Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The wolf masks of the Nootka Wolf ritual : a statement on transformation Moogk, Susan Rosa Tovell 1980

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1980_A8 M66.pdf [ 8.55MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0094807.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0094807-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0094807-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0094807-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0094807-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0094807-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0094807-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0094807-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0094807.ris

Full Text

THE WOLF MASKS OF THE NOOTKA WOLF RITUAL: A STATEMENT ON TRANSFORMATION by SUSAN ROSA TOVELL MOOGK B.A. Hon . , U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto , 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Dept. o f ANTHROPOLOGY and SOCIOLOGY We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the requi red s tandard The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l 1980 Susan Rosa Tovel 1 Moogk, 1980 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I a g ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Avv4W/9i*£l/or^ a* A X^C - t ^ U f . ^ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 6 ABSTRACT Objects from o ther c u l t u r e s have been c o l l e c t e d f o r museums f o r more than a century w i t h the hope that we c o u l d ' r e a d ' these o b j e c t s and l e a r n more about them and t h e i r makers ( T a y l o r 1959 [1957] ) . The inadequacy o f the f i e l d documentation f o r these o b j e c t s has too o f t e n been cons idered a b a r r i e r to a c h i e v i n g t h i s goal (Hase lberger 1961 :343) . Th is t h e s i s attempts to decode Nootkan Wolf masks by u s i n g a more s o p h i s -t i c a t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l approach. F i r s t , a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the masks was d i scovered through museum documentation and the ethnographic record. , Then the r i t u a l and cosmolog ica l contex ts o f the masks are r e c r e a t e d . The examinat ion of n a t i v e t e x t s d i s c l o s e d a c r i t i c a l dimension o f the Nootkan cosmos: t h a t i t i s a cosmos i n which beings are c o n t i n u a l l y I a l t e r i n g o r t r a n s f o r m i n g from one s t a t e o f be ing to another . An a n a l y -s i s o f the Wolf r i t u a l i t s e l f showed t h a t i t i s an i n i t i a t i o n r i t u a l ; and more s i g n i f i c a n t l y t h a t the c e n t r a l theme o f the Wolf r i t u a l was the processes o f t r a n s i t i o n and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f i t s major a c t o r s . I t was then p o s s i b l e to re tu rn the a n a l y s i s to the masks themse lves , and to e x p l a i n t h e i r i conography , s t y l e , dance and dance nomenclature i n terms o f the p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d process o f symbol ic t r a n s f o r m a t i o n d iscovered the Nootkan concepts . Thus the a r t i s t ' s purpose i n making these masks can be s a i d to be a v i s u a l and behav ioura l encoding o f a n a t i v e cosmic p r i n c i p l e i n so f a r as the Nootkan v i s i o n o f the process o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n has been exposed through t h i s ' r e a d i n g ' o f the masks. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS facie ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES i v LIST OF FIGURES v i LIST OF PLATES . . . . v i i . ; ACKNOWLEDGMENTS v i i i INTRODUCTION 1 Chapter 1 THE NOOTKAN COSMOS 18 A. Moral Geography 19 B. Moral T rave l and T ransformat ion 24 1. What i s T ransformat ion? 24 2. How does T rans fo rmat ion take P lace? 25 3 . Why Transform and T rave l? 27 4 . Who can Trave l and Transform 29 2 TRANSFORMATION IN THE WOLF RITUAL 34 A. Stages o f the Wolf R i t u a l 34 B. Roles o f the Wolf Masks i n the Wolf R i t u a l 37 C. The S o c i a l Status o f the Maskers 40 D. Conc lus ion 44 i i i Chapter Page 3 THE VISUAL SYMBOLS OF THE WOLF MASKS 46 AA. The V i s u a l Statements o f the Wolf Masks 46 B. Iconography o f Personages . 56 1 . Wolf 57 2 . Thunderb i rd , L i g h t n i n g Serpent and Whale 62 a . The Myth o f the Thunderbi rd 62 b. The M a n i f e s t a t i o n s of Thunderbi rds Hunt i n Nootkan C u l t u r e 63 3 . Thunderb i rd , L i g h t n i n g Serpent and W o l f , and the Wolf Masks 67 ' X . Iconography o f Co lour - Red and Black . . . . 70 ..D. Iconography o f S t y l e 75 E. Iconography 80 4 MOVEMENT! 82 A. Nomenclature ; C r a w l i n g , W h i r l i n g and Stand ing 82 B. Dances 85 C. Conc lus ion 88 5 STATEMENTS AND MESSAGES: PRIVILEGES AND TRANSFORMATION . . . . 89 A. Supernatura l G i f t s - P r i v i l e g e s 90 B. Power and T ransformat ion i n the Inbetween 92 CONCLUSION 97 A. The Keys to the System 97 B. The Method 101 BIBLIOGRAPHY 104 CATALOGUE OF NOOTKA WOLF MASKS 108 i v LIST OF TABLES Table Page I The Nootkan Stem f o r B lack 7 2 v LIST OF FIGURES Figure P a 9 e 1 : Diagonal l i n e s and the d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i r v i s u a l t h r u s t i n the form of the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask 78 v i LIST OF PLATES P l a t e Page 1 A Set o f Nootka Dance Screens 10 2 Two Nootka W h i r l i n g Wolf Masks 12 3 Nootka W h i r l i n g Wolf Masks 14 4 Nootka W h i r l i n g Wolf Masks 15 5 Nootka Crawl ing Wolf Masks 47 6 Nootka Crawl ing Wolf Masks 48 7 Nootka W h i r l i n g Wolf Masks 50 8 Nootka Stand ing Wolf Masks 52 9 Nootka Stand ing Wolf and Thunderbi rd Masks 54 10 S p i r i t Men on S tand ing Wolf Masks . . . . . . . 55 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to acknowledge the h e l p f u l suggest ions and guidance of my a d v i s o r s M a r j o r i e Hal p i n , R icardo Murator io and M a r i e - F r a n c o i s e Guidon. Acknowledgements are a l s o due to the h e l p f u l s t a f f o f the three museums whose c o l l e c t i o n s o f Wolf masks I have examined f o r the raw data f o r t h i s t h e s i s . The s t a f f members to which I am most g r a t e f u l are Audrey Shane o f the Museum o f Anthropo logy , U . B . C , M a r i l y n Chech ik , Dan Savard , John V e i l l e t t e and Kevin Neary, a l l o f the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, and Judy H a l l , L i z P i n h o r n , John Baker and Louise Dal 1 a i r e o f the Nat iona l Museum o f Man i n Ottawa. I would a l s o l i k e to thank my husband, P e t e r , and my sons Jonathan and Benjamin f o r adapt ing themselves to an e c c e n t r i c form o f mother ing and housekeeping. v i i i 1 . INTRODUCTION Museums have c o l l e c t e d and preserved a r t i f a c t s f o r c e n t u r i e s . While these c o l l e c t i o n s have served as tro p h i e s and treasures i n the past, today these museums are seen as storehouses of knowledge. The a r t i f a c t s , l i k e books i n a l i b r a r y , are the r e p o s i t o r i e s o f knowledge (Brawne 1965:7ff). But a r t i f a c t s , e s p e c i a l l y masks, a common type o f object i n ethnographic c o l l e c t i o n s , are d i f f i c u l t to 'read 1. Thus, I propose to develop a method f o r reading masks, and to t e s t i t by applying i t to an ethnographic problem. Any method employed to read masks should recognize how masks communicate ideas; i t must i d e n t i f y the aspects of a mask which can be manipulated to formulate and c o n s o l i d a t e conceptual c a t e g o r i e s . To t h i s end, I w i l l consider a mask f i r s t , as a material and v i s u a l a r t i f a c t and second, as an a r t i f a c t which i s meant to perform a r o l e i n a r i t u a l . Since v i s u a l a r t i f a c t s can communicate through iconography and s t y l e (Nodelrnan 1971:98), I propose to approach the study of masks by ana l y s i n g t h e i r iconography and v a r i a t i o n s i n s t y l e as symbols, things which r e f e r to or stand f o r other t h i n g s . In t h i s t h e s i s I w i l l use the term "icono-graphy" f o r the expression o f ideas using colours and graphic forms, and the term " s t y l e " f o r the ordered manipulation of l i n e s and balance i n the composition o f a f o r m J Further, c e r t a i n aspects o f behaviour that are focussed around the masks can be regulated to extend the range o f 2 . these v i s u a l symbols to o ther l e v e l s o f c u l t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n . The Nootka o f Vancouver I s l a n d , from whom the ethnographic problem to t e s t t h i s method w i l l be drawn, equate a mask w i t h the dancer who wears i t ; t h a t i s , a man who wears a Crawl ing Wolf mask i n the Wolf r i t u a l w i l l become a Wolf s p i r i t when he d ies ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 5 5 : - 5 ) . In a d d i t i o n , the mask the man wears , and the dance and r i t u a l r o l e he performs are g iven the same name by Nootkan informants speaking i n E n g l i s h . For example, "C rawl ing Wolf" r e f e r s to the r o l e , the mask and the dance which r e p r e -sents the Crawl ing Wolf (Drucker 1951 :493 ; Ernst 1952:66 and 7 3 ) . There -f o r e , to encompass the nature o f masks the method proposed to ' r e a d ' them w i l l i n c l u d e a study o f the i d e n t i t y o f the masker, the dance he performs and the r i t u a l r o l e o f the mask; they are three aspects o f the r i t u a l contex t o f the masks. They w i l l be analysed as three se ts o f symbols . When s e l e c t i n g an ethnographic problem to t e s t t h i s method o f read ing masks, I used c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a r e g a r d i n g i t s s u b j e c t and t o p i c . To begin the s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s , I found i t expedient to l i m i t the s u b j e c t o f the problem to a s i n g l e c u l t u r e . A s i n g l e c u l t u r e would y i e l d a manageable amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t would have the advantage o f being i d e o l o g i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d . F u r t h e r , I found i t p r e f e r a b l e to c o n f i n e the a n a l y s i s to a s i n g l e r i t u a l so t h a t I would have an even more c o n t r o l l e d body o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The Wolf r i t u a l o f the Nootka o f the l a t e 1800's o f f e r s t h i s k ind o f d a t a , and the masks o f the r i t u a l can be used to t e s t the method f o r read ing masks. The name of the Wolf masks i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were c e n t r a l to the Wolf r i t u a l , so I narrowed the scope o f the study once more to encompass j u s t the Wolf masks. I dec ided to study a l l the v a r i a t i o n s of the Wolf masks because I sensed t h a t t h i s polymorphic group 3. of masks would be more l i k e l y to represent the wide range o f s t y l e s and iconography i n the a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n o f the Nootka than a s i n g l e Wolf mask. The t o p i c o f the t e s t problem must a l s o be s e l e c t e d c a r e f u l l y . The range o f c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t can be expressed through a mask i s r e g u l a t e d by the message that the mask i s r e q u i r e d to communicate. That i s to say , i t i s e a s i e r to descern the t o p i c s t h a t are most p e r t i n e n t to the contex t i n which the mask i s worn. Thus, the Wolf masks which are meant to be seen i n a r i t u a l s i t u a t i o n where r e l i g i o u s ques t ions are i n k the f o r e f r o n t , can be expected to convey concepts which are p r i m a r i l y about cosmology, the understanding o f the wor ld as an o rgan ized and f u n c -t i o n i n g u n i v e r s e . The problem that ethnographers have had w i th the cosmology o f the Nootka was se t out by P h i l i p Drucker i n h i s work on the Northern and Cent ra l Nootkan t r i b e s (1951) . He s a i d " i t i s c l e a r there i s no we l l d e f i n e d system of thought . . . t o Nootkan cosmolog ica l and supernatura l concepts" (Drucker 1951:151) . I c h a l l e n g e t h a t s tatement . Drucker might have been unable to perce ive such a system or to de tec t the p r i n c i p l e s which g ive cohesion to Nootkan thought and a c t i o n s because he looked a t the wor ld o f the Nootka, apar t from human s o c i e t y , as a myriad o f animal and supernatura l personages drawn out o f t h e i r behav ioura l c o n t e x t s . He d i d not look a t the i n t e r a c t i o n s between these personages and men, nor a t the contexts o f these i n t e r a c t i o n s which can be found i n the myths, legends and r i t u a l s o f the Nootka. Th is t h e s i s w i l l attempt to r e f u t e Drucker ' s statement by a n a l y s i n g Nootka cosmology from t h i s second p e r -s p e c t i v e and thus w i l l study masks i n t h e i r r i t u a l c o n t e x t . 4 . Masks are a p a r t i c u l a r l y usefu l inst rument f o r s t u d y i n g a p e o p l e ' s cosmology f o r masks a l t e r the i d e n t i t y o f a person i n a s p e c i a l d i r e c t i o n . They change him i n t o something o ther than an o r d i n a r y human, and through t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n create a 1 ink between the human masker and the non-human i d e n t i t y o f the mask. A mask i s shaped so t h a t i t smoothly and c o n v i n c i n g l y f i t s over and s u b s t i t u t e s f o r the p a r t o f the w e a r e r ' s body tha t i s be ing a l t e r e d , most o f t e n the head and/or the f a c e . I t i s a l s o shaped and co loured to represent a form a p p r o p r i a t e to a new i d e n t i t y . By c o v e r i n g the weare r ' s human i d e n t i t y w i th one from o u t s i d e o f humanity , a mask moves the human wearer out o f the human c i r c l e and i n t o the g rea te r cosmolog ica l arena o f a c t i o n . Thus a Wolf 'headdress ' whose i n n e r shape accommodates a human head, and which outwardly d i s p l a y s the shapes, l i n e s , and masses symbol ic and s i g n i f i c a n t o f a Wol f , an a n i m a l , i s r e a l l y a mask. Thus, I have chosen to c a l l the Wolf masks "masks" though they are worn on the head r a t h e r than over the face and are thus o f t e n c a l l e d " h e a d d r e s s e s . " I o b j e c t to the term "headdress" because i t i s ambiguous and can mean any head c o v e r i n g ; even a hat which changes a pe rson ' s s o c i a l s t a t u s , but noth ing more. A mask does more, i t e f f e c t s a cosmic change. Thus, through a study o f the Wolf masks, I should be ab le to exp lo re aspects of the Nootkan-cosmology. I propose to be ing by s tudy ing the statements o f the masks as they are r e l a t e d to o ther l e v e l s o f c u l t u r a l exp ress ion when the masks are presented i n the Wolf r i t u a l . Then I w i l l seek out the v i s u a l and choreographic statements the Nootka a r t i s t s make through the Wolf masks. Through t h i s a n a l y s i s , I should come to comprehend the message which i s expressed when the Wolf masks are presented i n the Wolf r i t u a l . Because 5. the Wolf r i t u a l i s a major r i t u a l o f the Nootka (Kenyon 1 9 7 7 : 2 8 ) , and the Wolf masks are c e n t r a l to the Wolf r i t u a l , the masks' statements and message w i l l be expressed i n the l o g i c o f the system of Nootka thought . A f i n a l a n a l y s i s o f these statements and message w i l l d i s c l o s e some o f the p r i n c i p l e s o f l o g i c o f the Nootka cosmology. In o r d e r to c a r r y out t h i s s t u d y , pub l i shed and unpubl ished sources were mined to e x t r a c t d a t a ; j o u r n a l s , accounts , e thnograph ies , a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l i n museums, and the masks themselves . Observers have w r i t t e n about the Nootka f o r on ly the past two hundred y e a r s , though the Nootka themselves have l i v e d on the northwest coast o f North America f o r severa l m i l l e n n i a (Dewhirst 1969 :239) . In the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , the Nootka have been d i v i d e d i n t o three c u l t u r a l groups; the nor thern groups which l i v e a long the west coast o f Vancouver I s l a n d from Cape Cook to Nootka Sound, the c e n t r a l groups which l i v e a long the same coast from Hesquiat to B a r k l e y Sound, and the southern groups which l i v e on the I s l a n d ' s west coast south o f B a r k l e y Sound and on Cape F l a t t e r y which i s on the mainland f a c i n g Vancouver I s l a n d . The nor thern and c e n t r a l groups speak Nootkan proper , w h i l e among the southern groups, those on Vancouver I s l a n d speak N i t i n a t and those on Cape F l a t t e r y speak Makah (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 3 - 5 ) . 3 E a r l y e x p l o r e r s and f u r - t r a d e r s recorded t h e i r encounters w i t h the Nootka between 1778 and 1820, the p e r i o d o f the sea o t t e r f u r t rade (Cook 1784; Meares 1790; J e w i t t 1815) . The j o u r n a l s they l e f t are usefu l f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the age o f some ethnographic d e t a i l s which were d e s c r i b e d more complete ly by l a t e r w r i t e r s . A f t e r t h i s p e r i o d there i s a gap i n the records u n t i l the beg inn ing o f i n t e n s i v e European s e t t l e m e n t o f the 6. area i n the 1 8 5 0 ' s , when m i s s i o n a r i e s and Ind ian agents took up the o b s e r v e r s ' t a s k . In 1868, G.M. Sproat p u b l i s h e d h i s account o f the Nootka i n the A l b e r n i a r e a . Th is i n c l u d e d a very i m p r e s s i o n a i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f a c e n t r a l Nootkan w i n t e r dance o r Wolf r i t u a l . Father B rabant , the C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r y at Hesquiat from 1874 to 1908, recorded the p r o s e l y -t i z i n g o f t h i s Nootkan group i n h i s d i a r y (Brabant 1977 [1926] ) . More s u b s t a n t i a l accounts o f the Makah i n t h i s same p e r i o d were made by J . G . Swan, a Un i ted S t a t e s ' f e d e r a l agent (Swan 1870) . A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s s t a r t e d to reco rd the Northwest Coast c u l t u r e s i n the 1 8 8 0 ' s . Franz Boas pub l i shed h i s f i r s t work on the Nootka i n 1890, and i n c l u d e d Nootkan m a t e r i a l i n h i s p u b l i c a t i o n s o f 1897 and 1916. Th is m a t e r i a l was c o l l e c t e d by George Hunt a t Yuquot, the summer v i l l a g e o f the Moachat, a nor thern group, and by Boas h i m s e l f , from n a t i v e in formants among the c e n t r a l Nootka a t Por t A l b e r n i (Rohner 1 9 6 9 : 1 1 0 ) . Boas' p u b l i -c a t i o n s i n c l u d e accounts o f r i t u a l s and ceremonies , and myths. Edward S a p i r d i d important f i e l d work from 1910 to 1914 a t Por t A l b e r n i . He c o l l e c t e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the s o c i a l o r d e r , myths and l e g e n d s , ceremonies and r i t u a l s from the o l d e r people who r e c a l l e d events and l i f e i n the 1870's and 1 8 8 0 ' s . He analysed and p u b l i s h e d some o f h i s data be fo re ) the F i r s t World War ( S a p i r 1911 and 1913) ; the bulk o f h i s f i e l d notes have been p u b l i s h e d as l i n g u i s t i c t e x t s s i n c e h i s death ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939 and 1955) . Some t e x t s o f f a m i l y legends are s t i l l unpubl ished ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 5 5 : 1 ) . S a p i r ' s s tudents have cont inued h i s work on the Nootka. They i n c l u d e Frances Densmore, Mary Haas, Helen Roberts and M o r r i s Swadesh (Densmore 1939; Haas 1930; Roberts and Swadesh 1955) . Some have had access 7. to S a p i r ' s notebooks; o r have used h i s i n f o r m a n t s . E .S . C u r t i s ' c o - a u t h o r , W.E. Myers , c o n s u l t e d Edmund Schwinke, a Makah, George Hunt, and Frank W i l l i a m s , one o f S a p i r ' s in formants ( C u r t i s 1916) . These l a t e r a n t h r o -p o l o g i s t s recorded ceremonial songs and dances, and myths from the memories o f o l d people . In t h i s pos t -war p e r i o d some s t u d i e s were made o f the o l d Nootkan m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e and contemporary s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e (Waterman 1920; Koppert 1930) . P h i l i p Drucker d i d h i s f i e l d work among the nor thern and c e n t r a -Nootka d u r i n g the 1 9 3 0 ' s . He gathered a wide range o f m a t e r i a l t h a t belonged to the pe r iod between 1870 and 1900 (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 2 ) . At the same t i m e , A l i c e E r n s t , encouraged by Franz Boas , gathered i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t a l s o dated from the l a t e 1 8 0 0 ' s , from e l d e r l y in formants among the Makah, Clayoquot and P o r t A l b e r n i groups (E rns t 1952) . She focussed her i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on the Wolf r i t u a l . In the 1940 1 s E l i z a b e t h Colson gathered contemporary m a t e r i a l among the Makah (Colson 1953) . She found very l i t t l e o f the o l d indigenous r e l i g i o n t h a t had been recorded by e a r l i e r w r i t e r s . More r e c e n t l y a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have been a n a l y s i n g the m a t e r i a l t h a t S a p i r and Drucker c o l l e c t e d . These i n c l u d e Swadesh (1948) , Langdon (1976) , and Rossman and Rubel (1971) . They have worked on problems o f p o l i t i c a l , economic and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . Several people are c u r r e n t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the ethnography o f the Nootka. Barbara E f f r a t , o f the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, i s working on the l i n g u i s t i c s o f the Hesquiat (1978) . S tud ies o f the h i s t o r y o f the e a r l y con tac t p e r i o d have been done by C h r i s t i a n Archer (1978) , Bar ry Gough (1978) and Terry Moore, an a n t h r o p o l g i s t (1977) . 8 . There i s a l s o a renewed i n t e r e s t i n the Nootka b e l i e f system. Susan Kenyon i s s tu d y ing the contemporary ceremonies o f the Nootka (Kenyon 1977).. Barbara Moon and Nancy Turner are s tudy ing the b i o l o g i c a l nomen-c l a t u r e o f the Hesqu ia t , a c e n t r a l Nootkan t r i b e (1978) . Two graduate s t u d e n t s , Susan G o l l a and N a t h a l i e Macfar lane are engaged i n f i e l d work a t Por t A l b e r n i . Th is t h e s i s i s p a r t o f the r e v i v e d i n t e r e s t i n the Nootka cosmology. Much o f the i n f o r m a t i o n used i n t h i s t h e s i s has been drawn from the p u b l i s h e d work o f S a p i r , Drucker and E r n s t , and thus dates from the l a t e n ine teenth centu ry . These ethnographies d e s c r i b e va r ious contex ts f o r the u t i l i z a t i o n o f the same s y m b o l s . t h a t are cent red on and around the Wolf masks o f the Nootka Wolf r i t u a l . The problem w i t h t h i s data i s t h a t i t i s second-hand. I t was c o l l e c t e d and t r a n s l a t e d by i n d i v i d u a l s who were not a p a r t o f the Nootka c u l t u r e , and thus i t has been removed from the Nootkan language and id iom and put i n t o E n g l i s h , a v e h i c l e o f e x p r e s s i o n o f another c u l t u r e . F o r t u n a t e l y f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r who cannot speak Nootkan, there i s another source o f pr imary e x p r e s s i o n from the Nootka c u l t u r e o f t h a t p e r i o d which i s s t i l l a c c e s s i b l e . These are the Wolf masks. They are m a t e r i a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f the Nootka c u l t u r e as i t e x i s t e d between 1850 and 1900 when they were made. They are a source o f pr imary i n f o r m a t i o n . These immutable in formants are the m o t i v a -t i o n and f i n a l , a r b i t e r s o f t h i s e thnographic s tudy . Th is study i s based on the Nootka Wolf masks i n the c o l l e c -t i o n s o f the Museum o f Anthropology a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia [ U . B . C ] , the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum [ B . C . P . M . ] , and the Nat iona l Museum o f Canada [ N . M . C . ] . 4 The bulk o f the Wolf masks i n these 9 . museums were c o l l e c t e d around the t u r n o f t h i s c e n t u r y , p r i m a r i l y from the Por t A l b e r n i groups. The c o l l e c t i o n s have been augmented w i t h specimens from a l l the o ther major Nootkan groups on Vancouver I s l a n d . I found no Wolf masks from the Makah i n Washington s t a t e . I have a l s o r e l i e d on photographs found i n the l i t e r a t u r e . The masks a t U .B .C . appear to be o f a c o n s i s t e n t l y l a t e r date than those o f the N.M.C. and most o f those a t the B . C . P . M . But the documentation i s scanty and u n c e r t a i n . To begin the read ing o f the masks I developed a typology so t h a t some o rder cou ld be d i s c e r n e d i n t h e i r forms. The i d e n t i t y o f o n l y a few o f the Nootka Wolf masks i n the museums i s recorded i n the accom-panying cata logue notes. The forms o f these i d e n t i f i e d masks were s t u d i e d and the shapes o f u n i d e n t i f i e d Wolf masks were compared to them. S i m i l a r shapes were put together i n one form c a t e g o r y , and the i d e n t i t y d e f i n i t e l y a t t r i b u t e d to the few masks i n any one form category was. a s c r i b e d to a l l the masks i n tha t form ca tegory . I t was noted t h a t each form category bore a great s i m i l a r i t y to one of the beings d e p i c t e d on the Nootka dance 5 screens (see p l a t e 1 ) . On f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , these form c a t e g o r i e s which were based on shape and i d e n t i t y , c o i n c i d e d w i th d i f f e r e n c e s i n the masks' r i t u a l contex ts and b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t y l e . I concluded t h a t there are th ree main c a t e g o r i e s o f Nootka Wolf masks. They are C rawl ing Wol f , W h i r l i n g Wolf ( a l s o r e f e r r e d to as Sp inn ing Wolf o r L i g h t n i n g < Serpent i n E n g l i s h sources) and Standing Wolf (E rns t 1 9 5 2 : 9 6 ) . W i th in these c a t e g o r i e s , the shapes o f the Wolf masks vary a great d e a l . D i f f e r e n t a r t i s t s , each employing t h e i r personal s t y l e s , account f o r some o f the v a r i a t i o n s o f s t y l e found i n the Wolf masks, but PLATE 1. A SET OF NOOTKA DANCE SCREENS 10. Photographed from Art of the Northwest Coast Indians "by Robert Bruce Inverarity, 1973. 