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Jain values, worship and the Tirthankara image 1980

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J A I N VALUES, WORSHIP AND THE TIRTHANKARA IMAGE B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d / THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA May, 1980 (c)Roy L. L e a v i t t In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requ i rement s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I ag ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Anthropology & Sociology The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e 14 October 1980 The main purpose of the thesis i s to examine Jain worship and the role of the Ja i n s 1 Tirthankara images in worship. The thesis argues that the worshipper emulates the Tirthankara image which embodies Jain values and that these values define and, i n part, dictate proper behavior. In becoming l i k e the image, the worshipper's actions ex- press the common concerns of the Jains and follow a pattern that i s prized because i t i s believed to be es p e c i a l l y Jain. The basic orientation or l i n e of thought i s that culture i s a system of symbols. These symbols are i m p l i c i t agreements among the community's members, agreements which e n t a i l values and which permit the Jains to meaningfully interpret t h e i r experiences and guide t h e i r actions. The thesis traces the connections between Jain doctrine and e t h i c a l b e l i e f s , and t h e i r p r a c t i c a l manifestations i n r i t u a l , s o c i a l action and i n s t i t u t i o n s , a r t i s t i c symbolism and the experiences and sentiments of the Jains. The thesis goes on to argue that the worship of the Tirthankara image expresses those more firmly entrenched values of Jainism which, during worship, are grounded i n the metaphysical. When p u b l i c l y recognized i n the r i t u a l context, these values permit the Jains to recognize t h e i r c u l t u r a l unity and to i d e n t i f y themselves with the T i r t h - ankara image, a constant reminder of the id e a l person and the i d e a l society. By becoming l i k e the image, the wor- shipper not only has an opportunity to r e f l e c t on his progress toward l i b e r a t i o n but to r e f l e c t upon his position within his community and devise a strategy to maintain or improve his s o c i a l prestige. In the f i n a l section, the thesis addresses the a r t i s t i c symbolism of the image. This section argues that the image represents i n aggregate those i d e a l q u a l i t i e s — a c h i e v e d only through proper action—which are es s e n t i a l before attaining l i b e r a t i o n and which are used to determine one's r i t u a l prestige. The image symbolizes the proper behavior with which every Jain ought to comply i n the r i t u a l and s o c i a l contexts. This section maintains that the image expresses a c u l t u r a l idiom used to interpret one's past, present and future experiences and actions, as well as the nature of those s o c i a l relationships seen as fundamental i n each Jain-'-s struggle for s p i r i t u a l and s o c i a l prestige. - i v - TABLE OF CONTENTS I . INTRODUCTION.. 1 I I . METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS 6 . I I I . THE J A I N S . 11 F i r s t P r i n c i p l e s : P h i l o s o p h y a n d L i f e 11 The Monk a n d t h e O r d e r ' s O r g a n i z a t i o n 17 The J a i n C u l t u r a l P a t t e r n a n d S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n 21 I V . RELIGION AND WORSHIP 40 R e l i g i o n : D e f i n i n g t h e Domain 40 The R i t u a l S e t t i n g a n d t h e Image 4 5 W o r s h i p 4 9- The Monk's W o r s h i p 52 The N o n - i d o l a t r o u s S t h a n a k a v a s i 5 6 V. LAY IDOLATRY 6 0 Image W o r s h i p : A B r i e f D e s c r i p t i o n 60 The S t r u c t u r e o f J a i n W o r s h i p 64 R i t u a l P u r i f i c a t i o n 6 8 C a n d a n a - p u j a : W o r s h i p w i t h S a n d a l s 72 R i t u a l S u p e r i o r i t y i . 74 The S e c o n d H a l f 79 The O f f e r i n g 82 G i f t G i v i n g : The O f f e r i n g A g a i n 86 B h a v a - p u j a : P u r i f y i n g T h o u g h t 92 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n ...94 - v - V I . THE TIRTHANKARA IMAGE 97 The Image as V i s u a l T h e o l o g y 98 D i s t i n g u i s h i n g C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 100 M a h a - P u r u s h a 102 C a k r a v a r t i n : U n i v e r s a l K i n g 103 The A s c e t i c .105 N u d i t y 108 M a l e Form 112 Y o g a 117 M e d i t a t i o n 117 Y o u t h f u l B o d y . . . . 12 0 S i l e n c e -121 The T i r t h a n k a r a ' s P o s i t i o n a n d O r i e n t a t i o n : The C e n t e r .'...122 The U s u a l a n d A c c u s t o m e d : A D e s c r i p t i o n . . 1 2 5 Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n 130 V I I . BIBLIOGRAPHY 137 - v i - L I S T OF FIGURES 1. The P a t t e r n o f t h e J a i n O f f e r i n g 134 2. T i r t h a n k a r a ( C h a n d r a p h r a b h a ) i n Padmasana ( B r u h n , 1969) 135 3. T i r t h a n k a r a i n K y o t s a r g a ( B h a t t a c h a r y a , 1974) 136 INTRODUCTION J a i n i s m i s an a s c e t i c m o n a s t i c f a i t h i n I n d i a . I t i s a h e t e r o d o x s y s t e m w h i c h r e j e c t s t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e V e d a s , t h e s a c r e d b o o k s o f t h e H i n d u s , a n d B r a h m i n r i t u a l i s m , e m p h a s i z i n g e s c a p e f r o m l i f e , r a t h e r t h a n u n i o n w i t h Brahma ( t h e D i v i n e R e a l i t y o f w h i c h a l l e l s e i s s a i d t o be a m a n i f e s t a t i o n ) . I t s name d e r i v e s f r o m J i n a , o r " V i c t o r i o u s One," a l a w - g i v e r a n d t e a c h e r , who e x p o u n d s t h e e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s l e a d i n g t o l i b e r a - t i o n (moksa, n i r v a n a ) . The l a w - g i v e r s a r e a l s o known as T i r - t h a n k a r a s ( F o r d m a k e r s ) , t h o s e who h a v e c r o s s e d t h e r i v e r o f r e b i r t h . T h e s e T i r t h a n k a r a s e x e m p l i f y t h e p a t h t o w a r d l i b e r a - t i o n , t h e s o l e e s c a p e f r o m s a m s a r a ( t r a n s m i g r a t i o n ) . D u r i n g t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y B.C., H i n d u i s m h a d r e p l a c e d B r a h m a n i s m a nd was c o n s o l i d a t i n g i t s h o l d o v e r I n d i a ' s p o p u l a - t i o n . S a l v a t i o n was c o m i n g t o r e s t i n t h e e x e c u t i o n o f com- p l i c a t e d r i t u a l s , a d m i n i s t e r e d b y t h e B r a h m i n s . The c a s t e s y s t e m was a s s u m i n g i t s f a m i l i a r f o r m : a h i e r a r c h y o f r i t u a l l y r a n k e d , i n t e r d e p e n d e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f p e o p l e . On t h e w e s t e r n p e r i p h e r y o f H i n d u i s m ' s i n f l u e n c e i n B i h a r , s e v e r a l K s h a t r i y a ( w a r r i o r ) c l a n s d i s p u t e d t h e B r a h m i n ' s ( p r i e s t ' s ) c l a i m o f r i t u a l a n d s o c i a l s u p e r i o r i t y ; t h e y o p e n l y r e j e c t e d t h e s a c r e d V e d a s w h i c h a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r i n f e r i o r i t y t o a n a t u r a l i n h e r e n t c o n d i t i o n o f t h e e n t i r e c a s t e . T h e s e K s h a t r i y a s h a d l o n g - 2 - r e g a r d e d t h e m s e l v e s t h e e q u a l s , i f n o t s u p e r i o r s , o f t h e B r a h m i n s , and t h e y r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t a r i t u a l i s m t h a t d e n i e d s a l v a t i o n t o n o n - B r a h m i n s . I t was f r o m t h e s e K s h a t r i y a clans'*" t h a t t h e B u d d h a a n d M a h a v i r a , t h e " G r e a t H e r o " o f J a i n i s m , a r o s e t o c h a l l e n g e t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e B r a h m i n ' s V e d a s . T h e s e K s h a t r i y a o f f e r e d p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n t o any i n d i v i d u a l who f o l l o w e d t h e i r a n t i - B r a h m a n i c a l t e a c h i n g s . U n l i k e t h e B u d d h a , M a h a v i r a was a r e f o r m e r o f an e a r l i e r a s c e t i c o r d e r b e g u n by P a r s v a n a t h a , t h e t w e n t y - t h i r d T i r t h a n k a r a o f t h e J a i n s . M a h a v i r a p r e a c h e d a c r e e d o f s e v e r e a s c e t i c i s m a n d a t h e i s m ; s e l f - m o r t i f i c a t i o n a n d r e s p e c t f o r l i f e w e r e h i s p r i m a r y t e n e t s . He b e g a n h i s c a r e e r a s a r e n o u n c e r ( s a n n y a s a ) i n B i h a r . H a v i n g f u l f i l l e d h i s d u t i e s o f m a r r i a g e and f a t h e r - h o o d a s a y o u n g man, he j o i n e d a g r o u p who f o l l o w e d t h e t e a c h - i n g s o f P a r s v a n a t h a . He w a n d e r e d t h e Ganges v a l l e y f o r t w e l v e y e a r s , u n t i l he g a i n e d e n l i g h t e n m e n t ( k e v a l i ) , a t w h i c h t i m e he f o u n d e d h i s own o r d e r o f monks w h i c h w e r e s u p p o r t e d b y a f o l l o w i n g o f l a y f o l k . D u r i n g t h e l a s t t h i r t y y e a r s o f h i s l i f e , M a h a v i r a ' s t e a c h i n g e a r n e d h i m a g r e a t r e p u t a t i o n a n d h i s c o m m u n i t y grew. I n t h e t h i r t i e t h y e a r o f h i s r e n u n c i a t i o n ( c . 468 B . C . ) , M a h a v i r a v o l u n t a r i l y s t a r v e d h i m s e l f t o d e a t h t o g a i n moksa ( f r e e d o m ) . L a t e r g e n e r a t i o n s o f J a i n s p r o c l a i m e d h i m t h e t w e n t y - f o u r t h and f i n a l T i r t h a n k a r a o f t h i s c o s m i c c y c l e . 1. As Weber ( 1 9 5 8 : 225-28) n o t e s , t h e r i s e o f B u d d h i s m a n d J a i n i s m was among " w e l l - e d u c a t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l / s J T * who w e r e " . . . n o t o f t h e u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d b u t o f v e r y p o s i t i v e l y p r i v i l e g e d s t r a t a . " - 3 - The J a i n c o m m u n i t y p r o s p e r e d a f t e r M a h a v i r a ' s d e a t h . How- e v e r , d u r i n g t h e r e i g n o f C a n d r a g u p t a ( c . 310 B . C . ) , a s e r i o u s f a m i n e t h r e a t e n e d t h e s u r v i v a l o f M a h a v i r a ' s o r d e r . The o r d e r d i v i d e d , one g r o u p r e m a i n i n g i n t h e Ganges v a l l e y a n d t h e D e c c a n , and t h e o t h e r m o v i n g s o u t h t o M y s o r e . T h i s g e o g r a p h i c a l d i v i s i o n a ssumed d o c t r i n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The J a i n s m a i n t a i n t h a t d u r i n g t h e d i v i s i o n o f t h e c o m m u n i t y , M a h a v i r a ' s t e a c h - i n g s w e r e f o r g o t t e n . I n a n e f f o r t t o r e c o n s t r u c t them a n d w r i t e a c a n o n , a s c h i s m r e s u l t e d ( c . 82 A . D . ) . One g r o u p o f J a i n s r e g a r d e d n u d i t y a s a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l f o r l i b e r a t i o n ( t h e D i g a m b a r a , o r " S k y c l a d " ) , v / h i l e t h e o t h e r g r o u p ( t h e S v e t a m b a r a , o r " W h i t e c l a d " ) , d e n i e d t h e n e c e s s i t y o f n u d i t y i n a t t a i n i n g l i b e r a t i o n . T h r o u g h o u t l a t e r c e n t u r i e s , o t h e r m i n o r d o c t r i n a l d i s a g r e e m e n t s l e d t o a d d i t i o n a l s c h i s m s , w i t h i n t h e two m a j o r d i v i s i o n s o f J a i n s . U n l i k e B u d d h i s m , J a i n i s m n e v e r s p r e a d b e y o n d I n d i a ' s b o u n d a r i e s . The J a i n s a d o p t e d H i n d u c u s t o m s a n d m a n n e r s s o l o n g a s t h e y d i d n o t v i o l a t e t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f J a i n i s m , e s - p e c i a l l y a h i m s a , n o n - v i o l e n c e . W h i l e t h e J a i n s h a v e no r u l e s f o r w o r s h i p , T i r t h a n k a r a i m a g e s h a v e b e e n commonly w o r s h i p p e d s i n c e c. 100 B.C., a l t h o u g h t h e J a i n s s a y t h e y h a v e w o r s h i p p e d i m a g e s o f M a h a v i r a s i n c e c. 400 B.C. Images o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a s , l i k e H i n d u g o d s , a r e w o r s h i p p e d i n t e m p l e s . A s J a c o b i ( 1 9 1 5 : 473) r e m a r k s , t h e t e m p l e w o r s h i p o f T i r t h a n k a r a i m a g e s r e m a i n s t h e "most c o n s p i c u o u s h a b i t o f t h e l a i t y . " - 4 - The p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o e x a m i n e J a i n w o r s h i p and t h e r o l e o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i m a g e i n w o r s h i p . I m a i n t a i n t h a t w o r s h i p a n d t h e image embody and e x t e r n a l i z e J a i n v a l u e s , w h i c h d e f i n e a n d , i n p a r t , d i c t a t e p r o p e r b e h a v i o r f o r t h e c o m m u n i t y ' s members. T h r o u g h J a i n w o r s h i p , I s h a l l a r g u e , s o c i a l v a l u e s a r e g r o u n d e d i n t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l and t h e p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y a r e made o b j e c t i v e . Once v a l u e s a r e e x p l i c i t l y and c o n s c i o u s l y o b j e c t i f i e d , t h e y h e l p t h e J a i n c o m m u n i t y c o n f i d e n t l y o r i e n t i t s e l f i n t h e w o r l d . W o r s h i p a n d t h e T i r t h a n k a r a image n o t o n l y i n t e r p r e t and i n f o r m t h e J a i n s o f t h e i r s p e c i f i c s o c i a l h i s t o r y , b u t a l s o r e v e a l t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l o r d e r . T h i s e x a m i n a t i o n o f w o r s h i p a t t e m p t s t o a n s w e r two q u e s t i o n s : w h a t a r e t h e v a l u e s e m b o d i e d i n r i t u a l e v e n t s ? , and how i s i t t h a t v a l u e s d e f i n e a n d d i c t a t e p r o p e r b e h a v i o r ? Our f i r s t t a s k , though, p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h i d e n t i f y i n g v a l u e s , must a d d i - t i o n a l l y s e a r c h f o r a p a t t e r n o f p r i o r i t i e s among t h e s e v a l u e s . E m p h a s i s , n o t r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e , d e f i n e s J a i n i s m , a n d i t i s i n w o r s h i p t h a t t h e d i s t i n c t i v e l y J a i n p a t t e r n o f v a l u e s assumes i t s g r e a t e s t d e f i n i t i o n . The s e c o n d q u e s t i o n s q u a r e l y c o n f r o n t s w o r s h i p ' s c o n t r o l o v e r s o c i a l b e h a v i o r . W o r s h i p i s a s e t o f s y m b o l i c s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h b o r r o w s i t s v o c a b u l a r y f r o m t h e e v e r y d a y n a t u r a l and s o c i a l w o r l d s t o d i s c u s s t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l r e a l m , t h e r e a l l y r e a l . T h e s e s y m b o l s , o n c e e m p l o y e d , l o g i c a l l y a n d m e a n i n g f u l l y i n t e g r a t e t h e w o r l d . H e r e I a r g u e t h a t t h e i m a ge i s t h e c e n t e r o f i n t e r e s t i n w o r s h i p and t h a t t h e image r e v e a l s t o t h e w o r s h i p p e r s t h e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s o f J a i n i s m , w h a t i t i s t o b e a J a i n . - 5 - The m a j o r theme o f t h e t h e s i s i s t h a t , d u r i n g w o r s h i p , t h e w o r s h i p p e r becomes l i k e t h e T i r t h a n k a r a , r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e i m a g e . I n b e c o m i n g l i k e t h e i m a g e , t h e w o r s h i p p e r n o t o n l y e x p r e s s e s t h e common c o n c e r n s o f t h e J a i n s , w h i c h w o r s h i p and t h e i m age e x p r e s s , b u t h i s a c t i o n s f o l l o w a p a t t e r n t h a t i s p r i z e d b e c a u s e i t i s b e l i e v e d t o b e e s p e c i a l l y J a i n . N o t o n l y i s c o s m i c harmony o r o r d e r e s t a b l i s h e d , b u t J a i n v a l u e s a n d t h e J a i n ' s p r e f e r r e d v i s i o n o f t h e w o r l d a r e g i v e n a u t h o r i t y as T r u t h . W o r s h i p n o t o n l y l i n k s t h e h i s t o r i c a l p a s t , p r e s e n t , a n d f u t u r e , b u t t h e r e a l a n d t h e r e a l l y r e a l . I n e f f e c t , w o r - s h i p and t h e i m age f o r m a c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n cosmos a n d s o c i e t y . - 6 - METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS I t i s one t h i n g t o s t a t e a m e t h o d . I t i s q u i t e a n o t h e r t o l e g i t i m i z e i t o r show how t h e m e t h o d h e l p s t o e x p l a i n t h e phenomena u n d e r s t u d y . R e c e n t l y F a b i a n ( 1 9 7 1 : 20) w r o t e : t h e c r i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h o u r d i s c i p l i n e seems t o be c a u g h t i s due t o a g e n e r a l and l a r g e l y u n c r i t i c a l a c c e p t a n c e o f a p o s i t i v i s t - p r a g m a t i s t p h i l o s o p h y o f s c i e n c e i n A m e r i c a n A n t h r o p o l o g y . By p o s i t i v i s t - p r a g m a t i s t p h i l - o s o p h y I mean a v i e w o f t h e s o c i a l - s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t y w h i c h a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e s e two c r i t e r i a : (a) W h a t e v e r t r u t h , may be f o u n d i s e q u a t e d w i t h t h e l o g i c a l f l a w l e s s n e s s o f t h e o r i e s g e n e r a t i n g t e s t a b l e p r o p o s i t i o n s . (b) The m e a n i n g o f s u c h k n o w l e d g e i s i t s s u c c e s s i n " a c c o u n t i n g f o r , " " p r e d i c t i n g " a n d , g e n e r a l l y , g i v i n g e v i d e n c e o f t h e m a n i p u l a b i l i t y o f " d a t a . " What t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n d o e s n o t i m p l y ( a t l e a s t i n any r a d i c a l way) i s a c r i t i q u e o f t h e w o r k i n g o f r e a s o n a n d t h e f a c t u a l i t y o f f a c t s . I t i s an a p p r o a c h i n w h i c h m e t h o d o l o g y ( t h e r u l e s o f c o r r e c t a n d s u c c e s s f u l p r o c e d u r e ) h a s t a k e n t h e p l a c e o f e p i s t e m o l o g y ( r e f l e c t i o n on t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f c o m m u n i c a b l e k n o w l e d g e ) . H i s c r i t i c i s m : t h e p o s i t i v i s t m e t h o d o l o g y , t h o u g h p r o c e d u r a l l y a d e q u a t e , n e g l e c t s c r u c i a l e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s . B u t w h a t d o e s he mean? 2. G e n e r a l l y , i n a p o s i t i v i s t s c i e n c e , e v e n t s a r e o r d e r e d by u s i n g t h r e e t y p i c a l k i n d s o f a s s e r t i o n s : a. n a m i n g o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n b . t h e b a s i c o r p r o t o c o l s e n t e n c e w h i c h s t a t e s a f a c t and c a n be v e r i f i e d b y o b s e r v a t i o n . T h e s e s e n t e n c e s s t a t e an i n t e n t i o n a l i d e n t i t y i n s u b j e c t - p r e d i c a t e f o r m . c . a s s e r t i o n s o f t h e f o r m ( o f a l a w ) : E = f ( c ) i n w h i c h E i s t h e s u b s e q u e n t v a l u e , c i s t h e n u m e r i c a l v a l u e o f t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n , f i s a f u n c t o r a n d = i s a n a s s e r t i o n o f r e a l i d e n t i t y b e t w e e n t h e two s i d e s ( P e r c y , 1 9 7 8 : 2 4 3 - 2 6 4 ) . - 7 - As a g e n e r a l p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e , p o s i t i v i s t t h e o r i e s assume t h a t b a s i c p r o p o s i t i o n s a n d l a w s a r e e m p i r i c a l l y d i s c o v e r a b l e , a n d , t h e r e f o r e , a r e i n some s e n s e i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e o b s e r v e r ; t h e y a r e p a r t o f a n o b j e c t i v e w o r l d . I n s o f a r a s a m e t h o d o l o g y i s p o s i t i v i s t i c , i t assumes t h a t t h e r e a r e a t o m i c o b j e c t s a n d e v e n t s , c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o c e r t a i n p r o p e r names, and a t o m i c f a c t s , c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o p r o t o c o l s e n t e n c e s . F.abian r e j e c t s t h e p o s - i t i v i s t ' s a s s u m p t i o n s : p h e n o m e n a l i s m , n o m i n a l i s m ( t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t g e n e r a l o r a b s t r a c t t e r m s h a v e no m e a n i n g b e c a u s e t h e y do n o t r e f e r t o i n d i v i d u a l c o n c r e t e o b j e c t s ) , t h e n o n - c o g n i t i v e n a t u r e o f v a l u e j u d g e m e n t s , i . e . , F a b i a n r e j e c t s t h e e m o t i v e t h e o r y o f v a l u e s and a l l o w s a p l a c e f o r m o r a l e v a l u a t i o n s , a n d , f i n a l l y , t h e b e l i e f i n t h e e s s e n t i a l u n i t y o f s c i e n t i f i c m e t h o d . I n a n u t s h e l l , he r e j e c t s t h e p o s i t i v i s t ' s f u s i o n o f m e a n i n g w i t h e v i d e n c e ( t r u t h o r f a l s i t y ) . F o r t h e p o s i t i v i s t , e a c h d e s c r i p t i o n p r e s u p p o s e s a m e a n i n g t h a t r e m a i n s s t a b l e a n d , t h e r e f o r e , i s i n p a r t i n d e p e n d e n t o f c o n t e x t . I f one a d o p t s t h e p o s i t i v i s t m e t h o d o l o g y , he a s s e r t s t h a t s y s t e m a t i c d e s c r i p t i o n s o f r e a l i t y v a r y i n f i d e l i t y : t h a t u l t i m a t e l y he c a n r e d u c e t h e w o r l d t o some b a s i c s t r u c t u r e , t h a t he c a n m e a s u r e d e g r e e s o f r e a l i s m and k n o w l e d g e . The a c - c u r a c y o f a d e s c r i p t i o n i s a mere t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m , r a t h e r t h a n a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m . A p o s i t i v i s t o b s e r v e r b a s e s h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o n t h e c o n j u n c - t i o n o f p e r c e i v e d p r o p e r t i e s . He must assume t h a t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n - 8 - c l a s s i f i e s an o b j e c t o r e v e n t a c c o r d i n g t o p a r t i c u l a r p r o p e r t i e s ( o r a s u f f i c i e n t s e t o f p r o p e r t i e s ) , . a n d t h a t o t h e r s c i e n t i s t s r e c o g n i z e t h e s e p r o p e r t i e s . The s c i e n t i s t r e f i n e s a d e s c r i p - t i o n ; he d o e s n o t q u e s t i o n t h e f a c t u a l i t y o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n . F o r F a b i a n , t h e o b s e r v e r ' s o b j e c t i v i t y i s a c o r r e l a t i v e o f s h a r i n g a t h e o r y , i . e . , a s e t o f p r o p o s i t i o n s , c o n s i s t e n t l y t i e d t o g e t h e r by t h e r u l e s o f a c o n v e n t i o n a l l o g i c , i n w h i c h t h e t h e o r y n o t o n l y s e l e c t s t h e d a t a o f t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d , b u t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y o r d e r s them. O b j e c t i v i t y l i e s n o t i n l o g i - c a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e t h e o r y o r t h e g i v e n n e s s o f d a t a , b u t i n i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y . I n F a b i a n ' s v i e w , t h e u n q u e s t i o n e d a s s u m p t i o n — t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e o r y i s t h a t o f r e a l i t y — o v e r l o o k s t h e b a s i c p r o b l e m : one knows r e a l i t y o n l y t h r o u g h t h e t h e o r y , and no r e a l i t y , i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e t h e o r y , e x i s t s w i t h w h i c h t o c o r r e c t o r c ompare t h e t h e o r y . The i m p o r t a n t p o i n t f o r u s , h o w e v e r , i s t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f d o i n g s c i e n c e and t r a n s m i t t i n g t h e r e s u l t i n g k n o w l e d g e f r o m one p e r s o n t o a n o t h e r p r e s u p p o s e s an i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t , a s y m b o l i c c o n v e n t i o n , w h i c h i s b u i l t upon a s e t o f a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t t h e w o r l d . T h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s a r e s y m b o l i c s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h , w i t h i n t h e p o s i t i v i s t i c m e t h o d , s c i e n c e d i s a l l o w s as a s u b j e c t o f i t s a n a l y s i s . The s c i e n t i s t v i e w s t h e s e assump- t i o n s a s t r u e , s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h make t h e w o r l d c o n s i s t e n t . He a t t e m p t s t o v e r i f y o r f a l s i f y s t a t e m e n t s , w h i c h m u s t h a v e an e m p i r i c a l c o n t e n t , w i t h e v e n t s c o m p r i s i n g h i s d a t a . - 9 - The p e r s p e c t i v e I a d o p t i s t h a t d a t a m u s t be r e g a r d e d as i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ( i n t h e f i r s t c a s e , t h e n a t i v e ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a n d , i n t h e s e c o n d c a s e , t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i s t ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) a nd n o t a s r e f l e c t i o n s o f f a c t s e x i s t i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e o b s e r v e r . R a t h e r , t h e o b s e r v e r — w h e t h e r a n t h r o p o l o g i s t o r n a t i v e — i s a n a c t i v e a g e n t ; he c r e a t e s k n o w l e d g e . K n o w i n g i s a p r o c e s s i n w h i c h e x t e r n a l s a r e p e r c e i v e d a n d t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e d e x p e r i e n c e . A d e s c r i p t i o n d o e s n o t d e - s c r i b e t h e w o r l d , a n d t h e s y s t e m a t i c r i g o r o f a d e s c r i p t i o n i s more a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n t h a n t h e w o r l d (Goodman, 1 9 7 2 : 2 4 - 3 2 ) . The r e a l q u e s t i o n i s w h e t h e r an a c c o u n t i s s y s t e m a t i c a n d n o t w h e t h e r t h e w o r l d i s . T h e r e - f o r e , i f a d e s c r i p t i o n c a n n o t d e s c r i b e t h e r e a l w o r l d , t h e n i t c a n n o t f i n d a way t h e w o r l d i s . The way one s e e s t h e w o r l d i s , b y a n d l a r g e , an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; t h e w o r l d a p p e a r s t o be many s i d e d , a n d e a c h a c c o u n t d e s c r i b e s p a r t o f i t : any a c c o u n t d e s c r i b e s o n l y a r e a l i t y . As G e e r t z ( 1 9 7 3 : 1 5 , 9) s a y s : A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l w r i t i n g s a r e t h e m s e l v e s i n t e r - p r e t a t i o n s , a n d s e c o n d - a n d t h i r d - o r d e r o n e s t o b o o t . (By d e f i n i t i o n o n l y a " n a t i v e " makes f i r s t - o r d e r o n e s : i t ' s h i s c u l t u r e . ) They a r e , t h u s , f i c t i o n s . . . . " S o m e t h i n g made".... What we c a l l o u r d a t a a r e o n l y o u r own con-^ s t r u c t i o n s o f w h a t t h e y a n d t h e i r c o m p a t r i o t s a r e up t o . . . . R i g h t down a t t h e f a c t u a l b a s e . . . o f t h e w h o l e e n t e r p r i s e , we a r e a l r e a d y e x - p l i c a t i n g : a n d w o r s e e x p l i c a t i n g e x p l i c a t i o n s . Any s t u d y o f c u l t u r e e x a m i n e s p r o p o s i t i o n s w h i c h c o n s t r u c t and t i e r e a l i t y t o g e t h e r . The w o r l d e x i s t s , b u t i t c o n f o r m s - 1 0 - t o b e l i e f s . As I w i l l a r g u e b e l o w , a c t i o n i s a p r o d u c t o f t h e a c t o r ' s p e r c e p t i o n s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , a n d j u d g e m e n t s . One h a s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e a c t o r ' s c o n t e x t o f a c t i o n , i f h e w a n t s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e a c t o r ' s a c t i o n s . I t i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t a n t h r o p o l o g y r e m a i n s an e s s e n t i a l l y i n t e r p r e t i v e e x e r c i s e . - 11 - THE J A I N S F i r s t P r i n c i p l e s ; P h i l o s o p h y and L i f e As Herman J a c o b i (1961) r e m i n d s u s , J a i n i s m was a r e l i g i o n w e l l b e f o r e i t became an o r g a n i z e d p h i l o s o p h y , b u t u n l i k e t h e A d v a i t a s y s t e m s , t h e J a i n s n e v e r moved t o - w a r d p h i l o s o p h i c a l monism. A c c o r d i n g t o J a i n c o s m o l o g y ( t h e r e i s no c o s m o g o n y ) , t h e u n i v e r s e i s c o m p o s e d o f two s u b s t a n c e s : c o n s c i o u s s o u l s ( j i v a ) a nd u n c o n s c i o u s p a r - t i c l e s o f m a t t e r ( a j i v a ) . The g o a l o f l i f e i s t o e f f e c t a nd m a i n t a i n t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f j i v a a n d a j i v a . A j i v a i s composed o f f i v e s u b s t a n c e s : an i n f i n i t e number o f d u s t l i k e p a r t i c l e s ( p u d g a l a ) a n d t h e m e d i a o f d h a r m a , a d h a r m a , a k a s a a n d k a l a . Dharma, w h i c h s h o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h e dharma ( m o r a l i t y ) o f c a s t e , i s t h e medium o f m o t i o n , w h i l e adharma i s t h e medium o f r e s t . A k a s a i s s p a c e and k a l a i s t i m e . T h e r e a r e two t y p e s o f s o u l s : t h e l i b e r a t e d ( s i d d h a , muk t a) a n d t h e mundane ( s a m s a r i n ) . The J a i n s d o g m a t i c a l l y a s s e r t t h a t a s o u l , h a v i n g a c c u m u l a t e d k a r m i c m a t t e r ( p u d g a l a ) , i s b o r n i n v a r i o u s f o r m s , d e p e n d i n g upon t h e t y p e o f and d e g r e e o f k a r m i c o b s t r u c t i o n . E t e r n a l l y a l i v e a n d i m m a t e r i a l , t h e s o u l has: p e r c e p t i o n and k n o w l e d g e . A s o u l r i s e s t h r o u g h i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t . I t i s e n t i r e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s own - 1 2 - a c t i o n s . B u t s o u l s a t t a i n p e r f e c t i o n i n t h e w o r l d o n l y w i t h g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y , a n d t h e J a i n s h a v e an e l a b o r a t e s y s t e m o f m e t a p h y s i c a l p r i n c i p l e s t o e x p l a i n t h e p r o c e d u r e as w e l l as an e t h i c a l s y s t e m t o e f f e c t t h e r i s e a n d e v e n t u a l l i b e r a t i o n . They a r e d i f f e r e n t s i d e s o f t h e same c o i n . The m e t a p h y s i c a l p r i n c i p l e s a r e known as t h e t a t t v a s . They a r e : 1 ) t h e w o r l d i s composed o f j i v a a nd 2 ) a j i v a . 3) B e c a u s e o f t h e s o u l ' s p a s s i o n s ( k a y a s a s ) o f a n g e r , p r i d e and d e s i r e , p a r t i c l e s f l o w i n t o t h e j i v a ( a s r a v a ) , 4 ) w h e r e t h e y a r e b o n d e d ( b h a n d a ) . The s o u l becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y s a t u r a t e d w i t h k a r m i c p a r t i c l e s , a nd t h e o n l y way t o r e g a i n f r e e d o m i s t h r o u g h 5) t h e c e s s a t i o n o f t h e i n f l o w o f p a r t i c l e s ( s a m v a r a ) a n d 6 ) an e v e n t u a l d i s p l a c e m e n t o f k a r m i c m a t t e r ( n i r j a r a ) . A s r a v a , t h e i n f l o w o f k a r m a , i s c a u s e d b y y o g a , t h e v i b r a t i o n s o f t h e m i n d , s p e e c h , and b o d y . S i n c e t h e s o u l i n i t s p e r f e c t e d s t a t e i s s e p a r a t e d f r o m k a r m i c m a t t e r , t h e i n - f l o w o f k a r m i c p a r t i c l e s i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l o f o n e ' s m i s e r y i n l i f e . T h i s i n f l o w , t h o u g h , n e e d n o t be o n l y d i s - a d v a n t a g e o u s . A c t i o n , i f i n f o r m e d b y R i g h t K n o w l e d g e a n d R i g h t B e l i e f , p r o m o t e s R i g h t C o n d u c t ( t h e s e a r e t h e t h r e e j e w e l s o f J a i n i s m ) a n d t h e r e f o r e p r o d u c e s m e r i t o r i o u s k a r m a . U l t i m a t e l y , t h o u g h , one m u s t a r r e s t e v e n t h e s e g o o d and p r o p e r a c t i v i t i e s s i n c e a l l a c t i o n s a t t a c h one t o t h e w o r l d i n some manner. 13 - The J a i n e t h i c e m p h a s i z e s c o m p l e t e s e p a r a t i o n f r o m t h e w o r l d . E x c h a n g e s o f g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s o r s i m p l y c o n t a c t w i t h a n o t h e r p e r s o n a l t e r s o n e ' s r e l a t i v e p u r i t y , i . e . , a l t e r s t h e make-up o f o n e ' s k a r m i c b o d y , and s h o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , be m i n i m i z e d . The d e v o u t l a y m a n o r monk d i r e c t s h i s b e h a v i o r s o l e l y t o t h i s t a s k . A c t i o n b r i n g s k a r m a . The i n d i v i d u a l t a k e s e v e r y p r e c a u t i o n a g a i n s t t r a n s f o r m i n g a n o t h e r ' s a s w e l l as h i s own i n t e r n a l m o r a l c o d e f o r a c t i o n : a " p e r s o n ' s m o r a l q u a l i t i e s a r e t h o u g h t t o be a l t e r e d by c h a n g e s i n t h e p e r s o n ' s b o d y t h a t r e s u l t f r o m e a t i n g c e r t a i n f o o d s , e n g a g i n g i n c e r - t a i n k i n d s o f s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e , u n d e r g o i n g c e r t a i n c e r e m o n i e s , o r f a l l i n g u n d e r c e r t a i n o t h e r k i n d s o f i n f l u e n c e " ( M a r r i o t t , 1 9 7 2 : 4 ) . V a r i o u s k i n d s o f v i g i l a n t g o o d c o n d u c t , m e d i t a t i o n , h a r d - s h i p s and a g e n e r a l l y c o n t e m p l a t i v e mood i n d a i l y a f f a i r s p r o m o t e s a m v a r a o r t h e c e s s a t i o n o f a s r a v a , b u t m o s t o f a l l , one f r e e s h i m s e l f t h r o u g h c o n s e c r a t e d s o c i a l a c t i o n : t h e p u r i t y o f n o n v i o l e n c e ( a h i m s a ) i n a c t i o n , s p e e c h a n d t h o u g h t ( S a n g a v e , 1 9 5 9 : 2 3 0 ) . The monks, t o a v o i d a c c u m u l a t i o n o f k a r m a r e s u l t i n g f r o m p r o l o n g e d c o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r s , t r a v e l t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y , n e v e r s t o p p i n g f o r more t h a n a few d a y s , e x c e p t d u r i n g t h e r a i n y s e a s o n when a c c i d e n t a l i n j u r y o f s o u l s ( e . g . , i n s e c t s ) i s g r e a t e s t . The l a y m a n , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s e n c o u r a g e d t o r e s t r a i n h i s a c t i o n s (Weber, 1958: 1 9 7 ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , one t a k e s v o l u n t a r y vows r e s t r i c t i n g - 14 - h i s a c t i v i t i e s ( p r i m a r i l y e a t i n g a n d movement). T h e s e vows h e l p s t o p t h e i n f l o w o f k a r m a . The c r u c i a l s t e p t o w a r d s a l v a t i o n o c c u r s w i t h n i r j a r a , t h e r e m o v a l o f k a r m i c p a r t i c l e s . Some o f t h e s e p a r t i c l e s a r e s l o u g h e d n a t u r a l l y ( s a v i p a k a n i r j a r a ) , h a v i n g m a t u r e d and s e p a r a t e d a s i s t h e i r n a t u r e . A u s t e r i t i e s ( t a p a s ) remove t h e r e m a i n i n g k a r m a . W h e t h e r i n t e r n a l ( s p i r i t u a l o r p s y c h o - l o g i c a l ) o r e x t e r n a l ( p h y s i c a l ) , o n l y a u s t e r i t i e s q u e l l t h e p a s s i o n s . The s o u l , t h e n , r i s e s t h r o u g h s p i r i t u a l a c t i o n a n d a n e l a b o r a t e e t h i c a l s y s t e m d e f i n e s p r o p e r a c t i o n . W h i l e vows ( v r a t a s ) a r e n e c e s s a r y t o become a monk, t h e J a i n monks and l a y p e o p l e a r e n o t s t r i c t l y s e p a r a t e d . The monks' vows d i f f e r o n l y i n d e g r e e a nd n o t i n k i n d f r o m t h o s e o f t h e l a i t y . The mos t i m p o r t a n t a r e t h e f i v e g r e a t vows ( m a h a v r a t a ) : t o a v o i d 1) k i l l i n g l i f e i n any f o r m ( a h i m s a ) , 2) t e l l i n g u n t r u t h s ( a s a t y a t a y a g a ) , 3) t h e f t ( a s t e y a v r a t a ) , 4) s e x u a l c o n t a c t s , w i n e a nd h i g h l y s e a s o n e d f o o d s ( b r a h m a c a r y a v r a t a ) , 5) a t t a c h - m e n t s t o w o r l d l y p e o p l e o r o b j e c t s ( a p a r i g r a h a ) . The J a i n s c a r r y t h e f i r s t g r e a t vow t o e x t r e m e s u n s u r - p a s s e d e l s e w h e r e i n I n d i a . S i n c e t h e w o r l d i s f i l l e d w i t h l i v i n g b o d i e s , t h e y e x e r c i s e g r e a t c a u t i o n i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s . C a r e l e s s movement, e a t i n g f o o d s w h i c h h a r b o r l i f e , s l e e p i n g i n p l a c e s w h e r e t h e r e i s l i f e ( e . g . , i n s e c t s ) s h o u l d be a v o i d e d b e c a u s e t h e y v i o l a t e t h e f i r s t vow. - 15 - S u p p l e m e n t i n g t h e m a j o r vows a r e s e v e n a d d i t i o n a l vows ( s i l v r a t a s ) w h i c h , by r e s t r i c t i n g t h e d o m a i n o f a c t i o n , a s s i s t t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n f u l f i l l i n g t h e m a j o r vows. T h e s e vows i n - c l u d e : l i m i t i n g movement t o f i x e d d i r e c t i o n s ( d i g v r a t a ) , p l a c i n g a l i m i t on o n e ' s movement i n t h e u p w a r d a n d downward d i r e c t i o n s ( d e s a v r a t a ) , s e t t i n g a s i d e a t i m e e a c h day f o r s p i r i t u a l p u r s u i t s s u c h as m e d i t a t i o n ( s a m a y i k a ) , and r e - s t r i c t i n g t h e t i m e , p l a c e and amount o f f o o d consumed. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e d e v o u t l a y m a n p e r f o r m s t h e s i x d a i l y d u t i e s ( a v a s y a k a s ) : d e v a p u j a , w o r s h i p o f t h e g o d ; g u r u p u j a , w o r - s h i p o f t h e p r e c e p t o r ; s v a d h y a y a , s t u d y o f s c r i p t u r e ; samyama, p r a c t i c e o f s e l f - c o n t r o l ; t a p a , p r a c t i c e o f a u s t e r i t i e s ; a n d d a n a , g i f t g i v i n g . The J a i n l a i t y a r e a l s o a s k e d t o o b e y t h i r t y - f i v e r u l e s o f g o o d c o n d u c t . T h e s e r u l e s a r e b a s e d o n b e n e v o l e n c e a n d a r e d e s i g n e d t o p r o m o t e harmony. I n c l u d e d a r e m a r r i a g e r e - s t r i c t i o n s , c l o t h i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s , r u l e s o f s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e , l i m i t a t i o n s o n t h e amount o f w e a l t h one may a c c u m u l a t e and t h e d e g r e e s o f s o c i a l i n t i m a c y a l l o w e d b e t w e e n p e o p l e ( S a n g a v e , 1 9 5 9 : 2 2 2 ) . As t h e C h a n d o g y o p a n i s h a d ( B h a r g a v a , 1968: 102-3) r e m i n d s u s , a good man h a s f i v e q u a l i t i e s : p e n a n c e ( t a p a s ) , b e n e v o l e n c e ( d a n a ) , n o n - v i o l e n c e ( a h i m s a ) , t r u t h f u l n e s s ( s a t y a c a c a n a ) , and s i m p l e d e a l i n g s w i t h o t h e r s ( a r j a v a m ) , i . e . , n o n - s t e a l i n g . - 16 - I f a p e r s o n o b e y s t h e m a j o r and s u p p l e m e n t a r y v o w s , a n d t h e r u l e s o f g o o d c o n d u c t , he w i l l p r o g r e s s t h r o u g h e l e v e n s t a g e s ( p r a t i m a ) u n t i l he becomes l i k e a monk ( S a n g a v e , 1 9 5 9 : 2 2 1 ) . The p r a t i m a a r e : 1. D a r s a n a p r a t i m a : w o r s h i p p i n g t h e t r u e g o d , a T i r t h a n k a r a ; r e v e r i n g a t r u e g u r u , a J a i n monk; b e l i e v i n g i n t h e t r u e dharma ( m o r a l i t y ) , J a i n i s m ; a n d a v o i d g a m b l i n g , d r i n k i n g w i n e , c o m m i t t i n g a d u l t e r y , t h i e v i n g a n d d e b a u c h e r y ; 2. v r a t a p r a t i m a : k e e p i n g t h e t w e l v e vows a n d when d y i n g , p e r f o r m i n g S a n t h a r o (a r e l i g i o u s l y s a n c - t i o n e d f o r m o f s u i c i d e b y s t a r v i n g o n e s e l f ) t o g a i n m e r i t ; 3. s a m a y i k a p r a t i m a : d o i n g s a m a y i k a ( s e t t i n g a s i d e a t i m e t o m e d i t a t e on t h e s e l f f o r o n e ' s s p i r i t u a l p r o g r e s s ) t h r e e t i m e s a d a y ; 4. p o s a d h o p a p r a t i m a : f a s t i n g f o u r d a y s o f e a c h m o n t h ; 5. s a c h i t t a p r a t i m a : a v o i d i n g u n c o o k e d v e g e t a b l e s c o n t a i n i n g l i f e monads; 6. n i s i b h o j a n a t y a g a p r a t i m a : n o t e a t i n g a f t e r s u n s e t ; 7. b r a h m a s c a r y a p r a t i m a : m a i n t a i n i n g s e x u a l a b s t i n e n c e ; 8. a r a m b h a t y a g a p r a t i m a : r e f u s i n g t o do w o r k , s u c h a s f a r m i n g , t h a t v i o l a t e s a h i m s a ; 9. p a r i g r a h a t y a g a p r a t i m a : d i v i d i n g o n e ' s p r o p e r t y a n d w e a l t h , among h i s c h i l d r e n and g i v i n g a p o r t i o n t o c h a r i t y ; - 17 - a n u m a t i t y a g a p r a t i m a : i n c r e a s i n g a s c e t i c i s m , n e v e r e a t i n g s p e c i a l l y c o o k e d f o o d s , b u t e a t i n g r e m a i n s , and n e v e r g i v i n g a d v i c e on w o r l d l y m a t t e r s ; u d d h i s t a p r a t i m a : w e a r i n g a s a h u ' s ( i . e . , monk's) c l o t h e s , r e m a i n i n g i n a r e l i g i o u s b u i l d i n g o r t h e f o r e s t , and o b e y i n g t h e r u l e s w h i c h g u i d e monks. The Monk and t h e O r d e r ' s O r g a n i z a t i o n T r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h e B r a h m i n s a r e r i t u a l t e c h n i c i a n s and e x p e r t s i n t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e p a r a p h e r n a l i a o f r i t u a l p r e s t i g e . I f t h e J a i n s w a n t t o c o mpete f o r p r e s t i g e , t h e y h a v e two c h o i c e s : c o mpete f o r p r e s t i g e w i t h i n t h e H i n d u c a s t e s y s t e m , o r e s t a b l i s h a d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n ( n o t a d i f f e r e n t s e t ) o f c r i t e r i a f o r j u d g i n g p r e s t i g e . S i n c e M a h a v i r a ' s t i m e , t h e J a i n s h a v e a c c e p t e d an a l t e r n a t i v e p a t t e r n , an a s c e t i c p a t - t e r n . D u r k h e i m (196 5: 350) s t a t e s t h e n a t u r e o f a s c e t i c i s m w e l l : T h e r e i s no i n t e r d i c t , t h e o b s e r v a n c e o f w h i c h d o e s n o t h a v e an a s c e t i c c h a r a c t e r t o a c e r t a i n d e g r e e . . . . I n o r d e r t o h a v e r e a l a s c e t i c i s m , i t i s s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h e s e p r a c t i c e s t o d e v e l o p i n s u c h a way as t o become t h e b a s i s o f a v e r i t a b l e scheme o f l i f e . . . . T h e s p e c i a l v i r t u e s w h i c h i t i s b e l i e v e d t o c o n f e r a r e o n l y an a m p l i f i e d f o r m o f t h o s e c o n f e r r e d , t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e , b y t h e p r a c t i c e o f any i n t e r d i c t i o n . They h a v e t h e same o r i g i n ; f o r t h e y b o t h r e s t on t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t a man s a n c t i f i e s ; h i m s e l f . . . . The p u r e a s c e t i c i s a man who r a i s e s h i m s e l f a b o v e men a n d a c q u i r e s a s p e c i a l s a n c t i t y by f a s t and v i g i l s , b y r e - t r e a t a n d s i l e n c e , o r i n a w o r d by p r i v a t i o n s , r a t h e r t h a n by a c t s o f p o s i t i v e p i e t y ( o f f e r i n g s , s a c r i f i e s , p r a y e r s , e t c . ) . 10. 1 1 . - 18 - Dumont (1970: 190) n o t e s t h a t t h e a b s o l u t e t r u t h s o f t h e e a r l y h e r e t i c a l r e n o u n c e r s , e . g . , M a h a v i r a and B u d d h a , w e r e n o t i n t e n d e d t o a b o l i s h c a s t e , b u t m e r e l y t o a b a s e i t and d i v e s t i t o f i t s a u r a as a r e l i g i o u s f a c t , l e a v i n g a p u r e l y s o c i a l f a c t . ZAnyone, t h e o r e t i c a l l y , c a n become a " t r u e B r a h m i n . " N o t c o n t e n t t o become H i n d u B r a h m i n s , t h e J a i n s t o o k p r i d e i n o u t d o i n g t h e B r a h m i n s a t t h e i r own game. De- e m p h a s i z i n g r i t u a l a n d s t r e s s i n g a u s t e r e b e h a v i o r , t h e z e a l o u s J a i n s more r i g o r o u s l y i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e r u l e s o f t h e a s c e t i c s i n t o t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s t h a n d i d t h e B r a h m i n s . H o w e v e r , b e - c a u s e o f t h e i r r i t u a l l y i n f e r i o r a n d w e a k e r p o s i t i o n i n H i n d u s o c i e t y , t h e J a i n s c o u l d n o t g a i n r a n k o r p o w e r . I n s t e a d o f c o m p e t i n g w i t h t h e B r a h m i n s , t h e y c h o s e n o n - e x c h a n g e : s e p a r a - t i o n f r o m t h e H i n d u s o c i a l w o r l d . The vows o f t h e J a i n monk a r e t h o s e o f t h e B r a h m i n monk. M o r e o v e r , t h e J a i n s a d o p t e d t h e same r u l e s o f b e g g i n g and t h e same o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e i r m o n a s t i c o r d e r as t h e B r a h m i n . F o l l o w i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h e d a s c e t i c p a t t e r n , t h e y d e n i e d a n d a b o l i s h e d any l a s t i n g l o c a l t i e s . L o n g t e r m a l l i a n c e s w e r e s e v e r e d a n d d e p e n d a b l e i n c o m e s v a n i s h e d ( M a r r i o t t , 1973; J a i n a S u t r a s , V o l . 2: 6 9 ) . E n t r y i n t o t h e monks' o r d e r i s t h e g r e a t t r a n s i t i o n i n t h e l a y m a n ' s l i f e . W h i l e t h e l a y m a n p a r t i a l l y e n t e r s monas- t i c l i f e w i t h e v e r y vow he f u l f i l l s , he d o e s n o t s e v e r h i s w o r l d l y t i e s u n t i l i n i t i a t i o n ( J a c o b i , 1961: 470). I n i t i a t i o n i s - t h e m o s t d r a m a t i c e v e n t o f o n e ' s l i f e b e c a u s e i t m a r k s a - 19 - c h a n g e i n c o u r s e , a d e c i s i o n t o " d i e " t o t h e s o c i a l w o r l d . The i n i t i a t e m ust t h e n assume t h e r i g h t s a n d d u t i e s c o n t i n g e n t o n h i s i n d u c t i o n . He t a k e s t h e f i v e g r e a t vows ( p a n c h a M a h a v r a t a ) a n d , d u r i n g t h e r e m a i n d e r o f h i s l i f e , he w i l l s t r i c t l y o b s e r v e t h e J a i n c o d e . Once i n i t i a t e d , t h e new monk n e v e r r e t u r n s and n e v e r f u l l y e n t e r s s o c i e t y a g a i n . He f o l l o w s t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i n w o r d and d e e d . F r o m t h e e a r l i e s t t i m e s , age and s e n i o r i t y d e t e r m i n e d t h e r a n k a n d a u t h o r i t y o f e a c h monk. T h e s e a s c e t i c s a r e a l s o r a n k e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e vows assumed. T h o s e who h a v e a c c e p t e d t h e m o s t s e v e r e r e s t r i c t i o n s a r e c a l l e d J i n a k a l p i . S a dhus a n d t h o s e o f l e s s e r w i l l a r e S t h a v i r a k a l p i . T h u s , t h e r e a r e l e v e l s w i t h i n t h e a s c e t i c o r d e r . Among t h e S v e t a m b a r a J a i n s , t h e y a r e Y a t i s , S a d h u s and A c h a r y a s ; t h e a c h a r y a s h a v e t h e h i g h e s t r a n k ( S a n g a v e , 1959 : 1 8 0 - 1 8 1 ) . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , b o t h monks a n d nuns a r e t i e d t o a mon- a s t e r y w h i c h , g o v e r n s and c o n t r o l s them a b s o l u t e l y . C u s t o m - a r i l y , a c o m m u n i t y o r w e a l t h y i n d i v i d u a l g i v e s l a n d a n d f u n d i n g t o t h e s e m o n a s t e r i e s , a l l o w i n g t h e monks and n u n s t o s u s t a i n t h e m s e l v e s w i t h o u t a c q u i r i n g g o o d s and p r o p e r t y o r e s t a b l i s h i n g o t h e r t i e s . U s u a l l y l o c a t e d o u t s i d e m a j o r u r b a n c e n t e r s , t h e m o n a s t e r y ' s r e m o t e n e s s i s , i n p a r t , due t o t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e m o n a s t e r y : t h e w i t h d r a w a l o f one f r o m t h e w o r l d . The I n d i a n a s s o c i a t e s t h e c i t y o r v i l l a g e - 20 - w i t h t h e w o r l d l y l i f e , w h i l e t h e f o r e s t a n d e s p e c i a l l y r e m o t e p l a c e s , he a s s o c i a t e s w i t h a s c e t i c i s m a n d r e n u n c i a t i o n ( T i e b o u t , 1966: 3 6 ) . F o l l o w i n g o n l y t h e s i d d h a ( t h e c o m p l e t e l y l i b e r a t e d s o u l ) a n d t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i n h i s p u r i t y , t h e a c h a r y a d i r e c t s t h e s p i r i t u a l g r o w t h o f t h e monks. He d i r e c t s t h e m o n a s t e r y a nd assumes t h e T i r t h a n k a r a ' s p o s i t i o n as t h e o r d e r ' s h e a d . The e l d e s t monks u s u a l l y s e l e c t an a c h a r y a b e c a u s e o f h i s a g e , b u t i t i s o f t e n b e c a u s e o f h i s c h a r i s m a (Weber, 1 9 6 7 : 1 9 8 ) . The a c h a r y a s h o u l d be f r e e f r o m a l l p h y s i c a l d e f o r m i t y ; p h y s i - c a l p e r f e c t i o n e n s u r e s an a b u n d a n c e o f a l m s . S e c u l a r s u c c e s s , due t o b i r t h . , w e a l t h o r p o w e r , f o l l o w s h i m i n h i s r e l i g i o u s l i f e , b e n e f i t i n g t h e e n t i r e o r d e r ( C a i l l a t , 1 9 7 5 : 5 8 ) . No d o u b t l u r k i n g i n t h e b a c k o f t h e monks' m i n d s t h e r e a r e t h o u g h t s o f t h e p r a c t i c a l b e n e f i t s o f a l e a d e r f o r m e r l y w e l l p l a c e d i n t h e l a y c o m m u n i t y and;, . t h e r e f o r e ^ a b l e t o command r e s o u r c e s and e x e r c i s e a c e r t a i n a u t h o r i t y . B u t t h e a c h a r y a ' s f o r m e r s o c i a l p o s i t i o n a l s o p r o v i d e s v a l u a b l e t r a i n i n g ( f o r m a l e d u c a - t i o n among t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t ) f o r s u c h an i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n . The a c h a r y a s t r i v e s t o f o r t i f y t h e weak and d i s h e a r t e n e d , p r o t e c t h i s f l o c k b y d i s s u a d i n g t h e a n g r y a n d v i n d i c t i v e , a n d p r o m p t t h e c o m m u n i t y t o w a r d t h e l i b e r a l g i v i n g o f a l m s . The a c h a r y a l i s t e n s t o c o n f e s s i o n s a n d p r e s c r i b e s p e n a n c e . The a c h a r y a ' s r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y d e r i v e s f r o m a n o l d a n a l o g y : t h e s e c u l a r m o n a r c h , a n e c e s s i t y i n m a i n t a i n i n g any - 2 1 - society. His authority p a r a l l e l s the king's and he i s said to have the same q u a l i t i e s and moral character as a king: honesty, heroism, magnanimity, steadfastness, energy, moral and physical strength, generosity and i n t e l l i g e n c e ( C a i l l a t , 1 9 7 5 : 5 7 ) . He must be well bred and successful i n his tasks. On his throne, he teaches the adepts; he exemplifies dharma i n both practice and word. As the s p i r i t u a l master, he commands obeisance and respect from the monks. They sing praises to h i s superior wisdom and knowledge as well as his unswerving allegiance to the Jain path toward l i b e r a t i o n . The Jain Cultural Pattern a n < 3 S o c i a l Organization Although the two o r d e r s — t h e c u l t u r a l and the s o c i a l — are not i d e n t i c a l , and the form of one does not d i r e c t l y imply the form of the other, they are interdependent. Moral rules are part of the c u l t u r a l domain; they i n s t r u c t one i n how he ought to conduct himself, which- i s quite d i f f e r e n t from determining how one should i n t e l l i g e n t l y conduct himself within the framework of these rules. The canonized rules of the extremist Jains d e t a i l the proper conduct of v i r t u a l l y every a c t i v i t y of the monks. The rules governing the l a i t y ' s actions do not d i f f e r i n kind or number but d i f f e r i n degree. In. a l l of India., the Jains d i f f e r only s l i g h t l y from the Hindus around them. Jainism i s not a r a d i c a l departure from - 22 - other sects and groups; i t merely a l t e r s the emphasis. Con- sequently, the Jains adopt the l o c a l customs of the community i n which they l i v e . In f a c t , many claim to be Hindus.(Steven- son, 1970: 9). While ostensibly non-distinct, the Jains i n s i s t that they are c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r neigh- bors (Sangave, 1959: 362). Despite the paucity of l o c a l connections with other Jains and non-Jains, established e i t h e r through food exchanges and interdining or marriage t i e s , there p e r s i s t s a strong sense of a common Jain heritage (Sangave, 1959: 321). Indian thought does not separate one's "nature" and one's "morality." Each i n d i v i d u a l changes not only his rank, or moral standing, but his very nature with each s o c i a l ex- change (Marriott, 1972). Every action, i t i s believed, con- tributes to every future action, since i t changes one's moral constitution, and,.-ultimately, contributes to one's r i t u a l status and eventual l i b e r a t i o n . For most of India, r i t u a l status i s inseparably linked to the caste system. The caste system i s a hierarchy of categories of people i n which each category, though separate from the other categories, i s interdependent and ranked with respect to each. At the head i s the Brahmin, followed by the Kshatriya, Vaishya and, at the feet, the Shudra and Harijans (Untouchables). The castes' interdependence and ranking, l i k e the i n d i v i d u a l members of each caste, i s a - 23 - r e s u l t o f e x c h a n g e s . M a r r i a g e p r a c t i c e s , t h e e x c h a n g e s o f f o o d and r u l e s c o n c e r n i n g c o n t a c t w i t h f o o d , a n d t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r ( t h e e x c h a n g e o f s e r v i c e s ) o r d e r t h e c a s t e s . B u t w h a t g o v e r n s t h e e x c h a n g e s ? A c c o r d i n g t o Dumont (1970) , t h e e n t i r e c a s t e s y s t e m i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y r e l i g i o u s . He m a i n t a i n s t h a t H i n d u i s m and J a i n i s m a r e an a s p e c t o f t h e c a s t e s y s t e m , d e p e n d e n t on i t a n d i n s e p a r a b l e f r o m i t . The J a i n s ' H i n d u n e i g h b o r s v i e w them a s V a i s h y a s and t h e J a i n s a c c e p t t h i s v i e w ; y e t d e s p i t e t h e i r r e j e c t i o n o f t h e c a s t e s y s t e m , t h e J a i n s do make " c a s t e " d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s b a s e d on r e l a t i v e p u r i t y among t h e m s e l v e s . I n Dumont's v i e w , i n n o v a t i o n i s i n t r o d u c e d b y t h e r e n o u n c e r ( s a n n y a s i ) , e . g . , M a h a v i r a , and r e f l e c t s t h e p r o d u c t o f h i s i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h n o v e l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f i d e a s a n d r e l a t i o n s . I n n o v a t i o n i s i n t r o d u c e d when a p a r - t i c u l a r s e c t , s u c h a s t h e J a i n s , a d o p t s new v a l u e s ( e . g . , a h i m s a ) w h i c h s e r i o u s l y t h r e a t e n t h e r a n k o f t h e B r a h m i n s . E a c h i n n o v a t i o n h a s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e s e c t ' s r a n k i n t h e c a s t e s t r u c t u r e w h i c h , Dumont a s s e r t s , must be i n t e r p r e t e d i n t e r m s o f t h e s e c t ' s r e l a t i v e p u r i t y t o t h e o t h e r c a s t e s . H e n c e , a p u r e - i m p u r e o p p o s i t i o n u n d e r l i e s t h e e n t i r e c a s t e s y s t e m . I t i s t h e p r i m a r y v a l u e d i r e c t i n g s o c i a l a c t i o n . A l l a c t i o n s m u s t be e v a l u a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e g r e e o f p o l - l u t i o n a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h c o n t a c t o r e x c h a n g e w i t h o t h e r s . Dharma ( m o r a l i t y ) g o v e r n s t h e e n t i r e s y s t e m and s o c i a l a c t i o n c a r r i e s m o r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . - 24 - I n an I n d i a n ' s d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s , t h e e s t a b l i s h e d h i e r - a r c h y o f c a s t e s r e g u l a t e s r a n k i n g s . T h e s e r a n k i n g s , t h o u g h , a r e n e v e r p r e c i s e l y e s t a b l i s h e d . W h e t h e r r a n k i s e s t a b l i s h e d by e x c h a n g e a nd i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s o r by a s e t o f s h a r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( o b s e r v a n c e o f c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d s c o n c e r n i n g d i e t , m a r r i a g e , e t c . , o r t h e r i g h t s t o p e r f o r m c e r t a i n c e r e - m o n i e s ) , w h e n e v e r a l a r g e number o f c o m p e t i n g g r o u p s c o n f r o n t one a n o t h e r , a m b i g u i t y o v e r r i t u a l p u r i t y a n d p o l l u t i o n a r i s e s . M o r e o v e r , e a c h c o n t e x t i n w h i c h r a n k i n g t a k e s p l a c e — c o m m u n i t y , r e g i o n o r c i v i l i z a t i o n — r e q u i r e s a d i f f e r e n t s t r a t e g y a n d h a s d i f f e r e n t b e h a v i o r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s ( M a r r i o t t , 1 9 6 8 : 1 0 9 ) . As a c o n v e n i e n t means o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , c a s t e w i l l be u s e d t o d i s t i l l t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n o f J a i n s o c i a l o b e h a v i o r . I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e d e f i n i t i o n w h i c h f o l l o w s i s n o t i n t e n d e d t o be f i n a l , w i t h o u t n e e d o f q u a l i f i c a - t i o n , b u t i s a s e t o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b y w h i c h t h e r e a d e r c a n a p p r e c i a t e t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e J a i n s w i t h i n H i n d u I n d i a . C a s t e , t h e n , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y : 1) a h i e r a r c h y , o r d e r i n g a l l c a s t e s ; 2) c o n c e r n o v e r p o l l u t i o n , e i t h e r d i r e c t o r i n - d i r e c t , b y members o f l o w e r c a s t e s ( o r o t h e r s who may p o l l u t e ) ; 3) a f o c u s a r o u n d t h e B r a h m i n ' s p r e s t i g e ; 4) endogamy; 5) mem- b e r s h i p b y b i r t h ; 6) an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a - t i o n w h i c h , i s s e e n a s t r a d i t i o n a l ; a n d 7) r e s t r i c t i o n s o n c o m m e n s a l i t y b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t members o f d i f f e r e n t c a s t e s ( L e a c h , 1 9 7 1 : 2 - 3 ) . - 25 - H i e r a r c h y T r u e t o t h e o r i g i n a l a n t i - b r a h m a n i c a l s p i r i t o f J a i n i s m , few J a i n s t o d a y a c c e p t t h e c a s t e s y s t e m i n p r i n c i p l e . D e s p i t e t h e i r p r o f e s s e d e g a l i t a r i a n i s m , t h e l a y c o m m u n i t y r e m a i n s as c a s t e - b o u n d as H i n d u I n d i a . B e c a u s e o f g e o g r a p h i c d i s p e r s i o n a n d s o c i a l f r a g m e n t a t i o n , J a i n c a s t e s a r e s m a l l and n u m e r o u s . The S v e t a m b a r a a n d D i g a m b a r a , f o r e x a m p l e , h a v e few c a s t e s i n common. J a i n s , h o w e v e r , ( u n l i k e H i n d u s ) m a i n t a i n t h a t c a s t e i s a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n a nd n o t a r e l i g i o u s o n e , i . e . , t h e y m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e i r r a n k i s n o t i n h e r e n t i n t h e i r c a s t e . They a r g u e t h a t t h e c a s t e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y grew f r o m t h e p a r t i t i o n i n g o f t h e t i r t h a ( t h e T i r t h a n k a r a 1 s c o m m u n i t y o f f o l l o w e r s ) 3 , w h i c h u n l i k e t h e H i n d u c a s t e s w e r e n o t a s r i t u a l l y c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z e d . O t h e r s say. t h a t t h e c a s t e s a r o s e b e c a u s e o f t h e n e e d t o e a r n a l i v e l i h o o d ; e v e r y o n e h a d t o c h o o s e a p r o f e s s i o n . I n any c a s e , t h e J a i n s a s s e r t t h a t c a s t e s a r e b a s e d on "ways o f l i f e . " 4 I f one c h a n g e s h i s way o f l i f e , he c h a n g e s h i s c a s t e ( S a n g a v e , 1 9 5 9 : 6 9 - 7 0 ) T h u s , one c h o o s e s h i s c a s t e o r r a n k by l i v i n g a p a r t i c u l a r f o r m o f l i f e . As w i l l become c l e a r , t h e J a i n s e n d o r s e an " i n t e n s e i n d i v i d u a l i s m 3 . The c o m m u n i t y was d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r t i r t h a s o r "means o f s a l v a t i o n " : s a d h u (monk)., s a d h v i (nuns) , s r a v a k a ( l a y m e n ) and s r a v i k a (1aywomen). 4. C o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e c a s t e s ( V a r n a ) a r e t h e " f o u r s t a g e s o f l i f e " ( A s h r a m a s ) : B r a h m a c h a r y a ( s t u d e n t ) , G r h a s t h a ( h o u s e h o l d e r ) , V a n a p r a s t h a ( f o r e s t d w e l l e r ) , and S a n n y a s a ( r e n o u n c e r ) . As a J a i n moves t h r o u g h e a c h s t a g e — w h i c h i s s e l d o m r e a l i z e d i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e — h e must o b e y i n c r e a s i n g l y s e v e r e r e s t r i c t i o n s o n h i s a c t i v i t i e s . - 2 6 - / w h i c h / f e e l s l i t t l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a n o t h e r ' s s o u l a n d s p e n d s i t s e n e r g y on s a v i n g i t s e l f " ( S t e v e n s o n , 1 9 7 0 : 9 ) . Though m o s t J a i n s b e l i e v e a l l c a s t e s a r e e q u a l a n d a s s e r t t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be t r e a t e d e q u a l l y , some c a s t e s f e e l a p r i d e a n d s u p e r i o r i t y t o o t h e r s ( S a n g a v e , 1 9 5 9 : 7 5 , 3 1 6 ) . F o r e x a m p l e , w i t h i n many c a s t e s t h e r e i s a d i v i s i o n b e t w e e n V i s a ( p u r e ) a n d D a s a ( d e g e n e r a t e d ) J a i n s . S a n g a v e ( 1 9 5 9 : 3 3 8 ) r e p o r t s t h a t , i n a few c a s e s , t h e D a s a J a i n s a r e d e n i e d a c c e s s t o t e m p l e s f o r w o r s h i p and must c o n t e n t t h e m s e l v e s w i t h d a r - s a n a ( s e e i n g a n d s a l u t i n g t h e i m age i n a t e m p l e o r i n o n e ' s h o u s e ) . S a n g a v e s a y s , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e D a s a ' s l o w p o s i t i o n may be r a i s e d i f t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e i n t h e i r numbers and a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e i n w e a l t h . As a g e n e r a l r u l e , t h e h i g h e r H i n d u c a s t e s , e s p e c i a l l y B r a h m i n s , s p e n d more t i m e a n d w e a l t h d o i n g t h e i r r i t u a l o b s e r v a n c e s t h a n do t h e l o w e r r a n k i n g H i n d u c a s t e s , w h i c h l a c k t h e n e c e s s a r y w e a l t h and t i m e f o r r i t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e s (Mandelbaum, 1 9 7 0 : 1 9 1 ) . The f r e q u e n t p e r f o r m a n c e s o f r i t u a l c e r e m o n i e s , t h e n , a r e i m - p o r t a n t s i g n s o f o n e ' s c a s t e and h i s s t a t u s ; he who shows g r e a t c o n c e r n f o r r i t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e s more c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e s t h e B r a h m i n a n d a s s e r t s t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f h i s c l a i m t o h i g h e r r i t u a l s t a t u s . S i m i l a r l y , among t h e D a s a Humbadas, a m i n o r s u b - s e c t o f t h e S v e t a m b a r a s , s u c h i n c r e a s e s i n w e a l t h a r e r e f l e c t e d i n an i n c r e a s e i n t e m p l e c o n s t r u c t i o n ( S a n g a v e , 1 9 5 9 : 9 9 ) . (The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t e m p l e s i s a r e l i g i o u s a c t - 27 - an d i s c o n s i d e r e d h i g h l y m e r i t o r i o u s . ) As w i t h many B a n i a s ( m e r c h a n t s , o f w h i c h t h e J a i n s a r e some o f t h e mos t s u c c e s s - f u l ) , w e a l t h i s a s i g n o f s p i r i t u a l , a n d h e n c e s o c i a l , s u p e r i o r - i t y ( C a r s t a i r s , 1 9 7 5 : 1 2 0 ) , and w o r s h i p i s u s e d t o r e f l e c t t h i s s u p e r i o r i t y . C o n c e r n O v e r P o l l u t i o n O f a l l v a l u e s d i r e c t i n g I n d i a n l i f e , p u r i t y o c c u p i e s t h e p r e - e m i n e n t p o s i t i o n . I t i s t h e c o n c e p t o f p u r i t y a n d p o l l u - t i o n t h a t u n d e r l i e s t h e c a s t e h i e r a r c h y a n d g o v e r n s s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s (Dumont, 1 9 7 0 ) . W h e t h e r i n t h e e x c h a n g e o f f o o d o r c o n t a c t w i t h , o t h e r s , o n e ' s r e l a t i v e p u r i t y i s i m p o r t a n t . E v e r y o b j e c t , e v e r y f o o d , a n d e v e r y p e r s o n a r e r e l a t i v e l y p o l l u t e d , a n d i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t e a c h p e r s o n r e c o g n i z e i n w h i c h ways and how he s h o u l d i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e s e o b j e c t s , f o o d s , a n d p e r s o n s w i t h o u t f u r t h e r p o l l u t i n g h i m s e l f . T h e r e a r e two b a s i c f o r m s o f p o l l u t i o n t h a t e v e r y I n d i a n m ust c o n s t a n t l y a n d c o r r e c t l y r e c o g n i z e i f he i s t o m a i n t a i n h i s s t a t u s i n t h e s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y : 1) t e m p o r a r y a n d p e r s o n a l , a n d 2) p e r m a n e n t and c o r p o r a t e (Mandelbaum, 1 9 7 0 : 1 8 5 ) . E a c h t y p e i m p l i e s some f o r m o f a v o i d a n c e a n d i s o l a t i o n . P e r m a n e n t p o l l u t i o n c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h o s e i n h e r e n t p r o p e r t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h , o n e ' s c a s t e w h i c h he c a n n o t remove b y o r d i n a r y p u r i f i c a - t i o n . I t i m p l i e s r e s t r i c t i o n s o n m a r r i a g e a n d c o m m e n s a l i t y . The B r a h m i n , f o r e x a m p l e , h a s a g r e a t e r i n h e r e n t p u r i t y a n d r e s i s t a n c e t o p o l l u t i o n t h a n t h e K s h a t r i y a , whose i n h e r e n t - 28 - p u r i t y i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e V a i s h y a . C a s t e endogamy and k i n - s h i p t i e s , e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h m a r r i a g e , h e l p e a c h c a s t e mem- b e r p r e s e r v e h i s c a s t e ' s r i t u a l p u r i t y . T e m p o r a r y p o l l u t i o n r e f e r s t o t h o s e i m p u r i t i e s t h a t one c a n remove b y a c t s o f p u r i f i c a t i o n . The m o s t f r e q u e n t c a u s e s o f t e m p o r a r y p o l l u t i o n a r e i m p r o p e r c o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r s a n d t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n s , e a t i n g o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o o d s ( o r i n - a p p r o p r i a t e l y p r e p a r e d f o o d s ) , d e f e c a t i n g , u r i n a t i n g , a n d t o u c h i n g o t h e r b o d i l y e m i s s i o n s . The m o s t s e r i o u s c a u s e s o f t e m p o r a r y p o l l u t i o n a r e b i r t h a n d d e a t h . The h i g h e r o n e ' s s t a t u s , t h e g r e a t e r h i s c o n c e r n and t h e more c o m p l i c a t e d and p a i n s t a k i n g h i s p u r i f i c a t i o n s , b u t r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e p e r s o n ' s e f f o r t s , h i s p e r m a n e n t p u r i t y c a n n e v e r be e l e v a t e d by mere a b l u t i o n s and r i t e s o f p u r i f i c a t i o n . T a k e , f o r e x a m p l e , d e a t h r i t e s . L i v i n g among t h e H i n d u s , t h e J a i n s a d o p t many o f t h e H i n d u ' s l o c a l c u s t o m s . The J a i n s , f o r e x a m p l e , do n o t i n t h e o r y a c c e p t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e H i n d u d e a t h c e r e m o n i e s : ( a n t y a k a r m a ) a n d , when q u e s t i o n e d , do n o t s a y t h a t f u n e r a l r i t e s a r e i m p o r t a n t ( S a n g a v e , 1 9 5 9 : 3 6 1 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , b e c a u s e o f t h e i m p u r i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e a t h , m o s t J a i n s p r a c t i c e some f o r m o f d e a t h r i t e s a nd o b s e r v e p e r i o d s o f i s o l a t i o n . The l e n g t h o f t h i s i s o l a t i o n p e r i o d v a r i e s d e p e n d i n g u p on t h e l o c a l c u s t o m o f t h e r e g i o n ( S a n g a v e , 1 9 5 9 : 2 6 9 ) . D e a t h p o l l u t i o n , h o w e v e r , i s c l e a r l y o f s e c o n d a r y i m p o r t a n c e . When d e a t h i s n e a r , t h e f a m i l y o f t h e d y i n g p e r - s o n e n c o u r a g e s h i m t o t a k e t h e vow o f r e n u n c i a t i o n : f o r s a k e - 29 - f o o d a nd g i v e up h i s w e a l t h . U n t i l h i s d e a t h , he w i l l h a v e M a h a v i r a ' s name w h i s p e r e d i n h i s e a r ( S t e v e n s o n , 1 9 7 0 : 2 0 2 ) . F o r t h e J a i n s , d y i n g i s t h e f i n a l o p p o r t u n i t y t o a t t a i n s a l v a t i o n : i t i s t h e f i n a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e d y i n g p e r s o n t o r e n o u n c e l i f e a n d , l i k e t h e monk who s t a r v e s h i m s e l f t o d e a t h ( m a r a n a n t i k i s a r n i e k h a n a ) , a t t a i n l i b e r a t i o n . The B r a h m i n ' s P r e s t i g e I n H i n d u I n d i a , t h e B r a h m i n s t a n d s a t t h e t o p o f t h e c a s t e s t r u c t u r e . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , he a l o n e h a s t h e k n o w l e d g e o f r i t u a l ( p a s s e d down t h r o u g h t h e s a c r e d H i n d u t e x t s ) , t h e e x p e r t i s e i n t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f r i t u a l p a r a p h e r n a l i a , a n d t h e n e c e s s a r y p u r i t y t o p e r f o r m r i t u a l s . The B r a h m i n s , among H i n d u s , a r e c o n s i d e r e d t h e p u r e s t o f men; t h e y a r e , i n p r i n - c i p l e , more r e m o v e d f r o m w o r l d l y t i e s a n d o b l i g a t i o n s . T h i s i n h e r e n t p u r i t y s e t s them a p a r t f r o m o r d i n a r y men. They s e r v e as m e d i a t o r s w i t h t h e gods a n d a r e t h e o n l y o n e s q u a l i f i e d t o o f f i c i a t e a t w o r s h i p a n d a p p r o a c h t h e i m a g e (Babb, 1 9 7 5 : 1 7 7 - 2 1 4 ) . I t i s t h e s t a n d a r d s o f t h e B r a h m i n s w h i c h l o w e r c a s t e s e m u l a t e and u s e t o j u d g e a n o t h e r ' s s t a t u s . R e j e c t i n g t h e B r a h m i n ' s c l a i m o f r i t u a l p u r i t y , t h e J a i n s n e v e r t h e l e s s e m p l o y B r a h m i n s i n many o f t h e i r m a j o r r i t u a l s a n d c e r m o n i e s . The J a i n s c o n t e n d t h a t t h e B r a h m i n s a r e r i t u a l s p e c i a l i s t s who know t h e p r o p e r t e c h n i q u e s o f p u r i f i c a t i o n b u t who, b e c a u s e t h e y r e m a i n t i e d t o t h e w o r l d by p e r f o r m i n g t h e i r r i t u a l d u t i e s , h a v e n o t a t t a i n e d t h e - 3 0 - r i t u a l p r e - e m i n e n c e o f t h e J a i n monk who h a s r e n o u n c e d a l l w o r l d l y t i e s (Weber, 1 9 5 8 : 2 0 3 ) . 