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The wolf masks of the Nootka Wolf ritual : a statement on transformation Moogk, Susan Rosa Tovell 1980

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THE  WOLF MASKS OF THE NOOTKA WOLF RITUAL: A STATEMENT ON TRANSFORMATION by SUSAN ROSA TOVELL MOOGK B.A. H o n . , U n i v e r s i t y  of Toronto,  1965  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Dept. o f ANTHROPOLOGY and SOCIOLOGY  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the requi red s t a n d a r d  The U n i v e r s i t y  o f B r i t i s h Columbia  A p r i l 1980 Susan Rosa Tovel 1 Moogk, 1980  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  this  written  at make  that  thesis  freely  may It  is  fulfilment of of  British  available  for  for extensive  be g r a n t e d  financial  by  shall  requirements  Columbia,  that  not  Avv4W/9i*£l/or^ a* A  of  University  of  British  Columbia  I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  of  copying  be a l l o w e d  X^C-t^Uf.^  or  fo  that  study.  this  thesis  t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  understood  gain  the  permission.  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  6  it  permission  purposes  for  in p a r t i a l  the U n i v e r s i t y  representatives.  Department The  thesis  or  publication  without  my  ABSTRACT Objects  from o t h e r c u l t u r e s have been c o l l e c t e d f o r museums  f o r more than a c e n t u r y w i t h the hope t h a t we c o u l d ' r e a d ' these  objects  and l e a r n more about them and t h e i r makers ( T a y l o r 1959 [ 1 9 5 7 ] ) .  The  inadequacy o f t h e f i e l d documentation f o r these o b j e c t s has too o f t e n been c o n s i d e r e d a b a r r i e r t o a c h i e v i n g t h i s goal ( H a s e l b e r g e r  1961:343).  T h i s t h e s i s attempts t o decode Nootkan Wolf masks by u s i n g a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l approach.  F i r s t , a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the masks was  d i s c o v e r e d through museum documentation and the e t h n o g r a p h i c Then the r i t u a l  and c o s m o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t s o f the masks are  The e x a m i n a t i o n o f n a t i v e t e x t s Nootkan cosmos: t h a t i t  record., recreated.  d i s c l o s e d a c r i t i c a l dimension o f the I  i s a cosmos i n which beings are c o n t i n u a l l y  a l t e r i n g o r t r a n s f o r m i n g from one s t a t e o f b e i n g t o a n o t h e r .  An a n a l y -  s i s o f the Wolf r i t u a l  ritual;  i t s e l f showed t h a t i t  and more s i g n i f i c a n t l y t h a t t h e c e n t r a l  i s an i n i t i a t i o n  theme o f the Wolf r i t u a l  was  the p r o c e s s e s o f t r a n s i t i o n and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f i t s major a c t o r s .  It  was then p o s s i b l e to r e t u r n the a n a l y s i s t o the masks t h e m s e l v e s , and to e x p l a i n t h e i r i c o n o g r a p h y , terms o f the p r e v i o u s l y  style,  dance and dance nomenclature  i d e n t i f i e d process of symbolic  d i s c o v e r e d the Nootkan c o n c e p t s .  in  transformation  Thus the a r t i s t ' s purpose i n making  these masks can be s a i d t o be a v i s u a l  and b e h a v i o u r a l e n c o d i n g o f a  n a t i v e cosmic p r i n c i p l e i n so f a r as the Nootkan v i s i o n o f the o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n has been exposed through t h i s  ii  process  ' r e a d i n g ' o f the masks.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  facie ABSTRACT  ii i v  LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES  vi  LIST OF PLATES  . . . .  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  vii.; viii  INTRODUCTION  1  Chapter 1  2  THE NOOTKAN COSMOS  18  A. Moral Geography  19  B.  24  Moral T r a v e l  and T r a n s f o r m a t i o n  1.  What i s T r a n s f o r m a t i o n ?  24  2.  How does T r a n s f o r m a t i o n t a k e P l a c e ?  25  3.  Why T r a n s f o r m and T r a v e l ?  27  4.  Who can T r a v e l  29  and T r a n s f o r m  TRANSFORMATION IN THE WOLF RITUAL  34  A.  Stages o f the Wolf R i t u a l  34  B.  Roles o f the Wolf Masks i n the Wolf R i t u a l  37  C.  The S o c i a l S t a t u s  40  D.  Conclusion  o f the Maskers  44 iii  Chapter 3  Page THE  VISUAL SYMBOLS OF THE WOLF MASKS  46  AA. The V i s u a l Statements o f the Wolf Masks B. Iconography o f Personages  .  56  1.  Wolf  57  2.  T h u n d e r b i r d , L i g h t n i n g Serpent and Whale  62  3. 'X.  46  a.  The Myth o f the T h u n d e r b i r d  b.  The M a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f T h u n d e r b i r d s i n Nootkan C u l t u r e  62 Hunt 63  T h u n d e r b i r d , L i g h t n i n g Serpent and W o l f , and the Wolf Masks  Iconography o f C o l o u r - Red and B l a c k  67  . . . .  70  ..D. Iconography o f S t y l e E. 4  5  75  Iconography  80  MOVEMENT!  82  A.  N o m e n c l a t u r e ; C r a w l i n g , W h i r l i n g and S t a n d i n g  82  B.  Dances  85  C.  Conclusion  88  STATEMENTS AND MESSAGES: PRIVILEGES AND TRANSFORMATION  . . . .  89  A.  Supernatural G i f t s - P r i v i l e g e s  90  B.  Power and T r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t h e Inbetween  92  CONCLUSION  97 A.  The Keys t o the System  B.  The Method  97 101  BIBLIOGRAPHY  104  CATALOGUE OF NOOTKA WOLF MASKS  108 i v  LIST OF  TABLES  Table I  Page The Nootkan Stem f o r B l a c k  7 2  v  LIST OF FIGURES  Figure 1:  P a  Diagonal l i n e s and the d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i r v i s u a l t h r u s t i n the form o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask  vi  9  78  e  LIST OF PLATES  Plate  Page  1  A S e t o f Nootka Dance Screens  10  2  Two Nootka W h i r l i n g Wolf Masks  12  3  Nootka W h i r l i n g Wolf Masks  14  4  Nootka W h i r l i n g Wolf Masks  15  5  Nootka C r a w l i n g Wolf Masks  47  6  Nootka C r a w l i n g Wolf Masks  48  7  Nootka W h i r l i n g Wolf Masks  50  8  Nootka S t a n d i n g Wolf Masks  52  9  Nootka S t a n d i n g Wolf and T h u n d e r b i r d Masks  54  10  S p i r i t Men on S t a n d i n g Wolf Masks . . . . . . .  55  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would l i k e t o acknowledge t h e h e l p f u l  s u g g e s t i o n s and guidance  o f my a d v i s o r s M a r j o r i e Hal p i n , R i c a r d o M u r a t o r i o and M a r i e - F r a n c o i s e Guidon. Acknowledgements a r e a l s o due to the h e l p f u l  s t a f f o f the three  museums whose c o l l e c t i o n s o f Wolf masks I have examined f o r t h e raw data for this thesis.  The s t a f f members t o which I am most g r a t e f u l a r e  Audrey Shane o f t h e Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y ,  U . B . C , Marilyn Chechik,  Dan S a v a r d , John V e i l l e t t e and Kevin N e a r y , a l l o f the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, and Judy H a l l ,  L i z P i n h o r n , John Baker and L o u i s e  Dal 1 a i r e o f the N a t i o n a l Museum o f Man i n Ottawa. I would a l s o l i k e t o thank my husband, P e t e r , and my sons Jonathan and Benjamin f o r a d a p t i n g themselves t o an e c c e n t r i c form o f m o t h e r i n g and h o u s e k e e p i n g .  vi i i  1.  INTRODUCTION  Museums have c o l l e c t e d and p r e s e r v e d a r t i f a c t s f o r c e n t u r i e s . While these c o l l e c t i o n s have s e r v e d as t r o p h i e s and t r e a s u r e s i n t h e p a s t , today t h e s e museums a r e seen as s t o r e h o u s e s o f knowledge.  The  a r t i f a c t s , l i k e books i n a l i b r a r y , are the r e p o s i t o r i e s o f knowledge (Brawne 1 9 6 5 : 7 f f ) .  But a r t i f a c t s , e s p e c i a l l y masks, a common type o f  o b j e c t i n e t h n o g r a p h i c c o l l e c t i o n s , are d i f f i c u l t  to 'read . 1  Thus, I  propose t o develop a method f o r r e a d i n g masks, and t o t e s t i t by a p p l y i n g i t t o an e t h n o g r a p h i c  problem.  Any method employed t o read masks s h o u l d r e c o g n i z e how masks communicate i d e a s ; i t must i d e n t i f y the a s p e c t s o f a mask which can be m a n i p u l a t e d t o f o r m u l a t e and c o n s o l i d a t e c o n c e p t u a l c a t e g o r i e s . To t h i s end, I w i l l  c o n s i d e r a mask f i r s t , as a m a t e r i a l and v i s u a l a r t i f a c t and  second, as an a r t i f a c t which i s meant t o perform a r o l e i n a r i t u a l . S i n c e v i s u a l a r t i f a c t s can communicate through iconography and s t y l e (Nodelrnan 1971:98), I propose  t o approach  the s t u d y o f masks by a n a l y s i n g  t h e i r iconography and v a r i a t i o n s i n s t y l e as symbols, t h i n g s which to o r s t a n d f o r o t h e r t h i n g s . graphy"  In t h i s t h e s i s I w i l l  refer  use t h e term " i c o n o -  f o r the e x p r e s s i o n o f i d e a s u s i n g c o l o u r s and g r a p h i c forms, and  the term " s t y l e " f o r the o r d e r e d m a n i p u l a t i o n o f l i n e s and b a l a n c e i n the c o m p o s i t i o n o f a f o r m J  Further, c e r t a i n aspects o f behaviour that  are f o c u s s e d around the masks can be r e g u l a t e d t o extend t h e range o f  2.  these v i s u a l  symbols to o t h e r l e v e l s o f c u l t u r a l  o f Vancouver  Island,  will  expression.  The Nootka  from whom the e t h n o g r a p h i c problem to t e s t t h i s method  be drawn, equate a mask w i t h the dancer who wears i t ;  man who wears a C r a w l i n g Wolf mask i n the Wolf r i t u a l w i l l Wolf s p i r i t when he d i e s ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 5 5 : - 5 ) . mask the man w e a r s , and the dance and r i t u a l  that i s , a become a  In a d d i t i o n ,  r o l e he performs are  the same name by Nootkan i n f o r m a n t s s p e a k i n g i n E n g l i s h .  given  For example,  " C r a w l i n g Wolf" r e f e r s t o the r o l e , the mask and the dance which  repre-  s e n t s the C r a w l i n g Wolf (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 4 9 3 ; E r n s t 1952:66 and 7 3 ) . f o r e , to encompass the n a t u r e o f masks the method proposed to will  the  There-  'read'  them  i n c l u d e a study o f the i d e n t i t y o f the masker, t h e dance he performs  and the r i t u a l  r o l e o f the mask; they are t h r e e a s p e c t s o f the  c o n t e x t o f the masks.  They w i l l  ritual  be a n a l y s e d as t h r e e s e t s o f s y m b o l s .  When s e l e c t i n g an e t h n o g r a p h i c problem to t e s t t h i s method o f r e a d i n g masks, I used c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a r e g a r d i n g i t s s u b j e c t and t o p i c . To begin the s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s ,  I found i t e x p e d i e n t to l i m i t the  o f the problem to a s i n g l e c u l t u r e .  subject  A s i n g l e c u l t u r e would y i e l d a  manageable amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t would have the advantage o f b e i n g ideologically integrated. a n a l y s i s to a s i n g l e r i t u a l body o f i n f o r m a t i o n .  Further,  I found i t p r e f e r a b l e t o c o n f i n e  so t h a t I would have an even more c o n t r o l l e d  The Wolf r i t u a l o f the Nootka o f the l a t e 1800's  o f f e r s t h i s k i n d o f d a t a , and the masks o f the r i t u a l the method f o r r e a d i n g masks. they were c e n t r a l  the  can be used to  The name o f the Wolf masks i n d i c a t e d  to the Wolf r i t u a l , so I narrowed the scope o f the  once more to encompass j u s t the Wolf masks.  I d e c i d e d to study a l l  v a r i a t i o n s o f the Wolf masks because I sensed t h a t t h i s p o l y m o r p h i c  test that study the group  3.  o f masks would be more l i k e l y to r e p r e s e n t t h e wide range o f s t y l e s and iconography i n the a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n o f the Nootka than a s i n g l e Wolf mask. The t o p i c o f the t e s t problem must a l s o be s e l e c t e d c a r e f u l l y . The range o f c u l t u r a l  i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t can be e x p r e s s e d through a mask  i s r e g u l a t e d by the message t h a t the mask i s r e q u i r e d t o communicate. That i s to s a y , i t i s e a s i e r to d e s c e r n the t o p i c s t h a t are most p e r t i n e n t to t h e c o n t e x t i n which the mask i s worn. meant to be seen i n a r i t u a l the f o r e f r o n t ,  Thus, the Wolf masks which are  s i t u a t i o n where r e l i g i o u s q u e s t i o n s are i n  can be expected t o convey concepts which are  primarily  about cosmology, the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the w o r l d as an o r g a n i z e d and f u n c tioning  universe. The problem t h a t ethnographers  have had w i t h the cosmology o f  the Nootka was s e t o u t by P h i l i p Drucker i n h i s work on the N o r t h e r n and C e n t r a l Nootkan t r i b e s  (1951).  d e f i n e d system o f t h o u g h t .  He s a i d " i t i s c l e a r t h e r e i s no w e l l  . . t o Nootkan c o s m o l o g i c a l and s u p e r n a t u r a l  c o n c e p t s " (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 1 5 1 ) .  I challenge that statement.  Drucker might  have been unable to p e r c e i v e such a system o r to d e t e c t the p r i n c i p l e s which g i v e c o h e s i o n to Nootkan thought and a c t i o n s because he l o o k e d a t the w o r l d o f the N o o t k a , a p a r t from human s o c i e t y , as a m y r i a d o f animal and s u p e r n a t u r a l personages drawn o u t o f t h e i r b e h a v i o u r a l c o n t e x t s .  He  d i d not l o o k a t the i n t e r a c t i o n s between these personages and men, nor a t the c o n t e x t s o f t h e s e i n t e r a c t i o n s which can be found i n the myths, legends and r i t u a l s o f the N o o t k a .  This t h e s i s w i l l  attempt to  refute  D r u c k e r ' s s t a t e m e n t by a n a l y s i n g Nootka cosmology from t h i s second p e r s p e c t i v e and thus w i l l s t u d y masks i n t h e i r r i t u a l  context.  k  4.  Masks are a p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n s t r u m e n t f o r s t u d y i n g a p e o p l e ' s cosmology f o r masks a l t e r the i d e n t i t y o f a person i n a s p e c i a l direction. through  They change him i n t o something o t h e r than an o r d i n a r y human, and  t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n c r e a t e a 1 i n k between the human masker and the n o n -  human i d e n t i t y o f the mask. convincingly  A mask i s shaped so t h a t i t smoothly and  f i t s o v e r and s u b s t i t u t e s f o r the p a r t o f the w e a r e r ' s body  t h a t i s b e i n g a l t e r e d , most o f t e n the head and/or the f a c e .  It  is also  shaped and c o l o u r e d to r e p r e s e n t a form a p p r o p r i a t e t o a new i d e n t i t y . By c o v e r i n g the w e a r e r ' s human i d e n t i t y w i t h one from o u t s i d e o f h u m a n i t y , a mask moves the human wearer out o f the human c i r c l e and i n t o the c o s m o l o g i c a l arena o f a c t i o n .  greater  Thus a Wolf ' h e a d d r e s s ' whose i n n e r shape  accommodates a human h e a d , and which o u t w a r d l y d i s p l a y s the s h a p e s , l i n e s , and masses s y m b o l i c and s i g n i f i c a n t o f a W o l f , an a n i m a l , i s r e a l l y a mask.  Thus, I have chosen to c a l l the Wolf masks "masks" though they are  worn on the head r a t h e r than o v e r the f a c e and are thus o f t e n c a l l e d "headdresses."  I o b j e c t to the term " h e a d d r e s s " because i t i s ambiguous  and can mean any head c o v e r i n g ; even a hat which changes a p e r s o n ' s s o c i a l s t a t u s , but n o t h i n g more.  A mask does more, i t e f f e c t s a cosmic change.  Thus, through a s t u d y o f the Wolf masks, I s h o u l d be a b l e t o  explore  a s p e c t s o f the N o o t k a n - c o s m o l o g y . I propose t o b e i n g by s t u d y i n g the statements o f the masks as t h e y are r e l a t e d to o t h e r l e v e l s o f c u l t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n when the masks are p r e s e n t e d i n the Wolf r i t u a l .  Then I w i l l  seek o u t the v i s u a l  and  c h o r e o g r a p h i c statements the Nootka a r t i s t s make through the Wolf masks. Through t h i s a n a l y s i s , I s h o u l d come to comprehend the message which i s e x p r e s s e d when the Wolf masks are p r e s e n t e d i n the Wolf r i t u a l .  Because  5.  the Wolf r i t u a l  i s a major r i t u a l  Wolf masks are c e n t r a l message w i l l  o f t h e Nootka (Kenyon 1 9 7 7 : 2 8 ) , and the  to the Wolf r i t u a l , the masks' statements and  be e x p r e s s e d i n the l o g i c o f the system o f Nootka t h o u g h t .  A f i n a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s and message w i l l d i s c l o s e some o f the p r i n c i p l e s o f l o g i c o f the Nootka cosmology. In o r d e r t o c a r r y o u t t h i s s t u d y ,  p u b l i s h e d and u n p u b l i s h e d  s o u r c e s were mined t o e x t r a c t d a t a ; j o u r n a l s , a c c o u n t s ,  ethnographies,  a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l i n museums, and the masks t h e m s e l v e s . Observers  have w r i t t e n about the Nootka f o r o n l y the p a s t two  hundred y e a r s , though the Nootka themselves have l i v e d on the  northwest  c o a s t o f North America f o r s e v e r a l m i l l e n n i a ( D e w h i r s t 1 9 6 9 : 2 3 9 ) . a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , the Nootka have been d i v i d e d i n t o cultural Vancouver  In  the  three  g r o u p s ; the n o r t h e r n groups which l i v e a l o n g the west c o a s t  of  I s l a n d from Cape Cook t o Nootka Sound, the c e n t r a l groups which  l i v e a l o n g the same c o a s t from H e s q u i a t to B a r k l e y Sound, and the s o u t h e r n groups which l i v e on the I s l a n d ' s west c o a s t south o f B a r k l e y Sound and on Cape F l a t t e r y which i s on the mainland f a c i n g Vancouver  Island.  The  n o r t h e r n and c e n t r a l groups speak Nootkan p r o p e r , w h i l e among the s o u t h e r n g r o u p s , those on Vancouver I s l a n d speak N i t i n a t and those on Cape F l a t t e r y speak Makah ( D r u c k e r  1951:3-5).  Early explorers  3  and f u r - t r a d e r s  r e c o r d e d t h e i r encounters  the Nootka between 1778 and 1820, the p e r i o d o f the s e a o t t e r f u r (Cook 1784; Meares 1790; J e w i t t 1 8 1 5 ) .  with  trade  The j o u r n a l s they l e f t are u s e f u l  f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e age o f some e t h n o g r a p h i c d e t a i l s which were d e s c r i b e d more c o m p l e t e l y by l a t e r w r i t e r s . the r e c o r d s u n t i l  A f t e r t h i s p e r i o d t h e r e i s a gap i n  the b e g i n n i n g o f i n t e n s i v e European s e t t l e m e n t o f the  6.  a r e a i n the 1 8 5 0 ' s , when m i s s i o n a r i e s and I n d i a n agents took up the observers'  task.  In 1868, G.M. S p r o a t p u b l i s h e d h i s a c c o u n t o f the Nootka  i n the A l b e r n i a r e a .  This i n c l u d e d a very i m p r e s s i o n a i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n  o f a c e n t r a l Nootkan w i n t e r dance o r Wolf r i t u a l .  Father Brabant,  C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r y a t H e s q u i a t from 1874 to 1908, r e c o r d e d the t i z i n g o f t h i s Nootkan group i n h i s d i a r y  the  prosely-  (Brabant 1977 [ 1 9 2 6 ] ) .  More  s u b s t a n t i a l accounts o f the Makah i n t h i s same p e r i o d were made by J . G . Swan, a U n i t e d S t a t e s ' f e d e r a l agent (Swan 1 8 7 0 ) . A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s s t a r t e d to r e c o r d the Northwest Coast c u l t u r e s i n the 1 8 8 0 ' s .  Franz Boas p u b l i s h e d h i s f i r s t work on the Nootka i n 1 8 9 0 ,  and i n c l u d e d Nootkan m a t e r i a l i n h i s p u b l i c a t i o n s o f 1897 and 1916. m a t e r i a l was c o l l e c t e d by George Hunt a t Yuquot, the summer v i l l a g e  This of  the Moachat, a n o r t h e r n g r o u p , and by Boas h i m s e l f , from n a t i v e i n f o r m a n t s among the c e n t r a l Nootka a t P o r t A l b e r n i  (Rohner 1 9 6 9 : 1 1 0 ) .  Boas'  publi-  c a t i o n s i n c l u d e a c c o u n t s o f r i t u a l s and c e r e m o n i e s , and myths. Edward S a p i r d i d i m p o r t a n t f i e l d work from 1910 t o 1914 a t Port A l b e r n i .  He c o l l e c t e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the s o c i a l o r d e r , myths and  l e g e n d s , ceremonies and r i t u a l s from the o l d e r people who r e c a l l e d events and l i f e i n the 1870's and 1 8 8 0 ' s . data before)the  He a n a l y s e d and p u b l i s h e d some o f h i s  F i r s t World War ( S a p i r 1911 and 1 9 1 3 ) ; the b u l k o f h i s  f i e l d notes have been p u b l i s h e d as l i n g u i s t i c t e x t s s i n c e h i s death and Swadesh 1939 and 1 9 5 5 ) .  (Sapir  Some t e x t s o f f a m i l y legends are s t i l l  u n p u b l i s h e d ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 5 5 : 1 ) . S a p i r ' s s t u d e n t s have c o n t i n u e d h i s work on the Nootka.  They  i n c l u d e Frances Densmore, Mary Haas, Helen Roberts and M o r r i s Swadesh (Densmore 1 9 3 9 ; Haas 1930; Roberts and Swadesh 1 9 5 5 ) .  Some have had a c c e s s  7.  t o S a p i r ' s n o t e b o o k s ; o r have used h i s i n f o r m a n t s .  E.S.  Curtis'  co-author,  W.E. M y e r s , c o n s u l t e d Edmund S c h w i n k e , a Makah, George Hunt, and Frank W i l l i a m s , one o f S a p i r ' s i n f o r m a n t s ( C u r t i s 1 9 1 6 ) .  These l a t e r  anthro-  p o l o g i s t s r e c o r d e d c e r e m o n i a l songs and d a n c e s , and myths from t h e memories of old people.  In t h i s p o s t - w a r p e r i o d some s t u d i e s were made o f the  o l d Nootkan m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e and contemporary s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e  (Waterman  1920; Koppert 1 9 3 0 ) . P h i l i p Drucker d i d h i s f i e l d work among the n o r t h e r n and c e n t r a Nootka d u r i n g the 1 9 3 0 ' s .  He gathered a wide range o f m a t e r i a l  belonged t o the p e r i o d between 1870 and 1900 (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 2 ) .  that A t the  same t i m e , A l i c e E r n s t , encouraged by Franz B o a s , gathered i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t a l s o dated from the l a t e 1 8 0 0 ' s , from e l d e r l y i n f o r m a n t s among the Makah, C l a y o q u o t and P o r t A l b e r n i groups ( E r n s t 1 9 5 2 ) . h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on the Wolf r i t u a l .  She f o c u s s e d  In the 1 9 4 0 s E l i z a b e t h C o l s o n 1  g a t h e r e d contemporary m a t e r i a l among the Makah ( C o l s o n 1 9 5 3 ) .  She found  very l i t t l e o f t h e o l d i n d i g e n o u s r e l i g i o n t h a t had been r e c o r d e d by e a r l i e r writers. More r e c e n t l y a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have been a n a l y s i n g the m a t e r i a l t h a t S a p i r and Drucker c o l l e c t e d .  These i n c l u d e Swadesh ( 1 9 4 8 ) , Langdon  ( 1 9 7 6 ) , and Rossman and Rubel ( 1 9 7 1 ) . political,  economic and s o c i a l  of  structure.  S e v e r a l people are c u r r e n t l y the N o o t k a .  They have worked on problems  i n t e r e s t e d i n the ethnography  of  B a r b a r a E f f r a t , o f the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum,  i s w o r k i n g on the l i n g u i s t i c s o f the H e s q u i a t ( 1 9 7 8 ) .  Studies of  the  h i s t o r y o f the e a r l y c o n t a c t p e r i o d have been done by C h r i s t i a n A r c h e r ( 1 9 7 8 ) , B a r r y Gough (1978) and T e r r y Moore, an a n t h r o p o l g i s t  (1977).  8.  There i s a l s o a renewed i n t e r e s t i n the Nootka b e l i e f s y s t e m . Susan Kenyon i s s t u d y i n g the contemporary ceremonies o f the Nootka (Kenyon 1977)..  B a r b a r a Moon and Nancy T u r n e r are s t u d y i n g the b i o l o g i c a l nomen-  c l a t u r e o f the H e s q u i a t , a c e n t r a l Nootkan t r i b e  (1978).  Two graduate  s t u d e n t s , Susan G o l l a and N a t h a l i e M a c f a r l a n e are engaged i n f i e l d work at Port A l b e r n i .  T h i s t h e s i s i s p a r t o f the r e v i v e d i n t e r e s t i n the  Nootka cosmology. Much o f the i n f o r m a t i o n used i n t h i s t h e s i s has been drawn from the p u b l i s h e d work o f S a p i r , Drucker and E r n s t , the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  and thus dates from  These e t h n o g r a p h i e s d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s  contexts  f o r t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f the same s y m b o l s . t h a t are c e n t r e d on and around the Wolf masks o f the Nootka Wolf r i t u a l . t h a t i t i s second-hand.  The problem w i t h t h i s data i s  I t was c o l l e c t e d and t r a n s l a t e d by i n d i v i d u a l s  who were not a p a r t o f the Nootka c u l t u r e , and thus i t has been removed from t h e Nootkan language and i d i o m and put i n t o E n g l i s h , a v e h i c l e e x p r e s s i o n o f another c u l t u r e .  of  F o r t u n a t e l y f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r who  cannot speak N o o t k a n , t h e r e i s a n o t h e r s o u r c e o f p r i m a r y e x p r e s s i o n from the Nootka c u l t u r e o f t h a t p e r i o d which i s s t i l l the Wolf masks.  accessible.  These are  They are m a t e r i a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f the Nootka c u l t u r e  as i t e x i s t e d between 1850 and 1900 when they were made. s o u r c e o f primary i n f o r m a t i o n .  They are a  These immutable i n f o r m a n t s are the m o t i v a -  t i o n and f i n a l , a r b i t e r s o f t h i s e t h n o g r a p h i c  study.  T h i s s t u d y i s based on the Nootka Wolf masks i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n s o f the Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia [U.B.C],  the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum [ B . C . P . M . ] , and the  N a t i o n a l Museum o f Canada [ N . M . C . ] .  4  The b u l k o f the Wolf masks i n these  9.  museums were c o l l e c t e d around the t u r n o f t h i s c e n t u r y , Port Alberni  groups.  The c o l l e c t i o n s have been augmented w i t h specimens  from a l l the o t h e r major Nootkan groups on Vancouver no Wolf masks from the Makah i n Washington s t a t e . photographs  found i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  Island.  I  found  I have a l s o r e l i e d on  The masks a t U . B . C . appear to be  o f a c o n s i s t e n t l y l a t e r d a t e than those o f t h e N.M.C. a t the B . C . P . M .  p r i m a r i l y from the  and most o f t h o s e  But the documentation i s s c a n t y and u n c e r t a i n .  To b e g i n the r e a d i n g o f the masks I developed a t y p o l o g y so t h a t some o r d e r c o u l d be d i s c e r n e d i n t h e i r f o r m s .  The i d e n t i t y o f  only  a few o f the Nootka Wolf masks i n the museums i s r e c o r d e d i n the accompanying  c a t a l o g u e notes. The forms o f these i d e n t i f i e d masks were  and the shapes o f u n i d e n t i f i e d Wolf masks were compared to them. shapes were put t o g e t h e r  i n one form c a t e g o r y ,  and the i d e n t i t y  studied Similar  definitely  a t t r i b u t e d to the few masks i n any one form c a t e g o r y was. a s c r i b e d to a l l the masks i n t h a t form c a t e g o r y .  I t was noted t h a t each form c a t e g o r y  bore a g r e a t s i m i l a r i t y to one o f the beings d e p i c t e d on the Nootka dance 5  s c r e e n s (see p l a t e 1 ) .  On f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e s e form c a t e g o r i e s  which were based on shape and i d e n t i t y , masks'  coincided with differences  r i t u a l c o n t e x t s and b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t y l e .  t h e r e a r e t h r e e main c a t e g o r i e s o f Nootka Wolf masks.  i n the  I concluded  that  They are C r a w l i n g  W o l f , W h i r l i n g Wolf ( a l s o r e f e r r e d to as S p i n n i n g Wolf o r L i g h t n i n g Serpent i n E n g l i s h s o u r c e s )  and S t a n d i n g Wolf ( E r n s t 1 9 5 2 : 9 6 ) .  W i t h i n these c a t e g o r i e s , great d e a l .  <  the shapes o f the Wolf masks vary a  D i f f e r e n t a r t i s t s , each employing t h e i r p e r s o n a l  styles,  account f o r some o f the v a r i a t i o n s o f s t y l e found i n the Wolf masks,  but  10. PLATE 1.  A SET OF NOOTKA DANCE SCREENS  Photographed from A r t o f the Northwest Coast I n d i a n s "by Robert Bruce I n v e r a r i t y ,  1973.  11.  no s y s t e m a t i c work has y e t been p u b l i s h e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e v a r i o u s Nootkan a r t i s t s , and the r e g i o n a l and h i s t o r i c a l s t y l e s o f t h e Nootkan a r t i s t i c tradition. D i f f e r e n t owners accounted f o r some o f the v a r i a t i o n i n i c o n o r g r a p h y w i t h i n each c a t e g o r y o f W o l f mask.  In Nootkan l e g e n d s , i t  is  not unusual f o r the a n c e s t o r s o f s e p a r a t e f a m i l e s t o r e c e i v e what seems to be the same Wolf mask.  Thus two d i s t i n c t l i n e a g e s may c l a i m the owner-  s h i p o f a W h i r l i n g Wolf mask.  B u t , a c c o r d i n g t o each f a m i l y ' s l e g e n d ,  t h e i r mask was r e c e i v e d under a unique s e t o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  The  result  i s t h a t the a c t u a l p r i v i l e g e and power a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each W h i r l i n g W o l f mask i s u n i q u e .  For example, masks V I I - F - 3 7 9 and V I I - F - 3 8 0  i n the National  Museum o f Canada a r e both L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t ( W h i r l i n g W o l f ) , y e t - 3 8 0 represents  "Lokwana power from t h e Wolves" and - 3 7 9 r e p r e s e n t s "power  h u n t e r s from a  mixytate  for  b i r d [a type o f duck ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:  231)]" (Sapir.-N.M.C. catalogue notes).  The d i f f e r e n t s p o n s o r s and powers  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e same t y p e o f mask a r e r e f l e c t e d by t h e  different  mechanisms (see p l a t e 2 ) , a t t a c h e d t o t h e top o f the W h i r l i n g W o l f ' s h e a d . D i f f e r e n c e s i n the c o n t e x t s  i n which the masks were meant t o  appear a c c o u n t f o r some o f the v a r i a t i o n s i n c o l o u r .  