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The framing of the miniatures of the benedictional of St. Aethelwold : meaning and function McKendy, Eilish 1979

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c • i THE FRAMING OF THE MINIATURES OF THE BENEDICTIONAL OF ST. AETHELWOLD: MEANING AND FUNCTION by 91 EILISH MCKENDY B.A., M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1952 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF 1 V :MASTER OF ARTS IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Fi n e A r t s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1979 0 E i l i s h McKendy, 1979 In presenting th i s thes i s in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I a g r ee t h a t the L ibrary shal l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I further agree that permission for extensive copying o f t h i s t h e s i s for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department o r by his representat ives. It is understood that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f th i s thes is fo r f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed w i t h o u t my written permission. Department of F i n e A r t s The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date October 15, 1979. ABSTRACT The frames surrounding the m i n i a t u r e s of the t e n t h - c e n t u r y manuscript, The B e n e d i c t i o n a l of S t . Aethelwold ( B r i t i s h Museum, Add. MS. 49598) are so sumptuous and s t r i k i n g t h a t they almost seem to overwhelm the e n c l o s e d scenes. C l o s e r study, however, makes i t apparent t h a t the a r t i s t s used the framing as a d e v i c e to emphasize the l i -t u r g i c a l and r o y a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the scenes, and t h a t a h i e r a r c h i c a l p l a n was e n v i s i o n e d - the more important the f e a s t was to the patron, Bishop Aethelwold of Winchester, the more embellished was the frame. Because very l i t t l e has been w r i t t e n about framing i n g e n e r a l and s i n c e no a u t h o r i t y has y e t examined the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the framing of the m i n i a t u r e s i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l , t h i s t h e s i s examines the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the frames and the scenes. Based on the t r a d i t i o n a l monograph, t h i s study begins w i t h a P r e f a c e f o l l o w e d by seven chapters - D e s c r i t p t i o n of the manuscript, t r a d i t i o n s of framing i n manuscripts p r i o r t o the B e n e d i c t i o n a l , com-ponents and sources of the B e n e d i c t i o n a l ' s frames, c o l o u r , o v e r l a p p i n g of frame and image, i n t e r a c t i o n between frame and scene, and c o n c l u s i o n . Each chapter reaches i t s own c o n c l u s i o n and c o n t a i n s elements which are important as background to the f i n a l t h e s i s - t h a t the frames were not merely d e c o r a t i v e a d d i t i o n s but pl a y e d a d e c i s i v e r o l e i n enhancing the iconography of the m i n i a t u r e s . The c o n c l u d i n g chapter of the t h e s i s , sums up the pre v i o u s evidence and shows how the h i e r a r c h i c a l r o l e p l a y e d by the frames of the m i n i a t u r e s emphasizes the l i t u r g i c a l and r o y a l content of the scenes. The study suggests t h a t the a r t i s t s attempted, i n a h i g h l y conscious way, to under-l i n e the p o l i t i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l aspects of the monastic reforms i n i t i a t e d by St. Aethelwold, which were a major f a c t o r i n the r e v i v a l of the a r t s i n t e n t h century England, and the for m a t i o n of the 'Winchester School'. Table of Contents L i s t of I l l u s t r a t i o n s v i Acknowledgement x i Preface 1 Chapter I I n t r o d u c t i o n : D e s c r i p t i o n of the Manu-s c r i p t 7 P h y s i c a l Composition 7 Date and Provenance 10 F u n c t i o n of the Benedic-t i o n a l 13 Chapter I I T r a d i t i o n s of Framing i n Manuscripts P r i o r to the B e n e d i c t i o n a l 18 Chapter I I I The Components and Sources of the Frame 29 The S t r u c t u r e of the e Frames 29 The Acanthus Leaf 39 The Rosettes 58 City-View Enrichments 65 Chapter IV The Colour Used i n the Frames 7 4 Chapter V Overlapping of Frame and Image 92 Image Overlapped by the Border 9 4 Border Overlapped by the Image 9 6 The Combination of Both 9 9 Chapter VI I n t e r a c t i o n Between Frame and Scene 111 Formal I n t e r a c t i o n of Frame with Scene 111 i v Chapter VI I n t e r a c t i o n Between Frame and Scene Sequence of Scenes as r e -l a t e d t o Frame De c o r a t i o n 117 L i t u r g i c a l Importance of Scenes as R e l a t e d t o Frame De c o r a t i o n 121 Thematic A n a l y s i s 131 Chapter VII C o n c l u s i o n 142 I l l u s t r a t i o n s 150 B i b l i o g r a p h y 2 39 v L i s t of I l l u s t r a t i o n s F i g u r e 1 F i g u r e 2 F i g u r e 3 F i g u r e 4 F i g u r e 5 F i g u r e 6 F i g u r e 7 F i g u r e 8 F i g u r e 9 F i g u r e 10 F i g u r e 11 F i g u r e 12 F i g u r e 13 F i g u r e 14 F i g u r e 15 F i g u r e 16 F i g u r e 17 F i g u r e 18 F i g u r e 19 F i g u r e 20 F i g u r e 21 F i g u r e 22 F i g u r e 23 F i g u r e 24 F o l i o 1 Confessors n F o l i o l v Chorus (of v i r g i n s ) O F o l i o 2 (Chorus of) V i r g i n s O F o l i o 2v Three A p o s t l e s 0 F o l i o 3 Three A p o s t l e s f\ F o l i o 3v Three A p o s t l e s ("^  F o l i o 4 Three A p o s t l e s n F o l i o 5v The A n n u n c i a t i o n F o l i o 9v The Second Coming Q F o l i o 15v The N a t i v i t y of C h r i s t Q F o l i o 16 Page of B l e s s i n g Q F o l i o 17v The Stoning of S t . Stephen O F o l i o 19v S t . John the E v a n g e l i s t IZi F o l i o 21 Page of B l e s s i n g o p p o s i t e the m i s s i n g Massacre of the Innocents F o l i o 22v The Octave of the N a t i v i t y 0 F o l i o 24v The A d o r a t i o n of the Magi D F o l i o 25 The Baptism of C h r i s t 0 F o l i o 34v The P r e s e n t a t i o n i n the Temple O F o l i o 4 5v The E n t r y i n t o Jerusalem D F o l i o 51v The Women a t the Tomb D F o l i o 56v Doubting Thomas F o l i o 64v The Ascension • F o l i o 67v The Descent of the Holy Ghost n F o l i o 70 I l l u m i n a t e d I n i t i a l : No Frame v i Figure 25 F o l i o 90v Figure 26 F o l i o 91 Figure 27 F o l i o 9 2v Figure 28 F o l i o 95v Figure 29 F o l i o 97v Figure 30 F o l i o 99v Figure 31 F o l i o 102v Figure 32 F o l i o 108 Figure 3 3 F o l i o 118v Figure 34 Psalter of St. Etheldreda t l Page of Blessing D The N a t i v i t y of St. John the Baptist The Martyrdom of Sts. Peter and Paul St. Swithun n St. Benedict Q The Death and Coronation of the f~\ V i r g i n * ' Page of Blessing opposite the mis- r~\ sing St. Michael Archangel ' ' Dedication of a Church: No Frame F o l i o 3r (Berlin, Stiftung Preussischer Kultur-bes i t z , Staatsbibliothek, Theol.lat.fol.58), second quarter, ninth century. Figure 35 Bible of Charles the Bald. I n i t i a l to Genesis, F o l i o l l r . (Paris, Bibl.Natl.lat.2) 871-873 A.D, Figure 36 Drogo Sacramentary. I n i t i a l D with scene of Women at the Tomb. F o l i o 5 8r. (Paris, Bibl.Natl, l a t . 9428) 850-855 A.D. Figure 37 The Durham R i t u a l . (Durham Cathedral Library. Royal MS A.IV 19) F i r s t half tenth century. Figure 38 The Stole and Maniple of St. Cuthbert. F i g u r e 3 9 J u n i u s P s a l t e r . I n i t i a l S . ( O x f o r d , B o d l e i a n M S . J u n i u s 2 7 , f . 1 2 1 v ) S e c o n d q u a r t e r t e n t h c e n t u r y . F i g u r e 4 0 F l e u r y M a n u s c r i p t . ( P a r i s , B i b l . N a t l . l a t . 6 4 0 1 , f o l i o 1 5 8 v ) . L a s t q u a r t e r t e n t h c e n t u r y . F i g u r e 4 1 T h e L i f e o f S t . C u t h b e r t . K i n g A e t h e l s t a n P r e -s e n t i n g B o o k t o S t . C u t h b e r t . ( C a m b r i d g e . C o r p u s C h r i s t i C o l l e g e M S 1 8 3 , f o l . i v ) 9 3 7 A . D . v i i F i g u r e 42 AetheIstan P s a l t e r a d d i t i o n . C h r i s t w i t h C h o i r s S a i n t s (London, B.M. MS Cotton Galba A. XVIII, f o l i o 21) 927-940 A.D. Fi g u r e 43 Helmingham H a l l , O r o s i u s . F i r s t h a l f t e n t h century, F i g u r e 44 New M i n s t e r C h a r t e r . King Edgar P r e s e n t i n g C h a r t e r to C h r i s t (B.M. Vespasian A. V I I I , f o l i o 2v) p a s t 9 71 A.D. Fi g u r e 45 T r a c i n g s made of acanthus l e a f work i n The Bene- d i c t i o n a l of Aethelwold F i g u r e 46 Book of Durrow, c a r p e t page (Dublin, T r i n i t y C o l l e g e L i b r a r y , MS 57, f o l i o 117v) middle or l a t t e r p a r t seventh century. F i g u r e 47 S u n d i a l , south w a l l of the tower of S t . John the B a p t i s t Church i n Barnack, Northamptonshire, Eng-la n d . L a t t e r p a r t t e n t h century. F i g u r e 48 Carved s l a b s on Barnack Church tower. N i n t h t o tenth century. F i g u r e 49 C a p i t a l s of the ch a n c e l - a r c h a t Bibury. Pre-Conquest. F i g u r e 50 & 50A. C r o s s - s h a f t or column, Wolverhampton, S t a f f . , England. N i n t h to t e n t h c e n t u r y . F i g u r e 51 Ivory r e l i e f s . The T r a n s f i g u r a t i o n and As c e n s i o n . London. V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum, Cat. 21) l a t e t e n t h century. F i g u r e 52 Ivory book cover. C h r i s t i n Majesty. ( P a r i s , B i b l . N a t l . l a t . 323 ( c a t . 2 3 ) ) . Late t e n t h century. F i g u r e 53 Ivory. Two Angels (Winchester Museum Cat. 16) Late t e n t h century. F i g u r e 54 Bronze t e n t h century censer cover. Pre-Benedic-t i o n a l . F i g u r e 55 Cast bronze strap-end. Tenth century. F i g u r e 56 Fragmentary g i l t - b r o n z e p l a t e . Tenth or e l e v e n t h Century. F i g u r e 57 The Abingdon Sword. (Oxford. Ashmolean Museum). Late n i n t h century. v i i i F i g u r e 5 8 Metalwork. S i t t i n g b o u r n e Scramasax. Late n i n t h or e a r l y t e n t h century. F i g u r e 59 The r e v e r s e of the A l f r e d Jewel. (Oxford: Ash-molean Museum). Ni n t h century. F i g u r e 60 Marble Roman vase (Rome: Museo Nuovo C a p i t o l i n o ) F i r s t century B.C. F i g u r e 61 S i l v e r Bowl (London: B r i t i s h Museum). Ni n t h or t e n t h century. F i g u r e 62 Stone. I t a l i a n c a r v i n g s . E i g h t h or n i n t h cen-t u r y . F i g u r e 63 Ivory Book Covers. Rheims. ( P a r i s : B i b l . N a t l . C o d . l a t , 1152) 860-870 A.D. F i g u r e 64 E v a n g e l i a r e de S a i n t - V a a s t d'Arras. (Boulogne: B i b l . de l a V i l l e , 12) middle of n i n t h century. F i g u r e 65 Gospel Book. Beginning of S t . John's Gospel w i t h I n i t i a l ' l ( n ) ' . Cologne r e g i o n . E a r l y t e n t h cen-t u r y . F i g u r e 66 Gospel Book. Beginning of S t . Matthew's Gospel. North Saxony. E a r l y t e n t h century. F i g u r e 6 7 L i n d i s f a r n e Gospels. Carpet page a t the beginning of the Gospels of S a i n t Mark (London: B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , Cotton MS Nero D.IV, f o l i o 94v) 700 A.D. F i g u r e 68 S t . Luke (London: B.M. Add. 40618, f o l i o 22v) F i r s t h a l f t e n t h century. F i g u r e 69 Vienna Genesis. (Vienna: N a t i o n a l b i b l i o t h e k , Cod.theol. g r . 31) s i x t h c entury. F i g u r e 70 U t r e c h t P s a l t e r . (Utrecht: U n i v . L i b r . S c r i p t . e c c l . 4 84) N i n t h century. F i g u r e 71 Ivory casket cover. Metz School. ( P a r i s : Louvre, c a t . M o l i n i e r 1896, Nr.11) n i n t h to t e n t h century. F i g u r e 72 Gospel. The E v a n g e l i s t Luke (Innsbruck, Univer-s i t a t s b i b l i o t h e k Cod.484, f o l . l l O v ) L a t t e r h a l f of n i n t h century. F i g u r e 73 L i n d i s f a r n e Gospels. S t . Matthew. (London, B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , Cotton MS Nero D.IV, f o l i o 25v) 700 A.D. i x F i g u r e 74 Macregol Gospels. S t . Mark and his,Symbol. (MS.Auct. D.2.19, f o l . 51v) E a r l y n i n t h century. F i g u r e 75 Manuscript. Rabanus Maurus Presents h i s Work to Pope Gregory IV (Cambridge: T r i n i t y C o l l . MS B.16,3 f o l i o IV) mid n i n t h century. F i g u r e 76 Eadwig Gospel. S t . John the E v a n g e l i s t . (Hanover: Kestner Museum., f o l i o . J-47y) ca 1020, F injure 7 7 l y or y, The Annunc i a t i o n , (Paris,; Louyre, Cat, M o l i n i e r .189 6, Nr. 11) N i n t h to t e n t h Century. F i g u r e 78 Drogo Sacramentary. I n i t i a l D. ( P a r i s : B i b l . N a t l , l a t . 9428, f o l i o 41a) ca 850 A.D. F i g u r e 79 Godescalc Gospels. The E v a n g e l i s t Mark. ( P a r i s : B i b l . N a t l . Nouv.Acq. 1203, f o l i o 4) 781-783 A.D. F i g u r e 80 L i n d i s f a r n e Gospels. I n c i p i t of St. Mark's Gospel. (London: B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , MS Cotton Nero D.IV, f o l i o 95) 700 A.D. F i g u r e 81 The Book of K e l l s . Account of the C r u c i f i x i o n . (Dublin: T r i n i t y C o l l e g e L i b r a r y , MS 58 A.I.6, f o l i o 124) 795-806 A.D. F i g u r e 82 Gospel;Book from I r e l a n d . S t . Luke. (London: B.L. Add.40618, f o l i o 21v) e i g h t h century. F i g u r e 83 Prudentius Manuscript. L u x u r i a Dancing. (London: B.M.Add.MS 24199, f o l i o 18) Late t e n t h century. F i g u r e 84 I v o r y . Brunswick Casket. (Brunswick, Herzog Anton U l r i c h Museum). F i g u r e 8 5 I v o r y . L i u t h a r d Group. (Munich: S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k Cod.lat.4452) ca 870 A.D. F i g u r e 86 I v o r y . ( P a r i s : Cluny Museum,Kat. du Sommerand Nr. 1039) t e n t h c e n t u r y . F i g u r e 87 Gospel Book. I n i t i a l L. (Essen C a t h e d r a l Treasury, f o l i o 96) ca 800. x ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to express a profound g r a t i t u d e to Dr. Mary Morehart of the Department of F i n e A r t s , f o r her p a t i e n t and t h o u g h t f u l guidance throughout t h i s study, and to Dr. Debra Pincus, a l s o of the Department of Fi n e A r t s , f o r her i n s i g h t i n o r g a n i z i n g t h i s t h e s i s and f o r her g e n e r o s i t y i n l o a n i n g me her o f f i c e . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o my f a m i l y f o r t h e i r understanding and help over the years I have spent a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. x i 1. PREFACE The monastic reforms c a r r i e d out by Aethelwold, Bishop of Winchester, were c e r t a i n l y a major f a c t o r i n the r e v i v a l o f the a r t s i n t e n t h century England, but they do not account f o r the i n v e n t i v e n e s s of the a r t i s t s who were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d i s t i n c t s t y l e connected w i t h the 'Winchester School' i n England i n the t e n t h and e l e v e n t h c e n t u r i e s . 1 T h i s s t y l e was p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n i l l u m i n a t e d manuscripts, above a l l i n the masterpiece o f the s c h o o l , The B e n e d i c t i o n a l of S t . Aethelwold. The m a g n i f i c e n t acanthus framing, a s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e of t h i s s t y l e , i s as o r i g i n a l as the f i g u r e scenes, even though the acanthus l e a f m o t i f i t s e l f was borrowed from abroad. Although the frames o f t e n seem more dominant to the eye than the p i c t u r e s they surround, the a u t h o r i t i e s have s a i d l i t t l e about them. There has been no s y s t e m a t i c study of framing of manuscripts t h a t l i n k s them to a s i g n i f i c a n t f u n c t i o n other than pure d e c o r a t i o n . T h i s study examines i n d e t a i l the frames o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l ' s m i n i a t u r e s and attempts to e x p l a i n how the acanthus frames, so o b v i o u s l y s t r e s s e d by the a r t i s t s , are more than d e c o r a t i o n , and how they p l a y a r o l e i n enhancing the s p i r i t u a l and p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the 2. Benedictional. A number of authorities have written about t h i s manuscript, although few have dealt with the framing i n any depth. Gage published a study of the Benedictional 2 i n 1832 but said l i t t l e about the framing. In 1910 Warner wrote one of the introductions for the only facsimile of the Benedictional published for the Roxborough Club, where he gave a b r i e f description of 3 some of the frames of the illuminated miniatures. Homburger i n 1912 wrote on the iconography and st y l e of this manuscript and he i s the only author who has pro-duced a thorough analysis of the Benedictional including a detailed study of the frames which was of p a r t i c u l a r 4 value for t h i s study. Recently, (1951), Wormald's short monograph on the Benedictional included a general des-5 c r i p t i o n of the frames. Deshman's doctoral thesis i n 1969 examined the iconography of the full-page miniatures i n the g Benedictional, but omitted the frames. His o r i g i n a l contribution to our understanding of the manuscript stresses the regal character of the Benedictional 1s iconography and the patronage of Aethelwold, which he 7 sees as permeating the book. Deshman's view i s that, i n 3. e f f e c t , the Benedictional i s a coronation manuscript. As evidence, Deshman analyzed the miniatures with the most g royal s i g n i f i c a n c e , and t h i s , as well as other factors, suggests that the frames of the Benedictional's miniatures also serve a sp e c i a l purpose: the frames are not purely embellishment of the scenes but have the function of emphasizing the l i t u r g i c a l and regal s i g n i f i c a n c e of the scenes enclosed. Other authors, not writing about the Benedictional 9 s p e c i f i c a l l y , but dealing with framing, are Roger Hinks, Henry Heydenryk, 1^ Norris K. Smith,1"'" Meyer S c h a p i r o , 1 2 13 and Ruth L. Kozodoy. This thesis analyses the component parts of the frames of the' Benedictional, describes each element of the frame, examines the e f f e c t of each part and the pre-cedents i n e a r l i e r manuscripts, and makes some conclusions from these f a c t s . Frame elements to be studied are: the structure of the frames, the parts added to the basic frame:- the acanthus leaf, the rosettes, the city-view enrichments and the colour. Overlapping of frame and image i s so extensive that i t deserves sp e c i a l attention. A discussion of the formal in t e r a c t i o n of frame and scene and the sequence of framing follows. An examination of the l i t u r g i c a l importance of feasts as r e f l e c t e d by the 4. frames i s undertaken and f i n a l l y the thematic i n t e r r e -l a t i o n s h i p of frame and scene i s s t u d i e d , c o n c l u d i n g with the suggestion t h a t the frames of the B e n e d i c t i o n a l d i d p l a y much more than a p u r e l y d e c o r a t i v e r o l e . I t i s hoped t h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l be a c o n s t r u c t i v e a d d i t i o n to the study of manuscripts i n g e n e r a l , and t h a t i n p a r t i c u l a r i t w i l l add to the understanding of the framing of the 'Winchester School', f o r the B e n e d i c t i o n a l acted as the i n i t i a t o r of a s t y l e of framing t h a t i n f l u e n c e d much of the a r t of the c o n t i n e n t i n the el e v e n t h century. 5. Footnotes VElzbieta Temple, Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts 900- 1066 (London, 1976), p. 17. "The term 'Winchester' school, i n fact, denotes no more than the style of c e r t a i n manu-scr i p t s produced i n the reformed Benedictine monasteries i n England, b a s i c a l l y the st y l e of the St. Dunstan drawing elaborated by the use of colour and by c h a r a c t e r i s t i c plant decoration. Only a small number of these manuscripts can be securely assigned to Winchester." 2 John Gage, "A Dissertation on St. Aethelwold's Benedictional," Archaeologia, XXIV (1832). 3 . . George Frederick Warner and Henry Austin Wilson, The Benedictional of Saint Aethelwold (Oxford, 1910) . 4 . ii Otto Homburger, Die Anfange Der Malschule von Winchester im X Jahrhundert (Leipzig, 1912). 5 Francis Wormald, The Benedictional of St. Ethelwold (London, 1959). Robert Deshman, The Iconography of the Full-Page  Miniatures of The Benedictional of Aethelwold Ph. D. di s s e r t a t i o n , Princeton University, 1970. 7 Ibid., p. 209. g An e a r l i e r paper e n t i t l e d "The Acanthus leaf ornamentation i n The Benedictional of St. Aethelwold" was written for a graduate seminar on medieval illuminated manuscripts i n England (Fine Arts course 533, 1975). 1935). 9 Roger Hinks, Carolmgian Art (Ann Arbor, Michigan, ^ Henry Heydenryk, The A r t and H i s t o r y of Frames (New York, 196 3). N o r r i s K. Smith, Medieval A r t (Dubuque, Iowa, 1967) . 12 Meyer Schapiro, "On Some Problems i n the Semiotics o f V i s u a l A r t : F i e l d and V e h i c l e i n Image-Signs, Se m i o t i c a , I (1969). Ruth L. Kozodoy, "The O r i g i n of E a r l y C h r i s t i a n Book I l l u m i n a t i o n : The S t a t e of the Question," Gesta, X. 2 (1971). CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION DESCRIPTION OF THE MANUSCRIPT The B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f S t . Aethelwold, ( B r i t i s h Museum Add. MS 49 598), the most b e a u t i f u l and b e s t known of the manuscripts o f the Winchester School, was executed d u r i n g the reform o f monastic d i s c i p l i n e i n adherence to the r u l e s o f the B e n e d i c t i n e Order, and i n i t i a t e d by Bishops Dunstan, Oswald and Aethelwold i n the l a s t h a l f of the te n t h c e n t u r y . The d e d i c a t i o n poem i n d i c a t e s t h a t the manuscript was ordered by Aethelwold o f Winchester f o r h i s own u s e . 1 Because the manuscript has been d e s c r i b e d 2 3 i n d e t a i l by Warner and Wilson, and Wormald, I w i l l d e s c r i b e o n l y b r i e f l y i t s p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n , date and provenance, and f u n c t i o n . P h y s i c a l Composition The manuscript, as we f i n d i t today, c o n s i s t s o f 119 leaves o f vellum measuring 11-1/2 inches by 8-1/2 in c h e s , e n c l o s e d i n a modern b i n d i n g . The t e x t c o n s i s t s of the d e d i c a t i o n poem f o l l o w e d by b l e s s i n g s (to be s a i d by a Bi s h o p ) , arranged a c c o r d i n g to the sequence of 8. f e a s t s o f the l i t u r g i c a l y ear. The book c o n t a i n s one hundred and s i x t e e n E p i s c o p a l B e n e d i c t i o n s f o r f e a s t s 5 throughout the y e a r . The s c r i p t i s an e a r l y example of the use o f C a r o l i n g i a n m i n i s c u l e i n England, i n d i c a t i n g g the i n f l u e n c e o f C o n t i n e n t a l h a b i t s . In the l a t e n i n t h and e a r l y tenth c e n t u r i e s , c o n t a c t w i t h the c o n t i n e n t i n c r e a s e d under A l f r e d the Great (d. 899 A.D.) and p a r t i -c u l a r l y under A e t h e l s t a n (d. 939 A.D.). T h i s c o n t a c t exposed i n s u l a r a r t i s t s to n i n t h century C a r o l i n g i a n a r t which had been i n s p i r e d by Late Antique and E a r l y C h r i s t i a n m o t i f s . The monastic reform movement of the l a t e r tenth century brought i n s p i r a t i o n from C o n t i n e n t a l s o u r c e s . Books were brought to England as w e l l to h e l p the reform t h a t emphasized ceremonial aspects of the l i t u r g y . S t . Aethelwold was a prime mover i n monastic reform. Before the reform of monasticism i n the tenth century, E n g l i s h s c r i b e s had employed an I n s u l a r s c r i p t t h a t had been i n use s i n c e the s i x t h c e n t u r y . The pages of t e x t , r u l e d by a s t y l u s , u s u a l l y c o n s i s t of n i n e t e e n l i n e s of w r i t i n g to a page. Some o f the headings are composed of l a r g e square c a p i t a l s and others are formed of u n c i a l s and r u s t i c c a p i t a l s . The d e d i c a t i o n poem mentioned above i s w r i t t e n i n golden r u s t i c c a p i t a l s . The d e c o r a t i o n o f the manuscript c o n s i s t s of 9 . twenty-eight f u l l - p a g e m i n i a t u r e s i n e i t h e r r e c t a n g u l a r or arched frames, nineteen pages of t e x t surrounded by s i m i l a r d e c o r a t i v e frames, one i l l u m i n a t e d i n i t i a l w i t h i n a d e c o r a t i v e frame and one i l l u m i n a t e d i n i t i a l without frame. Each f u l l - p a g e , m i n i a t u r e occupies the verso o f a l e a f and f u n c t i o n s as a p r e f a c e to the t e x t o f b l e s s i n g f o r the f e a s t which occupies the r e c t o of the f a c i n g l e a f . The two f a c i n g pages are surrounded by matching frames. There are two exceptions to t h i s arrangement: the f i r s t i s the f e a s t o f the Epiphany which i s p r e f a c e d by two f u l l - p a g e m i n i a t u r e s , and the second i s the page of b l e s s -i n g f o r the f e a s t o f the T r i n i t y ( f o l i o 70 - f i g u r e 24) and the f i n a l m i n i a t u r e , the D e d i c a t i o n o f the Church, ( f o l i o 118v - f i g u r e 33) n e i t h e r o f which i s framed. A l l the m i n i a t u r e s and f a c i n g pages o f decorated t e x t are framed with f o l i a t e d ornament of a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c type o f t e n c a l l e d 'Winchester' acanthus, the name d e r i v e d from The B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f S t . Aethelwold and oth e r manuscripts 7 r e l a t e d to i t . The B e n e d i c t i o n a l commences wit h a continuous sequence of seven f u l l - p a g e m i n i a t u r e s but probably there are some m i s s i n g - p o s s i b l y there were twelve o f them o r i g i n a l l y forming a s e t o f heavenly c h o i r s . Apart from these, two i s o l a t e d t e x t frames ( f o l i o s 21 and 10 8) 10. indicate that two miniatures are missing: The Massacre of the Innocents, which would have been f o l i o 20v, and St. Michael which would have been f o l i o 107v. Moreover, a textual gap between f o l i o s 105r and 106r indicates that the feast of the Nat i v i t y of the V i r g i n and i t s facing page of text are missing. For the convenience of the reader, the miniatures and i n i t i a l s are l i s t e d together with the shape of t h e i r frame ( R for arched frames, Q for rectangular frames), and the plate number, i n the L i s t of I l l u s t r a t i o n s . Date and Provenance Unlike many illuminated manuscripts, we do have some information about the o r i g i n of the Benedictional from the dedication poem written by the scribe Godeman at the beginning of the book. In this poem he t e l l s us that the book was ordered by Bishop Aethelwold of Winchester for h is own use. Therefore the Benedictional must have been executed during Aethelwold's episcopacy. He was con-secrated Bishop on November 29, 96 3 and died August 1, 9 9 84, thus the manuscript was made between these dates. Wilson noted that the text for the feast of St. Swithun appears to refer to miracles that occurred aft e r the s a i n t ' s t r a n s l a t i o n i n 971 which helps date the manuscript more p r e c i s e l y between J u l y 15, 971 and August 1, 984. U n f o r t u n a t e l y Godeman d i d not give a p r e c i s e date nor d i d he s t a t e who p a i n t e d the m i n i a t u r e s ; i n f a c t , we only know t h a t he wrote the d e d i c a t o r y poem and he may not have w r i t t e n the r e s t o f the t e x t . Although two authors b e l i e v e Godeman was the s c r i p t o r as w e l l as the i l l u m i n a t o r , Deshman has suggested t h a t there was a s e p a r a t i o n o f hands, but no one has y e t made a s e r i o u s study r e g a r d i n g the a r t i s t s o f the mi n i a t u r e s o f the Benedictional."'""'" In my view, the v a r i e t y o f the acanthus l e a f framing suggests t h a t there were a number of a r t i s t s a t work on the manu-s c r i p t , or i f only one a r t i s t was i n v o l v e d , he used d i f f e r e n t models which i n c l u d e d acanthus l e a f d e c o r a t i o n . I tend t o b e l i e v e there was more than one a r t i s t and have worked under t h i s assumption i n w r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s . The a u t h o r i t i e s g e n e r a l l y agree t h a t the manuscript was produced a t Aethelwold's own monastery, the Old Mi n s t e r , Winchester, s i n c e he commissioned i t , and although Godeman i s l i s t e d as an abbot i n the L i b e r V i t a e o f Hyde Abbey 12 (formerly the New Minster) he was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the 13 Old M i n s t e r as Aethelwold's c h a p l a i n . There are two f u r t h e r arguments i n f a v o r o f the Old Min s t e r : one i s t h a t S a i n t Swithun, Aethelwold's predecessor i n the see of 12. Winchester, i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Old M i n s t e r , and there i s an i l l u m i n a t e d m i n i a t u r e f o r h i s f e a s t i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l ( f o l i o 9 7v - f i g u r e 29); the second argument i s t h a t the Old Mi n s t e r was d e d i c a t e d to the Holy T r i n i t y and an i l l u m i n a t e d i n i t i a l i s p r e s e n t i n the manuscript d e c o r a t i n g t h i s otherwise unimportant f e a s t o f T r i n i t y Sunday ( f o l i o 70 - f i g u r e 24). T o l h u r s t argues f o r an E l y provenance because Aethelwold refounded E l y i n 9 70, and as w e l l there was a monk i n r e s i d e n c e named Godeman. F u r t h e r , T o l h u r s t main-t a i n s there i s a s t y l i s t i c s i m i l a r i t y between the Bene-d i c t i o n a l and the e l e v e n t h century M i s s a l o f Robert o f  Jumi^ges i n Rouen (Rouen, B i b l i o t h e q u e M u n i c i p a l e , MS 369 Y.7), c o n s i d e r e d t o have been executed a t E l y ; and S t . Et h e l d r e d a , the founder of E l y , i s p a r t i c u l a r l y honoured i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l by having her f e a s t d ecorated with two f a c i n g pages, S t . E t h e l d r e d a ( f o l i o 90v - f i g u r e 25) and an i l l u m i n a t e d i n i t i a l of C h r i s t b l e s s i n g w i t h i n the i n i t i a l 0 ( f o l i o 91r - f i g u r e 26). Conversely, Deshman argues t h a t s t y l i s t i c a l l y these two manuscripts are not p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e , and t h a t E t h e l d r e d a as an Anglo-Saxon queen, had the t r a d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n o f the found a t i o n o f 14 nunneries, and understandably would be g i v e n t h i s a t t e n t i o n . Deshman's c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the B e n e d i c t i o n a l was a product o f the Old Min s t e r , Winchester, seems more p l a u s i b l e . What became o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l a f t e r S t . Aethelwold's death i s unknown, but Wormald noted t h a t some f i f t e e n t h century documents from Hyde Abbey were used as reinforcement of the b i n d i n g o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l suggest-i n g t h a t the manuscript was at Hyde Abbey (formerly New Minster) a t t h i s time and perhaps remained there u n t i l the d i s s o l u t i o n o f the Abbey i n 1538. The next reappearance of the manuscript i s i n the e s t a t e of Henry Compton (Bishop of Oxford 1674-75 and Bishop o f London 1675 u n t i l 15 h i s death i n 1713.) I t was probably a t t h i s time t h a t 16 the manuscript r e c e i v e d i t s p r e s e n t l e a t h e r b i n d i n g . General Hatton Compton, nephew and executor of Henry Compton's e s t a t e , probably had i t and i t next appears i n the p o s s e s s i o n of W i l l i a m Cavendish, second Duke of Devonshire, sometime between 1713 and January 18, 1720, when Wanley recorded t h a t he saw the B e n e d i c t i o n a l a t Chatsworth, the Duke's e s t a t e , where i t remained u n t i l 17 i t was a c q u i r e d i n 1957 by the B r i t i s h Museum. Fu n c t i o n of the B e n e d i c t i o n a l A B e n e d i c t i o n a l i s a book of solemn b l e s s i n g s to be s a i d by a bishop before Communion i n the l i t u r g y o f 14. the Mass, a separate hook made f o r the<bishop's own use and b e l i e v e d t o have been w r i t t e n f o r p a r t i c u l a r churches 18 where i t s use p r e v a i l e d . The B e n e d i c t i o n a l d i d not form p a r t o f the Roman l i t u r g y but was used d u r i n g the Middle Ages as a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r Communion, and the b l e s s i n g was 19 pronounced w i t h g r e a t ceremony by the bishop o n l y . Thus the book would have been on d i s p l a y on the a l t a r d u r i n g the c e l e b r a t i o n of Mass. Few B e n e d i c t i o n a l s are as l a v i s h l y decorated as t h a t of S t . Aethelwold. Two other contemporary Benedic-t i o n a l s were made i n England: one co n t a i n s i l l u m i n a t e d borders and i s s i m i l a r t o our manuscript ( P a r i s , B i b l i -otheque N a t i o n a l e , fonds l a t . 