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A contemporary Peruvian weaving technique on the continuous warp loom : learning and instruction in.. McRobb, Janice Helen 1980-12-31

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\  A CONTEMPORARY PERUVIAN WEAVING TECHNIQUE ON THE CONTINUOUS WARP LOOM: LEARNING AND INSTRUCTION IN A NON LITERATE SOCIETY. by JANICE HELEN McROBB B.Ed.  ( S e c ) , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1977.  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( Department o f A r t E d u c a t i o n )  we a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1980 (c)  J a n i c e Helen McRobb  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s  an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree the L i b r a r y  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  It  i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g or  permission.  Department The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  BP 75-51 1 E  or  publication  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  DE-6  that  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s  written  for  ABSTRACT  The  first  establish  the  chapters  of  this  antiquity  of  the  development o f t h i s ment, t h e  Spanish  warp  conquest  tion  o f :the e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n o f techniques.  p a t t e r n weaves r e s u l t s niques, in  uous w a r p  Spanish  techniques  observed  and  loom s e t ups.  The  P e r u v i a n weavers r e s e a r c h e r , who to the  to the  during  i n the  Cuzco  weave w h i l e  other  participated  work i n P e r u  i n Peru,  e v o l u t i o n of designs  and  the  i n the  cloth,  tech-  The  of  models  and  contemporary A  weaving  later  o f how by  t r a n s m i s s i o n by  weaving  descrip-t narrow  using a variety  experienced  the  used  o f the c o n t i n -  i n 1978.  a description  textiles.  o f many  s p i n n i n g , w a r p i n g and  culture  effects  millenia  warp-  i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f  with  equip-  w h i c h were  to p r e h i s t o r i c  k n o w l e d g e , as  i n this  loss  weaving  versatility  region of Peru.  concludes  transmit their  as p e a s a n t  a d i s c u s s i o n of  techniques  of  which d i s r u p -  i n the  techniques  The  loom w e a v i n g o f wide thesis  century,  to  The  i t s beginnings  c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the  reference  field  tradition.  resulted  descriptions of  i n c l u d e f i n g e r weaving  wide bands, and  The  f o l l o w e d by  detailed  observed  life  status t e x t i l e s .  literature,  chapter provides  fifteenth  their position  l o o m i s shown, w i t h  loom s e t ups,  tions  from  in contradistinction  the p r o d u c t i o n o f  early  i n the  survey  rudimentary  loom, i s t r a c e d from  t o the  textile  a brief  textile  u s i n g the most  ago,  sophisticated  provide  Peruvian  tradition,  continuous  thesis  of  the the learning  learning process  on  '-ii'i-  T A B L E OF CONTENTS  Abstract L i s t of Tables List of Figures Acknowledgements  i i ' v v i v i i  CHAPTER 1 Introduction D e s c r i p t i o n o f Area o f Research  1 4  CHAPTER 2 The Andean Weaver: P a s t  12  and P r e s e n t  CHAPTER 3 T h e A n d e a n Loom A. D e s c r i p t i o n B. W o r k i n g P o s i t i o n s a t t h e Loom  23 33  CHAPTER 5 T h e W a r p - p a t t e r n e d Weaves A. D e f i n i t i o n B. R e v i e w o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e C. H i s t o r i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t  40 41 43  CHAPTER 5 Field  R e s e a r c h : S p i n n i n g and Weaving i n t h e Cuzco R e g i o n A. The Weavers B. S p i n n i n g S p i n n i n g Using a Drop S p i n d l e C. F i n g e r W e a v i n g o f Bands1. W a r p i n g 2. T y i n g t h e H e d d l e S t r i n g s 3. S t a r t i n g t h e B a n d . 4. W e a v i n g a N a r r o w B a n d B a n d A. C o m p l e m e n t a r y - w a r p Weave B a n d B. S u p p l e m e n t a r y - w a r p Weave 5. W e a v i n g a W i d e B a n d D. Loom W e a v i n g o f W i d e C l o t h 1. O c t a v i a 2. S a c s a h u a m a n W e a v e r 3. G e r a r d o Gusman Ramos E. Comparison o f Weaving Technigue  51 52 55 58 62 69 72 73 74 77 79 86 95 101 104  CHAPTER 6 L e a r n i n g and I n s t r u c t i o n The R e s e a r c h e r a s P a r t i c i p a n t  107/ 122  CHAPTER 7 Conclusion  127  APPENDIX A The  Compound  Weaves  132  APPENDIX B The  Loom  Names o f Loom P a r t s  135 i n Quechua  137  APPENDIX C W a r p i n g Frame  139  APPENDIX D Weaving Designs BG il bo ls is oa gr ry a p h y  141 152 154  Table  TABLES  Periods  i n Peru  1 Prehistoric  Table  L I S T OF  Culture  2 Q u e c h u a Names f o r t h e Loom  Parts  -vi-  LIST  Figure  1. 2. 3. ' 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44.  OF FIGURES  South America P e r u : A r c h e o l o g i c a l and Contemporary S i t e s The Cuzco R E g i o n M o d e l l o f Weaver f r o m Chancay 1 6 1 5 d r a w i n g o f B a c k T e n s i o n Loom W e a v e r U p r i g h t Loom, f r o m M o d e l o n C h i m u C e r a m i c 1615 d r a w i n g o f U p r i g h t Loom Warp t a k e u p - d u r i n g w e a v i n g S p i n d l e and f l e e c e from O l l a n t a y t a m b o Spinning: p u l l i n g out thicker length o f yarn Spinning: holding spindle while winding yarn S p i n n i n g : winding overspun yarn onto s p i n d l e Spinning: drawing f i b r e s o u t o f f l e e e e • Warping: forming t h r e a d c r o s s Warp w r a p p e d i n f i g u r e e i g h t a r o u n d f o u r s t a k e s Warping: showing d i r e c t i o n o f warping Warping: O c t a v i a l a y i n g double t h r e a d c r o s s Tying heddles Attaching heddie s t i c k Opening r e a r ' shedooniinarrowobarid Opening r e a r shed on narrow band Opening r e a r shed on narrow band P a t t e r n p i c k up o n n a r r o w band P a t t e r n p i c k up o n n a r r o w band Opening h e d d i e shed on narrow band O c t a v i a uses s e v e r a l s t i c k s t o h o l d p a t t e r n sheds Octavia uses m u l t i p l e heddles P a t t e r n p i c k up o n w i d e band P a t t e r n p i c k up o n w i d e band S t a f a n i a p a s s e s w e f t t h r o u g h shed Belt with several pattern sticks i n place S o n i a weaving Shed c h a n g i n g on back t e n s i o n loom Shed s t i c k i n s e r t e d i n shed P i c k i n g up p a t t e r n t h r e a d s I n s e r t i n g weft Beating i n the weft Beating i n the weft A s t a k e d o u t loom Weaver b e a t s i n w e f t H o r i z o n t a l s t a k e d o u t loom P a t t e r n p i c k up S o n i a , s e a t e d o n g r o u n d , w h i l e l e a r n i n g t o weave S'acas, Sonia's weaving d e s i g n f  8 9-10 11 27 28 30 31 38 38 60 60 61 61' 64 65 67 68 70 70 75 75 76 76 78 78 80 80 83 83 85 85 87 90 90 92 92 93 93 99 99 102 102 112 11-1  -via-  Figure  45. 46. 47.  Supplementary-warp  48. 49. 50. 51.  Warping  52. 53. 54. 55 . 56. 57. 58.  weave  structures  C o m p l e m e n t a r y - w a r p weave The l o o m  structures  133 134 136  frame  B i r d m o t i f i n warp f l o a t s from Huaca F e l i n e m o t i f from Ocucaje D e s i g n from Ollantaytambo S acas  Prieta  1  Variation of s acas Diamond r e p e a t from C h i n c h e r o M u l t i p l e diamond d e s i g n from T i n t a Two d e s i g n s f r o m n a r r o w b a n d s w o v e n i n T i n t a S m a l l diamond m o t i f s Bands o f p a t t e r n s from a b a g i n the R o y a l S c o t t i s h Museum 1  140 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150  -vii-  ACKNOWLE DGEME NTS  In a p r o j e c t has only the  it  right case  ship the  of this  magnitude  t o seek h e l p and guidance  that  that  as w e l l  as t h e h e l p and guidance  offered.  Formal  f e e l i n g s which  must be s a i d  that  and i t i s  But, i ti s also  a great deal of friend-  acknowledgement cannot p o s s i b l y  were e n g e n d e r e d  these  the researcher  and people  t h a t d u e a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s h o u l d be made.  was a l s o full  i ti s inevitable f r o m many s o u r c e s  feelings  by the f r i e n d s h i p .  will  long remain  express  However,  i n my memory.  In the United States The  Textile  The  S m i t h s o n i a n Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , W a s h i n g t o n ,  Sally  Museum, W a s h i n g t o n ,  D.C. a n d A n n Rowe.  D u m b a r t o n Oaks Museum, W a s h i n g t o n , and  Anne-Louise  The  American  Bird,  D.C. a n d  Klass.  Milica  D.C. a n d t o E l i z a b e t h  Benson  Schaffer.  Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , S k i n n e r and  Phillip  New Y o r k  Gifford  a n d J u n i u s B.  (Dept. o f A n t h r o -  pology) . M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t , Museum o f t h e A m e r i c a n Julie  Jones,  B a r b a r a Teague a n d Nobuko K a j i t a n i  I n d i a n and  (Conservation  Dept.) The  In  R o y a l O n t a r i o Museum, T o r o n t o  and John  Vollmer.  U n i t e d Kingdom The  University  A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Museum a t A b e r d e e n .  The  University  Museum o f A r c h e o l o g y  Mary C a i s t e r The  and E t h n o l o g y , Cambridge and  and h e r s t a f f .  Museum o f M a n k i n d , t h e E t h n o g r a p h y  Museum, L o n d o n a n d P e n n y  In  a n d M a r y Ann D e r g a n a n d h e r s t a f f .  Canada The  The  B r o o k l y n Museum, New Y o r k  The  Pitt-Rivers  The  Royal Scottish  Department o f the B r i t i s h  Bateman.  Museum, O x f o r d a n d B . A . L . C r a n s t o n e Museum, E d i n b u r g h  and Dale  Peru The  M u s e o Amano,  Lima.  The  Museo N a c i o n a l d o A n t r o p o l o g i a , L i m a .  The  Museo  'in Sitio'  Pachacamac, Near  Lima.  and h i s  Indiens.  staff.  - v i i  To  People  a  _  i n Peru  Dr. Chavez B a l l o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Cuzco. S r a . Vyroubal Pineda Chavez. Dr. L u i s Watanabe, D i r e c t o r o f Machu P i c c h u S r . Manuel S o l t a r o ) Sr.. R i g o b e r t o Sra.  Ruis  )  o f the P o l i c e Force  Octavia Sinchi  S r a . S t e f a n i a Q u i s p e Huaman  ) )  The Woman n e a r S a c s a h u a m a n F r a n c i s c o , my i n t e r p r e t e r . S i l v i a Lawson My T h e s i s  site,  stationed a t Tinta.  )  Sr.  G e r a r d o Gusman Ramos  Archeological  )  t h e Weavers.  Committee  Graeme C h a l m e r s ) Don M c i n t o s h M a r v i n Cohodas  ) )  Dept. o f A r t E d u c a t i o n .  Alan  )  Dept. o f F i n e  R. S a w y e r  Arts.  J o a n n e S t a n i s z k i s , D e p t . o f Home E c o n o m i c s , weaving d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h i s t h e s i s .  f o rreading the  P a r t i c u l a r t h a n k s a r e due t o M r . & M r s . J . S h e r i d a n o f W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., M r . & M r s . A. H a r t m a n o f New Y o r k a n d M i s s E . A l l e n o f T o r o n t o f o r p r o v i d i n g a s s i s t a n c e a n d a c c o m m o d a t i o n d u r i n g my v i s i t s t o t h e E a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d C a n a d a f o r Museum r e s e a r c h . and t o G e n e v i e v e L u n d q u i s t a n d J e a n Kuwabara f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e i nh e l p i n g and t y p i n g d r a f t s o f t h i s t h e s i s .  considerable  l a s t l y , b u t b y n o means l e a s t : t o my M o t h e r f o r t r a n s p o r t i n g me round t h e U n i t e d Kingdom i n a t r o c i o u s w i n t e r weather t o v i s i t t h e museums t h e r e ; a n d t o my F a t h e r f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g a w a r p i n g f r a m e and f o r h i s h e l p w i t h t h e w r i t i n g and e d i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s .  J.  H. McRobb  19/3/80  -1-  CHAPTER  1  INTRODUCTION  Within dedicated  the  throughout  of  c e n t u r y , as a r e s u l t  collectors  pre-Columbian  has  last  and  textiles  archeologists,  has  the w o r l d .  m a t e r i a l has  sophisticated of  the  i s available  to  create  still  the  i n use  fabrics  textiles  diversity  and  the  A  Peruvian  historical  consist  looms and  o f the  themselves.  were p r o d u c e d  t h a t were u s e d these  o f some o f t h e  i n contemporary  Archeological  thesis.  aroused extraordinary  c o m p l e x i t y and  of  b e e n r e c o v e r e d , p r e s e r v e d i n museums  This material  development  o f many  a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount  s t i m u l a t e d much o f t h e w o r k o f t h i s this  o f the e f f o r t s  f o r s t u d y and i t Recent  interest  because  d e s i g n s , and  few  of these  were  used are  weaving.  on v e r y r u d i m e n t a r y  equipment.  the  on  them, t h a t  early  The  s i m p l e wooden e l e m e n t s .  produced  the  because  techniques  shows t h a t  textiles  of  also,  techniques which  evidence  o f a few  examination  this  looms  I t i s with thesis  is  concerned.  The the  first  textile  thesis  i s devoted  in prehistoric  fragments  and  times,  t o the development  from an e x a m i n a t i o n  i n f o r m a t i o n i n a range  A c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f s t r u c t u r a l  made o f t e x t i l e prehistoric  of this  tradition  pre-Columbian literature.  part  techniques which  textiles.  the v e r s a t i l i t y  This has  o f the s i m p l e  were u s e d  Field  of  relevant  a n a l y s e s have  been  i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f  added g r e a t l y  loom.  of  of  t o the knowledge  studies  w e r e made b y  of this  -2-  researcher  into  cisely  t h e warp and w e f t were m a n i p u l a t e d t o c r e a t e  But  how  contemporary weaving  i t seems t h a t  techniques  little  t o t h e looms  day w e a v e r s  work h a s b e e n on which  could produce  done  historic  textiles  second p a r t  o f the t h e s i s  contemporary weaving  techniques  From t h e d a t a g a t h e r e d d u r i n g process  i t i s hoped  weaving  techniques.  present  day w e a v e r s  arise  to provide  process,  I t i s also  present  little  tradition  were  work  has  to i t s pre-  have as  of belts  of a d e t a i l e d examination  used i n the Cuzco  a store  of practical  intended  been  included  to direct  interest  and bands  using  i n the l i t e r a t u r e ,  and as a t e c h n i c a l v e h i c l e .  has been  be  which  of  could  full-sized o f the  f i n g e r weaving been  weaving preparation  techniques.  reported  i n detail  i n themselves  t h e s e means, n o t o n l y may  l e a r n e d more e a s i l y  on  the a t t e n t i o n  f u n c t i o n b o t h a s an e n d By  weaving  knowledge  i n t h e warp  a n d e d g i n g s be p r o d u c e d b u t , i n m i n i a t u r e ,  p a t t e r n s may  on  as p o s s i b l e  do n o t seem t o h a v e  of Peru.  loom.  o f weaving  complete a p i c t u r e  region  examination o f the  t o the f a s c i n a t i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s  techniques which  elsewhere  bands  consists  a detailed  to provide  a l t h o u g h the main  and w e a v i n g These  prehistoric  so t h a t  Equally  textile  f r o m t h e use o f t h e c o n t i n u o u s warp  Descriptions looms  fabrics.  t h e same weaves t h a t  of Peru.  the contemporary  the  done y e t t o r e l a t e  using  pre-  origins.  The of  to relate  to determine  t h e y were w o r k e d ,  d e v e l o p e d by p r e - C o l u m b i a n I n d i a n s been  techniques  belts,  techniques  t h a n on a l a r g e  piece.  and  -3-  For to  a  The  practical  description two  weavers  structure time  factor  the  pieces  are  fiven  it  in  is  of  set  a  could  tradition  which has  I  spent  which It  was  after  I  was  given  this the  work  of  I  of  literate  lessons  the  was  the  made work  of  thesis of  on  cultural  society.  I  i n  given  time  with  with  for  America. unique  tradition,  been  this  limited  wove.  regard  to  Also the  although  concerned. the  the  to  descriptions purposes, But  i t  is  past.  learning  process. during  and  continue  Through t h i s  opportunity  continuous  of  contemporary  techniques me  the  size  comparative  of  weave.  weave  Indian weavers,  weaving  possible  an  they  prehistoric  deals  South  for  am m o s t  the  has  used  Equally,  is  their  i t  with  looms  picture out  spent,  which  made.  thesis  complementary-warp  was  bands  size  provided with a  this  only:  time  that  periods  that  end of  transmission non  part  thus  bands  grown  i n  limitation  full  balanced  significant  experience  a  a  be  on  narrow  that  third  technique  definite  important  The  work  whom m o s t  weaving  the  the  demonstration  which  with  one  with  the  of  reasons  warp  to  methods. weaving learning  study  weaving,  the in  cv.  -4-  Description  of Area  Research Cuzco,  this as  t h e s i s was  Andean a l t i p l a n o ,  that  a second  trail,  form  villages,  speak  o f the  original arrival  Colla,  chain.  Spanish  o f the  To  four  and  the  Due  further  live  The  t o the  i n both  w e a v i n g on  Peru  back  designs produced  Bolivia,  t e n s i o n e d and  are  different,  has  influences, or  become  there i s s t i l l  staked out and  looms.  they vary  from  that  are  used  Despite  the  i n c r e a s i n g breakdown o f t r a d i t i o n a l  i n the from  the  altiplano  tively  unchanged  Inca  Indian  dress, consisting  i t i s not are  of  confused. active  village  set  are  cultural  tradition  Although  as  the v i l l a g e r s  country to country,  an  the  the  l o o m s e t ups too  foot  descen-  Inca,  of cross  as w e l l ups  from  and  picture  styles  the  the  them  Titicaca,  long before  long period  overlay of Spanish  The  towards Lake  that  of  more  a narrow  Aymara a r e  g r e a t groups  two  many o f  i n the  o n l y by  the s o u t h  t o say whether c e r t a i n weaving  Quechua o r Aymara o r i g i n .  of  Indian people  i s s p o k e n by  are a c c e s s i b l e  the Aymara s p e a k e r s . one  Department  The  Quechua s p e a k e r s , p a r t i a l l y subdued n o t  influence,  However,  and  Spanish.  o f the S p a n i a r d s .  possible  i n the  Some o f them, t h o s e who  o r no  live  out  or h i g h p l a t e a u a r e a , between the  many o f w h i c h  little  carried  the Andean m o u n t a i n  language.  in Bolivia,  dants  of  i n Peru  r e g i o n a r e Quechua s p e a k e r s  isolated  and  for this  i n the  cordillera  of Research  t h e weave s t r u c t u r e s  the  to  and  village, the  loom  same.  still  times.  live  life,  i n a manner t h a t  Many o f t h e women'wore  of a treadle  loom woven s k i r t ,  many is  of  rela-  traditional  embroidered  -5-  jacket,  traditional  wrapped around carried  on  the  and  h a n d woven, p a t t e r n e d m a n t a , w h i c h i s  shoulders  weave.  pinned  Many go  for  warmth.  treadle  costume.  embroidered  which i s c o l d  t o keep o u t  and  the w i n d and  Since  the  i n the  the  fitted  the  g a r m e n t m u s t be  n o t be  replaced  In out with and  f o r many  markets  proper  or b a r t e r bread, else  are  and  s e c t i o n , seemingly  l o c a l people  t h a t they may  spread  two  traditional and  an  tightly  the months o f  and  long  lengthy  so  the  packed  rainy process  backbreaking  hardwearing,  these  distinct are  s e p a r a t e d by out  peppers,  potatoes, They  areas.  covered  chores,  t h a t i t need  an  with  invisible  beans,  the a  area  is  line,  The  i s where They  eggs and tight knit  could easily  laid  textiles  tourists.  ground.  few  form a very  t o o u t s i d e r s , who  One  i n ceramics,  popular  t h e i r wares on  have p r o d u c e d .  refuse to s e l l  knee,  cap  years.  there  stalls,  and  knitted  m u s t be  essential  durable  the  as p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t  o f each garment i s a  i n between o t h e r  wear  women.  fabrics  during  o t h e r h a n d i c r a f t s t h a t have p r o v e d  other -the  the  The  rain,  manufacture  t h a t m u s t be finished  j u s t below the  altiplano  windy.  some w e a r . s l i p -  seen i n the  the  are  carrying.cloth that  F e w e r men  a l s o be  t o t h a t w o r n by  is essential  A l l goods  wear a p o n c h o and  will  which end  jacket similar  Clothing  season.  front.  although  tires.  A l l men  O c c a s i o n a l l y , a man  loom woven p a n t s ,  climate,  a t the  barefoot,  s a n d a l s , made f r o m u s e d a u t o m o b i l e  traditional.Indian  and  and  the b a c k , i n a h a n d woven, p a t t e r n e d  t h e women s t i l l on  hat  buy  sell  anything group up  the  -6-  entire found  supply this  visions  and  f o r a camping  than  Life up  to  The  on  trip.  although  i n an  the  stark  and  The  puna,  the  the  infant mortality  3).  truck  or p r i v a t e  to  there,  Access  we  some e g g s a n d  were b u y i n g  plateau  the  car.  on  is still  areas  various  The  there  last was  was  isolated village.  O l l a n t a y t a m b o , w h e r e she which  well  as  spoke v e r y  t i m e she  preparing little  observe her and  pro-  later  in  stores  was  She  time  had  observed.  and  weaving p a r t s  f o r the  two  as  days wages, p l u s  hygenic  and  the  bus,  s p e n d one  map  train  was or  used  two  early  stayed the  had  thirties,  town  f o r two back  of days,  tension  loom  s e v e r a l narrow bands.  that  she  cost  difficult. stayed of  the  to  nights  transportation  walked i n t o the  the  certain  advice  shown o n  i n her  She  to  high.  i f local  of  for survival.  life  made b y  to  inhabited,  to disease  and  communication days  are  transportation  S i n c h i , a weaver  S p a n i s h , making  two  was  d e m o n s t r a t e d w e a v i n g on  weaving  p a i d her  care  villages  method o f the  daily  edge, c l o s e  villages  not  that  harsh b a t t l e  alarmingly  in several  Senora Octavia  during  a knife  which would have been n e c e s s a r y  an  We  other  from l i t t l e  to reduce  improved medical  rate  to  Tinta, since  from  customers.  same t h i n g h a p p e n e d a g a i n  highest  been used.  her,  t o buy  a l t i t u d e combine  Even with  (fig.  to  regular  open a i r market.  Weavers were o b s e r v e d  as  tried  there  e s s e n t i a l s , balanced  malnutrition.  get  f o r the  15,000 f e e t a l t i t u d e , i s a c o n s t a n t ,  climate  the  nothing  i n P i s a c , w h e r e we  Ollantaytambo, rather  leave  I  In  She order  employed  materials  that  -7-  she  used  the  wages a n d o t h e r c o s t s  ence for  f o r t h e sample bands which  i n the cost two d a y s  that  and  from  i s the d i f f e r -  I p a i d h e r o n l y a few d o l l a r s  Quispe  i n Chinchero, I d i dn o t pay h e r  f o r h e r time b u t r a t h e r bought  t h r e e days  chased  Such  We n e g o t i a t e d  o f h e r time.  on w h i l e I o b s e r v e d h e r . the  w i t h me.  s h e c h a r g e d me.  o f l i v i n g there that  When I o b s e r v e d S t e f a n i a directly  she l e f t  that  t h e bands t h a t  I a l s o p a i d h e r f o r my b o a r d  I stayed with her.  Similarily,  t h e o t h e r two w e a v e r s o b s e r v e d ,  t h e unknown woman a t S a c s a h u a m a n .  Gerardo  s h e was  working  and l o d g i n g f o r  goods were  pur-  Gusman i n T i n t a ,  -8-  Figure South  1 America  Lima Pachacamac  Urubamba Cuzco  •  »Pisac •Urcos  Paracas, Peninsula LO  Grande  azca  'Lake  Titicaca  ILa  BOLIVIA  CHILE Figure 2 Archeological  and Contemporary  Sites  i n Peru  Paz  -11-  Figure The  3  Cuzco  region  -12-  CHAPTER 2  THE  The who  ANDEAN  WEAVER:  P A S T AND  s t a n d a r d p i c t u r e o f t h e Andean  i s always busy w i t h h e r hands.  PRESENT  p e a s a n t woman i s o f a p e r s o n  I f t h e woman i s s i t t i n g  anywhere  a n d n o t w o r k i n g , t h e n s h e h a s some y a r n a n d a d r o p s p i n d l e . c o n s t a n t l y , whether piles that  she w i l l ture In  spin  i s that  practice  In  laiden  a baby  as she walks b r i s k l y  along.  spinning  and weaving  economic  duties.  As M u r r a  but i n return,  t o each peasant family  t o weave c l o t h and c h u r c h  exchange  for ^  of fibres  was i n a d d i t i o n  barter.  pic-  arts.  t h e r e was a  access  complicated  the state  had t o the s t a t e , guaranteed a  f o r i t s needs.  ^ r i g h t t o wool and c o t t o n f r o m community s t o c k s f o r  i n return  t o any f i b r e s ,  peasant might have al  i n this  e x p r e s s e s i t ( 1 9 6 2 : 715) o n e o f  own  This  on h e r back,  a r e n u m b e r e d among t h e women's  o b l i g a t i o n s which each i n d i v i d u a l  was t h e s u p p l y o f woven c l o t h , supply o f f i b r e s  tied  The i m p l i c a t i o n  pre-conquest times, under the Inca r u l e ,  two m a i n  Fibre crown  a n d goods  On h e r way t o  i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y so.  system o f r e c i p r o c a l the  s h e . h a s come t o b a r t e r o r s e l l . down w i t h  this  spins  a t home o r i n t h e m a r k e t , w a t c h i n g o v e r t h e s m a l l  o f vegetables that same m a r k e t ,  She  clothing  f o r making  whether  through a y l l u  up a c e r t a i n  quota o f f a b r i c  of alpaca or cotton, (clan)  t o which the  crops o r herds and o c c a s i o n -  -13It  i s implied  s t a t e was  based  received There  as  on  the  i n return  to  Since  the  and  spin  and  other  weave.  textiles  for mitta the  and  confirms t h i s  region.  Early  many w o v e n p i e c e s one  g a r m e n t was articles  may  level  of  cient  t o meet o n l y  the  c l o t h was  had  the  time,  that  textiles.  This  small  doubtless  cloth of  This  type of  men  goods  needs o f  the  family.  which each f a m i l y c h u r c h and see  t o be  ability  of  that  Boys  and  girls  and  to  by  the  k o r a k a on  of  the  other  than the  high  c l o t h would imperial  and  wove, no  duties  coarse  and  as  to  but  of  the  task.  exactly  how  certainly  local  quality. ayllu  have been  ritual  re-  to  of  s i z e and  still  needs.  suffiAlthough  family  would  necessary  labour  in  fineness  w i t h many o f  c a r r i e d out  fab-  peasant  q u a l i t y and  exception  w e a v i n g was  crippled  from r e g i o n  family,  standard  and  Contemporary  s p e c i f i c s vary  set  to  children did  other  (Murra: 711).  a  competently  the  learnt  o l d or  the  some  that i t  t o weave c l o t h i n g  land),  the  with  less rigid  were t o o  done  size of  was  each peasant  quantity of  state,  t h i s modern d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  state  part  the  was  a l l was  occupied  Spanish chronicles d i f f e r of  the  labour  who  state  have been r e q u i r e d  rule rather  of  although the  were r e q u i r e d  a  family  the  the  T h e y a l s o wove s a c k s a n d and  amongst a l l the  to produce  i s the  age  i n the  reciprocity.  all  the  c h u r c h and  woven f o r t h e  Other  fields,  use,  said later  references  the  women w e r e e x p e c t e d  fact,  More w i l l be  the  circumstances.  ropemaking. their  labour  s e t by  therefore  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to  division  family  (work o n  d e p e n d i n g on  search  the  f o r the  labour  spinning  rics,  While  and  level  a l l o w a n c e s were b a s e d on  Thus the  might have been under o t h e r  labour  assessed  w e r e owed t o  e v e r y member o f  labour.  