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Corporate transfers : the personality determinants of a successful transfer candidate Goldberg, Valerie Patricia 1979

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CORPORATE TRANSFERS: THE PERSONALITY DETERMINANTS OF A SUCCESSFUL TRANSFER CANDIDATE By VALERIE PATRICIA GOLDBERG B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE (BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION) i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES i n the Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1979 (c) V a l e r i e P a t r i c i a Goldberg In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e at t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Faculty xn^ §#ifc?£¥fl£ 0 f Commerce and Business Administration The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 2 U3C TnPflfta Spring 1980 C^j>£right_nroMej&s_coni£. Giles, L.D. Coldberg, V.P. Ignace, R.E. Kozac, J.F. J e ma 1, I. B. Johnson, S.K. Appendices A-F, leaves 67-105, are copies of U3C Department of Paediatrics' forms; I an sure that the student had the Department's approval but we have no written permission. If you choose not to film, I don't think i t w i l l invalidate the thesis* Letter giving permission included, f i l e d on top. I don't think there i s too much to worry about re copyright in this thesis, but note map on p. 48 and "Hemorial",leaves 170-74. The map is cited B B being an "adaptation" of two maps, one dated 1916, the other 1964; the "cenorial" i s dated 19-11. Leaves 124-51 appear to be copy of previously copyrighted material (see leaf 152, "the preceding tests ... muy be found in ... journal a r t i c l e s and books"). The choice to fi l m or not to f i l m is yours. . . . Several letters giving permission f i l e d inside folder. It appears to me that the appendices present some copyright problems. I'm not sure whether this material i s in copyright or not. Leaves 118-19 Lt-af 120 Lei.ve out any or a l l as you judge best. One page copied from a printed source; does this come under the definition of " f a i r dealing"? leaves 121-28 I would judge this material to be pre-viously copyrighted. Leaf 29 Probably the author's own questionnaire. Leaves l ? l - 3 9 Appear to be the author's own le t t e r s and findings. Leaves 141-45 I'm not sure but I think previously copyrighted material. Leaves 147-48 I would say this i s previously copy-righted. Leaves 15C-53 O.K.; no problem. Lehman, J. Five l e t t e r s giving copyright permission f i l e d inside of folder. Kiki, H.A. Ve do not have permission for the filming of the picture on p.156 (only a note f i l e d on top of the thesis giving the c i t a t i o n ) . Leave out i f you wish. i ABSTRACT Numerous benefits and costs associated with corporate transfers were explored. Substantive o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , personal and f a m i l i a l costs emerging as a r e s u l t of an unsuccessful trans-f e r experience were addressed. The f i n a n c i a l nature of r e l o c a -t i o n compensation has not been successful i n r e c t i f y i n g the emergence of organizational and human costs a r i s i n g as a r e s u l t of an unsuccessful transfer experience nor has i t been success-f u l i n counteracting the current a n t i - m o b i l i t y trend. I t was proposed that the organizational, personal and f a m i l i a l costs may be minimized through the adoption of a s e l e c t i o n program which not only places emphasis upon the needs of the organization but which also considers the personality t r a i t s of the t r a n s f e r candidate and his or her spouse. Central to t h i s proposal was the supposition that the personality c o r r e l a t e s of the executive would have a d i r e c t bearing upon the favourableness of the execu-t i v e ' s a t t i t u d e toward transfers i n general and that the personal-i t y c o r r e l a t e s of the spouse would have an i n f l u e n t i a l e f f e c t upon the executive's a t t i t u d e . A group of 164 managers and t h e i r spouses who had been transferred at l e a s t once by t h e i r present employer served as the sample. The study investigated hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the favourableness of the executive's a t t i t u d e toward transfers i n general and a number of personality v a r i a b l e s . These va r i a b l e s included the executive's age as well as h i s scores on job-involvement, company commitment, authoritarianism s o c i a l extraversion-introversion and locus of control and the spouse's scores on authoritarianism, s o c i a l extraversion-introversion and locus of c o n t r o l . C o r r e l a t i o n a l analysis was employed to analyze the data. The r e s u l t s did not lend conclusive support to the hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p s and thus the personality p r o f i l e of an executive who would possess a favourable a t t i t u d e toward trans-fers i n general did not emerge. Methodological shortcomings were explored and an a l t e r n a t i v e methodology f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of an executive who would display post-transfer s a t i s f a c t i o n was suggested. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS C h a p t e r Page I . INTRODUCTION 1 I I . BENEFITS WHICH MAY RESULT AS A CONSEQUENCE OF A CORPORATE TRANSFER EXPERIENCE 5 A) O r g a n i z a t i o n a l B e n e f i t s 5 B) P e r s o n a l B e n e f i t s 6 I I I . COSTS WHICH MAY RESULT AS A CONSEQUENCE OF A CORPORATE TRANSFER EXPERIENCE 8 A) C o s t s i n c u r r e d by t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n as a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f a c o r p o r a t e t r a n s f e r 8 B) C o s t s i n c u r r e d by t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n as a r e s u l t o f human r e a c t i o n s t o t h e r e l o c a -t i o n e x p e r i e n c e 11 C) P e r s o n a l c o s t s w h i c h a r e s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l .in n a t u r e 17. IV. . BENEFITS VS. COSTS: THE NEED FOR RECONCILI-ATION . . . 2 2 V. . HYPOTHESES 27 V I . METHODOLOGY 40 M a t e r i a l s 40 S u b j e c t s . . 48 P r o c e d u r e 50 V I I . RESULTS 5 3 V I I I . DISCUSSION.. 60. Age D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e Sample P o p u l a t i o n . . 61 P o p u l a t i o n B i a s . 62 V a r i a b l e S c a l e R e l i a b i l i t i e s 63 The C o n s t r u c t V a l i d i t y o f t h e D e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e 63 The T r a i t A p p r o a c h 64 An a l t e r n a t i v e m e t h o d o l o g y f o r t h e g e n e r a -t i o n o f a p r o f i l e o f t h e e x e c u t i v e who w o u l d p o s s e s s a f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t r a n s f e r s i n g e n e r a l 69 i v Page APPENDIXES A. Questionnaire Responded to by the Executive 78 B. Questionnaire Responded to by the Spouse 79 C. Materials Constituting the Four Mailings 80 D. Scoring Procedures and Score Implications For the Variable Scales 85 BIBLIOGRAPHY 9 1 V LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. VARIABLE SCALE SCORING RANGE, MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS 54 2. PEARSON CORRELATIONS BETWEEN THE PERSONAL-ITY CHARACTERISTICS AND THE FAVOURABLENESS OF THE EXECUTIVES ATTITUDE TOWARD TRANSFERS IN GENERAL (Fl AND F2) 56 3. VARIABLE SCALE RELIABILITIES - ALPHA SCORES 59 v i LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. The Provision of Fringe Benefits For The Relocating Employee . ... 12 2. Labour Force P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates By Sex And M a r i t a l Status 20 3. Labour Force P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates of Married Females by Age Group 20 4. Item Content of Lodahl's and Kejner's Job-Involvement Scale 42 5. Item Content of Baba's and Jamal 1s Company Commitment Scale 4 2 6. Item Content of the C a l i f o r n i a F Scale 44 7. Item Content of the Pittsburgh Scale of So c i a l Extraversion-introversion 46 8. Item Content of Rotter's (1966) In t e r n a l -External Locus of Control Scale 47 9. Item Content of Glueck' s PET Index 49 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to extend my thanks to Dr. Craig Pinder for permitting me to p a r t i c i p a t e i n his research project on corporate t r a n s f e r s . Furthermore, I would l i k e to convey my appreciation to Professors Craig Pinder, Vance M i t c h e l l and Mike Gibbins f o r t h e i r guidance and continuous support. Chapter I INTRODUCTION Professionals and managers are among the most highly mo-b i l e groups i n our society (Imundo, 1974, p. 475). But very l i t t l e i s known about the set of forces which influence t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and reactions toward the concept of job m o b i l i t y and toward the circumstances surrounding corporate t r a n s f e r s . Num-erous companies which are geographically widely dispersed have t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e l i e d upon the p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e of managers t o -ward the acceptance of corporate tr a n s f e r s to ensure the con-t i n u i t y of t h e i r organizations. In spite of t h i s r e l i a n c e , there i s increasing evidence i n both popular and management-oriented l i t e r a t u r e that there i s a growing reluctance on the part of many employees to accept job t r a n s f e r s involving a move to a new l o c a t i o n (U.S. News and World Report, 1975; Business Week, 1976; Industry Week, 1973; Murray, 1971; Howard and Boyd, 1976). As a consequence, many companies are reconsidering the a d v i s a b i l i t y of t h e i r present transfer p o l i c i e s (Perham, 197 0; Tiger, 1974; Business Week, 1972). Ostensibly, there are two sets of facto r s underlying the changing corporate a t t i t u d e toward t r a n s f e r s . Negative economic r e s u l t s associated with inappropriate and too frequent t r a n s f e r s have been stressed i n the past. There e x i s t s , however, a small but growing body of l i t e r a t u r e which has, through the examination 1 2 of the consequences a r i s i n g from corporate t r a n s f e r s , begun to move away from placing t o t a l emphasis upon economic factors (cf: Pinder, 1979). Recent l i t e r a t u r e has c i t e d the a d d i t i o n a l fact that a growing number of employees are r e j e c t i n g transfer opportunities for personal reasons. This increased incidence of r e j e c t i o n i s seen as a means by which the employees are a l e r t -ing management to the vast set of human costs which may a f f e c t the p o t e n t i a l transferee and his family. Consideration of the s o c i a l and psychological factors associated with uprooting an i n d i v i d u a l and his family i s leading some researchers to ques-t i o n whether the opportunities and the rewards for both the employee and the company which accrue as a consequence of the employee's unquestioned mobility outweigh the d i f f i c u l t i e s f r e -quently incurred during the process of adapting to the r e l o c a t i o n experience. Human considerations may no longer be neglected by management, since more and more companies are being faced with the blunt r e f u s a l by employees to accept transfer opportunities which w i l l , i n the employee's perception, incur an unacceptable human cost. Relocation confrontations between the company and the po t e n t i a l transferee are becoming inc r e a s i n g l y common. A survey of 617 major American companies conducted i n 1975 for the Tica r Relocation Management Company found that some 42 percent of the companies under study experienced r e f u s a l s , as compared with a For the purposes of t h i s study a l l transferees w i l l be re f e r r e d to as being of the masculine gender since the majority of em-ployees i n the sample are males. Thus, the pronouns he/his w i l l be used i n reference to a l l transferees, be they male or female. 3 mere 4 percent i n 1974. Howard and Boyd (1974), using personnel from one of Canada's largest companies as subjects, confirmed the prevalence of the reluctance of executives to relocate. They found that some 48 percent of those managers and supervisors included i n the survey were u n w i l l i n g to relocate geographically. Jennings (1974) states that the present s i t u a t i o n seems to have reached the point at which between one-third and one-half of a l l managers would prefer to stay i n t h e i r present geographic l o c a -t i o n . The r e a l i t y of transfers as being the road to corporate success and hence a means to the l i f e - s t y l e and the prestige which i s often thought to accompany corporate success i s being questioned, as more and more executives are refusing transer op-p o r t u n i t i e s and are thus r i s k i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of l i m i t i n g t h e i r prospects for upward m o b i l i t y (Costello, 1976). Gleman (Newsweek, January 16, 1978) states that a decade ago the r i s i n g young executive with his wife and c h i l d r e n stood ready to go any-where, at any time, for advancement within the organization. Robert Booth, head of Corporate Recruiters, an organization which scouts personnel for many top /American corporations, stated that today he r a r e l y sees t h i s type of man (Newsweek, January 16, 1978). Although there has recently been a growing recognition of the ultimate need to consider the s o c i a l and the psychological manifestations which have been c i t e d as emerging i n response to corporate transfers (Glueck, 1974; Murray, 1971; Tiger, 1974; Olive et a l , 1976), the basic c r i t e r i a for the s e l e c t i o n of trans-ferees have, i n the past, focused upon the needs of the company and the s u i t a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l , as w e l l as upon the a s s o c i -ated costs to be borne by the company. Although such 4 considerations must be taken into account, i t i s proposed that consideration of organizational needs must be coupled with a thorough understanding and appraisal of the transferee's per-sonal and f a m i l i a l needs. E s t a b l i s h i n g the p e r s o n a l i t y c o r r e -l a t e s of an i n d i v i d u a l who possesses a favourable a t t i t u d e towards t r a n s f e r s i n general would ul t i m a t e l y lead to a revamp-ing of the s e l e c t i o n process, stressing the importance of a match between organizational and i n d i v i d u a l goals. The benefits and the costs which may r e s u l t as a con-sequence of the corporate t r a n s f e r experience must be evaluated, and a means by which management may attempt to negate the costs must be explored. This t h e s i s w i l l focus upon t r a n s f e r - r e l a t e d costs and benefits and w i l l explore a possible strategy aimed at lessening the s o c i a l and psychological costs which frequently emerge i n response to a transfer experience. These costs have an ultimate bearing upon organizational l i f e , upon organizational continuity, and upon the a b i l i t y of the organization to reap the benefits which have been a t t r i b u t e d to the r e l o c a t i o n of the employees. Chapter II BENEFITS WHICH MAY RESULT AS A CONSEQUENCE OF A CORPORATE TRANSFER EXPERIENCE A) Organizational Benefits: Many writers advance the importance of the organizational purposes served by corporate r e l o c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s (Jaffe, 1972; Tiger, 1974; Burke, 1974). They suggest that corporate trans-f e r s are the primary means by which a company may s u c c e s s f u l l y cope with predicaments which demand action. J a f f e (1972) sees corporate t r a n s f e r s as f u l f i l l i n g the following purposes: 1. meeting manpower needs which a r i s e as a consequence of mergers, a c q u i s i t i o n s , and organizational realignments. 2. developing manpower c a p a b i l i t i e s which can handle changes i n technology, pro-ducts, or markets. 3. f a c i l i t a t i n g " c r o s s - f e r t i l i z a t i o n " of management philosophies and s t y l e s . 4. broadening the e x p e r i e n t i a l base of em-ployees who are destined to advance i n the organizational hierarchy. 5 6 5. maintaining f l e x i b i l i t y i n s t a f f i n g i n new or growing operations. 6. u t i l i z i n g t a l e n t rendered unnecessary as a r e s u l t of consolidation of operations. If the high incidence of major corporate expansion and endeavour observed i n the 1970's continues, i t seems j u s t i f i a b l e to assume that the multitude of organizational needs which can be f a c i l i t a t e d by the transfer of employees w i l l continue to ex-i s t and that the necessity of meeting these objectives w i l l r e -main an important factor a f f e c t i n g corporate success. Econom-i s t s have predicted that retirement rates i n Canada w i l l peak i n the near future and, as a consequence, Canadian corporations w i l l be i n desperate need of f r e s h l y developed managerial s k i l l s . (Perspective Canada I I - A Compendium of So c i a l S t a t i s t i c s 1977; The C r i s i s In University Management Education and Research, 1979) The managerial experience and know-how acquired through the cor-porate transfer w i l l thus continue to be an important bu i l d i n g block for the future of Canadian corporate l i f e . Tiger (1974), i n support of l i b e r a l i z e d transfer p r a c t i c e s , states that there i s "... . p l a i n l y no substitute, i n the development of broad ad-m i n i s t r a t i v e perspectives, for the experience of varied places and s o c i a l patterns" (p. 18 2). B) Personal Benefits A number of personal benefits to the employee may potent-i a l l y r e s u l t from the corporate transfer experience. However, 7 one must be attuned to the s u b j e c t i v i t y of these benefits. Each benefit i s , i n i t s e l f , only as r e a l and as meaningful as the ex-tent to which the prospective r e c i p i e n t values i t . For example, a transfer may provide the employee with an opportunity to further his i n s i g h t into his company and to devel-op his s k i l l s (Jaffe, 1972) i n order to better prepare himself for the p o s s i b i l i t y of i n t r a - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l advancement. Ac-qu i r i n g an understanding and working knowledge of the various company operations at t h e i r respective l o c a t i o n s i s often a pre-r e q u i s i t e for promotion. Training and s k i l l s so acquired may also be viewed as f a c i l i t a t i n g i n t e r - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l movement and/or advancement. The family of the transferee may also reap various personal benefits from the r e l o c a t i o n experience. Per-haps the most evident of these benefits i s the opportunity to experience new places and thus to broaden one's s o c i a l spectrum. Due to the extreme f i n a n c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n of t r a n s f e r p o l i c i e s such experiences may be acquired with very l i t t l e cost being i n -curred by the family. Chapter III COSTS WHICH MAY RESULT AS A CONSEQUENCE OF A CORPORATE TRANSFER EXPERIENCE A) Costs incurred by -the organization as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of a corporate t r a n s f e r : Transfers are becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y c o s t l y , from a f i n -a n c i a l point of view, for organizations. Survey data from a recent Conference Board report "Relocation P o l i c i e s and Prac-t i c e s i n Canada" (1977) have shown that the majority of large companies which are characterized as being widely dispersed have formal t r a n s f e r p o l i c i e s . Such p o l i c i e s have a strong f i n a n c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n aimed at easing the economic costs incurred by the transferred employee and his family as a r e s u l t of the move. The Conference Board study emphasizes the extreme d i v e r s i t y of expenses associated with the r e l o c a t i o n experience which are l i k e l y to be reimbursed by the employing company. B r i e f l y , these expenses include the following: (a) those expenses incurred p r i o r to the move (ex. paid time-off to v i s i t the new l o c a t i o n and the reimbursement of pre-move expenses including food, transportation and lodging); (b) the payment of d i r e c t moving expenses 8 (ex. packing, c r a t i n g , transportation and unpacking of possessions; ship-ment of automobile, r e c r e a t i o n v e h i c l e s and pets; and storage of household e f -fects) ; (c) the payment of i n d i r e c t moving expenses (ex. costs incurred for the r e - f i t t i n g of drapes and rugs; the i n s t a l l a t i o n of u t i l i t i e s , etc.) . Reports given by p a r t i c i p a n t s at the Ninth A t l a s Forum on Moving and those c i t e d i n the Conference Board report ex-plore the growing trend toward i n c r e a s i n g l y generous and cor-respondingly c o s t l y corporate t r a n s f e r p o l i c i e s . Such p o l i c i e s include an increase i n the pr o v i s i o n of f r i n g e benefits for the r e l o c a t i n g employee. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , t r a n s f e r p o l i c i e s have been concerned with items such as payment or reimbursement for tra n s -portation, meals, and l i v i n g accommodations during the move; packing, shipping, and temporary storage of personal and house-hold belongings; the cost of househunting t r i p s to the new loc a t i o n ; and some expenses associated with property'and lease settlements (Jaffe, 1972) . 0. H. F r i s b i e , president of Atlas Van Lines Incorporated, stated i n his annual report published i n 1973 that corporate expenditure f o r moving an employee has r i s e n astronomically i n recent years. The primary reason for the i n -crease i s the more l i b e r a l nature of the moving p o l i c i e s adopted by a growing percentage of companies. The 197 3 survey showed 10 that costs d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to moving rose l e s s than 1 percent over a one year period whereas the cost of the added amenities rose nearly 90 percent (Industry Week, January 29, 1973) . Paul R. Ray and Company, a Fort Worth-based executive r e c r u i t i n g firm, recently p o l l e d 324 major companies on r e l o c a t i o n prac-t i c e s for t h e i r executives. Almost a l l companies paid for the t r a d i t i o n a l f r i n g e benefits c i t e d above (Business Week, November 24, 1975). Results from the survey also showed that one company i n three w i l l arrange bank "bridge" loans f o r a new house purchased u n t i l the executive's old home i s sold; more than one-half of the companies use t h e i r influence to help ex-i s t i n g employees secure favorable loans or mortgage rates at the new l o c a t i o n ; sixteen percent of the companies w i l l make up the d i f f e r e n c e between the old and the new i n t e r e s t rates for transferred executives i f the mortgage rate i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the old one; one-half of the companies o f f e r to buy the home at a f a i r appraised p r i c e , or w i l l make up the d i f f e r -ence i f the sale p r i c e i s lower, i f a f t e r a designated period, the executive's home remains unsold. The Atlas survey also found that three-quarters of the companies w i l l reimburse pre-sent executives for s e l l i n g costs such as broker's commission, l e g a l expenses, t i t l e searches and r e l a t e d costs, and that many companies provide the employee with " s e t t l i n g i n " costs which are intended to cover the cost of new drapes and rugs and the i n s t a l l a t i o n of u t i l i t i e s a f t e r the move. More than one-half of the companies surveyed pay at l e a s t part of the income tax l i a -b i l i t y an employee incurs when he i s moved at company expense. 11 The changing s o c i a l conditions and a t t i t u d e s of employees, as well as the r i s i n g cost of the amenities included by a growing number of companies i n t h e i r t r a n s f e r p o l i c i e s , are making i t more and more d i f f i c u l t f or companies to implement pra c t i c e s that s a t i s f y the needs of the organization as well as the needs of the transferred employee and his family. Such costs, as-sociated with the move i t s e l f , have been estimated as ranging from $5,000 to $15,000 i n Vancouver (Pinder, 1977). The charts appearing i n Figure 1, compiled from data e l i c i t e d from the respondents p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Ninth A t l a s Forum on Moving, i l l u s t r a t e the more l i b e r a l a t t i t u d e i n providing f r i n g e bene-f i t s to r e l o c a t i n g employees. A vast set of monetary inducements have, indeed, been off e r e d by numerous companies i n exchange f o r a move on the part of an employee. These e f f o r t s have not been enough to promote movement i f the executive b a s i c a l l y did not want to move (Behavioural Science Newsletter, September 12, 1977, Book VI, Vol. 17; Wong and Halpin, 1977). The added compensation i s not having a s i g n i f i c a n t counter-effect upon the prevalent a n t i -m o b i l i t y trend. B) Costs incurred by the organization as a r e s u l t of human reactions to the r e l o c a -t i o n experience: ' ' Recent l i t e r a t u r e alludes to the many hidden costs of executive r e l o c a t i o n . In additi o n to the widely explored f i n -a n c i a l costs, researchers are beginning to view lower perform-ance l e v e l s on the part of the transferee as a major hidden cost r e s u l t i n g from a corporate move (Nation's Business, November, 1973; 12 Approximately how much per move did your com-pany spend during 1975 for such "moving ex-tras" as motel accommodations, family trans-portation, meals, housing compensation, maid service, per-move house hunting t r i p s , ap-pliance servicing and similar items? Exclude any salary increases and the cost of van ser-vices. DOMESTIC MOVE ResDOnse (15 0) $6,500 $20 0 $1,3371 INTERNATIONAL MOVE Response (41) BID,000 52,555 ¥500 LOW AVERAGE HIGH LOW AVERfGE HIGH *Some answered more than one way How many expense-paid t r i p s does your company allow an employee to fin d housing in the new c i t y ? Response (273) 4% 38% 37% 21% NONE ONE TWO NO LIMIT Approximately how much per move did your company spend during 1975 on d i r e c t van services of packing and transportion only? DOMESTIC MOVE Response (228) (56.^ 00 I $400 $1,762 LOW Besides packing and transportation hold goods, does your company also employees: Reponse of house-allow the (278)* To move a second automobile at company expense? 59% To move a t h i r d automobile at company expense? 12% To move a boat at company expense? 33% To have belongings picked up from a second residence ( i . e . , summer home)? 56% To have maid service at either the bid or the new home? 14% Unlimited weight? 82% Permanent storage of some pos-sessions? 26% To move objects of high value, such as statues or paintings? . 67% To move pets? 45% To move recreation and lawn equipment? 82% To move other things? Please specify: (Antiques, motor-cycles, campers, etc.) 34% AVERAGE HIGH INTERNATIONAL MOVE Response (51) 64,350 $850 $8/300 LOW AVERAGE HIGH Does your company i n any way f i n a n c i a l l y as-s i s t your employee i n disposing of the former residence? Response (271) 59%-YES 41%-NO If you ^ nswer^d ^ES, does your company: Guarantee sale of the employee's former residence? Purchase employee's house i f no buyer can be found i n a reasonable time? Refund any variance between price of the former house and the price of similar house in the new c i t y ? Pay for drapes, carpeting, etc. i n the new house, to equal the former? Pay for a l t e r a t i o n s to drapes, car-peting etc. i f moved to new c i t y ? Pay employee, i f he rented, the difference between former rent and similar new rental quarters? Reimburse for any increased income tax incurred as a re s u l t of move? Other aid? Please specify. (Most frequent: Help with mortgage loans, other loans, r e a l t o r ' s fees, bonus) . 44% 32% 11% 13% 29% 15% 36% 45% *Some answered more than one way How many expense-paid t r i p s does your company allow your employee's spouse to a s s i s t i n the house-hunting task? Response (271) 6% 52% 32% 10% NONE [•WO NO LIMIT F i g u r e 1 . T h e P r o v i s i o n s o f F r i n g e B e n e f i t s F o r t h e R e l o c a t i n g E m p l o y e e . 