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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The framing of the miniatures of the benedictional of St. Aethelwold : meaning and function McKendy, Eilish 1979

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c  THE  •  i  FRAMING OF THE MINIATURES OF THE  BENEDICTIONAL OF ST. AETHELWOLD: MEANING AND FUNCTION  91  by E I L I S H MCKENDY B.A., M c G i l l  University,  1952  THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF V  1  :MASTER OF ARTS IN  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE Department o f F i n e  We a c c e p t t h i s to  THE  thesis  the required  STUDIES Arts  as conforming standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA O c t o b e r , 1979 0  Eilish  McKendy, 1979  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  this  written  make i t  freely available  t h a t permission  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  It  for financial  is understood that gain s h a l l  Fine  Arts Columbia  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  O c t o b e r 15, 1979.  copying  for  that  study. thesis  purposes may be granted by the Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Date  for  Columbia,  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  permission.  Department of  fulfilment o f the requirements  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  or  or publication  not be allowed w i t h o u t my  ABSTRACT  The  frames s u r r o u n d i n g  the m i n i a t u r e s o f  tenth-century manuscript,  The  ( B r i t i s h Museum, Add.  49598) a r e so sumptuous  striking  that  they almost  scenes.  C l o s e r study,  artists  used  turgical  and  hierarchical f e a s t was  MS.  royal  B e n e d i c t i o n a l of St.  seem t o overwhelm t h e  the  as a d e v i c e t o e m p h a s i z e t h e  li-  scenes,  and  that  e n v i s i o n e d - t h e more i m p o r t a n t  to the patron, Bishop Aethelwold  t h e more e m b e l l i s h e d was Because v e r y i n g e n e r a l and  and  that  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the  p l a n was  Aethelwold  enclosed  however, makes i t a p p a r e n t  the framing  the  the  little  s i n c e no  of  frame. has  been w r i t t e n about  authority  has  y e t examined  Benedictional,  thesis  monograph, t h i s seven  the  examines the scenes.  interrelationship  B a s e d on  the  traditional  s t u d y b e g i n s w i t h a P r e f a c e f o l l o w e d by  chapters - Descritption  of framing  i n manuscripts  of the manuscript,  prior  traditions  t o t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l , com-  p o n e n t s and  sources of the B e n e d i c t i o n a l ' s frames,  overlapping  o f frame and  and  scene,  and  c o n c l u s i o n and  framing  the  framing of the m i n i a t u r e s i n the  between t h e f r a m e s and  the  Winchester,  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the this  a  colour,  image, i n t e r a c t i o n between  c o n c l u s i o n . Each chapter reaches c o n t a i n s elements  frame  i t s own  which are important  as  background merely  to the f i n a l  thesis  decorative additions  enhancing  the iconography The  t h e frames  and  royal  factor and  role i n  of the m i n i a t u r e s .  concluding chapter of the t h e s i s ,  sums up t h e  the h i e r a r c h i c a l  o f the m i n i a t u r e s emphasizes the  attempted,  the p o l i t i c a l  reforms  were n o t  role  initiated  i n a highly  and t h e o l o g i c a l  played  liturgical  c o n t e n t o f t h e s c e n e s . The s t u d y s u g g e s t s  the a r t i s t s line  t h e frames  but played a d e c i s i v e  p r e v i o u s e v i d e n c e and shows how by  - that  c o n s c i o u s way,  that  to  under-  aspects of the monastic  by S t . A e t h e l w o l d , w h i c h were a m a j o r  i n the r e v i v a l of the a r t s  i n tenth century  the f o r m a t i o n o f the 'Winchester  School'.  England,  Table of Contents  List  of I l l u s t r a t i o n s  vi  Acknowledgement  xi  Preface Chapter  Chapter Chapter  1 I  II III  Introduction:  D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Manuscript  7  P h y s i c a l Composition  7  D a t e and P r o v e n a n c e  10  F u n c t i o n of the Benedictional  13  T r a d i t i o n s of Framing i n Manuscripts P r i o r to the B e n e d i c t i o n a l  18  The Components  29  and S o u r c e s  o f t h e Frame  The S t r u c t u r e Frames The A c a n t h u s  Chapter  IV  Chapter V  of the  29 Leaf  39  The R o s e t t e s  58  City-View Enrichments  65  The C o l o u r Used i n t h e Frames  74  O v e r l a p p i n g o f Frame and Image  92  Image O v e r l a p p e d by t h e Border  94  Border Overlapped Image  96  The C o m b i n a t i o n Chapter VI  e  I n t e r a c t i o n Between Frame  by t h e  of Both  99  and Scene  111  Formal I n t e r a c t i o n of Frame w i t h Scene  111  iv  Chapter  VI  I n t e r a c t i o n Between Frame and  Scene  Sequence o f Scenes as r e l a t e d t o Frame D e c o r a t i o n  117  L i t u r g i c a l Importance o f S c e n e s a s R e l a t e d t o Frame Decoration 121 Thematic A n a l y s i s Chapter  VII  Conclusion  131 142  Illustrations  150  Bibliography  2 39  v  List Figure  1  Figure  2  Figure  3  Figure  4  Figure  5  Figure  6  Figure  7  Figure  8  Figure  9  Figure  10  Figure  11  Figure  12  Figure  13  Figure  of  Illustrations  Folio  1  Confessors  n  Folio  lv  Chorus  Folio  2  (Chorus o f ) V i r g i n s  Folio  2v  Three A p o s t l e s  0  Folio  3  Three A p o s t l e s  f\  Folio  3v  Three A p o s t l e s  ("^  Folio  4  Three A p o s t l e s  n  Folio  5v  The  Annunciation  Folio  9v  The  S e c o n d Coming  Folio  15v  The  Nativity  Folio  16  Page o f B l e s s i n g  Folio  17v  The  Folio  19v  S t . John the  14  Folio  21  Page o f B l e s s i n g o p p o s i t e t h e Massacre o f the Innocents  Figure  15  Folio  22v  The  Octave of  the N a t i v i t y  Figure  16  Folio  24v  The  Adoration  of the Magi  Figure  17  Folio  25  The  Baptism of C h r i s t  Figure  18  Folio  34v  The  Presentation  Figure  19  Folio  4 5v The  Entry  Figure  20  Folio  51v  The  Women a t t h e  Figure  21  Folio  56v  D o u b t i n g Thomas  Figure  22  Folio  64v  The  Ascension  Figure  23  Folio  67v  The  Descent of the  Figure  24  Folio  70  Illuminated  (of v i r g i n s )  Stoning  vi  O O  Q  of C h r i s t  Q  Q  of S t . Stephen  O  IZi  Evangelist  missing  0 D  0  i n t h e Temple  O  D  i n t o Jerusalem D  Tomb  • Holy Ghost  Initial:  No  Frame  n  F i g u r e 25  F o l i o 90v  St.  F i g u r e 26  F o l i o 91  Page of B l e s s i n g  F i g u r e 27  F o l i o 9 2v  The N a t i v i t y of St. John the B a p t i s t  F i g u r e 28  F o l i o 95v  The Martyrdom of S t s . Peter and  F i g u r e 29  F o l i o 97v  St.  Swithun  n  F i g u r e 30  F o l i o 99v  St.  Benedict  Q  F i g u r e 31  F o l i o 102v  The Death and Coronation Virgin  F i g u r e 32  F o l i o 108  Page of B l e s s i n g opposite the mis- r~\ s i n g S t . M i c h a e l Archangel ' '  Figure 3 3  F o l i o 118v  D e d i c a t i o n of a Church: No Frame  F i g u r e 34  P s a l t e r of F o l i o 3r ( B e r l i n , S t i f t u n g P r e u s s i s c h e r K u l t u r besitz, Staatsbibliothek, Theol.lat.fol.58), second q u a r t e r , n i n t h century.  F i g u r e 35  B i b l e of C h a r l e s the B a l d . I n i t i a l to Genesis, F o l i o l l r . ( P a r i s , B i b l . N a t l . l a t . 2 ) 871-873 A.D,  F i g u r e 36  Drogo Sacramentary. I n i t i a l D with scene of Women at the Tomb. F o l i o 5 8r. ( P a r i s , B i b l . N a t l , l a t . 9428) 850-855 A.D.  F i g u r e 37  The Durham R i t u a l . (Durham C a t h e d r a l L i b r a r y . Royal MS A.IV 19) F i r s t h a l f t e n t h century.  F i g u r e 38  The  F i g u r e  39  J u n i u s P s a l t e r . I n i t i a l MS. J u n i u s 27, f. 121v) c e n t u r y .  F i g u r e  40  F l e u r y M a n u s c r i p t . ( P a r i s , B i b l . N a t l . l a t . f o l i o 158v). L a s t q u a r t e r t e n t h c e n t u r y .  F i g u r e  41  The  tl  Etheldreda  S t o l e and Maniple of S t .  L i f e  of  St.  s e n t i n g  Book  to  C h r i s t i  C o l l e g e  MS  vii  of the f~\ * '  Cuthbert.  K i n g  C u t h b e r t . 183,  Paul  S. (Oxford, B o d l e i a n Second q u a r t e r t e n t h  C u t h b e r t . St.  D  f o l . i v )  A e t h e l s t a n (Cambridge. 937  A.D.  6401,  P r e Corpus  Figure  42  AetheIstan P s a l t e r addition. C h r i s t with Choirs S a i n t s (London, B.M. MS C o t t o n G a l b a A. X V I I I , f o l i o 21) 927-940 A.D.  Figure  43  Helmingham H a l l ,  Figure  44  New M i n s t e r C h a r t e r . K i n g t o C h r i s t (B.M. V e s p a s i a n 9 71 A.D.  Figure  45  T r a c i n g s made o f a c a n t h u s l e a f work i n The Bened i c t i o n a l of Aethelwold  Figure  46  Book o f Durrow, c a r p e t page ( D u b l i n , T r i n i t y C o l l e g e L i b r a r y , MS 57, f o l i o 117v) m i d d l e o r l a t t e r p a r t seventh century.  Figure  47  S u n d i a l , s o u t h w a l l o f t h e tower o f S t . John t h e B a p t i s t Church i n Barnack, N o r t h a m p t o n s h i r e , England. L a t t e r part tenth century.  Figure  48  C a r v e d s l a b s on B a r n a c k C h u r c h t o w e r . N i n t h t o tenth century.  Figure  49  C a p i t a l s of the chancel-arch Conquest.  Figure  50 & 50A. C r o s s - s h a f t o r column, W o l v e r h a m p t o n , England. Ninth to tenth century.  Figure  51  I v o r y r e l i e f s . The T r a n s f i g u r a t i o n and A s c e n s i o n . L o n d o n . V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum, C a t . 21) l a t e tenth century.  Figure  52  Ivory Natl.  Figure  53  I v o r y . Two A n g e l s ( W i n c h e s t e r Late tenth century.  Figure  54  Bronze t e n t h century tional.  Figure  55  Cast  Figure  56  Fragmentary g i l t - b r o n z e p l a t e . Tenth o r e l e v e n t h Century.  Figure  57  The A b i n g d o n Sword. Late ninth century.  Orosius.  First  h a l f tenth  Edgar P r e s e n t i n g Charter A. V I I I , f o l i o 2v) p a s t  a t Bibury. Pre-  book c o v e r . C h r i s t i n M a j e s t y . l a t . 323 ( c a t . 2 3 ) ) . L a t e t e n t h  censer  bronze strap-end.  viii  century,  Tenth  (Oxford.  (Paris, B i b l . century.  Museum C a t .  cover.  Staff.,  16)  Pre-Benedic-  century.  A s h m o l e a n Museum).  Figure  58  Metalwork. S i t t i n g b o u r n e or e a r l y tenth century.  Scramasax. L a t e  Figure  59  The r e v e r s e o f t h e A l f r e d J e w e l . m o l e a n Museum). N i n t h c e n t u r y .  Figure  60  M a r b l e Roman v a s e (Rome: Museo Nuovo C a p i t o l i n o ) F i r s t century B.C.  Figure  61  S i l v e r Bowl (London: B r i t i s h Museum). or tenth century.  Figure  62  Stone. I t a l i a n tury.  Figure  63  I v o r y Book C o v e r s . Rheims. ( P a r i s : B i b l . C o d . l a t , 1152) 860-870 A.D.  Figure  64  E v a n g e l i a r e de S a i n t - V a a s t d ' A r r a s . (Boulogne: B i b l . de l a V i l l e , 12) m i d d l e o f n i n t h c e n t u r y .  Figure  65  G o s p e l Book. B e g i n n i n g o f S t . J o h n ' s G o s p e l I n i t i a l ' l ( n ) ' . Cologne r e g i o n . E a r l y t e n t h tury .  Figure  66  G o s p e l Book. B e g i n n i n g o f S t . Matthew's N o r t h Saxony. E a r l y t e n t h c e n t u r y .  Figure  67  L i n d i s f a r n e G o s p e l s . C a r p e t page a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e G o s p e l s o f S a i n t Mark (London: B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , C o t t o n MS N e r o D.IV, f o l i o 94v) 700 A.D.  Figure  68  S t . Luke (London: B.M. Add. F i r s t half tenth century.  Figure  69  Vienna Genesis. (Vienna: N a t i o n a l b i b l i o t h e k , C o d . t h e o l . g r . 31) s i x t h c e n t u r y .  Figure  70  Utrecht P s a l t e r . (Utrecht: Univ.Libr. e c c l . 4 84) N i n t h c e n t u r y .  Figure  71  Ivory casket cover. c a t . M o l i n i e r 1896,  Figure  72  G o s p e l . The E v a n g e l i s t L u k e ( I n n s b r u c k , Univers i t a t s b i b l i o t h e k Cod.484, f o l . l l O v ) L a t t e r h a l f of ninth century.  Figure  73  L i n d i s f a r n e G o s p e l s . S t . Matthew. (London, B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , C o t t o n MS N e r o D.IV, f o l i o 25v) 700 A.D.  carvings. Eighth  ix  (Oxford:  ninth  Ash-  Ninth  or n i n t h  40618, f o l i o  cenNatl.  with cen-  Gospel.  22v)  Script.  Metz S c h o o l . ( P a r i s : L o u v r e , Nr.11) n i n t h t o t e n t h c e n t u r y .  Figure  74  M a c r e g o l G o s p e l s . S t . Mark and h i s , S y m b o l . (MS.Auct. D.2.19, f o l . 51v) E a r l y n i n t h century.  Figure  75  M a n u s c r i p t . Rabanus Maurus P r e s e n t s h i s Work t o Pope G r e g o r y IV (Cambridge: T r i n i t y C o l l . B.16,3 f o l i o IV) mid n i n t h c e n t u r y .  Figure  76  Eadwig G o s p e l . S t . John the E v a n g e l i s t . K e s t n e r Museum., f o l i o . J-47y) c a 1020,  F injure  77  l y o r y, The Annunc i a t i o n , (Paris,; L o u y r e , C a t , M o l i n i e r .189 6, Nr. 11) N i n t h t o t e n t h C e n t u r y .  MS  (Hanover:  F i g u r e 78  Drogo S a c r a m e n t a r y . I n i t i a l D. ( P a r i s : l a t . 9428, f o l i o 41a) c a 850 A.D.  Figure  79  G o d e s c a l c G o s p e l s . The E v a n g e l i s t Mark. ( P a r i s : B i b l . N a t l . Nouv.Acq. 1203, f o l i o 4) 781-783 A.D.  Figure  80  L i n d i s f a r n e Gospels. I n c i p i t (London: B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , MS f o l i o 95) 700 A.D.  Figure  81  The Book o f K e l l s . A c c o u n t o f t h e C r u c i f i x i o n . ( D u b l i n : T r i n i t y C o l l e g e L i b r a r y , MS 58 A . I . 6 , f o l i o 124) 795-806 A.D.  Figure  82  G o s p e l ; B o o k f r o m I r e l a n d . S t . L u k e . (London: Add.40618, f o l i o 21v) e i g h t h c e n t u r y .  Figure  83  P r u d e n t i u s M a n u s c r i p t . L u x u r i a D a n c i n g . (London: B.M.Add.MS 24199, f o l i o 18) L a t e t e n t h c e n t u r y .  Figure  84  Ivory. Brunswick Casket. U l r i c h Museum).  Figure  85  I v o r y . L i u t h a r d G r o u p . (Munich: S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k C o d . l a t . 4 4 5 2 ) c a 870 A.D.  Figure  86  I v o r y . ( P a r i s : C l u n y Museum,Kat. du 1039) tenth century.  Figure  87  G o s p e l Book. I n i t i a l L . f o l i o 96) c a 800.  x  Bibl.Natl,  of S t . Mark's G o s p e l . C o t t o n Nero D.IV,  (Brunswick, Herzog  (Essen  B.L.  Anton  Sommerand  Cathedral  Nr.  Treasury,  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I wish to express a profound g r a t i t u d e M o r e h a r t o f t h e Department o f F i n e and  thoughtful  Dr.  Debra P i n c u s ,  her  insight i n organizing  in for  loaning their  Arts,  guidance throughout t h i s  for her patient s t u d y , and t o  a l s o o f t h e Department o f F i n e  me h e r o f f i c e .  this  t o D r . Mary  Arts, f o r  t h e s i s and f o r h e r g e n e r o s i t y  I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o my  u n d e r s t a n d i n g and h e l p  over the years  spent a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  xi  Columbia.  family  I have  1.  PREFACE  The  monastic  reforms  Bishop of Winchester, the r e v i v a l t h e y do who  were c e r t a i n l y  o f the a r t s  not account  c a r r i e d o u t by  a major f a c t o r i n  i n tenth century England,  f o r the i n v e n t i v e n e s s of the  were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d i s t i n c t  with  the  eleventh  'Winchester centuries.  T h i s s t y l e was  1  i l l u m i n a t e d manuscripts,  of  t h e s c h o o l , The  the frames  as  the  figure  often  the p i c t u r e s  they surround,  said  little  them.  There  borrowed from  b e e n no  that  attempts  the frames  t h a n d e c o r a t i o n , and how and  this  though abroad. eye  have  them t o a  decoration.  This  o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l ' s the  acanthus  the a r t i s t s ,  they p l a y a r o l e  political  The  systematic  links  t o e x p l a i n how  so o b v i o u s l y s t r e s s e d by  the s p i r i t u a l  evident  feature of  scenes, even  f u n c t i o n other than pure  s t u d y examines i n d e t a i l  frames,  and  masterpiece  the a u t h o r i t i e s  has  study of framing of manuscripts  m i n i a t u r e s and  particularly  seem more d o m i n a n t t o t h e  than  significant  i n the t e n t h  a striking  l e a f m o t i f i t s e l f was  about  artists  connected  above a l l i n t h e  framing,  i s as o r i g i n a l  Although  but  Benedictional of St. Aethelwold.  m a g n i f i c e n t acanthus  the acanthus  style  School' i n England  in  style,  Aethelwold,  in  significance of  a r e more enhancing  the  2. Benedictional.  A number of a u t h o r i t i e s have w r i t t e n about  this  manuscript, although few have d e a l t with the framing i n any depth. i n 1832  Gage p u b l i s h e d a study of the B e n e d i c t i o n a l 2  but s a i d l i t t l e about the framing.  In  1910  Warner wrote one of the i n t r o d u c t i o n s f o r the only f a c s i m i l e o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l p u b l i s h e d f o r the Roxborough Club, where he gave a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f 3 some of the frames of the i l l u m i n a t e d m i n i a t u r e s . Homburger i n 1912 wrote on the iconography and s t y l e o f t h i s manuscript and he i s the o n l y author who  has pro-  duced a thorough a n a l y s i s o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l i n c l u d i n g a d e t a i l e d study o f the frames which was  of p a r t i c u l a r  4  value f o r t h i s study. Recently, (1951), Wormald's s h o r t monograph on the B e n e d i c t i o n a l i n c l u d e d a g e n e r a l des5 c r i p t i o n of the frames. Deshman's d o c t o r a l t h e s i s i n 1969  examined the  iconography o f the f u l l - p a g e m i n i a t u r e s i n the g  B e n e d i c t i o n a l , but omitted the frames.  His o r i g i n a l  c o n t r i b u t i o n to our understanding of the manuscript s t r e s s e s the r e g a l c h a r a c t e r of the B e n e d i c t i o n a l s 1  iconography and the patronage of Aethelwold, which he 7 sees as permeating the book. Deshman's view i s t h a t , i n  3. e f f e c t , the B e n e d i c t i o n a l i s a c o r o n a t i o n manuscript.  As  evidence, Deshman analyzed the m i n i a t u r e s w i t h the most g  r o y a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , and t h i s , as w e l l as o t h e r suggests  t h a t the frames of the B e n e d i c t i o n a l ' s m i n i a t u r e s  a l s o serve a s p e c i a l purpose: embellishment emphasizing scenes  factors,  the frames are not p u r e l y  of the scenes but have the f u n c t i o n o f  the l i t u r g i c a l and r e g a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the  enclosed. Other authors, not w r i t i n g about the B e n e d i c t i o n a l  s p e c i f i c a l l y , but d e a l i n g w i t h framing, are Roger Hinks, Henry Heydenryk, ^  N o r r i s K. Smith, "'"  1  1  Meyer S c h a p i r o ,  9 1 2  13 and Ruth L. Kozodoy.  T h i s t h e s i s analyses the component p a r t s of the frames o f the' B e n e d i c t i o n a l , d e s c r i b e s each element of the frame, examines the e f f e c t of each p a r t and the p r e cedents i n e a r l i e r manuscripts, from these f a c t s .  Frame elements to be s t u d i e d are:  s t r u c t u r e of the frames, frame:- the acanthus enrichments  and makes some c o n c l u s i o n s the  the p a r t s added to the b a s i c  l e a f , the r o s e t t e s , the c i t y - v i e w  and the c o l o u r . O v e r l a p p i n g of frame and  i s so e x t e n s i v e t h a t i t deserves  image  special attention. A  d i s c u s s i o n of the formal i n t e r a c t i o n of frame and  scene  and the sequence of framing f o l l o w s . An examination  of  the l i t u r g i c a l importance  the  of f e a s t s as r e f l e c t e d by  4. frames i s u n d e r t a k e n and f i n a l l y  the thematic  l a t i o n s h i p o f frame and s c e n e i s s t u d i e d , the  suggestion  addition  i s hoped t h i s  t o the study  in particular framing acted  concluding  i t will  decorative  analysis w i l l  of manuscripts  role.  be a c o n s t r u c t i v e  i n general,  add t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f the 'Winchester School',  as t h e i n i t i a t o r  of a style  century.  and t h a t  of the  f o r the Benedictional  o f framing  i n f l u e n c e d much o f t h e a r t o f t h e c o n t i n e n t eleventh  with  t h a t the frames o f t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l d i d  p l a y much more t h a n a p u r e l y  It  interre-  that i n the  5.  Footnotes  V E l z b i e t a Temple, Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts 9001066 (London, 1976), p. 17. "The term 'Winchester' s c h o o l , i n f a c t , denotes no more than the s t y l e o f c e r t a i n manus c r i p t s produced i n the reformed B e n e d i c t i n e monasteries i n England, b a s i c a l l y the s t y l e of the S t . Dunstan drawing e l a b o r a t e d by the use o f c o l o u r and by c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p l a n t d e c o r a t i o n . Only a s m a l l number of these manuscripts can be s e c u r e l y a s s i g n e d to Winchester." 2 John Gage, "A D i s s e r t a t i o n on S t . Aethelwold's B e n e d i c t i o n a l , " A r c h a e o l o g i a , XXIV (1832). 3  . . George F r e d e r i c k Warner and Henry A u s t i n Wilson, The B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f S a i n t Aethelwold (Oxford, 1910) . 4  .  ii  Otto Homburger, Die Anfange Der Malschule von Winchester im X Jahrhundert  (Leipzig,  1912).  5 F r a n c i s Wormald, The B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f S t . Ethelwold Robert (London, 1959). The Iconography of the F u l l - P a g e Deshman, M i n i a t u r e s o f The B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f Aethelwold Ph. D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1970. 7 I b i d . , p.  209.  g  An e a r l i e r paper e n t i t l e d "The Acanthus l e a f ornamentation i n The B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f S t . Aethelwold" was w r i t t e n f o r a graduate seminar on medieval i l l u m i n a t e d manuscripts i n England (Fine A r t s course 533, 1975). 9 1935).  Roger Hinks, C a r o l m g i a n A r t (Ann Arbor, Michigan,  (New  ^ Henry Heydenryk, Y o r k , 196 3 ) . Norris  The A r t and H i s t o r y  of  K. S m i t h , M e d i e v a l A r t (Dubuque,  Frames  Iowa,  1967) . 12 Meyer S c h a p i r o , "On Some P r o b l e m s i n t h e S e m i o t i c s o f V i s u a l A r t : F i e l d and V e h i c l e i n I m a g e - S i g n s , S e m i o t i c a , I (1969). Ruth L . Kozodoy, "The O r i g i n o f E a r l y C h r i s t i a n Book I l l u m i n a t i o n : The S t a t e o f t h e Q u e s t i o n , " G e s t a , X. 2 (1971).  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION DESCRIPTION OF THE  The  B e n e d i c t i o n a l of S t . Aethelwold,  Museum A d d . MS of  49 598),  the manuscripts  t h e most b e a u t i f u l  o f the Winchester  during the reform o f monastic the r u l e s Bishops of  MANUSCRIPT  executed  i n adherence t o  and i n i t i a t e d b y  D u n s t a n , O s w a l d and A e t h e l w o l d  the tenth century.  and b e s t known  S c h o o l , was  discipline  o f the B e n e d i c t i n e Order,  (British  i n the l a s t  half  The d e d i c a t i o n poem i n d i c a t e s  that  t h e m a n u s c r i p t was o r d e r e d b y A e t h e l w o l d o f W i n c h e s t e r f o r his in  own u s e . detail  1  Because t h e manuscript  b y Warner and W i l s o n ,  describe only b r i e f l y provenance,  119  and Wormald,  i t s physical  condition,  3  I will  d a t e and  and f u n c t i o n .  Physical The  2  has been d e s c r i b e d  manuscript,  Composition  a s we  leaves o f v e l l u m measuring  find  i t today,  consists of  11-1/2 i n c h e s by  i n c h e s , e n c l o s e d i n a modern b i n d i n g .  The t e x t  8-1/2 consists  of  t h e d e d i c a t i o n poem f o l l o w e d by b l e s s i n g s  ( t o be  by  a B i s h o p ) , arranged a c c o r d i n g t o t h e sequence o f  said  8. feasts of  the  h u n d r e d and  l i t u r g i c a l year.  sixteen Episcopal  The  book c o n t a i n s  Benedictions  for  one  feasts  5 throughout the the  use  year.  The  script  of Carolingian miniscule  i s an  e a r l y example  of  i n England, i n d i c a t i n g g  the  influence of Continental  and  e a r l y tenth  increased cularly  centuries,  exposed i n s u l a r a r t i s t s w h i c h had motifs.  Great  ( d . 939 to ninth  b e e n i n s p i r e d by The  century  contact  under A l f r e d the  under A e t h e l s t a n  habits.  In  the  w i t h the  ( d . 899  A.D.)  A.D.).  This  century  Carolingian  Late Antique  and  m o n a s t i c r e f o r m movement o f  the  t h a t emphasized  the  ceremonial aspects of  the  English  s c r i b e s had  b e e n i n use r u l e d by  large and  contact  since  employed  the  is written  The  c o n s i s t of  Some o f  s q u a r e c a p i t a l s and  rustic  capitals.  Insular  s i x t h century.  a stylus, usually t o a page.  an  The  the  others  later  dedication  tenth  sources. the  reform  reform.  tenth  century,  script  that  The  pages o f  nineteen  headings are are  had text,  lines  of  the  of  composed  formed o f  of  uncials  poem m e n t i o n e d  i n golden r u s t i c c a p i t a l s .  decoration  art  liturgy.  a p r i m e mover i n m o n a s t i c  r e f o r m o f m o n a s t i c i s m i n the  parti-  Early Christian  to help  writing  and  brought i n s p i r a t i o n from C o n t i n e n t a l  S t . A e t h e l w o l d was  ninth  continent  Books were b r o u g h t t o E n g l a n d as w e l l  Before  late  manuscript consists  of  above  9 .  twenty-eight or  arched  similar  full-page miniatures  frames,  i n either rectangular  n i n e t e e n pages o f t e x t  d e c o r a t i v e frames,  one i l l u m i n a t e d  a d e c o r a t i v e f r a m e and one i l l u m i n a t e d frame. leaf  Each  within  without  the verso  of a  and f u n c t i o n s as a p r e f a c e t o t h e t e x t o f b l e s s i n g the f e a s t which occupies  The  two f a c i n g p a g e s a r e s u r r o u n d e d  T h e r e a r e two e x c e p t i o n s  the recto of the facing  to t h i s  the f e a s t o f the Epiphany  full-page  f o r the f e a s t o f the T r i n i t y  and  the f i n a l  (folio  118v - f i g u r e  the m i n i a t u r e s framed w i t h often  arrangement:  m i n i a t u r e s , and t h e s e c o n d  miniature,  called  frames. the  first  i s t h e page o f b l e s s -  (folio  70 - f i g u r e  24)  the D e d i c a t i o n o f the Church,  33) n e i t h e r o f w h i c h i s f r a m e d . A l l  and f a c i n g  foliated  by m a t c h i n g  leaf.  w h i c h i s p r e f a c e d b y two  ing  The  by  initial  initial  full-page, miniature occupies  for  is  surrounded  pages o f d e c o r a t e d  text are  ornament o f a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  'Winchester'  acanthus,  Benedictional of S t . Aethelwold  type  t h e name d e r i v e d and o t h e r  from  manuscripts  7 related  toi t .  The  B e n e d i c t i o n a l commences w i t h  sequence o f seven are  these,  continuous  full-page miniatures but probably  some m i s s i n g - p o s s i b l y  originally  a  forming  two i s o l a t e d  t h e r e were t w e l v e  a s e t o f heavenly text  frames  choirs.  (folios  there  o f them Apart  21 and 10 8)  from  10. i n d i c a t e t h a t two m i n i a t u r e s are m i s s i n g :  The Massacre o f  the Innocents, which would have been f o l i o 20v, and S t . Michael which would have been f o l i o 107v.  Moreover, a  t e x t u a l gap between f o l i o s 105r and 106r i n d i c a t e s t h a t the f e a s t o f the N a t i v i t y o f the V i r g i n and i t s f a c i n g page of t e x t are m i s s i n g .  For the convenience  o f the reader, the m i n i a t u r e s  and i n i t i a l s are l i s t e d together w i t h the shape o f t h e i r frame ( R  f o r arched frames, Q  f o r r e c t a n g u l a r frames),  and the p l a t e number, i n the L i s t o f I l l u s t r a t i o n s .  Date and Provenance  U n l i k e many i l l u m i n a t e d manuscripts, we do have some i n f o r m a t i o n about the o r i g i n o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l from the d e d i c a t i o n poem w r i t t e n by the s c r i b e Godeman a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the book.  In t h i s poem he t e l l s us t h a t  the book was ordered by Bishop Aethelwold o f Winchester f o r h i s own use. Therefore the B e n e d i c t i o n a l must have been executed d u r i n g Aethelwold's  episcopacy.  He was con-  s e c r a t e d Bishop on November 29, 96 3 and d i e d August 1, 9 9 84,  thus the manuscript was made between these d a t e s .  Wilson noted t h a t the t e x t f o r the f e a s t o f S t . Swithun appears  t o r e f e r t o m i r a c l e s t h a t o c c u r r e d a f t e r the  saint's  t r a n s l a t i o n i n 971 w h i c h h e l p s  more p r e c i s e l y b e t w e e n J u l y Unfortunately he  Godeman  s t a t e who p a i n t e d  15, 971 and A u g u s t 1, 984.  d i d not give  but  that there  of the miniatures  was  there  script,  different  a separation  study  acanthus  there  worked under t h i s  assumption i n w r i t i n g t h i s  was p r o d u c e d Winchester, is  listed  suggests  decoration.  was more t h a n one a r t i s t  authorities generally  I n my  he u s e d  leaf  I tend t o b e l i e v e  The  the  a t work o n t h e manu-  one a r t i s t was i n v o l v e d ,  models w h i c h i n c l u d e d  believe  o f hands,  regarding  l e a f framing  were a number o f a r t i s t s  or i f only  n o t have  o f t h e Benedictional."'""'"  view, t h e v a r i e t y o f the acanthus that  know  as t h e i l l u m i n a t o r ,  no one h a s y e t made a s e r i o u s  artists  i n f a c t , we o n l y  A l t h o u g h two a u t h o r s  t h e s c r i p t o r as w e l l  Deshman has s u g g e s t e d  date nor d i d  poem and he may  the r e s t o f the t e x t .  Godeman was  a precise  the miniatures;  t h a t he w r o t e t h e d e d i c a t o r y written  date the manuscript  agree t h a t  and have  thesis.  the manuscript  a t A e t h e l w o l d ' s own m o n a s t e r y , t h e O l d s i n c e he c o m m i s s i o n e d  i t , and a l t h o u g h  as an a b b o t i n t h e L i b e r V i t a e  Minster, Godeman  o f Hyde Abbey  12 (formerly Old  t h e New  Minster  further  Minster)  he was  associated 13  as A e t h e l w o l d ' s c h a p l a i n .  with the  T h e r e a r e two  arguments i n f a v o r o f t h e O l d M i n s t e r :  one i s t h a t  S a i n t Swithun, A e t h e l w o l d ' s p r e d e c e s s o r i n the see o f  12. Winchester, and  i s closely  t h e r e i s an i l l u m i n a t e d m i n i a t u r e  Benedictional is and  associated with  (folio  9 7v - f i g u r e  decorating this Sunday  (folio  otherwise  i s present unimportant  argues  refounded  E l y i n 9 70,  considered  Etheldreda, in  feast of T r i n i t y  F u r t h e r , T o l h u r s t mainb e t w e e n t h e Bene-  (Rouen, B i b l i o t h e q u e M u n i c i p a l e , t o have b e e n e x e c u t e d  the founder  f a c i n g pages, S t . E t h e l d r e d a  and  an i l l u m i n a t e d i n i t i a l 0 (folio  91r - f i g u r e  close,  369  with  90v - f i g u r e  25)  of C h r i s t b l e s s i n g w i t h i n the 26).  argues t h a t s t y l i s t i c a l l y these particularly  (folio  MS  honoured  her feast decorated  two  of  a t E l y ; and S t .  of Ely, i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l by h a v i n g  initial  i n the manuscript  and t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y M i s s a l o f R o b e r t  J u m i ^ g e s i n Rouen Y.7),  Trinity  a n d as w e l l t h e r e was a  there i s a s t y l i s t i c s i m i l a r i t y  dictional  argument  f o r an E l y p r o v e n a n c e b e c a u s e  monk i n r e s i d e n c e named Godeman. tains  t o the Holy  i n the  70 - f i g u r e 2 4 ) .  Tolhurst Aethelwold  f o r h i s feast  29); the second  t h a t t h e O l d M i n s t e r was d e d i c a t e d an i l l u m i n a t e d i n i t i a l  the Old Minster,  Conversely,  Deshman  two m a n u s c r i p t s  are not  and t h a t E t h e l d r e d a as an A n g l o - S a x o n  queen, h a d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  f u n c t i o n o f the foundation o f  14 nunneries, attention.  and u n d e r s t a n d a b l y  w o u l d be g i v e n  this  Deshman's c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l  was  a product o f the Old Minster, Winchester,  seems  more  plausible.  What became o f t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l Aethelwold's death fifteenth  i s unknown,  after St.  b u t Wormald n o t e d  c e n t u r y documents f r o m Hyde Abbey were u s e d  reinforcement of the b i n d i n g o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l ing  that  t h e m a n u s c r i p t was  Minster)  at this  dissolution of  that  a t Hyde Abbey  t i m e and p e r h a p s  o f t h e Abbey i n 1538.  the manuscript  (Bishop o f Oxford  The n e x t  i s i n t h e e s t a t e o f Henry  as  suggest-  (formerly  remained  some  New  there u n t i l the reappearance Compton  1674-75 and B i s h o p o f L o n d o n 1675  until  15 his  death  i n 1713.)  the  manuscript received  I t was p r o b a b l y a t t h i s i t s present leather  G e n e r a l H a t t o n Compton, nephew Compton's e s t a t e , the  that 16  binding.  and e x e c u t o r o f Henry  p r o b a b l y had i t and i t n e x t appears i n  possession o f W i l l i a m Cavendish,  Devonshire,  time  second  Duke o f  sometime b e t w e e n 1713 and J a n u a r y  18, 1720,  when Wanley r e c o r d e d t h a t he saw t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l a t Chatsworth, it  was  t h e Duke's e s t a t e , where i t r e m a i n e d u n t i l 17 a c q u i r e d i n 1957 by t h e B r i t i s h Museum. Function o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l  A Benedictional be  said  i s a book o f s o l e m n b l e s s i n g s t o  b y a b i s h o p b e f o r e Communion  i n the l i t u r g y o f  14. t h e Mass, a s e p a r a t e and  hook made f o r t h e < b i s h o p ' s own u s e  b e l i e v e d t o have b e e n w r i t t e n  f o rparticular  churches  18 where i t s u s e p r e v a i l e d .  