the  l e v e l s of  local  duties  i t required  share of  several  held  the  a man's f a m i l y  Services  t b i - t h e k o r a k a , who  family,  that  were a l s o b a s e d on  carry out.  required.  chronicles  size of  seems t o h a v e b e e n  obliged and  i n the  by  of  the  have  the  decoration archeological  specialists.  -14-  Post of  conquest  cloth.  the  Even after  overall  ment  for  noble sign  quantity  the  favour  on  Textiles  to  idols,  a  an  been  also  played  decorate  an  and  and  to  part  for  with  was  status  certain  i n  by  made  on  as  pay-  for  a  ranks),  as  a  rneritious  rituals,  destruction  bundles  used  ass.a.rrewardj-for  important  shrines,  cloth  increased  exclusive  Inca,  packed  i m p r e s s i o n was  This  indicating  were  the  l i t t l e  stored.  award  of  warehouses  looting,  textiles  part  vast  being  used  burning  as  sacrifice.  In  order  evolve. These  J.  of  about  ten  the  were  work  gifts  and  and  to  of  spin  dedicated  as  fine  qompi-kamayoc,  or  tapestry  fulltime rewards  given the  into  women w e r e  they  whether  as  the  the  nobility.  the  empire's  selected  as  bu  as  wives  gods  and  royal the  expected for  for  to  the  to  church  of  busy or  at  Inca,  one  hand  themselves  state.  268).  who  distributed  their  The  weavers  of  the  were The  men.  Girls  o f f i c i a l s i n  girls  con-  for  convents  spent  four  years  household occupations. successful  temples  described  to  (1946:  placed  The  and  to  weavers  had  warehouses.  that  were  ohter  nobles  served  garment hollow  as  groups  government  educated.  well  cloth  emperor  arbitrary  were  as  concubines  fitted  these  to  from  who w e r e  where  One  be  was  for  and p h y s i c a l p e r f e c t i o n ,  food.  could  textiles,  of  and weave,  to  a  clothing  age,  beauty  women w e r e  his  quantity  women s u b j e c t s  were: s e l e c t e d pare  would  aklla-kona,  learning  such  mentions  food  years  outstanding called  as  with the  produce  Rowe  work  supplied trol  to  craftsmen  surplus  of  had  as  of  the  service. clothe  that  types  mention  extensive  soldiers,  (certain of  reports  and  weave by  Morua  (Murra with  was  so  others  s t i l l  clothing  1962: the  warriors;  shrines;  his  Some  fine  719).  production  and  others pre-  that A l l of  of  i t  -15The  principal  the wool o f the  fibres  available  camelids:  these  fibres  of  shades from  the Peruvians  techniques  t h a t have n o t  the  have a t h r e a d count  finest  inch.  Bird  produced."  Cobo  states that (1949:  (Murra  c l o t h produced clothing, ly  was  "some o f t h e m r a n k  loom.  c o u l d be  1962:  by  711)  lists  the peasants  called  awasqa.  weave was  seen.  by  comparison.  of  the  I t was  the  of  c l o t h by  ce  the  and  a l l t h a t remained  Although  t h e r e must  who  were c a p a b l e  was  no  ing  f o r the  yarn  types  still  of r e a l  demand f o r f i n e  and  of  fine  later,  Inca  lost  finest  both  per  fabrics  the  no  so  thick  and  a k l a women. woven o n fine  i n 1550, (Murra  and one  ever  a  virtuosity  cloth.  f o o d s t u f f s t h a t c o u l d n o t be  suffered speaks  disintegration production  skill,  died  of their  locally.  out  weaving.  , e v e n among t h e  peasants,  craft,  to produce  e x t r a t h a t c o u l d be  grown  ridges  a n a t u r a l consequen-  a l l w e a v i n g was  family, with perhaps a l i t t l e  Leon  the peasant  i n the p r a c t i c e  Instead,  thread  the  o f weaving, which r e q u i r e d g r e a t  h a v e b e e n many w e a v e r s  other  711).  to oversee  was  indifferent-  textiles  complete  As  and  different  t h a t no  1962:  the  warp-faced  The  C i e z a de  aklla-kona.  the n a t i v e t r a d i t i o n  The  as b l a n k e t s  t h a t European  empire  t h e r e was  qompi-kamayoc and  specialized  use,  fabric  continuous,  as b e i n g  system o f government, the  Some o f  threads  fabrics.  r a t h e r rough,  were so  the  own  softer  eighteen years  With the overthrow o f  classes of  t h e work o f t h e and  Kumpi f a b r i c s Yet  two  for their  smooth and  a r t o f kumpi w e a v i n g  of  developing  256).  k u m p i , a much f i n e r  The  among t h e  cot-  yarns  i n the world.  t h r e e hundred weft  and  The  Using  complex t e x t i l e s ,  anywhere e l s e  of over  vicuna.  cream t o brown.  made f i n e ,  been found  coloured i n comparison with  c l o t h was  were c o t t o n ,  l l a m a , a l p a c a , huanaco and  t o n grew i n a wide v a r i e t y from  to the Peruvians  there cloth-  traded  for  -16-  After narrow  the conquest  scarves,  ponchos, Until  but  knitted  and  s w e a t e r s , and  i n t r o d u c e d by  as a weft  camelid f i b r e s  and  dyes, bought  The  warp-faced  villages,  thetic  and  produce  In  addition,  n a t i o n w i t h wool, bought  using  brighter,  and  do  "orlon"  spindle,  yarn.  The  The  colours  not soften  and  by  fibre,  to store burro or  alpaca campe-  with the  the  is  spun  local  alone or i n cloths.  skeins.  These  The  skeins  t h e ,f<yarn a t i g h t e r i n the  combiyarn i s are  twist  then and  traditional  yarns are harsher  t h e garment ages.  syn-  truck.  carrying  of the synthetic  S p a n i s h name f o r t h e I n d i a n p e a s a n t s  T h i s makes t h e m  some o f t h e  y a r n i s t h e n w a r p e d up  fade as  markets.  Where l l a m a f l e e c e  yarns are used,  to give  on  commercial,  Whereas i n t h e p a s t  either  used  found i n the h i g h l a n d  are used  i n c o m m e r c i a l l y spun  the drop  woven.  sacks t h a t  f o r mantas, p o n c h o s and  make i t more h a r d w e a r i n g . manner and  twisted  rainproof.  i t to market,  synthetic  i n the market  overspun,  t o be  h a v e become m o r e p o p u l a r .  to transport  by  at a l l the native  are s t i l l  the  common.  t h a t were f i r s t  f o r the ponchos and mantas t h a t  t o weave t h e l a r g e  and  form  i n some o f  i n the highlands  have been r e p l a c e d  a very t i g h t l y  virtually  dyes  wear, nowadays w o o l i s t h e p r e d o m i n a n t  yarns which  i s used  old, natural  i n powdered  weaves t h a t  have been used  sinos^" s t i l l  The  t h e n on wool,  a r e woven f r o m  very hardwearing, would  wool.  f o r woven  t h e S p a n i s h , became m o s t  r e c e n t l y much o f t h e handwoven g a r m e n t s p r o d u c e d  aniline  it  caps  sheep wool,  w e r e made o f s h e e p ' s the  a l p a c a y a r n s c o n t i n u e d t o be p r i z e d  While  and some  -17-  g a r m e n t s a r e woven e n t i r e l y few  plain  dado  style  The ous  stripes  of  o r p a t t e r n bands o f  o f brown s t r i p e d  by  their  cal  The  designs.  textiles,  weaving.  local  An  synthetic  the garments t h a t  warp loom a r e t r a d i t i o n a l region.  y a r n , many o t h e r s h a v e o n l y yarn, as  i n the  populace  can  sense  identify  a r e made o n  that  b u t many o f them a r e i n s t e a d example  t h e T i n t a poncho and  uncuna  where a r t i c l e s  i s the  (carrying  cloth).  vians  saw  first  tively  unchanged  horsemen-:when P i z a r r o  insofar  t h e weave s t r u c t u r e s  t h e equipment and  are concerned,  o f ponchos, mantas, uncunas and developed  an u n i q u e  style  a home b u i l t  by  On  about  Spanish. twenty  bayeta. ally and  dyed pants  c o a t s and men.  The  this  belts.  treadle  The  t h r e a d , always  cloth  jackets  A variant  A  f o r men  Other  and  dirty  used  often Peru-  arrived.  continued  only to the  relaand  making  which  has  Spanish models, i s on  those introduced weave w o o l l e n  cloth  i t s S p a n i s h name o f  o f t e n hand  spun,  t o make s k i r t s  white  Spanish  adorns  The  native clothing,  i s known b y  women, a n d  of this material,  applied  weave a p l a i n  I t i s used  natural,  colonial  the weaving technique  of earlier  s i n g l e p l y , and  b l a c k before weaving.  archeologi-  rider.  h i s men  loom, based  l o o m t h e men  i n c h e s wide.  f o r t h e men.  i t i s now  in imitation  woven i n s t e a d o n the  and  and  village from,  example,  t r a d i t i o n ,of c l o t h m a k i n g h a s as  come  on  by  Another  or as m o t i f , r e p r e s e n t i n g a horse  the peasant  to a  flower or rosas design that  on b e l t s ,  Although  found  influenced  found  their  hacien-  the c o n t i n u -  they belong  Some o f t h e s e d e s i g n s h a v e b e e n  obvious  i n the  a  ponchos  p a t t e r n s woven i n t o  or  synthetic  cloth  as underpant  is  tradition-  f o r t h e women  i s woven f o r w a i s t material  f o r men's s u i t i n g ,  in  f o r the  imitation  -18-  of  European  graphs  ( t h e men o f C u z c o ) ,  material.  A more industry,  little  spun y a r n . b a y e t a ) "j  which  quality  weaving,  o n l y men weave  t h e men w e a v e .  more  isolated  folk  articles  commercial  weaving  weave, w o o l l e n  cloth  t o as b a y e t i l l a warp  double  from  loom,  such  as b e l t s that  someone  lack  near  i n h e r household takes  i s capable  i t t o the l o c a l  This i s e s p e c i a l l y  the case i n  to support a  w h e r e t h e women do weave  and c h i l d r e n ' s  From t h e Cuzco r e g i o n , G o o d e l l  Chocorvos,  t h e c o a s t up i n t o t h e .  enough p e o p l e  i n preconquest  spin while walking  Stevenson, i n  t h e women d o a l l t h e s p i n n i n g g e n -  as a c u r e r . which  loom.  t h e community o f S a n t i a g o de  I n some h o u s e h o l d s  t r a d i t i o n holds  children  i n markets  c l o t h has i t s place i n  on the t r e a d l e  Unless  villages  c r a f t s m a n weaver. small  each  t h e woman who h a s s p u n t h e y a r n ,  w e a v e r , who may a l s o the  by t h e y a r d  i s referred  factory,  highland plateau, reports that while  of  1916) show  Whether woven o n a c o n t i n u o u s  o f the area surrounding  only  Photo-  and w a i s t c o a t s o f t h i s  of twill  This cloth  stretches along the l e a Valley,  erally  weave.  costume„of t h e campesino.  Traditionally study  a finer  loom o r i n a commercial  traditional  his  pants  r e c e n t development has been the f a c t o r y ,  which produces  (literally  the  twill  cities.  commercially  atreadle  wearing  A l l o f these m a t e r i a l s are a v a i l a b l e  the major  from  i s woven . i n a b l a c k a n d w h i t e  t a k e n b y t h e B i n g h a m e x p e d i t i o n i n 1910 ( F e r r i s  Cusguenos  in  styles,  ponchos  times  both  (1974:8).  i t i s only The l o c a l  men a n d women d i d w e a v e .  (1968:6) r e p o r t s t h a t  a l o n g w i t h heavy  settled  men, women a n d  l o a d s on t h e i r b a c k s , b u t  -19-  she is  a l s o remarks left  t h a t i n a l l b u t t h e most i s o l a t e d  t o t h e women.  more m a r k e d now t h a n be  seen  spinning  ten years  later,  i t was a f e w y e a r s  i npublic.  i sstill  through  some o f t h e same  f u r t h e r comments  that  This  t a s k o f rope and y a r n  no  division  making by  o l d men a n d t h e c r i p p l e s .  Very country,  f e w women w e r e o b s e r v e d although  t h e r e must  s p i n n i n g whether i n t h e towns o r i n t h e  still  be a f a i r  somewhere, t o p r o d u c e t h e q u a n t i t i e s o f y a r n and  t r e a d l e woven f a b r i c s  where I s t a y e d  that a r e produced.  f o r s e v e r a l days t h e o n l y  number o f women necessary  spinning  f o r t h e handwoven  In the v i l l a g e  foreigner there,  o f Ghinchero  I saw o n l y two  women s p i n n i n g .  I t may h a v e b e e n t h a t I was n o t i n t h e r i g h t  the  One o f t h e s p i n n e r s  right  time.  who was a b o u t t w e l v e Although do  area  t o b e men's w o r k , a l t h o u g h  when i t n e e d e d d o i n g .  t o the pre-conquest  even  T h e men a r e now a s h a m e d t o  Goodell  considered  woman w o u l d h e s i t a t e t o p l y t h e y a r n  the  ago.  I n my t r a v e l s  I saw n o men s p i n n i n g .  l a b o u r may r e l a t e  the spinning  T h e r e l e g a t i o n o f s p i n n i n g t o t h e women seems  the p l y i n g o f the yarn  of  villages  she d i d help  years  place a t  i n d i c a t e d t h a t h e r e l d e s t daughter,  o l d , was t h e o n l y  h e r mother with  child  t h e weaving  l e a r n i n g t o weave. s h e was n o t o b s e r v e d  to  any s p i n n i n g .  In  contrast with  women w e a v e r s , for  their  Stevenson, Goodell  seems t o h a v e e n c o u n t e r e d  some o f whom w e r e p r o f e s s i o n a l s , w h i l e  families. during  A l l coped w i t h  hold  chores  their  31),  who a l s o c a r r i e d  the distraction  weaving time.  out research  (Bird  the others  only  wove  only  o f c h i l d r e n and house-  1968: 1 4 - 5 ) .  i n t h e Guzco r e g i o n ,  A. Rowe  came a c r o s s  m a l e w e a v e r s , b u t r e p o r t e d o n a l a r g e r number o f women t h a n  (1975: several  men a t w o r k  -20-  producing  textiles.  loom s a i d  that  men  A woman w e a v e r  s o n e t i m e s t h e men u s e d a b a c k - t e n s i o n e d  d i d n o t , b e c a u s e i t gave them  when a s k e d a b o u t t h e m a t t e r s a i d when w e a v i n g fabrics  i n L a u r a m a r k a , who u s e d a s t a k e d o u t  small pieces  backache. that  A male weaver  such, a s a woman's s h a w l , b u t t h a t  s u c h a s a man's p o n c h o ,  using  a diagonally  he s t a k e d  o u t t h e loom  staked o u t loom.  a woman w o r k i n g o n a b a c k t e n s i o n e d working on a h o r i z o n t a l l y who w e r e v i s i t e d From  this  briefly  staked  t o who w e a v e s o n w h i c h . l o o m  The t r a d i t i o n field only is  not carried  i sdeclining  villages  ponchos, w i t h v e r y  rapidly.  In Chinchero  I observed  I saw a man o f weavers  colour  loom.  t o draw any c o n c l u s i o n s a s  t o weave.  b e no w e a v e r s  i n the three  t o read  this.  left  research  t o study.  studies  t h e men b e g a n t o f i n d  Goodell's  F o r example  I f further  demand f o r t e x t i l e s  i n t h e Cuzco  had changed.  As t h e  work o u t s i d e t h e  Hilrown o r q u i e t l y  i n them, w h i c h i m i t a t e d  h a c i e n d a d o a n d t h e m e s t i z o more c l o s e l y status.  o n a woman  a family  One h a s o n l y  they p r e f e r r e d p l a i n  little  32).  _ T h e v a r i a t i o n s may b e r e g i o n a l b u t  interviewed  the current  community,  In Tinta  loom  i s available.  o u t soon t h e r e w i l l  that  i n Tinta  1968: 14-5) t o r e a l i z e  became m o r e a c c e s s i b l e  agricultural  o u t loom.  i n C h i n c h e r o was l e a r n i n g  Some o f t h e w e a v e r s Region reported  I can report  loom, w h i l e  set-up.  Q'atgua  Rowe 1 9 7 5 :  In ollantaytambo,  i t i sd i f f i c u l t  information  notes on w e a v e r s . ( B i r d one c h i l d  (A.  wo-  for larger  a l l seemed t o w o r k o n t h e b a c k t e n s i o n  i t c a n be seen t h a t  as y e t i n s u f f i c i e n t  from  he would use a back t e n s i o n  F r o m my own o b s e r v a t i o n n e a r S a c s a h u a m a n weaver  loom, b u t t h a t  and thus c a r r i e d  striped  those o f t h e higher  wearer  I d i d n o t s e e a s i n g l e man w e a r i n g a p a t t e r n e d  poncho.  -21-  All  wore a p l a i n ,  that  this  i s not  striped  a completely  Indians photographed At  the  time  isolated  that  tus  by  Now  and  The from  the  new- t r a d i t i o n  (19161  Ferris  the mestizo  1910  through,  pointed  Many o f  were w e a r i n g  out  the  plain  ponchos.  t h e s e were a l l r e l a t i v e l y villages  E x t e r n a l standards  everywhere t o the detriment  centuries old  higher  in  i n the area.  e v e n t h e more i s o l a t e d  of Peruvian l i f e .  are being accepted  crafts  However, i t s h o u l d be  the e x p e d i t i o n passed  villages .  the main stream  brown one.  are  exposed  to  o f d r e s s and  of the  sta-  traditional  lifestyle.  status appeal of the p l a i n e r (those o f mixed  ponchos reaches  Spanish/Indian  blood)  the  Indian  whom t h e y  copy,  weaving  styles  2 just is  as  the mestizos  being  liarily  encouraged  copy the b i a n c o s by  modern t r a i t  economy o p e r a t e d Goodell both  on  found,  .  T h i s change m  a d e v e l o p i n g awareness o f time-as-money, a  which d i d not p r e v i o u s l y apply an  exchange o r b a r t e r b a s i s .  that of  are  i n v o l v e d o n m a k i n g one  approach  ers,  villages,  larger  those  from  Cuzco, new  I n d i a n m a r k e t s , where t h e y  tourist  Stevenson  or perhaps  Another about  by  factor  They t r a v e l  textiles  that  s e t up  they  and  three  i n the  and  round  can  t e x t i l e s , they stalls  whose  sheep,  labour change  the a c t i o n s o f the  itself.  Once t h e y h a v e o b t a i n e d t h e s e  society  f o r t h e many m o n t h s o f  garment.  been brought  l o o k i n g f o r o l d and  tourists.  the  t o weaving has  especially  As  a p o n c h o i s e q u i v a l e n t t o two  which, i n m o n e t a r y t e r m s i s s m a l l payment  in a  pecu-  sell  the to  the the  prices  trade.  Not n e c e s s a r i l y meaning p u r e b l o o d e d S p a n i s h , b u t who i s i n a j o b w h e r e he h a s p e o p l e u n d e r h i m .  outlying  then v i s i t  set their  deal-  r a t h e r someone  for  -22-  One been  of the sale of t e x t i l e s  the manufacture o f l a r g e  which sion for  of the offshoots  f i l l  t h e house  from a d e a l e r  Generally  Although s k i l l f u l l y  tesque.  Garishly  field.  aesthetics. higher  Few  t h e whole  colored motifs,  stand  and weave, and  discussion  commis-  small  i n the  busigro-  artefacts  i n the middle of a large,  show a l i t t l e  price  are u t t e r l y  taken from a r c h e o l o g i c a l  weaving  i n many c o m m u n i t i e s  more awareness  of  also  few  plain  design command  tourist  i n weaving  true  no  longer  t h a t o f Machu P i c c h u ,  weave, b u t had n o t done so i n y e a r s .  women d o  such as the  are. I even  spin  is still  and h a n g i n g s . would  is  commercial  operate the  i n the f a m i l i e s  of large blankets  of the  a shared a c t i v i t y  O n l y t h e men  s u p p o r t , many o f t h e p e o p l e who  a few y e a r s ago  station before  areas,  The  I n some f a m i l i e s w e a v i n g  i s particularily  drawn f r o m t h e weaving  the p i c t u r e  correct.  w h a t u s e d t o be  i s v e r y much men's w o r k .  this  seen t h a t  But i n other  which produce narrow yardage. o c c u p a t i o n and  i t c a n be  i s not entirely  m o r e a n d m o r e women's w o r k .  t h e new  i s involved  o u t by c o m p a r i s o n and g e n e r a l l y  A n d e a n woman a s t h e w e a v e r  is  and v e r y  looms  prices.  From t h e above  field,  family  has  upright  Many a r e w o v e n o n  pays a f i x e d  are isolated  of the pieces  These  who  large  woven many o f t h e s e b l a n k e t s  o f which a r e even t e x t i l e s , grey  r u g s , woven o n  i n which they are b u i l t .  or entrepreneur,  each a r t i c l e .  ness.  tapestry  to the t o u r i s t s  a  where But  have been  looms family  income despite active  W h i l e a t Aguas C a l i e n t e s , f o u n d a p o l i c e m a n who  the  used to  -23-  CHAPTER 3  THE  A.  ANDEAN  Description  Throughout  the entire  c o n t i n u o u s warp loom Initially  than  invention B. C.,  over  s e t u p no l e s s  t e c h n i q u e s used by t h e a n c i e n t and l a t e r .  t h e l o o m became a v i a b l e  a  o f heddles or heddie  These  strings,  slow and t e d i o u s Peruvians i n  techniques included  and sprang, a form o f f i x e d  of fabric,  production  f o r the making o f m a t e r i a l .  any k i n d  o f heddles, which B i r d  production  of textile  on t h e simple s t i c k  the pre-Ceramic p e r i o d s knotting  used  lacked  the other t e x t i l e  netting,  tradition  has been  i t must have  w h i c h made w e a v i n g  braiding,  warp p l a i t i n g .  With the  (1952:45) h y p o t h e s i z e s a t a b o u t 1200  technical  a n d showed  tool,  which  the advantages  speeded  o f woven  up t h e  materials  t h o s e made b y o t h e r m e t h o d s .  This  loom  developed early  to  remain  in  graves which  to  t o d a y ' s looms.  vitually  unchanged  date back Each  also  strings,  loom  attached  day.  tradition  Examples  still  consists  t o a heddie  found  are identical  o f two o r p o s s i b l y  t h e woven m a t e r i a l  o r shed  and appears  o f looms  more t h a n two t h o u s a n d y e a r s ,  a number o f p a t t e r n usually  i n the weaving  to this  w a r p o r c l o t h beams, o n t o w h i c h are  LOOM  sticks, stick.  i s wound.  three There  a shed r o d , and heddie The b a s i c  loom  may b e  used w i t h a b a c k s t r a p , o r s t a k e d o u t on f o u r p o s t s stuck i n t o t h e ground.  The w i d t h l i m i t  on a back  tension  loom  i s about  thirty  inches,  -24-  depending  upon  be  woven on a  on  a  the frame  loom which  weaver  is  individual  is  working  today  does  not vary,  more  than  one s e t  Most  of  seem  almost  They  necessarily of  the  the  with  several  which  were  identified  as  a  There  are  to  sample  courtyard.  threading  some  loom,  was  of  the  weaving This  up o f  the  techniques  the  although a  body  described  secured  or  burials  at  one o f sword  bundle  this  briefly  require  which  by  not One  wrapped  ropes  clearly  There  are  i s  Stothert  with  c a n be  beater.  small.  w h i c h was  one stage  and these  are  i n burial.  A mummy b u n d l e ,  sticks,  batten  looms,  do accompany  century.  four  several  explanations  loom p a r t s  be  sticks Since  have  no v a l u e .  good  that  Q u e c h u a woman  the  The a c t u a l  fact  they  cloth,  associated  possibility of  15th  attached  burial.  study,  of  a  could  are  likely  to  three be  other  loom.  closely to  the  a weaver's  archeological  assumed  wall  i n the p r e h i s t o r i c  full-size  ..to  of  for  since  attached  parts  the  case,  to  found  be w e a v e r ' s  of  sticks  in  looms to  a  shows  Wider pieces  heddles.  layers  other  not  of  the  length.  (1976:25)  i n Bolivia.  despite  few s u r v i v i n g ,  (1979:14)dates  Cason  p r o p p e d up a g a i n s t  loom  the  loom.  weaver's-.arm  weaving  that  been  reported  with  of  unknown  or  of  the  found  by  looters,  is  possible  equipment highly  yarns  textile  might  prized,  lack  of  f u l l  size  If  they  literature.  function,  many  i t  the  i n the  textiles  any loom s t i c k s  Further  for  that  have  the  is  looms  that the  been  with  might  had been  pieces  there  that  they  are  easily  be  incorporated  are  available  additional  discarded  wood s o  as  scarce,  may h a v e  been  being and passed  on  from mother  to daughter.  the h i g h l a n d s . would were was  Several  never s e l l familiar  using  their  o f the weavers looms.  The  to the weaver.  One  had been h e r mother's  Archeological The  This practice  earliest  a b o u t A.D.  p a r t s were w e l l  i s on  a MochelV  eight  figures looms.  Each o f the weavers  o r brocaded design, which  figure.  None o f t h e l o o m s  but  does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  Looms d a t i n g strings  still  describes  attached  A. A-framed  Rowe  looms.  i s painted  against warp and  a weaver a tree. i s tied  four-selvedged.  is sitting  loom  she  known.  On  on  the w a l l  to  the include  a  back  different  beside  the  sticks,  none w e r e u s e d a t a n y t i m e .  have been  found with  also  the remains o f heddle  O'Neale  (1946: p l a t e  Moche, w h i c h i s i n  h e d d l e s on  t h e one  o f weaving so t h a t  i s attached  loom w h i c h i s warped  loom.  t o t h e frame  (Kidder yarn  and  and  1963:84), then  i s propped  up a s a  the f i n i s h e d  6)  twill  o f b o t h X-framed  around with  a t a A-framed  t o the end b a r s The  Museum.  from the Chancay V a l l e y  A narrow band  and  vase, dated  i s shown w i t h h e d d l e  c o n s t r u c t e d o f v e g e t a b l e m a t e r i a l wrapped dressed,  are also  o f scenes which  m e n t i o n s Chimu models model  i n by use  seems t o b e w o r k i n g o n  the use o f m u l t i p l e  I n one  they  t h e loom t h a t  or V painted  t o t h e warp t h r e a d s .  (1963:34-7)  that  mean t h a t  a fragment o f a t e x t i l e ,  weave, s u g g e s t i n g  day i n  These p e o p l e a r e w e a v i n g on  illustrated  from f a r e a r l i e r  said  worn  o f looms  a series  the ground.  tapestry  this  that  of the B r i t i s h  r i m o f the ceramic are p a i n t e d  tension  said  and models  inner  on  t o whom I s p o k e  weaver  §00, i n the c o l l e c t i o n  sitting  to this  loom.  illustrations  illustration  continues  up  continuous  p i e c e would  i n s u c h a way  be that  -26-  it  w o u l d be  simple  t o t a k e t h e weaving and end b a r s o f f t h e  and c o n t i n u e w o r k i n g w i t h model  t h e loom has been warped  have been warped  up  Chancay V a l l e y ,  t e n s i o n weaving. the ground.  The  loom i n use.  A smaller  i n place  t h e most  beautiful  Tapestry  shirts  (fig  Although  have been  (fig  a child,  some o f t h e b u r i a l s .  5).  from  This  f o r back  t o show how  tension t h e warp i s  shed r o d and  loom i s e x a c t l y  pattern  t h e same a s  and p a r t s o f Ecuador, some o f  i n t h e w o r l d w e r e woven o n  it.  a weft count o f over  three  w h i l e many o f t h e g a u z e s a r e g o s s a m e r  fine.  looms o r t i e - d o w n s  of cloth  (loom a t t a c h e d  a t C a h u a c h i , w h i c h O'Neale  pieces  found  o f one  of fabric  textile.  at least  reported  fragments o f t e x t i l e s  (1936:215)  i n her a n a l y s i s  The p i e c e s  s i x feet  eight  to  four  times to produce  w h i c h have been  Kroeber excavated  burial  form a r e c t a n g l e  also  i s watching.  the heddle s t i c k ,  fabrics  rectangles  t o be p a r t s  4)  o f the back  enough  f o u n d w h i c h have  t y p e s o f frame  large  easily  to a stake i n  i n t h e ground) must have been u s e d a t d i f f e r e n t  extremely  as  i t i s a simple p i e c e o f equipment  and complex  hundred threads p e r i n c h ,  to  Museum  gives pictures  and a l s o  i n the  cloth.  i n use today throughout Peru, B o l i v i a  and C h i l e .  the  also  i n t h e warp  Colombia  stakes  possibly  H i s drawings are d e t a i l e d  sticks  Various  i t could  i s w o r k i n g w i t h t h e l o o m s e t up  figure,  (1936)  t o the end b a r s ,  still  of  Although  f a r end o f t h e loom i s a t t a c h e d  lashed  t h e one  loom.  f o r a narrow band  i n the Royal Ontario  a weaver  Poma d e A y a l a  up  f o r a wider piece  I n a s i m i l a r model the  i t on a back t e n s i o n  A-frame  fitted inches  from  from a of the  together long,  by  -27-  I  Figure Model  (in  4 of  weaver  from  the c o l l e c t i o n  Chancay  Valley.  