UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A history of Chʻeng-Han Kleeman, Terry F. 1979

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A HISTORY OF CH'ENG-HAN by T ERE? Y FREDERICK KLEEMAN B. A. , The University of Miami, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Asian Studies) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard 1 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1979 © Terry Frederick Kleeman In presenting th i s thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers ity of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shal l make i t f ree ly avai lable for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thesis for scholar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publ icat ion of th is thesis for f inanc ia l gain shal l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The Univers ity of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 6 BP 75-51 1 E - i i -ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s c e n t e r s on a f a m i l y surnamed L i i n the f i r s t h a l f of the f o u r t h century. The L i s were o r i g i n a l l y i n h a b i t a n t s of the e a s t e r n Szechwan r e g i o n and belonged to the Indigenous non—Chinese grouping of that area, the Pa people, a l s o r e f e r r e d to as the L i n Chun Man. They moved to the Shensi area around the beginning of the t h i r d century and returned to Szechwan a century l a t e r i n a l a r g e group of migrants f l e e i n g i n t e r n a l d i s o r d e r s and famine. In Szechwan they came i n t o c o n f l i c t with the l o c a l o f f i c i a l s r e p r e s e n t i n g the Chin dynasty and e v e n t u a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d an independent s t a t e there which e x i s t e d from 306 to 347. The s t a t e was known f i r s t as Ch'eng and then, a f t e r 338, as Han . My t h e s i s c o n s i s t s of In t r o d u c t o r y m a t e r i a l f o l l o w e d by an annotated t r a n s l a t i o n . In the i n t r o d u c t i o n I f i r s t p resent a g e n e r a l overview of the h i s t o r y of the p e r i o d and Ch'eng-Han's p l a c e i n i t . I then go on to d i s c u s s s e v e r a l aspects of the h i s t o r y of the s t a t e . F i r s t the Pa people and t h e i r o r i g i n myth c e n t e r i n g on L i n Chun i s d i s c u s s e d , then an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s made of the v a r i o u s sources f o r the h i s t o r y o f Ch'eng—Han. I t i s determined that the primary surces are the works of Ch'ang Ch'u, the Hufl-yang kuo-chVh and the Shu L i Shu* and that t h i s Shu L i Shu or a s e c t i o n of the Jgh,ih-liy._ku,o.i ch.'MtirSuAiy based upon i t i s the u l t i m a t e source of the Chin Shu account. Next the s c a l e and h i s t o r i c a l import of the migra t i o n s of the p e r i o d are c o n s i d e r e d and f i n a l l y the r e l a t i o n of the L i f a m i l y to r e l i g i o u s Taoism, p a r t i c u l a r l y with regard to Fan Ch'ang-sheng, i s d e a l t with. T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by the t r a n s l a t i o n . I t i s a c o n f l a t i o n of a b a s i c t e x t , Chin Shu 120 and 121, with chapters 8 and 9 of the Hua-yana kuo-chih as w e l l as o c c a s i o n a l passages from other p o r t i o n s of these two works and the WeA Shu and the £hlh-liu kuo ch,.' un-ch'ju , the l a s t work being p r e s e r v e d only i n q u o t a t i o n s in l a t e r e n c y c l o p e d i a . My purpose i n making t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n has been to present as complete as p o s s i b l e a record of the events important i n the h i s t o r y of the Ch'eng—Han s t a t e . - i i i -T A B L E OF CCNTENTS INTRODUCTION • 1 H i s t o r i c a l B a c k g r o u n d 3 T H E PA P E O P L E . 1 2 T h e M y t h A n d I t s I d e n t i f i c a t i o n W i t h M i n o r i t y G r o u p s 1 2 T h e L o c a t i o n Ot P l a c e s M e n t i o n e d I n The M y t h . . . . . . . 1 4 A r c h a e o l o g i c a l E v i d e n c e 1 6 T h e E t h n i c I d e n t i t y O f T h e Pa P e o p l e . 1 9 SOURCES •. . 2 3 C h i n S h u . 2 3 Hou Han S h u • 2 5 Hua—yang K u o — c h l h • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 2 6 S h i h - l i u Kuo C h * u n - c h » i u 2 8 W e i S h u 2 9 MIGRATIONS AND MIGRANTS - 3 1 T A O I S M AND F A N C H ' A N G - S H E N G 3 6 INTRODUCTION - NOTES 4 5 C H A P T E R 1 2 0 5 8 L i T * e 5 9 L i L i u 8 6 L i H s i a n g 9 2 CHAPTER 1 2 0 - NOTES 9 4 CHAPTER 1 2 1 1 1 8 L i H s i u n g 1 1 9 L i P a n . . . . 1 5 3 L i C h ' l 1 5 7 L i S h o u 1 6 2 - i v -L i S h i h * 1 7 9 T h e H i s t o r i a n ' s Comments . . • • • • • • • . • • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1 8 5 CHAPTER 1 2 1 - NOTES 1 8 S B I B L I O G R A P H Y - 2 2 1 L I S T OF A B B R E V I A T I O N S 2 3 S 1 ION I n 298 A . D . a g r o u p o f m i g r a n t s p e r h a p s n u m b e r i n g a s h i g h a s 100,000 a r r i v e d a t t h e C h i e n — k e p a s s w h i c h s e p a r a t e s t h e S z e c h w a n r e g i o n f r o m what was t h e n t e r m e d H a n — c h u n g , s o u t h e a s t e r n S h e n s l p r o v i n c e * - T h e s e m i g r a n t s w e r e d r i v e n b y y e a r s o f f a m i n e a n d war t o s e e k t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i r l i v e s i n o t h e r r e g i o n s * M o s t o f them e n t e r e d S z e c h w a n * Among t h e s e m i g r a n t s was a f a m i l y s u r n a m e d L i , l e d b y L i T ' e a n d h i s b r o t h e r s L i H s i a n g a n d L i L i u * T h i s f a m i l y was t o c o n t r o l t h i s c o r n e r o f C h i n a f o r t h e n e x t h a l f — c e n t u r y , m a i n t a i n i n g a s e m b l a n c e o f o r d e r w h i l e t h e r e s t o f C h i n a was t o r n a p a r t b y war a n d r a v a g e d b y t h e i n c u r s i o n s a n d i n v a s i o n s o f n o n — C h i n e s e n o m a d i c , p a s t o r a l p e o p l e s * In t h i s t h e s i s i t i s my a i m t o p r e s e n t t h e h i s t o r y o f t h i s L i f a m i l y a n d t h e s t a t e t h e y e s t a b l i s h e d , f i r s t c a l l e d C h * eng p)( a n d l a t e r Han a n d known t o l a t e r h i s t o r i a n s a s C h ' e n g — H a n , L i C h ' e n g o r Hou S h u ( L a t t e r S h u ) 4%L*%I * . I t i s h o p e d t h a t t h i s s t u d y w i l l s h e d l i g h t o n s u c h q u e s t i o n s a s t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e f a l l o f t h e W e s t e r n C h i n r e g i m e , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e l a r g e — s c a l e m i g r a t i o n s o f t h i s p e r i o d , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n C h i n e s e a n d n o n — C h i n e s e i n h a b i t a n t s o f s o u t h w e s t e r n C h i n a , t h e h i s t o r y a n d i d e n t i t y o f t h e m i n o r i t y g r o u p o f w h i c h t h e L i f a m i l y was a member a n d t h e r o l e p l a y e d b y r e l i g i o n , s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l i g i o u s T a o i s m , i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e pe r i o d • T h e S z e c h w a n r e g i o n i s s o m e t i m e s r e f e r r e d t o a s Pa a n d S h u o r s i m p l y S h u * T h e s e a r e t h e names o f n o n — C h i n e s e 2 g r o u p i n g s o f p e o p l e s w h i c h e x i s t e d i n S z e c h w a n b e f o r e t h e C h ' i n u n i f i c a t i o n * Pa o c c u p i e d t h e e a s t e r n p o r t i o n o f S z e c h w a n c o m p r i s i n g p r i m a r i l y t h e C h i a - l i n g C h i a n g "%W yj_ d r a i n a g e b a s i n a n d t h e Y a n g - t z e b a s i n b e l o w t h e p o i n t where t h e C h i a — l i n g J o i n s i t . S h u was s i t u a t e d i n t h e w e s t , c e n t e r i n g o n t h e Win C h i a n g b a s i n a n d t h e u p p e r r e a c h e s o f t h e Y a n g - t z e . T h e Pa—Shu r e g i o n e n j o y s s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h w o u l d t e n d t o p r o m o t e i t s i n d e p e n d e n c e * I t i s w e l l p r o t e c t e d b y n a t u r a l b a r r i e r s * T o t h e n o r t h a n d n o r t h e a s t t h e r e a r e m o u n t a i n s * To t h e e a s t t h e r e a r e t h e t h r e e g o r g e s o f t h e Y a n g — t z e . The Y a n g - t z e a l s o f o r m s t h e b o u n d a r y t o t h e s o u t h , s e p a r a t i n g Pa—Shu f r o m N a n — c h u n g , m o d e r n K u e i c h o w a n d Y u n n a n * T o t h e w e s t t h e r e a r e t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f t h e T i b e t a n p l a t e a u * The s o u t h e r n a n d w e s t e r n r e g i o n s were f a i r l y s p a r s e l y p o p u l a t e d w i t h n o n — C h i n e s e p e o p l e s s t i l l f o r t h e m o s t p a r t o n a t r i b a l l e v e l o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n * M o r e o v e r t h e r e g i o n was v e r y p r o s p e r o u s * S i n c e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f i r r i g a t i o n w o r k s by L i P i n g i n t h e C h ' e n g — t u p l a i n d u r i n g t h e C h ' i n p e r i o d , t h i s a r e a h a s a l w a y s b e e n s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n f o o d a n d t o d a y i t s u p p o r t s a p o p u l a t i o n o f s e v e n t y m i l l i o n * T h e a r e a a l s o e n j o y e d w e a l t h d e r i v e d f r o m t r a d e w i t h t h e n o n — C h i n e s e p e o p l e s t o t h e s o u t h a n d w e s t * T h u s i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t S z e c h w a n h a s b e e n t h e s i t e f o r a number o f i n d e p e n d e n t r e g i m e s * Han Kao T s u , t h e f i r s t e m p e r o r o f t h e Han d y n a s t y , f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d h i s b a s e o f p o w e r i n t h i s r e g i o n a n d t h e n r e l i e d u p o n i t i n u n i f y i n g t h e e m p i r e * D u r i n g t h e c o n f u s i o n a f t e r the f a l l o f Wang Mang a t t h e 3 b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f i r s t m i l l e n l u m Kung—sun Shu -3"^  e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f i n d e p e n d e n t l y , c a l l i n g h i s s t a t e S h u * He was s o o n d e f e a t e d * A t t h e end o f t h e L a t t e r Ban L i u P e i m i% *-t a b l i s h e d h i s s t a t e of S h u Han w h i c h l a s t e d o v e r s i x t y y e a r s , b e i n g u n i f i e d i n t o t h e new C h i n d y n a s t y i n 265* When t h e C h i n e m p i r e b e g a n t o f r a g m e n t d u e t o I n t e r n a l d i s s e n s i o n t h e Pa—Shu r e g i o n was t h e f i r s t p a r t t o s l i p f r o m c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t c o n t r o l * H i s t o r i c a l B a c k g r o u n d ^ T h e r o o t s o f t h e d i s t u r b a n c e w h i c h b r o u g h t a b o u t t h e f a l l o f t h e W e s t e r n C h i n must be s o u g h t i n t h e f i r s t y e a r s o f i t s e s t a b l i s h m e n t * T h e Ssu—ma f a m i l y h a d e x e r c i s e d e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l s i n c e 249 when t h e y k i l l e d many o f t h e i r o p p o n e n t s * When Ssu—ma Yen "^ J §3 ^ came i n t o power i n 265 he f o r m a l l y u s u r p e d t h e t h r o n e a n d e s t a b l i s h e d t h e C h i n d y n a s t y * I n an a t t e m p t t o c r e a t e a b a r r i e r o f l o y a l a d h e r e n t s a g a i n s t t h e u n c o m m i t t e d f o r c e s o u t s i d e t h e c a p i t a l Y e n (now E m p e r o r Wu) e n f e o f f e d t w e n t y — s e v e n members o f t h e Ssu—ma f a m i l y a n d g a v e them c o n t r o l o f c o n t i n g e n t s o f t r o o p s o f v a r y i n g s i z e s * I n 280 when t h e s t a t e o f Wu was s u b d u e d a n d t h e e m p i r e r e u n i f i e d , E m p e r o r Wu o r d e r e d a d r a s t i c r e t r e n c h m e n t a n d d e m o b i l i z a t i o n o f o f f i c i a l g o v e r n m e n t t r o o p s * C o m m a n d e r i e s were l e f t w i t h o n l y f i f t y o r one h u n d r e d t r o o p s * T h i s a c t i o n was i n t e n d e d t o r e d u c e t h e p o w e r o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n o r s a n d l i m i t t h e i r i n d e p e n d a n c e b u t i t l e f t them i n e f f e c t i v e i n m a i n t a i n i n g o r d e r , a n d i n c r e a s e d , b y c o m p a r i s o n , t h e power o f t h e 4 members o f t h e i m p e r i a l f a m i l y 3 * H o w e v e r , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s p o l i c y d i d n o t make t h e m s e l v e s f e l t u n t i l a f t e r 289 when E m p e r o r Wu o r d e r e d t h e v a r i o u s k i n g s t o l e a v e Luo—yang a n d t a k e up r e s i d e n c e i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i e f s , a t t h e same t i m e a p p o i n t i n g many o f them I n s p e c t o r — g e n e r a l s a t t h e h e a d o f l a r g e b o d i e s o f t r o o p s * I n 290 E m p e r o r Wu d i e d a n d h i s s o n , C h u n g % \ , a s c e n d e d t h e t h r o n e a s E m p e r o r H u i * T h i s E m p e r o r H u i i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o h a v e b e e n m e n t a l l y u n f i t . I n r e t u r n f o r C h i a C h ' u n g ' s Q fl^ s u p p o r t i n s e c u r i n g t h e t h r o n e f o r S s u - m a Y e n on t h e d e a t h o f h i s f a t h e r . E m p e r o r Wu h a d m a r r i e d h i s s o n C h u n g , t h e n H e i r A p p a r e n t , t o C h ' u n g ' s d a u g h t e r , t h e l a t e r E m p r e s s C h i a . E m p r e s s C h i a e x e r c i s e d e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t f r o m 291 t o 300* She r u l e d w i t h a c a l c u l a t e d v i c i o u s n e s s , d e p o s i n g a n d k i l l i n g t h e E m p r e s s D o w a g e r Y a n g a n d h e r b r o t h e r t h e r e g e n t Y a n g C h u n a s w e l l a s a n y o n e e l s e who s t o o d i n h e r way* The f i n a l o u t r a g e was when s h e d e p o s e d a n d e v e n t u a l l y k i l l e d t h e H e i r A p p a r e n t Yu ^) , s o n o f t h e c o n c u b i n e Madame H s i e h * A t t h i s K i n g L u n ^ o f C h a o M a n d K i n g C h i u n g o f C h ' i ^ u n i t e d t o i m p r i s o n E m p r e s s C h i a a n d k i l l h e r a d h e r e n t s * K i n g L u n a s s u m e d p o w e r a n d i n 300 u s u r p e d the t h r o n e * D u r i n g t h e one y e a r t h a t L u n r e m a i n e d i n p o w e r h i s a d v i s o r Sun H s i u f[ was i n many ways t h e e f f e c t i v e r u l e r * I n 301 K i n g C h i u n g o f C h ' i , K i n g Y u n g o f H e - c h i e n \"j jt- a n d K i n g Y i n g o f C h ' e n g - t u fi\ s ^fl^ r a i s e d t r o o p s a g a i n s t L u n * L u n a n d Sun H s i u were k i l l e d b y a s u b o r d i n a t e a n d t h e E m p e r o r ( H u i ) was r e s t o r e d w h i l e K i n g C h i u n g o f C h ' i g a i n e d e f f e c t i v e 5 c o n t r o l , w h i c h he e x e r c i s e d f o r t h e l a s t h a l f o f t h e y e a r o f 3 0 1 . A i t e r t h i s he was k i l l e d b y K i n g Y i o f C h ' a n g - s h a -^ c. $P £ X. * w h o was i n t u r n s e t u p o n by K i n g s Y u n g a n d Y i n g . One o f Y i ' s s u b o r d i n a t e s t u r n e d him o v e r t o K i n g Y u n g ' s g e n e r a l a n d K i n g Y i n g t h e r e b y came t o p o w e r . K i n g Y i n g was a t l e a s t n o m i n a l l y t h e c h i e f f i g u r e i n t h e g o v e r n m e n t f r o m 3 0 4 t h r o u g h 3 0 6 . H o w e v e r , d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d he was a t t a c k e d a n d d r i v e n f r o m h i s c a p i t a l o f Y e h b y a f o r c e l e d b y K i n g Y u e h ^ o f T u n g H a i vjjL V^f , d e s e r t e d b y the H s i u n g — n u l e a d e r L i u Y u a n >^fj who d e c l a r e d h i m s e l f i n d e p e n d e n t i n 3 0 4 a n d f o r c e d t o f l e e f i r s t t o L u o ' y a n g a n d t h e n t o C h ' a n g — a n . I n 3 0 6 Ch*ang—an f e l l t o t r o o p s l e d b y K i n g Y u e h a n d l a t e r t h a t y e a r b o t h K i n g Y i n g a n d K i n g Y u n g o f B e — c h i e n were k i l l e d . E m p e r o r H u i d i e d i n t h e e l e v e n t h month o f t h i s y e a r a n d K i n g C h i h o f Y u - c h a n g "3^  was e l e v a t e d t o become E m p e r o r H u a l w i t h K i n g Y u e h a s r e g e n t • I t was d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , commonly r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e D i s o r d e r s o f t h e E i g h t K i n g s , t h a t t h e L i c l a n e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e l f i n S z e c h w a n . Upon e n t e r i n g S z e c h w a n t h e y q u i c k l y f e l l I n w i t h t h e G o v e r n o r o f I p r o v i n c e C h a o C h ' l n T ^ / f ^ , w i t h L i T ' e ' s y o u n g e r b r o t h e r L i H s i a n g i n p a r t i c u l a r r e c e i v i n g h i g h a p p o i n t m e n t s f r o m C h ' i n . T h e L i c l a n ' s s u p p o r t o f C h a o C h ' i n c a n p r o b a b l y b e a t t r i b u t e d t o two f a c t o r s : b o t h t h e L i s a n d C h ' i n h a i l e d o r i g i n a l l y f r o m t h e c o m m a n d e r y o f P a — h s i , a n d b o t h were f o l l o w e r s o f t h e H e a v e n l y M a s t e r s e c t o f r e l i g i o u s T a o i s m a d v o c a t e d b y C h a n g L u ^ ^ . In 300 a n i m p e r i a l e d i c t t r a n s f e r r e d Chao C h ' i n 6 t o a l a r g e l y c e r e m o n i a l p o s i t i o n , t h a t o f G r a n d E l d e r ( t a c h * a n q - c h ' i u 7x_-ft_4)C * a n d r e p l a c e d him w i t h t h e B a i l i f f ( ne i - s f r i h ^ ) o i C b ' e n g - t u K e n g T ' e n g . T h i s t r a n s f e r may h a v e b e e n t h e r e s u l t o f m e m o r i a l s s u b m i t t e d b y K e n g a d v o c a t i n g t h e r e t u r n o f t h e m i g r a n t s t o t h e i r o r i g i n a l homes a n d i m p l i c i t l y c r i t i c i z i n g C h a o C h ' i n ' s c l o s e r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e m ; b u t i t i s a l s o s a i d t h a t C h ' i n was r e l a t e d b y m a r r i a g e t o t h e d e p o s e d E m p r e s s C h i a 4 * C h ' i n r e f u s e d t o o b e y t h i s e d i c t a n d d e c l a r e d h i m s e l f i n d e p e n d e n t * K e n g T ' e n g was k i l l e d t r y i n g t o t a k e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l * A t t h i s j u n c t u r e C h a o C h ' i n made t h e m i s t a k e o f k i l l i n g L I H s i a n g a n d t h e r e b y a r o u s i n g t h e e n m i t y o f t h e L i c l a n , who j o i n e d w i t h t h e i r f e l l o w m i g r a n t s t o k i l l C h a o C h ' i n * T h e y t h e n e n t e r e d t h e s e r v i c e o f L u o S h a n g \*J » who h a d b e e n d i s p a t c h e d t o s u b d u e C h ' i n * S o o n t h e r e a f t e r t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t o r d e r e d t h e r e t u r n o f a l l m i g r a n t s t o t h e i r o r i g i n a l homes* T h i s c a u s e d a r i f t b e t w e e n t h e L i c l a n a n d L u o S h a n g * L i T * e was s e l e c t e d t o l e a d t h e m i g r a n t s a n d t h e y c o l l e c t e d t o g e t h e r i n a camp n e a r M i e n — c h u * H s l n J a n , a member o f K i n g L u n o f C h a o ' s c l i q u e was a t t h e t i m e s e r v i n g u n d e r L u o S h a n g a n d when L u n f e l l he s o u g h t d e s p e r a t e l y f o r a way t o r e n e w h i m s e l f w i t h t h e c o u r t * T o w a r d t h i s e n d he t u r n e d h i s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e m i g r a n t s a n d s o u g h t t o h a s t e n t h e i r r e t u r n t o S h e n s i * T h e r e w e r e a l s o e l e m e n t s o f a v a r i c e i n t h i s , f o r he p l a n n e d t o s i e z e t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n s a s t h e y l e f t * T h i s f i n a l l y r e s u l t e d i n a r m e d c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t h e m i g r a n t s a n d L u o S h a n g ' s f o r c e s * A t f i r s t S h a n g d i d n o t f a r e so w e l l , 7 a n d L I T ' e g a i n e d c o n t r o l o f much d f w e s t e r n a n d n o r t h e r n S z e c h w a n * b u t t h e n a t i v e p o p u l a c e w e r e u n h a p p y w i t h t h e t r o o p s he h a d g a r r i s o n e d i n t h e i r m i d s t a n d t h e y r e v o l t e d a g a i n s t h i m * I n t h e e n s u i n g b a t t l e L i T ' e a n d L i T a n g , h i s e l d e s t s o n , were k i l l e d a n d command d e v o l v e d u p o n T ' e ' s y o u n g e r b r o t h e r L i L i u * L i u w i s h e d t o s u r r e n d e r a n d h a d a l r e a d y s e n t h o s t a g e s when L i B s i u n g , T ' e ' s e l d e s t s o n l e d a f o r c e a g a i n s t L u o S h a n g a n d t h e o t h e r C h i n f o r c e s w h i c h h a d b e e n d i s p a t c h e d t o s u b d u e t h e i r r e v o l t * I n 3 0 3 he a s s u m e d t h e t i t l e G r e a t G e n e r a l a n d i n 3 0 4 p r o c l a i m e d h i m s e l f K i n g o f C h ' e n g - t u . I t was d u r i n g t h i s t i m e t h a t he f i r s t g a i n e d t h e s u p p o r t o f F a n C h ' a n g - s h e n g , who f u r n i s h e d h i m w i t h s u p p l i e s a n d m o r a l s u p p o r t * In f a c t , b e f o r e a s s u m i n g t h e t i t l e o f K i n g , H s i u n g h a d o f f e r e d t h e p o s i t i o n t o F a n . I n 3 0 6 a t t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f W o r t h y F a n , H s i u n g d e c l a r e d h i m s e l f E m p e r o r o f t h e C h ' e n g d y n a s t y . I t i s n o t h a r d t o i m a g i n e t h a t t h e s e e v e n t s m u s t h a v e seemed p e r i p h e r a l t o t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o n t e s t s f o r p o w e r i n t h e c a p i t a l , a n d f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t d i d n o t t u r n i t s a t t e n t i o n t o s o l v i n g t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e mi g r a n t s • By 3 0 7 t h e f r a t i c i d a l w a r s b e t w e e n r o y a l p r i n c e s h a d come t o an e n d b u t t h i s d i d n o t l e a d t o a p e r i o d o f p e a c e d u r i n g w h i c h t h e e m p i r e c o u l d be r e c o n s o l i d a t e d • I n s t e a d , 3 0 7 i s t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e e r a known a s t h e D i s o r d e r s o f Y u n g - c h i a 7 ^ -fe ( 3 0 7 - 3 1 2 ) . T h i s p e r i o d i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e r i s e o f H s i u n g — n u power a n d t h e o v e r r u n n i n g o f the N o r t h C h i n a p l a i n b y L i u Y u a n , h i s s u c c e s s o r L i u T s ' u n g IjJ^ /. a a n d h i s most i m p o r t a n t g e n e r a l . S h i h L e ^ ^fi • I n 311 b o t h Luo—yang a n d C h ' a n g - a n f e l l t o t h e i r f o r c e s a n d E m p e r o r H u a i was c a p t u r e d . L i u X s ' u n g had E m p e r o r H u a i k i l l e d i n 313 a n d t h e H e i r A p p a r e n t Y e h was made E m p e r o r M i n i n C h ' a n g - a n . H o w e v e r , i n 316 C h ' a n g - a n f e l l a g a i n a n d E m p e r o r M i n was c a p t u r e d , b e i n g p u t t o d e a t h i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . T h i s m a r k s t h e end o f t h e W e s t e r n C h i n a n d S s u - m a J u i was named E m p e r o r Y u a n 7L ,» t h e f i r s t e m p e r o r o f t h e E a s t e r n C h i n , i n C h i e n — k ' a n g , s o u t h o f t h e Y a n g — t z e . The c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t a l s o h a d t o s u p p r e s s a r e v o l t l e d b y T u T ' a o yj^ i i n t h e H u p e i — H u n a n r e g i o n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . A l t h o u g h t h e r e w e r e s e v e r a l r e v o l t s a g a i n s t t h e r u l e o f L i H s i u n g , C h i n was u n a b l e t o s e