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A contemporary Peruvian weaving technique on the continuous warp loom : learning and instruction in… McRobb, Janice Helen 1980

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\ A CONTEMPORARY PERUVIAN WEAVING TECHNIQUE ON THE CONTINUOUS WARP LOOM: LEARNING AND INSTRUCTION IN A NON LITERATE SOCIETY. by JANICE HELEN McROBB B.Ed. ( S e c ) , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1977. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( Department of A r t Education) we accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1980 (c) J a n i c e Helen McRobb In p resent ing t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia , I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r re fe rence and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree tha t permiss ion f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood tha t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed wi thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P lace Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 DE-6 BP 75-51 1 E ABSTRACT The f i r s t c h a p t e r s o f t h i s t h e s i s p r o v i d e a b r i e f survey t o e s t a b l i s h the a n t i q u i t y o f the P e r u v i a n t e x t i l e t r a d i t i o n . The development o f t h i s t r a d i t i o n , u s i n g the most rud i m e n t a r y o f e q u i p -ment, the c o n t i n u o u s warp loom, i s t r a c e d from i t s b e g i n n i n g s m i l l e n i a ago, to the S p a n i s h conquest i n the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , which d i s r u p -t i o n o f :the e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n o f l i f e r e s u l t e d i n the l o s s o f many s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e x t i l e t e c h n i q u e s . The c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the warp-p a t t e r n weaves r e s u l t s from t h e i r p o s i t i o n as p e a s a n t weaving t e c h -n i q u e s , i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o the o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s which were used i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f s t a t u s t e x t i l e s . The v e r s a t i l i t y o f the c o n t i n -uous warp loom i s shown, w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o p r e h i s t o r i c models and e a r l y S p a n i s h l i t e r a t u r e , f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n o f contemporary loom s e t ups, o b s e r v e d d u r i n g f i e l d work i n P e r u i n 1978. A l a t e r c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f s p i n n i n g , warping and weaving t e c h n i q u e s o b s e r v e d i n the Cuzco r e g i o n o f P e r u . The weaving de s c r i p - t t i o n s i n c l u d e f i n g e r weaving t e c h n i q u e s i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f narrow and wide bands, and loom weaving o f wide c l o t h , u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f loom s e t ups. The t h e s i s c o n c l u d e s w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f how the P e r u v i a n weavers t r a n s m i t t h e i r knowledge, as e x p e r i e n c e d by the r e s e a r c h e r , who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s c u l t u r e t r a n s m i s s i o n by l e a r n i n g to weave w h i l e i n P e r u , and the e f f e c t s o f the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s on the e v o l u t i o n o f d e s i g n s i n the t e x t i l e s . ' - i i ' i -TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i ' -L i s t o f T a b l e s v L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i Acknowledgements v i i CHAPTER 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 D e s c r i p t i o n o f A r e a o f R e s e a r c h 4 CHAPTER 2 The Andean Weaver: P a s t and P r e s e n t 12 CHAPTER 3 The Andean Loom A. D e s c r i p t i o n 23 B. Working P o s i t i o n s a t t h e Loom 33 CHAPTER 5 The Warp-patterned Weaves A. D e f i n i t i o n 40 B. Review o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e 41 C. H i s t o r i c a l Development 43 CHAPTER 5 F i e l d R e s e a r c h : S p i n n i n g and Weaving i n t h e Cuzco Region 51 A. The Weavers 52 B. S p i n n i n g 55 S p i n n i n g U s i n g a Drop S p i n d l e 58 C. F i n g e r Weaving o f Bands-1. Warping - 62 2. T y i n g t h e Heddle S t r i n g s 69 3. S t a r t i n g t h e Band . 72 4. Weaving a Narrow Band 73 Band A. Complementary-warp Weave 74 Band B. Supplementary-warp Weave 77 5. Weaving a Wide Band 79 D. Loom Weaving o f Wide C l o t h 1. O c t a v i a 86 2. Sacsahuaman Weaver 95 3. Gerardo Gusman Ramos 101 E. Comparison o f Weaving Technigue 104 CHAPTER 6 L e a r n i n g and I n s t r u c t i o n 107/ The R e s e a r c h e r as P a r t i c i p a n t 122 CHAPTER 7 C o n c l u s i o n 127 APPENDIX A The Compound Weaves 132 APPENDIX B The Loom 135 Names o f Loom P a r t s i n Quechua 137 APPENDIX C Warping Frame 139 APPENDIX D Weaving D e s i g n s 141 G l o s s a r y 152 B i b l i o g r a p h y 154 LIST OF TABLES T a b l e 1 P r e h i s t o r i c C u l t u r e P e r i o d s i n Peru T a b l e 2 Quechua Names f o r the Loom P a r t s - v i -LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1. South America 8 2. P e r u : A r c h e o l o g i c a l and Contemporary S i t e s 9-10 3. ' The Cuzco REgion 11 4. M o d e l l o f Weaver from Chancay 27 5. 1615 drawing o f Back T e n s i o n Loom Weaver 28 6. U p r i g h t Loom, from Model on Chimu Ceramic 30 7. 1615 drawing o f U p r i g h t Loom 31 8. Warp t a k e u p - d u r i n g weaving 38 9. S p i n d l e and f l e e c e from O l l a n t a y t a m b o 38 10. S p i n n i n g : p u l l i n g o u t t h i c k e r l e n g t h o f y a r n 60 11. S p i n n i n g : h o l d i n g s p i n d l e w h i l e w i n d i n g y a r n 60 12. S p i n n i n g : w i n d i n g o v e r s p u n y a r n onto s p i n d l e 61 13. S p i n n i n g : drawing f i b r e s o u t o f f l e e e e • 61' 14. Warping: f o r m i n g t h r e a d c r o s s 64 15. Warp wrapped i n f i g u r e e i g h t around f o u r s t a k e s 65 16. Warping: showing d i r e c t i o n o f warping 67 17. Warping: O c t a v i a l a y i n g d o u b l e t h r e a d c r o s s 68 18. T y i n g f h e d d l e s 70 19.. A t t a c h i n g h e d d i e s t i c k 70 20. Opening r e a r ' shedooniinarrowobarid 75 21. Opening r e a r shed on narrow band 75 22. Opening r e a r shed on narrow band 76 23. P a t t e r n p i c k up on narrow band 76 24. P a t t e r n p i c k up on narrow band 78 25. Opening h e d d i e shed on narrow band 78 26. O c t a v i a u ses s e v e r a l s t i c k s t o h o l d p a t t e r n sheds 80 27. O c t a v i a uses m u l t i p l e h e d d l e s 80 28. P a t t e r n p i c k up on wide band 83 29. P a t t e r n p i c k up on wide band 83 30. S t a f a n i a p a s s e s weft t h r o u g h shed 85 31. B e l t w i t h s e v e r a l p a t t e r n s t i c k s i n p l a c e 85 32. S o n i a weaving 87 33. Shed ch a n g i n g on back t e n s i o n loom 90 34. Shed s t i c k i n s e r t e d i n shed 90 35. P i c k i n g up p a t t e r n t h r e a d s 92 36. I n s e r t i n g weft 92 37. B e a t i n g i n t h e weft 93 38. B e a t i n g i n t h e weft 93 39. A s t a k e d o u t loom 99 40. Weaver b e a t s i n wef t 99 41. H o r i z o n t a l s t a k e d out loom 102 42. P a t t e r n p i c k up 102 43. S o n i a , s e a t e d on ground, w h i l e l e a r n i n g t o weave 112 44. S'acas, S o n i a ' s weaving d e s i g n 11-1 - v i a -F i g u r e 45. Supplementary-warp weave s t r u c t u r e s 133 46. Complementary-warp weave s t r u c t u r e s 134 47. The loom 136 48. Warping frame 140 49. B i r d m o t i f i n warp f l o a t s from Huaca P r i e t a 142 50. F e l i n e m o t i f from Ocucaje 143 51. D e s i g n from O l l a n t a y t a m b o 144 52. S 1 a c a s 145 53. V a r i a t i o n o f s 1 a c a s 146 54. Diamond r e p e a t from C h i n c h e r o 147 55 . M u l t i p l e diamond d e s i g n from T i n t a 148 56. Two d e s i g n s from narrow bands woven i n T i n t a 149 57. S m a l l diamond m o t i f s 150 58. Bands o f p a t t e r n s from a bag i n the Museum R o y a l S c o t t i s h - v i i -ACKNOWLE DGEME NTS I n a p r o j e c t o f t h i s magnitude i t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r has t o seek h e l p and guidance from many s o u r c e s and p e o p l e and i t i s o n l y r i g h t t h a t due acknowledgement s h o u l d be made. But, i t i s a l s o the case t h a t as w e l l as the h e l p and guidance a g r e a t d e a l o f f r i e n d -s h i p was a l s o o f f e r e d . Formal acknowledgement cannot p o s s i b l y e x p r e s s the f u l l f e e l i n g s which were engendered by the f r i e n d s h i p . However, i t must be s a i d t h a t t h e s e f e e l i n g s w i l l l o n g remain i n my memory. I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s The T e x t i l e Museum, Washington, D.C. and Ann Rowe. The S m i t h s o n i a n Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , Washington, D.C. and S a l l y K l a s s . Dumbarton Oaks Museum, Washington, D.C. and t o E l i z a b e t h Benson and Anne-Louise S c h a f f e r . The American Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , New York and J u n i u s B. B i r d , M i l i c a S k i n n e r and P h i l l i p G i f f o r d (Dept. o f A n t h r o -pology) . M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t , Museum o f the American I n d i a n and J u l i e Jones, B a r b a r a Teague and Nobuko K a j i t a n i ( C o n s e r v a t i o n Dept.) The B r o o k l y n Museum, New York and Mary Ann Dergan and h e r s t a f f . I n Canada The R o y a l O n t a r i o Museum, T o r o n t o and John V o l l m e r . The U n i t e d Kingdom The U n i v e r s i t y A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Museum a t Aberdeen. The U n i v e r s i t y Museum o f A r c h e o l o g y and E t h n o l o g y , Cambridge and Mary C a i s t e r and h e r s t a f f . The Museum o f Mankind, the Ethnography Department o f the B r i t i s h Museum, London and Penny Bateman. The P i t t - R i v e r s Museum, O x f o r d and B.A.L. Cranstone and h i s s t a f f . The R o y a l S c o t t i s h Museum, E d i n b u r g h and Dale I n d i e n s . I n P e r u The Museo Amano, Lima. The Museo N a c i o n a l do A n t r o p o l o g i a , Lima. The Museo ' i n S i t i o ' Pachacamac, Near Lima. - v i i a _ To People i n P e r u Dr. Chavez B a l l o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Cuzco. S r a . V y r o u b a l P i n e d a Chavez. Dr. L u i s Watanabe, D i r e c t o r o f Machu P i c c h u A r c h e o l o g i c a l s i t e , S r . Manuel S o l t a r o ) Sr.. R i g o b e r t o R u i s ) o f the P o l i c e F o r c e s t a t i o n e d a t T i n t a . S r a . O c t a v i a S i n c h i ) S r a . S t e f a n i a Quispe Huaman ) S r . Gerardo Gusman Ramos ) The Woman n e a r Sacsahuaman ) the Weavers. F r a n c i s c o , my i n t e r p r e t e r . S i l v i a Lawson My T h e s i s Committee Graeme Chalmers ) Don M c i n t o s h ) Dept. o f A r t E d u c a t i o n . M a r v i n Cohodas ) A l a n R. Sawyer ) Dept. o f F i n e A r t s . Joanne S t a n i s z k i s , Dept. o f Home Economics, f o r r e a d i n g the weaving d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h i s t h e s i s . P a r t i c u l a r thanks a r e due t o Mr. & Mrs. J . S h e r i d a n o f Washington, D.C., Mr. & Mrs. A. Hartman o f New York and M i s s E . A l l e n o f T o r o n t o f o r p r o v i d i n g a s s i s t a n c e and accommodation d u r i n g my v i s i t s t o the E a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada f o r Museum r e s e a r c h . and t o Genevieve L u n d q u i s t and Jean Kuwabara f o r t h e i r c o n s i d e r a b l e p a t i e n c e i n h e l p i n g and t y p i n g d r a f t s o f t h i s t h e s i s . l a s t l y , b u t by no means l e a s t : t o my Mother f o r t r a n s p o r t i n g me round the U n i t e d Kingdom i n a t r o c i o u s w i n t e r weather t o v i s i t the museums t h e r e ; and t o my F a t h e r f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g a warping frame and f o r h i s h e l p w i t h t h e w r i t i n g and e d i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s . J . H. McRobb 19/3/80 -1-CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION W i t h i n the l a s t c e n t u r y , as a r e s u l t o f the e f f o r t s o f many d e d i c a t e d c o l l e c t o r s and a r c h e o l o g i s t s , a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f pre-Columbian t e x t i l e s has been r e c o v e r e d , p r e s e r v e d i n museums thro u g h o u t the w o r l d . T h i s m a t e r i a l i s a v a i l a b l e f o r s t u d y and i t has s t i m u l a t e d much o f the work o f t h i s t h e s i s . Recent e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h i s m a t e r i a l has a r o u s e d e x t r a o r d i n a r y i n t e r e s t because o f the s o p h i s t i c a t e d development o f some o f the d e s i g n s , and a l s o , because o f the c o m p l e x i t y and d i v e r s i t y o f the t e c h n i q u e s which were used t o c r e a t e the f a b r i c s t h e m s e l v e s . A few o f these t e c h n i q u e s are s t i l l i n use i n contemporary P e r u v i a n weaving. A r c h e o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e shows t h a t the e a r l y t e x t i l e s were p r o d u c e d on v e r y r u d i m e n t a r y equipment. The looms t h a t were used c o n s i s t o f a few s i m p l e wooden elem e n t s . I t i s w i t h these looms and the t e x t i l e s p r o d u c e d on them, t h a t t h i s t h e s i s i s c o n c e r n e d . The f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s t h e s i s i s d e v o t e d t o the development o f the t e x t i l e t r a d i t i o n i n p r e h i s t o r i c t i m e s , from an e x a m i n a t i o n of pre-Columbian fragments and i n f o r m a t i o n i n a range o f r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e . A c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s e s have been made o f t e x t i l e t e c h n i q u e s which were used i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f p r e h i s t o r i c t e x t i l e s . T h i s has added g r e a t l y t o the knowledge o f the v e r s a t i l i t y o f the s i m p l e loom. F i e l d s t u d i e s were made by t h i s -2-r e s e a r c h e r i n t o contemporary weaving t e c h n i q u e s t o determine p r e -c i s e l y how the warp and w e f t were m a n i p u l a t e d t o c r e a t e the f a b r i c s . But i t seems t h a t l i t t l e work has been done y e t t o r e l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c t e c h n i q u e s t o the looms on which they were worked, so t h a t p r e s e n t day weavers c o u l d produce t e x t i l e s u s i n g the same weaves t h a t were de v e l o p e d by pre-Columbian I n d i a n s o f P e r u . E q u a l l y l i t t l e work has been done t o r e l a t e the contemporary t e x t i l e t r a d i t i o n t o i t s p r e -h i s t o r i c o r i g i n s . The second p a r t o f the t h e s i s c o n s i s t s o f a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n of contemporary weaving t e c h n i q u e s used i n the Cuzco r e g i o n o f P e r u . From the d a t a g a t h e r e d d u r i n g a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f the weaving p r o c e s s i t i s hoped t o p r o v i d e a s t o r e o f p r a c t i c a l knowledge on weaving t e c h n i q u e s . I t i s a l s o i n t e n d e d t o d i r e c t the a t t e n t i o n o f p r e s e n t day weavers t o the f a s c i n a t i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s which c o u l d a r i s e from the use o f the c o n t i n u o u s warp loom. D e s c r i p t i o n s have been i n c l u d e d o f weaving on f u l l - s i z e d looms t o p r o v i d e as complete a p i c t u r e as p o s s i b l e o f the weaving p r o c e s s , a l t h o u g h the main i n t e r e s t has been i n the warp p r e p a r a t i o n and weaving o f b e l t s and bands u s i n g f i n g e r weaving t e c h n i q u e s . These t e c h n i q u e s which do n o t seem t o have been r e p o r t e d i n d e t a i l e lsewhere i n the l i t e r a t u r e , f u n c t i o n b o t h as an end i n themselves and as a t e c h n i c a l v e h i c l e . By these means, not o n l y may b e l t s , bands and e d g i n g s be p r o d u c e d b u t , i n m i n i a t u r e , t e c h n i q u e s and p a t t e r n s may be l e a r n e d more e a s i l y t h a n on a l a r g e p i e c e . -3-F o r p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n s t h e w o r k i n t h i s t h e s i s h a s b e e n l i m i t e d t o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f o n e t e c h n i q u e o n l y : c o m p l e m e n t a r y - w a r p w e a v e . T h e t w o w e a v e r s w i t h whom m o s t t i m e w a s s p e n t , u s e d t h i s w e a v e s t r u c t u r e i n t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n b a n d s w h i c h t h e y w o v e . A l s o t h e t i m e f a c t o r s e t a d e f i n i t e l i m i t a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e s i z e o f t h e p i e c e s w h i c h c o u l d b e t h u s m a d e . E q u a l l y , a l t h o u g h d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e f i v e n o f w e a v i n g o n f u l l s i z e l o o m s f o r c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s , i t i s w i t h t h e n a r r o w b a n d s t h a t I am m o s t c o n c e r n e d . B u t i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t a b a l a n c e d p i c t u r e i s g i v e n o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y t r a d i t i o n w h i c h h a s g r o w n o u t o f t h e p r e h i s t o r i c p a s t . T h e t h i r d p a r t o f t h e t h e s i s d e a l s w i t h t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . I s p e n t s i g n i f i c a n t p e r i o d s o f t i m e w i t h I n d i a n w e a v e r s , d u r i n g w h i c h I was g i v e n l e s s o n s o n t h e i r w e a v i n g t e c h n i q u e s a n d m e t h o d s . I t w a s t h i s w o r k t h a t m a d e i t p o s s i b l e f o r me t o c o n t i n u e w e a v i n g a f t e r t h e e n d o f t h e w o r k i n S o u t h A m e r i c a . T h r o u g h t h i s l e a r n i n g cv. e x p e r i e n c e I w a s p r o v i d e d w i t h a n u n i q u e o p p o r t u n i t y t o s t u d y t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f a c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n , c o n t i n u o u s w a r p w e a v i n g , i n a n o n l i t e r a t e s o c i e t y . -4-D e s c r i p t i o n o f A r e a o f Research i n P e r u Research f o r t h i s t h e s i s was c a r r i e d o u t i n the Department o f Cuzco, i n the Andean a l t i p l a n o , o r h i g h p l a t e a u a r e a , between the two c o r d i l l e r a t h a t form the Andean mountain c h a i n . The I n d i a n p e o p l e o f t h i s r e g i o n are Quechua s p e a k e r s and S p a n i s h i s spoken by many o f them as a second language. Some o f them, those who l i v e i n the more i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s , many o f which are a c c e s s i b l e o n l y by a narrow f o o t t r a i l , speak l i t t l e o r no S p a n i s h . To the s o u t h towards Lake T i t i c a c a , and i n B o l i v i a , l i v e the Aymara s p e a k e r s . The Aymara are the descen-dants o f the C o l l a , one o f the f o u r g r e a t groups t h a t the I n c a , the o r i g i n a l Quechua s p e a k e r s , p a r t i a l l y subdued n o t l o n g b e f o r e the a r r i v a l o f the S p a n i a r d s . Due t o the l o n g p e r i o d o f c r o s s c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e , and the f u r t h e r o v e r l a y o f S p a n i s h i n f l u e n c e s , i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o say whether c e r t a i n weaving s t y l e s o r loom s e t ups are o f Quechua o r Aymara o r i g i n . The p i c t u r e has become to o c o n f u s e d . However, i n b o t h P e r u and B o l i v i a , t h e r e i s s t i l l an a c t i v e t r a d i t i o n o f weaving on back t e n s i o n e d and s t a k e d o u t looms. A l t h o u g h the d e s i g n s p r o d u c e d a r e d i f f e r e n t , and they v a r y from v i l l a g e t o v i l l a g e , as w e l l as from c o u n t r y t o c o u n t r y , the weave s t r u c t u r e s and the loom s e t ups t h a t are used are the same. D e s p i t e the i n c r e a s i n g breakdown o f t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e , many o f the v i l l a g e r s i n the a l t i p l a n o s t i l l l i v e i n a manner t h a t i s r e l a -t i v e l y unchanged from I n c a t i m e s . Many o f the women'wore t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n d r e s s , c o n s i s t i n g o f a t r e a d l e loom woven s k i r t , e m broidered -5-j a c k e t , t r a d i t i o n a l h a t and hand woven, p a t t e r n e d manta, which i s wrapped around the s h o u l d e r s and p i n n e d a t the f r o n t . A l l goods are c a r r i e d on the back, i n a hand woven, p a t t e r n e d c a r r y i n g . c l o t h t h a t the women s t i l l weave. Many go b a r e f o o t , a l t h o u g h some wear . s l i p -on s a n d a l s , made from used automobile t i r e s . Fewer men wear the t r a d i t i o n a l . I n d i a n costume. A l l men wear a poncho and k n i t t e d cap f o r warmth. O c c a s i o n a l l y , a man w i l l a l s o be seen i n the t r a d i t i o n a l t r e a d l e loom woven p a n t s , which end j u s t below the knee, and an embroidered j a c k e t s i m i l a r t o t h a t worn by the women. C l o t h i n g i s e s s e n t i a l i n the a l t i p l a n o as p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t the c l i m a t e , which i s c o l d and windy. The f a b r i c s must be t i g h t l y packed t o keep o u t the wind and the r a i n , d u r i n g the months o f l o n g r a i n y s e a s o n . S i n c e the manufacture o f each garment i s a l e n g t h y p r o c e s s t h a t must be f i t t e d i n between o t h e r e s s e n t i a l and b a c k b r e a k i n g c h o r e s , the f i n i s h e d garment must be d u r a b l e and h a r d w e a r i n g , so t h a t i t need n o t be r e p l a c e d f o r many y e a r s . I n the markets t h e r e are two d i s t i n c t a r e a s . One a r e a i s l a i d o u t w i t h p r o p e r s t a l l s , and these are c o v e r e d i n c e r a m i c s , t e x t i l e s and o t h e r h a n d i c r a f t s t h a t have p r o v e d p o p u l a r w i t h t o u r i s t s . The o t h e r s e c t i o n , s e e m i n g l y s e p a r a t e d by an i n v i s i b l e l i n e , i s where -the l o c a l p e o p l e s p r e a d o u t t h e i r wares on the ground. They s e l l o r b a r t e r b r e a d , p e p p e r s , p o t a t o e s , beans, a few eggs and a n y t h i n g e l s e t h a t they have p r o d u c e d . They form a v e r y t i g h t k n i t group and may r e f u s e t o s e l l t o o u t s i d e r s , who c o u l d e a s i l y buy up the -6-e n t i r e s u p p l y and l e a v e n o t h i n g f o r the r e g u l a r customers. We found t h i s i n P i s a c , where we t r i e d t o buy some eggs and o t h e r p r o -v i s i o n s f o r a camping t r i p . The same t h i n g happened a g a i n l a t e r i n O l lantaytambo, a l t h o u g h t h e r e we were b u y i n g from l i t t l e s t o r e s r a t h e r t h a n i n an open a i r market. L i f e on the puna, the h i g h e s t p l a t e a u a r e a s t h a t are i n h a b i t e d , up t o 15,000 f e e t a l t i t u d e , i s a c o n s t a n t , h a r s h b a t t l e f o r s u r v i v a l . The c l i m a t e and the a l t i t u d e combine t o reduce d a i l y l i f e t o c e r t a i n s t a r k e s s e n t i a l s , b a l a n c e d on a k n i f e edge, c l o s e t o d i s e a s e and m a l n u t r i t i o n . Even w i t h improved m e d i c a l ca r e and h y g e n i c a d v i c e the i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y r a t e i s s t i l l a l a r m i n g l y h i g h . Weavers were o b s e r v e d i n s e v e r a l v i l l a g e s as shown on the map ( f i g . 3 ) . Access t o the v a r i o u s v i l l a g e s was made by bus, t r a i n t r u c k o r p r i v a t e c a r . The l a s t method o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was used t o g e t t o T i n t a , s i n c e t h e r e was n o t the time t o spend one o r two n i g h t s t h e r e , which would have been n e c e s s a r y i f l o c a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n had been used. Senora O c t a v i a S i n c h i , a weaver i n h e r e a r l y t h i r t i e s , was from an i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e . She had walked i n t o the town o f O l l a n t a y t a m b o , where she was o b s e r v e d . She s t a y e d f o r two days, d u r i n g which time she demonstrated weaving on the back t e n s i o n loom as w e l l as p r e p a r i n g and weaving p a r t s o f s e v e r a l narrow bands. She spoke v e r y l i t t l e S p a n i s h , making communication d i f f i c u l t . I n o r d e r t o observe h e r weaving f o r the two days t h a t she s t a y e d I employed h e r , and p a i d h e r two days wages, p l u s the c o s t o f the m a t e r i a l s t h a t -7-she used f o r the sample bands which she l e f t w i t h me. We n e g o t i a t e d the wages and o t h e r c o s t s t h a t she c h a r g e d me. Such i s the d i f f e r -ence i n the c o s t o f l i v i n g t h e r e t h a t I p a i d h e r o n l y a few d o l l a r s f o r two days o f h e r ti m e . When I o b s e r v e d S t e f a n i a Quispe i n C h i n c h e r o , I d i d n o t pay h e r d i r e c t l y f o r h e r time b u t r a t h e r bought the bands t h a t she was working on w h i l e I o b s e r v e d h e r . I a l s o p a i d h e r f o r my b o a r d and l o d g i n g f o r the t h r e e days t h a t I s t a y e d w i t h h e r . S i m i l a r i l y , goods were p u r -chased from the o t h e r two weavers o b s e r v e d , Gerardo Gusman i n T i n t a , and the unknown woman a t Sacsahuaman. -8-F i g u r e 1 South America Lima Pachacamac Pa r a c a s , P e n i n s u l a Urubamba »Pisac Cuzco • •Urcos L O Grande a z c a 'Lake T i t i c a c a ILa Paz BOLIVIA F i g u r e 2 A r c h e o l o g i c a l and Contemporary S i t e s i n Peru CHILE -11-F i g u r e 3 The Cuzco r e g i o n -12-CHAPTER 2 THE ANDEAN WEAVER: PAST AND PRESENT The s t a n d a r d p i c t u r e o f t h e Andean p e a s a n t woman i s o f a p e r s o n who i s always busy w i t h h e r hands. I f t h e woman i s s i t t i n g anywhere and n o t wo r k i n g , t h e n she has some y a r n and a drop s p i n d l e . She s p i n s c o n s t a n t l y , whether a t home o r i n t h e market, w a t c h i n g o v e r t h e s m a l l p i l e s o f v e g e t a b l e s t h a t she.has come t o b a r t e r o r s e l l . On h e r way t o t h a t same market, l a i d e n down w i t h a baby and goods t i e d on h e r back, she w i l l s p i n as she walks b r i s k l y a l o n g . The i m p l i c a t i o n i n t h i s p i c -t u r e i s t h a t s p i n n i n g and weaving a r e numbered among t h e women's a r t s . I n p r a c t i c e t h i s i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y so. In p r e - c o n q u e s t t i m e s , under the I n c a r u l e , t h e r e was a c o m p l i c a t e d system o f r e c i p r o c a l d u t i e s . As Murra e x p r e s s es i t (1962: 715) one o f the two main economic o b l i g a t i o n s which each i n d i v i d u a l had t o the s t a t e , was the s u p p l y o f woven c l o t h , b u t i n r e t u r n , the s t a t e g u a r a n t e e d a s u p p l y o f f i b r e s t o each p e a s a n t f a m i l y f o r i t s needs. F i b r e t o weave c l o t h f o r ^ ^ r i g h t t o wool and c o t t o n crown and c h u r c h from community s t o c k s f o r own c l o t h i n g T h i s exchange o f f i b r e s i n r e t u r n f o r making up a c e r t a i n q u o t a o f f a b r i c was i n a d d i t i o n t o any f i b r e s , whether o f a l p a c a o r c o t t o n , t o which the p e a s a n t might have a c c e s s t h r o u g h a y l l u ( c l a n ) c r o p s o r her d s and o c c a s i o n -a l b a r t e r . -13-I t i s i m p l i e d i n t h e c h r o n i c l e s t h a t t h e l a b o u r l e v e l s e t by t h e s t a t e was based on the s i z e o f a man's f a m i l y and t h e r e f o r e t h e goods r e c e i v e d i n r e t u r n were a l s o based on the a s s e s s e d needs o f t h e f a m i l y . There seems t o have been s e v e r a l l e v e l s o f l a b o u r which each f a m i l y was o b l i g e d t o c a r r y o u t . S e r v i c e s were owed t o the c h u r c h and t h e s t a t e , and tbi-the k o r a k a , who h e l d l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o see t h a t a l l was done as r e q u i r e d . S i n c e d u t i e s and a l l o w a n c e s were based on the s i z e o f t h e f a m i l y , i t r e q u i r e d e v e r y member o f the f a m i l y t o be o c c u p i e d w i t h some share o f the l a b o u r . Thus the d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r was l e s s r i g i d t h a t i t might have been under o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Boys and g i r l s l e a r n t t o s p i n and weave. While the women were e x p e c t e d t o weave c l o t h i n g and o t h e r t e x t i l e s f o r t h e f a m i l y use, t h e men who were too o l d o r c r i p p l e d f o r m i t t a l a b o u r (work on c h u r c h and s t a t e l a n d ) , and t h e c h i l d r e n d i d t h e s p i n n i n g and ropemaking. They a l s o wove sacks and o t h e r c o a r s e f a b -r i c s , depending on t h e i r age and a b i l i t y (Murra: 711). Contemporary r e -s e a r c h c o n f i r m s t h i s f a c t , a l t h o u g h t h e s p e c i f i c s v a r y from r e g i o n t o r e g i o n . More w i l l be s a i d l a t e r o f t h i s modern d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f t a s k . E a r l y r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e S p a n i s h c h r o n i c l e s d i f f e r as t o e x a c t l y how many woven p i e c e s were r e q u i r e d o f each p e a s a n t f a m i l y , b u t c e r t a i n l y one garment was woven f o r the s t a t e t o a s e t s t a n d a r d o f s i z e and q u a l i t y . Other a r t i c l e s may have been r e q u i r e d by t h e k oraka on the l o c a l a y l l u l e v e l o f r e c i p r o c i t y . T h i s q u a n t i t y o f c l o t h would s t i l l have been s u f f i -c i e n t t o meet o n l y a s m a l l p a r t o f t h e i m p e r i a l and r i t u a l needs. A l t h o u g h a l l the c l o t h was d o u b t l e s s c o m p e t e n t l y wove, no p e a s a n t f a m i l y would have had the t i m e , amongst a l l the o t h e r d u t i e s and n e c e s s a r y l a b o u r i n t h e f i e l d s , t o produce c l o t h o f t h e h i g h q u a l i t y and f i n e n e s s o f d e c o r a t i o n t h a t i s t h e r u l e r a t h e r t h a n the e x c e p t i o n w i t h many o f the a r c h e o l o g i c a l t e x t i l e s . T h i s t y p e o f weaving was c a r r i e d o u t by s p e c i a l i s t s . - 1 4 -P o s t c o n q u e s t r e p o r t s m e n t i o n v a s t w a r e h o u s e s p a c k e d w i t h b u n d l e s o f c l o t h . E v e n a f t e r e x t e n s i v e l o o t i n g , l i t t l e i m p r e s s i o n w a s m a d e o n t h e o v e r a l l q u a n t i t y t h a t h a d b e e n s t o r e d . T h i s c l o t h w a s u s e d a s p a y -m e n t f o r t h e s o l d i e r s , a s a n a w a r d i n d i c a t i n g i n c r e a s e d s t a t u s f o r a n o b l e ( c e r t a i n t y p e s o f t e x t i l e s w e r e e x c l u s i v e t o c e r t a i n r a n k s ) , a s a s i g n o f f a v o u r o n t h e p a r t o f t h e I n c a , a n d a s s . a . r r e w a r d j - f o r r n e r i t i o u s s e r v i c e . T e x t i l e s a l s o p l a y e d a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n r i t u a l s , b e i n g u s e d t o c l o t h e i d o l s , d e c o r a t e s h r i n e s , a n d f o r d e s t r u c t i o n b y b u r n i n g a s a s a c r i f i c e . I n o r d e r t o p r o d u c e s u c h a q u a n t i t y o f f i