or the Royal Ontario  Museum,  Toronto.)  -28-  Figure 1615  5  drawing o f a back t e n s i o n  (after  Poma de A y a l a  1936)  loom  weaver,  -29-  five  feet  five  have  been  c o m f o r t a b l y woven o n a b a c k  1932,  inches wide.  This  i s considerably wider than tensioned  a mummy b u n d l e f r o m P a r a c a s was o p e n e d  Atropologia a cloth seven  y Archeologia  i n Lima.  w h i c h was e s t i m a t e d  i n c h e s wide  This  w h i c h have  cloth been  t o be o v e r f o u r  (O'Neale 1936:216).  Although  times,  b e i n g watched de A y a l a picture  yards long (1965:44)  of this  and four  s e t u p seems t o h a v e  loom.  They  used.  been  A minature  a r e weaving  a tapestry  i n h i spost  conquest c h r o n i c l e s ,  same l o o m .  A woman  i s sitting  s e t up w i t h  selvedges.  posts.  them  gives  ( f i g 6). a very  weaving  clear  The c o n i n u o u s warps  As can be seen i n f i g u r e  a heddle s t i c k ,  t o produce 7 t h e loom  t o speed t h e i n s e r t i o n  of the  weft.  This  i s t h e same l o o m u s e d b y t h e q o m p i - k a m a y o c t o weave t h e  large,  fine  tapestries  that  so e x c i t e d  at  t h e time o f t h e conquest, and s t i l l  of  large  blankets  and t a p e s t r i e s  that  Poma  a t an u p r i g h t  t o t h e beams a t t h e t o p a n d b o t t o m o f t h e l o o m ,  has been  scene  andthey are  are  four  common  C h i m u c e r a m i c shows two women w o r k i n g a t  i s s u p p o r t e d o n two v e r t i c a l  the t r a d i t i o n a l  yards  wide,  most  loom w h i c h lashed  feet  mentions a  e a c h two y a r d s  b y a man who seems t o b e s u p e r v i s i n g  (1936)  and seven  twenty yards long  i t was n o t e x c l u s i v e l y  on t o p o f a b l a c k , p o l i s h e d an u p r i g h t , f r a m e  i n t h e Museo N a c i o n a l d e  together.  t h e back t e n s i o n  in prehistoric  King  i s made u p o f two l e n g t h s ,  sewn  I n August,  As o u t e r wrapping t h e bunddle had  C a v e r n a s mummy b u n d l e w i t h w r a p p i n g s wide.  loom.  could  the admiration  o f the Spaniards,  used today f o r the manufacture a r e made f o r s a l e  t o the tourists.  -30-  Figure Upright (in  6 loom, f r o m a m o d e l on a Chimu b l a c k w a r e  the c o l l e c t i o n  o f t h e Museo  'in sitio'  ceramic,  Pachacamac)  -31-  Figure 1615  7  d r a w i n g o f an u p r i g h t  ( a f t e r Poma d e  Ayala).  loom  -32-  Just has  as  t h e way  the It  not  halves  same way. although of  then  pieces all  cut  hides  the  across  The  around  two  cut  since prehistoric  W a r p i n g up  Weavers a r e now  still  two  the  raw  ends a r e  edge.  T h i s p r o t e c t s the  tell  this  the  heddle  point there  whether these  strings  i s not  end from  She and  then  the  attach  a  heading then  may  end  to  a r e woven u s e  the the  o t h e r way  a few  she  with  warp f o r  w a r p i s made.  woven up  as  hemmed a n d  before the  two  i s applied  e d g e s f r o m wear  the  until  i s passed cloth  and'  of working the  other  through  l o o s e ends o f  the  In  prehistoric  end.  first  heading  start  end.  cloth  The  to  i n preference.  proceed-  beam a t  weaving  case  This  i s done u s i n g  two  The or  heading  has  end  a  to  cord  t h r e e rows  c o r d as  a t one  she  one  this  the warp.  the  i s to  other  may  r e v e r s i n g t h e work and  p a r t s meet.  beam a n d  stick  s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e ways o f  inches before both  heddle  known f r o m  a t t a c h i n g t h e warp t o the  few  inches of  to  r e g i o n a l or personal  has  c l o t h beam t o t h e  cord which  The  by  weave a  second  lashed  within  begin  other  in  enough i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e  d i f f e r e n c e s are  Once t h e weaver b e g i n s ing.  out  edges.  attachment o f  At  separate  U s u a l l y a b i n d i n g , a l s o handwoven,  the  neither  fabric  o n l y one  p i e c e s , which are  the middle;  times,  carried  producing  i n s t e a d o f making a  done i n s e v e r a l ways, a l l o f w h i c h a r e  times.  is still  a p o n c h o o r m a n t a , o f t e n now  sewn t o g e t h e r .  t h e way  changed  i t .  i s l o n g enough f o r the  and  be  the  selvedges, two  loom has  o f working on  essentially four  the  a is  that  weft.  and  work i s t h e n  weave  to  reversed  and  -33-  begun from t h e o t h e r  end.  weaving meets and t h e r e  Eventually,  i s a hardly  Some w e a v e r s a r e s o s k i l l f u l pattern. easier  Others  discernable  the join  have a d i s l o c a t i o n  method r e q u i r e s  substituted  that  at that  w h i c h e v e r one i s done t h e  the pattern  the  In that  centre  i n the pattern.  of  any break  indicator  case,  they  A t h i r d and  t o be i n t e r r u p t e d  usually  so t h a t  weave i n t h e j o i n , i n the pattern,  that  and p l a i n  this  last  piece  t r y t o have t h e meeting p o i n t i n  t h e y do n o t have using  a long  or a slightly  t o s l o w l y and  needle.  thinner  method has been u s e d .  o  T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l ways i n c h i c h t o weave m a t e r i a l  the Peruvian  Despite pictures still  the apparent d i f f e r e n c e s o f Andean  only  looms, o t h e r  one b a s i c  loom.  makes i t a p p e a r d i f f e r e n t  commonly  l o o m may b e s e t  f o r garments, b l a n k e t s ,  E a c h o f t h e m e t h o d s t h a t was o b s e r v e d w i l l  i s a good  I t i s more  B.  W o r k i n g P o s i t i o n s a t t h e Loom  The absence  area  mantas.  i n order  weave  and c u t i t i nt h e  f o u n d o n t h e men's p o n c h o s t h a n o n t h e women's  up  i n the  point.  o f the piece  painstakingly  i n the c l o t h .  cannot be found  Some o f t h e w e a v e r s now weave o n e l o n g middle.  join  sacks and bags.  be d i s c u s s e d  i n turn.  i n many o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s a n d than  the treadle  types,  I t i s t h e way i n w h i c h and which has c r e a t e d  literature.  T h e l o o m may b e s e t u p i n d i f f e r e n t  have a l r e a d y  been  shown t o h a v e b e e n u s e d  there i s  i t i s s e t up  confusion  that  i nthe  ways, a l l o f w h i c h  i n prehistoric  times.  In  -34-  one  s e t up  the  near end  weavers back In  a  i s held  back.  s e t ups  ground.  In  against was  In  t h e loom  i s usually  This  last  the past  these d i f f e r e n t  preference,  needed w h i l e different  in their  driven  into  t o as a ground loom o r  t o a frame  s e t up was  a  adopted.  i t i s not always  are the d e c i d i n g i t is still  horizontal.  and p r o p p e d  up  not observed while an example  the  l o o m was  in  the ground  tied just  s e t up.  I  i n use i n  treated  whether  o r whether  to f i n d  an a d e q u a t e weavers  enough  sampling. who  stakes. o f one  the  different  i t is a  personal  and  using  b y A.  beyond  The p o s t s had b e e n o f the small  the  However, f o r  were o b s e r v e d e a c h  just  weight  i s urgently  weavers  O t h e r s have been d e s c r i b e d  i n front  as i f  o f the s i z e  More r e s e a r c h  method o b s e r v e d i n a h a m l e t to four  been  considerations  factors.  whatever reason, o f the s e v e r a l  the f i r s t  today to t e l l  possible  methods t o o b t a i n  a different  s e t ups have  difference,  i n which f u n c t i o n a l  the p i e c e  In  that  to posts  t o as  l o o m s w h i c h b o r e no r e s e m b l a n c e t o  I t i s not p o s s i b l e  ups a r e r e g i o n a l  using  term I have  attached referred  referred  (1976:25).  each o t h e r .  of  i s sometimes  and C a h l a n d e r i l l u s t r a t e  t h e y were c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t  set  be  the f a c t  while  or s t r a p which passes around the  t h e loom i s t i e d  or wall.  to a post or tree  loom, w h i c h l a t t e r  despite  i n Peru b u t Cason  Bolivia  reason  version  version,  a tree  by a b e l t  tension  loom,  the t h i r d  i s tied  t h e same l o o m may  This  horizontal  taut  For t h i s  s t r a p o r back  other  the  the f a r end o f t h e loom  was  Rowe  (1975).  Sacsahuaman,  s e t permanently  houses.  The  rear  -35-  s t a k e s were l o n g e r t h a n was  tied  to the  The  front  As  seen  ly  illustrates  in figure  can  t o be  staked  This  The  leaning  down  lengthened.  In t h i s  hands h e l d  forward  the heddie  as  the  wrapped  This  I t also  woman k n e e l - s i t s it.  loom  i n place.  t h e w o v e n a r e a was  arms, h e r  r o d and  to t h i s  o f the  t i e the c l o t h  A  set  cords to halfway  i n under  bent  By  shed  a d j u s t the  slight  just  slightly  drawback  control  which  a  lashed securely  shows t h e w e a v e r a t w o r k .  knees tucked  the  w a r p beam o f t h e  can clear-  in front  position at a  the  comfortable  f a r as p o s s i b l e  stick  i n order  of  to  she  changes  sheds.  easy  have  s t a k e s and  body p o s i t i o n .  from h e r body.  manipulate  The  she  The  a t t a c h e d by  39 w h i c h  her  loom w i t h her  distance  the  rear  pair.  t h e work p r o g r e s s e d and  weaver works w i t h  can  front  t h e c l o t h beam t h e t i e c o r d s w o u l d b e  be  the  top o f the  o r c l o t h beam was  front posts. around  the  done  type  of  t e n s i o n on  beam t o t h e times  i s that  the weaver has  the warp t h r e a d s .  t e n s i o n i s by  several  s e t up  l o o s e n i n g and front  posts.  The  tightening Since this  e a c h warp p a s s a g e  the  cords  would  ideally under  handicap.  second  s e t up was  out, but  i t was  t h e weaver has  horizontal  refers  that  the weaver works  observed  tied  at Tinta.  to very  Here the  short stakes.  enough room f o r t h e w e a v e r ' s k n e e s u n d e r n e a t h . up  o n l y way  no  t o i t as  to lean  forward  over  l o o m was  There  was  With  o r ground  loom i s a l s o  found  an Aymara  type  (1949:115) a s d o e s L a  of  loom  in Bolivia  only  such  t h e work a l l t h e and  also  a  low  time. O'Neale Barne  -36-  who shows two p i c t u r e s (1948: p l a t e Bolivia  8).  o f a loom t h a t  Cason r e p o r t s  (Cason and C a l l a n d e r  same d r a w b a c k s m e n t i o n e d  The  third  who w o r k e d  with  easily  have  s a tor knelt  or backward  as n e c e s s i t a t e d disadvantage  so t h a t  several  Any It  most  i t up w i t h  a large  back  she s t a k e d  on t h e  she c o u l d as  the tension  o f weaving. i t does p l a c e  angle.  distance  t o keep  forward  on t h e warp,  The p r i n c i p a l some s t r a i n o n  i n backaches i f a weaver  above  tyeing strap.  t o b e u s e d when a w e a v e r  c a n be e a s i l y  works  on t h e back  The l a t t e r  i stravelling  method  posts or  i s t h e one  and takes t h e  i n t h e c a s e o f t h e woman  I d i d n o t manage t o d i s c o v e r w h e t h e r s h e  tensioned  o u t t h e loom l i k e  interchanged.  t h e l o o m down t o f o u r  T h i s was w h a t h a d h a p p e n e d  i n Ollantaytambo.  a l s o worked  although  By l e a n i n g h e r weight  s e t up i s t h a t  a matter o f e i t h e r  weaving with her. observed  the tension  at a sufficient  steps  o f t h e s e t ups d e s c r i b e d  likely  from t h e  hours a t a time.  i s simply  setting  suffers  T h e w a r p beam was a t t a c h e d  reduce o r increase  the back muscles which can r e s u l t for  weavers i n  t h e w a r p was a t a s l i g h t  on t h e s t o o l  by the v a r i o u s  to this  type  to control  low s t o o l ,  under t e n s i o n .  she c o u l d  This  on t h e ground.  t o a house p o s t  t h e warp s t r e t c h e d  u s e d b y Ouechus  i n O l l a n t a y t a m b o was o f a w e a v e r  leather belt  T h e woman s a t o n a v e r y  The woman s a t h e r s e l f  on t h e ground  above.  warp.  by a c o r d  i t being  1976:16).  s e t up o b s e r v e d a broad  i s almost r e s t i n g  l o o m when whe was a t home o r w h e t h e r  t h e woman n e a r S a c s a h u a m a n .  Weavers  have  also  been  taken  to  In  be  up  whether  preferance of  has  been  pack  loom  a  firm  i t  tightly. due  which  completely  loom  adjusts  loom  which  warp  to  tension  been the  decision can  be  to  both  cloth as  take  cloth  bar  is  of  the  has  personal  comfortable  tension  A weaver in  shed  tied  rod  using  the set  shed  which loom.  cords  out  especially  less  back  the may the  tension  l o o m may  be  the  by  higher  more  changing  this  cords,  Although  to  this  the  shed,  reason,  the  so  as  But  version,  back  A  Due  heddie  weft,  tension  length.  lengthened.  loom.  have  in  the  back  tension.  For  posts  a  to  becomes  around  warp  to  mu,<cb e a s i e r . to  warp  wrapped  control  back  and  carefully  the  of  change  tension  being  weft  ease  staked  back  the  less the  affected  woven,  and  back  a  the  the  a  at  with  on  to  of  Any weaving  held  the  working  f i n a l .  is  decreases  the  be  change  length  than  efficient  easily  8).  warp  strain  most  warp  this  out  be  ups.  (fig to  being  O E travelling,  not  can  methods  home  progresses  up  this  obviously  piece  weaving  generally  loom,  the  the  the  front  of  is  beat  staked  make  various  weavers  from  warps  set  but  1975:43).  decision  the  need  chair,  among  size  be  a  a l l  covered  weaver  The  converted  especially  loose  choose  the  to  on  Rowe  working at  automatically  has  sheds,  the  where  the  felt  Thus  shorter,  fixed  is  advantages  make  is  be  out  To  may  (A.  weaving.  w i l l  The  staked  are  for  what  working.  weaver  including  weaver for  working s i t t i n g  development  the  factors,  the  way  as  modern  the  several  There  a  summary,  setting by  described  that  working  occasions  the  strain,  weaver the  -38-  Figure  8  Warp t a k e up d u r i n g o f the weft.  Figure Spindle  weaving,  caused  by  9 and  fleece  from  Ollantaytambo  the i n s e r t i o n  and  beating  -39-  tension  on the warps  position,  which gives  i s quickly adjusted the weaver  ideal  by a change i n t h e body  c o n t r o l o f t h e warp  tension.  -40CHAPTER 4  THE WARP-PATTERNED  WEAVES  V  A.  Definition  The  warp-pattern  structures warp  i n o n e , two o r more  threads  are placed  making t h e f a b r i c of  s e l e c t e d warp  warp-faced  plain  each concealed faced,  weaves c o n s i s t  over  underside  a t which p o i n t they  Others  are double-faced  a white  on  the other  weaves  colours. weft  are brought the design  float  freely  are single-  until  showing on b o t h shows  complexity  i n mind b e f o r e b e g i n n i n g  required  the other side.  sides but  r e d surrounded  with  b y t h e w a r p b e i n g made u p o f p a i r s  t h a t by t h e i r  On t h e  a r e d ground  o f complementary-warp  Where a t h r e a d o f o n e c o l o u r i s l i f t e d  trait  and under  up t o t h e f a c e o n c e more.  I n the case  a n d t h e r e f o r e shows o n t h e o t h e r  clearly  weaves  i t may show w h i t e  side o f the f a b r i c . i s caused  i s hidden,  on o n l y one f a c e .  Thus where a m o t i f  s o t h a t i s shows o n o n e s i d e ,  weft, the  clearly  threads  ground on t h e r e v e r s e  this  weaves t h e  i n contrast with  t h e warp a l t e r n a t e s o v e r  shows  with  the colours reversed.  by  that the weft  two o r more w e f t s ,  the unused, c o l o u r e d  again,  with  In warp-pattern  Some o f t h e w a r p - p a t t e r n  that i s , the design  of related  P a t t e r n i n g i s c r e a t e d by the f l o a t i n g  weave, where  weft.  colours.  so c l o s e t o g e t h e r  warp-faced. threads  o f a wide v a r i e t y  of alternate  and passes  colour passes  over the under t h e  A l l t h e s e weaves  share  t h e weaver must have had t h e d e s i g n  t o make t h e w a r p .  This  pre-planning  -41-  is  n o t e s s e n t i a l f o r some o f t h e o t h e r  tapestry,  B.  Review o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e on P e r u v i a n Weaving  His  recently,  b o o k , L e s T e x t i l s A n c i e n s de P e r o u e t l e u r s i n 1934 a n d p u b l i s h e d  are  one o f t h e p r i m e  still  many p i e c e s  into the  a single  category.  This  supplied.  information  d'Harcourt.  i n 1962.  of information  H i s terminology  that  (1936,  F o r example, p a t t e r n  f i t under e i t h e r o f these h e a d i n g s .  very  clearly  similar  piece  Textiles reports. (1963) .  Engel  are usually  from each b u r i a l , approximate  idea  inadequately  Absent  analysised  i s Engel s 1  report  many o f t h e t e x t i l e  o f the time other  much  float  i s analysis  t h a t would d i f f e r e n t i a t e  so t h a t by a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h  more d e t a i l e d t h a n  from  a  collection.  exception  describes  difficult  and a i d i n making any comparison w i t h  from another  One n o t a b l e  p;re g r o u p e d  the v a r i e t y o f techniques  the s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f structure from another,  as c l e a r  w e a v e s o f p l a i n weave w i t h  that  piece  i s n o t always  s u f f e r s f r o m t h e same d r a w b a c k a s t h a t o f  does n o t d e s c r i b e  one  H i s diagrams  1 9 3 7 , 1942) p u b l i s h e d  patterning could  first  on t h e s t r u c t u r e  makes d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  O'Neale  of d'Harcourt.  T e c h n i q u e s , was  o f d i s s i m i l a r though r e l a t e d technique  information  technical  i n English  sources  some p r e h i s t o r i c t e x t i l e s .  and  such as  Techniques  t h e m a j o r w o r k o f a n a l y s i s was t h a t  published  of  techniques  gauze and b r o c a d e .  Until  of  weaving  i n archeological on t h e A s i a  fragments other  archeological reports,  excavated  objects  s e q u e n c e may b e d e v e l o p e d . Engel's  unit  an  Although terminology  -42-  is  s t i l l  It  i s  deficent  regretable  opportunity  A the  to  major  advance  illustrated  major  textile  world.  that  identifications  no t e x t i l e  collaberate  publication  This  a n d some  students  on these  have  of  Emery's  classification  structures  The t e c h n i c a l  terms  provides  used  been  textile  The Primary  and their  clearly  incorrect.  given  the  reports.  i n the d e f i n i t i o n o f  i n 1966  are  i n this  Structure  detailed  subgroupings study  terminology of  Fabrics.  analysis  of  from around are  based  was  the  the  on  Emery's  terminology.  An is  King's  period with to  outstanding (1965)  from  the  The  analysis  carried  only  Warp-patterned  the  analysis into  information  from a which is  textiles  the Andes  historical  development tremendous  of  the  value  There  i s  of  the  concerned  has been  the process  as  a  (1977).  point  the warp-patterned both  and basketry  of  of warp-patterned  constructional  valuable  terminology  no  Paracas only  attempt  contemporary  today.  study  of  to  o f Emery's  her study  the past.  out i n Peru  Weaves  u t i l i t y  tradition  of warp-patterned  of  the  of  categories  Although  the  However,  comprehensive  The  classes  of  tradition  the prehistoric  as  of  lea Valley.  textile  relate  weaving  the  example  of  weaves  technical  weaves  and from  techniques A . Rowe's  A . Rowe  view,  i s  describing  description  of  is  time  s t i l l  Rowe's  the The  the  the perspective the  A.  approaches  may b e d i v i d e d .  during  study  weaves  of  various the  periods.  concerned  only  -43-  with of  analysis  exactly  of finished textiles.  how  the pieces  from an a n a l y s i s  of the  A. Rowe p u b l i s h e d in  the Cuzco r e g i o n  to  supply  in  that  uniformity  In  indicate  of technique  As  has  By  that  regard  quite  hypothesized  that  t h e Andean  she r a i s e d , on  the weaving  are concise  much a d d i t i o n a l  research  processes.  of f u l l  In her  conclusion suggests  but since  i t raises  other  too  than  inadequate  of information  f o r further  the f i r s t  many new  research  and  and  detailed  questions  Peruvian  textile  i n the t r a d i t i o n ,  tradition most  report  i t should  publication.  is particularily  o f the techniques  in  excavations.  Development  ancient  an  case.  details of archeological  tradition,  to  divergences  to the p r e h i s t o r i c t e x t i l e s  the q u a l i t y  begin  i s needed  o f the loom a l o n e the  processes  and  weaving  regarding  t h e loom.  i s not i n fact  More r e c e n t l y  the n e c e s s i t y  early  on  descriptions  a description  o f the p u b l i c a t i o n  Historical  The  be  i m p r o v e d , b u t much r e m a i n s t o b e d o n e , p a r t i c u l a r i l y  has been p u b l i s h e d ,  C.  that  to the contemporary t e x t i l e  indicate  article  much o f t h e e a r l y w o r k i s g e n e r a l l y  be o f much u s e .  respect  that  summary, w i t h  reporting  The  weaving i s e f f e c t e d  d ' H a r c o u r t ' s book to  a more d e t a i l e d  i n 1975.  Rowe makes t h e p o i n t  question  structures.  some o f t h e q u e s t i o n s  t h e way  the  w e r e w o v e n , a l t h o u g h much may  some o f t h e much n e e d e d d a t a o n  H o w e v e r Rowe d o e s answer  I t does n o t answer  that  rich. are  -44-  known  from  the  rest  covered.  Absent  developed  for  The  techniques. by  200  loom  began  plex  with  small  articles.  600  A.D.)  to  From  woven  astoundingly  It  is  s t i l l  not  the  warp-patterned  and  too  many  warp-patterned textiles  they  techniques  might in  probably  biased,  kinds  textiles  pieces  of  have  tradition  of  been uses  been  appear  to  based for to  from e a r l y  on  Some  developed  and  the  are  show  a  too  fine  later,  the  the  and  proper  used  i n most  being  major  com-  used  Horizon  pieces  complete many  form  the  (circa status  were  of  collections.  prehistoric  less  However  there times  had to  chronology in  the  days  of  the woven  popular  this  the  for  knowledge  Although  earliest  amongtthe  examination  that  gaps  provenience.  periods.  museum  the  Peru.  looped  were  became  i n  time  of  Middle  extremely  been  an  and  was  dis-  Chinese  using  embroidery  or  counts.  used  time  twined  fabrics.  exact  have  the  unavailable  developed  establish  no  been  different  collected  that  invented  considerable  tapestry  There  to  with  some  been  thread  which have have  material  ago,  early  point  high  chosen  a  beginning of  possible  being  which  conquest,  the  weaves  used  the  textiles.  pieces  weaves,  Decorative  already  to  damask  had  had  refined  been  developed  finest  technique,  already  silk,  the  Spanish  had  millenia  heddles.  for  with  of  techniques  weaves  the  the  fabrics  creating  pattern  world,  were  eight  complex  complete  the  weaving  Woven  B.C.  profusion,  only  the  tradition  of  view  more  is  elaborate  Enough  warp-patterned  been  continuous  the  a  present  day.  -45-  Tri'e.->ear.liest Huaca  Prieta  popular  late  period  i n the  (Bird  techniques  on  south  weaves in  from  coast,  were  come  Early  being  highlands separate  (see  Mahler:."  period,  Lima  excavated  from a  At this  point  i n time  twining,  until  the  and speed or  early  period  warp  midden the  near  more  hypothesized  manipulation,  i n the E a r l y  made  dated  of  the  (O'Neale  instead  of  glossary  form  some-  Horizon,  loom pieces  on the  two,  south  to  included  coast  textile  found  at  and Paracas of  Peru  complementary-warp  from  warp  weaves  X l l l  tunic  which  leaving  a  Nazca  continuation  advancement.  and complex coastland i s s l i t  Nazca  and X l V ) ,  This  technical  on the  the  from l a t e  (1957:57).  complete  Intermediate  around  (1957:plates  weaves  together,  the E a r l y  headbands  l i t t l e  Horizon  one  from  696  period brought  joined  Ocucaje  central  coast  Chavina  For example,  being  and supplementary  several  A . D . 576  Middle  weaves  of  for definition).  the  at  florescence  1946:269),  textiles  records  to  was a  of warp-patterned  i n warp-patterned  Peru.  there  New d e v e l o p m e n t s  excavated  Horizon  time  of  control  and from Supe,  mainly  w h i c h were  the  be  of warp-patterned  radio-carbon  By  to  examples  colours  area.  the  Peru.  HOrizon  near  colours  have  drainage  and  many  i n three  burials  I n i t i a l  Ancon,  Examples period  to  1948:271-72).  several  of  were  1952:45).  with  like  fabrics  continued  the E a r l y  Places  (Bennett  coast  of heddles  During  the  on the  techniques  development time  warp-faced  made for  garments  and i n of the  the  two neck,  i s  -46-  in  complementary-warp  of  stripes  of  techniques  twill  the  of warp-faced  Spanish  highlands from  structures  the  Late  Peru  the highlands  supplementary structures. so  that  wefts,  show  On many  of  the  body  borders  period, of  any other  varieties  i n a  of  might  through  consists  using  a  patterning  the  a piece  Late  textiles  have  Previous  periods.  colour  textiles  be  bands  weave  of warp-faced  contrasting the  tunic  variety  and  2/1  1977:61).  examples  from  warps  while the  ( A . Rowe  Another  and m u l t i p l e  complementary-warp  more  than  1977:70).  weave  Intermediate  conquest  of  ( A . Rowe  plain  and motifs:  derived  From  weave  or  several  may u s e  Horizon  survived  from  The  weaves,  to the  textiles  whether  with  complementary-warp  techniques  are  supplementary  i n complementary-warp  weave  combined,  warps  and  ( A . Rowe  1977:  48) .  Why times  d i d these  when o t h e r s ,  and  the brocades,  the  o f f i c i a l  art  their  bestowal  cloth  as  the  warp-faced  a  cloth,  possibly  state,  With  the  produce  of  the  the  disappeared? Inca  have the  aklla,  of  What  the  local Inca  was l e f t  own c l o t h i n g  to  a  specialized  weave  empire were  as  a  status This the  class  fulltime  and rulers  gauzes  were  part  of  was-attached  to  emphasis the  on finer  o f women  (and  . .  occupation  for  the  (Murra  Imperial  the peasant  families  h a d done  the  status  the whole  they  contemporary  textiles  1962:720).  and the higher  o f f i c i a l s  as  and great  (Murra  into  tapestries,  The o t h e r  empire  required  survive  spectacular  of position,  and the  their  as  and possession  must  f a l l  collapsed.  have  measure  men),  Inca  such  techniques  1962:722).  structure who c o n t i n u e d  previously.  Spanish  to  -47-  influences  changed  traditional  coastal  drastic,  and  woven,  r e g i o n s , where  d i d not  show t h e Tinta.  can  some o f be  o f the  clothing,  but  the  mainly  i n the  highlands  and  the  the  T h i s has  By  found  p a t t e r n b a n d s on  and  more c o m p l e x appearance  the p r e s e n t  In.summary, days o f  flower  the  development by continuation  of  taken  still  simple  many o f  with which  as and  the  motifs  the  1916).  being  still f o r which  larger  festival  i s called  to  designs  poncho  of  "rosas"  Ouechua.  