n d s u f f i c i e n t s u p p o r t a n d t h e y w e r e s o o n r e p r e s s e d . I n f a c t t h e C h ' e n g s t a t e , o f f i c i a l l y d e c l a r e d i n 306 was a b l e t o e x p a n d and b y 313 i t c o n t r o l l e d a l l o f t h e p r o v i n c e s o f L i a n g , I a n d N l n g , a l t h o u g h i t s c o n t r o l o f N i n g was e p h e m e r a l . T h e p e r i o d a f t e r E m p e r o r Y u a n ' s a c c e s s i o n was a t i m e o f r e s e t t l e m e n t a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n . I n 319 S h i h Le b r o k e away f r o m L i u T s * u n g ' s s u c c e s s o r L i u Yao a n d e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f a s K i n g o f C h a o , t h e same t i t l e c l a i m e d by Y a o . L a t e r h i s t o r i a n s h a v e r e f e r r e d t o Y a o ' s r e g i m e a s F o r m e r C h a o a n d S h i h L e ' s a s L a t t e r C h a o . Now t h e s e two s t a t e s b a t t l e d a g a i n s t e a c h o t h e r , b e t w e e n them d r i v i n g t h e l a s t C h i n f o r c e s f r o m N o r t h C h i n a . E m p e r o r Y u a n h a d d e p e n d e d o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e Wang c l a n o f L a n g - y e h i n e s t a b l i s h i n g h i m s e l f i n S o u t h C h i n a , p a r t i c u l a r l y Wang T a o a n d Wang T u n F r o m 322 t o 324 Wang T u n r e v o l t e d 9 from h i s base of power as Governor o f Ching province i n flupei. Wang Tun's death i n 324 ave r t e d c a l a m i t y , but i t poi n t e d up a weakness i n the Chin s t a t e * Two c e n t e r s of power formed w i t h i n the Ea s t e r n Chin s t a t e , one on the lower reaches of the Yang—tze near the c a p i t a l , the other on the upper reaches i n the Hupei—Hunan region* The p o s i t i o n on the upper reaches of the Yang—tze was the l o g i c a l p l a c e from which t o r a i s e an a t t a c k upon Ch'eng— Han, however the commander of t h i s r e g i o n tended to concern h i m s e l f p r i m a r i l y with a f f a i r s downstream, secondly with the northern r e g i o n and the reconquest of the c e n t r a l p l a i n and only p a i d minor heed to a f f a i r s i n the Szechwan region* In 327 Su ChvinJ& , who had been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the defense a g a i n s t Wang Tun, r a i s e d arms i n r e v o l t and was k i l l e d the f o l l o w i n g year* At the same time pressure from the non-Chinese warlords of North China d i d not cease* The a r i s t o c r a c y of the Eas t e r n Chin regime were p r i m a r i l y immigrants from the c e n t r a l p l a i n , and they f e l t a s t r o n g l o n g i n g f o r t h e i r l o s t homeland* In s p i t e of t h i s , the c u r r e n t f a s h i o n f a v o r e d a r a t h e r d i s s o l u t e l i f e s t y l e c e n t e r i n g upon r e f i n e d debates and a c u l t i v a t e d a l o o f n e s s which d i d not accord w e l l with the m a r t i a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n necessary to reconquer North China and very l i t t l e e f f o r t was made i n t h i s r e g a r d * 5 I t i s t h e r e f o r e not s u r p r i z i n g t h a t , faced with i n t e r n a l d i s s e n s i o n , the t h r e a t of i n v a s i o n from the north and a d e f i n i t e malaise of s p i r i t , l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n was p a i d to the L i c l a n ' s occupation of the southwestern corner of the empire and no major e f f o r t 1 0 was made t o r e c o n q u e r i t . D u r i n g t h i s same p e r i o d C h 1 e n g - H a n e n j o y e d r e l a t i v e p e a c e . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f a d i s a s t r o u s a t t a c k u p o n t h e T i l e a d e r Y a n g N a n - 1 i $9 "^M. jfjij.n 3 2 1 L i H s i u n g c o n c e r n e d h i m s e l f p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e r e g i o n t o h i s s o u t h a n d s o u t h w e s t , N i n g p r o v i n c e . T h e r e were c a m p a i g n s a g a i n s t C h i n o f f i c i a l s a n d r e b e l l i n g a b o r i g i n e s t h e r e I n 3 2 0 , 3 2 3 a n d 3 2 6 . F i n a l l y i n 3 3 2 L i S h o u was s e n t i n a l a r g e — s c a l e a t t a c k o n t h e r e g i o n w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n t h e s u r r e n d e r o f t h e C h i n G o v e r n o r o f N i n g p r o v i n c e and t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e e n t i r e S o u t h — c e n t r a l r e g i o n i n t o t h e C h ' e n g e m p i r e t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . T h i s m a r k s t h e g r e a t e s t e x p a n s i o n o f t h e C h ' e n g — H a n s t a t e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y L i H s i u n g d i e d i n 3 3 4 a n d t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e s u c c e s s i o n t h r e w t h e s t a t e i n t o d i s o r d e r . L i H s i u n g h a d a p p o i n t e d t h e s o n o f h i s e l d e r b r o t h e r , L i Pan t o s u c c e e d h i m . H s i u n g ' s n a t u r a l s o n s p l o t t e d t o k i l l L i P a n a n d p l a c e d L i C h ' 1 o n t h e t h r o n e t h e same y e a r . C h * i r e m a i n e d on t h e t h r o n e u n t i l 3 3 8 when L i S h o u , t h e s o n o f L i T ' e ' s y o u n g e r b r o t h e r H s i a n g * , u s u r p e d h i s p o s i t i o n a n d k i l l e d h i m . T h i s i n t e r n a l f i g h t i n g i n e v i t a b l y w e a k e n e d t h e s t a t e a n d f r o m t h i s p o i n t o n t h e t e r r i t o r y u n d e r i t s c o n t r o l b e g a n t o s h r i n k . I n 3 3 6 t h e C h i n G o v e r n o r o f K u a n g p r o v i n c e , T e n g Y u e h ^£ , r e t o o k two c i t i e s i n E u e l c h o w . I n 3 3 9 he went on t o r e c o n q u e r N i n g p r o v i n c e f o r C h i n , w h i l e L i S u n g \ e n c r o a c h e d u p o n C h ' e n g ' s e a s t e r n b o r d e r s . L i S h o u d i e d i n 3 4 3 a n d was s u c c e e d e d b y h i s s o n S h i h /J • By t h i s t i m e t h e s t o r e o f g o o d w i l l a c c u m u l a t e d b y t h e 11 e f f i c i e n t a n d l i b e r a l r u l e o f L i H s i u n g h a d b e e n d i s s i p a t e d b y the c r u e l t i e s a n d e x c e s s e s o f C h ' i , S h o u a n d S h i h * When L i S h i h ' s y o u n g e r b r o t h e r K u a n g 7 ^ s o u g h t t o b e named h i s s u c c e s s o r S h i h e x e c u t e d two o f h i s most r e l i a b l e a d v i s e r s a n d c o m p e l l e d K u a n g t o c o m m i t s u i c i d e * The f o l l o w i n g y e a r t h e G r a n d P r o t e c t o r L i I + r e b e l l e d a n d was k i l l e d * F i n a l l y i n 3 4 7 t h e C h i n G e n e r a l P a c i f y i n g t h e West H u a n Wen l e d an e x p e d i t i o n w h i c h e x t e r m i n a t e d t h e C h ' e n g - H a n s t a t e * L i S h i h f l e d t o Han—chung where he s u r r e n d e r e d * T h a t same y e a r c e r t a i n f o r m e r g e n e r a l s o f t h e C h ' e n g - H a n s t a t e t r i e d t o r a i s e t h e s o n o f F a n C h ' a n g — s h e n g , F a n Pen VlL , t o the p o s i t i o n o f e m p e r o r a n d r e — e s t a b l i s h t h e s t a t e * T h e y w e r e d e f e a t e d t h e n e x t y e a r , a n d S z e c h w a n was o n c e a g a i n i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e C h i n e m p i r e * 12 J f l E PA PEOPLE T h e M y t h and i t s I d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h M i n o r i t y G r o u c s T h e e a r l i e s t e x t a n t s o u r c e o f t h e m y t h r e c o r d e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f C h a p t e r 120 o f t h e C h i n S h u i s t h e c h a p t e r o n t h e S o u t h e r n Man b a r b a r i a n s o f t h e Hou Han S h u * 6 T h i s work was c o m p i l e d b y F a n Y e h , who b a s e d h i m s e l f u p o n e a r l i e r s o u r c e s * The L i H s i e n 3- ^ ( 6 5 1 - 6 8 4 ) c o m m e n t a r y t o t h e p a s s a g e s t a t e s t h a t t h i s s t o r y comes f r o m t h e S h j h Pep a n d c i t e s p a r a l l e l p a s s a g e s f r o m t h i s s o u r c e * T h e d a t i n g o f t h e S h i f t P e n i s u n c e r t a i n b u t i t seems t o d a t e f r o m no l a t e r t h a n t h e e a r l y Han o r t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y B * C * 7 T h e S h i h P e n i s a g e n e a l o g i c a l wo rk a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o c l a n names a n d t h i s m y t h was no d o u b t o r i g i n a l l y a p p e n d e d t o t h e e n t r y f o r t h e s u r n a m e P a * A s s u c h , i t seems l i k e l y t h a t a t l e a s t o n e f u n c t i o n o f t h i s m y t h was t o j u s t i f y t h e r u l e o f t h e Pa c l a n o v e r t h e o t h e r i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e r e g i o n * I n t h e Hou Han Sh_u a c c o u n t t h e L i n C h u n myth i s a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e Man o f Pa a n d Nan c o r o m n d e r i e s • G e o g r a p h i c a l l y , t h i s d e n o t e s a r e g i o n c o m p r i s i n g s o u t h e a s t e r n S z e c h w a n p r o v i n c e a s w e l l a s p a r t s o f n o r t h w e s t e r n K u e i c h o w , s o u t h w e s t e r n H u p e i a n d p o s s i b l y n o r t h w e s t e r n H u n a n * The HHS a l s o r e c o r d s o n e e l e m e n t o f t h i s m y t h w h i c h o u r t e x t o m i t s * I t s t a t e s t h a t when L i n C h u n d i e d h i s s o u l was t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a t i g e r a n d t h e p e o p l e o f t h e Pa c l a n , b e l i e v l n g t h a t t i g e r s d r i n k human b l o o d , e n g a g e d i n human s a c r i f i c e t o t h i s s p i r i t * 13 The Hou Han S h u a l s o m e n t i o n s a p e o p l e c a l l e d t h e P a n -s h u n ( s h i e l d ) W a n . 8 A member o f t h i s t r i b e f r o m Lang— c h u n g i s s a i d t o h a v e p e r f o r m e d a s e r v i c e f o r K i n g Chao— h s i a n g B$- ^ ±_ o f C h ' i n b y k i l l i n g a w h i t e t i g e r w h i c h h a d b e e n t e r r o r i z i n g t h e r e g i o n w i t h a c r o s s b o w made o f w h i t e b a m b o o . A t t h e t i m e o f Han K a o — t s u ' s u n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e e m p i r e t h e s e t r i b e s m e n a i d e d h l a i n p a c i f y i n g t h e C h ' i n r e g i o n ( m o d e r n S h e n s i ) a n d i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h i s a c h i e v e m e n t t h e y w e r e e x e m p t e d f r o m a l l t a x e s e x c e p t a y e a r l y h e a d t a x o f f o r t y c a s h . The Pan—shun p e o p l e r e f e r r e d t o t h i s t a x a s i g u f l f i 5^ a n d t h i s w o r d comes t o be u s e d a s a name o f t h e t r i b e . 9 I n i t s a c c o u n t o f t h e o r i g i n s o f L i T ' e ' s a n c e s t o r s o u r t e x t c o m b i n e s e l e m e n t s f r o m b o t h t h e s e s e c t i o n s o f t h e Hou Han S h u . F i r s t , t h e L i n Chun myth i s r e c o r d e d , t h e n t h e t s u n f l t a x i s m e n t i o n e d , t h i s t i m e i t s i m p o s i t i o n b e i n g a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e C h ' i n , a n d f i n a l l y t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Han K a o — t s u ' s c o n q u e s t i s r e c o r d e d . Now t h e Pan—shun Man a r e s a i d t o o c c u p y t h e b a n k s o f t h e C h i a — l i n g R i v e r , t h e r e g i o n d i r e c t l y n o r t h o f a n d c o n t i g u o u s w i t h Pa c o m m a n d e r y . I n f a c t o u r C h i n Shu t e x t s t a t e s t h a t , " T h e P a p e o p l e c a l l e d t h i s t a x t^un/9 . • • • " a n d t h a t Han K a o — t s u c h a n g e d t h e name o f t h e d w e l l i n g p l a c e o f t h e s e T s u n g p e o p l e t o Pa c o m m a n d e r y . C l e a r l y , t h e C h j n S h u e d i t o r s t o o k t h e T s u n g p e o p l e o r Pan—shun Man t o b e a s u b g r o u p o f t h e L i n C h u n Man a n d f u r t h e r i d e n t i f i e d t h i s l a r g e r g r o u p w i t h t h e Pa p e o p l e . The f i r s t o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e name Pa i s as t h e name o f a b a r o n y l o c a t e d i n e a s t e r n S z e c h w a n i n 533 B . C . 1 0 I t may w e l l h a v e b e e n r u l e d b y a 14 member o f t h e F a c l a n w h i c h we r e a d a b o u t i n t h e BBS b u t i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t i t a c t u a l l y e n c o m p a s s e d a l l t h o s e p e o p l e s w h i c h we w o u l d t e r m Pa o r L i n C h u n Man* T h u s when we s p e a k h e r e o f t h e Pa p e o p l e we r e f e r n o t to t h e d e s c e n d a n t s o f t h e s u b j e c t s o f some p r e v i o u s r u l e r o f t h e Pa c o u n t r y b u t r a t h e r t h o s e i n h a b i t a n t s o f e a s t e r n S z e c h w a n who were e t h n i c a l l y r e l a t e d a n d s h a r e d t h e L i n Chun m y t h * T h e l o c a t i o n o f p l a c e s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e myth S i n c e we h a v e d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e l e g e n d o f L i n C h u n i s a n o r i g i n m y t h common t o t h e P a p e o p l e , t h e i d e n t i f l e t i o n o f p l a c e names r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e myth s h o u l d i n f o r m us o f t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e Pa p e o p l e i n a n c i e n t t i m e s * L e t us b e g i n w i t h t h o s e e l e m e n t s o f w h i c h we a r e most s u r e * We c a n be f a i r l y c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h e I S h u i r e f e r r e d to i n o u r s t o r y i s t h e modern C h * i n g C h i a n g >g /J_ o f s o u t h w e s t e r n B u p e i * I t i s s o i d e n t i f i e d by b o t h S h e n g H u n g -c h i h 5| %k i n h i s C h i n a - c h o u C h i \l a n d by L i T a o -y u a n i s h i s c o m m e n t a r y t o t h e S h u i C h i n g T K if. - 1 1 I * was a l s o r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e Y e n S h u i s f o r S a l t S t r e a m w h i c h i s s i g n i f i c a n t c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e name o f t h e p l a c e where L i n C h / n c h o s e t o e r e c t h i s c i t y was c a l l e d Y e n — y a n g , a name w h i c h m i g h t mean " t h e n o r t h e r n b a n k o f t h e Y e n " . H o w e v e r i t w o u l d seem t h a t t h e u p p e r r e a c h e s o f t h e a n c i e n t I S h u i w e r e n o t e x a c t l y t h e same a s t h o s e o f t h e m o d e r n C h * i n g C h i a n g * S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e L l - t a i y u — t i y e n - k e t ' u /ff AK ^ 1^) 0 ± Y a n g S h o u - c h l n g shows t h e u p p e r 15 r e a c h e s o f t h e I S h u i i n t h i s p e r i o d t o f o l l o w t h e p a t h o f t h e modern Ta—sha He ^ y/'' y»J , now c o n s i d e r e d a t r i b u t a r y o f t h e C h ' i a n g C h i a n g . 1 2 T h i s p o s i t o n i s a l s o f o l l o w e d by t h e e d i t o r s o f t h e H y — e e i . t* ^ n g - ^ c h i h who show t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e r i v e r i n t h e Han d y n a s t y n e a r m o d e r n C h i e n — s h i h a n d i s c o n f i r m e d by t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a Yen S h u i p r e f e c t u r e e a s t o f modern S h i h — n a n "^J d u r i n g t h e N o r t h e r n C h o u d y n a s t y . 1 * L e t us t u r n t o t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f Wu—luo—chung—I1 S h a n . T h e r e i s f i r s t t h e q u e s t i o n o f the p r o p e r name o f t h i s m o u n t a i n . L i H e l e n ' s c o m m e n t a r y t o t h e HHS c i t e s Sh , ih P e n r e a d i n g o n l y Wu—tan w h i l e H u i T u n g i n c i t i n g f r o m t h e same s o u r c e r e a d s Wu—tan l u o — c h u n g s h a n y£ ^% cli « 1 5 The T ' u n a T i e n ^ j# g i v e s W u - l e - c h u n g $\' * f s h a n . 1 6 None o f t h e s e r e s e m b l e C h i n e s e p l a c e n a m e s , i f we a r e i n d e e d t o t a k e t h e e n t i r e f o u r o r f i v e c h a r a c t e r s t r i n g as one p l a c e n a m e . One s c h o l a r h a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e f i r s t two c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e Sjhih P e n v e r s i o n o f t h e name h a s b e e n i n t e r p r e t e d a s m e a n i n g the T a n p e o p l e o f t h e Wu r e g i o n . 1 7 T h i s i s a n i n t e r e s t i n g s u g g e s t i o n , b u t i f t r u e t h i s u s e o f T a n as a t r i b a l name i s s e v e r a l c e n t u r i e s e a r l i e r t h a n a n y o t h e r known e x a m p l e . M o r e o v e r , l a t e r s o u r c e s , i n c u d l n g S h e n g H u n g — c h i h a n d L i T a o — y u a n , a g r e e i n f o l l o w i n g t h e HHS a n d CS r e a d i n g . I f t h e e n t i r e p h r a s e i s t o b e t a k e n as one name t h e n i t I s l i k e l y t h a t i t i s i n o r i g i n n o n — C h i n e s e . A s r e g a r d s t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e m o u n t a i n t h e r e seems t o be g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t i n p l a c i n g i t s o u t h o f t h e Yang—tze a n d n o r t h o f t h e C h * i n g C h i a n g b e t w e e n S h i h — n a n a n d C h ' a n g — 16 yang. One most commonly f i n d s l o c a t i o n s c i t e d n o r t h e a s t of Ch'ang—yangi e i t h e r s e v e nty—eight or two hundred l i « 1 8 However a l o c a l g azeteer o f the Shih—nan d i s t r i c t g i v e s a l o c a t i o n e i g h t y i i . , east o f S h i h — n a n * 1 9 Yuan Shan—sung and L i Tao—yuan mention a mountain cave c o n t a i n i n g two l a r g e stones, one r e f e r r e d to as the yana stone and the other r e f e r r e d to as y l n stone* These stones were thought to possess s u p e r n a t u r a l power and were used to c o n t r o l the weather* T h i s i s a f a s c i n a t i n g custom but bears no r e l a t i o n to the myth under d i s c u s s i o n * The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n seems to "Si-be based on the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the yang \ IQ stone with the v a r i e g a t e d ( tajjgXi^ f ) stcne of our t e x t * T h i s i s the stone which L i n Chun stood upon when he shot the s a l t s p i r i t who together with her i e l l o w s p i r i t s was o b s c u r i n g the sun* Thus i f t h i s cave i s to be connected with L i n Chun i t must d e r i v e from a d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n of the myth. I t i s not c e r t a i n that there ever a c t u a l l y was a s p e c i f i c montain which was i d e n t i f i e d as being the s i t e of the o r i g i n o f the Pa people, but we can s a f e l y say that t r a d i t i o n connects them to the southwestern corner of Hupei provi n c e * ArcJjae.ological evidence Two excavations of the l a t e 1950's supply us with the best a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence to date concerning the Pa c u l t u r e * 2 0 These are the excavations of b u r i a l s i t e s a t Tung—sun-pa ^ J~^ p| near modern Chungking on the Yang—tze and Pao—lun—yuan j^F near Chao—hua 0S on the upper reaches of the C h i a - l i n g K i v e r . Hoth these s i t e s belong to 17 t h e r e g i o n o f t h e Pa c u l t u r a l s p h e r e . R e s u r r e c t i n g t h e d i s t i n c t i o n made i n t h e Hou Han SPV we w o u l d s a y t h a t t h e Tung—sun—pa s i t e i s i n t h e a r e a o f t h e Man o f F a a n d Nan c o m m a n d e r l e s w h i l e t h a t o f Pao—lun—yuan s h o u l d b e l o n g t o t h e Pan—shun M a n . The h i g h d e g r e e o f s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e mode o f b u r i a l a n d b u r i a l a s s e m b l a g e s o f t h e two s i t e s r e i n f o r c e s o u r c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e s e two g r o u p s a r e p a r t o f t h e same e t h n i c g r o u p . T h e most d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e o f t h e s e s i t e s i s t h e p r a c t i c e o f b o a t b u r i a l • A t b o t h s i t e s b o d i e s were f o u n d I n s h a f t g r a v e s w i t h t h e b o d y p l a c e d i n a b o a t r a t h e r t h a n a c o f f i n . I t i s t h e e a r l i e s t s t r a t a o f b u r i a l s , d a t e d t o t h e W a r r i n g S t a t e s e r a by t h e e d i t o r s o f t h e r e p o r t o f t h e s e e x c a v a t i o n s , w h i c h f u l l y show t h i s b u r i a l p r a c t i c e . L a t e r tombs e v o l v e d t h r o u g h a s t a g e o f p l a c i n g t h e b o d y i n a c o f f i n w h i c h i s t h e n p u t i n a b o a t to t h e c o m p l e t e e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e b o a t , w i t h t h e l a t e s t tombs d i s p l a y i n g t h e p a i n t e d t i l e s common to C h i n e s e tombs o f t h e Han p e r i o d . T h e s e t o m b s c a n t h u s be s e e n t o p a r a l l e l t h e S i n i c i z a t i o n o f t h e Pa p e o p l e . 2 1 T h e r e a r e two e l e m e n t s o f t h e i n s c r i p t i o n s a n d f i g u r e s f o u n d on o b j e c t s u n e a r t h e d f r o m t h e s e two s i t e s w h i c h m e r i t m e n t i o n . The f i r s t i s t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f t h e t i g e r m o t i f . We r e a d t h a t t h e Pa p e o p l e b e l i e v e d t h a t L i n C h u n h a d t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a t i g e r u p o n h i s d e a t h a n d t h a t t h e P a n -s h u n Man were f a m o u s f o r t h e h u n t i n g o f t i g e r s . T h e y were a l s o r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e W h i t e T i g e r E x e m p t e d B a r b a r i a n s ( T h e s e c o n d f e a t u r e i s a g r o u p 18 o f s y m b o l s w h i c h some h a v e i d e n t i f i e d a s a w r i t i n g s y s t e m . 2 3 T h e r e i s as y e t i n s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e t o a s c e r t a i n t h a t t h i s i s i n f a c t a w r i t i n g s y s t e m as o p p o s e d t o n t e r e l y a b o d y o f a r t i s t i c m o t i f s * b u t i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e y f o r m a g r o u p d i s t i n c t f r o m C h i n e s e o r t h o g r a p h y o r o r n a m e n t a t i o n . B o t h o f t h e s e f e a t u r e s a r e f o u n d i n t h e S h u r e g i o n a s w e l l a s Pa h o w e v e r t h e y seem t o p r e d o m i n a t e i n t h e Pa r e g i o n a n d i t h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e i r o c c u r r e n c e i n S h u i s a r e m n a n t o f Pa p e o p l e who h a d b e e n s t a t i o n e d t h e r e f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f g a r r i s o n i n g i t a g a i n s t r e b e l l i o n . 2 * C l i f f b u r i a l s a r e f o u n d w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h t h e i Pa r e g i o n . 2 5 F rom l i t e r a r y s o u r c e s we know t h a t a t l e a s t p a r t o f t h e s e b u r i a l s were o r i g i n a l l y b o a t b u r i a l s a s w e l l . 