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Validity of the Kohn Social Competence Scale for use with elementary school children Gornall, Morag Elizabeth 1980

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VALIDITY OF THE KOHN SOCIAL COMPETENCE SCALE FOR USE WITH ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN by MORAG ELIZABETH GORNALL M.A., Univ e r s i t y of St. Andrews, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Educational Psychology) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming MASTER OF EDUCATION i n to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1980 Morag E. Gornall, 1980 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Br it ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department Of Educational Psychology The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date 24th. April 1980 Abstract The Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale (Kohn and Rosman, 1972a, 1972b), which measures a c h i l d ' s l e v e l of social-emotional functioning i n the classroom, was designed for use with pre-school children-Factor analysis of the items revealed two orthogonal factors which were l a b e l l e d I n t e r e s t - P a r t i c i p a t i o n vs. Apathy-Withdrawal and Cooperation-Compliance vs. Anger-Defiance. The Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale assesses a c h i l d ' s l e v e l of social-emotional functioning through teacher ratings of the c h i l d ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s with peers and adults and the use the c h i l d makes of the classroom environment for learning. Over the l a s t f i f t y years, the two factors i d e n t i f i e d by Kohn and Rosman have repeatedly emerged from research into emotional disturbance i n c h i l d r e n (Kohn, 1977). These dimensions have been shown to have wide generality across age groups, settings, instruments and research methods (Kohn and Rosman, 1972b; Peterson, 1961; Walker, 1967). Kohn's research (Kohn, 1977) has provided empirical evidence for the generality and c l i n i c a l relevance of the two factor model of social-emotional functioning at both the preschool and elementary school l e v e l s . In addition, a t h i r d b i p o l a r factor found by Schaefer and Aaronson (1966) i n an elementary school population ( l a b e l l e d Task Orientation), has been demonstrated by Kohn (1977) to be a v a l i d dimension with elementary school chi l d r e n , despite the high c o r r e l a t i o n between t h i s factor and the Kohn factor Cooperation-Compliance vs. Anger-Defiance. The purpose of the present study was to v a l i d a t e the Kohn So c i a l Competence Scale for use with elementary school c h i l d r e n . Not only would t h i s provide a d d i t i o n a l evidence for the persistence of the two-factor model but would mean that the Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale could ultimately be used by elementary school teachers. The 64 item Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale was used i n the present study. In t h i s version of the scale, items dealing with nap-time, snack-time,and other aspects of day-care inappropriate to the elementary school were eliminated from the 73 item version. Teachers (n=117)from a l o c a l school d i s t r i c t rated 210 grade two child r e n and 189 grade f i v e c h i l d r e n on the Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale. The ch i l d r e n were randomly selected from within the grades two and f i v e populations of the school d i s t r i c t . Two grade l e v e l s xvere chosen for analysis to see i f a differ e n c e i n the factor structure existed between the primary and intermediate grades of the elementary school. The matrices of Pearson product - moment c o r r e l a t i o n s , computed from the item l e v e l data of both the grades two and f i v e samples, were subjected to p r i n c i p a l components analysis followed by a varimax r o t a t i o n , to image analysis followed by varimax r o t a t i o n , and to image analysis followed by an oblique Harris-Kaiser s o l u t i o n . These analyses suggested that three oblique b i p o l a r factors accounted for the variance i n the item l e v e l data at both grade l e v e l s . The factors were i d e n t i f i e d as Cooperation-Compliance vs. Anger-Defiance, I n t e r e s t - P a r t i c i p a t i o n vs. Apathy-Withdrawal and High vs. Low Task Orientation. - i v In the three factor solutions, factor I was confounded by the presence of the t h i r d f actor. Since the purpose of the study was to v a l i d a t e the scale f o r use, i t was decided to work with the f i r s t two factors only. The scale was reduced from 64 items to 44 items better to meet Thurstone's c r i t e r i a f o r simple structure (Thurstone, 1947). Directions f o r future research include an examination of the three and two-factor models i n elementary school populations and an in v e s t i g a t i o n of the correlates of the fac t o r s . F i n a l l y , Canadian elementary school norms might be c o l l e c t e d f o r the 44 item Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale. - v -Table of Contents Page Abstract i i Table of Contents v L i s t of Tables v i i i L i s t of Figures and I l l u s t r a t i o n s 1 X Acknowledgements x CHAPTER I Introduction 1 The Scale 1 The Problem -2 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 3 Hypotheses 4 Rationale of the Hypotheses 5 CHAPTER II Review of the L i t e r a t u r e 6 Competence -6 S o c i a l Competence 7 The Two-factor Model 9 V a l i d i t y of the Two-factor Model . . . . . . 14 Parental care 14 Sex differences ^ School achievement 15 Socio-economic status 15 Int e l l i g e n c e 16 - v i -Peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s 16 Race . .16 Long-term projections 16 An A l t e r n a t i v e Model - Three Factors ^ 7 The Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale 19 The Development of the Instrument 20 R e l i a b i l i t y 2 2 V a l i d i t y 2 3 The Importance of Kohn's Research 2 ^ Summary and Directions 26 CHAPTER I I I Method 2 7 Introduction 2 7 Population 2 7 The Schools 2 8 The Teachers 2 9 The Students 3 0 Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale 3 ^ Procedure 3 2 Data Analysis 3 ^ CHAPTER IV Results 3 6 Introduction 3 ^ Determining the Number of Factors 36 Rotation/Transformation to Interpretable Simple Structure 3 8 - v i i -Oblique Transformation 39 Deletion of Items 39 Analysis of Grade 5 Data 41 Deletion of Items: Grades 2 & 5 41 Item Analysis 45 CHAPTER V Discussion 46 Introduction 46 Two-factor Solution 47 Limitations of the Study 48 Implications for Future Research 50 The three-factor s o l u t i o n 50 V a l i d a t i o n studies -50 P r a c t i c a l applications 51 References 53 Appendices- 59 I 64 Item Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale 59 II P r i n c i p a l s ' Letter and Consent Form 65 I I I Teachers' Letter and Consent Form 72 IV Letter of Instructions f o r Teachers 79 V Parents' Le t t e r and Consent Form 81 VI Teachers' Reminder Letter 85 VII Factor Pattern and Factor Structure: Grades 2 and 5 87 VIII The Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale for the Elementary School (44 items) 90 - v i i i -L i s t 'of Tables Table Page I C l a s s i f i c a t i o n by C l i n i c i a n s on the Basis of Symptoms . 11 II Factor A n a l y t i c Studies 12 II I Interrater R e l i a b i l i t i e s 22 IV Selected Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Research Population 28 V Percentage of Women with U n i v e r s i t y Degrees within each Census Tract and SES Categorisation of Census Tracts 29 VI Data Analysis Strategy 34 VII Rationale for Number of Factors Rotated and Number of Interpretable Factors Obtained 38 VIII C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix of Factors (Two Factors - 58 Items) 40 IX C o r r e l a t i o n Matrices of Factors (Three Factors - 48 Items) 41 X Co r r e l a t i o n Matrices of Factors (Three Factors - Grade 2 and Grade 5) 42 XI C o r r e l a t i o n Matrices of Factors (Two Factors - 44 Items) 43 XII Ten Most Salient Items from each Factor 44 A The Primary Pattern of Items with Loadings Greater Than or Equal to + 0.4 88 B The Primary Structure of Items with Loadings Greater Than or Equal to + 0.4 89 - ix -L i s t of Figures and I l l u s t r a t i o n s Figure Page 1 The Circumplex Model 18 2 Scree Test 37 - x -Acknowledgement s I would l i k e to thank my committee, Dr. Anneliese Robens, Dr. Todd Rogers and Dr. Buff Oldridge for t h e i r support and i n t e r e s t . In p a r t i c u l a r , I would l i k e to thank Dr. Todd Rogers for his continued help and advice. F i n a n c i a l support from the Educational Research I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h Columbia i s g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. I should l i k e to o f f e r s p e c i a l thanks for the considerable support and help received from the teachers and p r i n c i p a l s of Coquitlam School D i s t r i c t , including Mr. G.M. Paton, the Superintendent of Schools, who gave his permission for the study to be conducted i n his d i s t r i c t . F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to thank Richard Gornall f o r checking the computing cards f or one hundred per cent accuracy. - 1 -CHAPTER I Introduction The Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale (Kohn and Rosman, 1972a, 1972b), which measures a c h i l d ' s l e v e l of social-emotional functioning, was designed for use with pre-school ch i l d r e n . Factor analysis of the items revealed two orthogonal factors which were l a b e l l e d Interest-P a r t i c i p a t i o n vs. Apathy-Withdrawal and Cooperation-Compliance vs. Anger-Defiance. Over the l a s t f i f t y years, the two factors i d e n t i f i e d by Kohn and Rosman have repeatedly emerged from research into emotional disturbance i n c h i l d r e n (Kohn, 1977). These dimensions have been found to have wide generality across age groups, instruments and research methods (Kohn and Rosman, 1972b; Peterson, 1961; Walker, 1967). I t was f e l t , therefore, that the two factors i d e n t i f i e d by Kohn and Rosman at the pre-school l e v e l , using the Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale, might w e l l be found i n an elementary school population with the same instrument. This would provide further evidence for the generality of the two-factor model and would v a l i d a t e the Kohn Scale for use at the elementary school l e v e l . The Scale The Kohn Scale focuses on peer and teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p s and the c h i l d ' s i n t e r a c t i o n with h i s pre-school environment. The research - 2 -suggests that these r e l a t i o n s h i p s are among the best predictors of both present and future emotional s t a b i l i t y (Cowan, Pederson, Babigian, Izzo and Trost, 1973; Mendick and Schulsinger, 1969; Roff, S e l l s and Golden, 1972; Rolf, 1976; White, 1975). Kohn, i n h i s l o n g i t u d i n a l study of s o c i a l competence, found that the Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale was v a l i d and r e l i a b l e at the pre-school l e v e l and that the two dimensions ( B r i e f l y described above) have long-term s t a b i l i t y and p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y (Kohn, 1977). The scale comes i n two forms, a 73 item form and a 64 item form. The 64 item form was developed for use i n half-day pre-school programs. Items dealing with nap-time, snack-time and other aspects of f u l l - d a y pre-school were eliminated by the authors. The Problem In the present study, the v a l i d i t y of the 64 item Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale for use with elementary school c h i l d r e n was investigated. C a t t e l l (1952) stated, "...the rediscovery of the same factors despite a) p a r t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t test b a t t e r i e s b) populations of d i f f e r e n t age, education or dispersion c) independent f a c t o r i z a t i o n s and r o t a t i o n s , i s a proof that they have an existence as something more than mere mathematical equivalents - that they are i n fact f unctional u n i t i e s i n nature" (p.90). I f the same two factors were found at the elementary school l e v e l as at the pre-school l e v e l , i t would provide good evidence for the v a l i d i t y of the Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale at the elementary school l e v e l . It would also provide a d d i t i o n a l evidence f o r the - 3 -persistence of the two-factor model of social-emotional functioning. It was proposed, therefore, that a factor analysis be performed on the i n t e r - i t e m correlations of the 64 item Kohn Soc i a l Competence Scale, at the elementary school l e v e l . Two grade l e v e l s were used, grades 2 and 5, thereby providing a comparison between the factor patterns at the primary and intermediate l e v e l s , as well as the pre-school l e v e l . D e f i n i t i o n of Terms In t h i s section d e f i n i t i o n s are given of terms which occur frequently i n the text. S o c i a l Competence: S o c i a l competence has been v a r i o u s l y described i n the l i t e r a t u r e . O'Malley (1977) has defined s o c i a l competence as "productive and mutually s a t i s f y i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s between a c h i l d and peers," while Anderson and Messick (1974) i d e n t i f i e d twenty-nine dimensions of s o c i a l competence which include personal care fa c t o r s , cognitive s k i l l s , motor s k i l l s , personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s , a t t i t u d e s , motivation, consolidation of i d e n t i t y and control of s e l f . In the present study which involved a classroom s e t t i n g , " s o c i a l competence" was defined conceptually as the a b i l i t y to succeed i n interpersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p s and the a b i l i t y to use the classroom environment e f f e c t i v e l y for learning. The s o c i a l l y competent c h i l d w i l l be well l i k e d by both peers and adults. - 4 -P r i m a r y S c h o o l C h i l d r e n : P r i m a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a r e those c h i l d r e n who a r e e n r o l l e d i n grades 1 through 3 of t h e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s c h o o l systems. In the p r e s e n t s t u d y , grade 2 s t u d e n t s were used as s u b j e c t s . I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l C h i l d r e n : I n t e r m e d i a t e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a r e t h o s e c h i l d r e n who a r e e n r o l l e d i n grades 4 through 7 o f the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s c h o o l systems. In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , s t u d e n t s from grade 5 were used as s u b j e c t s . P r e - s c h o o l C h i l d r e n : P r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a r e those c h i l d r e n from ages 3 t o 6 y e a r s who a r e n o t y e t e n r o l l e d i n k i n d e r g a r t e n . Hypotheses I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e o f the 64 i t e m form of t h e Kohn S o c i a l Competence S c a l e used a t the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l l e v e l would be t h e same as t h a t found by Kohn and Rosman (1972b) at the p r e - s c h o o l l e v e l . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the same two o r t h o g o n a l b i p o l a r f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d by Kohn and Rosman (1972b) a t t h e p r e - s c h o o l l e v e l would be i d e n t i f i e d i n a p o p u l a t i o n o f second grade elementary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n and i n a p o p u l a t i o n of f i f t h grade elementary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . - 5 -Rationale of the Hypotheses It was anticipated that factor analysis of the item l e v e l data of an elementary school population, using the Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale, would reveal the same two factors as were found at a pre-school l e v e l , since these two factors have con s i s t e n t l y emerged from behavioural research with c h i l d r e n of d i f f e r e n t ages (Kohn, 1977). Previous research revealed that the two-factor model accounted for much of the variance i n social-emotional functioning at the elementary school l e v e l (Digman, 1963; Peterson, 1961; Schaefer, 1971). Further, Kohn (1977) demonstrated the p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y of his two factors up to the fourth grade of the elementary school (Kohn, 1977). In h i s long term study spanning f i v e years, Kohn demonstrated that a c h i l d who scored highly on Apathy-Withdrawal or Anger-Defiance i n day-care was l i k e l y to be judged emotionally impaired and i n need of treatment i n elementary school. S i m i l a r l y , good evidence was found f o r persistence of type of emotional impairment. - 6 -CHAPTER II Review Of The L i t e r a t u r e Competence White (1960) defined competence as the organism's " f i t n e s s or a b i l i t y to carry on those transactions with the environment which r e s u l t s i n i t s maintaining i t s e l f , growing and f l o u r i s h i n g " (p.100). From an examination of the l i t e r a t u r e on animals and through his observations of young c h i l d r e n , White (1960) suggested that the rudiments of competence emerged from the p l a y f u l , exploratory a c t i v i t i e s of animals and young ch i l d r e n . He noted that such a c t i v i t i e s continue even when a l l " d e f i c i t d r i v e s " have been sati a t e d , and are thus based upon i n t r i n s i c motivation. The adaptive s i g n i f i c a n c e of such behaviour i s that i t promotes extensive growth and development of competence, beyond that which i s learned through drive reduction. The re s u l t s of a c t i v i t i e s based upon i n t r i n s i c motivation are rewarding to the i n d i v i d u a l and these cumulatively p o s i t i v e experiences b u i l d the in d i v i d u a l ' s sense of competence. Garmezy (1970, 1971) has explored the concept of competence or " i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y " i n the h i g h - r i s k c h i l d . Such ch i l d r e n , i n s p i t e of f a m i l i a l and environmental disadvantages, contrive to develop s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l strengths. These strengths consist of good peer - 7 -r e l a t i o n s , academic achievement, commitment to education and l i f e goals, and early success at work (Garmezy, 1970, 1971). Williams (1979) described competence as "a term that connotes f i t n e s s , a b i l i t y , confidence, experienced success i n undertakings, r e a l i s t i c optimism, and sustained e f f o r t i n dealing with one's ph y s i c a l and s o c i a l environments" (p.167). Thus, the concept of competence includes not only external c r i t e r i a such as job success and good peer r e l a t i o n s but also a "sense of competence" which i s a f a i r l y stable feature of the competent personality. Empirical examination of the concept of competence has been concentrated on i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of both external c r i t e r i a of competence and the personal a t t r i b u t e s of i n d i v i d u a l s considered to be competent. So c i a l Competence Use of the term " s o c i a l competence" has been v a r i a b l e and confused (O'Malley, 1977). Some authors confuse s o c i a l competence with competence and thus include cognitive and motor s k i l l s i n t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s (Anderson and Messick, 1974). Others r e s t r i c t the term " s o c i a l competence" to mean strength i n interpersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p s (O'Malley, 1977). This i s the d e f i n i t i o n adopted i n the present research. This confusion over terms has arisen p a r t l y because of the dominance of three d i f f e r e n t research perspectives i n the l i t e r a t u r e . - 8 -According to O'Malley (1977), these three perspectives are 1) the et h o l o g i c a l viewpoint, 2) the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n theory viewpoint, and 3) the structure of personality viewpoint. Ethologists view competence with a regard to the adaptive value of behaviour. For example, i n the classroom, the c h i l d must adapt to classroom norms i f (s)he i s to "survive". In terms of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n theory, the roles a person plays or h i s modes of action determine the responses of others. Depending on the s i t u a t i o n a person w i l l deploy a r o l e from his re p e r t o i r e , and i f the i n t e r a c t i o n i s to be maintained, an i m p l i c i t or e x p l i c i t agreement must be reached on any i d e n t i t i e s assumed. The s o c i a l l y competent i n d i v i d u a l maintains both h i s own i d e n t i t y and that of the other person i n the i n t e r a c t i o n through the a b i l i t y to take the r o l e of the other, possession of a varied r e p e r t o i r e of l i n e s of action, and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of personal resources to apply appropriate t a c t i c s i n p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s . The " s t r u c t u r e of p e r s o n a l i t y " viewpoint defines s o c i a l competence i n terms of personality constructs (O'Malley, 1977). It has been found that two variously-named, orthogonal f a c t o r - a n a l y t i c dimensions accounted for most of the variance i n personality ratings (Becker and Krug, 1964; Peterson, 1960; Schaefer, 1961). The Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale (Kohn and Rosman, 1972b) emerged from t h i s research perspective. Items were written to r e f l e c t the two orthogonal dimensions. The two-factor structure of the scale was subsequently v a l i d a t e d through factor a nalysis. The Kohn So c i a l Competence Scale, however, also r e f l e c t s the other two research - 9 -perspectives i d e n t i f i e d by O'Malley. The items are based on the teachers' observations of the c h i l d ' s classroom behaviour, his/her a b i l i t y to adapt to the classroom environment (ethological perspective), and on observations of the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to i n t eract both with the other c h i l d r e n and the teacher ( s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n theory). The Two-factor Model Since the Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale was developed from the two-factor model, the value of the scale i s dependent upon the value of the model. For t h i s reason, the two-factor model w i l l be examined i n some depth. Over the past f i f t y years, two behavioural syndromes have repeatedly emerged both from research into emotional disturbance i n ch i l d r e n and from the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems used by c l i n i c i a n s i n c h i l d guidance c l i n i c s and h o s p i t a l s . A summary of relevant research has been provided i n Tables I and I I . The c h i l d r e n i n the research studies summarized ranged i n age from 3 to 18 years and have been selected from c l i n i c , normal or delinquent sub-populations. C l i n i c c h i l d r e n - these c h i l d r e n have I.Q.'s above 80, are free from organic brain damage, and have been diagnosed at c h i l d guidance centres or h o s p i t a l s as having emotional and/or behavioural problems. Delinquent c h i l d r e n - these c h i l d r e n have I.Q.'s above 80, are free from organic brain damage, and have been sentenced and/or i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d f o r law-breaking. - 10 -Normal c h i l d r e n - these c h i l d r e n have I.Q.'s above 80, have no signs of organic brain damage, and have not been diagnosed as having emotional or behaviour disorders nor been sentenced for breaking the law. In Table I, examples are given of d i f f e r e n t l a b e l s used by c l i n i c i a n s to categorize the c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r research samples. Generally, these c h i l d r e n have been c l a s s i f i e d into two groups: those with acting-out behaviour problems and those with shy-withdrawn behaviour problems. These two groups of c h i l d r e n have been assigned d i f f e r e n t labels by d i f f e r e n t researchers. Fa c t o r - a n a l y t i c studies have supported the i n t u i t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of the c l i n i c i a n s . In Table I I , i t can be seen that i n studies which used c h i l d r e n from d i f f e r e n t populations, of d i f f e r e n t ages, and which used d i f f e r e n t factor a n a l y t i c methods, two broad factors emerged, which are s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r to those of the c l i n i c i a n s . In studies where more than two factors emerged, the f i r s t two factors are usually i d e n t i c a l to the two factors under discussion. In populations of normal c h i l d r e n , factors representing the range from healthy to disturbed functioning are revealed. These factors are b i p o l a r . It can be seen from Table II that the two-factor model has considerable generality across time, research methods, and populations. Rutter (1967) noted that the behavioural dichotomy i d e n t i f i e d by the two-factor model i s "perhaps the most universal...of a l l the diagnostic d i s t i n c t i o n s made i n c h i l d psychiatry" (p.164). - 11 -Table I. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n by C l i n i c i a n s on the Basis of Symptoms Author(s) Syndrome Labels Population Reich (1925) Paynter and Blanchard (1929) Ackerson (1931, 42) Hewitt and Jenkins (1946) Lewis (1954) Morris, Soroker and Burrows (1954) Bennett (1960) Achenbach (1966) Robins (1966) Ricks and Berry (1970) Rutter, Tizard and Whitmore (1970) Neurotic delinquent Personality d i f f i c u l t y P ersonality problems Over-inhibited behaviour Neurotic symptoms Internal reactors Neurotic I n t e r n a l i z i n g symptoms Psychopathic delinquent Behaviour d i f f i c u l t y Conduct problems Unsocialized S o c i a l i z e d aggression delinquent behaviour Delinquent/psychotic/psycho-pathic symptoms Mixed reactors External reactors Delinquent E x t e r n a l i z i n g symptoms Non-antisocial A n t i s o c i a l behaviour Withdrawn Neurotic disorder behaviour Delinquent Conduct or A n t i s o c i a l disorder Delinquent C l i n i c C l i n i c C l i n i c C l i n i c C l i n i c C l i n i c C l i n i c C l i n i c C l i n i c C l i n i c Shea (1972) I n t e r n a l i z i n g symptoms Ext e r n a l i z ing symptoms C l i n i c T a b l e I I . Summary o f F a c t o r A n a l y t i c S t u d i e s R e l a t e d t o C h i l d r e n ' s S o c i a l and B e h a v i o u r a l F u n c t i o n i n g A u t h o r s Gr/Age Sex P o p u l a t i o n Source A n a l y t i c Method Outcome Himmelweit (1952) P e t e r s o n , Quay & Cameron (1959) P e t e r s o n (1961) 2113 1181 116 115 831 n.a. n. a. n.a. n.a. K-6 M F M M C l i n i c M/F Behaviour T r a i t s • D e l i n q u e n t D e l i n q u e n c y Nondelinquent R a t i n g S c a l e s Normal Teacher r a t i n g s of b e h a v i o u r C e n t r o i d I ) N e u r o t i c i s m A n a l y s i s I I ) I n t r o -E x t r o v e r s i o n O r t h o g o n a l I ) P s y c h o p a t h y Quartimax I I ) N e u r o t i c i s m IV)Inadequacy I I I ) F a m i l y D i s s o n a n c e V ) S c h o l a s t i c Maladjustment C e n t r o i d & I)Conduct Problems K a i s e r V a r i m a x I I ) P e r s o n a l i t y Problems Digman (1963) 102 Gr.1-2 M/F Normal Teacher r a t i n g s l ) P r i n c i p a l I ) S u c c e s s f u l vs. of p e r s o n a l i t y Axes & Unsucc. Varimax S o c i a l i z a t i o n 2)Second O r d e r l l ) I n t r o - v s . E x t r o v e r s i o n P a t t e r s o n (1964) 100 7-12 y r s . M C l i n i c B e h a v i o u r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s Wherry-Gaylord I ) H y p e r a c t i v e P r o c e d u r e II)Withdrawn III)Immature I V ) A g g r e s s i v e V ) A n x i o u s Table II. (continued) Authors n Gr/Age Sex Population Source Analytic Method Outcome Ogilvie (1969) 34 3-6 yrs. M Normal Behavioural observations n.a. I)Peer interaction & ego strength vs. ego weakness II)Adult orientation & pride vs. self-doubt & ho s t i l i t y to adults Kohn & Rosman (1972b) 407 3-6 yrs M/F Normal Teacher ratings on Kohn Social Competence Scale Principal Components Analysis Scree Test Kaiser Varimax I)Interest-Participation vs. Apathy-Withdrawal II)Cooperation-Compliance vs. Anger-Def iance Kaufman, Swan & Wood (1979) 194 3-13 yrs. M/F Clinic Teacher & parent ratings of behaviour problems Principal Factor Analysis I)Conduct Problem II)Inadequacy-Immaturity Criterion forIII)Personality extraction n.a. Problem Kaiser Varimax n.a. - not available. - 14 -V a l i d i t y of the Two-factor Model Kohn (1977) suggested that the two factor model i s useful only i f i t can be shown that the two factors are d i f f e r e n t i a l l y r elated to other important v a r i a b l e s such as parental care, sex differences, and achievement, and have d i f f e r e n t long-term outcomes. Parental care. The research suggests that maternal over-protection or repression may r e s u l t i n withdrawn behaviour (Hewitt and Jenkins, 1946; Kohn and Rosman, 1971), while maternal r e j e c t i o n or neglect may r e s u l t i n acting-out behaviour i n the c h i l d (Kohn and Rosman, 1971; Morris, E s c o l l and Wexler, 1956). Sex di f f e r e n c e s . Acting-out problems have been found more commonly i n boys than i n g i r l s , while problems of p a s s i v i t y and shyness have been found to be more prevalent amongst g i r l s (Bremer, 1951; Cullen and Boundy, 1966; MacFarlane, A l l e n and Honzik, 1954; Rutter et a l . , 1970). Research also suggests that emotional problems tend to be more prevalent amongst boys than amongst g i r l s (Bower, 1969; Rogers, 1942; Ullman, 1952;- Wickman, 1928). In a l o n g i t u d i n a l study spanning the f i v e years from preschool to fourth grade, Kohn (1977) found that while boys were more disturbed than g i r l s on both Apathy-Withdrawal and Anger-Defiance, within-sex differences demonstrated that boys were more often impaired on Anger-Defiance while g i r l s were more often impaired on Apathy-Withdrawal. - 15 -School achievement. With young c h i l d r e n , underachievement has been linked with Apathy-Withdrawal rather than Anger-Defiance (Emmerich, 1977; Kohn, 1968; Richards and McCandless, 1972). However,. Kohn (1977) reported that by the end of the second grade the data for g i r l s showed a c o r r e l a t i o n between Anger-Defiance and under-achievement. He argued that since angry-defiant behaviour i s less s o c i a l l y acceptable i n g i r l s , g i r l s may develop a negative r e l a t i o n s h i p with the teacher e a r l i e r than boys. On the other hand, angry-defiant behaviour i s more s o c i a l l y acceptable i n boys (Kagan, 1974), and a r e l a t i o n s h i p between Anger-Defiance and low achievement may not manifest i t s e l f u n t i l a l a t e r age. With adolescents, a n t i s o c i a l behaviour has been associated with underachievement (President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of J u s t i c e , 1967; Rutter et a l . , 1970). This l a t t e r f i n d i n g suggests, then, that a r e l a t i o n s h i p between acting-out behaviour and school achievement i s not f u l l y established i n both sexes u n t i l adolescence. Socio-economic status. Kohn (1977) reported that children from the lowest s o c i a l c l a s s were found to have higher scores on the Apathy-Withdrawal dimension than were chi l d r e n from higher s o c i a l classes. This r e l a t i o n s h i p was found mainly i n g i r l s and apathy-withdrawal tended to increase as they matured. A r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l class and