5 The p u r i t y o f t h e B r a h m i n p r i e s t , e s p e c i a l l y a t t h e l a r g e r t e m p l e s r e c e i v i n g many p i l g r i m s , i s s u s p e c t i n any c a s e s i n c e he may be c o n t a m i n a t e d b y p e o p l e whose h a b i t s a r e unknown. O f t e n t h e s e B r a h m i n p r i e s t s a r e t h o u g h t t o be l a x i n t h e i r r i t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e s ( Mandelbaum^ 1 9 7 0 : 1 8 8 ) . B u t e v e n i f t h e B r a h m i n i s b e y o n d r e p r o a c h . , t h e J a i n s s a y he i s m i s g u i d e d . R e f e r r i n g t o t h e B r a h m i n s , t h e S u t r a k r i t a n g a ( J a i n a S u t r a s , V o l . II7 2 9 4 - 9 5 ) s a y s , Some s a y t h a t p e r f e c t i o n i s r e a c h e d b y a b - s t a i n i n g f r o m t h e s e a s o n e r f o o d ( v i z . s a l t ) , o t h e r s b y t h e u s e o f c o l d w a t e r ( i . e . a b l u - t i o n s ) , o t h e r s b y ( t e n d i n g ) f i r e . . . . P e r f e c t i o n i s n o t r e a c h e d b y b a t h i n g i n t h e m o r n i n g , n o r b y a b s t e n t i o n f r o m a c i d s a n d s a l t . . . . / N o r by/ l i g h t i n g f i r e i n t h e m o r n i n g a n d e v e n i n g . . . . P e r f e c t i o n c a n n o t be e s t a b l i s h e d b y such, g r a t u i t o u s a s s e r t i o n s ; t h o s e who h a v e n o t l e a r n e d t h e t r u t h - w i l l come t o harm. The H i n d u B r a h m i n s a r e n o t " t r u e B r a h m i n s . " M o r e o v e r , i f t h e B r a h m i n s e r v e s as a m e d i a t o r b e t w e e n t h e H i n d u gods a n d t h e w o r s h i p p e r , i t i s o f l i t t l e v a l u e u n l e s s one w a n t s w o r l d l y g a i n s i n c e , f o r t h e J a i n s , l i b e r a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e o n l y b y p r o p e r c o n d u c t . When t h e T i r t h a n k a r a , t h e h i g h e s t b e i n g , becomes a l i b e r a t e d s o u l ( s i d d h a ) a nd l e a v e s t h e u n i v e r s e , 5 . /Among t h e D i g a m b a r a s , t h e p u j a r i , o r t e m p l e o f f i c i a n t , i s a l w a y s a J a i n ( B a n y i a ) . Among t i r e S v e t a m b a r a , t h e p u j a r i u s u a l l y i s a H i n d u : B r a h m i n , M a l i ( g a r d e n e r ) , K a n a b i ( f a r m e r ) o r B a r o t a ( B a r d ) S t e v e n s o n , 1 9 7 0 : 9 5 ) . - 31 - he i s u n a b l e t o a s s i s t t h o s e i n t h e w o r l d . O n l y a s c e t i c i s m p u r i f i e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l . Endogamy When t h e r e i s a r u l e t h a t one mu s t m a r r y w i t h i n a d e f i n e d c a t e g o r y o r g r o u p o f p e o p l e , i t i s endogamy. I n I n d i a , t h e o p e r a t i o n a l , endogamous c a t e g o r y o r g r o u p i s o n e ' s c a s t e , i . e . , when a man m a r r i e s a woman, s h e must be o f t h e same c a s t e , and a n y c h i l d r e n o f t h e u n i o n b e l o n g t o t h e c a s t e . M a r r i a g e i n I n d i a , as Dumont n o t e s ( 1 9 7 0 : 1 0 9 - 1 0 ) , d o m i n a t e s s o c i a l l i f e a n d r e l i g i o n . I t i s a most p r e s t i g i o u s c e r e m o n y , one w h i c h n o t o n l y r e a f f i r m s t i e s among k i n g r o u p s , b u t a l s o one i n w h i c h t h e B r a h m i n ' s s e r v i c e s a r e e s s e n t i a l . J a i n m a r r i a g e , w h i l e o s t e n s i b l y t h e same as H i n d u m a r r i a g e , i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d a r e l i g i o u s d u t y b u t a s o c i a l a c t . J a i n s r e g a r d m a r r i a g e more as a s o c i a l c o n t r a c t t h a n a r e l i g i o u s c e r e m o n y , e v e n t h o u g h t h e y b a s e i t on t h e l o c a l c u s t o m s o f t h e i r H i n d u n e i g h b o r s ( S a n g a v e , 1 9 5 9 : 1 4 0 - 4 1 ) . The e a r l y J a i n c o m m u n i t y p e r m i t t e d f r e e c h o i c e i n m a r r i a g e . T h i s p r a c t i c e was e n t i r e l y i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e J a i n c o n c e p t i o n o f s o c i e t y w h i c h , was d i v i d e d i n t o l a y m e n a nd laywomen o f e q u a l r i t u a l s t a t u s . I n t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e J a i n c o m m u n i t y , m a r r i a g e s o u t s i d e o f c a s t e w e r e n o t condemned, b e c a u s e t h e c a s t e s w e r e n o t h e l d t o b e r i t u a l c a t e g o r i e s , b u t o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s . - 32 - J a i n d o c t r i n e a l l o w s a n d e v e n commends c o m p l e t e f r e e d o m i n t h e c h o i c e o f m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r s . The p r e f e r r e d f o r m o f m a r r i a g e , s v a y a m b a r a , i n w h i c h t h e woman c h o o s e s a l o v e r w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o c a s t e , i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e m o s t a n c i e n t and b e s t f o r m . I n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e , h o w e v e r , t h e s u b - c a s t e s a r e endogamous g r o u p s ( S a n g a v e , 1 9 5 9 : 1 5 1 , 1 5 6 ) , and t h e J a i n s e n c o u r a g e p e o p l e t o m a r r y o n l y i n t h e i r own c a s t e and s u b - c a s t e s ( S a n g a v e , 19 5 9 : 77, 86, 1 5 6 ) . M a r r i a g e t i e s a r e a t r a d i t i o n a l a nd i m p o r t a n t means o f s o l i d i f y i n g a f f i l i a t i o n s : k i n , p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c a n d r i t u a l . B u t among t h e J a i n s , t h e t i e s e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h o t h e r J a i n and H i n d u c a s t e s t h r o u g h m a r r i a g e a r e weak a n d s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d i n s c o p e . W h i l e t h e J a i n s a c c e p t t h e i d e a l o f i n t e r - m a r r i a g e , t h e y r e m a i n e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y c l a n i s h . J a i n r e - s t r i c t i o n s o n l o c a l i t y , c a s t e ( o r s u b - c a s t e ) , s e c t i o n s and r e l i g i o n c r e a t e and p r e s e r v e s m a l l i s o l a t e d g r o u p s ( S a n g a v e , 195 9 : 3 2 1 - 3 2 3 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f J a i n s , r e g a r d l e s s , o f a c t u a l p r a c t i c e , a p p r o v e o f i n t e r - m a r r i a g e among a l l J a i n s ( S a n g a v e , 19 5 9 : 3 2 4 ) . M e m b e r s h i p B y B i r t h F o r m o s t Hindus:, one i s b o r n i n t o h i s c a s t e and he m u s t a c c e p t t h e d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s c o n t i n g e n t on t h i s a c c i d e n t . F o r t h e J a i n s , c h o i c e d e t e r m i n e s m e m b e r s h i p , n o t b i r t h . I n f a c t , t h e c h o i c e o f c a s t e ( v a r n a l a b h a ) i s t h e - 33 - e i g h t e e n t h r i t e o f o n e ' s l i f e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , b i r t h r e m a i n s an i m p o r t a n t de_ f a c t o c r i t e r i o n f o r m e m b e r s h i p i n any J a i n c a s t e . B u t , t h e n , t h e J a i n c o n c e r n was n e v e r t o e s t a b l i s h e q u a l i t y among e v e r y o n e . R a t h e r , t h e e q u a l i t y l i e s i n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y f o r e v e r y J a i n t o a t t a i n s p i r i t u a l — i f n o t s o c i a l — e l e v a t i o n . F r om t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g , t h e monks' o r d e r was r i g i d l y h i e r a r c h i c a l . T h e r e was no d e n i a l o f c a s t e , b u t a d e n i a l o f t h e r i t u a l c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n t h a t a c c o m p a n i e d i t . S i n c e l i b e r a t i o n was d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e n e a r l y i n f i n i t e c o m b i n a t i o n s and p e r m u t a t i o n s o f k a r m i c m a t t e r , e q u a l i t y was o n l y r e l a t i v e a n d n o t a b s o l u t e . O c c u p a t i o n s T r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h e v a s t ^ m a j o r i t y o f I n d i a n s h a v e l i v e d i n v i l l a g e s a n d w e r e t i e d t o t h e i r n e i g h b o r s b y j a j m a n i r e l a t i o n s , r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n f o o d - p r o d u c i n g f a m i l i e s a n d t h e f a m i l i e s t h a t s u p p l y t h e m w i t h g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s . J a j m a n i ( f r o m t h e S a n s k r i t y a j a m a n a , m e a n i n g "he who h a s a s a c r i f i c e p e r f o r m e d " ) c o n n o t e s t h e r e l i g i o u s p r e s t a t i o n s a n d c o u n t e r - p r e s t a t i o n s o f t h e c a s t e s y s t e m , t h e g i v i n g a n d c o u n t e r - g i v i n g o f goods and s e r v i c e s , r a t h e r t h a n p ayment w i t h money (Dumont, 1 9 7 0 : 9 7 - 9 8 ) . T h e s e j a j m a n i r e l a t i o n s m a i n t a i n e d t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e a n d o r d e r o f t h e c a s t e s b y r e g u l a t i n g e x c h a n g e s . D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f I n d i a n s s t i l l l i v e i n v i l l a g e s a n d t h e i r way o f l i f e i s l i t t l e c h a n g e d s i n c e M a h a v i r a ' s t i m e , j a j m a n i r e l a t i o n s h a v e w e a k e n e d . - 3 4 - J a j m a n i t i e s , h o w e v e r , r e m a i n a n i m p o r t a n t i d e o l o g i c a l a n c h o r , o r i e n t i n g t h e a v e r a g e I n d i a n i n much o f h i s d a i l y t r a n s - a c t i o n s . C o n t r a c t u a l a r r a n g e m e n t s — t h o s e s e r v i c e s a n d g o o d s w h i c h on e p a y s f o r w i t h m o n e y — a r e a l s o p r e v a l e n t a n d h a v e b e e n s o s i n c e a n c i e n t t i m e s ; t h e s e a r r a n g e m e n t s o f f e r e d an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e j a j m a n i t i e s t h a t w e r e d e v e l o p i n g d u r i n g M a h a v i r a ' s t i m e . C o n t r a c t u a l a r r a n g e m e n t s , n o t h a v i n g t h e u s u a l s t a t u s i m p l i c a t i o n s o f j a j m a n i e x c h a n g e s , p e r m i t t e d p a r t i a l e s c a p e f r o m t h e c o n f i n e m e n t o f o n e ' s c a s t e ' s c o r p o r a t e p u r i t y r e - s t r i c t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , , j a j m a n i r e l a t i o n s s y m b o l i z e many o f t h e t i e s o f t h e l o c a l s o c i a l o r d e r a n d t h e m a j o r v a l u e s o f t h e p e o p l e (Mandelbaum, 1 9 7 0 : 1 6 1 ) . The j a j m a n i r e l a t i o n s e n t a i l i m p o r t a n t r i t u a l t i e s a n d b e l i e f s o f s o c i a l c o h e s i v e - n e s s . T h u s , w h i l e t h e J a i n s r e f u s e t o a d h e r e t o t h e l o c a l j a j m a n i r e l a t i o n s , t h e s e r e l a t i o n s c a r r y c o n s i d e r a b l e s y m b o l i c s i g n i f i c a n c e i n c l a s s i f y i n g n o t o n l y e n t i r e c a t e g o r i e s o f p e o p l e , b u t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s o c i a l a c t i o n s . T h e s e t r a d i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h a v e s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s : c a s t e r a n k i s a p r o d u c t o f e x c h a n g e . To e x c h a n g e , e s p e c i a l l y f o o d , i s t o a s s e r t a n d a c c e p t o n e ' s c a s t e r a n k . The J a i n s r e f u s e t o a c c e p t t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . They s a y e x c h a n g e s a r e v o l u n t a r y o r c o n t r a c t u a l a n d c a r r y no i m p l i c a t i o n s o f c a s t e s t a t u s . B u t t o b e s a f e f r o m d a n g e r o u s a nd o v e r l y c o m p l i c a t e d s o c i a l t i e s , one s h o u l d e x c h a n g e n o n - p o l l u t i n g s u b s t a n c e s , e . g . , money. - 3 5 - A l t h o u g h c e r t a i n p r o f e s s i o n s a r e t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r c a s t e s , t h e J a i n s p e r m i t g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y a n d m o b i l i t y ( S a n g a v e , 1 9 5 9 : 3 2 6 - 2 7 ) . The J a i n c a n o n s e n - c o u r a g e a l l f o r m s o f l i v e l i h o o d w h i c h do n o t v i o l a t e a h i m s a and t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f n o n - p o l l u t i n g s u b s t a n c e s s u c h as money r a t h e r t h a n t h e e x c h a n g e s o f s e r v i c e s a n d g o o d s . T h i s s t r a t - e g y i n s u r e s t h a t l i f e i s n o t h a r m e d a n d e m p h a s i z e s " t h e p r o - c l a i m e d v i r t u e s o f a p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h c o n - s i d e r a b l e s t r e s s o n i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , n o n - s t e a l i n g a n d n o n - e n c r o a c h m e n t o n t h e p o s s e s s i o n s o f o t h e r s " (Lamb, 1 9 5 9 : 2 7 ) . The J a i n s , l i k e m o s t n o n - l a n d e d , n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l g r o u p s w i t h s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n s i n I n d i a , h a v e t e n u o u s c o n n e c t i o n s t o t h e i r n e i g h b o r s . The J a i n s a r e p r i m a r i l y B a n i a s ( m e r c h a n t s ) a n d o c c u p y a s i m i l a r p l a c e t o t h a t o f o t h e r B a n i a s i n t h e H i n d u h i e r - a r c h y . Reknowned f o r t h e i r h o n e s t y , t h e J a i n s ' f i r s t r u l e o f c o n d u c t i s t o f o l l o w some k i n d o f b u s i n e s s o r p r o f e s s i o n w i t h h o n e s t y a n d j u s t i c e ( S a n g a v e , 1 9 5 9 : 2 7 7 ) . F o r t h e m o s t p a r t , J a i n s p r e f e r l a w , m e d i c i n e , g o v e r n - ment a n d b u s i n e s s as o c c u p a t i o n s . Y e t w i t h t h e i r e m p h a s i s on e x t r e m e a s c e t i c i s m a n d a u s t e r i t i e s , t h e y a r e c l e a r l y f o l l o w i n g a d o c t r i n e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f m o s t H i n d u s , b e c a u s e o f t h e i r f a i l u r e t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e e x c h a n g e s o f f o o d a n d m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r s ; J a i n c a s t e s a n d s u b - c a s t e s - 3 6 - v o l u n t a r i l y i s o l a t e t h e m s e l v e s w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . T h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s a r e t r u n c a t e d ; c o o p e r a t i o n , e s t a b l i s h e d b y d u r a b l e a n d e x t e n s i v e b o n d s o f m a r r i a g e , i s l i m i t e d . The B a n i a s ' s t r a t e g y i s t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f a l l l o o p - h o l e s t o b u i l d a s u c c e s s f u l b u s i n e s s . T h e i r s t r a t e g y f o r s u r v i v a l d e p e n d s upon t h e i r a b i l i t i e s t o l i v e w i t h i n t h e H i n d u w o r l d w h i l e n o t b e c o m i n g a p a r t o f i t ( M a r r i o t t , 1 9 7 3 : 3 3 ) . W h i l e t h e J a i n s may be o u t n u m b e r e d b y o t h e r m e r c h a n t s , t h e y s e l d o m f a l l b e l o w t h e o t h e r s i n t h e i r z e a l t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r e a r n i n g s . T hey a r e n o t s e l f - i n d u l g e n t m e r c h a n t s , b u t a u s t e r e p u r i t a n s (Lamb, 1 9 5 9 : 3 0 ) . H a z e l h u r s t ( 1 9 6 6 : 9 1 - 9 2 ) g i v e s a t y p i c a l a c c o u n t o f t h e J a i n B a n i a : L a l l a j i i i s a J a i n , a n d l i k e many J a i n s , h e i s an e x t r e m e l y a u s t e r e p e r s o n . He l i v e s i n a m o d e s t d w e l l i n g , t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f w h i c h g i v e s no i n d i c a t i o n o f w e a l t h . The h o u s e i s f u r n i s h e d w i t h l i t t l e more t h a n c h a r p o i s ( s t r i n g c o t s ) , a s t r a i g h t b a c k c h a i r f o r g u e s t s a n d a wooden b e n c h upon w h i c h L a l l a j i i a n d h i s a c c o u n t a n t p a s s t h e d a y . . . . L a l l a j i i i i s a c h r o n i c c o m p l a i n e r and l o o k s t o t h e p a s t t o l e g i t i m i z e h i s c o m p l a i n t s : " I n t h e p a s t , I was a p r o s p e r o u s m e t a l m e r c h a n t ; b u t c u r r e n t g o v e r n m e n t r e s t r i c t i o n s h a v e a l t e r e d t h e c o u r s e o f my b u s i n e s s . As y o u c a n s e e , I l i v e v e r y s i m p l y , a n d y o u , a w e a l t h y a m e r i c a n / s i c / / w i l l h a v e t o e x c u s e t h e s e h u m b l e s u r r o u n d i n g s . " . . . L a l l a j i i d e p l o r e d t h e new g o v e r n m e n t r e - s t r i c t i o n s o n h i s b u s i n e s s , and t h i s c a n i n p a r t e x p l a i n h i s h o s t i l e f e e l i n g s t o w a r d t h e g o v e r n m e n t . Y e t i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o n o t e t h a t he e x p r e s s e s no p o s i t i v e p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n a n d h a s n o t a l i g n e d h i m s e l f w i t h an o p p o s i t i o n p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m ; w h i l e d e n o u n c - i n g g o v e r n m e n t r e s t r i c t i o n s , he h a s p r o s p e r e d f r o m t h e s e same r e s t r i c t i o n s . - 3 7 - The J a i n s ' p o s i t i o n r e w a r d s f r u g a l i t y , c a u t i o n and e n t e r p r i s e . T h u s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h i s s t r a t e g y f o r s u r v i v a l came t o h o l d a p e r m a n e n t p o s i t i o n i n o f f i c i a l J a i n c a n o n s , b e c o m i n g n o t o n l y s o c i a l l y a d v a n t a g e o u s b u t s p i r i t - u a l l y u p l i f t i n g as w e l l . The vows, t h e d a i l y d u t i e s and t h e r u l e s o f g o o d c o n d u c t f o r t h e l a y m a n p r o m o t e , r e i n f o r c e a n d s a n c t i o n b u s i n e s s acumen ( S a n g a v e , 1 9 5 9 : 2 1 7 - 2 3 ) . As m i g h t b e e x p e c t e d , t h e vows o f t h e monks a n d l a i t y i n e v i t a b l y p l a c e t h e J a i n s i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h t h e B r a h m i n s f o r r i t u a l s u p e r i o r i t y . A l t h o u g h n o t n e a r l y a s p a r t i c u l a r a b o u t r i t u a l p u r i t y as t h e B r a h m i n s , t h e J a i n s ' v e g e t a r i a n i s m and c o n c e r n f o r l i f e c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e r e s p e c t and h a t r e d a c c o r d e d t h e m by H i n d u s . C o m m e n s a l i t y The e x c h a n g e o f f o o d i n I n d i a g i v e s r i s e t o a commensal h i e r a r c h y b a s e d on t h e n o t i o n t h a t e a c h c a s t e h a s a r i t u a l p u r i t y w h i c h may be a l t e r e d ( p u r i f i e d o r p o l l u t e d ) by e x c h a n g e s o f f o o d w i t h c a s t e s o f d i f f e r e n t r a n k . Whom one e a t s w i t h , as C a r s t a i r s ( 1 9 7 5 : 8 0 - 8 1 ) o b s e r v e s , e m o t i o n a l l y o u t w e i g h s m o s t o t h e r d a i l y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . T h r o u g h o u t I n d i a , f o o d s a n d d r i n k a r e r i t u a l l y r a n k e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e manner o f t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n and t h e c o n - t a i n e r s i n w h i c h t h e y a r e s e r v e d . K a c c a f o o d ( l i t . " u n r i p e " o r "raw") i s c o o k e d i n w a t e r a n d i s v e r y e a s i l y c o n t a m i n a t e d . P a k k a ( l i t . " r i p e " ) f o o d i s p r e p a r e d i n c l a r i f i e d b u t t e r ( g h i ) - 3 8 - a n d i s more r e s i s t a n t t o p o l l u t a n t s . K a c c a , t h e n , i s g e n e r a l l y s h a r e d w i t h t h o s e who h a v e t h e same r i t u a l p u r i t y , f o r e x a m p l e , f a m i l y members, a n d P a k k a i s e x c h a n g e d b e t w e e n t h o s e d i f f e r i n g i n r i t u a l p u r i t y ; u n c o o k e d f o o d , g e n e r a l l y , h a s no r e s t r i c t i o n s . W a t e r f r o m a c l a y p o t i s K a c c a and w a t e r f r o m a b r a s s p o t i s P a k k a . E a t i n g meat a n d d r i n k i n g a l c o h o l a r e c o n s i d e r e d s i g n s o f l o w e r c a s t e s t a t u s b e c a u s e one i m p l i c i t l y p a r t i c i p a t e s o r c o n d o n e s h i m s a ( v i o l e n c e ) . The B r a h m i n a n d h i g h r i t u a l s t a t u s a r e t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i - a t e d w i t h v e g e t a r i a n i s m . As w i t h i n t e r m a r r i a g e , t h e J a i n s do n o t i n p r i n c i p l e p r o h i b i t i n t e r d i n i n g , b u t i n p r a c t i c e i n t e r d i n i n g i s i n - f r e q u e n t ( S a n g a v e , 1 9 5 9 : 8 1 , 3 1 3 ) . C a s t e f e a s t s a r e a l s o l i m i t e d t o o n e ' s f a m i l y and c i r c l e o f f r i e n d s . S u b - c a s t e members u s u a l l y d i n e o n l y w i t h e a c h o t h e r , a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s movement t o w a r d i n t e r - c a s t e d i n i n g ( S a n g a v e , 1 9 5 9 : 314, 3 2 1 ) . The i m p o r t a n c e o f c a s t e p u r i t y a n d i t s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h c o m m e n s a l i t y i s v i v i d l y p r e s e n t i n t h e O s v a l a J a i n s ' a c c o u n t o f t h e o r i g i n o f t h e V i s a a n d D a s a s u b - c a s t e s . As t h e s t o r y g o e s , an O s v a l a w i d o w , c o n t r a r y t o t h e r u l e a g a i n s t w idow r e m a r r i a g e , l i v e d w i t h a J a i n p r i e s t a nd h a d two s o n s . The s o n s g r e w r i c h a n d p l a n n e d t o l e g i t i m i z e t h e i r h e r i t a g e b y i n v i t i n g a l l t h e i r c a s t e members t o a d i n n e r . They a s k e d O s v a l a s who w e r e n o t a w a r e o f t h e s o n s ' i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h - 3 9 - t o a t t e n d . T h o s e who a t e o r t o u c h e d t h e f o o d b e f o r e d i s - c o v e r i n g t h e s o n s ' d e s c e n t became D a s a . T h o s e who d i d n o t e a t r e m a i n e d u n p o l l u t e d V i s a . T h u s , t h e e x c h a n g e o f f o o d and c o m m e n s a l i t y c a r r y i m p o r t a n t h i e r a r c h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . - 4 0 - RELIGION AND WORSHIP Religion; Defining the Domain In a remarkable series of the G i f f o r d Lectures, published as V a r i e t i e s of Religious Experience, William James (1961: 368) i d e n t i f i e s i n prayer the ineluctable prime of r e l i g i o u s experience: "the outward face of nature need not a l t e r , but the expressions of meaning i n i t a l t e r . " I t i s pr e c i s e l y here that our problem of explaining how worship and the Tirthankara image dictate behavior reaches the epistemological foundation of r e l i g i o n . How worship shapes behavior surfaces with, s t a r t l i n g suddenness as the most d i f f i c u l t problem facing the observer. As we saw, the observer's f i r s t problem centers around the enormous d i f f i c u l t y involved i n deciding the way the world i s given to experience, the way i t i s seen and the way i t i s described. How one chooses to answer these questions has profound methodological implications. The f i e l d of r e l i g i o u s phenomena and experiences knows no clear boundaries, and we need not attempt such a delineation here. Restating and modifying a d e f i n i t i o n offered by Geertz (.1973: 87-125), I w i l l define r e l i g i o n (or a group's r e l i g i o n as: a c u l t u r a l system (or system of symbols) which postulates a sacred (divine or trans-divine) realm as i t s focus. This symbol system serves - 41 - to e s t a b l i s h powerful, pervasive, long-lasting moods and motivations i n people (an ethos) by investing the everyday world with meaning. I t acts as a model of r e a l i t y (worldview) by o f f e r - ing solutions to problems of existence ( l i f e , death, moral consistency) and acts as a model for r e a l i t y by so ordering experiences that they validate (not verify) the sacred or " r e a l l y r e a l " realm. According to t h i s d e f i n i t i o n of r e l i g i o n , a symbol i s any thing, act, event or relat i o n s h i p which serves as a vehicle for a conception, that i s , the conception i s the meaning. As w i l l become clea r i n the discussion of r i t u a l which follows, symbols imply more than just a vehicle f o r conception. The symbol preserves "decisions" or "agreements." Each community member, through use of the symbol, accepts the symbol as an "agreement," i . e . , he has "decided" to be a member of the community; he has decided to do such-and-such, to act as a member of the community. For example, he accepts bowing be- fore a Tirthankara image as a proper action. More importantly, the propriety of the act resides i n or i s constituted by the act. That i s , to bow i s to assert that bowing before the image i s the proper or good thing to do and that there i s goodness i n bowing. As fa r as other members of the community are concerned, the proper actions of the person who i s bowing bestow goodness or propriety on him (Vernon, 1973: 128). Ethos i s recurrent "emphases" or "themes"; i t i s an emotional ought, a command of the ri g h t , proper or morally correct. A worldview, on the other hand, contains assumptions - 4 2 - a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f r e a l i t y . I t i s t h e p i c t u r e o r map t h a t members o f s o c i e t y h a v e o f t h e way t h e w o r l d l o o k s t o them, l o o k i n g o u t . W o r l d v i e w i s t h e way one s e e s h i m s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o e v e r y t h i n g e l s e . I t i s h i s i d e a s a b o u t e x i s t e n c e : r e l a t i o n s t o t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l , r e l a t i o n s t o n a t u r e and" r e l a t i o n s t o man. As G e e r t z s a y s , w o r l d v i e w i s t h e p i c t u r e a p e o p l e h a v e o f t h e way t h i n g s i n s h e e r a c t u a l i t y a r e . I t i s t h e i r m o s t c o m p r e - h e n s i v e i d e a s o f o r d e r . ^ T h a t w o r l d v i e w and e t h o s a r e d i s t i n c t e l e m e n t s i s , h o w e v e r , o n l y a u s e f u l a n a l y t i c f i c t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l l y , e t h o s and w o r l d - v i e w a r e e a c h p e r v a s i v e ; t o g e t h e r , t h e y a r e i n t e g r a t e d a n d i n - s e p a r a b l e . N o t a l l p e r c e p t i o n s a r e e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n a w o r l d v i e w . Some a r e c l e a r l y s u b s i d i a r y ; t h e y s l i p f r o m t h e f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n . What d e t e r m i n e s t h e f o c u s i n t h e g e s t a l t o f p e r c e p t i o n s i s v a l u e s . How one i n t e r p r e t s w h a t he s e e s i s d e c i d e d , f o r t h e m o s t p a r t , b y h i s w o r l d v i e w a n d v a l u e s . To s a y t h a t one a c c e p t s c e r t a i n v a l u e s i s t o s a y more t h a n t h a t he s e e s t h e w o r l d o r d e r e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r manner and t h a t m e a n i n g a r i s e s i n a p a r t i c u l a r manner. One n o t o n l y a c c e p t s c e r t a i n v a l u e s b u t a c t s t o e x a m i n e them and d e t e r m i n e 6. Two o t h e r c o n c e p t s , i m p l i c i t i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n , a r e s c o p e and f o r c e . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s b a s e d on t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t a r e l i g i o n may h a v e a d i f f e r e n t i m p a c t on t h e g r o u p t h a n t h e i n d i v i d u a l . The s c o p e o f t h e r e l i g i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d w i d e i f t h e r e l i g i o n i s p e r v a s i v e and i s i n f l u e n t i a l i n s t r u c t u r i n g o t h e r a r e a s o f s o c i e t y . The f o r c e o f a r e l i g i o n i s t h e i m p a c t o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l : how i t a f f e c t s h i s d a i l y l i f e ( G e e r t z , 1 9 6 8 ) . - 43 - i f they are true. A c t i o n / i s mediatory (Bateson, 1966: 412-26). Since the experiences, counted as v a l i d a t i o n of an action, are determined by accepted values, we cannot r e a l i s t i c a l l y separate value and perception. A group's p a r t i c u l a r worldview and i t s concommittant values, then, become more deeply entrenched. As William James says, "Truth happens to an idea." Culture i s a system of symbols, and r i t u a l and s o c i a l l i f e i n general are products of t h i s system. As we move our d i s - cussion to worship ( r i t u a l ) , the implications are clear: r i t u a l performance has the power to change and (re-)structure the participant's v i s i o n of the world and hence his experience. If a culture i s to be shared, the part i c i p a n t s i n the culture require a common set of symbols, whether language sym- bols or otherwise. In fact, the very nature of shared under- standing rests on a r e l a t i o n s h i p between at le a s t two people: some one and some other, and the mediating l i n k i s the symbol. Symbolization i s an assertion, an affirmation of a shared under- standing, a shared expectancy. Following Goodenough (1971: 205): The pattern of p r i o r i t i e s expressed i n a body of s o c i a l rules represents a set of values. Insofar as people are w i l l i n g to govern t h e i r conduct i n accordance with these rules, they demonstrate t h e i r acceptance of these values, at least i n public. The values expressed by a given set of rules are thus the operating values of those who abide by them; and they are the public values of any s o c i a l group whose members regard observing these rules as a condition of membership i n the group. 7. "Action i s behavior that i s deliberate or decided upon; which i s subject to c r i t i q u e and could at least be altered on r e f l e c t i o n " (Lewis, 1946: 366). Action i s behavior that i s meaningful to the actor. Moreover, a second person must recognize t h i s behavior as action and, i n Weber's words, be "oriented i n i t s course" (Weber, 1947: 88). - 44 - Goodenough makes s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n . F i r s t , t h e s o c i a l r u l e s o f a c o m m u n i t y a r e n o t t h e same as t h e v a l u e s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y . V a l u e s p r o v i d e n o t o n l y t h e m o t i v a t i o n b u t t h e d i r e c t i o n f o r s o c i a l r u l e s ; t h e y c r e a t e and r e g u l a t e . V a l u e s do n o t d e l i n e a t e s p e c i f i c f a c t s . 8 T hey d e a l w i t h t h e o b v i o u s a n d n o t t h e q u e s t i o n a b l e ; t h e y s t r i v e f o r c o n s i s t e n c y o f e v i d e n c e a n d n o t d i s c o v e r y o f new f a c t s . As K e n n e t h B u r k e s a y s , t h e y a r e s t r a t e g i e s f o r e n c o m p a s s i n g s i t u a t i o n s . S e c o n d , as: a c o n d i t i o n f o r m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e c o m m u n i t y , one must a c c e p t t h e s e s o c i a l r u l e s . R u l e s d e f i n e t h e c o m m u n i t y by r u l i n g - i n c e r t a i n k i n d s o f s o c i a l a c t i o n a n d r u l i n g - o u t o t h e r - k i n d s . To p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c u l t u r e and t o be c o u n t e d a s a member, one must a c t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a l l o r a s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e s e t o f t h e c u l t u r e ' s r u l e s . He who r e j e c t s t h e s o c i a l r u l e s w i t h d r a w s t o t h e o u t s i d e o r t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e c o m m u n i t y . He t a c i t l y c h e a p e n s t h e v a l u e s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y . Once s y m b o l i z e d ( i n d a i l y a f f a i r s , r i t u a l o r a r t ) , v a l u e s become more d e e p l y embedded i n t h e s o c i a l f a b r i c . I n f a c t , as B a i l e y n o t e s , i t is t h e c o n s t a n t a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s e v a l u e s 8. T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e I a d o p t h a s many a f f i n i t i e s t o B a i l e y ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f _ p o l i t i c a l c o m p e t i t i o n . He s a y s ( 1 9 6 9 : 2 1 - 2 2 ) , f o r e x a m p l e , " V a l u e s a r e s y m b o l i z e d . T h i s m a i n t a i n s and s t r e n g t h e n s them. I n d e e d , i f t h e y a r e n o t c o n s t a n t l y t e n d e d a n d r e - i n v i g o r a t e d , t h e y f a d e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , r i t e s a nd c e r e m o n i e s d r a m a t i z e f u n d a m e n t a l p o l i t i c a l v a l u e s a n d a s s o c i - a t e t h e m w i t h s u c h n o n - p o l i t i c a l v a l u e s as h e a l t h o r f e r t i l i t y o r p r o s p e r i t y o r w i t h G o d . . . . V a l u e s , w i t h i n one s t r u c t u r e , a r e a c o n s t a n t and t r e a t e d as an u n s h i f t i n g g u i d e f o r c o n d u c t . " - 4 5 - w h i c h i n s u r e s t h e i r s u r v i v a l . T h o s e v a l u e s s y m b o l i z e d i n r i t u a l ( g e n e r a l l y t h e same t h a t m o t i v a t e p e o p l e i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s ) a r e g i v e n u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a t i o n , a nd i t i s t h e s e v a l u e s w h i c h p e r m i t d e c i s i o n when k n o w l e d g e i s i n a d e q u a t e . C l e a r l y , one c a n n o t a r g u e f r o m a s e t o f r u l e s t o t h e v a l u e s t h e y r e p r e s e n t . The same v a l u e s c a n e a s i l y accommodate two d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f s o c i a l r u l e s . H o w e v e r , i f one i d e n t i f i e s a " p a t t e r n o f p r i o r i t i e s " i n t h e r e s e r v o i r o f s h a r e d c u l t u r a l s y m b o l s and i n a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f r u l e s , he i s i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o i d e n t i f y t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t v a l u e s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y . The R i t u a l S e t t i n g a nd t h e Image Among I n d i a n s , t h e t e m p l e image s e r v e s as a h o l y medium t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e w o r s h i p p e r c o n t a c t s t h e d e i t y f a c e t o f a c e and d e m o n s t r a t e s h i s d e v o t i o n . The d e i t y n e v e r shows h i m s e l f t o t h e w o r s h i p p e r e x c e p t i n t h e i m a g e . W h i l e many d e v o u t I n d i a n s b e l i e v e a g o d c a p a b l e o f a s s u m i n g e a r t h l y f o r m s ( a f t e r a l l , s u c h o c c u r r e n c e s a r e d e p i c t e d i n t h e a r t a n d t o l d i n t h e l e g e n d s and m y t h s , n o t t o m e n t i o n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s b y a g o d ) , t h e f a c t r e m a i n s t h a t t h e m o s t common a n d e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e c o n t a c t i s t h r o u g h t h e t e m p l e i m a g e . T h o u g h o s t e n s i b l y s i m i l a r t o H i n d u w o r s h i p , t h e J a i n c o n - c e p t o f w o r s h i p d i f f e r s f u n d a m e n t a l l y i n s e v e r a l w a y s . The J a i n s d e n y t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a s u p e r i o r c r e a t i v e d e i t y f r o m w h i c h - 4 6 - t h e w o r l d e v o l v e s . They d e n y t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a d e i t y o f s u c h immense po w e r t h a t he may c o n t r o l , d e s t r o y o r m a i n t a i n w o r l d l y e x i s t e n c e . The u n i v e r s e o p e r a t e s m e c h a n i c a l l y , p a s s i n g t h r o u g h c y c l e s , a p r o g r e s s i v e d e g e n e r a t i o n , a n d b o n d a g e o r l i b e r a t i o n d e p e n d s upon r e m a i n i n g w i t h i n t h e u n i v e r s e o r e s c a p i n g t o t h e o u t s i d e , b e y o n d t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e u n i v e r s a l e l e m e n t s and f o r c e s . W h i l e t h e a b u n d a n t t e m p l e s c u l p t u r e — d e p i c t i n g t h e T i r t h a n k a r a s 1 (as w e l l a s o t h e r d e i t i e s ' ) l i v e s , t r i u m p h s a n d q u a l i t i e s — c h r o n i c l e s a n d v i s u a l l y i n s t r u c t s t h e u n e d u c a t e d o r i l l i t e r a t e i n J a i n f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s a nd r e l i g i o u s w i s d o m , t h e m a j o r t e m p l e image r e m a i n s t h e f o u n t a i n h e a d o f t h e n o u m i n o u s i n t h e w o r l d , a n d w i t h i n t h e s e s a n c t i f i e d g r o u n d s t h e image i s t r e a t e d a s a k i n g , a s u p e r i o r b e i n g d e s e r v i n g a t t e n t i o n b e c a u s e o f t h e p r o - t e c t i o n and h o n o r he b r i n g s h i s s u b j e c t s . The i m a g e , l i k e t h e g u r u ( l i t e r a l l y , t h e r e m o v e r o f d a r k n e s s ) , i l l u m i n e s t h e p a t h t o w a r d moksa.^ The w o r s h i p p e r ' s a c t i v i t i e s t a k e p l a c e w i t h i n a p u r i f i e d a r e a , t h e t e m p l e . The J a i n s d i d n o t m e r e l y c o p y H i n d u 9. I n J a i n i s m , e a c h w o r s h i p p e r h a s t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r l i b e r a - t i o n r e g a r d l e s s o f h i s s o u l ' s s t a t e . T h o s e who h a v e a t t a i n e d l i b e r a t i o n , t h e s i d d h a s , h a v e e s c a p e d t h e c y c l e o f l i f e a n d d e a t h . They a r e b e y o n d o n e ' s v i e w a n d , h e n c e , c a n n o t be v i s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d . O n l y t h o s e s o u l s a p p r o a c h - i n g t h i s l i b e r a t e d s t a t e r e v e a l t h e p a t h t o s l d d h a - h o o d . The h i g h e s t a n d m o s t n e a r l y p e r f e c t a r e t h e A r h a t - P a r a m e s t h i n s , o r T i r t h a n k a r a s , t h e f i n a l s t a g e o f s p i r i t u a l g r o w t h b e f o r e c o m p l e t e l y a b j u r i n g t h e b o d y . He i s i n t h e s t a g e o f - . ' f i n a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e w o r l d b e f o r e h i s f i n a l s t e p b e y o n d t h e r e a c h o f o u r s e n s e s , a n d i t i s h i s i m a g e t h a t i s m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e t o w o r s h i p . He i s t h e h i g h e s t s p i r i t : a b o v e gods a n d o r d i n a r y men. - 4 7 - a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s b u t i n n o v a t e d , g i v i n g a d i s t i n c t i v e l y J a i n f l a v o r t o t h e i r t e m p l e s . P e r h a p s a s an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i n w a r d n a t u r e o f w o r s h i p , r a t h e r t h a n t h e communal o r c o n g r e g a t i o n a l o u t p o u r i n g s t o a d e i t y , t h e J a i n s r e p l a c e d t h e o p e n h a l l s o f t h e H i n d u t e m p l e s w i t h e n c l o s e d c o m p a r t - m e n t s . T h u s , t h e J a i n t e m p l e i n s u r e s n o t o n l y t h e s e c l u s i o n a n d s e p a r a t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r w o r s h i p a n d c e r e m o n i e s ( J a i n , 1 9 6 3 : i i ) , b u t i t a l s o p h y s i c a l l y c o n t r o l s t h e number o f w o r s h i p p e r s . As an e t h i c a l f a i t h . , J a i n i s m r e q u i r e s l e s s room. I n t e m p l e w o r s h i p , t h e i m age i s t h e c e n t e r a r o u n d which- a l l a c t i o n and t h o u g h t s r e v o l v e . As one e n t e r s a S v e t a m b a r a t e m p l e , t h e m a i n i m a g e , w i t h i t s g l o w i n g g l a s s e y e s , i s i n s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t t o t h e D i g a m b a r a i m a g e s . The D i g a m b a r a a s s e r t t h a t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e shows t h a t t h e i r / T i r t h a n k a r a s c o m p l e t e l y r e n o u n c e d t h e w o r l d , r e m a i n i n g f a i t h f u l t o t h e J a i n t e n e t s o f w o r l d l y n o n i n v o l v e m e n t . T h e s e e y e s , common among t h e f o l k , i m a g e s o f I n d i a , s u c c e s s - f u l l y c o n v e y a f e e l i n g o f l i f e w i t h i n t h e i m a g e . They a r e c o n s i d e r e d a s o u r c e o f p o w e r , a p o i n t r a d i a t i n g d i v i n e e n e r g y i n t o t h e w o r l d a n d , u n d e r s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , h a v i n g l e t h a l p o w e r . I n t h e e y e - o p e n i n g c e r e m o n y , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e o f f i c i a n t p l a c e s a n o f f e r i n g a n d a m i r r o r b e f o r e t h e i m a g e . I t i s a p r o t e c t i v e m e a s u r e , a s p e c i a l p r e c a u t i o n a g a i n s t t h e l e t h a l p o w e r o f t h e i m a g e ' s e y e s ( S t e v e n s o n , - 4 8 - 1 9 7 0 : 2 6 3 ) . T h e s e i n s t a l l a t i o n s a r e o f t e n m a j o r c e r e m o n i a l e v e n t s ( a n j a n a s a l a k a ) . The image becomes c o m p l e t e o n l y when i t s e y e s a r e "op e n e d " i n a c e r e m o n i a l b e s t o w i n g o f l i f e t o t h e i m a ge (Coomaraswamy , 1 9 5 6 a : 1 5 6 ; S t e v e n s o n , 1 9 7 1 : 2 6 3 ) . L o c a t e d i n t h e t e m p l e ' s i n n e r s a n c t u a r y ( g a r b h a - g r a h a ) , t h e i m a ge i s s u r r o u n d e d b y a c o l l e c t i o n o f a u s p i c i o u s s y m b o l s a n d s m a l l e r T i r t h a n k a r a i m a g e s . The m a j o r i m a g e , f o r whom t h e t e m p l e i s d e d i c a t e d , i s u s u a l l y i n t h e s i t t i n g p o s t u r e . A s i d d h a - c a k r a , t h e consummate s y m b o l o f J a i n b e l i e f , i s a l w a y s p r e s e n t a s an e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t o f any t e m p l e . I n - s c r i b e d o n t h i s s a c r e d s y m b o l a r e t h e p a n c a — p a r a m e s t h i n s ( S i d d h a , t h e R e a l i z e d ; A r h a t , t h e N o b l e ; A c h a r y a , t h e M a s t e r ; U p a d h a y a , t h e T e a c h e r ; a n d S a d h u , t h e A s c e t i c ) a n d t h e f o u r f u n d a m e n t a l s o f t h e J a i n f a i t h : R i g h t K n o w l e d g e , R i g h t F a i t h , R i g h t A c t i o n a n d R i g h t A u s t e r i t y . The image o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a l o o k s o u t o n t h e A s s e m b l y H a l l ( s a m a v a s a r a n a ) i n w h i c h t h e o f f e r i n g s a r e made. W h i l e i n t h e i m a g e ' s p r e s e n c e , one h o l d s t h e h o p e o f a t t a i n i n g l i b e r a t i o n ; a s t h e U p a n i s h a d s r e m i n d u s , "One comes t o be o f s u c h s t u f f a s t h a t o n w h i c h t h e m i n d i s s e t " (Coomaraswamy, 1 9 5 6 : 1 0 ) . A l t h o u g h many l a y w o r s h i p p e r s a s k f a v o r s ( S a n g a v e , 1 9 5 9 : 2 3 8 ) , w o r s h i p i s p r i m a r i l y an a c t o f homage w h i c h r e c o g n i z e s t h e T i r t h a n k a r a 1 s s u p e r i o r i t y . The T i r t h a n k a r a i m a g e , a t l e a s t t h e o r e t i c a l l y , h a s no power t o g r a n t b o o n s a n d no p o w e r t o a f f e c t w o r l d l y a c t i o n s a n d t h e i r o u t c o m e s . T h r o u g h - 49 - t h e e x a m p l e o f h i s l i f e , e l e g a n t l y e x p r e s s e d i n t h e i m a g e , t h e T i r t h a n k a r a t o u c h e s a n d e n t e r s t h e c o n t e m p l a t i v e w o r - s h i p p e r ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . W o r s h i p a s s i s t s t h e w o r s h i p p e r i n s t o p p i n g t h e i n f l o w o f k a r m i c p a r t i c l e s ( a s r a v a ) a n d e l i m i - n a t i n g t h e k a r m a w h i c h i s p r e s e n t ( n i r j a r a ) ( S a n g a v e , 1 9 5 9 : 2 3 9 ) . The image i s t h e r e t o r e m i n d one o f t h o s e q u a l i t i e s n e c e s s a r y f o r l i b e r a t i o n . The w o r s h i p p e r ' s g o a l i s t o r e c o g n i z e h i s s o u l ( j i v a ) as a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a ' s a n d , b y p e r f o r m i n g a u s t e r i t i e s a n d o b e y i n g t h e J a i n c a n o n , a d j u s t h i s k a r m i c m a t t e r a n d become l i k e t h e T i r t h a n k a r a . W o r s h i p K e e p i n g i n m i n d t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f r e l i g i o n g i v e n e a r i e r , I w i l l m i n i m a l l y d e f i n e w o r s h i p a s c o n s e c r a t e d b e h a v i o r , t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h i n a z o n e o f p u r i t y , w h i c h p e r m i t s d i r e c t t r a f f i c w i t h a n d e x p r e s s e s t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e s a c r e d f o c u s . I f , as I h a v e a r g u e d , w o r s h i p e n c o m p a s s e s o r u n i t e s t h e s a c r e d a