13 Industry Week, May 3, 1971) . S i m i l a r l y , the Conference Board Report (1977) states that most firms recognize the fac t that i t i s d i f f i c u l t f or an unsettled employee to perform at f u l l capac-i t y . Robert Holliday (1979) , President of I n d u s t r i a l Health Assistance Limited, a l l e g e s that the end r e s u l t of the pressure an i n d i v i d u a l brings to bear upon himself i n attempting to cope with a s t r e s s f u l event that has occurred i n his business or per-sonal l i f e i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y job performance. Corporations are recognizing that the s o c i a l and psychological s t r a i n s which ac-company a move may act as a "performance obstacle" (Greene, 1972) and may negatively a f f e c t an employee's emotional well-being, personal s t a b i l i t y , and o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n with the t r a n s f e r , and hence may hinder his a b i l i t y to perform i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y manner. For the past four decades, however, researchers and p r a c t i t i o n e r s a l i k e have been engaged i n a controversy regarding the cause-and-effect r e l a t i o n s h i p of s a t i s f a c t i o n and performance. Although a thorough examination of the cause-and-effeet contro-versy i s beyond the scope of t h i s t h e s i s , note should be taken of the lack of empirical evidence supporting the cause-and-effeet r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v a r i a b l e s . Greene (197 2) states . . . current speculation on the part of most p r a c t i -t i o n e r s and researchers continue to imply that s a t i s f a c -t i o n and performance are causally r e l a t e d , although confusion e x i s t s concerning the exact nature of that r e -l a t i o n s h i p . While the performance-causes-satisfaction proposition i s a more recent development, the contention that s a t i s f a c t i o n causes performance, nonetheless, remains the more widely held of the two b e l i e f s , p a r t i c u l a r l y among p r a c t i t i o n e r s . (Steers and Porter, 1975, p. 252) 14 Path-goal t h e o r i s t s have examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p be-tween s a t i s f a c t i o n and p r o d u c t i v i t y from a motivational point of view and have proposed a connection between s a t i s f a c t i o n , motivation and p r o d u c t i v i t y . Georgopoulas et a l (1957) suggest that an i n d i v i d u a l ' s motivation to perform at any given l e v e l i s dependent upon his p a r t i c u l a r needs as r e f l e c t e d i n the choice of his goals and by his perception as to the usefulness of productive behaviour toward the ultimate attainment of these goals. Vroom (1964) has further extended t h i s idea i n t o a moti-v a t i o n a l model. Porter et a l (197 5) have elaborated upon the connection between s a t i s f a c t i o n , motivation and p r o d u c t i v i t y by sta t i n g that the various events or outcomes that a r i s e i n an organization are valued by the i n d i v i d u a l to the extent that they a c t u a l l y s a t i s f y personal needs or f a c i l i t a t e the achieve-ment of personal goals. Thus, the rewards which emerge as a r e s u l t of the e l i c i t a t i o n of productive behaviour must have value and u t i l i t y i n terms of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s current perceived needs. I f , f o r instance, the choice of a transferee's goals i s d i c t a t e d by his need for personal and family s e c u r i t y as well as for psychological and emotional comfort, he w i l l be motivated to s a t i s f y what Maslow (1954) has termed "lower-level" needs. Goals ch a r a c t e r i z i n g lower-level needs may emerge i n response to a t r a n s f e r s i t u a t i o n where the incidence of s o c i a l and psycholog-i c a l s t r a i n s have ari s e n . The value attached to the f u l f i l l m e n t of the lower-level needs w i l l thus act as the motivational i n -centive f o r the transferee. Hence, p r o d u c t i v i t y and the desire to perform would seemingly not be of immediate value to the trans-feree who i s faced with personal d i f f i c u l t i e s . The s e t t i n g of 15 goals associated with p r o d u c t i v i t y and congruent with the f u l -f i l l m e n t of "higher-order" needs ( i . e . , needs fo r personal growth and development, or for s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n ) would thus not take place u n t i l the personal d i f f i c u l t i e s are r e c t i f i e d . Consequently, the organization must take necessary pre-cautions to r e f r a i n from placing i t s employees i n a tran s f e r s i t u a t i o n which would i n i t i a t e personal and f a m i l i a l d i s r u p t i o n s . Employers must r e f r a i n from i n s t i g a t i n g such t r a n s f e r s not only to preserve the functioning of the company, but al s o to spare the executive and his family the human costs associated with an inappropriate or poorly received t r a n s f e r . It seems e s s e n t i a l that the needs of the company be met without depriving the em-ployee and h i s family of the s a t i s f a c t i o n of t h e i r personal needs. It has been found that the actions and reactions of his family w i l l have a d i r e c t bearing upon the executive's a b i l i t y to perform (Industry Week, August 2, 1974). If the family, and in p a r t i c u l a r the spouse, cannot cope emotionally, the success of the move may be i n jeopardy. From an emotional standpoint, very l i t t l e has been done by organizations to aid the distraught family of a transferred employee. As a r e s u l t , occupational physicians are becoming inc r e a s i n g l y f a m i l i a r with disturbed family groups and i n d i v i d u a l family members as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of transfers (Olive et a l , 1976). Stress within the family unit w i l l o f f s e t the psychological equilibrium c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of any well balanced and fu n c t i o n a l s o c i a l e n t i t y . The d i s r u p t i o n w i l l , no doubt, have an adverse a f f e c t upon the manager's a b i l i t y to adapt appropriately to the novel demands of h i s new organizational r o l e and thus to function s u c c e s s f u l l y within the organization. As a consequence of his poor performance, the transferee may experience professional c r i t i c i s m and personal f r u s t r a t i o n , which may subsequently have a detrimental a f f e c t upon his s a t i s f a c t i o n with his newly acquired p o s i t i o n , upon his l e v e l of motivation to perform, and upon his future a t t i t u d e t o -ward t r a n s f e r s i n general. Argyris (1957) has stated that i f an employee cannot ad-j u s t to the demands of the job, he or she w i l l leave that job and w i l l subsequently search for one which i s more compatible with his personality. Thus, the incidence of employee turnover may be regarded as being d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the employee experi-encing negative consequences stemming from the work s i t u a t i o n . Various negative consequences which lead frequently to employee d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n have been documented as r e s u l t i n g from an inap-propriate or poorly received t r a n s f e r experience and hence may contribute to an increase i n the incidence of employee turnover. For example, Pinder and Das (1979) state that i f a transferee or his family are unhappy i n t h e i r new l o c a t i o n the employee may l i k e l y terminate h i s employment at that l o c a t i o n and thus the company w i l l incur the high costs associated with turnover. In such cases the cost to a company may be measured i n the t r a i n i n g and experience which the i n d i v i d u a l has received at the company's expense, yet which w i l l no longer be of benefit to the company. The d i r e c t cost to the company i n such s i t u a t i o n s i s often a sub-s t a n t i a l percentage of the transferee's annual salary. C) Personal costs which are s o c i a l and psychological i n nature:  Business and academic l i t e r a t u r e have perso n i f i e d the 20th Century corporate employee and h i s family as being members of a "nomadic t r i b e " , possessing very l i t t l e c o n t r o l over t h e i r destiny (Imundo, 1964; Olive et a l , 1976). Vance Packard, i n his book A Nation of Strangers, brings to the fore the need for i n d i v i d u a l s to f a m i l i a r i z e themselves with the causes and the consequences of the nomadic existence experienced by many cor-porate f a m i l i e s . Packard (1972) states that a l o s s of community i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , the d i s s o l u t i o n of the nuclear family, increas-ing divorce rates, t r a n s i t o r y friendships, and the emergence of s o c i a l apathy are, to a large degree, a r e s u l t of excessive mo-b i l i t y . Tiger (1974) contends that a major consequence a s s o c i -ated with the corporate commitment to frequently r e l o c a t i n g t h e i r executives i s that the executive's spouse and c h i l d r e n are deprived of the fundamental human requirement of s o c i a l continu-i t y and personal s t a b i l i t y . The executive himself experiences such l o s s , as well as numerous other obstacles. There are, of course, losses of various kinds when the newly tr a n s f e r r e d execu-t i v e must enter a novel work s i t u a t i o n with l i t t l e or no working f a m i l i a r i t y with the people involved nor with the i d i o -syncracies c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of his new place of employment. Not only must he learn about his new job, but also he must become f a m i l i a r with the s o c i a l and psychological climate of his new l o c a t i o n . While the exact costs of s o c i a l and psychological exploration and subsequent readjustment are d i f f i c u l t to state 18 accurately, Tiger (197 4) contends that there i s reason, on the face of i t , to think that the costs are considerable. Recent surveys have shown a growing d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n on the part of executives' spouses when questioned about t h e i r f e e l i n g s on corporate t r a n s f e r s . Burke (1974) found that 51 per-cent of the wives i n his survey stated that they would react pes-s i m i s t i c a l l y i f t h e i r husbands were asked to relocate; 5 percent said that they would encourage t h e i r husbands to leave t h e i r present jobs. Some 16 percent of the wives i n the same study f e l t that the prospect of t h e i r husbands being transferred s i g n i f i c a n t l y decreased t h e i r involvement i n the community and i n neighbourhood s o c i a l l i f e . A t o t a l of 34 percent of these spouses said that a f t e r r e l o c a t i o n they had not made any close or l a s t i n g f r iends i n t h e i r neighbourhood. Student (1976), i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n centering upon the costs associated with corporate mobility, states that i f the executive, and i n p a r t i c u l a r his wife and c h i l d r e n , have s p e c i a l d i f f i c u l t y i n accepting the circumstances e x i s t i n g i n t h e i r new community, these d i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n s w i l l create serious personal and hence serious organi-z a t i o n a l problems. Thus, i t may be s t i p u l a t e d that the executive must be sustained by a w i l l i n g family i f , i n f a c t , he i s to ac-cept a t r a n s f e r opportunity and be s a t i s f i e d with and possess p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s toward the experience. C o s t e l l o (197 6) found that three of the ten reasons most often given by managers who declined a s h i f t to a new l o c a t i o n were d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to family concerns. These reasons i n -cluded a basic resistance on the part of the family to relocate; a concern for the educational needs of the c h i l d r e n ; and 19 consideration of the employment of the spouse. The growing consciousness of women's r i g h t s has recently surfaced as an important factor behind the a n t i - m o b i l i t y trend. Ginzberg (1977) states that the single most outstanding economic phenomenon of our century i s the huge number of women who are curren t l y entering the labour force. Waldman (1970) states that the present labour force i s composed of a s u b s t a n t i a l l y greater percentage of women than at any given time i n the past. In a Northwestern B e l l Telephone study Olive et a l (1976) found that 33 percent of the company's employees had spouses who were em-ployed ei t h e r f u l l or part-time. Recent surveys conducted by S t a t i s t i c s Canada show that there has been a marked difference i n the labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates of females i n recent years. This increase i s p r i m a r i l y seen as being a r e f l e c t i o n of the increased tendency of married women under f i f t y - f i v e years of age to enter the labour force. Figures 2 and 3 c l e a r l y de-p i c t t h i s growing trend. Subseguent to the i n f l u x of women (and i n p a r t i c u l a r married women) into the Canadian labour force, the incidence of the career-oriented wife i s on the r i s e , and the oc-currence of c o n f l i c t i n g husband-wife career paths i s becoming evi-dent. Ginzberg (Forbes, November 15, 1977) states that organiza-tions w i l l not be able to move young executives around as e a s i l y as they did when they did not have to concern themselves with the added problem of the career woman who i s not always content to play the supportive r o l e to her husband and to his career. As stated by one of the wives p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Northwestern B e l l Tele-phone study, "I've moved with him for the l a s t f i f t e e n years. Now i t ' s time for him to consider my career" (Olive et a l , 1976). 20 PARTICIPATION RATE 100 '1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1966 1971 197.5 F i g u r e 2. L a b o u r F o r c e P a r t i c i p a -t i o n R a t e s by Sex and M a r i t a l S t a t u s . PARTICIPATION RATE 60 50-40-30_J 20-1 0 -r 1 4 —24 y e a r s 25-34 y e a r s 35-44 y e a r s 45-54 y e a r s 55+ y e a r s 1968 1970 1973- 1975 F i g u r e 3. L a b o u r F o r c e P a r t i c i p a -t i o n R a t e s o f M a r r i e d F e m a l e s by Age Group, 21 Thus, the r e l o c a t i o n of a career woman's spouse has a d i r e c t bearing upon the continuation and, i n f a c t , upon the p l a u s i b i l i t y of her pursuit of a successful career, as well as upon her emotional well-being. Today more women are occupying jobs which are neither menial nor t r a n s i t o r y i n nature, and as a r e s u l t , ego as well as nuptial d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e when the husband of a career-oriented wife receives a t r a n s f e r . Data c o l l e c t e d i n the United States by the population d i v i s i o n of the Census Bureau shows that working women must usually f o r f e i t t h e i r jobs when t h e i r husbands are transferred (U. S. News and World Report, January 13, 1975). Although the couple may be able to arrange simultaneous and corresponding moves with t h e i r respec-t i v e employers, there seems only a slim hope that such arrange-ments w i l l frequently m a t e r i a l i z e . The author of "Corporate Wives-Corporate Casualties?", Dr. Robert Seidenberg, a p s y c h i a t r i s t , states that a s i g n i f i c a n t number of working wives whose career development i s adversely affected by the incidence of t h e i r husbands' t r a n s f e r s become defeated i n d i v i d u a l s , c a s u a l t i e s of success. The f r u s t r a t i o n s , the f e e l i n g s of inadequacy and anger experienced by many career-oriented wives tend to surface when they are confronted with the t r a d i t i o n a l assumptions of male primacy i n career development and achievement. In response to the f e e l i n g of hopelessness and of being destined to f u l f i l l the r o l e of the stereotype com-pl a i s a n t wife the working woman may turn to alcohol or drugs i n an attempt to evade the r e a l i t i e s of her l i f e s i t u a t i o n . Family problems and nuptial d i f f i c u l t i e s frequently a r i s e due to involve-ment with alcohol or drugs as a means of escape. Chapter IV BENEFITS VS. COSTS: THE NEED FOR RECONCILIATION In order to minimize the costs and maximize the benefits derived from corporate t r a n s f e r s , i t would be usefu l to construct a p r o f i l e that characterizes the personality and a t t i t u d e s of in d i v i d u a l s for whom mob i l i t y i s not a major problem. In other words, what types of people are not adversely affected by trans-fers? What personality t r a i t s d i s t i n g u i s h them? What sort of att i t u d e s do they tend to possess? Katz (1960) has defined the concept of a t t i t u d e as ". . . the pred i s p o s i t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l to evaluate some symbol or object or aspect of his world i n a favourable or un-favourable manner" (Public Opinion Quarterly, Volume 24, 196 0, p. 168). Jeremy Bentham and the U t i l i t a r i a n s , when constructing t h e i r model of man, recognized that people s t r i v e to maximize the rewards i n t h e i r environment and to minimize the penalties. The concept of at t i t u d e formation i s thus seen as being l a r g e l y dependent upon the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l coalesced with the present or past perceptions of the u t i l i t y of the a t t i t u d i n a l object toward the s a t i s f a c t i o n of his current i n d i v i d u a l needs. In industry, management has attempted to create favour-able attitudes towards transfers by providing a t t r a c t i v e f i n -a n c i a l incentives. A c e n t r a l theme of t h i s paper i s that such programs w i l l not have an overriding e f f e c t upon p o s i t i v e 22 23 a t t i t u d e formation. I t i s f e l t that the personality character-i s t i c s and psychological needs of the executive and his spouse w i l l be the ultimate determinant of the executive's a t t i t u d e t o -ward transfers i n general. Murray (1971) touches upon the argument that i n d i v i d u a l s with d i f f e r e n t personality and demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and thus with d i f f e r e n t psychological d i s p o s i t i o n s w i l l react quite d i f f e r e n t l y to the r e l o c a t i o n experience. A f t e r a search of management-oriented and psychological l i t e r a t u r e , however, no empirical support was found which elaborated upon the r o l e of i n d i v i d u a l differences and t h e i r assumed e f f e c t upon attitudes toward the r e l o c a t i o n experience. Burke (1974) stated that very l i t t l e i s known about the ways i n which transfer opportunities are received by i n d i v i d u a l s . However, i t i s l o g i c a l to assume that an i n d i v i d u a l w i l l perceive and experience a new s i t u a t i o n i n a manner which i s congruent with his personal d i s p o s i t i o n , expectancies, and l i k e s and d i s l i k e s as established through ex-perience and imbedded i n h i s b e l i e f s . Some employees may regard the t r a n s f e r opportunity as a chance to advance with i n the organizational hierarchy and to gain added knowledge and exper-ience which w i l l serve to strengthen t h e i r expertise (Burke, 1974). The employee may also see the r e l o c a t i o n opportunity as a time for self-renewal, for expanding his horizons, and for p o t e n t i a l growth to be acquired through meeting new people and l i v i n g i n d i f f e r e n t places (Olive et a l , 1976). Conversely, the transferee may conceptualize the opportunity as i n e v i t a b l y leading to the a b o l i t i o n of long established routines, habits, housing 24 arrangements, community a f f i l i a t i o n s , and f r i e n d s h i p s . The proponents of the 1960's youth movements, whose ef-f o r t s l e n t toward a search f o r "freedom" and a status quo i n which each man's uniqueness was appreciated, are today becoming assimilated into the corporate ranks. These i n d i v i d u a l s are bringing to the corporate world t h e i r recognition and apprecia-t i o n for personal values, as well as t h e i r i n t e g r i t y to question that to which they may not wish to conform so as to preserve t h e i r i d e a l s . Schein (1977) states that work i s no longer as c e n t r a l to l i f e as i t once was. He contends that younger people, i n p a r t i c u l a r , want a better balance of work, family, and s e l f -development and are thus not w i l l i n g to be dominated by t h e i r work s i t u a t i o n . Banks (1977), i n his a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Here Come the I n d i v i d u a l i s t s , " indicates that the most prevalent trend i n /American society today i s the r i s e of a kind of "popular i n d i -vidualism. " He states that i t i s not an anti-business or an a n t i - o r g a n i z a t i o n trend per se, but i t i s a trend which w i l l de-mand accommodations between the conventional business values and. i n d i v i d u a l values of a scope and kind which we have never seen before. Banks goes on to say that today's managers are con-fronted with " . . . the outcropping of a broad and basic change i n American society, which has bedrock implications f o r a l l or-ganizations that owe t h e i r s u r v i v a l to c r e a t i v e people (and that, i n the long run, i s most of them)" (p. 24). Not every highly q u a l i f i e d and p o t e n t i a l l y successful graduate holds the ultimate d e s i r e of climbing a corporate ladder, says Schein (1977). Many want the opportunity to apply t h e i r academic expertise to r e a l world s i t u a t i o n s with minimal management duties. Others have need for the f u l f i l l m e n t of what Maslow (1954) has termed "lower order needs" such as a sense of security, others d e s i r e to be-come recognized as entrepreneurs, and s t i l l others want non-organizational careers altogether. It was once f e l t that a l l managers desired to climb the same corporate ladder and t h e i r unquestioning acceptance of t r a n s f e r opportunities was seen as a d e f i n i t e means to t h i s end. Schein contends that the implications a r i s i n g from the movement toward individualism are obvious. He states that organizations must accommodate i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and hence must develop multiple ladders and reward systems. Since transfer r e l a t e d benefits are c e n t r a l to the long-term s u r v i v a l of organizations, i t i s e s s e n t i a l that organiza-tions f i n d an improved means by which to accomplish the objectives which p r e c i p i t a t e the tra n s f e r of employees. It i s f e l t by t h i s author that the means may be s i g n i f i c a n t l y enhanced i f greater emphasis i s placed upon the psychological and the demographic cor r e l a t e s of post-transfer s a t i s f a c t i o n . Central to the argu-ments to be advanced i n t h i s paper i s the assumption that a s i g n i f i c a n t proportion of the i l l - e f f e c t s a r i s i n g from the cor-porate t r a n s f e r can be minimized through an appropriate selec-t i o n program whereby the personality f a c t o r s (psychological and demographic) of the e l i g i b l e transferees and of t h e i r spouses are thoroughly appraised. The author w i l l attempt to i d e n t i f y , based on theoret-i c a l and e m p i r i c a l l y derived formulations, some of the 26 r e q u i s i t e personality f a c t o r s which may have an e f f e c t upon the employee's post-transfer s a t i s f a c t i o n and subsequently upon the favourableness of his a t t i t u d e toward tran s f e r s i n general. The empirical i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of such f a c t o r s may be of c r u c i a l impor-tance f o r the long-term effectiveness of the company because of the organization's dependence upon i t s human resources, f o r the successful implementation of i t s t r a n s f e r p o l i c y , and for the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the employee's personal and f a m i l i a l needs. The psychological and the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the spouse of the transferee must also be considered because of the apparent i n f l u e n t i a l e f f e c t which the spouse's a t t i t u d e s have upon the transferee's post-transfer s a t i s f a c t i o n (Pahl and Pahl, 1971). It i s important to i d e n t i f y the spouse's a b i l i t y to cope with the vast set of consequences which may r e s u l t from a r e l o c a t i o n ; her i n a b i l i t y to cope may have a devastating e f f e c t upon the outcome of the t r a n s f e r . Chapter V HYPOTHESES Hypotheses were generated regarding the r e l a t i o n s h i p be-tween the -various personality and demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the transferee and the spouse (which served as the independent variables i n the study) and the dependent v a r i a b l e (which i s de-noted as the favourableness of the executive's attitudes toward corporate t r a n s f e r s i n general). The independent v a r i a b l e s i n -clude the employee's age, as well as h i s scores on i n d i c e s measuring Job Involvement, Company Commitment, Authoritarianism, Extraversion-Introversion, and Locus of Control. In addition, the age and scores on indices measuring the Authoritarian, Extraversion-Introversion, and Locus of Control of the spouse were examined as predictors of employee attitudes toward trans-f e r s . In the following section of the paper t h e o r e t i c a l j u s t i -f i c a t i o n s f o r each of the independent v a r i a b l e s w i l l be discussed. Each w i l l be accompanied by a b r i e f explanation of the conceptual j u s t i f i c a t i o n and the r a t i o n a l e l i n k i n g the independent variable to the dependent v a r i a b l e , and a hypothesis concerning t h e i r r e -l a t i o n s h i p w i l l be generated. The independent v a r i a b l e s selected for the purpose of t h i s study are proposed to be of c r i t i c a l im-portance to the development of a pe r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e of the "successful" transfer candidate who would respond to the move with the l e a s t amount of personal f a m i l i a l and organizational 28 d i s r u p t i o n . The t h e o r e t i c a l descriptions and assumptions underlying the generation of hypotheses regarding the executives are also assumed to be applicable to the generation of hypotheses r e -garding t h e i r spouses. Since i t i s theorized that the a t t i t u d e s of the spouse to transfer have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t upon the at-t i t u d e s of the transferee, hypotheses regarding both the trans-feree and the spouse w i l l be considered together under each independent v a r i a b l e , where that v a r i a b l e was considered to be applicable to both. Hypothesis 1: The present age of the executive served as an independent vari a b l e i n t h i s study. Veiga (1973), i n an extensive study on the transfers of nearly 1,300 managers, confirmed the previous fi n d i n g of Hunter and Reid (1967) which depicted a decline i n m o b i l i t y as a manager advances i n age. Likewise, Howard and Boyd (1976) found that age and w i l l i n g n e s s to relocate are highly i n t e r r e l a t e d . As most i n d i v i d u a l s advance i n age they have established a community i d e n t i t y which, i f interrupted, might cause personal problems r e f l e c t i n g a perceived lack of s e l f - i d e n t i t y and sense of belongingness (Olive et a l , 1976; Packard, 1972; Tiger, 1974; Student, 1976). I t i s f e l t that an older i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be l e s s l i k e l y to welcome the demands of r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g one's i d e n t i t y i n a new community due to the r e a l i z a t i o n of having to f o r f e i t the number of years already invested i n e s t a b l i s h i n g his community i d e n t i t y and sense of belonging. .29 Accordingly, i t was hypothesized that older employees would possess l e s s favourable a t t i t u d e s toward t r a n s f e r s i n gen-e r a l than would younger employees. Hypothesis 2: Numerous organizational t h e o r i s t s as well as s o c i a l psychologists have discussed the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the work of an i n d i v i d u a l and the extent to which the work i s associated with h i s ego f e e l i n g s , self-concept, and the f u l f i l l m e n t of h i s psychological needs (McGregor, 196 0; Maslow, 1954; A l l p o r t , 1947; Vroom, 1964). Lodahl and Kejner (1965) have explored t h i s r e -l a t i o n s h i p and have subsequently developed a t h e o r e t i c a l d e f i n i -t i o n of what they termed "job involvement". Job involvement i s defined as 11. . . the degree to which a person i s i d e n t i f i e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y with h i s work, or the importance of work i n his t o t a l self-image" (Lodahl and Kejner, 1965, p. 24). The concept of job involvement i s seen as the personal i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of values concerning the importance of work and the basic need for work as a means of personifying the worthiness of the person. Lodahl and Kejner (1965) state that the degree of job involve-ment expressed by a person may perhaps serve as a measure of the ease with which he may become further s o c i a l i z e d by the organiza-t i o n . Katz and Kahn (196 6) conclude that job involvement i s a necessary precondition i f the i n d i v i d u a l i s to accept f u l l y the organizational demands placed upon him by his membership i n the organization. The job-involved person may thus be characterized as a person 30 . . . for whom work i s a very important part of l i f e , and as one who i s affected very much personally by his whole job s i t u a t i o n : the work i t s e l f , h i s co-workers, the company, etc. On the other hand, the non-job-involved worker does his l i v i n g o f f the job. Work i s not an important part of his psychological l i f e . His i n t e r e s t s are elsewhere, and the core of his self-image, the e s s e n t i a l part of his i d e n t i t y , i s not greatly affected by the kind of work he does or how well he does i t . (Lodahl and Kejner, 1965, p. 25) It was hypothesized therefore that a person who i s high-l y job involved w i l l be more accepting of organizational demands and w i l l hence express a more favourable a t t i t u d e toward the tra n s f e r experience. Hypothesis 3: A l i m i t e d amount of empirical research i n the f i e l d of organizational behaviour has been concerned with the concept of company commitment and the variables which may increase or de-crease the incidence of commitment on the part of the executive. Company commitment i s defined by Porter et a l (1974) as the strength of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with and involvement in a given company. Company commitment can be characterized by the following three factors (Porter et a l , 1974, p. 604): 1. a strong b e l i e f i n and acceptance of the organization's goals and values, 2. a willingness to exert considerable e f f o r t on behalf of the organization, 3. a d e f i n i t e desire to maintain organiza-t i o n a l membership. 