n e c l o t h g r o u p s h a d t o e v o l v e . J . Rowe m e n t i o n s q o m p i - k a m a y o c , o r t a p e s t r y w e a v e r s ( 1 9 4 6 : 2 6 8 ) . T h e s e c r a f t s m e n w o u l d w o r k f u l l t i m e f o r t h e e m p e r o r w h o d i s t r i b u t e d t h e i r s u r p l u s w o r k a s g i f t s a n d r e w a r d s t o t h e n o b i l i t y . T h e w e a v e r s w e r e s u p p l i e d w i t h f o o d a n d c l o t h i n g f r o m t h e e m p i r e ' s w a r e h o u s e s . T h e c o n -t r o l o f t h e women s u b j e c t s w a s a s a r b i t r a r y a s t h a t o f t h e m e n . G i r l s a b o u t t e n y e a r s o f a g e , w h o w e r e s e l e c t e d b u g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s f o r o u t s t a n d i n g b e a u t y a n d p h y s i c a l p e r f e c t i o n , w e r e p l a c e d i n c o n v e n t s c a l l e d a k l l a - k o n a , w h e r e t h e y w e r e e d u c a t e d . T h e g i r l s s p e n t f o u r y e a r s l e a r n i n g t o s p i n a n d w e a v e , a s w e l l a s o h t e r h o u s e h o l d o c c u p a t i o n s . Some o f t h e w o m e n w e r e g i v e n a s w i v e s t o n o b l e s a n d s u c c e s s f u l w a r r i o r s ; o t h e r s w e r e d e d i c a t e d t o t h e g o d s a n d s e r v e d a t t e m p l e s a n d s h r i n e s ; s t i l l o t h e r s w e r e : s e l e c t e d a s c o n c u b i n e s f o r t h e I n c a , t o w e a v e h i s c l o t h i n g a n d p r e -p a r e h i s f o o d . O n e r o y a l g a r m e n t d e s c r i b e d b y M o r u a w a s s o f i n e t h a t i t c o u l d b e f i t t e d i n t o t h e h o l l o w o f o n e h a n d ( M u r r a 1 9 6 2 : 7 1 9 ) . A l l o f t h e s e w o m e n w e r e e x p e c t e d t o b u s y t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t e x t i l e s , w h e t h e r f o r c h u r c h o r s t a t e . -15-The p r i n c i p a l f i b r e s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e P e r u v i a n s were c o t t o n , and t h e wool o f the c a m e l i d s : l l a m a , a l p a c a , huanaco and v i c u n a . The c o t -t o n grew i n a wide v a r i e t y o f shades from cream t o brown. U s i n g y a r n s from t h e s e f i b r e s t h e P e r u v i a n s made f i n e , complex t e x t i l e s , d e v e l o p i n g t e c h n i q u e s t h a t have n o t been found anywhere e l s e i n t h e w o r l d . Some o f the f i n e s t have a t h r e a d count o f o v e r t h r e e hundred w e f t t h r e a d s p e r i n c h . B i r d s t a t e s t h a t "some o f them rank among the f i n e s t f a b r i c s e v e r p roduced." (1949: 256). Cobo (Murra 1962: 711) l i s t s two c l a s s e s o f f a b r i c s . The warp-faced c l o t h p r o d u c e d by the p e a s a n t s f o r t h e i r own use, b o t h as b l a n k e t s and c l o t h i n g , was c a l l e d awasqa. I t was r a t h e r rough, t h i c k and i n d i f f e r e n t -l y c o l o u r e d i n comparison w i t h t h e work o f the a k l a women. The o t h e r c l o t h was kumpi, a much f i n e r and s o f t e r f a b r i c woven on a d i f f e r e n t loom. The weave was smooth and c o n t i n u o u s , so f i n e t h a t no t h r e a d r i d g e s c o u l d be seen. Kumpi f a b r i c s were so f i n e t h a t European t e x t i l e s s u f f e r e d by comparison. Y e t e i g h t e e n y e a r s l a t e r , i n 1550, C i e z a de Leon speaks o f t h e a r t o f kumpi weaving as b e i n g l o s t (Murra 1962: 711). W i t h the overthrow o f th e I n c a empire and t h e complete d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e system o f government, t h e r e was no one t o o v e r s e e t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c l o t h by t h e qompi-kamayoc and th e a k l l a - k o n a . As a n a t u r a l consequen-ce the s p e c i a l i z e d t y p e s o f weaving, which r e q u i r e d g r e a t s k i l l , d i e d o u t and a l l t h a t remained o f th e n a t i v e t r a d i t i o n was t h e p e a s a n t weaving. A l t h o u g h t h e r e must s t i l l have been many weavers , even among t h e p e a s a n t s , who were c a p a b l e o f r e a l v i r t u o s i t y i n t h e p r a c t i c e o f t h e i r c r a f t , t h e r e was no demand f o r f i n e c l o t h . I n s t e a d , a l l weaving was t o produce c l o t h -i n g f o r the f a m i l y , w i t h perhaps a l i t t l e e x t r a t h a t c o u l d be t r a d e d f o r y a r n and f o o d s t u f f s t h a t c o u l d n o t be grown l o c a l l y . -16-A f t e r t h e c o n q u e s t a l p a c a y a r n s c o n t i n u e d t o be p r i z e d f o r woven narrow s c a r v e s , k n i t t e d caps and sweaters, and as a w e f t i n some o f t h e ponchos, b u t sheep wool, i n t r o d u c e d by t h e S p a n i s h , became most common. U n t i l r e c e n t l y much o f the handwoven garments produced i n t h e h i g h l a n d s were made o f sheep's wool. The o l d , n a t u r a l dyes t h a t were f i r s t used on the c a m e l i d f i b r e s and t h e n on wool, have been r e p l a c e d by commercial, a n i l i n e dyes, bought i n powdered form a t a l l t h e n a t i v e markets. The warp-faced weaves t h a t a r e s t i l l t o be found i n t h e h i g h l a n d v i l l a g e s , a r e woven from a v e r y t i g h t l y t w i s t e d y a r n . T h i s makes them v e r y hardwearing, and v i r t u a l l y r a i n p r o o f . Whereas i n t h e p a s t a l p a c a would have been used f o r t h e ponchos and mantas t h a t some o f the campe- sinos^" s t i l l wear, nowadays wool i s th e predominant f i b r e , w i t h t h e syn-t h e t i c y a r n s which have become more p o p u l a r . Where l l a m a f l e e c e i s spun i t i s used t o weave the l a r g e sacks t h a t a r e used t o s t o r e t h e l o c a l produce and t o t r a n s p o r t i t t o market, e i t h e r by b u r r o o r t r u c k . In a d d i t i o n , s y n t h e t i c " o r l o n " y a r n s a r e used, a l o n e o r i n combi-n a t i o n w i t h wool, f o r mantas, ponchos and c a r r y i n g c l o t h s . The y a r n i s bought i n t h e market i n c o m m e r c i a l l y spun s k e i n s . These s k e i n s a r e t h e n overspun, u s i n g t h e drop s p i n d l e , t o g i v e t h e ,f<yarn a t i g h t e r t w i s t and make i t more ha r d w e a r i n g . The y a r n i s t h e n warped up i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l manner and woven. The c o l o u r s o f t h e s y n t h e t i c y a r n s a r e h a r s h e r and b r i g h t e r , and do n o t s o f t e n and f a d e as t h e garment ages. W h i l e some S p a n i s h name f o r the I n d i a n p e a s a n t s -17-garments a r e woven e n t i r e l y o f s y n t h e t i c y a r n , many o t h e r s have o n l y a few p l a i n s t r i p e s o r p a t t e r n bands o f s y n t h e t i c y a r n , as i n t h e h a c i e n -dado s t y l e o f brown s t r i p e d ponchos The p a t t e r n s woven i n t o t h e garments t h a t a r e made on the c o n t i n u -ous warp loom a r e t r a d i t i o n a l i n t h e sense t h a t t h e y b e l o n g t o a v i l l a g e o r r e g i o n . The l o c a l p o p u l a c e can i d e n t i f y where a r t i c l e s come from, by t h e i r d e s i g n s . Some o f t h e s e d e s i g n s have been found on a r c h e o l o g i -c a l t e x t i l e s , b u t many o f them a r e i n s t e a d i n f l u e n c e d by c o l o n i a l S p a n i s h weaving. An o b v i o u s example i s t h e f l o w e r o r r o s a s d e s i g n t h a t adorns t h e T i n t a poncho and uncuna ( c a r r y i n g c l o t h ) . Another example, o f t e n found on b e l t s , o r as m o t i f , r e p r e s e n t i n g a h o r s e and r i d e r . The P e r u -v i a n s saw t h e i r f i r s t horsemen-:when P i z a r r o and h i s men a r r i v e d . A l t h o u g h t h e p e a s a n t t r a d i t i o n ,of c l o t h making has c o n t i n u e d r e l a -t i v e l y unchanged i n s o f a r as t h e equipment and t h e weaving t e c h n i q u e and the weave s t r u c t u r e s a r e concerned, i t i s now a p p l i e d o n l y t o t h e making o f ponchos, mantas, uncunas and b e l t s . O t h e r n a t i v e c l o t h i n g , which has d e v e l o p e d an unique s t y l e i n i m i t a t i o n o f e a r l i e r S p a n i s h models, i s woven i n s t e a d on a home b u i l t t r e a d l e loom, based on t h o s e i n t r o d u c e d by t h e S p a n i s h . On t h i s loom t h e men weave a p l a i n weave w o o l l e n c l o t h about twenty i n c h e s wide. The c l o t h i s known by i t s S p a n i s h name o f b a y e t a . The t h r e a d , always s i n g l e p l y , and o f t e n hand spun, i s t r a d i t i o n -a l l y dyed b l a c k b e f o r e weaving. I t i s used t o make s k i r t s f o r t h e women and p a n t s f o r t h e men. A n a t u r a l , d i r t y w h i t e c l o t h i s woven f o r w a i s t -c o a t s and j a c k e t s f o r men and women, and as underpant m a t e r i a l f o r t h e men. A v a r i a n t o f t h i s m a t e r i a l , used f o r men's s u i t i n g , i n i m i t a t i o n -18-o f European s t y l e s , i s woven .in a b l a c k and white t w i l l weave. Photo-graphs t a k e n by the Bingham e x p e d i t i o n i n 1910 ( F e r r i s 1916) show Cusguenos (the men o f Cuzco ) , w e a r i n g p a n t s and w a i s t c o a t s o f t h i s m a t e r i a l . A l l o f these m a t e r i a l s are a v a i l a b l e by the y a r d i n markets i n the major c i t i e s . A more r e c e n t development has been the f a c t o r y , commercial weaving i n d u s t r y , which produces a f i n e r q u a l i t y o f t w i l l weave, w o o l l e n c l o t h from c o m m e r c i a l l y spun y a r n . T h i s c l o t h i s r e f e r r e d t o as b a y e t i l l a ( l i t e r a l l y l i t t l e bayeta) "j Whether woven on a c o n t i n u o u s warp loom, a t r e a d l e loom o r i n a commercial f a c t o r y , each c l o t h has i t s p l a c e i n the t r a d i t i o n a l costume„of the campesino. T r a d i t i o n a l l y o n l y men weave on the t r e a d l e loom. Stevenson, i n h i s s t u d y o f the a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g the community o f S a n t i a g o de Chocorvos, which s t r e t c h e s a l o n g the l e a V a l l e y , from near the c o a s t up i n t o the. h i g h l a n d p l a t e a u , r e p o r t s t h a t w h i l e t h e women do a l l the s p i n n i n g gen-e r a l l y o n l y the men weave. Unless someone i n h e r h o u s e h o l d i s ca p a b l e o f weaving, the woman who has spun the y a r n , takes i t t o the l o c a l weaver, who may a l s o double as a c u r e r . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y the case i n the more i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s which l a c k enough p e o p l e t o s u p p o r t a s e t t l e d c r a f t s m a n weaver. I n some households where the women do weave i t i s o n l y s m a l l a r t i c l e s such as b e l t s and c h i l d r e n ' s ponchos (1974:8). The l o c a l f o l k t r a d i t i o n h o l d s t h a t i n p r e c o n q u e s t times both men and women d i d weave. From the Cuzco r e g i o n , G o o d e l l (1968:6) r e p o r t s t h a t men, women and c h i l d r e n s p i n w h i l e w a l k i n g a l o n g w i t h heavy l o a d s on t h e i r b a c k s , b u t -19-she a l s o remarks t h a t i n a l l b u t t h e most i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s t h e s p i n n i n g i s l e f t t o t h e women. The r e l e g a t i o n o f s p i n n i n g t o t h e women seems even more marked now than i t was a few y e a r s ago. The men a r e now ashamed t o be seen s p i n n i n g i n p u b l i c . I n my t r a v e l s t h r o u g h some o f t h e same a r e a t e n y e a r s l a t e r , I saw no men s p i n n i n g . G o o d e l l f u r t h e r comments t h a t th e p l y i n g o f the y a r n i s s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d t o be men's work, a l t h o u g h no woman would h e s i t a t e t o p l y t h e y a r n when i t needed d o i n g . T h i s d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r may r e l a t e t o t h e p r e - c o n q u e s t t a s k o f rope and y a r n making by the o l d men and t h e c r i p p l e s . V e r y few women were o b s e r v e d s p i n n i n g whether i n t h e towns o r i n t h e c o u n t r y , a l t h o u g h t h e r e must s t i l l be a f a i r number o f women s p i n n i n g somewhere, t o produce t h e q u a n t i t i e s o f y a r n n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e handwoven and t r e a d l e woven f a b r i c s t h a t a r e prod u c e d . I n t h e v i l l a g e o f Ghinchero where I s t a y e d f o r s e v e r a l days t h e o n l y f o r e i g n e r t h e r e , I saw o n l y two women s p i n n i n g . I t may have been t h a t I was n o t i n t h e r i g h t p l a c e a t the r i g h t t i m e . One o f t h e s p i n n e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t h e r e l d e s t d aughter, who was about tw e l v e y e a r s o l d , was t h e o n l y c h i l d l e a r n i n g t o weave. A l t h o u g h she d i d h e l p h e r mother w i t h t h e weaving she was n o t o b s e r v e d t o do any s p i n n i n g . I n c o n t r a s t w i t h Stevenson, G o o d e l l seems t o have e n c o u n t e r e d o n l y women weavers, some o f whom were p r o f e s s i o n a l s , w h i l e t h e o t h e r s wove o n l y f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s . A l l coped w i t h t h e d i s t r a c t i o n o f c h i l d r e n and house-h o l d c h o r e s d u r i n g t h e i r weaving t i m e . ( B i r d 1968: 14-5). A. Rowe (1975: 31), who a l s o c a r r i e d o u t r e s e a r c h i n t h e Guzco r e g i o n , came a c r o s s s e v e r a l male weavers, b u t r e p o r t e d on a l a r g e r number o f women than men a t work -20-p r o d u c i n g t e x t i l e s . A woman weaver i n Lauramarka, who used a s t a k e d o u t loom s a i d t h a t s onetimes t h e men used a b a c k - t e n s i o n e d loom, b u t t h a t wo-men d i d n o t , because i t gave them backache. A male weaver from Q'atgua when asked about t h e ma t t e r s a i d t h a t he would use a back t e n s i o n loom when weaving s m a l l p i e c e s such, as a woman's shawl, b u t t h a t f o r l a r g e r f a b r i c s such as a man's poncho, he s t a k e d o u t t h e loom (A. Rowe 1975: 32). From my own o b s e r v a t i o n n e a r Sacsahuaman I can r e p o r t on a woman weaver u s i n g a d i a g o n a l l y s t a k e d o u t loom. I n o l l a n t a y t a m b o , I o b s e r v e d a woman working on a back t e n s i o n e d loom, w h i l e i n T i n t a I saw a man working on a h o r i z o n t a l l y s t a k e d o u t loom. I n T i n t a a f a m i l y o f weavers who were v i s i t e d b r i e f l y a l l seemed t o work on t h e back t e n s i o n loom. From t h i s i t can be seen t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o draw any c o n c l u s i o n s as t o who weaves on which.loom s e t - u p . _The v a r i a t i o n s may be r e g i o n a l b u t as y e t i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e . The t r a d i t i o n i s d e c l i n i n g r a p i d l y . One has o n l y t o r e a d G o o d e l l ' s f i e l d n o t e s on w e a v e r s . ( B i r d 1968: 14-5) t o r e a l i z e t h i s . F o r example o n l y one c h i l d i n C h i n c h e r o was l e a r n i n g t o weave. I f f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s n o t c a r r i e d o u t soon t h e r e w i l l be no weavers l e f t t o s t u d y . Some o f t h e weavers i n t e r v i e w e d i n t h e t h r e e s t u d i e s i n t h e Cuzco Region r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e c u r r e n t demand f o r t e x t i l e s had changed. As t h e v i l l a g e s became more a c c e s s i b l e t h e men began t o f i n d work o u t s i d e t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l community, t h e y p r e f e r r e d p l a i n Hilrown o r q u i e t l y s t r i p e d ponchos, w i t h v e r y l i t t l e c o l o u r i n them, which i m i t a t e d t h o s e o f t h e haciendado and t h e m e s t i z o more c l o s e l y and t h u s c a r r i e d h i g h e r wearer s t a t u s . I n C h i n c h e r o I d i d n o t see a s i n g l e man wearing a p a t t e r n e d poncho. -21-A l l wore a p l a i n , s t r i p e d brown one. However, i t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h i s i s n o t a c o m p l e t e l y new- t r a d i t i o n i n t h e a r e a . Many o f the I n d i a n s photographed by F e r r i s (19161 i n 1910 were wearing p l a i n ponchos. A t the time t h a t t h e e x p e d i t i o n p a s s e d t h r o u g h , t h e s e were a l l r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s . Now even t h e more i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s a r e exposed t o t h e main stream o f P e r u v i a n l i f e . E x t e r n a l s t a n d a r d s o f d r e s s and s t a -t u s a r e b e i n g a c c e p t e d everywhere t o t h e d e t r i m e n t o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c r a f t s and t h e c e n t u r i e s o l d l i f e s t y l e . The h i g h e r s t a t u s a p p e a l o f t h e p l a i n e r ponchos r e a c h e s t h e I n d i a n from t h e m e s t i z o (those o f mixed S p a n i s h / I n d i a n blood) whom t h e y copy, 2 j u s t as t h e m e s t i z o s copy the b i a n c o s . T h i s change m weaving s t y l e s i s b e i n g encouraged by a d e v e l o p i n g awareness o f time-as-money, a p e c u -l i a r i l y modern t r a i t which d i d n o t p r e v i o u s l y a p p l y i n a s o c i e t y whose economy o p e r a t e d on an exchange o r b a r t e r b a s i s . As S t e v e n s o n and G o o d e l l b o t h found, a poncho i s e q u i v a l e n t t o two o r perhaps t h r e e sheep, which, i n monetary terms i s s m a l l payment f o r t h e many months o f l a b o u r t h a t a r e i n v o l v e d on making one garment. An o t h e r f a c t o r i n t h e change o f approach t o weaving has been b r o u g h t about by t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e d e a l -e r s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e from Cuzco, i t s e l f . They t r a v e l round t h e o u t l y i n g v i l l a g e s , l o o k i n g f o r o l d and new t e x t i l e s t h a t t h e y can s e l l t o t h e t o u r i s t s . Once t h e y have o b t a i n e d t h e s e t e x t i l e s , t h e y t h e n v i s i t t h e l a r g e r I n d i a n markets, where t h e y s e t up s t a l l s and s e t t h e i r p r i c e s f o r t h e t o u r i s t t r a d e . Not n e c e s s a r i l y meaning p u r e b l o o d e d S p a n i s h , b u t r a t h e r someone who i s i n a j o b where he has p e o p l e under him. -22-One o f t h e o f f s h o o t s o f t h e s a l e o f t e x t i l e s t o t h e t o u r i s t s has been t h e manufacture o f l a r g e t a p e s t r y r u g s , woven on l a r g e u p r i g h t looms which f i l l t h e house i n which t h e y a r e b u i l t . Many a r e woven on commis-s i o n from a d e a l e r o r e n t r e p r e n e u r , who pays a f i x e d and v e r y s m a l l p r i c e f o r each a r t i c l e . G e n e r a l l y t h e whole f a m i l y i s i n v o l v e d i n t h e b u s i -n e s s . A l t h o u g h s k i l l f u l l y woven many o f t h e s e b l a n k e t s a r e u t t e r l y g r o -t e s q u e . G a r i s h l y c o l o r e d m o t i f s , t a k e n from a r c h e o l o g i c a l a r t e f a c t s few o f which a r e even t e x t i l e s , a r e i s o l a t e d i n t h e m i d d l e o f a l a r g e , p l a i n g r e y f i e l d . Few o f t h e p i e c e s show a l i t t l e more awareness o f d e s i g n a e s t h e t i c s . These s t a n d o u t by comparison and g e n e r a l l y a l s o command h i g h e r p r i c e s . From t h e above d i s c u s s i o n i t can be seen t h a t t h e p i c t u r e o f t h e Andean woman as t h e weaver i s n o t e n t i r e l y c o r r e c t . The women do s p i n and weave, and i n many communities what used t o be a s h a r e d a c t i v i t y i s more and more women's work. But i n o t h e r a r e a s , such as t h e commercial f i e l d , weaving i s v e r y much men's work. Only t h e men o p e r a t e t h e looms which p r o d u c e narrow y a r d a g e . I n some f a m i l i e s weaving i s s t i l l a f a m i l y o c c u p a t i o n and t h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r i l y t r u e i n t h e f a m i l i e s where income i s drawn from t h e weaving o f l a r g e b l a n k e t s and h a n g i n g s . But d e s p i t e t h e new t o u r i s t s u p p o r t , many o f the p e o p l e who would have been a c t i v e i n weaving a few y e a r s ago no l o n g e r a r e . W h i l e a t Aguas C a l i e n t e s , t h e s t a t i o n b e f o r e t h a t o f Machu P i c c h u , I even found a p o l i c e m a n who used t o weave, b u t had n o t done so i n y e a r s . -23-CHAPTER 3 THE ANDEAN LOOM A. D e s c r i p t i o n Throughout the e n t i r e t r a d i t i o n o f t e x t i l e p r o d u c t i o n a c o n t i n u o u s warp loom has been used f o r the making o f m a t e r i a l . I n i t i a l l y i t must have l a c k e d any k i n d o f h e d d l e s o r h e d d i e s t r i n g s , which made weaving on the si m p l e s t i c k s e t up no l e s s slow and t e d i o u s t h a n the o t h e r t e x t i l e t e c h n i q u e s used by the a n c i e n t P e r u v i a n s i n the pre-Ceramic p e r i o d s and l a t e r . These t e c h n i q u e s i n c l u d e d b r a i d i n g , n e t t i n g , k n o t t i n g and sprang, a form o f f i x e d warp p l a i t i n g . W i t h the i n v e n t i o n o f h e d d l e s , which B i r d (1952:45) h y p o t h e s i z e s a t about 1200 B. C., the loom became a v i a b l e t e c h n i c a l t o o l , which speeded up the p r o d u c t i o n o f f a b r i c , and showed the advantages o f woven m a t e r i a l s o v e r those made by o t h e r methods. T h i s loom d e v e l o p e d e a r l y i n the weaving t r a d i t i o n and appears t o remain v i t u a l l y unchanged t o t h i s day. Examples o f looms found i n g r a ves which date back more than two thousand y e a r s , a r e i d e n t i c a l t o today's looms. Each loom s t i l l c o n s i s t s o f two o r p o s s i b l y t h r e e warp o r c l o t h beams, onto which the woven m a t e r i a l i s wound. There a r e a l s o a number o f p a t t e r n o r shed s t i c k s , a shed r o d , and h e d d i e s t r i n g s , u s u a l l y a t t a c h e d t o a he d d i e s t i c k . The b a s i c loom may be used w i t h a b a c k s t r a p , o r s t a k e d o u t on f o u r p o s t s s t u c k i n t o the ground. The w i d t h l i m i t on a back t e n s i o n loom i s about t h i r t y i n c h e s , -24-d e p e n d i n g u p o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l w e a v e r ' s - . a r m l e n g t h . W i d e r p i e c e s c o u l d b e w o v e n o n a f r a m e l o o m . C a s o n ( 1 9 7 6 : 2 5 ) s h o w s a Q u e c h u a woman w e a v i n g o n a l o o m w h i c h i s p r o p p e d u p a g a i n s t a w a l l o f t h e c o u r t y a r d . T h i s w e a v e r i s w o r k i n g t o d a y i n B o l i v i a . T h e a c t u a l t h r e a d i n g u p o f t h e l o o m d o e s n o t v a r y , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t so me o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s r e q u i r e m o r e t h a n o n e s e t o f h e d d l e s . M o s t o f t h e l o o m s f o u n d i n t h e p r e h i s t o r i c b u r i a l s a r e s m a l l . T h e y s e e m a l m o s t t o b e w e a v e r ' s s a m p l e l o o m s , a l t h o u g h t h i s i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e c a s e , s i n c e t h e y d o a c c o m p a n y a b o d y i n b u r i a l . O n e o f t h e f e w s u r v i v i n g , f u l l - s i z e l o o m , d e s c r i b e d b r i e f l y b y S t o t h e r t ( 1 9 7 9 : 1 4 ) d a t e s t o t h e 1 5 t h c e n t u r y . A mummy b u n d l e , w h i c h w a s w r a p p e d w i t h s e v e r a l l a y e r s o f c l o t h , w a s s e c u r e d a t o n e s t a g e w i t h r o p e s w h i c h w e r e a t t a c h e d ..to f o u r s t i c k s , o n e o f w h i c h c a n b e c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d a s a w e a v e r ' s b a t t e n o r s w o r d b e a t e r . T h e r e a r e t h r e e o t h e r s t i c k s a t t a c h e d t o t h e b u n d l e a n d t h e s e a r e l i k e l y t o b e o t h e r p a r t s o f a l o o m . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e l a c k o f f u l l s i z e a r c h e o l o g i c a l l o o m p a r t s r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . I f t h e y a r e n o t c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t e x t i l e s o r y a r n s t h e y m i g h t e a s i l y b e a s s u m e d t o b e s t i c k s o f u n k n o w n f u n c t i o n , t h a t h a d b e e n i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e b u r i a l . S i n c e m a n y o f t h e t e x t i l e p i e c e s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r s t u d y , h a v e b e e n f o u n d b y l o o t e r s , t h e r e i s t h e a d d i t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a n y l o o m s t i c k s m i g h t h a v e b e e n d i s c a r d e d a s b e i n g o f n o v a l u e . F u r t h e r i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t w i t h w o o d s o s c a r c e , a n d g o o d w e a v i n g e q u i p m e n t h i g h l y p r i z e d , t h e l o o m s may h a v e b e e n p a s s e d on from mother t o daughter. T h i s p r a c t i c e c o n t i n u e s t o t h i s day i n the h i g h l a n d s . S e v e r a l o f the weavers t o whom I spoke s a i d t h a t t h e y would never s e l l t h e i r looms. The p a r t s were w e l l worn i n by use and were f a m i l i a r t o the weaver. One weaver s a i d t h a t the loom t h a t she was u s i n g had been h e r mother's loom. A r c h e o l o g i c a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s and models o f looms a r e a l s o known. The e a r l i e s t i l l u s t r a t i o n i s on a MochelV o r V p a i n t e d v a s e , d a t e d t o about A.D. §00, i n the c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h Museum. On the i n n e r r i m o f the c e r a m i c a r e p a i n t e d a s e r i e s o f scenes which i n c l u d e e i g h t f i g u r e s s i t t i n g on the ground. These p e o p l e a r e weaving on back t e n s i o n looms. Each o f the weavers seems t o be w o r k i n g on a d i f f e r e n t t a p e s t r y o r b r o c a d e d d e s i g n , which i s p a i n t e d on t h e w a l l b e s i d e the f i g u r e . None o f the looms i l l u s t r a t e d i s shown w i t h h e d d l e s t i c k s , b u t t h i s does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t none were used a t any time. Looms d a t i n g from f a r e a r l i e r have been found w i t h the remains o f h e d d l e s t r i n g s s t i l l a t t a c h e d t o the warp t h r e a d s . O'Neale (1946: p l a t e 6) d e s c r i b e s a fragment o f a t e x t i l e , a l s o Moche, which i s i n t w i l l weave, s u g g e s t i n g the use o f m u l t i p l e h e d d l e s on the one loom. A. Rowe (1963:34-7) mentions Chimu models o f b o t h X-framed and A-framed looms. In one model from the Chancay V a l l e y ( K i d d e r 1963:84), c o n s t r u c t e d o f v e g e t a b l e m a t e r i a l wrapped around w i t h y a r n and t h e n d r e s s e d , a weaver i s s i t t i n g a t a A-framed loom which i s propped up a g a i n s t a t r e e . A narrow band o f weaving i s warped up as a c o n t i n u o u s warp and i s t i e d t o the end b a r s so t h a t the f i n i s h e d p i e c e would be f o u r - s e l v e d g e d . The loom i s a t t a c h e d t o the frame i n such a way t h a t -26-i t would be s i m p l e t o t a k e t h e weaving and end b a r s o f f the A-frame and c o n t i n u e working w i t h i t on a back t e n s i o n loom. A l t h o u g h i n t h e model t h e loom has been warped up f o r a narrow band i t c o u l d as e a s i l y have been warped up f o r a w i d e r p i e c e o f c l o t h . I n a s i m i l a r model i n the R o y a l O n t a r i o Museum ( f i g 4) a l s o from the Chancay V a l l e y , a weaver i s working w i t h t h e loom s e t up f o r back t e n s i o n weaving. The f a r end o f t h e loom i s a t t a c h e d t o a s t a k e i n the ground. A s m a l l e r f i g u r e , p o s s i b l y a c h i l d , i s w a t c h i n g . Poma de A y a l a (1936) a l s o g i v e s p i c t u r e s o f t h e back t e n s i o n loom i n use. H i s drawings a r e d e t a i l e d enough t o show how the warp i s l a s h e d t o the end b a r s , and a l s o the h e d d l e s t i c k , shed r o d and p a t t e r n s t i c k s i n p l a c e i n t h e warp ( f i g 5 ) . T h i s loom i s e x a c t l y the same as the one s t i l l i n use t o d a y t h r o u g h o u t P e r u , B o l i v i a and p a r t s o f Ecuador, Colombia and C h i l e . A l t h o u g h i t i s a s i m p l e p i e c e o f equipment some o f the most b e a u t i f u l and complex f a b r i c s i n the w o r l d were woven on i t . T a p e s t r y s h i r t s have been found which have a weft count o f o v e r t h r e e hundred t h r e a d s p e r i n c h , w h i l e many o f the gauzes a r e gossamer f i n e . V a r i o u s t y p e s o f frame looms o r tie-downs (loom a t t a c h e d t o f o u r s t a k e s i n the ground) must have been used a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s t o produce the e x t r e m e l y l a r g e r e c t a n g l e s o f c l o t h which have been r e p o r t e d from some o f the b u r i a l s . K r o e b e r e x c a v a t e d fragments o f t e x t i l e s from a b u r i a l a t C a h u a c h i , which O'Neale (1936:215) i n her a n a l y s i s o f t h e p i e c e s found t o be p a r t s o f one t e x t i l e . The p i e c e s f i t t e d t o g e t h e r t o form a r e c t a n g l e o f f a b r i c a t l e a s t s i x f e e t e i g h t i n c h e s l o n g , by -27-I F i g u r e 4 M o d e l o f w e a v e r f r o m C h a n c a y V a l l e y . ( i n the c o l l e c t i o n o r the R o y a l O n t a r i o Museum, Toronto.) -28-F i g u r e 5 1615 drawing o f a back t e n s i o n loom weaver, ( a f t e r Poma de A y a l a 1936) -29-f i v e f e e t f i v e i n c h e s wide. T h i s i s c o n s i d e r a b l y w i d e r than c o u l d have been c o m f o r t a b l y woven on a back t e n s i o n e d loom. In August, 1932, a mummy bundle from P a r a c a s was opened i n the Museo N a c i o n a l de A t r o p o l o g i a y A r c h e o l o g i a i n Lima. As o u t e r wrapping the bunddle had a c l o t h which was e s t i m a t e d t o be ove r f o u r y a r d s l o n g and seven f e e t seven i n c h e s wide (O'Neale 1936:216). K i n g (1965:44) mentions a Cavernas mummy bundle w i t h wrappings twenty y a r d s l o n g and f o u r y a r d s wide. T h i s c l o t h i s made up o f two l e n g t h s , each two y a r d s wide, which have been sewn t o g e t h e r . A l t h o u g h t h e back t e n s i o n s e t up seems t o have been most common i n p r e h i s t o r i c t i m e s , i t was n o t e x c l u s i v e l y used. A m i n a t u r e scene on t o p o f a b l a c k , p o l i s h e d Chimu c e r a m i c shows two women working a t an upright, frame loom. They a r e weaving a t a p e s t r y and t h e y a r e b e i n g watched by a man who seems t o be s u p e r v i s i n g them ( f i g 6 ) . Poma de A y a l a (1936) i n h i s p o s t conquest c h r o n i c l e s , g i v e s a v e r y c l e a r p i c t u r e o f t h i s same loom. A woman i s s i t t i n g weaving a t an u p r i g h t loom which i s s u p p o r t e d on two v e r t i c a l p o s t s . The coninuous warps are l a s h e d t o the beams a t the t o p and bottom o f the loom, t o produce the t r a d i t i o n a l f o u r s e l v e d g e s . As can be seen i n f i g u r e 7 the loom has been s e t up w i t h a he d d l e s t i c k , t o speed the i n s e r t i o n o f t h e weft. T h i s i s the same loom used by the qompi-kamayoc t o weave t h e l a r g e , f i n e t a p e s t r i e s t h a t so e x c i t e d t h e a d m i r a t i o n o f t h e S p a n i a r d s , a t the time o f the conquest, and s t i l l used t o d a y f o r the manufacture o f l a r g e b l a n k e t s and t a p e s t r i e s t h a t a