i n 1910  some o f  This  t h a t began w i t h  w i t h w h a t I saw has  become more  the ponchos are  shows c l e a r l y the  in  Spanish  the  1978 ornate.  wider recorded  disruption  conquest  and  continues  time.  tradition  the E a r l y the  are  t h e y w e r e when t h e B i n g h a m e x p e d i t i o n  the warp-patterned  textile  shapes  word, n o t  less  mantas t h a t t h e y  t h a t handmade c l o t h i n g  (Ferris  repertoire  times  c o n t a c t , such  t h e mantas and  than  textiles  q u i t e complex d e s i g n s  in prehistoric  of  c o n t a c t were  more  eradication.  s m a l l e r p i e c e s have  i s a Spanish  The  through  the  a design  i t i s obvious  design  of  bands, ponchos and  comparing photographs  Peru,  effects  to a complete  influence of Spanish  (roses), which  in  style  i n r e g i o n s where w a r p - p a t t e r n e d  Although  their  lead  the bags, b e l t s ,  parallels  in  and  the weavers have developed  decorate use.  type  weaving continued,  isolated  Today,  the  w e r e a l r e a d y a t an  Horizon.  techniques  weaves w h i c h d a t e  with  The  from  advanced  subsequent p e r i o d s  little  major  technical  the  earliest  state saw  of  a  advance  -48-  until  the Late  of  the conquest  in  previous  Intermediate there  times.  T h e s e a r e more  elaboration  niques  continued u n t i l  and  birds,  as w e l l  recently,  the conquest,  wider craft.  as i n p r e v i o u s  a disruption  frequently interlocking  b e g a n t o show  repeats, after  i n the form  despite the gradual d e c l i n e  geometric  the conquest  of floral  motifs.  o f the t r a d i t i o n  t h e r e has been an e l a b o r a t i o n  p a t t e r n b a n d s , b y t h e w e a v e r s who  limited.  animals motifs,  European More and l o s s o f  o f the designs  continue  tech-  i n the design  h a d shown s m a l l  i n stylized,  The  weave  when t h e y became more  t h e r e was  than  complete  i n t h e one p i e c e .  Where p r e v i o u s l y t h e d e s i g n s  many t e c h n i q u e s  t o the time  and development o f t h e w a r p - p a t t e r n  as s m a l l geometric  influences  in  i n s m a l l bags and bands,  the coming o f t h e S p a n i s h  repertoire.  through  complex, o c c u r  and i n v o l v e m u l t i p l e t e c h n i q u e s  steady  With  From t h e n  seems t o b e a n a b u n d a n c e o f p i e c e s , more  garments r a t h e r than m a i n l y periods,  period.  to practice  into their  PREHISTORIC CULTURE PERIODS IN Period ,Preceramic V 4200 - 2500 B.C. Preceramic 1800 2500 1500  Cultural  Development  Seasonal  occupations,  of  VI  fishers,  hunters  PERU textile  tribal  and  communities,  gatherers.  Development  T w i n i n g and n e t t i n g mats, bags, n e t s .  techniques,  in  Development of permanent s e t t l e m e n t s , f i r s t public structures—temples, pyramids and a l t a r s . Beginnings o f formal art. B u r i a l s i n concentrated cemetaries.  T w i n i n g c o n t i n u e s as d o m i n a n t t e c h n i q u e , b u t f i r s t woven t e x t i l e s a p p e a r , i n c l u d i n g warp f l o a t p a t t e r n i n g a t Huaca P i r e t a ( B i r d 1948).  I n i t i a l Period 1800 900 B.C. 1500  Introduction of pottery. Public struct u r e s become b i g g e r a n d more n u m e r o u s . A g r i c u l t u r e develops.  I n v e n t i o n o f h e d d i e loom f o l l o w e d by d e v e l o p m e n t o f some o f t h e m o s t c o m p l e x t e x t i l e t e c h n i q u e s , i n c l u d i n g warp p a t t e r n e d weaves.  Early Horizon Period 900 - 200 B.C.  Large ceremonial s t r u c t u r e s b u i l t o f s t o n e and d e c o r a t e d w i t h c a r v i n g . D e v e l o p m e n t and s p r e a d o f C h a v i n c u l t . Paracas Cavernas b u r i a l s .  Florescence of t e x t i l e techniques with t a p e s t r y , gauze, p a i n t e d c l o t h , double c l o t h , e m b r o i d e r y and p a t t e r n w e a v e s .  E a r l y Intermediate Period 200 B.C. - A.D. 600  Large c i t i e s b u i l t , i r r i g a t i o n systems developed. I n t e n s i v e w a r f a r e . Moche c u l t u r e i n Chicama V a l l e y . Huari i n the h i g h l a n d s , and Nazca i n the R i o Grande a r e a .  T e x t i l e techniques reach peak of development i n Paracas n e c r o p o l i s t e x t i l e s from e a r l y i n the p e r i o d .  Middle Horizon A.D. 600 - 1000  R i s e and empires.  B.C.  Late  Intermediate  A.D.  1000  -  1476  Period  Small of art  fall  of Huari  and  Textiles  as  the  as  status  i n Chancay V a l l e y , h i g h l a n d s ,  Cities  flourished.  T a p e s t r y becomes s t a t u s Warp p a t t e r n weaves  r e g i o n a l s t a t e s such  Moche V a l l e y .  Tiahuanaco  Chimu etc.  Development of  further  gauze, k n o t t e d  lace,  ham, and  brocade, triple  painting, skill.  textile  techniques;  warp s t r i p e s ,  embroidery,  cloth, etc.  technique.  continue.  twill  ikat,  ging-  double  warp-patterning,  W e a v i n g as  a prestige  Late Horizon 1476 - 1534  Inca e m p i r e — u n i f i c a t i o n o f a l l o f Peru, E c u a d o r and p a r t s o f B o l i v i a and C h i l e .  T a p e s t r y as o f f i c i a l a r t . p a t t e r n weaves f l o u r i s h .  g a n i s h i Conquest  Complete  Warp p a t t e r n weaves  More i n f o r m a t i o n o n c u l t u r e  disruption  p e r i o d s may b e f o u n d  o f Inca empire.  i n Lanning  (1967) a n d L u m b r e r a s  (1976).  Warp  continued.  -51-  CHAPTER 5  FIELD SPINNING AND  The play For  this  before  WEAVING TECHNIQUES IN THE  characteristics  an i m p o r t a n t p a r t  o f the yarn  f o u r weavers  who  to f u l l  of technical  processes  of  a n d do n o t c h a n g e  In are  the  the section  starting  literature.  process  Two  o t h e r by a weaver process. cribed,  division,  sections,  Andean  weaving.  and  those  i n some ways f o r the purposes  o f bands,  a l l s t e p s w h i c h seem t o b e  one b y a weaver some t o o l s ,  showing  t e c h n i q u e s have  has n o t s t i r r e d  any  details  any  equipment,  not previously of belts  the  weaving  the v e r s a t i l i t y  interest  and  ignored i n  o f t h e band  without  iden-  them.  the heddle s t r i n g s  and even t h e p r e s e n c e o f q u a n t i t i e s burials,  although  natural  The weaves u s e d a r e s t r u c t u r a l l y  o f a warp, t y i n g  F i n g e r weaving  prehistoric of  with  articles,  t h o s e u s e d on bands  different manipulations  are described,  of  The  There i s a  devoted t o the f i n g e r weaving  o f t h e band,  i s given,  itself.  t h e methods u s e d t o produce  g i v e n o f the making  actual  into  widths.  has been kept i n the e n s u i n g  comparative d e s c r i p t i o n .  tical  This  garment  peasants  weaving.  of the spinning  on t h e weaving p r o c e s s  sized  u s e d on w i d e r loom p i e c e s . artificial,  REGION  w e r e o b s e r v e d a t w o r k , wove a v a r i e t y  from narrow bands breakdown  of the f i n i s h e d  description  i s focused  CUZCO  spun by t h e Andean  i n the q u a l i t y  reason a d e t a i l e d  attention  RESEARCH:  the  of the  been  des-  and bands  in this  in  aspect  -52-  The size  next  loom  weavers notes  section  and  records d i f f e r e n t  finishes  with a comparison  were o b s e r v e d i n a c t i o n  and  s t a g e , has  methods u s e d by  A.  result  The  from  few  No  of  of  Dr.  in  Cuzco.  said  that  tourists. They in  i s also  carried  stay  and  of  the  comparing  t o show w h i c h  from p e r s o n a l  i n Peru  in  an h o u r  Q'enco  varia-  preference.  1978  working  outside from  (Kenco), a sacred  the a r c h e o l o g i c a l  unknown.  The  site,  a  the  Inca  Inca site.  Sacsahuaman.  woman s p o k e  on w i t h t h e a i d o f a young  Chavez B a l l o n ,  obtained.  and which  photographs  description  analysing  The  Detailed  f o u n d o n ' a n y o f t h e l o c a l maps t o c o v e r t h e s e s m a l l  i t i s named l i k e  was  By  full  techniques.  together beside the road leading  o f Sacsahuamen towards  t h e weaver  tion  s e t up  observed f o r about  clustered  name was  unless  careful  each weaver i t i s p o s s i b l e  o b s e r v e d d u r i n g my  w e a v e r was  houses  fortress  in this  the weavers.  the loom  a  Weavers  Four weavers  One  o f weaving  using  f o r varying periods o f time.  resulted  v a r i o u s p r o c e s s e s used by  tions  s e t ups  d r a w i n g made a t t h e t i m e , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h  taken a t each  the  weaving  no  man,  Spanish.  one  from the N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y  woman was  Indeed  were f u l l  two  not from t h e r e .  The  o f the s m a l l houses  also  of artes  the t r a d i t i o n a l  tipicos,  handicraft  local  style  parts  c o s t u m e was  Ballon  f o r the  f u n c t i o n e d as  region.  Abad  were  Chavez  a r t i c l e s made t o s e l l  of the  name  Conversa-  o f San A n t o n i o  f r o m t h e town o f P i s a c b u t Dr.  t h e c o s t u m e was  The  of the students  W i t h h i s a i d t h e Q u e c h u a names f o r t h e l o o m The  houses,  shops. to  tourists,  The  s e c o n d weaver  tambo, o v e r a two  was  day p e r i o d .  nearby v i l l a g e  w h i c h was  lage  Quillyo  i s called  Ollantaytambo in  observed i n the Indian  carrying  only  reachable  (or K w i l l y o ) . her small  using  two  narrow bands.  related  t a r y - w a r p weave finger-weaving was  structures,  techniques.  The  a foot  strap  senora had walked  into  loom. and  essentially  woven b y O c t a v i a S i n c h i ,  researcher,  The his  roads  weaver,  at Tinta.  line.  out on t h e f l o o r  open d o o r .  front  a r e now  The  on  was  He  c a r o r by  worked  on a v e r y  i n t h e a r e a where  Only p a r t  weaver  as a p r o f e s s i o n a l ,  order,  o r he may  weave a n d  bands  of the  days.  o b s e r v e d a t work  i s s e v e r a l h o u r s from Cuzco by v e r y  some o l d , h a n d w o v e n r a g s ,  loom b a r .  manipu-  small  i n the possession  train,  light  sell  the v i l l a g e  He  worked,  been  kneeling  s e q u e n c e was  i n under  observed. This  o n l y w e a v e s when he h a s a  t o one  is  came i n t h r o u g h t h e  w i t h h i s knees tucked  o f a weaving  generally  since  inside  rough  low loom which had  T h e r e w e r e no windows i n t h e r o o m .  on t h e f l o o r the  Tinta  equipment  h e d d l e s w e r e made o f some  professional,  and c a n be r e a c h e d by h i r e d  on the Cuzco-Puno staked  a male  with  donelby t h e  t o whom t h e y w e r e g i v e n a t t h e e n d o f t h e two  third  house  no  warps  supplemen-  w e r e woven  scraps o f s t r o n g y a r n t o speed the weaving p r o c e s s . partially  was  patterns,  weave a n d  narrow bands  However, s t r i n g  she  t h e n made t h e  of different  complementary-warp  T h i s means t h a t  that  vil-  While i n O l l a n t a y -  m a n u f a c t u r e , a n d a l l t h e w o r k was  of the fingers.  from a  The  the poncho,  The  was  trail.  wove a v a r i e t y  (see a p p e n d i x ) .  used i n t h e i r  lation  She  along  son and a l a r g e poncho  t h e p r o c e s s o f weaving on a back  several  Ollantay-  T h i s woman, O c t a v i a S i n c h i ,  tambo s h e d e m o n s t r a t e d w e a v i n g o n for  town o f  o f the Cuzco d e a l e r s ,  special who  make  -54-  regular local  visits  to the  weaving and  markets.  While  viewed, but  The  sell  i n Tinta  stayed with Although  the  r e s e a r c h was  with  the  help  of her  left  other  the  a variety  observed  over  carried  out  she  e l d e s t daughter,  visitors  woven w i t h sticks  who  seat covers,  original  one  The  side of  the  H a l f t h e m o d e r n town  incorporates parts of  earlier  i n Chinchero  L o c a l name f o r t h e t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d by  their  work  p e r i o d when  Indian  town  the  series  strings  of  still  i n t h e warp, and  her  yard of  on  cold  years. attached  then  sold Chinchero,  d a u g h t e r were w o r k i n g t o the  stones.  i n which the  the  is built  bands o f  walls into  w a r p e d up  The  the  the  earlier  stone  Inca  Inca  on  pat-  around  h o u s e s a t , was  t e r r a c e s around the over  time  bands  Sunday morning market a t  weaver and  the  of  c a r r y i n g c l o t h e s t h a t were used  I n c a w a l l s o f one  weaver  the  Pisac  o f about twelve  heddle  inserted  came t o  season.  the  when s i t t i n g  The  day  weaving a  a child  :.the y y a r d  which enclosed  and  up  a t work.  o f p a t t e r n s , many o f w h i c h w e r e s i m i l a r  as  t o buy  Cuzco and  a three  was  the  place.  i n the  f a m i l y i n the  1  t e r n weave t h a t d e c o r a t e d  the  i n order  weavers were v i s i t e d  a campesino  partially  tourist  tourists  o t h e r s were o b s e r v e d  s p e c i a l l y made l o o m  them t o t h e  the  villages  t h i s woman d o e s w e a v e l a r g e r p i e c e s , a t t h e  that  These she  t h e way  i t to  none o f t h e  Chinchero.  during  of  f o u r t h w e a v e r was  researcher  and  out  wall  part  of  market-  town  and  later structures.  s e v e r a l new  Indian or part-Indian people farming  pieces  who  still  to  show  how  make  /  -55-  the warping the in  was  done.  same m e t h o d t h a t which  ing  she  also  the v i s i t spindle.  B.  Spinning  Spinning ing  The  hardwearing, after and  A  partly  g i v e n an  that might a f f e c t But  erties. this  also,  The  i s an  activity  produced  on  shed,  of the yarn twist,  the  kind of yarn.  tight  Even  yarns,  more d u r a b l e a n d  lands, over may  an be  walking  where t h e entire seen  each  but p a r t l y itself.  quality  hard  synthetic are  twist  yarns,  a  a  the  very in, quality  to the  shed  friction  changes  technique  t h a t have b e e n  twist  brightly  s k e i n of commercial  Andean  shot i s beaten  specific  yarn  are prop-  to  spin  commercially  or over-spun,  on  to the yarn.  T h i s makes  are p r i z e d  p o n c h o may  top  be  Spinners  slung over  of  i n the  can  one  high-  spread  coloured, synthetic  i n many o f t h e more r e c e n t w e a v i n g s .  along with  weav-  gives i t b e t t e r wearing  Such q u a l i t i e s  over-spun,  a  Andean handspun y a r n i s  l a b o u r i n v o l v e d i n m a k i n g one The  Dur-  drop  a l s o because of the  The  method  using  warp loom a r e  weft  f r e q u e n t l y respun  hardwearing.  year.  of  w h i c h makes i t more r e s i s t a n t  and  the  i s associated with  continuous  hard  using  a child.  o f Andean s p i n n i n g w i t h a  the p r e v i o u s s p i n n i n g t o g i v e a t i g h t e r it  that  i t d u r i n g the weaving p r o c e s s as this  was  and  spinning technique  Andean s p i n n e r s have d e v e l o p e d  spun as k n i t t i n g  daughter,  because of a p a r t i c u l a r  i n the  extra tight  r e s e a r c h e r t o weave,  demonstrated  b e c a u s e o f how  characteristics  the  t o weave when s h e  description  textiles  i t s insertion  made.  also  i s i n c l u d e d here  weaving.  taught  been t a u g h t  senora  over.  also  had-used to teach her  of the yarn  the world  spindle  she  had  the  drop  She  be  arm  yarns seen and  a  -56-  spindle  dangling  The  way  n o t o n l y what the  from  the  other  i n which  the  yarn  the  final  spinning i s poor,  affect  the  i s spun w i l l  fabric will  unevenly  durability  hand.  o f the  finished  expect  up  t o make a p o n c h o , w i t h  weaving daily  and  chores  s p u n more  and  work i n the  tightly  and  rather  than  fibres  i f i t i s t o be  a half  daily  the  may  lumpy  fields  i n places, this of  concern  i f i t i s t o be be  I t may  food. used  sacks.  t o clothe:,",, no w e a v e r w a n t s  the  will  weaver  s e v e r a l months a t t h i s  Andean  take  a weaver  dyeing, necessary  yarn w i l l  thread,  While  a day,  will  other  The  If  f o r a poncho or  a thicker  f o r storage  to  labour of spinning,  to r a i s e  extent,  o f what q u a l i t y .  lifetime.  t o weave a p o n c h o , a n o t h e r take  to a great  s p r e a d between a l l the  It will  used  a  f o r e i g h t o r more h o u r s  months  chores,  family  finely  for a blanket.  weaver, working and  the p i e c e s  also  fabric,  a garment t o l a s t  finishing  but  spun and  w e a v e r s , who to a year  be  decide  a  of  manta,  coarse  professional  take  from  one  coping with  stage.  be  With  c l o t h e s t o wear o u t  an  to  one  a l l the  entire  in a  few  years.  2 Spinning the  Quechua  i s done w i t h  language.  is  n a r r o w a t one  is  sharpened  This  term  ( 1 9 7 4 : 5)  into  was  end  a drop  I t consists and  widens  a point.  also  g i v e s the  s p i n d l e which  found  The  by  Spanish  of a s p i n d l e whorl  somewhat t o w a r d s spinners observed  Goodell term  i s c a l l e d pushka  palo  i n 1968  the  a shaft,  o t h e r end,  a l l used  (5), but  (stick).  and  in  which  a carved  Stevenson  which  or  -57-  turned  wooden w h o r l a n d a m o r e r o u g h l y v  records looked The  t h e use o f a s o f t stone whorl as i f they had been c u t from  shaft  i s generally  shown i n f i g u r e 9. had  a shaft  about  thick. she  spindle  grew b i g g e r ,  In spin  t e n t o t h i r t e e n inches  inches  long  and a roughly  i t seems t h a t  years o f age.  This  the g i r l s  information  was c o m p e t e n t e n o u g h t o h o l d However, c o n t r a r y  n o t men, a n d m o s t o f t h e s e  may b e t h a t  in  T i n t a , a male p r o f e s s i o n a l weaver he d i d t h e w e a v i n g .  tended  the g i r l s  b e g i n t o s p i n r e g u l a r l y , and t h a t information  that  are sixteen young g i r l s  that  o f yarn  girl,whose of the adult  ( 1 9 6 8 : 6) I saw o n l y t o be o l d e r  .the men s t i l l  indicated that Stevenson  to learn to  i n an a r t i c l e  found  i n t h e more o u t l y i n g d i s t r i c t s  C h o r c o v o s de S a n t i a g o  cient  When  matches w i t h  i t s own w i t h  t o what G o o d e l l  It  in  by B i r d  begin  (1968: 1 1 ) . He m e n t i o n s a s i x y e a r o l d  rates  while  whorl  by h e r f a t h e r .  production  spinning  i n Chinchero,  h e r f a t h e r w o u l d make h e r a b i g g e r o n e .  five  women s p i n n i n g ,  a s i s t h e one  i n diameter and j u s t over h a l f a n i n c h  i n 1967 a n d d i s c u s s e d  spinners.  a knife.  turned  found by Goodell  spinning  of the shafts  long,  w h i c h was e x a m i n e d  h a d b e e n made f o r t h e g i r l  response t o questions  a t about  Several  a branch and shaped w i t h  seven and a h a l f inches  This  shaft, but Stevenson  (1974: 6 ) .  A child's spindle  t h a t was o n e a n d a h a l f  shaped  h i s wife  women.  spin, but did the  ( 1 9 7 4 : 6) r e p o r t s  that  o r seventeen before do n o t s p i n .  i s a v a i l a b l e t o i n d i c a t e whether t h i s  they  Insuffi-  i s ; a regional  difference.  ning  Occasionally  o n e may s e e women w a l k i n g  as they  The f a c t  go.  that  they  along  are spinning  t h e roadway, does n o t slow  spintheir  -58-  walking  pace.  On o n e o c c a s i o n  I had' t o h u r r y  who was s p i n n i n g a s s h e w a l k e d . so, w i t h taking  She h a d c h o r e s  h e r baby on h e r back she walked  advantage o f an i d e a l  opportunity  A n o t h e r woman s p i n n e r was o b s e r v e d was to  crouched sell  beside  or barter.  sitting  position  threads  before  the spindle cording  a Quechua one. Puno on Lake  Spinning:  The spindle A  This  a Drop  fleece  into  out,  gently  short yarn  a i r , rapidly  twist,  and t h i s  more p u l l e d  She  length, since her  o f long  She k e p t  twisted the t i p o f  s a t beside  travelled  her.  Ac-  rather  than  up t h e V i l c a n o t a f r o m  o f t h e Aymara  tucked  under t h e l e f t  spun y a r n  from t h e f l e e c e  together  a roving.  speaking  knot.  twisting  area.  The  from t h e r i g h t  i n a continuous  When a b o u t t w e l v e  hand.  hand. roving.  This  twist  the thread.  to eighteen  Once t h i s  allowed thread  judge by e x p e r i e n c e ,  o u t from t h e unspun f l e e c e .  pull-  inches has  t o near the t o p o f t h e s p i n d l e  The s p i n d l e i s t h e n  t h e s p i n n e r must  arm.  a n d makes i t p o s s i b l e t o k e e p  the roving i s attached  shaft by a h a l f - h i t c h  spinning.  t h a t she had brought i n  i s a n Aymara t e c h n i q u e  i s the fringe  i s carried  the f i b r e s  the fleece  pace,  Spindle  are p u l l e d  to hold  been p u l l e d  the  which  and  indoor market.  i s g i v e n a s m a l l amount o f t w i s t b y t h e r i g h t  helps ing  ( 1 9 4 9 : 115) t h i s  hangs suspended by t h e a l r e a d y  few f i b r e s  i n Cuzco  w e r e wound o n t o t h e s p i n d l e .  Titicaca,  unspun  a t h e r normal  f o r the accumulation  The i n f l u e n c e may h a v e  Using  t o do e l s e w h e r e ,  and sometimes i n a bowl which  t o O'Neale  a woman  f o r some u n i n t e r r u p t e d  a s m a l l heap o f v e g e t a b l e s  did not allow  over,  x  along  T h i s woman s p u n a v e r y  they  t o k e e p up w i t h  to spin i n has taken  the yarn  The t w i s t i s a l l o w e d  enough  i s once to travel  -59-  along  these  fibres  through  amount o f t w i s t p a s s e d  the  right  hand  the  y a r n becomes t h i c k e r n e a r e r  fleece,  the  twisted fibres  same t h i n n e s s spinning (fig.  are  until  and  initial  takes  wrapped around the  the  the  yarn.  The  left  the  hand t o  i s pulled  out  prevent to  s p i n d l e i s dropped  s p i n d l e i s almost  again  and  pulled  the  out  touching  up  around her  fibres  the  b e e n done, the  spindle with left  hand  t h a t are  The  right  thread.  being  the  the  and  ground  Extra  thread  i t i s wound b a c k o n t o t h e  is  from the  thread  spindle. of  The the  t h a t was  to secure  About twelve  the  upward s p i r a l the  inches  on  left  s p i n d l e shank and  i n a downward a n d knot  the  stops  hand, w h i l e  The  T h i s time  the  winding  s p i n d l e i s dropped i t i s not  freshly  t h r e a d w h i c h has  i s slipped  over-spun,  half-hitch  spinner  already  hand c o n t r o l s t h e amount o f t w i s t w h i c h  Once a l l t h e  spindle  right  ( f i g . 11).  spun, b u t  required.  removed  her  spinning action continues.  been t w i s t e d . passed  s p i n n i n g has  h o l d of the  spun t h r e a d  holds  spindle rather than  10).  twist  stage  the  shorter, thicker piece  the r e s t o f  continues,  Once t h i s  the  Then t h e  as  the  along.  If  them t a n g l i n g .  f i n g e r s , which c o n t r o l  thread  and  of yarn  o f f the  the  left  left  hand  hand has  The  thread  i s wound o n t o  prevent  is left  as  been  hand.  ( f i g . 12),  is  half-hitch  knot the  finishing with  a  i t unwinding o f f  free,  ready  the  f o r the  next  spinning.  s p i n d l e i s swung t o thread  firmly  so  start  t h a t the  i t spinning again. t w i s t cannot pass  The until  right  hand  enough  Figure  10  Spinning: p u l l i n g out thicker l e n g t h o f p a r t i a l l y spun y a r n while s p i n d l e spins to ground  Figure  11  Holding s p i n d l e while windi n g y a r n around hand.  -62-  fibres to  have been p u l l e d  draw t h e  fibres  fibres  out.  from  T h i s i s done by  the bundle  have been p u l l e d  out  t o an  comfortable  arm's l e n g t h , t h e  tighten  fibres  the  around the  left  up  into  hand and  1.  Warping  Chinchero.  pieces  of  Stefania used  twist  i s allowed  observed  Q u i s p e Huaman h a d and  Ollantaytambo  i n two  B o t h w e a v e r s s e t up  other warp-faced  other  a warp  end  nails  by  driving  belts  the  out  i n a row,  two  a t the  The  other  these.  t o weave.  Senora S t e f a n i a i n Chinchero  spreading  out her  hammers i n one convenient and  outer  extends  of  stone i t as  arms. the as  or  and  She  two  sticks  she was  the  ground  four  spaced  iron  stakes  at a  the  slight  s e t s the  loop.  angle,  sticks  and  band  by  She using  loop around the  gives i t a twist  of  between  l a r g e loop o f wool  larger  reach,  into  are  to secure  i t will  Senora  d i s t a n c e r e q u i r e d f o r the  makes a  next  little  complementary-  s e t s the  a knot  She  used  bands.  ties  a hammer.  Ollantaytambo  i s equally applicable  She  f a r as  wrapped  stakes which  four sticks  t o hammer t h e m .  i s going  a  and  In Chinchero,  f o r a warp-faced,  courtyard, using a stone  she  along  o f t h e w o r k when s h e  the  that  more t h a n  villages,  of a tree.  p a t t e r n weaves on  the  the  Chinchero  Senora Octavia Sincha  the method o f w a r p i n g  Senbra O c t a v i a begins  with  no  i s then  and  different  four large iron  to hold the  warp, p a t t e r n w e a v e , b u t  Once  to travel  This thread  s t i c k broken o f f the branch  weaving.  for  even t h i c k n e s s , and  In Ollantaytambo,  f o r warping  ( f i g . 13).  pressure  over-spun.  F i n g e r Weaving o f Bands:  and  fleece  a thread.  C.  T h i s m e t h o d was  of  exerting gentle  then a stake  hammers i n  -63-  the in  second  l a r g e stake  to hold i t there.  t h e ground between t h e f i r s t  figure  o f eight with  the twist  Sei?ora O c t a v i a b e g i n s the  outer  centre  sticks  brought from  stripe  The t h r e a d  This wrapped and  times  i s taken  i s repeated,  for the f i r s t  ties  Then she b r i n g s t h e y a r n stick  D.  I t i s then direction  thread ( f i g .  a r o u n d A, a s shown i n t h e f i g u r e 1 5 .  women, u n t i l  enough t h r e a d s  Senora S t e f a n i a breaks  have  i t i n a spiral  ties  a new c o l o u r t o A .  Both weavers c o n t i n u e alternated  through  to left.  generally  t o be u s e d  i n this  again  later  way, m a k i n g  B and C i n a c r o s s , from  When t h e o u t e r w a r p  u s i n g two o r t h r e e  stripes  t o A or t o the previous  colour.  rearrangement o f t h e warps i s t o be a v o i d e d ,  sets the  that the threads  to right  have b e e n  For this  several  i n t h e w a r p i n g . She.  sure  left  and then  and from  completed,  c o l o u r s , t h e weaver i s ready  w a r p i n g t h e p a t t e r n a r e a o f t h e warp. either  up t h e s t i c k ,  been  the thread  o n a new c o l o u r a t A, b u t S e n o r a O c t a v i a w r a p s t h e y a r n  a r o u n d A, p u l l i n g  for  between  sticks but i n the opposite  warp s t r i p e .  o f wool t o one s i d e ,  on,  stakes.  t h e c o l o u r t o be used  so that i t crosses the f i r s t  by b o t h  ball  right  coming between t h e c e n t r e  B a n d C, a n d a r o u n d t h e o u t e r  back between t h e c e n t r e  are s e t  The l o o p o f wool i s s e t i n a  warping by t y i n g  t o the s t i c k .  the p r e v i o u s passage  14).  pair.  T h e two s m a l l e r s t a k e s  t o begin  two c o l o u r s a r e t i e d  At this  point, i f later  c a r e must be t a k e n t o  -64-  I  Figure  14  Warping:  forming  thread  cross  between c e n t r e  sticks.  -65-  Figure  15  Warp w r a p p e d i n a f i g u r e o f e i g h t a r o u n d f o u r s t a k e s , f o r m i n g t h e c r o s s b e t w e e n t h e c e n t r e p a i r , shown i n s i d e v i e w a n d f r o m a b o v e .  -66-  insure  t h a t the  threads  t h r e a d w h i c h make up tion  the  two  Keeping B. or  the  While left  It  the  two  c r o s s "between B a n d  threads  R r e m a i n s on  in direction  be  referred  separated the  t h a t the  near  stick  by  to a  i s important the  t o the right  separates  t o note  t h r e a d was right,  the  two  G  for  taken  green.  towards  around the  c o l o u r s , as  R c r o s s e s t o the  left  o f C,  and  C.  Failure  strings  threads  around the  G passes  on  the  c a n be  far  in  are left  near  i s c r o s s e d on are  then  then  taken  s i d e o f C, side.  top  taken  the beginning,  and  G  o f G,  threads  i n the in this  can  around D and the  i s then t o the  a r o u n d A.  until  threads  weaving  The  single B  colour  from  the  G must c r o s s  so t h a t G  r e a r r a n g e m e n t o f most o f tied  of  between C and  of C before  heddle  Both  row  Therefore  the  lies  to  below  cross-over order  the  at  the  threads  before  begin.  b a c k t o w a r d s C.  R is  same s i d e a s p r e v i o u s l y , w h i l e crossed over right  of B  entire  enough t h r e a d s  to  the  left  ( f i g . 17).  sequence  is  of  B  Both  repeated  have been warped  for  the  section.  T h e s e two previous the  i s taken  15.  n e c e s s i t a t e the  pattern  are  shown i n d i a g r a m  cross w i l l  from  they  as  t o keep t h e  threads  G  ease o f d e s c r i p -  f o r r e d and  r e t u r n e d around D and  between B  R  R  For  t h a t i n the p r e v i o u s  order of the  and  C.  finger,  s i d e o f B,  R t o keep the a l t e r n a t i n g  taken  as  i n the l a y e r s ' of  16.  warping, left  the  colours w i l l  s i d e so  diagram  alternate  outer  threads  are  then  tied  o f f by  S e f t b r a O c t a v i a and  t h r e a d s w h i c h have b e e n wrapped a r o u n d A stripes  a r e w a r p e d up  i n reverse order  are unwrapped t o the  the and  beginning.  -67-  Figure  16  W a r p i n g : S h o w i n g d i r e c t i o n o f w a r p i n g w i t h two A t o D, ( l i ) a r o u n d D a n d b a c k t o A.  colours,  ( i ) from  -68-  Warping: O c t a v i a l a y i n g the double t h r e a d c r o s s between the sticks  centre  -69-  Senora S t e f a n i a " breaks  the  two  also  i n reverse order  f o r the  band  i s complete,  thread  inches ready  2.  is left, f o r the  Tying  of  tying  o f the  made a t one  the  right  between t h e  twist,  the  This loop left  two  end.  loop  The  picked In  hand are  up  this  inches  i s placed  which  the  end  of  the  heddle  these  first  long, which w i l l  threads  are  the  and  next  colour,  warping  fifteen The  a  loop.  the The  keep  l i e above t h e thread  by  them s e p a r a t e  heddle  i s doubled h e l d on  of  to  the  twenty  warp  is  the  first  t i e d .securely together  ground  cross.  i s passed  now  the  the  i n a bundle.  from passes. the  loop  ( f i g . 18).  refers  quarter  Once a l l t o the  warp  t h a t l i e below,  i s passed of  a  about three  those  finger  finger  loop  with  from each o t h e r .  loop  left  finger of  warp t h r e a d s  not  o f the  first  repeated  the size  long thread  only  thread  inch i n  finger  first  a loop,  A  but  through  under which the  this  thread,  and  the  and  of the  the  thumb a n d  loop of  third  i s secured  of  first  T h i s i s then  s e c o n d and  out  q u a r t e r s o f an  p l a c e d on  h a v e b e e n c a u g h t up,  loops being then  long  on  threads.  twist  e a c h warp t h r e a d  t h e warp t h r e a d s  about  threads  inches  t o p i c k up  from between the  way  the  s e c o n d warp t h r e a d s ,  i s given a half the  Once t h e  sticks  loop about three  used  and  centre  about twenty A  hand b e s i d e  the  strings.  separate  s t i c k B.  first  stripes.  on  Strings-.  hand w h i c h i s h e l d c l o s e t o the of  ties  i s b r o k e n o f f and  heddle  them i n t h e w a r p t o  formed by  outer  and  i s t e m p o r a r i l y w r a p p e d a r o u n d A.  Octavia pulls  smooth, h a r d  shed is  which  the Heddle  Senora leaves  the  threads  the The  through a l l left  hand  excess  and  length  -70-  Figure Tying  the  between  Figure  heddles:  each  warp  Octavia  picks  up  a  loop  of  heddle  thread  from  thread.  19  Attaching heddle  18  heddle  loops.  stick:  Stefania  holds  stick  ready  to  lash  to  -71-  of  loop  i s then  passed  C,  and  l e a v i n g about three  to  the  heddie  strings  length of yarn. their  The  through  so  the  inches  t h a t the  sticks  are  a  firm,  the  less  left  With picks of and  up  the  sticky  the  first  end  sheds are  other  i s then  h e l d by  stick,  tied  the  off  same  point, having  served  i s held  just  warp w h i c h l i e s the  This loop The  finger  the warp u n t i l  and  loop  a three  i s passed  warp.  thumb o f t h e  right  from between the  finger  a l l the  yarn.  beside top  quarter through  i s p l a c e d on  above the  above the  first  making  first  The the  threads  the  loop.  have been  in  finger  weaver  second  i s given  loop  shed  first  hand the and  loop  first  the  inch  threads  a half  This  is  c a u g h t up  twist  continued in a  loop  yarn.  the  (fig. firmly the  yarn.  a loop of thread  Once a l l t h e to  two  by  s t i c k B.  hand and  p l a c e d on  across of  s l a c k the  the  function.  the warp c r e a t e d by of  ©f  removed a t t h i s  Seftora S t e f a n i a a l s o b e g i n s in  s h e d h e l d open by  end 19).  three  short stick, yarn  the  of the  thread  heddie  four heddie  through  stick.  i s then  thread  wider  the  A notch  s e c u r e l y and  loops  strings.  excess  that i s a l i t t l e  i s then passed  o t h e r end  t o h o l d the  through or  a  The  t o the  stick  passed  of  l o o p s h a v e b e e n made, t h e  than  heddie i s cut  prevent  i s then the warp  loops into  and  width tied  each end  slipping.  whipped t o the  tied  stick  The  of  string  every  -72-  A  second  s h e d made b y the  second  3.  length C.  This  shed  Starting  of yarn i s tied  i s sometimes c a l l e d  This  A and  the  all  The  the  there w i l l  be  bring  of  t h e new  and  brought the  ends and  i t firm  holds  and  but not t i g h t .  and  She  the  After  shed,  fingers  cord,  inserts  insertion  The one  her  second  o r two  slipping.  her  fingers The  of weft,  row  of weft  so  i n the  she p u l l s  the shed open.  first  by  makes s u r e  on  away f r o m t h e o t h e r s .  she  to force  fingers.  ends.  Placing  the lease  been opened  the f i n g e r s  are held  t h e e x c e s s warp t h r e a d i s  knots are passed through t h i s  strings  shed has  loose  that loop  the  Once i n the  shed  that  heddles enough shed  cross i s  and b e a t e n  i n by  i s inserted,  along  more r o w s t h e w e a v e r i s r e a d y  to  the pattern pick-up.  Senora first new  through which  no p i e c e s h a n g i n g .  p r e s s u r e of the  begin  shed  forward against  w i t h any  and  i n t h e l o o p s t o p r e v e n t them  t h e s e w a r p t h r e a d s up  extends  cord  t h e wrapped t h r e a d s which  her f i n g e r  first  between the heddie to  up  senora p u l l s  loose  lease  i n the  Band  inserts  creates the  passed.  the  stick  warps.  Senora Octavia p i c k s Stick  behind the heddie  shed  s h e d by  heddie  S t e f a n i a b e g i n s the band by p a s s i n g a s t r i n g and  tying  relaxing  stick.  She  the  string  the tension  inserts  around on  a small  her waist.  She  stick  the  then opens  the warp and p u l l i n g shed  through  up  on  the  the  i n the newly opened  shed  -73-  and  by  e x e r t i n g p r e s s u r e on  the  tension  and  the  on  stick  pulling  towards  on  it,  shed  i t makes.  past  the heddle stick  her.  A weft,  and p u l l e d up  until  ..She  She  b e a t s i n the weft,  into  place.  t h e r e i s space  here  She  so t h a t  i s now  Weaving a Narrow  convenience  She  weaving  and e a s e  bibbed It  apron.  i s also  on  h e l d by  have been  used  using  a  cross slight  warp t h r e a d , i s  a shed  cord,  stick  i n the  works t h e s e  threads  o f t h e h e d d l e s she  f o r w a r d and  against  a slight  inserts  the  ridge  weft.  coming  t o b e g i n the p a t t e r n p i c k - u p .  of working  the warp.  the  fingers.  completed  The  t h e warp  the lease  i t s edge and  t h e warp forms  increasing  Band  she m a i n t a i n s t e n s i o n i s at first  lifts  to i n s e r t  the s t i c k  ready  drags cross,  Once t h e y a r e c l e a r  and b r i n g s  same t i m e  o f the l a s t  warp and wrapped i t a r o u n d h e r b i g t o e .  it  a t the  i n the  s t a n d s the shed on  shed  For  beats  the e x c e s s end  strings.  over the weft.  She  firmly  the  4.  and  t h e warp t h r e a d s she g r a d u a l l y  r o c k i n g motion. inserted  the s t i c k  With  O c t a v i a had  her  legs  When s h e b e g i n s w e a v i n g After  the f i r s t  i s used  for this  taken  stretched  few  the  the out,  band  rows o f  i t i s then pinned to the s k i r t  l a r g e p i n which  t o p i n on  Senora  of  i s called  her T'pana.  t h e m a n t a o r s h o u l d e r w r a p t h a t many o f  the  women w e a r .  To o p e n t h e  shed the weaver i n s e r t s  formed  by  the heddle  strings  and  second  shed t h r e a d s , behind the heddle  her  the lease  fingers  cord  strings),  into  the  loop  (which s e p a r a t e s the and  pulls  upwards  -74-  with  t h e thumb.  pulling free, the  The  them a p a r t  the  fingers  heddie  other fingers  (fig.  20).  into  (fig.  21).  h e d d l e s t h e thumb i s i n s e r t e d  the  other fingers.  for to  t h e new each  them.  the  has  t h e same e f f e c t  Complementary-warp  second  shed.  She  the  third  i n t h e new  the threads are s t i c k y  as  shed  and  ready cling  times t o l o o s e n  s c o r i n g w i t h t h e l l a m a bone  i t i s h e l d open w h i l e the  from up  the  o f t h e warp  fingers.  the.thumb  and  The  first  i n the l e f t first  stick.  pattern  second and up  i s pulled shed  firmly,but  and not  third the  fingers  shed  hand w i t h  finger  right  P i c k e d up  o f t h a t hand.  hand  in to  threads  Once a l l t h e  i s opened enough t o pass  through almost t o the end.  the  i s inserted  finger of her  t h e warp t h r e a d s f o r t h e p a t t e r n .  has been p i c k e d  weft, which  pulled  and  uses  or drop  h e l d by  removed  a s p a c e made f o r  Weave  weaver h o l d s the end  thumb a n d  pattern  Where  rear  i s done.  The  up  are i n s e r t e d  against  f o r w a r d a g a i n s t t h e woven s e c t i o n ,  shed has been changed,  B a n d A:  pick  i t i s brought  pattern pick-up.  This  pick-up  the  fingers  up  are  been worked p a s t  o t h e r t h e y a r e s c o r e d w i t h t h e thumb s e v e r a l  Once t h e  are  and  A l l the  i n t h e shed and  shed  those o f the  Once t h e s h e d h a s  the  22)  t h e shed and pushed  t o s e p a r a t e t h e t h r e a d s and p u l l  shed p a s t the heddles  (fig.  against the threads,  Once t h e t h r e a d s ' o f t h e r e a r  are i n s e r t e d  strings  are extended  The  through  finger i s  then the selvedge i s h e l d w h i l e the weft i s so much t h a t  i t pulls  i n on  the selvedge.  -75-  O p e n i n g r e a r shed on narrow band: O c t a v i a P u s h e s warp t h r e a d s t o f o r c e r e a r warp shed p a s t h e d d l e s t r i n g s .  apart  -76-  Figure  22  Opening r e a r forward.  shed on narrow band: O c t a v i a  brings  the shed  cross  I Figure  23  P a t t e r n p i c k up o n n a r r o w b a n d : O c t a v i a  p i c k s up t h r e a d s  from  below  -77-  B a n d B:  The  Supplementary-warp  Weave  weaver  fingers  inserts  pattern pick-up.  her  Three  fingers  shed, b e h i n d t h e m i d d l e thumb o f t h e r i g h t the  by  of  the  the  first  left  finger  hand l i e s  lower threads as  threads  from below.  threads. of  hand h o l d  o f the r i g h t of the l e f t  The  the l e f t  and  pattern  shed,  The w e a v e r and  the l e a s e  i n the  hand.  Figure  shows t h e s e c o n d  24  so t h a t  between the  sawing  her bunched pulls  sticky  t h e m up  and  weft  hand.  i s passed  up w i t h t h e thumb a g a i n s t against  backwards and  This  s t r i n g warps  weaver,  to p u l l  the s t i c k y  t h e warp t h r e a d s t h e and  is  through  strings  the cords, To  forwards i n a from the  others,  t h r o u g h t h e o t h e r warp t h r e a d s o f t h e p r e v i o u s  warp t h r e a d s a p a r t  the  This  the warp.  pressure  on  two  fingers  f i n g e r s between the h e d d l e  s e p a r a t e s the heddle  up  A.  are forced  tension  below  to pick  second  Once t h e y a r e s e p a r a t e d t h e f i n g e r s applied  lying  used  t h r e a d s , t h e weaver p u l l s  and  caught  f i n g e r p u s h i n g up  first  f o r Band  down w i t h t h e o t h e r f i n g e r s  motion.  pulling  described  As  firstrfinger  finger  i t c a n be  The  and  selected.  The  then passed a c r o s s t o the r i g h t  She  fingers  the i n the  hand they are  shed w i t h the second 23,  already  inserted  The  left  i n figure  inserts  cord.  while pressing separate  as  hand a r e  thumb o f t h e r i g h t " h a n d .  threads are held  hand and  ready to begin  t h e warp t h r e a d s a l r e a d y  c o n t i n u e d a c r o s s the w i d t h o f the band. the  shed,  w a r p t h r e a d s a r e p a s s e d a c r o s s from'.the  up  the  finger  i n the  i s beaten  shed c r o s s  against  into  the space  i s brought  (fig.  and 25).  forwards  the weft t o help pack  shed.  With  towards  i t down.  The  -78-  Figure  24  Pattern  pick  sfer  right  to  Figure  up  on  narrow  band:  Octavia  picks  two  threads  to  tran-  hand.  25  Opening  heddle  strings  to  shed  separate  on  narrow  heddle  band:  shed  Octavia  threads.  pulls  up  on  heddles  -79-  pattern pick pattern  shed,  up  i s then c a r r i e d  as p r e v i o u s l y  out and  hold  Figure  26  t h e t h r e a d s w h i l e t h e new  shows a b a n d b e i n g w o v e n u s i n g described,  to a lease  cord  separate  out  5.  t h e new  by  The  The  on  Figure  shed  to 27  are not a t t a c h e d  the heddie  t h e new  be  i s changed  s h e d may  strings  to  have  be  i n o r d e r t o open the shed  as d e s c r i b e d The  tendency  separated  on page  and  i n the  p r o c e s s o f weaving shed/sword  back  to stick  there i s a  and  forth  together. space  section  i s made e a s i e r ,  sticks.  opening the heddie  t h e warp t h r e a d s and p u l l s sawing  out w i t h the heddie  o f the wide garment w i d t h s  weaver b e g i n s by on  i s carried  t o s i x narrow  the weaving  same t i m e  have a  Also,  i n t h e warp  a r e made.  heddles.  up  h e d d l e s may  to  f o r the  Stefania  a wide band  strings.  u s i n g up  resembles  the  sets'"of h e d d l e s  to a stick,  heddie  tension  strings  straight  threads.  Weaving a wide band:  attached  even  several  temporarily  e x c e p t t h a t where t h e h e d d l e s  shed  the  pick-up.  Weaving on  the  heddie  the weaver p u l l s  taken past several pattern  i s b e i n g woven s e v e r a l  shows t h e s t i c k s p l a c e d  previously  through  described.  Where a more c o m p l e x p a t t e r n used.  the weft passed  on  more  I n some ways  this  described  She  earlier.  relaxes  the heddie  t o s e p a r a t e any  stick,  threads which  Once t h e w a r p t h r e a d s h a v e  underneath  tying  and  shed.  upwards on  strings  the heddie  strings,  at may  been one  of  as  Figure  26.  Octavia uses to hold tern  several  sticks  additional pat-  sheds.  Figure  26  O c t a v i a uses m u l t i p l e  heddles  -81-  the  short sticks  and  a s t e n s i o n i s o n c e more a p p l i e d t o t h e w a r p  forwards they of  i s inserted  towards the weaver.  c a n be l o o s e n e d  t h e warp.  While  scrapes with both outside bring  edges.  inserted behind of  stick  into  the heddie  heddie  separate  from  The w a r p  It  i s placed  forward  placed  close to the f i r s t  stick.  heddie  shed  a stick,  of  a stick  sticks. shed,  into  the heddles While  thumbs,  stick.  i n front  are brought  one h a n d h o l d s  i n front  o f the heddie  process  permanently  them strings strings.  i ti s  stick.  It is  o f opening  the  f o l l o w e d by t h e  T h e w e a v e r may  The  past  the heddie  the previous  i s repeated,  the l e a s e c o r d shed.  the heddie  up c l o s e  are gradually separated.  This entire  S o m e t i m e s , one o f them i s l e f t  but behind  stick i s  t e n s i o n a p p l i e d t o : t h e warp  t h e w e a v e r , a s was  and i n s e r t i n g  Another beater  the s t i c k behind  space  to  up o n t h e l e a s e  on edge a n d b r o u g h t  them.  i n t h e shed  t o the  edge.  by p u l l i n g  s t i c k behind  and then, w i t h  towards  the width  as o f t e n as i s n e c e s s a r y  threads  t h e o t h e r warp t h r e a d s ,  easily,  t h e weaver  i s scored with both  and c l e a r e d from  removed and i n s e r t e d  across  flat,  i s brought  do n o t s e p a r a t e  stick.  I t i s turned  and t h e warp  is  brought  i s continued  the heddie  by t h e b e a t e r  flat  the s t i c k  t h e c e n t r e o f t h e warp a c r o s s  opens the r e a r shed  stick.  strings  I t i s placed  on the s t i c k ,  up a g a i n s t t h e woven  behind  strings  raised  shed.  I f the threads  from  the space.  the heddie  threads the  thumbs  i s tied  new  maintaining pressure  weaver next  cord which  this  b y t h e s c r a p i n g o f t h e thumbs  This action  the beater  The  into  insertion  work w i t h up t o s i x i n the lease  cord  -82-  Once a l l t h e  sticks  two  ways o f p r o c e e d i n g .  the  first  shed,  s h e may  do  sticks,  and  have been She  f o l l o w e d by  may  p l a c e d t h e weaver has  do  the  the pick-up of p a t t e r n  insertion  only  T h i s may  i s with the p a t t e r n  see the p a t t e r n  development  w e f t s have been  inserted.  that  be  she  inches,  to  large,  be  fingers of  and  i s weaving,  i s inserted s i t on  and p a s s e d t o t h e l e f t  28).  and  In f i g u r e  i s completed  inserts  places  into  hand.  The  i t on  i t into  finger  first  finger  and  This  a r e a does  The  finger  t h e weaver removes t h e shed  stick  edge a n d p a s s e s  the weft  are  through  (fig.  two  by  selected  i s picked  o f the l e f t  point  finger  secure  thumb o f t h e l e f t  At t h i s  need  a r e n o t wanted  thread  or  her  first  Threads  hand.  shed.  two  not  threads are held  t o the l e f t  the p a t t e r n  the  back  29 t h e w e a v e r i s shown s e l e c t i n g them a c r o s s  familiar  are pushed  top threads which  and  i n turn.  i t i s a matter  enough space t o i n s e r t  t h e s h e d and  the f i r s t  t o p shed and p a s s i n g  pick-up  needs  shed  of the  b e f o r e the  t o p o f t h e warp t h r e a d s .  the second  a r e t h e n h e l d by  (fig. the  by  by one  or  the s t i c k s  from t h e r i g h t hand w h i l e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e  from below They  area.  how  interchange the threads f o r the p a t t e r n .  thumbs w h i c h  dropped  small working  sticks  so  shed,  f o r i t i s harder to  when i t i s h e l d b y  f o r the weaver o n l y  each hand  the  t o give- a  weaver,  i n f l u e n c e d by  To b e g i n p a t t e r n p i c k - u p , t h e s h e d three  one  of  threads i n  i n that  then pass the weft through each p a t t e r n  personal preference.  weaver  o f the weft  the p a t t e r n p i c k - u p i n each o f the sheds h e l d  B o t h m e t h o d s w e r e o b s e r v e d b e i n g u s e d by of  a choice  are up  hand. hand  threads of  Once  pattern  from the  she e i t h e r 3 0 ) , and  shed (1)  then  Figure  28  P a t t e r n p i c k up o n a w i d e b a n d : S t e f a n i a r e a c h e s pattern thread.  Figure Pattern to l e f t  f o r upper  warp  29 p i c k up o n w i d e b a n d : S t a f a n i a p a s s e s hand.  l o w e r warp p a t t e r n  thread  -84-  holds  the  l o o p w h i l e she p u l l s  f o l l o w e d by w e f t by up,  or  the removal  the next (2)  shed  stick  next  row  she  shed  previous  shed.  close  to her,  will  shed,  She  then begins  one  stick  so  first be  first  that  o f the  she  stick.  and  used shed  as  has  sticks  stick  i t s side  and  inserts  She  pulls  the weft  through,  taking  the  s e l v e d g e edge.  stick  have been  stick  the weft  care not to p u l l i s removed and  The  or  sawing  a t t h e warp  being  done, b u t  tions  of this  of  the  almost  cross.  At  first  i t was  l a t e r when t h e o b s e r v e r was  weaver,  i t became c l e a r  that  this  up  a r i d g e where i t p a s s e d  over the  turns  on  stick  i s grasped the  weaver  scraping  this the  was direc-  down p i v o t i n g  so t h a t t h e warp  weft.  It  shed.  shed  down  under and  row.  forceful  u n c l e a r why  s t i c k h e l p e d p a c k i n t h e w e f t more f i r m l y , formed  and  and  weaving  pattern  too t i g h t l y  stick  i s a s l i g h t up  back space  then  the  the next  t h e w a r p i s t i g h t e n e d up,  r o c k i n g motion  She  up  f o r w a r d " a g a i n s t t h e warp c r o s s w i t h a This  i n turn  through  brings  rocking motion.  the  inserted  pattern  sequence.  tension  stick  f o r the  h o l d s no  last  w i t h b o t h hands, the  next  a narrow working  as a sword b e a t e r t o pack i n the weft. on  pick-  through  o f them  shed  i n t h e new  on  shed  each  last  the  been done f o r s e v e r a l  the beater of the  stick  The  b r i n g s the  the weft  a g a i n has  The  first  used  i s then  the p a t t e r n p i c k - u p  shows w h e r e t h i s  the  is  This  the b e a t i n g i n o f  forward,  the weaver then pushes  a t the  the  and  but without.having passed  for i t will  t h e n be  stick  stick  Once a l l b u t  the heddie  pick-up,  shed  F i g u r e 34  a pattern  towards  the  forward a l s o .  pattern pick-ups. into  o f the shed  t h r e a d up.  s t i c k before c o n t i n u i n g w i t h the p a t t e r n  slides  o f weaving,  the weft  -85-  Figure  30  S t a f a n i a passes weft  Figure Belt  through  shed  formed  by  31  with several pattern  sticks  i n place.  shed  stick.  -86-  The  ne'xt s h e d  stick  then passed through. one  o f the shed  i s p l a c e d on  The  sticks  have been  removed.  the opening o f the sheds  inserted  i n each  Once s e v e r a l  o f f the s t r i n g which  waist.  She  woven s e c t i o n c a n be girl  only  seen c l e a r l y  around  area close  the  have been  she has  the s t r i n g  under  stick  a l l but  i s brought shed  for-  stick  i n turn.  weaving  work w i t h t h e w e a v i n g  This  i s then c o n t i n u e d and a  inches o f weaving  reties  the weft i s  e n t i r e process i s then repeated u n t i l  ward and  shed  edge i n t h e shed and  string  i n figure  been  using  to hold  h e r w a i s t and  to her.  and  done t h e weaver p u l l s  This  securing  3?2, s h o w i n g  i t around  her  then secures the  i s done by  folding  the  i t with a large p i n .  the band  the  on which  the  This little  i s working.  The  little  two  shed  warp,  girl,  who  sticks.  By  the p a t t e r n  tension  on  bours.  Threads  i s just  learning  having a  a new  second  shed  p i c k - u p i s made e a s i e r .  The  the threads to h o l d are less  likely  them  pattern,  stick  t o be p i c k e d  up  inserted  second  i n their place,  i s using i n the  stick puts  beside t h e i r  out of turn,  extra neigh-  and  therefore mistakes prevented.  D.  Loom W e a v i n g o f Wide  1.  Octavia  O c t a v i a S i n c h i walked morning.  She  Cloth  from K w i l l y o  brought with her a small  to Ollantaytambo e a r l y son and  the poncho which  one she  -87-  Sonia weaving, w i t h  band p i n n e d  to her  sweater.  -88-  was  i n the process  O c t a v i a was finished  About h a l f  o f t h e warp h a d b e e n  w e a v i n g t h e poneho.-in o n e p p i e c e .  she w o u l d  together, the  o f weaving.  leaving  cut the c l o t h a slit  in half  and  Once t h e w e a v i n g join  f o r the head opening.  c u t o n e s , w o u l d be b o u n d  to protect  woven.  t h e two  The  pieces  edges,  t h e m a n d make t h e  was  including, poncho  longer wearing.  Unlike worked  the o t h e r weavers  with  t h e loom t i e d  goes around the back. a post  the backstrap  give  greater  adjusted with  to  other  slight  turning  or leaning  ease the t e n s i o n  her weight o f f the strap  very She  The  still  tension  therefore  sits  belt  that  suspended  from Working  f o r the weaver,  works  does  on the warp t h r e a d s i s body  position.  The  when s h e d o e s n o t want t o  alter  from the shoulders,  from the w a i s t .  l e a n s h e r whole body that  Octavia  s a t on a low s t o o l .  i n the weaver's  a t i g h t e r w a r p , a s when b e a t i n g the  ^Octavia  forward coming  she  i s a wide  a l t h o u g h ..more t i r i n g  changes  the warp.  This  e n d o f t h e l o o m was  i n weaving.  must keep h e r body  the t e n s i o n on any  The  or belt,  control  a large project,  to a backstrap.  a t about shoulder height.  with  weaver  a t work on  forward,  with  When s h e w i s h e s taking  around her buttocks.  some o f  I f she  needs  i n t h e w e f t , she p u s h e s b a c k  against  t h e s h e d t h e s h e d r o d i s p u s h e d away f r o m t h e  weaver.  belt.  To  change  The w e a v e r  t h e n punches  come o v e r t h e s h e d r o d . previous  shed.  I t also  down w i t h h e r l e f t  fist  a t t h e warp t h r e a d s  T h i s h e l p s p u s h down t h e w a r p t h r e a d s separates  the s h e d - r o d warp t h r e a d s  and  that  of the lets  -89-  the  heddle  upwards She of  shed  on  the  continues the  heddle  threads end  edge the weaver  pulling shed, She  her  up  until  then  pulls  inserts  the  stick,  pulling  under  and  past  a g a i n s t the heddle  forward  towards  i n s e r t i n g both  done.  By  h o l d i n g the  t h e warp t h r e a d s  T h i s makes t h e p i c k up  much e a s i e r ,  and  mistakes  are  stick.  the weaver and  t o be  of  less  at  the  shed.  the  a shed  are  heddle  ( f i g . 34).  shed  hands,  rod i s is  s t i c k which  ready  stick  The  and  is  f o r the p a t t e r n a sword  beater  held i n a cross position,  threads likely  of the  sword b e a t e r  shed  threads  the  using both  The  The  more  continues  completely and,  up  clear  threads  the h e d d l e s .  some  a l l this  threads  She  the  been i n s e r t e d  pick-up  side.  clear  ( f i g . 33).  t e n s i o n on a l l  are p u l l e d  stick.  pulls  until  doing  the  weight back a g a i n s t the b e l t ,  forward  sheds,  While  gradually into  the heddle  shed,  by  weaver  the heddle-shed  sword b e a t e r  i n the p r e v i o u s  alternate  The  r i g h t hand  easing  threads  sitting  in  her  clear.  