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Jain values, worship and the Tirthankara image Leavitt, Roy L. 1980

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JAIN  V A L U E S , WORSHIP  AND THE T I R T H A N K A R A IMAGE  B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  o f W a s h i n g t o n , 1974  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S  FOR THE DEGREE  M A S T E R OF  OF  OF  ARTS  in THE DEPARTMENT  We  accept to  OF ANTHROPOLOGY AND  this  thesis  the required  as  conforming  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H May, 1980  (c)Roy L.  SOCIOLOGY  Leavitt  COLUMBIA  /  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  this  written  at make  that  thesis  a  t  may  is  of  British  available  by  understood  gain  shall  of  British  14 October 1980  Columbia  the  that  not  requirements  Columbia,  I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  t h e Head o f  Anthropology & Sociology  of  for  for extensive  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment of  permission.  University  e  freely  financial  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  D  it  permission  purposes  for  in p a r t i a l  the U n i v e r s i t y  representatives.  Department  The  thesis  of  or  that  study.  this  thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  The  main purpose o f the t h e s i s i s t o examine J a i n  worship and the r o l e o f the J a i n s i n worship.  1  Tirthankara  images  The t h e s i s argues t h a t the worshipper emulates  the T i r t h a n k a r a these values  image which embodies J a i n values  and t h a t  d e f i n e and, i n p a r t , d i c t a t e proper b e h a v i o r .  In becoming l i k e the image, the worshipper's a c t i o n s express  t h e common concerns o f the J a i n s and f o l l o w a p a t t e r n  t h a t i s p r i z e d because i t i s b e l i e v e d t o be e s p e c i a l l y Jain. The  b a s i c o r i e n t a t i o n o r l i n e o f thought i s t h a t  c u l t u r e i s a system o f symbols.  These symbols a r e i m p l i c i t  agreements among the community's members, agreements which e n t a i l values  and which permit the J a i n s t o meaningfully  i n t e r p r e t t h e i r experiences and guide t h e i r a c t i o n s .  The  t h e s i s t r a c e s the connections between J a i n d o c t r i n e and e t h i c a l b e l i e f s , and t h e i r p r a c t i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n ritual, and  s o c i a l a c t i o n and i n s t i t u t i o n s , a r t i s t i c  symbolism  the experiences and sentiments o f the J a i n s . The  t h e s i s goes on t o argue t h a t the worship o f the  Tirthankara values  image expresses those more f i r m l y entrenched  o f J a i n i s m which, d u r i n g worship, are grounded i n  the metaphysical. context,  When p u b l i c l y recognized  these values  i n the r i t u a l  permit the J a i n s t o recognize  their  c u l t u r a l u n i t y and t o i d e n t i f y themselves w i t h the T i r t h ankara image, a constant  reminder o f the i d e a l person and  the i d e a l s o c i e t y .  By becoming l i k e the image, the wor-  s h i p p e r not o n l y has an o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e f l e c t on h i s progress toward  l i b e r a t i o n but to r e f l e c t upon h i s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n  h i s community and d e v i s e a s t r a t e g y to m a i n t a i n or improve his social  prestige.  In the f i n a l s e c t i o n , the t h e s i s addresses the symbolism o f the image. r e p r e s e n t s i n aggregate  T h i s s e c t i o n argues those i d e a l  artistic  t h a t the image  qualities—achieved  only through proper a c t i o n — w h i c h are e s s e n t i a l b e f o r e a t t a i n i n g l i b e r a t i o n and which are used to determine r i t u a l prestige.  The image symbolizes the proper b e h a v i o r  w i t h which every J a i n ought t o comply i n the r i t u a l s o c i a l contexts.  one's  and  T h i s s e c t i o n maintains t h a t the image  expresses a c u l t u r a l idiom used to i n t e r p r e t one's p a s t , p r e s e n t and f u t u r e experiences and a c t i o n s , as w e l l as the nature of those s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s seen as i n each Jain-'-s s t r u g g l e f o r s p i r i t u a l and s o c i a l  fundamental prestige.  - i v -  T A B L E OF  I. II. .III.  INTRODUCTION.. CONSIDERATIONS  6  THE J A I N S .  11  Principles:  Philosophy  and L i f e  The  Monk  and t h e Order's O r g a n i z a t i o n  The  Jain  Cultural  Social  V.  1  METHODOLOGICAL  First  IV.  CONTENTS  Pattern  21  R E L I G I O N AND WORSHIP Defining  The  Setting  Ritual  17  and  Organization  Religion:  11  40 t h e Domain  a n d t h e Image  40 45  Worship  4 9-  The  Monk's W o r s h i p  52  The  Non-idolatrous  Sthanakavasi  LAY IDOLATRY  60  Image W o r s h i p : The  A Brief  Structure of Jain  Ritual  Second  The  Offering  Bhava-puja:  60 64 68  Worship with  Sandals  72 i . 74  Half  Giving:  Summary  Worship  Superiority  The  Gift  Description  Purification  Candana-puja: Ritual  56  79 82  The O f f e r i n g Purifying  and C o n c l u s i o n  Again  Thought  86 92 ...94  - v -  VI.  THE T I R T H A N K A R A  IMAGE  The Image a s V i s u a l Distinguishing  97  Theology  98  Characteristics  Maha-Purusha Cakravartin:  102 Universal  King  103  The A s c e t i c  .105  Nudity  108  Male Form  112  Yoga  117  Meditation  117  Youthful  12 0  Body....  Silence  -121  The T i r t h a n k a r a ' s P o s i t i o n Orientation: The U s u a l Summary VII.  100  The C e n t e r  and Accustomed:  and C o n c l u s i o n  BIBLIOGRAPHY  and  A  .'...122 Description..125 130 137  - v i -  L I S T OF  1.  The P a t t e r n  2.  T i r t h a n k a r a (Chandraphrabha) ( B r u h n , 1969)  3.  Tirthankara  of the Jain  FIGURES  i n Kyotsarga  Offering  134  i n Padmasana  (Bhattacharya,  135 1974)  136  INTRODUCTION  Jainism heterodox  i s an a s c e t i c m o n a s t i c  system which  books o f t h e Hindus,  escape  from l i f e ,  rather  of which  a l l else  name d e r i v e s teacher, tion  from J i n a ,  and Brahmin  than  union  (Fordmakers),  rebirth.  These T i r t h a n k a r a s  the sixth  with  those  who h a v e c r o s s e d exemplify  from samsara century  rituals,  the path  s y s t e m was a s s u m i n g  interdependent o f Hinduism's  (warrior)  clans  disputed  and s o c i a l  Vedas w h i c h condition  form:  categories  over  o f people.  t h e Brahmin's  attributed their  libera-  India's  they  popula-  o f com-  The  caste of  ritually  On t h e w e s t e r n several  Kshatriya  (priest's) claim of  openly  inferiority  of the entire caste.  of  replaced  a hierarchy  influence i n Bihar,  superiority;  libera-  (transmigration).  by t h e Brahmins.  i t s familiar  periphery  ritual  toward  B.C., H i n d u i s m h a d  administered  and  the river  S a l v a t i o n was c o m i n g t o r e s t i n t h e e x e c u t i o n  plicated  ranked,  leading to  Its  a r e a l s o known as T i r -  B r a h m a n i s m a n d was c o n s o l i d a t i n g i t s h o l d tion.  emphasizing  Brahma ( t h e D i v i n e  principles  The l a w - g i v e r s  thankaras  During  ritualism,  i s s a i d t o be a m a n i f e s t a t i o n ) .  who e x p o u n d s t h e e t h i c a l  the sole escape  I t i s a  o r " V i c t o r i o u s One," a l a w - g i v e r  (moksa, n i r v a n a ) .  tion,  i n India.  r e j e c t s the a u t h o r i t y o f t h e Vedas, the  sacred  Reality  faith  rejected the sacred  to a natural  These K s h a t r i y a s  had  inherent long  -  regarded  themselves  and  refused to accept  they  to non-Brahmins. t h e Buddha and to  followed  their  Unlike ascetic of the and  in  ings  He  Having  life,  he  Mahavira's  (c.  468  the  These  He  who  During  the  and  for  at which  were supported thirty  teach-  years  of  twelve time  by  a  his  a g r e a t r e p u t a t i o n and  thirtieth  year  of h i s renunciation  starved himself to  Later generations of Jains final  father-  followed the  (kevali),  him  were h i s (sannyasa)  Ganges v a l l e y  last  voluntarily  earlier  asceticism  a renouncer  a g r o u p who  o r d e r o f monks w h i c h  t w e n t y - f o u r t h and  severe  respect for l i f e  enlightenment  (freedom).  an  the twenty-third Tirthankara  wandered the  In the  of  h i s duties of marriage  joined  B.C.), Mahavira  g a i n moksa  arose  individual  a reformer  a creed of and  teaching earned  community grew.  him  he  layfolk.  his  to  t o any  was  preached  fulfilled  gained  h i s own of  Brahmins,  salvation  the Brahmin's Vedas.  began h i s c a r e e r as  a y o u n g man,  following  of  Parsvanatha,  Mahavira  tenets.  founded  that denied  the  "Great Hero" o f J a i n i s m ,  self-mortification  until  of  K s h a t r i y a clans'*" t h a t  personal salvation  of Parsvanatha.  years, he  authority  o r d e r begun by  Bihar.  hood as  the  these  the Buddha, Mahavira  atheism;  superiors,  anti-Brahmanical teachings.  Jains.  primary  i f not  a ritualism  from  Mahavira,  offered  -  equals,  I t was  challenge the  Kshatriya  the  2  Tirthankara of  this  death  proclaimed cosmic  cycle.  1.  As Weber ( 1 9 5 8 : 225-28) n o t e s , t h e r i s e o f Buddhism and J a i n i s m was a m o n g " w e l l - e d u c a t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l / who were "...not of the u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d but o f v e r y p o s i t i v e l y privileged strata."  sJT*  -  The ever,  the  reign of  threatened  divided, Deccan,  one and  division  the  i n g s were  other  the  forgotten.  a canon,  a  Jains  regarded  nudity  (the Digambara, or Svetambara,  or  attaining  of  the  resulted  denied  boundaries.  The  long  d i d not  pecially  they  ahimsa,  of  B.C.,  100  images of M a h a v i r a  the  the  principles While  the  of  group  nudity other within  India's manners  Jainism,  images have been commonly  s i n c e c.  400  B.C.  Images o f  worshipped  h a b i t of  they  i n temples.  temple worship  "most c o n s p i c u o u s  (the  J a i n s h a v e no  say  remarks,  of  liberation  beyond  Jains  473)  the  spread  the  Hindu gods, are  group  centuries,  although  like  and  l e d to a d d i t i o n a l schisms,  non-violence.  since  them  n e c e s s i t y of  later  teach-  Jains.  violate  Tirthankara  maintain  One  J a i n s a d o p t e d H i n d u customs and  for worship, c.  the  other  order  geographical  Jains  A.D.).  the  Throughout  disagreements  serious  the  This  The  How-  The  and  to reconstruct  ( c . 82  U n l i k e Buddhism, J a i n i s m never  as  to Mysore.  "Skyclad") , v/hile  major d i v i s i o n s  order.  absolutely essential for  liberation.  a  community, Mahavira's  effort  "Whiteclad"),  minor d o c t r i n a l two  as  south  death.  B.C.),  Ganges v a l l e y  significance.  I n an  schism  ( c . 310  of Mahavira's  i n the  moving  division  write  the  survival  group remaining the  after Mahavira's  Candragupta  assumed d o c t r i n a l  that during  in  -  J a i n community prospered  during  famine  3  of  the  have the  so esrules  worshipped worshipped Tirthankaras,  As  Jacobi  (1915:  Tirthankara  images  remains  laity."  -  The the  purpose of  role  worship define  and  the  i m a g e embody and  and,  i n part, dictate  Through J a i n  objectified, i n the  interpret  history,  but  This what are  and  values  search  Emphasis, not worship  radical  worship's  control  symbolic  statements  everyday  n a t u r a l and  and  really  meaningfully  image i s the reveals it  to  i s t o be  a  Jain  Jains of  proper  with  real.  their  worlds  These  interest  worshippers Jain.  the  and  behavior?  Jain  image social  questions:  how  Our  is i t  first  among t h e s e  pattern of  Worship  to discuss the  i n worship  values.  assumes  confronts  i s a set from  supernatural  t h a t the  presuppositions of  of  the  logically  I argue t h a t and  addi-  values  symbols, once employed, Here  task,  i t i s  squarely  i t s vocabulary  world.  and  specific  t o a n s w e r two  events?,  behavior.  i n t e g r a t e the of  Tirthankara  second question  which borrows social  explicitly  d e f i n e s J a i n i s m , and  distinctively  social  the  i d e n t i f y i n g v a l u e s , must  departure,  The  of  order.  attempts  in ritual  values  community c o n f i d e n t l y  the  metaphysical  dictate  over  center  the  the  social  are  which  community's  preferences  for a pattern of p r i o r i t i e s  that the  the  help  W o r s h i p and  embodied  concerned  the  that  values,  f o r the  argue,  Once v a l u e s  of worship  greatest definition.  realm,  and  and  I maintain Jain  behavior  I shall  inform the  d e f i n e and  though, p r i m a r i l y  its  world.  examination  that values  they  a l s o r e v e a l the  the  tionally  worship,  i n the metaphysical  itself  only  externalize  proper  a r e made o b j e c t i v e .  consciously  in  i s t o examine J a i n worship  T i r t h a n k a r a image i n w o r s h i p .  community  not  thesis  the  grounded  orient  -  of  members. are  this  4  the image  Jainism,  what  -  The  m a j o r theme o f  the  the  w o r s h i p p e r becomes l i k e  the  image.  only and is  because  Jain's  Truth.  ship  the  and  the  but  but  the  his  image, the  the  form a  the  worshipper  Jains,  by  not  which  worship  a pattern  that  especially Jain.  Not  established,  but  Jain  are  given  authority  historical  past,  present,  the  l i n k s the  worship,  represented  follow  t o be  v i s i o n of  r e a l and  the  actions  order  only  during  Tirthankara,  i t i s believed  preferred  image  the  i s that,  common c o n c e r n s o f  Worship not  future,  -  thesis  like  i s c o s m i c harmony o r the  and  becoming  image e x p r e s s ,  prized  and as  expresses the  only  In  5  world  really  real.  In  values  e f f e c t , wor-  c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n cosmos and  society.  -  6  -  METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS  It to  i s one  legitimize  thing  to state  i t o r s h o w how  phenomena under  study.  a method.  I t i s quite  another  the method h e l p s t o e x p l a i n  Recently Fabian  (1971:  20)  the  wrote:  the c r i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n which our d i s c i p l i n e seems t o be c a u g h t i s due t o a g e n e r a l and l a r g e l y u n c r i t i c a l acceptance of a p o s i t i v i s t pragmatist philosophy of science i n American Anthropology. By p o s i t i v i s t - p r a g m a t i s t p h i l o s o p h y I mean a v i e w o f t h e s o c i a l - s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t y w h i c h a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e s e two c r i t e r i a : ( a ) W h a t e v e r t r u t h , may b e f o u n d i s e q u a t e d w i t h the l o g i c a l flawlessness of theories generating testable propositions. (b) T h e m e a n i n g o f s u c h knowledge i s i t s success i n " a c c o u n t i n g f o r , " " p r e d i c t i n g " and, g e n e r a l l y , g i v i n g e v i d e n c e o f t h e m a n i p u l a b i l i t y o f " d a t a . " What t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n does n o t i m p l y ( a t l e a s t i n any r a d i c a l way) i s a c r i t i q u e o f t h e w o r k i n g o f r e a s o n and t h e f a c t u a l i t y o f f a c t s . I t i s an approach i n which methodology (the r u l e s of c o r r e c t and s u c c e s s f u l p r o c e d u r e ) has t a k e n t h e p l a c e o f e p i s t e m o l o g y ( r e f l e c t i o n on t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f communicable knowledge).  His  criticism:  adequate, d o e s he 2.  the p o s i t i v i s t  neglects  crucial  methodology,  epistemological  though problems.  procedurally But  what  mean?  G e n e r a l l y , i n a p o s i t i v i s t s c i e n c e , e v e n t s a r e o r d e r e d by using three t y p i c a l kinds of assertions: a. naming or c l a s s i f i c a t i o n b. the basic or protocol sentence which states a fact and c a n be v e r i f i e d by o b s e r v a t i o n . These s e n t e n c e s s t a t e an i n t e n t i o n a l i d e n t i t y i n s u b j e c t - p r e d i c a t e form. c. a s s e r t i o n s of the form (of a l a w ) : E = f ( c ) i n which E i s the subsequent value, c i s the numerical value of t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n , f i s a f u n c t o r and = i s an a s s e r t i o n o f r e a l i d e n t i t y b e t w e e n t h e two s i d e s ( P e r c y , 1978: 243-264).  -  As  a general  that basic  propositions  and,  therefore,  they  are  is  part  of  an  itivist's that not  to  of  value  theory  of  values  finally,  the  For that  the  remains  context. that  and  that  he  curacy than  of  of  there  are  the  as  a  atomic  concrete  methodology objects  allows i n the  or  (the  positivist's  of  scientific  fusion of  and,  method.  meaning  falsity).  i s in part  positivist  descriptions reduce the  of  to  vary  and  meaning  independent  of  asserts  in fidelity:  some b a s i c  realism  a  m e t h o d o l o g y , he  reality  world  measure degrees of  that  structure,  knowledge.  a d e s c r i p t i o n i s a mere t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m ,  perceived  do  emotive  for moral evaluations,  essential unity  adopts the  positivist  assumption  r e j e c t s the  therefore,  can  pos-  non-cognitive  stable  and,  facts,  meaning because they  Fabian  a place  and  atomic  F.abian r e j e c t s t h e  o b j e c t s ) , the  i.e.,  observer;  each d e s c r i p t i o n presupposes  a methodological A  tion  can  Insofar  assume  discoverable,  positivist,  systematic he  independent of  t e r m s h a v e no  r e j e c t s the  (truth  empirically  sentences.  judgements,  I f one  ultimately  are  theories  phenomenalism, nominalism  abstract  belief  evidence  laws  positivist  c e r t a i n p r o p e r names, and  protocol  a n u t s h e l l , he  with  to  individual  nature  and  i t assumes t h a t  or  r e f e r to  departure,  objective world.  assumptions:  general  of  -  i n some s e n s e  corresponding  corresponding  In  are  positivistic,  events,  point  7  The  ac-  rather  problem.  observer bases h i s properties.  He  d e s c r i p t i o n on  must assume t h a t  the his  conjuncdescription  -  classifies  an  object or  (or a s u f f i c i e n t recognize tion;  he For  of  these  properties.  does not Fabian,  together  question the  by  the  only  simultaneously  orders  cal  consistency of  the  the  theory,  with which The of  doing  one a  the  no  science  person  symbolic  to  factuality  data  them. or  structure of  point  one  compare the  another  empirical  i t s analysis.  true, statements to v e r i f y  or  content, with  events  data,  logibut  unquestioned  the  r e a l i t y —  only  through  theory,  an  resulting  exists  upon a s e t o f  are  method,  symbolic  process  knowledge  intersubjective  scientist  views  statements, comprising  assumptions  statements  these  consistent.  data.  as  assump-  w h i c h must have his  from  agreement,  science disallows  w h i c h make t h e w o r l d  falsify  in  theory.  is built  The  of  not  however, i s t h a t the  presupposes which  i n which  i s that of  independent of  f o r us,  lies  knows r e a l i t y  positivistic  attempts  correlative  external world,  the  theory  which,  as  a descrip-  description.  i s a  the  view,  These assumptions  tions  the  givenness  t r a n s m i t t i n g the  convention,  subject of  of  the  about the world.  a  of  Objectivity  In Fabian's  reality,  and  w i t h i n the  refines  objectivity  the  theory  correct or  important  scientist  properties  scientists  a conventional logic,  b a s i c problem:  and to  of  selects  intersubjectivity.  assumption—that  The  the  rules  but  the  to particular  i . e . , a set of propositions, consistently  theory  overlooks  according  observer's  the  in  not  event  -  set of properties),.and that other  sharing a theory,  tied  8  He an  - 9 -  The  p e r s p e c t i v e I adopt  interpretations and, and  ( i n the f i r s t  i n the second  case,  n o t as r e f l e c t i o n s  observer.  Rather,  native—is  an a c t i v e  a  process  into  i n which  the world,  account fore, it is,  of facts  agent;  24-32).  only  of the  anthropologist or  rigor  and  Knowing i s  transformed does n o t de-  of a  question  and n o t whether  description  than  the world  i s whether  the world  i s .  an  There-  cannot describe the r e a l world, i s .  an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ;  many s i d e d , a n d e a c h a c c o u n t describes  independently  of the description  a way t h e w o r l d  by and l a r g e ,  interpretation)  A description  The r e a l  a reality.  then  The way o n e s e e s t h e w o r l d the world  appears  describes part of i t :  As G e e r t z  as  interpretation,  he c r e a t e s knowledge.  and t h e s y s t e m a t i c  i fa description find  existing  externals are perceived  i s systematic  cannot  the native's  the observer—whether  more a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  (Goodman, 1 9 7 2 :  case,  the anthropologist's  conceptualized experience.  scribe is  i s t h a t d a t a must be regarded  (1973:  1 5 , 9)  t o be  any  account  says:  A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l w r i t i n g s are themselves interp r e t a t i o n s , and second- and t h i r d - o r d e r ones to boot. (By d e f i n i t i o n o n l y a " n a t i v e " makes f i r s t - o r d e r ones: i t ' sh i s culture.) They a r e , t h u s , f i c t i o n s . . . . " S o m e t h i n g made".... W h a t we c a l l o u r d a t a a r e o n l y o u r own con-^ s t r u c t i o n s o f what they and t h e i r c o m p a t r i o t s a r e up t o . . . . R i g h t down a t t h e f a c t u a l b a s e . . . o f t h e w h o l e e n t e r p r i s e , we a r e a l r e a d y e x plicating: and worse e x p l i c a t i n g e x p l i c a t i o n s .  Any and  study  t i e reality  o f c u l t u r e examines p r o p o s i t i o n s which together.  The w o r l d  exists,  construct  but i t conforms  -  to b e l i e f s . the actor's One  has  As  I will  perceptions,  to understand  wants t o understand that  argue  anthropology  below,  action  i s a product  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , and  the  the  -  10  actor's  actor's  remains  an  context of  actions.  of  judgements. action,  i f he  It i s for this  essentially interpretive  reason  exercise.  -  THE  First  As religion but  w e l l before  u n l i k e the  Philosophy  i s no  substances: ticles  i t became an  Advaita  systems,  and  maintain  conscious  (jiva)  the  (ajiva).  distinguished medium o f Akasa  i s space  muk t a)  and  assert  that  born  the  kala i s  are  two  types  the  mundane  a  and  (pudgala)  Jain  of  cosmology  unconscious life  i s to  two par-  effect  ajiva. an  and  infinite  the  media  Dharma, w h i c h  (morality)  of  of  should  caste,  medium o f  souls:  the  liberated  (samsarin).  The  Jains  forms,  to-  be  is  the  rest.  time. (siddha,  dogmatically  accumulated karmic matter d e p e n d i n g upon the  karmic obstruction.  effort.  philosophy,  substances:  kala.  soul, having  s o u l has: p e r c e p t i o n  individual  jiva  adharma i s the  and  i n various  degree of  of  dharma  motion, while  There  is  from the  and of  dustlike particles  a  i s composed o f  goal  five  dharma, adharma, a k a s a and  to  The  separation  J a i n i s m was  J a i n s n e v e r moved  universe  Aj i v a i s composed o f number o f  the  According  souls  Life  organized  cosmogony), the  of matter  and  (1961) r e m i n d s u s ,  ward p h i l o s o p h i c a l monism. (there  -  JAINS  Principles;  Herman J a c o b i  11  and  type  Eternally alive  knowledge.  It is entirely  A  soul  responsible  of  and rises  (pudgala), and  immaterial, through  for i t s  own  -  actions. great  But  difficulty,  metaphysical an  ethical  They a r e  the  principles  system to  1)  Because of  are  and  sides of  the  same  coin.  principles  soul's  are  passions  flow  into The  an  the  jiva  and  the  c e s s a t i o n of  eventual  with  system  of  as  the  of  as  liberation.  tattvas.  2)  and  well  ajiva.  anger,  pride  4)  (asrava),  where  s o u l becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y  karmic p a r t i c l e s , 5)  jiva  (kayasas)  the  only  eventual  known as  i s composed o f  (bhanda).  6)  procedure  and  the  i s through  (samvara)  e x p l a i n the  world  elaborate  rise  world  saturated with freedom  to  the  bonded  J a i n s h a v e an  the  desire, particles  they  p e r f e c t i o n i n the  effect  metaphysical  They a r e :  and  attain  and  different  The  3)  souls  -  12  only  the  displacement  way  to  regain  inflow of of  karmic  particles matter  (nirjara). Asrava, vibrations its  the  of  perfected  flow  of  misery  the  jewels  in life.  of  in  This  and  t h o u g h , one  some m a n n e r .  Since  i s responsible  since  Right  the  for a l l of  i n f l o w , though, need not  promotes  activities  body.  yoga,  the soul  in  the  in-  from karmic matter,  Action, i f informed  Jainism)  Ultimately, proper  m i n d , speech, and  karmic p a r t i c l e s  Belief,  karma, i s c a u s e d by  state i s separated  advantageous. Right  inflow of  by  Conduct  Right (these  be  one's only  Knowledge are  the  good  a l l actions  to  a t t a c h one  the  and  three  therefore produces meritorious must a r r e s t even these  dis-  karma. and world  13  The world. with  Jain  minimized.  takes as  this  every  h i s own  devout task.  are  that result  tain  kinds  falling  1972:  of  and  kinds  purity  of  t o be  therefore,  individual  for action:  a  by  foods,  kinds  of  as  "person's  changes  be  behavior  another's  altered  other  his  The  i n the  engaging  intercourse, undergoing  of  1959:  karma r e s u l t i n g throughout  the  except  souls  vigilant  the  influence"  moral  person's in  certain  well  cer-  ceremonies, (Marriott,  good c o n d u c t , m e d i t a t i o n ,  The  the  asrava,  never  action:  contacts stopping  and  with  others,  f o r more t h a n  to  restrain  takes  The  all,  the thought  accumulation  r a i n y s e a s o n when a c c i d e n t a l  hand, i s encouraged one  social  hard-  affairs  most o f  i n a c t i o n , speech  insects) i s greatest.  Consequently,  but  monks, t o a v o i d  from prolonged country,  mood i n d a i l y  consecrated  (ahimsa)  230).  during  (e.g.,  c e s s a t i o n of  through  nonviolence  (Sangave,  197).  code  i.e., alters  transforming  a generally contemplative  frees himself  other  should,  the  contact  purity,  karma.  from e a t i n g c e r t a i n  promote samvara or  of  and  simply  from  4).  ships  days,  relative  body,  against  under c e r t a i n  Various  one  one's  moral  sexual  separation  services or  Action brings  thought  body  complete  l a y m a n o r monk d i r e c t s  precaution internal  qualities  or  alters  one's karmic  The  to  goods and  person  make-up o f  solely  emphasizes  Exchanges of  another  the  ethic  -  l a y m a n , on  his actions  v o l u n t a r y vows  of  travel a  few  injury the  (Weber,  restricting  1958:  - 14 -  his  activities  help  stop The  (primarily  These  vows  t h e i n f l o w o f karma. crucial  step  toward  the  removal o f karmic  are  sloughed  and  separated  as i s t h e i r  the  remaining  karma.  logical)  e a t i n g and movement).  salvation  particles.  naturally  occurs  Some o f t h e s e  (savipaka n i r j a r a ) , nature.  (physical),  soul,  rises  only  nirjara,  particles  having  Austerities  Whether i n t e r n a l  or external  with  matured  (tapas)  (spiritual austerities  remove  o r psychoquell  the  passions. The elaborate (vratas)  ethical  spiritual  a monk, t h e J a i n  separated.  (asatya  are the five  life  i n any form  tayaga),  3) t h e f t  and h i g h l y seasoned  ments  to w o r l d l y people The  elsewhere  living  bodies,  sleeping  they  vows  exercise great  2) t e l l i n g  avoided  because  they  violate  The  to avoid  untruths  4) s e x u a l  contacts, 5) a t t a c h -  vow t o e x t r e m e s  the world  i s life  which harbor (e.g.,  the f i r s t  unsur-  i s filled  caution i n their  C a r e l e s s movement, e a t i n g f o o d s i n p l a c e s where there  differ  (aparigraha).  great  Since  and  of the l a i t y .  (brahmacarya v r a t a ) ,  or objects  vows  monks  (mahavrata):  (asteya vrata),  i n India.  While  The monks' vows  (ahimsa),  Jains carry the f i r s t  passed  lives.  great  foods  a c t i o n and an  action.  i n degree and n o t i n k i n d from those  1) k i l l i n g  be  t o become  are not s t r i c t l y  most i m p o r t a n t  wine  through  system defines proper  are necessary  laypeople only  then,  vow.  with daily life,  insects)  should  -  Supplementing (silvratas) the  limiting  placing  a limit  restricting  on  such  setting  the devout  layman  amount o f  performs  are  of self-control;  Jain  laity  are also  asked  These r u l e s  strictions,  clothing  limitations  on  the degrees  of social  222). us,  benevolence  duties  guru puja,  study of scripture;  tapa, practice  wor-  samyama,  of austerities;  t o obey t h i r t y - f i v e  are based on benevolence  d e s i g n e d t o promote harmony.  reminds  the s i x d a i l y  In  and  giving.  good conduct.  1959:  f o o d consumed.  p u j a , w o r s h i p o f t h e god;  ship of the p r e c e p t o r ; svadhyaya,  of  a time each  downward  re-  addition,  The  (digvrata),  as m e d i t a t i o n ( s a m a y i k a ) , and  t h e t i m e , p l a c e and  gift  T h e s e vows i n -  directions  aside  assist  for  stricting  deva  vows  day  pursuits  dana,  vows.  o n e ' s movement i n t h e u p w a r d and  spiritual  practice  additional  the domain o f a c t i o n ,  the major  movement t o f i x e d  (desavrata),  (avasyakas):  -  vows a r e s e v e n  in fulfilling  clude:  directions  the major  w h i c h , by  individual  15  rules  t h e amount o f w e a l t h one  As  has  five  of social may  non-stealing.  