r e made f o r s a l e t o t h e t o u r i s t s . -30-F i g u r e 6 U p r i g h t loom, from a model on a Chimu blackware c e r a m i c , ( i n the c o l l e c t i o n o f the Museo ' i n s i t i o ' Pachacamac) -31-F i g u r e 7 1615 drawing o f an u p r i g h t loom ( a f t e r Poma de A y a l a ) . -32-J u s t as t h e loom has not changed s i n c e p r e h i s t o r i c t i m e s , n e i t h e r has the way o f working on i t . Warping up i s s t i l l c a r r i e d o u t i n e s s e n t i a l l y the same way. Weavers a r e s t i l l p r o d u c i n g f a b r i c w i t h f o u r s e l v e d g e s , a l t h o u g h now i n s t e a d o f making a s e p a r a t e warp f o r the two h a l v e s o f a poncho o r manta, o f t e n now o n l y one warp i s made. I t i s l o n g enough f o r the two p i e c e s , which a r e woven up as b e f o r e and t h e n c u t a c r o s s the m i d d l e ; the raw ends a r e hemmed and the two p i e c e s sewn t o g e t h e r . U s u a l l y a b i n d i n g , a l s o handwoven, i s a p p l i e d a l l t h e way around the edge. T h i s p r o t e c t s t h e edges from wear and' h i d e s t h e two c u t edges. The attachment o f th e heddle s t r i n g s t o the h e d d l e s t i c k may be done i n s e v e r a l ways, a l l o f which a r e known from p r e h i s t o r i c t i m e s . A t t h i s p o i n t t h e r e i s not enough i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o t e l l whether t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e r e g i o n a l o r p e r s o n a l i n p r e f e r e n c e . Once the weaver b e g i n s she has s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e ways o f p r o c e e d -i n g . She may b e g i n by a t t a c h i n g t h e warp t o the c l o t h beam a t one end and then weave a few i n c h e s b e f o r e r e v e r s i n g t h e work and weaving from the o t h e r end u n t i l b o t h p a r t s meet. In t h i s c a s e she has t o a t t a c h a second c l o t h beam t o the o t h e r end. T h i s i s done u s i n g a h e a d i n g c o r d which i s p a s s e d through the warp. The h e a d i n g c o r d i s t h e n l a s h e d to the c l o t h beam and the f i r s t two o r t h r e e rows t h a t a r e woven use t h e l o o s e ends o f the h e a d i n g c o r d as a w e f t . The o t h e r way o f w o r k i n g i s t o s t a r t a t one end and weave t o w i t h i n a few i n c h e s o f the o t h e r end. The work i s then r e v e r s e d and -33-begun from the o t h e r end. E v e n t u a l l y , which e v e r one i s done the weaving meets and t h e r e i s a h a r d l y d i s c e r n a b l e j o i n i n the c l o t h . Some weavers a r e so s k i l l f u l t h a t the j o i n cannot be found i n the p a t t e r n . O t h e r s have a d i s l o c a t i o n i n the p a t t e r n . A t h i r d and e a s i e r method r e q u i r e s the p a t t e r n t o be i n t e r r u p t e d and p l a i n weave s u b s t i t u t e d a t t h a t p o i n t . Some o f the weavers now weave one l o n g p i e c e and c u t i t i n t h e m i d d l e . I n t h a t c a s e , they u s u a l l y t r y to have t h e meeting p o i n t i n the c e n t r e o f the p i e c e so t h a t t h e y do n o t have t o s l o w l y and p a i n s t a k i n g l y weave i n the j o i n , u s i n g a l o n g n e e d l e . The absence o f any break i n the p a t t e r n , o r a s l i g h t l y t h i n n e r a r e a i s a good i n d i c a t o r t h a t t h i s l a s t method has been used. I t i s more commonly found on the men's ponchos than on the women's mantas. B. Working P o s i t i o n s a t t h e Loom o There a r e s e v e r a l ways i n c h i c h the P e r u v i a n loom may be s e t up i n o r d e r t o weave m a t e r i a l f o r garments, b l a n k e t s , s a c k s and bags. Each o f the methods t h a t was o b s e r v e d w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t u r n . D e s p i t e t h e a p p a r e n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n many o f the d e s c r i p t i o n s and p i c t u r e s o f Andean looms, o t h e r than the t r e a d l e t y p e s , t h e r e i s s t i l l o n l y one b a s i c loom. I t i s the way i n which i t i s s e t up t h a t makes i t appear d i f f e r e n t and which has c r e a t e d c o n f u s i o n i n the l i t e r a t u r e . The loom may be s e t up i n d i f f e r e n t ways, a l l o f which have a l r e a d y been shown t o have been used i n p r e h i s t o r i c t i m e s . In -34-one s e t up the f a r end o f t h e loom i s t i e d t o a p o s t o r t r e e w h i l e the near end i s h e l d t a u t by a b e l t o r s t r a p which p a s s e s around the weavers back. F o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e loom i s sometimes r e f e r r e d t o as a back s t r a p o r back t e n s i o n loom, which l a t t e r term I have adopted. In o t h e r s e t ups the same loom may be a t t a c h e d t o p o s t s d r i v e n i n t o the ground. T h i s v e r s i o n i s u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o as a ground loom o r a h o r i z o n t a l loom, d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t i t i s n o t always h o r i z o n t a l . In the t h i r d v e r s i o n , the loom i s t i e d t o a frame and propped up a g a i n s t a t r e e o r w a l l . T h i s l a s t s e t up was not o b s e r v e d w h i l e I was i n Peru b u t Cason and C a h l a n d e r i l l u s t r a t e an example i n use i n B o l i v i a (1976:25). In the p a s t t h e s e d i f f e r e n t s e t ups have been t r e a t e d as i f they were c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t looms which bore no resemblance t o each o t h e r . I t i s not p o s s i b l e today to t e l l whether the d i f f e r e n t s e t ups a r e r e g i o n a l i n t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e , o r whether i t i s a p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e , i n which f u n c t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f the s i z e and weight o f the p i e c e a r e the d e c i d i n g f a c t o r s . More r e s e a r c h i s u r g e n t l y needed w h i l e i t i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e t o f i n d enough weavers u s i n g the d i f f e r e n t methods to o b t a i n an adequate s a m p l i n g . However, f o r whatever r e a s o n , o f t h e s e v e r a l weavers who were o b s e r v e d each was u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t s e t up. O t h e r s have been d e s c r i b e d by A. Rowe (1975). In the f i r s t method o b s e r v e d i n a hamlet j u s t beyond Sacsahuaman, the loom was t i e d t o f o u r s t a k e s . The p o s t s had been s e t p e r m a n e n t l y i n t h e ground j u s t i n f r o n t o f one o f the s m a l l houses. The r e a r -35-s t a k e s were l o n g e r than the f r o n t p a i r . The warp beam o f the loom was t i e d t o the t o p o f the r e a r s t a k e s and l a s h e d s e c u r e l y i n p l a c e . The f r o n t o r c l o t h beam was a t t a c h e d by c o r d s t o h a l f w a y down the f r o n t p o s t s . As t h e work p r o g r e s s e d and the woven a r e a was wrapped around t h e c l o t h beam the t i e c o r d s would be l e n g t h e n e d . T h i s can be seen i n f i g u r e 39 which shows the weaver a t work. I t a l s o c l e a r -l y i l l u s t r a t e s her body p o s i t i o n . The woman k n e e l - s i t s i n f r o n t o f the loom w i t h h e r knees t u c k e d i n under i t . In t h i s p o s i t i o n t h e weaver works w i t h s l i g h t l y b e n t arms, her hands h e l d a t a c o m f o r t a b l e d i s t a n c e from h e r body. By l e a n i n g f o r w a r d as f a r as p o s s i b l e she can m a n i p u l a t e the shed r o d and the h e d d i e s t i c k i n o r d e r to changes the sheds. The drawback t o t h i s type o f s e t up i s t h a t the weaver has no easy c o n t r o l o f the t e n s i o n on the warp t h r e a d s . The o n l y way t h a t she can a d j u s t t h e t e n s i o n i s by l o o s e n i n g and t i g h t e n i n g the c o r d s which t i e the c l o t h beam to the f r o n t p o s t s . S i n c e t h i s would i d e a l l y have to be done s e v e r a l times each warp passage the weaver works under a s l i g h t h a n d i c a p . A second s e t up was o b s e r v e d a t T i n t a . Here the loom was a l s o s t a k e d o u t , b u t i t was t i e d t o v e r y s h o r t s t a k e s . There was o n l y j u s t enough room f o r the weaver's knees underneath. W i t h such a low s e t up the weaver has to l e a n f o r w a r d o v e r the work a l l the time. T h i s h o r i z o n t a l o r ground loom i s a l s o found i n B o l i v i a and O'Neale r e f e r s t o i t as an Aymara type o f loom (1949:115) as does L a Barne -36-who shows two p i c t u r e s o f a loom t h a t i s al m o s t r e s t i n g on t h e ground (1948: p l a t e 8 ) . Cason r e p o r t s i t b e i n g used by Ouechus weavers i n B o l i v i a (Cason and C a l l a n d e r 1976:16). T h i s type s u f f e r s from the same drawbacks mentioned above. The t h i r d s e t up o b s e r v e d i n Oll a n t a y t a m b o was o f a weaver who worked w i t h a b r o a d l e a t h e r b e l t t o c o n t r o l the t e n s i o n on the warp. The woman s a t on a v e r y low s t o o l , a l t h o u g h she c o u l d as e a s i l y have s a t o r k n e l t on the ground. The warp beam was a t t a c h e d by a c o r d t o a house p o s t so t h a t the warp was a t a s l i g h t a n g l e . The woman s a t h e r s e l f on the s t o o l a t a s u f f i c i e n t d i s t a n c e t o keep the warp s t r e t c h e d under t e n s i o n . By l e a n i n g h e r we i g h t f o r w a r d o r backward she c o u l d reduce o r i n c r e a s e the t e n s i o n on the warp, as n e c e s s i t a t e d by the v a r i o u s s t e p s o f weaving. The p r i n c i p a l d i s a d v a n t a g e t o t h i s s e t up i s t h a t i t does p l a c e some s t r a i n on the back muscles which can r e s u l t i n backaches i f a weaver works f o r s e v e r a l hours a t a time. Any o f the s e t ups d e s c r i b e d above can be e a s i l y i n t e r c h a n g e d . I t i s s i m p l y a matter o f e i t h e r t y e i n g the loom down t o f o u r p o s t s o r s e t t i n g i t up w i t h a l a r g e back s t r a p . The l a t t e r method i s the one most l i k e l y t o be used when a weaver i s t r a v e l l i n g and ta k e s the weaving w i t h h e r . T h i s was what had happened i n the ca s e o f the woman ob s e r v e d i n Ol l a n t a y t a m b o . I d i d not manage t o d i s c o v e r whether she a l s o worked on the back t e n s i o n e d loom when whe was a t home o r whether she s t a k e d o u t the loom l i k e the woman near Sacsahuaman. Weavers have a l s o b e e n d e s c r i b e d a s w o r k i n g s i t t i n g o n a c h a i r , b u t t h i s c a n b e t a k e n t o b e a m o d e r n d e v e l o p m e n t ( A . Rowe 1975:43). I n s u m m a r y , t h e w e a v e r may c h o o s e a m o n g v a r i o u s m e t h o d s o f s e t t i n g u p t h e l o o m f o r w e a v i n g . T h e d e c i s i o n i s o b v i o u s l y a f f e c t e d b y s e v e r a l f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g t h e s i z e o f t h e p i e c e b e i n g w o v e n , w h e t h e r t h e w e a v e r w i l l b e w o r k i n g a t home O E t r a v e l l i n g , a n d p e r s o n a l p r e f e r a n c e f o r w h a t i s f e l t t o b e t h e m o s t e f f i c i e n t a n d c o m f o r t a b l e w a y o f w o r k i n g . T h e d e c i s i o n n e e d n o t b e f i n a l . A n y w e a v i n g w h i c h h a s b e e n s t a k e d o u t c a n b e c o n v e r t e d e a s i l y t o a b a c k t e n s i o n l o o m . T h e r e a r e a d v a n t a g e s t o b o t h s e t u p s . T o m a k e a f i r m c l o t h a l l w e a v e r s b e a t t h e w e f t c a r e f u l l y t o p a c k i t t i g h t l y . T h u s a s t h e w e a v i n g p r o g r e s s e s t h e w a r p b e c o m e s s h o r t e r , d u e t o t h e t a k e u p o f t h e w a r p b e i n g w r a p p e d a r o u n d t h e w e f t , w h i c h i s c o m p l e t e l y c o v e r e d ( f i g 8 ) . A w e a v e r u s i n g a b a c k t e n s i o n l o o m a d j u s t s a u t o m a t i c a l l y t o t h i s c h a n g e i n t h e w a r p l e n g t h . A l o o m w h i c h h a s b e e n s t a k e d o u t i s h e l d a t a s e t t e n s i o n . D u e t o t h i s f i x e d t e n s i o n t h e w e a v e r h a s l e s s e a s e o f c o n t r o l i n c h a n g i n g t h e w a r p s h e d s , e s p e c i a l l y f r o m t h e s h e d r o d s h e d t o t h e h e d d i e s h e d , w h e r e l o o s e w a r p s m a k e t h e c h a n g e mu,<cb e a s i e r . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e f r o n t c l o t h b a r i s g e n e r a l l y t i e d t o t h e p o s t s b y c o r d s , s o t h a t a s t h e w a r p l e n g t h d e c r e a s e s t h e c o r d s may b e l e n g t h e n e d . B u t w o r k i n g w i t h t h e s t a k e d o u t l o o m , e s p e c i a l l y t h e h i g h e r v e r s i o n , o c c a s i o n s l e s s b a c k s t r a i n t h a n t h e b a c k t e n s i o n l o o m . A l t h o u g h t h e w e a v e r w o r k i n g o n t h e b a c k t e n s i o n l o o m may h a v e m o r e b a c k s t r a i n , t h e -38-F i g u r e 8 Warp take up d u r i n g weaving, caused by t h e i n s e r t i o n and b e a t i n g o f the weft. F i g u r e 9 S p i n d l e and f l e e c e from Ollantaytambo -39-t e n s i o n on the warps i s q u i c k l y a d j u s t e d by a change i n the body p o s i t i o n , which g i v e s the weaver i d e a l c o n t r o l o f t h e warp t e n s i o n . -40-CHAPTER 4 THE WARP-PATTERNED WEAVES V A. D e f i n i t i o n The w a r p - p a t t e r n weaves c o n s i s t o f a wide v a r i e t y o f r e l a t e d s t r u c t u r e s i n one, two o r more c o l o u r s . I n w a r p - p a t t e r n weaves the warp t h r e a d s a r e p l a c e d so c l o s e t o g e t h e r t h a t the w e f t i s h i d d e n , making t h e f a b r i c w a r p -faced. P a t t e r n i n g i s c r e a t e d by the f l o a t i n g o f s e l e c t e d warp t h r e a d s o v e r two o r more w e f t s , i n c o n t r a s t w i t h warp-faced p l a i n weave, where the warp a l t e r n a t e s o v e r and under each c o n c e a l e d w e f t . Some o f the w a r p - p a t t e r n weaves a r e s i n g l e -f a c e d , t h a t i s , the d e s i g n shows c l e a r l y on o n l y one f a c e . On the u n d e r s i d e the unused, c o l o u r e d t h r e a d s f l o a t f r e e l y u n t i l r e q u i r e d a g a i n , a t which p o i n t they a r e bro u g h t up t o the f a c e once more. Others a r e d o u b l e - f a c e d w i t h the d e s i g n showing on b o t h s i d e s b u t w i t h the c o l o u r s r e v e r s e d . Thus where a m o t i f shows r e d surrounded by a whi t e ground on the r e v e r s e i t may show white w i t h a r e d ground on the o t h e r s i d e o f the f a b r i c . I n t h e case o f complementary-warp weaves t h i s i s caused by the warp b e i n g made up o f p a i r s o f a l t e r n a t e c o l o u r s . Where a t h r e a d o f one c o l o u r i s l i f t e d and p a s s e s o v e r the w e f t so t h a t i s shows on one s i d e , t h e o t h e r c o l o u r p a s s e s under t h e we f t , and t h e r e f o r e shows on the o t h e r s i d e . A l l these weaves share the t r a i t t h a t by t h e i r c o m p l e x i t y the weaver must have had the d e s i g n c l e a r l y i n mind b e f o r e b e g i n n i n g t o make the warp. T h i s p r e - p l a n n i n g -41-i s n o t e s s e n t i a l f o r some o f the o t h e r weaving t e c h n i q u e s such as t a p e s t r y , gauze and b r o c a d e . B. Review o f the L i t e r a t u r e on P e r u v i a n Weaving Techniques U n t i l r e c e n t l y , the major work o f a n a l y s i s was t h a t o f d ' H a r c o u r t . H i s book, Les T e x t i l s A n c i e n s de Perou e t l e u r s T e c h n i q u e s , was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1934 and p u b l i s h e d i n E n g l i s h i n 1962. H i s diagrams are s t i l l one o f the prime s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n on the s t r u c t u r e o f some p r e h i s t o r i c t e x t i l e s . H i s t e r m i n o l o g y i s n o t always as c l e a r and many p i e c e s o f d i s s i m i l a r though r e l a t e d t e c h n i q u e p;re grouped i n t o a s i n g l e c a t e g o r y . T h i s makes d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n d i f f i c u l t from the i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d . O'Neale (1936, 1937, 1942) p u b l i s h e d much t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t s u f f e r s from the same drawback as t h a t o f d ' H a r c o u r t . F o r example, p a t t e r n weaves o f p l a i n weave w i t h f l o a t p a t t e r n i n g does n o t d e s c r i b e v e r y c l e a r l y the v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i q u e s t h a t c o u l d f i t under e i t h e r o f t h e s e h e a d i n g s . Absent i s a n a l y s i s o f the s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s t r u c t u r e t h a t would d i f f e r e n t i a t e one p i e c e from a n o t h e r , and a i d i n making any comparison w i t h a s i m i l a r p i e c e from a n o t h e r c o l l e c t i o n . T e x t i l e s a r e u s u a l l y i n a d e q u a t e l y a n a l y s i s e d i n a r c h e o l o g i c a l r e p o r t s . One n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n i s E n g e l 1 s r e p o r t on the A s i a u n i t (1963) . E n g e l d e s c r i b e s many o f the t e x t i l e fragments e x c a v a t e d from each b u r i a l , so t h a t by a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h o t h e r o b j e c t s an approximate i d e a o f the time sequence may be d e v e l o p e d . A l t h o u g h more d e t a i l e d than o t h e r a r c h e o l o g i c a l r e p o r t s , E n g e l ' s t e r m i n o l o g y - 4 2 -i s s t i l l d e f i c e n t a n d some i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s a r e c l e a r l y i n c o r r e c t . I t i s r e g r e t a b l e t h a t n o t e x t i l e s t u d e n t s h a v e b e e n g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o l l a b e r a t e o n t h e s e r e p o r t s . A m a j o r a d v a n c e i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t e x t i l e t e r m i n o l o g y w a s t h e p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1 9 6 6 o f E m e r y ' s T h e P r i m a r y S t r u c t u r e o f F a b r i c s . T h i s i l l u s t r a t e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o v i d e s d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e m a j o r t e x t i l e s t r u c t u r e s a n d t h e i r s u b g r o u p i n g s f r o m a r o u n d t h e w o r l d . T h e t e c h n i c a l t e r m s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e b a s e d o n E m e r y ' s t e r m i n o l o g y . A n o u t s t a n d i n g e x a m p l e o f t h e u t i l i t y o f E m e r y ' s t e r m i n o l o g y i s K i n g ' s ( 1 9 6 5 ) a n a l y s i s o f t h e t e x t i l e s a n d b a s k e t r y o f t h e P a r a c a s p e r i o d f r o m t h e l e a V a l l e y . H o w e v e r , h e r s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h t h e t e x t i l e t r a d i t i o n o f t h e p a s t . T h e r e h a s b e e n n o a t t e m p t t o r e l a t e t h e p r e h i s t o r i c t r a d i t i o n t o t h e p r o c e s s o f c o n t e m p o r a r y w e a v i n g a s c a r r i e d o u t i n P e r u t o d a y . T h e o n l y c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t u d y o f w a r p - p a t t e r n e d w e a v e s i s A . R o w e ' s T h e W a r p - p a t t e r n e d W e a v e s o f t h e A n d e s ( 1 9 7 7 ) . A . Rowe a p p r o a c h e s t h e a n a l y s i s f r o m a c o n s t r u c t i o n a l p o i n t o f v i e w , d e s c r i b i n g t h e c l a s s e s i n t o w h i c h t h e w a r p - p a t t e r n e d w e a v e s may b e d i v i d e d . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n i s v a l u a b l e b o t h a s a t e c h n i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s o f w a r p - p a t t e r n e d w e a v e s a n d f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s d u r i n g t h e t i m e p e r i o d s . A l t h o u g h o f t r e m e n d o u s v a l u e A . R o w e ' s s t u d y i s s t i l l c o n c e r n e d o n l y -43-w i t h a n a l y s i s o f f i n i s h e d t e x t i l e s . I t does n o t answer the q u e s t i o n o f e x a c t l y how the p i e c e s were woven, a l t h o u g h much may be h y p o t h e s i z e d from an a n a l y s i s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e s . A. Rowe p u b l i s h e d a more d e t a i l e d a r t i c l e on the weaving p r o c e s s e s i n the Cuzco r e g i o n i n 1975. The d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e c o n c i s e and b e g i n t o s u p p l y some o f the much needed d a t a on the Andean weaving p r o c e s s e s . However Rowe does i n d i c a t e t h a t much a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i s needed t o answer some o f the q u e s t i o n s t h a t she r a i s e d , r e g a r d i n g d i v e r g e n c e s i n the way t h a t weaving i s e f f e c t e d on the loom. In h e r c o n c l u s i o n Rowe makes the p o i n t t h a t a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the loom a l o n e s u g g e s t s an u n i f o r m i t y o f t e c h n i q u e t h a t i s n o t i n f a c t the c a s e . In summary, w i t h r e g a r d t o the p r e h i s t o r i c t e x t i l e s o t h e r than d ' H a r c o u r t ' s book much o f the e a r l y work i s g e n e r a l l y too i n a d e q u a t e t o be o f much use. More r e c e n t l y the q u a l i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n and r e p o r t i n g has improved, b u t much remains t o be done, p a r t i c u l a r i l y i n r e s p e c t o f the p u b l i c a t i o n o f f u l l d e t a i l s o f a r c h e o l o g i c a l e x c a v a t i o n s . As t o the contemporary t e x t i l e t r a d i t i o n , the f i r s t d e t a i l e d r e p o r t has been p u b l i s h e d , b u t s i n c e i t r a i s e s many new q u e s t i o n s i t s h o u l d i n d i c a t e the n e c e s s i t y f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h and p u b l i c a t i o n . C. H i s t o r i c a l Development The a n c i e n t P e r u v i a n t e x t i l e t r a d i t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r i l y r i c h . By q u i t e e a r l y i n the t r a d i t i o n , most o f the t e c h n i q u e s t h a t a r e -44-k n o w n f r o m t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d , h a d a l r e a d y b e e n i n v e n t e d o r d i s -c o v e r e d . A b s e n t o n l y w e r e t h e d a m a s k w e a v e s , w h i c h t h e C h i n e s e d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e w e a v i n g o f s i l k , a m a t e r i a l u n a v a i l a b l e i n P e r u . T h e t r a d i t i o n b e g a n e i g h t m i l l e n i a a g o , w i t h t w i n e d a n d l o o p e d t e c h n i q u e s . W o v e n f a b r i c s d e v e l o p e d so me c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e l a t e r , a n d b y 2 0 0 B . C . c o m p l e x t e c h n i q u e s h a d b e e n d e v e l o p e d u s i n g t h e p r o p e r l o o m c o m p l e t e w i t h h e d d l e s . D e c o r a t i v e e m b r o i d e r y w a s u s e d i n p r o f u s i o n , c r e a t i n g t h e f i n e s t e a r l y f a b r i c s . Some o f t h e m o s t c o m -p l e x p a t t e r n w e a v e s h a d a l r e a d y b e e n d e v e l o p e d a n d w e r e b e i n g u s e d f o r s m a l l a r t i c l e s . F r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e M i d d l e H o r i z o n ( c i r c a 6 0 0 A . D . ) t o t h e S p a n i s h c o n q u e s t , t a p e s t r y b e c a m e t h e m a j o r s t a t u s t e c h n i q u e , r e f i n e d t o t h e p o i n t t h a t e x t r e m e l y f i n e p i e c e s w e r e w o v e n w i t h a s t o u n d i n g l y h i g h t h r e a d c o u n t s . I t i s s t i l l n o t p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h a c o m p l e t e c h r o n o l o g y f o r t h e w a r p - p a t t e r n e d t e x t i l e s . T h e r e a r e t o o m a n y g a p s i n t h e k n o w l e d g e a n d t o o m a n y p i e c e s w h i c h h a v e n o e x a c t p r o v e n i e n c e . A l t h o u g h t h e w a r p - p a t t e r n e d w e a v e s h a v e b e e n u s e d f o r m t h e e a r l i e s t d a y s o f w o v e n t e x t i l e s t h e y m i g h t a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n a m o n g t t h e l e s s p o p u l a r t e c h n i q u e s u s e d i n d i f f e r e n t t i m e p e r i o d s . H o w e v e r t h i s v i e w i s p r o b a b l y b i a s e d , b e i n g b a s e d o n a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e m o r e e l a b o r a t e k i n d s o f t e x t i l e s c h o s e n f o r m u s e u m c o l l e c t i o n s . E n o u g h w a r p - p a t t e r n e d p i e c e s h a v e b e e n c o l l e c t e d t o s h o w t h a t t h e r e h a d b e e n a c o n t i n u o u s t r a d i t i o n o f u s e s f r o m e a r l y p r e h i s t o r i c t i m e s t o t h e p r e s e n t d a y . - 4 5 -T r i ' e . - > e a r . l i e s t w a r p - f a c e d f a b r i c s w e r e e x c a v a t e d f r o m a m i d d e n n e a r H u a c a P r i e t a o n t h e c o a s t o f P e r u . A t t h i s p o i n t i n t i m e t h e m o r e p o p u l a r t e c h n i q u e s c o n t i n u e d t o b e t w i n i n g , u n t i l t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d d e v e l o p m e n t o f h e d d l e s t o c o n t r o l a n d s p e e d w a r p m a n i p u l a t i o n , s o m e -t i m e l a t e i n t h e I n i t i a l p e r i o d , o r e a r l y i n t h e E a r l y H o r i z o n , p e r i o d ( B i r d 1 9 5 2 : 4 5 ) . D u r i n g t h e E a r l y H O r i z o n p e r i o d t h e r e w a s a f l o r e s c e n c e o f t e x t i l e t e c h n i q u e s w i t h m a n y e x a m p l e s o f w a r p - p a t t e r n e d w e a v e s b e i n g f o u n d a t P l a c e s l i k e A n c o n , n e a r L i m a ( O ' N e a l e 1 9 4 6 : 2 6 9 ) , O c u c a j e a n d P a r a c a s o n t h e s o u t h c o a s t , a n d f r o m S u p e , o n t h e c e n t r a l c o a s t o f P e r u ( B e n n e t t 1 9 4 8 : 2 7 1 - 7 2 ) . New d e v e l o p m e n t s i n c l u d e d c o m p l e m e n t a r y - w a r p w e a v e s i n t h r e e c o l o u r s i n s t e a d o f t w o , a n d s u p p l e m e n t a r y w a r p w e a v e s i n s e v e r a l c o l o u r s ( s e e g l o s s a r y f o r d e f i n i t i o n ) . E x a m p l e s o f w a r p - p a t t e r n e d t e x t i l e s f r o m t h e E a r l y I n t e r m e d i a t e p e r i o d h a v e come m a i n l y f o r m t h e s o u t h c o a s t f r o m a r o u n d t h e N a z c a d r a i n a g e a r e a . M a h l e r : . " r e c o r d s s e v e r a l h e a d b a n d s f r o m l a t e N a z c a b u r i a l s w h i c h w e r e e x c a v a t e d a t C h a v i n a ( 1 9 5 7 : p l a t e s X l l l a n d X l V ) , a n d r a d i o - c a r b o n d a t e d t o A . D . 5 7 6 t o 6 9 6 ( 1 9 5 7 : 5 7 ) . T h i s c o n t i n u a t i o n f r o m t h e E a r l y H o r i z o n p e r i o d b r o u g h t l i t t l e t e c h n i c a l a d v a n c e m e n t . B y t h e t i m e o f t h e M i d d l e H o r i z o n c o m p l e t e a n d c o m p l e x g a r m e n t s w e r e b e i n g m a d e i n w a r p - p a t t e r n e d w e a v e s o n t h e c o a s t l a n d a n d i n t h e h i g h l a n d s o f P e r u . F o r e x a m p l e , o n e t u n i c w h i c h i s m a d e o f t w o s e p a r a t e l o o m p i e c e s j o i n e d t o g e t h e r , l e a v i n g a s l i t f o r t h e n e c k , i s - 4 6 -i n c o m p l e m e n t a r y - w a r p w e a v e ( A . Rowe 1 9 7 7 : 7 0 ) . A n o t h e r t u n i c c o n s i s t s o f s t r i p e s o f w a r p - f a c e d p l a i n w e a v e a n d m u l t i p l e b a n d s u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i q u e s a n d m o t i f s : c o m p l e m e n t a r y - w a r p w e a v e p a t t e r n i n g a n d 2 / 1 t w i l l d e r i v e d s t r u c t u r e s ( A . Rowe 1 9 7 7 : 6 1 ) . F r o m t h e L a t e I n t e r m e d i a t e p e r i o d , t h r o u g h t h e L a t e H o r i z o n t o t h e S p a n i s h c o n q u e s t m o r e e x a m p l e s o f t e x t i l e s h a v e s u r v i v e d f r o m t h e h i g h l a n d s o f P e r u t h a n f r o m a n y o t h e r P r e v i o u s p e r i o d s . T h e t e x t i l e s f r o m t h e h i g h l a n d s s h o w v a r i e t i e s o f w a r p - f a c e d w e a v e s , w h e t h e r w i t h s u p p l e m e n t a r y w a r p s i n a c o n t r a s t i n g c o l o u r o r c o m p l e m e n t a r y - w a r p s t r u c t u r e s . O n m a n y o f t h e t e x t i l e s s e v e r a l t e c h n i q u e s a r e c o m b i n e d , s o t h a t w h i l e t h e b o d y o f a p i e c e may u s e s u p p l e m e n t a r y w a r p s a n d w e f t s , t h e b o r d e r s m i g h t b e i n c o m p l e m e n t a r y - w a r p w e a v e ( A . Rowe 1 9 7 7 : 48) . Why d i d t h e s e w a r p - f a c e d t e c h n i q u e s s u r v i v e i n t o c o n t e m p o r a r y t i m e s w h e n o t h e r s , s u c h a s t h e s p e c t a c u l a r t a p e s t r i e s , t h e g a u z e s a n d t h e b r o c a d e s , h a v e d i s a p p e a r e d ? T h e o t h e r t e x t i l e s w e r e p a r t o f t h e o f f i c i a l a r t o f t h e I n c a e m p i r e a n d g r e a t s t a t u s w a s - a t t a c h e d t o t h e i r b e s t o w a l a n d p o s s e s s i o n ( M u r r a 1 9 6 2 : 7 2 0 ) . T h i s e m p h a s i s o n c l o t h a s a m e a s u r e o f p o s i t i o n , a n d t h e h i g h e r t h e s t a t u s t h e f i n e r t h e c l o t h , m u s t h a v e r e q u i r e d a s p e c i a l i z e d c l a s s o f women ( a n d . . p o s s i b l y m e n ) , t h e a k l l a , t o w e a v e a s a f u l l t i m e o c c u p a t i o n f o r t h e I n c a s t a t e , a n d t h e l o c a l o f f i c i a l s a n d r u l e r s ( M u r r a 1 9 6 2 : 7 2 2 ) . W i t h t h e f a l l o f t h e I n c a e m p i r e t h e w h o l e I m p e r i a l s t r u c t u r e c o l l a p s e d . W h a t w a s l e f t w e r e t h e p e a s a n t f a m i l i e s w h o c o n t i n u e d t o p r o d u c e t h e i r o w n c l o t h i n g a s t h e y h a d d o n e p r e v i o u s l y . S p a n i s h -47-i n f l u e n c e s changed the type and s t y l e o f the c l o t h i n g , b u t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l weaving c o n t i n u e d , m a i n l y i n the h i g h l a n d s and the more i s o l a t e d c o a s t a l r e g i o n s , where the e f f e c t s o f c o n t a c t were l e s s d r a s t i c , and d i d n o t l e a d t o a complete e r a d i c a t i o n . Today, i n r e g i o n s where w a r p - p a t t e r n e d t e x t i l e s a r e s t i l l b e i n g woven, the weavers have d e v e l o p e d q u i t e complex d e s i g n s w i t h which t o d e c o r a t e the bags, b e l t s , bands, ponchos and mantas t h a t t h e y s t i l l u se. A l t h o u g h some o f the s m a l l e r p i e c e s have si m p l e m o t i f s f o r which p a r a l l e l s can be found i n p r e h i s t o r i c times many o f the l a r g e r d e s i g n s show the i n f l u e n c e o f S p a n i s h c o n t a c t , such as the f e s t i v a l poncho o f T i n t a . T h i s has a d e s i g n o f f l o w e r shapes and i s c a l l e d " r o s a s " ( r o s e s ) , which i s a S p a n i s h word, n o t Ouechua. By comparing photographs t a k e n i n 1910 w i t h what I saw i n 1978 i n P eru, i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t handmade c l o t h i n g has become more o r n a t e . The p a t t e r n bands on the mantas and some o f the ponchos a r e w i d e r and more complex than t h e y were when the Bingham e x p e d i t i o n r e c o r d e d t h e i r appearance ( F e r r i s 1916). T h i s shows c l e a r l y the d i s r u p t i o n i n d e s i g n r e p e r t o i r e t h a t began w i t h the S p a n i s h conquest and c o n t i n u e s t h r o u g h the p r e s e n t t i m e . In.summary, the w a r p - p a t t e r n e d weaves which d a t e from the e a r l i e s t days o f the t e x t i l