987); and the other, a c t u a l l y a P o n t i f i c a l , was executed f o r a bishop of Winchester ( p o s s i b l y Aethelwold), The B e n e d i c t i o n a l of  Archbishop Robert o f Jumieges (Rouen, B i b l i o t h e q u e M u n i c i p a l e , MS. 369 Y. 7). Both postdate The B e n e d i c t i o n a l 2 0 o f S t . Aethelwold. Footnotes Robert Deshman, The Iconography of the Full-Page Miniatures of The Benedictional of Aethelwold. Ph.D. dis s e r t a t i o n , Princeton University, 1970), p. 5. 2 George Frederick Warner and Henry Austin Wilson, The Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (Oxford, 1910). 3 Francis Wormald, The Benedictional of St. Sthelwold (London, 19 59). 4 Deshman, The Iconography of the Full-Page  Miniatures, p. 3. ^ John Gage, "A Dissertation on St. Aethelwold's Benedictional," Archaeologia, XXIV (1832), p. 25. Wormald, The Benedictional of St. ..Ethelwold, p. 10 . 7 Ibid., p. 13. g Deshman, The Iconography of the Full-Page  Miniatures, p. 5. 9 Warner, The Benedictional of St. Aethelwold, p. x i i i . "^Wilson, The Benedictional of St. Aethelwold, pp. LVIf. 16. F r a n c i s Wormald says l i t t l e about the a r t i s t although he i m p l i e s t h a t Godeman was the s c r i b e . Mr. O t t l e y , who d e s c r i b e d the a r t i s t i c q u a l i t i e s of t h i s manuscript f o r John Gage, s t a t e s t h a t the c o l o u r i n g of the body might have been done by a d i f f e r e n t a r t i s t than the one who drew the o u t l i n e s o f the f i g u r e s , because the c o l o u r i n g o f the f l e s h i s so i n f e r i o r . Mr. O t t l e y then goes on to say t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Godeman was the p a i n t e r as w e l l as the w r i t e r , as the name o f the s c r i b e o f t e n appears but there i s h a r d l y ever a r e c o r d of the i l l u m i n a t o r ( i n Gage, "A D i s s e r t a t i o n on S t . Aethelwold's B e n e d i c t i o n a l , " p. 31-3.) John Gage sees no reason to doubt t h a t Godeman was the i l l u m i n a t o r of the manuscript as w e l l as the w r i t e r . (Gage, p. 40.) Robert Deshman s t a t e d t h a t he c e r t a i n l y thought there was a s e p a r a t i o n o f hands i n the m i n i a t u r e s but t h a t he had never pursued t h i s aspect as he f e l t t h a t i t would add l i t t l e t o the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the B e n e d i c t i o n a l (From a telephone c o n v e r s a t i o n w h i l e he was a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , November 1975). 12 Wormald, The B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f S t . ...Ethelwold, p. 10; Warner, The B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f S t . Aethelwold, p. x i v . 13 Warner, The B e n e d i c t i o n a l of S t . Aethelwold, p. x n i . 14 Deshman, The Iconography of the F u l l - P a g e M i n i a t u r e s , p. 6, 234. 15 I b i d . , p. 7 . P- 9 16 Wormald, The B e n e d i c t i o n a l of S t . Ethelwold, 17 Deshman, The Iconography o f the F u l l - P a g e M i n i a t u r e s , p. 7. 18 Gage, "A D i s s e r t a t i o n o f S t . Aethelwold's B e n e d i c t i o n a l , " p. 5. 19 Wormald, The B e n e d i c t i o n a l of S t . Ethelwold, p. 8. I b i d . , p. 9 . 18. CHAPTER II Traditions of Framing i n Manuscripts  Prior to the Benedictional The frame has assumed d i f f e r e n t functions at d i f -ferent periods i n art h i s t o r y . A l l types of frames are devices of ordering and expression, and a r t i s t s have a l -ways been free to construct e f f e c t i v e deviations to s a t i s f y a p a r t i c u l a r need."*" At times the frame was con-ceived as forming part of the scene i t enclosed, and at other times i t was thought of i n relationship to i t s 2 exterior surroundings. In looking at the development of the frame h i s t o r i c a l l y , we see that i t was only i n Renaissance times, from about the f i f t e e n t h century on, that painting was thought of as 'a window on the world' with the emphasis placed on the external observer's p o s i t i o n . This r e f l e c t s the popular philosophy of the period that man was the centre of the univerve, and 3 therefore, the spectator's p o s i t i o n was pre-eminent. In medieval painting the focus was not on the external observer, but on the i n t e r n a l viewer's position, that i s , the view of a spectator who was imagined to be within the 4 painting looking out. This represents a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t 19 . perspective from that of Renaissance art, and throws some l i g h t on the reasons for the use of the frame and image as an intere l a t e d unit, so popular with Western Romanesque 5 book illuminators. The frame remained subordinate i n Renaissance a r t . Thus i n Renaissance painting one would never f i n d the overpowering acanthus frame that we see i n The Benedictional of St. Aethelwold and other Western manuscripts of the period, i n which the frame i s as much to be admired as the scene, and sometimes even assumes more importance than the figure. As Warner in. describing the Benedictional has so aptly put i t : "The r e a l i n t e r e s t of the volume does not l i e i n i t s text, but i n the splen-did series of illuminated miniatures and borders with which many of i t s pages are decorated." Interest i n framing miniatures has not always been practised. In Egypt we f i r s t f i n d the beginnings of the i l l u s t r a t e d book. I n i t i a l l y the i l l u s t r a t i o n ran i n a narrow s t r i p along the bottom of the text, subordinate to i t . Later the i l l u s t r a t i o n s became larger, moved up, were f i t t e d into the columns between sections of text, and f i n a l l y evolved into the f u l l - s i z e d miniature. The Books of the Dead were the texts most frequently i l l u s t r a t e d but t h e i r i l l u s t r a t i o n s had no background or frame. In Greece we f i n d the i l l u s t r a t i o n s inserted into columns i n t e r -20. r u p t i n g the t e x t i n the same way w i t h no backgrounds or frames. These p i c t u r e s c o n s t i t u t e d what Weitzmann r e f e r s to as the "papyrus s t y l e " . In Roman times, when the papyrus r o l l was g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d w i t h the codex, 7 around the f i r s t century A.D. or e a r l i e r , a r a d i c a l change o c c u r r e d i n the treatment o f the i l l u s t r a t i o n s . A continuous, i s o l a t i n g frame around an image appeared and t h i s may have taken p l a c e about the second o r t h i r d century, although the e a r l i e s t s u r v i v i n g c o d i c e s are of g the f o u r t h century. The p o r t r a i t e x i s t e d i n books as 9 e a r l y as the f i r s t century B.C. and was c r e a t e d as a symbolic image concerned with the i n s p i r e d nature o f the t e x t . 1 ^ F u l l y p a i n t e d m i n i a t u r e s w i t h frames p l a c e d on separate pages d i s t i n c t from the t e x t appeared about the f o u r t h to f i f t h c e n t u r i e s . T h i s took p l a c e i n pagan as w e l l as C h r i s t i a n book i l l u m i n a t i o n , and decorated embellishments o f the t e x t i n headings, l e t t e r s , colophons, e t c . , appeared i n the f o u r t h century f o r the f i r s t time. In the Roman codex the frame c o n s i s t e d o f a simple border.. I t was not u n t i l medieval times t h a t the frame became e l a b o r a t e as i s seen i n C a r o l i n g i a n and Hiberno-Saxon manuscripts. In antique a r t the frame was e i t h e r a s t r i p ornamented wi t h a c a b l e o r bead-and-reel, or a moulding composed of a c a n t h u s - l e a f o r egg-and-dart which face i n -wards towards the enclosed area. The c e n t r i f u g a l frame, 21. w i t h elements f a c i n g outwards from the c e n t r e was probably i n t r o d u c e d around the middle o f the f o u r t h century B.C. i n t o Greek a r t . Although the medieval a r t i s t i n h e r i t e d the frame from Roman A r t , h i s a t t i t u d e toward i t changed. In a n t i -q u i t y the frame was regarded as an i n d i v i s i b l e u n i t but i n n o r t h e r n medieval a r t " t h i s o r g a n i c c o n t i n u i t y o f the frame i s d i s r e g a r d e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n book p a i n t i n g . The frames of C a r o l i n g i a n i v o r y - c a r v i n g s are c l o s e r to antique p a t t e r n s than the frames o f contemporary m i n i a -t u r e s where many o f the ornamental d e c o r a t i v e forms adopted, o r i g i n a t e d i n no r t h e r n I n s u l a r a r t . The most popular border i n C a r o l i n g i a n a r t , however, i s the row of o v e r l a p p i n g acanthus l e a v e s , which was not common i n a n t i q u i t y , and i s only found i n Roman i v o r i e s o f the f i f t h c e ntury. In the n i n t h century these acanthus borders become much more e l a b o r a t e i n both i v o r i e s and i n manu-s c r i p t s , and the antique motif, the acanthus, was put to 12 f r e s h uses. Germanic and C e l t i c a r t had e s t a b l i s h e d the d e c o r a t i v e page, C a r o l i n g i a n a r t s u b s t i t u t e d the a b s t r a c t s p i r a l s and i n t e r l a c i n g s o f Northern a r t f o r o r g a n i c s c r o l l s o f the South and melded the image and the ornament 13 producing a harmonious whole. There i s no c l e a r - c u t l i n e o f development i n C a r o l i n g i a n a r t as each c e n t r e or s c h o o l had i t s own ideas o f ornamentation d e r i v e d from a v a r i e t y o f i n f l u -ences. Thus I w i l l only d e a l w i t h the elements of C a r o l i n g i a n manuscript p a i n t i n g t h a t have most d i r e c t 14 r e v e l a n c e f o r the B e n e d i c t i o n a l . In the second h a l f o f the n i n t h century two d i f -f e r e n t schools dominated C a r o l i n g i a n a r t : a Court School working f o r a patron, Charlemagne's grandson C h a r l e s the B a l d (840 - 877) and producing a v a r i e t y of sumptuous books which combined the achievements o f a century; and a Monastic School producing books f o r export s t r e s s i n g l i t u r g i c a l p r a c t i c e and l i m i t i n g i t s e l f to a r e p e r t o r y o f 15 mainly ornamental forms. One of the most important groups of C a r o l i n g i a n manuscripts f o r our study d e r i v e from the s o - c a l l e d Franco-Saxon group dated c i r c a 870 A.D. and probably o r i g i n a t i n g i n a monastery of north-western France. The a b s t r a c t l i n e a r s t y l e of these manuscripts produce a 16 mainly d e c o r a t i v e e f f e c t . The i n i t i a l i n f l u e n c e f o r t h i s group comes from a s t y l e t h a t reached i t s peak i n the second q u a r t e r o f the n i n t h century a t the monastery of S a i n t - B e r t i n , w i t h a few manuscripts p u r e l y ornamental 23. i n c h a r a c t e r . The b e s t example o f these i s a P s a l t e r made f o r L o u i s the German (840 - 876) and decorated w i t h i n i t i a l pages ( B e r l i n , S t i f t u n g P r e u s s i s c h e r K u l t u r b e s i t z , S t a a t s b i b i o t h e k , T h e o l . l a t . f o l . 58 - Beginning to Psalm 1, f o l . 3r - f i g u r e 34) where the d e c o r a t i v e vocabulary i s mainly composed o f I n s u l a r r a t h e r than Mediterranean m o t i f s . Here we note the use o f g o l d and muted c o l o u r s producing a harmonious whole "as w e l l as a s u b t l e balance 17 between dynamic and s t a t i c form." Here "Frame, i n i t i a l , 17 l e t t e r s and d e c o r a t i v e d e t a i l " produce an e q u i l i b r i u m . We note the d e c o r a t i v e treatment a t the f o u r corners and the midpoints of the s i d e s "which break through the frame at the c e n t r e o f i t s top and bottom, or s w e l l i t on the s i d e s . " The c l i m a x of the Franco-Saxon School i s achieved i n the s o - c a l l e d Second B i b l e of C h a r l e s the B a l d produced a t the monastery o f S a i n t Amand between 871 and 873 which a l s o f e a t u r e s i l l u m i n a t e d i n i t i a l s combined w i t h I n s u l a r 18 m o t i f s . In f i g u r e 35 ( B i b l e of Charles the B a l d . P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , l a t . 2. I n i t i a l to Genesis, f o l . l l r ) we note a more r i g i d s t r u c t u r e than found i n the e a r l i e r manuscript ( f i g u r e 34) but the same u n i t y o f frame and c o n t a i n e d i n i t i a l s and the same " i n t e r p l a y between 19 s t a b l e and mutable forms" e x i s t s . A d i a g o n a l p a t t e r n 24 . i s e v i d e n t i n many areas such as: the i n t e r l a c e c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n g o l d bars; the a x i a l treatment o f the med a l l i o n s ; the geometric design i n the crown of the i n i t i a l I - these counterbalanced by the s t r o n g h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l l i n e s o f the gold bars of the frame and the i n i t i a l s . We w i l l see t h a t a l l these f e a t u r e s are found i n the Benedic-t i o n a l ' s m i n i a t u r e s i n c l u d i n g the t r e l l i s - l i k e frame o f gold b ars. The o t h e r s c h o o l of C a r o l i n g i a n a r t t h a t o b v i o u s l y i n f l u e n c e d the framing i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l i s the School of Metz of the mid-ninth century. Drogo, i l l e g i t i m a t e son of the Emperor L o t h a i r , became Archbishop o f Metz i n 844 and was the d r i v i n g f o r c e behind t h i s s c h o o l of i l l u m i n a -t i o n which produced a s m a l l but p r e c i o u s group of raanu-20 s c r i p t s . Among them i s the Drogo Sacramentary made f o r h i s own use and c o n t a i n i n g f o r t y - o n e h i s t o r i a t e d i n i t i a l s c o n t a i n i n g scenes o f l i t u r g i c a l f e a s t s . The framing o f these i n i t i a l s i s composed of t r e l l i s - l i k e g o ld bars on to which c l a s s i c a l acanthus twines and c l a s p s , (Drogo Sacra-mentary - I n i t i a l D w i t h scene o f Three Women a t the Tomb. P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , l a t . 9428, f o l . 58r -f i g u r e 36). C a r o l i n g i a n i n f l u e n c e on tenth century E n g l i s h a r t has been w e l l documented, due to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of F r a n k i s h i l l u m i n a t o r s and to g i f t s o f manuscripts to the E n g l i s h c o u r t a t Winchester, as w e l l as the purchase of C a r o l i n g i a n manuscripts d u r i n g the r e i g n of A l f r e d the Great f i f t y years b e f o r e The B e n e d i c t i o n a l of S t . 21 Aethelwold. These C o n t i n e n t a l manuscripts undoubtedly became models f o r the B e n e d i c t i o n a l . 26 . Footnotes Meyer Schapiro, "On Some Problems i n the Semiotics of Visual Art: F i e l d and Vehicle i n Image-Signs," Semiotica, I (1969), p. 228-9. Henry Heydenryk, The Art and History of Frames (New York, 1963), p. 5. B. A. Uspensky, "'Left' and 'Right 1 i n Icon Painting," Semiotica, 13 (1975), p. 33. Ibid., p. 33-4. This has been brought out by Uspensky who discovered that i n icon painting terminology, the right-hand part of the painting was thought of as the ' l e f t ' and conversely the l e f t part of the painting as the ' r i g h t 1 . In other words, the reckoning was not from the spectator's point of view but the view of someone facing us, an i n t e r n a l observer imagined to be within the depicted world. Uspensky goes on to say on page 38: " I t should be added that the conclusions given above should i n no way be considered as a p e c u l i a r i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c only of Byzantine or ancient Russian a r t . . . In fact one could boldly ascribe t h i s phenomenon to pre-Renaissance art i n general, c e r t a i n -l y to medieval art and to some extent to even e a r l i e r a r t . " The frame and image as an interelated unit was a l i e n to Byzantine a r t . The inhabited s c r o l l combining men, animals and plants with geometric forms was foreign to Byzantine art as was a patterned background i n a scene. George Frederick Warner i n George Frederick Warner and Henry Austin Wilson, The Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (Oxford, 1910), p. i x . Ruth L. Kozodoy, "The Origin of Early C h r i s t i a n Book Illumination: The State of the Question," Gesta, X, No. 2 (1971), p. 33. 27. g I b i d . , p. 33. 9 I b i d . , p. 34. 10 T, . , I b i d . , p. 36 . "'""''Roger Hinks, C a r o l i n g i a n A r t (Ann Arbor, Michigan 1962) , p. 204 . 1 2 I b i d . , p. 205. 1 3 I b i d . , p. 206. 14 A more comprehensive treatment of C a r o l i n g i a n manuscript p a i n t i n g i s d e a l t w i t h by F l o r e n t i n e Mutherich and Joachim E. Gaehde, C a r o l i n g i a n P a i n t i n g (New York, 1976) . ^ F l o r e n t i n e Mutherich and Joachim E. Gaehde, C a r o l i n g i a n P a i n t i n g (New York, 1976), p. 15. 16 Hinks, C a r o l i n g i a n A r t , p. 202. 17 i Mutherich and Gaehde, C a r o l i n g i a n P a i n t i n g , p. 66 . 18 An example o f an I n s u l a r motif i s seen i n the red d o t t e d l i n e s around the i n i t i a l I, borrowed from Hiberno-Saxon i l l u m i n a t i o n o f the seventh and e i g h t c e n t u r i e s . 19 H Mutherich and Gaehde, C a r o l i n g i a n P a i n t i n g , p. 126. 2 0 I b i d . , p. 14. J . Henry Middleton, I l l u m i n a t e d Manuscripts i n C l a s s i c a l and Mediaeval Times, T h e i r A r t and T h e i r  Technique (Cambridge, 1892), p. 99. 29 . CHAPTER I I I THE COMPONENTS AND SOURCES OF THE FRAME The S t r u c t u r e o f the Frames Each o f the m i n i a t u r e s i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l i s surrounded by a d e c o r a t i v e frame, and a matching frame i s to be found on the op p o s i t e page c o n t a i n i n g the opening words of the b l e s s i n g w i t h the exceptions mentioned on page 9 o f Chapter I . The t h i r t y frames I w i l l be d e a l i n g w i t h are e i t h e r r e c t a n g u l a r o r arched i n shape but there are v a r i a t i o n s of the two b a s i c shapes. In both, the framework i s formed o f go l d bands o r bars over which acanthus leaves climb, resembling a t r e l l i s hence the framework has been r e f e r r e d to as a t r e l l i s or e s p a l i e r frame. T h i r t e e n o f the t h i r t y m i n i a t u r e s have r e c t a n g u l a r frames. Rectangular frames were an obvious and common form o f e n c l o s i n g scenes i n manuscript i l l u m i n a t i o n as they echoed the shape o f the ve l l u m pages i n the codex or book form. As we have seen t h i s shape o r i g i n a t e d i n Roman manuscript p a i n t i n g . The v a r i a t i o n o f r e c t a n g u l a r frames 30 . i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l occurs not i n the shape of the frame but i n the number of r o s e t t e embellishments and i n the o v e r l a p p i n g o f the frame by the f i g u r e s or o b j e c t s w i t h i n the scene. The b a s i c s t r u c t u r e i s the r e c t a n g u l a r frame w i t h mitred c o r n e r s , formed o f g o l d bars f i l l e d w i t h acanthus leaves as found i n The A n n u n c i a t i o n ( f o l i o 5v - f i g u r e 8). Here we f i n d enrichments of elongated acanthus r o s e t t e s a t the midpoints of the f o u r s i d e s , the dominant e f f e c t b e i n g a s t r o n g frame, e n c l o s i n g the scene f u l l y . The second v a r i a t i o n i s the r e c t a n g u l a r frame wi t h r o s e t t e enrichments a t the f o u r c o r n e r s . T h i s can be seen i n the m i n i a t u r e o f S t . John, the only e v a n g e l i s t to be i n c l u d e d i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l ( f o l i o 19v - f i g u r e 13)^"; and The E n t r y i n t o Jerusalem ( f o l i o 45v - f i g u r e 19) show-i n g o v e r l a p p i n g o f the s i d e frames which a f f e c t s the shape of the frame but we w i l l be examining t h i s aspect o f over-l a p p i n g i n more d e t a i l i n Chapter V. A t h i r d v a r i a t i o n occurs i n the r e c t a n g u l a r frames with s i x r o s e t t e enrichments, f o u r a t the cor n e r s and two at the mid-point o f the v e r t i c a l s i d e s . T h i s i s to be found i n : The N a t i v i t y o f C h r i s t ( f o l i o 15v - f i g u r e 10); 3 1 . T h e O c t a v e o f C h r i s t m a s ( f o l i o 2 2 v - f i g u r e 1 5 ) ; T h e A d o r a t i o n o f t h e M a g i ( f o l i o 2 4 v - f i g u r e 1 6 ) ; T h e B a p t i s m o f C h r i s t ( f o l i o 2 5 - f i g u r e 1 7 ) ; T h e W o m e n a t t h e T o m b ( f o l i o 5 1 v - f i g u r e 2 0 ) ; T h e A s c e n s i o n o f C h r i s t ( f o l i o 6 4 v - f i g u r e 2 2 ) w h e r e t h e u s u a l a c a n t h u s l e a f b o r d e r h a s b e e n r e d u c e d t o a g o l d b a n d ; T h e M a r t y r d o m o f S t s . P e t e r a n d P a u l ( f o l i o 9 5 v - f i g u r e 2 8 ) ; a n d S t . B e n e d i c t ( f o l i o 9 9 v - f i g u r e 3 0 ) . T h e f o u r t h a n d l a s t v a r i a t i o n i n r e c t a n g u l a r f r a m i n g i s f o u n d i n a m a t c h i n g p a i r o f m i n i a t u r e s w h i c h h a v e e i g h t r o s e t t e e n r i c h m e n t s , f o u r a t t h e c o r n e r s a n d f o u r a t t h e m i d - p o i n t o f t h e s i d e s , w h e r e t h e r o s e t t e s c o m p l e t e l y t a k e o v e r t h e t r e l l i s f r a m e . T h e s e a r e : S t . E t h e l d r e d a ( f o l i o 9 0 v - f i g u r e 2 5 ) a n d t h e m a t c h i n g p a g e w i t h t h e o p e n i n g w o r d s o f t h e b l e s s i n g ( f o l i o 9 1 - f i g u r e 2 6 ) . L i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e c a n b e a t t a c h e d t o t h e u s e o f t h e r e c t a n g u l a r f r a m e i t s e l f , b u t t h e n u m b e r a n d e l a b o r a -t i o n o f t h e r o s e t t e s w i l l b e s h o w n t o b e s i g n i f i c a n t . O f t h e s e v e n t e e n a r c h e d f r a m e s , t h e r e a r e t w o c a t e g o r i e s : T h e o p e n f r e e - s t a n d i n g a r c h , o f w h i c h t h e r e a r e a n u m b e r o f v a r i a t i o n s , a n d o n e f u l l y e n c l o s e d a r c h e d 32. frame. We w i l l now examine the v a r i a t i o n s i n the arched frames. The f i r s t and s i m p l e s t o f the open f r e e - s t a n d i n g arched frames surrounds the scene of The N a t i v i t y of S t . John the B a p t i s t ( f o l i o 92v - f i g u r e 27) where we see the b a s i c s t r u c t u r e - an arched frame composed of g o l d bars f i l l e d w ith u p r i g h t acanthus l e a v e s , and supported by s i m i l a r l y formed columns w i t h a c a n t h u s - f i l l e d c a p i t a l s and bases. The second v a r i a t i o n i s the f r e e - s t a n d i n g arch w i t h c e n t e r r o s e t t e . The r o s e t t e form i s a non-a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e not found i n s c u l p t u r e of c i t y -gates o r triumphal arches from which the arch form was d e r i v e d , as we w i l l see l a t e r on, and i n d i c a t e s the a r t i s t s d i d not e n v i s i o n a s c u l p t u r a l or a r c h i t e c t u r a l form. The d i f f e r e n c e s i n these arches i s i n the e l a b o r a t e n e s s o f the c e n t e r r o s e t t e s , from the s i m p l e s t i n The Martyrdom o f S t . Stephen ( f o l i o 17v - f i g u r e 12), to a more e l a b o r a t e one i n Doubting Thomas ( f o l i o 56v - f i g u r e 21), an even more expansive one i n The Descent o f the Holy Ghost ( f o l i o 67v - f i g u r e 23), to the s t r i k i n g e l a b o r a t e one i n The Death and Coronation o f the V i r g i n ( f o l i o 102v - f i g u r e 31). 33. A t h i r d v a r i a t i o n of the open f r e e - s t a n d i n g arch i s the main arch w i t h double arcades i n s e r t e d w i t h i n i t , r e s t i n g on three a c a n t h u s - f i l l e d c a p i t a l s . T h i s formation i s to be found i n three m i n i a t u r e s : Two near the b e g i n -n i n g o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l form a f a c i n g p a i r , The Chorus ( f o l i o l v - f i g u r e 2) and The V i r g i n s ( f o l i o 2 - f i g u r e 3) where the main arch i s a simple s e m i - c i r c l e o f gold bars f i l l e d w ith acanthus l e a v e s . The framing o f the two arcades w i t h i n , as w e l l as the abacus o f the c a p i t a l s are f i l l e d w i t h geometric d e c o r a t i o n s resembling jewels, w h i l e the space between the two arcades and the main arch forms an i r r e g u l a r l y shaped tympanum c o n t a i n i n g an angel i n a s w i r l i n g r i b b o n sky. The t h i r d m i n i a t u r e , The P r e s e n t a t i o n i n the Temple ( f o l i o 34v - f i g u r e 18), has a much wider main arch and a t the ce n t r e of i t i s the only example of a r o s e t t e f i l l e d w i t h Franco-Saxon i n t e r l a c e i n p l a c e o f the usu a l acanthus. The i n t e r l a c e here might be thought of as d e r i v i n g from I n s u l a r sources, but as Wormald has p o i n t e d out i t o r i g i n a t e s i n a C a r o l i n g i a n type o f i n t e r l a c e common to the group o f manuscripts executed by the s o - c a l l e d 2 Franco-Saxon School of i l l u m i n a t i o n . The i n s e r t e d double arcade i n t h i s case i s p l a i n and r e s t s i n the ce n t r e on an unornamented column and on the s i d e s on the main c a p i t a l s . The tympanum i n t h i s case c o n t a i n s the b l e s s i n g hand of God emanating from a heavenly sphere i n t o a s i m i l a r 34. swirling ribbon sky. A fourth v a r i a t i o n i s to be found i n the two scenes of Three Apostles ( f o l i o s 3v and 4 - figures 6 and 7) where the entire arched portion of the frame i s sepa-rated from the scene below by an architrave composed of a wide gold band with the double arcades resting on p l a i n c a p i t a l s above i t . Angels f l y towards the centre within each of the small arcades and above them two angels stand i n the tympanum. There i s no acanthus present i n this upper arched portion. A f i f t h v a r i a t i o n i s the pedimented arch with city-view enrichments on each side. This formation i s to be found i n two matching scenes of Three Apostles ( f o l i o s 2v and 3 - figures 4 and 5) where the pediment encloses three arcades each containing an angel: one double arcade resting on three capitals f i l l e d with acanthus leaves i n figure 4, surmounted by a single arcade resting on p l a i n c a p i t a l s . In figure 5 a l l the c a p i t a l s are f i l l e d with acanthus leaves and the pedimented arch, which i n both figures 4 and 5 i s separated from the scene below by i t s own triangular border, i s f i l l e d with jewel-like ornamen-ta t i o n . 35 . T h e s i x t h v a r i a t i o n i s t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f a r c h e s . T h e s i m p l e s t o f t h e s e i s t h e s c e n e o f S t . S w i t h u n ( f o l i o 9 7 v - f i g u r e 2 9 ) w h e r e t h e m a i n a r c h h a s a c e n t r a l r o s e t t e . W i t h i n t h i s a r c h e d f r a m e S t . S w i t h u n s t a n d s a g a i n s t a t r i p l e a r c a d e f o r m a t i o n , f o r m e d o f d o u b l e a r c a d e s i n f r o n t o f a s i n g l e a r c h i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d w h i c h r e s t s o n c o l u m n s . A n e l a b o r a t e a n d i n t r i c a t e e x a m p l e o f t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f a r c h e s i s a l s o t o b e f o u n d i n t h e f i r s t s c e n e , T h e C o n f e s s o r s ( f o l i o 1 - f i g u r e 1 ) w h e r e t h e m a i n a r c h i s i n s e r t e d i n f r o n t o f a d o u b l e a r c h . T h e m a i n a r c h i s f i l l e d w i t h u p r i g h t a c a n t h u s l e a v e s a n d r e s t s o n s i d e c o l u m n s w i t h a c a n t h u s - f i l l e d c a p i t a l s . T h e d o u b l e a r c h e s b e h i n d h a v e p l a i n g o l d b o r d e r s f i l l e d w i t h a s i m p l e g r e e n c o l o u r a n d r e s t o n t h e s i d e s o n t h e m a i n a c a n t h u s - f i l l e d c a p i t a l s a n d i n t h e c e n t r e o n a s m a l l e r c a p i t a l f i l l e d w i t h a c a n t h u s l e a v e s . T h e r e a r e t w o l e a v e s w i t h t h e o p e n i n g w o r d s o f t h e b l e s s i n g c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n a r c h e d f r a m e s w h i c h I h a v e n o t d e a l t w i t h a b o v e b e c a u s e t h e m i n i a t u r e s o p p o s i t e t h e s e p a g e s a r e m i s s i n g a s I m e n t i o n e d o n p a g e 1 0 o f C h a p t e r I . O n e i s t h e b l e s s i n g f o r t h e f e a s t o f t h e M a s s a c r e o f t h e I n n o c e n t s ( f o l i o 2 1 - f i g u r e 1 4 ) w h i c h i s s e t i n t h e o n l y 3 t r e f o i l a r c h i n t h e m a n u s c r i p t , a n d t h e o t h e r i s t h e b l e s s i n g f o r t h e f e a s t o f S t . M i c h a e l A r c h a n g e l ( f o l i o 36 . 10 8 - f i g u r e 32) which i s s e t i n an arched frame w i t h a gold roundel a t the apex which i s u n f i l l e d . The base of t h i s arched frame i s s e a l e d by a g o l d band t h a t s t r e t c h e s across the bottom of the bases. As we have seen there are two c a t e g o r i e s of arched frames: the open f r e e - s t a n d i n g arch and the f u l l e nclosed arched frame. The only example o f the l a t t e r i s the Second Coming ( f o l i o 9v - f i g u r e 9) where we see the arch form does not r e s t on columns but continues down to the base border, and i s accented a t the base and a t the s p r i n g i n g of the arch with r o s e t t e s . T h i s i s a unique example o f framing which suggests the importance o f t h i s f e a s t i n the l i t u r g y of the Church or perhaps the d e v o t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e of Aethelwold or the a r t i s t i n charge. Since the H e l l e n i s t i c e r a , p a i n t e d columns, c a p i -t a l s and a r c h i t r a v e s have been used i n monumental w a l l -p a i n t i n g . T h i s type o f d e c o r a t i o n was t r a n s f e r r e d to books at some unknown p e r i o d perhaps b e f o r e the Eusebian Canon t a b l e s of the b e g i n n i n g of the f o u r t h century A.D. As Nordenfalk s t a t e d : "In any case, the Canon t a b l e s seem to be the e a r l i e s t known example of the a p p l i c a t i o n o f such 4 p a i n t e d d e c o r a t i o n s to a C h r i s t i a n t e x t . " Eusebius con-s i d e r e d the Canons as "a mystic transmutation o f D i v i n e 37 . 