The B e n e d i c t i o n a l d i d n o t f o r m  p a r t o f t h e Roman l i t u r g y  b u t was u s e d d u r i n g  the Middle  Ages as a p r e p a r a t i o n  f o r Communion, and t h e b l e s s i n g was 19  pronounced w i t h  ceremony b y t h e b i s h o p  great  only.  the  book w o u l d have b e e n on d i s p l a y o n t h e a l t a r  the  c e l e b r a t i o n o f Mass. Few  Benedictionals  that of S t . Aethelwold.  a r e as l a v i s h l y  Two o t h e r  t i o n a l s were made i n E n g l a n d : borders  otheque N a t i o n a l e , actually  (possibly Aethelwold),  A r c h b i s h o p Robert o f Jumieges Municipale,  MS. 369 Y. 7 ) .  Aethelwold.  as  Benedic-  illuminated  (Paris,  Bibli-  fonds l a t . 987); and t h e o t h e r ,  a P o n t i f i c a l , was e x e c u t e d  Winchester  of St.  one c o n t a i n s  and i s s i m i l a r t o o u r m a n u s c r i p t  during  decorated  contemporary  Thus  20  f o ra bishop of  The B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f  (Rouen,  Bibliotheque  Both postdate  The B e n e d i c t i o n a l  Footnotes  Robert Deshman, The Iconography o f the F u l l - P a g e M i n i a t u r e s o f The B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f Aethelwold. Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1970), p. 5. 2 George F r e d e r i c k Warner and Henry A u s t i n Wilson, The B e n e d i c t i o n a l of S t . Aethelwold (Oxford, 1910). 3 Sthelwold  F r a n c i s Wormald, The B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f S t . (London, 19 59).  4 Deshman, The Iconography o f the F u l l - P a g e M i n i a t u r e s , p. 3. ^ John Gage, "A D i s s e r t a t i o n on S t . Aethelwold's B e n e d i c t i o n a l , " A r c h a e o l o g i a , XXIV (1832), p. 25. Wormald, The B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f S t .  ..Ethelwold,  p. 10 . 7 I b i d . , p. 13. g Deshman, The Iconography o f the F u l l - P a g e M i n i a t u r e s , p. 5. 9 Warner, The B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f S t . Aethelwold, p.  pp.  xiii. "^Wilson, LVIf.  The B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f S t . Aethelwold,  16. F r a n c i s Wormald s a y s l i t t l e a b o u t t h e a r t i s t a l t h o u g h he i m p l i e s t h a t Godeman was t h e s c r i b e . Mr. O t t l e y , who d e s c r i b e d t h e a r t i s t i c q u a l i t i e s o f t h i s m a n u s c r i p t f o r J o h n Gage, s t a t e s t h a t t h e c o l o u r i n g o f t h e body m i g h t have b e e n done by a d i f f e r e n t a r t i s t t h a n t h e one who drew t h e o u t l i n e s o f the f i g u r e s , because the c o l o u r i n g o f the f l e s h i s so i n f e r i o r . Mr. O t t l e y t h e n goes on t o s a y t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Godeman was t h e p a i n t e r as w e l l as t h e w r i t e r , as the name o f t h e s c r i b e o f t e n a p p e a r s b u t t h e r e i s h a r d l y ever a r e c o r d of the i l l u m i n a t o r ( i n Gage, "A D i s s e r t a t i o n on S t . A e t h e l w o l d ' s B e n e d i c t i o n a l , " p . 31-3.) J o h n Gage s e e s no r e a s o n t o d o u b t t h a t Godeman was t h e i l l u m i n a t o r o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t as w e l l as t h e w r i t e r . (Gage, p . 40.) R o b e r t Deshman s t a t e d t h a t he c e r t a i n l y t h o u g h t t h e r e was a s e p a r a t i o n o f hands i n t h e m i n i a t u r e s b u t t h a t he had n e v e r p u r s u e d t h i s a s p e c t as he f e l t t h a t i t w o u l d add l i t t l e t o the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l (From a t e l e p h o n e c o n v e r s a t i o n w h i l e he was a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , November 1 9 7 5 ) . 12 p.  10;  Wormald, The B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f S t . ...Ethelwold, Warner, The B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f S t . A e t h e l w o l d , p . x i v . 13  p.  Warner, The  Benedictional  of  St.  Aethelwold,  xni. 14  Miniatures,  Deshman, The p . 6, 234.  Iconography of  the  Full-Page  15 Ibid.,  p.  7.  16 P-  9  Wormald, The  Benedictional  Deshman, The p . 7.  Iconography o f  of St.  Ethelwold,  17 Miniatures,  the  Full-Page  18 Gage, "A D i s s e r t a t i o n o f B e n e d i c t i o n a l , " p . 5.  St.  Aethelwold's  19 p.  8.  Wormald, The  Benedictional  of  St.  Ethelwold,  I b i d . , p. 9 .  18.  CHAPTER I I  T r a d i t i o n s o f Framing i n Manuscripts P r i o r to the B e n e d i c t i o n a l  The  frame has assumed d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s a t d i f -  ferent periods  i n arthistory.  A l l types o f frames are  devices o f o r d e r i n g and e x p r e s s i o n ,  and a r t i s t s have a l -  ways been f r e e t o c o n s t r u c t e f f e c t i v e d e v i a t i o n s to s a t i s f y a p a r t i c u l a r need."*"  At times the frame was con-  c e i v e d as forming p a r t o f the scene i t enclosed,  and a t  other times i t was thought o f i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to i t s 2  e x t e r i o r surroundings.  In l o o k i n g a t the development o f  the frame h i s t o r i c a l l y , we see t h a t i t was only i n Renaissance times,  from about the f i f t e e n t h century on,  t h a t p a i n t i n g was thought o f as 'a window on the w o r l d ' w i t h the emphasis p l a c e d on the e x t e r n a l position.  T h i s r e f l e c t s the popular  observer's  philosophy  o f the  p e r i o d t h a t man was the centre o f the univerve, and 3  t h e r e f o r e , the s p e c t a t o r ' s p o s i t i o n was pre-eminent. In medieval p a i n t i n g the focus was not on the e x t e r n a l observer,  but on the i n t e r n a l viewer's p o s i t i o n , t h a t i s ,  the view o f a s p e c t a t o r who was imagined t o be w i t h i n the 4  p a i n t i n g l o o k i n g out.  T h i s represents  a totally  different  19 . p e r s p e c t i v e from that of Renaissance a r t , and throws some l i g h t on the reasons f o r the use o f the frame and image as an i n t e r e l a t e d u n i t , so popular w i t h Western Romanesque 5  book i l l u m i n a t o r s . Renaissance a r t .  The frame remained subordinate i n Thus i n Renaissance p a i n t i n g one would  never f i n d the overpowering acanthus frame t h a t we see i n The B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f S t . Aethelwold and o t h e r Western manuscripts of the p e r i o d , i n which the frame i s as much to be admired as the scene, and sometimes even assumes more importance than the f i g u r e . the  As Warner in. d e s c r i b i n g  B e n e d i c t i o n a l has so a p t l y put i t :  "The r e a l  interest  of the volume does not l i e i n i t s t e x t , but i n the s p l e n did  s e r i e s o f i l l u m i n a t e d m i n i a t u r e s and borders w i t h  which many o f i t s pages are decorated." I n t e r e s t i n framing m i n i a t u r e s has not always been p r a c t i s e d . the  In Egypt we f i r s t  i l l u s t r a t e d book.  Initially  f i n d the beginnings o f  the i l l u s t r a t i o n r a n i n  a narrow s t r i p along the bottom o f the t e x t , s u b o r d i n a t e to i t .  L a t e r the i l l u s t r a t i o n s became l a r g e r , moved up,  were f i t t e d i n t o the columns between s e c t i o n s o f t e x t , and f i n a l l y evolved i n t o the f u l l - s i z e d m i n i a t u r e . of  The Books  the Dead were the t e x t s most f r e q u e n t l y i l l u s t r a t e d but  their  i l l u s t r a t i o n s had no background or frame.  we f i n d the i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n s e r t e d i n t o columns  In Greece inter-  20. rupting  the text  frames. to  i n t h e same way w i t h  These p i c t u r e s  c o n s t i t u t e d what Weitzmann  as t h e "papyrus s t y l e " .  papyrus r o l l  no b a c k g r o u n d s o r refers  I n Roman t i m e s , when t h e  was g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d w i t h  t h e codex, 7  around the f i r s t  c e n t u r y A.D. o r e a r l i e r ,  change o c c u r r e d i n t h e t r e a t m e n t continuous,  isolating  t h i s may have t a k e n century,  a radical  o f the i l l u s t r a t i o n s .  frame a r o u n d an image a p p e a r e d  p l a c e about the second  A  and  or third  the e a r l i e s t s u r v i v i n g codices are o f g fourth century. The p o r t r a i t e x i s t e d i n b o o k s a s 9  the  early  although  as t h e f i r s t  c e n t u r y B.C.  symbolic  image c o n c e r n e d  text. ^  Fully  1  well  the i n s p i r e d  painted miniatures with  s e p a r a t e pages d i s t i n c t fourth  with  and was c r e a t e d a s a  to f i f t h  from  centuries.  T h i s took  embellishments  o f the t e x t  etc.,  i n the f o u r t h century  o f the  f r a m e s p l a c e d on  t h e t e x t appeared  as C h r i s t i a n book i l l u m i n a t i o n ,  appeared  nature  about t h e  p l a c e i n pagan as and d e c o r a t e d  i n headings,  letters,  colophons,  f o rthe f i r s t  In  t h e Roman c o d e x t h e frame c o n s i s t e d o f a s i m p l e  It  was n o t u n t i l  elaborate  medieval  as i s s e e n  manuscripts.  border..  t h a t t h e frame became  i n C a r o l i n g i a n and Hiberno-Saxon  In antique  ornamented w i t h  times  time.  a r t t h e frame was e i t h e r  a cable o r bead-and-reel,  strip  o r a moulding  composed o f a c a n t h u s - l e a f o r e g g - a n d - d a r t w h i c h wards towards t h e e n c l o s e d a r e a .  a  face i n -  The c e n t r i f u g a l  frame,  21. w i t h elements introduced into  f a c i n g outwards from  around the middle  from  o f t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y B.C.  the medieval  Roman A r t , h i s a t t i t u d e  quity  t h e frame was r e g a r d e d  northern medieval  artist  inherited  t h e frame  toward i t changed. as an i n d i v i s i b l e  In antiunit but  a r t "this organic continuity  frame i s d i s r e g a r d e d , e s p e c i a l l y The  probably  Greek a r t .  Although  in  t h e c e n t r e was  i n book  o f the  painting.  frames o f C a r o l i n g i a n i v o r y - c a r v i n g s a r e c l o s e r t o  antique p a t t e r n s than  t h e frames o f c o n t e m p o r a r y  t u r e s where many o f t h e o r n a m e n t a l adopted,  originated  popular border  century.  i n northern Insular a r t .  The most  l e a v e s , w h i c h was n o t common i n  and i s o n l y  found  i n Roman i v o r i e s o f t h e f i f t h  In the ninth century  these  become much more e l a b o r a t e i n b o t h scripts,  d e c o r a t i v e forms  i n C a r o l i n g i a n a r t , however, i s t h e row o f  o v e r l a p p i n g acanthus antiquity,  minia-  and t h e a n t i q u e m o t i f ,  acanthus  ivories  borders  and i n manu-  the acanthus,  was p u t t o  12 fresh  uses.  G e r m a n i c and C e l t i c  a r t had e s t a b l i s h e d the  d e c o r a t i v e page, C a r o l i n g i a n a r t s u b s t i t u t e d spirals scrolls  and i n t e r l a c i n g s  o f Northern  the abstract  a r t f o r organic  o f t h e S o u t h a n d m e l d e d t h e image a n d t h e ornament 13 p r o d u c i n g a harmonious whole.  There  i s no  clear-cut  C a r o l i n g i a n a r t as e a c h ideas of ornamentation ences.  Thus I w i l l  line  o f development i n  c e n t r e o r s c h o o l had d e r i v e d from  i t s own  a variety  of  only d e a l w i t h the elements  C a r o l i n g i a n manuscript  painting  t h a t h a v e most  influof  direct  14 revelance  f o r the  Benedictional.  In the second  half  f e r e n t s c h o o l s dominated working Bald  o f the n i n t h  c e n t u r y two  Carolingian art:  a Court  f o r a p a t r o n , Charlemagne's grandson  (840  - 877)  and  producing a variety  b o o k s w h i c h combined t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s a Monastic  S c h o o l p r o d u c i n g books  liturgical  practice  and  limiting  of  difSchool  Charles sumptuous  of a century;  for export itself  the  and  stressing  to a r e p e r t o r y o f  15 mainly ornamental  One  forms.  o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t  manuscripts  f o r our  Franco-Saxon  group  originating abstract  groups  study d e r i v e from dated  circa  870  of  the  A.D.  so-called  and  i n a monastery o f north-western  linear  style  Carolingian  of these manuscripts  probably France. produce  The a  16 mainly d e c o r a t i v e e f f e c t . this  group  the second  comes f r o m  The  a style  that  q u a r t e r o f the n i n t h  o f S a i n t - B e r t i n , w i t h a few  initial  influence for  reached  i t s peak i n  century a t the  manuscripts  purely  monastery ornamental  23. in  character.  for  Louis  pages  The  the  German  (Berlin,  f o l . 3r -  example o f  (840  - 876)  Theol.  f i g u r e 34)  H e r e we  producing  and  where t h e  note the  a harmonious whole  with  initial  Kulturbesitz, - Beginning  decorative  rather use  i s a P s a l t e r made  decorated  l a t . f o l . 58  m a i n l y composed o f I n s u l a r motifs.  these  Stiftung Preussischer  Staatsbibiothek, 1,  best  than  to  Psalm  vocabulary  is  Mediterranean  of gold  and  "as w e l l  as  muted  colours  a subtle  balance  17 b e t w e e n dynamic and letters We  form." 17  Here  and  decorative  detail"  note the  decorative  treatment at the  the at  static  midpoints of the  centre  the  sides  o f i t s top  "Frame,  p r o d u c e an  initial,  equilibrium.  four corners  "which b r e a k t h r o u g h t h e  and  b o t t o m , o r s w e l l i t on  and frame the  sides." The  climax  of  the  Franco-Saxon School  in  the  s o - c a l l e d Second B i b l e o f C h a r l e s  at  the  m o n a s t e r y o f S a i n t Amand b e t w e e n 871  also  features  illuminated i n i t i a l s  the  is  achieved  Bald and  produced  873  combined w i t h  which  Insular  18 motifs.  In  Bibliotheque llr)  we  earlier and  f i g u r e 35 Nationale,  (Bible of Charles l a t . 2.  n o t e a more r i g i d manuscript  contained  s t a b l e and  structure  ( f i g u r e 34)  initials  Initial  but  the  Bald.  to Genesis, f o l .  than found i n the  Paris,  the  same u n i t y o f  frame  and t h e same " i n t e r p l a y b e t w e e n 19 mutable forms" exists. A diagonal pattern  24 . is  e v i d e n t i n many a r e a s  within the  gold bars;  geometric  will  the a x i a l  the i n t e r l a c e  treatment  o f the gold bars  t i o n a l ' s miniatures  contained  o f the medallions;  by the s t r o n g h o r i z o n t a l  I - these  and v e r t i c a l  o f t h e frame a n d t h e i n i t i a l s .  see t h a t a l l these  gold  as:  d e s i g n i n t h e crown o f t h e i n i t i a l  counterbalanced lines  such  f e a t u r e s a r e found  including  We  i n the Benedic-  the t r e l l i s - l i k e  frame o f  bars.  The influenced  other school of Carolingian a r t that obviously the framing i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l i s the School  of  Metz o f t h e m i d - n i n t h  century.  Drogo, i l l e g i t i m a t e s o n  of  t h e Emperor L o t h a i r , became A r c h b i s h o p this  o f Metz i n 844  and was t h e d r i v i n g  f o r c e behind  school of illumina-  t i o n which produced  a s m a l l b u t p r e c i o u s g r o u p o f raanu-  20 scripts. his  Among them i s t h e Drogo S a c r a m e n t a r y made f o r  own u s e a n d c o n t a i n i n g f o r t y - o n e h i s t o r i a t e d  containing  scenes  these  initials  which  classical  feasts.  The f r a m i n g o f  i s composed o f t r e l l i s - l i k e acanthus  mentary - I n i t i a l Paris,  of liturgical  D with  twines scene  initials  and c l a s p s ,  gold bars (Drogo  on t o  Sacra-  o f T h r e e Women a t t h e Tomb.  B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , l a t . 9428, f o l . 5 8 r -  f i g u r e 36). Carolingian  i n f l u e n c e on t e n t h c e n t u r y E n g l i s h  a r t has b e e n w e l l Frankish English  documented, due  i l l u m i n a t o r s and court  Great  fifty  to g i f t s  at Winchester,  C a r o l i n g i a n manuscripts  to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of  as w e l l  during  y e a r s b e f o r e The  of manuscripts  to the  as t h e p u r c h a s e  the r e i g n o f A l f r e d  Benedictional  of  the  of St.  21 Aethelwold.  These C o n t i n e n t a l  became models f o r t h e  manuscripts  Benedictional.  undoubtedly  26 .  Footnotes  Meyer Schapiro, "On Some Problems i n the Semiotics o f V i s u a l A r t : F i e l d and V e h i c l e i n ImageS i g n s , " S e m i o t i c a , I (1969), p. 228-9.  (New  Henry Heydenryk, The A r t and H i s t o r y of Frames York, 1963), p. 5.  B. A. Uspensky, " ' L e f t ' and 'Right P a i n t i n g , " S e m i o t i c a , 13 (1975), p. 33.  1  i n Icon  I b i d . , p. 33-4. T h i s has been brought out by Uspensky who d i s c o v e r e d t h a t i n i c o n p a i n t i n g terminology, the r i g h t - h a n d p a r t o f the p a i n t i n g was thought of as the ' l e f t ' and c o n v e r s e l y the l e f t p a r t of the p a i n t i n g as the 'right . In other words, the reckoning was not from the s p e c t a t o r ' s p o i n t of view but the view of someone f a c i n g us, an i n t e r n a l observer imagined to be w i t h i n the d e p i c t e d w o r l d . Uspensky goes on to say on page 38: " I t should be added t h a t the c o n c l u s i o n s given above should i n no way be c o n s i d e r e d as a p e c u l i a r i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o n l y of Byzantine or a n c i e n t Russian a r t . . . In f a c t one c o u l d b o l d l y a s c r i b e t h i s phenomenon to pre-Renaissance a r t i n g e n e r a l , c e r t a i n l y t o medieval a r t and to some extent to even e a r l i e r a r t . " 1  The frame and image as an i n t e r e l a t e d u n i t was a l i e n to Byzantine a r t . The i n h a b i t e d s c r o l l combining men, animals and p l a n t s with geometric forms was f o r e i g n t o Byzantine a r t as was a p a t t e r n e d background i n a scene. George F r e d e r i c k Warner i n George F r e d e r i c k Warner and Henry A u s t i n Wilson, The B e n e d i c t i o n a l of S t . A e t h e l w o l d (Oxford, 1910), p. i x . Ruth L. Kozodoy, "The O r i g i n of E a r l y C h r i s t i a n Book I l l u m i n a t i o n : The State of the Question," Gesta, X, No. 2 (1971), p. 33.  27. g  Ibid.,  p . 33.  Ibid.,  p . 34.  10 , . , Ibid.,  p . 36 .  9  T  "'""''Roger H i n k s , 1962) , p . 204 .  Carolingian  1 2  Ibid.,  p . 205.  1 3  Ibid.,  p . 206.  A r t (Ann A r b o r ,  Michigan  14 A more c o m p r e h e n s i v e t r e a t m e n t o f C a r o l i n g i a n m a n u s c r i p t p a i n t i n g i s d e a l t w i t h by F l o r e n t i n e M u t h e r i c h and J o a c h i m E . Gaehde, C a r o l i n g i a n P a i n t i n g (New Y o r k , 1976) . ^Florentine Carolingian Painting  M u t h e r i c h and J o a c h i m E . Gaehde, (New Y o r k , 1976), p . 15.  16 Hinks, 17  Carolingian  i  Mutherich p.  A r t , p . 202.  and Gaehde, C a r o l i n g i a n  Painting,  66 . 18  An example o f an I n s u l a r m o t i f i s s e e n i n t h e red d o t t e d l i n e s around the i n i t i a l I , borrowed from H i b e r n o - S a x o n i l l u m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e v e n t h and e i g h t centuries. 19 M u t h e r i c h and Gaehde, C a r o l i n g i a n P a i n t i n g , p . 126. H  2 0  Ibid.,  p . 14.  Classical Technique  J . Henry M i d d l e t o n , I l l u m i n a t e d M a n u s c r i p t s i n and M e d i a e v a l T i m e s , T h e i r A r t and T h e i r (Cambridge, 1 8 9 2 ) , p . 99.  29 .  CHAPTER I I I  THE  COMPONENTS AND SOURCES OF THE FRAME  The S t r u c t u r e  o f t h e Frames  Each o f the m i n i a t u r e s i n t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l i s s u r r o u n d e d by a d e c o r a t i v e to  frame,  and a m a t c h i n g  be f o u n d on t h e o p p o s i t e page c o n t a i n i n g  frame i s  the opening  words o f t h e b l e s s i n g w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n s m e n t i o n e d on page 9 o f C h a p t e r I . with are either are  variations  The t h i r t y  frames I w i l l  be d e a l i n g  r e c t a n g u l a r o r a r c h e d i n shape b u t t h e r e o f t h e two b a s i c  shapes.  framework i s f o r m e d o f g o l d bands acanthus leaves climb, framework h a s b e e n  In both, the  o r bars over which  resembling a t r e l l i s  referred  t o as a t r e l l i s  hence t h e or espalier  frame.  Thirteen o f the t h i r t y frames.  m i n i a t u r e s have  rectangular  R e c t a n g u l a r f r a m e s were an o b v i o u s a n d common  form o f e n c l o s i n g  s c e n e s i n m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n a t i o n as  they echoed  t h e shape o f t h e v e l l u m pages  book f o r m .  As we have  manuscript p a i n t i n g .  seen t h i s  shape  i n t h e codex o r  originated  The v a r i a t i o n o f r e c t a n g u l a r  i n Roman frames  30 .  in  the B e n e d i c t i o n a l occurs  but  n o t i n t h e s h a p e o f t h e frame  i n t h e number o f r o s e t t e e m b e l l i s h m e n t s  overlapping the  o f t h e frame by t h e f i g u r e s o r o b j e c t s  b a s i c s t r u c t u r e i s the rectangular  mitred  corners,  leaves  as f o u n d i n The A n n u n c i a t i o n  H e r e we the  find  formed o f g o l d b a r s  frame  f i l l e d with (folio  enrichments o f elongated  with  acanthus  5v - f i g u r e 8 ) .  acanthus r o s e t t e s a t  m i d p o i n t s o f the f o u r s i d e s , t h e dominant e f f e c t  a strong  frame, e n c l o s i n g t h e scene  The  second v a r i a t i o n  the miniature  included  i s the rectangular  and  o f S t . John, the o n l y  i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l  The E n t r y  i n t o Jerusalem  ing overlapping  o f the s i d e  t h e f r a m e b u t we w i l l  l a p p i n g i n more d e t a i l  A third with  (folio (folio  with  c a n be s e e n  e v a n g e l i s t t o be  19v - f i g u r e  13)^";  45v - f i g u r e 19)  be e x a m i n i n g t h i s  aspect  show-  t h e shape o f over-  i n C h a p t e r V.  v a r i a t i o n occurs  s i x r o s e t t e enrichments,  in:  This  frame  frames which a f f e c t s  i n the r e c t a n g u l a r  four a t the corners  at the mid-point o f the v e r t i c a l found  being  fully.  r o s e t t e enrichments a t the four corners.  of  within  scene.  The  in  and i n t h e  sides.  The N a t i v i t y o f C h r i s t ( f o l i o  This  frames  and two  i s t o be  15v - f i g u r e 1 0 ) ;  31. The  Octave  A d o r a t i o n of  of of  C h r i s t  ( f o l i o 64v  -  been  -  f i g u r e reduced  P a u l  99v  -  the  ( f o l i o  51v  and  Christmas  t o  f i g u r e  The framing  i s  have  e i g h t  f o u r  at  f i g u r e  17);  20);  The  the  gold  f o u r t h found  -  band; f i g u r e  and  l a s t  f i g u r e  f i g u r e The  16);  of  l e a f  Martyrdom  28);  and  at  The  The  St.  of  Baptism  the  C h r i s t  acanthus  The  15);  Women  A s c e n s i o n  u s u a l  -  i n  r o s e t t e  the  -  -  Tomb ( f o l i o  border Sts.  has  P e t e r  B e n e d i c t  ( f o l i o  30).  a  ( f o l i o  p a i r  enrichments,  over  opening  v a r i a t i o n  matching  m i d - p o i n t  E t h e l d r e d a  26)  25  95v  take  the  24v  where  c o m p l e t e l y  w i t h  ( f o l i o  a  ( f o l i o  22v  Magi  f i g u r e 22)  ( f o l i o  of  the  the  90v  -  words  t r e l l i s f i g u r e  of  the  of  four  s i d e s ,  i n  r e c t a n g u l a r  m i n i a t u r e s  at  the  where  frame.  25)  and  b l e s s i n g  corners  the  and  r o s e t t e s  These the  which  are:  St.  matching  page  ( f o l i o  91  -  f i g u r e  .  L i t t l e the  s i g n i f i c a n c e  r e c t a n g u l a r  t i o n  of  the  Of  frame  r o s e t t e s  the  The  are  of  a  number  i t s e l f , w i l l  seventeen  c a t e g o r i e s :  open  can  be  be  b u t  a t t a c h e d the  shown  arched  and  number be  frames,  f r e e - s t a n d i n g  v a r i a t i o n s ,  to  one  to  the  and  use  of  e l a b o r a -  s i g n i f i c a n t .  t h e r e  are  a r c h ,  of  which  f u l l y  e n c l o s e d  two t h e r e arched  32. frame.  We  will  now  examine t h e v a r i a t i o n s  i n the arched  frames.  The arched John  frames  structure  filled  and  s i m p l e s t o f t h e open  s u r r o u n d s t h e s c e n e o f The  the B a p t i s t  basic  (folio  92v - f i g u r e  - an a r c h e d frame  with u p r i g h t acanthus  similarly and  first  formed  see  and  the  bars  s u p p o r t e d by capitals  The  i s the f r e e - s t a n d i n g a r c h  rosette  form i s a  derived,  as we  will  not e n v i s i o n  differences  on,  the a r c h form  and i n d i c a t e s  a sculptural or a r c h i t e c t u r a l  (folio  from the s i m p l e s t  17v - f i g u r e  D o u b t i n g Thomas  e x p a n s i v e one figure  see l a t e r  citywas  the  artists  form.  The  i n these arches i s i n the e l a b o r a t e n e s s o f the  center rosettes, Stephen  non-  f e a t u r e not found i n s c u l p t u r e o f  gates o r t r i u m p h a l a r c h e s from which  and  of St.  composed o f g o l d  leaves,  second v a r i a t i o n  architectural  -  27) where we  columns w i t h a c a n t h u s - f i l l e d  with center rosette.  in  Nativity  bases.  The  did  free-standing  (folio  i n The  i n The  Martyrdom o f S t .  1 2 ) , t o a more e l a b o r a t e  56v - f i g u r e  2 1 ) , an  Descent o f the Holy Ghost  23), t o the s t r i k i n g  Coronation of the V i r g i n  e l a b o r a t e one (folio  102v  even  one more  (folio  i n The  - figure  67v  Death 31).  33. A third is  v a r i a t i o n o f t h e open f r e e - s t a n d i n g  t h e main a r c h w i t h  r e s t i n g on t h r e e is  t o be f o u n d  double arcades  acanthus-filled  inserted within i t ,  capitals.  i n three miniatures:  This  l v - figure  2) and The V i r g i n s  where t h e main a r c h f i l l e d with arcades  an  geometric  irregularly  (folio  filled  usual acanthus. deriving  to  3)  bars  o f t h e two  resembling  jewels,  and t h e main a r c h  s h a p e d tympanum c o n t a i n i n g a n a n g e l The t h i r d  with  miniature,  34v - f i g u r e  and a t t h e c e n t r e  rosette  out  The f r a m i n g  decorations  ribbon sky.  t h e Temple  arch  2 - figure  s e m i - c i r c l e of gold  s p a c e b e t w e e n t h e two a r c a d e s  swirling in  acanthus l e a v e s .  (folio  The C h o r u s  w i t h i n , as w e l l as t h e a b a c u s o f t h e c a p i t a l s a r e  f i l l e d with the  i s a simple  formation  Two n e a r t h e b e g i n -  n i n g o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l form a f a c i n g p a i r , (folio  arch  while forms  in a  The P r e s e n t a t i o n  18), h a s a much w i d e r  main  o f i t i s t h e o n l y example o f a  Franco-Saxon i n t e r l a c e  The i n t e r l a c e  from I n s u l a r sources,  h e r e m i g h t be t h o u g h t o f as b u t as Wormald h a s p o i n t e d  i t o r i g i n a t e s i n a C a r o l i n g i a n type t h e group o f m a n u s c r i p t s  i n place o f the  executed  of interlace  common  by the s o - c a l l e d 2  Franco-Saxon School  of illumination.  arcade i n t h i s  i s plain  case  The i n s e r t e d d o u b l e  and r e s t s i n t h e c e n t r e on an  unornamented column and o n t h e s i d e s on t h e main The  tympanum i n t h i s  case  contains  God  emanating from a heavenly  capitals.  t h e b l e s s i n g hand o f  sphere i n t o  a similar  34. s w i r l i n g r i b b o n sky.  A f o u r t h v a r i a t i o n i s to be found i n the two scenes of Three A p o s t l e s  ( f o l i o s 3v and 4 - f i g u r e s 6 and  7) where the e n t i r e arched p o r t i o n o f the frame i s separ a t e d from the scene below by an a r c h i t r a v e composed o f a wide gold band w i t h the double arcades r e s t i n g on p l a i n c a p i t a l s above i t .  Angels f l y towards the c e n t r e w i t h i n  each o f the s m a l l arcades and above them two angels stand in  the tympanum.  There i s no acanthus p r e s e n t i n t h i s  upper arched p o r t i o n .  A fifth  v a r i a t i o n i s the pedimented  c i t y - v i e w enrichments on each s i d e .  arch w i t h  This formation i s to  be found i n two matching scenes o f Three A p o s t l e s  (folios  2v and 3 - f i g u r e s 4 and 5) where the pediment e n c l o s e s three arcades each c o n t a i n i n g an a n g e l :  one double arcade  r e s t i n g on three c a p i t a l s f i l l e d w i t h acanthus leaves i n f i g u r e 4, surmounted by a s i n g l e arcade r e s t i n g on p l a i n capitals.  In f i g u r e 5 a l l the c a p i t a l s are f i l l e d w i t h  acanthus leaves and the pedimented arch, which i n both f i g u r e s 4 and 5 i s separated from the scene below by i t s own  t r i a n g u l a r border, i s f i l l e d w i t h j e w e l - l i k e ornamen-  tation.  35 . The  s i x t h  The  s i m p l e s t  o f  9 7v  -  29)  f i g u r e  W i t h i n  t h i s  t r i p l e  arcade  a  s i n g l e  An  e l a b o r a t e i s  f i l l e d columns  have  c o l o u r  and  c a p i t a l s  1  w i t h  pages  are  r e s t  on  i n  Innocents  of  the 1)  o f  where  leaves  f i l l e d  on  on  the  a  arcades  the  and  a  i n  on  f r o n t  columns.  The w i t h  arch arch on  i s i s  s i d e  double a  arches  simple  green  a c a n t h u s - f i l l e d c a p i t a l  f i l l e d  l e a v e s .  are  two  above  w i t h i n  because as  b l e s s i n g ( f o l i o  leaves  21  I  a r c h e d the  the  the  opening  frames  which  m i n i a t u r e s  mentioned  f o r -  w i t h  f e a s t  f i g u r e  14)  on  the  which  I  i s  10  of  the not  these  Chapter  Massacre s e t  of  have  o p p o s i t e  page  o f  words  i n  o f the  b l e s s i n g  a r c h f o r  i n the  the  manuscript,  f e a s t  of  St.  and  M i c h a e l  the  o t h e r  A r c h a n g e l  i s  I.  the o n l y  3 t r e f o i l  of  The  main  r e s t s  s m a l l e r  r o s e t t e .  c o m b i n a t i o n  main  main  ( f o l i o  a g a i n s t  r e s t s  The  a r c h e s .  c e n t r a l  scene,  c a p i t a l s .  s i d e s  a  t h i s  f i r s t  o f  Swithun  stands  a r c h .  borders  c e n t r e  has  which  example i n  St.  double  background  double  the  a r c h  formed  f i g u r e a  of  Swithun  acanthus  the  m i s s i n g  the  -  gold  c o n t a i n e d  d e a l t  St.  found  of  p l a i n  acanthus  i s  be  c o m b i n a t i o n  scene  a c a n t h u s - f i l l e d  There  One  t o  u p r i g h t  and  b l e s s i n g  the  the  main  i n t r i c a t e  f r o n t  w i t h  b e h i n d  w i t h  and  ( f o l i o  w i t h  the  frame  i n  i s  the  f o r m a t i o n ,  a l s o  i n  i s  where  arch  C o n f e s s o r s i n s e r t e d  these  a r c h e d  of  arches  v a r i a t i o n  the ( f o l i o  36 . 10 8 - f i g u r e  32)  w h i c h i s s e t i n an  arched  frame w i t h  gold  r o u n d e l a t t h e apex w h i c h i s u n f i l l e d .  this  arched  across  frame i s s e a l e d by  the bottom o f the  As we frames:  have seen  frame.  Coming  (folio  The  and  t h e r e a r e two  9v - f i g u r e  of the arch w i t h  9) where we  liturgy  o f the Church  of Aethelwold  the importance o r perhaps  o r the a r t i s t  i s the  a t the  in  example  of this  feast  i n monumental  case,  capi-  wall-  transferred  fourth  the e a r l i e s t  i n the  e r a , p a i n t e d columns,  t a b l e s o f the b e g i n n i n g o f the  be  of  charge.  b e f o r e the Eusebian  " I n any  form  the d e v o t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e  T h i s t y p e o f d e c o r a t i o n was  stated:  Second  springing  a t some unknown p e r i o d p e r h a p s  Nordenfalk  enclosed  the a r c h  T h i s i s a unique  a r c h i t r a v e s have b e e n u s e d  painting.  full  arched  c o n t i n u e s down t o t h e b a s e  Since the H e l l e n i s t i c and  the  see  a t t h e b a s e and  rosettes.  framing which suggests  tals  categories of  o n l y example o f t h e l a t t e r  i s accented  of  bases.  does n o t r e s t on columns b u t border,  base  a g o l d band t h a t s t r e t c h e s  t h e open f r e e - s t a n d i n g a r c h and  arched  The  a  t o books Canon  c e n t u r y A.D.  t h e Canon t a b l e s  As seem t o  known example o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f  such  4 painted  decorations to a C h r i s t i a n  sidered  t h e Canons as  "a m y s t i c  text."  Eusebius  con-  transmutation of Divine  37 . Truth."  5  The  a r c a d e was  tent therefore  i t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e why  u s e d i n Canon t a b l e s Gospels. with  I t was  ivory  as a s o l e m n  columns t h a t was  introduction  e i g h t h c e n t u r y the use o f C a n o n t a b l e s a l r e a d y become a t r a d i t i o n  Lindisfarne codices, The  Gospels, derived  was  temple architectural  other a r c h i t e c t u r a l  manuscripts.  con-  to the  the source f o r the  and  miniatures i n e a r l i e r  had  the arcade  p r o b a b l y a model o f an a n c i e n t  f o r m o f the Canon t a b l e s the  t h o u g h t o f as e n c l o s i n g h o l y  frames  As e a r l y i n arched  as  of  the  frames  i n E n g l a n d as s e e n i n The  directly  from Mediterranean  and r e a c h i n g a c l i m a x o f o r n a m e n t a t i o n o f t e x t , i n  Book o f K e l l s .  s c r i p t o r o f The decorative  I t was  Eadfrith,  Lindisfarne  emphasis  on  the a r t i s t  G o s p e l s , who  and  "introduced a  the b e g i n n i n g o f c e r t a i n  new  passages  7 of  liturgical  importance,"  d i c t i o n a l where d e c o r a t i o n liturgical will  see  and  regal  - t h e f o r e r u n n e r o f t h e Benei s used  importance  t o emphasize  of certain  the  feasts  as  we  later. In  Anglo-Saxon  and t r i a n g u l a r  a r c h i t e c t u r e we  a r c h e s as w e l l ,  find  three centered  a notable variety  of arch  g  forms the  as e v i d e n c e d i n E a r l ' s  Benedictional  exist  the a r c h i t e c t u r a l  as s u p p o r t i v e e l e m e n t s ,  t e c t o n i c purpose,  B a r t o n tower,  however, i n  features  fulfilling  they are d e c o r a t i v e  and  no l o n g e r  their  primary  therefore  are  38 . flattened,  the  s c e n e and  the  frame b e c o m i n g a s i n g l e  9 aesthetic not  unit.  derived The  The  arched  v a r i e t y i n the  a separation  frame d e c o r a t i o n ,  was  whether  would appear to i n d i c a t e t h a t  o f hands, o r  p r e s u m a b l y Godeman, w o r k e d dictional  probably  from a r c h i t e c t u r e .  