aggressive behaviour was not established. - 16 -I n t e l l i g e n c e . Non-significant c o r r e l a t i o n s of .11 and .08 were found between Stanford-Binet IQ scores and Apathy-Withdrawal and Anger-Defiance (Kohn, 1968). This r e s u l t was found, however, with a population of c h i l d r e n with extreme scores on Apathy-Withdrawal and Anger-Defiance. Peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The research suggests that c h i l d r e n who act out tend to have poor peer r e l a t i o n s (Kohn and Parnes, 1974; Rolf, 1972; Shea, 1972). Shy, withdrawn c h i l d r e n also have poor peer r e l a t i o n s but le s s so than acting out children (Kohn and Parnes, 1974; Rolf, 1972). O'Connor, Do l l i n g e r , Kennedy and Pelletier-Smetko (1979) reported that anxious i n h i b i t e d boys indulge i n more p r o s o c i a l behaviour than uninhibited boys. The i n t e r a c t i o n s of angry-defiant ch i l d r e n tend to be verbal and negative-hostile (Kohn and Parnes, 1974). Race. In h i s l o n g i t u d i n a l research where three quarters of the 1232 subjects were eit h e r Black or Puerto-Rican, Kohn (1977) reported that the scores of c h i l d r e n from minority group backgrounds were no higher than white c h i l d r e n on Anger-Defiance or Apathy-Withdrawal, over a f i v e year period. Long-term projections . The research suggests that children e x h i b i t i n g non-antisocial behaviour problems (apathy and withdrawal) are l i k e l y to have r e l a t i v e l y stable adult l i v e s (Michael, Morris and - 17 -Soroker, 1957; Morris, Soroker and Burrows, 1954; Robins, 1966; Shea, 1972). Conversely, c h i l d r e n e x h i b i t i n g a n t i s o c i a l symptoms (anger-defiance) are more l i k e l y to have cr i m i n a l records, p s y c h i a t r i c records, and a h i s t o r y of aggression and rule-breaking (Michael, Morris and Soroker, 1957; Morris, E s c o l l and Wexler, 1956; Robins, 1966; Shea, 1972). Extreme apathy and withdrawal, i n combination with a n t i - s o c i a l aggressive behaviour, may be most p r e d i c t i v e of very serious adult pathology (Michael, Morris and Soroker, 1957; Ricks and Berry, 1970). The above studies a l l i n d i c a t e that a n t i s o c i a l behaviour shows greater long-term s t a b i l i t y than withdrawn behaviour i n groups of chi l d r e n referred f or s o c i a l and/or behavioural problems. Kohn (1977) reached the same conclusion a f t e r a five-year study of normal c h i l d r e n . An A l t e r n a t i v e Model - Three Factors In some f a c t o r - a n a l y t i c studies, a t h i r d f a c t o r was found, the l a b e l of which varied from study to study. In studies i n v o l v i n g classroom settings, t h i s t h i r d factor has been characterized by p a s s i v i t y , l a z i n e s s , and lack of i n t e r e s t i n the environment (Kaufman, Swan and Wood, 1979; Pimm, Quay and Werry, 1967; Quay and Quay, 1965; Ross, Lacey and Parton, 1965; Schaefer and Aaronson, 1966). This factor has been l a b e l l e d "Task Orientation" by Schaefer and Aaronson (1966). - 18 -While the Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale was not designed to measure t h i s t h i r d f a c t o r , Kohn acknowledged i t s importance i n learning environments by measuring task o r i e n t a t i o n i n h i s l o n g i t u d i n a l study (Kohn, 1977) with the Schaefer Classroom Behaviour Inventory factor I I I , High vs. Low Task Orientation (Schaefer and Aaronson, 1966). Kohn (1977) found that the dimensions of Cooperation-Compliance vs. Anger-Defiance and High vs. Low Task Orientation were correlated, since they both assessed the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to function within the rules and l i m i t s of the classroom. However, a r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between underachievement and Low Task Orientation but not between underachievement and Anger-Defiance. This suggested that the dimensions were independent to some extent. S i m i l a r l y , the two dimensions were found to predict uniquely to the long-term persistence of a c h i l d ' s emotional impairment (Kohn, 1977). Kohn (1977) suggested that a circumplex model could account for such a d d i t i o n a l factors without destroying the v a l i d i t y of the two-factor model. Schaefer (1961, 1971) and Emmerich (1977) have shown that when the items which make up the factor scores are p l o t t e d to show t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the two f a c t o r s , they tend to form a c i r c l e (Fig. 1). Interest P a r t i c i p a t i o n Cooperation-Compliance Anger-Def iance Apathy-Withdrawal Figure 1. The Circumplex Model. - 19 -Emmerich stated that "behavioural changes on a p a r t i c u l a r gradient w i l l be sequentially ordered i n accordance with the proximity p r i n c i p l e " (p.21). That i s , a c h i l d i d e n t i f i e d as high on Interest-P a r t i c i p a t i o n , who did not remain so, would either become Cooperative-Compliant or Angry-Defiant, with the q u a l i t y of the environment determining the d i r e c t i o n of the change. It i s possible to add other independent axes e.g., High versus Low Task Orientation, to the circumplex model. It would thus assume a three-dimensional, s p h e r i c a l shape, since the Task Orientation dimension i s orthogonal to the I n t e r e s t - P a r t i c i p a t i o n vs. Apathy-Withdrawal dimension. Thus, a d d i t i o n a l personality concepts can be included i n the model at d i f f e r e n t angles and at various points around the hypothetical r i n g which surrounds the two axes. The model can therefore become as complex, yet psyc h o l o g i c a l l y meaningful, as the research requires. The Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale The Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale was developed for use with pre-school c h i l d r e n (Kohn and Rosman, 1972a, 1972b). The scale was designed to measure classroom behaviour i n terms of a c h i l d ' s i n t e r -personal functioning. The items cover the e n t i r e range from healthy to disturbed functioning and focus on the c h i l d ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s peers, with h i s teacher, and the use the c h i l d makes of the classroom environment for learning. - 20 -The research suggests that peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s are of prime importance i n the development of emotional s t a b i l i t y (Cowen et a l . , 1973; Kirchner and Vondraceck, 1975; Kohn and Parnes, 1974; Mendick and Schulsinger, 1969; Morris, E s c o l l and Wexler, 1956; Roff, S e l l s and Golden, 1972; Rolf, 1976; Shea, 1972). A c h i l d ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s teacher and h i s adaptation to the school environment have also been i d e n t i f i e d as important variables i n a c h i l d ' s emotional development (Erikson, 1963; Richey and McKinney, 1978; White, 1975). The Development of the Instrument Chance (1959) described four categories of interpersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p s : p o s i t i v e active, p o s i t i v e passive, negative passive, and negative active. Using these four quadrants, Kohn and Rosman (1972b) wrote 200 items on the basis of t h e i r long experience with nursery schools and day cares. Items were rated by the teacher on a f i v e point frequency scale ranging from "Hardly Ever or Never" to "Very Often or Always". Teachers' ratings are r e l i a b l e ( M i l l e r , 1972; Roff, S e l l s and Golden, 1972; Y e l l o t t , Liem and Cowan, 1969) and v a l i d (Bower, 1969). A f t e r pretesting on 45 c h i l d r e n , only items with " s u f f i c i e n t " i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s were retained, leaving 90 items of the o r i g i n a l 200 (Kohn and Rosman, 1972b). Unfortunately, Kohn and Rosman do not expand upon the c r i t e r i o n of " s u f f i c i e n t " . In order to determine the major dimensions of the Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale, the 90 items were then subject to factor analysis - 21 -procedures (Kohn and Rosman, 1972b). Children attending s i x day care centres i n New York C i t y (n = 407) were rated independently by the two f u l l - t i m e teachers i n each classroom. From the c o r r e l a t i o n matrix of the items, f i f t e e n centroid factors were extracted of which s i x , i d e n t i f i e d using the Scree Test ( C a t t e l l , 1966), were rotated by the Varimax procedure (Kaiser, 1958). It was found that the f i r s t two factors accounted for 76% of the t o t a l common variance. Thus, the authors chose to r e t a i n these two factors only. Both were b i p o l a r and were l a b e l l e d : Factor I = I n t e r e s t - P a r t i c i p a t i o n versus Apathy-Withdrawal Factor II = Cooperation-Compliance versus Anger-Defiance Use of the S o c i a l Competence Scale as part of a f i v e year l o n g i t u d i n a l study necessitated a s l i g h t r e v i s i o n of the scale (Kohn, 1977). Since communication with the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the l o n g i t u d i n a l study was to be by mail, the instruments had to be self-administering. F i f t e e n p a i r s of teachers i n f i f t e e n pre-school classrooms were asked to complete the scale. Discrepancies between p a i r s of teachers were discussed and i n d i v i d u a l items and i n s t r u c t i o n s were rewritten or eliminated to minimize ambiguities. The revised S o c i a l Competence Scale consisted of 73 items. This 73 item scale was modified to 64 items f or half-day pre-school and kindergarten programmes. Those items eliminated were those which were inappropriate to half-day programmes, dealing with nap time and snack time. - 2 2 -R e l i a b i l i t y With a population of 407 day-care ch i l d r e n , i n t e r r a t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between the two teachers i n each classroom were .77 for factor I and .80 f o r factor II (Kohn and Rosman, 1972b). Interrater r e l i a b i l i t i e s were as follows f o r four ratings made during the l o n g i t u d i n a l study (Kohn, 1977) : Table I I I . Interrater R e l i a b i l i t i e s Factors' Rating 1 N = 1232 Rating 2 N = 1074 Rating 3 N = 556 Rat ing 4 N = 604 So c i a l Competence Scale Factor I So c i a l Competence Scale Factor II ,74 76 .71 ,77 70 76 ,79 ,82 In terms of test - re t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y , Kohn and Rosman (1972a) obtained c o r r e l a t i o n s of .44 and .56 for factors I and II re s p e c t i v e l y when the c h i l d r e n were rated a f t e r a one-year i n t e r v a l by d i f f e r e n t teachers i n day care. - 23 -V a l i d i t y As evidence of the v a l i d i t y of the f a c t o r s , the r e s u l t s of a h i e r a r c h i c a l multiple regression analysis showed that pre-school Apathy-Withdrawal and Anger-Defiance scores were highly correlated (p ^ .001) with global impairment and r e f e r r a l ratings obtained f i v e years l a t e r . S i m i l a r l y , impairment on s p e c i f i c syndromes persisted. It was also found that preschool global impairment ratings accounted for only a small amount of variance f i v e years l a t e r , a f t e r the syndrome measures had been p a r t i a l l e d out. This suggests that the syndrome measures accounted f o r most of the behaviour t r a i t s that teachers f e l t were i n d i c a t i v e of emotional disturbance (Kohn, 1977). As further evidence of v a l i d i t y boys attending public kindergarten and day care centres i n New York Ci t y (n = 287) were rated by t h e i r classroom teachers on the Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale and the Schaefer Classroom Behaviour Inventory (Kohn, 1977). Correlations between corresponding factors of the Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale and the Schaefer Classroom Behaviour Inventory were .80 and .83 for factors I and I I , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Correlations between non-corresponding factors were higher than might have been expected, at least for S o c i a l Competence Factor I vs. Schaefer Factor II which was found to be .48. On the other hand, the c o r r e l a t i o n between S o c i a l Competence Factor II and Schaefer Factor I was .15. Kohn (1977) demonstrated that two groups of c h i l d r e n with known p s y c h i a t r i c disorders were scored more highly on Apathy-Withdrawal and - 24 -Anger-Defiance than the randomly selected day-care sample from the l o n g i t u d i n a l study. Secondly, as evidence of v a l i d i t y , the day-care sample was divided into f i v e reference groups on the basis of the teachers' perceptions of t h e i r emotional s t a b i l i t y . The f i v e reference groups were: 1. Well-functioning group 2. Moderately xrell-functioning group 3. Poorly functioning group 4. Remedial treatment group 5. Therapy group Apathy-Withdrawal and Anger-Defiance scores of the three disturbed groups were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the scores of the two healthy groups, both for boys and g i r l s . As further evidence f o r the v a l i d i t y of the syndrome measures, i . e . , that changes i n the syndrome scores t r u l y r e f l e c t changes i n the l e v e l of disturbance, syndrome scores were correlated with teachers' global impairment r a t i n g s at each grade l e v e l . For each syndrome, r values were found to be sizeable and stable, ranging from .41 to .76. The Importance of Kohn's Research Kohn's research has demonstrated the v a l i d i t y of the two-factor model of social-emotional functioning. It was shown (Kohn, 1977) that each dimension was a v a l i d c l i n i c a l i n d i c a t o r , that the dimensions were - 25 -r e l a t i v e l y independent, and that they predicted uniquely to themselves and that they were d i f f e r e n t i a l l y r e l a t e d to underachievement. The two syndromes were found to include almost the enti r e range of behaviour considered important to emotional impairment i n a classroom s e t t i n g . Secondly, Kohn's research demonstrated that Anger-Defiance and a t h i r d f a c t o r , Low Task Orientation, were correlated. However, they were found to be discriminable dimensions of children's functioning and to produce d i f f e r e n t predictions regarding l o n g i t u d i n a l persistence of emotional impairment. The two fundamental syndrome patterns i d e n t i f i e d by Kohn, and by much previous research, permit the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of chi l d r e n i n the population whose tendency towards problems i n both emotional and cognitive functioning make them a target group f o r intervention. Kohn's research has brought attention to an area which i s only now becoming popular with researchers, the functioning of the s o c i a l l y competent i n d i v i d u a l . His research indicated that many ch i l d r e n i n the sample remained " s o c i a l l y competent" over f i v e years, despite adverse home circumstances. The two syndrome patterns would allow the most competent children to be i d e n t i f i e d and t h e i r p o t e n t i a l r e a l i z e d . Kohn's research has helped to c l a r i f y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between social-emotional functioning and correlates such as school achievement, sex, and s o c i a l c l a s s . It has given some i n d i c a t i o n of the permanence of childhood emotional problems and the importance of emotional v a r i a b l e s i n a classroom environment. F i n a l l y , Kohn's research has established the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale i t s e l f , and has underlined the u t i l i t y of such an instrument i n a pre-school setting. Summary and Directions The Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale i s unique i n that i t i s a bi p o l a r scale which r e f l e c t s the two-factor model, a model which has been shown to have v a l i d i t y i n the area of personality functioning. Not only does the Kohn Scale i d e n t i f y the two