31 Company commitment i s defined by Jamal (1975) i n terms of desire to put i n extra work and concern for the company. It i s f e l t by the author that the more committed an em-ployee i s to his company the more receptive he w i l l be to the demands which the company makes upon him. Thus, i f an employee i s to be relocated by the company he w i l l be more i n c l i n e d to do so without generating doubts and qualms i f , i n f a c t , he has com-mitted himself to the goals of the organization, has i n t e r n a l -ized the values c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the organization, and wishes to maintain his ro l e within the company. The acceptance of a transfer opportunity and h i s post-transfer s a t i s f a c t i o n w i l l serve to show his i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and concern for the future of "his" organization. It was thus hypothesized that an i n d i v i d u a l who i s com-mitted to the company w i l l demonstrate greater acceptance of a tran s f e r opportunity, w i l l d isplay greater post-transfer s a t i s -f a c t i o n , and w i l l be i n c l i n e d to express a favourable a t t i t u d e toward transfers i n general. Hypothesis 4a: The a u t h o r i t a r i a n person has high submission and domin-ance needs and thus has a great respect for authority (Adorno, 1950). Those who score high on authoritarianism should f i n d i t easy to legitimate the existence of an organization as a r a t i o n a l system i n which authority, status, and rewards are not always equally d i s t r i b u t e d . Presthus (1962) states that an authoritarian's respect for authority " . . . helps him re c o n c i l e any moral con-f l i c t a r i s i n g from the i n j u s t i c e that organizations must at times commit" (p. 198). The development and the perpetuation of the company i s paramount to the a u t h o r i t a r i a n i n d i v i d u a l , with h i s own personal welfare being secondary. The a u t h o r i t a r i a n w i l l thus a l t e r his present f e e l i n g s and points of view so as to play his r o l e i n the development of his company. Such an i n d i v i d u a l r a r e l y r e f l e c t s upon what "might have been," and as a r e s u l t i t i s assumed that he would tend to do as he i s t o l d . Pre stilus maintains that, as a r e s u l t of such f e e l i n g s , the a u t h o r i t a r i a n views his job and the company instrumentally, as a means of per-sonal ascendancy. He accepts the company's l a t e n t goals of power, growth, and s u r v i v a l , and f e e l s that i f he i s to succeed he must accept such values with utter commitment. Based on the sketch of the a u t h o r i t a r i a n p e r s o n a l i t y presented by Presthus, i t i s l o g i c a l to assume that such an i n -d i v i d u a l would, p r i m a r i l y f o r the sake of the organization, but also f o r his own personal success, be amenable to suggestions or orders given by the company. Thus, upon being confronted with a corporate t r a n s f e r , the a u t h o r i t a r i a n i n d i v i d u a l would comply with the request of the company. His respect for authority and his a b i l i t y to place company needs above h i s own would enhance his amenable a t t i t u d e . Therefore, i t was hypothesized that an i n d i v i d u a l scor-ing high on authoritarianism would have a more favourable a t t i t u d e towards t r a n s f e r s i n general than one who scores low on t h i s dimension. Hypothesis 4b: The a u t h o r i t a r i a n spouse might be p e r s o n i f i e d as an i n d i v i d u a l who has a tremendous respect f o r authority and whose need to be dominated by others i s great. If the husband of such an i n d i v i d u a l was to receive a t r a n s f e r opportunity the compla-cent a t t i t u d e of the spouse would influence her whole-hearted acceptance of the company's request to r e l o c a t e . It was reasoned that an a u t h o r i t a r i a n spouse would have a favourable a t t i t u d e t o -ward the t r a n s f e r experience and would thus p o s i t i v e l y increase her husband's acceptance of, and his a t t i t u d e toward, t r a n s f e r s i n general. Therefore, we hypothesized a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between the authoritarianism of the manager's spouse and the t r a n s f e r a t t i t u d e s of the manager himself. Hypothesis 5a; Various t h e o r i s t s have offered d e f i n i t i o n s i n an attempt to c l a r i f y the t h e o r e t i c a l meaning generally attached to the s o c i a l extraversion-introversion p e r s o n a l i t y dimension. The s o c i a l i n t r o v e r t t y p i c a l l y ". . . tends to withdraw into himself, e s p e c i a l l y i n times of emotional stres s or c o n f l i c t . Character-i s t i c s of i n t r o v e r s i o n include shyness and a preference f o r working alone . . . . The extrovert, by contrast, when under stress tends to lose himself among people. He i s l i k e l y to be very sociable, a h a i l fellow well met. He tends to choose occupations such as sales or promotional work, i n which he deals with people rather than with things. He i s l i k e l y to be conven-t i o n a l , well-dressed, out-going" (Hilgard, Atkinson, and Atkinson, 1971, p. 404). When tran s f e r r e d , the executive has the majority of his s o c i a l t i e s severed and i s faced with a s i t u a t i o n i n which he must expend a degree of e f f o r t to make new s o c i a l contacts. Burke (1974) found that many relocated managers become l e s s active i n community a f f a i r s and tend to develop a smaller c i r c l e of friends than was the case i n t h e i r previous l o c a t i o n . Some 53 percent of his t o t a l sample of transferred subjects stated that they made friends with t h e i r neighbours i n t h e i r new com-munity slowly or not at a l l . Since the i n t r o v e r t tends to with-draw and e x i s t i n i s o l a t i o n when confronted with a s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n , i t i s l o g i c a l to assume that the well-documented s t r e s s f u l aspects of corporate transfers would prompt the i n t r o -verted i n d i v i d u a l to e x i s t i n a state of s o c i a l seclusion. Num-erous s o c i a l psychologists and personality psychologists have stated the need for man to e x i s t w i t h i n a s o c i a l atmosphere and have discussed the psychological consequences of turning away from the basic s o c i a l nature of our society. I t i s thus f e l t that the extravert w i l l be better equipped to deal with the re l o c a t i o n experience and would reap f a r greater benefits from the move. Presthus (1962), w r i t i n g from an organizational point of view, states that the extraverted i n d i v i d u a l w i l l accept conditions as they are, believing that e x i s t i n g values and i n -s t i t u t i o n s are necessary and proper. Accordingly, i t was hypothesized that extraverted em-ployees are more adept at adjusting to transfers and to the contingent s i t u a t i o n s and w i l l hence hold more favourable a t t i t u d e s toward t r a n s f e r s i n general than w i l l i n t r o v e r t s . Hypothesis 5b: Imundo (1974) states that wives have more dealings with and d i s p l a y greater i n t e r e s t i n the home, the community, and friends than the majority of husbands and consequently place more value upon them. When the executive and h i s family move to a new l o c a t i o n , the executive i s placed i n the p o s i t i o n of working with colleagues with whom he shares the common fact o r of being employed by the same company. This commonality i s a l i n k through which he may acquire contacts and thus become somewhat assimilated into, the new environment. Conversely, the spouse i s submerged into a novel environment frequently with few or no previously established acquaintances to help ease the s t r a i n s of a s s i m i l a t i o n . Subsequent to the move the spouse i s faced with the task of b u i l d i n g a new s o c i a l l i f e and a new personal community fo r herself, without a predetermined r o l e i n the new environment. Hence, i t i s assumed that i t would be easier f o r the s o c i a l extravert to venture out i n t o the unknown community and e s t a b l i s h f r i e n d s h i p s than i t would be for the i n t r o v e r t . It i s thus hypothesized that extraverted spouses w i l l possess a more favourable a t t i t u d e toward t r a n s f e r s i n general and w i l l p o s i t i v e l y a f f e c t the favourableness of her husband's reactions toward t r a n s f e r s i n general. Hypothesis 6a: Social psychologists have long been interested i n sys-t e m a t i c a l l y i d e n t i f y i n g people's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the events of which they are a part. I t seems that some i n d i v i d u a l s tend to a t t r i b u t e the occurrence of events to t h e i r own actions, while others have the tendency to see the coming of events as being beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l . Psychological research purports 36 that t h i s difference i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of events i s of ut-most importance i n understanding how people w i l l react to, and manage i n , the s o c i a l world. Rotter (1943) termed his person-a l i t y dimension "internal-external locus of con t r o l . " The locus of control dimension represents the degree to which, over a number of s i t u a t i o n s , the i n d i v i d u a l believes that he personally can maintain control over the occurrence and the outcome of the events with which he w i l l be faced. Thus, the i n -dividual's standing on t h i s dimension reveals the extent to which the i n d i v i d u a l sees the source of control as being located within himself rather than without. The more i n t e r n a l l y oriented the person i s , the greater i s his b e l i e f that events occur as a con-sequence of his personal actions and are under his personal con-t r o l . Conversely, the more externally oriented a person i s , the greater i s his b e l i e f that the occurrence and outcome of events are t o t a l l y unrelated to his personal behaviour and are hence beyond his personal co n t r o l . C o l l i n s (1974) states that "from a person perception perspective, the I-E scale, measures a response bias, stereotype, or i m p l i c i t personality theory; i t r e f l e c t s constant bias In the observer's judgements regarding the causes of good and bad things that happen to him" (p.381). Three sub-scales used to measure one's o v e r a l l locus of control are considered to be relevant to t h i s study and are la b e l l e d as follows: 1) the d i f f i c u l t - e a s y world; 2) the just-unjust world; 3) the predictable-unpredictable world. C o l l i n s (1974) states that an i n d i v i d u a l scoring "external" on the three sub-scales of the in t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l locus of co n t r o l dimension would believe that: (a) the reinforcement schedule i n his world i s complex and d i f f i c u l t — t h a t i s , he l i v e s i n a d i f f i c u l t world; (b) e f f o r t and a b i l i t y are generally unrewarded— that i s , he l i v e s i n an inequitable, unjust world; (c) his environment i s programmed with a random reinforcement s c h e d u l e — t h a t i s , he l i v e s i n a lucky world. (p. 38 7) C o l l i n s (1974) maintains that any of the three aforementioned b e l i e f s would i n h i b i t coping and lower one's self-esteem and hence would lead the i n d i v i d u a l to conclude "there's no point i n t r y i n g ; i t wouldn't make any dif f e r e n c e i f I did"(p. 387). The author assumes that the locus of c o n t r o l of an ex-ecutive who i s confronted with a tra n s f e r opportunity w i l l have a pronounced influence upon h i s acceptance of and hence upon his subsequent overt reactions to a move. It i s assumed that his locus of co n t r o l w i l l have a d e f i n i t e e f f e c t upon h i s psychological adjustment to the new l o c a t i o n and to the s t r e s s -f u l s i t u a t i o n s which accompany the move. An "external" person i s characterized as perceiving h i s world as d i f f i c u l t . If such an i n d i v i d u a l receives a tr a n s f e r , he w i l l , i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , see the opportunity as leading to unnecessary d i f f i c u l t i e s with which he would rather not be 38 confronted. Due to h i s perception that the c o n t r o l over those l i f e s i t u a t i o n s with which he may be confronted i s beyond his powers, i t i s assumed that the transferee w i l l evince a lacka-d a i s i c a l response of non-intervention when confronted with the t r a n s f e r - r e l a t e d d i f f i c u l t i e s and thus w i l l not attempt to r e c t i f y them. Hypothesis 6a ( i ) : It i s thus hypothesized that a person scoring "external" on the d i f f i c u l t - e a s y dimen-sion would assume an unfavourable a t t i t u d e toward t r a n s f e r experiences i n general. An i n d i v i d u a l scoring external on the just-unjust dimen-sion perceives h i s world as being inequitable and hence does not acknowledge a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between his behaviour and sub-sequent feedback or occurrences. The i n d i v i d u a l consequently does not assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of coping with or understand-ing his world. When an event occurs such an i n d i v i d u a l w i l l accept i t with l i t t l e or no intervention due to h i s preconceived notion that any investment or input i n t o the s i t u a t i o n w i l l have no bearing upon the outcome of that s i t u a t i o n nor change the existence of that event. It i s therefore l i k e l y that an "external" person w i l l accept a corporate t r a n s f e r but w i l l do so merely because i t i s h i s " l o t i n l i f e . " Hypothesis 6a ( i i ) : I t i s hypothesized that the "external" i n d i v i d u a l w i l l possess an unfavourable a t t i t u d e toward tra n s f e r experiences due to h i s b e l i e f i n the unjust nature of his progression i n l i f e . An "external" i n d i v i d u a l v i s u a l i z e s his world as being one of luck and u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y . If confronted with a corporate tra n s f e r he would accept i t as being i n e v i t a b l e and dictated by 39 "luck." Hypothesis 6a ( i i i ) : It i s hypothesized that the "external" i n d i v i d u a l w i l l express unfavourable a t t i t u d e s t o -ward a t r a n s f e r opportunity since the perceived u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of the event w i l l function to destroy the e q u i l i b r i u m of h i s world and w i l l hence pose d i f f i c u l t i e s i n coping with the event. In a l l of the above three cases i t was hypothesized that the i n d i v i d u a l scoring as an "external" on the locus of c o n t r o l dimension would d i s p l a y unfavourable a t t i t u d e s toward t r a n s f e r s i n general. Hypothesis 6b: The spouses of the executives responding to the survey were also measured on the three sub-scales of the I n t e r n a l -External Locus of Control Scale previously mentioned. The three sub-scales on which executives' reactions to the t r a n s f e r s i t u -a t i o n were measured were a l s o applied to t h e i r spouses. It i s hypothesized that spouses scoring as "externals" w i l l possess a le s s favourable a t t i t u d e toward t r a n s f e r s than would those demonstrating an i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l and that spouses scoring as " i n t e r n a l s , " would be p o s i t i v e l y associated with the favourable r e a c t i o n of the spouse to t r a n s f e r s i n general. Chapter VI METHODOLOGY This study i s part of a more extensive research project conducted by Dr. Craig C. Pinder at the Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, the Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The questionnaires used to e l i c i t the data f o r the study described i n t h i s paper were developed and u t i l i z e d by Dr. Pinder for the purpose of h i s research (cf: Pinder, 1977; 1978; 1979). Materials The survey questionnaires designed to gather the data were developed a f t e r Pinder had interviews with senior personnel executives from several organizations i n in d u s t r i e s where trans-f e r s are common. During these interviews recommendations were offered by the personnel executives concerning important issues and v a r i a b l e s to be incorporated i n the questionnaire. Two questionnaires were developed — one was s p e c i f i c a l l y designed for the transferred employee (see Apendix A) while the second was designed to be completed by the spouse of the employee (see Appendix B). The items included i n the questionnaire for the spouses were drawn from the questionnaire designed for the executives. Various scales found i n the transf e r r e d executives' questionnaire were not applicable to the spouses and were thus not included i n t h e i r questionnaire. S p e c i f i c items responded to by the executives and t h e i r spouses f o r the purpose of t h i s study 40 41 included scales which tap the several independent and dependent var i a b l e s as well as the age and sex of the respondent. Following i s a synopsis of the various instruments used to tap the constructs incorporated i n t h i s study: Independent Variables: Age: The present age of the executive and the spouse was simply measured by a question which read "What i s your present age i n years?" Job Involvement: Lodahl and Kejner (1965) developed a Likert-type scale to tap the psychological dimension which they have termed "job-involvement." Some 110 statements r e l a t i n g to the dimension were gathered from interviews, from previously e x i s t i n g though somewhat vague questionnaires, from associates i n the f i e l d , and by l o g i c a l deductions. Item analysis was c a r r i e d out and the t o t a l set of items was f i r s t reduced to fo r t y and then to twenty. Lodahl and Kejner subsequently developed a shorter version of the scale to be used when space and time d i c t a t e d the need (Weissenberg and Grunfeld, 1968). The shortened scale i s comprised of the following s i x items and appears i n the questionnaire used for t h i s study. 42 Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 119. The major satisfaction in my l i f e cernes from my job. 120. The most important things that happen to me involve my job. 121. I live, eat, and breathe my job. 122. I am very much involved person-rally in my work. 123. I'm really a perfectionist about my work. 124. Most things in l i f e are more im-portant than work. Figure 4: Item Content of Lcdahl's and Kejner*s Job-Involvement Scale Company Commitment: an instrument compiled by Baba and Jamal (1976) to measure the concept of company commitment was u t i l i z e d i n the questionnaire. The items included i n the scale are as follows: Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 134. I don't mind putting in extra I ] j 1 I I time i f the ccmpany needs me to do. 135. I am willing to work extra hard at my job in order to help this company be successful. 136. I really care about the fate of the company. 137. It bothers me very much to be absent from work. Figure 5: Item Content of Baba's and Jamal's Ccmpany Ccnmitment Scale Items 134 and 136 i n the above scale were drawn from Porter's 43 Organizational Commitment Scale (1971) and subsequently modified by Baba and Jamal. Items 135 and 137 were developed by the r e -searchers (Baba and Jamal, 197 6). Authoritarianism: The C a l i f o r n i a F (Fascism) Scale was developed by Adorno et a l (1950). Although the o r i g i n a l F Scale included items tapping ethnic prejudice, such items were excluded i n the form of the scale employed i n the questionnaire for the purpose of t h i s study. A shortened form of the scale c o n s i s t i n g of twelve paired statements which are dichotomous i n nature was used. These items appear i n Figure 6. S o c i a l Extraversion-introversion: The Pittsburgh Scale of Social Extraversion-introversion was developed by A. W. Bendig (1962) i n an attempt to provide a more rigorous measure of the broad second-order personality factor of s o c i a l extraversion-introversion (SEI). Although a number of measures including sub-scales of Eysenck's (1959) Maudsley Personality Inventory, Guildord's and Zimmerman's Temperament Survey, and Drake 1 s • (1946) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory had previously been u t i l i z e d to score the s o c i a l extraversion-i n t r o v e r s i o n dimension, Bendig (1962) maintained that a r e l i a b l e and f a c t o r i l y v a l i d scale measuring the s o c i a l extraversion-i n t r o v e r s i o n factor did not e x i s t . Bendig compiled an inventory composed of items found i n pre-existing scales measuring the dimension. Analysis was performed and the f i n a l t h i r t y - i t e m s o c i a l extraversion-introversion scale known as the Pittsburgh Scale of S o c i a l Extraversion-introversion was developed. The scale i s composed of f i f t e e n items from Eysenck's MPI E scale, 44 167. A. It i s highly u n l i k e l y that astrology w i l l ever be able to e x p l a i n anything. B. Someday i t w i l l probably be shown that astrology can e x p l a i n a l o t of things. 168. A. If i t weren't f o r the r e b e l l i o u s ideas of youth there would be l e s s progress i n the world. B. Young people sometimes get r e b e l l i o u s ideas, but as they grow up they ought to get over them and s e t t l e down. 169. A. It would be a good thing i f people spent more time th i n k i n g and t a l k i n g about ideas j u s t for the fun of i t . B. If people would t a l k l e s s and work more, everybody would be better o f f . 170. A. What a youth needs most i s s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e , rugged determination, and the w i l l to work and f i g h t f o r family and country. B. In the long run i t i s better f o r our country i f young people are allowed a great deal of personal freedom and are not s t r i c t l y d i s c i p l i n e d . 171. A. Nowadays more and more people are prying i n t o matters that should remain personal and p r i v a t e . B. There are times when i t i s necessary to probe i n t o even the most personal and p r i v a t e matters. 172. A. The businessman and the manufacturer are much more important to society than the a r t i s t and the professor. B. The a r t i s t and the professor are probably more important to s o c i e t y than the businessman. 173. A. Obedience and respect f o r a u t h o r i t y are the most important v i r t u e s c h i l d r e n should l e a r n . B. One of the most important things c h i l d r e n should l e a r n i s when to disobey a u t h o r i t i e s . 174. A. Most honest people admit to themselves that they have sometimes hated t h e i r parents. 3. There i s hardly anything lower than a person who does not f e e l great love, g r a t i t u d e , and ~- respect f o r his parents. 175. A. The wild sex l i f e of the old Greeks and Romans was tame compared to some of the goings-on i n t h i s country, even i n places where people might l e a s t expect i t . B. In s p i t e of what you read about the wild sex l i f e of people i n important places, the r e a l story i s about the same i n any group of people. 176. A. I t ' s nobody's business i f someone i s a homosexual as long as he doesn't harm other people. B. Homosexuals are hardly better than c r i m i n a l s and ought to be severely punished. 177. • A. When a person has a problem or worry, i t i s best to face i t and t r y to think i t through, even i f i t i s so upsetting that i t keeps him from concentrating on other things. B. When a person has a problem or worry, i t i s best f o r him not to think about i t , but to keep busy with more ch e e r f u l things. 178. A. Every person should have complete f a i t h i n some supernatural power whose d e c i s i o n s he obeys without question. B. I t ' s a l l r i g h t f o r people to r a i s e questions about even the most sacred matters. Figure 6. Item Content of the C a l i f o r n i a F Scale. ten items from the MMPI1s s o c i a l extraversion-introversion scale, and f i v e items from G u i l f o r d and Zimmerman's GZTS. The Pittsburgh Scale of Social Extraversion-introversion has been included i n i t s e n t i r e t y i n the questionnaires u t i l i z e d f o r the gathering of data for t h i s study. The item content of the scale appears i n Figure 7. Internal-External Locus of Control: Rotter has developed numerous scales, to measure the locus of control personality dimension. Perhaps the best known of these scales i s Rotter's (1966) forced-choice scale. However, C o l l i n s (1974) found four "distinguishable and r e l a t i v e l y orthogonal sub-scales" e x i s t i n g within Rotter's instrument. These four sub-scales are l a b e l l e d : 1) the d i f f i c u l t - e a s y world; 2) the just-unjust world; 3) the predictable-unpredictable world; 4) the p o l i t i c a l l y responsive-unresponsive world. For the purpose of t h i s study the fourth sub-scale was omitted due to i t s lack of perceived relevance. The form of Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale employed i n t h i s survey includes the twenty-three Li k e r t - t y p e items presented i n Figure 8. Dependent Variable: The Favourableness of the Executive's A t t i t u d e Towards  Transfers i n General: The shortened version of the PET Index served as the measure for the dependent va r i a b l e denoted as "the favourableness of the executive's a t t i t u d e toward t r a n s f e r s i n general." The P o s i t i v e Evaluation of Transfer (PET) Index was developed by William F. Glueck (1974) to provide a means for the measurement of t h i s a t t i t u d e , and i s thought to be the only scale 46 179. I am happiest when I get involved i n some project that c a l l s for rapid action. 