e t r a d i t i o n were a l r e a d y a t an advanced s t a t e o f development by the E a r l y H o r i z o n . The subsequent p e r i o d s saw a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s w i t h l i t t l e major t e c h n i c a l advance -48-u n t i l the L a t e I n t e r m e d i a t e p e r i o d . From then t h r o u g h t o the time o f the conquest t h e r e seems t o be an abundance o f p i e c e s , more than i n p r e v i o u s t i m e s . These a r e more complex, o c c u r i n complete garments r a t h e r than m a i n l y i n s m a l l bags and bands, as i n p r e v i o u s p e r i o d s , and i n v o l v e m u l t i p l e t e c h n i q u e s i n the one p i e c e . The stea d y e l a b o r a t i o n and development o f the w a r p - p a t t e r n weave t e c h -n i q u e s c o n t i n u e d u n t i l the conquest, when th e y became more l i m i t e d . W i t h the coming o f the S p a n i s h t h e r e was a d i s r u p t i o n i n the d e s i g n r e p e r t o i r e . Where p r e v i o u s l y the d e s i g n s had shown s m a l l a n i m a l s and b i r d s , f r e q u e n t l y i n t e r l o c k i n g i n s t y l i z e d , g e o m e t r i c m o t i f s , as w e l l as s m a l l g e o m e t r i c r e p e a t s , a f t e r the conquest European i n f l u e n c e s began t o show i n the form o f f l o r a l m o t i f s . More r e c e n t l y , d e s p i t e the g r a d u a l d e c l i n e o f the t r a d i t i o n and l o s s o f many t e c h n i q u e s t h e r e has been an e l a b o r a t i o n o f the d e s i g n s i n t o w i d e r p a t t e r n bands, by the weavers who c o n t i n u e t o p r a c t i c e t h e i r c r a f t . PREHISTORIC CULTURE PERIODS IN PERU P e r i o d C u l t u r a l Development t e x t i l e Development , P r e c e r a m i c V 4200 - 2500 B.C. P r e c e r a m i c VI 1800 2500 1500 B.C. I n i t i a l P e r i o d 1800 1500 900 B.C. E a r l y H o r i z o n P e r i o d 900 - 200 B.C. E a r l y I n t e r m e d i a t e P e r i o d 200 B.C. - A.D. 600 M i d d l e H o r i z o n A.D. 600 - 1000 L a t e I n t e r m e d i a t e P e r i o d A.D. 1000 - 1476 S e a s o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s , t r i b a l communities, o f f i s h e r s , h u n t e r s and g a t h e r e r s . Development o f permanent s e t t l e m e n t s , f i r s t p u b l i c s t r u c t u r e s — t e m p l e s , p y r a -mids and a l t a r s . B e g i n n i n g s o f f o r m a l a r t . B u r i a l s i n c o n c e n t r a t e d c e m e t a r i e s . I n t r o d u c t i o n o f p o t t e r y . P u b l i c s t r u c -t u r e s become b i g g e r and more numerous. A g r i c u l t u r e d e v e l o p s . Large c e r e m o n i a l s t r u c t u r e s b u i l t o f s tone and d e c o r a t e d w i t h c a r v i n g . Development and s p r e a d o f C h a v i n c u l t . P a r a c a s Cavernas b u r i a l s . Large c i t i e s b u i l t , i r r i g a t i o n systems d e v e l o p e d . I n t e n s i v e w a r f a r e . Moche c u l t u r e i n Chicama V a l l e y . H u a r i i n the h i g h l a n d s , and Nazca i n the R i o Grande a r e a . R i s e and f a l l o f H u a r i and Tiahuanaco empires. S m a l l r e g i o n a l s t a t e s such as the Chimu o f Moche V a l l e y . T e x t i l e s as s t a t u s a r t i n Chancay V a l l e y , h i g h l a n d s , e t c . C i t i e s f l o u r i s h e d . T w ining and n e t t i n g t e c h n i q u e s , i n mats, bags, n e t s . Twining c o n t i n u e s as dominant t e c h -n i q u e , but f i r s t woven t e x t i l e s appear, i n c l u d i n g warp f l o a t p a t t e r n i n g a t Huaca P i r e t a ( B i r d 1948). I n v e n t i o n o f heddie loom f o l l o w e d by development o f some o f the most complex t e x t i l e t e c h n i q u e s , i n c l u d i n g warp p a t t e r n e d weaves. F l o r e s c e n c e o f t e x t i l e t e c h n i q u e s w i t h t a p e s t r y , gauze, p a i n t e d c l o t h , double c l o t h , embroidery and p a t t e r n weaves. T e x t i l e t e c h n i q u e s r e a c h peak o f deve-lopment i n Paracas n e c r o p o l i s t e x t i l e s from e a r l y i n the p e r i o d . T a p e s t r y becomes s t a t u s t e c h n i q u e . Warp p a t t e r n weaves c o n t i n u e . Development o f f u r t h e r t e x t i l e t e c h n i q u e s ; gauze, k n o t t e d l a c e , warp s t r i p e s , g i n g -ham, brocade, embroidery, i k a t , double and t r i p l e c l o t h , t w i l l w a r p - p a t t e r n i n g , p a i n t i n g , e t c . Weaving as a p r e s t i g e s k i l l . L ate H o r i z o n I n c a e m p i r e — u n i f i c a t i o n o f a l l o f Peru, T a p e s t r y as o f f i c i a l a r t . Warp 1476 - 1534 Ecuador and p a r t s o f B o l i v i a and C h i l e . p a t t e r n weaves f l o u r i s h . g a n i s h i Conquest Complete d i s r u p t i o n o f I n c a empire. Warp p a t t e r n weaves c o n t i n u e d . More i n f o r m a t i o n on c u l t u r e p e r i o d s may be found i n Lanning (1967) and Lumbreras (1976). -51-CHAPTER 5 FIELD RESEARCH: SPINNING AND WEAVING TECHNIQUES IN THE CUZCO REGION The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e y a r n spun by t h e Andean p e a s a n t s p l a y an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h e q u a l i t y o f the f i n i s h e d weaving. Fo r t h i s r e a s o n a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s p i n n i n g i s g i v e n , b e f o r e a t t e n t i o n i s f o c u s e d on t h e weaving p r o c e s s i t s e l f . The f o u r weavers who were o b s e r v e d a t work, wove a v a r i e t y o f a r t i c l e s , from narrow bands t o f u l l s i z e d garment w i d t h s . There i s a n a t u r a l breakdown o f t e c h n i c a l p r o c e s s e s i n t o t h o s e used on bands and t h o s e used on w i d e r loom p i e c e s . T h i s d i v i s i o n , a l t h o u g h i n some ways a r t i f i c i a l , has been kept i n t h e e n s u i n g s e c t i o n s , f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of c o mparative d e s c r i p t i o n . The weaves used a r e s t r u c t u r a l l y i d e n -t i c a l and do n o t change t h e methods used t o produce them. In t h e s e c t i o n d e v o t e d t o t h e f i n g e r weaving o f bands, d e t a i l s are g i v e n o f t h e making o f a warp, t y i n g the h e d d l e s t r i n g s and t h e a c t u a l s t a r t i n g o f t h e band, a l l s t e p s which seem t o be i g n o r e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Two d i f f e r e n t m a n i p u l a t i o n s o f t h e band weaving p r o c e s s a r e d e s c r i b e d , one by a weaver w i t h o u t any equipment, t h e o t h e r by a weaver w i t h some t o o l s , showing t h e v e r s a t i l i t y o f t h e p r o c e s s . F i n g e r weaving t e c h n i q u e s have n o t p r e v i o u s l y been d e s -c r i b e d , and even t h e p r e s e n c e o f q u a n t i t i e s o f b e l t s and bands i n p r e h i s t o r i c b u r i a l s , has n o t s t i r r e d any i n t e r e s t i n t h i s a s p e c t o f Andean weaving. -52-The next s e c t i o n r e c o r d s d i f f e r e n t weaving s e t ups u s i n g a f u l l s i z e loom and f i n i s h e s w i t h a comparison o f weaving t e c h n i q u e s . The weavers were o b s e r v e d i n a c t i o n f o r v a r y i n g p e r i o d s o f time. D e t a i l e d n o t e s and drawing made a t the t i m e , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h p h o t o g r a p h s t a k e n a t each s t a g e , has r e s u l t e d i n t h i s c a r e f u l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s p r o c e s s e s used by t h e weavers. By a n a l y s i n g and comparing the methods used by each weaver i t i s p o s s i b l e t o show wh i c h v a r i a -t i o n s r e s u l t from the loom s e t up and which from p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e . A. The Weavers Four weavers o b s e r v e d d u r i n g my s t a y i n Peru i n 1978 One weaver was o b s e r v e d f o r about an hour working o u t s i d e a few houses c l u s t e r e d t o g e t h e r b e s i d e t h e r o a d l e a d i n g from the I n c a f o r t r e s s o f Sacsahuamen towards Q'enco (Kenco), a s a c r e d I n c a s i t e . No name was found on'any o f th e l o c a l maps t o c o v e r t h e s e s m a l l houses, u n l e s s i t i s named l i k e t h e a r c h e o l o g i c a l s i t e , Sacsahuaman. The name of t h e weaver i s a l s o unknown. The woman spoke no S p a n i s h . C o n v e r s a -t i o n was c a r r i e d on w i t h the a i d o f a young man, one of t h e s t u d e n t s of Dr. Chavez B a l l o n , from t h e N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y o f San A n t o n i o Abad i n Cuzco. With h i s a i d the Quechua names f o r th e loom p a r t s were o b t a i n e d . The woman was from t h e town o f P i s a c b u t Dr. Chavez B a l l o n s a i d t h a t t h e costume was n o t from t h e r e . The costume was f o r t h e t o u r i s t s . Indeed two o f the s m a l l houses a l s o f u n c t i o n e d as shops. They were f u l l o f a r t e s t i p i c o s , l o c a l a r t i c l e s made t o s e l l t o t o u r i s t s , i n the t r a d i t i o n a l h a n d i c r a f t s t y l e o f the r e g i o n . The second weaver was o b s e r v e d i n t h e I n d i a n town o f O l l a n t a y -tambo, over a two day p e r i o d . T h i s woman, O c t a v i a S i n c h i , was from a nearby v i l l a g e which was o n l y r e a c h a b l e a l o n g a f o o t t r a i l . The v i l -l a g e i s c a l l e d Q u i l l y o (or K w i l l y o ) . The s e n o r a had walked i n t o O l l a n t a y t a m b o c a r r y i n g her s m a l l son and a l a r g e poncho t h a t she was i n t h e p r o c e s s o f weaving on a back s t r a p loom. While i n O l l a n t a y -tambo she demonstrated weaving on t h e poncho, and then made the warps f o r s e v e r a l narrow bands. She wove a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s , u s i n g two r e l a t e d s t r u c t u r e s , complementary-warp weave and supplemen-t a r y - w a r p weave (see a p p e n d i x ) . The narrow bands were woven w i t h f i n g e r - w e a v i n g t e c h n i q u e s . T h i s means t h a t e s s e n t i a l l y no equipment was used i n t h e i r manufacture, and a l l the work was donelby t h e manipu-l a t i o n o f t h e f i n g e r s . However, s t r i n g h e d d l e s were made o f some s c r a p s o f s t r o n g y a r n t o speed t h e weaving p r o c e s s . The s m a l l bands p a r t i a l l y woven by O c t a v i a S i n c h i , a r e now i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r , t o whom t h e y were g i v e n a t t h e end o f the two days. The t h i r d weaver, a male p r o f e s s i o n a l , was o b s e r v e d a t work i n s i d e h i s house a t T i n t a . T i n t a i s s e v e r a l hours from Cuzco by v e r y rough roads and can be r e a c h e d by h i r e d c a r o r by t r a i n , s i n c e t h e v i l l a g e i s on the Cuzco-Puno l i n e . He worked on a v e r y low loom which had been s t a k e d out on t h e f l o o r i n t h e a r e a where l i g h t came i n t h r o u g h t h e open door. There were no windows i n the room. He worked, k n e e l i n g on the f l o o r on some o l d , handwoven r a g s , w i t h h i s knees t u c k e d i n under the f r o n t loom b a r . Only p a r t o f a weaving sequence was o b s e r v e d . T h i s weaver as a p r o f e s s i o n a l , g e n e r a l l y o n l y weaves when he has a s p e c i a l o r d e r , o r he may weave and s e l l t o one o f the Cuzco d e a l e r s , who make -54-r e g u l a r v i s i t s t o the o u t o f t h e way v i l l a g e s i n o r d e r t o buy up the l o c a l weaving and s e l l i t t o the t o u r i s t s i n the Cuzco and P i s a c markets. W h i l e i n T i n t a o t h e r weavers were v i s i t e d and t h e i r work viewed, but none o f the o t h e r s were o b s e r v e d a t work. The f o u r t h weaver was o b s e r v e d o v e r a t h r e e day p e r i o d when the r e s e a r c h e r s t a y e d w i t h a c a m p e s i n o 1 f a m i l y i n t h e I n d i a n town o f C h i n c h e r o . A l t h o u g h t h i s woman does weave l a r g e r p i e c e s , a t t h e t i m e t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h was c a r r i e d o u t she was weaving a s e r i e s o f bands w i t h th e h e l p o f her e l d e s t daughter, a c h i l d o f about tw e l v e y e a r s . These she l e f t p a r t i a l l y woven w i t h the h e d d l e s t r i n g s s t i l l a t t a c h e d and s p e c i a l l y made loom s t i c k s i n s e r t e d i n t h e warp, and t h e n s o l d them t o the v i s i t o r s who came t o the Sunday morning market a t C h i n c h e r o , d u r i n g t h e t o u r i s t season. The weaver and h e r daughter were working on a v a r i e t y o f p a t t e r n s , many o f which were s i m i l a r t o the bands o f p a t -t e r n weave t h a t d e c o r a t e d t h e c a r r y i n g c l o t h e s t h a t were used around :.the y y a r d as s e a t c o v e r s , when s i t t i n g on c o l d s t o n e s . The stone w a l l which e n c l o s e d one s i d e o f the y a r d i n which the house s a t , was p a r t o f the o r i g i n a l I n c a w a l l s o f one o f the t e r r a c e s around the I n c a market-p l a c e . H a l f t h e modern town i s b u i l t o v e r the e a r l i e r I n c a town and i n c o r p o r a t e s p a r t s o f e a r l i e r w a l l s i n t o the l a t e r s t r u c t u r e s . The weaver i n C h i n c h e r o warped up s e v e r a l new p i e c e s t o show how L o c a l name f o r the I n d i a n o r p a r t - I n d i a n p e o p l e who s t i l l make t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d by f a r m i n g / -55-t h e warping was done. She a l s o t a u g h t t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o weave, u s i n g the same method t h a t she had-used t o t e a c h her daughter, and t h e method i n which she a l s o had been t a u g h t t o weave when she was a c h i l d . Dur-i n g t h e v i s i t t h e senora a l s o demonstrated s p i n n i n g t e c h n i q u e u s i n g a drop s p i n d l e . B. S p i n n i n g S p i n n i n g o f t h e y a r n i s an a c t i v i t y t h a t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h weav-i n g t h e w o r l d o v e r . A d e s c r i p t i o n o f Andean s p i n n i n g w i t h a drop s p i n d l e i s i n c l u d e d here because o f a p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t y o f Andean weaving. The t e x t i l e s p r o d u c e d on the c o n t i n u o u s warp loom a r e v e r y hardwearing, p a r t l y because o f how h a r d each w e f t s h o t i s b e a t e n i n , a f t e r i t s i n s e r t i o n i n t h e shed, b u t p a r t l y a l s o b e cause o f t h e q u a l i t y and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the y a r n i t s e l f . The Andean handspun y a r n i s g i v e n an e x t r a t i g h t t w i s t , which makes i t more r e s i s t a n t t o the f r i c t i o n t h a t m ight a f f e c t i t d u r i n g t h e weaving p r o c e s s as t h e shed changes a r e made. But a l s o , t h i s t i g h t and h a r d t w i s t g i v e s i t b e t t e r wearing p r o p -e r t i e s . The Andean s p i n n e r s have d e v e l o p e d a s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e t o s p i n t h i s k i n d o f y a r n . Even s y n t h e t i c y a r n s , t h a t have been c o m m e r c i a l l y spun as k n i t t i n g y a r n s , a r e f r e q u e n t l y r e s p u n o r over-spun, on t o p o f the p r e v i o u s s p i n n i n g t o g i v e a t i g h t e r t w i s t t o t h e y a r n . T h i s makes i t more d u r a b l e and hardwearing. Such q u a l i t i e s a r e p r i z e d i n the h i g h -l a n d s , where the l a b o u r i n v o l v e d i n making one poncho may be s p r e a d o v e r an e n t i r e y e a r . The over-spun, b r i g h t l y c o l o u r e d , s y n t h e t i c y a r n s may be seen i n many o f t h e more r e c e n t weavings. S p i n n e r s can be seen w a l k i n g a l o n g w i t h a s k e i n o f commercial y a r n s l u n g o v e r one arm and a -56-s p i n d l e d a n g l i n g from the o t h e r hand. The way i n which the y a r n i s spun w i l l d e c i d e t o a g r e a t e x t e n t , n o t o n l y what the f i n a l f a b r i c w i l l be b u t a l s o o f what q u a l i t y . I f the s p i n n i n g i s p o o r , unevenly spun and lumpy i n p l a c e s , t h i s w i l l a f f e c t the d u r a b i l i t y o f the f i n i s h e d f a b r i c , o f c o n c e r n t o Andean weavers, who e x p e c t a garment t o l a s t a l i f e t i m e . I t may take a weaver up t o a y e a r t o make a poncho, w i t h the l a b o u r o f s p i n n i n g , d y e i n g , weaving and f i n i s h i n g the p i e c e s s p r e a d between a l l the o t h e r n e c e s s a r y d a i l y c h ores and work i n the f i e l d s t o r a i s e f o o d . The y a r n w i l l be spun more t i g h t l y and f i n e l y i f i t i s t o be used f o r a poncho o r manta, r a t h e r t h a n f o r a b l a n k e t . I t w i l l be a t h i c k e r t h r e a d , o f c o a r s e f i b r e s i f i t i s t o be used f o r s t o r a g e s a c k s . While a p r o f e s s i o n a l weaver, w o r k i n g f o r e i g h t o r more hours a day, w i l l take from one t o one and a h a l f months t o weave a poncho, another weaver c o p i n g w i t h a l l the d a i l y c h o r e s , may take s e v e r a l months a t t h i s s t a g e . With an e n t i r e f a m i l y t o clothe:,",, no weaver wants the c l o t h e s t o wear o u t i n a few y e a r s . 2 S p i n n i n g i s done w i t h a drop s p i n d l e which i s c a l l e d pushka i n the Quechua language. I t c o n s i s t s o f a s p i n d l e w h o r l and a s h a f t , which i s narrow a t one end and widens somewhat towards the o t h e r end, which i s sharpened i n t o a p o i n t . The s p i n n e r s o b s e r v e d a l l used a c a r v e d o r T h i s term was a l s o found by G o o d e l l i n 1968 ( 5 ) , b u t S t e v e n s o n (1974: 5) g i v e s the S p a n i s h term p a l o ( s t i c k ) . -57-t u r n e d wooden wh o r l and a m o r e v r o u g h l y shaped s h a f t , b u t S t e v e n s o n r e c o r d s the use o f a s o f t stone w h o r l (1974: 6 ) . S e v e r a l o f t h e s h a f t s l o o k e d as i f t h e y had been c u t from a b r a n c h and shaped w i t h a k n i f e . The s h a f t i s g e n e r a l l y about t e n t o t h i r t e e n i n c h e s l o n g , as i s t h e one shown i n f i g u r e 9. A c h i l d ' s s p i n d l e which was examined i n C h i n c h e r o , had a s h a f t seven and a h a l f i n c h e s l o n g and a r o u g h l y t u r n e d w h o r l t h a t was one and a h a l f i n c h e s i n d i a m e t e r and j u s t o v e r h a l f an i n c h t h i c k . T h i s s p i n d l e had been made f o r t h e g i r l by h e r f a t h e r . When she grew b i g g e r , h e r f a t h e r would make h e r a b i g g e r one. In response t o q u e s t i o n s i t seems t h a t the g i r l s b e g i n t o l e a r n t o s p i n a t about f i v e y e a r s o f age. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n matches w i t h t h a t found by G o o d e l l i n 1967 and d i s c u s s e d by B i r d i n an a r t i c l e o f y a r n p r o d u c t i o n r a t e s (1968: 11). He mentions a s i x y e a r o l d g i r l , w h o s e s p i n n i n g was competent enough t o h o l d i t s own w i t h t h a t o f t h e a d u l t s p i n n e r s . However, c o n t r a r y t o what G o o d e l l found (1968: 6) I saw o n l y women s p i n n i n g , n o t men, and most o f th e s e tended t o be o l d e r women. I t may be t h a t i n the more o u t l y i n g d i s t r i c t s .the men s t i l l s p i n , b u t i n T i n t a , a male p r o f e s s i o n a l weaver i n d i c a t e d t h a t h i s w i f e d i d the s p i n n i n g w h i l e he d i d t h e weaving. S t e v e n s o n (1974: 6) r e p o r t s t h a t i n Chorcovos de S a n t i a g o the g i r l s are s i x t e e n o r sev e n t e e n b e f o r e t h e y b e g i n t o s p i n r e g u l a r l y , and t h a t young g i r l s do n o t s p i n . I n s u f f i -c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e t o i n d i c a t e whether t h i s i s ; a r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e . O c c a s i o n a l l y one may see women w a l k i n g a l o n g the roadway, s p i n -n i n g as th e y go. The f a c t t h a t t h e y a r e s p i n n i n g does not slow t h e i r -58-w a l k i n g pace. On one o c c a s i o n I had' t o h u r r y t o keep up w i t h a woman who was s p i n n i n g as she walked. She had ch o r e s t o do els e w h e r e , and so, w i t h h e r baby on her back she walked a l o n g a t h e r normal pace, t a k i n g advantage o f an i d e a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r some u n i n t e r r u p t e d s p i n n i n g . Another woman s p i n n e r was o b s e r v e d i n Cuzco i n d o o r market. She was c r o u c h e d b e s i d e a s m a l l heap o f v e g e t a b l e s t h a t she had bro u g h t i n t o s e l l o r b a r t e r . T h i s woman spun a v e r y s h o r t y a r n l e n g t h , s i n c e h e r s i t t i n g p o s i t i o n d i d n ot a l l o w f o r the a c c u m u l a t i o n o f l o n g t w i s t e d t h r e a d s b e f o r e t h e y were wound onto t h e s p i n d l e . She k e p t t h e t i p o f t h e x s p i n d l e o v e r , and sometimes i n a bowl which s a t b e s i d e h e r . Ac-c o r d i n g t o O'Neale (1949: 115) t h i s i s an Aymara t e c h n i q u e r a t h e r than a Quechua one. The i n f l u e n c e may have t r a v e l l e d up t h e V i l c a n o t a from Puno on Lake T i t i c a c a , which i s the f r i n g e o f the Aymara s p e a k i n g a r e a . S p i n n i n g : U s i n g a Drop S p i n d l e The unspun f l e e c e i s c a r r i e d t u c k e d under the l e f t arm. The s p i n d l e hangs suspended by the a l r e a d y spun y a r n from the r i g h t hand. A few f i b r e s are p u l l e d g e n t l y from the f l e e c e i n a c o n t i n u o u s r o v i n g . T h i s i s g i v e n a s m a l l amount o f t w i s t by the r i g h t hand. T h i s t w i s t h e l p s t o h o l d the f i b r e s t o g e t h e r and makes i t p o s s i b l e t o keep p u l l -i n g t h e f l e e c e i n t o a r o v i n g . When about tw e l v e t o e i g h t e e n i n c h e s has been p u l l e d o u t , t h e r o v i n g i s a t t a c h e d t o near t h e t o p o f t h e s p i n d l e s h a f t by a h a l f - h i t c h k n o t . The s p i n d l e i s t h e n a l l o w e d t o s p i n i n the a i r , r a p i d l y t w i s t i n g the t h r e a d . Once t h i s t h r e a d has taken enough t w i s t , and t h i s the s p i n n e r must judge by e x p e r i e n c e , the y a r n i s once more p u l l e d o ut from t h e unspun f l e e c e . The t w i s t i s a l l o w e d t o t r a v e l -59-a l o n g these f i b r e s t h r o u g h the r i g h t hand f i n g e r s , w hich c o n t r o l the amount o f t w i s t p a s s e d a l o n g . I f t h e y a r n becomes t h i c k e r n e a r e r t h e s p i n d l e r a t h e r t h a n t h e f l e e c e , the t w i s t e d f i b r e s are wrapped around the l e f t hand t o p r e v e n t them t a n g l i n g . Then the s h o r t e r , t h i c k e r p i e c e i s p u l l e d o u t t o the same t h i n n e s s as t h e r e s t o f the y a r n . The s p i n d l e i s dropped and s p i n n i n g c o n t i n u e s , u n t i l the s p i n d l e i s a l m o s t t o u c h i n g t h e ground ( f i g . 10). Once t h i s i n i t i a l s p i n n i n g has been done, the s p i n n e r s t o p s the t w i s t and t a k e s h o l d o f t h e s p i n d l e w i t h h e r r i g h t hand, w h i l e w i n d i n g t h e spun t h r e a d around h e r l e f t hand ( f i g . 1 1 ) . The s p i n d l e i s dropped a g a i n and t h e s p i n n i n g a c t i o n c o n t i n u e s . T h i s time i t i s n o t f r e s h l y p u l l e d out f i b r e s t h a t a r e b e i n g spun, b u t the t h r e a d which has a l r e a d y been t w i s t e d . The r i g h t hand c o n t r o l s t h e amount o f t w i s t which i s p a s s e d up the t h r e a d . E x t r a t h r e a d i s s l i p p e d o f f the l e f t hand as r e q u i r e d . Once a l l the t h r e a d t h a t was on the l e f t hand has been over-spun, i t i s wound back onto the l e f t hand. The h a l f - h i t c h knot i s removed from the s p i n d l e shank and the t h r e a d i s wound onto the s p i n d l e i n a downward and upward s p i r a l ( f i g . 12), f i n i s h i n g w i t h a h a l f - h i t c h k n o t t o s e c u r e the t h r e a d and p r e v e n t i t unwinding o f f t h e s p i n d l e . About tw e l v e i n c h e s o f y a r n i s l e f t f r e e , ready f o r t h e next s t a g e o f s p i n n i n g . The s p i n d l e i s swung t o s t a r t i t s p i n n i n g a g a i n . The r i g h t hand h o l d s the t h r e a d f i r m l y so t h a t t h e t w i s t cannot p a s s u n t i l enough F i g u r e 10 S p i n n i n g : p u l l i n g o u t t h i c k e r l e n g t h o f p a r t i a l l y spun y a r n w h i l e s p i n d l e s p i n s t o ground F i g u r e 11 H o l d i n g s p i n d l e w h i l e wind-i n g y a r n around hand. -62-f i b r e s have been p u l l e d o u t . T h i s i s done by e x e r t i n g g e n t l e p r e s s u r e t o draw the f i b r e s from the b u n d l e o f f l e e c e ( f i g . 1 3 ) . Once t h e f i b r e s have been p u l l e d out t o an even t h i c k n e s s , and no more t h a n a c o m f o r t a b l e arm's l e n g t h , the t w i s t i s a l l o w e d t o t r a v e l a l o n g and t i g h t e n the f i b r e s up i n t o a t h r e a d . T h i s t h r e a d i s t h e n wrapped around the l e f t hand and o v e r - s p u n . C. F i n g e r Weaving o f Bands: Ol l a n t a y t a m b o and C h i n c h e r o 1. Warping T h i s method was o b s e r v e d i n two d i f f e r e n t v i l l a g e s , O l l antaytambo and C h i n c h e r o . I n O l l a n t a y t a m b o , Senora O c t a v i a S i n c h a used l i t t l e p i e c e s o f s t i c k b r o k e n o f f t h e b r a n c h o f a t r e e . I n C h i n c h e r o , S e n o r a S t e f a n i a Quispe Huaman had f o u r l a r g e i r o n n a i l s o r s t a k e s which she used f o r w a r p i n g and t o h o l d t h e o t h e r end o f t h e work when she was weaving. B o t h weavers s e t up a warp f o r a warp-faced, complementary-warp, patternweave, b u t t h e method o f warping i s e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e f o r o t h e r warp-faced p a t t e r n weaves on b e l t s and bands. Senbra O c t a v i a b e g i n s by d r i v i n g the f o u r s t i c k s i n t o the ground o f the c o u r t y a r d , u s i n g a stone t o hammer them. She s e t s the f o u r s t i c k s o u t i n a row, w i t h the o u t e r two a t t h e d i s t a n c e r e q u i r e d f o r the band t h a t she i s g o i n g t o weave. The o t h e r two s t i c k s are spaced between t h e s e . Senora S t e f a n i a i n C h i n c h e r o makes a l a r g e l o o p o f wool by s p r e a d i n g o u t h e r arms. She t i e s a k n o t t o s e c u r e the l o o p . She then hammers i n one o f the l a r g e r i r o n s t a k e s a t a s l i g h t a n g l e , u s i n g a c o n v e n i e n t stone as a hammer. She n e x t s e t s the l o o p around the s t a k e and extends i t as f a r as i t w i l l r e a c h , g i v e s i t a t w i s t and hammers i n -63-t h e second l a r g e stake t o h o l d i t t h e r e . The two s m a l l e r s t a k e s are s e t i n the ground between t h e f i r s t p a i r . The l o o p o f wool i s s e t i n a f i g u r e o f e i g h t w i t h the t w i s t coming between the c e n t r e s t a k e s . Sei?ora O c t a v i a b e g i n s warping by t y i n g the c o l o u r t o be used f o r t h e o u t e r s t r i p e t o the s t i c k . Then she b r i n g s the y a r n between c e n t r e s t i c k s B and C, and around t h e o u t e r s t i c k D. I t i s then b r o u g h t back between t h e c e n t r e s t i c k s b u t i n t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n from the p r e v i o u s passage so t h a t i t c r o s s e s the f i r s t t h r e a d ( f i g . 14). The t h r e a d i s t a k e n around A, as shown i n t h e f i g u r e 15. T h i s i s r e p e a t e d , by b o t h women, u n t i l enough t h r e a d s have been wrapped f o r t h e f i r s t warp s t r i p e . Senora S t e f a n i a b r e a k s the t h r e a d and t i e s on a new c o l o u r a t A, b u t Senora O c t a v i a wraps the y a r n s e v e r a l t i m e s around A, p u l l i n g i t i n a s p i r a l up the s t i c k , and t h e n s e t s the b a l l o f wool t o one s i d e , t o be used a g a i n l a t e r i n the warp i n g . She. t i e s a new c o l o u r t o A. Both weavers c o n t i n u e i n t h i s way, making sure t h a t t h e t h r e a d s a l t e r n a t e d t h r o u g h B and C i n a c r o s s , from l e f t t o r i g h t and from r i g h t t o l e f t . When the o u t e r warp s t r i p e s have been completed, g e n e r a l l y u s i n g two o r t h r e e c o l o u r s , the weaver i s ready t o b e g i n warping t h e p a t t e r n a r e a o f t h e warp. F o r t h i s two c o l o u r s a r e t i e d on, e i t h e r t o A o r t o the p r e v i o u s c o l o u r . A t t h i s p o i n t , i f l a t e r rearrangement o f the warps i s t o be a v o i d e d , c a r e must be t a k e n t o -64-I F i g u r e 14 Warping: f o r m i n g t h r e a d c r o s s between c e n t r e s t i c k s . -65-F i g u r e 15 Warp wrapped i n a f i g u r e o f e i g h t around f o u r s t a k e s , f o r m i n g t h e c r o s s between t h e c e n t r e p a i r , shown i n s i d e view and from above. -66-i n s u r e t h a t t h e t h r e a d s a l t e r n a t e i n d i r e c t i o n i n t h e l a y e r s ' o f t h r e a d which make up the c r o s s "between B and C. F o r ease o f d e s c r i p -t i o n t h e two c o l o u r s w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as R f o r r e d and G f o r g r e e n . K e e p i n g the two t h r e a d s s e p a r a t e d by a f i n g e r , they a r e t a k e n towards B. While R remains on the near s i d e o f B, G i s t a k e n around the f a r or l e f t s i d e so t h a t the s t i c k s e p a r a t e s the two c o l o u r s , as i n diagram 16. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t i n the p r e v i o u s row o f s i n g l e c o l o u r warping, t h e t h r e a d was r e t u r n e d around D and between C and B from t h e l e f t t o the r i g h t , as shown i n diagram 15. T h e r e f o r e G must c r o s s t o the r i g h t o f C b e f o r e R c r o s s e s t o the l e f t o f C, so t h a t G l i e s below R t o keep t h e a l t e r n a t i n g o r d e r o f t h e t h r e a d s i n t h e c r o s s - o v e r between B and C. F a i l u r e t o keep t h e t h r e a d s i n t h i s o r d e r a t t h e c r o s s w i l l n e c e s s i t a t e t h e rearrangement o f most o f the t h r e a d s b e f o r e t h e h e d d l e s t r i n g s can be t i e d and weaving can b e g i n . Both t h r e a d s are t h e n t a k e n around D and back towards C. R i s t a k e n around the l e f t s i d e o f C, the same s i d e as p r e v i o u s l y , w h i l e G p a s s e s on the n e a r s i d e . G i s t h e n c r o s s e d o v e r t o the l e f t o f B and R i s c r o s s e d on top o f G, t o the r i g h t o f B ( f i g . 17). Both t h r e a d s a r e t h e n taken around A. The e n t i r e sequence i s r e p e a t e d from the b e g i n n i n g , u n t i l enough t h r e a d s have been warped f o r th e p a t t e r n s e c t i o n . These two t h r e a d s a r e then t i e d o f f by Seftbra O c t a v i a and the p r e v i o u s t h r e a d s which have been wrapped around A are unwrapped and the o u t e r s t r i p e s a r e warped up i n r e v e r s e o r d e r t o the b e g i n n i n g . -67-F i g u r e 16 Warping: Showing d i r e c t i o n o f warping w i t h two c o l o u r s , ( i ) from A t o D, ( l i ) around D and back t o A. - 6 8 -Warping: Octavia laying the double thread cross between the centre s t i c k s -69-Senora S t e f a n i a " b r e a k s the two t h r e a d s and t i e s on the n e x t c o l o u r , a l s o i n r e v e r s e o r d e r f o r the o u t e r s t r i p e s . Once the warping o f the band i s complete, the t h r e a d i s broken o f f and about f i f t e e n t o twenty i n c h e s i s l e f t , which i s t e m p o r a r i l y wrapped around A. The warp i s now ready f o r the t y i n g o f the h e d d l e s t r i n g s . 