nd t h e s e c u l a r , m a t c h e s them a s i t w e r e , t h e n w o r s h i p s h o u l d i n some s e n s e a c k n o w l e d g e b o t h o f t h e s e r e a l m s . S a r a f ( 1 9 7 3 : 157) d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h i s i s i n f a c t t h e c a s e . He s a y s , t h e H i n d u r i t u a l c o m p l e x o f w o r s h i p s u g g e s t s how r i t u a l s o c c u p y a p l a c e o f p r o m i n e n c e i n t h e t r i a d o f t h e H i n d u v i e w , way a n d a i m o f l i f e . The H i n d u v i e w o f l i f e i s a c o n c e p t i o n , a c o g n i t i v e p r o d u c t a s an i d e a l i z e d b l u e p r i n t . - 50 - The H i n d u way o f l i f e i s t h e a c t u a l t r a n s - l a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t i o n i n t o a c t i o n . . . . The H i n d u a i m o f l i f e r e l a t e s t o t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f mundane a n d / o r c e l e s t i a l g o a l s ( t r i v a r g a , i . e . , d h a r m a , a r t h a , a nd k a m a ) , o r o f u n e a r t h l y g o a l s ( a p a v a r g a ^ ITe., m o k s a ) . The f i r s t r e - l a t e s t o p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e s e c o n d t o r i t u a l i s m , a n d t h e t h i r d t o o r i e n t a t i o n . H e r e i s s i m i l a r a n d c l e a r a s t a t e m e n t o f w o r l d v i e w a n d e t h o s m e d i a t e d , o r u n i t e d , b y r i t u a l a c t i o n a s we w i l l f i n d . N o t e , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e a i m o f l i f e h a s t w o o r i e n t a t i o n s : t h e e a r t h l y ( w h i c h i n c l u d e s c e l e s t i a l ) a n d t h e u n e a r t h l y . T h i s s e p a r a t i o n o f g o a l s a c q u i r e s a d d e d i m p o r t a n c e when we r e c o g n i z e t h a t e a c h o f t h e t r i v a r g a i s c l a s s i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r y a r n a and i s s a i d t o g o v e r n t h e v a r n a ' s members (Dumont, 1 9 7 0 ) . I f r e n u n c i a t i o n c a n be s a i d t o be o u t s i d e o f s o c i e t y o r t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e " f r e e d o m " o f t h e r e n o u n c e r ( s a n n y a s i ) , t h e n moksa i s s u r e l y i t s c o r r e l a t i v e ( T y l e r , 1 9 7 3 : 8 7 - 9 2 ) . As Weber ( 1 9 5 8 : 122) s a y s o f t h e H i n d u ' s v i e w : O r d e r a n d r a n k o f t h e c a s t e s i s e t e r n a l ( a c - c o r d i n g t o d o c t r i n e ) . . . . To o v e r t h r o w t h e m w o u l d be s e n s e l e s s . . . . A b s o l u t e p r e r e q u i s i t e s ...were s t r i c t f u l f i l l m e n t o f c a s t e o b l i g a - t i o n s i n t h e i r p r e s e n t l i f e , t h e s h u n n i n g . o f r i t u a l l y s a c r i l e g i o u s y e a r n i n g f o r r e n o u n c i n g c a s t e . E l s e w h e r e i n t h e same w o r k , Weber (19 58: 24) s a y s , I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e o r t h o d o x / H i n d u _ s e c t s 7 ' , t h e h e r e s e y o f t h e t h e o p h r a t r i e s / J a i n i s m , B u d d h i s m , L i n g a y a t i s m / c o n s i s t s i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y t e a r t h e i n d i v i d u a l away f r o m h i s r i t u a l i s t i c d u t i e s , h e n c e f r o m t h e d u t i e s o f t h e c a s t e o f h i s b i r t h , a n d t h u s i g n o r e o r d e s t r o y h i s dharma. When t h i s o c c u r s t h e - 5 1 - H i n d u l o s e s c a s t e . And s i n c e o n l y t h r o u g h c a s t e c a n one b e l o n g t o t h e H i n d u c o m m u n i t y , he i s l o s t t o i t . Dharma, t h a t i s , r i t u a l - i s t i c d u t y , i s t h e c e n t r a l c r i t e r i o n o f H i n d u i s m . W h i l e J a i n i s m , l i k e H i n d u i s m , a c c e p t s t h e l i n k b e t w e e n c a s t e and d h a r m a , i t d o e s n o t a c c e p t t h e f u l l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f dharma a n d c a s t e b u t , r a t h e r , p r e f e r s t o e m p h a s i z e dharma o v e r c a s t e , m a k i n g a c t i o n p r i m a r y . A c h a n g e i n d h a r m a , t h e n , w o u l d i m p l y a d i f f e r e n c e i n r i t u a l s t a t u s , a n d r i t u a l s t a t u s comes t o d e p e n d upon f o l l o w i n g d e t a i l e d e t h i c a l r u l e s f o r c o n d u c t . I n d i v i d u a l s t r i v i n g t o a t t a i n h i g h e r r i t u a l s t a t u s i s e m p h a s i z e d . C l e a r l y , h i e r - a r c h y a n d t h e p r i n c i p l e s u p o n w h i c h i t i s b a s e d a r e n o t o v e r - t h r o w n ; t h e c a s t e s y s t e m i s s i m p l y o p e n e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n s t r i v i n g t o r a i s e h i s r i t u a l s t a t u s . I t i s t h i s o p e n i n g o f t h e c a s t e h i e r a r c h y t o e v e r y o n e t h a t p u t s t h e J a i n s ' e m u l a t i o n o f t h e i r T i r t h a n k a r a s a n d monks i n p e r - s p e c t i v e : when one becomes l i k e a monk, he a s s e r t s t h a t h i s r i t u a l s t a t u s i s a b o v e t h e B r a h m i n ' s , whose c a s t e p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y l i m i t s h i m . To become l i k e a monk i s t o h a v e a t t a i n e d t h e h i g h e s t r i t u a l s t a t u s p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t a c t u a l l y b e c o m i n g a r e n o u n c e r . I t s h o u l d be o f no s u r p r i s e , t h e n , t o d i s c o v e r t h a t J a i n w o r s h i p a l s o h a s two t e n d e n c i e s , d e p e n d i n g upon who t h e w o r s h i p p e r i s . N o r s h o u l d i t s u r p r i s e us t o f i n d b o t h o r i e n t a t i o n s m i x e d i n any one w o r s h i p . - 5 2 - The J a i n s d i v i d e w o r s h i p i n t o t h e w o r l d l y ( L a u k i k a ) and t h e o t h e r - w o r l d l y ( P a r a l a u k i k a ) . L a u k i k a d e r i v e s f r o m t h e p a r o c h i a l c o n c e r n s , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s o c i a l a n d r e g i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . P a r a l a u k i k a , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s b a s e d on s c r i p t u r e s , t e x t s w h i c h a r e t h o u g h t t o be d i v i n e l y i n - s p i r e d a n d d e f i n i t i v e . P a r a l a u k i k a b e s t o w s h i g h e r p r e s t i g e t h a n L a u k i k a , a n d L a u k i k a s h o u l d o n l y b e p r a c t i c e d s o l o n g a s i t d o e s n o t v i o l a t e any p r i n c i p l e s o f P a r a l a u k i k a ( S a n - g a v e , 1 9 5 9 : 4 0 6 ) . The Monk's W o r s h i p B e f o r e e x a m i n i n g J a i n l a y w o r s h i p , I s h a l l b r i e f l y c o n s i d e r one e n d o f t h e e a r t h l y - u n e a r t h l y c o n t i n u u m i n t h e i d o l w o r s h i p o f t h e J a i n monk. The b e s t d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e monk's w o r s h i p i s i n S t e v e n s o n ( 1 9 7 0 : 2 2 8 - 2 9 ) , w h i c h I q u o t e a t l e n g t h : U n l i k e a l a y m a n , he do n s no s p e c i a l c l o t h e s a t t h e t e m p l e g a t e s , b u t w o r s h i p s i n h i s o r d i n a r y o n e s . When he e n t e r s t h e t e m p l e , he s t a n d s i n f r o n t o f t h e i d o l a n d bows down t o i t , a n d t h e n p e r f o r m s a m e n t a l e x e r c i s e known as B h a v a p u j a , d u r i n g w h i c h he m e d i t a t e s o n t h e u n d o i n g o f k a r m a , t h e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a , a n d s i m i l a r s u b j e c t s . He now p e r f o r m s P r a d a k s i n a , c i r c u m a m b u l a t i n g t h e s h r i n e e i t h e r f o u r o r s e v e n t i m e s . I f he do i t f o u r t i m e s , he m e d i - t a t e s on t h e f o u r g a t i , n a m e l y , w h e t h e r he w i l l be b o r n as a g o d , a man, an a n i m a l , o r a d e n i z e n o f h e l l ; i f he w a l k s r o u n d s e v e n t i m e s , he t h i n k s how he c a n b e s t e s c a p e • d w e l l i n g i n any o f t h e s e v e n h e l l s . An a s c e t i c c a n n e i t h e r c l e a n s e t h e i d o l ( j a l a p u j a ) , n o r mark i t w i t h s a f f r o n ( c a n d a n a p u j a ) , n o r o f f e r f l o w e r s ( p u s p a p u j a ) ,. n o r wave a lamp ( d i p a p u j a ) ; n e i t h e r c a n he mark h i s own f o r e h e a d , a s a l a y m a n w o u l d , w i t h - 53 - a c a n d a l o ( a u s p i c i o u s m a r k ) ; b u t h i s w o r - s h i p seems t o b e a l m o s t e n t i r e l y m e n t a l a n d ' i n t e r i o r ' , a n d s o m e t i m e s i n c l u d e s a c t s o f w o r s h i p known as Khamasamana, C a i t y a v a n d a , and J a v a n t i c a y a n a m . • He a l s o u s u a l l y s i n g s some hymn i n p r a i s e o f t h e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e A r i h a n t a , a n d t h e n j o i n i n g h i s h a n d s r e p e a t s a m a n t r a . A f t e r m e d i t a t i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r p o s t u r e ( k a u s a g g a ) , he t e l l s h i s b e a d s , mak- i n g s a l u t a t i o n s t o ' t h e F i v e ' ( A r i h a n t a , S i d d h a , A c a r y a , U p a d h y a y a a nd S a d h u ) , a n d t o K n o w l e d g e , F a i t h , C h a r a c t e r a n d A u s t e r i t y . When he h a s done t h i s a n d s a i d t h e A v a s a h i , w h i c h a l l o w s h i m t o e n t e r h i s w o r l d l y a f f a i r s a g a i n , he f e e l s t h a t B h a v a p u j a i s c o m p l e t e ; w i t h i t s d i f f e r e n t p a r t s a n d t h e i r v a r i a t i o n s i t g e n e r a l l y l a s t s a b o u t a n h o u r . A f t e r c o m p l e t i n g h i s B h a v a p u j a t h e a s c e t i c g o e s b a c k t o t h e m o n a s t e r y a n d e i t h e r p r e a c h e s o r r e a d s one o f t h e s c r i p t u r e s . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s t o n o t e a b o u t t h e monk's w o r s h i p . F i r s t , h i s w o r s h i p e n t a i l s a p r o p e r s u b s e t o f t h e a c t s f o u n d i n l a y w o r s h i p . As S t e v e n s o n o b s e r v e s , t h e s e a c t s a r e p r i m a r i l y m e n t a l a n d i n t e r i o r . The monk l i m i t s p h y s i c a l a n d , h e n c e ( a t l e a s t f o r t h e J a i n s ) , w o r l d l y c o n t a c t . As H e e s t e r m a n (.1964 : 23) p u t s i t , t h e monk t u r n s h i s b a c k on t h e w o r l d . S e c o n d , t h e i m a g e i s t h e f o c u s o f t h e monk's m e n t a l a n d p h y s i c a l a c t i o n s . The monk's f i r s t a c t i s t o bow~ t o t h e i m a g e . He t h e n m e d i t a t e s o n t h e q u a l i - t i e s o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a , r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e i m a g e ; he c i r c l e s t h e i m a g e , s i n g s p r a i s e t o t h e i m a g e a nd s a l u t e s "The F i v e . " (The s a l u t e t o t h e F i v e , t h e p a n c a p a r a m e s t h i n s , r e c o g n i z e s t h e s p i r i t u a l c h a i n c o n n e c t i n g t h e monk a n d t h e l i b e r a t e d s o u l s . ) T h i r d , e v e r y a c t i o n o f t h e monk, r e m i n d s h i m o f t h e - 54 - i necessary steps to l i b e r a t i o n : bhava puja and Pradaksina, or a s s i s t s him i n attaining l i b e r a t i o n : mantra and kausagga. The monk, then, i s alone and confronts the image without others; he i s separated from the outside world. His actions are more r e s t r i c t e d and consciously deliberate than are the layman's. They are programmatic and do not require the orchestration of a temple o f f i c i a n t . Although he stands before the temple's image, he bows, showing his subordina- tion to the image, and sings praises; he shows no overt sign of p e t i t i o n or adoration, nor the emotionalism that accompanies Hindu devotional attitudes (bhakti).10 Moreover, apart from his Avasahi, there i s no in d i c a t i o n that he has any s o c i a l concerns. His sole t i e , during worship, i s to the image. Whether during worship or not, the monk, i n his attitude of moksa, attempts to consecrate a l l action by categorizing and evaluating his actions according to dogmatic precedent. He should act for r e l i g i o u s purposes only (Bhargava, 1968: 160) . He w i l l take additional vows and penances^-'- as the means of consecration. 10. The absence of devotionalism i s e n t i r e l y consistent not only with Jain history but philosophy as well. Theism and philosophical speculation are not bed- fellows i n India (Smart, 1964: 130). Nevertheless, there i s some in d i c a t i o n that Jains have introduced devotionalism into the worship of the Tirthankara (Stevenson, 1970: 127-28). 11. The Jains divide penance into two classes: i n t e r n a l and external. External penances primarily regulate - 55 - B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g t o l a y w o r s h i p , c o n s i d e r o u r l o g i c o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . C u l t u r e i s a s y s t e m o f s y m b o l s : i t i s " t h e f a b r i c o f m e a n i n g i n t e r m s o f w h i c h human b e i n g s i n t e r - p r e t t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e a n d g u i d e t h e i r a c t i o n ; s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e i s t h e f o r m t h a t a c t i o n t a k e s , t h e a c t u a l l y e x i s t i n g n e t w o r k o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s " ( G e e r t z , 1 9 7 3 : 1 4 5 ) . S y m b o l s a r e " a g r e e m e n t s " o r s h a r e d e x p e c t a t i o n s , w h i c h e n t a i l v a l u e s . A c t i o n , i n s o f a r a s i t i s a c c e p t e d as g o o d o r p r o p e r , b e s t o w s g o o d n e s s o r p r o p r i e t y o n t h e a c t o r . T h e r e f o r e , i f a J a i n a c t s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h J a i n p r i n c i p l e s , he assumes t h o s e q u a l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e a c t s . To a c t as d i d a T i r t h a n k a r a o r a s a monk d o e s i s t o a c q u i r e t h o s e q u a l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e T i r t h a n k a r a and t h e monk. T h e r e i s , o f c o u r s e , t h e p r o b l e m o f d e c e i t , i . e . , one may a c t as i f he s h a r e s , t o some e x t e n t , J a i n p r i n c i p l e s w h e n . i n f a c t he may n o t . B u t t h i s i s t o s a y no more t h a n t h a t s y m b o l s may be p r a g m a t i c a l l y m a n i p u l a t e d . d i e t : t h e k i n d s a n d amounts o f c e r t a i n f o o d s , t h e p l a c e s a t w h i c h t h e y may be e a t e n a n d t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e y may b e o b t a i n e d . T h e s e e x t e r n a l p e n a n c e s a l s o i m p o s e upon t h e monk a l i f e o f s o l i t u d e a nd w a n d e r i n g a s w e l l as k a y a k l e s a , t h e i n f l i c t i o n o f p a i n on t h e b o d y by a d o p t i n g v a r i o u s p o s t u r e s o r s u b m i t t i n g t h e b o d y t o t h e p u n i s h m e n t o f n a t u r e : i n t e n s e h e a t and i n c l e m e n t w e a t h e r . E x t e r n a l p e n a n c e s p r i m a r i l y s u p p o r t o r e n h a n c e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e i n t e r n a l p e n a n c e s , w h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e e x t e r n a l p e n a n c e s . R i g h t B e l i e f a n d R i g h t K n o w l e d g e l e a d t o R i g h t C o n d u c t : b e h a v i o r f o l l o w s t h o u g h t , a n d i t i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t i n t e r n a l p e n a n c e s a r e p r i m a r y . The m o s t common e x - t e r n a l p e n a n c e i s k y o t s a r g a ( " d i s m i s s i n g t h e b o d y " ) , t h e r i g i d s t a n d i n g p o s t u r e p e c u l i a r t o J a i n i s m . - 56 - The N o n - i d o l a t r o u s S t h a n a k a v a s i The monk's and t h e l a y m a n ' s w o r s h i p i s n o t m e r e l y an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p u b l i c l y e x p r e s s o n e ' s f a i t h a n d a s s e r t o n e ' s p o s i t i o n i n t h e c o m m u n i t y , t h o u g h i t i s t h a t , t o o ; i t i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e d e v o u t monk's o r l a y m a n ' s d a y . Wor- s h i p p u n c t u a t e s l i f e , m a k i n g i t d i s t i n c t i v e l y J a i n . The n o n - i d o l a t r o u s S t h a n a k a v a s i l a i t y e x p l i c i t l y s t r u c t u r e t h e i r w o r s h i p a r o u n d t h e s i x d a i l y d u t i e s ( A v a s y a k a s ) , t h e k n o w l e d g e a nd p r a c t i c e o f w h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d f u n d a m e n t a l a n d a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e n o v i c e monk ( S h u b r i n g , 1 9 7 8 : 26 8 - 6 9 ) . A l l s i x d a i l y d u t i e s n e e d n o t b e p e r f o r m e d i n e v e r y w o r s h i p , b u t a c o m p l e t e p e r f o r m a n c e c o n t a i n s t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1. S a m a i y a , a vow d e n o u n c i n g a c t i o n s h a r m f u l t o l i f e , e i t h e r b y m i n d , s p e e c h o r a c t i o n ( i n c l u d e d a r e s a l u t e s t o t h e p a n c a - p a r a m e s t h i n s a n d o n e ' s g u r u , a s k i n g f o r g i v e n e s s f o r any v i o l a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t vow o f J a i n i s m , a h i m s a , a nd t a k i n g a vow t o a b s t a i n f r o m a l l s i n ) ; 2. C a u v i s a t t h a v a , a hymn i n p r a i s e o f t h e t w e n t y - f o u r T i r t h a n k a r a s ; 3. V a n d a n a g a , a s a l u t e t o o n e ' s g u r u ( o r t h e n o r t h - e a s t c o r n e r i f o n e ' s g u r u i s n o t p r e s e n t ) a n d a s k i n g f o r g i v e n e s s f o r v i o l a t i o n s o f t h e r u l e s o f g o o d c o n d u c t ; - 5 7 - 4. P a d i k k a m a n a , c o n f e s s i o n o f a n y v i o l a t i o n s o f t h e t w e l v e vows ( t h e f i v e m a j o r and s e v e n s u p p l e m e n t a r y ) ; 5 . K a u s s a g g a , s i t t i n g i n m e d i t a t i v e p o s t u r e a n d s a y - i n g a m a n t r a ; 6 . P a c c a k k h a n a , a vow n o t t o e a t c e r t a i n f o o d s d u r - i n g t h e d a y (Sh.ub.ring, 1 9 7 8 : 2 6 9 ; S t e v e n s o n , 1 9 7 0 : 2 5 4 - 5 8 ) . Thus w o r s h i p , i f c o m p l e t e and p e r f o r m e d r e g u l a r l y , k e e p s e v e r p r e s e n t i n t h e w o r s h i p p e r ' s m i n d t h e e t h i c a l r u l e s o f J a i n i s m : t h e f i v e m a j o r v o w s , t h e s e v e n s u p p o r t i n g vows an d t h e r u l e s o f g o o d c o n d u c t , w h i c h d e f i n e J a i n a c t i o n s i n t h e s o c i a l w o r l d . T h e s e d a i l y d u t i e s p e r m i t t h e monk o r t h e l a y m a n t o r e f l e c t u p o n h i s p r e v i o u s d a y ' s a c t i v i t i e s , c o n - f e s s h i s t r a n s g r e s s i o n s , m e d i t a t e on p r o p e r b e h a v i o r a n d , t h r o u g h vows, s t r i v e t o i m p r o v e h i s d a i l y c o n d u c t . The S t h a n a k a v a s i , who b e l i e v e i d o l w o r s h i p i n c o n g r u o u s w i t h t h e t r u e s p i r i t a n d t e a c h i n g s o f J a i n i s m , c o n d u c t t h e i r w o r s h i p i n t h e U p a s a r o , t h e r e l i g i o u s h o u s e o f t h e J a i n s o r go t o t h e m o n a s t e r y . T h e i r w o r s h i p , l i k e t h e monk's, i s w h o l l y i n t e r i o r , t h a t i s , m e d i t a t i o n , s a l u t a t i o n a n d r e c i t a - t i o n o f v e r s e a r e t h e p r i m a r y v e h i c l e s . B u t t h e w o r s h i p p e r q u i t e c o n s c i o u s l y d r e s s e s i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l monk's c l o t h i n g , c o m p l e t e w i t h u t t a r a s a n a , a g a u z e c l o t h w h i c h c o v e r s t h e m o u t h a n d p r e v e n t s h a r m t o l i f e "monads," a n d a monk's broom. (The u t t a r a s a n a i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d a s y m b o l o f t h e - 5 8 - c o n t r o l o f s p e e c h . ) W o r s h i p p e r m i t s t h e l a y m a n t o become, f o r b r i e f p e r i o d s , a monk. I d e a l l y t h e l a y m a n t a k e s v o w s , g e n e r a l l y t o f a s t o r p e r f o r m a p a r t i c u l a r a u s t e r i t y , w h i c h he a g r e e s t o o b e y f o r a s p e c i f i e d t i m e a f t e r h i s w o r s h i p . On e s p e c i a l l y h o l y d a y s ( t h e l a s t day o f P a r y u s h a n a , i n w h i c h one a s k s f o r g i v e n e s s o f a l l s i n s c o m m i t t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r ) , t h e l a y m a n i s e n c o u r a g e d t o do P o s h a d h a , e n t e r i n g t h e m o n a s t e r y and l i v i n g as a monk f o r - t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t t h e two t e n d e n c i e s i n w o r s h i p — t h e u n e a r t h l y ( P a r a l a u k l k a ) and t h e e a r t h l y ( L a u k i k a ) — p l a y a c r u c i a l r o l e i n d e f i n i n g S t h a n a k a v a s i w o r s h i p . The S t h a n a k a v a s i l a y m a n m i n i m i z e s t h e e a r t h l y g o a l s o f w o r s h i p ; t h e o t h e r w o r l d l y g o a l s d o m i n a t e h i s w o r s h i p . He c o m p l e t e l y p a t t e r n s h i s w o r s h i p a f t e r t h e monk's l i f e . E x - c e p t f o r t h e s e v e r i t y o f h i s v o w s, he d o e s n o t d i f f e r f r o m t h e monks, a t l e a s t d u r i n g w o r s h i p . S t e v e n s o n ( 1 9 7 0 : 112) makes t h e i n t e r e s t i n g comment t h a t t h e S t h a n a k a v a s i , " h a v i n g o n l y g u r u s t o bow t o , show them d o u b l e r e v e r e n c e a n d s o h a v e b e e n a c c u s e d o f w o r s h i p p i n g t h e i r g u r u s , w h i c h t h e y i n d i g n a n t l y d e n y , p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t t h e y make them no o f f e r i n g s o f f l o w e r s and f r u i t &c." N o t o n l y d o e s t h e S t h a n a k a v a s i ' s d e n i a l i n d i - c a t e t h a t t h e g u r u i s i n d i r e c t l i n e o f s p i r i t u a l s u c c e s s i o n t o t h e T i r t h a n k a r a : he i s o n t h e p a t h t o s i d d h a - h o o d f i r s t t r a v e l l e d b y t h e T i r t h a n k a r a s , b u t i t a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h e S t h a n a k a v a s i ' s r e j e c t i o n Of any H i n d u e l e m e n t s o r i n f l u e n c e s - 59 - i n t h e i r w o r s h i p o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a . The S t h a n a k a v a s i d o , h o w e v e r , w o r s h i p i m a g e s o f H i n d u g o d s , G a n e s h a a n d S a r a s v a t i b e i n g t h e m o s t p o p u l a r . T h e s e a c t s o f w o r s h i p d i r e c t e d t o w a r d an i m a g e , h o w e v e r , a r e k e p t c o m p l e t e l y s e p a r a t e f r o m " t r u e " J a i n w o r s h i p . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f J a i n s w o r s h i p i m a g e s o f t h e i r T i r t h a n k a r a s , a n d i t i s i n image w o r s h i p t h a t w h a t i s m o s t r e s i l i e n t a n d , h e n c e , m o s t f i r m l y a p a r t o f J a i n t h o u g h t p r e s e n t s i t s e l f . T h u s , w h i l e i n t h e o r y t h e f o c u s o f J a i n i s m i s m o k s a , i n c r e a s i n g l y (no d o u b t b e c a u s e o f H i n d u i n f l u e n c e ) t h e T i r t h a n k a r a s h a v e c a p t u r e s t h e f o c u s , a t l e a s t f o r t h e o r d i n a r y w o r s h i p p e r . The i mage w o r s h i p p i n g S v e t a m b a r a a r e more H i n d u i z e d t h a n t h e i r S t h a n a k a v a s i b r o t h e r s . They do , f o r e x a m p l e , u s e S a n s k r i t d u r i n g t h e i r w o r s h i p a n d h a v e a d o p t e d much, o f t h e H i n d u r i t u a l p r o t o c o l . The image w o r - s h i p p e r s a l s o o b e y t h e s i x d a i l y d u t i e s , b u t an a l t e r n a t i v e l i s t w h i c h , d e s p i t e t h e a p p a r e n t d i f f e r e n c e s , e x p o u n d s t h e same p r i n c i p l e s : w o r s h i p o f t h e g o d ( D e v a - p u j a ) , w o r s h i p o f o n e ' s p r e c e p t o r ( G u r u p a s t i ) , s t u d y o f s c r i p t u r e s ( S v a d h y a y a ) , s e l f - c o n t r o l (Samyama), p e r f o r m a n c e o f a u s t e r i t i e s ( t a p a ) a n d t h e g i v i n g o f g i f t s ( D a n a ) . I n e v i t a b l y , t h e n , t h e d a i l y c o n c e r n s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y h a v e come t o s e a s o n J a i n i m age w o r - s h i p w i t h a mundane p r o v i n c i a l i s m a b s e n t i n t h e monk's w o r s h i p . - 60 - LAY IDOLATRY S v e t a m b a r a J a i n w o r s h i p d i f f e r s f r o m r e g i o n t o r e g i o n b u t t h e e s s e n t i a l s o f J a i n i d o l w o r s h i p a r e t h e same as i n H i n d u w o r s h i p : p u r i t y ( b o t h o f p e r s o n and a r e a ) ; p r a n a m o r s a l u t a t i o n , a g e s t u r e o f r e s p e c t a n d a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t o f t h e i m a g e ' s s u p e r i o r i t y ; a n d an o f f e r i n g o f f o o d (Babb, 1 9 7 5 ) . A l t h o u g h w o r s h i p i s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e J a i n c a n o n s , t h e c a n o n s do n o t p r o v i d e r u l e s f o r w o r s h i p ( J a c o b i , 1 9 6 1 : 4 6 6 ) , a n d t h e J a i n s , u s i n g t h e f l e x i b i l i t y i n h e r e n t i n t h e i r s t r a t e g y o f n o n - e x c h a n g e and s o c i a l n o n - a l i g n m e n t w e r e f r e e t o a d o p t many e l e m e n t s o f t h e i r n e i g h b o r s ' w o r s h i p . W h i l e t h e J a i n c a n o n s a r e a n t i - b r a h m a n i c a l , t h e y do n o t condemn t h e B r a h m i n ' s r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e s , b u t u r g e h i m t o become a " T r u e B r a h m i n . " They u r g e t h e B r a h m i n t o become a J a i n monk by p r a c t i c i n g 12 t r u e s a c r i f i c e : a u s t e r i t i e s . I T Image W o r s h i p : A B r i e f D e s c r i p t i o n L i k e h i s i d o l w o r s h i p p i n g H i n d u c o u n t e r p a r t , t h e S v e t a m b a r a w o r s h i p p e r p r e p a r e s h i m s e l f b y b a t h i n g , m a r k i n g h i s f o r e h e a d w i t h c a n d a n a (an a u s p i c i o u s mark) a n d d o n n i n g two s p e c i a l 12. See t h e U t t a r a d h y a y a n a , l e c t u r e s 12 and 25 ( J a i n a S u t r a s , v o l . 2 ) . 1 3 . I h a v e t a k e n t h i s a c c o u n t o f S v e t a m b a r a w o r s h i p f r o m S t e v e n s o n ( 1 9 6 1 : 7 9 9 - 8 0 2 ) . - 61 - s e a m l e s s c l o t h s k e p t e s p e c i a l l y f o r w o r s h i p : t h e l o i n c l o t h a n d t h e s h o u l d e r c l o t h ( w h i c h he w e a r s w i t h t h e r i g h t s h o u l d e r e x p o s e d ) . He may a l s o w e a r t h e u t t a r a s a n a , t h e monk's g a u z e m o u t h c o v e r i n g . 1 4 W h i l e i t i s p e r m i s s i b l e t o w e a r o n e ' s d a i l y d r e s s , t h e w o r s h i p p e r w o u l d t h e n n o t e n t e r t h e i n n e r s a n c t u a r y c o n t a i n i n g t h e i m a g e . B e f o r e b e g i n n i n g w o r s h i p , e v e r y w o r s h i p p e r l e a v e s any v a l u a b l e s o r money o u t s i d e t h e t e m p l e ; o n l y t h o s e t h i n g s w h i c h a r e g i f t s t o t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i m age d o e s he r e t a i n . He who e n t e r s w i t h v a l u a b l e s f o r f e i t s them, w h e t h e r f o o d o r c o i n ; t h e T i r t h a n k a r a demands a l l t h a t h i s e y e s " l i g h t " o n . 1 ^ A f t e r c h a n g i n g h i s c l o t h e s , t h e w o r s h i p p e r c i r c u m a m b u l a t e s t h e t e m p l e ( p r a d a k s i n a ) i n t h e a u s p i c i o u s c l o c k w i s e d i r e c t i o n w i t h h i s r i g h t s i d e a l w a y s t o w a r d t h e t e m p l e ( a n d t h e t e m p l e ' s i n n e r s a n c t u a r y c o n t a i n i n g t h e image) w h i l e he m e d i t a t e s o n t h e T h r e e J e w e l s o f J a i n i s m : R i g h t F a i t h , R i g h t K n o w l e d g e an d R i g h t C o n d u c t . U n l i k e t h e H i n d u w o r s h i p p e r , whose e n t r y i n t o t h e s a c r e d w o r l d o f t h e t e m p l e i s a p u r e l y p h y s i c a l p a s s a g e ( t h a t i s , he m e r e l y e n t e r s ) , t h e J a i n b r i n g s h i s 14, I n some r e g i o n s . , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e S o u t h , t h e l a y m a n may~ a l s o w e a r h i s s a c r e d t h r e a d a r o u n d h i s w a i s t a n d , S t e v e n s o n (1961) n o t e s , he may a l s o w e a r a c a s t e mark. H o w e v e r , t h i s w e a r i n g o f t h e s a c r e d t h r e a d a n d c a s t e mark i s c o n t r a r y t o J a i n p r i n c i p l e s . 1 5 . I t i s t e m p t i n g t o s e e t h e i m a g e ' s t a k i n g a l l t h a t i t sees' a s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p r e s s i o n o f a r e m o t e d i s c i p l i n a r y f a t h e r , an a l l p o w e r f u l f i g u r e t h a t n o t o n l y t a k e s b u t a l s o t e a c h e s s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y b y c o n t r o l l i n g d e s i r e s a n d e m o t i o n s . One's g u r u o r r e l i g i o u s p r e c e p t o r , f o r e x a m p l e , i s s a i d t o be l i k e a f a t h e r w i t h t h e w a r m t h an d c o m p a s s i o n o f a m o t h e r ( C a r s t a i r s , 1 9 6 1 : 4 5 ) . - 62 - h a n d s t o g e t h e r b e f o r e h i m (pranam) a nd s a y s " N i s s a h i " w h i c h "begs a nd commands" a l l w o r d l y c o n c e r n s t o l e a v e . When a w e a l t h y w o r s h i p p e r i s p r e s e n t o r d u r i n g i m p o r t a n t f e s t i v a l s , e a c h w o r s h i p p e r may j o i n t h e b i d d i n g f o r t h e h o n o r •I C a n d m e r i t o f p e r f o r m i n g j a l a - p u j a , t h e b a t h i n g o f t h e i m a g e , w h i c h i s f o l l o w e d b y c a n d a n a - p u j a, t h e m a r k i n g o f t h e i m a g e . A m e a s u r e o f g h l ( c l a r i f i e d b u t t e r ) , r e p r e s e n t i n g an e s t a b l i s h e d sum o f money, i s t h e medium o f e x c h a n g e . He who b i d s h i g h e s t a g a i n s a y s " N i s s a h i " a n d p e r f o r m s j a l a - p u j a a l o n e . U n l i k e i n many H i n d u t e m p l e s , t h e w o r s h i p p e r may e n t e r , b a t h e a n d mark t h e i m a g e . ^ The D i g a m b a r a J a i n s , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , do n o t a u c t i o n j a l a - p u j a , n o r d o e s a w o r s h i p p e r p e r f o r m t h i s r i t u a l a l o n e ; w o r s h i p among t h e D i g a m b a r a i s more c o n g r e g a t i o n a l . A f t e r t h e image i s b a t h e d w i t h w a t e r , m i l k a n d f i v e n e c t a r s , i t i s . m a r k e d w i t h s a f f r o n ( c a n d a n a - p u j a) i n f o u r t e e n a u s p i c i o u s p l a c e s . The m a r k i n g i s done w h i l e s i n g i n g . t h e p r a i s e s o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a . An a d d i t i o n a l s t e p i n t h o s e w e a l t h i e r t e m p l e s i s t h e d r e s s i n g o f t h e image i n i t s f i n e s t j e w e l r y ( a n g a - p u j a ) . A g a i n , t h e w e a l t h y b i d f o r t h e h o n o r o f h a v i n g t h e t e m p l e o f f i c i a n t d r e s s t h e i m a g e i n i t s g o l d f i n e r y . I f t i m e s a r e 16. S t e v e n s o n (.1910: 103) n o t e s i n h e r a c c o u n t o f image w o r s h i p a t Mt. Abu t h a t , s i n c e j a l a - p u j a c a n b e done o n l y o n c e d u r i n g t h e d a y , a s i n g l e p e r s o n h a s t h e h o n o r o f d o i n g i t . 17. A l t h o u g h women a r e q u i t e f r e e t o w o r s h i p i n t h e t e m p l e s , S t e v e n s o n m a i n t a i n s t h a t f ew women e n t e r t h e i n n e r s h r i n e d u r i n g S v e t a m b a r a w o r s h i p . The D i g a m b a r a b a r women com- p l e t e l y f r o m t h i s m o s t s a c r e d p l a c e . i - 6 3 - h a r d , t h e w o r s h i p p e r , f o r a l e s s e r sum, may h a v e t h e i m age d r e s s e d i n s i l v e r . A f t e r c a n d a n a - p u j a , t h e w o r s h i p p e r o f f e r s f l o w e r s and g a r l a n d s ( p u s p a - p u j a ) . As t h e w o r s h i p p e r l e a v e s t h e i n n e r s a n c t u a r y , he s a y s " N i s s a h i " a g a i n and d o e s a r a t l , w a v i n g a lamp ( d i p a - p u j a) a n d w a v i n g b u r n i n g i n c e n s e ( d h u p a - p u j a ) b e f o r e t h e i m a g e . V i e w e d f r o m t h e A s s e m b l y H a l l , t h e i m age s i t s o n a r o y a l l i o n t h r o n e . I n f r o n t o f t h e i m a g e , t h e w o r s h i p p e r o f f e r s g i f t s o f r i c e ( a k s a t a - p u j a ) , s w e e t m e a t s ( n a i v e d y a - p u j a ) , and f r u i t s a n d n u t s ( p h a l a - p u j a ) t o t h e T i r t h a n k a r a . The w o r - s h i p p e r , w h e t h e r S v e t a m b a r a o r D i g a m b a r a , a r r a n g e s t h e r i c e as i n F i g u r e 1. A f t e r t h e o f f e r i n g s a r e made, t h e w o r s h i p p e r p r o s t r a t e s h i m s e l f (pranam) b e f o r e t h e i m age and s a y s " N i s s a h i " f o r t h e f i n a l t i m e . He a s k s t o be c u t o f f f r o m any remembrance o f h i s o f f e r i n g . U n l i k e t h e H i n d u w o r s h i p p e r , t h e J a i n d o e s n o t p a r t a k e o f t h e o f f e r i n g s ; t h e o f f e r i n g s do n o t become p r a s a d ( s a n c t i f i e d f o o d ) . S i l e n t l y , i n one o f t h e m e d i t a t i v e p o s t u r e s , t h e w o r s h i p p e r now p e r f o r m s b h a v a - p u j a , t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e w o r s h i p . 