can p u l l  sword b e a t e r has  sword b e a t e r  further  with  forward,  heddle-shed  the heddle  the  then brought moved  t h a t she  first  leans her  the  are p u l l e d  i s inserted behind  on  stick  body w e i g h t  so  Once t h e  sword b e a t e r  of the heddle  warp t h r e a d s  warp t h r e a d s ,  easily.  u p w a r d b e t w e e n them.  t o p u s h downwards a g a i n s t t h e w a r p t h r e a d s  the weaver h o l d s the  pass  f o r t h e p a t t e r n weave  to occur  through  side area  threads  being  misplaced.  The stripe scrapes  o u t s i d e warp  and the  woven a r e a .  stripe  a pattern stick  area  inserted  l l a m a bone p i c k a c r o s s This separates  i s p i c k e d up  any  as  f a r as  i n t h a t same s h e d . the  sticky  warp t h r e a d s threads.  The  the The  i n front  pattern weaver of  weaver uses  the her  -90-  Figure  33  Shed c h a n g i n g on stick.  Figure  a back  tension  loom: O c t a v i a p u l l s  up  on  the  heddie  34  Shed s t i c k i s brought  i n s e r t e d i n shed forward.  behind heddie  stick,  w h i l e shed  rod  -91-  left  hand  finger right  to hold  i s inserted  into  the shed  hand h o l d s t h e bone p i c k ,  threads. dropped (fig.  the warp t h r e a d s o f the p a t t e r n  As  the  from  35).  the middle These  finger  stick  on  stick  i s brought  and  under  the picked-up  pattern  shed.  threads,  and  (fig.  36).  about  one  prevent  The  warp  while  on  the s h u t t l e  This  stick  stick  the weft.  threads.  The  using  a new  the  inside  The  point  the bone stick  the p a t t e r n  Halfway  the  this  shed  heel  pick  smoothly shuttle  stick  i n the  the  opening  a t the s e l v e d g e , t o  distorted.  t h e weaver  beater i s brought increases  b e a t e r up  the weft,  the weft  for-  tension  against  on  the  weft,  between t h e warp  a c r o s s t h e warp she  continues beating  the  shed the weaver h o l d s  the sword  sword  cloth.  pattern  f o r the next  the shed  i n and  weaver h o l d s the  t o the o t h e r hand, and  of the  a notch i n the  t o push  shed  pick  can grasp  shed.  into  i s passed through  i s removed and  t h e bone p i c k .  she  the p a t t e r n  through  Her  required  i s t u r n e d on e d g e , s e p a r a t i n g  the weft  At this  the  the weaver s e t s  until  i s removed, l e a v i n g  inches of weft  stick  up  i s used  carries  firmly.  t h e i r p a r t n e r s are  the r e v e r s e s i d e  i t s tip settles stick  up  middle  hand t o s i t below the  i n the p a t t e r n  the selvedge from b e i n g p u l l e d  pattern  to pick  the bone,  s h e b e a t s i n downwards s w e e p s a g a i n s t  threads, pick  pattern  a half  on  the shed  threads, creating  shed s t i c k The  and  sits  pattern  When p u l l i n g  ward a g a i n s t the  The  o u t o f the shed.  The  into  forward u n t i l  along  insertion.  appear  reaches  o f t h e bone p i c k w h i c h  the l l a m a bone.  uses  a r e a has been p i c k e d  point  of  she  up  The  threads are h e l d  o f the l e f t  threads w i l l  edge and  the  which  threads are p i c k e d  Once a l l o f t h e p a t t e r n shed  and  area.  in  changes (fig.  the  37).  -92-  P i c k i n g up p a t t e r n w i t h a bone p i c k .  Figure  threads:  Octavia  picks  up t h e p a t t e r n  threads  36  Inserting  weft:  shed h e l d  open  f o r the i n s e r t i o n  o f the weft.  B e a t i n g i n t h e w e f t : h o l d i n g sword b e a t e r f i r m l y , O c t a v i a t h e w e f t w i t h t h e bone p i c k , between e a c h warp t h r e a d .  Figure  beats i n  38  Beating i n the weft: Octavia up a g a i n s t warp t h r e a d s .  beats  i n the weft, p l u c k i n g  bone  pick  -94-  Once up  this  first  row o f b e a t i n g h a s b e e n c o m p l e t e d ,  any s l a c k warp t h r e a d s  beater  slightly  and p u l l s  on e d g e , a n d i n s e r t s  a b o u t two i n c h e s  o f warp t h r e a d s .  the warp t h r e a d s  ( f i g . 38).  warp  threads  counteract  The pick  and  sword b e a t e r  a t a time  across  slid  on  from  i n front  i s kept  shed which  l l a m a bone t h r o u g h . shed  shuttle  stick stick  position. the  the shed-rod  The p a t t e r n s t i c k  sword b e a t e r  i s brought  p a c k e d down i n i t s s h e d .  the heddle  shed.  For this  under t e n s i o n .  is slid  i s gradually stick.  the shed.  i s removed. forward  Any l o o s e  inserted  Pattern  threads  under t h e s e , pushing the  The p a t t e r n s t i c k into  beater  h a v e b e e n p i c k e d up  Once t h e p a t t e r n s t i c k h a s b e e n  i s inserted  past  up  scores  The s w o r d  are brought  i s h e l d open by a shed  i s removed.  A few  r o d and p u l l e d  ones.  p r e v i o u s l y described, the p a t t e r n s t i c k  the f i r s t  stick.  t h e weaver  a l l the threads  a r e p i c k e d up a n d t h e p a t t e r n s t i c k  the  as they  o f the c l o t h .  The l l a m a b o n e  o f the heddle  I f necessary  f o r t h e new s h e d ,  t h e warp  stick.  o u t the  This i s to  i n on t h e w i d t h  t o l e s s e n any s t i c k y  until  rod.  the t o p o f t h e shed  threads.  This i s continued  process  As into  sticks  the threads  t h e sword b e a t e r  entire  the threads  under each group o f threads  strings.  to pull  the shed  under  against  t h e w e a v e r may s p r e a d  come o v e r  o f the weft  are l i f t e d  the shed,  She p l u c k s t h e p i c k h a r d  i s now r e p l a c e d b y a s h e d  across  Then she h o l d s t h e  t h e bone p i c k i n t o  I f necessary  where t h e y  any t e n d e n c y  past the heddle  again, is  slightly,  i s scraped  threads  up o n t h e m .  the weaver t i g h t e n s  completely  inserted  i s s e t on i t s edge and t h e  The w e f t While  i s then p u l l e d  t h e warp i s u n d e r  against the weft.  The w e f t  threads  up a n d t h e n  are p u l l e d  into tension  i s then with  -95-  the  sword b e a t e r  threads with and  s e t on i t s s i d e ,  the pick.  t h e weaver  has  only  The s w o r d b e a t e r  continues with  This p a r t i c u l a r  yarn  used  obtained  work w i t h .  shed  a shed  gaily  beginning tends  little  i n t h e way o f p a t t e r n .  The m a i n  The y a r n  i s over-spun  I t makes i t a l i t t l e b u t n o t as b a d l y  over-spun  The  spun s y n t h e t i c y a r n , which i s  However i t i s t h e q u a l i t i e s  t h a t a r e most p r i z e d , w i t h  I t  c o l o u r e d bands o f warp s t r i p e s .  warping. to stick  stick  change.  i n any o f t h e l o c a l m a r k e t s .  I tstill  been over-spun.  by  easier to  as i f i t had not  of increased  durability  yarns.  Sacsahuaman Weaver  This, consisting way  near  the f i r s t  o f the weavers observed,  o f s e v e r a l houses,  Sacsahuaman,  noon on a g l o r i o u s , colourfully  lined  clear winter  i n one o f t h e l o c a l  above C u z c o .  day.  costumes.  and embroidered  around h e r shoulders,  s h e wore a c o m p l e x l y  a r e c t a n g l e , wrapped around  usually with  a large blanket p i n .  t h e one u s u a l l y  worn e v e r y  i n a small  hamlet  I t was m i d - a f t e r -  T h e woman was d r e s s e d Despite  jacket.  a s h o r t shawl w i t h wide p a t t e r n s t r i p e s ,  into  was f o u n d  up t o g e t h e r o n o n e s i d e o f t h e h i g h -  the Inca f o r t r e s s  hot,  a heavy woolen s k i r t  not  i s replaced with  f o r t h e poncho i s a commercially  the weaver b e f o r e  is  upwards on t h e warp  two b a n d s o f p a t t e r n , u n l i k e t h a t o f t h e P i s a c woman.  o f t h e d e c o r a t i o n i s from  2.  another  weaving has very  part  easily  t h e weaver p u l l s  the heat,  s h e wore  Over t h e j a c k e t , and  p a t t e r n e d manta. generally folded  the shoulders  very  and pinned  The v e r y g a i l y  A manta double  i n front,  decorated  d a y , b u t r a t h e r t h e one b e s t  c o s t u m e was for  fiestas  -96-  and  dancing-, ( f i g .  The houses plied two  cords  stakes  made  the roadway.  t o stakes  a t an a n g l e ,  than  s l a n t i n g towards  pieces  cloth,  t h a n a s one l o n g p i e c e  threaded  t i o n a l method  that has continued  pattern and into  consists  tied  on h e r heels  similar pattern  t o t h e one  made i n two p i e c e s onto a square. four-selvedged  and then c u t i n the middle and means t h a t two w a r p s m u s t b e  up o n t h e l o o m , one a f t e r t h e o t h e r , from p r e h i s t o r i c  In the t r a d i t i o n  geometric  pattern  repetitive  o f the area  o f a s e r i e s o f geometric motifs  a complex  a  tradi-  times.  each band i s q u i t e  also  up  repeat.  i s rendered v i s u a l l y  This  wide  which have been b u i l t  more c o m p l e x ,  by t h e i n s e r t i o n o f bands o f d i f f e r e n t  main m o t i f s . chero,  surface  h a l f manta o n h e r loom c o n s i s t e d o f a s e r i e s o f complex bands.  The  inclined  p i c k i n g up t h e p a t t e r n .  by t h e weaver as  t h e m a n t a i n two p i e c e s  made a n d t h e n  sup-  The l o o m was  f a b r i c w h i c h w o u l d be j o i n e d t o g e t h e r  Weaving  The  This  The m a n t a was b e i n g  w o u l d be w o v e n s e p a r a t e l y  rather  joined.  very  The r e a r  t h e work was  t h a t a weaver s i t t i n g  w e a v e r was m a k i n g a m a n t a , w i t h  The  the weaver.  r e s t h e r f o r e a r m s on t h e loom b a r w h i l e  rectangular  t w i s t e d and  i n t o the ground.  t o work c o m f o r t a b l y .  from t h e ground,  t h a t s h e h e r s e l f was w e a r i n g . of  by f o u r  the f r o n t p a i r so that  i t e a s i e r f o r t h e weaver  could  bank i n f r o n t o f the  The l o o m was t i e d  t h a t had been d r i v e n  were l o n g e r  at such a height  The  ."  woman h a d s e t up h e r l o o m o n a h i g h  and near  ported  39).  and a l s o  colour w i t h i n the  i s a common p r a c t i c e a n d was o b s e r v e d  and i n a v a r i e t y o f f i n i s h e d a r t i c l e s  while  less  i n Peru.  a t ChinThe p a r t o f  -97-  the  cloth  second  a l r e a d y w o v e n was  or  cloth  beam.  wrapped around  This kept  by  The  t h e w e a v e r was  process  description  of weft,  starting  recorded  during  Before threads heddle which the  end  the  gradually that  weaver up  on  a  stick  shed  The  has  towards the  other gether  shed  This  and  begins  she  away f r o m  insertions  shed.  It  was  separates  the  shed.  i s then  sheds  the  into  i s the stick  t h a t the  with both  the p a t t e r n s t i c k  the w o r k i n g edge. threads  By are  t h e warp  the h e d d l e s  sword b e a t e r  grasped  hand  The  heddle and  of  then  the  grasps  threads weaver the  space  shed.  begins  until  the  threads  sword b e a t e r  This i s continued the  the  other warps.  This  so  left  to p u l l  the heddle  over,  loosens  weaver's  the  threads.  further  weaver, and  i n alternate  heddle  the weaver  The  been opened and  close to  shed,  other.  hand a l o n g  the  sword b e a t e r  the  sword b e a t e r b e h i n d  her  into  t o the  l l a m a bone.  between t h e warp  deeper  change  o f two  s c o r i n g a c r o s s t h e warp i n f r o n t  t o each  the warp t h r e a d s  heddle  shed  consists  hour o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d .  strings  shifts  section  that stretching unnecessarily  g i v e n below  curved  the  t h a t i s , the  a  t o a minimum.  t o change  heddle  inserts  then  inserted  ward  with  heddle  results  the  o t h e r by  to stick  o f the  h e l d by  a half  each  strings tend  with  beginning  from  kept  f r o n t w a r p beam a n d  t h e work a r e a ,  b e i n g woven, c l o s e t o the weaver, so forward  the  The  to  pull  can  entire  inserted.  hands  and p u l l e d  for-  that i s already i n  having  be  two  sticks  the  close to-  f o r c e d t o l i e s i d e by  side  -98-  in position.  T h i s makes t h e p a t t e r n p i c k - u p  threads  together while  stick  the weaver can free  the  score  threads  across  i n front  the  During p a t t e r n pick-up, shed-rod shed  shed  on  i t s p a r t n e r m u s t be  the  occurs  face while  the  the  shed  The  weaver uses  second  and  finger  the  first  the  threads.  a l o n g by way  a  thread  With  thumb a n d  sits  on  shed  weft  second  The  from  top  t o the  b e l o w w o u l d be  open.  The  sword b e a t e r ,  The  shuttle shed  and  on  the  two  right  to  shed,  and  weave  just  the w e f t  In the  same  now  shed  i s even.  The then  behind,  i n place.  u s i n g the  secure passed  the  shed  while  right  hand.  holds  the  edge t o h o l d  a g a i n s t the weft, i n the  The  i t is  t o the  on  of  picked.  threads,  hand  passed  (com-  through  thumb, t o  left  through  heddie  each s e c t i o n  has  the  the  appearing  t o p warp  i s turned  selvedge  from  o f each hand.  the  and  i s passed  forward  As  the p a t t e r n s t i c k  been s i t t i n g  i n the  i n this  o r h o l d i n g hand.  p i c k e d up  t h a t the  brought  forward  underlying  t h a t she  threads, with  completed  stick  the  bone p i c k  a pattern stick  under the  a g a i n s t the warp c r o s s t o p a c k  sword b e a t e r h e l d f l a t  the  reverse.  fingers  pattern stick  so  which has  the  thread of each p a i r  shed,  o f the  the p a t t e r n p i c k - u p  i s flattened  forward  first  i n the  fingers  a d j u s t e d i n the  stick  one  When a t h r e a d i s r e q u i r e d f r o m  complete p a t t e r n shed. the  with  the weaver s l i d e s  i s inserted  finger  the  from  under t h e warp p a t t e r n t h r e a d s the  with  thread t h a t i s dropped  p i c k e d up  other appears  t h e p a t t e r n i s p i c k e d up  i s being pulled  Pattern manipulation  i n pairs,  If  beater.  f o r each  b e l o w the'sword beater.  plementary)  sword b e a t e r  the warp t h r e a d s  o f the  much e a s i e r .  and  the  pattern removed. is  With  bone p i c k , the  brought the weaver  -99-  Figure  39  A staked  Figure  o u t loom, t h e weaver wears t r a d i t i o n a l  40  Weaver b e a t s  i n weft, using  bone  pick.  dress.  -100-  packs  the weft  i h tightly,  40).  She p u l l s  down h a r d  warp t h r e a d . and  plucks  leaves  threads, close over  Then she i n s e r t s  the p i c k  i n f r o n t o f t h e sworda  stick  across  preparatory  threads,  pulling  then replaces free  them  heddles,  The  new  weaver begins  the shed.  the heddle  stick,  the pick-up stick.  As e a c h  shed.  Once t h e w h o l e row h a s b e e n p i c k e d  the  second p a t t e r n  against  them.  of the weft.  With  a n d t h e warp  the heddle  threads  as  passing  s t r i n g s and t h e  i n s e r t e d , i n f r o n t o f the  stick  i n the shed,  I f t h e warp t h r e a d s  t h e bone p i c k ,  i s then replaced with  should  brought  stick,  t h e warp c r o s s  as p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d . stick.  stick  ready f o r  forward  p r e v e n t i n g the  t h e bone p i c k w o u l d h e l p  up a g a i n s t  a pattern  pattern  i n s e r t e d and p o s i t i o n e d ,  i s removed and t h e sword b e a t e r  hard  new  up t h e o r i g i n a l p a t t e r n  When t h e w e f t h a s b e e n  the sword b e a t e r  i n the  s e c t i o n o f warp p a t t e r n i s  i s inserted into this  from moving, s c o r i n g ' w i t h  i s b e a t e n down w i t h beater  stick  t h e warp c r o s s .  sword b e a t e r  stick  l e a v i n g the second p a t t e r n  passage  The  t o loosen the  f o r t h e n e x t row o f p a t t e r n  up t h e s e c o n d p a t t e r n  the  This  The s h e d r o d i s p l a c e d  i s carefully  picked  removed,  shed.  shed.  shed h e l d by the p a t t e r n  is  i n this  i n f r o n t o f the heddles  t o changing  The sword., b e a t e r  into this  beater  t o be i n s e r t e d i n t h e n e x t shed.  t h e warp,  each  taut.  the sword b e a t e r  t h e s h e d r o d a r e p u l l e d up a n d p a s t warps.  i n t h e warp ( f i g .  a g a i n s t t h e w e f t between  as p o s s i b l e behind  other  ridge  the pick  t h e swor.di b e a t e r  weaver s c o r e s  a small  with  a t t h e warp  A pattern  producing  separate  the weft The sword  The w e a v e r p u s h e s t h e  -Wi-  shed  r o d away f r o m t h e h e d d i e s t i c k .  she g r a d u a l l y behind  3.  up  a space and begins t o i n s e r t  i s an  town n e a r S i c u a n i ,  the Cuzco-Puno highway,  Indian  town, and  i t is little  Cuzco. the  is a delightful  from  route  about  a l t h o u g h on  visited  This p a r t i a l  the sword  by  stick  beater  because  from t o u r i s t  o f p r o f e s s i o n a l weavers  where the t r a d i t i o n a l and  for fiesta  only  campesino  wearing.  there  crafts.  observed weaving.  unrolled  the  l o o m s t o show w h a t t h e y w e r e d o i n g .  The  one  w e a v e r who  enough  four  works light  short  The p a i r s  inside f o r him  stakes which  The  t o s e e w h a t he have been  door i s l e f t i s doing.  driven  used i n the p r e p a r a t i o n  b a c k w a r p beam, a n d make a v e r y n a r r o w  the c l o t h working  on  area  from  as  into  several  f o r everyday i n Tinta,  but  the (fig.  Gerardo  wide  The  open  loom  the packed  o f the warp.  The  Gusman to l e t  earth  back  to  floor.  suggests that Both  and  i s tied  they  t h e warp on  f r o n t w a r p beam a r e r o l l e d 41).  in  a t a workshop  a man,  of stakes are spaced w i d e l y apart, which  a l s o be  rail  o t h e r s b r o u g h t o u t t h e i r work  o b s e r v e d a t w o r k was  h i s house.  Cuzco.  resulted  As w e l l  were v i s i t e d  was  He  has  artisan  one  Ramos.  from  of i t s distance  i s made, b o t h  S e v e r a l weavers  was  Vilcanota  drive  influence  i s an  costume  The  the  the Cuzco-Puno r o a d and  tourists,  seclusion  across  three hours  c o n t i n u a n c e o f much o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  families  may  the heddie  G e r a r d o Gusman Ramos  river  in  on  the h e d d l e s .  Tinta  It  clears  Pulling  up,  the to  w a r p beam i s l a s h e d  -102-  I  Figure  41  Horizontal cloth  staked  out  loom:  i t  shows  the  tie  cords  attached  beam.  Figure Pattern  42 pick  up:  the  weaver  holds  bone  pick  in  overhand  grip.  to  -10 3-  to  two  s t a k e s , b u t the  other  two  stakes which  weaver keeps from  f r o n t b'eam i s h e l d b y  a cloth  a r e some d i s t a n c e  on  the  contact with h i s clothing,  The  weaver works, s i t t i n g  the  loom.  The  shed  observed.  The  shed  sword b e a t e r  The  weaver used  pick,  overhand,  c r e a t e d on  a bone p i c k  t o do  i n his left  hand  inserts  t h e bone p i c k . up  until  the  stick  there  i s no p a t t e r n  shuttle  the p a t t e r n  and p u l l e d shed in  even  shed.  weft behind  a t the  There  The are  pattern  just  shuttle  up  The  As he  stick  of weft  the heddle  i n front  o f the He  was  stick  and  heddles. holds  completes  into  under  a  the  section  the p a t t e r n  shed  T h i s h o l d s t h e s e warp t h r e a d s s e p a r a t e . i n t h i s way, from  weft  one  i s passed  selvedges.  side  The  a  across the  t o the o t h e r .  through  the w e f t  shed  the p a t t e r n  the b e a t e r i s  the bone p i c k  t o pack the weft  which  i s worked i n a supplementary-warp  t h r e e main p a t t e r n bands.  Another  piece,  the  and  the  the  firmly.  is traditional pattern  by  held  inserted  t h e warp c r o s s  "rosas" pattern,  width,  shed  warp t h r e a d s p a s s i n g o v e r and  He  Where  forward against  weaver uses  working  working  through  and p a s t the h e d d l e s  I t i s then brought  T h i s w e a v e r was Tinta.  behind  The  i s white.  tucked i n  the p a t t e r n p i c k - u p .  the  reaches  The  colour  insertion  ( f i g . 42).  the p a t t e r n  stick.  that.  one  a r e a , the s t i c k passes  rod are brought  this  the background  shed  the  to protect i t  on h i s h e e l s w i t h h i s knees  i s i n the heddle  continues picking  by  since  cords to  away b e h i n d t h e w e a v e r .  rod i s i n place close  p a t t e r n p i c k - u p he  plied  edge o f t h e weaving  change p a t t e r n p i c k - u p and  the  of  front  two  to  weave.  same w e a v e r ,  -104-  in  t h e Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y ,  roses,  E.  a l s o i n supplementary-warp  Comparison  o f Weaving  Each weaver h a d a s l i g h t l y The  stick  Techniques  different  i n t o the pattern  were a l l t h e t h r e a d s a t h a t Octavia  approach  was  about  she c o u l d  hand i n t o the shed  the pattern  before  shed  comfortably  with  inserting  more c o m p l e x  to hold  a bone p i c k .  the p a t t e r n than  She p i c k e d  she  held.  into  As slid  weavers.  s t i c k was p u s h e d i n t o a n o t c h the pattern  She i n which  i n the other end s t i c k was e a s e d  shed.  up t h e t h r e a d s  i n t o the p a t t e r n  shed,  sequence  i n Lauramarka  (1975: 4 0 ) . A f t e r t h i s  making  band  H e r manoevre  t h e p o i n t o f t h e bone  A. Howe r e p o r t s  side,  finger  she p i c k e d  o u t by the other  t h e bone a l o n g  time.  up t h e e n t i r e p a t t e r n  the process.  stick.  while  a  These  i n s e r t e d the middle  speeding  pattern  a t each  that carried  the s h u t t l e s t i c k  then  handle  shed.  t h e weaver a t T i n t a p i c k e d  weavers  a t a time.  into the pattern  By p u s h i n g  the pattern  inserting  stick  The p a t t e r n  the pick.  pick-up.  gradually  the threads,  s e r t e d h e r arm i n t o t h e s h e d a n d g r a s p e d  of  i npattern  two i n c h e s  S i n c h i , the weaver a t Ollantaytambo,  of h e r l e f t  bands o f these  weave.  weaver a t Sacsahuaman used h e r f i n g e r s o n l y ,  pattern  up  U.B.C., shows s m a l l e r  i n s e r t e d the s h u t t l e s t i c k Whereas  a wide  Octavia  shed,  used  on t h e b o n e p i c k , h e  omitting  one s t e p a n d  t h e same p r o c e d u r e step  t h e o t h e r two  i n t o the shed h e l d  a wide p a t t e r n  f o r one s h e d  stick  open by the turned  t h e P i s a c woman a t S a c s a h u a m a n c o u l d  on i t s  n o t do  -105-  this, the  since  shuttle  the  tension  stick  on h e r  through  l o o m was  not  a s h e d made b y  adjustable.  She  a narrow diameter  passed  pattern  stick.  Although the to  there are s p e c i f i c  loom woven p i e c e s and a difference  Differences than  those  i n scale  of scale  the than  to a different  a r e more o b v i o u s  of Chinchero.  The  bands woven a t O l l a n t a y t a m b o stick.  Changing  torily  without  this  easier  at Chinchero.  as much as  patterns  The  at  not.  addition, This  the w i d t h  i n the weavings  of  Ollantaytambo  the heddle was  were n a r r o w e r  s h e d was  same way  as  and  find  be  f o r the  done b y  home w i t h h e r  f r o m home a n d h a d  difference  may  and  d i d not need  due  be  noted  in  the warp, S t e f a n i a  no  satisfac-  the  s t r i n g heddles  h a n d as  stick  used  shed  sticks  fact  the  shed  yarn of  the  seemed t o  that  one  with her.  sticks  a  Octavia Sinchi weaver  o t h e r w e a v e r was  tools  be  looms.  a t Sacsahuaman,without  l i e i n the  five  of  entirely  l a r g e r w e a v i n g s on t h e  s m a l l weaving  used  task  t o the k i n d  t h a t w h i l e the m a j o r i t y o f weavers worked w i t h Quispe  a  f o r I have woven s e v e r a l  equipment a t hand, w h i l e brought  were  done a t C h i n c h e r o .  accomplished quite  f a c t may  b u t whereas S t e f a n i a Quispe the  strings  a l t h o u g h i t s e e m e d t o make t h e  o f the band,  p a t t e r n p i c k - u p was  Here  weaving.  although this  latter  more  in  In the Chinchero weavings the heddle  i n the  bone p i c k , did  o f the  observed a t Chinchero  satisfactory. attached  stick,  t h e s e a r e due  on  approach  At Ollantaytambo  attached to a heddle  heddle  i n the technique used  f i n g e r woven p i e c e s ,  not  used  differences  which  two  was  away  I t should sheds  doubled  sticks as  -106-  pattern  sticks.  succeeding packing  Once a l l o f t h e s e w e r e p l a c e d a s p a t t e r n  sheds  Stefania  i n the weft with  w o r k e d w i t h two  Although  shed  this  warp w e a v e — i t  then began t o i n s e r t the  study  s h o u l d be  i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h one noted  the  summary  o f the  any  due  said  as  While  used  that  difference  several  d e p e n d s on  shed  i n s p e e d was The  estimated  that  the  months  (Bird,  a minimum.  sticks,  i t took him  1968:  the p a r t  weaves.  It  the  o f the  she  d i d not  shed  always  i n this took  and  each  f o r the  twenty  days  Weaving s t e p s had  this  so.  She real  daughter's  speed:  Gusman  t o weave a p a t t e r n e d o f from  three to s i x  o b v i o u s l y been reduced  O c t a v i a S i n c h i worked w i t h o u t equipment such but  do  are  Stefania  m a n n e r b u t no  over her  more c o n c e r n e d w i t h  about  technique of  o f the weaver.  with Goodell's reports  15).  3 equipment..  previously  loom s e t - u p , o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e s  but  and b e a t e r i n the narrow weavings, available  i n the weaving  o b s e r v e d when s h e  T i n t a w e a v e r was  poncho, i n comparison  methods  i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e warp  i t made t h e work go more q u i c k l y  weaving.  Sonia,  technique—complementary-  o f the weaving  the s e p a r a t i o n  more t o p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e on  Quispe  daughter,  during pattern pick-up that  there are d i f f e r e n c e s  of the weft  shed,  colours.  the weavers observed.  passage  Her  to other r e l a t e d warp-patterned  w o u l d o c c u r , as w e l l  arrangement  In of  that  i n the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f the warps  differences  stick.  i n each  in  sticks.  described would apply a l s o is  next p a t t e r n  the weft  sticks  was  no  doubt  as due  shed  to  sticks  to lack  of  -107-  These research.  a r e t h e c o m p a r i s o n s made p o s s i b l e b y a few weeks o f They p o i n t o u t t h e v a l u e  understanding observed, properly  a weaving t r a d i t i o n .  the p a r t i c u l a r s  o f the comparative  field  approach f o r  H o w e v e r , u n t i l more w e a v e r s a r e  of personal  choice  i n w e a v i n g c a n n o t be  evaluated.  I f o u n d i n my own w e a v i n g s t h a t i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o p a c k t h e w e f t a s f i r m l y by h a n d a c t i o n w i t h o u t t h e a i d o f a wooden b e a t e r . The f i n i s h e d p i e c e d e f i n i t e l y l o o k e d l o o s e r and l e s s compact.  -108-  CHAPTER 6  LEARNING AND  The a  children  different  an  cultural  on  first  how  with  made i n t h e  tradition  finally  the weaving  for learning  from  one  Eventually ments t o be  learn  adults  learning  own  allowed  before  was  expected The shed  one  i t was  discouraged  noted  to watch  from  to s i t q u i e t l y who  r o d which had  was  by  i s g i v e n o f my  by  as  any  these  watching there  i s allowed that  on  in  traditions deals  observations  experiences Peruvian  as  child  techniques  t o do  although  their  to  are  elders.  