arched or rectangular was  frame t h e r e f o r e was  on  t h a t the the  over a p e r i o d of years,  exposed to v a r i o u s  models and  supervising  miniatures  variations described choice tion,  of  I t i s conceivable the  arch  above, was  d u r i n g which  of symbolism r a t h e r  without a  time  result  great  ideas  and  regal  number  of  Benedictional  of a d e l i b e r a t e variety of  seldom executed a  o r n a m e n t a l components a r e  bars of the b a s i c studied  frame and  individually,  combinations of m o t i f s . acanthus l e a f , and  he  decora-  form  purpose.  The  and  t h a t the  than simple  f o r the medieval a r t i s t  Bene-  d e v e l o p e d h i s own  form found i n the  a l s o the  artist,  o f the  o f ornamentation connected perhaps to l i t u r g i c a l significance.  there  they w i l l  used i n the  the be  therefore  because they  should are  be  gold  isolated  innovative  T h e s e components c o n s i s t o f  r o s e t t e s and  examined  miniatures,  added t o t h e  the  for their  what e f f e c t  the  city-view  enrichments  form, how  they  t h e y h a v e on  are  the  39 . total  c o m p o s i t i o n and where t h e y  The A c a n t h u s  The of  acanthus  t h e frame.  varieties.  The  Not  leaf  Leaf  i s t h e main o r n a m e n t a l  acanthus  native  originated.  plant  i n n a t u r e has  to England,  of  acanthus  the B e n e d i c t i o n a l  divided the  into  freer  leaf  i n the frames  takes v a r i o u s  and t h e a c a n t h u s  First  we  rosettes.  find  acanthus  a filler  as i t i s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n  frames.  T h i s acanthus  frieze  most r e c t a n g u l a r b o r d e r s , and  frame  The  outward,  e x c e p t i o n we find  acanthus  variations,  sculptural  leaf  perpendicular  will  I have  the acanthus  found i n the  upright  Greece.  o f the m i n i a t u r e s  found i n the l a r g e r c a p i t a l s  s i d e t o form a continuous f r i e z e ,  capitals.  and  forms w h i c h  t h r e e main c a t e g o r i e s :  acanthus  many  i t i s grown i n warmer  c l i m a t e s s u c h as t h e s o u t h o f F r a n c e , I t a l y  The  element  frieze;  and  bases;  leaves set side  by  and u s e d e s s e n t i a l l y  as  t h e g o l d bands o f t h e  i s found i n the a r c h e s , some columns and always  smaller  grows f r o m t h e  to the g o l d b a r s w i t h  examine l a t e r .  Within this  one  category  f o r example i t i s f o u n d i n t i g h t l y  leaves i n the c e n t r a l  inner  we  packed  a r c h o f The C o n f e s s o r s  (folio  1 - figure  shaped l e a f  1)•  Here we have a t h r e e  alternating with  a three t o f i v e  l e a f w h i c h t h e f a n shape p a r t i a l l y curled found  t i p i s found  here.  This  i n the s m a l l e r c a p i t a l s  of the f i r s t  five  folios  lobed f a n -  encloses.  type  frieze i s  the i n n e r  1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) and i n t h e main c a p i t a l s  Virgins  (folio  elaborate i n the arches  This  o f The  f r i e z e becomes more  a n d columns o f The C h o r u s o f  Virgins  (folios  cluster  comprises  to f i v e  lobed c l u s t e r with  each s i d e .  3).  arches  1, l v , 2, 2v and 3 -  figures  2 - figure  cluster  The o c c a s i o n a l  of acanthus  upholding  (folios  lobed  l v and 2 - f i g u r e s 2 a n d 3) where t h e three  s e t s o f acanthus  These c l u s t e r s  leaves, a  a one t o t h r e e are separated  lobed  three  l e a f on  and p a r t i a l l y  e n c l o s e d by a more f a n s h a p e d a c a n t h u s w h i c h i s s p l i t two  or three  leaves, the outer  inner cluster  forming  an a r c h .  a r e more e v i d e n t p a r t i c u l a r l y is  found  i n a l l subsequent  increase i n size increases. elongated, tips  curling  Curled tips  This  but the acanthus  as t h e s p a c e between t h e g o l d  As t h e l e a v e s  over the  o f the leaves  i n t h e columns.  folios,  f a n out, they  pattern leaves  borders  become more  and we n o t e an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f c u r l e d  i n t h e l e a v e s , and a l e s s  c o n f u s i o n between c l u s t e r s of the s i z e  two l e a v e s  into  rigid  s t r u c t u r e , with  and f a n s h a p e s .  o f the acanthus l e a f  develops  This  some  expansion  progressively  through the i l l u m i n a t i o n s of the manuscript  and  culminates  in  The  Death and  figure  The  o f the V i r g i n  unique v a r i a t i o n of  Annunciation  (folio  5v  the  acanthus  acanthus' w i t h i n t h e  lower l e f t  rectangular borders.  vertical  composed o f two sprouting  leaves,  one  from a c o l l a r .  earlier  Library,  This  the  l o n g and  manuscript,  MS.  - A.  The  t e n t h and  leaf pattern.  eleventh  "the  o f the  illuminators date t h i s known by is  of that  f o u n d on  time.  stole  and  o f the  reverses  from the  (Durham  of  the  outer move-  Cathedral  first  most p e r s i s t e n t  the  manuscripts Short'  sought i n  i n f l u e n c e on  tenth  orna-  'Long and  i t i s one  c a n n o t say  half  example i n  o f the the  most  English  a t what p r e c i s e  p a t t e r n reached England, but  e a r l y years the  One  and  i n a diagonal  I t s i m m e d i a t e o r i g i n must be  leaf the  sprout  earliest  centuries:  signs of Continental  find  leaf  acanthus  found i n E n g l i s h  C a r o l i n g i a n a c a n t h u s ornament, and significant  occurs  l e a f p a t t e r n i s seen i n  f i g u r e 37)  It is:  mental motives of d e c o r a t i o n o f the  -  acanthus i s  short  Durham R i t u a l  i l l u m i n a t i o n o f one  frieze  The  one  leaves  short  i v . 19..-  tenth-century.  English  l o n g and  frame i n w a r d w h i c h r e s u l t s  ment upward.  o f the  v  upper r i g h t  This c o l l a r e d  d i r e c t i o n o f growth as  edge o f t h e  an  102  - f i g u r e 8 ) , where we  a diagonally placed  the  (folio  31).  One in  Coronation  century  i t was  well  because i t  maniple of S t . Cuthbert  in  42. Durham C a t h e d r a l , made a t W i n c h e s t e r b e f o r e  In maniple of  the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n  (figure  cup-like  Ritual  38 r i g h t )  leaves  (figure  o f t h e d e s i g n on t h e s m a l l  we s e e how t h e s c r o l l s  similar  1 , 1 0  to the design  grow o u t  i n The Durham  3 7 ) , and i n t h e l o w e r b r a n c h e s o f f o l i a g e  above t h e f i g u r e  o f D a n i e l on t h e s t o l e  t h e same a c a n t h u s consist  916.  arrangement  of a stole  (left  is evident.  a n d two m a n i p l e s w h i c h  - figure  38)  The vestments  1 1  authorities  12 s u g g e s t were made a t W i n c h e s t e r .  D r . R. F r e y h a n  suggests  that  t h i s s t y l e o f ornament o r i g i n a t e s  i n the Sassanian  tree  m o t i f and n o t i n C a r o l i n g i a n  and t h a t  f o r t h e s t o l e was e m b r o i d e r y stole. is  He s t a t e s  that  art,  s u c h as a B y z a n t i n e  the f o l i a g e  not acanthus b u t a " t r i p a r t i t e  t h e model type o f  o f t h e Durham v e s t m e n t s leaf with a flower  grow-  13 ing out of i t . " Undoubtedly vestments d i d p l a y  t h e f o l i a t e d o r n a m e n t o f t h e Durham a role  tenth-century Winchester  i n the development o f l a t e r acanthus, whether the leaves  were p u r e a c a n t h u s o r n o t . on  the s t o l e  Carolingian  t o be n i n t h influence  Wormald c o n s i d e r s  century  the f o l i a g e  acanthus ornament o f  w h i c h was i n t r o d u c e d  into  England  14 from t h e c o n t i n e n t , A  and I a g r e e w i t h h i m on t h i s  l a t e r example o f t h i s c o l l a r e d  l o n g and s h o r t  point.  leaf  acanthus  i s  found  executed  about  Winchester  i n  the  the  i n i t i a l s  of  the  Junius  q u a r t e r  of  the  t e n t h  second  (Oxford,  Bodl..  MS.  J u n i u s ,  27,  f.  P s a l t e r , c e n t u r y  121  at  verso  -  15 f i g u r e  39).  m i n i a t u r e q u a r t e r a r t i s t s t y l e  An  of  of  a  the  6401,  the  r i g h t - h a n d  scene  i n  leaves and  i n  f o l i o  the  ornament  of  would  seem  t h a t  was  steady  i l l u m i n a t e d the  not  This  i n  but  from  to  i n  r e s t e d  be  the  the  d u c t i o n  of  h a l f  of  the  w i t h  the  the  c e n t u r y  s t y l e much  t e n t h  reforms  and  St.  the  l a s t  Bibl. p o r t i o n  8),  The  ( f i g u r e  c o l o u r  40)  are  s a i d :  "It  onwards,  t h e r e  the  p r o d u c t i o n  England  and  t h a t  i l l u m i n a t i o n same  t i m e ,  C a r o l i n g i a n the  b a s i s  which  was  from  f o r  changes  which  are  r i g h t l y  Dunstan  and  St.  of  the  q u i t e  manuscripts way  of  the  i n  the  N a t l ,  A n n u n c i a t i o n  f i g u r e  A l f r e d  a  Winchester  upper  he  i n  E n g l i s h  the  as  s p e c t a c u l a r  c e n t u r y of  of  p r e p a r i n g  more  -  E n g l i s h ,  e a r l i e r A t  an  outward.  development  upon  the  5v  i n  ( P a r i s ,  m i n i a t u r e  southern  found  the  u n l i k e  edge  r e i g n  C a r o l i n g i a n . t e n t h  than  i n  ( f o l i o  i n n e r  of  seen  40)  here,  F l e u r y  Wormald  be  be  F l e u r y  work  s t y l e  can  can  at  the  f i g u r e  the  t h i s  books  the  m o d i f y i n g  -  s t y l i s t i c  s t y l e  w h o l l y  e a r l y  e a r l i e r  158v  from  by  of  an  column,  c o n s i d e r e d  a  w r i t t e n  B e n e d i c t i o n a l  sprout  example  t e n t h - c e n t u r y ,  A e t h e l w o l d .  l a t  l a t e r  manuscript  w o r k i n g of  even  the i n  were i n t r o -  the  second  a s s o c i a t e d  ' E t h e l w o l d .  44. The in  the  larger  producing tips. and  second  category  capitals  of acanthus  and b a s e s ,  leaf,  i s freer,  more expanded forms o f t h e  1 - figure  1) where we  find  i n The  tips.  A more  figure  4) where t h e  leaf  three,  f o u r and  The  i n two  and  d e s i g n i s always symmetrical,  each c a p i t a l as c a n be tightest  from  intertwining  of S t . Stephen  (folio  left  - figure  P r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e Temple  (folio  12) 34v  where t h e t i g h t l y woven l e a v e s g r a s p coiled  tips  and we  that could unfurl most a p p a r e n t capitals  and  explode.  i n the c a p i t a l s bases o f f i g u r e  e x t r a dimension  i s seen  in  frames:  three arched  29),  perfectly The  i n The  and  in  Martyrdom  The  - figure  18),  each o t h e r w i t h  a page o f b l e s s i n g  This k i n e t i c of  18  figure almost  a t t h e end  108  12, equal  their  energy  tension i s but  both  i t .  An  of the B e n e d i c t i o n a l  S t . Swithun (folio  but  r i g h t hand o f  get the impression of c o n t a i n e d and  -  only  a f r e e hand r e n d e r i n g .  17v  2v  tips,  s i d e as  of leaves i s found  (folio  that intertwine.  w i t h the  o r base matching the  expected  (folio  curling  others  well,  complicated  formation i n c l u d e s not  lobed leaves with  leaves that s p l i t  as  acanthus,three  i n the Three A p o s t l e s  also  curled  Confessors  arrangement i s seen  five  only  artists  category  a five-lobed  l e a v e s o f which have c u r l e d  the  leaf with  There are v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n t h i s  t h e s i m p l e s t example o c c u r s  found  (folio  - figure  97v 32);  -  figure and  The  Death  and C o r o n a t i o n o f t h e V i r g i n  31) where t h e a c a n t h u s actually in  curl  (folio  leaves of the c a p i t a l s  over the abacus,  the middle o f the bases  31.  artists  of figure  did  T h i s t r e a t m e n t shows  of the Benedictional.  n o t view  enrich  the acanthus  the a r c h i t e c t u r a l  more l i k e  the e a r l i e r  Acanthus  the f r e e  frame,  n a t i v e Anglo-Saxon  leaves i n the r o s e t t e s  I t i s a non-naturalistic  curl  around  gold structure  pattern  the r o s e t t e  creating  from  core  this  core i n  a strong cross formation,  square,  The r a n g e  rectangular or e l i p t i c a may  be  single,  of leaf v a r i a t i o n i n  f o r m a t i o n s i s e x t e n s i v e w i t h no two  e x e c u t e d by t h e same  we  leaves,  e x c e p t the r o s e t t e s o f f a c i n g pages which  undoubtedly  than  circular,  The a c a n t h u s  c e n t r e d over the core, which i n form.  the t h i r d  t r e a t m e n t where  s p r o u t outward  a circular,  double o r t r i p l e  alike,  comprises  i n p l a c e by a c e n t r a l  i n shape.  f o u r dominant d i r e c t i o n s  might  ribbon interlacery  forming a d i f f e r e n t  gathered i n the centre,  and  form which  most o f t e n i s a f l o w e r f o r m b u t may be or rectangular  of the  b u t as a d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f ,  the f r i e z e .  square  attitude  L i k e the arches, the a r t i s t s  treatment  which  and b a s e s o f  as a s c u l p t u r a l  elongated leaves are held  and b a s e s  29, and o v e r t h e  type of l e a f  find  figure  and o v e r t h e g o l d b a r s s e t  s e m i - c i r c u l a r gold bars o f both c a p i t a l s figure  102v -  artist.  exactly were  t h a t 8)  i s  There  i s  t o  found  where  be  the  borders  of  the  and  top  c o l l a r  l e f t on  41.  f o r m a t i o n .  The  found  St.  leaves bars  use  choked  i n  o t h e r  the  by  t h a t  the  p o r t i o n  of  the  a  5v  of  the  knobs  i n  f i g u r e  leaves  v e r s i o n  on  of  the  b i n d i n g  r i g h t  frame the  -  and  p a r a l l e l  found  upper  E n g l i s h  91 f i g u r e 26). 4.*, these m• i n • i a4-t u r e s .  shows  F i g u r e  45  l e a f  work  j u s t  how  and  as  the lower  d e s c r i b e d  acanthus  manuscripts  m a i n t a i n i n g  c u r l e d  t i p .  a r t i s t  or  This the  of  m i n i a t u r e s acanthus  l e a f  and  stem  l o c a t e d  frame.  They  are  90v  -  opening  f i g u r e words  t h e r e  25) of  are  a  and  the no  i n  the  design  c e n t r a l  However 1  o t h e r  type  where  between  f a c i n g the  the  p a i r ,  matching  b l e s s i n g  c u p - l i k e  ( f o l i o  knobs  i n  8  shows i n  t r a c i n g s  the  the would  made  of  some  B e n e d i c t i o n a l ' s  d i f f e r e n t l y  though  t h a t  a  t r e l l i s  the  two  same  from  ( f o l i o  c o n t a i n i n g  acanthus  o n l y  the  sprout  E t h e l d r e d a  page  found  ( f o l i o  h o r i z o n t a l  than  c u p - l i k e  i n  N o t a b l y  B e n e d i c t i o n a l  gold  are  f o r m a t i o n  17  i n i t i a l s .  the  same  l e a f  under  o u t e r  k n o b - l i k e  acanthus  t h i s  and  the  r e c t a n g u l a r  are  .  over  and  to  A n n u n c i a t i o n  r o s e t t e s  more  set  v e r t i c a l  page  frame,  i s  The  c u r l  bottom  t h a t  e x c e p t i o n i n  leaves  the  d i a g o n a l l y  one  same  the  l e a f  b a s i c  suggest  m i n i a t u r e s  e i t h e r  were  frames,  i t s e l f  round  i s  Roman a  of  very  executed  by  the which  t r e a t e d , l e a f  w i t h  g i f t e d d i f f e r e n t  a  artists.  I t seems c e r t a i n t h a t d i f f e r e n t models were used  as we can see the use o f a t r i a n g u l a r arched frame i n the Three Apostles scenes  (folios  2v and 3 - figures. 4 and 5)  along w i t h a simpler acanthus l e a f than i s found i n the f o l l o w i n g p a i r o f Three A p o s t l e s  ( f o l i o s 3v and 4 -  f i g u r e s 6 and 7) where we have a c i r c u l a r arch and more complicated  l e a f arrangement i n the c a p i t a l s .  Therefore  e i t h e r the a r t i s t had d i f f e r e n t models which i n c l u d e d acanthus d e c o r a t i o n o r d i f f e r e n t a r t i s t s were i n v o l v e d . The acanthus l e a f treatment  i n c e r t a i n m i n i a t u r e s seems  so s i m i l a r t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o assume t h a t they were executed by the same a r t i s t .  Such i s the case w i t h  matching p a i r s on f a c i n g pages i n the manuscript.  Two  m i n i a t u r e s stand out as b e i n g q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the r e s t , otherwise we might assume the same a r t i s t j u s t i n creased the complexity These two a r e :  o f the acanthus l e a f  The E n t r y i n t o Jerusalem  treatment.  ( f o l i o 45v -  f i g u r e 19) where the acanthus leaves give a f l a t t e r  effect,  no longer do we f i n d the c u r l i n g and o v e r l a p p i n g leaves seen i n other m i n i a t u r e s ' frames, s u g g e s t i n g a d i f f e r e n t a r t i s t was i n v o l v e d ; the second m i n i a t u r e i s The Martyrdom of S t s . Peter and Paul see an almost  geometric  ( f o l i o 95v - f i g u r e 28) where we use o f the acanthus  w i t h l o n g narrow leaves i n the squared  ornamentation  corner r o s e t t e s .  could c i t e many more v a r i a t i o n s i n treatment  o f the  I  48.  acanthus f o l i a g e i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l ' s  framing, b u t  enough has been shown t o suggest the s e p a r a t i o n o f hands, demonstrating t h a t there were many a r t i s t s i n a s c r i p t o r i u m in  tenth century  England.  In a l l three acanthus l e a f c a t e g o r i e s , there i s a 19 combination o f two mutually  opposed elements,  ornament and the m e t a l l i c gold b a r s .  The f i r s t  the p l a n t element,  the w r i t h i n g acanthus i s e i t h e r compressed w i t h i n the r i g i d gold borders,  o r i s a f r e e e l a s t i c l e a f c u r l i n g and  i n t e r t w i n i n g w i t h i n the a r c h i t e c t u r a l framework o f the l a r g e r c a p i t a l s and bases and even c u r l i n g w i l d l y over and under a gold geometric form p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the r o s e t t e s , where the acanthus no longer r e s p e c t s any formal boundary, but explodes outward beyond i t . The second element, the gold geometric framework, produces the e f f e c t of a s t a t i c hard m e t a l l i c t r e l l i s the a c t i v e but s o f t e r o r g a n i c s p r o u t i n g acanthus. the absolute  form  form o f the grasping  However order i s a l s o maintained by  symmetry o f the l e a v e s .  f l o w i n g element  c o n t r a s t i n g with  (the acanthus) versus  The c o n t r a s t o f the the s t a t i c element  (the geometric border) i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n t e r l a c e p a t t e r n and i n t h i s case d e r i v e s from e a r l i e r I n s u l a r a r t . Hiberno-Saxon i l l u m i n a t i o n made great use o f i n t e r l a c e i n the l a t e seventh and e a r l y e i g h t h century.  I t appears i n  f u l l - p a g e m i n i a t u r e s f o r the f i r s t time i n The Book of Durrow (Dublin, T r i n i t y C o l l e g e L i b r a r y , Ms. Carpet - f i g u r e 46) where we  57, f .  117v.  f i n d simple r e c t a n g u l a r bars  o f framing c o n f i n e s the r o l l i n g movement o f the r i b b o n l i k e i n t e r l a c e m a i n t a i n i n g a sense of o r d e r .  This i n t e r -  l a c e i s d e r i v e d from Germanic p l a i t w o r k or e a r l i e r Saxon metalwork as found i n the Sutton Hoo the seventh century. manuscripts  Anglo-  treasures of  Gospel books were the only I n s u l a r  i n which i n t e r l a c e occurs and these pages  f u n c t i o n as p r e c i o u s c u r t a i n s or p r a y e r carpets a t the beginning of Holy Books.  In The Book of Durrow, the  i n t e r l a c e i s so dense t h a t the background does not show up as a continuous j u s t as we  s u r f a c e and i s d i f f i c u l t to d i s e n t a n g l e  f i n d i s the case w i t h the i n t e r t w i n i n g  acanthus  leaves and backgrounds of the frames of the m i n i a t u r e s o f 20  the B e n e d i c t i o n a l .  I n s u l a r i n t e r l a c e i n both  manuscripts  are executed by free-hand drawing without the use of t o o l s . One  d i f f e r e n c e does e x i s t however i n t h a t the i n t e r l a c e i n  The Book of Durrow l i e s  f l a t , whereas the acanthus  i n the  frames o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l gives a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l effect. Let us now  t u r n to C a r o l i n g i a n p r e d e c e s s o r s .  The  c l o s e s t example of C a r o l i n g i a n i n f l u e n c e can be seen i n the Drogo Sacramentary, 851 A.D.  of the School o f Metz  (Paris,  50 . B i b l .  N a t l .  Women  at  i n g  the  s c r o l l  the  Tomb  of  the  a t the  the  have and  work  from the  however.  If  much  the  Drogo  as  i n  which  W i n c h e s t e r  B e n e d i c t i o n a l  25)  t h i n n e r  t h a t  the  l i e  f l a t  on  o f i n  the  St. a  the  do  not  a  an  i n t o  i s  appear  very  to  w e l l  as  the  s  new  t h a t  l e s s  and  St.  the  frame  gold  of  i n  the as  c u r l  way.  we out  F u r t h e r -  leaves  s c r o l l ,  are  whereas  the  i n  c o r n e r s  Sacramentary.  though by  There  whereas,  a t  same  dominant  acanthus  the  the  o f  leaves  page,  l e f t -  t h i s  m i n i a t u r e see  of  of  scene.  compare  and  t r e a t e d  lower  as  stopped i n  scene  type  we  the  the  the  d i m e n s i o n a l  t h e r e f o r e , i s  t h a t  c e n t r a l  same  we 1  the  acanthus  the  continuous  t r e l l i s  sources, i n  w i t h  E t h e l d r e d a " s  t h r e e  Roman  the  frame  acanthus  Sacramentary  acanthus  C a r o l i n g i a n  f i g u r e  and  frame  f o r m -  overpowering  are  the  bars  note  frame  B e n e d i c t i o n a l  The  We  -  around  g o l d  c o n f i n e d  90v  leaves  r o s e t t e s  i s  ( f o l i o  t o  the  e x t e n t  B e n e d i c t i o n a l  the  i n  an  the  seem  Three  B e n e d i c t i o n a l  acanthus  i n i t i a l ,  continuous  by  the  seen,  more ,  the  i n  w i t h  Here  w i t h  the  Drogo  Drogo  as  Tomb  D  expanding  l e t t e r .  d i f f e r e n c e s  E t h e l d r e d a of  the  I n i t i a l  t r e l l i s  such  o f  Sacramentary  the  t o  g r a s p i n g  bars  as  l e t t e r  i d e a  c l e a r  a c t  58r:  36).  and  frame  are  f i g u r e  i t  t r e l l i s of  f o l .  around  Women  s e c t i o n  9428,  -  D  t w i n i n g  Three  hand  L a t .  l e t t e r  p o r t i o n the  MS  i t  the  o r i g i n a l  i s  d e r i v e d  a r t i s t s way.  o f  51. Looking back a t the use o f the acanthus i n p r e B e n e d i c t i o n a l times, we f i n d t h a t the acanthus has been used s i n c e H e l l e n i s t i c times as a c o n v e n t i o n a l m o t i f i n d e c o r a t i o n , which always bore some resemblance l i v i n g plant. of  t o the  The C a r o l i n g i a n Renaissance was a r e v i v a l  e a r l y C h r i s t i a n and Roman work and the acanthus m o t i f  was taken over from a c l a s s i c a l p r o t o t y p e .  I t came to  England i n the tenth century as a r e s u l t o f c o n t a c t w i t h 21 the  C a r o l i n g i a n Empire.  The p r o l i f i c use o f the acanthus  l e a f i n England i s a tenth century phenomenon and we must look a t p r e - B e n e d i c t i o n a l f o l i a g e i n s c u l p t u r e ,  ivory,  metalwork, vestments and o t h e r tenth century manuscripts to assess whether there i s some e a r l i e r I n s u l a r precedent. The acanthus was used i n d i f f e r e n t ways:  the  Greeks and Romans used the acanthus as a s c u l p t u r a l  form  i n stone to ornament a r c h i t e c t u r e and t h i s mode was taken over by the C a r o l i n g i a n s i n t h e i r b u i l d i n g s , b u t England did  not c a r r y on w i t h t h i s s c u l p t u r a l t r a d i t i o n .  The  acanthus b a s i c a l l y i s found i n England r a r e l y i n s c u l p t u r e or  i v o r y , i t i s found mainly i n manuscripts, l i t t l e i n  jewelry, metalwork and embroidery, and t h e r e f o r e r e s t r i c t e d use o f the acanthus i s an E n g l i s h tic .  this  characteris-  Pre-conquest ornamented w i t h  architecture  sculptural  i n E n g l a n d was  d e c o r a t i o n o f any k i n d .  we do know f r o m t h e A n g l o - S a x o n c h r o n i c l e church  restoration  rarely  that  Since  t h e r e was  i n t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y i n s t i g a t e d by  B i s h o p A e t h e l w o l d who a s k e d p e r m i s s i o n f r o m K i n g E d g a r t o do  s o , i t w o u l d be i n t e r e s t i n g  r a t i o n - so p r o l i f i c was a l s o  capitals  by  -  architectural  as i t was i n C a r o l i n g i a n b u i l d i n g s .  Although  and a r c h e s c a r v e d w i t h f o l i a g e were r a r e i n  Anglo-Saxon England,  grape  deco-  i n the d e c o r a t i o n o f manuscripts  taken o v e r i n t h e contemporary  sculpture  absent  t o know i f a c a n t h u s  from E n g l i s h  foliated art.  ornament was n o t t o t a l l y  I t existed  o r i v y vine o f Mediterranean  the e a r l y  Anglo-Saxon a r t i s t s ;  which o c c u r s a l o n e o r grouped throughout  the e n t i r e  Although  o r i g i n w h i c h was the pointed leaf  i n t h r e e w h i c h was  Saxon p e r i o d ;  which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  i n t h r e e forms:  of later  the i v y vine s c r o l l ,  times.  acanthus  i n pre-conquest  employed  architectural  i n church  leaf  i n h a b i t e d by b i r d s i s found  sculpture,  l e a f ornament i s n o t e d b y i t s a b s e n c e .  l e a f ornament i s f o u n d  foliage  22  and b e a s t s a n d sometimes e v e n by human f i g u r e s , extensively  used  and t h e a c a n t h u s  Saxon  the  sculpture  Acanthus  i n a few e x 23  ceptional  cases but the d a t i n g i s q u e s t i o n a b l e .  s u c h example i s on t h e u p p e r  half  of a circular  One sundial  located  on  Baptist  Church i n Barnack, Northamptonshire  There are faces with  the south  also three  of t h i s a  w a l l of  s l a b s on  tower o f S t . John  the  north,  same t o w e r w h i c h a r e  foliated  terminating  the  (figure  w e s t , and  carved  i n high  scroll  on  a c e n t r a l stem, e a c h  i n a three  or  four  bunch o f grapes  (figure  48).  lobed  the  south relief  scroll  acanthus or  This church  47).  in a  i s dated  between  24 9 50  and  1075  A.D.  d e p e n d i n g on  example i s f o u n d on Bibury,  a capital  copied  opinion probably t o be  f o u n d on  of  Zarnecki  the  capitals  In  that 25  49).  i n the  framing  Clapham's  s u r v i v i n g example o f  a c r o s s - s h a f t i n the  at  suggested  (figure  t r a n s f e r r e d to stone.  the b e s t  Another  chancel-arch  from a manuscript  I n d e e d i t does r e s e m b l e one o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l  authority.  i n the  a p r e - c o n q u e s t c h u r c h and  t h e d e s i g n was  is  the  acanthus  churchyard  at  Wolverhampton  the  late  on  the  tenth  ( f i g u r e 50 and 50A) w h i c h he d a t e s i n 26 century, however t h e r e i s d i s a g r e e m e n t 27  p r e c i s e d a t i n g among t h e  Kendrick  consider It  English  seems e v i d e n t  a u t h o r i t i e s on  acanthus l e a f  share  of the  mid-ninth  f r o m t h e works o f  tenth  Rix  century  and  and  century. these  a r c h i t e c t u r e , t h a t the  i n sculptured capitals  i n England i n the not  i t t o be  authorities,  major  use  arches  of  the  i s so  rare  that Insular sculpture did  i n the C a r o l i n g i a n o r i g i n  of  the  later  tenth  century Winchester acanthus as found i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l , which was a r e s t r i c t e d import.  There are few s u r v i v i n g examples of the use o f the acanthus l e a f i n I n s u l a r i v o r y .  One i n s t a n c e i s t o be  found on the frames of two l a t e tenth century i v o r y r e l i e f s , one o f the T r a n s f i g u r a t i o n and the o t h e r o f the Ascension i n the V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum, London (Cat. 21 - f i g u r e 51). These r e l i e f s are r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r a c c o r d i n g to Beckwith, as w e l l as t o a bookcover i n P a r i s which he t h i n k s may w e l l have come from the same E n g l i s h 28 workshop,  and we note the s i m i l a r three lobed acanthus  border i n the covers ( P a r i s , B i b l . N a t l , l a t 323 (Cat. 23) C h r i s t i n Majesty - f i g u r e 52 and Cat. 24 - V i r g i n and C h i l d Enthroned - f i g u r e 52A). Dated s i m i l a r l y to the l a t e tenth century i s a broken p i e c e o f i v o r y c a r v i n g o f t r i a n g u l a r shape, o f two angels back t o back,  underneath  which are two acanthus leaves s p r o u t i n g from a r i n g and collar  (Winchester Museum  (Cat. 16), Two Angels, Anglo-  Saxon l a t e tenth century - f i g u r e 5 3) s i m i l a r t o the r i n g l i k e form found i n the lower r i g h t - h a n d corner o f the acanthus stem on the border o f an E n g l i s h manuscript, The New M i n s t e r Charter ( f i g u r e 44) d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r on page 46(footnote 17) i n which a date contemporary B e n e d i c t i o n a l i s suggested.  o r a f t e r the  There  a r e so  i v o r y work and tances of  few  the l a t e  examples o f a c a n t h u s  ivories  t h a t the  School received t h e i r  ins-  illuminators  acanthus  via  of I n s u l a r o r i g i n .  Late Anglo-Saxon ornamental us w i t h a few Four  in  t e n t h c e n t u r y d a t i n g o f the  g i v e n above make i t u n l i k e l y  the Winchester  leaf  examples where a f o r m o f a c a n t h u s  of these bear  acanthus. (figure  little  These a r e :  54)  m e t a l w o r k does p r o v i d e  resemblance  a bronze  to the B e n e d i c t i o n a l  tenth-century  w i t h a coarse acanthus  i s evident  leaf  censer-cover  i n the  centre 29  d a t e d by W i l s o n  earlier  than  tenth-century c a s t bronze spreading  from  fragmentary date, with r i n g and  the B e n e d i c t i o n a l  ; a  s t r a p - e n d w i t h acanthus  three central  lobes  (figure  55)"^;  leaves a  g i l t - b r o n z e p l a t e of tenth or eleventh century the s c r o l l - l i k e  intertwining  the c a p i t a l s ,  bases  acanthus  leaves s i m i l a r  and  s p r o u t i n g out of a to the acanthus  in  r o s e t t e s o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l  31 (figure (figure  56) 57)  executed ficult  ; and t h e l e a f w o r k on t h e A b i n g d o n sword c o n s i d e r e d by D a v i d H i n t o n t o have b e e n 32  i n a Winchester  to r e l a t e  this  workshop,  stiff  however i t i s d i f -  arrangement w i t h  Winchester  acanthus. Closer  t o the Winchester  style  of acanthus  i s the  56 . foliage  f o u n d on  the l a t e  n i n t h or e a r l y  tenth century  33 Sittmgbourne scramasax  scramasax.  and i n f i e l d  In f i g u r e  acanthus  (figure  and on  47)  l e a v e s on  the s t o l e  w h i c h Wormald c o n s i d e r s d i s c u s s e d on page 42. the to the  Anglo-Saxon  A i s the  o f the  I t resembles  the Barnack  section the  sundial  of St. Cuthbert  (figure  t o be o f C a r o l i n g i a n o r i g i n Wilson believes  a r t i s t was  that  38) as  at this  attempting to f i n d  r e p l a c e a n i m a l ornament and was possibilities  field  B i s an enlargement  c o n t a i n i n g a symmetrical acanthus. symmetrical  58,  time  something  becoming c o n s c i o u s o f  o f the C o n t i n e n t a l  acanthus  f o r deco-  34 ration. The metalwork, which  has  reverse side of a ninth-century piece the A l f r e d  a foliated  ornament  caused q u i t e a divergence o f o p i n i o n .  Dalton considers sacred  J e w e l , has  this  o r n a m e n t t o be  t r e e s whereas J o a n C l a r k e  ornament coming  related  of  0.  to  eastern  l o o k s upon i t as  out o f the v i n e - s c r o l l  M.  pure  commonly u s e d i n  35 the  north of England  at that  time,  o r as r e l a t e d  C a r o l i n g i a n a c a n t h u s ornament as s e e n on Abingdon  sword-hilt  Jessup considers  (figure  mentioned  the n i n t h - c e n t u r y above.  Ronald  t h e ornament on t h e J e w e l as f l o w e r s o r 36  as a t r e e - s c r o l l w h i c h H i n t o n who  57)  to  i s not E n g l i s h  i n style.  g i v e s a good d r a w i n g o f the J e w e l ' s  David ornament  57. ( f i g u r e the  59)  l e a f  and  work  C u t h b e r t  i s  s t o l e ,  Thus, acanthus every  i n  they  t h i s were  The have  seen  P s a l t e r t e n t h i s  c e n t u r y ,  ( f i g u r e  i n 41)  the of  s c r i p t s  mentioned  the  927-40  c l o s e s t  b e i n g  as  among  to  the  A.D. of  these  The  New  M i n s t e r  suggested  was  e i t h e r  to  C h a r t e r  of  C a r o l i n g i a n  or  they  have  been  d i s c u s s e d  was  suggested  by  where  i t  C a r o l i n g i a n  the  The  t h e  use  p e r i o d  l a t e r ,  l a s t  the  a l l .  t h i s  42  as  A.D.  a t  from  i n i t i a l s  of  the  B e n e d i c t i o n a l ,  manuscripts  ( f i g u r e  the  o f  t h a t  q u e s t i o n a b l e .  and  e a r l y  9 37  the  be  i s  page  s l i g h t l y  about  of  of  i n  m i n i a t u r e  P s a l t e r  e v i d e n c e  i n f l u e n c e d  39) and  i s  vestments  i n  of  l e a f  d a t i n g  l e a f  acanthus  p r e d a t e s  on  concludes  acanthus  vestments  4 3  the  37  not  judged  c h a p t e r  page  to  t h e r e  known  acanthus  on  i s  t h a t  the  a l s o  ( f i g u r e  found  f a c t ,  Durham  d e s c r i p t i o n  r e l a t e d  been  o r  o n l y  embroidered  t h a t  i n  has  o r i g i n  i n  not  metalwork  The  e a r l i e r  d e t a i l e d  although  example  f o r e i g n  a  second  i n  42). h a l f  o f  Of of  framing ( f i g u r e  contemporary  w i t h  we  q u a r t e r  S t .  the  as  Junius  acanthus  L i f e  and  the  the  a r t .  