed t o t h e l e f t crete", Other general  previous  which  i s more  dis-  (p.109)  categorizations  are interesting: Left  Right  Bruner  rational  metaphoric  Levi-Strauss  positive  mythic  Price  analytic  synthetic  "Over t h i r t y poused for  a right  "the right  function.  Lunia  mental  con-  dominent processes  music...he has p u b l i s h e d a  o f a composer whose b e s t  done a f t e r  (1938) e s -  hemisphere  respect t o certain  including case  ago, D i d e  hemisphere.superiority  "kinesthetic"  sidered with  years  he was r e n d e r e d  work was  a p h a s i c by  by a m a s s i v e s t r o k e hem i s p h e r e " . Although this brain of  (Bogan,  some r e s e a r c h  long  ago, t h e r e  view u n t i l  in the  was  1969,  done  has been  recently.  preoccupation  of the  left  p.194)  in s p l i t - b r a i n  phenomena t o an  of neurologists  with the  hemisphere, t h e dominant  on t h e mode o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s under one  split-  i s a wordsmith,  a  lack  increas-  peculiarities  s i d e , which Orstein  e a c h h e m i s p h e r e t o be t h e m a j o r  "If  studies  Bogan a c c o u n t s f o r t h e  them f r o m a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e v i e w . considers  brain  an e c l i p s e o f t h e  interest in the s p l i t - b r a i n  ing  left  diverted  (1972)  one,  depending  consideration. scientist,  o r a m a t h e m a t i c i a n , damage t o t h e left If  h e m i s p h e r e may  one  prove  is a musician,  an a r t i s t , does n o t  a craftsman,  damage t o t h e  i n t e r f e r e with  to create  disastrous.  left  hemisphere  one's  capacity  m u s i c , c r a f t s or a r t s , y e t  damage t o t h e r i g h t h e m i s p h e r e may obliterate For  present  not  of great  a career".  purposes the f a c t interest.  identified  This  new  that  the brain  is split  However, t h e f a c t t h a t  as f u n c t i o n s  empirical  well  (p.54)  human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p r e f e r e n c e s , been  or  evidence provides  certain  and a c t i v i t i e s  of the brain  is  have  i s important.  an e n t r a n c e f o r c o n -  cepts cal  of e s o t e r i c psychology,  circles.  ception  F o r i t may soon be p r o v e n t h a t  which h a s up u n t i l  e.g.,  intuition  brain  as a c o g n i t i v e  this  now been  or a r t i s t i c  reassures psychologists  of attention  describing  "The  gressive" or  brain  mode  a r e t r e a t from  study.  but  is a different  strategy  goal...This  f o r enof a  different  i s character-  i z e d by a s e n s e o f u n i t y  ofthe  p e r s o n jwith h i s e n v i r o n m e n t " .  through  (p.7l)  t h e theme o f c o n n e c t i n g .  increased  right  Yoga c o n c e n t r a t i o n ,  perception  says:  purpose—  in pursuit  mode o f p e r c e p t i o n  which  In f u r t h e r  it—although i t  gaging the world,  periment  o f a vase changed  I) an i n c r e a s e  is the  o f t h e world  be employed f o r t h a t  Deikman a l s o v o i c e s  earlier,  i s not a " r e -  can  different  in t h e  hemisphere  h e m i s p h e r e Deikman  ignoring  lives  and p e r m i t s them t o " l o o k  The r i g h t  receptive  as "vague",  As m e n t i o n e d  in the present  the right  clini-  human p e r -  labeled  sensitivity,  function.  at" these functions. focus  i n t o modern W e s t e r n  brain  In an e x -  hemisphere  Deikman r e p o r t s  that  in the following  in the vividness  ness o f t h e vase p e r c e p t  activity subjects  ways:  and r i c h -  ( f o r example  they d e s c r i b e d i t as  "luminous,  more v i v i d " ) ; 2) the vase seemed t o a c q u i r e a k i n d of  l i f e of  i t s own, t o be animated;  3) t h e r e was a decrease in the  sense  of being separate from the vase, e.g.,  "The vase and  I were merging";  4) a f u s i n g and a l t e r a t i o n of normal perceptual modes, e . g . , vase changes  shape,  "when the  I feel  this  in  my body". S u b j e c t s claimed t o have  learned some-  t h i n g but c o u l d not s p e c i f y what \k was. " I ' v e experienced...new e x p e r i e n c e s , and I have no v e h i c l e , t o communicate them t o you.  I expect t h a t t h i s  is probably the  way a baby f e e l s when he is f u I I of somet h i n g t o say about an experience or an awareness and he has not the words y e t " . effable  learned t o use  The experience was  in the sense of not being  in-  suited  f o r verbal communication, not f i t t i n g customary c a t e g o r i e s a c t i o n mode ( l e f t (p.75-76)  of  the  language of the  b r a i n hemisphere)."  I n t u i t i o n may be a f u n c t i o n There  i s a connection  relevant  between  of the right  intuition  brain.  a n d symbol  t o the present study. "...it  was Jung's c o n c e r n and i n d e e d  the very point t o show t h a t  of parting  intuition  with Freud,  and e m o t i o n  and t h e c a p a c i t y t o a p p e r c e i v e and c r e a t e by way o f s y m b o l s a r e b a s i c modes o f human f u n c t i o n i n g ,  no  less  so than p e r c e p t i o n t h r o u g h t h e sense o r g a n s and t h r o u g h t h i n k i n g " . (Whitmont, Assagioli  1979, p . 1 8 )  (1971) a s s i g n s t h e f o l l o w i n g  intuition:  " I t i s immediate  and d i r e c t ,  p r o g r e s s i v e as i s t h i n k i n g . i.e.,  i t i s an immediate  (p.338)  Whitmont  characteristics to n o t m e d i a t e and  It i s s y n t h e t i c  comprehension  identifies  the right  s y m b o l i c mode and l i n k s myth,  or h o l i s t i c ,  o f t h e whole", hemisphere  image and  intuition:  " . . . a c o g n i t i v e mode w h i c h o u r r a t i o n al  development  has t e n d e d t o b y - p a s s ;  t h e s y m b o l i c mode, w h i c h torical  development  in the h i s -  o f t h e human mind  i s f o u n d t o be t h e a c t i v e e l e m e n t i n the formation of recurrent images...the  mythological  images t r a n s m i t  a know-  as t h e  93  not through t h e I n -  ledge o f a s o r t , t e l Iect  but through t h e e f f e c t  image upon f e e l i n g  of the  and i n t u i t i o n ,  thus  m e d i a t i n g another, perhaps deeper or profound kind tellectual Bateson p o i n t s right  o f knowing  one".  deeper r e l a t i o n s h i p  can r e g a r d  hemisphere,  such a t h i n g  the right  as a f l a g as  i trepresents.  hemisphere  distinction  does  represents".  Another mode  n o t draw  w i t h what  (p.3l)  important c o n s i d e r a t i o n  i s i t s tendency toward a r t i s t i c  earlier  But  and r e g a r d s t h e f l a g  a s s a c r a m e n t a I Iy i d e n t i c a l it  as a t y p e o f a e s t h e t i c  concerning t h e symbolic perception,  psychologies  the t a c t i c  mode ( r i g h t  language o f t h a t  body  movement, m u s i c ,  dreams, a n d s t o r i e s (Orstein,  which  1972, p.163)  myth a n d m u s i c .  mentioned  u n d e r s t a n d i n g by B a t e s o n .  Teaching of the t r a d i t i o n a l  cluding  we  o f name o f t h e c o u n t r y o r o r -  ganization that  this  between t h e  and symbol:  " . . . w i t h t h e dominant  a sort  in-  (p.34)  o u t an even  hemisphere  than the  spatial  function  i n c l u d e work i n hemisphere), i n -  forms, sounds,  a s word  This classification  crafts,  pictures. would  unite  94  Alajouanine reported "Ravel, his  struck  career,  as  e a r l y as  down a t t h e  lost  t i o n ' of musical  peak  'analytic notation  1948  that:  of  recogniand  piano  /  playing abled;  at on  s i g h t were g r o s s l y the  r h y t h m i c and unimpaired  other  stylistic  and  Bogan  1969,  or  largely  singing  retained".  p.106)  ( 1 9 6 9 ) q u o t e s Hecaen, A j u r i a g u e r r a  suggesting that  a pre-verbal primitive  It f o l l o w s  that  o r more p r i m i t i v e  Metaph o r i c M i n d and  (1971) i n The  MagicaI  Ch i I d p r e s e n t t h e  the  left-brain  both s o c i e t y  and  the  f r o m many c o n t r i b u t i o n s  benefits.  Joseph  o f W e s t e r n c o n s c i o u s n e s s has  o v e r - e m p h a s i s on  prived  of  basic.  (1976) i n The  therefore  a r t may  level  h e r e meaning p r i m e and  development  They b o t h c l a i m  encourage the  and  r i g h t hemisphere r e p r e s e n t s  of communication.  thus  melodic,  s e n s e were  playing  f r o m memory was (Bogan,  hand,  dis-  child  to  over-develop the  m e t a p h o r i c mind has  that  been put  also  represent  B o t h Bob  Samples  Chilton-Pierce view t h a t suffered  the from  i n d i v i d u a l have been of r i g h t - b r a i n present the  mode  communication,  value  an  and de-  hemisphere systems  right brain  In t r a d i t i o n a l to  a pre-verbal  hemisphere f u n c t i o n s  u n d e r - d e v e I op left.  Angelergues  cultures,  more e f f e c t i v e u s e .  and the The  Navaho this  l e a v e us many a r t s ,  idea.  formulate  crafts  and s o n g s t o s u p p o r t  B e c a u s e o f r e c e n t s t u d i e s , we a r e a b l e t o a k i n d o f new p s y c h o l o g y ,  have c r e a t e d a new way o f s t a t i n g Beyond t h e s e  general  when  s t u d i e s have p a r t i c u l a r  study  f o rthe following  o l d knowledge.  relevance t o the present  reasons:  I) Use o f t h e d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth represents  four  areas  experience, and  a relatjonal  discussed symbolic  in t h i s  i n music f o r h e a l -  mode o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  The  section (the regenerative  h e a l i n g , nature  a s h e a l e r and t e a c h e r  t h e importance o f p a t t e r n s ) a l l r e q u i r e  insight.  we  considerations the s p l i t -  brain  ing  in fact  relational  F o r example:  How does n a t u r e  relate to death-rebirth?  How do I r e l a t e t o n a t u r e ? How do I r e l a t e t o d e a t h - r e b i r t h ? How do we ( b o t h  nature  and I) r e l a t e t o p a t t e r n s ?  How do p a t t e r n s r e l a t e t o " u s " ? In o t h e r  words t h e h e a l i n g r e s u l t i n g  from  u s e o f .the  r e b i r t h myth depends on r e l a t i o n a l c o n n e c t i o n s , to  healing.  symbolic go  As we have s e e n b o t h  h e a l i n g and s p l i t - b r a i n  beyond t h e p s y c h e  .whole, o e r s o n .  death-  a path  i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n on s t u d i e s , those  relations  i n t o the p h y s i c a l encompassing t h e  One t h e o r y  describes the left  phere as p e r t a i n i n g t o a conscious  level  b r a i n hemis-  and t h e r i g h t ,  the  unconscious  level  (Orstein),  the  Music Therapy s e s s i o n  o f dream, which d e l v e s conscious 2)  may be t h o u g h t  f o r g r o w t h and h e a l i n g .  therapy,  intuition  s i n c e m u s i c communicates c e r t a i n which a r e d i f f i c u l t  Finally,  In o t h e r  valuable  words, i n  as l o g i c .  Making  language, e s p e c i a l l y ideas  or "thoughts" or  t o describe  f o r ultimate  t h e i n d i v i d u a l , both s i d e s  developed.  If according  Arguelles, ciplines,  Orstein,  accurately in  benefit  o f both  of the brain  t o Samples,  the concentration  on l o g i c a l ,  e n d e a v o r s has d o m i n a t e d t h e r e c e n t  relational, Ornstein "We this  (1972) p o i n t s  artistic  new s y n t h e s i s ,  across  scientific  disanaly-  h i s t o r y o f our with  endeavors.  moments o f  f r o m which an e x -  o f man  i s beginning t o  Two m a j o r r e s u l t s f o r t h e  future are:  be  the d i r e c t i o n f o r the future:  are j u s t at the f i r s t  emerge.  should  i s now a p p r o a c h i n g t o b a l a n c e  intuitive,  tended concept  society  Chilton-Pierce,  E i s e l e y and many o t h e r s  development, t h e time the  on a  language.  3)  tical  c a n be a  c a n be a s i m p o r t a n t  m u s i c c a n be a s h e l p f u l a s v e r b a l  and  o f as a type  level,  The r i g h t s i d e o f t h e b r a i n  feelings  i s the case,  into the unconscious state  resource  verbal  If t h i s  1) two m a j o r modes o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s exist  i n man and f u n c t i o n i n a com-  p l i m e n t a r y manner; 2) t h e c o n c e p t s  o f " n o r m a l " and  "paranormal" are in process 3)  o f change.  Review In r e v i e w ,  one o f t h e p r e m i s e s o f t h e M u s i c T h e r a p i s t  is that t h e inherent be  qualities  a p p l i e d and e f f e c t i v e  that  A review  feasibility  of t h i s  approach both  results cribed istic  in current psychology is a recurrent  levels.  with  pro-  In e s t a b l i s h i n g  many p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a p p l i c a t i o n and  in t h e t h e r a p e u t i c environment.  Chapter  t h e need f o r a l t e r n a t e a p p r o a c h e s , approaches, t o therapy.  in r e l a t i o n  and  t e n s i o n / r e s o l u t i o n , t h e Music T h e r a p i s t  some o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t  cent  c a n be a h e a l i n g  between t h e d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth and t h e p r o -  o f musical  is provided  I t h a s been shown  W i t h i n music t h e r e  o f t e n s i o n / r e s o l u t i o n on many  a connection  o f music can  o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e has i l l u s t r a t e d t h e  in a n c i e n t c u l t u r e s .  cess  in therapy.  t h e myth o f d e a t h r * r e b i r t h i t s e l f  agent.  cess  and p r o c e s s e s  Chapter  one d e s -  in fact,  art-  two h a s d e s c r i b e d  e l e m e n t s o f t h e ways o f t h e p a s t  t o current healing techniques  developments which s e r v e t o r e - a f f i r m  values  in t h e area  o f growth, s u r v i v a l ,  ation,  h e a l i n g and p r e v e n t i o n .  and some r e traditional  change,  adapt-  In a s e n s e t h i s s e c t i o n  has  developed a non-medical  tation  of the  through the  through w h i c h may o f magic  arts therapies.  a r t s we  Chapter three  will  i t s tension not in  rationale for  only itself.  are  Campbell  introduced  show how  says  t o the  m u s i c can  be  r e s o l u t i o n processes, lead t o mysteries  but  implementhat  mysteries. one for is a  vehicle heaIi kind  99  CHAPTER APPLICATION  II I  OF THE MYTH TO MUSIC  Stream o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s Wending t h r o u g h open s p a c e Leaf-1 i k e c a s c a d i n g o v e r a r o u n d through pebbles Rocky s u r f a c e s submerged Water s u r f a c e m i r r o r s g r e e n t r e e s blue sky S w i r l i n g i n t h e r e f l e c t i o n o f God's c o u n t r y . C a s t a s h o r e , wind d r i e d and t u m b l i n g o v e r sweet s m e l l i n g e a r t h , i n h a l i n g t h e warm s u n , d a n c i n g d e a t h t o u r b a n stress birth p a i n f u l l y t o the s p i r i t s of well-being the s p i r i t o f s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n c r i e s out f o r revenge. But t h e n a t u r a l s e l f s p i r a l s d e e p e r i n t o i t s e l f , r e b o r n c a s t a d r i f t a g a i n t o c h a l l e n g e t h e n a t u r a l e l e m e n t on i t s own t e r m s . Not t o win b u t t o succumb s u c c e s s f u l l y B e i n g one, s t r o n g i n t h a t n a t u r a l p a r t n e r s h i p . Transcending s e l f .  Patient Pink  poem t o  Floyd's  (Dept.  "Echoes"  o f P s y c h i a t r y , U.B.C.,  1977)  100  A.  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between D e a t h - R e b i r t h Myth and T e n s i o n Resolution  in Music  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the D e a t h - R e b i r t h Myth and Tension-Resolution  in music  is one of r e f l e c t i o n .  music r e f l e c t s the myth and v i s a v e r s a . terms,  the music serves as a v e h i c l e  The  In p r a c t i c a l  f o r the myth, p l a c i n g  the myth in time and space by p r o v i d i n g i t with a l i v i n g , symbolic form. the music.  T h i s can happen through the s t r u c t u r e  Music expresses the myth by making i t  through sense p e r c e p t i o n . and g i v e s  available  In a way i t s o l i d i f i e s  i t a workable form.  of  myth  In t h i s way myth t r a v e l s  to us through music. One of the b a s i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s tion  is the concept  musical  of t e n s i o n  compositions  in musical  and r e s o l u t i o n .  composiMost  c o n t a i n the process of t e n s i o n  r e s o l u t i o n w i t h i n a l l the elements.  One or s e v e r a l  the components  of the p i e c e " b u i l d up" to a climax  then r e s o l v e .  This  situations.  