1 1 . no s y s t e m a t i c work has y e t been p u b l i s h e d to i d e n t i f y the va r ious Nootkan a r t i s t s , and the r e g i o n a l and h i s t o r i c a l s t y l e s o f the Nootkan a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n . D i f f e r e n t owners accounted f o r some o f the v a r i a t i o n i n i c o n -orgraphy w i t h i n each category o f Wolf mask. In Nootkan l e g e n d s , i t i s not unusual f o r the ancestors o f separate f a m i l e s to r e c e i v e what seems to be the same Wolf mask. Thus two d i s t i n c t l i n e a g e s may c l a i m the owner-s h i p o f a W h i r l i n g Wolf mask. B u t , a c c o r d i n g to each f a m i l y ' s l e g e n d , t h e i r mask was r e c e i v e d under a unique s e t o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The r e s u l t i s t h a t the a c t u a l p r i v i l e g e and power a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each W h i r l i n g Wolf mask i s un ique. For example, masks V I I - F - 3 7 9 and V I I - F - 3 8 0 i n the Nat iona l Museum o f Canada are both L i g h t n i n g Serpent ( W h i r l i n g W o l f ) , y e t -380 represents "Lokwana power from the Wolves" and -379 represents "power f o r hunters from a mixytate b i r d [a type o f duck ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939: 2 3 1 ) ] " (Sap i r . -N .M.C . ca ta logue n o t e s ) . The d i f f e r e n t sponsors and powers a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the same type o f mask are r e f l e c t e d by the d i f f e r e n t mechanisms (see p l a t e 2 ) , a t t a c h e d to the top o f the W h i r l i n g W o l f ' s head. D i f f e r e n c e s i n the contex ts i n which the masks were meant to appear account f o r some o f the v a r i a t i o n s i n c o l o u r . Some o f the Wolf masks were made f o r use i n the Wolf r i t u a l , which makes a coherent s t a t e -ment a b o u t , t h e cosmolog ica l o r d e r d u r i n g a formal o r bounded p e r i o d o f i n i t i a t i o n a c t i v i t y , w h i l e o t h e r Wolf masks were made to be d i s p l a y e d d u r i n g the ceremonial p o r t i o n s o f such occas ions as weddings and f u n e r a l s . On these l a t e r o c c a s i o n s , an i n d i v i d u a l ' s r i g h t to take a p a r t i c u l a r p a r t i n the Wolf r i t u a l cou ld be d i s p l a y e d a long w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f o t h e r items o f weal th as a statement o f h i s p o s i t i o n i n the s o c i a l o rder N.M.C. # VII-P - 3 8 0 1 3 . (Drucker 1951:247-8) and 257) . On these o c c a s i o n s , the c h a r a c t e r o f each mask appeared in i s o l a t i o n r a t h e r than i n r e l a t i o n to the o ther c h a r a c t e r s o f the o t h e r masks. E rns t noted t h a t the f e s t i v a l or ceremonial masks are more c o l o u r f u l than those used i n r i t u a l (E rns t 1 9 5 2 : 2 5 ) . E r n s t ' s statement i s co r robora ted by my own o b s e r v a t i o n s . In the museum c o l l e c t i o n s , I found t h a t two d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f c o l o u r s were used on the Wolf masks. Only red and b lack were used on some masks, w h i l e many c o l o u r s were used on o t h e r s . When the i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e , the c o l o u r f u l masks were cata logued as p o t l a t c h o r f e s t i v a l masks (E rns t 1952:PI ate 2 ; see p l a t e 3 , U . B . C . : A 8 0 9 8 ; N . M . C . : V I I - F - 4 0 7 B ; see p l a t e 4 , N . M . C . : V I I - F -427 and V I I - F - 4 2 8 ) . I concluded that the somber red and b lack specimens are the ones t h a t were used f o r r i t u a l purposes. I s h a l l r e t u r n to the ques t ion o f c o l o u r i n Chapter 3 when I d i s c u s s the Nootkan iconography o f c o l o u r . The typo logy o f the masks used f o r t h i s t h e s i s makes d i s t i n c -t i o n s based on i d e n t i t y (Standing Wol f , W h i r l i n g Wolf and Crawl ing Wolf) and contex t ( r i t u a l or c e r e m o n i a l ) . I am assuming t h a t v a r i a t i o n s i n form t h a t cou ld be a t t r i b u t e d to the d i f f e r e n t l i n e a g e s t h a t own the masks, and the d i f f e r e n t a r t i s t s t h a t made them f a l l w i t h i n the general p a t t e r n o f the Nootkan cosmology because the owners and makers l i v e d w i t h i n the context o f the Nootkan c u l t u r e . The d i s t i n c t i o n between r i t u a l and ceremonial masks i s important because i t i s my purpose to examine a complete s e t o f masks used i n a r i t u a l r a t h e r than those d i s p l a y e d i n a ceremony. Before embarking on the a n a l y s i s o f the r i t u a l Wolf masks o f the Nootka, I w i l l d e s c r i b e the Nootkan cosmos i n Chapter 1 , because i t 14. PLATE 3 . NOOTKA WHIRLING WOLF MASKS U.B.C. # A8098 N.M.C. # VII-F-407B 15. PLATE 4 . NOOTKA. WHIRLING WOLF MASKS N.M.C. # VII-F-427 N.M.C. # VII-F-428 16. prov ides the u l t i m a t e contex t f o r the message o f these masks. Chapter 2 w i l l p resent an a n a l y s i s o f the cosmolog ica l boundaries and s o c i a l c a t e -g o r i e s o f the Wolf r i t u a l . I t w i l l l o c a t e the Wolf masks i n these c a t e -g o r i e s . Chapter 3 w i l l study the v i s u a l symbols o f the Wolf masks. The d i s c u s s i o n w i l l f l e s h out and d e f i n e the Nootkan concept o f the cosmo-l o g i c a l c a t e g o r i e s d i s c e r n e d i n the Wolf r i t u a l . In Chapter 4 a s i m i l a r study o f the 'movements' o f the Wolf masks w i l l f u r t h e r our understanding o f these major Nootkan c a t e g o r i e s . The l a s t chapter o f the t h e s i s w i l l attempt to present a coherent statement o f the meaning or message o f the Nootka Wolf r i t u a l . The c o n c l u s i o n w i l l summarize the Nootkan 'system o f thought ' and how the masks have served to l ead us to comprehend the Nootkan cosmology. 17. INTRODUCTION; FOOTNOTES Panofsky (1962:3 -17) makes a s i m i l a r d i s t i n c t i o n i n the l e v e l s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i th which one can analyse a work o f a r t . H is ' iconography i n the narrow sense o f the word' i s here ' i c o n o g r a p h y 1 , and h i s ' iconography i n the deeper sense o f the word' i s here ' s t y l e ' . Even today , the dancers are so c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the mask tha t the Nootka speak o f the masks as i f they were a l i v e and mot ivate themselves . Joe Dav id , a contemporary Nootka a r t i s t , remembering the dances he saw as a boy, s a i d "They were j u s t b e i n g s , h a l f wood, h a l f man." To him the masks were r e a l c r e a t u r e s (March, 1978) . To the Nootka the dances and the mask form a f u l l y - i n t e g r a t e d u n i t . J F o r p o l i t i c a l reasons the Nootka are r e p l a c i n g the word 'Nootka ' w i th the p o p u l a r , t u r n - o f - t h e - c e n t u r y term "West Coast People" which r e f e r s to the west coast o f Vancouver I s l a n d . They are r e s t r i c t i n g "Nootka" to re fe rences to the language. In t h i s t h e s i s I w i l l use the term Nootka f o r the p e o p l e , c u l t u r e and language and thus f o l l o w the accepted a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l usage. ^ 1 s h a l l r e f e r to these i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the d i s c u s s i o n below w i t h the f o l l o w i n g a b b r e v i a t i o n s ; Museum of Anthropology a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia -U .B .C . P r o v i n c i a l Museum of B r i t i s h Columbia - B . C . P . M . Nat iona l Museum of Canada - N.M.C. The dance screens were o c c a s i o n a l l y used as a backdrop f o r the Wolf r i t u a l . "The p a i n t i n g s . . . r e p r e s e n t e d a Thunderbird h o l d i n g a whale . . . a w o l f . . .and a he'itUk" ( S a p i r 1 9 1 3 : 6 8 ) . H e ' i t l i k w i l l a l s o be c a l l e d L i g h t n i n g Serpent i n t h i s t h e s i s . 18. Chapter 1 THE NOOTKAN COSMOS This t h e s i s i s based upon a concept ion o f the Nootkan cosmos i n which a f o u r t h realm - the sac red domain o f the supernatura l - occup ies the spaces between the three realms o f profane e x i s t e n c e : the l a n d , the sea and the sky . I f u r t h e r p o s t u l a t e t h a t the supernatura l o r Inbetween realm i s a l s o found i n the i n t e r s t i c e s between the c a t e g o r i e s o f being w i t h i n these profane realms (see F igure 1 ) . In t h i s cosmos, a r c h i p e l a g o s and i s l a n d s o f s e c u l a r or profane l i f e are s c a t t e r e d over a sea o f s u p e r -n a t u r a l and sacred b e i n g s , the Inbetween o r fou r th rea lm. A l l Nootkan r i t u a l s i n v o l v e , i n some f a s h i o n , the dangerous passage o f humans through t h i s f o u r t h rea lm. On f i r s t acquaintance w i th Nootkan thought and l i f e , the c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e i r cosmos appear to us to b l u r i n t o each o ther because the Nootka themselves emphasize t r a v e l between these d i v i s i o n s r a t h e r than the d i v i s i o n s themselves . The i n t e n s e r i t u a l i z a t i o n o f Nootkan l i f e i s a r e s u l t o f the f requent n e c e s s i t y f o r humans to ente r the fou r th rea lm. I t w i l l be argued i n t h i s t h e s i s t h a t t h i s i s the need to ob ta in power. In t h i s chapter I w i l l d e s c r i b e the realms o f the Nootkan cosmos, and how, why and which humans move from one realm to another . In the f o l l o w i n g chapters I w i l l look more s p e c i f i c a l l y at the f o u r t h 19. r e a l m , the "Inbetween" area and the b o u n d a r y - c r o s s e r s , as expressed by the r i t u a l Wolf masks. A. Moral Geography When a Nootka performs a s e c r e t r i t u a l f o r a i d i n an e n t e r -p r i s e , he begins w i t h a p rayer to the f o u r c h i e f s : the C h i e f o f the Sky , the C h i e f o f the Land , the C h i e f o f the Undersea and the C h i e f o f the Hor izon (Drucker 1951:152) which i s a l s o c a l l e d South ( C u r t i s 1916:28 and 3 2 ) . The realm of the South C h i e f i s d e s c r i b e d as the "narrow s t r i p o f l a n d b e l i e v e d to border the sea where the sky a t the south meets the water" ( C u r t i s 1 9 1 6 : 1 0 6 ) ; t h a t i s , i t l i e s between the sea and the s k y . The H o r i z o n , D rucker ' s g loss of t h i s C h i e f ' s r e a l m , a l s o l i e s between the l a n d and the s k y . These two h o r i z o n s , t o g e t h e r , are par t o f what I c a l l the Inbetween. Thus I can recognize f o u r d i s t i n c t realms i n the Nootkan cosmos: the s e a , the l a n d , the sky and the ' i n b e t w e e n ' . The sky i s always named f i r s t . None o f the o ther three realms enjoy primacy over the others f o r the o rder i n which t h e i r c h i e f s are named v a r i e s , a l though the C h i e f o f the Hor izon tends to come second. His ' inbetween ' realm i s u n l i k e the o ther realms which are s i m i l a r to each other i n many f e a t u r e s . A c l o s e r examinat ion of each o f these realms i s needed to i l l u s t r a t e the d i f f e r e n c e . ^ The realm o f the human prayermaker i s l o c a t e d i n the human v i l l a g e s a long the coast l i n e . I t i s a d i v i s i o n o f the Land realm ( S a p i r ) and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 7 5 ) . The Nootka conceive o f t h e i r s e t t l e m e n t s as conglom-e r a t i o n s o f l i n e a g e o r f a m i l y u n i t s (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 2 2 0 ) , each w i t h i t s own house and c h i e f , who band t o g e t h e r i n a v i l l a g e o f the b a s i s o f rea l and p o s s i b l e marr iage t i e s between the l i n e a g e s . The c h i e f o f the r a n k i n g l i n e a g e : i s the c h i e f o f the v i l l a g e . 20. The format ion o f these se t t lements i s r e g u l a t e d by the economic c o n d i t i o n s o f the seasonal food g a t h e r i n g c y c l e . The v i l l a g e s are u s u a l l y formed dur ing the summer and w i n t e r but not i n the s p r i n g , which i s a salmon f i s h i n g and b e r r y i n g season , nor i n the f a l l when each l i n e a g e i s busy p r e s e r v i n g s t o r e s o f salmon f o r the w i n t e r at i t s salmon st ream. During the pos tcontac t p e r i o d , the l i n e a g e s o f each o f the nor thern f j o r d s banded together i n the summer i n very l a r g e v i l l a g e s to form loose c o n -f e d e r a c i e s (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 6 7 ) . More t r a d i t i o n a l l y , the l a r g e s t v i l l a g e s were formed f o r the w i n t e r ceremonial and r i t u a l season . In a l l these se t t lement p a t t e r n s , the l i n e a g e and i t s house i s always the b a s i c o r g a n i -z a t i o n a l u n i t . The Land i s a l s o the realm o f s e v e r a l o t h e r o rders o f beings which are f u r t h e r subd iv ided i n t o s m a l l e r c a t e g o r i e s . The o rder o f f o u r -v footed land mammals, sastu.p (Moon 1978:76) i n c l u d e s the Wolf who t r a v l e s i n the woods (E rns t 1952:48) and hunts Deer and E lk (E rns t 1952:79 and 9 0 ) ; Bear , a s l o w - w i t t e d l a r g e i n d i v i d u a l ; the f i e r c e G r i z z l y B e a r ; Cougar; S q u i r r e l ; Mink [a be ing o f the lowest rank , a s l a v e ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 2 2 1 ) ] ; Land O t t e r and o thers a l s o belong to the o rder o f f o u r - f o o t e d land a n i m a l s . Trees and bushes form another o rder o f beings who l i v e i n the Land rea lm. Th is o rder i n c l u d e s such beings as Ye l low Cedar , Hemlock, Red Cedar , Yew, B e r r i e s and var ious ber ry bushes , e s p e c i a l l y Salmonberry and Gooseberry (Swan 1 8 7 0 : 6 5 ) . The Undersea realm i s where the sea beings l i v e . They are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t o l a r g e r c a t e g o r i e s such as sea mammals, f i s h and i n v e r -t e b r a t e s ( S a p i r 1919:352) which are broken down i n t o s u b - c a t e g o r i e s such as K i l l e r Whale and Whale, Salmon and H e r r i n g , o r Sea Urch in and C h i t o n . 21 . S e a l , Cod, H a l i b u t and Sea O t t e r are some o f the o t h e r denizens o f the s e a . The s p i r i t s o f some of these spec ies have a house, much l i k e the c h i e f o f a human l i n e a g e , where they take o f f t h e i r s k i n s and walk about as men ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:220 and 230) . The Sky i s the realm of the sky c r e a t u r e s . The d i f f e r e n t orders i n t h i s realm are not as c l e a r l y c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n the p u b l i s h e d myths and legends as those i n the o t h e r rea lms . Heavenly bodies such as Sun and Moon ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 9 9 ; Densmore 1939:212) belong to one o r d e r ; they are both c h i e f s who have daughters and l i n e a g e houses. Another o rder o f Sky beings are the b i r d s , such as E a g l e , Woodpecker, Raven, Crow, B l u e j a y , Wren and Sparrow. In the contex t o f the o rder o f b i r d s , Eagle and Woodpecker are c h i e f s ( C u r t i s 1 9 1 5 : 2 3 ; Boas 1 9 1 0 : 8 9 4 ) , B lue Jay i s the mother o f Raven, w h i l e Sparrow and Wren are the wives o f Woodpecker ( S a p i r 1939: 219) and the mothers o f b e r r i e s , one o f the forms assumed by Raven ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:51 and 5 3 ) . Raven from the Sky and Mink from the Land share the name Kwati and the r o l e o f t r i c k s t e r . L i k e Mink, Raven i s a meddler who i s always t r y i n g to change t h i n g s . Sometimes h i s deeds tu rn out w e l l , such as when he s t o l e f i r e , l i g h t and f r e s h water f o r mankind (Boas 1 9 1 6 : 8 8 8 - 8 9 7 ) ; o ther a t tempts , such as h i s e f f o r t s to copy Red Cod's method o f feed ing h i m s e l f , b r ings d i s a s t e r to Kwati when he k i l l s h i s own daughters i n s t e a d (Boas 1 9 1 6 : 8 9 7 ) . Both Raven and Mink are prone to t rans form t h e i r i d e n t i t y to escape awkward s i t u a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , the C h i e f o f the Hor izon leads us to c o n s i d e r the realm of the Inbetween. A l l l i m i n a l p laces i n the Nootkan cosmos are the s p a t i a l locii o f t h i s rea lm. These i n c l u d e the i n t e r t i d a l zone o f the 2 2 . beach which separates the land from the s e a , and the hor i zon which separates the sky from the sea and the l a n d ( C u r t i s 1916 :106) . Another l i m i n a l area i s the s t r i p o f brush o r woods which separates the v i l l a g e s from the r e s t o f the Land rea lm, which i n c l u d e s the deep woods and the f o o t o f the moun-t a i n s . The Inbetween realm i s a l s o l o c a t e d i n the sha l low waters and rocky p o i n t s o f land which serve the Nootka as boundaries between the bays i n the s h o r e l i n e . A Nootkan word f o r bay a l s o means ' g r o i n ' and ' lower b e l l y ' ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 3 1 8 ) . These m u l t i p l e meanings o f the word i n d i c a t e t h a t the Nootka see a bay as a u n i t o f the s h o r e l i n e t h a t con ta ins s i t e s o f l i f e (such as human v i l l a g e s ) , as does a g r o i n o r b e l l y , w h i l e they regard the waters near the capes and po in ts o f land between i n l e t s as the boundaries between the bays. The realm of the Inbetween i n i n h a b i t e d by dangerous, i n c r e d i b l e , ' ou t o f t h i s w o r l d ' beings who are not c l a s s i f i a b l e as are o r d i n a r y b e i n g s , because the components o f these beings are combined so t h a t they form l o g i c a l paradoxes. In a d d i t i o n , t h e i r forms are more indete rminate o r f l e x i b l e because they have s h i f t i n g i d e n t i t i e s . Th is w i l l become more ev ident as they are d e s c r i b e d . The woods near the v i l l a g e are the haunts o f demi -be ings such as w i l d men (Pookmis and Achmako) and insane people ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 6 7 ; E rns t 1 9 5 2 : 7 1 ) . In the waters o f f the p o i n t s o f land which separate one bay from another , g i a n t s p i r i t sharks and o c t o p i i w a i t to p u l l men to t h e i r death (Northwest Coast A r t i s t s ' G u i l d 1977:#8; Densmore 1939:195 ; David 1978). Accord ing to the Nootka there i s a sandbar a t the h o r i z o n to the southwest from where the Southwest winds b r i n g bad storms ( C u r t i s 1916:106 ; Densmore 1 9 3 9 : 2 5 6 - 7 ) . For u s , the h igher reaches o f the mountains have a f f i n i t i e s w i th the l a n d and the 2 3 . s k y , b u t , to the Nootka they belong to the realm of the Inbetween; they are the home o f Thunderbi rd (Swan 1 8 7 0 : 8 ) , a s p i r i t who has the i n n e r form of a man, but dons the o u t e r form of a g i g a n t i c b i r d when he ventures from h i s home to hunt Whale {ibid.). L i g h t n i n g Serpent , an important f i g u r e i n t h i s t h e s i s , l i v e s i n the wing f e a t h e r s o f Thunderb i rd . Thus the realm of the Inbetween i s l o c a t e d i n the l i m i n a l areas which e x i s t between the o t h e r rea lms , and i s populated by ephemeral , dangerous and paradox ica l beings which do not f i t i n t o the c a t e g o r i e s o f the Sky , Sea or Land. The Nootka c a l l them " s p i r i t s , " taeka (Drucker 1951:152) o r aiba ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:281) . I t i s my t h e s i s t h a t the realm of the Inbetween i s the realm where b a s i c dimensions o f be ing are t r a n s f e r r e d from one realm to another . By t h i s I mean t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f i d e n t i t y by a b e i n g , be i t from animal to man (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 1 6 6 ) , from c h i l d h o o d to a d u l t h o o d , from berry to b i r d ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:51) o r from b i r d to man ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 4 7 ) . In each o f the o ther rea lms , - Sea , Sky and Land - the beings are " r e a l " and s t a b l e though there are i n d i v i d u a l s who are more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i th the Inbetween and who t rans fo rm themselves more r e a d i l y . I w i l l c a l l these beings " t r a n s f o r m e r s . " Salmon i s the t rans fo rmer o f the s e a . Raven i s the t rans fo rmer o f the s k y , w h i l e Mink i s the t rans fo rmer of the Land (Densmore 1 9 3 9 : 3 0 ) . In human s o c i e t y , the t ransformers are those who are i n the process o f a c q u i r i n g supernatura l powers and s k i l l s needed f o r adu l thood , tha t i s c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y the c h i l d r e n o f the c h i e f s who have the l a r g e s t number o f p r i v i l e g e s to o b t a i n . L i g h t n i n g Serpent , or E e i t l i k i s the t rans fo rmer o f the realm of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and s p i r i t s , the Inbetween. He man i fes ts h i m s e l f as the l i g t n i n g f l a s h i n g 2 4 . between the sky and the s e a , o r from the sky to the t rees on the land ( S a p i r 1925:314) . Th is t h e s i s w i l l s p e c i f i c a l l y exp lo re and e s t a b l i s h the nature o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n the Nootkan cosmology. B. Moral Travel and T ransformat ion 1. What i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ? T ransformat ion i s movement across the boundaries o f the r e a l m s , orders and c a t e g o r i e s o f the Nootkan cosmos. I s h a l l show t h a t f o r the Nootka, t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s a l s o necessary f o r a human being to a l t e r h i s s o c i a l s t a t u s because Nootkan r i t u a l s symbol ize the s o c i a l t r a n s i t i o n s from non-hunter to hunte r , from c h i l d h o o d to adu l thood , from s i n g l e to marr ied (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 2 9 3 - 7 ) , as t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . T ransformat ion i n v o l v e s changing one 's i d e n t i t y to t h a t o f a being i n another r e a l m , o r d e r , c a t e -gory , o r s t a t u s . T ransformat ion i s i n h e r e n t l y dangerous because i t i n v o l v e s pass ing through the realm of the Inbetween whose i n h a b i t a n t s might k i l l any r i t u a l l y unprepared people they might meet (Drucker 1951 :152) . Unwary people have been k i l l e d by the s p i r i t s i n the woods ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 6 6 ) . Even the r i t u a l l y prepared have to approach these beings w i t h c a u t i o n ; an a p p r o p r i a t e r i t u a l c r y (Drucker 1951:157) o r some other symbol ic ruse i s needed to m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l over the s p i r i t s (Drucker 1951 :160) . I t i s through an encounter w i t h a be ing i n the Inbetween tha t a Nootka r e c e i v e s power. This power has m o r a l , s o c i a l and economic dimen-s i o n s . I t i s mani fes ted s o c i a l l y as a " - p r i v i l e g e " and m a t e r i a l l y as a name, mask, dance and/or song which i s p r i v a t e l y owned. 2 5 . 2. How does t r a n s f o r m a t i o n take p lace? Humans may t rans form and change h i s i d e n t i t y through r i t u a l a c t i o n s performed at a p p r o p r i a t e t imes and p l a c e s . There are two stages i n the Nootkan process o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . F i r s t , the r i t u a l i s t d i s c a r d s h i s o r i g i n a l i d e n t i t y , s lough ing o f f h i s " s k i n , " before he assumes a new i d e n t i t y . For i n s t a n c e , the wha l ing r i t u a l (Drucker 1951:169) seeks f i r s t to t r a n s f e r the p r o s p e c t i v e whaler out o f h i s s t a t e o f humanity , and on ly then i n t o the s t a t e o f a being i n the order o f the whale . To r i d h i m s e l f o f h i s human i d e n t i t y , the r i t u a l i s t ac ts i n severa l nonhuman ways such as a b s t a i n i n g from s l e e p , " from sexual i n t e r c o u r s e , and from l a r g e amounts of food and water . During the r i t u a l i t s e l f , he rubs h i s s k i n w i th scented v e g e t a t i o n , the exact i d e n t i t y o f which i s a c l o s e l y guarded s e c r e t , to r i d h i m s e l f o f h i s human smel l ( C u r t i s 1 9 1 6 : 1 6 ) . Often the rubbing i s so v igourous t h a t the s k i n breaks and b l e e d s . Th is i s s y m b o l i c a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e . The b lood i s d r a i n i n g out o f h i s body, and to be b l o o d l e s s i s to be dead (E rns t 1952:84) and no longer a denizen o f any realm or order o f profane or l i v i n g b e i n g s . To erase another p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f l i f e , the . r i t u a l i s t w i l l a b s t a i n from warm food and bathe i n c o l d water to r i d h i m s e l f o f the warmth i n h i s body {ibid.;;. Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 1 6 7 - 8 ) . I f the r i t u a l i s t i s p repar ing f o r a s p e c i f i c e n t e r p r i s e , such as wha l ing o r t r o l l i n g f o r f i s h , he proceeds to the second stage and i m i t a t e s the s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c s o f a being from the same order as the o b j e c t i v e o f h i s e n t e r -p r i s e i n o rder to become t h a t b e i n g . Thus a whaler i m i t a t e s the hunter o f wha les , the k i l l e r whale , and a f isherman becomes a male f i s h , the metaphor ica l hunter (see below i n the d i s c u s s i o n o f the metaphor o f 26. Thunderb i rd 1 s hunt) o f female f i s h (Drucker 1951:169; S a p i r and Swadesh 1939 :108) . Changes i n time and p l a c e , as w e l l as a c t i o n s , are employed to achieve t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . To stage an escape from the bounds o f the human v i l l a g e and profane t i m e , one must p lace o n e s e l f a t t h e i r s p a t i a l and temporal 1 i m i t s . The s p a t i a l l i m i t s are c rossed by e n t e r i n g the p laces which belong to the realm of the Inbetween. Nootkan r i t u a l i s t s t rans fo rm themselves i n the woods near the v i l l a g e , and i n the i n t e r t i d a l zone o f the beach i n f r o n t o f the v i l l a g e (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 1 6 7 - 8 ) . The s u r f a c e o f bodies o f wate r , e i t h e r s a l t o r f r e s h , between the sky and the undersea are a l s o favoured by r i t u a l i s t s (ibid). Po in ts o f land and rocks j u t t i n g out i n t o the sea are some o ther favoured r i t u a l l o c a t i o n s (ibid). The temporal l i m i t s are found a t the beg inn ing and end o f u n i t s o f t i m e . The day i s a span o f t ime when normal human a c t i v i t y takes p l a c e , w h i l e n ight i s a complementary u n i t o f t ime i n which people s l e e p . Dawn and dusk, because they are the t imes which serve as boundaries between day and n igh t ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 5 5 : 2 0 1 ) , are good t imes to escape from profane human time i n t o a time t h a t e x i s t s between t h a t o f the s e c u l a r rea lms . S i m i l a r l y , each c y c l e o f the moon i s bounded by the appearance o f t h e f i r s t q u a r t e r (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 1 1 6 ) ; and the y e a r begins i n November dur ing the n igh t o f the e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y high " t u r n i n g over" t i d e ( D r u c k e r 1951:115 and 156) . The t imes when the sun stands s t i l l (summer and w i n t e r s o l s t i c e s ) d i v i d e the y e a r i n two. These beginnings which are a l s o e n d i n g s , are boundary t imes and, as s u c h , are p r o p i t i o u s f o r r i t u a l a c t i v i t y , f o r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and boundary c r o s s i n g i n t o and out o f the realm o f the Inbetween. For i n s t a n c e the Wolf r i t u a l was always he ld when the moon 27. was becoming f u l l (E rns t 1 9 5 2 : 7 6 ) , near the t ime o f the w i n t e r s o l s t i c e and the " t u r n i n g over" t i d e . 