Some o f the Wolf  masks were made f o r use i n the Wolf r i t u a l , which makes a c o h e r e n t s t a t e ment a b o u t , t h e c o s m o l o g i c a l o r d e r d u r i n g a formal o r bounded p e r i o d initiation activity,  of  w h i l e o t h e r Wolf masks were made t o be d i s p l a y e d  d u r i n g t h e c e r e m o n i a l p o r t i o n s o f such o c c a s i o n s as weddings and f u n e r a l s . On t h e s e l a t e r o c c a s i o n s , an i n d i v i d u a l ' s r i g h t t o t a k e a p a r t i c u l a r  part  i n t h e Wolf r i t u a l c o u l d be d i s p l a y e d a l o n g w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f o t h e r items o f w e a l t h as a s t a t e m e n t o f h i s p o s i t i o n i n t h e s o c i a l  order  N.M.C. # VII-P-380  13.  (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 2 4 7 - 8 ) and 2 5 7 ) . mask appeared  in  isolation  On these o c c a s i o n s , the c h a r a c t e r o f each rather  c h a r a c t e r s o f the o t h e r masks. masks are more c o l o u r f u l  than i n r e l a t i o n t o the o t h e r  E r n s t noted t h a t the f e s t i v a l o r c e r e m o n i a l  than those used i n r i t u a l  (Ernst 1952:25).  E r n s t ' s s t a t e m e n t i s c o r r o b o r a t e d by my own o b s e r v a t i o n s .  In the museum  collections,  I found t h a t two d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f c o l o u r s were used on the  Wolf masks.  Only red and b l a c k were used on some masks, w h i l e many c o l o u r s  were used on o t h e r s .  When the i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e , the c o l o u r f u l  masks were c a t a l o g u e d as p o t l a t c h o r f e s t i v a l masks ( E r n s t 1952:PI ate 2 ; see p l a t e 3 , U . B . C . : A 8 0 9 8 ; N . M . C . : V I I - F - 4 0 7 B ; 427 and V I I - F - 4 2 8 ) .  see p l a t e 4 ,  N.M.C.:VII-F-  I c o n c l u d e d t h a t the somber red and b l a c k specimens  are the ones t h a t were used f o r r i t u a l  purposes.  I s h a l l r e t u r n to the  q u e s t i o n o f c o l o u r i n Chapter 3 when I d i s c u s s the Nootkan iconography  of  colour. The t y p o l o g y o f the masks used f o r t h i s t h e s i s makes d i s t i n c t i o n s based on i d e n t i t y and c o n t e x t ( r i t u a l  ( S t a n d i n g W o l f , W h i r l i n g Wolf and C r a w l i n g Wolf)  or ceremonial).  I am assuming t h a t v a r i a t i o n s i n form  t h a t c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d to the d i f f e r e n t l i n e a g e s t h a t own the masks, and the d i f f e r e n t a r t i s t s t h a t made them f a l l w i t h i n the g e n e r a l  pattern  o f the Nootkan cosmology because the owners and makers l i v e d w i t h i n c o n t e x t o f the Nootkan c u l t u r e .  The d i s t i n c t i o n between r i t u a l  the  and  c e r e m o n i a l masks i s i m p o r t a n t because i t i s my purpose t o examine a complete s e t o f masks used i n a r i t u a l  r a t h e r than those d i s p l a y e d i n a  ceremony. B e f o r e embarking on the a n a l y s i s o f the r i t u a l Wolf masks o f the N o o t k a , I w i l l  d e s c r i b e the Nootkan cosmos i n Chapter 1 , because  it  14. PLATE 3 .  NOOTKA WHIRLING WOLF MASKS  U.B.C. # A8098  N.M.C. # VII-F-407B  15.  PLATE 4 . NOOTKA. WHIRLING WOLF MASKS  N.M.C. # VII-F-427  N.M.C. # VII-F-428  16.  provides will  the u l t i m a t e c o n t e x t f o r the message o f these masks.  Chapter 2  p r e s e n t an a n a l y s i s o f the c o s m o l o g i c a l boundaries and s o c i a l  g o r i e s o f the Wolf r i t u a l . gories.  Chapter 3 w i l l  discussion w i l l  It w i l l  cate-  l o c a t e t h e Wolf masks i n t h e s e c a t e -  study the v i s u a l symbols o f the Wolf masks.  The  f l e s h out and d e f i n e the Nootkan concept o f the cosmo-  l o g i c a l c a t e g o r i e s d i s c e r n e d i n the Wolf r i t u a l . study o f the 'movements' o f the Wolf masks w i l l o f t h e s e major Nootkan c a t e g o r i e s .  In C h a p t e r 4 a s i m i l a r f u r t h e r our  understanding  The l a s t c h a p t e r o f the t h e s i s  will  attempt t o p r e s e n t a c o h e r e n t statement o f the meaning o r message o f Nootka Wolf r i t u a l . thought'  The c o n c l u s i o n w i l l  summarize the Nootkan ' s y s t e m o f  and how the masks have s e r v e d t o l e a d us t o comprehend t h e  Nootkan cosmology.  the  17.  INTRODUCTION;  FOOTNOTES  Panofsky ( 1 9 6 2 : 3 - 1 7 ) makes a s i m i l a r d i s t i n c t i o n i n the l e v e l s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i t h which one can a n a l y s e a work o f a r t . His ' i c o n o g r a p h y i n the narrow sense o f the word' i s here ' i c o n o g r a p h y , and h i s ' i c o n o g r a p h y i n the deeper sense o f the word' i s here ' s t y l e ' . 1  Even t o d a y , the dancers a r e so c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the mask t h a t the Nootka speak o f the masks as i f they were a l i v e and m o t i v a t e themselves. Joe D a v i d , a contemporary Nootka a r t i s t , remembering the dances he saw as a b o y , s a i d "They were j u s t b e i n g s , h a l f wood, h a l f man." To him the masks were r e a l c r e a t u r e s ( M a r c h , 1 9 7 8 ) . To the Nootka the dances and the mask form a f u l l y - i n t e g r a t e d u n i t . F o r p o l i t i c a l reasons the Nootka are r e p l a c i n g the word ' N o o t k a ' w i t h the p o p u l a r , t u r n - o f - t h e - c e n t u r y term "West Coast P e o p l e " which r e f e r s t o the west c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d . They are r e s t r i c t i n g "Nootka" to r e f e r e n c e s t o the l a n g u a g e . In t h i s t h e s i s I w i l l use the term Nootka f o r the p e o p l e , c u l t u r e and language and thus f o l l o w the a c c e p t e d a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l usage. J  ^ 1 s h a l l r e f e r t o these i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the d i s c u s s i o n below w i t h the f o l l o w i n g a b b r e v i a t i o n s ; Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia U.B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Museum o f B r i t i s h Columbia - B . C . P . M . N a t i o n a l Museum o f Canada N.M.C.  The dance s c r e e n s were o c c a s i o n a l l y used as a backdrop f o r the Wolf r i t u a l . "The p a i n t i n g s . . . r e p r e s e n t e d a T h u n d e r b i r d h o l d i n g a w h a l e . . . a w o l f . . .and a he'itUk" (Sapir 1913:68). H e ' i t l i k w i l l also be c a l l e d L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t i n t h i s t h e s i s .  18.  Chapter 1  THE NOOTKAN COSMOS  T h i s t h e s i s i s based upon a c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e Nootkan cosmos i n which a f o u r t h r e a l m - t h e s a c r e d domain o f t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l the spaces between t h e t h r e e realms o f p r o f a n e e x i s t e n c e : sea and t h e s k y .  - occupies  the l a n d , the  I f u r t h e r postulate that the supernatural  o r Inbetween  realm i s a l s o found i n the i n t e r s t i c e s between t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f b e i n g w i t h i n t h e s e p r o f a n e realms (see F i g u r e 1 ) .  In t h i s cosmos,  archipelagos  and i s l a n d s o f s e c u l a r o r profane l i f e a r e s c a t t e r e d o v e r a sea o f s u p e r natural  and s a c r e d b e i n g s , t h e Inbetween o r f o u r t h A l l Nootkan r i t u a l s i n v o l v e ,  i n some f a s h i o n , t h e dangerous  passage o f humans through t h i s f o u r t h r e a l m . Nootkan thought and l i f e ,  realm.  On f i r s t  acquaintance with  t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e i r cosmos appear t o us  t o b l u r i n t o each o t h e r because t h e Nootka themselves emphasize between these d i v i s i o n s r a t h e r than the d i v i s i o n s  themselves.  travel The i n t e n s e  r i t u a l i z a t i o n o f Nootkan l i f e i s a r e s u l t o f t h e f r e q u e n t n e c e s s i t y f o r humans t o e n t e r t h e f o u r t h r e a l m . t h i s i s t h e need t o o b t a i n  It w i l l  be argued i n t h i s t h e s i s  that  power.  In t h i s c h a p t e r I w i l l  d e s c r i b e t h e realms o f t h e Nootkan  cosmos, and how, why and which humans move from one r e a l m t o a n o t h e r . In t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s  I will  l o o k more s p e c i f i c a l l y a t t h e f o u r t h  19. r e a l m , the "Inbetween" a r e a and t h e b o u n d a r y - c r o s s e r s ,  as e x p r e s s e d by  the r i t u a l Wolf masks.  A.  Moral  Geography When a Nootka performs a s e c r e t r i t u a l  f o r a i d i n an e n t e r -  p r i s e , he b e g i n s w i t h a p r a y e r t o the f o u r c h i e f s :  the C h i e f o f the Sky,  the C h i e f o f the L a n d , the C h i e f o f the Undersea and the C h i e f o f t h e H o r i z o n ( D r u c k e r 1951:152) which i s a l s o c a l l e d South ( C u r t i s 32).  1916:28 and  The r e a l m o f t h e South C h i e f i s d e s c r i b e d as the "narrow s t r i p  of  l a n d b e l i e v e d t o border t h e sea where the sky a t the south meets t h e water"  (Curtis  1 9 1 6 : 1 0 6 ) ; t h a t i s , i t l i e s between the sea and the s k y .  The H o r i z o n , D r u c k e r ' s g l o s s of t h i s C h i e f ' s r e a l m , a l s o l i e s between the l a n d and the s k y . the Inbetween. cosmos:  These two h o r i z o n s , t o g e t h e r ,  are p a r t o f what I  call  Thus I can r e c o g n i z e f o u r d i s t i n c t realms i n the Nootkan  the s e a , the l a n d , t h e sky and the ' i n b e t w e e n ' .  always named f i r s t .  The sky i s  None o f the o t h e r t h r e e realms enjoy primacy o v e r  the o t h e r s f o r the o r d e r i n which t h e i r c h i e f s are named v a r i e s , the C h i e f o f the H o r i z o n tends t o come s e c o n d .  His  'inbetween'  although realm i s  u n l i k e the o t h e r realms which are s i m i l a r t o each o t h e r i n many f e a t u r e s . A c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f each o f t h e s e realms i s needed to i l l u s t r a t e the difference.^ The realm o f the human prayermaker i s l o c a t e d i n t h e human v i l l a g e s a l o n g the c o a s t l i n e . and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 7 5 ) .  It  i s a d i v i s i o n o f the Land r e a l m ( S a p i r )  The Nootka c o n c e i v e o f t h e i r s e t t l e m e n t s as conglom-  e r a t i o n s o f l i n e a g e o r f a m i l y u n i t s ( D r u c k e r 1 9 5 1 : 2 2 0 ) , each w i t h i t s own house and c h i e f , who band t o g e t h e r i n a v i l l a g e o f the b a s i s o f r e a l and p o s s i b l e m a r r i a g e t i e s between t h e l i n e a g e s . lineage  :  i s the c h i e f o f the  village.  The c h i e f o f the r a n k i n g  20.  The f o r m a t i o n o f t h e s e s e t t l e m e n t s i s r e g u l a t e d by the economic c o n d i t i o n s o f the seasonal food g a t h e r i n g c y c l e .  The v i l l a g e s are u s u a l l y  formed d u r i n g the summer and w i n t e r but not i n the s p r i n g , which i s a salmon f i s h i n g and b e r r y i n g s e a s o n , nor i n the f a l l when each l i n e a g e i s busy p r e s e r v i n g s t o r e s o f salmon f o r the w i n t e r a t i t s salmon s t r e a m . During the p o s t c o n t a c t p e r i o d , t h e l i n e a g e s o f each o f t h e n o r t h e r n  fjords  banded t o g e t h e r i n the summer i n v e r y l a r g e v i l l a g e s t o form l o o s e c o n federacies  (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 6 7 ) .  More t r a d i t i o n a l l y , the l a r g e s t  were formed f o r the w i n t e r c e r e m o n i a l and r i t u a l s e a s o n .  villages  In a l l  these  s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s , the l i n e a g e and i t s house i s always the b a s i c o r g a n i zational  unit. The Land i s a l s o the r e a l m o f s e v e r a l o t h e r o r d e r s o f b e i n g s  which are f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d i n t o s m a l l e r c a t e g o r i e s .  The o r d e r o f  four-  v f o o t e d l a n d mammals, sastu.p  (Moon 1978:76) i n c l u d e s the Wolf who t r a v l e s  i n the woods ( E r n s t 1952:48) and hunts Deer and E l k ( E r n s t 1952:79 and 9 0 ) ; B e a r , a s l o w - w i t t e d l a r g e i n d i v i d u a l ; the f i e r c e G r i z z l y B e a r ;  Cougar;  S q u i r r e l ; Mink [a b e i n g o f the l o w e s t r a n k , a s l a v e ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 2 2 1 ) ] ; Land O t t e r and o t h e r s a l s o belong t o the o r d e r o f land animals. the Land r e a l m .  four-footed  Trees and bushes form a n o t h e r o r d e r o f b e i n g s who l i v e  in  T h i s o r d e r i n c l u d e s such b e i n g s as Y e l l o w C e d a r , Hemlock,  Red C e d a r , Yew, B e r r i e s and v a r i o u s b e r r y b u s h e s , e s p e c i a l l y Salmonberry and Gooseberry  (Swan 1 8 7 0 : 6 5 ) .  The Undersea realm i s where the sea beings l i v e .  They are  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t o l a r g e r c a t e g o r i e s such as sea mammals, f i s h and i n v e r t e b r a t e s ( S a p i r 1919:352) which are broken down i n t o s u b - c a t e g o r i e s  such  as K i l l e r Whale and Whale, Salmon and H e r r i n g , o r Sea U r c h i n and C h i t o n .  21 .  S e a l , Cod, H a l i b u t and Sea O t t e r are some o f the o t h e r d e n i z e n s o f t h e sea.  The s p i r i t s o f some o f these s p e c i e s have a house, much l i k e  the  c h i e f o f a human l i n e a g e , where they t a k e o f f t h e i r s k i n s and walk about as men ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:220 and 2 3 0 ) . The Sky i s the realm o f the sky c r e a t u r e s .  The d i f f e r e n t  orders  i n t h i s r e a l m are not as c l e a r l y c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n the p u b l i s h e d myths and legends as t h o s e i n the o t h e r r e a l m s .  Heavenly b o d i e s such as Sun  and Moon ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 9 9 ; Densmore 1939:212) b e l o n g t o one order;  they are both c h i e f s who have daughters and l i n e a g e h o u s e s .  Another  o r d e r o f Sky b e i n g s are t h e b i r d s , such as E a g l e , Woodpecker, Raven, Crow, B l u e j a y , Wren and Sparrow.  In the c o n t e x t o f the o r d e r o f b i r d s ,  Eagle  and Woodpecker are c h i e f s ( C u r t i s 1 9 1 5 : 2 3 ; Boas 1 9 1 0 : 8 9 4 ) , B l u e Jay  is  the mother o f Raven, w h i l e Sparrow and Wren are the wives o f Woodpecker ( S a p i r 1939: 219) and the mothers o f b e r r i e s , one o f the forms assumed by Raven ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:51 and 5 3 ) . Raven from the Sky and Mink from the Land share the name Kwati and the r o l e o f t r i c k s t e r . t r y i n g to change t h i n g s .  L i k e M i n k , Raven i s a meddler who i s  always  Sometimes h i s deeds t u r n out w e l l , such as when  he s t o l e f i r e , l i g h t and f r e s h w a t e r f o r mankind (Boas 1 9 1 6 : 8 8 8 - 8 9 7 ) ; o t h e r a t t e m p t s , such as h i s e f f o r t s t o copy Red Cod's method o f f e e d i n g h i m s e l f , b r i n g s d i s a s t e r t o Kwati when he k i l l s h i s own daughters (Boas 1 9 1 6 : 8 9 7 ) .  Both Raven and Mink are prone t o t r a n s f o r m t h e i r  instead identity  to escape awkward s i t u a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , the C h i e f o f the H o r i z o n l e a d s us t o c o n s i d e r the realm o f the Inbetween. spatial  locii  A l l l i m i n a l p l a c e s i n the Nootkan cosmos are the  of t h i s realm.  These i n c l u d e the i n t e r t i d a l zone o f the  22.  beach which s e p a r a t e s the l a n d from the s e a , and the h o r i z o n which s e p a r a t e s the sky from the sea and t h e l a n d ( C u r t i s  1916:106).  Another l i m i n a l  area  i s the s t r i p o f brush o r woods which s e p a r a t e s the v i l l a g e s from the  rest  o f the Land r e a l m , which i n c l u d e s the deep woods and the f o o t o f the mountains.  The Inbetween  realm i s a l s o l o c a t e d i n the s h a l l o w waters and r o c k y  p o i n t s o f l a n d which s e r v e the Nootka as b o u n d a r i e s between the bays the s h o r e l i n e . belly'  A Nootkan word f o r bay a l s o means  ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 3 1 8 ) .  'groin'  and  'lower  These m u l t i p l e meanings o f the word  i n d i c a t e t h a t the Nootka see a bay as a u n i t o f the s h o r e l i n e t h a t s i t e s of l i f e  in  (such as human v i l l a g e s ) ,  as does a g r o i n o r b e l l y ,  they r e g a r d the waters near the capes and p o i n t s o f l a n d between  contains while  inlets  as the b o u n d a r i e s between the b a y s . The realm o f the Inbetween 'out of t h i s world'  i n i n h a b i t e d by dangerous,  beings who are not c l a s s i f i a b l e as are o r d i n a r y  because the components o f these beings are combined so t h a t they logical  paradoxes.  incredible, beings,  form  In a d d i t i o n , t h e i r forms are more i n d e t e r m i n a t e  f l e x i b l e because they have s h i f t i n g i d e n t i t i e s . e v i d e n t as they are d e s c r i b e d .  or  T h i s w i l l become more  The woods near the v i l l a g e are the haunts  o f d e m i - b e i n g s such as w i l d men (Pookmis and Achmako) and i n s a n e people ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 6 7 ; E r n s t 1 9 5 2 : 7 1 ) .  In the waters o f f the p o i n t s  o f l a n d which s e p a r a t e one bay from a n o t h e r ,  g i a n t s p i r i t s h a r k s and  o c t o p i i w a i t to p u l l men to t h e i r death (Northwest 1977:#8; Densmore 1 9 3 9 : 1 9 5 ; David 1978).  Coast A r t i s t s '  Guild  A c c o r d i n g to the Nootka t h e r e  i s a sandbar a t the h o r i z o n t o the southwest from where the Southwest winds b r i n g bad storms ( C u r t i s  1 9 1 6 : 1 0 6 ; Densmore 1 9 3 9 : 2 5 6 - 7 ) .  For u s ,  the  h i g h e r reaches o f the mountains have a f f i n i t i e s w i t h the l a n d and the  23.  s k y , b u t , t o the Nootka they belong t o the r e a l m of the Inbetween; are the home o f T h u n d e r b i r d (Swan 1 8 7 0 : 8 ) , a s p i r i t who has the  they  inner  form o f a man, but dons the o u t e r form o f a g i g a n t i c b i r d when he v e n t u r e s from h i s home t o hunt Whale {ibid.).  L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t , an i m p o r t a n t  f i g u r e i n t h i s t h e s i s , l i v e s i n the wing f e a t h e r s o f T h u n d e r b i r d . t h e r e a l m o f the Inbetween i s l o c a t e d i n the l i m i n a l areas which  Thus exist  between the o t h e r r e a l m s , and i s p o p u l a t e d by e p h e m e r a l , dangerous and p a r a d o x i c a l beings which do not f i t o r Land.  The Nootka c a l l  i n t o the c a t e g o r i e s o f the S k y , Sea  them " s p i r i t s , " taeka ( D r u c k e r 1951:152) o r  aiba  ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 2 8 1 ) . It  i s my t h e s i s t h a t the realm o f the Inbetween i s the r e a l m  where b a s i c dimensions o f b e i n g are t r a n s f e r r e d from one r e a l m t o  another.  By t h i s I mean t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f i d e n t i t y by a b e i n g , be i t from animal to man ( D r u c k e r 1 9 5 1 : 1 6 6 ) , from c h i l d h o o d t o a d u l t h o o d , from b e r r y  to  b i r d ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:51) o r from b i r d t o man ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:47).  In each o f the o t h e r r e a l m s , - S e a , Sky and Land - the beings  a r e " r e a l " and s t a b l e though t h e r e are i n d i v i d u a l s who are more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e Inbetween and who t r a n s f o r m themselves more r e a d i l y . I will call  t h e s e beings " t r a n s f o r m e r s . "  Salmon i s the t r a n s f o r m e r o f  the s e a . Raven i s the t r a n s f o r m e r o f the s k y , w h i l e Mink i s t h e t r a n s f o r m e r o f the Land (Densmore 1 9 3 9 : 3 0 ) .  In human s o c i e t y ,  the t r a n s f o r m e r s  are  those who are i n the process o f a c q u i r i n g s u p e r n a t u r a l powers and s k i l l s needed f o r a d u l t h o o d , t h a t i s c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y t h e c h i l d r e n o f the c h i e f s who have the l a r g e s t number o f p r i v i l e g e s  to o b t a i n .  S e r p e n t , or E e i t l i k i s the t r a n s f o r m e r o f the realm o f and s p i r i t s , the Inbetween.  Lightning  transformation  He m a n i f e s t s h i m s e l f as the l i g t n i n g f l a s h i n g  24.  between the sky and the s e a , o r from the sky t o the t r e e s on the l a n d (Sapir 1925:314).  This thesis w i l l  s p e c i f i c a l l y e x p l o r e and e s t a b l i s h  t h e n a t u r e o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n the Nootkan cosmology.  B.  Moral T r a v e l and T r a n s f o r m a t i o n 1.  What i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ? T r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s movement a c r o s s t h e boundaries o f the r e a l m s ,  o r d e r s and c a t e g o r i e s o f the Nootkan cosmos.  I s h a l l show t h a t f o r  the  N o o t k a , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y f o r a human b e i n g to a l t e r h i s social  s t a t u s because Nootkan r i t u a l s s y m b o l i z e the s o c i a l  from n o n - h u n t e r t o h u n t e r ,  from c h i l d h o o d t o a d u l t h o o d , from s i n g l e t o  m a r r i e d (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 2 9 3 - 7 ) , as t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . changing o n e ' s i d e n t i t y  transitions  Transformation  involves  to t h a t o f a b e i n g i n a n o t h e r r e a l m , o r d e r ,  cate-  gory, or s t a t u s . T r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s i n h e r e n t l y dangerous because i t  involves  p a s s i n g through the realm o f the Inbetween whose i n h a b i t a n t s might any r i t u a l l y  unprepared people they might meet (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 1 5 2 ) .  kill Unwary  people have been k i l l e d by the s p i r i t s i n the woods ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:66).  Even the r i t u a l l y prepared have t o approach t h e s e beings w i t h  c a u t i o n ; an a p p r o p r i a t e r i t u a l  c r y ( D r u c k e r 1951:157) o r some o t h e r  s y m b o l i c ruse i s needed to m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l o v e r the s p i r i t s  (Drucker  1951:160). It  i s through an e n c o u n t e r w i t h a b e i n g i n the Inbetween  a Nootka r e c e i v e s power. sions.  It  that  T h i s power has m o r a l , s o c i a l and economic dimen-  i s m a n i f e s t e d s o c i a l l y as a " - p r i v i l e g e " and m a t e r i a l l y as a name,  mask, dance and/or song which i s p r i v a t e l y  owned.  25.  2.  How does t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t a k e p l a c e ? Humans  may  t r a n s f o r m and change h i s i d e n t i t y  a c t i o n s performed a t a p p r o p r i a t e times and p l a c e s . i n t h e Nootkan process o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . his original identity.  identity,  First,  through  ritual  There are two stages the r i t u a l i s t  discards  s l o u g h i n g o f f h i s " s k i n , " b e f o r e he assumes a new  For i n s t a n c e , the w h a l i n g r i t u a l  ( D r u c k e r 1951:169) seeks  f i r s t to t r a n s f e r the p r o s p e c t i v e w h a l e r out o f h i s s t a t e o f  humanity,  and o n l y then i n t o the s t a t e o f a b e i n g i n the o r d e r o f the w h a l e . h i m s e l f o f h i s human i d e n t i t y ,  the r i t u a l i s t a c t s i n s e v e r a l  ways such as a b s t a i n i n g from s l e e p , and  from  large  During the r i t u a l  amounts  itself,  " from  of  food  sexual and  To  rid  nonhuman  intercourse,  water.  he rubs h i s s k i n w i t h s c e n t e d v e g e t a t i o n ,  the  e x a c t i d e n t i t y o f which i s a c l o s e l y guarded s e c r e t , to r i d h i m s e l f o f h i s human s m e l l ( C u r t i s 1 9 1 6 : 1 6 ) . the s k i n breaks and b l e e d s .  Often the r u b b i n g i s so v i g o u r o u s  This i s s y m b o l i c a l l y appropriate.  that  The b l o o d  i s d r a i n i n g o u t o f h i s body, and to be b l o o d l e s s i s to be dead ( E r n s t 1952:84) and no l o n g e r a d e n i z e n o f any r e a l m o r o r d e r o f p r o f a n e l i v i n g beings. ritualist will  To e r a s e a n o t h e r p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f l i f e ,  the .  a b s t a i n from warm food and bathe i n c o l d w a t e r to r i d  o f the warmth i n h i s body {ibid.;;. Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 1 6 7 - 8 ) . i s preparing for a s p e c i f i c e n t e r p r i s e , fish,  or  If  the  ritualist  such as w h a l i n g o r t r o l l i n g  he proceeds to the second stage and i m i t a t e s the s i g n i f i c a n t  a c t e r i s t i c s o f a b e i n g from the same o r d e r as the o b j e c t i v e p r i s e i n o r d e r to become t h a t b e i n g .  himself  char-  of his  Thus a w h a l e r i m i t a t e s the  o f w h a l e s , the k i l l e r w h a l e , and a f i s h e r m a n becomes a male f i s h ,  for  enter-  hunter the  m e t a p h o r i c a l h u n t e r (see below i n the d i s c u s s i o n o f the metaphor o f  26.  Thunderbird s 1  hunt) o f female f i s h (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 1 6 9 ; S a p i r and Swadesh  1939:108). Changes i n time and p l a c e , as w e l l as a c t i o n s , are employed to transformation.  achieve  To stage an escape from the bounds o f the human v i l l a g e  and profane t i m e , one must p l a c e o n e s e l f a t t h e i r s p a t i a l and temporal 1imits. The s p a t i a l l i m i t s are c r o s s e d by e n t e r i n g the p l a c e s which belong to the r e a l m o f the Inbetween.  Nootkan r i t u a l i s t s t r a n s f o r m themselves  i n the woods near the v i l l a g e , and i n the i n t e r t i d a l i n f r o n t o f the v i l l a g e ( D r u c k e r 1 9 5 1 : 1 6 7 - 8 ) .  zone o f the beach  The s u r f a c e o f b o d i e s  of  w a t e r , e i t h e r s a l t o r f r e s h , between the sky and the undersea are a l s o f a v o u r e d by r i t u a l i s t s  (ibid).  P o i n t s o f l a n d and rocks j u t t i n g out  the sea are some o t h e r f a v o u r e d r i t u a l  locations  (ibid).  The temporal l i m i t s are found a t t h e b e g i n n i n g and end o f of time.  into  The day i s a span o f time when normal human a c t i v i t y  units takes p l a c e ,  w h i l e n i g h t i s a complementary u n i t o f time i n which people s l e e p . and d u s k , because they are the times which s e r v e as b o u n d a r i e s  Dawn  between  day and n i g h t ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 5 5 : 2 0 1 ) , a r e good times t o escape from profane human time i n t o a time t h a t e x i s t s between t h a t o f the s e c u l a r realms.  S i m i l a r l y , each c y c l e o f the moon i s bounded by the appearance  ofthe f i r s t quarter  (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 1 1 6 ) ; and the y e a r begins i n November  d u r i n g t h e n i g h t o f the e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y 1951:115 and 1 5 6 ) . solstices)  high " t u r n i n g o v e r "  The times when the sun stands s t i l l  d i v i d e the y e a r i n two.  tide(Drucker  (summer and w i n t e r  These b e g i n n i n g s which a r e a l s o e n d i n g s ,  are boundary times a n d , as s u c h , are p r o p i t i o u s  for ritual  activity,  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and boundary c r o s s i n g i n t o and o u t o f the r e a l m o f Inbetween.  for  the  For i n s t a n c e the Wolf r i t u a l was always h e l d when the moon  27.  was becoming f u l l  ( E r n s t 1 9 5 2 : 7 6 ) , near the time o f the w i n t e r  and the " t u r n i n g o v e r "  3.  solstice  tide.  Why t r a n s f o r m and t r a v e l ? An o l d man when c o u n s e l l i n g h i s grandson s a i d "we have the term  'changes i n t o h u n t e r a t i n t e r v a l s ' everything"  f o r the reason t h a t we t r a i n  ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 1 8 7 ) .  prepare o u r s e l v e s  ritually  for  T h i s may be g l o s s e d as "we  ( t r a i n ) so t h a t we can t r a n s f o r m our  as a hunter does" o r as "so t h a t we can become a h u n t e r . "  identity  From t h i s ,  it  i s c l e a r t h a t the Nootka b e l i e v e t h a t a man must t r a n s f o r m h i m s e l f b e f o r e he can t r a v e l  to the home o f the animal he wishes to h u n t .  This i s .  because a Nootka p e r c e i v e s o f h i m s e l f as a member o f a p a r t i c u l a r  kin  group and as the i n h a b i t a n t o f a p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e , h i s house and v i l l a g e . Thus,  a man has t o l e a v e the v i l l a g e and go i n t o the woods as a p r e d a t o r  o f the l a n d to hunt deer and b e a r , and he has to go out onto t h e sea as a sea p r e d a t o r to c a t c h f i s h ,  i n p a r t i c u l a r salmon and h e r r i n g , h a l i b u t  cod ( D r u c k e r 1 9 5 1 : 3 6 - 6 1 ; S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 5 5 : 2 7 - 4 6 ) .  It  is  and  through  h u n t i n g t h a t a man augments h i s economic w e a l t h . In t h i s o l d man's s p e e c h , the hunt i s a l s o a metaphor f o r aggressive,  predatory,  the  and s u p e r n a t u r a l l y - a i d e d a c t i o n any person must  undertake i n o r d e r to a c q u i r e s o c i a l s u c c e s s from the w o r l d around him (see the s e c t i o n on the iconography o f Wolf i n Chapter 3 ) . survive  Thus,  to  s o c i a l l y as w e l l as e c o n o m i c a l l y , a man must a l s o t r a n s f o r m out  o f h i s group,  and t r a v e l  from h i s house.  So war and m a r r i a g e  involve  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and moving out from o n e ' s group o f kinsman i n the Nootka  28.  culture.  A p e r s o n ' s p r o c l a i m e d f a m i l y a l l e g i a n c e , among the N o o t k a ,  determines h i s p o l i t i c a l , economic and s o c i a l b a s e .  The economic  resources  he can e x p l o i t and the house he l i v e s i n are t h o s e which b e l o n g to h i s recognized lineage.  