level  of  a type of  point,  intensity.  life  transformation This  be a p p l i e d t o any number of circumstances earlier.  of  is a l s o the p a t t e r n taken by many  We experience  through a peak  and  l i f e movement can as  discussed  Each day can be c o n s i d e r e d a s e r i e s 66 t r a n s -  formations through our v a r i o u s a c t i v i t y , overlapping motifs  or as the many  in some musical piece.•••nOne's  l i f e might have one major t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .  entire  Or both of  these  circumstances  may happen s i m u l t a n e o u s l y .  may be many p e a k s , c l i m a x e s , one  transformations  within  Iife. The  occur,  idea t h a t a type  in order  of giving  over  o r l o s s must  f o r c h a n g e o r g r o w t h t o be  c o n s t i t u t e s the connection  t o myth.  accomplished,  The m u s i c a l  s e r v e s a s an example o f r e g e n e r a t i o n , r e n e w a l , and  There  transformation.  herent  in these  tensions  encounters.  Rather  i t acknowledges t h e  meloncholy,  confusion,  h u r t , d e s p a i r and t h e r e s o l u t i o n  love, f u l f i l l m e n t , allow the passion  building  I t does n o t deny t h e p a s s i o n i n -  o f p a i n , anger, hate,  frustration,  symbol  clarity,  hope.  or f e e l i n g  Musical  of j o y ,  encounters  t o become e x t e r n a l i z e d ,  t h e r e f o r e p r o v i d i n g form. One  initial  who c l e a r l y musical his  example w i l l  manifests  E t u d e s and P r e l u d e s .  transformation,  through  expecially in  in E minor  #1 on t a p e ) , p r o v i d e s a s i m p l e  in the Prelude.  occur  i s Chopin,  His Prelude  tension-resolution process once  A composer  t h e d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth  t e n s i o n and r e s o l u t i o n  (selection  illustrate,  example.  i n melody b u i l d s and r e s o l v e s  T h e m u s i c b u i l d s t o one p o i n t o f  one c l i m a x ,  i n t h e same moment.  i n which death  and r e b i r t h  The movement c h a n g e s f r o m  moving away from t h e t o n a l f o c u s t o a p o i n t w h i c h toward  tonic.  The  leads  A t t h e p o i n t o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , one c h o r d , o r  one  moment i n t i m e and s p a c e , t h e r e i s a r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e t e n s i o n produced  by t h e p r e v i o u s 15 m e a s u r e s .  Levi-Strauss discusses the r e l a t i o n s h i p music  and myth w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f  In an a r t i c l e of  on "The  between  structuralism.  Homology o f M u s i c and M y t h :  L e v i - S t r a u s s on M u s i c a l S t r u c t u r e "  (Hopkins  Views  1977),  s t a t e s : " M u s i c and m y t h , w h i l e b o t h u n t r a n s l a t a b l e terms the  other than themselves, are b a s i c a l l y  component p a r t s o f each a r e  each w i t h i n  i t s own  sphere.  infinitely  he  into  structural, convertible,  Each c o n t a i n s a b a s i c d i c h o -  tomy, theme, c o u n t e r theme, b o t h o f w h i c h can be  inverted,  r h y t h m i c a l l y d i s t o r t e d , modally t r a n s f o r m e d or p r e s e n t e d  i n a new  timbre".  (p.250)  In M y t h o l o g i e s  Levi-Strauss singles  out f o u r f i e l d s  cious for structural  analysis  music  further  and m y t h ) .  most c l e a r l y The  relevant  made by  existing  ation  rebirth  and  i n music  death  particularly  myth.  Music  and  point  of transform-  The  myth  another.  has  interesting  exist  begun.  o b s e r v a t i o n noted which  d e s p i t e t h e avowed  and  F o r a t t h e moment o f  in f a c t  and  both  death  Both  by L e v i - S t r a u s s  I have o b s e r v e d  these m y t h i c a l , musical patterns often  themselves  being  and myth a r e  E minor p r e l u d e r e p r e s e n t s both  Homology a r t i c l e  is that  as  L e v i - S t r a u s s in r e f e r e n c e t o t h e  become one  another  Another in t h e  mathematics,  i n t h e same c h o r d , moment o r s p a c e .  together  effica-  in t h i s respect.  accept paradox.  in Chopin's  rebirth  (language,  to the death-rebirth  a c k n o w l e d g e and  as b e i n g  s i n g l e s out music  r e l a t e d t o myth  point  dichotomies  He  (1971),  intention  of the  myself  manifest composer,  (p.254) L e v i - S t r a u s s ' s example o f t h i s Ravel  and  tensions  his classic and  It i s known t h a t  the p i e c e s e r i o u s l y ,  considered  kins,  p.254) and  extremely  ity.  T h i s b r i n g s up  through  in music  intention  surprised  without  their  at  Ravel  intent  of  never  took  (Hop-  i t s popular-  o f myth  knowledge.  is  building  i t "empty o f m u s i c "  the p o s s i b i l i t y  composers without  reflected  of  "Bolero", a repetitious  resolutions.  was  lack  travelling Myths can  on t h e p a r t  of the  be com-  poser,  i . e . , not  Rather the able  only  s t r u c t u r e and  this  possibility,  between m u s i c and structural  patterning.  important  Patterns The  of the  Although he  myth one  forming nature of the  ing  patterns  t o communicate myth.  discuss  an  program m u s i c c o n t a i n s  music are  Levi-Strauss  considers  link  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  He  is interested  mind.  Patterning  in the again  Elements of  becomes  Music  between human p a t t e r n i n g  "...the f i r s t  step  and  musical  i n M u s i c and  in e x p l a i n i n g  meaning o f m u s i c a l they  patterns  are t r a n s l a t e d  into general  expectation,  patterns  retention, tensions  sexual  adrenalin  level  corresponding the  patterns  such  s u c h as  with  in the  as so  grief, forth,  hunger,  blood—and  between t h e  pain,  of  a raising  resolutions—allow  similarities and  brain  e x c i t e m e n t , any  associated  fact  of a l l other  f e a r , d e s i r e and  bodjly patterns  the  is the  in the  lingua franca  patterns—mental  see  common  pattern-  (1970):  and  not  consideration.  in the  that  avail-  does  of analogy w i t h i n t h e i r  i s s t a t e d by T e r e n c e M c L a u g h l i n  cation  myth.  the  of  the  the us  to  musical  t K © s e more p e r s o n a L . o n e s  pattern-  Communi-  which form t h e c o n s t a n t of our t h o u g h t " , Patterns music. well  as McLaughlin  patterning  both  (1970) d i s c u s s  in composition  McLaughlin  o f m u s i c and t h e s u b s e q -  A l l three  a l s o emphasize t h e  patterns.  as i t d e v e l o p s  process.  identifies  modes w h i c h u t i l i z e  tion  structure of  t h e importance o f  element o f t e n s i o n - r e s o l u t i o n  in t h e p a t t e r n i n g  key  organizational  ( 1 9 5 2 ) and Meyer ( 1 9 5 6 and 1 9 7 3 ) , a s  uent e f f e c t s o f m u s i c . essential  (p.87)  form t h e b a s i c  Hindemith  undercurrent  Within  p i t c h , t i m e and volume a s t h e  and communicate these three  tension-resolu-  modes we e x p e r i e n c e t h e  e l e m e n t s o f m u s i c : melody, harmony, r h y t h m , m e t e r , d y n a m i c s and t e x t u r e . modes o f t e n  how  Musical on  tervallic tensions  The f o l l o w i n g  two  tape enclosed  Pitch Tension  of tension-resolution.  tensions  and r e s o l u t i o n s )  and r e s o l u t i o n s ) .  A tonal  with t h i s  An  i n c l u d e melody ( i n -  and harmony  (tonal  interval l i e tension r e -  between two o r more  tension  seek e v e n t u a l  document,  — P i t c h tensions  represents  o r more n o t e s p l a y e d  tensions  crossings  examples, r e f e r r e d t o as " s e l e c t i o n s " a r e i n c l u d e d  presents the distance notes.  these  i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f e a c h mode  i t communicates t h e p a t t e r n  a cassette a)  composition  i n t e r - r e l a t e , s e t t i n g up complex  of patterns. and  In a m u s i c a l  timbre,  the distance  simultaneously.  resolution.  consecutive between  Both o f t h e s e  In g e n e r a l  melody  106  seeks a r e s o l u t i o n building  a series  other tones or  The  tonic  pitch  returning  of  in t h e  fifth.  the  of  tonal  He  resolutions scale  occur  over the  line  would n e v e r  a piece.  motifs, tion  Or  phrases,  to tonic An  tonal  i t may or  is  both  on  bass.  other  and  tonic.  the  false  s t e p s on  piece,  to tonic form  bar  as  to  tensions  a  anticipation.  until of  form,  and  the  interplay  This  i.e., a the  end  repetition  i.e., a  ©f  resolu-  tape).  It  simultaneously.  "Lowland  is b a s i c a l l y a simple  duet  It p r o v i d e s s l o w m e l o d i c movement  times to  with the  and  between m e l o d y  by Y".iijsef: " L a t e e f ' s  h a r m o n i c movement by  several  resolution  to tonic  unresolved  builds  in t h e  of  these  interval l i e tension-resolution  illustrated  f l u t e and  separately tonal  occur  tension-resolution  between f l u t e and the  return  (1973) c a l l s  resolve  entire  a rondo., o r  L u l l a b y " ( s e l e c t i o n #2  by  an  third  comes many times,,  example o f  harmony  of  or  more t e n s i o n of  to  or " t r a d i t i o n a l  in f a c t  fifth,  length  after  returning  the  Meyer  resolution  a t h i r d or  b u i l d more and  melodic  and  to  ultimate  note,  seek some c o m b i n a t i o n s  series  t h e y do  by  as  patterns"  r e f e r s t o the  A need f o r  of  tensions  a resolution.  "uncomsummated" u n t i l  may  c h o r d , such  patterns "archtypical  schemata".  tonic  "near" r e s o l u t i o n s  tonic  c h o r d as  t o the  tonic,  f l u t e and This  but  bass, each culminate  bass both  is the  point  of  return in a  returning transform-  * A t o n a l m u s i c does not f o l l o w t h e s e t e n d e n c i e s . However, q u i t e o f t e n , a t o n a l m u s i c does i n v e n t e q u a l l y predictable r u l e s w h i c h b u i l d t e n s i o n and s t r i v e f o r r e s o l u t i o n , e.g., Schoenberg's tone row.  107  a t i o n , a d e a t h and b)  rebirth  Time T e n s i o n s — T i m e  i n t h e same moment.  tensions are r e a l i z e d  tempo and m e t e r , d i v i s i o n s McLaughlin  suggests that  towards  simple time  beats.  (1979/  p.38)  u r e f r o m t h e normal of t e n s i o n , beats  e.g.,  o f even  there  units  p u l s e of t h e music  when t h e r e a r e f i v e , rhythms  complicated  for creation  with the  Another  consideration  Neher  rhythmic r e p e t i t i o n altered  state  discussed  and W i I I i am The  Johnston  physical  Leonard  The  become even  S iIent  o f music,  many.  Helmholtz  and  more time.  of time by  tenJiIek of  ( 1 9 6 7 ) ; Rosenboom  (1976) and  but agree effects  of  PuIse  or  i s also  (1978)  (1974). associated  to a great  have been documented  (1862); Seashore  on t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l  expected  This possibility  i n S i I e n t Mus i c  effects  varied,  or e l e v e n  but s t u d i e d  i n The  with rhythmic tensions,  a r e many and  point  in production of a trance s t a t e  extent  Ludin  seven  others, i s the e f f e c t  of consciousness.  by G e o r g e  depart-  comes a s a  in the c r e a t i o n  (1962) and  steady  any  between p i t c h  n o t d i s c u s s e d by M c L a u g h l i n ,  (1971) and  four  effects.  of t e n s i o n  interplay  tendency  (where an  i s d i s p l a c e d ) and c r o s s - r h y t h m  possibilities  sion  t h r e e and  He t h e n c o n c l u d e s t h a t  in the bar, syncopated  accent  duration.  is a universal  o f two,  through  (1938); Revesz others.  These  by  (1954); studies  on t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s music:  1)  i n c r e a s e or decrease  in m e t a b o l i c  2)  i n c r e a s e or d e c r e a s e  in muscular  3) a c c e l e r a t i o n and  or d e c e l e r a t i o n  i n c r e a s e or decrease  4) a marked b u t  5) a  type  but  of d i f f e r e n t  repetition  r a t h e r through  rhythmic  a trance  i s c r e a t e d not s o much t h r o u g h  de-  as s u g g e s t e d  by  of consciousness, experienced p r i o r rhythmic  p a t t e r n i n g , and  s t a t e of consciousness produced p a t t e r n and  son m a i n t a i n s  its repetition.  a r e g u l a r o r normal  through  of c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  McLaughlin,  To  state  an  altered  At a c e r t a i n  functionto adjust-  different  by t h a t  of  stitute  normal  a  p a t t e r n i n g , one  or t r a n s f o r m e d  state  p o i n t t h e music ends,  functioning  state.  per-  consciousness.  r h y t h m i c , t r a n c e - i n d u c i n g s t i m u l u s removed, and returns to their  or  particular  simplify,  Through e x p e r i e n c i n g r e p e t i t i o u s rhythmic t r a v e l s t o and  a In  of beat  like  suggest  a c o n t r a s t between a normal  ment t o r e p e t i t i o u s altered  p a t t e r n can  state.  in r e g u l a r i t y  ing s t a t e  blood  modes.  of a rhythmic  words, t e n s i o n  viations  on  blood pressure;  of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n through  other  in b r e a t h i n g  lowering of the t h r e s h o l d f o r sensory  stimulation The  energy;  in i t s r e g u l a r i t y ;  variable effect  volume, p u l s e and  rate;  a  the  person  T h i s can  con-  a d e a t h - r e b i r t h or t r a n s f o r m a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e .  Musical  examples o f t h i s  type of rhythmic  activity  are  obvious  in Haitian  ever these rhythmic through  rock  Specific  and  ( s e l e c t i o n #4  r e p e t i t i o n s are  roll,  soul  examples o f t h i s  Summer's " I  Feel  Blakey's "Tobi  Love"  the  kind  ( s e l e c t i o n #4  I l u " ( s e l e c t i o n #5  rhythm.  t a p e ) and  tape).  idea through  Donna Art  Donna Summer syncopation,  simultaneous  an  example o f t h e  with  trance-  r e p e t i t i on.  perhaps the  fested  Volume t e n s i o n s  most o b v i o u s t o  dynamics t i m b r e , in the  texture  p,pp,ppp,pppp (degrees of  diminuendos.  A simplified  build  and  hear.  resolve  would  represents  mics of a p i e c e constitute  the  are  r e s o l u t i o n s ar form  Dynamics a r e  and  loudness) or c r e s c e n d o s  and  example o f  how  the  tension  point  p,pp,ppp,pppp  of transformation.  rarely this  simple  and  a s e r i e s o f dynamic t e n s i o n s  of timbre  o r c o l o r and  These elements are  often  artist  piece.  An  p l a y i n g the  may  be  and  The  again  left  texture  t o the  example o f volume t e n s i o n  and  dyna-  usually  releases.  more s u b t l e e f f e c t s o f volume conie t h r o u g h t h e  pretation  of  mani-  (degrees of s o f t n e s s )  f,ff,fff,ffff, 4f  and  They t a k e t h e  in a p i e c e .  f,ff,fff,ffff  The  are  jazz.  Blakey combines A f r i c a n m u s i c i a n s  c ) Volume T e n s i o n s —  The  on  on  studio jazz musicians t o provide  c)  communicated  of time t e n s i o n  t r a n c e - l i k e e f f e c t , through the  repetious  Ii ke  also  How-  m u s i c , d i s c o m u s i c and  i l l u s t r a t e s both McLaughlin's and  on t a p e ) .  of a  inter-  piece.  d i s c r e t i o n of  the  r e s o l u t i o n , which  also  i l l u s t r a t e s the  volume, on  i s Samuel  tape).  volume t o one  in  unison  toward  ploys a f u l l ing  extremely  a full  rest  the resolution  element,a  this  in degrees  examples w i l l tween m y t h i c of  patterning.  illustrate form  death-rebirth  musical  form,  and and  ability  pattern tail,  strikingly  em-  This piece  the  form. complex  I hope t h e s e  the p o s s i b l e connections form  of the  t h r o u g h t h e one  few bemyth  important a s p e c t s of  overstates,  a wealth  ences,  and  the  with  important  of extraneous of a  of s u p e r f i c i a l  t o g e n e r a l i z e from  de-  sit-  differexperiences  a key t o t h e whole c o h e r e n c y life".  but  truth:  to extract  stripped  this  in d i r e c t i o n  in dramatic  t o disengage  t o see the e s s e n t i a l s  mental  olution  from  of  uation  is  In  myth  (1970) perhaps  important element "The  strings  tension-resolution.  As M c L a u g h l i n an  Barber  However,  musical one  change  of s o f t n e s s .  is extremely d i f f i c u l t  webs o f m u s i c a l  builds  intense climax before savour-  communicates t h e d e a t h - r e b i r t h It  gradually  and  (selection  i n t e n s e peak w i t h f u l l  fortissimo.  