5 T r u t h . " The arcade was thought of as e n c l o s i n g h o l y con-t e n t t h e r e f o r e i t i s understandable why the arcade was used i n Canon t a b l e s as a solemn i n t r o d u c t i o n to the Gospels. I t was probably a model of an a n c i e n t temple w i t h i v o r y columns t h a t was the source f o r the a r c h i t e c t u r a l form of the Canon t a b l e s and other a r c h i t e c t u r a l frames of the m i n i a t u r e s i n e a r l i e r manuscripts. As e a r l y as the e i g h t h century the use of C a n o n t a b l e s i n arched frames had already become a t r a d i t i o n i n England as seen i n The  L i n d i s f a r n e Gospels, d e r i v e d d i r e c t l y from Mediterranean c o d i c e s , and r e a c h i n g a climax o f ornamentation of text, i n The Book of K e l l s . I t was E a d f r i t h , the a r t i s t and s c r i p t o r of The L i n d i s f a r n e Gospels, who "introduced a new d e c o r a t i v e emphasis on the b e g i n n i n g o f c e r t a i n passages 7 of l i t u r g i c a l importance," - the forerunner of the Bene-d i c t i o n a l where d e c o r a t i o n i s used to emphasize the l i t u r g i c a l and r e g a l importance o f c e r t a i n f e a s t s as we w i l l see l a t e r . In Anglo-Saxon a r c h i t e c t u r e we f i n d three centered and t r i a n g u l a r arches as w e l l , a n o t a b l e v a r i e t y o f arch g forms as evidenced i n E a r l ' s Barton tower, however, i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l the a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s no longer e x i s t as s u p p o r t i v e elements, f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r primary t e c t o n i c purpose, they are d e c o r a t i v e and t h e r e f o r e are 38 . f l a t t e n e d , the scene and the frame becoming a s i n g l e 9 a e s t h e t i c u n i t . The arched frame t h e r e f o r e was probably not d e r i v e d from a r c h i t e c t u r e . The v a r i e t y i n the frame d e c o r a t i o n , whether arched or r e c t a n g u l a r would appear to i n d i c a t e t h a t there was a s e p a r a t i o n of hands, or t h a t the s u p e r v i s i n g a r t i s t , presumably Godeman, worked on the m i n i a t u r e s o f the Bene-d i c t i o n a l over a p e r i o d of y e a r s , d u r i n g which time he was exposed to v a r i o u s models and developed h i s own ideas o f ornamentation connected perhaps to l i t u r g i c a l and r e g a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t the great number of v a r i a t i o n s of the arch form found i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l d e s c r i b e d above, was a l s o the r e s u l t of a d e l i b e r a t e choice of symbolism r a t h e r than simple v a r i e t y o f decora-t i o n , f o r the medieval a r t i s t seldom executed a form without a purpose. The ornamental components are added to the g o l d bars of the b a s i c frame and t h e r e f o r e should be i s o l a t e d and s t u d i e d i n d i v i d u a l l y , because they are i n n o v a t i v e combinations of m o t i f s . These components c o n s i s t of the acanthus l e a f , the r o s e t t e s and the c i t y - v i e w enrichments and they w i l l be examined f o r t h e i r form, how they are used i n the m i n i a t u r e s , what e f f e c t they have on the 39 . t o t a l composition and where they o r i g i n a t e d . The Acanthus Leaf The acanthus l e a f i s the main ornamental element of the frame. The acanthus p l a n t i n nature has many v a r i e t i e s . Not n a t i v e to England, i t i s grown i n warmer c l i m a t e s such as the south of France, I t a l y and Greece. The acanthus l e a f i n the frames of the m i n i a t u r e s of the B e n e d i c t i o n a l takes v a r i o u s forms which I have d i v i d e d i n t o three main c a t e g o r i e s : the acanthus f r i e z e ; the f r e e r acanthus found i n the l a r g e r c a p i t a l s and bases; and the acanthus found i n the r o s e t t e s . F i r s t we f i n d u p r i g h t acanthus leaves s e t s i d e by s i d e t o form a continuous f r i e z e , and used e s s e n t i a l l y as a f i l l e r as i t i s contained w i t h i n the g o l d bands o f the frames. T h i s acanthus f r i e z e i s found i n the arches, most r e c t a n g u l a r b o r d e r s , and some columns and s m a l l e r c a p i t a l s . The acanthus l e a f always grows from the i n n e r frame outward, p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the g o l d bars w i t h one e x c e p t i o n we w i l l examine l a t e r . W i t h i n t h i s category we f i n d v a r i a t i o n s , f o r example i t i s found i n t i g h t l y packed s c u l p t u r a l leaves i n the c e n t r a l arch o f The Confessors ( f o l i o 1 - f i g u r e 1)• Here we have a three lobed f a n -shaped l e a f a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h a three t o f i v e lobed c l u s t e r l e a f which the f a n shape p a r t i a l l y e n c l o s e s . The o c c a s i o n a l c u r l e d t i p i s found here. This type of acanthus f r i e z e i s found i n the s m a l l e r c a p i t a l s upholding the i n n e r arches of the f i r s t f i v e f o l i o s ( f o l i o s 1, l v , 2, 2v and 3 -f i g u r e s 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) and i n the main c a p i t a l s o f The V i r g i n s ( f o l i o 2 - f i g u r e 3). This f r i e z e becomes more e l a b o r a t e i n the arches and columns of The Chorus o f V i r g i n s ( f o l i o s l v and 2 - f i g u r e s 2 and 3) where the c l u s t e r comprises three s e t s o f acanthus l e a v e s , a three to f i v e lobed c l u s t e r w i t h a one to three lobed l e a f on each s i d e . These c l u s t e r s are separated and p a r t i a l l y e n c l o s e d by a more fan shaped acanthus which i s s p l i t i n t o two or three l e a v e s , the out e r two leaves c u r l i n g over the i n n e r c l u s t e r forming an a r c h . C u r l e d t i p s o f the leaves are more e v i d e n t p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the columns. This p a t t e r n i s found i n a l l subsequent f o l i o s , but the acanthus leaves i n c r e a s e i n s i z e as the space between the gold borders i n c r e a s e s . As the leaves fan out, they become more elongated, and we note an i n c r e a s e i n the number o f c u r l e d t i p s i n the l e a v e s , and a l e s s r i g i d s t r u c t u r e , with some c o n f u s i o n between c l u s t e r s and fan shapes. T h i s expansion of the s i z e of the acanthus l e a f develops p r o g r e s s i v e l y through the i l l u m i n a t i o n s of the manuscript and culminates i n The Death and Coronation o f the V i r g i n ( f o l i o 102 v -f i g u r e 31). One unique v a r i a t i o n of the acanthus f r i e z e occurs i n The A n n u n c i a t i o n ( f o l i o 5v - f i g u r e 8), where we f i n d a d i a g o n a l l y p l a c e d acanthus' w i t h i n the upper r i g h t and lower l e f t v e r t i c a l r e c t a n g u l a r b o r d e r s . The acanthus i s composed of two l e a v e s , one long and one s h o r t l e a f s p r o u t i n g from a c o l l a r . T h i s c o l l a r e d acanthus r e v e r s e s the d i r e c t i o n o f growth as the leaves sprout from the outer edge o f the frame inward which r e s u l t s i n a d i a g o n a l move-ment upward. T h i s long and s h o r t l e a f p a t t e r n i s seen i n an e a r l i e r manuscript, The Durham R i t u a l (Durham C a t h e d r a l L i b r a r y , MS. - A. i v . 19..- f i g u r e 37) of the f i r s t h a l f o f the t e n t h - c e n t u r y . I t i s : "the e a r l i e s t example i n E n g l i s h i l l u m i n a t i o n of one of the most p e r s i s t e n t orna-mental motives of d e c o r a t i o n found i n E n g l i s h manuscripts of the t e n t h and e l e v e n t h c e n t u r i e s : the 'Long and Short' l e a f p a t t e r n . I t s immediate o r i g i n must be sought i n C a r o l i n g i a n acanthus ornament, and i t i s one o f the most s i g n i f i c a n t s i g n s o f C o n t i n e n t a l i n f l u e n c e on the E n g l i s h i l l u m i n a t o r s o f t h a t time. One cannot say at what p r e c i s e date t h i s l e a f p a t t e r n reached England, but i t was w e l l known by the e a r l y years of the t e n t h century because i t i s found on the s t o l e and maniple o f S t . Cuthbert i n 42. Durham C a t h e d r a l , made a t Winchester b e f o r e 916. 1 , 1 0 In the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the design on the small maniple ( f i g u r e 38 r i g h t ) we see how the s c r o l l s grow out o f c u p - l i k e leaves s i m i l a r to the design i n The Durham R i t u a l ( f i g u r e 37), and i n the lower branches o f f o l i a g e above the f i g u r e o f D a n i e l on the s t o l e ( l e f t - f i g u r e 38) t h e same a c a n t h u s a r r a n g e m e n t i s e v i d e n t . 1 1 The v e s t m e n t s c o n s i s t o f a s t o l e and two maniples which a u t h o r i t i e s 12 suggest were made at Winchester. Dr. R. Freyhan suggests t h a t t h i s s t y l e o f ornament o r i g i n a t e s i n the Sassanian t r e e motif and not i n C a r o l i n g i a n a r t , and t h a t the model f o r the s t o l e was embroidery such as a Byzantine type of s t o l e . He s t a t e s t h a t the f o l i a g e o f the Durham vestments i s not acanthus but a " t r i p a r t i t e l e a f w i t h a flo w e r grow-13 i n g out of i t . " Undoubtedly the f o l i a t e d ornament of the Durham vestments d i d pl a y a r o l e i n the development of l a t e r t e n th-century Winchester acanthus, whether the leaves were pure acanthus o r not. Wormald c o n s i d e r s the f o l i a g e on the s t o l e to be n i n t h century acanthus ornament of C a r o l i n g i a n i n f l u e n c e which was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o England 14 from the c o n t i n e n t , and I agree w i t h him on t h i s p o i n t . A l a t e r example o f t h i s c o l l a r e d l o n g and s h o r t l e a f a c a n t h u s i s f o u n d i n t h e i n i t i a l s o f t h e J u n i u s P s a l t e r , e x e c u t e d a b o u t t h e s e c o n d q u a r t e r o f t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y a t W i n c h e s t e r ( O x f o r d , B o d l . . M S . J u n i u s , 2 7 , f . 1 2 1 v e r s o -1 5 f i g u r e 3 9 ) . A n e v e n l a t e r e x a m p l e c a n b e f o u n d i n a m i n i a t u r e o f a m a n u s c r i p t w r i t t e n a t F l e u r y i n t h e l a s t q u a r t e r o f t h e t e n t h - c e n t u r y , t h e w o r k o f a n E n g l i s h a r t i s t w o r k i n g i n a n e a r l i e r s t y l e t h a n t h e W i n c h e s t e r s t y l e o f A e t h e l w o l d . T h i s c a n b e s e e n ( P a r i s , B i b l . N a t l , l a t 6 4 0 1 , f o l i o 1 5 8 v - f i g u r e 4 0 ) i n t h e u p p e r p o r t i o n o f t h e r i g h t - h a n d c o l u m n , b u t h e r e , u n l i k e t h e A n n u n c i a t i o n s c e n e i n t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l ( f o l i o 5 v - f i g u r e 8 ) , t h e l e a v e s s p r o u t f r o m t h e i n n e r e d g e o u t w a r d . T h e c o l o u r a n d o r n a m e n t o f t h i s F l e u r y m i n i a t u r e ( f i g u r e 4 0 ) a r e c o n s i d e r e d b y W o r m a l d t o b e E n g l i s h , a s h e s a i d : " I t w o u l d s e e m t h a t f r o m t h e r e i g n o f A l f r e d o n w a r d s , t h e r e w a s a s t e a d y s t y l i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f i l l u m i n a t e d b o o k s i n s o u t h e r n E n g l a n d a n d t h a t t h e b a s i s o f t h e s t y l e r e s t e d u p o n e a r l i e r i l l u m i n a t i o n w h i c h w a s n o t w h o l l y C a r o l i n g i a n . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , f r o m q u i t e e a r l y i n t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y C a r o l i n g i a n m a n u s c r i p t s w e r e m o d i f y i n g t h e s t y l e a n d p r e p a r i n g t h e w a y f o r t h e i n t r o -d u c t i o n o f t h e m u c h m o r e s p e c t a c u l a r c h a n g e s i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y w h i c h a r e r i g h t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r e f o r m s o f S t . D u n s t a n a n d S t . ' E t h e l w o l d . 44. The second category of acanthus l e a f , found only i n the l a r g e r c a p i t a l s and bases, i s f r e e r , the a r t i s t s producing more expanded forms of the l e a f w i t h c u r l e d t i p s . There are v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n t h i s category as w e l l , and the s i m p l e s t example occurs i n The Confessors ( f o l i o 1 - f i g u r e 1) where we f i n d a f i v e - l o b e d acanthus,three leaves o f which have c u r l e d t i p s . A more complicated arrangement i s seen i n the Three A p o s t l e s ( f o l i o 2v -f i g u r e 4) where the l e a f f ormation i n c l u d e s not only three, four and f i v e lobed leaves w i t h c u r l i n g t i p s , but a l s o leaves t h a t s p l i t i n two and others t h a t i n t e r t w i n e . The d e s i g n i s always symmetrical, w i t h the r i g h t hand o f each c a p i t a l o r base matching the l e f t s i d e as p e r f e c t l y as can be expected from a f r e e hand r e n d e r i n g . The t i g h t e s t i n t e r t w i n i n g of leaves i s found i n The Martyrdom of S t . Stephen ( f o l i o 17v - f i g u r e 12) and i n The P r e s e n t a t i o n i n the Temple ( f o l i o 34v - f i g u r e 18), where the t i g h t l y woven leaves grasp each o t h e r w i t h t h e i r c o i l e d t i p s and we get the impression of c o n t a i n e d energy t h a t could u n f u r l and explode. T h i s k i n e t i c t e n s i o n i s most apparent i n the c a p i t a l s of f i g u r e 12, but both c a p i t a l s and bases o f f i g u r e 18 almost equal i t . An e x t r a dimension i s seen a t the end o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l i n three arched frames: S t . Swithun ( f o l i o 97v - f i g u r e 29), a page o f b l e s s i n g ( f o l i o 108 - f i g u r e 32); and The Death and Coronation of the V i r g i n ( f o l i o 102v - f i g u r e 31) where the acanthus leaves of the c a p i t a l s and bases a c t u a l l y c u r l over the abacus, and over the gold bars s e t i n the middle of the bases o f f i g u r e 29, and over the s e m i - c i r c u l a r g o l d bars of both c a p i t a l s and bases of f i g u r e 31. T h i s treatment shows the f r e e a t t i t u d e of the a r t i s t s of the B e n e d i c t i o n a l . L i k e the arches, the a r t i s t s d i d not view the acanthus as a s c u l p t u r a l form which might e n r i c h the a r c h i t e c t u r a l frame, but as a d e c o r a t i v e motif, more l i k e the e a r l i e r n a t i v e Anglo-Saxon r i b b o n i n t e r l a c e r y Acanthus leaves i n the r o s e t t e s comprises the t h i r d type of l e a f treatment forming a d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n than the f r i e z e . I t i s a n o n - n a t u r a l i s t i c treatment where we f i n d elongated leaves are h e l d i n p l a c e by a c e n t r a l core which most o f t e n i s a flower form but may be c i r c u l a r , square or r e c t a n g u l a r i n shape. The acanthus l e a v e s , gathered i n the c e n t r e , sprout outward from t h i s core i n fou r dominant d i r e c t i o n s c r e a t i n g a s t r o n g cross formation, and c u r l around a c i r c u l a r , square, r e c t a n g u l a r or e l i p t i c a g o l d s t r u c t u r e c e n t r e d over the core, which may be s i n g l e , double or t r i p l e i n form. The range of l e a f v a r i a t i o n i n the r o s e t t e formations i s e x t e n s i v e w i t h no two e x a c t l y a l i k e , except the r o s e t t e s o f f a c i n g pages which were undoubtedly executed by the same a r t i s t . T h e r e i s o n e e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s l e a f f o r m a t i o n a n d t h a t i s t o b e f o u n d i n T h e A n n u n c i a t i o n ( f o l i o 5 v - f i g u r e 8 ) w h e r e t h e l e a v e s c u r l o v e r a n d u n d e r t h e p a r a l l e l b o r d e r s o f t h e f r a m e , a n d t h e o u t e r h o r i z o n t a l l e a v e s o n t h e t o p a n d b o t t o m r o s e t t e s a r e c h o k e d b y a v e r s i o n o f t h e c o l l a r t h a t i s m o r e k n o b - l i k e t h a n t h a t f o u n d b i n d i n g t h e d i a g o n a l l y s e t a c a n t h u s f o u n d i n t h e u p p e r r i g h t a n d l o w e r l e f t v e r t i c a l r e c t a n g u l a r p o r t i o n o f t h e f r a m e a s d e s c r i b e d o n p a g e 4 1 . T h e s a m e c u p - l i k e k n o b s i n t h e a c a n t h u s l e a f f o r m a t i o n a r e f o u n d i n o t h e r E n g l i s h m a n u s c r i p t s a n d . . 1 7 i n i t i a l s . N o t a b l y o n l y t w o o t h e r m i n i a t u r e s i n t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l u s e t h e s a m e t y p e o f a c a n t h u s d e s i g n w h e r e t h e l e a v e s s p r o u t f r o m a c e n t r a l s t e m l o c a t e d b e t w e e n t h e g o l d b a r s o f t h e t r e l l i s f r a m e . T h e y a r e a f a c i n g p a i r , S t . E t h e l d r e d a ( f o l i o 9 0 v - f i g u r e 2 5 ) a n d t h e m a t c h i n g p a g e c o n t a i n i n g t h e o p e n i n g w o r d s o f t h e b l e s s i n g ( f o l i o 9 1 - f i g u r e 2 6 ) . H o w e v e r t h e r e a r e n o c u p - l i k e k n o b s i n 4 . * , • • 4- 1 8 t h e s e m i n i a t u r e s . F i g u r e 4 5 s h o w s t r a c i n g s m a d e o f s o m e o f t h e a c a n t h u s l e a f w o r k i n t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l ' s f r a m e s , w h i c h s h o w s j u s t h o w d i f f e r e n t l y t h e l e a f i t s e l f i s t r e a t e d , t h o u g h m a i n t a i n i n g t h e s a m e b a s i c r o u n d R o m a n l e a f w i t h a c u r l e d t i p . T h i s w o u l d s u g g e s t e i t h e r a v e r y g i f t e d a r t i s t o r t h a t t h e m i n i a t u r e s w e r e e x e c u t e d b y d i f f e r e n t a r t i s t s . I t seems certain that d i f f e r e n t models were used as we can see the use of a triangular arched frame i n the Three Apostles scenes ( f o l i o s 2v and 3 - figures. 4 and 5) along with a simpler acanthus leaf than i s found i n the following pair of Three Apostles ( f o l i o s 3v and 4 -figures 6 and 7) where we have a c i r c u l a r arch and more complicated leaf arrangement i n the c a p i t a l s . Therefore either the a r t i s t had d i f f e r e n t models which included acanthus decoration or d i f f e r e n t a r t i s t s were involved. The acanthus leaf treatment i n c e r t a i n miniatures seems so si m i l a r that i t i s possible to assume that they were executed by the same a r t i s t . Such i s the case with matching pairs on facing pages i n the manuscript. Two miniatures stand out as being quite d i f f e r e n t from the rest, otherwise we might assume the same a r t i s t just i n -creased the complexity of the acanthus leaf treatment. These two are: The Entry into Jerusalem ( f o l i o 45v -figure 19) where the acanthus leaves give a f l a t t e r e f f e c t , no longer do we f i n d the c u r l i n g and overlapping leaves seen i n other miniatures' frames, suggesting a d i f f e r e n t a r t i s t was involved; the second miniature i s The Martyrdom of Sts. Peter and Paul ( f o l i o 95v - figure 28) where we see an almost geometric use of the acanthus ornamentation with long narrow leaves i n the squared corner rosettes. I could c i t e many more variations i n treatment of the 48. acanthus foliage i n the Benedictional's framing, but enough has been shown to suggest the separation of hands, demonstrating that there were many a r t i s t s i n a scriptorium i n tenth century England. In a l l three acanthus leaf categories, there i s a 19 combination of two mutually opposed elements, the plant ornament and the metallic gold bars. The f i r s t element, the writhing acanthus i s either compressed within the r i g i d gold borders, or i s a free e l a s t i c leaf c u r l i n g and intertwining within the ar c h i t e c t u r a l framework of the larger capitals and bases and even c u r l i n g wildly over and under a gold geometric form p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the rosettes, where the acanthus no longer respects any formal boundary, but explodes outward beyond i t . The second element, the gold geometric framework, produces the e f f e c t of a s t a t i c hard metallic t r e l l i s form contrasting with the active but softer organic form of the grasping sprouting acanthus. However order i s also maintained by the absolute symmetry of the leaves. The contrast of the flowing element (the acanthus) versus the s t a t i c element (the geometric border) i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of in t e r l a c e pattern and i n t h i s case derives from e a r l i e r Insular a r t . Hiberno-Saxon illumination made great use of int e r l a c e i n the late seventh and early eighth century. I t appears i n full-page miniatures for the f i r s t time i n The Book of  Durrow (Dublin, T r i n i t y College Library, Ms. 57, f. 117v. Carpet - figure 46) where we find simple rectangular bars of framing confines the r o l l i n g movement of the ribbon-l i k e interlace maintaining a sense of order. This i n t e r -lace i s derived from Germanic plaitwork or e a r l i e r Anglo-Saxon metalwork as found i n the Sutton Hoo treasures of the seventh century. Gospel books were the only Insular manuscripts i n which in t e r l a c e occurs and these pages function as precious curtains or prayer carpets at the beginning of Holy Books. In The Book of Durrow, the inter l a c e i s so dense that the background does not show up as a continuous surface and i s d i f f i c u l t to disentangle just as we f i n d i s the case with the intertwining acanthus leaves and backgrounds of the frames of the miniatures of 20 the Benedictional. Insular i n t e r l a c e i n both manuscripts are executed by free-hand drawing without the use of t o o l s . One difference does e x i s t however i n that the i n t e r l a c e i n The Book of Durrow l i e s f l a t , whereas the acanthus i n the frames of the Benedictional gives a three-dimensional e f f e c t . Let us now turn to Carolingian predecessors. The closest example of Carolingian influence can be seen i n the Drogo Sacramentary, 851 A.D. of the School of Metz (Paris, 5 0 . B i b l . N a t l . M S L a t . 9 4 2 8 , f o l . 5 8 r : I n i t i a l D w i t h T h r e e W o m e n a t t h e T o m b - f i g u r e 3 6 ) . H e r e t h e g o l d b a r s f o r m -i n g t h e l e t t e r D a c t a s t h e t r e l l i s f r a m e w i t h a n a c a n t h u s s c r o l l t w i n i n g a r o u n d i t a n d e x p a n d i n g i n t o t h e c e n t r a l p o r t i o n o f t h e l e t t e r t o s u c h a n e x t e n t t h a t t h e s c e n e o f t h e T h r e e W o m e n a t t h e T o m b i s c o n f i n e d t o t h e l o w e r l e f t -h a n d s e c t i o n o f t h e l e t t e r . W e n o t e t h e s a m e t y p e o f t r e l l i s f r a m e a s i n t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l a s w e l l a s t h e s a m e i d e a o f g r a s p i n g a c a n t h u s o v e r p o w e r i n g t h e s c e n e . T h e r e a r e c l e a r d i f f e r e n c e s h o w e v e r . I f w e c o m p a r e t h i s S a c r a m e n t a r y w i t h t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l 1 s m i n i a t u r e o f S t . E t h e l d r e d a ( f o l i o 9 0 v - f i g u r e 2 5 ) w e s e e t h a t t h e g o l d b a r s o f t h e f r a m e a r e m u c h t h i n n e r a n d l e s s d o m i n a n t i n t h e D r o g o i n i t i a l , a n d t h a t t h e a c a n t h u s l e a v e s o f t h e D r o g o w o r k s e e m t o l i e f l a t o n t h e p a g e , w h e r e a s , a s w e h a v e s e e n , t h e l e a v e s o f S t . E t h e l d r e d a " s f r a m e c u r l o u t a n d a r o u n d t h e f r a m e i n a t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l w a y . F u r t h e r -m o r e , i n t h e D r o g o S a c r a m e n t a r y t h e a c a n t h u s l e a v e s a r e c o n t i n u o u s a s i n t h e R o m a n c o n t i n u o u s s c r o l l , w h e r e a s i n t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l t h e t r e l l i s i s s t o p p e d a t t h e c o r n e r s b y r o s e t t e s w h i c h d o n o t a p p e a r i n t h e S a c r a m e n t a r y . T h e W i n c h e s t e r a c a n t h u s t h e r e f o r e , t h o u g h i t i s d e r i v e d f r o m C a r o l i n g i a n s o u r c e s , i s t r e a t e d b y t h e a r t i s t s o f t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l i n a v e r y n e w a n d o r i g i n a l w a y . 51. Looking back at the use of the acanthus i n pre-Benedictional times, we fin d that the acanthus has been used since H e l l e n i s t i c times as a conventional motif i n decoration, which always bore some resemblance to the l i v i n g plant. The Carolingian Renaissance was a r e v i v a l of early C h r i s t i a n and Roman work and the acanthus motif was taken over from a c l a s s i c a l prototype. I t came to England i n the tenth century as a r e s u l t of contact with 21 the Carolingian Empire. The p r o l i f i c use of the acanthus leaf i n England i s a tenth century phenomenon and we must look at pre-Benedictional foliage i n sculpture, ivory, metalwork, vestments and other tenth century manuscripts to assess whether there i s some e a r l i e r Insular precedent. The acanthus was used i n d i f f e r e n t ways: the Greeks and Romans used the acanthus as a sculptural form i n stone to ornament architecture and this mode was taken over by the Carolingians i n the i r buildings, but England did not carry on with this sculptural t r a d i t i o n . The acanthus b a s i c a l l y i s found i n England rarely i n sculpture or ivory, i t i s found mainly i n manuscripts, l i t t l e i n jewelry, metalwork and embroidery, and therefore this r e s t r i c t e d use of the acanthus i s an English characteris-t i c . Pre-conquest a r c h i t e c t u r e i n England was r a r e l y ornamented w i t h s c u l p t u r a l d e c o r a t i o n of any k i n d . Since we do know from the Anglo-Saxon c h r o n i c l e t h a t there was church r e s t o r a t i o n i n the tenth century i n s t i g a t e d by Bishop Aethelwold who asked p e r m i s s i o n from King Edgar to do so, i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to know i f acanthus deco-r a t i o n - so p r o l i f i c i n the d e c o r a t i o n o f manuscripts -was a l s o taken over i n the contemporary a r c h i t e c t u r a l s c u l p t u r e as i t was i n C a r o l i n g i a n b u i l d i n g s . Although c a p i t a l s and arches carved w i t h f o l i a g e were r a r e i n Anglo-Saxon England, f o l i a t e d ornament was not t o t a l l y absent from E n g l i s h a r t . I t e x i s t e d i n three forms: the grape o r i v y v i n e o f Mediterranean o r i g i n which was used by the e a r l y Anglo-Saxon a r t i s t s ; the p o i n t e d l e a f f o l i a g e which occurs alone or grouped i n three which was employed throughout the e n t i r e Saxon p e r i o d ; and the acanthus l e a f 22 which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f l a t e r Saxon times. Although the i v y vine s c r o l l , i n h a b i t e d by b i r d s and beasts and sometimes even by human f i g u r e s , i s found e x t e n s i v e l y i n pre-conquest a r c h i t e c t u r a l s c u l p t u r e , acanthus l e a f ornament i s noted by i t s absence. Acanthus l e a f ornament i s found i n church s c u l p t u r e i n a few ex-2 3 c e p t i o n a l cases but the d a t i n g i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . One such example i s on the upper h a l f o f a c i r c u l a r s u n d i a l l o c a t e d on the south w a l l of the tower o f S t . John the B a p t i s t Church i n Barnack, Northamptonshire ( f i g u r e 47). There are a l s o three s l a b s on the north, west, and south f a c e s of t h i s same tower which are carved i n h i g h r e l i e f w i t h a f o l i a t e d s c r o l l on a c e n t r a l stem, each s c r o l l t e r m i n a t i n g i n a three or four lobed acanthus or i n a bunch of grapes ( f i g u r e 48). T h i s church i s dated between 24 9 50 and 1075 A.D. depending on the a u t h o r i t y . Another example i s found on a c a p i t a l i n the c h a n c e l - a r c h a t Bibury, a pre-conquest church and Zarnecki suggested t h a t 25 the d e s i g n was copied from a manuscript ( f i g u r e 49). Indeed i t does resemble one of the c a p i t a l s i n the framing of the B e n e d i c t i o n a l t r a n s f e r r e d to stone. In Clapham's o p i n i o n probably the b e s t s u r v i v i n g example of acanthus i s to be found on a c r o s s - s h a f t i n the churchyard a t Wolverhampton ( f i g u r e 50 and 50A) which he dates i n the 2 6 l a t e t e n t h century, however there i s disagreement on 27 the p r e c i s e d a t i n g among the a u t h o r i t i e s , Rix and Kendrick c o n s i d e r i t to be of the mid-ninth century. I t seems e v i d e n t from the works of these major E n g l i s h a u t h o r i t i e s on a r c h i t e c t u r e , t h a t the use of the acanthus l e a f i n s c u l p t u r e d c a p i t a l s and arches i s so r a r e i n England i n the tenth century t h a t I n s u l a r s c u l p t u r e d i d not share i n the C a r o l i n g i a n o r i g i n of the l a t e r tenth century Winchester acanthus as found i n the Benedictional, which was a r e s t r i c t e d import. There are few surviving examples of the use of the acanthus leaf i n Insular ivory. One instance i s to be found on the frames of two late tenth century ivory r e l i e f s , one of the Transfiguration and the other of the Ascension i n the V i c t o r i a and Albert Museum, London (Cat. 21 - figure 51). These r e l i e f s are related to each other according to Beckwith, as well as to a bookcover i n Paris which he thinks may well have come from the same English 2 8 workshop, and we note the sim i l a r three lobed acanthus border i n the covers (Paris, B i b l . Natl, l a t 323 (Cat. 23) Christ i n Majesty - figure 52 and Cat. 24 - V i r g i n and Child Enthroned - figure 52A). Dated s i m i l a r l y to the late tenth century i s a broken piece of ivory carving of triangular shape, of two angels back to back, underneath which are two acanthus leaves sprouting from a ring and c o l l a r (Winchester Museum (Cat. 16), Two Angels, Anglo-Saxon late tenth century - figure 5 3) si m i l a r to the ri n g -l i k e form found i n the lower right-hand corner of the acanthus stem on the border of an English manuscript, The New Minster Charter (figure 44) discussed e a r l i e r on page 46(footnote 17) i n which a date contemporary or a f t e r the Benedictional i s suggested. There are so few examples of acanthus l e a f i n i v o r y work and the l a t e t enth century d a t i n g o f the i n s -tances given above make i t u n l i k e l y t h a t the i l l u m i n a t o r s of the Winchester School r e c e i v e d t h e i r acanthus v i a i v o r i e s of I n s u l a r o r i g i n . Late Anglo-Saxon ornamental metalwork does p r o v i d e us w i t h a few examples where a form of acanthus i s e v i d e n t Four of these bear l i t t l e resemblance to the B e n e d i c t i o n a l acanthus. These are: a bronze tenth-century censer-cover ( f i g u r e 54) w i t h a coarse acanthus l e a f i n the c e n t r e 29 dated by Wilson e a r l i e r than the B e n e d i c t i o n a l ; a tenth-century c a s t bronze strap-end w i t h acanthus leaves s p r e a d i n g from three c e n t r a l lobes ( f i g u r e 55)"^; a fragmentary g i l t - b r o n z e p l a t e of t e n t h or e l e v e n t h century date, with the s c r o l l - l i k e acanthus s p r o u t i n g out of a r i n g and i n t e r t w i n i n g leaves s i m i l a r to the acanthus i n the c a p i t a l s , bases and r o s e t t e s of the B e n e d i c t i o n a l 31 ( f i g u r e 56) ; and the leafwork on the Abingdon sword ( f i g u r e 57) c o n s i d e r e d by David Hinton to have been 32 executed i n a Winchester workshop, however i t i s d i f -f i c u l t to r e l a t e t h i s s t i f f arrangement with Winchester acanthus. C l o s e r t o the Winchester s t y l e of acanthus i s the 56 . f o l i a g e found on the l a t e n i n t h or e a r l y tenth century 33 S i t t m g b o u r n e scramasax. In f i g u r e 58, f i e l d A i s the scramasax and i n f i e l d B i s an enlargement of the s e c t i o n c o n t a i n i n g a symmetrical acanthus. I t resembles the symmetrical acanthus leaves on the Barnack s u n d i a l ( f i g u r e 47) and on the s t o l e of S t . Cuthbert ( f i g u r e 38) which Wormald c o n s i d e r s to be o f C a r o l i n g i a n o r i g i n as d i s c u s s e d on page 42. Wilson b e l i e v e s t h a t a t t h i s time the Anglo-Saxon a r t i s t was attempting to f i n d something to r e p l a c e animal ornament and was becoming conscious of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f the C o n t i n e n t a l acanthus f o r deco-34 r a t i o n . The r e v e r s e s i d e of a n i n t h - c e n t u r y p i e c e of metalwork, the A l f r e d Jewel, has a f o l i a t e d ornament which has caused q u i t e a divergence of o p i n i o n . 0. M. Dalton c o n s i d e r s t h i s ornament to be r e l a t e d to e a s t e r n sacred t r e e s whereas Joan C l a r k e looks upon i t as pure ornament coming out o f the v i n e - s c r o l l commonly used i n 35 the north o f England a t t h a t time, or as r e l a t e d t o C a r o l i n g i a n acanthus ornament as seen on the n i n t h - c e n t u r y Abingdon s w o r d - h i l t ( f i g u r e 57) mentioned above. Ronald Jessup c o n s i d e r s the ornament on the Jewel as flowers or 3 6 as a t r e e - s c r o l l which i s not E n g l i s h i n s t y l e . David Hinton who gives a good drawing o f the Jewel's ornament 5 7 . 3 7 ( f i g u r e 5 9 ) a n d a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e l e a f w o r k i s n o t r e l a t e d t o t h e a c a n t h u s o f t h e C u t h b e r t s t o l e , i n f a c t , i s n o t a c a n t h u s l e a f a t a l l . T h u s , a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f t h e u s e o f a c a n t h u s i n m e t a l w o r k t h a t p r e d a t e s t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l , e v e r y e x a m p l e h a s b e e n j u d g e d t o b e o f C a r o l i n g i a n o r f o r e i g n o r i g i n o r t h e d a t i n g i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . T h e o n l y k n o w n v e s t m e n t s f r o m t h i s p e r i o d a r e t h e e m b r o i d e r e d D u r h a m v e s t m e n t s a n d t h e y h a v e b e e n d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r o n p a g e 4 2 w h e r e i t w a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e y w e r e a l s o i n f l u e n c e d b y C a r o l i n g i a n a r t . T h e a c a n t h u s l e a f i n m a n u s c r i p t s a p p e a r s a s w e h a v e s e e n o n p a g e 4 3 i n t h e i n i t i a l s o f t h e J u n i u s P s a l t e r ( f i g u r e 3 9 ) a s e a r l y a s t h e s e c o n d q u a r t e r o f t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y , a n d s l i g h t l y l a t e r , a n a c a n t h u s l e a f b o r d e r i s f o u n d i n t h e m i n i a t u r e o f T h e L i f e o f S t . C u t h b e r t ( f i g u r e 4 1 ) o f a b o u t 9 3 7 A . D . a n d i n t h e A e t h e l s t a n P s a l t e r o f 9 2 7 - 4 0 A . D . ( f i g u r e 4 2 ) . O f t h e o t h e r m a n u -s c r i p t s m e n t i o n e d o f t h e l a s t h a l f o f t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e c l o s e s t a m o n g t h e s e t o t h e f r a m i n g o f t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l b e i n g T h e N e w M i n s t e r C h a r t e r ( f i g u r e 4 4 ) w h i c h i t w a s s u g g e s t e d w a s e i t h e r c o n t e m p o r a r y w i t h t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l 5 8 . o r w a s e x e c u t e d a f t e r i t . T o s u m u p , a l t h o u g h t h e r e w e r e p r e c e d e n t s f o r t h e u s e o f t h e a c a n t h u s a s a d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f i n e a r l i e r I n s u l a r a r t , t h e y w e r e n o t w i d e s p r e a d i n d i c a t i n g t h a t I n s u l a r t r a d i t i o n s r e m a i n e d s t r o n g i n m o s t m e d i a , t h e s t y l e a n d l e a f s e e m t o h a v e b e e n d e r i v e d f r o m C a r o l i n g i a n s o u r c e s w h i c h t h e a r t i s t s u s e d i n a n o r i g i n a l w a y . T h e s e c o n d c o m p o n e n t o f t h e f r a m e a r e t h e r o s e t t e s w h i c h w e s h a l l e x a m i n e n o w . T h e R o s e t t e s W e h a v e s e e n o n p a g e 4 5 t h e b a s i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e r o s e t t e s , t h e e x c e p t i o n s a p p e a r i n g i n m i n i a t u r e s w h e r e t h e r o s e t t e s a r e n o t c o m b i n e d w i t h a c a n t h u s l e a v e s : t h e r o s e t t e i n T h e P r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e T e m p l e ( f o l i o 3 4 v -f i g u r e 1 8 ) i s f i l l e d w i t h F r a n c o - S a x o n i n t e r l a c e a s w e h a v e s e e n , a n d i n a p a g e o f b l e s s i n g ( f o l i o 1 0 8 - f i g u r e 3 2 ) t h e r o s e t t e i s v a c a n t . T h e t h i r d m i n i a t u r e i s T h e A n n u n c i a t i o n ( f o l i o 5 v - f i g u r e 8 ) w h e r e t h e t o p a n d b o t t o m r o s e t t e s h a v e n o f u r t h e r g e o m e t r i c f r a m e s b e y o n d t h e c e n t r a l g o l d c o r e . T h i s f o l i o i s u n i q u e i n m a n y w a y s a s w e h a v e s e e n o n p a g e s 4 1 a n d 4 6 . 