180. I usually take the i n i t i a t i v e i n making new friends. 181. I would rate myself as a l i v e l y i n d i v i d u a l . 182. I would be very unhappy i f I were prevented from making numerous s o c i a l contacts. 183. I am i n c l i n e d to keep i n the background on s o c i a l occasions. 184. I l i k e to mix s o c i a l l y with people. 18 5. I am incl i n e d to l i m i t my acquaintances to a select few. 186. I l i k e to have many s o c i a l engagements. 187. I generally prefer to take the lead i n group a c t i v i t i e s . 188. I would rate myself as a happy-go-lucky i n d i v i d u a l . 189. I am in c l i n e d to keep quiet when out in a s o c i a l group. 190. I can usually l e t myself go and have a h i l a r i o u s l y good time at a party. 191. Other people regard me as a l i v e l y i n d i v i d u a l . 192. I would rate myself as a talk a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l . 193. I am a good mixer. 194. I l i k e to go to parties and other a f f a i r s where there i s l o t s of loud fun. 195. I l i k e to f l i r t . 196. I should l i k e to belong to several clubs or lodges. 197. At parties I am more l i k e l y to s i t by myself or with just one other person than to j o i n in with the crowd. 198. I love to go to dances. 199. I enjoy s o c i a l gatherings just to be with people. 200. I enjoy the excitement of a crowd. 201. My worries seem to disappear when I get into a crowd of l i v e l y friends. i 202. I l i k e parties and s o c i a l s . 203 . I am a carefree i n d i v i d u a l . 204. I make decisions on the spur of the moment. 205. I l i k e wild enthusiasm, sometimes to a point bordering on rowdyism, at a f o o t b a l l or baseball game. 206. I generally f e e l as though I haven't a care in the world. 207. I usually say what I f e e l l i k e saying at the moment. 208. I nearly always have a "ready answer" for remarks directed at me. Figure, 7. Item Content of the Pittsburgh Scale of Social Extraversion-introversion. 47 Strongly Un- Strongly Agree Sgree decided Disagree Disacree 5 4 3 2 1~ 144. I have o f t e n found that what i s going to happen w i l l happen. 145. Without the r i g h t breaks one cannot be an e f f e c t i v e leader. 146. Many times I f e e l that I have l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e over the things that happen to me. 147. Who gets to be the boss often depends on who was lucky enough to be i n the r i g h t place f i r s t . 148. Unfortunately, an i n d i v i d u a l ' s worth o f t e n passes un-recognized no matter how hard he t r i e s . 149. Sometimes I f e e l that I don't have enough c o n t r o l over the d i r e c t i o n my l i f e i s taking. 150. Getting a good job depends mainly on being i n the r i g h t place at the r i g h t time. 151. Most people don't r e a l i z e the extent to which t h e i r l i v e s are c o n t r o l l e d by a c c i d e n t a l happenings. 152. Capable people who f a i l to become leaders have not taken advantage of t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t i e s . 153. People who can't get others to l i k e them don't under-stand how to get along with others. 154. People's misfortunes r e s u l t from the mistakes they make. 155. In the long run people get the respect they deserve i n t h i s world? 156. What happens to me i s my own doing. 157. In the long run the bad things that happen to us are balanced by the good ones. 158. Most misfortunes are the r e s u l t of lack of a b i l i t y , ignorance, l a z i n e s s , or a l l three. 159. People are l o n e l y because they don't t r y to be f r i e n d l y . 160. In my case g e t t i n g what I want has l i t t l e or nothing to do with luck. 161. Getting people to do the r i g h t t h i n g depends upon a b i l i t y , luck has l i t t l e or nothing to do with i t . 162. Many of the unhappy things i n people's l i v e s are p a r t l y due to bad luck. 163. T r u s t i n g to fate has never turned out as well f o r me as making a d e c i s i o n to take a d e f i n i t e course of a c t i o n . 164. Becoming a success i s a matter of hard work, luck has l i t t l e or nothing to do with i t . 165. It i s impossible f o r me to believe that chance or luck plays an important r o l e i n my l i f e . 166. There i s no such thing as luck. Figure 8. Item Content of Rotter's (196 6) Internal-External Locus of Control Scale. 48 developed for t h i s measurement. The o r i g i n a l form of the Index included thirty-one statements appearing i n a L i k e r t - t y p e f o r -mat which r e l a t e d to various aspects of the t r a n s f e r experience documented i n the l i t e r a t u r e or assumed by the researcher as having c r u c i a l impact upon the formation of a t t i t u d e s toward tr a n s f e r s i n general. Further item a n a l y s i s reduced the number of elements i n the index to ten. The design of the PET Index follows the design of many established a t t i t u d e measurement scales. Fishbein (1966), i n his review of the most standardized instruments u t i l i z e d for the measurement of a t t i t u d e s , stated that through the implementation of L i k e r t s c a l i n g i n a t t i t u d e measurement the subject i s con-fronted with a s e r i e s of b e l i e f statements. Fishbein states that the a t t i t u d e score i s determined by consideration of the respondent's b e l i e f s ( i . e . , h i s agreement or disagreement with each of the statements). The respondent's score on the PET Index i s thus derived from consideration of h i s b e l i e f s about t r a n s f e r s i n general as portrayed by his l e v e l of agreement or disagreement with the ten statements about the a t t i t u d i n a l object. The scale i s shown i n Figure 9. Subjects A sample of 295 subjects was randomly drawn from a popu-l a t i o n of managers who had been trans f e r r e d at l e a s t once by t h e i r present employer. The subjects were employed by one of the three large Canadian companies used f o r the purpose of t h i s research. Two of the companies were national r e t a i l e r s and the t h i r d was engaged i n the petroleum industry. 49 Strongly Un- Strongly Agree Agree decided Disagree Disagree 109. More good people than the Company r e a l i z e s leave the Company rather than move again. 110. Transfers develop better executives because they've had a v a r i e t y of experience. 111. One becomes a better executive by moving than i f given job r o t a t i o n s at one l o c a t i o n . 112. If top management knew what they are doing to us with a l l these moves, they'd cut down on the number. 113. The company moves us so often that we don't have time to l e a r n the job well enough to be e f f e c t i v e . 114. Transfers a f f o r d the opportunity to make more contacts i f l a t e r you want to leave the company. 115. Frequent t r a n s f e r s encourage executives to focus on the r e a l l y important problems of a job. 116. You can perform better by holding several jobs at one l o c a t i o n than a l l t h i s moving around. 117. We move so often we must concentrate on short-run problems, instead of long-run problems of the job. 118-. I t i s worth i t to the company to t r a n s f e r i t s employees. Figure 9. Item Content of Glueck's PET Index. 50 There was an o v e r a l l response rate of 66 percent with 196 sets of questionnaires being returned. Some 84 percent of the respondents had spouses who returned usable questionnaires. Thus, the sample s i z e for t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study was 164 (or 5 6 percent of the sample population). The mean age of the respond-ing managers employed i n the study was 37.59 years (S.D. = 8.20 years). Ninety-eight percent of these managers were male. The mean age of the responding spouses was 36.10 years (S.D. = 8.61 years) . Procedure In t o t a l , four separate envelopes were sent to each respondent at h i s home address (see Appendix C). An introduc-tory l e t t e r from the researcher, sent i n the f i r s t mailing approximately one week p r i o r to the mailing of the questionnaires, acquainted the subjects with the project and with the purpose of the study. The introductory l e t t e r also served to explain the possible implications the research could have and the p o t e n t i a l benefit to be reaped by industry i n general. This l e t t e r was accompanied by a second l e t t e r w r i t t e n by a senior personnel executive from each of the respective companies acknowledging the company's endorsement of the project. The l e t t e r s stressed that a l l data would be anonymous and u t i l i z e d i n a c o n f i d e n t i a l manner. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the project on the part of the executives and t h e i r spouses was voluntary i n nature and was emphasized as being so. One week following the mailing of the introductory mater-i a l to the prospective p a r t i c i p a n t s , a second mailing, 51 c o n s t i t u t i n g the p r i n c i p a l envelope, was mailed. Included i n the envelope was: a b r i e f l e t t e r from the researcher which reviewed the purpose of the study and which requested that the respondents complete t h e i r questionnaires independently; a questionnaire to be completed by the manager; a questionnaire to be completed by the manager's spouse; and a stamped envelope addressed to the researcher. Follow-up l e t t e r s were mailed to a l l subjects at one-week and two-week i n t e r v a l s subsequent to the sending of the p r i n c i p a l envelope. These l e t t e r s attempted to r e i n f o r c e the promise of anonymity and c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y so as to aid i n the ac-q u i s i t i o n of open and r e l i a b l e responses. The response rates from the three p a r t i c i p a t i n g companies were 59 percent, 67 per-cent, and 73 percent re s p e c t i v e l y , with an o v e r a l l response rate of 66 percent. Responses e l i c i t e d from the managers and t h e i r spouses to the scales tapping the various independent varia b l e s were coded and scored using a standard s t a t i s t i c a l package. The PET Index used i n t h i s study for the measurement of the dependent va r i a b l e was factor analyzed and two factors emerged. These factors are referred to i n the study as Factor 1 and 2, respec-t i v e l y . The subject's scores on the two factors of the PET Index were also coded and scored using the s t a t i s t i c a l package. A legend explaining the scoring procedures for the various scales tapping both the independent and the dependent v a r i a b l e , along with an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the scoring ranges for the various scales appear i n Appendix D. The t h i r t e e n independent varia b l e s were entered into a Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n with the two f a c t o r s of the measure of the dependent v a r i a b l e so as to explore the strength and the d i r e c t i o n of the hypothesized l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s be-tween the independent va r i a b l e s and the dependent v a r i a b l e s . Due t o the l i s t - w i s e d e l e t i o n of cases f o r missing data, the number of usable observations was reduced to 138. Chapter VII RESULTS The r e s u l t s of the analyses of the v a r i a b l e scale scores as well as the analyses of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the indepen-dent variables and the dependent va r i a b l e scale are .presented below. These l a t t e r analyses, designed to assess whether the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from zero, were explored using a one-tailed t e s t due to the hypothesized d i r e c t i o n a l i t y of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The n u l l hypothesized for each stated r e l a t i o n s h i p may be represented by " n u l l hypothesis = the c o r r e l a t i o n between the independent v a r i a b l e and the dependent var i a b l e £ 0 ( i . e . no r e l a t i o n s h i p ) , " whereas the a l t e r n a t i v e hypotheses stated the actual d i r e c t i o n of the hypothesized associ-ation between the independent and dependent v a r i a b l e (e.g. an increase i n the score on the extraversion dimension would lead to an increase i n the favourableness of the executive's a t t i t u d e to-ward transfers i n general). The range, mean and standard deviation for each of the variables and composite scales are presented i n Table 1. In general, the mean scores on a l l variables responded to by both the employees and t h e i r spouses were above the median of the p a r t i c u l a r scales with the exception of scores on the authoritar-ianism and extraversion/introversion scales. Sample mean scores on the authoritarianism scale were extremely low and showed l i t t l e 54 TABLE 1 VARIABLE SCALE SCORING RANGES, MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS SCORING RANGE MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION Employee Scores: Age 37. 59 8.20 Job-Involvement 6 - 42 25. 50 5.24 Company Commitment 4 - 28 23. 72 2.79 Authoritarianism 0 - 12 3. 87 1.90 Extraversion/introversion 0 - '30 15. 25 5.43 Locus of Control - D i f f i c u l t / E a s y Sub-Scale 8 - 40 20. 78 4 .73 Locus of Control - Just/Unjust Sub-Scale 8 - 40 26. 27 3.87 Locus of Control - Predictable/Unpredictable Sub-Scale 7 - 35 24 . 51 3. 58 PET Index - Factor 1 6 - 30 21. 64 3.65 PET Index - Factor 2 5 - 25 17. 99 2. 65 Spousal Scores: Authoritarianism 0 - 12 4. 49 2. 08 Extraver sion/Introver sion 0 - 30 15. 13 5. 64 Locus of Control - D i f f i c u l t / E a s y Sub-Scale 8 - 40 22. 41 4.94 Locus of Control - Just/Unjust Sub-Scale 8 - 40 24. 99 3.71 Locus of Control - Predictable/Unpredictable Sub-Scale 7 - 35 24. 31 3. 67 55 sample v a r i a b i l i t y . Scores on the extraversion/introversion scales were wel l d i s t r i b u t e d with good sample v a r i a b i l i t y for both groups of respondents. The PET Index was factor analyzed and two oblique f a c -tors emerged with eigenvalues exceeding 1.0. The c r i t e r i o n for item loading on the factors was a factor loading of .4. Items 109, 112, 113, 116, 117 and 118 loaded on Factor 1; items 110, 111, 114, 115 and 118 loaded on Factor 2 (see Figure 9, p. 49). Item 118, considered by the researcher as being a summary item for the scale, loaded on both f a c t o r s . The f i r s t f actor ex-tracted by the analysis r e f l e c t e d a common theme of an unfav-ourable a t t i t u d e toward tr a n s f e r s i n general and was thus composed, with the exception of the summary item, of negatively stated items condemning the practice of corporate r e l o c a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , the p o s i t i v e items tended to scale together and with the i n c l u s i o n of the summary item c o n s t i t u t e Factor 2. Factor 2 i s thus composed of items which r e f l e c t a favourable a t t i t u d e toward tr a n s f e r s i n general. In order to determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the per-s o n a l i t y factors and the favourableness of the executives' a t t i t u d e toward transfers i n general, Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed between each independent v a r i a b l e and Factors 1 and 2 of the dependent v a r i a b l e . The s t a t i s t i c a l l e v e l of p r o b a b i l i t y accepted as s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s research was the .05 l e v e l . These r e s u l t s are presented i n Table 2. 56 TABLE 2 PEARSON CORRELATIONS BETWEEN THE PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS AND THE FAVORABLENESS OF THE EXECUTIVES ATTITUDE TOWARD TRANSFERS IN GENERAL (Fl AND F2) PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS A. Employee Scores: 1. Age -.07 .10 2. Job-Involvement . 09 .18** 3. Company Commitment .05 .04 4. Authoritarianism .13* . 09 5. Extraversion/introversion . 00 . 09 6. Locus of Control - D i f f i c u l t / E a s y Sub-Scale -.20** .05 7. Locus of Control - Just/Unjust Sub-Scale -.15 . 26** 8 . Locus of Control - Predictable/Unpredictable Sub-Scale .00 .14* Spousal Scores: 1. Author i t a r i a n i sm .04 .02 2. Extraversion/introversion -. 04 . 06 3. Locus of Control - D i f f i c u l t / E a s y Sub-Scale -.11* . 03 4. Locus of Control - Just/Unjust Sub-Scale .00 . 09 5. Locus of Control - Predictable/Unpredictable Sub-Scale -.02 -.12 *** P < .001 ** P < .025 *P < .05 57 Of the c o r r e l a t i o n s computed, only s i x were s i g n i f i c a n t . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s , however, were not strong and therefore did not depict a convincing association between the independent v a r i -ables and the dependent va r i a b l e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , a r e l a t i o n s h i p emerged between job-involvement and Factor 2 of the dependent v a r i a b l e (r = .18, p < .025) suggesting that the degree of job-involvement influences the favourableness of the executive's a t t i t u d e toward transfers i n general, such that an i n d i v i d u a l e x h i b i t i n g a high degree of job-involvement would possess a more favourable a t t i t u d e toward tra n s f e r s than would an i n d i v i d u a l e x h i b i t i n g a low degree of job involvement. The Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n indicated a s i g n i f i c a n t though weak r e l a t i o n s h i p between the employee's authoritarianism and the favourableness of the executives' a t t i t u d e toward t r a n s f e r s i n general. The c o r r e l a t i o n between authoritarianism as r e -sponded to by the employees and Factor 1 was .13 (p < .05). A r e l a t i o n s h i p emerged between employee scores on the d i f -f i c u l t / e a s y sub-scale of the locus of c o n t r o l scale and Factor 1 of the dependent v a r i a b l e (r = -.20, p < .025) suggesting that a respondent scoring high on t h i s scale would possess a somewhat unfavourable a t t i t u d e toward transfers i n general. A s i m i l a r though weaker r e l a t i o n s h i p appeared between the d i f f i c u l t / e a s y sub-scale as responded to by the spouses and Factor 1 (r = .11, p < .05). The just/unjust sub-scale of the locus of control scale responded to by the employees produced a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n of .26 (p < .001) with Factor 2. A r e l a t i o n s h i p 58 also appeared between the predictable/unpredictable sub-scale of the locus of control scale as responded to by the employees and Factor 2 (r = .14, p < .05). To summarize, the employee's authoritarianism and the d i f f i c u l t / e a s y sub-scale of the locus of c o n t r o l scale as re-sponded to by the employee seems to be mildly r e l a t e d to Factor 1 of the dependent v a r i a b l e . As well, the spouses score on the d i f f i c u l t / e a s y sub-scale seems to be m i l d l y r e l a t e d to Factor 1 of the dependent v a r i a b l e . S i m i l a r l y , the employees' score on job involvement, on the just/unjust sub-scale of the locus of control scale and on the predictable/unpredictable sub-scale of the locus of control scale seem to have a s l i g h t bear-ing upon Factor 2 of the dependent v a r i a b l e . Although the data do not provide any conclusive support for the hypotheses v i s - a - v i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s p e c i -f i e d personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the employee and spouse and the favourableness of the executives' a t t i t u d e toward trans-fers i n general, the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these r e s u l t s are not that c l e a r - c u t . This i s due to the p o s s i b i l i t y of inadequate assessment. In order to evaluate t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , a psycho-metric technique was employed to c a l c u l a t e alpha (Nunnally, 1967; Higgins, 1973). This technique assesses the i n t e r n a l homogeneity of the scales u t i l i z e d i n the research and thus explores the t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s . The alpha r e l i a b i l i t i e s for each of the scales responded to by the employees and by the spouses of the employees were computed and appear i n Table 3. 59 TABLE 3 VARIABLE SCALE RELIABILITIES - ALPHA SCORES Alpha Scales Responded to by the Employees: Job-Involvement 0.74 Company Commitment 0.78 Authoritarianism 0.52 Extraversion/Intraversion 0.8 3 Locus of Control - D i f f i c u l t / E a s y Sub-Scale 0.79 Locus of Control - Just/Unjust Sub-Scale 0.63 Locus of Control - Predictable/Unpredictable Sub-Scale 0.64 PET Index - Factor 1 0.81 PET Index - Factor 2 0.62 Scales Responded to by the Spouses of Employees:  Authoritarianism 0.61 Extraversion/Intraversion 0.8 3 Locus of Control - D i f f i c u l t / E a s y Sub-Scales 0.73 Locus of Control - Just/Unjust Sub-Scale 0.58 Locus of Control - Predictable/Unpredictable Sub-Scale 0.60 Chapter VIII DISCUSSION Grass (Financial Times, August 21, 1978), i n her discus-sion of the present a n t i - m o b i l i t y trend stated " . . . Canadian businesses are fi n d i n g that they need to know t h e i r employees better and know who can adapt to geographic mobility." The pres-ent study attempted to meet such a need through the i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n of the personality c o r r e l a t e s of a transferee who would possess a favourable a t t i t u d e toward t r a n s f e r s i n general. It was assumed that such an i n d i v i d u a l would adapt to the tran s f e r experience with a minimal degree of personal, psychological, f a m i l i a l and organizational d i s r u p t i o n . The hypotheses gener-ated v i s - a - v i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i -ables employed i n the study and the dependent v a r i a b l e s denoting the favourableness of the executive's a t t i t u d e toward t r a n s f e r s i n general were not supported by the data. Thus, a per s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e of a candidate who could r e a d i l y adapt to geographic mobility did not emerge. It i s f e l t that a l t e r n a t i v e means must be explored i n an attempt to meet the need of industry and to bu i l d a conclusive source for the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of successful t r a n s f e r candidates. Of prime importance i n the disc u s s i o n of an a l t e r n a t i v e methodology i s the following c r i t i q u e of the sample population, v a r i a b l e scales and methodology u t i l i z e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . 60 61 Age D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Sample Population; The mean age of the executives whose responses were used for the purpose of the study was 37.59 years (S.D. = 8.20). An examination of the age d i s t r i b u t i o n reveals the f a c t that an overwhelming majority of respondents were nurtured i n the gener-ations which perceived the acceptance of any and/or a l l t r a n s f e r s as leading to the road of corporate success and would thus ac-cept transfer requests with l i t t l e question. Furthermore, the population studied i s caught i n the midst of what psychologist Eri k Erikson (1963) has termed "mid-career c r i s i s . " The mid-career c r i s i s syndrome i s said to a f f e c t employees i n t h e i r mid-30' s to mid-40's and i s characterized as a locus of c o n f l i c t between feelings of g e n e r a t i v i t y versus stagnation. Such workers sense that new s t a r t s and opportunities i n l i f e are coming to an end. With respect to t h i s age group, Vroom and Pahl (1971) have found that such employees are l e s s w i l l i n g to take r i s k s . I t may therefore be assumed that the r i s k involved i n refusing a t r a n s -fer and thus the r i s k of being shunted from the road of corporate success and the r i s k of personal stagnation are r i s k s that the majority of the population studied are not w i l l i n g to take. Thus, the r e l a t i v e l y high degree of favourableness of the sample at t i t u d e toward transfers i n general may be a function of the a t t i t u d e which the respondents believe to be s o c i a l l y and corpor-a t e l y acceptable, involves the l e a s t amount of personal r i s k , and i s expected from an a s p i r i n g executive. The o v e r a l l scores on the dependent v a r i a b l e may be biased by the age d i s t r i b u t i o n and may not present a true p i c t u r e of the a t t i t u d e of the general population. 62 Population Bias: Of the 28 9 Canadian companies surveyed by the Conference Board (1977) those companies involved i n the petroleum products industry emerged as one of the top two major sources of r e l o c a -t i o n a c t i v i t y . Data from the Conference Board survey highlighted the f a c t that petroleum companies transfer i n excess of 2.5 per-cent of t h e i r employees each year. The petroleum products indus-t r y also reported the largest number of relocations per transferred employee. S i m i l a r l y , companies engaged i n wholesale and r e t a i l trade also surfaced as being major transfer agents. Results from the Conference Board survey show that the wholesale and r e t a i l trade industries transfer between 1.5 and 2.5 percent of t h e i r employees each year. Due to the aforementioned findings of the Conference Board survey r e l a t i v e to both the petroleum products industry and the wholesale and r e t a i l industry, coupled with the fact that two of the companies u t i l i z e d f o r the purpose of t h i s study were na-t i o n a l r e t a i l e r s and the t h i r d was engaged i n the petroleum industry, i t may be possible that the population i s biased through i t s overexposure to the occurrence of frequent r e l o c a t i o n s . I t seems l o g i c a l to assume that i n d i v i d u a l s who remain with i n the employment of such companies would possess a more favourable a t t i t u d e toward transfers i n general than would a random popula-t i o n sampling. Employees whose a t t i t u d e toward tra n s f e r s i n gen-e r a l were not favourable would l i k e l y leave the employment of t h e i r respective companies and therefore would not serve as a part of the population or not enter such i n d u s t r i e s to begin with. S u b s t a n t i a l l y l e s s favorable a t t i t u d e s toward t r a n s f e r s may have emerged i f the sample had been a more representative cross-section of executives from a number of companies whose incidence of t r ansfer spanned the spectrum from frequent to infrequent rates of transfers and i f a c o n t r o l group who lacked exposure to the t r a n s f e r experience had been u t i l i z e d . Variable Scale R e l i a b i l i t i e s : As previously reported i n the Results chapter, alpha scores were calcul a t e d for each of the independent v a r i a b l e scales and for the dependent v a r i a b l e scale to determine the t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s and thus to assess the i n t e r n a l homogeneity of the scales employed i n the study. In general, the alpha r e l i a b i l i -t i e s were comparatively low. Whereas an alpha score should reach the l e v e l of .80 i n order to r e f l e c t acceptable i n t e r n a l homo-geneity, few of the alpha c o e f f i c i e n t s met or approached t h i s l e v e l of a c c e p t a b i l i t y . These r e s u l t s suggest that the r e l i a b i l -i t y of the scales was frequently too low to support an adeguate t e s t of the measurement of t h e i r respective t r a i t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or to evaluate c o r r e l a t i o n s between the various scales f o r the p a r t i c u l a r sample at hand. The Construct V a l i d i t y of the Dependent Variable: A basic assumption of t h i s t h e s i s i s that the degree of variance i n the scores on the PET Index i s due to the variance i n the underlying construct which has been denoted as the favourable-ness of the executive's a t t i t u d e toward t r a n s f e r s i n general. 