appears  of  an  are  of  l e a f  the b o r d e r  C u t h b e r t  A e t h e l s t a n the  the of 44) t h e  o t h e r  t e n t h the  manu-  c e n t u r y ,  B e n e d i c t i o n a l  w h i c h  i t  was  B e n e d i c t i o n a l  58 . or  was  executed  To use  o f  sum  the  a f t e r  up,  a r t ,  I n s u l a r  t r a d i t i o n s  s t y l e  and  sources  they  l e a f  which  The which  we  although  acanthus  I n s u l a r  as  a  were  the  not  to  the  r o s e t t e s ,  the  r o s e t t e s  r o s e t t e f i g u r e have 32)  i n 18)  seen, the  the as  used  i s  i n  a  on  page  g o l d seen  45  i s  w i t h  5v  -  no  c o r e . on  the  media,  from  the  C a r o l i n g i a n  o r i g i n a l  way.  frame  are  pages  the  b a s i c  c o m p o s i t i o n  w i t h  i n  the  of  Temple  b l e s s i n g The  f i g u r e f u r t h e r This 41  t h i r d 8)  the  r o s e t t e s  m i n i a t u r e s  ( f o l i o  46.  108  m i n i a t u r e  where  i s  ( f o l i o  the  top  frames  unique  i n  the  34v as i s  o f where  l e a v e s :  i n t e r l a c e  geometric  f o l i o and  i n  acanthus  Franco-Saxon  v a c a n t .  have  an  a p p e a r i n g  combined  page  ( f o l i o  r o s e t t e s  have  not  most  t h a t  Rosettes  e x c e p t i o n s  f i l l e d  and  of  i n  the  e a r l i e r  i n d i c a t i n g  d e r i v e d  i n  i n  f o r  now.  P r e s e n t a t i o n  r o s e t t e  c e n t r a l we  are  The  A n n u n c i a t i o n bottom  seen  the  been  component  examine  have  s t r o n g  precedents  m o t i f  w i d e s p r e a d  have  a r t i s t s  second  were  d e c o r a t i v e  The  We  t h e r e  remained  seem  s h a l l  i t .  we  f i g u r e The and beyond  many  ways  59 . Of only  e i g h t  these, The 9)  r o s e t t e  r o s e t t e  e x c e p t i o n  where  frames  seventeen  have  the  one  four  acanthus scene  e l a b o r a t e  c e n t r a l  The  are  over  -  ( f o l i o  r o s e t t e  i s  17v  at  the  e i g h t - p e t a l l e d  c l a s p i n g  Doubting  Thomas  ( f o l i o  c e n t r a l  f l o r a l  f u r t h e r  to  g r e a t e r  p a r t  gold  bars  f i g u r e  a  of  Descent  t a k i n g  even  up  core  both  i n  of more  the  a t  i n s t e a d  f i g u r e s  21  gold  which  the  Swithun  The  l e a s t  Martyrdom  composed  which  c i r c u l a r 21)  the 23  a  gold  of  a four  s i m i l a r t h r u s t up  out a  c i r c u l a r  ( f o l i o  r o s e t t e  Thomas the  f l o r a l the  s m a l l  s t r u c t u r e .  t a k i n g  Ghost  of  a  c r e s c e n t - s h a p e d  c e n t r a l  h a l f  g o l d  leaves  added  Doubting  f i n d  of  r a d i a t e s  has  r o s e t t e  expansive  and  arched  a r c h ,  Holy  f i g u r e  seven  St.  The  acanthus  of  -  the  has  l e a s t  9v  of  a r c h .  we  f i g u r e  the  the  where  a  the  seven  geometric  the  i n  frames,  12)  e l a b o r a t e  of  the  square.  design  the  s i d e  one  In  b u t  e i t h e r  the  of  -  i s  of  around i n  seen  to  and  t o  gold  on  arch  an  but  be  the  The  i t  f i g u r e  56v  more  has  square  above.  a  2 3)  s i m i l a r above  form  on  s t r u c t u r e .  d e s i g n  29)  f l o r a l  leaves  and  i n  ( f o l i o  In  whereas  apex  acanthus  crown  c e n t r a l  core  arched and  Coming  the  to  -  the  p r e s e n t .  the  f i g u r e  r o s e t t e s  at  Second  c i r c u l a r ,  97v  of  Stephen  i s  w i t h  e m b e l l i s h m e n t s ,  r o s e t t e s ,  c e n t e r e d  ( f o l i o  m i n i a t u r e s  l o c a t e d  r o s e t t e s  c u r l s  c i r c u l a r  i s i s  c o n t a i n i n g  s t r u c t u r e  St.  the  scene a r c h , core  acanthus  67v  -  f o r m a t i o n , d e s c r i b e d and  h a v i n g  mentioned leaves  60 . shoot out i n four d i r e c t i o n s , t h e main a r c h , b u t additions.  -  29)  o f the g o l d b a r s .  Virgin tral  (folio  102v  o f The  square  around  - figure  leaves  from  31)  ration  as a r o u n d i n arched  the manuscript  All  the centhe  clasping central and  a r e more  acanthus  crescent-shaped additions frame.  i s marked i n t h e  Rosette progress  last  the a r t i s t s  out  a  third had  elabothrough  of  the  enlarged  they progressed o r to emphasize  that  their  importance.  t h i r t e e n o f the r e c t a n g u l a r frames are  r a c t e r i z e d by rosettes  This  f r a m e s i n c r e a s e s as we  f e a s t s were s i n g l e d  liturgical  the  from which  gold structure  lateral  d e c o r a t i v e v o c a b u l a r y as  certain  to grasp  i n four d i r e c t i o n s ,  book, s u g g e s t i n g t h a t e i t h e r their  of gold bars  t h e main a r c h e d  and  9 7v  eliptical  which begins w i t h a  a circular  the  (folio  Coronation of  i t in six directions  t w i n i n g around  as w e l l  itself  t h e main a r c h f r a m e .  i s f o l l o w e d by  shooting out  crescent-shaped  o u t beyond the  Death and  leaves sprout out  curling  of  Rosette e l a b o r a t i o n reaches  c o r e formed o f a s q u a r e  acanthus and  reaches  t u r n i n g b a c k on  c l i m a x i n the scene  t o the b a r s  In the S t . Swithun scene  the acanthus  framing a d d i t i o n s , borders  on  c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the  gold bar figure  clasping  r o s e t t e embellishments.  are l o c a t e d a t each  o f the  In twelve  four corners.  of  chathese, Two  of  the  r e c t a n g u l a r  St.  John  the  geometric frame; 19)  and  The the  at  posed  of  a  two.  These  ( f o l i o of  a  and  a  99v  t u r e s ,  has  geometric  f i g u r e  30)  s t r u c t u r e , a  square  and  four  are w i t h  26).  again f o u r o f  a  of  have  r o s e t t e . e i g h t  ( f o l i o  words  A n n u n c i a t i o n unique of  of  St.  the  -  -  5v  s t r u c t u r e frame.  c e n t r e  formed  c e n t r e , a d d i t i o n s  two  four  f o u r  m i n i a at  25)  and  ( f o l i o  frame  f i g u r e  the  s i d e s .  f i g u r e  l o c a t e d  formed  are  b l e s s i n g  -  P a u l  B e n e d i c t  the  r e c t a n g u l a r  ( f o l i o  the  the  90v  are  the  F i n a l l y  of  and  framing  r o s e t t e s  m i d - p o i n t s  e x c e p t i o n a l  s i d e s  i n  i n  the  except  P e t e r  form  e l i p t i c a l  com-  framing  c i r c u l a r w i t h  be  r o s e t t e s  and  gold r e c t a n g u l a r  to  r o s e t t e s  opening  four  o u t s i d e ;  gold  v i s i b l e  seem  one  the  f i g u r e  the  s i d e  the  o f  of  Sts.  side  -  the  E t h e l d r e d a  r o s e t t e s the  the  of  where  square  g o l d  c i r c u l a r  where  the  one  the  a  St.  The The  a t  Martyrdom  one,  p a i r ,  square  where  on  s i d e s  c o r n e r s :  square  the  All  o r  13)  45v  a  E i g h t  the  form,  one  f a c i n g  page  p o i n t s  2 8)  ( f o l i o  o f  the  s i n g l e  double,  one.  at  f i g u r e a  r o s e t t e s .  The  end  two  f i g u r e once  are:  v e r t i c a l a  corners These  by  s i x  -  i s  i s  c i r c u l a r  f i g u r e  -  t r i p l e  each  the  -  support  c i r c u l a r  r e c t a n g u l a r  f o l l o w e d a t  two  19v  J e r u s a l e m  m i d - p o i n t s  s i n g l e  9 5v  ( f o l i o of  a  r o s e t t e s  r o s e t t e  i n t o  have  the  double a  by  f o u r  ( f o l i o  the  r o s e t t e  moreover  r o s e t t e s  of  E n t r y  e n c i r c l e d  frames  have  E v a n g e l i s t  support  where  form  frames  8) at  91  i s which  the  m i d -  -  62. There are C a r o l i n g i a n as w e l l as I n s u l a r precedents f o r the r o s e t t e formation order.  I t may  be  and we  s h a l l take these up i n  remembered, however, that u l t i m a t e l y  the  r o s e t t e o r i g i n a t e d i n C l a s s i c a l a r t as can be seen i n a Roman vase o f the f i r s t  century  B.C.  ( f i g u r e 60)  (Museo  Nuovo C a p i t o l i n o ) .  Looking at C a r o l i n g i a n precedents, we the centres  o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l ' s  note t h a t  rosettes, particularly  the more star-shaped f l o r a l ones, as seen i n The Coming's r o s e t t e s  Second  ( f o l i o 9v - f i g u r e 9) resemble somewhat  the q u a t r e f o i l s d e c o r a t i n g  a C a r o l i n g i a n s i l v e r bowl  i n the B r i t i s h Museum ( f i g u r e 61).  now  I t i s thought to be  of  38 the n i n t h or tenth century.  The  b a s i c geometric support  of the r o s e t t e s can be seen i n I t a l i a n c a r v i n g s e i g h t h and  n i n t h century i n two 39  decoration  ( f i g u r e 62).  of  the  examples from Roman church  Both have the same geometric  combination o f a square support w i t h i n a c i r c u l a r one i s a l s o found i n the r o s e t t e s of The ( f o l i o 45v - f i g u r e  Entry  that  i n t o Jerusalem  19).  Warner suggested t h a t the B e n e d i c t i o n a l ' s  rosettes 40  derived  from the corner d e c o r a t i o n  of metal bookcovers.  An i v o r y bookcover from Rheims ( B i b l . N a t l . , P a r i s . l a t . 1152  - f i g u r e 63)  executed c i r c a 860  - 870  A.D.  Cod.  exemplifies  this point  a t each c o r n e r ,  and two s m a l l e r  the  vertical  the  Benedictional's  therefore  as we n o t e . f o u r  sides, paralleling  But  Carolingian  presence of r o s e t t e s ,  the  Benedictional s  locations i n  s i x r o s e t t e s and  theory.  and Deshman h a s p o i n t e d  rosettes  ornament, t h o u g h t h e E n g l i s h As  the rosette  i l l u m i n a t i o n must be e x a m i n e d f o r  the  1  formations  ones a t t h e m i d - p o i n t s o f  frames c o n t a i n i n g  s u p p o r t s Warner's  rosette  are derived artists  from Franco-Saxon  d i d n o t copy  s e e n i n f i g u r e 64, t h e F r a n c o - S a x o n r o s e t t e s  formed o f f o l i a g e i n a r a d i a l  out that  design,  literally.  are often  "but t h e f o l i a g e 41  always s t a y s and  within  the geometric borders o f the rosette",  the Franco-Saxon r o s e t t e s have o n l y  p o r t , whereas t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l ' s and out,  even three there  within  geometric supports.  i s an i n t e r n a l  one g e o m e t r i c  sup-  r o s e t t e s have one, two As Homburger  development o f r o s e t t e 42  t h e frames o f t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l .  pointed formation  As Deshman  reiterated:  "Those a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l  are  to Franco-Saxon p r a c t i c e , u s i n g  faithful  geometric b o r d e r f o r each r o s e t t e .  Then i n l a t e r  the  artists  add a s e c o n d  and  finally  towards t h e end o f t h e m i n i a t u r e  a third  geometric  Benedictional  only  framework t o e a c h c o r n e r  framework i s a d d e d .  thus g r a d u a l l y  reshaped  a single frames rosette  cycle,  The p a i n t e r s the r e l a t i v e l y  still o f the simple  r o s e t t e s  i n  t h e i r  Franco-Saxon  model  t o  s u i t  t h e i r  n a t i v e  43 Anglo-Saxon  t a s t e  f o r  examples  l a r g e  r o s e t t e s ,  w i t h o u t  of  f o l i a g e ,  are  Saxon  s c h o o l  from  North  Saxony  ( f i g u r e  On examples  the  of  l o c a t i o n  of  St.  E t h e l d r e d a  i s  d i f f e r e n t  they  as  p r e c e d e n t St.  Luke  e l l i p s e s This  of  are  f o r  i n  where  the  extruded  ( f i g u r e  i s  the  they  are  the  forms  b o r d e r  i n i t i a l  from  the  dated  MS  "P"  f o u r  the  open  i n  the  i n  1 8 3 ) .  f i r s t  the 4  4  seen  A  many i n  a t  s i d e s ,  The  a  h a l f  l e a f  book  we  the  s i m i l a r frame  extend  i n t o  the  b o r -  I n s u l a r  m i n i a t u r e  composed of  the  t r e a t m e n t  l a t e r  i n  d a t e .  Here  m e d a l l i o n s  A e t h e l s t a n same  i n  the  67).  25).  mouths  acanthus the  i s  and  r e c t a n g u l a r  found  framing  65)  be  i n c o r p o r a t e d  i s  F r a n c o -  m e d a l l i o n s  f i g u r e  not  can  B e n e d i c t i o n a l .  i n  an  -  the  are  ( f i g u r e  the  i n  although  t e n t h - c e n t u r y  as  L i n d i s f a r n e  found  41)  C o l l e g e  90v  The  t h a t  C h r i s t i  ( f o l i o  68).  to  of  r o s e t t e s  e l i p t i c a l  s i m i l a r and  the  m i d d l e  of  mentioned  d e c o r a t e d  Other  frames  ( f i g u r e  e a r l y  r a r e l y  w i t h  the  t h a t  frame,  m i n i a t u r e  c e n t u r y  page i n  the  der  of  Gospels,  to  the  use  r e g i o n  b o t h  hand,  the  manuscripts  L i n d i s f a r n e  and  i n  i n  r o s e t t e s  ornamental  corners  s t u d d i n g  Cologne 66)  c o m p l e x i t y . "  of  see  beyond  the  I n s u l a r  c e n t u r y  f o u r  found  o t h e r  e i g h t h an  ornamental  of  of  two  animal  heads.  of  t e n t h  the  s c r o l l  here  m i n i a t u r e (Cambridge,  i s ( f i g u r e Corpus  65 . Thus i n summing up we r o s e t t e s was them i n an  not  but  We  city-view  the  we  t o the  three (folio  (folio  3 - f i g u r e 5);  (folio  67v  last  2v and  - f i g u r e 23).  f i g u r e s 4 and  i n the  city-views  three  component o f  and  the  frame,  Enrichments  miniatures  5 has  corners  of  Descent of  The  artist  has on  the  of  the  Holy  Ghost  f a c i n g pages  of the  frame  with  the a r c h i t e c t u r a l  each s i d e o f the  here c o n s i s t of a w a l l  tiled  Apostles  the  arch  placed  added  Benedictional:  The  square-topped towers; w i t h i n  building with  the  f i g u r e 4); Three  replaced  a t r i a n g u l a r p e d i m e n t and  The  treated  have s e e n , a r c h i t e c t u r a l s c e n e s were  frame o f  buildings  using  enrichments.  Three A p o s t l e s  of  idea of  combining both I n s u l a r  City-View  to  the  ideas.  t u r n now  As  that  the Winchester a r t i s t s  i n n o v a t i v e way,  Continental  the  new,  find  pediment.  fortified  this wall  with  is a  r o o f , w h i c h Warner s u g g e s t s  long  is a  45 basilica,  and  the  other  The  finials  appears  by  two  t o w e r s , one  a conical-shaped do  not  t o have c u t  s u r m o u n t e d by  cupola  with  a p p e a r i n f i g u r e 5, them o f f .  I n The  the  a cupola  orbis  finial.  rim of  Descent of  and  the the  walls Holy  66 . Ghost  ( f o l i o  again  of  topped  a  67v  w a l l  tower  found  the  above  i n  shaped  what and  i n  the  three  R o l l  mosaics  e x a c t l y  The a  are  Cod.  Cosmas  of  f i n i a l  w e l l  an  type  i n  graed.  s i x t h  format  S.  o t h e r of  as  i n  M a r i a  which  and  towns  c o n i c a l -  the  f o l l o w  f o r  c i t i e s  century  f i g u r e  Vienna  69),  i n  m i d - t e n t h  J e r u s a l e m  churches  and  of  as  S.  w e l l  the c e n t u r y  There  are  Bethlehem  c i t y - v i e w s ,  Maggiore,  are  manuscripts  m a n u s c r i p t s .  these  the  i n  w a l l e d  -  square  summit.  c o n v e n t i o n  31  once  d e s c r i b e d  c u p o l a  the  of  the  views  ones  appeared  A n t i q u e  many  a r c h ,  c e n t u r y  at  the  w i t h i n  the  w i t h  I n d i c o p l e u s t e , as  same  have  found  T h e o l .  to  i s ,  c o n s i s t  towers,  c i t y - g a t e ,  t h a t  Late  c i t y - v i e w s  s i m i l a r  same  c o n t a i n i n g  side  f i f t h  5,  g l o b a l  be  and  the  the  c i t y - v i e w s  to  as  be  towers  t i m e s .  (NB,  to  and  w i t h  century  e i t h e r  w i t h  4  temples,  a l s o  f o r t i f i e d  f i g u r e s  appears  Joshua  the  two  e a r l y  s i x t h  23),  o t h e r  c u p o l a  Genesis  f i g u r e  appears  S i m i l a r s i n c e  -  t h a t  i s  Sabina as  i n  on  and S.  46 Lorenzo r a t h e r we  i n  Rome  e a r l y  and  i n  date,  f i n d  t h a t  the  ( f i g u r e  70),  a  ( f i g u r e  71),  and  ( f i g u r e  72)  b u i l d i n g s  i n  S.  a  c o n t a i n a l l  of  at  however,  n i n t h  n i n t h  V i t a l e  c e n t u r y  century  n i n t h  these  l o o k i n g  These  at  i v o r y  of  the  German  reduced  t o  examples,  U t r e c h t Metz  are  P s a l t e r  School  i l l u m i n a t i o n  a r c h i t e c t u r a l  are  l a t e r  C a r o l i n g i a n  c e n t u r y  s i m i l a r  Ravenna.  scenes. s i g n s  and  The used  to  s i g n i f y  the  p l a c e  School  i l l u m i n a t i o n  i n s i d e  the  a r c h ,  o f  the  the  event.  s y m b o l i c  whereas  i n  In  C a r o l i n g i a n  a r c h i t e c t u r e  O t t o n i a n  a r t  i t  was  was  Court  always  o f t e n  o u t -  48 s i d e  the  a r c h .  d i c t i o n a l  combine  Thus  the  both  C a r o l i n g i a n  (the  b u i l d i n g s  w i t h i n  (the  b u i l d i n g s  l o c a t e d  I n s u l a r s c r i p t the  example a l r e a d y  l a s t  a r t i s t l o c a t e d  ( f i g u r e on  and  o f  40).  e i t h e r and  d i f f e r e n t , a s s o c i a t e  t o  be  the  s i d e  the  are  which  t e n t h  of  i n  the an  the  p r e s e n t  i n  and  O t t o n i a n  frames). a  was  w r i t t e n by  c i t y - v i e w arched  of  a  as  i n  E n g l i s h  i n  arrangement  of  the  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l  i n  the  w i t h  manu-  F l e u r y  a d d i t i o n s  frame  f i g u r e  symbolism  contemporary  a t  an  Bene-  elements  A  m i n i a t u r e  c e n t u r y ,  e v a n g e l i s t - t y p e  the  a r c h i t e c t u r a l  the  found  Here  although they  frames)  o u t s i d e  d e s c r i b e d ,  q u a r t e r  d i c t i o n a l , i s  i s  the  c i t y - v i e w s  are  the  Bene-  b u i l d i n g s same  way  J e r u s a l e m .  49  68.  Footnotes  t h e o l o g i c a i s perhaps Meyer S c h a V i s u a l A r t I (1969),  John t h e e v a n g e l i s t was c o n s i d e r e d of h i g h e r l rank than the o t h e r t h r e e e v a n g e l i s t s and "that why he was i n c l u d e d i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l , p i r o , "On Some P r o b l e m s i n the S e m i o t i c s of : F i e l d and V e h i c l e i n I m a g e - S i g n s , " S e m i o t i c a , p. 236.  2 -• E t h e l w o l d  F r a n c i s Wormald, (London, 1959),  The B e n e d i c t i o n a l p. 22.  of  St.  3 George The  F r e d e r i c k  B e n e d i c t i o n a l  Warner t i t e  s t a t e s  arch  W i n c h e s t e r  of  t h a t  can  be  S t .  o t h e r  found  M i s s a l  o f  Warner  and  Aethelwold examples  i n  p l a t e s  Robert  of  Henry  (Oxford,  o f  a  i i i  A u s t i n  t r e f o i l  and  i v  W i l s o n ,  1910), o f  o r  p.  x x i .  t r i p a r -  the  l a t e r  Jumieges.  4 C a r l N o r d e n f a l k , "The B e g i n n i n g of Book D e c o r a t i o n , " Essays i n Honour o f Georg Swarzenski (Chicago, 1951), p. 15. 5  6 1962),  p.  I b i d . ,  Roger  p.  16  Hinks,  C a r o l i n g i a n  A r t  (Ann  A r b o r ,  M i c h i g a n ,  110.  7 T.  D.  L i n d i s f a r n e n s i s  K e n d r i c k , f a c s i m  ed.  e d . , (0  E v a n g e l i o r u m  Itun,  1966),  Q u a t t u o r  p.  Codex  118.  g H e n r i A r t  of  the 9  West  F o c i l l o n , i n  Hinks,  " ^ F r a n c i s  the  Romanesque  M i d d l e  . . C a r o l i n g i a n  Wormald,  Ages,  A r t ,  A r t ,  V o l .  (London,  p.  "Decorated  I  of  1963),  The p.  37.  14-15.  I n i t i a l s  i n  E n g l i s h  69. Manuscripts (1945),  p.  from  "^Robert A r t  A.D.  900  to  1100,"  A r c h a e o l o g i a ,  91  114-15.  B u l l e t i n ,  Deshman,  56  (June,  "Anglo-Saxon 1974),  p.  A r t  a f t e r  A l f r e d , "  193.  12 o o t o  Mrs. G. M. f embroidery o f s i m i f San Ambrogio i n M i he e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y . f St. C u t h b e r t (Oxfo  1  3  I b i d . ,  p.  Crowfo l a r t e l a n b u (C. rd, 19  ot has w r i t t e n about a fragment c h n i q u e f o u n d among t h e r e l i c s t are d a t e d the b e g i n n i n g of F. B a t t i s c o m b e , e d . , The R e l i c s 56), p. 392.)  413.  14  15  Wormald,  "Decorated  Deshman,  "Anglo-Saxon  I n i t i a l s " ,  A r t  a f t e r  p.  108.  A l f r e d , "  p.  195.  16 F r a n c i s St. 1971)  A e t h e l w o l d , " ,  p.  Wormald, England  "The  Before  'Winchester the  Conquest  S c h o o l '  b e f o r e  (Cambridge,  313.  17 The same c u p - l i k e knobs i n the acanthus l e a f f o r m a t i o n are found i n o t h e r E n g l i s h manuscripts and i n i t i a l s , such as i n a m i n i a t u r e of K i n g A t h e l s t a n p r e s e n t i n g a book to St. C u t h b e r t from The L i f e of St. C u t h b e r t (Corpus C h r i s t i C o l l e g e MS. 183, f o l . i v f i g u r e 41) d a t e d a b o u t 937 A.D. and b e l i e v e d to be a r o y a l comm i s s i o n from the W i n c h e s t e r s c r i p t o r i u m . (Deshman, "AngloSaxon A r t a f t e r A l f r e d , " p. 195.) In the lower v e r t i c a l borders of t h i s m i n i a t u r e we n o t e t h e c u p - l i k e k n o b s from w h i c h the acanthus s p r i n g s . These knobs are a l s o seen i n the a d d i t i o n s to the A t h e l s t a n P s a l t e r (B. M. C o t t o n MS Galba A. x v i i i ) d a t e d b e t w e e n 927 and 940 A . D . (Wormald, "Decorated I n i t i a l s , " p. 115.) (Figure 42) Another v e r s i o n o f a b o u t t h e same d a t e c a n be s e e n i n the Helmingham Orosius, a copy of King A l f r e d ' s E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n o f the U n i v e r s a l H i s t o r y of O r o s i u s , dated the f i r s t h a l f o f the t e n t h c e n t u r y and of W i n c h e s t e r o r i g i n (Wormald, "Decorated I n i t i a l s , " p. 118.) w h e r e we n o t e the presence of s i m i l a r knobs i n the acanthus f o r m a t i o n ( f i g u r e 4 3) .  70 . A l a t e r E n g l i s h example i s to be found i n The Charter o f King Edgar, a l s o known as The New M i n s t e r C h a r t e r (B.M., Vespasian A. V I I I , f o l i o 2b - f i g u r e 44) where we note t h a t the knobs are o f the same type and are l o c a t e d i n the same p o s i t i o n as the knobs i n The Bened i c t i o n a l 's A n n u n c i a t i o n scene ( f o l i o 5v - f i g u r e 8), t h a t i s , i n the c e n t r a l acanthus stem l o c a t e d between the g o l d bars of the t r e l l i s frame. A u t h o r i t i e s have g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t h i s Charter t o be dated 966 A.D., u n t i l F r a n c i s Wormald suggested t h a t i t should be dated l a t e r than 966 but not a f t e r 984 A.D., the date of Aethelwold's death. He suggests t h a t i t was commissioned by Aethelwold a f t e r the event, to commemorate the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the B e n e d i c t i n e s a t New M i n s t e r by Edgar. ( F r a n c i s Wormald, "Late Anglo-Saxon A r t , Some Questions and Suggestions," i n V o l . I Romanesque and Gothic Art, A c t s of the Twentieth I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress of the H i s t o r y of A r t ( P r i n c e t o n , 1963), p. 24-5.) What more f i t t i n g moment c o u l d there be f o r such a t r i b u t e t o Edgar than the date o f h i s c o r o n a t i o n i n 973? I suggest, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t The C h a r t e r of King Edgar was executed a t the same time o r a f t e r The B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f St. Aethelwold. Perhaps the same a r t i s t executed the frame o f the C h a r t e r ( f i g u r e 44) and the frame of The A n n u n c i a t i o n ( f i g u r e 8), although I tend to think t h a t the a r t i s t who d i d the framing on the C h a r t e r copied the r o s e t t e formation o f The A n n u n c i a t i o n , extend i n g the design a l l around the frame. The C h a r t e r ' s framing i s much s t i f f e r , the acanthus leaves l y i n g f l a t t e r , g i v i n g a l e s s three-dimensional e f f e c t .  Perhaps the same a r t i s t executed a l l three frames, The A n n u n c i a t i o n one ( f i g u r e 8), the Charter's frame ( f i g u r e 44), and the f a c i n g p a i r of S t . E t h e l d r e d a and the page of b l e s s i n g ( f i g u r e s 25 and 26) u s i n g a C a r o l i n g i a n acanthus p a t t e r n book which he adapted to Anglo-Saxon t a s t e . C a r l Nordenfalk, "Corbie and Cassiodorus, A P a t t e r n Page Bearing on the E a r l y H i s t o r y of Bookbinding," Pantheon, 32, No. 3 (1974), p. 225. I b i d . , p.  225.  The t e n t h c e n t u r y i n E n g l a n d was one o f m o n a s t i c r e f o r m , A e t h e l w o l d b e i n g one o f t h e l e a d e r s i n t h e S o u t h of England. R e f o r m came t o E n g l a n d f r o m F l e u r y i n F r a n c e ,  71. which was  had  been  c l o s e l y  became  Archbishop  i m p o r t a n t books  reformed  connected of  r e s u l t  from  Southern  o f  by  w i t h  C l u n i a c  Canterbury t h i s  c o n t i n e n t a l  monks  A e t h e l w o l d from  c o n n e c t i o n  l i b r a r i e s  i n  930.  through 960  w i t h  found  -  F l e u r y  Dunstan  9 88.  F l e u r y  t h e i r  who  One was  way  t h a t  to  England.  2  2  I b i d . ,  p.  256.  23 The s t y l i s t i c a l l y and any d a t i n g m a n u s c r i p t s . (Rosemary Cram P e r i o d , " Tenth (London, 1975)  o n l y way of d a t i n g as there i s no o t h based on s t y l e de There i s no c l e a r p, "Anglo-Saxon S c -Century S t u d i e s , , p. 186.  Anglo-Saxo e r evidence pends on th c u t l i n e of u l p t u r e of David Parso  n  s c u l p t u r e i s of d a t i n g , e d a t i n g of development. the Reform ns e d . ,  24 (London, slabs to suggests pre-Danis n i n t h to  E. 196 be the h o e a r  A 2) co s r i l y  . F i s h e r , The G r e a t e r A n g l o - S a x o n Churches , p. 190. B a l d w i n Brown c o n s i d e r s these ntemporary w i t h the tower and T a l b o t Rice labs are broken c r o s s - s h a f t s and are of g i n , and Rosemary Cramp t a l k s about the l a t e t e n t h c e n t u r y .  25 Romanesque d ' H i s t o i r e 1955), p.  George Z a r n e c k i , "The S c u l p t u r e , " Actes du de L ' A r t , Amsterdam, 174.  Sources of E n g l i s h X V I I Congres I n t e r n a t i o n a l J u l y 23-31, 1952 (La Haye, m  e  26 Before  The  A . W. C l a p h a m , E n g l i s h Romanesque Conquest (Oxford, 1930), p. 130.  A r c h i t e c t u r e  Clapham  a  27 century  date  of  c e n t u r y  date  and  n i n t h  c e n t u r y .  (London,  and  994, R i x  B a l d w i n Rosemary and  p.  suggest  Cramp  c o n s i d e r s  K e n d r i c k  (Tenth-Century  1975),  Brown  p l a c e  i t  i n  S t u d i e s ,  David  Carvings  i n  l a t e a the  t e n t h  t e n t h m i d -  Parsons  e d . ,  187-9.)  2 8 John England  B e c k w i t h ,  (London,  1972),  I v o r y p.  47-8.  E a r l y  M e d i e v a l  72. 29 Century  3  work  D.  M.  W i l s o n ,  S t u d i e s ,  0  D a v i d  700-1100  3  1  David  M.  i n  I b i d . ,  "Tenth-Century Parsons  W i l s o n ,  e d . ,  Anglo-Saxon  the  B r i t i s h  p.  204.  M e t a l w o r k , "  (London,  Museum  T e n t h -  1975),  p.  Ornamental  (London,  204.  M e t a l -  1964),  p.  207.  32 David A. H i n t o n , A Catalogue of the Anglo-Saxon Ornamental Metalwork 700-1100 i n the Department o f A n t i q u i t i e s Ashmolean Museum (Oxford, 1974), p. 7. 33  34  W i l s o n ,  Anglo-Saxon  Ornamental  Metalwork,  p.  43.  W i l s o n ,  Anglo-Saxon  Ornamental  Metalwork,  p.  38.  35 and  J o a n R. C l a r k e and David M i n s t e r L o v e l l Jewels (Oxford,  A. H i n t o n , 1961), p.  The 10.  A l f r e d  3 6 Ronald 1950),  p.  Jessup,  Anglo-Saxon  J e w e l l e r y  (London,  87-8.  37 H i n t o n , Metalwork,  p.  A  Catalogue  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Ornamental  7.  3 8 0. N i n t h p.  or  Tenth  D a l t o n , C e n t u r y , "  "On  a  S i l v e r  Bowl  A r c h a e o l o g i a ,  61,  and  Cover  No.  2,  o f  the  (1909),  357-8. 39  p i .  M.  15.  .. Romisches  Jahrbuch  Fur  K u n s t g e s c h i c h t e ,  3,  (1939)  40 George The  B e n e d i c t i o n a l  F r e d e r i c k o f  St.  Warner,  A e t h e l w o l d  and  Henry  (Oxford,  A u s t i n  W i l s o n ,  1 9 1 0 ) , p . x x x i x .  41 Robert Deshman, "The L e o f r i c M i s s a l and T e n t h c e n t u r y E n g l i s h A r t , " i n Anglo-Saxon England 6. ed. by P e t e r Clemoes (Cambridge, 19 7 7 ) , p. 16 3 .  73. 42  i /  Otto  W i n c h e s t e r  im  Homburger, X  Die  J a h r h u n d e r t  Anfange  ( L e i p z i g ,  Per  M a l s c h u l e  1912),  p.  von  28-30.  4 3 44  Deshman,  "The  L e o f r i c  Wormald,  "The  'Winchester  A e t h e l w o l d , "  p.  M i s s a l , "  p.  S c h o o l '  16  3-4.  b e f o r e  S t .  309-10.  45 George F r e d e r i c k Warner and Henry A u s t i n ed., The B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f S t . A e t h e l w o l d (Oxford, p. x v i i i .  I b i d . ,  47  1974),  p.  Hans  W i l s o n , 1910),  x v m .  «' H o l l a n d e r ,  E a r l y  M e d i e v a l  A r t  (New  York,  b e f o r e  St.  123.  48  4  0  I b i d . ,  130.  49 Wormald, A e t h e l w o l d , "  p.  "The  311-12.  ' W i n c h e s t e r  S c h o o l  1  CHAPTER I V  THE COLOUR USED IN THE FRAMES  Following in  the f i r s t  g o l d Roman r u s t i c  capitals,  that Bishop Aethelwold circi as  frames),  them m u l t i g e n i s colours.  Godeman's p r e f a c e  m i n i i s p u l c h r i s , t h a t i s , i n many b e a u t i -  F r a n c i s Wormald h a s t r a n s l a t e d t h i s  well  a d o r n e d and f i l l e d w i t h  with  numerous b e a u t i f u l c o l o u r s  artists  various  and w i t h  f i g u r e s b u t a l s o t h e frames g i v e  portion  book many  figures  o b l i g e d by p r o v i d i n g m i n i a t u r e s  dazzling  as w e l l  and t o p a i n t t h e f i g u r e s w i t h i n  "He commanded a l s o t o be made i n t h i s  frames  decorated  gold."  1  The  where n o t o n l y  the e f f e c t o f  splendour.  In in  reveals  i n s t r u c t e d h i m t o i n c l u d e many  as:  the  and w r i t t e n  ( a r c h e s , w h i c h must i n c l u d e t h e r e c t a n g u l a r  the arched  ful  seven miniatures  this  chapter,  we w i l l  look  t h e f r a m e s , t h e u s e and e f f e c t  a t the colours  of this  (with  special  emphasis o n t h e p a r t i c u l a r  cedents  f o u n d i n I n s u l a r and C o n t i n e n t a l m a n u s c r i p t s as  well  as t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l ' s  effect  colour  found  innovations.  of gold),  pre-  75. The  a r t i s t s executed the m i n i a t u r e s  o f the Bene-  d i c t i o n a l i n pigment and i n a p p l i e d g o l d , the technique of c o l o u r p a i n t i n g being gouache, which the Anglo-Saxons considered more l a v i s h than l i n e drawings. p o r t i o n s have faded i n many areas has  The c o l o u r  and the a p p l i e d gold  f l a k e d o f f i n many p l a c e s i n the m i n i a t u r e s  Benedictional.  The is  2  o f the  3  a r c h i t e c t u r a l components o f the frame, t h a t  the t r e l l i s  frame composed o f p a r a l l e l bands c o n t a i n i n g  the acanthus l e a v e s , the r o s e t t e frames, t h e columns, c a p i t a l s and bases, are o f gold, whereas the acanthus leaves a r e coloured c r e a t i n g a d i v i s i o n o f the elements o f the frame.  Although the Anglo-Saxons d i d not have a  wide range o f dyes, the a r t i s t s o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l used the f u l l extent o f a v a i l a b l e c o l o u r s f o r the acanthus leaves:  b l u e , green, p u r p l e , brown, y e l l o w , pink, r e d  and b l a c k .  The backgrounds t o the acanthus are dark b l u e ,  brown o r b l a c k and the leaves are p a r t i a l l y o u t l i n e d and h i g h l i g h t e d with white, w i t h the v e i n markings b e i n g put i n black or a darker The  shade o f the e x i s t i n g l e a f c o l o u r .  tone o f c o l o u r i s subdued.  There are g e n e r a l l y seven  or e i g h t c o l o u r s used i n the borders  of the m i n i a t u r e s ,  with a few u s i n g as l i t t l e as s i x c o l o u r s and the most being n i n e .  The average number o f c o l o u r s used on the  76 . acanthus alone  i s f i v e or s i x w i t h the lowest being  Acanthus leaves i n nature are green and we  four.  see  n o n - n a t u r a l i s t i c use of c o l o u r , e i t h e r f o r symbolic or f o r the r e s u l t i n g p a t t e r n , or both.  The  the  reasons  Benedictional's  a r t i s t s ' approach t o c o l o u r s t r e s s e d the o p p o s i t i o n of  light  4  and  dark.  The  a r t i s t s used gold f o r i t s l u s t r o u s q u a l i -  t i e s to produce l i g h t c o n t r a s t i n g w i t h of the coloured  acanthus.  The  the subdued tones  acanthus leaves  themselves  are a l s o o u t l i n e d and h i g h l i g h t e d w i t h white c r e a t i n g a l i g h t area c o n t r a s t i n g once more with c o l o u r and tially  darker  vein l i n e s .  l i n e a r i n c h a r a c t e r and  t h a t the extensive  the darker  leaf  T h i s technique i s esseni t was  i n the  Benedictional  'double l i n e ' technique of p a i n t i n g made i t s f i r s t appearance i n Anglo-Saxon a r t , which i n f l u e n c e d  multi-coloured  l i n e drawing of Winchester School manu-  s c r i p t s as i n f o r example the contemporary L e o f r i c M i s s a l , ^ where the same c o l o u r s were used i n the drawings as s c r i p t s , u n i t i n g the two  the  i n a d e c o r a t i v e manner.  The  a r t i s t s o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l used t h i s device of  light  and dark coloured  l i n e s to c r e a t e k a l e i d o s c o p i c  patterns of colour.  The  surface  emphasis on s u r f a c e q u a l i t y can  be seen i n the use of a p p l i e d gold which i s r a i s e d above the l e v e l o f the vellum  and the other p a i n t e d  creating a s p e c i a l surface  for light  areas,  reflection.  77 . The  frame i s n o t  s t r u c t u r e of the bases,  only  separate  units of arch,  r o s e t t e s , e t c . , but  acanthus  leaves  within  c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z e d by  a l s o by  i n the  various  s e c t i o n s w h i c h adds t o t h e  This  colour  tions  of  design.  D i f f e r e n t colours  Benedictional i s best  (folio  97v  the  separation  as  -  part of  a r e a s on  e i t h e r side of  his  are  the  a paler l i l a c  the  i n the  f i g u r e 29) the  used i n of  the  ele-  light  and  dark.  composition St.  where we  note the  s a i n t between the the  or  Swithun  s a i n t i s dark p u r p l e ,  and  the  i s u s e d i n the i l l u m i n a -  exemplified  ground immediately b e h i n d  arch  are  scene i n t o areas of  compartmentalization  This  Miniature  scene.  