low-competent groups, i t also i d e n t i f i e s the very competent chil d r e n . The Kohn Scale has been found to be both v a l i d and r e l i a b l e at the preschool l e v e l , and has reasonable p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y up to the fourth grade of elementary school. The research strongly suggests that the two b i p o l a r factors i d e n t i f i e d by the Kohn Scale at the preschool l e v e l may well exist at the elementary school l e v e l . If these two factors could be i d e n t i f i e d at the, elementary school l e v e l then one would have good evidence for the v a l i d i t y of the Kohn Scale for use with elementary school ch i l d r e n . - 27 -CHAPTER III Method Introduction In t h i s chapter a d e s c r i p t i o n i s provided of the population and sample who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s research. This i s followed by a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale. A more complete d e s c r i p t i o n of the development and v a l i d a t i o n of the scale was provided i n the previous chapter. The procedure followed to c o l l e c t the data i s next presented. F i n a l l y , the data analysis procedures used to determine the f a c t o r i a l composition of the Kohn Scale are discussed. Population The research was conducted i n a Lower Mainland, B.C. community. While t h i s community developed l a r g e l y as a dormitory suburb for people who work i n Vancouver, commercial and i n d u s t r i a l development i s now taking place r a p i d l y . As shown i n Table IV, t h i s population i s middle-class, whereas Kohn's sample was drawn from a metropolitan population of low socio-economic status (Kohn, 1977). - 28 -Table IV. Selected Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Research Population N = 90,000 Ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s Population density by sq.km. 1,523.5 Rental Housing 26.0% Single Detached Houses 68.0% Mother Tongue other than English 16.4% Single Parent Families 9.6% Population under 25 yrs. 48.0% Males Unemployed 6.5% Females Unemployed 9.1% Males with a U n i v e r s i t y Degree 8.1% Females with a University Degree 4.1% Note: 1976 Census, S t a t i s t i c s Canada (1976). The Schools Introductory meetings were held with the p r i n c i p a l s and teachers of 41 of the 43 elementary schools i n the research community. The two remaining p r i n c i p a l s f e l t that t h e i r schools had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n enough research at that time. Of the 41, 38 agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. Education and occupation are often used as indices of s o c i a l class (Hollingshead, 1957). Kohn (1977), for example, used mother's l e v e l of education to determine the SES l e v e l of each c h i l d i n his sample. Since occupation was not a v a i l a b l e for the population, l e v e l of mother's education was also used i n the present study. The percentage - 29 -of women with u n i v e r s i t y degrees i s l i s t e d i n Table V for each census t r a c t of the school d i s t r i c t . The range v a r i e s from 1.2% to 6.4%. In the present study, one to two percent was c l a s s i f i e d as low SES, three to four percent as middle SES, and f i v e to s i x percent as high SES. The number of p a r t i c i p a t i n g schools i n each census tr a c t has been indicated i n Table V. Table V. Percentage of Women with U n i v e r s i t y Degrees within each Census Tract, SES Categorization of Census Tracts, and Number of Schools Drawn from each Census Tract Census Tracts 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Percent 3.4 6.0 4.8 5.7 2.6 7.3 3.8 6.4 4.0 4.1 1.8. 3.4 1.3 3.1 SES M H M H L H M H M M L M L M No. of Schools 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 5 2 4 1 6 These schools adequately represented the socio-economic structure of the community. Of the f i v e non-participating schools, two were from high SES t r a c t s , two were from middle SES t r a c t s and one was from a low SES tr a c t It was f e l t that the sample had not been biased i n any way by the non-p a r t i c i p a t i o n of these schools. The Teachers Sixty-two grade 2 and 55 grade 5 teachers volunteered to take - 30 -part i n the study. Together these two samples represented 78.5% of the 149 teachers contacted at the introductory school meetings. The Students The students rated by t h e i r teachers were randomly selected from the grade 2 classes (n = 210) and the grade 5 classes (n = 189) taught by the cooperating teachers. The s e l e c t i o n of these students i s described below i n the procedure section. Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale The Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale (Kohn and Rosman, 1972a, 1972b) was extensively described i n the l a t t e r part of Chapter I I . However, a b r i e f summary of relevant research, describing the Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale, w i l l be given here. The Kohn Scale was developed i n two forms: a 73 item form and a 64 item form. The 64 item form i s used with h a l f day day-care and kindergarten programmes. Items dealing with nap-time and snack-time were eliminated from the 73 item form to produce the 64 item form. The 64 item form was used i n the present study (see Appendix I ) . The items deal with the c h i l d ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p with his peers, h i s re l a t i o n s h i p with the teacher, and the use the c h i l d makes of the classroom environment f or learning. Teachers rate the c h i l d i n question on each item using a f i v e point "frequency" scale (1: Hardly Ever or Never to 5: Very Often or Always). - 31 -Kohn (1977) reported that for each of the two factors he found Interrater r e l i a b i l i t i e s between .70 and .79 for factor I and between .76 and .82 for factor I I . Test - re t e s t s t a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n s of .44 for factor I scores and .56 for factor II scores were found a f t e r a one year i n t e r v a l . As regards v a l i d i t y , i t was demonstrated by Kohn and Rosman (1972b) that the two factors of the Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale measure e s s e n t i a l l y the same behaviour as the corresponding factors of the Schaefer Classroom Behaviour Inventory (Schaefer and Aaronson, 1966) at the preschool l e v e l . Further, Kohn (1977) found that day-care ch i l d r e n with known p s y c h i a t r i c disorders scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on Apathy-Withdrawal and Anger-Defiance than day-care c h i l d r e n without such disorders (Kohn, 1977). In addition, the day-care sample was divided into f i v e groups on the basis of teacher ratings of "global impairment"; that i s , whether the c h i l d was functioning "well", "moderately w e l l " or "poorly" i n the day-care centre and whether the c h i l d was receiving (or required) psychological, remedial or other s p e c i a l i z e d help. The Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale e f f e c t i v e l y discriminated among these f i v e reference groups. F i n a l l y , as evidence of v a l i d i t y , the f i v e year l o n g i t u d i n a l study demonstrated that at every age l e v e l boys were more disturbed than g i r l s . This i s consistent with the research which suggests that emotional impairment i s more widespread amongst boys than amongst g i r l s (Bower, 1969; Rogers, 1942; Ullman, 1952; Wickman, 1928). Sex - 32 -differences were largest on the Anger-Defiance syndrome. The l i t e r a t u r e suggests that acting-out behaviour i s more prevalent among boys (Bremer, 1951; Rutter et a l . , 1970). Procedure Permission was granted by the Superintendent of the cooperating school d i s t r i c t f o r the researcher to approach the p r i n c i p a l s and teachers of the elementary schools. The i n i t i a l contact with the p r i n c i p a l s was made by l e t t e r from the Director of Instruction of the school d i s t r i c t . This l e t t e r explained that the researcher would be approaching the p r i n c i p a l s concerning her research and b r i e f l y outlined the research project. Contact between the researcher and the schools was made by telephone. Through the p r i n c i p a l s , meetings with the p r i n c i p a l s and the grades 2 and 5 teachers were organized either at recess, lunchtime or af t e r school. The purpose of t h i s introductory meeting was to explain the research to the teachers and the time and work involved i f they were w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e . The p r i n c i p a l s and the teachers were, i n ' addition, given an explanatory l e t t e r and consent form (see Appendix I I ) . A research proposal abstract was l e f t with each school (see Appendix I I I ) . It was explained that the researcher would v i s i t the school again i n a few days and pick up completed consent forms and class l i s t s of cooperating teachers from the secretary of the school. - 33 -Six c h i l d r e n , three boys and three g i r l s , were randomly selected from each cl a s s of the consenting teachers. Of these, one boy and one g i r l served as "reserves" i n case parents of the remaining four c h i l d r e n refused permission. Teachers were instructed to replace a boy with a boy and a g i r l with a g i r l . Less than s i x ch i l d r e n were picked i f a teacher s p e c i f i c a l l y asked to rate only two or three c h i l d r e n . A package of materials, including a l e t t e r of i n s t r u c t i o n s (see Appendix IV), the names of the selected c h i l d r e n , parent consent l e t t e r s i n envelopes (see Appendix V), and four Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scales were given to consenting teachers. The teachers gave the four selected children a parent consent l e t t e r to take home. When a c h i l d brought back the consent form giving his parents' permission, the teacher would then f i l l out a Kohn Scale on that c h i l d . If a c h i l d ' s parents refused to give t h e i r consent, then one of the "back up" c h i l d r e n was given a l e t t e r to take home. The teachers were asked to leave a message with the secretary of t h e i r school i f they were unable to get parent consent for four c h i l d r e n . Each scale required about twenty minutes to complete. The ch i l d ' s anonymity was guaranteed i n that the teachers did not include the c h i l d ' s name on the completed scale, nor was the teacher provided with any means of scoring the scale. After one or two weeks the researcher v i s i t e d the school. If the completed scales had not been l e f t with the secretary and i f there was no message from the teacher that (s)he was having problems, a - 34 -reminder l e t t e r was l e f t i n the teacher's mail box (see Appendix VI) stating that the researcher would c o l l e c t the completed scales i n one more week. A thank-you l e t t e r was given to each teacher when the completed scales had been c o l l e c t e d . Of the 468 scales d i s t r i b u t e d , 399 were returned completed. This represents an 85.3% response rate. Data Analysis Item scores from the completed scales were d i r e c t l y keypunched onto computing cards and a 100 percent v e r i f i c a t i o n was performed. The basic data analyses strategy used to i d e n t i f y the f a c t o r i a l composition of the scale i s summarized i n Table VI. Table VI. Data Analysis Strategy Procedure Method of Data Analysis Step 1: I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Common Factors a) P r i n c i p a l Components b) Image Analysis & Varimax Step 2: a) Rotation to Interpretable a) Varimax Simple Structure b) Image Analysis & Varimax b) Transformation to Inter- Image Analysis & Harris-Kaiser pretable Simple Structure (Three and Two factors) Step 3: Deletion of Items followed by Image Analysis & Harris-Kaiser Transformation to Simple (Three and Two factors) Structure. - 35 -I n i t i a l l y , the analyses were performed on a l l sixty-four items. Based on the r e s u l t s of these i n i t i a l analyses, varying numbers of items were deleted i n an attempt to improve the obtained s o l u t i o n . The f i n a l analysis was performed on an item pool of 44 items. Further d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s d e l e t i o n process i s provided i n the presentation of r e s u l t s . Separate analyses were performed f or grades 2 and 5. Analyses were completed on the AMDAHL 470 computer maintained by the Computing Centre, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, and using the Alberta General Factor Analysis Program (AGFAP) (Hakstian and Bay, 1973). CHAPTER IV Results Introduction In t h i s chapter, the r e s u l t s of the analyses described i n the previous chapter are presented. As indicated, the grade 2 analyses were completed p r i o r to the grade 5 analyses and are consequently discussed i n greater d e t a i l . It was hoped that the l a t e r analyses of the grade 5 data would provide a r e p l i c a t i o n of the r e s u l t s obtained for grade 2. Determining the Number of Factors To determine the number of common fa c t o r s , two basic analyses were conducted. These were P r i n c i p a l Components and Image Analysis, the l a t t e r followed by a varimax s o l u t i o n . A p p l i c a t i o n of the Kaiser-Guttman Rule, Scree Test (see Figure 2) and percent variance accounted for by the P r i n c i p a l Components revealed 12, 3 and 2 fa c t o r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The Image-Varimax procedure suggested by Kaiser (1963) revealed three f a c t o r s . 