But he m a r r i e s o u t s i d e o f t h i s group (Rossman and  Rubel 1 9 7 0 : 7 6 ) ; he seeks a b r i d e among groups w i t h whom he could c l a i m k i n s h i p but has not formally involves  political  a c t i v a t e d such t i e s .  In c o n t r a s t ,  warfare  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h groups w i t h whom one has no t i e s  of  3  k i n s h i p , whether f o r m a l l y a c t i v a t e d o r  not.  Thus i n the ceremonial and r i t u a l  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h war and  m a r r i a g e , the Nootka s y m b o l i z e these boundary c r o s s i n g a c t i v i t i e s hunt r e p l e t e w i t h t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . will  as a  The symbolism o f the m a r r i a g e ceremony  be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 3 ; t h a t o f the r i t u a l s and c e r e m o n i a l  rounding w a r f a r e w i l l  have t o be i l l u s t r a t e d i n a n o t h e r p a p e r .  sur-  The  metaphor o f a hunt i s used i n the r i t u a l s f o r war and m a r r i a g e because they are two means by which a Nootka may a g g r e s s i v e l y s t a t u s o f h i s l i n e a g e and f a m i l y .  augment the s o c i a l  M a r r i a g e augments the s t a t u s o f a man's  l i n e a g e because p a r t o f a b r i d e ' s s t a t u s i s passed on to her c h i l d r e n who n o r m a l l y belong to t h e i r f a t h e r ' s l i n e a g e ( D r u c k e r 1951:244 and 2 6 7 ) . S i m i l a r l y , one wages war i n o r d e r to enemy t h a t might be s l a i n ( D r u c k e r  'capture'  the s t a t u s o f any o f  the  1951:343).  T r a v e l and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n are a l s o n e c e s s a r y f o r the Nootka seeking m o r a l i t y .  To o b t a i n w e a l t h , h e a l t h and l u c k , which are a l l  f e s t a t i o n s o f the a p p r o b a t i o n o f the s p i r i t s  mani-  f o r o n e ' s moral and r i t u a l  conduct (see Chapter 5 ) , a man would l e a v e h i s v i l l a g e , and go i n t o  the  woods o r onto the beach nearby to " t r a i n " ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 5 5 : 1 8 5 ; Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 1 3 8 ) .  T h i s i s a n o t h e r way o f t r a n s f o r m i n g .  It  involves  29.  o n l y the s l o u g h i n g o f f o f the t r a n s f o r m e r ' s is,  human i d e n t i t y  the r i t u a l i s t becomes a former p e r s o n , a s p i r i t  and s k i n ;  ( S a p i r and Swadesh  1 9 3 9 : 1 7 7 ) ; i t does not i n c l u d e becoming a b e i n g from one o f the o r s e c u l a r r e a l m s , the l a n d , sea o r  that  profane  sky.  Thus i n the Nootkan cosmology, h u n t i n g , t r a v e l l i n g from p l a c e to p l a c e , changing s t a t u s and t r a n s f o r m i n g are i n t e r t w i n e d concepts  which  i n v o l v e the a c q u i s i t i o n o f w e a l t h , be i t economic, s o c i a l o r m o r a l ; and a c h i e f can boast o f how he a c q u i r e d h i s economic w e a l t h and s o c i a l s t a t u s by d e c l a r i n g " h u n t i n g .  . . 1 go about t h e d i s t a n t t r i b e s "  (Sapir  and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 7 1 ) .  4.  Who can t r a v e l  and t r a n s f o r m ?  Not a l l men can t r a v e l cosmos. It  a c r o s s the b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e Nootkan  The power to t r a n s f o r m i s c a l l e d a ' p r i v i l e g e '  by the N o o t k a .  i s both a f a m i l y h e i r l o o m ( D r u c k e r 1951:377) and a s u p e r n a t u r a l  (Curtis  1916:62). There are two k i n d s o f p r i v i l e g e s ;  1951:247). first,  gift  economic and r i t u a l  For the N o o t k a , an economic p r i v i l e g e  the economic r i g h t and p h y s i c a l  p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n , and s e c o n d l y ,  skill  has two b a s i c a s p e c t s ;  to e x p l o i t a r e s o u r c e i n a  the p r i v a t e r i t u a l  and moral  to e f f e c t the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n which i s needed to e x p l o i t t h a t Economic p r i v i l e g e s  i n c l u d e the use o f p a r t i c u l a r s i t e s f o r  f i s h i n g , h u n t i n g and s a l v a g e . of communal r i t u a l s  Ritual privileges  (such as the Wolf r i t u a l )  c e r t a i n a c t i n them ( D r u c k e r 1 9 5 1 : 2 4 8 ) .  (Drucker  i n c l u d e the  strength  resource. habitation, sponsorship  o r the performance o f a  A crucial  f a c t o r f o r the  efficacy  30. o f these communal r i t u a l s i s the moral s t r e n g t h o f the sponsor which e n a b l e s him t o h e l p those undergoing t h e r i t u a l from t h e p r e - r i t u a l  t o the p o s t - r i t u a l  state.  U s u a l l y both types o f p r i v i l e g e s as a name, mask, dance and/or s o n g . o f the p r i v i l e g e s  to t r a n s f o r m themselves  are m a n i f e s t e d c e r e m o n i a l l y  Both t h e s e c u l a r and r i t u a l  aspects  are l i n k e d t o t h e i r ceremonial c i s p l a y by legends  which  are r e c i t e d d u r i n g the ceremony ( S a p i r 1 9 5 8 : 1 0 6 ; Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 4 0 9 ) . display of p r i v i l e g e s privileges  d e f i n e s a man's s o c i a l s t a t u s .  of  are h e l d by the most i m p o r t a n t c h i e f s w h i l e t h e l e s s e r c h i e f s  and nobles own fewer p r i v i l e g e s ;  commoners are c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as those  people who have o n l y a few minor p r i v i l e g e s 247).  The m a j o r i t y  The  Many o f t h e p r i v i l e g e s  o r none a t a l l  (Drucker 1 9 5 1 :  are ranked ( D r u c k e r 1951:164) and o n l y  c h i e f s o f the Nootka have the numerous economic and a p p r o p r i a t e privileges  the  ritual  r e q u i r e d t o m a i n t a i n a l a r g e h o u s e h o l d (Rossman and Rubel  1970:78-9). The p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n and enjoyment o f the commoners o f t h e s e c h i e f l y economic and r i t u a l  privileges  the c o s m o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e p a r t (Drucker 1951:251 and 2 7 3 ) . and  goodwill  houses, to  o f the commoners  maintain  t i e s and p r i v i l e g e s .  assure t h e i r acquiescence t o o f which t h e p r i v i l e g e s  The c h i e f s depend on t h e living  w i t h them i n  and e x e r c i s e t h e i r r i t u a l  and  are a labour  their  large  economic  In r e t u r n f o r t h e commoners' l a b o u r , the  feeds h i s t e n a n t s and t a k e s t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t o h i s Wolf r i t u a l t h e y can assume t h e i r own h e r e d i t a r y 'tag along' basis.  privileges  properchief so t h a t  o r some o f h i s on a  He a l s o h e l p s them i n o t h e r " l i f e c r i s e s "  o f t e n by " l e n d i n g " them some o f h i s own p r i v i l e g e s  (Drucker  rituals,  1951:273).  31  Thus a c h i e f w i l l  l e n d the d e n t a l i u m s h e l l headdress used by pubescent  g i r l s t o a r e l a t i v e l i v i n g w i t h him f o r h i s d a u g h t e r ' s p u b e r t y o b s e r vances ( D r u c k e r  1951:260).  A person cannot  c l a i m f u l l membership i n a Nootkan f a m i l y u n t i l  he has r e c e i v e d the i n s i g n i a o f a " p r i v i l e g e " o f t h a t l i n e a g e ; f a m i l y membership i s determined by p u b l i c a l l y assumed and acknowledged c o n s a n g u i n a l ties.  I d e a l l y , these t i e s are t r a c e d through the members' p a t e r n a l  l i n e a g e s , but i n many c a s e s , maternal l i n e a g e bonds are a c t i v a t e d i n  order  to f a c i l i t a t e a p e r s o n ' s c l a i m t o a p a r t i c u l a r p r o p e r t y o r p r i v i l e g e .  A  p e r s o n ' s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the f a m i l y , which i s determined by the r u l e s o f p r i m o g e n i t u r e , d e f i n e s h i s economic and s o c i a l s t a t u s , whether he i s a commoner, a noble o r a c h i e f .  T h i s s t a t u s i s then e x p r e s s e d by the number  and n a t u r e o f the " p r i v i l e g e s " t o which he i s e n t i t l e d and which he has c l aimed. A Nootka may r e c e i v e a p r i v i l e g e d u r i n g a s u p e r n a t u r a l  experi-  e n c e ; e i t h e r as an a n c e s t o r i n a l e g e n d , o r as a l i v i n g person d u r i n g the 5 Wolf r i t u a l .  The l a t e r i s the most common way.  m a n i f e s t a t i o n , the Wolf r i t u a l crisis  ritual  In i t s most powerful  {loqwana) ( D r u c k e r 1951:386) i s a l i f e  f o r the c h i e f s and t h e i r immediate f a m i l i e s f o r a t t a i n i n g  manhood, and more s p e c i f i c a l l y , c h i e f t a i n s h i p . the Wolf r i t u a l as i f they were men.  Women and g i r l s may undergo  I r v i n g Goldman, i n h i s study  of  K w a k i u t l cosmology, d e a l s w i t h a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n i n which women a c t as m e t a p h y s i c a l men (Goldman 1 9 7 5 : 3 9 ) .  The Wolf r i t u a l  i s concerned w i t h  social  t r a n s i t i o n as w e l l as c o s m o l o g i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .  social  t r a n s i t i o n from boyhood t o a d u l t h o o d i s marked by the a c q u i s i t i o n  by the n o v i c e o f a p r i v i l e g e .  P a r t o f the  32. S i n c e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and t r a n s i t i o n are both boundary c r o s s i n g a c t i o n s , t h e Wolf r i t u a l  i s a good p l a c e t o l o o k f o r t h e d e p i c t i o n  the b o u n d a r i e s and c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e Nootkan cosmology.  The s t u d y  of of  c a t e g o r i e s and boundaries has been developed i n t h e r e c e n t work o f Edmund Leach (1976) and Mary Douglas ( 1 9 6 6 ) .  T h i s s t u d y p e r m i t s an e x p l o r a t i o n  o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e Wolf masks t h a t are used i n t h e Wolf ritual  and these c o n c e p t u a l c a t e g o r i e s as t h e y a r e a c t e d out i n the  ual's context.  In l a t e r c h a p t e r I w i l l e x p l o r e how t h e v i s u a l  rit-  symbols  and the a c t i o n s o f the masks d e s c r i b e the process o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .  33.  CHAPTER 1:  FOOTNOTES  The i n h a b i t a n t s o f each realm a r e d e p i c t e d i n t h e myths o f the Nootka. P a r t i c u l a r l y good s o u r c e s f o r the t e x t s o f these myths are Boas ( 1 9 1 6 ) , S a p i r and Swadesh ( 1 9 3 9 : 1 4 - 1 0 3 ) and Swan ( 1 8 7 0 : 6 7 f f ) . Some r i t u a l i s done a t n i g h t which i s not a time f o r normal human a c t i v i t y and i s thus a time o f nonhuman a c t i v i t y . Night r i t u a l s are used f o r shamanizing ( D r u c k e r 1951:203) and s e a l i n g r i t u a l s t o c a t c h the s e a l s a s l e e p ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 1 1 3 ) . A man may r e f u s e t o j o i n a proposed war o r r a i d on t h e grounds t h a t he has r e l a t i v e s l i v i n g i n the enemies v i l l a g e (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 3 3 7 ) . I have d e c i d e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e second type o f p r i v i l e g e as ' r i t u a l ' r a t h e r than ' c e r e m o n i a l ' as Drucker d i d (1951:247) because a l l Nootkan p r i v i l e g e s a r e c e r e m o n i a l i n t h a t they can be d i s p l a y e d c e r e monially. But t h e i r p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n s a r e c a r r i e d out i n r i t u a l o r economic c o n t e x t s . Today, t h e p o t l a t c h has superseded t h e Wolf r i t u a l as the most common r i t u a l o r ceremonial form by which p r i v i l e g e are a c q u i r e d . In the t e x t , I am s p e a k i n g o f the p e r i o d 1850-1900.  34.  Chapter 2  TRANSFORMATION  The p o r t r a y a l  IN THE WOLF RITUAL  o f the realm o f the Inbetween i n the Wolf  i s the t o p i c o f t h i s chapter.  In s e c t i o n  'A' I w i l l  ritual  l o o k a t t h e realms  o f t h e Nootkan cosmos as they are d e p i c t e d i n the d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s o f the Wolf r i t u a l . ritual  action.  This w i l l  s e r v e t o l o c a t e the r e a l m o f t h e Inbetween i n t h e  Section 'B  1  will  focus on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e  masks and the stages o f the r i t u a l ' s a c t i o n because i t i s through the r o l e s o f t h e Wolf masks i n the r i t u a l belongs to the Inbetween r e a l m .  t h a t I can i d e n t i f y  In s e c t i o n ' C  I will  t h e mask which  t u r n my a t t e n t i o n  to the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l p o s i t i o n s and t h e c o s m o l o g i c a l categories  r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e s t a g e s o f the Wolf r i t u a l .  The r e l a t i o n s h i p  between s o c i a l and c o s m o l o g i c a l c a t e g o r i e s i s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e s p o n s o r ' s d e c i s i o n as t o who a r e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e people t o wear the masks. will  i l l u s t r a t e t h e Nootkan p e r c e p t i o n o f a p a r a l l e l between c o s m o l o g i c a l  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and s o c i a l  A.  This  transition.  Stages o f t h e Wolf R i t u a l The a c t i o n o f the Wolf r i t u a l  develops  i n t h r e e stages which  we can most e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h by t h e movement o f t h e n o v i c e s from one p l a c e to  another.^  35.  At the b e g i n n i n g o f the r i t u a l , the n o v i c e s and t h e i r  parents  a t t e n d a f e a s t i n t h e l i n e a g e house o f the c h i e f h o s t i n g the Wolf r i t u a l (Ernst 1952:65). 1951:260).  Each f a m i l y i s s e a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o i t s rank  (Drucker  T h i s i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f the profane s o c i a l o r d e r .  The o r d e r  i s upset when men masked as the C r a w l i n g Wolves appear and k i d n a p the n o v i c e s from t h e f e a s t house.  T h i s ends the f i r s t  stage.  The Wolves t a k e the n o v i c e s i n t o the woods where the n o v i c e s ' b e h a v i o u r becomes w i l d , f r e n z i e d and dangerous t o the u n i n i t i a t e d .  The  n o v i c e s remain i n the woods f o r the second s t a g e o f the r i t u a l .  During  t h i s s t a g e the Wolves g i v e the c a p i t v e n o v i c e s a s p e c i f i c s o c i a l  privilege  which i s a l s o r e c o g n i z e d as a s u p e r n a t u r a l  power.  The r e t u r n o f t h e n o v i c e s t o t h e p r o f a n e w o r l d i n t h e  third  stage begins when t h e n o v i c e s a r e r e c a p t u r e d from the Wolves by the people o f the v i l l a g e who have a l r e a d y been i n i t i a t e d .  They r e t u r n t o the  klukwana hosue, as the l i n e a g e house o f the h o s t i s now c a l l e d ( E r n s t 1952:65 and 6 8 ) .  Klukwana means "shaman' (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 3 8 6 ) , a person  who i s c l o s e to the s p i r i t s .  Thus the term 'klukwana house'  indicates  t h a t , a t t h i s p o i n t i n the r i t u a l , t h e h o s t ' s house i s p a r t o f the r e a l m o f the s p i r i t s , the Inbetween.  All efforts  are now d i r e c t e d  c a l m i n g the w i l d n e s s t h a t possesses the n o v i c e s . o r d i s p l a y s which r e p r e s e n t t h e i r new p r i v i l e g e s .  towards  They p r a c t i c e the dances At f i r s t ,  the p e r -  formances are done b e f o r e a s e l e c t audience o f people who have a l r e a d y been " b i t t e n by the Wolves" o r i n i t i a t e d ( S a p i r 1 9 1 1 : 2 2 ) , and l a t e r , b e f o r e a l l t h e people i n the v i l l a g e , thus m a r k i n g a gradual r e t u r n the human r e a l m .  to  The f i n a l r e t u r n o f the n o i v c e t o the p r o f a n e human  o r d e r , and the end o f the r i t u a l  i s marked by a f e a s t where a l l  the  36.  i n i t i a t e s show t h e i r new s t a t u s by d a n c i n g o r d i s p l a y i n g  their  privileges. Thus, t h e t h r e e main s t a g e s o f the Wolf r i t u a l novices'  a b d u c t i o n from the f e a s t i n the v i l l a g e ,  i n the woods and (3)  (1)  These phases f u l f i l  the r i t e s o f s e p a r a t i o n , (2)  the i n t e r v a l  the  the n o v i c e s '  sojourn  the " c a l m i n g " i n the klukwana house which i s  by the d i s p l a y o f p r i v i l e g e s . (1)  (2)  are:  followed  the same purposes as  o f s e p a r a t i o n , and (3)  r i t e s o f a g g r e g a t i o n , as d e f i n e d by Leach ( 1 9 7 6 : 7 7 ) ; t h a t i s , the  the  first  s t a g e moves the a c t i o n from a p r o f a n e p l a n e to a s a c r e d one, the second s t a g e , a t the s a c r e d p l a n e , changes the s t a t e and/or s t a t u s o f  the  r i t u a l i s t and the t h i r d s t a g e moves the plane o f a c t i o n from the s a c r e d to the profane a g a i n . Wolf r i t u a l  It  i s through these s t a g e s t h a t the a c t i o n o f  the  d e f i n e s and c h a r a c t e r i z e s some o f the c a t e g o r i e s o f the Nootkan  cosmology. First,  the r i t u a l  a c t i o n d e f i n e s the v i l l a g e and the woods  near i t as two s e p a r a t e p l a c e s i n the Nootkan cosmos.  The v i l l a g e  is  shown to be a p l a c e o f o r d e r w h i l e the woods are shown t o be t h e s i t e "frenzy," 153).  " w i l d n e s s " ( E r n s t 1952:24 and 77) and danger ( D r u c k e r 1951:  T h i s i s done w i t h the c o n t r a s t t h a t i s s e t up between the  decorous  b e h a v i o u r o f the people a t the f e a s t s a t the b e g i n n i n g and end o f ritual  of  the  i n the v i l l a g e , and the w i l d b e h a v i o u r o f the beings from the woods  (Ernst 1952:71).  The woods are seen as an area o f c o n f u s i o n which  between two loaii  of order,  lies  the human v i l l a g e on the beach and t h e home  o f the Wolves a t the f o o t o f the m o u n t a i n s . Thus, the s t a g e s o f the Wolf r i t u a l from the p r o f a n e .  d i f f e r e n t i a t e the s a c r e d  The p r o f a n e i s l o c a t e d by the i n i t i a l and f i n a l  stages  37. o f the r i t u a l , when the r i t u a l profane p l a n e .  a c t i o n moves away from and back t o the  These two s t a g e s focus t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on the humans i n  the v i l l a g e , and thus c l a s s i f y t h i s o r d e r l y  p l a c e as p r o f a n e .  Similarly,  d u r i n g the second stage o f the r i t u a l , the s a c r e d plane i s l o c a t e d i n woods, w i t h a l l the f e r o c i o u s and f a n t a s t i c beings t h a t belong  the  there.  We can see t h a t f o r the Nootka t h e woods are a s a c r e d p l a c e as w e l l as a p a r t o f the r e a l m o f the Inbetween..  Thus, the realm o f the Inbetween  encompasses the s a c r e d n a t u r e o f the woods and the second s t a g e o f the  s  Wolf r i t u a l .  B.  Roles o f the Wolf Masks i n the Wolf R i t u a l Each s t a g e o f the Wolf r i t u a l  o f one o f the t h r e e types o f W o l f mask.  i s the o c c a s i o n f o r the appearance The C r a w l i n g Wolf masks appear  d u r i n g the f i r s t s t a g e ; they r e p r e s e n t the s p i r i t Wolves t h a t t a k e the n o v i c e s away from the v i l l a g e ,  and i n i t i a t e them.  The W h i r l i n g Wolf  mask appears o n l y d u r i n g the second stage and r e p r e s e n t s receiving privileges  and powers.  i n i t i a t e s w i t h t h e i r new g i f t s  the  novices  The S t a n d i n g Wolf mask r e p r e s e n t s  i n the t h i r d  the  stage.  The C r a w l i n g Wolf i s the f i r s t Wolf mask t o appear i n the Wolf ritual  (Budic 1964:27).  Wolf {ibid.);  In the r i t u a l  a c t i o n , the C r a w l i n g Wolf i s a  an animal t h a t i s not bound by the human s o c i a l  conventions.  The Wolf p a c k , the l e a d e r s o f which wear C r a w l i n g Wolf masks, break the f e a s t through interrupt  the back w a l l r a t h e r than through the d o o r .  into  They  the human c h i e f ' s f e a s t f o r h i s people and dominate the a c t i o n .  They i n t r o d u c e a breakdown o f human s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  In the  confusion  38..  o f t h e i r e n t r a n c e , the f i r e i s put out so t h a t i n the darkness the d i s t i n c t i o n s between c h i e f and commoner, man and w o l f , i n v a l i d and c o n f u s e d .  become i n v i s i b l e ,  The i n i t i a t i n g W o l v e s , l e d by a dancer w e a r i n g  t h e C r a w l i n g Wolf mask, s n a t c h the c h i l d r e n t o be i n i t i a t e d from t h e i r p a r e n t s and t h e r e b y break t h e p a r e n t - c h i l d bond. F u r t h e r m o r e , the Wolves dominate the n o v i c e s .  They t a k e t h e i r  human c a p t i v e s out o f the h u m a n . v i l l a g e and i n t o the woods.  The Wolves  upset the human modes o f b e h a v i o u r d u r i n g the a b d u c t i o n , but p r e s e n t t h e n o v i c e s w i t h a new mode o f conduct when they show them a p r i v i l e g e . i s a token o f a s p e c i f i c " h u n t i n g " s k i l l . n o v i c e s , they g i v e  them knowledge o f  When the Wolves show i t to the  it.  But the C r a w l i n g W o l f ' s dominion i s not a b s o l u t e . f o u r t h day o f the r i t u a l ,  This  On the ;  t h e people o f the v i l l a g e who have a l r e a d y been  i n i t i a t e d are a b l e t o r e c a p t u r e the n o v i c e s and to r e s t o r e them to parents.  their  The humans are a b l e t o p r e v a i l o v e r the Wolves once they o r g a n i z e  themselves i n t o the proper " w o l f hunt" on the morning o f the f o u r t h ( D r u c k e r 1951:410 and 4 2 2 ) .  As the Wolf r i t u a l  proceeds through  day  the  f o u r days o f c a l m i n g and d a n c i n g , the i n i t i a t e s become more immune t o the e f f e c t o f any reminder o f the s o j o u r n i n the woods, but r e t a i n the  gifts  they r e c e i v e d . The W h i r l i n g Wolf mask appears i n the second stage o f the r i t u a l and thus b e l o n g t o the r e a l m o f the Inbetween.  T h i s second W o l f  mask dances i n the v i l l a g e from the time o f the n o v i c e s e n f o r c e d ( E r n s t 1952:38) u n t i l  they b e g i n t o calm down a f t e r t h e i r  departure  recapture.  D u r i n g t h i s t i m e , people who have not been i n i t i a t e d i n t o the Wolf  ritual  do not dare t o go about the v i l l a g e ; they keep t o the r e l a t i v e s a f e t y  of  39.  the houses (Densmore 1 9 3 9 : 1 0 3 ; C u r t i s 1 9 1 6 : 7 3 ; E r n s t 1952:17 and 76) because o u t s i d e o f the h o u s e s , the v i l l a g e has become p a r t o f  the  Inbetween. W h i r l i n g W o l f ' s r o l e i s t h a t o f the c h i e f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e v e r a l b e i n g s from the Inbetween.  First,  he i s the v i s i b l e  f o r the n o v i c e s d u r i n g the second stage o f the r i t u a l 21).  for  stand-in  ( E r n s t 1952:20 and  Second, he i s the l e a d e r o f s e v e r a l o t h e r Nootkan s p i r i t s who dance  with him.  These s p i r i t s share the n o v i c e s '  second stage o f the Wolf r i t u a l .  s t a t e o f b e i n g d u r i n g the  Achmako and Pookmis, the W i l d men are  the s p i r i t s who accompany W h i r l i n g Wolf most o f t e n ( E r n s t 1952:38 and 7 1 ) . The W i l d Men are former people l i k e the n o v i c e s .  For i n s t a n c e , Pookmis  i s a man who almost drowned a t sea and then d i e d o f exposure on t h e beach upon which he was c a s t (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 1 5 3 ) . and became a d e n i z e n o f the woods..  He t h e r e b y l e f t the human c i r c l e  He i s e c c e n t r i c and'he walks w i t h a  queer g a i t ; he i s so w i l d t h a t he cannot e n t e r any o f the houses i n the v i l l a g e (Ernst 1952:70).  H i s companion Achmako i s dangerous and "goes  about smashing t h i n g s , b r e a k i n g c a n o e s , s c a t t e r i n g f l o u r o r f o o d " 1952:71). 'crazy'  S i m i l a r l y the n o v i c e s i n the second s t a g e are ' w i l d '  (Ernst  and  because they are human b e i n g s who are i n the r e a l m o f the  Inbetween,  i n s t e a d o f the p r o f a n e v i l l a g e where they b e l o n g i n s e c u l a r t i m e s . Nootka c a l l  a man who has gone i n t o the woods f o r r i t u a l  'former person'  The  purposes a  ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 1 1 7 ) , and t h e n o v i c e s a r e now  c a l l e d dht'sa which means "d ?,ad" o r " u n c o n s c i o u s " ( C u r t i s 1 9 1 6 : 7 0 ) .  Whirling  r  Wolf i s l i k e the s p i r i t s and the n o v i c e s i n the woods because he too d e s c r i b e d as " w i l d " ( E r n s t 1952:35) and " f r e n z i e d " ( e r n s t 1952:24) eccentric.  is  or  Thus W h i r l i n g W o l f , the n o v i c e s he r e p r e s e n t s and t h e W i l d  40.  Men are a l l beings who have d i e d somehow and become possessed by the w i l d n e s s o f the woods ( E r n s t 1 9 5 2 : 7 0 ; S a p i r 1911:23) which are p a r t the realm o f the  of  Inbetween.  The S t a n d i n g Wolf mask appears as the r i t u a l  a c t i o n approaches  the profane p l a n e , and the l o c u s o f the human r e a l m , a f t e r the have r e t u r n e d from t h e woods ( E r n s t 1 9 5 2 : 3 8 ) .  S t a n d i n g Wolf  novices  either  p r e s i d e s o v e r or l e a d s t h e p r o c e s s i o n o f dancers through the v i l l a g e the l a t e r p a r t o f the r i t u a l 1955:114).  during  ( E r n s t 1952:25 and 1 0 4 ; S a p i r and Swadesh  The dancers are the n o v i c e s who have j u s t l e a r n t how to  perform  the newly a c q u i r e d d a n c e s , masks, songs and use the names t h a t are the tokens o f t h e i r new s t a t u s .  Thus,  S t a n d i n g Wolf i s an example t o the new  i n i t i a t e s o f an a d u l t man who i s a l r e a d y an i n i t i a t e . The r i t u a l o f appearance:  r o l e s o f the t h r e e types o f Wolf mask are i n  order  C r a w l i n g Wolf as the i n i t i a t o r , W h i r l i n g Wolf as the  n o v i c e and S t a n d i n g Wolf as the i n i t i a t e d p e r s o n .  In the r i t u a l  context,  the c h a r a c t e r s o f the t h r e e Wolf masks show a s h i f t from Wolf o r nonhuman, to a b e i n g from the Inbetween human.  realm o r t e m p o r a r i l y nonhuman, to  adult  W h i r l i n g W o l f , i n the second and s a c r e d s t a g e o f the r i t u a l ,  the mask t h a t r e p r e s e n t s a b e i n g t h a t belongs to the realm o f the  C.  is  Inbetween.  The S o c i a l S t a t u s o f the Maskers The i d e n t i t y o f the Wolf dancers can be added to t h e concepts  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Wolf masks d u r i n g the performance o f the because the Wolf masks are worn on the d a n c e r s ' can be seen below the masks.  ritual  heads so t h a t t h e i r  faces  41.  The C r a w l i n g Wolf masks are worn by men o f low r a n k .  Only a  c h i e f can h o l d the p r i v i l e g e t o make the Wolves appear but because he i s o n l y one man, he must ask some o f h i s kinsmen to a c t the p a r t s o f the i n i t i a t i n g Wolves (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 3 9 2 ) .  Sometimes, branches o f the C h i e f ' s  l i n e a g e who are so d i s t a n t l y r e l a t e d to the c h i e f as to be commoners ( D r u c k e r 1951:392) have the r i g h t to a c t the p a r t o f p a r t i c u l a r i n i t i a t i n g , C r a w l i n g Wolves (Drucker 1 9 5 2 : 3 9 3 : S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 1 3 1 ) . The Nootka b e l i e v e the C r a w l i n g Wolf dancer i s a man whose . s p i r i t becomes a Wolf when he d i e s ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 5 5 : 5 5 ) . symbolic of h i s separate s o c i a l s t a t u s .  This  is  The C r a w l i n g Wolf dancers are  not c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the c h i e f so they cannot become the c h i e f .  Rather,  because they become Wolf s p i r i t s a f t e r d e a t h , t h e i r u l t i m a t e f a t e i s  to  d w e l l i n the "house" o f the Wolves, r a t h e r than i n the human a f t e r w o r l d . A c c o r d i n g t o the c a t e g o r i e s s e t up by the Wolf r i t u a l , the C r a w l i n g Wolf dancer belongs to the o r d e r l y ,  p r o f a n e realms o f both men and w o l v e s , and  not t o the d i s o r d e r e d and s a c r e d Inbetween  realm.  The W h i r l i n g Wolf mask i s danced by the c h i e f ' s son o r the c h i e f ' s younger b r o t h e r i f the son i s not y e t o l d enough ( E r n s t 1 9 5 2 : 9 6 ) . How can a young c h i l d , the c h i e f ' s s o n , and a young man, the c h i e f ' s brother,  be put i n t o a s i n g l e c a t e g o r y ?  the c h i e f ' s h e i r .  They are both a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s ,  Becoming a c h i e f i s a l o n g p r o c e s s t h a t b e g i n s w i t h  the f i r s t r i t u a l s performed even b e f o r e the b i r t h o f each noble c h i l d (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 2 6 6 - 7 ) because one has to r e c e i v e a l l the c h i e f l y  privileges  one by o n e , d u r i n g p o t l a c h e s and Wolf r i t u a l s  Thus,  (Sapir 1911:25).  Nootkan s o c i e t y , both the c h i l d and the young man are i n the p r o c e s s  in of  becoming hawil, c h i e f o r complete ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:250 and 3 0 0 ) .  42."  The Nootkan language a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e s the young man and the c h i Id i n one word " * Rwak ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:330).  In i t s " a l l but one" sense i t a p p l i e s to  the c h i e f ' s b r o t h e r o r son when he i s a young man, f o r they have both comp l e t e d a l l the s t e p s to c h i e f t a i n s h i p but o n e , the l a s t move i n t o p o s i t i o n o f c h i e f when the incumbent c h i e f r e s i g n s .  the  •'Hawk- i n  its  " i n b e t w e e n " sense a p p l i e s to the c h i e f ' s young c h i l d who i s becoming c h i e f though he i s not as f a r a l o n g i n the l o n g process as h i s u n c l e s older brothers.  He i s " i n b e t w e e n " b e i n g a newborn and an a d u l t  rather  than ' a l l but one' s t e p s h o r t o f b e i n g c h i e f .  Thus the W h i r l i n g Wolf  mask i s worn by a man who i s becoming a c h i e f ,  and o c c u p i e s a p o s i t i o n  i n Nootkan s o c i e t y which i s  or  "Inbetween."  The S t a n d i n g Wolf mask i s worn by t h e c h i e f ( N . M . C .  catalogue  e n t r y f o r V I I - F - 3 0 2 ) o r the c h i e f ' s son ( E r n s t 1 9 5 2 : 2 5 ) , i f as a n o v i c e , he has j u s t been g i v e n the dance by the Wolves.  