3 . Why t ransform and t r a v e l ? An o l d man when c o u n s e l l i n g h i s grandson s a i d "we have the term 'changes i n t o hunter a t i n t e r v a l s ' f o r the reason t h a t we t r a i n f o r e v e r y t h i n g " ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 1 8 7 ) . Th is may be g lossed as "we prepare ou rse l ves r i t u a l l y ( t r a i n ) so t h a t we can t rans fo rm our i d e n t i t y as a hunter does" o r as "so t h a t we can become a h u n t e r . " From t h i s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t the Nootka b e l i e v e t h a t a man must t rans form h i m s e l f before he can t r a v e l to the home o f the animal he wishes to hunt . Th is i s . because a Nootka perce ives o f h i m s e l f as a member o f a p a r t i c u l a r k i n group and as the i n h a b i t a n t of a p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e , h i s house and v i l l a g e . Thus, a man has to leave the v i l l a g e and go i n t o the woods as a p redato r o f the l a n d to hunt deer and bear , and he has to go out onto the sea as a sea predator to catch f i s h , i n p a r t i c u l a r salmon and h e r r i n g , h a l i b u t and cod (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 3 6 - 6 1 ; S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 5 5 : 2 7 - 4 6 ) . I t i s through hunt ing t h a t a man augments h i s economic w e a l t h . In t h i s o l d man's speech, the hunt i s a l s o a metaphor f o r the a g g r e s s i v e , p r e d a t o r y , and s u p e r n a t u r a l l y - a i d e d a c t i o n any person must undertake i n o rder to a c q u i r e s o c i a l success from the wor ld around him (see the s e c t i o n on the iconography o f Wolf i n Chapter 3 ) . Thus, to s u r v i v e s o c i a l l y as w e l l as e c o n o m i c a l l y , a man must a l s o t rans fo rm out o f h i s group, and t r a v e l from h i s house. So war and marr iage i n v o l v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and moving out from one 's group of kinsman in the Nootka 2 8 . c u l t u r e . A pe rson ' s proc la imed f a m i l y a l l e g i a n c e , among the Nootka, determines h i s p o l i t i c a l , economic and s o c i a l base . The economic resources he can e x p l o i t and the house he l i v e s i n are those which belong to h i s recogn ized l i n e a g e . But he marr ies o u t s i d e o f t h i s group (Rossman and Rubel 1 9 7 0 : 7 6 ) ; he seeks a b r i d e among groups w i t h whom he could c l a i m k i n s h i p but has not formally a c t i v a t e d such t i e s . In c o n t r a s t , war fare i n v o l v e s p o l i t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i th groups w i t h whom one has no t i e s o f 3 k i n s h i p , whether f o r m a l l y a c t i v a t e d or not . Thus i n the ceremonial and r i t u a l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h war and m a r r i a g e , the Nootka symbol ize these boundary c r o s s i n g a c t i v i t i e s as a hunt r e p l e t e w i th t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . The symbolism of the marr iage ceremony w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 3 ; tha t o f the r i t u a l s and ceremonial s u r -rounding warfare w i l l have to be i l l u s t r a t e d i n another paper . The metaphor o f a hunt i s used i n the r i t u a l s f o r war and marr iage because they are two means by which a Nootka may a g g r e s s i v e l y augment the s o c i a l s t a t u s o f h i s l i n e a g e and f a m i l y . Marr iage augments the s t a t u s o f a man's l i n e a g e because p a r t o f a b r i d e ' s s t a t u s i s passed on to her c h i l d r e n who normal ly belong to t h e i r f a t h e r ' s l i n e a g e (Drucker 1951:244 and 267) . S i m i l a r l y , one wages war i n order to ' c a p t u r e ' the s t a t u s o f any o f the enemy t h a t might be s l a i n (Drucker 1951 :343) . Travel and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n are a l s o necessary f o r the Nootka seek ing m o r a l i t y . To o b t a i n w e a l t h , h e a l t h and l u c k , which are a l l mani -f e s t a t i o n s o f the approbat ion o f the s p i r i t s f o r one 's moral and r i t u a l conduct (see Chapter 5 ) , a man would leave h i s v i l l a g e , and go i n t o the woods or onto the beach nearby to " t r a i n " ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1955:185 ; Drucker 1951 :138) . Th is i s another way o f t r a n s f o r m i n g . I t i n v o l v e s 29. on ly the s l o u g h i n g o f f of the t r a n s f o r m e r ' s human i d e n t i t y and s k i n ; t h a t i s , the r i t u a l i s t becomes a former person , a s p i r i t ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 1 7 7 ) ; i t does not i n c l u d e becoming a be ing from one o f the profane o r s e c u l a r rea lms , the l a n d , sea o r sky . Thus i n the Nootkan cosmology, h u n t i n g , t r a v e l l i n g from p lace to p l a c e , changing s t a t u s and t r a n s f o r m i n g are i n t e r t w i n e d concepts which i n v o l v e the a c q u i s i t i o n o f w e a l t h , be i t economic, s o c i a l or m o r a l ; and a c h i e f can boast o f how he a c q u i r e d h i s economic wea l th and s o c i a l s t a t u s by d e c l a r i n g " h u n t i n g . . . 1 go about the d i s t a n t t r i b e s " ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 7 1 ) . 4 . Who can t r a v e l and t ransform? Not a l l men can t r a v e l across the boundar ies o f the Nootkan cosmos. The power to t rans form i s c a l l e d a ' p r i v i l e g e ' by the Nootka. I t i s both a f a m i l y he i r loom (Drucker 1951:377) and a supernatura l g i f t ( C u r t i s 1 9 1 6 : 6 2 ) . There are two kinds o f p r i v i l e g e s ; economic and r i t u a l (Drucker 1951 :247) . For the Nootka, an economic p r i v i l e g e has two b a s i c a s p e c t s ; f i r s t , the economic r i g h t and p h y s i c a l s k i l l to e x p l o i t a resource i n a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n , and s e c o n d l y , the p r i v a t e r i t u a l and moral s t r e n g t h to e f f e c t the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n which i s needed to e x p l o i t t h a t r e s o u r c e . Economic p r i v i l e g e s i n c l u d e the use o f p a r t i c u l a r s i t e s f o r h a b i t a t i o n , f i s h i n g , hunt ing and s a l v a g e . R i t u a l p r i v i l e g e s i n c l u d e the sponsorsh ip of communal r i t u a l s (such as the Wolf r i t u a l ) or the performance o f a c e r t a i n ac t i n them (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 2 4 8 ) . A c r u c i a l f a c t o r f o r the e f f i c a c y 30. o f these communal r i t u a l s i s the moral s t reng th of the sponsor which enables him to help those undergoing the r i t u a l to t r a n s f o r m themselves from the p r e - r i t u a l to the p o s t - r i t u a l s t a t e . U s u a l l y both types o f p r i v i l e g e s are mani fes ted c e r e m o n i a l l y as a name, mask, dance and/or song . Both the s e c u l a r and r i t u a l aspects o f the p r i v i l e g e s are l i n k e d to t h e i r ceremonial c i s p l a y by legends which are r e c i t e d d u r i n g the ceremony ( S a p i r 1 9 5 8 : 1 0 6 ; Drucker 1951 :409) . The d i s p l a y o f p r i v i l e g e s de f ines a man's s o c i a l s t a t u s . The m a j o r i t y of p r i v i l e g e s are he ld by the most important c h i e f s w h i l e the l e s s e r c h i e f s and nobles own fewer p r i v i l e g e s ; commoners are c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as those people who have on ly a few minor p r i v i l e g e s o r none a t a l l (Drucker 1951: 247) . Many o f the p r i v i l e g e s are ranked (Drucker 1951:164) and o n l y the c h i e f s of the Nootka have the numerous economic and a p p r o p r i a t e r i t u a l p r i v i l e g e s r e q u i r e d t o mainta in a l a r g e household (Rossman and Rubel 1 9 7 0 : 7 8 - 9 ) . The p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n and enjoyment o f the commoners o f these c h i e f l y economic and r i t u a l p r i v i l e g e s assure t h e i r acquiescence t o the cosmolog ica l and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of which the p r i v i l e g e s are a par t (Drucker 1951:251 and 2 7 3 ) . The c h i e f s depend on the l a b o u r and goodwi l l o f the commoners l i v i n g w i th them i n t h e i r l a r g e houses , to main ta in and e x e r c i s e t h e i r r i t u a l and economic p roper -t i e s and p r i v i l e g e s . In r e t u r n f o r the commoners' l a b o u r , the c h i e f feeds h i s tenants and takes t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t o h i s Wolf r i t u a l so t h a t they can assume t h e i r own h e r e d i t a r y p r i v i l e g e s o r some of h i s on a ' t a g a l o n g ' b a s i s . He a l s o he lps them i n o ther " l i f e c r i s e s " r i t u a l s , o f t e n by " l e n d i n g " them some o f h i s own p r i v i l e g e s (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 2 7 3 ) . 31 Thus a c h i e f w i l l lend the denta l ium s h e l l headdress used by pubescent g i r l s to a r e l a t i v e l i v i n g wi th him f o r h i s daughter ' s puberty o b s e r -vances (Drucker 1951 :260) . A person cannot c l a i m f u l l membership i n a Nootkan f a m i l y u n t i l he has r e c e i v e d the i n s i g n i a o f a " p r i v i l e g e " o f t h a t l i n e a g e ; f a m i l y membership i s determined by p u b l i c a l l y assumed and acknowledged consanguinal t i e s . I d e a l l y , these t i e s are t r a c e d through the members' paterna l l i n e a g e s , but i n many c a s e s , maternal l i n e a g e bonds are a c t i v a t e d i n o rder to f a c i l i t a t e a person 's c l a i m to a p a r t i c u l a r p roper ty o r p r i v i l e g e . A person 's p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the f a m i l y , which i s determined by the r u l e s o f p r i m o g e n i t u r e , d e f i n e s h i s economic and s o c i a l s t a t u s , whether he i s a commoner, a noble o r a c h i e f . Th is s t a t u s i s then expressed by the number and nature o f the " p r i v i l e g e s " to which he i s e n t i t l e d and which he has c l aimed. A Nootka may r e c e i v e a p r i v i l e g e dur ing a supernatura l e x p e r i -ence; e i t h e r as an ancestor i n a l e g e n d , o r as a l i v i n g person dur ing the 5 Wolf r i t u a l . The l a t e r i s the most common way. In i t s most powerful m a n i f e s t a t i o n , the Wolf r i t u a l {loqwana) (Drucker 1951:386) i s a l i f e c r i s i s r i t u a l f o r the c h i e f s and t h e i r immediate f a m i l i e s f o r a t t a i n i n g manhood, and more s p e c i f i c a l l y , c h i e f t a i n s h i p . Women and g i r l s may undergo the Wolf r i t u a l as i f they were men. I r v i n g Goldman, i n h i s study o f Kwakiut l cosmology, dea ls w i t h a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n i n which women a c t as metaphys ica l men (Goldman 1 9 7 5 : 3 9 ) . The Wolf r i t u a l i s concerned w i th s o c i a l t r a n s i t i o n as w e l l as cosmolog ica l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . Par t o f the s o c i a l t r a n s i t i o n from boyhood to adulthood i s marked by the a c q u i s i t i o n by the nov ice o f a p r i v i l e g e . 32. Since t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and t r a n s i t i o n are both boundary c r o s s i n g a c t i o n s , the Wolf r i t u a l i s a good p lace t o look f o r the d e p i c t i o n o f the boundaries and c a t e g o r i e s o f the Nootkan cosmology. The study o f c a t e g o r i e s and boundaries has been developed i n the recent work of Edmund Leach (1976) and Mary Douglas (1966) . Th is study permits an e x p l o r a t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Wolf masks tha t are used i n the Wolf r i t u a l and these conceptual c a t e g o r i e s as they are ac ted out i n the r i t -u a l ' s c o n t e x t . In l a t e r chapter I w i l l e x p l o r e how the v i s u a l symbols and the a c t i o n s of the masks desc r ibe the process o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . 33. CHAPTER 1: FOOTNOTES The i n h a b i t a n t s o f each realm are d e p i c t e d i n the myths of the Nootka. P a r t i c u l a r l y good sources f o r the t e x t s o f these myths are Boas (1916) , S a p i r and Swadesh (1939:14-103) and Swan ( 1 8 7 0 : 6 7 f f ) . Some r i t u a l i s done at n i g h t which i s not a t ime f o r normal human a c t i v i t y and i s thus a t ime of nonhuman a c t i v i t y . N ight r i t u a l s are used f o r shamanizing (Drucker 1951:203) and s e a l i n g r i t u a l s to catch the s e a l s as leep ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:113) . A man may re fuse to j o i n a proposed war o r r a i d on the grounds tha t he has r e l a t i v e s l i v i n g i n the enemies v i l l a g e (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 3 3 7 ) . I have decided to d e s c r i b e the second type o f p r i v i l e g e as ' r i t u a l ' r a t h e r than ' c e r e m o n i a l ' as Drucker d i d (1951:247) because a l l Nootkan p r i v i l e g e s are ceremonial i n t h a t they can be d i s p l a y e d c e r e -m o n i a l l y . But t h e i r pr imary f u n c t i o n s are c a r r i e d out i n r i t u a l or economic c o n t e x t s . Today, the p o t l a t c h has superseded the Wolf r i t u a l as the most common r i t u a l o r ceremonial form by which p r i v i l e g e are a c q u i r e d . In the t e x t , I am speaking o f the p e r i o d 1850-1900. 34. Chapter 2 TRANSFORMATION IN THE WOLF RITUAL The p o r t r a y a l o f the realm o f the Inbetween i n the Wolf r i t u a l i s the t o p i c o f t h i s c h a p t e r . In s e c t i o n 'A ' I w i l l look a t the realms o f the Nootkan cosmos as they are d e p i c t e d i n the d i f f e r e n t stages o f the Wolf r i t u a l . This w i l l serve to l o c a t e the realm o f the Inbetween i n the r i t u a l a c t i o n . S e c t i o n ' B 1 w i l l focus on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the masks and the stages o f the r i t u a l ' s a c t i o n because i t i s through the r o l e s o f the Wolf masks i n the r i t u a l t h a t I can i d e n t i f y the mask which belongs to the Inbetween rea lm. In s e c t i o n ' C I w i l l tu rn my a t t e n t i o n to the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l p o s i t i o n s and the cosmolog ica l c a t e g o r i e s represented by the stages o f the Wolf r i t u a l . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l and cosmolog ica l c a t e g o r i e s i s e s t a b l i s h e d by the sponsor ' s d e c i s i o n as to who are the a p p r o p r i a t e people to wear the masks. Th is w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the Nootkan percept ion o f a p a r a l l e l between cosmolog ica l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and s o c i a l t r a n s i t i o n . A. Stages o f the Wolf R i t u a l The a c t i o n o f the Wolf r i t u a l develops i n th ree stages which we can most e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h by the movement o f the nov ices from one p lace to another .^ 35. At the beg inn ing o f the r i t u a l , the nov ices and t h e i r parents at tend a f e a s t i n the l i n e a g e house of the c h i e f h o s t i n g the Wolf r i t u a l ( E r n s t 1 9 5 2 : 6 5 ) . Each f a m i l y i s seated a c c o r d i n g to i t s rank (Drucker 1951 :260) . Th is i s an express ion o f the profane s o c i a l o r d e r . The o rder i s upset when men masked as the Crawl ing Wolves appear and kidnap the nov ices from the f e a s t house. Th is ends the f i r s t s t a g e . The Wolves take the nov ices i n t o the woods where the n o v i c e s ' behaviour becomes w i l d , f r e n z i e d and dangerous to the u n i n i t i a t e d . The nov ices remain i n the woods f o r the second stage o f the r i t u a l . Dur ing t h i s stage the Wolves g ive the c a p i t v e nov ices a s p e c i f i c s o c i a l p r i v i l e g e which i s a l s o recognized as a supernatura l power. The r e t u r n o f the nov ices to the profane wor ld i n the t h i r d stage begins when the nov ices are recaptured from the Wolves by the people o f the v i l l a g e who have a l r e a d y been i n i t i a t e d . They r e t u r n to the klukwana hosue, as the l i n e a g e house o f the host i s now c a l l e d ( E r n s t 1952:65 and 6 8 ) . Klukwana means "shaman' (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 3 8 6 ) , a person who i s c l o s e to the s p i r i t s . Thus the term 'klukwana house' i n d i c a t e s t h a t , a t t h i s p o i n t i n the r i t u a l , the h o s t ' s house i s p a r t o f the realm of the s p i r i t s , the Inbetween. A l l e f f o r t s are now d i r e c t e d towards ca lming the w i ldness tha t possesses the n o v i c e s . They p r a c t i c e the dances o r d i s p l a y s which rep resent t h e i r new p r i v i l e g e s . A t f i r s t , the p e r -formances are done before a s e l e c t audience o f people who have a l ready been " b i t t e n by the Wolves" o r i n i t i a t e d ( S a p i r 1 9 1 1 : 2 2 ) , and l a t e r , be fore a l l the people i n the v i l l a g e , thus marking a gradual r e t u r n to the human rea lm. The f i n a l r e t u r n of the no ivce to the profane human o r d e r , and the end o f the r i t u a l i s marked by a f e a s t where a l l the 36. i n i t i a t e s show t h e i r new s t a t u s by dancing o r d i s p l a y i n g t h e i r p r i v i l e g e s . Thus, the th ree main stages o f the Wolf r i t u a l a r e : (1) the n o v i c e s ' abduct ion from the f e a s t i n the v i l l a g e , (2) the n o v i c e s ' so journ i n the woods and (3) the " c a l m i n g " i n the klukwana house which i s f o l l o w e d by the d i s p l a y o f p r i v i l e g e s . These phases f u l f i l the same purposes as (1) the r i t e s o f s e p a r a t i o n , (2) the i n t e r v a l o f s e p a r a t i o n , and (3) the r i t e s o f a g g r e g a t i o n , as de f ined by Leach ( 1 9 7 6 : 7 7 ) ; t h a t i s , the f i r s t stage moves the a c t i o n from a profane plane to a sacred one, the second s t a g e , at the sacred p l a n e , changes the s t a t e and/or s t a t u s o f the r i t u a l i s t and the t h i r d stage moves the plane o f a c t i o n from the sacred to the profane a g a i n . I t i s through these stages t h a t the a c t i o n o f the Wolf r i t u a l de f ines and c h a r a c t e r i z e s some of the c a t e g o r i e s o f the Nootkan cosmology. F i r s t , the r i t u a l a c t i o n d e f i n e s the v i l l a g e and the woods near i t as two separate p laces i n the Nootkan cosmos. The v i l l a g e i s shown to be a p lace o f o rder w h i l e the woods are shown to be the s i t e o f " f r e n z y , " " w i l d n e s s " (E rns t 1952:24 and 77) and danger (Drucker 1951: 153) . This i s done w i t h the c o n t r a s t t h a t i s se t up between the decorous behaviour o f the people at the f e a s t s a t the beg inn ing and end o f the r i t u a l i n the v i l l a g e , and the w i l d behaviour o f the beings from the woods (E rns t 1 9 5 2 : 7 1 ) . The woods are seen as an area o f c o n f u s i o n which l i e s between two loaii o f o r d e r , the human v i l l a g e on the beach and the home o f the Wolves at the foo t o f the mountains. Thus, the stages o f the Wolf r i t u a l d i f f e r e n t i a t e the sacred from the profane . The profane i s l o c a t e d by the i n i t i a l and f i n a l stages 37. of the r i t u a l , when the r i t u a l a c t i o n moves away from and back to the profane p l a n e . These two stages focus t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on the humans i n the v i l l a g e , and thus c l a s s i f y t h i s o r d e r l y p lace as p ro fane . S i m i l a r l y , d u r i n g the second stage o f the r i t u a l , the sacred plane i s l o c a t e d i n the woods, w i th a l l the f e r o c i o u s and f a n t a s t i c beings t h a t belong t h e r e . We can see t h a t f o r the Nootka the woods are a sacred p lace as w e l l as a par t o f the realm o f the Inbetween.. Thus, the realm of the Inbetween encompasses the sacred nature o f the woods and the second stage o f the s Wolf r i t u a l . B. Roles o f the Wolf Masks i n the Wolf R i t u a l Each stage o f the Wolf r i t u a l i s the occas ion f o r the appearance o f one o f the three types o f Wolf mask. The Crawl ing Wolf masks appear dur ing the f i r s t s t a g e ; they rep resent the s p i r i t Wolves t h a t take the nov ices away from the v i l l a g e , and i n i t i a t e them. The W h i r l i n g Wolf mask appears on ly d u r i n g the second stage and represents the nov ices r e c e i v i n g p r i v i l e g e s and powers. The Standing Wolf mask represents the i n i t i a t e s w i t h t h e i r new g i f t s i n the t h i r d s t a g e . The Crawl ing Wolf i s the f i r s t Wolf mask to appear i n the Wolf r i t u a l (Budic 1 9 6 4 : 2 7 ) . In the r i t u a l a c t i o n , the C rawl ing Wolf i s a Wolf {ibid.); an animal t h a t i s not bound by the human s o c i a l convent ions . The Wolf pack, the l e a d e r s o f which wear Crawl ing Wolf masks, break i n t o the f e a s t through the back w a l l r a t h e r than through the door . They i n t e r r u p t the human c h i e f ' s f e a s t f o r h i s people and dominate the a c t i o n . They in t roduce a breakdown o f human s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In the con fus ion 38.. o f t h e i r e n t r a n c e , the f i r e i s put out so t h a t i n the darkness the d i s -t i n c t i o n s between c h i e f and commoner, man and w o l f , become i n v i s i b l e , i n v a l i d and confused . The i n i t i a t i n g Wolves, l e d by a dancer wear ing the Crawl ing Wolf mask, snatch the c h i l d r e n to be i n i t i a t e d from t h e i r parents and thereby break the p a r e n t - c h i l d bond. Furthermore, the Wolves dominate the n o v i c e s . They take t h e i r human c a p t i v e s out o f the hu man .v i l l age and i n t o the woods. The Wolves upset the human modes o f behaviour d u r i n g the a b d u c t i o n , but p resent the nov ices w i th a new mode o f conduct when they show them a p r i v i l e g e . Th is i s a token o f a s p e c i f i c "hunt ing" s k i l l . When the Wolves show i t to the n o v i c e s , they g ive them knowledge o f i t . But the Crawl ing W o l f ' s dominion i s not a b s o l u t e . On the ; f o u r t h day o f the r i t u a l , the people o f the v i l l a g e who have a l ready been i n i t i a t e d are ab le to recapture the nov ices and to r e s t o r e them to t h e i r pa rents . The humans are ab le to p r e v a i l over the Wolves once they o rgan i ze themselves i n t o the proper "wol f hunt" on the morning o f the f o u r t h day (Drucker 1951:410 and 4 2 2 ) . As the Wolf r i t u a l proceeds through the four days o f ca lming and d a n c i n g , the i n i t i a t e s become more immune to the e f f e c t of any reminder o f the so journ i n the woods, but r e t a i n the g i f t s they r e c e i v e d . The W h i r l i n g Wolf mask appears i n the second stage o f the r i t u a l and thus belong to the realm o f the Inbetween. This second Wolf mask dances i n the v i l l a g e from the t ime o f the nov ices enforced departure (E rnst 1952:38) u n t i l they begin to calm down a f t e r t h e i r r e c a p t u r e . Dur ing t h i s t i m e , people who have not been i n i t i a t e d i n t o the Wolf r i t u a l do not dare to go about the v i l l a g e ; they keep to the r e l a t i v e s a f e t y o f 39. the houses (Densmore 1939:103 ; C u r t i s 1 9 1 6 : 7 3 ; E rns t 1952:17 and 76) because o u t s i d e of the houses, the v i l l a g e has become par t o f the Inbetween. W h i r l i n g W o l f ' s r o l e i s t h a t o f the c h i e f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r s e v e r a l beings from the Inbetween. F i r s t , he i s the v i s i b l e s t a n d - i n f o r the nov ices d u r i n g the second stage o f the r i t u a l (E rns t 1952:20 and 2 1 ) . Second, he i s the l e a d e r o f severa l o ther Nootkan s p i r i t s who dance w i th him. These s p i r i t s share the n o v i c e s ' s t a t e o f be ing d u r i n g the second stage o f the Wolf r i t u a l . Achmako and Pookmis, the W i l d men are the s p i r i t s who accompany W h i r l i n g Wolf most o f t e n (E rns t 1952:38 and 7 1 ) . The W i l d Men are former people l i k e the n o v i c e s . For i n s t a n c e , Pookmis i s a man who almost drowned a t sea and then d i e d o f exposure on the beach upon which he was c a s t (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 1 5 3 ) . He thereby l e f t the human c i r c l e and became a denizen o f the woods.. He i s e c c e n t r i c and'he walks w i th a queer g a i t ; he i s so w i l d t h a t he cannot en te r any o f the houses i n the v i l l a g e (E rns t 1 9 5 2 : 7 0 ) . His companion Achmako i s dangerous and "goes about smashing t h i n g s , b reak ing canoes , s c a t t e r i n g f l o u r or food" (E rns t 1 9 5 2 : 7 1 ) . S i m i l a r l y the nov ices i n the second stage are ' w i l d ' and ' c r a z y ' because they are human beings who are i n the realm of the Inbetween, i n s t e a d o f the profane v i l l a g e where they belong i n s e c u l a r t i m e s . The Nootka c a l l a man who has gone i n t o the woods f o r r i t u a l purposes a ' f o r m e r person ' ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 1 1 7 ) , and the nov ices are now c a l l e d dht'sa which means "dr?,ad" or "unconsc ious" ( C u r t i s 1 9 1 6 : 7 0 ) . W h i r l i n g Wolf i s l i k e the s p i r i t s and the nov ices i n the woods because he too i s d e s c r i b e d as " w i l d " (E rns t 1952:35) and " f r e n z i e d " ( e r n s t 1952:24) o r e c c e n t r i c . Thus W h i r l i n g Wol f , the nov ices he represents and the Wi ld 4 0 . Men are a l l beings who have d ied somehow and become possessed by the w i ldness o f the woods (E rns t 1 9 5 2 : 7 0 ; S a p i r 1911:23) which are par t o f the realm of the Inbetween. The Standing Wolf mask appears as the r i t u a l a c t i o n approaches the profane p l a n e , and the locus o f the human r e a l m , a f t e r the nov ices have re tu rned from the woods (E rns t 1 9 5 2 : 3 8 ) . S tanding Wolf e i t h e r p res ides over or leads the p r o c e s s i o n o f dancers through the v i l l a g e d u r i n g the l a t e r pa r t o f the r i t u a l (E rnst 1952:25 and 104; S a p i r and Swadesh 1955 :114) . The dancers are the nov ices who have j u s t l e a r n t how to perform the newly a c q u i r e d dances, masks, songs and use the names t h a t are the tokens o f t h e i r new s t a t u s . Thus, Standing Wolf i s an example to the new i n i t i a t e s o f an a d u l t man who i s a l ready an i n i t i a t e . The r i t u a l r o l e s o f the th ree types o f Wolf mask are i n o rder o f appearance: C rawl ing Wolf as the i n i t i a t o r , W h i r l i n g Wolf as the nov ice and Standing Wolf as the i n i t i a t e d person . In the r i t u a l c o n t e x t , the c h a r a c t e r s o f the th ree Wolf masks show a s h i f t from Wolf o r nonhuman, to a being from the Inbetween realm or t e m p o r a r i l y nonhuman, to a d u l t human. W h i r l i n g Wol f , i n the second and sacred stage o f the r i t u a l , i s the mask t h a t represents a being t h a t belongs to the realm of the Inbetween. C. The S o c i a l S ta tus o f the Maskers The i d e n t i t y o f the Wolf dancers can be added to the concepts a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Wolf masks dur ing the performance o f the r i t u a l because the Wolf masks are worn on the dancers ' heads so t h a t t h e i r faces can be seen below the masks. 4 1 . The Crawl ing Wolf masks are worn by men o f low rank. Only a c h i e f can ho ld the p r i v i l e g e to make the Wolves appear but because he i s o n l y one man, he must ask some o f h i s kinsmen to ac t the par ts o f the i n i t i a t i n g Wolves (Drucker 1951 :392) . Sometimes, branches o f the C h i e f ' s l i n e a g e who are so d i s t a n t l y r e l a t e d to the c h i e f as to be commoners (Drucker 1951:392) have the r i g h t to a c t the p a r t o f p a r t i c u l a r i n i t i a t i n g , C rawl ing Wolves (Drucker 1952:393: S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 1 3 1 ) . The Nootka b e l i e v e the Crawl ing Wolf dancer i s a man whose . s p i r i t becomes a Wolf when he d ies ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 5 5 : 5 5 ) . Th is i s symbol ic of h i s separate s o c i a l s t a t u s . The Crawl ing Wolf dancers are not c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the c h i e f so they cannot become the c h i e f . R a t h e r , because they become Wolf s p i r i t s a f t e r d e a t h , t h e i r u l t i m a t e f a t e i s to dwel l i n the "house" o f the Wolves, r a t h e r than i n the human a f t e r w o r l d . Accord ing to the c a t e g o r i e s s e t up by the Wolf r i t u a l , the C rawl ing Wolf dancer belongs to the o r d e r l y , profane realms o f both men and w o l v e s , and not to the d i s o r d e r e d and sacred Inbetween rea lm. The W h i r l i n g Wolf mask i s danced by the c h i e f ' s son o r the c h i e f ' s younger b r o t h e r i f the son i s not y e t o l d enough ( E r n s t 1 9 5 2 : 9 6 ) . How can a young c h i l d , the c h i e f ' s son , and a young man, the c h i e f ' s b r o t h e r , be put i n t o a s i n g l e category? They are both a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s , the c h i e f ' s h e i r . Becoming a c h i e f i s a long process t h a t begins w i th the f i r s t r i t u a l s performed even before the b i r t h o f each noble c h i l d (Drucker 1951:266-7) because one has to r e c e i v e a l l the c h i e f l y p r i v i l e g e s one by one, dur ing pot laches and Wolf r i t u a l s ( S a p i r 1 9 1 1 : 2 5 ) . Thus, i n Nootkan s o c i e t y , both the c h i l d and the young man are i n the process o f becoming hawil, c h i e f or complete ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:250 and 300) . 