64 There e x i s t s , however, no t h e o r e t i c a l substantiation f or t h i s assumption. Since construct v a l i d i t y i s ". . . a judgement, inferred from the weight of research evidence gathered i n many independent studies" (Guion, 1965, p. 128) and, since the PET Index i s not an established instrument, construct v a l i d i t y could not be assumed and thus face v a l i d i t y had to be r e l i e d upon. Therefore, one cannot be c e r t a i n that the index does, i n f a c t , measure the construct denoted as the favourableness of the executive's a t t i t u d e toward tra n s f e r s i n general and hence, the p o s s i b i l i t y of fi n d i n g any of the hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the independent v a r i a b l e s and the PET Index i s weakened. The T r a i t Approach: The approach c e n t r a l to t h i s t h e s i s i s based upon an analysis of personality i n terms of t r a i t s . The t h e o r e t i c a l assumptions underlying the approach along with a review of the merits and demerits of the approach as pertaining to t h i s study w i l l be addressed. Proponents of the conventional t r a i t approach to the understanding of behaviour have explored the existence of stable response predispositions i n persons and have subsequently i d e n t i -f i e d them as being the generalized and enduring source of in d i v i d u a l behaviour. Thus, the t r a i t approach depends upon demonstrated major c r o s s - s i t u a t i o n a l consistencies i n behaviour emerging as a r e s u l t of stable and enduring personality charac-t e r i s t i c s . The common everyday adherence to such an approach i s supported by the frequent use of words which seem to ref e r to in d i v i d u a l r o l e conduct i n terms of stable personality t r a i t s . 65 For example, the terms introversion/extraversion, s o c i a b i l i t y , authoritarianism, company commitment and job-involvement were u t i l i z e d i n t h i s study to denote stable t r a i t s and thus to i n f e r a subsequent c r o s s - s i t u a t i o n a l e l i c i t a t i o n of behaviours cor-responding to these t r a i t s . In recent years, however, doubt has a r i s e n i n the minds of various psychologists (e.g., Mischel, 1968, 1969; Argyle and L i t t l e , 1971; Vernon, 1965) as to whether or not p e r s o n a l i t y can be u s e f u l l y analyzed i n terms of t r a i t s and thus whether person-a l i t y t r a i t s are, i n essence, the ultimate cause of consistent behaviour. Maccoby (196 9) maintains that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h consistent c o r r e l a t i o n s between personality t r a i t s and behaviour, p a r t i c u l a r l y through the u t i l i z a t i o n of conventional strategies and the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , as was employed i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study. For example, a c o r r e l a t i o n of .30 leaves one understanding somewhat l e s s than 10 percent of the dependent measure. However, even cor r e l a t i o n s of t h i s magnitude are not very common and have come to be considered acceptable i n research on the consistency of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between behaviour and personality t r a i t s . Consistent c o r r e l a t i o n s of s i g n i f i c a n t magnitude between the independent va r i a b l e personality t r a i t s and the favourableness of the executive's a t t i t u d e toward trans-fers i n general d i d not emerge i n t h i s study as evidenced by the c o r r e l a t i o n s appearing i n Table 2, p. 56. Mischel (1968, 1969) and Argyle and L i t t l e (1971) have rejected the major assumptions of the t r a i t approach and have subsequently hypothesized that only a small amount of the variance 66 i n i n d i v i d u a l behaviour i s dependent upon differences i n person-a l i t y predispositions as shown by i n d i v i d u a l ' s r a t i n g s on indices of t r a i t measurement. This small amount of variance a t t r i b u t a b l e to consistent i n d i v i d u a l differences i n personality t r a i t measure-ment w i l l thus set a d e f i n i t e upper l i m i t to the possible c o r r e l a -t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of i n d i v i d u a l difference t r a i t measures. C r i t i c s of t r a i t theory have hypothesized that the t r a i t t h e o r i s t s ' misconceptions v i s - a - v i s the s t a b i l i t y and the general-i z a b i l i t y of t r a i t s has prevented them from paying appropriate atte n t i o n to environmental determinants of behaviour and to the v a r i a b i l i t y of behaviour as a function not only of the person but also of the s i t u a t i o n s i n which the behaviour occurs. Mischel (1969) has stated that i f researchers would recognize the depend-ence of behaviour on conditions and be a l e r t to the modifications of behaviour which occur when si t u a t i o n s change, then the so-c a l l e d negative r e s u l t s of t r a i t - o r i e n t e d research on behavioural c o n t i n u i t y may be l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t e d to the l i m i t a t i o n s of the assumptions underlying the t r a i t approach; hence, more p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s could be obtained. When addressing the low c o r r e l a t i o n s which a r i s e as a r e s u l t of t r a i t - o r i e n t e d research Mischel con-tends that ". . . these weak associations, accounting f o r a t r i v i a l portion of the variance, becomes understandable when the enormous variance due to s i t u a t i o n a l l y s p e c i f i e d v a r i a b l e s . . . i s recognized" (Mischel, 1968, p. 83). Likewise, Argyle and L i t t l e (1971) contend that a useful approach to the understanding of behaviour may be ". . . t o ask what are the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t s of Persons, Situations and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s on d i f f e r e n t kinds 67 of behaviour. The answer to t h i s question, while s t i l l tentative, seems to be consistent from study to study. Person x S i t u a t i o n Interaction accounts fo r more variance than eith e r Situations or Persons alone" (p. 16). It i s not the actual s i t u a t i o n per se which must be con-sidered when exploring behavioural variance. Rather, i t i s the subject's cognitive construction of the p a r t i c u l a r stimulus con-d i t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n which i s of paramount importance. The i n d i v i d u a l ' s cognitive construction of the environmental s t i m u l i i s seen by many t h e o r i s t s (e.g., Kelly, 1955; Mischel, 1968, 1969; Argyle and L i t t l e , 1971) as being c e n t r a l to the structure of p e r s o n a l i t y i t s e l f , as being a major moderator v a r i a b l e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r s o n a l i t y dimensions, and behaviour, and as being the major factor f a c i l i t a t i n g the e l i c i t a t i o n of f l e x i b l e behaviours across s i t u a t i o n s . This cognitive construc-t i o n w i l l , i n i t s e l f , emerge as a r e s u l t of the person/situation i n t e r a c t i o n s . The constant cognitive c a t e g o r i z a t i o n and r e -c a t e g o r i z a t i o n processes emerge as a r e s u l t of v a r i a t i o n s i n p r i o r experiences, of modifications i n stimulus a t t r i b u t e s , and of the unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of both the evoking s i t u a t i o n and the person involved. Since the assumptions of the conventional t r a i t approach were ce n t r a l to the t h e o r e t i c a l model employed i n t h i s study, the degree of v a r i a b i l i t y i n the a t t i t u d e of the executive toward the concept of t r a n s f e r s (denoted i n the study as the favourable-ness of the executive's a t t i t u d e toward t r a n s f e r s i n general) was hypothesized as being determined by a number of the i n d i v i d u a l s ' 68 and t h e i r spouses' p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . Thus, the generation of hypotheses rested upon the assumption that the various personal-i t y t r a i t s studied were the sources of stable patterns of attit u d e s which the executive and his spouse would hold c o n s i s -t e n t l y across a l l s i t u a t i o n s . For example, an i n d i v i d u a l scor-ing high on the scale tapping authoritarianism was assumed to displ a y high submission and dominance needs and hence possess great respect for authority i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s , be that p a r t i c u -l a r s i t u a t i o n r e l a t e d to the concept of t r a n s f e r or not. Thus, the design of the study did not take into account the subject's cognitive construction of the p a r t i c u l a r stimulus c o n d i t i o n of the transer experience and i t s i n t e r a c t i o n with the per s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . As previously discussed, the added need f o r the consideration of s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s has been proposed by numerous c r i t i c s of the t r a i t approach. The r e l a t i o n s h i p explored i n t h i s study between the independent v a r i a b l e s and the dependent v a r i a b l e s produced e i t h e r non-significant or very low c o r r e l a t i o n s (see Table 2, p. 56). While the low c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i n d i c a t i n g weak asso c i a -t i o n s between the independent v a r i a b l e s and the dependent v a r i -ables may be p a r t i a l l y due to the weak scale r e l i a b i l i t i e s (see Table 3, p. 59) and various b i a s i n g e f f e c t s previously mentioned, i t i s f e l t that the f a i l u r e to account for the i n t e r a c t i o n of in d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s with s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s or f o r the cognitive construction of the s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s may be a major shortcoming of the design of the model advanced i n t h i s study. 69 An A l t e r n a t i v e Methodology for the the generation of a p r o f i l e  of the executive who would possess a favourable a t t i t u d e toward  transfers i n general: I t i s proposed that George K e l l y ' s (1955) Personal Construct Theory and the empirical methods associated with the theory w i l l provide an i n t e r a c t i o n a l design for the development of an a l t e r n a t i v e research format aimed at the e l i c i t a t i o n of a p r o f i l e of the successful transfer candidate. Central to K e l l y ' s theory i s the assumption that the meaning of events, and indeed the importance of them, i s dependent upon the way i n which the i n d i v i d u a l "construes" them. Man i s seen by K e l l y as s t r i v i n g toward an ultimate understanding of his environment through the process of observation and through the development and i n t e r n a l i -zation of conceptual models which are i n keeping with h i s per-s o n a l i t y . These models w i l l subsequently be at his disposal and w i l l thus aid him i n acquiring the a b i l i t y to a n t i c i p a t e and possibly exert control upon h i s environment and upon future courses of action. K e l l y has presented h i s theory.in i t s general terms by s t a t i n g a fundamental postulate and eleven c o r o l l a r i e s . The postulate and c o r o l l a r i e s w i l l be presented i n b r i e f point form to acquaint the reader with K e l l y ' s basic ideas concerning a person's "construction system." The postulate and c o r o l l a r i e s together form the groundwork for h i s Personal Construct Theory. An in-depth understanding of these statements may be acquired through an examination of K e l l y ' s (1955) o r i g i n a l works as wel l as through the examination of summaries by Bonairus (1965); Bannister and Mair (1968); Bannister and F r a n s e l l a (1971); and Sechrist (1963). 70 Fundamental Postulate. A person's processes are psych o l o g i c a l l y channelled by the way i n which he an t i c i p a t e s events. Construction C o r o l l a r y . A person a n t i c i p a t e s events by construing t h e i r r e p l i c a t i o n s . Individual C o r o l l a r y . Persons d i f f e r from each other i n t h e i r r e p l i c a t i o n s . Organizational C o r o l l a r y . Each person c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c a l l y evolves, for his convenience i n a n t i c i p a t i n g events, a construction system embracing r e l a t i o n -ships between constructs. Dichotomy C o r o l l a r y . A person's construction sys-tem i s composed of a f i n i t e number of dichotomous constructs. Choice C o r o l l a r y . A person chooses for himself that a l t e r n a t i v e i n a dichotomous construct through which he a n t i c i p a t e s the greater p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the elaboration of his system. Range C o r o l l a r y . A construct i s convenient for the a n t i c i p a t i o n of a f i n i t e range of events only. Experience C o r o l l a r y . A person's construction sys-tem v a r i e s as he successively construes the r e p l i c a -t i o n of events. Modulation C o r o l l a r y . The v a r i a t i o n i n a person's construction system i s l i m i t e d by the permeability of the constructs within whose ranges of convenience the variants l i e . 71 Fragmentation C o r o l l a r y . A person may successively em-ploy a v a r i e t y of construction sub-systems which are i n -r f e r e n t i a l l y incompatible with each other. Commonality C o r o l l a r y . To the extent that one person em-ploys a construction of experience which i s s i m i l a r to that employed by another, h i s processes are psychologic-a l l y s i m i l a r to those of the other person. S o c i a l i t y C o r o l l a r y . To the extent that one person con-strues the construction processes of another he may play a r o l e i n a s o c i a l process in v o l v i n g the other person. (Bannister and Mair, 25-27) Ke l l y explores the nature of man's mental model of his environment and the means by which man discriminates based upon the environmental a t t r i b u t e s which he has construed. Through t h i s process of construing, K e l l y asserts that man i s attempting to organize l o g i c a l l y the numerous elements e x i s t i n g i n the environment. He maintains that i n d i v i d u a l s arrange the a t t r i b u t e s into scales which are b i p o l a r i n nature and which thus provide meaningful contrasts. These scales have been l a b e l l e d "personal constructs" because they have been depicted by every i n d i v i d u a l on the basis of his unique set of experiences and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and thus together constitute h i s inimitable cognitive model of r e a l i t y . K e l l y states that by assessing the constructs which an i n d i v i d u a l e l i c i t s the researcher w i l l become f a m i l i a r i z e d with the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the respondents personality and thus views personality as the basis of the construct system. The poles of the e l i c i t e d constructs, termed the "construct dimension" and the 72 "contrast", are t h e o r e t i c a l l y considered to be psychological opposites, even though they may not be what are usually con-sidered l o g i c a l opposites. Basic to an understanding of K e l l y ' s Personal Construct Theory and i t s r e l a t e d methodology i s a f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n with Kelly's use of the word "construct". He defines a "construct" as being . . . e s s e n t i a l l y a two ended a f f a i r , i n v o l v i n g a p a r t i c u l a r basis for considering likenesses and d i f f e r -ences and at the same time for excluding c e r t a i n things as i r r e l e v a n t to the contrast involved. . . . The idea of relevant contrast and of l i m i t e d range of a p p l i c a b i l -i t y or convenience. . . i s e s s e n t i a l to the d e f i n i t i o n of a construct. . . . The idea of construct. . . i s seen as an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n imposed upon events, not c a r r i e d i n the events themselves. The r e a l i t y of a construct i s i n i t s use by a person as a device for making sense of the world and so a n t i c i p a t i n g i t more f u l l y . . . . A construct i s thus e x p l i c i t l y a t o o l to allow not only d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and organization of events but also the a n t i c i p a t i o n of future p o s s i b i l i t i e s . . . . These a n t i c -ipations do not come out of the blue, however, but re-f l e c t the interlinkages between constructs i n the con-str u c t system operated by our observers. . . . A person can be understood to the extent that his system of con-structs for ordering and a n t i c i p a t i n g events i s under-stood. . . . Just as the experimental s c i e n t i s t designs his experiments around r i v a l hypotheses, so each person i s seen as designing his d a i l y explorations of l i f e around the r i v a l hypotheses which are y i e l d e d by the con-structs within h i s system. . . . The construct system sets the l i m i t s beyond which i t i s impossible for a person to perceive, and i n t h i s way, constructs are seen as controls on a person's outlook and also, i n an ultimate sense, as controls on h i s behaviour. Thus, the basic assumptions and d e f i n i t i o n s of K e l l y ' s Personal Construct Theory h i g h l i g h t the i n t e r a c t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s unique personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and h i s subsequent cognitive construction of the environmental s t i m u l i . These constructions ultimately emerge as his system of personal constructs and have a d i r e c t bearing upon his perceptions of s i m i l a r events and upon h i s future behaviour i n r e l a t i o n to these events. The content and structure of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s personal construct system v i s - a -v i s a p a r t i c u l a r idea, event or object may be explored through the u t i l i z a t i o n of "Repertory Grid Methodology." The r e s u l t s of the g r i d methodology w i l l be an i n d i c a t i o n of the subject's f e e l i n g s concerning the subject matter at hand. It must be stressed that the processes involved i n the a p p l i c a t i o n and the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a repertory g r i d are f l e x -i b l e and may thus be adapted by the researcher to explore the problem at hand. Due to t h i s f l e x i b i l i t y , a required step-by-step procedure which must be s t r i c t l y adhered to by subsequent researchers cannot be presented. Although a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the t y p i c a l Repertory Grid Methodology i s beyond the scope of t h i s t h e s i s , a summary of the g r i d and the r e l a t e d methodology w i l l be presented so as to c l a r i f y the proposed u t i l i z a t i o n of Ke l l y ' s Personal Construct Theory and the Repertory Grid Method-ology to a s c e r t a i n the pe r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e of a successful trans-f e r candidate. A t y p i c a l g r i d appears as a matrix with x number of columns and y number of rows. A set of "elements" chosen by the researcher appears across the top of the columns and a set of constructs which the i n d i v i d u a l generates appears down the r i g h t hand side of the g r i d . The set of elements used i s determined by the p a r t i c u l a r object, idea, or event concerning which the researcher wishes to e l i c i t h i s subject's personal constructs. In the case of t h i s t h e s i s , the elements might be those fact o r s 74 which are documented i n the l i t e r a t u r e or assumed by the author as being c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the t r a n s f e r s i t u a t i o n . To further l i n k the elements with the p e r s o n a l i t y of the prospective trans-feree, the elements could be based upon those p a r t i c u l a r events to which a response i s hypothesized as being moderated by a pre-determined personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ( i . e . , a documented fac t o r which a r i s e s i n t r a n s f e r s i t u a t i o n and which i s hypothesized as being r e l a t e d to the employee's degree of s o c i a l extraversion could be stated as "the opportunity to meet new people and be-come involved i n a new community;" an element which i s r e l a t e d to the t r a i t of company commitment could be stated as "the op-portunity to become involved i n d i f f e r e n t operating facets of the company for which I presently work"). Some elements could conversely be statements which are assumed to be tapping those personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are hypothesized as being negatively correlated with the favourableness of an executive's a t t i t u d e toward t r a n s f e r s i n general ( i . e . , "the opportunity to remain i n t a c t i n my present s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n " might be an element assumed to be tapping the t r a i t of i n t r o v e r s i o n and hypothesized to be negatively c o r r e l a t e d to a favourable a t t i t u d e toward tr a n s f e r s i n general). Once the set of elements has been established, the next step involves the production of the b i p o l a r personal constructs. This i s most commonly done by presenting the subject with a series of three elements at a time (known as " t r i a d i c sorting") and asking him to state some "important" way i n which two of them are a l i k e and hence notably d i f f e r e n t from the t h i r d . The 75 response to t h i s question i s taken as the construct dimension. The subject i s then asked how the t h i r d element i s d i f f e r e n t from the other two. The response to t h i s question i s termed the contrast. This process i s repeated, using d i f f e r e n t t r i -ads of elements, to tap each of the desired personal constructs. The l i t e r a t u r e on repertory grids constantly emphasizes the f a c t that the g r i d serves as a r e s e r v o i r containing an abundance of information i n an extremely f l e x i b l e form. As a r e s u l t , i t must once again be emphasized that the g r i d and i t s contents may be analyzed i n a number of ways. The most basic and elementary approaches to the a n a l y s i s of the repertory g r i d data focus upon the understanding of the i n d i v i d u a l per se. Thus, the e l i c i t e d constructs are of prime importance. By employing f a i r l y sophisticated a n a l y t i c a l techniques, r a t i n g s on the e l i c i t e d constructs become data f o r c o r r e l a t i o n a l analysis, and hence the structure of the g r i d i s explored. Factor a n a l y s i s and other c l u s t e r i n g or dimensional techniques may be employed i n an attempt to delineate the main dimensions of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s construing. In discussing the nature and purpose of grids, K e l l y states that the g r i d i t s e l f i s : . . . a geometric or a mathematical structure of the person's psychological space. The g r i d of i n t e r s e c t s i s speckled with incidents and voids. Some of the rows tend to match each other and some of the columns are almost a l i k e . Moreover, c e r t a i n rows are somewhat representative of a l l the rows, that i s a l l the c o n s t r u c t s — a n d some of the columns are representative of a l l the columns—that i s , a l l the f i g u r e s . . . . The incidents and voids which pop-ulate a g r i d of i n t e r s e c t s provide the binary numerical basis for a mathematics of psychological space. This cy-bernetic model permits us to scan any g r i d with a 76 hypothetical scanning pattern and note the concurrences of incidents and voids, row by row or column by column. Thus we may have a mathematical basis f o r expressing and measuring the perceptual r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the events which are uniquely interwoven in any person's psycholog-i c a l space. (Kelly, p. 302) The p r i n c i p a l methodological objective of the model described above i s the use of the repertory g r i d method as a means of measuring i n d i v i d u a l a t t i t u d e s toward c h a r a c t e r i s t i c events of the tr a n s f e r s i t u a t i o n . Through an a n a l y s i s of the e l i c i t e d constructs the researcher w i l l be acquainted with those t r a n s f e r -r e l a t e d experiences which are perceived as being a l i k e and those which are perceived as d i f f e r e n t , as well as those which are as-sumed to be i r r e l e v a n t to the respondent's "psychological space." As the elements are hypothesized as being p o s i t i v e l y or negatively cor r e l a t e d with a favourable a t t i t u d e toward t r a n s f e r s i n general, the constructs w i l l likewise be p o s i t i v e or negative i n a f f e c t and, thus, the summation of the constructs w i l l give an o v e r a l l p o s i t i v e or negative measure of a t t i t u d e toward t r a n s f e r s i n gen-e r a l . P a r a l l e l i n g t h i s i s a substantive goal, t h i s being to i n -vestigate the range and d i v e r s i t y of constructs generated from a comparison of various t r a n s f e r - r e l a t e d events, which would serve as a basis for depicting i n d i v i d u a l preference or antipathy toward the events which emerge as a consequence of a t r a n s f e r opportun-i t y . It i s proposed that through the use of the repertory g r i d technique the researcher may gain valuable i n s i g h t s which w i l l aid i n the study of the subject's cognitive model i n r e l a t i o n to trans-fe r s i n general and thus, as stated by Ke l l y , the subject w i l l be psychologically understood to the extent that his system of 77 constructs i s understood. The g r i d methodology may also be expanded to provide data regarding wider group and even organi-z a t i o n a l views on corporate t r a n s f e r s . This t h e s i s has stressed the need for companies to better i d e n t i f y the personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of those i n d i v i d u a l s who can best cope with a corporate t r a n s f e r s i t u a t i o n so as to a l l e v -i a t e the incidence of the many t r a n s f e r - r e l a t e d costs. The Per-sonal Construct Theory and Repertory Grid Methodology i s therefore proposed as an a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n a l system whereby the p o s i -t i v e and negative aspects of a prospective candidate's personal construct system with respect to the t r a n s f e r s i t u a t i o n could be ascertained. This method i s proposed as being a system whereby the a t t i t u d e of the prospective transferee toward t r a n s f e r s i n general would emerge and would thus provide a means for an evalu-ation of the correspondence between the needs of the organization and the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l . Prospective respondents to t r a n s f e r - r e l a t e d research must be recognized as being c o g n i t i v e l y involved with the environment-a l conditions prevalent i n present and past stimulus s i t u a t i o n s . Further recognition must be given to t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l differences i n the c o g n i t i v e manipulation of the s t i m u l i , as modified by t h e i r p e r sonality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . This i n t e r a c t i o n must be acknowl-edged i n any subsequent attempt to a s c e r t a i n the p r o f i l e of an executive who would possess a favourable a t t i t u d e toward t r a n s f e r s i n general and would thus respond to a transfer s i t u a t i o n with the l e a s t amount of personal, f a m i l i a l and organizational d i s r u p t i o n . A P P E N D I X A SURVEY OF TRANSFER-RELATED ATTITUDES i v This questionnaire i s designed to assess the attitudes of Canadian workers whose careers have involved et least one transfer froa one c i t y or region to another. For the sake of th i s study, A TRANSFER i s any moveaent from one work s i t e to another which involves at least a temporary relocation of the employee'• f t a l l y and place of residence. In other words, any promotion, demotion or l a t e r a l transfer which requires the employee to change his or her hoae address w i l l be considered a transfer i n this study. Therefore, e transfer aay require the employee to move across his present c i t y , across the country, or across the world. The purpoee of th i s questionnaire l a to study the attitudes of Canadians toward being moved by t h e i r eaployers. With the data gathered, we hope to learn more about the types of people who tend te be better "candidates" for a transfer; that l a , what sorts of people enjoy, or don't mind being transferred? Bow can we predict whether a particular individual and his family w i l l adjust readily after a transfer? Bow can personnel aanagera better match employees with transfer opportunities? These are the types of questions we hope to address in this study. ' ABOUT THE QUESTIONNAIRE Your company has approved this survey and this questionnaire. However, the questionnaire was designed by Dr.