2. T y i n g the Heddle Strings-. Senora O c t a v i a p u l l s the two c e n t r e s t i c k s out o f t h e ground b u t l e a v e s them i n the warp t o s e p a r a t e the t h r e a d s o f t h e c r o s s . A t h r e a d o f smooth, h a r d t w i s t , about twenty i n c h e s l o n g i s p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h e shed formed by s t i c k B. A l o o p about t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f an i n c h i n s i z e i s made a t one end. The l o o p i s p l a c e d on the f i r s t f i n g e r o f t h e l e f t hand which i s h e l d c l o s e t o the t h r e a d s . The thumb and f i r s t f i n g e r o f the r i g h t hand a r e used t o p i c k up a l o o p o f the l o n g t h r e a d from between t h e f i r s t and second warp t h r e a d s , under which the l o o p p a s s e s . T h i s l o o p i s g i v e n a h a l f t w i s t and p l a c e d on the f i r s t f i n g e r o f t h e l e f t hand b e s i d e the f i r s t l o o p . T h i s i s then r e p e a t e d w i t h a l o o p p i c k e d up from between the second and t h i r d warp t h r e a d s ( f i g . 18). I n t h i s way each warp t h r e a d i s s e c u r e d by a l o o p , about t h r e e q u a r t e r i n c h e s l o n g , which w i l l keep them s e p a r a t e from e a c h o t h e r . Once a l l the warp t h r e a d s have been caught up, and t h i s o n l y r e f e r s t o the warp t h r e a d s which l i e above the h e d d l e t h r e a d , n o t t h o s e t h a t l i e below, the end o f t h e t h r e a d i s d o u b l e d and the l o o p i s p a s s e d through a l l the h e d d l e l o o p s b e i n g h e l d on the f i r s t f i n g e r o f the l e f t hand and t h e s e a r e t h e n t i e d .securely t o g e t h e r i n a b u n d l e . The e x c e s s l e n g t h -70-F i g u r e 1 8 T y i n g t h e h e d d l e s : O c t a v i a p i c k s u p a l o o p o f h e d d l e t h r e a d f r o m b e t w e e n e a c h w a r p t h r e a d . F i g u r e 19 A t t a c h i n g h e d d l e s t i c k : S t e f a n i a h o l d s s t i c k r e a d y t o l a s h t o h e d d l e l o o p s . -71-o f l o o p i s t h e n p a s s e d t h r o u g h the shed h e l d open by the o t h e r s t i c k , C, and l e a v i n g about t h r e e i n c h e s ©f s l a c k the end i s t h e n t i e d o f f t o the h e d d i e s t r i n g s so t h a t the two sheds are h e l d by the same l e n g t h o f y a r n . The s t i c k s are removed a t t h i s p o i n t , h a v i n g s e r v e d t h e i r f u n c t i o n . Seftora S t e f a n i a a l s o b e g i n s by making a t h r e e q u a r t e r i n c h l o o p i n a f i r m , l e s s s t i c k y y a r n . T h i s l o o p i s p a s s e d t h r o u g h the shed i n th e warp c r e a t e d by s t i c k B. The l o o p i s p l a c e d on the f i r s t f i n g e r o f the l e f t hand and i s h e l d j u s t above t h e warp. W i t h the f i r s t f i n g e r and thumb o f the r i g h t hand the weaver p i c k s up a l o o p o f t h r e a d from between the f i r s t and second t h r e a d s o f the warp which l i e s above the y a r n . The l o o p i s g i v e n a h a l f t w i s t and p l a c e d on the f i r s t f i n g e r b e s i d e t h e f i r s t l o o p . T h i s i s c o n t i n u e d a c r o s s the warp u n t i l a l l the t o p t h r e a d s have been caught up i n a l o o p o f y a r n . Once a l l the l o o p s have been made, the excess t h r e a d i s then t i e d t o the end o f a s h o r t s t i c k , t h a t i s a l i t t l e w i d e r than the warp w i d t h ( f i g . 19). The y a r n i s t h e n p a s s e d t h r o u g h the h e d d i e l o o p s and t i e d f i r m l y t o the o t h e r end o f t h e s t i c k . A n o t c h i s c u t i n t o each end o f t h e s t i c k t o h o l d the t h r e a d s e c u r e l y and p r e v e n t s l i p p i n g . The s t r i n g p a s s e d t h r o u g h the h e d d i e l o o p s i s then whipped t o the s t i c k e v e r y t h r e e o r f o u r h e d d i e s t r i n g s . -72-A second l e n g t h o f y a r n i s t i e d b e h i n d t h e heddie s t i c k i n the shed made by C. T h i s i s sometimes c a l l e d the l e a s e c o r d and h o l d s the second shed warps. 3. S t a r t i n g the Band Senora O c t a v i a p i c k s up t h e wrapped t h r e a d s which a r e h e l d by S t i c k A and i n s e r t s h e r f i n g e r i n the l o o p s t o p r e v e n t them s l i p p i n g . T h i s c r e a t e s t h e f i r s t shed t h r o u g h which the e x c e s s warp t h r e a d i s p a s s e d . The s e n o r a p u l l s i t f i r m b u t not t i g h t . She makes sure t h a t a l l the l o o s e ends and k n o t s are p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h i s shed, so t h a t t h e r e w i l l be no p i e c e s h a n g i n g . P l a c i n g her f i n g e r s i n the l o o p between the h e d d i e s t r i n g s and t h e l e a s e c o r d , she p u l l s on the h e d d l e s to b r i n g t h e s e warp t h r e a d s up and away from the o t h e r s . Once enough o f t h e new shed has been opened she i n s e r t s her f i n g e r s i n t h e shed and extends t h e f i n g e r s t o f o r c e the shed open. The shed c r o s s i s b r o u g h t f o r w a r d a g a i n s t the f i r s t i n s e r t i o n o f weft, and b e a t e n i n by the p r e s s u r e o f the f i n g e r s . The second row o f w e f t i s i n s e r t e d , a l o n g w i t h any l o o s e ends. A f t e r one o r two more rows the weaver i s ready t o b e g i n t h e p a t t e r n p i c k - u p . Senora S t e f a n i a b e g i n s the band by p a s s i n g a s t r i n g t h r o u g h the f i r s t shed and t y i n g t h e s t r i n g around h e r w a i s t . She then opens the new shed by r e l a x i n g t h e t e n s i o n on the warp and p u l l i n g up on the h e d d i e s t i c k . She i n s e r t s a s m a l l shed s t i c k i n the newly opened shed -73-and by e x e r t i n g p r e s s u r e on the s t i c k and a t t h e same time i n c r e a s i n g the t e n s i o n on the warp t h r e a d s she g r a d u a l l y drags the warp c r o s s and t h e s t i c k towards h e r . She b e a t s i n t h e c r o s s , u s i n g a s l i g h t r o c k i n g motion. A w e f t , the e x c e s s end o f the l a s t warp t h r e a d , i s i n s e r t e d and p u l l e d f i r m l y i n t o p l a c e . She l i f t s t h e l e a s e c o r d , p u l l i n g up on i t , u n t i l t h e r e i s space t o i n s e r t a shed s t i c k i n the shed i t makes. ..She s t a n d s the shed on i t s edge and works t h e s e t h r e a d s p a s t t h e heddle s t r i n g s . Once t h e y a r e c l e a r o f the h e d d l e s she i n s e r t s the shed s t i c k here and b r i n g s the s t i c k f o r w a r d and a g a i n s t the w e f t . She b e a t s i n the w e f t , so t h a t the warp forms a s l i g h t r i d g e coming o v e r t h e w e f t . She i s now ready t o b e g i n the p a t t e r n p i c k - u p . 4. Weaving a Narrow Band Fo r c onvenience and ease o f working Senora O c t a v i a had t a k e n the warp and wrapped i t around h e r b i g t o e . W i t h her l e g s s t r e t c h e d o u t , she m a i n t a i n s t e n s i o n on the warp. When she b e g i n s weaving t h e band i t i s a t f i r s t h e l d by the f i n g e r s . A f t e r the f i r s t few rows o f weaving have been completed i t i s t h e n p i n n e d t o the s k i r t o f h e r b i b b e d apron. The l a r g e p i n which i s used f o r t h i s i s c a l l e d T'pana. I t i s a l s o used t o p i n on the manta o r s h o u l d e r wrap t h a t many o f the women wear. To open the shed the weaver i n s e r t s h e r f i n g e r s i n t o the l o o p formed by the h e d d l e s t r i n g s and the l e a s e c o r d (which s e p a r a t e s the second shed t h r e a d s , b e h i n d t h e h e d d l e s t r i n g s ) , and p u l l s upwards -74-w i t h the thumb. The o t h e r f i n g e r s a r e extended a g a i n s t t h e t h r e a d s , p u l l i n g them a p a r t ( f i g . 20). Once the t h r e a d s ' o f the r e a r shed a r e f r e e , the f i n g e r s a r e i n s e r t e d i n t o t h e shed and pushed up a g a i n s t the h e d d i e s t r i n g s t o s e p a r a t e t h e t h r e a d s and p u l l t h o s e o f the r e a r shed p a s t the h e d d l e s ( f i g . 2 1 ) . Once t h e shed has been worked p a s t t h e h e d d l e s the thumb i s i n s e r t e d i n t h e shed and a space made f o r the o t h e r f i n g e r s . A l l the f i n g e r s are i n s e r t e d i n the new shed ( f i g . 22) and i t i s b r o u g h t f o r w a r d a g a i n s t the woven s e c t i o n , ready f o r t h e new p a t t e r n p i c k - u p . Where the t h r e a d s a r e s t i c k y and c l i n g t o each o t h e r t h e y a r e s c o r e d w i t h the thumb s e v e r a l times t o l o o s e n them. T h i s has the same e f f e c t as s c o r i n g w i t h the l l a m a bone s t i c k . Once t h e shed has been changed, i t i s h e l d open w h i l e t h e p a t t e r n p i c k - u p i s done. Band A: Complementary-warp Weave The weaver h o l d s the end o f the warp i n the l e f t hand w i t h the thumb and second and t h i r d f i n g e r s . The f i r s t f i n g e r i s i n s e r t e d i n the shed. She uses the.thumb and f i r s t f i n g e r o f h e r r i g h t hand t o p i c k up o r drop the warp t h r e a d s f o r t h e p a t t e r n . P i c k e d up t h r e a d s are h e l d by the second and t h i r d f i n g e r s o f t h a t hand. Once a l l the p a t t e r n has been p i c k e d up t h e shed i s opened enough t o p a s s t h r o u g h the w e f t , which i s p u l l e d through a l m o s t t o the end. The f i n g e r i s removed from t h e shed and t h e n the s e l v e d g e i s h e l d w h i l e the w e f t i s p u l l e d up f i r m l y , b u t n o t so much t h a t i t p u l l s i n on the s e l v e d g e . - 7 5 -Opening r e a r shed on narrow band: O c t a v i a Pushes warp t h r e a d s a p a r t t o f o r c e r e a r warp shed p a s t h eddle s t r i n g s . -76-F i g u r e 22 Opening r e a r shed on narrow band: O c t a v i a b r i n g s t h e shed c r o s s forward. I F i g u r e 23 P a t t e r n p i c k up on narrow band: O c t a v i a p i c k s up t h r e a d s from below -77-Band B: Supplementary-warp Weave The weaver i n s e r t s her f i n g e r s i n the shed, ready t o b e g i n t h e p a t t e r n p i c k - u p . Three f i n g e r s o f the r i g h t hand a r e i n s e r t e d i n the shed, b e h i n d t h e m i d d l e f i n g e r o f t h e l e f t hand. The f i n g e r s and thumb o f the r i g h t hand h o l d t h e warp t h r e a d s a l r e a d y s e l e c t e d . As the warp t h r e a d s a r e p a s s e d a c r o s s from'.the l e f t hand t h e y a r e caught up by the f i r s t f i n g e r and thumb o f the r i g h t " hand. The f i r s t r f i n g e r o f t h e l e f t hand l i e s i n the shed w i t h the second f i n g e r l y i n g below the l o w er t h r e a d s as i n f i g u r e 23, so t h a t i t can be used t o p i c k up t h r e a d s from below. F i g u r e 24 shows the second f i n g e r p u s h i n g up two t h r e a d s . The t h r e a d s a r e h e l d between the f i r s t and second f i n g e r s o f the l e f t hand and t h e n p a s s e d a c r o s s t o the r i g h t hand. T h i s i s c o n t i n u e d a c r o s s t h e w i d t h o f t h e band. The w e f t i s p a s s e d t h r o u g h the p a t t e r n shed, as a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d f o r Band A. The weaver i n s e r t s her bunched f i n g e r s between the h e d d l e s t r i n g s and the l e a s e c o r d . She p u l l s up w i t h the thumb a g a i n s t the c o r d s , w h i l e p r e s s i n g down w i t h the o t h e r f i n g e r s a g a i n s t the warp. To s e p a r a t e s t i c k y t h r e a d s , t h e weaver p u l l s backwards and forwards i n a sawing m o t i o n . T h i s s e p a r a t e s the h e d d l e s t r i n g warps from t h e o t h e r s , p u l l i n g them up and t h r o u g h t h e o t h e r warp t h r e a d s o f t h e p r e v i o u s shed. Once t h e y a r e s e p a r a t e d the f i n g e r s a r e f o r c e d i n t o the space and p r e s s u r e a p p l i e d t o p u l l the s t i c k y warp t h r e a d s a p a r t ( f i g . 25). W i t h t e n s i o n on the warp t h r e a d s t h e shed c r o s s i s b r o u g h t forwards towards the weaver, and i s b e a t e n a g a i n s t t h e w e f t t o h e l p pack i t down. The -78-F i g u r e 24 P a t t e r n p i c k u p o n n a r r o w b a n d : O c t a v i a p i c k s t w o t h r e a d s t o t r a n -s f e r t o r i g h t h a n d . F i g u r e 25 O p e n i n g h e d d l e s h e d o n n a r r o w b a n d : O c t a v i a p u l l s u p o n h e d d l e s s t r i n g s t o s e p a r a t e h e d d l e s h e d t h r e a d s . -79-p a t t e r n p i c k up i s then c a r r i e d out and the w e f t p a s s e d t h r o u g h the p a t t e r n shed, as p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d . Where a more complex p a t t e r n i s b e i n g woven s e v e r a l h e d d l e s may be used. F i g u r e 26 shows the s t i c k s p l a c e d t e m p o r a r i l y i n the warp t o h o l d t h e t h r e a d s w h i l e the new h e d d i e s t r i n g s a r e made. F i g u r e 27 shows a band b e i n g woven u s i n g s e v e r a l h e d d l e s . The shed i s changed as p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d , e x c e p t t h a t where the h e d d l e s are n o t a t t a c h e d t o a l e a s e c o r d t h e weaver p u l l s s t r a i g h t up on the h e d d i e s t r i n g s t o s e p a r a t e o u t the new shed t h r e a d s . A l s o , the new shed may have t o be t a k e n p a s t s e v e r a l sets'"of h e d d l e s i n o r d e r t o open the shed f o r t h e p a t t e r n p i c k - u p . 5. Weaving a wide band: S t e f a n i a Weaving on a wide band i s c a r r i e d o u t w i t h the h e d d i e s t r i n g s a t t a c h e d t o a s t i c k , as d e s c r i b e d on page i n the s e c t i o n on t y i n g the h e d d i e s t r i n g s . The p r o c e s s o f weaving i s made e a s i e r , and more even by u s i n g up t o s i x narrow shed/sword s t i c k s . I n some ways t h i s resembles the weaving o f the wide garment w i d t h s d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r . The weaver b e g i n s by o p e n i n g t h e h e d d i e shed. She r e l a x e s t e n s i o n on the warp t h r e a d s and p u l l s upwards on the h e d d i e s t i c k , a t the same time sawing back and f o r t h t o s e p a r a t e any t h r e a d s which may have a tendency t o s t i c k t o g e t h e r . Once the warp t h r e a d s have been s e p a r a t e d and t h e r e i s a space underneath the h e d d i e s t r i n g s , one o f F i g u r e 26. O c t a v i a uses s e v e r a l s t i c k s t o h o l d a d d i t i o n a l p a t -t e r n sheds. F i g u r e 26 O c t a v i a uses m u l t i p l e h e d d l e s -81-the s h o r t s t i c k s i s i n s e r t e d i n t o t h i s new shed. I t i s p l a c e d f l a t , and as t e n s i o n i s once more a p p l i e d t o the warp the s t i c k i s b r o u g h t f o r w a r d s towards the weaver. I f t h e t h r e a d s do n o t s e p a r a t e e a s i l y , t hey can be l o o s e n e d by the s c r a p i n g o f t h e thumbs a c r o s s the w i d t h o f t h e warp. W h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g p r e s s u r e on t h e s t i c k , t h e weaver s c r a p e s w i t h b o t h thumbs from the c e n t r e o f the warp a c r o s s t o the o u t s i d e edges. T h i s a c t i o n i s c o n t i n u e d as o f t e n as i s n e c e s s a r y t o b r i n g the b e a t e r s t i c k up a g a i n s t the woven edge. The weaver next opens the r e a r shed by p u l l i n g up on the l e a s e c o r d which i s t i e d b e h i n d the h e d d i e s t i c k . A nother b e a t e r s t i c k i s i n s e r t e d i n t o the space. I t i s t u r n e d on edge and b r o u g h t up c l o s e b e h i n d t h e h e d d i e s t i c k . The warp i s s c o r e d w i t h b o t h thumbs, i n f r o n t o f the h e d d i e s t r i n g s and the warp t h r e a d s a r e g r a d u a l l y s e p a r a t e d . The t h r e a d s r a i s e d by t h e b e a t e r s t i c k b e h i n d the h e d d l e s a r e b r o u g h t p a s t t h e h e d d i e s t r i n g s and c l e a r e d from them. W h i l e one hand h o l d s them s e p a r a t e from the o t h e r warp t h r e a d s , the s t i c k b e h i n d the h e d d i e s t r i n g s i s removed and i n s e r t e d i n the shed space i n f r o n t o f the h e d d i e s t r i n g s . I t i s p l a c e d f l a t and then, w i t h t e n s i o n a p p l i e d t o : t h e warp i t i s br o u g h t f o r w a r d towards the weaver, as was the p r e v i o u s s t i c k . I t i s p l a c e d c l o s e t o t h e f i r s t s t i c k . T h i s e n t i r e p r o c e s s o f o p e n i n g the h e d d i e shed and i n s e r t i n g a s t i c k , i s r e p e a t e d , f o l l o w e d by the i n s e r t i o n o f a s t i c k i n t o t h e l e a s e c o r d shed. The weaver may work w i t h up t o s i x s t i c k s . Sometimes, one o f them i s l e f t p e r m a n e n t l y i n the l e a s e c o r d shed, b u t b e h i n d the h e d d i e s t i c k . -82-Once a l l the s t i c k s have been p l a c e d t h e weaver has a c h o i c e o f two ways o f p r o c e e d i n g . She may do t h e p i c k - u p o f p a t t e r n t h r e a d s i n the f i r s t shed, f o l l o w e d by the i n s e r t i o n o f the w e f t i n t h a t shed, o r she may do the p a t t e r n p i c k - u p i n each o f the sheds h e l d by one o f t h e s t i c k s , and o n l y t h e n p a s s the w e f t t h r o u g h each p a t t e r n shed i n t u r n . B o t h methods were o b s e r v e d b e i n g used by one weaver, so i t i s a m a t t e r o f p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e . T h i s may be i n f l u e n c e d by how f a m i l i a r t h e weaver i s w i t h t h e p a t t e r n t h a t she i s weaving, f o r i t i s h a r d e r t o see the p a t t e r n development when i t i s h e l d by t h e s t i c k s b e f o r e the w e f t s have been i n s e r t e d . To b e g i n p a t t e r n p i c k - u p , the shed s t i c k s a r e pushed back two o r t h r e e i n c h e s , t o give- a s m a l l working a r e a . T h i s a r e a does n o t need t o be l a r g e , f o r t h e weaver o n l y needs enough space t o i n s e r t her f i n g e r s and i n t e r c h a n g e the t h r e a d s f o r t h e p a t t e r n . The f i r s t f i n g e r o f each hand i s i n s e r t e d i n t o the shed and t h r e a d s a r e h e l d s e c u r e by the thumbs which s i t on top o f the warp t h r e a d s . Threads a r e s e l e c t e d and p a s s e d t o t h e l e f t hand. The t o p t h r e a d s which a r e n o t wanted are dropped from t h e r i g h t hand w h i l e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t h r e a d i s p i c k e d up from below by the second f i n g e r and f i r s t f i n g e r o f the l e f t hand. They a r e t h e n h e l d by the f i r s t f i n g e r and thumb o f the l e f t hand ( f i g . 2 8). In f i g u r e 29 t h e weaver i s shown s e l e c t i n g two t h r e a d s o f the t o p shed and p a s s i n g them a c r o s s t o the l e f t hand. Once p a t t e r n p i c k - u p i s completed the weaver removes the shed s t i c k from the shed and i n s e r t s i t i n t o the p a t t e r n shed. A t t h i s p o i n t she e i t h e r (1) p l a c e s i t on edge and p a s s e s the w e f t t h r o u g h ( f i g . 30), and t h e n F i g u r e 28 P a t t e r n p i c k up on a wide band: S t e f a n i a r e a c h e s f o r upper warp p a t t e r n t h r e a d . F i g u r e 29 P a t t e r n p i c k up on wide band: S t a f a n i a p a s s e s lower warp p a t t e r n t h r e a d t o l e f t hand. -84-h o l d s the l o o p w h i l e she p u l l s the w e f t t h r e a d up. T h i s i s then f o l l o w e d by t h e removal o f t h e shed s t i c k and the b e a t i n g i n o f t h e w e f t by the next shed s t i c k b e f o r e c o n t i n u i n g w i t h the p a t t e r n p i c k -up, o r (2) she s l i d e s the shed s t i c k f o rward, and b r i n g s t h e n e x t shed s t i c k f o r w a r d a l s o . She then b e g i n s the p a t t e r n p i c k - u p f o r the n e x t row o f weaving, b u t w i t h o u t . h a v i n g p a s s e d t h e w e f t t h r o u g h the p r e v i o u s shed. F i g u r e 34 shows where t h i s has been done f o r s e v e r a l p a t t e r n p i c k - u p s . Once a l l b u t one o f the s t i c k s have been i n s e r t e d i n t o a p a t t e r n shed, t h e weaver t h e n pushes each o f them i n t u r n back towards the h e d d i e s t i c k so t h a t she a g a i n has a narrow working space c l o s e t o h e r , a t the f i r s t s t i c k . The l a s t shed s t i c k h o l d s no p a t t e r n p i c k - u p , f o r i t w i l l be used as the b e a t e r o f the l a s t p a t t e r n row. I t w i l l t h e n be the f i r s t shed s t i c k i n the new sequence. She then t u r n s the f i r s t s t i c k on i t s s i d e and i n s e r t s t h e w e f t t h r o u g h the shed. She p u l l s the w e f t through, t a k i n g c a r e n o t t o p u l l up t o o t i g h t l y on the s e l v e d g e edge. The shed s t i c k i s removed and the next shed s t i c k i s used as a sword b e a t e r t o pack i n the weft. The s t i c k i s g r a s p e d w i t h b o t h hands, t e n s i o n on the warp i s t i g h t e n e d up, and t h e weaver b r i n g s the s t i c k f o r w a r d "against t h e warp c r o s s w i t h a f o r c e f u l r o c k i n g m o t i o n . T h i s r o c k i n g motion i s a s l i g h t up and down s c r a p i n g o r sawing a t t h e warp c r o s s . A t f i r s t i t was u n c l e a r why t h i s was b e i n g done, b u t l a t e r when the o b s e r v e r was weaving under the d i r e c -t i o n s o f t h i s weaver, i t became c l e a r t h a t t h i s up and down p i v o t i n g o f t h e s t i c k h e l p e d pack i n t h e w e f t more f i r m l y , so t h a t t h e warp a l m o s t formed a r i d g e where i t p a s s e d o v e r t h e w e f t . -85-F i g u r e 30 S t a f a n i a p a s s e s weft t h r o u g h shed formed by shed s t i c k . F i g u r e 31 B e l t w i t h s e v e r a l p a t t e r n s t i c k s i n p l a c e . -86-The ne'xt shed s t i c k i s p l a c e d on edge i n th e shed and the w e f t i s t h e n p a s s e d t h r o u g h . The e n t i r e p r o c e s s i s t h e n r e p e a t e d u n t i l a l l but one o f t h e shed s t i c k s have been removed. T h i s s t i c k i s b r o u g h t f o r -ward and the opening o f t h e sheds i s then c o n t i n u e d and a shed s t i c k i n s e r t e d i n each shed i n t u r n . Once s e v e r a l i n c h e s o f weaving have been done t h e weaver p u l l s the weaving o f f t h e s t r i n g which she has been u s i n g t o h o l d i t around her w a i s t . She r e t i e s the s t r i n g around her w a i s t and t h e n s e c u r e s the work w i t h t h e weaving a r e a c l o s e t o h e r . T h i s i s done by f o l d i n g the woven s e c t i o n under the s t r i n g and s e c u r i n g i t w i t h a l a r g e p i n . T h i s can be seen c l e a r l y i n f i g u r e 3?2, showing the band on which t h e l i t t l e g i r l i s w o r k i n g . The l i t t l e g i r l , who i s j u s t l e a r n i n g a new p a t t e r n , i s u s i n g o n l y two shed s t i c k s . By h a v i n g a second shed s t i c k i n s e r t e d i n the warp, the p a t t e r n p i c k - u p i s made e a s i e r . The second s t i c k p u t s e x t r a t e n s i o n on the t h r e a d s t o h o l d them i n t h e i r p l a c e , b e s i d e t h e i r n e i g h -b o u r s . Threads a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o be p i c k e d up out o f t u r n , and t h e r e f o r e m i s t a k e s p r e v e n t e d . D. Loom Weaving o f Wide C l o t h 1. O c t a v i a O c t a v i a S i n c h i walked from K w i l l y o t o O l l a n t a y t a m b o e a r l y one morning. She b r o u g h t w i t h h e r a s m a l l son and the poncho which she - 8 7 -S o n i a weaving, w i t h band p i n n e d t o her sweater. -88-was i n the p r o c e s s o f weaving. About h a l f o f the warp had been woven. O c t a v i a was weaving t h e poneho.-in o n e p p i e c e . Once the weaving was f i n i s h e d she would c u t the c l o t h i n h a l f and j o i n the two p i e c e s t o g e t h e r , l e a v i n g a s l i t f o r t h e head o p e n i n g . The edges, i n c l u d i n g , t h e c u t ones, would be bound t o p r o t e c t them and make the poncho l o n g e r w e a r ing. U n l i k e the o t h e r weavers a t work on a l a r g e p r o j e c t , O c t a v i a worked w i t h the loom t i e d t o a b a c k s t r a p . T h i s i s a wide b e l t t h a t goes around t h e back. The o t h e r end o f the loom was suspended from a p o s t a t about s h o u l d e r h e i g h t . ^Octavia s a t on a low s t o o l . Working w i t h the b a c k s t r a p o r b e l t , a l t h o u g h ..more t i r i n g f o r the weaver, does g i v e g r e a t e r c o n t r o l i n weaving. The t e n s i o n on the warp t h r e a d s i s a d j u s t e d w i t h s l i g h t changes i n the weaver's body p o s i t i o n . The weaver must keep h e r body v e r y s t i l l when she does n o t want t o a l t e r t h e t e n s i o n on the warp. She t h e r e f o r e works from the s h o u l d e r s , w i t h any t u r n i n g o r l e a n i n g f o r w a r d coming from the w a i s t . When she wishes t o ease the t e n s i o n she l e a n s h e r whole body forward, t a k i n g some o f h e r w e i g h t o f f the s t r a p t h a t s i t s around h e r b u t t o c k s . I f she needs a t i g h t e r warp, as when b e a t i n g i n t h e weft, she pushes back a g a i n s t t h e b e l t . To change the shed t h e shed r o d i s pushed away from t h e weaver. The weaver t h e n punches down w i t h her l e f t f i s t a t t h e warp t h r e a d s t h a t come ov e r t h e shed r o d . T h i s h e l p s push down the warp t h r e a d s o f the p r e v i o u s shed. I t a l s o s e p a r a t e s the shed-rod warp t h r e a d s and l e t s -89-the h e d d l e shed t h r e a d s p a s s upward between them. The weaver p u l l s upwards on the end o f the h e d d l e s t i c k w i t h h e r r i g h t hand ( f i g . 33). She c o n t i n u e s t o push downwards a g a i n s t t h e warp t h r e a d s u n t i l some o f the h e d d l e warp t h r e a d s a r e p u l l e d c l e a r . While d o i n g a l l t h i s the weaver h o l d s h e r body w e i g h t f o r w a r d , e a s i n g the t e n s i o n on a l l the warp t h r e a d s , so t h a t she can p u l l the h e d d l e - s h e d t h r e a d s up more e a s i l y . Once the f i r s t h e d d l e - s h e d t h r e a d s a r e p u l l e d c l e a r a t the edge the weaver i n s e r t s t h e sword b e a t e r g r a d u a l l y i n t o the shed. The sword b e a t e r i s i n s e r t e d b e h i n d the h e d d l e s t i c k . She c o n t i n u e s p u l l i n g up on the h e d d l e s t i c k , p u l l i n g c l e a r the t h r e a d s o f t h e h e d d l e shed, u n t i l the sword b e a t e r has been i n s e r t e d c o m p l e t e l y ( f i g . 34). She t h e n l e a n s h e r weight back a g a i n s t the b e l t , and, u s i n g b o t h hands, p u l l s the sword b e a t e r under and p a s t the h e d d l e s . The shed r o d i s t h e n brought f o r w a r d a g a i n s t the h e d d l e s t i c k . The sword b e a t e r i s moved f u r t h e r f o r w a r d towards the weaver and th e shed s t i c k which i s s i t t i n g i n the p r e v i o u s shed, h o l d i n g the t h r e a d s ready f o r the p a t t e r n p i c k - u p t o be done. By i n s e r t i n g b o t h a shed s t i c k and a sword b e a t e r i n a l t e r n a t e sheds, the warp t h r e a d s are h e l d i n a c r o s s p o s i t i o n , s i d e by s i d e . T h i s makes the p i c k up o f t h r e a d s f o r the p a t t e r n weave a r e a much e a s i e r , and m i s t a k e s are l e s s l i k e l y t o o c c u r through t h r e a d s b e i n g m i s p l a c e d . The o u t s i d e warp s t r i p e a r e a i s p i c k e d up as f a r as the p a t t e r n s t r i p e and a p a t t e r n s t i c k i n s e r t e d i n t h a t same shed. The weaver s c r a p e s the l l a m a bone p i c k a c r o s s the warp t h r e a d s i n f r o n t o f the woven a r e a . T h i s s e p a r a t e s any s t i c k y t h r e a d s . The weaver uses h e r -90-F i g u r e 33 Shed changing on a back t e n s i o n loom: O c t a v i a p u l l s up on t h e heddie s t i c k . F i g u r e 34 Shed s t i c k i n s e r t e d i n shed b e h i n d h e d d i e s t i c k , w h i l e shed r o d i s b rought f o r w a r d . -91-l e f t hand t o h o l d the warp t h r e a d s o f the p a t t e r n a r e a . The m i d d l e f i n g e r i s i n s e r t e d i n t o the shed and the t h r e a d s are h e l d f i r m l y . Her r i g h t hand h o l d s the bone p i c k , which she uses t o p i c k up the r e q u i r e d t h r e a d s . As the t h r e a d s are p i c k e d up on the bone, t h e i r p a r t n e r s are dropped from the m i d d l e f i n g e r o f the l e f t hand t o s i t below the p i c k ( f i g . 35). These t h r e a d s w i l l appear on the r e v e r s e s i d e o f the c l o t h . Once a l l o f the p a t t e r n a r e a has been p i c k e d up the weaver s e t s the shed s t i c k on edge and reaches i n t o the shed u n t i l she can g r a s p the p o i n t o f the bone p i c k which s i t s i n the p a t t e r n shed. The p a t t e r n s t i c k i s b r o u g h t f o r w a r d u n t i l i t s t i p s e t t l e s i n t o a n o t c h i n the h e e l o f the l l a m a bone. The p a t t e r n s t i c k i s used t o push the bone p i c k a l o n g and o u t o f the shed. T h i s c a r r i e s the p a t t e r n s t i c k smoothly under the p i c k e d - u p t h r e a d s , c r e a t i n g a new shed f o r the n e x t s h u t t l e i n s e r t i o n . The shed s t i c k i s removed, l e a v i n g the p a t t e r n s t i c k i n the p a t t e r n shed. The p a t t e r n s t i c k i s t u r n e d on edge, s e p a r a t i n g the t h r e a d s , and the s h u t t l e s t i c k i s p a s s e d through t h i s s h e d o p e n i n g ( f i g . 36). When p u l l i n g the w e f t through the shed the weaver h o l d s about one and a h a l f i n c h e s o f w e f t i n s i d e the shed a t the s e l v e d g e , t o p r e v e n t the s e l v e d g e from b e i n g p u l l e d i n and d i s t o r t e d . The p a t t e r n s t i c k i s removed and the sword b e a t e r i s brought f o r -ward a g a i n s t the w e f t . A t t h i s p o i n t t h e weaver i n c r e a s e s t e n s i o n on the warp t h r e a d s . The weaver h o l d s the sword b e a t e r up a g a i n s t the w e f t , w h i l e she b e a t s i n downwards sweeps a g a i n s t the w e f t , between the warp t h r e a d s , u s i n g the bone p i c k . Halfway a c r o s s the warp she changes the p i c k t o the o t h e r hand, and c o n t i n u e s b e a t i n g the w e f t i n ( f i g . 37). -92-P i c k i n g up p a t t e r n t h r e a d s : O c t a v i a p i c k s up t h e p a t t e r n t h r e a d s w i t h a bone p i c k . F i g u r e 36 I n s e r t i n g w eft: shed h e l d open f o r the i n s e r t i o n o f t h e weft. B e a t i n g i n the w e f t : h o l d i n g sword b e a t e r f i r m l y , O c t a v i a b e a t s i n the weft w i t h t h e bone p i c k , between each warp t h r e a d . F i g u r e 38 B e a t i n g i n t h e w e f t : O c t a v i a b e a t s i n t h e weft, p l u c k i n g bone p i c k up a g a i n s t warp t h r e a d s . -94-Once t h i s f i r s t row o f b e a t i n g has been completed, the weaver t i g h t e n s up any s l a c k warp t h r e a d s and p u l l s up on them. Then she h o l d s the b e a t e r s l i g h t l y on edge, and i n s e r t s the bone p i c k i n t o the shed, under about two i n c h e s o f warp t h r e a d s . She p l u c k s t h e p i c k h a r d a g a i n s t the warp t h r e a d s ( f i g . 