42." The Nootkan language a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e s the young man and the chi Id i n one word " * Rwak ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:330). In i t s " a l l but one" sense i t a p p l i e s to the c h i e f ' s b r o t h e r or son when he i s a young man, f o r they have both com-p l e t e d a l l the steps to c h i e f t a i n s h i p but one, the l a s t move i n t o the p o s i t i o n o f c h i e f when the incumbent c h i e f r e s i g n s . •'Hawk- i n i t s " inbetween" sense a p p l i e s to the c h i e f ' s young c h i l d who i s becoming c h i e f though he i s not as f a r a long i n the long process as h i s uncles o r o l d e r b r o t h e r s . He i s " inbetween" be ing a newborn and an a d u l t r a t h e r than ' a l l but one' s tep shor t of be ing c h i e f . Thus the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask i s worn by a man who i s becoming a c h i e f , and occupies a p o s i t i o n i n Nootkan s o c i e t y which i s " Inbetween." The Standing Wolf mask i s worn by the c h i e f (N.M.C. ca ta logue ent ry f o r V I I - F - 3 0 2 ) o r the c h i e f ' s son ( E r n s t 1 9 5 2 : 2 5 ) , i f as a n o v i c e , he has j u s t been given the dance by the Wolves. Both o f these peop le , because o f t h e i r paramount s t a t u s on the human s o c i a l l a d d e r are the . epitome o f human achievement. The Nootkan word hawil means " to f i n i s h or complete" ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:250) as w e l l as " c h i e f " ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:300) from which we can i n f e r t h a t a c h i e f i s an i n d i v i d a u l who i s complete and has f i n i s h e d a c q u i r i n g a l l the p r i v i l e g e s he needs to be the most accompl ished human being p o s s i b l e . The c h i e f has reached the "peak o f l i f e " among the Nootka ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939 :193) . When a c h i e f wears the Standing Wolf mask, h i s c h i e f l y q u a l i t i e s as the best o f men and the i d e a l human being are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the mask. I f one " s h o r t - c i r c u i t s " the l i n e o f l o g i c . S tanding Wolf represents the complete man. 43. There i s both c o n t i n u i t y and d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n the sequence o f the s o c i a l s t a t u s e s o f the nov ices and the Wolf dancers . The n o v i c e s , the W h i r l i n g Wolf and Standing Wolf dancers are a l l on a course o f s o c i a l p r o g r e s s i o n which leads to becoming a complete human or c h i e f , w h i l e the Crawl ing Wolf dancer i s on a d i f f e r e n t c o u r s e . The nov ice i s making one o f the many moves t h a t are needed to accompl ish the s o c i a l t r a n s i t i o n from u n p r i v i l e g e d newborn to p r i v i l e g e d c h i e f ; the W h i r l i n g Wolf dancer has almost completed the c o u r s e , and the Standing Wolf dancer has com-p l e t e d i t . The Crawl ing Wolf dancer does not f i t i n t o t h a t sequence because the men who wear the Crawl ing Wolf masks w i l l e v e n t u a l l y become s p i r i t Wolves, r a t h e r than c h i e f s . On the o t h e r hand, the Crawl ing Wolf dancer , whether a l o w - r a n k i n g noble or a commoner, i s l i k e the young . nov ices f o r they both have but a few p r i v i l e g e s . Fur thermore, the nov ice w i l l probably never complete the numerous t r a n s i t i o n s needed to become a c h i e f s i n c e few people become c h i e f i n Nootkan s o c i e t y . But the Crawl ing Wolf dancer and the nov ices are now committed to the endeavour and to i t s r u l e s which i n c l u d e h e l p i n g t h e i r c h i e f . We have seen t h a t the masks t h a t the dancers wear , C rawl ing Wol f , W h i r l i n g Wolf and Standing Wol f , i l l u s t r a t e three stages o f the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from Wol f , through c r e a t u r e o f the Inbetween, to Human. When the masks and the dancers are seen together dur ing the Wolf r i t u a l , the stages o f s o c i a l t r a n s i t i o n (wi thout a p r i v i l e g e , r e c e i v i n g a p r i v i l e g e , and w i th a p r i v i l e g e ) are a l i g n e d w i t h the stages o f cosmolog ica l t r a n s -fo rmat ion (Wolf , Inbetween, Man). Thus, I have suggested t h a t f o r the Nootka, the sacred realm o f the Inbetween i s i n s e p a r a b l e from the process 44. of g a i n i n g a supernatura l a t t r i b u t e o r the a b i l i t y to t r a n s f o r m , and the process o f a c q u i r i n g a s o c i a l s t a t u s or p r i v i l e g e . D. Cone!us ion There i s a c o n g r u i t y between the s t r u c t u r e o f the stages o f the Wolf r i t u a l , the d i f f e r e n t r i t u a l r o l e s and c h a r a c t e r s o f the Wolf masks, and the s o c i a l s t a t u s o f the Wolf dancers . They are a l l t h r e e -par t s t r u c t u r e s which are a l i g n e d w i t h each o t h e r i n the Wolf r i t u a l . The a lg inment i s not q u i t e e x a c t . For i n s t a n c e , the Crawl ing Wolf appears i n the second stage o f the r i t u a l but the a c t i o n , a t t h i s s t a g e , focuses on the nov ices and the W h i r l i n g Wol f , not the Crawl ing Wolf . So we can a s s i g n the Crawl ing Wolf to the f i r s t stage o f the r i t u a l , and ignore h i s secondary r o l e i n the second s tage . The al ignments c reated through the a c t i o n o f the r i t u a l are p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r i k i n g when we c o n s i d e r the correspondence tha t i s s e t up between the Nootkan cosmolog ica l s t r u c t u r e and t h e i r s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . We have seen how t h i s correspondence i s expressed through the three Wolf masks i n the contex t o f the Wolf r i t u a l . The a c t i o n o f the Wolf r i t u a l se ts the W h i r l i n g Wolf apar t on a sacred plane away from the profane plane i n which the r i t u a l p laces the Crawl ing Wolf and the Standing Wolf . Thus, i n the Nootka cosmology, the commoners and the c h i e f , the u n i n i t i a t e d and the i n i t i a t e d , and the masks they wear belong to the profane Land rea lm. On the o t h e r hand, the realm of the Inbetween i s populated w i t h W h i r l i n g Wolf masks, w i l d men, nov ices t r a n s f o r m i n g and r e c e i v i n g supernatura l g i f t s and s o c i a l p r i v i l e g e s , and c h i e f ' s h e i r s , ^ a l l o f whom are sacred and i n the r i t u a l s t a t e o f t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n ; they are a l s o t r a n s f o r m e r s . 4 5 . CHAPTER 2: FOOTNOTES ' Seve ra l good d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the Wolf r i t u a l are found i n Ernst 1952:Ch. I, I I , and IV; Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 3 8 6 - 4 4 3 ; and S a p i r 1 9 1 1 : 2 0 - 2 8 . 2 Th is p r a c t i c e would seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t the g i v i n g of the Standing Wolf mask s i g n i f i e s the g i v i n g o f the s t a t u s of ' c h i e f o r ' h o l d e r o f the Wolf r i t u a l ' : . ["When one g ives a Wolf r i t u a l , the one i s a c h i e f and an e l d e s t b r o t h e r " ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 5 5 : 1 1 1 ) . ] Thus, even i f a nov ice wears the Standing Wolf mask to l e a d the dancers i n the t h i r d stage o f the r i t u a l , i t would s t i l l be the c h i e f who leads the dancers , f o r the young i n i t i a t e would be the new c h i e f . 46. Chapter 3 THE VISUAL SYMBOLS OF THE WOLF MASKS In t h i s chapter I w i l l cont inue the study o f the boundary areas and boundary c r o s s e r s o f the Nootkan cosmos as I look a t the c a t e g o r i e s e s t a b l i s h e d by the v i s u a l symbols o f the Wolf masks. The preced ing chapte r examined the statements made by the masks through t h e i r r i t u a l c o n t e x t ; now I s h a l l look a t t h e i r m a t e r i a l s t a t e m e n t s , s t a r t i n g w i t h an a n a l y s i s and p a r t i a l exeges is o f the v i s u a l c a t e g o r i e s of the Wolf masks. Th is w i l l se t out the parameters o f the v i s i b l e cosmolog ica l c a t e g o r i e s o f the Nootka. A. The V i s u a l Statements o f the Wolf Masks The th ree Wolf masks make three d i f f e r e n t v i s u a l statements by us ing an iconography o f personages, c o l o u r s and s t y l e which I s h a l l now d e s c r i b e . The f i r s t Wolf mask to appear i n the Wolf r i t u a l , the Crawl ing Wolf mask^ i s carved i n th ree dimensions from a s i n g l e b lock o f wood (see P l a t e s 5 and 6 ) . The mask i s very s m a l l , about 6" l o n g . I t f i t s on the d a n c e r ' s forehead but does not cover h i s face nor the top o f h i s head. A f t e r the m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the r i t u a l C rawl ing Wolf mask was g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d by the s i m p l e r expedient o f t y i n g a b l a n k e t over the dancer ' s head to resemble a W o l f ' s head (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 3 9 3 ) . 4 8 . PLATS 6 . NOOTKA CRAWLING WOLF MASKS B e r l i n # V-B-27 B.C.P.M. # 10,708 49. The Crawl ing Wolf mask i s e a s i l y recognized as a W o l f ' s head; the ears are m i s s i n g but the mouth and eyes are emphasized w i t h p a i n t and i n c i s i n g . The s t y l e o f the C rawl ing Wolf mask i s n a t u r a l and r e l a x e d . The curves marking the t r a n s i t i o n s between planes are g e n t l y rounded. E rnst c a l l s i t an 'animal w o l f mask' (E rns t 1 9 5 2 : 2 1 ) . Th is mask, i n my judgment, represents a Wolf who i s p r i m a r i l y an animal from the Land r e a l m . The Crawl ing Wolf mask i s u s u a l l y pa in ted s o l i d b l a c k , though sometimes t r a c e s o f red p a i n t can be detected (see P l a t e 5 : B . C . P . M . #6533). In o t h e r c a s e s , i t i s pa in ted w i t h b lack s t r i p e s over n a t u r a l wood (see P l a t e 5:N..M;C. #VIT -F -519) . The second Wolf mask, the W h i r l i n g Wol f , has two forms (see P l a t e s 3 , 4 and 7 ) . The f i r s t , and probably o l d e r fo rm, i s carved from a b lock o f wood. The second, the more common, i s c o n s t r u c t e d from two f l a t boards which are f i t t e d together to form a ' V . H o r i z o n t a l s t r u t s between the top and bottom edges o f the boards h o l d the mask together and form the harness t h a t f i t s on the dancer ' s head. The s t y l e o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by swooping, d iagonal l i n e s which c o n t r a s t w i t h the g e n t l e curves o f the C rawl ing Wolf mask. A design which i s o f t e n pa in ted on the f l a t s u r f a c e s o f the mask i s a d iagonal ' s ' o r ' - ' . F r e q u e n t l y , o t h e r elements such as f e a t h e r s , eyes and t e e t h are a l i g n e d d i a g o n a l l y . The W h i r l i n g Wolf (or L i g h t n i n g Serpent) mask represents both a Wolf and a L i g h t n i n g Serpent . The f l a t s i d e o f each board i s the p r o f i l e o f the W o l f / L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t ' s head. The Wolf form i s e v i d e n t i n the accentuated teeth and long muzz le . The Nootka d e s c r i b e the Wolf as a ' b i g nose' animal who i s taunted about h i s nose by Deer i n a myth 5 1 . ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 2 5 ) . Wolf i s a l s o noted f o r h i s mouthful o f tee th t h a t are too dangerous to name aloud dur ing the Wolf r i t u a l (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 3 8 8 ) , but are so s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t to say t h a t a Wolf r i t u a l i n i t i a t e has been ' b i t t e n away' i s enough o f an a l l u s i o n to Wolves to be r e a d i l y understood ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 5 5 : 2 7 ) . The wood o r r e a l f e a t h e r s t h a t s w i r l back from the top o f the head and droop g r a c e f u l l y from the back o f the head, the s l a n t o f the eye and the sharp nose o f the W h i r l i n g mask can a l s o be seen i n the images o f L i g h t n i n g Serpent on the dance screens (see P l a t e 1 ) . The c o l o u r s used on the W h i r l i n g Wolf masks range from b l a c k on natura l wood to a v a r i e t y o f hues. The somber ve rs ions o f the mask use e i t h e r b lack o r a combinat ion o f red and b lack l i n e s . On more c o l o u r -fu l ; masks, b lue i s s u b s t i t u t e d f o r b l a c k . The most f lamboyant masks use g reen , perhaps purp le and l i g h t b lue i n s t e a d o f b l a c k ; p i n k , orange and l i g h t red i n s t e a d o f dark r e d ; and whi te or y e l l o w i n s t e a d o f unpainted natu ra l wood. The i r i s o f the masks' eyes and the eyebrows are almost always b l a c k . R a r e l y , the i r i s i s made of a p iece of m i r r o r , g l a s s o r 2 copper , a l l sh iney m a t e r i a l s . The t h i r d Wolf mask, the Standing Wolf (see P l a t e 8) i s made from two f l a t boards l i k e the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask. The s t y l e o f the Stand ing Wolf mask i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s o l i d , s tubby , v e r t i c a l l i n e s . The teeth are o f t e n broad and u p r i g h t ; the nose i s l a r g e and s q u a r e ; the ' f e a t h e r s ' form an u p r i g h t crown; a d d i t i o n a l b l u n t l y t i p p e d ' f e a t h e r s ' , j u t back h o r i z o n t a l l y . The designs pa in ted on t h i s mask are more sym-m e t r i c a l and balanced than those o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask; ' u ' s and ' o ' s which lend themselves more r e a d i l y to v e r t i c a l symmetry are more f requent than ' s ' s . 52. The form of the Standing Wolf mask d e p i c t s both Wolf and Thunderb i rd . The b a s i c shape o f t h i s Wolf mask i s t h a t o f a w o l f ' s head. The t e e t h , nose and long muzzle are d i a g n o s t i c fea tu res o f the Wolf . The eye and forehead l i n e c o u l d belong t o . e i t h e r Wolf o r Thunderb i rd . A c r e s t , has been put on the crown o f the mask which i s s i m i l a r to t h a t on the Thunderbird mask (E rns t 1952:73 and 104; see P l a t e 9 : B . C . P . M . #2128). This c r e s t of broad wood f e a t h e r s i s a l s o congruent to the c r e s t shown on the Thunderbird on the most t r a d i t i o n a l Nootkan dance s c r e e n s . These ' f e a t h e r s ' are r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f smal l men; t h e i r forms have been reduced to two eyes and a mouth (see P l a t e 1 0 : N . M . C . # V I I - F - 6 5 6 ) . Th is a b b r e v i a -t i o n of the form of a smal l s p i r i t man has been i d e n t i f i e d as such by S a p i r on mask N.M.C. #VI I -F -428 (see P l a t e 1 0 ) . On the Standing Wolf mask, these smal l men undoubtedly represent the ' l i f e p r i n c i p l e ' which i s l o c a t e d a t the crown of a man's head ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 1 6 9 ) , which i s d i s t i n c t from the ' l i f e p r i n c i p l e 1 which i s i n a man's t h r o a t {ibid.). For the Nootka these 'men' f e a t h e r s represent more than a ' l i f e p r i n c i p l e ' . They conceive o f a man's mind as composed o f ten people on h i s head, a l l o f which must agree on a course o f a c t i o n before i t can be undertaken ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939 :169) . Thus the 'men' on the Stand ing Wolf mask are emblematic o f both the mask's i d e n t i t y as Thunderbird and i t s mind which conta ins a l l the knowledge inherent to a man's mind. The Standing Wolf masks are pa in ted w i th b lack and red s t r i p e s . White i s o f t e n used as a background. The S tand ing Wolf masks are never as c o l o u r f u l as the W h i r l i n g Wolf masks. Green i s sometimes s u b s t i t u t e d f o r b l a c k , and orange f o r red (N.M.C. V I I - F - 6 5 5 : c a t a l o g u e n o t e s ; see P l a t e 9 ) . 56. The three types o f Wolf mask, both r i t u a l and ceremonial v e r -s i o n s , are not found w i t h equal f requency i n the th ree museum c o l l e c t i o n s t h a t were s t u d i e d . I found seven Crawl ing Wolf masks, f o r t y - o n e W h i r l i n g Wolf masks and seven Standing Wolf masks. I s h a l l now look at what these v a r i a t i o n s o f c o l o u r , i d e n t i t y and s t y l e s i g n i f y t o the Nootka. I am assuming t h a t the iconography o f the Wolf masks i s a v i s u a l statement expressed i n the c a t e g o r i e s o f the Nootkan cosmology. B. Iconography o f Personages The b a s i c form of a l l the Wolf masks i s t h a t o f a w o l f ; so I w i l l examine the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Wolf to the Nootka. Through v a r i a -t i o n s o f des ign e l e m e n t s , the d i f f e r e n t types o f Wolf mask are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h two o ther myth ica l b e i n g s ; Thunderbi rd and L i g h t n i n g Snake. What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these beings? And how are they a s s o c i a t e d w i th the Wolf? The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between T h u n d e r b i r d , L i g h t n i n g Snake, W o l f , and whale are the major symbols o f the Nootka. These r e l a t i o n s h i p s are expressed i n Nootkan a r t and l i t e r a t u r e ( speeches , myths and legends) and p rov ide the major components o f the metaphor t h a t the Nootka use " to organ ize t h e i r exper iences and d i r e c t t h e i r behav io r " (Needham 1 9 7 9 : 1 7 ) . I s h a l l a l s o show t h a t the Wolf a lone i s the symbol of the p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t i s needed f o r a s u c c e s s f u l l i f e i n the Nootkan cosmos. The importance o f these two symbols , the Wolf alone o r i n company w i th the o ther b e i n g s , i s r e f l e c t e d by t h e i r pervas iveness i n the Nootkan c u l t u r e . A l l ethnographies o f the Nootka have r e l a t e d the myth o f Thunderbi rd and have r e f e r r e d to the Wolf r i t u a l . The d e p i c t i o n o f these beings on the l a r g e dance screens has been documented a l l a long the west coast o f Vancouver I s l a n d and over a long p e r i o d o f t i m e . My d i s c o v e r y t h a t the Wolf masks i n c o r p o r a t e i conograph ic shapes tha t r e f e r to Thunderb i rd , L i g h t n i n g Serpent as w e l l as Wol f , suggests t h a t t h e i r importance i s even g r e a t e r than had been thought . What are the concepts t h a t these i conograph ic personages r e p r e -sent tha t are so important to the Nootka? 1. Wolf For the Nootka, the Wolf i s a h u n t e r , f i r s t and foremost . The W o l f ' s hunt ing a b i l i t y on the land i s under l i ned by the names g iven to the Crawl ing Wolf masks when the word " w o l f i s too dangerous to say a l o u d , and by the nature o f the i n i t i a t i n g Wolves' companions. During the Wolf r i t u a l the C rawl ing Wolf mask i s c a l l e d ' cougar ' or ' p a n t h e r ' (a. poor t r a n s l a t i o n o f c o u g a r ) , another l a r g e , p r e d a t o r . Thus, i n us ing t h i s euphemism, the Nootka c h a r a c t e r i z e the Wolf as a hunter f o r they chose another ' hunte r from the o rder o f l a r g e f o u r - f o o t e d land a n i m a l s ' as the c l o s e s t a l t e r n a t i v e . The on ly o ther l a r g e predators on Vancouver I s l a n d are bears ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:49 and 306) . G r i z z l y bears are c l e a r l y grouped wi th the wolves because G r i z z l y Bear dancers sometimes appear w i th the i n i t i a t i n g Wolf pack (Drucker 1951 :394) . Ord inary bears do not appear w i th the Wolves. Instead they are hunted and t h e i r c a r -casses are honored and addressed as Haquem o r 'Queen' i n the same manner as whales (Drucker 1951:178 and 1 8 1 ) ; and we s h a l l see l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r , t h a t Whales belong to a very d i f f e r e n t category then do Wolves. 58. Several aspects o f the wo l f as a hunter are emphasized. His s w i f t n e s s and s t e a l t h , and the f a c t t h a t he k i l l s w i t h h i s tee th are some o f h i s notab le a t t r i b u t e s . Speed, use fu l f o r chas ing down game, i s the p a r t i c u l a r t a l e n t o f the Messanger Wolves who are a l s o the i n i t i -a t i n g Wolves who break i n t o the f e a s t house dur ing the Wolf r i t u a l ( S a p i r 1911 :22) . T h e i r names r e f l e c t t h e i r r e l a t i v e f l e e t n e s s ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 3 4 ) ; they are c a l l e d ( A s - f a s t - a s - t h e - ) S o u n d - o f - a - s t i c k -b r e a k i n g - o n - t h e - g r o u n d ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 3 4 ) , ( A s - f a s t - a s - ) W a t e r -d r i p s - d o w n - f r o m - a - s t a n d i n g - b u s h ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 3 4 ) , ( A s - f a s t -a s - ) A d z e - c h i p s - f a l l i n g - o n - t h e - g r o u n d ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 2 1 7 ) , and ( A s - f a s t - a s - ) M u d d y - w a t e r - t h a t - h a s - b e e n - s t i r r e d - u p - s e t t l e s - d o w n ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939 :217) . The Wolves hunt by s t a l k i n g t h e i r prey ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:85 and 8 7 ) . The term 'smoke' t h a t i s used to a l l u d e to the Wolves d u r i n g the Wolf r i t u a l (Drucker 1951:391) b r ings i n t o focus the Wolves' a b i l i t y to move q u i e t l y when s t a l k i n g . The name o f the myth ica l Wolf w a r r i o r s ' band, ' fond o f bones' ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:87) h i g h l i g h t s the Wolves' a b i l i t y to k i l l l i v i n g b e i n g s , s i n c e bones are the on ly p a r t o f a body t h a t remains i n the profane realms a f t e r i t has d ied ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 6 9 ) . ^ The weapons t h a t the Wolves use are t h e i r t e e t h , which t h e i r w a r r i o r s sharpen i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a myth ica l war j u s t as t h e i r opponents the L i c e sharpen t h e i r spears ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 8 7 ) . The Wolf appears as the hunter o f Deer and E lk i n Nootka myths ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:85 and 8 7 ) . The Nootka a l s o admire the Wolf because o f h i s 'wisdom' (E rns t 1952:91) o r r i t u a l knowledge. The Wolves' success i n hunt ing i s a t e s t a -ment to t h e i r supernatura l powers ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 1 8 7 ) . In myths. 59. Wolf leaves h i s own house a t the f o o t o f the mountains and goes i n t o the woods, where he k i l l s Deer and E l k . Thus, accord ing to Nootkan thought , Wolf has the supernatura l a b i l i t y to c ross boundaries and to f o r c e Deer and E lk to t r a v e l over the boundary between l i f e and d e a t h , and thus to t rans fo rm them i n t o beings o f the realm o f the Inbetween. When one r e c a l l s tha t the Nootka conce ive o f people who are i n the r i t u a l s t a t e as ' fo rmer people o r d e a d ' , (see Chapter 2) t h i s l i n e o f thought d i s c l o s e s the dual f o r c e o f the Nootkan r i t u a l symbolism t h a t s e l e c t s the Wolves to be the ones t h a t c a r r y the nov ices o f the Wolf r i t u a l i n t o the realm of the Inbetween. The Nootka b e l i e v e tha t the W o l f ' s powers o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n can be used on h i m s e l f and t h a t a Wolf may t rans fo rm h i m s e l f i n t o a K i l l e r Whale when he goes to sea (Roberts and Swadesh 1 9 5 5 : 3 1 9 ) ; and t h a t the K i l l e r Whale becomes a Wolf when he comes onto the land (Roberts and Swadesh 1955:319; Drucker 1965:135 ; C u r t i s 1 9 1 6 : 2 0 ) . The l o g i c a l b a s i s f o r t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n l i e s i n the metaphor ica l p a r a l l e l s between Wolves and K i l l e r Whales. The K i l l e r Whale hunts whales l i k e a Wolf (Drucker 1965:135 ; Densmore 1 9 3 9 : 5 3 ; C u r t i s 1 9 1 6 : 8 6 ) . "Hayte [Densmore's i n f o r -mant] s a i d he once saw a whale . . . . I t was pursued by a K i l l e r Whale wh ich . . .made a no ise l i k e a w o l f - a long howl . . . " (Densmore 1 9 3 9 : 5 3 ) . The Nootka p o i n t out t h a t the K i l l e r Whale, l i k e the Wol f , i s not the prey o f another animal (E rns t 1 9 5 2 : 4 8 ) . When a Wolf t ransforms i n t o a K i l l e r Whale, the W o l f ' s t a i l becomes the K i l l e r Whale's do rsa l f i n (Roberts and Swadesh 1951 :319) . A Wolf can be k i l l e d by b r e a k i n g h i s t a i l (Drucker 1951:127) and the t a i l i s kept as a trophy o f the k i l l ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 8 7 ) . In p a r a l l e l f a s h i o n , a man's l i f e p r i n c i p l e 60. i s a t the crown o f h i s head, which h i s enemies' w a r r i o r s cut o f f and keep as t r o p h i e s o f t h a t k i l l (Drucker 1951 :341) . S ince a whaler keeps the dorsa l f i n of any whales he k i l l s as t r o p h i e s (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 1 8 0 ) , the ' l i f e p r i n c i p l e ' o f the Whale i s i n the dorsa l f i n ( S a p i r 1 9 1 9 : 3 5 2 ) . W o l f ' s t a i l , wha le ' s dorsa l f i n and man's head are analogous pa r t s o f the bodies o f these th ree predators from d i f f e r e n t orders and rea lms . Thus the Nootka see many ana log ies between man, Wolf and K i l l e r Whale. The ana log ies r e s t on the f a c t t h a t they are a l l p redators and not the prey o f another p r e d a t o r . In the Nootkan cosmology, the K i l l e r Whale i n the s e a , and Wolf and Man on the l a n d can be ass igned t o g e t h e r to a category d e f i n e d by t h i s r o l e . Th is reason ing makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r a man to become a k i l l e r whale . Th is happens dur ing the s e c r e t w h a l -ing r i t u a l s , when Nootkan whalers swim through the water w i t h t h e i r f i s t s c lenched and thumbs h e l d upr igh t ,in i m i t a t i o n o f a wha le ' s f i n ( C u r t i s 1 9 1 6 : 3 7 ) , most l o g i c a l l y (Nootka l o g i c ) , a K i l l e r Whale . - Thus , w h i l e Wolves t r a n s f o r m i n t o K i l l e r Whales , and K i l l e r Whales i n t o Wolves , men t r a n s f o r m i n t o K i l l e r Whales. And men t rans fo rm i n t o Wolves d u r i n g the Wolf r i t u a l when they p lace Wolf masks on t h e i r heads to become the v a r i -ous Wolves. From t h i s we can comprehend how the Nootka can p lace men and Wolves who are both i n h a b i t a n t s o f the Land Realm i n t o an even more c l o s e l y de f ined conceptual and moral c a t e g o r y . Th is i s done by f o r b i d d i n g men to eat the f l e s h o f wolves (Drucker 1951:61) because i t i s c a n n i b a l i s m to eat those s i m i l a r to o n e s e l f . In a d d i t i o n , the Nootka e n v i s i o n wolves l i v i n g i n a house, and having a c h i e f w i t h w a r r i o r s and messangers l i k e men (Drucker 1951:273 and 2 6 9 ; E rns t 1 9 5 2 : 6 5 ) . Fur thermore, Wolves and men eat food t h a t i s s i m i l a r i n the Nootkan language. Mok means ' d e e r ' 61 and mokmokWa(q) means ' c o d ' , one o f the s t a p l e s o f the Nootkan d i e t S a p i r and Swadesh 1939 :265) . L a s t l y , men hunt l i k e wo lves . Wa-win means ' h u n t i n g deer i n the manner o f Wolves' and 'employ ing w o l f howls to scare out the deer ' ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1955:316) . Sproat w i tnessed the Nootka hunt ing deer i n t h i s manner and c a l l e d i t wa-win (Sproat 1 8 6 8 : 1 4 5 ) . The person accumulat ing weal th i s l i k e a Wolf h u n t i n g . Wealth i s seen as a form o f prey w i t h ' b i g eyes ' who ' i s wary o f those he s u s p e c t s ' ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 1 6 3 ) . " B i g eyes ' are s i g n i f i c a n t o f Deer ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 5 5 : 1 1 3 ) , the W o l f ' s pr imary prey . Thus a guest at a f e a s t cou ld compare the host c h i e f ' s s k i l l i n accumulat ing the f o o d , g i f t s and dances f o r a f e a s t to the hunt ing s k i l l s o f a w o l f . He p r a i s e d h i s host f o r be ing so s w i f t to make food so p l e n t i f u l ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 2 0 1 ) , thus a l u d i n g to the W o l f ' s s w i f t n e s s i n the hunt . Because the Nootka a s c r i b e the r o l e o f hunter who l i v e s on the Land to both Wolf and man, we can understand why t h e i r legends recount t h a t a teach ing r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between Wolf and man. Thus, Wolf i s seen as a good f r i e n d o f hunters and whalers ( C u r t i s 1 9 1 6 : 2 1 ) . Wolves w i l l admire a man's bravery when he dares to invade the Wolve 's house and w i l l reward him w i th supernatura l g i f t s needed f o r whal ing ( C u r t i s 1916:20) o r the ownership o f the Wolf r i t u a l (Swan 1 8 7 0 : 6 6 - 7 ) . In one legend a man who helped an i n j u r e d Wolf was rewarded w i t h a g i f t which enabled him to become a c h i e f (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 1 6 2 ) ; the word f o r c h i e f , hawil, a l s o means 'wea l thy ' ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 2 3 7 ) , so the g i f t was the a b i l i t y to hunt f o r weal th o r nov ices l i k e a Wolf . 62. 