and  accumulate  qualities:  simple dealings with  penance  and (Sangave,  ( B h a r g a v a , 1968:  (dana), non-violence (ahimsa),  (satyacacana),  intercourse,  a l l o w e d between people  the Chandogyopanishad  a g o o d man  and  Included are marriage r e -  restrictions,  intimacy  rules  102-3)  (tapas),  truthfulness  others  (arjavam),i . e . ,  -  If the  a person  rules  of  good  stages  (pratima)  221).  The 1.  obeys  until  -  major he  and  will  supplementary vows,  progress  he  becomes l i k e  Darsana pratima:  worshipping  pratima  a monk  i n the  and  gambling,  avoid  the  t r u e dharma  thieving  vrata pratima:  (Sangave,  performing  tioned  form of  a Jain  (morality),  d r i n k i n g wine, and  1959:  a  monk; Jainism;  committing  debauchery;  keeping  dying,  the  Santharo  s u i c i d e by  twelve  vows and  (a r e l i g i o u s l y starving  when sanc-  oneself)  to  merit;  samayika pratima:  doing  a  on  time  to meditate  progress)  three  times  4.  posadhopa pratima:  5.  sachitta  pratima:  containing  life  samayika  the a  self  (setting  f o r one's  fasting  f o u r days o f  a v o i d i n g uncooked  each  month;  monads;  7.  brahmascarya pratima:  maintaining sexual  8.  arambhatyaga pratima:  r e f u s i n g t o do  farming,  ahimsa;  that violates pratima:  w e a l t h , among h i s c h i l d r e n charity;  spiritual  vegetables  nisibhojanatyaga pratima:  parigrahatyaga  aside  day;  6.  9.  eleven  t r u e god,  r e v e r i n g a t r u e guru,  believing  gain  through  and  are:  adultery,  3.  the  conduct,  Tirthankara;  2.  16  not  eating after  dividing and  sunset;  abstinence;  work, such  one's p r o p e r t y  giving  a portion  to  as  and  -  10.  s p e c i a l l y cooked  remains,  never  and  clothes,  in a  remaining and  i n the  prestige.  choices:  criteria  tern.  Jains  for  for  sahu's  an  (196 5:  are  the  eating  worldly (i.e.,  states  matters; monk's) or  the  monks.  technicians  paraphernalia  prestige  alternative  which guide  ritual  compete  prestige.  350)  but  Organization  a different pattern  judging  have accepted Durkheim  want to  compete  establish  of  a  rules  Order's  Brahmins  manipulation  I f the  system, or  the  the  foods,  religious building  obeying the  Monk and  asceticism,  a d v i c e on  wearing  Traditionally,  Jains  giving  uddhista pratima:  The  of  increasing  never eating  forest,  h a v e two  -  anumatityaga pratima:  11.  experts  17  for  of  (not  the a  the  an  they  Hindu  caste  different  Since Mahavira's pattern,  ritual  prestige,  within  and  time,  ascetic  nature of  set) the  pat-  asceticism  well: T h e r e i s no i n t e r d i c t , t h e o b s e r v a n c e o f w h i c h d o e s n o t h a v e an a s c e t i c c h a r a c t e r t o a c e r t a i n degree....In o r d e r to have r e a l a s c e t i c i s m , i t i s s u f f i c i e n t for these practices to develop i n s u c h a way as t o become t h e b a s i s o f a v e r i t a b l e scheme o f l i f e . . . . T h e s p e c i a l v i r t u e s w h i c h i t i s b e l i e v e d t o c o n f e r a r e o n l y an a m p l i f i e d f o r m o f t h o s e c o n f e r r e d , t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e , by the p r a c t i c e o f any i n t e r d i c t i o n . They h a v e t h e same o r i g i n ; f o r t h e y b o t h r e s t on t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t a man s a n c t i f i e s ; h i m s e l f . . . . The p u r e a s c e t i c i s a man who r a i s e s h i m s e l f a b o v e men and acquires a s p e c i a l s a n c t i t y by f a s t and v i g i l s , by ret r e a t and s i l e n c e , o r i n a w o r d by privations, r a t h e r t h a n by a c t s o f p o s i t i v e p i e t y (offerings, sacrifies, prayers, etc.).  - 18  Dumont the  early  were not and  i t of  social  i t s aura  fact.  Not  emphasizing  cause  of  daily  their  society,  the  as  than  ritually  tion  the Hindu  are  those  the  same r u l e s  monastic ascetic ties.  of the  order  as  Long term  into  1973;  While  tic  life  vow  w i t h every ties  the  until  he  event  rules  and  the  the  The  game.  of the  Dezealous  ascetics  However,  o r power.  vows o f the  be-  in  Hindu  Instead  the  Jain  Jains  monk  adopted  lasting  dependable  S u t r a s , V o l . 2: great  layman p a r t i a l l y  fulfills,  he  (Jacobi,  o f one's  life  local incomes  69).  transition enters  does not 1961:  their  established  a b o l i s h e d any  i s the  of  separa-  same o r g a n i z a t i o n o f  and  "true  Jains  weaker p o s i t i o n  were severed  initiation  is- t h e most d r a m a t i c  own  F o l l o w i n g the  t h e monks' o r d e r  layman's l i f e .  Brahmins,  Moreover,  Jaina  the  worldly  and  become a  chose non-exchange:  world.  denied  alliances  (Marriott,  Entry  they  the Brahmin. they  and  gain rank  B r a h m i n monk.  of begging  pattern,  vanished  social  can  a  austere behavior, the  inferior  w i t h the Brahmins,  Buddha,  leaving  d i d the Brahmins.  could not  of  t o abase i t  fact,  at their  incorporated the  lives  and  merely  a religious  stressing  competing from  c a s t e , but  the Brahmins  and  Jains  Mahavira  t o become H i n d u  J a i n s more r i g o r o u s l y their  e.g.,  absolute truths  ZAnyone, t h e o r e t i c a l l y ,  content  ritual  t h a t the  renouncers,  pride i n outdoing  into  notes  intended to abolish  Brahmin." took  190)  heretical  divest  purely  (1970:  -  because  monas-  sever  470).  in  his  Initiation  i t marks  a  -  change The on  i n course,  initiate his  a decision  must then  induction.  Mahavrata) strictly  and,  He  the  monk n e v e r  returns  He  the  From the the  rank  also  and  ranked  T h o s e who called  earliest authority  according  and  Among t h e  Acharyas;  1959:  the  the  never  of  the  social  r i g h t s and  duties  to  five  great  age  and and  life,  those of  the  will  the  new  again.  vows  are  assumed.  r e s t r i c t i o n s are lesser w i l l  levels within are  the  they  acharyas  highest  rank  nuns are  tied  have the  he  society  Svetambara J a i n s ,  are ascetic  Yatis,  Sadhus  (Sangave,  180-181). Traditionally,  b o t h monks and  astery  which, governs  arily,  a community or  funding  and  controls  wealthy  i n d i v i d u a l gives  these monasteries,  allowing  to  sustain  themselves without  acquiring  or  establishing other  urban centers, the  function  from the  world.  the of  ties.  Usually  monastery's the  The  Indian  the  a  the  associates  nuns  property  outside  major  i s , in part,  withdrawal the  and  monks and  located  mon-  Custom-  land  g o o d s and  remoteness  monastery:  to  them a b s o l u t e l y .  to  to  (pancha  These a s c e t i c s  most severe  are  contingent  deed.  s e v e r i t y of  Sadhus and  world.  s e n i o r i t y determined  e a c h monk.  there  his  enters  i n word  the  vows  Once i n i t i a t e d ,  fully  times,  to  Thus,  "die"  code.  have accepted the  Sthavirakalpi.  to  remainder of  Tirthankara  Jinakalpi.  order.  the  Jain  and  -  assume t h e takes  during  observe  follows  19  city  or  of  due one  village  -  with  the worldly  places, 1966:  -  while  he a s s o c i a t e s w i t h  t h e f o r e s t and e s p e c i a l l y  a s c e t i c i s m and r e n u n c i a t i o n  only  the siddha  (the completely  the Tirthankara i n h i s purity,  spiritual  g r o w t h o f t h e monks.  assumes t h e T i r t h a n k a r a ' s e l d e s t monks but  The a c h a r y a  He d i r e c t s  position  usually select  should  be  p e r f e c t i o n ensures  due  to birth., wealth  life,  as t h e o r d e r ' s  an acharya  o r power,  (Weber, 1 9 6 7 :  order  (Caillat,  in  t h e l a y c o m m u n i t y and;, . t h e r e f o r e ^ a b l e  among  protect and  benefits of a leader  authority.  also provides  strives  h i s flock  to fortify  by d i s s u a d i n g  prompt t h e community  The a c h a r y a  listens  The a c h a r y a ' s analogy:  Secular  1975:  198).  toward  success,  But the acharya's training  t h e weak  and  the angry  resources former educa-  position.  disheartened,  and  the l i b e r a l  thoughts  placed  (formal  an i m p o r t a n t  No  are  t o command  f o r such  to confessions religious  physi-  58).  formerly well  valuable  t h e most important)  The a c h a r y a  The  follows him i n h i s r e l i g i o u s  the practical  position  and  because o f h i s age,  of  social  the  head.  i n t h e b a c k o f t h e monks' minds t h e r e  exercise a certain  soul)  the monastery  an abundance o f alms.  benefiting the entire  doubt l u r k i n g  directs  f r e e from a l l p h y s i c a l deformity;  cal  tion  (Tiebout,  liberated  the acharya  i t i s o f t e n because o f h i s charisma  and  remote  36). Following  and  life,  20  vindictive,  g i v i n g o f alms.  and p r e s c r i b e s  authority derives  penance.  from an o l d  t h e s e c u l a r monarch, a n e c e s s i t y i n m a i n t a i n i n g  any  -  society.  21  -  His a u t h o r i t y p a r a l l e l s the king's  and  t o have the same q u a l i t i e s and moral c h a r a c t e r honesty, heroism, magnanimity, s t e a d f a s t n e s s , and p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h , g e n e r o s i t y 1975:  57).  tasks.  and  He must be w e l l bred and  he i s s a i d  as a k i n g : energy, moral  intelligence (Caillat, successful in his  On h i s throne, he teaches the adepts; he  dharma i n both p r a c t i c e and word. he commands obeisance and  respect  exemplifies  As the s p i r i t u a l master, from the monks.  They s i n g  p r a i s e s to h i s s u p e r i o r wisdom and knowledge as w e l l as h i s unswerving a l l e g i a n c e to the J a i n path toward  The  Jain Cultural Pattern  Although the two  a n <  Social  3  orders—the  are not i d e n t i c a l , and  Organization  c u l t u r a l and  the form o f one  imply the form o f the other,  liberation.  does not  the  social—  directly  they are interdependent.  Moral  r u l e s are p a r t of the c u l t u r a l domain; they i n s t r u c t one how  in  he ought to conduct h i m s e l f , which- i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t  from determining how  one  should  i n t e l l i g e n t l y conduct  w i t h i n the framework o f these r u l e s . o f the e x t r e m i s t  The  canonized r u l e s  J a i n s d e t a i l the proper conduct o f  every a c t i v i t y of the monks.  The  himself  virtually  r u l e s governing the  laity's  a c t i o n s do not d i f f e r i n k i n d o r number but d i f f e r i n degree. In. a l l o f India., the J a i n s d i f f e r o n l y s l i g h t l y from Hindus around them.  the  J a i n i s m i s not a r a d i c a l departure from  - 22 -  other s e c t s and groups; i t merely a l t e r s the emphasis. sequently,  the J a i n s adopt the l o c a l customs o f the community  i n which they l i v e . son,  1970:  insist bors  In f a c t , many c l a i m t o be Hindus.(Steven-  9 ) . While o s t e n s i b l y n o n - d i s t i n c t , the J a i n s  t h a t they are c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r  (Sangave, 1959:  connections  Con-  362). Despite  neigh-  the p a u c i t y o f l o c a l  w i t h o t h e r J a i n s and non-Jains,  established either  through food exchanges and i n t e r d i n i n g o r marriage t i e s , p e r s i s t s a s t r o n g sense o f a common J a i n h e r i t a g e 1959:  there  (Sangave,  321). Indian  thought does not separate  one's " m o r a l i t y . "  one's "nature" and  Each i n d i v i d u a l changes not only h i s rank,  o r moral s t a n d i n g , but h i s very nature w i t h each s o c i a l exchange  ( M a r r i o t t , 1972).  Every a c t i o n , i t i s b e l i e v e d , con-  t r i b u t e s t o every f u t u r e a c t i o n , s i n c e i t changes one's moral c o n s t i t u t i o n , and,.-ultimately, s t a t u s and eventual  c o n t r i b u t e s t o one's r i t u a l  liberation.  For most o f I n d i a , r i t u a l s t a t u s i s i n s e p a r a b l y l i n k e d to the c a s t e system.  The c a s t e system i s a h i e r a r c h y o f  c a t e g o r i e s o f people i n which each category,  though  from the o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s , i s interdependent  and ranked with  r e s p e c t t o each.  separate  A t the head i s the Brahmin, f o l l o w e d by  the K s h a t r i y a , Vaishya  and, a t the f e e t , the Shudra and  Harijans  (Untouchables).  The c a s t e s ' interdependence and  ranking,  l i k e the i n d i v i d u a l members o f each c a s t e , i s a  -  result food of  of  exchanges.  contact with  labor  (the exchange of  services) order  the  fundamentally Jainism  are  t o Dumont  their  aspect  and  rejection  discriminations  of  ideas  and  ticular  e.g.,  the  The  castes.  system,  and  Innovation  this the  threaten  purity  among  reflects with  the  novel  a c t i o n s m u s t be  value  evaluated  lution  acquired  through  Dharma  (morality) governs the moral i m p l i c a t i o n s .  despite  make  the  purity  of  directing  or  to  values the  the  par-  (e.g.,  Brahmins. rank  in  the  interpreted other entire  social the  s y s t e m and  castes. caste  action.  degree of  exchange w i t h  entire  his  c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of  sect's  to  "caste"  renouncer  product  rank of  according  contact  view  i s i n t r o d u c e d when a  the  i t  themselves.  Dumont a s s e r t s , m u s t be  primary  and  view; yet  J a i n s , a d o p t s new  sect's relative  I t i s the  system i s  J a i n s do  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the  structure which,  carries  But  that Hinduism  i s i n t r o d u c e d by  experimentation  the  caste  Hence, a pure-impure o p p o s i t i o n u n d e r l i e s the  All  division  J a i n s ' Hindu neighbors  relative  Mahavira,  E a c h i n n o v a t i o n has  system.  the  of  s y s t e m , d e p e n d e n t on  Jains accept  caste  seriously  the  caste  innovation  s e c t , s u c h as  terms of  and  the  entire  maintains  the  the  relations.  ahimsa) w h i c h  caste  of  b a s e d on  Dumont's v i e w ,  individualistic  He  from i t .  Vaishyas  (sannyasi),  (1970) , t h e  religious. an  food,  exchanges  exchanges?  inseparable  them as  in  p r a c t i c e s , the  rules concerning  According  In  Marriage  and  what governs  and  -  23  pol-  others. social  action  - 24 -  In  an I n d i a n ' s  archy of castes are by  daily  regulates  never precisely exchange  established.  marriage, etc.,  another,  As  ambiguity  behavioral  behavior. follows  i n which  purity  ranking  I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d  the position  then,  takes  out that  castes;  direct,  2) c o n c e r n  by:  castes  t i o n which, i s seen commensality  6) a n a s s o c i a t i o n  arises.  place—community, and has  1968: 1 0 9 ) .  of Jain  be  social  the definition  which  need o f q u a l i f i c a -  within  Hindu  1) a h i e r a r c h y , either  (or others  with  India. ordering  direct  or in-  who may  pollute);  4) e n d o g a m y ; 5) mema particular  occupa-  a s t r a d i t i o n a l ; a n d 7) r e s t r i c t i o n s o n  between d i f f e r e n t  1971: 2-3).  o  by which t h e reader can  around the Brahmin's p r e s t i g e ;  b e r s h i p by b i r t h ;  confront  strategy  without  over p o l l u t i o n ,  b y members o f l o w e r  a focus  (Leach,  of the Jains  groups  cere-  caste w i l l  pattern  t o be f i n a l ,  i s characterized  concerning  and p o l l u t i o n  (Marriott,  the characteristic  established  t o perform certain  but i s a set of characteristics  Caste,  3)  ritual  implications  i s not intended  appreciate  all  standards  number o f c o m p e t i n g  over  i s  though,  o r by a s e t o f shared  a c o n v e n i e n t means o f o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  to distill  tion,  others  or civilization—requires a different  different  used  Whether rank  with  hier-  These r a n k i n g s ,  or the rights  Moreover, each context region  the established  (observance o f c e r t a i n  monies), whenever a large one  rankings.  and i n t e r a c t i o n  characteristics diet,  activities,  members o f d i f f e r e n t  castes  -  25  -  Hierarchy True t o few  the  J a i n s today  their  accept  professed  caste-bound  as  original  Hindu  social  The  S v e t a m b a r a and  they  J a i n s , however,  i s a social maintain  grew from the community o f as  arose to  of  he  will  the  need  b a s e d on  f o r example, have  few  castes  Hindus) maintain  not  i s not  the  any  "ways o f  changes h i s or  become c l e a r ,  caste  r a n k by the  dispersion numerous.  a religious inherent  tirtha  l i f e . "  4  the  were castes  everyone  Jains assert  had  that  changes h i s  way  6 9 - 7 0 ) T h u s ,  a particular an  castes  say. t h a t t h e  I f one  J a i n s endorse  community 1  Hindu  (Sangave, 1959 : living  caste.  Tirthankara s  a livelihood;  case,  i.e.,  in their  (the  Others  that  one,  w i t h i n the  u n l i k e the  to earn In  as  and  and  are  Despite  remains  geographic  differentiation of  Jainism,  small  compartmentalized.  chooses h i s caste As  castes  f o l l o w e r s ) 3 , which  a profession.  are  life,  caste  partitioning  because of  castes  rank  of  l a y community  (unlike  institution  that their  ritually  choose  Jain  spirit  system i n p r i n c i p l e .  Because of  Digambara,  They a r g u e t h a t t h e  not  caste  India.  fragmentation,  common.  caste  the  e g a l i t a r i a n i s m , the  and  in  anti-brahmanical  form of  one  life.  "intense individualism  3.  T h e c o m m u n i t y w a s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r t i r t h a s o r "means o f salvation": s a d h u (monk)., s a d h v i ( n u n s ) , s r a v a k a (laymen) and s r a v i k a (1aywomen).  4.  Corresponding t o the c a s t e s (Varna) are the " f o u r stages of l i f e " (Ashramas): Brahmacharya (student), Grhastha ( h o u s e h o l d e r ) , V a n a p r a s t h a ( f o r e s t d w e l l e r ) , and S a n n y a s a (renouncer). As a J a i n moves t h r o u g h e a c h stage—which i s seldom r e a l i z e d i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e — h e must obey i n c r e a s i n g l y s e v e r e r e s t r i c t i o n s on h i s a c t i v i t i e s .  -  26  -  /which/ feels l i t t l e  responsibility  for another's  spends  saving  (Stevenson,  i t s e n e r g y on  Though most J a i n s that and  they  should  be  s u p e r i o r i t y to  itself"  believe  treated others  equally,  and  reports to  that,  temples  sana  may  be  in a  and  ranking  portant great the  doing  concern  Brahmin  ritual  which  and  reflected 99).  the  i n an  asserts  Dasa's  his  rule,  do  necessary wealth 191).  then,  status;  he  are  who  the  legitimacy among t h e such  i n temple  construction  of  of  his  claim  temples  is a  lower and The im-  resembles to  i n wealth  construction  the  shows  Dasa Humbadas, a  increases  and  time  the  1970:  dar-  one's  numbers  than  access  position  s p e n d more  ceremonies,  and  low  Visa 338)  in  p e r f o r m a n c e s more c l o s e l y  Svetambaras, increase  the  temple or  pride  For  denied  a general  (Mandelbaum,  ritual  Similarly,  (The  As  a  between  are  in their  observances  lack  one's caste  for ritual  status.  sub-sect of  1959:  ritual  performances  of  increase  i n wealth.  performances of signs  the  e s p e c i a l l y Brahmins,  their  castes,  for ritual  frequent  i s an  feel  assert  themselves with  image i n a  however, t h a t  increase  Hindu  must c o n t e n t  and  (1959:  Sangave  Dasa J a i n s  9).  316).  is a division  the  s a l u t i n g the  Hindu castes,  wealth  time  and  equal  75,  and  1970:  some c a s t e s  Jains.  cases,  i f there  considerable  and  few  Sangave says, raised  higher  (degenerated)  for worship  (seeing  house).  a  Dasa  there  are  1959:  (Sangave,  e x a m p l e , w i t h i n many c a s t e s (pure)  a l l castes  soul  higher minor are  (Sangave, r e l i g i o u s act  - 27 -  and  i s considered  highly meritorious.)  (merchants, o f which ful), ity  wealth  1975:  Of  1 2 0 ) , and w o r s h i p  success-  social,  i s used  superior-  to reflect  Pollution  a l l values  directing  pre-eminent position. tion  Indian  contact  (Dumont, 1 9 7 0 ) . with, o t h e r s ,  Every o b j e c t , every polluted,  foods,  one's  food,  and every  a r e two b a s i c  person  interact  and p o l l u -  further polluting  and c o r r e c t l y  recognize  status  and  2) p e r m a n e n t a n d c o r p o r a t e  i n the social hierarchy:  with, one's tion.  corresponds caste  t o those  these  objects,  himself. that every  i f he i s t o  1) t e m p o r a r y  Brahmin,  resistance  to pollution  than  Each  Permanent associated  w h i c h he c a n n o t remove by o r d i n a r y  f o r example, has a greater  maintain  185).  properties  I t i m p l i e s r e s t r i c t i o n s on marriage  Indian  and p e r s o n a l ,  (Mandelbaum, 1970:  inherent  food  recognize  i m p l i e s some f o r m o f a v o i d a n c e a n d i s o l a t i o n .  pollution  social  are relatively  with  forms o f p o l l u t i o n  the  i s important.  that each person  his  type  occupies  and governs  relative purity  a n d how h e s h o u l d  must c o n s t a n t l y  purity  Whether i n the exchange o f  and persons without  There  hierarchy  and i t i s necessary  i n w h i c h ways  life,  I t i s the concept o f p u r i t y  that underlies the caste  relations  The  and hence  Banias  superiority.  Concern Over  or  many  a r e some o f t h e m o s t  i s a sign of spiritual,  (Carstairs,  this  the Jains  As w i t h  purifica-  and commensality.  inherent  t h e K s h a t r i y a , whose  purity  and  inherent  -  purity ship  i s greater  ties,  ber  than  the  his caste's  remove by  acts  possessions,  appropriately touching of  of  other  the  foods),  painstaking efforts,  Take,  rites  his concern  of  Jains  for  e x a m p l e , do  a d o p t many o f not  the  and but  are  because of  isolation.  The  depending upon the  1959:  269).  son  When d e a t h him  to  The  of  one  others  and  (or i n and  causes  higher  one's  more c o m p l i c a t e d  n e v e r be  and,  the  elevated  local  and  person's by  mere  local  the  the  among t h e  customs. validity  (Sangave,  of  this  custom of  vow  of  family of  not 361).  isolation the  Hindu  death,  observe period  region  however, i s c l e a r l y the  do  1959:  and  Jains,  the  associated with  death r i t e s  Hindus,  The  when q u e s t i o n e d ,  length of  i s near,  take  Living  impurity  Death p o l l u t i o n ,  encourages  mem-  causes  urinating,  regardless  important  the  varies  importance.  with  foods  death.  accept  m o s t J a i n s p r a c t i c e some f o r m o f of  most f r e q u e n t  most s e r i o u s  the  Hindu's  i n theory  funeral rites  Nevertheless,  periods  and  rites.  ceremonies: (antyakarma)  that  each caste  purification.  f o r example, death  the  say  The  birth  his purifications,  and  The  defecating,  h i s permanent p u r i t y can  ablutions  death  are  kin-  impurities that  inappropriate  bodily emissions.  greater  those  improper contacts  eating of  prepared  help  and  purity.  refers to  are  temporary p o l l u t i o n  status,  C a s t e endogamy  purification.  temporary p o l l u t i o n  their  Vaishya.  ritual  Temporary p o l l u t i o n  of  -  e s t a b l i s h e d through marriage,  preserve  can  28  the  renunciation:  of  (Sangave, secondary  dying  per-  forsake  -  food  a n d g i v e up h i s w e a l t h .  Mahavira's For  name w h i s p e r e d  the Jains,  salvation: to  death  caste  expertise  Hindus, ciple,  and, l i k e  (passed  purity  more removed  They  serve  through  at the top of the  177-214).  rituals.  purification performing  at worship  they  and  are, i n prin-  o r d i n a r y men.  and approach  and use t o judge  The J a i n s  contend  who k n o w t h e p r o p e r  b u t who, b e c a u s e ritual  they  duties,  remain  ones  t h e image  o f t h e Brahmins another's  of ritual i n many  among  obligations.  I t i s the standards  the Brahmin's c l a i m  their  The B r a h m i n s ,  w i t h t h e gods and a r e t h e o n l y  c a s t e s emulate  specialists  texts), the  p a r a p h e r n a l i a , and  s e t s them a p a r t from  and cermonies.  ritual  person  he a l o n e h a s t h e k n o w l e d g e  n e v e r t h e l e s s employ Brahmins  rituals  attain  liberation.  stands  from w o r l d l y t i e s  to officiate  lower  202).  starves himself to  the sacred Hindu  to perform  as m e d i a t o r s  Rejecting  by  the Brahmin  down  inherent purity  are  t h e monk who  i n the manipulation of r i t u a l  (Babb, 1975:  1970:  opportunity to  a r e c o n s i d e r e d t h e p u r e s t o f men;  qualified  have  opportunity f o r the dying  Traditionally,  This  Jains  i s the final  India,  necessary  he w i l l  Prestige  structure.  ritual  which  h i s death,  (maranantiki sarniekhana), a t t a i n  Brahmin's  the  Until  i n h i s e a r (Stevenson,  i ti s the final  In Hindu  of  dying  renounce l i f e  The  29 -  status.  purity, the  of their  major  t h a t the Brahmins techniques tied  of  to the world  have n o t a t t a i n e d t h e  -  ritual  pre-eminence ties  priest,  especially  by  monk who h a s r e n o u n c e d a l l  203).  at the larger  The p u r i t y  5  a r e unknown.  ritual  (Mandelbaum^ 1 9 7 0 :  188).  reproach., t h e J a i n s  s a y he i s m i s g u i d e d .  B u t even  the Sutrakritanga  (Jaina  many  h e may b e c o n t a m i n a t e d  Often these  a r e t h o u g h t t o be l a x i n t h e i r  Brahmins,  o f t h e Brahmin  temples r e c e i v i n g  i s s u s p e c t i n any case s i n c e  p e o p l e whose h a b i t s  priests  -  of the Jain  (Weber, 1 9 5 8 :  worldly  pilgrims,  30  Brahmin  performances  i ft h e Brahmin  i s beyond  Referring  Sutras,  to the  V o l . II7 2 9 4 - 9 5 )  says, Some s a y t h a t p e r f e c t i o n i s r e a c h e d b y a b s t a i n i n g from the seasoner food ( v i z . s a l t ) , o t h e r s by t h e use o f c o l d water ( i . e . a b l u t i o n s ) , o t h e r s by (tending) f i r e . . . . P e r f e c t i o n i s n o t reached by b a t h i n g i n t h e morning, nor by a b s t e n t i o n from a c i d s and s a l t . . . . / N o r by/ l i g h t i n g f i r e i n t h e m o r n i n g a n d e v e n i n g . . . . P e r f e c t i o n cannot be e s t a b l i s h e d b y such, g r a t u i t o u s a s s e r t i o n s ; t h o s e who h a v e n o t l e a r n e d t h e t r u t h - w i l l come t o h a r m . The  Hindu Brahmins  Brahmin  are n o t "true Brahmins."  s e r v e s as a m e d i a t o r between  worshipper,  i t i s of little  gain  f o rthe Jains,  since,  proper  conduct.  When  becomes a l i b e r a t e d 5.  the Hindu  value unless liberation  the Tirthankara,  soul  Moreover,  gods and t h e  one wants  i s possible the highest  (siddha) and leaves  i f the  worldly only  by  being,  the universe,  /Among t h e D i g a m b a r a s , t h e p u j a r i , o r t e m p l e o f f i c i a n t , i s a l w a y s a J a i n ( B a n y i a ) . Among t i r e S v e t a m b a r a , t h e p u j a r i u s u a l l y i s a Hindu: Brahmin, M a l i (gardener), Kanabi (farmer) o r B a r o t a (Bard) S t e v e n s o n , 1 9 7 0 : 9 5 ) .  -  he  i s unable  purifies  31 -  t o a s s i s t those  i n the world.  Only  asceticism  thei n d i v i d u a l .  Endogamy When t h e r e category  i s a rule  o r group o f people,  operational,  i t i s endogamy.  dominates  social  life  but  also  Jain  one i n which  and r e l i g i o n .  marriage, while  not considered  regard  Jain  Hindu neighbors  base  contract  free  choice  s o c i e t y which, was d i v i d e d ritual  marriages castes  status.  outside  categories.  In the early  o f caste  were n o t h e l d  into  groups,  are essential.  than  marriage,  act.  Jains  a religious  i t on t h e l o c a l  (Sangave, 1959:  community p e r m i t t e d  equal  among k i n  services  p r a c t i c e was e n t i r e l y i n k e e p i n g w i t h of  ties  prestigious  t h e same a s H i n d u  m a r r i a g e more as a s o c i a l  caste,  109-10),  a r e l i g i o u s duty but a s o c i a l  ceremony, even though they their  reaffirms  ostensibly  (1970:  I t i s a most  t h e Brahmin's  i.e.,  t o the caste.  a s Dumont n o t e s  ceremony, one w h i c h n o t o n l y  defined  caste,  a woman, s h e m u s t b e o f t h e same  i n India,  a  In India, the  o r group i s one's  any c h i l d r e n o f t h e union belong Marriage  is  one must marry w i t h i n  endogamous c a t e g o r y  w h e n a man m a r r i e s and  that  customs o f  140-41).  The e a r l y  i n marriage.  This  the Jain  conception  laymen and laywomen o f years  of the Jain  community,  were n o t condemned, b e c a u s e t h e  t o be r i t u a l  categories,  but  occupational  -  Jain in  the  doctrine allows  choice  marriage, without best are  of  regard  form.  to  (Sangave,  Marriage solidifying  ties  But  Jain  Hindu castes  marriage,  they  strictions religion 1959:  on  While  locality, and  321-323).  regardless, of  Membership By  the  preserve  156),  Nevertheless,  own  the  caste  important  and  the  of  Jain  inter-  re-  sections  groups  and  (Sangave,  great majority of  approve of  other  severely  ideal  clanish.  of  and  a r e weak and  isolated  the  means  economic  (or sub-caste), small  and  established with  Jains accept  (Sangave, 1959:  Jains,  inter-marriage  324).  Birth  d u t i e s and  accident.  For  birth.  fact,  In  ties  marriage  caste  m o s t Hindus:, one  the  and  kin, political,  actual practice,  among a l l J a i n s  accept  traditional  through  and  156).  remain e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y  create  For  a  lover  sub-castes  in their  86,  a  of  most a n c i e n t  to marry only  among t h e J a i n s , t h e  i n scope.  the  151,  affiliations:  ritual.  woman c h o o s e s  however, the  77,  freedom  p r e f e r r e d form  (Sangave, 1959:  1959:  are  The  i s considered  In a c t u a l p r a c t i c e ,  sub-castes  limited  partners.  caste,  encourage people  and  e v e n commends c o m p l e t e  i n which the  endogamous g r o u p s  Jains  -  and  marriage  svayambara,  32  the  i s born  responsibilities  Jains, choice  the  into  choice  of  his caste contingent  and on  he  this  determines membership,  caste  (varnalabha)  is  must  the  not  -  eighteenth an  rite  important  caste.  