2 6 O t h e r s c o n t a i n e d c o f f i n s hewn f r o m a s i n g l e l a r g e t r e e a n d i n t h i s r e s p e c t r e s e m b l e d t h e b o a t b u r i a l s a n d d i f f e r e d f r o m t h e t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e c o f f i n c o m p o s e d o f s i x b o a r d s . I n t h e S z e c h w a n r e g i o n t h e s e c l i f f b u r i a l s a r e c a l l e d Man—tzu—tung 5~ >l°j o r " b a r b a r i a n s * c a v e s " . U n f o r t u n a t e l y we a r e l a c k i n g i n s o l i d a r c h a e o l o g i c l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h e b u r i a l s i t e s a n d h e n c e i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o make e x a c t c o m p a r i s o n s . T h e r e seems t o b e q u i t e a b i t o f v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n c l i f f b u r i a l s , w h i l e some w e r e I n d e e d b u r i e d i n b o a t s , o t h e r s were f i r s t e x p o s e d a n d t h e n t h e b o n e s were i n t e r r e d , e i t h e r i n a c o f f i n o r a s m a l l c o n t a i n e r . F u r t h e r , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e b u r i a l s i s much b r o a d e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e Pa c u l t u r e . B e s i d e s t h e u p p e r r e a c h e s o f t h e Yang—tze t h e y a r e f o u n d c o m m o n l y i n t h e 19 r e g i o n s o u t h w e s t o f Tung—t* i n g L a k e a n d t h e F u c h i e n — K i a n g s i — C h e k l a n g r e g i o n a s w e l l a s B o r n e o * C a m b o d i a a n d B u r m a * The o n l y common f e a t u r e o f a l l t h e s e s i t e s seems t o be t h e p l a c e m e n t o f t h e b o d y ( o r t h e b o n e s w h e r e t h e r e i s p r i o r e x p o s u r e ) I n a c a v e , n a t u r a l o r m a n - m a d e , i n a c l i f f b y a r i v e r o r o t h e r b o d y o f w a t e r * L i n g Shun—sheng b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e b o a t b u r i a l was t h e e a r l i e s t f o r m o f c l i f f b u r i a l p r a c t i c e d * 2 7 I f s o , t h e n we s h o u l d p e r h a p s c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e Pa b o a t b u r i a l s , f o u n d o n t e r r a c e s b y r i v e r b a n k s , a r e v a r i a n t f o r m s o f t h i s same t y p e o f b u r i a l a n d t h e u s e o f s h a f t g r a v e s i s a n a d a p t a t i o n t o t h e t o p o g r a p h y o f t h e r e g i o n * A s t o t h e v a r i a t i o n i n m e t h o d s o f i n t e r m e n t , t h i s may r e f l e c t e i t h e r t h e b o r r o w i n g o f some o f t h e s e b u r i a l p r a c t i c e s b y o t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s w i t h t h e i r own t r a d i t i o n o f , f o r e x a m p l e , e x p o s u r e , o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l s t a t u s o f t h e p e o p l e b u r i e d * T h e l l i u a j c I d e n t i t y t h e Pa P e o p l e We h a v e s e e n f r o m a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a n d h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e Pa p e o p l e o c c u p i e d e a s t e r n S z e c h w a n f r o m q u i t e an e a r l y t i m e , p r a c t i c e d b o a t b u r i a l a n d o f t e n made u s e o f t i g e r o r n a m e n t a l m o t i f s * W h i l e t h e y p r a c t i c e d a g r i c u l t u r e a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e i r economy c e n t e r e d on h u n t i n g a n d f i s h i n g * T h e y were a b l e h u n t e r s a n d w a r r i o r s , as i s shown by t h e i r p u r s u i t o f s u c h d a n g e r o u s game a s t i g e r s a s w e l l a s t h e r e u s e as a m i l i t a r y f o r c e f r o m t h e t i m e o f Han K a o — t s u o n * T h e y t e n d e d t o s e t t l e on t h e b a n k s of s t r e a m s a n d r i v e r s a n d some o f them seem t o h a v e 20 a c t u a l l y l i v e d o n b o a t s * 2 8 F rom t h e s e f a c t s a n d t h e i r b u r i a l o f t h e d e a d i n b o a t s we s u r m i s e t h a t t h e r i v e r p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h e i r l i v e s * T h e r e were s e v e r a l s u b g r o u p s o f t h e Pa p e o p l e * The Hua—yana k u o — c h i h l i s t s t h e f o l l o w i n g g r o u p s among t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e P a r e g i o n 2 9 : T s u n g , P ' u , C h u Jt- , K u n g * , J a n g M , a n d T a n ^ • We h a v e a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d t h e T s u n g a n d P ' u * The o t h e r g r o u p s a r e l i t t l e known* Chu o c c u r s as t h e name o f a s m a l l c o u n t r y i n n o r t h e a s t e r n S z e c h w a n d u r i n g t h e C h o u p e r i o d a n d t h e s e p e o p l e a r e p r o b a b l y r e m n a n t s o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h a t s t a t e . 3 0 B o t h t h e J a n g a n d t h e T a n p e o p l e s h a v e b e e n c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e p r a c t i c e o f c l i f f b u r i a l . 3 1 T a n i s a l s o t h e name o f t h e ' b o a t p e o p l e ' who now l i v e s c a t t e r e d a l o n g t h e s o u t h e a s t e r n c o a s t o f C h i n a , h o w e v e r t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e T a n m e n t i o n e d h e r e i s u n c e r t a i n . 3 2 N o t h i n g i s known o f t h e K u n g . T h e e t h n i c i d e n t i t y o f t h e P ' u p e o p l e r e m a i n s a m y s t e r y . b u t i n e a r l y s o u r c e s t h e y a r e a l w a y s t r e a t e d a s d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e Pa a n d seem t o h a v e i n h a b i t e d a d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n . 3 3 I t seems l i k e l y t h a t t h e J a n g a n d T a n c a n b e g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e T s u n g a s s u b g r o u p s o f t h e L i n C h u n M a n . T h e e t h n i c i d e n t i t y o f t h e Fa p e o p l e h a s b e e n t h e s u b j e c t o f much s p e c u l a t i o n b u t t h e q u e s t i o n i s f a r f r o m b e i n g r e s o l v e d a n d i s p e r h a p s n o t r e s o l v a b l e * I s h a l l a t t e m p t t o b r i e f l y s u m m a r i z e t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s b e l o w . 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I f n o t t h e n t h e y s h o u l d be s e e n a s a g r o u p d i s t i n c t f r o m b u t r e l a t e d t o t h e P ' a n - h u M a n . T h e HHS r e f e r s t o b o t h t h e C h ' a n g — s h a — W u — l i n g Man a n d t h e Pa a n d Nan c o m n a n d e r y Man b y t h e t e r m M a n . F u r t h e r , t h e i r t e r r i t o r i e s seem t o h a v e o v e r l a p p e d f o r Wu— l i n g i s a l a t e r name f o r t h e C h ' i e n — c h u n g c o m m a n d e r y w h i c h t h e C h i n Shu s a y s was e s t a b l i s h e d t o g o v e r n t h e Pa p e o p l e . F i n a l l y , t h e m o d e r n M i a o a r e f o n d o f s i n g i n g a n d b e l i e v e t h a t o n d e a t h t h e s o u l o f a man c a n t u r n i n t o a t i g e r , 3 5 r e s e m b l i n g t h e a n c i e n t P a i n b o t h t h e s e r e s p e c t s . T h i s e v i d e n c e w o u l d s u p p o r t an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s e p e o p l e s . The o t h e r two p o s s i b i l i t i e s a r e T h a i a n d A u s t r o a s i a t i c . N e i t h e r c a n b e l i n k e d a s s t r o n g l y t o t h e Pa as t h e M i a o c a n b u t t h e y must be c o n s i d e r e d . T h a i p e o p l e s seem t o h a v e b e e n t h e e a r l i e s t s t i l l e x t a n t i n h a b i t a n t s o f s o u t h w e s t e r n C h i n a . The L a o % . h o i n h a b i t e d t h e K u e i c h o w r e g i o n a t t h e t i m e o f o u r n a r r a t i v e h a v e b e e n l i n k e d t o t h e T h a i . F u r t h e r t h e modern T h a i a r e v a l l e y d w e l l e r s , 22 i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e X i a o who i n h a b i t m o u n t a i n o u s r e g i o n s * T h i s , h o w e v e r , c a n n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be p r o j e c t e d b a c k i n t o a n t i q u i t y * A r e c e n t l i n g u i s i c s t u d y o f A u s t r o a s i a t i c w o r d s f o u n d i n C h i n e s e a n d C h i n e s e h i s t o r i c a l s o u r c e s o f f e r s e v i d e n c e f o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f A u s t r o a s i a t i c p e o p l e s i n t h e m i d d l e Yang—tze r e g i o n 3 6 , t h u s b r i n g i n g them i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h Pa c u l t u r e * A u s t r o a s i a t i c p e o p l e s , b o t h Mon—Khmer a n d V i e t n a m e s e , p o s s e s s t i g e r m y t h s and t h e b e l i e f t h a t humans c a n t u r n i n t o t i g e r s i s a l s o f o u n d * 3 7 A l l o f t h i s e v i d e n c e i s q u i t e i n c o n c l u s i v e * What we c a n s a y w i t h f a i r c e r t a i n t y i s what t h e Pa were n o t * T h e y w e r e n o t T i b e t o — B u r m a n s a n d t h e y a r e n o t t o be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e a n c i e n T i • The T i were a g r o u p o f T i b e t o — B u r m a n p e o p l e s o c c u p y i n g t h e n o r t h w e s t e r n c o r n e r o f S z e c h w a n a n d p a r t s o f S h e n s i a n d K a n s u * T h e y d i f f e r m a r k e d l y f r o m t h e Pa p e o p l e i n c u s t o m a n d l i f e s t y l e * T h e L i c l a n h a s b e e n r e p e a t e d l y i d e n t i f i e d as T i by C h i n e s e h i s t o r i a n s , s o l e l y on t h e b a s i s o f a s t a t e m e n t i n t h e C h i n S h u t h a t when L i T * e ' s a n c e s t o r s moved t o L u e h — y a n g , a c e n t e r o f T i h a b i t a t i o n , t h e y w e r e r e f e r r e d t o a s Pa T i * T h i s i s c l e a r l y no more t h a n t h e a p l i c a t i o n o f the name o f the d o m i n a n t l o c a l n o n — C h i n e s e g r o u p t o a l l n o n - C h i n e s e i n t h e r e g i o n * 3 8 23 sqosqES, The f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y i s t h e s t a t e o f C h • e n g - H a n 3 9 , o n e o f t h e S i x t e e n K i n g d o m s w h i c h f r a g m e n t e d t h e n o r t h e r n a n d w e s t e r n p o r t i o n s o f t h e e m p i r e w h i l e t h e ' o r t h o d o x * s u c c e s s i o n o f s i x C h i n e s e d y n a s t i e s m a i n t a i n e d c o n t r o l i n t h e s o u t h , p a r t i c u l a r l y s o u t h o f t h e Y a n g — t z e • C u r b a s i c t e x t w i l l be t h e r e c o r d o f t h i s C h ' e n g - E a n s t a t e i n t h e o f f i c i a l , o r t h o d o x h i s t o r y o f t h e C h i n d y n a s t y , t h e C h i n S h u ~% % • C h a p t e r 120 a n d 121 o f t h i s wor k i s t h e ' y e a r l y c h r o n i c l e s ' ( t s a l - c f a i l l \ ~^ Tt ) 4 0 o f t h i s s t a t e a r r a n g e d i n t h e f o r m o f b i o g r a p h i e s o f t h e r u l e r s o f t h i s s t a t e , t h e L i c l a n * I n t h i s s e c t i o n I s h a l l e x a m i n e t h e t e x t u a l h i s t o r y o f t h e C h i n S h u a s w e l l as t h o s e w o r k s w h i c h may h a v e s e r v e d as s o u r c e s f o r t h e c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h i s a c c o u n t b y t h e T ' a n g e d i t o r s * T h e C h i n S h u i s one o f a number o f w o r k s c o m p i l e d b y i m p e r i a l c o m m i s s i o n s d u r i n g t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e T ' a n g d y n a s t y . T h e s e w o r k s were ' o f f i c i a l h i s t o r i e s ' ( c h e n a - s h i h j E - ^ ) f o r t h o s e o f t h e S i x D y n a s t i e s o f t h e p r e c e d i n g e r a o f d i s u n i o n w h i c h d i d n o t a t t h i s t i m e p o s s e s s a s t a n d a r d h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d . The T ' a n g e m p e r o r T* a i — t s u n g 5 ^ . ^ o r d e r e d t h e c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h e C h i n S h u i n a d e c r e e o f 6 4 6 , n a m i n g F a n g H s u a n - l l n g 5^ %^ , C h ' u S u i - l i a n g i^fc ^k. a n d H s u C h i n g — t s u n g ti~f ^ to d i r e c t t h e w o r k . The work was c o m p l e t e d no l a t e r t h a n 6 4 8 . 4 1 As t h e o f f i c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d o r t h o d o x v e r s i o n o f t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e p e r i o d t h e C h i n Shu 24 h a s e n j o y e d a c a r e f u l , a n d c o n t i n u o u s t r a n s m i s s i o n t o t h e p r e s e n t d a y * The T ' a n g e d i t o r s o f t h e C h i n Shu h a v e b e e n s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i z e d by l a t e r h i s t o r i a n s who d i d n o t f e e l t h a t t h e l e v e l o f q u a l i t y o f t h e C h i n Shu was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e h i g h s t a n d a r d s s e t b y t h e e a r l i e r • o f f i c i a l h i s t o r i e s ' , t h e to t h e ±^ftjL— c h i • Many o f t h e s t a t e s t r e a t e d i n t h e t s a i — c h i o f t h e C_h..iri SJju c o n t r o l l e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a r e a s o v e r p r o t r a c t e d p e r i o d s o f t i m e a n d t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e i s a t l e a s t e q u a l t o t h a t o f some o f t h e d y n a s t i e s w h i c h c o n t r o l l e d t h e n o r t h w h i l e C h i n m a i n t a i n e d a p r e c a r i o u s e x i s t e n c e i n t h e s o u t h e r n e x t r e m i t i e s o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e w o r l d * H o w e v e r , t h e c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h e c o n c e p t o f l e g i t i m a c y h a v e s e r v e d t o d e n y t h e s e s t a t e s t h e i r p r o p e r p l a c e i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e p e r i o d * I n s t e a d t h e y a r e r e l e g a t e d t o a c h a p t e r o r two n e a r t h e end o f the r e l e v a n t ' o r t h o d o x * h i s t o r y . T h e y a r e t r e a t e d s u m m a r i l y a n d u n d u e s t r e s s i s p l a c e d u p o n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e c u r r e n t ' l e g i t i m a t e ' d y n a s t y * I t h a s a l s o b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e T ' a n g e d i t o r s d i s t o r t e d h i s t o r i c a l f a c t i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e d i d a c t i c e x a m p l e s f o r t h e c u r r e n t T ' a n g r u l e r * * 3 I h a v e f o u n d no e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s i n t h e p o r t i o n o f t h e C h i n S h u d e v o t e d t o C h ' e n g - H a n a n d i t i s n o t d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t t o my s t u d y * O f more i m p o r t a n c e i s t h e b r e v i t y n e c e s s a r i l y r e q u i r e d by t h e s m a l l a m o u n t o f s p a c e d e v o t e d t o e a c h s t a t e * T h e C h i n Shu d o e s n o t p r e s e n t u s w i t h n e a r l y as f u l l a n d c o m p l e t e a T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e w i t h r e g a r d 2 5 r e c o r d o f t h e h i s t o r y o f C t i ' e n g - H a n a s an i n d e p e n d e n t d y n a s t i c h i s t o r y w o u l d h a v e * I n an a t t e m p t t o r e m e d y t h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s I h a v e c r e a t e d a c o n f l a t e d t e x t , d r a w i n g u p o n o t h e r h i s t o r i c a l s o u r c e s 4 * f o r t h e p e r i o d t o s u p p l e m e n t t h e C h i n Shu r e c o r d . My g o a l i n d o i n g so i s t o p r o v i d e a s c o m p l e t e a r e c o r d a s p o s s i b l e o f t h e m a j o r e v e n t s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e C h ' e n g -Han s t a t e * I h a v e c h o s e n t h e C h i n S h u a s my b a s i c t e x t b e c a u s e i t i s t h e most c o m p l e t e , c o n t i n u o u s , I n t e g r a l s o u r c e * * s I s h a l l now p r o c e e d t o d i s c u s s t h o s e w o r k s w h i c h t h e C h i " Shu e d i t o r s may h a v e u s e d i n c o m p i l i n g t h e QixJLB S h u a n d t h o s e w h i c h I h a v e u s e d i n s u p p l e m e n t i n g I t . flQu_Bap_gto.u I n g r a c i n g i t s s o u r c e s we must d i v i d e o u r t e x t i n t o two p o r t i o n s : t h e a c c o u n t o f L i n C h u n , t h e l e g e n d a r y a n c e s t o r o f t h e Pa p e o p l e t o w h i c h t h e L i c l a n b e l o n g e d , a n d t h e r e c o r d o f t h e a c t u a l h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e C h ' e n g — H a n s t a t e . The L i n C h u n myth seems t o be t a k e n f r o m t h e s e c t i o n on t h e Man b a r b a r i a n s o f Pa a n d Nan c o m m a n d e r i e s o f t h e POM Han S h u * 4 6 T h e Hou Ban S h u was c o m p i l e d by F a n Y e h ( 3 9 8 — 4 4 6 ) p r i m a r i l y on t h e b a s i s o f e a r l i e r h i s t o r i e s o f t h e L a t t e r H a n . 4 7 The L i H s i e n c o m m e n t a r y t o t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e HHS s t a t e s t h a t t h e L i n C h u n myth was a l s o f o u n d i n t h e S h i h P e n ^ • T h e d a t e o f t h e S h i h Pen i s somewhat I n q u e s t i o n , b u t a s I t was a s o u r c e f o r S s u - m a C h ' i e n )^ J f j )^ ( 1 4 5 - 8 6 B . C . ) i n h i s c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h e S h i C h i i t must be no l a t e r t h a n v e r y 26 e a r l y Han.* 8 We a l s o know that the HHS account i s not an exact copy of the Shih Pen * a t l e a s t as the Shih Pep was t r a n s m i t t e d i n the T'ang dynasty, because L i Hsien quotes a d i f f e r e n t name f o r the mountain from which L i n Chun i s s a i d to have emerged.* 9 It i s p o s s i b l e that Fan Yeh took as h i s d i r e c t source not the Shj,h Pen t u t r a t h e r one of the other r e c e n s i o n s of L a t t e r Han h i s t o r y which preceded him. We have no d i r e c t evidence that any of these works co n t a i n e d accounts of the L i n Chun Man but l a t e r e n c y c l o p e d i a s record passages from both the HsJJ Han Shu N*^[ y ^ ^ o f Ssu-ma Piao (240-306) and the Hou Han Shu of Hua Ch'iao which are now found i n the same chapter of the HHS under the heading of the Southwestern Barbarians ( hsi—nan i 5^). 5 0 In any case we can be reasonably sure t h a t the u l t i m a t e source f o r t h i s legend was the Shih Pen « Hu<»ryqnfi KuQTchAh, Turning to the h i s t o r y of the s t a t e of Ch'eng-Han, we are f o r t u n a t e i n having an account w r i t t e n by one who was an eye—witness to and p a r t i c i p a n t i n many of the events -Mr d e s c r i b e d . Ch'ang Ch'u i-J&c a t t a i n e d the rank of C a v a l i e r A t t e n d a n t — I n - o r d i n a r y ( san-chj ch'app-shih ) under the r e i g n of L i Shih, the l a s t r u l e r of Ch'eng-Ban. I t i s recorded t h a t Ch'ang encouraged L i Shih to surrender and was l a t e r taken i n t o the s e r v i c e of Huan Wen. 5 1 H i s Hua— yang Kuo—chih i n twelve chuan s u r v i v e s to t h i s day and p r o v i d e s a much more complete record of the r i s e and f a l l of Ch'eng—Han than the Chin Shu • I t was composed a f t e r the 27 f a l l o f C h ' e n g - H a n i n 347 a n d b e f o r e h i s d e a t h ( d a t e u n k n o w n ) * T h e Hua—yapp Kuo— c h i h c a n be l o o k e d u p o n a s one o f t h e e a r l i e s t l o c a l g a z e t e e r s * I t a t t e m p t s t o s e t f o r t h t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e s o u t h w e s t e r n p o r t i o n o f C h i n a , i n c l u d i n g m o d e r n S z e c h w a n , K u e i c h o w * Y u n n a n a n d p a r t s o f S h e n s i f r o m e a r l i e s t t i m e s u p u n t i l C h ' a n g C h ' u ' s d a y * A s s u c h , o n l y a p o r t i o n o f t h e e n t i r e work d e a l s w i t h C h ' e n g — H a n . A s e c o n d w o r k , a l t e r n a t i v e l y r e f e r r e d to as t h e S h u L i S h u ^ ^ t H a n . . c h j h S h U f >K z. ^ or p a n Shy V£. % i s a l s o a t t r i b u t e d to C h ' a n g . 5 2 T h i s w o r k , i n t e n c h u a n , d e a l t s o l e l y w i t h C h ' e n g - H a n . I t e x i s t e d u n t i l t h e T ' a n g d y n a s t y b u t was l a t e r l o s t i n t r a n s m i s s i o n . 5 3 One w o u l d e x p e c t a h i g h d e g r e e of s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e s e w o r k s , h o w e v e r t h e few p a s s a g e s of t h e S h u L i S h u w h i c h h a v e b e e n p r e s e r v e d show c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n w o r d i n g when c o m p a r e d to t h e Hua—van,g %uo— c h i h a n d t h e r e i s at l e a s t one e v e n t r e c o r d e d w h i c h i s n o t f o u n d i n c u r r e n t v e r s i o n s of t h e HYKC b u t w h i c h h a s f o u n d i t s way i n t o o u r C h i n S h u t e x t * 5 4 T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e S h y . i i L i , ,Shy was a s o u r c e , d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , f o r t h e Chip, S h u e d i t o r s (see b e l o w * s u b S h i h — l i u k u o ch'un,—ch'iu )• A w o r d s h o u l d be s a i d a t t h i s p o i n t a b o u t t h e c o n d i t i o n of t h e m o d e r n v e r s i o n of t h e Hua-ryana K u o — c h i h * A l t h o u g h t h i s w ork h a s s u r v i v e d to t h e p r e s e n t d a y i t h a s n o t d o n e so w i t h o u t s u f f e r i n g t h e o m i s s i o n s a n d a d d i t i o n s of a r a t h e r h a p h a z a r d t r a n s m i s s i o n * T h i s work n e v e r e n j o y e d t h e s t a t u s of a n o f f i c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d h i s t o r y a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y by t h e t i m e t h a t L i C h ' i e d i t e d t h e 1 2 8 e a r l i e s t e d i t i o n w h i c h h a s come down t o us i n 1 2 0 4 t h e t e x t was a l r e a d y i n a v e r y c o n f u s e d s t a t e * L i C h * i c o l l a t e d many e a r l i e r e d i t i o n s a n d p u t t h e t e x t e s s e n t i a l l y i n t o i t s p r e s e n t o r d e r . 5 5 He was f o r c e d t o s u p p l e m e n t t h e l a s t p o r t i o n o f t h e r e c o r d s o f C h ' e n g - H a n b e c a u s e a l l m a t e r i a l c o n c e r n i n g L i S h i n ' s r e i g n h a d a l r e a d y d r o p p e d o u t o f t h e t e x t * 5 6 I n s p i t e o± h i s no d o u b t c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t s many u n d e c i p h e r a b l e p a s s a g e s r e m a i n * ShAlirtiu k u o ch^unrsft-AM T h i s work b y T s ' u i H u n g A V^JQ o f t h e N o r t h e r n Wei c o n s i s t s o f a R e c o r d ( Xu ) f o r e a c h o£ t h e s i x t e e n ' i l l e g i t i m a t e ' s t a t e s w h i c h e x i s t e d i n t h i s p e r i o d * We c a n be q u i t e s p e c i f i c a b o u t t h e t i m e o f c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h e s e c t i o n o f t h i s w o r k d e a l i n g w i t h C h ' e n g - H a n * T s ' u i H u n g ' s b i o g r a p h y s t a t e s t h a t t h e m a j o r p o r t i o n o f t h i s work was f i n i s h e d i n 5 0 8 b u t t h a t i t s c o m p l e t i o n h a d t o a w a i t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s c o n c e r n i n g C h ' e n g - H a n w h i c h c o u l d n o t be o b t a i n e d u n t i l 5 2 2 * 5 7 T s ' u i d o e s n o t s p e c i f y e x a c t l y w h i c h work i t was t h a t he o b t a i n e d i n 5 2 2 b u t e a r l i e r he d e s c r i b e s i t a s " t h e work w h i c h C h ' a n g C h ' u w r o t e c o n c e r n i n g t h e t i m e when L i H s i u n g a n d h i s s o n s o c c u p i e d S h u " . We c a n s a f e l y i d e n t i f y t h i s a s t h e Shu L i Shu m e n t i o n e d a b o v e . 5 8 U n f o r t u n a t e l y b o t h t h e S h u L i S h u a n d t h e S h i h — l i u k u o c h ' u n - c h 1 l u a r e p r e s e r v e d o n l y i n f r a g m e n t a r y q u o t a t i o n s , s t i l l , b y c o m p a r i s o n o f q u o t a t i o n s f r o m t h e s e two w o r k s c o n c e r n i n g a c e r t a i n e v e n t w i t h t h e H u a - y a n g K u o — c h i h a c c o u n t we c a n s e e t h a t t h e S h i h — l i u kuo 29 c h ' V n r c " ' i u more c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e s t h e S h u L i S h u « 5 9 T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t b e c a u s e i f t h e same c o m p a r i s o n i s w i d e n e d t o i n c l u d e t h e C h i n Shu we f i n d t h a t t h e C h i n  S h u a c c o u n t a l s o most c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e s t h i s S h u L i S h u - S h i h - l i u k u o c h ' u n - c h ' i u t r a d i t i o n . 