2. Thunderb i rd , L i g h t n i n g Serpent and Whale The Wolf masks have a second i d e n t i t y by which they can be a n a l y s e d . The Crawl ing Wolf mask i s i d e n t i f i e d on ly w i th the Wol f , but the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask i s s e c o n d a r i l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h L i g h t n i n g Serpent , and the Standing Wolf mask wi th Thunderb i rd . These beings represent c a t e g o r i e s o f Nootkan thought and i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h each o t h e r they d e f i n e par t o f the s t r u c t u r e o f the Nootkan cosmos. I s h a l l examine who they a r e , and how they a c t toward each o t h e r . I w i l l begin where n a t i v e informants b e g i n , w i t h the myth e x p l a i n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f Thunderbird and L i g h t i n g Serpent . Then I w i l l exp lo re what t h i s metaphor s i g n i f i e s by a n a l y s i n g how i t i s a p p l i e d to Nootkan l i f e . Th is w i l l e l i c i t more o f the nature o f the boundary areas o f the Nootkan cosmos because I w i l l , i n f a c t , be d i s c u s s i n g the nature o f L i g h t n i n g Serpent who appears i n the iconography o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask, the mask o f the realm of the Inbetween. a . The myth o f the Thunderbi rd "The Thunderbird who l i v e s on the summit of a mountain, d i f f i c u l t of approach i s b e l i e v e d , when i n need o f game, to f l y o f f to the sea and catch a whale, which he then c a r r i e s o f f to h i s home. The heavy f l a p p i n g of h i s wings i s what we c a l l thunder. . .he'itlik [ i s ] the myth-l o g i c a l serpent b e l t o f Thunderbird who, as he zigzags through the a i r or c o i l s about a t r e e , causes the l i g h t n i n g . " ( S a p i r 1911:68) He'itlik i s o f t e n g lossed as L i g h t n i n g Serpent or L i g h t n i n g Snake ( S a p i r 1 9 1 3 : 6 8 ; Northwest Coast A r t i s t s G u i l d 1977:#7) . He'itlik i s a l s o d e s c r i b e d as l i v i n g i n the wing f e a t h e r s o f Thunderbird (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 1 6 3 ) . 5 In t h i s Nootka myth, L i g h t i n g Serpent i s not a pass i ve c r e a t u r e . He i s a s e l f - p r o p e l l e d weapon which Thunderbird employs to k i l l Whale (Northwest Coast A r t i s t s G u i l d 1977:#7) . He z igzags through the a i r whereas an inanimate m i s s i l e would f o l l o w a smooth t r a j e c t o r y , e i t h e r a s t r a i g h t l i n e or a s imple curve . Ron H a m i l t o n , a contemporary Nootka a r t i s t , t e l l s the s t o r y o f how Thunderb i rd ' s three bro thers were drowned w h i l e hunt ing Whale w i thout the help o f L i g h t n i n g Serpent (ibid.). Thunderbird needs L i g h t n i n g Serpent ; Whale i s k i l l e d by L i g h t n i n g Serpent ' sharp head (Swan 1 8 7 0 : 8 ) . Th is more a c t i v e aspect o f L i g h t n i n g Serpent i s r e f l e c t e d i n the name ' b e l t o f T h u n d e r b i r d ' . A b e l t can be an a c t i v e o b j e c t when i t d e f i n e s the human shape o f a person c l o t h e d i n a loose garment such as those the Nootka wore t r a d i t i o n a l l y (Densmore 1939 :283) . Wolf i s a teacher i n the legend about "A Thunderbird [who] has been g iven by the Wolf to a c h i e f to hunt Whales w i t h " (E rns t 1952:21) Th is needs i n t e r p r e t i n g , f o r though the word are E n g l i s h , the o r d e r i n g o f ideas i s Nootkan. Th is legend i s about how a Wolf gave a human c h i e f the p r i v i l e g e to hunt wha les . The n a r r a t o r o f the legend makes the assumption t h a t h i s audience knows t h a t the Wolf has taught the Thunderbird to hunt wha les , and t h a t the Thunderbi rd i n tu rn w i l l teach the c h i e f . b. The m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f Thunderb i rd ' s hunt i n Nootkan c u l t u r e I s h a l l now i n v e s t i g a t e how the myth o f Thunderb i rd ' s hunt i s m e t a p h o r i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o severa l aspects o f Nootkan l i f e , such as whale h u n t i n g , marr iage and sexual i n t e r c o u r s e . This w i l l c o n t r i b u t e 64'. to an exeges is o f the iconography o f Thunderbird and L i g h t n i n g Serpent on the Nootkan r i t u a l Wolf masks. The whale hunt i s a respected a c t i v i t y reserved f o r the c h i e f and h i s b ro ther (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 5 1 ) . Only the c h i e f may k i l l the whale w i t h a harpoon (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 5 1 ) . The motion o f the l a n y a r d a t tached to the harpoon head as i t u n c o i l s to s t r i k e the whale i s d e s c r i b e d w i t h the same word, waci(\), t h a t i s used f o r the motion o f He'itlik as he moves through the a i r ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:257) . The wha l ing harpoon head i s i n c i s e d w i th des igns d e p i c t i n g L i g h t n i n g Serpent and h i s s c a l e s , f u r t h e r a s s o c i a t i n g the harpoon wi th L i g h t n i n g Serpent . Whi le a whaler does not eat the o i l from the whales he k i l l s (Drucker 1951:179) h i s r e p u t a t i o n grows w i t h the number o f whales he beaches (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 4 9 ) . His s o c i a l persona, i f not h i s p h y s i c a l pe rson , i s augmented by h i s p rey , the whale . The marr iage ceremony o f the c h i e f s o f the Nootka i s a symbol ic reenactment o f Thunderbird hunt ing Whale (Boas 1 8 9 0 : 6 0 1 ; Drucker 1951: 289) . The groom or h i s s u r r o g a t e , ac ts as the Thunderbird and seeks to ca tch the b r i d e as i f she were Whale. He harpoons her w i t h a l i n e o f b lankets t i e d t o g e t h e r , c o v e r i n g a column o f r e l a t i v e s , z i g z a g g i n g l i k e He'itlik up the beach to her house (Densmore 1939:247; Koppert 1930b:51) . The l i n e o f b lankets a l s o represents the groom's payment f o r h i s b r i d e (Koppert 1 9 3 0 b : 5 ) . Sometimes the b l a n k e t - c o v e r e d column i s l e d by a man wear ing a L i g h t n i n g Serpent o r W h i r l i n g Wolf mask {ibid.). Sometimes a r e a l harpoon, w i th i t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h L i g h t n i n g Serpent , i s thrown by the groom at the door o f the b r i d e ' s house (Koppert 1930b: - 1 ) . Jus t as the w h a l e r ' s r e p u t a t i o n grows w i t h the number o f whales 6 5 . he b r ings home, so the r e p u t a t i o n of the chief/groom and h i s l i n e a g e i s augmented by the dowry o f p r i v i l e g e s t h a t h i s b r i d e b r ings w i th her because the dowry represents an i n h e r i t a n c e f o r the c h i l d r e n o f the marr iage who w i l l belong to the groom's l i n e a g e (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 2 6 7 ) . The Thunderbird metaphor has deep roots i n the Nookan language. The s u f f i x '-'i.s i s used f o r ' e a t i n g ' , ' p a y i n g f o r ' and 'hav ing sexual i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h ' ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939 :323) . Thus, j u s t as a man has sexual i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h a woman, so the c h i e f pays f o r h i s b r i d e and Thunderbird eats Whale. The three a c t i o n s are s i m i l a r i n the Nootkan language because they are represented by the same word. In a d d i t i o n , the verb ' t o spear ' i s l i n k e d m e t a p h o r i c a l l y to the verb ' t o have sexual i n t e r c o u r s e ' . The Nootkan term mayakw i s a euphemism used w h i l e wha l ing f o r ' t o c a s t a s p e a r ' ; l i t e r a l l y i t means ' p a r t i c l e o f gum pops ou t ' ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939 :263) . In a myth recorded by S a p i r ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 8 1 ) , Mink uses the foam o f some gum that he i s chewing to impregnate a g i r l by having her swal low i t . The foam w i t h p a r t i c l e s o f the gum i n i t a c t s as semen. Thus ' a p a r t i c l e o f gum pops ou t ' can mean both ' t o c a s t a spear ' or ' t o e j a c u l a t e s p e r m ' . Four sentences can be drawn from the above d i s c u s s i o n which the Nootka l i n k m e t a p h o r i c a l l y i n a c t i o n and speech. 1. Thunderbird eats Whales. 2. Whaler spears whale. 3. Groom pays f o r h i s b r i d e . 4. Man has sexual i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h woman. In Nootkan thought these d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s , verbs and ob jec ts are i n t e r -changeable between the f o u r sentences . The Whale i s the mythic form of 66. the whale i n the second s tatement . The whale i s m e t a p h o r i c a l l y l i n k e d w i th the w i f e o f the c h i e f i n the r i t u a l o f the whale hunt when the whale i s addressed as 'nob le l a d y ' o r haquem, the t i t l e g iven to the c h i e f ' s w i f e (Drucker 1951 :197) . During the whale hunt , the behaviour o f the w h a l e r ' s w i f e i s b e l i e v e d to a f f e c t the behaviour o f the whale (Drucker 1951 :177) . The w i f e i s a l s o the b r i d e and a woman. We have seen t h a t the verbs are euphemisms or homonyms f o r - e a c h o t h e r . S ince the Thunderbird and the whaler both hunt Whale/whale, s i n c e the whaler i s the same person a s , o r the b ro ther o f (a s u r r o g a t e ) , the c h i e f and groom, and s i n c e they are a l l men, the metaphoroical u n i t y o f the f o u r sentences becomes c l e a r . I f the f o u r sentences are merged i n t o one as they .would be i n Nootkan thought , th ree concepts emerge which are o f pr imary i n t e r e s t i n t h i s t h e s i s . They are ' h u n t e r ' , ' p r e y ' and ' t h a t which l i n k s the t w o ' . In the myth o f Thunderbird and Whale, L i g h t n i n g Serpent i s the l i n k between the two as w e l l as the a c t i o n s o f hunt ing and e a t i n g . Thus he'itlik, L i g h t n i n g Serpent , i s the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f . t h e a c t i o n between the hunte r , p e r s o n i f i e d by Thunderb i rd , and h i s p rey , p e r s o n i f i e d by the Whale. Let me pursue t h i s - m e t a p h o r f u r t h e r . L i g h t n i n g Serpent i s the agent t h a t b r ings about change by a i d i n g the process i n which two separate beings come together to t r a n s f e r something o f v a l u e . L i g h t n i n g Serpent f a c i l i t a t e s the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f a par t o f one being by a n o t h e r , and the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the i n c o r p o r a t e d being by s e p a r a t i n g i t from t h a t aspect o f i t s e l f which i s then ingested i n t o the i d e n t i t y o f the i n c o r p o r a t i n g b e i n g . The i n c o r p o r a t o r i s then t ransformed by be ing augmented by the separated aspect o f the i n c o r p o r a t e d b e i n g . Thus, Whale's f l e s h i s eaten by Thunderbird which leaves Whale w i t h j u s t a se t o f bones (McCurdy 1961: 112 ; Swan 1 8 7 0 : 8 ) , and Thunderbird r e p l e t e w i t h a meal ; l i k e w i s e the Whale 's p rec ious o i l i s consumed, i t s bu lky f l e s h i s taken by the w h a l e r ' s l i n e a g e , and the w h a l e r ' s p r e s t i g e i s g r e a t e r than e v e r ; a n a l o g o u s l y , the marr iage p r i v i l e g e s o f the b r i d e ' s l i n e a g e w i l l belong to her husband's l i n e a g e and her o t h e r ceremonial and economic p r i v i l e g e s remain i n her v i l l a g e f o r her c h i l d r e n to c l a i m and a c t i v a t e i f they wish and are ab le to do s o . Death , or a t l e a s t the t r a n s f e r r a l o f v i t a l i t y o f the i n c o r p o r a t e d from one a r e a , e i t h e r a realm or v i l l a g e , to another , i s pa r t o f the process o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n because the Whale i s k i l l e d and leaves the s e a , and the b r i d e leave her v i l l a g e o r f a m i l y , be fo re t h e i r "wea l th" ( o i l , p r i v i l e g e s ) can be i n c o r p o r a t e d by the " h u n t e r . " Leav ing the whale bones on the beach (Drucker 1951:66) and the b r i d e ' s i n a c t i v e k i n s h i p bonds and the a s s o c i a t e d economic and ceremonial p r i v i l e g e s i n her n a t a l group, would seem to be a method f o r p r o v i d i n g a framework f o r the eventual r e t u r n o f the prey to i t s s o u r c e , w h i l e t r a n s f e r r i n g the ' w e a l t h ' to the new home. Thus, i n the Nootkan metaphor, L i g h t i n g Serpent p e r s o n i f i e s an a c t i o n t h a t c r e a t e s change, a change which t ransforms the i n c o r p o r a t o r through augmentat ion, and t ransforms the i n c o r p o r a t e d through d i m i n u t i o n . In s h o r t , L i g h t i n i n g Serpent i s the Nootkan p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , a p r o -cess by which dimensions o f be ing are exchanged. 3 , Thunderb i rd , L i g h t n i n g Serpent and Wol f , and the Wolf Masks The i d e n t i t i e s o f the Wolf masks i n c o r p o r a t e both Wolf the hunter and Wolf the t e a c h e r , Thunderbird the hunter o r L i g h t n i n g Serpent the weapon. These dual i d e n t i t i e s o f the Wolf masks r a i s e s a q u e s t i o n . How do both 6 8 , i d e n t i t i e s o f each mask f i t i n t o a s i n g l e conceptual scheme? S ince the Nootka combined the Wolf w i th Thunderbird and w i th L i g h n i n g Serpent i n the forms o f the Wolf masks, an a n a l y s i s o f these forms w i l l i n d i c a t e how the Nootka s y n t h e s i z e the concepts they symbo l i ze . The b a s i c shape o f each Wolf mask i s t h a t o f a w o l f , and the des igns which s i g n i f y Thunderbird and L i g h t n i n g Serpent are subord inate to the Wolf because they are appended to the Wolf shape. The secondary p e r s o n a l i t y o f the mask i s expressed through the c r e s t s on the top and back o f the mask. The W o l f - l i k e q u a l i t i e s o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf and Standing Wolf masks are concen-t r a t e d near the f r o n t o f the form. Furthermore, the Wolf t r a i t s , the mouth and the forehead s i l h o u e t t e , are more s t r o n g l y d e l i n e a t e d than the L i g h t n i n g Serpent and Thunderbird t r a i t s because the l u p i n e o u t l i n e s are a l s o the o u t -l i n e s o f the s o l i d forms o f the mask. In a d d i t i o n , the edges o f the W o l f ' s forehead and mouth are st rengthened w i th a s o l i d l i n e o f b lack o r r e d . The c r e s t s that s i g n i f y L i g h t n i n g Serpent o r Thunderbi rd are l i g h t l y a t tached to the W o l f ' s head, and the connect ion i s made through t h i n bands o f wood. These connect ions are weakened v i s u a l l y by the open spaces between them. On the masks, i t i s the W o l f ' s shape t h a t s e t s the parameters o f the des ign f i e l d . Thus, the v i s u a l statements made by the masks d e c l a r e ' w o l f more s t r o n g l y than they d e s c r i b e the nature o f the Wol f , whether t u t o r (C rawl ing W o l f ) , hunter (Standing Wolf) or weapon f o r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ( W h i r l i n g W o l f ) . At the same t i m e , the form o f the masks can be ambiguous. On the Standing Wolf mask, i t can r e f e r to Wolf or Thunderb i rd . On the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask i t makes s imultaneous re fe rence to L i g h t i n g Serpent and Wol f . Th is i s because the s o l i d b lack eye , the cent re o f the v i s u a l compos i t ion o f the masks i s shared by the two i d e n t i t i e s on each mask. The i d e n t i t y o f the mask w i l l change i f one s h i f t s one 's a t t e n t i o n from the f r o n t and cent re o f 69. the mask to the eye, and then out to the c r e s t at the back and on the f r i n g e s of the mask. The focussed i d e n t i t y becomes the foreground while the un-focussed i d e n t i t y becomes the background. Thus the two i d e n t i t i e s are separated and fused at the same time. By these means, the Wolf masks make the v i s u a l statement t h a t the Wolf can form a cohesive image with each one of the components o f the Thunder-b i r d ' s hunt. But t h i s i s only p o s s i b l e , according to the v i s u a l statement of the masks, i f the Wolf remains the c e n t r a l i d e n t i t y and the i d e n t i t y from the Thunderbird's hunt i s given a subserviant.or secondary r o l e i n i d e n t i f y i n g the being portrayed by the mask, and i f the p o s s i b i l i t y of transformation from Wolf (a profane creature) to Thunderbird or L i g h t n i n g Serpent (creatures of the Inbetween) remains. What are the conceptual i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s image? No matter what t h e i r secondary i d e n t i t y , a l l the masks represent Wolf the hunter. Thus, i n the Wolf r i t u a l , the masks represent one being i n d i f f e r e n t moods. The Wolf's basic i d e n t i t y i s modified by the a d j e c t i v a l i n f l u e n c e o f the beings from the myth when he dons the c r e s t or "mask" of Thunderbird, L i g h t n i n g Serpent or Wolf. Thus, the Crawling Wolf i s the hunter teaching, W h i r l i n g Wolf i s the hunter transforming, and Standing Wolf i s the hunter being a hunter. These d i f f e r e n t aspects of the Wolf are presented at d i f f e r e n t stages of the r i t u a l . Another i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t being a hunter a l s o means th a t one has the a b i l i t y to transform. A second question a r i s e s . Given t h a t Thunderbird, L i g h t n i n g Serpent and Wolf are r e l a t e d i n a major metaphor, i s there i s p a r a l l e l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the three r o l e s of the Wolf masks i n the Wolf r i t u a l ? Yes. Because each mask appears i n a separate stage of the r i t u a l , each component of Thunderbird's hunt i s assigned a place i n the development 70. o f the r i t u a l a c t i o n , so t h a t Wolf and L i g h t n i n g Serpent must be invoked before Thunderbird can appear. The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t the Wolf r i t u a l c r e a t e s a Thunderbird and t h a t Wolf and L i g h t n i n g Serpent are needed a long w i t h the human nov ice to c r e a t e a Thunderb i rd . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the masks are s i m i l a r to those o f the p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n the myth. The Standing Wolf mask i s the focus o f the r i t u a l . The W h i r l i n g Wolf mask, l i k e the L i g h t n i n g Serpent , represents the weapon - the means t h a t S tand ing Wolf uses to s u s t a i n and c r e a t e h i m s e l f - because the nov ices i n the r i t u a l become Standing Wolf a f t e r being W h i r l i n g Wol f . In the Nootka Wolf r i t u a l the young nov ice f o l l o w s the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask and takes on the L i g h t n i n g S e r p e n t ' s i d e n t i t y to be ab le to be l i k e the Standing Wolf mask, and to become, m e t a p h o r i c a l l y , Thunderbird the hunter . The a d d i t i o n and t r a n s f e r r a l o f dimensions o f being a s s o c i a t e d w i t h L i g h t n i n g Serpent i n the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask, are used to t rans fo rm the human nov ice i n t o a human a d u l t . C rawl ing Wolf i s a teacher l i k e the Wolf i n the myth, because he helps the nov ices to change i n t o Standing Wolf by showing them how to behave. Thus the Crawl ing Wolf and W h i r l i n g Wolf r o l e s c r e a t e and s u s t a i n the Standing Wolf r o l e , i n the same manner t h a t Wolf and L i g h t n i n g Serpent teach and feed Thunderbird i n the myth. C. Iconography o f Co lour - Red and B l a c k While s tudy ing the Wolf masks i n the museum c o l l e c t i o n s I n o t i c e d t h a t the r i t u a l masks were pa in ted red and/or b l a c k . The Crawl ing Wolf masks are s o l i d b lack (E rns t 1 9 5 2 : 3 8 ) . The r i t u a l W h i r l i n g Wolf masks are pa inted w i th o n l y b lack l i n e s or w i th b lack and red l i n e s . The l i n e s I 7 1 , pa in ted on the r i t u a l Standing Wolf masks are always red and b l a c k , never b lack a l o n e . The background c o l o u r o f the masks i s u s u a l l y bare wood o r w h i t e . In the f e s t i v a l o r p o t l a t c h v e r s i o n s o f the Wolf masks, o t h e r c o l o u r s are s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the r e d . b lack and white (see pages 35 and 3 6 ) . Red, b lack and whi te symbol ize a t t r i b u t e s t h a t are a c q u i r e d through supernatura l c i rcumstance i n Nootkan r i t u a l s and ceremonies. On the Wolf masks, whi te i s used as a s u b s t i t u t e o r symbol f o r bare wood (page 3 5 ) . We can regard the bare wood as a d e l i b e r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f what would happen i f a c o l o u r l e s s t r a n s p a r e n t l i q u i d were a p p l i e d to i t . One such l i q u i d which i s important to the Nootka i s whale o i l (Macfar lane 1978) . Thus, I b e l i e v e t h a t wh i te p a i n t s i g n i f i e s the l i m p i d o i l t h a t i s rendered from the whales t h a t are beached through the r i t u a l power and e f f o r t s o f the c h i e f . The o i l symbol izes weal th and subs tance ; i t i s the most p r i z e d form of food and the essence o f the Whale's b l u b b e r , i t s bu lk (Macfar lane 1978) . Red s i g n i f i e s the supernatura l g i f t o f power. Red s i g n i f i e d the g i f t s which were r e c e i v e d by those who were being i n i t i a t e d i n t o the a n c i e n t red klukwana o r Tseyak r i t u a l , a h e a l i n g s o c i e t y (Boas 1890:598 ; Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 2 1 5 - 8 ) . The g i f t which was r e c e i v e d d u r i n g t h i s r i t u a l was good h e a l t h from a supernatura l o r i g i n . But red s i g n i f i e s more than good h e a l t h f o r the Nootka. Nootkan r i t u a l i s t s cause themselves to b leed so tha t they w i l l be l i k e the dead, b l o o d l e s s (E rnst 1 9 5 2 : 8 4 ) , thus f o r the Nootka b lood i s l i k e l i f e o r v i t a l i t y ; the l o s s o f e i t h e r one leads to death . Red p a i n t i s sometimes r e f e r r e d to as ' b l o o d paint* ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 1 1 9 ) , so red p a i n t s i g n i f i e s v i t a l i t y and the good h e a l t h which at tends i t , i n Nootkan r i t u a l and ceremonial symbol ism. The sacred w i ldness o f the woods, a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f sac red power ( E r n s t 1 9 5 2 : 7 1 - 2 ) , 72. i s a l s o s i g n i f i e d by red p a i n t ( C u r t i s 1916:.89). Th is second symbol ic use o f red i n d i c a t e s t h a t the Nootka perce i ve v i t a l i t y as hav ing a sacred o r supernatura l d imens ion . The Nootka c a l l t h i s v i t a l i t y i n a l l i t s d imens ions , power. The i n i t i a t e s o f the Wolf r i t u a l p a i n t t h e i r faces b lack to s i g n i f y t h a t they have r e c e i v e d a supernatura l g i f t (E rns t 1952:67 and 7 8 ) . This g i f t i s a s p e c i a l i d e n t i t y , which can be deduced from an a n a l y s i s of the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f the concept o f b lack i n the Nootkan language. Table I The Nootkan stem for 'black' ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:269) topk^3 topkok; ' b l a c k , dark c o l o u r e d 1 to.psi (A); ' e v e n i n g ' topaltopal(-)-, ' s a l t , s a l t w a t e r , sea 1 topal-3 topa.ti; ' p r i v i l e g e from a supernatura l source ' [ a l s o 'marr iage p r i v i l e g e ' brought by a b r i d e to her husband from her f a m i l y (Drucker 1951:141] The Nootkan word f o r b l a c k , topk-3 p rov ides the root f o r severa l words which r e f e r to t h i n g s which are s i m i l a r because they do belong o u t s i d e o f the bounds o f a . p a r t i c u l a r human group o r v i l l a g e . Topaltopal(-) r e f e r s to the sea and s a l t w a t e r . Humans d r i n k f r e s h water (Boas 1916: 892) r a t h e r than s a l t wate r , and they do not belong on the sea f o r they must be r i t u a l l y prepared before they dare to venture out on the sea (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 1 6 8 - 7 0 ) . The sea i s a dangerous and h o s t i l e p lace f o r human b e i n g s . A woman who waded c a r e l e s s l y i n t o the sea was dragged out and drowned by the seal s k i n she was washing ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 6 3 ) . 73. Topa.ti means a wedding p r i v i l e g e from a supernatura l source t h a t belongs to the b r i d e (Drucker 1951 :141) . Both the p r i v i l e g e and the b r i d e come from o u t s i d e the group i n t o which she m a r r i e s . To.psi(X) means even ing , the t ime f o r s e c u l a r human a c t i v i t i e s to end and the t ime f o r r i t u a l s . Thus i n Nootkan speech , thought and a c t i o n , b lack i d e n t i f i e s th ings which are beyond a p a r t i c u l a r human group. Red and b lack p lay an a c t i v e r o l e i n Nootkan r i t u a l s such as Whal ing . For the Nootka (Drucker 1951:169 I f f . , f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f whal ing) t h i s i s a dangerous under tak ing which demands much s t r e n g t h and s k i l l , both p h y s i c a l and supernatura l (Densmore 1 9 3 9 : 4 7 - 8 ) . The p r e p a r a -t i o n s i n c l u d e p a i n t i n g the canoe to symbol i ze these a t t r i b u t e s . The i n s i d e i s pa in ted red (Swan 1870:38) which s i g n i f i e s and r e i n f o r c e s the v i t a l i t y where the crew s i t s . The o u t s i d e o f the canoe i s char red b lack (Swan 1870:38) to i d e n t i f y i t w i t h the nonhuman sea which laps a g a i n s t i t . The c o l o u r scheme a l lows the men to augment t h e i r p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h and v i t a l i t y i n s i d e the canoe, w h i l e the b lack g ives them access to the whale i n the sea . The harpooner p a i n t s h i s face b lack (Drucker 1955 65:142) because he must assume the sea i d e n t i t y . o f the whale before he may harpoon i t . Even these p recaut ions are o f t e n inadequate ; f a i l u r e , i n j u r y and death are constant r e f r a i n s i n Nootkan t a l e s about w h a l i n g . The Wolf r i t u a l i s another o c c a s i o n tha t i s f u l l o f danger f o r the Nootka. Anyth ing can happen when the wolves are i n the v i l l a g e , and the u n i n i t i a t e d are c a r e f u l to keep to the s a f e t y o f t h e i r homes (Densmore 1939:103) . Thus, because p a i n t i s used by the Nootka i n o t h e r dangerous r i t u a l s i t u a t i o n s , I submit t h a t when o n l y red and b l a c k , h i g h l y symbol ic c o l o u r s , are used on some o f the Wolf masks, these somber masks are 74. intended f o r use i n the Wolf r i t u a l r a t h e r than f o r d i s p l a y d u r i n g profane and o r d e r l y ceremonial occas ions such as p o t l a t c h e s . I t i s c l e a r t h a t these c o l o u r s are a p p l i e d to the r i t u a l Wolf masks to s i g n i f y supernatu ra l g i f t s ; r e d , a g i f t o f power r e c e i v e d by the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f a s p i r i t u a l l y adept human p a t r o n ; and b l a c k , a g i f t r e c e i v e d through the patronage o f an a n i m a l , o f something i d e n t i f i e d w i th the s e a , w i t h o t h e r human v i l l a g e s or w i t h the wol f . In general te rms, the use o f s o l i d b l a c k , and red and b lack l i n e s on the Wolf masks can be seen as a process o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n when they are p laced i n the o r d e r o f t h e i r appearance; the s o l i d b lack o f the Crawl ing Wolf mask i s broken up to become the b lack l i n e s o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask; then r e d , expressed as red l i n e s , i s added to the des ign on the Standing Wolf mask. The temporal p r o g r e s s i o n s t a r t s w i t h a b lack mass which i s broken and then penet rated by red l i n e s , which can be seen as a m o d i f i e d red mass. The t r a n s i t i o n a l stage o f c o l o u r a t i o n i s expressed by b lack l i n e s , and c o i n c i d e s w i th the p a r t i a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f a Wolf i d e n t i t y i n the Wolf r i t u a l . I f the t r a n s i t i o n a l s tage were expressed on the Wolf masks i n red s t r i p e s , i t would i n d i c a t e a being who has i n c o r -porated some v i t a l i t y . But the c o l o u r s o f the masks express the t r a n s i -t i o n a l stage i n terms o f i d e n t i t y , and so the W h i r l i n g Wolf and the nov ice he represents are beings who have changed i d e n t i t y . Then, i n the next stage o f the Wolf r i t u a l , the Standing Wolf mask r e p r e s e n t s , through i t s red and b lack l i n e s , a being who has changed i n i t i a l l y i n terms o f i d e n t i t y , and s e c o n d a r i l y , i n terms o f v i t a l i t y o r power. The c o l o u r s and the manner o f t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n i n d i c a t e the source and nature o f the g i f t s t h a t the masks have r e c i e v e d and 75. i n c o r p o r a t e d as components o f t h e i r persona. The b lack p a i n t o f the Crawl ing Wolf i n d i c a t e s t h a t he shares an i d e n t i t y w i t h a nonhuman realm or another t r i b e o f humans. S ince the Crawl ing Wolf comes to the r i t u a l from h i s home, t h i s i d e n t i t y i s from the house o f the Wolves and the f o o t o f the mountains. In the contex t o f the r i t u a l , the W h i r l i n g W o l f ' s b lack s t r i p e s i n d i c a t e tha t he has acqu i red some o f the Wolf i d e n t i t y o f the C rawl ing Wolf . The red and b lack s t r i p e s o f the Standing Wolf mask i n d i c a t e he has some o f the Wolf i d e n t i t y or h a b i t of mind , and some supernatura l v i t a l i t y . In the contex t o f the Wolf r i t u a l he must have r e c e i v e d both o f these q u a l i t i e s from the W h i r l i n g Wolf . S ince the source o f the b lack i s the C rawl ing W o l f ' s home, the source o f the red p a i n t and power must be L i g h t n i n g Serpent - the secondary i d e n t i t y o f W h i r l i n g Wolf - or e q u a l l y the realm of the Inbetween, the home o f W h i r l i n g Wol f . D. Iconography o f S t y l e On each o f the th ree types o f Wolf mask the dominant Wolf shape i s a l t e r e d so t h a t the masks d i f f e r from each o ther i n s t y l e and b a l a n c e . I s h a l l now examine these v a r i a t i o n s i n my p u r s u i t o f the c a t e g o r i e s o f the Nootkan cosmology and statements about the Inbetween. The Crawl ing Wolf mask i s the l e a s t s t y l i z e d o f the t h r e e . The natu ra l p r o p o r t i o n s o f the W o l f ' s head are b a r e l y a l t e r e d . The l i n e s tha t d e l i n a t e the Wolf shape are almost as v a r i a b l e as i n n a t u r e . The length o f the mouth i s n a t u r a l . The tee th are not bared to suggest t e n s i o n and to d i s p l a y the w o l f ' s weapons - weapons being a human a r t i f a c t . The forehead and s k u l l are unadorned. The ears are not d e p i c t e d , one o f 76, the few unnatural touches . Other departures from the n a t u r a l w o l f ' s head are the use o f wood r a t h e r than f u r f o r the s u r f a c e , and the s o l i d b l a c k c o l o u r a t i o n , r a t h e r than hues o f grey . The general l i n e s o f the C rawl ing Wolf form i s balanced and r e l a x e d . The v i s u a l message o f the mask i s tha t t h i s i s the e s s e n t i a l Wolf f o r the Nootka. The W h i r l i n g Wolf mask presents a d i f f e r e n t t reatment o f the Wolf form. The W o l f ' s long mouth, muzz le , eye and forehead are r e t a i n e d but r e a l i g n e d a long the d iagonal a x i s and rendered i n s t r a i g h t l i n e s . Whether the mask i s made from a s i n g l e b lock o f wood, o r from two t h i n boards , the p r o f i l e o f the f r o n t o f the muzzle i s a d i a g o n a l , s t r a i g h t l i n e . The n o s t r i l i s t h r u s t f a r t h e r forward i n r e l a t i o n to the lower jaw than i s n a t u r a l . The muzzle i s l onger than t h a t o f a r e a l w o l f . The fo rehead , though rounded l i k e t h a t o f a r e a l w o l f , i s u n n a t u r a l l y low. The exposed teeth are s h a r p , s t r a i g h t - s i d e d t r i a n g l e s se t a t a s l a n t . The eye which i s sometimes se t d i a g o n a l l y , i s an e longated r e c t a n g l e w i th rounded c o r n e r s . The W h i r l i n g Wolf masks become t o t a l l y u n l i k e a n a t u r a l w o l f a t the top and back o f the head. These areas are decorated w i th r e a l or wooden f e a t h e r s . These are p laced a t an angle so t h a t they s lope back from the W o l f ' s brow and top o f the head; and sweep downward from the back o f the head. The v igorous d i a g o n a l s and s t r a i g h t l i n e s o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf masks are, very d i f f e r e n t from the r e l a x e d , n a t u r a l curves o f the C rawl ing Wolf mask. The d iagona ls t h r u s t out i n opposing d i r e c t i o n s so t h a t the fo rces i n the v i s u a l compos i t ion p u l l a g a i n s t each o t h e r and n u l l i f y each o t h e r ' s e f f e c t . The l i n e s o f the f e a t h e r s and the f r o n t edge o f the nose f a i l to c a r r y t h e i r f u l l f o r c e and energy because the s t r e n g t h o f the 77. l i n e s i s d i s s i p a t e d through t a p e r i n g ends. The d iagonal l i n e s are uns tab le and th reaten to f a l l down and dest roy the p a t t e r n . Th is s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e c o m p o s i t i o n , w i t h i t s v i s u a l f o r c e l i n e s l e a d i n g o f f i n a m u l t i t u d e o f d i r e c t i o n s may be viewed as the a r t i s t ' s v i s u a l r e n d i t i o n o f the p a r a -d o x i c a l , l o g i c a l l y s e l f - n e g a t i n g nature o f many Nootkan s p i r i t s . The e f f e c t o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask i s one o f v i s u a l imbalance , a g i t a t i o n and t r a n s i t o r i n e s s (see F igure 2). The s t y l e o f the Standing Wolf masks i s based on v e r t i c a l l i n e s r a t h e r than d iagonal ones. The ears are s t i l l m i s s i n g , the n o s t r i l i s b u i l t up to a squared mound. A c r e s t o f v e r t i c a l , b l u n t ' f e a t h e r s ' ornaments the top and back o f the head. The eye form i s a s h o r t r e c t a n g l e w i t h rounded c o r n e r s . The tee th are o f t e n b l u n t , b r o a d , and s e t v e r t i -c a l l y i n t o the upper and lower jaws . The muzzle i s t h i c k e r than t h a t o f a rea l w o l f . The f r o n t s i l h o u e t t e o f the muzzle i s an a b r u p t , s t r a i g h t v e r t i c a l r a t h e r than rounded and tapered as i n a l i v i n g w o l f . The v i s u a l message o f the l i n e s o f the Standing Wolf mask i s c o n c e n t r a t e d , ordered s t r e n g t h . The v e r t i c a l s move i n the same d i r e c t i o n . The c o n s i s t e n t t h i c k n e s s o f the l i n e s means t h a t they end w i t h t h e i r f u l l w idth and v i s u a l s t r e n g t h i n t a c t , so t h a t the t h r u s t o f each l i n e i s m a i n t a i n e d . Each l i n e i s b a l a n c e d , and does not th reaten to t i p ove r . V i s u a l l y , the motion i s o r d e r l y and i t s energy i s constant and ab le to complete i t s a l l o t t e d t a s k . The v e r t i c a l balance o f the p a t t e r n i s r e i n f o r c e d by the un i form d i r e c t i o n o f the l i n e s w h i l e the formal com-p o s i t i o n o f the mask i s g iven t e n s i o n by the i n s i s t e n t use o f s t r a i g h t l i n e s . Th is s t y l i z a t i o n o f the wo l f form i s f u l l o f power and s t a b i l i t y . 78. ( / i s u * * . r ^ t u s r /N f t o i t r o Op TUG- UkmuNUr 79. The s t y l e and balance o f the masks convey two se ts of , .concepts i n general a e s t h e t i c terms. The s t y l i z a t i o n o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf and Stand ing Wolf masks i s the v i s i b l e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f a f o r c e pushing a g a i n s t the natu ra l l i n e s o f the Crawl ing Wolf mask, a form which i s r e l a t i v e l y f r e e o f s t y l i s t i c f l o u r i s h e s . Th is energy i s e x t e r n a l to the nature o f the Wol f , the b a s i c form of the masks. The balance i n the compos i t ion o f the Crawl ing Wolf mask and the Standing Wolf mask expresses s t a b i l i t y and the absence o f change. In c o n t r a s t , the t e e t e r i n g d i a g o n a l s o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask, which p o i n t i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s a t once , express i n -s t a b i l i t y and t u r m o i l . I t s s t y l e h i n t s a t the imminant propsect o f change, the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f the form of the mask, and the r e l e a s e o f the energy tha t i s conta ined by the f r e n e t i c , but p r e c a r i o u s compos i t ion o f the mask's form. Through the contex t o f the Wolf r i t u a l , we can p lace these concepts i n t o the c a t e g o r i e s o f the Nootkan cosmology. The energy expressed by the s t y l i z e d des ign must be the supernatura l v i t a l i t y o f the Inbetween, power. This i s a l s o the power (Densmore 1939:297) t h a t the nov ices are e x p e r i e n c i n g as they are chang ing , t r a n s f o r m i n g on a sacred l e v e l , from ch i ldhood to adu l thood . S ince the Standing Wolf represents the calmed but s t i l l powerful i n i t i a t e s , the s t y l i z a t i o n o f t h i s mask can a l s o be equated wi th the power o r v i t a l i t y o f the Inbetween. The balance i n the compos i t ion o f the Crawl ing Wolf and Standing Wolf masks must r e f l e c t the s t a b l e and ear th -bound nature or p r o f a n i t y o f the W o l f ' s and the human's i d e n t i t i e s ; w h i l e the imbalance o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask must r e f l e c t the temporary , f l u i d nature o f the s a c r e d , s p e c i a l beings i n the realm of the Inbetween. F u r t h e r , I conclude t h a t the r i t u a l con tex t o f 80. the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask expresses the b e l i e f t h a t change and power o r i g i n a t e i n the realm o f the Inbetween i n the Nootkan cosmos. E. Iconography " W o l f n e s s 1 " i s the pr imary i d e n t i t y o f the form of the Wolf masks, but the secondary aspects o f the Wolf masks reveal th ree d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t i e s through the use o f v i s u a l c a t e g o r i e s . The i d e n t i t y , c o l o u r and s t y l e o f each mask separate messages which are j o i n e d together through the agency o f the complete form of the mask. The i d e n t i t i e s and c o l o u r o f the Crawl ing Wolf mask d e f i n e s him as a t u t o r o f a profane realm who has the i d e n t i t y and knowledge o f a predatory W o l f , but the s t y l e o f t h i s mask i n d i c a t e s t h a t he i s not a source o f energy , v i t a l i t y or power. The s t y l e , c o l o u r and i d e n t i t i e s o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf i n d i c a t e s t h a t he i s the means to power, and i n the contex t o f the r i t u a l he r e s i d e s i n an uns tab le s t a t e i n the realm of the Inbetween. The v i s u a l c a t e g o r i e s o f the Standing Wolf mask d e f i n e i t as a hunter who has power and the W o l f ' s knowledge, both r e c e i v e d i n sacred c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The s t y l e o f the t h i r d mask i n d i c a t e s t h a t S tand ing Wolf w i l l not change, and i n the contex t o f the r i t u a l , he does not r e s i d e i n the realm of the Inbetween. The unstab le and a c t i v e q u a l i t i e s o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask se t i t apar t from the o ther two mask t ypes . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , change and energy , which belong to the Nootkan realm o f the Inbetween are i n c o n t r a s t to the i n a c t i v e s t a b i l i t y o f the Land rea lm. 81 CHAPTER 3: FOOTNOTES The Wolf mask c o l l e c t e d by John Webber i n 1778 (Boas 1897: 478) i s c a l l e d a ' c a t 1 (Gunther 1972:224) probably a g loss f o r ' cougar ' which i s the r i t u a l avoidance name f o r the Crawl ing Wolves (see be low) . Thus Webber's ' k a t z ' i s the o l d form o f r i t u a l C rawl ing Wolf mask. S ince the ceremonial Crawl ing Wolf masks i n Canadian museums, which are a l s o r e f e r r e d to by Drucker (1951: 393) , are very s i m i l a r i n form to Webber's ' k a t z ' , i t i s sa fe to ana lyse these more modern forms as i f they belong to the r i t u a l s e r i e s o f Wolf masks. See p lates 5 and 6 . The word f o r ' d u l l ' , misk, a l s o means 'w i thout power' ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939 :267) . 3 ' w The r i t u a l avoidance names f o r C rawl ing Wolf i s sa'ak ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:306) and sa'shisi o r c raw le rs (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 3 8 8 ) . C r a w l e r s , f o u r - f o o t e d a n i m a l s , i s a l s o an e p i t h e t f o r cougars ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 4 9 ) . Sa'nek, very s i m i l a r to sa?akw, i s the name g iven to the panther dance (E rnst 1 9 5 2 : 7 4 ) . Panther and cougar are the names given to two masks (See p l a t e 5 , BCPM 2120; NMC V I I - F - 5 1 9 ) which are s i m i l a r i n form to two Crawl ing Wolf masks (See p l a t e s 5 and 6 , BCPM 6633 and BCPM 10708) . Thus panther and cougar must be e p i t h e t s f o r w o l f . The dead have no bones i n t h e i r bodies to g ive them s o l i d shapes (Swan 1 8 7 0 : 8 4 ) . The bones remain i n the profane realm where the being l i v e d . But the dead themselves are r e s i d e n t s o f the Inbetween. There i s a term meaning 'under the arm t o ' used f o r the people i n a l i n e a g e house who are most c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the c h i e f (Drucker 1951 :279) . These people are nobles who l i v e under the l e a d e r s h i p and p r o t e c t i o n o f the c h i e f , j u s t as L i g h t n i n g Serpent l i v e s under the Thunderb i rd . The a f f i n i t y i n the West Coast Cosmology, between the c h i e f ' s s o n , a h i g h - r a n k i n g n o b l e , and the Inbetween i s more apparent . Joe Dav id , e x p l a i n i n g the greatness o f a w h a l e r , f l e x e d h i s arm muscles to i n d i c a t e p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h , and spoke o f the s p i r i t u a l 'power' at the same t ime . To h im, the two were synonymous. 1978, s p r i n g . 82. Chapter 4 MOVEMENT Each Wolf mask was d i s p l a y e d w i t h " i t s own appointed" dance (E rns t 1 9 5 2 : 1 5 ) , the Crawl ing Wolf dance, the W h i r l i n g Wolf dance o r the Standing Wolf dance. The Nootka used these three modes o f movement to d i s t i n g u i s h the th ree Wolf masks from each o t h e r , and the realm of the Inbetween from the r e s t o f the Nootkan cosmos. The three modes are expressed by two se ts o f symbols , the nomenclature and the form o f the dance which belongs to each mask. A. Nomenclature: C r a w l i n g , W h i r l i n g and Standing Though the three Wolf masks are c a l l e d Wolves, each type i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the o thers by a s o b r i q u e t which des ignates a mode o f moving. In o rder o f appearance i n the Wolf r i t u a l , they are C r a w l i n g , W h i r l i n g and Stand ing (E rns t 1952:38 and 106) . These s o b r i q u e t s are the E n g l i s h g loss f o r the form and name o f the three Wolf dances. The Northern Nootka c a l l e d the Crawl ing Wolf dance sa'ishi o r ' c r a w l e r s ' (Drucker 1951: 393) w h i l e the Por t A l b e r n i and U c l u e l e t groups c a l l i t sa'rikyak o r ' c r a w l i n g dance' ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:129 and 226) . The Makah c a l l the W h i l r i n g Wolf dance he-quat'luck, " the masked dance s y m b o l i z i n g the Wolf f renzy " (E rns t 1952:21) w h i l e the Vancouver I s l a n d groups use the 8 3 . term Ea-et'lik ( E rns t 1 9 5 2 : 7 5 ) , the n a t i v e name f o r L i g h t n i n g Serpent . The Vancouver I s l a n d groups c a l l the S tand ing Wolf dance quaiyatsiniq o r ' w o l f i m i t a t o r ' (Durcker 1951:412) and the s tep i t s e l f i s c a l l e d tuhtuh (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 4 1 2 ) . Tuhtuh i s very s i m i l a r to tutus, the Makah name f o r Thunderbird (Densmore 1 9 3 9 : 1 0 9 ) . I have proceeded to analyse the E n g l i s h g losses because I b e l i e v e they ho ld some v a l i d i t y f o r s e v e r a l Nootka i n f o r m a n t s , e s p e c i a l l y Char les Swan, who appeared to have concurred w i th E rns t (E rns t 1952:38) who's study o f the Wolf r i t u a l i s the most d e t a i l e d . The d i f f e r e n t s teps i n the E n g l i s h names o f the Wolf masks can bee seen to symbol ize i n general terms the t r a n s i t i o n from i n e p t to adept , and i n Nootkan terms the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from one s t a t e o f being to another , from animal to human. The f i r s t manner o f moving to appear i n the Wolf r i t u a l i s c r a w l i n g . In general te rms, i t i s the g a i t of a baby, a human who does not have the s t reng th and s k i l l to move i n t o the up r igh t posture needed to walk l i k e an a d u l t , a man. For the Nootka, c r a w l i n g i s the g a i t o f a f o u r - f o o t e d Land a n i m a l . They o f t e n r e f e r to Wolves as " c r a w l e r s ' (Drucker 1951:393) and to panthers o r cougars as c rea tu res who walk on a l l fours ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1 9 3 9 : 4 9 ) . The s i m i l a r i t y i n f e r r e d between the human baby and the land c rea tu res by the s o b r i q u e t ' c r a w l i n g ' can be t h a t n e i t h e r are a d u l t humans. The second mode o f a c t i o n , w h i r l i n g , i s i n t e r m e d i a t e i n the r i t u a l sequence between c r a w l i n g and s t a n d i n g . In g e n e r a l , i t i s an a c t i o n which one can execute when s h i f t i n g from c r a w l i n g to s t a n d i n g . Let me e x p l a i n . In w h i r l i n g , the forward motion o f c r a w l i n g i s h a l t e d , and the performer i s anchored, more o r l e s s to a s i n g l e spot as i n s t a n d i n g . 84. But the motion i t s e l f has not ceased. Rather , the energy has been t r a n s -l a t e d from a forward d i r e c t i o n to a w h i r l i n g one. So w h i r l i n g i s l i k e c r a w l i n g s i n c e there i s mot ion , and l i k e s t a n d i n g because the a c t o r remains i n one p l a c e . W h i r l i n g i s a movement w i thout d i r e c t i o n . Thus w h i r l i n g i s pure movement. W h i r l i n g has a s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the Nootka. I t i s the apparent movement o f a man's soul when i t i s he ld i n a shaman's hand i n a clump o f b i r d s ' down a f t e r i t has detached i t s e l f from the man's body when he i s i l l (Drucker 2951:211) . When the soul i s re turned to the p a t i e n t ' s body, h i s h e a l t h and v i t a l i t y r e t u r n . W h i r l i n g i s not the movement o f an animal who c r a w l s , nor o f a human who s t a n d s . W h i r l i n g i s the name of the Wolf mask t h a t belongs to the realm of the Inbetween. Thus w h i r l i n g i s the movement o f the beings and t h i n g s t h a t be long t h e r e , i n c l u d i n g h e a l t h , v i t a l i t y and power. S t a n d i n g , the a t t i t u d e suggested by the name of the t h i r d Wolf to appear i n the r i t u a l sequence, a l s o has general and Nootkan s i g n i f i c a n c e . In g e n e r a l , the human a d u l t i s ab le to ho ld h i m s e l f e r e c t and i s ab le to main ta in h i s p o s i t i o n as a man, two f e a t s which are i m p o s s i b l e f o r an i n f a n t or an a n i m a l . Furthermore, the Nootka c h a r a c t e r i z e the stance o f an impo-t a n t man, a c h i e f , as t h a t of a man s tand ing i n a canoe being c a r r i e d up the beach to a f e a s t (Roberts and Swadesh 1 9 5 5 : 3 1 7 ) , o r as the harpooner , a l s o a c h i e f (Drucker 1951:50-51) s t a n d i n g i n the prow o f the wha l ing canoe po ised to t h r u s t the harpoon i n t o the whale a l o n g s i d e (Swan 1 8 7 0 : 1 1 ) . Thus to the Nootka, ' s t a n d i n g ' i s the posture which des ignates a s u c c e s s f u l a d u l t human, and not a f o u r - f o o t e d animal o r c h i l d . 8 5 . B. Dances Each Wolf mask i s d i s p l a y e d w i th a d i f f e r e n t dance (E rns t 1952: 1 5 ) , a statement expressed i n body movements. The dance's statement i s r e l a t e d to t h a t of the mask dur ing the r i t u a l performance when the dance and the mask are used to por t ray a s i n g l e , i n t e g r a t e d c h a r a c t e r . The f i r s t dance, the Crawl ing Wolf dance, i s executed on a l l f o u r s , on the knuckles o f the hands and the b a l l s o f the f e e t . The dancer ' s thumb i s po in ted backwards, and down i n i m i t a t i o n o f the W o l f ' s dew claw (Budic 1 9 6 4 : 2 9 - 3 0 ) . The dancer ' s body remains h o r i z o n t a l as he moves a t a moderate r a t e . "The dancers become instruments f o r c a s t i n g shadows of wolves. The slow even movements p r o j e c t e d upon the w a l l s o f the dance house i n shadows cast up by a c e n t r a l f i r e would seem to have surrounded the audience w i t h the. . .aura o f a wo l f seeking prey." (Budic 1964:33) The nonhuman q u a l i t y o f the Crawl ing Wolf dancer , h i s ' w o l f n e s s ' and h i s hunt ing prowess are expressed by the dance. The moderate pace i n d i c a t e s how e a s i l y the Wolf f i t s i n t h i s r o l e ; the Wolf w i l l always be a w o l f . The second Wolf dance, the W h i r l i n g Wolf dance i s performed a t a r a p i d pace (E rns t 1 9 5 2 : 9 6 ) . The dancer i s h a l f c rouched , so t h a t h i s body forms a z i g z a g - a s e r i e s o f d iagonal l i n e s . He w h i r l s , crouches down and sp r ings up w h i l e s t i l l i n the s q u a t t i n g p o s t u r e , four t imes i n a row, and then pauses before r e p e a t i n g the four jumps (Budic 1 9 6 4 : 3 5 ) . The dancer ' s movements are r a p i d and e n e r g e t i c . For the Nootka, the dance i s not the movement o f a rea l man o r a n i m a l , though i t i s performed by a man wearing a p a r t - W o l f mask, because men stand and wolves c r a w l . The man and the animal are be ing animated by another i d e n t i t y . The W h i r l i n g Wolf 86 dance por t rays a w o l f tha t i s moving because he i s possessed by the c r a z i -ness o r w i ldness o f the Wolf r i t u a l ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1955:135) which i s the same as the power or haina o f the Inbetween (E rns t 1 9 5 2 : 7 1 - 2 ) . Thus t h i s dance i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f the Inbetween o r the L i g h t n i n g Serpeant aspect o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask. The W h i r l i n g Wolf dance i s hard to m a i n t a i n because o f the d i f f i c u l t posture and r a p i d pace. C l e a r l y , the degree o f d i f f i c u l t y o f the dance when compared to the Crawl ing Wolf dance, i n d i c a t e s , i n the general language o f dance, t h a t be ing a W h i r l i n g Wolf i s on l y a temporary r o l e , f o r the dance can only be performed f o r a s h o r t t ime before the balance and speed of the dancer ' s movements must change r e s u l t i n g i n a d i f f e r e n t dance. Thus the energy expended i n the dance presages change, and the W h i r l i n g Wolf dance represents a s i n g l e moment i n the Nootkan process o f change. Thus, f o r the Nootka, change i s ach ieved through the expendi ture o f w h i r l i n g motion and energy. How i s w h i r l i n g r e l a t e d to t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ? In the Wolf r i t u a l , W h i r l i n g Wolf does not y e t have the g i f t o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n : r a t h e r he i s w h i r l i n g i n o rder to t rans fo rm to someone who does. But w h i r l i n g i s a l s o the movement o f power. Thus, I must conclude t h a t the power expressed by the ' w h i r l i n g ' i s an aspect o f the process o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . I must f u r t h e r p o s t u l a t e tha t w h i r l i n g i s the process o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f o r the Nootka; and tha t w h i r l i n g i s the means to power d u r i n g the Wolf r i t u a l . We are l e f t w i th the paradox t h a t the n o v i c e ' s new power i s the r e s u l t of t h e i r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n dur ing the Wolf r i t u a l , but t h a t t h e i r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n comes about through the.power o f the i n i t i a t o r s o f the Wolf r i t u a l , the host and the Crawl ing Wolves. 87 The t h i r d Wolf dance, the Standing Wolf dance i s performed i n a v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n (Drucker 1951:412) . The dancer moves forward i n s h o r t , low hops, w i th both f e e t together (Drucker 1951 :412) . Or the hops are accompl ished w i t h a t a k e - o f f from one f o o t and a l a n d i n g on both f e e t (Budic 1 9 6 4 : 4 4 ) . S tanding Wolf dances w i th h i s arms out i n f r o n t o f him and h i s hands c lenched i n a f i s t w i t h the thumbs up. "The dance step would seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t the dancers were t r y i n g t o communicate the f a c t t h a t they were i n s i d e a v e h i c l e o f movement, not a c t u a l l y moving themselves." (Budic 1964:45). This b r i n g s us back to the image o f the whaler s t a n d i n g i n h i s canoe. The up r igh t posture o f the dancer ' s thumb symbol izes the dorsa l f i n o f the K i l l e r Whale, the c h i e f hunter o f the s e a , and r e i n f o r c e s the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s tand ing as the posture o f the wha l ing c h i e f . The pace o f the Stand ing Wolf dance i s not d i r e c t l y documented. I t i s probably s l o w , as i s the pace o f the song " A l l are watching me," a Wolf song which i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the Standing Wolf (Densmore 1 9 3 9 : 9 7 f f ) . Thus, the Nootkan Standing Wolf dance represents a human being o f c h i e f l y rank and s t a t u s . The dances a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the masks help to d e s c r i b e the c h a r a c t e r o f t h e i r r i t u a l r o l e s . The Crawl ing Wol f , a c c o r d i n g to the dance, p e r s o n i f i e s a w o l f . Standing Wolf i s a human w h a l e r and c h i e f . W h i r l i n g Wolf i s the power [haina) t h a t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . The W h i r l i n g Wolf dance represents the Inbetween as a temporary s t a t e , one to be passed through q u i c k l y . The o ther two Wolf dances can be mainta ined f o r a long t ime because o f the s lower pace; thus they represent the more permanent c h a r a c t e r of e x i s t e n c e i n the Land realm i n the house o f the Wolves and i n the houses 8 8 . o f men. In the terms o f the Thunderbird myth, the ' w o l f dance i s a s s o -c i a t e d wi th the T u t o r i n g Wol f , the ' t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and power' dance i s a s s o c i a t e d w i th L i g h t n i n g Serpent , and the 'human c h i e f ' s ' dance i s a s s o -c i a t e d w i th Thunderb i rd . These a s s o c i a t i o n s are expressed through the a l ignment o f the dances wi th the Wolf masks dur ing the Wolf r i t u a l . C. Conc lus ion The two se ts o f a c t i o n symbols , dance and a p p e l l a t i o n , express concepts t h a t are p a r a l l e l to each o ther i n Nootkan thought . The Crawl ing Wolf i n dance and i n name i s a w o l f who i s l i n k e d wi th human c h i l d r e n . The W h i r l i n g Wolf expressed the r e l a t i o n s h i p between power and t r a n s f o r m a -t i o n i n dance and a p p e l l a t i o n . The Stand ing Wolf dance and name represent . , a c h i e f and an a d u l t human. Furthermore, the s i m i l a r i t i e s and the d i f f e r e n c e s o f the dances reveal the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the three types o f Wol f . The speed o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf dance s e t s 'power and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n 1 apar t from the ' w o l f and 'man' represented by the o t h e r dances , but the d iagonal l i n e s o f the body i n the W h i r l i n g Wolf dance, between the h o r i z o n t a l o f the Crawl ing Wolf dance and the v e r t i c a l o f the Standing Wolf dance, p laces 'power and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n 1 between ' w o l f and ' m a n ' . And the a p p e l l a t i o n o f the masks suggests t h a t ' changing i d e n t i t y ' must f a l l between be ing a c h i l d and be ing an a d u l t . Thus the message o f the dances and the names o f the Wolf dances i s tha t before C rawl ing Wolf can become Standing Wol f , he must w h i r l i n o rder to t r a n s f o r m ; and before a c h i l d can become an a d u l t he too must w h i r l to change h i s i d e n t i t y . In the contex t o f the Wolf r i t u a l , these t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s take p lace i n the Inbetween, the sacred p l a c e . 