o f one's  de_ f a c t o  But, then,  equality  the Jain  among e v e r y o n e . f o revery  elevation.  From t h e v e r y  denial it.  of the ritual  concern  relative  was n e v e r  beginning,  was d e t e r m i n e d  lies  spiritual—if  i n the not  t h e monks' o r d e r  compartmentalization  s o c i a l —  was  of caste, but a that  accompanied  by t h e n e a r l y  o f karmic  Jain  to establish  the equality  to attain  and p e r m u t a t i o n s  remains  f o r membership i n any  T h e r e was no d e n i a l  liberation  combinations  Nevertheless, birth  Rather,  Jain  hierarchical.  Since  only  life.  criterion  possibility  rigidly  33 -  matter,  infinite  equality  was  and n o t absolute.  Occupations Traditionally, in  villages  relations, and  and were t i e d reciprocal  the families  Jajmani  performed")  neighbors  between  connotes  interdependence  exchanges. live  Despite  the fact  time,  jajmani families  services.  "he w h o h a s a p r e s t a t i o n s and  the giving  and counter-  payment w i t h  jajmani relations  and order o f t h e castes by  i n villages  since Mahavira's  the religious  r a t h e r than  These  lived  food-producing  o f t h e c a s t e system,  97-98).  by  them w i t h goods and  o f goods and s e r v i c e s ,  (Dumont, 1 9 7 0 :  s t i l l  relations  that supply  counter-prestations  the  to their  (from t h e S a n s k r i t yajamana, meaning  sacrifice  giving  t h e v a s t ^majority o f I n d i a n s have  money  maintained  regulating  that the vast majority o f Indians  and t h e i r  way o f l i f e  jajmani relations  have  i s little weakened.  changed  -  Jajmani  ties,  orienting  -  34  however, remain an important  the average  Indian  ideological  i n much o f h i s d a i l y  anchor,  trans-  actions . Contractual one  pays  since to  f o rw i t h money—are  ancient  times;  the jajmani  time.  arrangements—those  ties  Contractual  implications  these  s e r v i c e s and goods  also prevalent  Nevertheless,, jajmani  the ties  of the local  of  the people  important  ness.  Thus, w h i l e relations,  significance people,  and  these  exchange. accept  They  say exchanges  relations  cohesive-  to the local  caste  symbolic  categories of These rank  food,  traditional  i s a  product  i s to assert  The J a i n s r e f u s e  t o accept  this  are voluntary or contractual  c a r r y no i m p l i c a t i o n s o f c a s t e  from dangerous  entire  actions.  implications:  rank.  values  The j a j m a n i of social  many  carry considerable  To e x c h a n g e , e s p e c i a l l y  one's c a s t e  purity re-  symbolize  t o adhere  not only social  status escape  and t h e major  and b e l i e f s  relations  i n classifying  corporate  161).  the Jains refuse  have s o c i a l  conclusion. and  ties  b u t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  relations of  ritual  Mahavira's  partial  relations  order  (Mandelbaum, 1970:  entail  jajmani  social  alternative  the usual  exchanges, permitted  from t h e confinement o f one's c a s t e ' s  of  during  arrangements, n o t having  of jajmani  strictions.  and have been so  a r r a n g e m e n t s o f f e r e d an  t h a t were d e v e l o p i n g  which  status.  and o v e r l y c o m p l i c a t e d  exchange n o n - p o l l u t i n g substances,  social  B u t t o be ties,  e . g . , money.  one  safe should  -  Although with and  rather egy  and goods.  that  life  non-agricultural have tenuous The  Jains  to that  Reknowned  honesty For  t h e most p a r t ,  extreme  following  of other  some k i n d  a doctrine  like  "the pro-  Banias  of  non-landed,  i n India,  the Jains'  of business  prefer  hier-  first  or  rule  profession  277).  law, medicine,  Yet with  t o take part  and occupy  i n the Hindu  they  d i f f e r e n t from that  and marriage p a r t n e r s ;  most  (merchants)  and a u s t e r i t i e s ,  failure  con-  neighbors.  (Sangave, 1 9 5 9 : Jains  strat-  responsibility,  populations  honesty,  as o c c u p a t i o n s .  asceticism  because o f t h e i r food  to their  f o rtheir  and j u s t i c e  ment and b u s i n e s s on  small  are p r i m a r i l y Banias  conduct i s t o follow  with  and  The J a i n s ,  groups w i t h  connections  s i m i l a r place  archy.  This  and non-encroachment on t h e possessions 27).  a s money  environment with  s t r e s s on i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t  (Lamb, 1 9 5 9 :  others"  ahimsa  such  i s n o t harmed and emphasizes  virtues of a private property  non-stealing  flexibility  w h i c h do n o t v i o l a t e  than t h e exchanges o f s e r v i c e s  insures  associated  The J a i n c a n o n s e n -  substances  siderable  of  greater  of non-polluting  claimed  a  permit  326-27).  a l l forms o f l i v e l i h o o d  the manipulation  are traditionally  the Jains  (Sangave, 1 9 5 9 :  mobility  and  -  certain professions  p a r t i c u l a r castes,  courage  35  their  govern-  emphasis  are clearly  o f most  Hindus,  i n the exchanges o f  Jain castes  and sub-castes  -  voluntarily  isolate  obligations  are  and  holes  survival  strategy i s to  while not  33).  the  their  seldom f a l l earnings.  austere gives  puritans  a typical  is take  advantage of  below the They  abilities  are  be  not  (Lamb, 1 9 5 9 : account  of  the  durable  a l l loop-  Their strategy for to  live  within  the  i t (Marriott,  outnumbered by  others  Their  e s t a b l i s h e d by  becoming a p a r t of  J a i n s may  community.  limited.  a successful business.  Hindu world  they  marriage,  depends upon t h e i r  While  w i t h i n the  truncated; cooperation,  Banias'  to build  -  themselves  e x t e n s i v e bonds of The  36  in their  other zeal  to  1973:  merchants, increase  s e l f - i n d u l g e n tmerchants, 30). Jain  Hazelhurst  (1966:  Bania:  L a l l a j i i i s a J a i n , and l i k e many J a i n s , he i s an e x t r e m e l y a u s t e r e p e r s o n . He l i v e s i n a modest d w e l l i n g , the appearance of which g i v e s no i n d i c a t i o n o f w e a l t h . The h o u s e i s f u r n i s h e d w i t h l i t t l e more t h a n c h a r p o i s (string c o t s ) , a s t r a i g h t back c h a i r f o r g u e s t s and a wooden b e n c h upon w h i c h L a l l a j i i and h i s accountant pass the d a y . . . . L a l l a j i i i i s a c h r o n i c c o m p l a i n e r and l o o k s t o t h e p a s t t o legitimize h i s complaints: " I n t h e p a s t , I was a p r o s p e r o u s metal merchant; but c u r r e n t government r e s t r i c t i o n s h a v e a l t e r e d t h e c o u r s e o f my b u s i n e s s . As you can s e e , I l i v e v e r y s i m p l y , and y o u , a wealthy american / s i c / / w i l l have t o excuse t h e s e humble s u r r o u n d i n g s . " . . . L a l l a j i i d e p l o r e d t h e new g o v e r n m e n t r e s t r i c t i o n s on h i s b u s i n e s s , and t h i s can i n part explain his hostile feelings toward the government. Yet i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to n o t e t h a t he e x p r e s s e s no p o s i t i v e p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n and has n o t a l i g n e d h i m s e l f w i t h an o p p o s i t i o n p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m ; w h i l e d e n o u n c i n g g o v e r n m e n t r e s t r i c t i o n s , he has prospered f r o m t h e s e same r e s t r i c t i o n s .  but 91-92)  -  The  survival  came t o h o l d  uplifting  as  only  good conduct  and  sanction  business  the  Jains  socially  well.  rules of  expected,  The  acumen  the  i n competition  purity  Brahmins, the  for by  life  contribute  and  strategy  to  daily  for  1959:  the  monks and  with  the  as  Brahmins  hatred  reinforce As  laity inevitably  particular  and  and  217-23).  for  ritual  about  Jains' vegetarianism respect  Jain  spirit-  duties  layman promote,  nearly  the  advantageous but  (Sangave,  vows o f  Although not  the  this  vows, the  f o r the  superiority. as  that  caution  a permanent p o s i t i o n i n o f f i c i a l  the  m i g h t be  frugality,  Thus, i t i s important  canons, becoming not  place  -  J a i n s ' p o s i t i o n rewards  enterprise.  ually  37  and  ritual concern  accorded  them  Hindus.  Commensality The  exchange of  hierarchy purity  b a s e d on  w h i c h may  be  of  food  with  castes  as  Carstairs  (1975:  most o t h e r  daily  Throughout according tainers or  to  the  i n which  the  i n India  notion  altered of  that  gives  each caste  (purified  or  d i f f e r e n t rank.  80-81)  rise  observes,  to  a  has  commensal a  polluted) Whom o n e  ritual by  eats  emotionally  exchanges with,  outweighs  considerations. India,  foods  manner o f they  "raw") i s c o o k e d  Pakka  food  ( l i t . "ripe")  are  their served.  i n water food  and  and  drink  are  ritually  preparation Kacca i s very  i s prepared  food  and  the  ( l i t .  easily  in clarified  ranked con"unripe"  contaminated. butter  (ghi)  -  and  i s more r e s i s t a n t  generally for  example,  those has  shared  water  to p o l l u t a n t s .  with  those  in ritual  restrictions. from a brass  alcohol  are  implicitly  The  Brahmin  As  pot  high  ritual  is  same r i t u a l  purity,  uncooked  food,  a c l a y pot  generally,  i s Kacca  E a t i n g meat and lower  caste  and  drinking  status  condones himsa  status are  between  because  (violence).  traditionally  associ-  vegetarianism. i n t e r m a r r i a g e , the  prohibit  interdining,  frequent  (Sangave, 1959: to one's  but  movement t o w a r d  J a i n s do  not  in  principle  in practice interdining 81,  f a m i l y and  members u s u a l l y d i n e is  or  then,  Pakka i s exchanged  i s Pakka.  participates  and  with  limited  from  signs of  Kacca,  have the  purity;  Water  considered  one  ated with  who  f a m i l y members, and  differing  no  -  38  313).  circle  only with  Caste of  f e a s t s are  friends.  each other,  inter-caste dining  is i n also  Sub-caste  although  there  (Sangave, 1959:  314,  321). The  importance of  commensality of  the  is vividly  origin  g o e s , an  of  Osvala  remarriage,  caste  the  present  V i s a and  and  inviting  a l l their  Osvalas  who  with  a Jain  planned  to  i n the  to  aware o f  the  priest  i t s connection Osvala  rule  and  legitimize  c a s t e members t o  were not  and  Jains'  Dasa s u b - c a s t e s .  widow, c o n t r a r y  lived  sons grew r i c h  purity  the  against  had  two  their  a dinner. sons'  As  with account  the  story  widow  sons.  The  heritage They  by  asked  illegitimate  birth  -  to  attend.  covering  the  T h o s e who sons'  eat  remained  and  commensality  39  -  ate or touched  the  d e s c e n t became Dasa.  unpolluted Visa. carry  food before T h o s e who  did  Thus, the exchange of  important hierarchical  disnot  food  implications.  -  -  40  RELIGION AND Religion;  In a remarkable  WORSHIP  D e f i n i n g the Domain  s e r i e s o f the G i f f o r d L e c t u r e s , p u b l i s h e d  as V a r i e t i e s of R e l i g i o u s Experience, W i l l i a m James (1961: 368)  i d e n t i f i e s i n p r a y e r the i n e l u c t a b l e prime o f r e l i g i o u s  experience:  "the outward face o f nature need not a l t e r ,  the e x p r e s s i o n s o f meaning i n i t a l t e r . " here t h a t our problem o f e x p l a i n i n g how  but  It i s precisely worship  and  the  T i r t h a n k a r a image d i c t a t e b e h a v i o r reaches the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l foundation of r e l i g i o n .  How  worship  shapes b e h a v i o r s u r f a c e s  with, s t a r t l i n g suddenness as the most d i f f i c u l t f a c i n g the o b s e r v e r .  As we  saw,  problem  the observer's f i r s t problem  c e n t e r s around the enormous d i f f i c u l t y i n v o l v e d i n d e c i d i n g the way  the world i s given to experience, the way  and the way  i t i s described.  How  one chooses to answer these  q u e s t i o n s has profound m e t h o d o l o g i c a l The  (.1973:  implications.  f i e l d o f r e l i g i o u s phenomena and experiences knows  no c l e a r boundaries, here.  i t i s seen  and we need not attempt  such a d e l i n e a t i o n  R e s t a t i n g and m o d i f y i n g a d e f i n i t i o n o f f e r e d by 87-125), I w i l l d e f i n e r e l i g i o n  Geertz  (or a group's r e l i g i o n  as: a c u l t u r a l system (or system o f symbols) which postulates a sacred (divine or trans-divine) realm as i t s f o c u s . T h i s symbol system serves  - 41 -  to e s t a b l i s h powerful, p e r v a s i v e , l o n g - l a s t i n g moods and m o t i v a t i o n s i n people (an ethos) by i n v e s t i n g the everyday world w i t h meaning. I t a c t s as a model o f r e a l i t y (worldview) by o f f e r i n g s o l u t i o n s t o problems o f e x i s t e n c e ( l i f e , death, moral c o n s i s t e n c y ) and a c t s as a model f o r r e a l i t y by so o r d e r i n g experiences t h a t they v a l i d a t e (not v e r i f y ) the sacred o r " r e a l l y r e a l " realm. A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f r e l i g i o n , a symbol i s any t h i n g , a c t , event o r r e l a t i o n s h i p which serves as a v e h i c l e f o r a c o n c e p t i o n , t h a t i s , the conception i s the meaning. As w i l l become c l e a r i n the d i s c u s s i o n o f r i t u a l which f o l l o w s , symbols imply more than j u s t a v e h i c l e f o r c o n c e p t i o n . symbol p r e s e r v e s " d e c i s i o n s " o r "agreements."  The  Each community  member, through use o f the symbol, accepts the symbol as an "agreement," i . e . , he has "decided" t o be a member o f the community; he has decided t o do such-and-such, to a c t as a member o f the community.  F o r example, he accepts bowing be-  f o r e a T i r t h a n k a r a image as a proper a c t i o n .  More i m p o r t a n t l y ,  the p r o p r i e t y o f the a c t r e s i d e s i n o r i s c o n s t i t u t e d by the act.  That i s , t o bow i s t o a s s e r t t h a t bowing b e f o r e the  image i s the proper o r good t h i n g t o do and t h a t there i s goodness i n bowing. are concerned,  As f a r as o t h e r members o f the community  the proper a c t i o n s o f the person who i s bowing  bestow goodness o r p r o p r i e t y on him (Vernon,  1973: 128).  Ethos i s r e c u r r e n t "emphases" o r "themes"; i t i s an emotional ought, a command o f the r i g h t , proper o r m o r a l l y correct.  A worldview, on the o t h e r hand, c o n t a i n s assumptions  -  about  the  nature  members o f looking  of  out.  Worldview  to everything else. to  the  As  Geertz  way  reality.  s o c i e t y have o f  hensive  ideas  of  and  view  are  separable.  Not  worldview.  Some a r e  decided, To  and  6.  are  fiction.  clearly  relations  and" r e l a t i o n s  to  man.  have o f  most  How  sees  accepts  the world  t h a t meaning a r i s e s values  Individually, they  are  the  compre-  are  one  the  and  values  world-  i n t e g r a t e d and  interprets  certain  acts  ethos  slip  focus  h i s worldview  ordered  i s , however,  equally important  i n the w h a t he  and i s to  manner.  in  from  i n -  a the  gestalt sees  is  values. say  in a particular  in a particular but  elements  s u b s i d i a r y ; they  most p a r t , by  t h a t one  certain  relation  about e x i s t e n c e :  distinct  What d e t e r m i n e s  i s values.  f o r the  t h a t he  accepts  ethos  a l l perceptions  attention.  say  them,  sees h i m s e l f i n  It is their  each p e r v a s i v e ; together,  perceptions  looks to  p i c t u r e a people  are.  that  order.^  a useful analytic  of  one  to nature  i s the  actuality  p i c t u r e o r map  the world  I t i s h i s ideas  only  than  t h e way  i s t h e way  says, worldview  That worldview  of  I t i s the  supernatural, relations  things i n sheer  focus  -  42  One  t o examine them and  more  manner not  only  determine  Two o t h e r c o n c e p t s , i m p l i c i t i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n , a r e s c o p e and f o r c e . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s b a s e d on t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t a r e l i g i o n may h a v e a d i f f e r e n t i m p a c t o n t h e g r o u p than the i n d i v i d u a l . The s c o p e o f t h e r e l i g i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d w i d e i f t h e r e l i g i o n i s p e r v a s i v e and i s i n f l u e n t i a l i n s t r u c t u r i n g other areas of s o c i e t y . The f o r c e o f a r e l i g i o n i s t h e i m p a c t on t h e i n d i v i d u a l : how i t a f f e c t s h i s d a i l y l i f e (Geertz, 1968).  - 43 -  i f they are t r u e .  Action  /  i s mediatory  (Bateson, 1966:  412-26).  S i n c e the e x p e r i e n c e s , counted as v a l i d a t i o n of an a c t i o n , are determined by accepted v a l u e s , we value and p e r c e p t i o n .  cannot r e a l i s t i c a l l y  A group's p a r t i c u l a r worldview  separate and i t s  concommittant v a l u e s , then, become more deeply entrenched.  As  W i l l i a m James says, "Truth happens to an i d e a . " C u l t u r e i s a system o f symbols, and r i t u a l and s o c i a l i n g e n e r a l are products o f t h i s system. c u s s i o n to worship performance  As we move our  dis-  ( r i t u a l ) , the i m p l i c a t i o n s are c l e a r :  has the power to change and  life  ritual  ( r e - ) s t r u c t u r e the  p a r t i c i p a n t ' s v i s i o n of the world and hence h i s e x p e r i e n c e . I f a c u l t u r e i s to be shared, the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the c u l t u r e r e q u i r e a common s e t of symbols, whether language b o l s or otherwise.  sym-  In f a c t , the very nature o f shared under-  s t a n d i n g r e s t s on a r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t l e a s t two  people:  some one and some o t h e r , and the mediating l i n k i s the symbol. S y m b o l i z a t i o n i s an a s s e r t i o n , an a f f i r m a t i o n o f a shared unders t a n d i n g , a shared expectancy.  F o l l o w i n g Goodenough (1971:  205):  The p a t t e r n of p r i o r i t i e s expressed i n a body of s o c i a l rules represents a set of values. Insofar as people are w i l l i n g to govern t h e i r conduct i n accordance w i t h these r u l e s , they demonstrate t h e i r acceptance of these v a l u e s , a t l e a s t i n p u b l i c . The values expressed by a given set of r u l e s are thus the o p e r a t i n g v a l u e s o f those who abide by them; and they are the p u b l i c values of any s o c i a l group whose members regard o b s e r v i n g these r u l e s as a c o n d i t i o n of membership i n the group. 7.  " A c t i o n i s b e h a v i o r t h a t i s d e l i b e r a t e o r decided upon; which i s s u b j e c t to c r i t i q u e and c o u l d a t l e a s t be a l t e r e d on r e f l e c t i o n " (Lewis, 1946: 366). Action i s behavior t h a t i s meaningful to the a c t o r . Moreover, a second person must r e c o g n i z e t h i s b e h a v i o r as a c t i o n and, i n Weber's words, be " o r i e n t e d i n i t s course" (Weber, 1947: 88).  -  44  -  Goodenough makes s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t First,  the  values  of  but  the  Values  of  the  for social  questionable;  evidence  and  not  discovery of  they  are  strategies  these  certain To  a member, one  rules  withdraws  tacitly  not  they  new  the  only  create  facts.8 they  not  the  kinds  of  participate  strive  facts.  Rules  social  to the  outside or  Once s y m b o l i z e d become more d e e p l y  values  (in daily  of  the  constant  regulate.  Kenneth  who  Burke  t o be a l l or  rejects  periphery of  the  community. ritual  community  ruling-out  the  social  the  community,  define the  a c t i o n and  affairs,  embedded i n t h e  i t is  He  motivation  situations.  i n a c u l t u r e and  culture's rules.  the  for consistency As  must a c t i n accordance w i t h  cheapens the  as B a i l e y n o t e s ,  rules.  the  They d e a l w i t h  f o r encompassing  social  definition.  same as  and  as: a c o n d i t i o n f o r m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e  must a c c e p t ruling-in  are  provide  rules;  the  set of  8.  Values  delineate specific  large  He  a community  not  other-kinds. as  community.  not  Second,  by  of  and  says,  one  rules  direction do  obvious  social  points i n his  or  fabric.  counted a  the the  sufficiently social community.  a r t ) , values In  a t t e n t i o n to these  fact, values  T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e I a d o p t h a s many a f f i n i t i e s t o B a i l e y ' s discussion o f _ p o l i t i c a l competition. He s a y s ( 1 9 6 9 : 21-22), f o r example, "Values are symbolized. This maintains and s t r e n g t h e n s them. Indeed, i f they are not c o n s t a n t l y tended and r e - i n v i g o r a t e d , t h e y f a d e . Consequently, rites and c e r e m o n i e s d r a m a t i z e f u n d a m e n t a l p o l i t i c a l v a l u e s and a s s o c i a t e them w i t h s u c h n o n - p o l i t i c a l v a l u e s as h e a l t h o r f e r t i l i t y o r p r o s p e r i t y o r w i t h G o d . . . . V a l u e s , w i t h i n one structure, a r e a c o n s t a n t and t r e a t e d as an u n s h i f t i n g g u i d e f o r c o n d u c t . "  -  which  insures their  (generally are  the  decision  Clearly, they  "pattern symbols  one  cannot  social  to identify  and to  all,  such  legends by  believe  a god),  Setting  accessible  a god  fact  are  deny t h e  of  The  values  to the  shared  similar  as  the  community.  never  medium  face to  face  shows h i m s e l f  many  a r t and  devout forms told  the possession of  fundamentally  a  better  a holy  assuming e a r t h l y  to Hindu  two  cultural  is in a  While  temple  values  identifies  t h a t t h e m o s t common a n d the  which  Image  deity  image.  of  ritual  lives)  accommodate  he  image s e r v e s  to mention  remains  differs  the  depicted i n the  contact i s through  cept of worship  easily  rules,  and  i n the  in  daily  rules  contacts the deity  capable  Though o s t e n s i b l y  Jains  temple  except  myths, not the  a set of  reservoir  his devotion.  occurrences  and  i t i s these  However, i f one  set of  the worshipper  the worshipper  in their  the most i m p o r t a n t v a l u e s o f  Ritual  demonstrates  Indians  rules.  symbolized  inadequate.  from  i n the  Among I n d i a n s , t h e through which  is  argue  in a particular  The  and  same v a l u e s c a n  of p r i o r i t i e s "  position  people  application,  The  sets of  and  Those v a l u e s  when k n o w l e d g e  represent.  different  survival.  same t h a t m o t i v a t e  given universal  permit  -  45  (after in  the  individuals easily  image. worship,  the  Jain  i n s e v e r a l ways.  existence of a superior creative  deity  conThe  from  which  -  the  world  evolves.  They deny  immense p o w e r t h a t he existence. cycles,  The  may  universe  a progressive  While  beyond  the  chronicles Jain  other and  first  image remains and  king,  a  tection the  and  toward The  area, 9.  the  and  maintain  bondage o r or  brings  triumphs the  of  the  forces.  the  illiterate major  temple  world,  image i s t r e a t e d as  his subjects.  The  darkness),  1  qualities—  a t t e n t i o n because of  remover o f  the  and  nouminous i n the  grounds the  to  Tirthankaras  uneducated or wisdom,  through  liberation  escaping  and  such  worldly  passing  u n i v e r s a l elements  religious  deserving  the  and  universe  the  instructs  sanctified  (literally,  or  mechanically,  lives,  fountainhead  h o n o r he  destroy  a deity of  s c u l p t u r e — d e p i c t i n g the  deities')  superior being  guru  path  c o n t r o l of  principles  w i t h i n these  control,  w i t h i n the  visually  the  existence of  operates  abundant temple  (as w e l l as  in  the  the  degeneration,  depends upon r e m a i n i n g outside,  -  46  the  image,  a  pro-  like  i l l u m i n e s the  moksa.^  worshipper's temple.  The  activities  take  J a i n s d i d not  place within a merely  copy  purified  Hindu  I n J a i n i s m , e a c h w o r s h i p p e r has t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r l i b e r a tion regardless of his soul's state. T h o s e who have a t t a i n e d l i b e r a t i o n , the siddhas, have escaped the c y c l e o f l i f e and d e a t h . They a r e beyond one's v i e w and, h e n c e , c a n n o t be v i s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d . Only those souls approachi n g t h i s l i b e r a t e d s t a t e r e v e a l the path t o slddha-hood. The h i g h e s t and m o s t n e a r l y p e r f e c t a r e t h e Arhat-Paramesthins, o r T i r t h a n k a r a s , the f i n a l stage of s p i r i t u a l growth before completely a b j u r i n g the body. He i s i n t h e s t a g e o f - . ' f i n a l contact w i t h the world before h i s f i n a l step beyond the r e a c h o f o u r s e n s e s , and i t i s h i s image t h a t i s most appropriate to worship. He i s t h e h i g h e s t s p i r i t : above gods and o r d i n a r y men.  -  architectural Jain  s t y l e s but  f l a v o r to  the  their  inward nature  innovated,  temples.  outpourings  the  of  ments. and  the  Thus, the  separation  1963:  i i ) ,  worshippers.  as  than  temples with insures  for worship  distinctively  an  expression  the  a d e i t y , the  J a i n temple  necessary  but  rather  to  Hindu  giving a  Perhaps  of worship,  congregational open h a l l s  -  47  communal  Jains  and  only  As  an  ethical  faith.,  compart-  the  seclusion  ceremonies  i t also p h y s i c a l l y c o n t r o l s the Jainism  or  replaced  enclosed  not  of  (Jain,  number  requires  of  less  room. In  temple worship,  which- a l l a c t i o n Svetambara eyes, The /  temple,  Digambara a s s e r t  faithful  to  These e y e s , fully  a  a  contrast that  i n t o the  lethal  power.  officiant  world In  the  places  the  As  the  one  world,  images.  India,  image.  successThey  under s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , for  a mirror  I t i s a p r o t e c t i v e measure, a s p e c i a l  against  the  the  their  are  radiating divine  eye-opening ceremony,  power o f  glass  noninvolvement.  w i t h i n the  o f f e r i n g and  a  remaining  image.  lethal  enters  i t s glowing  folk, images of  power, a p o i n t  an  around  Digambara  of worldly  life  and,  center  d i f f e r e n c e shows t h a t  renounced  of  source of  to  this  Jain tenets  feeling  energy  revolve.  image, w i t h  common a m o n g t h e  convey  considered  main  completely the  image i s the  thoughts  the  is in striking  Tirthankaras  the  and  the  image's eyes  having  example,  before  the  precaution (Stevenson,  -  1970:  263).  events  (anjanasalaka).  its  eyes  the  image  These  installations  a r e "opened"  are often  1956a:  i n the temple's  1 5 6 ; Stevenson,  inner  and  smaller  the  temple  Tirthankara  images.  i s dedicated,  i s usually  p r e s e n t as an e s s e n t i a l  (Siddha,  s a c r e d symbol  the Realized;  Faith,  Tirthankara in  which  the as  that  remind  least  a r e made.  1  In-  and t h e f o u r  R i g h t Knowledge,  Hall  While  Right  The image o f t h e (samavasarana)  i n the  image's  liberation;  stuff 10).  (Sangave, 1 9 5 9 :  a n a c t o f homage w h i c h r e c o g n i z e s  superiority.  The T i r t h a n k a r a  h a s no power t o g r a n t boons  power t o a f f e c t w o r l d l y  as  i s s e t " (Coomaraswamy, 1 9 5 6 :  l a y worshippers ask favors  theoretically,  belief, i s  u s , "One c o m e s t o b e o f s u c h  i s primarily  Tirthankara s  posture.  are the panca—paramesthins  faith:  on w h i c h t h e mind  2 38), worship  symbols  o f any temple.  one h o l d s t h e hope o f a t t a i n i n g  A l t h o u g h many  the  of Jain  element  l o o k s o u t on t h e Assembly  Upanishads  263).  f o r whom  i n the s i t t i n g  and R i g h t A u s t e r i t y .  the offerings  presence,  image,  and Sadhu, t h e A s c e t i c )  of the Jain  Right Action  to  Arhat, the Noble; Acharya, the Master;  Upadhaya, t h e Teacher; fundamentals  when  1971:  of auspicious  The m a j o r  A s i d d h a - c a k r a , t h e consummate symbol  on t h i s  only  sanctuary (garbha-graha),  image i s s u r r o u n d e d by a c o l l e c t i o n  scribed  ceremonial  i n a ceremonial bestowing of l i f e  the  always  major  The image becomes c o m p l e t e  (Coomaraswamy,  Located  -  48  actions  and t h e i r  image,  at  and no  outcomes.  Through  - 49 -  the example o f h i s l i f e , the T i r t h a n k a r a touches shipper's stopping  elegantly  Worship  of karmic  assists  particles  nating  t h e karma which  239).  The image i s t h e r e t o r e m i n d  i s present  necessary  for liberation.  recognize  h i s soul  and,  h i s karmic  (jiva)  matter  the worshipper i n  (asrava)  (nirjara)  and  elimi-  (Sangave,  1959:  one o f t h o s e  The w o r s h i p p e r ' s as a r e f l e c t i o n  by p e r f o r m i n g a u s t e r i t i e s  adjust  i n t h e image,  and e n t e r s t h e c o n t e m p l a t i v e wor-  consciousness. the inflow  expressed  goal i s to  of the Tirthankara's  and o b e y i n g  a n d become l i k e  qualities  the Jain  canon,  theTirthankara.  Worship  Keeping I  will  i n mind  the definition  minimally define worship  taking  place within  w i t h and expresses  focus.  I f , as I have argued,  worship Saraf case.  s h o u l d i n some  (1973: He  which  the superiority  s a c r e d and t h e s e c u l a r , sense  given  worship  permits  direct  of the sacred  encompasses o r u n i t e s  matches them as i t were, acknowledge both o f these  157) d e m o n s t r a t e s  earier,  as c o n s e c r a t e d b e h a v i o r ,  a zone o f p u r i t y ,  traffic  the  of religion  that  this  then realms.  i s i n fact the  says,  the Hindu r i t u a l complex o f worship suggests how r i t u a l s o c c u p y a p l a c e o f p r o m i n e n c e i n t h e t r i a d o f t h e H i n d u v i e w , way a n d a i m o f life. The H i n d u v i e w o f l i f e i s a c o n c e p t i o n , a c o g n i t i v e p r o d u c t as an i d e a l i z e d b l u e p r i n t .  -  50  -  The H i n d u way o f l i f e i s t h e a c t u a l t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t i o n i n t o a c t i o n . . . . The Hindu aim o f l i f e r e l a t e s t o the a t t a i n m e n t of mundane a n d / o r c e l e s t i a l g o a l s ( t r i v a r g a , i.e., dharma, a r t h a , and kama), o r o f u n e a r t h l y g o a l s ( a p a v a r g a ^ ITe., moksa). The f i r s t r e l a t e s to p e r s p e c t i v e , the second t o r i t u a l i s m , and t h e t h i r d t o o r i e n t a t i o n . Here i s s i m i l a r ethos mediated, Note, the This  clear  or united,  by  however, t h a t the aim of  earthly  (which includes  separation  recognize with  and  that  each  (Dumont, 1 9 7 0 ) .  outside  of society  As  Weber  action has  celestial)  two and  a s we  will  find.  orientations: the  unearthly.  i s said  i s classically to govern  I f renunciation  or to characterize  (sannyasi),  1973:  life  of the t r i v a r g a  members  (Tyler,  ritual  and  o f g o a l s a c q u i r e s a d d e d i m p o r t a n c e when  a p a r t i c u l a r y a r n a and  renouncer  a statement of worldview  the  can be  the  t h e n moksa i s s u r e l y  we  associated varna's  said  "freedom"  to of  be the  i t s correlative  87-92). (1958:  122)  says of the Hindu's  view:  O r d e r and rank o f t h e c a s t e s i s e t e r n a l ( a c c o r d i n g t o d o c t r i n e ) . . . . To o v e r t h r o w t h e m w o u l d be s e n s e l e s s . . . . A b s o l u t e p r e r e q u i s i t e s ...were s t r i c t f u l f i l l m e n t o f c a s t e o b l i g a tions i n t h e i r present l i f e , the shunning.of r i t u a l l y sacrilegious yearning f o r renouncing caste. Elsewhere  i n t h e same w o r k , W e b e r  (19 5 8 :  24)  says,  In c o n t r a s t t o t h e o r t h o d o x /Hindu_sects7', the heresey of the theophratries /Jainism, Buddhism, L i n g a y a t i s m / c o n s i s t s i n the f a c t t h a t t h e y t e a r t h e i n d i v i d u a l away f r o m h i s r i t u a l i s t i c d u t i e s , hence from the d u t i e s of the c a s t e o f h i s b i r t h , and t h u s i g n o r e o r d e s t r o y h i s dharma. When t h i s o c c u r s t h e  -  -  51  Hindu loses caste. And s i n c e o n l y t h r o u g h c a s t e c a n one b e l o n g t o t h e H i n d u c o m m u n i t y , he i s l o s t t o i t . Dharma, t h a t i s , r i t u a l i s t i c duty, i s the c e n t r a l c r i t e r i o n of Hinduism. While caste of  and  the  like  Hinduism,  dharma, i t does not  interdependence  prefers A  Jainism,  to  of  status,  and  detailed attain archy  ritual  ethical  higher and  thrown; person  the  Jains'  status  rules  ritual  the  caste  the  of  his  status  society limits the  becoming a It  imply  link  implications  but,  making  rather, action  hierarchy their  to  i s above the him.  highest  opened  following  To ritual  to  everyone and  a monk, he  the  are  status  over-  individual  It is that  not  this  puts  the  monks i n  per-  asserts  that  B r a h m i n ' s , whose c a s t e  become l i k e  to  Clearly, hier-  status.  Tirthankaras  becomes l i k e  ritual  Individual striving  i s emphasized.  ritual  primary.  a difference in  depend upon  f o r conduct.  between  a monk i s t o  possible without  position  have actually  renouncer.  should  Jain worship the  full  caste  caste,  comes t o  status  caste  when one  attained  would  raise his  spective :  in  dharma and  system i s simply  to  emulation  ritual  the  the  p r i n c i p l e s upon w h i c h i t i s based  striving  opening of  accept  emphasize dharma o v e r  change i n dharma, then,  accepts  of  no  a l s o has  worshipper  orientations  be  i s .  mixed  s u r p r i s e , then,  two  Nor  tendencies,  should  i n any  one  to  discover  d e p e n d i n g upon  i t s u r p r i s e us worship.  that  to  find  who both  -  The  Jains  divide worship  and  the other-worldly  the  parochial concerns,  considerations. on  than Laukika, as  gave,  The  1959:  Monk's Before  consider idol the I  are thought  should  (Laukika) derives  social  hand, i s based  t o be d i v i n e l y i n -  bestows higher  only  from  and r e g i o n a l  prestige  be p r a c t i c e d so  any p r i n c i p l e s o f P a r a l a u k i k a  long (San-  406).  Worship examining  Jain l a y worship,  I shall  one end o f t h e e a r t h l y - u n e a r t h l y  w o r s h i p o f t h e J a i n monk. monk's w o r s h i p  quote  Laukika  on the other  Paralaukika  and Laukika  i t does n o t v i o l a t e  into the worldly  associated with  Paralaukika,  and d e f i n i t i v e .  -  (Paralaukika).  s c r i p t u r e s , texts which  spired  52  The b e s t  i s i n Stevenson  (1970:  briefly  continuum i n the description of 228-29),  which  at length: U n l i k e a l a y m a n , he d o n s no s p e c i a l c l o t h e s at the temple gates, but worships i n h i s ordinary ones. When h e e n t e r s t h e t e m p l e , h e s t a n d s i n f r o n t o f t h e i d o l a n d bows down t o i t , a n d t h e n p e r f o r m s a m e n t a l e x e r c i s e known as B h a v a p u j a , d u r i n g w h i c h he m e d i t a t e s on t h e u n d o i n g o f karma, t h e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a , and similar subjects. He now p e r f o r m s Pradaksina, circumambulating the shrine either four or seven times. I f he do i t f o u r t i m e s , he m e d i t a t e s on t h e f o u r g a t i , namely, w h e t h e r he w i l l b e b o r n a s a g o d , a man, a n a n i m a l , o r a d e n i z e n o f h e l l ; i f he w a l k s r o u n d s e v e n t i m e s , he t h i n k s how h e c a n b e s t e s c a p e • d w e l l i n g i n any o f t h e seven h e l l s . An a s c e t i c c a n n e i t h e r c l e a n s e t h e i d o l ( j a l a p u j a ) , n o r mark i t w i t h s a f f r o n (candana p u j a ) , n o r o f f e r f l o w e r s ( p u s p a p u j a ) ,. n o r wave a lamp ( d i p a p u j a ) ; n e i t h e r c a n he mark h i s own f o r e h e a d , a s a l a y m a n w o u l d , w i t h  -  53 -  a candalo ( a u s p i c i o u s mark); b u t h i s wors h i p seems t o b e a l m o s t e n t i r e l y m e n t a l a n d ' i n t e r i o r ' , and sometimes i n c l u d e s a c t s o f w o r s h i p known as Khamasamana, C a i t y a v a n d a , and Javanticayanam.• He a l s o u s u a l l y s i n g s some h y m n i n p r a i s e o f t h e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e A r i h a n t a , and then j o i n i n g h i s hands r e p e a t s a mantra. After meditating i n a particular p o s t u r e ( k a u s a g g a ) , h e t e l l s h i s b e a d s , making salutations t o 'theFive' (Arihanta, Siddha, Acarya, Upadhyaya and Sadhu), and to Knowledge, F a i t h , C h a r a c t e r and A u s t e r i t y . When h e h a s d o n e t h i s a n d s a i d t h e A v a s a h i , which allows him t o enter h i sw o r l d l y a f f a i r s a g a i n , he f e e l s t h a t Bhava p u j a i s complete; w i t h i t s d i f f e r e n t p a r t s and t h e i r v a r i a t i o n s i t g e n e r a l l y l a s t s about an hour. A f t e r c o m p l e t i n g h i sBhava p u j a t h e a s c e t i c goes back t o t h e monastery and e i t h e r preaches o r reads one o f t h e s c r i p t u r e s . There  are several  monk's w o r s h i p . of  First,  t h e acts found  these  physical  contact.  ties the (The  mental  and, hence  As Heesterman  back on t h e w o r l d .  t h e monk's m e n t a l act  h i sworship  i n l a yworship.  acts are primarily  limits  his  important things t o note entails  a proper  As Stevenson  and i n t e r i o r .  (atleast  (.1964 :  about t h e subset  observes, T h e monk  f o rt h e J a i n s ) ,  23) p u t s  it,  worldly  t h e monk t u r n s  Second, t h e image i s t h e f o c u s o f  and p h y s i c a l  i s t o bow~ t o t h e i m a g e .  actions.  The monk's  first  He t h e n m e d i t a t e s o n t h e q u a l i -  o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a , r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e image; he image, s i n g s p r a i s e salute  to the Five,  the s p i r i t u a l souls.)  t o t h e image and s a l u t e s the panca paramesthins,  circles  "The F i v e . " recognizes  c h a i n c o n n e c t i n g t h e monk a n d t h e l i b e r a t e d  Third,  every  action  o f t h e monk, r e m i n d s  him of the  i  - 54 -  necessary  steps to l i b e r a t i o n :  bhava puja and Pradaksina,  or a s s i s t s him i n a t t a i n i n g l i b e r a t i o n : The monk, then,  mantra and kausagga.  i s alone and c o n f r o n t s t h e image  o t h e r s ; he i s separated  from the o u t s i d e world.  without  His actions  are more r e s t r i c t e d and c o n s c i o u s l y d e l i b e r a t e than are the layman's.  They are programmatic and do not r e q u i r e t h e  o r c h e s t r a t i o n o f a temple o f f i c i a n t .  Although he stands  b e f o r e t h e temple's image, he bows, showing h i s subordinat i o n t o the image, and s i n g s p r a i s e s ; he shows no o v e r t s i g n o f p e t i t i o n or a d o r a t i o n , nor the emotionalism  that  accompanies Hindu d e v o t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s (bhakti).10  Moreover,  apart from h i s Avasahi, any  s o c i a l concerns.  there i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t he has  H i s s o l e t i e , d u r i n g worship, i s t o  the image. Whether d u r i n g worship o r not, the monk, i n h i s a t t i t u d e of moksa, attempts t o consecrate  a l l a c t i o n by c a t e g o r i z i n g  and e v a l u a t i n g h i s a c t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o dogmatic precedent. He should a c t f o r r e l i g i o u s purposes only 160) .  (Bhargava, 1968:  He w i l l take a d d i t i o n a l vows and penances^-'- as the  means o f c o n s e c r a t i o n . 10.  The absence o f d e v o t i o n a l i s m i s e n t i r e l y c o n s i s t e n t not o n l y with J a i n h i s t o r y but philosophy as w e l l . Theism and p h i l o s o p h i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n a r e not bedf e l l o w s i n I n d i a (Smart, 1964: 130). N e v e r t h e l e s s , there i s some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t J a i n s have i n t r o d u c e d d e v o t i o n a l i s m i n t o the worship o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a (Stevenson, 1970: 127-28).  11.  The J a i n s d i v i d e penance i n t o two c l a s s e s : i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l . E x t e r n a l penances p r i m a r i l y r e g u l a t e  -  Before of  proceeding  interpretation.  "the  fabric  pret  their  is  the  of  social  and  that action  relations"  Action,  as  insofar  associated with  the problem  he  shares,  to But  the  as  actor.  of  deceit,  action;  145).  existing Symbols entail  are  values.  Jain  To  he  i f a  assumes  a c t as  t h e monk.  i . e . , one  more t h a n  no  network  Therefore,  this  say  structure  bestows  principles  pragmatically  social  inter-  good o r p r o p e r ,  some e x t e n t , J a i n i s to  i t is  human b e i n g s  principles, acts.  logic  symbols:  actually  T i r t h a n k a r a and  course,  be  of  did  a monk d o e s i s t o a c q u i r e t h o s e  of  not.  the  with Jain  associated with the  may  consider our  expectations, which  i t i s accepted  i n accordance  as  their  takes, the  g o o d n e s s o r p r o p r i e t y on  Tirthankara or  guide  ( G e e r t z , 1973:  shared  qualities  lay worship,  of meaning i n terms of which  "agreements" or  acts  -  C u l t u r e i s a system  experience  form  to  55  may  those a  qualities  There i s , a c t as i f  when.in  fact  t h a t symbols  he may  manipulated.  diet: t h e k i n d s and amounts o f c e r t a i n f o o d s , t h e p l a c e s a t w h i c h t h e y may b e e a t e n a n d t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h t h e y may b e o b t a i n e d . These e x t e r n a l penances a l s o i m p o s e u p o n t h e monk a l i f e o f s o l i t u d e a n d w a n d e r i n g as w e l l as k a y a k l e s a , t h e i n f l i c t i o n o f p a i n on t h e body by a d o p t i n g v a r i o u s p o s t u r e s o r s u b m i t t i n g the body t o the punishment o f n a t u r e : i n t e n s e h e a t and i n c l e m e n t w e a t h e r . E x t e r n a l penances p r i m a r i l y support o r enhance the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e i n t e r n a l p e n a n c e s , w h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d more important than the e x t e r n a l penances. Right Belief and R i g h t Knowledge l e a d t o R i g h t C o n d u c t : behavior f o l l o w s t h o u g h t , and i t i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t i n t e r n a l penances are primary. T h e m o s t common e x t e r n a l penance i s k y o t s a r g a ( " d i s m i s s i n g the body"), the r i g i d standing posture p e c u l i a r to Jainism.  - 56 -  The  Non-idolatrousSthanakavasi The  monk's a n d t h e l a y m a n ' s  opportunity position essential  to publicly  faith  making  non-idolatrous  i ti s that,  knowledge  the s i xd a i l y  and p r a c t i c e  absolutely  of which  essential  duties  one's  t o o ; i t i s an  i td i s t i n c t i v e l y  Sthanakavasi l a i t y  an  and a s s e r t  p a r t o f t h e d e v o u t monk's o r l a y m a n ' s  t h e i r worship around  and  e x p r e s s one's  i n t h e community, though  ship punctuates l i f e , The  worship i s not merely  day.  Wor-  Jain.  explicitly  structure  (Avasyakas), the  are considered  f o r t h e n o v i c e monk  fundamental  (Shubring, 1978:  26 8 - 6 9 ) . All worship, 1.  s i xd a i l y  duties  need  n o t be performed  but a complete performance Samaiya, either salutes asking  a vow d e n o u n c i n g  by mind,  contains actions  speech o r a c t i o n  vow o f J a i n i s m ,  the following:  harmful to  and one's  f o r any v i o l a t i o n  ahimsa,  life,  (included are  t o the panca-paramesthins forgiveness  i n every  and t a k i n g  guru,  of the f i r s t  a vow t o a b s t a i n  from a l l s i n ) ; 2.  Cauvisatthava,  a hymn i n p r a i s e  of the twenty-four  Tirthankaras; 3.  Vandanaga, a s a l u t e east  c o r n e r i f one's  asking of  t o one's  good  forgiveness conduct;  guru  (or the north-  guru i s n o t present) and  f o rviolations  of the rules  -  4.  Padikkamana, twelve  5.  vows  Kaussagga, ing  6.  a  -  c o n f e s s i o n o f any (the f i v e  sitting  major  violations  and  seven  of  the  supplementary);  i n m e d i t a t i v e p o s t u r e and  say-  mantra;  Paccakkhana, ing  57  t h e day  a vow  not  to eat  certain  (Sh.ub.ring, 1 9 7 8 :  269;  foods  dur19 70 :  Stevenson,  254-58).  Thus w o r s h i p ,  i f complete  and  ever present i n the worshipper's Jainism:  the  and  the  rules  the  social  five of  These d a i l y  his transgressions,  go  the  true  spirit  t o the monastery.  tion  and  i n the Upasaro,  interior,  duties  t o improve  S t h a n a k a v a s i , who  wholly  which  meditate  The  worship  seven  that  on  the  religious  Their worship,  complete  worship  p r e v e n t s harm t o l i f e  (The  uttarasana i s also  the  conand,  incongruous  J a i n i s m , conduct house o f like  in  conduct.  the  their  Jains  or  t h e monk's, i s  But  traditional  w i t h u t t a r a s a n a , a gauze c l o t h which  mouth and broom.  i n the  of  actions  activities,  i s ,meditation, salutation  consciously dresses  rules  proper behavior  of verse are the primary v e h i c l e s .  quite  keeps  p e r m i t t h e monk o r  idol  teachings of  ethical  define Jain  his daily  believe  regularly,  s u p p o r t i n g vows  upon h i s p r e v i o u s day's  t h r o u g h vows, s t r i v e  with  mind the  vows, the  good conduct,  world.  layman t o r e f l e c t fess  major  performed  "monads," and  the  and  worshipper  monk's covers a  recita-  clothing, the  monk's  c o n s i d e r e d a symbol of  the  -  control  of  speech.)  p e r i o d s , a monk.  generally  to  he  agrees  t o obey  On  especially  which  one  the y e a r ) , the the monastery It  earthly  of worship; completely  the  gurus  cate to  least  layman t a k e s  after of  vows,  austerity, his  which  worship.  Paryushana,  committed  t o do  at this  in  throughout  Poshadha, e n t e r i n g  p o i n t t h a t the  unearthly  two  ( P a r a l a u k l k a ) and  role  in defining  layman minimizes  t o bow  the  Sthanakavasi  the e a r t h l y  goals  Not  o n l y does the i s in direct  (1970:  Sthanakavasi, reverence  gurus, which  he  i s on  rejection  Of  of  the path  any  spiritual  or  112)  have  indignantly of  flowers  denial  indi-  succession  indicates  elements  from  so  to siddha-hood  i t also  Hindu  and  offerings  Ex-  "having  they  Sthanakavasi's  line  the Tirthankaras, but  Sthanakavasi's  Stevenson  t h a t t h e y make t h e m no  the T i r t h a n k a r a : by  differ  t o , show them d o u b l e  out  guru  does not  comment t h a t t h e  their  He  t h e monk's l i f e .  o f h i s v o w s , he  of worshipping  &c."  after  during worship.  interesting  t h a t the  travelled  to note  severity  deny, p o i n t i n g fruit  day  become,  a monk f o r - t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s .  patterns h i s worship  been accused  and  as  Sthanakavasi  monks, a t  only  living  layman t o  the o t h e r w o r l d l y goals dominate h i s worship.  f o r the  makes t h e  time  layman i s encouraged  in worship—the  The  the  a l l sins  (Laukika)—play a crucial  worship.  cept  (the l a s t  forgiveness of  and  the  a particular  for a specified  i s important  tendencies  Ideally  or perform  h o l y days  asks  -  Worship permits  for brief  fast  58  first the  influences  - 59  in  their worship  of the T i r t h a n k a r a .  however, worship being an  images o f Hindu  t h e most p o p u l a r .  image, however,  Jain  The  Sthanakavasi  gods, Ganesha and  These a c t s o f w o r s h i p  are kept  of  their  is  most r e s i l i e n t  thought  Sarasvati  directed  completely separate  the  great majority of  T i r t h a n k a r a s , and  from  and,  hence, most f i r m l y  presents i t s e l f .  influence)  a part of  focus  (no d o u b t b e c a u s e o f  the T i r t h a n k a r a s have c a p t u r e s the The  are  more H i n d u i z e d t h a n  Sthanakavasi brothers.  do,  f o r example, use  shippers  much, o f also  which,  obey  one's p r e c e p t o r self-control the  concerns  the  despite the  same p r i n c i p l e s :  image w o r s h i p p i n g  Sanskrit during their worship  the Hindu  ritual protocol.  six daily apparent  worship  of  (Gurupasti),  the  duties,  differences, god  of the  of  gifts  an  (Dana).  and  They have wor-  alternative  expounds  the  (Deva-puja), worship  of  austerities  Inevitably,  c o m m u n i t y h a v e come t o s e a s o n  s h i p w i t h a mundane p r o v i n c i a l i s m  least  Svetambara  image  study of scriptures  (Samyama), p e r f o r m a n c e  giving  The  but  Hindu  focus, at  the ordinary worshipper.  adopted  what  Jain  Thus, w h i l e i n theory the  their  images  that  for  and  toward  "true"  Jains worship  i t i s i n image w o r s h i p  J a i n i s m i s moksa, i n c r e a s i n g l y  list  do,  worship. Nevertheless,  of  -  absent  then, Jain  of  (Svadhyaya), (tapa) the  daily  image  i n t h e monk's  wor-  worship.  -  60  LAY  Svetambara  Jain  but the e s s e n t i a l s Hindu worship: salutation, image's  IDOLATRY  worship differs  of Jain  purity  idol  and  not provide  the of  Jains,  rules  using  non-exchange  many e l e m e n t s  social  ritual  sacrifices,  pranam of  (Babb,  canons,  the  (Jacobi,  1961:  inherent  i n their  t o become a  t o become a J a i n  the  canons  466),  and  strategy  free  to  adopt  While the  "True  monk b y  or  1975).  Jain  t h e y do n o t condemn t h e  but urge him  the Brahmin  of food  neighbors' worship.  are anti-brahmanical,  They u r g e  area);  non-alignment were  canons  region  acknowledgement  i n the J a i n  for worship  of their  and  an o f f e r i n g  the f l e x i b i l i t y and  to  w o r s h i p a r e t h e same a s i n  a gesture of respect  superiority;  from r e g i o n  (both o f p e r s o n and  Although worship i s mentioned do  -  Brahmin's  Brahmin."  practicing  12 true  sacrifice:  austerities.  IT  Image W o r s h i p :  Like  his idol  A Brief  worshipping Hindu  worshipper prepares himself with  candana  12.  See t h e U t t a r a d h y a yana, vol. 2).  13.  I have t a k e n t h i s Stevenson (1961:  by  Description  counterpart,  the  Svetambara  bathing, marking h i s forehead  (an a u s p i c i o u s mark) and  lectures  donning  12  and  account o f Svetambara 799-802).  two  25  special  (Jaina  worship  Sutras,  from  -  seamless and  the  cloths kept shoulder  exposed).  He  dress,  sanctuary  While  the  beginning  worship,  which  gifts  He  who  coin;  the  enters the  with  the  right  uttarasana,  the  monk's  the  every  valuables  forfeits  (pradaksina)  i n the  sanctuary  always  containing  the  Three Jewels of  Jainism:  and  Right  Unlike  the  passage  sacred  world  ( t h a t i s , he  only  those  of  gauze  inner  temple  Faith,  he  e n t e r s ) , the  or on. ^ 1  circumambulates direction  the  temple's  meditates  Right  i s a purely  food  "light"  (and  Hindu worshipper,  temple  retain.  clockwise  image) w h i l e Right  the  the  merely  auspicious  any  things  them, w h e t h e r  worshipper  toward the  the  Conduct.  shoulder  leaves  demands a l l t h a t h i s e y e s  temple  inner  cloth  one's  the  i m a g e d o e s he  c l o t h e s , the  side  enter  worshipper  temple;  changing his  his right  t o wear  then not  After  with  into  the  Tirthankara  Tirthankara  loin  image.  o r money o u t s i d e to  the  wears w i t h  i t i s permissible  valuables are  he  the worshipper would  containing  Before  (which  a l s o wear the  mouth covering.14 daily  -  e s p e c i a l l y f o r worship:  cloth  may  61  on  Knowledge whose  entry  physical  Jain brings  his  14,  I n some r e g i o n s . , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e S o u t h , t h e l a y m a n may~ a l s o w e a r h i s s a c r e d t h r e a d a r o u n d h i s w a i s t and, S t e v e n s o n ( 1 9 6 1 ) n o t e s , h e may a l s o w e a r a c a s t e m a r k . However, t h i s w e a r i n g o f t h e s a c r e d t h r e a d and caste mark i s c o n t r a r y t o J a i n p r i n c i p l e s .  15.  I t i s t e m p t i n g t o see t h e image's t a k i n g a l l t h a t i t sees' a s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p r e s s i o n o f a r e m o t e d i s c i p l i n a r y f a t h e r , an a l l p o w e r f u l f i g u r e t h a t n o t o n l y t a k e s but a l s o t e a c h e s s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by c o n t r o l l i n g d e s i r e s and e m o t i o n s . One's g u r u o r r e l i g i o u s p r e c e p t o r , f o r e x a m p l e , i s s a i d t o be l i k e a f a t h e r w i t h t h e w a r m t h and c o m p a s s i o n o f a m o t h e r ( C a r s t a i r s , 1961: 45).  -  hands t o g e t h e r  before  62 -  h i m (pranam)  "begs a n d commands" a l l w o r d l y When a w e a l t h y w o r s h i p p e r festivals,  concerns  e a c h w o r s h i p p e r may j o i n  merit  which  o f performing  sum  in  says  many H i n d u t e m p l e s ,  not auction  ritual  alone;  After nectars,  praises An  an e s t a b l i s h e d  He w h o b i d s  j a l a - p u j a alone.  highest  Unlike  bathe and  The Digambara J a i n s , on t h e o t h e r  hand,  j a l a - p u j a , n o r does a w o r s h i p p e r p e r f o r m worship  among t h e D i g a m b a r a i s more  t h e image i s b a t h e d w i t h w a t e r , m i l k  places.  saffron  The m a r k i n g  this  congregational.  and f i v e  ( c a n d a n a - p u j a)  i s done w h i l e  i n fourteen  singing.the  of the Tirthankara. a d d i t i o n a l step  i n those  w e a l t h i e r temples  d r e s s i n g o f t h e image i n i t s f i n e s t Again,  o f t h e image,  t h e w o r s h i p p e r may e n t e r ,  i t i s .marked w i t h  auspicious  f o r t h e honor  butter), representing  " N i s s a h i " and performs  important  t h e marking o f t h e image.  o f money, i s t h e medium o f e x c h a n g e .  mark t h e i m a g e . ^ do  the bidding  , the bathing  i s f o l l o w e d b y c a n d a n a - p u j a,  again  o r during  C  jala-puja  A measure o f g h l ( c l a r i f i e d  "Nissahi" which  t o leave.  i spresent  •I  and  and says  jewelry  (anga-puja).  t h e wealthy b i df o r t h e honor o f having  officiant  dress  t h e image i n i t s g o l d  finery.  i s the  t h e temple I f times a r e  16.  S t e v e n s o n (.1910: 103) n o t e s i n h e r a c c o u n t o f image w o r s h i p a t Mt. Abu t h a t , s i n c e j a l a - p u j a c a n b e done o n l y once d u r i n g t h e day, a s i n g l e person has t h e honor of doing i t .  17.  A l t h o u g h women a r e q u i t e f r e e t o w o r s h i p i n t h e t e m p l e s , S t e v e n s o n m a i n t a i n s t h a t f e w women e n t e r t h e i n n e r s h r i n e d u r i n g Svetambara worship. T h e D i g a m b a r a b a r women c o m p l e t e l y from t h i s most s a c r e d p l a c e . i  -  hard,  the worshipper,  dressed  in  After garlands  lamp  the  says  of  fruits  from In  rice  and  may  As  the worshipper  "Nissahi" and  offers  again  and  waving burning  the  Assembly  front  of the  (aksata-puj a),  nuts  i n Figure After  himself final his  does a r a t l , incense  Hall,  the  the  He  offering.  (sanctified  the  asks  (dhupa-puja)  image s i t s  on  to the  a  royal  offers  (naivedya-puja) ,  Tirthankara.  The  arranges  and  wor-  the  rice  a r e made, t h e w o r s h i p p e r p r o s t r a t e s the  t o be  image and  says  cut o f f from  "Nissahi"  any  offerings;  now  the  Silently, performs i  the  i n one  the meditative  bhava-puj a  become  the most (an a c t o f  t h i n k s about the q u a l i t i e s  of  the  the of  does  do  of  not  Jain  offerings  bhava-puja, n  for  remembrance  Unlike the Hindu worshipper,  the worship.18  the worshipper 18.  offerings  food).  the worshipper part of  inner  waving  image, the worshipper sweetmeats  (phala-puja)  (pranam) b e f o r e  of  the  and  1.  time.  partake  image  flowers  leaves  s h i p p e r , whether Svetambara or Digambara, as  have the  image.  throne.  gifts  sum,  the worshipper  (puspa-puja).  Viewed lion  for a lesser  candana-puja,  ( d i p a - p u j a)  before  -  silver.  s a n c t u a r y , he a  63  not  prasad postures,  important detachment) , Tirthankara  In the Digambara worship, the p u j a r i , temple o f f i c i a n t , conducting the worship stands " r i g i d / i n kyotsarga, a r i g i d s t a n d i n g p o s t u r e p e c u l i a r t o t h e Jain£7 b e f o r e the shrine f o r a f u l l minute i n absolute s i l e n c e , ceasing f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e t h e i n t o n i n g w h i c h he h a d m a i n t a i n e d a l l t h r o u g h o u t t h e c l e a n s i n g , p r e p a r a t i o n and o f f e r i n g " ( S t e v e n s o n , 1910: 91).  -  so  t h a t h e may  no  requests.  he  backs  worship- 1  h i m s e l f become Finally,  As  , and r e - e n t e r s  Victor  ordinary and  from ordinary Jain  worshipper  says  Ritual  f o l l o w i n g Van Gennep  the individual  the r i t u a l  and s a y i n g  a c t i o n marked o f f  fact,  a r e marked o f f each time Outside  context  "Nissahi."  from  sacredness  a c t i o n by s e p a r a t i o n and a g g r e g a t i o n .  (pranam)  The  by j o i n i n g h i s  His activities, i n  he does pranam and  on t h e t e m p l e ' s p o r c h ,  cut o f f from the concerns o f h i s w o r l d l y 19.  apart  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  hands  "Nissahi."  w h i c h ends h i s  Worship  i ti s structured social  enters  makes  life.  93-111),  sets  He  facing the Tirthankara,  "Avasahi,"  his social  (1967:  ritual  existence.  liminality;  the Tirthankara.  Structure of Jain  Turner  (1960) , o b s e r v e s ,  like  respectfully  away t o t h e d o o r ,  The  -  64  he asks  life.  utters  1  t o be  Crossing the  J a i n w o r s h i p i s b y no means u n i f o r m i n p r a c t i c e . Of the t h r e e major sub-sects o f t h e Digambara J a i n s ( B i s a p a n t h i , T e r a p a n t h i and T a r a n a p a n t h i ) , Sangave (1959: 54) n o t e s t h a t t h e B i s a p a n t h i do a r a t i , o f f e r s w e e t m e a t s , and s i t while worshipping. The T e r a p a n t h i s w o r s h i p images w i t h f l o w e r s , f r u i t s , r i c e and g r e e n v e g e t a b l e s , b u t t h e y do not perform a r a t i nor o f f e r sweetmeats. The Taranapanthi do n o t w o r s h i p t h e i m a g e s o f T i r t h a n k a r a s , b u t . w o r s h i p their sacred books. Of t h e t h r e e S v e t a m b a r a s e c t s , t h e Sthanakavasi and T e r a p a n t h i , a r e n o n - i d o l a t r o u s . The M u r t i p u j a k a a r e i d o l worshippers and t h e primary subject of t h i s study.  -  entrance of the any  thought  inner  i n n e r s a n c t u a r y , he  of the  temple  t o be  servants.  presents his gifts  cut o f f from  any  the worshipper  frontier,  gradually  until  he  stands  as  worship,  separation  and  says  the  i t will  be  his ritual  separates those  sanctuary  from  "Nissahi,"  s i m p l e r and which  may  into  performs.  crosses a social  ties  rice).  follow  costly  the  inter-  itself.  The social  his ritual  per-  o u t s i d e the  inner  inner sanctuary.  rites  actions,  outside  the  inner sanctuary.  i f the worshipper  Elsewhere,  which  does  (marking  however,  ( e s p e c i a l l y women)  c a n d a n a - p u j a and  says  additional  the worshipper's  the  worship  It  a r e t o be  incense before the  t h a t many J a i n s  less  performed  candana-puj a  the  new  only separates h i s  those  that,  o n l y do  (waving  (offering says  asks  action.  ritual  within  those w i t h i n  (1970) s a y s  dhupa-puj a  (1910:103)  not  actions  act of worship  h a v e much t i m e , he  aksata-puja  he  c o n t a i n s an  the  then, highlights  s a n c t u a r y and  image),  noted,  those performed  Stevenson  and  actions but, within  formance,  the  he  to follow  aggregation within  actions  breaking  makes h i s  the worship  "Nissahi,"  from  o u t s i d e the  he  more t h a n mere s o c i a l  saying "Nissahi"  Saying  of  actions  worshipper's from  cut o f f  alone b e f o r e the T i r t h a n k a r a image.  