20 ISA EIGEN VALUES 10 — r -10 —r~ 15 — i — ao. I 2 5 — i — 30 — i — 3 5 — i — 40 4 5 — i — 5 0 . i 5 5 6 0 FACTORS Figure 2 : Scree Test - 38 -Rotation/Transformation to Interpretable Simple Structure Several rotations and transformations were performed i n an attempt to obtain a s o l u t i o n which s a t i s f i e d Thurstone's c r i t e r i a f o r simple structure (Thurstone, 1947) and which was most c l e a r l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e . F i r s t , a varimax r o t a t i o n of a number of fa c t o r s , as i d e n t i f i e d above or i n e a r l i e r reported research, was performed. The ra t i o n a l e f o r the numbers of factors rotated and the number of inter p r e t a b l e factors obtained are summarized i n Table VII. Table VII. Rationale f o r Number of Factors Rotated and Number of Interpretable Factors Obtained Type of Extraction Rule/Rationale No. of Factors Rotated No. Interpretable P.C. Kaiser-Guttman Rule 12 3 Kohn's research (a)* 6 3 Scree Test; Published research 3 3 Percent variance; Kohn's 2 2 research (b) Image Kaiser's procedure 3 3 Kohn's research (b) 2 2 *(a) Kohn rotated (b) Kohn found i n t e r p r e t a b l e In order to determine which factors were meaningful, an examination was made of the s a l i e n t item loadings on each f a c t o r . The c r i t e r i o n f o r salience i n the present study was set at + 0.4. Factors - 39 -which contained only one item were considered to be unique factors and were consequently deleted. It can be seen from Table VII that two or three factors appear vto account for the common variance. However, none of the two or three f a c t o r solutions was s a t i s f a c t o r y i n terms of Thurstone's c r i t e r i a of simple structure. There were many double and non-loading items. Oblique Transformation It was f e l t that an oblique transformation might provide a more s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n . Therefore, both two and three image factors were transformed using the procedure developed by Harris and Kaiser (1964). Two l e v e l s of o b l i q u i t y were examined, corresponding to the independent c l u s t e r s and proportional solutions suggested by Harris and Kaiser. A l l transformations were found to be unsatisfactory, however, due to the continued presence of double and non-loading items. Deletion of Items In order to meet Thurstone's c r i t e r i a of simple structure i t was decided to remove the items which ( i ) did not " l o a d " on either the two or three factor solutions ( i . e . , that did not belong to the common factors) and ( i i ) items of complexity greater than one ( i . e . , items which "loaded" on more than one f a c t o r ) . The remaining items were analysed with an Image Analysis followed by a Harris-Kaiser transformation (again varying the degree of obliqueness). - 40 -For the case of two f a c t o r s , a s a t i s f a c t o r y , i n t e r p r e t a b l e s o l u t i o n was obtained for the proportional transformation so l u t i o n with 58 items. The c o r r e l a t i o n between the factors was low (Table VIII), Table VIII. C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix of Factors (Two factors - 58 items) Factors Factors I II I 1.00 -0,22 II -0.22 1.00 The three factor solutions reached simple structure with 48 items for two l e v e l s of o b l i q u i t y . Because of the lower c o r r e l a t i o n of factor III with the f i r s t two factors i n the proportional s o l u t i o n (see Table IX) the proportional s o l u t i o n was retained for subsequent analyses (Table IX). The i n c l u s i o n of t h i s t h i r d factor weakened factor I i n that only one item reached s i g n i f i c a n c e at the p o s i t i v e pole, i n both solutions. On the basis of an examination of the s i g n i f i c a n t items loading on each f a c t o r , f a c t o r I was l a b e l l e d Cooperation-Compliance vs. Anger-Defiance and factor II was l a b e l l e d I n t e r e s t - P a r t i c i p a t i o n vs. Apathy-Withdrawal. In the three factor solutions, factor III was l a b e l l e d High vs. Low Task Orientation. - 4 1 -Table IX. Cor r e l a t i o n Matrices of Factors (Three Factors - 48 items) Independent Solution Proportional Solution (c = 0.00) (c = 0.50) Factors I II III I II I I I I 1.00 -0.01 -0.60 1.00 0.02 -0.34 II -0.01 1.00 0.60 0.02 1.00 0.33 III -0.60 0.60 1.00 -0.34 0.33 1.00 Analysis of Grade 5 Data Analysis of the grade 5 data followed the same sequence as the analysis of the grade 2 data. The r e s u l t s at each step of the grade 5 analyses p a r a l l e l the corresponding r e s u l t s f o r grade 2. At both grade l e v e l s i t was apparent that a two or three factor s o l u t i o n would best account f o r the variance i n the item l e v e l data. I f , however, i d e n t i c a l items were to be used at both grade l e v e l s , then i t must be shown that the same factors emerged from analyses of the grades 2 and 5 data using these items. A search was undertaken, then, for a set of items which, when factored would produce i d e n t i c a l factors at the grade 2 and 5 l e v e l s . Deletion of Items: (grades 2 and 5) A pool of non-loading items, some belonging to the grade 2 data, some belonging to the grade 5 data and some belonging to both, - 42 -was formed. The number of items i s t h i s pool varied according to the method of analysis being used. This pool of items was then analysed separately using the grade two sample and the grade 5 sample. P r i n c i p a l Components plus Varimax, Image plus Varimax and Image plus Harris-Kaiser proportional solutions were used. A l l of the three f a c t o r solutions were unsatisfactory i n that removal of the non-loading items resulted i n a large number of a d d i t i o n a l non-loading and double-loading items i n the factor solutions. Secondly, the c o r r e l a t i o n s between factors I and III and II and III were f e l t to be higher than was desirable (Table X). Table X. C o r r e l a t i o n Matrices of Factors (Three Factors - Grades 2 and 5) Grade 2 Grade 5 Factors I II I I I Factors I II III I 1 .00 0 .02 - 0 . 3 5 I 1.00 - 0 . 1 2 - 0 . 4 4 II 0 .02 1 .00 0 .34 II - 0 . 1 3 1 .00 0 .39 III - 0 . 3 5 0 .34 1.00 I I I - 0 . 4 4 0 . 39 1 .00 F i n a l l y , i n a l l of the three factor solutions, the p o s i t i v e pole of factor I was weakened by the presence of the t h i r d f actor. In the grade 2 solutions the p o s i t i v e pole of factor I was represented by only one s i g n i f i c a n t item. Only two items reached s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the grade 5 solutions. After consideration of the d i f f i c u l t i e s outlined above i t was - 43 -decided at t h i s point to work with the two factor solutions only, since the purpose of the study was to v a l i d a t e the scale for use. A s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n was achieved (in terms of Thurstone's simple structure) with two factors using a pool of forty-four items. The c o r r e l a t i o n s between the factors were found to be low for grade 2 and s a t i s f a c t o r y for grade 5 (Table XI). Table XI. C o r r e l a t i o n Matrices of Factors (Two Factors - 44 items) Grade 2 Grade 5 Factors I II Factors I II I 1.00 -0.13 I 1.00 -0.30 II -0.13 1.00 II -0.30 1.00 The two factors were c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e as Kohn's factors II and I r e s p e c t i v e l y , as was seen from the f i v e most s a l i e n t items at each pole of the two factors at each grade l e v e l . Table XII includes the ten v a r i a b l e s from each f a c t o r for the grade 2 data, as an example. It was f e l t that factor I represented Cooperation-Compliance vs. Anger-Defiance and that factor II represented I n t e r e s t - P a r t i c i p a t i o n vs. Apathy-Withdrawal. The complete factor s o l u t i o n , including the factor pattern and structure, i s presented i n Appendix VII for both grade l e v e l s . - 44 -Table XII. Ten Most Salient Items from each Factor - Grade 2 Factor Item Item No. I (+) Chi l d can accept teacher's ideas f o r play or ways of playing 19 Child cooperates with rules and regulations 27 Chil d i s open to the ideas and suggestions of other c h i l d r e n 45 Child puts things away c a r e f u l l y 55 Child responds w e l l when the a c t i v i t y i s planned or directed by the teacher 57 I (-) Chi l d expresses open defiance against authority 35 Ch i l d i s h o s t i l e or aggressive with other ch i l d r e n 39 Chil d i s quarrelsome 47 Ch i l d i s bossy and dominating with other c h i l d r e n 49 Chil d i s unwilling to play with other ch i l d r e n except on h i s own terms 56 II (+) C h i l d shows enthusiasm about work or play 10 Other ch i l d r e n copy t h i s c h i l d ' s ideas for play 12 Chil d f e e l s comfortable enough with other ch i l d r e n to express h i s own desires or opinions 16 Child's ideas have impact on many ch i l d r e n i n the classroom 23 Chil d succeeds i n getting others interested i n what he i s doing 53 II (-) Child shies away & withdraws when approached by other c h i l d r e n 8 Chil d i s bossed & dominated by other ch i l d r e n 22 Chil d appears at a loss i n unstructured free-play types of a c t i v i t i e s 36 Ch i l d demonstrates l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n things and a c t i v i t i e s 44 Ch i l d shows i n t e r e s t i n only a few types of things 54 - 45 -Item Analysis If the f o r t y - f o u r item s o l u t i o n was to be accepted as the f i n a l s o l u t i o n , then i t was necessary to show that the scale s t i l l had adequate r e l i a b i l i t y with the reduced number of items. An item analysis (LERTAP) was performed on the grades 2 and 5 data using only the forty-four retained items. At the grade 2 l e v e l , Hoyt's estimate of r e l i a b i l i t y was found to be 0.95 f o r factor I and 0.93 for factor I I . The Cronbach's Alpha for the composite was 0.51. The lowered r e l i a b i l i t y for the composite suggests that the two factors are, indeed, measuring d i f f e r e n t components. At the grade f i v e l e v e l , Hoyt's estimate of r e l i a b i l i t y was 0.95 for factor I and 0.94 for factor I I . The composite r e l i a b i l i t y was once again lower, being 0.73. These r e l i a b i l i t y estimates were f e l t to warrant acceptance of the forty-four item two factor s o l u t i o n as the f i n a l s o l u t i o n for the grades 2 and 5 data. A copy of the f o r t y - f o u r item S o c i a l Competence Scale for the Elementary School, complete with scoring i n s t r u c t i o n s , i s provided i n Appendix VIII. The scale has two subtests, or fa c t o r s . Factor I contains 23 items while factor II contains 21 items. At present, t h i s scale may only be used for research purposes. CHAPTER V Discussion Introduction The Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale was developed from a two-factor model of children's social-emotional functioning. This two-fa c t o r model has been shown to have persistence across time and generality across populations, ages of child r e n , and research methods (Digman, 1963; Kohn, 1977; Peterson, 1961; Robins, 1966; Rutter et a l . , 1970). The Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale was developed for use with pre-school ch i l d r e n . Factor analysis of the items revealed two factors which were l a b e l l e d Cooperation-Compliance vs. Anger-Defiance and I n t e r e s t - P a r t i c i p a t i o n vs. Apathy-Withdrawal. In the present study an attempt was made to v a l i d a t e the scale f o r use with elementary school ch i l d r e n . Consequently, 210 grade 2 chi l d r e n and 189 grade 5 c h i l d r e n were rated by t h e i r classroom teachers using the Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale. Factor analysis of the item l e v e l data suggested that a two or three f a c t o r s o l u t i o n appeared appropriate at both grade l e v e l s . In both solutions, the f i r s t two factors corresponded to those i d e n t i f i e d by Kohn. In the three-factor solutions, the t h i r d factor was i d e n t i f i e d as High vs. Low Task Orientation. It was moderately correlated with - 47 -both factors I and II (see Chapter IV). However, i n c l u s i o n of the t h i r d factor confounded the s o l u t i o n f or factor I i n that only one or two items reached s i g n i f i c a n c e at the p o s i t i v e pole of t h i s dimension. In the two-factor solutions, both factor I and factor II were well-represented by s a l i e n t items at both poles. It was decided to accept a two-factor s o l u t i o n as the f i n a l s o l u t i o n . The scale was reduced from 64 items to 44 items better to meet Thurstone's c r i t e r i a for simple structure (Thurstone, 1947). Two-factor Solution The f i r s t two factors which emerged from the data analyses at both grade l e v e l s were i d e n t i f i a b l e as Kohn's two f a c t o r s , Cooperation-Compliance vs. Anger-Defiance and I n t e r e s t - P a r t i c i p a t i o n vs. Apathy-Withdrawal. In addition, they appear very s i m i l a r to the two factors i d e n t i f i e d by previous researchers working with children's emotional and behavioural functioning (Digman, 1963; O g i l v i e , 1969; Peterson, 1961). The r e s u l t s of the present study support Peterson's (1961) contention that "the generality of these factors appears to be enormous" (p. 206). The low, inverse c o r r e l a t i o n found between the two factors supports the circumplex model described i n chapter I I . A c h i l d who was i n i t i a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as high on I n t e r e s t - P a r t i c i p a t i o n would move i n the d i r e c t i o n of Cooperation-Compliance or Anger-Defiance should behavioural change occur. Kohn's research suggests (Kohn, 1977) that behavioural change tends to be i n a negative d i r e c t i o n . - 4 8 -The r e l i a b i l i t y of the two factors was .found to be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y high. The r e l i a b i l i t y of the composite, however, was lower. This r e s u l t provides further evidence that the two factors are measuring reasonably independent v a r i a b l e s and that to add a c h i l d ' s two factor scores together would provide a le s s meaningful score than to consider the two f a c t o r scores separately. The reduction of items from 64 to 44, with no los s of r e l i a b i l i t y , can only be of benefit to the classroom teacher with l i m i t e d time. The items which were retained represent a subset of the o r i g i n a l items. This subset i s v a l i d and r e l i a b l e i n an elementary school s e t t i n g . The r e p l i c a t i o n of the two-factor structure of the Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale at both grade l e v e l s i n the present study suggests that t h i s scale has been e f f e c t i v e l y v alidated for use with Canadian elementary school populations. U n t i l concurrent v a l i d a t i o n studies are completed, however, t h i s scale must be used for research purposes only. The r e s u l t s of the present study provide support for the two-factor model of children's social-emotional functioning i n a population of normal child r e n . Limitations of the Study The study was l i m i t e d i n that the population from which the samples were taken was a lower mainland, B.C. school d i s t r i c t , with a higher S.E.S. l e v e l than Kohn's sample (Kohn, 1977). However, the fact that the same two f a c t o r s were found i n t h i s school d i s t r i c t as were found i n a U.S. pre-school, i n n e r - c i t y metropolitan area population, - 49 -where more than h a l f of the c h i l d r e n came from one-parent f a m i l i e s and where nearly h a l f the fa m i l i e s earned l e s s than $5,000 (U.S.) per year, can only provide evidence for the v a l i d i t y of the Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale. A second l i m i t a t i o n occurred i n that parent consent forms were required f o r the study. Some teachers remarked to the researcher that the parents of the "more i n t e r e s t i n g " c h i l d r e n were refusing to give t h e i r consent. When questioned about these c h i l d r e n , the teachers suggested that they were the ones who were having s o c i a l and behavioural problems i n school. This i s r e f l e c t e d i n that the frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of the children's scores were negatively skewed, the majority of the scores c l u s t e r i n g at the average to p o s i t i v e end of the spectrum. S i m i l a r l y , some teachers tended to leave completion of th e i r scales u n t i l i t was too l a t e and by the end of term had completed only one or two scales. Also, some teachers decided a f t e r doing one or two scales that they had done enough. This somewhat spoiled the randomness of the sample, as the teachers may have completed only those they found easiest or most i n t e r e s t i n g before they decided that they had done enough. However, these are not serious l i m i t a t i o n s i n that the two factors emerged as b i p o l a r . This could not happen unless the entire range of behaviour was represented i n the sample. It may be that factor I might have emerged more c l e a r l y i n the three factor s o l u t i o n , however, i f t h i s problem had not arise n . - 5 0 -Implications for Future Research The three-factor s o l u t i o n . The three-factor s o l u t i o n was abandoned i n favour of a two-factor so l u t i o n i n the present study because of the large number of non-loading and double-loading items , the moderately high c o r r e l a t i o n between factors I and I I I , and II and I I I , and the weakness shown i n the p o s i t i v e pole of factor I (Chapter IV). However, throughout the factor solutions at both grade l e v e l s , three in t e r p r e t a b l e , bipolar factors c o n s i s t e n t l y appeared. The f i r s t two f a ctors were i d e n t i c a l to those i n the two-factor s o l u t i o n , while the t h i r d factor was l a b e l l e d High vs. Low Task Orientation. Other studies i n classroom settings, which involved teachers' ratings of normal ch i l d r e n , have i s o l a t e d three factors very s i m i l a r to those found i n the present study (Kaufman, Swan and wood, 1979; Schaefer and Aaronson, 1966). Kohn (1977) also acknowledged the importance of task o r i e n t a t i o n i n elementary school s e t t i n g s . Further research i s necessary to decide whether a two or three-factor model best accounts for the variance of children's social-emotional functioning i n the elementary school. A r e p l i c a t i o n of the present study without the l i m i t a t i o n s described above would be useful i n t h i s respect. The scale might also be v a l i d a t e d with the addition of more items written to r e f l e c t cooperative, compliant behaviour. V a l i d a t i o n studies. In order that the 44-item Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale might be used i n elementary schools, v a l i d a t i o n studies - 51 -must be undertaken to determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the factors and other important v a r i a b l e s such as achievement, socio-economic status, family background, sex, IQ, self-concept, r e f e r r a l , and other measures of social-emotional functioning. Knowledge of such r e l a t i o n s h i p s would allow a meaningful i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a c h i l d ' s score on the Kohn Scale. Once the concurrent v a l i d i t y of the scale has been established, then appropriate norms should be c o l l e c t e d . P r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s . Research should be undertaken to discover i f the Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale might prove useful i n i d e n t i f y i n g s o c i a l l y competent ch i l d r e n for g i f t e d and talented programmes. It might also prove to be suitable as a measure of adaptive behaviour when considering a c h i l d f o r s p e c i a l class placement or for mainstreaming purposes. Research could be undertaken to ascertain whether the two low-competent groups i d e n t i f i e d by the Kohn Scale require d i f f e r e n t therapeutic environments and whether the scale i s useful i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between the c h i l d with learning problems and the c h i l d whose learning problems are confounded by an emotional problem. F i n a l l y , an i n v e s t i g a t i o n could be undertaken to discover whether the Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale could be used to i d e n t i f y those children who are at r i s k i n developing s o c i a l and/or behavioural problems and whether use of the Kohn Scale may be h e l p f u l to teachers i n t h e i r - 52 -r e f e r r a l decisions. 