frame and  the  colour of  capitals,  t h e s e u n i t s w h i c h u s u a l l y match  colours  ments o f t h e  the  columns,  the  backthe  columns  a r e a between  and  the 7  interior  a r c h e s and  the  Such b a c k g r o u n d c o l o u r in  top  more s t r i k i n g  (folio 22v  Paul  19);  The  division contour  of line  95v  The  the  The The  Entry  frame i s b l u e - g r e e n . the  scenes can  Benedictional,  Stoning  of St.  i n t o Jerusalem  -  and  The  the b a c k g r o u n d  In a l l of  (folio  (folio  Baptist  these,  45v  -  (folio and  the  i s a l s o a c c o m p a n i e d by  t h a t emphasizes the  seen  Stephen  Martyrdom of S t s . P e t e r  f i g u r e 28).  be  some o f  Octave of Christmas  N a t i v i t y o f S t . John the  - f i g u r e 27); (folio  of  being:  - f i g u r e 12);  - f i g u r e 15);  figure 92v  17v  the  d i v i s i o n of  many o f t h e m i n i a t u r e s  the  of  a  compartmentalization  colour jagged of  78. colour.  We have b e e n r e f e r r i n g of  colour p a r t i t i o n  carefully  c a n be s e e n i n t h e f r a m e .  thought out the c o l o u r  geometric plan a page, t h a t  emerges.  i s colours  m a t c h i n g pages o p p o s i t e colour  scheme.  This  Colour  rectangular  combination  (folio  s e c t i o n o f leaves  i s purple  border contains  sides  matching o f  within the  the upper-right  matching the leaves  Likewise,  the upper-left  i n the  vertical  acanthus matching the blue  v e r t i c a l border.  i n t h i s miniature  o f the  A s i m i l a r diagonal  c a n be s e e n i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l b o r d e r s .  rosettes circle  blue  other's  19v - f i g u r e 1 3 ) , a  i s evident  In the v e r t i c a l  design  each  c a n be s e e n f o r example i n t h e S t .  e s p a l i e r border.  lower-right  mirror  f r a m e d s c e n e where a c h i a s m a t i c  section.  so t h a t a  i s used c h i a s m a t i c a l l y on  each other  o f the acanthus leaves  lower-left  The a r t i s t s  match d i a g o n a l l y o n a page and two  John the E v a n g e l i s t m i n i a t u r e  colours  t o s c e n e s b u t t h e same i d e a  colour  The  consist of a central  gold  surrounded by e i g h t p e t a l s a l t e r n a t i n g i n white  and  purple,  sprouting  the acanthus  and  over the square gold  rosette  leaves  frame.  that  curl  under  These l e a v e s a t  each o f t h e f o u r c o r n e r s  o f the r o s e t t e a l t e r n a t e  pink  and  t o make a t o t a l  colours  in  blue all,  coloured  leaves  and t h e c o l o u r s  of eight  a r e used c h i a s m a t i c a l l y as w e l l .  79.  An even b e t t e r example o f c h i a s m a t i c  use o f c o l o u r i n the  frame can be found i n The N a t i v i t y o f C h r i s t ( f o l i o 15v f i g u r e 10), and the page o f b l e s s i n g opposite  the N a t i v i t y ,  where three s i d e s o f ( f o l i o 16 - f i g u r e 11) are the reverse image o f f o l i o 15v.  Since  the c o l o u r i n the bottom edge o f  the f o u r t h s i d e i s so s e v e r e l y damaged i t i s impossible to determine i f t h i s s i d e shows c h i a s m a t i c  use o f c o l o u r as  well.  In the top h o r i z o n t a l border o f The N a t i v i t y o f  Christ  ( f o l i o 15v - f i g u r e 10), the acanthus leaves are  brown on the l e f t - h a n d s i d e and b l u e on the r i g h t . the border on the b l e s s i n g page o p p o s i t e 11) the l e f t leaves are blue  In  ( f o l i o 16 - f i g u r e  and the r i g h t are brown,  m i r r o r i n g the c o l o u r i n g o f i t s f a c i n g page.  The  few c i t y s c a p e s  are a l s o t r e a t e d i n c o l o u r  s e c t i o n s as we see i n the Three Apostles figure 4).  ( f o l i o 2v -  The three towers o f the c i t y w a l l s and a few  elements such as the base and f i n i a l o f the cupola and other  a r c h i t e c t u r a l d i v i s i o n l i n e s are o f gold, whereas  the c i t y w a l l s , gateways, e t c . , are each o f a d i f f e r e n t colour.  The rectangular  chiasmatic  use o f c o l o u r i s d i f f e r e n t i n  and arched frames s i n c e i n the l a t t e r  there  are fewer i n t e r s e c t i o n s o f v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l compo-  80. sition  lines.  capitals  and  In arched bases of  alternating colours exemplified figure  diagonal be  figure and  the  as  columns t a k e on  do  the  leaves  Descent of  the  have s e e n a c o l o u r  pattern;  of  the  the  8) where t h e  a diagonal  As  we  match c o l o u r s  design  design  (folio  colour  axis  purple  blue  leaves  Annunciation  i s made up  creating a  pattern  the  of  67v  -  e x i s t s as  acanthus l e a f  i n the  This  scene.  (folio  portions  of  the  ribbon  pedestal  sky,  This  (folio  well.  colours  19v of the  i n the  13)  the  the  sky;  pedestal  g r e e n a c a n t h u s i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l b o r d e r matches  design  a similar decorative  Colour  as  chair;  cloth  the  meticulous i n colour  a l l the m i n i a t u r e s t h i s one,  minia-  - figure  pink  Not  b a s e and  usually  and  green i n S t . John's robe.  5v  of a h o r i z o n t a l  i s evident  acanthus echoes the b l u e  match t h e p i n k  a  cross-colour  have seen, the  t u r e o f S t . John the E v a n g e l i s t where t h e b l u e  that produces  a p p e a r s as w e l l .  r o s e t t e s o f The  v e r t i c a l brown and  attempt  of  rosettes,  Holy Ghost  a cross pattern  seen i n the  pattern,  pink  acanthus leaves  23).  We  can  i n The  frames t h e  but  and the  are  as  they a l l  organization.  symbolism i s w i d e l y  used i n the  fields  of  -  81. a r t and l i t e r a t u r e .  Whether c o l o u r symbolism was  the B e n e d i c t i o n a l miniatures i s debatable.  used i n  The  predominant  c o l o u r s of the acanthus i n the frames are b l u e ,  blue-green,  or shades of p u r p l e  (these o f t e n c o n t r a s t e d w i t h p a l e pink, g  yellow, brown and  green).  According  to C i r l o t ,  blue  denote r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g , d e v o t i o n and innocence;  can  purple  as the c o l o u r of the i m p e r i a l Roman Empire denotes power, s p i r i t u a l i t y and s u b l i m a t i o n ; green was  used i n C h r i s t i a n  a r t because i t b r i d g e d the gap between the two groups; and g o l d represents the s t a t e of g l o r y .  colour The  i n t e n s i t y of a c o l o u r or the degree o f i t s b r i g h t n e s s c o u l d have meaning as w e l l . c o u l d a l s o have symbolic  The  geometric  c o l o u r design  s i g n i f i c a n c e as there has  always 9  been great symbolic  importance attached to g r a p h i c s ,  no d e f i n i t e symbolic  meaning i s v e r i f i a b l e with  but  the  exception of gold. The most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e of the i l l u m i n a t i o n s i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l i s the a p p l i e d gold which shines stunning b r i l l i a n c e .  Gold has  always had  because of i t s high r e f l e c t i v e power. naive beholder  i s instantaneous  with  a e s t h e t i c appeal  The e f f e c t on  the  and does not r e q u i r e the  i n t e l l e c t u a l or s p i r i t u a l connection between the l i g h t of g o l d and the d i v i n e .  In the Middle Ages, both  and Byzantium, gold i n i l l u s t r a t i o n s was  i n the West  used to overwhelm  82. the i l l i t e r a t e .  Because they are o f g o l d , the  1 0  works s t a n d o u t as t h e b a s i c perhaps  t h a t i s why  power t h e s c e n e s and  the acanthus  they c o n t a i n .  of the d e s i g n  leaf One  frames  and  seem t o o v e r -  m i n i a t u r e , where  frame  scene b a l a n c e , c o n t a i n s the f i g u r e o f S t . E t h e l d r e d a  (folio  90v  burnished saint  - figure gold.  25)  Just  whose m a n t l e  as i m p o r t a n t ,  i s the e s p a l i e r  w i t h a double  circular  rosette  under which the acanthus miniature  emphasizes  figurative  motifs.  Aethelwold  "was  Insular  and  circular  climbs.  The  f o r the a r t i s t s  i n the  rosettes use  of  over  of gold  to note  and  and  in  this  that 1 1  and  perhaps  instructed  l o o k a t what p r e c e d e n t s  C o n t i n e n t a l manuscripts  How  does t h i s  From the s e v e n t h  the  them  manuscript.  and  compare w i t h e a r l i e r  highly  a t the mid-points  It i s interesting  must now  are of  i t seems as  famous as a w o r k e r i n m e t a l "  i t lavishly  We  veil  t h e u n i t y o f t h e d e c o r a t i v e and  he o b t a i n e d t h e g o l d use  and  frame a c c e n t u a t e d a t t h e c o r n e r s  the sides with s m a l l e r s i n g l e  to  element  frame-  existed  f o r t h e use  of  in colour.  use o f c o l o u r i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l I n s u l a r m a n u s c r i p t s ' use o f c o l o u r ?  t o the n i n t h c e n t u r y , the p e o p l e  Ireland  and E n g l a n d  developed  their  own  derived  from a combination of C e l t i c ,  of  version of a r t  Germanic  and  83. C l a s s i c a l a r t of the Mediterranean w o r l d . towards an a r t t h a t was pattern.  They tended  n o n - f i g u r a t i v e and  emphasized  I l l u s i o n i s t i c or r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c o l o u r  was  r e j e c t e d i n p a r t , i n t h a t o b j e c t s no longer needed to be recognized  by t h e i r  colour.  The seventh-century Book o f Purrow, g e n e r a l l y regarded as the e a r l i e s t manuscript of the  Hiberno-Saxon  s t y l e , used c o l o u r not i n a d e s c r i p t i v e manner but to create a pattern. yellow  In f i g u r e 46 the use of red, green,  and white c r e a t e s a l i v e l y mosaic  of r e g u l a r l y  a l t e r n a t i n g c o l o u r s which tends to obscure the course of 12 the i n t e r l a c e and r e s u l t s i n c o n t i n u i t y and movement. This same sense o f movement i s seen i n the  Benedictional s 1  frames produced by the a l t e r n a t i n g c o l o u r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the r o s e t t e s , some o f which give the impression wheel-like  s p i n n i n g as i n The N a t i v i t y of C h r i s t  15v - f i g u r e 10).  of (folio  Here too the a l t e r n a t i n g c o l o u r s make  i t d i f f i c u l t to t r a c e the course o f the i n t e r t w i n i n g acanthus.  The c o l o u r s i n The Book of Purrow are b r i g h t ,  as are found i n metalwork i n the seventh-century Sutton 13 Hoo  t r e a s u r e s excavated i n E a s t A n g l i a .  The  Benedictional s 1  c o l o u r s do not d e r i v e from metalwork f o r they are muted i n tone, r a t h e r l i k e f r e s c o e s .  A f r e s c o , dated c i r c a 900  has been excavated r e c e n t l y i n Winchester,  therefore  A.P.,  84 . Winchester  a r t i s t s  p r o b a b l y  the  of  were  f a m i l i a r  w i t h  t h a t  medium.  A t farne  Gospels  ( f i g u r e  7 3)  abandoned  end of  c i r c a  r e v e a l s  even  the 698  t h a t  when  the  mediterranean  o r i g i n a l s ,  angel  f i g u r e  not  and  the  chosen  the  r e d d i s h t o  c o n t r a s t  w i t h  l i n e s  the  of  g e l i s t pages  the  As  t h i s  a r t i s t f o r  of  brown  the  was  of  of  and  the  the  p o r t r a y  the  b u t  green,  cushion  p o i n t e d  c o l o u r s  h e l d  by  the  c u r t a i n  are  a  c o l o u r  mantle  the  on  was  i m i t a t i n g  the  Matthew's  L i n d i s -  p o r t r a i t  book  b e h i n d  c u r t a i n ,  has  the  c o l o u r  d i r e c t l y  from  St.  i n  Matthew  example  l e a t h e r  Alexander  book  c e n t u r y ,  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l  green  mantle,  s i t s . o f  the  A.D.,  emerging  brown  match  seventh  and  to  p a t t e r n e d  which out,  the  the  " j u x t a p o s e d  evan-  c a r p e t as  i n  a  15 f l o o r same and a  mosaic." manuscript,  the  emphasis  f i g u r e  we  see  the  on  l i g h t  67,  a  use  of  c o l o u r  dark  c o l o u r  as  c o n t r a s t s  we  i n  the  Macregol  74)  an  and  c a r p e t  page  from  the  compartments i n  d e s i g n .  In  the  Gospels  (MS  extreme  i n  g e l i s t ' s to  In  c r e a t e  A u c t . the  robes a  e a r l y D.  n i n t h  51v  -  n o n - n a t u r a l i s t i c  use  of  p a t t e r n  19,  see  f o l  are  2.  century  c o l o u r e d matching  i n  green  the  f i g u r e  c o l o u r .  and  frames  orange of  the  The  evan-  s t r i p e s b o r d e r  j u s t  85. as we  found i n the  B e n e d i c t i o n a l where t h e  s c e n e s and  d e r s sometimes a r e b a r e l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m e a c h  In  the  mid-ninth century  mentalization  i n the  College  16.3,  MS  B.  we  find  Rabanus M a n u s c r i p t folio  colour  other.  compart-  (Cambridge,  i v - f i g u r e 75),  bor-  Trinity  a c l o s e copy  of  17 a Carolingian original. g e o m e t r i c u n i t s by arches  touch  the  Here t h e  the  colour.  the upper border i s o l a t i n g  the  spandrels,  c u r t a i n rod  divides  and  columns are  f i l l e d with  colour  ground.  For  a darker  colour  and  therefore  that this  new  t o the  and  Carolingian art.  arms.  i s blue  device  the  late  n i n t h and  Continent  of colour.  t h a t many o f  units.  the  arms o f t h e  Likewise, and  arches  Colour  the  had  long  the  scenes, the  figures  and  background 18 We  see  is  t o a more  leaf  not  Insular  centuries,  B e n e d i c t i o n a l we acanthus  backarches  existed i n  e a r l y tenth  is  outer  brown b e l o w .  brought a return In  the  and  which  of compartmentalization  B e n e d i c t i o n a l but  In the  The  patterning  separate  The  compartments e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e  below the  c u r t a i n rod  use  decorative  i s u s e d above t h e  above t h e  tact with  scene h o r i z o n t a l l y .  example, i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f  l i g h t e r hue  listic  the  them i n t o d i s t i n c t  used t o c r e a t e  a  into  a r c h i t e c t u r e and  the  divides  scene i s d i v i d e d  have  itself,  con-  naturaseen the  86.  r o s e t t e s and  the e s p a l i e r frame were a l l C a r o l i n g i a n i n  o r i g i n , nevertheless, Insular.  the use of c o l o u r remained mainly  Alexander has  mentioned t h a t the chalky  pigment e v i d e n t i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l i s d e r i v e d ninth-century Palace  white  from  C a r o l i n g i a n manuscripts o f the s o - c a l l e d  group, and  i n some of the manuscripts of  Franco-Saxon group.  T h i s may  i s found i n the scenes and  the  be the case but the white  not i n the frames of the Bene-  d i c t i o n a l , and h a r d l y i s evidence t h a t a l l f e a t u r e s of e a r l i e r n a t i v e I n s u l a r t r a d i t i o n were r e j e c t e d by  the  the 19  a r t i s t s o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l as Alexander m a i n t a i n s . agree w i t h Deshman who  I  r e f e r s to the use o f c o l o u r i n the  B e n e d i c t i o n a l as a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the d e c o r a t i v e 20 c i p l e s of Hiberno-Saxon a r t .  The  prin-  B e n e d i c t i o n a l seems to  be the f i r s t manuscript to r e t u r n to the n o n - n a t u r a l i s t i c use of c o l o u r i n the tenth century, 21 New Minster C h a r t e r does not. The  Benedictional's  from t h a t of Metz School  as the contemporary  use of c o l o u r i s very  different  manuscripts where there was  an  i l l u s i o n i s t i c c o l o u r p a l e t t e of the l a t e antique  period.  The  the  emphasis i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l on p a t t e r n and  matching o f c o l o u r s i n scenes and borders to achieve d e c o r a t i v e u n i t y are a l l a n t i - c l a s s i c a l  a  compositional  f e a t u r e s t h a t are found i n p r e - C a r o l i n g i a n I n s u l a r a r t .  87 . However, a n o t a b l e tation  i n colour  i s t o be s e e n i n t h e t e n t h - c e n t u r y  artists' gold,  innovation  use o f g o l d .  Anglo-Saxon  I n s u l a r manuscripts used  the B e n e d i c t i o n a l  being  the f i r s t  experimen-  little  manuscript o f t h i s  21 century  t o use i t e x t e n s i v e l y .  up  this practice of using  be  seen i n a g o s p e l  c.  1020, by t h e s c r i b e E a d w i g .  used n o t o n l y the  frame,  Later manuscripts  gold  f o r s p e c i a l e f f e c t s as c a n  w r i t t e n a t C h r i s t Church,  I n f i g u r e 76 we s e e g o l d  and o t h e r  details  o f the scene,  as we have s e e n i n t h e S t . E t h e l d r e d a  manuscripts,  Canterbury  i n the overmantle o f the f i g u r e b u t a l s o i n  the arch  Benedictional  (folio gold  miniature  90v - f i g u r e 2 5 ) .  In both  power and t o u n i t e  o f the these  fori t s reflective 23  t h e s c e n e and t h e f r a m e .  a l s o was u s e d i n t h e G r i m b a l d  Gospels,  Silver  a work p a r t l y  w r i t t e n by Eadwig, b u t i t i s i n such poor c o n d i t i o n original In  effect  has been  the eleventh  its  Sacramentary  we f i n d  a further  develop-  Sacramentary  t h e drama o f t h e a c t i o n by  Alexander thinks  "the c o l o u r  that  2 4  i n t h e Jumieges  intensifies  s w i r l i n g washes.  lost.  century  ment i n t h e u s e o f c o l o u r where t h e c o l o u r  much  i s u s e d n o t i n a d e s c r i p t i v e way as i t  was i n Roman m a n u s c r i p t s , b u t r a t h e r  the  took  that  i n this  a l s o has a t h e m a t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e 25  and  emphasizes c o n n e c t i o n s  between d i f f e r e n t  scenes."  88. Thus i n t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l we ment i s n o t  naturalistic  but  quality  contrasts  light  of  and  frame and  scene.  compartmentalization chiasmatic  use  of We  saw  so  the  colour  i s concerned with and  also  f o r the  of colour  see  surface  dark to produce a  the  e m p h a s i s on  resulting pattern that  treat-  unity  colour  and  the  a geometric plan  results  26 stressing artists' mainly the  the  ambiguity  sources are  1  use  in  of  gold  their  use  pattern  tion  and of  replace  i t with  the  original  composition  t o deny t h e  that colour  sources  i n c o m b i n i n g and to c r e a t e  an  a  imitative  painting.  expressiveness  p r o d u c e d by  quickening  rhythms by  the  surface  quality  They d i d t h i s heightening  to  the  the  develop-  of  The  s t r e s s e d the  for  The  c h a n g e d , t h e y no  a r t but  from  lively  scene.  a r t of surfaces.  was  innovative  space-depth conception  b e a u t y o f p i g m e n t and  t h e i r miniature  Winchester  a r t i s t s were  frame and  t h e m e d i e v a l a r t i s t had  wanted a p u r e l y the  and  t h a t encompasses b o t h  a p p r o a c h was  find  Whatever the  of colour,  elements o f c o l o u r  we  The  though u l t i m a t e l y d e r i v e d 27  Mediterranean.  Benedictional s  art  c o m p l e x and  Insular in origin  eastern  ing  of r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  new antique  imaginalonger  material of gold  -  in  achieve colours, 28  the  echoing  the  frame i n t h e  image.  89 .  Footnotes  .Lthelwold  F r a n c i s Wormald, The B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f S t . (New York, 1959), p. 7.  C. R. Dodwell, "Techniques o f Manuscript P a i n t i n g i n Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts," Settimane d i s t u d i o d e l centro i t a l i a n o d i s t u d i s u l l ' a l t o medioevo, 18. No. 2 (1971), 648 f f . The r e s u l t o f c o l o u r f l a k i n g i n a c o l o u r r e p r o d u c t i o n o f the o r i g i n a l , i s that a p a l e yellow or a p a l e r shade o f the o r i g i n a l c o l o u r shows up which makes c o l o u r analysis d i f f i c u l t . I t i s a l s o hard to d i s t i n g u i s h between p l a i n vellum, when used as a background, and y e l l o w i n a colour s l i d e . The main problem i s t h a t photographs do not r e p r e s e n t the o r i g i n a l as there i s a tendency to e i t h e r a green o r pink hue due to the f i l m p r o c e s s i n g . A more s e r i o u s problem e x i s t s i n both s l i d e s and photographs i n t h a t the b r i l l i a n c e o f the a p p l i e d gold does not appear at a l l . The g o l d p o r t i o n s look muddy brown which comp l e t e l y destroys the a r t i s t s ' i d e a of producing an e f f e c t o f l u s t r e and o f l i g h t versus dark. N i g e l F. B a r l e y , "Old E n g l i s h Colour C l a s s i f i c a t i o n : Where do Matters Stand," i n V o l . 3 o f Anglo-Saxon England, ed. by P e t e r Clemoes (Cambridge, 1974), p. 26. Robert Deshman, "The L e o f r i c M i s s a l and TenthCentury E n g l i s h A r t , " i n V o l . 6 o f Anglo-Saxon England, ed. by P e t e r Clemoes (Cambridge, 1974), p. 161. J . J . G. Alexander, "Some A e s t h e t i c P r i n c i p l e s i n the Use o f Colour i n Anglo-Saxon A r t , " i n V o l . 4 o f Anglo-Saxon England, ed. by Peter Clemoes (Cambridge, 19 75), p. 149, f . 5. Other manuscripts u s i n g t h i s technique are "the Prudentius a t Cambridge, the Junius 'Caedmon' manus c r i p t s i n Oxford and the H a r l e y P s a l t e r . "  Robert A r t B u l l e t i n , 56  Deshman, " A n g l o - S a x o n A r t a f t e r (June, 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 199.  Alfred,"  g J . E . C i r l o t , A D i c t i o n a r y o f Symbols, l a t e d by J a c k Sage, (New Y o r k , 1971), p . 52-60. 9  Ibid.,  p.  trans-  122-3.  M e y e r S c h a p i r o , "On t h e A e s t h e t i c A t t i t u d e i n Romanesque A r t , " A r t and T h o u g h t , e d . by K. B h a r a t h a I y e r (London, 1947), p . 141. 1 0  ^ G . F. Warner i n G e o r g e F r e d e r i c k Warner and Henry A u s t i n W i l s o n , The B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f S t . A e t h e l w o l d (Oxford, 1910), p. x x x i v . 12 C a r l N o r d e n f a l k , " C o r b i e and C a s s i o d o r u s , a P a t t e r n Page B e a r i n g on t h e E a r l y H i s t o r y o f B o o k b i n d i n g , " P a n t h e o n , 32, No. 3 (1974), p . 225. 13 script  D a v i d M. Robb, The ( S o u t h B r u n s w i c k , New  A r t o f t h e I l l u m i n a t e d ManuJ e r s e y , 1 9 7 3 ) , p . 86 f . 65.  14 Martin Biddle, "Excavations at Winchester, 1966. F i f t h I n t e r i m R e p o r t , " A n t i q u a r i e s J o u r n a l , 47 ( 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 277-9, p i s . x x i i i , l i v ( a ) . " ^ A l e x a n d e r , "Some A e s t h e t i c P r i n c i p l e s i n t h e Use o f C o l o u r , " p . 147. T. D. K e n d r i c k i n A n g l o - S a x o n A r t t o A.D. 900 (London, 19 38) compares t h e c a r p e t p a g e s t o Roman mosaics. " ^ A l e x a n d e r , "Some A e s t h e t i c P r i n c i p l e s o f C o l o u r , " p . 14 7 f . 4.  i n the  Use  17 F r a n c i s Wormald, "The ' W i n c h e s t e r S c h o o l ' b e f o r e S t . A e t h e l w o l d , " i n E n g l a n d B e f o r e t h e C o n q u e s t , e d . by P e t e r Clemoes and K a t h l e e n Hughes (Cambridge, 1 9 7 1 ) , p . 309  Deshman,  "Anglo-Saxon  A r t a f t e r A l f r e d , " p . 197.  19 J . J . G. A l e x a n d e r , "The B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f S t . A e t h e l w o l d and Anglo-Saxon I l l u m i n a t i o n o f the Reform P e r i o d , " i n T e n t h - C e n t u r y S t u d i e s , e d . by D a v i d P a r s o n s (London, 1 9 7 5 ) , p . 181. 20 Deshman, 2 1  Ibid.,  "Anglo-Saxon  A r t a f t e r A l f r e d , " p . 199.  p . 180-1.  22 H. Roosen-Runge and A. E . A. Werner, "The P i c t o r i a l Technique o f the L i n d i s f a r n e Gospels," i n E v a n g e l i o r u m Q u a t t u o r Codex L i n d i s f a r n e n s i s , e d . b y T. D. K e n d r i c k (Lausanne, 1966), p . 271. 23 of  Alexander, C o l o u r , " p . 148.  "Some A e s t h e t i c  2 4  Ibid.,  p . 149.  2 5  Ibid.,  p . 150.  P r i n c i p l e s i n t h e Use  26 9th  J . J . G. A l e x a n d e r , I n s u l a r M a n u s c r i p t s 6 t h t o C e n t u r y (London, 1 9 7 8 ) , p . 10. 27  I b i d . , p . 14. A l e x a n d e r s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e two r e a s o n s f o r s t y l i s t i c c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h a r t o f t h e Eastern Mediterranean: f i r s t l y , the h i s t o r i c a l l i n k s with E a s t e r n m o n a s t i c i s m and, s e c o n d l y , t h a t "some o f t h e c a n o n s o f c l a s s i c a l a r t h a d a l r e a d y begun t o b r e a k down i n t h e f o u r t h and f i f t h c e n t u r i e s , s o t h a t I n s u l a r a r t i s t s f o u n d a k i n d r e d a r t o f s t y l i z a t i o n w h i c h was s y m p a t h e t i c t o them. 28 1935),  Roger H i n k s , C a r o l i n g i a n A r t (Ann A r b o r , p . 212.  Michigan  CHAPTER V  OVERLAPPING OF  Overlapping has  existed  even b e f o r e periods  of  FRAME AND  f r a m e s and  IMAGE  figures  i s n o t new,  i t  i n a r t s i n c e the s i x t h  c e n t u r y B.C.  and  perhaps  that, reappearing  time  at  different  o f a r t history."''  from  to time  What i s o r i g i n a l  however i n t h e  Benedictional  i s t h e e x t e n t o f o v e r l a p p i n g o f image  and  frame and  relation  and  the  o f the f i g u r e s  to each o t h e r 2  to  the b o r d e r  This  over which they  chapter w i l l  project.  examine o v e r l a p p i n g o f frame  image i n t h e m i n i a t u r e s o f t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l and the reason  f o r i t s use,  and w i l l  t h e r e were i n a r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y  The scene  purpose o f the  o r image f r o m  the audience's Benedictional lapping.  i n illuminated  on  the c o n t a i n e d  frame and  Overlapping  suggest  precedents manuscript.  frame i n a r t i s t o i s o l a t e  the e x t e r n a l s u r r o u n d i n g s  vision the  c o n s i d e r what  and  image, b u t  image i n t e r a c t  the  focus i n the  through  i s a d e v i c e w h i c h can be  and  used  overto  3 show t h e p r e d o m i n a n c e o f f i g u r e s , important  figures  by  making t h e more  o v e r l a p those of l e s s e r  importance.  Pre-  93. dominance o f f i g u r e s by s i z e has since early of  e v i d e n t i n scenes  m i n i a t u r e o f The  (folio  102v  and  size  the  a t t e n d i n g women.  o f t h e a p o s t l e s b e l o w and  T h e r e has b e e n v e r y l i t t l e  sists  is particu-  C o r o n a t i o n of the  3 1 ) , where t h e V i r g i n  the  l a p p i n g o f image and  This  twelve  c o n t a i n i n g Mary, f o r example, i n  Death  - figure  in art  i t i s present i n at least  the m i n i a t u r e s i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l .  larly the  t i m e s , and  a l s o been used  frame,  mainly of s c a t t e r e d  Virgin  i s about  certainly  written  twice  larger  about  than  over-  and what has b e e n w r i t t e n  s t a t e m e n t s by  such  con-  authorities  4 as S c h a p i r o , S a u n d e r s , Jeffrey  H u r w i t , who  Alexander  established  and five  one  article  by  categories of over-  5 lapping. the  Hurwit's  s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h Greek a r t b u t  ideas are a p p l i c a b l e Only  apply  t o any  three o f Hurwit's  to the i l l u m i n a t i o n s  representation  period  in art.  categories  of overlapping  i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l .  i n t e r a c t s w i t h i t s frame:  o v e r l a p p i n g o f t h e image by o v e r l a p p i n g o f t h e b o r d e r by  the border;  1) 2)  c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e two,  that  the  b o r d e r a r e o v e r l a p p e d by  All  t h r e e a r e examples o f open f o r m .  each  i s , both  through through  t h e image; and  the  The  3)  the  the  through  t h e image  o t h e r i n t h e same C l o s e d form,  and scene. where  the  image i s c o n t a i n e d  overlapping the  occurs,  Benedictional's  o f no  within  i s one  the  of  the  Vienna Genesis,  m e d i e v a l m a n u s c r i p t s s u c h as P s a l t e r but Insular  not  other  not  no  found  category,  i n m a n u s c r i p t s s u c h as the  the  Terence Plays ninth-century  i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l .  a r t , however, t h e r e  frame and  categories  i l l u m i n a t i o n s ; the  frame a t a l l , does o c c u r  sixth-century  border or  are  In  and  in that  the  in  Utrecht  tenth-century  a number o f o u t l i n e draw-  7 ings  t h a t have no  L e t us that apply  frame.  examine i n more d e t a i l  to the  Benedictional s Annunciation leaves and of  of  (folio  the  well exist  framing  the  leaves.  as on  categories  i n the 99v  bars of The  t h a t he  and  Border  this  treatment i n  they are  found i n  - f i g u r e 8 ) , where t h e  - f i g u r e 30) the  acanthus  frame) i n t o a s p a c e b e y o n d  where a  scene,  portion  side rosettes overlap  as  i s t h a t the  frame  planes.  f e e l s he  the  The  frame e x t e n d i n t o t h e  result  different parallel  viewer i s such (the  5v  (folio  gold  the  examples o f  rosettes  St. Benedict the  two  miniatures,  1  three  Benedictional.  Image O v e r l a p p e d by  There are  the  The  image and  effect  i s looking  on  the  t h r o u g h a window  (the scene) which  recedes  95. in  depth.  T h i s sense  of  two-dimensional  o f depth  planes.  the a n g e l i s on t h e f i r s t his  foot  frame.  appears  i s a c h i e v e d by the l a y e r i n g  I n t h e c a s e o f The A n n u n c i a t i o n plane  t o be j u s t  j u s t behind  t h e frame as  touching the g o l d bar o f the  Mary i s s e t a t a n a n g l e w i t h h e r r i g h t h a n d  over  t h e book on t h e same p l a n e as t h e a n g e l , and t h e r e s t o f h e r body a p p e a r s  t o be on a p l a n e b e h i n d  steps of her throne. throne,  On t h e f o l l o w i n g p l a n e s we  t h e s k y and t h e n  and t h e a n g u l a r  f i n d the  t h e b u i l d i n g s which appear t o  recede because o f the d i a g o n a l l i n e throne,  t h e a n g e l up t h e  lines  o f the r o o f behind the  o f the t u r r e t e d w a l l s .  In  t h e S t . B e n e d i c t m i n i a t u r e t h e same l a y e r i n g o f p l a n e s o c c u r s , w i t h S t . B e n e d i c t on t h e f i r s t  plane  nearest the  spectator.  The found leaves  use o f t h e frame h e r e  i n most a r t p e r i o d s . and b a r s  results  i s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l one  The o v e r l a p p i n g o f  i n a kinetic  k i n d o f border b u t the scene  remains  acanthus  three-dimensional contained behind the  frame.  In of  d e a l i n g w i t h p r e c e d e n t s , we  find  o v e r l a p p i n g o f t h e image b y t h e b o r d e r  o u t A r c h a i c and C l a s s i c a l  vase  painting,  that this  i s found as w e l l  through-  as i n  g sculpture.  S c u l p t u r e and v a s e  kind  painting are different  96. m e d i a however a n d e x a m p l e s a r e r e m o t e i n t i m e . of  t h e image b y t h e b o r d e r  scripts, this its  i n fact,  first  I could  i s r a r e i n C a r o l i n g i a n manufind  mode o f o v e r l a p p i n g  initials:  Overlapping  only  one m a n u s c r i p t  b u t was e v i d e n t  t h e Drogo S a c r a m e n t a r y  using  i n many o f  from the s c h o o l o f  Metz o f n o r t h w e s t e r n F r a n c e i n t h e m i d - n i n t h c e n t u r y 850  A.D.  contain the  This  i s a book o f i n i t i a l s  full-page miniatures  initial  D of this  lap  that  mentary and t h i s  with  stems  b y t h e frame o f t h e l e t t e r  D.  Histo-  a r e a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e o f t h e Drogo type o f scene w i t h i n  writhing  a n i m a l s a r e common.  a letter  acanthus and o t h e r We w i l l  over-  and t h e s o l d i e r ' s  seen i n I n s u l a r manuscripts although decorated filled  a scene o f  the scene i s  t o the lower l e f t - h a n d corner  initials  In  N a t l . , MS l a t .  5 8 r - f i g u r e 36) t h e a c a n t h u s l e a f  head i s o v e r l a p p e d riated  the Benedictional.  (Paris, Bibl.  i n t o t h e scene so e x t e n s i v e l y  relegated  however a n d does n o t  Sacramentary c o n t a i n i n g  t h e T h r e e Women a t t h e Tomb 9428, f o l i o  like  circa  Sacra-  i s not often initials  features  such as  now move on t o t h e s e c o n d  category.  B o r d e r O v e r l a p p e d by t h e Image  This Benedictional  mode o f o v e r l a p p i n g than the f i r s t ,  i s more common i n t h e  as s i x o f t h e i l l u m i n a t i o n s  97. have some p o r t i o n o f of and is the  the m i n i a t u r e s , St. Swithun  the  St. Etheldreda  (folio  97v  barely perceptible. acanthus  scene c o v e r i n g the  frame and  (folio  2v -  figure  6;  29),  arch.  4;  folio  folio  3 -  the  overlapping  feet float  4 - figure  7).  5;  folio  overlap  the  c a p i t a l s , b a s e s and  pillars.  The  result  of overlapping i s  creating of p a r a l l e l gesting  the  Apostle  miniatures.  frame i s b e h i n d  architecture standing the an  on  planes  and the  space i n the  The  looks steps,  i n f r o n t o f the  i n front of  frame  and  the  frame,  sug-  seen i n  the  frame f u n c t i o n s as  a piece  of  so  image, no  figures,  the  as  like  the  the  the  -  In a l l of these  suspended i n a plane  type  are  3v  are  this  in  apostles  figures  of  25)  over  appears  More o b v i o u s  figure  two  - figure  S t . Swithun s i m i l a r l y and  In  90v  each c o n t a i n i n g f i g u r e s o f t h r e e  figure  and  - figure  St. Etheldreda's  front of a central p i l l a r four miniatures  (folio  frame.  a temple o r church  t h a t the longer  with  figures  frame becomes p a r t functioning solely  of as  enclosure.  