something  Jain  rites  Finally,  severing his worldly  those present that  preted  a  t o be  t o the T i r t h a n k a r a and  thoughts  Each time  inner  asks  s a n c t u a r y , h a v i n g done c a n d a n a - p u j a,  offerings,  to  -  65  entails  the  image)  and  Stevenson perform  only  are performed  not  those  outside  -  the  inner  his  ordinary  of  sanctuary.  entering  to enter  the inner  the worshipper  rites like  which  sanctuary  worshipper.  The b a t h i n g ,  sacred  part  of Jain  outline practice  except  that  dress "ordinary"  to enter the  i s t h e most pure and  follows  during  w h e n we n o t e  pilgrimage, of their  (Bharati, then,  consciously  with  t h e same  general  above. that  i s considered  has two b a s i c  dresses  with  This  worship,  by worshippers preceptor's  divisions:  bathing,  bhava—puja,  dhupa-puja that  1) t h e  i n which  a s a monk, p r o c e e d i n g  t i o n b a t h and w h i c h a r e performed These two b a s i c  favorite  1963: 144).  t h e image and e n d i n g w i t h beginning  a  d e s i r e t o emulate t h e i r  "complete" worship, beginning  rites  those  and marking t h e  a t Sarunaya,  worship  becomes s i g n i f i c a n t  Jain worship,  with  a monk.  does  i fone wants  by i m p l i c a t i o n ,  pilgrimage,  way o f l i f e  shipper  like  he does n o t , t h e n ,  changing clothes  (1970) n o t e s  an e x p r e s s i o n  total  he o n l y  as t h e "complete" w o r s h i p o u t l i n e d  especially as  and dress  to  o f the temple.  Stevenson place  rites  chooses  decide  c h a r a c t e r i z e s h i m as an  are n o t necessary, which,  I f he  he must c o n s c i o u s l y  f o l l o w c an dan a - p u j a;  sanctuary,  t h e image.  chooses n o t t o enter,  and h i s dress  inner  with  purification  a monk  forehead  rites i n  Thus t h e J a i n w o r s h i p p e r h a s t h e o p t i o n  sanctuary  undertake extensive If  The w o r s h i p p e r does t h e s e  clothes.  the inner  -  66  a n d 2)  to  contact  those  do n o t r e q u i r e  i n one's everyday  types o f worship, with  t h e wor-  a  purifica-  clothes.  minor v a r i a t i o n s , are  -  the  67  -  most commonly u s e d by t h e m a j o r i t y  of Jains.  shipper,  i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e form o f w o r s h i p he  performs  some o f t h o s e  additional of  rites  rites  which  chooses,  f o l l o w c a n d a n a - p u j a.  and i s contingent  i n the inner  sanctuary.  which constitute the r i t u a l , himself  wor-  Which  he s e l e c t s i s , by and l a r g e , t h e d e c i s i o n  the worshipper  those  rites  Every  t o be l i k e  on t h e performance o f I t i s these  actions  permitting the actor to declare  the Tirthankara  o r monk t o h i s c o m m u n i t y ' s  members. Piety worship  has i t s e a r t h l y rewards,  c a n be a n a l y t i c a l l y  earthly,  divided into  i n which each person  complicated  and  the unearthly,  the  monk.  the  two g o a l s achieve  of  this  on  to  surpass  some w o r l d l y  i n which the worhsipper  i n h i sdaily  the other.  affairs;  How  this  (earthly) orders  strives  benefit,  t o emulate balance  he must l e a r n t o u s e one  i s done i s one o f t h e t o p i c s  the social  o f worship,  At best  ritual.  the social  ascending  the cosmic  comingle, but t h e i r order,  up t o t h e p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d  occasionally in  various  Among t h e J a i n s , e a c h p e r s o n m u s t l e a r n t o  constricting  order.  the  section.  social  live  through  p u r i t y and t o gain  Thus, w i t h i n t h e context and  strives,  earlier,  two g o a l s :  p r e s t a t i o n s and c o u n t e r - p r e s t a t i o n s ,  his: f e l l o w s i n r i t u a l  to  t o o . As n o t e d  order  which  fails  standards  f i t depends  miserably  to  o f t h e cosmic  i s an a p p r o x i m a t i o n ,  to the universal order  Cosmic order,  (unearthly)  only  established  however, i s no mere s k e l e t o n o f  -  the is  social social  68 -  order, but a social action  order without ambiguity.  made s a c r e d w i t h i n  I t  the context of i t s  execution.  Ritual  When i n a p o l l u t e d  Purification  state,  one i s o f f e n s i v e  t o the  deity  o r t h e i m a g e a n d h e may n o t p e r f o r m a c t s  of worship  until  purified.  pollution  of  As n o t e d  a person e n t a i l s  During worship, not  ritual  some d e g r e e  purity.  any s e r i o u s  o f avoidance  then, t h e emphasis  separates people cause  earlier,  i s on r i t u a l  I t i s the control  from people  isolation. pollution,  of pollution  and people  h e may b e c o n t a m i n a t e d b y o t h e r s ,  must a v o i d  and  t h o s e who a r e m o r e p o l l u t e d  from  that  gods and, b e -  the worshipper (Mandelbaum, 1970:  192-195). The involves  worshipper's p u r i f i c a t i o n elaborate ritual  sacred mantras such  as f i r e ,  butter,  etc.  acts:  water,  (Mandelbaum, 1970:  complete  ritual  a s many d a i l y  gestures, the repeating of agents,  a n d cow p r o d u c t , e . g . , d u n g , u r i n g ,  under the s t r i c t e s t  purify  formal; i t  and s a y i n g s , and t h e use o f s p e c i a l  prepared  erally  i s rigidly  purity.  203). His clothes are  procedures  Moreover,  h i m s e l f and w o r s h i p contacts with  milk,  to insure  their  the worshipper w i l l i n the morning  o t h e r s as p o s s i b l e  gen-  to avoid  before  worship  - 69 -  (Mandelbaum, 1970: his  184), thereby  the worshipper's  a purified  clothes  s e t , t h e new c l o t h e s  As  with the Stanakavasi Jains,  an  ascetic  the  temple  will  only  possessions  before worship  Putting  the worshipper the l i f e  o f a renouncer, 2500 y e a r s .  limitations  a s we  see, leave behind success  He s e t s  or relinquish  possessions  a s i d e any  setting  on h i s w e a l t h .  fol-  he  He d o e s n o t ,  every  reminder  (and a c h i e v e an a b s o l u t e e q u a l i t y  on those outward enacts  Although  faithfully  f e l l o w w o r s h i p p e r s ) , b u t he does v o l u n t a r i l y  He s y m b o l i c a l l y  one's  i s re-enacting the Tirth-  success, while i n the r i t u a l  accepts  he  aside  i s of great importance.  voluntarily  h i sworldly  must l e a v e  t o t h e T i r t h a n k a r a image.  of worldly  limitations  which  ( e . g . , j e w e l r y , money) w h i c h  l o w e d b y J a i n monks f o r o v e r  to  are those  behind  ankara' s entry into  shall  the clothes  and b e g i n n i n g h i s w o r s h i p ,  symbolically,  signs  are not ordinary clothes.  entering  not offer  possessions  must be exchanged f o r  monk w e a r s a n d t h e w o r s h i p p e r , b e f o r e  those worldly  his  extreme p u r i t y o f  person. While  of  insuring  signs of success  the f i f t h  with  accept  and w e a l t h .  m a j o r vow w h i c h  limits his  ( a p a r i g r a h a ) and d e c l a r e s t h a t he i s n o t a t t a c h e d  the world. Every  act of ritual  purification  must be u n d e r s t o o d  interpreted with reference to hierarchy. condition  that entitles  the worshippers  Purity  and  i s the pre-  t o enter the temple  -  for  worship;  i t p r o c l a i m s an  When a w o r s h i p p e r d r e s s e s a s The  worshipper adopts  does n o t  articulate  distinction, The we  remember t h a t concerns  renouncer; During  While has  nature"  he  differences.  tion  be  clothes—that  The  pure-impure  among t h e w o r s h i p p e r s , i s  neutralized.  assumes added i m p o r t a n c e  f i r s t saying of gone.  ritual,  to the  The  hierarchy  image,  "Nissahi"  worshipper  i s never  asks  ritually  when  that becomes  are denied access  completely banished.  insures  i t does not  of each worshipper.  A s we  to temples  that  each  worshipper  imply the equal  noted e a r l i e r , because  inherent impurity which  "moral  some  other Jains  their  ritual  Dasa believe  purifica-  cannot ameliorate. Equality,  supports  and  equality, shippers.  especially  affirms  but  by  It will  hierarchy.  Ritual  during ritual  hierarchy,  showing be  most vehement d e n i a l  tion  i s neutralized.  b e c o m e s a monk.  them t o have an  n o t by  remembered t h a t of  never  w i t h i t s apparent  T h i s must be  absolute of the  t h e monk's o r d e r ,  the caste system,  equality,  pilgrimage,  equality  establishes  f o r the renewal of hierarchy  s a c r e d domain.  and  showing  the p o t e n t i a l  among t h e w o r s h i p p e r s , m e r e l y  conditions and  a monk, h i e r a r c h y  the worshipper's e q u a l i t y  access  Jains  the  among t h e w o r s h i p p e r s .  e m b l e m — t h e monk's  social  at least  equality  worshipper's p u r i f i c a t i o n  worldly a  an  -  70  the  eliminated non-differentiathe  pre-  i n a purely  the case  wor-  f o r i f our  religious analysis  -71 of  the Indian hierarchical  presents  system  a dangerous s i t u a t i o n  ultimately  deny, those  because  fundamental  questions  it  threatens t o create disorder o r  into  structure  two c l a s s e s :  order  t o touch  rules  who  community purify  heightened ritual  (the t i r t h a )  themselves, state  While  community denies portance As  social  the ideal  social intercourse;  purify  everyday social  themselves  clothes.  themThus,  duplicated.  Those  and separated, w i t h i n t h e u  Hierarchy, then, r e -  organization of the Jain  caste,- i t preserves  h i e r a r c h y and t h e im-  of purity. with  shipper's  the non-idol worshipping  Sthanakavasi,  progress, e n t e r i n g t h e temple,  t h e wor-  approaching the  image and making t h e o f f e r i n g s , , a l l o w s h i m t o s h a r e , 20.  i n  t h e monk, a r e i n a  obligation.  social  the worshippers  organization o fthe  i sritually  purity  society.  who do n o t p u r i f y  becoming l i k e  of ritual  context, from  appears.  the ideal  i t q u e s t i o n s , and must  separates  t h e image, and those t o wear t h e i r  equality  meaninglessness.  t h o s e who r i t u a l l y  among t h e w o r s h i p p e r s , Jain  o f normal  o f Jain worship  selves but continue  complete  values o f Indian  It  The  the very  i s correct,  i f only  I t w o u l d b e w r o n g , I t h i n k , t o make t o o much o f t h i s similarity. W h i l e i t does i n f a c t e x i s t , i t must be remembered t h a t t h e Digambara a b s o l u t e l y r e f u s e t o l e t women e n t e r t h e i n n e r s a n c t u a r y s i n c e t h e y c a n n o t u n d e r any c i r c u m s t a n c e s a t t a i n l i b e r a t i o n . The S v e t a m b a r a , w h i l e p e r m i t t i n g women t o e n t e r t h e i n n e r s a n c t u a r y a n d c o n c e d i n g t h a t t h e y may a t t a i n l i b e r a t i o n , i n f a c t h a v e f e w women w i l l i n g t o u n d e r t a k e t h e n e c e s s a r y s t e p s , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t women a r e s a i d t o m o r e c l o s e l y f o l l o w t h e r u l e s ' o f r i t u a l e t i q u e t t e t h a n d o t h e men.  briefly, social (and  the l i f e  life  o f a monk.  a n d becomes s o l e l y  thus h i s salvation),  because o f h i spending social  he s h o u l d  aspiring  steps  surfaces  as a dominant value: ' I am m y s e l f ,  know h i m s e l f  t o freedom from bonds"  C a n d a n a — p u j a:  (Jaina Sutras,  Worship w i t h  the  i n the inner  worshipper  auspicious  sanctuary.  touches  places.  The m a r k i n g  bathed w i t h water, milk  is  done w h i l e  if  only  wrist,  b i g toe,  right  right  shoulder,  head, t h r o a t , heart, (See  Figure  alone-  v o l . 1:  71).  the primary  the inner  sanctuary,  i t i n fourteen  place  after  nectars.  t h e image  The m a r k i n g  o n e w o r s h i p p e r may b a t h e t h e i m a g e , o n e m a y ,  mark t h e image i n f o u r t e e n left  and f i v e  I  singing the praises of the Tirthankara.  the proper p u r i f i c a t i o n  toe,  takes  alone;  Sandal.  t h e image, marking  is  While  Within  "When  t o anybody,'  as s t a n d i n g  Candana-puja i s , f o r most w o r s h i p p e r s , activity  and—  Increasingly,  t o me, n o r d o I b e l o n g  thoroughly  outside  the image—above  categories.  t o a mendicant:'  have nobody b e l o n g i n g then  the worshipper  for h i s actions  juxtaposition with  responsibility  thought occurs  a s t h e monk r e n o u n c e s h i s  responsible  o b l i g a t i o n s and c u l t u r a l  personal the  Just  2.)  auspicious  knee,  left  navel  These  and change o f c l o t h i n g  left  places:  knee,  shoulder,  right b i g  right wrist,  t o p o f t h e head,  and t h e center  fourteen  i s done,  auspicious  of the right marks  left forepalm.  correspond  -  to  73  p o i n t s o f energy on the s u b t l e y o g i c body and, f o r the  worshipper, are important sources o f energy which  purify.  Marking these p o i n t s with sandal paste r e c o g n i z e s the n e c e s s i t y of  a s c e t i c i s m and the performance  attaining  of austerities  (tapas) :'.±n  liberation.  The procedure o f marking  these a u s p i c i o u s spots i s always  from r i g h t t o l e f t and from the f e e t t o the head, then down the  c e n t e r o f the body.  Were t h e image female, as i n the  worship o f a Hindu goddess, image from l e f t t o r i g h t  the worshipper would mark the  (Stevenson, 1971).  Here,  a u s p i c i o u s n e s s — i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the r i g h t s i d e and the head  (purity).  priority— (maleness)  The marking o f the a u s p i c i o u s s p o t s ,  a s s o c i a t e d with y o g i c m e d i t a t i o n and, hence,  liberation re-  a s s e r t s the importance o f p u r i t y and i t s c o r r e l a t i v e : archy.  In Indian l i f e ,  hier-  the head i s more pure than the f e e t  and men are s u p e r i o r t o women. As I have suggested, worship permits a l a y p e r s o n t e m p o r a r i l y to  become a monk.  As the worshipper moves toward the i n n e r  sanctuary, he i n c r e a s i n g l y i s o l a t e s h i m s e l f from t h e s o c i a l world each time he says " N i s s a h i . "  When he approaches the  image, he i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f w i t h the T i r t h a n k a r a through his  mantra and chants and, a c c o r d i n g t o the r u l e s governing  p u r i t y and p o l l u t i o n , e l e v a t e s h i m s e l f by h i s c o n t a c t w i t h the  image. Candana-puja i s more, however, than the consummation o f  the  worshipper's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the T i r t h a n k a r a .  It  re-establishes  the status  quo; t h e image, symbol o f a l l  a s c e t i c s who f o l l o w t h e J a i n w a y , i s p u b l i c l y the  superior  o f every worshipper.  "master symbol" which, the  "cultural  through which sue  idiom  as Wolf  The image a c t s  (1972:  o f behavior  recognized  150) says,  and i d e a l  as  as a provides  representations  d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s o f t h e same s o c i e t y c a n p u r -  and manipulate  their  different fates within a  coordinated  21  framework."  Ritual  Image w o r s h i p to  the worshipper.  superiority gesture  called  understanding power.  requires  pranam.  the 21.  bowing before  The f u n d a m e n t a l n o t i o n  o f t h e image  t h e image,  I t clearly  t h e monk s i t s  ( o r one's s u p r i o r ' s )  shared  holiness  establishes the differences i n status t h e monks and t h e laymen.  above t h e l a i t y  1973:  The  At public  laity  gather-  on a r a i s e d platform o r ,  i s n o t a v a i l a b l e , on a c l o t h which  p l a t f o r m . (Oman,  a  underlying  s u p e r i o r i t y ; i ti s an a s s e r t i o n , a  o f t h e image's  a platform  i s superior  expression  t h e m o n k t h e same s p e c i a l r e v e r e n c e .  ings, if  the Tirthankara  The most f r e q u e n t  among t h e T i r t h a n k a r a s , give  that  i s the worshipper's  pranam i s r i t u a l  and  Superiority  represents  144) and s y m b o l i c a l l y r a i s e s t h e  The c u l t u r a l i d i o m embodied i n t h e image w i l l be clearly explicated i n a later section: The T i r t h a n k a r a Image.  1  -  monk a b o v e t h e l a i t y .  75  During worship,  the T i r t h a n k a r a image s i t s  from is  alignment  the egalitarian  and broad  ority  re-established, status  are  given prasad before those  enter  t h e m o n k s , who their is  period.  Just  as t h e achayra  the  image, w h i l e t h e p u j a r i jala-puja.  has lodged  relatively  who  and r i t u a l  status  according t o  who d o e s  equal.  will  i s superior to  jala-puja  f o ra  Among t h e D i g a m b a r a , who d o n o t p r a c t i c e remain  rank  t o t h e same e n d .  t o the other worshippers  worshippers  performs  status  progress, the worshipper  superior  restates  rank.  orders the worshippers  all  ethic  of lower  superi-  of higher  a r e o r d e r e d , one under a n o t h e r ,  spiritual  likewise  o f prasad (to  o f prasad  use t h e a u c t i o n o f j a l a - p u j a  coincidence.  During  a means t o r e -  o f each w o r s h i p p e r — t h o s e  the inner sanctuary; worldly  move t o w a r d  t h e image  equal.  but the distribution  bidding f o rjala-puja  moves away  Not only i s the deity's  social  The  h i e r a r c h y i n which  section) i s often  the  Jains  raises the  of the worshippers  f o rexample, t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n  the caste hierarchy.  The  recalled,  then, expresses the  t o many w h o a r e a l l r e l a t i v e l y  discussed i n the next  assert  be  of society. the rank  Hindu worship, be  Worship,  During worship,  superior  i t will  on a throne, which  image above t h e w o r s h i p p e r s . ritual  -  brief  the auction,  They assemble  before  e n t e r s t h e i n n e r sanctuary and  But w i t h t h e Svetambara, t h e merchant's  itself  deep i n t h e f a b r i c  o f worship.  Merit  -  and  superiority  pays v a l i d a t e s i.e.,  his superiority.  performance.  i n any The  one  important  to their  King of  the Yaksas 1977:  Divali,  last  b u s i n e s s and  of  rebirth  was  t o have  let  us  spirits)  vol.  1:  The  festival  Laksmi. i t was  on  and  religious 1959; are  fervently  Yet  and  jala-  also  this  day  and  Stevenson  practiced:  the  most  the  North,  treasurer  i n honor of their  celethe  participation their  from  the  disciple, Indrabhuti,  of intelligence  of material y e a r on  matter" this  Laksmi-puja  s h o u l d n o t be (1970:  primary  Every  that Mahavira,  first  light  as  enthusiastically  originally  His  give  success.  Indra's  associated with Divali,  significance  252).  worshipper's  guardian of  justify  T h e r e f o r e , each  ceremonies  the  They  layman s h o u l d worship Mahavira. Hindu  who  pay,  does  obtained h i s release  "Since the  illumination  266).  Jains  (samsara).  said,  make an  i n the all,  he  to  their wealth  spiritual  (earth  a Hindu  that  and  t o Kubera,  Tirthankara, died  cycle  after  view  pray  60).  Goddess o f Wealth, asserting  person,  and  ability  important role  one  index of worldly  a Jain w i l l  brate  Thus, the  pay,  a predominantly mercantile people,  morning  (Pereira,  Only  can  worship.  Jains,  allegiance  by  t o t h e p e r s o n who  one's w e a l t h , p l a y s an  ritual puja  belong  -  76  261)  have  i s gone,  (Jaina  day, and no  the  devout  Bhaubija, official  practiced observes  Sutras,  (Sangave, that  both  -  77  -  A B r a h m i n i s c a l l e d who w r i t e s S r i ( i . e . , Laksmi) on t h e a c c o u n t books o v e r a n d o v e r a g a i n i n such a way a s t o f o r m a p y r a m i d . The p r i e s t t h e n performs Laksmi-puja, the oldest o b t a i n a b l e rupee and t h e l e a f o f a creeper b e i n g p l a c e d on t h e a c c o u n t book, and a l s o a l i t t l e heap of r i c e , p a n , b e t e l - n u t and t u m e r i c , and i n f r o n t o f i ta s m a l l lamp f i l l e d w i t h b u r n i n g camphor i s waved, and t h e book i s t h e n marked w i t h r e d powder. No o n e c l o s e s t h e a c c o u n t book f o r s e v e r a l h o u r s , and when t h e y do s o , t h e y a r e c a r e f u l t o s a y : "A h u n d r e d thousand profits." W h i l e w e a l t h i s a n a l l - c o n s u m i n g p a s s i o n among many it  i s also  the source  o f an i n t e n s e a m b i v a l e n c e .  monk i s a d v i s e d n o t t o y e a r n stain  from buying  should Jain  live  and s e l l i n g ,  on alms  (Jaina  which  evil  (Jaina  deeds.  S u t r a s , v o l . 2:  warning  to the Jain  205).  He  But the  He m u s t a n d i s a l l o w e d t o  the principles  The f o u r t h  Jain  and t o ab-  are great sins.  S u t r a s , v o l . 1:  l a y m a n m u s t make a l i v i n g .  a c q u i r e w e a l t h by obeying ing  f o r g o l d and s i l v e r  The  Jains,  lecture  o f J a i n i s m and a v o i d -  of the Uttaradhyana  1 8 , 1 9 , 20) o f f e r s  the following  laity:  Men who a d h e r i n g t o w r o n g p r i n c i p l e s a c q u i r e w e a l t h by e v i l deeds, w i l l l o s e i t , f a l l i n g i n t o t h e s n a r e s ( o f t h e i r p a s s i o n s ) and be h e l d captive by t h e i r hatred....Wealth w i l l not p r o t e c t a c a r e l e s s man.... . T h o u g h o t h e r s s l e e p , be t h o u awake. L i k e a w i s e man, t r u s t n o b o d y , but be always on t h e a l e r t . . . . E x t e r n a l t h i n g s w e a k e n t h e i n t e l l e c t a n d a l l u r e many; t h e r e f o r e , keep them o u t o f y o u r mind. Keep o f f d e l u s i o n , remove p r i d e , do n o t p r a c t i c e d e c e i t , leave o f f greed. The to  right  though  careful  man i s p i o u s  principles:  and a c q u i r e s w e a l t h by a d h e r i n g  ah1msa, h o n e s t y  and t r u t h f u l n e s s .  A l -  he a c q u i r e s w e a l t h , he s h o u l d n o t become a t t a c h e d t o  -  his wealth  and t h e w o r l d l y  ship of the Tirthankara his  respect  jala-puja, and  -  78  benefits  i tbrings  him.  image, h i s benevolence  H i s wor-  (dana)  f o r t h e image, demonstrated by h i s b i d d i n g f o r are signs  o f h i s non-attachment t o worldly  wealth  his virtue. These moral v i r t u e s a s s o c i a t e d  with  the worshipper's  wealth  promote f u r t h e r success because they p u b l i c l y  strate  t h e community's confidence  formity as  and  to Jain principles.  demon-  i n the worshipper's  The more w e a l t h  con-  one h a s , so  long  he avoids, f r i v o l o u s d i s p l a y s , t h e more c l o s e l y he i s  thought t o obey J a i n p r i n c i p l e s and, t h e r e f o r e , the  respect  of his fellows.  There  i s virtue,  t o deserve  then,  i nh i s  wealth. The part as  acharya,  i tw i l l  be remembered,, i s s e l e c t e d i n  because o f h i s secular  success.  a monk i s d e p e n d e n t n o t o n l y  His continued  upon t h e s e v e r i t y o f h i s  r e n u n c i a t i o n , b u t a l s o upon h i s a b i l i t y his  c o m m u n i t y o f monks  nunciation indicate  with Jain principles. man's v i r t u e ; the  greater  higher  and nuns.  of h i s worldly Wealth,  social  status.  toward  To b o r r o w  o f alms o n l y withdrawal  then,  t h e more he a c q u i r e s  are h i s gains  to insure  alms f o r  The s e v e r i t y o f h i s r e -  and t h e community's g i f t s  the success  success  i s a sign  a phrase  J a i n m o r a l p r i n c i p l e s have a "cash  i n conformance of the lay-  and t h e more he  achieving  value."  further  gives,  liberation from W i l l i a m  and James,  -  79  -  I t would be wrong, I t h i n k , to assume t h a t every person w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y want to b i d f o r the r i g h t to do j a l a - p u j a and  t h e r e f o r e express h i s c l a i m o f s u p e r i o r s t a t u s .  shipper's  A wor-  s u p e r i o r s t a t u s e n t a i l s more than p r e s t i g e and  r e s p e c t ; i t a l s o i m p l i e s an o b l i g a t i o n t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the support  o f others who have a lower s t a t u s .  People are r e s p e c t e d  not o n l y f o r the amount o f money they accumulate, but a l s o f o r the amount t h a t they give to the needy. if,  having  They are r e s p e c t e d  accumulated a l a r g e amount o f money, they  restrict  the amount f o r t h e i r p e r s o n a l use and g i v e the r e s t t o c h a r i t y . These benevolent donations a r e , o f course, Thus, w i t h the J a i n d i s p o s i t i o n o f a v o i d i n g  p u b l i c knowledge. ostentatious  d i s p l a y s o f wealth, which i m p l i e s s u p e r i o r s t a t u s , j a l a - p u j a o f f e r s a rare opportunity  f o r the worshipper t o openly f l a u n t  22  his superiority.  The  Second H a l f  Those r i t e s performed a f t e r candana-puja, v i z . d i p a - p u j a , dhupa-puja, ak s ata-puj a, naivedya-puj a, phala-puja, puj a, comprise the second h a l f o f l a y worship.  and bhava-  For t h i s portion  o f the worship, the worshipper does n o t need the r i t u a l bath because he w i l l n o t e n t e r the i n n e r sanctuary. 22.  Temple c o n s t r u c t i o n and the r e g u l a r support other, common means.  It i s this o f monks a r e  90 -  part o f worship  that  i s most commonly p r a c t i c e d  t h o s e who, f o r w h a t e v e r and  b y women a n d  r e a s o n , do n o t b i d t o b a t h e  t h e image  t h o s e w h o d o n o t mark, t h e i m a g e i n t h e f o u r t e e n a u s p i c i o u s  places. While the  e a c h w o r s h i p p e r who p e r f o r m s  "complete"  worship  cannot  enter the inner  t o u c h t h e image and, t h e r e f o r e , with  e l s e who w o r s h i p s .  the worshipper shares  selects  those r i t e s  other worshippers. that  actions during  and b e l i e f s t h e second  principles rules  half  area.  he  o f worship with a l l half  i s directed  the fundamental  o f worship  toward  those  Jain;  i t i s  metaphysical  s u r f a c e and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g  whether J a i n  officiant,  purification second  half  o r Hindu,  ethical  takes place i n a  T h i s a r e a must n o t o n l y be k e p t pure  area's p u r i t y , rites  t h e w o r s h i p p e r must a l s o during worship.  o f worship  worship.  ritually  by t h e  b u t , i n order t o m a i n t a i n and i n t e n s i f y  puj a and dhupa-puja. Hindu  half  rites  a l l o f them),  t o be d i s t i n c t i v e l y  that  contact  surface.  temple the  held  of Jainism  Worship, pure  Regardless o f which  I t i s d u r i n g t h e second  each worshipper's, a t t e n t i o n  s a n c t u a r y and  i n a common s e t o f r i t e s  (he n e e d n o t s e l e c t  i n t h e second  half of  denies himself direct  t h e image, he does p a r t i c i p a t e  with, everyone  t h e second  i s arati, The J a i n s  perform  The f i r s t  which  ofthe  i s composed o f d i p a -  borrowed  A t i t s most elementary  rite  basic  this  basic  rite of  level,  arati  i sa  rite  -  which honors to  a purification  Arati  sets As  before  the stage  t h e image.  tradition,  i s done i n a l e f t  symbol  considered  the senses o f the T i r t h a n k a r a —  t h e w a v i n g o f t h e lamp  I t i s through  the worshipper  proper  i s also  around t h e image.  (dipa-puja)  t o right  interpret  aum, w h i c h ,  to follow.  this  order  rightly  o f t h e cosmos  maintains  a l s o accompanied by t h e chanting  of slokas  t h e mind on t h e T i r t h a n k a r a and p e r m i t s  accomplished but  i t may The  with  by t e l l i n g  a l s o be a c h i e v e d  of which  This  a s t h e monk  does  by music o r by  (kevala), the Pratiharyas  w h i c h i n c l u d e an a u r a ,  23.  the Arati from serves  the wori s often  i n h i s worship,  drumming.  J a i n s b e l i e v e t h a t when a T i r t h a n k a r a a t t a i n s  omniscience  and  the repetition  the Tirthankara. beads  symbols  (sayings  to  to identify  and s u s t a i n  1953: 1 6 9 ) .  texts)  shipper  and mantras,  sacred  religious center  to Vedic  and rejuvenates  (Battacharya,  motion  motion t o  according  t h e use o f these  and  circular  i s b e l i e v e d t o have t h e power t o c r e a t e  world.  that  But arati  f o r the o f f e r i n g s o f food  Many H i n d u s  the sacred  -  o f t h e immediate v i c i n i t y  (dhupa-puja)  describe  the  pleases  among H i n d u s ,  incense  is  the Tirthankara.  be an o f f e r i n g — i t  and  81  heavenly  music,  (symbols o f  omniscience),  showers o f c e l e s t i a l blossoms,  spontaneously  appear  (Pereira,  a drum  1977: 4 3 ) .  B h a r a t i (1969: 111-112) g i v e s t h r e e p u r p o s e s t o t h e m a n t r a s : p r o p i t i a t i o n , t h e r e p u l s i o n o f unpleasant powers and thus t h e p u t t i n g o f t h e w o r s h i p p e r i n t h e good g r a c e s .of t h e "pleasant ones"; a c q u i s i t i o n o f unobtainable goals, o b j e c t s or a b i l i t i e s which are not obtainable through secular or other r e l i g i o u s e f f o r t s , e.g., magical powers; and i n t r o j e c t i o n o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , p u r i f i c a t i o n o f the elements or i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the focus o f worship.  -  In some temples  82  -  a t the moment o f dhupa-puja and d i p a - p u j a ,  the temple o f f i c i a n t s c r e a t e such an i n t e n s e d i n by blowing conch s h e l l s and b e a t i n g drums and gongs t h a t they completely s u f f o c a t e any o t h e r sounds  (Ayres, 1 9 5 6 :  1 5 2 ) . This d i n i s  b e l i e v e d t o a t t r a c t the gods' a t t e n t i o n so t h a t they might witness the worshippers' a c t s (Bhattacharya, 1 9 5 3 : I t i s a moment o f t r a n s i t i o n  (Stevenson, 1 9 1 0 :  162).  9 7 ) , the  moment p r e c e d i n g the move to the Assembly H a l l to g i v e o f f e r i n g s , make vows, and do bhava—puja.  I t precedes the most  i n t r o s p e c t i v e p a r t o f worship. The second h a l f o f l a y worship, then, begins w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the worshipper t o p u r i f y the area around the image and g i v e a s m a l l o f f e r i n g . importance  But perhaps  of greater  i s the i m p l i c i t a s s e r t i o n t h a t o t h e r s should  i n t e r p r e t o r understand the a c t i o n s t o f o l l o w i n a s p e c i a l way.  