6 0 I t i s p o s s i b l e t o make f u r t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e C h i n Shu a n d q u o t a t i o n s f r o m t h e s e two w o r k s b u t t h e y g i v e no a i d i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h i c h was d i r e c t l y a n c e s t r a l t o t h e C h i n S h u b e c a u s e a b r i d g e m e n t was common i n m a k i n g s u c h q u o t a t i o n s a n d h e n c e t h e a b s e n c e o f a n y g i v e n e l e m e n t i n a q u o t a t i o n d o e s n o t p r o v e i t s a b s e n c e i n t h e o r i g i n a l • J e i_.§ .hu. F i n a l l y we must c o n s i d e r t h e Wei S h u ^ f ^ , ^ o f Wei S h o u 506—572). T h i s work g i v e s a v e r y summary a c c o u n t o f i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f C h * e n g - H a n . 6 1 C h o u I— l i a n g h a s shown t h a t t h e S h i h — I l y k u o c h ' u n - c h ' i u was Wei S h o u ' s b a s i c s o u r c e i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e S i x t e e n K i n g d o m s . 6 2 T h e p o r t i o n o f t h e Wei S h u c o n c e r n i n g C h ' e n g — H a n d o e s n o t show s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y t o t h o s e p o r t i o n s o f t h e Shih— I j v j k u o c h ' u n - c h ' i u w h i c h we now p o s s e s s . Be t h a t as i t may, t h e b r e v i t y o f t h e _ e__S _ u a c c o u n t a s s u r e s t h a t I t was n o t a m a j o r s o u r c e i n t h e c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h e C h i n S h u • I n s u m m a t i o n t h e n , we c a n s a y t h a t t h e C h i n Shu e d i t o r s made u s e o f t h e Hou Han S h u a n d e i t h e r t h e Shu L j  S h u o r t h e S h i h - l i u k u o c h ' u n - c h ' i u • I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o 30 d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r a n y u s e was made o f t h e Hua—yans K u o — c h l h b e c a u s e a n y t h i n g i n t h a t w o r k may h a v e a l s o b e e n i n t h e _ _ u L i Shu • I n any c a s e t h e p r i m a r y s o u r c e f o r t h e h i s t o r y o f C h ' e n g — H a n was t h e w o r k s o f C h ' a n g C h ' u a n d a s t h e H u a - y a n e K U ; Q — c h i s h i s o n l y s u r v i v i n g work i t p r o v i d e s a u n i q u e * f i r s t — h a n d a c c o u n t o f C h ' e n g — H a n * I t i s o u r m o s t c o m p l e t e s i n g l e s o u r c e a n d o u r most r e l i a b l e * 31 MlgBATIONg_^ANr MI GRANTS M a s s i v e m i g r a t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y i n C h i n a * One s c h o l a r h a s t e r m e d t h i s one o f t h e two l a r g e s t m i g r a t i o n s i n C h i n e s e h i s t o r y * He c o m p u t e s t h a t i n t h e n i n e y e a r p e r i o d b e t w e e n 289 a n d 307 a l o n e o v e r two m i l l i o n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n m i g r a t i o n s , d r i v e n by w a r s , f a m i n e a n d p e s t i l e n c e * 6 3 T h e s e m i g r a t i o n s a r e i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d t o e v e n t s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e f o u n d i n g o f t h e s t a t e o f C h ' e n g - H a n and i n t h i s s e c t i o n we s h a l l e x a m i n e t h o s e r e l a t i o n s * T h e f i r s t movements i n t h e s e m i g r a t i o n s was t h e e m i g r a t i o n o f huge n u m b e r s o f p e o p l e f r o m C h ' i n a n d Y u n g p r o v i n c e s ( m o d e r n S h e n s i and K a n s u p r o v i n c e s ) * D u r i n g t h e d e c a d e o f t h e 290•s t h i s r e g i o n o f C h i n a s u f f e r e d r e p e a t e d h a r d s h i p , i n c l u d i n g d r o u g h t , f a m i n e a n d p e s t i l e n c e * T h i s s i t u a t i o n was f u r t h e r e x a c e r b a t e d b y t h e r e b e l l i o n i n 297 o f a g r o u p o f T i a n d C h ' i a n g t r i b e s m e n ( T i b e t o - B u r m a n s ) l e d b y C h ' i U a n - n i e n ^ i | ^f" • 6 * T h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r we o b s e r v e t h e f i r s t o f t h e l a r g e — s c a l e m i g r a t i o n s o f t h i s p e r i o d a s m a s s e s o f p e o p l e a r e f o r c e d t o m i g r a t e i n s e a r c h o f f o o d * The b i o g r a p h y o f L i T ' e t r a n s l a t e d b e l o w r e c o r d s t h a t o v e r a h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d e n t e r e d t h e r e g i o n o f Han—chung V-^ j ( s o u t h e a s t e r n S h e n s i ) . 6 5 L i T ' e a n d h i s c l a n w e r e among t h e members o f t h i s f i r s t m i g r a t i o n . F r o m t h e Han—chung r e g i o n two c o u r s e s o f m i g r a t i o n w e r e a v a i l a b l e : t h e f i r s t i n v o l v e d d e s c e n d i n g t h e Han R i v e r i n t o H u p e i , t h e s e c o n d was to e n t e r t h e S z e c h w a n r e g i o n 32 t h r o u g h t h e p a s s a t C h i e n - k e & ' | fj^ • L i T ' e a n d h i s f e l l o w t r a v e l l e r s f o l l o w e d t h i s s e c o n d p a t h * T * e was p r o b a b l y r e t r a c i n g t h e r o u t e f o l l o w e d by h i s g r a n d f a t h e r Hu i n m i g r a t i n g f r o m t h e S z e c h w a n r e g i o n t o Han—chung a n d e v e n t u a l l y i n t o c e n t r a l S h e n s i a l m o s t a c e n t u r y e a r l i e r . 6 6 T h i s m i g r a t i o n was n o t w i t h o u t i n c i d e n t . T h e C h i n c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t s e n t a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , L I P i t o r e s t r a i n t h e s e m i g r a n t s f r o m e n t e r i n g S z e c h w a n * I t was n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e m i g r a n t s t o b r i b e t h i s man i n o r d e r t o e n t e r t h e C h i e n — k e p a s s • 6 7 The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s f i r s t m i g r a t i o n were a m i x e d g r o u p * T h e y i n c l u d e d C h i n e s e , n o n — C h i n e s e a n d p e o p l e s a t i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l s o f S i n i c i z a t i o n * The g r o u p i s b e s t s e e n as a number o f s m a l l e r g r o u p i n g s , e a c h c e n t e r i n g a b o u t a s t r o n g l e a d e r o r l e a d i n g f a m i l y a n d c o m p r i s e d o f h i s r e t a i n e r s a n d t h o s e l o c a l p e a s a n t f a m i l i e s who a l l i e d t h e m s e l v e s t o h i m f o r p r o t e c t i o n * Men l i k e Y e n S h i h a n d J e n H u i must h a v e b e e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f i m p o r t a n t C h i n e s e c l a n s i n t h e r e g i o n , a n d t h e y n a t u r a l l y f o u n d p o s i t i o n s o f p r o m i n e n c e w i t h i n t h e m i g r a n t c o m m u n i t y * T h e r e w e r e a l s o g r o u p s o f T i t r i b e s m e n l e d by t h e i r own " M a r q u i s — K i n g s " who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e m i g r a t i o n * 6 8 We may h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t t h e s e were T i who h a d a c c e p t e d a more S i n i c i z e d , s e d e n t a r y l i f e — s t y l e , s i n c e t h e y f l e d f r o m r a t h e r t h a n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e C h * i Wan—nien r e b e l l i o n , h o w e v e r t h e i r m a i n t e n a n c e o f t r i b a l n o b i l i t y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y a r e f a r f r o m b e i n g t o t a l l y a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o t h e C h i n e s e c o m m u n i t y * T h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e w i t h t h e L i c l a n * T h a t t h e y were o r i g i n a l l y non— 33 C h i n e s e seems t o h a v e b e e n a w e l l - k n o w n f a c t . T h e y were r e f e r r e d t o b y t h e p e o p l e o f S h e n s i a s t h e P a c l a n o r Pa T i a n d l a t e r h i s t o r i c a l a c c o u n t s a r e c a r e f u l t o s t r e s s t h a t t h e y a r e o r i g i n a l l y T s u n g . 6 9 H o w e v e r b y t h i s t i m e t h e y must h a v e b e e n so S i n i c i z e d as t o p r e s e n t no s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e C h i n e s e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e r e g i o n . T h e y w e r e e d u c a t e d i n t h e C h i n e s e l a n g u a g e , f o r members o f t h e L i f a m i l y h a d h e l d g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c e s p r i o r t o t h e m i g r a t i o n a n d L i H s i a n g h a d e v e n b e e n r e c o m m e n d e d a s ' f i l i a l a n d p u r e * ( h s i a o - l j e n ), a l a r g e l y h o n o r a r y t i t l e u s e d t o r e c r u i t t h o s e o f e x c e p t i o n a l p r o m i s e , b o t h l i t e r a r y a n d m o r a l , f o r p o s i t i o n s i n t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t . 7 0 F u r t h e r , t h e i r f o l l o w e r s w e r e a t t a c h e d t o them b y t i e s o f g r a t i t u d e a n d m u t u a l s e l f — i n t e r e s t r a t h e r t h a n t h e c l a i m s t o r o y a l t y f o u n d among t h e T i s t i l l i n a t r i b a l l e v e l o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . F i n a l l y , when L i T * e l a t e r f o r g e d a w a n t e d p o s t e r he d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o l i s t h i s L i c l a n among t h e ' p o w e r f u l f a m i l i e s o f t h e s i x c o m m a n d e r i e s ' a s o p p o s e d t o t h e n o n — C h i n e s e T i . 7 1 I t was i n e v i t a b l e t h a t a l a r g e g r o u p s u c h as t h i s s h o u l d c a u s e s e r i o u s d i s l o c a t i o n s when e n t e r i n g a new a r e a . F a c e d w i t h t h e n e c e s s i t y o f o b t a i n i n g s u s t e n a n c e t h e m i g r a n t s seem t o h a v e f o l l o w e d two p a t h s . T h e f i r s t was t o h i r e t h e m s e l v e s o u t a s l a b o r e r s t o l a n d l o r d s o f t h e S z e c h w a n r e g i o n i n r e t u r n f o r a p o r t i o n o f t h e p r o d u c e . 7 2 T h e s e c o n d was t o m a i n t a i n t h e g r o u p i n g s f o r m e d d u r i n g m i g r a t i o n a n d r e l y u p o n c o m b i n e d m i l i t a r y m i g h t t o f o r c i b l y a c q u i r e t h e n e c e s s i t i e s o f l i f e . The L i c l a n c h o s e t h i s 34 l a t t e r p a t h * C h a o C h ' i n , who o r i g i n a l l y h a i l e d f r o m P a — h s i , j u s t a s t h e L i c l a n d i d , r e c r u i t e d them t o s e r v e a s h i s h e n c h m e n * The jghin., S h u d e s c r i b e s t h e i r a c t i o n s a t t h i s t i m e as ' e n g a g i n g s o l e l y i n r o b b e r y and p l u n d e r ' • 7 3 H o w e v e r t h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n may be c o l o r e d b y t h e C h i n S h u e d i t o r s ' p r e j u d i c e t o w a r d s C h a o C h ' i n a n d t h e L i c l a n , b o t h o f whom l a t e r r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t t h e c e n t r a l C h i n a u t h o r i t y * L i H s i a n g i s m e n t i o n e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f a r e b e l l i o n of n o n — C h i n e s e p e o p l e s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d and h e l d t h e o f f i c e o f G r a n d A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f C h ' i e n — w e i 7 4 » a n d t h i s c a n n o t be d i s m i s s e d a s s i m p l e ' r o b b e r y a n d p l u n d e r ' • R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e e x a c t n a t u r e o f t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e L i c l a n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d i t i s u n d e n i a b l e t h a t a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e e n t r y o f t h e m i g r a n t s was a p e r i o d o f s e v e r a l y e a r s o f w a r , f i r s t b e t w e e n t h e m i g r a n t s a n d C h a o C h ' i n a n d t h e n b e t w e e n t h e m i g r a n t s and Luo S h a n g * T h i s p l u s t h e a d d e d b u r d e n o f f e e d i n g t h e e x t r a p o p u l a t i o n g a v e r i s e t o a s e c o n d wave o f m i g r a t i o n , t h i s t i m e f r o m S z e c h w a n * T h i s g r o u p o f m i g r a n t s was c o m p o s e d p r i m a r i l y o f f o r m e r i n h a b i t a n t s o f S z e c h w a n , d r i v e n o u t by t h e n e w c o m e r s , t h o u g h no d o u b t some m i g r a n t s f r o m S h e n s i a l s o c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h S z e c h w a n t o o t h e r r e g i o n s * A g a i n t h e r e were two p r i m a r y r o u t e s o f m i g r a t i o n , t h e f i r s t d e s c e n d i n g t h e Y a n g -t z e to t h e e a s t t o C h i n g p r o v i n c e ( m o d e r n H u p e i a n d H u n a n ) , t h e s e c o n d i n t o t h e s p a r s e l y s e t t l e d r e g i o n s t o t h e s o u t h ( m o d e r n K u e i c h o w a n d Y u n n a n ) * T h i s wave o f m i g r a t i o n was l a r g e e n o u g h t o s e r i o u s l y d e c r e a s e t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f S z e c h w a n i n s p i t e o f t h e l a r g e n u m b e r s o f i m m i g r a n t s f r o m 35 t h e n o r t h . 7 5 T h u s we r e a d t h a t u p o n t h e c a p t u r e o f Nan— c h e n g i n t h e Han—chung r e g i o n t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n was moved t o S z e c h w a n i n o r d e r t o make up f o r a p o r t i o n o f t h e l o s t p o p u l a t i o n . 7 6 I t i s a n o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n t o t r e a t t h e s e movements i n t e r m s o f d e f i n a b l e g r o u p s . T h e s e r o u t e s o f m i g r a t i o n w e r e f o l l o w e d i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s t h r o u g h o u t C h i n e s e h i s t o r y . F o r t h e r e g i o n a n d e r a u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e m i g r a t i o n s c e n t e r i n g a r o u n d t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y were no d o u b t t h e most i m p o r t a n t , b u t i t i s l i k e l y t h a t p e o p l e c o n t i n u e d t o m i g r a t e f r o m t h e S h e n s i — K a n s u r e g i o n i n t o S z e c h w a n a n d f r o m t h e S z e c h w a n r e g i o n t o t h e s o u t h a n d e a s t w h e n e v e r t h e r e was i n t e r n a l d i s o r d e r o r n a t u r a l c a l a m i t y . D u r i n g L i S h o u ' s r e i g n ( 3 3 8 - 3 4 3 ) t h e p o p u l a t i o n h a d d e c r e a s e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t S h o u o r d e r e d e v e r y h o u s e h o l d w i t h o v e r t h r e e a d u l t s i n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a t o b e moved to C h ' e n g — t u i n o r d e r t o b o l s t e r t h e p o p u l a t i o n . 7 7 T h u s we s e e t h a t t h e s e m i g r a t i o n s p o s e d a c o n s t a n t p r o b l e m t o w h o e v e r was i n c o n t r o l o f t h e r e g i o n a n d a l w a y s t e n d e d t o be a d e s t a b i l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e . 3 6 T A g l S M AND FAN C» * ANG—SB.F.NG T h e r e g i o n o f S z e c h w a n h a s b e e n o f s i n g u l a r i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e l i g i o u s T a o i s m * D u r i n g t h e t i m e when K u n g - s u n S h u e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f t h e r e i n d e p e n d e n t l y i t was t h e s i t e o f t h e c r e a t i o n o f many o f t h e a p o c r y p h a l d o c u m e n t s * T h e s e a p o c r y p h a were p r o g n o s t i c a t i o n s m a k i n g u s e o f c u r r e n t l y a c c e p t e d e s o t e r i c k n o w l e d g e i n a a t t e m p t t o i n f l u e n c e t h e p o l i t i c a l w o r l d * Many o f t h e b e l i e f s b a s i c t o t h e s e a p o c r y p h a , s u c h a s t h e F i v e E l e m e n t s ( w u — h s i n g * J ) t h e o r y a n d i t s i n f i n i t e c o r r e l a t i v e s i n t h e r e a l m s o f c o l o r , t a s t e , s o u n d and d i r e c t i o n , w e r e t h e s t o c k i n t r a d e o f a g r o u p o f shamans o r m a g i c i a n s who h e l d g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e i n p o p u l a r r e l i g i o u s l i f e * T h i s g r o u p h a d a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s T a o i s m * I n t h e l a t e s e c o n d c e n t u r y o f o u r e r a g r o u p s o f p e o p l e b e g a n t o a r i s e a r o u n d r e l i g i o u s f i g u r e s i n b o t h t h e S z e c h w a n r e g i o n a n d i n s o u t h — c e n t r a l C h i n a * 7 8 T h e s e g r o u p s came t o h o l d p o l i t i c a l a s w e l l as r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e i r b e l i e v e r s * A l t h o u g h i t may be o v e r s t a t i n g t h e c a s e t o d e s c r i b e them a s m i l l e n a r i a n t h e y d i d h a v e a c o n c e p t i o n o f a t h e o c r a c y w h i c h w o u l d c a r r y o u t c o m p a r a t i v e l y r a d i c a l s o c i a l r e f o r m s * T h i s t e n d e n c y i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e t e r m u s e d to d e s c r i b e t h e g r o u p a c t i v e i n c e n t r a l C h i n a * T h e y were c a l l e d t h e Way o f t h e G r e a t P e a c e a n d t h e y h o p e d t o e s t a b l i s h a U t o p i a , a l a n d o f e t e r n a l p e a c e , as t h e name s u g g e s t s • I n S z e c h w a n t h e p r i m a r y f i g u r e c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h i s movement was C h a n g g i n a l l y 37 f r o m K i a n g a u b u t h i s g r a n d f a t h e r L i n g h a d moved t o S h u i n o r d e r t o p u r s u e T a o i s t s t u d i e s * L i n g f i r s t b e g a n a c c e p t i n g f o l l o w e r s a n d r e c e i v e d f i v e b u s h e l s o f r i c e f r o m e a c h new member o f h i s c h u r c h * T h i s c u s t o m was m a i n t a i n e d a n d f r o m i t d e r i v e s one of t h e common names f o r t h i s g r o u p , t h e Way o f t h e F i v e B u s h e l s o f S i c e * C h a n g L i n g t r a n s m i t t e d h i s p o s i t i o n t o h i s s o n H e n g ^ J , who i n t u r n t r a n s m i t t e d i t t o h i s s o n L u * I n f a c t t h e r e i s no h a r d h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h i s g r o u p o f T a o i s t a d h e r e n t s b e f o r e C h a n g L u * We d o know t h a t L u ' s m o t h e r was some s o r t o f a s h a n a n e s s a n d e x e r c i s e d a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e P a s t o r o f I p r o v i n c e L i u Y e n Y e n e n t r u s t e d C h a n g L u w i t h i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n s a n d d i s p a t c h e d h i m t o t h e Ban—chung r e g i o n * Be was s t i l l t h e r e when Y e n d i e d a n d h i s s o n L i u C h a n g t?'| s u c c e e d e d t o . h i s p o s i t i o n * C h a n g k i l l e d L u ' s m o t h e r a n d a l l h e r r e l a t i v e s * C h a n g L u c o n s e q u e n t l y r e b e l l e d a n d e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f i n d e p e n d e n t l y i n Han— c h u n g • F r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g one o f C h a n g L u ' s g r e a t e s t s o u r c e s o f s u p p o r t came f r o m t h e P a p e o p l e . 8 0 T h e Pa r e g i o n was c o n t i g u o u s w i t h Han—chung and t h e c u s t o m s o f t h e Pa p e o p l e made them r e c e p t i v e t o t h e r e l i g i o u s i d e a s e s p o u s e d b y C h a n g L u * In h i s t o r i c a l s o u r c e s we r e a d t h a t t h e y ' a l l s e r v e d g h o s t s a n d s p i r i t s * a n d t h a t t h e y ' r e v e r e d a n d b e l i e v e d i n s h a m a n s ' * 8 1 L a r g e n u m b e r s o f Pa p e o p l e moved f r o m t h e Fa r e g i o n t o Han—chung i n o r d e r t o f o l l o w C h a n g L u * Among t h e s e m i g r a t i n g p e o p l e w e r e t h e a n c e s t o r s o f t h e L i c l a n * T h u s b y t h e t i m e o f L i H s i u n g t h e L i c l a n h a d b e e n 38 T a o i s t s f o r a t l e a s t f o u r g e n e r a t i o n s * I t i s t h e n a t u r e o f C h i n e s e h i s t o r i c a l s o u r c e s t o c e n t e r u p o n t h e o f f i c i a l l i f e o f a c l a s s o f g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s * R e f e r e n c e s t o T a o i s m o c c u r o n l y when t h e y i n t r u d e u p o n t h e p o l i t i c a l w o r l d , s u c h a s when a T a o i s t r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r r e v o l t s * P r a c t i c a l l y no m e n t i o n i s made o f i t s c o n t i n u i n g i n f l u e n c e u p o n the l i v e s o f a d h e r e n t s * The T a o i s t c h u r c h s e t u p a c o m m u n i t y o f f o l l o w e r s who s h a r e d a l i f e s t y l e a s w e l l a s a s e t o f b e l i e f s * One o f t h e more c o m m o n l y m e n t i o n e d f e a t u r e s o f C h a n g L u ' s c h u r c h was t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f H o u s e s o f R i g h t e o u s n e s s ( i r s h e ^ "S ) w h e r e g r a i n a n d meat w o u l d be s e t o u t f r e e f o r t h e t a k i n g , on t h e s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t one e a t o n l y h i s f i l l a n d no more u n d e r t h r e a t o f d i v i n e r e t r i b u t i o n * 8 2 F u r t h e r , b e l i e v e r s w e r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a s t r i c t h i e r a r c h y o f G h o s t — t r o o p s ( k ^ e i - t g y ), G h o s t — p e o p l e ( k u e i — m i n ^ ^ ) a n d L i b a t i o n e r s ( c h j . - c h l u fj^* iSj ), a l l s e r v i n g a C e l e s t i a l M a s t e r ( t ' i e n — s h i h ^ jjijJ ) • We w o u l d e x p e c t t h a t u n d e r s u c h c o n d i t i o n s b e l i e v e r s w o u l d d e v e l o p a s t r o n g s e n s e o f c o m m u n i t y a n d common p u r p o s e * I b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s s e n s e o f c o m m u n i t y was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n w i n n i n g f o r t h e L i c l a n t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e p o p u l a c e o f S z e c h w a n * We f i r s t s e e e v i d e n c e o f t h i s t y p e o f s u p p o r t i n t h e L i c l a n ' s d e a l i n g s w i t h C h a o C h ' i n . T h e C h i n S h u s e e k s t o e x p l a i n t h e a l l i a n c e b e t w e e n Chao a n d t h e L i ' s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r b o t h h a i l i n g o r i g i n a l l y f r o m P a — h s i c o m m a n d e r y • 8 3 T h i s was no d o u b t a f a c t o r and i t i s n o t u n l i k e l y t h a t C h a o C h ' i n was o f T s u n g s t o c k , j u s t as t h e L i s w e r e . H o w e v e r t h e 39 L i s h a d b e e n l i v i n g i n S h e n s i f o r a v e r y l o n g t i m e p r e v i o u s t o t h i s a n d one w o u l d e x p e c t t h a t s u c h t i e s w o u l d d i m i n i s h o v e r s u c h a l e n g t h o f t i m e * T h e H u a - y a n g K u o — c h i h 8 4 s t a t e s t h a t Chao C h ' i n 1 s a n c e s t o r s h a d a l s o m i g r a t e d i n o r d e r t o f o l l o w C h a n g L u , t h u s t h e y were a l s o f o l l o w e r s o f t h e C e l e s t i a l M a s t e r s e c t o f T a o i s m a n d t h i s must h a v e b e e n i m p r o t a n t i n p r o m o t i n g g o o d r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n C h a o C h ' i n a n d t h e L i s * T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n L i H s i u n g a n d F a n C h ' a n g -s h e n g 8 5 i s much more e x p l i c i t l y p r e s e n t e d i n o u r s o u r c e s * F a n a p p e a r s i n o u r r e c o r d s a s t h e c l a s s i c T a o i s t r e c l u s e * He l i v e d i n s e c l u s i o n c u l t i v a t i n g t h e T a o on C h ' i n g — c h * e n g m o u n t a i n , w h e r e o v e r a t h o u s a n d f a m i l i e s were u n d e r h i s p a t r o n a g e * We r e a d t h a t t h e cornnon p e o p l e s e r v e d h i m l i k e a g o d . 