* Craig Pinder, and he (and his research staff) w i l l be the only people to see your Individual responses. Moreover, we ask that you DO HOT SIGN your questionnaire In order to absolutely guarantee the privacy of your answers. In no cases w i l l your company be provided with the answers given by any a ingle employee. Tour company w i l l only receive the combined data gathered from a tot a l of 100 employees working for your company. So pleese provide us with frank, honest responses to the questions we esk. The questionnaire i s composed of four parts; i t Is Important that you reply completely to a l l four parts in order for us to use the data you supply. Fart 1 Is concerned with varloua aspects of your most recent transfer, and your attitudes concerning transfers i n general. Part 2 and Part 3 ask a series of questions concerning your general b e l i e f s about work, people, and l i f e . F i n a l l y , Fart 4 asks a few questions about yourself. To repeat, please answer a l l of the questions asked and be assured that your responses w i l l be treated with s t r i c t confidentiality. Accompanying t h i s questionnaire l a a ahortened version for your spouse to complete. We hope that i f you are married, you and your spouse w i l l take time to complete and return theae questionnaires. We believe that th i s survey w i l l help Canadian companies do s better job of transferring their employees, to the benefit of the tranaferee, his family, and his company. Thank you. Craig C. Pinder, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration University of B r i t i s h Columbia 7S 79 PART 1 SOME QUESTIONS SPECIFICALLY ABOUT YOUR LAST TRANSFER How many months has i t been s i n c e you a c t u a l l y 7. Did your l a s t t r a n s f e r i n v o l v e a change i n type of moved because of your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? department or f u n c t i o n a l d i v i s i o n f o r you? Number of months Y e s N o U n c e r t a i n Did you p e r s o n a l l y request your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? Yes No Did the request to make your l a s t t r a n s f e r come as a s u r p r i s e to you? Yes No At the time of the move, d i d you a c t u a l l y t r a v e l with the r e s t of your f a m i l y , or d i d you make the t r i p s e p a r a t e l y from them? I t r a v e l l e d with my family I t r a v e l l e d ahead of my family I t r a v e l l e d a f t e r my family I had no family at the time 8. Did your l a s t t r a n s f e r o f f i c i a l l y mean a promotion f o r you ( i n terms of rank and s t a t u s ) ? Yes No Uncertain 9. In your o p i n i o n was your l a s t t r a n s f e r a promotion ( i n terms of rank and s t a t u s ) ? Yes No Uncertain 10. To what extent d i d your spouse share In the d e c i s i o n to accept your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? ( C i r c l e a number) My spouse My spouse had no say had a major i n the 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 share of the d e c i s i o n d e c i s i o n Now estimate the number of weeks i t took you to get the " l a y of the la n d " i n your new l o c a t i o n (meeting new people, l e a r n i n g the p o l i c i e s , " f i n d i n g your way around", etc.) weeks How much n o t i c e were you given before you were to begin your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? more than one month between one week and one month between two days and one week l e s s than two days I am not married 11- Please estimate the number of days during the l a s t t r a n s f e r you were paid by the company but not on the job because of the move: lo o k i n g f o r houses, moving, opening accounts, e t c . days 12. When the company.transferred you, d i d you b e l i e v e you were the best person f o r your new job? Yes No 13. Evaluate the extent of damage i n c u r r e d to your f u r n i t u r e and personal belongings r e s u l t i n g from the move: ( C i r c l e a number) N e g l i g i b l e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Extensive 14. In general, how s u c c e s s f u l was the a c t u a l move of y o u r s e l f , your f a m i l y , and your e f f e c t s at the time of your l a s t t r a n s f e r from your former l o c a t i o n to your new l o c a t i o n ? Extremely Extremely S u c c e s s f u l 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Uns u c c e s s f u l 80 SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR  FORMER CITY (OR LOCATION) 15. What was the name of the c i t y you l e f t ? P lease p r i n t : 16. Was your l a s t t r a n s f e r from another country? Yes No 17. How many months d i d you l i v e at your previous l o c a t i o n ? Number of months 18. Was the c i t y you l e f t the c i t y you were born i n , or the c i t y you spent most of your l i f e in? Yes '' No 19. Was the c i t y you l e f t the c i t y where you spent most of your career? Yes No 20. At the time of your l a s t t r a n s f e r , how l a r g e was the c i t y you l e f t ? (Consider the c i t y o nly, e x cluding i t s suburbs) fewer than 500 people between 500 and 5,000 people between 5,000 and 50,000 people between 50,000 and 100,000 people between 100,000 and 500,000 people between 500,000 and 1 m i l l i o n people between 1 m i l l i o n and 2 m i l l i o n people greater than 2 m i l l i o n people 21. Did you belong to any voluntary o r g a n i z a t i o n s at your former l o c a t i o n ? Yes No 22. Were you an o f f i c e r i n any v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z -a t i o n s at your former l o c a t i o n ? Yes No 23. How many very c l o s e f r i e n d s d i d you and your spouse leave behind as a r e s u l t of your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? (one couple counts as 2 f r i e n d s ) number of f r i e n d s 24. How many very c l o s e f r i e n d s d i d you (you p e r s o n a l l y ) leave behind as a r e s u l t of your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? (one couple counts as 2 f r i e n d s ) SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR  NEW CITY (OR LOCATION) 25. What i s the name of the c i t y you moved to as the r e s u l t of your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? ( i . e . : your present c i t y ) Please p r i n t : 26. Had you ever l i v e d i n your present c i t y before being moved there on your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? Yes No 26. (a) I f yes (Question 26), d i d you p r e v i o u s l y l i k e the c i t y ? Yes No 27. Is your new c i t y the c i t y you were born i n , or the c i t y you have spent most of your l i f e i n ( i n the past)? Yes No 28. Is your new c i t y the c i t y where you have spent most of your career? Yes No 29. At the time of your l a s t t r a n s f e r , how l a r g e was the c i t y you moved to? fewer than 500 people between 500 and 5,000 people between 5,000 and 50,000 people between 50,000 and 100,000 people between 100,000 and 500,000 people between 500,00 and 1 m i l l i o n people between 1 m i l l i o n and 2 m i l l i o n people g r e a t e r than 2 m i l l i o n people 30. Do you p r e s e n t l y belong to any v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s at your new l o c a t i o n ? Yes No 31. Are you p r e s e n t l y an o f f i c e r i n any v o l u n t a r y organiz-a t i o n s at your new l o c a t i o n ? Yes No. 32. A l t o g e t h e r would you say that you (you p e r s o n a l l y ) have more f r i e n d s or fewer f r i e n d s ' s i n c e your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? More f r i e n d s Fewer f r i e n d s About the same number of f r i e n d s 81 33. How many r e l a t i v e s d i d you and your spouse leave behind as a r e s u l t of your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? Number of r e l a t i v e s 34. How many r e l a t i v e s d i d you (you p e r s o n a l l y ) leave behind as a r e s u l t of your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? Number of r e l a t i v e s 35. A l t o g e t h e r , would you say that you and your spouse have more f r i e n d s or fewer f r i e n d s s i n c e your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? More f r i e n d s Fewer f r i e n d s About the same 36. Everything considered, how w e l l do you l i k e your new l o c a t i o n ? ( C i r c l e a number) I l i k e i t very much I d i s l i k e i t 2 1 very much 37. O v e r a l l , how happy are you that you made your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? ( C i r c l e a number) Extremely Happy Extremely Unhappy QUESTIONS COMPARING YOUR FORMER LOCATION WITH YOUR NEW LOCATION There are many aspects to l i v i n g i n a c i t y or r e g i o n which c o n t r i b u t e to a person's happiness with l i v i n g there. For each of the items below, i n d i c a t e with a check mark i n the a p p r o p r i a t e column whether that aspect of l i v i n g was b e t t e r at your o l d l o c a t i o n (Column 1 ) , at your new l o c a t i o n (Column 2), or whether things are about the same at the two l o c a t i o n s (Column 3). Check Column 4 i f you don't know, or have no o p i n i o n . Please add any c o n s i d e r -a t i o n s you wish to add at the end of t h i s s e c t i o n and provide the a p p r o p r i a t e check marks f o r your own Items. BETTER AT BETTER AT FORMER NEW LOCATION LOCATION (1) (2) 38. My new work group 39. O v e r a l l cost of l i v i n g 40. The cost of housing 41. The cost of food 42. Sports and r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s 43. R e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s 44. P o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s 45. The r a c i a l / e t h n i c composition of the community 46. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of housing 47. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of good schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s f o r my f a m i l y and myself 48. The climate 49. The crime rate 50. The P r o v i n c i a l Government 51. The s i z e of the c i t y 52. The c u l t u r a l environment 53. The restaurants 54. The r a d i o / t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n ABOUT EQUAL (3) DON'T KNOW/ NO OPINION (A) 82 BETTER AT FORMER LOCATION (1) BETTER AT NEW LOCATION (2) ABOUT EQUAL (3) DON'T KNOW/ NO OPINION (4) 55. The p h y s i c a l surroundings ( s e t t i n g of the c i t y ) 56. Environmental q u a l i t y ( p o l l u t i o n ) 57. Medical/health f a c i l i t i e s 58. P u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 59. Other (add your own) 60. Everything considered, do you p r e f e r your new l o c a t i o n or your o l d l o c a t i o n ? I s t r o n g l y p r e f e r my new l o c a t i o n I somewhat p r e f e r my new l o c a t i o n I l i k e them about e q u a l l y I somewhat p r e f e r my o l d l o c a t i o n I s t r o n g l y p r e f e r my o l d l o c a t i o n 65. In general, 'how s a t i s f i e d are you ( p e r s o n a l l y ) with your new l o c a t i o n ? ( C i r c l e a number) 66. 61. Compare the amount of your mortgage payment at your new l o c a t i o n with the amount you had to to pay (per month) at your former l o c a t i o n . Compared to the amount at your former l o c a t i o n , are your payments at your new l o c a t i o n : Extremely S a t i s f i e d 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Extremely U n s a t i s f i e d In general, how s a t i s f i e d i s your family (spouse and c h i l d r e n included) with your new l o c a t i o n ? Extremely S a t i s f i e d 5 4 3 Extremely U n s a t i s f i e d higher? equal? lower? not a p p l i c a b l e 67. Before your t r a n s f e r , was your spouse earning any income? 62. Compare the mortgage i n t e r e s t r a t e s you had to pay at both your new and your former l o c a t i o n . Compared to the r a t e at your former l o c a t i o n , were the r a t e s at your new l o c a t i o n : higher? equal? lower? not a p p l i c a b l e 63. What was your annual s a l a r y immediately before your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? ( i n thousands of d o l l a r s per year) Yes No 68. Since your t r a n s f e r , has your spouse been earning any income? Yes No 69. Everything considered, was your f a m i l y income higher Immediately a f t e r your l a s t t r a n s f e r , or lower? (as compared to your family income immediately before your l a s t t r a n s f e r ) . Higher Lower About the same 64. What was your annual s a l a r y immediately a f t e r your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? ( i n thousands of d o l l a r s per year) $ 70. Everything considered, i s your present standard of l i v i n g higher or lower than i t was before your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? Higher Lower About the same 83 SOME QUESTIONS CONCERNING YOUR FAMILY AND YOUR LAST TRANSFER 71. Were you married at the time of your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? 75. How much d i f f i c u l t y d i d you encounter a f t e r you moved i n e s t a b l i s h i n g your c h i l d r e n i n school? Yes No A great d e a l of d i f f i c u l t y 1 2 3 A 5 6 No d i f f i c u l t y 7 whatsoever I f you answer "Yes" to Question 71, please answer Questions 72 and 73. My c h i l d r e n were e i t h e r too young or too o l d f o r school a t the time. I f you answer "No" to Question 71, please s k i p to Question 74. 76. At the time of your t r a n s f e r , d i d your c h i l d r e n have any s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l requirements? 72. How d i f f i c u l t do you b e l i e v e that i t has been f o r your spouse to adjust to your new l o c a t i o n ? ( C i r c l e a number) Extremely Easy 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Extremely D i f f i c u l t 73. Did your l a s t t r a n s f e r have any impact on your m a r i t a l happiness? Yes, i t had a harmful e f f e c t Yes, i t had a b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t No, i t had no e f f e c t 74. Did you have any c h i l d r e n at the time of your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? 77. Yes No How d i f f i c u l t do you b e l i e v e that i t has been f o r your c h i l d r e n to adjust to your new l o c a t i o n ? Extremely Easy 3 4 6 7 Extremely D i f f i c u l t 78. What has been the e f f e c t of your t r a n s f e r ( s ) on the a t t i t u d e s of your c h i l d r e n toward corporate l i f e ? There has been a l a r g e p o s i t i v e e f f e c t There has been a s l i g h t p o s i t i v e e f f e c t There has been no n o t i c e a b l e e f f e c t There has been a s l i g h t negative e f f e c t There has been a l a r g e negative e f f e c t Yes No If you answer "Yes" to Question 74, please answer Questions 75-78. If you answer "No" to Question 74, please s k i p to Question 79. SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT THE ROLE OF TRANSFERS IN YOUR CAREER 79. When you began working f o r your present company, how c l e a r were you that you might be asked to accept a t r a n s f e r ? ( C i r c l e a number) Completely I had no Clea r 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 idea 80. In your op i n i o n , how much d i d your l a s t  t r a n s f e r c o n t r i b u t e to your development as an employee? Did not Contributed c o n t r i b u t e S i g n i f i c a n t l y 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 at a l l 81. In your op i n i o n , how much have a l l of your t r a n s f e r s with your present company con-t r i b u t e d to your development as an employee? 82. In your o p i n i o n , how important i s ac c e p t i n g t r a n s f e r s as a means of moving upward i n your company? ( C i r c l e a number) Not Extremely important Important 7 - 6 5 4 3 2 1 at a l l 83. In g e n e r a l , how happy have you been about your previous t r a n s f e r s with t h i s company? Extremely Extremely Happy 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Unhappy I have had no other t r a n s f e r s with t h i s company. 84. Would you be d i s s a t i s f i e d i f you never reached the top executive l e v e l of your company? Did not Contributed c o n t r i b u t e S i g n i f i c a n t l y 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 i t a ) i Yes No Undecided 84 85. Would you be d i s s a t i s f i e d i f you were never promoted again by your company? 87. Yes No Undecided 86. Would you be i n t e r e s t e d In a t r a n s f e r to another country? Yes No At the time you were o f f e r e d your l a s t t r a n s f e r , how c e r t a i n was your b e l i e f that to refuse the t r a n s f e r might have hindered or threatened: (Enter a percentage f i g u r e which i n d i c a t e s the s t r e n g t h of your b e l i e f ) a) Your employment with the company? b) Your future promotion o p p o r t u n i t i e s ? c) Your chances f o r a s a l a r y increase? d) Your r e l a t i o n s h i p with your boss? e) Your r e l a t i o n s h i p with your peers i n the company? f) Your r e l a t i o n s h i p with your spouse? 88. In your o p i n i o n , what are the chances i n ten that you w i l l be asked to t r a n s f e r again? Place a number between 0 and 10 i n each of the f o l l o w i n g time p e r i o d s . My chances i n ten of being asked to t r a n s f e r again w i t h i n one year My chances i n ten of being asked to t r a n s f e r again w i t h i n two years My chances i n ten of being t r a n s f e r r e d again w i t h i n f i v e years 89. How happy would you be i f you were t r a n s f e r r e d again by your company? ( C i r c l e a number) Extremely Extremely Happy 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Unhappy 90. What would you say are the chances i n ten that you would q u i t the company ra t h e r than t r a n s f e r again? ( C i r c l e a number) I would I would d e f i n i t e l y d e f i n i t e l y not q u i t 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 q u i t SOME QUESTIONS CONCERNING YOUR COMPANY'S TRANSFER POLICIES Please i n d i c a t e with a check mark (•*) under the a p p r o p r i a t e a d j e c t i v e how w e l l s a t i s f i e d you were with the p r o v i s i o n s made by the company's t r a n s f e r and moving p o l i c y , as a r e s u l t of your l a s t t r a n s f e r . Very Somewhat Un- Very S a t i s f i e d S a t i s f i e d Undecided S a t i s f i e d U n s a t i s f i e d 91. T r a v e l allowances to look f o r new home 92. Temporary l i v i n g expenses at new l o c a t i o n 93. T r a v e l allowances to o l d l o c a t i o n a f t e r move 94. Allowances to move family/household goods 95. A s s i s t a n c e i n f i n d i n g new home 96. A s s i s t a n c e i n s e l l i n g o l d home 97. Time o f f to move 98. Purchase agreement i f can't s e l l o l d home 99. F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n buying new home 100. Payment of c l o s i n g costs on new home 101. Payment of d e c o r a t i n g c o s t s i n new home 102. The r a i s e s given at time of t r a n s f e r 103. Payment of d i f f e r e n c e s i n mortgage rates 104. Time to prepare f o r the move 85 105. How w e l l would you say that you understand your company's t r a n s f e r p o l i c y ? ( C i r c l e a number) Not at 5 4 3 2 1 a l l Extremely Well 106. O v e r a l l , how s a t i s f i e d are you with your company's t r a n s f e r p o l i c y ? Very S a t i s f i e d Very U n s a t i s f i e d 107. In your o p i n i o n , what i s the minimum time your company should allow an employee to stay at one l o c a t i o n , before t r a n s f e r r i n g him or her? Check the appropriate answer. at l e a s t one month at l e a s t 3 months at l e a s t 6 months at l e a s t 1 year at l e a s t 2 years at l e a s t 3 years at l e a s t 5 years at l e a s t 10 years 108. What suggestions can you make to improve your i.ompany's t r a n s f e r p o l i c y ? Please answer on the i n s i d e of the back cover of t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . SOME QUESTIONS CONCERNING TRANSFERS IN GENERAL Please i n d i c a t e with a check mark under the appropriate a d j e c t i v e your degree of agreement or disagreement with each of the f o l l o w i n g statements REGARDING TRANSFERS IN GENERAL: 109. More good people than the Company r e a l i z e s leave the Company ra t h e r than move again. 110. T r a n s f e r s develop b e t t e r executives because they've had a v a r i e t y of experience. 111. One becomes a b e t t e r executive by moving than i f given Job r o t a t i o n s at one l o c a t i o n . 112. I f top management knew what they are doing to us with a l l these moves, they'd cut down on the number. 113. The company moves us so o f t e n that we don't have time to l e a r n "the job w e l l enough to be e f f e c t i v e . 114. T r a n s f e r s a f f o r d t h e opportunity to make more contacts i f l a t e r you want to leave the company. 115. Frequent t r a n s f e r s encourage executives to focus on the r e a l l y important problems of a job. 116. You can perform b e t t e r by h o l d i n g s e v e r a l Jobs at one l o c a t i o n than a l l t h i s moving around. 117. We move so o f t e n we must concentrate on short-run problems, ins t e a d of long-run problems of the j o b . 118. I t i s worth i t to the company to t r a n s f e r i t s employees. Strongly Un- Strongly Agree Agree decided Disagree Disagree PLEASE PROCEED TO PART 2 86 PART 2 QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR FEELINGS TOWARDS WORK AND YOUR JOB The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n contains a number of questions concerning your f e e l i n g s about work and your Job. Please check the response ranging from "Strongly Agree" t o ' S t r o n g l y Disagree" which comes c l o s e s t to your r e a c t i o n to each of the f o l l o w i n g statements. There are no r i g h t or wrong answers. Please be sure to provide a response to each statement. Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The major s a t i s f a c t i o n i n my l i f e comes from my j o b . The most important things that happen to me i n v o l v e my j ob. I l i v e , eat, and breathe my job. I am very much involved p e r s o n a l l y i n my work. I'm r e a l l y a p e r f e c t i o n i s t about my work. Most things i n l i f e are more important than work. Even i f a man has a good j o b , he should always be looking f o r a b e t t e r j o b . In choosing a j o b , a man ought to consider h i s chances fo r advancement as w e l l as other f a c t o r s . A man should always be t h i n k i n g about p u l l i n g h i mself up i n the world and should work hard with the hope of being promoted to a h i g h e r - l e v e l job. I f a man l i k e s h i s j o b , he should be s a t i s f i e d with i t and should not push f o r a promotion to another Job. The t r o u b l e with too many people i s that when they f i n d a job i n which they are I n t e r e s t e d , they don't t r y to get a b e t t e r job. A worker who turns down a promotion i s probably making a mistake. A promotion to a h i g h e r - l e v e l job u s u a l l y means more worries and should be avoided f o r that reason. A w e l l paying job that o f f e r s l i t t l e opportunity f o r advancement i s not a good job f o r me. A worker i s b e t t e r o f f i f he i s s a t i s f i e d with h i s j o b and i s not concerned about be i n g promoted to another job. I don't mind p u t t i n g i n e x t r a time I f the company needs me to. I am w i l l i n g to work e x t r a hard at my job i n order to help t h i s company be s u c c e s s f u l . I r e a l l y care about the f a t e of the company. It bothers me very much to be absent from work. Everything considered, what are the chances i n 10 that you w i l l q u i elsewhere, before you r e t i r e ? No chance at a l l 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 ( C i r c l e a number) t your present company and look f o r work 10 D e f i n i t e l y p l a n to q u i t 87 Now we would l i k e to ask you some s p e c i f i c questions about p a r t i c u l a r aspects of your present Job. S p e c i f i c a l l y , we would l i k e you to i n d i c a t e whether or not each of the a d j e c t i v e s shown describes your Job. So, f o r each aspect of your job mentioned (the work i t s e l f , the pay, e t c . ) , please w r i t e a "Y" or an "N" i n the space beside each a d j e c t i v e to i n d i c a t e "yes" or "no", whether you think the a d j e c t i v e d e s c r i b e s your present job. Please be sure to p l a c e a "Y" or an "N" beside each a d j e c t i v e under each aspect of your j o b . I f you cannot decide, place a question mark (?) beside the item i n doubt. 139. WORK 141. COWORKERS F a s c i n a t i n g Routine S a t i s f y i n g Boring Good C r e a t i v e Respected Hot Pleasant U s e f u l Tiresome H e a l t h f u l C h a l l e n g i n g On your f e e t F r u s t r a t i n g Simple Endless Gives sense of accomplishment 140. SUPERVISION 142. Asks my advice Hard to please Impolite P r a i s e s good work T a c t f u l I n f l u e n t i a l Up-to-date Doesn't su p e r v i s e enough Quick tempered T e l l s me where I stand Annoying ~ Stubborn 143. Knows job w e l l ~ Bad I n t e l l i g e n t Leaves me on my own Lazy Around when needed S t i m u l a t i n g Boring Slow Ambitious Stupid Responsible Fast I n t e l l i g e n t Easy to make enemies Talk too much Smart Lazy Unpleasant No privacy A c t i v e Narrow i n t e r e s t s L o y a l Hard to meet PAY Income adequate f o r normal expenses S a t i s f a c t o r y p r o f i t s h a r i n g Barely l i v e on income Bad Income provides l u x u r i e s Insecure Less than I deserve Highly paid Underpaid , PROMOTIONS Good opportunity f o r advancement Opportunity somewhat l i m i t e d Promotion on a b i l i t y Dead-end job Good chance f o r promotion U n f a i r promotion p o l i c y Infrequent promotions Regular promotions F a i r l y good chance f o r promotion PLEASE PROCEED TO PART 3 88 PART 3 QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR PERSONAL BELIEFS The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n contains a number of questions concerning your b e l i e f s about people and l i f e i n general. P l e a s e be sure to answer a l l of the questions asked. QUESTIONS 144 - 166. Please i n d i c a t e with a check mark your degree of agreement or disagreement with each of the f o l l o w i n g statements. There are no r i g h t or wrong answers - we are concerned only with your personal b e l i e f s . Remember, your answers are c o n f i d e n t i a l . S t r o ngly Un- Strongly Agree Agree decided Disagree Disagree 5 4 3 2 1 144. I have often found that what i s going to happen w i l l happen. 145. Without the r i g h t breaks one cannot be an e f f e c t i v e leader. • 146. Many times I f e e l that I have l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e over the things that happen to me . . , . 147. Who gets to be the boss o f t e n depends on who was l u c k y enough to be i n the r i g h t place f i r s t . 148. Unfortunately, an i n d i v i d u a l ' s worth o f t e n passes un-recognized-no matter how hard he t r i e s . . 149. Sometimes I f e e l that I don't have enough c o n t r o l over the d i r e c t i o n my l i f e i s ta k i n g . 150. G e t t i n g a good job depends mainly on being i n the r i g h t place at the r i g h t time. - 151. Most people don't r e a l i z e the extent to which t h e i r l i v e s are c o n t r o l l e d by a c c i d e n t a l happenings. 152. Capable people who f a i l to become leaders have not taken advantage of t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t i e s . .  153. People who can't get others to l i k e them don't understand how to get along with others. 154. People's misfortunes r e s u l t from the mistakes they make. 155. In the long run people get the respect they deserve i n t h i s world. ' 156. What happens to me i s my own doing. 157. In the long run the bad things that happen to us are balanced by the good ones. 158. Most misfortunes are the r e s u l t of l a c k of a b i l i t y , ignorance, l a z i n e s s , or a l l three. 159. People are l o n e l y because they don't t r y to be f r i e n d l y . 160. In my case g e t t i n g what I want has l i t t l e or nothing to do with luck. 161. G e t t i n g people to do the r i g h t thing depends upon a b i l i t y , l u c k has l i t t l e o r nothing to do with i t . 