The worshipper d e c l a r e s h i s a c t i o n s t o be c o n s e c r a t e d .  They r e f l e c t the worshipper's acceptance and c o n f o r m i t y t o J a i n m o r a l i t y (dharma); h i s a c t i o n s a r e t o be w i t n e s s e d n o t o n l y by the T i r t h a n k a r a and the heavenly gods but, most imp o r t a n t l y , by members o f h i s community.  The O f f e r i n g  G e n e r a l l y , the J a i n s are more p a r t i c u l a r about the k i n d s of food eaten and the times i t i s eaten than they a r e w i t h  -  whom t h e y  eat.  As  vegetable  foods  t o be  sign  o f one's  which  the  very  of  sinful. and  avoidance  of wine  and The  that  absorbs  heats:  fabric.  of killing,  h i g h l y seasoned  purity. one  social  consider  Eating flesh  Drinking of T h o s e who  assumptions of  concern  and  the  which  five  h i s body  impure substances  One  should  know t h i s  and  circumspect The  recommends t h e  with  and  regard  major  of  to h i s food,  always  im-  393)  one's  should  be  says food  essence. careful  exercising  ( J a i n a S u t r a s , v o l . 2:  diet  avoidance  essence of whatever  i t , one  vows  with  sources  become a p a r t o f  Uttaradhyayana following  the  knowing  concerning  themselves  are  life,  high  brahmacarya v r a t a ,  foods,  a  beverages.  S u t r a k r i t a n g a ( J a i n a S u t r a s , v o l . 2: into  is  alcoholic  have  alcoholic  Two  Jainism explicitly  ahimsa,  caution.  sinful.  diets  Jains  i t presupposes t a k i n g  J a i n s have i n c o r p o r a t e d these  (mahavrata)  he  s t a t u s because  i s also considered  into  the  s u p e r i o r t o meats.  avoid non-vegetarian The  food  among m o s t I n d i a n s ,  i s generally considered  beverages rank  low  -  83  72)  f o r monks:  Dish-water, barley-pap, cold sour g r u e l , water i n w h i c h b a r l e y has been washed: such loathsome f o o d and d r i n k he s h o u l d n o t d e s p i s e , b u t c a l l a t t h e l o w l i e s t h o u s e s ( f o r a l m s ) ; t h e n he i s a t r u e monk. According  to J a i n  d o c t r i n e , ahimsa or non-violence  govern  life.  by  T i r t h a n k a r a s , the  the  onions,  beets  contain minute  Thus, i n accordance w i t h  and  devout.Jains  many o t h e r  forms of  this do  tubers which  animal  life.  not  doctrine eat  should  preached  potatoes,  are b e l i e v e d  In a d d i t i o n ,  most  to beverages  -  should  be s t r a i n e d b e f o r e  monks w i t h during  Tirthankara are  can e a t without sugar,  an  offering),  fruits  As  Mandelbaum  (1970:  are whole,  ment.  offering,  gives  committing  rice  only  being  foods  the These as  bananas, mangoes), and almonds.  204) n o t e s ,  fruits  are not considered  t h e D i g a m b a r a do n o t o f f e r life,  those  time.  grain permitted  and n u t s ,  subject  G i v i n g them i s a s i g n o f d e f e r e n c e  While  at that  himsa, v i o l e n c e .  (theonly  (coconuts,  not eat  the Jain worshipper,  n o t t o harm l i f e ,  "cold" foods:  they  Moreover, one s h o u l d  f o r i t i s e a s i e r t o harm l i f e  the ritual  particular  d r i n k i n g , a custom p r a c t i c e d by t h e  mouth c o v e r s .  darkness,  During very  their  84 -  t h e Svetambara  to ritual  contain  are less  the  vow o f a h i m s a , t h e m o s t p e r v a s i v e  as  defile-  and benevolence.  fresh fruits,  may  as l o n g  because  strict.  principle  they  Nevertheless,  of. J a i n i s m ,  governs. The 1.  worshipper  arranges  I f the worshipper  center  i s wealthy,  of the swastika.  for  a l l Jains.  and  metaphysical  abstract  With  i t ,  system.  the great  right birds,  This  p a t t e r n has great  significance-:  they  symbolize  These  reptiles,  of Jainism.  are places  entire  ethical  The s w a s t i k a  repre-  i n w h i c h one c a n be  t h e home o f t h e g o d s ; t h e  a s t a t e lower  animals  their  complex symbol embodies i n  t h e u p p e r arm i s D e v a t a ,  arm i s T i r y a n i c ,  as i n F i g u r e  a coin at the  This  he w i l l  of rice place  principles  sents, t h e f o u r g a t i . reborn:  his offering  or plants);  than  humans  the left  (insects,  arm i s Nanusya,  -  the  human a b o d e ; a n d ,  anti-clockwise in  spiritual  world. and  The  meditation,  At  The  the  three  three  jewels  Right  Conduct;  is  of  siddhasila,  universe, which The for  not  Jains only  sophical  is  mentally  his with the an and  life, world  as  soul,  actual  well.  only This  conceptual and  the  (and  i n the  Right  pile  at  the  of  To  offer  the  of  the  world. pattern,  the  philo-  worshipper  by  implication,  food,  teaming defile  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n emphasizes between permanence:  permanent, hidden  and  top  the  of  the  beneath  permanent i s r e v e a l e d not  cosmic order  rice  Tirthankara but  permutations  of  and  i n i t s (re-)  non-universe),  ritualized  design  the  of  the  Jainism, but  ahimsa.  1972:  Knowledge  final  the  artha  are  attention in this  distinction  image, but  swastika  souls  degrade the  The  locked  (Bappa,  t o w a r d moksa and,  change and  10/10).  soul  restraints  of  The  impurity of  s y m b o l i c a l l y much o f  path  i s g o v e r n e d by  The  the  the  teachings  i s revealed.  governing  Faith,  liberated  universe  would not  (Beck, 1975: flux,  the  the  h o l d i n g the  i t contain  f o l l o w i n g the  important the  the  is Hell.  moksa, dharma,  above the  invest considerable  of  universe  jiva,  Right  crescent  spiritual  construction  rice  i s f r e e from  does  and  i s the  of  home o f  arm  a perfect being,  also represent  Jainism: the  lowest  c l o s e d o f f from the  center piles  the  symbolizes  arms, t h e n ,  kama.  115).  finally,  swastika  -  85  the  social  order  world the  only  offerings. are  dharma  The  in  worldly the  principles  matched.  - 86 -  Gift Giving:  M a r c e l Mauss (1967) was  The O f f e r i n g Again  the f i r s t t o emphasize t h a t many  exchanges o f goods and s e r v i c e s assume importance  as g i f t s  and consequently have more t h a n j u s t economic s i g n i f i c a n c e : g i f t g i v i n g i s a s o c i a l a c t , i . e . , i t i s symbolic. (196 8:  Sahlins  9 ) , f o r example, notes t h a t the g i v i n g and counter-  g i v i n g o f g i f t s serves t o b i n d people and groups of people together.  Exchange i s i n s t r u m e n t a l ; i t e s t a b l i s h e s  between people.  G i f t g i v i n g symbolizes s o c i a l  and g e n e r a l l y those who  solidarity  interdependence,  share the same v a l u e s and  worldview  have a h i g h e r frequency o f i n t e r a c t i o n and exchange. G i f t g i v i n g , as S a h l i n s (1968: i s not always a one-for-one g i f t s are exchanged.  81-86) goes on to say,  t r a n s a c t i o n i n which e q u i v a l e n t  R e c i p r o c i t y may  range from the g e n e r a l -  i z e d , which i n c l u d e s the "pure g i f t " g i v i n g without  any  demands o f r e c i p r o c a t i o n ) , to the balanced, a f a i r and  immediate  exchange, to the n e g a t i v e , s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d , maximization o f "profit."  G e n e r a l i z e d r e c i p r o c i t y i n c l u d e s such  acts as "sharing," " h o s p i t a l i t y , "  altruistic  "mutual a i d , " and " g e n e r o s i t y . "  I t i n c l u d e s those o b l i g a t o r y g i f t s t o kinsmen and g i f t s t o kings.  Balanced r e c i p r o c i t y i s l e s s p e r s o n a l ; i t i m p l i e s  g r e a t e r s o c i a l d i s t a n c e between the two i n d i v i d u a l s .  Balanced  r e c i p r o c i t y i s a d i r e c t , immediate r e t u r n i n which e q u i v a l e n t value i s c a r e f u l l y c a l c u l a t e d .  Negative r e c i p r o c i t y i s more  a p p r o p r i a t e f o r those of g r e a t s o c i a l d i s t a n c e .  -  In  I n d i a , exchange  jajmani  at  i s traditionally  system and connotes  .c o u n t e r - p r e s t a t i o n s least  87 -  the religious  of the caste  traditionally,  centers  the  about t h e inherent  distances  ethic  between  caste  Giving As w i t h  from other the  monks a r e due f o o d  for  their  gifts,  at least  system.  The l a i t y ' s  free  t h e 'monks-; ^  and h i s f a m i l y  condemns t h e  important  the acharya  as  from the l a i t y  among m o n k s .  i s due  forhis instructions.  gifts  Likewise,  i n exchange  not return  food  s e r v i c e s b u t g i v e more  instruction  subtle  i s n o t , however,  The a  understood w i t h i n the caste  (dana),  e s p e c i a l l y food,  of reciprocity.  i t sliberation  i t permits  acquiring worldly  24.  gifts  o f any e x p e c t a t i o n  social  i n s t r u c t i o n s ( M a r r i o t t , 1976).  as n o r m a l l y  cause g i v i n g promotes  i s equally  T h e monk s h o u l d  monk's r e t u r n o f r e l i g i o u s service,  the Jains'  consequently,  status.  forritual  s u c h as r e l i g i o u s  and,  reflect  t h e importance o f exchange  and g i f t s  instructions. leavings)  While  i s due t a x e s ,  monks i n e x c h a n g e  (especially  o f exchange  and, t h e r e f o r e , c l e a r l y  o f one's p e r s o n a l  t h e k i n g who  patterns  of the individual  and c o u n t e r - g i v i n g  system,  a r o u n d t h e exchange o f goods  the castes.  s y s t e m , i t does n o t deny  an e x p r e s s i o n  The j a j m a n i  purity of the castes  promotes t h e i s o l a t i o n  through non-exchange  p r e s t a t i o n s and  system.  and s e r v i c e s , and t h e t r a d i t i o n a l beliefs  associated with the  The l a i t y  are given gives be-  and t h e l i b e r a t i o n  t h e monks t o p u r s u e  liberation  of without  ties.  The J a i n s a r e w e l l known t h r o u g h o u t I n d i a f o r t h e R e s t H o u s e s , w h i c h p r o t e c t w i t h o u t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n men a n d  - 88 -  The is and  merit  acquired  from g i v i n g  p i o u s , when he g i v e s w h i l e when he g i v e s  e.g.,  Hindu  recipients  to a Jain  ascetics, of gifts  i s g r e a t e s t when t h e g i v e r  i n an a t t i t u d e  ascetic.  brings  less  according  o f non-attachment,  Giving to other  merit.  ascetics,  The J a i n s r a n k  t o t h e amount o f m e r i t  the  (punya)  i gained:  a s p i r a n t s , those' w i t h  vows;  those  those  without  1968:  137).  story  obeying Right  Faith  moral  laws but without  Faith  and n o t obeying  Stevenson  about Mahavira  Right  (1970:  Right moral  110) t e l l s  that illustrates  but not observing Faith; laws  and  (Bhargava,  a popular  Jain  the importance  of  gift  giving: M a h a v i r a i s a p r e v i o u s . b i r t h , when a w o o d c u t t e r , g a i n e d g r e a t p u n y a b y f e e d i n g a p a r t y o f monks who h a d l o s t t h e i r w a y . H i s r e w a r d was t h a t i n h i s n e x t i n c a r n a t i o n he became a d e v a t a , and a f t e r many many b i r t h s was i n c a r n a t e a s M a h a v i r a / i . e . , he became a T i r t h a n k a r a / For less i l l u s t r i o u s s e r v i c e s o n e may i n t h e n e x t life b e c o m e a m e r c h a n t , o r a r u l e r , o r g a i n some other coveted p o s i t i o n . During not  only  worship,  has eaten  however, never g i v e s h i s share  (because o f h i s having which i s distributed Indians, it  food  and g i f t s  t o honor h i m , b u t as payment f o r p a s t  Tirthankara, god  Hindus o f f e r  favors.)  o f the food, eaten)  into  prasad,  to the worshippers.  contact with the eater's  becomes j u t h a and s h o u l d  saliva  be a v o i d e d .  favors.  After  the food  to the deity, (The  the Hindu  i s transformed  sanctified Generally  among  contaminates Leavings  food,  from  food; one's  animals a l i k e , t h e i r h o s p i t a l s , which provide free medical c a r e , and t h e i r s c h o o l s and l i b r a r i e s , which a r e open t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c (Sangave, 1 9 5 9 : 287-290).  -  father,  husband o r god,  89  -  however,  are good t o e a t  these  people  are  superior i n ritual  their  jutha,  one  partakes of  superior  persons  the  rank  and,  violated.  inferior, To  accept  the prasad  partaking  of  feeds  prasad,  between them p u t s accepted  but  recipient's and a  the  not  of  as  direct,  between  i n an  deity  has  bond  t h e one I f the  who  purity—  and  pollution.  subordination  and  deity  the  position. accepts of  reaffirms  inferiority,  but,  the prasad w i t h the worshippers, a closeness either  symbolic or  and  who  it;  the moment  there i s  prestation distance  willingly  reestablishes  f o r t h o s e who  between them  his  share  there i s relative  real  gift  reciprocation.  reciprocity,  One  A  the  maintained,  to accept  deity.  without  established  immediate c o u n t e r - p r e s t a t i o n , i m p l i e s and  an  deity  sanctity  a r e t o be  Sahlins notes, balanced  from the  fun-  serious  to the  inferior  the worshipper  the worshipper  eats prasad  The  and  to purity  asymmetrical  deity  the  then,  gives gifts  r e p a i d debases  s t r o n g p r e s s u r e on  and  relating  and  the  the  these  degrading.  a god,  status i s lowered.  sanctity  Moreover,  of  implications  the worshipper  eats  reverse, accepting jutha from  i s , however, p r o f o u n d l y  hierarchical If  The  of  199-200).  damental values u n d e r l y i n g r i t u a l — h i e r a r c h y are not  i f one  good q u a l i t i e s  (Mandelbaum, 1 9 7 0 :  because  equality,  (Babb,  1975:  56-59) .  The  most s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  between J a i n  and  Hindu  -  worship  i s the offering.  prasad.  In fact,  word i s never dravya, never  The J a i n s '  Stevenson  used;  rather,  the temple's  shared with  an h o n o r a r y  any.  is  only  The  the  meal.  also  Sutra  a l l , a deity  the  to eradicate.  of the caste Recall  25.  J a i n would e a t i s s t o r e d and from t h e sale  the Jain Sutras,  refusal v o l . 1:  cannot  assist  toeat 99)  tells  o f a god's  one i n a t t a i n i n g  the taking  of prasad  signifies  t h e image and t h e w o r s h i p p e r , b u t  that  the Jains  the Jains are do n o t e a t t h e  s h o u l d n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d  principles  worshipper's refusal  which  The p r o f i t  J  (Jaina  The f a c t  leavings  the hierarchical  tions  from t h e o f f e r i n g s  t h e w o r s h i p p e r and t h e w o r l d , a bond  Tirthankara's of  A meal  a monk s h o u l d n o t t a k e a n y p o r t i o n  a bond, n o t o n l y between  eager  deva-  the offerings are  deva-dravya  sanction  B u t more i m p o r t a n t l y ,  between  Moreover,  formed  to menials.  canons  that  After  moksa.  becomes m e r e l y  servants (non-Jains) o r t o others  t h e newly  The Akaranga  Jains  become  f o rt h e upkeep and improvement o f t h e temple.  Jain  prasad.  never  800) a s s u r e s us t h a t t h e  the offering  the worshippers.  on t h e market  used  offerings  r e w a r d , b u t no s e l f - r e s p e c t i n g  Generally,  sold  (1961:  property.  may b e g i v e n t o t h e t e m p l e as  -  90  permeating  Indian  denies the inherent  as a life.  status  denial Rather,  implica-  system.  t h a t one o f t h e d a i l y  permits him to participate  duties  o f every layperson  i n the l i f e  o f a monk w a s  Stevenson, i n h e r R i t e s o f t h e Twice Born (1971: 390) n o t e s t h a t many S h a i v i t e t e m p l e s s e l l t h e i r o f f e r i n g s to merchants f o r a s i m i l a r p u r p o s e , g i v e i t t o t h e l o w l y p u j a r i e s o r simply throw i t t o the b i r d s .  -  dana.  One who r e f u s e s  karma. freely shipper and  must  body  be pure  recognize  must  o f mind  acarya,  be pure  for worldly  (kayasuddhi),  Tirthankara,  position),  monk.  superior,  b u t n o t as e s s e n t i a l l y  as he does when he g i v e s  that to  be e x p l a i n e d  It  (vacanasuddhi)  gestures  a high  which  saying  "namaste,"  seat  (a s u p e r i o r  the Tirthankara  i s recognized  different  i n nature  merit  as  from  by g i v i n g ,  just  t o t h e b e g g i n g monk, a n d , b y t h e  S a h l i n s notes o f a "pure  gift,"  asserts  by adherence  to Jain principles  and n o t by  purity.  i s here  revealed.  men, b u t j u s t  that  the true nature of the Jain  He i s n o t a g o d , i n f i n i t e l y  to godliness.  temple,  and, by i m p l i c a t i o n , t h e world)  sale o f deva-dravya  no r e c i p r o c i t y  Tirthankara  superior  t o mere  a n o t h e r man who t h r o u g h p r o p e r l i v i n g  himself  the  speech  t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between worshipper and T i r t h a n k a r a a r e  inherent  is  t h e wor-  to h i s superior:  a r e used:  The w o r s h i p p e r g a i n s  which  given  and s a l u t i n g him (Bhargave, 1 9 6 8 :  Thus, i n r i t u a l ,  implications  give  offering  137-38).  the worshipper.  Moreover,  A l lthe usual  f o r m of: p r a n a m , and adoring  gain.  and he must  danantaraya  (aharasuddhi) and  (manahsuddhi),  another's superiority  a truncated  -  t o give, s i n s and accumulates  The J a i n ' s g i f t without desire  91  elevated  He i s t h e P r i n c e o f t h e S t a t e ( t h e and t h e p r o f i t s  a r e f o rh i s use alone.  i s expected.  They  from  a r e alms;  )  -  Bhava-puja:  Liberation the Jains, and  stopping those  of elevating actions which  elevation  o f one's  preferred  means—can  ship of  one  The  the  internal  karmic layman  particles  he  has  the  layman  monk, a n d  are from  the  not  burns  wor-  karma—is  soul.  Meditation and,  a product of  Worship  permits  hence, the  the  the T i r t h a n k a r a ,  I t i s an their  the  kaussagga—an  constitution  t o become l i k e  to complete  use  the  for action,  image.  the  Thus m e d i t a t i o n o r  austerities,  spiritual  of  the  opportunity for identification  image t o d i r e c t  their  with  attention  moksa.  Bhava-puja  son,  Only  supporting  accumulated.  the temple  the T i r t h a n k a r a ; they  ship.  through  sanctifies  disposition  ( o r monk) t o s t r i v e  r e p r e s e n t e d by  toward  and  individual's  moral  t h e monk a n d  harm l i f e .  premise  through  that meditation purifies  his  character  know r e a l i t y .  central  among  the worshipper's  c h a r a c t e r - - b h a v a - p u j a b e i n g one  penance which,  transforms  Thought  i s t h e p r i m a r y medium o f r e l e a s e ,  gods.  internal  Purifying  i s achieved through meditation, which,  consists  contemplation  -  92  the  i t ,  801).  increased after  the  rest  of the worship  Because the chances  and  f o r both  h o w e v e r , be  after  sunset  done a t any  has  no  of harming  sunset, the worshipper  going t o the temple  p u j a may,  core of worship,  layman i t i s the most i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f  Without 1961:  i s at the  t o do  the  the  value  wor(Steven-  insect  life  i s discouraged bhava-puja.  time of the  day.  Bhava-  Unlike  .93  most Hindu during  images,  the  day  of  bhava-puja,  the  represented  by  meditates the  on  harmful the  image, s i n g s  does kaussagga,  praises of  a particular  yogic  the  worshipper  do  pratikramana  fess  any  violations  of  the  the  acts  seven  i n the  supporting  twelve  pratikramana  i s an  essential daily  Sthakavasi.  Pratlkrammana  before  one's  g u r u and  of  P r a t I k raman a S u t r a  Bhava-puja,  tion leads  and  of to  prepares takes 26.  not  then,  retired  mind  Right the  vows o f  be  1968:  implicit  Bhava-puja  through meditation.  i . e . , con-  major  vows  avoid  sinful  recalled  the  that  non-idolatrous  and  a c c o m p a n i e d by  the  Bhava-puj a  vows t o  duty of  elimina-  Tirthankara  five  It will  the  Tirthankara,  posture.  take  (Bhargava,  makes an  physical acts.  the  be  the  the  is self-criticism  should  on  (padikkamana),  vows—and  (pratyakhyana).  mental  are  c o m m i t t e d on  of  vows—the  future  the  actions  qualities  lets  and  images  worshipper meditates  k a r m a , d e n o u n c e s any  of worship,  and  Jain Tirthankara  evening.  During tion  the  -  confession  the  recitation  169). distinction  i s the  Since  ritual  Right  between purifica-  Thought  A c t i o n , bhava-puja i s e s s e n t i a l because i t  worshipper proper  to  conduct himself  conduct—as  he  in  society—he  would during  worship;  his  S t e v e n s o n ( 1 9 7 0 : ' 117) m a k e s t h e d i s t i n c t i o n c l e a r : "The J a i n a make a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n spiritual and a c t u a l m u r d e r (Bhava h i m s a and D r a v y a h i m s a ) . One s i n s a g a i n s t Bhava ahimsa by w i s h i n g f o r anyone's d e a t h o r d e s i r i n g harm t o b e f a l l him. I n a d d i t i o n , i f one d o e s n o t c o n t i n u e a n d c o m p l e t e o n e ' s own e d u c a t i o n , o r s t r i v e t o i m p r o v e o n e ' s m i n d , o r i f one f a i l s t o e x e r c i s e and d i s c i p l i n e o n e ' s own s o u l , o n e c o m m i t s B h a v a h i m s a , f o r one k i l l s by s t u l t i f i c a t i o n w h a t one m i g h t h a v e b e e n . "  -  actions puja the  become more l i k e  i s not mind.  done t o  proper  and  those of  the  the  Tirthankara's  values.  this  I t was  study  argued  by  this  mental  i n formulating  and  vision  of  W o r s h i p and  the  the  cosmic  tenets  of  world.  and  social  proper  their to  cultural  identify  reminder of focus of  of  and  social  himself the  with  ideal  values.  pecially  But  and  firmly  w h i c h promote a c t i o n s attitudes of  according physical  to and  the  of  values  image, so,  give  I t allows  the  Tirthankara entrenched  that  emphasize  i n t r o v e r s i o n and  Jain doctrine,  Jain  recognize  each  worshipper constant  s o c i e t y and the  of  the  Jain  Worship,  the  those  Jains,  reclusiveness the  pattern es-  values  self-sufficiency,  that minimize  moral c o n s t i t u t i o n .  mediate  the  image, e x p r e s s e s  values  Jain  Truth.  image, a  ideal  of instru-  I argued,  to p u b l i c l y  Tirthankara and  was  a distinctively  J a i n worship expresses  the  promote  Jain pattern  J a i n w o r s h i p does much more.  worship of  more s t a b l e  endorse  person  J a i n worship.  pattern  Jains  unity. the  the  moksa.  and, i n d o i n g  the  on  which  c o n d u c t a u t h o r i t y as  Jain worship permits  purify  concentrate  f o r the  maintaining  orders  social  to  to  Bhava-  Conclusion  looking  that  to  teachings,  leads  Summary a n d  a s c e t i c monks.  b e n e f i t s but  worshipper  conduct—conduct which  I began  the  obtain worldly  I t permits  Tirthankara  -  94  that  and,  changes  in  hence, one's  The  Jains'  the J a i n ready  strategy.  rationale  differences position  to  accumulation  to explain  the  status reflect  particles, Jain  ethical  status.  as w e l l '  rules  past  of proper  as  a  heavenly,  One's w o r l d l y  his acquisition from  support  o f karma p r o v i d e s  social,  resulting  dharma, the  principles  and  divestiture  actions; conduct  his actions leading  liberation. If  is  The  and  i n one's r e l a t i v e  and  of karmic validate  metaphysical  worship  c l e a r why  grounds J a i n  this  values  i n the metaphysical, i t  metaphysical grounding  of values  is  essential  There must...be l i n k s between the w o r s h i p s e r v i c e and t h e i m m e d i a t e p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l r e a l i t y of the worshippers.... Unless there i s a l i n k between the r e l i g i o u s symbols making up t h e w o r s h i p c e r e m o n y and t h e p a r t i c u l a r p a s t and p r e s e n t o f t h e w o r s h i p p e r s , then the worship process cannot begin. Indeed, the m o r e d e e p l y t h e s y m b o l s do g r a s p t h e r e a l p r o b l e m s and c o n f l i c t s o f the w o r s h i p p e r s t h e more p o w e r f u l t h e s u b s e q u e n t experience can be. . . . / W j 7 o r s h i p i s t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the personal i n t o the t r a n s - p e r s o n a l , the immediate i n t o the transtemporal. Through t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n the immediate problems a n d c o n f l i c t s c a n b e s e e n i n a new l i g h t , i n s i g h t c a n be a c h i e v e d , and p o s t w o r s h i p c h a n g e s i n b e h a v i o r can ensue. How we e v a l u t e t h e s e c h a n g e s . . . d e p e n d s o n o u r values..../T_7he mythical, archetypical, timeless character of r e l i g i o u s symbols p r o v i d e s a p e r s p e c t i v e r e l a t i v e to everyday r e a l i t y without which, i n Blake's words, the l a t t e r would "stand s t i l l u n a b l e t o do o t h e r t h a n r e p e a t t h e same d u l l round over a g a i n . " W o r s h i p , t o be m a x i m a l l y e f f e c t i v e , must provide not only a symbolic r e o r d e r i n g of e x p e r i e n c e b u t an e l e m e n t o f consummation and f u l f i l l m e n t . ( B e l l a h , 1970: 210)  27.  The v a r i o u s d e v a o r g o d s p o p u l a t i n g t h e h e a v e n s a r e r a n k e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r r e l a t i v e p u r i t y j u s t as p e o p l e are, (Stevenson,. 1970: 270-72).  -  Worship problems  and  individual ing  and  i m a g e do  conflicts  Jain.  them t h r o u g h  therefore,  the  96  -  not,  which c a l l  Worship  and  the  of  course,  address a l l  f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by image s u p p r e s s  the  manipulation  of  religious  achieving  a modicum o f  orthodoxy  some,  an mold-  symbols  and,  among t h o s e  who  2 8 worship. By  becoming  like  has  an  opportunity  and  to  take  (i.e.,  to  a monk d u r i n g reflect  vows o f p r o p e r  his unearthly  on  the  h i s progress  conduct,  g o a l s ) ; he  worship,  has  leading to an  principles,  his  his earthly goals).  measures h i m s e l f in  the  against  Tirthankara  m e a s u r e s up  to  the  image and  the  image  28.  Tirthankara  standards his  to a  to maintain  of  success  strategy, or  The  success  reflect  improve  worshipper embodied  d e p e n d s u p o n how  he  image.  Having examined of  the  liberation  liberation  devise  c o n s i s t e n t with- J a i n moral position (i.e.,  toward  opportunity  upon h i s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n h i s community and  social  worshipper  Jain worship  and  the  image d u r i n g w o r s h i p ,  central position we  now  turn  to  the  itself.  Vernon (1973: 127) makes a s i m i l a r a r g u m e n t . t h a t symbols p r e s e r v e d e c i s i o n s and, t h e r e b y , t h e b u r d e n o f m a k i n g t h e same d e c i s i o n s a g a i n Symbols promote a k i n d o f s o c i a l harmony.  He s a y s eliminate and again.  -  97  -  THE T I R T H A N K A R A  Throughout two  million  a l l of India,  people  customs as t h e i r is  relatively  are, in  Hindu neighbors.  their  that  changes o c c u r r e d to this  changed very case,  these  stability  Jain  sculpture  Always  There  represented  J a i n images, t h e  a m o n g t h e m o r e common a n d  i s not particularly  startling  until  images a r e v i r t u a l l y  unchanged  since  (c. 100 B.C.).  little  These over  images this  Stylistic  speaking)  fundamental  suggest e i t h e r t h e community  time  (which  o r there importance  reasons  a s s u r e us t h a t  comes f r o m i t s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n there  interpret  Jain  i n fact i sthe  i s something about the to the Jains  that  i s required.  Several  First,  t h e same  b u t t h e m a s i c manner o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n r e -  day.  relatively  image o f such  than  images.  adoption by t h e J a i n s  mains  images.  images a r e an o d d i t y  Indian  realize  share  Similarly,  d i f f e r e n t from other  Oddness i n i t s e l f we  number l e s s  u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from Hindu s c u l p t u r e .  a manner q u i t e  familiar  the Jains  and, i n most r e s p e c t s ,  however, t h e T i r t h a n k a r a  Tirthankara  IMAGE  i s great  and i n f o r m  Journal  concern  t h e image's  importance  t h e core o f t h e community. among J a i n  journals  to  describe,  t h e community about t h e images.  and J a i n a Antiquary  are notable  examples.  The Moreover,  -  throughout ing  India,  Jains  s t i l l  and r e n o v a t i n g temples  These temples temples'  the  attending priests  age  upkeep  unlike  meritorious.  worship  i n distant  But perhaps image's  (1977:  notes, that  Jain  a r t more t h a n  Buddha  Tirthankara image  says,  temples t h e most  does  I f we  "visual  art, like  i n local are also  of  this,  most  temples.  Pilgrim-  considered  significant  i n w o r s h i p , we  fringes  ritual,  index of the  i s , as  Pereira  "dominates the  that of h i s  sense  must  i t i s , as  the  examine Coomaraswary  continually  defining  life,  Theology  attempts  t o o r d e r and d e s c r i b e  o f human e x i s t e n c e a n d e x p e r i e n c e .  By  so by  from  that of Christianity,  Image as V i s u a l  a purposeful exploration  does  Apart  to the Jains  i n what  is  social  pay f o r  theology."  Religious the c r i t i c a l  images).  are to completely understand  image's p o s i t i o n  and understand  i n build-  as t h e s u p p o r t  t h e T i r t h a n k a r a image  Christ  The  ful  as w e l l  daily  importance  and c u l t . "  concern  castes which  t h a t o f Buddhism, o r any god o r h e r o  religion  the  owned by  or officiants.  Tirthankara 40)  show a l i v e l y  and r e p a i r ,  Hindus,  and w o r s h i p  -  (and, consequently,  are generally  the  Jains,  98  the boundaries  i t strives  structuring  and e x a m i n a t i o n  of social  of orderly  and  meaning. meaning-  to eradicate meaninglessness.  