Both o f these p e o p l e ,  because o f t h e i r paramount s t a t u s on the human s o c i a l l a d d e r are the . epitome o f human achievement.  The Nootkan word hawil means " t o f i n i s h  complete" ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:250) as w e l l as " c h i e f "  or  ( S a p i r and  Swadesh 1939:300) from which we can i n f e r t h a t a c h i e f i s an i n d i v i d a u l who i s complete and has f i n i s h e d a c q u i r i n g a l l the p r i v i l e g e s to be the most a c c o m p l i s h e d human b e i n g p o s s i b l e .  he needs  The c h i e f has reached  the "peak o f l i f e " among the Nootka ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 1 9 3 ) .  When  a c h i e f wears the S t a n d i n g Wolf mask, h i s c h i e f l y q u a l i t i e s as the b e s t  of  men and the i d e a l human b e i n g are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the mask.  If  "short-circuits"  the complete  man.  the l i n e o f l o g i c . S t a n d i n g Wolf r e p r e s e n t s  one  43.  There i s both c o n t i n u i t y and d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n the sequence o f the s o c i a l s t a t u s e s o f the n o v i c e s and the Wolf d a n c e r s .  The n o v i c e s ,  the W h i r l i n g Wolf and S t a n d i n g Wolf dancers are a l l on a c o u r s e o f s o c i a l p r o g r e s s i o n which l e a d s t o becoming a complete human o r c h i e f , w h i l e the C r a w l i n g Wolf dancer i s on a d i f f e r e n t c o u r s e .  The n o v i c e i s making one  o f the many moves t h a t are needed to a c c o m p l i s h the s o c i a l  transition  from u n p r i v i l e g e d newborn to p r i v i l e g e d c h i e f ; the W h i r l i n g Wolf dancer has a l m o s t completed the c o u r s e , and the S t a n d i n g Wolf dancer has completed i t .  The C r a w l i n g Wolf dancer does not f i t i n t o t h a t sequence  because the men who wear the C r a w l i n g Wolf masks w i l l s p i r i t Wolves, r a t h e r than c h i e f s .  e v e n t u a l l y become  On the o t h e r hand, the C r a w l i n g W o l f  d a n c e r , whether a l o w - r a n k i n g noble or a commoner, i s l i k e the young . n o v i c e s f o r they both have but a few p r i v i l e g e s . will  F u r t h e r m o r e , the n o v i c e  p r o b a b l y n e v e r complete the numerous t r a n s i t i o n s needed t o become a  c h i e f s i n c e few people become c h i e f i n Nootkan s o c i e t y .  But the C r a w l i n g  Wolf dancer and the n o v i c e s a r e now committed t o the endeavour and to r u l e s which i n c l u d e h e l p i n g t h e i r  its  chief.  We have seen t h a t the masks t h a t the dancers w e a r ,  Crawling  W o l f , W h i r l i n g Wolf and S t a n d i n g W o l f , i l l u s t r a t e t h r e e s t a g e s o f  the  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from W o l f , through c r e a t u r e o f the Inbetween, t o Human. When the masks and the dancers are seen t o g e t h e r d u r i n g the Wolf the s t a g e s o f s o c i a l t r a n s i t i o n ( w i t h o u t a p r i v i l e g e , and w i t h a p r i v i l e g e )  ritual,  receiving a privilege,  a r e a l i g n e d w i t h the stages o f c o s m o l o g i c a l t r a n s -  f o r m a t i o n ( W o l f , Inbetween, Man).  Thus, I have  suggested  t h a t f o r the  N o o t k a , the s a c r e d realm o f the Inbetween i s i n s e p a r a b l e from the process  44.  of gaining a supernatural  a t t r i b u t e o r t h e a b i l i t y to t r a n s f o r m , and the  process o f a c q u i r i n g a s o c i a l s t a t u s o r  D.  privilege.  Cone!usion There i s a c o n g r u i t y  between t h e s t r u c t u r e o f the s t a g e s  the Wolf r i t u a l , the d i f f e r e n t r i t u a l  of  r o l e s and c h a r a c t e r s o f the W o l f  masks, and the s o c i a l s t a t u s o f the Wolf d a n c e r s .  They are a l l  three-  p a r t s t r u c t u r e s which are a l i g n e d w i t h each o t h e r i n the Wolf r i t u a l . The a l g i n m e n t i s not q u i t e e x a c t . i n the second stage o f the r i t u a l  For i n s t a n c e , the C r a w l i n g Wolf appears but the a c t i o n , a t t h i s s t a g e ,  on the n o v i c e s and the W h i r l i n g W o l f , not the C r a w l i n g W o l f .  focuses  So we can  a s s i g n the C r a w l i n g Wolf to the f i r s t s t a g e o f the r i t u a l , and i g n o r e h i s secondary r o l e i n the second s t a g e . the a c t i o n o f the r i t u a l  The a l i g n m e n t s c r e a t e d  are p a r t i c u l a r l y  s t r i k i n g when we c o n s i d e r  correspondence t h a t i s s e t up between t h e Nootkan c o s m o l o g i c a l and t h e i r s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e .  through the  structure  We have seen how t h i s correspondence  is  e x p r e s s e d through the t h r e e Wolf masks i n t h e c o n t e x t o f the W o l f r i t u a l . The a c t i o n o f the Wolf r i t u a l  s e t s the W h i r l i n g Wolf a p a r t on a  s a c r e d plane away from the p r o f a n e p l a n e i n which the r i t u a l C r a w l i n g Wolf and the S t a n d i n g W o l f . commoners and the c h i e f ,  places  the  Thus, i n the Nootka cosmology,  the  the u n i n i t i a t e d and the i n i t i a t e d , and the masks  they wear belong to t h e profane Land r e a l m .  On the o t h e r hand, t h e realm  o f the Inbetween i s p o p u l a t e d w i t h W h i r l i n g Wolf masks, w i l d men, n o v i c e s t r a n s f o r m i n g and r e c e i v i n g s u p e r n a t u r a l  g i f t s and s o c i a l p r i v i l e g e s ,  c h i e f ' s h e i r s , ^ a l l o f whom a r e s a c r e d and i n the r i t u a l f o r m a t i o n ; they are a l s o  transformers.  state of  and trans-  45.  CHAPTER 2:  FOOTNOTES  ' S e v e r a l good d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the Wolf r i t u a l are found i n E r n s t 1 9 5 2 : C h . I, I I , and IV; Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 3 8 6 - 4 4 3 ; and S a p i r 1 9 1 1 : 2 0 - 2 8 . 2 T h i s p r a c t i c e would seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t the g i v i n g o f the S t a n d i n g Wolf mask s i g n i f i e s the g i v i n g o f the s t a t u s o f ' c h i e f o r ' h o l d e r o f the Wolf r i t u a l ' : . ["When one g i v e s a Wolf r i t u a l , the one i s a c h i e f and an e l d e s t b r o t h e r " ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 5 5 : 1 1 1 ) . ] Thus, even i f a n o v i c e wears the S t a n d i n g Wolf mask to l e a d the dancers i n the t h i r d s t a g e o f the r i t u a l , i t would s t i l l be the c h i e f who l e a d s the d a n c e r s , f o r the young i n i t i a t e would be the new c h i e f .  46.  Chapter 3  THE VISUAL SYMBOLS OF THE WOLF MASKS  In t h i s c h a p t e r I w i l l c o n t i n u e t h e study o f t h e boundary  areas  and boundary c r o s s e r s o f t h e Nootkan cosmos as I look a t t h e c a t e g o r i e s e s t a b l i s h e d by the v i s u a l symbols o f t h e Wolf masks.  The p r e c e d i n g  examined t h e statements made by t h e masks through t h e i r r i t u a l  chapter  context;  now I s h a l l l o o k a t t h e i r m a t e r i a l s t a t e m e n t s , s t a r t i n g w i t h an a n a l y s i s and p a r t i a l e x e g e s i s o f the v i s u a l c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e Wolf masks. will  This  s e t o u t t h e parameters o f t h e v i s i b l e c o s m o l o g i c a l c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e  Nootka.  A.  The V i s u a l Statements o f t h e Wolf Masks The t h r e e Wolf masks make t h r e e d i f f e r e n t  visual  statements  by u s i n g an iconography o f p e r s o n a g e s , c o l o u r s and s t y l e which I s h a l l now d e s c r i b e . The f i r s t Wolf mask t o appear i n t h e Wolf r i t u a l , t h e C r a w l i n g Wolf mask^ i s c a r v e d i n t h r e e dimensions from a s i n g l e b l o c k o f wood (see P l a t e s 5 and 6 ) .  The mask i s v e r y s m a l l , about 6 " l o n g .  It  fits  on t h e d a n c e r ' s f o r e h e a d b u t does n o t c o v e r h i s f a c e n o r t h e t o p o f h i s head.  A f t e r the m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ,  the r i t u a l  C r a w l i n g Wolf mask  was g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d by the s i m p l e r e x p e d i e n t o f t y i n g a b l a n k e t o v e r the d a n c e r ' s head t o resemble a W o l f ' s head (Drucker  1951:393).  48. PLATS 6 .  NOOTKA CRAWLING WOLF MASKS  Berlin #  V-B-27  B.C.P.M. #  10,708  49.  The C r a w l i n g Wolf mask i s e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d as a W o l f ' s h e a d ; the ears are m i s s i n g but the mouth and eyes are emphasized w i t h and i n c i s i n g .  paint  The s t y l e o f the C r a w l i n g Wolf mask i s n a t u r a l and r e l a x e d .  The c u r v e s marking the t r a n s i t i o n s between planes are g e n t l y E r n s t c a l l s i t an ' a n i m a l w o l f mask' ( E r n s t 1 9 5 2 : 2 1 ) .  rounded.  T h i s mask, i n my  judgment, r e p r e s e n t s a Wolf who i s p r i m a r i l y an animal from the Land r e a l m . The C r a w l i n g Wolf mask i s u s u a l l y p a i n t e d s o l i d b l a c k , sometimes t r a c e s o f red p a i n t can be d e t e c t e d (see P l a t e #6533).  though  5:B.C.P.M.  In o t h e r c a s e s , i t i s p a i n t e d w i t h b l a c k s t r i p e s o v e r n a t u r a l  wood (see P l a t e 5:N..M;C. # V I T - F - 5 1 9 ) . The second Wolf mask, the W h i r l i n g W o l f , has two forms P l a t e s 3 , 4 and 7 ) . a b l o c k o f wood.  The f i r s t ,  (see  and p r o b a b l y o l d e r f o r m , i s c a r v e d from  The s e c o n d , the more common, i s c o n s t r u c t e d from two  f l a t boards which a r e f i t t e d t o g e t h e r t o form a ' V .  Horizontal  struts  between the top and bottom edges o f the boards h o l d t h e mask t o g e t h e r and form the harness t h a t f i t s on the d a n c e r ' s head. The s t y l e o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by swooping, d i a g o n a l l i n e s which c o n t r a s t w i t h the g e n t l e curves o f the C r a w l i n g Wolf mask.  A d e s i g n which i s o f t e n p a i n t e d on the f l a t s u r f a c e s o f the  mask i s a d i a g o n a l  ' s ' or  '-'.  Frequently,  o t h e r elements such as f e a t h e r s ,  eyes and t e e t h a r e a l i g n e d d i a g o n a l l y . The W h i r l i n g Wolf ( o r L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t ) mask r e p r e s e n t s a Wolf and a L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t .  The f l a t s i d e o f each board i s  p r o f i l e o f the W o l f / L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t ' s head. i n the a c c e n t u a t e d t e e t h and l o n g m u z z l e .  The Wolf form i s  The Nootka  both  the evident  d e s c r i b e the Wolf  as a ' b i g nose' animal who i s t a u n t e d about h i s nose by Deer i n a myth  51.  ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 2 5 ) .  Wolf i s a l s o noted f o r h i s mouthful o f  t h a t are too dangerous t o name a l o u d d u r i n g the Wolf r i t u a l  (Drucker  1 9 5 1 : 3 8 8 ) , but are so s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t o say t h a t a Wolf r i t u a l has been ' b i t t e n away'  teeth  initiate  i s enough o f an a l l u s i o n t o Wolves to be r e a d i l y  understood ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 5 5 : 2 7 ) .  The wood o r r e a l f e a t h e r s  that  s w i r l back from t h e top o f t h e head and droop g r a c e f u l l y from t h e back o f the h e a d , the s l a n t o f the eye and t h e s h a r p nose o f t h e W h i r l i n g mask can a l s o be seen i n the images o f L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t on t h e dance s c r e e n s (see P l a t e 1 ) . The c o l o u r s used on t h e W h i r l i n g Wolf masks range from b l a c k on n a t u r a l wood t o a v a r i e t y o f hues.  The somber v e r s i o n s o f the mask  use e i t h e r b l a c k o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f red and b l a c k l i n e s . f u l ; masks, b l u e i s s u b s t i t u t e d f o r b l a c k .  On more c o l o u r -  The most flamboyant masks use  g r e e n , perhaps p u r p l e and l i g h t b l u e i n s t e a d o f b l a c k ; p i n k , orange and l i g h t red i n s t e a d o f dark r e d ; and w h i t e o r y e l l o w i n s t e a d o f  unpainted  n a t u r a l wood.  The i r i s o f the masks' eyes and the eyebrows are a l m o s t  always b l a c k .  R a r e l y , the i r i s  copper, a l l shiney m a t e r i a l s .  i s made o f a p i e c e o f m i r r o r , g l a s s  or  2  The t h i r d Wolf mask, the S t a n d i n g Wolf (see P l a t e 8) i s made from two f l a t boards l i k e the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask.  The s t y l e o f  S t a n d i n g Wolf mask i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s o l i d , s t u b b y , v e r t i c a l The t e e t h a r e o f t e n broad and u p r i g h t ; 'feathers' jut  lines.  the nose i s l a r g e and s q u a r e ; the  form an u p r i g h t c r o w n ; a d d i t i o n a l b l u n t l y t i p p e d  back h o r i z o n t a l l y .  the  'feathers',  The d e s i g n s p a i n t e d on t h i s mask are more sym-  m e t r i c a l and b a l a n c e d than those o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask; ' u ' s and ' o ' s which l e n d themselves more r e a d i l y t o v e r t i c a l f r e q u e n t than  's's.  symmetry are more  52.  The form o f the S t a n d i n g Wolf mask d e p i c t s both Wolf and Thunderbird.  The b a s i c shape o f t h i s Wolf mask i s t h a t o f a w o l f ' s  head.  The t e e t h , nose and l o n g muzzle are d i a g n o s t i c f e a t u r e s o f the W o l f . The eye and f orehead l i n e c o u l d b e l o n g t o . e i t h e r Wolf o r T h u n d e r b i r d . crest,  A  has been put on t h e crown o f the mask which i s s i m i l a r to t h a t on  the T h u n d e r b i r d mask ( E r n s t 1952:73 and 1 0 4 ; see P l a t e 9 : B . C . P . M .  #2128).  T h i s c r e s t o f broad wood f e a t h e r s i s a l s o congruent to the c r e s t on the T h u n d e r b i r d on the most t r a d i t i o n a l 'feathers'  shown  Nootkan dance s c r e e n s .  These  a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f s m a l l men; t h e i r forms have been reduced  to two eyes and a mouth (see P l a t e 1 0 : N . M . C . # V I I - F - 6 5 6 ) .  This  abbrevia-  t i o n o f the form o f a s m a l l s p i r i t man has been i d e n t i f i e d as such by S a p i r on mask N.M.C.  # V I I - F - 4 2 8 (see P l a t e 1 0 ) .  t h e s e s m a l l men undoubtedly  r e p r e s e n t the  On the S t a n d i n g Wolf mask, ' l i f e p r i n c i p l e ' which i s  a t the crown o f a man's head ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 1 6 9 ) , which d i s t i n c t from the ' l i f e p r i n c i p l e  1  which i s i n a man's t h r o a t  located  is {ibid.).  For the Nootka t h e s e 'men' f e a t h e r s r e p r e s e n t more than a ' l i f e  principle'.  They c o n c e i v e o f a man's mind as composed o f ten people on h i s head, a l l o f which must agree on a c o u r s e o f a c t i o n b e f o r e i t can be undertaken ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 1 6 9 ) .  Thus the 'men' on the S t a n d i n g Wolf mask  a r e emblematic o f both the mask's i d e n t i t y  as T h u n d e r b i r d  and i t s mind  which c o n t a i n s a l l the knowledge i n h e r e n t to a man's mind. The S t a n d i n g Wolf masks are p a i n t e d w i t h b l a c k and red White i s o f t e n used as a background. as c o l o u r f u l  as the W h i r l i n g Wolf masks.  f o r b l a c k , and orange f o r red (N.M.C. Plate 9).  The S t a n d i n g Wolf masks a r e Green i s sometimes  VII-F-655:catalogue  stripes. never  substituted  notes;  see  56.  The t h r e e types o f Wolf mask, both r i t u a l and c e r e m o n i a l v e r s i o n s , are not found w i t h equal f r e q u e n c y i n the t h r e e museum c o l l e c t i o n s t h a t were s t u d i e d .  I found seven C r a w l i n g Wolf masks, f o r t y - o n e  Whirling  Wolf masks and seven S t a n d i n g Wolf masks. I s h a l l now l o o k a t what t h e s e v a r i a t i o n s o f c o l o u r , and s t y l e s i g n i f y t o t h e N o o t k a .  identity  I am assuming t h a t the i c o n o g r a p h y  of  t h e Wolf masks i s a v i s u a l statement e x p r e s s e d i n t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f the Nootkan cosmology.  B.  Iconography o f Personages The b a s i c form o f a l l the Wolf masks i s t h a t o f a w o l f ; so I  will  examine the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Wolf t o the N o o t k a .  Through v a r i a -  t i o n s o f d e s i g n e l e m e n t s , t h e d i f f e r e n t types o f Wolf mask a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h two o t h e r m y t h i c a l b e i n g s ; T h u n d e r b i r d and L i g h t n i n g Snake. t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e b e i n g s ?  What i s  And how are they a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  the W o l f ? The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between T h u n d e r b i r d , L i g h t n i n g Snake, W o l f , and whale are the major symbols o f t h e N o o t k a .  These r e l a t i o n s h i p s are  e x p r e s s e d i n Nootkan a r t and l i t e r a t u r e ( s p e e c h e s , myths and l e g e n d s )  and  p r o v i d e the major components o f the metaphor t h a t the Nootka use " t o o r g a n i z e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s and d i r e c t t h e i r b e h a v i o r "  (Needham 1 9 7 9 : 1 7 ) .  I s h a l l a l s o show t h a t the Wolf a l o n e i s the symbol o f the p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t i s needed f o r a s u c c e s s f u l l i f e i n t h e Nootkan cosmos. The importance o f these two s y m b o l s , the Wolf a l o n e o r i n company w i t h t h e o t h e r b e i n g s , i s r e f l e c t e d by t h e i r p e r v a s i v e n e s s  in  the Nootkan c u l t u r e .  A l l e t h n o g r a p h i e s o f the Nootka have r e l a t e d t h e  myth o f T h u n d e r b i r d and have r e f e r r e d t o the Wolf r i t u a l .  The d e p i c t i o n  o f these beings on t h e l a r g e dance s c r e e n s has been documented a l l a l o n g the west c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d and over a l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e .  My  d i s c o v e r y t h a t the Wolf masks i n c o r p o r a t e i c o n o g r a p h i c shapes t h a t  refer  to Thunderbird,  L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t as w e l l as W o l f , suggests t h a t  importance i s even g r e a t e r than had been  their  thought.  What are the concepts t h a t these i c o n o g r a p h i c personages  repre-  s e n t t h a t a r e so i m p o r t a n t to the Nootka?  1.  Wolf For the N o o t k a , the Wolf i s a h u n t e r ,  f i r s t and f o r e m o s t .  The  W o l f ' s h u n t i n g a b i l i t y on the l a n d i s u n d e r l i n e d by the names g i v e n the C r a w l i n g Wolf masks when the word " w o l f  i s too dangerous t o say  a l o u d , and by the n a t u r e o f the i n i t i a t i n g Wolves' companions. the Wolf r i t u a l  the C r a w l i n g Wolf mask i s c a l l e d ' c o u g a r '  (a. poor t r a n s l a t i o n o f c o u g a r ) ,  to  another l a r g e , predator.  or  During  'panther'  Thus,  i n using  t h i s euphemism, t h e Nootka c h a r a c t e r i z e the W o l f as a h u n t e r f o r  they  chose a n o t h e r ' h u n t e r from the o r d e r o f l a r g e f o u r - f o o t e d l a n d a n i m a l s ' as the c l o s e s t a l t e r n a t i v e .  The o n l y o t h e r l a r g e p r e d a t o r s on Vancouver  I s l a n d are bears ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:49 and 3 0 6 ) . c l e a r l y grouped w i t h t h e wolves because G r i z z l y  Grizzly  Bear dancers sometimes  appear w i t h the i n i t i a t i n g Wolf pack ( D r u c k e r 1 9 5 1 : 3 9 4 ) . do not appear w i t h the Wolves.  bears are  Ordinary  I n s t e a d they are hunted and t h e i r  casses are honored and addressed as Haquem o r 'Queen'  bears car-  i n the same manner  as whales (Drucker 1951:178 and 1 8 1 ) ; and we s h a l l see l a t e r i n  this  c h a p t e r , t h a t Whales b e l o n g t o a v e r y d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r y then do Wolves.  58.  S e v e r a l a s p e c t s o f the w o l f as a h u n t e r are emphasized.  His  s w i f t n e s s and s t e a l t h , and the f a c t t h a t he k i l l s w i t h h i s t e e t h a r e some o f h i s n o t a b l e a t t r i b u t e s .  Speed, u s e f u l f o r c h a s i n g down game,  i s the p a r t i c u l a r t a l e n t o f the Messanger Wolves who are a l s o the  initi-  a t i n g Wolves who break i n t o the f e a s t house d u r i n g the Wolf r i t u a l (Sapir 1911:22).  T h e i r names r e f l e c t t h e i r r e l a t i v e f l e e t n e s s  and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 3 4 ) ; they a r e c a l l e d breaking-on-the-ground  (As-fast-as-the-)Sound-of-a-stick-  ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 3 4 ) ,  drips-down-from-a-standing-bush  (As-fast-as-)Water-  ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 3 4 ) ,  as-)Adze-chips-falling-on-the-ground  (Sapir  (As-fast-  ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 2 1 7 ) , and  (As-fast-as-)Muddy-water-that-has-been-stirred-up-settles-down  (Sapir  and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 2 1 7 ) .  (Sapir  The Wolves hunt by s t a l k i n g t h e i r prey  and Swadesh 1939:85 and 8 7 ) .  The term 'smoke' t h a t i s used t o a l l u d e  to the Wolves d u r i n g the Wolf r i t u a l  ( D r u c k e r 1951:391) b r i n g s  the Wolves' a b i l i t y to move q u i e t l y when s t a l k i n g . m y t h i c a l Wolf w a r r i o r s '  band, ' f o n d o f bones'  h i g h l i g h t s t h e Wolves' a b i l i t y t o k i l l  The name o f  into  focus  the  ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:87)  l i v i n g b e i n g s , s i n c e bones a r e  t h e o n l y p a r t o f a body t h a t remains i n the p r o f a n e realms a f t e r i t has d i e d ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 6 9 ) . ^  The weapons t h a t the Wolves use are  t h e i r t e e t h , which t h e i r w a r r i o r s sharpen i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a m y t h i c a l war j u s t as t h e i r opponents the L i c e sharpen t h e i r s p e a r s ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 8 7 ) .  The Wolf appears as the h u n t e r o f Deer and E l k i n  Nootka myths ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:85 and 8 7 ) . The Nootka a l s o admire the Wolf because o f h i s 1952:91) o r r i t u a l  knowledge.  'wisdom'  (Ernst  The Wolves' s u c c e s s i n h u n t i n g i s a t e s t a -  ment to t h e i r s u p e r n a t u r a l powers ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 1 8 7 ) .  In myths.  59.  Wolf l e a v e s h i s own house a t the f o o t o f the mountains and goes the woods, where he k i l l s Deer and E l k .  into  Thus, a c c o r d i n g t o Nootkan  t h o u g h t , Wolf has t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l a b i l i t y to c r o s s b o u n d a r i e s and to f o r c e Deer and E l k t o t r a v e l o v e r the boundary between l i f e and d e a t h , and thus t o t r a n s f o r m them i n t o b e i n g s o f the r e a l m o f the Inbetween. one r e c a l l s t h a t the Nootka c o n c e i v e o f people who a r e i n the  When  ritual  s t a t e as ' f o r m e r people o r d e a d ' , (see Chapter 2) t h i s l i n e o f  thought  d i s c l o s e s t h e dual f o r c e o f the Nootkan r i t u a l symbolism t h a t s e l e c t s the Wolves t o be the ones t h a t c a r r y the n o v i c e s o f the Wolf r i t u a l the r e a l m o f the  into  Inbetween.  The Nootka b e l i e v e t h a t the W o l f ' s powers o f  transformation  can be used on h i m s e l f and t h a t a Wolf may t r a n s f o r m h i m s e l f i n t o a K i l l e r Whale when he goes t o sea ( R o b e r t s and Swadesh 1 9 5 5 : 3 1 9 ) ; and t h a t t h e K i l l e r Whale becomes a Wolf when he comes onto the l a n d (Roberts Swadesh 1 9 5 5 : 3 1 9 ; Drucker 1 9 6 5 : 1 3 5 ; C u r t i s 1 9 1 6 : 2 0 ) .  and  The l o g i c a l b a s i s  f o r t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n l i e s i n the m e t a p h o r i c a l p a r a l l e l s between Wolves and K i l l e r Whales.  The K i l l e r Whale hunts whales l i k e a Wolf  1 9 6 5 : 1 3 5 ; Densmore 1 9 3 9 : 5 3 ; C u r t i s 1 9 1 6 : 8 6 ) . mant] s a i d he once saw a w h a l e . which.  . . .  (Drucker  "Hayte [Densmore's  infor-  I t was pursued by a K i l l e r Whale  . .made a n o i s e l i k e a w o l f - a l o n g h o w l .  . ."  (Densmore 1 9 3 9 : 5 3 ) .  The Nootka p o i n t out t h a t the K i l l e r Whale, l i k e the W o l f , i s not the prey o f a n o t h e r animal ( E r n s t 1 9 5 2 : 4 8 ) .  When a Wolf t r a n s f o r m s i n t o a  K i l l e r Whale, the W o l f ' s t a i l becomes t h e K i l l e r W h a l e ' s d o r s a l (Roberts and Swadesh 1 9 5 1 : 3 1 9 ) . tail  A Wolf can be k i l l e d by b r e a k i n g h i s  (Drucker 1951:127) and the t a i l  ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 8 7 ) .  fin  i s kept as a trophy o f the  In p a r a l l e l f a s h i o n , a man's l i f e  kill principle  60. i s a t t h e crown o f h i s h e a d , which h i s enemies' w a r r i o r s keep as t r o p h i e s o f t h a t k i l l the dorsal  (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 3 4 1 ) .  S i n c e a w h a l e r keeps  f i n o f any whales he k i l l s as t r o p h i e s  the ' l i f e p r i n c i p l e '  c u t o f f and  (Drucker  o f t h e Whale i s i n the d o r s a l  1951:180),  f i n (Sapir  1919:352).  W o l f ' s t a i l , w h a l e ' s d o r s a l f i n and man's head a r e analogous p a r t s  of  t h e bodies o f t h e s e t h r e e p r e d a t o r s from d i f f e r e n t o r d e r s and r e a l m s . Thus the Nootka see many a n a l o g i e s between man, Wolf and K i l l e r Whale.  The a n a l o g i e s r e s t on the f a c t t h a t they are a l l p r e d a t o r s  n o t the prey o f a n o t h e r p r e d a t o r .  In t h e Nootkan cosmology, the  Whale i n the s e a , and Wolf and Man on t h e l a n d can be a s s i g n e d  and Killer  together  t o a c a t e g o r y d e f i n e d by t h i s r o l e .  T h i s r e a s o n i n g makes i t  possible  f o r a man t o become a k i l l e r w h a l e .  T h i s happens d u r i n g the s e c r e t w h a l -  i n g r i t u a l s , when Nootkan w h a l e r s swim through t h e w a t e r w i t h t h e i r  fists  c l e n c h e d and thumbs h e l d u p r i g h t ,in i m i t a t i o n o f a w h a l e ' s f i n  (Curtis  1 9 1 6 : 3 7 ) , most l o g i c a l l y  while  (Nootka l o g i c ) ,  a K i l l e r Whale.- Thus,  Wolves t r a n s f o r m i n t o K i l l e r W h a l e s , and K i l l e r Whales i n t o W o l v e s , men t r a n s f o r m i n t o K i l l e r Whales.  And men t r a n s f o r m i n t o Wolves d u r i n g the  Wolf r i t u a l when they p l a c e Wolf masks on t h e i r heads t o become t h e  vari-  ous Wolves. From t h i s we can comprehend how the Nootka can p l a c e men and Wolves who are both i n h a b i t a n t s o f the Land Realm i n t o an even more c l o s e l y d e f i n e d c o n c e p t u a l and moral c a t e g o r y . e a t the f l e s h o f wolves  T h i s i s done by f o r b i d d i n g men t o  ( D r u c k e r 1951:61) because i t  e a t those s i m i l a r t o o n e s e l f .  i s cannibalism to  In a d d i t i o n , the Nootka e n v i s i o n  l i v i n g i n a h o u s e , and h a v i n g a c h i e f w i t h w a r r i o r s men ( D r u c k e r 1951:273 and 2 6 9 ; E r n s t 1 9 5 2 : 6 5 ) .  wolves  and messangers  like  F u r t h e r m o r e , Wolves and  men e a t f o o d t h a t i s s i m i l a r i n the Nootkan l a n g u a g e .  Mok means  'deer'  61  and  mokmok a(q) W  means ' c o d ' , one o f the s t a p l e s o f the Nootkan d i e t  S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 2 6 5 ) .  L a s t l y , men hunt l i k e w o l v e s .  Wa-win  means ' h u n t i n g deer i n the manner o f Wolves' and ' e m p l o y i n g w o l f howls t o s c a r e o u t the d e e r '  ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 5 5 : 3 1 6 ) .  the Nootka h u n t i n g deer i n t h i s manner and c a l l e d i t 1868:145).  Sproat witnessed  wa-win  (Sproat  The person a c c u m u l a t i n g w e a l t h i s l i k e a Wolf h u n t i n g .  Wealth i s seen as a form o f prey w i t h he s u s p e c t s '  ' b i g e y e s ' who ' i s wary o f t h o s e  ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 1 6 3 ) .  "Big eyes'  are s i g n i f i c a n t  o f Deer ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 5 5 : 1 1 3 ) , the W o l f ' s p r i m a r y p r e y . guest a t a f e a s t c o u l d compare the host c h i e f ' s s k i l l  Thus a  i n accumulating  the f o o d , g i f t s and dances f o r a f e a s t to the h u n t i n g s k i l l s o f a w o l f . He p r a i s e d h i s host f o r b e i n g so s w i f t t o make food so p l e n t i f u l  (Sapir  and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 2 0 1 ) , thus a l u d i n g to the W o l f ' s s w i f t n e s s i n the h u n t . Because the Nootka a s c r i b e t h e r o l e o f h u n t e r who l i v e s on the Land to both Wolf and man, we can understand why t h e i r legends t h a t a t e a c h i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between Wolf and man. seen as a good f r i e n d o f hunters and w h a l e r s ( C u r t i s will  recount  Thus, Wolf i s  1916:21).  Wolves  admire a man's b r a v e r y when he dares to i n v a d e the W o l v e ' s house  and w i l l  reward him w i t h s u p e r n a t u r a l g i f t s needed f o r w h a l i n g  1916:20) o r the ownership o f the Wolf r i t u a l  (Curtis  (Swan 1 8 7 0 : 6 6 - 7 ) .  In one  legend a man who helped an i n j u r e d W o l f was rewarded w i t h a g i f t enabled him t o become a c h i e f ( D r u c k e r 1 9 5 1 : 1 6 2 ) ; the word f o r hawil, a l s o means ' w e a l t h y '  chief,  ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 2 3 7 ) , so the  was the a b i l i t y t o hunt f o r w e a l t h o r n o v i c e s l i k e a W o l f .  which  gift  62. 2.  Thunderbird,  L i g h t n i n g Serpent and Whale  The Wolf masks have a second i d e n t i t y by which they can be analysed.  The C r a w l i n g Wolf mask i s i d e n t i f i e d o n l y w i t h the W o l f ,  the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask i s s e c o n d a r i l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h L i g h t n i n g and the S t a n d i n g Wolf mask  with Thunderbird.  