162. Many of the unhappy things i n people's l i v e s are p a r t l y due to bad luck. 8 9 163. T r u s t i n g to f a t e has never turned out as w e l l f o r De as making a d e c i s i o n to take a d e f i n i t e course of a c t i o n . 164. Becoming a success i s a matter of hard work, luc k has l i t t l e or nothing to do with i t . 165. I t i s impossible f o r me to b e l i e v e that chance or l u c k p l a y s an important r o l e i n my l i f e . 166. There i s no such t h i n g as luck. Strongly Un- Strongly Agree Agree decided Disagree Disagree Please respond to items 167 - 178 by c i r c l i n g e i t h e r statement A or B, depending upon which response you agree with most. Please f o r c e y o u r s e l f to c i r c l e only one of the two statements appearing i n each p a i r , and p l e a s e be c a r e f u l to avoid missing any p a i r of items. 167. A. I t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y that a s t r o l o g y w i l l ever be able to e x p l a i n anything. B. Someday i t w i l l probably be shown that a s t r o l o g y can e x p l a i n a l o t of t h i n g s . 168. A. I f i t weren't f o r the r e b e l l i o u s Ideas of youth there would be l e s s progress i n the world. B. Young people sometimes get r e b e l l i o u s ideas, but as they grow up they ought to get over them and s e t t l e down. 169. A. I t would be a good t h i n g i f people spent more time t h i n k i n g and t a l k i n g about ideas j u s t f o r the fun of i t . B. I f people would t a l k l e s s and work more, everybody would be b e t t e r o f f . 170. A. What a youth needs most i s s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e , rugged determination, and the w i l l to work and f i g h t f o r family and country. B. In the long run i t i s b e t t e r f o r our country i f young people are allowed a great deal of personal freedom and are not s t r i c t l y d i s c i p l i n e d . 171. A. Nowadays more and more people are prying i n t o matters that should remain personal and p r i v a t e . B. There are times when i t i s necessary to probe i n t o even the most personal and p r i v a t e matters. 172. A. The businessman and the manufacturer are much more important to s o c i e t y than the a r t i s t and the p r o f e s s o r . B. The a r t i s t and the p r o f e s s o r are probably more important to s o c i e t y than the businessman. 173. A. Obedience and respect f o r a u t h o r i t y are the most important v i r t u e s c h i l d r e n should l e a r n . B. One of the most important things c h i l d r e n should l e a r n i s when to disobey a u t h o r i t i e s . 174. A. Most honest people admit to themselves that they have sometimes hated t h e i r parents. B. There i s hardly anything lower than a person who does not f e e l great l o v e , g r a t i t u d e , and respect f o r h i s parents. 175. A. The w i l d sex l i f e of the o l d Greeks and Romans was tame compared to some of the goings-on i n t h i s country, even i n p l a c e s where people might l e a s t expect i t . B. In s p i t e of what you read about the w i l d sex l i f e of people i n important p l a c e s , the r e a l s t o r y i s about the same i n any group of people. 176. A. I t ' s nobody's business i f someone i s a homosexual as long as he doesn't harm other people. B. Homosexuals are hardly b e t t e r than c r i m i n a l s and ought to be s e v e r e l y punished. 90 177. A. When a person has a problem or worry, It i s best to face i t and t r y to think i t through, even i f i t i s so u p s e t t i n g that i t keeps him from concentrating on other t h i n g s . B. When a person has a problem or worry, i t i s best f o r him not to t h i n k about i t , but to keep busy with more c h e e r f u l t h i n g s . 178. A. Every person should have complete f a i t h i n some sup e r n a t u r a l power whose d e c i s i o n s he obeys without question. B. I t ' s a l l r i g h t f o r people to r a i s e questions about even the most sacred matters. Please answer questions 179 - 208 by i n d i c a t i n g True or F a l s e (T or F) i n the space to the l e f t of each item. Please l i m i t your responses to e i t h e r T or F, depending upon whether you agree with each statement (True) or d i s a g r e e ( F a l s e ) . Be sure to not miss any of the items. 179. I am happiest when I get i n v o l v e d i n some p r o j e c t that c a l l s f o r r a p i d a c t i o n . 180. I u s u a l l y take the i n i t i a t i v e i n making new f r i e n d s . 181. I would r a t e myself as a l i v e l y i n d i v i d u a l . 182. I would be very unhappy i f I were prevented from making numerous s o c i a l c o n t a c t s . 183. I am i n c l i n e d to keep i n the background on s o c i a l o c c a s i o n s . 184. I l i k e to mix s o c i a l l y with people. 185. I am i n c l i n e d to l i m i t my acquaintances to a s e l e c t few. 186. I l i k e to have many s o c i a l engagements. 187. I g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r to take the lead i n group a c t i v i t i e s . 188. I would r a t e myself as a happy-go-lucky i n d i v i d u a l . 189. I am i n c l i n e d to keep q u i e t when out i n a s o c i a l group. 190. I can u s u a l l y l e t myself go and have a h i l a r i o u s l y good time at a p a r t y . 191. Other people regard me as a l i v e l y i n d i v i d u a l . 192. I would rate myself as a t a l k a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l . 193. I am a good mixer. 194. I l i k e to go to p a r t i e s and other a f f a i r s where there i s l o t s of loud fun. 195. I l i k e to f l i r t . 196. I should l i k e to belong to s e v e r a l c l u b s or lodges. 197. At p a r t i e s I am more l i k e l y to s i t by myself or with j u s t one other person than to j o i n i n with the crowd. 198. I love to go to dances. 199. I enjoy s o c i a l gatherings J u s t to be with people. 200. I enjoy the excitement of a crowd. 201. My worries seem to disappear when I get i n t o a crowd of l i v e l y f r i e n d s . 202. I l i k e p a r t i e s and s o c i a l s . 203. I am a c a r e f r e e i n d i v i d u a l . 204. I make d e c i s i o n s on the spur of the moment. 205. I l i k e w i l d enthusiasm, sometimes to a point bordering on rowdyism, at a f o o t b a l l or b a s e b a l l game. 206. I g e n e r a l l y f e e l as though I haven't a care i n the world. 207. I u s u a l l y say what I f e e l l i k e saying at the moment. 208. I nearly always have a "ready answer" f o r remarks d i r e c t e d at me. 91 PART 4 QUESTIONS ABOUT YOURSELF In t h i s l a s t s e c t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e we ask you to supply us with some in f o r m a t i o n about y o u r s e l f . The questions asked i n t h i s s e c t i o n are extremely important, because they allow us to study the data i n comparative terms. For example, we w i l l be i n t e r e s t e d to l e a r n whether a t t i t u d e s toward t r a n s f e r s vary from one age group to another. Complete data i n t h i s s e c t i o n are r e q u i r e d i n order to make the most meaningful i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the other responses you have given us. REMEMBER: Your answers to t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l not be seen by anyone except the r e s e a r c h e r s . Please do not  slRn the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 209. What i s your present age i n years? 210. What was your age when you were l a s t t r a n s f e r r e d ( i n years)? 211. What i s your m a r i t a l s t a t u s (at present)? Married S i n g l e Divorced or separated Engaged .to be married 212. What was your m a r i t a l s t a t u s at the time of your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? Married Single Divorced or separated Engaged to be married 213. Indicate your highest a t t a i n e d l e v e l of formal education. some high s c h o o l high school graduation some c o l l e g e c o l l e g e degree some graduate study . advanced degree 214. How l a r g e was the c i t y ( c i t i e s ) i n which you were r a i s e d as a c h i l d ? fewer than 500 people between 500 and 5,000 people between 5,000 and 50,000 people between 50,000 and 100,000 people between 100,000 and 500,000 people between 500,000 and 1 m i l l i o n people between 1 m i l l i o n and 2 m i l l i o n people greater than 2 m i l l i o n people 215. How many c h i l d r e n d i d you have at the time of your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? None 4 1 5 \ more than 5 217. I n d i c a t e with a check mark your present departmental a f f i l i a t i o n : Marketing Sales Finance Accounting Purchasing Personnel Customer S e r v i c e Engineering Labour R e l a t i o n s General A d m i n i s t r a t i o n B u i l d i n g Real E s t a t e Law A c t u a r i a l Medical Computers/Data P r o c e s s i n g T r a n s p o r t a t i o n other ( s p e c i f y ) 218. How many times have you been t r a n s f e r r e d by a l l of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r which you have worked? (Please p r i n t the number of t r a n s f e r s . ) 219. How many times have you been t r a n s f e r r e d by your present company? number of times. 220. How many years have you worked f o r your present company? years. 221. Do you consider y o u r s e l f to be: Completely b i c u l t u r a l / b i l i n g u a l French E n g l i s h Other (S p e c i f y ) 222. G e n e r a l l y , would you d e s c r i b e y o u r s e l f as a "small c i t y person" or a " b i g c i t y person"? "Small C i t y " " B i g C i t y " n e i t h e r 216. L i s t the ages of your c h i l d r e n at the time of your l a s t move ( i n y e a r s ) . 92 When you were a c h i l d , how of t e n d i d you move with your family from one home to another? (This includes moves w i t h i n and between c i t i e s . ) Estimate the number of moves your family made (while you l i v e d with them) as a c c u r a t e l y as you can. (number of moves before I completed high school) (number of moves a f t e r I completed high school) 227. Concerning 223 (above): What was your a t t i t u d e as  a c h i l d about the number of moves your family made? 1 was extremely happy with the number of moves my family made Quite happy Neither happy nor unhappy Quite unhappy I was extremely unhappy with the number of moves my family made. What i s the name of your present company? Is your spouse going to complete the question-n a i r e we enclosed? Yes No 228. Based on the l a s t e v a l u a t i o n by your s u p e r v i s o r how do you f e e l he rat e d you as an employee i n your company ( i n terms of a c t u a l performance)? E x c e l l e n t Good Average F a i r Poor (Top 20Z) (Top 40X) (Middle 20Z) (Lower 401) (Lowest 20Z) 229. Based on the l a s t e v a l u a t i o n by your s u p e r v i s o r , how do you f e e l he rated you as an employee of your company ( i n terms of f u t u r e p o t e n t i a l ) ? E x c e l l e n t Good Average F a i r Poor (Top 20Z) (Top 40Z) (Middle 20Z) (Lower.402) (Lowest 20Z) What i s your present s a l a r y ? l e s s than $10,000 per year $10,000 - $14,999 $15,000 - $19,999 $20,000 - $24,999 $25,000 - $29,999 $30,000 - $34,999 IT) $35,000 - $39,999 $40,000 - $44,999 $45,000 - $49,999 more than $50,000 Thank you f o r your time. I f you have anything to add not covered by t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , please use the back cover. BP 76-148 93 APPENDIX B SURVEY OF TRANSFER-RELATED ATTITUDES TO BE COMPLETED BY THE HUSBAND OR WIFE OF THE TRANSFERRED EMPLOYEE This questionnaire i s designed to assess the a t t i t u d e s of the husband or w i f e of a Canadian employee who has been t r a n s f e r r e d by h i s company or o r g a n i z a t i o n . For the sake of t h i s study, A TRANSFER i s any movement from one work s i t e to another which i n v o l v e s at l e a s t a temporary r e l o c a t i o n of the employee's f a m i l y and place of residence. In other words, any promotion, demotion or l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r which r e q u i r e s the employee to change h i s or her home address w i l l be considered a t r a n s f e r i n t h i s study. Therefore, a t r a n s f e r may r e q u i r e the employee to move across h i s present c i t y , across the country, or across the world. The purpose of t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s to study the a t t i t u d e s of Canadians toward being moved by t h e i r employers. With the data gathered, we hope to l e a r n more about the types of people who tend to be b e t t e r "candidates" f o r a t r a n s f e r ; that i s , what s o r t s of people enjoy, or don't mind being t r a n s f e r r e d ? How can we p r e d i c t whether a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l and h i s f a m i l y w i l l adjust r e a d i l y a f t e r a t r a n s f e r ? • How can personnel managers b e t t e r match employees w i t h t r a n s f e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s ? These are the types of questions we hope to address i n t h i s study. ABOUT THE QUESTIONNAIRE Your spouse's company has approved t h i s survey and t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . However, the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was designed by Dr. C r a i g P i n d e r , and he (and h i s research s t a f f ) w i l l be the only people to see your i n d i v i d u a l responses. Moreover, we ask that you DO NOT SIGN your quest i o n n a i r e i n order to a b s o l u t e l y guarantee the p r i v a c y of your answers. In no cases w i l l your company be provided w i t h the answers given by any s i n g l e employee. Your spouse's company w i l l only r e c e i v e the combined data gathered from a t o t a l of 100 employees working f o r the company. So please provide us w i t h frank, honest responses to the questions we ask. This q u e s t i o n n a i r e accompanies another q u e s t i o n n a i r e which i s completed by the t r a n s f e r r e d employee. However, please answer the questions i n t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e independently of your spouse, but PLEASE RETURN THE TWO QUESTIONNAIRES IN THE SAME ENVELOPE DIRECTLY TO US AT U.B.C. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s composed of four p a r t s ; i t i s important that you r e p l y completely to a l l four p a r t s i n order f o r us to use the data you supply. P a r t 1 i s concerned w i t h v a r i o u s aspects of your most recent t r a n s f e r , and your a t t i t u d e s concerning t r a n s f e r s i n general. Part 2 and Part 3 ask a s e r i e s of questions concerning your general b e l i e f s about work, people, and l i f e . F i n a l l y , P a r t 4 asks a few questions about y o u r s e l f . To repeat, please answer a l l of the questions asked and be assured that your responses w i l l be t r e a t e d w i t h s t r i c t c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . We hope you w i l l take time to help us w i t h t h i s survey. We b e l i e v e that what i s learned should help Canadian companies do a b e t t e r job of t r a n s f e r r i n g t h e i r employees, to the b e n e f i t of the t r a n s f e r e e , h i s f a m i l y , and h i s company. Thank you. C r a i g C. P i n d e r , Ph.D. A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r F a c u l t y of Commerce and Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 94 PART 1 SOME QUESTIONS SPECIFICALLY ABOUT YOUR LAST TRANSFER To what extent d i d you share i n the d e c i s i o n to accept your family's l a s t t r a n s f e r ? I had no I had a say i n the major share matter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 of the d e c i s i o n . SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR  NEW CITY (OR LOCATION) 10. Had you ever l i v e d i n your present c i t y before being moved there on your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? Estimate the number of weeks i t took you to get the " l a y of the la n d " i n your new l o c a t i o n (meeting new people, l e a r n i n g the p o l i c i e s , " f i n d i n g your way around", etc.) weeks. Yes No 10(a) I f yes (Question 1 0 ) , d i d you p r e v i o u s l y l i k e the c i t y ? Yes No EValuate the extent of damage in c u r r e d to your f u r n i t u r e and personal belongings r e s u l t i n g from the move: ( C i r c l e a number) N e g l i g i b l e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Extensive 11. Is your new c i t y the c i t y you were born i n , or the' c i t y you have spent most of your l i f e i n ( i n the past) Yes No In g e n e r a l , how s u c c e s s f u l was the a c t u a l move of y o u r s e l f , your f a m i l y , and your e f f e c t s at the time of your l a s t t r a n s f e r from your former l o c a t i o n to your new l o c a t i o n ? Extremely S u c c e s s f u l 2 3 4 5 .Extremely 7 Unsuccessful SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR  FORMER CITY (OR LOCATION) 12. Do you p r e s e n t l y belong to any v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s at your new l o c a t i o n ? Yes No 13. Are you p r e s e n t l y an o f f i c e r i n any voluntary o r g a n i z -a t i o n s at your new l o c a t i o n ? Yes No 14. Was the c i t y you l e f t the c i t y you were born i n , or the c i t y you spent most of your l i f e in? Yes No Al t o g e t h e r would you say that you (you p e r s o n a l l y ) have more f r i e n d s or fewer f r i e n d s s i n c e your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? More f r i e n d s 'Fewer f r i e n d s About the same Did you belong to any voluntary organizations 15. How many r e l a t i v e s d i d you and your spouse at your former l o c a t i o n ? l e a v e b e h l n d a s a r e s u U q £ y o u r ^ t r a n s f e r ? Y e s N o Number of r e l a t i v e s Were you an o f f i c e r i n any voluntary organiz-a t i o n s at your former l o c a t i o n ? Yes No 16. How many r e l a t i v e s d i d you (you p e r s o n a l l y ) leave behind as a r e s u l t of your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? Number of r e l a t i v e s How many very c l o s e f r i e n d s d i d you and your • spouse leave behind as a r e s u l t of your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? (one couple counts as 2 f r i e n d s ) number of f r i e n d s How many very close f r i e n d s d i d you (you p e r s o n a l l y ) leave behind as a r e s u l t of your • l a s t t r a n s f e r ? (one couple counts as 2 f r i e n d s ) number of f r i e n d s 17. A l t o g e t h e r , would you say that you and your spouse have more f r i e n d s or fewer f r i e n d s s i n c e your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? More f r i e n d s Fewer f r i e n d s About the same 18. Everything considered, how w e l l do you l i k e your new l o c a t i o n ? ( C i r c l e a number) I l i k e i t very much I d i s l i k e i t 1 very much 95 19. How d i f f i c u l t has It been for you to adjust to your new l o c a t i o n ? Extremely Easy Extremely D i f f i c u l t 20. O v e r a l l , how happy are you that you made your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? ( C i r c l e a number) Extremely Happy Extremely Unhappy QUESTIONS COMPARING YOUR FORMER LOCATION WITH YOUR NEW LOCATION There are many aspects to l i v i n g i n a c i t y or region which c o n t r i b u t e to a person's happiness with l i v i n g there. For each of the items below, i n d i c a t e with a check mark i n the ap p r o p r i a t e column whether that aspect of l i v i n g was b e t t e r at your o l d l o c a t i o n (Column 1), at your new l o c a t i o n (Column 2), or whether things are about the same at the two l o c a t i o n s (Column 3). Check Column 4 i f you don't know, or have no op i n i o n . Please add any cons i d e r -ations you wish to add at the end of t h i s s e c t i o n and provide the appr o p r i a t e check marks f o r your own items. BETTER AT BETTER AT FORMER NEW LOCATION LOCATION (1) (2) ABOUT EQUAL (3) DON'T KNOW/ NO OPINION 21. O v e r a l l cost of l i v i n g 22. The cost of housing 23. The cost of food 24. Sports and r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s 25. R e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s 26. P o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s 27. The r a c i a l / e t h n i c composition of the community 28. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of housing 29. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of good schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s f o r my family and myself 30. The c l i m a t e 31. The crime rate 32. The P r o v i n c i a l Government 33. The s i z e of the c i t y 34. The c u l t u r a l environment 35. The r e s t a u r a n t s 36. The r a d i o / t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s 96 The p h y s i c a l surroundings ( s e t t i n g of the c i t y ) Environmental q u a l i t y ( p o l l u t i o n ) M e dical/health f a c i l i t i e s P u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n Other (add your own) BETTER AT FORMER LOCATION (1) BETTER AT NEW LOCATION (2) ABOUT EQUAL (3) DON'T KNOW/ NO OPINION (4) Everything considered, do you p r e f e r your new l o c a t i o n or your o l d l o c a t i o n ? I s t r o n g l y p r e f e r my new l o c a t i o n I somewhat p r e f e r my new l o c a t i o n I l i k e them about e q u a l l y I somewhat p r e f e r my o l d l o c a t i o n I s t r o n g l y p r e f e r my o l d l o c a t i o n 46. Before your l a s t t r a n s f e r , were you earning any income Yes No 47. Since your t r a n s f e r , have you been earning any income? Yes No In general, how s a t i s f i e d are you (per s o n a l l y ) with your new l o c a t i o n ? ( C i r c l e a number) Extremely S a t i s f i e d 6 5 4 3 2 Extremely U n s a t i s f i e d 48. Did you p e r s o n a l l y request your (spouse's) l a s t t r a n s f i Yes No In general, how s a t i s f i e d i s your family (spouse and c h i l d r e n included) with your new l o c a t i o n ? Extremely S a t i s f i e d Extremely U n s a t i s f i e d 49. Everything considered, i s your present standard of l i v i n g higher or lower than i t was before your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? Higher Lower About the same SOMF QUESTIONS CONCERNING YOUR FAMILY AND YOUR LAST TRANSFER How d i f f i c u l t do you b e l i e v e that i t has been f o r your spouse to adjust to your new l o c a t i o n ? ( C i r c l e a number) Extremely Extremely Easy 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 D i f f i c u l t Did your l a s t t r a n s f e r have any impact on your m a r i t a l happiness? Yes, i t had a harmful e f f e c t Yes, i t had a b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t No, i t had no e f f e c t 52. How much d i f f i c u l t y d i d you encounter a f t e r you moved i n e s t a b l i s h i n g your c h i l d r e n i n school? A great d e a l No d i f f i c u l t y of d i f f i c u l t y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 whatsoever 53. How d i f f i c u l t do you b e l i e v e that i t has been f o r your c h i l d r e n to adjust to your new l o c a t i o n ? Extremely Extremely Easy 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 D i f f i c u l t My c h i l d r e n were e i t h e r . t o o young or too o l d f o r school at the time. 97 54. What has been the e f f e c t of your t r a n s f e r ( s ) on the 5 6 , a t t i t u d e s of your c h i l d r e n toward corporate l i f e ? '. There has been a l a r g e p o s i t i v e e f f e c t There has been a s l i g h t p o s i t i v e e f f e c t There has been no n o t i c e a b l e e f f e c t There has been a s l i g h t negative e f f e c t There has been a l a r g e negative e f f e c t 55. How happy would you be i f your spouse was t r a n s f e r r e d 5 7 _ again by h i s (or her) company? Extremely Extremely Happy 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Unhappy Check the category which most n e a r l y approximates the f e e l i n g you would have i f you knew your spouse would never reach the top executive l e v e l : Very s a t i s f i e d S a t i s f i e d I n d i f f e r e n t . D i s s a t i s f i e d Very d i s s a t i s f i e d What would you say are the chances i n ten (10) that you would want your spouse to q u i t the company r a t h e r than t r a n s f e r again? ( C i r c l e a number) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 SOME QUESTIONS CONCERNING YOUR SPOUSE'S COMPANY'S TRANSFER FOLICIES Please i n d i c a t e with a check mark (v/) under the ap p r o p r i a t e a d j e c t i v e how w e l l s a t i s f i e d you were with the p r o v i s i o n s made by the company's t r a n s f e r and moving p o l i c y , as a r e s u l t of your l a s t t r a n s f e r . Very Somewhat Un- Very S a t i s f i e d S a t i s f i e d Undecided S a t i s f i e d U n s a t i s f i e d 58. T r a v e l allowances to look f o r new home 59. Temporary l i v i n g expenses at new l o c a t i o n ' 60. T r a v e l allowances to o l d l o c a t i o n a f t e r move 61. Allowances to move family/household goods 62. A s s i s t a n c e i n f i n d i n g new home • 63. A s s i s t a n c e i n s e l l i n g o l d home 64. Time o f f to move \ 65. Purchase agreement i f can't s e l l o l d home ; 66. F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n buying new home ^ 67. Payment of c l o s i n g c o s t s on new home •  68. Payment of decorating costs i n new home "  69. The r a i s e s given at time of t r a n s f e r 70. Payment of d i f f e r e n c e s i n mortgage r a t e s 71. Time to prepare f o r the move 72. How w e l l would you say that you understood your spouse's company's t r a n s f e r p o l i c y ? ( C i r c l e a number) Extremely Well 5 4 3 2 1 . Not at a l l 73. O v e r a l l , how s a t i s f i e d are you with your spouse's company's t r a n s f e r p o l i c y ? Very S a t i s f i e d 5 4 3 2 1 Very U n s a t i s f i e d 74. What suggestions can you make to improve your spouse's company's t r a n s f e r p o l i c y ? Please answer on the o u t s i d e of the back cover of t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . PLEASE PROCEED TO PART 2 . . . . . 9 8 PART 2 QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR FEELINGS TOWARDS WORK IN GENERAL The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n c ontains a number of questions concerning your f e e l i n g s about work i n general. Whether or not you are p r e s e n t l y working f o r an o r g a n i z a t i o n , you have probably held a job at one time or another. So, we would l i k e your r e a c t i o n s to these items based on your personal f e e l i n g s about work i n general. Please check the response ranging from " S t r o n g l y Agree" to " S t r o n g l y Disagree" which comes c l o s e s t to your r e a c t i o n to each of the f o l l o w i n g statements. There are no r i g h t or wrong answers. Please be sure to provide a response to each s t a t e -ment, even though you may not p r e s e n t l y h o l d a job o u t s i d e your home. Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 75. The major s a t i s f a c t i o n i n my l i f e comes from my j o b . 76. The most important things that happen to me i n v o l v e my job. 77. I l i v e , eat, and breathe my job. 78. I am very much inv o l v e d p e r s o n a l l y i n my work. 79. I'm r e a l l y a p e r f e c t i o n i s t about my work. 80. Most things i n l i f e are more important than work. 81. Even i f a man has a good Job, he should always be l o o k i n g f o r a b e t t e r job. 82. In choosing a j o b , a man ought to consider h i s chances for advancement as w e l l as other f a c t o r s . 83. A man should always be t h i n k i n g about p u l l i n g himself up i n the world and should work hard with the hope of being promoted to a h i g h e r - l e v e l job. 84. I f a man l i k e s h i s job, he should be s a t i s f i e d with i t and should not push f o r a promotion to another j o b . 85. The t r o u b l e with too many people i s that when they f i n d a Job i n which they are i n t e r e s t e d , they don't t r y to get a b e t t e r job. 86. A worker who turns down a promotion i s probably making a mistake. 87. A promotion to a h i g h e r - l e v e l Job u s u a l l y means more worries and should be avoided f o r that reason. 88. A w e l l paying job that o f f e r s l i t t l e o pportunity f o r advancement i s not a good j o b f o r me. 89. A worker i s b e t t e r o f f i f he i s s a t i s f i e d with h i s Job and i s not concerned about being promoted to another Job. 90. I don't mind p u t t i n g i n e x t r a time i f the company needs me to. 91. I am w i l l i n g to work e x t r a hard at my job i n order to help t h i s company be s u c c e s s f u l . 