8 6 E v e n h i s name C h * a n g — s h e n g , m e a n i n g ' l o n g l i f e ' , s m a c k s o f t h e q u e s t f o r i m m o r t a l i t y . L i H s i u n g o r i g i n a l l y w i s h e d t o e s t a b l i s h F a n a s r u l e r b u t F a n , i n p r o p e r T a o i s t f a s h i o n , r e f u s e d . C u r t e x t g i v e s e v e r y i n d i c a t i o n t h e L i H s i u n g h a d an e a r n e s t b e l i e f i n a n d r e v e r e n c e f o r t h i s v e n e r a b l e man o f t h e Way. When H s i u n g f i n a l l y a s c e n d e d t h e t h r o n e he made C h ' a n g — s h e n g h i s C h a n c e l l o r a n d h o n o r e d him w i t h t h e t i t l e G r a n d P r e c e p t o r o f t h e F o u r S e a s o n s , E i g h t P e r i o d s a n d H e a v e n a n d E a r t h . 8 7 He a n d h i s f o l l o w e r s were e x e m p t e d f r o m a l l t a x e s . A , man l i k e F a n C h * a n g — s h e n g , r e v e r e d b y t h e common p e o p l e , must h a v e had g r e a t i n f l u e n c e . I n C h i n a t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e r i g h t t o r u l e was a l w a y s b a s e d u p o n t h e p e r s o n a l v i r t u e ( t e ») o f t h e r u l e r * I t was b e c a u s e a man b e h a v e d a c c o r d i n g t o a c c e p t e d 40 standards of p r o p r i e t y and d i s p l a y e d a s t e r l i n g model to h i s f e l l o w s that Heaven chose him to r u l e * One of the t r a d i t i o n a l proofs of such v i r t u o u s r u l e was the a b i l i t y to draw out from s e c l u s i o n those lofty—minded sages who had f l e d c i v i l i z a t i o n because of the depraved s t a t e of the world. In t h i s type of m i l i e u i t i s easy to imagine the weight that the support of a man of Fan Ch*ang—sheng*s s t a t u r e would c a r r y . Fan Ch'ang—sheng d i e d f a i r l y e a r l y i n the r e i g n of L i ' H s i u n g 8 8 however h i s i n f l u e n c e remained and a f t e r Huan Wen had f o r c e d the surrender of L i Shih a group of former Ch'eng-Han s u b j e c t s j o i n e d i n t r y i n g to r e a s s e r t t h e i r independence by pushing forward Ch•ang-sheng•s son Fan Pen as r u l e r of a r e — e s t a b I i s h e d Ch'eng. 8 9 However they were soon subdued. There are a l s o elements i n the makeup of the Ch'eng-Han s t a t e and i n the a c t i o n s cf i t s r u l e r s which some s c h o l a r s have t r i e d to l i n k to T a o i s m . 9 0 Chinese h i s t o r i a n s of the regime have c r i t i c i z e d the Ch'eng r u l e r s f o r not c r e a t i n g c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d ranks with a p p r o p r i a t e sumptuary r u l e s . The 'Confucian* system of thought i s fundamentally a c o n s e r v a t i v e d o c t r i n e which seeks to maintain the s t a t u s quo. A c c o r d i n g l y , they b e l i e v e d i n the value of a r i g i d , predetermined h i e r a r c h y which should be maintained at a l l c o s t s . In p h i l o s o p h i c a l Taoism we do not f i n d a s p e c i f i c r e f u t a t i o n of t h i s d o c t r i n e , and i t would be wrong to see e a r l i e r T a o i s t t h i n k e r s as advocating such modern concepts as the e q u a l i t y of mankind or human r i g h t s , however i n many ways t h e i r p o s i t i o n d i d c o n f l i c t with the 41 p r e v a i l i n g C o n f u c i a n p o s i t i o n * R a t h e r t h a n e g a l i t a r l a n i s m i t w o u l d p e r h a p s be b e t t e r t o s e e a p r i m i t i v e a n a r c h i s m a t t h e r o o t o f t h e s e b e l i e f s * The T a o i s t s b e l i e v e d i n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a g o l d e n a g e i n h i g h a n t i q u i t y b e f o r e man had become c o r r u p t e d b y s o c i e t y a n d t h e m y r i a d r u l e s a n d r e s t r i c t i o n s w h i c h men c r e a t e t o g o v e r n t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s * T h e i r p o s i t i o n w o u l d b e t o s i m p l y i g n o r e a l l d i s t i n c t i o n s o f r a n k a n d s t a t u s , w h i c h a r e a t b e s t t r a n s i t o r y , r a t h e r t h a n t h e a c t i v e r e p l a c e m e n t o f t h e s e w i t h some more e g a l i t a r i a n s y s t e m * R e l i g i o u s T a o i s m was a movement t h a t a r o s e f r o m a p e a s a n t b a s e a n d w h i l e t h e r e was a d e f i n i t e h i e r a r c h y w i t h i n t h e c h u r c h i t d o e s n o t seem to h a v e b e e n b a s e d on c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f w e a l t h o r s t a t u s * T h u s i t w o u l d be p r o p e r t o d e s c r i b e t h i s movement a s i n a s e n s e e g a l i t a r i a n * Now w h a t we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h i n t h e c a s e o f L i H s i u n g a n d h i s s u c c e s s o r s i s n o t t h e e l e v a t i o n o f men f r o m t h e l o w e r l e v e l s o f s o c i e t y , b u t r a t h e r t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e t r a p p i n g s a n d r e g a l i a o f o f f i c e a s w e l l a s a f i x e d s y s t e m f o r t h e a p p o i n t m e n t a n d p r o m o t i o n o f o f f i c i a l s * W h i l e i n some a s p e c t s t h i s s i t u a t i o n c a n be r e l a t e d t o t h e i d e a s o f s i m p l i c i t y e s p o u s e d b y p h i l o s o p h i c a l T a o i s t s I s e e no n e c e s s a r y c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e T a o i s t c h u r c h * The f o l l o w e r s of C h a n g L u seem t o h a v e had a v e r y w e l l — d e f i n e d b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e w h i c h c o n t r a s t s s t r o n g l y w i t h what i s r e p o r t e d f o r C h ' e n g — H a n * When we r e a d i n t h e b i o g r a p h i e s o f L i C h ' i a n d L i S h i h t h a t t h e y i g n o r e d the e s t a b l i s h e d c o u r t o f f i c i a l s and p r o m o t e d new f i g u r e s t o h i g h p o s i t i o n s i t i s p r o b a b l y b e s t t o s e e t h e s e a c t i o n s a s t h e r e s u l t o f 42 f a c t i o n a l i s m and the attempt of an emperor to gather around him a group of m i n i s t e r s who were p e r s o n a l l y l o y a l to him* R.A. S t e i n 9 1 has attempted to l i n k t h i s type o f s t a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n , or l a c k t h e r e o f , with accounts i n Chinese h i s t o r i c a l works concerning l a Ch'in, a term which seems o r i g i n a l l y to have r e f e r r e d to the Roman empire but which S t e i n b e l i e v e s came to be used f o r the name of a U t o p i a upon which T a o i s t concepts of the p e r f e c t s t a t e were p r o j e c t e d , and the surrounding a b o r i g i n e s * He f i n d s i n the proto-democratlc s e l e c t i o n of le a d e r s w i t h i n t r i b e s without h e r e d i t a r y r u l e r s the source f o r the e g a l i t a r i a n i s m o f r e l i g i o u s Taoism* T h i s suggests that even i f we can d i s c e r n some s o r t of e g a l i t a r i a n i s m w i t h i n the Ch'eng-Han s t a t e which can be compared to that a t t r i b u t e d to the T a o i s t church i t may a r i s e from the L i c l a n ' s non—Chinese o r i g i n r a t h e r than any d i r e c t connection to the church* I t h i n k i t i s b e t t e r to search f o r the reasons f o r the l a c k of a c l e a r c u t h i e r a r c h y i n the Ch'eng-Han s t a t e i n the c u r r e n t p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n and the nature o f the L i f a m i l y ' s power* Ch'eng-Han was a non—Chinese s t a t e i n r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t the recognized l e g i t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y and surrounded by other r e b e l s * L i Hsiung*s p o l i c y of r e a p p o i n t i n g to t h e i r o r i g i n a l post a l l those who submitted to him allowed the continuance of l o c a l c e n t e r s of power w i t h i n and on the borders of h i s s t a t e * I t must have been tempting f o r any l o c a l l e a d er acknowledging Ch'eng-Han s o v e r e i g n t y to switch s i d e s i f he f e l t he was not being accorded the treatment he deserved* There were c e r t a i n l y other p l a c e s where he could 43 a l w a y s t u r n f o r a i d i n r e s i s t i n g t h e L i s . T h i s i s shown b y t h e r e p e a t e d s u r r e n d e r a n d r e b e l l i o n o f t h e T i l e a d e r s Y a n g N a n — t i , Wei Wen e t c . a s w e l l a s C h i n e s e o f f i c i a l s s u c h a s L i I a n d h i s s o n L i C h a o . We s h o u l d a l s o c o n s i d e r t h e o r i g i n s of t h e L i c l a n ' s s u p p o r t . T h e y were p u s h e d f o r w a r d b y f e l l o w i m m i g r a n t s f r o m t h e S h e n s i r e g i o n . D u r i n g t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e d y n a s t y t h e b u r e a u c r a c y was s t a f f e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e i j ? f e l l o w m i g r a n t s who h a d known t h e f a m i l y b e f o r e i t s p r e c i p i t o u s r i s e t o p o w e r . L i T ' e a n d h i s r e l a t i v e s h a d g a i n e d t h e i r s u p p o r t t h r o u g h a c t s o f c h a r i t y a n d g o o d w i l l , n o t b e c a u s e o f m i l i t a r y m i g h t . I t i s t o be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e s e f r i e n d s a n d f e l l o w m i g r a n t s w o u l d h a v e h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n s when one o f t h e i r number r o s e t o s u c h h i g h p o s i t i o n , a n d i f t h e s e e x p e c t a t i o n s were n o t met d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was i n e v i t a b l e . T h i s s i t u a t i o n was e x a c e r b a t e d by t h e l a c k o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f members o f t h e L i c l a n . O n l y L i H s l a n g I s r e c o r d e d t o h a v e h e l d o t h e r t h a n a m i l i t a r y p o s t u n d e r t h e C h i n a n d he d i e d b e f o r e L i T ' e d e c l a r e d h i s i n d e p e n d e n c e . N o r do we f i n d a g r e a t d e a l o f e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e c o n d u c t o f g o v e r n m e n t among h i s f o l l o w e r s . T h e s e f a c t o r s a l l t e n d e d t o d i m i n i s h t h e a m o u n t o f c o n t r o l t h e C h ' e n g - H a n r u l e r c o u l d e x e r t o v e r h i s o f f i c i a l s . T h u s , w h i l e i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o e x c l u d e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f some f o r m o f T a o i s t t h o u g h t , p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r r e l i g i o u s , u p o n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f C h ' e n g - H a n , c o n s i d e r a b l y more e v i d e n c e c o n c e r n i n g t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s t a t e w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o a f f i r m i t . T h e r e i s a n o t h e r i n c i d e n t w h i c h i s i n t e r e s t i n g b e c a u s e 44 i t i n v o l v e s the p e r s o n a l conduct of the Ch'eng r u l e r L i Hsiung* When L i Hsiung's mothers d i e d i t i s recorded that he was g r e a t l y d i s t r a u g h t and d i d not wish to bury h e r * 9 2 R.A. S t e i n claims t h a t t h i s was the p r a c t i c e among the f o l l o w e r s o f Ch*en J u i a man who r a i s e d a T a o i s t r e b e l l i o n i n the Szechwan re g i o n i n 2 7 6 * 9 3 I f true t h i s would indeed be a s u b s t a n t i v e l i n k between L i Hsiung and r e l i g i o u s Taoism* u n f o r t u n a t e l y I have been unable to f i n d any r e f e r e n c e which mentions t h i s custom i n connection with Ch'en J u i • In any case* I b e l i e v e i t i s safe to say that the L i c l a n were adherents of r e l i g i o u s Taoism and that t h i s b e l i e f a f f i l i a t i o n was important i n g a i n i n g the support of f e l l o w b e l i e v e r s * 45 INTRODUCTION - NOTES 1 L i H s i u n g d e c l a r e d t h e naae o f h i s s t a t e to be C h ' e n g when a s c e n d i n g t h e i m p e r i a l t h r c n e i n 306* L i S h o u c h a n g e d t h e name t o Han u p o n h i s a c c e s s i o n i n 334. T h e S h i h - l i u Kuo C h ' u n - C h 1 i u r e f e r s t o t h e s t a t e a s Hou S h u w h i l e C h ' a n g C h ' u w r o t e a h i s t o r y o f t h e s t a t e w h i c h was i n i t i a l l y c a l l e d t h e Book o f Han a n d l a t e r r e n a m e d t h e Book o f t h e L i s o f S h u ( S h u L i s h u % ) . 2 T h i s h i s t o r i c a l s u r v e y i s b a s e d u p o n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c h a p t e r s o f t h e T z u — c h i n t ' u n a — c h i e n a n d t h e A n n a l s o f t h e C h i n S h u a s w e l l a s L a o K a n , Welt C h i n , N a n - p e l c h ' a o s h i h , p p . 37-67 a n d M l y a k a w a H i s a y u k i (1967), p p . 38-72. Huang F a n — k u a n g ' s a r t i c l e on t h e h i s t o r y o f C h ' e n g — H a n was a l s o o f g r e a t u s e . 3 A n o t h e r a i m o f t h e d e m o b i l i z a t i o n was t h e c o n f i s c a t i o n o f w e a p o n s w h i c h c o u l d b e m i n t e d i n t o m o n e y . T h i s e f f o r t was u n s u c c e s s f u l as m o s t o f t h e r e t i r i n g s o l d i e r s k e p t t h e i r w e a p o n s , a n d i n f a c t i t c o n t r i b u t e d t o l a t e r d i s t u r b a n c e s a s q a n y s o l d i e r s s o l d t h e s e w e a p o n s t o n o n — C h i n e s e on t h e n o r t h e r n f r o n t i e r . 4 Huang F a n — k u a n g , p . 138 r e f e r s t o C h a o C h ' l n ' s t i e s b y m a r r i a g e t o E m p r e s s C h i a a s d o e s M l y a k a w a H i s a y u k i (1967) p .60 b u t I h a v e b e e n u n a b l e t o f i n d a n y a l l u s i o n t o t h i s f a c t i n o r i g i n a l s o u r c e s . 46 5 See L a o K a n , p p . 62—3. 6 Hou Han S h u 86/2840. H e r e a f t e r a b b r e v i a t e d H H S . 7 See t h e s e c t i o n on s o u r c e s a b o v e , n o t e 46. 8 HHS S6/2842-3. 9 L u Ssu—mien (1948), p . 77 r e j e c t s t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n . He b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e p e o p l e w e r e o r i g i n a l l y r e f e r r e d t o a s T s u n g , a n d t h a t t h e c o w r i e r a d i c a l ( .p_ei d e n o t i n g m o n e y ) was a d d e d t o t h i s c h a r a c t e r t o s p e c i f y t h e t a x w h i c h t h e s e T s u n g p e o p l e p a i d . T h i s p o s i t i o n h a s b e e n r e f u t e d b y C h a o L i - s h e n g i n h i s a r t i c l e " ' T s u n g J e n ' y u ' T s u n g J e n ' 10 T s o C h u a n 35 / H u a n 9/2. 11 S h e n g ' s w o r k , o f L i u S u n g d a t e , i s c i t e d i n HHS 86/2840, n . 3. Y a n g S h o u r c f c l n g , S h u i C h i n e c h u - s . h u , 37/33a - b . 12 S e c t i o n 50. 13 M i i ^ n e l _ i l v i n & - c h l h ( 1934 ), p . 187. 14 K u T s u - y u , 86/3513. T i^ra j .ng 1401.3 s a y s t h a t t h i s 47 p r e f e c t u r e was e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e C h i n * T ' u n e T i e n 997.3 s a y s t h a t t h e o r i g i n o f t h e C h * i n g C h i a n g i s T u - t * i n g M o u n t a i n %f ~% uV\ . T i - m i n g 948.4 g i v e s a l o c a t i o n f o r t h i s m o u n t a i n two h u n d r e d l i n o r t h w e s t o f S h i h — n a n . T h i s i s i m p o s s i b l e a s i t w o u l d n e c e s s i t a t e t h a t t h e r i v e r c r o s s t h e Y a n g - r - t z e . 15 HHS 86/2840, n . 2. I t i s u n c e r t a i n what H u i T u n g ' s s o u r c e was s i n c e t h e S h i h P e n was l o s t b y h i s t i m e a n d none o f t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s c o l l e c t e d i n S h i h P e n p a c h u n g g i v e s t h i s r e a d i n g . 16 H s u C h u n g - s h u (1959), p . 32. 17 T l - m i n g 509.2. CJa^jaa-ya^fl JisJ^gn c h i h ^ f% %r q u o t e d i n t h e s u b c o m m e n t a r y t o S h u i C h i n a chu—shu 37/32a. 18 ^ h x t i T n a q h s i n r c h j y f u - c h i h h e - p J A P 75^  iltf %, JH -Mf? * l 8 7 i ) 4/4a. T h e same w o r k m e n t i o n s a C h u n g — l i S h a n w e s t o f t h e w a l l e d c i t y b u t d o e s n e t c o n n e c t i t t o L i n C h u n * 19 Sfayj China, chu-shu 37/32a. 20 •gs.u.-Sfo'uah cJa'uatn-Kuan-tsanfi £archy eh .eao;-kao ( 1960 ). 21 I b i d . , p . 88. 48 22 HYKC 1 /3 . 23 Ssu—ch'uan ch'uan-kuan-tsane fa-chueh cao-kao ( 1 9 6 0 ) , p. 5 4 ; Wei Chu-hsien, "Pa-Shu wen hua ( 2 ) " , p p . 6 4 -7 0 ; Hsu Chung—shu, pp. 3 6 - 4 4 . Hsu t r i e s to show p a r a l l e l s between elements of t h i s Pa ' s c r i p t ' and the p i c t o g r a p h i c s c r i p t used by the Nakhi. ( 1 9 6 0 ) , p. 8 6 . Elements which we here d e f i n e as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Pa c u l t u r e are found i n b u r i a l s i t e s i n the Shu r e g i o n only i n l a t e Warring S t a t e s p e r i o d , presumably a f t e r the Ch'in conquest of the two r e g i o n s . 25 The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s based on L i n g Shun-sheng, BIHP 2 3 / 2 , pp. 6 3 9 - 7 9 . 26 L i n g c i t e s t r a v e l d i a r i e s of two Ch'ing dynasty w r i t e r s , Hsu Ts' uan-ts'eng ^ K! * a n d Wang Ch'ang J £N3 who report c l i f f b u r i a l s with boats. L i n g , p. 6 4 4 . 27 I b i d . , p. 6 4 5 . 28 HYKC 1/7.1 records a memorial by the Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Pa commandery, one Tan Wang^j_.^?r , i n which he mentions that over f i v e hundred f a m i l i e s were l i v i n g on boats at the confluence of the Yang—tze and C h i a -49 l i n g R i v e r s * 29 I b i d . 1/2.10. 30 S e e S h j h . C h i 70/2281-2. 31 T'aA-p'ing huan-yU.. ghj , 76/2b; T'yng T i e n 185/985.1. 32 L i n H u i - < - h s l a n g , v . I, p . 138-44. 33 See S h a n a S h u cfteng—j ( S h j h - s a n c h i n a c h u - s h u e d . ), l l/15b; T s o C h u a n 370 / C h a o 9/2; C h / u n - c h * l u I s o C h u a n c h e n a - i , ( S h i h - s a n c h i n a c h u - s h u e d . )» 20/3a. 34 Ma C h » a n g - s h o u (1941). 35 D a v i d C r o c k e t t Graham (1954), p . 185-200. 36 J e r r y Norman a n d T s u — l i n M e i , p p . 276—77. 37 See A . L a n d e s , " L e s m o e u r s e t s u p e r s t i t i o n s p o p u l a i r e d e s A n n a m i t e s ( 1 ) " , p . 355 a n d M r s . L e s l i e M i l n e (1924), p . 355. 38 Among s c h o l a r s m a k i n g t h i s m i s t a k e a r e L a o K a n (1971), p . 53; T ' a n g C h ' a n g - j u (1955), p . 145; H u a n g F a n -k u a n g , p . 119; a n d F u L e - c h ' e n e (1968), v o l . I , p . 266. The 50 e r r o r of t h i s p o s i t i o n i s pointed out c l e a r l y by Chang Kuan-ying, (1957), p. 70. 39 The s t a t e was o r i g i n a l l y c a l l e d Ch'eng . When L i Shou assumed the throne i n 338 he changed the name to Han 40 The t s a i — c h j, comprise t h i r t y chapters of the Chin Shu d e a l i n g with s t a t e s which d i d not accept the s o v e r e i g n t y of the c e n t r a l government. 41 See Michael Rogers, The C h r o n i c l e of Fu Chien: A Case of Exemplar H i s t o r y ( B e r k e l e y : u n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1968) pp. 15-6. The o r i g i n a l decree i s recorded i n T'ang Huj-yao (Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1935, Kuo-hsueh chi-pen ts'ung-shu ed. ) 69/1091. See a l s o Yang Lien—sheng, "Notes on the Economic H i s t o r y o f the Chin Dynasty" i n Studie s i n Chipese I n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y (Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard-Yenching I n s t i t u t e , 1961) p. 119-120, who, basing h i m s e l f on the Chiu T'ang S*m t h i n k s t h a t the work was begun i n 644 and that the decree of 646 merely reconfirmed appointments. 42 L i u , C h i h - c h i %}\ , Shih-t'una t'una-shih ^-^.iSL^^ ( Kuo-hsueh chi-pen ts'ung-shu ed. 1935 ) 10/v.2, p.39. See a l s o Rogers, p.16. 43 Rogers, p. 32-73. 51 44 B e s i d e s t h e w o r k s d i s c u s s e d b e l o w I h a v e a l s o made u s e o f t h e T z u — c h i h t ' u n e - c h i e n ^ V« jitL^fiz. b y Ssu—ma K u a n g , 4 v o l . , ( P e k i n g , 1957). 45 The Hua—yana K u o — c h i h g i v e s a f u l l e r a c c o u n t o f e v e n t s , b u t e v e n t s d u r i n g t h e r e i g n o f L i H s i u n g a r e d i v i d e d b e t w e e n two c h a p t e r s (8 a n d 9) a n d t e x t u a l p r o b l e m s a r e much more s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n i n t h e C h i n S h u • 46 HHS 86/2840. Comments c o n c e r n i n g t h e P a p e o p l e a n d Han K a o — t s u may be b a s e d o n 86/2842, b u t o t h e r s o u r c e s a l s o r e c o r d t h i s . 47 F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e t e x t u a l h i s t o r y o f t h e Hou Han S h u s e e H a n s B i e l e n s t e i n , " T h e R e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e Han d y n a s t y " , B u l l e t i n o f t h e Museuit o f F a r E a s t e r n A n t i q u i t i e s 26 ( 1954): 9-20 a n d L i ao C h l - l a n g / | ^ , L i a n a - C h i n s h i h -pu i - c h i k ' a o $j ~% ^  ^ J§ ( T a i p e i : C h i a - h s i n s h u i - n i k u n g - s s u , 1966) p p . 59-73. 48 See t h e C h e n g - i j E - %^ c o m m e n t a r y t o S h i h C h i 1/1. 49 See a b o v e , p . 16. 50 S s u - m a P i a o : X . ' a . j - p 1 86/2849. Hua C h ' i a o : T ' a i - p ' i 86/2849. I f t h e s e p a s s a g e s 820/2b-3a and HHS 808/lb, 3b and HHS are i d e n t i f i e d c o r r e c t l y the 52 T P Y L e d i t o r s h a v e somewhat a b r i d g e d them* 51 C h i n S h u 9 8 / 2 5 6 8 . 52 Y e n C h i h - t ' u i / | 2 - . X § n , - s h i h , c h i a - h s y n % 1\ %L t«| ( S h a n g h a i : K u o - h s u e h c h i - p e n e d . 1937) 6 /147 i d e n t i f i e s t h e Han c h i h S h u w i t h t h e § h y L% Sjju • L i u C h i h - c h i , S h j h , ; - t ' u j a a t 1 u n g - s h l h 12/ 39 r e c o r d s t h a t C h ' a n g C h u w r o t e a Han Shu i n t e n c h u a n a n d t h a t i t s name was c h a n g e d t o S h u L i S h u when i t e n t e r e d t h e I m p e r i a l L i b r a r y ' s c o l l e c t i o n * 53 See C h a n g T s u n g — y u a n . S y i — s h u c h i n a — c h i c h i h k* ao— c h e n s , E r h - s h i h - w u s h i h p u o i e n e d . , p . 4 9 7 0 . 54 T P Y L 8 1 1 / 7 b . C f . C h i n S h u 1 2 1 / 3 0 4 0 . 9 - 1 0 . 55 L i C h ' i ' s p r e f a c e i s r e p r i n t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e modern K u o - h s u e h c h i — p e n t s ' u n g — s h u e d i t i o n o f t h e JLya.— y a n . g _ K u o-Tchii3 • ) 56 HYKC 9 / 1 2 8 . 1 . 57 Wei S h o u 4"^  Wei , § h u ( P e k i n g : C h u n g - h u a s h u - c h i i , 1974 ) 6 7 / 1 5 0 4 - 5 . 58 In t h e p a s s a g e c i t e d a b o v e L i u C h i h - c h i a l s o makes r e f e r e n c e t o t h e H u a - y a n a K u o - f c h i h . In h i s c o m m e n t a r y t o t h i s p a s s a g e P ' u C h ' i — l u n g c l a i m s t h a t b o t h t h e s e w o r k s 53 were u s e d i n t h e c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h e S h l h ^ l i u kuo c h ' u n -cfo* i u • T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y p o s s i b l e h u t t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e f o r i t . 59 C o m p a r e t h e p a s s a g e c i t e d a t T P Y L 398/6a t o t h e S h i h - l i u k u o c h ' u n - c h ' i y v e r s i o n q u o t e d a t T P Y L 123/7a a n d t h e HYKC v e r s i o n , HYKC 9/119.8. C h a p t e r 123 o f t h e T ' a i -p ' i n g y u — l a n i s t h e s o u r c e f o r ncost o f what s u r v i v e s f r o m t h e S h i h — l i u k u o c h 1 u p - c h ' l u c o n c e r n i n g C h ' e n g - H a n . S o g e r s , p . 20, b e l i e v e s t h i s c h a p t e r may d e r i v e d i r e c t l y f r o m a n a b r i d g e d v e r s i o n r a t h e r t h a n t h e f u l l 100 c h y a n e d i t i o n . 60 The passage c i t e d above appears i n a very truncated form i n the Chin SfrM • H e r e we may compare T P Y L 363/3a, 123/7a and CS 121/3035.10. 