1 8 i n b h a v a - p u j a (an a c t o f d e t a c h m e n t ) , t h e w o r s h i p p e r t h i n k s a b o u t t h e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a 18. I n t h e D i g a m b a r a w o r s h i p , t h e p u j a r i , t e m p l e o f f i c i a n t , c o n d u c t i n g t h e w o r s h i p s t a n d s " r i g i d / i n k y o t s a r g a , a r i g i d s t a n d i n g p o s t u r e p e c u l i a r t o t h e Jain£7 b e f o r e t h e s h r i n e f o r a f u l l m i n u t e i n a b s o l u t e s i l e n c e , c e a s i n g f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e t h e i n t o n i n g w h i c h he h a d m a i n t a i n e d a l l t h r o u g h o u t t h e c l e a n s i n g , p r e p a r a t i o n and o f f e r i n g " ( S t e v e n s o n , 1 9 1 0 : 9 1 ) . - 6 4 - s o t h a t he may h i m s e l f become l i k e t h e T i r t h a n k a r a . He makes no r e q u e s t s . F i n a l l y , r e s p e c t f u l l y f a c i n g t h e T i r t h a n k a r a , he b a c k s away t o t h e d o o r , s a y s " A v a s a h i , " w h i c h e n d s h i s worship- 1- , and r e - e n t e r s h i s s o c i a l l i f e . The S t r u c t u r e o f J a i n W o r s h i p As V i c t o r T u r n e r ( 1 9 6 7 : 9 3 - 1 1 1 ) , f o l l o w i n g V a n Gennep (1960) , o b s e r v e s , r i t u a l s e t s t h e i n d i v i d u a l a p a r t f r o m o r d i n a r y e x i s t e n c e . R i t u a l i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y s a c r e d n e s s a n d l i m i n a l i t y ; i t i s s t r u c t u r e d s o c i a l a c t i o n m a r k e d o f f f r o m o r d i n a r y a c t i o n b y s e p a r a t i o n a n d a g g r e g a t i o n . The J a i n w o r s h i p p e r e n t e r s t h e r i t u a l c o n t e x t b y j o i n i n g h i s h a n d s (pranam) and s a y i n g " N i s s a h i . " H i s a c t i v i t i e s , i n f a c t , a r e m a r k e d o f f e a c h t i m e h e d o e s p r a n a m a n d u t t e r s 1 " N i s s a h i . " O u t s i d e on t h e t e m p l e ' s p o r c h , he a s k s t o be c u t o f f f r o m t h e c o n c e r n s o f h i s w o r l d l y l i f e . C r o s s i n g t h e 19. J a i n w o r s h i p i s b y no means u n i f o r m i n p r a c t i c e . Of t h e t h r e e m a j o r s u b - s e c t s o f t h e D i g a m b a r a J a i n s ( B i s a p a n t h i , T e r a p a n t h i a n d T a r a n a p a n t h i ) , S a n g a v e ( 1 9 5 9 : 54) n o t e s t h a t t h e B i s a p a n t h i do a r a t i , o f f e r s w e e t m e a t s , a nd s i t w h i l e w o r s h i p p i n g . The T e r a p a n t h i s w o r s h i p i m a g e s w i t h f l o w e r s , f r u i t s , r i c e a n d g r e e n v e g e t a b l e s , b u t t h e y do n o t p e r f o r m a r a t i n o r o f f e r s w e e t m e a t s . The T a r a n a p a n t h i do n o t w o r s h i p t h e i m a g e s o f T i r t h a n k a r a s , b u t . w o r s h i p t h e i r s a c r e d b o o k s . Of t h e t h r e e S v e t a m b a r a s e c t s , t h e S t h a n a k a v a s i a n d T e r a p a n t h i , a r e n o n - i d o l a t r o u s . The M u r t i p u j a k a a r e i d o l w o r s h i p p e r s a n d t h e p r i m a r y s u b j e c t o f t h i s s t u d y . - 6 5 - e n t r a n c e o f t h e i n n e r s a n c t u a r y , he a s k s t o be c u t o f f f r o m any t h o u g h t o f t h e t e m p l e s e r v a n t s . F i n a l l y , o u t s i d e t h e i n n e r s a n c t u a r y , h a v i n g done c a n d a n a - p u j a , he makes h i s o f f e r i n g s , p r e s e n t s h i s g i f t s t o t h e T i r t h a n k a r a a n d a s k s t o be c u t o f f f r o m any t h o u g h t s o f t h e w o r s h i p he p e r f o r m s . E a c h t i m e t h e w o r s h i p p e r s a y s " N i s s a h i , " he c r o s s e s a new f r o n t i e r , g r a d u a l l y s e v e r i n g h i s w o r l d l y a n d s o c i a l t i e s u n t i l he s t a n d s a l o n e b e f o r e t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i m a g e . I t s a y s t o t h o s e p r e s e n t t h a t t h e a c t i o n s t o f o l l o w a r e t o be i n t e r - p r e t e d a s s o m e t h i n g more t h a n mere s o c i a l a c t i o n . J a i n w o r s h i p , i t w i l l be n o t e d , c o n t a i n s an a d d i t i o n a l s e p a r a t i o n and a g g r e g a t i o n w i t h i n t h e r i t u a l i t s e l f . The w o r s h i p p e r ' s s a y i n g " N i s s a h i " n o t o n l y s e p a r a t e s h i s s o c i a l a c t i o n s f r o m h i s r i t u a l a c t i o n s b u t , w i t h i n h i s r i t u a l p e r - f o r m a n c e , s e p a r a t e s t h o s e a c t i o n s p e r f o r m e d o u t s i d e t h e i n n e r s a n c t u a r y f r o m t h o s e p e r f o r m e d w i t h i n t h e i n n e r s a n c t u a r y . S a y i n g " N i s s a h i , " t h e n , h i g h l i g h t s t h e w o r s h i p p e r ' s a c t i o n s , b r e a k i n g t h e a c t o f w o r s h i p i n t o t h o s e r i t e s o u t s i d e t h e i n n e r s a n c t u a r y and t h o s e w i t h i n t h e i n n e r s a n c t u a r y . S t e v e n s o n (1970) s a y s t h a t , i f t h e w o r s h i p p e r d o e s n o t h a v e much t i m e , he may o n l y do c a n d a n a - p u j a ( m a r k i n g t h e i m a g e ) , d h u p a - p u j a ( w a v i n g t h e i n c e n s e b e f o r e t h e image) and a k s a t a - p u j a ( o f f e r i n g r i c e ) . E l s e w h e r e , h o w e v e r , S t e v e n s o n (1910:103) s a y s t h a t many J a i n s ( e s p e c i a l l y women) p e r f o r m a s i m p l e r a n d l e s s c o s t l y w o r s h i p w h i c h e n t a i l s o n l y t h o s e r i t e s w h i c h f o l l o w c a n d a n a - p u j a and a r e p e r f o r m e d o u t s i d e - 6 6 - t h e i n n e r s a n c t u a r y . The w o r s h i p p e r d o e s t h e s e r i t e s i n h i s o r d i n a r y c l o t h e s . Thus t h e J a i n w o r s h i p p e r h a s t h e o p t i o n o f e n t e r i n g t h e i n n e r s a n c t u a r y w i t h t h e i m a g e . I f he c h o o s e s t o e n t e r t h e i n n e r s a n c t u a r y he must c o n s c i o u s l y d e c i d e t o u n d e r t a k e e x t e n s i v e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t e s and d r e s s l i k e a monk. I f t h e w o r s h i p p e r c h o o s e s n o t t o e n t e r , he o n l y d o e s t h o s e r i t e s w h i c h f o l l o w c an dan a - p u j a; he d o e s n o t , t h e n , d r e s s l i k e a monk and h i s d r e s s c h a r a c t e r i z e s h i m a s an " o r d i n a r y " w o r s h i p p e r . The b a t h i n g , c h a n g i n g c l o t h e s a n d m a r k i n g t h e f o r e h e a d a r e n o t n e c e s s a r y , e x c e p t i f one w a n t s t o e n t e r t h e i n n e r s a n c t u a r y , w h i c h , by i m p l i c a t i o n , i s t h e m o s t p u r e a n d s a c r e d p a r t o f t h e t e m p l e . S t e v e n s o n (1970) n o t e s t h a t a t S a r u n a y a , a f a v o r i t e p l a c e o f J a i n p i l g r i m a g e , w o r s h i p f o l l o w s t h e same g e n e r a l o u t l i n e as t h e " c o m p l e t e " w o r s h i p o u t l i n e d a b o v e . T h i s p r a c t i c e becomes s i g n i f i c a n t when we n o t e t h a t w o r s h i p , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g p i l g r i m a g e , i s c o n s i d e r e d b y w o r s h i p p e r s a s an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i r d e s i r e t o e m u l a t e t h e i r p r e c e p t o r ' s t o t a l way o f l i f e ( B h a r a t i , 1 9 6 3 : 1 4 4 ) . J a i n w o r s h i p , t h e n , h a s two b a s i c d i v i s i o n s : 1) t h e " c o m p l e t e " w o r s h i p , b e g i n n i n g w i t h b a t h i n g , i n w h i c h t h e w o r - s h i p p e r c o n s c i o u s l y d r e s s e s as a monk, p r o c e e d i n g t o c o n t a c t w i t h t h e image a n d e n d i n g w i t h b h a v a — p u j a , a n d 2) t h o s e r i t e s b e g i n n i n g w i t h d h u p a - p u j a t h a t do n o t r e q u i r e a p u r i f i c a - t i o n b a t h a n d w h i c h a r e p e r f o r m e d i n o n e ' s e v e r y d a y c l o t h e s . T h e s e two b a s i c t y p e s o f w o r s h i p , w i t h m i n o r v a r i a t i o n s , a r e - 6 7 - t h e m o s t commonly u s e d b y t h e m a j o r i t y o f J a i n s . E v e r y w o r - s h i p p e r , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e f o r m o f w o r s h i p he c h o o s e s , p e r f o r m s some o f t h o s e r i t e s w h i c h f o l l o w c a n d a n a - p u j a. W h i c h a d d i t i o n a l r i t e s he s e l e c t s i s , b y a n d l a r g e , t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e w o r s h i p p e r a n d i s c o n t i n g e n t on t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h o s e r i t e s i n t h e i n n e r s a n c t u a r y . I t i s t h e s e a c t i o n s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e t h e r i t u a l , p e r m i t t i n g t h e a c t o r t o d e c l a r e h i m s e l f t o be l i k e t h e T i r t h a n k a r a o r monk t o h i s c o m m u n i t y ' s members. P i e t y h a s i t s e a r t h l y r e w a r d s , t o o . As n o t e d e a r l i e r , w o r s h i p c a n be a n a l y t i c a l l y d i v i d e d i n t o two g o a l s : t h e e a r t h l y , i n w h i c h e a c h p e r s o n s t r i v e s , t h r o u g h v a r i o u s c o m p l i c a t e d p r e s t a t i o n s a n d c o u n t e r - p r e s t a t i o n s , t o s u r p a s s h i s : f e l l o w s i n r i t u a l p u r i t y a n d t o g a i n some w o r l d l y b e n e f i t , and t h e u n e a r t h l y , i n w h i c h t h e w o r h s i p p e r s t r i v e s t o e m u l a t e t h e monk. Among t h e J a i n s , e a c h p e r s o n m u s t l e a r n t o b a l a n c e t h e two g o a l s i n h i s d a i l y a f f a i r s ; he must l e a r n t o u s e one t o a c h i e v e t h e o t h e r . How t h i s i s done i s one o f t h e t o p i c s o f t h i s s e c t i o n . T h u s , w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f w o r s h i p , t h e c o s m i c ( u n e a r t h l y ) a n d s o c i a l ( e a r t h l y ) o r d e r s c o m i n g l e , b u t t h e i r f i t d e p e n d s on c o n s t r i c t i n g t h e s o c i a l o r d e r , w h i c h f a i l s m i s e r a b l y t o l i v e up t o t h e p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d s t a n d a r d s o f t h e c o s m i c o r d e r . A t b e s t t h e s o c i a l o r d e r i s an a p p r o x i m a t i o n , o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y a s c e n d i n g t o t h e u n i v e r s a l o r d e r e s t a b l i s h e d i n r i t u a l . C o s m i c o r d e r , h o w e v e r , i s no mere s k e l e t o n o f - 68 - t h e s o c i a l o r d e r , b u t a s o c i a l o r d e r w i t h o u t a m b i g u i t y . I t i s s o c i a l a c t i o n made s a c r e d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f i t s e x e c u t i o n . R i t u a l P u r i f i c a t i o n When i n a p o l l u t e d s t a t e , o ne i s o f f e n s i v e t o t h e d e i t y o r t h e image a nd he may n o t p e r f o r m a c t s o f w o r s h i p u n t i l p u r i f i e d . As n o t e d e a r l i e r , a ny s e r i o u s p o l l u t i o n o f a p e r s o n e n t a i l s some d e g r e e o f a v o i d a n c e a n d i s o l a t i o n . D u r i n g w o r s h i p , t h e n , t h e e m p h a s i s i s on r i t u a l p o l l u t i o n , n o t r i t u a l p u r i t y . I t i s t h e c o n t r o l o f p o l l u t i o n t h a t s e p a r a t e s p e o p l e f r o m p e o p l e a n d p e o p l e f r o m gods a n d , b e - c a u s e he may be c o n t a m i n a t e d b y o t h e r s , t h e w o r s h i p p e r m u s t a v o i d t h o s e who a r e more p o l l u t e d (Mandelbaum, 1 9 7 0 : 1 9 2 - 1 9 5 ) . The w o r s h i p p e r ' s p u r i f i c a t i o n i s r i g i d l y f o r m a l ; i t i n v o l v e s e l a b o r a t e r i t u a l a c t s : g e s t u r e s , t h e r e p e a t i n g o f s a c r e d m a n t r a s a nd s a y i n g s , a n d t h e u s e o f s p e c i a l a g e n t s , s u c h a s f i r e , w a t e r , a n d cow p r o d u c t , e . g . , d u n g , u r i n g , m i l k , b u t t e r , e t c . (Mandelbaum, 1 9 7 0 : 2 0 3 ) . H i s c l o t h e s a r e p r e p a r e d u n d e r t h e s t r i c t e s t p r o c e d u r e s t o i n s u r e t h e i r c o m p l e t e r i t u a l p u r i t y . M o r e o v e r , t h e w o r s h i p p e r w i l l g e n - e r a l l y p u r i f y h i m s e l f and w o r s h i p i n t h e m o r n i n g t o a v o i d a s many d a i l y c o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r s as p o s s i b l e b e f o r e w o r s h i p - 69 - (Mandelbaum, 1 9 7 0 : 1 8 4 ) , t h e r e b y i n s u r i n g e x t r e m e p u r i t y o f h i s p e r s o n . W h i l e t h e w o r s h i p p e r ' s c l o t h e s must be e x c h a n g e d f o r a p u r i f i e d s e t , t h e new c l o t h e s a r e n o t o r d i n a r y c l o t h e s . As w i t h t h e S t a n a k a v a s i J a i n s , t h e c l o t h e s a r e t h o s e w h i c h an a s c e t i c monk w e a r s a nd t h e w o r s h i p p e r , b e f o r e e n t e r i n g t h e t e m p l e a nd b e g i n n i n g h i s w o r s h i p , must l e a v e b e h i n d t h o s e w o r l d l y p o s s e s s i o n s ( e . g . , j e w e l r y , money) w h i c h he w i l l n o t o f f e r t o t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i m a g e . P u t t i n g a s i d e o n e ' s p o s s e s s i o n s b e f o r e w o r s h i p i s o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e . A l t h o u g h o n l y s y m b o l i c a l l y , t h e w o r s h i p p e r i s r e - e n a c t i n g t h e T i r t h - a n k a r a ' s e n t r y i n t o t h e l i f e o f a r e n o u n c e r , f a i t h f u l l y f o l - l o w e d b y J a i n monks f o r o v e r 2500 y e a r s . He s e t s a s i d e any s i g n s o f w o r l d l y s u c c e s s , w h i l e i n t h e r i t u a l s e t t i n g he v o l u n t a r i l y a c c e p t s l i m i t a t i o n s o n h i s w e a l t h . He d o e s n o t , as we s h a l l s e e , l e a v e b e h i n d o r r e l i n q u i s h e v e r y r e m i n d e r o f h i s w o r l d l y s u c c e s s (and a c h i e v e an a b s o l u t e e q u a l i t y w i t h h i s f e l l o w w o r s h i p p e r s ) , b u t he d o e s v o l u n t a r i l y a c c e p t l i m i t a t i o n s on t h o s e o u t w a r d s i g n s o f s u c c e s s a nd w e a l t h . He s y m b o l i c a l l y e n a c t s t h e f i f t h m a j o r vow w h i c h l i m i t s h i s p o s s e s s i o n s ( a p a r i g r a h a ) a n d d e c l a r e s t h a t he i s n o t a t t a c h e d t o t h e w o r l d . E v e r y a c t o f r i t u a l p u r i f i c a t i o n must be u n d e r s t o o d a n d i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o h i e r a r c h y . P u r i t y i s t h e p r e - c o n d i t i o n t h a t e n t i t l e s t h e w o r s h i p p e r s t o e n t e r t h e t e m p l e - 7 0 - f o r w o r s h i p ; i t p r o c l a i m s an e q u a l i t y among t h e w o r s h i p p e r s . When a w o r s h i p p e r d r e s s e s a s a monk, h i e r a r c h y i s n e u t r a l i z e d . The w o r s h i p p e r a d o p t s an e m b l e m — t h e monk's c l o t h e s — t h a t d o e s n o t a r t i c u l a t e s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s . The p u r e - i m p u r e d i s t i n c t i o n , a t l e a s t among t h e w o r s h i p p e r s , i s n e u t r a l i z e d . The w o r s h i p p e r ' s p u r i f i c a t i o n assumes a d d e d i m p o r t a n c e when we remember t h a t t h e f i r s t s a y i n g o f " N i s s a h i " a s k s t h a t w o r l d l y c o n c e r n s be gone. The w o r s h i p p e r r i t u a l l y becomes a r e n o u n c e r ; he becomes a monk. D u r i n g r i t u a l , h i e r a r c h y i s n e v e r c o m p l e t e l y b a n i s h e d . W h i l e t h e w o r s h i p p e r ' s e q u a l i t y i n s u r e s t h a t e a c h w o r s h i p p e r h a s a c c e s s t o t h e i m a g e , i t d o e s n o t i m p l y t h e e q u a l " m o r a l n a t u r e " o f e a c h w o r s h i p p e r . As we n o t e d e a r l i e r , some D a s a J a i n s a r e d e n i e d a c c e s s t o t e m p l e s b e c a u s e o t h e r J a i n s b e l i e v e them t o h a v e an i n h e r e n t i m p u r i t y w h i c h t h e i r r i t u a l p u r i f i c a - t i o n c a n n o t a m e l i o r a t e . E q u a l i t y , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g r i t u a l a n d p i l g r i m a g e , s u p p o r t s and a f f i r m s h i e r a r c h y , n o t b y s h o w i n g a b s o l u t e e q u a l i t y , b u t by s h o w i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l e q u a l i t y o f t h e w o r - s h i p p e r s . I t w i l l be remembered t h a t t h e monk's o r d e r , t h e m o s t vehement d e n i a l o f t h e c a s t e s y s t e m , n e v e r e l i m i n a t e d h i e r a r c h y . R i t u a l e q u a l i t y , w i t h i t s a p p a r e n t n o n - d i f f e r e n t i a - t i o n among t h e w o r s h i p p e r s , m e r e l y e s t a b l i s h e s t h e p r e - c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e r e n e w a l o f h i e r a r c h y i n a p u r e l y r e l i g i o u s a n d s a c r e d d o m a i n . T h i s must be t h e c a s e f o r i f o u r a n a l y s i s -71 - o f t h e I n d i a n h i e r a r c h i c a l s y s t e m i s c o r r e c t , c o m p l e t e e q u a l i t y p r e s e n t s a d a n g e r o u s s i t u a t i o n b e c a u s e i t q u e s t i o n s , a n d must u l t i m a t e l y d e n y , t h o s e f u n d a m e n t a l v a l u e s o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y . I t q u e s t i o n s t h e v e r y r u l e s o f n o r m a l s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e ; i t t h r e a t e n s t o c r e a t e d i s o r d e r o r m e a n i n g l e s s n e s s . The s t r u c t u r e o f J a i n w o r s h i p s e p a r a t e s t h e w o r s h i p p e r s i n t o two c l a s s e s : t h o s e who r i t u a l l y p u r i f y t h e m s e l v e s i n o r d e r t o t o u c h t h e i m a g e , a n d t h o s e who do n o t p u r i f y them- s e l v e s b u t c o n t i n u e t o w e a r t h e i r e v e r y d a y c l o t h e s . T h u s , among t h e w o r s h i p p e r s , t h e i d e a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e J a i n c o m m u n i t y ( t h e t i r t h a ) i s r i t u a l l y d u p l i c a t e d . T h o s e who p u r i f y t h e m s e l v e s , b e c o m i n g l i k e t h e monk, a r e i n a h e i g h t e n e d s t a t e o f r i t u a l p u r i t y a n d s e p a r a t e d , w i t h i n t h e r i t u a l c o n t e x t , f r o m s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n . u H i e r a r c h y , t h e n , r e - a p p e a r s . W h i l e t h e i d e a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e J a i n c o m m u n i t y d e n i e s c a s t e , - i t p r e s e r v e s h i e r a r c h y a n d t h e i m - p o r t a n c e o f p u r i t y . As w i t h t h e n o n - i d o l w o r s h i p p i n g S t h a n a k a v a s i , t h e w o r - s h i p p e r ' s p r o g r e s s , e n t e r i n g t h e t e m p l e , a p p r o a c h i n g t h e image a n d m a k i n g t h e o f f e r i n g s , , a l l o w s h i m t o s h a r e , i f o n l y 2 0 . I t w o u l d be w r o n g , I t h i n k , t o make t o o much o f t h i s s i m i l a r i t y . W h i l e i t d o e s i n f a c t e x i s t , i t m u s t be remembered t h a t t h e D i g a m b a r a a b s o l u t e l y r e f u s e t o l e t women e n t e r t h e i n n e r s a n c t u a r y s i n c e t h e y c a n n o t u n d e r any c i r c u m s t a n c e s a t t a i n l i b e r a t i o n . The S v e t a m b a r a , w h i l e p e r m i t t i n g women t o e n t e r t h e i n n e r s a n c t u a r y a n d c o n c e d i n g t h a t t h e y may a t t a i n l i b e r a t i o n , i n f a c t h a v e f e w women w i l l i n g t o u n d e r t a k e t h e n e c e s s a r y s t e p s , d e - s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t women a r e s a i d t o more c l o s e l y f o l l o w t h e r u l e s ' o f r i t u a l e t i q u e t t e t h a n do t h e men. b r i e f l y , t h e l i f e o f a monk. J u s t as t h e monk r e n o u n c e s h i s s o c i a l l i f e a n d becomes s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s a c t i o n s ( a n d t h u s h i s s a l v a t i o n ) , t h e w o r s h i p p e r s t e p s o u t s i d e a n d — b e c a u s e o f h i s p e n d i n g j u x t a p o s i t i o n w i t h t h e i m a g e — a b o v e s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s a n d c u l t u r a l c a t e g o r i e s . I n c r e a s i n g l y , p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s u r f a c e s a s a d o m i n a n t v a l u e : "When t h e t h o u g h t o c c u r s t o a m e n d i c a n t : ' ' I am m y s e l f , a l o n e ; I h a v e n o b o d y b e l o n g i n g t o me, n o r do I b e l o n g t o a n y b o d y , ' t h e n he s h o u l d t h o r o u g h l y know h i m s e l f as s t a n d i n g a l o n e - a s p i r i n g t o f r e e d o m f r o m b o n d s " ( J a i n a S u t r a s , v o l . 1: 7 1 ) . C a n d a n a — p u j a: W o r s h i p w i t h S a n d a l . C a n d a n a - p u j a i s , f o r most w o r s h i p p e r s , t h e p r i m a r y a c t i v i t y i n t h e i n n e r s a n c t u a r y . W i t h i n t h e i n n e r s a n c t u a r y , t h e w o r s h i p p e r t o u c h e s t h e i m a g e , m a r k i n g i t i n f o u r t e e n a u s p i c i o u s p l a c e s . The m a r k i n g t a k e s p l a c e a f t e r t h e image i s b a t h e d w i t h w a t e r , m i l k a n d f i v e n e c t a r s . The m a r k i n g i s done w h i l e s i n g i n g t h e p r a i s e s o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a . W h i l e o n l y one w o r s h i p p e r may b a t h e t h e i m a g e , one may, i f t h e p r o p e r p u r i f i c a t i o n a n d c h a n g e o f c l o t h i n g i s d o n e , mark t h e image i n f o u r t e e n a u s p i c i o u s p l a c e s : r i g h t b i g t o e , l e f t b i g t o e , r i g h t k n e e , l e f t k n e e , r i g h t w r i s t , l e f t w r i s t , r i g h t s h o u l d e r , l e f t s h o u l d e r , t o p o f t h e h e a d , f o r e - h e a d , t h r o a t , h e a r t , n a v e l a n d t h e c e n t e r o f t h e r i g h t p a l m . (See F i g u r e 2.) T h e s e f o u r t e e n a u s p i c i o u s m a r k s c o r r e s p o n d - 73 to points of energy on the subtle yogic body and, for the worshipper, are important sources of energy which p u r i f y . Marking these points with sandal paste recognizes the necessity of asceticism and the performance of a u s t e r i t i e s (tapas) :'.±n attaining l i b e r a t i o n . The procedure of marking these auspicious spots i s always from right to l e f t and from the feet to the head, then down the center of the body. Were the image female, as i n the worship of a Hindu goddess, the worshipper would mark the image from l e f t to ri g h t (Stevenson, 1971). Here, p r i o r i t y — a u s p i c i o u s n e s s — i s associated with the r i g h t side (maleness) and the head (purity). The marking of the auspicious spots, associated with yogic meditation and, hence, l i b e r a t i o n re- asserts the importance of purity and i t s c o r r e l a t i v e : h i e r - archy. In Indian l i f e , the head i s more pure than the feet and men are superior to women. As I have suggested, worship permits a layperson temporarily to become a monk. As the worshipper moves toward the inner sanctuary, he increasingly i s o l a t e s himself from the s o c i a l world each time he says "Nissahi." When he approaches the image, he i d e n t i f i e s himself with the Tirthankara through his mantra and chants and, according to the rules governing purity and p o l l u t i o n , elevates himself by his contact with the image. Candana-puja i s more, however, than the consummation of the worshipper's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the Tirthankara. It r e - e s t a b l i s h e s t h e s t a t u s q u o ; t h e i m a g e , s y m b o l o f a l l a s c e t i c s who f o l l o w t h e J a i n way, i s p u b l i c l y r e c o g n i z e d as t h e s u p e r i o r o f e v e r y w o r s h i p p e r . The image a c t s as a " m a s t e r s y m b o l " w h i c h , as W o l f ( 1 9 7 2 : 1 5 0 ) s a y s , p r o v i d e s t h e " c u l t u r a l i d i o m o f b e h a v i o r a n d i d e a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t h r o u g h w h i c h d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s o f t h e same s o c i e t y c a n p u r - s u e a n d m a n i p u l a t e t h e i r d i f f e r e n t f a t e s w i t h i n a c o o r d i n a t e d 2 1 f r a m e w o r k . " R i t u a l S u p e r i o r i t y Image w o r s h i p r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i s s u p e r i o r t o t h e w o r s h i p p e r . The m o s t f r e q u e n t e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i m a g e 1 s u p e r i o r i t y i s t h e w o r s h i p p e r ' s b o w i n g b e f o r e t h e i m a g e , a g e s t u r e c a l l e d p r a n a m . The f u n d a m e n t a l n o t i o n u n d e r l y i n g p r a n a m i s r i t u a l s u p e r i o r i t y ; i t i s an a s s e r t i o n , a s h a r e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i m a g e ' s ( o r o n e ' s s u p r i o r ' s ) h o l i n e s s a n d p o w e r . I t c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t a t u s among t h e T i r t h a n k a r a s , t h e monks and t h e l a y m e n . The l a i t y g i v e t h e monk t h e same s p e c i a l r e v e r e n c e . A t p u b l i c g a t h e r - i n g s , t h e monk s i t s a b o v e t h e l a i t y o n a r a i s e d p l a t f o r m o r , i f a p l a t f o r m i s n o t a v a i l a b l e , o n a c l o t h w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s t h e p l a t f o r m . ( O m a n , 1 9 7 3 : 1 4 4 ) and s y m b o l i c a l l y r a i s e s t h e 2 1 . The c u l t u r a l i d i o m e m b o d i e d i n t h e image w i l l be c l e a r l y e x p l i c a t e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n : The T i r t h a n k a r a Image. - 75 - monk a b o v e t h e l a i t y . D u r i n g w o r s h i p , i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i m a g e s i t s o n a t h r o n e , w h i c h r a i s e s t h e image a b o v e t h e w o r s h i p p e r s . W o r s h i p , t h e n , e x p r e s s e s t h e r i t u a l a l i g n m e n t o f s o c i e t y . D u r i n g w o r s h i p , t h e r a n k o f t h e w o r s h i p p e r s moves away f r o m t h e e g a l i t a r i a n a n d b r o a d h i e r a r c h y i n w h i c h t h e image i s s u p e r i o r t o many who a r e a l l r e l a t i v e l y e q u a l . D u r i n g H i n d u w o r s h i p , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r a s a d ( t o be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n ) i s o f t e n a means t o r e - a s s e r t t h e c a s t e h i e r a r c h y . N o t o n l y i s t h e d e i t y ' s s u p e r i - o r i t y r e - e s t a b l i s h e d , b u t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r a s a d r e s t a t e s t h e s o c i a l s t a t u s o f e a c h w o r s h i p p e r — t h o s e o f h i g h e r r a n k a r e g i v e n p r a s a d b e f o r e t h o s e o f l o w e r r a n k . The J a i n s u s e t h e a u c t i o n o f j a l a - p u j a t o t h e same e n d . The b i d d i n g f o r j a l a - p u j a o r d e r s t h e w o r s h i p p e r s who w i l l e n t e r t h e i n n e r s a n c t u a r y ; w o r l d l y s t a t u s a n d r i t u a l s t a t u s move t o w a r d c o i n c i d e n c e . J u s t a s t h e a c h a y r a i s s u p e r i o r t o t h e monks, who a r e o r d e r e d , one u n d e r a n o t h e r , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r s p i r i t u a l p r o g r e s s , t h e w o r s h i p p e r who d o e s j a l a - p u j a i s l i k e w i s e s u p e r i o r t o t h e o t h e r w o r s h i p p e r s f o r a b r i e f p e r i o d . Among t h e D i g a m b a r a , who do n o t p r a c t i c e t h e a u c t i o n , a l l w o r s h i p p e r s r e m a i n r e l a t i v e l y e q u a l . They a s s e m b l e b e f o r e t h e i m a g e , w h i l e t h e p u j a r i e n t e r s t h e i n n e r s a n c t u a r y a n d p e r f o r m s j a l a - p u j a . B u t w i t h t h e S v e t a m b a r a , t h e m e r c h a n t ' s e t h i c h a s l o d g e d i t s e l f d eep i n t h e f a b r i c o f w o r s h i p . M e r i t - 7 6 - a n d s u p e r i o r i t y b e l o n g t o t h e p e r s o n who c a n p a y , a n d he who p a y s v a l i d a t e s h i s s u p e r i o r i t y . T h u s , t h e a b i l i t y t o p a y , i . e . , o n e ' s w e a l t h , p l a y s a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e w o r s h i p p e r ' s r i t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e . O n l y o n e p e r s o n , a f t e r a l l , d o e s j a l a - p u j a i n any one w o r s h i p . The J a i n s , a p r e d o m i n a n t l y m e r c a n t i l e p e o p l e , g i v e p r i m a r y a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e i r b u s i n e s s and v i e w t h e i r w e a l t h a s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t i n d e x o f w o r l d l y a n d s p i r i t u a l s u c c e s s . E v e r y m o r n i n g a J a i n w i l l p r a y t o K u b e r a , t h e g u a r d i a n o f t h e N o r t h , K i n g o f t h e Y a k s a s ( e a r t h s p i r i t s ) a n d I n d r a ' s t r e a s u r e r ( P e r e i r a , 1 9 7 7 : 6 0 ) . The J a i n s a l s o e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y c e l e - b r a t e D i v a l i , a H i n d u f e s t i v a l o r i g i n a l l y i n h o n o r o f t h e G o d d e s s o f W e a l t h , L a k s m i . They j u s t i f y t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y a s s e r t i n g t h a t i t was o n t h i s day t h a t M a h a v i r a , t h e i r l a s t T i r t h a n k a r a , d i e d and o b t a i n e d h i s r e l e a s e f r o m t h e c y c l e o f r e b i r t h ( s a m s a r a ) . H i s f i r s t d i s c i p l e , I n d r a b h u t i , was t o h a v e s a i d , " S i n c e t h e l i g h t o f i n t e l l i g e n c e i s g o n e , l e t us make an i l l u m i n a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l m a t t e r " ( J a i n a S u t r a s , v o l . 1: 2 6 6 ) . T h e r e f o r e , e a c h y e a r o n t h i s d a y , t h e d e v o u t l a y m a n s h o u l d w o r s h i p M a h a v i r a . L a k s m i - p u j a a n d B h a u b i j a , H i n d u c e r e m o n i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h D i v a l i , have no o f f i c i a l r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e a n d s h o u l d n o t b e p r a c t i c e d ( S a n g a v e , 1 9 5 9 ; 2 5 2 ) . Y e t S t e v e n s o n ( 1 9 7 0 : 261) o b s e r v e s t h a t b o t h a r e f e r v e n t l y p r a c t i c e d : - 7 7 - A B r a h m i n i s c a l l e d who w r i t e s S r i ( i . e . , L a k s m i ) o n t h e a c c o u n t b o o k s o v e r a n d o v e r a g a i n i n s u c h a way a s t o f o r m a p y r a m i d . The p r i e s t t h e n p e r f o r m s L a k s m i - p u j a , t h e o l d e s t o b t a i n a b l e r u p e e a n d t h e l e a f o f a c r e e p e r b e i n g p l a c e d o n t h e a c c o u n t b o o k , and a l s o a l i t t l e h e a p o f r i c e , p a n , b e t e l - n u t a n d t u m e r i c , a n d i n f r o n t o f i t a s m a l l lamp f i l l e d w i t h b u r n i n g camphor i s w a v e d , a n d t h e b o o k i s t h e n m a r k e d w i t h r e d p o w d e r . No one c l o s e s t h e a c c o u n t - b o o k f o r s e v e r a l h o u r s , and when t h e y do s o , t h e y a r e c a r e f u l t o s a y : "A h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d p r o f i t s . " W h i l e w e a l t h i s a n a l l - c o n s u m i n g p a s s i o n among many J a i n s , i t i s a l s o t h e s o u r c e o f an i n t e n s e a m b i v a l e n c e . The J a i n monk i s a d v i s e d n o t t o y e a r n f o r g o l d a n d s i l v e r a n d t o a b - s t a i n f r o m b u y i n g a n d s e l l i n g , w h i c h a r e g r e a t s i n s . He s h o u l d l i v e o n a l m s ( J a i n a S u t r a s , v o l . 1: 2 0 5 ) . B u t t h e J a i n l a y m a n m u s t make a l i v i n g . He m u s t and i s a l l o w e d t o a c q u i r e w e a l t h b y o b e y i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f J a i n i s m a n d a v o i d - i n g e v i l d e e d s . The f o u r t h l e c t u r e o f t h e U t t a r a d h y a n a ( J a i n a S u t r a s , v o l . 2: 1 8 , 1 9 , 20) o f f e r s t h e f o l l o w i n g w a r n i n g t o t h e J a i n l a i t y : Men who a d h e r i n g t o w r o n g p r i n c i p l e s a c q u i r e w e a l t h b y e v i l d e e d s , w i l l l o s e i t , f a l l i n g i n t o t h e s n a r e s ( o f t h e i r p a s s i o n s ) a n d be h e l d c a p t i v e b y t h e i r h a t r e d . . . . W e a l t h w i l l n o t p r o t e c t a c a r e l e s s man.... .Though o t h e r s s l e e p , be t h o u awake. L i k e a w i s e man, t r u s t n o b o d y , b u t b e a l w a y s o n t h e a l e r t . . . . E x t e r n a l t h i n g s w e a k e n t h e i n t e l l e c t a n d a l l u r e many; t h e r e - f o r e , k e e p them o u t o f y o u r m i n d . K e e p o f f d e l u s i o n , remove p r i d e , do n o t p r a c t i c e d e c e i t , l e a v e o f f g r e e d . The c a r e f u l man i s p i o u s a n d a c q u i r e s w e a l t h b y a d h e r i n g t o r i g h t p r i n c i p l e s : ah1msa, h o n e s t y a n d t r u t h f u l n e s s . A l - t h o u g h he a c q u i r e s w e a l t h , he s h o u l d n o t become a t t a c h e d t o - 7 8 - h i s w e a l t h a n d t h e w o r l d l y b e n e f i t s i t b r i n g s h i m . H i s w o r - s h i p o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i m a g e , h i s b e n e v o l e n c e (dana) a nd h i s r e s p e c t f o r t h e i m a g e , d e m o n s t r a t e d b y h i s b i d d i n g f o r j a l a - p u j a , a r e s i g n s o f h i s n o n - a t t a c h m e n t t o w o r l d l y w e a l t h and h i s v i r t u e . T h e s e m o r a l v i r t u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e w o r s h i p p e r ' s w e a l t h p r o m o t e f u r t h e r s u c c e s s b e c a u s e t h e y p u b l i c l y demon- s t r a t e t h e c o m m u n i t y ' s c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e w o r s h i p p e r ' s c o n - f o r m i t y t o J a i n p r i n c i p l e s . The more w e a l t h one h a s , s o l o n g a s he a v o i d s , f r i v o l o u s d i s p l a y s , t h e more c l o s e l y he i s t h o u g h t t o o b e y J a i n p r i n c i p l e s a n d , t h e r e f o r e , t o d e s e r v e t h e r e s p e c t o f h i s f e l l o w s . T h e r e i s v i r t u e , t h e n , i n h i s w e a l t h . The a c h a r y a , i t w i l l be remembered,, i s s e l e c t e d i n p a r t b e c a u s e o f h i s s e c u l a r s u c c e s s . H i s c o n t i n u e d s u c c e s s as a monk i s d e p e n d e n t n o t o n l y upon t h e s e v e r i t y o f h i s r e n u n c i a t i o n , b u t a l s o upon h i s a b i l i t y t o i n s u r e a l m s f o r h i s c o m m u n i t y o f monks a n d n u n s . The s e v e r i t y o f h i s r e - n u n c i a t i o n a n d t h e c o m m u n i t y ' s g i f t s o f a l m s o n l y f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e t h e s u c c e s s o f h i s w o r l d l y w i t h d r a w a l i n c o n f o r m a n c e w i t h J a i n p r i n c i p l e s . W e a l t h , t h e n , i s a s i g n o f t h e l a y - man's v i r t u e ; t h e more he a c q u i r e s a n d t h e more he g i v e s , t h e g r e a t e r a r e h i s g a i n s t o w a r d a c h i e v i n g l i b e r a t i o n a n d h i g h e r s o c i a l s t a t u s . To b o r r o w a p h r a s e f r o m W i l l i a m J a m e s , J a i n m o r a l p r i n c i p l e s h a v e a " c a s h v a l u e . " - 79 - It would be wrong, I think, to assume that every person w i l l necessarily want to bid for the right to do jala-puja and therefore express his claim of superior status. A wor- shipper's superior status e n t a i l s more than prestige and respect; i t also implies an oblig a t i o n to contribute to the support of others who have a lower status. People are respected not only for the amount of money they accumulate, but also fo r the amount that they give to the needy. They are respected i f , having accumulated a large amount of money, they r e s t r i c t the amount for t h e i r personal use and give the rest to charity. These benevolent donations are, of course, public knowledge. Thus, with the Jain d i s p o s i t i o n of avoiding ostentatious displays of wealth, which implies superior status, jala-puja o f f e r s a rare opportunity for the worshipper to openly flaunt 22 h i s s u p e r i o r i t y . The Second Half Those r i t e s performed a f t e r candana-puja, v i z . dipa-puja, dhupa-puja, ak s ata-puj a, naivedya-puj a, phala-puja, and bhava- puj a, comprise the second half of lay worship. For t h i s portion of the worship, the worshipper does not need the r i t u a l bath because he w i l l not enter the inner sanctuary. It i s t h i s 2 2 . Temple construction and the regular support of monks are other, common means. 90 - p a r t o f w o r s h i p t h a t i s m o s t commonly p r a c t i c e d b y women a n d t h o s e who, f o r w h a t e v e r r e a s o n , do n o t b i d t o b a t h e t h e image a n d t h o s e who do n o t mark, t h e image i n t h e f o u r t e e n a u s p i c i o u s p l a c e s . W h i l e e a c h w o r s h i p p e r who p e r f o r m s t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e " c o m p l e t e " w o r s h i p c a n n o t e n t e r t h e i n n e r s a n c t u a r y a n d t o u c h t h e i m a g e a n d , t h e r e f o r e , d e n i e s h i m s e l f d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i m a g e , he d o e s p a r t i c i p a t e i n a common s e t o f r i t e s w i t h , e v e r y o n e e l s e who w o r s h i p s . R e g a r d l e s s o f w h i c h r i t e s t h e w o r s h i p p e r s e l e c t s (he n e e d n o t s e l e c t a l l o f t h e m ) , he s h a r e s t h o s e r i t e s i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f w o r s h i p w i t h a l l o t h e r w o r s h i p p e r s . I t i s d u r i n g t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f w o r s h i p t h a t e a c h w o r s h i p p e r ' s , a t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t h o s e a c t i o n s a n d b e l i e f s h e l d t o be d i s t i n c t i v e l y J a i n ; i t i s d u r i n g t h e s e c o n d h a l f t h a t t h e f u n d a m e n t a l m e t a p h y s i c a l p r i n c i p l e s o f J a i n i s m s u r f a c e a n d t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g e t h i c a l r u l e s s u r f a c e . W o r s h i p , w h e t h e r J a i n o r H i n d u , t a k e s p l a c e i n a r i t u a l l y p u r e a r e a . T h i s a r e a m u s t n o t o n l y b e k e p t p u r e b y t h e t e m p l e o f f i c i a n t , b u t , i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n a n d i n t e n s i f y t h e a r e a ' s p u r i t y , t h e w o r s h i p p e r must a l s o p e r f o r m b a s i c p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t e s d u r i n g w o r s h i p . The f i r s t r i t e o f t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f w o r s h i p i s a r a t i , w h i c h i s composed o f d i p a - p u j a a n d d h u p a - p u j a . The J a i n s b o r r o w e d t h i s b a s i c r i t e o f H i n d u w o r s h i p . A t i t s m o s t e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l , a r a t i i s a r i t e - 8 1 - w h i c h h o n o r s t h e T i r t h a n k a r a . B u t a r a t i i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t o be an o f f e r i n g — i t p l e a s e s t h e s e n s e s o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a — a n d a p u r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i m m e d i a t e v i c i n i t y a r o u n d t h e i m a g e . A r a t i s e t s t h e s t a g e f o r t h e o f f e r i n g s o f f o o d t o f o l l o w . As among H i n d u s , t h e w a v i n g o f t h e lamp ( d i p a - p u j a ) a n d i n c e n s e ( d h u p a - p u j a ) i s done i n a l e f t t o r i g h t c i r c u l a r m o t i o n b e f o r e t h e i m a g e . Many H i n d u s i n t e r p r e t t h i s m o t i o n t o d e s c r i b e t h e s a c r e d s y m b o l aum, w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o V e d i c t r a d i t i o n , i s b e l i e v e d t o h a v e t h e pow e r t o c r e a t e a n d s u s t a i n t h e w o r l d . I t i s t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f t h e s e s a c r e d s y m b o l s t h a t t h e w o r s h i p p e r r i g h t l y m a i n t a i n s a n d r e j u v e n a t e s t h e p r o p e r o r d e r o f t h e cosmos ( B a t t a c h a r y a , 1953: 169). A r a t i i s a l s o a c c o m p a n i e d b y t h e c h a n t i n g o f s l o k a s ( s a y i n g s f r o m r e l i g i o u s t e x t s ) a n d m a n t r a s , t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f w h i c h s e r v e s t o c e n t e r t h e m i n d on t h e T i r t h a n k a r a a n d p e r m i t s t h e w o r - s h i p p e r t o i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e T i r t h a n k a r a . T h i s i s o f t e n a c c o m p l i s h e d b y t e l l i n g b e a d s a s t h e monk d o e s i n h i s w o r s h i p , b u t i t may a l s o be a c h i e v e d b y m u s i c o r by drumming. The J a i n s b e l i e v e t h a t when a T i r t h a n k a r a a t t a i n s o m n i s c i e n c e ( k e v a l a ) , t h e P r a t i h a r y a s ( s y m b o l s o f o m n i s c i e n c e ) , w h i c h i n c l u d e an a u r a , s h o w e r s o f c e l e s t i a l b l o s s o m s , a drum an d h e a v e n l y m u s i c , s p o n t a n e o u s l y a p p e a r ( P e r e i r a , 1 9 7 7 : 4 3 ) . 23. B h a r a t i (1969: 111-112) g i v e s t h r e e p u r p o s e s t o t h e m a n t r a s : p r o p i t i a t i o n , t h e r e p u l s i o n o f u n p l e a s a n t p o w e r s a n d t h u s t h e p u t t i n g o f t h e w o r s h i p p e r i n t h e g o o d g r a c e s .of t h e " p l e a s a n t o n e s " ; a c q u i s i t i o n o f u n o b t a i n a b l e g o a l s , o b j e c t s o r a b i l i t i e s w h i c h a r e n o t o b t a i n a b l e t h r o u g h s e c u l a r o r o t h e r r e l i g i o u s e f f o r t s , e . g . , m a g i c a l p o w e r s ; a n d i n t r o - j e c t i o n o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , p u r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e e l e m e n t s o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e f o c u s o f w o r s h i p . - 8 2 - In some temples at the moment of dhupa-puja and dipa-puja, the temple o f f i c i a n t s create such an intense din by blowing conch s h e l l s and beating drums and gongs that they completely suffocate any other sounds (Ayres, 1 9 5 6 : 1 5 2 ) . This din i s believed to a t t r a c t the gods' attention so that they might witness the worshippers' acts (Bhattacharya, 1 9 5 3 : 1 6 2 ) . It i s a moment of t r a n s i t i o n (Stevenson, 1 9 1 0 : 9 7 ) , the moment preceding the move to the Assembly H a l l to give o f f e r - ings, make vows, and do bhava—puja. I t precedes the most introspective part of worship. The second half of lay worship, then, begins with an opportunity for the worshipper to puri f y the area around the image and give a small o f f e r i n g . But perhaps of greater importance i s the i m p l i c i t assertion that others should inte r p r e t or understand the actions to follow i n a special way. The worshipper declares his actions to be consecrated. They r e f l e c t the worshipper's acceptance and conformity to Jain morality (dharma); his actions are to be witnessed not only by the Tirthankara and the heavenly gods but, most im- portantly, by members of his community. The Offering Generally, the Jains are more p a r t i c u l a r about the kinds of food eaten and the times i t i s eaten than they are with - 8 3 - whom t h e y e a t . As among m o s t I n d i a n s , t h e J a i n s c o n s i d e r v e g e t a b l e f o o d s t o be s u p e r i o r t o m e a t s . E a t i n g f l e s h i s a s i g n o f o n e ' s l o w s t a t u s b e c a u s e i t p r e s u p p o s e s t a k i n g l i f e , w h i c h i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d s i n f u l . D r i n k i n g o f a l c o h o l i c b e v e r a g e s i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d s i n f u l . T h o s e who h a v e h i g h r a n k a v o i d n o n - v e g e t a r i a n d i e t s and a l c o h o l i c b e v e r a g e s . The J a i n s h a v e i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g f o o d i n t o t h e v e r y s o c i a l f a b r i c . Two o f t h e f i v e m a j o r vows ( m a h a v r a t a ) o f J a i n i s m e x p l i c i t l y c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s w i t h a h i m s a , a v o i d a n c e o f k i l l i n g , a n d b r a h m a c a r y a v r a t a , a v o i d a n c e o f w i n e a n d h i g h l y s e a s o n e d f o o d s , w h i c h a r e s o u r c e s o f i m - p u r i t y . The S u t r a k r i t a n g a ( J a i n a S u t r a s , v o l . 