certain  a l l the  While  children  E v e n O c t a v i a ' s own  about  the  He  a  eleven or  twelve  of  little  was  d i d most o f the replacement  very  Their  child,  h i m s e l f i n the work.  to help with  and  the  t h e work i n p r o g r e s s .  w a t c h , w h i c h he  o u t , was  require-  anything.  t h e weaver a t work, none o f  involving and  i n which  t o weave, b a s e d  same way  both  differences  This chapter  of adapting  to touch  allowed  dropped  next.  As  in  culture.  f i n g e r s w e r e p u s h e d away.  child  America.  i n t h e way  to help, but  a child  y o u n g c h i l d r e n were a l l o w e d  boy,  i n the  the p r o c e s s  o f my  crowded around  curious  learn  t o weave i n P e r u  are  ollantaytambo  also  Then a d e s c r i p t i o n  tradtion  met  o f North  g e n e r a t i o n t o the  I deal with  they  that  and  Peruvian children  field.  Children  from  l e a r n weaving  a weaver I must a p p r e c i a t e t h e s e  a p p r e n t i c e weaver,  and  in  and  implications  are passed  an  o f the Andean h i g h l a n d s o f P e r u  a r t educator  their  INSTRUCTION  time. the  years o l d .  -109-  She  was t h e e l d e s t o f t h e g i r l s  she  was t o d o , h o l d i n g  was p i c k e d of  time,  up.  ready  on t o t h e s h e d  She was e x p e c t e d to slide  shed, underneath sorted  o u t and p i c k e d  s h e was g o i n g  up a g a i n .  to help  more w i d e l y  Later  spread  Most o f T o m a s i n a s 1  around  workshop.  While  Octavia  on t h e l i t t l e  girl,  d i d n o t mean  s h e was  the shed r o d t o space i t by t h e w e f t .  prepared  and t e c h n i q u e s , with  a s m a l l warp t o T o m a s i n a was o n c e  the preparation.  t o pass  t h e warp  o f f t o one s i d e a  f o r the current  section.  length  Despitetthe '  s h e was n o t i n v o l v e d i n thei a c t u a l  would have  assisting  i n much t h e same way  a s s i s t e d i n a medieval  not e s s e n t i a l t o the process,  made t h e w e a v i n g a l i t t l e  and p a i n s t a k i n g l y  Once o r t w i c e  or of holding  She was o n l y  a young a p p r e n t i c e  period  she s a t by t h e weaver,  consisted of helping  t h a t Tomasina gave  warping o f the yarn. that  done.  f o r the p u l l - i n  the end s t i c k s ,  slowly  However, t h i s  as a s s i s t a n t and h e l p  tasks  r o d shed  further i n t o the  point  Instead  t h e warp a l o n g  t h a t was n o t r e q u i r e d  assistance  From t h i s  weaving.  the shed  by f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e  t h a t had been  a variety of patterns t o serve  while  gradually  i n t h e d a y when S e n o r a O c t a v i a  more a l l o w e d  of yarn  stick  t h a t was b e i n g  and compensate  demonstrate  thread  stick  as an a s s i s t a n t .  to start  watching everything permitted  the shed  I t was i n d i c a t e d t o h e r w h a t  t o stand  t h e warp t h r e a d s  T o m a s i n a , was a c c e p t e d that  there.  Tomasina's  guild assistance  easier.  d i d not explain nor describe  Tomasina o r h e r i n t e r e s t e d audience.  w h a t s h e was d o i n g  I f questions  to either  were a s k e d she  -110-  would answer, but verbal  explanation  understand later  she  helping.  being  done  i t d i d not  watched  and  expected  to  figure  the  time  was  told  as  a result  stayed and  watching  lost  at  long after  t h a t h e l p was  a l l times her  was  In Peru, to p u l l interest  l e a r n t o weave. can  necessary  f o r her  father,  mother,  to  weaver.  a  In Chinchero, about  five  called  but  away b y  learn  Tomasina  to help.  Some  In  only  of  fact  was  Tomasina  lost  interest  h e l p i n g when i t . was  this  particular  She  i t was her  little  t h e i r weight with  girl  old.  She  has  will so,  things f o r her  member o f  Senora S t e f a n i a Ouispe  she  had  continue  with  They are  expected  work t h a t needs t o be h a v e no so  be  there  sent  learn gradually,  In order  some o t h e r  because  indulged.  would not  would  not  f a m i l y to  any  f a m i l y do  h e l p i n g a l l the  t o know.  years  would  extent  c h i l d r e n had  sat quietly,  c h i l d r e n are  aunt or  She  not  l e a r n i n g t h a t took p l a c e  other  A young g i r l  by  best  did  any  required.  family for training. then  a certain  the  She  to o f f e r  child  matter.  observations.  None o f h e r  learn.  I f the  own  She  chores.  be  Any  interest.  w a t c h i n g and  was  what t o do.  child's  To  necessary  f o r h e r s e l f how  Tomasina a l s o l e f t ,  whom s h e the  out  Ultimately  Despite to  the  assisted.  moved away t o p l a y .  indicated  her  of  i t was  girl  was  she  feel  to the  w h a t was  i f she  d i d not  to  i s no  one  first  learned  from  outside  from  considered  l e a r n t o weave,  the  t r e a t e d her  opportunity  t o someone  t h a t i t was  done.  f a m i l y would  t o s p i n when  c h i l d r e n i n the  her  have  she same  -Ill-  way.  The  e l d e r two  is  learning  of  age  on  (grade  previously.  girls  a miniature  Originally allowed  Tomasina d i d .  Sonia  for sale  used  on  i s quick  tourists  t o weave up learning such  as  t o weave a n y t h i n g  The  several fine  ponchos and  spent  a b o u t two  order  to learn  youngest her  own  one; was  own  s a t on  her  the  the  giving  drop  other  these  another  work and  directions design.  take  over  bands  for  cloths  the  thick The  these  Sonia  would has  narrow  not  belts.  t h a t were a r o u n d  permitting, Sonia  ground near  two  the  while  The one;  to her  beside  she  At  daughter,  daughter's  the  her  mother  mother and  Sonia  listened  manipulated  the  In  ( f i g 43).  the  d i r e c t i o n s were etc.  and  I was_in Chinchero.  her mother  worked.  Periodically her  and  to those which  than  she  as  t o work w i t h .  similar  larger  count,  three; l i f t  months  t h i n g s , much  narrow b e l t s  weaving, while  f o r t h e p a t t e r n p i c k up. one,  simple  years  mother w h i l e  a poncho o r manta.  p r o p p e d up  thread  twelve  mother.  the  a b a b y , was  youngest  t o weave a few  simple  are  chores  e a c h day  devices while  lift  away on  Sonia  child,  mother g i v i n g threads  hours  other  aged about  came t o C h i n c h e r o  carrying  were t h e work o f S o n i a ' s  the  a r e made o f h a n d s p u n  and  been a l l o w e d  and  who  These b e l t s  a larger piece  Time, weather  the  b e g a n h e r w e a v i n g on  to the  while  would have watched h e r  yet  place  Sonia,  learning  to help with  p a t t e r n s w h i c h S o n i a was be  spindle.  she  Sundayy m o r n i n g market. wool,, w h i c h  learned to spin,  6 i n s c h o o l ) , began  worked, b e i n g  t h a t were  have  The  left to  to  her  the  warp  simple:  drop  same t i m e  S t e f a n i a was  she  working  mother would p u t  weaving to c o r r e c t  that  a  down  her  mistake,  -112-  Figure  44  S'acas: Sonia"s weaving d e s i g n o f t h e d e s i g n i n a b e l t by h e r  (a.), while mother.  (b.) shows a n e l a b o r a t i o n  -113-  or  to f i n d  she  out  could not  how see  S o n i a was tools  i n the  fashion  as  picked  same way  t h e w a r p was  h e l d by  addition  recorded  the weaving  to rock  d i d not  y e t have  t e n s i o n was  difference to a  front  a metal  the beater  was.  i n the  string o f her  stake  also  that her  that  even.  around her The  her  mother  for Sonia.  cardigan.  that her  as  her  same  control  not  s e t up  tied  i n the  the  o c c a s i o n a l mistakes  to  Chinchero  enthusiastic band.  most o f  Instead  waist,  other  mother had  I was  asked  the  senora  photographs,  then  asked  the  senora  children I was  After  two  Sonia's  end  of  hammered  into  a t work,  which  also  what c o l o u r s I would immediately  and  her  i n my  green  eyes,  c o l o u r schemes can  would be  seen  like  were  i n the wider  for  Whereas  white,  colours.  to a  my  very  b r o w n and  border  seem d r a b  Upon  obvious.  daughter  f o r the  the  observation  t o weave.  s i x c o l o u r s , I chose dark  added r e d and  given  days o f  to learn  d i f f e r e n c e s were  least  attractive  Peruvian  and  i f I would l i k e  r e s p o n s e . I was  using at  t h e weavers and  t o weave m y s e l f .  t h e b a n d s woven b y  band although Typical  learn  slides  Here c u l t u r a l  colourful, to which  to observing  i n notes,  opportunity  my  the  to the  stage  the p a t t e r n , i f  ground.  In  at  she  c o r r e c t e d , the  pinned  come w i t h  a t what  trying  t h e work a t t a c h e d  w e a v i n g was  I  and  a slight  had  mother's weaving a c t i o n s , h o l d i n g  so as w e l l as  T h e r e was  the  a glance  mother, b u t  b a c k and  of having  with  daughter  copying her  her  mother had,  f a r her  My  Peruvian. weavings  of  -114-  each o f the weavers  My She  she  instruction  prepared  asking  observed.  the  began  began w i t h  i t e x a c t l y as  described earlier,  occasional question. the weaving.  I was  complete p a t t e r n r e p e a t had to  t i e a r o u n d my  of  the  ready was  string  important  allowed  a  few  actual  weaving. fair  I s a t and  I continued  to begin  been worked.  waist before  to exert a  the  i n the  t o w a r d s me  to  observe,  given  the  moments w r i g g l i n g and  I was  comfortably  I discovered very  o f t h e warp t h r e a d s  watched,  weaving u n t i l  T h e n I was  amount o f t e n s i o n on  threads  it  looked,  found  stick  stick. to copy of  one  work  a  retying  p o s i t i o n e d and early  that i t  the warp.  This  f o r the p a t t e r n p i c k  threads,  gradually pulling  stick  to loosen  This techniques  any was  b u t when I d i d manage t o m a s t e r  I could not  i f I h e l d the further  shed apart.  the  shed  the  much e a s i e r .  not  stick  b r i n g the at a very  shed  as  and  shed  stick  action  tendency  the  easy  across threads  t o do  as  i t somewhat b e t t e r I  I also  body w e i g h t backwards t o i n c r e a s e the  otherwise  threads  I opened  the weaver's thumb-scraping  the  together.  instructor  While  t h a t i t made t h e p r o c e s s  l e a n my  helped  shed  in front  to  had  a c t i o n s o f my  I tried  showed  the  not  while  band.  easier.  slipped  to  the  Then w h i l e  I t took  the m a n i p u l a t i o n  Copying  the  waist.  a r o u n d my  to begin  makes e v e n up  S t e f a n i a m a k i n g t h e w a r p f o r my  that I  t e n s i o n on  stick  slight  found  any  the  had warp  further.  angle, which  held  It  -115-  Already,  within  that  were  obvious  very  minor  not  details,  difference by  actually  There  were  observed indeed some i t  doing  the  these done.  action, I  had  but  a  curious  two  do  of  things  which  at  i t  small  that  I  the  I  no  like  point  had idea  seemed I  seem  of  such in  why  were  they  came  not  It  is  as  done,  asked  that  that  the  only  emerges.  my n o t e s  When  up w i t h  obvious  the  facts  recorded  points  like  that  weaver.  respond  might  several  may  this  habits.  only  often  done  like  competent  bad  could I  a  learned  These  importance  that  myself  being  and  had  weaver  that  watched  in  looked  i t  had  is  them.  doing  I  alone.  actions  the  moments  mediocre  them  things By  not  i t  few  observation  something  weaver  or  f i r s t  from  between  other  one  of  was  the i f  lies  the  I  and about  was  how  reason  for  and  sensible.  have  thought  However, of  i t  for  myself.  Continuing for  the  weft had on  rocking  was  packed  done,  no  with and  matter  warp  while  motion  that  the  weft.  Immediately  to  figure  g i r l  I  who was  t e l l i n g  me  I  to  out  I  on  motion  could  not  I  beat  weft  the  had  the  to  drop  from  weave or  of  i n . the  the  pass  then  the i t  as  Then  I  to  the  as as  beating  reason  the  previous  the  increase  remembered  when  senora the  the  tension  rocking  down  the.  easier.  pattern part  beater  tightly  backwards  was  pick  already  senora  over  found out  shed  beater  the  the  I  pack  process  stage  my o w n  of  leaned  given  whole  the  learning l i f t ,  lesson,  how m u c h  senora  reached  i t  scraping  down.  the  When  my w e a v i n g  each  called thread  up  I  was  woven. out  As  the  from  not  l e f t  with  the  directions,  one  hand  to  -116-  the I  other.  did  her  While  in fact  own  pick  estimate b a c k was  it  was  with and  and  together the  design.  they  by  the  length  the  of  young g i r l  her  own  mistakes  and  i s inherent  for three  to  s t r u c t u r e , but  i n the  five then  c o r r e c t them, s h e  the  constant  structure of  the  tied  agreed  by  that  the  of  by  the  is  older  a  weaver  designs  the  by  Once  familiar pattern  begins  on  designs,  repetition.  weave.  rows o f w e f t p i c k s , w i t h o u t i t m u s t be  time  a  new  complex.  to each of the  that  previous  many t i m e s a n d  more  enough.  instructor.  her  through  of  had  from the  learns  further assistance with  progression  I had  learned  n e e d s no  logical  daughter.  role  the  she  is a  with  t o me  traditional  proportions  l a r g e r and  continue  time.  that  s o m e t i m e s be  that  end  given  t h e m s e l v e s by  design  see  her  young weaver l e a r n s  A  to  t o S t e f a n i a she  verbal d i r e c t i o n s of the  the  the  d i d not  done w i t h  h o u r , and  forms and  repeated  becomes a p p a r e n t  floats  A  closely  indicated that  f o r any  unchanged.  gradually logic  had  then  were t a u g h t The  virtually  T h i s may  There  and  a p i c t u r e of  them, f o l l o w i n g t h e  spot  she  She  from i n f o r m a t i o n  community.  young weaver has  can  as  of weaving  o f weavers.  i t , so  w a t c h e d me  When I i n d i c a t e d t h i s  w e a v e r s , e x a c t l y as  the  repeat,  experience  I pieced  p a s s e d on  she  c o r r e c t threads.  same t i m e  a common r e s u l t  generation  this  I wove f o r a b o u t an  learning within  weaving  the  the  aching.  From t h i s  are  doing  pattern  that  my  senora,  up  weaving a t  I wove one I  I was  down a g a i n  by  A warp  and  this  Part  of  thread  s e r i o u s l y weakening the  weft.  This  -117-  sets  certain limits  along with  the  diagonals,  length up  diagonal,  by  of  the  small  pebbled  as  to  the  pattern.  or  i n the  i n s'acas  warp f l o a t s ,  splashes  effect,  of  w h i c h may  form o f  solid  second  be  used  the  patterns  horizontal lines  ( f i g 45).  the  the  Generally  Here  of  the  i n order reversed  colour.  This  interspersed to  control  shapes  creates  for entire motifs  develop  a  i s broken two  and  the  colour,  the  the  colour,  contrasting  ground.  In designs ment o f on  the  this  the  design  diagonal,  The pieces.  of  woven b y  into  a  any  the  of  of  arrangement o f  small  more c o m p l e x d e s i g n of  designs  i n the  can  learned  s'acas Here  be  seen  may  occurs  the  diamond  sense of  areas  recur  shapes, the  small  forms.  the  that at  initial  appendix.  the  repeat,  has first  design  to  A l l of  weave s t r u c t u r e .  later  repeat  f a m i l i a r i t y with  from her  elements  i n the  i n a more o r n a t e  simple  develop-  larger  form  been  in  a  incorporated  s i g h t , do  ( f i g 4 4) .  not The  r  weaving p a t t e r n s , the  complexities  will of  pattern.  Because weavers strong  of  r e l a t i o n s h i p to  lead Sonia  mother's  solid  natural limitations  designs  mother.  T h i s method o f  a  these  series of  developing  eventually  the  design  her  complex  seem t o b e a r slowly  by  simple  Sonia's  belt  have  i n t o l a r g e r and  some o f  first  not  a r i s e s out  i s occasioned  Examples  her  t h a t do  learning results  l e a r n by  tendency  to  heart  the  in a  designs  standardization of  specific i f other  design  approach weavers,  elements,  to  to  design.  there the  is  extent  -118-  that  each  village the  or  any  the  those  rather  In  an  had  doubled  than  to  close  region, are  of  each  This in  sufficiently  other  by  those  point  to  a  pointed  out of  of  weavers.  other  the  are  slight,  of  the  of  a  based  twenty  and  not  the in  a  threads.  necessitated  change  the  say  In  by  one  similarity  of  design  style, them  but  to  them.  be  Thus,  Ollantaytambo, is  from  Kwillyo,  within  the  the  i t s e l f ,  is  others may  weaver  will  be  are  felt  in  a  localized  the  designs  form  Cuzco  is  which be  each  someone  Ollantaytambo which  which  village.  differentiated  in  this of  within  in  which  rearrangement  village  while  the  weaver  threads,  nonetheless,  Kwillyo,  one  a  affect  motif.  that  of  for  textile  to  to  While  design  influences  regional  with  warp  to  themselves.  1968:15)  sixty  within  known  tend  new  the  others.  be  elements  (Bird  on  the  w i l l  and  of  weaver  ideas  completely  Goodell  and  new  design  influenced  and  town.  occur  is  familiar  distance  weaver  community and  the  one  belonging  distinct  that  of  as  the  textile  influence  everyone  results  effect  did  Each  the  design,  i t  by  typical  belongs.  use  by  hundred  of  as  not  design  the  to  proximity,  another.  do  reported  one  recognisable  may  placing  a  weaver  sphere  invention  elements,  Naturally, in  the  recognizable  devised  they  the  the  the  that  learned  width  internal  s t i l l  or  adapted  which  though  changes  had  the  to  clearly  pattern  instance  originally  the  even  is  within  in  proportions,  whole,  she  comes  changes  others,  However,  article  community  community  Thus the  woven  i t  within able  the  w i l l  w i l l  be  walking work  -119-  O'Neale art  tradition,  California, kind  details,  that of  notes  still  be  f o r the  clearly  expressed  be  To  group as  with  a s we  the  peoples  t o change  change,  conforming designs. as  is  the  the  to the  standards  designs  design,  (O'Neale  not  and  only  designs, which Any  form.  are  necessary In  essence,  within  the  for generations.  Yurok-Karok  1932:98).  have as the  literal  same, w i t h  a  prohibition  each  generation  s m a l l c h a n g e s b e i n g made i n  Thus, the  entirely  must  they  i t is  maintained of the  static.  o f p a t t e r n bands and  and  individuality  i n which  c h a n g e s h a v e b e e n made, t h e y  tradition.  whatever  i s accepted  f o r the p r e s s u r e  law  any  elaboration of  traditional  s e t and  to  Thus,  subtle variation  seems t o b e  e l e m e n t s w i t h i n e a c h b a n d on  By  the  t h e way  Indian  w e a v e r s may  tradition  remaining  f o r a widening  The  1932:98).  in their  a g a i n s t the  effect  Once t h e s e  than  of  and  kind of  designs  the  Peruvian  p a r t o f the  rather  (O'Neale  know i t , i s l a c k i n g ,  i t i s actually  against  form  choice of designs  Indeed,  the  the  slight.  literate  northwestern  opposed  designs.  n o v e l t y t h a t i t g i v e s t o the  to conform to  While  change  non  weavers o f  i n v e n t i o n o f new  appreciate this  familiar  originality  the  recognisable  i n the  another  conservative attitude  i s done i s v e r y  which does n o t  combined.  on  the Yurok-Karok basket  a smiliarly  of design  appreciated  to  i n a r e p o r t which d e a l s with  o f change, i n c l u d i n g  alteration  is  (1932),  designs The an  i n t u r n are  evolve  the  passed  continuously  current trend this  elaboration of  the  century,  design  t h e women's m a n t a s .  learning within a very  structured design  tradition  each  weaver,  -120-  whatever h e r a b i l t i e s , which in  sahe  non  In this  artist  does  familiar.  o f a design,  context  there  as t h e designs  quality  still  something accepted  limitations.  to all.  standards  with  planning  problem, which  Weaving p l a y s until of  took  place  o f the t r a d i t i o n , solving  process  and ,  o f as  of creation,  i n h e r head.  an i n p o r t a n t r o l e  recently, i t provided  a role  H e r d e s i g n was new a n d  f o r the e n t i r e  the only  i n Andean v i l l a g e clothing.  manufactured m a t e r i a l s and c l o t h i n g ,  plays  s o c i e t y where,  Despite  traditional  the a v a i l a b i l i t y  handweaving  still  i n the campesino's wardrobe, p r o v i d i n g a form o f s e l f  identification her  w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s  t o comprehend,  1968:15),  she s o l v e d e v e n t u a l l y by an  o f much c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g a n d p r o b l e m  and s o l u t i o n  t o produce  u s e d i n t h e p a t t e r n band, h a d .  acceptable  that i s hard  use the  The w e a v e r p r e v i o u s l y r e f e r e d t o ( B i r d  design  and the  i s new a n d i n n o v a t i v e w i t h i n t h e  innovative,  order  involved  Where t h e d i f f e r e n c e  the t r a d i t i o n ,  and rearrangement o f the elements.  the r e s u l t  with  between the a r t i s t  elaboration  was  i s no s t r e s s  the c r e a t i v e weaver w i l l  t h e number o f w a r p t h r e a d s  a difficult  vocabulary  a n d r e t a i n h e r r e p u t a t i o n as a  are available  i n conformity  t h a t by l o c a l  doubling  tackled  working  there  i s no s c h i s m  show i s i n t h e way i n w h i c h  designs,  Thus  a design  so t h a t even an u n c r e a t i v e weaver can  a work o f a n a c c e p t a b l e  weaver.  by  i s completely  the s e l e c t i o n  produce  g r a d u a l l y develops  with  one's  community.  s t a t u s i n t h e community,  still  good a s p i n n e r  and weaver she i s .  in  i ti s s t i l l  h e r weaving  A woman's r e p u t a t i o n , a n d h e n c e  rests  to a certain  H o w e v e r much  extent  on how  j o y a woman may  n u m b e r e d among t h e o t h e r  daily  take  and s e a s o n a l  -121-  chores  f o r which  The cycle  she  i s responsible.  n a t u r a l way  i n which  s p i n n i n g and  of  life  i s r e i n f o r c e d by  duced to  i t .  While  the  way  weaving  i n which  a mother weaves, h e r  fits  into  c h i l d r e n are  baby w i l l  be  m o t h e r and  gradually small  elder sister  immersed  child  can  help  and  this  for  their  two  younger s i s t e r s ,  sent  out  involved may  the  i n the  as  burrs  labour.  of  The  and  The  gradual  as  adults, gives  necessary vival  f o r the  skills  Among t h e of  next  Navaho t h e r e weaving  of  provide  giving a  the  generation  i s this  shorn  very  fleece,  Sonia s 1  they  may  be  the  day.  While  the  older  ones  culture in this  taskes  will  tradition-  identification  stability expected  experience  culture.  of  1977).  order.  them  the  I t provides  immersion  Kahlenberg  and  that i s  I t p a s s e s on  need.  same g r a d u a l  ( B e r l a n t and  a community  sense o f  c h i l d r e n i n the  transmission  a  responsibility  age,  p l a y , but  near  is  Even  older, like  sheep, d u r i n g  a c o n t i n u i t y o f l e a r n i n g and  t h a t the  s p i n n i n g and  the  placed  bands"''.  textiles  c o n t i n u i t y among g e n e r a t i o n s , on  from the  school  a r t from the  and  immersion  the  of  up  grows she  taking f u l l  y o u n g e r o n e s may  separation  oriented society.  dirt  t o do,  to guard  the  child  of production.  and  n e i t h e r o f whom a r e  task,  the  When s l i g h t l y  s p i n o r weave b e l t s  i s no  As  stages  expected  shepherdesses,  s i t and  ally  remove t h e  of the  in this  There  various  c h i l d r e n are  share  ( f i g 44).  daily  intro-  propped  n e a r b y , w a t c h i n g a l l t h a t i s h a p p e n i n g , much a s N a n c i was her  the  i n the  a  sursense  learning  -122-  of  order,  those  and by d e f i n i n g r o l e s  roles  i t maintains  for  generations.  the  children  child is  already  Researcher  The one.  Peruvian  by t a k i n g notes  tradition,  to record.  to evaluate  This  did  another  needed a d e t a i l e d  spending  practice. notes.  To p a s s  including of  o f the process,  anomaly  with the  culture.  when  by our a b i l i t y  this  to  to retain  (1967:i)  some p h o t o g r a p h s  tradition  I partially  the information v i s u a l l y ,  t o one  weaving process, but  a c q u i r i n g the s k i l l s  an o r a l  refers  I  understand."  weaver would  have  b y o b s e r v a t i o n and  information  i n f o r m a t i o n on t o o t h e r s  and c o n v e r t  standpoint  "our r e c o g n i t i o n o f c u l t u r a l  as a P e r u v i a n  the d e t a i l e d  I am  but i t i s indicative of  record of the Peruvian  several years  one w h i c h  f r o m one c u l t u r a l  Collier  and v i s u a l  I am w o r k i n g w i t h i n  the Peruvian  i s insoluble,  t o s t a y and s t u d y  In order  descriptions  adulthood,  group.  o f t h e p r o b l e m when h e s t a t e s t h a t  n o t have time  done,  into  i s v e r y much a n o r a l  r a t h e r than  that occur  phenomena i s c o n t r o l l e d  I  to the family  weaving t r a d i t i o n  some o f t h e p r o b l e m s  aspect  work r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o  as P a r t i c i p a n t  my own c u l t u r a l  try  of full  a smoother passage  important  In a sense,  trying  giving  f u n c t i o n i n g a s a p r o d u c t i v e member whose c o n t r i b u t i o n  economically  The  the future adults f o r  t h e s t a t u s quo o f t h e s o c i e t y a s i t h a s b e e n  The g r a d u a l  provides  and f i t t i n g  I h a d t o make  I h a v e t o w r i t e down t h e  into  aliterary  one.  compensate by p r e s e n t i n g  t h a t c a n n o t be s o w e l l p r e s e n t e d  By some  i n words,  -12 3--  but  d e s c r i p t i o n s are  T h r o u g h my across  from  culture, aspects  as of  effects.  experience own  of  culture,  participant.  By  doing  Small  by  the  cutting  role  t h a t are  the of  of observer,  not  techniques the  second  colour area, but  down t h e  they  in colour.  harder  t o weave a s i m p l e  t o weave an  the  Peruvian  same way,  spun y a r n ,  because I am  simple,  yarn  very  and  tightly,  tendency  to  the  changes  shed  By of  stick  practice  technique  also  are broken  aware o f t h e  strengthen  up  and  Peruvians  to the  By  finished counter  neighbouring  an  certain area  the using  visually  a  into  i t is  colours.  not.  the  difference  I t i s not  more d u r a b l e the  are  to  Oddly enough, i t i s  I h a v e woven w i t h  makes t o 'the w e a v i n g p r o c e s s . longer wearing  obvious  p a t t e r n i n s e v e r a l c o l o u r bands than  that look  of  to accomplish  a p p a r e n t l y more c o m p l e x p a t t e r n i n o n l y two  Sometimes, d e s i g n s  In  changes  Peruvian  learned  l e n g t h o f t h e warp f l o a t s .  smaller  the  stepped  colour i n a large solid  areas  through  I have  needed  I have  to the  necessarily  w a r p i n many c o l o u r s , l a r g e d e s i g n areas,  illustrations.  