5 9 . O f t h e s e v e n t e e n m i n i a t u r e s w i t h a r c h e d f r a m e s , o n l y e i g h t h a v e r o s e t t e e m b e l l i s h m e n t s , a n d i n s e v e n o f t h e s e , t h e r o s e t t e i s l o c a t e d a t t h e c r o w n o f t h e a r c h . T h e o n e e x c e p t i o n i s T h e S e c o n d C o m i n g ( f o l i o 9 v - f i g u r e 9 ) w h e r e f o u r r o s e t t e s a r e p r e s e n t . I n t h e s e v e n a r c h e d f r a m e s c o n t a i n i n g r o s e t t e s , t h e c e n t r a l g e o m e t r i c g o l d s t r u c t u r e c e n t e r e d o v e r t h e c o r e a n d a r o u n d w h i c h t h e a c a n t h u s c u r l s i s c i r c u l a r , w h e r e a s i n t h e S t . S w i t h u n s c e n e ( f o l i o 9 7 v - f i g u r e 2 9 ) i t i s s q u a r e . T h e l e a s t e l a b o r a t e o f r o s e t t e s i s t o b e s e e n i n T h e M a r t y r d o m o f S t . S t e p h e n ( f o l i o 1 7 v - f i g u r e 1 2 ) w h e r e w e f i n d a s m a l l c i r c u l a r r o s e t t e a t t h e a p e x o f t h e a r c h , c o m p o s e d o f a c e n t r a l e i g h t - p e t a l l e d f l o r a l d e s i g n w h i c h r a d i a t e s f o u r a c a n t h u s l e a v e s c l a s p i n g o n t o a c i r c u l a r g o l d s t r u c t u r e . D o u b t i n g T h o m a s ( f o l i o 5 6 v - f i g u r e 2 1 ) h a s a s i m i l a r c e n t r a l f l o r a l d e s i g n b u t t h e a c a n t h u s l e a v e s t h r u s t o u t f u r t h e r t o f o r m a m o r e e l a b o r a t e r o s e t t e t a k i n g u p a g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e a r c h a n d h a s a d d e d c r e s c e n t - s h a p e d g o l d b a r s o n e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e c e n t r a l g o l d c i r c u l a r s t r u c t u r e . T h e D e s c e n t o f t h e H o l y G h o s t ( f o l i o 6 7 v -f i g u r e 2 3 ) h a s a n e v e n m o r e e x p a n s i v e r o s e t t e f o r m a t i o n , s i m i l a r t o t h e o n e i n t h e D o u b t i n g T h o m a s s c e n e d e s c r i b e d a b o v e b u t t a k i n g u p a t l e a s t h a l f o f t h e a r c h , a n d h a v i n g a s q u a r e g o l d c o r e i n s t e a d o f t h e f l o r a l c o r e m e n t i o n e d a b o v e . I n b o t h f i g u r e s 2 1 a n d 2 3 t h e a c a n t h u s l e a v e s 60 . shoot out i n four d i r e c t i o n s , c l a s p i n g on to the bars of the main arch, but contained w i t h i n the crescent-shaped gold bar a d d i t i o n s . In the S t . Swithun scene ( f o l i o 9 7v - f i g u r e 29) the acanthus reaches out beyond the e l i p t i c a l framing a d d i t i o n s , t u r n i n g back on i t s e l f to grasp the borders of the gold b a r s . Rosette e l a b o r a t i o n reaches a climax i n the scene of The Death and Coronation o f the V i r g i n ( f o l i o 102v - f i g u r e 31) which begins w i t h a cen-t r a l core formed of a square of g o l d bars from which the acanthus leaves sprout out i n four d i r e c t i o n s , c l a s p i n g and c u r l i n g around the main arch frame. T h i s c e n t r a l square i s f o l l o w e d by a c i r c u l a r g old s t r u c t u r e and shooting out from i t i n s i x d i r e c t i o n s are more acanthus leaves twining around the l a t e r a l crescent-shaped a d d i t i o n s as w e l l as around the main arched frame. Rosette elabo-r a t i o n i n arched frames i n c r e a s e s as we progress through the manuscript and i s marked i n the l a s t t h i r d of the book, suggesting t h a t e i t h e r the a r t i s t s had e n l a r g e d t h e i r d e c o r a t i v e vocabulary as they progressed o r t h a t c e r t a i n f e a s t s were s i n g l e d out to emphasize t h e i r l i t u r g i c a l importance. A l l t h i r t e e n of the r e c t a n g u l a r frames are cha-r a c t e r i z e d by r o s e t t e embellishments. In twelve of these, r o s e t t e s are l o c a t e d a t each of the four c o r n e r s . Two of t h e r e c t a n g u l a r f r a m e s h a v e f o u r r o s e t t e s a t t h e c o r n e r s : S t . J o h n t h e E v a n g e l i s t ( f o l i o 1 9 v - f i g u r e 1 3 ) w h e r e t h e g e o m e t r i c s u p p o r t o f t h e r o s e t t e i s a s i n g l e s q u a r e g o l d f r a m e ; a n d T h e E n t r y i n t o J e r u s a l e m ( f o l i o 4 5 v - f i g u r e 1 9 ) w h e r e t h e r o s e t t e s u p p o r t i s d o u b l e , a s q u a r e g o l d f o r m e n c i r c l e d b y a c i r c u l a r o n e . E i g h t o f t h e r e c t a n g u l a r f r a m e s m o r e o v e r h a v e s i x r o s e t t e s . A l l t h e v i s i b l e r o s e t t e s a t t h e m i d - p o i n t s o f t h e s i d e s s e e m t o b e c o m -p o s e d o f a s i n g l e c i r c u l a r o r s q u a r e g o l d f r a m i n g e x c e p t t w o . T h e s e t w o a r e : T h e M a r t y r d o m o f S t s . P e t e r a n d P a u l ( f o l i o 9 5 v - f i g u r e 2 8 ) w h e r e t h e s i d e r o s e t t e s a r e f o r m e d o f a d o u b l e g e o m e t r i c f o r m , a c i r c u l a r o n e i n t h e c e n t r e a n d a r e c t a n g u l a r o n e o n t h e o u t s i d e ; a n d S t . B e n e d i c t ( f o l i o 9 9 v - f i g u r e 3 0 ) w h e r e t h e s i d e r o s e t t e s a r e f o r m e d o f a t r i p l e s t r u c t u r e , a c i r c u l a r f o r m i n t h e c e n t r e , f o l l o w e d b y a s q u a r e o n e , w i t h e l i p t i c a l f r a m i n g a d d i t i o n s a t e a c h v e r t i c a l e n d o f t h e r o s e t t e . F i n a l l y t w o m i n i a -t u r e s , a f a c i n g p a i r , h a v e e i g h t r o s e t t e s - f o u r a t t h e c o r n e r s a n d f o u r a t t h e m i d - p o i n t s o f t h e f o u r s i d e s . T h e s e t w o a r e S t . E t h e l d r e d a ( f o l i o 9 0 v - f i g u r e 2 5 ) a n d t h e p a g e w i t h t h e o p e n i n g w o r d s o f t h e b l e s s i n g ( f o l i o 9 1 -f i g u r e 2 6 ) . T h e o n e e x c e p t i o n a l r e c t a n g u l a r f r a m e i s o n c e a g a i n T h e A n n u n c i a t i o n ( f o l i o 5 v - f i g u r e 8 ) w h i c h h a s f o u r r o s e t t e s o f u n i q u e s t r u c t u r e l o c a t e d a t t h e m i d -p o i n t s o f t h e f o u r s i d e s o f t h e f r a m e . 62. There are Carolingian as well as Insular precedents for the rosette formation and we s h a l l take these up i n order. I t may be remembered, however, that ultimately the rosette originated i n C l a s s i c a l art as can be seen i n a Roman vase of the f i r s t century B.C. (figure 60) (Museo Nuovo Capitolino). Looking at Carolingian precedents, we note that the centres of the Benedictional's rosettes, p a r t i c u l a r l y the more star-shaped f l o r a l ones, as seen i n The Second Coming's rosettes ( f o l i o 9v - figure 9) resemble somewhat the quatrefoils decorating a Carolingian s i l v e r bowl now i n the B r i t i s h Museum (figure 61). I t i s thought to be of 38 the ninth or tenth century. The basic geometric support of the rosettes can be seen i n I t a l i a n carvings of the eighth and ninth century i n two examples from Roman church 39 decoration (figure 62). Both have the same geometric combination of a square support within a c i r c u l a r one that i s also found i n the rosettes of The Entry into Jerusalem ( f o l i o 45v - figure 19). Warner suggested that the Benedictional's rosettes 40 derived from the corner decoration of metal bookcovers. An ivory bookcover from Rheims (Bi b l . Natl., Paris. Cod. l a t . 1152 - figure 63) executed c i r c a 860 - 870 A.D. e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s p o i n t as we no t e . f o u r r o s e t t e formations a t each corner, and two s m a l l e r ones at the mid-points of the v e r t i c a l s i d e s , p a r a l l e l i n g the r o s e t t e l o c a t i o n s i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l ' s frames c o n t a i n i n g s i x r o s e t t e s and t h e r e f o r e supports Warner's theory. But C a r o l i n g i a n i l l u m i n a t i o n must be examined f o r the presence of r o s e t t e s , and Deshman has p o i n t e d out t h a t the B e n e d i c t i o n a l 1 s r o s e t t e s are d e r i v e d from Franco-Saxon ornament, though the E n g l i s h a r t i s t s d i d not copy l i t e r a l l y . As seen i n f i g u r e 64, the Franco-Saxon r o s e t t e s are o f t e n formed of f o l i a g e i n a r a d i a l design, "but the f o l i a g e 41 always stays w i t h i n the geometric borders of the rosette", and the Franco-Saxon r o s e t t e s have only one geometric sup-p o r t , whereas the B e n e d i c t i o n a l ' s r o s e t t e s have one, two and even three geometric supports. As Homburger p o i n t e d out, there i s an i n t e r n a l development of r o s e t t e formation 42 w i t h i n the frames of the B e n e d i c t i o n a l . As Deshman r e i t e r a t e d : "Those a t the be g i n n i n g of the B e n e d i c t i o n a l are f a i t h f u l to Franco-Saxon p r a c t i c e , u s i n g only a s i n g l e geometric border f o r each r o s e t t e . Then i n l a t e r frames the a r t i s t s add a second framework to each corner r o s e t t e and f i n a l l y towards the end of the mini a t u r e c y c l e , s t i l l a t h i r d geometric framework i s added. The p a i n t e r s o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l thus g r a d u a l l y reshaped the r e l a t i v e l y simple r o s e t t e s i n t h e i r F r a n c o - S a x o n m o d e l t o s u i t t h e i r n a t i v e 4 3 A n g l o - S a x o n t a s t e f o r o r n a m e n t a l c o m p l e x i t y . " O t h e r e x a m p l e s o f l a r g e r o s e t t e s , s t u d d i n g t h e f r a m e s a l t h o u g h w i t h o u t f o l i a g e , a r e f o u n d i n m a n u s c r i p t s o f t h e F r a n c o -S a x o n s c h o o l f r o m t h e C o l o g n e r e g i o n ( f i g u r e 6 5 ) a n d i n N o r t h S a x o n y ( f i g u r e 6 6 ) b o t h o f e a r l y t e n t h - c e n t u r y d a t e . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , r a r e l y m e n t i o n e d a r e t h e m a n y e x a m p l e s o f I n s u l a r u s e o f r o s e t t e s a s c a n b e s e e n i n t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r y L i n d i s f a r n e G o s p e l s , ( f i g u r e 6 7 ) . H e r e w e s e e a n o r n a m e n t a l p a g e w i t h d e c o r a t e d m e d a l l i o n s a t t h e f o u r c o r n e r s a n d i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e f o u r s i d e s , s i m i l a r t o t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e r o s e t t e s i n t h e r e c t a n g u l a r f r a m e o f S t . E t h e l d r e d a ( f o l i o 9 0 v - f i g u r e 2 5 ) . T h e t r e a t m e n t i s d i f f e r e n t i n t h a t t h e L i n d i s f a r n e m e d a l l i o n s e x t e n d b e y o n d t h e f r a m e , t h e y a r e n o t i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e b o r -d e r a s t h e y a r e i n t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l . A l a t e r I n s u l a r p r e c e d e n t f o r e l i p t i c a l f o r m s i s f o u n d i n a m i n i a t u r e o f S t . L u k e w h e r e t h e b o r d e r f r a m i n g i s c o m p o s e d o f t w o e l l i p s e s e x t r u d e d f r o m t h e o p e n m o u t h s o f a n i m a l h e a d s . T h i s m i n i a t u r e i s d a t e d i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y ( f i g u r e 6 8 ) . T h e a c a n t h u s l e a f s c r o l l h e r e i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o u n d i n t h e A e t h e l s t a n m i n i a t u r e ( f i g u r e 4 1 ) a n d a n i n i t i a l " P " i n t h e s a m e b o o k ( C a m b r i d g e , C o r p u s C h r i s t i C o l l e g e MS 1 8 3 ) . 4 4 65 . Thus i n summing up we f i n d t h a t the i d e a o f u s i n g r o s e t t e s was not new, but the Winchester a r t i s t s t r e a t e d them i n an i n n o v a t i v e way, combining both I n s u l a r and C o n t i n e n t a l i d e a s . We t u r n now to the l a s t component of the frame, the c i t y - v i e w enrichments. City-View Enrichments As we have seen, a r c h i t e c t u r a l scenes were added to the frame of three m i n i a t u r e s of the B e n e d i c t i o n a l : Three A p o s t l e s ( f o l i o 2v - f i g u r e 4); Three A p o s t l e s ( f o l i o 3 - f i g u r e 5); and The Descent of the Holy Ghost ( f o l i o 67v - f i g u r e 23). The a r t i s t o f the f a c i n g pages of f i g u r e s 4 and 5 has r e p l a c e d the arch of the frame with a t r i a n g u l a r pediment and has p l a c e d the a r c h i t e c t u r a l b u i l d i n g s i n the corners on each s i d e o f the pediment. The c i t y - v i e w s here c o n s i s t of a w a l l f o r t i f i e d w i t h three square-topped towers; w i t h i n t h i s w a l l i s a long b u i l d i n g w i t h t i l e d r o o f , which Warner suggests i s a 45 b a s i l i c a , and two towers, one surmounted by a cupola and the o t h e r by a c o n i c a l - s h a p e d cupola w i t h o r b i s f i n i a l . The f i n i a l s do not appear i n f i g u r e 5, the r i m of the w a l l s appears to have cu t them o f f . In The Descent of the Holy 66 . G h o s t ( f o l i o 6 7 v - f i g u r e 2 3 ) , t h e c i t y - v i e w s c o n s i s t o n c e a g a i n o f a w a l l f o r t i f i e d w i t h t h r e e t o w e r s , t h e s q u a r e t o p p e d t o w e r a p p e a r s t o b e t h e c i t y - g a t e , w i t h i n w h i c h a r e f o u n d t h e o t h e r t w o t o w e r s s i m i l a r t o t h e o n e s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e i n f i g u r e s 4 a n d 5 , t h a t i s , w i t h c u p o l a a n d c o n i c a l -s h a p e d c u p o l a w i t h g l o b a l f i n i a l a t t h e s u m m i t . S i m i l a r c i t y - v i e w s h a v e a p p e a r e d i n m a n u s c r i p t s s i n c e e a r l y t i m e s . T h e s a m e t y p e o f w a l l e d t o w n s f o l l o w w h a t a p p e a r s t o b e a L a t e A n t i q u e c o n v e n t i o n f o r c i t i e s a n d t e m p l e s , a n d a r e f o u n d i n t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y V i e n n a G e n e s i s ( N B , C o d . T h e o l . g r a e d . 3 1 - f i g u r e 6 9 ) , i n t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y C o s m a s I n d i c o p l e u s t e , t h e m i d - t e n t h c e n t u r y J o s h u a R o l l a s w e l l a s m a n y o t h e r m a n u s c r i p t s . T h e r e a r e a l s o m o s a i c s c o n t a i n i n g v i e w s o f J e r u s a l e m a n d B e t h l e h e m i n e x a c t l y t h e s a m e f o r m a t a s t h e s e c i t y - v i e w s , t h a t i s o n e i t h e r s i d e o f a n a r c h , i n t h e c h u r c h e s o f S . S a b i n a a n d t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y S . M a r i a M a g g i o r e , a s w e l l a s i n S . 4 6 L o r e n z o i n R o m e a n d S . V i t a l e a t R a v e n n a . T h e s e a r e r a t h e r e a r l y i n d a t e , h o w e v e r , l o o k i n g a t l a t e r e x a m p l e s , w e f i n d t h a t t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y C a r o l i n g i a n U t r e c h t P s a l t e r ( f i g u r e 7 0 ) , a n i n t h c e n t u r y i v o r y o f t h e M e t z S c h o o l ( f i g u r e 7 1 ) , a n d a n i n t h c e n t u r y G e r m a n i l l u m i n a t i o n ( f i g u r e 7 2 ) c o n t a i n s i m i l a r a r c h i t e c t u r a l s c e n e s . T h e b u i l d i n g s i n a l l o f t h e s e a r e r e d u c e d t o s i g n s a n d u s e d t o s i g n i f y t h e p l a c e o f t h e e v e n t . I n C a r o l i n g i a n C o u r t S c h o o l i l l u m i n a t i o n t h e s y m b o l i c a r c h i t e c t u r e w a s a l w a y s i n s i d e t h e a r c h , w h e r e a s i n O t t o n i a n a r t i t w a s o f t e n o u t -4 8 s i d e t h e a r c h . T h u s t h e c i t y - v i e w s p r e s e n t i n t h e B e n e -d i c t i o n a l c o m b i n e b o t h C a r o l i n g i a n a r c h i t e c t u r a l s y m b o l i s m ( t h e b u i l d i n g s w i t h i n t h e f r a m e s ) a n d O t t o n i a n e l e m e n t s ( t h e b u i l d i n g s l o c a t e d o u t s i d e t h e f r a m e s ) . A c o n t e m p o r a r y I n s u l a r e x a m p l e i s t o b e f o u n d i n a m i n i a t u r e o f a m a n u -s c r i p t a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d , w h i c h w a s w r i t t e n a t F l e u r y i n t h e l a s t q u a r t e r o f t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y , b y a n E n g l i s h a r t i s t ( f i g u r e 4 0 ) . H e r e t h e c i t y - v i e w a d d i t i o n s a r e l o c a t e d o n e i t h e r s i d e o f a n a r c h e d f r a m e a s i n t h e B e n e -d i c t i o n a l , a n d a l t h o u g h t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e b u i l d i n g s i s d i f f e r e n t , t h e y a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i n t h e s a m e w a y 4 9 a n d a s s o c i a t e t h e e v a n g e l i s t - t y p e f i g u r e w i t h J e r u s a l e m . 6 8 . F o o t n o t e s J o h n t h e e v a n g e l i s t w a s c o n s i d e r e d o f h i g h e r t h e o l o g i c a l r a n k t h a n t h e o t h e r t h r e e e v a n g e l i s t s a n d " t h a t i s p e r h a p s w h y h e w a s i n c l u d e d i n t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l , M e y e r S c h a p i r o , " O n S o m e P r o b l e m s i n t h e S e m i o t i c s o f V i s u a l A r t : F i e l d a n d V e h i c l e i n I m a g e - S i g n s , " S e m i o t i c a , I ( 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 2 3 6 . 2 F r a n c i s W o r m a l d , T h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f S t . -• E t h e l w o l d ( L o n d o n , 1 9 5 9 ) , p . 2 2 . 3 G e o r g e F r e d e r i c k W a r n e r a n d H e n r y A u s t i n W i l s o n , T h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f S t . A e t h e l w o l d ( O x f o r d , 1 9 1 0 ) , p . x x i . W a r n e r s t a t e s t h a t o t h e r e x a m p l e s o f a t r e f o i l o r t r i p a r -t i t e a r c h c a n b e f o u n d i n p l a t e s i i i a n d i v o f t h e l a t e r W i n c h e s t e r M i s s a l o f R o b e r t o f J u m i e g e s . 4 C a r l N o r d e n f a l k , " T h e B e g i n n i n g o f B o o k D e c o r a t i o n , " E s s a y s i n H o n o u r o f G e o r g S w a r z e n s k i ( C h i c a g o , 1 9 5 1 ) , p . 1 5 . 5 6 I b i d . , p . 1 6 R o g e r H i n k s , C a r o l i n g i a n A r t ( A n n A r b o r , M i c h i g a n , 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 1 1 0 . 7 T . D . K e n d r i c k , e d . , E v a n g e l i o r u m Q u a t t u o r C o d e x L i n d i s f a r n e n s i s f a c s i m e d . ( 0 Itun, 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 1 1 8 . g H e n r i F o c i l l o n , R o m a n e s q u e A r t , V o l . I o f T h e  A r t o f t h e W e s t i n t h e M i d d l e A g e s , ( L o n d o n , 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 3 7 . 9 . . H i n k s , C a r o l i n g i a n A r t , p . 1 4 - 1 5 . " ^ F r a n c i s W o r m a l d , " D e c o r a t e d I n i t i a l s i n E n g l i s h 6 9 . M a n u s c r i p t s f r o m A . D . 9 0 0 t o 1 1 0 0 , " A r c h a e o l o g i a , 9 1 ( 1 9 4 5 ) , p . 1 1 4 - 1 5 . " ^ R o b e r t D e s h m a n , " A n g l o - S a x o n A r t a f t e r A l f r e d , " A r t B u l l e t i n , 5 6 ( J u n e , 1 9 7 4 ) , p . 1 9 3 . 1 2 M r s . G . M . C r o w f o o t h a s w r i t t e n a b o u t a f r a g m e n t o f e m b r o i d e r y o f s i m i l a r t e c h n i q u e f o u n d a m o n g t h e r e l i c s o f S a n A m b r o g i o i n M i l a n b u t a r e d a t e d t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y . ( C . F . B a t t i s c o m b e , e d . , T h e R e l i c s o f S t . C u t h b e r t ( O x f o r d , 1 9 5 6 ) , p . 3 9 2 . ) 1 3 I b i d . , p . 4 1 3 . 1 4 W o r m a l d , " D e c o r a t e d I n i t i a l s " , p . 1 0 8 . 1 5 D e s h m a n , " A n g l o - S a x o n A r t a f t e r A l f r e d , " p . 1 9 5 . 1 6 F r a n c i s W o r m a l d , " T h e ' W i n c h e s t e r S c h o o l ' b e f o r e S t . A e t h e l w o l d , " E n g l a n d B e f o r e t h e C o n q u e s t ( C a m b r i d g e , 1 9 7 1 ) , p . 3 1 3 . 1 7 T h e s a m e c u p - l i k e k n o b s i n t h e a c a n t h u s l e a f f o r m a t i o n a r e f o u n d i n o t h e r E n g l i s h m a n u s c r i p t s a n d i n i t i a l s , s u c h a s i n a m i n i a t u r e o f K i n g A t h e l s t a n p r e -s e n t i n g a b o o k t o S t . C u t h b e r t f r o m T h e L i f e o f S t .  C u t h b e r t ( C o r p u s C h r i s t i C o l l e g e M S . 1 8 3 , f o l . i v - f i g u r e 4 1 ) d a t e d a b o u t 9 3 7 A . D . a n d b e l i e v e d t o b e a r o y a l c o m -m i s s i o n f r o m t h e W i n c h e s t e r s c r i p t o r i u m . ( D e s h m a n , " A n g l o -S a x o n A r t a f t e r A l f r e d , " p . 1 9 5 . ) I n t h e l o w e r v e r t i c a l b o r d e r s o f t h i s m i n i a t u r e w e n o t e t h e c u p - l i k e k n o b s f r o m w h i c h t h e a c a n t h u s s p r i n g s . T h e s e k n o b s a r e a l s o s e e n i n t h e a d d i t i o n s t o t h e A t h e l s t a n P s a l t e r ( B . M . C o t t o n MS G a l b a A . x v i i i ) d a t e d b e t w e e n 9 2 7 a n d 9 4 0 A . D . ( W o r m a l d , " D e c o r a t e d I n i t i a l s , " p . 1 1 5 . ) ( F i g u r e 4 2 ) A n o t h e r v e r s i o n o f a b o u t t h e s a m e d a t e c a n b e s e e n i n t h e H e l m i n g h a m O r o s i u s , a c o p y o f K i n g A l f r e d ' s E n g l i s h t r a n s -l a t i o n o f t h e U n i v e r s a l H i s t o r y o f O r o s i u s , d a t e d t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y a n d o f W i n c h e s t e r o r i g i n ( W o r m a l d , " D e c o r a t e d I n i t i a l s , " p . 1 1 8 . ) w h e r e w e n o t e t h e p r e s e n c e o f s i m i l a r k n o b s i n t h e a c a n t h u s f o r m a t i o n ( f i g u r e 4 3 ) . 70 . A l a t e r English example i s to be found i n The  Charter of King Edgar, also known as The New Minster Charter (B.M., Vespasian A. VIII, f o l i o 2b - figure 44) where we note that the knobs are of the same type and are located i n the same position as the knobs i n The Bene-d i c t i o n a l 's Annunciation scene ( f o l i o 5v - figure 8), that i s , i n the central acanthus stem located between the gold bars of the t r e l l i s frame. Authorities have generally considered t h i s Charter to be dated 966 A.D., u n t i l Francis Wormald suggested that i t should be dated l a t e r than 966 but not a f t e r 984 A.D., the date of Aethelwold's death. He suggests that i t was commissioned by Aethelwold aft e r the event, to commemorate the establishment of the Benedictines at New Minster by Edgar. (Francis Wormald, "Late Anglo-Saxon Art, Some Questions and Suggestions," i n Vol. I Romanesque and Gothic Art, Acts of the Twentieth  International Congress of the History of Art (Princeton, 1963), p. 24-5.) What more f i t t i n g moment could there be for such a tribute to Edgar than the date of his coronation i n 973? I suggest, therefore, that The Charter of King  Edgar was executed at the same time or a f t e r The Benedictional of St. Aethelwold. Perhaps the same a r t i s t executed the frame of the Charter (figure 44) and the frame of The Annunciation (figure 8), although I tend to think that the a r t i s t who did the framing on the Charter copied the rosette formation of The Annunciation, exten-ding the design a l l around the frame. The Charter's framing i s much s t i f f e r , the acanthus leaves l y i n g f l a t t e r , giving a less three-dimensional e f f e c t . Perhaps the same a r t i s t executed a l l three frames, The Annunciation one (figure 8), the Charter's frame (figure 44), and the facing p a i r of St. Etheldreda and the page of blessing (figures 25 and 26) using a Carolingian acanthus pattern book which he adapted to Anglo-Saxon taste. Carl Nordenfalk, "Corbie and Cassiodorus, A Pattern Page Bearing on the Early History of Bookbinding," Pantheon, 32, No. 3 (1974), p. 225. Ibid., p. 225. The t e n t h century i n England was one of monastic reform, Aethelwold b e i n g one o f the l e a d e r s i n the South of England. Reform came to England from F l e u r y i n France, 7 1 . w h i c h h a d b e e n r e f o r m e d b y C l u n i a c m o n k s i n 9 3 0 . F l e u r y w a s c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h A e t h e l w o l d t h r o u g h D u n s t a n w h o b e c a m e A r c h b i s h o p o f C a n t e r b u r y f r o m 9 6 0 - 9 8 8 . O n e i m p o r t a n t r e s u l t o f t h i s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h F l e u r y w a s t h a t b o o k s f r o m c o n t i n e n t a l l i b r a r i e s f o u n d t h e i r w a y t o S o u t h e r n E n g l a n d . 2 2 I b i d . , p . 2 5 6 . 2 3 T h e o n l y w a y o f d a t i n g A n g l o - S a x o n s c u l p t u r e i s s t y l i s t i c a l l y a s t h e r e i s n o o t h e r e v i d e n c e o f d a t i n g , a n d a n y d a t i n g b a s e d o n s t y l e d e p e n d s o n t h e d a t i n g o f m a n u s c r i p t s . T h e r e i s n o c l e a r - c u t l i n e o f d e v e l o p m e n t . ( R o s e m a r y C r a m p , " A n g l o - S a x o n S c u l p t u r e o f t h e R e f o r m P e r i o d , " T e n t h - C e n t u r y S t u d i e s , D a v i d P a r s o n s e d . , ( L o n d o n , 1 9 7 5 ) , p . 1 8 6 . 2 4 E . A . F i s h e r , T h e G r e a t e r A n g l o - S a x o n C h u r c h e s ( L o n d o n , 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 1 9 0 . B a l d w i n B r o w n c o n s i d e r s t h e s e s l a b s t o b e c o n t e m p o r a r y w i t h t h e t o w e r a n d T a l b o t R i c e s u g g e s t s t h e s l a b s a r e b r o k e n c r o s s - s h a f t s a n d a r e o f p r e - D a n i s h o r i g i n , a n d R o s e m a r y C r a m p t a l k s a b o u t t h e l a t e n i n t h t o e a r l y t e n t h c e n t u r y . 2 5 G e o r g e Z a r n e c k i , " T h e S o u r c e s o f E n g l i s h R o m a n e s q u e S c u l p t u r e , " A c t e s d u X V I I m e C o n g r e s I n t e r n a t i o n a l d ' H i s t o i r e d e L ' A r t , A m s t e r d a m , J u l y 2 3 - 3 1 , 1 9 5 2 ( L a H a y e , 1 9 5 5 ) , p . 1 7 4 . 2 6 A . W . C l a p h a m , E n g l i s h R o m a n e s q u e A r c h i t e c t u r e B e f o r e T h e C o n q u e s t ( O x f o r d , 1 9 3 0 ) , p . 1 3 0 . 2 7 C l a p h a m a n d B a l d w i n B r o w n s u g g e s t a l a t e t e n t h c e n t u r y d a t e o f 9 9 4 , R o s e m a r y C r a m p c o n s i d e r s a t e n t h c e n t u r y d a t e a n d R i x a n d K e n d r i c k p l a c e i t i n t h e m i d -n i n t h c e n t u r y . ( T e n t h - C e n t u r y S t u d i e s , D a v i d P a r s o n s e d . , ( L o n d o n , 1 9 7 5 ) , p . 1 8 7 - 9 . ) 2 8 J o h n B e c k w i t h , I v o r y C a r v i n g s i n E a r l y M e d i e v a l E n g l a n d ( L o n d o n , 1 9 7 2 ) , p . 4 7 - 8 . 7 2 . 2 9 D . M . W i l s o n , " T e n t h - C e n t u r y M e t a l w o r k , " T e n t h - C e n t u r y S t u d i e s , D a v i d P a r s o n s e d . , ( L o n d o n , 1 9 7 5 ) , p . 2 0 4 . 3 0 D a v i d M . W i l s o n , A n g l o - S a x o n O r n a m e n t a l M e t a l -w o r k 7 0 0 - 1 1 0 0 i n t h e B r i t i s h M u s e u m ( L o n d o n , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 2 0 7 . 3 1 I b i d . , p . 2 0 4 . 3 2 D a v i d A . H i n t o n , A C a t a l o g u e o f t h e A n g l o - S a x o n O r n a m e n t a l M e t a l w o r k 7 0 0 - 1 1 0 0 i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t i -q u i t i e s A s h m o l e a n M u s e u m ( O x f o r d , 1 9 7 4 ) , p . 7 . 3 3 W i l s o n , A n g l o - S a x o n O r n a m e n t a l M e t a l w o r k , p . 4 3 . 3 4 W i l s o n , A n g l o - S a x o n O r n a m e n t a l M e t a l w o r k , p . 3 8 . 3 5 J o a n R. C l a r k e a n d D a v i d A . H i n t o n , T h e A l f r e d  a n d M i n s t e r L o v e l l J e w e l s ( O x f o r d , 1 9 6 1 ) , p . 1 0 . 3 6 R o n a l d J e s s u p , A n g l o - S a x o n J e w e l l e r y ( L o n d o n , 1 9 5 0 ) , p . 8 7 - 8 . 3 7 H i n t o n , A C a t a l o g u e o f t h e A n g l o - S a x o n O r n a m e n t a l  M e t a l w o r k , p . 7 . 3 8 0 . M . D a l t o n , " O n a S i l v e r B o w l a n d C o v e r o f t h e N i n t h o r T e n t h C e n t u r y , " A r c h a e o l o g i a , 6 1 , N o . 2 , ( 1 9 0 9 ) , p . 3 5 7 - 8 . 3 9 .. R o m i s c h e s J a h r b u c h F u r K u n s t g e s c h i c h t e , 3 , ( 1 9 3 9 ) p i . 1 5 . 4 0 G e o r g e F r e d e r i c k W a r n e r , a n d H e n r y A u s t i n W i l s o n , T h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f S t . A e t h e l w o l d ( O x f o r d , 1 9 1 0 ) , p . x x x i x . 4 1 R o b e r t D e s h m a n , " T h e L e o f r i c M i s s a l a n d T e n t h -c e n t u r y E n g l i s h A r t , " i n A n g l o - S a x o n E n g l a n d 6 . e d . b y P e t e r C l e m o e s ( C a m b r i d g e , 1 9 7 7 ) , p . 1 6 3 . 7 3 . 4 2 i / O t t o H o m b u r g e r , D i e A n f a n g e P e r M a l s c h u l e v o n W i n c h e s t e r i m X J a h r h u n d e r t ( L e i p z i g , 1 9 1 2 ) , p . 2 8 - 3 0 . 4 3 D e s h m a n , " T h e L e o f r i c M i s s a l , " p . 1 6 3 - 4 . 4 4 W o r m a l d , " T h e ' W i n c h e s t e r S c h o o l ' b e f o r e S t . A e t h e l w o l d , " p . 3 0 9 - 1 0 . 4 5 G e o r g e F r e d e r i c k W a r n e r a n d H e n r y A u s t i n W i l s o n , e d . , T h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f S t . A e t h e l w o l d ( O x f o r d , 1 9 1 0 ) , p . x v i i i . I b i d . , x v m . 4 7 «' H a n s H o l l a n d e r , E a r l y M e d i e v a l A r t ( N e w Y o r k , 1 9 7 4 ) , p . 1 2 3 . 4 8 4 0 I b i d . , 1 3 0 . 4 9 W o r m a l d , " T h e ' W i n c h e s t e r S c h o o l 1 b e f o r e S t . A e t h e l w o l d , " p . 3 1 1 - 1 2 . CHAPTER IV THE COLOUR USED IN THE FRAMES F o l l o w i n g the f i r s t seven m i n i a t u r e s and w r i t t e n i n g o ld Roman r u s t i c c a p i t a l s , Godeman's p r e f a c e r e v e a l s t h a t Bishop Aethelwold i n s t r u c t e d him to i n c l u d e many c i r c i (arches, which must i n c l u d e the r e c t a n g u l a r as w e l l as the arched frames), and to p a i n t the f i g u r e s w i t h i n them m u l t i g e n i s m i n i i s p u l c h r i s , t h a t i s , i n many b e a u t i -f u l c o l o u r s . F r a n c i s Wormald has t r a n s l a t e d t h i s p o r t i o n as: "He commanded a l s o to be made i n t h i s book many frames w e l l adorned and f i l l e d w i t h v a r i o u s f i g u r e s decorated w i t h numerous b e a u t i f u l c o l o u r s and w i t h g o l d . " 1 The a r t i s t s o b l i g e d by p r o v i d i n g m i n i a t u r e s where not o n l y the f i g u r e s but a l s o the frames g i v e the e f f e c t o f d a z z l i n g splendour. In t h i s chapter, we w i l l look a t the c o l o u r s found i n the frames, the use and e f f e c t of t h i s c o l o u r (with s p e c i a l emphasis on the p a r t i c u l a r e f f e c t o f g o l d ) , pre-cedents found i n I n s u l a r and C o n t i n e n t a l manuscripts as w e l l as the B e n e d i c t i o n a l ' s i n n o v a t i o n s . 