2: 393) s a y s t h a t one a b s o r b s i n t o h i s b o d y t h e e s s e n c e o f w h a t e v e r f o o d he h e a t s : i m p u r e s u b s t a n c e s become a p a r t o f o n e ' s e s s e n c e . One s h o u l d know t h i s a n d k n o w i n g i t , one s h o u l d be c a r e f u l a n d c i r c u m s p e c t w i t h r e g a r d t o h i s f o o d , a l w a y s e x e r c i s i n g c a u t i o n . The U t t a r a d h y a y a n a ( J a i n a S u t r a s , v o l . 2: 72) recommends t h e f o l l o w i n g d i e t f o r monks: D i s h - w a t e r , b a r l e y - p a p , c o l d s o u r g r u e l , w a t e r i n w h i c h b a r l e y h a s b e e n w a s h e d : s u c h l o a t h s o m e f o o d and d r i n k he s h o u l d n o t d e s p i s e , b u t c a l l a t t h e l o w l i e s t h o u s e s ( f o r a l m s ) ; t h e n he i s a t r u e monk. A c c o r d i n g t o J a i n d o c t r i n e , a h i m s a o r n o n - v i o l e n c e s h o u l d g o v e r n l i f e . T h u s , i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h i s d o c t r i n e p r e a c h e d b y t h e T i r t h a n k a r a s , t h e d e v o u t . J a i n s do n o t e a t p o t a t o e s , o n i o n s , b e e t s a n d many o t h e r t u b e r s w h i c h a r e b e l i e v e d t o c o n t a i n m i n u t e f o r m s o f a n i m a l l i f e . I n a d d i t i o n , m o s t b e v e r a g e s - 84 - s h o u l d b e s t r a i n e d b e f o r e d r i n k i n g , a c u s t o m p r a c t i c e d b y t h e monks w i t h t h e i r mouth c o v e r s . M o r e o v e r , one s h o u l d n o t e a t d u r i n g d a r k n e s s , f o r i t i s e a s i e r t o harm l i f e a t t h a t t i m e . D u r i n g t h e r i t u a l o f f e r i n g , t h e J a i n w o r s h i p p e r , b e i n g v e r y p a r t i c u l a r n o t t o harm l i f e , g i v e s o n l y t h o s e f o o d s t h e T i r t h a n k a r a c a n e a t w i t h o u t c o m m i t t i n g h i m s a , v i o l e n c e . T h e s e a r e " c o l d " f o o d s : s u g a r , r i c e ( t h e o n l y g r a i n p e r m i t t e d as an o f f e r i n g ) , f r u i t s ( c o c o n u t s , b a n a n a s , m a n g o e s ) , a n d a l m o n d s . As M a n d elbaum ( 1 9 7 0 : 204) n o t e s , f r u i t s a n d n u t s , as l o n g as t h e y a r e w h o l e , a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d s u b j e c t t o r i t u a l d e f i l e - ment. G i v i n g them i s a s i g n o f d e f e r e n c e a n d b e n e v o l e n c e . W h i l e t h e D i g a m b a r a do n o t o f f e r f r e s h f r u i t s , b e c a u s e t h e y may c o n t a i n l i f e , t h e S v e t a m b a r a a r e l e s s s t r i c t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e vow o f a h i m s a , t h e m o s t p e r v a s i v e p r i n c i p l e of. J a i n i s m , g o v e r n s . The w o r s h i p p e r a r r a n g e s h i s o f f e r i n g o f r i c e as i n F i g u r e 1. I f t h e w o r s h i p p e r i s w e a l t h y , he w i l l p l a c e a c o i n a t t h e c e n t e r o f t h e s w a s t i k a . T h i s p a t t e r n h a s g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e - : f o r a l l J a i n s . W i t h i t , t h e y s y m b o l i z e t h e i r e n t i r e e t h i c a l a n d m e t a p h y s i c a l s y s t e m . T h i s c o m p l e x s y m b o l e m b o d i e s i n a b s t r a c t t h e g r e a t p r i n c i p l e s o f J a i n i s m . The s w a s t i k a r e p r e - s e n t s , t h e f o u r g a t i . T h e s e a r e p l a c e s i n w h i c h one c a n be r e b o r n : t h e u p p e r arm i s D e v a t a , t h e home o f t h e g o d s ; t h e r i g h t arm i s T i r y a n i c , a s t a t e l o w e r t h a n humans ( i n s e c t s , b i r d s , r e p t i l e s , a n i m a l s o r p l a n t s ) ; t h e l e f t arm i s N a n u s y a , - 8 5 - t h e human a b o d e ; a n d , f i n a l l y , t h e l o w e s t arm i s H e l l . The a n t i - c l o c k w i s e s w a s t i k a s y m b o l i z e s a p e r f e c t b e i n g , l o c k e d i n s p i r i t u a l m e d i t a t i o n , c l o s e d o f f f r o m t h e i m p u r i t y o f t h e w o r l d . The a r m s , t h e n , a l s o r e p r e s e n t m oksa, dh a r m a , a r t h a and kama. A t t h e c e n t e r i s t h e j i v a , t h e s o u l ( B a p p a , 1 9 7 2 : 1 1 5 ) . The t h r e e p i l e s o f r i c e a b o v e t h e s w a s t i k a a r e t h e t h r e e j e w e l s o f J a i n i s m : R i g h t F a i t h , R i g h t K n o w l e d g e and R i g h t C o n d u c t ; t h e c r e s c e n t h o l d i n g t h e f i n a l p i l e o f r i c e i s s i d d h a s i l a , home o f t h e l i b e r a t e d s o u l s a t t h e t o p o f t h e u n i v e r s e , w h i c h i s f r e e f r o m t h e r e s t r a i n t s o f t h e w o r l d . The J a i n s i n v e s t c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n i n t h i s p a t t e r n , f o r n o t o n l y d o e s i t c o n t a i n s y m b o l i c a l l y much o f t h e p h i l o - s o p h i c a l a n d s p i r i t u a l t e a c h i n g s o f J a i n i s m , b u t i n i t s ( r e - ) c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s e ( a n d n o n - u n i v e r s e ) , t h e w o r s h i p p e r i s m e n t a l l y f o l l o w i n g t h e p a t h t o w a r d moksa a n d , b y i m p l i c a t i o n , h i s u n i v e r s e i s g o v e r n e d b y a h i m s a . To o f f e r f o o d , t e a m i n g w i t h l i f e , w o u l d n o t o n l y d e g r a d e t h e T i r t h a n k a r a b u t d e f i l e t h e w o r l d as w e l l . T h i s r i t u a l i z e d r e c o n s t r u c t i o n e m p h a s i z e s an i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t u a l d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n p e r m a n e n c e : dharma and t h e s o u l , and t h e c h a n g e and p e r m u t a t i o n s o f t h e w o r l d ( B e c k , 1 9 7 5 : 1 0 / 1 0 ) . The p e r m a n e n t , h i d d e n b e n e a t h t h e w o r l d l y f l u x , i s r e v e a l e d . The p e r m a n e n t i s r e v e a l e d n o t o n l y i n t h e a c t u a l i m a g e , b u t i n t h e d e s i g n o f t h e o f f e r i n g s . The p r i n c i p l e s g o v e r n i n g t h e c o s m i c o r d e r a n d t h e s o c i a l o r d e r a r e m a t c h e d . - 86 - G i f t Giving: The Offering Again Marcel Mauss (1967) was the f i r s t to emphasize that many exchanges of goods and services assume importance as g i f t s and consequently have more than just economic s i g n i f i c a n c e : g i f t giving i s a s o c i a l act, i . e . , i t i s symbolic. Sahlins (196 8: 9), for example, notes that the giving and counter- giving of g i f t s serves to bind people and groups of people together. Exchange i s instrumental; i t establishes s o l i d a r i t y between people. G i f t giving symbolizes s o c i a l interdependence, and generally those who share the same values and worldview have a higher frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n and exchange. G i f t giving, as Sahlins (1968: 81-86) goes on to say, i s not always a one-for-one transaction i n which equivalent g i f t s are exchanged. Reciprocity may range from the general- ized, which includes the "pure g i f t " g i v i n g without any demands of reciprocation), to the balanced, a f a i r and immediate exchange, to the negative, s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d , maximization of " p r o f i t . " Generalized r e c i p r o c i t y includes such a l t r u i s t i c acts as "sharing," " h o s p i t a l i t y , " "mutual aid," and "generosity." It includes those obligatory g i f t s to kinsmen and g i f t s to kings. Balanced r e c i p r o c i t y i s less personal; i t implies greater s o c i a l distance between the two i n d i v i d u a l s . Balanced r e c i p r o c i t y i s a d i r e c t , immediate return i n which equivalent value i s c a r e f u l l y calculated. Negative r e c i p r o c i t y i s more appropriate for those of great s o c i a l distance. - 87 - I n I n d i a , e x c h a n g e i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e j a j m a n i s y s t e m a n d c o n n o t e s t h e r e l i g i o u s p r e s t a t i o n s a n d . c o u n t e r - p r e s t a t i o n s o f t h e c a s t e s y s t e m . The j a j m a n i s y s t e m , a t l e a s t t r a d i t i o n a l l y , c e n t e r s a r o u n d t h e e x c h a n g e o f goods a n d s e r v i c e s , a n d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s o f e x c h a n g e r e f l e c t b e l i e f s a b o u t t h e i n h e r e n t p u r i t y o f t h e c a s t e s a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e d i s t a n c e s b e t w e e n t h e c a s t e s . W h i l e t h e J a i n s ' s o c i a l e t h i c p r o m o t e s t h e i s o l a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d h i s f a m i l y t h r o u g h n o n - e x c h a n g e a n d , t h e r e f o r e , c l e a r l y condemns t h e c a s t e s y s t e m , i t d o e s n o t deny t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e x c h a n g e as an e x p r e s s i o n o f o n e ' s p e r s o n a l s t a t u s . G i v i n g a n d c o u n t e r - g i v i n g i s e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t among monks. As w i t h t h e k i n g who i s due t a x e s , t h e a c h a r y a i s due g i f t s f r o m o t h e r monks i n e x c h a n g e f o r h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s . L i k e w i s e , t h e monks a r e due f o o d a n d g i f t s f r o m t h e l a i t y i n e x c h a n g e f o r t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n s . The monk s h o u l d n o t r e t u r n f o o d ( e s p e c i a l l y l e a v i n g s ) f o r r i t u a l s e r v i c e s b u t g i v e more s u b t l e g i f t s , s u c h as r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n s ( M a r r i o t t , 1 9 7 6 ) . The monk's r e t u r n o f r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n i s n o t , h o w e v e r , a s e r v i c e , a t l e a s t as n o r m a l l y u n d e r s t o o d w i t h i n t h e c a s t e s y s t e m . The l a i t y ' s g i f t s ( d a n a ) , e s p e c i a l l y f o o d , a r e g i v e n f r e e o f any e x p e c t a t i o n o f r e c i p r o c i t y . The l a i t y g i v e s b e - c a u s e g i v i n g p r o m o t e s i t s l i b e r a t i o n and t h e l i b e r a t i o n o f t h e 'monks-; ̂  i t p e r m i t s t h e monks t o p u r s u e l i b e r a t i o n w i t h o u t a c q u i r i n g w o r l d l y t i e s . 24. The J a i n s a r e w e l l known t h r o u g h o u t I n d i a f o r t h e R e s t H o u s e s , w h i c h p r o t e c t w i t h o u t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n men and - 88 - The m e r i t a c q u i r e d f r o m g i v i n g i s g r e a t e s t when t h e g i v e r i s p i o u s , when he g i v e s w h i l e i n an a t t i t u d e o f n o n - a t t a c h m e n t , a n d when he g i v e s t o a J a i n a s c e t i c . G i v i n g t o o t h e r a s c e t i c s , e . g . , H i n d u a s c e t i c s , b r i n g s l e s s m e r i t . The J a i n s r a n k t h e r e c i p i e n t s o f g i f t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e amount o f m e r i t (punya) i g a i n e d : a s p i r a n t s , those' w i t h R i g h t F a i t h b u t n o t o b s e r v i n g vows; t h o s e o b e y i n g m o r a l l a w s b u t w i t h o u t R i g h t F a i t h ; a n d t h o s e w i t h o u t R i g h t F a i t h a n d n o t o b e y i n g m o r a l l a w s ( B h a r g a v a , 1 9 6 8 : 1 3 7 ) . S t e v e n s o n ( 1 9 7 0 : 1 1 0 ) t e l l s a p o p u l a r J a i n s t o r y a b o u t M a h a v i r a t h a t i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f g i f t g i v i n g : M a h a v i r a i s a p r e v i o u s . b i r t h , when a w o o d c u t t e r , g a i n e d g r e a t p u n y a b y f e e d i n g a p a r t y o f monks who h a d l o s t t h e i r way. H i s r e w a r d was t h a t i n h i s n e x t i n c a r n a t i o n he became a d e v a t a , a n d a f t e r many many b i r t h s was i n c a r n a t e a s M a h a v i r a / i . e . , he became a T i r t h a n k a r a / - F o r l e s s i l l u s t r i o u s s e r v i c e s one may i n t h e n e x t l i f e become a m e r c h a n t , o r a r u l e r , o r g a i n some o t h e r c o v e t e d p o s i t i o n . D u r i n g w o r s h i p , H i n d u s o f f e r f o o d a n d g i f t s t o t h e d e i t y , n o t o n l y t o h o n o r h i m , b u t as payment f o r p a s t f a v o r s . (The T i r t h a n k a r a , h o w e v e r , n e v e r g i v e s f a v o r s . ) A f t e r t h e H i n d u g o d h a s e a t e n h i s s h a r e o f t h e f o o d , t h e f o o d i s t r a n s f o r m e d ( b e c a u s e o f h i s h a v i n g e a t e n ) i n t o p r a s a d , s a n c t i f i e d f o o d , w h i c h i s d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e w o r s h i p p e r s . G e n e r a l l y among I n d i a n s , c o n t a c t w i t h t h e e a t e r ' s s a l i v a c o n t a m i n a t e s f o o d ; i t becomes j u t h a a n d s h o u l d be a v o i d e d . L e a v i n g s f r o m o n e ' s a n i m a l s a l i k e , t h e i r h o s p i t a l s , w h i c h p r o v i d e f r e e m e d i c a l c a r e , a n d t h e i r s c h o o l s a n d l i b r a r i e s , w h i c h a r e o p e n t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c ( S a n g a v e , 1 9 5 9 : 2 8 7 - 2 9 0 ) . - 89 - f a t h e r , h u s b a n d o r g o d , h o w e v e r , a r e g o o d t o e a t b e c a u s e t h e s e p e o p l e a r e s u p e r i o r i n r i t u a l r a n k a n d , i f one e a t s t h e i r j u t h a , one p a r t a k e s o f t h e g o o d q u a l i t i e s o f t h e s e s u p e r i o r p e r s o n s (Mandelbaum, 1 9 7 0 : 1 9 9 - 2 0 0 ) . The f u n - d a m e n t a l v a l u e s u n d e r l y i n g r i t u a l — h i e r a r c h y a n d p u r i t y — a r e n o t v i o l a t e d . The r e v e r s e , a c c e p t i n g j u t h a f r o m an i n f e r i o r , i s , h o w e v e r , p r o f o u n d l y d e g r a d i n g . To a c c e p t t h e p r a s a d o f a g o d , t h e n , h a s s e r i o u s h i e r a r c h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o p u r i t y a n d p o l l u t i o n . I f t h e w o r s h i p p e r f e e d s a n d g i v e s g i f t s t o t h e d e i t y w i t h o u t p a r t a k i n g o f p r a s a d , t h e a s y m m e t r i c a l b o n d e s t a b l i s h e d b e t w e e n them p u t s t h e d e i t y i n an i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n . A g i f t a c c e p t e d b u t n o t r e p a i d d e b a s e s t h e one who a c c e p t s i t ; t h e r e c i p i e n t ' s s t a t u s i s l o w e r e d . I f t h e s a n c t i t y o f t h e moment an d t h e s a n c t i t y o f t h e d e i t y a r e t o be m a i n t a i n e d , t h e r e i s a s t r o n g p r e s s u r e on t h e w o r s h i p p e r t o a c c e p t r e c i p r o c a t i o n . M o r e o v e r , a s S a h l i n s n o t e s , b a l a n c e d r e c i p r o c i t y , p r e s t a t i o n a n d d i r e c t , i m m e d i a t e c o u n t e r - p r e s t a t i o n , i m p l i e s d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e w o r s h i p p e r and t h e d e i t y . One who w i l l i n g l y e a t s p r a s a d f r o m t h e d e i t y r e a f f i r m s and r e e s t a b l i s h e s h i s s u b o r d i n a t i o n a n d i n f e r i o r i t y , b u t , f o r t h o s e who s h a r e t h e p r a s a d w i t h t h e w o r s h i p p e r s , t h e r e i s r e l a t i v e e q u a l i t y , a c l o s e n e s s e i t h e r s y m b o l i c o r r e a l b e t w e e n them (Babb, 1 9 7 5 : 5 6 - 5 9 ) . The m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n J a i n a n d H i n d u - 9 0 - w o r s h i p i s t h e o f f e r i n g . The J a i n s ' o f f e r i n g s n e v e r become p r a s a d . I n f a c t , S t e v e n s o n ( 1 9 6 1 : 800) a s s u r e s us t h a t t h e w o r d i s n e v e r u s e d ; r a t h e r , t h e o f f e r i n g becomes m e r e l y d e v a - d r a v y a , t h e t e m p l e ' s p r o p e r t y . M o r e o v e r , t h e o f f e r i n g s a r e n e v e r s h a r e d w i t h t h e w o r s h i p p e r s . A m e a l f r o m t h e o f f e r i n g s may be g i v e n t o t h e t e m p l e s e r v a n t s ( n o n - J a i n s ) o r t o o t h e r s as an h o n o r a r y r e w a r d , b u t no s e l f - r e s p e c t i n g J a i n w o u l d e a t any. G e n e r a l l y , t h e n e w l y f o r m e d d e v a - d r a v y a i s s t o r e d a n d s o l d on t h e m a r k e t t o m e n i a l s . J The p r o f i t f r o m t h e s a l e i s u s e d o n l y f o r t h e u p k e e p a n d i m p r o v e m e n t o f t h e t e m p l e . The J a i n c a n o n s a l s o s a n c t i o n t h e J a i n r e f u s a l t o e a t p r a s a d . The A k a r a n g a S u t r a ( J a i n a S u t r a s , v o l . 1: 99) t e l l s t h e J a i n s t h a t a monk s h o u l d n o t t a k e any p o r t i o n o f a god's m e a l . A f t e r a l l , a d e i t y c a n n o t a s s i s t one i n a t t a i n i n g m oksa. B u t more i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e t a k i n g o f p r a s a d s i g n i f i e s a b o n d , n o t o n l y b e t w e e n t h e image a nd t h e w o r s h i p p e r , b u t b e t w e e n t h e w o r s h i p p e r a n d t h e w o r l d , a b o n d t h e J a i n s a r e e a g e r t o e r a d i c a t e . The f a c t t h a t t h e J a i n s do n o t e a t t h e T i r t h a n k a r a ' s l e a v i n g s s h o u l d n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d a s a d e n i a l o f t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s p e r m e a t i n g I n d i a n l i f e . R a t h e r , t h e w o r s h i p p e r ' s r e f u s a l d e n i e s t h e i n h e r e n t s t a t u s i m p l i c a - t i o n s o f t h e c a s t e s y s t e m . R e c a l l t h a t one o f t h e d a i l y d u t i e s o f e v e r y l a y p e r s o n w h i c h p e r m i t s h i m t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e l i f e o f a monk was 25 . S t e v e n s o n , i n h e r R i t e s o f t h e T w i c e B o r n ( 1 9 7 1 : 390) n o t e s t h a t many S h a i v i t e t e m p l e s s e l l t h e i r o f f e r i n g s t o m e r c h a n t s f o r a s i m i l a r p u r p o s e , g i v e i t t o t h e l o w l y p u j a r i e s o r s i m p l y t h r o w i t t o t h e b i r d s . - 9 1 - d a n a . One who r e f u s e s t o g i v e , s i n s and a c c u m u l a t e s d a n a n t a r a y a k a r m a . The J a i n ' s g i f t must be p u r e ( a h a r a s u d d h i ) a n d g i v e n f r e e l y w i t h o u t d e s i r e f o r w o r l d l y g a i n . M o r e o v e r , t h e w o r - s h i p p e r m u s t be p u r e o f m i n d ( m a n a h s u d d h i ) , s p e e c h ( v a c a n a s u d d h i ) a n d b o d y ( k a y a s u d d h i ) , a n d he must g i v e t o h i s s u p e r i o r : T i r t h a n k a r a , a c a r y a , monk. A l l t h e u s u a l g e s t u r e s w h i c h r e c o g n i z e a n o t h e r ' s s u p e r i o r i t y a r e u s e d : s a y i n g " n a m a s t e , " a t r u n c a t e d f o r m of: p r a n a m , o f f e r i n g a h i g h s e a t ( a s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n ) , a n d a d o r i n g a n d s a l u t i n g h i m ( B h a r g a v e , 1 9 6 8 : 1 3 7 - 3 8 ) . T h u s , i n r i t u a l , t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i s r e c o g n i z e d as s u p e r i o r , b u t n o t as e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n n a t u r e f r o m t h e w o r s h i p p e r . The w o r s h i p p e r g a i n s m e r i t b y g i v i n g , j u s t as he d o e s when he g i v e s t o t h e b e g g i n g monk, a n d , by t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h S a h l i n s n o t e s o f a " p u r e g i f t , " a s s e r t s t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n w o r s h i p p e r a n d T i r t h a n k a r a a r e t o be e x p l a i n e d b y a d h e r e n c e t o J a i n p r i n c i p l e s a n d n o t by i n h e r e n t p u r i t y . I t i s h e r e t h a t t h e t r u e n a t u r e o f t h e J a i n T i r t h a n k a r a i s r e v e a l e d . He i s n o t a g o d , i n f i n i t e l y s u p e r i o r t o mere men, b u t j u s t a n o t h e r man who t h r o u g h p r o p e r l i v i n g e l e v a t e d h i m s e l f t o g o d l i n e s s . He i s t h e P r i n c e o f t h e S t a t e ( t h e t e m p l e , a n d , b y i m p l i c a t i o n , t h e w o r l d ) a nd t h e p r o f i t s f r o m t h e s a l e o f d e v a - d r a v y a a r e f o r h i s u s e a l o n e . T hey a r e a l m s ; no r e c i p r o c i t y i s e x p e c t e d . ) - 9 2 - B h a v a - p u j a : P u r i f y i n g T h o u g h t L i b e r a t i o n i s a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h m e d i t a t i o n , w h i c h , among t h e J a i n s , c o n s i s t s o f e l e v a t i n g t h e w o r s h i p p e r ' s c h a r a c t e r and s t o p p i n g t h o s e a c t i o n s w h i c h h arm l i f e . O n l y t h r o u g h t h e e l e v a t i o n o f o n e ' s c h a r a c t e r - - b h a v a - p u j a b e i n g one o f t h e p r e f e r r e d m e a n s — c a n one know r e a l i t y . Thus m e d i t a t i o n o r c o n t e m p l a t i o n i s t h e p r i m a r y medium o f r e l e a s e , n o t t h e w o r - s h i p o f g o d s . The c e n t r a l p r e m i s e s u p p o r t i n g k a u s s a g g a — a n i n t e r n a l p e n a n c e w h i c h , t h r o u g h a u s t e r i t i e s , b u r n s k a r m a — i s t h a t m e d i t a t i o n p u r i f i e s a n d s a n c t i f i e s t h e s o u l . M e d i t a t i o n t r a n s f o r m s t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s p i r i t u a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a n d , h e n c e , h i s i n t e r n a l m o r a l d i s p o s i t i o n f o r a c t i o n , a p r o d u c t o f t h e k a r m i c p a r t i c l e s he h a s a c c u m u l a t e d . W o r s h i p p e r m i t s t h e l a y m a n ( o r monk) t o s t r i v e t o become l i k e t h e T i r t h a n k a r a , r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e t e m p l e i m a g e . I t i s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e monk and t h e l a y m a n t o c o m p l e t e t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e T i r t h a n k a r a ; t h e y u s e t h e i mage t o d i r e c t t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o w a r d moksa. B h a v a - p u j a i s a t t h e c o r e o f w o r s h i p , a n d f o r b o t h t h e monk, and t h e l a y m a n i t i s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e w o r - s h i p . W i t h o u t i t , t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r s h i p h a s no v a l u e ( S t e v e n - s o n , 1 9 6 1 : 8 0 1 ) . B e c a u s e t h e c h a n c e s o f h a r m i n g i n s e c t l i f e a r e i n c r e a s e d a f t e r s u n s e t , t h e w o r s h i p p e r i s d i s c o u r a g e d f r o m g o i n g t o t h e t e m p l e a f t e r s u n s e t t o do b h a v a - p u j a . B h a v a - p u j a may, h o w e v e r , be done a t any t i m e o f t h e d a y . U n l i k e .93 - m o s t H i n d u i m a g e s , t h e J a i n T i r t h a n k a r a i m a g e s a r e n o t r e t i r e d d u r i n g t h e e v e n i n g . D u r i n g b h a v a - p u j a , t h e w o r s h i p p e r m e d i t a t e s o n t h e e l i m i n a - t i o n o f k a r m a , d e n o u n c e s any h a r m f u l a c t i o n s c o m m i t t e d on t h e d a y o f w o r s h i p , m e d i t a t e s o n t h e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a , r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e i m a g e , s i n g s p r a i s e s o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a a n d d o e s k a u s s a g g a , a p a r t i c u l a r y o g i c p o s t u r e . B h a v a - p u j a l e t s t h e w o r s h i p p e r do p r a t i k r a m a n a ( p a d i k k a m a n a ) , i . e . , c o n - f e s s any v i o l a t i o n s o f t h e t w e l v e v o w s — t h e f i v e m a j o r vows and t h e s e v e n s u p p o r t i n g v o w s — a n d t a k e vows t o a v o i d s i n f u l a c t s i n t h e f u t u r e ( p r a t y a k h y a n a ) . I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t p r a t i k r a m a n a i s an e s s e n t i a l d a i l y d u t y o f t h e n o n - i d o l a t r o u s S t h a k a v a s i . P r a t l k r a m m a n a i s s e l f - c r i t i c i s m a n d c o n f e s s i o n b e f o r e o n e ' s g u r u and s h o u l d be a c c o m p a n i e d by t h e r e c i t a t i o n o f t h e P r a t I k raman a S u t r a ( B h a r g a v a , 1 9 6 8 : 1 6 9 ) . B h a v a - p u j a , t h e n , makes an i m p l i c i t d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n m e n t a l a n d p h y s i c a l a c t s . B h a v a - p u j a i s t h e r i t u a l p u r i f i c a - t i o n o f t h e m i n d t h r o u g h m e d i t a t i o n . S i n c e R i g h t T h o u g h t l e a d s t o R i g h t A c t i o n , b h a v a - p u j a i s e s s e n t i a l b e c a u s e i t p r e p a r e s t h e w o r s h i p p e r t o c o n d u c t h i m s e l f i n s o c i e t y — h e t a k e s vows o f p r o p e r c o n d u c t — a s he w o u l d d u r i n g w o r s h i p ; h i s 26. S t e v e n s o n ( 1 9 7 0 : ' 117) makes t h e d i s t i n c t i o n c l e a r : "The J a i n a make a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n s p i r i t u a l a n d a c t u a l m u r d e r ( B h a v a h i m s a and D r a v y a h i m s a ) . One s i n s a g a i n s t B h a v a a h i m s a b y w i s h i n g f o r a n y o n e ' s d e a t h o r d e s i r i n g h a r m t o b e f a l l h i m . I n a d d i t i o n , i f one d o e s n o t c o n t i n u e and c o m p l e t e o n e ' s own e d u c a t i o n , o r s t r i v e t o i m p r o v e o n e ' s m i n d , o r i f one f a i l s t o e x e r c i s e and d i s c i p l i n e o n e ' s own s o u l , one c o m m i t s B h a v a h i m s a , f o r one k i l l s b y s t u l t i f i c a t i o n w h a t one m i g h t h a v e b e e n . " - 94 - a c t i o n s become more l i k e t h o s e o f t h e a s c e t i c monks. B h a v a - p u j a i s n o t done t o o b t a i n w o r l d l y b e n e f i t s b u t t o p u r i f y t h e m i n d . I t p e r m i t s t h e w o r s h i p p e r t o c o n c e n t r a t e o n t h e T i r t h a n k a r a a n d t h e T i r t h a n k a r a ' s t e a c h i n g s , w h i c h p r o m o t e p r o p e r c o n d u c t — c o n d u c t w h i c h l e a d s t o moksa. Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n I b e g a n t h i s s t u d y b y l o o k i n g f o r t h e J a i n p a t t e r n o f v a l u e s . I t was a r g u e d t h a t t h i s p a t t e r n o f v a l u e s was i n s t r u - m e n t a l i n f o r m u l a t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g a d i s t i n c t i v e l y J a i n v i s i o n o f t h e w o r l d . W o r s h i p a n d t h e i m a g e , I a r g u e d , m e d i a t e t h e c o s m i c and s o c i a l o r d e r s and, i n d o i n g s o , g i v e t h e J a i n t e n e t s o f p r o p e r s o c i a l c o n d u c t a u t h o r i t y a s T r u t h . J a i n w o r s h i p p e r m i t s t h e J a i n s t o p u b l i c l y r e c o g n i z e t h e i r c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l u n i t y . I t a l l o w s e a c h w o r s h i p p e r t o i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f w i t h t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i m a g e , a c o n s t a n t r e m i n d e r o f t h e i d e a l p e r s o n and t h e i d e a l s o c i e t y a n d t h e f o c u s o f J a i n w o r s h i p . J a i n w o r s h i p e x p r e s s e s t h e J a i n p a t t e r n o f v a l u e s . B u t J a i n w o r s h i p d o e s much more. W o r s h i p , e s - p e c i a l l y w o r s h i p o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i m a g e , e x p r e s s e s t h o s e more s t a b l e a n d f i r m l y e n t r e n c h e d v a l u e s o f t h e J a i n s , v a l u e s w h i c h p r o m o t e a c t i o n s t h a t e m p h a s i z e s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , t h a t e n d o r s e a t t i t u d e s o f i n t r o v e r s i o n a n d r e c l u s i v e n e s s a n d , h e n c e , a c c o r d i n g t o J a i n d o c t r i n e , t h a t m i n i m i z e t h e c h a n g e s i n o n e ' s p h y s i c a l and m o r a l c o n s t i t u t i o n . The J a i n s ' m e t a p h y s i c a l a n d e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s s u p p o r t t h e J a i n s t r a t e g y . The a c c u m u l a t i o n o f k a r ma p r o v i d e s a r e a d y r a t i o n a l e t o e x p l a i n t h e s o c i a l , as w e l l as h e a v e n l y , d i f f e r e n c e s i n o n e ' s r e l a t i v e s t a t u s . ' One's w o r l d l y p o s i t i o n a n d s t a t u s r e f l e c t h i s a c q u i s i t i o n a n d d i v e s t i t u r e o f k a r m i c p a r t i c l e s , r e s u l t i n g f r o m p a s t a c t i o n s ; h i s a c t i o n s v a l i d a t e J a i n d h a r m a , t h e r u l e s o f p r o p e r c o n d u c t l e a d i n g t o l i b e r a t i o n . I f w o r s h i p g r o u n d s J a i n v a l u e s i n t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l , i t i s c l e a r why t h i s m e t a p h y s i c a l g r o u n d i n g o f v a l u e s i s e s s e n t i a l T h e r e m u s t . . . b e l i n k s b e t w e e n t h e w o r s h i p s e r v i c e and t h e i m m e d i a t e p e r s o n a l a n d s o c i a l r e a l i t y o f t h e w o r s h i p p e r s . . . . U n l e s s t h e r e i s a l i n k b e t w e e n t h e r e l i g i o u s s y m b o l s m a k i n g up t h e w o r s h i p c e r e m o n y and t h e p a r t i c u l a r p a s t a n d p r e s e n t o f t h e w o r s h i p p e r s , t h e n t h e w o r s h i p p r o c e s s c a n n o t b e g i n . I n d e e d , t h e more d e e p l y t h e s y m b o l s do g r a s p t h e r e a l p r o b l e m s a n d c o n f l i c t s o f t h e w o r s h i p p e r s t h e more p o w e r f u l t h e s u b s e q u e n t e x p e r i e n c e c a n b e . . . . / W j 7 o r s h i p i s t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n a l i n t o t h e t r a n s - p e r s o n a l , t h e i m m e d i a t e i n t o t h e t r a n s t e m p o r a l . T h r o u g h t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t h e i m m e d i a t e p r o b l e m s a n d c o n f l i c t s c a n b e s e e n i n a new l i g h t , i n - s i g h t c a n be a c h i e v e d , a n d p o s t w o r s h i p c h a n g e s i n b e h a v i o r c a n e n s u e . How we e v a l u t e t h e s e c h a n g e s . . . d e p e n d s on o u r values..../T_7he m y t h i c a l , a r c h e t y p i c a l , t i m e l e s s c h a r a c t e r o f r e l i g i o u s s y m b o l s p r o v i d e s a p e r s p e c t i v e r e l a t i v e t o e v e r y d a y r e a l i t y w i t h o u t w h i c h , i n B l a k e ' s w o r d s , t h e l a t t e r w o u l d " s t a n d s t i l l u n a b l e t o do o t h e r t h a n r e p e a t t h e same d u l l r o u n d o v e r a g a i n . " W o r s h i p , t o be m a x i m a l l y e f f e c t i v e , m u s t p r o v i d e n o t o n l y a s y m b o l i c r e o r d e r i n g o f e x p e r i e n c e b u t a n e l e m e n t o f c o n s u m m a t i o n a n d f u l f i l l m e n t . ( B e l l a h , 1 9 7 0 : 210) 27. The v a r i o u s d e v a o r gods p o p u l a t i n g t h e h e a v e n s a r e r a n k e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r r e l a t i v e p u r i t y j u s t as p e o p l e a r e , ( S t e v e n s o n , . 1 9 7 0 : 2 7 0 - 7 2 ) . - 96 - W o r s h i p and t h e i m age do n o t , o f c o u r s e , a d d r e s s a l l p r o b l e m s a n d c o n f l i c t s w h i c h c a l l f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n b y a n i n d i v i d u a l J a i n . W o r s h i p and t h e i m age s u p p r e s s some, m o l d - i n g t hem t h r o u g h t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s s y m b o l s a n d , t h e r e f o r e , a c h i e v i n g a modicum o f o r t h o d o x y among t h o s e who 2 8 w o r s h i p . By b e c o m i n g l i k e a monk d u r i n g w o r s h i p , t h e w o r s h i p p e r h a s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e f l e c t o n h i s p r o g r e s s t o w a r d l i b e r a t i o n a n d t o t a k e vows o f p r o p e r c o n d u c t , l e a d i n g t o l i b e r a t i o n ( i . e . , h i s u n e a r t h l y g o a l s ) ; he h a s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e f l e c t u p o n h i s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n h i s c o m m u n i t y a n d d e v i s e a s t r a t e g y , c o n s i s t e n t w i t h - J a i n m o r a l p r i n c i p l e s , t o m a i n t a i n o r i m p r o v e h i s s o c i a l p o s i t i o n ( i . e . , h i s e a r t h l y g o a l s ) . The w o r s h i p p e r m e a s u r e s h i m s e l f a g a i n s t t h e s t a n d a r d s o f s u c c e s s e m b o d i e d i n t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i m age a n d h i s s u c c e s s d e p e n d s upon how he m e a s u r e s up t o t h e i m a g e . H a v i n g e x a m i n e d J a i n w o r s h i p a n d t h e c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i m age d u r i n g w o r s h i p , we now t u r n t o t h e i m a ge i t s e l f . 28. V e r n o n ( 1 9 7 3 : 127) makes a s i m i l a r a r g u m e n t . He s a y s t h a t s y m b o l s p r e s e r v e d e c i s i o n s a n d , t h e r e b y , e l i m i n a t e t h e b u r d e n o f m a k i n g t h e same d e c i s i o n s a g a i n and a g a i n . S y m b o l s p r o m o t e a k i n d o f s o c i a l h armony. - 9 7 - THE TIRTHANKARA IMAGE T h r o u g h o u t a l l o f I n d i a , t h e J a i n s number l e s s t h a n two m i l l i o n p e o p l e a n d , i n mos t r e s p e c t s , s h a r e t h e same c u s t o m s a s t h e i r H i n d u n e i g h b o r s . S i m i l a r l y , J a i n s c u l p t u r e i s r e l a t i v e l y u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m H i n d u s c u l p t u r e . T h e r e a r e , h o w e v e r , t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i m a g e s . A l w a y s r e p r e s e n t e d i n a manner q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m o t h e r J a i n i m a g e s , t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i m a g e s a r e an o d d i t y among t h e more common and f a m i l i a r I n d i a n i m a g e s . O ddness i n i t s e l f i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y s t a r t l i n g u n t i l we r e a l i z e t h a t t h e s e i m a g e s a r e v i r t u a l l y u n c h a n g e d s i n c e t h e i r a d o p t i o n b y t h e J a i n s ( c . 