after  time  for Strings"  l o n g p i e c e which  (adding the p i t c h  tonic)in  between p i t c h ,  Barber's "Adagio  It i s a  in  interplay  of  our  (p.89)  regard the musical  elements  of  tension-res-  become s y m b o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f some o f t h e  111  most b a s i c  life  processes.  our common a n d p r o f o u n d cesses and  described  experienced  They p r o v i d e a reminder  c o l l e c t i v e e'ondition.  of  The p r o -  i n p a r t I IB o f t h i s p a p e r a r e remembered s y m b o l i c a l l y w i t h i n music.  The music,  as t h e v e h i c l e t o inyth, becomes a s w e l l t h e b r i d g e b e tween t h e p r e v e n t a t i v e and c u r a t i v e powers o f myth and the concrete s i t u a t i o n s B.  Music Sufi  of l i f e .  As A V e h i c l e f o r H e a l i n g Inyat  Khan  "...health  (1971) t e l l s u s :  is a condition of perfect  rhythm and t o n e . Music  i s rhythm and t o n e .  health music  And what  i s out o f order, i s out o f order  When t h e  i t means t h e (p.87) ...  In a l l t h e o c c u p a t i o n s beauty  i s music?  of l i f e  has been t h e i n s p i r a t i o n ,  where t h e d i v i n e wine has been out, t h e r e  i s music.  the d i f f e r e n t has  t h e a r t o f music considered  law w o r k i n g t h r o u g h  divine,  miniature of t h e whole  (p.2)  summarizes t h e S u f i  powers o f m u s i c .  poured  But among a l l  i t i s t h e exact  universe". This  arts,  been s p e c i a l l y  because the  where  Music  philosophy is life  regarding the healing  and h e a l t h , a r e f l e c t i o n  of the tures and  grand  scheme, d i v i n e  have u s e d m u s i c as  qualities  inherent  in music  organizational  above  the  of the there  powers o f m u s i c as first  the  aspect  setting.  clinincal  in Music  The  side.  anthropological  o f m u s i c so  magical  a p o s i t i v e response  in c l i n i c a l  are  other  our  places The  context. gues  within  hearing  voices  a sign for  or  increase  nature.  The  Indian  bring  healing  tural  d i f f e r e n c e emerges  and  jgnored  he  in a  compliments  words m a g i c  (in  spiritual  settings.  the  do  However  is within  a  not there  places,  of  are  religious  o r speak  To  the  a c e l e b r a t i o n o f our  does not  instead  often  div-  in  ton-  course,  i n t o n g u e s becomes a symptom  of medication.  b o t h a v e h i c l e t o and  or perhaps the  hear v o i c e s ,  In o t h e r s ,  speaking  healing  c u l t u r e where s u c h c o n c e p t s  to  i n some s i t u a t i o n s .  one  applicable)  into the  the  most o b v i o u s example  It's acceptable  is only  d i v i n e and  get  accepted.  outlined  s i d e of music  Unfortunately  sense) mystery,  processes  Therapy,  i s magic, or mystery,  spiritual  clinical  a s p e c t s of music  considerations  used  cul-  have h e a l i n g p o t e n t i a l .  a s p e c t s which are  a r e more g e n e r a l  i n e and  Certain  tension-resolution process  organizational  The  Many a n c i e n t  a healer.  Beyond t h e (and  itself.  know t h a t  t r u s t s that in the  the  Nahavo, m u s i c divine  The  is  collective  magiciof  it will.  distinction  and  music  wil  cul-  between known  unknown. Anthropologist  Malinowski  (1948) t e l l s  us  we  find  magic  wherever t h e element tional sive  play  o f c h a n c e and a c c i d e n t  between hope a n d f e a r have a wide and e x t e n -  range.  We do n o t f i n d  is c e r t a i n , r e l i a b l e tional our  cultural  and w e l l  context,  under t h e c o n t r o l  state.  odologies  sanctioned  i s denied  be  observed;  3)  i t often 4)  2)  Within  This  has t a k e n  the various  therapeutic  by t h e s c i e n t i f i c  orientation,  i toften  or understood;  implies  cannot  spiritual  i t cannot  be a n a l y z e d  or psychic  be d e f i n e d ;  5)  most  a c t i o n s t h e magic  functioning important, i t  o f depth f o r which t h e r e  No m a t t e r  how  illusive,jt  i s found.  is s t i l l  t o describe  are  t o our emotions.  intimately tied  a r e no word there.  It can a l s o  the subjective r e -  It conveys symbolic  which a r e d i f f i c u l t  in verbal  uage, b u t one d i f f e r e n c e t o move on an e m o t i o n a l  meanings  language a n d  In some ways, t h e  meanings o f music a r e s i m i l a r t o v e r b a l  f e e l i n g s , those  meth-  I) i t c a n n o t  p e o p l e o b j e c t i v e l y , but w i t h i n  symbolic  s e p a r a t i o n be-  us t o o u r p r e s e n t  M u s i c a f f e c t s most p e o p l e s u b j e c t i v e l y . affect  Within  f o r the following reasons:  t a k e s us t o l e v e l s symbols.  of r a -  one o f t h e v e h i c l e s f o r m a g i c i s  and t h e r a p y  unmagical  levels;  processes.  and f o r s c i e n c e , t h e r a p y .  tween r e l i g i o n  magic  m a g i c whenever t h e p u r s u i t  methods and t e c h n o l o g i c a l  religion  a n d t h e emo-  lang-  i s t h e immediate power o f m u s i c level.  It d i r e c t l y  human r e a c t i o n s w h i c h r e s i d e  a f f e c t s our in the sub-  114  jective parts hemisphere  o f man's b e i n g ,  perhaps part  is the aesthetic  Music f u l f i l l s his search doctors,  f o r meaning  not  o f musical  in the world.  i n music experience.  Many  administrators,  n u r s e s , t h e r a p i s t s , and some m u s i c  do n o t r e a l i z e t h a t  have a p r e v e n t a t i v e value  nature  neglected  man's need f o r b e a u t y , and c a n s a t i s f y  teachers,  therapists  a e s t h e t i c experience can  and c u r a t i v e e f f e c t .  t h e use o f a r t s  in therapy.  T h e y do n o t  Sometimes t h e y  been e n c o u r a g e d by s o c i e t y t o d e v e l o p t h e i r  istic  drives.  endeavors play  Occasionally  in t h e i r  private  t h e y may p u r s u e lives,  vehicle f o r healing.  for  t h e music t h e r a p i s t  but  society dictates that  art  i s f o r "the a r t i s t " ,  trained.  In many o l d e r  the living,  cultures,  a time f o r meaningless a c t i v i t y . given  premises  i s an a r t i s t ,  working s t u f f o f  removed and s p e c i a l l y l e i s u r e t i m e was n o t L e i s u r e t i m e was t i m e  t o a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e s such as p l a y i n g  ing t o music.  When n a t i v e  and t r a d i t i o n a l  necessary f o r the health  community, c o m i n g t o g e t h e r  or  performing  and w e l l - b e i n g  t o express t h e i r  listen-  c u l t u r e s made  m u s i c , d a n c e d a n d c o s t u m e d , t h e y were u s u a l l y rituals  art-  l e a v i n g o u t t h i s im-  everyone  a person  own  a r tas  One o f t h e b a s i c  i s that  have  artistic  but c l a s s i f y  and t h e r a p y a s work, t h e r e f o r e  portant  brain  activity.  A second c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t e n therapy  of right  ofthe  b e l i e f s and  ^* P l a y i s u s e d h e r e i n t h e b r o a d e r s e n s e n o t a s i n the concept o f Play Therapy.  feelings tied  about  life.  t o man's s e a r c h  m a l e s p e n d s 75% (Campbell)' thetic  of  our  for  f o r meaning.  of h i s time  Our  culture  values f o r the  psychiatric  These a c t i v i t i e s  does not  average  man  the  T h e s e methods d e a l  w i t h c h a n g e s on  only  o r can  i s seen,  Often behavior But  i t cannot  man,  or the  be  assumed t h a t  t o be  t o d e f i n e and  hemisphere. personal.  find  h i s own  by  an o u t s i d e r . inner  picture  personality  find  i n w h i c h one  and crosses  But  through man  universe.  ways o f  absorbing  lives.  In a m u s i c  o r e x p r e s s i o n s may  to a c r i t i c ;  It's  qualities,  attitudes.  can  of  right  and  frame o f r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e  s e s s i o n , the tunes  being.  are unique  i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r each  the world  level,  respond.  strength  sound b e a u t i f u l  alienation.  a superficial  one  therapy  o f man's s e a r c h  return of  Through V a l u i n g beauty, from  Many  somewhat n e g l e c t e d .  education,  experience  aes-  child.  i t i s the t o t a l  Aesthetic experiences  skills,  rituals",  these  Aesthetics is interdisciplinary  perception  to  and  r e s i d e s in t h a t grey  l i n e s or v a l u e s , b e l i e f s ,  aesthetic  palsied  o f one's  o n l y p a r t t o which t o  Navaho  or the p a t i e n t in t h e  ovserved  is a reflection  A e s t h e t i c s tends difficult  be  intimately  average  maintain  ignore the problem  meaning, o n l y e n c o u r a g i n g  what  "The  in ceremonials  ward, o r t h e c e r e b r a l  treatments  were  not  however, t h e m u s i c  " Quoted from J o s e p h C a m p b e l l ' s c l a s s l e c t u r e U.B.C., Wednesday, September 19, 1979.  always  therapist  hears these  expressions  human e x p e r i e n c e . an  artist's  Through the  symbolization  e l e m e n t s w h i c h make up joy,  sadness,  titude, ation  as p r o f o u n d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s  loss,  through  life  experience—pain,  rebirth.  It a c c e p t e d can  f o r a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward  gether bolic  i n any  way.  to create  and  The  client  experience  forms, p a t t e r n s ,  themes  in recorded  outside the  music therapy  The sessions periences  third is the  in the  be  have t h e  natural  which must be  products  beneficial  i f the  proper  instinct a harmful  in  i s not effect  one  They h e a r h e a l -  in music  As  life  therapy  not  only  i n some a r e a , a drive to d r i v e can  individual  discovered.  earli  instincts.  t h a t a l l men  This  ex-  mentioned  o f man's b a s i c  e v e r y o n e has  both t o the  both.  sym-  improvised  and  If the  used or p r o p e r l y c h a n n e l e d , on  to-  of music t o p r o v i d e  satisfied.  channels are  person  They f i n d  p o t e n t i a l t o develop c r e a t i v i t y  creative  found-  t h e r a p i s t work  c r e a t i v e processes.  also that  at-  which t r a n s f e r t o  i m p l i e d from h i s t h e o r y  some d e g r e e , b u t  this  session.  ability  creativity  sorrow,  for a  meanings.  pieces  basic  with  life  beauty.  healing consideration  Jung c o n s i d e r e d can  and  beauty—  form t h e  shapes, t e x t u r e s  music which convey s i g n i f i c a n t  It  sound o f t h e  such p r i m i t i v e e x p r e s s i o n s  disabled  ing  p r o f u n d i t y comes  of  to  be create  to society creative  i t can  Even t h o u g h m u s i c may  have  not  be  11:  the an  n a t u r a l v e h i c l e f o r everyone's experimental  cesses  eration  therapist  have c o r r e c t i v e  and d e v e l o p  experience  sound q u a l i t y ,  symbolizes and  engage  in a journey  shape o r c o l o r  an i m p o r t a n t  and c o m m u n i c a t e .  space  and t i m e  tive  processes  benefit  therapy  T h e good t h e r a p i s t  as p a r t o f t h e c r e a t i o n .  dictate  havior, attitude Within  express  place  leaves their  desadequate  own c r e a -  therapists  have a l l t h e k n o w l e d g e a b o u t  must be h e a l e d .  and mood t o c o n f o r m  Most f o r m s o f  experiment.  must a l t e r b e -  with t h e c u l t u r e .  i s a way t o a d a p t  one's u n i q u e n e s s ,  i n which t o  in the session  Many  e x a c t l y t h e way a p e r s o n  creativity there  a r t work.  adequately  f o r the clients t o f u l f i l l  where and how a p e r s o n  to all,  which d e s c r i b e s and  part of the beings  methods presume t h e y  The m u s i c  t o discover the  which o t h e r k i n d s o f symbols cannot  cribe  of regen-  new s k i l l s .  c o m b i n e s r e s o u r c e s f o r maximum  participants  right  and  to t r y alter-  i n o t h e r words, c r e a t e s t h e most b e a u t i f u l  All  and  The music t h e r a -  and l e a r n a b o u t new s o u r c e s  and e n r i c h m e n t  pro-  Creative  can provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a person  natives in problem-solving,  or  medium.  c a n be a p p l i e d t o a n y t h i n g .  in communication  i t c a n be  i n which t o t r y out c r e a t i v e  and a p p l y them t o a p o w e r f u l  processes pist  ground  creativity,  i f clients  t o the culture have a s a f e  CHAPTER THE  IV  MUSIC THERAPIST AS  If m u s i c p r o v i d e s creates  a context  event.  As  the  RITUALIST  a v e h i c l e f o r the  f o r any  guide or  Music T h e r a p i s t  A  subsequent  leader  ritual  mythical,  in t h i s  musical  situation,  t h e n must become a r i t u a l i s t .  d i s c u s s i n g the  s k i l l s necessary  ritualist,  phenomenon o f r i t u a l  the  myth,  f o r the  Before  music  itself  the  therapy  deserves  some c o n s i d e r a t i o n . At scribed  i t s most b a s i c form  assume t h a t  event.  the  ritual  would be  Ritual  tone of t h i s  Kapferer  the  without  (1979).  cultural  object  and  into  life  would h o l d  Kapferer  transformational  transform action  and  i d e n t i t i e s and  practical  meaning, which a r e  meaning.  process  power  context,  therapy  little  contexts  inter-  social  the  to  of  located  we  relates  r i tua I : "...many r i t u a l s d e r i v e t h e i r  pre-  meaningful  He  of a music  carryover  a  religious  relational  concerns of day-to-day discusses the  as  definition  a s e r i o u s and  interesting  performance t o the  in f a c t  session.  by  is defined  performance of a  would be  one  is provided  ritual  which  From t h e  Beyond t h i s ,  pretation  ritual  o r method f o r t h e  o r solumn c e r e m o n y . can  level  within  in t h e mundane o r d e r life,  though e f f e c t i n g  ations their Kapferer  the Of  within  relates  session,  that  within  situations  through  clients  this  different key  point  is found  or s e s s i o n , but  must  related  (p.4)  or s u b t r a c t i o n  is effect-  i n ways  different  i n w h i c h t h e y were  'n t e r m s o f a M u s i c  a s new  or contingent  in o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n  This  pre-  Therapy  of constituents,  The r i t u a l  as well  simultaneous  a trans-  of constituents,  elements.  i s that  involve  elements.  may mean a r e a r r a n g e m e n t  perspective  to this  Therapy  become t r a n s f o r m e d n o t  made by K a p f e r e r  in a context  session  of certain  (p.3)  a s s o c i a t i o n s and p e r f o r m -  of a context  constituted".  quality  after  lives.  viously  addition  processes  o f a Music  of the r i t u a l  by t h e s e e l e m e n t s b e i n g relation  result  will  of i t s constituent  from t h e i r  which a r e b u i l t  performance."  symbolic  important  transformation  formation  in t h e i r  i s t h e intended  in their  d i a I e c t i c a I Iy and t r a n s -  to the realities  the context  Another  an  "ritual  of a r i t u a l  a n c e o f some t y p e ,  ed  (p.3)  i t , and w h i c h c o n t i n u e  course t h i s  "The  the organization of  concludes that  completion  only  transform-  performance..."  formationally around  o f everyday  changing t h e  provides  information.  a The  transformation  o f problems, or i l l n e s s , or  even more s p e c i f i c a l l y illness  receive a concrete  This  form through  idea o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  power o f r i t u a l cal  an e x t e r n a I i z a t i o n .  relates directly  Problems o r  performance.  of context  through the  t o the mythical,  musi-  framework a s o u t l i n e d a b o v e , s i n c e t h e d e a t h - r e b i r t h  myth r e s t s a t t h e b a s e o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . As spect  a r i t u a l i s t t h e m u s i c t h e r a p i s t must d e v e l o p r e -  f o r both convention  provides  a b a s i c s t r u c t u r e which s h o u l d  reassuring dividual at  and s u p p o r t i v e ,  son  will  identify  and  ritual  instead a  with  and v e n t u r e  i s only  music w i l l  level  Music  in-  spirit A  t h e h e a l i n g elements o f  permusic  t o w a r d s growth and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .  a reflection  o f man h i m s e l f .  In t h i s  sense  n o t v i o l a t e t h e i m p u l s e s o f man b u t p r o v i d e  i s a resource  processes.  pool.  If s e l e c t e d , c r e a t e d  wisdom, t h e c l i e n t s  will  Music T h e r a p i s t  choices.  It c o n t a i n s  feelings,  and u s e d w i t h  need t o h e a r  a s r i t u a l i s t must a l s o  own p e r s o n a I i t y  respect  as a s u p p o r t i v e  respect f o r : l) hjs/her  many t h i n g s  textures,  h e a r what t h e y  in t h e m u s i c , and u s e t h e r i t u a l The  to the  d e s i r e s t o be h e a l e d .  