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P s y c h o l o g y i n the S c h o o l s , 1967, 4_, 155-157. P r e s i d e n t ' s Commission on Law Enforcement and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f J u s t i c e . Task f o r c e r e p o r t : j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y and y o u t h c r i m e . Washington, D . C : U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1967. Quay, H.C., & Quay, L.C. B e h a v i o u r problems i n e a r l y a d o l e s c e n c e . C h i l d Development, 1965, 36, 215-220. R e i c h , W. Per t r i e b h a f t e c h a r a k t e r . V i e n n a : I n t e r n a t i o n a l e r P s y c h o a n a l y t i s c h e r V e r l a g , 1925. R i c h a r d s , H.C., & McCandless, B.R. S o c i a l i z a t i o n dimensions among f i v e -y e a r - o l d slum c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1972, 63, 44-55. R i c h e y , D.D., & McKinney, J.D. C l a s s r o o m b e h a v i o u r a l s t y l e s o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d boys. J o u r n a l o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s , 1978, 1 1 ( 5 ) , 38-43. R i c k s , D.F., & B e r r y , J.C. F a m i l y and symptom p a t t e r n s t h a t p r e c e d e s c h i z o p h r e n i a . I n M. R o f f & D.F. R i c k s ( E d s . ) , L i f e h i s t o r y r e s e a r c h  i n p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y ( V o l . 1 ) . M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1970. - 57 -R o b i n s , L.N. D e v i a n t c h i l d r e n grown up. B a l t i m o r e , Md.: W i l l i a m s and W i l l i a m s , 1966. R o f f , M., S e l l s , S.B., & Golden, M.M. S o c i a l adjustment and p e r s o n a l i t y development i n c h i l d r e n . M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1972. Rogers, C.A. M e n t a l h e a l t h f i n d i n g s i n the elementary s c h o o l . E d u c a t i o n a l Review B u l l e t i n , Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1942, 2J_, 3. R o l f , J . E . The s o c i a l and academic competence o f c h i l d r e n v u l n e r a b l e to s c h i z o p h r e n i a and o t h e r b e h a v i o u r p a t h o l o g i e s . J o u r n a l of  Abnormal P s y c h o l o g y , 1972, 80(3), 225-243. R o l f , J . E . Peer s t a t u s and the d i r e c t i o n a l i t y o f symptomatic b e h a v i o u r : prime s o c i a l competence p r e d i c t o r s o f outcome f o r v u l n e r a b l e c h i l d r e n . American J o u r n a l of O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , 1976, 46_ (1), 74-87. Ross, A.E., L a c e y , H.M., & P a r t o n , D.A. The development of a b e h a v i o u r a l c h e c k l i s t f o r boys. C h i l d development, 1965, 3_6, 1013-1027. R u t t e r , M. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and c a t e g o r i z a t i o n i n c h i l d p s y c h i a t r y . I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of P s y c h i a t r y , 1967, 3_, 161-167. R u t t e r , M., T i z a r d , J . , & Whitmore, K. E d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h and b e h a v i o u r . New York: W i l e y , 1970. S c h a e f e r , E.S. C o n v e r g i n g c o n c e p t u a l models f o r m a t e r n a l b e h a v i o u r and f o r c h i l d b e h a v i o u r . I n J.C. G l i d e w e l l ( E d . ) , P a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s  and c h i l d b e h a v i o u r . S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s : C h a r l e s C. Thomas, 1961. S c h a e f e r , E.S. Development o f h i e r a r c h i c a l , c o n f i g u r a t i o n a l models f o r p a r e n t and c h i l d b e h a v i o u r . I n J.P. H i l l ( E d . ) , M i n n e s o t a  Symposium on C h i l d P s y c h o l o g y ( V o l . 5). M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1971. S c h a e f e r , E.S., & Aaronson, M.R. C l a s s r o o m B e h a v i o u r I n v e n t o r y : p r e s c h o o l t o p r i m a r y . U n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , 1966. ( A v a i l a b l e from S c h o o l o f P u b l i c H e a l t h , U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a , Chapel H i l l , N o r t h C a r o l i n a ) . Shea, M.J. A f o l l o w - u p s t u d y i n t o a d u l t h o o d of a d o l e s c e n t p s y c h i a t r i c  p a t i e n t s i n r e l a t i o n to i n t e r n a l i z i n g and e x t e r n a l i z i n g symptoms, MMPI c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , s o c i a l competence and l i f e h i s t o r y v a r i a b l e s . U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a , M i n n e a p o l i s , Minn., 1972. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1976 Census of Canada. The M i n i s t r y o f I n d u s t r y , Trade and Commerce, Ottawa, November 1978. T h u r s t o n e , L. M u l t i p l e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1947. i - 58 -Ullman, C.A. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f m a l a d j u s t e d s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . ( P u b l i c H e a l t h Monograph No. 7 ) . Washington, D . C : U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1952. Walker, R.N. Some temperament t r a i t s i n c h i l d r e n as viewed by t h e i r p e e r s , t h e i r t e a c h e r s and themselves. Monographs f o r the S o c i e t y  f o r R e s e a r c h i n C h i l d Development, 1967, 3_2, (6, S e r i a l No. 114). White, B.L. C r i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e s i n the o r i g i n s o f competence. M e r r i l l - P a l m e r Q u a r t e r l y , 1975,_21(4), 243-266. White, R.W. Competence and the p s y c h o s e x u a l s t a g e s o f development. I n M.R. Jones ( E d . ) , Nebraska Symposium on M o t i v a t i o n ( V o l . 8 ) . L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y o f Nebraska P r e s s , 1960. Wickman, E.K. C h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o u r and t e a c h e r ' s a t t i t u d e s . New York: Commonwealth Fund, 1928. W i l l i a m s , R.D. C r i t e r i a f o r competence. P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e p o r t s , 1979, 44, 167-187. Y e l l o t , A.W., Liem, G.R., & Cowan, E.L. R e l a t i o n s h i p among measures of adjustment, s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s and achievement i n t h i r d - g r a d e r s . P s y c h o l o g y i n the S c h o o l s , 1969, 6, 315-21. - 59 -APPENDIX I 64 Item Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale - 60 -The Kohn S o c i a l Competence S c a l e T h i s s c a l e i s d e s i g n e d to a s s e s s the degree o f competence w i t h which a c h i l d masters v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f the s c h o o l day. I t c o n s i s t s o f 64 statements about a c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o u r . You a r e asked to r a t e each statement i n terms of the f r e q u e n c y w i t h which you have o b s e r v e d the b e h a v i o u r d u r i n g the most r e c e n t week. The r a t i n g s c o n s i s t o f f i v e d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f f r e q u e n c y r a n g i n g from " H a r d l y E v e r o r Never" to "Very O f t e n or Always". P l e a s e c i r c l e the number (1,2,3,4,5) which c o r r e s p o n d s t o the c a t e g o r y which, i n your judgement, i s most d e s c r i p t i v e o f t h i s c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o u r f o r the most r e c e n t week. P l e a s e do not c o n s u l t w i t h anyone c o n c e r n i n g your r a t i n g s . We a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n r e s p o n s e s which a r e based on your knowledge of and e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h the c h i l d . These r e c o r d s a r e b e i n g used as p a r t o f an i n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t and a r e s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . RATING INSTRUCTIONS 1) Base your r a t i n g on the c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o u r d u r i n g the most r e c e n t week. C o n s i d e r o n l y what the c h i l d d i d d u r i n g t h a t time p e r i o d and t r y to d i s r e g a r d p r i o r b e h a v i o u r and a c t i o n s . 2) P l e a s e do not compare the c h i l d r e n you have been asked to r a t e w i t h each o t h e r . T r y to r a t e each c h i l d i n d e p e n d e n t l y . 3) Base your r a t i n g s on how you have o b s e r v e d the c h i l d f u n c t i o n i n g i n the c l a s s -room. 4) Some items c o n t a i n a number of s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r s which a r e o n l y s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r . Do not h e s i t a t e t o make a r a t i n g even though the c h i l d does not e x h i b i t a l l of t h e s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r s . 5) . P l e a s e respond to e v e r y i t e m . Do not l e a v e any b l a n k s . 6) P l e a s e do not h e s i t a t e t o use extreme p o i n t s where a p p r o p r i a t e . 7) C o n s i d e r each q u e s t i o n i n d e p e n d e n t l y . C h i l d r e n may e x h i b i t s e e m i n g l y c o n t r a d i c t -o r y b e h a v i o u r . THANK YOU VERY MUCH INDEED FOR YOUR HELP AND COOPERATION - 61 -School: Sex of C h i l d : Teacher: Grade E HARDLY VER OR NEVER SELDOM SOME-TIMES OFTEN VERY OFTEN OR ALWAYS 1. CHILD SEEMS EAGER TO TRY NEW THINGS. 1 2 3 4 5 2. CHILD SEEKS ADULT ATTENTION BY CRYING. 1 2 3 4 5 3. CHILD EASILY LOSES INTEREST AND FLITS FROM ONE ACTIVITY TO ANOTHER. 1 2 3 4 5 4. CHILD IS RESPONSIBLE IN CARRYING OUT REQUESTS AND DIRECTIONS. 1 2 3 4 - 5 5. CHILD SEEKS PHYSICAL CONTACT WITH TEACHER. 1 2 3 4 5 6. CHILD ADDS FREELY (VERBALLY OR NONVERBALLY) TO TEACHER'S SUGGESTIONS. 1 2 3 4 5 7. WHEN MAKING A CHANGE FROM ONE ACTIVITY TO ANOTHER, CHILD RESISTS ENTERING THE NEW ACTIVITY. 1 2 3 4 5 8. CHILD SHIES AWAY AND WITHDRAWS WHEN AP-PROACHED BY OTHER CHILDREN. 1 2 3 4 5 9. CHILD RESPONDS WITH IMMEDIATE COMPLIANCE TO TEACHER'S DIRECTION. 1 2 3 4 5 10. CHILD SHOWS ENTHUSIASM ABOUT WORK OR PLAY. 1 2 3 4 5 11. CHILD FROWNS, SHRUGS SHOULDERS, POUTS OR STAMPS FOOT WHEN SUGGESTION IS MADE BY TEACHER. 1 2 3 4 5 12. OTHER CHILDREN COPY THIS CHILD'S IDEAS FOR . PLAY. 1 2 3 4 5 13. EXCESSIVE PRAISE AND ENCOURAGEMENT FROM TEACHER IS REQUIRED FOR CHILD TO PARTICIPATE IN ACTIVITIES. 1 2 3 4 5 14. OTHER CHILDREN SEEM UNWILLING TO PLAY WITH THIS CHILD. 1 2 3 4 5 15. CHILD IS UNWILLING TO CARRY OUT RESONABLE SUGGESTIONS FROM TEACHER EVEN WHEN HAVING DIFFICULTY. 1 2 3 4 5 16. CHILD FEELS COMFORTABLE ENOUGH WITH OTHER CHILDREN TO BE ABLE TO EXPRESS HIS OWN DESIRES OR OPINIONS. 1 2 3 4 5 17. CHILD HITS TEACHER. 1 2 3 4 5 18. CHILD IS FEARFUL IN APPROACHING OTHER CHILDREN. 1 2 3 4 5 19. CHILD CAN ACCEPT TEACHER'S IDEAS AND SUG-GESTIONS FOR PLAY OR WAYS OF PLAYING. 1 2 3 4 5 20. CHILD GETS WILLING COOPERATION FROM MOST OTHER CHILDREN. 1 2 3 4 5 - 1 -- 62 -VERY HARDLY OFTEN EVER OR SOME- OR 21. CHILD GIVES THE APPEARANCE OF COMPLYING WITH TEACHER'S SUGGESTIONS, BUT DOES NOT DO SUGGESTED ACTIVITY. NEVER SELDOM TIMES OFTEN ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 22. CHILD IS BOSSED AND DOMINATED BY OTHER CHILDREN. 1 2 3 4 5 23. CHILD'S IDEAS HAVE IMPACT ON MANY CHILDREN IN THE CLASSROOM. 1 2 3 4 5 24. CHILD REBELS PHYSICALLY, FOR EXAMPLE: HAS TEMPER TANTRUMS, HITS, KICKS, ETC. 1 2 3 4 5 25. CHILD EASILY GETS ATTENTION OF OTHER CHILDREN. 1 2 3 ' 4 5 26. CHILD HAS DIFFICULTY DEFENDING HIS OWN RIGHTS WITH OTHER CHILDREN. 1 2 3 4 5 27. CHILD COOPERATES WITH RULES AND REGU-LATIONS . 1 2 3 4 5 28. CHILD DAWDLES WHEN REQUIRED TO DO SOME-THING. 1 2 3 4 5 29. IN PLAY WITH OTHER CHILDREN, CHILD CAN SHIFT BETWEEN LEADING AND FOLLOWING, DEPENDING ON THE SITUATION. 1 2 3 4 5 30. CHILD REACTS NEGATIVELY TO TEACHER'S IDEAS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR PLAY ACTIVITIES. 1 2 3 4 5 31. CHILD IS UNABLE TO OCCUPY HIMSELF WITHOUT OTHER CHILDREN DIRECTING ACTIVITIES FOR HIM. 1 2 3 4 5 32. CHILD IS WILLING TO TURN TO OTHER CHILDREN FOR HELP AND ASSISTANCE. 1 2 3 4 5 33. CHILD ACTIVELY DEFIES TEACHER'S RULES AND REGULATIONS. 1 2 3 4 5 34. CHILD CAN GIVE IDEAS TO OTHER CHILDREN AS WELL AS GO ALONG WITH THEIR IDEAS. 1 2 3 4 5 35. CHILD EXPRESSES OPEN DEFIANCE AGAINST AUTHORITY 1 2 3 4 5 36. CHILD APPEARS AT A LOSS IN UNSTRUCTURED FREE-PLAY TYPES OF ACTIVITIES. 1 2 3 4 5 37; CHILD EASILY MAKES THE CHANGE FROM ONE ACTIVITY TO THE NEXT. 1 2 3 4 5 38. CHILD SEEMS TO ENJOY BOTH PLAY WITH OTHERS AND BY HIMSELF. 1 2 3 4 5 39. CHILD IS HOSTILE OR AGGRESSIVE WITH OTHER CHILDREN, FOR INSTANCE: PUSHES, TAUNTS, BULLIES, ETC. 1 2 '3 4 5 40. CHILD CAN BE INDEPENDENT OF ADULT IN OVER-COMING DIFFICULTIES WITH OTHER CHILDREN OR ACTIVITIES. 1 2 3 4 5 - 2 -- 63 -HARDLY EVER OR SOME-VERY OFTEN OR 41. CHILD HAS TO BE A LEADER IN ORDER TO PARTICIPATE IN ACTIVITIES WITH OTHER CHILDREN. 1 2 3 4 5 42. CHILD PARTICIPATES IN A HALF-HEARTED WAY 1 2 3 4 5 43. CHILD TAKES POSSESSION OF OTHER CHILD-REN'S EQUIPMENT WITHOUT THEIR PERMISSION. 1 2 3 4 5 44. CHILD DEMONSTRATES LITTLE INTEREST IN THINGS AND ACTIVITIES. 1 2 3 4 5 45. CHILD IS OPEN TO THE IDEAS AND SUGGES-TIONS OF OTHER CHILDREN. 1 2 3 4 5 46. CHILD IS RESPONSIBLE IN FOLLOWING THROUGH ON ROUTINES, FOR EXAMPLE: GETTING DRESSED OR UNDRESSED, WASHING HANDS, ETC. 1 2 3 4 5 47. CHILD IS QUARRELSOME. 1 2 3 4 5 48. CHILD CAN COMMUNICATE HIS NEEDS TO THE TEACHER. 1 2 3 4 5 49. CHILD IS BOSSY AND DOMINATING WITH OTHER CHILDREN. 1 2 3 4 5 50. CHILD SPENDS TIME SITTING AROUND, LOOKING AROUND, OR WANDERING AROUND AIMLESSLY. 1 2 3 4 5 51. CHILD CAN REMAIN ALERT AND INTERESTED IN AN ACTIVITY. 1 2 3 4 5 52. CHILD PREVENTS OTHER CHILDREN FROM CARRYING OUT ROUTINES. 