1 0 0 B . C . ) . S t y l i s t i c c h a n g e s o c c u r r e d b u t t h e m a s i c manner o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n r e - m a i n s t o t h i s d a y . T h e s e i m a g e s s u g g e s t e i t h e r t h e c o m m u n i t y c h a n g e d v e r y l i t t l e o v e r t h i s t i m e ( w h i c h i n f a c t i s t h e c a s e , r e l a t i v e l y s p e a k i n g ) o r t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e i m a g e o f s u c h f u n d a m e n t a l i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e J a i n s t h a t s t a b i l i t y i s r e q u i r e d . S e v e r a l r e a s o n s a s s u r e us t h a t t h e i m a g e ' s i m p o r t a n c e comes f r o m i t s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n t h e c o r e o f t h e c o m m u n i t y . F i r s t , t h e r e i s g r e a t c o n c e r n among J a i n j o u r n a l s t o d e s c r i b e , i n t e r p r e t a n d i n f o r m t h e c o m m u n i t y a b o u t t h e i m a g e s . The J a i n J o u r n a l a n d J a i n a A n t i q u a r y a r e n o t a b l e e x a m p l e s . M o r e o v e r , - 98 - t h r o u g h o u t I n d i a , J a i n s s t i l l show a l i v e l y c o n c e r n i n b u i l d - i n g a n d r e n o v a t i n g t e m p l e s ( a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , i m a g e s ) . T h e s e t e m p l e s a r e g e n e r a l l y owned b y c a s t e s w h i c h p a y f o r t h e t e m p l e s ' u p k e e p a n d r e p a i r , a s w e l l as t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e a t t e n d i n g p r i e s t s o r o f f i c i a n t s . A p a r t f r o m t h i s , m o s t J a i n s , u n l i k e H i n d u s , w o r s h i p d a i l y i n l o c a l t e m p l e s . P i l g r i m - age a n d w o r s h i p i n d i s t a n t t e m p l e s a r e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d m e r i t o r i o u s . B u t p e r h a p s t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t i n d e x o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i m a g e ' s i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e J a i n s i s , as P e r e i r a ( 1 9 7 7 : 40) n o t e s , t h a t t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i mage " d o m i n a t e s J a i n a r t more t h a n C h r i s t d o e s t h a t o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , t h e B u d d h a t h a t o f B u d d h i s m , o r any g o d o r h e r o t h a t o f h i s r e l i g i o n a n d c u l t . " I f we a r e t o c o m p l e t e l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i m a g e ' s p o s i t i o n i n w o r s h i p , we m u s t e x a m i n e t h e image a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n w h a t s e n s e i t i s , as C o o m a r a s w a r y s a y s , " v i s u a l t h e o l o g y . " The Image a s V i s u a l T h e o l o g y R e l i g i o u s a r t , l i k e r i t u a l , a t t e m p t s t o o r d e r a n d d e s c r i b e t h e c r i t i c a l f r i n g e s o f human e x i s t e n c e a n d e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s a p u r p o s e f u l e x p l o r a t i o n a n d e x a m i n a t i o n o f s o c i a l m e a n i n g . By c o n t i n u a l l y d e f i n i n g t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f o r d e r l y a n d m e a n i n g - f u l s o c i a l l i f e , i t s t r i v e s t o e r a d i c a t e m e a n i n g l e s s n e s s . I t d o e s s o b y s t r u c t u r i n g e v e r y d a y e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h e a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d s y n t a x o f r e a s o n a n d e m o t i o n , t h e r e b y d e f i n i n g o n e ' s e x p e r i e n c e s a n d g u i d i n g h i m t o w a r d p r o p e r a c t i o n . R e l i g i o u s a r t , l i k e r i t u a l , d e p e n d s upon t h e c o a l e s c e n c e o f w o r l d v i e w and e t h o s , o f w h a t i s a n d w h a t o u g h t t o b e . The T i r t h a n k a r a i m age i s n o t an i m i t a t i o n . I t d o e s n o t t r u l y r e s e m b l e any a c t u a l p e r s o n . ( I n d i a n ) a r t i s t s l o n g ago r e c o g n i z e d t h a t n o t h i n g i s e v e r o r e v e r c a n be r e p r e s e n t e d c o m p l e t e l y i n a l l i t s a s p e c t s a n d w i t h a l l i t s i d i o s y n c r a s i e s . To c a p t u r e a p a r t o f h i s s u b j e c t i s t h e b e s t he c a n hope f o r . The I n d i a n a r t i s t ' s c r e a t i o n o f w o r k s o f a r t n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e s a c r i f i c e o f many f e a t u r e s o f a r e a l o b j e c t . S a c r i f i c e , h o w e v e r , d o e s n o t d i m i n i s h t h e a r t i s t ' s t a s k . The g o a l i s s t i l l t o p r e s e n t t h e o b j e c t o f a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n a s w h o l e , c o m p l e t e . The p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n o f a r t i s t i c s y m b o l i z a t i o n i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . P r a c t i c a l i t y , p l e a s u r e a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n a r e s e c o n d a r y a n d d e p e n d on t h i s n e e d t o u n d e r s t a n d (Goodman, 1 9 7 6 ) . O f t e n r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h m u l t i p l e a r m s , h e a d s , e y e s , e t c . , t h e I n d i a n d e i t y ' s m u l t i p l i c i t y o f b o d i l y p a r t s i s n o t i n - t e n d e d a s an a c c u r a t e p o r t r a y a l b u t r a t h e r s u g g e s t s t h e g r e a t e r t h a n human c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e d e i t y . U s i n g v a r i a t i o n s on t h e b o d y t o e x p r e s s g r e a t n e s s i s one o f t h e m o s t n a t u r a l d e c i s i o n s o f any a r t i s t . E v e r y o n e knows t h e b o u n d a r i e s , l i m i t a t i o n s , moods, d e s i r e s a n d n e e d s o f t h e b o d y . One s e e s o t h e r s b e i n g b o r n , a g a i n and d y i n g ; he comes t o know o t h e r s - 1 0 0 - by t h e t h i n g s t h e y do a n d s a y ; he u n d e r s t a n d s o t h e r s n o t o n l y b e c a u s e he s h a r e s s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s , b u t b e c a u s e he e x p r e s s e s h i m s e l f i n a s i m i l a r i d i o m . The I n d i a n a r t i s t c a l l s u pon t h e s e common e x p e r i e n c e s a n d a c t i o n s t o c o n v e y more p r o f o u n d s e n t i m e n t s . D a n c i n g , s i n g i n g , c r y i n g , s h o u t i n g , y a w n i n g , s i g h i n g , l a u g h i n g , e t c . , a l l h a v e r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n I n d i a ; t h e y e x p r e s s t h o s e more r a r i f i e d e m o t i o n s one h a s t o w a r d t h e n u m i n o u s . As i s a l w a y s t h e c a s e i n I n d i a , t h e mundane h a s i t s m a t c h i n t h e c e l e s t i a l s p h e r e . The J a i n T i r t h a n k a r a i m a g e , u n l i k e i t s more f a m i l i a r H i n d u c o u n t e r p a r t s , i s c o m p l e t e l y human i n f o r m . T h e r e i s no . i n s u r m o u n t a b l e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e v i e w e r a n d t h e p e r s o n i n t h e i m a g e . The T i r t h a n k a r a i s n o t i n h e r e n t l y more p o w e r - f u l , more h e a v e n l y . He i s n o t a h i g h g o d whose p o s i t i o n i s one o f s p i r i t u a l o r s p a t i a l d i s t a n c e . E a c h v i e w e r p a r t a k e s o f t h e s p e c i a l k n o w l e d g e t h e image o f f e r s b y r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i s n o t e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m h i m s e l f . D i s t i n g u i s h i n g C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s I n many r e s p e c t s , t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i m a g e s r e s e m b l e o t h e r I n d i a n i m a g e s . The i m a g e s a r e composed o f s t a n d a r d i z e d s i g n s a n d s y m b o l s d r a w n f r o m t h e common h e r i t a g e o f m o s t I n d i a n s . - 1.01 - T h i s s i m i l a r i t y o f i m a g e s s h o u l d n o t s u r p r i s e u s , s i n c e I n d i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n s pawned J a i n i s m a n d J a i n i m a g e s . The d i s t i n g u i s h - i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f J a i n T i r t h a n k a r a i m a g e s , t h e n , a r e t o k e n s ; t h e y do n o t a b s o l u t e l y d i s t i n g u i s h J a i n i m a g e s f r o m B u d d h i s t o r o t h e r I n d i a n i m a g e s b u t s i m p l y c h a r a c t e r i z e a p r o p e r i m a g e . A l t h o u g h many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e u n i q u e t o t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i m a g e s , t h e y a r e o f r e l a t i v e l y m i n o r i m p o r t a n c e and t h e n q u i t e e s o t e r i c . A f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i m a g e s m u s t t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t , t h e u s u a l a n d a c c u s t o m e d m e a n i n g s o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . B h a t t a c h a r y a ( 1 9 7 4 : 19-20) s e t s o u t t h e i m a g e s ' d i s - t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The T i r t h a n k a r a i m a g e s a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y t h e y o u t h f u l b o d y , w h i c h i s u s u a l l y n a k e d among t h e D i g a m b a r a ; t h e l o n g , h a n g i n g a r m s , r e a c h i n g b e l o w t h e k n e e s i n t h e s t a n d i n g i m a g e s ( s e e F i g u r e 3 ); a n d t h e s r i v a t s a s y m b o l o n t h e c h e s t . O t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e : a y a k s a a n d y a k s i o n h i s r i g h t - h a n d a n d l e f t - h a n d s i d e s ( t h e s e a t t e n d i n g d e i t i e s a r e u s u a l l y i n t h e l o w e s t c o r n e r s o f t h e w o r k ) , an a s o k a o r t r e e u n d e r w h i c h t h e T i r t h a n k a r a a t t a i n e d k e v a l a , a s w e l l a s a t h r o n e s e a t , a l i o n t h r o n e , a t r i l i n e a r u m b r e l l a , an a u r a o r h a l o , a drum, c e l e s t i a l b l o s s o m s , two c h o w r i b e a r e r s a n d h e a v e n l y m u s i c . A d d i t i o n a l l y , e a c h T i r t h a n k a r a i s a c c o m p a n i e d b y a c l h n a o r c o g n i z a n c e w h i c h i d e n t i f i e s t h e p a r t i c u l a r T i r t h a n k a r a . The image may a l s o c o n t a i n one o r s e v e r a l o f t h e e i g h t a u s p i c i o u s s y m b o l s o f - 1 0 2 - t h e J a i n s : s w a s t i k a , m i r r o r , u r n , c a n e - s e a t ( s h a p e d l i k e an h o u r g l a s s ) , two s m a l l f i s h , f l o w e r g a r l a n d a n d a b o o k . M a h a - P u r u s h a I f t h e b o d y i s t r u l y t h e p r i m a r y r e v e l a t o r y v e h i c l e , t h e s i m p l e s t e x p r e s s i o n o f c o s m i c u n i t y i s a g i a n t man (Maha- P u r u s h a ) . I n d i a n m o n i s t s a n d d u a l i s t s a l i k e p o s i t t h i s c o s m i c m o d e l . The J a i n u n i v e r s e , a c c o r d i n g t o n o n - c a n o n i c a l s o u r c e s , i s t h e s h a p e o f a g i a n t man. H i s l e g s a r e a d h o l o k a , t h e s e v e n h e l l s ; h i s w a i s t i s t i r y a l o k a , t h e e a r t h l y r e a l m ; h i s b r e a s t i s d e v a l o k a , h e a v e n ; h i s n e c k i s g r a i v e y l k a , t h e r e g i o n o f k i n g s ; a n d t h e t o p o f h i s h e a d i s s i d d h a l o k a , t h e p l a c e w h e r e l i b e r a t e d s o u l s , f r e e f r o m t h e body,: go when r e l e a s e d ( S t e v e n s o n , 1 9 7 0 : 2 7 1 - 7 2 ) . H o w e v e r , t h e c a n o n i c a l s o u r c e s , s u c h a s t h e S v e t a m b a r a ' s L o k a p r a k s a , d e s c r i b e t h e u n i v e r s e a s t h r e e p y r a m i d s s t a c k e d one upon t h e o t h e r ( L a l w a n i , 1 9 6 8 : 8 5 - 8 6 ) , o r as a d o w n t u r n e d e a r t h e n b o w l , a c y m b a l ( j h a l a r a ) a n d a m r d a n g a o n t o p ( S u k h l a l j i , 1 9 7 4 : 1 9 9 ) . R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s , e a c h s h a r e s a t r i - p a r t i t e o r d e r . E v e r y d e s c r i p t i o n h a s a b o t t o m , a m i d d l e a n d a t o p . S u r r o u n d i n g t h e J a i n u n i v e r s e ( l o k a ) i s a l o k a , a r e g i o n w h e r e m a t t e r d o e s n o t p e n e t r a t e . H e r e t h e m e d i a r e s p o n s i b l e f o r movement a n d s t i l l n e s s do n o t e x i s t a n d t i m e ' s c l o c k h a s a b r o k e n s p r i n g . The s i d d h a , o r l i b e r a t e d s o u l , - 1 0 3 - c a n n o t ( a n d c o u l d n o t ) a s s i s t t h o s e s t i l l a p a r t o f l o k a . The I n d i a n a r t i s t e m p l o y s a w i d e r a n g e o f t e c h n i q u e s a n d s t a n d a r d i z e d means o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n h i s a t t e m p t t o e x p r e s s t h e w o r l d a s a g i a n t man. W h e t h e r i n t h e i n n e r s a n c t u a r y o f t h e t e m p l e o r m e r e l y a l o n g a t e m p l e c o r r i d o r , he a t t e m p t s i n e a c h image t o c o m p l e t e l y d i s p l a y t h e u n i v e r s e . I n F i g u r e 2, t h e l a r g e , s q u a r e t h r o n e f i l l s much o f t h e l o w e r r e g i o n . The t h r o n e r e s t s s e c u r e l y o n t h e e a r t h . I t i s h e l d f i r m l y i n g r a v i t y ' s g r i p a s a r e a l l e a r t h l y o b j e c t s . Ap- p r o p r i a t e l y , t h e y a k s a a n d y a k s i , t h e e a r t h - b o u n d s p i r i t s , a r e n e a r l y h i d d e n i n c a v e r n - l i k e n i c h e s o f t h e t h r o n e . T h e i r g o r g e d , r o u n d e d f i g u r e s a g a i n t y p i f y e a r t h - b o u n d n a t u r e s ( H a v e l l , 1 9 6 4 : 1 4 3 ) . The b o d y ' s d i a p h r a g m a n d e x p a n d e d c h e s t ( u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e y o g i n ' s b r e a t h c o n t r o l a n d , h e n c e , t h e c o n t r o l o f l i f e f o r c e s ) a r e t h e m i d d l e ; t h e h e a d , l o f t y a n d p u r e , i s t h e t o p m o s t r e g i o n . . A t t h e b o t t o m a r e t h e f e e t , t h e m o s t p o l l u t i n g a n d h e n c e m o s t d a n g e r o u s b o d i l y p a r t . E v e r y I n d i a n , when p r o s t r a t i n g h i m s e l f b e f o r e a g o d o r g r e a t p e r s o n , p u t s h i s h e a d t o t h e o t h e r ' s f e e t . T h i s g e s t u r e i s f u n d a m e n t a l , an a s s e r t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i v e p u r i t y a n d i m p u r i t y o f t h e two p e o p l e , an a s s e r t i o n o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n - s h i p o f d o m i n a n c e a n d s u b o r d i n a n c e . C a k r a v a r t i n : U n i v e r s a l K i n g L i k e t h e B u d d h i s t s , t h e J a i n s c l a i m t h e i r o r i g i n i n t h e - 1 0 4 - womb o f t h e K s h a t r i y a c a s t e . As g r e a t p r i n c e s who r e n o u n c e d t h e i r w o r l d l y p o w e r , t h e T i r t h a n k a r a s n e v e r r e n o u n c e d t h e g o a l o f u n i f y i n g t h e w o r l d ; t h e s p i r i t u a l o r d e r a n d s e c u l a r o r d e r w e r e s i m p l y two s i d e s o f t h e same c o i n (Zimmer, 1 9 6 0 : 1 2 7 - 3 0 ) . W i t h c h o w r i e s i n h a n d , t h e a t t e n d a n t s m o u n t e d o n r o y a l e l e p h a n t s i n d i c a t e t h e i r s u b o r d i n a t i o n t o t h e T i r t h a n k a r a . The t r i l i n e a r u m b r e l l a s y m b o l i z e s t h e d e v a - l o k a s ; i t s s h a n k i s t h e c o s m i c a x i s c l a i m i n g t h e c e i l i n g o f t h e h e a v e n s as t h e d o m a i n o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a . A t t h e t o p o f t h e u n i v e r s e i s an a m a l o k a o r c r o w n , h i s s y m b o l o f a u t h o r i t y a n d p l a c e w h e r e t h e l i b e r a t e d s o u l s r e s i d e . The l i o n t h r o n e s u g g e s t s t h e T i r t h a n k a r a 1 s a u t h o r i t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e T i r t h a n k a r a ' s b r o a d s h o u l d e r s a n d r o b u s t c h e s t i n d i c a t e h i s g r e a t s t r e n g t h a n d r e s o l v e t o p e r f o r m a u s t e r i t i e s ( B o n e r , 1 9 6 2 : 2 1 4 ) . The T i r t h a n k a r a i s no B r a h m i n . He was n o t b o r n a g o d , b u t c l a i m s t h e r i g h t t o be a " t r u e B r a h m i n . " B e c a u s e o f t h e c o n t i n g e n c i e s o f s u r v i v a l among t h e H i n d u s , t h e J a i n s l o n g ago r e n o u n c e d t h e i r c l a i m t o be K s h a t r i y a s , b u t t h e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t h e B r a h m i n s a nd K s h a t r i y a s , e x - p r e s s e d b y t h e T i r t h a n k a r a , c o n t i n u e s t o t h i s d a y . W h i l e t h i s r i v a l r y h e l p e d s p r e a d s u c h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y I n d i a n p r a c t i c e s as v e g e t a r i a n i s m a n d a h i m s a , i t a l s o was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a g r e a t d e a l o f p e r s e c u t i o n b y t h e H i n d u s (Dumont, 1 9 7 0 ; S a n g a v e , 1 9 5 9 ) . T h i s a c r i m o n y s u r v i v e s i n t h e dogma t h a t a l l T i r t h a n k a r a s m u s t n o t o n l y be b o r n i n a n o b l e f a m i l y , b u t - 1 0 5 - t h a t I n d r a w r e s t e d M a h a v i r a , t h e f i n a l T i r t h a n k a r a , f r o m a B r a h m i n ' s womb and p l a n t e d h i m i n t o a K s h a t r i y a ' s womb. O n l y a s a K s h a t r i y a c o u l d he become a T i r t h a n k a r a ( J a i n a S u t r a s , v o l . 1 : 2 3 0 - 3 1 ) . I n w o r s h i p , t h e p r i n c e l y m o d e l p e r f o r m s a v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e . The w o r s h i p p e r t r e a t s t h e image as a k i n g , g i v i n g i t s u p r e m a c y i n t h e t e m p l e . O n l y when t h e c o n - t e x t p e r m i t s d o e s homage become h o l y . H e n c e , w o r s h i p p i n g t h e image t r a n s c e n d s t h e homage t o a k i n g o r a n o t h e r h i g h l y p l a c e d p e r s o n . An e a r t h l y home f o r t h e g o d s , t h e J a i n t e m p l e , l i k e t h e H i n d u , i s a m o d e l o f t h e cosmos ( R o w l a n d , 1 9 6 7 : 2 7 5 ; F i s c h e r , 1 9 7 0 ; B e c k , 1 9 7 6 ) . The T i r t h a n k a r a s e a t e d i n t h e c e n t e r o f t h e t e m p l e i s t h e a s c e t i c m o n a r c h n o t o n l y o f h i s t e m p l e b u t s y m b o l i c a l l y o f t h e u n i v e r s e as w e l l . The A s c e t i c A p p e a r i n g as e a r l y as 2 5 0 0 B.C. i n H a r a p p a , t h e a s c e t i c was an e a r l y s u b j e c t o f I n d i a n s c u l p t u r e ( R o w l a n d , 1 9 7 0 : 3 5 ) . The a s c e t i c ' s a u s t e r i t i e s ( t a p a s ) a n d s e x u a l c o n t i n e n c e w e r e ( a r e t o d a y ) b e l i e v e d t o c o n f e r g r e a t p s y c h i c a n d f o r m i d a b l e p h y s i c a l a b i l i t i e s upon t h e a s c e t i c . F e a r e d , a d m i r e d a n d e m u l a t e d , t h e a s c e t i c e x e m p l i f i e d t h e h o p e s o f t h e n o n - B r a h m i n m a j o r i t y . The a s c e t i c w a l k e d t h e p a t h w h i c h w o u l d o v e r c o m e a p r o f o u n d a n d g r o w i n g p e s s i m i s m , a p e s s i m i s m a r i s i n g f r o m t h e d e c r e a s i n g s o c i a l a n d , h e n c e , s p i r i t u a l m o b i l i t y o f - 106 - India's caste system (Martindale, 1962). The Indian ascetic expressed, as he does today, an age old confidence that nature can be conquered and controlled, that alternative routes to the same destination not only e x i s t but are passable (Potter, 1963) . The great Hindu prototype of a l l ascetics i s Siva, the symbol of world renunciation. He l i t e r a l l y resides i n un- l i v a b l e places: tops of very high mountains and cremation grounds, places of great extremes i n temperature, places where only the dead—those released from t h e i r earthly body— are permitted. Siva haunts b u r i a l grounds; covered with ashes, he performs a u s t e r i t i e s which give him the power of miracles. He r e t i r e s to mountain tops, where, because of t h e i r great height, he i s simultaneously i n contact with heaven and earth. His feet are on the ground but his head i s i n the skies. Siva, however, has a dual nature. He i s the world renouncer, forsaking the s o c i a l t i e s of family and community, but he i s also the potent male who through a u s t e r i - t i e s surpasses a l l other males. He has immense power, and release of his power comes eithe r procreatively or i n a frenzied world-destroying dance (Zimmer, 1972). The Jains' Tirthankaras are c l e a r l y p a r a l l e l s to the ascetic Siva. They share a c o n s t e l l a t i o n of symbols (moon, trid e n t , cobra, Mt. Kailasa, as well as l i n k s to paternal potency) (Manjula, 1968). They also acquire t h e i r great powers and a b i l i t i e s through a u s t e r i t i e s . .Jain mountain hermitages - 1 0 7 - a n d p l a c e s o f p i l g r i m a g e a b o u n d i n I n d i a , a n d , s i g n i f i c a n t l y , t w e n t y o f t w e n t y - f o u r T i r t h a n k a r a s r e a c h e d o m n i s c i e n c e ( k e v a l i ) o n a m o u n t a i n t o p ( B h a t t a c h a r y a , 1974: 2 1 ) . Whenever p o s - s i b l e , h i g h g r o u n d i s p r e f e r r e d f o r t e m p l e s . U n l i k e S i v a , t h e T i r t h a n k a r a d o e s n o t v a c i l l a t e b e t w e e n a s c e t i c w o r l d r e n o u n c e r a n d p o t e n t f a t h e r f i g u r e . The J a i n s d e n i e d t h e s e x u a l p r o c r e a t i v e a s p e c t o f S i v a i n f a v o r o f a n e t e r n a l l y c o n s t a n t and b e n e v o l e n t a s c e t i c . A l t h o u g h R s a b h a n a t h a , t h e f i r s t T i r t h a n k a r a o f t h i s c o s m i c c y c l e , i s o f t e n d e s c r i b e d as t h e p r o g e n i t o r o f t h e K s h a t r i y a s on e a r t h a n d a s t h e g r e a t h e r o who t a u g h t p e o p l e t h e i r c r a f t s , a r t s and " c u l t u r e , " he i s n e v e r , n o r i s any one o f t h e o t h e r T i r t h a n k a r a s , d e p i c t e d as a s e x u a l c r e a t o r . S u c h d e p i c t i o n s a r e r e s e r v e d f o r l o w e r a n d i n f e r i o r d e i t i e s , a d o p t e d f r o m t h e H i n d u s . I n f a c t , t h e D i g a m b a r a J a i n s r e f u s e t o a c c e p t t h a t M a h a v i r a was m a r r i e d and f a t h e r e d c h i l d r e n . W h i l e t h e T i r t h a n k a r a s ( a t l e a s t a c - c o r d i n g t o t h e S v e t a m b a r a s ) f u l f i l l e d t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s o f m a r r y i n g and r a i s i n g a f a m i l y , t h e y l e f t t h e c o m f o r t s o f c i v i l i z e d l i f e t o c o n q u e r t h e u n c i v i l i z e d i n t h e m s e l v e s . They s e t o u t o n a l i f e l o n g p i l g r i m a g e t o moksa. The c o m m u n i t y o f l a y p e o p l e s u p p o r t t h e J a i n monks. They r e c o g n i z e i n t h e monk's b e h a v i o r t h o s e u n i v e r s a l r u l e s (dharma) l e a d i n g t o moksa. As a s y m b o l , t h e i m age p o i n t s t o t h i s 2 9 u n i v e r s a l o r d e r . E v e r y a s c e t i c b r i n g s t h e J a m c a n o n s t o 29. I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t T i r t h a means t h e o r i g i n a l c o m m u n i t y o f monks, n u n s , l a y m e n a n d laywomen. T i r t h a a l s o means "one who e x p o u n d s Dharma" ( B h a t t a c h a r y a , 1974: 1 1 ) . - 1 0 8 - an immanent p o s i t i o n w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . The b e g g i n g monk, d r e s s e d i n r a g s , w a n d e r i n g f r o m v i l l a g e t o v i l l a g e , p e r f o r m i n g t h e r i g i d p e n a n c e s o f t h e f a i t h , r e - e n a c t s t h e l i v e s o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a s . N u d i t y The J a i n i m age a r o s e i n a t r a d i t i o n t h a t was a n t i - B r a h m a n i c a l . The B r a h m i n s ' r i t u a l m o n o p o l y i n c r e a s i n g l y e x c l u d e d t h e o t h e r c a s t e s . W i t h t h e r i s e o f t h e s a n n y a s i , o r w o r l d r e n o u n c e r s , a c h a l l e n g e a r o s e ; t h e B r a h m i n s ' s p i r i t u a l s u p r e m a c y was q u e s t i o n e d a n d u l t i m a t e l y r e j e c t e d b y M a h a v i r a , t h e l a s t J a i n T i r t h a n k a r a , a n d by t h e B u d d h a , t o name o n l y two. M a h a v i r a c a l l e d f o r s t r i c t p e n a n c e a n d , f o l l o w i n g t h e l o n g t r a d i t i o n o f t h e A j i v i k a s (Basham, 19 5 1 ) , he d i s c a r d e d h i s c l o t h i n g . The J a i n s , h o w e v e r , n e v e r p r e s c r i b e d n u d i t y ; i n f a c t , t h e e a r l y monks o f t h e s e c t a s a r u l e d r e s s e d i n l o i n c l o t h s r a t h e r t h a n go a b o u t n a k e d (Basham, 1 9 5 1 : 1 0 7 - 0 9 ) . N a k e d n e s s was o f c o u r s e r e s t r i c t e d t o men. W h i l e t h e D i g a m b a r a ("sky c l a d " ) a s c e t i c s c o n t i n u e t o t h i s d a y t h e p r a c t i c e o f n u d i t y , t h e S v e t a m b a r a s q u i c k l y a d o p t e d some m i n i m a l c l o t h i n g . M a h a v i r a ' s n a k e d n e s s w o u l d l a t e r come t o s i g n i f y t h e c l e a n s i n g o f t h e s o u l f r o m k a r m a . I n i t i a l l y , h o w e v e r , t h e p r a c t i c a l r e s u l t was t h e c o m p l e t e e l i m i n a t i o n o f any c a s t e o r s o c i a l m a r k i n g s : w h i c h m i g h t i d e n t i f y t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s - 1 0 9 - p r e v i o u s s o c i a l p o s i t i o n o r s u g g e s t any commitment t o w o r l d l y t i e s . The i n d i v i d u a l h a d , i n e f f e c t , s t e p p e d b e y o n d a n d a b o v e t h e s o c i a l b o u n d s o f h i s w o r l d (Zimmer, 1 9 6 0 : 2 1 0 ) . T h i s s y m b o l i c e q u a l i t y , s o o n e n o u g h t o v a n i s h , h a d t h e i n i t i a l a d v a n t a g e o f e l i m i n a t i n g many r e c r u i t m e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t s t r i c t a d h e r e n c e t o c a s t e p r i n c i p l e s m i g h t e n g e n d e r . As f o r m e r l y r e l i a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f m u t u a l a i d a n d a s s i s t a n c e c o l l a p s e d , t h e B r a h m i n s ' a u t h o r i t y was i m m e d i a t e l y a n d s e v e r e l y t e s t e d . The B r a h m i n s w o u l d s o o n a d o p t many o f t h e new a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e s e h e r e t i c a l r e n o u n c e r s ^ - v e g e t a r i a n i s m a n d s t r i c t p r a c t i c e o f a h i m s a — t h u s r e a s s e r t i n g t h e i r c l a i m s t o r i t u a l c o n t r o l a n d s o c i a l p u r i t y . The J a i n s w o u l d a l s o a d a p t ; t h e y w o u l d a c c e p t c a s t e d i s t i n c t i o n s among t h e i r own k i n d a n d c l a i m s t a t u s as V a i s h y a s . M a h a v i r a ' s r e n u n c i a t i o n w o u l d , h o w e v e r , c o n t i n u e t o p r o v i d e an a n c h o r w i t h w h i c h a l l J a i n c o u l d l e g i t i m i z e t h e p r e s e n t t h r o u g h t h e p a s t . F o r t h o s e d e m a n d i n g some v i s i b l e a n d s u b s t a n t i v e r e m i n d e r o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a ' s t e a c h i n g s , p o l i t i c a l r e b e l l i o n shows e v e n i n t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e b o d y . The s l i m w a i s t a n d b r o a d r o b u s t c h e s t came t o s y m b o l i z e t h e a r i s t o c r a t i c b i r t h o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a a s K s h a t r i y a . The l a r g e s h o u l d e r s a n d l o n g arms became a n d r e m a i n s i g n s o f g r e a t a n d p r o m i n e n t men ( C h i t r a b h a n u , 1 9 7 8 : p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) . B u t t h e monk's n a k e d n e s s ( o r n e a r n a k e d n e s s ) a l s o b e s p e a k s a c o m p l e t e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e d e s i r e f o r any p h y s i c a l t i e s e x c e p t t h e mos t r u d i m e n t a r y — f o o d , w h i c h i s s t r i c t l y r e g u l a t e d . - n o - The i n d i v i d u a l i s c o m p l e t e l y v u l n e r a b l e t o b o t h t h e p h y s i c a l w o r l d a n d t h e s o c i a l w o r l d upon w h i c h he r e l i e s f o r s u r v i v a l . He i s a l o n e and s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s s p i r i t u a l s u r v i v a l . I t i s by c o n q u e r i n g h i s d e s i r e s a n d f e a r s , made more i m m e d i a t e by h i s v u l n e r a b i l i t y , t h a t t h e monk a p p r o a c h e s l i b e r a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , e v e r y a c c i d e n t a l o r momentary f e a t u r e o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a was e r a d i c a t e d i n f a v o r o f a s t e r e o t y p i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The i m a g e s r e q u i r e d t h e e x t e n s i o n o f p a r - t i c u l a r i z i n g m a r k s i n t o g e n e r a l i z i n g m a r k s . T h e i r b o d i e s a r e a l w a y s shown i n y o g i c t r a n c e , i n a p u r e s t a t e , u n i n v o l v e d i n w o r l d l y e x c h a n g e s . The i m a g e ' s b o d y i s p e r f e c t , u n l i k e i t s more common human f o r m , a " f r a g i l e , " " d e c a y i n g " a n d " u n - s t a b l e e n t i t y " ( J a i n a S u t r a s , V o l . 1: 4 4 ) . T h i s s u r f a c e v a g u e n e s s , w h i c h i s n o t i n t e n d e d a s a m b i g u i t y , e f f e c t i v e l y s h i f t s t h e v i e w e r ' s m i n d f r o m t h e e m p i r i c a l l e v e l t o a m y t h o l o g i c a l l e v e l o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n . D e n i a l o f t h e t r a n s i e n t , u n s t a b l e l e v e l a l l o w s t h e h i g h e r l e v e l f u l l i m p a c t on o n e ' s a w a r e n e s s . The i m a g e ' s a b s e n c e o f a l l m u s c u l a r o r bone s t r u c t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h e T i r t h a n k a r a ' s s p i r i t u a l a d v a n c e m e n t . H i s b ody h a s no v e i n s , t e n d o n s o r b o d y h a i r ( w h i c h comes t o assume g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e s i n c e h a i r i s t h e f e a t u r e m o s t e a s i l y m a n i p u l a t e d — a l l t h e J a i n monks a r e r e q u i r e d t o p u l l o u t t h e i r h a i r b y t h e r o o t s ) . I n h i s M y t h s a n d S y m b o l s i n I n d i a n A r t a n d C i v i l i z a t i o n , Zimmer ( 1 9 7 2 : 157) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t o f t o n s u r e , - I l l - b e f o r e e m b a r k i n g on an a s c e t i c ' s l i f e , s i m u l a t e s t h e d i s p a s s i o n o f an o l d man. W i t h h i s h a i r g o n e , he no l o n g e r i s a l i n k i n t h e g e n e r a t i v e c h a i n . H a i r i m p l i e s p a s s i o n ; a f t e r a l l , S i v a h a s a g r e a t mound o f m a t t e d h a i r t h a t a c c o m p a n i e s h i s v i r i l e d e s t r u c t i v e e n e r g y . E l s e w h e r e , Basham ( 1 9 5 1 : 106) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s p a i n f u l t o n s u r e a c c u s t o m s t h e new monk t o t h e p h y s i c a l s e v e r i t i e s a w a i t i n g h i m , i . e . , i t i s a n a u s t e r i t y w h i c h t e s t s h i s r e s o l v e . One m i g h t a l s o i n f e r t h a t h a i r n o t o n l y s u g g e s t s t h e p a s s i o n a t e m a l e , b u t c a n be c a t e g o r i z e d as a b o d i l y r e m n a n t , a p o l l u t a n t , a l o n g w i t h f e c e s , s a l i v a , s w e a t , e t c . A b s e n c e i m p l i e s p u r i t y . T h e r e f o r e , t h e T i r t h a n k a r a ' s b o d y and b r e a t h a r e f r a g r a n t (Zimmer, 196 0 : 2 0 9 ) . He i s f r e e o f p o l l u t a n t s . P r a s a d ( 1 9 7 2 ) , i n h i s c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f B u d d h i s t and J a i n m o n a c h i s m , n o t e s , h o w e v e r , t h a t t o n s u r e i s r e p e a t e d when t h e h a i r r e a c h e s a p r e s c r i b e d l e n g t h : f o u r f i n g e r s . S i n c e d a i l y g r o o m i n g i s d i s c o u r a g e d , t h e monk does n o t b a t h e , wash h i s c l o t h i n g , c u t h i s n a i l s , o r n a m e n t h i m s e l f o r u s e any c o s m e t i c s w h a t s o e v e r t o i m p r o v e h i s a p p e a r a n c e . P r a s a d ( 1 9 7 2 : 34-35) b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e s e s t r i c t m e a s u r e s a r e i n t e n d e d t o s u b d u e any p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i o n a woman m i g h t h a v e f o r a monk. I n - d e e d , I s u s p e c t t h i s p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n i s q u i t e e f f e c t i v e . 30. S t e v e n s o n ( 1 9 1 5 : 45) g i v e s an i n t e r e s t i n g a c c o u n t o f M a h a v i r a ' s d e a t h . A c c o r d i n g t o some D i g a m b a r a , M a h a v i r a d i e d a l o n e . Upon a c h i e v i n g m oksa, h i s p u r e s o u l d e p a r t e d , l e a v i n g o n l y h i s n a i l s a n d h a i r r e m n a n t s . The J a i n s f a s h i o n e d a new b o d y f r o m t h e s e l e f t o v e r s and c r e m a t e d i t w i t h a l l t h e u s u a l c e r e m o n y . - 1 1 2 - H o w e v e r , p r i o r t o t a k i n g t h e m o n a s t i c vows and p u l l i n g o u t h i s h a i r , t h e i n i t i a t e p u r i f i e s h i m s e l f ; he a p p r o a c h e s h i s g r e a t moment d r e s s e d i n h i s f i n e s t c l o t h i n g . O n l y t h e n d o es he b e g i n h i s m e r c i l e s s d i s m i s s a l o f t h e b o d y . He b e g i n s t o grow i m p u r e , j u s t as t h e d e a d a r e i m p u r e u n t i l c r e m a t i o n (D a s , 1 9 7 6 ) . M a l e Form The J a i n s s a y t h e l i b e r a t e d s o u l i s w i t h o u t s h a p e , c o l o r , s m e l l , s e x o r any c o n d i t i o n i n g q u a l i t i e s . H a v i n g r i s e n t o t h e t o p o f t h e u n i v e r s e — a b o v e h e a v e n , e a r t h , a n d h e l l — t h e s o u l i s f o r e v e r b e y o n d t h e p a r t i c u l a r i z i n g h o l d o f m a t t e r . B u t t h i s e t e r n a l s e p a r a t i o n o f m a t t e r and l i b e r a t e d s o u l p r e s e n t s a s e r i o u s p r o b l e m f o r t h o s e w a n t i n g an i m a g e t o w o r s h i p . Some J a i n s , t h e S t h a n a k a v a s i f o r e x a m p l e , a r e n o n - i d o l a t r o u s . S i n c e t h e l i b e r a t e d s o u l i s w i t h o u t r e c o g n i z a b l e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h e S t h a n a k a v a s i do n o t w o r s h i p i m a g e s . T h e s e s o u l s , t h e y m a i n t a i n , s i m p l y c a n n o t be d e p i c t e d , a n d i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o d e p i c t s o m e t h i n g i f i t i s t o b e w o r - s h i p p e d . W h i l e t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i s n o t c o m p l e t e l y l i b e r a t e d (he s t i l l h a s a b o d y and some r e s i d u a l , t h o u g h s u b t l e , k a r m a ) , he i s t h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e f i g u r e t o e m u l a t e a n d , t h e r e f o r e , w o r s h i p . As a T i r t h a n k a r a , he h a s o v e r c o m e a l l w o r l d l y o b - s t a c l e s a n d c o n d i t i o n i n g q u a l i t i e s . He h a s o n l y t h e f i n a l - 1 1 3 - s t a g e o f s p i r i t u a l g r o w t h r e m a i n i n g , t h e c o m p l e t e a b j u r a t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l b o d y . Why a r e t h e i m a g e s m a l e ? The o b v i o u s a n s w e r i s t h a t t h e T i r t h a n k a r a s w e r e i n f a c t men. The o n l y two h i s t o r i c a l l y p l a c e d T i r t h a n k a r a s , M a h a v i r a a n d P a r s v a n a t h a , w e r e men, a n d i t i s p r o b a b l y t h a t t h e r e m a i n i n g t w e n t y - t w o , t h o u g h c o n n e c t e d t o h i s t o r i c a l p e r s o n a g e s , a r e a d d i t i o n s , m o d e l l e d o n t h e a v a t a r a s o f V i s h n u ( B h a t t a c h a r y a , 1 974: 1 2 ) . The J a i n s ' T i r t h a n k a r a s a r e t e c h n i c a l l y b e y o n d any s e x u a l p a r t i c u l a r i z a - t i o n , t h e image a s a m a l e p r o v e s t o be a " c o n v e n i e n t a r t i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " ( C h i t r a b a h a n u ; p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , 3 / 3 0 / 7 8 ) . The D i g a m b a r a s r e f u s e t o a c c e p t t h a t women a t t a i n l i b e r a - t i o n ; t h e i r i m a g e s a r e a l w a y s men. The S v e t a m b a r a , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , a d m i t t h a t women c a n a t t a i n l i b e r a t i o n . I n f a c t , M a l i n a t h a , t h e n i n e t e e n t h T i r t h a n k a r a , i s a woman ( B h a t t a c h a r y a , 1974: 5 5 ) . M a l i n a t h a , h o w e v e r , i s n e v e r r e p r e s e n t e d as a 31 woman; s h e x s a l w a y s m a l e . T h i s " c o n v e n i e n c e " o f t h e m a l e f o r m p r o v e s i n s t r u c t i v e . C e r t a i n l y i f t h e a r t i s t i s t o r e p r e s e n t a g r e a t p e r s o n , t h e image must i n t e r p r e t s o c i e t y a c c u r a t e l y , i . e . , t h o s e most l i k e l y t o a c h i e v e g r e a t n e s s w i l l more e a s i l y f a c i l i t a t e t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f g r e a t n e s s t h a n t h o s e u n l i k e l y o f s u c h s u c c e s s . Once an image g a i n s a u t h o r i t y , c e r t a i n i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e i n - e s c a p a b l e . 3 1 . I n a r e f e r e n c e I am u n a b l e t o l o c a t e , a n image o f M a l i n a t h a a s a woman i s m e n t i o n e d , b u t I h a v e n e v e r , d e s p i t e r e p e a t e d e f f o r t s , e n c o u n t e r e d a n o t h e r e x a m p l e , t h o u g h i t may i n d e e d e x i s t . - 1 1 4 - The m o s t o b v i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t t h e m a l e f o r m i s s u p e r i o r t o t h e f e m a l e f o r m . The T i r t h a n k a r a o c c u p i e s t h e c e n t e r o f any w o r k ; he i s t h e l a r g e s t f i g u r e i n a l l o f o u r e x a m p l e s , and he i s m a l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e i m age c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o two c o m p l e m e n t a r y h a l v e s w h i c h a r e u s u a l l y s y m m e t r i c a l . S t r u c t u r a l l y , a v e r t i c a l l i n e u s u a l l y r u n s t h r o u g h t h e u m b r e l l a a b o v e t h e T i r t h a n k a r a , h i s n o s e , t h e s r i v a t s a l o t u s o n t h e c h e s t , h i s n a v e l , a n d , on t h e s t a n d i n g i m a g e s , h i s g e n i t a l s . The w o r k s a r e r e m a r k a b l y s y m m e t r i c a l ; 32 t h e l e f t a n d r i g h t a p p e a r as m i r r o r i m a g e s . The l e f t - r i g h t d i v i s i o n f i n d s p a r a l l e l s i n t h e d a i l y l i f e o f t h e J a i n s . One e a t s , w i t h t h e r i g h t h a n d ; t h e l e f t i s u s e d f o r t h o s e p o l l u t i n g a c t i v i t i e s s u c h as d e f e c a t i o n ( C a r s t a i r s , 1 9 6 1 : 8 0 ) . O f f e r i n g s d u r i n g w o r s h i p a r e g i v e n w i t h t h e r i g h t h a n d . As a g e n e r a l r u l e , o n e ' s r i g h t s i d e i s s u p e r i o r t o o n e ' s l e f t , a n d t h e r i g h t - l e f t d i s t i n c t i o n i s u s e d f r e e l y a s a s y m b o l i c s t a t e m e n t o f s u p e r i o r i t y - i n f e r i o r i t y , p u r i t y - i m p u r i t y . " R e t u r n i n g a g a i n t o t h e i m a g e s , we n o t i c e t h a t i n t h e l o w e r l e f t a n d r i g h t o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a ' s t h r o n e , i n w h a t a p p e a r t o be c a v e — l i k e n i c h e s , a r e two a t t e n d a n t d e i t i e s : 32. T h i s n e a r l y p e r f e c t s y mmetry o f t h e b o d y d o e s n o t , o f c o u r s e , e x i s t i n r e a l i t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , one m u s t assume t h a t I n d i a n a r t i s t s w e r e aware o f t h i s a s y m m e t r y . A f t e r a l l , a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s e l s e w h e r e r e g u l a r l y u s e t h i s a s y m m e t r y . We c a n c o n c l u d e , t h e n , t h a t t h i s n e a r l y p e r f e c t symmetry i s an i m p o r t a n t s t a t e m e n t a b o u t t h e T i r t h a n k a r a ' s f l a w l e s s n e s s . 