61 Wei Shu 96/2110-2113. 62 C h o u I - I i a n g )% " ^ , W e i - C h i n N a n - n e i - c h ' a o s h i h l u n - c h i ( P e k i n g : C h u n g - h u a s h u - c h v i , 1963 ) p p . 245-254. C i t e d i n S o g e r s , p . 22. C h j . n ghu 121/303S.8 s p e a k s o f L i S h o u s e n d i n g e m i s s a r i e s t o a C h i n M u — t i 4^" • A n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l l i n e o c c u r s i n Wei Shu 96/2111.4 w h e r e i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e p e r s o n r e f e r r e d t o i s Wei M u - t i . C h o u b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s l i n e d e r i v e s u l t i m a t e l y f r o m t h e 9hih— l i u k u o c h ' u n — c h ' l u • H e n c e t h i s l i n e d o e s n o t p r o v e t h a t t h e Wej. S h u was u s e d i n c o m p i l i n g t h e C h i n S h u t s a i - c h i • C f . t e x t , p . 148. 54 63 L i u S h a n - l i t " C h i n , H u i - t j s h i h - t a j H a n - t s y c f r i h ta. " t _ _ _ _ _ j i g 4 / 1 1 . p . 1 4 . 64 T C T C 8 2 / 2 6 1 6 - 1 8 . 65 CS 1 2 0 / 3 0 2 2 . 1 3 . The C h i n S h u reacts ' s e v e r a l t e n s o f t h o u s a n d s o f f a m i l i e s ' . I f we assume a f a m i l y s i z e o f f i v e t h i s e a s i l y e x c e e d s one h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d . 66 L i T ' e ' s b i o g r a p h y s t a t e s t h a t h i s a n c e s t o r s h a d m i g r a t e d t o Han—chung i n o r d e r t o j o i n C h a n g L u . L a t e r T ' e ' s g r a n d f a t h e r Hu i^L l e d f i v e h u n d r e d f a m i l i e s t o s e r v e T s ' a o T s ' a o a n d t h e y were s e n t t o L u e h — y a n g i n S h e n s i . CS 1 2 0 / 3 0 2 2 . 8 - 1 0 . 67 CS 1 2 0 / 3 0 2 3 . 1 - 4 . 68 C S 1 2 0 / 3 0 2 5 . 1 3 . HYKC l i s t s s i x s u r n a m e s o f t h e T l l e a d e r s . T h e t e r m " M a r q u i s — K i n g " i s p r o b a b l y a c o m p r o m i s e b e t w e e n t h e T i ' s own a p p e l a t i o n , no d o u b t K i n g ( wans a n d t h e s t a n d a r d S l n o c e n t r i c m e t h o d o f r e f e r r i n g t o f o r e i g n , n o n — C h i n e s e r u l e r s o n l y by t e r m s o f i n f e r i o r r a n k . 69 See t h e s e c t i o n on t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c i d e n t i t y o f t h e s e p e o p l e a b o v e , p . 14 . i 70 CS 1 2 0 / 3 0 3 1 . 6 . He a l s o h e l d v a r i o u s o f f i c e s on t h e 55 c o m n a n d e r y l e v e l , i n c l u d i n g M a s t e r o f R e c o r d s ( q h u - p u ) . 71 CS 1 2 0 / 3 0 2 5 . 1 3 . 72 CS 1 2 0 / 3 0 2 5 . 9 - 1 0 . 73 CS 1 2 0 / 3 0 2 3 . 7 - 8 . S e e a l s o HYKC 8 / 1 0 7 . 6 - 7 . We s h o u l d n o t e i n t h i s r e s p e c t t h a t t h e HYKC was a l s o a work c o m p i l e d a f t e r t h e r e a b s o r p t i o n o f C h ' e n g - H a n i n t o t h e C h i n s t a t e f o r t h e i n t e n d e d c o n s u m p t i o n o f C h i n r e a d e r s . 74 CS 1 2 0 / 3 0 3 1 . 1 2 , HYKC 8 / 1 0 8 . 6 . 75 See T C T C 8 5 / 2 6 8 2 . L i u S h a n - l i ( p . 14 ) e s t i m a t e s t h a t a l t o g e t h e r b e t w e e n s i x a n d s e v e n h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d m i g r a t e d f r o m S z e c h w a n t o t h e e a s t a n d s o u t h d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . T h i s m i g r a t i o n c o n t i n u e d a t an u n d e t e r m i n e d r a t e f o r some t i m e . Tu T ' a o ' s r e b e l l i o n o f 311T-315 i n t h e H u p e i r e g i o n was b a s e d u p o n m i g r a n t s f r o m S z e c h w a n . The m i g r a t i o n s i n t o N i n g p r o v i n c e i n t u r n c o n t r i b u t e d t o a m i g r a t i o n f r o m t h i s p r o v i n c e s o u t h t o C h i a o ^ p r o v i n c e ( m o d e r n K u a n g h s i -K u a n g t u n g a n d n o r t h e r n V i e t n a m ) . See T C T C 8 6 / 2 7 1 9 . 76 CS 1 2 1 / 3 0 3 6 . 1 5 - 3 0 3 7 . 1 . 77 CS 1 2 1 / 3 0 4 5 . 1 4 - * 1 5 . I t seems t h a t a t t h i s s t a g e o f C h i n e s e h i s t o r y t h e r e was no s h o r t a g e o f c u l t i v a b l e l a n d , 56 r a t h e r t h e p r o b l e m was t o f i n d e n o u g h f a r m e r s t o c l e a r and c u l t i v a t e i t . 78 See H o l m e s W e l c h , P a r t i n g o f t h e Way p . 1 1 3 - 2 3 . 79 T h e p r i m a r y s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g C h a n g L u i s S^an K u o C h i h 8 / 2 6 3 - 5 . S e e a l s o HYKC 2 / 1 7 . 80 HYKC 2/17 makes r e p e a t e d r e f e r e n c e t o Pa p e o p l e a l l y i n g t h e m s e l v e s t o C h a n g L u . 81 HHS 8 6 / 2 8 4 0 ; CS 1 2 0 / 3 0 2 2 . 8 . 82 HYKC 2 / 1 7 . 2 . M e r c h a n t s s e l l i n g g o o d s a t i n e q u i t a b l e p r i c e s were t h o u g h t t o f a c e t h e same t y p e o f p u n i s h m e n t . 83 CS 1 2 0 / 3 0 2 3 . 6 . 84 HYKC 8 / 1 0 9 . 1 . 85 T h e o n l y s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e c o n c e r n i n g F a n C h ' a n g -s h e n g i s T ' a n g C h ' a n g - j u , " F a n C h ' a n e - s h e n v u P a - T i c h u S h u t e k u a n - f r s i " • F a n ' s f a m i l y was o r i g i n a l l y f r o m F o u -l i n g , b u t t h e y were t r a n s f e r r e d t o g e t h e r w i t h f i v e t h o u s a n d o t h e r f a m i l i e s t o w e s t e r n S z e c h w a n i n 2 5 1 . (HYKC 1 / 1 1 . 8 - 9 ) A t t h e t i m e o f o u r n a r r a t i v e o v e r one t h o u s a n d o f t h e s e f a m i l i e s h a d p l a c e d t h e m s e l v e s u n d e r F a n ' s p a t r o n a g e . F a n was a l s o c a l l e d Y e n - c h l u ji^ X. and C h i u - c h ' u n g 7L X • O n l y 57 o n e b o o k i s a t t r i b u t e d t o F a n , a work on t h e I C h i n g , and t h i s a t t r i b u t i o n i s b a s e d o n a l a t e r s o u r c e * ( S e e a b o v e , S o u r c e s , n * 5 3 ) * 86 T P Y L 1 2 3 / 7 b . 87 HYKC 9 / 1 2 0 . 3 . CS 1 2 1 / 3 0 3 6 . 9 r e a d s s i m p l y " G r a n d P r e c e p t o r o f H e a v e n a n d E a r t h " . The ' e i g h t p e r i o d s * r e f e r s t o t h e s o l s t i c e s a n d e q u i n o x e s . 88 S K C C , q u o t e d I n T P Y L 123/7b p l a c e s h i s d e a t h i n t h e f o u r t h month o f 3 1 9 . 89 S e e CS 8 / 1 9 4 - 5 , 5 8 / 1 5 8 3 . 90 R . A . S t e i n ( 1 9 6 3 ) p p . 3 3 - 3 5 . 91 i b i d . 92 CS 1 2 0 / 3 0 3 7 . 8 . 93 R . A . S t e i n , p . 3 3 . The o n l y r e f e r e n c e I h a v e b e e n a b l e t o f i n d t o C h ' e n J u i i s HYKC 8 / 1 0 5 . 3 - 6 . T h e r e we f i n d a r e s t r i c t i o n a s t o who i s p e r m i t t e d to e n g a g e i n m o u r n i n g b u t n o t r e j e c t i o n o f t h e p r a c t i c e o f b u r i a l . PTE E 120 59 was a man L A l i s L I T ' e , s o b r i q u e t H s u a n — h s l u AM- f o f T a n g - c h ' u % ^ i n t h e commandery o f P a - h s i H i s a n c e s t o r s were t h e d e s c e n d a n t s o f L i n C h u n ^ 2 * 2 O f o l d W u - l u o C h u n g - l i K Jj m o u n t a i n 3 c o l l a p s e d , r e v e a l i n g two c a v e s , o n e a s r e d a s c i n n a b a r a n d one as b l a c k a s l a c q u e r * A man e m e r g e d f r o m t h e r e d c a v e who was named Wu H s i a n g ^ - ^ 0 , s u r n a m e d Pa • In a l l , f o u r c l a n s e m e r g e d f r o m t h e b l a c k c a v e : i R ^ 4 , F a n ^ f P o ^ l 5 , a n d C h e n g "t-f . T h e s e f i v e c l a n s e m e r g e d t o g e t h e r a n d a l l c o n t e s t e d t o become d i v i n e * * T h e r e u p o n t h e y a s s e m b l e d a n d t h r u s t t h e i r s w o r d s i n t o t h e c a v e r o o f , ( a g r e e i n g t h a t ) he who was a b l e t o make i t s t i c k w o u l d become L i n C h u n * None o f t h e s w o r d s o f t h e o t h e r f o u r s u r n a m e s w o u l d s t i c k b u t Wu H s i a n g ' s s w o r d h u n g f r o m i t * A g a i n , t a k i n g e a r t h t h e y made b o a t s a n d , e m b e l l i s h i n g them w i t h d e s i g n s , f l o a t e d them on t h e w a t e r , s a y i n g , " H e whose b o a t s t a y s a f l o a t we s h a l l t a k e a s L i n C h u n * " A g a i n Wu H s i a n g ' s b o a t a l o n e f l o a t e d . T h e r e u p o n he was c o n s e q u e n t l y p r o c l a i m e d L i n C h u n * B o a r d i n g h i s e a r t h e n b o a t a n d l e a d i n g h i s f o l l o w e r s he d e s c e n d e d t h e I S h u i w a t e r s p i r i t o f Yen—yang s t o p p e d h i m , s a y i n g , " T h i s p l a c e h a s b o t h f i s h a n d s a l t a n d t h e l a n d i s b r o a d and v a s t * I s h a l l l i v e w i t h y o u * Y o u s h o u l d s t a y h e r e a n d t r a v e l no m o r e * " L i n C h u n r e p l i e d , " I am t o be r u l e r a n d i n my s e a r c h f o r a t e r r i t o r y t o s e t t l e I c a n n o t s t o p * " 9 A t n i g h t t h i s s a l t s p i r i t w o u l d l o d g e w i t h L i n Chun b u t i n t h e m o r n i n g s h e w o u l d a l w a y s l e a v e , t u r n i n g i n t o a f l y i n g c r e a t u r e . The ^ . * 7 When he a r r i v e d a t Y e n - y a n g ^ f|8 t h e f e m a l e 6 0 o t h e r s p i r i t s 1 0 w o u l d a l l f o l l o w h e r i n f l i g h t , o b s c u r i n g t h e s u n a n d t u r n i n g d a y l i g h t i n t o d u s k . L i n C h u n w i s h e d t o k i l l h e r b u t c o u l d n ' t d i s t i n g u i s h w h i c h s h e w a s , n o r d i d he h a v e a n y s e n s e o f d i r e c t i o n • T h i s c o n t i n u e d f o r t e n d a y s 1 1 , t h e n L i n C h u n p r e s e n t e d t h e s a l t s p i r i t w i t h a g r e e n t h r e a d , s a y i n g , " W r a p t h i s a r o u n d y o u r n e c k a n d i f y o u f i n d i t s u i t a b l e I w i l l l i v e w i t h y o u . I f i t d o e s n o t f i t I I n t e n d t o l e a v e y o u . " T h e s a l t s p i r i t a c c e p t e d i t and p u t i t o n . ( T h e n e x t d a y ) L i n Chun s t o o d u p o n a v a r i e g a t e d r o c k 1 2 a n d , l o o k i n g f o r ( a c r e a t u r e ) w i t h a g r e e n t h r e a d u p o n i t s b r e a s t , k n e l t a n d s h o t i t , s t r i k i n g t h e s a l t s p i r i t . When t h e s a l t s p i r i t d i e d t h e m y r i a d s p i r i t s who w e r e f l y i n g w i t h h e r a l l d e p a r t e d a n d t h e h e a v e n s t h e n c l e a r e d . 1 3 L i n C h u n a g a i n b o a r d e d h i s e a r t h e n b o a t a n d d e s c e n d e d t o I — c h ' e n g A t I — c h ' e n g t h e s t o n e b a n k c u r v e d a n d t h e r i v e r a l s o c u r v e d . L i n C h u n saw t h a t i t r e s e m b l e d t h e s h a p e o f a c a v e and s i g h e d , s a y i n g , " I h a v e n e w l y e m e r g e d f r o m a c a v e and now w i l l a g a i n e n t e r t h i s o n e . What am I t o d o ? " T h e n a s e c t i o n o f t h e b a n k o v e r t h i r t y f e e t w i d e c o l l a p s e d f o r m i n g a s e r i e s o f s t e p s w h i c h L i n Chun a s c e n d e d . On t o p o f t h e embankment was a f l a t s t o n e t e n f e e t s q u a r e and f i v e f e e t h i g h • L i n C h u n r e s t e d on t o p o f i t a n d , c a s t i n g l o t s , made c a l c u l a t i o n s , a l l o f w h i c h he h a d i n s c r i b e d o n s t o n e . A c c o r d i n g l y he e r e c t e d a c i t y b y i t s s i d e a n d i n h a b i t e d i t . 1 5 A f t e r w a r d s h i s t r i b e c o n s e q u e n t l y became n u m e r o u s . When C h ' i n u n i f i e d a l l u n d e r h e a v e n t h e y were made p a r t o f C h * i e n — c h u n g c o m n a n d e r y 1 6 a n d w e r e t a x e d l i g h t l y , e a c h p e r s o n p a y i n g 61 f o r t y cash a y e a r . 1 7 The Pa people c a l l e d t h i s tax tsuns ^ and were t h e r e f o r e r e f e r r e d to as the Tsung p e o p l e . 1 8 When Han Kao—tsu was King of Han he e n l i s t e d the Tsung people to p a c i f y the three Ch'in ( S h e n s i ) . When t h i s was accomplished they requested to r e t u r n to t h e i r n a t i v e p l a c e . Kao t s u , because t h e i r achievement was equal to that of h i s f o l l o w e r s from Feng and P'ei t'T , exempted them from taxes and changed the name of t h e i r r e g i o n to Pa commandery. 1 9 The earth ( o f t h i s r e g i o n ) y i e l d s the bou n t i e s of s a l t , i r o n , cinnabar and l a c q u e r 2 0 while the people are by nature f i e r c e and brave as well as being adept at song and dance. Han Kac—tsu loved t h e i r dances and commanded the Department of Music (yueh—fu ) to p r a c t i c e them. Hence the modern Pa—yu 2-V i^j d a n c e . 2 1 At the end of the Ban dynasty Chang Lu l i v e d i n Ban—chung y t e a c h i n g the populace by means of the Way of the S p i r i t s . The Tsung people b e l i e v e d i n shamans and many went to f o l l o w him. At the time when the world f e l l i n t o great d i s o r d e r they moved from Tang—ch'li i n Pa—hsi to "Sang—chu— pan i n Han—chung, robbing and pl u n d e r i n g p a s s i n g t r a v e l e r s . The l o c a l populace was t r o u b l e d by them and c a l l e d them the Yang— chu P a . 2 3 When Ts'ao Ts'ao conquered Han—chung T'e's g r a n d f a t h e r 2 * at the head of f i v e hundred f a m i l i e s submitted to him. Ts'ao Ts'ao appointed him General and moved them (he and h i s f o l l o w e r s ) to Lueh—yang a s The northern r e g i o n r e f e r r e d to them as Pa T i ( o r the Pa c l a n &A/ ) . 2 6 T'e's f a t h e r L i Mu -^4^ ' w a s E a s t e r n Ch'iang Hunting 62 Commandant (tune Ch'iane l i e h chiang % $^\%Jift ).27 When T'e was young he served i n the province and commandery governments and was remarked at by h i s contemporaries* fie was e i g h t f e e t t a i l 2 8 , brave and m a r t i a l , adept at r i d i n g and archery, grave and r e s o l u t e , g i f t e d with a g e n e r o s i t y of c h a r a c t e r * During the Yuan— k'ang 7L. Jfi r e i g n p e r i o d (291-99) the T i l e a d e r Ch'i Wan-j$* \jlr} r e b e l l e d * The region west of the passes n i en ^( S h e n s i and K a n s u ) 2 9 was i n c o n f u s i o n and d i s o r d e r and f o r a s u c c e s s i o n o f y e a r s there was a great famine* The peasantry thereupon migrated i n search of g r a i n and those who entered Han—ch'uan 3 0 together numbered i n the tens of thousands of f a m i l i e s * T'e, f o l l o w i n g the migrants , was about to e n t e r Shu when, reaching Chien-ke fj^j 3 1 he squatted on the ground, took a deep breath and, gazing about the towering d e f i l e , s a i d , " L i u Ch'an -^ had c o n t r o l of a p l a c e such as t h i s and yet he was bound i n submission by a n o t h e r * 3 2 S u r e l y he must have been a man of but common t a l e n t . " Yen Shirs $0"^  3 3 , Chao Su "Z^ \% , L i Yuan » and Jen Hui who were t r a v e l l i n g with him a l l were impressed by t h i s s t a t e m e n t . 3 4 At f i r s t , when the migrants had reached Han—chung they submitted a memorial p e t i t i o n i n g t h at they be allowed to lodge and board i n Pa and Shu. The Court Conference d i d not agree to t h i s and sent the Attendant Censor ( s h i h — y u — s h i h ^ft)>£j» L i P i t bearing c r e d e n t i a l s of a u t h o r i t y to comfort and m o l l i f y them as w e l l as to observe them and see t h a t they were not allowed to enter Chien—ke. L i P i , 63 a r r i v i n g a t H a n — c h u n g , a c c e p t e d a b r i b e f r o m t h e m i g r a n t s a n d on t h e c o n t r a r y m e m o r i a l i z e d , s a y i n g " T h e m i g r a n t s n u m b e r more t h a n a h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d , more t h a n t h e one c o m n a n d e r y o f Han—chung c a n s u p p o r t * To t h e e a s t t o w a r d s C h i n g 7 j p r o v i n c e t h e t o r r e n t s a r e r a p i d a n d p r e c i p i t o u s , m o r e o v e r t h e y a r e w i t h o u t b o a t s a n d s h i p s * S h u h a s s t o c k p i l e d r e s e r v e s ( o f g r a i n ) a n d t h e p e o p l e , m o r e o v e r , a r e e n j o y i n g a r i c h h a r v e s t * T h e y s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o go i n s e a r c h o f f o o d * " The c o u r t f o l l o w e d t h i s a d v i c e a n d t h e m i g r a n t s c o n s e q u e n t l y d i s p e r s e d t h r o u g h o u t I a n d L i a n g § ^ p r o v i n c e s a n d c o u l d n o t be s t o p p e d * 3 6 In t h e f i r s t y e a r o f t h e K u n g - k * a n g ^ 1 r e i g n p e r i o d ( 3 0 0 ) an i m p e r i a l e d i c t summoned t h e G o v e r n o r ( t z * u—shih ^ - , ] ^ v ) o f I p r o v i n c e , Chao C h ' i n M ^ , t o b e G r a n d E l d e r ( t a c h ' a n g c h ' i u A-IL^^ ) a n d r e p l a c e d him w i t h t h e B a i l i f f ( H e l - s f r l h ^ ^ ) o f C h « e n g - t u tf% , K e n g T'eng#Cfl4 « 3 7 C h ' i n c o n s e q u e n t l y p l o t t e d t o r e v o l t , s e c r e t l y c o n c e a l i n g t h e a m b i t i o n t o c a r v e o f f a p i e c e o f t e r r i t o r y f o r h i m s e l f as L i u P e l h a d d o n e * 3 8 He t h e n e m p t i e d h i s g r a n a r i e s , d i s t r i b u t i n g t h e g r a i n t o t h e m i g r a n t s i n o r d e r t o w i n t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e m a s s e s * The members o f L i T ' e ' s t r i b e were a l l f r o m P a — h s i , t h e same commandery a s C h a o C h ' i n , a n d many w e r e b r a v e a n d s t r o n g * C h ' i n e n t e r t a i n e d them r i c h l y so a s t o make them h i s i n s t r u m e n t s * T h e r e f o r e T ' e a n d t h e o t h e r s g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r i n m a s s e s a n d e n g a g e d t h e m s e l v e s s o l e l y i n r o b b e r y a n d p l u n d e r * The p e o p l e o f S h u w e r e t r o u b l e d by them* K e n g T ' e n g s e c r e t l y s u b m i t t e d a m e m o r i a l m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t : " T h e m i g r a n t s a r e h a r d e n e d a n d b r a v e 64 while the men of Shu are cowardly and weak* The guest and the host cannot c o n t r o l each other and t h i s w i l l c e r t a i n l y be the f i r s t s tep toward d i s o r d e r , ( t h e r e f o r e ) they should be sent back to t h e i r o r i g i n a l l o c a t i o n * I f they are p l a c e d i n a s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n I f e a r that the d i s a s t e r s of Ch'in ^ and Yung p r o v i n c e s w i l l gather again i n Liang and I* T h i s w i l l c e r t a i n l y bequeath to t h i s dynasty an insecure p o s i t i o n i n the w e s t * " 3 9 Chao Ch'in heard of t h i s and was offended • At the time over a thousand m i l i t a r y and c i v i l o f f i c i a l s of I province had a l r e a d y gone to welcome T'eng* *[Because Chao Ch'in had not yet vacated the p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l Keng T'eng was s t i l l i n the commandery c a p i t a l * Ch'in r e c r u i t e d Luo An 3r and Wang L i ± ^p] et a l from L i Hsiang's c l i q u e t o s e i z e T'eng* They i n f l i c t e d a great d e f e a t at Hsuan—hua i n Kuang-han. He k i l l e d the bearer of the Imperial r e s c r i p t * T'eng argued that he wanted to enter the walled c a p i t a l of the province* The (Attendant O f f i c i a l of the) Department o f M e r i t Ch'en Hsun remonstrated with him, s a y i n g , "Now both province and commandery are being administered and the antagonism c r e a t e d between the troops of the two grows d a i l y g r e a t e r * I f you enter the c i t y there w i l l c e r t a i n l y be a great d i s a s t e r * I t would be b e t t e r to remain secure i n the s m a l l e r c i t y while summoning the v a r i o u s p r e f e c t u r e s to u n i t e i n t o f o r t i f i e d v i l l a g e s i n order to prepare f o r the T l b a r b a r i a n s from Ch'in* The C o l o n e l of the Western Barbarians Ch'en Tsung w i l l soon a r r i v e and we should wait to see what happens* Ctherwise, you can r e t r e a t and occupy Ch 1ien-wei, to the west c r o s s i n g 65 at Chiang—yuan i n order to p r o t e c t a g a i n s t the unexpected* T'eng d i d not f o l l o w t h i s a d vice* *[ Winter, t w e l f t h month* ]*(HYKC 8 / 1 0 7.9 - 1 1 ) He l e a d h i s troops i n t o the p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l (Ch'eng—tu)* *[ T'eng entered the c i t y * He climbed the West gate* Chao Ch'in sent h i s i n t i m a t e T a i Mao to capture T' eng. T a l Mao warned him and l e f t . ] * ( H Y K C 8 / 1 0 7 * 1 2 ) Ch'in sent h i s troops to oppose T'eng and they b a t t l e d at the Western Gate* T'eng l o s t and was k i l l e d * 4 1 *[T'eng threw himself from the top of the c i t y w a l l of the commandery c a p i t a l * His subordinate Tso Hsiung c a r r i e d T'eng's son C h ' i ^ o f f on h i s back and r e l i e d on a peasant, Sung N l n g ; ^ ^ , to hide him* Ch'in sought to buy him with a reward of a thousand p i e c e s of g o l d but Sung Ning would not turn him i n . Chao Ch'in was defeated soon a f t e r and he was a b l e to escape death. The commandery o f f i c i a l s a l l f l e d or went i n t o h i d i n g * Only Ch'en Hsun presented h i m s e l f to Ch'in with h i s hands t i e d behind h i s back, r e q u e s t i n g that the proper f u n e r a l s e r v i c e s be accorded T'eng* Ch'in admired h i s sense of duty and d i d not k i l l him* Hsun and the F u n c t i o n a r y of the Department of C i v i l A f f a i r s ( hu— ts'ao yuan / > 9 ) Ch*ang Ch« ang >^ f * ^ together prepared a c o f f i n and b u r i a l mound and b u r i e d him. ]*(HYKC 8 / 1 0 7 . 1 2 - 1 4 ) Ch'in proclaimed himself Great I n s p e c t o r — g e n e r a l ( t a tvi-tu ), Great General ( t a cfriana-chyn % ) and the Pastor ( am tSrjj^) of I p r o v i n c e . *[ He made the P r e f e c t of Wu-llng Tu Shu2fi$£©f Shu ^ commandery, the L i e u t e n a n t Governor Chang Ts'an Chang Kuei 7fc£|p of P a - h s i , 66 Marshal of the western Barbarians ( h s i - i ssu—ma \%! ^ 5 J ) H s i Ni 1^ and the P r e f e c t of Chiang-yuan >X /% F e i Yuan ^ of Ch'ien-wei h i s Senior Adnsinistra t o r s of the L e f t and Right, Marshal(s) and M i l i t a r y A d v i s o r s ( s ) * He t r a n s f e r r e d the Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Ch'ien-wei L i Hsiang yj^  to be General I n t i m i d a t i n g Bandits* He summoned the P r e f e c t of L l n - c h ' i u n g ij* x Hsu Yen 4^. ^ of F o u - l i n g to be Yamen Commandant* None of those whom he summoned to c o u r t p o s i t i o n s dared to i g n o r e the summons* Chao Ch'in a l s o named the Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Kuang—han Chang Cheng ^4^*2, t n e Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Min-shan Ik. b Yang P i n ^% £f and t h e P r e f e c t of Ch'eng-tu F e i L i ^ \ to be L i b a t i o n e r s of the Army ( chun c h i - c h i u % VHj) • ) ]* (HYKC 8 / l C 8 * 5 — 7 ) T'e's younger brother Hsiang with h i s b r o t h e r s , h i s b r o t h e r — i n - l a w L i Han 7, ^  , Jen Hui , Shang—kuan Ching X- iZy&a*3, L i P'an \ jjjj* of Fu-feng ^ $ \ , t F e i T'a |? ** of Shih-p' i n g 3f- , and the T i Fu C h ' e n g ^ ^ » w « i p o nil® *[ and Tung Sheng ]*(HYKC 8 / 1 0 8 * 8 ) as w e l l as o t h e r s l e d four thousand r i d e r s to a l l y themselves to Chao Ch'in* Ch'in made H s i a n g * 5 h i s General I n t i m i d a t i n g Bandits ( wei-k'ou chiane-chun ^ ( ^ ) and sent him to cut o f f the northern road* Hsiang had f o r m e r l y been Ea s t e r n Ch'iang Worthy General ( tung-Ch'iana l i a n a C h i a n g ) and was conversant i n m i l i t a r y s t r a t e g y * He made no use of f l a g s and banners ( f o r r e l a y i n g commands), i n s t e a d h i s troops would form ranks at the r a i s i n g of a lance* He executed three people under h i s command f o r not f o l l o w i n g o r d e r s and t h e r e a f t e r there was no i n d i s c i p l i n e i n the 67 ranks. Chao Ch'in d i s l i k e d the p r e c i s i o n and d i s c i p l i n e of h i s t r o o p s * 6 and wished to k i l l him but had not yet spoken of i t . The Senior A d m i n i s t r a t o r ( chans—shjh ^ ) Tu Shu and the Marshal ( ssu-ma &j ) Chang Ts'an s a i d to Ch'in, "The Tso Chuan says that the f i v e g r e a t o f f i c e r s should not be l o c a t e d on the b o r d e r s . * 7 You, s i r , have j u s t taken up arms, yet you d i s p a t c h L i Hslang to command a s t r o n g f o r c e i n the f i e l d . T h i s benighted one i s dismayed by t h i s . Moreover he i s not of our race and h i s heart must be d i f f e r e n t from o u r s . * 8 I thin k i t impermissable f o r one to tur n h i s ha l b e r d end—for—end and give i t to another. I ask tha t you c o n s i d e r t h i s . " Ch'in with a sober e x p r e s s i o n r e p l i e d , "Your words acco r d p e r f e c t l y with my i d e a s . One c o u l d say, " I t i s Shang who can b r i n g out my meaning."