t o weave i n P e r u ,  Through p a r t i c i p a t i o n  I learn  up  t o accompany t h e  learning  i n the  scatterings  c o l o u r , break  structure  necessary  the weaving p r o c e s s  observer.  of  my  still  -  just  tightly  t h a t the  a matter  garment. some o f  By  twisted,  tight  twist  of getting twisting  a  the  the wools n a t u r a l  lengths of yarn,  which  makes  easier.  I am the  gradually beginning inherent limitations.  t o comprehend To  date  the  versatility  m o s t o f my  weaving  -124-  has  been o f narrow bands,  skill by  t h a t my  not having  until  I have  freely their  adapt  the  designs  Unlike draft  designs  the  But  I may  go.  to gain  the  tools  decisions  learnt  beside the  with  on  understand  my  own  One  paper,  and  how  the  time  and  the  and  able  There  w e a v e r s made  I have  is basically  are  to  t o become  and  how  I now  familiar  two  with  directions  cultural  paper  original  have the  in  tradition  established limitations  o f how  freely  practice.  the m a t e r i a l s are  d e s i g n p r o b l e m s and  i n h e r e n t i n the  t o be  changes,  t o move a r o u n d  sufficiently  accepting their  also  thread  s i t down w i t h p e n c i l this  of weaving  the  elements, able  kind  i n my  Peruvian  i n v o l v e s working w i t h i n the  a better understanding  that are  out  In o r d e r  take  I can  development.  w e a v e r s and  used,  calling  design  This w i l l  weavers  graph  me  handicapped  t h e p a t t e r n s t o be  myself.  Peruvian  to a c q u i r e the  I am  steps.  e v e n t u a l l y I hope t o be  to begin  Peruvian  order and  the  a design  t o work.  sitting  i n n o v a t i o n s i n the  familiar  time  demonstrated.  t h e p a t t e r n s and  changes and  within  which  a weaver thoroughly  sufficiently  to  instructor  f o r i t takes  of  in  prepared  aesthetic  production of  similar  articles.  . By f a c e d by  this  artists  participation American (Holm or other  approach  working  approach  Indian  I gain a better understanding i n as o r a l  i s becoming  tradition. increasingly  This  imitative  a r t object, i n order  the  problems  practical,  important  a r t s t u d i e s , where i t i s r e f e r r e d  ,that i s , the  of  in  North  t o as " a r t e f a k i n g "  making o f a c a r v i n g , b a s k e t ,  to b e t t e r understand  not  o n l y how  weaving i t  -125-  was  made, a n d t h e t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m s t h a t w e r e  more a b o u t t h e a e s t h e t i c s manufacturing  i n a discussion  an " a r t e f a k e r " ,  consistent  o f the a r t e f a c t i n the context  f o r each  notes  artist  Secondly, working with using  them i n a way  cultural point,  within  cultures a  works w i l l  which  This  that  traditions.  and p r o v i d e d  finished  the pieces  Cohodas  composition  from P e r u v i a n personal  are there  expression  am more  and w i t h i n  The  i n m i n d when l o o k i n g The p a i n t i n g s  I  my  am  own  decisions  the  o f the a r t i s t i c  culture  t o t h e works o f  other  and used  that  to African sculpture, inherent  o f A f r i c a n masks.  Picasso while  i n the carved Picasso  t h e m i n h i s own  the s t r i c t  n a t u r e o f t h e weave  more  as a s t a r t i n g  artistic  as  r e t a i n i n g some  extracted  original  produced  m a s k s , do n o t w h a t he w a n t e d  way.  o f another  a w a r e o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d e s i g n s a n d how  developed within  much  designs,  t o be u s e d  makes h e r own  was  (1979)  they employed.  Through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the weaving t r a d i t i o n I  o f the  lives.  the e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s  from  elements  i s entirely  for inspiration.  copies  design  the techniques  b e an u n i q u e  must be b o r n  like  that  than  the a r t i s t  the a r t i s t  look  o f Washoe b a s k e t r y ,  The i d e a s  r e s u l t o f h i s exposure  of  but also  culture.  Similarly, himself  involved,  they  culture  c a n be  l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by the P e r u v i a n s .  i t s e l f and t h e v e r s a t i l i t y  of i t s structure  -126-  become more a p p a r e n t practice.  A complete  a s I become more exploration  weave a n d t h e l o o m p e r m i t , been able  to give,  still  but I find  familiar  with i t , through  o f t h e many p o s s i b i l i t e s requires  the future  more t i m e  than  developments  t h a t the  I have y e t  exciting.  -127-  CHAPTER  7  CONCLUSION  We  have  seen  in prehistoric techniques.  With  As  the  times with  were d e v e l o p e d material.  that  the  by  Peruvian t e x t i l e the  advent  floating  introduction  tradition  o f t w i n i n g and  o f loom weaving, p a t t e r n i n g  warp t h r e a d s a c r o s s the  o t h e r weaving  the e a r l y textile fine  C l o s e r study Spanish  traditions,  as  pieces 1978,  seen  and  and  group  thousandn  tapestries, clothing  textiles  as e l i t e  i n the  that while  to culture  group,  of t r a d i t i o n  field  the  d u r i n g my  elite  particularly  the warp-pattern that  an  a  lower  examination  from visit  separate  contemporary to Peru  in  a r t changed r a d i c a l l y  extends  weaves h a v e  back over  almost  from  endured four  years.  •The c o n t i n o u s w a r p l o o m w h i c h a p p e a r s prehistoric  times,  set  up  in a variety  and  requirements  observed  readings i n  t h e o t h e r o p e r a t i n g on  and  intricacy  o f two  From  the  warp-  their  a r t , with  o f the peasants.  techniques  the  and  the presence  i n museum c o l l e c t i o n s  collected  a continuity  suggests  functioning  textiles  i t i s obvious  culture  one  t h e a r t and  of p r e h i s t o r i c  with  chronicles  embroideries  level  of archeological  than  netting  surface of  t e c h n i q u e s were d e v e l o p e d  p a t t e r n w e a v e s o c c u p i e d a more m i n o r p o s i t i o n warrants.  began f a r back  i n Peru.  i s a very  unchanged  since  s i m p l e p i e c e o f e q u i p m e n t w h i c h may  o f ways, d e p e n d i n g  o f the weaver. The  virtually  be  upon the p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e  Several different  large pieces of cloth  s e t ups  produced  on  were  this  loom  -128-  for  mantas and ponchos a r e i d e n t i c a l  and  bands, produced  and  adaptable  portable,  with  little  i n structure to the small  o r no t o o l s .  p i e c e o f equipment, w i t h  requiring  little  or nothing  The loom i s a  blets  versatile  t h e added v a l u e o f b e i n g  entirely  i n t h e way o f m a t e r i a l t o make  it.  In ing  a stratified  the e l i t e ,  on  within  their  So by  and t h e i r  and c r e a t i v i t y  t h e lower  stratum own  the people  w h a t h a p p e n s when t h e i r  art  was d e s t r o y e d ,  forces,  date  nature  still  be d o i n g  i s a conquest?  class  context, i n society,  cohesive  a r t work  The e l i t e  a r t i s replaced  the status tapestry technic  continues  where t r a d i t i o n  t h e complex  The p e a s a n t  gradually appearing,  t o make i t own a r t , s l o w l y  i s stronger than the  back t o p r e h i s t o r i c  times,  a r t continued,  elite  Spanish  sup-  inspired  few o f t h e m o t i f s have  remained  looms.  s l o w a b s o r p t i o n o f new m a t e r i a l s a n d i d e a s o f t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f knowledge  with  while  the techniques  warp  the Inca  system o f government t h a t  so t h a t today,  unchanged, a s have t h e c o n t i n u o u s  The  I n any s t r a t i f i e d  W i t h t h e coming o f t h e S p a n i a r d s  along with  i t s manufacture.  influences used  In this  the schism  s i g n s o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e new e l i t e , a r t , b u t c o n t i n u i n g  fororiginality.  ported  supporters.  as happened w i t h  The lower  i t s own c o h e s i v e  force  will  way, e m p h a s i z i n g  traditions.  ques o f t h e Incas.  with  non e l i t e  a r e encouraged.  t h a t o f the conquerors,  showing  where a r t s e r v e s t h e f u n c t i o n o f i d e n t i f y -  i tfunctions i n a divisive  between t h e e l i t e novation  society  seems d u e t o t h e  i n a non l i t e r a t e  society.  -129-  Weaving, and  a l l other  and  orally,  by  the  designs  until  e x a m p l e and  to  conformity  are  frowned upon.  and  by  of  the  varying  style  A  i n the  already  where i n t h e  of  weaving  technique  as  using uality while  and  by  of  i t may  such w i l l the  dominating  weaving  but  with  of  of in  the Peru.  design.  a wide v a r i e t y  I was  weavers a f t e r  better able my  over  pres-  changes of  design,  elements Some m i n o r  allowing  the  innovation  and  of  this  own  the  r e c o r d t o add a  is  what  of  the  app^-  uniformity has  automatums,  o f ways o f w e a v i n g , appreciate  else-  i t is  allowance not  not  thorough  t o assume an  little  experiences  the  C u z c o r e g i o n and  individuals,  to  to  weavers i n Peru  ready Too  each of  i n approach, which  p o s s i b l e to c a r r y out  t h a t weavers are  exhibit  internal  techniques  of v a r i a t i o n  From o b s e r v a t i o n  w e l l as  the  creativity.  the  be  the  community,  weaving v a r i a t i o n s i n the  fact  same l o o m .  her  in  encourages the  a memorized p a t t e r n .  tradition  fabric,  by  e l a b o r a t i n g the  others  sense of  as  This  creativity  t h a t a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have been too  b e e n made f o r t h e and  vocabulary.  e a c h weaver  choice  shows a w e a l t h  Andes.  weaver p r a c t i s e s  show t h e i r  comparison of  a l l the  The  visually  Radical  with  finished  heart.  both  standardization of designs.  accepted  slowly,  taught  w/th. them, a n d  weaver b u i l d s on  been done,  comparison of  arent  Weavers  be  weavers observed  has  the  are  by  familiar  same d e s i g n  a much n e e d e d  detailed  apparent  and  The  will  to evolve  providing  the  aspects, learnt  the p r o p o r t i o n s  patterns.  innovations  are  thoroughly  community p o s s e s s e s sure  cultural  even  individ^  learning to  weave  '  This artistic oric  and e d u c a t i o n a l  cultures  gists  choice  or inclination  A.  Rowe  discussion  by f a i l u r e  t o take  o f t h e weaver. produced  i n technique a r e based  (O'Neale 1949: 1 1 5 ) , b u t s i n c e  t h e same  two  cultures  some u n d e r s t a n d i n g  I f a r t i s looked  tivity,  i n a non s t r a t i f i e d  other  the staked  preference  experience,  to bridge  o f t h e weaving  society,  societies.  in :  i ntradition.  as a weaver  t h e gap between  experience  i n Peruvian  a t as an i n t e r a c t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n and  dominate over o r i g i n a l i t y , non l i t e r a t e  differences  t r a d i t i o n s a r e d i f f e r e n t , a n d come t o  of the function  terms.  will  been e n s h r i n e d  i n the learning  where t h e l e a r n i n g  She assumes  t h i s i s not necessarily the  o f working, which has s i n c e  I am a t t e m p t i n g  i n her  t h e Aymara u s e d  method  as an o b s e r v e r ,  be  t h e Quechua t r a d i t i o n -  Many o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s may b e d u e t o p e r s o n a l  well  will  technique.  on p r e h i s t o r i c  case.  Through d i r e c t involvement  personal  these a r e merely d i f f e r e n t  s e t u p s o f t h e same c o n t i n u o u s w a r p l o o m ,  as  i n t o account the  one c u l t u r e  I t h a s been assumed t h a t loom, w h i l e  con-  There has been a  within  t h e same way, u s i n g  anthropolo-  Too o f t e n  t h a t may b e t h e r e s u l t o f  articles  wove o n t h e b a c k t e n s i o n loom  i n the f i e l d .  o f t h e weaving p r o c e s s e s o f t h e Cuzco area.  c u l t u r a l backgrounf.  out  to archeologists,  (1975) r e f e r s t o t h i s c o n c e p t o f u n i f o r m i t y  the variations  ally  a working  on t h e p a r t  i n exactly  an  o f t h e study o f p r i m i t i v e and p r e h i s t -  i n studies  t o assume t h a t  produced  as p a r t i c i p a n t , represents  be o f a s s i s t a n c e  v a r i a t i o n i n technique  tendency  in  will  has been caused  natural  that  that  aspect  a n d a r t h i s t o r i a n s who  fusion  all  concept o f the researcher  crea-  such as t h e Andean one, t r a d i t i o n  as has happened  i n t h e Andes, and i n  Thus t o ask an I n d i a n  child  from  this  -131-  cultural against  background his  From have  the  vatism of  my  of  of  cultural  the in  for  Peruvian  criteria  the  article f i l l s  While world  in  treat  art  for.  is  the  under  pressures, weavers that soon,  the  make  simple,  out in  there  may  be  of  art,  is  their  as  its  fighting  to  may  be  we  can  of  a  able  is  dying  reported  and  accelerating. Peruvian  is  the  not  to  see  The  those  textile  this  tradition  the  is to  a  weaving.  points  of  space,  and  of  how  well  how  well  more  and  may  research  cultures  in  is  left  only  a  tradition,  the to not to  handle  be  changing  managed  tradition  Western  h o w we  Peruvian  differnce I  the  how o t h e r  there  the  whom  of  better  l i f e s t y l e  If  and  of  conser-  feeling  tradition,  that  aware  observe  out.  the  obvious  the  strong  quality  REgrettably,  changing  a  to  I  made.  art  so  due  this  f i t s  being  society.  tradition  tradition,  the  the  was  by  have  within  pattern i t  is  permitted  to  include  century,  which  no  has  naturally  which  we  s t i l l  cultural  that  weaving  existence  They  approach  own  whom G o o d e l l is  of  they  for  weaving  decline  work  Peruvian  continued  whether  pressure  the  its  judgements  learning,  time  the  contemporary  Working  Peruvian  in  original  concerned.  twentieth  and  an  strengths,  made,  the  more  that  function  education  l i t t l e  can  are  the  the  long.  child  The  art  of  continuity  major so  produce  experiences.  weavers  the  their  survive  i t  study  impression  pride  one  to  :T  economic number  find,  show  carried study.  of  out  -132-  APPENDIX A  THE  In or  weft  a  compound weave  elements,  structure  of  the  the  supplementary  to  added  to produce  would  s t i l l  face the  of  the  g r o u n d weave  Complementary  ture  described  i t s e l f  is  there  each one  is  sets  single  on i t s colour  form both  Paraphrased  show  either  not affect  i n w h i c h warp  These  warp the  they  were  The p a t t e r n  warps  dispensed with, warps  warps, to  threads  supplementary  are  the  are are  the  brought  to  interworked briefly  fabric the with  back.  o f warps  are  as  complementary  being  weaves  weft  to  parts  sets  of  and form  own f a c e . w i l l  If  no g r o u n d weave  interlacing,  of  need  co-equal  compound and c a n be e i t h e r  and r e c i p r o c a l  simplest of  a  those  regular  complementary-warp with  one s e t  warps  c a n be  equivalent  order  of  they  interlace  are  and returned  two o r more  In  the  between  wefts  sets  than  1  i n one f a c e  ground weave.  When  structure  which  weaves  ( f i g . 45).  fabric  more  which  patterning.  exist  is  WEAVES  face.  warp  the  there  use o f  other  Supplementary  COMPOUND  If  form as  of  to  each  weave  sides  of  the  3-span  i n alternate  140-54).  or  maintain  a  can  i n play  fabric.  In  3/1  alignment,  s u f f i c i e n t l y compacted 46).  two-faced.  warps  elements  warps  ( f i g .  The  structure  complementary  are  struc-  other.  complementary  The two warp  floats  fabric  double-faced  coherent  on o p p o s i t e  face  (1966:  a  such.  the warps  on each  from Emery  two s e t s  i n the  only  -133-  Figure  45  S u p p l e m e n t a r y - w a r p weave a. i n t r o d u c t i o n p l a i n weave.  structures  o f one c o l o u r  in  b . s u p p l e m e n t a r y warp f l o a t i n g o v e r s e v e r a l w e f t s , between p a i r s o f ground in  warps  simple pattern,  gound warps.  ground  floating  between  paired  weave  supplementary weft  warp.  c. supplementary  •  warp warp  -134-  Figure  46  a . s t r u c t u r e o f one f a c e s h o w i n g w a r p f l o a t s warp t h r e a d s from t h e o t h e r f a c e . b . when c o m p a c t e d the o t h e r f a c e .  t h e warp  floats  hide  and the  complementary  the complementary  warps  from  -135-  APPENDIX  THE  .ii.  The  listed  continuous  below  (fig.  1.  warp  2.  lashing which  3.  shed  4.  heddle  5.  sword  beater  6.  cloth  bar  7.  tie  8.  warp  weft  warp  B  LOOM  loom  consists  warp  to—the  of  several  parts  which  47).  bar secures  warp  and  cloth  bars  rod stick  and heddle and  shed  or  strings pattern  cords  stick  is  not  illustrated  sticks  (not  illustrated)  are  Figure  47.  -137-  The  Names o f t h e Loom  Parts  , In the Quechua language the is  loom, that  given  study: The  there  but  gives  loom.  A.  that  de  Rowe a l s o  awa—warp;  there  region,  who  and by  Andrada  A.  I collected  another the  language,  such  hand,  some o f t h e v a r i a t i o n s  needs  m e n t o f any  language  t o i t s own  part.  t o be  region.  carried  out,  for this  weaver  confusion  i n the c a s e where a c o m p l e t e l y or origin  s i m p l y be dialect  o f t h e w o r d may  t h a t was  the o f f i c i a l may  parts  from S a n t i a g o  from the Cuzco  a s A y m a r a , o r one  I n c a e n f o r c e d Q u e c h u a as  word  a t Sacsahuaman,  (1874),  that  the root  parts,  (1975) i n t h e h i g h l a n d s i n t h e  more r e s e a r c h  that  1975  loom  f o r each  in  i s used,  or  k'aspi.  some o f t h e r e a s o n s  d i f f e r e n t word  loom  f o r the  o f terms  (1976) a l s o  I t i s possible  thingummyjigs."  t o the E n g l i s h  by weaver, i n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r terminology.  Chocorvos  f o r the  names  of  t o a name  Rowe i n h e r  o r awana  supplied  Rowe  A.  word  those of Stevenson  f o u n d by  "warp  equivalent  a r e t h e names w h i c h  i s apparent that  as  suffix.  a r e many v a r i a t i o n s  those  nearest  na—instrument of action,  t h e w o r d o f awa  a l l the weavers  i n figure  Chocorvos,  It  translates  n o t s e e m t o be  gives  The  i n h i s S a n t i a g o de  and k u n a - - p l u r a l i z i n g  i n Ollantaytambo, plus  Cuzco  6)  Stevenson  down a s :  i t does  Quechua,  Included  (1974:  i s a name f o r e a c h p a r t  f o r 'loom'.  t h e w o r d awana a s a c o l l e c t i v e  Although  and  Stevenson  form;  states  spoke  by  i s broken  hesitation study  i s no w o r d a s s u c h  awanakuna, w h i c h  word  although there  used  language. due  terms.  On  locally  be  in  before  the o t h e r  t o the n a t u r a l  develop-  QUECHUA NAMES FOR THE LOOM PARTS  No.  English  McRobb  A . Rowe  Stevenson  Andrada  1 2 3  warp weft  allwi luwa chichi k'empina k ' a s p i kjuma (k'uma))  allwi mini  awa mini  mini  4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 An tie  loom b a r s cloth bar shuttle stick pattern stick sword b e a t e r heddle bone p i c k t i e on c o r d s t e n s i o n cords t i e down s t a k e Ollantaytambo down s t a k e  variation i s tacaro.  Kjata  awana k a s p i kaki mini 1  pallamarac khallwa  kjallwa kudwa r.uk' i  or  ruk'i  illawa r u k ' i o r wichuna  awa awa  pallqa pari  kumana khallwa  mini qaspi kallwa qaspi  kallwa illawa chuqchi  kallwa qaspi illawa wichuna o r t u l l u  mini waskja  sogu  s t a c a (Sp.) f o r the c l o t h  takarpu  or  beam i s i l l y a w a  estaca  (Sp.)  k ' a s p i , and a Chinchero  variation  f o r the  -139-  APPENDIX  WARPING  To  help  colours to  my  warp A  are  warped  lengths  the  the  at  48b).  the  pegs  to  frame  were  these the was  made  were  joined  either  side  Rather  of  board a  T  b u i l t  than  be  placed  was  taken  from  a  to  inch a  dowelling  board  that  i t  (fig. can  be  made  two  warping to  beside  pegs seen  City.  and  for  which  48c).  frame  short  warping board  Guatemala  wooden b a s e ,  a  where  limited  were  the  so  father  Peru,  pegs  from one  by  my  i n  extra  idea  screwed  The  time,  48a). two  constructed  screws.  demonstrated  Museo N a c i o n a l ,  underside  retaining on  the  as  same  This  of  FRAME  warps  weaving,  collection  strength, screwed  for  (fig.  The  ing  make  specifications,(fig.  and D  in  me  C  greater  in  The  turn  was  entire  warp-  d i s m a n t l e d by  removing inch  i t s e l f  is  of  two  twenty  shaped  connecting  bar  (fig.  48d).  the  pieces,  Figure Warping  48. frame  -141-  APPENDIX  WEAVING  The  weaving .'designs  are  taken  are  a l l  i n  from  which and  complementary-warp  simple  diamond designs  design  could  it,  conformity  in  DESIGNS  for  contemporary  be  varied, with  have  been  graphed  patterns  prehistoric  weave  without the  D  in  two  included changing  Peruvian  belts  and  colours. to  the  design  have  show how overall  been  bands.  included They  A variety a  weaving  appearance  requirements.  of  of  -142-  -143-  Dor  •o  F i g u r e :50 Design site  of a small  feline  i n the l e a V a l l e y  from  ( King  a prehistoric 1965:  band  f i g . 22).  from the  Ocucaje  -144-  Figure One  51  o f the d e s i g n s woven a t  Ollantaytambo.  -145-  n•LXOLXJDD0D • • DOm PCOO U • •CD TDD n •d 4] D  •  •0  UJ • DDD • DDOD Figure  52  S'acas, Sonia's  d e s i g n form  Chinchero  mac  DO On  D  I  U  -146-  •147-  •  •  D  O  n  n  w  c?n ° R D D  •  • JZL  • _ •  D~L_ ^  O -CD C • CD c  _Q ]  CD  •  7V  Figure  54  Detail  o f a complex  diamond  repeat  from  Chinchero  LZD  G  Multiple diamond d e s i g n f r o m a b e l t woven i n T i n t a ( I n t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , U.B.C., Vancouver).  -149-  Figure Two  56  designs  f o r m narrow bands  woven i n T i n t a .  -150-  u  •  •  • 0  u  •  •  u  • rL  •  o  uu CD  e. Figure  5 7  s m a l l d i a m o n d m o t i f s , a-d f r o m T i n t a , R o y a l O n t a r i o Museum, T o r o n t o .  e.  i n the  collection  of  the  Figure  58  Bands o f p a t t e r n s  from  a bag  i n the R o y a l S c o t t i s h  Museum,  Edinburgh.  -152-  GLOSSARY Appreviations:  AWASQA (awaska) own AKLLA-KONA  the  house  Que. Sp.  c l o t h produced  o f the  "chosen  by  -  the p e a s a n t  women" o f t h e  were k e p t  i n convent-like seclusion  guardians  of the  ARTES T I P I C O S AYLLU  the local  AYMARA  local unit  the  the  Sp.  Aymara  clan grouping  living  o f the  shrines,  for  their  I n c a , young g i r l s  trained  and  as  as  who  weavers,  the wives  of  nobles.  folk art.  of the  and  and  weavers  Incan  and  Quechua p e o p l e ,  a  economic o r g a n i z a t i o n .  Colla,  i n Southern  one  Peru  of the  and  subject peoples  Bolivia,  speaking  of  the  language.  areas  llama,  fleece  Sp.  weft  techniques,  used  to  create  of p a t t e r n . o f the  v i c u n a , and  CAMPESINOS  term  indigenous  huanaco or  animals  of Peru,  the  alpaca,  guanaco.  f o r the peasant  Indians.  s u b j e c t t r i b e o f t h e I n c a s , who l i v e d i n t h e s o u t h e r n q u a r t e r t h e I n c a E m p i r e , a n d were o n l y p a r t i a l l y s u b d u e d a t t h e t i m e the a r r i v a l o f the S p a n i s h .  COMPLEMENTARY-WARP WEAVE interwork equally. CUZQUENOS BAYATA  local  of p o l i t i c a l  CAMELID F I B R E S  of of  and  d i s c o n t i n u o u s supplementary  small  COLLA  f o r the  descendents  Inca,  BROCADE  temples  Quechua Spanish  t h e men  Sp.  BAYETILLA  of  treadle  fabric  interact  i n which  two  s e t s o f warp  elements  Cuzco  l o o m woven c l o t h  commercially  DOUBLE CLOTH  structure  i n plain  woven c l o t h ,  structure  to produce  generally i n twill  i n which  separate  weave.  three  weave.  o r more s e t s o f  elements  faces.  F I N G E R WEAVING weaving, g e n e r a l l y o f narrow bands, i n which f i n g e r s a r e u s e d f o r t h e w a r p m a n i p u l a t i o n w i t h g e n e r a l l y no t o o l s . GUAZE WEAVE structure with a lace—like effect. HACIENDADO refers  KORAKA  t o the h a c i e n d o  to a style  of dress which  carries  d e v i c e s used  to affect  Que.  (Qompi)  MESTIZO  or  ranch.  o f warps  In  higher  this  producing  instance  status.  opening  o f the  shed  weaving. Inca o f f i c i a l  community KUMPI  displacement  pertaining  HEDDLES, HEDDLESTRINGS in  temporary  Sp.  on  local  level,  responsible for overseeing  01 Que.  Native  Inca s t a t u s t a p e s t r y weaving. of p a r t Indian, p a r t Spanish  blood.  -153-  MITTA  Que. right  PALO  Inca system  Sp.  stick,  P L A I N WEAVE warp. PUSHKA PUNA  of feudal  and p r i v i l e g e s refers  weft passes  Que.  high plain  QOMPI-KAMAYOC  SHED  to the s h a f t  alternately  over  a r e a up t o 15,000  QUECHA Quechua s p e a k e r s l i v i n g i n Peru.  ROSAS  here  i n return for  land. of a  spindle.  and under  each s u c c e s s i v e  spindle.  Que.  fine  labour, performed  o f goods and  Que.  who  are descendents  weaving  tapestry.  (also  feet  specialist  altitude  o f the Inca people,  i n I n c a t i m e s , who  wove  Kumpi-camayoc)  Sp. r o s e s temporary of weft.  SHED ROD  stick  o p e n i n g b e t w e e n two p l a i n s  used  t o s e p a r a t e one s h e d  o f warp,  for insertion  o f warp.  SPRANG w o r k i n g w i t h a s e t o f e l e m e n t s s t r e t c h e d b e t w e e n two c o r d s , so i n t e r l o c k i n g o f t h r e a d s t a k e s p l a c e a t b o t h ends s i m u l t a neously . SUPPLEMENTARY-WARP WEAVES" where a n e x t r a s e t o f w a r p a c t s i n g r o u n d weave t o p r o d u c e p a t t e r n . TAPESTRY T'PANA  p a t t e r n produced Que.  TWILL WEAVE floats 2/2  b l a n k e t p i n , used  float  weave  manta.  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i a g o n a l alignment o f  a minimum g r o u p i n g o f t h r e e w a r p s  two t w i n i n g e l e m e n t s  elements  i s needed.  a c t together, enclosing successive  o f the other s e t .  longitudinal weft.  elements  WARP-FACED w h e r e t h e warp weft i s concealed. WARPFLOAT any p o r t i o n weft threads. WEFT  to fasten  TWILL i n t e r l a c i n g o n t h e d i a g o n a l , u n d e r two a n d o v e r two, b u t w h e r e w a r p c o u n t i s h i g h e r t h a n w e f t c o u n t , f a b r i c w i l l be warp-faced.  TWINING  WARP  inter-  b y d i s c o n t i n u o u s w e f t - f a c e d weave.  large  f o r which  threads  i n a fabric  count  o r loom, i n t e r l a c e d  i s higher than  o f warp e l e m e n t  t h a t extends  transverse e l e m e n t . i n t e r l a c e d through  WEFT-FACED  weft  UNCUNA 4 u n k h u n a )  c o u n t outnumbers warp Que.  carrying  cloth.  the weft,  over  by the  and t h e  two o r more  the warp.  c o u n t , warp  i s c o n c e a l e d by  weft.  -154-  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Andrada, Marogt Palomino. " C o n t i n u i d a d y D i s c o n t i n u i d a d de l a T e c n o l o g i a T e x t i l P r e c o l u m b i n o en C h i n c h e r o y P i s a q . " D i s s . Cuzco, Peru 197.6. A d o v a s i o , J a m e s M. a n d Thomas F . L y n c h . 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