everyday  It  I t  experiences w i t h the already  established  syntax of  one's e x p e r i e n c e s  and  Religious  art, like  worldview  and  The  reason  and  emotion,  g u i d i n g him  ritual,  toward  T i r t h a n k a r a image i s not any  proper  actual  what ought  an  truly  ago  recognized t h a t nothing i s ever or ever  person.  and  to  To  a p a r t o f h i s s u b j e c t i s t h e b e s t he  Indian a r t i s t ' s creation  the  s a c r i f i c e o f many f e a t u r e s o f a  s t i l l  to present  complete. is are  The  primary  understanding. secondary  of works of  the o b j e c t of  real  artistic of  depend on  this  can  object.  hope f o r .  Sacrifice,  The  creation  goal i s  as  whole,  artistic symbolization  P r a c t i c a l i t y , p l e a s u r e and  and  represented  art necessitates  a r t i s t ' s task.  function  be  long  with a l li t s idiosyncrasies.  The  d i m i n i s h the  I t does  can  i n a l l i t s aspects  of  be.  (Indian) a r t i s t s  completely  however, does not  action.  imitation.  not  capture  defining  depends upon t h e c o a l e s c e n c e  e t h o s , o f what i s and  resemble  thereby  need  communication  to understand  (Goodman,  1976). Often the  Indian deity's  tended greater on  represented with multiple  as  m u l t i p l i c i t y of bodily  an  accurate portrayal  but  than  human c a p a b i l i t i e s  of  the body t o express  decisions  of  limitations, others  any  greatness  artist.  again  the  deity.  i s one  and  of  Using  the most  the variations natural  theboundaries,  needs o f the body.  d y i n g ; he  etc.,  parts i s not i n -  rather suggests  E v e r y o n e knows  moods, d e s i r e s and  being born,  arms, heads, eyes,  comes t o know  One  sees  others  -  by  the things  they  because he shares himself  and  Indian  similar  all  artist  have r e l i g i o u s  celestial The  the  upon t h e s e  yawning,  common  expresses  experiences  sentiments.  Dancing,  sighing, laughing, e t c . ,  i n I n d i a , t h e mundane  express  t h e numinous.  those  As i s  has i t s match i n the  sphere. Jain Tirthankara  no . i n s u r m o u n t a b l e t h e image.  ful,  b u t b e c a u s e he  s i g n i f i c a n c e i n I n d i a ; they  Hindu counterparts,  of  calls  emotions one has t o w a r d  always the case  not only  idiom.  crying, shouting,  more r a r i f i e d  one  experiences,  a c t i o n s t o convey more p r o f o u n d  singing,  in  -  do a n d s a y ; he u n d e r s t a n d s o t h e r s  i n a similar  The  100  image, u n l i k e i t s more  i s completely  distance  of spiritual  He  There i s  and t h e person  i s n o t i n h e r e n t l y more  i s not a high  or spatial  i n form.  between the viewer  The T i r t h a n k a r a  more h e a v e n l y .  human  familiar  distance.  power-  god whose p o s i t i o n i s Each viewer  partakes  t h e s p e c i a l knowledge t h e image o f f e r s by r e c o g n i z i n g Tirthankara  i s not essentially  different  from  that  himself.  Distinguishing Characteristics  I n many r e s p e c t s , Indian and  images.  symbols  the Tirthankara  images resemble  The images a r e composed o f s t a n d a r d i z e d  drawn  f r o m t h e common h e r i t a g e  o f most  other signs  Indians.  - 1.01 -  This  similarity  civilization ing  o f images s h o u l d  spawned J a i n i s m  and J a i n images.  characteristics of Jain Tirthankara  tokens;  they  proper  image.  Tirthankara  and  then quite  these  images,  then,  are  images b u t simply  from  characterize  a  A l t h o u g h many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e u n i q u e t o  the  must take  Indian  Indian  The d i s t i n g u i s h -  do n o t a b s o l u t e l y d i s t i n g u i s h J a i n i m a g e s  Buddhist or other  images, they esoteric.  are of relatively  A full  i n t o account, t h e u s u a l  understanding  minor  importance  o f t h e images  and accustomed meanings o f  characteristics. Bhattacharya  tinguishing  (1974:  srivatsa a yaksa  kevala,  are usually  an a s o k a o r t r e e as w e l l  Tirthankara identifies  as a throne  Other  seat,  and l e f t - h a n d  a lion  sides  corners  throne,  a drum, c e l e s t i a l  a  (these  of the attained trilinear  blossoms,  two  A d d i t i o n a l l y , each  i s accompanied by a c l h n a Tirthankara.  one o r s e v e r a l o f t h e e i g h t  below  characteristics are:  i n the lowest  and heavenly music.  the particular  naked  3); and t h e  under which t h e T i r t h a n k a r a  an a u r a o r h a l o ,  chowri bearers  images a r e  i s usually  (see Figure  and y a k s i on h i s right-hand deities  dis-  hanging arms, r e a c h i n g  images  symbol on t h e chest.  umbrella,  contain  The T i r t h a n k a r a  the long,  i n the standing  attending work),  sets o u t t h e images'  by t h e y o u t h f u l body, which  among t h e D i g a m b a r a ; knees  19-20)  characteristics.  distinguished  the  not surprise us, since  o r cognizance  which  T h e i m a g e may  auspicious  also  symbols o f  -  the  Jains:  102  -  swastika, m i r r o r , u r n , cane-seat  hour g l a s s ) ,  two s m a l l  fish,  flower  garland  (shaped  like  an  and a book.  Maha-Purusha  If the  t h e body  simplest expression  Pur usha). model. is  i s truly  the primary  and d u a l i s t s  universe,  according  t h e s h a p e o f a g i a n t man.  seven h e l l s ;  h i swaist  breast  i s devaloka,  region  of kings;  place  i s tiryaloka,  1970:  1974:  describe  upon t h e o t h e r  earthen  bowl, 199).  a cymbal  the  i s graiveylka, the  Surrounding  stacked  85-86), o r as a  downturned  the Jain  universe  does n o t p e n e t r a t e .  spring.  The s i d d h a ,  (loka) Here  (Sukhlalji,  shares  d e s c r i p t i o n has a bottom,  f o r movement a n d s t i l l n e s s  clock has a broken  pyramids  o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s , each  Every  r e g i o n where matter  such as t h e Svetambara's  ( j h a l a r a ) and a mrdanga on t o p  Regardless  and  responsible  sources,  the e a r t h l y realm; h i s  as t h r e e  (Lalwani, 1968:  order.  a  to non-canonical  cosmic  271-72).  the universe  tri-partite a top.  posit this  s o u l s , f r e e f r o m t h e body,: go when  However, t h e c a n o n i c a l s o u r c e s ,  one  (Maha-  and t h e t o p o f h i s head i s s i d d h a l o k a , t h e  (Stevenson,  Lokapraksa,  alike  His legs are adholoka,  heaven; h i s neck  where l i b e r a t e d  released  vehicle,  o f c o s m i c u n i t y i s a g i a n t man  Indian monists  The J a i n  revelatory  a  a  middle  i s aloka, t h e media  do n o t e x i s t or liberated  and  time's  soul,  -  cannot  (and c o u l d  The and  Indian  express  attempts  In  Figure  region. firmly  a s a g i a n t man.  2, t h e l a r g e , The t h r o n e  gorged,  hidden  along  throne  a temple display  fills  corridor, the  rounded  figures  (usually  associated  hence,  on t h e e a r t h .  I t i s held  143).  again  typify  o f the throne.  earth-bound  part.  Every  with  the yogin's breath forces)  natures  great  the head,  .A t the bottom a r e  gesture  ship  when p r o s t r a t i n g h i m s e l f  person, puts h i s head i s fundamental,  impurity  to the other's  bodily  before  a god  feet.  This  an a s s e r t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i v e  o f t h e two p e o p l e ,  chest  c o n t r o l and,  are the middle;  i s t h e topmost region.  Indian,  Their  The b o d y ' s d i a p h r a g m a n d e x p a n d e d  the control of l i f e and pure,  niches  Ap-  spirits,  f e e t , t h e most p o l l u t i n g and hence most dangerous  and  universe.  much o f t h e l o w e r  and y a k s i , t h e earth-bound  i n cavern-like  1964:  or  i n h i s attempt t o  Whether i n t h e i n n e r  rests securely  the yaksa  (Havell,  the  of loka.  i n g r a v i t y ' s g r i p as a r e a l l e a r t h l y o b j e c t s .  nearly  lofty  square  a part  range o f techniques  i n e a c h image t o c o m p l e t e l y  propriately, are  employs a wide  o f the temple o r merely  he  s t i l l  means o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  the world  sanctuary  not) a s s i s t those  artist  standardized  -  103  an a s s e r t i o n o f t h e i r  purity relation-  o f dominance and subordinance.  Cakravartin:  Like  the Buddhists,  Universal  the Jains  claim  King  their  origin  i n the  -  womb o f t h e K s h a t r i y a their worldly goal  royal  is  is  With  As g r e a t  umbrella  the cosmic  axis  never  who  order  and  claiming  subordination  domain o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a .  mounted on  to the Tirthankara.  the deva-lokas;  the ceiling  secular  (Zimmer, 1 9 6 0 :  i n hand, t h e attendants  symbolizes  renounced  renounced the  o f t h e same c o i n  indicate their  i t s shank  o f t h e heavens as  At the top o f the universe  an amaloka o r crown, h i s symbol o f a u t h o r i t y and  where t h e l i b e r a t e d the  Tirthankara s  and  shoulders  resolve  Tirthankara the  right  souls  reside.  authority.  1  broad  and robust  t o perform  The l i o n  Furthermore,  chest  austerities  i s no B r a h m i n .  t o be a " t r u e  the  Jains  but  the conflict  pressed this  long  practices  deal  their  claim  spread  continues  strength 214).  a god, but  The  claims  t o be  among t h e H i n d u s , Kshatriyas,  and K s h a t r i y a s , e x to this  day.  While  such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y  Indian  and ahimsa,  responsible  of persecution  Sangave, 1 9 5 9 ) .  This  all  must n o t o n l y  Tirthankaras  Tirthankara's  1962:  of survival  between t h e Brahmins  as v e g e t a r i a n i s m  a great  ( Boner,  He w a s n o t b o r n  ago renounced  helped  the  suggests  Brahmin."  by t h e T i r t h a n k a r a ,  rivalry  throne  place  indicate h i s great  Because o f t h e contingencies  for  princes  the spiritual  two s i d e s  chowries  elephants  trilinear  the  -  power, t h e T i r t h a n k a r a s  were simply  127-30).  The  caste.  o f unifying the world;  order  104  acrimony  i t a l s o was  by t h e Hindus survives be b o r n  (Dumont, 1 9 7 0 ;  i n t h e dogma i n a noble  that  family, but  -  that  Indra wrested Mahavira,  Brahmin's  womb a n d p l a n t e d  as a K s h a t r i y a 1:  vol.  king,  the  him into  The w o r s h i p p e r t r e a t s  i t supremacy  i n t h e temple.  person.  An e a r t h l y  t h e Hindu, 1970;  center o f t h e temple temple  was a n e a r l y  (are  physical emulated, majority.  abilities  o r another  (Rowland,  temple,  1967:275;  seated i n the  monarch n o t o n l y  sculpture  of his  and formidable  Feared, admired and  t h e hopes o f t h e non-Brahmin  t h epath which would  a profound and growing pessimism,  a pessimism  the  spiritual  and,hence,  1970: 35).  c o n t i n e n c e were  to confer great psychic  exemplified  the ascetic  (Rowland,  (tapas) and sexual  The a s c e t i c w a l k e d  decreasing social  highly  theJain  B.C. i n H a r a p p a ,  upon t h e a s c e t i c .  the ascetic  performs  Ascetic  as 2500  austerities  believed  Sutras,  o f t h e u n i v e r s e as w e l l .  subject o f Indian  ascetic's today)  as e a r l y  Only  t h e image as a  The T i r t h a n k a r a  i stheascetic  The  Appearing  model  home f o r t h e g o d s ,  1976).  but symbolically  (Jaina  a  Hence, w o r s h i p p i n g  i s a model o f t h e cosmos Beck,  from  O n l y when t h e c o n -  i m a g e t r a n s c e n d s t h e homage t o a k i n g  Fischer,  The  Tirthankara,  a K s h a t r i y a ' s womb.  p e r m i t s d o e s homage become h o l y .  placed like  the final  In worship, theprincely  service.  giving  -  c o u l d he become a T i r t h a n k a r a  230-31).  a valuable  text  105  overcome  arising  from  mobility of  - 106  -  India's c a s t e system ( M a r t i n d a l e , 1962). expressed,  The  Indian  as he does today, an age o l d confidence  ascetic  t h a t nature  can be conquered and c o n t r o l l e d , t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e routes the same d e s t i n a t i o n not o n l y e x i s t but are p a s s a b l e  to  (Potter,  1963) . The  g r e a t Hindu prototype o f a l l a s c e t i c s i s S i v a , the  symbol o f world  renunciation.  livable places:  He  l i t e r a l l y r e s i d e s i n un-  tops o f very h i g h mountains and  cremation  grounds, p l a c e s o f g r e a t extremes i n temperature, p l a c e s where only the d e a d — t h o s e r e l e a s e d from t h e i r e a r t h l y b o d y — are p e r m i t t e d .  S i v a haunts b u r i a l grounds; covered  ashes, he performs a u s t e r i t i e s which g i v e him miracles.  the power o f  He r e t i r e s to mountain tops, where, because of  t h e i r g r e a t h e i g h t , he i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y heaven and e a r t h . i s i n the s k i e s . the world  with  i n contact with  His f e e t are on the ground but h i s head S i v a , however, has  a dual n a t u r e .  He i s  renouncer, f o r s a k i n g the s o c i a l t i e s of f a m i l y and  community, but he i s a l s o the potent male who t i e s surpasses  a l l o t h e r males.  He has  through a u s t e r i -  immense power, and  r e l e a s e o f h i s power comes e i t h e r p r o c r e a t i v e l y or i n a frenzied world-destroying The  dance  (Zimmer, 1972).  J a i n s ' T i r t h a n k a r a s are c l e a r l y p a r a l l e l s to the  ascetic Siva.  They share a c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f symbols  t r i d e n t , cobra, Mt.  (moon,  K a i l a s a , as w e l l as l i n k s to p a t e r n a l  potency) (Manjula, 1968).  They a l s o a c q u i r e t h e i r great powers  and a b i l i t i e s through a u s t e r i t i e s . . J a i n mountain hermitages  -  and  places  twenty of on  of  pilgrimage  twenty-four  a mountain top  sible,  high  denied  the  i s preferred  sexual  the  Tirthankara  the  progenitor  h e r o who  taught  is  never, nor  as  a  and  sexual  fathered  cording  to  marrying  and  civilized set out The  leading  one  of  to  children.  While  Svetambaras)  raising  a  laypeople  As  a symbol,  Although  and  a r t s and  as  Hindus.  their  left  the  great  depicted for  In  he  lower  fact,  the  married  (at l e a s t  ac-  o b l i g a t i o n s of comforts  of  i n themselves.  They  moksa.  support those the  described the  Tirthankaras, reserved  an  Rsabhanatha,  "culture,"  Tirthankaras  to  Jains  i n favor of  earth  uncivilized  pilgrimage  The  t h a t M a h a v i r a was  f a m i l y , they  monk's b e h a v i o r  t o moksa.  on  from the  the  pos-  between  cycle, i s often  fulfilled  conquer the  a lifelong  i n the  ascetic.  other  accept  vacillate  Siva  Such d e p i c t i o n s are  refuse  to  of  crafts,  adopted  Whenever  father figure.  cosmic  the  21).  (kevali)  temples.  Kshatriyas  their  significantly,  omniscience  does not  potent  this  the  community of  recognize  and  of  deities,  life  on  of  i s any  the  for  benevolent  people  Digambara J a i n s and  and  creator.  inferior  1974:  procreative aspect  constant  as  reached  Tirthankara  renouncer  eternally first  Tirthankaras  S i v a , the  ascetic world  abound i n I n d i a , and,  (Bhattacharya,  ground  Unlike  -  107  the  J a i n monks.  universal rules  image p o i n t s  to  They (dharma)  this  2 9 universal 29.  order.  Every  ascetic brings  the  Jam  canons  to  I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t T i r t h a means t h e o r i g i n a l c o m m u n i t y o f monks, n u n s , laymen and laywomen. T i r t h a a l s o means "one who e x p o u n d s D h a r m a " ( B h a t t a c h a r y a , 1 9 7 4 : 11).  -  an  immanent p o s i t i o n w i t h i n  dressed  i n rags, wandering  the r i g i d  penances  -  108  t h e community. from v i l l a g e  The b e g g i n g  to village,  of thefaith, re-enacts the lives  monk,  performing of the  Tirthankaras.  Nudity  The  Jain  image a r o s e i n a t r a d i t i o n  Brahmanical. excluded  The B r a h m i n s '  the other castes.  ritual With  t h a t was  monopoly  the rise  anti-  increasingly  of the sannyasi,  or w o r l d renouncers, a c h a l l e n g e arose; t h e Brahmins' supremacy was q u e s t i o n e d a n d u l t i m a t e l y the  last  Jain  Tirthankara,  two.  Mahavira  long  tradition  his in  clothing. fact,  called  of the Ajivikas The J a i n s ,  the early  loincloths  rather  ( B a s h a m , 19 5 1 ) , h e  clad")  monks o f t h e s e c t  nudity,  ascetics  Mahavira's  as a r u l e  naked  quickly  nakedness  would  t o men.  dressed i n  While the  107-09). Digambara  day t h e p r a c t i c e o f  adopted later  nudity;  (Basham, 1 9 5 1 :  continue to this  t h e Svetambaras  discarded  however, never p r e s c r i b e d  t h a n go a b o u t  only  penance and, f o l l o w i n g t h e  N a k e d n e s s was o f c o u r s e r e s t r i c t e d ("sky  r e j e c t e d by Mahavira,  a n d b y t h e B u d d h a , t o name  f o rstrict  spiritual  some m i n i m a l  clothing.  come t o s i g n i f y t h e  cleansing  of the soul  from karma.  Initially,  however, t h e  practical  r e s u l t was t h e c o m p l e t e  elimination  o f any c a s t e  or  markings: which might  social  identify  the individual's  -  previous ties.  social  position  The i n d i v i d u a l  above t h e s o c i a l This  symbolic  o r s u g g e s t any commitment t o w o r l d l y  had, i n e f f e c t ,  bounds o f h i s w o r l d  adherence t o caste  formerly  reliable  collapsed,  t h e Brahmins'  these  heretical  of  ahimsa—thus  accept  caste  as  Vaishyas.  to  provide  present and  political The  slim waist  aristocratic shoulders  But a  to ritual  control  they  would  r e n u n c i a t i o n would, however, a l l Jain  F o r those  could  status  continue  legitimize the  d e m a n d i n g some  visible  teachings,  robust  chest  came t o s y m b o l i z e  o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a as K s h a t r i y a . arms became a n d r e m a i n s i g n s  (Chitrabhanu,  t h e monk's n a k e d n e s s  1978:  personal  which  The  large  communication).  ( o r near nakedness)  t h e most r u d i m e n t a r y — f o o d ,  the  o f great and  also  complete d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e d e s i r e f o r any p h y s i c a l  except  practice  shows e v e n i n t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e body.  and broad  birth  attributes  own k i n d a n d c l a i m  reminder of the Tirthankara's  and long  p r o m i n e n t men  claims  among t h e i r  the past.  rebellion  and s e v e r e l y  and s t r i c t  The J a i n s w o u l d a l s o a d a p t ;  an a n c h o r w i t h w h i c h  substantive  As  s o o n a d o p t m a n y o f t h e new  reasserting their  Mahavira's  that  a i d and a s s i s t a n c e  renouncers^-vegetarianism  distinctions  through  difficulties  a u t h o r i t y was i m m e d i a t e l y  of  purity.  had the i n i t i a l  might engender.  r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f mutual  The B r a h m i n s w o u l d  social  beyond and  (Zimmer, 1960: 2 1 0 ) .  recruitment  principles  tested.  and  stepped  e q u a l i t y , soon enough t o v a n i s h ,  a d v a n t a g e o f e l i m i n a t i n g many strict  -  109  i s strictly  bespeaks ties regulated.  -  The  individual  world  and  i s completely  the  social  and  world  He  i s alone  It  i s by  by  his vulnerability,  solely  conquering  Furthermore, the  representation.  are  always  in worldly its  that  the  eradicated  shifts  the  mythological  The  unstable  level  awareness. structure  i s not  The  body has  assume g r e a t  veins,  importance  manipulated—all their  h a i r by  the  the  image's body  (1972:  a  1:  as  higher  157)  feature  This  full  of  tendons o r body h a i r  to  the  a transient, one's  bone  advancement.  (which  comes  f e a t u r e most  required  "un-  surface  i m p a c t on  spiritual  s i n c e h a i r i s the  and  effectively  a l l muscular or  J a i n monks a r e  unlike  "decaying"  empirical level  Tirthankara's  uninvolved  is perfect,  Denial  par-  bodies  state,  ambiguity,  level  of  Their  44).  of  stereotypic  extension  "fragile," Vol.  liberation.  to p u l l  to  easily  out  roots).  I n h i s M y t h s and Zimmer  the  a  i n a pure  image's absence o f  no  immediate  i n favor of  from the  the  i n d i c a t e s the  survival.  f e a r s , made m o r e  comprehension.  allows  for  monk a p p r o a c h e s  intended  mind of  relies  survival.  and  trance,  (Jaina Sutras,  level  physical  g e n e r a l i z i n g marks.  shown i n y o g i c  viewer's  the  for his spiritual  images r e q u i r e d  exchanges.  to both  a c c i d e n t a l o r momentary  marks i n t o  vagueness, which  His  responsible  every  The  entity"  vulnerable  u p o n w h i c h he  m o r e common h u m a n f o r m ,  stable  -  his desires  T i r t h a n k a r a was  ticularizing  n o  Symbols suggests  i n Indian that  the  Art  and  Civilization,  requirement of  tonsure,  -  before of  an  in  the  e m b a r k i n g on o l d man.  virile  a great  to  the  that  chain.  One  mound o f  this  which might  passionate  implies  purity.  fragrant Prasad  (1972),  clothing,  that  the  in his  a prescribed  saliva,  all,  He  comparative tonsure  length: the  Basham  this  his  (1951: the  106)  new  monk  i.e., i t is  only as  an  four  strict  measures are  practical  a bodily  the  remnant, Absence  body  and  breath  i s free of pollutants. study  of  Buddhist  i s repeated fingers.  monk d o e s n o t  appearance.  suggests  sweat, e t c .  ornament h i m s e l f  improve h i s  I suspect  accompanies  Tirthankara's  209).  however, t h a t  these  after  when  Since  b a t h e , wash or  Prasad  use  any  to  Jain  the daily  his  34-35) subdue  f o r a monk.  solution i s quite  and  cosmetics  (1972:  intended  p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i o n a woman m i g h t h a v e  deed, 30.  to  link  him,  categorized  feces,  cut his nails,  whatsoever believes  be  i s discouraged,  is a  accustoms  that h a i r not  (Zimmer, 1960:  reaches  grooming  with  no  longer  dispassion  resolve.  Therefore,  monachism, notes,  any  Elsewhere,  also infer can  the  matted h a i r that  tests his  male, but  simulates  implies passion;  p a i n f u l tonsure  a p o l l u t a n t , along  hair  Hair  physical severities awaiting  austerity  are  ascetic's l i f e ,  d e s t r u c t i v e energy.  suggests  -  W i t h h i s h a i r g o n e , he  generative  S i v a has  an  I l l  In-  effective.  S t e v e n s o n (1915: 45) g i v e s a n i n t e r e s t i n g a c c o u n t o f Mahavira's death. A c c o r d i n g t o some D i g a m b a r a , M a h a v i r a died alone. Upon a c h i e v i n g moksa, h i s p u r e s o u l d e p a r t e d , l e a v i n g o n l y h i s n a i l s and h a i r r e m n a n t s . The Jains f a s h i o n e d a new b o d y f r o m t h e s e l e f t o v e r s a n d c r e m a t e d i t w i t h a l l the u s u a l ceremony.  -  However, p r i o r t o his  hair,  great he  the  taking  initiate  moment d r e s s e d  the  monastic  in his  j u s t as  vows and  p u r i f i e s himself;  begin his merciless  grow impure,  -  112  out  approaches  his  finest clothing.  dismissal  the  he  pulling  of  dead are  the  Only  then  does  He  begins  to  body.  impure u n t i l  cremation  (Das,  1976).  Male  The smell, the  But  sex  top  soul  Jains or  of  say any  the  eternal  presents  conditioning  beyond  problem  Some J a i n s ,  idolatrous.  the  Since  the  the  liberated soul  These s o u l s ,  shipped.  While  (he  has  he  i s the  worship. stacles  the  depict  and  conditioning  do  simply  i s not  figure he  matter. soul  image  f o r example,  not  to  are  completely  to  has  qualities.  emulate  worship depicted,  overcome He  has  wor-  liberated  subtle,  and,  karma),  therefore,  a l l worldly only  non-  recognizable  c a n n o t be  some r e s i d u a l , t h o u g h  a Tirthankara,  of  i s without  to  hell—the  s o m e t h i n g i f i t i s t o be  Tirthankara  a b o d y and  and  an  color,  risen  liberated  Sthanakavasi  they maintain,  most a p p r o p r i a t e As  and  Sthanakavasi  images.  i t i s e s s e n t i a l to  matter  shape,  Having  for those wanting  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the  s t i l l  qualities.  of  physical  and  i s without  p a r t i c u l a r i z i n ghold  separation  a serious  worship.  liberated soul  u n i v e r s e — a b o v e heaven, earth,  i s forever this  the  Form  the  ob-  final  -  stage of  of spiritual  thephysical  growth  remaining,  The o b v i o u s  T i r t h a n k a r a s w e r e i n f a c t men.  it  Tirthankaras, Mahavira  i s probably  to h i s t o r i c a l avataras  tion,  personages,  tion;  1974:  though  modelled  connected  on t h e  beyond any s e x u a l  particulariza-  t o be a "convenient  artistic  (Chitrabahanu; p e r s o n a l communication, refuse t o accept  images a r e always  o t h e r hand, admit Malinatha,  w e r e men, a n d  ( B h a t t a c h a r y a , 1974: 1 2 ) . The J a i n s '  Digambaras  their  twenty-two,  are additions,  are technically  interpretation"  answer i s t h a t t h e  and Parsvanatha,  t h e image as a male p r o v e s  The  abjuration  The o n l y two h i s t o r i c a l l y  that the remaining  o f Vishnu  Tirthankaras  t h e complete  body.  Why a r e t h e i m a g e s m a l e ?  placed  -  113  men.  3/30/78).  t h a t women a t t a i n  libera-  The S v e t a m b a r a , o n t h e  t h a t women c a n a t t a i n  liberation.  t h e n i n e t e e n t h T i r t h a n k a r a , i s a woman  5 5 ) . M a l i n a t h a , however, i s never  In fact,  (Bhattacharya,  r e p r e s e n t e d as a  31 woman; s h e x s a l w a y s  male.  This  "convenience"  o f t h e male  Certainly  i f the artist  i s t o represent a great person, the  image must i n t e r p r e t likely  t o achieve  expression  society  Once an image g a i n s  than  proves  instructive.  a c c u r a t e l y , i . e . , those  greatness w i l l  o f greatness  form  more e a s i l y  those  authority,  unlikely  certain  most  facilitate the o f such  implications  success. a r ei n -  escapable. 31.  I n a r e f e r e n c e I am u n a b l e t o l o c a t e , a n i m a g e o f M a l i n a t h a a s a woman i s m e n t i o n e d , b u t I h a v e n e v e r , d e s p i t e r e p e a t e d e f f o r t s , e n c o u n t e r e d a n o t h e r e x a m p l e , t h o u g h i t may i n d e e d exist.  -  The  most obvious  superior center  to  the  implication  female  of  any  w o r k ; he  examples,  and  he  divided  into  two  symmetrical. through srivatsa  the  -  114  i s t h a t the  form.  The  i s the  largest figure  i s male.  complementary halves  umbrella  l o t u s on  the  chest,  images, h i s g e n i t a l s .  The  the  are  line  usually  usually  works are  and,  our be  runs  Tirthankara, h i s nose,  his navel,  the  i n a l l of image can  which  a vertical  above the  form i s  Tirthankara occupies  Furthermore,  Structurally,  male  on  the  remarkably  the  standing  symmetrical;  32 the  left The  life is  of  used  and  the  superior used  a p p e a r as  left-right the  division  Jains.  f o r those  (Carstairs, with  right  1961:  right  as  80).  the  activities  right such  i n the  a general and  a symbolic  the  rule,  as  one's  right-left  statement of  daily  hand; the  left  defecation  Offerings during worship  As  left,  images.  finds parallels  eats, w i t h  polluting  hand.  to one's  freely  One  mirror  are  right  given side  distinction  is  is  superiority-inferiority,  purity-impurity. "Returning lower  left  and  a p p e a r t o be 32.  again  to  the  i m a g e s , we  right  of  the  Tirthankara's  cave—like niches,  are  two  notice that in throne,  attendant  the  i n what deities:  T h i s n e a r l y p e r f e c t symmetry o f the body does n o t , o f course, e x i s t i n r e a l i t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , one m u s t assume t h a t I n d i a n a r t i s t s were aware o f t h i s asymmetry. After a l l , a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s e l s e w h e r e r e g u l a r l y use this asymmetry. We c a n c o n c l u d e , t h e n , t h a t t h i s n e a r l y p e r f e c t s y m m e t r y i s an i m p o r t a n t s t a t e m e n t a b o u t t h e Tirthankara's flawlessness.  1  115 -  a male yaksa on t h e r i g h t - h a n d a  female y a k s i on t h e l e f t - h a n d s i d e .  Male  and t h e r i g h t  more, these  are superior  artistic  appear t o have wide  is  that the sexual  true  The a n a l o g y  t o female  currency  division  and l e f t ,  throughout  i s inescapable The  Jains  Furthe  male and  India.  I t  does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f dominance and s u b o r d i n a t i o n ,  tion  i s obvious.  and t h e l e f t .  associations of right  female,  a  s i d e o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a and  express  but the implica-  i n Jainism.  a s s e r t mental power i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e  to bodily  power.  W h i l e women may b e t h e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e ,  as  t h e s i x t e e n goddesses o f Learning  with  (Bhattacharya, without  1970:  goodness o r badness;  moral  disposition  ness,  the Jains  ruptible suffer  harsher  The  is the in  i t i s said that  husbands.  1959:  179). For this  out o f reach,  they  1959:  weak-  c o r r u p t i n g and correason  t h e nuns  that positions of and must always  respect  practice  180-81).  Tirthankara  i s a n uncommon m a l e .  image i n K y o t s a r g a ,  to the Jains  the rigid  (see Figure  Christian art.  A s we v i e w t h e standing  posture  3 ) , we n o t i c e t h a t  o f t h e g e n i t a l s t o express  and e s p e c i a l l y sexual  much m e d i e v a l  neutral  assume t h e  Because o f t h i s  r e p r e s s i o n , must accept  no d i m i n u t i o n body  i sessentially  men o f l e s s c o n t r o l a n d f e w e r y e a r s  Tirthankara's peculiar  nature  s a y women a r e u n e n d u r i n g ,  are virtually  revere  (Sangave,  of their  (Sangave,  authority and  122) , t h e i r  (Vidyadevis)  passion,  there  the denial of  as i s o f t e n  Nor i s there  t h e case  any s i g n o f  - 116  -  the masochism o r p a s s i v i t y t h a t o f t e n accompanies C h r i s t i a n art.  The T i r t h a n k a r a c o n t r o l s h i m s e l f ; h i s g e n i t a l s are  lifeless,  chaste.  There i s no p r o c r e a t i v e urge.  