These beings  but  Serpent,  represent  c a t e g o r i e s o f Nootkan thought and i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h each o t h e r they d e f i n e p a r t o f the s t r u c t u r e o f the Nootkan cosmos.  I shall  who they a r e , and how they a c t toward each o t h e r .  b e g i n where  I will  examine  n a t i v e i n f o r m a n t s b e g i n , w i t h the myth e x p l a i n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p Thunderbird  and L i g h t i n g S e r p e n t .  Then I w i l l  e x p l o r e what t h i s  s i g n i f i e s by a n a l y s i n g how i t i s a p p l i e d to Nootkan l i f e .  of  metaphor  This w i l l  e l i c i t more o f the n a t u r e o f the boundary areas o f the Nootkan cosmos because I w i l l ,  i n f a c t , be d i s c u s s i n g the n a t u r e o f L i g h t n i n g  Serpent  who appears i n the iconography o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask, the mask o f t h e r e a l m o f the  a.  Inbetween.  The myth o f the  Thunderbird  "The T h u n d e r b i r d who l i v e s on t h e summit o f a mountain, d i f f i c u l t o f approach i s b e l i e v e d , when i n need o f game, to f l y o f f t o t h e s e a and c a t c h a whale, which he t h e n c a r r i e s o f f t o h i s home. The heavy f l a p p i n g o f h i s wings i s what we c a l l thunder. . .he'itlik [ i s ] t h e mythl o g i c a l s e r p e n t b e l t o f T h u n d e r b i r d who, as he z i g z a g s through t h e a i r o r c o i l s about a t r e e , causes t h e lightning." ( S a p i r 1911:68) He'itlik  i s o f t e n g l o s s e d as L i g h t n i n g Serpent or  Lightning  Snake ( S a p i r 1 9 1 3 : 6 8 ; Northwest Coast A r t i s t s G u i l d 1 9 7 7 : # 7 ) .  He'itlik  is  (Drucker  a l s o d e s c r i b e d as l i v i n g i n the wing f e a t h e r s o f T h u n d e r b i r d  1951:163).  5  In t h i s Nootka myth, L i g h t i n g Serpent i s not a p a s s i v e c r e a t u r e . He i s a s e l f - p r o p e l l e d weapon which T h u n d e r b i r d employs t o k i l l (Northwest  Coast A r t i s t s G u i l d 1 9 7 7 : # 7 ) .  whereas an  inanimate  He z i g z a g s through the a i r  m i s s i l e would f o l l o w a smooth t r a j e c t o r y ,  a s t r a i g h t l i n e or a simple curve. artist,  t h r e e b r o t h e r s were drowned  w h i l e h u n t i n g Whale w i t h o u t the h e l p o f L i g h t n i n g Serpent  (ibid.).  needs L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t ; Whale i s k i l l e d by L i g h t n i n g  sharp head (Swan 1 8 7 0 : 8 ) .  either  Ron H a m i l t o n , a contemporary Nootka  t e l l s the s t o r y o f how T h u n d e r b i r d ' s  Thunderbird  Whale  T h i s more a c t i v e a s p e c t o f L i g h t n i n g  i s r e f l e c t e d i n the name ' b e l t o f T h u n d e r b i r d ' .  Serpent'  Serpent  A b e l t can be an a c t i v e  o b j e c t when i t d e f i n e s the human shape o f a person c l o t h e d i n a l o o s e garment such as t h o s e the Nootka wore t r a d i t i o n a l l y  (Densmore 1 9 3 9 : 2 8 3 ) .  Wolf i s a t e a c h e r i n the legend about "A T h u n d e r b i r d  [who]  has been g i v e n by the Wolf t o a c h i e f t o hunt Whales w i t h " ( E r n s t 1952:21) T h i s needs i n t e r p r e t i n g , o f i d e a s i s Nootkan.  f o r though the word a r e E n g l i s h , the o r d e r i n g  T h i s legend i s about how a Wolf gave a human  c h i e f the p r i v i l e g e t o hunt w h a l e s .  The n a r r a t o r o f the legend makes  the assumption t h a t h i s audience knows t h a t the Wolf has t a u g h t Thunderbird  to hunt w h a l e s , and t h a t the T h u n d e r b i r d  the  in turn w i l l  teach  the c h i e f .  b.  The m a n i f e s t a t i o n s  of  Thunderbird's  hunt i n Nootkan c u l t u r e  I s h a l l now i n v e s t i g a t e how the myth o f T h u n d e r b i r d ' s metaphorically integrated into several whale h u n t i n g , m a r r i a g e and sexual  a s p e c t s o f Nootkan l i f e ,  intercourse.  This w i l l  hunt i s such as  contribute  64'.  t o an e x e g e s i s o f the iconography o f T h u n d e r b i r d  and L i g h t n i n g  Serpent  on the Nootkan r i t u a l Wolf masks. The whale hunt i s a r e s p e c t e d a c t i v i t y and h i s b r o t h e r  (Drucker 1951:51).  w i t h a harpoon ( D r u c k e r 1 9 5 1 : 5 1 ) .  r e s e r v e d f o r the c h i e f  Only the c h i e f may k i l l  the whale  The motion o f the l a n y a r d a t t a c h e d  t o the harpoon head as i t u n c o i l s t o s t r i k e the whale i s d e s c r i b e d w i t h the same w o r d , waci(\),  t h a t i s used f o r t h e motion o f He'itlik  moves through the a i r ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 2 5 7 ) .  as he  The w h a l i n g harpoon  head i s i n c i s e d w i t h d e s i g n s d e p i c t i n g L i g h t n i n g Serpent and h i s f u r t h e r a s s o c i a t i n g the harpoon w i t h L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t . does not e a t the o i l  from the whales he k i l l s  While a whaler  ( D r u c k e r 1951:179)  r e p u t a t i o n grows w i t h the number o f whales he beaches ( D r u c k e r H i s s o c i a l persona, prey,  scales,  his  1951:49).  i f not h i s p h y s i c a l p e r s o n , i s augmented by h i s  the whale. The m a r r i a g e ceremony o f the c h i e f s o f the Nootka i s a s y m b o l i c  reenactment o f T h u n d e r b i r d h u n t i n g Whale (Boas 1 8 9 0 : 6 0 1 ; D r u c k e r 1 9 5 1 : 289).  The groom o r h i s s u r r o g a t e , a c t s as the T h u n d e r b i r d  to c a t c h the b r i d e as i f she were Whale.  He harpoons her w i t h a l i n e  o f b l a n k e t s t i e d t o g e t h e r , c o v e r i n g a column o f r e l a t i v e s , l i k e He'itlik 1930b:51).  up the beach t o her house (Densmore 1 9 3 9 : 2 4 7 ;  zigzagging Koppert  The l i n e o f b l a n k e t s a l s o r e p r e s e n t s the groom's payment  f o r h i s b r i d e (Koppert 1 9 3 0 b : 5 ) . is  and seeks  Sometimes the b l a n k e t - c o v e r e d column  l e d by a man w e a r i n g a L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t o r W h i r l i n g Wolf mask  Sometimes a r e a l h a r p o o n , w i t h i t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h L i g h t n i n g is -1).  {ibid.).  Serpent,  thrown by the groom a t the door o f the b r i d e ' s house ( K o p p e r t  1930b:  J u s t as the w h a l e r ' s r e p u t a t i o n grows w i t h t h e number o f whales  65.  he b r i n g s home, so the r e p u t a t i o n o f the c h i e f / g r o o m and h i s l i n e a g e augmented by the dowry o f p r i v i l e g e s  that his bride brings with  her  because t h e dowry r e p r e s e n t s an i n h e r i t a n c e f o r the c h i l d r e n o f  the  m a r r i a g e who w i l l b e l o n g t o the groom's l i n e a g e ( D r u c k e r  is  1951:267).  The T h u n d e r b i r d metaphor has deep r o o t s i n the Nookan l a n g u a g e . The s u f f i x  '-'i.s  intercourse with'  i s used f o r  'eating',  'paying for'  ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 3 2 3 ) .  and ' h a v i n g  sexual  Thus, j u s t as a man has  s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h a woman, so the c h i e f pays f o r h i s b r i d e and T h u n d e r b i r d e a t s Whale.  The t h r e e a c t i o n s are  similar  language because they are r e p r e s e n t e d by the same word. the verb ' t o s p e a r ' intercourse'. for  i n the Nootkan In  addition,  i s l i n k e d m e t a p h o r i c a l l y to the verb ' t o have s e x u a l  The Nootkan term mayak i s a euphemism used w h i l e w h a l i n g w  ' t o c a s t a s p e a r ' ; l i t e r a l l y i t means ' p a r t i c l e o f gum pops  ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 2 6 3 ) .  out'  In a myth r e c o r d e d by S a p i r ( S a p i r  and  Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 8 1 ) , Mink uses the foam o f some gum t h a t he i s chewing to impregnate a g i r l  by h a v i n g her swallow i t .  o f t h e gum i n i t a c t s as semen. mean both ' t o c a s t a s p e a r '  The foam w i t h  particles  Thus ' a p a r t i c l e o f gum pops o u t '  can  or ' t o e j a c u l a t e s p e r m ' .  Four sentences can be drawn from the above d i s c u s s i o n which the Nootka l i n k m e t a p h o r i c a l l y i n a c t i o n and s p e e c h . 1.  Thunderbird  e a t s Whales.  2.  Whaler spears whale.  3.  Groom pays f o r h i s b r i d e .  4.  Man has s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h woman.  In Nootkan thought t h e s e d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s , changeable between the f o u r s e n t e n c e s .  verbs and o b j e c t s  are  inter-  The Whale i s the m y t h i c form o f  66.  the whale i n the second s t a t e m e n t .  The whale i s m e t a p h o r i c a l l y l i n k e d  w i t h the w i f e o f the c h i e f i n the r i t u a l o f the whale hunt when the whale i s addressed as ' n o b l e l a d y ' o r haquem, the t i t l e g i v e n to the c h i e f ' s w i f e (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 1 9 7 ) .  During the whale h u n t , the b e h a v i o u r o f  w h a l e r ' s w i f e i s b e l i e v e d t o a f f e c t the b e h a v i o u r o f the whale 1951:177).  The w i f e i s a l s o t h e b r i d e and a woman.  the verbs are euphemisms o r homonyms f o r - e a c h o t h e r .  the  (Drucker  We have seen t h a t S i n c e the  Thunderbird  and the w h a l e r both hunt Whale/whale, s i n c e the w h a l e r i s the same person a s , o r the b r o t h e r o f (a s u r r o g a t e ) ,  the c h i e f and groom, and  s i n c e they are a l l men, the m e t a p h o r o i c a l u n i t y o f the f o u r sentences becomes c l e a r . If  the f o u r sentences a r e merged i n t o one as t h e y . w o u l d be  i n Nootkan t h o u g h t , in this thesis. two'.  t h r e e concepts emerge which are o f p r i m a r y  They are ' h u n t e r ' ,  'prey'  interest  and ' t h a t which l i n k s  the  In the myth o f T h u n d e r b i r d and Whale, L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t i s  the  l i n k between the two as w e l l as the a c t i o n s o f h u n t i n g and e a t i n g .  Thus  L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t , i s the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f . t h e a c t i o n between  he'itlik,  the h u n t e r ,  p e r s o n i f i e d by T h u n d e r b i r d ,  and h i s p r e y ,  p e r s o n i f i e d by  the Whale. L e t me pursue t h i s - m e t a p h o r f u r t h e r .  L i g h t n i n g Serpent i s  the  agent t h a t b r i n g s about change by a i d i n g the process i n which two s e p a r a t e beings come t o g e t h e r t o t r a n s f e r something o f v a l u e . facilitates  Lightning  Serpent  the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f a p a r t o f one b e i n g by a n o t h e r , and t h e  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the i n c o r p o r a t e d b e i n g by s e p a r a t i n g i t from t h a t a s p e c t o f i t s e l f which i s then i n g e s t e d i n t o the i d e n t i t y o f the i n c o r p o r a t i n g being.  The i n c o r p o r a t o r i s then t r a n s f o r m e d by b e i n g augmented by the  s e p a r a t e d a s p e c t o f the i n c o r p o r a t e d b e i n g .  Thus, Whale's f l e s h i s eaten  by T h u n d e r b i r d which l e a v e s Whale w i t h j u s t a s e t o f bones (McCurdy 1 9 6 1 : 1 1 2 ; Swan 1 8 7 0 : 8 ) , and T h u n d e r b i r d r e p l e t e w i t h a m e a l ; l i k e w i s e the W h a l e ' s precious o i l  i s consumed, i t s b u l k y f l e s h i s t a k e n by the w h a l e r ' s  and the w h a l e r ' s p r e s t i g e i s g r e a t e r than e v e r ; p r i v i l e g e s o f the b r i d e ' s l i n e a g e w i l l  lineage,  a n a l o g o u s l y , the m a r r i a g e  b e l o n g to her husband's l i n e a g e and  h e r o t h e r c e r e m o n i a l and economic p r i v i l e g e s  remain i n her v i l l a g e f o r  her  c h i l d r e n t o c l a i m and a c t i v a t e i f they w i s h and are a b l e t o do s o . D e a t h , o r a t l e a s t the t r a n s f e r r a l o f v i t a l i t y o f the  incorporated  from one a r e a , e i t h e r a r e a l m o r v i l l a g e , t o a n o t h e r , i s p a r t o f the process o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n because the Whale i s k i l l e d and l e a v e s t h e s e a , and the b r i d e l e a v e her v i l l a g e o r f a m i l y , b e f o r e t h e i r " w e a l t h " ( o i l , can be i n c o r p o r a t e d by t h e " h u n t e r . "  privileges)  L e a v i n g t h e whale bones on t h e beach  ( D r u c k e r 1951:66) and the b r i d e ' s i n a c t i v e k i n s h i p bonds and t h e a s s o c i a t e d economic and c e r e m o n i a l p r i v i l e g e s  i n h e r n a t a l g r o u p , would seem t o be a  method f o r p r o v i d i n g a framework f o r t h e e v e n t u a l source,  r e t u r n o f t h e prey t o  its  w h i l e t r a n s f e r r i n g the ' w e a l t h ' t o the new home. Thus, i n t h e Nootkan metaphor, L i g h t i n g S e r p e n t p e r s o n i f i e s an  a c t i o n t h a t c r e a t e s change, a change which t r a n s f o r m s t h e i n c o r p o r a t o r a u g m e n t a t i o n , and t r a n s f o r m s t h e i n c o r p o r a t e d through d i m i n u t i o n .  In  through short,  L i g h t i n i n g Serpent i s t h e Nootkan p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , a p r o cess by which dimensions o f b e i n g are exchanged.  3,  Thunderbird,  L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t and W o l f , and the Wolf Masks  The i d e n t i t i e s o f the Wolf masks i n c o r p o r a t e both Wolf the h u n t e r and Wolf the t e a c h e r , T h u n d e r b i r d the h u n t e r o r L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t the weapon. These dual i d e n t i t i e s o f the Wolf masks r a i s e s a q u e s t i o n .  How do both  68,  i d e n t i t i e s o f each mask f i t  i n t o a s i n g l e c o n c e p t u a l scheme?  S i n c e the Nootka  combined the Wolf w i t h T h u n d e r b i r d and w i t h L i g h n i n g S e r p e n t i n the forms o f the Wolf masks, an a n a l y s i s o f these forms w i l l  i n d i c a t e how the Nootka  s y n t h e s i z e the concepts they s y m b o l i z e . The b a s i c shape o f each Wolf mask i s t h a t o f a w o l f , and the d e s i g n s which s i g n i f y T h u n d e r b i r d  and L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t are s u b o r d i n a t e t o the Wolf  because they are appended t o the Wolf shape.  The secondary p e r s o n a l i t y  of  the mask i s e x p r e s s e d through the c r e s t s on the top and back o f the mask.  The  W o l f - l i k e q u a l i t i e s o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf and S t a n d i n g Wolf masks a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d near the f r o n t o f the f o r m .  F u r t h e r m o r e , the Wolf t r a i t s , the mouth  and t h e f o r e h e a d s i l h o u e t t e , are more s t r o n g l y d e l i n e a t e d than the L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t and T h u n d e r b i r d t r a i t s because the l u p i n e o u t l i n e s are a l s o the o u t l i n e s o f the s o l i d forms o f the mask.  In a d d i t i o n , the edges o f the W o l f ' s  f o r e h e a d and mouth are s t r e n g t h e n e d w i t h a s o l i d l i n e o f b l a c k o r r e d . c r e s t s t h a t s i g n i f y L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t o r T h u n d e r b i r d are l i g h t l y  The  a t t a c h e d to  the W o l f ' s h e a d , and the c o n n e c t i o n i s made through t h i n bands o f wood. c o n n e c t i o n s are weakened v i s u a l l y  by the open spaces between them.  On the  masks, i t i s t h e W o l f ' s shape t h a t s e t s t h e parameters o f the d e s i g n Thus,  the v i s u a l statements made by the masks d e c l a r e ' w o l f  than they d e s c r i b e the n a t u r e o f t h e W o l f , whether t u t o r  more  Wolf),  Wolf).  At the same t i m e , the form o f the masks can be ambiguous. S t a n d i n g Wolf mask, i t can r e f e r t o Wolf o r T h u n d e r b i r d .  field.  strongly  (Crawling  hunter ( S t a n d i n g Wolf) o r weapon f o r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ( W h i r l i n g  These  On the  On the W h i r l i n g  Wolf mask i t makes s i m u l t a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e t o L i g h t i n g S e r p e n t and W o l f .  This  i s because the s o l i d b l a c k e y e , the c e n t r e o f the v i s u a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f the masks i s shared by the two i d e n t i t i e s on each mask. mask w i l l  The i d e n t i t y o f  the  change i f one s h i f t s o n e ' s a t t e n t i o n from the f r o n t and c e n t r e  of  69. the mask to the eye, and then out t o the c r e s t a t the back and on the f r i n g e s of  the mask.  The f o c u s s e d i d e n t i t y becomes t h e f o r e g r o u n d w h i l e the un-  f o c u s s e d i d e n t i t y becomes the background.  Thus the two i d e n t i t i e s are  s e p a r a t e d and f u s e d a t the same t i m e . By t h e s e means, the Wolf masks make the v i s u a l statement t h a t the Wolf can form a c o h e s i v e image w i t h each one o f the components o f the Thunderb i r d ' s hunt. of  But t h i s i s o n l y p o s s i b l e , a c c o r d i n g t o the v i s u a l  the masks, i f the Wolf remains t h e c e n t r a l  statement  i d e n t i t y and the i d e n t i t y  from  the T h u n d e r b i r d ' s hunt i s g i v e n a s u b s e r v i a n t . o r secondary r o l e i n i d e n t i f y i n g the b e i n g p o r t r a y e d by t h e mask, and i f the p o s s i b i l i t y o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from Wolf (a profane c r e a t u r e ) t o T h u n d e r b i r d o r L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t ( c r e a t u r e s of  the Inbetween) remains. What are the c o n c e p t u a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s image?  No  matter  what t h e i r secondary i d e n t i t y , a l l t h e masks r e p r e s e n t Wolf the h u n t e r . i n the Wolf r i t u a l , the masks r e p r e s e n t one b e i n g i n d i f f e r e n t moods. Wolf's b a s i c i d e n t i t y i s m o d i f i e d by the a d j e c t i v a l  Thus, The  i n f l u e n c e o f the beings  from the myth when he dons the c r e s t o r "mask" o f T h u n d e r b i r d , L i g h t n i n g Serpent o r Wolf.  Thus, the C r a w l i n g Wolf i s t h e h u n t e r t e a c h i n g , W h i r l i n g  Wolf i s the h u n t e r t r a n s f o r m i n g , and S t a n d i n g Wolf i s the h u n t e r b e i n g a hunter. of  These d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f the Wolf a r e p r e s e n t e d a t d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s  the r i t u a l .  has the a b i l i t y  A n o t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t b e i n g a h u n t e r a l s o means t h a t to transform.  A second q u e s t i o n a r i s e s .  Given t h a t T h u n d e r b i r d , L i g h t n i n g  Serpent and Wolf are r e l a t e d i n a major metaphor, i s t h e r e i s p a r a l l e l r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e t h r e e r o l e s o f the Wolf masks i n the Wolf  ritual?  Yes.  each  Because each mask appears i n a s e p a r a t e s t a g e o f t h e r i t u a l ,  component o f T h u n d e r b i r d ' s hunt i s a s s i g n e d a p l a c e i n the development  one  70. o f the r i t u a l  a c t i o n , so t h a t Wolf and L i g h t n i n g Serpent must be i n v o k e d  before Thunderbird  can appear.  c r e a t e s a Thunderbird  The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t the Wolf  ritual  and t h a t Wolf and L i g h t n i n g Serpent are needed a l o n g  w i t h the human n o v i c e to c r e a t e a T h u n d e r b i r d .  The r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between  the masks a r e s i m i l a r to those o f the p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n the myth. S t a n d i n g Wolf mask i s the focus o f the r i t u a l . l i k e the L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t ,  The  The W h i r l i n g Wolf mask,  r e p r e s e n t s the weapon - the means t h a t S t a n d i n g  Wolf uses to s u s t a i n and c r e a t e h i m s e l f - because the n o v i c e s i n ritual  become S t a n d i n g Wolf a f t e r b e i n g W h i r l i n g W o l f .  Wolf r i t u a l  the  In the Nootka  the young n o v i c e f o l l o w s the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask and t a k e s on  the L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t ' s  i d e n t i t y t o be a b l e to be l i k e the S t a n d i n g Wolf  mask, and to become, m e t a p h o r i c a l l y , T h u n d e r b i r d and t r a n s f e r r a l  the h u n t e r .  The  o f dimensions o f b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h L i g h t n i n g  addition Serpent  i n the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask, are used to t r a n s f o r m the human n o v i c e i n t o a human a d u l t .  C r a w l i n g Wolf i s a t e a c h e r l i k e the Wolf i n the myth,  because he h e l p s the n o v i c e s to change i n t o S t a n d i n g Wolf by showing them how to behave.  Thus t h e C r a w l i n g Wolf and W h i r l i n g Wolf r o l e s c r e a t e and  s u s t a i n the S t a n d i n g Wolf r o l e , i n the same manner t h a t Wolf and L i g h t n i n g Serpent teach and feed T h u n d e r b i r d  C.  Iconography  i n the myth.  o f C o l o u r - Red and B l a c k  While s t u d y i n g the Wolf masks i n the museum c o l l e c t i o n s t h a t the r i t u a l  masks were p a i n t e d red and/or b l a c k .  masks a r e s o l i d b l a c k ( E r n s t 1 9 5 2 : 3 8 ) .  The r i t u a l  The C r a w l i n g  I  noticed  Wolf  W h i r l i n g Wolf masks  are p a i n t e d w i t h o n l y b l a c k l i n e s or w i t h b l a c k and red l i n e s .  The  lines  71,  I  p a i n t e d on the r i t u a l black alone. white.  S t a n d i n g Wolf masks a r e always red and b l a c k , never  The background c o l o u r o f the masks i s u s u a l l y bare wood o r  In the f e s t i v a l o r p o t l a t c h v e r s i o n s o f the Wolf masks,  other  c o l o u r s are s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the r e d . b l a c k and w h i t e (see pages 35 and 36).  Red, b l a c k and w h i t e s y m b o l i z e a t t r i b u t e s t h a t a r e a c q u i r e d  through  s u p e r n a t u r a l c i r c u m s t a n c e i n Nootkan r i t u a l s and c e r e m o n i e s . On the Wolf masks, w h i t e i s used as a s u b s t i t u t e o r symbol f o r bare wood (page 3 5 ) .  We can r e g a r d the bare wood as a d e l i b e r a t e  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f what would happen i f a c o l o u r l e s s t r a n s p a r e n t were a p p l i e d to i t . whale o i l  the r i t u a l  One such l i q u i d which i s i m p o r t a n t to the Nootka i s  (Macfarlane 1978).  the l i m p i d o i l  liquid  Thus, I b e l i e v e t h a t w h i t e p a i n t s i g n i f i e s  t h a t i s rendered from the whales t h a t a r e beached through  power and e f f o r t s o f the c h i e f .  The o i l  s y m b o l i z e s w e a l t h and  s u b s t a n c e ; i t i s the most p r i z e d form o f food and the essence o f  the  Whale's b l u b b e r , i t s b u l k ( M a c f a r l a n e 1 9 7 8 ) . Red s i g n i f i e s the s u p e r n a t u r a l g i f t o f power.  Red s i g n i f i e d  the g i f t s which were r e c e i v e d by those who were b e i n g i n i t i a t e d i n t o  the  a n c i e n t red klukwana o r Tseyak r i t u a l , a h e a l i n g s o c i e t y (Boas 1 8 9 0 : 5 9 8 ; Drucker 1951:215-8).  The g i f t which was r e c e i v e d d u r i n g t h i s  was good h e a l t h from a s u p e r n a t u r a l o r i g i n . good h e a l t h f o r the N o o t k a . so t h a t they w i l l  But red s i g n i f i e s more than  Nootkan r i t u a l i s t s cause themselves to b l e e d  be l i k e the dead, b l o o d l e s s ( E r n s t 1 9 5 2 : 8 4 ) , thus  the Nootka b l o o d i s l i k e l i f e o r v i t a l i t y ; to death.  ritual  for  the l o s s o f e i t h e r one l e a d s  Red p a i n t i s sometimes r e f e r r e d t o as ' b l o o d paint*  (Sapir  and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 1 1 9 ) , so red p a i n t s i g n i f i e s v i t a l i t y and the good h e a l t h which a t t e n d s i t ,  i n Nootkan r i t u a l and c e r e m o n i a l s y m b o l i s m .  The s a c r e d  w i l d n e s s o f the woods, a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f s a c r e d power ( E r n s t 1 9 5 2 : 7 1 - 2 ) ,  72.  i s a l s o s i g n i f i e d by red p a i n t ( C u r t i s  1916:.89).  T h i s second s y m b o l i c  use o f red i n d i c a t e s t h a t the Nootka p e r c e i v e v i t a l i t y or supernatural dimension. dimensions,  The Nootka c a l l  this vitality  in a l l  its  power. The i n i t i a t e s o f the Wolf r i t u a l  p a i n t t h e i r faces black to  s i g n i f y t h a t they have r e c e i v e d a s u p e r n a t u r a l This g i f t  as h a v i n g a s a c r e d  gift  ( E r n s t 1952:67 and 7 8 ) .  i s a s p e c i a l i d e n t i t y , which can be deduced from an a n a l y s i s  o f the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f the concept o f b l a c k i n the Nootkan l a n g u a g e .  Table The Nootkan topk^  stem for 'black'  topkok;  3  (A);  to.psi  3  ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:269)  ' b l a c k , dark c o l o u r e d  1  'evening'  topaltopal(-)-, topal-  I  topa.ti;  ' s a l t , saltwater, sea  1  ' p r i v i l e g e from a s u p e r n a t u r a l s o u r c e ' [ a l s o ' m a r r i a g e p r i v i l e g e ' brought by a b r i d e t o her husband from her f a m i l y (Drucker 1951:141]  The Nootkan word f o r b l a c k , topk-  3  p r o v i d e s the r o o t f o r  several  words which r e f e r t o t h i n g s which a r e s i m i l a r because they do belong o u t s i d e o f the bounds o f a . p a r t i c u l a r human group o r v i l l a g e . r e f e r s t o the sea and s a l t w a t e r . 892)  Topaltopal(-)  Humans d r i n k f r e s h water (Boas 1916:  r a t h e r than s a l t w a t e r , and they do not b e l o n g on the sea f o r  they  must be r i t u a l l y prepared b e f o r e they dare to venture o u t on the sea (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 1 6 8 - 7 0 ) . beings.  The sea i s a dangerous and h o s t i l e p l a c e f o r human  A woman who waded c a r e l e s s l y i n t o the sea was dragged out and  drowned by the s e a l s k i n she was washing ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 6 3 ) .  73.  Topa.ti means a wedding p r i v i l e g e  from a s u p e r n a t u r a l  to t h e b r i d e ( D r u c k e r 1 9 5 1 : 1 4 1 ) .  Both the p r i v i l e g e and t h e b r i d e come  from o u t s i d e the group i n t o which she m a r r i e s .  source t h a t  To.psi(X)  belongs  means e v e n i n g ,  the time f o r s e c u l a r human a c t i v i t i e s to end and the time f o r  rituals.  Thus i n Nootkan s p e e c h , thought and a c t i o n , b l a c k i d e n t i f i e s t h i n g s  which  a r e beyond a p a r t i c u l a r human group. Red and b l a c k p l a y an a c t i v e r o l e i n Nootkan r i t u a l s such as Whaling. whaling) skill, tions  For the Nootka ( D r u c k e r 1951:169 I f f . ,  for a description  of  t h i s i s a dangerous u n d e r t a k i n g which demands much s t r e n g t h  both p h y s i c a l  and s u p e r n a t u r a l  (Densmore 1 9 3 9 : 4 7 - 8 ) .  The p r e p a r a -  i n c l u d e p a i n t i n g t h e canoe to s y m b o l i z e t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s .  The  i n s i d e i s p a i n t e d red (Swan 1870:38) which s i g n i f i e s and r e i n f o r c e s v i t a l i t y where t h e crew s i t s . (Swan 1870:38) to i d e n t i f y it.  i t w i t h the nonhuman sea which l a p s  i n s i d e the canoe, w h i l e the b l a c k g i v e s  whale i n the s e a .  against strength  them a c c e s s to the  The harpooner p a i n t s h i s f a c e b l a c k ( D r u c k e r 1955  65:142) because he must assume the sea i d e n t i t y . o f may harpoon i t .  the  The o u t s i d e o f the canoe i s c h a r r e d b l a c k  The c o l o u r scheme a l l o w s the men to augment t h e i r p h y s i c a l  and v i t a l i t y  and  the whale b e f o r e he  Even these p r e c a u t i o n s are o f t e n i n a d e q u a t e ;  failure,  i n j u r y and death a r e c o n s t a n t r e f r a i n s i n Nootkan t a l e s about w h a l i n g . The Wolf r i t u a l the Nootka.  A n y t h i n g can happen when the wolves are i n the v i l l a g e ,  the u n i n i t i a t e d are c a r e f u l 1939:103). ritual  i s a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n t h a t i s f u l l o f danger  to keep t o the s a f e t y o f t h e i r homes  T h u s , because p a i n t i s used by the Nootka i n o t h e r  situations,  for and  (Densmore  dangerous  I submit t h a t when o n l y red and b l a c k , h i g h l y  symbolic  c o l o u r s , are used on some o f the Wolf masks, these somber masks a r e  74.  i n t e n d e d f o r use i n the Wolf r i t u a l and o r d e r l y  r a t h e r than f o r d i s p l a y d u r i n g  c e r e m o n i a l o c c a s i o n s such as p o t l a t c h e s .  It  is clear  t h e s e c o l o u r s are a p p l i e d to the r i t u a l W o l f masks to s i g n i f y gifts;  profane that  supernatural  r e d , a g i f t o f power r e c e i v e d by the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f a s p i r i t u a l l y  adept human p a t r o n ; and b l a c k , a g i f t r e c e i v e d through the patronage  of  an a n i m a l , o f something i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the s e a , w i t h o t h e r human v i l l a g e s o r w i t h t h e wol f . In general  t e r m s , t h e use o f s o l i d b l a c k , and red and b l a c k  l i n e s on t h e Wolf masks can be seen as a p r o c e s s o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n when t h e y a r e p l a c e d i n the o r d e r o f t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e ; the s o l i d b l a c k o f  the  C r a w l i n g Wolf mask i s broken up t o become the b l a c k l i n e s o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask; then r e d , e x p r e s s e d as red l i n e s , i s added to the d e s i g n on the S t a n d i n g Wolf mask.  The temporal p r o g r e s s i o n s t a r t s w i t h a b l a c k  mass which i s broken and then p e n e t r a t e d by red l i n e s , which can be seen as a m o d i f i e d red mass.  The t r a n s i t i o n a l  stage o f c o l o u r a t i o n i s  by b l a c k l i n e s , and c o i n c i d e s w i t h the p a r t i a l identity  i n the Wolf r i t u a l .  If  p o r a t e d some v i t a l i t y .  