In l o o k i n g f o r precedents border  by  the  image i n p r e - B e n e d i c t i o n a l a r t , we  number o f i n s t a n c e s exemplified  of overlapping of  find  i n Carolingian ivory carvings,  i n a casket  s c e n e o f The  Annunciation  the a  best from  the  98. S c h o o l o f Metz o f t h e n i n t h Cat. M o l i n i e r examples again  1896,  t o be  found  figure  781 -  78)  79).  (Paris,  circa  the v e r t i c a l  o f Mark, w r i t t e n by  figure  and  - figure  example i s t o be  - 83 A.D.  77).  (Paris,  There  (Paris,  see  found  One  where we  c a n be  the i d e a o f elements  s e e n as w e l l  English  Nouv A c q .  such  a  D.  por-  1203,  folio 4  the r e a r p a r t o f the  e n c r o a c h i n g on  i n decorated i n i t i a l s  manuscripts,  see  f o r Charlemagne i n  the base o f the p e d e s t a l o v e r l a p the acanthus  But  is  Nat., l a t .  i n the E v a n g e l i s t  Natl. that  A.D.  fewer  frame o f t h e l e t t e r  Godescalc  Bibl.  Here we  850  Bibl.  Louvre,  are  i n Carolingian manuscripts.  c r o s s i n g over  earlier  trait  11 - f i g u r e  i n t h e Drogo S a c r a m e n t a r y  9428, f o l i o 41a  An  Nr.  to t e n t h century  in  lion  frame.  the  frame  earlier  as i n t h e L i n d i s f a r n e  Gospels 9  executed figure  i n the e a r l y y e a r s o f the e i g h t h c e n t u r y .  80  (B.M., Ms.  the tendency  C o t t o n Nero D.  o f the i n i t i a l  letter  IV,  folio  we  see  t o p u s h o u t above  the  frame w h i c h i s n o t an e n c l o s u r e i n i t s e l f . same i d e a i n t h e Book o f K e l l s , A.D., folio  1 0  (Dublin,  124  Trinity  - figure  81)  We  see  MS  is  frame. seen  Another  58  the  and  806  (A.I.6),  the b e a s t ' s head  t h e t o n g u e o f f i r e f r o m h i s mouth o v e r l a p and the  find  d a t e d between 795  College Library,  where we  95)  In  extend  and beyond  e i g h t h - c e n t u r y example o f o v e r l a p p i n g  i n the i l l u m i n a t i o n  o f S t . Luke i n a G o s p e l  Book  from 46)  I r e l a n d -  f i g u r e  e x t e n d  s c r i p t  (B.M.  Add  MS.  24199,  the  frame  of  Thus was  we  Combination  g r e a t e r  f a r  three  i s of  the f a l l  t h a t i n  almost  a l l  i n  a -  l a t e  (cat. and  by  a  83)  drawing,  example  h a l o  t e n t h - c e n t u r y frame  P r u d e n t i u s f i g u r e  same  unique  o v e r l a p p i n g e i t h e r  of  e a r l i e r  i s  r e s t r a i n e d ,  Overlapped  g r e a t e s t  manuwho  dances  even  the  however  the o r  We  i n t o the  t h i s above  e x t e n t .  the  o n l y  frame  p r o b a b l y  by  the  contemporary  w i l l  now  move  c o r n e r  of  l e a f the  the  on  two  of  forms the  two  o f  c a p i t a l s ,  o v e r l a p p i n g  category  the  image  the o r  o f  by  s m a l l  to  category  two,  acanthus  some  the  n i n e t e e n  B e n e d i c t i o n a l ,  from of  Image.  m i n i a t u r e s  s i n c e  In  or  o f  O v e r l a p p i n g  c a t e g o r y ,  o v e r l a p p i n g a  and  number  i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e  these,  a  head  r e s t r a i n e d  18  the  s a i n t ' s many  m a n u s c r i p t s .  both  l e s s e r  i n  r o s e t t e s ,  of  combine o r  i n  21v.  c a t e g o r y .  B e n e d i c t i o n a l  a  see  common  t h i r d  m i n i a t u r e s  not  f o l i o  This  C o n t i n e n t a l  By  the  L u x u r i a  and  out.''""'"  of  the  f o l i o  B e n e d i c t i o n a l .  not  or  of  40618,  of  are  i s  the  The  f i g u r e s  out  p o s t d a t e s  the  One  and  r o l l s  to  top  i n  out  I n s u l a r  Add.  the  frame.  the  landscape  image  B.L.,  where  the  where  c l i m b  r i g h t  82)  beyond  drawings b u t  (London,  the o f  f o r b o r d e r the  p o r t i o n  100. of  the  frame c o v e r i n g p a r t o f  the  overlapping  t h a t i s more o b v i o u s  as  two,  category  der.  E i g h t of  overlapping the  first  that of  of  t h e b o r d e r by  three  folios  we  and see  (The the  figures over the  figures overlapping  s i d e columns.  Stephen's h a l o overlap  the  19v  - f i g u r e 13)  the  pedestal,  and  a  two  i s The  to  the  foot of  t h e bed  and  Paul  include (folio  f i g u r e 3)  of  -  covers  miniatures  a  horn,  include:  fold  the  95v  the  part of i n the  of  of  (folio  this 22v  frame. i s The  - f i g u r e 28)  (folio  (folio  overlapped column.  group o f - figure  Mary and The  of  chair  Temple is  where  foot  the  left-hand  the p i l l o w s behind  overlapping  (folio  the  the  in  f i g u r e 12)  central pillar  overlap  where  the b o o k s c r o s s i n g  17v  f o o t and  of  lv - figure  miniatures  Presentation  remaining  show n e g l i g i b l e  Peter  t i p of  where the  end  2 -  bor-  a c e n t r a l c o l u m n and  (folio  Octave o f Christmas  where o n l y the  where t h e  fragment o f drapery  There are  they  of  same  degree  frame; S t . J o h n t h e E v a n g e l i s t  f r a m e ; The  - f i g u r e 18)  i s the  (folio  m a n d o r l a as w e l l as  S t . Stephen's  34v  One  and  type  Confessors  (folio  Three o t h e r  St.  the  The  3 some s m a l l p o r t i o n o f  Martyrdom of S t . Stephen  overlap  image, and  (of V i r g i n s )  The  drapery  the  of chorus:  Chorus  effective  show some s l i g h t  Chorus) o f V i r g i n s  1 and  and  the  image c r o s s i n g o v e r t h e  the m i n i a t u r e s  1 - f i g u r e 1 ) ; The 2),  the  image, w h i l e  last  15) part  of  miniature  Martyrdom of where t h e  eight.  Sts.  cross  101. overlaps  the  frame a t t h e t o p and  S t . P a u l and  upon b y  p o r t i o n of the of C h r i s t  15v  John the B a p t i s t  the  - figure the  (folio  92v  the  frame and  column;  and  The  dants  102v float  figures  10)  frame.  the frame i s  cross over  Zachariah  - figure  31)  over  frame.  the  Birth  - figure  D e a t h and  The  27)  and  where  definiSt.  Elizabeth  C o r o n a t i o n of the two  a  Naming o f  seems t o be  where Mary and  In  Nativity  where S t . J o s e p h  frame; The  over  (folio  the  frame i n a n o t i c e a b l e manner:  (folio  of  t h e image t o an o u t s t a n d i n g d e g r e e .  i s seated over  floats  feet  however, i n o v e r l a p p i n g o f  f o l l o w i n g three miniatures  tely  the  t h e image, a r e n i n e m i n i a t u r e s where t h e  encroached the  and  the e x e c u t i o n e r c o v e r a p o r t i o n o f the  More s t r i k i n g , frame b y  sides,  sitting  on  Virgin  o f the a t t e n -  In the s i x o t h e r m i n i a t u r e s , the o v e r l a p p i n g i n creases and by  t o such  an e x t e n t t h a t p r a c t i c a l l y  sometimes b o t h the  (folio  figures. 24v  hand b o r d e r  is  These i n c l u d e :  - figure  totally:/covered  of C h r i s t  s i d e s o f acanthus  by  16)  where t h e  the scene  i s c o v e r e d by  (folio  c o v e r e d by  one  25 - f i g u r e  angels  and  The  the  frame a r e  entire  side  obliterated  A d o r a t i o n o f the  Magi  r i g h t - h a n d frame i s  and  about h a l f  o f the Magi; 17)  one  where t h e  river  god,  and  and  o f the The  left-  Baptism  left-hand border p a r t of  the  102. right-hand derived  frame i s c o v e r e d hy  from a s i m i l a r scene  (Brunswick,  Herzog  an  on  angel.  the i v o r y Brunswick  Anton Ulrich-Museum  figure  8 5 ) , and  i n both  ground  and w a t e r c u t o v e r t h e  T h i s scene i s  - ivory  casket  casket -  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , the f i g u r e s ,  the  12  The  four  into Jerusalem hand b o r d e r  frame.  remaining miniatures include:  (folio  45v  is totally  21)  19)  where t h e  obliterated  and  nearly  the whole  Doubting  Thomas  (folio  where t h e l e f t  and b a s e a r e c o v e r e d by Holy  Ghost  (folio  67v  not bother and  to f i l l  c o l u m n and  The Women a t t h e Tomb o f each  vertical  figures.  In t h i s  scene  s t a r t i n g w i t h the almost overlaps  lines hardly  the  23) where so much o f  the  Descent  the a r t i s t  the u s u a l acanthus 51v  - figure  o v e r l a p p i n g reaches unnoticed angel's  eye b a c k on  a  20)  note  that  where the  l e f t wing which  right-hand corner of this  rosette  the d i a g o n a l wing l i n e  acanthus  did  crescendo,  b e h i n d t h e tomb, whose r o u n d h e a d s and  echo the s w i r l i n g  -  frieze;  frame i s c o v e r e d o v e r by  the d i a g o n a l o f the acanthus  and b r i n g i n g o u r soldiers  of  the r o s e t t e i n the upper  emphasizing  56v  The  (folio  over h a l f  of  capital  the a p o s t l e s that  them w i t h  right-  p a r t of the  the f i g u r e s ;  - figure  columns a r e c o v e r e d by  Entry  - figure  t h e l e f t - h a n d b o r d e r as w e l l ; figure  The  to such  they cover a l a r g e  to  the  drapery  an e x t e n t t h a t  s e c t i o n o f frame  and  we  103. half  o f the middle  j u t over  side rosette.  t h e frame i n a n g u l a r  diagonals  i n the composition.  Their spears,  directions  however,  emphasizing the  Overlapping  reaches i t s  c l i m a x i n t h e f i g u r e s o f t h e t h r e e women who, i n a v e r y p r o n o u n c e d way, f l o a t o v e r most o f t h e r i g h t - h a n d and of  mid-rosette. the angel  and  The o v e r l a p p i n g image, i n t h i s  case  appears  Carolingian ivory  t o be more c o r p o r e a l .  There i s a  c a r v i n g i n Munich c o n t a i n i n g t h i s  85) where t h e f i g u r e s  scene  a r e p l a c e d i n t h e same  g e n e r a l o r d e r a n d o v e r l a p t h e frame i n t h e same way, t h o u g h n o t t o t h e same e x t e n t . 870  that  a n d t h r e e women, i s now t h e most p r o m i n e n t  as a r e s u l t ,  (figure  border  A.D. a n d b e l o n g s  perhaps i n d i c a t e s  This ivory  i s dated  a l circa  t o t h e L i u t h a r d g r o u p o f c a r v i n g s and  that this  scene  directly  or i n d i r e c t l y  13 s e r v e d as a model f o r t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l s v e r s i o n . 1  In t h i s of  the unique  category  two m i n i a t u r e s s t a n d o u t b e c a u s e  way i n w h i c h t h e o v e r l a p p i n g o c c u r s .  They  14 also 64v 9).  are i d e o l o g i c a l l y - figure  Christ sky,  The A s c e n s i o n  22) a n d The S e c o n d Coming  I n the scene  overlap  parallel:  9v - f i g u r e  o f The S e c o n d Coming, t h e u p p e r r o s e t t e s  the scene.  In t h i s miniature the angels  a p p e a r t o be f l y i n g  from b e h i n d  (folio  (folio  a t an a n g l e  t h e frame o n t h e l e f t ,  s p e c t a t o r ' s space on t h e r i g h t ,  right  behind  out of the  and o u t i n t o t h e  since the u p p e r - l e f t rosette  104 . frame h a l f h e l d by  covers  the  the a n g e l  a n g e l on  the  on  left  angels' bodies the  o v e r l a p the  o f movement o u t w a r d . t u a t e d by  less  determination The  effect  the s t r u c t u r e o f p a r a l l e l now  spear  d e p t h and  t h a t exudes  the  of t h i s combination planes,  and  We  no  the  The  cross  i s no  diagonal  longer p a r a l l e l but  lines  the v e r t i c a l s This by the  the  angel  and  defy  the m i n i a t u r e very  vivid  and  t h a t o f the  feeling  t h a t the  the  of  same  the  Seven or e i g h t  planes  them a l l .  The  the s t a b l e p o s i t i o n  h o r i z o n t a l s o f the  c r e a t e s an i n n e r t e n s i o n so  on  angel with  f i g u r e s transcend  or obliqueness  of  i s flying diagonally  t h e frame t o t h e s p e c t a t o r . but  a sense  l o n g e r know w h i c h  as  i n front?  a  relationship  plane  exist,  accen-  i s to s h a t t e r  Is C h r i s t  now  sense  f e e l i n g o f bound-  comes i n f r o n t o f t h e o t h e r . r o s e t t e s or  the  p a r t of h i s wing  plane  through  h e l d by  r o s e t t e , g i v i n g him  o f the  becomes ambiguous.  the  cross  c r o s s , as h i s h e a d i s  an a c a n t h u s l e a f o f t h e  and  the  frame i n c r e a s i n g t h e  i n f r o n t o f t h e c r o s s and  energy.  planes  the  yet  T h i s f e e l i n g o f movement i s  d i a g o n a l p o s i t i o n coming out urgency  and  the a n g e l h o l d i n g the  t h r u s t out overlaps  right,  and  s i d e and  t h a t the  bottom  space  spectator fuse,  of  frame.  occupied producing  s p e c t a t o r i s s h a r i n g i n the 15  experience  o f the Second  Turning  now  Coming.  t o the m i n i a t u r e  o f The  Ascension  of  105. Christ  (folio  example  64v - f i g u r e  find  o f a l l o f t h i s mode o f combined  have seen f i g u r e s in  2 2 ) , we  floating  t h e most u n u s u a l overlapping.  o v e r t h e f r a m e , as we  t h e b o t t o m h a l f o f t h e s c e n e , w i t h Mary and  who  a p p e a r t o be  see h e r e  the  apostles  suspended i n f r o n t o f the r o s e t t e s  g o l d b a r o f the b o r d e r .  B u t what i s t o t a l l y  original  i s the upper h a l f ,  swirling  sky o r clouds o v e r l a p  We  new  and  and  t h e A s c e n s i o n s c e n e , where t h e the r o s e t t e s  and p a r t o f  t h e g o l d b a r o f t h e r i g h t - h a n d b o r d e r , and a t t h e same t i m e t h e hand c o v e r e d by like  o f God  the g o l d b a r o f the frame.  t h a t w h i c h we  case i t i s heaven front  and a t o p p o r t i o n o f t h e s k y a r e  f o u n d i n t h e S e c o n d Coming. that  o f the frame.  refuses  ivory  the c r e a t i o n o f the a r t i s t .  miniatures,  s u g g e s t s was divinity  this  f o r the B e n e d i c t i o n a l  c a r v i n g or i n manuscripts f o r the o v e r l a p p i n g  number o f i c o n o g r a p h i c two  In  T h e r e a r e no p r e c e d e n t s i n t h e s u p -  sky o r h e a v e n o v e r a frame, and t h e r e f o r e t h i s was  i s much  c o n t a i n m e n t and f l o a t s i n  p o s e d C a r o l i n g i a n o r B y z a n t i n e models in  The e f f e c t  doubtlessly  Deshman has p o i n t e d o u t a that are unique i n these  s u c h as t h e o p e n - s i d e d m a n d o r l a w h i c h  no a c c i d e n t b u t was  of C h r i s t . ^  and t h e hand  details  1  o f God  of  added t o e m p h a s i z e  Perhaps the a r t i s t p l a c e d  he  the  Christ  on t h e o u t e r m o s t p l a n e f o r t h e same  r e a s o n - t o emphasize  the d i v i n i t y  of  Christ.  106  An  i n c o n s i s t e n c y occurs i n t h i s A s c e n s i o n scene i n  the  l o w e r l e f t - h a n d c o r n e r , where a male f i g u r e  the  corner rosette,  to  c o v e r h i s elbow.  the  frame,  laps  desire  f o c u s on  y e t one  o f the acanthus  floats  Also his halo i s p a r t i a l l y  A possible  reason f o r t h i s  t o p l a y w i t h forms  logical  placement.  and  over  leaves curls covered  whereas the h a l o o f the f i g u r e b e h i n d him  the r o s e t t e .  tist's  .  up by  over-  i s the a r -  design rather  than  T h i s a m b i g u i t y o f forms  to  is a 17  fundamental is  seen  and  principle  of alternation  i n Insular manuscripts  the L i n d i s f a r n e  balancing  illustration forms w h i c h  (figure  s p a c e was  c o u l d be  purpose  That  sphere  n o t bounded by  a sense o f motion  the mandorla,  in a  at w i l l .  In  the  probably executed  for a  the A s c e n s i o n took p l a c e i n a spatial  a s e n s e o f e x p a n s i o n and power.  across  Thus e v e n  t h e sky o v e r l a p p i n g and  t h e image r e f u s e s c o n t a i n m e n t  example, has  73).  f i l l e d with counter-  t h e frame was  - t o show t h a t  heavenly  and  the Book o f Durrow  distorted  B e n e d i c t i o n a l ' s A s c e n s i o n scene, b e i n g o v e r l a p p e d by  as  counterpoint  G o s p e l s where i l l o g i c a l o v e r l a p p i n g s  o c c u r i n t h e Matthew p o r t r a i t figurative  such  and  crosses over t h i s  divinity  is limitless.  g i v e s i t an e n e r g y  The  figure  divine  he  he  strides  o v e r l a p s i t and  symbol,  and  of Christ, for  not j u s t because  but because  actively  considerations.  showing  thus  that his  107. An  i n c r e a s e i n t h e amount o f o v e r l a p p i n g  creates  an e q u i v a l e n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f p l a n e s . seen i n the second category in  the St. Etheldreda  to three planes  We have  t h a t i n t h e f o u r A p o s t l e s and  and S t . Swithun m i n i a t u r e s  were c r e a t e d by t h e o v e r l a p p i n g  However, i n t h e t h i r d  category  we f i n d  o n l y two device.  f i v e planes  miniature  o f The Women a t t h e Tomb, s i x p l a n e s  Ascension  and a b o u t s e v e n p a r a l l e l  planes  i n the  i n The  i n The S e c o n d  Coming.  T h i s mode o f combined o v e r l a p p i n g o f frame and image i s n o t f r e q u e n t the  sculptured reliefs  i n earlier  a r t b u t c a n be s e e n i n  i n the E a s t pediment o f the  18 Parthenon.  A more c o n t e m p o r a r y example i s f o u n d i n  Carolingian relief  sculpture o f the tenth century  Musee C l u n y ,  K a t Du Sommerand N r . 10 39  the  feet overlap  figure's  behind  t h e frame.  of overlapping illumination Minster the of  86) where  t h e frame a n d y e t h i s h a l o i s  T h e r e i s o n l y one example o f t h i s  i n tenth-century  Anglo-Saxon  and t h a t i s i n t h e f r o n t i s p i e c e  C h a r t e r where t h e a c a n t h u s  scene,  - figure  (Paris,  leaves  mode  manuscript t o t h e New  curl  over  into  as w e l l as e l e m e n t s o f t h e image s u c h as p a r t  the angel's  wings and K i n g  Edgar's  frame  (figure  44). This miniature  (page  46 f - 17) where i t was s u g g e s t e d  foot float  was d i s c u s s e d  over the earlier  t h a t i t was c o n -  108. temporary w i t h date.  or probably  This provides  l a p p i n g was  not  t h a n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l  further proof  t h a t the  idea of  common i n e i t h e r C o n t i n e n t a l o r  m a n u s c r i p t s b u t was I suggest the  later  present  artists  1  m a n u s c r i p t p a i n t i n g , and  over-  Insular  i n Carolingian ivory  Benedictional s  in  carving.  introduced  i t to  i t became common i n t h e  eleventh  century.  In  summary, we  overlapping s u c h an  have s e e n t h a t t h e s e  existed earlier,  i n n o v a t i v e way  but  tells  us  the  use  t h a t the  m a n u s c r i p t were e x c e p t i o n a l l y o r i g i n a l l a p p i n g as  an e x p r e s s i v e  drama o f the  device  B e n e d i c t i o n a l and  scene i n a d e c o r a t i v e whole. t h r o u g h o v e r l a p p i n g was tant  f i g u r e s c l o s e r t o the  f u r t h e r back. the  one  i n an  i n t e r p r e t a t i v e way  prehension  of  the  spiritual  f o r c e d him  the  message.  in  this  used  over-  religious  more  the  impor-  l e s s e r ones  compositon  seized  to view the  hopefully gain  of  planes  o f p l a c i n g the and  of  frame and  l a y e r i n g of  spectator  and  they  to u n i t e the  way  a t t e n t i o n and  artists  t o enhance t h e  The  modes  of a l l three  and  T h i s method o f s t r u c t u r a l  spectator's  three  a greater  scene com-  109 .  Footnotes 1  J e f f e r y H u r w i t , "Image and Frame i n G r e e k A r t " American- J o u r n a l o f A r c h a e o l o g y . 81, No. 1 ( W i n t e r ? 1977,) p . 7.  2 0. E l f r i d a (New Y o r k ,  Saunders, E n g l i s h  . . Illumination,  1  1 9 6 9 ) , p . 20.  3 R o b e r t Deshman, The I c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e F u l l - P a g e M i n i a t u r e s o f t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f A e t h e l w o l d , Ph. D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1970, p . 189. 4 Meyer S c h a p i r o , "On Some P r o b l e m s i n t h e S e m i o t i c s o f V i s u a l A r t : F i e l d and V e h i c l e i n I m a g e - S i g n s , " S e m i o t i c a I (19 6 9 ) . O. E l f r i d a S a u n d e r s , E n g l i s h I l l u m i n a t i o n , 1 (New Y o r k , 1 9 6 9 ) . 9th  J . J . G. A l e x a n d e r , I n s u l a r M a n u s c r i p t s 6 t h t o C e n t u r y , (London, 1 9 7 8 ) . 5  J e f f r e y H u r w i t , "Image a n d Frame i n Greek A r t , " A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f A r c h e o l o g y , 81, No. 1 ( W i n t e r , 1 9 7 7 ) , p . 1-30. ^ The i d e a o f t h e o p p o s i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f c l o s e d and open f o r m was f i r s t t h o u g h t o u t by H e i n r i c h W o l f f l i n i n h i s P r i n c i p l e s o f A r t H i s t o r y , (New Y o r k , 1950), f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n German i n 1915. A l t h o u g h n o t d a t e d , Wormald s u g g e s t s t h a t a r e a s o n a b l e d a t e w o u l d be t h e s i x t i e s o f t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y , and i t i s d e r i v e d from a group o f C a r o l i n g i a n m a n u s c r i p t s o f the A d a S c h o o l . The o u t l i n e d r a w i n g t e c h n i q u e was i n t r o duced i n t o E n g l a n d towards the middle o f t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y . F r a n c i s Wormald, E n g l i s h Drawings o f t h e T e n t h and E l e v e n t h C e n t u r i e s , (London, 1 9 5 2 ) , p . 24-5, p . 21.  110. Hurwit,  "Image and  Frame i n Greek A r t , " p .  7-8.  9 script,  D a v i d M. Robb, The A r t o f t h e I l l u m i n a t e d Manu( S o u t h B r u n s w i c k , New J e r s e y , 1973), p . 90. 1 0  Ibid.,  p.  91.  "'""'"Francis Wormald, E n g l i s h D r a w i n g s o f t h e and E l e v e n t h C e n t u r i e s , (London, 1952), p . 28. 12  Winchester  " 0. Homburger, D i e A n f a n g e des M a l s c h u l e im X J a h r h u n d e r t ,  (Leipzig,  1912),  p.  Tenth  von 9.  13 Deshman, The I c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e F u l l - P a g e M i n i a t u r e s , p . 27, 81, 83. Deshman s u g g e s t s t h e s o u r c e o f t h i s m i n i a t u r e was a Metz m a n u s c r i p t , now l o s t , w h i c h p r o b a b l y c o p i e d Metz i v o r i e s c o n t a i n i n g B y z a n t i n e f e a t u r e s , o r t h a t t h e a r t i s t o f t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l added c e r t a i n e l e m e n t s f r o m B y z a n t i n e s o u r c e s t o t h e Metz model - p e r h a p s f o r added r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e . I b i d . , p . 120 f . 46 . 1 4  15 Angeles,  R u d o l f A r n h e i m , A r t and 1965), p . 88.  Visual Perception,  (Los  16 Deshman, The I c o n o g r a p h y M i n i a t u r e s , p . 151, f . 204.  o f the F u l l - P a g e  17 Century,  Alexander, p . 10-13.  Insular Manuscripts  6th t o the  9th  18 Hurwit,  "Image and  Frame i n Greek A r t , " p .  14.  111.  CHAPTER V I  INTERACTION BETWEEN FRAME AND SCENE  The  relationship  between m i n i a t u r e  the B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f A e t h e l w o l d levels:  first,  scenes;  may be s t a t e d on d i f f e r e n t  on a f o r m a l b a s i s ; second, a c c o r d i n g  sequence o f scenes third,  i n relation  and f o u r t h , through This Chapter  which b i n d together  importance o f d i f f e r e n t  an u n d e r l y i n g t h e m a t i c  will  to the  t o t h e frame d e c o r a t i o n ;  i n terms o f t h e l i t u r g i c a l  pretation.  and frame i n  examine t h e s e  frame and e n c l o s e d  inter-  interactions  s c e n e as a u n i f i e d  image w i t h m e a n i n g b e y o n d i t s d e c o r a t i v e a p p e a r a n c e . I n o t h e r words, t h e frames i n t h i s m a n u s c r i p t  will  to  of the cycle o f  play a specific  its  role  i n the iconography  be shown  miniatures.  F o r m a l I n t e r a c t i o n o f Frame w i t h  Whatever t r e a t m e n t  Scene  i s g i v e n t o them, t h e a c a n t h u s  l e a v e s e x p r e s s i v e l y form p a r t o f t h e o v e r a l l d e s i g n , the c u r l e d t i p s and This  echoing  t h e s w i r l s o f t h e sky t / O i s particularly  (folio  9v - f i g u r e  with  the s w i r l s of the drapery assuming  leafy  n o t i c e a b l e i n The S e c o n d  9 ) , where t h e s w i r l s  0?" ,  shapes.  Coming  o f t h e s k y become  112.  spirals,  r e p e a t i n g the s p i r a l s  /•^•^""^ . drapery  The and  v e i n m a r k i n g s on  sky  centre r e f l e c t  lines. the  The  of the acanthus the  lines  from  the c e n t r e of the r o s e t t e s .  ites  frame and  a circular circular  scene  design,  as  ground rock  i s the  acanthus  of the  and  , similar  o n l y the acanthus,  but also  i s more e v i d e n t i n t h e c i r c u l a r framing,  the f i g u r e s  and  the mandorlas.  framing  lines  i n the composition,  the scene.  square  framing  middle  as  (folio  o f the  This the  h a l o s , t h e heads  square  p a r t s o f the  15v  - figure  and  the  t h e newborn. C h r i s t ; two  i n the  elements  scene  o f The  1 0 ) , where we  corner r o s e t t e s are repeated  l i n e s o f t h e bed  o f the  scene.  p o r t i o n s of  in architectural  A good example i s f o u n d  of C h r i s t  containing  The  struc-  of ro-  g e n e r a l l y o c c u r where t h e r e a r e many s q u a r i s h  tivity  angular  the  stomachs  the geometric  geometric  which echo the round  sette  to  scenes.  t u r e o f t h e r o s e t t e s m a t c h e s some a s p e c t o f t h e  rosette  form  drapery  a t t h e s h o u l d e r s , arms,  i n the  un-  leaves to  the c i r c u l a r  the  springing  Another f e a t u r e that  tendency  formations  l e g s o f the f i g u r e s  Not  o f the  emanating from  i n the r o s e t t e s  ovals evident p a r t i c u l a r l y and  l e a v e s are echoed i n the  mandorla l i n e s  formation  rosette tips  lower  squared-off  the c i r c u l a r  sides i s repeated  see  of Nathe  i n the section  r o s e t t e i n the  i n t h e h a l o s and  heads  113. of  t h e f i g u r e s , as w e l l as i n t h e r o u n d e d p o r t i o n s  cushions.  This  close connection  between t h e frame and t h e  s c e n e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y were e x e c u t e d by t h e same A l t h o u g h I have assumed t h a t t h e r e work on t h e m i n i a t u r e s the  evident fit  were e x e c u t e d  particularly  first.  that  This i s  This density i s  o b v i o u s i n t h e s c e n e o f The N a t i v i t y o f C h r i s t  15v - f i g u r e 1 0 ) , and a l s o may e x p l a i n why i n some  scenes elements o f t h e scene o v e r l a p  The scenes: bases,  colours  t h e frame.  o f t h e frame a l s o match c o l o u r s  the gold bars o f the arches, as w e l l a s t h e g o l d g e o m e t r i c  capitals,  architectural colours  columns and  used  f o r halos,  f e a t u r e s , m a n d o r l a s and d r a p e r y .  a l s o match c o l o u r s  flickering  i n the  structures of the r o -  s e t t e s which r e l a t e t h e frame t o t h e g o l d  white  i t appears  b e c a u s e o f t h e c r o w d i n g i n some o f t h e s c e n e s t o  f i g u r e s i n t o a p r e - e x i s t i n g space.  (folio  artist.  were many a r t i s t s a t  o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l ,  frames o f t h e m i n i a t u r e s  of the  i n the scenes,  h i g h l i g h t s of the leaves  white h i g h l i g h t s o f the f i g u r e s , producing  The a c a n t h u s  f o r example t h e a r e echoed i n the a unified  colour  scheme o f frame and s c e n e .  The  deliberate overlapping  far-reaching t o an o v e r a l l  implications."'"  o f frame and f i g u r e h a d  I t s u s e f o r example  sense o f p a t t e r n  contributes  a s f i g u r e s and frame mesh i n -  114. t o one  total  unit.  More i m p o r t a n t l y however, t h e  impact  of a composition  l a p p i n g each other feasts.  The  expressed  tends  t h e drama o f  device could therefore function to  liturgical  significance  for  the p a t r o n  of  new  d i f f e r e n t planes  to heighten  the  A  on  formal  the  o f scenes  with  interaction  and  over-  certain  underline  special  meaning  manuscript.  o f frame and  to the B e n e d i c t i o n a l of A e t h e l w o l d .  of ornamentation  visual  figural  d e s i g n had  m i n i a t u r e was  not  Most o f i t s f e a t u r e s a heritage i n Insular 2  and  C o n t i n e n t a l a r t o f t h e e i g h t h and  tinental  initials  of t h i s  a c t i o n d e f i n i n g the letter Treas.,  f o l . 96.  ner of the  p e r i o d are a l i v e with  shape o f  L o f the Essen  Gospel  figure  letter.  ninth centuries.  the  initial  Book, c a  energetic  itself,  800  A.D.  8 8 ) , where t h e b e a s t  as  in  (Essen  letter  of  the t e n t h c e n t u r y  rolingian in  effect,  E n g l i s h manuscripts  acanthus o v e r l a p p i n g the forming  the  initial,  the O x f o r d  Junius  figure  39;  second q u a r t e r  tional  e l e m e n t s have a d a p t e d  structure  (Oxford,  so t h a t the  o f the  a l s o produced i n i t i a l s frame o f  such  B o d l . MS  as  to the  last  filled the  i n the  J u n i u s 27, 3  tenth century).  Cath. cor-  just  t h e w r i t h i n g a c a n t h u s i n t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l forms t h e the m i n i a t u r e s .  the  rounds the  L i v i n g movement forms t h e  of  Con-  as  borders half  with  Ca-  initial, letter  S  and, of  f o l . 121v,  Here,  representa-  non-representational  acanthus s c r o l l  t w i s t s around t o  form  115.  the i n i t i a l .  A  similar  process i s evident  t i o n a l where t h e a c a n t h u s metric  structure  rosettes meshing  twist  and  the leaves  frame  The  Second  itself,  (folio  poses of the f i g u r e s ,  use o f t h e a c a n t h u s was  ultimately,  i n the l a s t  t o the e l a b o r a t e al.  The m o t i f s  existed did  the idea  i n Late Antiquity  to f u l l y  o f major  c o u l d be dominant ground  s u c h as t h e  but a tendency  and e n r i c h  ribbon  existed  i t s form  which  q u a r t e r o f the t e n t h c e n t u r y , i n the  Benediction-  f o r the use o f the acanthus  but not u n t i l  characteristics  feature  a r t i n E n g l a n d was  changeability  o n t o t h e more  had  pre-Carolingian art  of a r t i s t i c  expression,  d e v e l o p i n Romanesque a r t .  A third lar  and  of  components o f t h e s c e n e .  f u n c t i o n of the acanthus  t h e y become m a j o r  later  a r e molded  n o t new,  i n English manuscripts to amplify led,  within  9), i s p a r a l l e l e d i n  and e l e m e n t s  i n with architectural  and  This  obvious i n the r o s e t t e s  draperies  geo-  bases  and m o b i l e forms  9v - f i g u r e  t h e s c e n e s where s w i r l i n g  This  i n the c a p i t a l s ,  of s t a t i c  particularly  Coming  sky a r e m i x e d  adapt themselves t o a  i n and o u t o f t h e g e o m e t r i c f r a m e .  of the o p p o s i t i o n s  the  static  leaves  i n the Benedic-  i n another.  the L i n d i s f a r n e  common t o b o t h C a r o l i n g i a n and a m b i g u i t y o f form, and m i n o r  i n one  i s : the  themes, so t h a t  s c e n e and  In E n g l i s h  that  a  form p a r t o f the  art this  Insuinter-  figure back-  d e v i c e i s seen i n  G o s p e l s where a n i m a l s f o r m t h e i n t e r l a c e  out  116. of  their  one  own b o d i e s ,  part  Similar  their  necks,  i s d o m i n a n t a t one p o i n t ambivalence  of Christ  where i n t h e l o w e r l e f t - h a n d  as  o f the outermost  spatial  In  nental in did  corner,  earlier  the lower b o d i l y  t h e frame.  i n d i c a t e s the a r t i s t  summary t h e f o r m a l  por-  T h i s meshing o f i n spatial  was p r e o c c u p i e d  not  design.  i n t e r a c t i o n o f frame  from a combination  features.  minia-  64v - f i g u r e 22)  here i s not l o g i c a l  concerns but with  scene d e r i v e d  and r e c e s s i v e a t a n o t h e r .  (folio  are behind  b a c k g r o u n d and f o r e g r o u n d  with  so t h a t  f i g u r e i s i n f r o n t o f t h e f r a m e , where-  h i s elbow and h a l o  terms, b u t r a t h e r  or t a i l s  i s seen i n t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l ' s  t u r e o f The A s c e n s i o n  tion  limbs  of Insular  with  and Centi:n  This  i n t e r a c t i o n was p a r t i c u l a r l y  evident  manuscripts  i n the s t r u c t u r e of i n i t i a l s  which  not l i m i t or determine  frame o f t h e i n i t i a l o'r t h e i n i t i a l  t h e forms o f i t s ornament.  The  was o f t e n v i o l a t e d by t h e o r n a m e n t ,  itself  was s o e x t r a v a g a n t l y  d e f o r m e d o r ob5  scured  that  i t was b a r e l y  d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e as a  letter.  What was o r i g i n a l  i n t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l was t h e a r t i s t s ' u s e  of  i n full-page manuscript i l l u m i n a t i o n i n  these f e a t u r e s  which the d i f f e r e n t laborated  e l e m e n t s o f t h e frame and t h e s c e n e  t o form a u n i f i e d  organized  design.  The B e n e d i c -  t i o n a l was t h e f i r s t  Insular manuscript to explore  avenue o f e x p r e s s i o n  and was t h e f o r e r u n n e r  framing  and i l l u m i n a t i o n i n m a n u s c r i p t s ,  col-  this  o f Romanesque  and a l s o  perhaps  117. influenced and  later  s c u l p t u r e such  as  Following tures note  Moissac-  from the b e g i n n i n g certain  content.  ous  s e q u e n c e w i t h no  lios  (figures  thus  frieze  o f the m a n u s c r i p t  1,  The  2,  first  the ".  text. and  3)  framing,  first  this  s e t , the  a l l have a r c h e d  and  appear t o belong  i n these  Saxon k i n g E d g a r was e a r t h , we  ed  and  shares  may  earth.  Therefore,  considered  infer  the r u l e  and,  unit.  by  the dual  joint  rule  saints  ment i n w h i c h A e t h e l w o l d  just  as  with  the  Anglo-  with  Christ  i s crown-  earth with  tenth century  played  such  an  the  a l s o were  t h a t the Anglo-Saxon church  i d e a l of the  mini-  Almost  Edgar.  Such a n i n f e r e n c e would g i v e the Church r e g a l o v e r t o n e s portray  acan-  o f c h o i r s wear crowns  a throne-sharer  o f t h e kingdom on  fo-  These t h r e e  t o one  The  three  frames w i t h  Virgins,  three miniatures  C h r i s t o f t h e Kingdom o f H e a v e n . " . t h e C h u r c h on  fram-  Of  c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e main a r c h .  