Further-  more, no attempt i s made to hide the penis as i n the t i o n a l treatment sexuality.  detached.  (1964) observes  an important  Jain sculpture.  symbolized  There i s no shame, and  He i s completely  Havell  philosophy,  o f male n u d i t y .  tradino  transformation i n  Purusha, the male p r i n c i p a l i n Hindu  i s the h i g h e s t type of d i v i n e beauty. by the male form.  The  He i s  female, p r a k r i t i , i s  s a i d to be the m i r r o r r e f l e c t i o n of Purusha.  As with  the  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of S i v a as A t t a n a r i s a r a r , i n which S i v a ' s l e f t i s feminine  i n form (complete w i t h b r e a s t , shapely  and thigh) and h i s r i g h t s i d e i s masculine  hip  (with the wide  chest and muscular thigh, of the male)., the u n i v e r s e i s d i v i d e d i n t o male and  female h a l v e s .  The male i s s u p e r i o r and,  on the r i g h t - h a n d s i d e ; the female i s i n f e r i o r and on left-hand side. the Buddhist,  hence,  the  But H a v e l l notes o f the J a i n , as w e l l as  images,  I t would be more exact to say: t h a t , i n the images o f . . . the J a i n T i r t h a n k a r a s , Indian a r t i s t s - were aiming at a d i v i n e type which combined a l l the p h y s i c a l p e r f e c t i o n of male and female, and transcended them both. The -broad shoulders and l i o n l i k e body-were... masculine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and the rounded limbs, smooth s k i n without v e i n s , the j o i n t s w i t h bones h a r d l y showi n g , r e p r e s e n t those o f the o t h e r sex. (1964: 161)  -  He  117  -  continues, Most o f t h e marks o f female beauty enumerated by I n d i a n p o e t s , s u c h as n a v e l l o w i n t h e body, eyes l i k e a l o t u s - p e t a l , face l i k e t h e f u l l moon, l i n e s o n t h e n e c k r e s e m b l i n g those of t h e c o n c h - s h e l l , and t h e s l e n d e r w a i s t , were e q u a l l y a t t r i b u t e s o f male b e a u t y , and were i n c l u d e d i n the lakshanas o r beauty m a r k s , p r e s c r i b e d f o r xmages o f . . . t h e J a i n Tirthankaras. (1964: 162)  Thus, t h e T i r t h a n k a r a  unites  female, without  destroying  right  male and female,  and l e f t ,  (hierarchy),  t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f male and  the fundamental  association of  dominance and  and p u r i t y and i m p u r i t y .  subordination  He i s a t r u e  guru.  Yoga  The  goal  (samsara).  of spiritual  striving  i s t o escape  For the Jains, the l i b e r a t e d state  unsurpassable happiness yoga i s t h e primary  existence  i s one o f  and p e r f e c t i o n o f a l l k i n d s ,  and  means o f a t t a i n i n g i t ( D a s g u p t a , 1 9 5 9 :  85) .  Meditation  The suggests of  life.  vertical spiritual  s t a b i l i t y of the Tirthankara  image's  posture  e q u i l i b r i u m ; he h a s o v e r c o m e t h e c o n t r a r i e s  He h a s p u r g e d h i m s e l f  of a l l desire  and  will.  -  The states  ability  t o b r i n g him  buried  i n yogic the  birth  and  on  the  powers t o  needs  were o n l y the  the  from  less  food  food  A s c e t i c s are  place of  meditative  freedom  h i s denial of  i f they  r e b i r t h ) i s found s t i l l  h i s way  birth,  quiet,  in  only  commonly  trance.  ascetic's burial  body  (Carstairs,  not  and  k y o t s a r g a . ^3 i n f a n t had  during leaving  life  the  Sutras, Vol.  a  release  frequently i n Jainism.  to d i s t r e s s move n o r  died. her  o f my  feeling  no  Mahavira, and  He  The  from For was  compassionate before  nor  remained  was  quiver, but practicing  penance  movement, h i s m o t h e r sensing  to  syn-  harm h i s mother  vowed t h a t  parents,  249-50).  or  stir  motionless."  house t o e n t e r 1:  (really  i n h i s m o t h e r ' s womb, M a h a v i r a  But  reassure  the  death  is virtually  to becoming a T i r t h a n k a r a .  " d i d not  stiff,  moved t o  33.  as  a s c e t i c i s m , and  fetus, wishing  the  and  c l o s e r t o moksa.  miraculous  example, w h i l e  in  think that a yogin  postures  maintain  liberation,  association of meditation, which  onymous w i t h  his  and  101). The  well  to enter  spiritual  Jains sanctify  attribute  1961:  yogin  counterparts  serves  and  to  Many I n d i a n s  his worldly  Often  the  i s analogous  rebirth. than  of  -  118  thought  h i s mother's  "It will  t e a r out  my  not  distress,  behove  hair,  and  the  state of houselessness"  The  parallels  are  clear:  me,  (Jaina  not  only  T h e m o s t common e x t e r n a l p e n a n c e i s k y o t s a r g a ("dismissing the body"), the r i g i d standing posture p e c u l i a r to Jainism.  -  is  119  the meditative posture l i k e  taking world  death b u t r e n u n c i a t i o n and  t h e v o w s o f a monk i s l i k e i s analogous  to leaving  -  death.  the cycle  Leaving the social of birth  Dhyana, t h e most i m p o r t a n t i n t e r n a l  penance,  kyotsarga.  Dhyana i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n  or fixing  an  The g o a l  t h e mind  object.  regulate of  one s  prehends  thought  1  thought  i s t o withdraw  and, eventually,  completely.  objects;  Thought always  i t involves  of  t h e mind,  body and speech  is  the elimination  of these  In P i n d a s t h a dhyana, monk v i s u a l i z e s  a fire  The  monk t h e n v i s u a l i z e s  ashes  affect  forces.  northwest)  blows  (Bhargava,  actions goal  on t h e body, t h e  Only  (literally,  heat),  away t h e a s h e s ,  As t a p a s  ashes  remain.  carries the The s o u l b e -  and presumably  t h e y o g i n consumes h i s  t h e cosmic  directional  ( t h e s o u t h e a s t ) consumes t h e body.  draws t h e water ashes  dhyana's  rain.  200-201),  F u r t h e r m o r e , he c o n t r o l s Fire  Since  i n h i sheart.  cleansing  up t o t h e z e n i t h .  body.  the self,  a powerful wind which  rises  own  the agitations  r e a c h e s o u t a n d com-  consumes t h e l o t u s .  (Bhargava, 1978:  tapas  eliminate  or concentration  comes a s i d d h a  Through  from the w o r l d ,  actions.  away f o l l o w e d b y a c o o l ,  straight  accompanies  o f t h e mind on  one i n t h e w o r l d .  burning a lotus  consumes karma, s o f i r e  and death.  and e a r t h  Wind ( t h e  (the southwest)  ( t h e n o r t h e a s t ) t o w a s h away t h e r e m a i n i n g 1968: 2 0 0 ) .  -120  -  Youthful  The He  Tirthankara's  i s a p e r f e c t man.  limitations has He  of  stabilized has  The  childhood  through  i n f l o w of  i s always  Tirthankara nor  the  represented does not  infirmities  the  effects.  birth  Tirthankara  performance of  austerities  and  transforms  youthful. the  o l d age;  The  karmic p a r t i c l e s  as  suffer  of  h i s c o n d i t i o n between t h a t of  stopped nature's  perfection the  body  Body  he  and  death.  achieves which  stop  his bodily  con-  stitution . As  was  speculation flections the  noted,  there  to  the  of  see  i s a  b o d i l y codes  a person's moral  e f f e c t s of  general  tendency  as  transformative  power o f  ascetic practices.  practices,  can  body: and  "excellence  body,"  stopping  The  and  very  strong,  re-  through  expressed Through  the these  the  "color," "loveliness,"  subtle "strength,"  body, through conquest of  e l e m e n t s , becomes w h i t e  beautiful,  ago  p h y s i c a l p e r f e c t i o n of  "adamantine d e n s i t y . "  physical  1971:  of  as  constitution acquired  P a n t a n j a l i long  attain  Indian  changeable,  karma.  one  in  with  developing  purity, an  the  extremely  inpenetrable  density,  a l l alterations i n i t s constitution (Ballantyne, 91).  There  i s no  Pantanjali's  doctrine.  range between atoms, and  doubt that  the  the  For  gross,  subtle, or  or  the  Jains  the  J a i n s , the  those  those  accept  this  material  composed o f  composed o f  part  bodies  loosely  tightly  of  packed  packed  -  atoms ( S u k h l a l j i , 1974:  121 -  113), and i t i s a u s t e r i t i e s which  metamorphize t h e body by compacting  these atoms.  By p r o -  g r e s s i v e l y p o l i s h i n g the gross body, v a r y i n g degrees o f s u b t l e t y are e f f e c t e d .  Those beings i n heaven are s a i d t o  have bodies o f g r e a t e r s u b t l e t y than those below.  Silence  Yoga g i v e s rhythm and u n i f o r m i t y t o an otherwise d i s rhythmic and asymmetric  life.  and movements, the body's l i f e  By c o n t r o l l i n g b o d i l y f u n c t i o n s appears t o d i m i n i s h and k e v a l i  becomes p o s s i b l e . The T i r t h a n k a r a images are always s t a n d i n g o r s i t t i n g silently. munication.  S i l e n c e , o b v i o u s l y , i s an important mode o f comI t i s not uncommon t o f e e l an uneasiness w i t h  new acquaintances; t h e r e are uncomfortable  "gaps" o r s i l e n c e s  in  the c o n v e r s a t i o n .  S i l e n c e i s a break i n the flow o f words,  of  language, o f symbols,  of  i t s o p p o s i t i o n to language.  of  the importance- and h o l i n e s s o f r e a d i n g s i l e n t l y i s a case  in  point.  and i t assumes i t s meaning  because  Augustine's sudden r e v e l a t i o n  We f o r g e t t h a t r e a d i n g s i l e n t l y i s r e l a t i v e l y  r e c e n t ; r e a d i n g aloud was the common form. precede s i l e n t ones.  Oral  traditions  Those who know something but are s i l e n t  about i t , know greatness.. greatness- o f the i n e f f a b l e .  In t h e i r s i l e n c e , they express the  -  Silences,  however, d i f f e r  (Smart, 1 9 7 2 :  31),  deniable.  example,  the a  For  and  image i n d i c a t e s the  very  real  greatness  of  But  their the  -  d e p e n d i n g on importance  chanting  superiority  a liberated  soul;  Language has  s i l e n c e i n the  supreme r a p t u r e  or  Tirthankara standing  The  meditation, conscious silence,  leads of  expresses  unlike that of i n the  "self"  greater  than  coalesce  and  experiences  while the  the  ordinary  expressions  of  i t cannot  not  supremacy o f  or  the  sitting but  an  the  the  person in  beyond  involvement.  of  sacred  They are  a  ineffable  springs  T h e s e two  express  silently,  observation  self.  In  inexpressable  also  as  Tirthankara experiences  become i d e n t i c a l . and  the  may  to experience  before  Tirthankara.  context  to worldly  not  un-  silence  beyond which  worshippers,  and  is  cannot d e s c r i b e what i s  ineffable,  the  sacred  the worshipper  the  the  and  categorization, prior  ticipation  the  i t s limits  proper  context  i n worship  devotees' of  they  happiness or god.  the  s e n s e , mere words c a n n o t e x p r e s s  indescribable. rise.  122  from it.. an  parMeditation  element  something  experiences  simply  same t h i n g  This  may  different  ( S m a r t , 19 7 2 :  28^30) .  The  Tirthankara's  The literally  Position  image o c c u p i e s  the  womb r o o m ) a n d ,  as  and  center  Orientation:  of  Figures  the 2 and  temple  The  Center  (garbha-grha,  .3 d e m o n s t r a t e ,  the  - 123  -  T i r t h a n k a r a image occupies the c e n t e r of the work. temple worshippers surround the minor f i g u r e s surround o b v i o u s l y an important  J u s t as  the major temple image i n worship, the T i r t h a n k a r a .  The  center i s  p o s i t i o n ; i t i m p l i e s dominance.  In  Indian m o n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n , the world began from a s i n g l e p o i n t  (the s i v a bindu) and grew outward i n  c o n c e n t r i c r i n g s ( C h a t t e r j i , 1973: the world  i s l i k e w i s e ordered:  l i k e oceans and  20-21).  Geographically,  e a r t h i s surrounded by  i s l a n d s (Lalwani, 1968).  The  ring-  traditional  p a t t e r n of p o l i t i c a l a l l i a n c e s p o s t u l a t e s a r i n g o f conc e n t r i c c i r c l e s , a l t e r n a t i n g a l l i e s and opponents 1960:  114-15).  (Zimmer,  In deva-puja, the images o f Vishnu,  Devi, Ganesha and Surya are arranged  i n a c i r c l e with  Siva, the  image o f the worshipper's patron d i e t y p l a c e d i n the c e n t e r . In temple worship, the c e n t r a l image, i n the c e n t e r o f the temple, i s circumambulated; i t i s r i t u a l l y p l a c e d at the center of  action.^4  The T i r t h a n k a r a , as the c e n t r a l f i g u r e , i s v i s u a l l y much l a r g e r and more important surround  him.  than the other f i g u r e s which  Moreover, h i s c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n and h i s domi-  nance a r i s e because he c o n t r o l s those d e s i r e s which l e a d one 34.  In c o n t r a s t , c o n s i d e r the t r a d i t i o n a l Western n o t i o n . For example, the p r i e s t i n C a t h o l i c worship performs the r i t u a l s i n f r o n t o f h i s congregation, separated by a r e l i g i o u s frame t h a t one may approach but not e n t e r . God i s separated from h i s people, whereas the Indian view p o s t u l a t e s a p e r s o n a l and immanent god.  -  to heaven or and  hell;  hence the  control)  he  breath  soul, of  the  and  the  greatest  the  as  other  the  side of  body are of  the  the In  or  greater  But  reasons  the  temple,  breathing  (i.e.,  The  Tirthankara the  breath  Tirthanthe  The  obviously  the  center,  flexibility  According  to  white  congregation  royal paraphernalia  front,  the  front i s  chest  expanded  inheres  ( S h a h , 19 5 5 :  and  as  The  the  back.  i n the  front  story.  sits  we  The  front than  kevali,  as  most  the  f a c i n g the Indra  umbrellas)  just  The  asymmetry o f  legend,  upon a t t a i n i n g  connected  preferred orienta-  image.  the whole  Tirthankara  artistic  i s i n the  front.  always  the  women's b r e a s t s  from the  i s not  the  front.  symmetry and  from the  this  body assumes  face, the  image  a l l forms of  bows f a c i n g t h e  w i t h f l a g s and  Tirthankara,  air  sky.  f r o n t i s a l s o the  symbolic  But  Hall.  and  are of  body, the  the  One  body.  Assembly  the  front of  i s more v i s i b l e  wisdom to h i s all  the  respect.  yogin  decorated the  the  more e v i d e n t  Simply: of  the  characteristics:  i n worship.  the  movements t o w a r d  the  expressiveness  part of  men's g e n i t a l s . tion  s i l e n c e are  but  Many o f  greater  controls his  masters  significance in virtually  expressive well  he  Hindu images,  viewer,  expression. with  life;  He  individual.  Unlike other faces  ascetic.  t h a t mediates between e a r t h  kara' s withdrawal the  i s an of  -  124  the  samavarsana  built Hall  (and so  might preach 85). see  Indra  i t i n the  that his supplied image  -  (Figure the  2).  east,  throne.  The  -  Tirthankara enters  performs pradaksina Indra's  architects,  three  life-like  dinal  directions.  of  125  images o f  a t t e n t i o n but  and the  the  Thus, the  the  seats  h i m s e l f on  Vyantara  image not  only  Tirthankara i s not  sides  deities),  but  that  might b e n e f i t from h i s wisdom.  they  resembles  sees  symbolically  major  posture.  35.  thighs.  Murti  center  1  and  the  of  make  other  car-  center  portrayed  the  of  inferior The  (the world  Accustomed:  by  as  having  the  Hindu  gods  so  Tirthankara  teacher).  The  implication,  world;  high  e a r t h l y realm  legs The  are  A  atop  below  (Boner,  Description  image i n F i g u r e  characteristics.  Chandraphrabha,  The J a i n ziggurat, mountain for this  then  3 5  i n r e l i e f , the  His  aid of  the. l i o n  i s the  multiple limbs  views the  distinguishing  Tirthankara,  his  at the  Usual  Although  the  i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s and,  sits  202-3).  The  the  Daksina  c o s m i c m o u n t a i n , he  1962:  to  r e c e i v e s the  S i v a as  Tirthankara  the  (analogous  from  in a l l directions.  multiple  he  gods,  T i r t h a n k a r a i n the  his front i s visible  Note, however, t h a t the  inner sanctuary  The  and  his  f e e t are  rests: under the  shows  eighth  s i t s : i n padmasana, the  crossed  l e f t hand  2 clearly  lotus  placed  right with  on the  p r e f e r e n c e f o r p u t t i n g t h e image atop a which, s y m b o l i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t s the cosmic and the t e m p l e , p r o v i d e s : f u r t h e r s u p p o r t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . ( S h a h , 1955: 123-30).  -  palms in  placed  upward.  the center  entirely and  The  126  srivatsa  of h i s robust  motionless  with  chest.  eyes  circlets,  forming  The  circle  i s a twenty-four-petal  curled.  inner aura  an  head.  The  stellations  displayed  Chandraprabha  fixed  on  sits  the end o f h i s nose  l o t u s aura  other  Tirthankaras.  Tirthankaras:  two  posture  (viewer's)  of Jain  left  the  mounted on that  fragrance.  extend  The  symbols.  Below  i s tightly two  to  rep-  or  has  four  i n kyotsarga,  the  the on  repre-  (viewer's) garland  an a m a l a k a o r  right,  bearers.  crown,  Immediately  above  i t s musician. a r e two  Ganadharas  fly-wisks).  elephants  stand  a lotus cushion and between  con-  intended  They  upon  from the s i d e s o f Chandraprabha's r e s t s on  outer  (Navagrahas)  are flower  (the ceremonial  elephants.  hair  an A p s a r a ,  On  topped w i t h  the  Above t h e aura  and  the smaller Tirthankaras  Chandraprabha cakra  meditation.  position,  umbrella,  chowries  Tirthankara's  constellation  i s a tammata o r drum and  Below bearing  Each  t h e upper p o r t i o n o f t h e work.  crown  be  deities  i s a Gandarva  t h e complementary  centers  The  i n padmasana and two  s e n t a t i v e o f m u s i c and  A trilinear  lotus.  o f T i r t h a n k a r a s , w h i c h may  simply  the  frame the  i s p o s i t i o n e d between  the s i x major planetary  standing  aura,  i s a f o u r - p e t a l l o t u s and  resent  36.  i s prominently  a s m i l e , b a r e l y d i s c e r n a b l e , on h i s l i p s . Two  in  -  are  platforms  lion  throne.  ringed with  dharma-  the throne's  legs  are  The d h a r m a - c a k r a s y m b o l i z e s t h e p r e a c h i n g o f t h e T i r t h ankaras and i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Rsabhanatha, t h e f i r s t  -  127  -  two p r o t e c t i v e l i o n s w i t h paws r a i s e d .  Immediately  t o the  (viewer's) l e f t and r i g h t are Chandraprabha s attendant 1  deities:  V i j a y a , the yaksa, and B h r k u t i , the y a k s i .  On  the f o o t band i s the c r e s c e n t , ChandraprabhaVs c i h n a f y i n g symbol).  A l l the elements  (identi-  o f the work are e s s e n t i a l  i n e x a c t l y d e f i n i n g Chandraprabha's p o s i t i o n . The yaksas are earth, s p i r i t s who  traditionally  guarded  the m i n e r a l w e a l t h of the w o r l d and were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h earthly riches. who  They are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Kubera, the  r e s i d e s on Mount Meru, the cosmic mountain.  are f e r t i l i t y s p i r i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t r e e s . water and f e r t i l i t y .  God  The y a k s i s  They  symbolize  T h e i r power enables them t o b r i n g  t r e e s to f r u i t i o n through an embrace o f the t r e e ' s trunk or  by merely  47) .  t o u c h i n g the t r e e w i t h t h e i r f o o t  (Rowland,  1970:  Indra appoints the yaksas and y a k s i s as attendant  d e i t i e s upon the b i r t h , o f the T i r t h a n k a r a . they connote w e a l t h and f e r t i l i t y ,  As s u r e l y as  they connote  the g r e a t -  ness o f the T i r t h a n k a r a they serve. The l i o n throne i s a s i g n o f r o y a l t y . the g r e a t power and a u t h o r i t y o f the one who The  I t symbolizes s i t s upon i t .  l i o n s are s o l a r symbols; t h e y d e s t r o y t h e darkness  of  ignorance and r e p r e s e n t the omniscience o f the T i r t h a n k a r a (Boner,  1962:  204).  As do the l i o n s , the T i r t h a n k a r a has  forebearance and the g r e a t s t r e n g t h s necessary to perform austerities. T i r t h a n k a r a and, hence, the f i r s t t o p r e a c h the J a i n dharma (Bhattacharya, 1974: 52, 58).  -  Chandraprabha's lined  by  theless points  the minor  is  p o s t u r e and  pyramid  upward toward heaven the knowledge  the d i r e c t i o n  the space  figures—form  significant,  of v i s i o n :  -  128  of f i r e  an  kingly  sits  sits.  the heavens.  and  indicates  soul.  The  1972:  existence.  He  has  has  deity  to indicate  his  Siva  generally  faces  114).  e q u a n i m i t y and his position  as  the  The  vertical  spiritual  pulls  and w i l l ;  tranquility, a major  con-  of  material  h i s posture and i s  figure  or  (maha-deva). Like  he  desire  His  assumes  posture suggest  banished a l l  posture.  inward.  overcome the c o n t r a r y  suggests equilibrium, intended  (Mukerj.ee/ 1965:  is  ascetic  i n the lotus  turns  heaven-  147).  f o r t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d e v a p o r a t e and he  He  or  I t  triangle  I t symbolizes h i s  of the Tirthankara's  clarity  the s a t t v i c  cerns  equilibrium.  triangle  illumines  i n padmasana, the T i r t h a n k a r a  stability  The  which  i n meditation  (santa)  never-  connotes  While  mood o f s i l e n c e  but  generally  s p l e n d o r (Zimmer,  Chandraprabha  him—out-  and  t h e male e s s e n c e o f t h e god. and  invisible,  i n w h i c h he  bound temperament o f the l i b e r a t e d  fervor  around  i n Daksina-murti (spiritual  resembles  a l ldirections.  throne high  (Bhattacharya, The  i n a l ld i r e c t i o n s ,  earthly  realm below  him  28),  whom  Chandraprabha  w o r l d i s assumed t o r e v o l v e  a t o p Mount Meru,  vision,  1974:  teacher),  the cosmic mountain.  implies  (Boner,  t h a t he  -1962:  looks  202-3).  upon  around His the  -  Placed is  the  upon the  auspicious  where the  full  perienced. supreme is  srivatsa.  content  chowri  siz-zag line  bearers  thunderbolt  thus  they  the  personages  The  Tirthankara  the  brilliance  nate of  aura  the  this  are  citadel  upon the  of  the  be  path  indicate their  to  the  of  As  region  of  the  two  about the  life.  But  to  as  one  a  more  shown us  bearers  of  the  by  chowries,  Tirthankara. The  position.  purity  c o n s t e l l a t i o n s of  halo  the  gods, slew  Tirthankara i l l u m i n a t e s the  The  create  lightening  Universal King.  his soul's intellectual  heavens.  It  Chandraprabha.  heads,  further r e i n f o r c e h i s symbolic  of  wherein  i n t e r p r e t e d as  subordination  i s c a k r a v a r t i n , the  ex-  opened.  liberation  145).  heart  174).  flank  r e l e a s i n g the waters of the  Truth,  Brahma,  elephants'  T h e s e b o l t s may  of  directly  are  royal servants  (.Zimmer, 1 9 7 2 :  elephants  through  life  consciousness  and  represent  Tirthankara  The  lotus of  w i t h which i n d r a , the k i n g of  dragon,  site  from e a r t h to heaven reminiscent  the  regal  I t i s the  the  (Coomaraswamy, 1956A:  standing  (vara-vaira).  probably,  heart,  force of  the p e t a l s of  These personages,  giant  and  the  I t i s Brahmabeshma, the  here that  bolts  over  joy i s experienced  Two  a  chest  -  129  heaven  as  expands Jinas  desig-  f r e e from the  pollution  the  or  karma. The  trilinear  umbrella  heavens of  the  gods.  represents  the  world  As  an  axis,  symbolizes ancient  deva-ioka  symbol of  c l a i m i n g the  royalty, i t  ceiling  of  the  -  heavens the of  dharas,  as w e l l  the heavenly  h i g h tops  player.  musicians,  live  i n cities expresses  top i s a lone  runs  figures.  began t h i s  According  to this  subjective.  After  study  drum and i t s  toward  The work  earth  contains  with  Conclusion  a critique  arguing  of  positivist-  i n s t e a d f o r an  historical  d e f i n e s c u l t u r e as a system o f symbols. view, all,  must a r t i c u l a t e  meaning i s grounded  a coherent  rules  i n the inter-  i f symbols a r e v e h i c l e s f o r conceptions,  to problems o f e x i s t e n c e . f o raction,  thejoy  A l l emphasis i s d i r e c t e d upward.  anthropology,  a view which  on t h e  of the musicians  out i n a l l directions  t h e word o f t h e T i r t h a n k a r a .  pragmatist  rules  They a r e V i d y a -  by t h e T i r t h a n k a r a .  Summary a n d  they  who  Their presence  experienced  I t s sound  adoring  view,  f l y t h e Gandharvas  The drum i s t h e o n l y i n s t r u m e n t  spreading  I  at the top  when f r e e d o f i t s  as g a r l a n d - b e a r e r s .  o f mountains.  liberation  perimeter  P o i s e d upon t h e u m b r e l l a ' s  no  At the top of  I t i s here  that the soul migrates  the umbrella's  Apsaras,  shown.  soul.  bondage.  Around  of  i s an amalaka o r crown.  the universe  and  -  as t h e domain o f t h e l i b e r a t e d  umbrella  karmic  130  worldview  and o f f e r s o l u t i o n s  C u l t u r e , as d e f i n e d here,  which  represent  formulates  a s e t of values.  -  These v a l u e s , guide with  The  -  (1969:'  i n Bailey's  f o rconduct." equal  131  During  ;22) words,  worship,  t h e same a r g u m e n t  Tirthankara  i s not merely  an o b j e c t  t o be emulated by t h e worshipper.  shipper  symbolically re-enacts  when he e n t e r s does he d r e s s  the temple like  throughout with  view it  and ethos.  i s t o accept  acti s itself  way o f l i f e — b u t intended  Not only  an e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n i s punctuated  the worshipper to  I t i s these  of values  identity,  actions  and promote  which  a sense o f  the r e c o g n i t i o n o f a shared  To b e a J a i n i s t o a c c e p t this  t h e wor-  renunciation  h i sworship  t o encourage  life.  a common p a t t e r n  common c u l t u r a l  In fact,  t o do a c o m p l e t e w o r s h i p .  the Tirthankara's  recognize a  rites  of devotion, but  the Tirthankara's  a monk—this  the Tirthankara's  emulate  holds  force.  a model  of  a r e an " u n s h i f t i n g  implicit  contract  this  world-  s e tof values;  t o a c t as J a i n  doctrine  prescribes. Jain worship, to  an e f f o r t  effort  wealth, While  to manipulate  to gain  an e f f o r t  i ti s c e r t a i n t h a t  an u n e a r t h l y  b y someone  the Jain worldview  unearthly—in this  case  recognizes  that  T h u s we f i n d  the ritual  I t i s status,  do n o t l e a d t o  a c e r t a i n degree.of  one's e a r t h l y g o a l s .  I t i s  b e n e f i t , e.g., l i b e r a t i o n .  a l l e a r t h l y goals  cannot be a t t a i n e d w i t h o u t attaining  t h e system o f symbols.  some w o r l d l y b e n e f i t , e . g . , h i g h e r  etc., or to gain  liberation,  or  i s not merely  demonstrate h i s membership i n t h e J a i n community.  also an  however,  liberation success  that  i n  the cosmic  context—must  encompass  -  the s o c i a l c o n t e x t .  132  -  I t does t h i s by making e x p l i c i t  those  values necessary f o r proper s o c i a l a c t i o n ; i t teaches  Jain  dharma as p r a c t i c e d and preached by the T i r t h a n k a r a s : v i o l e n c e , non-exchange, a u s t e r i t i e s , benevolence examination.  and  self-  By a c t i n g l i k e a T i r t h a n k a r a (or a monk  f o l l o w s the T i r t h a n k a r a s example), 1  these J a i n v a l u e s and endorses and of the i d e a l  each worshipper  a view o f the i d e a l  non-  who  endorses person  society.  I f , as a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s commonly a s s e r t , people of a l l c u l t u r e s t r e a t the body as an image of s o c i e t y , an image which a r t i c u l a t e s important aspects o f s o c i e t y by m a n i p u l a t i n g the body's form, then the J a i n image, i n s o f a r as i t i s a product of the J a i n s ' v a l u e s , should a l s o express  those  a s p i r a t i o n s and b e l i e f s o f the J a i n community and must l i k e wise be t r e a t e d as an image o f s o c i e t y .  In t h i s sense,  the  i m a g e — j u s t as r i t u a l a c t s d o — o b j e c t i f i e s J a i n values , g i v i n g the worshipper  a permanent, unchanging  p r i n c i p l e s governing J a i n s o c i a l  r e c o r d o f the b a s i c  life.  The J a i n T i r t h a n k a r a image, then, r e p r e s e n t s i n aggregate those q u a l i t i e s which the moral and pious devotees  strive  to a c q u i r e through Right B e l i e f , Right Knowledge and Right Action.  Through t h i s image, the J a i n i d e a l of a s c e t i c i s m ,  anti-Brahmanism expression.  and r e n u n c i a t i o n f i n d t h e i r most e l e g a n t  The image, j u s t as do the a c t s o f worship,  embodies those values o f the i d e a l J a i n s o c i a l o r d e r .  As  -  Wolf  (1972:  cultural  150,  153)  133  notes  -  of another  image i n  another  context: O c c a s i o n a l l y , we e n c o u n t e r a s y m b o l w h i c h seems t o e n s h r i n e t h e m a j o r h o p e s and a s p i r a t i o n s o f an e n t i r e s o c i e t y . . . . I t r e f l e c t s the s a l i e n t s o c i a l relationships ....and embodies t h e emotions t h e y g e n e r a t e . I t provides a c u l t u r a l idiom through w h i c h the t e n o r and emotions o f t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s c a n be e x p r e s s e d .  This  statement  Tirthankara  i s no  images.  less  t r u e when a p p l i e d  to the  Jain  -  134  -  -  135  -  -  136  -  -  137  -  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Ayres,  Lew.  Altars  Company,  Inc.,  Babb, Lawrence in Bailey,  A.  Central F. G.  Ballantyne,  J . R.  Pantanjail.  Barnett,  L. New  York:  B a s h a m , A. L . Luzac ' ' ' '''•• :  :  &  Varanasi:  Indological  South  York:  Deva.  A r t i n India  Columbia History  P r e s s , 1975.  Schocken  Yoga-Sutra of Book House, 1971.  Today, 1972.  Choice and Caste  India."  Hinduism  University  P. 1 1 5 .  Ideology i n  Symbolic Anthropology:  o f Symbols and Meanings.  D a v i d S. K e m n i t z e r , a n d D a v i d M. University  Press,  A  Ed. Janet Schneider.  1977.  Pp.  270-91.  and Doctrines o f the A j i v i k a s .  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