* 9 Heaven has sent you to f u l f i l l my p l a n . " J u s t then L i Hsiang appeared at the gate r e q u e s t i n g an audience with C h ' i n . Ch'in was d e l i g h t e d and summoned Hsiang to e n t e r . Hsiang wished to observe Ch'in's i n t e n t i o n s , so he bowed twice, entered and s a i d , "The c e n t r a l s t a t e s are i n great d i s o r d e r now and the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of government are no lo n g e r adhered t o . I t should prove impossible to r e s t o r e the Chin r o y a l house. Your Path reaches to Heaven and Earth while you V i r t u e c o v e r s a l l the realms. The circumstances of T'ang and Wu (founders of the Shang and Chou d y n a s t i e s ) t r u l y are present here today. You should respond to the heavenly t i m i n g and accord with the people's h e a r t s by r e s c u i n g the people from the sud and ashes and g i v i n g the people's sentiment something to r a l l y around. Thus the 68 w h o l e w o r l d c a n be s u b j u g a t e d , n o t m e r e l y Y u n g fify and S h u . " 5 0 C h ' i n s a i d a n g r i l y , "How c a n t h e s e b e t h e w o r d s p r o p e r t o a s u b j e c t . " He commanded t h a t T u Shu a n d t h e o t h e r s d i s c u s s t h i s , w h e r e u p o n t h e y s u b m i t t e d a m e m o r i a l a c c u s i n g H s i a n g o f G r a n d T r e a s o n a n d H e r e s y . C h ' i n t h e n e x e c u t e d h i m a l o n g w i t h h i s s o n s , nephews a n d o t h e r r e l a t i v e s , o v e r t h i r t y p e o p l e . S 1 Chao C h ' i n was w o r r i e d t h a t T ' e a n d t h e o t h e r s w o u l d c a u s e t r o u b l e s o he s e n t s o m e o n e t o e x p l a i n t h e s i t u a t i o n t o t h e m , s a y i n g , " H s i a n g s a i d s o m e t h i n g i m p r o p e r a n d h i s o f f e n s e m e r i t e d e x e c u t i o n . I t d o e s n o t e x t e n d t o h i s b r o t h e r s . " H s i a n g ' s c o r p s e was r e t u r n e d t o T ' e a n d T ' e ' s b r o t h e r s were r e i n s t a t e d as army c o m m a n d e r s i n o r d e r t o p a c i f y t h e i r t r o o p s . T h e Yamen Commandant ( ya—men c h j a p g . J[ ) H s u Y e n r e q u e s t e d t h a t he be made O v e r s e e r o f t h e Army ( cfr jen— c h u n ^ £ ) f o r Pa —tung _^jft^ • T u S h u a n d C h a n g T s ' a n o b s t i n a t e l y r e f u s e d to a g r e e t o t h i s . Y e n was a n g e r e d by t h i s a n d w i t h h i s own s w o r d k i l l e d Shu a n d T s a n i n Chao C h ' i n ' s c o u n c i l c h a m b e r . S h u a n d T s ' a n * s s u b o r d i n a t e s t h e n k i l l e d Y e n . A l l o f t h e m 5 2 w e r e C h ' i n ' s i n t i m a t e a d v i s e r s . T ' e a n d h i s b r o t h e r s , b e c a u s e t h e y b o r e e n m i t y t o w a r d s C h ' i n , w i t h d r e w w i t h t h e i r t r o o p s t o M i e n — c h u * [ C h ' i n d i s p a t c h e d t h e f o r m e r P r e f e c t o f Y i n - p ' i n g jp-C h a n g H e n g *7^. a n d F e i Shu ^ o f S h e n g - c h ' i e n t o s o o t h e T ' e a n d r e g a i n h i s a l l e g i a n c e . B o t h w e r e k i l l e d b y T ' e . ] * ( H Y K C 8 / 1 0 8 . 1 0 - 1 1 ) C h ' i n f e a r e d t h a t t h e c o u r t w o u l d a t t a c k him a n d s e n t t h e S e n i o r A d m i n i s t r a t o r F e i Y u a n , t h e G r a n d A d m i n i s t r a t o r ( t ' a i - s h o u ^ ) o f C h ' i e n — w e i 69 L i P i , and the P r o t e c t o r - G e n e r a l ( tu-hu ) Ch'ang Chun ^ * n c o m — a n a " °* over ten thousand men to cut o f f the northern road, encamping at S h i h - t ' i n g ^ i n Mlen-chu. T'e s e c r e t l y gathered together a f o r c e of over seven t h o u s a n d 5 4 and made a s u r p r i s e attack on F e i Yuan's army by n i g h t * Yuan's troops s c a t t e r e d and (T'e) set h i s encampment a f i r e * E i g h t or nine out of every ten of h i s troops d i e d * T'e advanced and a t t a c k e d Ch*ens—tu* When Ch'in heard that an army had a r r i v e d he was t e r r i f i e d and d i d not know what to d o . 5 5 L i P i , Chang Cheng and o t h e r s 5 6 cut the bar of the gate by night and f l e d ; m i l i t a r y and c i v i l o f f i c i a l s a l l d i s p e r s e d * Chao Ch'in, alone accompanied by h i s wife and c h i l d r e n , f l e d i n a small boat as f a r as Kuang—tu , where he was k i l l e d by an u n d e r l i n g , Chu Chu • *[ His e l d e s t son Ping %^ was i n Luo—yang and he a l s o was executed. ]*(HYKC 8/109.1) When L i T'e a r r i v e d i n Ch'eng-tu he allowed h i s troops to plunder the c i t y , m o r t a l l y wounding the Western Barbarian Army P r o t e c t o r ( h s i — j hu—  chun 3b %_ £tj ^ ) Chiang Fa and k i l l i n g Ch'in's S e n i o r A d m i n i s t r a t o r Yuan Ch'ia ^ V^i and the Commander of the Guards which Ch'in had a p p o i n t e d . 5 7 T'e sent h i s Yamen Wang Chiao £ )i\ and L i Chi 3 ^ to Luo-yang to s e t f o r t h Chao Ch'in's crimes. P r e v i o u s to t h i s Emperor Hui had named the Governor of L i a n g p r o v i n c e , Luo Shang , to be General P a c i f y i n g the West ( BlAng-hgi chiana-chun -f" V^7 ttyl^ ), e n t r u s t i n g him with the o f f i c e s of C o l o n e l of the Western Bar b a r i a n s ( h s i - - - h 5 i a Q - y e i \$? }\'\^^^ and Governor of I p r o v i n c e . 5 8 70 Leading the Yamen Commandant Wang Tun i * the T e r r i t o r i a l Commandant ( tu—wei /jf"^ o f Shang-yung }c~ I B s i n 7% the Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Shu commandery Hsu Chien the Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Euang-han Hsin Jan -f- Jf£f- and others* over seven thousand i n a l l 5 9 * he entered Shu* When T'e heard that Shang was coming he was very f r i g h t e n e d and sent h i s younger br o t h e r Hsiang"*" to greet him upon the road and present him with p r e c i o u s g i f t s * Shang was most pl e a s e d and made Hsiang'*' h i s Inspector of C a v a l r y ( c h i — t u --^ aj Q ) • T'e and h i s younger b r o t h e r L i u V^L. f e a s t e d Shang with oxen and wine at Mien— chu* Wang Tun and Hsin Jan b o t h 6 0 advised Luo Shang* s a y i n g * "T'e and the r e s t are vagrants* They devote themselves s o l e l y to robbery and v i o l e n c e and are f i t f o r immediate p u b l i c execution* You should take advantage of t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y to behead them*" Shang would not accept t h e i r advice* Hsin Jan had known T'e p r e v i o u s l y and t h e r e f o r e s a i d to him* "When o l d acquaintances meet i f i t i s not good luck ( t h a t b r i n g s them together) then i t must be had." T'e was deeply alarmed by t h i s remark* 6 1 S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r there was a t a l l y sent down to Ch'in and Yung p r o v i n c e s o r d e r i n g that i n a l l cases where migrants had entered Han—ch'uan "I the t a l l y was to be sent to t h e i r present l o c a t i o n summoning them to r e t u r n * *[ The Censors ( vu-shih f^Tp ) Feng Kai v ^ ^ ^ and Chang Ch'ang ^-f^ ^ assumed the p o s i t i c n s of Attendant O f f i c i a l f o r Ch'in and Yung p r o v i n c e s * i n charge of the r e t u r n of the migrants* Over ten thousand households were 71 moved. ]#(HYKC 8/109.9-10) T'e's e l d e r b r o t h e r Fu who had h e r e t o f o r e remained i n t h e i r n a t i v e region came (t o T'e) on the p r e t e x t of welcoming h i s f a m i l y . When he a r r i v e d i n Shu he s a i d to T'e. "The C e n t r a l S t a t e s are i n d i s o r d e r , they are not worth r e t u r n i n g t o . " T'e agreed and began to think about occupying Pa and Shu by f o r c e . In r e c o g n i t i o n of h i s achievement i n c h a s t i s i n g Chao Ch'in the c o u r t appointed T* e General Propagating Majesty ( hsuan—wei chiang—chun ^ ) and e n f e o f f e d him as the Marquis of Ch'ang-le Hsiang ^ L i L i u was made General Arousing Majesty ( fen—wei chiana-chun ^ /$) ) and e n f e o f f e d as Marquis of Wu-yang ^ **\%^  • when the s e a l e d documents of i n v e s t i t u r e came down to I province they s t i p u l a t e d item by item rewards f o r those migrants who had j o i n e d with T'e i n c h a s t i s i n g C h ' i n . At the time Hsln Jan #[who was o r i g i n a l l y used by King Lun of Chao]*(HYKC 8/109.7) had been summoned to court out of r e g u l a r r o t a t i o n and d i d not wish to comply with the summons. He a l s o wished to take Chao Ch'in's d e s t r u c t i o n to be h i s own achievement, so he 'put to s l e e p ' the c o u r t command and d i d not respond with the t r u t h . A l l the people hated him f o r t h i s . Luo Shang sent h i s Attendant ( t s 1 una—shih ^ ) to urge the migrants to move, g i v i n g them u n t i l the seventh lunar month to get on the road. *[T'e repeatedly d i s p a t c h e d Yen Shih of T ' i e n - s h u i to Luo Shang r e q u e s t i n g that he d e l a y h i s execution of the command and that a temporary e x t e n s i o n be granted u n t i l autumn. He a l s o presented Shang and Feng Kai with b r i b e s and they permitted t h i s ( e x t e n s i o n ) . When autumn a r r i v e d they again 72 r e q u e s t e d an e x t e n s i o n u n t i i w i n t e r * H s i n J a n and L i P i t h o u g h t t h i s i m p e r m i s s a b l e a n d w a n t e d t o move t h e m i g r a n t s no m a t t e r what* Y e n S h i h e x p l a i n e d t h e a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f c o m p e l l i n g t h e m i g r a n t s t o move t o t h e L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r T u T ' a o a n d he a l s o w i s h e d t o g r a n t t h e r e f u g e e s a y e a r * H s i n J a n a n d L i P i o p p o s e d t h i s a n d S h a n g f o l l o w e d t h e i r a d v i c e * T u T ' a o t u r n e d i n h i s ' F l o w e r i n g T a l e n t ' t a b l e t o f s t a t e a n d r e t u r n e d home b e c a u s e he knew t h a t h i s p l a n s w o u l d n o t be e m p l o y e d * * [ A t t h e t i m e t h e r e was a w h i t e r a i n b o w w h i c h s t r e t c h e d o v e r t h e m a j o r c i t y , , w i t h i t s h e a d i n a s m a l l v i l l a g e a n d i t s t a i l i n t h e E a s t e r n M o u n t a i n * T h e A t t e n d a n t O f f i c i a l a t H e a d q u a r t e r s Ma H s i u i n q u i r e d o f Y e n S h i h , " W h a t omen i s t h i s ? " S h i h r e p l i e d , " T h i s omen means t h a t t h e r e i s t h e e t h e r o f t e n t h o u s a n d c o r p s e s b e l o w , p r e s s i n g h a r d u p o n t h e c i t y . I t i s n o t an a u s p i c i o u s p o r t e n t . H o w e v e r ' C a l a m i t i e s f r o m H e a v e n c a n be a v o i d e d . ' 6 2 a n d i f t h e G e n e r a l Q u e l l i n g t h e West ( S h a n g ) i s a b l e t o i n d u l g e t h e r e f u g e e s t h e d i s a s t e r w i l l d i s p e l o f i t s e l f . " ] * ( H Y K C 8 / 1 C 9 . 1 0 — 1 4 ) H s i n J a n was b y n a t u r e a v a r i c i o u s a n d c r u e l . He w i s h e d t o k i l l t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e m i g r a n t s a n d s e i z e t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n s so he c i r c u l a t e d an o r d e r t o s e n d them o n t h e i r w a y . He a l s o o r d e r e d t h e G r a n d A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f Tzu— t • u n g C h a n g Y e n t o s e t up b a r r i e r s a t t h e v a r i o u s s t r a t e g i c p l a c e s a n d s e a r c h ( t h e m i g r a n t s ) f o r v a l u a b l e s . 6 3 T ' e a n d t h e o t h e r s were adamant i n t h e i r r e q u e s t s , a s k i n g an e x t e n s i o n u n t i l t h e f a l l h a r v e s t . 6 * The m i g r a n t s were s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h L i a n g a n d I p r o v i n c e s , 73 w o r k i n g as h i r e d L a b o r e r s * When t h e y h e a r d t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e a n d c o m m a n d e r i e s w e r e p r e s s i n g them t o l e a v e a l l were t r o u b l e d a n d b i t t e r a n d a t a l o s s f o r what t o d o * K n o w i n g t h a t T ' e a n d h i s b r o t h e r s h a d r e p e a t e d l y r e q u e s t e d a r e p r i e v e a l l w e r e moved b y t h i s a n d r e l i e d u p o n them* M o r e o v e r t h e r a i n s were a b o u t t o b e g i n a n d t h e g r a i n c r o p h a d n o t y e t m a t u r e d * The m i g r a n t s h a d n o t h i n g t o u s e a s p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e j o u r n e y so t h e y f l o c k e d t o T ' e * T ' e t h e n e s t a b l i s h e d a l a r g e encampment a t M i e n — c h u o r d e r t o h o u s e t h e m i g r a n t s a n d s e n t t o H s i n J a n t o p l e a d f o r l e n i e n c y f o r h i m s e l f * J a n was f u r i o u s a n d ' s e n t p e o p l e t o d i s t r i b u t e w a n t e d p o s t e r s f o r T ' e a n d h i s b r o t h e r s t o a l l m a j o r t h o r o u g h f a r e s , o f f e r i n g a l a r g e r e w a r d * T ' e , s e e i n g t h e m , was g r e a t l y a l a r m e d a n d t o o k a l l o f them b a c k w i t h h i m * He a n d h i s b r o t h e r Hsiang"*" c h a n g e d t h e t e r m s o f t h e p o s t e r t o r e a d " H e who c a n s e n d t h e h e a d o f one o f t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e s i x c o m m a n d e r i e s L i , J e n i Y e n f^ Sr] , C h a o Y a n g o r S h a n g - k u a n & o r o f t h e M a r q u i s — K i n g s o f t h e T i a n d S o u s 6 6 w i l l b e r e w a r d e d w i t h a h u n d r e d r o l l s o f c l o t h * " S i n c e t h e m i g r a n t s w e r e a l r e a d y u n h a p p y a b o u t m o v i n g a l l went a n d a l l i e d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h T ' e ; g a l l o p i n g t h e i r h o r s e s a n d d o n n i n g q u i v e r s , c o m b i n i n g t h e i r v o i c e s t h e y g a t h e r e d l i k e c l o u d s * W i t h i n a f o r t n i g h t t o a m o n t h t h e m u l t i t u d e n u m b e r e d o v e r t w e n t y t h o u s a n d * L i L i u a l s o g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r s e v e r a l t h o u s a n d * T ' e t h e n d i v i d e d them i n t o two c a m p s , w i t h T ' e o c c u p y i n g t h e n o r t h e r n camp a n d L i u o c c u p y i n g t h e e a s t e r n o n e * 6 7 T ' e s e n t Y e n S h i h t o s e e L u o S h a n g a n d p e t i t i o n f o r an 74 e x t e n s i o n o f t h e d e a d l i n e * When S h i h a r r i v e d he saw t h a t H s i n J a n was c o n s t r u c t i n g f o r t i f i c a t i o n s a t s t r a t e g i c p o i n t s a n d t h o r o u g h f a r e s , p l a n n i n g t o s e i z e t h e m i g r a n t s * He s i g h e d a n d s a i d , "When one makes a w a l l when t h e r e a r e no b a n d i t s t h e r e must be a g r u d g e p r e s e r v e d t h e r e i n * Now he h a s t e n s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n ; d i s o r d e r i s i m m i n e n t . " 6 8 K n o w i n g t h a t H s i n J a n a n d L i F i i n t h e end c o u l d n o t be d i s s u a d e d f r o m t h e i r p l a n s he t o o k L e a v e o f Luo S h a n g t o r e t u r n t o M i e n — c h u * A s he was l e a v i n g S h a n g s a i d t o h i m * , " Y o u w i l l c o n v e y my m e s s a g e t o t h e m i g r a n t s * I h a v e l i s t e n e d t o y o u r p e t i t i o n w i t h l e n i e n c y * " S h i h r e p l i e d , " Y o u , s i r , a r e c o n f u s e d b y t r e a c h e r o u s a d v i c e a n d I y o u do n o t s e e t h e r e a s o n f o r l e n i e n c y * T h e common p e o p l e a r e weak b u t c a n n o t be t r e a t e d l i g h t l y * When p r e s s e d u n r e a s o n a b l y t h e a n g e r o f t h e m a s s e s i s n o t e a s i l y t r a n s g r e s s e d * I f e a r i t w i l l be a d i s a s t e r o f c o n s i d e r a b l e s c a l e * " S h a n g s a i d , " H o w e v e r I d o n o t d e c e i v e y o u * Be on y o u r w a y . " When Yen S h i h a r r i v e d b a c k a t M i e n — c h u he s a i d t o T ' e , " A l t h o u g h S h a n g s a i d t h i s he c a n n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b e b e l i e v e d . Why? S h a n g h a s n o t e s t a b l i s h e d a w e — i n s p i r i n g p u n i s h m e n t s w h i l e J a n a n d t h e o t h e r s e a c h has c o n t r o l o f a s t r o n g b o d y o f t r o o p s * I f one d a y t h e y s h o u l d r e b e l t h e y w i l l be more t h a n S h a n g c a n c o n t r o l * We r e a l l y s h o u l d p r e p a r e o u r s e l v e s * " T ' e a c c e p t e d t h i s a d v i c e * * [ N i n t h m o n t h ( o f 3 0 1 ) * An army was d i s p a t c h e d and s t a t i o n e d a t M i e n — c h u , p u r p o r t e d l y i n o r d e r t o c u l t i v a t e w h e a t b u t i n f a c t t o g u a r d a g a i n s t a n y o n e e s c a p i n g * ] * ( H Y K C 8/110*2) J a n a n d P i p l o t t e d t o g e t h e r , s a y i n g , " M a r q u i s L u o 75 i s a v a r i c i o u s but i n d e c i s i v e and day by day the migrants are able to u n f o l d t h e i r treacherous plans* L i T'e and h i s b r o t h e r s a l l have m a r t i a l t a l e n t s * We w i l l become the p r i s o n e r s of stable—boys* We should d e v i s e a d e c i s i v e s t r a t e g y * We need not ask (Shang) about i t again*" They then sent the T e r r i t o r i a l Commandant ( tu—wej ) of Kuang—han commandery Tseng Yuan 7x_ and the Yam ens Chang Hsi en and L i u Ping Jj^ij to s e c r e t l y l e a d t h i r t y thousand i n f a n t r y and c a v a l r y to s u r p r i s e T'e's camp* Luo Shang heard of t h i s and a l s o sent the P r o t e c t o r — g e n e r a l T ' i e n Tso to a i d Tseng* T'e knew of t h i s i n advance and r e p a i r e d h i s armor and sharpened h i s weapons, going on a l e r t i n order to await them* When Tseng Yuan and the o t h e r s a r r i v e d T'e l a y i n p e a c e f u l repose, unmoving* Wait i n g u n t i l the troops had h a l f entered he emerged from ambush and a t t a c k e d them* C a s u a l t i e s were extremely heavy and T'ien Tso, Tseng Yuan and Chang Hsien were k i l l e d * T h e i r heads were sent to be shown to Luo Shang and Hsin Jan* Shang s a i d to h i s s t a f f , "These c a i t i f f s were as good as gone, but Hsin Jan would not l i s t e n to me, thereby i n c r e a s i n g the b a n d i t s ' power* Now what are we going to do?" Thereupon the people of the s i x commanderies proclaimed T'e t h e i r leader* 1'e ordered the Inspector of Regiments f o r the People of the Six Commanderies ( __u— chun-.fen pu-ch'u tu ^ # f / -fjl $7 4j| ) L i Han \ ^ , the P r e f e c t ( l i n g ^ ) of Shang-kuei j l Jen Ts'ang^. 0^ , the P r e f e c t of Shih-ch'ang ^ Yen Shih, the Grandee 76 Remonstrant ( stolen-* t a - f u ^7\_ ) L i P'an , the P r e f e c t of Ch'en-ts'ang L i Wu | ^ , the P r e f e c t of Y i n — p ' i n g L i Yuan and the Grand Commandant Leading Troops ( c h i a n a - p i n g t ' a i - w e i \% 3^ ^ ^ ) Yang Pao 4f> ^ to submit a memorial nominating T'e Great General S t a b i l i z i n g the North ( chen-cei ta-chjana-chun ), assuming the government and a p p o i n t i n g and e n f e o f f i n g i n accordance with the precedent of Liang T'ung ^ s e r v i n g Tou Jung l ^ ^ 6 9 and nominating h i s younger b r o t h e r L i u General S t a b l i l i z i n g the East ( chen-tuna chiang-chun j f ^ > to a i d i n the p a c i f i c a t i o n and u n i f i c a t i o n * Then T'e advanced h i s troops to a t t a c k Hsin Jan at Kuang—han• 7 0 Each time Jan's troops emerged to b a t t l e T'e defeated them* Shang sent L i P i and F e i Yuan to l e a d a f o r c e to rescue Jan but they f e a r e d T'e and d i d not dare to advance* His wisdom and s t r e n g t h exhausted Jan f l e d to Chiang-yang X^ f ^ } * 7 1 T'e entered and occupied Kuang—han, making L i Ch'ap ^ JES- Grand Adminstrator • Advancing, he attacked Shang i n Ch'eng—tu* Yen Shih sent Luo Shang a m i s s i v e reprimanding him f o r g i v i n g credence to s l a n d e r e r s and wishing to a t t a c k the migrants and a l s o s e t t i n g f o r t h T'e and h i s b r o t h e r s achievements on b e h a l f of the dynasty which had p a c i f i e d the I r e g i o n * *[Luo Shang wrote a warning admonishing Yen Shih* Shih r e p l i e d , "Hsin Jan r e s o r t s to a l l s o r t s of t r e a c h e r y while Tu Ching <f,(>t)< =Tu T'ao [Ching-wen] 7 ) explodes l i k e a madman* Tseng Yuan i s a mere lackey and T ' i e n Tso cannot c o n t r o l h i s b l o o d — l u s t * L i Shu—p'ing ( L i P i ) has t a l e n t s s u i t a b l e to a d m i n i s t e r i n g a c o u r t p o s i t i o n 77 but doesn't have the heart to be a ai.li.tary commander* He ( t h e y ? ) might be s a i d capable of b e t t e r i n g Ch'iang tribesmen a l r e a d y beaten i n t o exhaustion but no more* I p r e v i o u s l y d i s c o u r s e d f o r you and Tu Ching-wen upon the r e l a t i v e advantages of moving (the migrants) and l e t t i n g them stay* A l l men long f o r t h e i r n a t i v e land and who would be u n w i l l i n g to go* However when they f i r s t took up migrant l a b o r i n search f o r food f a m i l i e s were s c a t t e r e d , moreover they encountered t o r r e n t i a l r a i n s and when they requested an extension u n t i l the winter harvest i t was r e f u s e d * I t i s no wonder they f i g h t l i k e a cornered deer f i g h t i n g o f f a t i g e r * I o n l y f e a r that they w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d too much and that they w i l l not be w i l l i n g to meekly s t r e t c h f o r t h t h e i r necks and await the blade* Having accepted my words i t was granted that they would not be d e a l t with too h a r s h l y * Then l a s t Ninth—month they were a l l assembled and i n the tenth month the order to s e t on the road a r r i v e d i n the v i l l a g e s * What kind of a c t i o n i s t h i s ? Making no r e f e r e n c e to the approval a l r e a d y granted, importunate c o u n s e l s were f o l l o w e d * Now Hsin Jan has f l e d l i k e a s l a v e and L i Shu-p'ing has absconded* In t h i s process of d i s s o l u t i o n and fragmentation the danger w i l l e v e n t u a l l y devolve upon y o u r s e l f . T h i s i s what i s meant by, " I f you don't know to bend the chimney—pipe and move away the firewood you w i l l end up with burnt g u e s t s * " 7 2 ]*(HYKC 8/110.9-13) Reading the l e t t e r Shang r e a l i z e d that they were going to have great ambitions so he b a r r i c a d e d h i m s e l f i n Ch'eng—tu and requested help from the two p r o v i n c e s of 78 N i n e and I . T h e r e u p o n T'e p r o c l a i m e d h i m s e l f C o m m i s s i o n e r B e a r i n g C r e d e n t i a l s ( s h i h c h ' i h - c h i e h ), G r e a t i n s p e c t o r — g e n e r a l ( t a t u - t u ~L ^  ) and G r e a t G e n e r a l S t a b i l i z i n g the N o r t h 7 3 , a s s u m i n g the government and e n f e o f f i n g and a p p o i n t i n g a l l i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the p r e c e d e n t o f Tou Jung i n B e - h s i V"j tfO ( S h e n s i -K a n s u ) . B i s e l d e r b r o t h e r Fu became G e n e r a l o f Doughty C a v a l r y ( p ' i a o - c h i c h i a n g - c h u n .1^  j$ ^ ); h i s y o u n g e r b r o t h e r Hsiang"*" became G e n e r a l o f S p i r i t e d C a v a l r y ( h s i a o -c h i c h i a n a - c h u n Jj^L^j^] )l h i s e l d e s t s on S h i h + Jdz became G e n e r a l o f M a r t i a l M a j e s t y ( wu—wel c h i a n e - c h u n ) 7 4 ; h i s s e c o n d son Tang became G e n e r a l S t a b i l i z i n g t h e Army ( c h e n - c h u n c h i a n a - c h u n ); h i s y o u n g e s t son Hs i u n g became G e n e r a l o f t h e Van ( c h ' i e n c h i a n a — c h u n \£ flij); L i Ban became C o l o n e l c f the w e s t e r n B a r b a r i a n s VP Jr&JH4)l Han's s o n s Kuo \$[\ and L i f f i t i J e n B u i , L i Kung » Shang-kuan C h i n g , L i P'an and F e i T'a became Commanders ( c h i a n a — S h u a j ) 7 5 J J e n T s ' a n g , Shang-kuan Tun "tlj-, Yang Fao , Yang K u i 4% 5^ , Wang Ta ? and Ch'u H s i n became R e t a i n e r s ( c h u a — ya ); L i Yuan, L i Po H s i P i n Yen Ch'eng / f ^ ^ , Shang-kuan Ch' i "^ •f , L i T'ao " i and Wang Huai ± *fj^ became s u b o r d i n a t e s 7 * ; Yen S h i h became p r i n c i p a l a d v i s o r ( mou-chu i - ); and He Chu and Chao Su became T ' e ' s c l o s e a d v i s e r s . At t h e time Luo Shang, b e i n g a v a r i c i o u s and c r u e l , had become t h e bane o f the common f o l k , w h i l e T'e, f o r t h e p e o p l e o f Shu had r e s t r i c t e d t h e law code t o t h r e e a r t i c l e s , g r a n t e d a m n e s t i e s on d e b t s and g r a n t e d emergency 79 l o a n s , p a i d c o u r t e s y c a l l s on worthies and given employment to those blocked i n t h e i r o f f i c i a l c a r e e r s * Both m i l i t a r y and c i v i l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s were s t r i c t l y d i s c i p l i n e d * The common people made up a rhyme that went: L i T'e i s s t i l l okay, Luo Shang does us s l a y * Luo Shang was r e p e a t e d l y defeated by T'e* Be then i n t e r p o s e d a long w a l l , e r e c t i n g p a l i s a d e s along the r i v e r from Tu-an ^\ -'c 7 7 to Ch'ien-wei^ l f ^ 7 8 f o r over seven hundred l _ i h o l d i n g T'e at bay* *[T'e et a l g a r r i s o n e d Kuang—han• • [ F i r s t year of T'ai-an (202)* S p r i n g * Luo Shang's Yamen Hs i a K'uang C I-t a s s a u l t e d L i T'e at L i - s h i h ~2- , but was unsuccessful.]