75. The a r t i s t s executed the miniatures of the Bene-d i c t i o n a l i n pigment and i n applied gold, the technique of colour painting being gouache, which the Anglo-Saxons 2 considered more lavi s h than l i n e drawings. The colour portions have faded i n many areas and the applied gold has flaked o f f i n many places i n the miniatures of the 3 Benedictional. The a r c h i t e c t u r a l components of the frame, that i s the t r e l l i s frame composed of p a r a l l e l bands containing the acanthus leaves, the rosette frames, the columns, capitals and bases, are of gold, whereas the acanthus leaves are coloured creating a d i v i s i o n of the elements of the frame. Although the Anglo-Saxons did not have a wide range of dyes, the a r t i s t s of the Benedictional used the f u l l extent of available colours for the acanthus leaves: blue, green, purple, brown, yellow, pink, red and black. The backgrounds to the acanthus are dark blue, brown or black and the leaves are p a r t i a l l y outlined and highlighted with white, with the vein markings being put i n black or a darker shade of the e x i s t i n g leaf colour. The tone of colour i s subdued. There are generally seven or eight colours used i n the borders of the miniatures, with a few using as l i t t l e as s i x colours and the most being nine. The average number of colours used on the 76 . acanthus alone i s f i v e or s i x with the lowest being four. Acanthus leaves i n nature are green and we see the non-naturalistic use of colour, either for symbolic reasons or for the r e s u l t i n g pattern, or both. The Benedictional's a r t i s t s ' approach to colour stressed the opposition of l i g h t 4 and dark. The a r t i s t s used gold for i t s lustrous q u a l i -t i e s to produce l i g h t contrasting with the subdued tones of the coloured acanthus. The acanthus leaves themselves are also outlined and highlighted with white creating a l i g h t area contrasting once more with the darker leaf colour and darker vein l i n e s . This technique i s essen-t i a l l y l i n e a r i n character and i t was i n the Benedictional that the 'double l i n e ' technique of painting made i t s f i r s t extensive appearance i n Anglo-Saxon art , which influenced multi-coloured l i n e drawing of Winchester School manu-scr i p t s as i n for example the contemporary L e o f r i c Missal,^ where the same colours were used i n the drawings as the s c r i p t s , uniting the two i n a decorative manner. The a r t i s t s of the Benedictional used t h i s device of l i g h t and dark coloured lines to create kaleidoscopic surface patterns of colour. The emphasis on surface quality can be seen i n the use of applied gold which i s raised above the l e v e l of the vellum and the other painted areas, creating a special surface for l i g h t r e f l e c t i o n . 77 . The frame i s not o n l y compartmentalized by the s t r u c t u r e of the separate u n i t s of a r c h , columns, c a p i t a l s , bases, r o s e t t e s , e t c . , but a l s o by the c o l o u r of the acanthus leaves w i t h i n these u n i t s which u s u a l l y match c o l o u r s i n the scene. D i f f e r e n t c o l o u r s are used i n the v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s which adds to the s e p a r a t i o n of the e l e -ments o f the frame and scene i n t o areas of l i g h t and dark. T h i s c o l o u r compartmentalization i s used i n the i l l u m i n a -t i o n s of the B e n e d i c t i o n a l as p a r t of the composition o r design. T h i s i s b e s t e x e m p l i f i e d i n the S t . Swithun M i n i a t u r e ( f o l i o 97v - f i g u r e 29) where we note the back-ground immediately behind the s a i n t i s dark p u r p l e , the areas on e i t h e r s i d e of the s a i n t between the columns and h i s arch are a p a l e r l i l a c and the area between the 7 i n t e r i o r arches and the top of the frame i s blue-green. Such background c o l o u r d i v i s i o n o f the scenes can be seen i n many o f the m i n i a t u r e s of the B e n e d i c t i o n a l , some of the more s t r i k i n g b e i ng: The Stoning of St. Stephen ( f o l i o 17v - f i g u r e 12); The Octave of Christmas ( f o l i o 22v - f i g u r e 15); The E n t r y i n t o Jerusalem ( f o l i o 45v -f i g u r e 19); The N a t i v i t y o f S t . John the B a p t i s t ( f o l i o 92v - f i g u r e 27); and The Martyrdom of S t s . Peter and Paul ( f o l i o 95v - f i g u r e 28). In a l l of these, the c o l o u r d i v i s i o n o f the background i s a l s o accompanied by a jagged contour l i n e t h a t emphasizes the compartmentalization of 7 8 . c o l o u r . We have been r e f e r r i n g to scenes but the same i d e a o f c o l o u r p a r t i t i o n can be seen i n the frame. The a r t i s t s c a r e f u l l y thought out the c o l o u r combination so th a t a geometric p l a n emerges. Colour i s used c h i a s m a t i c a l l y on a page, t h a t i s c o l o u r s match d i a g o n a l l y on a page and two matching pages o p p o s i t e each other m i r r o r each other's c o l o u r scheme. T h i s can be seen f o r example i n the S t . John the E v a n g e l i s t m i n i a t u r e ( f o l i o 19v - f i g u r e 13), a r e c t a n g u l a r framed scene where a c h i a s m a t i c matching o f co l o u r s of the acanthus leaves i s e v i d e n t w i t h i n the e s p a l i e r border. In the v e r t i c a l s i d e s the u p p e r - r i g h t s e c t i o n o f leaves i s p u r p l e matching the leaves i n the l o w e r - l e f t s e c t i o n . L i k e w i s e , the u p p e r - l e f t v e r t i c a l border c o n t a i n s b l u e acanthus matching the blue of the l o w e r - r i g h t v e r t i c a l b o rder. A s i m i l a r d i a g o n a l c o l o u r d e s i g n can be seen i n the h o r i z o n t a l b o r d e r s . The r o s e t t e s i n t h i s m i n i a t u r e c o n s i s t of a c e n t r a l gold c i r c l e surrounded by e i g h t p e t a l s a l t e r n a t i n g i n white and p u r p l e , s p r o u t i n g the acanthus leaves t h a t c u r l under and over the square gold r o s e t t e frame. These leaves a t each o f the four corners of the r o s e t t e a l t e r n a t e pink and b l u e c o l o u r e d leaves to make a t o t a l o f e i g h t c o l o u r s i n a l l , and the c o l o u r s are used c h i a s m a t i c a l l y as w e l l . 7 9 . An even better example of chiasmatic use of colour i n the frame can be found i n The Nativity of Christ ( f o l i o 15v -figure 10), and the page of blessing opposite the Nat i v i t y , where three sides of ( f o l i o 16 - figure 11) are the reverse image of f o l i o 15v. Since the colour i n the bottom edge of the fourth side i s so severely damaged i t i s impossible to determine i f this side shows chiasmatic use of colour as we l l . In the top horizontal border of The Nativity of Christ ( f o l i o 15v - figure 10), the acanthus leaves are brown on the left-hand side and blue on the r i g h t . In the border on the blessing page opposite ( f o l i o 16 - figure 11) the l e f t leaves are blue and the ri g h t are brown, mirroring the colouring of i t s facing page. The few cityscapes are also treated i n colour sections as we see i n the Three Apostles ( f o l i o 2v -figure 4). The three towers of the c i t y walls and a few elements such as the base and f i n i a l of the cupola and other a r c h i t e c t u r a l d i v i s i o n lines are of gold, whereas the c i t y walls, gateways, etc., are each of a d i f f e r e n t colour. The chiasmatic use of colour i s d i f f e r e n t i n rectangular and arched frames since i n the l a t t e r there are fewer intersections of v e r t i c a l and horizontal compo-80. s i t i o n l i n e s . In arched frames the acanthus leaves of the c a p i t a l s and bases of the columns take on the design of a l t e r n a t i n g c o l o u r s as do the leaves of the r o s e t t e s , e x e m p l i f i e d i n The Descent of the Holy Ghost ( f o l i o 67v -f i g u r e 23). We have seen a c o l o u r d e s i g n t h a t produces a d i a g o n a l p a t t e r n ; a c r o s s p a t t e r n appears as w e l l . T h i s can be seen i n the r o s e t t e s of The A n n u n c i a t i o n ( f o l i o 5v -f i g u r e 8) where the c o l o u r a x i s i s made up of a h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l brown and p u r p l e c r e a t i n g a c r o s s - c o l o u r p a t t e r n , a d i a g o n a l blue p a t t e r n e x i s t s as w e l l . As we have seen, the acanthus l e a f c o l o u r s u s u a l l y match c o l o u r s i n the scene. T h i s i s e v i d e n t i n the m i n i a -t u r e o f S t . John the E v a n g e l i s t ( f o l i o 19v - f i g u r e 13) where the blue acanthus echoes the b l u e of the sky; the pink leaves match the pink r i b b o n sky, the p e d e s t a l c l o t h and pink p o r t i o n s of the p e d e s t a l base and c h a i r ; and the green acanthus i n the h o r i z o n t a l border matches the green i n St. John's robe. Not a l l the m i n i a t u r e s are as meticulous i n c o l o u r d e s i g n as t h i s one, but they a l l attempt a s i m i l a r d e c o r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n . Colour symbolism i s w i d e l y used i n the f i e l d s of 81. art and l i t e r a t u r e . Whether colour symbolism was used i n the Benedictional miniatures i s debatable. The predominant colours of the acanthus i n the frames are blue, blue-green, or shades of purple (these often contrasted with pale pink, g yellow, brown and green). According to C i r l o t , blue can denote r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g , devotion and innocence; purple as the colour of the imperial Roman Empire denotes power, s p i r i t u a l i t y and sublimation; green was used i n Ch r i s t i a n art because i t bridged the gap between the two colour groups; and gold represents the state of glory. The intensity of a colour or the degree of i t s brightness could have meaning as w e l l . The geometric colour design could also have symbolic significance as there has always 9 been great symbolic importance attached to graphics, but no d e f i n i t e symbolic meaning i s v e r i f i a b l e with the exception of gold. The most s t r i k i n g feature of the illuminations i n the Benedictional i s the applied gold which shines with stunning b r i l l i a n c e . Gold has always had aesthetic appeal because of i t s high r e f l e c t i v e power. The e f f e c t on the naive beholder i s instantaneous and does not require the i n t e l l e c t u a l or s p i r i t u a l connection between the l i g h t of gold and the divine. In the Middle Ages, both i n the West and Byzantium, gold i n i l l u s t r a t i o n s was used to overwhelm 82. the i l l i t e r a t e . 1 0 Because they are o f gold, the frame-works stand out as the b a s i c element of the d e s i g n and perhaps t h a t i s why the acanthus l e a f frames seem to over-power the scenes they c o n t a i n . One m i n i a t u r e , where frame and scene balance, c o n t a i n s the f i g u r e of S t . E t h e l d r e d a ( f o l i o 90v - f i g u r e 25) whose mantle and v e i l are of h i g h l y burnished g o l d . J u s t as important, i t seems as the s a i n t i s the e s p a l i e r frame accentuated at the corners w i t h a double c i r c u l a r r o s e t t e and a t the mid-points of the s i d e s with s m a l l e r s i n g l e c i r c u l a r r o s e t t e s over and under which the acanthus c l i m b s . The use of gold i n t h i s m i n i a t u r e emphasizes the u n i t y of the d e c o r a t i v e and f i g u r a t i v e m o t i f s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t Aethelwold "was famous as a worker i n m e t a l " 1 1 and perhaps he obtained the g o l d f o r the a r t i s t s and i n s t r u c t e d them to use i t l a v i s h l y i n the manuscript. We must now look at what precedents e x i s t e d i n I n s u l a r and C o n t i n e n t a l manuscripts f o r the use of c o l o u r . How does t h i s use of c o l o u r i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l compare with e a r l i e r I n s u l a r manuscripts' use o f c o l o u r ? From the seventh to the n i n t h century, the people of I r e l a n d and England developed t h e i r own v e r s i o n of a r t d e r i v e d from a combination of C e l t i c , Germanic and 83. C l a s s i c a l a rt of the Mediterranean world. They tended towards an art that was non-figurative and emphasized pattern. I l l u s i o n i s t i c or representational colour was rejected i n part, i n that objects no longer needed to be recognized by t h e i r colour. The seventh-century Book of Purrow, generally regarded as the e a r l i e s t manuscript of the Hiberno-Saxon s t y l e , used colour not i n a descriptive manner but to create a pattern. In figure 46 the use of red, green, yellow and white creates a l i v e l y mosaic of regularly alternating colours which tends to obscure the course of 12 the inte r l a c e and results i n continuity and movement. This same sense of movement i s seen i n the Benedictional 1s frames produced by the alternating colours, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the rosettes, some of which give the impression of wheel-like spinning as i n The Nativity of C h r i s t ( f o l i o 15v - figure 10). Here too the alternating colours make i t d i f f i c u l t to trace the course of the intertwining acanthus. The colours i n The Book of Purrow are bright, as are found i n metalwork i n the seventh-century Sutton 13 Hoo treasures excavated i n East Anglia. The Benedictional 1s colours do not derive from metalwork for they are muted i n tone, rather l i k e frescoes. A fresco, dated c i r c a 900 A.P., has been excavated recently i n Winchester, therefore 8 4 . W i n c h e s t e r a r t i s t s p r o b a b l y w e r e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h a t m e d i u m . A t t h e e n d o f t h e s e v e n t h c e n t u r y , i n t h e L i n d i s -f a r n e G o s p e l s o f c i r c a 6 9 8 A . D . , t h e M a t t h e w p o r t r a i t ( f i g u r e 7 3 ) r e v e a l s t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c o l o u r w a s a b a n d o n e d e v e n w h e n t h e a r t i s t w a s d i r e c t l y i m i t a t i n g m e d i t e r r a n e a n o r i g i n a l s , f o r e x a m p l e t h e b o o k h e l d b y t h e a n g e l a n d t h e f i g u r e e m e r g i n g f r o m b e h i n d t h e c u r t a i n a r e n o t t h e r e d d i s h b r o w n o f l e a t h e r b u t g r e e n , a c o l o u r c h o s e n t o m a t c h t h e g r e e n o f S t . M a t t h e w ' s m a n t l e a n d t o c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e b r o w n o f t h e c u r t a i n , t h e p a t t e r n e d l i n e s o f t h e m a n t l e , a n d t h e c u s h i o n o n w h i c h t h e e v a n -g e l i s t s i t s . A s A l e x a n d e r h a s p o i n t e d o u t , t h e c a r p e t p a g e s o f t h i s b o o k p o r t r a y c o l o u r s " j u x t a p o s e d a s i n a 1 5 f l o o r m o s a i c . " I n f i g u r e 6 7 , a c a r p e t p a g e f r o m t h e s a m e m a n u s c r i p t , w e s e e t h e u s e o f c o l o u r c o m p a r t m e n t s a n d t h e e m p h a s i s o n l i g h t a n d d a r k c o l o u r a s c o n t r a s t s i n a d e s i g n . I n t h e e a r l y n i n t h c e n t u r y w e s e e i n t h e M a c r e g o l  G o s p e l s ( M S A u c t . D . 2 . 1 9 , f o l 5 1 v - f i g u r e 7 4 ) a n e x t r e m e i n t h e n o n - n a t u r a l i s t i c u s e o f c o l o u r . T h e e v a n -g e l i s t ' s r o b e s a r e c o l o u r e d i n g r e e n a n d o r a n g e s t r i p e s t o c r e a t e a p a t t e r n m a t c h i n g t h e f r a m e s o f t h e b o r d e r j u s t 85. as we found i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l where the scenes and bor-ders sometimes are b a r e l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from each o t h e r . In the mid-ninth century we f i n d c o l o u r compart-m e n t a l i z a t i o n i n the Rabanus Manuscript (Cambridge, T r i n i t y C o l l e g e MS B. 16.3, f o l i o i v - f i g u r e 75), a c l o s e copy of 17 a C a r o l i n g i a n o r i g i n a l . Here the scene i s d i v i d e d i n t o geometric u n i t s by the a r c h i t e c t u r e and the c o l o u r . The arches touch the upper border i s o l a t i n g the s p a n d r e l s , and the c u r t a i n rod d i v i d e s the scene h o r i z o n t a l l y . The arches and columns are f i l l e d w i t h d e c o r a t i v e p a t t e r n i n g which d i v i d e s them i n t o d i s t i n c t and separate u n i t s . Colour i s used to c r e a t e c o l o u r compartments e s p e c i a l l y i n the back-ground. For example, i n the background of the o u t e r arches a darker c o l o u r i s used above the arms o f the f i g u r e s and a l i g h t e r hue below the arms. Li k e w i s e , the background 18 above the c u r t a i n rod i s blue and brown below. We see t h e r e f o r e t h a t t h i s d e v i c e o f compartmentalization i s not new t o the B e n e d i c t i o n a l but had long e x i s t e d i n I n s u l a r and C a r o l i n g i a n a r t . In the l a t e n i n t h and e a r l y tenth c e n t u r i e s , con-t a c t w i t h the Continent brought a r e t u r n to a more natura-l i s t i c use of c o l o u r . In the B e n e d i c t i o n a l we have seen t h a t many o f the scenes, the acanthus l e a f i t s e l f , the 8 6 . rosettes and the espalier frame were a l l Carolingian i n o r i g i n , nevertheless, the use of colour remained mainly Insular. Alexander has mentioned that the chalky white pigment evident i n the Benedictional i s derived from ninth-century Carolingian manuscripts of the so-called Palace group, and i n some of the manuscripts of the Franco-Saxon group. This may be the case but the white i s found i n the scenes and not i n the frames of the Bene-d i c t i o n a l , and hardly i s evidence that a l l features of the e a r l i e r native Insular t r a d i t i o n were rejected by the 19 a r t i s t s of the Benedictional as Alexander maintains. I agree with Deshman who refers to the use of colour i n the Benedictional as a continuation of the decorative p r i n -20 c i p l e s of Hiberno-Saxon art. The Benedictional seems to be the f i r s t manuscript to return to the non-naturalistic use of colour i n the tenth century, as the contemporary 21 New Minster Charter does not. The Benedictional's use of colour i s very d i f f e r e n t from that of Metz School manuscripts where there was an i l l u s i o n i s t i c colour palette of the late antique period. The emphasis i n the Benedictional on pattern and the matching of colours i n scenes and borders to achieve a decorative unity are a l l a n t i - c l a s s i c a l compositional features that are found i n pre-Carolingian Insular art. 87 . However, a notable i n n o v a t i o n i n c o l o u r experimen-t a t i o n i s to be seen i n the ten t h - c e n t u r y Anglo-Saxon a r t i s t s ' use of g o l d . I n s u l a r manuscripts used l i t t l e g o l d , the B e n e d i c t i o n a l being the f i r s t manuscript o f t h i s 21 century t o use i t e x t e n s i v e l y . L a t e r manuscripts took up t h i s p r a c t i c e of u s i n g g o l d f o r s p e c i a l e f f e c t s as can be seen i n a gospel w r i t t e n a t C h r i s t Church, Canterbury c. 1020, by the s c r i b e Eadwig. In f i g u r e 76 we see go l d used not only i n the overmantle of the f i g u r e but a l s o i n the frame, the arch and o t h e r d e t a i l s of the scene, much as we have seen i n the S t . E t h e l d r e d a m i n i a t u r e of the B e n e d i c t i o n a l ( f o l i o 90v - f i g u r e 25). In both these manuscripts, g o l d i s used not i n a d e s c r i p t i v e way as i t was i n Roman manuscripts, but r a t h e r f o r i t s r e f l e c t i v e 23 power and to u n i t e the scene and the frame. S i l v e r a l s o was used i n the Grimbald Gospels, a work p a r t l y w r i t t e n by Eadwig, but i t i s i n such poor c o n d i t i o n t h a t the o r i g i n a l e f f e c t has been l o s t . 2 4 In the e l e v e n t h century we f i n d a f u r t h e r develop-ment i n the use of c o l o u r i n the Jumieges Sacramentary where the c o l o u r i n t e n s i f i e s the drama o f the a c t i o n by i t s s w i r l i n g washes. Alexander t h i n k s t h a t i n t h i s Sacramentary "the c o l o u r a l s o has a thematic s i g n i f i c a n c e 25 and emphasizes connections between d i f f e r e n t scenes." 88. Thus i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l we see the c o l o u r t r e a t -ment i s not n a t u r a l i s t i c but i s concerned w i t h s u r f a c e q u a l i t y and c o n t r a s t s o f l i g h t and dark to produce a u n i t y of frame and scene. We saw a l s o the emphasis on c o l o u r compartmentalization f o r the r e s u l t i n g p a t t e r n and the c h i a s m a t i c use o f c o l o u r so t h a t a geometric p l a n r e s u l t s 26 s t r e s s i n g the ambiguity of r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The Winchester a r t i s t s ' sources are complex and we f i n d t h a t c o l o u r was mainly I n s u l a r i n o r i g i n though u l t i m a t e l y d e r i v e d from 27 the e a s t e r n Mediterranean. Whatever the sources f o r the B e n e d i c t i o n a l 1 s use o f c o l o u r , the a r t i s t s were i n n o v a t i v e i n t h e i r use o f gold and o r i g i n a l i n combining and develop-i n g elements o f c o l o u r composition to c r e a t e a l i v e l y p a t t e r n t h a t encompasses both frame and scene. The new approach was to deny the space-depth co n c e p t i o n of antique a r t and r e p l a c e i t w i t h an a r t of s u r f a c e s . The imagina-t i o n o f the medieval a r t i s t had changed, they no longer wanted a p u r e l y i m i t a t i v e a r t but s t r e s s e d the m a t e r i a l -the beauty of pigment and the s u r f a c e q u a l i t y of gold i n t h e i r m i n i a t u r e p a i n t i n g . They d i d t h i s to achieve e x p r e s s i v e n e s s produced by h e i g h t e n i n g the c o l o u r s , 2 8 q u i c k e n i n g the rhythms by echoing the frame i n the image. 89 . Footnotes Francis Wormald, The Benedictional of St. .Lthelwold (New York, 1959), p. 7. C. R. Dodwell, "Techniques of Manuscript Painting in Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts," Settimane di studio del centro i t a l i a n o d i studi s u l l ' a l t o medioevo, 18. No. 2 (1971), 648 f f . The r e s u l t of colour f l a k i n g i n a colour repro-duction of the o r i g i n a l , i s that a pale yellow or a paler shade of the o r i g i n a l colour shows up which makes colour analysis d i f f i c u l t . I t i s also hard to distinguish between p l a i n vellum, when used as a background, and yellow i n a colour s l i d e . The main problem i s that photographs do not represent the o r i g i n a l as there i s a tendency to either a green or pink hue due to the f i l m processing. A more serious problem exists i n both s l i d e s and photographs i n that the b r i l l i a n c e of the applied gold does not appear at a l l . The gold portions look muddy brown which com-p l e t e l y destroys the a r t i s t s ' idea of producing an e f f e c t of l u s t r e and of l i g h t versus dark. Nigel F. Barley, "Old English Colour C l a s s i f i c a -t i o n : Where do Matters Stand," i n Vo l . 3 of Anglo-Saxon  England, ed. by Peter Clemoes (Cambridge, 1974), p. 26. Robert Deshman, "The Le o f r i c Missal and Tenth-Century English Art," i n Vol. 6 of Anglo-Saxon England, ed. by Peter Clemoes (Cambridge, 1974), p. 161. J. J. G. Alexander, "Some Aesthetic P r i n c i p l e s i n the Use of Colour i n Anglo-Saxon Art," i n Vol. 4 of Anglo-Saxon England, ed. by Peter Clemoes (Cambridge, 19 75), p. 149, f. 5. Other manuscripts using t h i s technique are "the Prudentius at Cambridge, the Junius 'Caedmon' manu-s c r i p t s i n Oxford and the Harley Psalter." Robert Deshman, "Anglo-Saxon A r t a f t e r A l f r e d , " A r t B u l l e t i n , 56 (June, 1974), p. 199. g J . E. C i r l o t , A D i c t i o n a r y of Symbols, t r a n s -l a t e d by Jack Sage, (New York, 1971), p. 52-60. 9 I b i d . , p. 122-3. 1 0 M e y e r Schapiro, "On the A e s t h e t i c A t t i t u d e i n Romanesque A r t , " A r t and Thought, ed. by K. Bharatha Iyer (London, 1947), p. 141. ^ G . F. Warner i n George F r e d e r i c k Warner and Henry A u s t i n Wilson, The B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f S t . Aethelwold (Oxford, 1910), p. x x x i v . 12 C a r l Nordenfalk, "Corbie and Cassiodorus, a P a t t e r n Page B e a r i n g on the E a r l y H i s t o r y o f Bookbinding," Pantheon, 32, No. 3 (1974), p. 225. 13 David M. Robb, The A r t of the I l l u m i n a t e d Manu-s c r i p t (South Brunswick, New J e r s e y , 1973), p. 86 f . 65. 14 M a r t i n B i d d l e , "Excavations a t Winchester, 1966. F i f t h I n t e r i m Report," A n t i q u a r i e s J o u r n a l , 47 (1967), p. 277-9, p i s . x x i i i , l i v ( a ) . "^Alexander, "Some A e s t h e t i c P r i n c i p l e s i n the Use of C o l o u r , " p. 147. T. D. Kendrick i n Anglo-Saxon A r t to  A.D. 900 (London, 19 38) compares the c a r p e t pages to Roman mosaics. "^Alexander, "Some A e s t h e t i c P r i n c i p l e s i n the Use of C o l o u r , " p. 14 7 f . 4. 17 F r a n c i s Wormald, "The 'Winchester School' b e f o r e S t . Aethelwold," i n England Before the Conquest, ed. by P e t e r Clemoes and Kathleen Hughes (Cambridge, 1971), p. 309 Deshman, "Anglo-Saxon A r t a f t e r A l f r e d , " p. 197. 19 J . J . G. Alexander, "The B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f S t . Aethelwold and Anglo-Saxon I l l u m i n a t i o n o f the Reform P e r i o d , " i n Tenth-Century S t u d i e s , ed. by David Parsons (London, 1975), p. 181. 20 Deshman, "Anglo-Saxon A r t a f t e r A l f r e d , " p. 199. 2 1 I b i d . , p. 180-1. 22 H. Roosen-Runge and A. E. A. Werner, "The P i c t o r i a l Technique o f the L i n d i s f a r n e Gospels," i n Evangeliorum Quattuor Codex L i n d i s f a r n e n s i s , ed. by T. D. Kendrick (Lausanne, 1966), p. 271. 23 Alexander, "Some A e s t h e t i c P r i n c i p l e s i n the Use of Colour," p. 148. 2 4 I b i d . , p. 149. 2 5 I b i d . , p. 150. 2 6 J . J . G. Alexander, I n s u l a r Manuscripts 6th to 9th Century (London, 1978), p. 10. 27 I b i d . , p. 14. Alexander s t a t e s t h a t there are two reasons f o r s t y l i s t i c comparisons w i t h a r t of the E a s t e r n Mediterranean: f i r s t l y , the h i s t o r i c a l l i n k s with E a s t e r n monasticism and, secondly, t h a t "some of the canons of c l a s s i c a l a r t had al r e a d y begun to break down i n the f o u r t h and f i f t h c e n t u r i e s , so t h a t I n s u l a r a r t i s t s found a k i n d r e d a r t of s t y l i z a t i o n which was sympathetic to them. 2 8 Roger Hinks, C a r o l i n g i a n A r t (Ann Arbor, Michigan 1935), p. 212. CHAPTER V OVERLAPPING OF FRAME AND IMAGE Overlapping of frames and f i g u r e s i s not new, i t has e x i s t e d i n a r t s i n c e the s i x t h century B.C. and perhaps even b e f o r e t h a t , reappearing from time to time a t d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s o f a r t history."'' What i s o r i g i n a l however i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l i s the e x t e n t of o v e r l a p p i n g o f image and frame and the r e l a t i o n o f the f i g u r e s to each other and 2 to the border over which they p r o j e c t . T h i s chapter w i l l examine o v e r l a p p i n g o f frame and image i n the m i n i a t u r e s of the B e n e d i c t i o n a l and suggest the reason f o r i t s use, and w i l l c o n s i d e r what precedents there were i n a r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n i l l u m i n a t e d manuscript. The purpose o f the frame i n a r t i s to i s o l a t e the scene or image from the e x t e r n a l surroundings and focus the audience's v i s i o n on the contained image, but i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l the frame and image i n t e r a c t through over-l a p p i n g . O v e r l a p p i n g i s a device which can be used to 3 show the predominance o f f i g u r e s , by making the more important f i g u r e s o v e r l a p those o f l e s s e r importance. Pre-9 3 . dominance of f i g u r e s by s i z e has a l s o been used i n a r t s i n c e e a r l y times, and i t i s present i n a t l e a s t twelve of the m i n i a t u r e s i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l . T h i s i s p a r t i c u -l a r l y e v i d e n t i n scenes c o n t a i n i n g Mary, f o r example, i n the m i n i a t u r e of The Death and Coronation of the V i r g i n ( f o l i o 102v - f i g u r e 31), where the V i r g i n i s about twice the s i z e of the a p o s t l e s below and c e r t a i n l y l a r g e r than the a t t e n d i n g women. There has been very l i t t l e w r i t t e n about over-l a p p i n g o f image and frame, and what has been w r i t t e n con-s i s t s mainly of s c a t t e r e d statements by such a u t h o r i t i e s 4 as Schapiro, Saunders, Alexander and one a r t i c l e by J e f f r e y Hurwit, who e s t a b l i s h e d f i v e c a t e g o r i e s o f over-5 l a p p i n g . Hurwit's study i s concerned w i t h Greek a r t but the ideas are a p p l i c a b l e to any p e r i o d i n a r t . Only three o f Hurwit's c a t e g o r i e s of o v e r l a p p i n g apply to the i l l u m i n a t i o n s i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l . The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t e r a c t s w i t h i t s frame: 1) through the o v e r l a p p i n g of the image by the border; 2) through the o v e r l a p p i n g o f the border by the image; and 3) through the combination of the two, t h a t i s , both the image and the border are overlapped by each o t h e r i n the same scene. A l l three are examples of open form. Closed form, where the image i s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the border or frame and no o v e r l a p p i n g o c c u r s , i s one of the c a t e g o r i e s not found i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l ' s i l l u m i n a t i o n s ; the other category, t h a t o f no frame at a l l , does occur i n manuscripts such as the s i x t h - c e n t u r y Vienna Genesis, the Terence Plays and i n medieval manuscripts such as the n i n t h - c e n t u r y U t r e c h t P s a l t e r but not i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l . In tenth-century I n s u l a r a r t , however, th e r e are a number o f o u t l i n e draw-7 ings t h a t have no frame. Le t us examine i n more d e t a i l the three c a t e g o r i e s that apply to the B e n e d i c t i o n a l . Image Overlapped by the Border There are two examples of t h i s treatment i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l 1 s m i n i a t u r e s , and they are found i n The A n n u n c i a t i o n ( f o l i o 5v - f i g u r e 8), where the acanthus leaves of the r o s e t t e s i n the frame extend i n t o the scene, and S t . B e n e d i c t ( f o l i o 99v - f i g u r e 30) where a p o r t i o n of the g o l d framing bars of the s i d e r o s e t t e s o v e r l a p as w e l l as the l e a v e s . The r e s u l t i s t h a t the image and frame e x i s t on d i f f e r e n t p a r a l l e l p l a n e s . The e f f e c t on the viewer i s such t h a t he f e e l s he i s l o o k i n g through a window (the frame) i n t o a space beyond (the scene) which recedes 9 5 . i n depth. This sense o f depth i s achieved by the l a y e r i n g of two-dimensional p l a n e s . In the case of The Ann u n c i a t i o n the angel i s on the f i r s t plane j u s t behind the frame as h i s f o o t appears t o be j u s t t o u c h i n g the g o l d bar of the frame. Mary i s s e t a t an angle w i t h her r i g h t hand over the book on the same plane as the angel, and the r e s t o f her body appears to be on a plane behind the angel up the steps of her throne. On the f o l l o w i n g planes we f i n d the throne, the sky and then the b u i l d i n g s which appear to recede because o f the d i a g o n a l l i n e o f the r o o f behind the throne, and the angular l i n e s o f the t u r r e t e d w a l l s . In the S t . B e n e d i c t m i n i a t u r e the same l a y e r i n g o f planes o c c u r s , w i t h S t . Ben e d i c t on the f i r s t plane n e a r e s t the s p e c t a t o r . The use of the frame here i s the t r a d i t i o n a l one found i n most a r t p e r i o d s . The o v e r l a p p i n g o f acanthus leaves and bars r e s u l t s i n a k i n e t i c t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l k i n d o f border but the scene remains contained behind the frame. In d e a l i n g w i t h precedents, we f i n d t h a t t h i s k i n d of o v e r l a p p i n g of the image by the border i s found through-out A r c h a i c and C l a s s i c a l vase p a i n t i n g , as w e l l as i n g s c u l p t u r e . S c u l p t u r e and vase p a i n t i n g are d i f f e r e n t 96. media however and examples are remote i n time. Ov e r l a p p i n g of the image by the border i s r a r e i n C a r o l i n g i a n manu-s c r i p t s , i n f a c t , I c o u l d f i n d o n l y one manuscript u s i n g t h i s f i r s t mode o f o v e r l a p p i n g but was e v i d e n t i n many of i t s i n i t i a l s : the Drogo Sacramentary from the sch o o l o f Metz of northwestern France i n the mid-ninth century c i r c a 850 A.D. Th i s i s a book of i n i t i a l s however and does not c o n t a i n f u l l - p a g e m i n i a t u r e s l i k e the B e n e d i c t i o n a l . In the i n i t i a l D o f t h i s Sacramentary c o n t a i n i n g a scene o f the Three Women a t the Tomb ( P a r i s , B i b l . N a t l . , MS l a t . 