1 2 3 4 5 53. CHILD SUCCEEDS IN GETTING OTHERS INTERESTED IN WHAT HE IS DOING. 1 2 3 4 5 54. CHILD SHOWS INTEREST IN ONLY A FEW TYPES OF THINGS. 1 2 3 4 5 55. CHILD PUTS THINGS AWAY CAREFULLY. 1 2 3 4 5 56. CHILD IS UNWILLING TO PLAY WITH OTHER CHILDREN EXCEPT ON HIS OWN TERMS. 1 2 3 4 5 57. CHILD RESPONDS WELL WHEN THE ACTIVITY IS PLANNED OR DIRECTED BY THE TEACHER. 1 2 3 4 5 58. CHILD DISRUPTS ACTIVITIES OF OTHERS. 1 2 3 4 5 59. CHILD SEEKS ADULT AID FOR EACH STEP OF ACTIVITY 1 2 3 4 5 60. CHILD CAN PARTICIPATE ACTIVELY IN STRUCTURED ACTIVITIES AS WELL AS FREE-PLAY TYPE ACTIVITIES 1 2 3 4 5 61. CHILD RESISTS GOING ALONG WITH THE IDEAS OF OTHER CHILDREN. 1 2 3 4 5 62. CHILD EASILY GIVES UP WHEN CONFRONTED WITH A DIFFICULTY. 1 2 3 4 5 63. CHILD CAN BE INDEPENDENT OF ADULT IN HAVING IDEAS ABOUT OR PLANNING ACTIVITIES. 1 2 3 4 5 - 64 -64. CHILD HAS TROUBLE KEEPING TO THE RULES OF THE GAME. (DISREGARD WHEN CHILD DOES NOT KNOW OR UNDERSTAND RULES). HARDLY EVER OR NEVER SELDOM SOME TIMES VERY OFTEN OR OFTEN ALWAYS, THANK YOU VERY MUCH INDEED FOR GIVING YOUR TIME AND INTEREST. YOUR HELP IS GREATLY APPRECIATED. - 4 -- 65 -APPENDIX II P r i n c i p a l ' s L e t t e r and Consent Form Teacher's Let t e r and Consent Form - 66 -T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 2075 WESBROOK MALL VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1W5 FACULTY OF EDUCATION Education C l i n i c Dear : You have already discussed the research outlined here with the researcher and/or have read a research proposal. As you may remember the purpose of the research i s to v a l i d a t e the Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale for use with elementary school ch i l d r e n . This scale has c e r t a i n advantages which have led me to believe that i t would be of value both to teachers and psychologists. F i r s t l y , i t r e l i e s upon teacher judgements and thus taps the teacher's knowledge of the c h i l d . I t emphasizes the c h i l d ' s peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s and h i s re l a t i o n s h i p with the teacher. Research suggests that peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s are amongst the best predictors of adjustment. F i n a l l y , i t separates out two d i f f e r e n t groups of low-competent chi l d r e n (termed Apathetic-Withdrawn and Angry-Defiant). Once again, research suggests that these two groups have d i f f e r e n t needs and have d i f f e r e n t long-term outcomes. S i m i l a r l y , the c h i l d low on both dimensions has been found to be most i n need of help. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , use of t h i s scale with elementary school ch i l d r e n may lead to better i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of g i f t e d and talented c h i l d r e n , as well as low-competent c h i l d r e n , so that t h e i r needs might be met more e f f e c t i v e l y . It may separate out those ch i l d r e n whose learning problems are confounded by an emotional problem. It may help with more accurate r e f e r r a l and remediation. F i n a l l y , i t should replace or complement the use of less r e l i a b l e p r o j e c t i v e techniques i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of emotional disturbance. The children to be used as subjects w i l l be selected through purely random methods. C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y w i l l be maintained i n that the c h i l d ' s name w i l l not be used on the questionnaire nor w i l l the teachers be given d i r e c t i o n s on how to score the scale. Once the questionnaires have been coded onto computing cards, the se l e c t i o n l i s t and the questionnaires w i l l be destroyed. Should you give permission for your school to take part i n t h i s study, four c h i l d r e n w i l l be selected from each grade 2 and grade 5 classroom i n your school. The teachers w i l l be asked to send parental consent forms home with the selected c h i l d r e n . These forms w i l l be supplied by the researcher. .2 - 68 -P r i n c i p a l ' s Consent Form I consent to the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of School i n the v a l i d a t i o n study. I am aware that the children's names w i l l not be used on the questionnaires and that the questionnaires w i l l be returned anonymously to the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. I understand that c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of data w i l l be maintained and that i n d i v i d u a l scores w i l l not be calculated or released. I also understand that p a r t i c i p a t i o n by my school i s voluntary and may be terminated at any time. Signature I am unwilling to have School involved i n the v a l i d a t i o n research study. Signature - 69 -T H E UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH COLUMBIA 2075 WESBROOK MALL VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1W5 FACULTY OF EDUCATION Education C l i n i c Dear You have already l i s t e n e d to a de s c r i p t i o n of the research outlined here and/or have read a research proposal. As you may remember, the purpose of the research i s to v a l i d a t e the Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale for use with elementary school c h i l d r e n . This scale has c e r t a i n advantages which have led me to believe that i t would be of value both to teachers and school psychologists. F i r s t l y , i t r e l i e s on teacher judgements and thus taps the teacher's knowledge of the c h i l d . It emphasizes the c h i l d ' s peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s and h i s re l a t i o n s h i p with the teacher. Research suggests that peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s are amongst the best predictors of adjustment. F i n a l l y , i t separates out two d i f f e r e n t groups of low competent c h i l d r e n (termed Apathetic-Withdrawn and Angry-Defiant). Once again, research suggests that these two groups have d i f f e r e n t needs and have d i f f e r e n t long term outcomes. S i m i l a r l y , the c h i l d low on both dimensions has been found to be i n most need of help. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , use of t h i s scale with elementary school c h i l d r e n may lead to better i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of g i f t e d and talented c h i l d r e n , as well as low competent ch i l d r e n , so that t h e i r needs might be met more e f f e c t i v e l y . It may separate out those c h i l d r e n whose learning problems are confounded by an emotional problem. It may help with more accurate r e f e r r a l and remediation. F i n a l l y , i t should replace or complement the use of less r e l i a b l e p r o j e c t i v e techniques i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of emotional maladjustment. The c h i l d r e n to be used as subjects w i l l be selected through purely random procedures. C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y w i l l be maintained i n that the c h i l d ' s name w i l l not be used on the questionnaire nor w i l l you be given d i r e c t i o n s on how to score the scale. Once the questionnaires have been coded onto computing cards, the s e l e c t i o n l i s t and the questionnaires w i l l be destroyed. Should you agree to take part i n t h i s study, four ch i l d r e n w i l l be selected from your classroom. You w i l l be asked to send parental consent forms home with the selected c h i l d r e n . These w i l l be supplied by the researcher. Those c h i l d r e n whose parents consent for them to take part w i l l be rated by you on the Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale. Each scale w i l l take about 15-20 minutes to complete, so you w i l l probably spend about lh hours i n t o t a l on t h i s task. .2 - 71 -Teacher's Consent Form I, , consent to take part i n the v a l i d a t i o n study at School. I am aware that the children's names w i l l not be used on the questionnaires and that the questionnaires w i l l be returned anonymously to the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. I understand that c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of data w i l l be maintained and that i n d i v i d u a l scores w i l l not be calculated or released. I also understand that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s project i s voluntary and may be terminated at any time. Signature I am u n w i l l i n g to be involved in the v a l i d a t i o n research study. Signed School - 72 -i 9 APPENDIX III Research Proposal Abstract - 74 -V a l i d i t y of the Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale for use with Elementary School Children Proposal Abstract Background The Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale (Kohn and Rosman, 1972a, 1972b), which measures a c h i l d ' s l e v e l of social-emotional functioning, was designed for use with preschool c h i l d r e n . Factor analyses of the items revealed two orthogonal factors which were l a b e l l e d I n t e r e s t - P a r t i c i p a t i o n vs. Apathy-Withdrawal and Cooperation-Compliance vs. Anger-Defiance. Over the l a s t f i f t y years, the two factors i d e n t i f i e d by Kohn and Rosman have repeatedly emerged from research into emotional disturbance i n c h i l d r e n . These factors have emerged despite differences i n research methods, populations, and the ages of the c h i l d r e n involved (Kohn, 1977). This suggests that these two dimensions have considerable v a l i d i t y i n the area of p e r s o n a l i t y research. The two low-competent syndromes of Apathy-Withdrawal and Anger-Defiance have repeatedly been found to have d i f f e r e n t long term outcomes, and i t has been found that they require d i f f e r e n t therapeutic environments (Kohn, 1977). The Kohn Scale focuses on peer and teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Research suggests that peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s are amongst the best predictors of mental health, both present and future (Cowen, Pederson, Babigian, Izzo and Trost, 1973). Kohn's research suggests that the Kohn Scale i s v a l i d and r e l i a b l e at the preschool l e v e l and that the two dimensions have long term s t a b i l i t y and p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y (Kohn, 1977). Such a scale would prove valuable to elementary school teachers and counsellors. .2 - 75 - .2 Purpose The purpose of the present study i s to v a l i d a t e the Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale f o r use with elementary school c h i l d r e n . The Kohn Scale was developed i n two forms: a 73 item form and a 64 item form. The 64 item form i s considered appropriate for use with elementary school c h i l d r e n ; items dealing with nap-time, snack-time and other aspects of preschool inappropriate to elementary school have been eliminated. If the same two factors were found at the elementary school l e v e l as at the preschool l e v e l , then one would have good evidence f o r the v a l i d i t y of the Kohn Scale at the elementary school l e v e l . I t would also provide a d d i t i o n a l evidence f o r the persistence of the two-factor model of s o c i a l -emotional functioning. Two grade l e v e l s , grades 2 and 5, w i l l be used i n t h i s study. There i s some evidence to suggest that a t h i r d f a c t o r may be involved i n school-related research, p a r t i c u l a r l y with older ch i l d r e n (Kohn, 1977). For t h i s reason, separate analyses w i l l be performed on the data f o r grades 2 and 5 to see whether a di f f e r e n c e i n the factor structure e x i s t s between the primary and intermediate l e v e l s i n the elementary school. The t h i r d f a c t o r appears to be involved with task o r i e n t a t i o n , that i s , the a b i l i t y of i the c h i l d to concentrate on the task i n hand. Procedures P r i n c i p a l s of i n d i v i d u a l schools w i l l be contacted, and a meeting w i l l be organized with the p r i n c i p a l and grades 2 and 5 teachers within each school. At t h i s meeting, the researcher w i l l explain the research and provide the school with a copy of the proposal abstract. The p r i n c i p a l and the teachers w i l l be provided with explanatory l e t t e r s and consent forms to sign when they have decided to p a r t i c i p a t e . A sampling frame of a l l grades 2 and 5 chil d r e n from p a r t i c i p a t i n g schools w i l l be constructed. The sample w i l l be s t r a t i f i e d according to sex and the major demographic features of the d i s t r i c t . This w i l l be f o r analysis purposes only, not for reporting. From t h i s sample, 250 grade 2 ch i l d r e n and 250 grade 5 ch i l d r e n w i l l be randomly selected. Approximately four c h i l d r e n .3 - 76 - .3 w i l l be sampled from w i t h i n each c l a s s r o o m . P a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r s w i l l be p r o v i d e d w i t h p a r e n t consent forms f o r t h o s e c h i l d r e n s e l e c t e d from w i t h i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s . The t e a c h e r s w i l l t h e n f i l l out Kohn S o c i a l Competence S c a l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on t h o s e c h i l d r e n whose p a r e n t s p e r m i t them t o take p a r t i n the stud y . The c h i l d ' s p r i v a c y w i l l be guaranteed i n t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s w i l l not i n c l u d e the c h i l d ' s name on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , n o r w i l l the t e a c h e r be p r o v i d e d w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r s c o r i n g t h e s c a l e . The completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and the s e l e c t i o n l i s t w i l l be d e s t r o y e d once the d a t a have been coded onto computing c a r d s . s p e c i f i c c l a s s r o o m b e h a v i o u r . The t e a c h e r w i l l not be asked t o make s u b j e c t i v e judgements about i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n ' s " e m o t i o n a l " c o n d i t i o n . q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i l l then be coded onto computing c a r d s by U.B.C. computing c e n t r e p e r s o n n e l . A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s w i l l be performed on t h e d a t a f o r grade 2 c h i l d r e n , grade 5 c h i l d r e n , and, i f a p p r o p r i a t e , f o r t h e complete sample. T h i s s t u d y i n v o l v e s no i n t e r f e r e n c e by o u t s i d e a g e n c i e s i n the c l a s s r o o m . S i n c e each s c a l e t a k e s about 15-20 min. to complete, t e a c h e r s w i l l be i n v o l v e d i n about 1% hours o f work. Outcomes, Importance o f P r o j e c t I t s h o u l d be noted h e r e t h a t the items on t h e Kohn S c a l e d e a l w i t h Completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i l l be c o l l e c t e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . The G e n e r a l : 1) Use o f t h e Kohn S c a l e a t the elementary s c h o o l l e v e l may l e a d t o b e t t e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f h i g h and low competent c h i l d r e n and thus t o a more e f f i c i e n t use of r e s o u r c e s . S p e c i f i c : 1) 2) 3) The Kohn S c a l e may be used t o s e p a r a t e out those c h i l d r e n whose l e a r n i n g problems a r e compounded by an e m o t i o n a l problem. The Kohn S c a l e may h e l p t o s e p a r a t e out t h e two d i f f e r e n t low competent syndromes and thus h e l p t o meet t h e i r needs more e f f e c t i v e l y . The Kohn S c a l e may h e l p i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d c h i l d r e n and thu s h e l p t o meet - 77 - ...4 t h e i r needs more e f f e c t i v e l y . 4) The Kohn Scale may help i n decison-making concerning the placement of retarded c h i l d r e n . 5) The Kohn Scale may supplement or replace the use of un r e l i a b l e p r o j e c t i v e techniques. 