images, p a t t e r n s , mood s u g g e s t i o n s ,  and  be s p e c i f i c ,  The human  framework f r o m w h i c h t o make  #  The r i t u a l  but not i n h i b i t i v e  needs o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s .  i t s most b a s i c  Music  and s p o n t a n e i t y .  resources  context. develop  2) t h o s e  of the  client  3) p r o c e s s e s  inherent  in music  4) p r o c e s s e s  inherent  in s t r u c t u r e o f f e r e d  5)  silence  6)  time  7)  space  8) and  history  In a d d i t i o n , t h e self,  o t h e r s and  adaptability; enthusiasm, The  the process  sake o f  considered  first  o f the Music T h e r a p i s t  glance,  Jerome Frank the  activities  detached,  trations (Kiev,  quietly  dramatic of the  says:  and  Shaman  i n common competent  with minis-  o f t h e modern p h y s i c i a n " .  1964,  P.7)  l o o k i n g more c l o s e l y ,  t h e r e a r e many:  d e r i v e s h i s h e a l i n g powers f r o m  status  can  T h e r e a r e many r e f e r e n c e s t o  a p p e a r t o have n o t h i n g  I) He  and  l i b e r a t i o n , the Music T h e r a p i s t  as Shaman.  emotional  But  in  warmth.  a Shaman.  psychotherapist  the  confidence  o f growth; f l e x i b i l i t y  Shamanic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  "At  must d e v e l o p  empathy; s t r e n g t h ; k n o w l e d g e ; h u m i l i t y ;  humour and  For t h e be  ritualist  and  role  w i t h i n the  his  sufferer's  society.  the  2) He i s an e v o k e r  of healing  forces.  3) A m e n t o r . 4)  A r o l e mode I .  5) A m e d i a t o r In g e n e r a l African  between t h e s u f f e r e r  h i stask  tribesman  sources.  Especially  of f a i t h  and t r u s t  patient.  and s p i r i t u a l important  placed  as well  f o r healing  t o the similarities  artist/music Areas  faith  whether  stockholder t o mobilas b o d i l y r e i s t h e element  in the therapist/shaman  important  t h e shaman, t h e m u s i c  pist  American  Studies in the placebo e f f e c t  have shown us how ition  i s t o help the p a t i e n t ,  or North  ize h i s psychological  and h i s group, ( p .  really  (Shapino, is.  by t h e 1964)  But i n a d d -  between t h e p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t and  therapist  a s a shaman  i s a l s o an  maker.  shared  between t h e shaman and t h e m u s i c  thera-  w o u l d be t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1) B o t h  not t o t a l l y 2) B o t h  work w i t h a m a g i c phenomenon o r a r t which i s understood. work  oversee t h e health  i n p r o f e s s i o n s having r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o o f t h e community, p r e v e n t a t i v e a n d  curat ive. 3) Both unities 4)  require the faith  in order t o achieve Both  learn t h e i r  and t r u s t  of their  commr  on t h e i r  own  results.  skills  and r e l y  judgement and them.  intuition  a b o u t when and where t o a p p l y  They s e r v e an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p and r e c e i v e i n -  spiration  leading t o insight  5) B o t h  a r e dynamic p e r s o n a l i t i e s  energetic  and v i g o r o u s .  servative  or e c c e n t r i c ,  activities 6)  initiated  Both heal  shamanistic  about t h e i r  work.  i n t h a t they are  Whether s h y , g r e g a r i o u s , they  by  are s t i l l  con-  p a r t i c i p a t i n g in  themselves.  t h e m s e l v e s by p a r t i c i p a t i o n  art, either prior  t o or engaging  in t h e i r in t h e i r  vocat ion. 7) Both o f f e r nected  rituals  and c e r e m o n i e s  i n t i m a t e l y con  t o myth and v a r i o u s a r t f o r m s — m u s i c ,  dance,  cos-  tume, c o l o r , e t c . B. The  Artist The  Music T h e r a p i s t  i s an a r t i s t  ability.  But t h e v a l u e  musician  within a context  of the a r t i s t i c of r i t u a l  and  i n t e r p r e t i v e competence.  ist  has a c e r t a i n  be u s e f u l  way  transcends  o f musica of the technical  the r i t u a l -  of p e r c e i v i n g the world The s e n s u a l  which can percept-  allow the r i t u a l i s t t o guide t h e cere  m o n i e s and a c t i v i t i e s myth and  nature  As an a r t i s t ,  i n h e a l i n g and t h e r a p y .  ions of t h e a r t i s t  by t o k e n  into profound  representations of  Iife.  Kapferer  mentions  externa I i z a t i o n  the value  of o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n  in the transformation of context.  or  The  Music T h e r a p i s t  b o t h e x t e r n a l i z e s and  externalize feelings, personality immediate  dynamics  and  combiner,  into musical form.  the Music T h e r a p i s t  BandIer  hypothesize that alternatives.  (1976) i n The  therapy  The  can  be  These  which  with  alternatives.  record player  feelings,  rituaIist/artist One  e x p l o r e sound  therapy which  of the  qualities  of the  space,  instruments,  o r other), sk i I I s o f a l l p e r s o n s f  cultural  becomes a  and  res-  of a l l persons  used (whether  philosophies.  as a r t i s t  to  include everything  qualities  trends, In t h i s  history,  be-  situation  the  facilitator.  o f t h e most e s s e n t i a l  Therapist  Magic  b e i n g exposed  c r e a t e a music  the environmental  i n t h e room, a t t i t u d e s ,  to  will  the personality  t i m e o f day, m a t e r i a l s  paints,  is  is a resource  draws t o g e t h e r a l l t h e  r e s o u r c e s would  in t h e s e s s i o n ,  liefs,  music  i n t h e room a t t h e t i m e o f t h e c r e a t i o n  work o f a r t :  the  The  Structures of  i s merely  artist  o u r c e s and m a t e r i a l s  dilemmas,  changing.  e x p e r i m e n t i n g and p l a y i n g  G r i n d e r and  ritual.  thoughts, s i t u a t i o n a l  constantly  As an a r t i s t  guides others t o  qualities  of the  i s musical s e n s i t i v i t y . silence  freely  and  be a b l e t o h e a r and  trained  in both the form  interpret  The  encourage  p a r t i c i p a n t s t o do t h e same i s e s s e n t i a l . should  The  ability ritual  artist  unspoken moods,  and f l e x i b i l i t y o f h i s  ment, a b l e t o combine h i s s k i l l s  Music  instru-  i n u n c o n v e n t i o n a l ways,  aware o f t h e i n f i n i t e He/she must  v a r i e t y o f t h e language o f music ^  use m u s i c as a m e e t i n g  which t o s t e p  outside  conventional  If t h e Music T h e r a p i s t artist, and  fulfilling  his/her  this  clients  transfer  artists  own  involved  their  be  creative  an  instincts,  a s a work o f a r t , most  inspired to follow suit.  in c r e a t i v e processes.  i t i s possible that  own  patterns.  him/herself  i s accomplished, the c l i e n t s  t o be a r t i s t s , plish  will  r o l e s and  considers  each music t h e r a p y s e s s i o n  probably  ground, a p l a c e i n  If  a l s o become  If allowed  p a r t i c i p a n t s accom-  healing.  The V i s i o n a r y If t h e Music T h e r a p i s t and  role of the r i t u a l i s t / a r t i s t  Arguelles bility  of v i s i o n  vision  simple  are  an  Vision viction and  transformation Within  form  infinite  number  t a k e s some vision.  o f i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e c u l paper, the v i s i o n  in the value  of p o s s i b i l i t i e s  responsibility,  purpose, c h a r i s m a t i c  the responsi-  a scheme, a method o f  endows t h e M u s i c T h e r a p i s t and moral  and  of the f u t u r e through  the present  of b e l i e f  imply  For the a r t i s t  c o n s t i t u t e s a plan,  itself.  the  as w e l l .  in the unfolding  facilitating ture  t h e n Campbell  a s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e would  initiative This  does assume t h e c h a r a c t e r  with  o f myth.  There  f o r other passion,  takes  visions.  con-  a sense o f d e s t i n y  leadership  qualities,  an  essen-  tial and  role  in the evolution  society.  of v i s i o n . quality  and improvement o f c u l t u r e  The p r e s e n c e o f a l t e r n a t i v e s i s a s i g n V i s i o n has some u n s p e a k a b l e  which  i s hard t o d e f i n e  in t h e music o f t h e a r t i s t , The yet  b u t c a n be h e a r d  with-  a Ch'i ( C h i nese V i t a l  v i s i o n a r y must be s t r o n g ,  yet subtle;  Breath),  clear  u n d o g m a t i c ; t h e v i s i o n a r y must a l s o r e s p e c t t h e  visions  of others.  Initiation The  and T r a n s f o r m a t i o n  Music T h e r a p i s t  icular type of t r a i n i n g . arily  available within  as R i t u a l i s t This  Therapist  requires  a part-  t r a i n i n g i s not necess-  the present  o f f e r i n g t r a i n i n g i n music t h e r a p y .  the  spiritual  as r i t u a l i s t / a r t i s t /  academic  institutions  Briefly  t h e Music  v i s i o n a r y must  receive  f o I Iowi n g : 1)  Experiences  p r e s e n t Iy a v a i I a b I e rituals  perience  rituals  and encouragement t o c r e a t e  environment.  new  Knowledge and s k i l l s  ritual.  In a s many d i s c i p l i n e s a s  e s p e c i a l l y , Music Therapy, Music,  Psychology, R e l i g i o u s Studies, Arts, etc.  o f o n e ' s own p e r s o n a l  unique  A t r a i n e e must p e r s o n a l l y e x -  t h e power o f m u s i c and  possible,  Creative  musical  d i c t a t e d by t h e s i t u a t i o n a l needs o f e a c h  therapeutic  2)  in a l l the various  Equally  Anthropology,  important  resources  Philosophy, History,  i s a knowledge  even b e f o r e  training  begins. 3)  Experiences  environments,  from  t h e t r a i n e e many be  guided  in the  field,  the onset  levels  by c l i e n t s ,  <i,e.,  in therapeutic  of t r a i n i n g .  This gives  of understanding,  other Music  which  can  T h e r a p i s t s and  pro-  f e s s i onaIs. T h e r e must be  a balance  and  i n f o r m a t i o n , and  can  accept  and  between t h e t e c h n i c a l  t h e c h a r a c t e r and  use t h e  personality  here  is transformation.  The  embrace t r a n s f o r m a t i o n b e f o r e and present t h i s process to others. Therapist  a p p l i c a n t has  transformative cess  not  experience  is required during  minded o f t h e training  and  shaman,'.* receipt  transformation. "The and  He  an  experience they  can  Again  of  this  we  are  prore-  with p u r i f i c a t i o n  says: the  yogi, the  sorceress  a l l derive their  initiatory  death  and  t h e y must e a c h u n d e r g o  transfigurative  Music  Argue I l e s c o n t r a s t s r i g o r o u s  then  truly  which  some t y p e  to training,  as  must  If a p r o s p e c t i v e  initiation.  the p r i e s t e s s ,  gth from  ritualist  experienced  prior  framework  during r i t u a l s  of a diploma  shaman and  who  magic.  At t h e c o r e o f t h e m u s i c a l , m y t h i c a l presented  skills  be t h e m s e l v e s . experience  stren-  rebirth before  It i s t h i s  t h a t endows  and  them  with t h e i r  traditional was  societies  highly valued  undergo ly.  unique v i s i o n .  i t was  abolished  as  as t h e r i t u a l  ing  validity  doom.  itself calypse and  - an e v e n t  notes that  path of transformation  and t h e  society  short  denied  o f apo-  i t s own  shamans  e x t r e m e , b u t deep  foretold  o f t e n t h o s e who  do c h o o s e t h e  are labelled  o f t h e t r a i n e e may  insight  p r o c e s s must  to the  (p.288)  for training  The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  ively  seal-  In d e n y i n g t h e  have c o n t i n u a l l y  prepared f o r " .  He f u r t h e r  formational  but a l s o  visionary prophets, exiled  sidelines, and  veng-  i t s own fan^-  modern  any r e b i r t h  vision  f o r gaining i t  of t h e v i s i o n  vision-quest,  to  seIf-rtghteous  r i s e t o power  i t s own  religious-  the r i g h t  ence, t h u s e n s u r i n g tastic  to  techno-historicaI  society  with a f e a r f u l  experience  and t h e r i g h t  safeguarded  But modern  well  this  In  devient.  be s l i g h t or  and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t r a n s occur,  employ t h e m y t h i c a l ,  i f he o r s h e i s t o  musical  framework.  affect-  CHAPTER V SYNTHESIS AND  CONCLUSIONS  Synthes i s As A r g u e I l e s toward  and  of this  eventual d i s a s t e r  nology. social  disease called  of t h i s  destruction  disease called  words, we have h e a r d  licentious  technology.  techthis Because  rampant t e c h n o l o g y , we a r e f a c e d w i t h t h e d a i l y  possibility emotions  sees  lllich's  predicts the  as n u c l e a r  a type o f s o c i a l  In Ivan  urges  (1978) i n h i s book  and t h e Human P r e d i c a m e n t ,  the cause,  cloud  o f our s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e  a p o c a l y p s e , Jerome F r a n k  Psychotherapy form  speaks  of nuclear disaster,  of p o l i t i c a l  risings  hangs o v e r o u r d a i l y in direct  relation  controlled  by t h e  and f a l l i n g s .  While  lives,  a fact  to the state  which  this  Frank  o f o u r mental  h e a l t h , we o b s e r v e t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f fellow of  plant  around are of  life  on e a r t h t h r o u g h t h e i n c r e a s i n g  and animal  us.  The s i c k  in direct  They  to this  point  is that  human s p e c i e s , a l l  ones  situation.  are a r e f l e c t i o n  o f o u r own c o l l e c t i v e The  including  and d i s t r e s s e d  relation  our essence.  tion  species,  disappearance  i n our p o p u l a t i o n They a r e p a r t  and i n t e n s i f i c a -  condition.  something  has gone wrong and,  in.  G r i n d e r and B a n d l e r ' s words, what a r e t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s ? What d o e s t h e s t r u c t u r e culture, "Is  a culture  on t h e way One c l u e  Malinowski  situation, of  i s suggested  Campbell  has c l a i m e d  i n t h e word m a g i c .  a b o v e , we f i n d  o f t h e elements  perhaps  clue  of our l i v e s .  arrogance,  In t h i s  when  in f a c t  i s p r o v i d e d by G a b r i e l  by v i r t u e we do n o t .  Marcel,  stential  p h i l o s o p h e r : "What  to  w i t h o u r whole s t r e n g t h a g a i n s t t h a t  react  tion has  of l i f e brought  gests that ing  we  spirit  about".  left  behind?  which elements today's  life  particular  (Sykes,  P«656)  Marcel  sug-  on mind, c o n s e q u e n t l y  i s : Where have vje^gone  i n t h e p r e s e n t document In t h i s  situation  leav-  wrong?  i s : What  o f lack  have  of balance,  o f k n o w l e d g e c a n we r e - i n t e g r a t e  in order t o r e - e s t a b l i s h  balance?  into The  c o n t e x t used t o a d d r e s s t h e q u e s t i o n h e r e i s  these settings  of  1964,  behind.  the t h e r a p e u t i c environment.  large;  dissocia-  which a b l o o d l e s s r a t i o n a l i s m  q u e s t i o n f o r some  q u e s t i o n used  exi-  I t h i n k we need t o d a y i s  we have o v e r d o s e d  t o o much s p i r i t The  The  from  As  m a g i c where we do n o t  we t h i n k we have c o n t r o l ,  our i n t e l l e c t u a l Another  Joseph  a sick  out"?'  said  have c o n t r o l  which  o f m a g i c have t o o f f e r  But a s s t a t e d  are only a r e f l e c t i o n  and t h e p e o p l e  the individuals  of the culture at  within those s e t t i n g s ,  outside.  ''Joseph C a m p b e l l , l e c t u r e , S e p t e m b e r , 19, 1979.  earlier,  reflections  These r e l a t i o n s h i p s University  of B r i t i s h  have Columb  been.noted  by Jerome F r a n k  (1978).  Any  alternatives  w o u l d a p p l y t o us a l l . The  first  has  been  left  The  two p r e d o m i n e n t  of  spiritual  negation  q u e s t i o n asked  b e h i n d by o v e r u s e areas  II i s : What  of t h e medical  in t h i s  freedom, which might  of s p i r i t u a l i t y ,  w h i c h from  in Chapter  section  model?  are a  lack  even be c a l l e d a  and a d e a r t h o f c r e a t i v i t y ,  most a r t i s t s ' view  is related  to spiritual  negat i on. Here a g a i n we f i n d  t h e word s p i r i t .  p l i e s m y s t i c a l , magical  and r e l i g i o u s  f o r t u n a t e l y t h e medical  model  this  Spirit  experiences.  has v i r t u a l l y  s i d e o f t h e n a t u r e o f man.  as n e u r o s i s .  adequacies  in  i t s broadest  ignored  and  The word r e l i g i o n , d e r i v e d  r e - , " b a c k " and I i n g a r e , " t o b i n d " , means s e n s e " a b i n d i n g back t o g e t h e r " .  