9428, f o l i o 58r - f i g u r e 36) the acanthus l e a f stems over-l a p i n t o the scene so e x t e n s i v e l y t h a t the scene i s r e l e g a t e d to the lower l e f t - h a n d corner and the s o l d i e r ' s head i s overlapped by the frame of the l e t t e r D. H i s t o -r i a t e d i n i t i a l s are a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e o f the Drogo Sacra-mentary and t h i s type of scene w i t h i n a l e t t e r i s not o f t e n seen i n I n s u l a r manuscripts although decorated i n i t i a l s f i l l e d w i t h w r i t h i n g acanthus and other f e a t u r e s such as animals are common. We w i l l now move on to the second category. Border Overlapped by the Image Th i s mode o f o v e r l a p p i n g i s more common i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l than the f i r s t , as s i x o f the i l l u m i n a t i o n s 9 7 . have some p o r t i o n of the scene c o v e r i n g the frame. In two of the m i n i a t u r e s , S t . E t h e l d r e d a ( f o l i o 90v - f i g u r e 25) and St. Swithun ( f o l i o 97v - f i g u r e 29), the o v e r l a p p i n g i s b a r e l y p e r c e p t i b l e . S t . E t h e l d r e d a ' s f e e t f l o a t over the acanthus frame and S t . Swithun s i m i l a r l y appears i n f r o n t o f a c e n t r a l p i l l a r and a r c h . More obvious are the f o u r m i n i a t u r e s each c o n t a i n i n g figures of three a p o s t l e s ( f o l i o 2v - f i g u r e 4; f o l i o 3 - f i g u r e 5; f o l i o 3v -f i g u r e 6; and f o l i o 4 - f i g u r e 7). In a l l of these the f i g u r e s are suspended i n a plane i n f r o n t o f the frame and o v e r l a p the c a p i t a l s , bases and p i l l a r s . The r e s u l t of t h i s type of o v e r l a p p i n g i s the c r e a t i n g of p a r a l l e l planes i n f r o n t of the frame, sug-g e s t i n g the frame i s behind the f i g u r e s , as seen i n the A p o s t l e m i n i a t u r e s . The frame f u n c t i o n s as a p i e c e of a r c h i t e c t u r e and looks l i k e a temple o r church with f i g u r e s s t a n d i n g on the s t e p s , so t h a t the frame becomes p a r t of the space i n the image, no longer f u n c t i o n i n g s o l e l y as an e n c l o s u r e . In l o o k i n g f o r precedents of o v e r l a p p i n g of the border by the image i n p r e - B e n e d i c t i o n a l a r t , we f i n d a number o f i n s t a n c e s i n C a r o l i n g i a n i v o r y c a r v i n g s , b e s t e x e m p l i f i e d i n a casket scene of The A n n u n c i a t i o n from the 98. School o f Metz of the n i n t h to t e n t h century ( P a r i s , Louvre, Cat. M o l i n i e r 1896, Nr. 11 - f i g u r e 77). There are fewer examples to be found i n C a r o l i n g i a n manuscripts. One i s again i n the Drogo Sacramentary ( P a r i s , B i b l . Nat., l a t . 9428, f o l i o 41a - f i g u r e 78) c i r c a 850 A.D. where we see a f i g u r e c r o s s i n g over the v e r t i c a l frame of the l e t t e r D. An e a r l i e r example i s to be found i n the E v a n g e l i s t por-t r a i t of Mark, w r i t t e n by Godescalc f o r Charlemagne i n 781 - 83 A.D. ( P a r i s , B i b l . N a t l . Nouv Acq. 1203, f o l i o 4 - f i g u r e 79). Here we see t h a t the r e a r p a r t of the l i o n and the base o f the p e d e s t a l o v e r l a p the acanthus frame. But the i d e a o f elements encroaching on the frame can be seen as w e l l i n decorated i n i t i a l s i n e a r l i e r E n g l i s h manuscripts, such as i n the L i n d i s f a r n e Gospels 9 executed i n the e a r l y years o f the e i g h t h c e n t u r y . In f i g u r e 80 (B.M., Ms. Cotton Nero D. IV, f o l i o 95) we see the tendency o f the i n i t i a l l e t t e r to push out above the frame which i s not an e n c l o s u r e i n i t s e l f . We f i n d the same i d e a i n the Book of K e l l s , dated between 795 and 806 A.D., 1 0 (Dublin, T r i n i t y C o l l e g e L i b r a r y , MS 58 (A.I.6), f o l i o 124 - f i g u r e 81) where we see the beast's head and the tongue of f i r e from h i s mouth o v e r l a p and extend beyond the frame. Another e i g h t h - c e n t u r y example o f o v e r l a p p i n g i s seen i n the i l l u m i n a t i o n of S t . Luke i n a Gospel Book f r o m I r e l a n d ( L o n d o n , B . L . , A d d . 4 0 6 1 8 , f o l i o 2 1 v . ( c a t . 4 6 ) - f i g u r e 8 2 ) w h e r e t h e t o p o f t h e s a i n t ' s h e a d a n d h a l o e x t e n d b e y o n d t h e f r a m e . O n e o f t h e m a n y l a t e t e n t h - c e n t u r y d r a w i n g s w h e r e t h e f i g u r e s a r e n o t r e s t r a i n e d b y a f r a m e b u t c l i m b i n a n d o u t i s o f L u x u r i a i n a P r u d e n t i u s m a n u -s c r i p t ( B . M . A d d M S . 2 4 1 9 9 , f o l i o 1 8 - f i g u r e 8 3 ) w h o d a n c e s r i g h t o u t o f t h e f r a m e a n d i n t h e s a m e d r a w i n g , e v e n t h e l a n d s c a p e r o l l s o u t . ' ' " " ' " T h i s u n i q u e e x a m p l e h o w e v e r p r o b a b l y p o s t d a t e s t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l . T h u s w e s e e t h a t o v e r l a p p i n g o f t h e f r a m e b y t h e i m a g e w a s n o t c o m m o n i n e i t h e r e a r l i e r o r c o n t e m p o r a r y I n s u l a r o r C o n t i n e n t a l m a n u s c r i p t s . W e w i l l n o w m o v e o n t o t h e t h i r d c a t e g o r y . T h e C o m b i n a t i o n o f b o t h O v e r l a p p e d a n d O v e r l a p p i n g I m a g e . B y f a r t h e g r e a t e s t n u m b e r o f t h e m i n i a t u r e s o f t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l f a l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y , s i n c e n i n e t e e n m i n i a t u r e s c o m b i n e t h e a b o v e t w o f o r m s o f o v e r l a p p i n g t o a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r e x t e n t . I n t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l , c a t e g o r y t h r e e i s a l m o s t i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m c a t e g o r y t w o , f o r i n a l l o f t h e s e , t h e o v e r l a p p i n g o f t h e i m a g e b y t h e b o r d e r i s r e s t r a i n e d , o n l y a l e a f o r t w o o f t h e a c a n t h u s o f t h e r o s e t t e s , a c o r n e r o f t h e c a p i t a l s , o r s o m e s m a l l p o r t i o n 100. of the frame c o v e r i n g p a r t of the image, w h i l e the type of o v e r l a p p i n g t h a t i s more obvious and e f f e c t i v e i s the same as category two, t h a t o f the image c r o s s i n g over the bor-der. E i g h t of the m i n i a t u r e s show some s l i g h t degree of o v e r l a p p i n g o f the border by the image, and they i n c l u d e the f i r s t three f o l i o s o f chorus: The Confessors ( f o l i o 1 - f i g u r e 1); The Chorus (of V i r g i n s ) ( f o l i o l v - f i g u r e 2), and (The Chorus) of V i r g i n s ( f o l i o 2 - f i g u r e 3) where we see the f i g u r e s o v e r l a p p i n g a c e n t r a l column and i n f i g u r e s 1 and 3 some s m a l l p o r t i o n of the books c r o s s i n g over the s i d e columns. Three ot h e r m i n i a t u r e s i n c l u d e : The Martyrdom of S t . Stephen ( f o l i o 17v - f i g u r e 12) where S t . Stephen's h a l o and mandorla as w e l l as a f o l d o f drapery o v e r l a p the frame; S t . John the E v a n g e l i s t ( f o l i o 19v - f i g u r e 13) where the t i p o f the horn, the f o o t o f the p e d e s t a l , S t . Stephen's f o o t and p a r t of the c h a i r o v e r l a p the frame; The P r e s e n t a t i o n i n the Temple ( f o l i o 34v - f i g u r e 18) where the c e n t r a l p i l l a r i s overlapped and a fragment of drapery covers the l e f t - h a n d column. There are two remaining m i n i a t u r e s of t h i s group of e i g h t . One i s The Octave o f Christmas ( f o l i o 22v - f i g u r e 15) where only the end of the p i l l o w s behind Mary and p a r t o f the f o o t of the bed o v e r l a p the frame. The l a s t m i n i a t u r e to show n e g l i g i b l e o v e r l a p p i n g i s The Martyrdom of S t s . Peter and Paul ( f o l i o 95v - f i g u r e 28) where the cross 101. o v e r l a p s the frame at the top and s i d e s , and the f e e t of S t . Paul and the e x e c u t i o n e r cover a p o r t i o n of the frame. More s t r i k i n g , however, i n o v e r l a p p i n g o f the frame by the image, are nine m i n i a t u r e s where the frame i s encroached upon by the image to an o u t s t a n d i n g degree. In the f o l l o w i n g three m i n i a t u r e s the f i g u r e s c r o s s over a p o r t i o n of the frame i n a n o t i c e a b l e manner: The N a t i v i t y of C h r i s t ( f o l i o 15v - f i g u r e 10) where S t . Joseph d e f i n i -t e l y i s seated over the frame; The B i r t h and Naming o f S t . John the B a p t i s t ( f o l i o 92v - f i g u r e 27) where E l i z a b e t h f l o a t s over the frame and Zachariah seems to be s i t t i n g on the column; and The Death and Coronation of the V i r g i n ( f o l i o 102v - f i g u r e 31) where Mary and two of the a t t e n -dants f l o a t over the frame. In the s i x o t h e r m i n i a t u r e s , the o v e r l a p p i n g i n -creases to such an extent t h a t p r a c t i c a l l y one e n t i r e s i d e and sometimes both s i d e s o f acanthus frame are o b l i t e r a t e d by the f i g u r e s . These i n c l u d e : The A d o r a t i o n of the Magi ( f o l i o 24v - f i g u r e 16) where the r i g h t - h a n d frame i s t o t a l l y : / c o v e r e d by the scene and about h a l f of the l e f t -hand border i s covered by one o f the Magi; and The Baptism of C h r i s t ( f o l i o 25 - f i g u r e 17) where the l e f t - h a n d border i s covered by angels and the r i v e r god, and p a r t of the 102. r i g h t - h a n d frame i s covered hy an a n g e l . T h i s scene i s d e r i v e d from a s i m i l a r scene on the i v o r y Brunswick casket (Brunswick, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum - i v o r y c a sket -f i g u r e 85), and i n both r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , the f i g u r e s , the 12 ground and water c u t over the frame. The f o u r remaining m i n i a t u r e s i n c l u d e : The E n t r y i n t o Jerusalem ( f o l i o 45v - f i g u r e 19) where the r i g h t -hand border i s t o t a l l y o b l i t e r a t e d and n e a r l y the whole of the l e f t - h a n d border as w e l l ; Doubting Thomas ( f o l i o 56v -f i g u r e 21) where the l e f t column and p a r t of the c a p i t a l and base are covered by the f i g u r e s ; The Descent of the Holy Ghost ( f o l i o 67v - f i g u r e 23) where so much of the columns are covered by the a p o s t l e s t h a t the a r t i s t d i d not bother to f i l l them wi t h the u s u a l acanthus f r i e z e ; and The Women at the Tomb ( f o l i o 51v - f i g u r e 20) where over h a l f of each v e r t i c a l frame i s covered over by the f i g u r e s . In t h i s scene o v e r l a p p i n g reaches a crescendo, s t a r t i n g w i t h the almost unnoticed angel's l e f t wing which o v e r l a p s the r o s e t t e i n the upper r i g h t - h a n d corner emphasizing the d i a g o n a l of the acanthus o f t h i s r o s e t t e and b r i n g i n g our eye back on the d i a g o n a l wing l i n e to the s o l d i e r s behind the tomb, whose round heads and drapery l i n e s echo the s w i r l i n g acanthus to such an extent t h a t we h a r d l y note t h a t they cover a l a r g e s e c t i o n o f frame and 103. h a l f of the middle s i d e r o s e t t e . T h e i r spears, however, j u t over the frame i n angular d i r e c t i o n s emphasizing the dia g o n a l s i n the composition. Overlapping reaches i t s clim a x i n the f i g u r e s o f the three women who, i n a very pronounced way, f l o a t over most of the ri g h t - h a n d border and m i d - r o s e t t e . The o v e r l a p p i n g image, i n t h i s case t h a t o f the angel and three women, i s now the most prominent and as a r e s u l t , appears to be more c o r p o r e a l . There i s a C a r o l i n g i a n i v o r y c a r v i n g i n Munich c o n t a i n i n g t h i s scene ( f i g u r e 85) where the f i g u r e s are p l a c e d i n the same ge n e r a l o r d e r and o v e r l a p the frame i n the same way, a l -though not to the same ext e n t . T h i s i v o r y i s dated c i r c a 870 A.D. and belongs to the L i u t h a r d group o f c a r v i n g s and perhaps i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s scene d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y 13 served as a model f o r the B e n e d i c t i o n a l 1 s v e r s i o n . In t h i s category two min i a t u r e s stand out because of the unique way i n which the o v e r l a p p i n g o c c u r s . They 14 a l s o are i d e o l o g i c a l l y p a r a l l e l : The Ascension ( f o l i o 64v - f i g u r e 22) and The Second Coming ( f o l i o 9v - f i g u r e 9 ) . In the scene o f The Second Coming, the upper r o s e t t e s o v e r l a p the scene. In t h i s m i n i a t u r e the angels behind C h r i s t appear to be f l y i n g a t an angle r i g h t out of the sky, from behind the frame on the l e f t , and out i n t o the s p e c t a t o r ' s space on the r i g h t , s i n c e the u p p e r - l e f t r o s e t t e 104 . frame h a l f covers the angels' bodies and y e t the c r o s s h e l d by the angel on the r i g h t , and the spear h e l d by the angel on the l e f t o v e r l a p the frame i n c r e a s i n g the sense of movement outward. T h i s f e e l i n g of movement i s accen-t u a t e d by the angel h o l d i n g the c r o s s , as h i s head i s t h r u s t out i n f r o n t of the c r o s s and p a r t of h i s wing overlaps an acanthus l e a f of the r o s e t t e , g i v i n g him a d i a g o n a l p o s i t i o n coming out of the depth and a sense of urgency and d e t e r m i n a t i o n t h a t exudes the f e e l i n g of bound-l e s s energy. The e f f e c t of t h i s combination i s to s h a t t e r the s t r u c t u r e o f p a r a l l e l planes, and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of planes now becomes ambiguous. We no l o n g e r know which plane comes i n f r o n t of the o t h e r . Is C h r i s t on the same plane as the r o s e t t e s or i n f r o n t ? The angel w i t h the cross i s no longer p a r a l l e l but i s f l y i n g d i a g o n a l l y through the frame to the s p e c t a t o r . Seven or e i g h t planes now e x i s t , but the angel f i g u r e s transcend them a l l . The d i a g o n a l l i n e s or obliqueness defy the s t a b l e p o s i t i o n of the v e r t i c a l s and h o r i z o n t a l s of the s i d e and bottom frame. T h i s c r e a t e s an i n n e r t e n s i o n so t h a t the space occupied by the m i n i a t u r e and t h a t of the s p e c t a t o r fuse, producing the very v i v i d f e e l i n g t h a t the s p e c t a t o r i s s h a r i n g i n the 15 experience o f the Second Coming. Turning now to the m i n i a t u r e o f The Ascension o f 105. C h r i s t ( f o l i o 64v - f i g u r e 22), we f i n d the most unusual example o f a l l o f t h i s mode of combined o v e r l a p p i n g . We have seen f i g u r e s f l o a t i n g over the frame, as we see here i n the bottom h a l f of the scene, w i t h Mary and the a p o s t l e s who appear to be suspended i n f r o n t of the r o s e t t e s and go l d bar of the border. But what i s t o t a l l y new and o r i g i n a l i s the upper h a l f , the Ascension scene, where the s w i r l i n g sky or clouds o v e r l a p the r o s e t t e s and p a r t of the g o l d bar o f the r i g h t - h a n d border, and a t the same time the hand of God and a top p o r t i o n of the sky are covered by the gold bar o f the frame. The e f f e c t i s much l i k e t h a t which we found i n the Second Coming. In t h i s case i t i s heaven t h a t r e f u s e s containment and f l o a t s i n f r o n t of the frame. There are no precedents i n the sup-posed C a r o l i n g i a n or Byzantine models f o r the B e n e d i c t i o n a l i n i v o r y c a r v i n g or i n manuscripts f o r the o v e r l a p p i n g of sky or heaven over a frame, and t h e r e f o r e t h i s d o u b t l e s s l y was the c r e a t i o n of the a r t i s t . Deshman has p o i n t e d out a number o f i c o n o g r a p h i c d e t a i l s t h a t are unique i n these two m i n i a t u r e s , such as the open-sided mandorla which he suggests was no a c c i d e n t but was added to emphasize the d i v i n i t y of C h r i s t . 1 ^ Perhaps the a r t i s t p l a c e d C h r i s t and the hand of God on the outermost plane f o r the same reason - to emphasize the d i v i n i t y of C h r i s t . 1 0 6 . An i n c o n s i s t e n c y occurs i n t h i s A s c e n s i o n scene i n the lower l e f t - h a n d c o r n e r , where a male f i g u r e f l o a t s over the c o r n er r o s e t t e , y e t one o f the acanthus leaves c u r l s up to cover h i s elbow. A l s o h i s h a l o i s p a r t i a l l y covered by the frame, whereas the h a l o o f the f i g u r e behind him over-la p s the r o s e t t e . A p o s s i b l e reason f o r t h i s i s the a r -t i s t ' s d e s i r e to p l a y w i t h forms and design r a t h e r than to focus on l o g i c a l placement. T h i s ambiguity o f forms i s a 17 fundamental p r i n c i p l e of a l t e r n a t i o n and c o u n t e r p o i n t and i s seen i n I n s u l a r manuscripts such as the Book o f Durrow and the L i n d i s f a r n e Gospels where i l l o g i c a l o v e r l a p p i n g s occur i n the Matthew p o r t r a i t ( f i g u r e 73). Thus even i n a f i g u r a t i v e i l l u s t r a t i o n space was f i l l e d w i t h counter-b a l a n c i n g forms which c o u l d be d i s t o r t e d a t w i l l . In the B e n e d i c t i o n a l ' s A s c e n s i o n scene, the sky o v e r l a p p i n g and b e i n g overlapped by the frame was probably executed f o r a purpose - to show t h a t the Ascension took p l a c e i n a heavenly sphere not bounded by s p a t i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . That the image r e f u s e s containment gives i t an energy and a sense of expansion and power. The f i g u r e o f C h r i s t , f o r example, has a sense o f motion not j u s t because he s t r i d e s a c r o s s the mandorla, but because he o v e r l a p s i t and thus a c t i v e l y c r osses over t h i s d i v i n e symbol, showing t h a t h i s d i v i n i t y i s l i m i t l e s s . 107. An i n c r e a s e i n the amount of o v e r l a p p i n g c r e a t e s an e q u i v a l e n t i n c r e a s e i n the number of p l a n e s . We have seen i n the second category t h a t i n the four A p o s t l e s and i n the S t . E t h e l d r e d a and S t . Swithun m i n i a t u r e s o n l y two to three planes were c r e a t e d by the o v e r l a p p i n g d e v i c e . However, i n the t h i r d category we f i n d f i v e planes i n the min i a t u r e of The Women at the Tomb, s i x planes i n The Ascension and about seven p a r a l l e l planes i n The Second Coming. Th i s mode o f combined o v e r l a p p i n g o f frame and image i s not frequent i n e a r l i e r a r t but can be seen i n the s c u l p t u r e d r e l i e f s i n the E a s t pediment of the 18 Parthenon. A more contemporary example i s found i n C a r o l i n g i a n r e l i e f s c u l p t u r e o f the ten t h century ( P a r i s , Musee Cluny, Kat Du Sommerand Nr. 10 39 - f i g u r e 86) where the f i g u r e ' s f e e t o v e r l a p the frame and y e t h i s h a l o i s behind the frame. There i s o n l y one example of t h i s mode of o v e r l a p p i n g i n tenth-century Anglo-Saxon manuscript i l l u m i n a t i o n and th a t i s i n the f r o n t i s p i e c e to the New  Mi n s t e r C h a r t e r where the acanthus leaves c u r l over i n t o the scene, as w e l l as elements o f the image such as p a r t of the angel's wings and King Edgar's f o o t f l o a t over the frame ( f i g u r e 44). T h i s m i n i a t u r e was d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r (page 46 f- 17) where i t was suggested t h a t i t was con-108. temporary w i t h or probably l a t e r than the B e n e d i c t i o n a l i n date. T h i s p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r p r o o f t h a t the i d e a of over-l a p p i n g was not common i n e i t h e r C o n t i n e n t a l or I n s u l a r manuscripts but was p r e s e n t i n C a r o l i n g i a n i v o r y c a r v i n g . I suggest the B e n e d i c t i o n a l 1 s a r t i s t s i n t r o d u c e d i t to manuscript p a i n t i n g , and i t became common i n the e l e v e n t h century. In summary, we have seen t h a t these three modes o f o v e r l a p p i n g e x i s t e d e a r l i e r , but the use of a l l three i n such an i n n o v a t i v e way t e l l s us t h a t the a r t i s t s o f t h i s manuscript were e x c e p t i o n a l l y o r i g i n a l and they used over-l a p p i n g as an e x p r e s s i v e device to enhance the r e l i g i o u s drama o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l and to u n i t e the frame and the scene i n a d e c o r a t i v e whole. The l a y e r i n g o f planes through o v e r l a p p i n g was one way o f p l a c i n g the more impor-t a n t f i g u r e s c l o s e r t o the s p e c t a t o r and the l e s s e r ones f u r t h e r back. T h i s method o f s t r u c t u r a l compositon s e i z e d the s p e c t a t o r ' s a t t e n t i o n and f o r c e d him to view the scene i n an i n t e r p r e t a t i v e way and h o p e f u l l y gain a g r e a t e r com-prehension o f the s p i r i t u a l message. 109 . Footnotes 1 J e f f e r y Hurwit, "Image and Frame i n Greek A r t " American- J o u r n a l of Archaeology. 81, No. 1 (Winter? 1977,) p. 7. 2 . . 0. E l f r i d a Saunders, E n g l i s h I l l u m i n a t i o n , 1 (New York, 1969), p. 20. 3 Robert Deshman, The Iconography of the F u l l - P a g e M i n i a t u r e s o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f Aethelwold, Ph. D. d i s -s e r t a t i o n , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1970, p. 189. 4 Meyer Schapiro, "On Some Problems i n the Se m i o t i c s of V i s u a l A r t : F i e l d and V e h i c l e i n Image-Signs," S e m i o t i c a I (19 69). O. E l f r i d a Saunders, E n g l i s h I l l u m i n a t i o n , 1 (New York, 1969). J . J . G. Alexander, I n s u l a r Manuscripts 6th to 9th Century, (London, 1978). 5 J e f f r e y Hurwit, "Image and Frame i n Greek A r t , " American J o u r n a l o f Archeology, 81, No. 1 (Winter, 1977), p. 1-30. ^ The i d e a o f the opposing p r i n c i p l e s o f c l o s e d and open form was f i r s t thought out by H e i n r i c h W o l f f l i n i n h i s P r i n c i p l e s of A r t H i s t o r y , (New York, 1950), f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n German i n 1915. Although not dated, Wormald suggests t h a t a r e a -sonable date would be the s i x t i e s o f the te n t h century, and i t i s d e r i v e d from a group of C a r o l i n g i a n manuscripts of the Ada Sc h o o l . The o u t l i n e drawing technique was i n t r o -duced i n t o England towards the middle of the te n t h c e n t u r y . F r a n c i s Wormald, E n g l i s h Drawings of the Tenth and E l e v e n t h C e n t u r i e s , (London, 1952), p. 24-5, p. 21. 110. Hurwit, "Image and Frame i n Greek A r t , " p. 7-8. 9 David M. Robb, The A r t o f the I l l u m i n a t e d Manu-s c r i p t , (South Brunswick, New Jersey, 1973), p. 90. 1 0 I b i d . , p. 91. "'""'"Francis Wormald, E n g l i s h Drawings of the Tenth  and E l e v e n t h C e n t u r i e s , (London, 1952), p. 28. 12 " 0. Homburger, Die Anfange des Malschule von Winchester im X Jahrhundert, ( L e i p z i g , 1912), p. 9. 13 Deshman, The Iconography of the F u l l - P a g e M i n i a t u r e s , p. 27, 81, 83. Deshman suggests the source of t h i s m i n i a t u r e was a Metz manuscript, now l o s t , which probably c o p i e d Metz i v o r i e s c o n t a i n i n g Byzantine f e a t u r e s , o r t h a t the a r t i s t o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l added c e r t a i n elements from Byzantine sources to the Metz model - perhaps f o r added r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e . 1 4 I b i d . , p. 120 f . 46 . 15 Rudolf Arnheim, A r t and V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n , (Los Angeles, 1965), p. 88. 16 Deshman, The Iconography of the F u l l - P a g e  M i n i a t u r e s , p. 151, f . 204. 17 Alexander, I n s u l a r Manuscripts 6th to the 9th Century, p. 10-13. 18 Hurwit, "Image and Frame i n Greek A r t , " p. 14. 111. CHAPTER VI INTERACTION BETWEEN FRAME AND SCENE The r e l a t i o n s h i p between m i n i a t u r e and frame i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f Aethelwold may be s t a t e d on d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s : f i r s t , on a formal b a s i s ; second, a c c o r d i n g to the sequence of scenes i n r e l a t i o n to the frame d e c o r a t i o n ; t h i r d , i n terms of the l i t u r g i c a l importance of d i f f e r e n t scenes; and f o u r t h , through an u n d e r l y i n g thematic i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n . T h i s Chapter w i l l examine these i n t e r a c t i o n s which b i n d together frame and encl o s e d scene as a u n i f i e d image w i t h meaning beyond i t s d e c o r a t i v e appearance. In other words, the frames i n t h i s manuscript w i l l be shown to p l a y a s p e c i f i c r o l e i n the iconography of the c y c l e o f i t s m i n i a t u r e s . Formal I n t e r a c t i o n of Frame wit h Scene Whatever treatment i s g i v e n to them, the acanthus leaves e x p r e s s i v e l y form p a r t of the o v e r a l l d e s i g n , w i t h the c u r l e d t i p s echoing the s w i r l s of the drapery 0?" , and the s w i r l s of the sky t / O assuming l e a f y shapes. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e i n The Second Coming ( f o l i o 9v - f i g u r e 9), where the s w i r l s of the sky become 112. s p i r a l s , r e p e a t i n g the s p i r a l s of the acanthus r o s e t t e t i p s /•^ •^ ""^  . The v e i n markings on the leaves are echoed i n the drapery and sky l i n e s . The mandorla l i n e s emanating from the cen t r e r e f l e c t the formation l i n e s of the acanthus s p r i n g i n g from the c e n t r e of the r o s e t t e s . Another f e a t u r e t h a t un-i t e s frame and scene i s the tendency of the leaves to form a c i r c u l a r d e s ign, as i n the r o s e t t e s , s i m i l a r to the c i r c u l a r ground rock formations and the c i r c u l a r drapery o v a l s e v i d e n t p a r t i c u l a r l y a t the s h o u lders, arms, stomachs and legs of the f i g u r e s i n the scenes. Not o n l y the acanthus, but a l s o the geometric s t r u c -t u r e of the r o s e t t e s matches some aspect of the scene. T h i s i s more e v i d e n t i n the c i r c u l a r geometric p o r t i o n s of the r o s e t t e framing, which echo the round h a l o s , the heads of the f i g u r e s and the mandorlas. The square p a r t s of the r o -s e t t e framing g e n e r a l l y occur where there are many s q u a r i s h l i n e s i n the composition, as i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l elements of the scene. A good example i s found i n the scene of The Na-t i v i t y of C h r i s t ( f o l i o 15v - f i g u r e 10), where we see the square framing of the corner r o s e t t e s are repeated i n the angular l i n e s of the bed and the lower squared-off s e c t i o n c o n t a i n i n g the newborn. C h r i s t ; the c i r c u l a r r o s e t t e i n the middle of the two s i d e s i s repeated i n the halos and heads 113. of the f i g u r e s , as w e l l as i n the rounded p o r t i o n s of the cushions. T h i s c l o s e connection between the frame and the scene suggests t h a t they were executed by the same a r t i s t . Although I have assumed t h a t there were many a r t i s t s a t work on the m i n i a t u r e s of the B e n e d i c t i o n a l , i t appears t h a t the frames of the m i n i a t u r e s were executed f i r s t . T h i s i s ev i d e n t because o f the crowding i n some of the scenes to f i t f i g u r e s i n t o a p r e - e x i s t i n g space. T h i s d e n s i t y i s p a r t i c u l a r l y obvious i n the scene of The N a t i v i t y of C h r i s t ( f o l i o 15v - f i g u r e 10), and a l s o may e x p l a i n why i n some scenes elements of the scene o v e r l a p the frame. The c o l o u r s o f the frame a l s o match c o l o u r s i n the scenes: the go l d bars of the arches, c a p i t a l s , columns and bases, as w e l l as the g o l d geometric s t r u c t u r e s of the r o -s e t t e s which r e l a t e the frame to the g o l d used f o r h a l o s , a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s , mandorlas and drapery. The acanthus c o l o u r s a l s o match c o l o u r s i n the scenes, f o r example the white f l i c k e r i n g h i g h l i g h t s of the leaves are echoed i n the white h i g h l i g h t s o f the f i g u r e s , producing a u n i f i e d c o l o u r scheme of frame and scene. The d e l i b e r a t e o v e r l a p p i n g of frame and f i g u r e had f a r - r e a c h i n g implications."'" I t s use f o r example c o n t r i b u t e s to an o v e r a l l sense of p a t t e r n as f i g u r e s and frame mesh i n -1 1 4 . to one t o t a l u n i t . More i m p o r t a n t l y however, the v i s u a l impact of a composition expressed on d i f f e r e n t planes over-l a p p i n g each other tends to heighten the drama of c e r t a i n f e a s t s . The d e v i c e c o u l d t h e r e f o r e f u n c t i o n to u n d e r l i n e the l i t u r g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of scenes w i t h s p e c i a l meaning f o r the p a t r o n of the manuscript. A formal i n t e r a c t i o n of frame and m i n i a t u r e was not new to the B e n e d i c t i o n a l of Aethelwold. Most of i t s f e a t u r e s of ornamentation and f i g u r a l d e s i g n had a h e r i t a g e i n I n s u l a r 2 and C o n t i n e n t a l a r t o f the e i g h t h and n i n t h c e n t u r i e s . Con-t i n e n t a l i n i t i a l s of t h i s p e r i o d are a l i v e w i t h e n e r g e t i c a c t i o n d e f i n i n g the shape of the i n i t i a l i t s e l f , as i n the l e t t e r L of the Essen Gospel Book, ca 800 A.D. (Essen Cath. Treas., f o l . 96. f i g u r e 88), where the beast rounds the c o r -ner of the l e t t e r . L i v i n g movement forms the l e t t e r j u s t as the w r i t h i n g acanthus i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l forms the borders of the m i n i a t u r e s . E n g l i s h manuscripts of the l a s t h a l f of the t e n t h century a l s o produced i n i t i a l s f i l l e d w i t h Ca-r o l i n g i a n acanthus o v e r l a p p i n g the frame of the i n i t i a l , and, i n e f f e c t , forming the i n i t i a l , such as i n the l e t t e r S of the Oxford Junius (Oxford, Bodl. MS Junius 27, f o l . 