89. Chapter 5 STATEMENTS AND MESSAGES: PRIVILEGES AND TRANSFORMATION The symbolism of the Wolf masks has been exp lo red i n the l a s t three c h a p t e r s . I have demonstrated t h a t i t i s expressed i n s e v e r a l d i f -f e r e n t modes which operate toge ther to convey a m u l t i f a c e t e d message through each type o f Wolf mask. The v i s u a l statements are i n c o r p o r a t e d wi th each o ther through the v i s i b l e forms o f the masks. The o t h e r statements are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the masks i n the contex t o f the Wolf r i t u a l . In t h i s chapter I w i l l examine the message conveyed by a l l the Wolf masks t o g e t h e r . This i s a message about the Nootkan concepts o f power and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . An a n a l y s i s o f the success ion o f messages conveyed by the th ree Wolf masks as they appear i n the Wolf r i t u a l should reveal the Nootkan process f o r r e c e i v i n g supernatura l g i f t s , i . e . t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ; and the nature o f the g i f t s , i . e . p r i v i l e g e s . Both the nature o f t r a n s f o r -mat ion , and t h a t o f the p r i v i l e g e s should be the primary and c l e a r e s t concepts tha t the Wolf masks express i f I am c o r r e c t i n assuming t h a t the a c q u i s i t i o n o f a p r i v i l e g e i s the pr imary Nootkan purpose f o r h o l d i n g a Wolf r i t u a l . Then I s h a l l apply the i n s i g h t s gained from the a n a l y s i s o f p r i v i l e g e s and t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n , to an understanding o f the Inbetween, the realm o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and the power. 90. A. Supernatura l G i f t s - P r i v i l e g e s The th ree Wolf masks c o u l d be regarded as a s i n g l e mask t h a t appears a t three d i f f e r e n t t imes d u r i n g the Wolf r i t u a l s i n c e the three masks never appear t o g e t h e r . Seen t h i s way, a s i n g l e Wolf mask t ransforms d u r i n g the r i t u a l from the knowledgeable Wolf o f the C rawl ing Wolf mask, to the v i t a l i t y and 'power o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ' o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf to the a d u l t human w i th the power and i d e n t i t y represented by the Stand ing Wolf . In the Wolf r i t u a l , the Wolves and humans meet, and the humans r e c e i v e p r i v i l e g e s . Through the secondary i d e n t i t i e s o f the Wolf masks, we can see t h a t the Nootkan concept o f r e c e i v i n g p r i v i l e g e s as supernatura l g i f t s i s encoded i n the Thunderb i rd , L i g h t n i n g Serpent and Whale metaphor. That i s , to reduce the analogy to the e s s e n t i a l s , j u s t as the Thunderbi rd l e a r n s from Wolf how to use L i g h t n i n g Serpent to capture and devour Whale, so the n o v i c e , the f u t u r e Standing Wol f , l e a r n s from the Crawl ing Wolf how to use and i m i t a t e W h i r l i n g Wolf to get what he wants , which i s the knowledge and power to become Standing Wol f . The Nootkan work his' o kt a l s o expresses the idea t h a t L i g h t n i n g Serpent i s the means o f o b t a i n i n g what one d e s i r e s . I t i s d e f i n e d as " ' o b t a i n e d by s t r i k i n g ' one o f the recogn ized modes o f g a i n i n g p r o p e r t y , whether m a t e r i a l good o r ceremonial r i g h t s " ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939 :221) . ' S t r i k i n g ' i s the a c t i o n modes o f l i g h t n i n g and L i g h t n i n g Serpent . The Nootkan concept ion o f the process o f r e c e i v i n g p r i v i l e g e s i s a l s o expressed i n the forms o f the Wolf masks. The Crawl ing Wolf r e p r e -sents a Wolf from whom the nov ices a c q u i r e knowledge o f t h e i r supernatu ra l g i f t on t h e i r i n i t i a l c o n t a c t w i t h the C rawl ing Wolf . Then, d u r i n g t h e i r so journ i n the woods, the nov ices a c q u i r e the w i ldness which suggests 91. haina the power and v i t a l i t y which are a t t r i b u t e s o f the W h i r l i n g W o l f ' s L i g h t n i n g Serpent a s p e c t . In the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask, we can see t h a t the Wolf form and i d e n t i t y have been given the power and v i t a l i t y o f the Inbetween, The Nootka a r t i s t s have c rea ted a very s o p h i s t i c a t e d image because power i s e s s e n t i a l l y formless s i n c e i t i s a process and not a s t a t e o f b e i n g ; but they express i t through s t y l e and p e r s o n i f y i t as L i g h t n i n g Serpent , i t s e l f a pa radox i ca l "form o f the f o r m l e s s . " The Nootkan a r t i s t s por t ray inbetweenness as i n h e r e n t l y unbalanced and temporary. As expressed on the Nootkan Wolf masks, the dilemma o f those i n the Inbetween realm must be r e s o l v e d by s h i f t i n g to one o f the permanent and s t a b l e profane realms on e i t h e r s i d e o f the sacred rea lm. Thus i n the Nootkan cosmos there i s a fo rce t h a t a f f e c t s beings from the profane realms and fo rces them to move out o f the Inbetween rea lm, and the halfway p o s i t i o n . I must assume t h a t t h i s f o r c e i s the v i t a l i t y and power t h a t r e s i d e s i n the Inbetween r e a l m , haina. The power o f the Inbetween mani fes ted i n the s t y l e o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf dance and mask i s l i k e the power of an engine running i n n e u t r a l . The engine needs to be s t a r t e d , r e g u l a t e d and then put i n t o gear j u s t as the power o f the Inbetween needs to be i n c o r p o r a t e d , calmed and then channeled to be e f f e c t i v e . This i s accompl ished i n the Wolf r i t u a l i n two s t e p s . F i r s t the nov ice must w h i r l , o r a c t w i l d l y l i k e the o t h e r c r e a t u r e s o f the Inbetween, and so become an Inbetween c r e a t u r e . Only then can he be l i k e the Inbetween i n h a b i t a n t s , and have power. Then t h i s power i s c o n t r o l l e d as the nov ices l e a r n t h e i r new dances and gain mastery over t h e i r performance. The r e s u l t o f t h i s process i s por t rayed on the Stand ing Wolf mask on which the w i l d power e v i d e n t i n the r e n d e r i n g o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask i s r e t a i n e d but i n a calmed and o r d e r l y s t a t e . 92. The same two-s tage process i s s t a t e d i n more a b s t r a c t terms by the c o l o u r s o f the Wolf masks. The b lack r e p r e s e n t i n g the i d e n t i t y and knowledge o f the C rawl ing Wolf and the red r e p r e s e n t i n g the power o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf are i n c o r p o r a t e d a t separate stages on the Stand ing Wolf mask. Thus the nature and source o f the supernatura l g i f t s o r p r i v i l e g e s which the nov ices r e c e i v e are t w o - f o l d . F i r s t , the knowledge o f a good hunter comes from the i n i t i a t i n g Wol f ; t h i s i s the message o f the Crawl ing Wolf mask. Second ly , the power o r haina to animate the hunt ing l o r e comes from the Inbetween; t h i s i s the message o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask. The end product i s Thunderb i rd , the Standing Wolf mask o r the complete man, hawil, a human c h i e f . B. Power and T ransformat ion i n the Inbetween Through t h i s a n a l y s i s o f the Wolf masks I have d e s c r i b e d the realm of the Inbetween as i t i s pe rce i ved by the Nootka. I t i s a realm of process and becoming r a t h e r than o f being and s t a b i l i t y . Those beings who do i n h a b i t the Inbetween such as the w i l d men, and the nov ices d u r i n g the Wolf r i t u a l , are paradoxes whose a t t r i b u t e s negate each o ther i n t o conceptual o b l i v i o n . How can a man be w i l d , when man are the c i v i l i z e r s ? How can a person be a former person , when he s t i l l looks l i k e a person? L i g h t n i n g Serpent , w h i l e p a r t snake, i s p a r t b i r d and p a r t f i s h , f o r he has s c a l e l y f e a t h e r s o r fea thery s c a l e s , and i s sometimes c a l l L i g h t n i n g F i s h (Swan 1 8 7 0 : 8 ) ; but he i s none o f these . The formlessness o f the concepts which belong to the realm of the Inbetween^ i s more p o s i t i v e l y expressed as 93. power o r haina. But t h i s f o r c e has a negat ive dimension f o r men. Human beings are knocked unconscious and sometimes k i l l e d by the power i n the woods o r o ther marginal p laces (Colsen 1 9 5 3 : 2 5 9 ) . The formlessness o f the nature o f Inbetween t h i n g s i s a l s o symbol ized by the abundant motion o f the W h i r l i n g Wolf dance and the v a r i a b i l i t y o f the form of the L i g h t n -i n g Se rpent , who i s the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f the Inbetween, when i t i s d e p i c t e d on var ious Nootkan ceremonial or r i t u a l o b j e c t s . The Inbetween i s an important realm f o r the Nootka because they understand and exper ience i t as the source o f power and v i t a l i t y . I have shown that i n the Nootkan cosmos power does not come from the profane realm where beings enjoy a permanent, s t a b l e i d e n t i t y ; the s t a b i l i t y o f the c r e a t u r e s o f the s e a , sky and land seems to prec lude the c r e a t i o n o f power o r v i t a l i t y through t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and change. Th is se ts the realm of the Inbetween apar t from the o t h e r s . Obta in ing power from the Inbetween i s a n e c e s s i t y f o r the Nootka because i t i s an e s s e n t i a l a t t r i b u t e o f moral h e a l t h ; i t i s a l s o c a l l e d a l i f e p r i n c i p l e or s o u l . Thus, a young c h i e f i s urged ' t o t r a i n ' f o r e v e r y t h i n g so t h a t he might enjoy ' w e a l t h ' ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939: 185f f ) and ' reach h i s peak' - enjoy a long l i f e ( S a p i r and Swadesh 1939:193 and 233) . Let me analyse t h i s p iece o f grandparental adv ice once a g a i n . ' T r a i n i n g * i s the f i r s t phase o f a l l the s e c r e t hunt ing and weal th r i t u a l s (Drucker 1951:166) which e f f e c t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . In t r a i n i n g the s o l i t a r y r i t u a l i s t r i d s h i m s e l f o f h i s human i d e n t i t y , and becomes a s p i r i t but does not proceed to take on the profane i d e n t i t y o f another animal o f the land o r sea as i n hunt ing and f i s h i n g r i t u a l s (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 1 6 4 - 1 6 8 ) . 'Wea l th ' f o r the Nootka i s not on ly an abundance o f f o o d , c l o t h i n g and s h e l t e r ; 94. i t i n c l u d e s ceremonial and r i t u a l p r i v i l e g e s (Drucker 1951:247) which are earned through i n h e r i t a n c e and the patronage o f s p i r i t s (Drucker 1951: 257 and 258) . Thus the weal th and long l i f e imply m o r a l , s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h . S ince weal th and long l i f e are acqu i red through r i t u a l , the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l s t a t u s o f a man i s dependent on h i s s p i r i t u a l a c t i v i t y . A l l beings i n the Nootkan cosmos who wish to m a i n t a i n t h e i r power must en te r the temporary s t a t e o f the Inbetween where they t rans fo rm by reduc ing themselves to t h e i r b loody , v i t a l , sac red and s p i r i t s e l v e s o r s o u l s . Th is i s why, men, animals and even the v e g e t a t i o n and rocks t r a n s -form themselves t ime and t ime again i n Nootkan myths and legends ; combs i n t o t r e e s , o i l i n t o l a k e s , b i r d s i n t o a n i m a l s , men i n t o t r e e s , r o c k s , f i s h and b i r d s (Swan 1 8 7 0 : 6 5 ) . Thus the power or haina l i n k e d w i t h t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s the p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and moral or s p i r i t u a l an imat ing f o r c e o f the Nootkan cosmos. But i t i s not a s u p e r i o r component o f i t s un iverse because the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f power, L i g h t n i n g Serpent i s the weapon o f Thunderb i rd , not h i s master . The power o f the Inbetween, as d e p i c t e d on the Nootkan dance screens (see P l a t e 1 ) , i s not s u p e r i o r to the o t h e r components o f the c o m p o s i t i o n ; r a t h e r i t i s on ly one o f severa l c o n c e n t r i c p a r t s . The o thers are knowledge and i d e n t i t y a g i f t from the Wol f , a c r e a t u r e o f the Land, and prey o r the substance o f weal th a g i f t from the Whale ( C l u t e s i 1969: 175 a n d . 1 8 2 ) , a c r e a t u r e o f the s e a . Wol f , Whale and L i g h t n i n g Serpent a l l c o n t r i b u t e b a s i c dimensions o f being to the Thunderbird who i s the focus o f a t t e n t i o n i n the d e s i g n . Thus f o r the Nootka the an imat ing f o r c e o f the w o r l d , the supernatura l o f so many e thnograph ies , i t not ' s u p r a ' ; power i s not above and o v e r . o t h e r th ings i n the cosmos. I t i s one o f 95. severa l components i n the make up a Thunderb i rd , the mythic metaphor f o r a human c h i e f . The Inbetween i s a fo rmidab le boundary area between the o ther realms o f the Nootkan cosmos which must be c rossed by the beings of the s k y , land and s e a . But i t i s dangerous to e n t e r the Inbetween. Why? Because i n the Nootkan cosmology, economic, s o c i a l and r i t u a l a c t i v i t i e s are expressed i n the image o f e a t i n g , most profoundly t h a t o f Thunderbi rd e a t i n g Whale. Thus sexual i n t e r c o u r s e , h u n t i n g , m a r r i a g e , w h a l i n g , p o t -l a t c h i n g , war and the Wolf r i t u a l i t s e l f ought to be done to o r w i t h ( E n g l i s h p r e p o s i t i o n s f a i l ) someone o u t s i d e o f your group. To commit these acts w i t h i n the group would be t o commit moral t r a n s g r e s s i o n s as u n t h i n k -a b l e . a s c a n n i b a l i s m , the worst cr ime o f e a t i n g . In so f a r as c a n n i b a l i s m i s a f a i l u r e to recognize and a v o i d e a t i n g food which i s l i k e y o u , the ; boundaries Which d i s t i n g u i s h what i s of your t r i b e and o r d e r . a f b e i n g , and what i s n o t , are very important to the Nootka. Thus..the Inbetween r e a l m -has a dual s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the Nootkan cosmology. I t must be mainta ined as a no -man's land between the d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f being .yet i t musy be crossed to r e p l e n i s h "the economic, s o c i a l and r i t u a l heal th and power o f the profane rea lm. The moral d i f f i c u l t i e s o f e n t e r i n g the realm of the Inbetween r e i n f o r c e s the s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the c h i e f s who own the many p r i v i l e g e s t h a t are the means o f t r a v e r s i n g the Inbetween, and the commoners who own few or none. Thus commoners cannot venture out o f the v i l l a g e to gather f o o d , e s p e c i a l l y salmon and h e r r i n g , u n t i l the man who owns the r i g h t o r p r i v i l e g e has gone f i r s t , and begins the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h a t resource f o r the season (Drucker 1 9 5 1 : 2 5 1 ) , and has made the necessary r i t u a l encounter w i t h the power i n the area between the v i l l a g e and the 96. food source (Drucker 1951:175 and 177) . Only the c h i e f ' s c h i l d r e n i n h e r i t the r i t u a l p r i v i l e g e s needed to make i t p o s s i b l e f o r nov ices to c ross the Inbetween to a c q u i r e the supernatura l g i f t s a s s o c i a t e d w i th the r i t u a l and economic p r i v i l e g e s t h a t enhance the s o c i a l s t a t u s and power o f a c h i e f ; t h u s , a commoner who does not have the r i t u a l p r i v i l e g e to send h i s son across the Inbetween, a l s o cannot he lp him a c q u i r e the economic p r i v i l e g e s t h a t the son would need to pass on a l l o f these p r i v i l e g e s to h i s son . Thus the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e perpetuates i t s e l f w i t h the s a n c t i o n o f the s t r u c t u r e of the Nootkan cosmos which renders the c h i e f t a i n s h i p a c c e s s i b l e to on ly a few. 97, CONCLUSION A " w e l l - d e f i n e d system of thought . . . t o Nootkan cosmolog ica l and supernatura l concepts" (Drucker 1951:151) has been revea led by the above a n a l y s i s o f a se t o f masks. The Nootka have prov ided the b a s i c m a t e r i a l which I have used to b u i l d the system but the v a l i d i t y o f t h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the system r e s t s on the e f f i c a c y o f the method f o r " r e a d i n g " masks proposed a t the beg inn ing o f the t h e s i s . I f the ' r e a d i n g " were i n c o r r e c t i n c o n c e p t i o n , method or e x e c u t i o n , the content which I have ass igned to the system would have been i n c o r r e c t l y perce ived and the system t h a t has been c o n s t r u c t e d around i t would be f a u l t y . Let me emphasize t h a t the form of the system perce ived i n t h i s t h e s i s i s not a Nootkan c o n s t r u c t . Rather i t i s a t h e o r e t i c a l s t r u c t u r e I have drawn to f a c i l i t a t e t h i s a n a l y s i s o f the Nootkan masks. Th is form encompasses s e p a r a t i o n o f the Nootkan exper ience i n t o m y t h i c a l , s o c i a l , r i t u a l , p o l i t i c a l , economic, moral and o ther such dimensions o r l e v e l s . Th is d i s s e c t i o n o f behaviour and exper ience f a c i l i t a t e d my own comprehension as an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t . I t i s not a thought mode o f the Nootka. The v a l i d i t y o f the form of the system r e s t s on i t s c a p a c i t y to i n c o r p o r a t e the Nootkan content w i thout o f f e n d i n g i t . A. The Keys to the System There are two keys to the system of Nootkan thought and cosmo-l o g i c a l concepts . The f i r s t i s the s t r u c t u r e o f the Nootkan cosmos - the 98. profane realms f l o a t i n g i n the sea o f the s p i r i t rea lm, the Inbetween -and the constant need o f c rea tu res o f the profane realms to renew t h e i r power and v i t a l i t y through repeated fo rays i n t o the Inbetween realm where power i s c o n s t a n t l y generated. The second key l i e s i n the comprehension and a p p l i c a t i o n o f two root metaphors. The f i r s t i s based on the myth o f the Thunderbird who eats Whale w i th the a s s i s t a n c e o f L i g h t n i n g Serpent . Th is myth prov ides a metaphor f o r the nature o f the t r i p a r t i t e s t r u c t u r e to be found i n any Nootkan c o n t e x t . Thunderbi rd serves as a metaphor f o r the p r i n c i p a l o r i n i t i a t o r , the Whale as the metaphor f o r the o b j e c t o f h i s a t t e n t i o n , and L i g h t n i n g Serpent as the metaphor f o r the b e i n g , t h i n g o r a c t i o n which l i n k s the o t h e r . t w o . Thus L i g h t n i n g Serpent may serve as a metaphor f o r the c h i e f ' s s o n , the being who connects h i s f a t h e r ' s (Thunderbi rd i n the marr iage ceremony and Wolf r i t u a l ) and h i s mother 's (Whale i n the marr iage ceremony and wha l ing r i t u a l ) l i n e a g e s by hav ing the o p t i o n to belong to e i t h e r l i n e a g e . L i g h t n i n g Serpent can a l s o serve as the symbol or metaphor f o r the harpoon, which connects the whaler (who i n i t i a t e s the whale hunt) and the Whale ( h i s p r e y ) . In the Wolf r i t u a l , we have seen L i g h t n i n g Serpent as the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n or metaphor o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , a process which enables beings from one realm to encounter those of another . The second root metaphor i s based on the mythic p e r s o n a l i t y o f the Wolf . Wolf prov ides the metaphor f o r the nature and the f u n c t i o n i n g o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the p r i n c i p a l elements i n any c o n t e x t ; t h a t i s , t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n i t i a t o r , o b j e c t and the 1 i n k - b e t w e e n - t h e - t w o operate as i n a hunt . So , i n Nootkan thought the p r i n c i p a l elements o f a g iven s i t u a t i o n are e i t h e r the h u n t e r , h i s prey and those elements o f 99. process or being which accompl ish o r represent the k i l l i n g and e a t i n g o f the prey by the hunter . The Wolf masks as they are used i n the Wolf r i t u a l are one way i n which these metaphors are expressed . They are a l s o d e p i c t e d on the dance screens (see P l a t e 1) on which the components o f both metaphors are j u x t a -posed. Each r i t u a l c o l o u r and the b a s i c dimension o f being which i t symbo- . l i z e s , can be l i n k e d w i t h one o f the p e r i p h e r a l components o f the dance screen v e r s i o n o f the metaphors; red and v i t a l i t y are a s s o c i a t e d w i th L i g h t n i n g Serpent , b lack and i d e n t i t y ( i n c l u d i n g the thought processes s u i t a b l e to t h a t r o l e ) w i t h the Wol f , and c l e a r o r whi te s i g n i f y i n g weal th w i th the Whale (Macfar lane 1978) . Each form of dance i s s i m i l a r l y r e l a t e d to one o f the mythic metaphoric b e i n g s ; c r a w l i n g w i th Wol f , s p i n n i n g w i th L i g h t n i n g Serpent , s tand ing w i th Thunderbi rd and swimming [ there i s a swimming w o l f which appears i n some marr iage ceremonies (Boas 1890 :595 ; Koppert 1930 :50 ; S a p i r and Swadesh 1955:18) ] w i t h the Whale. The l i n k between Whale and o t h e r Nootkan c a t e g o r i e s i s not made i n the Wolf r i t u a l because the Wolf r i t u a l i s an i n i t i a t i o n to manhood, whereas Whale i s the metaphor f o r Woman (MacFarlane 1978) , and thus i s not a d i r e c t concern o f the Wolf r i t u a l . An understanding o f the dense symbol ic and cosmolog ica l s t r u c t u r e o f the Nootka cou ld throw l i g h t on the cosmologies and a r t o f o ther N o r t h -west Coast peop les . Two areas o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n ho ld promise f o r rewarding i n s i g h t ; the l o g i c of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n found i n the legends and myths where i t seems t h a t a being t ransforms from one i d e n t i t y to another w i t h i n a c l o s e d system of opt ions o f what he can becomes; and the l o g i c o f human behav iour , be i t economic, s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l o r r i t u a l . Both systems o f 100. l o g i c can be approached w i th the metaphor o f Thunderb i rd ' s hunt as the p r i n c i p l e which g ives u n i f o r m i t y to the s t r u c t u r e o f the d i f f e r e n t orders o f va r ious rea lms , and as the p r i n c i p l e o f the s t r u c t u r e o f the a c t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s . Some of the puzzlement about some Nootkan p r a c t i c e s and h a b i t s o f thought expressed by o ther i n v e s t i g a t o r s such as Drucker , Sproat and Goldman have been d i s p e l l e d , and the l o g i c o f Nootkan thought can be seen more c l e a r l y i n l i g h t of t h i s a n a l y s i s . When Sproat asked h i s Nootkan in formants who was t h e i r "god" (Sproat 1 8 6 8 : 2 0 6 - 2 1 1 ) , the people had g reat d i f f i c u l t y i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e i r i d e a s . Some would say t h a t . h e was the Transformer who changed e v e r y t h i n g to what i t i s today (the C reato r aspect of S p r o a t ' s god) . Other in formants would counter t h a t the T rans fo rmer ' s f a t h e r , the Ch ie f o f the Sky , was s t r o n g e r (the a l l - p o w e r f u l , f a t h e r i n Heaven aspect o f S p r o a t 1 s god) . The European would r e t i r e i n bewilderment from the d i s c u s s i o n unable to r e c o n c i l e h i s concept of the an imat ing f o r c e o f the wor ld as an independent god who was supreme i n the cosmos w i t h a cosmology i n which v i t a l i t y m o r a l i t y or power ir's but one o f severa l dimensions of b e i n g ; in which to be complete one must have i d e n t i t y o r s t a t u s and weal th or subs tance , as we l l as moral power. I r v i n g Goldman (1975) d e a l t w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t r a n s -fo rmat ion and supernatura l g i f t s among the K w a k i u t l , a people who share many c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s w i th the Nootka (Drucker 1950:175 ; 1963:198 and 200. He po in ted out t h a t " t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s the means o f t r a n s m i t t i n g supernatura l power [ g i f t s ] both a t the p r i s t i n e l e v e l o f myth and a t the secondary l e v e l o f c u r r e n t r i t u a l (Goldman 1 9 7 5 : 1 9 9 ) . " But he d i d not d i s c e r n the dual n a t u r e . o f these supernatura l g i f t s . Th is t h e s i s has 101 . po in ted out t h a t f o r the Nootka, supernatura l g i f t s r e c e i v e d i n the Wolf r i t u a l have two components; an i d e n t i t y , a dimension o f b e i n g , t h a t comes from the patron who i n h a b i t s a profane r e a l m ; and power or v i t a l i t y , another dimension o f b e i n g , t h a t comes from the s p i r i t realm i t s e l f , - the Inbetween o f the Nootka. Th is suggests tha t there i s a need to reexamine the Kwakiut l t e x t s f o r p a r a l l e l concepts . B. The Method I can conclude t h a t t h i s method o f read ing masks has been s u c c e s s f u l f o r I have demonstrated t h a t m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e embodies a c c e s s i b l e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t can i n c r e a s e our understanding o f the c u l t u r e from which i t s p r i n g s . The i n f o r m a t i o n i n the masks became a c c e s s i b l e when I s t u d i e d the contex t as w e l l as the form o f the masks; from t h i s a n a l y s i s , I have lea rned the concepts e l u c i d a t e d by the masks, and I have i n c r e a s e d my com-prehension of the Nootkan c u l t u r e . Th is i s e x a c t l y what the masks d i d f o r the Nootka. Dur ing the course o f the t h e s i s i t has become ev ident t h a t the masks communicate i n both a c t i v e and pass i ve modes. The pass i ve modes are those which are ev ident to the observer even when the masks are s i t t i n g on a museum s h e l f - t h a t i s , the form o f the masks makes statements about the e x i s t e n c e o f the f i g u r e s o f the root Nootkan metaphors: Thunderb i rd , L i g h t n i n g Serpent and Wolf . The forms a l s o use c o l o u r and s t y l e to d e f i n e ( to the cognoscenti) something o f the nature o f each o f these b e i n g s . The c a t e g o r i e s o f the root metaphors are e s t a b l i s h e d and embe l l i shed through the pass i ve modes. The a c t i v e modes o f communication are those 102. which are brought i n t o p lay when the mask i s worn and manipulated i n the context f o r which i t was f i r s t made. In the case o f the Wolf masks, t h i s contex t i s the Wolf r i t u a l . The a c t i v e modes o f communication i n c l u d e the dances used i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the masks, the s o c i a l s t a t u s o f the dancers chosen to wear the masks, and the r i t u a l r o l e o f the persona r e p r e -sented by the mask. These a c t i v e modes l i k e the pass i ve ones , express the myth ic l e v e l o f the metaphor. In a d d i t i o n , the a c t i v e ' modes- communi-ca te severa l o ther dimensions o f meaning. F i r s t , they c r e a t e metaphoric l i n k s w i th o ther areas o f the Nootkan cosmos. The dances t h a t accompany each mask l i n k Thunderb i rd , L i g h t n i n g Serpent and Wolf to o t h e r beings o f the Nootkan cosmology through the resemblance o f the dances' movements to the movements o f o ther c r e a t u r e s . The s o c i a l s t a t u s e s o f the dancers are used to express the metaphor ic l i n k s t h a t u n i t e the th ree m y t h i c a l beings por t rayed by the masks' forms to the s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c -tures o f Nootkan s o c i e t y . That i s to say t h a t Thunderbi rd i s e s t a b l i s h e d as a myth ica l being and as a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n or the myth ica l dimension o r metaphor f o r c h i e f , a s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic p o s i t i o n . Second ly , the a c t i o n o f the r i t u a l l o c a t e s each mask and i t s va r ious metaphor ic dimensions o r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n the cosmolog ica l s t r u c t u r e - f o r i n s t a n c e : L i g h t n i n g Serpent and the Wolf r i t u a l nov ice are presented as beings o f the Inbetween, the realm of the s p i r i t s ; and men as the habi tues o f the v i l l a g e . T h i r d l y , the a c t i v e modes o f masked communication which operate i n the r i t u a l contex t express and r e c r e a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the th ree myth ica l beings o f the cosmic metaphor and t h e i r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s ; and they c r e a t e the c l o s e d system of o p t i o n s w i t h i n which t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s may take p lace i n m y t h i c a l , l egendary , r i t u a l , c e r e m o n i a l , s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l 103. and economic a c t i v i t i e s . Thus, through t h e i r c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the W h i r l i n g Wolf mask, L i g h t n i n g Serpent , s p i r i t s , r e d , the Inbetween t r a n s -fo rmers , w h i r l i n g and c h i e f s ' h e i r s from one such c l o s e d system or ca tegory . These are some o f the a c t i v e and p a s s i v e modes o f communication which the Nootka employ when they use t h e i r Wolf masks i n a Wolf r i t u a l . The masks are r i t u a l forms which are used as textbooks to teach the nov ices d u r i n g t h e i r i n i t i a t i o n about t h i s cosmos o f dangerous t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n s , and how to deal w i t h i t . We too can be n o v i c e s , and l e a r n from the masks and t h e i r context . . We can " r e a d " the masks i n the same way and l e a r n about the Nootka and the system of b e l i e f s which they used to deal w i th the problems o f l i v i n g - t h e i r c u l t u r e . 