1 115 - a m a l e y a k s a on t h e r i g h t - h a n d s i d e o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a a n d a f e m a l e y a k s i o n t h e l e f t - h a n d s i d e . The a n a l o g y i s o b v i o u s . M a l e a n d t h e r i g h t a r e s u p e r i o r t o f e m a l e a n d t h e l e f t . F u r t h e m o r e , t h e s e a r t i s t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s o f r i g h t a n d l e f t , m a l e a nd f e m a l e , a p p e a r t o h a v e w i d e c u r r e n c y t h r o u g h o u t I n d i a . I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e s e x u a l d i v i s i o n d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y e x p r e s s a r e l a t i o n s h i p o f d o m i n a n c e a nd s u b o r d i n a t i o n , b u t t h e i m p l i c a - t i o n i s i n e s c a p a b l e i n J a i n i s m . The J a i n s a s s e r t m e n t a l p o w e r i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o b o d i l y p o w er. W h i l e women may be t h e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , as w i t h t h e s i x t e e n g o d d e s s e s o f L e a r n i n g ( V i d y a d e v i s ) ( B h a t t a c h a r y a , 1 9 7 0 : 122) , t h e i r n a t u r e i s e s s e n t i a l l y n e u t r a l w i t h o u t g o o d n e s s o r b a d n e s s ; i t i s s a i d t h a t t h e y assume t h e m o r a l d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e i r h u s b a n d s . B e c a u s e o f t h i s weak- n e s s , t h e J a i n s s a y women a r e u n e n d u r i n g , c o r r u p t i n g a n d c o r - r u p t i b l e ( S a n g a v e , 1 9 5 9 : 1 7 9 ) . F o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e nuns s u f f e r h a r s h e r r e p r e s s i o n , m u s t a c c e p t t h a t p o s i t i o n s o f a u t h o r i t y a r e v i r t u a l l y o u t o f r e a c h , a n d mu s t a l w a y s r e s p e c t a n d r e v e r e men o f l e s s c o n t r o l a n d f e w e r y e a r s p r a c t i c e ( S a n g a v e , 1 9 5 9 : 1 8 0 - 8 1 ) . The T i r t h a n k a r a i s an uncommon m a l e . As we v i e w t h e T i r t h a n k a r a ' s image i n K y o t s a r g a , t h e r i g i d s t a n d i n g p o s t u r e p e c u l i a r t o t h e J a i n s ( s e e F i g u r e 3 ) , we n o t i c e t h a t t h e r e i s no d i m i n u t i o n o f t h e g e n i t a l s t o e x p r e s s t h e d e n i a l o f t h e b o d y a n d e s p e c i a l l y s e x u a l p a s s i o n , as i s o f t e n t h e c a s e i n much m e d i e v a l C h r i s t i a n a r t . N o r i s t h e r e any s i g n o f - 116 - the masochism or p a s s i v i t y that often accompanies Christian art. The Tirthankara controls himself; his genitals are l i f e l e s s , chaste. There i s no procreative urge. Further- more, no attempt i s made to hide the penis as i n the t r a d i - t i o n a l treatment of male nudity. There i s no shame, and no sexuality. He i s completely detached. Havell (1964) observes an important transformation i n Jain sculpture. Purusha, the male p r i n c i p a l i n Hindu philosophy, i s the highest type of divine beauty. He i s symbolized by the male form. The female, p r a k r i t i , i s said to be the mirror r e f l e c t i o n of Purusha. As with the representation of Siva as Attanarisarar, i n which Siva's l e f t i s feminine i n form (complete with breast, shapely hip and thigh) and his r i g h t side i s masculine (with the wide chest and muscular thigh, of the male)., the universe i s divided into male and female halves. The male i s superior and, hence, on the right-hand side; the female i s i n f e r i o r and on the left-hand side. But Havell notes of the Jain, as well as the Buddhist, images, It would be more exact to say: that, i n the images of... the Jain Tirthankaras, Indian artists- were aiming at a divine type which combined a l l the physical per- fect i o n of male and female, and transcended them both. The -broad shoulders and l i o n - l i k e body-were... masculine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and the rounded limbs, smooth skin without veins, the j o i n t s with bones hardly show- ing, represent those of the other sex. (1964: 161) - 1 1 7 - He c o n t i n u e s , M o s t o f t h e ma r k s o f f e m a l e b e a u t y e n u m e r a t e d b y I n d i a n p o e t s , s u c h as n a v e l l o w i n t h e b o d y , e y e s l i k e a l o t u s - p e t a l , f a c e l i k e t h e f u l l moon, l i n e s on t h e n e c k r e s e m b l i n g t h o s e o f t h e c o n c h - s h e l l , a n d t h e s l e n d e r w a i s t , w e r e e q u a l l y a t t r i b u t e s o f m a l e b e a u t y , a n d w e r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e l a k s h a n a s o r b e a u t y m a r k s , p r e s c r i b e d f o r xmages o f . . . t h e J a i n T i r t h a n k a r a s . ( 1 9 6 4 : 162) T h u s , t h e T i r t h a n k a r a u n i t e s t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f m a l e a n d f e m a l e , w i t h o u t d e s t r o y i n g t h e f u n d a m e n t a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f r i g h t a n d l e f t , m a l e a n d f e m a l e , d o m i n a n c e a n d s u b o r d i n a t i o n ( h i e r a r c h y ) , a n d p u r i t y a n d i m p u r i t y . He i s a t r u e g u r u . Y o g a The g o a l o f s p i r i t u a l s t r i v i n g i s t o e s c a p e e x i s t e n c e ( s a m s a r a ) . F o r t h e J a i n s , t h e l i b e r a t e d s t a t e i s one o f u n s u r p a s s a b l e h a p p i n e s s a n d p e r f e c t i o n o f a l l k i n d s , a n d y o g a i s t h e p r i m a r y means o f a t t a i n i n g i t ( D a s g u p t a , 1 9 5 9 : 85) . M e d i t a t i o n The v e r t i c a l s t a b i l i t y o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i m a g e ' s p o s t u r e s u g g e s t s s p i r i t u a l e q u i l i b r i u m ; he h a s o v e r c o m e t h e c o n t r a r i e s o f l i f e . He h a s p u r g e d h i m s e l f o f a l l d e s i r e a n d w i l l . - 1 1 8 - The a b i l i t y o f t h e y o g i n t o e n t e r a n d m a i n t a i n m e d i t a t i v e s t a t e s i s a n a l o g o u s t o s p i r i t u a l l i b e r a t i o n , f r e e d o m f r o m r e b i r t h . Many I n d i a n s t h i n k t h a t a y o g i n n e e d s l e s s f o o d t h a n h i s w o r l d l y c o u n t e r p a r t s a n d h i s d e n i a l o f f o o d o n l y s e r v e s t o b r i n g h i m c l o s e r t o moksa. A s c e t i c s a r e commonly b u r i e d i n y o g i c p o s t u r e s a s i f t h e y w e r e o n l y i n t r a n c e . O f t e n t h e J a i n s s a n c t i f y t h e p l a c e o f t h e a s c e t i c ' s b u r i a l a n d a t t r i b u t e m i r a c u l o u s p o w e r s t o t h e b o d y ( C a r s t a i r s , 1 9 6 1 : 1 0 1 ) . The a s s o c i a t i o n o f m e d i t a t i o n , w h i c h i s v i r t u a l l y s y n - onymous w i t h a s c e t i c i s m , a n d d e a t h ( r e a l l y a r e l e a s e f r o m b i r t h a nd r e b i r t h ) i s f o u n d f r e q u e n t l y i n J a i n i s m . F o r e x a m p l e , w h i l e s t i l l i n h i s m o t h e r ' s womb, M a h a v i r a was w e l l o n h i s way t o b e c o m i n g a T i r t h a n k a r a . The c o m p a s s i o n a t e f e t u s , w i s h i n g n o t t o d i s t r e s s o r h a r m h i s m o t h e r b e f o r e h i s b i r t h , " d i d n o t move n o r s t i r n o r q u i v e r , b u t r e m a i n e d q u i e t , s t i f f , a n d m o t i o n l e s s . " He was p r a c t i c i n g p e n a n c e i n k y o t s a r g a . ^3 B u t f e e l i n g no movement, h i s m o t h e r t h o u g h t t h e i n f a n t h a d d i e d . M a h a v i r a , s e n s i n g h i s m o t h e r ' s d i s t r e s s , moved t o r e a s s u r e h e r and vowed t h a t " I t w i l l n o t b e h o v e me, d u r i n g t h e l i f e o f my p a r e n t s , t o t e a r o u t my h a i r , a n d l e a v i n g t h e h o u s e t o e n t e r t h e s t a t e o f h o u s e l e s s n e s s " ( J a i n a S u t r a s , V o l . 1: 2 4 9 - 5 0 ) . The p a r a l l e l s a r e c l e a r : n o t o n l y 33. The m o s t common e x t e r n a l p e n a n c e i s k y o t s a r g a ( " d i s m i s s i n g t h e b o d y " ) , t h e r i g i d s t a n d i n g p o s t u r e p e c u l i a r t o J a i n i s m . - 1 1 9 - i s t h e m e d i t a t i v e p o s t u r e l i k e d e a t h b u t r e n u n c i a t i o n a n d t a k i n g t h e vows o f a monk i s l i k e d e a t h . L e a v i n g t h e s o c i a l w o r l d i s a n a l o g o u s t o l e a v i n g t h e c y c l e o f b i r t h a n d d e a t h . D h y a n a , t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t i n t e r n a l p e n a n c e , a c c o m p a n i e s k y o t s a r g a . Dhyana i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n o r f i x i n g o f t h e m i n d o n an o b j e c t . The g o a l i s t o w i t h d r a w t h e m i n d f r o m t h e w o r l d , r e g u l a t e o n e 1 s t h o u g h t a n d , e v e n t u a l l y , e l i m i n a t e t h e a g i t a t i o n s o f t h o u g h t c o m p l e t e l y . T h o u g h t a l w a y s r e a c h e s o u t a n d com- p r e h e n d s o b j e c t s ; i t i n v o l v e s o ne i n t h e w o r l d . S i n c e a c t i o n s o f t h e m i n d , b o d y a n d s p e e c h a f f e c t t h e s e l f , d h y a n a ' s g o a l i s t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e a c t i o n s . I n P i n d a s t h a d h y a n a , o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n on t h e b o d y , t h e monk v i s u a l i z e s a f i r e b u r n i n g a l o t u s i n h i s h e a r t . As t a p a s consumes k a r m a , s o f i r e consumes t h e l o t u s . O n l y a s h e s r e m a i n . The monk t h e n v i s u a l i z e s a p o w e r f u l w i n d w h i c h c a r r i e s t h e a s h e s away f o l l o w e d b y a c o o l , c l e a n s i n g r a i n . The s o u l b e - comes a s i d d h a ( B h a r g a v a , 1 9 7 8 : 2 0 0 - 2 0 1 ) , a n d p r e s u m a b l y r i s e s s t r a i g h t up t o t h e z e n i t h . T h r o u g h t a p a s ( l i t e r a l l y , h e a t ) , t h e y o g i n consumes h i s own b o d y . F u r t h e r m o r e , he c o n t r o l s t h e c o s m i c d i r e c t i o n a l f o r c e s . F i r e ( t h e s o u t h e a s t ) consumes t h e b o d y . W i n d ( t h e n o r t h w e s t ) b l o w s away t h e a s h e s , a n d e a r t h ( t h e s o u t h w e s t ) d r a w s t h e w a t e r ( t h e n o r t h e a s t ) t o w a s h away t h e r e m a i n i n g a s h e s ( B h a r g a v a , 1968: 2 0 0 ) . - 1 2 0 - Y o u t h f u l Body The T i r t h a n k a r a ' s b o d y i s a l w a y s r e p r e s e n t e d a s y o u t h f u l . He i s a p e r f e c t man. The T i r t h a n k a r a d o e s n o t s u f f e r t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f c h i l d h o o d n o r t h e i n f i r m i t i e s o f o l d a g e ; he h a s s t a b i l i z e d h i s c o n d i t i o n b e t w e e n t h a t o f b i r t h a n d d e a t h . He h a s s t o p p e d n a t u r e ' s e f f e c t s . The T i r t h a n k a r a a c h i e v e s p e r f e c t i o n t h r o u g h t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a u s t e r i t i e s w h i c h s t o p t h e i n f l o w o f k a r m i c p a r t i c l e s a n d t r a n s f o r m s h i s b o d i l y c o n - s t i t u t i o n . As was n o t e d , t h e r e i s a g e n e r a l t e n d e n c y i n I n d i a n s p e c u l a t i o n t o s e e t h e b o d i l y c o d e s as c h a n g e a b l e , as r e - f l e c t i o n s o f a p e r s o n ' s m o r a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h t h e e f f e c t s o f k a r m a . P a n t a n j a l i l o n g ago e x p r e s s e d t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i v e p o w e r o f a s c e t i c p r a c t i c e s . T h r o u g h t h e s e p r a c t i c e s , one c a n a t t a i n p h y s i c a l p e r f e c t i o n o f t h e s u b t l e b o d y : " e x c e l l e n c e o f b o d y , " " c o l o r , " " l o v e l i n e s s , " " s t r e n g t h , " a n d " a d a m a n t i n e d e n s i t y . " The b o d y , t h r o u g h c o n q u e s t o f t h e p h y s i c a l e l e m e n t s , becomes w h i t e w i t h p u r i t y , e x t r e m e l y b e a u t i f u l , and v e r y s t r o n g , d e v e l o p i n g an i n p e n e t r a b l e d e n s i t y , s t o p p i n g a l l a l t e r a t i o n s i n i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n ( B a l l a n t y n e , 1 9 7 1 : 9 1 ) . T h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t t h e J a i n s a c c e p t t h i s p a r t o f P a n t a n j a l i ' s d o c t r i n e . F o r t h e J a i n s , t h e m a t e r i a l b o d i e s r a n g e b e t w e e n t h e g r o s s , o r t h o s e composed o f l o o s e l y p a c k e d a t o m s , a n d t h e s u b t l e , o r t h o s e composed o f t i g h t l y p a c k e d - 1 2 1 - atoms (S u k h l a l j i , 1974: 113), and i t i s a u s t e r i t i e s which metamorphize the body by compacting these atoms. By pro- gressively p o l i s h i n g the gross body, varying degrees of subtlety are effected. Those beings i n heaven are said to have bodies of greater subtlety than those below. Silence Yoga gives rhythm and uniformity to an otherwise d i s - rhythmic and asymmetric l i f e . By c o n t r o l l i n g bodily functions and movements, the body's l i f e appears to diminish and ke v a l i becomes possible. The Tirthankara images are always standing or s i t t i n g s i l e n t l y . Silence, obviously, i s an important mode of com- munication. It i s not uncommon to f e e l an uneasiness with new acquaintances; there are uncomfortable "gaps" or silences i n the conversation. Silence i s a break i n the flow of words, of language, of symbols, and i t assumes i t s meaning because of i t s opposition to language. Augustine's sudden revelation of the importance- and holiness of reading s i l e n t l y i s a case i n point. We forget that reading s i l e n t l y i s r e l a t i v e l y recent; reading aloud was the common form. Oral t r a d i t i o n s precede s i l e n t ones. Those who know something but are s i l e n t about i t , know greatness.. In t h e i r s i l e n c e , they express the greatness- of the i n e f f a b l e . - 1 2 2 - S i l e n c e s , h o w e v e r , d i f f e r d e p e n d i n g on t h e c o n t e x t ( S m a r t , 1 9 7 2 : 3 1 ) , and t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e i n w o r s h i p i s u n - d e n i a b l e . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e c h a n t i n g d e v o t e e s ' s i l e n c e b e f o r e t h e i m a g e i n d i c a t e s t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a . I n a v e r y r e a l s e n s e , mere w o r d s c a n n o t e x p r e s s t h e i n e x p r e s s a b l e g r e a t n e s s o f a l i b e r a t e d s o u l ; t h e y c a n n o t d e s c r i b e w h a t i s i n d e s c r i b a b l e . L a n g u a g e h a s i t s l i m i t s b e y o n d w h i c h i t c a n n o t r i s e . B u t s i l e n c e i n t h e p r o p e r c o n t e x t may a l s o e x p r e s s h a p p i n e s s o r s upreme r a p t u r e and n o t t h e s u p r e m a c y o f a p e r s o n o r g o d . The T i r t h a n k a r a s t a n d i n g o r s i t t i n g s i l e n t l y , i n m e d i t a t i o n , e x p r e s s e s t h e i n e f f a b l e , b u t an i n e f f a b l e b e y o n d c o n s c i o u s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n , p r i o r t o w o r l d l y i n v o l v e m e n t . T h i s s i l e n c e , u n l i k e t h a t o f t h e w o r s h i p p e r s , s p r i n g s f r o m p a r - t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s a c r e d a n d n o t o b s e r v a t i o n o f i t . . M e d i t a t i o n l e a d s t h e w o r s h i p p e r t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e s a c r e d a s an e l e m e n t o f t h e " s e l f " w h i l e t h e T i r t h a n k a r a e x p e r i e n c e s s o m e t h i n g g r e a t e r t h a n t h e o r d i n a r y s e l f . T h e s e two e x p e r i e n c e s may c o a l e s c e a n d become i d e n t i c a l . T h ey a r e s i m p l y d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s a n d e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h e same t h i n g ( S m a r t , 1 9 7 2 : 2 8 ^ 3 0 ) . T h e T i r t h a n k a r a ' s P o s i t i o n a n d O r i e n t a t i o n : The C e n t e r The i m a g e o c c u p i e s t h e c e n t e r o f t h e t e m p l e ( g a r b h a - g r h a , l i t e r a l l y womb room) a n d , as F i g u r e s 2 a n d .3 d e m o n s t r a t e , t h e - 123 - Tirthankara image occupies the center of the work. Just as temple worshippers surround the major temple image i n worship, the minor figures surround the Tirthankara. The center i s obviously an important position; i t implies dominance. In Indian monistic philosophical speculation, the world began from a single point (the siva bindu) and grew outward i n concentric rings (Chatterji, 1973: 20-21). Geographically, the world i s likewise ordered: earth i s surrounded by r i n g - l i k e oceans and islands (Lalwani, 1968). The t r a d i t i o n a l pattern of p o l i t i c a l a l l i a n c e s postulates a r i n g of con- cen t r i c c i r c l e s , alternating a l l i e s and opponents (Zimmer, 1960: 114-15). In deva-puja, the images of Vishnu, Siva, Devi, Ganesha and Surya are arranged i n a c i r c l e with the image of the worshipper's patron diety placed i n the center. In temple worship, the central image, i n the center of the temple, i s circumambulated; i t i s r i t u a l l y placed at the center of action.^4 The Tirthankara, as the central figure, i s v i s u a l l y much larger and more important than the other figures which surround him. Moreover, his central position and his domi- nance arise because he controls those desires which lead one 34. In contrast, consider the t r a d i t i o n a l Western notion. For example, the p r i e s t i n Catholic worship performs the r i t u a l s i n front of his congregation, separated by a r e l i g i o u s frame that one may approach but not enter. God i s separated from his people, whereas the Indian view postulates a personal and immanent god. - 1 2 4 - t o h e a v e n o r h e l l ; he i s an a s c e t i c . He c o n t r o l s h i s b r e a t h i n g and h e n c e t h e b r e a t h o f l i f e ; he m a s t e r s t h e a i r ( i . e . , b r e a t h c o n t r o l ) t h a t m e d i a t e s b e t w e e n e a r t h a n d s k y . The T i r t h a n - k a r a ' s w i t h d r a w a l and s i l e n c e a r e movements t o w a r d t h e c e n t e r , t h e s o u l , o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . U n l i k e o t h e r H i n d u i m a g e s , t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i m age a l w a y s f a c e s t h e v i e w e r , b u t t h e f r o n t o f t h e b o d y assumes t h e g r e a t e s t s i g n i f i c a n c e i n v i r t u a l l y a l l f o r m s o f a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n . Many o f t h e r e a s o n s a r e o b v i o u s l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e g r e a t e r e x p r e s s i v e n e s s o f t h e f r o n t . The m o s t e x p r e s s i v e p a r t o f t h e b o d y , t h e f a c e , i s i n t h e f r o n t , as w e l l as o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : t h e women's b r e a s t s and t h e men's g e n i t a l s . B u t t h e f r o n t i s a l s o t h e p r e f e r r e d o r i e n t a - t i o n i n w o r s h i p . One bows f a c i n g t h e i m a g e . The f r o n t i s t h e s i d e o f r e s p e c t . The symmetry and a s y m m e t r y o f t h e b o d y a r e more e v i d e n t f r o m t h e f r o n t . The e x p a n d e d c h e s t o f t h e y o g i n i s more v i s i b l e f r o m t h e f r o n t t h a n t h e b a c k . S i m p l y : g r e a t e r s y m b o l i c f l e x i b i l i t y i n h e r e s i n t h e f r o n t o f t h e b o d y . B u t t h i s i s n o t t h e w h o l e s t o r y . I n t h e t e m p l e , t h e T i r t h a n k a r a s i t s f a c i n g t h e s a m a v a r s a n a o r A s s e m b l y H a l l . A c c o r d i n g t o l e g e n d , I n d r a b u i l t ( a n d d e c o r a t e d w i t h f l a g s and w h i t e u m b r e l l a s ) t h e H a l l s o t h a t t h e T i r t h a n k a r a , upon a t t a i n i n g k e v a l i , m i g h t p r e a c h h i s w i s d o m t o h i s c o n g r e g a t i o n ( S h a h , 19 55: 8 5 ) . I n d r a s u p p l i e d a l l t h e r o y a l p a r a p h e r n a l i a j u s t as we s e e i t i n t h e i m a g e - 125 - ( F i g u r e 2 ) . The T i r t h a n k a r a e n t e r s t h e i n n e r s a n c t u a r y f r o m t h e e a s t , p e r f o r m s p r a d a k s i n a and s e a t s h i m s e l f o n the. l i o n t h r o n e . I n d r a ' s a r c h i t e c t s , t h e V y a n t a r a g o d s , t h e n make t h r e e l i f e - l i k e i m a g e s o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i n t h e o t h e r c a r - d i n a l d i r e c t i o n s . T h u s , t h e image n o t o n l y i s t h e c e n t e r o f a t t e n t i o n b u t h i s f r o n t i s v i s i b l e i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . N o t e , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i s n o t p o r t r a y e d a s h a v i n g m u l t i p l e s i d e s ( a n a l o g o u s t o t h e m u l t i p l e l i m b s o f t h e H i n d u d e i t i e s ) , b u t he r e c e i v e s t h e a i d o f t h e i n f e r i o r gods s o t h a t t h e y m i g h t b e n e f i t f r o m h i s w i s d o m . The T i r t h a n k a r a r e s e m b l e s S i v a a s D a k s i n a M u r t i ( t h e w o r l d t e a c h e r ) . The T i r t h a n k a r a s e e s i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s a n d , b y i m p l i c a t i o n , s y m b o l i c a l l y s i t s a t t h e c e n t e r o f t h e w o r l d ; h i g h a t o p t h e c o s m i c m o u n t a i n , he v i e w s t h e e a r t h l y r e a l m b e l o w ( B o n e r , 1 9 6 2 : 2 0 2 - 3 ) . 3 5 The U s u a l 1 a n d A c c u s t o m e d : A D e s c r i p t i o n A l t h o u g h i n r e l i e f , t h e image i n F i g u r e 2 c l e a r l y shows t h e m a j o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The e i g h t h T i r t h a n k a r a , C h a n d r a p h r a b h a , s i t s : i n p a d m a s a n a, t h e l o t u s p o s t u r e . H i s l e g s a r e c r o s s e d and h i s f e e t a r e p l a c e d on h i s t h i g h s . The l e f t h a n d r e s t s : u n d e r t h e r i g h t w i t h t h e 3 5 . The J a i n p r e f e r e n c e f o r p u t t i n g t h e image a t o p a z i g g u r a t , w h i c h , s y m b o l i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t s t h e c o s m i c m o u n t a i n a n d t h e t e m p l e , p r o v i d e s : f u r t h e r s u p p o r t f o r t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . ( S h a h , 1 9 5 5 : 1 2 3 - 3 0 ) . - 126 - p a l m s p l a c e d u p w a r d . The s r i v a t s a i s p r o m i n e n t l y d i s p l a y e d i n t h e c e n t e r o f h i s r o b u s t c h e s t . C h a n d r a p r a b h a s i t s e n t i r e l y m o t i o n l e s s w i t h e y e s f i x e d o n t h e e n d o f h i s n o s e and a s m i l e , b a r e l y d i s c e r n a b l e , o n h i s l i p s . Two c i r c l e t s , f o r m i n g an a u r a , f r a m e t h e T i r t h a n k a r a ' s h e a d . The i n n e r a u r a i s a f o u r - p e t a l l o t u s a n d t h e o u t e r c i r c l e i s a t w e n t y - f o u r - p e t a l l o t u s . The h a i r i s t i g h t l y c u r l e d . The l o t u s a u r a i s p o s i t i o n e d b e t w e e n two c o n - s t e l l a t i o n s o f T i r t h a n k a r a s , w h i c h may be i n t e n d e d t o r e p - r e s e n t t h e s i x m a j o r p l a n e t a r y d e i t i e s ( N a v a g r a h a s ) o r s i m p l y o t h e r T i r t h a n k a r a s . E a c h c o n s t e l l a t i o n h a s f o u r T i r t h a n k a r a s : two i n padmasana a n d two i n k y o t s a r g a , t h e s t a n d i n g p o s t u r e o f J a i n m e d i t a t i o n . A b o v e t h e a u r a o n t h e ( v i e w e r ' s ) l e f t i s a G a n d a r v a a n d an A p s a r a , r e p r e - s e n t a t i v e o f m u s i c a n d f r a g r a n c e . On t h e ( v i e w e r ' s ) r i g h t , i n t h e c o m p l e m e n t a r y p o s i t i o n , a r e f l o w e r g a r l a n d b e a r e r s . A t r i l i n e a r u m b r e l l a , t o p p e d w i t h an a m a l a k a o r c r o w n , c e n t e r s t h e u p p e r p o r t i o n o f t h e w o r k . I m m e d i a t e l y a b o v e t h e c r o w n i s a tammata o r drum and i t s m u s i c i a n . B e l o w t h e s m a l l e r T i r t h a n k a r a s a r e t w o G a n a d h a r a s b e a r i n g c h o w r i e s ( t h e c e r e m o n i a l f l y - w i s k s ) . T hey a r e m o u n t e d o n e l e p h a n t s . The e l e p h a n t s s t a n d u p o n p l a t f o r m s t h a t e x t e n d f r o m t h e s i d e s o f C h a n d r a p r a b h a ' s l i o n t h r o n e . C h a n d r a p r a b h a r e s t s o n a l o t u s c u s h i o n r i n g e d w i t h dharma- c a k r a s y m b o l s . B e l o w and b e t w e e n t h e t h r o n e ' s l e g s a r e 36. The d h a r m a - c a k r a s y m b o l i z e s t h e p r e a c h i n g o f t h e T i r t h - a n k a r a s a n d i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h R s a b h a n a t h a , t h e f i r s t - 1 2 7 - two protective l i o n s with paws raised. Immediately to the (viewer's) l e f t and r i g h t are Chandraprabha 1s attendant d e i t i e s : Vijaya, the yaksa, and Bhrkuti, the yaksi. On the foot band i s the crescent, ChandraprabhaVs cihna ( i d e n t i - fying symbol). A l l the elements of the work are e s s e n t i a l in exactly defining Chandraprabha's po s i t i o n . The yaksas are earth, s p i r i t s who t r a d i t i o n a l l y guarded the mineral wealth of the world and were associated with earthly riches. They are associated with Kubera, the God who resides on Mount Meru, the cosmic mountain. The yaksis are f e r t i l i t y s p i r i t s associated with trees. They symbolize water and f e r t i l i t y . Their power enables them to bring trees to f r u i t i o n through an embrace of the tree's trunk or by merely touching the tree with t h e i r foot (Rowland, 1970: 47) . Indra appoints the yaksas and yaksis as attendant d e i t i e s upon the birth, of the Tirthankara. As surely as they connote wealth and f e r t i l i t y , they connote the great- ness of the Tirthankara they serve. The l i o n throne i s a sign of royalty. I t symbolizes the great power and authority of the one who s i t s upon i t . The l i o n s are solar symbols; they destroy the darkness of ignorance and represent the omniscience of the Tirthankara (Boner, 1962: 204). As do the l i o n s , the Tirthankara has forebearance and the great strengths necessary to perform a u s t e r i t i e s . Tirthankara and, hence, the f i r s t to preach the Jain dharma (Bhattacharya, 1974: 52, 58). - 1 2 8 - C h a n d r a p r a b h a ' s p o s t u r e and t h e s p a c e a r o u n d h i m — o u t - l i n e d b y t h e m i n o r f i g u r e s — f o r m an i n v i s i b l e , b u t n e v e r - t h e l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t , p y r a m i d i n w h i c h he s i t s . The t r i a n g l e p o i n t s u p w a r d t o w a r d h e a v e n and g e n e r a l l y c o n n o t e s c l a r i t y o f v i s i o n : t h e k n o w l e d g e w h i c h i l l u m i n e s t h e h e a v e n s . I t i s t h e d i r e c t i o n o f f i r e a n d i n d i c a t e s t h e s a t t v i c o r h e a v e n - b o u n d t e m p e r a m e n t o f t h e l i b e r a t e d s o u l . The t r i a n g l e i s t h e m a l e e s s e n c e o f t h e god. I t s y m b o l i z e s h i s a s c e t i c f e r v o r a n d k i n g l y s p l e n d o r (Zimmer, 1 9 7 2 : 1 4 7 ) . C h a n d r a p r a b h a s i t s i n m e d i t a t i o n i n t h e l o t u s p o s t u r e . W h i l e i n p a d m a s a n a , t h e T i r t h a n k a r a t u r n s i n w a r d . H i s c o n - c e r n s f o r t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d e v a p o r a t e a n d he a ssumes t h e mood o f s i l e n c e ( s a n t a ) (Mukerj.ee/ 1 9 6 5 : 1 1 4 ) . The v e r t i c a l s t a b i l i t y o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a ' s p o s t u r e s u g g e s t s p i r i t u a l e q u i l i b r i u m . He h a s o v e r c o m e t h e c o n t r a r y p u l l s o f m a t e r i a l e x i s t e n c e . He h a s b a n i s h e d a l l d e s i r e a n d w i l l ; h i s p o s t u r e s u g g e s t s e q u i l i b r i u m , e q u a n i m i t y a n d t r a n q u i l i t y , a n d i s i n t e n d e d t o i n d i c a t e h i s p o s i t i o n as a m a j o r f i g u r e o r d e i t y ( m a h a - d e v a ) . L i k e S i v a i n D a k s i n a - m u r t i ( s p i r i t u a l t e a c h e r ) , whom he g e n e r a l l y r e s e m b l e s ( B h a t t a c h a r y a , 1 9 7 4 : 2 8 ) , C h a n d r a p r a b h a f a c e s a l l d i r e c t i o n s . The w o r l d i s assumed t o r e v o l v e a r o u n d h i s t h r o n e h i g h a t o p Mount M e r u , t h e c o s m i c m o u n t a i n . H i s v i s i o n , i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s , i m p l i e s t h a t he l o o k s upon t h e e a r t h l y r e a l m b e l o w h i m ( B o n e r , -1962: 2 0 2 - 3 ) . - 1 2 9 - P l a c e d upon t h e c h e s t o v e r t h e h e a r t , t h e s i t e o f T r u t h , i s t h e a u s p i c i o u s s r i v a t s a . I t i s t h e l o t u s o f t h e h e a r t w h e r e t h e f u l l c o n t e n t a n d f o r c e o f l i f e a r e d i r e c t l y e x - p e r i e n c e d . I t i s Brahmabeshma, t h e c i t a d e l o f Brahma, w h e r e i n supreme j o y i s e x p e r i e n c e d (Coomaraswamy, 1956A: 1 7 4 ) . I t i s h e r e t h a t t h e p e t a l s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s a r e o p e n e d . Two c h o w r i b e a r e r s and r o y a l s e r v a n t s f l a n k C h a n d r a p r a b h a . T h e s e p e r s o n a g e s , s t a n d i n g upon t h e e l e p h a n t s ' h e a d s , c r e a t e a s i z - z a g l i n e f r o m e a r t h t o h e a v e n r e m i n i s c e n t o f l i g h t e n i n g b o l t s ( v a r a - v a i r a ) . T h e s e b o l t s may be i n t e r p r e t e d as t h e t h u n d e r b o l t w i t h w h i c h i n d r a , t h e k i n g o f t h e g o d s , s l e w a g i a n t d r a g o n , t h u s r e l e a s i n g t h e w a t e r s o f l i f e . B u t more p r o b a b l y , t h e y r e p r e s e n t t h e p a t h t o l i b e r a t i o n shown u s by t h e T i r t h a n k a r a (.Zimmer, 19 7 2 : 1 4 5 ) . As b e a r e r s o f c h o w r i e s , t h e p e r s o n a g e s i n d i c a t e t h e i r s u b o r d i n a t i o n t o t h e T i r t h a n k a r a . The T i r t h a n k a r a i s c a k r a v a r t i n , t h e U n i v e r s a l K i n g . The r e g a l e l e p h a n t s f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e h i s s y m b o l i c p o s i t i o n . The a u r a o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a i l l u m i n a t e s t h e h e a v e n as t h e b r i l l i a n c e o f h i s s o u l ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l p u r i t y e x p a n d s t h r o u g h t h e h e a v e n s . The two c o n s t e l l a t i o n s o f J i n a s d e s i g - n a t e t h i s r e g i o n a b o u t t h e h a l o as one f r e e f r o m t h e p o l l u t i o n o f k a r m a . The t r i l i n e a r u m b r e l l a s y m b o l i z e s t h e d e v a - i o k a o r h e a v e n s o f t h e g o d s . As a n a n c i e n t s y m b o l o f r o y a l t y , i t r e p r e s e n t s t h e w o r l d a x i s , c l a i m i n g t h e c e i l i n g o f t h e - 1 3 0 - h e a v e n s a s t h e d o m a i n o f t h e l i b e r a t e d s o u l . A t t h e t o p o f t h e u m b r e l l a i s an a m a l a k a o r c r o w n . I t i s h e r e a t t h e t o p o f t h e u n i v e r s e t h a t t h e s o u l m i g r a t e s when f r e e d o f i t s k a r m i c b o n d a g e . A r o u n d t h e u m b r e l l a ' s p e r i m e t e r f l y t h e G a n d h a r v a s a n d A p s a r a s , a s w e l l as g a r l a n d - b e a r e r s . They a r e V i d y a - d h a r a s , t h e h e a v e n l y m u s i c i a n s , who l i v e i n c i t i e s on t h e h i g h t o p s o f m o u n t a i n s . T h e i r p r e s e n c e e x p r e s s e s t h e j o y o f l i b e r a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e d b y t h e T i r t h a n k a r a . P o i s e d u p o n t h e u m b r e l l a ' s t o p i s a l o n e drum a n d i t s p l a y e r . The drum i s t h e o n l y i n s t r u m e n t o f t h e m u s i c i a n s shown. I t s s o u n d r u n s o u t i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s t o w a r d e a r t h s p r e a d i n g t h e w o r d o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a . The w o r k c o n t a i n s no a d o r i n g f i g u r e s . A l l e m p h a s i s i s d i r e c t e d u p w a r d . Summary and C o n c l u s i o n I b e g a n t h i s s t u d y w i t h a c r i t i q u e o f p o s i t i v i s t - p r a g m a t i s t a n t h r o p o l o g y , a r g u i n g i n s t e a d f o r an h i s t o r i c a l v i e w , a v i e w w h i c h d e f i n e s c u l t u r e as a s y s t e m o f s y m b o l s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s v i e w , m e a n i n g i s g r o u n d e d i n t h e i n t e r - s u b j e c t i v e . A f t e r a l l , i f s y m b o l s a r e v e h i c l e s f o r c o n c e p t i o n s , t h e y must a r t i c u l a t e a c o h e r e n t w o r l d v i e w a n d o f f e r s o l u t i o n s t o p r o b l e m s o f e x i s t e n c e . C u l t u r e , as d e f i n e d h e r e , f o r m u l a t e s r u l e s f o r a c t i o n , r u l e s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t a s e t o f v a l u e s . - 1 3 1 - T h e s e v a l u e s , i n B a i l e y ' s ( 1 9 6 9 : ' ; 2 2 ) w o r d s , a r e an " u n s h i f t i n g g u i d e f o r c o n d u c t . " D u r i n g w o r s h i p , t h e same a r g u m e n t h o l d s w i t h e q u a l f o r c e . The T i r t h a n k a r a i s n o t m e r e l y an o b j e c t o f d e v o t i o n , b u t a m o d e l t o be e m u l a t e d b y t h e w o r s h i p p e r . I n f a c t , t h e w o r - s h i p p e r s y m b o l i c a l l y r e - e n a c t s t h e T i r t h a n k a r a ' s r e n u n c i a t i o n when he e n t e r s t h e t e m p l e t o do a c o m p l e t e w o r s h i p . N o t o n l y d o e s he d r e s s l i k e a m o n k — t h i s a c t i s i t s e l f an e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a ' s way o f l i f e — b u t h i s w o r s h i p i s p u n c t u a t e d t h r o u g h o u t w i t h r i t e s i n t e n d e d t o e n c o u r a g e t h e w o r s h i p p e r t o e m u l a t e t h e T i r t h a n k a r a ' s l i f e . I t i s t h e s e a c t i o n s w h i c h r e c o g n i z e a common p a t t e r n o f v a l u e s a n d p r o m o t e a s e n s e o f a common c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f a s h a r e d w o r l d - v i e w a n d e t h o s . To be a J a i n i s t o a c c e p t t h i s s e t o f v a l u e s ; i t i s t o a c c e p t t h i s i m p l i c i t c o n t r a c t t o a c t as J a i n d o c t r i n e p r e s c r i b e s . J a i n w o r s h i p , h o w e v e r , i s n o t m e r e l y an e f f o r t b y someone t o d e m o n s t r a t e h i s m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e J a i n c o m m u n i t y . I t i s a l s o an e f f o r t t o m a n i p u l a t e t h e s y s t e m o f s y m b o l s . I t i s an e f f o r t t o g a i n some w o r l d l y b e n e f i t , e . g . , h i g h e r s t a t u s , w e a l t h , e t c . , o r t o g a i n an u n e a r t h l y b e n e f i t , e . g . , l i b e r a t i o n . W h i l e i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t a l l e a r t h l y g o a l s do n o t l e a d t o l i b e r a t i o n , t h e J a i n w o r l d v i e w r e c o g n i z e s t h a t l i b e r a t i o n c a n n o t be a t t a i n e d w i t h o u t a c e r t a i n d e g r e e . o f s u c c e s s i n a t t a i n i n g o n e ' s e a r t h l y g o a l s . Thus we f i n d t h a t t h e c o s m i c o r u n e a r t h l y — i n t h i s c a s e t h e r i t u a l c o n t e x t — m u s t encompass - 1 3 2 - the s o c i a l context. It does t h i s by making e x p l i c i t those values necessary for proper s o c i a l action; i t teaches Jain dharma as practiced and preached by the Tirthankaras: non- violence, non-exchange, a u s t e r i t i e s , benevolence and s e l f - examination. By acting l i k e a Tirthankara (or a monk who follows the Tirthankara 1s example), each worshipper endorses these Jain values and endorses a view of the i d e a l person and of the i d e a l society. I f , as anthropologists commonly assert, people of a l l cultures treat the body as an image of society, an image which a r t i c u l a t e s important aspects of society by manipulating the body's form, then the Jain image, insofar as i t i s a product of the Jains' values, should also express those aspirations and b e l i e f s of the Jain community and must l i k e - wise be treated as an image of society. In t h i s sense, the image—just as r i t u a l acts d o — o b j e c t i f i e s Jain values , giving the worshipper a permanent, unchanging record of the basic p r i n c i p l e s governing Jain s o c i a l l i f e . The Jain Tirthankara image, then, represents i n aggregate those q u a l i t i e s which the moral and pious devotees s t r i v e to acquire through Right B e l i e f , Right Knowledge and Right Action. Through th i s image, the Jain i d e a l of asceticism, anti-Brahmanism and renunciation f i n d t h e i r most elegant expression. The image, just as do the acts of worship, embodies those values of the ideal Jain s o c i a l order. As - 133 - W o l f (1972: 1 5 0 , 153) n o t e s o f a n o t h e r image i n a n o t h e r c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t : O c c a s i o n a l l y , we e n c o u n t e r a s y m b o l w h i c h seems t o e n s h r i n e t h e m a j o r h o p e s and a s p i r a t i o n s o f an e n t i r e s o c i e t y . . . . I t r e f l e c t s t h e s a l i e n t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . . . . a n d e m b o d i e s t h e e m o t i o n s t h e y g e n e r a t e . I t p r o v i d e s a c u l t u r a l i d i o m t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e t e n o r a n d e m o t i o n s o f t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s c a n be e x p r e s s e d . T h i s s t a t e m e n t i s no l e s s t r u e when a p p l i e d t o t h e J a i n T i r t h a n k a r a i m a g e s . - 1 3 4 - - 1 3 5 - - 1 3 6 - - 1 3 7 - B I B L I O G R A P H Y ; A y r e s , Lew. A l t a r s o f t h e E a s t . G a r d e n C i t y : D o u b l e d a y & Company, I n c . , 1956. Babb, L a w r e n c e A. The D i v i n e H i e r a r c h y : P o p u l a r H i n d u i s m i n C e n t r a l I n d i a . New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975. B a i l e y , F. G. S t r a t e g e m s a n d S p o i l s . New Y o r k : S c h o c k e n B o o k s , 1969. B a l l a n t y n e , J . R. and G o v i n d S a s t r i Deva. Y o g a - S u t r a o f P a n t a n j a i l . V a r a n a s i : I n d o l o g i c a l Book H o u s e , 1 9 7 1 . B a p p a , J a i . " S w a s t i k a . " A r t i n I n d i a T o d a y , 1972. P. 1 1 5 . B a r n e t t , S t e v e . " I d e n t i t y C h o i c e a nd C a s t e I d e o l o g y i n C o n t e m p o r a r y S o u t h I n d i a . " S y m b o l i c A n t h r o p o l o g y : A R e a d e r i n t h e S t u d y o f S y m b o l s a n d M e a n i n g s . E d . J a n e t L. D o l g i n , D a v i d S. K e m n i t z e r , a n d D a v i d M. S c h n e i d e r . New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977. P p . 2 7 0 - 9 1 . Basham, A. L. H i s t o r y a n d D o c t r i n e s o f t h e A j i v i k a s . L o n d o n : L u z a c & Company L t d . , 1 9 51. ' ' : ' : ' ' ' • • .• The Wonder T h a t Was I n d i a : A S u r v e y o f t h e C u l t u r e o f t h e I n d i a n S u b - c o n t i n e n t B e f o r e t h e C o m i n g o f t h e M u s l i m s . New Y o r k : G r o v e P r e s s , I n c . , 1954. B a t e s o n , G r e g o r y . " I n f o r m a t i o n , C o d i f i c a t i o n a n d M e t a - c o m m u n i c a t i o n . " C o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d C u l t u r e : R e a d i n g s i n t h e Codes o f Human I n t e r a c t i o n . E d . A l f r e d G. S m i t h . New- Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t a nd W i n s t o n , 19 66. P p . 412-26. - 138 - B e c k , B r e n d a E. F. L e c t u r e N o t e s ; E t h n o g r a p h y o f I n d i a . V a n c o u v e r : U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1975. __. "The S y m b o l i c M e r g e r o f B o d y , S p a c e a n d Cosmos i n H i n d u T a m i l Nadu." C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o I n d i a n S o c i o l o g y ( n . s . ) 10 ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 2 1 3 - 4 3 . B e l l a h , R o b e r t N. B e y o n d B e l i e f : E s s a y s - o n R e l i g i o n i n a P o s t - t r a d i t i o n a l W o r l d . New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row, 1970. B h a r a t i , A g e h a n a n d a . The T a n t r i e T r a d i t i o n . G a r d e n C i t y : A n c h o r B o o k s , 19 70. B h a r g a v a , D a y a n a n d . J a i n a E t h i c s . V a r a n a s i : M o t i l a l B a n a r s i d a s s , 1968. B h a t t a c h a r y a , B. C.: The J a i n a I c o n o g r a p h y . D e l h i : M o t i l a l B a n a r s i d a s s , 1974. B o n e r , A l i c e . P r i n c i p l e s o f C o m p o s i t i o n i n H i n d u S c u l p t u r e . L e i d e n : E. J . B r i l l , 1 962. 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