saints  on  we  form a c o n t i n u -  . . symbols o f t h e i r b e a t i t u d e and  p a r t of  t o t h e end,  seven m i n i a t u r e s  atures d e p i c t c h o i r s of Confessors arch  Decoration  groups t h a t form a u n i t because of s i m i l a r  and  triple  t o Frame  the sequence o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l ' s m i n i a -  ing  as  at  Ve'zelay.  Sequence o f S c e n e s as R e l a t e d  all  t h a t found  reform,  important  and  a move-  role.  118. The apostles  next  (figures  four miniatures 4-7).  i n the s e t are f o l i o s of  The f i r s t  pair  i s framed i n a  tri-  a n g u l a r p e d i m e n t e d a r c h on columns and have c i t y - v i e w e n richments.  Elements w i t h i n these  city-views w i l l  be exam-  i n e d b e l o w i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e m i n i a t u r e o f The of the Holy  Ghost, which c o n t a i n s comparable  second  o f a p o s t l e scenes  pair  on c o l u m n s . the  which l i n k well  these  features.  i s framed i n a c i r c u l a r  I t i s not only the s i m i l a r  common s u b j e c t m a t t e r  Descent  together.  a number o f m i n i a t u r e s m i s s i n g  from  arch  framing but a l s o  o f t h r e e a p o s t l e s i n each  four miniatures  The  scene  T h e r e a r e as  the B e n e d i c t i o n a l ,  w h i c h w o u l d have f o r m e d v a r i o u s c h o i r s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e book. face  The b a s i c i d e a o f s u c h  the text  choirs  t o a c t as a p i c t o r i a l  together with apostle  o f the manuscript  scenes  the other  seven  an a r r a n g e m e n t was t o p r e -  with  litany.  formed a u n i t  of heavenly  These m i s s i n g  miniatures—the  and t h e t h r e e f o l i o s  gins—undoubtedly  a series  choirs,  two p a i r s o f  of Confessors  and V i r -  i n d e c o r a t i v e f r a m i n g as  7  w e l l as i n c o n t e n t .  Following rectangular  this  s e t o f seven  framing with  f e a s t o f the Annunciation,  tury.  a new t y p e o f  s i d e r o s e t t e s i s i n t r o d u c e d by t h e  miniature of the Annunciation  the beginning  folios,  (folio  c e l e b r a t e d March 2 5 t h ,  of the l i t u r g i c a l  Thus, the i n c l u s i o n  5v - f i g u r e  year  8).  had marked  s i n c e the seventh  o f t h e scene  The  cen-  a t t h i s p o i n t i n the  119 . Benedictional ature this  i s a t the b e g i n n i n g folio  facing to  creates a l o g i c a l  on, w i t h  liturgical  each o t h e r , each m i n i a t u r e  the w r i t t e n b l e s s i n g  f o r the  and  pair  scenes  frame.  As we  Equally distinct  S e c o n d Coming  the o n l y e n c l o s e d arched  liturgical  (folio  have  t h e S e c o n d Coming, m a r k i n g t h e b e g i n n i n g  Benedictional  calendar year, Annunciation  The  same s e q u e n c e o f e v e n t s  indicates  a sequence o f C h r i s t ' s liturgical  t h a t the life  liturgists  i n time,  seen,  i s the f o l l o w -  frame i n t h e  by  the  in its  9v - f i g u r e  the  Christianity.  preface  f e a s t d e p i c t e d , shown on  In  the  of  From  a c t s as a v i s u a l  i n a matching  components.  m i n i a t u r e o f The  w h i c h has  by  text.  frame o f t h e A n n u n c i a t i o n m i n i a t u r e i s u n i q u e  structure ing  of the  t h e e x c e p t i o n o f one  o p p o s i t e page o f t e x t the  sequence, s i n c e the m i n i -  9),  manuscript.  i s followed  and  end  of  d e p i c t e d i n the d i d not  follow  b u t were g u i d e d i n s t e a d  r a t h e r than n a r r a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s  in  selecting  cycle.  The  remaining  the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l alternating tions;  the  miniatures also  year  and  r e c t a n g u l a r and first  one  occurs  f o l l o w the  sequence  a p a t t e r n of framing arched  frames,  at Easter with  with  emerges o f two  (folio  (folio 51v  45v  - figure  - figure  20);  19), the  and  second  excep-  two r e c t a n g u l a r l y  framed m i n i a t u r e s f o l l o w i n g each o t h e r : the E n t r y salem  of  into  Jeru-  t h e Women a t t h e Tomb occurs  a t t h e end  of  the  120. manuscript  where two  t h e D e a t h and figure 32),  31),  Coronation  and  opposite  angel.  blessing  the m i s s i n g m i n i a t u r e  this  t h e number and  noticeable  feast cycle,  stand out:  at and  depicted,  i s The  (folio  year.  opposite  Arch-  f e a s t s are  In Advent, (figure  (folio  o f the Baptism  (figure  31).  - figure  the  90v  In  the  - figure 25  -  16)  figure  and  the  the  Death  saints  elaborate  25)  and  S t . Bene-  30).  c y c l e of miniatures  depends on  most  a r e : t h e Women  Of  - figure  over-  which  (folio  framing  the  the  9).  24v  i n the E a s t e r c y c l e ,  (folio  of  emphasized  facing miniatures  impressive  20)  have  t h e page  are noteworthy because of t h e i r  99v  Aethelwold  gical  two  of the V i r g i n  Overall, of  S e c o n d Coming  there are  (figure  two  figure  Virgin.  frame, or b o t h .  frames: S t . E t h e l d r e d a dict  missing,  sequence, c e r t a i n  Other f e a s t s w i t h  Coronation  10 8 -  -  of St. Michael  the A d o r a t i o n o f the Magi  t h e Tomb  102v  r e c t a n g u l a r frame c o u l d  o f the  the matching m i n i a t u r e  17).  (folio  e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e r o s e t t e s o r by  l a p p i n g o f image and  and  another  a m i n i a t u r e , now  Within  i n succession:  of the V i r g i n  f o r the N a t i v i t y  Christmas  frames are  t h e page o f b l e s s i n g ( f o l i o  Between t h e s e ,  surrounded  by  arched  the  Moreoever, the  i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l  sequence of events e m p h a s i s was  i n the  on A n g l o - S a x o n  liturlitur-  121. gical by  practice  r a t h e r than  C o n t i n e n t a l , as  t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f two  English saints.  to Aethelwold, St. Swithun hieratic their  St. Etheldreda  (folio  poses,  symbolic,  97v  (folio  - figure  29),  t y p i c a l of Byzantine liturgical  role  90v  is  evidenced  Both  special  - figure  25)  and  are represented g  style,  r a t h e r than  in  suggesting their  narra-  9 tive  one.  The  selection  of  f e a s t s t o be  a m i n i a t u r e must have b e e n g u i d e d the a r t i s t one  i n charge,  should note  prefaced  by A e t h e l w o l d  with  himself  p r e s u m a b l y Godeman, o r b o t h .  t h a t the  important  or  Finally,  f e a s t s are emphasized  by  the g r e a t e r e l a b o r a t i o n o f the  frame w h i c h t o g e t h e r w i t h i t s  enclosed  as  scene catches  Liturgical  t h e eye  a single,  I m p o r t a n c e o f S c e n e s as R e l a t e d  sumptuous  image.  t o Frame D e c o r a -  tion  The  artists  ters of design pressive gical of  but  o f t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l were n o t o n l y masa l s o were e x p e r t s  c o n t r a s t s o f frame and  and  regal significance  frame d e c o r a t i o n s u g g e s t s  mind o f t h e a r t i s t s ; embellished  in  the  of  a t the  formal  and  ex-  scene t o enhance the  litur-  the m i n i a t u r e s .  degree  a hierarchical  t h e more i m p o r t a n t  the  The  i d e a was feast,  in  t h e more  frame.  l o o k i n g a t t h e m i n i a t u r e s we  f r a m e s have more r o s e t t e e m b e l l i s h m e n t s  note  t h a t some  either  the  i n number  122. or  i n degree o f e l a b o r a t i o n than o t h e r s ,  degree o f d e l i b e r a t e o v e r l a p p i n g liturgical  Listed  spect  and we w i l l  The  device  now examine them  most s p e c t a c u l a r (folio  i s used w i t h  the  viewer f e e l s  ter  V).  framing  i n the manuscript i s  of this miniature  instead o f the usual  one.  when t h i s  the t i g h t l y  faith to  i s undoubtedly the  one c o n t a i n i n g  scrolled  and t h e s t r i a t e d m a n d o r l a ,  t h e most i m p o r t a n t  - the promise  the teachings  Church), w i l l  (as t a u g h t  be s a v e d and w i l l  h a p p i n e s s when C h r i s t r e t u r n s  of the C a t h o l i c  be r e w a r d e d w i t h  awarded t h i s  scene u n d e r l i n e d  feast.  faithful  eternal  a t t h e end o f t h e w o r l d  lishments  this  The S e c o n d  by t h e C a t h o l i c  t h e Kingdom o f Heaven on e a r t h .  emphasize  the r e s u l t i s  drama.  belief  establish  to  sky, the  t h a t a l l C h r i s t i a n s who r e m a i n  of C h r i s t  four  k i n e t i c movement, and  o f i n c r e a s e d movement and i n t e n s i f i e d  Coming r e p r e s e n t s  103-4, Chap-  Furthermore, these r o -  of strong  i s combined w i t h  that  f r a m e s - - i t i s the only en-  s e t t e s produce the f e e l i n g  one  where t h e o v e r l a p -  0  (see pages  frame as w e l l a s t h e o n l y  draperies  1  s u c h s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and s k i l l  p a r t o f t h e drama  The f r a m i n g  c l o s e d arched  swirling  differen-  individually.  9v - f i g u r e 9 )  most u n i q u e o f a l l t h e a r c h e d  rosettes  Does t h e  above a r e t h e f e a s t s most e m p h a s i z e d i n t h i s r e -  S e c o n d Coming  ping  o f frame and image.  importance o f the f e a s t s determine these  ces?  The  as w e l l as a g r e a t e r  The added  the a r t i s t s '  to embeldesire  Royal overtones are r e f l e c t e d i n  123. the i n s c r i p t i o n nantium,  illustrating  imperial  theme a l s o  o f the Magi  The feast  on C h r i s t ' s m a n t l e  (folio  the b i b l i c a l found  regum e t Dominus domi-  text  and  stressing  i n t h e m i n i a t u r e o f The  24v  - figure  16).  next f e a s t  stressed  i s The  t o which the a r t i s t  miniature.  Rex  has  an .  Adoration  1 1  Epiphany  - the o n l y  g i v e n more t h a n one  full-page  I n t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y t h e A d o r a t i o n o f t h e Magi  was  t h e main f e a s t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f e a s t o f t h e  The  Epiphany  25 - f i g u r e  was  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Baptism  17), a combination  Epiphany.  of C h r i s t  common i n e a s t e r n and  (folio  western  12 l i t u r g i c a l manuscripts. choice  o f two  A more i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n  illuminations  the a r t i s t s '  desire  pointed out,  t h e s e two  f o r the f e a s t o f the Epiphany  to s t r e s s r o y a l elements. feasts  ".  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of r o y a l elements L o o k i n g a t b o t h m i n i a t u r e s we t h e frame by tist of  has  left  erate expansion  formed  f r a m i n g b o r d e r s , and border.  T h i s was  of the scene  of a double  rather  As  Deshman  was has  of the g r e a t e s t 13  manuscript.".  t h a t the o v e r l a p p i n g of  frieze  i n both,  the a r -  normally present i n  one  figures partially  cover  no  delib-  a c c i d e n t but a  f o r dramatic e f f e c t .  also contain six rosettes  t h e s e two  i n the  note  out the acanthus  the o t h e r v e r t i c a l  iatures  . . show one  t h e image i s so e x t e n s i v e t h a t  the v e r t i c a l  f o r the  and  the corner four  than a s i n g l e  m i n i a t u r e s h a v e been s i n g l e d  Both  structure.  min-  are  Thus,  out f o r p a r t i c u l a r  124.  emphasis royal  iconography.  figure is  importance  I n The  liturgically  Adoration  of  as  the  . . the  and  the Magi  16) , t h e i m p e r i a l power o f C h r i s t  s t r e s s e d : ".  well in  to denote t h e i r  their  (folio  24v  (and h e n c e E d g a r ' s )  crowns upon t h e heads o f t h e Magi  t h r e e diadems w h i c h t h e  a ceremony o f Aurum c o r o n a r i u m  first  pay  -  o f them  as  presents  homage t o t h e Rex  re-  14 gum.".  The  B e n e d i c t i o n a l i s one  of the  first  manuscripts  15 to  r e p r e s e n t t h e Magi as k i n g s w e a r i n g c r o w n s .  s e n t a t i o n o f t h r e e diadems t o t h e C h r i s t subservience  of each of the  supremacy o v e r miniature we  note  other  o f The  the  duplication  o u t e r m o s t two  angels,  w h i c h Deshman s u g g e s t s ficance,  and  Aethelwold  spiritual  mal  scene  ly  on  intended  the other  . .a  reformers  nointing with a parallel temporal  t o have i m p e r i a l  concerted attempt  chrism.  between t h e  monarch.". ^ 1  artist  coronation of The  the image,  signiby with  Moreover, the B a p t i s to elaborate  between r o y a l  . . . The  the  17),  t o imbue K i n g E d g a r 16  o f f e r e d the o p p o r t u n i t y  the b a s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p  - figure  a c t u a l Baptismal  a u t h o r i t y of C h r i s t . " .  "...  In  s c e p t e r h e l d by  shown above t h e was  25  the  Edgar's  of England.  (folio  o f d i a d e m and  w h i c h shows ".  and  the  of C h r i s t  pre-  denotes  t h r e e Magi, p a r a l l e l i n g  contemporary kings  Baptism  child  The  office  direct-  and  an-  necessarily implied  t h e M e s s i a h and  contemporary account  the  o f the  n a t i o n o f E d g a r goes on t o s a y : Then were m a n i f e s t t h e g l o r i o u s f e s t i v i t y and s o l e m n i t y o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t when a l l came t o  Coro-  the consecrate  125. t h e g l o r i o u s k i n g whose s c e p t e r was r e f u l g e n t w i t h g l o r y and whose d i a d e m r e s p l e n d e n t w i t h t h e b e a u t y o f g o l d . . . . (and) . . . A f t e r t h e a n n o i n t i n g t h e a r c h b i s h o p gave him a r i n g , g i r t him w i t h a sword and p l a c e d a crown upon h i s h e a d . He was g i v e n a l s o a s c e p t e r and a rod.-'8  Here i s t h e r e f e r e n c e i n E d g a r ' s the  s c e p t e r , d i a d e m and  two  miniatures  nificant  parallel  feast  i n these  two  but  in stressing  to Edgar's  - figure  the next m i n i a t u r e i s The  feasts  i n the  Church s i n c e i t denotes C h r i s t ' s divinity.  six  rosettes,  double  The the  the f e a s t of the  20), p r e f a c i n g the  o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t  his  framing  and  t h a t stands  Women a t t h e  liturgy  of the  conclude as  the v e r t i c a l  present  that religious  important  free  and  borders V) .  are covered  significance as  the  one  Catholic of  the a  because the  frame,  o v e r by  T h e r e a r e no  the  overt  s o t h a t one  related  be-  Tomb  formed o f  acanthus,  i n this miniature  to the a r t i s t s  out  r e s u r r e c t i o n — a proof  f o u r c o r n e r ones once a g a i n  (see page . ~10 2 , C h a p t e r  r e g a l overtones  the  f e a s t of E a s t e r ,  of the d e l i b e r a t e o v e r l a p p i n g of the f i g u r e s over  figures  sig-  Epiphany  i s s p e c t a c u l a r because of  s t r u c t u r e with expansive  where o v e r h a l f  pro-  t h e r e f o r e was  the r o y a l overtones  cause of e l a b o r a t i o n o f framing 51v  The  these  coronation.  Sequentially,  (folio  of the Epiphany. miniatures  not only i n emphasizing  liturgically  to  crown - a l l e l e m e n t s p r e s e n t i n  awarded t h e  minence o f f r a m i n g  c o r o n a t i o n ceremony  may  to framing  r e g a l e l e m e n t s - more  was so  126. in  this  case.  The 64v  m i n i a t u r e o f The  - figure  22)  p r e f a c e s the  event which occured cated  the d i v i n i t y  stands thus  after  lar  frame f i l l e d  tirely a r e no tion  with  spread  of the Holy  rosette,  frame.  Ghost  flattened, effect.  r e p r e s e n t s The  The  place  i n Jerusalem,  Descent and  rectangu-  omitted  by  i t en-  scene,  the  there  interrela-  i n the case  of  t o have been  used  (folio  67v  - figure  23)  t e x t p o r t i o n o f t h e manu(page  65-6 h Pter c  t h e r e f o r e we  elabo-  to b e l i e v e that  any  o f the Holy  III)  a  m a i n a r c h c o n t a i n s an  required to offset  scene  acan-  Once a g a i n t h o u g h  therefore i t i s d i f f i c u l t  d e c o r a t i o n was  the  Christ.  t o have c i t y - v i e w e n r i c h m e n t s arched  indi-  the o v e r l a p p i n g  or heaven, appears of  an  miniature  and  sumptuous  image, p a r t i c u l a r l y  the d i v i n i t y  Descent  i n the  the o n l y m i n i a t u r e w i t h i n the  added t o an  in a  frieze,  105-6,Chapter V ) .  evident r o y a l overtones  t o emphasize  rate  out  again  of t h i s  s i x rosettes present  acanthus  between frame and  script  framing  a particularly  the o v e r l a p p i n g o f sky  tra  The  so e x t e n s i v e t h a t t h e a r t i s t  (see p a g e s  The  (folio  however i s t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e b a s i c  t h e image b e i n g  is  t h e R e s u r r e c t i o n and  l e a v e s w i t h i n them a r e  s p l a y e d manner, g i v i n g  of C h r i s t  f e a s t of the A s c e n s i o n ,  of C h r i s t .  out because of the  More o b v i o u s  Ascension  bareness. Ghost, which  must s u g g e s t  ex-  The took  that,  like  127. t h e c i t y - v i e w s i n t h e two city  r e p r e s e n t e d must be  global  finials  used?  m i n i a t u r e s o f the a p o s t l e s , the Jerusalem.  Baldwin  Why  Smith  were c u p o l a s  and  said:  The c u p o l a and g l o b e were r e l a t e d emblems o f r o y a l power w h i c h a c c o u n t s f o r t h e f a c t t h a t t h r o u g h o u t t h e h i s t o r y o f M e d i e v a l and R e n a i s s a n c e a r c h i t e c t u r e , t h e c u p o l a and dome were n e a r l y a l w a y s s u r mounted by a g l o b a l f i n i a l . 1 9 Deshman has dictional  p o i n t e d out the r o y a l c o n n o t a t i o n s of the  on  the b a s i s of h i s i c o n o g r a p h i c a l a n a l y s i s  Beneof  the  20 miniatures. basic  The  round  and  t o w e r s have t h e same  s y m b o l i s m as a c i b o r i u m , w h i c h had  as i m p e r i a l  c o n n o t a t i o n s and  n i n e hundred y e a r s w i t h c i t y the ceremonies  Epiphany,  a liturgical  "... and  was  celestial  as  and  salvational  w h i c h was feast  well  a s s o c i a t e d f o r over 21  p a l a c e gateways.".  In  of the M i d d l e Ages, the c i b o r i u m " . . .  the t r a d i t i o n a l The  conical  implications  o f an  had  Epiphany."  c o n s i d e r e d a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f God,  of g r e a t importance  d u r i n g the M i d d l e  wa Ag-  23 es.  With t h i s  G h o s t was  not  Spirit  t h e r e f o r e t h e use  c e r t a i n l y was  of domical  seem a p p r o p r i a t e as s y m b o l i c of these symbolize  domical  or brought  o f God  of the  feast,  the  Holy  appear-  a manifestation of  towers i n t h i s  o f an E p i p h a n y .  towers i n the A p o s t l e scenes  the presence  the Gospels  Descent  c o n s i d e r e d a main Epiphany  ance o f the Holy and  i n m i n d , a l t h o u g h The  inspiring  scene  The  God  does  presence  a l s o would  them as t h e y  C h r i s t ' s message t o o t h e r s .  wrote  128.  The  three  c i t y - v i e w enrichments t o the  the B e n e d i c t i o n a l t h e r e f o r e p l a y e d resenting  Jerusalem,  and  evangelical mission  their  cent  of the Holy  Ghost.  C h u r c h o f t h e New in  t h e New  w h i c h was  Law  a narrative role  associated with and  Holy  the  Jerusalem  I n was  the  location was  as e s t a b l i s h e d by  Testament.  framing  in  in  apostles  o f The  symbolic  Christ  and  a sacred pilgrimage  rep-  Desof  the  recorded place  24 looked  upon as  the  City  ments w i t h i n t h e s e as we  conical  by  the C h r i s t i a n s .  city-views also played  have s e e n , w i t h  r o u n d and  o f God  the  cupolas,  towers.  these  border  l a p p i n g of the  the  acanthus f r i e z e w i t h i n the  sarily the  been o m i t t e d  frame and  o f The day  annointing Frankish  and  Pentecost  was  Spirit  Pentecost  Moreover, that neces-  C h a p t e r V) , f u r t h e r b o n d i n g  according Since evident  i n 961  city-  rela-  columns o f t h e %rame has  G h o s t was  f e a s t day.  the  frame i s so e x t e n s i v e  into a total  were commonly crowned on  a parallel  Holy  this  scene.  unit.  to the w r i t t e n an  feast  analogy  and  Otto there  Sun-  account,  between r e g a l  i n ninth century  t h a t day. A.D.,  The  c e l e b r a t e d on W h i t  c o r o n a t i o n o r d o , t h a t i s p e r h a p s why  t o o k p l a c e on be  scene v i s u a l l y  Edgar's coronation,  t o o k p l a c e on  the  (see p a g e 102',  Descent of the Holy  and  archs  image o v e r  and  meaningful,  a d d i t i o n s to the e n c l o s e d  the  role,  component o f t h e  v i e w s a p p e a r s t o have been d e l i b e r a t e and ting  a symbolic  global finials  Thus, every  Ele-  medieval 1 s 1  western mon-  coronation  seems a l s o t o  between i m p e r i a l a n n o i n t i n g and t h e g i f t o f t h e 25 at Pentecost. Therefore i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g  129.  to f i n d  the m i n i a t u r e  of this  awarded t h e e m b e l l i s h m e n t  The framing  embellishment  to m e r i t t h i s  on  i t deserved.  The f o u r c o r n e r  Saxon queen E t h e l d r e d a , who  h e r name. and  miniature  leaf  T h i s added  clasps fra-  s t a n d o u t as one o f t h e  The f e a s t h o n o u r e d t h e A n g l o -  founded the monastery a t E l y ca  672 A.D. and d i e d c a 679 A.D. s a i n t by t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y ,  figure  r o s e t t e s once more  frame i n a u n i q u e manner.  i n the manuscript.  specific  90v -  s t r u c t u r e and t h e a c a n t h u s  ming d e c o r a t i o n makes t h e m i n i a t u r e  churches  (folio  has e i g h t r o s e t t e s , t h e o n l y  number.  t o the t r e l l i s  h o n o u r e d by  i s St. Etheldreda  formed o f a double  most l a v i s h  i n t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l was  English saint particularly  2 5 ) , whose m i n i a t u r e  are  feast  She was a famous and p o p u l a r  j u d g i n g by t h e number o f E n g l i s h  d e d i c a t e d i n h e r h o n o u r and by c a l e n d a r s c o n t a i n i n g Bede's w e l l known hymn i n p r a i s e o f S t . E t h e l d r e d a ,  t h e many m a r v e l s a t t r i b u t e d  t o h e r i n t e r c e s s i o n , made h e r 26  s h r i n e a t E l y an i m p o r t a n t indicated h i s veneration abbey between A.D. this  pilgrimage  center.  Aethelwold  f o r S t . E t h e l d r e d a by r e f o u n d i n g h e r  963 and 969, and t h i s h e l p s  f e a s t w o u l d have b e e n g i v e n  special  t o e x p l a i n why  attention i n his  Benedictional. F u r t h e r m o r e , S a i n t E t h e l d r e d a was: . . . t h e p e r f e c t symbol o f t h e a l l i a n c e b e h i n d t h e m o n a s t i c r e f o r m . . . . The d u a l i d e a l she r e p r e s e n t e d had a g e n e r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h e m o n a s t i c r e f o r m and a l s o a much more i n t i m a t e one f o r W i n c h e s t e r . The a b b e s s A e t h e l w o l d a p p o i n t e d t o t h e r e f o r m e d Nunnam i n s t e r was t h e namesake o f S. A e t h e l d r e d a . 2 7  130.  A n o t h e r s a i n t whose m i n i a t u r e m e r i t s framing only  i s St. Benedict  appears  vacui,  (folio  99v - f i g u r e  i n an a r c h i t e c t u r a l  setting  elaborate 30, who n o t  displaying  b u t whose frame c o n t a i n s s i x r o s e t t e  w i t h a unique  formation of a t r i p l e  settes containing e l i p t i c a l mation.  bars  Here t h e s q u a r i s h l i n e s  horror  embellishments  structure,  the side r o -  as p a r t o f t h e r o s e t t e f o r of the r o s e t t e s t r u c t u r e  are echoed i n t h e l i n e s o f t h e b u i l d i n g s w i t h i n t h e scene. St.  B e n e d i c t was t h e f o u n d e r  of the Benedictine  monastic  movement a n d t h e O l d M i n s t e r where t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l was executed  was a B e n e d i c t i n e e s t a b l i s h m e n t .  In t h i s  miniature,  St.  B e n e d i c t wears a d i a d e m on h i s head and h o l d s a crown i n  one  hand, p o s s i b l y  the  link  gested:  to present  between m o n a s t i c i s m "The m o n a s t i c  temporal  rule,  t o King Edgar, and r o y a l t y .  to demonstrate  As Deshman  Church would n o t o n l y share  but the King's  temporal  sug-  Edgar's  r u l e w o u l d be t h e r e 28  ward f o r h i s s u p p o r t the to  of Benedictine monasticism.".  framing embellishment  i n this miniature  an emphasis t h a t i s e q u a l l y p o l i t i c a l The  ration  l a s t miniature  31).  seems t o p o i n t  and  liturgical.  t o stand out because o f i t s deco-  and f o r m a l i n t e r a c t i o n o f frame and s c e n e ,  D e a t h and C o r o n a t i o n  o f the V i r g i n  (folio  102v -  I t h a s an e l a b o r a t e r o s e t t e a t m i d - a r c h  additions  Thus,  i s The figure  and e l i p t i c a l  appear n o t o n l y i n the r o s e t t e s t r u c t u r e b u t a l s o  131. in  the c a p i t a l s  and b a s e s .  a b a c u s and e l i p t i c a l a r c h frame, e c h o i n g liturgical  The a c a n t h u s  additions, the drapery  importance  as w e l l  spills  over the  as o v e r  t h e main  edges i n t h e scene.  o f Mary's c o r o n a t i o n i s v i s u a l l y  p h a s i z e d by t h e added d e c o r a t i v e e m b e l l i s h m e n t s . ing  was t h e f i n a l  Winchester,  em-  Her crown-  honour awarded t o t h e M o t h e r o f God.  under A e t h e l w o l d ,  was an a c t i v e  d e v o t i o n , and renewed i n t e r e s t d i c t i n e monastic  The  center of Marial  i n Mary was p a r t o f t h e Bene-  r e f o r m movement on t h e C o n t i n e n t and i n 29  England  where A e t h e l w o l d  ture i s the e a r l i e s t of  Mary"^  0  and w h i l e  was t h e d r i v i n g  i t represents i n p a r t evidence  Edgar's  t o i n c h a r t e r s under the t i t l e  t h e u s u a l c u s t o m , and she was p r o b a b l y  crowned w i t h E d g a r i n 973. sought  Thus,  an i m p l i c i t  parallel  wife  Regina,  Aelfthryth w h i c h was  a n o i n t e d and  " . . . Aethelwold  t o strengthen the s t a t u s o f Edgar's  ther through  of i n -  i t i s also a reflection of 31  s p e c i f i c Anglo-Saxon c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  not  This minia-  known r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e C o r o n a t i o n  creased devotion to the V i r g i n ,  was r e f e r r e d  force.  probably  queen s t i l l  fur-  t o the Coronation of the  32 Virgin.".  T h i s was done p e r h a p s  the r e f o r m o r reward dual reason hanced  t o e x p l a i n her r o l e i n 33  her f o r her co-operation,  fordistinguishing  hence a  t h i s m i n i a t u r e by i t s e n -  framing. Thematic  Analysis  T h i s c h a p t e r so f a r has s t r e s s e d  the l i t u r g i c a l  importance o f the m i n i a t u r e s relationship devices  tations.  i n the framing  their  allusion  function The  the free-stand-  and i t s t r i u m p h a l  arch  relation-  coronation.  i n t h e M i d d l e Ages h a d an e x p r e s s i v e  and f o r m e d p a r t o f t h e c l i m a t e o f i d e a s  C h u r c h b u i l t monumental c o n s t r u c t i o n s  architectural  conno-  f r a m e s and images w i t h i n t h e a r c h  t o Edgar's  Architecture  of  What needs t o be  To be n o t e d a l s o a r e some more g e n e r a l  s h i p s between t h e a r c h e d in  decoration.  now i s a d e e p e r meaning b e h i n d  arch motif  i n direct  sequence and t o t h e e l a b o r a t e n e s s  used i n t h e framing  considered ing  to their  i n the Benedictional  forms s p i r i t u a l  or p o l i t i c a l  of the e r a .  t o impress ideas  through  on t h e  34 largely  illiterate  population.  Deshman has s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l was commissioned  f o r a s p e c i f i c event,  the Coronation  o f Edgar,  35 which took p l a c e tion  a t B a t h i n 973 A.D.  I f Deshman's assump-  i s c o r r e c t , t h e u s e o f t h e open f r e e - s t a n d i n g  frames c o u l d be r e l a t e d arches  arched  a l s o t o the idea o f the triumphal  e r e c t e d by Roman e m p e r o r s t o c e l e b r a t e t h e i r  Adven-  36 tus o r e n t r y  into  invention erected sible  a city.  The d e c o r a t e d  t o honour a r u l e r  to disregard the r e l a t i o n  a r c h was a Roman  and ". . . i t i s impos-  of the free-standing  arch  to  t h e c i t y - g a t e and a l l t h a t t h e Roman t r i u m p h came t o have  in  common w i t h  37 the Imperial Adventus.".  Roman  emperors  133. and the r u l e r s of the Middle Ages had a common b e l i e f t h a t they were throne-sharers w i t h God.  As Baldwin  Smith s a i d :  In a way t h a t was comparable t o the antique acceptance of triumph and c o r o n a t i o n as i m p l y i n g d e i f i c a t i o n , everyone during the Middle Ages b e l i e v e d t h a t p u r i f i c a t i o n and c o n s e c r a t i o n by anointment i n v e s t e d a r u l e r with d i v i n e a t t r i b u t e s . 3 8  Ceremonies such as the Adventus c o n s i s t e d of meeting a r u l e r , who  was  considered a d i v i n e person,  welcoming him with music, dancing, e t c .  a t the c i t y - g a t e and T h i s ceremony per-  s i s t e d as l a t e as the e i g h t h century i n Ravenna, and i n Rome i n 774 A.D.  when Charlemagne was  Adventus ceremony. was  also " . . .  received with  an  Beyond i t s s e c u l a r f u n c t i o n , the custom  f o l l o w e d by the monastic orders f o r the r e 39  c e p t i o n of d i s t i n g u i s h e d guests.".  A C a r o l i n g i a n example  i s the L o r s c h Gatehouse, e r e c t e d i n 79 4 A.D..  T h i s three  arch gateway h a l l , which once stood i n the open c o u r t y a r d i n f r o n t of the abbey church, was b u i l t . . . e s p e c i a l l y f o r the formal r e c e p t i o n of the King on h i s v i s i t s to the r o y a l abbey. . . . But the most important f u n c t i o n of the b u i l d i n g seems to have been to serve f o r the h i g h l y formal, ceremonial s t a g i n g of the a r r i v a l of the k i n g , when he was greeted by the abbot and the community, and l e d i n t o the abbey of the church, to the sound of chants and acclamations. Thus i t appears as a d i m i n u t i v e v e r s i o n of the Triumphal arch which framed the ceremonial a r r i v a l of the emperor i n a Roman c i t y . 4 0 During the t e n t h century E n g l i s h monastic reform p e r i o d , g r e a t importance was and i t seems probable  attached to ceremonial  events  t h a t t h i s Roman ceremony of Adventus  or triumphal e n t r y c o u l d have been r e v i t a l i z e d by the monas-  134. tic  orders.  was  considered  salem.  In  the m e d i e v a l world,  I t seems most a p p r o p r i a t e  t h a t he  requested,  or  that the  Christ's  to the entry  Coronation  probable  artists  frame f o r more t h a n  to emphasize Edgar's a r r i v a l  reference  the  and  triumphal  arch,  i n t o Jerusalem.  into  Jeru-  coronation,  chose, the  half  a t the  the  open  illumina-  c i t y - g a t e , as  comparable The  ceremony  that Aethel-  the B e n e d i c t i o n a l f o r Edgar's  f r e e - s t a n d i n g arched tions,  Adventus  a re-enactment of C h r i s t ' s entry  wold commissioned and  every  a  symbolically to  contemporary account  of Edgar a t Bath d e s c r i b e s  the  "...  of  glorious  41 p r o c e s s i o n o f the  King.  .  .".  In a d d i t i o n t o triumphal to use  Edgar's Coronation,  there  are  arch  connotations  relating  further implications in  i n t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f open f r e e - s t a n d i n g a r c h e s .  C h r i s t i a n a r t , an  a r c h o v e r h e a d was  considered  the In  a symbol  of  42 heaven.  Notable  of the  free-standing arches, i n t o heaven and over,  Christ.  scenes w i t h i n the  imply  or  arched  f i g u r e s s u c h as  the hand o f God,  These t h r e e 34v  five  within  angels.  - figure the  a r e : The 18),  the Holy  Presentation  a scene t h a t takes  but  presents  hand o f God  the  frame; D o u b t i n g Thomas  w i t h i n the ( f o l i o 56v  open  state entry  p o r t i o n , more-  t h r e e a l l u d e t o h e a v e n , however, by  appearance of  (folio  a l l except  c o n t a i n heavenly  exceptions, the  the  fourteen miniatures  Of  the  portraying  Spirit, i n the  - figure  or  Temple  p l a c e on  arched  five  earth  p o r t i o n of 21),  also  135.  a scene t h a t occurs on e a r t h but shows the r i s e n C h r i s t i n a mandorla and a s w i r l i n g r i b b o n s k y — p r e s u m a b l y w i t h i n the arch; and The Descent  heaven—  of the Holy Ghost  (folio  67v - f i g u r e 23), which d e p i c t s the Holy S p i r i t and i n the arch.  The remaining  ceptions r e p r e s e n t s a i n t s . the B a p t i s t  angels  two m i n i a t u r e s of the f i v e One,  ex-  the N a t i v i t y of S t . John  ( f o l i o 92v - f i g u r e 27), i l l u s t r a t e s the  saint's  b i r t h w i t h i n the upper arched p o r t i o n of the frame i n a s e t t i n g surrounded  by sky or heaven, w i t h f i g u r e s below on  e a r t h cut o f f from heaven, one of whom records the event i n a book.  S t . John the B a p t i s t ' s f e a s t ranked as a holyday  of o b l i g a t i o n i n medieval  times, as he was  considered to  have been born without o r i g i n a l s i n along w i t h C h r i s t Mary, a s u b t l e connection which ranked saints.  him h i g h e r than other  The l a s t scene i s t h a t of St. Swithun  f i g u r e 29).  No sky or heaven appears  and  here, but  ( f o l i o 97v significantly  the f e a s t days of the s a i n t s were c e l e b r a t e d on the a n n i v e r sary of the day of t h e i r deaths, because t h a t i s the  day 43  they were supposed t o have entered i n t o e t e r n a l g l o r y . Much l i k e C h r i s t ' s triumphal e n t r y i n t o Jerusalem,  a saint's  f e a s t commemorated h i s triumphal e n t r y i n t o heaven. Since a l l the scenes w i t h i n open f r e e - s t a n d i n g a r ches denote a heavenly  sphere, i t seems probable t h a t the  choice of t h i s m o t i f was denote,  not a r b i t r a r y but d e l i b e r a t e , t o  on the one hand, triumphal e n t r y as i t r e l a t e d t o  136. the Adventus c e r e m o n i a l  tradition.  