i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f a Wolf  the t r a n s i t i o n a l s t a g e were  on the Wolf masks i n red s t r i p e s ,  expressed  i t would i n d i c a t e a b e i n g who has  incor-  But the c o l o u r s o f the masks e x p r e s s the t r a n s i -  t i o n a l stage i n terms o f i d e n t i t y ,  and so t h e W h i r l i n g Wolf and the  he r e p r e s e n t s are beings who have changed i d e n t i t y .  Then,  i t s red and b l a c k l i n e s , a b e i n g who has changed i n i t i a l l y and s e c o n d a r i l y ,  i n terms o f v i t a l i t y o r  through  i n terms  of  power.  The c o l o u r s and t h e manner o f t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n i n d i c a t e s ource and n a t u r e o f the g i f t s  novice  i n the next  s t a g e o f the Wolf r i t u a l , the S t a n d i n g Wolf mask r e p r e s e n t s ,  identity,  expressed  t h a t the masks have r e c i e v e d and  the  75.  i n c o r p o r a t e d as components o f t h e i r persona.  The b l a c k p a i n t o f  the  C r a w l i n g Wolf i n d i c a t e s t h a t he shares an i d e n t i t y w i t h a nonhuman r e a l m o r another t r i b e o f humans.  S i n c e t h e C r a w l i n g Wolf comes to the  from h i s home, t h i s i d e n t i t y  i s from the house o f the Wolves and the  o f the m o u n t a i n s .  In the c o n t e x t o f the r i t u a l ,  ritual  the W h i r l i n g W o l f ' s  s t r i p e s i n d i c a t e t h a t he has a c q u i r e d some o f the Wolf i d e n t i t y o f Crawling Wolf.  black  the  The red and b l a c k s t r i p e s o f the S t a n d i n g Wolf mask  i n d i c a t e he has some o f the Wolf i d e n t i t y supernatural  foot  vitality.  o r h a b i t o f m i n d , and some  In the c o n t e x t o f the Wolf r i t u a l  r e c e i v e d both o f these q u a l i t i e s from the W h i r l i n g W o l f .  he must have S i n c e the s o u r c e  o f the b l a c k i s the C r a w l i n g W o l f ' s home, the s o u r c e o f the red  paint  and power must be L i g h t n i n g Serpent - the secondary i d e n t i t y o f W h i r l i n g Wolf - o r e q u a l l y the realm o f the Inbetween,  D.  Iconography o f  the home o f W h i r l i n g  Wolf.  Style  On each o f the t h r e e types o f Wolf mask the dominant Wolf shape i s a l t e r e d so t h a t the masks d i f f e r from each o t h e r i n s t y l e and b a l a n c e . I s h a l l now examine t h e s e v a r i a t i o n s  i n my p u r s u i t o f the c a t e g o r i e s  the Nootkan cosmology and statements about the  Inbetween.  The C r a w l i n g Wolf mask i s the l e a s t s t y l i z e d o f the The n a t u r a l  proportions  of  o f the W o l f ' s head are b a r e l y a l t e r e d .  three. The  l i n e s t h a t d e l i n a t e the Wolf shape a r e a l m o s t as v a r i a b l e as i n  nature.  The l e n g t h o f the mouth i s n a t u r a l .  suggest  The t e e t h are not bared to  t e n s i o n and to d i s p l a y the w o l f ' s weapons - weapons b e i n g a human a r t i f a c t . The forehead and s k u l l  are unadorned.  The e a r s are not d e p i c t e d , one o f  76,  the few u n n a t u r a l  touches.  Other d e p a r t u r e s  from the n a t u r a l w o l f ' s  head  a r e the use o f wood r a t h e r than f u r f o r t h e s u r f a c e , and the s o l i d b l a c k c o l o u r a t i o n , r a t h e r than hues o f g r e y . Wolf form i s b a l a n c e d and r e l a x e d .  The general  l i n e s o f the C r a w l i n g  The v i s u a l message o f the mask i s  t h a t t h i s i s the e s s e n t i a l Wolf f o r the Nootka. The W h i r l i n g Wolf mask p r e s e n t s a d i f f e r e n t t r e a t m e n t o f t h e Wolf f o r m .  The W o l f ' s l o n g mouth, m u z z l e , eye and f o r e h e a d are  but r e a l i g n e d a l o n g the d i a g o n a l a x i s and rendered i n s t r a i g h t  retained lines.  Whether the mask i s made from a s i n g l e b l o c k o f wood, o r from two b o a r d s , the p r o f i l e o f the f r o n t o f the muzzle i s a d i a g o n a l , line.  The n o s t r i l  is thrust  jaw than i s n a t u r a l .  straight  f a r t h e r forward i n r e l a t i o n to the  The muzzle i s l o n g e r than t h a t o f a r e a l  The f o r e h e a d , though rounded l i k e t h a t o f a r e a l w o l f ,  thin  lower wolf.  is unnaturally  low.  The exposed t e e t h are s h a r p , s t r a i g h t - s i d e d t r i a n g l e s s e t a t a s l a n t . The eye which i s sometimes s e t d i a g o n a l l y , rounded c o r n e r s .  i s an e l o n g a t e d r e c t a n g l e  The W h i r l i n g Wolf masks become t o t a l l y  w o l f a t the top and back o f the head. or wooden f e a t h e r s .  with  unlike a natural  These areas are d e c o r a t e d w i t h  real  These are p l a c e d a t an a n g l e so t h a t they s l o p e back  from the W o l f ' s brow and top o f the h e a d ; and sweep downward from the back o f the head. The v i g o r o u s d i a g o n a l s and s t r a i g h t l i n e s o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf masks are, very d i f f e r e n t Wolf mask.  The d i a g o n a l s t h r u s t out i n o p p o s i n g d i r e c t i o n s  f o r c e s i n the v i s u a l other's effect. fail  from the r e l a x e d , n a t u r a l c u r v e s o f the C r a w l i n g so t h a t  the  c o m p o s i t i o n p u l l a g a i n s t each o t h e r and n u l l i f y  each  The l i n e s o f t h e f e a t h e r s and the f r o n t edge o f the nose  to c a r r y t h e i r f u l l  f o r c e and energy because the s t r e n g t h o f  the  77.  l i n e s i s d i s s i p a t e d through t a p e r i n g ends. and t h r e a t e n to f a l l  down and d e s t r o y  composition, with i t s visual  The d i a g o n a l l i n e s are  the p a t t e r n .  This  self-destructive  force l i n e s leading o f f in a multitude  d i r e c t i o n s may be viewed as the a r t i s t ' s  visual  of  r e n d i t i o n o f the p a r a -  d o x i c a l , l o g i c a l l y s e l f - n e g a t i n g n a t u r e o f many Nootkan s p i r i t s . e f f e c t o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask i s one o f v i s u a l and t r a n s i t o r i n e s s  unstable  The  imbalance, a g i t a t i o n  (see F i g u r e 2 ) .  The s t y l e o f the S t a n d i n g Wolf masks i s based on v e r t i c a l r a t h e r than d i a g o n a l ones.  The e a r s a r e s t i l l m i s s i n g , the n o s t r i l  b u i l t up to a squared mound.  A crest of v e r t i c a l , blunt  ornaments t h e top and back o f the head. w i t h rounded c o r n e r s .  a real wolf. vertical  is  'feathers'  The eye form i s a s h o r t  rectangle  The t e e t h are o f t e n b l u n t , b r o a d , and s e t  c a l l y i n t o the upper and l o w e r j a w s .  lines  verti-  The muzzle i s t h i c k e r than t h a t  The f r o n t s i l h o u e t t e o f the muzzle i s an a b r u p t ,  r a t h e r than rounded and t a p e r e d as i n a l i v i n g  of  straight  wolf.  The v i s u a l message o f the l i n e s o f the S t a n d i n g Wolf mask i s c o n c e n t r a t e d , ordered s t r e n g t h .  The v e r t i c a l s move i n the same d i r e c t i o n .  The c o n s i s t e n t t h i c k n e s s o f the l i n e s means t h a t they end w i t h t h e i r w i d t h and v i s u a l maintained. Visually,  strength  i n t a c t , so t h a t the t h r u s t o f each l i n e  Each l i n e i s b a l a n c e d , and does not t h r e a t e n to t i p  the motion i s o r d e r l y  complete i t s a l l o t t e d t a s k .  full  is over.  and i t s energy i s c o n s t a n t and a b l e to  The v e r t i c a l  b a l a n c e o f the p a t t e r n  is  r e i n f o r c e d by the u n i f o r m d i r e c t i o n o f t h e l i n e s w h i l e the formal comp o s i t i o n o f t h e mask i s g i v e n t e n s i o n by the i n s i s t e n t use o f lines.  T h i s s t y l i z a t i o n o f the w o l f form i s f u l l  straight  o f power and s t a b i l i t y .  78.  (/isu**.  r^tusr  /N  ftoitro  Op  TUG-  UkmuNUr  79.  The s t y l e and b a l a n c e o f the masks convey two s e t s i n general a e s t h e t i c t e r m s .  of,.concepts  The s t y l i z a t i o n o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf and  S t a n d i n g Wolf masks i s t h e v i s i b l e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f a f o r c e pushing the n a t u r a l  l i n e s o f the C r a w l i n g Wolf mask, a form which i s  free of s t y l i s t i c f l o u r i s h e s .  T h i s energy i s e x t e r n a l  the W o l f , the b a s i c form o f the masks.  relatively  to the n a t u r e  In c o n t r a s t ,  stability  the t e e t e r i n g d i a g o n a l s o f  W h i r l i n g Wolf mask, which p o i n t i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s a t o n c e , e x p r e s s s t a b i l i t y and t u r m o i l .  Its  of  The b a l a n c e i n the c o m p o s i t i o n  o f the C r a w l i n g Wolf mask and the S t a n d i n g Wolf mask e x p r e s s e s and t h e absence o f change.  against  the in-  s t y l e h i n t s a t the imminant p r o p s e c t o f change,  t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f the form o f t h e mask, and the r e l e a s e o f the energy t h a t i s c o n t a i n e d by the f r e n e t i c ,  but p r e c a r i o u s c o m p o s i t i o n o f  the  mask's form. Through the c o n t e x t o f the Wolf r i t u a l , we can p l a c e t h e s e c o n c e p t s i n t o t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f the Nootkan cosmology. by the s t y l i z e d d e s i g n must be the s u p e r n a t u r a l power.  The energy e x p r e s s e d  vitality  o f the  Inbetween,  T h i s i s a l s o the power (Densmore 1939:297) t h a t the n o v i c e s  e x p e r i e n c i n g as they are c h a n g i n g , t r a n s f o r m i n g on a s a c r e d l e v e l , c h i l d h o o d to a d u l t h o o d . but s t i l l  powerful  S i n c e the S t a n d i n g Wolf r e p r e s e n t s  are from  the calmed  i n i t i a t e s , the s t y l i z a t i o n o f t h i s mask can a l s o be  equated w i t h t h e power o r v i t a l i t y  o f the Inbetween.  The b a l a n c e i n the  c o m p o s i t i o n o f the C r a w l i n g Wolf and S t a n d i n g Wolf masks must  reflect  t h e s t a b l e and e a r t h - b o u n d n a t u r e o r p r o f a n i t y o f the W o l f ' s and the human's i d e n t i t i e s ; w h i l e t h e imbalance o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask must r e f l e c t the t e m p o r a r y , r e a l m o f the Inbetween.  f l u i d n a t u r e o f the s a c r e d , s p e c i a l beings i n the Further,  I c o n c l u d e t h a t the r i t u a l  context  of  80.  the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask e x p r e s s e s t h e b e l i e f t h a t change and power o r i g i n a t e i n the r e a l m o f the Inbetween i n the Nootkan cosmos.  E.  Iconography " W o l f n e s s " i s the p r i m a r y i d e n t i t y o f the form o f the Wolf 1  masks, but the secondary a s p e c t s o f the Wolf masks r e v e a l t h r e e p e r s o n a l i t i e s through the use o f v i s u a l c a t e g o r i e s .  different  The i d e n t i t y ,  and s t y l e o f each mask s e p a r a t e messages which are j o i n e d through t h e agency o f the complete form o f the mask.  colour  together  The i d e n t i t i e s and  c o l o u r o f the C r a w l i n g Wolf mask d e f i n e s him as a t u t o r o f a p r o f a n e r e a l m who has the i d e n t i t y and knowledge o f a p r e d a t o r y W o l f , but t h e s t y l e t h i s mask i n d i c a t e s t h a t he i s not a s o u r c e o f e n e r g y ,  v i t a l i t y or  of  power.  The s t y l e , c o l o u r and i d e n t i t i e s o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf i n d i c a t e s t h a t he i s the means to power, and i n the c o n t e x t o f the r i t u a l u n s t a b l e s t a t e i n the r e a l m o f the Inbetween.  he r e s i d e s i n an  The v i s u a l c a t e g o r i e s  of  t h e S t a n d i n g Wolf mask d e f i n e i t as a hunter who has power and the W o l f ' s knowledge, both r e c e i v e d i n s a c r e d c i r c u m s t a n c e s . mask i n d i c a t e s t h a t S t a n d i n g Wolf w i l l  The s t y l e o f the  third  not change, and i n the c o n t e x t  the r i t u a l , he does not r e s i d e i n the r e a l m o f the Inbetween.  of  The u n s t a b l e  and a c t i v e q u a l i t i e s o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask s e t i t a p a r t from the o t h e r two mask t y p e s .  These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , change and e n e r g y , which b e l o n g  t o t h e Nootkan r e a l m o f t h e Inbetween a r e i n c o n t r a s t t o the s t a b i l i t y o f the Land r e a l m .  inactive  81  CHAPTER 3:  FOOTNOTES  The Wolf mask c o l l e c t e d by John Webber i n 1778 (Boas 1897: 478) i s c a l l e d a ' c a t (Gunther 1972:224) p r o b a b l y a g l o s s f o r ' c o u g a r ' which i s the r i t u a l a v o i d a n c e name f o r t h e C r a w l i n g Wolves (see b e l o w ) . Thus Webber's ' k a t z ' i s the o l d form o f r i t u a l C r a w l i n g Wolf mask. S i n c e t h e ceremonial C r a w l i n g Wolf masks i n Canadian museums, which a r e a l s o r e f e r r e d to by Drucker (1951: 3 9 3 ) , are v e r y s i m i l a r i n form t o Webber's ' k a t z ' , i t i s s a f e to a n a l y s e these more modern forms as i f they belong t o the r i t u a l s e r i e s o f Wolf masks. See p l a t e s 5 and 6 . 1  The word f o r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 2 6 7 ) .  ' d u l l ' , misk, a l s o means ' w i t h o u t power'  (Sapir  3  ' w The r i t u a l a v o i d a n c e names f o r C r a w l i n g Wolf i s sa'ak (Sapir and Swadesh 1939:306) and sa'shisi o r c r a w l e r s (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 3 8 8 ) . C r a w l e r s , f o u r - f o o t e d a n i m a l s , i s a l s o an e p i t h e t f o r cougars ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 4 9 ) . Sa'nek, v e r y s i m i l a r t o sa ak , i s t h e name g i v e n t o t h e panther dance ( E r n s t 1 9 5 2 : 7 4 ) . Panther and cougar are t h e names g i v e n to two masks (See p l a t e 5 , BCPM 2120; NMC V I I - F - 5 1 9 ) which are s i m i l a r i n form to two C r a w l i n g Wolf masks (See p l a t e s 5 and 6 , BCPM 6633 and BCPM 10708). Thus panther and cougar must be e p i t h e t s f o r w o l f . ?  w  The dead have no bones i n t h e i r bodies t o g i v e them s o l i d shapes (Swan 1 8 7 0 : 8 4 ) . The bones remain i n the profane r e a l m where the being l i v e d . But the dead themselves are r e s i d e n t s o f the Inbetween.  There i s a term meaning 'under the arm t o ' used f o r the people i n a l i n e a g e house who are most c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the c h i e f ( D r u c k e r 1951:279). These people are nobles who l i v e under the l e a d e r s h i p and p r o t e c t i o n o f the c h i e f , j u s t as L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t l i v e s under the Thunderbird. The a f f i n i t y i n the West Coast Cosmology, between the c h i e f ' s s o n , a h i g h - r a n k i n g n o b l e , and the Inbetween i s more a p p a r e n t .  Joe D a v i d , e x p l a i n i n g the g r e a t n e s s o f a w h a l e r , f l e x e d h i s arm muscles t o i n d i c a t e p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h , and spoke o f the s p i r i t u a l 'power' a t the same t i m e . To h i m , the two were synonymous. 1978, s p r i n g .  82.  Chapter 4  MOVEMENT  Each Wolf mask was d i s p l a y e d w i t h  " i t s own a p p o i n t e d " dance  ( E r n s t 1 9 5 2 : 1 5 ) , the C r a w l i n g Wolf dance, the W h i r l i n g Wolf dance o r S t a n d i n g Wolf dance.  The Nootka used these t h r e e modes o f movement t o  d i s t i n g u i s h the t h r e e Wolf masks from each o t h e r , Inbetween  the  from the r e s t o f the Nootkan cosmos.  and the realm o f  the  The t h r e e modes are  e x p r e s s e d by two s e t s o f s y m b o l s , the nomenclature and the form o f  the  dance which belongs t o each mask.  A.  Nomenclature:  C r a w l i n g , W h i r l i n g and S t a n d i n g  Though t h e t h r e e Wolf masks are c a l l e d Wolves, each type  is  d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the o t h e r s by a s o b r i q u e t which d e s i g n a t e s a mode o f moving.  In o r d e r o f appearance i n the Wolf r i t u a l , they are  W h i r l i n g and S t a n d i n g ( E r n s t 1952:38 and 1 0 6 ) .  Crawling,  These s o b r i q u e t s a r e the  E n g l i s h g l o s s f o r the form and name o f the t h r e e Wolf d a n c e s . Nootka c a l l e d the C r a w l i n g Wolf dance sa'ishi 393) w h i l e the P o r t A l b e r n i ' c r a w l i n g dance'  and U c l u e l e t groups c a l l  ( D r u c k e r 1951:  The Makah c a l l  " t h e masked dance s y m b o l i z i n g  ( E r n s t 1952:21) w h i l e the Vancouver  Northern  i t sa'rikyak o r  ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:129 and 2 2 6 ) .  the W h i l r i n g Wolf dance he-quat'luck, Wolf f r e n z y "  or 'crawlers'  The  the  I s l a n d groups use the  83.  term Ea-et'lik  ( E r n s t 1 9 5 2 : 7 5 ) , the n a t i v e name f o r L i g h t n i n g  The Vancouver I s l a n d groups c a l l 'wolf imitator'  Serpent.  t h e S t a n d i n g Wolf dance quaiyatsiniq  or  ( D u r c k e r 1951:412) and the s t e p i t s e l f i s c a l l e d tuhtuh  (Drucker 1951:412).  Tuhtuh i s v e r y s i m i l a r to tutus,  T h u n d e r b i r d (Densmore 1 9 3 9 : 1 0 9 ) .  the Makah name f o r  I have proceeded to a n a l y s e the  g l o s s e s because I b e l i e v e they h o l d some v a l i d i t y  for several  English  Nootka i n f o r m a n t s ,  e s p e c i a l l y C h a r l e s Swan, who appeared to have c o n c u r r e d w i t h E r n s t 1952:38) who's study o f the Wolf r i t u a l  (Ernst  i s the most d e t a i l e d .  The d i f f e r e n t s t e p s i n the E n g l i s h names o f the Wolf masks can bee seen to s y m b o l i z e i n general  terms the t r a n s i t i o n from i n e p t to  adept,  and i n Nootkan terms t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from one s t a t e o f b e i n g to  another,  from animal to human. The f i r s t manner o f moving to appear i n the Wolf r i t u a l crawling.  In general  is  t e r m s , i t i s the g a i t o f a baby, a human who does  not have the s t r e n g t h and s k i l l to walk l i k e an a d u l t , a man. f o u r - f o o t e d Land a n i m a l .  to move i n t o the u p r i g h t  posture  needed  For the N o o t k a , c r a w l i n g i s the g a i t o f a  They o f t e n r e f e r to Wolves as " c r a w l e r s '  1951:393) and to panthers o r cougars as c r e a t u r e s who walk on a l l ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 4 9 ) .  (Drucker fours  The s i m i l a r i t y i n f e r r e d between the human  baby and the l a n d c r e a t u r e s by the s o b r i q u e t  'crawling'  can be t h a t  neither  are a d u l t humans. The second mode o f a c t i o n , w h i r l i n g , ritual  sequence between c r a w l i n g and s t a n d i n g .  i s i n t e r m e d i a t e i n the In g e n e r a l , i t i s an  a c t i o n which one can execute when s h i f t i n g from c r a w l i n g to s t a n d i n g . L e t me e x p l a i n .  In w h i r l i n g ,  the f o r w a r d motion o f c r a w l i n g i s h a l t e d ,  and the performer i s a n c h o r e d , more o r l e s s to a s i n g l e s p o t as i n s t a n d i n g .  84.  But the motion i t s e l f has not c e a s e d .  R a t h e r , the energy has been t r a n s -  l a t e d from a forward d i r e c t i o n to a w h i r l i n g one.  So w h i r l i n g i s  like  c r a w l i n g s i n c e t h e r e i s m o t i o n , and l i k e s t a n d i n g because the a c t o r remains i n one p l a c e .  W h i r l i n g i s a movement w i t h o u t d i r e c t i o n .  Thus w h i r l i n g  is  pure movement. W h i r l i n g has a s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the N o o t k a . apparent movement o f a man's s o u l when i t clump o f b i r d s ' he i s i l l  is  the  i s h e l d i n a shaman's hand i n a  down a f t e r i t has detached i t s e l f from t h e man's body when  (Drucker 2951:211).  body, h i s h e a l t h and v i t a l i t y  When the s o u l i s r e t u r n e d to the return.  patient's  W h i r l i n g i s not the movement o f an  animal who c r a w l s , nor o f a human who s t a n d s .  W h i r l i n g i s the name o f  Wolf mask t h a t belongs t o the realm o f the Inbetween. movement o f the b e i n g s and t h i n g s t h a t b e l o n g t h e r e , vitality  It  the  Thus w h i r l i n g i s  the  including health,  and power. S t a n d i n g , t h e a t t i t u d e suggested by the name o f the t h i r d  to appear i n the r i t u a l  sequence, a l s o has general  Wolf  and Nootkan s i g n i f i c a n c e .  In g e n e r a l , the human a d u l t i s a b l e to h o l d h i m s e l f e r e c t and i s a b l e to m a i n t a i n h i s p o s i t i o n as a man, two f e a t s which a r e i m p o s s i b l e f o r an i n f a n t o r an a n i m a l .  Furthermore,  the Nootka c h a r a c t e r i z e the s t a n c e o f an impo-  t a n t man, a c h i e f , as t h a t o f a man s t a n d i n g i n a canoe b e i n g c a r r i e d up the beach to a f e a s t (Roberts  and Swadesh 1 9 5 5 : 3 1 7 ) , o r as the  harpooner,  a l s o a c h i e f (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 5 0 - 5 1 ) s t a n d i n g i n the prow o f the w h a l i n g canoe p o i s e d t o t h r u s t the harpoon i n t o the whale a l o n g s i d e (Swan 1 8 7 0 : 1 1 ) . Thus to the N o o t k a , ' s t a n d i n g '  i s the p o s t u r e which d e s i g n a t e s a s u c c e s s f u l  a d u l t human, and not a f o u r - f o o t e d animal o r  child.  85.  B.  Dances Each Wolf mask i s d i s p l a y e d w i t h a d i f f e r e n t  15),  a statement e x p r e s s e d i n body movements.  r e l a t e d to t h a t o f the mask d u r i n g the r i t u a l  dance ( E r n s t 1952:  The d a n c e ' s statement i s performance when t h e dance  and the mask are used to p o r t r a y a s i n g l e , i n t e g r a t e d  character.  The f i r s t d a n c e , the C r a w l i n g Wolf d a n c e , i s executed on a l l on the k n u c k l e s o f the hands and the b a l l s o f the f e e t . is  The d a n c e r ' s thumb  p o i n t e d backwards, and down i n i m i t a t i o n o f the W o l f ' s dew claw  1964:29-30).  The d a n c e r ' s body remains h o r i z o n t a l  fours,  (Budic  as he moves a t a moderate  rate. "The dancers become i n s t r u m e n t s f o r c a s t i n g shadows o f w o l v e s . The slow even movements p r o j e c t e d upon the w a l l s o f t h e dance house i n shadows c a s t up by a c e n t r a l f i r e would seem t o have surrounded t h e audience w i t h t h e . . .aura o f a w o l f s e e k i n g p r e y . " ( B u d i c 1964:33) The nonhuman q u a l i t y o f the C r a w l i n g Wolf d a n c e r , h i s h u n t i n g prowess are e x p r e s s e d by the dance. how e a s i l y the Wolf f i t s  'wolfness'  and h i s  The moderate pace i n d i c a t e s  i n t h i s r o l e ; the Wolf w i l l  always be a w o l f .  The second Wolf dance, the W h i r l i n g Wolf dance i s performed a t a r a p i d pace ( E r n s t 1 9 5 2 : 9 6 ) .  The dancer i s h a l f c r o u c h e d , so t h a t  body forms a z i g z a g - a s e r i e s o f d i a g o n a l l i n e s . and s p r i n g s up w h i l e s t i l l  He w h i r l s ,  i n the s q u a t t i n g p o s t u r e ,  crouches down  f o u r times i n a row,  and then pauses b e f o r e r e p e a t i n g the f o u r jumps ( B u d i c 1 9 6 4 : 3 5 ) . d a n c e r ' s movements are r a p i d and e n e r g e t i c .  his  The  For the N o o t k a , the dance i s  not the movement o f a r e a l man o r a n i m a l , though i t i s performed by a man wearing a p a r t - W o l f mask, because men s t a n d and wolves c r a w l . the animal are b e i n g animated by a n o t h e r i d e n t i t y .  The man and  The W h i r l i n g Wolf  86  dance p o r t r a y s  a w o l f t h a t i s moving because he i s possessed by the c r a z i -  ness o r w i l d n e s s o f the Wolf r i t u a l  ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1955:135) which  the same as t h e power o r haina o f the Inbetween  (Ernst 1952:71-2).  t h i s dance i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f the Inbetween o r the L i g h t n i n g  is  Thus  Serpeant  a s p e c t o f the W h i r l i n g W o l f mask. The W h i r l i n g Wolf dance i s hard to m a i n t a i n because o f the p o s t u r e and r a p i d pace.  Clearly,  difficult  the degree o f d i f f i c u l t y o f the dance  when compared to the C r a w l i n g Wolf dance, i n d i c a t e s , i n the general o f dance, t h a t b e i n g a W h i r l i n g Wolf i s o n l y a temporary r o l e ,  language  f o r the dance  can o n l y be performed f o r a s h o r t time b e f o r e the b a l a n c e and speed o f d a n c e r ' s movements must change r e s u l t i n g i n a d i f f e r e n t  dance.  the  Thus the  energy expended i n the dance presages change, and the W h i r l i n g Wolf dance represents  a s i n g l e moment i n the Nootkan process o f change.  Thus,  the N o o t k a , change i s a c h i e v e d through the e x p e n d i t u r e o f w h i r l i n g  for motion  and energy. How i s w h i r l i n g r e l a t e d to t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ?  In the Wolf  W h i r l i n g Wolf does not y e t have the g i f t o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n : w h i r l i n g i n o r d e r to t r a n s f o r m to someone who does. t h e movement o f power. the ' w h i r l i n g '  Thus,  ritual,  r a t h e r he i s  But w h i r l i n g i s  also  I must c o n c l u d e t h a t the power e x p r e s s e d by  i s an a s p e c t o f the process o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .  I must  further  p o s t u l a t e t h a t w h i r l i n g i s the process o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f o r the N o o t k a ; and t h a t w h i r l i n g i s t h e means to power d u r i n g the Wolf r i t u a l .  We are  l e f t w i t h the paradox t h a t the n o v i c e ' s new power i s the r e s u l t o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n d u r i n g the Wolf r i t u a l ,  but t h a t t h e i r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n comes  about through t h e . p o w e r o f the i n i t i a t o r s o f the Wolf r i t u a l , and the C r a w l i n g Wolves.  their  the host  87  The t h i r d Wolf dance, the S t a n d i n g Wolf dance i s performed i n a vertical  p o s i t i o n (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 4 1 2 ) .  low hops, w i t h both f e e t t o g e t h e r  The dancer moves forward i n  (Drucker 1951:412).  Or the hops are  a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h a t a k e - o f f from one f o o t and a l a n d i n g on both (Budic 1964:44).  short,  feet  S t a n d i n g Wolf dances w i t h h i s arms out i n f r o n t o f him  and h i s hands c l e n c h e d i n a f i s t w i t h the thumbs up. "The dance s t e p would seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e dancers were t r y i n g t o communicate t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y were i n s i d e a v e h i c l e o f movement, n o t a c t u a l l y moving t h e m s e l v e s . " ( B u d i c 1964:45). T h i s b r i n g s us back to the image o f the w h a l e r s t a n d i n g i n h i s canoe.  The  upright  Killer  p o s t u r e o f the d a n c e r ' s thumb s y m b o l i z e s the d o r s a l  Whale, the c h i e f h u n t e r o f the s e a , and r e i n f o r c e s s t a n d i n g as the p o s t u r e o f the w h a l i n g c h i e f . dance i s not d i r e c t l y  documented.  It  f i n o f the  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  of  The pace o f the S t a n d i n g Wolf  i s p r o b a b l y s l o w , as i s t h e pace o f  the song " A l l are w a t c h i n g me," a Wolf song which i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r S t a n d i n g Wolf (Densmore 1 9 3 9 : 9 7 f f ) . represents  Thus,  the  the Nootkan S t a n d i n g Wolf dance  a human b e i n g o f c h i e f l y rank and s t a t u s . The dances a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the masks h e l p t o d e s c r i b e the  of t h e i r r i t u a l a wolf.  roles.  The C r a w l i n g W o l f , a c c o r d i n g to the dance,  S t a n d i n g Wolf i s a human w h a l e r and c h i e f .  power [haina) t h a t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . dance r e p r e s e n t s quickly.  t h e Inbetween  character personifies  W h i r l i n g Wolf i s  the  The W h i r l i n g Wolf  as a temporary s t a t e , one to be passed through  The o t h e r two Wolf dances can be m a i n t a i n e d f o r a l o n g time because  o f the s l o w e r p a c e ; thus they r e p r e s e n t the more permanent c h a r a c t e r  of  e x i s t e n c e i n the Land realm i n t h e house o f the Wolves and i n the houses  88.  o f men.  In the terms o f the T h u n d e r b i r d myth, the ' w o l f  c i a t e d w i t h the T u t o r i n g W o l f ,  t h e ' t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and power'  associated with Lightning Serpent, c i a t e d with Thunderbird.  dance i s a s s o -  and the 'human c h i e f ' s '  dance i s  dance i s a s s o -  These a s s o c i a t i o n s are e x p r e s s e d through  the  a l i g n m e n t o f the dances w i t h the Wolf masks d u r i n g the Wolf r i t u a l .  C.  Conclusion The two s e t s o f a c t i o n s y m b o l s , dance and a p p e l l a t i o n ,  concepts t h a t are p a r a l l e l to each o t h e r i n Nootkan t h o u g h t .  The  express Crawling  Wolf i n dance and i n name i s a w o l f who i s l i n k e d w i t h human c h i l d r e n . The W h i r l i n g Wolf e x p r e s s e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between power and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n dance and a p p e l l a t i o n .  The S t a n d i n g Wolf dance and name r e p r e s e n t . ,  a c h i e f and an a d u l t human. Furthermore, reveal  the s i m i l a r i t i e s and the d i f f e r e n c e s o f the dances  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the t h r e e types o f W o l f .  the W h i r l i n g Wolf dance s e t s  'power and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  1  The speed o f a p a r t from the  and 'man' r e p r e s e n t e d by the o t h e r d a n c e s , but the d i a g o n a l l i n e s o f body i n the W h i r l i n g Wolf d a n c e , between the h o r i z o n t a l Wolf dance and the v e r t i c a l transformation  1  b e i n g an a d u l t .  the  Crawling  o f the S t a n d i n g Wolf dance, p l a c e s 'power and  between ' w o l f  masks suggests t h a t  o f the  'wolf  and ' m a n ' .  