92. I r e a l l y care about the f a t e of the company. 93. I t bothers me very much to be absent from work. PLEASE PROCEED TO PART 3 99 PART 3 QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR PERSONAL BELIEFS The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n contains a number of questions concerning your b e l i e f s about^people and l i f e i n general. Please be sure to answer a l l of the questions asked. QUESTIONS 94 - 116. Please i n d i c a t e with a check mark your degree of agreement or disagreement with each of the f o l l o w i n g statements. There are no r i g h t or wrong answers - we are concerned only with your personal b e l i e f s . Remember, your answers are c o n f i d e n t i a l . S t r o ngly Un- Strongly Agree Agree decided Disagree Disagree 5 4 3 2 1 94. I have o f t e n found that what i s going to happen w i l l happen. 95. Without the r i g h t breaks one cannot be an e f f e c t i v e leader. 96. Many times I f e e l that I have l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e over the things that happen to me. 97. Who gets to be the boss o f t e n depends on who was lucky enough to be i n the r i g h t p l a c e f i r s t . 98. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , an i n d i v i d u a l ' s worth often passes un-recognized no matter how hard he t r i e s . 99. Sometimes I f e e l that I don't have enough c o n t r o l over the d i r e c t i o n my l i f e i s ta k i n g . 100. G e t t i n g a good job depends mainly on being i n the r i g h t place at the r i g h t time. 101. Most people don't r e a l i z e the extent to which t h e i r l i v e s are c o n t r o l l e d by a c c i d e n t a l happenings. 102. Capable people who f a i l to become leaders have not taken advantage of t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t i e s . 103. People who can't get others to l i k e them don't understand how to get along with others. 104. People's misfortunes r e s u l t from the mistakes they make. 105. In the long run people get the respect they deserve i n .t h i s world. 106. What happens to me i s my own doing. 107. In the long run the bad things that happen to us are balanced by the good ones. 108. Most misfortunes are the r e s u l t of la c k of a b i l i t y , ignorance, l a z i n e s s , or a l l three. 109. People are l o n e l y because they don't t r y to be f r i e n d l y . 110. In my case g e t t i n g what I want has l i t t l e or nothing to do with luck. 111. G e t t i n g people to do the r i g h t t h i n g depends upon a b i l i t y , luck has l i t t l e or nothing to do with i t . 112. Many of the unhappy things i n people's l i v e s are p a r t l y due to bad luc k . 100 113. T r u s t i n g to f a t e has never turned out as w e l l f o r ne as making a d e c i s i o n to take a d e f i n i t e course of a c t i o n . 114. Becoming a success i s a matter of hard work, luc k has l i t t l e or nothing to do with i t . 115. I t i s impossible f o r me to b e l i e v e that chance or l u c k plays an important r o l e i n my l i f e . 116. There i s no such thing as luck. Strongly Un- Strongly Agree Agree decided Disagree Disagree P l e a s e respond to items 117 - 128 by c i r c l i n g e i t h e r statement A or B, depending upon which response you agree with most. Please f o r c e y o u r s e l f to c i r c l e only one of the two statements appearing i n each p a i r , and please be c a r e f u l to avoid missing any p a i r of items. 117. A. I t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y that a s t r o l o g y w i l l ever be able to e x p l a i n anything. B. Someday i t w i l l probably be shown that a s t r o l o g y can e x p l a i n a l o t of t h i n g s . 118. A. I f i t weren't f o r the r e b e l l i o u s ideas of youth there would be l e s s progress i n the world. B. Young people sometimes get r e b e l l i o u s i deas, but as they grow up they ought to get over them and s e t t l e down. 119. A. I t would be a good t h i n g i f people spent-more time t h i n k i n g and t a l k i n g about ideas j u s t f o r the fun of i t . B. I f people would t a l k l e s s and work more, everybody would be b e t t e r o f f . 120. A. What a youth needs most i s s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e , rugged determination, and the w i l l to work and f i g h t f o r family and country. B. In the long run i t i s b e t t e r f o r our country i f young people are allowed a great deal of personal freedom and are not s t r i c t l y d i s c i p l i n e d . 121. A. Nowadays more and more people are p r y i n g i n t o matters that should remain personal and p r i v a t e . B. There are times when i t i s necessary to probe i n t o even the most personal and p r i v a t e matters. 122. A. The businessman and the manufacturer are much more important to s o c i e t y than the a r t i s t and the p r o f e s s o r . B. The a r t i s t and the p r o f e s s o r are probably more important to s o c i e t y than the businessman. 123. A. Obedience and respect f o r a u t h o r i t y are the most important v i r t u e s c h i l d r e n should l e a r n . B. One of the most important things c h i l d r e n should l e a r n i s when to disobey a u t h o r i t i e s . 124. A. Most honest people admit to themselves that they have sometimes hated t h e i r parents. B. There i s hardly anything lower than a person who does not f e e l great l o v e , g r a t i t u d e , and respect f o r h i s parents. 125. A. The w i l d sex l i f e of the o l d Greeks and Romans was tame compared to some of the goings-on i n t h i s country, even i n places where people might l e a s t expect i t . B. In s p i t e of what you read about the w i l d sex l i f e of people i n important p l a c e s , the r e a l s t o r y i s about the same i n any group of people. 126. A. I t ' s nobody's business i f someone i s a homosexual as long as he doesn't harm other people. B. Homosexuals are hardly b e t t e r than c r i m i n a l s and ought to be s e v e r e l y punished. 101 127. A. When a person has a problem or worry, I t Is best to face I t and t r y to think i t through, even i f i t i s so u p s e t t i n g that i t keeps him from c o n c e n t r a t i n g on other things. B. When a person has a problem or worry, i t i s best f o r him not to think about i t , but to keep busy with more c h e e r f u l t h i n g s . 128. A. Every person should have complete f a i t h i n some supernatural power whose d e c i s i o n s he obeys without question. B. I t ' s a l l r i g h t f o r people to r a i s e questions about even the most sacred matters. Please answer questions 129 - 158 by i n d i c a t i n g True or F a l s e (T or F) i n the space to the l e f t of each item. Please l i m i t your responses to e i t h e r T or F, depending upon whether you agree with each statement (True) or disagree ( F a l s e ) . Be sure to not miss any of the items. 129. I am happiest when I get involved i n some p r o j e c t that c a l l s f o r r a p i d a c t i o n . 130. I u s u a l l y take the i n i t i a t i v e i n making new f r i e n d s . 131. I would r a t e myself as a l i v e l y i n d i v i d u a l . 132. I would be very unhappy i f I were prevented from making numerous s o c i a l c o n tacts. 133. I am I n c l i n e d to keep i n the background on s o c i a l occasions. 134. I l i k e to mix s o c i a l l y with people. 135. I am i n c l i n e d to l i m i t my acquaintances to a s e l e c t few. 136. I l i k e to have many s o c i a l engagements. 137. I g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r to take the lead i n group a c t i v i t i e s . 138. I would rate myself as a happy-go-lucky i n d i v i d u a l . 139. I am i n c l i n e d to keep qui e t when out i n a s o c i a l group. 140. I can u s u a l l y l e t myself go and have a h i l a r i o u s l y good time at a p a r t y . 141. Other people regard me as a l i v e l y i n d i v i d u a l . 142. I would r a t e myself as a t a l k a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l . 143. I am a good mixer. 144. I l i k e to go to p a r t i e s and other a f f a i r s where there i s l o t s of loud fun. 145. I l i k e to f l i r t . 146. I should l i k e to belong to s e v e r a l c l u b s or lodges. 147. At p a r t i e s I am more l i k e l y to s i t by myself or with j u s t one other person than to j o i n i n with the crowd. 148. I love to go to dances. 149. I enjoy s o c i a l gatherings j u s t to be with people. 150. I enjoy the excitement of a crowd. 151. My worries seem to disappear when I get i n t o a crowd of l i v e l y f r i e n d s . 152. I l i k e p a r t i e s and s o c i a l s . 153. I am a c a r e f r e e i n d i v i d u a l . 154. I make d e c i s i o n s on the spur of the moment. 155. I l i k e w i l d enthusiasm, sometimes to a point bordering on rowdyism, at a f o o t b a l l or b a s e b a l l game. 156. I g e n e r a l l y f e e l as though I haven't a care i n the world. 157. I u s u a l l y say what I f e e l l i k e saying at the moment. 158. I nearly always have a "ready answer" f o r remarks d i r e c t e d at me. 102 PART 4 QUESTIONS ABOUT YOURSELF In t h i s l a s t s e c t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e we ask you to supply us with some information about y o u r s e l f . The questions asked i n t h i s s e c t i o n are extremely important, because they allow us to study the data i n comparative terms. For example, we w i l l be i n t e r e s t e d to l e a r n whether a t t i t u d e s toward t r a n s f e r s vary from one age group to another. Complete data i n t h i s s e c t i o n are re q u i r e d i n order to make the most meaningful i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the other responses you have given us. REMEMBER: Your answers to t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l not be seen by anyone except the researchers. Please do not  s i g n the que s t i o n n a i r e . 159. How long have you and your spouse been married? If-^. Do you consider, y o u r s e l f to be: Number of years. Completely b i c u l t u r a l / b i l i n g u a l French E n g l i s h Other (Specify) 160. What i s your present age i n years? -161. What was your age when you were l a s t t r a n s f e r r e d ( i n years)? 162. Indicate your highest a t t a i n e d l e v e l of formal education. some high school high school graduation some c o l l e g e c o l l e g e degree some graduate study advanced degree 163. How large was the c i t y ( c i t i e s ) i n which you were r a i s e d as a c h i l d ? fewer than 500 people between 500 and 5,000 people between 5,000 and 50,000 people between 50,000 and 100,000 people between 100,000 and 500,000 people between 500,000 and 1 m i l l i o n people between 1 m i l l i o n and 2 m i l l i o n people greater than 2 m i l l i o n people 164. How many times have you been t r a n s f e r r e d by your spouse's companies or by your own company? 166. G e n e r a l l y , would you describe' y o u r s e l f as a "small c i t y person" or a " b i g c i t y person"? "Small C i t y " "Big C i t y " n e i t h e r 167. When you were a c h i l d , how often d i d you move with your family from one home to another? (This includes moves w i t h i n and between c i t i e s . ) Estimate the number of moves your family made (while you l i v e d w ith them) as a c c u r a t e l y as you can. (number of moves before I completed high school) (number of moves a f t e r I completed high school) 168. Concerning 167 (above): What was your a t t i t u d e as  a c h i l d about the number of moves your family made? I was extremely happy with the number of moves my fa m i l y made Quite happy Neither happy nor unhappy Quite unhappy • I was extremely unhappy with the number of moves my family made. Number of times. Thank you f o r your time. If you have anything to add not covered by t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , please use the back cover. 103 APPENDIX C INTRODUCTORY LETTER FROM THE RESEARCHER Dear Employee: I am undertaking a l a r g e - s c a l e survey of Canadian em-ployees who have been t r a n s f e r r e d by their, companies at l e a s t once, from one c i t y to another. The purpose of the study i s t h r e e - f o l d : 1. To study employees' a t t i t u d e s toward t r a n s f e r s ; 2. To study the d i f f e r e n c e s i n pro v i s i o n s made i n the t r a n s f e r p o l i c i e s of d i f f e r e n t Canadian corporations, and how these d i f f e r e n c e s are r e -f l e c t e d i n d i f f e r e n c e s i n the po s t - t r a n s f e r a t t i t u d e s and adjustment of the transferee and his (or her) family; 3. To study the comparative costs and benefits to the company of i t s p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s r e -garding employee t r a n s f e r s . Your company has expressed i n t e r e s t i n my research and has agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e . (See the enclosed l e t t e r from your company.) Consequently, they have given me the names and ad-dresses of approximately 200 employees who have been t r a n s -f e r r e d i n recent years. Your name appeared i n t h e i r sample, so I am requesting your support f o r my study. Let me hasten to make two or three c r u c i a l promises to you. Should you agree to p a r t i c i p a t e i n my research, I w i l l p e r sonally guarantee the fol l o w i n g : 1. No member of your company w i l l be t o l d whether or not you p a r t i c i p a t e d 2. No member of your company (or anyone else beyond myself and my research s t a f f ) w i l l receive any information about your i n d i v i d u a l responses. In order to gather r e l i a b l e and meaningful data, we must have your confidence i n our handling of your responses - only then w i l l you provide honest and frank answers 3. Your company and others i n your industry should benefit g r e a t l y by your support and p a r t i c i p a -t i o n . I intend to provide a l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g com-panies with c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s and suggestions 104 APPENDIX C (cont'd) regarding t h e i r t r a n s f e r p o l i c i e s , based on the aggregated f i n d i n g s of the study 4. F i n a l l y , i f what .we l e a r n i n t h i s research i s used to improve the t r a n s f e r p o l i c i e s of Canadian corporations, i n d i v i d u a l t r a n s f e r e e s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s should b e n e f i t . Altogether, we are gathering data from employees from seven d i f f e r e n t corporations (approximately 1000 people, a l -together) . I believe the research should be of considerable value to Canadian management, tra n s f e r e e s , and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . I w i l l be mailing a large envelope to you i n the near future. Enclosed w i l l be the f o l l o w i n g things: 1. a questionnaire f o r you to complete; 2. a questionnaire f o r your spouse to complete; 3. a stamped envelope, addressed to me, personally, at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. I would appreciate i t i f you would complete and return the questionnaires to me as soon as i s convenient f o r you. The questionnaire f o r you should require 6 0-90 minutes to com-pl e t e ; the one f o r your spouse should not r e q u i r e as much time. I hope you w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n my study, and I thank you f o r your time. C o r d i a l l y , Craig C. Pinder A s s i s t a n t Professor of Organizational Behaviour. 1 0 5 APPENDIX C (cont'd) LETTER FROM A SENIOR PERSONNEL EXECUTIVE OF THE COMPANY Dear S i r or Madam: Professor Craig Pinder from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia has i n v i t e d our company to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a study concerning the use of t r a n s f e r p o l i c i e s i n the development of our managers and executives. The study w i l l focus on t r a n s f e r s from two points of view: that of the company and that of the manager.. Dr. Pinder i s interested i n systematically assessing the costs and benefits from the company's perspective of our t r a n s f e r p o l i c i e s as well as the e f f e c t s of t r a n s f e r s on the managers and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . As you know, our t r a n s f e r p o l i c y i s an important part of our management development and organization s t a f f i n g programs. Con-sequently, we have agreed to cooperate with Dr. Pinder i n his research. We have provided Professor Pinder with a l i s t of cor-porate and tran s p o r t a t i o n sector management who have been trans-ferred during 1975. From t h i s l i s t your name was randomly selected. In a l l , 500-600 managers from our company and other Canadian com-panies w i l l be asked to p a r t i c i p a t e by completing the question-naire which you w i l l be receiving s h o r t l y . Let me assure you that your d e c i s i o n concerning whether or not to p a r t i c i p a t e i s completely voluntary and that no one other than Dr. Pinder and hi s s t a f f w i l l have access to the responses you provide. However, we expect that our company and the other p a r t i c i p a t i n g companies w i l l benefit from what i s learned from the combined data from the study. I t r u s t that you w i l l respond to the survey questionnaire for the mutual benefit of our company and a l l future transferees. In the event that you have any p a r t i c u l a r question a r i s i n g from your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study which would be answered by an examina-t i o n of the re s u l t a n t report, the Director Personnel Development, Room 152, Windsor S t a t i o n , would be happy to respond to such questions. Yours t r u l y , 106 APPENDIX C (cont'd) LETTER FROM THE RESEARCHER ENCLOSED IN THE SECOND MAILING Dear Employee: By now you should have received a l e t t e r I sent to you announcing a nationwide survey I am conducting on the t o p i c of employee t r a n s f e r s . In the same envelope as that l e t t e r was a second l e t t e r from a senior executive of your company explaining the b e n e f i t your company hopes to d e r i v e from my study. As you r e c a l l from those l e t t e r s , your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s voluntary, but we hope you w i l l complete my questionnaires and r e t u r n them to me. Let me repeat my personal guarantee of the anonymity of your personal responses. Your company w i l l receive only the com-bined data from your fellow transferees. Enclosed are two questionnaires: one f o r you and one for your spouse; plus a stamped envelope addressed to me at the Uni-v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Please complete your questionnaire and have your spouse complete the "Spouse's Questionnaire," and return them to me d i r e c t l y . We have found that the employee's questionnaire takes 60-90 minutes to complete; the spouse's questionnaire i s shorter. Please ask your spouse to complete his (or her) questionnaire alone, independently of the answers you provide to your questionnaire. For the b e n e f i t I hope to provide the p a r t i c i p a t i n g companies and t h e i r employees, I b e l i e v e the e f f o r t you w i l l invest by p a r t i c i p a t i n g w i l l be well spent. Thank you f o r your help. Yours t r u l y , Craig C. Pinder A s s i s t a n t Professor F a c u l t y of Commerce and Business Administration U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columb Enclosures 107 APPENDIX C (cont'd) FOLLOW-UP LETTER FROM THE RESEARCHER Dear Employee: I hope that by now you w i l l have received the question-naires for my study on the reactions of Canadian employees to t h e i r companies', t r a n s f e r p o l i c i e s . This l e t t e r i s to remind you to complete and re t u r n the questionnaires to me d i r e c t l y at the Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, using the stamped envelope I en-closed i n the package I sent you. Again, l e t me repeat my guar-antee f o r the privacy of the responses you provide i n completing the questionnaires. If you have already completed and returned your question-naires, l e t me thank you f o r your assistance. I hope the r e s u l t s of my study w i l l enable Canadian companies to l e a r n more about the costs and be n e f i t s of t h e i r t r a n s f e r p o l i c i e s , f o r the mutual benefit of the companies and t h e i r t r a n s f e r r i n g employees. C o r d i a l l y , Craig C. Pinder Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration U.B.C. 108 APPENDIX D SCORING PROCEDURES AND SCORE IMPLICATIONS FOR THE VARIABLE SCALES Independent Variables Age: Item 209 Scored simply as the subjects' response to the questionnaire item "What i s your present age i n years?" Job-Involvement: Items 119-124 (See Figure 4) Lodahl's and Kejner's Job-Involvement Scale i s presented i n a L i k e r t - t y p e format with choices ranging from 7 through to 1. A l l items are p o s i t i v e l y stated with 7 i n d i c a t i n g "Strongly Agree" and 1 i n d i c a t i n g "Strongly Disagree." A'high o v e r a l l score, being the sum of the responses to the 6 scale items, indicates a high degree of job-involvement. The score may range from a minimum of 6 to a maximum of 42. Company Commitment: Items 134-13 7 (See Figure 5) Baba's and Jamal's Company Commitment Scale also appears i n a L i k e r t - t y p e format. Each item i s stated so that a response i n d i c a t i n g strong agreement with the stated item affirms a f e e l i n g of company commitment. The response choices range from 7, i n d i c a t i n g "Strongly Agree" through to 1, i n d i c a t i n g "Strongly Disagree." The 109 o v e r a l l score for company commitment i s the sum of responses to each of the 4 items. The score may thus range from a minimum of 4 to a maximum of 28. Authoritarianism: Items 167-178 (See Figure 6) The C a l i f o r n i a F Scale, which measures the t r a i t of authoritarianism, appears i n the survey questionnaire and i s composed of 12 paired statements. For each of the 12 numbered items the statements are l a b e l l e d "A" or "B". The s e l e c t i o n of statement "A" f o r items 170, 171 172, 173, 175 and 178 depicts the subject's endoresement of a statement i n d i c a t i n g a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m and are each as-signed one point. Likewise, the s e l e c t i o n of statement "B" f o r the remaining items also s i g n i f i e s the subject's agreement with a statement d e p i c t i n g the a u t h o r i t a r i a n t r a i t and are assigned one point. The sum of the points so acquired represents the o v e r a l l score f o r the C a l i f o r n i F Scale. The scores may range from a minimum of 0 to a maximum of 12. Extraversion-Introversion: Items 179-208 (See Figure 7) The Pittsburgh Scale of S o c i a l Extraversion-I n t r o v e f s i o n consists of 30 items each of which the sub-j e c t must endorse as being e i t h e r a "True" or a "False" statement. The o v e r a l l score on the scale may range from a minimum of 0 to a maximum of 30 with a low score de-noting i n t r o v e r s i o n and a high score denoting extraversion A subject's "True" response to a l l items excluding items 110 183, 185, 189 and 197 r e f l e c t t h e i r endorsement of state-ments i n d i c a t i n g the t r a i t of extraversion. One point i s given for each "True" response to these items. A "False" response to items 183, 185, 189 and 197 are also a l l o c a t e d one point toward the scale score. A "False" response to any of these 4 items indicates disagreement with a s t a t e -ment s i g n i f y i n g i n t r o v e r s i o n . Locus of Control: Items 144-166 (See Figure 8) Three subscales of Rotter's I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus of Control Scale i s presented i n a L i k e r t - t y p e f o r -mat with choices ranging from 1, i n d i c a t i n g "Strongly Disagree", through to 5, i n d i c a t i n g "Strongly Agree." i ) D i f f i c u l t / E a s y Subscale: Items 144-151 The D i f f i c u l t / E a s y Subscale of the Locus of Control measure consists of 8 items to which a response of agreement denotes an i n d i v i d u a l en-dorsing those items which are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a person scoring external on t h i s dimension of the Internal-External Locus of Control t r a i t . The subscale score may range from a minimum of 8 to a maximum of 40 with a high score i n d i c a t i n g an external locus of c o n t r o l . i i ) Just/Unjust Subscale: Eight items comprise the Just/Unjust Sub-scale of the index measuring Locus of Control. A l l p~; I l l items excluding item 157 are stated so that a response of agreement w i l l i n d i c a t e an i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l . The scoring on item 157 has been reversed so that 1=5, 2=4, and 5=1. Thus, the simple summation of the scores, taking ac-count f o r t h i s r e v e r s a l , w i l l produce a sub-scale t o t a l which may range from a minimum of 8 to a maximum of 40 with a high score i n d i c a t i n g an i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l . i i i ) Predictable/Unpredictable Subscale: Items 160-166 The Predictable/Unpredictable Subscale of the Locus of Control measure i s made up of 7 items for which a response of agreement to each item w i l l s i g n i f y agreement with statements r e f l e c t i n g the i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l p e r s o n a l i t y dimension. The o v e r a l l score for t h i s subscale may range from a minimum of 7 to a maximum of 35 with scores at the lower extreme of the range d e p i c t i n g an ex-t e r n a l locus of co n t r o l and scores at the upper extreme d e p i c t i n g an i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l . B) Dependent Variables P o s i t i v e Evaluation of Transfer (PET) Index: Items 109-118 (See Figure 9) Glueck's PET Index c o n s i s t s of 10 statements presented i n a Li k e r t - t y p e format with choices ranging from 1, i n d i c a t i n g that the subject strongly agrees 1 1 2 with the statement, through to 5, implying the subject's strong disagreement with the statement. For the purpose of t h i s study the Index was factored and the two oblique factors which r e s u l t e d are r e f e r r e d to as Factor 1 and Factor 2, r e s p e c t i v e l y . i) Factor 1: Items 109, 112, 113, 116, 117 and 118 Factor 1 of the PET Index i s comprised of 6 Items. Item 118 has been reversed (1=5, 2=4, 4=2, 5=1) so that the subject's disagreement with t h i s statement would receive a low score and would i n d i c a t e negative f e e l i n g s toward corporate t r a n s f e r s as would h i s agreement with the other 5 items. The score on Factor 1 may range from a minimum of 6 to a maximum of 30 with a low score i n d i c a t i n g an unfavorable a t t i t u d e toward corporate t r a n s f e r s i n general. i i ) Factor 2: Items 110, 111, 114, 115, 118 Factor 2 of the PET Index c o n s i s t s of 5 items appearing i n a Likert-type scale with choices ranging from "Strongly Agree" to "Strongly Dis-agree." The items are stated so that a response of agreement to an item w i l l be scored so as to i n d i c a t e the subject's endoresement of a favorable statement regarding t r a n s f e r s i n general. Coding on these items has been reversed so that a response of agreement to any of the 5 statements 113 would obtain a score of 1. Thus, as with Factor a low score on the scale would i n d i c a t e an unfav-orable a t t i t u d e toward corporate t r a n s f e r s i n general. The score on Factor 2 may range from a minimum of 5 to a maximum of 25. 114 BIBLIOGRAPHY Argyle, M., and L i t t l e , B. Do Pe r s o n a l i t y T r a i t s Apply to S o c i a l Behaviour? Journal Theory So c i a l Behaviour, 1972, 2_, 1-33. Baba, V. and Jamal, M. Company s a t i s f a c t i o n , company commitment and work involvement: A study of Canadian blue c o l l a r workers. Relations I n d u s t r i e l l e s , 1976, 31_, 434-445. Banks, L. Here Come the I n d i v i d u a l i s t s . Harvard Magazine, 1977, 80, (1), 24-29. Bannister, D. and F r a n s e l l a , F. Inquiring man: The.Theory of Personal Constructs. Penguin Books, Middlesex, England, 197L Bannister, D. and Mair, J.M.M. The Evaluation of Personal Con- s t r u c t s . Academic Press, New York, 1968. Behavioral Science Newsletter. 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