104. BIBLIOGRAPHY A r c h e r , C. 1978 Spanish E x p l o r a t i o n and Set t lement o f the Northwest Coast i n the 18th Century . Sound Her i tage VII (1 ) :33*53 . Boas, F. 1974 Second General Report on the Indians o f B.C. B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Advancement of S c i e n c e . Report no. 6 : 1 0 - 1 6 3 , 1890 i n Northwest A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Research Notes VII (1/2) . Boas, F. 1897 The S o c i a l O rgan i za t ions and the Secre t S o c i e t i e s of the Kwkiut l I n d i a n s . United S ta tes Nat iona l Museum Report o f 1895: 311 -733 . Boas. F. 1916 Ts imshian Mythology. Bureau of American Ethno logy , Annual Report o f the Smithsonian I n s t i t u t e 1909-1910, v o l . #31. Brabant , A . J . 1977 M i s s i o n to Nootka, 1874-1900. Char les L i l l a r d ed . S i d n e y , B . C . : Grays P u b l i s h i n g L t d . O r i g i n a l p u b l i c a t i o n date 1926. Brawne, Michael 1964 The New Museum, A r c h i t e c t u r e and D i s p l a y . New York: F r e d e r i c k A. Praeger . B u d i c , C. 1964 Wolf R i t u a l Dances o f the Northwest Coast I n d i a n s . M.Sc. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington. C l u t e s i , G. 1973 P o t l a t c h . S idney , B . C . : Gray 's P u b l i s h i n g L t d . O r i g i n a l p u b l i c a t i o n date 1969. C o l s o n , E. 1953 The Makah. Manchester U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Cook, J . 1785 A Voyage to the P a c i f i c Ocean, v o l . I I . , London. 105. C u r t i s , E . S . 1916 "The Nootka , the H a i d a , " i n The North American I n d i a n , v o l . X I . Norwood. D a v i d , J . 1978 P u b l i c T a l k . U .B .C . Museum o f Anthropo logy . Densmore, F. 1939 "Nootka and Qu i leu te M u s i c , " Bureau o f American E thno logy , B u l l . 124. Dewhi rs t , John T. 1969 Yuguot, B r i t i s h Columbia: The P r e h i s t o r y and H i s t o r y o f a Nootkan V i l l a g e , Par t 2 . P r e h i s t o r y . " Northwest Research Notes 111(2) : 232-239. Douglas , Mary 1966 P u r i t y and Danger. London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l . Drucker , P. 1950 " C u l t u r e Element D i s t r i b u t i o n s ; XXVI . " A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Records , Berkeley IX: 157-294. Drucker , P. 1951 "The Northern and Cent ra l Nootkan T r i b e s . " Bureau o f American Ethno logy . B u l l . 144. Drucker , P. 1963 Indians o f the Northwest Coas t . American Museum Science Book. Garden C i t y , New York. The Natura l H i s t o r y P r e s s . D rucker , P. 1965 Cu l tu res of the North P a c i f i c Coast . New York : Harper & Row. E f f r a t , B. 1978 " L i n g u i s t i c A c c u l t u r a t i o n o f the West Coast of Vancouver I s l a n d , " Sound Her i tage V I 1 ( 1 ) : 8 9 - 9 8 . E r n s t , A. 1952 The Wolf R i t u a l o f the Northwest Coast . Oregon: U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon P r e s s . Goldman, I. 1975 The Mouth of Heaven. Toronto : John Wi ley and Sons. Gough, B. 1978 "Nootka Sound i n James Cook's P a c i f i c W o r l d , " Sound Her i tage V I I ( l ) : l - 3 2 . 106. Gunther, E. 1972 Indian L i f e of the Northwest Coast e t c . Chicago and London: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s . Haas, M. 1930 "A V i s i t to the Other Wor ld . A N i t i n a t T e x t , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Journal of American L i n g u i s t i c s V I 1 : 1 9 5 - 2 0 8 . H a s e l b e r g e r , H. 1961 Method o f Study ing Ethnographic A r t . Cur rent Anthropo logy , 2 ( 4 ) : 3 5 1 - 8 4 . J e w i t t , J . 1815 (Many e d i t i o n s , 1815 on. ) A N a r r a t i v e o f the Adventures and S u f f e r i n g s e t c . Kenyon, S . 1977 " T r a d i t i o n a l Trends i n Modern Nootkan Ceremonies ," A r t i e A n t h r o -pology X I V ( l ) . Koppert , V. 1930a " C o n t r i b u t i o n s to Clayoquot E thno logy , " C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y , American Anthropology S e r i e s ( 1 ) . Koopert , V i n c e n t , A. 1930b "The Nootka F a m i l y , " P r i m i t i v e Man 1 1 1 : 4 9 - 5 5 . Langdon, S . 1976 "The Development o f the Nootkan C u l t u r a l Sys tem." Paper f o r the Northwest Coast S tud ies Conference a t Simon F raser U n i v e r s i t y . Leach , E. 1976 C u l t u r e and Communication. Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . MacFar lane, N a t h a l i e 1978 Whales, Food f o r Thought. P u b l i c T a l k . U .B.C. Museum of Anthropology . McCurdy, J . G . 1961 Indian a t Neah Bay. S e a t t l e , Washington: S u p e r i o r P u b l i s h i n g Co. Meares, J . 1971 Voyages Made i n the Years 1788 and 1789. London. Moon, B. 1978 "Vanished Companions; the Changing R e l a t i o n s h i p o f the West Coast People to the Animal W o r l d , " Sound H e r i t a g e V I I ( 1 ) : 7 1 - 7 7 . 107. Moore, T. 1977 The Emergence of E t h n i c Roles and the Beginn ing of Nootkan-Overseas European R e l a t i o n s , 1774-1789. Ph .D . t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon. Needham, Rodney 1979 Symbol ic C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Santa Mon ica , C a l i f o r n i a : Goodyear P u b l i s h i n g Company. Nodelman, S . 1969 " S t r u c t u r a l A n a l y s i s i n A r t and Anth ropo logy , " Y a l e French S t u d i e s ; i s s u e on S t r u c t u r a l i s m . Northwest Coast Ind ian A r t i s t s ' G u i l d . 1977 1977 Graphics C o l l e c t i o n . Ottawa: Canadian Indian Market ing S e r v i c e s . Panofsky , E rw in . 1962 S tud ies i n Iconology . New York: Harper & Row. R o b e r t s , H. and Swadesh, M. 1955 "Songs of the Nootkan Indians o f West Vancouver I s l a n d , " T r a n s -a c t i o n s o f the American P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y LXV 3 . Rohner, R. and E. ed . 1969 The Ethnography of Franz Boas. Hedy Parker T rans . . Ch icago : U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s . Rosman, A. and R u b e l , P. 1971 F e a s t i n g w i th Mine Enemy. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . S a p i r , Edward. 1911 "Some Aspects o f Nootka Language and C u l t u r e , " American A n t h r o -p o l o g i s t X I I I : 1 5 - 2 8 . S a p i r , E. 1913 "A G i r l ' s Puberty Ceremony Among the Nootka I n d i a n s , " T r a n s a c t i o n s , Royal S o c i e t y o f Canada s e r . 3 V I I : 6 7 - 8 0 . Waterman, T. 1920 "The Whaling Equipment o f the Makah I n d i a n s , " U n i v e r s i t y of Washington P u b l i c a t i o n s i n Anthropology 1 : 1 - 6 7 . Wike, J . 1958 " S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n Among the N o o t k a , " E t h n o h i s t o r y V . -219-241. 107a. Addenda-S a p i r , E. 1919 A Flood Legend o f the Nootka I n d i a n s . Journal of American F o l k l o r e 3 2 : 3 5 1 - 5 . S a p i r , E. 1924 The R i v a l Whalers , A N i t i n a t S t o r y . I n t e r n a t i o n a l Journa l o f L i n g u i s t i c s 3 : 7 6 - 1 0 2 . S a p i r , E. 1959 Indian Legends from Vancouver I s l a n d . Journal o f American F o l k l o r e 7 2 : 1 0 6 - 1 4 . S a p i r , E. and Swadesh, M. 1939 Nootka T e x t s . Phi 1 i d e l p h i a , L i n g u i s t i c S o c i e t y o f Amer ica . S a p i r , E. and Swadesh, M. 1955 Nat ive Accounts of Nootka Ethnography. Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Research Center i n Anthropo logy , F o l k l o r e and L i n g u i s t i c s P u b l i c a t i o n #1. S p r o a t , G. 1868 Scenes and Stud ies o f Savage L i f e . London, Smith E l d e r and Co. Swadesh, M. 1948 M o t i v a t i o n s i n Nootka War fare . Southwestern Journal o f Anthropology 4 : 7 6 - 9 3 . Swan, J . G . 1870 The Indians o f Cape F l a t t e r y . Smithsonian C o n t r i b u t i o n s to Know-ledge 1 6 : 2 2 0 . Tu rner , N. 1978 P l a n t s o f the Nootka Sound Indians as Recorded by Capta in Cook. Sound Her i tage 2 ( l ) : 7 8 - 8 8 . T a y l o r , D. 1959 [1957] A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s on A r t i_n M.H. F r i e d , Readings i n Anthropology 2 : C u l t u r a l Anthropo logy . New York : Thomas Y. Crowe11. 108. CATALOGUE OF NOOTKA WOLF MASKS P a r t 1 - -Nootka Wolf masks seen and s t u d i e d . NATIONAL MUSUEM OF CANADA VII E 545 Animal mask. B lack and red on n a t u r a l wood. C o l l e c t e d a t A l e r t Bay i n 1922 by D.C. S c o t t . V l l E 560 Wolf mask. 17" l o n g . C o l l e c t e d a t A l e r t Bay i n 1922 by D.C. S c o t t . V l l F 114 Snake used i n dance. H e i t l i k . T l o k o a l a . B lack and red on n a t u r a l wood. C o l l e c t e d by Franz Boas i n 1889. O p i t c i s a t h , Nootka . V l l F 196 Mask. Carved to represent a w o l f . B lack and red on natura l wood. Cedar r i n g o f a l d e r dyed cedar bark . C o l l e c t e d by C F . Newcombe. Kyuquot. V l l F 233 Mask. H inEmix . B l a c k , red and w h i t e . Red cedar w ig o f p l a i n and • I a l d e r dyed bark . C o l l e c t e d by C F . Newcombe i n 1898-1901. C layoquot . V l l F 302 Mask. B lack and red on n a t u r a l wood. HinEmix^ (Boas) . Hinemib ( S a p i r ) . H inEmix . i s a fabulous b i r d - l i k e be ing (Boas) . 13" l o n g . C o l l e c t e d by Franz Boas i n 1889 at A l b e r n i , B .C . t s ' i c u a t h , Nootka . VII F 379 a , b Head mask f o r Wolf Dance. Blue and whi te on a n a t u r a l base. "Head mask used i n p o t l a t c h , r e p r e s e n t i n g mix^ ta te b i r i d ^ who g ives power to hunte rs . See V I . , p. 35a. Made by Qewac o f U c l u e l e t . Obtained from T a i a a ( T s l i c . ) " note by S a p i r . 22" l o n g . C o l l e c t e d by E. S a p i r i n 1913-14 a t A l b e r n i , B .C . 109. VI1 F 380 Head mask. Orange, b l u e , b lack and y e l l o w on a n a t u r a l base . "Used i n ? a i t s t ' . 5 t a ' p o t l a t c h when another t r i b e i s i n v i t e d . Represents a c q u i r i n g o f Lokwana power from wolves . See V I . , p. 34a. Made by Qawac. Obtained from TayT '.a . " note by S a p i r . 2 5 " . l o n g . C o l -l e c t e d by E. S a p i r . i n 1913-14 a t A l b e m i , B .C . VI1 F 405 F o l d i n g mask ( h i n l k T t s i m ) . Red, w h i t e , b lue and green. "Worn a t a p o t l a t c h dance when much money i s to be given away (say ? a i t s t l o t a 5 ) . When f o l d e d o u t , there are seen i n s i d e H e ' i L I l k ( i n n e r s i d e o f f o l d e r ) and raven w i t h a moveable beak. Headdress (wif^qGqimi-) ° f s t r i p s o f whalebone, w h i c h , when mask i s used , i s covered w i th down. Mask was obta ined by G a l i c k ' s f a t h e r ( G a l i c k does not know how h i s f a t h e r got i t o r what legend i s connected w i t h i t , he knows i t s two songs , how-e v e r ) . G a l i c k has never used t h i s mask because he has never given b i g enough p o t l a t c h ; he would be ashamed to show i t i n a smal l p o t -l a t c h . " note by E. S a p i r . 28" l o n g . C o l l e c t e d by E. S a p i r i n 1913-14 a t A l b e r n i , B.C. VII 407A Head mask ( h i n l k i t s i m ) used by women. At tached to top are e r e c t s t r i p s o f whale-bone and whale " t e e t h " . Red p a i n t i s from QwaHamis (red fungus) mixed w i th salmon eggs. Green p a i n t i s n ! x w i n i k c (grass mixed w i t h salmon eggs ) . B lack i s made from charcoal o f t s l i ' w i p t 0 bush mixed w i t h salmon eggs . Salmon eggs used to make p a i n t s s t i c k . See V l l l . , p. 34a f o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s . Obtained from Mrs . K i s h k i s h . note by E. S a p i r . C o l l e c t e d by E. S a p i r i n 1913-14 at A l b e r n i , B .C . V l l F 407B - - s e e en t r y f o r V l l F 407A V l l F 427 Mask ( h i n l k T t s i m ) B l a c k , r e d , g reen , b lue and y e l l o w on whi te ground. Moveable rods w i t h c i r c u l a r heads. Made by Tc'.iHamTk, Q i t t s m a ? a t H a I n d i a n , who was h i r e d f o r t h a t purpose by Doug las , 110. A l e c k ' s f a t h e r . I t was made e x p r e s s l y f o r A l e c k ' s ; r i i t c H 5 c . I t i s used w i th no 148 ( V l l F 428) when any HatHaula song i s sung. At ? e m l t c ! e m l t a c p a r t o f song round headed rods f l y out f a n - f a s h i o n , be ing worked by s t r i n g h e l d by dancer under h i s b l a n k e t . Obtained from Douglas. Note by E. S a p i r . 21" l o n g . C o l l e c t e d by E. S a p i r i n 191 3-14 a t A l b e r n i , B .C . V l l F 428 F o l d i n g mask used as one o f a p a i r o f HatsHauta masks w i t h no . 147 ( V l l F 4 2 7 ) . Whi te , b l u e , b l a c k , red and y e l l o w . Made by same person f o r same purpose. These two masks appeared f o u r t imes i n HatsHauta c song sung a t A l e c k ' s *utcHa. These two masks i l l u s t r a t e what S a y a t c ' . a p i s , H i s a w i s t ! a t H a ances to r o f A l e c k , saw i n a dream w h i l e up i n mountains ' o s - m l t c i n g f o r w e a l t h . Man on the c e n t r a l p a r t o f f o l d i n g mask i s t c i m l m i s , b e i n g who g ives w e a l t h . On i n -s i d e o f ou te r p a r t o f mask are shown male and female h a y a l i n , another supernatura l be ing t h a t g ives w e a l t h . At e m i t c e m l t a p a r t o f song i n n e r p a r t o f mask i s shown, ou te r p a r t be ing s imply h i g h l y o r n a -mented h i n l k a t s i m ' o f o r d i n a r y t y p e . Topat i f o r these masks i s '\ H i s a w i s t ! a t H a i n o r i g i n . Note by E. S a p i r . 21" l o n g . C o l l e c t e d by E. S a p i r i n 1913-14 a t A l b e r n i , B .C. V l l F 459 Headmask ( h i n s k i t s i m ' ) r e p r e s e n t i n g H e ' i L l T k . B lack and red on n a t -u r a l wood. Used on ly f o r o l d e s t daughter i n p'.aLp'.aya danc ing . Obtained from Capta in B i l l , f a t h e r - i n - l a w o f Frank W i l l i a m s , Ts ' . i oa 'a tH I n d i a n . Notes by E. S a p i r from i n f o r m a t i o n from Frank W i l l i a m s . C o l l e c t e d from Frank W i l l i a m s by E. S a p i r i n 1914 a t A l b e r n i , B .C. V l l F 519 Cougar Masket te . B lack and red on n a t u r a l wood. 6" l o n g . Notes by H . I . S m i t h . C o l l e c t e d by H. I . Smith a t P o l y ' s P o i n t (near A l b e r n i ) i n B .C . i n 1929. V l l F 522 Thunderbi rd mask. B lack and red on n a t u r a l wood. C o l l e c t e d by H . I . Smith i n 1929 a t P o l y ' s P o i n t (near A l b e r n i ) i n B .C . I l l . V l l F 523 - - same as V l l F 522. V l l F 531 Mask. Red, b lue and b l a c k . From Mrs. M i t c h e l l , note by H . I . Smith 18" l o n g . C o l l e c t e d by H . I . Smith i n 1929 a t U c l u e l e t . V l l F 609 Wolf mask. 14" l o n g . B lack and red on natu ra l wood. C o l l e c t e d by Lord Bossom around 1900 at A lbern i" .Sound. V l l F 653 Wolf mask. S i m i l a r to V l l F 609. 12" l o n g . C o l l e c t e d by Lord Bossom around 1900 a t A l b e r n i Sound.. V l l F 654 Wolf mask. 13" l o n g . Red, b lack and w h i t e . C o l l e c t e d by Lord Bossom around 1900 a t A l b e r n i Sound. V l l F 655 Wolf mask. 15" l o n g . Red, b lack and green on natu ra l wood. C o l -l e c t e d by Lord Bossom around 1900 at Nootka Sound. V l l F 656 Wolf mask. 2 0 V l o n g . Eyes i n s e t w i th m i r r o r s . C o l l e c t e d by Lord Bossom around 1900 a t A l b e r n i Sound. V l l F 665 Wolf mask. B lue and red on n a t u r a l wood. A p a i r w i t h V l l F 666. 16V' l o n g . C o l l e c t e d by Lord Bossom around 1900 a t A l b e r n i , B .C . V l l F 666, Wolf mask. B lue and red on n a t u r a l wood. A p a i r w i t h V l l F 6 6 5 . 1 7 V l o n g . C o l l e c t e d by Lord Bossom around 1900 a t A l b e r n i , B .C . V l l F 667 Wolf mask. Red, green and y e l l o w on n a t u r a l wood. Decorated w i t h bunches o f na tu ra l and dyed bark . Note by Bossom. 2 3 V . [ l o n g . C o l -l e c t e d by Lord Bossom around 1900 a t Nootka Sound. 112. V l l F 668 • W!olf mask. Documentation not l o c a t e d . VI1 F 669 Wolf mask. B lack on n a t u r a l wood. 19V' l o n g . C o l l e c t e d by Lord Bossom around 1900 a t A l b e r n i Sound. V l l F 685 Wolf mask. B lack and red on natu ra l wood. 20" l o n g . C o l l e c t e d by Lord Bossom around 1900 at A l b e r n i Sound. V l l F 686 Wolf mask. Black and red on natu ra l wood. 21" l o n g . C o l l e c t e d by Lord Bossom around 1900 a t A l b e r n i Sound. V l l F 696 Wolf mask. 24" l o n g . Y e l l o w , b l a c k , r e d , green and w h i t e . Eagle fea the rs on head, r a f f i a a t back ; note by Birmingham. C o l l e c t e d by W.H. Birmingham, 1950-1971. V l l F 697 Wolf mask. 20" l o n g . B l u e , r e d , b lack and y e l l o w . C o l l e c t e d by W.H. Birmingham, 1950-1971. V l l F 788 Wolf mask, female . Red, b l u e , o range, g reen , s i l v e r and w h i t e . Worn by Joe David at a P o t l a t c h . Made by Joe Dav id . Purchased from the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum G i f t Shop, V i c t o r i a , B .C. i n 1976. 39cm l o n g . V l l F 789 Wolf mask, male. Same note as V l l F 788. 54cm l o n g . BRITISH COLUMBIA PROVINCIAL MUSEUM 1334 ' . . Mask. H a l f w o l f , h a l f k i l l e r whale . 21" l o n g . Red, b lack and green. C o l l e c t e d by C F . Newcombe i n 1909 from Hesqu ia t . 113, 2117 Mask. Cedar . Red, b lue and w h i t e . Represents. H a i e t l i k . F r inge o f f i r t w i g s . 16''/ l o n g . C o l l e c t e d by Dr. C F . Newcombe i n 1911 on B a r k l e y Sound. 2120 Mask. Panther . Cedar. Red p a i n t i n mouth. F r inge o f f e a t h e r s and cedar bark . 10%. long . C o l l e c t e d by Dr. C F . Newcombe i n 1911 a t U c l u e l e t . 6633 Wood c a r v i n g . Wolf? B l a c k . From Dr. A. Maclean c o l l e c t i o n . Donated by Mrs . Thompson. West Coast . 7089 Mask. L i g h t n i n g Snake. Red, b lack and green on w h i t e . 18" l o n g . Donated by Mr. & Mrs . Herber t C o r f i e l d , Sydney, B .C . 10245 Mask. Wolf . B l u e , b l a c k , whi te and r e d . 16%" l o n g . Rendle . Newcombe c o l l e c t i o n . 10707 Nootka Wolf mask. B lack on natu ra l cedar . Large . Newcombe c o l -l e c t i o n . 10708 Mask. Wolf . B lack on w h i t e . Cedar . S m a l l . Newcombe c o l l e c t i o n . 10809 Mask. Wolf . B o x - t y p e . Green, r e d , b lack and w h i t e . Newcombe c o l l e c t i o n . Ex F. Seed C o l l e c t i o n . 1934. 12032 Wolf headdress. Man 's . Red, b lack and whi te on n a t u r a l wood. Eyes and three t r i a n g l e s o f copper. 18" l o n g . Howard Jones , Sooke. 12033 Wolf headdress . Woman's. Red, b l a c k and whi te on n a t u r a l wood. 17" l o n g . Eyes and three ornaments o f copper . Howard Jones , Sooke. 114. 12708 Wolf mask. B l a c k , r e d , y e l l o w , p ink and b l u e . 17" l o n g . P u r -chased i n 1966. 12709 Wolf mask. B l a c k , r e d , w h i t e , green and b l u e . 22" l o n g . Purchased i n 1966. 12710 Wolf mask. Red, w h i t e , b l a c k , green and b l u e . 26" l o n g . Purchased i n 1966. 1 3254 Wolf mask. 57cm l o n g . Red, w h i t e , g o l d , b lue and b l a c k . Purchased i n 1971. 13496 Wolf mask. From A l b e r n i non - Ind ian f a m i l y . B l u e , g reen , r e d , whi te and b l a c k . Purchased i n 1 9 6 0 ' s . Donated 1973. 14200 Mask. H u k l u k ' s i m . B l a c k , red and whi te on n a t u r a l wood. Donated by A . E . Ca ldwel l who was p r i n c i p a l o f the Ahousat R e s i d e n t i a l School from 1934 to 1939. From 1944 u n t i l 1960 he was p r i n c i p a l o f the A l b e r n i R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l . 14936 Wolf headdress . Y e l l o w , r e d , whi te and b l u e . 52cm l o n g . C o l l e c t e d by Ma j . Gen. Pearkes ca . 1960 -68 . 14973 Wolf headdress . Wh i te , g reen , r e d , b l u e , brown, go ld and y e l l o w . Belonged to Webster. C o l l e c t e d by H.B. R o l o f f i n 1970. Donated by H.B. R o l o f f i n 1976. 15056 Mask. Red, w h i t e , b lue and green. Purchased i n 1973 from Howard R o l o f f . 115. MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A3715 Headdress. H i n k e e t s . Owned by C h i e f Louis Nookamus o f B a m f i e l d . donated by Dr. James S p i l l i o u s . 21" l o n g . Red, g reen , b lack and ' w h i t e . A4494 Wolf Mask. A p a i r w i t h A4495. Purchased i n 1961 a t London Cur io Shop. Red, g reen , b lack and whi te on natu ra l wood. 15" l o n g . A4495 Wolf mask. A p a i r w i t h A4494. Red, whi te and blue on natu ra l wood. 15" l o n g . A5281 Headdress. Wolf . 17" l o n g . B l a c k , g reen , b l u e , red and whi te on wood. W.C. Koerner c o l l e c t i o n . 17" l o n g . A7862 Headdress. A c c e s s i o n s h e e t . "Dance headp iece ; whale Kyuquot . " . C o l -l e c t e d by E .F . Meade. 31" l o n g . B l a c k , y e l l o w , red and green. A7968 Headdress. Red, b l a c k , whi te and b l u e . Wolf r e v e a l i n g an e a g l e . W i l l i a m Helmer. Ahousat 2 2 - 1 / 2 " l o n g . Whi te , g r e e n , r e d , y e l l o w , and b l a c k . A8098 Headdress. " F e s t i v a l w o l f . " (Bevan C r o s s ) . Red, b l a c k , whi te and green on n a t u r a l wood. Ex Keen e s t a t e . Purchased from E d i t h Bevan C r o s s . 23" l o n g . Red, y e l l o w , w h i t e , green and b l a c k . A9184 Headdress. Wolf mask, one o f four se t up on posts around a grave at Ahousat . From David Frank f a m i l y a t Ahousat . One i s i n Koerner - ' c o l -l e c t i o n i n t h i s museum. Other two are i n the Glenbow Museum i n A l b e r t a . Purchased through Michael Johnston ( S e a t t l e d e a l e r ) from Ed i th Bevan Cross . 2 1 - 3 / 4 " l o n g . Red and b l a c k . A9354 and A9355 Headdress, p a i r . Wolf . B lack and red on n a t u r a l wood. Baleen f e a t h e r s and g l a s s i n s e t s . Acqu i red from Howard R o l o f f . Ahousat . 116. Par t 2—Nootka Wolf Masks l o c a t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . BRITISH MUSEUM NWC71 " 8 " l o n g . C o l l e c t e d by Capta in James Cook, 1 7 7 8 . " ( I n v e r a r i t y 1950) . MUSEUM FUR VOLKERKUNDE BERLIN-DAHLEM IV B27 Mask. "Katz oder Wolf" (Gunther 1 9 7 2 : 2 2 4 ) . Cook e x p e d i t i o n . 9 - 1 / 2 " l o n g . B lack and w h i t e . (Boas 1895: F i g . 140) . IV B178 Mask. " H a i f i s c h ( s h a r k ) . Cook e x p e d i t i o n , c o l l e c t e d 1 7 7 8 . " (Gunther 1972 :224) . 1 3 - 3 / 4 " l o n g . B lack and w h i t e . (Boas 1895: F i g . 140) . COLLECTION OF MIGUEL COUARRUBIAS - - Mask. Represent ing the H i ' n e m i x , a fabu lous b i r d - l i k e b e i n g . (Paalen 1943) . AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 16/1097 Wolf mask. Used i n the Standing Wolf dance and the dancing ceremonial at the p o t l a t c h f o l l o w i n g the complet ion o f the Wolf ceremony. C o l -l e c t e d by F. Jacobsen from the Clayoquot . . . about 1896. Orange, b lue and b l a c k . 1 5 - 1 / 2 " l o n g . 16/1902 Mask. "The L i g h t n i n g Serpent mask, o r B e l t o f the Thunderb i rd , w i t h r a z o r - l i k e edges r e p r e s e n t i n g l i g h t n i n g . I t was worn w i t h a long cedar -ba rk f r i n g e a t the back and w i th the two whi te f e a t h e r s 117. .of the! Klukwana headdress . C o l l e c t e d a t Clayoquot by F. Jacobsen i n 1 8 9 7 . " 27" l o n g . (E rnst 1952: P l a t e XVI ) . - - W h i r l i n g Wolf mask i l l u s t r a t e d i n Drucker 1955:176. — Wolf mask, " f e s t i v a l . " (E rns t 1952: P l a t e XV I I ) . — Mask "Human face wear ing the Wolf mask of the K l u k w a l l e . Though c o l l e c t e d i n Q u i l l a y u t e t e r r i t o r y by Farrand i n 1898, i t has been i d e n t i f i e d by in formants as coming from B a r c l a y Sound through mater -nal i n h e r i t a n c e . " (E rns t 1952: P l a t e XIV) . MUSEUM OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN, HEYE FOUNDATION 6/9137 Wolf mask. 66cm l o n g . — Wolf mask. " 4 ' l o n g , r e q u i r e s the he lp o f a second d a n c e r . " (E rns t 1952: P l a t e V I I I ) . Makah. — Wolf mask. "Makah f e s t i v a l . " (E rns t 1952: P l a t e V I I ) . - - Dance mask. "With grey w o l f s k i n and copper eyes . From Neah B a y . " (E rns t 1952: F r o n t - p i e c e ) . ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM 939 .31 .10 Wolf Mask. 15" l o n g . C o l l e c t e d by L i e u t . G.T. Emmons i n 1929 a t C lo -oose V i l l a g e . DENVER ART MUSEUM NNV-7 Mask. "Red , b lack and w h i t e . Human h a i r . Th is specimen was fo rm-e r l y i n the Char les Rattom col l e c t i o n in P a r i s . May w e l l date from about 1 8 0 0 . " (Feder and Marl i n 1968) . 118. CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM 19852 Mask r e p r e s e n t i n g the H a p e k t o a k - - b e l t o f the Thunderb i rd ; c o l l e c t e d by J . G . Swan. Received as a g i f t from the department o f Ethnology C o l l e c t i n g E x p e d i t i o n i n 1893. 16" l o n g . Red, w h i t e , b lack and green. UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 56464 Mask. 1 2 - 3 / 4 " l o n g . Nootka (Drucker 1951: P l a t e 5 ) . 93439 Mask. C o l l e c t e d by J . G . Swan at Neah Bay. (Boas 1895: F i g . 198) . 119. P a r t 3 - - N o o t k a Wolf masks seen a f t e r the study was completed. PACIFIC RIM NATIONAL PARK INFORMATION SERVICE - - Wolf mask. Modern. Red, whi te and b lack on n a t u r a l wood. A w h i r l i n g w o l f t y p e . PORT ALBERNI MUSEUM - - M a s k . Copy o f one owned by Agnes (Haipes) Dick who got i t from her u n c l e , a Tses.haht. B l a c k , b l u e , red and whi te on n a t u r a l wood. Average l e n g t h . 977 -23 Wolf mask. One horn broken. 11h" l o n g . Donated by Mrs . E d i t h Cross who acqu i red i t from the TRAIT f a m i l y o f N i t i n a t Lake . S a i d to date from 1900. Red and blue on n a t u r a l wood. A p a i r w i th 9 7 7 - 2 4 . 977-24 Wolf mask. Donated by M r s . E d i t h Cross who acqu i red i t from the TRAIT f a m i l y o f N i t i n a t Lake. S a i d to date from 1900. 1 1 V l o n g . Red and blue on n a t u r a l wood. TOFINO MARITIME MUSEUM - - Wolf mask. Found i n Lemmon's I n l e t near T o f i n o . B l a c k , b lue and red on n a t u r a l wood. Par t 4 - -Photographs o f Nootka Wolf Masks 1 . Char ley Swan, one o f the f i n e s t dancers . Nootka headdress made by the Makah. ( I n v e r a r i t y 1950) . 2 . Mr. E rnes t Tutube, sone o f Char les o f U c l u e t e t (owner) h o l d i n g a mask. BCPM photo #4689. 120. 3 . Nootkan dancer wear ing the H u k - l u k ' s i m mask and the robe r e p r e s e n t -i n g Thunderb i rd , w i t h which t h i s mask i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d . (E rnst 1952: P l a t e X IX) . P a r t 5 — M i s c e l l a n y . American Museum of Natura l H i s t o r y . 16.1/1892 A+B; 2 Dance Screens . C o l l e c t e d by G.T. Emmons i n 1929. From Ahaswimis V i l l a g e of Opetch -esaht t r i b e . ( I n v e r a r i t y 1950; BCPM photo #30655 and 30654). See t e x t o f t h e s i s f o r E. S a p i r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n . 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0094807/manifest

Comment

Related Items