opportunities f o r healing aspects of r e l i g i o n within  this definition.  " R e l i g i o n , medicine in  an a s t o n i s h i n g  to  The  are obvious  As S a n d n e r s a y s o f t h e Nahavo:  and a r t a r e i n e x t r i c a b l y i n t e r t w i n e d  unity  of purpose".  Harris: " I t is clear that similar  labelled  T h i s has c r e a t e d u n f o r t u n a t e i n -  in h e a l t h c a r e .  from t h e L a t i n  Un-  Some i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f  p s y c h o a n a l y s i s have gone one s t e p f u r t h e r religion  im-  psychological  (p,4)  art, religion  needs  And M a r v i n  and magic  i n human b e i n g s , . . T h e y  satisfy seek  p e n e t r a t e behind t h e facade o f o r d i n a r y appearance  t h e t r u e cosmic  significance  of things",  (p.583^  into  A more f o r m a l mixture  definition  of b e l i e f s ,  constituting principles  states that r e l i g i o n  attitudes,  universe.  some f u n c t i o n o f d e i t i e s . imply  a seeking  which r e l a t e  man  However  primary  o r may  universe.  etc.,  or  not  i t assuredly  f o r m e a n i n g , and  imply does  frameworks  Frankl  calls  identifies this  search  i n g r e d i e n t i n mental  h e a l t h or  aspect  which emerges  of c r e a t i v i t y  a c o n s i d e r a t i o n in healing ization  t h e powers  s t r u c t u r e s and  t o the broader  essential  The  with  T h i s may  of o n t o l o g i c a l  t h i s man's s e a r c h as t h e  emotions, behavior,  man's r e l a t i o n s h i p  of the  i s the  of paradox, being  illness.  i s acknowledgement and able to accept  feelingscor contradictory circumstances  and  use  as  utilmixed  f o r growth  and  change. The  Death-Rebirth  analogies  in l i f e  paradox.  Again,  have been  left  rituals  of the  which Campbell  a r e even as  its infinite  i s one ritual  Although  example o f contexts  for this  rituals  opposed t o s p i r i t u a l ,  myth  not  enough t o  elementary  this  reassure  patterns forms  of  or  Within the therapeutic settings,  less mythical  of  such  employ  basic ever-constant  c a l l s the  number  t h e r e a r e some c u l t u r a l  or u n w i l l i n g l y ,  o t h e r myths, t h e r e a r e  human c o n s t a n t s .  tific,  effective  behind.  or r e m i n d us  life,  of course  which, w i t t i n g l y  myth and us  Myth and  because of c e r t a i n  there scien-  o r i e n t a t i o n s mentioned  in  Chapter on t h e  II.  The  a n t i c i p a t e d product  Death-Rebirth  Myth  of r i t u a l  is transformation,  based  growth  and  change. If we selves  as  universe and if  are  able to consider  a reflection, a r o u n d us,  added s t r e n g t h we  view t h e  a reflection vention  and  part  s u i c i d e of  environment" In o r d e r  for this  connecting  earth  icles,  fellow  patterns  be  less  a r o u n d us  h e a l i n g or  to  are  i s in  appreciated. connected.  the of  the  As  between him, Chief  Whatever  sons of e a r t h " .  pre-  occur.  a s s o c i a t i o n t o develop and  as  Sealth  befalls  (Greenpeace Chron-  p.5).  than the  Music it  Similarly  life  likely  P e r h a p s t h e m e t a p h o r i c mind c a n clearly  answered,  humanity t h r o u g h p o i s o n i n g  must be  b e f a l l s the  are  and  What Frank r e f e r s t o as  w h i c h s u r r o u n d s him  says above " A l l t h i n g s the  and  in our-  world  received.  of o u r s e l v e s ,  (pixix) will  nature,  p a r t , of the  resources  environment  o f and  process  ontological questions  is reciprocal.  "threatened  tsan and  and  this  logical  i s only  does p r o v i d e  vehicle  in t h i s  vision  framework,  because of the  in music:  reflects  this  mind.  easy access  healing processes - music  one  see  nature  but  inherent  more  forms and s t r u c t u r e of music p r o v i d e  symbolic  order music p r o v i d e s a framework from which t o make choices music acknowledges  both s u f f e r i n g and joy  music  is profound  music  is both an e x i s t e n t i a l  r e a l i t y and  is  t imeless music  is a p l a c e t o be alone  music  is a p l a c e t o be t o g e t h e r  music p r o v i d e s high m o t i v a t i o n a l  stimulation  music s t i m u l a t e s man's emdtions,  intellect  and body music p r o v i d e s a r e l a t i o n a l music  context f o r man  i s a preverbal or p r i m i t i v e p e r c e p t i o n  and thus broadens the p o s s i b i l i t i e s u n i c a t i o n s and e l i m i n a t e s music r e f l e c t s a l l  f o r comm-  boundaries  the impulses of man  music c a p t u r e s form and goes beyond form t o spirit. music  is flow and v i b r a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e remi  man of h i s e a r l i e s t music  existence  is a sensuous p e r c e p t i o n  music has an immediate e f f e c t  135  -,music can p r o v i d e  a social  context  - m u s i c c a n be c e n t e r i n g o r d i s i n t e g r a t i v e - music  i s a resource  - music  i s process  - music  is liquid  Unfortunately  pool  o f images  and p r o d u c t and s o l i d  some o f t h e p r o c e s s e s  inherent in  m u s i c w h i c h c a n be used f o r h e a l i n g have been entirely general  because o f s t r i c t l y  clinical  ignored  orientation.  In  these a r e :  1) M u s i c c o n t a i n s 2)  Music  magic  i s an a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e  conducive  and t h e r e f o r e  to patterning  3) M u s i c c a n i n t r o d u c e and d e v e l o p  creative  processes. The for  Music T h e r a p i s t  the transformative  forms.  In o r d e r  therapist artist  as r i t u a l i s t  experiences  to function  of mythical  in t h i s  individual  as s c i e n t i s t  and t h e c u l t u r e .  know t h e p r o c e s s  in this  musical  but a l s o  magician,  and a v i s i o n a r y f o r t h e He/she must u n d e r s t a n d  of transformation  t o encourage others  a context  r o l e t h e music  must be n o t o n l y c l i n i c i a n  as w e l l  provides  personally  and  in order  endeavor.  Cone I us i on T h i s t h e s i s does not r e p r e s e n t approach.  Rather  i t represents  a purely  a synthesized  systematic group o f  ideas  w h i c h become a l i v e  Rebirth gested  Myth rather  in Music. than  It  by  the  strongly  of the  Myth,  necessary  in  Therapists musical equal  feasibility  initiation  structure.  e m p h a s i s on  present myth a r e  On  and  in p a r t i c u l a r ,  suggested  a broader  a r t and  only  therapies.  a  of  Death-  Music  mythical,  i t suggests  ideas nature.  of the  to return to these considerations,  one  an  l e a r n i n g from,  back t o  one  the  f o r the  level  science,  a binding as  systems  qualifications  transformation contexts  with-  approp-  o f e m p l o y i n g m u s i c as  of, c e r t a i n t r a d i t i o n a l  situation,  sug-  thesis  in present  It a l s o s u g g e s t s c e r t a i n  creating ritual  incorporating  change  The  implement c r e a t i v e a r t s  vehicles for healing,  Rebirth  Death-  certain sessions  ritualist.  a pervasive  o f t h e r a p y - a move t o It s u g g e s t s t h e  of the  e n v i r o n m e n t s when deemed  music t h e r a p y  advises  use  i s a framework t o be  imposed w i t h i n  in c e r t a i n t h e r a p e u t i c riate  w i t h i n the  within  and our  Music  means t h r o u g h  Sufi  Inayat  Khan  " M u s i c i s t h e harmony o f t h e u n i v e r s e i n m i c r o c o s m ; f o r t h i s harmony i s l i f e i t s e l f , and i n man, who is himself a m i c r o c o s m o f t h e u n i v e r s e " . 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" I n t r o d u c t i o n a l a t h e r a p i o in S c h w e i z e r i s c h a M u z i k z e i t u n g , Vol.3,  musicale", 1963.  APPENDICES  145  APPENDIX A  146 APPENDIX A  C A P I L A N O  C O L L E G E  COURSE OUTLINE TERM  FALL 1979  INSTRUCTOR  COURSE NUMBER  CAROLYN  KENNY  NAME OF COURSE  MUSIC 242 MUSIC & THE CREATIVE ARTS  OBJECTIVES OF COURSE: Genera I:  To d e v e l o p an a p p r e c i a t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between M u s i c , Dance and A r t i n t h e t h e r a p e u t i c environment.  Instructional:  1. To d e v e l o p an a r t i c u l a t e r a t i o n a l e f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the C r e a t i v e Arts Therapies. 2. To a p p r e c i a t e t h e unique r e s o u r c e s o f each o f t h e a r t s ( M u s i c , Dance, A r t ) and t h e r e l a t e d i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e i r t h e r a p e u t i c use; 3. T o u n d e r s t a n d how t o use i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h music i n t h e r a p y s e s s i o n s , t o i n c r e a s e p o t e n t i a l f o r growth and c h a n g e ; 4. To l e a r n s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s o f c o m b i n i n g t h e a r t s in t h e r a p y w i t h music as a p r i m a r y t o o l ; 5 . To d e v e l o p o b s e r v a t i o n s k i l l s in n o t i c i n g which p a r t i c u l a r a r t medium w i l l c r e a t e t h e most e f f e c t i v e vehicle for the c l i e n t ; 6. To l e a r n s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s o f g u i d i n g groups t h r o u g h c r e a t i v e a r t s t h e r a p i e s s e s s i o n s w i t h music as a b a s e .  COURSE CONTENT: Music & C o l o r  A . Overview - R a t i o n a l e f o r C r e a t i v e A r t s T h e r a p i e s Concept B. S y n a t h a e s i a - t h e i n t e g r a t i o n of s e n s e p e r c e p t i o n , emotion & i n t e l l e c t . I) M u s i c & C o l o r - P a i n t i n g , Drawing &• P o e t r y 2) M u s i c , C o l o r & Movement - t h e Mask ( i n t r o . t o v i d e o usage)  S  II.  M u s i c & Dance: A. Q u a l i f i e d quest l e a d e r s in Dance T h e r a p y (1) Movement w i t h t h e c h i l d (2) Movement w i t h t h e a d u l t and e l d e r l y B. Combining m u s i c , movement, c o l o r , s c u l p t u r e in a r e s o u r c e p o o l t o e x p l o r e d e a t h / r e b i r t h theme i n m u s i c .  III.  Mus i c i n a Different Perspective: A. Rhythm - a L i f e F o r c e in M u s i c & Dance B. The Human V i b r a t i o n - v o i c e , t h e c e l l o , t h e combined w i t h c o l o r , shape p o e t i c word C . Nature as H e a l e r & I n t e g r a t o r o f t h e A r t s  NOTE:  C l a s s e s w i l l be p r i m a r i l y e x p e r i e n t i a l some l e c t u r e .  and d i s c u s s i o n  time  bass  with  APPENDIX  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e - Music 1)  Were you  initially  B  242 able t o experience  a f e e l i n g of  "nothingness"? 2)  What theme d i d t h e m u s i c communicate  3)  Were you a b l e t o c o n n e c t symbolic your  4)  t o the musical  m e t a p h o r o f some s t a g e  or s i t u a t i o n in  musical  r e g e n e r a t i o n o r renewal  D i d you e x p e r i e n c e  6)  Did the musical  experience  If y e s , b r i e f l y  describe.  a "building"  feeling?  have " m e a n i n g " f o r you?  Can you d e s c r i b e t h e q u a l i t i e s "inspired"  through  encounter?  5)  7)  theme a s a  Ii f e ?  D i d you e x p e r i e n c e your  t o you?  i n t h e music which  you?  8)  If other m a t e r i a l s i n s p i r e d  9)  Any f u r t h e r  comments?  you, what  were  they?  APPENDIX C  Discussion  The  of  following is a brief  purpose of 1)  Questionnaire  items  Were you  used  interpretation  of  the  in q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix  initially  able to experience  B):  a feeling  of  "noth i ngness"? The portion state, can 2)  "nothingness"  i s meant t o s i m i l a t e t h e  death  o f t h e myth.  A person  lowest  a state  to the  o f numbness, b e f o r e a r e b i r t h  or  insight  occur. What theme d i d t h e m u s i c communicate t o T h i s q u e s t i o n seeks  analogous 3)  ventures  you?  t h e d e a t h - r e b i r t h theme o r some  g r o w i n g theme.  Were you  a b l e t o connect  t o the musical  symbolic  m e t a p h o r o f some s t a g e  theme a s  or s i t u a t i o n  in  a your  I ife? T h i s q u e s t i o n seeks conscious connection situation insight 4)  has  and  h e a l i n g or at  been a  concrete least  life  clear  occured. experience  your  musical  This  question t r i e s  did  t h a t t h e r e has  between symbol  so t h a t s y m b o l i c  D i d you  birth  evidence  in f a c t  r e g e n e r a t i o n o r renewal  through  encounter?  occur.  to find  out  i f a sort  of r e -  149  5)  Did  you  This a)  experience a " b u i l d i n g "  question  did  asks several  feeling?  questions:  you  feel  "creative",  feel  in control  i.e., creating  a  product? b)  did  you  c)  did  your b u i l d i n g  building  "feeling"  of  building?  of product t r a n s f e r  inside—a  suggestion  for  into  a  personal  growth? 6)  Did  the  This a)  b)  question  to  i n g and  Can  e x p e r i e n c e have " m e a n i n g " f o r  has  two  encourage the  i t s importance to  function 7)  musical  s e r v e as of the  you  "inspired"  to  i d e n t i f y mean-  in growing  the  on  identifying  any  theme.  qualities  in the  music  which  you?  If o t h e r m a t e r i a l s  9)  Any  further  beyond o r  participant  death-rebirth  8)  Questions  purposes:  a second check  describe  you?  inspired  you,  what a r e  they?  comments?  7,8,9, a r e open-ended and  outside of the  death-rebirth  seek myth.  information  APPENDIX D  Appendices  D,E, and F i n c l u d e d e s c r i p t i o n o f  s e s s i o n s and r e s u l t s  of general  evaluative question-  n a i r e s on u s e o f t h e D e a t h - R e b i r t h second  year Music  V a n c o u v e r , B.C.  Therapy  Within t h i s  t o u s e and d e v e l o p  Music  corporate a variety base one  Therapy  as p a r t o f a  trainees  (see course  called outline in  course students are Therapy  encouraged  t e c h n i q u e s which i n -  o f a r t media, u s i n g music as a  in a l l a c t i v i t i e s . a r t form,  with  students of Capilano College,  and t h e C r e a t i v e A r t s .  A p p e n d i x A)  i n Music  The s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d  r e q u i r e d course f o r Music Music  Myth  The c o m b i n a t i o n  o f more t h a n  i . e . , m u s i c and movement, m u s i c and c o l o r ,  m u s i c and p o e t r y , m u s i c and s c u l p t u r e , i n c r e a s e s : 1) t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s association  and  2) t h e i n t e n s i t y  f o r symbolic identification;  of the experience,  which s t r i v e s toward of Students Therapy had  been  studies.  greater  levels  depth. agreed  to participate  in three  sessions using t h e Death-Rebirth introduced t o t h e concept  Music  Myth.  in t h e i r  They  first  year  However t h e f o c u s o f t h e s e t h r e e s e s s i o n s was  experiential was  not  as  opposed t o academic.  re-explained  Rather the mentioned  myth was  nor  be  Chapter and  session.  suggested through the  two  influences  If the  merely a v a i l a b l e  It was  use  ritual  the  a)  light  form.  of the  t h e y may  at a l l at that in the  not  b)  in the  session  perience  following  from  with  the-  use  the  Sessions  ways: death-rebirth  myth  as  thesis.  a solitary  second, to  to  will.  inspired to  experience  to a mixture of s o l i t a r y  in the  ready  p a r t i c u l a r moment.  body o f t h i s  They b u i l t  be  in  in a t r u s t i n g  concept, they  They a l l e m p l o y e d t h e  described  discussion  have d i f f e r e n t a s s o c i a t i o n s Or  and  results  If p e o p l e a r e  death-rebirth  t h e y may  were r e l a t e d  and  in  group  a group e x p e r i e n c e  the ex-  in  the  session. c)  placed  Increasing on  the  share t h e i r The  myth  I I I.  IIA.  situation  third  II &  i s imposed upon a g r o u p t h e  matic content.  first  elaborated  in  h e a r and If not,  i n t r o d u c t i o n and  questionable  supportive  theory  the  upon t h r o u g h o u t C h a p t e r s  will  myth  mentioned during  in t h i s t h e s i s  m u s i c framework  The  leader  during  demands and  participants to  f e e l i n g s and d i d not  discussion  expectations  verbally describe  insights within  d i r e c t questions in the  first  were  the  and  group.  to participants  session,  maintaining  an  atmosphere of p l a y f u l n e s s .  asked  during the  third  s e s s i o n s were d i r e c t l y  therapeutic  A few  second s e s s i o n s .  insight.  