121v, 3 f i g u r e 39; second q u a r t e r t e n t h c e n t u r y ) . Here, r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n a l elements have adapted to the n o n - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e so t h a t the acanthus s c r o l l t w i s t s around to form 115. the i n i t i a l . A s i m i l a r process i s e v i d e n t i n the Benedic-t i o n a l where the acanthus leaves adapt themselves to a geo-m e t r i c s t r u c t u r e and the leaves i n the c a p i t a l s , bases and r o s e t t e s t w i s t i n and out of the geometric frame. T h i s meshing of the o p p o s i t i o n s of s t a t i c and mobile forms w i t h i n the frame i t s e l f , p a r t i c u l a r l y obvious i n the r o s e t t e s of The Second Coming ( f o l i o 9v - f i g u r e 9), i s p a r a l l e l e d i n the scenes where s w i r l i n g d r a p e r i e s are molded onto the more s t a t i c poses of the f i g u r e s , and elements such as the r i b b o n sky are mixed i n w i t h a r c h i t e c t u r a l components of the scene. This use of the acanthus was not new, but a tendency e x i s t e d i n E n g l i s h manuscripts to amplify and e n r i c h i t s form which l e d , u l t i m a t e l y , i n the l a s t q u a r t e r of the tenth century, to the e l a b o r a t e f u n c t i o n of the acanthus i n the B e n e d i c t i o n -a l . The m o t i f s and the i d e a f o r the use of the acanthus had e x i s t e d i n Late A n t i q u i t y but not u n t i l p r e - C a r o l i n g i a n a r t d i d they become major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n , l a t e r t o f u l l y develop i n Romanesque a r t . A t h i r d f e a t u r e common to both C a r o l i n g i a n and Insu-l a r a r t i n England was ambiguity of form, t h a t i s : the i n t e r -c h a n g e a b i l i t y of major and minor themes, so t h a t a f i g u r e c o u l d be dominant i n one scene and form p a r t of the back-ground i n another. In E n g l i s h a r t t h i s d e v i c e i s seen i n the L i n d i s f a r n e Gospels where animals form the i n t e r l a c e out 116. of t h e i r own bodies, t h e i r necks, limbs or t a i l s so t h a t one p a r t i s dominant a t one p o i n t and r e c e s s i v e a t another. S i m i l a r ambivalence i s seen i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l ' s m i n i a -t u r e o f The Ascension o f C h r i s t ( f o l i o 64v - f i g u r e 22) where i n the lower l e f t - h a n d corner, the lower b o d i l y por-t i o n of the outermost f i g u r e i s i n f r o n t of the frame, where-as h i s elbow and halo are behind the frame. T h i s meshing of background and foreground here i s not l o g i c a l i n s p a t i a l terms, but r a t h e r i n d i c a t e s the a r t i s t was preoccupied not with s p a t i a l concerns but with d e s i g n . In summary the formal i n t e r a c t i o n of frame wi t h scene d e r i v e d from a combination of I n s u l a r and Centi:n n e n t a l f e a t u r e s . T h i s i n t e r a c t i o n was p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n e a r l i e r manuscripts i n the s t r u c t u r e of i n i t i a l s which d i d not l i m i t or determine the forms of i t s ornament. The frame of the i n i t i a l was o f t e n v i o l a t e d by the ornament, o'r the i n i t i a l i t s e l f was so e x t r a v a g a n t l y deformed or ob-5 scured t h a t i t was b a r e l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e as a l e t t e r . What was o r i g i n a l i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l was the a r t i s t s ' use of these f e a t u r e s i n f u l l - p a g e manuscript i l l u m i n a t i o n i n which the d i f f e r e n t elements of the frame and the scene c o l -l a b o r a t e d t o form a u n i f i e d o r g a n i z e d design. The Benedic-t i o n a l was the f i r s t I n s u l a r manuscript to expl o r e t h i s avenue of e x p r e s s i o n and was the forerunner of Romanesque framing and i l l u m i n a t i o n i n manuscripts, and a l s o perhaps 117. i n f l u e n c e d l a t e r s c u l p t u r e such as t h a t found at Moissac-and Ve'zelay. Sequence o f Scenes as R e l a t e d to Frame De c o r a t i o n F o l l o w i n g the sequence of the B e n e d i c t i o n a l ' s m i n i a -t u r e s from the beginning of the manuscript to the end, we note c e r t a i n groups t h a t form a u n i t because of s i m i l a r fram-in g and content. The f i r s t seven m i n i a t u r e s form a c o n t i n u -ous sequence wi t h no t e x t . Of t h i s s e t , the f i r s t three f o -l i o s ( f i g u r e s 1, 2, and 3) a l l have arched frames with acan-thus f r i e z e c o n tained w i t h i n the main arch. These three m i n i -atures d e p i c t c h o i r s of Confessors and V i r g i n s , and, by the t r i p l e a r c h framing, appear to belong to one u n i t . Almost a l l the s a i n t s i n these three m i n i a t u r e s of c h o i r s wear crowns as ". . . symbols of t h e i r b e a t i t u d e and j o i n t r u l e with C h r i s t of the Kingdom of Heaven.". The s a i n t s a l s o were p a r t of the Church on e a r t h . T h e r e f o r e , j u s t as the Anglo-Saxon k i n g Edgar was c o n s i d e r e d a throne-sharer w i t h C h r i s t on e a r t h , we may i n f e r t h a t the Anglo-Saxon church i s crown-ed and shares the r u l e of the kingdom on e a r t h with Edgar. Such an i n f e r e n c e would g i v e the Church r e g a l overtones and p o r t r a y the dual i d e a l of the t e n t h century reform, a move-ment i n which Aethelwold p l a y e d such an important r o l e . 118. The next four m i n i a t u r e s i n the s e t are f o l i o s of a p o s t l e s ( f i g u r e s 4-7). The f i r s t p a i r i s framed i n a t r i -a ngular pedimented arch on columns and have c i t y - v i e w en-richments. Elements w i t h i n these c i t y - v i e w s w i l l be exam-ined below i n the d i s c u s s i o n of the m i n i a t u r e o f The Descent of the Holy Ghost, which c o n t a i n s comparable f e a t u r e s . The second p a i r o f a p o s t l e scenes i s framed i n a c i r c u l a r arch on columns. I t i s not onl y the s i m i l a r framing but a l s o the common s u b j e c t matter of three a p o s t l e s i n each scene which l i n k these f o u r m i n i a t u r e s t o g e t h e r . There are as w e l l a number of m i n i a t u r e s m i s s i n g from the B e n e d i c t i o n a l , which would have formed v a r i o u s c h o i r s a t the beginning of the book. The b a s i c i d e a of such an arrangement was to pre-face the t e x t of the manuscript w i t h a s e r i e s of heavenly c h o i r s t o a c t as a p i c t o r i a l l i t a n y . These m i s s i n g c h o i r s , together w i t h the other seven m i n i a t u r e s — t h e two p a i r s of a p o s t l e scenes and the three f o l i o s of Confessors and V i r -g i n s — u n d o u b t e d l y formed a u n i t i n d e c o r a t i v e framing as 7 w e l l as i n content. F o l l o w i n g t h i s s e t of seven f o l i o s , a new type of r e c t a n g u l a r framing w i t h s i d e r o s e t t e s i s i n t r o d u c e d by the m i n i a t u r e of the Ann u n c i a t i o n ( f o l i o 5v - f i g u r e 8). The f e a s t o f the Annunciation, c e l e b r a t e d March 25th, had marked the beginning of the l i t u r g i c a l year s i n c e the seventh cen-t u r y . Thus, the i n c l u s i o n of the scene a t t h i s p o i n t i n the 119 . B e n e d i c t i o n a l c r e a t e s a l o g i c a l sequence, s i n c e the m i n i -ature i s a t the beginning of the l i t u r g i c a l t e x t . From t h i s f o l i o on, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of one p a i r of scenes f a c i n g each other, each m i n i a t u r e a c t s as a v i s u a l p r e f a c e to the w r i t t e n b l e s s i n g f o r the f e a s t d e p i c t e d , shown on the o p p o s i t e page of t e x t i n a matching frame. As we have seen, the frame of the A n n u n c i a t i o n m i n i a t u r e i s unique i n i t s s t r u c t u r e and components. E q u a l l y d i s t i n c t i s the f o l l o w -i n g m i n i a t u r e of The Second Coming ( f o l i o 9v - f i g u r e 9), which has the only e n c l o s e d arched frame i n the manuscript. In the l i t u r g i c a l c a lendar year, A n n u n c i a t i o n i s f o l l o w e d by the Second Coming, marking the beginning and end of C h r i s t i a n i t y . The same sequence of events d e p i c t e d i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l i n d i c a t e s t h a t the l i t u r g i s t s d i d not f o l l o w a sequence o f C h r i s t ' s l i f e i n time, but were guided i n s t e a d by l i t u r g i c a l r a t h e r than n a r r a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s i n s e l e c t i n g the c y c l e . The remaining m i n i a t u r e s a l s o f o l l o w the sequence of the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l year and a p a t t e r n of framing emerges of a l t e r n a t i n g r e c t a n g u l a r and arched frames, w i t h two excep-t i o n s ; the f i r s t one occurs a t E a s t e r w i t h two r e c t a n g u l a r l y framed m i n i a t u r e s f o l l o w i n g each o t h e r : the Entry i n t o J e r u -salem ( f o l i o 45v - f i g u r e 19), and the Women a t the Tomb ( f o l i o 51v - f i g u r e 20); the second occurs a t the end of the 120. manuscript where two arched frames are i n s u c c e s s i o n : the Death and Coronation of the V i r g i n ( f o l i o 102v -f i g u r e 31), and the page of b l e s s i n g ( f o l i o 10 8 - f i g u r e 32), opposite the m i s s i n g m i n i a t u r e of S t . M i c h a e l Arch-angel. Between these, another r e c t a n g u l a r frame c o u l d have surrounded a m i n i a t u r e , now m i s s i n g , o p p o s i t e the page of b l e s s i n g f o r the N a t i v i t y of the V i r g i n . W i t h i n t h i s sequence, c e r t a i n f e a s t s are emphasized by the number and e l a b o r a t i o n of the r o s e t t e s or by the over-l a p p i n g of image and frame, or both. In Advent, the most n o t i c e a b l e f e a s t i s The Second Coming ( f i g u r e 9). In the Christmas c y c l e , there are two f a c i n g m i n i a t u r e s which stand out: the A d o r a t i o n of the Magi ( f o l i o 24v - f i g u r e 16) and the matching m i n i a t u r e of the Baptism ( f o l i o 25 - f i g u r e 17). Other f e a s t s w i t h impressive framing are: the Women at the Tomb ( f i g u r e 20) i n the E a s t e r c y c l e , and the Death and Coronation of the V i r g i n ( f i g u r e 31). Of the s a i n t s d e p i c t e d , two are noteworthy because of t h e i r e l a b o r a t e frames: S t . E t h e l d r e d a ( f o l i o 90v - f i g u r e 25) and S t . Bene-d i c t ( f o l i o 99v - f i g u r e 30). O v e r a l l , the c y c l e of m i n i a t u r e s i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l of Aethelwold depends on the sequence of events i n the l i t u r -g i c a l year. Moreoever, the emphasis was on Anglo-Saxon l i t u r -1 2 1 . g i c a l p r a c t i c e r a t h e r than C o n t i n e n t a l , as i s evidenced by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of two E n g l i s h s a i n t s . Both s p e c i a l to Aethelwold, S t . E t h e l d r e d a ( f o l i o 90v - f i g u r e 25) and St. Swithun ( f o l i o 97v - f i g u r e 29), are represented i n g h i e r a t i c poses, t y p i c a l of Byzantine s t y l e , suggesting t h e i r symbolic, l i t u r g i c a l r o l e r a t h e r than t h e i r n a r r a -9 t i v e one. The s e l e c t i o n of f e a s t s to be p r e f a c e d w i t h a m i n i a t u r e must have been guided by Aethelwold h i m s e l f or the a r t i s t i n charge, presumably Godeman, or both. F i n a l l y , one should note t h a t the important f e a s t s are emphasized by the g r e a t e r e l a b o r a t i o n of the frame which together w i t h i t s enclosed scene catches the eye as a s i n g l e , sumptuous image. L i t u r g i c a l Importance of Scenes as Related to Frame D e c o r a -t i o n The a r t i s t s of the B e n e d i c t i o n a l were not only mas-t e r s of design but a l s o were experts a t the formal and ex-p r e s s i v e c o n t r a s t s of frame and scene to enhance the l i t u r -g i c a l and r e g a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the m i n i a t u r e s . The degree of frame d e c o r a t i o n suggests a h i e r a r c h i c a l i d e a was i n the mind of the a r t i s t s ; the more important the f e a s t , the more embellished the frame. i n l o o k i n g a t the m i n i a t u r e s we note t h a t some frames have more r o s e t t e embellishments e i t h e r i n number 122. or i n degree of e l a b o r a t i o n than o t h e r s , as w e l l as a g r e a t e r degree of d e l i b e r a t e o v e r l a p p i n g o f frame and image. Does the l i t u r g i c a l importance of the f e a s t s determine these d i f f e r e n -ces? L i s t e d above are the f e a s t s most emphasized i n t h i s r e -spect and we w i l l now examine them i n d i v i d u a l l y . The most s p e c t a c u l a r framing i n the manuscript i s The Second Coming ( f o l i o 9v - f i g u r e 9 ) 1 0 where the o v e r l a p -ping d e v i c e i s used w i t h such s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and s k i l l t h a t the viewer f e e l s p a r t o f the drama (see pages 103-4, Chap-t e r V). The framing of t h i s m i n i a t u r e i s undoubtedly the most unique of a l l the arched f r a m e s - - i t i s the only en-c l o s e d arched frame as w e l l as the onl y one c o n t a i n i n g f o u r r o s e t t e s i n s t e a d o f the u s u a l one. Furthermore, these r o -s e t t e s produce the f e e l i n g o f s t r o n g k i n e t i c movement, and when t h i s i s combined wi t h the t i g h t l y s c r o l l e d sky, the s w i r l i n g d r a p e r i e s and the s t r i a t e d mandorla, the r e s u l t i s one of i n c r e a s e d movement and i n t e n s i f i e d drama. The Second Coming r e p r e s e n t s the most important b e l i e f of the C a t h o l i c f a i t h - the promise t h a t a l l C h r i s t i a n s who remain f a i t h f u l to the teachings of C h r i s t (as taught by the C a t h o l i c Church), w i l l be saved and w i l l be rewarded with e t e r n a l happiness when C h r i s t r e t u r n s a t the end of the world to e s t a b l i s h the Kingdom o f Heaven on e a r t h . The added embel-lishments awarded t h i s scene u n d e r l i n e d the a r t i s t s ' d e s i r e to emphasize t h i s f e a s t . Royal overtones are r e f l e c t e d i n 123. the i n s c r i p t i o n on C h r i s t ' s mantle Rex regum e t Dominus domi-nantium, i l l u s t r a t i n g the b i b l i c a l t e x t and s t r e s s i n g an . i m p e r i a l theme a l s o found i n the m i n i a t u r e of The A d o r a t i o n of the Magi ( f o l i o 24v - f i g u r e 1 6 ) . 1 1 The next f e a s t s t r e s s e d i s The Epiphany - the only f e a s t to which the a r t i s t has g i v e n more than one f u l l - p a g e m i n i a t u r e . In the tenth century the A d o r a t i o n of the Magi was the main f e a s t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f e a s t of the Epiphany. The Epiphany was a s s o c i a t e d with the Baptism of C h r i s t ( f o l i o 25 - f i g u r e 17), a combination common i n e a s t e r n and western 12 l i t u r g i c a l manuscripts. A more important reason f o r the choice of two i l l u m i n a t i o n s f o r the f e a s t of the Epiphany was the a r t i s t s ' d e s i r e to s t r e s s r o y a l elements. As Deshman has p o i n t e d out, these two f e a s t s ". . . show one of the g r e a t e s t 13 c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of r o y a l elements i n the manuscript.". Looking a t both m i n i a t u r e s we note t h a t the o v e r l a p p i n g of the frame by the image i s so e x t e n s i v e t h a t i n both, the a r -t i s t has l e f t out the acanthus f r i e z e normally p r e s e n t i n one of the v e r t i c a l framing borders, and f i g u r e s p a r t i a l l y cover the other v e r t i c a l border. T h i s was no a c c i d e n t but a d e l i b -e r a t e expansion of the scene f o r dramatic e f f e c t . Both min-i a t u r e s a l s o c o n t a i n s i x r o s e t t e s and the corner f o u r are formed of a double r a t h e r than a s i n g l e s t r u c t u r e . Thus, these two m i n i a t u r e s have been s i n g l e d out f o r p a r t i c u l a r 124. emphasis to denote t h e i r importance l i t u r g i c a l l y and t h e i r r o y a l iconography. In The A d o r a t i o n of the Magi ( f o l i o 24v -f i g u r e 16) , the i m p e r i a l power of C h r i s t (and hence Edgar's) i s s t r e s s e d : ". . . the crowns upon the heads of the Magi as w e l l as the three diadems which the f i r s t of them presents i n a ceremony of Aurum coronarium pay homage to the Rex r e -14 gum.". The B e n e d i c t i o n a l i s one of the f i r s t manuscripts 15 to r e p r e s e n t the Magi as kings wearing crowns. The pre-s e n t a t i o n of three diadems to the C h r i s t c h i l d denotes the subservience of each of the three Magi, p a r a l l e l i n g Edgar's supremacy over other contemporary kings of England. In the m i n i a t u r e of The Baptism of C h r i s t ( f o l i o 25 - f i g u r e 17), we note the d u p l i c a t i o n of diadem and s c e p t e r h e l d by the outermost two angels, shown above the a c t u a l Baptismal image, which Deshman suggests was intended to have i m p e r i a l s i g n i -f i c a n c e , and which shows ". . . a c o n c e r t e d attempt by Aethelwold and the other reformers to imbue King Edgar w i t h 16 the s p i r i t u a l a u t h o r i t y of C h r i s t . " . Moreover, the B a p t i s -mal scene " . . . o f f e r e d the o p p o r t u n i t y to e l a b o r a t e d i r e c t -l y on the b a s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between r o y a l o f f i c e and an-n o i n t i n g with chrism. . . . The a r t i s t n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l i e d a p a r a l l e l between the c o r o n a t i o n of the Messiah and the temporal monarch.". 1^ The contemporary account of the Coro-n a t i o n of Edgar goes on to say: Then were m a n i f e s t the g l o r i o u s f e s t i v i t y and the solemnity of the Holy S p i r i t when a l l came to consecrate 125. the g l o r i o u s k i n g whose s c e p t e r was r e f u l g e n t w i t h g l o r y and whose diadem r e s p l e n d e n t w i t h the beauty of g o l d . . . . (and) . . . A f t e r the a n n o i n t i n g the a r c h -bishop gave him a r i n g , g i r t him w i t h a sword and p l a c e d a crown upon h i s head. He was given a l s o a s c e p t e r and a rod.-'-8 Here i s the r e f e r e n c e i n Edgar's c o r o n a t i o n ceremony to the s c e p t e r , diadem and crown - a l l elements p r e s e n t i n these two m i n i a t u r e s awarded the f e a s t of the Epiphany. The pro-minence of framing i n these two m i n i a t u r e s t h e r e f o r e was s i g -n i f i c a n t not only i n emphasizing the f e a s t of the Epiphany l i t u r g i c a l l y but i n s t r e s s i n g the r o y a l overtones and the p a r a l l e l to Edgar's c o r o n a t i o n . S e q u e n t i a l l y , the next m i n i a t u r e t h a t stands out be-cause of e l a b o r a t i o n of framing i s The Women at the Tomb ( f o l i o 51v - f i g u r e 20), p r e f a c i n g the f e a s t of E a s t e r , one of the most important f e a s t s i n the l i t u r g y of the C a t h o l i c Church s i n c e i t denotes C h r i s t ' s r e s u r r e c t i o n — a proof of h i s d i v i n i t y . The framing i s s p e c t a c u l a r because of the s i x r o s e t t e s , the f o u r corner ones once again formed of a double s t r u c t u r e w i t h expansive f r e e acanthus, and because of the d e l i b e r a t e o v e r l a p p i n g of the f i g u r e s over the frame, where over h a l f the v e r t i c a l borders are covered over by the f i g u r e s (see page . ~10 2 , Chapter V) . There are no o v e r t r e g a l overtones p r e s e n t i n t h i s m i n i a t u r e so t h a t one may conclude t h a t r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e r e l a t e d t o framing was as important to the a r t i s t s as the r e g a l elements - more so 126. i n t h i s case. The m i n i a t u r e of The A s c e n s i o n of C h r i s t ( f o l i o 64v - f i g u r e 22) p r e f a c e s the f e a s t of the Ascension, an event which occured a f t e r the R e s u r r e c t i o n and again i n d i -cated the d i v i n i t y of C h r i s t . The framing of t h i s m i n i a t u r e stands out because of the s i x r o s e t t e s p r e s e n t and the acan-thus leaves w i t h i n them are spread out i n a f l a t t e n e d , s p l a y e d manner, g i v i n g a p a r t i c u l a r l y sumptuous e f f e c t . More obvious however i s the absence of the b a s i c rectangu-l a r frame f i l l e d w i t h acanthus f r i e z e , the o v e r l a p p i n g by the image being so e x t e n s i v e t h a t the a r t i s t omitted i t en-t i r e l y (see pages 105-6,Chapter V). Once again though there are no e v i d e n t r o y a l overtones i n the scene, the i n t e r r e l a -t i o n between frame and image, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the case of the o v e r l a p p i n g of sky or heaven, appears to have been used to emphasize the d i v i n i t y of C h r i s t . The Descent of the Holy Ghost ( f o l i o 67v - f i g u r e 23) i s the o n l y m i n i a t u r e w i t h i n the t e x t p o r t i o n of the manu-s c r i p t to have c i t y - v i e w enrichments (page 6 5 - 6 c h a P t e r III) added to an arched frame. The main arch c o n t a i n s an elabo-r a t e r o s e t t e , t h e r e f o r e i t i s d i f f i c u l t to b e l i e v e t h a t ex-t r a d e c o r a t i o n was r e q u i r e d t o o f f s e t any bareness. The scene r e p r e s e n t s The Descent o f the Holy Ghost, which took p l a c e i n Jerusalem, and t h e r e f o r e we must suggest t h a t , l i k e 127. the c i t y - v i e w s i n the two m i n i a t u r e s of the a p o s t l e s , the c i t y r e p resented must be Jerusalem. Why were cupolas and g l o b a l f i n i a l s used? Baldwin Smith s a i d : The cupola and globe were r e l a t e d emblems of r o y a l power which accounts f o r the f a c t t h a t throughout the h i s t o r y of Medieval and Renaissance a r c h i t e c -t u r e , the cupola and dome were n e a r l y always sur-mounted by a g l o b a l f i n i a l . 1 9 Deshman has p o i n t e d out the r o y a l c onnotations of the Bene-d i c t i o n a l on the b a s i s of h i s i c o n o g r a p h i c a l a n a l y s i s of the 20 m i n i a t u r e s . The round and c o n i c a l towers have the same b a s i c symbolism as a c i b o r i u m , which had c e l e s t i a l as w e l l as i m p e r i a l connotations and " . . . was a s s o c i a t e d f o r over 21 nine hundred years w i t h c i t y and p a l a c e gateways.". In the ceremonies of the Middle Ages, the c i b o r i u m " . . . had the t r a d i t i o n a l and s a l v a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of an Epiphany." The Epiphany, which was c o n s i d e r e d a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of God, wa a l i t u r g i c a l f e a s t of g r e a t importance d u r i n g the Middle Ag-23 es. With t h i s i n mind, although The Descent of the Holy Ghost was not c o n s i d e r e d a main Epiphany f e a s t , the appear-ance of the Holy S p i r i t c e r t a i n l y was a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of God and t h e r e f o r e the use of domical towers i n t h i s scene does seem a p p r o p r i a t e as symbolic of an Epiphany. The presence of these domical towers i n the A p o s t l e scenes a l s o would symbolize the presence of God i n s p i r i n g them as they wrote the Gospels or brought C h r i s t ' s message to o t h e r s . 128. The three c i t y - v i e w enrichments to the framing i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l t h e r e f o r e p l a y e d a n a r r a t i v e r o l e i n rep-r e s e n t i n g Jerusalem, which was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the a p o s t l e s and t h e i r e v a n g e l i c a l m i s s i o n and the l o c a t i o n of The Des-cent of the Holy Ghost. Holy Jerusalem was symbolic of the Church of the New Law as e s t a b l i s h e d by C h r i s t and recorded i n the New Testament. In was a sacred p i l g r i m a g e p l a c e 24 looked upon as the C i t y of God by the C h r i s t i a n s . E l e -ments w i t h i n these c i t y - v i e w s a l s o p l a y e d a symbolic r o l e , as we have seen, w i t h the cupolas, g l o b a l f i n i a l s and the round and c o n i c a l towers. Thus, every component of the c i t y -views appears to have been d e l i b e r a t e and meaningful, r e l a -t i n g these border a d d i t i o n s to the e n c l o s e d scene. Moreover, the l a p p i n g of the image over the frame i s so e x t e n s i v e t h a t the acanthus f r i e z e w i t h i n the columns of the %rame has neces-s a r i l y been omitted (see page 102', Chapter V) , f u r t h e r bonding the frame and scene v i s u a l l y i n t o a t o t a l u n i t . The f e a s t of The Descent of the Holy Ghost was c e l e b r a t e d on Whit Sun-day and Edgar's c o r o n a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g to the w r i t t e n account, took p l a c e on t h i s f e a s t day. Since an analogy between r e g a l a n n o i n t i n g and Pentecost was e v i d e n t i n n i n t h century western F r a n k i s h c o r o n a t i o n ordo, t h a t i s perhaps why medieval mon-archs were commonly crowned on t h a t day. Otto 1 1 s c o r o n a t i o n took p l a c e on Pentecost i n 961 A.D., and there seems a l s o to be a p a r a l l e l between i m p e r i a l a n n o i n t i n g and the g i f t of the 25 Holy S p i r i t a t Pentecost. T h e r e f o r e i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g 129. to f i n d the m i n i a t u r e of t h i s f e a s t i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l was awarded the embellishment i t deserved. The E n g l i s h s a i n t p a r t i c u l a r l y honoured by s p e c i f i c framing embellishment i s S t . E t h e l d r e d a ( f o l i o 90v - f i g u r e 25), whose m i n i a t u r e has e i g h t r o s e t t e s , the only m i n i a t u r e to m e r i t t h i s number. The fo u r corner r o s e t t e s once more are formed of a double s t r u c t u r e and the acanthus l e a f c l a s p s on to the t r e l l i s frame i n a unique manner. T h i s added f r a -ming d e c o r a t i o n makes the m i n i a t u r e stand out as one of the most l a v i s h i n the manuscript. The f e a s t honoured the Anglo-Saxon queen E t h e l d r e d a , who founded the monastery a t E l y ca 672 A.D. and d i e d ca 679 A.D. She was a famous and popular s a i n t by the t e n t h century, judging by the number of E n g l i s h churches d e d i c a t e d i n her honour and by ca l e n d a r s c o n t a i n i n g her name. Bede's w e l l known hymn i n p r a i s e of S t . E t h e l d r e d a , and the many marvels a t t r i b u t e d to her i n t e r c e s s i o n , made her 2 6 s h r i n e a t E l y an important p i l g r i m a g e c e n t e r . Aethelwold i n d i c a t e d h i s v e n e r a t i o n f o r S t . E t h e l d r e d a by r e f o u n d i n g her abbey between A.D. 963 and 969, and t h i s helps t o e x p l a i n why t h i s f e a s t would have been g i v e n s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n i n h i s B e n e d i c t i o n a l . Furthermore, S a i n t E t h e l d r e d a was: . . . the p e r f e c t symbol of the a l l i a n c e behind the monastic reform. . . . The d u a l i d e a l she rep r e s e n t e d had a g e n e r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the monastic reform and a l s o a much more i n t i m a t e one f o r Winchester. The abbess Aethelwold appointed to the reformed Nunna-minster was the namesake of S. Aetheldreda.27 130. Another s a i n t whose m i n i a t u r e m e r i t s e l a b o r a t e framing i s S t . Benedict ( f o l i o 99v - f i g u r e 30, who not only appears i n an a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g d i s p l a y i n g h o r r o r v a c u i , but whose frame c o n t a i n s s i x r o s e t t e embellishments w i t h a unique formation of a t r i p l e s t r u c t u r e , the s i d e r o -s e t t e s c o n t a i n i n g e l i p t i c a l bars as p a r t of the r o s e t t e f o r -mation. Here the s q u a r i s h l i n e s of the r o s e t t e s t r u c t u r e are echoed i n the l i n e s of the b u i l d i n g s w i t h i n the scene. St. Benedict was the founder of the B e n e d i c t i n e monastic movement and the Old M i n s t e r where the B e n e d i c t i o n a l was executed was a B e n e d i c t i n e e s t a b l i s h m e n t . In t h i s m i n i a t u r e , St. Benedict wears a diadem on h i s head and holds a crown i n one hand, p o s s i b l y to prese n t t o King Edgar, to demonstrate the l i n k between monasticism and r o y a l t y . As Deshman sug-gested: "The monastic Church would not onl y share Edgar's temporal r u l e , but the King's temporal r u l e would be the r e -2 8 ward f o r h i s support of B e n e d i c t i n e monasticism.". Thus, the framing embellishment i n t h i s m i n i a t u r e seems to p o i n t to an emphasis t h a t i s e q u a l l y p o l i t i c a l and l i t u r g i c a l . The l a s t m i n i a t u r e t o stand out because of i t s deco-r a t i o n and formal i n t e r a c t i o n o f frame and scene, i s The Death and Coronation of the V i r g i n ( f o l i o 102v - f i g u r e 31). I t has an e l a b o r a t e r o s e t t e a t mid-arch and e l i p t i c a l a d d i t i o n s appear not only i n the r o s e t t e s t r u c t u r e but a l s o 131. i n the c a p i t a l s and bases. The acanthus s p i l l s over the abacus and e l i p t i c a l a d d i t i o n s , as w e l l as over the main arch frame, echoing the drapery edges i n the scene. The l i t u r g i c a l importance of Mary's c o r o n a t i o n i s v i s u a l l y em-phasized by the added d e c o r a t i v e embellishments. Her crown-in g was the f i n a l honour awarded to the Mother of God. Winchester, under Aethelwold, was an a c t i v e c e n t e r of M a r i a l devotion, and renewed i n t e r e s t i n Mary was p a r t of the Bene-d i c t i n e monastic reform movement on the Continent and i n 29 England where Aethelwold was the d r i v i n g f o r c e . T h i s minia-ture i s the e a r l i e s t known r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Coronation of Mary"^0 and wh i l e i t re p r e s e n t s i n p a r t evidence of i n -creased devotion t o the V i r g i n , i t i s a l s o a r e f l e c t i o n of 31 s p e c i f i c Anglo-Saxon circumstances. Edgar's w i f e A e l f t h r y t h was r e f e r r e d to i n c h a r t e r s under the t i t l e Regina, which was not the u s u a l custom, and she was probably anointed and crowned with Edgar i n 973. Thus, " . . . Aethelwold probably sought to strengthen the s t a t u s of Edgar's queen s t i l l f u r -t h er through an i m p l i c i t p a r a l l e l t o the Coronation of the 32 V i r g i n . " . T h i s was done perhaps t o e x p l a i n her r o l e i n 33 the reform or reward her f o r her c o - o p e r a t i o n , hence a dual reason f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t h i s m i n i a t u r e by i t s en-hanced framing. Thematic A n a l y s i s T h i s chapter so f a r has s t r e s s e d the l i t u r g i c a l importance of the m i n i a t u r e s i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l i n d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e i r sequence and to the ela b o r a t e n e s s of devices used i n the framing d e c o r a t i o n . What needs t o be considered now i s a deeper meaning behind the f r e e - s t a n d -i n g arch m o t i f i n the framing and i t s triumphal arch conno-t a t i o n s . To be noted a l s o are some more gen e r a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p s between the arched frames and images w i t h i n the arch i n t h e i r a l l u s i o n to Edgar's c o r o n a t i o n . A r c h i t e c t u r e i n the Middle Ages had an e x p r e s s i v e f u n c t i o n and formed p a r t of the c l i m a t e of ideas of the e r a . The Church b u i l t monumental c o n s t r u c t i o n s to impress through a r c h i t e c t u r a l forms s p i r i t u a l or p o l i t i c a l ideas on the 34 l a r g e l y i l l i t e r a t e p o p u l a t i o n . Deshman has suggested t h a t the B e n e d i c t i o n a l was commissioned f o r a s p e c i f i c event, the Coronation of Edgar, 35 which took p l a c e a t Bath i n 973 A.D. I f Deshman's assump-t i o n i s c o r r e c t , the use of the open f r e e - s t a n d i n g arched frames could be r e l a t e d a l s o t o the i d e a o f the triumphal arches e r e c t e d by Roman emperors t o c e l e b r a t e t h e i r Adven-3 6 tus or en t r y i n t o a c i t y . The decorated arch was a Roman i n v e n t i o n e r e c t e d t o honour a r u l e r and ". . . i t i s impos-s i b l e t o d i s r e g a r d the r e l a t i o n of the f r e e - s t a n d i n g arch to the c i t y - g a t e and a l l t h a t the Roman triumph came to have 37 i n common wit h the I m p e r i a l Adventus.". Roman emperors 133. and the rulers of the Middle Ages had a common b e l i e f that they were throne-sharers with God. As Baldwin Smith said: In a way that was comparable to the antique acceptance of triumph and coronation as implying d e i f i c a t i o n , everyone during the Middle Ages believed that p u r i -f i c a t i o n and consecration by anointment invested a rul e r with divine a t t r i b u t e s . 