'changing i d e n t i t y '  And the a p p e l l a t i o n o f  must f a l l  the  between b e i n g a c h i l d and  Thus the message o f the dances and the names o f the Wolf  dances i s t h a t b e f o r e C r a w l i n g Wolf can become S t a n d i n g W o l f , he must whirl  i n o r d e r to t r a n s f o r m ; and b e f o r e a c h i l d can become an a d u l t he too  must w h i r l  to change h i s i d e n t i t y .  In the c o n t e x t o f the Wolf r i t u a l ,  these t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s t a k e p l a c e i n the Inbetween,  the s a c r e d p l a c e .  89.  Chapter 5  STATEMENTS AND MESSAGES: PRIVILEGES AND TRANSFORMATION  The symbolism o f the Wolf masks has been e x p l o r e d i n t h e l a s t three chapters.  I have demonstrated t h a t i t i s e x p r e s s e d i n s e v e r a l  dif-  f e r e n t modes which o p e r a t e t o g e t h e r t o convey a m u l t i f a c e t e d message through each type o f Wolf mask.  The v i s u a l s t a t e m e n t s a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h each  o t h e r through t h e v i s i b l e forms o f t h e masks.  The o t h e r s t a t e m e n t s a r e  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e masks i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e Wolf r i t u a l . In t h i s c h a p t e r I w i l l examine t h e message conveyed by a l l t h e Wolf masks t o g e t h e r . and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .  T h i s i s a message about the Nootkan concepts o f power An a n a l y s i s o f the s u c c e s s i o n o f messages conveyed by  the t h r e e Wolf masks as they appear i n t h e Wolf r i t u a l s h o u l d r e v e a l t h e Nootkan process f o r r e c e i v i n g s u p e r n a t u r a l  gifts,  the nature o f the g i f t s ,  Both t h e n a t u r e o f t r a n s f o r -  i . e . privileges.  m a t i o n , and t h a t o f t h e p r i v i l e g e s  s h o u l d be t h e primary and c l e a r e s t  concepts t h a t t h e Wolf masks express acquisition of a privilege  i . e . t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ; and  i f I am c o r r e c t  i n assuming t h a t t h e  i s the p r i m a r y Nootkan purpose f o r h o l d i n g a  Wolf r i t u a l . Then I s h a l l a p p l y t h e i n s i g h t s gained from the a n a l y s i s o f privileges  and t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n , t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e Inbetween, t h e  r e a l m o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and t h e power.  90.  A.  Supernatural G i f t s -  Privileges  The t h r e e Wolf masks c o u l d be regarded as a s i n g l e mask t h a t appears a t t h r e e d i f f e r e n t times d u r i n g the Wolf r i t u a l s i n c e the t h r e e masks never appear t o g e t h e r . d u r i n g the r i t u a l to the v i t a l i t y  Seen t h i s way, a s i n g l e Wolf mask t r a n s f o r m s  from the knowledgeable Wolf o f the C r a w l i n g Wolf mask,  and 'power o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ' o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf t o the  a d u l t human w i t h the power and i d e n t i t y In the Wolf r i t u a l , receive privileges.  r e p r e s e n t e d by the S t a n d i n g W o l f .  the Wolves and humans meet, and the humans  Through the secondary i d e n t i t i e s o f the Wolf masks,  we can see t h a t the Nootkan concept o f r e c e i v i n g p r i v i l e g e s g i f t s i s encoded i n the T h u n d e r b i r d ,  as s u p e r n a t u r a l  L i g h t n i n g Serpent and Whale metaphor.  That i s , to reduce the analogy to the e s s e n t i a l s , j u s t as the T h u n d e r b i r d l e a r n s from Wolf how to use L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t to c a p t u r e and devour Whale, so the n o v i c e , the f u t u r e S t a n d i n g W o l f , l e a r n s from the C r a w l i n g Wolf how to use and i m i t a t e W h i r l i n g Wolf t o get what he w a n t s , which i s the knowledge and power t o become S t a n d i n g W o l f .  The Nootkan work his' o kt a l s o  e x p r e s s e s the i d e a t h a t L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t i s the means o f o b t a i n i n g what one d e s i r e s .  It  i s d e f i n e d as " ' o b t a i n e d by s t r i k i n g ' one o f the  modes o f g a i n i n g p r o p e r t y , whether m a t e r i a l good o r ceremonial ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 2 2 1 ) .  recognized  rights"  ' S t r i k i n g ' i s the a c t i o n modes o f  lightning  and L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t . The Nootkan c o n c e p t i o n o f the p r o c e s s o f r e c e i v i n g p r i v i l e g e s a l s o e x p r e s s e d i n t h e forms o f the W o l f masks.  The C r a w l i n g W o l f  s e n t s a Wolf from whom the n o v i c e s a c q u i r e knowledge o f t h e i r g i f t on t h e i r i n i t i a l c o n t a c t w i t h the C r a w l i n g W o l f .  is  repre-  supernatural  Then, d u r i n g  their  s o j o u r n i n the woods, t h e n o v i c e s a c q u i r e the w i l d n e s s which s u g g e s t s  91.  haina the power and v i t a l i t y which a r e a t t r i b u t e s o f the W h i r l i n g W o l f ' s L i g h t n i n g Serpent a s p e c t .  In the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask, we can see t h a t t h e  Wolf form and i d e n t i t y have been g i v e n the power and v i t a l i t y o f Inbetween,  the  The Nootka a r t i s t s have c r e a t e d a very s o p h i s t i c a t e d image  because power i s e s s e n t i a l l y f o r m l e s s s i n c e i t i s a process and not a s t a t e o f b e i n g ; but they e x p r e s s i t  through s t y l e and p e r s o n i f y i t as L i g h t n i n g  Serpent, i t s e l f a paradoxical  "form o f the f o r m l e s s . "  The Nootkan a r t i s t s p o r t r a y and temporary.  inbetweenness as i n h e r e n t l y  unbalanced  As e x p r e s s e d on the Nootkan Wolf masks, the dilemma o f  those i n the Inbetween r e a l m must be r e s o l v e d by s h i f t i n g to one o f the permanent and s t a b l e p r o f a n e realms on e i t h e r s i d e o f the s a c r e d r e a l m . Thus i n the Nootkan cosmos t h e r e i s a f o r c e t h a t a f f e c t s beings from the p r o f a n e realms and f o r c e s them t o move out o f the Inbetween r e a l m , and t h e halfway p o s i t i o n .  I must assume t h a t t h i s f o r c e i s the v i t a l i t y and power  t h a t r e s i d e s i n t h e Inbetween r e a l m ,  haina.  The power o f the Inbetween m a n i f e s t e d i n the s t y l e o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf dance and mask i s l i k e the power o f an engine r u n n i n g i n n e u t r a l . The engine needs to be s t a r t e d , r e g u l a t e d and then put i n t o gear j u s t as the power o f the Inbetween needs t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d , calmed and then channeled t o be e f f e c t i v e . two s t e p s .  T h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d i n the Wolf r i t u a l  in  F i r s t the n o v i c e must w h i r l , o r a c t w i l d l y l i k e the o t h e r  c r e a t u r e s o f the Inbetween, and so become an Inbetween c r e a t u r e . can he be l i k e the Inbetween i n h a b i t a n t s , and have power.  Only then  Then t h i s  power  i s c o n t r o l l e d as the n o v i c e s l e a r n t h e i r new dances and g a i n mastery o v e r t h e i r performance.  The r e s u l t o f t h i s process i s p o r t r a y e d on the S t a n d i n g  Wolf mask on which the w i l d power e v i d e n t i n the r e n d e r i n g o f t h e W h i r l i n g Wolf mask i s r e t a i n e d but i n a calmed and o r d e r l y  state.  92.  The same t w o - s t a g e process i s s t a t e d i n more a b s t r a c t terms by the c o l o u r s o f the Wolf masks.  The b l a c k r e p r e s e n t i n g the i d e n t i t y  and  knowledge o f t h e C r a w l i n g Wolf and t h e red r e p r e s e n t i n g the power o f t h e W h i r l i n g Wolf are i n c o r p o r a t e d a t s e p a r a t e stages on the S t a n d i n g Wolf mask. Thus t h e n a t u r e and s o u r c e o f the s u p e r n a t u r a l g i f t s o r which the n o v i c e s r e c e i v e a r e t w o - f o l d .  First,  privileges  the knowledge o f a good  h u n t e r comes from the i n i t i a t i n g W o l f ; t h i s i s the message o f the C r a w l i n g Wolf mask.  S e c o n d l y , the power o r haina to animate the h u n t i n g l o r e comes  from t h e Inbetween; t h i s i s the message o f t h e W h i r l i n g W o l f mask. end p r o d u c t i s T h u n d e r b i r d ,  The  the S t a n d i n g Wolf mask o r the complete man,  hawil, a human c h i e f .  B.  Power and T r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n the Inbetween Through t h i s a n a l y s i s o f the Wolf masks I have d e s c r i b e d the realm  o f the Inbetween as i t i s p e r c e i v e d by the N o o t k a . and becoming r a t h e r than o f b e i n g and s t a b i l i t y .  It  i s a r e a l m o f process  Those beings who do  i n h a b i t the Inbetween such as the w i l d men, and t h e n o v i c e s d u r i n g t h e Wolf ritual,  are paradoxes whose a t t r i b u t e s  oblivion.  negate each o t h e r i n t o c o n c e p t u a l  How can a man be w i l d , when man are the c i v i l i z e r s ?  person be a former p e r s o n , when he s t i l l  l o o k s l i k e a person?  S e r p e n t , w h i l e p a r t s n a k e , i s p a r t b i r d and p a r t f i s h , f e a t h e r s o r f e a t h e r y s c a l e s , and i s sometimes c a l l 1 8 7 0 : 8 ) ; but he i s none o f t h e s e .  How can a Lightning  f o r he has s c a l e l y  L i g h t n i n g F i s h (Swan  The f o r m l e s s n e s s o f the concepts which  b e l o n g t o the realm o f the Inbetween^  i s more p o s i t i v e l y e x p r e s s e d as  93.  power o r haina.  But t h i s f o r c e has a n e g a t i v e dimension f o r men.  Human  b e i n g s are knocked unconscious and sometimes k i l l e d by t h e power i n t h e woods o r o t h e r m a r g i n a l p l a c e s ( C o l s e n 1 9 5 3 : 2 5 9 ) .  The f o r m l e s s n e s s o f  t h e n a t u r e o f Inbetween t h i n g s i s a l s o s y m b o l i z e d by the abundant motion o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf dance and the v a r i a b i l i t y o f the form o f the L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t , who i s the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f the Inbetween, when i t d e p i c t e d on v a r i o u s Nootkan ceremonial o r r i t u a l  is  objects.  The Inbetween i s an i m p o r t a n t realm f o r the Nootka because they understand and e x p e r i e n c e i t as the source o f power and v i t a l i t y .  I have  shown t h a t i n t h e Nootkan cosmos power does not come from the p r o f a n e realm where beings enjoy a permanent, s t a b l e i d e n t i t y ;  the s t a b i l i t y o f  the  c r e a t u r e s o f the s e a , sky and l a n d seems t o p r e c l u d e the c r e a t i o n o f or v i t a l i t y  through t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and change.  power  T h i s s e t s the realm o f  the Inbetween a p a r t from the o t h e r s . O b t a i n i n g power from the Inbetween i s a n e c e s s i t y f o r the Nootka because i t  i s an e s s e n t i a l a t t r i b u t e o f moral h e a l t h ; i t i s a l s o c a l l e d  a l i f e p r i n c i p l e or s o u l .  Thus, a young c h i e f i s urged ' t o t r a i n '  for  e v e r y t h i n g so t h a t he might enjoy ' w e a l t h ' ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939: 1 8 5 f f ) and ' r e a c h h i s peak' - enjoy a l o n g l i f e ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:193 and 233).  Let me a n a l y s e t h i s p i e c e o f g r a n d p a r e n t a l  'Training*  a d v i c e once a g a i n .  i s t h e f i r s t phase o f a l l t h e s e c r e t h u n t i n g and w e a l t h  (Drucker 1951:166) which e f f e c t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . r i t u a l i s t r i d s h i m s e l f o f h i s human i d e n t i t y ,  In t r a i n i n g the  rituals  solitary  and becomes a s p i r i t  but  does not proceed t o take on the profane i d e n t i t y o f a n o t h e r animal o f the l a n d o r sea as i n h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g r i t u a l s 'Wealth'  (Drucker  1951:164-168).  f o r the Nootka i s not o n l y an abundance o f f o o d , c l o t h i n g and s h e l t e r ;  94.  it  i n c l u d e s c e r e m o n i a l and r i t u a l  privileges  ( D r u c k e r 1951:247) which  a r e earned through i n h e r i t a n c e and t h e patronage o f s p i r i t s 257 and 2 5 8 ) .  Thus the w e a l t h and l o n g l i f e i m p l y m o r a l , s o c i a l and  physical strength.  S i n c e w e a l t h and l o n g l i f e are a c q u i r e d through  the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l s t a t u s o f a man i s dependent on h i s activity.  (Drucker 1951:  spiritual  A l l beings i n the Nootkan cosmos who wish t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r  power must e n t e r the temporary s t a t e o f the Inbetween where they by r e d u c i n g themselves t o t h e i r b l o o d y , souls.  ritual,  transform  v i t a l , s a c r e d and s p i r i t s e l v e s  T h i s i s why, men, a n i m a l s and even the v e g e t a t i o n and r o c k s  or  trans-  form themselves time and time a g a i n i n Nootkan myths and l e g e n d s ; combs into trees, o i l f i s h and b i r d s  i n t o l a k e s , b i r d s i n t o a n i m a l s , men i n t o t r e e s ,  rocks,  (Swan 1 8 7 0 : 6 5 ) .  Thus the power o r haina l i n k e d w i t h t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s  the  p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and moral o r s p i r i t u a l a n i m a t i n g f o r c e o f the Nootkan cosmos.  But i t i s not a s u p e r i o r component o f i t s u n i v e r s e because the  p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f power, L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t i s the weapon o f not h i s m a s t e r .  The power o f the Inbetween,  Thunderbird,  as d e p i c t e d on the Nootkan  dance s c r e e n s (see P l a t e 1 ) , i s not s u p e r i o r t o the o t h e r components o f the c o m p o s i t i o n ; r a t h e r i t i s o n l y one o f s e v e r a l c o n c e n t r i c p a r t s .  The o t h e r s  are knowledge and i d e n t i t y a g i f t from the W o l f , a c r e a t u r e o f the L a n d , and prey o r the s u b s t a n c e o f w e a l t h a g i f t 175 a n d . 1 8 2 ) , a c r e a t u r e o f the s e a . all  from the Whale ( C l u t e s i 1969:  W o l f , Whale and L i g h t n i n g  Serpent  c o n t r i b u t e b a s i c dimensions o f b e i n g to the T h u n d e r b i r d who i s  focus o f a t t e n t i o n i n the d e s i g n .  Thus f o r the Nootka the a n i m a t i n g f o r c e  o f the w o r l d , t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l o f so many e t h n o g r a p h i e s , i t not power i s not above and o v e r . o t h e r  the  t h i n g s i n the cosmos.  It  'supra';  i s one o f  95.  s e v e r a l components i n the make up a T h u n d e r b i r d ,  the m y t h i c metaphor f o r  a human c h i e f . The Inbetween i s a f o r m i d a b l e boundary a r e a between the o t h e r realms o f the Nootkan cosmos which must be c r o s s e d by the beings o f the s k y , l a n d and s e a .  But i t i s dangerous t o e n t e r the Inbetween.  Why?  Because i n the Nootkan cosmology, economic, s o c i a l and r i t u a l  activities  a r e e x p r e s s e d i n the image o f e a t i n g , most p r o f o u n d l y t h a t o f  Thunderbird  e a t i n g Whale.  Thus sexual i n t e r c o u r s e , h u n t i n g , m a r r i a g e , w h a l i n g ,  l a t c h i n g , war and the Wolf r i t u a l (English  prepositions f a i l )  pot-  i t s e l f ought t o be done t o o r w i t h  someone o u t s i d e o f y o u r group. To commit t h e s e  a c t s w i t h i n t h e group would be t o commit moral t r a n s g r e s s i o n s as u n t h i n k a b l e . a s c a n n i b a l i s m , the worst crime o f e a t i n g .  In so f a r as c a n n i b a l i s m  i s a f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i z e and a v o i d e a t i n g food which i s l i k e y o u , the  ;  boundaries Which d i s t i n g u i s h what i s of y o u r t r i b e and o r d e r . a f b e i n g , and what i s n o t , are v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o the N o o t k a . has a dual s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e Nootkan cosmology.  Thus..the  Inbetween  realm-  I t must be m a i n t a i n e d as a n o -  man's l a n d between the d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f b e i n g .yet i t musy be c r o s s e d t o r e p l e n i s h "the e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l and r i t u a l heal th and power o f the profane r e a l m . The moral d i f f i c u l t i e s o f e n t e r i n g the realm o f the  Inbetween  r e i n f o r c e s the s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the c h i e f s who own the many p r i v i l e g e s t h a t are the means o f t r a v e r s i n g the Inbetween, and the commoners who own few o r none.  Thus commoners cannot venture out o f the v i l l a g e  g a t h e r f o o d , e s p e c i a l l y salmon and h e r r i n g , u n t i l r i g h t o r p r i v i l e g e has gone f i r s t ,  the man who owns the  and b e g i n s the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f  that  r e s o u r c e f o r the season ( D r u c k e r 1 9 5 1 : 2 5 1 ) , and has made the n e c e s s a r y r i t u a l e n c o u n t e r w i t h the power i n the a r e a between t h e v i l l a g e and the  to  96.  food s o u r c e (Drucker 1951:175 and 1 7 7 ) . the r i t u a l  privileges  Only the c h i e f ' s c h i l d r e n  inherit  needed t o make i t p o s s i b l e f o r n o v i c e s t o c r o s s  Inbetween t o a c q u i r e the s u p e r n a t u r a l g i f t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  the  ritual  and economic p r i v i l e g e s t h a t enhance the s o c i a l s t a t u s and power o f a c h i e f ; t h u s , a commoner who does not have the r i t u a l p r i v i l e g e to send h i s son a c r o s s the Inbetween, a l s o cannot h e l p him a c q u i r e the economic p r i v i l e g e s t h a t the son would need t o pass on a l l o f t h e s e p r i v i l e g e s t o h i s s o n . Thus the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e p e r p e t u a t e s i t s e l f w i t h the s a n c t i o n o f the s t r u c t u r e o f the Nootkan cosmos which r e n d e r s the c h i e f t a i n s h i p a c c e s s i b l e t o o n l y a few.  97,  CONCLUSION  A " w e l l - d e f i n e d system o f t h o u g h t .  . . t o Nootkan c o s m o l o g i c a l  and s u p e r n a t u r a l c o n c e p t s " ( D r u c k e r 1951:151) has been r e v e a l e d by the above a n a l y s i s o f a s e t o f masks.  The Nootka have p r o v i d e d the b a s i c  m a t e r i a l which I have used to b u i l d the system but the v a l i d i t y o f  this  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the system r e s t s on the e f f i c a c y o f the method f o r " r e a d i n g " masks proposed a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the t h e s i s .  If  the  'reading"  were i n c o r r e c t i n c o n c e p t i o n , method o r e x e c u t i o n , the c o n t e n t which  I  have a s s i g n e d t o the system would have been i n c o r r e c t l y p e r c e i v e d and t h e system t h a t has been c o n s t r u c t e d around i t would be f a u l t y . Let me emphasize t h a t the form o f the system p e r c e i v e d i n t h i s t h e s i s i s not a Nootkan c o n s t r u c t .  Rather i t i s a t h e o r e t i c a l  I have drawn t o f a c i l i t a t e t h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e Nootkan masks.  structure T h i s form  encompasses s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e Nootkan e x p e r i e n c e i n t o m y t h i c a l , s o c i a l , ritual,  p o l i t i c a l , economic, moral and o t h e r such dimensions o r  levels.  T h i s d i s s e c t i o n o f b e h a v i o u r and e x p e r i e n c e f a c i l i t a t e d my own comprehension as an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t .  It  i s not a thought mode o f the N o o t k a .  The  validity  o f the form o f the system r e s t s on i t s c a p a c i t y t o i n c o r p o r a t e the Nootkan content without offending  A.  it.  The Keys to the System There are two keys to the system o f Nootkan thought and cosmo-  l o g i c a l concepts.  The f i r s t  i s the s t r u c t u r e o f the Nootkan cosmos -  the  98.  profane realms f l o a t i n g i n the sea o f the s p i r i t r e a l m , the Inbetween and the c o n s t a n t need o f c r e a t u r e s o f the profane realms t o renew power and v i t a l i t y  through r e p e a t e d f o r a y s  power i s c o n s t a n t l y  -  their  i n t o the Inbetween realm where  generated.  The second key l i e s i n the comprehension and a p p l i c a t i o n o f two r o o t metaphors.  The f i r s t i s based on the myth o f t h e T h u n d e r b i r d who e a t s  Whale w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e o f L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t .  T h i s myth p r o v i d e s a  metaphor f o r the n a t u r e o f the t r i p a r t i t e s t r u c t u r e to be found i n any Nootkan c o n t e x t . initiator,  T h u n d e r b i r d s e r v e s as a metaphor f o r the p r i n c i p a l  or  the Whale as the metaphor f o r the o b j e c t o f h i s a t t e n t i o n , and  L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t as the metaphor f o r the b e i n g , t h i n g o r a c t i o n which l i n k s the other.two.  Thus L i g h t n i n g Serpent may s e r v e as a metaphor f o r  the c h i e f ' s s o n , the b e i n g who connects h i s f a t h e r ' s m a r r i a g e ceremony and Wolf r i t u a l ) ceremony and w h a l i n g r i t u a l ) either lineage.  ( T h u n d e r b i r d i n the  and h i s m o t h e r ' s (Whale i n the m a r r i a g e  l i n e a g e s by h a v i n g t h e o p t i o n t o b e l o n g t o  L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t can a l s o s e r v e as the symbol o r metaphor  f o r t h e h a r p o o n , which connects the w h a l e r and the Whale ( h i s p r e y ) .  (who i n i t i a t e s the whale hunt)  In the Wolf r i t u a l , we have seen L i g h t n i n g  Serpent as the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o r metaphor o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , a p r o c e s s which enables beings from one realm t o encounter those o f  another.  The second r o o t metaphor i s based on the m y t h i c p e r s o n a l i t y o f the Wolf.  Wolf p r o v i d e s the metaphor f o r the n a t u r e and the f u n c t i o n i n g o f the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the p r i n c i p a l elements i n any c o n t e x t ; the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n i t i a t o r , o b j e c t and the o p e r a t e as i n a h u n t .  that i s ,  that  1ink-between-the-two  S o , i n Nootkan thought the p r i n c i p a l elements o f  a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n are e i t h e r the h u n t e r , h i s prey and those elements o f  99.  process o r b e i n g which a c c o m p l i s h o r r e p r e s e n t the k i l l i n g and e a t i n g the prey by the  hunter.  The Wolf masks as they are used i n the Wolf r i t u a l i n which t h e s e metaphors a r e e x p r e s s e d .  are one way  They are a l s o d e p i c t e d on the dance  screens  (see P l a t e 1) on which the components o f both metaphors are  posed.  Each r i t u a l  lizes,  of  juxta-  c o l o u r and the b a s i c dimension o f b e i n g which i t  can be l i n k e d w i t h one o f the p e r i p h e r a l  components o f the dance  s c r e e n v e r s i o n o f the metaphors; red and v i t a l i t y L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t , b l a c k and i d e n t i t y  are a s s o c i a t e d with  ( i n c l u d i n g the thought p r o c e s s e s  s u i t a b l e to t h a t r o l e ) w i t h the W o l f , and c l e a r o r w h i t e s i g n i f y i n g w i t h t h e Whale ( M a c f a r l a n e 1 9 7 8 ) .  symbo-.  wealth  Each form o f dance i s s i m i l a r l y  related  to one o f the m y t h i c m e t a p h o r i c b e i n g s ; c r a w l i n g w i t h W o l f , s p i n n i n g w i t h L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t , s t a n d i n g w i t h T h u n d e r b i r d and swimming [ t h e r e i s a swimming w o l f which appears i n some m a r r i a g e ceremonies (Boas  1890:595;  Koppert 1 9 3 0 : 5 0 ; S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 5 5 : 1 8 ) ] w i t h t h e Whale.  The  link  between Whale and o t h e r Nootkan c a t e g o r i e s i s not made i n the Wolf because the Wolf r i t u a l  ritual  i s an i n i t i a t i o n to manhood, whereas Whale i s  the  metaphor f o r Woman (MacFarlane 1 9 7 8 ) , and thus i s not a d i r e c t concern  of  the Wolf r i t u a l . An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the dense s y m b o l i c and c o s m o l o g i c a l  structure  o f the Nootka c o u l d throw l i g h t on the cosmologies and a r t o f o t h e r west Coast p e o p l e s .  Two areas o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n h o l d promise f o r  North-  rewarding  i n s i g h t ; t h e l o g i c o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n found i n the legends and myths where i t seems t h a t a b e i n g t r a n s f o r m s from one i d e n t i t y  to a n o t h e r w i t h i n a  c l o s e d system o f o p t i o n s o f what he can becomes; and the l o g i c o f human behaviour,  be i t economic, s o c i a l ,  p o l i t i c a l or r i t u a l .  Both systems  of  100.  l o g i c can be approached w i t h t h e metaphor o f T h u n d e r b i r d ' s  hunt as the  p r i n c i p l e which g i v e s u n i f o r m i t y to the s t r u c t u r e o f the d i f f e r e n t of various  r e a l m s , and as the p r i n c i p l e o f the s t r u c t u r e o f the  in different  orders  action  activities.  Some o f the puzzlement about some Nootkan p r a c t i c e s and h a b i t s o f thought e x p r e s s e d by o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s  such as D r u c k e r , S p r o a t and  Goldman have been d i s p e l l e d , and the l o g i c o f Nootkan thought can be seen more c l e a r l y i n l i g h t o f t h i s  analysis.  When S p r o a t asked h i s Nootkan i n f o r m a n t s who was t h e i r ( S p r o a t 1 8 6 8 : 2 0 6 - 2 1 1 ) , the people had g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y ideas.  in explaining  Some would say t h a t . h e was the Transformer who changed  to what i t  i s today (the C r e a t o r a s p e c t o f S p r o a t ' s g o d ) .  would c o u n t e r t h a t the T r a n s f o r m e r ' s stronger  father,  "god" their  everything  Other i n f o r m a n t s  the C h i e f o f the S k y , was  (the a l l - p o w e r f u l , f a t h e r i n Heaven a s p e c t o f S p r o a t s g o d ) .  The  1  European would r e t i r e  i n bewilderment from the d i s c u s s i o n unable to  reconcile  h i s concept o f the a n i m a t i n g f o r c e o f the w o r l d as an independent god who was supreme i n t h e cosmos w i t h a cosmology i n which v i t a l i t y ir's but one o f s e v e r a l  m o r a l i t y or power  dimensions o f b e i n g ; i n which t o be complete one must  have i d e n t i t y o r s t a t u s and w e a l t h o r s u b s t a n c e , as w e l l as moral  power.  I r v i n g Goldman (1975) d e a l t w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between f o r m a t i o n and s u p e r n a t u r a l  trans-  g i f t s among the K w a k i u t l , a people who share  many c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h the Nootka ( D r u c k e r 1 9 5 0 : 1 7 5 ; 1963:198 and 200.  He p o i n t e d out t h a t " t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s the means o f  supernatural  transmitting  power [ g i f t s ] both a t the p r i s t i n e l e v e l o f myth and a t the  secondary l e v e l o f c u r r e n t  ritual  (Goldman 1 9 7 5 : 1 9 9 ) . "  d i s c e r n the dual n a t u r e . o f  these s u p e r n a t u r a l  gifts.  But he d i d not T h i s t h e s i s has  101 .  p o i n t e d out t h a t f o r the N o o t k a , s u p e r n a t u r a l ritual  have two components; an i d e n t i t y ,  gifts  r e c e i v e d i n t h e Wolf  a dimension o f b e i n g , t h a t comes  from t h e p a t r o n who i n h a b i t s a p r o f a n e r e a l m ; and power o r v i t a l i t y , d i m e n s i o n o f b e i n g , t h a t comes from t h e s p i r i t o f the N o o t k a . texts  B.  realm i t s e l f ,  another  - the Inbetween  T h i s suggests t h a t t h e r e i s a need to reexamine t h e K w a k i u t l  for parallel  concepts.  The Method I can c o n c l u d e t h a t t h i s method o f r e a d i n g masks has been  s u c c e s s f u l f o r I have demonstrated t h a t m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e embodies a c c e s s i b l e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t can i n c r e a s e our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the c u l t u r e from which i t springs.  The i n f o r m a t i o n i n the masks became a c c e s s i b l e when I  studied  the c o n t e x t as w e l l as the form o f the masks; from t h i s a n a l y s i s , I have l e a r n e d the concepts e l u c i d a t e d by the masks, and I have i n c r e a s e d my comp r e h e n s i o n o f the Nootkan c u l t u r e .  T h i s i s e x a c t l y what the masks d i d  f o r the Nootka. D u r i n g the course o f the t h e s i s i t has become e v i d e n t t h a t masks communicate i n both a c t i v e and p a s s i v e modes.  the  The p a s s i v e modes are  those which are e v i d e n t to the o b s e r v e r even when t h e masks are s i t t i n g on a museum s h e l f - t h a t i s , the form o f the masks makes s t a t e m e n t s about the e x i s t e n c e o f t h e f i g u r e s o f the r o o t Nootkan metaphors: L i g h t n i n g Serpent and W o l f . ( t o the cognoscenti)  Thunderbird,  The forms a l s o use c o l o u r and s t y l e t o d e f i n e  something o f the n a t u r e o f each o f these b e i n g s .  The c a t e g o r i e s o f the r o o t metaphors are e s t a b l i s h e d and e m b e l l i s h e d through  the p a s s i v e modes.  The a c t i v e modes o f communication are those  102.  which are brought i n t o p l a y when the mask i s worn and m a n i p u l a t e d i n the c o n t e x t f o r which i t was f i r s t made. c o n t e x t i s the Wolf r i t u a l .  In the case o f the Wolf masks,  The a c t i v e modes o f communication i n c l u d e the  dances used i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the masks, the s o c i a l s t a t u s o f dancers chosen to wear the masks, and the r i t u a l sented by the mask.  this  the  r o l e o f the persona  repre-  These a c t i v e modes l i k e the p a s s i v e o n e s , e x p r e s s  m y t h i c l e v e l o f the metaphor.  In a d d i t i o n , the a c t i v e ' modes-  c a t e s e v e r a l o t h e r dimensions o f meaning.  