questions  Questions  related  to  to  use  different  d e g r e e s o f s t r u c t u r e , e.g.,  one  employ movement b e t t e r , a n o t h e r Students  their The  were g i v e n  experience  twofold  of  thematic  content  should  following  be  week.  following the  (see  to  i n M u s i c and  that the to take  filled  experience  differbe  able  document  Appendix  B)  was: use  recognize its  out  first  two  home and  questionnaires  return  once a week) in the c l a s s  Several  students  made a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e t y p e  symbolic  may  will  in Music  how  ( C l a s s e s met  session.  person  this  therapy.  noted  to students  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  this  in  media and  questionnaire  Myth  students  usefulness  people  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the  Death-Rebirth  2) t o t e a c h  were g i v e n  the  and  basis for  a questionnaire to  purpose of the  the  color.  o f each s e s s i o n .  1) t o e v a l u a t e  It  The  i s t h a t w i t h i n a group, d i f f e r e n t  able to e f f e c t i v e l y  ent  verbalizing  materials  methods were u s e d f o r e a c h s e s s i o n .  be  in the  Even t h o u g h s e s s i o n s employed  same p h i l o s o p h i c a l theme, d i f f e r e n t  variety  were  The  the last  directly commented  of answers s i n c e  o r metaphor s t a y e d  with  that the  them s e v e r a l  153  days and o n l y it  meant  later  personalities.  The  data  2) r e s u l t s 3) b r i e f  Description The  o f student q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ;  with  was p r o v i d e d w i t h  d r y sand  to find  and p r i v a t e ;  I n s t r u c t i o n s were: quiet.  thingness  Relax,  a spot  and movement.  something  music a s coming Music Hergest  used  sand-sculp-  a large,  deep  i n t h e room w h i c h was  and t o s i t i n t h a t  spot  o f them on t h e f l o o r .  "Breathe  deeply,  experience  a feeling  o f no-  When t h e m u s i c b e g i n s ,  with t h e d r y sand, e x p e r i e n c i n g  build  1979.  and a l a r g e g l a s s o f water.  let yourself find  in the quiet.  a r e ready,  13,  s e s s i o n combined music w i t h  Each s t u d e n t filled  I - November  placing the materials in front  you  lives  of the sessions;  of Session  first  comfortable  ature  of their  what  discussion of results.  They were a s k e d  the  picture  about  includes:  1) d e s c r i p t i o n  tray,  receive insight  i n terms o f t h e broader  and  ture.  d i d they  i t s t e x t u r e , temper-  P l a y a s l o n g a s you w i s h .  add water t o t h e d r y sand out o f or i n t h e sand. i n t o t h e sand  through  When  and b e g i n t o Think  your  was a 21 m i n u t e s e l e c t i o n  R i d g e by M i k e O l d f i e l d .  play  of the  hands". entitled  ( s e l e c t i o n #8 on t a p e )  A f t e r the slowly  complete t h e i r  in a c i r c l e ing  for discussion.  they  given  wished. their  would  each  I f someone c o u l d  of  Questionnaire  in  not  o f R e s p o n s e s f o r Yes-No Yes  of Responses f o r  together  person s t a r t e d d e s c r i b -  find  another  Each p a r t i c i p a n t  their  work as  words t o  they  describe  p e r s u a d e d t o do  8 10. II 12 10  questionnaires  so.  were  Items Part ia II y 3 2 I 2  No 3 4 I I 2  Items 2.7.8.9.  T h e r e were m u l t i p l e r e s p o n s e s on items 2,7,&9 and some i n item 8. Question  come  all  2: What theme d i d t h e m u s i c t o you?  questionnaires communicate  The f o l l o w i n g r e s p o n s e s were m e n t i o n e d a t o t a l t h r e e t i m e s e a c h on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s : e x p l o r a t i o n , p l a y f u l n e s s , movement, f l o a t i n g , bu i I d i ng, f u n . Two t i m e s e a c h : secret, mysticism,  to  I  of fourteen  (nothingness) (connect) (regeneration) (building) (meaning)  Table  were a s k e d  in t u r n s e l e c t e d  were not  Quest ion I 3 4 5 6  One  a s much t i m e t o d e s c r i b e  F o u r t e e n out returned. Table  students  l i k e t o hear f r o m .  s c u l p t u r e they  Results  over,  s a n d s c u l p t u r e s and  h i s s c u l p t u r e and  student was  m u s i c was  travelling.  of  155  One; "time e a c h : h i d i n g , c o n n e c t i o n s , m o v i n g up, m u s i c had o n l y a s u b t l e i n f l u e n c e , no a w a r e n e s s o f t h e m u s i c , p a i n , s p a c e and o p e n n e s s , t h e o n s e t o f g e n e s i s , strength. Question  7: Can you d e s c r i b e t h e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e m u s i c w h i c h " i n s p i r e d " you?  The g e n e r a l comment: "The m u s i c was p a r t o f t h e w h o l e , r a t h e r t h a n a f o c u s " , was m e n t i o n e d a t o t a l o f four times. "Spiritualism" t imes.  was  " P l a y f u l n e s s " was times.  mentioned a t o t a l  mentioned a t o t a l  of three  of  two  The f o l l o w i n g r e s p o n s e s were m e n t i o n e d one t ime: f l o w i n g , m e l t i n g , joyous, p a i n f u l , space, a drone, s w e l l i n g , s e c u r i t y , comfort, t r u s t ; p e r m i s s i o n t o e x p l o r e , d e v e l o p and c h a n g e , l i g h t n e s s , u n o b s t r u s i v e n e s s , none. Question  8:  " S a n d " was " W a t e r " was four  If o t h e r m a t e r i a l s i n s p i r e d what were t h e y ? mentioned a t o t a l mentioned a t o t a l  "Sun i n t h e room" was times. Question  9:  Any  of twelve of f i v e  times. times.  mentioned a t o t a l  further  The f o l l o w i n g a r e d i r e c t to t h i s question.  you,  of  comments: quotes  of  12  responses  - I was v e r y moved by t h e t o t a l experiences a n d and m u s i c c r e a t i o n . It was p o s i t i v e and energy— giving. - I loved doing t h i s a c t i v i t y . The e x p e r i e n c e o f b u i l d i n g p a r t s o f me i n t h e s a n d has s t a y e d w i t h me and b r o u g h t some " h i d d e n " p a r t s o f me c l o s e r t o t h e surface.  - The f e e l i n g e v o k e d by t h e s a n d - t h e t o u c h o f i t s c o o l n e s s , t h e memories c o n s c i o u s l y and u n c o n s c i o u s l y were c a l l e d up t h r o u g h t h a t t o u c h p l a y e d a b i g p a r t in t h e e x p e r i e n c e . They h e l p e d t o l e a d i n t o m y s e l f t o f o r g e t and f i n d m y s e l f . - The s a n d ' I have n e v e r f e l t s o drawn t o and c o n n e c t e d w i t h any o t h e r m a t e r i a l t o d a t e . It was a l l consuming. The m u s i c was b o t h i n c i d e n t a l and y e t f u n damental t o my e x p e r i e n c e . I n c i d e n t a l b e c a u s e I was a l r e a d y one w i t h t h e s a n d ; f u n d a m e n t a l , as I was aware o f some a s p e c t s o f i t ( e . g . , f l o a t i n g s e q u e n c e ) w h i c h d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e way I i n t e r a c t e d w i t h t h e s a n d . - My s a n d s c u l p t u r e a r i e s , the Sea". - My  p i e c e was  was  " I n t e r m i n g l i n g , Bound-  "Mountains  and  Valleys",  - I'm s u r e t h e m u s i c i n s p i r e d me i n some ways, b u t I t h i n k i t was more u n c o n s c i o u s t h a n c o n s c i o u s a s i t d i d n ' t s t a n d o u t as much t o me as t h e s a n d . - I was i n t o m y s e l f t o o much. The o n l y t i m e I r e a l l y h e a r d t h e m u s i c was r i g h t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g and a f t e r I had d e s t r o y e d my f i r s t s c u l p t u r e . - More t i m e f o r m e d i t a t i o n b e f o r e t h e  music.  - I f e e l we s h o u l d have s p o k e n more a b o u t our s a n d c r e a t i o n s as a c l a s s . P e o p l e would have commented on o t h e r s works and maybe s h a r e d some s y m b o l i c c o m m o n a I i t i which p e o p l e e x p r e s s e d . What do t h e s e images mean and how do t h e y r e l a t e t o us i n o u r l i f e r i g h t now? It seemed we n e v e r s h a r e d c o l l e c t i v e l y and t h u s t h e e x p e r i e n c e was somewhat i s o l a t i n g — a s e n s e o f o v e r v a l u i n g something l i k e t h i s c o n t r i b u t e s t o the f e a r of s h a r i n g more o p e n l y o r c o n f i d e n t l y . The s e n s e o f p r i v a t e and e x c l u s i v e was d o m i n e n t and I w i s h we c o u l d have g o t t e n beyond t h a t . - My words f o r my p i e c e were: Paths coming from d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s c o n v e r g i n g t o g e t h e r t o go up t o t h e mountain peak. A c a v e t o s h e l t e r i n and h o l e s t o h i d e i n , from l i f e , b u t a p a t h l e a d i n g out t o t h e mounta i n.  - I n t e r a c t i o n was a l m o s t n o n - e x i s t e n t . To my thoughts, a large p a r t o f t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h i s exe r c i s e was l o s t t h r o u g h l a c k o f a t t e m p t f o r mutual u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f one a n o t h e r ' s work. Had t h e g r o u p d e c i d e d t o f e e d back i m p r e s s i o n s , f a n t a s i e s t o one another, I b e l i e v e t h a t a g r e a t e r sense o f simply b e i n g human m i g h t have o c c u r e d . Discussion It  of Results of Session  i s obvious  I:  t h a t t h e s a n d became a  v e h i c l e f o r most p a r t i c i p a n t s .  The m u s i c t o o k  ary r o l e ,  i f any f o r some p e o p l e .  activity,  t h e m u s i c was  shaping  intended  i n f l u e n c e which p e o p l e  out  o f when s o i n c l i n e d ,  any  unique  outside  a second-  particular  t o be u s e d as a s u b t l e ,  could travel  i n t o and inhibit  o r f o r m s which m i g h t  suggestion.  c r e a t e a dream-1 i k e a f f e c t . t o be a s o l i t a r y ,  In t h i s  b u t w h i c h would n o t  interpretations  of the musical  powerful  emerge  It was meant t o  The e x p e r i e n c e  was  i n t r o s p e c t i v e t a s k , but with  i n d i s c u s s i o n f o r a s much s h a r i n g a s d e s i r e d by  intended room  left  parti-  cipants. Most p e o p l e building, and  were a b l e t o e x p e r i e n c e  meaningful  music.  feeling  a regenerative,  from t h e s e s s i o n w i t h  sand  158  APPENDIX  Description The ation spot All  of Session  light other  was  reflected  bell  flute,  timpani,  guitar  encouraged t o  sation.  use  and  t h o s e who  who  are  suggests.  string  voice  side  Each p e r s o n  or  feel  like  form  T o d a y we  them w h i c h the  improvi-  being  alone,  Those of  youthrees  the  y o u r shadow s i d e — p e r h a p s of yourse I f — w h a t e v e r  dancing.  the  "shadow"  group wiI I have a t u r n  creat-  of s t i l l n e s s  or  or p e r s o n s from the  group  I f you  tell  instruments t o play.  d a n c e or  were  work w i t h  a person  you  violin,  groups of p a i r s ,  nothingness.  improvise t o  pianos,  in musical  S t a r t £rom a s t a t e  to  Instru-  Students  i n g a shadow d a n c e . Select  musical  form.  bass,  like being together.  secret  wall.  follows:  T h o s e who  Become aware o f or  orchestra  were as  l a r g e r amongst y o u r s e l f .  dark s i d e  theatrical  A v a r i e t y of  tambourine.  "together-feeling"  shadow.  off,  cello,  their  groups. feel  large  b a s s drum, b o n g o s , 2  and  Instructions  "Form two  or  i n an  t r e e , gong, f l u t e s ,  silver also  up  A  in combin-  onto a blank, white  l i g h t s were t u r n e d  included  1979.  u s e d shadow d a n c i n g  improvisation.  i n s t r u m e n t s were s e t ments  II - November 20,  second s e s s i o n  with musical  E  dancers, r e f l e c t i n g  w i s h you  may  Instrumentalists their  movement  follow in your  music.  I f you  need more o f a m u s i c a l  direction,  think  o f m a k i n g an " u n d u l a t i n g " s o u n d . The  g o a l s f o r t h e second  the f i r s t . music,  It was  hoped t h a t  activity though  were s i m i l a r  t h e shadow  p e o p l e would e x p e r i e n c e a s y m b o l i c  death-rebirth,  which they c o u l d  specific  situation  activity  encouraged  identify  or  and  metaphoric  with  some  or p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . more o f a group  or  to  This  person-to-person  i nterchange. Each performers  shadow d a n c e and immediately  improv  d i s c u s s e d by  a f t e r t h e p i e c e was  Group members were e n c o u r a g e d it  was  completed.  t o share f e e l i n g s  o f what  meant f o r them.  Results  of Questionnaire 2  Ten o u t o f t w e l v e returned: Table  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were  o f R e s p o n s e s f o r Yes-No Q u e s t i o n s  Quest i on I 3 4 5 6 Table  Yes  (nothingness) (connect) (regeneration) (building) (meaning)  1.3.4.5.6.  Part t a l l y  7 5 7 7 10  No  I I 3 -  3 4 2 -  o f R e s p o n s e s f o r Items 2 . 7 . 8 . 9 . There  were m u l t i p l e  responses  the  on q u e s t i o n  2.  Q u e s t i o n 2: What theme d i d t h e m u s i c communicate t o you? of  The f o l l o w i n g r e s p o n s e s were m e n t i o n e d a t h r e e t i m e s on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s : mystery, spooky, wind. " P l a y f u l " was  m e n t i o n e d one  total  time.  The f o l l o w i n g r e s p o n s e s were m e n t i o n e d o n c e : s t r u g g l e between two p a r t s o f m y s e l f , c h a o s , joy, togetherness, d e a t h - r e b i r t h , s t r u g g l i n g , t e s t i n g , e x p a n d i n g , f r e e d o m , j o y , p e a c e , no contact, aggression, distance, i r r i t a t i o n , l o v e , p r e s e n t b u t w i t h - h e i d ; t h e m u s i c was me. It s i m u l t a n e o u s l y e n v e l o p e d me and was a b s o r b ed by me. Q u e s t i o n 7: Can you d e s c r i b e t h e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e m u s i c w h i c h " i n s p i r e d " you? There  was  one  response  - s p o o k y v o i c e s and  each  f o r Question  7«  cello.  - the music supported away t h i n g s .  me  and  a l l o w e d me  t o throw  - t h e t e n s i o n s and r e l e a s e s i n t h e m u s i c a f f e c t ed me a l o n g w i t h t h e s i l e n c e s and b r e a k s . The i n s t r u m e n t s v e r y much matched my mood and f e e l i n g s . I f e l t as one w i t h t h e m u s i c . - g e n t l e n e s s and ceI Io and b a s s .  warmth  in the f l u t e  sound,  - b e g i n n i n g and e x l p o r i n g s o u n d s , o f f l u t e , d a n c i n g and t w i r l i n g o f p e r c u s s i o n . I f e l t the d r i v i n g e n e r g y o f t h e c o n g o r i g h t t h r o u g h me. The m u s i c was f o r me and i n me a t t h e same t i m e — m y body became one w i t h i t . - an T  interflow  I was  between d a n c e s and  s t r u c k by a s e n s e  of  musicians.  support,  - t h e p o l a r i t i e s o f s o u n d p r o d u c e d by f l u t e / t o n e b a s s and g u i t a r / b o n g o s . The l o n g b r e a t h o f t h e f l u t e i n s p i r e d me, c a l m e d me and opened me. The bongos i n s t i g a t e d m o v e m e n t - a g i t a t i o n and d i r e c t i o n .  - perfection t u r b my f l o w .  o t h e r w i s e because  i t d i d not  dis-  i t was a s t r e t c h i n g f e e l i n g , t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e m u s i c and my shadow, u r g i n g g r o w t h , b u i l d i Question  T h e r e was Q u e s t i o n 8.  8:  If other m a t e r i a l s i n s p i r e d y o u , what were t h e y ?  a total  "Shadow" was "Interaction t imes. Q u e s t i o n 9:  o f seven  mentioned  four  the  to  times.  w i t h o t h e r s " was  mentioned  three  F u r t h e r comments?  The f o l l o w i n g a r e d i r e c t responses t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . -  responses  quotes  from  ten  loved i t .  - I felt music.  I could  l e t l o o s e and  be s u p p o r t e d  by  - I f o u n d t h i s t o be e x t r e m e l y p o w e r f u l a c t i v i t y and t h e t h i n g s which happened were m e a n i n g f u l . P l a y i n g f o r o t h e r s t o move a l s o had a g r e a t amount o f meaning f o r me which was e x t r a t o my own m o v i n g . It was not an e a s y a c t i v i t y f o r me t o do, but was beneficial. A t one p o i n t , I a l m o s t d i d n ' t c o m p l e t e t h e a c t i v i t y , b u t am g l a d t h a t I d e c i d e d t o do s o , and f i n i s h e d f o r myself. I f e l t a l o t o f s u p p o r t from t h e m u s i c i n t h a t I t r u s t e d p e o p l e p l a y i n g f o r me and heard t h e i r support. - My r e g r e t w i t h t h i s a c t i v i t y i s t h a t I d i d not f i n d a way t o c o m p l e t e my e n c o u n t e r w i t h my own shadow. I was v e r y aware however, o f how e x h i l e r a t i n g and c o m p l e t e i t was f o r many o t h e r p e o p l e , and f e e l e x c i t e d a t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g i t i n my p r a c t i c u m with adolescents. - T h i s a c t i v i t y was one o f t h e most e x c i t i n g I have e v e r t a k e n p a r t i n . I have n e v e r g i v e n m y s e l f o v e r t o movement and m u s i c i n s u c h a f r e e way, i n my l i f e — a t r u l y t r e a s u r e d moment. - The d a n c e between m y s e l f and my p a r t n e r merged together. I was more aware o f t h e shadows t h a n t h e music. Sometimes t h e m u s i c was more i n h i b i t i n g t h a n c a l l i n g out and I seemed t o be w o r k i n g a g a i n s t i t .  