3 8 Ceremonies such as the Adventus consisted of meeting a ru-l e r , who was considered a divine person, at the city-gate and welcoming him with music, dancing, etc. This ceremony per-sisted as late as the eighth century i n Ravenna, and i n Rome i n 774 A.D. when Charlemagne was received with an Adventus ceremony. Beyond i t s secular function, the custom was also " . . . followed by the monastic orders for the re-39 ception of distinguished guests.". A Carolingian example i s the Lorsch Gatehouse, erected i n 79 4 A.D.. This three arch gateway h a l l , which once stood i n the open courtyard i n front of the abbey church, was b u i l t . . . es p e c i a l l y for the formal reception of the King on his v i s i t s to the royal abbey. . . . But the most important function of the building seems to have been to serve for the highly formal, ceremonial staging of the a r r i v a l of the king, when he was greeted by the abbot and the community, and led into the abbey of the church, to the sound of chants and acclamations. Thus i t appears as a diminutive version of the Triumphal arch which framed the ceremonial a r r i v a l of the emperor in a Roman city.40 During the tenth century English monastic reform period, great importance was attached to ceremonial events and i t seems probable that t h i s Roman ceremony of Adventus or triumphal entry could have been r e v i t a l i z e d by the monas-134. t i c o r d e r s . In the medieval world, every Adventus ceremony was considered a re-enactment of C h r i s t ' s e n t r y i n t o J e r u -salem. I t seems most a p p r o p r i a t e and probable t h a t A e t h e l -wold commissioned the B e n e d i c t i o n a l f o r Edgar's c o r o n a t i o n , and t h a t he requested, or t h a t the a r t i s t s chose, the open f r e e - s t a n d i n g arched frame f o r more than h a l f the i l l u m i n a -t i o n s , to emphasize Edgar's a r r i v a l a t the c i t y - g a t e , as a r e f e r e n c e to the triumphal arch, comparable s y m b o l i c a l l y to C h r i s t ' s entry i n t o Jerusalem. The contemporary account of the Coronation of Edgar at Bath d e s c r i b e s the " . . . g l o r i o u s 41 p r o c e s s i o n of the King. . .". In a d d i t i o n t o triumphal arch connotations r e l a t i n g to Edgar's Coronation, there are f u r t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n s i n the use i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l of open f r e e - s t a n d i n g arches. In C h r i s t i a n a r t , an arch overhead was c o n s i d e r e d a symbol of 42 heaven. Notable of the f o u r t e e n m i n i a t u r e s w i t h i n open f r e e - s t a n d i n g arches, a l l except f i v e imply or s t a t e e n t r y i n t o heaven and the scenes w i t h i n the arched p o r t i o n , more-over, c o n t a i n heavenly f i g u r e s such as angels. Of the f i v e e xceptions, three a l l u d e to heaven, however, by p o r t r a y i n g the appearance of the hand of God, the Holy S p i r i t , or C h r i s t . These three are: The P r e s e n t a t i o n i n the Temple ( f o l i o 34v - f i g u r e 18), a scene t h a t takes p l a c e on e a r t h but presents the hand of God w i t h i n the arched p o r t i o n of the frame; Doubting Thomas ( f o l i o 56v - f i g u r e 21), a l s o 135. a scene that occurs on earth but shows the r i s e n C hrist i n a mandorla and a swirling ribbon sky—presumably heaven— within the arch; and The Descent of the Holy Ghost ( f o l i o 67v - figure 23), which depicts the Holy S p i r i t and angels i n the arch. The remaining two miniatures of the f i v e ex-ceptions represent saints. One, the N a t i v i t y of St. John the Baptist ( f o l i o 92v - figure 27), i l l u s t r a t e s the saint's b i r t h within the upper arched portion of the frame i n a setting surrounded by sky or heaven, with figures below on earth cut o f f from heaven, one of whom records the event i n a book. St. John the Baptist's feast ranked as a holyday of obligation i n medieval times, as he was considered to have been born without o r i g i n a l sin along with Christ and Mary, a subtle connection which ranked him higher than other saints. The l a s t scene i s that of St. Swithun ( f o l i o 97v -figure 29). No sky or heaven appears here, but s i g n i f i c a n t l y the feast days of the saints were celebrated on the anniver-sary of the day of t h e i r deaths, because that i s the day 43 they were supposed to have entered into eternal glory. Much l i k e Christ's triumphal entry into Jerusalem, a saint's feast commemorated his triumphal entry into heaven. Since a l l the scenes within open free-standing ar-ches denote a heavenly sphere, i t seems probable that the choice of this motif was not a r b i t r a r y but deliberate, to denote, on the one hand, triumphal entry as i t related to 136. the Adventus ceremonial t r a d i t i o n . The scenes which r e p r e -sent entry i n t o heaven or the appearance of God on e a r t h i n a composition w i t h i n the f r e e - s t a n d i n g arch seem a l s o t o a l l u d e on the other hand to another a r r i v a l with d i v i n e i m p l i c a t i o n s : Edgar's a r r i v a l f o r h i s c o r o n a t i o n as a throne-sharer with God. T h i s a l l u s i o n to Edgar's a r r i v a l to be crowned, sug-gested by the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the arch m o t i f i n the frame, c r e a t e s a r o y a l overtone which t h e m a t i c a l l y l i n k s a l l the scenes, and r e f e r s to the s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between Ed-gar's temporal monarchy and C h r i s t ' s d i v i n e r u l e . The com-p a r i s o n of C h r i s t t o the King and the i d e a t h a t the King pos-sessed s p i r i t u a l and temporal powers was a ". . . widespread and prominent p a r t of Anglo-Saxon p o l i t i c a l theology d u r i n g 44 Aethelwold's episcopacy. . . .", a concept r e v e a l e d not only i n Aethelwold's w r i t i n g s but a l s o i n the a r t commissioned by him. Deshman has suggested t h a t the B e n e d i c t i o n a l was exe-cuted s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r Edgar's Coronation and t h a t . . . . The c o r o n a t i o n ceremony which they composed f o r Edgar as w e l l as Aethelwold's w r i t i n g s attempt to surround the k i n g w i t h the aura of C h r i s t . A c t u a l l y the a s s i m i l a -t i o n of Edgar to C h r i s t i s much more than propaganda: i t i s the very f o u n d a t i o n of the a l l i a n c e between the king and the reformers.45 Such an a l l i a n c e a l s o served a very p r a c t i c a l purpose: i f King Edgar were behind the reforms, l o c a l magnates dared not 46 p r o t e s t . Thus Aethelwold's promotion of the concept of 137. an e a r t h l y king surround by the aura of C h r i s t can be seen on two l e v e l s : f i r s t , as a s p i r i t u a l a i d to the monas-t i c reform with i t s emphasis on l i t u r g i c a l changes; and second, as a s o l i d b a s i s on which he c o u l d more e f f e c t i v e -l y r e a l i z e h i s more unwelcome reforms, through the f u l l backing of the monarch. Thus the s t r e s s on r e g a l overtones i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l may be e x p l a i n e d not only as a r e f e r -ence to Edgar's c o r o n a t i o n , but a l s o as a necessary t o o l i n Aethelwold's programme f o r reform. I would conclude t h a t the r o y a l overtones which have been i n t e r p r e t e d by Deshman as permeating the iconography of the m i n i a t u r e s , may a l s o be seen as an i n t e g r a l f a c t o r of the framing d e c o r a t i o n of the manuscript. Through the i m p l i c a t i o n o f triumphal and heavenly e n t r y suggested by the use i n the frame of the f r e e - s t a n d i n g a r c h , the p o l i t i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of Edgar's c o r o n a t i o n i s brought to the f o r e . 138. Footnotes ^"Robert Deshman, The Iconography of the F u l l - P a g e  M i n i a t u r e s of The B e n e d i c t i o n a l of Aethelwold. Ph.D. d i s -s e r t a t i o n , ( P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1970), p.92. 2 Otto Pacht, "The P r e - C a r o l i n g i a n Roots of E a r l y Romanesque A r t " , S t u d i e s i n Western A r t , I (1963), pp.67-75. 3 Dated by Wormald t o the second q u a r t e r of the t e n t h century. F r a n c i s Wormald, "Decorated I n i t i a l s i n E n g l i s h Manuscripts from A.D. 900 to 1100", A r c h a e o l o g i a , 91 (1945), p.117. 4 Pacht, "The P r e - C a r o l i n g i a n Roots of E a r l y Roman-esque A r t " , p.71. 5 Meyer Schapiro, Romanesque A r t (New York, 1977) , p. 269. Deshman, The Iconography of the F u l l - P a g e M i n i a - t u r e s , p.235. 7 I b i d . , p. 107. g I b i d . , p. 202. 9 I b i d . " ^ D e a l t w i t h f u l l y on page 103of Chapter V. "'""'"Deshman, The Iconography of the F u l l - P a g e M i n i a - t u r e s , p.224. 12 I b i d . , p.211. 1 3 I b i d . , p.210. 14 I b i d . , p.219. The iconography of the aurum corona-139. rium was a l i v i n g t r a d i t i o n i n ninth and tenth century Caro-li n g i a n and Ottonian imperial p o r t r a i t s . Ultimately the as-sociation of the Adoration of the Magi and the aurum corona- rium derived from the Early C h r i s t i a n period. I 5 I b i d . , p.128. 1 6 I b i d . , p.223. 1 7 I b i d . , p.212. 18 Ronald H. Bainton, The Medieval Church, (Princeton, N.J., 1962), p.115. 19 E. Baldwin Smith, A r c h i t e c t u r a l Symbolism of  Imperial Rome and the Middle Ages (Princeton, N.J., 1956), p. 58. 20 Deshman, The Iconography of the Full-Page Minia-tures, p. 209. 21 Smith, Ar c h i t e c t u r a l Symbolism of Imperial Rome, p.107. 2 2 I b i d . , p.107. 23 Francis X. Weiser, Handbook of Chri s t i a n Feasts  and Customs (New York, 1952), p. 142. 24 Joseph Gutman, ed., The Temple of Solomon (Missoula, Montana, 1976), p. 25 and Preface. 25 Deshman, The Iconography of the Full-Page Minia- tures , pp. 225-6. 2 6 Donald Attwater, The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, (Harmondsworth, Middlesex, 1965), p.119. 1 4 0 . 2 7 D e s h m a n , T h e I c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e F u l l - P a g e M i n i a - t u r e s , p . 2 3 5 . 2 8 I b i d . , p p . 2 3 6 - 7 . 2 9 /* v v H e n r i B a r r e , P r i e r e s A n c i e n n e s d e 1 ' O c c i d e n t a  l a M e r e d u S a u v e u r , ( P a r i s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p p . I l l , 1 3 2 - 3 3 . 3 0 D e s h m a n , T h e I c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e F u l l - P a g e M i n i a - t u r e s , p . 8 6 . 3 1 I b i d . , p . 9 1 . 3 2 I b i d . , p . 2 3 4 . 3 3 I b i d . , p . 2 3 3 . p . 4 . 3 4 S m i t h , A r c h i t e c t u r a l S y m b o l i s m o f I m p e r i a l R o m e , 3 5 D e s h m a n , T h e I c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e F u l l - P a g e M i n i a - t u r e s , p . 2 3 9 . 3 6 T h e A d v e n t u s h a d b e e n t a k e n o v e r f r o m t h e H e l l e n -i s t i c R o y a l E p i p h a n y . W e i s e r , H a n d b o o k o f C h r i s t i a n F e a s t s , p . 1 4 1 . 3 7 S m i t h , A r c h i t e c t u r a l S y m b o l i s m o f I m p e r i a l R o m e , p . 2 2 . 3 8 I b i d . , p . 7 . 3 9 I b i d . , p . 1 5 2 . 4 0 O . K . W e r c k m e i s t e r , M e d i e v a l A r t H i s t o r y - A S h o r t  S u r v e y ( U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s , n . d . ) , p . 4 7 . 4 1 B a i n t o n , T h e M e d i e v a l C h u r c h , p . 1 1 5 . 141. 42 Meyer Schapiro, "On the Aesthetic Attitude i n Romanesque Art", i n Art and Thought, ed. by K. Bharatha Iyer (London, 1947), pp. 14 4, 149. 43 Weiser, Handbook of C h r i s t i a n Feasts, p.277. 44 Deshman, The Iconography of the Full-Page Minia- tures, p.214. 4 5 I b i d . , p.218. 46 Ibid., p.222. 142. CHAPTER VII CONCLUSIONS Having reviewed the frames of the Benedictional 1s miniatures and having examined each element, th e i r e f f e c t s on the miniature as a whole and the precedents that existed i n pre-Benedictional a r t , two main issues emerge. The f i r s t deals with the elements of framing dependent upon e a r l i e r Carolingian and Insular sources and those that were inno-vative. The second issue leads to the thematic i n t e r r e l a -tionship between the frame and the scene. Investigation of the components of the frame has shown that the introduction i n the tenth century of three-dimensional acanthus ornamentation was new to England, sug-gesting Continental influence from Carolingian i v o r i e s and manuscripts of the Franco-Saxon and Metz schools. In tenth century English a r t i n general, there were so few instances of the use of the acanthus leaf as a decorative motif (aside from the Winchester School manuscripts), that we may conclude that Insular decoration remained strong. The 'Winchester acanthus' did not penetrate to the North of England 1 but was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the South only. I t was o r i g i n a l i n both drawing and composition, with long supple leaves clasping and twisting over and under the frame, and f l u t t e r i n g out from the rosette centers i n a cent r i f u g a l 143. fashion to a l l sides, fr e e l y i t appears and yet always i n a symmetrical arrangement. The rosette embellishments, derived from Carolingian as well as Insular sources, were treated i n an innovative manner i n that the acanthus leaves of the rosettes extend beyond the rosette supports and into the enclosed scene, a deviation from the Carolingian rosette formation where the leaves are contained within the forms. Moreover, the Benedictional 1s rosettes were incorporated into the arched or rectangular frames, d i f f e r e n t again from Insular rosette precedents. The a r t i s t s of the Benedictional did not, how-ever, copy Continental or Insular prototypes s l a v i s h l y , but fashioned the acanthus leaf frames i n quite o r i g i n a l ways that i n i t i a t e d the famous "Winchester School) style of minia-2 ture framing. The a r t i s t s created the key element of the frame, an acanthus leaf that was not only b e a u t i f u l i n i t s own r i g h t , but one which was treated i n such a way to empha-size the s p i r i t u a l and royal significance of the enclosed scenes and of the Benedictional as a whole. The la v i s h use of gold i n the miniatures, and p a r t i -c u l a r l y i n the frames, was innovative as gold was not exten-s i v e l y used at this period, nor was i t found i n e a r l i e r Anglo-Saxon manuscripts. Gold was not found i n England 144. and had to be imported at great expense. Nothing, however, was spared i n making the Benedictional a sumptuous manu-s c r i p t , i t s o v e r a l l purpose being to serve as a Coronation book honouring King Edgar. Overlapping as we have seen i s a device characteris-t i c of e a r l i e r medieval a r t . Here i n the Benedictional i t i s used so s t r i k i n g l y and to such an extent that i t demon-strates the a r t i s t s ' o r i g i n a l i t y . This talent i s seen fur-ther by t h e i r innovation of uniting frame and scene i n a comprehensive whole and i n th e i r expressive emphasis on the dramatic significance of the scene which they achieved by placing the most important figures on the foremost plane. The second issue--that of the thematic i n t e r r e l a -tionship of frame and scene—was obtained i n a variety of ways. Formal interaction, for one, involved the acanthus leaf shapes and linear e f f e c t s which were echoed i n the scenes. The geometric structure of the rosettes equally matched squarish l i n e s i n the miniatures. Colours, with the exception of gold, and perhaps purple, were not used symbolically but rather demonstrated the inventiveness of the a r t i s t s i n t h e i r dynamic patterning and chiasmatic co-lour arrangement i n the frame to match colours i n the scenes, thus forming an int e r r e l a t e d unit of frame and scene. Over-lapping not only fused frame and scene together but also 145. was e f f e c t i v e i n enhancing the dramatic s i g n i f i c a n c e . We note t h a t the most important f e a s t s combined more e l a b o r a t e frames and e x t e n s i v e o v e r l a p p i n g . But these formal elements of i n t e r a c t i o n l e a d to the thematic i n t e r a c t i o n of frame and image where a h i e r a r c h i c a l arrangement seems to have been i n the a r t i s t s ' p l a n , t h a t i s : the more important the f e a s t f i g u r e d l i t u r g i c a l l y or p o l i t i c a l l y to Aethelwold, the more embellishment i t r e c e i v e d . T h e r e f o r e , the i n c r e a s e i n the acanthus l e a f a c t i v i t y , the number and e l a b o r a t i o n of r o s e t t e s e v i d e n t i n the framing of a m i n i a t u r e , the over-l a p p i n g and the added e l i p t i c a l a d d i t i o n s , were not merely d e c o r a t i v e p r o g r e s s i o n s but were meant to i n d i c a t e to the l a r g e l y i l l i t e r a t e p u b l i c the r e l i g o u s and r o y a l s i g n i f i -cance of the f e a s t so decorated. I f we were to e s t a b l i s h an order of precedence r e l a t e d to the acanthus l e a f framing, the s c a l e would read l i k e t h i s : 1) C h r i s t or God. As we have seen, s i x m i n i a t u r e s c o n t a i n -ing C h r i s t stand out as e x c e p t i o n a l : The Second Coming, The A d o r a t i o n of the Magi, The Baptism of C h r i s t , The Ascension and The Descent of the Holy Ghost which presents another as-pect of the s p i r i t of God, and The Holy Women a t the Tomb, r e p r e s e n t i n g the r e s u r r e c t i o n of C h r i s t . 2) Mary. The most s p e c t a c u l a r m i n i a t u r e f e a t u r i n g Mary i s The Death and Coronation of the V i r g i n . In l o o k i n g at the other m i n i a t u r e s i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l where Mary i s f e a t u r e d , we note t h a t they are g i v e n added framing embellishments. 146. In the arched frames the other m i n i a t u r e c o n t a i n i n g Mary i s The P r e s e n t a t i o n i n the Temple ( f o l i o 34v - f i g u r e 18) which i s t r e a t e d uniquely by having the only r o s e t t e f i l l e d w ith Franco-Saxon i n t e r l a c e i n s t e a d of acanthus l e a v e s . Of the r e c t a n g u l a r frames, the four scenes i n which Mary appears, a l l have s i x r o s e t t e embellishments. Thus, not only are there q u i t e a number of scenes where Mary i s f e a -tured, but they are g i v e n e x t r a framing importance. 3) St. E t h e l d r e d a , an E n g l i s h s a i n t whose frame i s one of the most l a v i s h i n the manuscript, demonstrates Aethelwold's p a r t i c u l a r d e v o t i o n t o her. 4) S t . Benedict, the founder of the B e n e d i c t i n e order, the monasteries of which Aethelwold was attempting to reform. I t i s p o s s i b l e to l i s t a l l the m i n i a t u r e s i n order of im-portance r e l a t i n g the scene to the e l a b o r a t i o n of framing, but t h i s p a r t i a l order should s u f f i c e to suggest the h i e r a r -c h i c a l i d e a . L i t u r g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of scenes was a l s o r e f l e c t e d by the a d d i t i o n to some frames of c i t y - v i e w s . These c i t y -view enrichments denoted Jerusalem and thus a s s o c i a t e d the scenes of the a p o s t l e s w i t h t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r m i s s i o n of t e a c h i n g a l l n a t i o n s , a m i s s i o n , a c c o r d i n g to the C a t h o l i c f a i t h , i n i t i a t e d by the descent of the Holy Ghost i n J e r u s a -lem. Moreover, elements w i t h i n t h e i r c i t y - v i e w s p l a y e d a 147. symbolic r o l e , i n d i c a t i n g that the a r t i s t s of the Bene-d i c t i o n a l used these components of the framing i n a mean-ing f u l way to stress the evangelical aspect of the enclosed scene. In addition to the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of frame and scene based on the l i t u r g i c a l significance of the feast or holy figure represented, the motif of the free-standing arch i n the frame also has a s i g n i f i c a n t function. We noted that the arch was considered a symbol of heaven and that a l l the miniatures within arched frames denoted a heavenly sphere. Thus, the use of the arched frame appears not to have been accidental but functional as a device which served a r e l i -gious purpose and whose shape was intended to s p i r i t u a l l y enhance the character of the scene. The arched frame, more-over, was used because of i t s association with triumphal en-t r i e s at city-gates during the Roman era and because of the example of Carolingian kings who i n r u l i n g emphasized t h e i r equality with God by portraying themselves as secular mo-narchs with divine a t t r i b u t e s . On a l e v e l more intimate with meaning for Aethelwold himself, the royal connotations implied by the arch motif i n the frame allude s p e c i f i c a l l y to Edgar's a r r i v a l at a triumphant coronation. The deliberate promotion of such a 148. concept and the l i n k i n g of e a r t h l y k i n g s h i p w i t h heavenly r u l e — a known aspect of Anglo-Saxon p o l i t i c a l t h e o l o g y — by Aethelwold, the patron of the B e n e d i c t i o n a l , c o u l d only serve to a l l y the King w i t h the monastic reform, f o r which the Bishop so a r d e n t l y worked. On a l l these l e v e l s , the f u n c t i o n of the framing i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l i s c l o s e -l y connected to the iconography of the scenes. The s p e c i -f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between the frame and the m i n i a t u r e s p l a y s an important r o l e which must be taken i n t o account b e f o r e the meaning of the manuscript as a whole becomes more v i -v i d l y c l e a r . 149 Footnotes 1 J . Brondsted, E a r l y E n g l i s h Ornament (London, 1924), p. 268. 2 I b i d . , p.259. Figure 2 - Chorus (of Virgins) Benedictional of St. /Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . Iv.) Reproduced by permission of the Bri t i s h Library. 152. Figure 3 - (Chorus of) Virgins Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 2.) Reproduced by permission of the Bri t i s h Library. 153. Figure 4 - Three Apostles Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 2v.) Reproduced by permission of the Bri t i s h Library. Figure 5 - Three Apostles Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M.,Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 3.) Reproduced by permission of the Bri t i s h Library. 155. Figure 6 - Three Apostles Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 3v.) Reproduced by permission of the Bri t i s h Library. 156. Figure 7 - Three Apostles Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, fol.4.) Reproduced by permission of the Bri t i s h Library. 157 Figure 8 - The Annunciation Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, fol.5v Reproduced by permission of the Bri t i s h Library. 1 5 8 . F i g u r e 9 - T h e S e c o n d C c m i n g B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f S t . A e t h e l w o l d ( L o n d o n , B . M . , A d d . M S . 4 9 5 9 8 , f o l . 9 v . ) R e p r o d u c e d b y p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h L i b r a r y . 159. Figure 10 - The Nativity of Christ Benedictional of St. Ethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, fol.l5v.) Reproduced by permission of the Bri t i s h Library. 1 6 0 . Figure 11 - Page of blessing Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 16) Reproduced by permission of the Bri t i s h Library. 161. Figure 12 - The Stoning of St. Stephen Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 17v.) Rerpoduced by permission of the Bri t i s h Library. 162. Figure 13 - St. John the Evangelist Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. VB. 49598, f o l . 19v.) Reproduced by permission of the Bri t i s h Library. Figure 14 - Page of blessing opposite the missing Massacre of the Innocents Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598 f o l 21 ) Warner and Wilson: 1910. ' 164. Figure 15 - The Octave of the Nativity Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, fol.22v.) Reproduced by permission of the Bri t i s h Library. 165. Figure 16 - The Adoration of the Magi Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, fol.24v.) Reproduced by permission of the Bri t i s h Library. 166. Figure 17 - The Baptism of Christ Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 25.) Reproduced by permission of the Bri t i s h Library. Figure 18 - The Presentation i n the Temple Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 34v.) Rerpoduced by permission of the Bri t i s h Library. 168. Figure 19 - The Entry into Jerusalem Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London , B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 45v.) Reproduced by permission of the Bri t i s h Library. Figure 2C *- The Women at the Tomb Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 51v Reproduced by permission of the Br i t i s h Museum. 170. Figure 21 - Doubting Thomas Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 56v.) Reproduced by permission of the Bri t i s h Library. Figure 22 - The Ascension Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MB. 49598, f o l . 64v. Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h Library. 172 . Figure 23 - The Descent of the Holy Ghost Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 67v.) Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h Library. 173. I KIN! IAS \ \ \ SI-.T\T.R\S DSP,\I:KKFl'V I'^ SCI Figure 24 - Illuminated I n i t i a l - Trinity Sunday Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 70.) Reproduced by permission of the Bri t i s h Library. 174. Figure 25 - St. Etheldreda Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 90v.) Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h Library. 175. Figure 26 - Page of Blessing Benedictional of St. /Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 91.) Reproduced by permission of the Br i t i s h Library. Figure 27 - The Nativity of St. John the Baptist Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 92v.) Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h Library. 177. Figure 28 - The Martyrdom of Sts. Peter and Paul Benedictional of St. /Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add.MS. 49598, f o l . 95v.) Reproduced by permission of the Bri t i s h Library. Figure 29 - St. Swithun Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 97v.) Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h Library. 179. Figure 30 - St. Benedict Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 99v.) Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h Library. Figure 31 - The Death and Coronation of the Virgin Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 102v.) Reproduced by permission of the Bri t i s h Library. Figure 32 - Page of Blessing opposite the missing St. Michael Archangel Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 108.) Warner and Wilson: 1910. 182. Figure 33 - Dedication of a Church Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 118v.) Gage, "A Dissertation on St. Aethelwold's Benedictional." (1832). 183. Figure 34 - Psalter of King Louis Beginning to Psalm I  (Berlin, Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Staatsbibiothek, Theol. l a t . f o l . 3r. ) Second quarter, ninth century. Mutherich and Gaehde: 1976. Plate 17. (Paris, Bibl. Natl., l a t . 2, f o l . l l r . ) 871-873 A.D. Mutherich and Gaehde: 1976. Plate 48. Figure 36 - Drogo Sacramentary I n i t i a l D with Scene of Women at the Tomb ( Paris, Bibl. Natl., l a t 9428, f o l . 58r.) 851 A.D. Mutherich and Gaehde: 1976. Plate 29. Figure 37 - The Durham Ritual ( Durham Cathedral Library. Royal MS. A. i v . 19.) f i r s t half tenth-centurv Wormald: 1945. Plate l i e . Stole Maniple Figure 38 - Stole and small maniple of St. Cuthbert (Relics of St. Cuthbert. 901-916 A.D.) Stole - Battisccmbe: 1956. Plate XXIV. Maniple - Deshman: 1974. figure 42. 188. Figure 39 - Junius Psalter (Oxford, Bodl. MS. Junius, 27, f. 121 verso). Second quarter tenth century. Wormald: 1945. Plate IVc. 1 8 9 . Figure 40 - Fleury Manuscript S i * ; .T^: 6 4 0 1 ' f c l - 1 5 8 v - ' tost - * « y . M i n i a t u r e D e t a i l F i g u r e 4 1 - T h e L i f e o f S t . C u t h b e r t K i n g A e t h e l s t a n P r e s e n t i n g B o o k t o S t . C u t h b e r t ( C a m b r i d g e , C o r p u s C h r i s t i C o l l e g e M S . 1 8 3 , f o l . i v . ) 9 3 7 A D D e s h m a n : 1 9 7 4 . P l a t e 4 5 , 4 6 . 1 9 1 . F i g u r e 42 - A e t h e l s t a n P s a l t e r A d d i t i o n C h r i s t w i t h C h o i r s o f S a i n t s  ( L o n d o n , B . M . M S . C o t t o n G a l b a A . X V I I I , f o l . 2 1 . ) 9 2 7 - 9 4 0 A D D e s h m a n : 1 9 7 4 . P l a t e 2 . 192. Figure 43 - Helmingham Hall, Orosius (Helminghara Hall, Orosius.) f i r s t half tenth century. Wormald: 1945. Plate Va. F i g u r e 4 4 - T h e New M i n s t e r C h a r t e r K i n g E d g a r P r e s e n t i n g C h a r t e r t o C h r i s t ( L o n d o n , B . M . , V e s p a s i a n A . V I I I , f o l . 2 b . ) P o s t 9 7 1 A . D . T a l b o t R i c e : 1 9 5 2 . P l a t e 4 6 . 194. fx ( TAp i t f t i OF COLUMN of 3 ApccDgs W H K sr. P E I ^ K F . H F. 5b F . I •V s ! Figure 45 - Tracings made of acanthus leaf Work in the Benedictional of St. Aethelwold Gage. "A Dissertation on St. Aethelwold's Benedictional." (1832). 195. Figure 46 - Book of Durrow, Carpet Page (Dublin, Trinity College Library, MS. 57, f o l i o 117v.) Middle or latter part seventh century. Nordenfalk: 1974. U.B.C. Slide Library. Figure 47 - Sundial (South wall of the tower of St. John the Baptist Church, Barnack, Nortltanptonshire, England.) latter part tenth century. Green: 1928. Figure 11. 197. Figure 48 - Carved Slabs on Barnack Church Tower ninth to tenth century Brown: 1925. Figure 115. F i g u r e 49 - C a p i t a l s o f t h e C h a n c e l - a r c h a t B i b u r y p r e - c o n q u e s t B r i s t o l a n d G l o u c e s t e r s h i r e : 1 9 1 8 - 1 9 . F i g u r e 3 0 . 199. Figure 50 - Cross-Shaft (Cross-Shaft, Wolverhampton, Staffs, England.) ninth to tenth century. Clapham: 1930. Plate 57. 200. Figure 5OA - The Wolverhampton Column Parsons: 1975. p. XVTI. Figure 51 - The Transfiguration and The Ascension Ivory Reliefs  (Victoria and Albert Museum, London, cat. 21.) late tenth century. Beckwith: 1972. Plates 49 and 50. 2 0 3 , Figure 52A - Ivory Book Cover. Virgin and Child Enthroned (Paris, Bibl. Natl. l a t . 323 car. 24.) late tenth century. Beckwith: 1972. Plate 54. 204. F i g u r e 53 - Ivory. Two Angels Late tenth century (Winchester Museum) Beckwith: 1972. P l a t e 39. Figure 54 - Bronze Censer-Cover Pre-Benedi ctional tenth century Wilson: 1964. Plate 44. Figure 55 - Cast Bronze Strap-end tenth century Wilson: 1964. Plate 148. Figure 56 - Fragmentary G i l t Bronze Plate Winchester , tenth or eleventh century Wilson: 1964. Plate 147. 208. Figure 57 - The Abingdon Sword (Oxford,Ashmolean Museum.) Hinton: 1974. Plate I. late ninth century. Field A Field B Field C Figure 58 - Sittingbourne Scramasax late ninth or early tenth century Field A. Wilson: 1964. Figure 80. Field B. Parsons: 1975. figure 22, p. 203. Field C. Parsons: 1975. figure 23, p. 203. Figure 59 - The Reverse of the Alfred Jewel ninth century Hinton: 1974. p. 30. 211. Figure 60 - Marble Roman Vase (Museo Nuovo Capitolino) f i r s t century B.C. Strong: 1961. Figure 20. Figure 61 - Silver Bowl (London, Bri t i s h Museum) ninth or tenth century. Dalton: 1909. Plate XLVII. 213. (Paris, Bibl. Natl. Cod. l a t . 1152) 860-870 A.D. Hollander: 1974. Plate 84. Figure 64 - Evangeliaire De Saint-Vaast D'Arras (Boulogne, Bi b l . de l a v i l l e , 12) middle of ninth century. Boinet: 1913. Plate XCV. 216.-Figure 65 - Gospel Book. Beginning of St. John's Gospel with i n i t i a l 'l(n)'. Cologne Region. Early tenth century  217. Figure 66 - Gospel Book. Beginning of St. Matthew's Gospel. North Saxony. Early tenth century.  Figure 67 - Lindisfarne Gospels Carpet page at the Beginning of the Gospels of Saint Mark. (London, Bri t i s h Library, Cotton MS. Nero D. IV, f o l i o 94v.) 700 A.D. U.B.C. Slide Library. 219. Figure 68 - St. Luke (London, B.M. Add. 40618, f o l i o 22v) f i r s t half tenth century. Wormald: 1971. Plate Va. Figure 69 - Vienna Genesis (Vienna, Nationalbibliothek, Cod. theol. gr. 31) sixth century. Ritter von Hartel and Wickhoff: 1895. 221. tit,  : - ' ^ 111 pSALmus CivuiD -j m C A c n ^ O s e T C M t r n i u c f M i u A M n u f j u cowfimokMuwci C l A W K A U M M X i / A M T A T / M I U A M I f / A M f M D v J ' IHAkAWD^Mfttf ••' INIJNOWSCAASHOMJ \ 7 i k U N n i A D D U X f U N < g J A U l M m W A N r a iiwiCuoirDoLoyofiLU M o w n M s c w i u u FUN MfAfr^UAUcowiJt il IABfUWACUlATUA i ^ g g j B A f M f - g * i WlAlUIJWfOMlTUDO e I l N I k O l B O A J U l I A J U M / " J f f JUIMDOQNM A O | u ^ i%jUAUMH.nvto ADOM(>UllAiIJriaT C O N f i l W O U U K f i t f i / I ffcJuAJJIAJfllSiMCf DO' lUUf W I ^ I I M M M M ^ , I A J L I U U i l U y M I I I I M M / ***** Figure 70 - Utrecht Psalter (Utrecht, University Library, Script, eccl. 484) ninth century. Hubert, Porcher and Volbach: 1970. p. 99. Figure 71 - Ivory Casket Cover, Metz School (Paris, Louvre, Cat. Molinier 1896, Nr. 11) ninth to tenth century. Goldschmidt: 1969. Plate 95b. 2 2 3 . F i g u r e 72 - G o s p e l . T h e E v a n g e l i s t L u k e ( I n n s b r u c k , U n i v e r s i t a T s b i b l i o t h e k C o d . 4 8 4 , f o l l l O v ) L a t t e r h a l f n i n t h c e n t u r y . G o l d s d i m i d t : 1 9 2 8 . P l a t e 5 2 . Figure 73 - Lindisfarne Gospels. St. Matthew (London, B.M. MS. Cotton Nero D. IV, f. 25v) circa 698 A.D. U.B.C. Slide Library. 225 V . " J t i l . •*«* • F i g u r e 74 - Macregol Gospels. S t . Mark COxford, B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y , MS. Auct. D. 2. 19, f o l 51v ) E a r l y n i n t h c entury. 226. Figure 75 - Manuscript. Rabanus Maurus Presents His Work to Pope Gregory PV.  (Cambridge, Trinity College MS. B. 16, 3, f o l i o IV) mid ninth century. Deshman: 1974. Plate 12. « Figure 76 - Eadwig Gospel. St. John the Evangelist (Hanover, Kestner Museum, f o l i o 147v) circa 1020. 228. Figure 77 - Ivory. The Annunciation (Paris, Louvre, Cat. Molinier 1896, Nr. 11) ninth to tenth century. Goldschmidt: 1914. p. XL, no. 95g. 229. Figure 78 - Drogo Sacramentary. I n i t i a l D (Paris, B i b l . Natl. Lat. 9428, f o l i o 41a) circa 850 A.D. Kohler: 1930. 230. (Paris, Bibl. Natl. Nouv. Acq. 1203, f o l i o 4) 781 - 83 A.D. Golc^chmidt: 1928. Figure 80 - Lindisfarne Gospels. Incipit of St. Mark's Gospel (London, B.M. MS. Cotton Nero D. IV, f o l i o 95) eighth century. FIGURE 81 - THE BOOK OF KELLS. ACCOUNT OF THE CRUCIFIXION (DUBLIN, TRINITY COLLEGE LIBRARY, MS. 58 (A.1.6), FOLIO 12A) 795-806 A.D. 232. Figure 82 - Gospel Book from Ireland. St. Luke (London, B.L., Add. 40618, f o l i o 21v) eighth century. Alexander: 1978. Figure 213. Figure 83 - Prudentius Man-useript. Luxuria Dancing (London, B.M. Add. MS. 24199, f o l i o 18) Late tenth century. Wormald: 1952. Figure 6(a). 235. Figure 84 - Ivory. Brunswick Casket (Brunswick, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum) 2 3 6 . F i g u r e 8 5 - I v o r y . L i u t h a r d G r o u p ( M u n i c h . S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k C o d . l a t . 4 4 5 2 ) c i r c a 8 7 0 A . 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