The  scenes  which r e p r e -  s e n t e n t r y i n t o h e a v e n o r t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f God  on e a r t h i n  a c o m p o s i t i o n w i t h i n t h e f r e e - s t a n d i n g a r c h seem a l s o a l l u d e on t h e o t h e r hand t o a n o t h e r implications:  Edgar's  throne-sharer with  arrival  scenes,  and  overtone  refers  gar's temporal  sessed s p i r i t u a l and  prominent  to the  arrival  a  crowned,  i n the  which t h e m a t i c a l l y l i n k s special relationship Christ's  t o t h e K i n g and and  t o be  o f the a r c h m o t i f  monarchy and  p a r i s o n of C h r i s t  f o r h i s c o r o n a t i o n as  to Edgar's  the i m p l i c a t i o n s  creates a royal  divine  God.  This allusion g e s t e d by  a r r i v a l with  to  temporal  divine  the i d e a t h a t  powers was  a ".  p a r t of Anglo-Saxon p o l i t i c a l  frame,  a l l the  between  rule.  sug-  The  Edcom-  the King  . .  pos-  widespread  theology  during  44 Aethelwold's  episcopacy.  . . .",  only i n Aethelwold's  w r i t i n g s but  by him.  suggested  Deshman has  a concept  r e v e a l e d not  a l s o i n the a r t commissioned  that  t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l was  exe-  c u t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r E d g a r ' s C o r o n a t i o n and t h a t . . . . The c o r o n a t i o n ceremony w h i c h t h e y composed f o r E d g a r as w e l l as A e t h e l w o l d ' s w r i t i n g s a t t e m p t t o s u r r o u n d the k i n g w i t h the aura o f C h r i s t . A c t u a l l y the a s s i m i l a t i o n o f E d g a r t o C h r i s t i s much more t h a n p r o p a g a n d a : i t i s t h e v e r y f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e a l l i a n c e between t h e k i n g and t h e r e f o r m e r s . 4 5 Such an a l l i a n c e  also  K i n g E d g a r were b e h i n d protest.  46  served a very p r a c t i c a l purpose: i f the reforms,  Thus A e t h e l w o l d ' s  l o c a l magnates d a r e d  promotion  of the concept  of  not  137.  an e a r t h l y  k i n g s u r r o u n d by t h e a u r a o f C h r i s t  s e e n on two l e v e l s : tic  as a s o l i d  realize  a i d t o t h e monaschanges;  b a s i s on w h i c h he c o u l d more  h i s more unwelcome r e f o r m s ,  b a c k i n g o f t h e monarch. in  as a s p i r i t u a l  r e f o r m w i t h i t s e m p h a s i s on l i t u r g i c a l  second, ly  first,  c a n be  through  and  effectivethe f u l l  Thus t h e s t r e s s on r e g a l  overtones  t h e B e n e d i c t i o n a l may be e x p l a i n e d n o t o n l y as a r e f e r -  ence t o Edgar's Aethelwold's  I  coronation, but also  as a n e c e s s a r y t o o l i n  programme f o r r e f o r m .  would c o n c l u d e  that  t h e r o y a l o v e r t o n e s w h i c h have  been i n t e r p r e t e d by Deshman as p e r m e a t i n g t h e m i n i a t u r e s , may  a l s o be s e e n  as an i n t e g r a l  the framing d e c o r a t i o n o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t . implication  the iconography of  o f t r i u m p h a l and h e a v e n l y  factor of  Through the  e n t r y s u g g e s t e d by  t h e u s e i n t h e frame o f t h e f r e e - s t a n d i n g a r c h , t h e p o l i t i c a l and to  theological the fore.  significance  of Edgar's  c o r o n a t i o n i s brought  138. Footnotes  ^"Robert Deshman, The I c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e F u l l - P a g e M i n i a t u r e s o f The B e n e d i c t i o n a l o f A e t h e l w o l d . Ph.D. diss e r t a t i o n , ( P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1970), p.92.  2 O t t o P a c h t , "The P r e - C a r o l i n g i a n R o o t s o f E a r l y Romanesque A r t " , S t u d i e s i n W e s t e r n A r t , I (1963), pp.67-75. 3  D a t e d by Wormald t o t h e s e c o n d q u a r t e r o f t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y . F r a n c i s Wormald, " D e c o r a t e d I n i t i a l s i n E n g l i s h M a n u s c r i p t s f r o m A.D. 900 t o 1100", A r c h a e o l o g i a , 91 (1945), p.117.  4 P a c h t , "The esque A r t " , p.71.  Pre-Carolingian  R o o t s o f E a r l y Roman-  5 Meyer S c h a p i r o , p.  Romanesque A r t  (New  Y o r k , 1977) ,  269.  Deshman, The t u r e s , p.235.  7  Ibid.,  Iconography of  p.  107.  p.  202.  the  Full-Page  Minia-  g Ibid.,  9  Ibid.  "^Dealt with  fully  "'""'"Deshman, The t u r e s , p.224.  on  page 103of C h a p t e r  Iconography of  the  V.  Full-Page  Minia-  12  1 3  Ibid.,  p.211.  Ibid.,  p.210.  14 Ibid.,  p.219.  The  iconography of  the  aurum  corona-  139. rium was a l i v i n g t r a d i t i o n i n n i n t h and t e n t h century Carol i n g i a n and O t t o n i a n i m p e r i a l p o r t r a i t s . U l t i m a t e l y the ass o c i a t i o n of the A d o r a t i o n o f the Magi and the aurum coronarium d e r i v e d from the E a r l y C h r i s t i a n p e r i o d . I 5  I b i d . , p.128.  1 6  I b i d . , p.223.  1 7  Ibid.,  p.212.  18 Ronald H. Bainton, The Medieval Church, N.J., 1962), p.115.  (Princeton,  19 E. Baldwin Smith, A r c h i t e c t u r a l Symbolism of Imperial Rome and the Middle Ages (Princeton, N.J., 1956), p. 58. 20 Deshman, The Iconography o f the F u l l - P a g e M i n i a t u r e s , p. 209. 21 Smith, A r c h i t e c t u r a l Symbolism  p.107. 2 2  Ibid.,  o f Imperial Rome,  p.107.  23 F r a n c i s X. Weiser, Handbook of C h r i s t i a n F e a s t s and Customs (New York, 1952), p. 142. 24 Joseph Gutman, ed., The Temple of Solomon Montana, 1976), p. 25 and P r e f a c e .  (Missoula,  25 Deshman, The Iconography o f the F u l l - P a g e M i n i a tures , pp. 225-6. 26 Donald Attwater, The Penguin D i c t i o n a r y of S a i n t s , (Harmondsworth, Middlesex, 1965), p.119.  140. 27  tures ,  Deshman, p.235.  2 8  I b i d . ,  The  Iconography  o f  the  F u l l - P a g e  M i n i a -  pp.236-7.  2 9  l a  /* v H e n r i B a r r e , P r i e r e s Anciennes de du Sauveur, ( P a r i s , 1963), pp. I l l ,  Mere  v  1 ' O c c i d e n t 132-33.  a  30 t u r e s ,  Deshman, p.86.  The  Iconography  of  the  F u l l - P a g e  M i n i a -  31  p.91.  3  2  I b i d . ,  p.234.  3  3  I b i d . ,  p.233.  34 p.  I b i d . ,  Smith,  4.  A r c h i t e c t u r a l  Symbolism  of  I m p e r i a l  Rome,  35 t u r e s ,  Deshman, p.239.  The  Iconography  of  the  F u l l - P a g e  M i n i a -  3 6 The Adventus had been t a k e n over from the i s t i c Royal Epiphany. Weiser, Handbook of C h r i s t i a n p.141. 37 p.  Smith,  A r c h i t e c t u r a l  Symbolism  of  I m p e r i a l  H e l l e n F e a s t s ,  Rome,  22. 3  8  I b i d . ,  p.7.  I b i d . ,  p.152.  39  40 Survey  O.K. Werckmeister, M e d i e v a l ( U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Los 41  B a i n t o n ,  The  M e d i e v a l  A r t H i s t o r y - A Short Angeles, n . d . ) , p.47.  Church,  p.115.  141. 42  Meyer Schapiro, "On the A e s t h e t i c A t t i t u d e i n Romanesque A r t " , i n A r t and Thought, ed. by K. Bharatha Iyer (London, 1947), pp. 14 4, 149. 43 Weiser, Handbook of C h r i s t i a n F e a s t s , p.277. 44 Deshman, The Iconography of the F u l l - P a g e Miniat u r e s , p.214. 4 5  I b i d . , p.218.  46 I b i d . , p.222.  142. CHAPTER V I I CONCLUSIONS Having reviewed the frames o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l s 1  miniatures  and having examined each element, t h e i r  on the m i n i a t u r e  effects  as a whole and the precedents t h a t e x i s t e d  i n p r e - B e n e d i c t i o n a l a r t , two main i s s u e s emerge. The f i r s t d e a l s w i t h the elements of framing C a r o l i n g i a n and I n s u l a r sources vative.  dependent upon e a r l i e r  and those  t h a t were inno-  The second i s s u e leads t o the thematic  interrela-  t i o n s h i p between the frame and the scene.  I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the components of the frame has shown t h a t the i n t r o d u c t i o n i n the t e n t h century of t h r e e dimensional  acanthus ornamentation was new t o England, sug-  g e s t i n g C o n t i n e n t a l i n f l u e n c e from C a r o l i n g i a n i v o r i e s and manuscripts o f the Franco-Saxon and Metz s c h o o l s .  In t e n t h  century E n g l i s h a r t i n g e n e r a l , there were so few i n s t a n c e s of the use o f the acanthus l e a f as a d e c o r a t i v e  motif  (aside from the Winchester School m a n u s c r i p t s ) ,  t h a t we  may conclude t h a t I n s u l a r d e c o r a t i o n remained s t r o n g . 'Winchester acanthus' d i d n o t penetrate England  1  The  t o the North of  but was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the South o n l y .  o r i g i n a l i n both drawing and composition,  w i t h long  I t was supple  leaves c l a s p i n g and t w i s t i n g over and under the frame, and f l u t t e r i n g out from the r o s e t t e c e n t e r s i n a c e n t r i f u g a l  143. f a s h i o n t o a l l s i d e s , f r e e l y i t appears and y e t always i n a symmetrical arrangement.  The  r o s e t t e embellishments, d e r i v e d from C a r o l i n g i a n  as w e l l as I n s u l a r sources,  were t r e a t e d i n an i n n o v a t i v e  manner i n t h a t the acanthus leaves of the r o s e t t e s extend beyond the r o s e t t e supports and i n t o the enclosed a d e v i a t i o n from the C a r o l i n g i a n r o s e t t e formation the leaves are contained Benedictional s 1  or r e c t a n g u l a r precedents.  r o s e t t e s were i n c o r p o r a t e d frames, d i f f e r e n t again  where  Moreover, the i n t o the arched  from I n s u l a r r o s e t t e  The a r t i s t s of the B e n e d i c t i o n a l  ever, copy C o n t i n e n t a l fashioned  w i t h i n the forms.  scene,  d i d not, how-  or I n s u l a r p r o t o t y p e s s l a v i s h l y , but  the acanthus l e a f frames i n q u i t e o r i g i n a l ways  t h a t i n i t i a t e d the famous "Winchester School) s t y l e of minia-  2 ture framing.  The a r t i s t s c r e a t e d the key element of the  frame, an acanthus l e a f t h a t was not only b e a u t i f u l i n i t s own r i g h t , but one which was t r e a t e d i n such a way t o emphas i z e the s p i r i t u a l and r o y a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the enclosed scenes and o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l as a whole. The  l a v i s h use of g o l d i n the m i n i a t u r e s ,  c u l a r l y i n the frames, was i n n o v a t i v e  and p a r t i -  as g o l d was not exten-  s i v e l y used a t t h i s p e r i o d , nor was i t found i n e a r l i e r Anglo-Saxon manuscripts.  Gold was not found i n England  144. and had t o be imported  a t g r e a t expense.  Nothing,  however,  was spared i n making the B e n e d i c t i o n a l a sumptuous manus c r i p t , i t s o v e r a l l purpose being to serve as a Coronation book honouring  King Edgar.  Overlapping as we have seen i s a device t i c o f e a r l i e r medieval  art.  characteris-  Here i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l i t  i s used so s t r i k i n g l y and to such an extent t h a t i t demons t r a t e s the a r t i s t s ' o r i g i n a l i t y .  T h i s t a l e n t i s seen f u r -  t h e r by t h e i r i n n o v a t i o n of u n i t i n g frame and scene i n a comprehensive whole and i n t h e i r e x p r e s s i v e emphasis on the dramatic  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the scene which they achieved by  p l a c i n g the most important  The  f i g u r e s on the foremost  second i s s u e - - t h a t of the thematic  plane.  interrela-  t i o n s h i p o f frame and scene—was obtained i n a v a r i e t y of ways.  Formal i n t e r a c t i o n , f o r one, i n v o l v e d the acanthus  l e a f shapes and l i n e a r e f f e c t s which were echoed i n the scenes.  The geometric  s t r u c t u r e o f the r o s e t t e s e q u a l l y  matched s q u a r i s h l i n e s i n the m i n i a t u r e s .  Colours, w i t h  the exception of g o l d , and perhaps p u r p l e , were not used s y m b o l i c a l l y but r a t h e r demonstrated the i n v e n t i v e n e s s o f the a r t i s t s i n t h e i r dynamic p a t t e r n i n g and c h i a s m a t i c col o u r arrangement i n the frame t o match c o l o u r s i n the scenes, thus forming an i n t e r r e l a t e d u n i t of frame and scene.  Over-  l a p p i n g not only fused frame and scene together but a l s o  145. was  effective  note  and  interaction  l e a d to the  feast figured  acanthus  activity,  e v i d e n t i n the  l a p p i n g and  the  But  thematic  these  formal  interaction  of  or p o l i t i c a l l y  t h e number and  framing  the  added e l i p t i c a l  feast  order of precedence r e l a t e d s c a l e would r e a d 1) ing  C h r i s t o r God. Christ  Adoration and  like  The  stand  the  acanthus l e a f  o f God,  Baptism  and  The  we  note  t h a t they  an  framing,  the  i n the  of  containThe  Ascension another  H o l y Women a t t h e  most s p e c t a c u l a r m i n i a t u r e Coronation  The  Ghost which p r e s e n t s  2) Mary. The  other miniatures  the  S e c o n d Coming,  of Christ,  the r e s u r r e c t i o n o f  D e a t h and  to  signifi-  six miniatures  representing  The  royal  merely  were t o e s t a b l i s h  as e x c e p t i o n a l : The  Descent o f the Holy spirit  to the  have s e e n ,  o f t h e M a g i , The  p e c t o f the  over-  this:  As we out  I f we  the  e l a b o r a t i o n of  a d d i t i o n s , were n o t  so d e c o r a t e d .  the  increase i n  of a miniature,  i l l i t e r a t e p u b l i c t h e r e l i g o u s and  cance o f the  frame  to Aethelwold,  d e c o r a t i v e p r o g r e s s i o n s b u t were meant t o i n d i c a t e largely  elements  a r r a n g e m e n t seems t o have  i t received. Therefore,  leaf  We  p l a n , t h a t i s : t h e more i m p o r t a n t  liturgically  more e m b e l l i s h m e n t  significance.  f e a s t s combined more e l a b o r a t e  image where a h i e r a r c h i c a l  rosettes  dramatic  extensive overlapping.  been i n t h e a r t i s t s '  the  the  t h a t t h e most i m p o r t a n t  f r a m e s and of  i n enhancing  as-  Tomb,  Christ. f e a t u r i n g Mary i s  the V i r g i n .  In l o o k i n g at  the  B e n e d i c t i o n a l where Mary i s f e a t u r e d ,  a r e g i v e n added f r a m i n g  embellishments.  146. In the arched is  The  frames the o t h e r m i n i a t u r e  P r e s e n t a t i o n i n the  which i s t r e a t e d uniquely with Of  Temple by  Franco-Saxon i n t e r l a c e  (folio  having  the  they  t h e most l a v i s h particular  devotion  monasteries It  but  the  relating  Thus,  founder  the order  importance.  demonstrates  was  attempting  a l l the m i n i a t u r e s  order, to  should  suffice  i n order of  to suggest  the  reform.  scene t o the e l a b o r a t i o n o f  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  view enrichments denoted Jerusalem o f the a p o s t l e s w i t h  teaching  lem.  Aethelwold's  of the B e n e d i c t i n e  scenes  was  t h e a d d i t i o n t o some f r a m e s o f c i t y - v i e w s .  faith,  of  im-  framing, the  hierar-  idea.  Liturgical  scenes  not  her.  of which Aethelwold  this partial  chical  by  to  i s p o s s i b l e to l i s t  portance  leaves.  an E n g l i s h s a i n t whose frame i s one  i n the m a n u s c r i p t ,  St. Benedict,  filled  where Mary i s f e a -  are given e x t r a framing  St. Etheldreda,  18)  i n w h i c h Mary  a l l have s i x r o s e t t e e m b e l l i s h m e n t s .  t u r e d , but  4)  - figure  only r o s e t t e  f o u r scenes  o n l y a r e t h e r e q u i t e a number o f s c e n e s  3)  34v  i n s t e a d of acanthus  the r e c t a n g u l a r frames, the  appears,  c o n t a i n i n g Mary  their  a l l nations, a mission,  initiated  by  the descent  and  thus  also  reflected  These  city-  associated  p a r t i c u l a r mission  the  of  a c c o r d i n g t o the C a t h o l i c of the Holy  Moreover, elements w i t h i n t h e i r  Ghost i n J e r u s a -  city-views played  a  147.  symbolic r o l e , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the a r t i s t s o f the Bened i c t i o n a l used these components of the framing i n a meani n g f u l way t o s t r e s s the e v a n g e l i c a l aspect of the e n c l o s e d scene.  In a d d i t i o n t o the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of frame and scene based on the l i t u r g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the f e a s t or holy f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t e d , the motif of the f r e e - s t a n d i n g arch i n the frame a l s o has a s i g n i f i c a n t f u n c t i o n .  We  noted  t h a t the arch was c o n s i d e r e d a symbol of heaven and t h a t a l l the m i n i a t u r e s w i t h i n arched frames denoted Thus, the use o f the arched frame appears  a heavenly  sphere.  not t o have been  a c c i d e n t a l but f u n c t i o n a l as a d e v i c e which served a r e l i gious purpose and whose shape was intended t o s p i r i t u a l l y enhance the c h a r a c t e r o f the scene.  The arched frame, more-  over, was used because o f i t s a s s o c i a t i o n with triumphal ent r i e s a t c i t y - g a t e s d u r i n g the Roman e r a and because o f the example of C a r o l i n g i a n kings who i n r u l i n g emphasized e q u a l i t y w i t h God by p o r t r a y i n g themselves narchs with d i v i n e  their  as s e c u l a r mo-  attributes.  On a l e v e l more i n t i m a t e w i t h meaning f o r Aethelwold h i m s e l f , the r o y a l c o n n o t a t i o n s i m p l i e d by the a r c h m o t i f i n the frame a l l u d e s p e c i f i c a l l y to Edgar's triumphant  a r r i v a l at a  c o r o n a t i o n . The d e l i b e r a t e promotion  of such a  148.  c o n c e p t and t h e l i n k i n g rule—a  kingship with  known a s p e c t o f A n g l o - S a x o n p o l i t i c a l  by A e t h e l w o l d , only  of earthly  theology—  the patron o f the B e n e d i c t i o n a l ,  serve to a l l y  which the Bishop  the King with the monastic  so a r d e n t l y worked.  heavenly  could  reform, f o r  On a l l t h e s e  levels,  the f u n c t i o n of the framing i n the B e n e d i c t i o n a l i s c l o s e ly fic an  connected  to the iconography  relationship  o f the scenes.  t h e meaning o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t clear.  speci-  between t h e frame and t h e m i n i a t u r e s p l a y s  i m p o r t a n t r o l e w h i c h must be t a k e n  vidly  The  into  account  as a w h o l e becomes  before  more v i -  149 Footnotes  J . Brondsted, p . 268. 1  1924),  2  Ibid.,  p.259.  Early  English  Ornament  (London,  Figure 2 - Chorus (of Virgins)  Benedictional of St. /Aethelwold (London, B.M.,  Add. MS. 49598, f o l . Iv.)  Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h Library.  152.  Figure 3 - (Chorus of) V i r g i n s  Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M.,  Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 2.)  Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h Library.  153.  Figure 4 - Three Apostles  Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M.,  Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 2v.)  Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h Library.  Figure 5 - Three Apostles  Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M.,Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 3.)  Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y .  155.  Figure 6 - Three  Apostles  Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M.,  Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 3v.)  Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h Library.  156.  Figure 7 - Three Apostles Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M.,  Add. MS. 49598, fol.4.)  Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y .  157  Figure 8 - The Annunciation  Benedictional of St. Aethelwold  (London, B.M.,  Add. MS. 49598, fol.5v  Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h Library.  158.  Figure  Benedictional  of  St.  9 -  Aethelwold  Reproduced by permission  of  The Second  (London,  the B r i t i s h  B.M.,  Ccming  A d d . MS.  Library.  49598,  f o l .  9v.)  159.  Figure 10 - The N a t i v i t y of C h r i s t  Benedictional of St. Ethelwold  (London, B.M.,  Add. MS. 49598, fol.l5v.)  Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h Library.  160.  Figure 11 - Page of blessing  Benedictional of St. Aethelwold  (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 16)  Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h Library.  161.  Figure 12 - The Stoning of S t . Stephen  Benedictional of St. Aethelwold  (London, B.M.,  Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 17v.)  Rerpoduced by permission of the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y .  162.  Figure 13 - St. John the Evangelist  Benedictional of St. Aethelwold  (London, B.M.,  Add. VB. 49598, f o l . 19v.)  Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h Library.  Figure 14 - Page of blessing opposite the missing Massacre of the Innocents Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598 f o l 21 ) Warner and Wilson: 1910. '  164.  Figure 15 - The Octave of the N a t i v i t y  Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M.,  Add. MS. 49598, fol.22v.)  Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h Library.  165.  Figure 16 - The Adoration of the Magi Benedictional of St. Aethelwold  (London, B.M.,  Add. MS. 49598, fol.24v.)  Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y .  166.  Figure 17 - The Baptism of C h r i s t Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M.,  Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 25.)  Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y .  Figure 18 - The Presentation i n the Temple  Benedictional of St. Aethelwold  (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 34v.)  Rerpoduced by permission of the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y .  168.  Figure 19 - The Entry i n t o Jerusalem Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London , B.M.,  Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 45v.)  Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y .  Figure 2C *- The Women a t the Tomb Benedictional of St. Aethelwold  (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 51v  Reproduced by permission o f the B r i t i s h Museum.  170.  Figure 21 - Doubting Thomas Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M.,  Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 56v.)  Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h Library.  Figure 22 - The Ascension Benedictional of St. Aethelwold  (London, B.M.,  Add. MB. 49598, f o l . 64v.  Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h Library.  172.  Figure 23 - The Descent of the Holy Ghost  Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M.,  Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 67v.)  Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y .  173.  I KIN! IAS \ \ \ SI-.T\T.R\S  DSP,\I:KKFl'V I'^SCI  Figure 24 - Illuminated I n i t i a l - T r i n i t y Sunday Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M.,  Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 70.)  Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y .  174.  Figure 25 - St. Etheldreda Benedictional of St. Aethelwold  (London, B.M.,  Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 90v.)  Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y .  175.  Figure 26 - Page of Blessing Benedictional of St. /Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 91.) Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y .  Figure 27 - The N a t i v i t y of St. John the Baptist Benedictional of St. Aethelwold  (London, B.M.,  Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 92v.)  Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h Library.  177.  Figure 28 - The Martyrdom of Sts. Peter and Paul Benedictional of St. /Aethelwold  (London, B.M., Add.MS. 49598, f o l . 95v.)  Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y .  Figure 29 - St. Swithun Benedictional of St. Aethelwold  (London, B.M.,  Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 97v.)  Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y .  179.  Figure 30 - St. Benedict Benedictional of St. Aethelwold  (London, B.M.,  Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 99v.)  Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h Library.  Figure 31 - The Death and Coronation of the V i r g i n Benedictional of S t . Aethelwold  (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 102v.)  Reproduced by permission of the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y .  Figure 32 - Page of Blessing opposite the missing St. Michael Archangel Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 108.) Warner and Wilson: 1910.  182.  Figure 33 - Dedication of a Church Benedictional of St. Aethelwold (London, B.M., Add. MS. 49598, f o l . 118v.) Gage, "A Dissertation on St. Aethelwold's Benedictional."  (1832).  183.  Figure 34 - P s a l t e r of King Louis Beginning to Psalm I (Berlin, S t i f t u n g Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Staatsbibiothek, Theol. l a t . f o l . 3r. ) Second quarter, ninth century. Mutherich and Gaehde: 1976. Plate 17.  ( P a r i s , B i b l . Natl., l a t . 2, f o l . l l r . ) 871-873 A.D. Mutherich and Gaehde: 1976. Plate 48.  Figure 36 - Drogo Sacramentary I n i t i a l D with Scene of Women a t the Tomb ( P a r i s , B i b l . Natl., l a t 9428, f o l . 58r.) Mutherich and Gaehde: 1976. Plate 29.  851 A.D.  Figure 37 - The Durham R i t u a l ( Durham Cathedral L i b r a r y . Royal MS. A. i v . 19.) f i r s t h a l f tenth-centurv Wormald: 1945. Plate l i e .  Stole Maniple Figure 38 - Stole and small maniple of St. Cuthbert (Relics o f St. Cuthbert. 901-916 A.D.) Stole - Battisccmbe: 1956. Plate XXIV. Maniple - Deshman: 1974. figure 42.  188.  Figure 39 - Junius P s a l t e r (Oxford, Bodl. MS. Junius, 27, f . 121 verso). Second quarter tenth century. Wormald: 1945. Plate IVc.  189.  Figure 40 - Fleury Manuscript S i * ;  .T^:  6 4 0 1  '  f c l  -  1 5 8 v  -'  tost  -*«y.  Miniature Detail F i g u r e 41 - The L i f e o f S t . Cuthbert K i n g A e t h e l s t a n P r e s e n t i n g Book t o S t . Cuthbert ( C a m b r i d g e , C o r p u s C h r i s t i C o l l e g e MS. Deshman: 1974. P l a t e 45, 46.  183,  f o l . iv.)  937 A  D  191.  F i g u r e 42 - A e t h e l s t a n P s a l t e r Christ with Choirs of Saints (London, Deshman:  B.M. MS. C o t t o n G a l b a A . 1974. P l a t e 2.  XVIII,  f o l .  Addition  21.)  927-940 A  D  192.  Figure 43 - Helmingham H a l l , Orosius (Helminghara H a l l , Orosius.) f i r s t h a l f tenth century. Wormald: 1945. Plate Va.  Figure King  Edgar  44 -  The New M i n s t e r  Presenting Charter  (London, B.M., V e s p a s i a n A . V I I I , T a l b o t R i c e : 1952. P l a t e 46.  f o l . 2b.)  Charter to  Christ  Post  971  A.D.  194.  fx  (TApitfti  of  OF COLUMN  3 ApccDgs  W H K sr. P E I ^ K  F.H  •V ! s  F. I  F. 5 b Figure 45 - Tracings made of acanthus leaf Work i n the Benedictional of St. Aethelwold Gage. "A Dissertation on St. Aethelwold's Benedictional." (1832).  195.  Figure 46 - Book of Durrow, Carpet Page (Dublin, T r i n i t y College Library, MS. 57, f o l i o 117v.) Middle or l a t t e r part seventh century. Nordenfalk: 1974. U.B.C. S l i d e Library.  Figure 47 - Sundial  (South w a l l of the tower o f St. John the B a p t i s t Church, Barnack, Nortltanptonshire, England.) l a t t e r part tenth century. Green: 1928. Figure 11.  197.  Figure 48 - Carved Slabs on Barnack Church Tower ninth t o tenth century Brown: 1925. Figure 115.  Figure  49 -  Capitals of  the Chancel-arch at  pre-conquest Bristol  and G l o u c e s t e r s h i r e :  1918-19.  Figure  30.  Bibury  199.  Figure 50 - Cross-Shaft  (Cross-Shaft, Wolverhampton, S t a f f s , England.) ninth to tenth century. Clapham: 1930. Plate 57.  200.  Figure 5OA - The Wolverhampton Column Parsons: 1975. p. XVTI.  Figure 51 - The Transfiguration and The Ascension Ivory R e l i e f s (Victoria and A l b e r t Museum, London, cat. 21.) Beckwith: 1972. Plates 49 and 50.  l a t e tenth  century.  203,  Figure 52A - Ivory Book Cover. V i r g i n and C h i l d Enthroned (Paris, B i b l . Natl. l a t . 323 car. 24.) late tenth century. Beckwith: 1972. Plate 54.  204.  Figure  53  Late ( W i n c h e s t e r Museum) B e c k w i t h : 1972. P l a t e  - Ivory. tenth  39.  Two  century  Angels  Figure 54 - Bronze Censer-Cover Pre-Benedi c t i o n a l tenth century Wilson: 1964. Plate 44.  Figure 55 - Cast Bronze Strap-end tenth century Wilson: 1964. Plate 148.  Figure 56 - Fragmentary G i l t Bronze Plate Winchester , tenth or eleventh century Wilson: 1964. Plate 147.  208.  Figure 57 - The Abingdon Sword (Oxford,Ashmolean Museum.) l a t e ninth century. Hinton: 1974. Plate I.  Field A  Field B  Field C  Figure 58 - Sittingbourne Scramasax l a t e ninth or early tenth century F i e l d A. Wilson: 1964. Figure 80. F i e l d B. Parsons: 1975. f i g u r e 22, p. F i e l d C. Parsons: 1975. figure 23, p.  203. 203.  Figure 59 - The Reverse of the A l f r e d Jewel ninth century Hinton: 1974. p. 30.  211.  Figure 60 - Marble Roman Vase (Museo Nuovo Capitolino) f i r s t century Strong: 1961. Figure 20.  B.C.  Figure 61 - S i l v e r Bowl (London, B r i t i s h Museum) ninth or tenth century. Dalton: 1909. Plate XLVII.  213.  (Paris, B i b l . N a t l . Cod. l a t . 1152) Hollander: 1974. Plate 84.  860-870  A.D.  Figure 64 - Evangeliaire De Saint-Vaast  D'Arras  (Boulogne, B i b l . de l a v i l l e , 12) middle of ninth century. Boinet: 1913. Plate XCV.  216.-  Figure 65 -  Gospel Book. Beginning of St. John's Gospel with i n i t i a l ' l ( n ) ' . Cologne Region. E a r l y tenth century  217.  Figure 66 - Gospel Book. Beginning of St. Matthew's Gospel. North Saxony. Early tenth century.  Figure 67 - Lindisfarne Gospels Carpet page a t the Beginning o f the Gospels of Saint Mark. (London, B r i t i s h Library, Cotton MS. Nero D. IV, f o l i o 94v.) 700 A.D. U.B.C. S l i d e Library.  219.  Figure 68 - St. Luke (London, B.M. Add. 40618, f o l i o 22v) f i r s t h a l f tenth century. Wormald: 1971. Plate Va.  Figure 69 - Vienna Genesis (Vienna, Nationalbibliothek, Cod. t h e o l . gr. 31) s i x t h century. R i t t e r von Hartel and Wickhoff: 1895.  221.  tit,  111 pSALmus jmCAcn^OseT ClAWKAUMMXi/AM  INIJNOWSCAASHOMJ iiwiCuoirDoLoyofiLU  :  - '  ^  CivuiD -  cowfimokMuwci  CMtrniucfMiuAMnufju TAT/MIUAM If/AMfMDvJ  '  \7ikUNniADDUXfUN MownMscwiuu FUN  IHAkAWD^Mfttf ••' <gJAUlMmWANra MfAfr^UAUcowiJt  il IABfUWACUlATUA i ^ g g j B A f M f - g * i WlAlUIJWfOMlTUDO e I l N I k O l B O A J U l I A J U M / " J f f JUIMDOQNM A O | u ^ i%jUAUMH.nvto ADOM(>UllAiIJriaT CONfilWOUUKfitfi/ I ffcJuAJJIAJfllSiMCf DO' lUUf W I ^ I I M M M M ^ , IAJLIUUilUyMIIIIMM/  *****  Figure 70 - Utrecht P s a l t e r (Utrecht, University Library, S c r i p t , e c c l . 484) ninth century. Hubert, Porcher and Volbach: 1970. p. 99.  F i g u r e 71 - I v o r y C a s k e t Cover, Metz S c h o o l (Paris, Louvre, Cat. Molinier 1896, Goldschmidt: 1969. Plate 95b.  Nr. 11) ninth to tenth century.  223.  Figure  (Innsbruck, U n i v e r s i t a ninth century. Goldsdimidt:  1928.  72  -  Gospel.  Tsbibliothek  Plate  52.  The E v a n g e l i s t  Cod.  484,  f o l  Luke  llOv)  Latter  half  Figure 73 - Lindisfarne Gospels. St. Matthew (London, B.M. MS. Cotton Nero D. IV, f . 25v) c i r c a 698 U.B.C. S l i d e Library.  A.D.  225  V . " J t i l . •*«*  •  F i g u r e 74 - M a c r e g o l COxford, B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y , MS. Early ninth century.  Gospels. A u c t . D.  S t . Mark 2. 19, f o l  51v  )  226.  Figure 75 - Manuscript. Rabanus Pope Gregory PV.  Maurus Presents His Work t o  (Cambridge, T r i n i t y College MS. B. 16, 3, Deshman: 1974. Plate 12.  f o l i o IV) mid ninth century.  «  Figure 76 - Eadwig Gospel. St. John the Evangelist (Hanover, Kestner Museum, f o l i o 147v) c i r c a 1020.  228.  Figure 77 - Ivory. The  Annunciation  (Paris, Louvre, Cat. Molinier 1896, Nr. 11) ninth to tenth century. Goldschmidt: 1914. p. XL, no. 95g.  229.  Figure 78 - Drogo Sacramentary. I n i t i a l D (Paris, B i b l . N a t l . Lat. 9428, f o l i o 41a) c i r c a 850 A.D. Kohler: 1930.  230.  (Paris, B i b l . Natl. Nouv. Golc^chmidt: 1928.  Acq. 1203, f o l i o 4) 781 - 83 A.D.  Figure 80 - Lindisfarne (London, B.M.  Gospels. I n c i p i t of St. Mark's Gospel  MS. Cotton Nero D. IV, f o l i o 95) eighth century.  FIGURE 81 - THE BOOK OF KELLS. ACCOUNT OF THE CRUCIFIXION (DUBLIN, TRINITY COLLEGE LIBRARY, MS. 58 (A.1.6), FOLIO 12A) 795-806 A.D. 232.  Figure 82 - Gospel Book from Ireland. St. Luke  (London, B.L., Add. 40618, f o l i o 21v) eighth century. Alexander: 1978. Figure 213.  Figure 83 - Prudentius Man-useript. Luxuria Dancing (London, B.M. Add. MS. 24199, f o l i o 18) Late tenth century. Wormald: 1952. Figure 6(a).  235.  Figure 84 - Ivory. Brunswick Casket (Brunswick, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum)  236.  F i g u r e 85 - I v o r y . L i u t h a r d G r o u p ( M u n i c h . S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k C o d . l a t . 4452) c i r c a 870 Goldschmidt: 1914.  A.D.  Figure 86 - Ivory (Paris, Cluny Museum, Kat. Du Sormerand Nr. 1039) Goldschmidt: 1914. p. VII, f i g . 21.  tenth century.  Figure 87 - Gospel Book. I n i t i a l L (Essen Cathedral Treasury, f o l i o 96) c i r c a 800 Pacht: 1963. p. XVIII, p l a t e 1.  239. BIBLIOGRAPHY Alexander, J.J.G. Insular Manuscripts 6th - 9th Centuries. London: Harvey M i l l e r , 1978. Alexander, J.J.G. "Scribes as A r t i s t s . " Medieval Scribes, Manuscripts and L i b r a i r i e s : Essays Presented t o N.R. Ker. Edited by M.B. Park.es, A.G. Watson. London: Scolar Press, 1978. Alexander, J.J.G. "Some Aesthetic P r i n c i p l e s i n the Use of Colour i n Anglo-Saxon A r t . " i n V o l . 4 of Anglo-Saxon England. Edited by Peter Clemoes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975, 145-54. Alexander, J.J.G. "The Benedictional of St. Aethelwold and AngloSaxon Illumination of the Reform Period." Tenth-Century Studies. Edited by Bavid Parsons. London: Phillimore and Co. Ltd., 1975. 169-83. 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