162  - I f e e l t h a t " n o t h i n g n e s s " i s a l o t t o ask f o r . Would i t be p o s s i b l e t o a p p r o a c h t h e s t a t e you a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n by o t h e r means? e.g., awareness o f b r e a t h ing, fantasy, e t c . - I would l i k e t o have d a n c e d a l o n e i n r e t r o s p e c t , i n r e l a t i o n t o my own shadow. It seems t o r e q u i r e some g u t s t o look a t y o u r s e l f s o d i r e c t l y . - Words f r o m t h e d a n c e : s o r r o w , c o v e r i n g , need, forgiveness, strength. It was e s p e c i a l l y w o n d e r f u l t o p l a y f o r and w i t h you, C a r o l y n . It w i l l be a memory t r e a s u r e o f y o u . - The most p o w e r f u l f o r me was t h e o n e n e s s w i t h the music. I c h o s e t h e p e o p l e t o p l a y and d i r e c t e d them t o i n s t r u m e n t s t h a t e x p r e s s e d what I had t o s a y a t t h a t moment. It was a c o m p l e t e and t o t a l expression, w i t h t h e m u s i c and my shadow as one. Discussion The the  musical  sessions.  leader a  of R e s u l t s  for  improvisation  i t s strong  were  2) t o t h e This  new  r e s u l t s , the The  dancers, f i n d  dimension  musical  of d e a t h - r e b i r t h ,  key  words  a s t a t e of  in the  reflected  a feeling  of respect,  mutually  creating.  in t h e  nurturing,  Comments on  in-  "undulate".  questionnaires, variety. of  instrumentalists,  sharing, the  in  direction  a l s o added a f e e l i n g  between shadow d a n c e r s and  the  "nothingness";  greater  closeness  to  improvisation  death-rebirth  is reflected  improvisation,  dimension  s e l e c t e d by  i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s , l e t your music  so t h a t t h e m a t i c c o n t e n t The  piece  musical  two  which s u g g e s t e d t h e  I) t o t h e  added a new  suggestion  more f r e e d o m .  structions  II:  Whereas a r e c o r d e d  sense guides the  provides  of Session  understanding,  questionnaire  re-  fleet  an  i n c r e a s e o f demands and  have come f r o m  attitude  of the  tension.  This  may  leader, seriousness  of  t h e m e d i a , o r a w i l l i n g n e s s on t h e p a r t o f some g r o u p p a r t i c i p a n t s t o use C e r t a i n l y , the of the  gong and  deeper  level  not in  had  shadow  i s a powerful  string  bass  or dimension  much e x p e r i e n c e  medium.  a l s o may  growth. Inclusion  have s u g g e s t e d  a  of experience.  Students  had  w i t h t h e c e l l o and  string  bass  a split  in  particular. Several  their with  students mentioned d e a l i n g with  personalities. dark  resistent frontation the  the s e s s i o n f o r personal  Some m e n t i o n e d c o m i n g f a c e t o  personality  characteristics,  t o change.  In a s e n s e  with  some shadowy s i d e .  deathr-reb i r t h myth h e r e  lost, occur.  they  or g r e a t l y transformed  which t h e y engaged  The  face  feel  in a  con-  application  i s t h a t s o m e t h i n g must i n o r d e r f o r new  of be  growth  to  APPENDIX  Description The  III - November 2 7 ,  of Session  third  and  final  ment w i t h p r e - r e c o r d e d  by a  Then  lights  i n a warm-up  lighter  were dimmed.  This activity  person  in the c u r l i n g  hands w i t h t h o s e on normal  breaths.  a feeling  on t h e f l o o r ,  either  seed  floor  and  move you, wish,  take task.  follows:  head t o t h e  inside,  but h o l d i n g  side.  Take  Relax,  or n o t h i n g n e s s .  even,  own  i f you  time.  time,  yourOnly  side.  i t as c o m i n g a l o n g  are ready  and  Keep y o u r  D u r i n g t h e movement, p e o p l e  Find  wish.  i n t h e hands on e i t h e r  t i n u e t o h o l d hands w i t h t h e p e o p l e  own  imagine  body a s n o u r i s h m e n t .  o n l y when you  move i n t h e i r  both  leaf position,  begins, t h i n k of  i n t o your  in your  used  g i v e and  were as  under t h e ground  be aware o f t h e warmth When t h e m u s i c  was  Let t h e  the music  as s l o w l y as  eyes  closed  on e i t h e r  and  you con-  side".  were e n c o u r a g e d  slowly, gradually.  as  Etudes,  Empty y o u r mind o f a l l t h o u g h t s .  of s t i l l n e s s  s e l v e s a s one  they  They moved  quicker Chopin  I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e main a c t i v i t y  each  move-  in which  rope.  a s a warm-up and t o p r o v i d e a p l a y f u l  "Form a c i r c l e  group  music.  large material  a u n i t t o some o f t h e  1979.  s e s s i o n combined  Students p a r t i c i p a t e d were e n c i r c l e d  F  to  They moved  a s one  unit,  Chopin's  some " g r o w i n g "  Etude  in A f l a t  secutive times. of  silence  and  After  m a j o r was  played three con-  s t i l l n e s s followed.  t h e y were r e a d y . of t h e i r  quickly.  the t h i r d time, a b r i e f  a s k e d t o come t o a s i t t i n g  ed pen  s l o w e r , some more  choice.  Then s t u d e n t s were  position  Each p e r s o n The  was  in the c i r c l e  g i v e n paper  E t u d e was  and  in p o e t i c  or  any  t h e end  some.  about  I paired  comments a s a g u i d e . for  The two  listening.  the  t h e s t u d e n t s up,  The  using  a c t i v i t y seemed  were:  w o u l d have a t i m e  o f no r e s t r i c t i o n  had  through  2) P e o p l e who  group  each  different  other through  They which  movement.  would s h a r e a b a l a n c e  from  and  their  qualities.  S t u d e n t s were a s k e d t o s i t on t h e f l o o r back,  arms j o i n e d  their  incomplete  s h a r e d a common f e e l i n g .  been d i c t a t e d  poems  activity.  criterion for pairing  1) P e o p l e who  learn  their  were t h e n a s k e d t o s h a r e t h e i r  other f e e l i n g s  At  color-  f o r m — e i t h e r in connection with pre-  v i o u s movement o r f r o m t h e new Participants  when  played again  t w i c e and p e o p l e were a s k e d t o t r y t o c a p t u r e feelings  period  as a s t a r t i n g  moved t o t h e A f l a t  Chopin  position.  Etude.  back  Again  to they  Results  of Questionnaire S i x t e e n out returned.  Ml  of sixteen  T a b l e o f R e s p o n s e s f o r Yes-No Quest i on I 3 4 5 6  7  and  Items  Yes  (nothingness) (connect) (regeneration) (building) (meaning)  Table  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were  of Responses f o r  Par i t a I I y  14 14 14 12 12  2 3 I  five total  2 2 I 3  f  on  items 2  2: What theme d i d t h e m u s i c t o you?  " G r o w i n g " was m e n t i o n e d a t o t a l on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . one  No  Items 2 7 . 8 . 9 .  T h e r e were m u l t i p l e r e s p o n s e s some on item 8. Question  1.3.4.5.6.  and  communicate  of f i v e  times  The f o l l o w i n g r e s p o n s e s were each m e n t i o n e d time: f l o w i n g c y c l e s and c i r c l e s , f l i g h t and f l y i n g , s o a r i n g ; r i s i n g , f a l l i n g , l i k e an o c e a n w i t h waves c o m i n g i n ; c i r c l e s i n r e p e t i t i o n w i t h a strong d i r e c t i o n a l undercurrent, struggling t o be f r e e v s . c o m f o r t , n u r t u r i n g o f c o n t a c t and warmth; c a l m n e s s , s w i r l i n g b i r t h , lightness and s o l i d a r i t y , d e a t h - r e b i r t h , r e l a x a t i o n , t e n d e r f e e l i n g s , l o v e , s e c l u s i o n and b r e a k i n g away, c o n n e c t e d and a l o n e a t t h e same t i m e . Question  7: Can you d e s c r i b e t h e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e m u s i c w h i c h " i n s p i r e d " you?  "Lifting times.  and  f a l l i n g " was  mentioned a t o t a l  of  The f o l l o w i n g r e s p o n s e s were e a c h m e n t i o n e d a of t h r e e times: f l u i d , crescendos, flowing, b u i l d i n g .  " B a l a n c e " was m e n t i o n e d  a total  o f two t i m e s .  The f o l l o w i n g r e s p o n s e s were each m e n t i o n e d one t i me: g a t h e r i n g and expanding, i n t r o s p e c t i v e , g e n t l e / a s s e r t i v e , deep b a s s b r i n g i n g v i b r a t i o n t h r o u g h the f l o o r , s p a c i o u s n e s s a l l o w e d f o r h i g h s e n s i t i v i t y o f t o u c h , t h e q u i e t e n d i n g s o o t h e d me, r e p e t i t i o n , c o n t r a s t between h i g h and low t o n e s , c o l o r i n music, lightness. Question  8:  If other m a t e r i a l s what were t h e y ?  i n s p i r e d you,  eight  " O t h e r p e o p l e s h a n d s " was m e n t i o n e d times.  a total  of  three  "The e x e r c i s e times.  a total  of  one  itself"  was m e n t i o n e d  The f o l l o w i n g r e s p o n s e s were e a c h m e n t i o n e d time: w r i t i n g a poem, d a r k e n e d l i g h t s , s u n . Q u e s t i o n 9: F u r t h e r comments?  The f o l l o w i n g a r e d i r e c t responses t o t h i s question. of  nine  - I f o u n d s h a r i n g my poem h a r d e r t h a n t h e r e s t the activity. -  the  quotes from  I wish t h e music  had been  longer.  - My image was o f f a l l o p i a n t u b e s , l e a d i n g t o n o u r i s h i n g hands, a n o t h e r way t o g e t f u l l . -  I was aware o f g i v i n g  and t a k i n g .  - I t was d i f f i c u l t t o b r i n g m y s e l f o u t o f t h e c u r l e d p o s i t i o n , s o I was g l a d t o be h o l d i n g h a n d s . T h a t c o n t a c t s t o p p e d me f r o m l o s i n g c o n n e c t i o n w i t h other people. I was s h a k y and warm; i n t r o s p e c t i v e . - T h i s a c t i v i t y was n o t i n t r o s p e c t i v e f o r me a s o t h e r s had b e e n . It was v e r y m e a n i n g f u l and f u I f i l l i n g t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e s e n s a t i o n o f b a l a n c e and o n e n e s s w i t h t h e m u s i c , my p a r t n e r and m y s e l f . My body f e l t b i g g e r , e x t e n d e d .  - I l i k e t h e idea o f moving t o g e t h e r , i n a c i r c l e — t h e s u g g e s t i o n t o keep i n t o u c h w i t h o t h e r s a l l t h e t i m e r e s t r i c t e d me. On t h e o t h e r hand, i t i s a l i f e s i t u a t i o n which o c c u r s o f t e n . - The a c t i v i t y seemed d i s j o i n t e d — i n s e n s e o f c o n n e c t i o n w i t h e a c h o t h e r and e x p e r i e n c e o f m u s i c . My p a i r e d movement, on t h e o t h e r hand, was a v e r y pleasurable experience. I t h i n k t h e w r i t i n g ena b l e d me t o l e a v e a p a s t e x p e r i e n c e c l e a r l y . - The more'I am s u c c e s s f u l i n e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e s e s e s s i o n s with a deeper, p r e - v e r b a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h e more d i f f i c u l t I f i n d i t i s t o c a l l i t up and back t o s u r f a c e , l i n e a r t h o u g h t . I f e e l cont e n t e d f o r t h e most p a r t t o l e t t h e e x p e r i e n c e r o o t deep and t a k e i t s t i m e c o m i n g up. The s c r a t c h e s on t h e r e c o r d were i r r i t a t i n g and d i s r u p t i v e . Discussion The of  of R e s u l t s of Session  table  positive  on page  response  able t o experience sense  Several  for Session  a feeling  identity  III.  mentioned the  feeling  Most e x p e r i e n c e d ability  activity  t o accept  was  a sense  of being s p l i t  in a  maintain  and  one's  having own  g r o u p movement. of renewal.  n u r t u r i n g o r new  prevalent.  were  o f g r o u p movement.  make d e c i s i o n s a b o u t whether t o a s s e r t with the  degree  Many p e o p l e  o f growing, whether  under t h e p r e s s u r e  movements, o r c o n f o r m  of  indicates the highest  o f moving w i t h t h e f l o w or s t r u g g l i n g t o  o n e ' s own  to  166  III  life  The from  theme others'  169  Cone I us i o n s In r e f e r e n c e t o t h e t h r e e D,  E, &  F, c e r t a i n  this particular who  group.  with  relationship is  qualifications  music.  with the  o f f e r e d i n an  these  two  in Appendix  should  be made a b o u t  T h e y were m u s i c t h e r a p y  a r e b e i n g t r a i n e d t o be  imaginative  sessions  particularly  T h e y were  leader.  in a  receptive  not  an  and  student-teacher  Even t h o u g h t h i s  experiential,  students  academic  course way,  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s would have some a f f e c t  on  the  resuIts. The  three  s e s s i o n s were d e s i g n e d  d e g r e e o f demand on session alone;  allowed the  or p a r t  people  t o be  second allowed  of a group, the  Pre-recorded of  participants.  In g e n e r a l  totally  a choice  last  m u s i c was  was  in e s c a l a t i n g first  i n t r o s p e c t i v e and  about being  a group  alone  task.  selected for  d e a t h - r e b i r t h through musical  the  suggestion  c o n t r a s t and  pattern-  i ng. From t h e a b l e t o use personal takes and  m u s i c and  insight  and  other  resources  healing.  many f o r m s t h r o u g h o u t t h e  analogy  to  are manifested level  questionnaire results,  of  life  situations  in a great  intensity  The  as  were  a vehicle for  d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth  responses.  Imagery  or p e r s o n a l i t y c o n f l i c t  variety  v a r i e s from  most p e o p l e  of d e s c r i p t i o n .  session to session  The and  from p e r s o n t o p e r s o n . was more p l a y f u l first the  session  music  used  In g e n e r a l , t h e f i r s t  than t h e l a s t .  The m u s i c  was more s u b t l e and l e s s in the  In any c a s e t h i s  icipant  results  feedback.  used  in the  demanding t h a n  last. documentation  presents three  e x a m p l e s o f u s i n g t h e d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth subsequent  session  from  immediate  i n m u s i c and  or short-term p a r t -  APPENDIX G  This  section  documents t h r e e M u s i c  Therapy  sessions  ( A p p e n d i c e s G,H,&l),  at University  of B r i t i s h  Columbia  Dept.  Day T r e a t m e n t  program,  of Psychiatry,  c o n d u c t e d by E l i z a b e t h M o f f i t t , The  day t r e a t m e n t program  Music  a t U.B.C. a c c e p t s  p a t i e n t s who a g r e e t o p a r t i c i p a t e five  d a y s a week f r o m 9-4.  in which group  in therapy  I t i s an o n - g o i n g  as o t h e r s a r e d i s c h a r g e d . enough t o r e q u i r e  i n need  a variety  program  These p e o p l e a r e not  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n , but  of intensive therapy.  The program  of treatment techniques including  t h e r a p y , non-rverbal g r o u p s , M u s i c T h e r a p y , R e c r e a t i o n Therapy  attendence  sessions are provided  uses  PsychoChemotherapy,  and O c c u p a t i o n a l T h e r a p y .  minute Music Therapy Patient  programs  new p a t i e n t s a r e a d m i t t e d t o t h e c o n t i n u i n g  disturbed still  Therapist.  Ninety-  once a week.  is required.  The f o l l o w i n g m u s i c t h e r a p y r e p o r t s were p r o v i d e d by Ms. M o f f i t t  i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h me t o d o c u -  ment t h e d e a t h - r e b i r t h myth iveness therapy  in therapy. sessions  i n music  and i t s e f f e c t -  She a g r e e d t o c o n d u c t t h r e e  using the death-rebirth  myth.  music  Session  I - September  Description  10,  1079.  o f S e s s i o n I.  1) P a r t i c i p a n t s were a s k e d t o w r i t e down one main a r e a t h e y were w o r k i n g on p e r s o n a l l y i n t h e day p r o g r a m , e i t h e r f o r t h a t h o u r / d a y o r more g e n e r a l l y , f o r t h e i r time in t h e program. 2) They were a s k e d t o i m a g i n e p h y s i c a l l y b e i n g a b l e t o shake o f f , push away, k i c k away, c o n f r o n t , e t c . , t h i s p a r t o f t h e m s e l v e s , or t o a c c e p t i t i n s u c h a way t h a t i t would no l o n g e r be a p r o b l e m . 