38). I f n e c e s s a r y the weaver may s p r e a d o u t the warp t h r e a d s s l i g h t l y , where they come ov e r the shed r o d . T h i s i s t o c o u n t e r a c t any tendency o f the w e f t t o p u l l i n on the w i d t h o f the c l o t h . The sword b e a t e r i s now r e p l a c e d by a shed s t i c k . The l l a m a bone p i c k i s s c r a p e d a c r o s s the t h r e a d s i n f r o n t o f t h e h e d d l e s t i c k . A few t h r e a d s a t a time a r e l i f t e d from the top o f the shed r o d and p u l l e d up and p a s t t h e h e d d l e s t i c k s t h r e a d s . I f n e c e s s a r y the weaver s c o r e s a g a i n , a c r o s s the t h r e a d s t o l e s s e n any s t i c k y ones. The sword b e a t e r i s s l i d under each group o f t h r e a d s as they a r e b r o u g h t p a s t the h e d d l e s t r i n g s . T h i s i s c o n t i n u e d u n t i l a l l the t h r e a d s have been p i c k e d up on the sword b e a t e r f o r the new shed, the s h e d - r o d shed. F o r t h i s e n t i r e p r o c e s s the warp i s k e p t under t e n s i o n . As p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d , the p a t t e r n s t i c k i s g r a d u a l l y i n s e r t e d i n t o the f i r s t shed which i s h e l d open by a shed s t i c k . P a t t e r n t h r e a d s are p i c k e d up and the p a t t e r n s t i c k i s s l i d under t h e s e , p u s h i n g the l l a m a bone t h r o u g h . Once the p a t t e r n s t i c k has been c o m p l e t e l y i n s e r t e d the shed s t i c k i s removed. The p a t t e r n s t i c k i s s e t on i t s edge and the s h u t t l e s t i c k i s i n s e r t e d i n t o the shed. The w e f t i s the n p u l l e d i n t o p o s i t i o n . The p a t t e r n s t i c k i s removed. While the warp i s under t e n s i o n the sword b e a t e r i s b r o u g h t f o r w a r d a g a i n s t the w e f t . The w e f t i s then p a cked down i n i t s shed. Any l o o s e t h r e a d s are p u l l e d up and then w i t h -95-the sword b e a t e r s e t on i t s s i d e , the weaver p u l l s upwards on the warp t h r e a d s w i t h the p i c k . The sword b e a t e r i s r e p l a c e d w i t h a shed s t i c k and the weaver c o n t i n u e s w i t h a n o t h e r shed change. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r weaving has v e r y l i t t l e i n the way o f p a t t e r n . I t has o n l y two bands o f p a t t e r n , u n l i k e t h a t o f the P i s a c woman. The main p a r t o f the d e c o r a t i o n i s from g a i l y c o l o u r e d bands o f warp s t r i p e s . The y a r n used f o r the poncho i s a c o m m e r c i a l l y spun s y n t h e t i c y a r n , which i s e a s i l y o b t a i n e d i n any o f the l o c a l markets. The y a r n i s over-spun by the weaver b e f o r e b e g i n n i n g warping. I t makes i t a l i t t l e e a s i e r t o work w i t h . I t s t i l l tends t o s t i c k b u t n o t as b a d l y as i f i t had n o t been ov e r - s p u n . However i t i s the q u a l i t i e s o f i n c r e a s e d d u r a b i l i t y t h a t a r e most p r i z e d , w i t h over-spun y a r n s . 2. Sacsahuaman Weaver T h i s , the f i r s t o f the weavers obse r v e d , was found i n a s m a l l hamlet c o n s i s t i n g o f s e v e r a l houses, l i n e d up t o g e t h e r on one s i d e o f the h i g h -way near Sacsahuaman, the I n c a f o r t r e s s above Cuzco. I t was m i d - a f t e r -noon on a g l o r i o u s , h o t , c l e a r w i n t e r day. The woman was d r e s s e d v e r y c o l o u r f u l l y i n one o f the l o c a l costumes. D e s p i t e the h e a t , she wore a heavy woolen s k i r t and emb r o i d e r e d j a c k e t . Over t h e j a c k e t , and around h e r s h o u l d e r s , she wore a complexly p a t t e r n e d manta. A manta i s a s h o r t shawl w i t h wide p a t t e r n s t r i p e s , g e n e r a l l y f o l d e d double i n t o a r e c t a n g l e , wrapped around the s h o u l d e r s and p i n n e d i n f r o n t , u s u a l l y w i t h a l a r g e b l a n k e t p i n . The v e r y g a i l y d e c o r a t e d costume was not the one u s u a l l y worn e v e r y day, b u t r a t h e r the one b e s t f o r f i e s t a s -96-and dancing-, ( f i g . 39). . " The woman had s e t up h e r loom on a h i g h bank i n f r o n t o f the houses and ne a r the roadway. The loom was t i e d by f o u r t w i s t e d and p l i e d c o r d s t o s t a k e s t h a t had been d r i v e n i n t o the ground. The r e a r two s t a k e s were l o n g e r than the f r o n t p a i r s o t h a t the work was sup-p o r t e d a t an a n g l e , s l a n t i n g towards the weaver. T h i s i n c l i n e d s u r f a c e made i t e a s i e r f o r the weaver t o work c o m f o r t a b l y . The loom was t i e d a t s u c h a h e i g h t from the ground, t h a t a weaver s i t t i n g on h e r h e e l s c o u l d r e s t h e r forearms on the loom b a r w h i l e p i c k i n g up the p a t t e r n . The weaver was making a manta, w i t h v e r y s i m i l a r p a t t e r n t o the one t h a t she h e r s e l f was we a r i n g . The manta was b e i n g made i n two p i e c e s o f r e c t a n g u l a r f a b r i c which would be j o i n e d t o g e t h e r onto a square. The p i e c e s would be woven s e p a r a t e l y by the weaver as f o u r - s e l v e d g e d c l o t h , r a t h e r t h a n as one l o n g p i e c e and the n c u t i n the mi d d l e and j o i n e d . Weaving the manta i n two p i e c e s means t h a t two warps must be made and the n t h r e a d e d up on the loom, one a f t e r the o t h e r , a t r a d i -t i o n a l method t h a t has c o n t i n u e d from p r e h i s t o r i c t i m e s . The h a l f manta on h e r loom c o n s i s t e d o f a s e r i e s o f complex p a t t e r n bands. In the t r a d i t i o n o f the a r e a each band i s q u i t e wide and c o n s i s t s o f a s e r i e s o f g e o m e t r i c m o t i f s which have been b u i l t up i n t o a complex g e o m e t r i c r e p e a t . The p a t t e r n i s r e n d e r e d v i s u a l l y more complex, and a l s o l e s s r e p e t i t i v e by the i n s e r t i o n o f bands o f d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r w i t h i n the main m o t i f s . T h i s a l s o i s a common p r a c t i c e and was o b s e r v e d a t C h i n -c h e r o , and i n a v a r i e t y o f f i n i s h e d a r t i c l e s w h i l e i n P e r u . The p a r t o f -97-the c l o t h a l r e a d y woven was wrapped around the f r o n t warp beam and a s e c o n d o r c l o t h beam. T h i s k e p t the work a r e a , t h a t i s , the s e c t i o n b e i n g woven, c l o s e t o the weaver, so t h a t s t r e t c h i n g u n n e c e s s a r i l y f o r w a r d by the weaver was k e p t t o a minimum. The p r o c e s s d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n below c o n s i s t s o f two i n s e r t i o n s o f w e f t , s t a r t i n g w i t h the shed change t o the heddle shed. I t was r e c o r d e d d u r i n g a h a l f hour o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d . B e f o r e b e g i n n i n g t o change the shed, the weaver s e p a r a t e s the t h r e a d s from each o t h e r by s c o r i n g a c r o s s the warp i n f r o n t o f the h e d d l e s t r i n g s w i t h a c u r v e d l l a m a bone. T h i s l o o s e n s the t h r e a d s which te n d t o s t i c k t o each o t h e r . The weaver's l e f t hand then g r a s p s the end o f the h e d d l e s t i c k and she b e g i n s t o p u l l the warp t h r e a d s h e l d by the h e d d l e s t r i n g s away from the o t h e r warps. The weaver g r a d u a l l y i n s e r t s the sword b e a t e r b e h i n d the h e d d l e s i n t o the space t h a t r e s u l t s between the warp t h r e a d s . T h i s i s the heddle shed. The weaver then s h i f t s h e r hand a l o n g the h e d d l e s t i c k and b e g i n s t o p u l l up on the warp t h r e a d s f u r t h e r o v e r , so t h a t the sword b e a t e r can be i n s e r t e d deeper i n t o the shed. T h i s i s c o n t i n u e d u n t i l the e n t i r e h e d d l e shed has been opened and the sword b e a t e r i n s e r t e d . The sword b e a t e r i s t h e n g r a s p e d w i t h b o t h hands and p u l l e d f o r -ward towards the weaver, and the p a t t e r n s t i c k t h a t i s a l r e a d y i n the o t h e r shed c l o s e t o the w o r k i n g edge. By h a v i n g two s t i c k s c l o s e t o -g e t h e r i n a l t e r n a t e sheds the t h r e a d s are f o r c e d t o l i e s i d e by s i d e -98-i n p o s i t i o n . T h i s makes the p a t t e r n p i c k - u p much e a s i e r . I f the t h r e a d s s t i c k t o g e t h e r w h i l e the sword b e a t e r i s b e i n g p u l l e d f o r w a r d the weaver can s c o r e a c r o s s the warp t h r e a d s w i t h the bone p i c k t o f r e e the t h r e a d s i n f r o n t o f the b e a t e r . D u r i n g p a t t e r n p i c k - u p , f o r each t h r e a d t h a t i s dropped from the s h e d - r o d shed i t s p a r t n e r must be p i c k e d up from the u n d e r l y i n g heddie shed b e l o w the'sword b e a t e r . P a t t e r n m a n i p u l a t i o n i n t h i s weave (com-plementary) o c c u r s i n p a i r s , w i t h one t h r e a d o f each p a i r a p p e a r i n g on the f a c e w h i l e the o t h e r appears on the r e v e r s e . As each s e c t i o n o f the p a t t e r n i s p i c k e d up the weaver s l i d e s a p a t t e r n s t i c k through the shed and under the warp p a t t e r n t h r e a d s t h a t she has j u s t p i c k e d . The weaver uses the thumb and f i r s t two f i n g e r s o f each hand. The second f i n g e r i s i n s e r t e d i n the shed, under the top warp t h r e a d s , w h i l e the f i r s t f i n g e r s i t s on top o f the t h r e a d s , w i t h the thumb, t o s e c u r e the t h r e a d s . When a t h r e a d i s r e q u i r e d from the l e f t hand i t i s p a s s e d a l o n g by the second f i n g e r s t o the r i g h t o r h o l d i n g hand. I n the same way a t h r e a d from below would be p i c k e d up and p a s s e d t o the r i g h t hand. With the p a t t e r n p i c k - u p completed the p a t t e r n s t i c k now h o l d s the complete p a t t e r n shed. The p a t t e r n s t i c k i s t u r n e d on edge t o h o l d the shed open. The s h u t t l e s t i c k i s p a s s e d through the shed and the w e f t a d j u s t e d i n the shed so t h a t the s e l v e d g e i s even. The p a t t e r n s t i c k i s f l a t t e n e d and b r o u g h t f o r w a r d a g a i n s t the w e f t , t h e n removed. The sword b e a t e r , which has been s i t t i n g i n the shed b e h i n d , i s b r o u g h t f o r w a r d a g a i n s t the warp c r o s s t o pack the w e f t i n p l a c e . With the sword b e a t e r h e l d f l a t i n the shed, and u s i n g the bone p i c k , the weaver -99-F i g u r e 39 A s t a k e d o u t loom, the weaver wears t r a d i t i o n a l d r e s s . F i g u r e 40 Weaver b e a t s i n w e f t , u s i n g bone p i c k . -100-packs the w e f t i h t i g h t l y , p r o d u c i n g a s m a l l r i d g e i n the warp ( f i g . 40). She p u l l s down h a r d w i t h t h e p i c k a g a i n s t the w e f t between each warp t h r e a d . Then she i n s e r t s the p i c k i n f r o n t o f the sworda b e a t e r and p l u c k s a t the warp t h r e a d s , p u l l i n g them t a u t . A p a t t e r n s t i c k then r e p l a c e s the sword b e a t e r i n t h i s shed. T h i s l e a v e s the swor.di b e a t e r f r e e t o be i n s e r t e d i n the n e x t shed. The weaver s c o r e s a c r o s s the warp, i n f r o n t o f the h e d d l e s t o l o o s e n the t h r e a d s , p r e p a r a t o r y t o changing the shed. The shed r o d i s p l a c e d as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e b e h i n d the he d d l e s t i c k , and the warp t h r e a d s p a s s i n g over the shed r o d a r e p u l l e d up and p a s t the heddle s t r i n g s and the o t h e r warps. The sword., b e a t e r i s c a r e f u l l y i n s e r t e d , i n f r o n t o f the h e d d l e s , i n t o t h i s new shed. The weaver b e g i n s the p i c k - u p f o r the n e x t row o f p a t t e r n i n the shed h e l d by the p a t t e r n s t i c k . As each s e c t i o n o f warp p a t t e r n i s p i c k e d up the second p a t t e r n s t i c k i s i n s e r t e d i n t o t h i s new p a t t e r n shed. Once the whole row has been p i c k e d up the o r i g i n a l p a t t e r n s t i c k i s removed, l e a v i n g the second p a t t e r n s t i c k i n the shed, ready f o r the passage o f the w e f t . When the w e f t has been i n s e r t e d and p o s i t i o n e d , the second p a t t e r n s t i c k i s removed and the sword b e a t e r b r o u g h t f o r w a r d a g a i n s t the warp c r o s s . I f the warp t h r e a d s s h o u l d s t i c k , p r e v e n t i n g the sword b e a t e r from moving, s c o r i n g ' w i t h the bone p i c k would h e l p s e p a r a t e them. With the sword b e a t e r h a r d up a g a i n s t the warp c r o s s the w e f t i s b e a t e n down w i t h the bone p i c k , as p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d . The sword b e a t e r i s t h e n r e p l a c e d w i t h a p a t t e r n s t i c k . The weaver pushes the - W i -shed r o d away from the heddie s t i c k . P u l l i n g up on the h e d d i e s t i c k she g r a d u a l l y c l e a r s a space and b e g i n s t o i n s e r t the sword b e a t e r b e h i n d the h e d d l e s . 3. G e r a r d o Gusman Ramos T i n t a i s a d e l i g h t f u l town n e a r S i c u a n i , a c r o s s the V i l c a n o t a r i v e r from the Cuzco-Puno highway, about t h r e e hours d r i v e from Cuzco. I t i s an I n d i a n town, and a l t h o u g h on the Cuzco-Puno r o a d and r a i l r o u t e i t i s l i t t l e v i s i t e d by t o u r i s t s , because o f i t s d i s t a n c e from Cuzco. T h i s p a r t i a l s e c l u s i o n from t o u r i s t i n f l u e n c e has r e s u l t e d i n the c o n t i n u a n c e o f much o f the t r a d i t i o n a l c r a f t s . As w e l l as s e v e r a l f a m i l i e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l weavers t h e r e i s an a r t i s a n a t a workshop where the t r a d i t i o n a l campesino costume i s made, b o t h f o r e v e r y d a y and f o r f i e s t a w e a r i n g . S e v e r a l weavers were v i s i t e d i n T i n t a , b u t o n l y one was o b s e r v e d weaving. The o t h e r s b r o u g h t o u t t h e i r work and u n r o l l e d the looms t o show what they were d o i n g . The one weaver who was o b s e r v e d a t work was a man, Gerardo Gusman Ramos. He works i n s i d e h i s house. The door i s l e f t wide open t o l e t i n enough l i g h t f o r him t o see what he i s d o i n g . The loom i s t i e d t o f o u r s h o r t s t a k e s which have been d r i v e n i n t o the packed e a r t h f l o o r . The p a i r s o f s t a k e s a r e s p a c e d w i d e l y a p a r t , which suggests t h a t they may a l s o be used i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f the warp. Both the warp on the back warp beam, and the c l o t h on the f r o n t warp beam are r o l l e d up, t o make a v e r y narrow w o r k i n g a r e a ( f i g . 4 1 ) . The back warp beam i s l a s h e d - 1 0 2 -I F i g u r e 4 1 H o r i z o n t a l s t a k e d o u t l o o m : i t s h o w s t h e t i e c o r d s a t t a c h e d t o c l o t h b e a m . F i g u r e 42 P a t t e r n p i c k u p : t h e w e a v e r h o l d s b o n e p i c k i n o v e r h a n d g r i p . -10 3-t o two s t a k e s , b u t the f r o n t b'eam i s h e l d by two p l i e d c o r d s t o the o t h e r two s t a k e s which are some d i s t a n c e away b e h i n d the weaver. The weaver keeps a c l o t h on the f r o n t edge o f the weaving t o p r o t e c t i t from c o n t a c t w i t h h i s c l o t h i n g , s i n c e the background c o l o u r i s w h i t e . The weaver works, s i t t i n g on h i s h e e l s w i t h h i s knees t u c k e d i n under the loom. The shed change p a t t e r n p i c k - u p and one i n s e r t i o n o f w e f t was o b s e r v e d . The shed r o d i s i n p l a c e c l o s e b e h i n d the heddle s t i c k and the sword b e a t e r i s i n the h e d d l e shed j u s t i n f r o n t o f the h e d d l e s . The weaver used a bone p i c k t o do the p a t t e r n p i c k - u p . He h o l d s the p i c k , overhand, i n h i s l e f t hand ( f i g . 42). As he completes a s e c t i o n o f p a t t e r n p i c k - u p he i n s e r t s the s h u t t l e s t i c k i n t o the p a t t e r n shed c r e a t e d on the bone p i c k . T h i s h o l d s t h e s e warp t h r e a d s s e p a r a t e . He c o n t i n u e s p i c k i n g up the p a t t e r n i n t h i s way, working a c r o s s the w i d t h , u n t i l the s h u t t l e s t i c k r e a ches from one s i d e t o the o t h e r . Where t h e r e i s no p a t t e r n a r e a , the s t i c k p a s s e s through the w e f t shed h e l d by the p a t t e r n s t i c k . The w e f t i s p a s s e d through the p a t t e r n shed and p u l l e d even a t the s e l v e d g e s . The warp t h r e a d s p a s s i n g o v e r the shed r o d a r e b r o u g h t up and p a s t the h e d d l e s and the b e a t e r i s i n s e r t e d i n t h i s shed. I t i s t h e n b r o u g h t f o r w a r d a g a i n s t the warp c r o s s and the w e f t b e h i n d t h a t . The weaver uses the bone p i c k t o pack the w e f t f i r m l y . T h i s weaver was w o r k i n g a " r o s a s " p a t t e r n , which i s t r a d i t i o n a l t o T i n t a . The p a t t e r n i s worked i n a supplementary-warp p a t t e r n weave. There are t h r e e main p a t t e r n bands. Another p i e c e , by the same weaver, -104-i n the Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , U.B.C., shows s m a l l e r bands o f these r o s e s , a l s o i n supplementary-warp weave. E. Comparison o f Weaving Techniques Each weaver had a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t approach i n p a t t e r n p i c k - u p . The weaver a t Sacsahuaman used h e r f i n g e r s o n l y , g r a d u a l l y i n s e r t i n g a p a t t e r n s t i c k i n t o the p a t t e r n shed about two i n c h e s a t a time. These were a l l the t h r e a d s a t h a t she c o u l d c o m f o r t a b l y h a n d l e a t each t i m e . O c t a v i a S i n c h i , the weaver a t Ol l a n t a y t a m b o , i n s e r t e d the middle f i n g e r o f h e r l e f t hand i n t o the shed t o h o l d the t h r e a d s , w h i l e she p i c k e d up the p a t t e r n w i t h a bone p i c k . She p i c k e d up the e n t i r e p a t t e r n band b e f o r e i n s e r t i n g the p a t t e r n s t i c k i n t o the p a t t e r n shed. Her manoevre was more complex than t h a t c a r r i e d o u t by the o t h e r weavers. She i n -s e r t e d h e r arm i n t o the shed and g r a s p e d the p o i n t o f the bone which she h e l d . The p a t t e r n s t i c k was pushed i n t o a n o t c h i n the o t h e r end o f the p i c k . By p u s h i n g the bone a l o n g the p a t t e r n s t i c k was e a s e d i n t o the p a t t e r n shed. As the weaver a t T i n t a p i c k e d up the t h r e a d s on the bone p i c k , he s l i d the s h u t t l e s t i c k i n t o the p a t t e r n shed, o m i t t i n g one s t e p and sp e e d i n g the p r o c e s s . A. Howe r e p o r t s the same p r o c e d u r e f o r one shed sequence i n Lauramarka (1975: 4 0 ) . A f t e r t h i s s t e p the o t h e r two weavers then i n s e r t e d the s h u t t l e s t i c k i n t o the shed h e l d open by the p a t t e r n s t i c k . Whereas O c t a v i a used a wide p a t t e r n s t i c k t u r n e d on i t s s i d e , making a wide shed, the P i s a c woman a t Sacsahuaman c o u l d n o t do -105-t h i s , s i n c e the t e n s i o n on h e r loom was not a d j u s t a b l e . She p a s s e d the s h u t t l e s t i c k through a shed made by a narrow d i a m e t e r p a t t e r n s t i c k . A l t h o u g h t h e r e are s p e c i f i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n the t e c h n i q u e used on the loom woven p i e c e s and the f i n g e r woven p i e c e s , these a r e due more t o a d i f f e r e n c e i n s c a l e t h a n t o a d i f f e r e n t approach i n weaving. D i f f e r e n c e s o f s c a l e a r e more obvious i n the weavings o f Ollantaytambo than those o f C h i n c h e r o . A t O l l a n t a y t a m b o the h e d d l e s t r i n g s were n o t a t t a c h e d t o a h e d d l e s t i c k , a l t h o u g h t h i s was done a t C h i n c h e r o . The bands woven a t Ollantaytambo were narrower and d i d n o t need a h e d d l e s t i c k . Changing o f the shed was a c c o m p l i s h e d q u i t e s a t i s f a c -t o r i l y w i t h o u t t h i s a d d i t i o n , a l t h o u g h i t seemed t o make the t a s k e a s i e r a t C h i n c h e r o . T h i s l a t t e r f a c t may be due t o the k i n d o f y a r n used as much as the w i d t h o f the band, f o r I have woven s e v e r a l o f the p a t t e r n s o b s e r v e d a t C h i n c h e r o and f i n d the s t r i n g h e d d l e s e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . I n t h e C h i n c h e r o weavings the h e d d l e s t i c k seemed t o be a t t a c h e d i n the same way as f o r the l a r g e r weavings on the looms. The p a t t e r n p i c k - u p was done by hand as a t Sacsahuaman,without a bone p i c k , b u t whereas S t e f a n i a Quispe used shed s t i c k s O c t a v i a S i n c h i d i d n o t . Here the d i f f e r e n c e may l i e i n the f a c t t h a t one weaver was a t home w i t h h e r equipment a t hand, w h i l e the o t h e r weaver was away from home and had b r o u g h t no s m a l l weaving t o o l s w i t h h e r . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t w h i l e the m a j o r i t y o f weavers worked w i t h two sheds s t i c k s i n the warp, S t e f a n i a Quispe used f i v e shed s t i c k s which doubled as -106-p a t t e r n s t i c k s . Once a l l o f these were p l a c e d as p a t t e r n s t i c k s i n s u c c e e d i n g sheds S t e f a n i a then began t o i n s e r t the w e f t i n each shed, p a c k i n g i n the w e f t w i t h the n e x t p a t t e r n s t i c k . Her daughter, S o n i a , worked w i t h two shed s t i c k s . A l t h o u g h t h i s s t u d y i s concerned w i t h one t e c h n i q u e — c o m p l e m e n t a r y -warp w e a v e — i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t any o f the weaving methods p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d would a p p l y a l s o t o o t h e r r e l a t e d w a r p - p a t t e r n e d weaves. I t i s i n the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f the warps d u r i n g p a t t e r n p i c k - u p t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s would o c c u r , as w e l l as i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f the warp and the arrangement o f the c o l o u r s . I n summary t h e r e are d i f f e r e n c e s i n the weaving t e c h n i q u e o f each o f the weavers o b s e r v e d . While the s e p a r a t i o n o f the shed f o r the passage o f the w e f t depends on the loom s e t - u p , o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e s are due more t o p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e on the p a r t o f the weaver. S t e f a n i a Quispe used s e v e r a l shed s t i c k s , b u t she d i d not always do so. She s a i d t h a t i t made the work go more q u i c k l y i n t h i s manner b u t no r e a l d i f f e r e n c e i n speed was o b s e r v e d when she took o v e r h e r daughter's weaving. The T i n t a weaver was more concerned w i t h speed: Gusman e s t i m a t e d t h a t i t took him about twenty days t o weave a p a t t e r n e d poncho, i n comparison w i t h G o o d e l l ' s r e p o r t s o f from t h r e e t o s i x months ( B i r d , 1968: 15). Weaving s t e p s had o b v i o u s l y been r e d u c e d t o a minimum. O c t a v i a S i n c h i worked w i t h o u t equipment such as shed s t i c k s and b e a t e r i n the narrow weavings, b u t t h i s was no doubt due t o l a c k o f 3 a v a i l a b l e equipment.. -107-These are the comparisons made p o s s i b l e by a few weeks o f f i e l d r e s e a r c h . They p o i n t o u t the v a l u e o f the comparative approach f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g a weaving t r a d i t i o n . However, u n t i l more weavers a r e o b s e r v e d , the p a r t i c u l a r s o f p e r s o n a l c h o i c e i n weaving cannot be p r o p e r l y e v a l u a t e d . I found i n my own weavings t h a t i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o pack the w e f t as f i r m l y by hand a c t i o n w i t h o u t the a i d o f a wooden b e a t e r . The f i n i s h e d p i e c e d e f i n i t e l y l o o k e d l o o s e r and l e s s compact. -108-CHAPTER 6 LEARNING AND INSTRUCTION The c h i l d r e n o f the Andean h i g h l a n d s o f P e r u l e a r n weaving i n a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n from t h a t o f North America. As both an a r t e d u c a t o r and a weaver I must a p p r e c i a t e these d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r l e a r n i n g and a l s o i n the way i n which t r a d i t i o n s a r e p a s s e d on from one g e n e r a t i o n t o the n e x t . T h i s c h a p t e r d e a l s f i r s t w i t h how P e r u v i a n c h i l d r e n l e a r n t o weave, bas e d on o b s e r v a t i o n s made i n the f i e l d . Then a d e s c r i p t i o n i s g i v e n o f my e x p e r i e n c e s as an a p p r e n t i c e weaver, l e a r n i n g i n the same way as any P e r u v i a n c h i l d and f i n a l l y I d e a l w i t h the p r o c e s s o f a d a p t i n g these t e c h n i q u e s to the weaving t r a d t i o n o f my own c u l t u r e . C h i l d r e n l e a r n t o weave i n P e r u by watching t h e i r e l d e r s . E v e n t u a l l y they a r e a l l o w e d t o h e l p , b u t t h e r e are c e r t a i n r e q u i r e -ments t o be met b e f o r e a c h i l d i s a l l o w e d t o do a n y t h i n g . While i n o l l a n t a y t a m b o i t was n o t e d t h a t a l t h o u g h a l l the c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s crowded around t o watch the weaver a t work, none o f the v e r y young c h i l d r e n were a l l o w e d t o touch the work i n p r o g r e s s . T h e i r c u r i o u s f i n g e r s were pushed away. Even O c t a v i a ' s own c h i l d , a l i t t l e boy, was d i s c o u r a g e d from i n v o l v i n g h i m s e l f i n the work. He was e x p e c t e d to s i t q u i e t l y by and watch, which he d i d most o f the t i m e . The one c h i l d who was a l l o w e d to h e l p w i t h the r e p l a c e m e n t o f the shed r o d which had dropped out, was about e l e v e n o r twelve y e a r s o l d . -109-She was the e l d e s t o f the g i r l s t h e r e . I t was i n d i c a t e d t o h e r what she was t o do, h o l d i n g on t o the shed s t i c k w h i l e the shed r o d shed was p i c k e d up. She was e x p e c t e d t o s t a n d by f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d o f t i m e , ready t o s l i d e the shed s t i c k g r a d u a l l y f u r t h e r i n t o the shed, underneath the warp t h r e a d s t h a t had been s l o w l y and p a i n s t a k i n g l y s o r t e d o u t and p i c k e d up a g a i n . From t h i s p o i n t on the l i t t l e g i r l , Tomasina, was a c c e p t e d as an a s s i s t a n t . However, t h i s d i d n o t mean t h a t she was g o i n g t o s t a r t weaving. I n s t e a d she s a t by the weaver, w a t c h i n g e v e r y t h i n g t h a t was b e i n g done. Once o r t w i c e she was p e r m i t t e d t o h e l p s p r e a d the warp a l o n g the shed r o d t o space i t more w i d e l y and compensate f o r the p u l l - i n by the w e f t . L a t e r i n the day when Senora O c t a v i a p r e p a r e d a s m a l l warp t o demonstrate a v a r i e t y o f p a t t e r n s and t e c h n i q u e s , Tomasina was once more a l l o w e d t o s e r v e as a s s i s t a n t and h e l p w i t h the p r e p a r a t i o n . Most o f T o m a s i n a 1 s t a s k s c o n s i s t e d o f h e l p i n g t o pass the warp t h r e a d around the end s t i c k s , o r o f h o l d i n g o f f t o one s i d e a l e n g t h o f y a r n t h a t was n o t r e q u i r e d f o r the c u r r e n t s e c t i o n . D e s p i t e t t h e ' a s s i s t a n c e t h a t Tomasina gave she was n o t i n v o l v e d i n thei a c t u a l w a r p i n g o f the y a r n . She was o n l y a s s i s t i n g i n much the same way t h a t a young a p p r e n t i c e would have a s s i s t e d i n a m e d i e v a l g u i l d workshop. While n o t e s s e n t i a l t o the p r o c e s s , Tomasina's a s s i s t a n c e made the weaving a l i t t l e e a s i e r . O c t a v i a d i d n o t e x p l a i n n o r d e s c r i b e what she was d o i n g t o e i t h e r Tomasina o r h e r i n t e r e s t e d a u d i e n c e . I f q u e s t i o n s were asked she -110-would answer, b u t she d i d n o t f e e l i t was n e c e s s a r y t o o f f e r any v e r b a l e x p l a n a t i o n to the g i r l h e l p i n g . I f the c h i l d d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d what was b e i n g done i t d i d n o t m a t t e r . She would l e a r n l a t e r i f she watched and a s s i s t e d . To a c e r t a i n e x t e n t Tomasina was e x p e c t e d t o f i g u r e o u t f o r h e r s e l f how b e s t t o h e l p . Some o f the time she was t o l d what t o do. Any l e a r n i n g t h a t took p l a c e was as a r e s u l t o f the c h i l d ' s own o b s e r v a t i o n s . In f a c t Tomasina s t a y e d w a t c h i n g l o n g a f t e r the o t h e r c h i l d r e n had l o s t i n t e r e s t and moved away to p l a y . She s a t q u i e t l y , o n l y h e l p i n g when i t . was i n d i c a t e d t h a t h e l p was r e q u i r e d . U l t i m a t e l y Tomasina a l s o l e f t , b u t i t was n o t because she had l o s t i n t e r e s t . She was c a l l e d away by h e r f a m i l y to c o n t i n u e w i t h h e r c h o r e s . In Peru, c h i l d r e n are l i t t l e i n d u l g e d . They a r e e x p e c t e d a t a l l times t o p u l l t h e i r w e i g h t w i t h any work t h a t needs t o be done. D e s p i t e h e r i n t e r e s t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r g i r l w i l l have no o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n t o weave. None o f h e r f a m i l y do so, so t h e r e i s no one from whom she can l e a r n . A young g i r l would not be s e n t to someone o u t s i d e the f a m i l y f o r t r a i n i n g . She would l e a r n g r a d u a l l y , f i r s t from w a t c h i n g and then by h e l p i n g a l l t h e t h i n g s t h a t i t was c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y f o r her to know. In o r d e r f o r her t o l e a r n t o weave, h e r f a t h e r , mother, aunt o r some o t h e r member o f the f a m i l y would have to be a weaver. In C h i n c h e r o , Senora S t e f a n i a Ouispe l e a r n e d t o s p i n when she was about f i v e y e a r s o l d . She has t r e a t e d h e r c h i l d r e n i n the same - I l l -way. The e l d e r two g i r l s have l e a r n e d t o s p i n , w h i l e t h e youngest i s l e a r n i n g on a m i n i a t u r e s p i n d l e . S o n i a , aged about twelve y e a r s o f age (grade 6 i n s c h o o l ) , began l e a r n i n g t o weave a few months p r e v i o u s l y . O r i g i n a l l y she would have watched h e r mother w h i l e she worked, b e i n g a l l o w e d t o h e l p w i t h the s i m p l e t h i n g s , much as Tomasina d i d . S o n i a began h e r weaving on narrow b e l t s and bands t h a t were f o r s a l e t o the t o u r i s t s who came t o C h i n c h e r o f o r the Sundayy morning market. These b e l t s a r e made o f handspun t h i c k wool,, which i s q u i c k t o weave up and s i m p l e t o work w i t h . The p a t t e r n s which S o n i a was l e a r n i n g a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e which would be used on a l a r g e r p i e c e such as a poncho o r manta. S o n i a has n o t y e t been a l l o w e d t o weave a n y t h i n g l a r g e r than these narrow b e l t s . The