First,  l i n k s w i t h o t h e r areas o f the Nootkan cosmos. each mask l i n k T h u n d e r b i r d ,  the  communi-  they c r e a t e m e t a p h o r i c  The dances t h a t accompany  L i g h t n i n g Serpent and Wolf t o o t h e r b e i n g s  of  the Nootkan cosmology through the resemblance o f the d a n c e s ' movements to the movements o f o t h e r c r e a t u r e s .  The s o c i a l s t a t u s e s o f the dancers  used t o express t h e m e t a p h o r i c l i n k s t h a t u n i t e the t h r e e m y t h i c a l  beings  p o r t r a y e d by t h e masks' forms to the s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l t u r e s o f Nootkan s o c i e t y .  That i s to say t h a t T h u n d e r b i r d i s  are  struc-  established  as a m y t h i c a l b e i n g and as a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o r the m y t h i c a l dimension o r metaphor f o r c h i e f ,  a s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic p o s i t i o n .  the a c t i o n o f the r i t u a l  l o c a t e s each mask and i t s v a r i o u s  dimensions o r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s  i n the cosmological s t r u c t u r e  L i g h t n i n g Serpent and the Wolf r i t u a l Inbetween,  Secondly,  metaphoric - for  instance:  n o v i c e a r e p r e s e n t e d as beings o f  the r e a l m o f the s p i r i t s ; and men as the h a b i t u e s o f the  the  village.  T h i r d l y , the a c t i v e modes o f masked communication which o p e r a t e i n the r i t u a l c o n t e x t express and r e c r e a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  three  m y t h i c a l beings o f t h e cosmic metaphor and t h e i r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s ;  and  they c r e a t e t h e c l o s e d system o f o p t i o n s w i t h i n which t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s may take p l a c e i n m y t h i c a l , l e g e n d a r y ,  r i t u a l , ceremonial, s o c i a l ,  political  103.  and economic a c t i v i t i e s .  Thus, through t h e i r c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h  W h i r l i n g Wolf mask, L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t , s p i r i t s , f o r m e r s , w h i r l i n g and c h i e f s '  the  r e d , the Inbetween t r a n s -  h e i r s from one such c l o s e d system o r  category.  These are some o f the a c t i v e and p a s s i v e modes o f communication which t h e Nootka employ when they use t h e i r Wolf masks i n a Wolf r i t u a l . The masks are r i t u a l  forms which are used as t e x t b o o k s  to teach  t h e n o v i c e s d u r i n g t h e i r i n i t i a t i o n about t h i s cosmos o f dangerous f o r m a t i o n s , and how to deal w i t h i t . the masks and t h e i r c o n t e x t . .  trans-  We too can be n o v i c e s , and l e a r n from  We can " r e a d " the masks i n the same way and  l e a r n about the Nootka and the system o f b e l i e f s which they used to deal w i t h the problems o f l i v i n g - t h e i r  culture.  104.  BIBLIOGRAPHY A r c h e r , C. 1978 Spanish E x p l o r a t i o n and S e t t l e m e n t o f the Northwest Coast the 18th C e n t u r y . Sound H e r i t a g e VII ( 1 ) : 3 3 * 5 3 .  in  B o a s , F. 1974 Second General Report on the I n d i a n s o f B . C . British Association f o r the Advancement o f S c i e n c e . Report no. 6 : 1 0 - 1 6 3 , 1890 i n Northwest A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Research Notes VII (1/2). Boas, F. 1897 The S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s and the S e c r e t S o c i e t i e s of the Kwkiutl Indians. U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Museum Report o f 1895: 311-733. Boas. F. 1916 Tsimshian Mythology. Bureau o f American E t h n o l o g y , Annual Report o f the S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t e 1 9 0 9 - 1 9 1 0 , v o l . #31. Brabant, A . J . 1977 M i s s i o n to N o o t k a , 1874-1900. Charles L i l l a r d ed. Sidney, B.C.: Grays P u b l i s h i n g L t d . O r i g i n a l p u b l i c a t i o n date 1926. Brawne, M i c h a e l 1964 The New Museum, A r c h i t e c t u r e and D i s p l a y . A. P r a e g e r .  New Y o r k :  B u d i c , C. 1964 Wolf R i t u a l Dances o f the Northwest Coast I n d i a n s . t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington. C l u t e s i , G. 1973 P o t l a t c h . Sidney, B.C.: p u b l i c a t i o n date 1969. Colson, 1953 Cook,  Gray's  Publishing Ltd.  E. The Makah.  Manchester U n i v e r s i t y  Press.  J.  1785  A Voyage to the P a c i f i c Ocean, v o l .  II.,  London.  Frederick  M.Sc.  Original  105. C u r t i s , E.S. 1916 "The N o o t k a , the H a i d a , " i n The North American I n d i a n , XI. Norwood. David,  vol.  J.  1978  Public Talk.  Densmore,  U . B . C . Museum o f  Anthropology.  F.  1939 "Nootka and Q u i l e u t e M u s i c , " Bureau o f American E t h n o l o g y , B u l l . 124. D e w h i r s t , John T. 1969 Yuguot, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : The P r e h i s t o r y and H i s t o r y o f a Nootkan V i l l a g e , P a r t 2 . P r e h i s t o r y . " Northwest Research Notes 111(2): 232-239. D o u g l a s , Mary 1966  P u r i t y and Danger.  London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l .  D r u c k e r , P. 1950 " C u l t u r e Element D i s t r i b u t i o n s ; X X V I . " A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l R e c o r d s , Berkeley IX: 1 5 7 - 2 9 4 . D r u c k e r , P. 1951 "The Northern and C e n t r a l Nootkan T r i b e s . " Bureau o f American Ethnology. B u l l . 144. D r u c k e r , P. 1963 I n d i a n s o f the Northwest C o a s t . American Museum S c i e n c e Book. Garden C i t y , New Y o r k . The N a t u r a l H i s t o r y P r e s s . D r u c k e r , P. 1965 Effrat,  C u l t u r e s o f the North P a c i f i c C o a s t .  New Y o r k : Harper & Row.  B.  1978 " L i n g u i s t i c A c c u l t u r a t i o n o f the West Coast o f Vancouver I s l a n d , " Sound H e r i t a g e V I 1 ( 1 ) : 8 9 - 9 8 . E r n s t , A. 1952 The Wolf R i t u a l o f the Northwest C o a s t . Oregon: U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon P r e s s . Goldman, 1975  I. The Mouth o f Heaven.  Toronto:  John W i l e y and Sons.  Gough, B. 1978 "Nootka Sound i n James C o o k ' s P a c i f i c W o r l d , " Sound H e r i t a g e VII(l):l-32.  106.  Gunther, E. 1972 I n d i a n L i f e o f the Northwest Coast e t c . U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s .  Chicago and London:  Haas, M. 1930 "A V i s i t to the Other W o r l d . A N i t i n a t T e x t , " J o u r n a l o f American L i n g u i s t i c s V I 1 : 1 9 5 - 2 0 8 . H a s e l b e r g e r , H. 1961 Method o f S t u d y i n g E t h n o g r a p h i c A r t . 2(4):351-84. Jewitt, J. 1815 (Many e d i t i o n s , 1815 o n . ) Sufferings etc. Kenyon, S . 1977 "Traditional pology X I V ( l ) .  Current  International  Anthropology,  A N a r r a t i v e o f the Adventures  Trends i n Modern Nootkan C e r e m o n i e s , " A r t i e  K o p p e r t , V. 1930a " C o n t r i b u t i o n s to Clayoquot E t h n o l o g y , " American A n t h r o p o l o g y S e r i e s ( 1 ) .  Catholic  and  Anthro-  University,  K o o p e r t , V i n c e n t , A. 1930b "The Nootka F a m i l y , " P r i m i t i v e Man 1 1 1 : 4 9 - 5 5 . Langdon, S . 1976 "The Development o f the Nootkan C u l t u r a l S y s t e m . " Paper f o r Northwest Coast S t u d i e s Conference a t Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y . L e a c h , E. 1976  C u l t u r e and Communication.  MacFarlane, N a t h a l i e 1978 Whales, Food f o r Thought. Anthropology. McCurdy,  1971  Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y  Public Talk.  Press.  U . B . C . Museum o f  J.G.  1961 Meares,  Cambridge:  the  I n d i a n a t Neah Bay.  S e a t t l e , Washington:  S u p e r i o r P u b l i s h i n g Co.  J. Voyages Made i n the Years 1788 and 1789.  London.  Moon, B. 1978 " V a n i s h e d Companions; the Changing R e l a t i o n s h i p o f the West Coast People to the Animal W o r l d , " Sound H e r i t a g e V I I ( 1 ) : 7 1 - 7 7 .  107.  Moore, T. 1977 The Emergence o f E t h n i c Roles and the B e g i n n i n g o f Nootkan-Overseas European R e l a t i o n s , 1774-1789. P h . D . t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon. Needham, Rodney 1979 Symbolic C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . P u b l i s h i n g Company. Nodelman, S . 1969 "Structural Analysis i s s u e on S t r u c t u r a l i s m .  Santa M o n i c a , C a l i f o r n i a :  i n A r t and A n t h r o p o l o g y , "  Northwest Coast I n d i a n A r t i s t s ' G u i l d . 1977 1977 G r a p h i c s C o l l e c t i o n . Ottawa: Services. Panofsky, 1962  Erwin. Studies in Iconology.  New Y o r k :  Goodyear  Y a l e French  Canadian I n d i a n M a r k e t i n g  Harper & Row.  R o b e r t s , H. and Swadesh, M. 1955 "Songs o f the Nootkan Indians o f West Vancouver I s l a n d , " a c t i o n s o f the American P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y LXV 3 . Rohner, R. and E. e d . 1969 The Ethnography o f Franz Boas. U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s . Rosman, A. and R u b e l , P. 1971 F e a s t i n g w i t h Mine Enemy.  Studies;  Hedy P a r k e r T r a n s .  New Y o r k :  Trans-  . Chicago:  Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s .  S a p i r , Edward. 1911 "Some Aspects o f Nootka Language and C u l t u r e , " American A n t h r o pologist XIII:15-28. S a p i r , E. 1913 "A G i r l ' s Puberty Ceremony Among the Nootka I n d i a n s , " Royal S o c i e t y o f Canada s e r . 3 V I I : 6 7 - 8 0 . Waterman, T. 1920 "The Whaling Equipment o f the Makah I n d i a n s , " Washington P u b l i c a t i o n s i n A n t h r o p o l o g y 1 : 1 - 6 7 . Wike, J . 1958  Transactions,  University  " S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n Among the N o o t k a , " E t h n o h i s t o r y  of  V.-219-241.  107a. AddendaS a p i r , E. 1919 A Flood Legend o f the Nootka I n d i a n s . 32:351-5.  Journal  S a p i r , E. 1924 The R i v a l W h a l e r s , A N i t i n a t S t o r y . Linguistics 3:76-102. S a p i r , E. 1959 I n d i a n Legends from Vancouver 72:106-14.  o f American F o l k l o r e  International  Island.  Journal  Journal  of  o f American F o l k l o r e  S a p i r , E. and Swadesh, M. 1939 Nootka T e x t s . Phi 1 i d e l p h i a , L i n g u i s t i c S o c i e t y o f A m e r i c a . S a p i r , E. and Swadesh, M. 1955 N a t i v e Accounts o f Nootka Ethnography. I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y Research C e n t e r i n A n t h r o p o l o g y , F o l k l o r e and L i n g u i s t i c s P u b l i c a t i o n #1. Sproat, 1868  G. Scenes and S t u d i e s o f Savage L i f e .  London, Smith E l d e r and Co.  Swadesh, M. 1948 M o t i v a t i o n s i n Nootka W a r f a r e . Southwestern J o u r n a l o f A n t h r o p o l o g y 4:76-93. Swan, J . G . 1870 The I n d i a n s o f Cape F l a t t e r y . S m i t h s o n i a n C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o Knowledge 1 6 : 2 2 0 . T u r n e r , N. 1978 P l a n t s o f the Nootka Sound I n d i a n s as Recorded by C a p t a i n Cook. Sound H e r i t a g e 2 ( l ) : 7 8 - 8 8 . T a y l o r , D. 1959 [1957] A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s 2: Cultural Anthropology.  on A r t i_n M.H. F r i e d , Readings i n New Y o r k : Thomas Y. Crowe11.  Anthropology  108.  CATALOGUE OF NOOTKA WOLF MASKS  P a r t 1 - - N o o t k a Wolf masks seen and s t u d i e d . NATIONAL MUSUEM OF CANADA VII E 545 Animal mask.  B l a c k and r e d on n a t u r a l wood.  Collected at Alert  Bay i n 1922 by D.C. S c o t t . Vll  E 560 Wolf mask.  Vll  17" l o n g .  F 114 Snake used i n dance. wood.  Vll  C o l l e c t e d a t A l e r t Bay i n 1922 by D . C . S c o t t .  Heitlik.  Tlokoala.  C o l l e c t e d by Franz Boas i n 1889.  B l a c k and r e d on n a t u r a l O p i t c i s a t h , Nootka.  F 196 Mask.  Carved t o r e p r e s e n t a w o l f .  B l a c k and r e d on n a t u r a l wood.  Cedar r i n g o f a l d e r dyed c e d a r b a r k .  C o l l e c t e d by C F . Newcombe.  Kyuquot. Vll  F 233 Mask.  •I Vll  HinEmix.  a l d e r dyed b a r k .  B l a c k , r e d and w h i t e .  Red c e d a r w i g o f p l a i n and  C o l l e c t e d by C F . Newcombe i n 1 8 9 8 - 1 9 0 1 .  Clayoquot.  F 302 Mask.  B l a c k and r e d on n a t u r a l wood.  (Sapir).  HinEmix^ ( B o a s ) .  HinEmix. i s a fabulous b i r d - l i k e being (Boas).  C o l l e c t e d by Franz Boas i n 1889 a t A l b e r n i , B . C . VII F 379  Hinemib 13" long.  t s ' i c u a t h , Nootka.  a, b  Head mask f o r Wolf Dance.  B l u e and w h i t e on a n a t u r a l b a s e .  mask used i n p o t l a t c h , r e p r e s e n t i n g m i x ^ t a t e to hunters. from T a i a a  b i r i d ^ who g i v e s  See V I . , p. 3 5 a . Made by Qewac o f U c l u e l e t . ( T s l i c . ) " note by S a p i r .  S a p i r i n 1913-14 a t A l b e r n i , B . C .  22" long.  "Head power  Obtained  C o l l e c t e d by E.  109.  VI1 F 380 Head mask.  Orange, b l u e , b l a c k and y e l l o w on a n a t u r a l b a s e .  i n ? a i t s t ' . 5 t a ' p o t l a t c h when a n o t h e r t r i b e i s i n v i t e d . a c q u i r i n g o f Lokwana power from w o l v e s . Qawac.  O b t a i n e d from TayT '.a . "  See V I . ,  note by S a p i r .  p.  "Used  Represents  34a.  Made by  25".long.  Col-  l e c t e d by E. S a p i r . i n 1913-14 a t A l b e m i , B . C . VI1 F 405 F o l d i n g mask ( h i n l k T t s i m ) .  Red, w h i t e , b l u e and g r e e n . "Worn a t  a p o t l a t c h dance when much money i s t o be g i v e n away (say When f o l d e d o u t , t h e r e are seen i n s i d e H e ' i L I l k and raven w i t h a moveable beak.  ?aitstlota5).  (inner side of  folder)  Headdress (wif^qGqimi-) ° f s t r i p s  whalebone, w h i c h , when mask i s u s e d , i s c o v e r e d w i t h down.  of  Mask was  o b t a i n e d by G a l i c k ' s f a t h e r ( G a l i c k does not know how h i s f a t h e r i t o r what l e g e n d i s connected w i t h i t , ever).  he knows i t s two s o n g s , how-  G a l i c k has never used t h i s mask because he has never  b i g enough p o t l a t c h ; he would be ashamed t o show i t l a t c h . " note by E. S a p i r . 14 a t A l b e r n i , VII  28" l o n g .  i n a small p o t -  C o l l e c t e d by E. S a p i r i n 1 9 1 3 -  407A used by women.  A t t a c h e d t o top are e r e c t  s t r i p s o f whale-bone and whale " t e e t h " . (red fungus)  mixed w i t h salmon e g g s .  mixed w i t h salmon e g g s ) . See V l l l . ,  p.  a  Green p a i n t i s n ! x w i n i k  c  tsli'wipt  C o l l e c t e d by E. S a p i r i n 1913-14 at A l b e r n i ,  F 407A  F 427 Mask ( h i n l k T t s i m ) ground.  B l a c k , r e d , g r e e n , b l u e and y e l l o w on w h i t e  Moveable rods w i t h c i r c u l a r heads.  Qittsma?atH  a  0  O b t a i n e d from M r s . K i s h k i s h .  F 407B - - s e e entry for V l l  (grass  Salmon eggs used t o make p a i n t s s t i c k .  34a f o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s .  note by E. S a p i r .  Red p a i n t i s from QwaH mis  B l a c k i s made from c h a r c o a l o f  bush mixed w i t h salmon e g g s .  Vll  given  B.C.  Head mask ( h i n l k i t s i m )  Vll  got  Made by  Tc'.iHamTk,  I n d i a n , who was h i r e d f o r t h a t purpose by D o u g l a s ,  B.C.  110.  Aleck's father.  I t was made e x p r e s s l y  used w i t h no 148 ( V l l ?emlt !emlta c  for Aleck's riitcH5 . ;  F 428) when any HatHaula song i s sung.  is At  p a r t o f song round headed rods f l y out f a n - f a s h i o n ,  c  b e i n g worked by s t r i n g h e l d by dancer under h i s b l a n k e t . from D o u g l a s .  Note by E. S a p i r .  i n 191 3-14 a t A l b e r n i , Vll  It  c  21" long.  Obtained  C o l l e c t e d by E.  Sapir  B.C.  F 428 F o l d i n g mask used as one o f a p a i r o f HatsHauta masks w i t h n o . 147 (Vll  F 427).  W h i t e , b l u e , b l a c k , red and y e l l o w .  person f o r same p u r p o s e . HatsHauta  These two masks appeared f o u r times i n  song sung a t A l e c k ' s *utcHa.  c  what S a y a t c ' . a p i s , H i s a w i s t ! a t H w h i l e up i n mountains  Made by same  a  These two masks i l l u s t r a t e  a n c e s t o r o f A l e c k , saw i n a dream  'os-mltcing for wealth.  Man on the c e n t r a l  p a r t o f f o l d i n g mask i s t c i m l m i s , b e i n g who g i v e s w e a l t h .  On i n -  s i d e o f o u t e r p a r t o f mask are shown male and female h a y a l i n , supernatural  being that gives wealth.  At e m i t e m l t a p a r t o f song c  i n n e r p a r t o f mask i s shown, o u t e r p a r t b e i n g s i m p l y h i g h l y mented h i n l k a t s i m ' o f o r d i n a r y t y p e . Hisawist!atH  a  in o r i g i n .  Vll  Topati  Note by E. S a p i r .  by E. S a p i r i n 1913-14 a t A l b e r n i ,  orna-  f o r these masks i s 21" long.  u r a l wood.  Collected  B.C.  representing He'iLlTk.  Indian.  B l a c k and red on n a t -  Used o n l y f o r o l d e s t daughter i n p'.aLp'.aya d a n c i n g .  Obtained from C a p t a i n B i l l ,  f a t h e r - i n - l a w o f Frank W i l l i a m s ,  Ts'.ioa'atH  Notes by E. S a p i r from i n f o r m a t i o n from Frank W i l l i a m s .  C o l l e c t e d from Frank W i l l i a m s by E. S a p i r i n 1914 a t A l b e r n i ,  B.C.  F 519 Cougar M a s k e t t e .  Vll  '\  F 459 Headmask ( h i n s k i t s i m ' )  Vll  another  by H . I .  Smith.  in B.C.  i n 1929.  B l a c k and red on n a t u r a l wood. C o l l e c t e d by H . I .  6" long.  Notes  Smith a t P o l y ' s P o i n t ( n e a r A l b e r n i )  F 522 T h u n d e r b i r d mask.  B l a c k and red on n a t u r a l wood.  Smith i n 1929 a t P o l y ' s P o i n t ( n e a r A l b e r n i )  in  C o l l e c t e d by  B.C.  H.I.  Ill.  Vll  F 523 - - s a m e as V l l  Vll  F 531 Mask.  Red, b l u e and b l a c k .  18" l o n g . Vll  F 522.  From M r s . M i t c h e l l ,  C o l l e c t e d by H . I .  Smith i n 1929 a t  note by H . I .  Smith  Ucluelet.  F 609 Wolf mask.  14" l o n g .  B l a c k and red on n a t u r a l wood.  C o l l e c t e d by  L o r d Bossom around 1900 a t A l b e r n i " . S o u n d . Vll  F 653 Wolf mask.  S i m i l a r to V l l  F 609.  Bossom around 1900 a t A l b e r n i Vll  C o l l e c t e d by L o r d  Sound..  F 654 Wolf mask.  13" l o n g .  R e d , b l a c k and w h i t e .  Bossom around 1900 a t A l b e r n i Vll  12" l o n g .  C o l l e c t e d by L o r d  Sound.  F 655 Wolf mask.  15" l o n g .  Red, b l a c k and green on n a t u r a l wood.  Col-  l e c t e d by L o r d Bossom around 1900 at Nootka Sound. Vll  F 656 Wolf mask.  20V long.  Eyes i n s e t w i t h m i r r o r s .  Bossom around 1900 a t A l b e r n i Vll  Vll  Vll  C o l l e c t e d by L o r d  Sound.  F 665 Wolf mask.  B l u e and red on n a t u r a l wood.  A pair with Vll  F 666.  16V' l o n g .  C o l l e c t e d by L o r d Bossom around 1900 a t A l b e r n i ,  B.C.  F 666, Wolf mask.  B l u e and red on n a t u r a l wood.  A pair with Vll  F 665.  17V long.  C o l l e c t e d by L o r d Bossom around 1900 a t A l b e r n i ,  B.C.  F 667 Wolf mask.  Red, green and y e l l o w on n a t u r a l wood.  bunches o f n a t u r a l  and dyed b a r k .  Note by Bossom.  l e c t e d by L o r d Bossom around 1900 a t Nootka Sound.  Decorated w i t h 23V.[long.  Col-  112.  Vll  F 668  • W!olf mask. VI1  Documentation n o t l o c a t e d .  F 669 Wolf mask.  B l a c k on n a t u r a l wood.  Bossom around 1900 a t A l b e r n i Vll  Sound.  B l a c k and red on n a t u r a l wood.  L o r d Bossom around 1900 at A l b e r n i  20" l o n g .  C o l l e c t e d by  21" l o n g .  C o l l e c t e d by  Sound.  F 686 Wolf mask.  B l a c k and red on n a t u r a l wood.  L o r d Bossom around 1900 a t A l b e r n i Vll  C o l l e c t e d by L o r d  F 685 Wolf mask.  Vll  19V' l o n g .  Sound.  F 696 Wolf mask.  24" l o n g .  Y e l l o w , b l a c k , r e d , green and w h i t e .  f e a t h e r s on h e a d , r a f f i a a t b a c k ; note by Birmingham. W.H. Vll  C o l l e c t e d by  Birmingham, 1 9 5 0 - 1 9 7 1 .  F 697 Wolf mask. W.H.  Vll  20" l o n g .  B l u e , r e d , b l a c k and y e l l o w .  C o l l e c t e d by  Birmingham, 1 9 5 0 - 1 9 7 1 .  F 788 Wolf mask, f e m a l e .  Red, b l u e , o r a n g e , g r e e n , s i l v e r and w h i t e .  Worn by Joe David a t a P o t l a t c h .  Made by Joe D a v i d .  from the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum G i f t Shop, B.C. Vll  Eagle  i n 1976.  Purchased Victoria,  39cm l o n g .  F 789 Wolf mask, m a l e .  Same note as V l l  F 788.  54cm l o n g .  BRITISH COLUMBIA PROVINCIAL MUSEUM 1334  ' Mask. green.  ..  Half w o l f , h a l f k i l l e r whale. C o l l e c t e d by C F .  21" l o n g .  Red, b l a c k and  Newcombe i n 1909 from H e s q u i a t .  113,  2117 Mask.  Cedar.  Red, b l u e and w h i t e .  of f i r twigs.  16''/ l o n g .  Represents. H a i e t l i k .  C o l l e c t e d by Dr. C F .  Fringe  Newcombe i n 1911  on B a r k l e y Sound. 2120 Mask.  Panther.  Cedar.  and c e d a r b a r k . at  Red p a i n t i n mouth.  10%.long.  Fringe of  C o l l e c t e d by Dr. C F .  feathers  Newcombe i n 1911  Ucluelet.  6633 Wood c a r v i n g .  Wolf?  Black.  Donated by M r s . Thompson.  From D r . A. Maclean c o l l e c t i o n .  West C o a s t .  7089 Mask.  L i g h t n i n g Snake.  Red, b l a c k and green on w h i t e .  Donated by Mr. & M r s . H e r b e r t C o r f i e l d , Sydney,  18" l o n g .  B.C.  10245 Mask.  Wolf.  B l u e , b l a c k , w h i t e and r e d .  16%" l o n g .  Rendle.  Newcombe c o l l e c t i o n . 10707 Nootka Wolf mask.  B l a c k on n a t u r a l c e d a r .  Large.  Newcombe c o l -  lection. 10708 Mask.  Wolf.  B l a c k on w h i t e .  Wolf.  Box-type.  Cedar.  Small.  Newcombe c o l l e c t i o n .  10809 Mask.  collection.  G r e e n , r e d , b l a c k and w h i t e .  Ex F. Seed C o l l e c t i o n .  Newcombe  1934.  12032 Wolf h e a d d r e s s .  Man's.  Red, b l a c k and w h i t e on n a t u r a l wood.  Eyes and t h r e e t r i a n g l e s o f c o p p e r .  18" l o n g .  Howard J o n e s ,  Sooke. 12033 Wolf h e a d d r e s s . 17" l o n g .  Woman's.  Red, b l a c k and w h i t e on n a t u r a l wood.  Eyes and t h r e e ornaments o f c o p p e r .  Howard J o n e s , Sooke.  114.  12708 Wolf mask.  B l a c k , r e d , y e l l o w , p i n k and b l u e .  17" l o n g .  Pur-  chased i n 1966. 12709 Wolf mask.  B l a c k , r e d , w h i t e , green and b l u e .  22" l o n g .  Purchased  Red, w h i t e , b l a c k , green and b l u e .  26" l o n g .  Purchased  Red, w h i t e , g o l d , b l u e and b l a c k .  Purchased  i n 1966. 12710 Wolf mask. i n 1966. 1 3254 Wolf mask.  57cm l o n g .  i n 1971. 13496 Wolf mask.  From A l b e r n i n o n - I n d i a n f a m i l y .  B l u e , green, red, white  and b l a c k .  Purchased i n 1 9 6 0 ' s . Donated 1973.  14200 Mask.  Hukluk'sim.  B l a c k , red and w h i t e on n a t u r a l wood.  Donated  by A . E . C a l d w e l l who was p r i n c i p a l o f the Ahousat R e s i d e n t i a l School from 1934 to 1939.  From 1944 u n t i l  1960 he was p r i n c i p a l o f  the  Alberni Residential School. 14936 Wolf h e a d d r e s s .  Y e l l o w , r e d , w h i t e and b l u e .  by M a j . Gen. P e a r k e s  52cm l o n g .  Collected  ca. 1960-68.  14973 Wolf h e a d d r e s s .  W h i t e , g r e e n , r e d , b l u e , brown, g o l d and y e l l o w .  Belonged t o Webster. by H.B.  C o l l e c t e d by H.B.  R o l o f f i n 1970.  Donated  R o l o f f i n 1976.  15056 Mask. Roloff.  R e d , w h i t e , b l u e and g r e e n .  Purchased i n 1973 from Howard  115.  MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A3715 Headdress.  Hinkeets.  Owned by C h i e f L o u i s Nookamus o f B a m f i e l d .  donated by Dr. James S p i l l i o u s .  21" long.  Red, g r e e n , b l a c k and  ' white. A4494 Wolf Mask. Shop.  A p a i r w i t h A4495.  Purchased i n 1961 a t London  Red, g r e e n , b l a c k and w h i t e on n a t u r a l wood.  Curio  15" l o n g .  A4495 Wolf mask.  A p a i r w i t h A4494.  Red, w h i t e and b l u e on n a t u r a l  wood.  15" l o n g . A5281 Headdress. wood.  Wolf.  17" l o n g .  B l a c k , g r e e n , b l u e , red and w h i t e on  W.C. Koerner c o l l e c t i o n .  17" l o n g .  A7862 Headdress.  Accession sheet.  l e c t e d by E . F .  Meade.  "Dance h e a d p i e c e ; whale K y u q u o t . " .  31" long.  Black, yellow,  Col-  red and g r e e n .  A7968 Headdress.  Red, b l a c k , w h i t e and b l u e .  W i l l i a m Helmer.  Ahousat 2 2 - 1 / 2 " l o n g .  Wolf r e v e a l i n g an e a g l e . W h i t e , g r e e n , r e d , y e l l o w , and b l a c k .  A8098 Headdress.  "Festival wolf."  green on n a t u r a l wood. Cross.  23" long.  (Bevan C r o s s ) .  Ex Keen e s t a t e .  R e d , b l a c k , w h i t e and  Purchased from E d i t h Bevan  Red, y e l l o w , w h i t e , green and b l a c k .  A9184 Headdress. Ahousat.  Wolf mask, one o f f o u r s e t up on posts around a grave a t From David Frank f a m i l y a t A h o u s a t .  l e c t i o n i n t h i s museum.  Other two are i n the Glenbow Museum i n A l b e r t a .  Purchased through Michael Johnston Cross.  21-3/4" long.  One i s i n Koerner - ' c o l -  (Seattle dealer)  from E d i t h Bevan  Red and b l a c k .  A9354 and A9355 Headdress, p a i r . and g l a s s i n s e t s .  Wolf.  B l a c k and red on n a t u r a l wood.  A c q u i r e d from Howard R o l o f f .  Ahousat.  Baleen feathers  116.  P a r t 2 — N o o t k a Wolf Masks l o c a t e d i n the  literature.  BRITISH MUSEUM NWC71 "8" long.  C o l l e c t e d by C a p t a i n James Cook, 1 7 7 8 . "  (Inverarity  1950).  MUSEUM FUR VOLKERKUNDE BERLIN-DAHLEM IV B27 Mask.  " K a t z oder Wolf"  long.  B l a c k and w h i t e .  (Gunther 1 9 7 2 : 2 2 4 ) .  Cook e x p e d i t i o n .  9-1/2"  (Boas 1895: F i g . 1 4 0 ) .  IV B178 Mask.  "Haifisch (shark).  (Gunther 1 9 7 2 : 2 2 4 ) . Fig.  Cook e x p e d i t i o n , c o l l e c t e d 1 7 7 8 . "  13-3/4" long.  B l a c k and w h i t e .  (Boas 1895:  140).  COLLECTION OF MIGUEL COUARRUBIAS --  Mask.  R e p r e s e n t i n g the H i ' n e m i x , a f a b u l o u s b i r d - l i k e b e i n g .  (Paalen 1943). AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 16/1097 Wolf mask.  Used i n the S t a n d i n g Wolf dance and the d a n c i n g ceremonial  a t the p o t l a t c h f o l l o w i n g the c o m p l e t i o n o f the Wolf ceremony. l e c t e d by F. Jacobsen from t h e Clayoquot b l u e and b l a c k .  15-1/2"  . . . about 1896.  Col-  Orange,  long.  16/1902 Mask.  "The L i g h t n i n g Serpent mask, o r B e l t o f the  w i t h r a z o r - l i k e edges r e p r e s e n t i n g l i g h t n i n g .  Thunderbird,  I t was worn w i t h a  l o n g c e d a r - b a r k f r i n g e a t the back and w i t h the two w h i t e  feathers  117.  . o f the! Klukwana h e a d d r e s s . in 1897."  27" l o n g .  C o l l e c t e d a t Clayoquot by F.  ( E r n s t 1952: P l a t e  Jacobsen  XVI).  - - W h i r l i n g Wolf mask i l l u s t r a t e d i n Drucker 1 9 5 5 : 1 7 6 . —  Wolf mask,  "festival."  —  Mask "Human f a c e w e a r i n g the Wolf mask o f t h e K l u k w a l l e . collected in Quillayute  ( E r n s t 1952: P l a t e X V I I ) .  territory  Though  by F a r r a n d i n 1 8 9 8 , i t has been  i d e n t i f i e d by i n f o r m a n t s as coming from B a r c l a y Sound through nal i n h e r i t a n c e . "  ( E r n s t 1952: P l a t e  mater-  XIV).  MUSEUM OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN, HEYE FOUNDATION 6/9137  —  Wolf mask.  66cm l o n g .  Wolf mask.  " 4 ' l o n g , r e q u i r e s t h e h e l p o f a second d a n c e r . "  1952: P l a t e V I I I ) . —  Wolf mask.  --  Dance mask.  Makah.  "Makah f e s t i v a l . "  ( E r n s t 1952: P l a t e  "With grey w o l f s k i n and copper e y e s .  ( E r n s t 1952:  (Ernst  VII). From Neah B a y . "  Front-piece).  ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM 939.31.10 Wolf Mask. Clo-oose  15" l o n g .  C o l l e c t e d by L i e u t .  G.T.  Emmons i n 1929 a t  Village.  DENVER ART MUSEUM NNV-7 Mask. erly  " R e d , b l a c k and w h i t e .  Human h a i r .  T h i s specimen was f o r m -  i n the C h a r l e s R a t t o m c o l l e c t i o n i n P a r i s .  about 1 8 0 0 . "  (Feder and Marl i n 1 9 6 8 ) .  May w e l l  date from  118.  CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM 19852 Mask r e p r e s e n t i n g the H a p e k t o a k - - b e l t o f the T h u n d e r b i r d ; by J . G . Swan.  Received as a g i f t from t h e department o f  C o l l e c t i n g E x p e d i t i o n i n 1893.  16" l o n g .  collected Ethnology  Red, w h i t e , b l a c k and  green. UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 56464 Mask. 93439 Mask.  12-3/4" long.  Nootka (Drucker 1951: P l a t e 5 ) .  C o l l e c t e d by J . G . Swan a t Neah Bay.  (Boas 1895: F i g . 1 9 8 ) .  119.  P a r t 3 - - N o o t k a Wolf masks seen a f t e r the s t u d y was c o m p l e t e d . PACIFIC RIM NATIONAL PARK INFORMATION SERVICE --  Wolf mask.  Modern.  w h i r l i n g wolf  Red, w h i t e and b l a c k on n a t u r a l wood.  A  type.  PORT ALBERNI MUSEUM --Mask.  Copy o f one owned by Agnes (Haipes)  h e r u n c l e , a Tses.haht. Average  Dick who got i t  from  B l a c k , b l u e , red and w h i t e on n a t u r a l wood.  length.  977-23 Wolf mask.  One horn b r o k e n .  Cross who a c q u i r e d i t t o date from 1900.  11h" l o n g .  Donated by M r s . E d i t h  from t h e TRAIT f a m i l y o f N i t i n a t L a k e .  Red and b l u e on n a t u r a l wood.  Said  A p a i r with  977-24. 977-24 Wolf mask.  Donated by M r s . E d i t h Cross who a c q u i r e d i t from the  TRAIT f a m i l y o f N i t i n a t L a k e .  S a i d t o date from 1900.  11V  long.  Red and b l u e on n a t u r a l wood. TOFINO MARITIME MUSEUM --  Wolf mask.  Found i n Lemmon's I n l e t n e a r T o f i n o .  B l a c k , b l u e and  red on n a t u r a l wood.  P a r t 4 - - P h o t o g r a p h s o f Nootka Wolf Masks 1.  C h a r l e y Swan, one o f t h e f i n e s t d a n c e r s . the Makah.  2.  Nootka headdress made by  ( I n v e r a r i t y 1950).  Mr. E r n e s t T u t u b e , sone o f C h a r l e s o f U c l u e t e t mask.  BCPM photo #4689.  (owner) h o l d i n g a  120.  3.  Nootkan dancer w e a r i n g the H u k - l u k ' s i m mask and the robe  represent-  i n g T h u n d e r b i r d , w i t h which t h i s mask i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d . 1952: P l a t e  (Ernst  XIX).  Part 5—Miscellany. American Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y . C o l l e c t e d by G.T. esaht t r i b e .  Emmons i n 1929.  16.1/1892 A+B;  2 Dance S c r e e n s .  From Ahaswimis V i l l a g e o f O p e t c h -  ( I n v e r a r i t y 1 9 5 0 ; BCPM photo #30655 and 30654).  t e x t o f t h e s i s f o r E. S a p i r ' s  description.  See  

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