3) In a c i r c l e , e a c h p e r s o n t o o k a t u r n a t moving i n t h e above way, w h i l e a l l o t h e r s i n t h e c i r c l e r e f l e c t e d o r i m i t a t e d t h e movement. P r e - r e c o r d e d music u s e d was "Get Away" by E a r t h , Wind and F i r e and " R e s p e c t Y o u r s e l f " by A r e t h e a F r a n k l i n . 4) The group l i s t e n e d t o " A d a g i o f o r S t r i n g s " ( s e l e c t i o n §7 on t a p e ) , by Samuel B a r b e r . The g r o u p was a s k e d t o i m a g i n e t h e m s e l v e s e i t h e r as a s e e d o r a f e t u s o r any e a r l y l i f e f o r m l a y i n g on t h e f l o o r , f e e l i n g t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s , n o t i c i n g sounds, emotions, v i s u a l s , e t c . , and t h e n a l l o w i n g t h e m u s i c t o soak i n , moving i f t h e y f e l t l i k e i t . 5) The g r o u p h e a r d t h e r e c o r d a s e c o n d t i m e , w r i t i n g down images, f e e l i n g s , memories, e t c .  while  6) The g r o u p had a s h o r t d i s c u s s i o n p e r i o d i n which t h e y s h a r e d t h e i r f e e l i n g s and poems, ( s e e poems attached) 7) T h e y t h e n d i d s h o u l d e r massage General  in p a i r s .  Results:  T h e r e was much l a u g h t e r , h i g h e n e r g y , p l a y f u l n e s s , and p h y s i c a l e x p a n s i v e n e s s i n t h e movement p a r t . R e a c t i o n s t o t h e B a r b e r " A d a g i o " had t h e u s u a l s p l i t between d e a t h and l o s s images, and i n n e r s t r e n g t h , l i f e f o r c e and c o n n e c t i o n w i t h n a t u r a l p r o c e s s e s .  1. P a t i e n t E., d i a g n o s e d weeks a g o , t h i s talked  lady f e l t  schizophrenic:  that  t o h e r s h e would d i e .  beautiful  statement  A few  i f anyone s o much a s T h i s poem t o me, i s a  o f her growth.  TO GAIN MORE  CONFIDENCE  As a s e e d under t h e g r o u n d I f e l t a l o n e , d a r k n e s s was a l l a r o u n d and I had no f r i e n d s . G r a d u a l l y as I s p r o u t e d out o f t h e ground I began t o s e e how b e a u t i f u l t h e w o r l d was. I saw t h e s u n i t was warm and good, I saw the t r e e s swaying i n t h e breeze, t h e c l o u d s rolling i n t h e s k y a l l o f n a t u r e was s o f r i e n d l y and i t f e l t s o good j u s t t o be t h e r e . 2.  P a t i e n t J . , diagnosed  T h i s was h e r f i r s t shy  woman, h a v i n g  adjustment r e a c t i o n :  day i n t h e p r o g r a m .  She i s a q u i e t ,  r e c e n t l y had one l e g a m p u t a t e d ;  h e r s e l f a t t h e stage  of just  GAIN S E L F CONFIDENCE  beginning  again.  IN ALL AREAS  The s e e d i s p l a n t e d w i t h l o v i n g c a r e The s u n and t h e r a i n t h e y a r e t h e r e And t h e f l o w e r s t h a t began t h e same p r o t e c t i v e l y c i r c l e and c a r e But t h e s e e d remembers t h e c o l d of Ii f e b e f o r e and c r i e s n o t t o grow J u s t t o be i n n o t h i n g n e s s no more p a i n no more a c h e no more I i f e Gently the flowers give t h e i r h a p p i n e s s away s o t h a t t h e new s e e d may f o r g e t t h e p a i n and grow warm i n t h e i r sun t h e seed q u i v e r s and b e g i n s a g a i n .  perhap  3,  Patient  T., d i a g n o s e d b i p o l a r  disorder:  S h e was e x t r e m e l y c r e a t i v e  perceptive  o f h e r s e l f and o t h e r s .  incorporates  Her t h i r d  INTO MY  I w i s h I c o u l d be as I am But I am l e a r n i n g t h a t o t h e r s that i t i s like t h i s .  4.  lusional. two  I will  Patient  psychotic  always  look  S., d i a g n o s e d  episode:  drawing  a r e t e l l i n g me way.  schizophrenic  - acute  scattered  her w r i t i n g as being  There a r e l o t s birth  LIFE  at i t t h i s  She c a n be q u i t e  She d e s c r i b e d  aspects.  i n h e r movement,  l i f e - d e a t h symbols f o r h e r .  TO PUT SOME STRUCTURE  But  affective  and d e split  into  o f e l e m e n t s h e r e which I  think  can represent  ( s p i r i t u a l i t y , i d e a l i s m ) and  death  ( p a i n , p e s s i m i s m , h o p e l e s n e s s and a l o n e n e s s ) t o h e r . GAIN SELF CONFIDENCE b e c o m i n g more s o c i a b l e having a steady adult level d o n ' t you c h a n g e turn time c a n ' t we a l l do t h a t t o g e t h e r d o n ' t you know we c a n ' t go back b u t we c a n push on. no, no, no, o n l y now and when c a n we c h a n g e never, i t s t o o l a t e , go b a c k , c a n ' t go back We'I I t r y r e a I h a r d and make i t work. So l e t ' s l i v e , be d e f i n i t e , say f i n e , answer back r i g h t away.  175  Everyone t h i n k s di f f e r e n t I y give i t time f o r urn unan -swered q u e s t i o n s no one p e r s o n t h i n k s t h e same a s I m y s e l f d o . No one no one no one no one the t r u t h I t s not f o r g o t t e n i t s n o t t o be d i s c a r d e d i t s t o be r e c o g n i z e d and t o be r e a l i z e d p l u s l o v e , v i t a l i t y and o n e n e s s needs t o be t h e r e . be t h e r e w i l l you a I ways come t o my r e s c u e s a y s t h e g i r l maiden t o t h e boy b r a v e h u r t , drawn, c r i m i n a l , t i m e l e s s , p e s s i m i s t i c , irrelevant, distinguished, ancient, o r i e n t a l , l o r d , w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g , no one, no o n e . 5.  Patient  B., d i a g n o s e d p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r  manic/depressive: woman w i t h by  saying  think  fast  s e v e r e mood s w i n g s . she'd  she c o u l d  lively  She i s a v e r y  b r i g h t , powerful She e n t e r e d  young  the session  had a h e a d a c h e f o r 4 d a y s and d i d n ' t do much t o d a y .  i n t h e movement p a r t  body movement.  with  Soon she became laughter,  very  a g i t a t e d and  She h i d under t h e t a b l e  while  l i s t e n i n g t o t h e A d a g i o and l e f t t h e room h a l f way the  second  had  felt  listening.  God  f o r causing  for  loved  very  -  During discussion,  through  she s a i d she  low l i s t e n i n g t o t h e m u s i c and a n g r y a t d e a t h and l e a v i n g p e o p l e b e h i n d t o s u f f e r  ones and a n g r y a t t h e m u s i c f o r h a v i n g s u c h an  effect high  on h e r b e i n g t h a t  and t h e next r e a l l y  music",  one m i n u t e low.  She c a l l e d  a n d a s k e d how s h e c o u l d TO OVERCOME MY ANXIETY  s h e was r e a l l y  survive AND  i t "morbid  like  that.  DEPRESSION  AND BEING SO MOODY Let me o u t o f t h i s b e c a u s e i t ' s d r i v i n g me c r a z y , and i f I d o n ' t g e t o u t o f h e r e , I'm g o i ng t o d i e , and t h e r e won't be a p a r a d e , just a lot of relieve, B e c a u s e you c a n ' t go o n , If l i f e won't l e t y o u , It seems s o s t u p i d , That a f e e l i n g can overcome y o u , How do you i n t o u c h with your f e e l i n g s ? I g u e s s you r e a l l y c a n ' t How do you g e t r i d o f s o m e t h i n g you c a n ' t p u t y o u r f i n g e r on? Is t h e r e a way o u t ? 6.  Patient  J . , diagnosed depressive  T h i s was h i s f i r s t  neurosis:  day i n t h e p r o g r a m .  EXPRESSING MY FEELINGS WITH CONFIDENCE The s e e d has i t ' s p r o p e r t i e s a n d message t o grow i n a h a r s h w o r l d a r o u n d a s t r u g g l e s o d i f f i c u l t t o l i v e and easy t o d i e i t c o n t i n u e s t o f i g h t f o r i t knows why. It u s e s t h e e l e m e n t s i n s h o r t s u p p l y w i t h no q u e s t i o n o r doubt b u t j u s t t o t r y t o s u r v i v e and f l o u r i s h day t o day, and f l o w e r a n d p a s s on t h e p r o c e s s t h i s way.  7. He  P a t i e n t G., d i a g n o s e d d e p r e s s i v e  i s a very  q u i e t , shy, intense  H i s poem s p e a k s o f l i f e  neurosis:  a n d i n t e l l i g e n t man.  and death, m y s t i c i s m  and c o n -  fIicts. TO GAIN SELF CONFIDENCE AND  LEARN  TO RELATE TO PEOPLE Man c o l d ch i I d c o I d Superman? The  Is t o r n  sun r i s e s  into  and b r i n g s  clouds death t o darkness  The warmth o f t h e womb. Growth h o t , v i t a l strong. T h e r e i s an e n d . S l o w l y t h e y become s t r o n g e r m o v i n g t o meet t h e m s e l v e s . Alone, independent, a t t a c h e d by t h e p u l s e . My mind wanders a t w o n d e r s . A p e a r l , h e a v y w i t h l a y e r e d c o a t i n g s man h i s l i f e . There i s a v i s i o n t h a t comforts a r e t u r n t o t h e womb, warm, t h r o b b i n g , e n d u r i n g . The r e s i d u a l warmth c o o l s s l o w l y i n t h e h e a d . The j o i n i n g o f l i v e s , b r a i d s o u r c o l l e c t i v e sou I . C o l d , empty b l a c k e n e d h u s k , i t s germ s h r i v e l l e d and b u r n t .  APPENDIX  S e s s i on  II - September  Description  17,  H  1979.  of Session I I .  1) The group moved s p o n t a n e o u s l y i n a c i r c l e French Canadian F i d d l e music. (warm-up) each  to  2) P e o p l e t h e n p a i r e d up and i n i t a t e d o r r e f l e c t e d o t h e r ' s movements. a) w i t h l i v e l y l a r g e movements b) w i t h e y e s c l o s e d , i n s l o w e r movements t o c e l t i c harp music.  3) P a r t i c i p a n t s were a s k e d t o f i n d t h e i r own s p a c e , and w h i l e s t a n d i n g , a c c e p t t h e m u s i c and i m a g i n e t h e y e a r s a r e r o l l i n g back s l o w l y , u n t i l you become a f e t u s o r a baby a g a i n . Let y o u r body g e t s m a l l e r u n t i l you a r e l y i n g on t h e f l o o r . N o t i c e memories and f e e l i n g s , p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l . M u s i c u s e d was a ) P s y c h o l o g i c a l l y U l t i m a t e S e a s h o r e ( s o u n d s o f s e a ) and b) Sound o f Main A r t e r y o f t h e M o t h e r f r o m L u l l a b y f r o m t h e womb. 4) W i t h p a r t n e r s f r o m 2B a b o v e , r o c k e a c h o t h e r t o t h e m u s i c and i n c h i l d ' s v o i c e , ask f o r e x a c t l y what you want f r o m y o u r " p a r e n t " . M u s i c u s e d was "Mood" by R o b e r t a F l a c k and Donny Hathaway and t h e s l o w movements f r o m V i v a l d i ' s T r i o f o r G u i t a r , V i o l i n and C l a v i c a n , C o n c e r t o i n D. m a j o r . 5) W i t h t h e sarnie p a r t n e r , members were a s k e d t o s c u l p t u r e t h e i r p a r t n e r , a s i f t h e y were c l a y , i n t o some p o s i t i o n o f s t r e n g t h or s y m b o l i c o f some o t h e r q u a l i t y they admire. M u s i c u s e d was P a c h e l b e l ' s Canon. General  Results:  T h i s was a p o w e r f u l s e s s i o n f o r e v e r y o n e , i n one way o r a n o t h e r . It was q u i t e u n u s u a l t h a t p e o p l e r a n out o f t h e s e s s i o n . T h i s time four l e f t c l e a r l y being f a c e d w i t h t h e i r u s u a l t a c t i c ' s when r e p r e s s e d f e e l i n g s were s t i r r e d up. Many s u r p r i s e d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o g i v e and t o r e c e i v e . O t h e r s were r e m i n d e d o f e a r l y I i f e e x p e r i e n c e s and f e e l i n g s w h i c h h o p e f u l l y c a n be u s e d f o r t h e i r p r e s e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  179  Specific 1. order  Results: P a t i e n t B and C., d i a g n o s e d  - manic/depressive:  e n e r g e t i c and l e d c i r c l e good g r o u p f e e l i n g ganization. "I  can't  getting She  angry  that  with  I don't myself  like  -  ( t o o many d r u g s ) .  years  ago, s h e f e l t  really  remembered b e i n g  returned  this".  she f e l t from  like  dying;  age 10-14  S i n c e her f a t h e r d i e d t h r e e mixed  up.  She s a i d  She d i d n ' t want  she f e l t she f e l t  s h e was s a d but don't  Had memories o f b e i n g  when s h e was 3 y e a r s o l d .  h i t , w a k i n g up i n h o s p i t a l .  After talking  She a l s o She was  t h e room, r e t u r n e d , t h e n t o myself  f o r the rocking.  We  g r o u p members.  and o t h e r  later  down h e r memories and f e e l i n g s with t r u s t e d  I'm  why,  so f r i g h t e n e d she l e f t again.  f o r B. -  I'm n o t d o i n g  P a t i e n t S I . , undiagnosed: i n an a t t i c  and o r -  being touched,  h e r . She s a i d  " g o i n g t o b i t s " — n o hope.  2,  in very  s t o p p i n g and s t a r t i n g s e v e r a l  years  want t o t h i n k a b o u t  dis-  - v e r y happy -  difficult  remember a n y t h i n g  anyone t o come n e a r  came  participation  In d i s c u s s i o n , s h e s a i d  she c o u l d n ' t  locked  activities  2B was e x t r e m e l y  d i d keep t r y i n g ,  times.  F o r #1 b o t h  - lively  s l o w down,  personality  left  s t a f f , she  d i s c u s s e d her w r i t i n g  f o r her f a m i l y t o share  She has v e r y  strong deter-  180  mi n a t i o n t o c o n f r o n t  h e r s e l f and work t h r o u g h h e r  fears. 3.  P a t i e n t Go., u n d i a g n o s e d :  remember t h e p a s t saying his  "this  10 y e a r s  i s crazy  that  anything  and l e f t  stuff".  e s c a p e s and w i t h d r a w a l  He d i d n ' t t h e room  twice,  When c o n f r o n t e d  from  activities,  a b s t r a c t f o r me".  and  very  Y e t he i s v e r y  about  he  had any s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r h i m .  too  want t o  denied  "This i s  intellectual  c l o s e d o f f t o h i s e m o t i o n s and has l i t t l e  body  awareness. 4.  Patient  speedy. mother  L., u n d i a g n o s e d :  Today she slowed  She i s u s u a l l y  down and e n j o y e d b e i n g  very in a  role.  5.  Patient  He f e l t  L,, d i a g n o s e d o b s e s s i o n a l  suddenly angry d u r i n g  hands on t h e f l o o r why b u t c o n t i n u e d  saying with  the rocking  "I'm mad".  neurosis: and h i t b o t h  He d i d n ' t  know  t h i s theme t h r o u g h f a n t a s y and  wr i t i n g . 6. his  P a t i e n t Ge., d i a g n o s e d  first  being  day.  He s a i d  schizophrenic:  he c l e a r l y  felt  i n h i s mothers w o m b — f e a r f u l ,  angry.  "She i s an e v i I  rocked—but himself touched.  person".  nourishment.  i t was  was like  p a n i c - s t r i c k e n and  He d i d n ' t  r a t h e r wanted t o m e d i t a t e ,  necessary  what  This  want t o be  trying  t o give  He had a f e a r o f b e i n g  APPENDIX I  S e s s i on  III - September 24,  Description  of Session  1979.  III.  1) Warm-up - Two c i r c l e s d a n c e d simultaneously-one e n e r g e t i c , one s l o w e r . P e o p l e asked t o s h i f t from one c i r c l e t o a n o t h e r . M u s i c was i m p r o v i s e d on tamb o u r i n e , drums and x y l o p h o n e . 2) P r o n e r e l a x a t i o n and l i s t e n i n g t o Wagner's Prelude t o Lohengrin. P a t i e n t s were a s k e d t o a l l o w f e e l i n g s , images, memories t o come f r o m t h e m u s i c . (see  3) I n d i v i d u a l xerox).  from  4) D i s c u s s i o n - 3 words t o d e s c r i b e each p a i n t i n g .  5) M u s i c a l cuss ion. General  paintings  improvisation  t o the  same m u s i c the  from p a i n t i n g s  feelings and  dis-  Results:  E x c e l l e n t use o f b o t h c i r c l e s by many p e o p l e ; l o t s of e n e r g e t i c musical improvisation, laughter, c l a p p i n g a t t h e end. It was a good p h y s i c a l r e l e a s e f o r more q u i e t a c t i v i t y t o f o l l o w . Generally, people were f r e e w i t h t h e p a i n t s u s i n g b o l d b r i g h t , c o l o r s . The p a i n t i n g s g e n e r a l l y seemed t o show l i f e - d e a t h f o r c e s t h r o u g h t h e d i v i s i o n s and c o l o r u s e .  Specific art  Results:  Most p a t i e n t s c h o s e not t o v e r b a l l y d e s c r i b e work. T h r e e d i d comment: I.  psychotic tears  Patient  SI.,  eposide:  after painting  diagnosed schizophrenic,  She her  left  the  room s e v e r a l  "mother's red  blood"  their  acute times on  the  in paper.  2.  Patient  C., d i a g n o s e d c h a r a c t e r  She s a i d h e r p a i n t i n g 3.  Patient  represented  disorder:  "angry, trapped,  V,, d i a g n o s e d a c u t e s c h i z o p h r e n i c  action:  She d e s c r i b e d  serenity  and growth.  her p a i n t i n g as  hurt' re-  symbolizing  P a t i e n t p a i n t i n g s were p h o t o g r a p h e d on 35mm s l i d e s and a r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n c o l o r x e r o x . The o r i g i n a l p a i n t i n g s w h i c h were a p p r o x i m a t e l y 13x15 i n s i z e , were returned t o patients, at t h e i r request.  188  

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