s e v e r a l f i n e ponchos and c a r r y i n g c l o t h s t h a t were around the p l a c e were the work o f S o n i a ' s mother. Time, weather and o t h e r c h o r e s p e r m i t t i n g , S o n i a and h e r mother s p e n t about two hours each day weaving, w h i l e I was_in C h i n c h e r o . In o r d e r t o l e a r n S o n i a s a t on t h e ground near h e r mother ( f i g 43). The youngest c h i l d , a baby, was propped up b e s i d e the mother and l e f t t o h e r own d e v i c e s w h i l e the o t h e r two worked. S o n i a l i s t e n e d t o h e r mother g i v i n g h e r the t h r e a d count, w h i l e she m a n i p u l a t e d the warp t h r e a d s f o r the p a t t e r n p i c k up. The d i r e c t i o n s were s i m p l e : drop one; l i f t one, drop t h r e e ; l i f t one; e t c . A t the same time t h a t she was g i v i n g t h e s e d i r e c t i o n s t o h e r daughter, S t e f a n i a was w o r k i n g away on a n o t h e r d e s i g n . P e r i o d i c a l l y the mother would p u t down he r own work and t a k e o v e r h e r d a u g h t e r ' s weaving t o c o r r e c t a m i s t a k e , -112-F i g u r e 44 S'acas: S o n i a " s weaving d e s i g n ( a . ) , w h i l e (b.) shows an e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e d e s i g n i n a b e l t by her mother. -113-o r to f i n d o u t how f a r h e r daughter had come w i t h the p a t t e r n , i f she c o u l d n o t see w i t h a g l a n c e a t what sta g e the weaving was. S o n i a was c o p y i n g h e r mother's weaving a c t i o n s , h o l d i n g h e r t o o l s i n the same way and t r y i n g t o r o c k the b e a t e r i n the same f a s h i o n as h e r mother, b u t she d i d n o t y e t have the c o n t r o l t h a t h e r mother had, so as w e l l as the o c c a s i o n a l m i s t a k e s t h a t h e r mother p i c k e d back and c o r r e c t e d , the t e n s i o n was a l s o n o t as even. There was a s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e i n the s e t up f o r S o n i a . I n s t e a d o f h a v i n g the work a t t a c h e d t o a s t r i n g t i e d around h e r w a i s t , S o n i a ' s weaving was p i n n e d to the f r o n t o f h e r c a r d i g a n . The o t h e r end o f the warp was h e l d by a m e t a l s t a k e t h a t h e r mother had hammered i n t o the ground. In a d d i t i o n t o o b s e r v i n g the weavers and c h i l d r e n a t work, which I r e c o r d e d i n n o t e s , s l i d e s and photographs, I was a l s o g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n t o weave m y s e l f . A f t e r two days o f o b s e r v a t i o n a t C h i n c h e r o I was asked i f I would l i k e t o l e a r n t o weave. Upon my e n t h u s i a s t i c response. I was then asked what c o l o u r s I would l i k e f o r my band. Here c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s were immediately o b v i o u s . Whereas most o f the bands woven by the s e n o r a and h e r daughter were v e r y c o l o u r f u l , u s i n g a t l e a s t s i x c o l o u r s , I chose dark brown and w h i t e , t o which the s e n o r a added r e d and green f o r the b o r d e r c o l o u r s . My band a l t h o u g h a t t r a c t i v e i n my eyes, would seem drab t o a P e r u v i a n . T y p i c a l P e r u v i a n c o l o u r schemes can be seen i n the w i d e r weavings o f -114-each o f the weavers o b s e r v e d . My i n s t r u c t i o n began w i t h S t e f a n i a making the warp f o r my band. She p r e p a r e d i t e x a c t l y as d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , w h i l e I s a t and watched, a s k i n g t h e o c c a s i o n a l q u e s t i o n . Then w h i l e I c o n t i n u e d t o o b s e r v e , she began the weaving. I was n o t a l l o w e d t o b e g i n weaving u n t i l one complete p a t t e r n r e p e a t had been worked. Then I was g i v e n t h e work t o t i e around my w a i s t . I t took a few moments w r i g g l i n g and a r e t y i n g o f the s t r i n g around my w a i s t b e f o r e I was c o m f o r t a b l y p o s i t i o n e d and ready t o b e g i n the a c t u a l weaving. I d i s c o v e r e d v e r y e a r l y t h a t i t was i m p o r t a n t t o e x e r t a f a i r amount o f t e n s i o n on the warp. T h i s makes even the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f the warp t h r e a d s f o r the p a t t e r n p i c k up e a s i e r . C o p y i n g the a c t i o n s o f my i n s t r u c t o r I opened the shed and s l i p p e d i n the shed s t i c k . W h i l e g r a d u a l l y p u l l i n g the shed s t i c k towards me I t r i e d t o copy the weaver's thumb-scraping a c t i o n a c r o s s the t h r e a d s i n f r o n t o f the s t i c k t o l o o s e n any tendency the t h r e a d s showed t o s t i c k t o g e t h e r . T h i s t e c h n i q u e s was n o t as easy t o do as i t had l o o k e d , b u t when I d i d manage t o master i t somewhat b e t t e r I found t h a t i t made the p r o c e s s much e a s i e r . I a l s o found t h a t I had t o l e a n my body weight backwards t o i n c r e a s e the t e n s i o n on the warp t h r e a d s , o t h e r w i s e I c o u l d n o t b r i n g the shed s t i c k any f u r t h e r . I t h e l p e d i f I h e l d the shed s t i c k a t a v e r y s l i g h t a n g l e , which h e l d the t h r e a d s f u r t h e r a p a r t . -115-A l r e a d y , w i t h i n t h e f i r s t f e w m o m e n t s I h a d l e a r n e d s e v e r a l p o i n t s t h a t w e r e n o t o b v i o u s f r o m o b s e r v a t i o n a l o n e . T h e s e may s e e m l i k e v e r y m i n o r d e t a i l s , b u t i t i s i n s m a l l t h i n g s l i k e t h i s t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e l i e s b e t w e e n a m e d i o c r e a n d a c o m p e t e n t w e a v e r . I t i s o n l y b y a c t u a l l y d o i n g s o m e t h i n g t h a t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s u c h f a c t s e m e r g e s . T h e r e w e r e o t h e r c u r i o u s a c t i o n s t h a t I h a d r e c o r d e d i n my n o t e s a s I o b s e r v e d t h e w e a v e r d o t h e m . I h a d n o i d e a w h y t h e y w e r e d o n e , a n d i n d e e d o n e o r t w o o f t h e m l o o k e d l i k e b a d h a b i t s . W h e n a s k e d a b o u t some o f t h e s e t h i n g s t h e w e a v e r c o u l d o n l y r e s p o n d t h a t t h a t w a s h o w i t w a s d o n e . B y d o i n g i t m y s e l f I o f t e n c a m e u p w i t h t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e a c t i o n , w h i c h a t t h a t p o i n t s e e m e d o b v i o u s a n d s e n s i b l e . H o w e v e r , i f I h a d n o t w a t c h e d i t b e i n g d o n e I m i g h t n o t h a v e t h o u g h t o f i t f o r m y s e l f . C o n t i n u i n g w i t h my w e a v i n g l e s s o n , I t h e n f o u n d o u t t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e r o c k i n g a n d s c r a p i n g m o t i o n o f t h e s h e d b e a t e r a s t h e p r e v i o u s w e f t w a s p a c k e d d o w n . I c o u l d n o t p a c k i t a s t i g h t l y a s t h e s e n o r a h a d d o n e , n o m a t t e r how m u c h I l e a n e d b a c k w a r d s t o i n c r e a s e t h e t e n s i o n o n t h e w a r p w h i l e I b e a t t h e w e f t i n . T h e n I r e m e m b e r e d t h e r o c k i n g m o t i o n t h a t t h e s e n o r a h a d g i v e n t h e b e a t e r w h e n b e a t i n g d o w n t h e . w e f t . I m m e d i a t e l y t h e w h o l e p r o c e s s w a s e a s i e r . W h e n I r e a c h e d t h e s t a g e o f t h e p a t t e r n p i c k u p I w a s n o t l e f t t o f i g u r e i t o u t o n my own f r o m t h e p a r t a l r e a d y w o v e n . A s w i t h t h e g i r l w h o w a s l e a r n i n g t o w e a v e t h e s e n o r a c a l l e d o u t t h e d i r e c t i o n s , t e l l i n g me t o l i f t , d r o p o r p a s s o v e r e a c h t h r e a d f r o m o n e h a n d t o -116-the o t h e r . W h i l e I was d o i n g t h i s she watched me c l o s e l y t o see t h a t I d i d i n f a c t p i c k up the c o r r e c t t h r e a d s . She d i d n o t c o n t i n u e w i t h h e r own weaving a t the same time as she had done w i t h h e r d a u g h t e r . I wove one p a t t e r n r e p e a t , and then i n d i c a t e d t h a t I had had enough. I e s t i m a t e t h a t I wove f o r about an hour, and by the end o f t h a t time my back was a c h i n g . When I i n d i c a t e d t h i s t o S t e f a n i a she a g r e e d t h a t i t was a common r e s u l t o f weaving f o r any l e n g t h o f t i m e . From t h i s e x p e r i e n c e and from i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n t o me by t h e s e n o r a , I p i e c e d t o g e t h e r a p i c t u r e o f the t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e o f l e a r n i n g w i t h i n the community. A young weaver l e a r n s from the o l d e r weavers, e x a c t l y as they were t a u g h t themselves by the p r e v i o u s g e n e r a t i o n o f weavers. The forms and p r o p o r t i o n s l e a r n e d by a weaver a r e p a s s e d on v i r t u a l l y unchanged. A young g i r l l e a r n s the d e s i g n s by weaving them, f o l l o w i n g the v e r b a l d i r e c t i o n s o f h e r i n s t r u c t o r . Once the young weaver has r e p e a t e d the d e s i g n many times and i s f a m i l i a r w i t h i t , so t h a t she needs no f u r t h e r a s s i s t a n c e w i t h the p a t t e r n and can s p o t h e r own m i s t a k e s and c o r r e c t them, she b e g i n s on a new d e s i g n . T h i s may sometimes be l a r g e r and more complex. There i s a l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n t o each o f the d e s i g n s , and t h i s g r a d u a l l y becomes app a r e n t t h r o u g h the c o n s t a n t r e p e t i t i o n . P a r t o f the l o g i c i s i n h e r e n t i n the s t r u c t u r e o f the weave. A warp t h r e a d f l o a t s f o r t h r e e t o f i v e rows o f w e f t p i c k s , w i t h o u t s e r i o u s l y weakening the s t r u c t u r e , b u t then i t must be t i e d down a g a i n by t h e w e f t . T h i s -117-s e t s c e r t a i n l i m i t s t o the p a t t e r n . G e n e r a l l y the p a t t e r n s d e v e l o p a l o n g the d i a g o n a l , o r i n the form o f h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h d i a g o n a l s , as i n s'acas ( f i g 4 5 ) . Here i n o r d e r t o c o n t r o l the l e n g t h o f the warp f l o a t s , the s o l i d o f the r e v e r s e d shapes i s broken up by s m a l l s p l a s h e s o f the second c o l o u r . T h i s c r e a t e s a two c o l o u r , p e b b l e d e f f e c t , which may be used f o r e n t i r e m o t i f s and the c o n t r a s t i n g ground. In d e s i g n s t h a t do n o t have s o l i d a r e a s o f c o l o u r , the d e v e l o p -ment o f the d e s i g n a r i s e s o u t o f the arrangement o f s m a l l elements on the d i a g o n a l , i n t o l a r g e r and more complex d e s i g n forms. A l l o f t h i s i s o c c a s i o n e d by the n a t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f the weave s t r u c t u r e . Examples o f some o f t h e s e d e s i g n s can be seen i n the appendix. The f i r s t s i m p l e d e s i g n s l e a r n e d may r e c u r l a t e r i n the l a r g e r p i e c e s . S o n i a ' s d e s i g n o f s'acas o c c u r s i n a more o r n a t e form i n a b e l t woven by h e r mother. Here the s i m p l e r e p e a t has been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a complex s e r i e s o f diamond shapes, t h a t a t f i r s t s i g h t , do n o t seem t o bear any r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the i n i t i a l d e s i g n ( f i g 4r4) . The s l o w l y d e v e l o p i n g sense o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the weaving p a t t e r n s , w i l l e v e n t u a l l y l e a d S o n i a from h e r s m a l l r e p e a t , t o the c o m p l e x i t i e s o f h e r mother's p a t t e r n . T h i s method o f l e a r n i n g r e s u l t s i n a s p e c i f i c approach t o d e s i g n . Because weavers l e a r n by h e a r t the d e s i g n s i f o t h e r weavers, t h e r e i s a s t r o n g tendency t o s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f d e s i g n elements, t o the e x t e n t - 1 1 8 -t h a t e a c h w o v e n a r t i c l e i s c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z a b l e a s t y p i c a l o f t h e v i l l a g e o r c o m m u n i t y t o w h i c h t h e w e a v e r b e l o n g s . E a c h w e a v e r w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y c o m e s w i t h i n t h e s p h e r e o f i n f l u e n c e o f t h e o t h e r s . T h u s a n y c h a n g e s i n p a t t e r n d e v i s e d b y o n e w e a v e r w i l l b e k n o w n t o t h e o t h e r s , e v e n t h o u g h t h e y m a y n o t u s e t h e n e w i d e a s t h e m s e l v e s . H o w e v e r , t h o s e c h a n g e s t h a t d o o c c u r a r e s l i g h t , a n d t e n d t o a f f e c t t h e p r o p o r t i o n s , o r t h e p l a c i n g o f t h e d e s i g n e l e m e n t s w i t h i n t h e w h o l e , r a t h e r t h a n t h e i n v e n t i o n o f a c o m p l e t e l y n e w m o t i f . I n a n i n s t a n c e r e p o r t e d b y G o o d e l l ( B i r d 1 9 6 8 : 1 5 ) t h e w e a v e r o r i g i n a l l y h a d l e a r n e d a d e s i g n b a s e d o n s i x t y w a r p t h r e a d s , w h i c h s h e h a d a d a p t e d t o o n e h u n d r e d a n d t w e n t y t h r e a d s . W h i l e t h i s d o u b l e d t h e w i d t h o f t h e d e s i g n , a n d n e c e s s i t a t e d a r e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e i n t e r n a l e l e m e n t s , i t d i d n o t c h a n g e t h e d e s i g n i t s e l f , w h i c h i s s t i l l r e c o g n i s a b l e t o e v e r y o n e a s b e l o n g i n g t o t h a t v i l l a g e . N a t u r a l l y , e a c h c o m m u n i t y i s i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e o t h e r s w h i c h a r e i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y , a n d t h e i n f l u e n c e s o f o n e v i l l a g e may b e f e l t i n a n o t h e r . T h i s r e s u l t s i n a s i m i l a r i t y o f d e s i g n w i t h i n a l o c a l i z e d r e g i o n , i n e f f e c t t h e r e g i o n a l s t y l e , b u t n o n e t h e l e s s , t h e d e s i g n s a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y d i s t i n c t f o r t h e m t o b e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f o r m e a c h o t h e r b y t h o s e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e m . T h u s , w h i l e i n C u z c o s o m e o n e w i l l p o i n t t o a t e x t i l e a n d s a y O l l a n t a y t a m b o , i n O l l a n t a y t a m b o i t w i l l b e p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e t e x t i l e i s f r o m K w i l l y o , w h i c h i s w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e o f t h e t o w n . I n K w i l l y o , o n e w e a v e r w i l l b e a b l e t h e w o r k o f o t h e r w e a v e r s . -119-O'Neale (1932), i n a r e p o r t which d e a l s w i t h a n o t h e r non l i t e r a t e a r t t r a d i t i o n , t h a t o f the Yurok-Karok b a s k e t weavers o f n o r t h w e s t e r n C a l i f o r n i a , n o t e s a s m i l i a r l y c o n s e r v a t i v e a t t i t u d e opposed to any k i n d o f change, i n c l u d i n g t h e i n v e n t i o n o f new d e s i g n s . Thus, whatever a l t e r a t i o n o f d e s i g n i s done i s v e r y s l i g h t . The e l a b o r a t i o n o f d e t a i l s , which does n o t change the form o f the d e s i g n , i s a c c e p t e d and a p p r e c i a t e d f o r t h e n o v e l t y t h a t i t g i v e s t o the d e s i g n s , which must s t i l l be c l e a r l y r e c o g n i s a b l e (O'Neale 1932:98). Any i n d i v i d u a l i t y i s e x p r e s s e d i n the c h o i c e o f d e s i g n s and the way i n which they a r e combined. To a p p r e c i a t e t h i s k i n d o f s u b t l e v a r i a t i o n i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o be f a m i l i a r w i t h the d e s i g n s i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l form. In e s s e n c e , o r i g i n a l i t y as we know i t , i s l a c k i n g , f o r the p r e s s u r e w i t h i n the group as to conform t o the s t a n d a r d s s e t and m a i n t a i n e d f o r g e n e r a t i o n s . Indeed, i t i s a c t u a l l y a g a i n s t the I n d i a n law o f the Yurok-Karok p e o p l e s t o change the d e s i g n s (O'Neale 1932:98). Wh i l e t h e P e r u v i a n weavers may n o t have as l i t e r a l a p r o h i b i t i o n a g a i n s t change, the e f f e c t seems t o be the same, w i t h each g e n e r a t i o n c o n f o r m i n g t o the t r a d i t i o n and o n l y s m a l l changes b e i n g made i n the d e s i g n s . Once these changes have been made, they i n t u r n are p a s s e d on as p a r t o f the t r a d i t i o n . Thus, the d e s i g n s e v o l v e c o n t i n u o u s l y r a t h e r than r e m a i n i n g e n t i r e l y s t a t i c . The c u r r e n t t r e n d t h i s c e n t u r y , i s f o r a w i d e n i n g o f p a t t e r n bands and an e l a b o r a t i o n o f the d e s i g n elements w i t h i n each band on the women's mantas. By l e a r n i n g w i t h i n a v e r y s t r u c t u r e d d e s i g n t r a d i t i o n each weaver, -120-whatever h e r a b i l t i e s , g r a d u a l l y develops a d e s i g n v o c a b u l a r y w i t h which sahe i s c o m p l e t e l y f a m i l i a r . Thus t h e r e i s no s t r e s s i n v o l v e d i n the s e l e c t i o n o f a d e s i g n , so t h a t even an u n c r e a t i v e weaver can produce a work o f an a c c e p t a b l e q u a l i t y and r e t a i n h e r r e p u t a t i o n as a weaver. I n t h i s c o n t e x t t h e r e i s no s c h i s m between the a r t i s t and the non a r t i s t as the d e s i g n s are a v a i l a b l e t o a l l . Where the d i f f e r e n c e does show i s i n the way i n which the c r e a t i v e weaver w i l l use the d e s i g n s , s t i l l w o rking i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h the t r a d i t i o n , t o produce something t h a t by l o c a l s t a n d a r d s i s new and i n n o v a t i v e w i t h i n the a c c e p t e d l i m i t a t i o n s . The weaver p r e v i o u s l y r e f e r e d t o ( B i r d 1968:15), by d o u b l i n g the number o f warp t h r e a d s u sed i n the p a t t e r n band, had . t a c k l e d a d i f f i c u l t d e s i g n problem, which she s o l v e d e v e n t u a l l y by an e l a b o r a t i o n and rearrangement o f the el e m e n t s . Her d e s i g n was new and i n n o v a t i v e , a c c e p t a b l e w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the t r a d i t i o n , and , was the r e s u l t o f much c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g and problem s o l v i n g o f as o r d e r t h a t i s h a r d t o comprehend, f o r the e n t i r e p r o c e s s o f c r e a t i o n , p l a n n i n g and s o l u t i o n took p l a c e i n h e r head. Weaving p l a y s an i n p o r t a n t r o l e i n Andean v i l l a g e s o c i e t y where, u n t i l r e c e n t l y , i t p r o v i d e d the o n l y c l o t h i n g . D e s p i t e the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f m a n ufactured m a t e r i a l s and c l o t h i n g , t r a d i t i o n a l handweaving s t i l l p l a y s a r o l e i n the campesino's wardrobe, p r o v i d i n g a form o f s e l f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h one's community. A woman's r e p u t a t i o n , and hence h e r s t a t u s i n the community, s t i l l r e s t s t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t on how good a s p i n n e r and weaver she i s . However much j o y a woman may take i n h e r weaving i t i s s t i l l numbered among the o t h e r d a i l y and s e a s o n a l -121-c h o r e s f o r which she i s r e s p o n s i b l e . The n a t u r a l way i n which s p i n n i n g and weaving f i t s i n t o the d a i l y c y c l e o f l i f e i s r e i n f o r c e d by the way i n which c h i l d r e n are i n t r o -duced t o i t . While a mother weaves, h e r baby w i l l be propped up nearby, w a t c h i n g a l l t h a t i s happening, much as N a n c i was p l a c e d near h e r mother and e l d e r s i s t e r ( f i g 44). As the c h i l d grows she i s g r a d u a l l y immersed i n the v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f p r o d u c t i o n . Even a v e r y s m a l l c h i l d can h e l p remove the b u r r s and d i r t from the shorn f l e e c e , and t h i s the c h i l d r e n a r e e x p e c t e d t o do, t a k i n g f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r share o f the l a b o u r . When s l i g h t l y o l d e r , l i k e S o n i a 1 s two younger s i s t e r s , n e i t h e r o f whom are o f s c h o o l age, they may be s e n t o u t as s h e p h e r d e s s e s , t o guard the sheep, d u r i n g the day. While i n v o l v e d i n t h i s t a s k , t h e younger ones may p l a y , b u t the o l d e r ones may s i t and s p i n o r weave b e l t s and bands"''. There i s no s e p a r a t i o n o f a r t from the c u l t u r e i n t h i s t r a d i t i o n -a l l y o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y . The t e x t i l e s p r o v i d e a community i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and c o n t i n u i t y among g e n e r a t i o n s , g i v i n g a sense o f s t a b i l i t y and o r d e r . The g r a d u a l immersion on the c h i l d r e n i n the t a s k e s e x p e c t e d o f them as a d u l t s , g i v e s a c o n t i n u i t y o f l e a r n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e t h a t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r the t r a n s m i s s i o n o f the c u l t u r e . I t p a s s e s on the s u r -v i v a l s k i l l s t h a t the n e x t g e n e r a t i o n w i l l need. I t p r o v i d e s a sense Among the Navaho t h e r e i s t h i s same g r a d u a l immersion i n the l e a r n i n g o f s p i n n i n g and weaving ( B e r l a n t and K a h l e n b e r g 1977). -122-o f o r d e r , and by d e f i n i n g r o l e s and f i t t i n g the f u t u r e a d u l t s f o r those r o l e s i t m a i n t a i n s the s t a t u s quo o f t h e s o c i e t y as i t has been f o r g e n e r a t i o n s . The g r a d u a l g i v i n g o f f u l l work r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o the c h i l d r e n p r o v i d e s a smoother passage i n t o a d u l t h o o d , w i t h the c h i l d a l r e a d y f u n c t i o n i n g as a p r o d u c t i v e member whose c o n t r i b u t i o n i s e c o n o m i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o the f a m i l y group. The R e s e a r c h e r as P a r t i c i p a n t The P e r u v i a n weaving t r a d i t i o n i s v e r y much an o r a l and v i s u a l one. I n a sense, by t a k i n g n o t e s o f the p r o c e s s , I am wo r k i n g w i t h i n my own c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n , r a t h e r than the P e r u v i a n one which I am t r y i n g t o r e c o r d . T h i s anomaly i s i n s o l u b l e , b u t i t i s i n d i c a t i v e o f some o f the problems t h a t o c c u r when from one c u l t u r a l s t a n d p o i n t I t r y t o e v a l u a t e a n o t h e r c u l t u r e . C o l l i e r (1967:i) r e f e r s t o one a s p e c t o f the pr o b l e m when he s t a t e s t h a t "our r e c o g n i t i o n o f c u l t u r a l phenomena i s c o n t r o l l e d by our a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d . " I needed a d e t a i l e d r e c o r d o f the P e r u v i a n weaving p r o c e s s , b u t d i d n o t have time t o s t a y and s t u d y as a P e r u v i a n weaver would have done, s p e n d i n g s e v e r a l y e a r s a c q u i r i n g the s k i l l s by o b s e r v a t i o n and p r a c t i c e . In o r d e r t o r e t a i n the d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n I had t o make n o t e s . To p a s s t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n on t o o t h e r s I have t o w r i t e down the d e s c r i p t i o n s and c o n v e r t an o r a l t r a d i t i o n i n t o a l i t e r a r y one. By i n c l u d i n g some photographs I p a r t i a l l y compensate by p r e s e n t i n g some o f the i n f o r m a t i o n v i s u a l l y , t h a t cannot be so w e l l p r e s e n t e d i n words, -12 3-- -b u t d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e s t i l l n e c e s s a r y t o accompany the i l l u s t r a t i o n s . Through my e x p e r i e n c e o f l e a r n i n g t o weave i n P e r u , I have st e p p e d a c r o s s from my own c u l t u r e , i n the r o l e o f o b s e r v e r , t o the P e r u v i a n c u l t u r e , as p a r t i c i p a n t . Through p a r t i c i p a t i o n I have l e a r n e d o f a s p e c t s o f the weaving p r o c e s s t h a t a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y o b v i o u s t o an o b s e r v e r . By d o i n g I l e a r n the t e c h n i q u e s needed t o a c c o m p l i s h c e r t a i n e f f e c t s . S m a l l s c a t t e r i n g s o f the second c o l o u r i n a l a r g e s o l i d a r e a o f c o l o u r , break up the c o l o u r a r e a , b u t t h e y a l s o s t r e n g t h e n the s t r u c t u r e by c u t t i n g down the l e n g t h o f the warp f l o a t s . By u s i n g a warp i n many c o l o u r s , l a r g e d e s i g n a r e a s are broken up v i s u a l l y i n t o s m a l l e r a r e a s , t h r o u g h the changes i n c o l o u r . Oddly enough, i t i s h a r d e r t o weave a s i m p l e p a t t e r n i n s e v e r a l c o l o u r bands than i t i s t o weave an a p p a r e n t l y more complex p a t t e r n i n o n l y two c o l o u r s . Sometimes, d e s i g n s t h a t l o o k s i m p l e , a r e n o t . In the same way, because I have woven w i t h the t i g h t l y t w i s t e d , P e r u v i a n spun y a r n , I am aware o f the d i f f e r e n c e t h a t the t i g h t t w i s t makes t o 'the weaving p r o c e s s . I t i s n o t j u s t a m a t t e r o f g e t t i n g a l o n g e r w e a r i n g and more d u r a b l e f i n i s h e d garment. By t w i s t i n g the y a r n v e r y t i g h t l y , the P e r u v i a n s c o u n t e r some o f the wools n a t u r a l tendency t o s t i c k t o the n e i g h b o u r i n g l e n g t h s o f y a r n , which makes the shed changes e a s i e r . By p r a c t i c e I am g r a d u a l l y b e g i n n i n g t o comprehend the v e r s a t i l i t y o f t e c h n i q u e and the i n h e r e n t l i m i t a t i o n s . To date most o f my weaving -124-has been o f narrow bands, f o r i t t a k e s time t o a c q u i r e the k i n d o f s k i l l t h a t my i n s t r u c t o r demonstrated. I am handicapped i n my weaving by n o t h a v i n g a weaver s i t t i n g b e s i d e me c a l l i n g o u t the t h r e a d changes, u n t i l I have t h o r o u g h l y l e a r n t the s t e p s . In o r d e r t o be a b l e t o f r e e l y adapt the p a t t e r n s and u n d e r s t a n d how the P e r u v i a n weavers made t h e i r changes and i n n o v a t i o n s i n the d e s i g n elements, I have t o become s u f f i c i e n t l y f a m i l i a r w i t h the p a t t e r n s to be a b l e t o move around f r e e l y w i t h i n the d e s i g n s m y s e l f . T h i s w i l l t a k e time and p r a c t i c e . U n l i k e the P e r u v i a n weavers I can s i t down w i t h p e n c i l and paper t o d r a f t a d e s i g n on graph paper, and t h i s i s b a s i c a l l y how I now have t o work. But e v e n t u a l l y I hope t o be s u f f i c i e n t l y f a m i l i a r w i t h the d e s i g n s t o b e g i n my own development. There are two d i r e c t i o n s i n which I may go. One i n v o l v e s working w i t h i n the c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n o f the P e r u v i a n weavers and a c c e p t i n g t h e i r e s t a b l i s h e d l i m i t a t i o n s i n o r d e r to g a i n a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how the m a t e r i a l s a r e p r e p a r e d and the t o o l s used, and a l s o the d e s i g n problems and a e s t h e t i c d e c i s i o n s t h a t a r e i n h e r e n t i n the o r i g i n a l p r o d u c t i o n o f s i m i l a r a r t i c l e s . . By t h i s approach I g a i n a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the problems f a c e d by a r t i s t s w o r k i n g i n as o r a l t r a d i t i o n . T h i s p r a c t i c a l , p a r t i c i p a t i o n approach i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t i n N o r t h American I n d i a n a r t s t u d i e s , where i t i s r e f e r r e d t o as " a r t e f a k i n g " (Holm ,that i s , the i m i t a t i v e making o f a c a r v i n g , b a s k e t , weaving o r o t h e r a r t o b j e c t , i n o r d e r t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d not o n l y how i t -125-was made, and the t e c h n i c a l problems t h a t were i n v o l v e d , b u t a l s o more about the a e s t h e t i c s o f t h e a r t e f a c t i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g c u l t u r e . S i m i l a r l y , i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f Washoe b a s k e t r y , Cohodas (1979) h i m s e l f an " a r t e f a k e r " , n o t e s t h a t d e s i g n c o m p o s i t i o n was much more c o n s i s t e n t f o r each a r t i s t than the t e c h n i q u e s they employed. S e c o n d l y , w o r k i n g w i t h elements from P e r u v i a n d e s i g n s , I am u s i n g them i n a way t h a t i s e n t i r e l y p e r s o n a l and w i t h i n my own c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s . The i d e a s are t h e r e t o be used as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t , and p r o v i d e d the a r t i s t makes h e r own a r t i s t i c d e c i s i o n s the f i n i s h e d works w i l l be an unique e x p r e s s i o n o f the a r t i s t i c c u l t u r e w i t h i n which the a r t i s t l i v e s . T h i s must be b o r n i n mind when l o o k i n g t o the works o f o t h e r c u l t u r e s f o r i n s p i r a t i o n . The p a i n t i n g s t h a t P i c a s s o p r o d u c e d as a r e s u l t o f h i s exposure t o A f r i c a n s c u l p t u r e , w h i l e r e t a i n i n g some o f the e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n the c a r v e d masks, do n o t l o o k l i k e c o p i e s o f A f r i c a n masks. P i c a s s o e x t r a c t e d what he wanted from the p i e c e s and used them i n h i s own o r i g i n a l way. Through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e weaving t r a d i t i o n o f a n o t h e r c u l t u r e I am more aware o f the n a t u r e o f the d e s i g n s and how t h e y can be d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n t h e s t r i c t l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by the P e r u v i a n s . The n a t u r e o f the weave i t s e l f and the v e r s a t i l i t y o f i t s s t r u c t u r e -126-become more a p p a r e n t as I become more f a m i l i a r w i t h i t , t h r o u g h p r a c t i c e . A complete e x p l o r a t i o n o f the many p o s s i b i l i t e s t h a t the weave and the loom p e r m i t , s t i l l r e q u i r e s more time than I have y e t been a b l e t o g i v e , b u t I f i n d the f u t u r e developments e x c i t i n g . -127-CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION We have seen t h a t the P e r u v i a n t e x t i l e t r a d i t i o n began f a r back i n p r e h i s t o r i c times w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t w i n i n g and n e t t i n g t e c h n i q u e s . With the advent o f loom weaving, p a t t e r n i n g t e c h n i q u e s were d e v e l o p e d by f l o a t i n g warp t h r e a d s a c r o s s the s u r f a c e o f the m a t e r i a l . As o t h e r weaving t e c h n i q u e s were d e v e l o p e d the warp-p a t t e r n weaves o c c u p i e d a more minor p o s i t i o n than t h e i r i n t r i c a c y w a r r a n t s . C l o s e r study o f a r c h e o l o g i c a l t e x t i l e s and r e a d i n g s i n the e a r l y S p a n i s h c h r o n i c l e s s u g g e s t s t h e p r e s e n c e o f two s e p a r a t e t e