6) The Kohn Scale may help to i d e n t i f y those c h i l d r e n who are l i k e l y to present problems l a t e r but who are not yet doing so. 7 ) The Kohn Scale may help teachers decide which c h i l d r e n to r e f e r for further assessment. 8) The Kohn Scale may lead to more e f f i c i e n t r e f e r r a l of Apathetic-Withdrawn c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y g i r l s . 9 ) The Kohn Scale may provide a structured framework within which to discuss classroom behaviour. .5 - 78 -References Cowen, E.L., Pederson, A., Babigian, H., Izzo, L.D. and Trost, M.A. Long term follow up of early detected vulnerable c h i l d r e n . Journal of Consulting  and C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1973, 41, no. 3, 438-446. Kohn, M. and Rosman, B.L. Relationship of preschool social-emotional function-ing to l a t e r i n t e l l e c t u a l achievement. Developmental Psychology, 1972, 6^, 445-452.(a) Kohn, M. and Rosman, B.L. A S o c i a l Competence Scale and Symptom Checklist for the pre-school c h i l d : Factor dimensions, t h e i r cross instrument g e n e r a l i t y , and l o n g i t u d i n a l persistence. Developmental Psychology, 1972, 430-444. (b) Kohn, M. So c i a l Competence, Symptoms and Underachievement i n Childhood: A  Longitudinal Perspective. John Wiley and Sons, Toronto, 1977. - 79 -APPENDIK IV L e t t e r of Instructions for Teachers - 81 -APPENDIX V Parents' Letter and Consent Form - 82 -T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 2075 WESBROOK MALL VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1W5 FACULTY OF EDUCATION Education Clinic Dear Parent or Guardian: A questionnaire has been developed which deals with how a preschool child gets on with the teacher and the other children in the classroom, and how effectively the child uses the preschool environment. This questionnaire is f i l l e d out by the teacher on the basis of his/her knowledge of the child. Should this scale prove to be useable at the elementary school level, i t would help teachers decide which children to refer to the school psychologist or counsellor and would help everyone in planning a remediation program. The scale would help in the identification of the gifted and talented, as well as those with problems, and would help to ensure that their needs were met. The scale would help to identify those children whose learning problems are compli-cated by emotional d i f f i c u l t i e s and would also help in the placement and program-ming of retarded children. The items on the questionnaire focus on specific classroom behaviour. The teacher is not asked to make subjective judgements about children. To validate this scale, the questionnaire must be administered by teachers to a large number of elementary school children and analyses performed to see how the items work with children of this age. Your child has been selected by purely random procedures to be one of those children on whom a scale w i l l be f i l l e d out. Your child's name w i l l not be included on the questionnaire, nor w i l l the teacher be given any means of working out your child's score. The purpose of the study is simply to see how the items work, not to obtain scores on individual children. There w i l l be no way that anyone w i l l be able to trace your child's questionnaire back to your child. This research project is being undertaken as a master's thesis in the division of Educational Psychology at the University of British Columbia. It has been endorsed by the superintendent of this school d i s t r i c t and by the principal and teachers of your school. Your consent to allow your child to be a participant in this research .2 - 84 -Parent Consent Form V I consent to 's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the v a l i d a t i o n study at School. I am aware that my c h i l d ' s name w i l l not be used i n his/her questionnaire and that the questionnaire w i l l be returned anonymously to the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. I understand that c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of data w i l l be maintained and that i n d i v i d u a l scores w i l l not be calculated or released. I also understand that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s project i s voluntary and may be terminated at any time. Signature I am unwilling to have involved i n the v a l i d a t i o n research study. Signature - 85 -APPENDIX VI Teachers' Reminder Lett - 87 -APPENDIX VII Factor Pattern and Factor Structure: Grades 2 and 5 - 88 -T a b l e A. The P r i m a r y P a t t e r n o f Items w i t h C o e f f i c i e n t s G r e a t e r Than o r E q u a l t o + 0.4 F a c t o r  I I I Item No. Gr. 2 Gr. 5 Gr. 2 Gr. 5 1 0.663 0.644 2 0.508 0.492 3 0.611 0.577 4 -0.505 -0.609 5 0.704 0.667 6 0.556 0.627 7 0.705 0.703 8 0.466 0.541 9 0.738 0.712 10 -0.463 -0.485 11 -0.506 -0.480 12 0.480 0.536 13 0.634 0.587 14 -0.703 -0.670 15 0.801 0.789 16 0.579 0.652 17 -0.568 -0.706 18 -0.754 -0.752 19 0.512 0.549 20 0.657 0.615 21 -0.471 -0.455 22 0.659 0.736 23 0.570 0.603 24 0.825 0.805 25 -0.522 -0.569 26 0.826 0.851 27 0.762 0.540 28 -0.492 -0.624 29 0.715 0.699 30 -0.587 -0.678 31 -0.594 -0.467 32 0.804 0.843 33 0.487 0.558 34 0.843 0.731 35 0.691 0.770 36 0.659 0.716 37 -0.501 -0.580 38 -0.480 -0.488 39 0.786 0.725 40 -0.607 -0.450 41 0.750 0.769 42 0.655 0.576 43 0.610 0.441 44 0.708 0.703 - 89 -T a b l e B. The P r i m a r y S t r u c t u r e o f Items w i t h C o e f f i c i e n t s G r e a t e r Than o r E q u a l t o + 0.4 F a c t o r  I I I Item No. Gr. 2 Gr. 5 Gr. 2 Gr. 5 1 0.665 0.686 2 0.543 0.572 -0.416 3 0.577 0.547 4 -0.504 -0.585 5 -0.417 0.730 0.732 6 0.561 0.685 7 0.711 0.718 8 0.497 0.632 -0.468 9 0.721 0.694 10 -0.455 -0.471 11 -0.554 -0.562 0.430 0.422 12 -0.454 -0.482 0.531 0.632 13 0.667 0.684 -0.501 14 -0.676 -0.659 15 0.782 0.799 16 0.579 0.641 17 -0.563 -0.700 18 -0.769 -0.786 19 0.551 0.617 20 0.673 0.687 -0.426 21 -0.485 -0.519 22 0.665 0.755 23 -0.487 0.608 0.695 24 0.822 0.820 25 0.436 -0.550 -0.648 26 0.817 0.833 27 0.718 0.460 28 0.422 0.464 -0.539 -0.707 29 0.719 0.709 30 0.431 -0.622 -0.746 31 -0.620 -0.557 0.443 32 0.785 0.843 33 -0.444 0.520 0.641 34 0.821 0.659 35 0.707 0.795 36 0.652 0.697 37 0.458 0.471 -0.553 -0.668 38 -0.512 -0.556 39 0.787 0.755 40 -0.649 -0.556 0.493 41 0.758 0.795 42 0.646 0.620 43 0.627 0.418 44 0.729 0.755 - 90 -APPENDIX VIII The Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale f o r the Elementary School (44 items) - 91 -The Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale for the Elementary School This scale i s designed to assess the degree of competence with which a c h i l d masters various aspects of the school day. It consists of 44 statements about a c h i l d ' s behaviour. You are asked to rate each statement i n terms of the frequency with which you have observed the behaviour during the most recent week. The ratings consist of f i v e d i f f e r e n t categories of frequency ranging from "Hardly Ever or Never" to "Very Often or Always". Please c i r c l e the number (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) which corresponds to the category which, i n your judgement, i s most d e s c r i p t i v e of t h i s c h i l d ' s behaviour for the most recent week. Please do not consult with anyone concerning your r a t i n g s . We are interested i n responses which are based on your knowledge of and experiences with the c h i l d . RATING INSTRUCTIONS 1) Base your r a t i n g on the c h i l d ' s behaviour during the most recent week. Consider only what the c h i l d did during that time period and t r y to disregard p r i o r behaviour and actions. 2) Please do not compare the c h i l d r e n you have been asked to rate with each other. Try to rate each c h i l d independently. 3) Base your ratings on how you have observed the c h i l d functioning i n the classroom. 4) Some items contain a number of s p e c i f i c behaviours which are only s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t from each other. Do not hesitate to make a r a t i n g even though the c h i l d does not exhibit a l l of the s p e c i f i c behaviours. 5) Please respond to every item. Do not leave any blanks. 6) Please do not h e s i t a t e to use extreme points where appropriate. 7) Consider each question independently. Children may exhibit seemingly contradictory behaviour. THIS SCALE MAY BE USED FOR RESEARCH PURPOSES ONLY THANK YOU VERY MUCH INDEED FOR YOUR HELP AND COOPERATION - 92 -Child's name or I . D . Sex of Child: Grade: 3. CHILD ADDS FREELY (VERBALLY OR NCNVERBALLY) TO TEACHER'S SOGGESTTtMB. ™-*WJ£KBALLY) 4 . C H I L D S H I E S AWAY AND WITHDRAWS WHEN AP -PRQACHED BY OTHER CHTTDPFM 5. C H I L D SHOWS ENTHUSIAM ABOUT WORK OR PLAY. 6 . C H I L D FROWNS, SHRUGS SHOULDERS, POUTS OR STAMPS FOOT WHEN SUGGESTION I S MADE BY TEACHER. ? " P L A ? Q J I L D R E N B** "BBS CHILD'S IDEAS FOR 8. CHILD I S UNWILLING TO CARRY OUT REASONABLE D I F F I C U L T Y ^ TEACHER E V E N WHE^HAVING^ 9' SS^ 1™* 5 COMFORTABLE ENOUGH WITH OTHER CHILDREN TO B E A B L E TO EXPRESS H I S OWN " D E S I R E S OR OPTNTnre m & 11. CHILD CAN A C C E P T TEACHER'S IDEAS AND SUG-GESTIONS FOR PTAV OR WAYS OF P I A Y T N G 12. C H I L D GETS W I L L I N G COOPERATION FROM MOST OTHER fflTTIwru 13. C H I L D G I V E S T H E APPEARANCE O F COMPLYING ^ v ^ 2 ^ ' S S U G G E S T I C ^ S , BUT DOES NOT DO SUGGESTED A C T I V I T Y . 16. C H I L D REBELS PHYSICALLY, FOR EXAMPLE: HAS TEMPER TANTRUMS, H I T S , K T P K S . W T 17. C H I L D HAS D I F F I C U L T Y DEFENDING H I S OWN RIGHTS WITH OTHER CHILDRFTJ. 18. C H I L D COOPERATES WITH RULES AND REGULA-TIONS. -19. I N PLAY WITH OTHER CHILDREN, C H I L D CAN S H I F T BETWEEN L E A D I N G AND FOLLOWING DEPENDING ON T H E S I T U A T I O N - 1 -- 93 -VERY HARDLY OFTEN EVER OR SOME- OR NEVER SELDOM TIMES OFTEN ALWAYS 20. CHILD REACTS NEGATIVELY TO TEACHER'S IDEAS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR PLAY ACTIVITIES. 1 2 3 4 5 21. CHILD IS UNABLE TO OCCUPY HIMSELF WITHOUT OTHER CHILDREN DIRECTING ACTIVITIES FOR HIM. 1 2 3 4 5 22. CHILD ACTIVELY DEFIES TEACHER'S RULES AND REGULATIONS. 1 2 3 4 5 23. CHILD CAN GIVE IDEAS TO OTHER CHILDREN AS WELL AS GO ALONG WITH THEIR IDEAS. 1 2 3 4 5 24. CHILD EXPRESSES OPEN DEFIANCE AGAINST AUTHORITY. 1 2 3 4 5 25. CHILD APPEARS AT A LOSS IN UNSTRUCTURED FREE-PLAY TYPES OF ACTIVITIES. 1 2 3 4 5 26. CHILD IS HOSTILE OR AGGRESSIVE WITH OTHER CHILDREN, FOR INSTANCE: PUSHES, TAUNTS, BULLIES, ETC. 1 2 3 4 5 27. CHILD HAS TO BE A LEADER IN ORDER TO PARTICIPATE IN ACTIVITIES WITH OTHER CHILDREN. 1 2 3 4 5 28. CHILD PARTICIPATES IN A HALF-HEARTED WAY. 1 2 3 4 5 29. CHILD TAKES POSSESSION OF OTHER CHILD-REN'S EQUIPMENT WITHOUT THEIR PERMISSION. 1 2 3 4 5 30. CHILD DEMONSTRATES LITTLE INTEREST IN THINGS AND ACTIVITIES. 1 2 3 4 5 31. CHILD IS OPEN TO THE IDEAS AND SUGGES-TIONS OF OTHER CHILDREN 1 2 3 4 5 32. CHILD IS QUARRELSOME. 1 2 3 4 5 33. CHILD CAN COMMUNICATE EES NEEDS TO THE TEACHER. 1 2 3 4 5 34. CHILD IS BOSSY AND DOMINATING WITH OTHER CHILDREN. 1 2 3 4 5 35. CHILD PREVENTS OTHER CHILDREN FROM CARRY-ING OUT ROUTINES. 1 2 3 4 5 36. CHILD SUCCEEDS IN GETTING OTHEKS INTEKESTEU IN WHAT HE IS DOING. 1 2 3 4 5 37. CHILD SHOWS INTEREST IN ONLY A FEW TYPES OF THINGS. 1 2 3 4 5 38. CHILD PUTS THINGS AWAY CAREFULLY. 1 2 3 4 5 39. CHILD IS UNWILLING TO PLAY WITH OTHER CHILDREN EXCEPT ON HIS OWN TERMS. 1 2 3 4 5 40. CHILD RESPONDS WELL WHEN THE ACTIVITY IS PLANNED OR DIRECTED BY THE TEACHER. 1 2 3 4 5 41. CHILD DISRUPTS ACTIVITIES OF OTHERS. 1 2 3 4 5 42. CHILD RESISTS GOING ALONG WITH THE IDEAS OF OTHER CHILDREN. 1 2 3 4 5 - 2 -- 94 -VERY 43. CHILD CAN BE INDEPENDENT OF ADULT IN HAVING IDEAS ABOUT OR PLANNING ACTIVITIES. HARDLY EVER OR NEVER SELDOM SOME-TIMES OFTEN OFTEN OR ALWAYS 1 2 3 4 5 44. CHILD HAS TROUBLE KEEPING TO THE RULES OF THE GAME. (DISREGARD WHEN CHILD DOES NOT KNOW OR UNDERSTAND RULES). 1 2 3 4 5 THANK YOU VERY MUCH INDEED FOR GIVING YOUR TIME AND INTEREST. YOUR HELP IS GREATLY APPRECIATED. - 3 -- 95 -S c o r i n g the 44 Item Kohn S o c i a l Competence  S c a l e f o r the E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l The S o c i a l Competence S c a l e f o r t h e Elementary S c h o o l c o n s i s t s o f 44 s t a t e m e n t s d e s c r i b i n g d i f f e r e n t ways i n which the elementary s c h o o l c h i l d may i n t e r a c t w i t h v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of the elementary s c h o o l day. F a c t o r I items a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1. T a b l e I (23 items) 11(+) 31(+) 40(+) 6(-) 1 3 ( - ) 20(-) 24(-) 27(-) 32(-) 35(-) 41(-) 44(-) 18(+) 38(+) 2(-) 8(-) 16(-) 22(-) 26(-) 29(-) 34(-) 39(-) 42(-) F a c t o r I I items a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 2. T a b l e 2 (21 items) K+) 5(+) 9(+) 15(+) 23(+) 36(+) 4(-) 14(-) 21(-) 28(-) 37(-) 3(+) 7(+) 12(+) 19(+) 33(+) 43(+) 10(-) 17(-) 25(-) 30(-) The v a l u e f o r some it e m s i s p o s i t i v e and f o r o t h e r s , n e g a t i v e . T h i s i s due t o t h e f a c t t h a t b o t h f a c t o r s o f the S o c i a l Competence S c a l e a r e b i p o l a r . Each c h i l d r e c e i v e s two s c o r e s on the S o c i a l Competence S c a l e , a F a c t o r I s c o r e and a F a c t o r I I s c o r e . The F a c t o r I s c o r e i s the a l g e b r a i c sum o f the s c o r e s o f a l l t h e F a c t o r I i t e m s . The F a c t o r I I s c o r e i s t h e a l g e b r a i c sum o f the s c o r e s o f a l l t h e F a c t o r I I i t e m s . A n e g a t i v e , as w e l l as a p o s i t i v e s c o r e i s p o s s i b l e . - 96 -Use o f the s c o r i n g form S c o r i n g i s g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d by use of the s c o r i n g form. T h i s form has 44 boxes numbered t o match the c o r r e s p o n d i n g items on the 44 i t e m S o c i a l Competence S c a l e . The boxes a r e a r r a n g e d so t h a t s c o r e s f o r p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e items f o r each f a c t o r w i l l be i n s e p a r a t e columns. There i s t h e r e f o r e no need f o r the s c o r e r to r e c o r d t h e s i g n o r s e p a r a t e t h e items a c c o r d i n g t o f a c t o r , i f the s c o r i n g form i s used. F o r each i t e m , copy i n t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e box on t h e s c o r i n g form the number c i r c l e d by t h e r a t e r . When a l l of t h e numbered boxes have been f i l l e d i n , a t o t a l f o r each column i s o b t a i n e d and w r i t t e n i n t h e empty F a c t o r I o r F a c t o r I I box a t the bottom of the column. The F a c t o r I t o t a l s a r e then s u b t r a c t e d from each o t h e r t o o b t a i n a t o t a l s c o r e f o r F a c t o r I and t h e F a c t o r I I t o t a l s a r e s u b t r a c t e d from each o t h e r t o o b t a i n a t o t a l s c o r e f o r F a c t o r I I . S c o r e s f o r F a c t o r I w i l l range between +7 and -85. S c o r e s f o r F a c t o r I I w i l l range between +51 and -33. P r o r a t i n g I f an i t e m was not r a t e d on the o r i g i n a l form, a r e d c i r c l e s h o u l d be p l a c e d i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e box on the s c o r i n g form. The p r o r a t e d s c o r e f o r t h i s box can be o b t a i n e d as f o l l o w s : - 97 -1. Add the scores i n a l l the other numbered boxes i n that column. 2. Divide the sum by the number of scores added together. The r e s u l t i n g quotient i s written in s i d e the red c i r c l e and added to the rest of the scores i n that column. Total Factor I and II scores are then obtained as indicated above. THIS PROCEDURE IS NOT LEGITIMATE WHEN MORE THAN A FEW ITEMS ARE MISSING. - 98 -Scoring Form for the Kohn S o c i a l Competence Scale f o r the Elementary School Name or I.D. Factor I + 11 •I 18 b 31 8 38 13 40 16 20 22 1 24 2b 21 29 32 34 3i> 39 41 42 44 Scored by Checked by Factor II + 1 4 3 10 i> 14 / 1/ y Z I 12 2b lb 28 19 30 23 3/ 33 36 43 FI FII 

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