x t i l e t r a d i t i o n s , one f u n c t i o n i n g as e l i t e a r t , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r l y f i n e e m b r o i d e r i e s and t a p e s t r i e s , the o t h e r o p e r a t i n g on a lower l e v e l as the a r t and c l o t h i n g o f the p e a s a n t s . From an e x a m i n a t i o n o f p r e h i s t o r i c t e x t i l e s i n museum c o l l e c t i o n s and from contemporary p i e c e s seen and c o l l e c t e d i n the f i e l d d u r i n g my v i s i t t o P e r u i n 1978, i t i s obvious t h a t w h i l e the e l i t e a r t changed r a d i c a l l y from c u l t u r e group t o c u l t u r e group, the w a r p - p a t t e r n weaves have endured w i t h a c o n t i n u i t y o f t r a d i t i o n t h a t extends back over almost f o u r thousandn y e a r s . •The c o n t i n o u s warp loom which appears v i r t u a l l y unchanged s i n c e p r e h i s t o r i c t i m e s , i s a v e r y s i m p l e p i e c e o f equipment which may be s e t up i n a v a r i e t y o f ways, depending upon the p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e and r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the weaver. S e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t s e t ups were o b s e r v e d i n P e r u . The l a r g e p i e c e s o f c l o t h p roduced on t h i s loom -128-f o r mantas and ponchos a r e i d e n t i c a l i n s t r u c t u r e t o t h e s m a l l b l e t s and bands, produced w i t h l i t t l e o r no t o o l s . The loom i s a v e r s a t i l e and a d a p t a b l e p i e c e o f equipment, w i t h the added v a l u e o f b e i n g e n t i r e l y p o r t a b l e , r e q u i r i n g l i t t l e o r n o t h i n g i n t h e way o f m a t e r i a l t o make i t . I n a s t r a t i f i e d s o c i e t y where a r t s e r v e s t h e f u n c t i o n o f i d e n t i f y -i n g t h e e l i t e , i t f u n c t i o n s i n a d i v i s i v e way, emphasizing t h e sch i s m between t h e e l i t e and t h e i r non e l i t e s u p p o r t e r s . I n t h i s c o n t e x t , i n -n o v a t i o n and c r e a t i v i t y a r e encouraged. In any s t r a t i f i e d s o c i e t y , on t h e lower s t r a t u m t h e p e o p l e w i l l s t i l l be d o i n g c o h e s i v e a r t work w i t h i n t h e i r own t r a d i t i o n s . So what happens when t h e i r i s a conquest? The e l i t e a r t i s r e p l a c e d by t h a t o f t h e c o n q u e r o r s , as happened w i t h t h e s t a t u s t a p e s t r y t e c h n i c ques o f t h e I n c a s . The lower c l a s s c o n t i n u e s t o make i t own a r t , s l o w l y showing s i g n s o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e new e l i t e , a r t , but c o n t i n u i n g w i t h i t s own c o h e s i v e f o r c e s , where t r a d i t i o n i s s t r o n g e r than t h e f o r c e f o r o r i g i n a l i t y . W i t h the coming o f t h e S p a n i a r d s t h e Inca e l i t e a r t was d e s t r o y e d , a l o n g w i t h t h e complex system o f government t h a t sup-p o r t e d i t s manufacture. The pe a s a n t a r t c o n t i n u e d , w i t h S p a n i s h i n s p i r e d i n f l u e n c e s g r a d u a l l y a p p e a r i n g , so t h a t today, w h i l e few o f t h e m o t i f s used d a t e back t o p r e h i s t o r i c t i m e s , t h e t e c h n i q u e s have remained unchanged, as have t h e c o n t i n u o u s warp looms. The slow a b s o r p t i o n o f new m a t e r i a l s and i d e a s seems due t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f knowledge i n a non l i t e r a t e s o c i e t y . -129-Weaving, and a l l o t h e r c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s , a r e t a u g h t b o t h v i s u a l l y and o r a l l y , by example and a r e l e a r n t by h e a r t . The weaver p r a c t i s e s t h e d e s i g n s u n t i l t h o r o u g h l y f a m i l i a r w/th. them, and each weaver i n t h e community p o s s e s s e s t h e same d e s i g n v o c a b u l a r y . T h i s encourages the p r e s -s u r e t o c o n f o r m i t y and t h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f d e s i g n s . R a d i c a l changes a r e frowned upon. Weavers show t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y by t h e c h o i c e o f d e s i g n , and by v a r y i n g t h e p r o p o r t i o n s and e l a b o r a t i n g t h e i n t e r n a l elements o f the p a t t e r n s . The weaver b u i l d s on a memorized p a t t e r n . Some minor i n n o v a t i o n s w i l l be a c c e p t e d by o t h e r s o f her community, a l l o w i n g the s t y l e t o e v o l v e s l o w l y , w i t h t r a d i t i o n d o m i n a t i n g o v e r i n n o v a t i o n and p r o v i d i n g a much needed sense o f c r e a t i v i t y . A d e t a i l e d comparison o f th e weaving t e c h n i q u e s o f each o f the weavers o b s e r v e d shows a w e a l t h o f v a r i a t i o n i n approach, which i s not a p p a r e n t i n t h e f i n i s h e d f a b r i c , b u t w i t h t h i s r e c o r d t o add t o what has a l r e a d y been done, i t may be p o s s i b l e t o c a r r y o u t a t horough comparison o f a l l t h e weaving v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e Cuzco r e g i o n and e l s e -where i n the Andes. From o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e weavers i n Peru i t i s app^-a r e n t t h a t a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have been too ready t o assume an u n i f o r m i t y o f weaving t e c h n i q u e as w e l l as d e s i g n . Too l i t t l e a l l o w a n c e has been made f o r the f a c t t h a t weavers a r e i n d i v i d u a l s , n o t automatums, and as such w i l l e x h i b i t a wide v a r i e t y o f ways o f weaving, even ' u s i n g t h e same loom. I was b e t t e r a b l e t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e i n d i v i d ^ u a l i t y o f t h e weavers a f t e r my own e x p e r i e n c e s o f l e a r n i n g t o weave w h i l e i n P e r u . T h i s c o n c e p t o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r as p a r t i c i p a n t , r e p r e s e n t s an a r t i s t i c and e d u c a t i o n a l a s p e c t o f the stu d y o f p r i m i t i v e and p r e h i s t -o r i c c u l t u r e s t h a t w i l l be o f a s s i s t a n c e t o a r c h e o l o g i s t s , a n t h r o p o l o -g i s t s and a r t h i s t o r i a n s who a working i n the f i e l d . Too o f t e n con-f u s i o n has been caused i n s t u d i e s by f a i l u r e t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e n a t u r a l v a r i a t i o n i n t e c h n i q u e t h a t may be the r e s u l t o f p e r s o n a l c h o i c e o r i n c l i n a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e weaver. There has been a tendency t o assume t h a t a r t i c l e s produced w i t h i n one c u l t u r e w i l l be a l l p r o d u c e d i n e x a c t l y t h e same way, u s i n g t h e same t e c h n i q u e . A. Rowe (1975) r e f e r s t o t h i s c o n cept o f u n i f o r m i t y i n her d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e weaving p r o c e s s e s o f t h e Cuzco a r e a . She assumes t h a t t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n t e c h n i q u e a r e based on p r e h i s t o r i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n f . I t has been assumed t h a t t h e Quechua t r a d i t i o n -a l l y wove on t h e back t e n s i o n loom, w h i l e t h e Aymara used t h e s t a k e d o u t loom (O'Neale 1949: 115), but s i n c e t h e s e a r e m e r e l y d i f f e r e n t s e t ups o f the same c o n t i n u o u s warp loom, t h i s i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y the c a s e . Many o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s may be due t o p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e i n : method o f working, which has s i n c e been e n s h r i n e d i n t r a d i t i o n . Through d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e , as a weaver as w e l l as an o b s e r v e r , I am a t t e m p t i n g t o b r i d g e t h e gap between two c u l t u r e s where t h e l e a r n i n g t r a d i t i o n s a r e d i f f e r e n t , and come t o some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e weaving e x p e r i e n c e i n P e r u v i a n terms. I f a r t i s l o o k e d a t as an i n t e r a c t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n and c r e a -t i v i t y , i n a non s t r a t i f i e d s o c i e t y , such as t h e Andean one, t r a d i t i o n w i l l dominate o v e r o r i g i n a l i t y , as has happened i n t h e Andes, and i n o t h e r non l i t e r a t e s o c i e t i e s . Thus t o ask an I n d i a n c h i l d from t h i s -131-c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d t o p r o d u c e a n o r i g i n a l w o r k o f a r t , i s f i g h t i n g a g a i n s t h i s c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e s . F r o m my s t u d y o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y P e r u v i a n w e a v i n g t r a d i t i o n I h a v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t i t s c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e i s d u e t o t h e c o n s e r -v a t i s m o f t h e w e a v e r s c o n c e r n e d . T h e y s t i l l h a v e a s t r o n g f e e l i n g o f p r i d e i n t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e i r c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n , a n d t h i s i s o n e o f t h e i r m a j o r s t r e n g t h s , t h a t h a s p e r m i t t e d t h e t r a d i t i o n t o s u r v i v e f o r s o l o n g . W o r k i n g n a t u r a l l y w i t h i n t h i s t r a d i t i o n , a P e r u v i a n c h i l d c a n m a k e j u d g e m e n t s a s t o t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e w e a v i n g . T h e c r i t e r i a a r e s i m p l e , t h e y i n c l u d e t h e o b v i o u s p o i n t s o f h o w w e l l t h e a r t i c l e i s m a d e , w h e t h e r i t s p a t t e r n f i t s t h e s p a c e , a n d how w e l l i t f i l l s t h e f u n c t i o n f o r w h i c h i t w a s m a d e . W h i l e t h e P e r u v i a n a p p r o a c h t o a r t i s n o t t h a t o f t h e W e s t e r n w o r l d i n t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , b y b e i n g a w a r e o f h o w o t h e r c u l t u r e s t r e a t a r t a n d l e a r n i n g , we m a y b e a b l e t o s e e b e t t e r how we h a n d l e a r t e d u c a t i o n i n o u t o w n s o c i e t y . R E g r e t t a b l y , t h e r e may b e o n l y a l i t t l e m o r e t i m e i n w h i c h we c a n s o o b s e r v e t h e P e r u v i a n t r a d i t i o n , :T f o r . u n d e r t h e p r e s s u r e o f a c h a n g i n g l i f e s t y l e a n d c h a n g i n g e c o n o m i c p r e s s u r e s , t h e w e a v i n g i s d y i n g o u t . T h e d i f f e r n c e i n t h e n u m b e r o f w e a v e r s whom G o o d e l l r e p o r t e d a n d t h o s e whom I m a n a g e d t o f i n d , s h o w t h a t t h e d e c l i n e i s a c c e l e r a t i n g . I f m o r e r e s e a r c h i s n o t c a r r i e d o u t s o o n , t h e r e m a y b e n o P e r u v i a n t e x t i l e t r a d i t i o n l e f t t o s t u d y . - 1 3 2 -A P P E N D I X A T H E COMPOUND W E A V E S 1 I n a c o m p o u n d w e a v e t h e r e i s m o r e t h a n o n e s e t o f e i t h e r w a r p o r w e f t e l e m e n t s , t h e u s e o f w h i c h i n o n e f a c e n e e d n o t a f f e c t t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e o t h e r f a c e . S u p p l e m e n t a r y w a r p w e a v e s a r e t h o s e i n w h i c h w a r p t h r e a d s a r e s u p p l e m e n t a r y t o t h e g r o u n d w e a v e . T h e s e s u p p l e m e n t a r y w a r p s a r e a d d e d t o p r o d u c e p a t t e r n i n g . I f t h e y w e r e d i s p e n s e d w i t h , t h e f a b r i c w o u l d s t i l l e x i s t ( f i g . 4 5 ) . T h e p a t t e r n w a r p s a r e b r o u g h t t o t h e f a c e o f t h e f a b r i c b e t w e e n r e g u l a r w a r p s , i n t e r w o r k e d b r i e f l y w i t h t h e g r o u n d w e a v e w e f t s a n d r e t u r n e d t o t h e b a c k . C o m p l e m e n t a r y s e t s o f w a r p s W h e n t w o o r m o r e s e t s o f w a r p s a r e c o - e q u a l i n t h e f a b r i c s t r u c -t u r e t h e y c a n b e d e s c r i b e d a s b e i n g c o m p l e m e n t a r y t o e a c h o t h e r . T h e s t r u c t u r e i t s e l f i s c o m p o u n d a n d c a n b e e i t h e r d o u b l e - f a c e d o r t w o - f a c e d . I n c o m p l e m e n t a r y - w a r p w e a v e s t w o s e t s o f c o m p l e m e n t a r y w a r p s c a n i n t e r l a c e w i t h a s i n g l e w e f t t o f o r m a c o h e r e n t w e a v e s t r u c t u r e i n w h i c h t h e r e i s n o g r o u n d w e a v e a s s u c h . T h e t w o w a r p e l e m e n t s p l a y e q u i v a l e n t a n d r e c i p r o c a l p a r t s o n o p p o s i t e s i d e s o f t h e f a b r i c . I n t h e s i m p l e s t f o r m b o t h s e t s o f c o m p l e m e n t a r y w a r p s m a i n t a i n a 3 / 1 o r d e r o f i n t e r l a c i n g , a n d f o r m 3 - s p a n f l o a t s i n a l t e r n a t e a l i g n m e n t , e a c h o n i t s o w n f a c e . I f t h e w a r p s a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y c o m p a c t e d o n l y o n e c o l o u r w i l l s h o w o n e a c h f a c e ( f i g . 4 6 ) . P a r a p h r a s e d f r o m E m e r y ( 1 9 6 6 : 1 4 0 - 5 4 ) . -133-F i g u r e 45 Supplementary-warp weave s t r u c t u r e s a. i n t r o d u c t i o n o f one c o l o u r i n p l a i n weave. b. supplementary warp f l o a t i n g over s e v e r a l w e f t s , between p a i r s o f ground warp. c. supplementary warps f l o a t i n g i n s i m p l e p a t t e r n , between p a i r e d gound warps. • ground weave warp supplementary warp w e f t -134-F i g u r e 46 a. s t r u c t u r e o f one f a c e showing warp f l o a t s and the complementary warp t h r e a d s from t h e o t h e r f a c e . b. when compacted the warp f l o a t s h i d e the complementary warps from the o t h e r f a c e . - 1 3 5 -A P P E N D I X B T H E LOOM . i i . T h e c o n t i n u o u s w a r p l o o m c o n s i s t s o f s e v e r a l p a r t s w h i c h a r e l i s t e d b e l o w ( f i g . 4 7 ) . 1 . w a r p b a r 2 . l a s h i n g w h i c h s e c u r e s w a r p t o — t h e w a r p a n d c l o t h b a r s 3 . s h e d r o d 4 . h e d d l e s t i c k a n d h e d d l e s t r i n g s 5 . s w o r d b e a t e r a n d s h e d o r p a t t e r n s t i c k s ( n o t i l l u s t r a t e d ) 6 . c l o t h b a r 7 . t i e c o r d s 8 . w a r p w e f t s t i c k i s n o t i l l u s t r a t e d F i g u r e 47. -137-The Names o f the Loom P a r t s , In the Quechua language a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a name f o r each p a r t o f the loom, t h e r e i s no word as such f o r 'loom'. The n e a r e s t t o a name i s t h a t g i v e n by Stevenson (1974: 6) i n h i s S a n t i a g o de Chocorvos s t u d y : awanakuna, which Stevenson t r a n s l a t e s as "warp thingummyjigs." The word i s broken down a s : awa—warp; n a — i n s t r u m e n t o f a c t i o n , or h e s i t a t i o n form; and k u n a - - p l u r a l i z i n g s u f f i x . A. Rowe i n h e r 1975 s t u d y g i v e s the word awana as a c o l l e c t i v e word f o r the loom p a r t s , b u t s t a t e s t h a t i t does n o t seem t o be e q u i v a l e n t t o the E n g l i s h word loom. A. Rowe a l s o g i v e s the word o f awa o r awana k ' a s p i . A l t h o u g h a l l the weavers who s u p p l i e d names f o r the loom p a r t s spoke Quechua, t h e r e a r e many v a r i a t i o n s o f terms f o r each p a r t . I n c l u d e d i n f i g u r e a r e the names which I c o l l e c t e d a t Sacsahuaman, and i n O l l a n t a y t a m b o , p l u s those o f Stevenson (1874), from S a n t i a g o de Chocorvos, those found by A. Rowe (1975) i n the h i g h l a n d s i n the Cuzco r e g i o n , and by Andrada (1976) a l s o from the Cuzco r e g i o n . I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t more r e s e a r c h needs t o be c a r r i e d out, weaver by weaver, i n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r some o f the r e a s o n s f o r t h i s c o n f u s i o n i n t e r m i n o l o g y . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i n the case where a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t word i s used, t h a t the r o o t o r o r i g i n o f the word may be i n another language, such as Aymara, o r one t h a t was used l o c a l l y b e f o r e the I nca e n f o r c e d Quechua as the o f f i c i a l language. On the o t h e r hand, some o f the v a r i a t i o n s may s i m p l y be due t o the n a t u r a l d e v e l o p -ment o f any language t o i t s own d i a l e c t terms. QUECHUA NAMES FOR THE LOOM PARTS No. E n g l i s h McRobb A. Rowe Ste v e n s o n Andrada 1 warp a l l w i a l l w i awa 2 we f t luwa m i n i m i n i m i n i 3 loom b a r s c h i c h i awana k 1 a s p i awa p a l l q a 4 c l o t h b a r k'empina k ' a s p i k a k i awa p a r i 5 s h u t t l e s t i c k kjuma (k'uma)) m i n i kumana m i n i q a s p i 6 p a t t e r n s t i c k K j a t a p a l l a m a r a c k h a l l w a k a l l w a q a s p i 7 sword b e a t e r k j a l l w a k h a l l w a o r r u k ' i k a l l w a k a l l w a q a s p i 8 hed d l e kudwa i l l a w a i l l a w a i l l a w a 9 bone p i c k r.uk' i r u k ' i o r wichuna c h u q c h i wichuna o r t u l l u 10 t i e on cords m i n i 11 t e n s i o n cords waskja sogu 12 t i e down stake s t a c a (Sp.) t a k a r p u o r e s t a c a (Sp.) An Ollantaytambo v a r i a t i o n f o r the c l o t h beam i s i l l y a w a k ' a s p i , and a C h i n c h e r o v a r i a t i o n f o r the t i e down sta k e i s t a c a r o . -139-A P P E N D I X C W A R P I N G F R A M E T o h e l p me m a k e t h e w a r p s a s d e m o n s t r a t e d i n P e r u , w h e r e t w o c o l o u r s a r e w a r p e d a t t h e s a m e t i m e , my f a t h e r b u i l t a w a r p i n g f r a m e t o my s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , ( f i g . 4 8 a ) . R a t h e r t h a n b e l i m i t e d t o s h o r t w a r p l e n g t h s f o r w e a v i n g , t w o e x t r a p e g s w e r e p l a c e d b e s i d e p e g s A a n d D ( f i g . 4 8 b ) . T h i s i d e a w a s t a k e n f r o m a w a r p i n g b o a r d s e e n i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e M u s e o N a c i o n a l , G u a t e m a l a C i t y . T h e p e g s w e r e m a d e f r o m o n e i n c h d o w e l l i n g a n d f o r g r e a t e r s t r e n g t h , t h e s e w e r e s c r e w e d t o a w o o d e n b a s e , w h i c h i n t u r n w a s s c r e w e d t o t h e u n d e r s i d e o f t h e b o a r d ( f i g . 4 8 c ) . T h e e n t i r e w a r p -i n g f r a m e w a s c o n s t r u c t e d s o t h a t i t c a n b e d i s m a n t l e d b y r e m o v i n g t h e r e t a i n i n g s c r e w s . T h e b o a r d i t s e l f i s m a d e o f t w o t w e n t y i n c h p i e c e s , j o i n e d o n e i t h e r s i d e b y a T s h a p e d c o n n e c t i n g b a r ( f i g . 4 8 d ) . F i g u r e 48. Warping frame -141-A P P E N D I X D W E A V I N G D E S I G N S T h e w e a v i n g . ' d e s i g n s f o r w h i c h g r a p h e d p a t t e r n s h a v e b e e n i n c l u d e d a r e t a k e n f r o m c o n t e m p o r a r y a n d p r e h i s t o r i c b e l t s a n d b a n d s . T h e y a r e a l l i n c o m p l e m e n t a r y - w a r p w e a v e i n t w o c o l o u r s . A v a r i e t y o f s i m p l e d i a m o n d d e s i g n s h a v e b e e n i n c l u d e d t o s h o w h o w a w e a v i n g d e s i g n c o u l d b e v a r i e d , w i t h o u t c h a n g i n g t h e o v e r a l l a p p e a r a n c e o f i t , i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e P e r u v i a n d e s i g n r e q u i r e m e n t s . -142--143-Dor •o F i g u r e :50 D e s i g n o f a s m a l l f e l i n e from a p r e h i s t o r i c band from the Ocucaje s i t e i n the l e a V a l l e y ( K i n g 1965: f i g . 2 2 ) . -144-F i g u r e 51 One o f the d e s i g n s woven a t O l l a n t a y t a m b o . -145-n •LXOLXJDD0D • • DO m n • • •d • 0 PCOO •CD TDD U 4] • • UJ DDD DDOD D mac DO On I D U F i g u r e 52 S'acas, S o n i a ' s d e s i g n form C h i n c h e r o -146-•147-• • D O n n w c ? n ° R D D D~L_ ^ • • _ • _Q O - C D C • JZL C D ] 7V • CD c • LZD G F i g u r e 54 D e t a i l o f a complex diamond r e p e a t from C h i n c h e r o M u l t i p l e diamond d e s i g n from a b e l t woven i n T i n t a (In the c o l l e c t i o n o f the Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , U.B.C., Va n c o u v e r ) . -149-F i g u r e 56 Two d e s i g n s form narrow bands woven i n T i n t a . -150-u • • u 0 • rL u • • • o • uu CD e. F i g u r e 5 7 s m a l l diamond m o t i f s , a-d from T i n t a , e. i n the c o l l e c t i o n o f the R o y a l O n t a r i o Museum, T o r o n t o . F i g u r e 58 Bands o f p a t t e r n s from a bag i n the R o y a l S c o t t i s h Museum, E d i n b u r g h . -152-GLOSSARY A p p r e v i a t i o n s : Que. - Quechua Sp. - S p a n i s h AWASQA (awaska) the c l o t h p r o d u c e d by the p e a s a n t weavers f o r t h e i r own AKLLA-KONA house o f the "chosen women" o f the I n c a , young g i r l s who were k e p t i n c o n v e n t - l i k e s e c l u s i o n and t r a i n e d as weavers, g u a r d i a n s o f the temples and s h r i n e s , and as the wives o f n o b l e s . ARTES TIPICOS Sp. f o r the l o c a l f o l k a r t . AYLLU the l o c a l c l a n g r o u p i n g o f the I n c a n and Quechua p e o p l e , a l o c a l u n i t o f p o l i t i c a l and economic o r g a n i z a t i o n . AYMARA the descendents o f the C o l l a , one o f the s u b j e c t p e o p l e s o f the I n c a , l i v i n g i n S o u t h e r n P e r u and B o l i v i a , s p e a k i n g the Aymara language. BROCADE d i s c o n t i n u o u s supplementary w e f t t e c h n i q u e s , used t o c r e a t e s m a l l a r e a s o f p a t t e r n . CAMELID FIBRES f l e e c e o f the i n d i g e n o u s animals o f P e r u , the a l p a c a , l l a m a , v i c u n a , and huanaco o r guanaco. CAMPESINOS Sp. term f o r the p e a s a n t I n d i a n s . COLLA s u b j e c t t r i b e o f the I n c a s , who l i v e d i n the s o u t h e r n q u a r t e r o f the I n c a Empire, and were o n l y p a r t i a l l y subdued a t the time o f the a r r i v a l o f the S p a n i s h . COMPLEMENTARY-WARP WEAVE s t r u c t u r e i n which two s e t s o f warp elements i n t e r w o r k e q u a l l y . CUZQUENOS the men o f Cuzco BAYATA Sp. t r e a d l e loom woven c l o t h i n p l a i n weave. BAYETILLA c o m m e r c i a l l y woven c l o t h , g e n e r a l l y i n t w i l l weave. DOUBLE CLOTH f a b r i c s t r u c t u r e i n which t h r e e o r more s e t s o f elements i n t e r a c t t o produce s e p a r a t e f a c e s . FINGER WEAVING weaving, g e n e r a l l y o f narrow bands, i n which f i n g e r s a r e used f o r the warp m a n i p u l a t i o n w i t h g e n e r a l l y no t o o l s . GUAZE WEAVE s t r u c t u r e w i t h temporary d i s p l a c e m e n t o f warps p r o d u c i n g a l a c e — l i k e e f f e c t . HACIENDADO p e r t a i n i n g t o the h a c i e n d o o r r a n c h . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e r e f e r s t o a s t y l e o f d r e s s which c a r r i e s h i g h e r s t a t u s . HEDDLES, HEDDLESTRINGS d e v i c e s used t o a f f e c t opening o f the shed i n weaving. KORAKA Que. I n c a o f f i c i a l on l o c a l l e v e l , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o v e r s e e i n g community 01 KUMPI (Qompi) Que. I n c a s t a t u s t a p e s t r y weaving. MESTIZO Sp. N a t i v e o f p a r t I n d i a n , p a r t S p a n i s h b l o o d . -153-MITTA Que. I n c a system o f f e u d a l l a b o u r , p e r f o r m e d i n r e t u r n f o r r i g h t and p r i v i l e g e s o f goods and l a n d . PALO Sp. s t i c k , r e f e r s h e r e t o the s h a f t o f a s p i n d l e . PLAIN WEAVE w e f t p a s s e s a l t e r n a t e l y o v e r and under each s u c c e s s i v e warp. PUSHKA Que. s p i n d l e . PUNA Que. h i g h p l a i n a r e a up t o 15,000 f e e t a l t i t u d e QUECHA Quechua s p e a k e r s who are descendents o f the I n c a p e o p l e , l i v i n g i n P e r u . QOMPI-KAMAYOC Que. weaving s p e c i a l i s t i n I n c a t i m e s , who wove f i n e t a p e s t r y . ( a l s o Kumpi-camayoc) ROSAS Sp. r o s e s SHED temporary o p e n i n g between two p l a i n s o f warp, f o r i n s e r t i o n o f w e f t . SHED ROD s t i c k used t o s e p a r a t e one shed o f warp. SPRANG wor k i n g w i t h a s e t o f elements s t r e t c h e d between two c o r d s , so i n t e r l o c k i n g o f t h r e a d s t a k e s p l a c e a t b o t h ends s i m u l t a -n e o u s l y . SUPPLEMENTARY-WARP WEAVES" where an e x t r a s e t o f warp t h r e a d s i n t e r -a c t s i n ground weave t o produce p a t t e r n . TAPESTRY p a t t e r n p r o d u c e d by d i s c o n t i n u o u s w e f t - f a c e d weave. T'PANA Que. l a r g e b l a n k e t p i n , used t o f a s t e n manta. TWILL WEAVE f l o a t weave c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i a g o n a l a l i g n m e n t o f f l o a t s f o r which a minimum g r o u p i n g o f t h r e e warps i s needed. 2/2 TWILL i n t e r l a c i n g on the d i a g o n a l , under two and o v e r two, b u t where warp count i s h i g h e r than w e f t count, f a b r i c w i l l be wa r p - f a c e d . TWINING two t w i n i n g elements a c t t o g e t h e r , e n c l o s i n g s u c c e s s i v e elements o f the o t h e r s e t . WARP l o n g i t u d i n a l elements i n a f a b r i c o r loom, i n t e r l a c e d by the w e f t . WARP-FACED where the warp count i s h i g h e r than the w e f t , and the w e f t i s c o n c e a l e d . WARPFLOAT any p o r t i o n o f warp element t h a t extends o v e r two o r more w e f t t h r e a d s . WEFT t r a n s v e r s e e l e m e n t . i n t e r l a c e d t h r o u g h the warp. WEFT-FACED w e f t c o u n t outnumbers warp count, warp i s c o n c e a l e d by w e f t . UNCUNA 4unkhuna) Que. c a r r y i n g c l o t h . -154-BIBLIOGRAPHY Andrada, Marogt Palomino. " C o n t i n u i d a d y D i s c o n t i n u i d a d de l a T e c n o l o g -i a T e x t i l Precolumbino en C h i n c h e r o y P i s a q . " D i s s . Cuzco, Peru 197.6. A d o v a s i o , James M. and Thomas F. Lynch. " P r e c e r a m i c T e x t i l e s and Cord= age from G u i t a r r e r o Cave, P e r u . " American A n t i g u i t y , v o l . 38 no. 1 (1973). pp 84-9. B e n n e t t , Wendell C., ed. A R e a p p r a i s a l o f P e r u v i a n A r c h e o l o g y . Memoirs o f the S o c i e t y f o r American A r c h e o l o g y , no. 4. Menasha, W i s c o n s i n , 1948. and J u n i u s B. B r i d . Andean C u l t u r e H i s t o r y . New York C i t y , Americn Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , Handbook S e r i e s no. 5 1949. B i r d , J u n i u s B. E x c a v a t i o n s i n N o r t h e r n C h i l e . New York, A n t h r o p o l o -g i c a l P apers o f t h e American Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , v o l . 37 p t 4 1943 pp 71-318. "Pre c e r a m i c C u l t u r e s i n Chicama and y i r u . " i n A R e a p p r a i s a l  o f P e r u v i a n A r c h e o l o g y . Ed. W e n d e l l C. B e n n e t t . 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V i s u a l A n t h r o p o l o g y : Photography as a R e s e a r c h Method, i n S t u d i e s i n A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Method. G e n e r a l ed. George S p i n d l e r and L o u i s e S p i n d l e r . New York, H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston 1976. Cason, M a r j o r i e . and A d e l e C a h l a n d e r . The A r t o f B o l i v i a n H i g h l a n d  Weaving. New York, Watson G u p t i l l P u b l i c a t i o n s 1976. Cohodas, M a r v i n . Degikup: Washoe E a n c y t B a s k e t r y 1892-1935. Vancouver, B.C., The F i n e A r t s G a l l e r y o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 1979. Emery, I r e n e . The P r i m a r y S t u c t u r e o f F a b r i c s : an I l l u s t r a t e d C l a s s --155-i f i c a t i o n . Washington, D.C., The T E x t i l e Museum 1966. E n g e l , F r e d e r i c . "A P r e c e r a m i c S e t t l e m e n t on t h e C e n t r a l C o a s t o f Per u , A s i a , , U n i t 1." i n T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e American P h i l o s o p h i c a l  S o c i e t y . N.S. v o l . 55 p t 3 (1963).. F e r r i s , H. B. The I n d i a n s o f Cuzco and t h e Apurimac. i n Memoirs o f the American A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , v o l . 3 1916. G o o d e l l , Grace. "A Study o f Andean S p i n n i n g i n t h e Cuzco Regio n . " i n The T e x t i l e Museum J o u r n a l , v o l . 2 no. 3 (1968). H a r c o u r t , Raoul d'. Les T e x t i l s A n c i e n s de Perou e t l e u r s T e c h n i q u e s . P a r i s , L e s E d i t i o n s d j a r t e t d ' h i s t o i r e 1934. Rpt as T e x t i l e s o f A n c i e n t Peru and t h e i r T e c h n i q u e s . Ed. Grace G. Denny and C a r o l i n e M. Osborne. T r a n s l a t e d S a d i e Brown. S e a t t l e , U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington P r e s s 1962.' Rpt i n s l i g h t l y r e d u c e d format 1972. K i d d e r , A l f r e d . "A u n i q u e P e r u v i a n Weaver." i n E x p e d i t i o n , B u l l e t i n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y Museum o f P e n n s y l v a n i a , v o l 5 no. 2 (1963). K i n g , Mary E l i z a b e t h . " T e x t i l e s and B a s k e t r y o f t h e P a r a c a s P e r i o d , l e a V a l l e y , P e r u . " D i s s . U n i v e r s i t y o f A r i z o n a J.9.65. La B a r r e , Weston. "The Aymara I n d i a n s o f t h e Lake T i t i c a c a B a s i n ,  B o l i v i a . " American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , no.l 2 (1948). L a n n i n g , Edward P. Peru B e f o r e t h e I n c a s . Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y , P r e n t i c e H a l l I n c . 1967 Lumbreras, L u i s G. The P e o p l e and C u l t u r e s o f A n c i e n t P e r u . T r a n s l a t e d B e t t y G. Meggers. C i t y o f Wshington, S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n P r e s s 1974. Mahler, J o y . 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" T e x t i l e P e r i o d s i n A n c i e n t P e r u : P t 11, P a r a c a s Cavernas and t h e Grand N e c r o p o l i s . " U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P u b l i c a t i o n s  i n American A r c h e o l o g y and Ethnography, v o l . 3 9 no.2 (1942) pp 143-202. -156-"Mochica and Other P e r u v i a n T w i l l F a b r i c s . " Southwestern  J o u r n a l o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , v o l . 2 no.3 (19.46) pp 269-94. "Weaving." i n Handbook o f South American I n d i a n , v o l . 5 . Washington, D . C , S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n Bureau o f Ethnography, B u l l e t i n no. 149. 1949 pp: 97-138. Poma de A y a l a , F e l i p e Guaman. Nueva C o r o n i c a y B i e n G o b i e r n o 1615 (Codex P e r u v i e n l t l l l u s t r e ) . P a r i s , U n i v e r s i t e de P a r i s , Travaus e t Memoires de l ' I n s t i t u t d ' e t h n o l o g i e XX111. 1936. Rowe, Ann P o l l a r d . "Weaving P r o c e s s e s i n t h e Cuzco A r e a . " T e x t i l e  Museum J o u r n a l . v o l . 4 no. 2 (.1975). Warp-patterned Weaves o f t h e Andes. Washington, D.C., The T e x t i l e Museum. 1977. Rowe, John Howland. " I n c a C u l t u r e a t t h e Time o f t h e S p a n i s h Conquest." i n Handbook o f South American I n d i a n , v o l . 2. Washington, D . C , S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n Bureau o f E t h n o l o g y , 1946. Steve n s o n , N e i l I . Andean V i l l a g e T e c h n o l o g y : an I n t r o d u c t i o n t o a  C o l l e c t i o n o f Manufacture A r t i c l e s from S a n t i a g o de Chocorvos,  P e r u . O x f o r d , E n g l a n d . P i t t R i v e r s Museum. 1974. S t o t h e r t , Karen E. "Unwrapping a Mummy Bundle." A r c h e o l o g y . _ v o l . 34 ; no. 4 (1979)_. 

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