*(HYKC 8/110.14-111.1) The King of He—chien "^J f&\ ~3- Yung jfef? sent the P r o t e c t o r — g e n e r a l Ya Po -$and the Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Kuang—han Chang Cheng to c h a s t i s e T ' e . 7 9 The C o l o n e l of the Western B a r b a r i a n s L i I a l s o sent f i v e thousand troops to a i d Luo Shang. Shang sent the P r o t e c t o r — g e n e r a l Chang Kuei to encamp at Fan— ch'eng A , ' * ' ' * 8 0 * ( t h e r e b y ) a t t a c k i n g T'e from three s i d e s . *[ Ya Po had j u s t sent the M i l i t a r y A d v i s o r Meng Shao «k n/j to persuade L i T'e to s u r r e n d e r . Shang sent Po a l e t t e r , s a y i n g , "Long ago I r e c e i v e d L i L i u ' s missive e x p r e s s i n g an e a r n e s t d e s i r e to s u r r e n d e r . 8 1 Due to the s i t u a t i o n at the time ( ? ) 8 2 he was able to r e t u r n to b a n d i t r y . I have heard the L i T'e p l a c e s t r u s t i n h i s lower o f f i c i a l s while L i L i u and L i Hsiang* with seven or e i g h t thousand troops d a i l y make i n c u r s i o n s a g a i n s t us. T h e i r p e r f i d i o u s t r e a c h e r y i s 80 unfathomably cunning* You must use great care i n h o l d i n g them at bay." Po d i d not comply with thls.]*(HYKC 8/111.2-4) T'e ordered ( h i s sons) Tang and Hsiung to make a s u r p r i s e attack on Ya Po. T'e p e r s o n a l l y s t r u c k at Chang Kuei and E u e i ' s f o r c e s u f f e r e d a great d e f e a t . Tang engaged Ya Po i n b a t t l e f o r s e v e r a l c o n s e c u t i v e days and as h i s d e f e a t s accumulated Po's dead came to number over h a l f . Tang pursued Po to Han—te >/t^4r83» whence he f l e d to C h ia-mens « 8 4 Tang advanced and plundered P a — h s i . The V i c e -a d m i n i s t r a t o r ( c_h_i_e.r_g ) of Pa—hsi commandery 8 5 Mao Chih and the F i v e O f f i c i a l s ( wu-kuan ) Hsiang Chen ^ ^ ^ 8 6 surrendered the commandery to Tang. Tang showed h i s concern f o r those who had f i r s t attached themselves to him and the common people placed t h e i r t r u s t i n him. Advancing Tang attacked Chia—meng and Po again f l e d to a d i s t a n t p l a c e , h i s troops a l l s u r r e n d e r i n g to T a n g . 8 7 In the f i r s t year of the T'ai-an IAVL -tr- r e i g n — p e r i o d ( 3 0 2 ) 8 8 L i T'e proclaimed h i m s e l f Pastor o f I p r o v i n c e , I n s p e c t o r — g e n e r a l of M i l i t a r y A f f a i r s f o r the Two Provinces of Liang and I ( t u - t u L i a n a . I erh-chou chu-chyp s h i h ^ _. M t4 ), Great General ( t a chiana-chun ) and Great Inspector— general ( ta t u — t u ^ ). Changing the y e a r — p e r i o d to Ch 1 en-ch' u jt^  %p ( E s t a b l i s h i n g the Beginning) he proclaimed a g e n e r a l amnesty. The he advanced and a t t a c k e d Chang Cheng. Occupying a high, s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n Cheng held o f f T'e f o r a s u c c e s s i o n of days. At the time T'e and Tang had separated i n t o two camps. Cheng waited u n t i l T'e's camp was empty and sent 81 i n f a n t r y t h r o u g h t h e m o u n t a i n s to a t t a c k h i m . T ' e was n o t s u c c e s s f u l i n r e p e l l i n g t h e a t t a c k a n d , hemmed i n b y m o u n t a i n d e f i l e s , h i s t r o o p s d i d n o t know what t o d o . L u o C h u n .^t ^ a n d J e n T a o ^ b o t h e x h o r t e d T ' e t o r e t r e a t b u t T ' e c a l c u l a t e d t h a t T a n g w o u l d c e r t a i n l y a r r i v e a n d t h e r e f o r e w o u l d n o t p e r m i t i t . C h e n g ' s t r o o p s a r r i v e d i n i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r s a n d t h e m o u n t a i n r o a d was e x t r e m e l y n a r r o w , o n l y a l l o w i n g one o r two p e o p l e t o p a s s a t a t i m e . T a n g ' s f o r c e was u n a b l e t o a d v a n c e . He s a i d t o h i s M a r s h a l (• ssu—rqa ) Wang H s i n _ . ^ , " M y f a t h e r i s d e e p i n t h e m i d s t o f t h e b a n d i t s . T h i s i s my d y i n g d a y . " T h e n , d o n n i n g a s e c o n d l a y e r o f a r m o r a n d g r a s p i n g a l o n g l a n c e w i t h a g r e a t y e l l he d r o v e s t r a i g h t a h e a d . P u s h i n g f o r w a r d h i s b l a d e a s i f i n t e n t u p o n d e a t h , he k i l l e d more t h a n t e n o f t h e e n e m y . C h e n g ' s t r o o p s came to r e s c u e t h e i r c o m r a d e s b u t T a n g ' s t r o o p s were a l l f i g h t i n g t o t h e d e a t h a n d C h a n g C h e n g ' s f o r c e c o n s e q u e n t l y s c a t t e r e d . T ' e a r g u e d f o r a l l o w i n g C h e n g t o r e t u r n t o F o u > > 2 . 8 9 T a n g a n d Wang H s i n e n t e r e d a n d s a i d , " C h e n g ' s army h a s e n d u r e d s u c c e s s i v e b a t t l e s a n d h i s t r o o p s a r e wounded a n d m u t i l a t e d , b o t h w i s d o m a n d c o u r a g e e x h a u s t e d . You s h o u l d t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h i s f a t i g u e t o s e i z e h i m . I f y o u r e l e a s e h i m a n d d e a l w i t h h i m l i b e r a l l y he w i l l t e n d t o the wounded a n d g a t h e r t h o s e who h a v e f l e d . When t h e r e m n a n t s o f h i s army a r e r e - u n i t e d i t w e l l n o t be e a s y t o d e a l w i t h h i m . T ' e f o l l o w e d t h i s a d v i c e a n d a g a i n a d v a n c e d t o a t t a c k C h a n g C h e n g . C h e n g b r o k e t h r o u g h t h e e n c i r c l e m e n t and f l e d . T a n g p u r s u e d him b y l a n d a n d w a t e r a n d i n t h e end k i l l e d h i m , t a k i n g h i s s o n 82 T s ' u n i%- a l i v e a n d s e n d i n g h i m h a c k w i t h C h e n g ' s c o r p s e * C h i e n S h i h ^ was named A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f l e — y a n g ) 1^ a n d c o n q u e r e d t e r r i t o r y a s f a r a s T i e n — c h i a n g ^r^- l£~90 i n P a c o m m a n d e r y * When T ' e was a t t a c k i n g C h a n g C h e n g 9 1 he s e n t L i Hsiang"*" w i t h L i P ' a n , J e n H u i , and L i Kung t o encamp a t P* i - c h ' i a o l t / ( £ ^ 9 Z i n o r d e r t o d e f e n d a g a i n s t L u o S h a n g * S h a n g s e n t a f o r c e t o do b a t t l e b u t H s i a n g ' 4 ' and company d e f e a t e d i t * S h a n g a g a i n s e n t s e v e r a l t h o u s a n d men t o f i g h t a n d H s i a n g ' * ' a g a i n t r a p p e d a n d d e f e a t e d t h e m , c a p t u r i n g a g r e a t amount o f arms a n d a r m o r and a t t a c k i n g and b u r n i n g t h e g a t e ( o f h i s e n c a m p m e n t ) * L i L i u a d v a n c e d and e n c a m p e d n o r t h o f C h * e n g - t u * L u o S h a n g s e n t t h e Commandant ( c h i a n g ) C h a n g H s i n g te££f t o p r e t e n d t o s u r r e n d e r t o Hsiang"*" i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e H s i a n g + * s t r u e s i t u a t i o n * 9 3 A t t h e t i m e H s i a n g * ' s f o r c e n u m b e r e d no more t h a n two t h o u s a n d , a n d C h a n g H s i n g r e t u r n e d b y n i g h t t o i n f o r m L u o S h a n g o f t h i s * S h a n g s e n t t e n t h o u s a n d e l i t e t r o o p s 9 4 h o l d i n g s t i c k s i n t h e i r mouths ( t o i n s u r e s i l e n c e ) t o f o l l o w H s i n g a n d s u r p r i s e H s i a n g " * " ' s camp b y n i g h t * L i P ' a n d i e d f i g h t i n g t o r e p u l s e t h i s f o r c e a n d H s i a n g ' * ' w i t h h i s t r o o p s and o f f i c e r s f l e d t o L i u ' s f o r t i f i c a t i o n s * T h e r e t h e y c o m b i n e d t h e i r f o r c e w i t h t h a t o f L i u a n d s t r u c k b a c k a t S h a n g ' s a r m y * S h a n g ' s army was s e t i n d i s o r d e r and d e f e a t e d a n d o n l y one o r two o u t o f t e n r e t u r n e d * The C h i n G o v e r n o r o f L i a n g p r o v i n c e H s u H s i u n g ^ s e n t an army t o a t t a c k T ' e w h i c h T ' e d e f e a t e d . * [ T h e G e n e r a l o f t h e W e s t e r n E x p e d i t i o n ( K i n g Y u n g o f H e — c h i e n ) t h e n s e n t t h e O v e r s e e r o f t h e Army L i u 83 C h ' e n ^-'j to l e a d t h e w e s t e r n e x p e d i t i o n * B e c a u s e t h e r e w e r e a f f a i r s i n t h e C e n t r a l S t a t e s i t d i d n o t come t o a s u c c e s s f u l c o n c l u s i o n . 9 5 The C o l o n e l o f t h e S o u t h e r n B a r b a r i a n s L i I d i s p a t c h e d Sou t r o o p s t o a i d L u o S h a n e * H i s a r m y was o f t e n d e f e a t e d and L i T ' e ' s p o s i t i o n grew d a i l y s t r o n g e r * S e c o n d y e a r ( 3 0 3 ) * S p r i n g * F i r s t m o n t h * F i r s t d a y . ] * ( H Y K C 8 / 1 1 1 * 9 - 1 0 ) A d v a n c i n g t o t h e a t t a c k T ' e d e s t r o y e d S h a n g * s m a r i n e f o r c e a n d went on t o p l u n d e r C h * e n g - t u * The G r a n d A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f Shu commandery H s u C h i e n s u r r e n d e r e d t h e s m a l l c i t y ( o f C h * e n g — t u ) t o T ' e . T ' e named L i C h i n A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f S h u c o m m a n d e r y i n o r d e r t o p a c i f y i t . L u o S h a n g s e a l e d h i m s e l f w i t h i n C h ' e n g -t u * L i u a d v a n c e d a n d camped w e s t o f t h e Y a n g — t z e * 9 7 S h a n g was f r i g h t e n e d a n d s e n t an e m i s s a r y t o s u e f o r p e a c e * A t t h i s t i m e t h e p e o p l e o f S h u , f e a r i n g f o r t h e i r s a f e t y , e r e c t e d v i l l a g e f o r t i f i c a t i o n s a n d r e q u e s t e d T ' e ' s commands* T ' e s e n t p e o p l e t o c o m f o r t them* * ( L i H s i u n g s e n t a m i s s i v e r e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t T ' e s h o u l d t a k e h o s t a g e s a n d n o t d i s p e r s e h i s e l i t e t r o o p s . L l L i u a l s o r e m o n s t r a t e d t o t h i s e f f e c t * T ' e a n g r i l y s a i d , " T h e g r e a t a f f a i r i s a l r e a d y s e t t l e d * We s h o u l d m e r e l y p a c i f y t h e p e o p l e * Why s h o u l d we a c t s u s p i c i o u s l y a n d n o t s t o p t h i s s i e z l n g a n d k i l l i n g ? " J * ( H Y _ C 8 / 1 1 1 . 1 2 - 1 3 ) T h e A t t e n d a n t O f f i c i a l o f I p r o v i n c e J e n M i n g 9 8 a d v i s e d L u o S h a n g s a y i n g , " L i T ' e has n o t o n l y t r e a c h e r o u s l y r e b e l l e d , a s s a u l t i n g a n d t e r r o r i z i n g t h e common p e o p l e * He h a s a l s o d i s p e r s e d h i s f o l l o w e r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e many f o r t i f i e d v i l l a g e s • He i s a r r o g a n t , n e g l e c t f u l a n d u n p r e p a r e d * T h i s i s H e a v e n d e s t r o y i n g h i m . 84 You should inform the v a r i o u s v i l l a g e s and, s e c r e t l y a r r a n g i n g a date, s t r i k e him from w i t h i n and without* You are c e r t a i n to d e f e a t h i m * " 9 9 Shang fo l l o w e d t h i s advice* • [ L e t t i n g Jen J u l (Ming) down over the c i t y w a l l with a rope, he sent him to transmit h i s order to the v a r i o u s v i l l a g e s , a r r a n g i n g to c h a s t i s e T'e together on the tenth day of the second month (March 14, 303)* He p e r s o n a l l y wrote a s e c r e t message, "By the Willow Stream."]*(HYKC 8/111.14-112*1) Jen Ming f i r s t pretended to surrender to T'e and when T'e asked of the s i t u a t i o n w i t h i n the c i t y he r e p l i e d , "The r i c e and g r a i n i s a l r e a d y almost exhausted* A l l that i s l e f t i s goods and s i l k * " He t h e r e f o r e asked Leave to v i s i t and check up on h i s f a m i l y * T'e permitted t h i s . Jen Ming s e c r e t l y persuaded the v a r i o u s v i l l a g e s and a l l of them accepted h i s orders* He returned and r e p o r t e d to Shang, who agreed to d i s p a t c h h i s troops at the appointed time* The v a r i o u s v i l l a g e s a l s o agreed to come to meet him at the same time* Second year (303)* Emperor Hui sent the Governor of Ching province, Tsung T a i <i-\ * 0 Q , and the A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Chien-rp'ing -f , Sun Fu -f^  , to rescue Shang* Sun Fu had a l r e a d y taken up a p o s i t i o n i n Te—yang and T'e sent L i Tang to l e a d L i Huang to the a i d Jen Ts' ang i n r e p e l l i n g him* Shang sent a great f o r c e to s u r p r i s e T'e's camp* The b a t t l e continued f o r two days but T'e's f o r c e , being s m a l l e r , was no match f o r Shang's and s u f f e r e d a g r e a t d e f e a t . Gathering together and r e u n i t i n g what remained of h i s troops he withdrew to Hsin—fan * 1 0 1 85 When Shang's f o r c e sought to re t u r n ( t o Ch'eng-tu) T'e again pursued them and they b a t t l e d back and f o r t h over a d i s t a n c e of t h i r t y — o d d i _ i • Shang sent f o r t h a huge f o r c e to r e p u l s e T'e and T'e's army s u f f e r e d a severe defeat* L i T'e, ( h i s e l d e r b r o t h e r ) L i Fu and L i Yuan were beheaded, t h e i r corpses burned and t h e i r heads t r a n s m i t t e d to Luo— yang y\% \T$y T'e reigned f o r two years* When h i s son Hsiung a r r o g a t e d to h i m s e l f the t i t l e of King ( wane i ) he posthumously canonized T'e as King Ching -T^ j £ • When he usurped the t i t l e of emperor he posthumously honored T'e as Emperor Ching, with the temple name S h i h — t s u 86 L l L i u t s o b r i q u e t H s u a n - t ' u n g "j. jjfj^ , was L i T' e ' s f o u r t h y o u n g e r b r o t h e r . He was f o n d o f l e a r n i n g when young and a d e p t a t a r c h e r y and r i d i n g . The C o l o n e l o f the E a s t e r n C h ' i a n g ( t u n a - C h ' i a n a h s i a o - w e i > He P'an ^f") , c l a i m i n g t h a t he had t h e c o u r a g e o f a Mens Pen o r H s i a Yu f,. ^  1 0 3 1 s e l e c t e d L i u t o be Commandant o f t h e E a s t e r n C h ' i a n g ( t u n a - C h ' j a n a t u )• When he s o u g h t s a f e t y i n I p r o v i n c e the G o v e r n o r Chao C h ' i n e s t e e m e d him h i g h l y . A t the time when C h ' i n had L i H s i a n g g a t h e r t o g e t h e r a p e r s o n a l army L i u a l s o summoned t h e young men from h i s n a t i v e r e g i o n , a m a s s i n g s e v e r a l t h o u s a n d . When H s i a n g was k i l l e d by C h ' i n , L i u a i d e d L i T'e i n s e t t l i n g t h e m i g r a n t s , d e f e a t i n g Ch'ang Chun a t M i e n — c h u and q u e l l i n g Chao C h ' i n a t C h ' e n g — t u . When t h e c o u r t a s s e s s e d t h e i r m e r i t t h e y named L i u G e n e r a l A r o u s i n g M a j e s t y and e n f e o f f e d him as t h e M a r q u i s o f Wu—yang ^ • When L i T'e assumed t h e r e i n s o f government he a p p o i n t e d L i u G e n e r a l S t a b i l i z i n g t h e E a s t . O c c u p y i n g t h e e a s t e r n camp, he was c a l l e d P r o t e c t o r — g e n e r a I o f the E a s t ( t u n a t u — hu ^ "^ jf )« T'e o f t e n p u t L i u i n command o± e l i t e t r o o p s i n o r d e r t o h o l d o f f Luo Shang. When T'e r e d u c e d t h e s m a l l c i t y o f C h ' e n g — t u 1 0 4 he o r d e r e d t h e m i g r a n t s o f the s i x commanderies t o d i v i d e and e n t e r t h e c i t y t h r o u g h d i f f e r e n t e n t r a n c e s w h i l e t h e s t r o n g and b r a v e among them were s e n t t o command the f o r t i f i e d v i l l a g e s . L i u s a i d t o T'e, "Your E x c e l l e n c y p o s s e s s e s a m i r a c u l o u s m a r t i a l t a l e n t and has a l r e a d y c o n q u e r e d the s m a l l c i t y , however the 87 produce of the o u t l y i n g regions has not yet been c o l l e c t e d and our arms and f o o d s t o r e s are not p l e n t i f u l * You should take the sons and younger b r o t h e r s of the g r e a t c l a n s of the province and commanderies as hostages and* sending them to Kuang—han, hol d them i n two camps, then g a t h e r i n g together some crack troops, e s t a b l i s h s t r i c t d efenses*" He a l s o wrote a l e t t e r to T'e's Marshal Shang-kuan Tun expounding at l e n g t h on the p r o p o s i t i o n that surrender should be accepted as i f e n t e r t a i n i n g one's enemy* T'e would not accept t h i s advice* A f t e r T'e had d i e d most of the people o f Shu r e b e l l e d and the migrants were very f r i g h t e n e d * • [ L i Hsiung named L i L i t h e Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Tzu-t'ung . 1 0 5 ]*( HYKC 8/112*3) L i u and h i s nephews lang and Hsiung c o l l e c t e d t h e i r remaining f o r c e s and returned to C h * i h — t s u L i u guarded the eastern camp while Tang and Hsiung guarded the northern one* L i u proclaimed h i m s e l f Great G e n e r a l , Great I n s p e c t o r — g e n e r a l and P a s t o r of I p r o v i n c e * At the time Tsung T a i and a marine f o r c e of t h i r t y thousand was encamped at Tien—chiang* Sun Fu, i n the van, reduced Te—yang c a p t u r i n g the p r o t e c t i n g g e n e r a l T'e had appointed, Chien Shih , while the A d m i n i s t r a t o r Jen Ts'ang and company r e t r e a t e d to F o u — l i n g P r e f e c t u r e *£Third month.]* Luo Shang sent the P r o t e c t o r - general Ch'ang Shen ^  *° encamp at P ' i — c h ' i a o and the Guards of the Ivory Gate Tso Fan >lL * Huang Hung ^f[J and He Ch'ung •'fuj y^7 to a t t a c k the northern camp from three s i d e s . 1 0 8 *[The T i and Ch*iang tribesmen w i t h i n the encampment , 88 l e d by Fu Ch'eng , Wei Po and S h i h T i n g » r o s e i n r e b e l l i o n i n r e s p o n s e t o T s o Fan and Huang Y i n , (Hung) a t t a c k i n g L i Tang and L i H s i u n g * L i Tan g ' s mother Madame Luo donned armor and a t t a c k e d t h e i r r a n k s * Wei Pc wounded Madame Luo w i t h h i s own h a n d s * A l t h o u g h wounded i n t h e eye h e r f i g h t i n g s p i r i t grew more a r d e n t * A t the t i m e Fu Ch'eng and Wei Po had been f i g h t i n g w i t h i n t h e encampment w h i l e T s o Fan and Huang Y i n had been a s s a u l t i n g i t s e x t e r i o r from m o r n i n g u n t i l midday* The encampment was about t o be r e d u c e d * J u s t t h e n L i L i u , h a v i n g d e f e a t e d Ch'ang Shen, and L i Tang and L i H s i u n g , h a v i n g d e f e a t e d Yao Shen, r e t u r n e d a n d , m e e t i n g w i t h T s o Fan and Huang Y i n , i n f l i c t e d a s e v e r e d e f e a t upon them. ]*(HYKC 8/112.7-9) L i u p e r s o n a l l y l e d Tang and H s i u n g i n an a t t a c k upon Ch'ang Shen's f o r t i f i c a t i o n s . Overwhelmed, Shen's t r o o p s s c a t t e r e d l i k e s t a r s . They p u r s u e d them t o C h ' e n g — t u where Luo Shang s h u t h i m s e l f up b e h i n d t h e g a t e s . W h i l e g a l l o p i n g i n p u r s u i t Tang r a n i n t o a l a n c e i m p l a n t e d i n t h e gro u n d a t an a n g l e 1 0 9 and was m o r t a l l y wounded. •[Madame Luo and L i H s i u n g c o n c e a l e d t h i s f a c t and o b s e r v e d no m o u r n i n g i n o r d e r t o q u i e t t h e h e a r t s o f t h e t r o o p s . ]*(HYKC 8/112.9-10) S i n c e L i T'e and L i Tang had b o t h d i e d w h i l e Tsung T a i and Sun F u had a r r i v e d a g a i n L i L i u was v e r y f r i g h t e n e d . M o r e o v e r t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r L i Han u r g e d L i u t o s u r r e n d e r and L i u was ab o u t t o f o l l o w h i s a d v i c e . L i H s i u n g and L i Hsiang"*' r e m o n s t r a t e d i n s u c c e s s i o n b u t L i u would n o t a c c e p t t h e i r a d v i c e . He s e n t h i s son S h i h + + # and L i Han's s o n Hu as h o s t a g e s t o Fu's camp. L i Hu's e l d e r b r o t h e r , L i l i a r ' s son L i , h e a r i n g t h a t h i s 89 f a t h e r wished to surrender returned at a g a l l o p from Tzu— t'ung wishing to remonstrate , but d i d not a r r i v e i n time* He withdrew and p l o t t e d w i t h L i Hsiung to s u r p r i s e Sun Fu's camp» saying " I f we succeed I agree to a l t e r n a t e every three years with you as r u l e r * " 1 1 0 Hsiung s a i d , "We can decide our plans now but i f the two o l d men do not agree what w i l l we do?" L i r e p l i e d , "We should take care of them now and i f we cannot c o n t r o l them then we should c a r r y out the b i g plan ( s e i z e power)* Although the o l d gentleman i s your uncle the s i t u a t i o n l e a v e s us no choice* My f a t h e r w i l l be under your command, what more can he say?" * [ L i Hsiung then spoke to the men of the s i x commanderies, i n c i t i n g them with r e c i t a t i o n s of Luo Shang's i n c u r s i o n s a g a i n s t them, f r i g h t e n i n g them with the prospect of s h a r i n g together the c a l a m i t i e s which had b e f a l l e n the people of Shu and s e t t i n g f o r t h that i t was the proper time to become r i c h and famous by a t t a c k i n g Sun Fu* Thus he was able to defeat Sun Fu* The members of Sim Fu's army who were k i l l e d were extremely numerous, while Tsung Tai d i e d of i l l n e s s * The army o f Ching province withdrew.]*(BYKC 8/112.12-14) Hsiung was very p l e a s e d and a t t a c k e d Luo Shang's encampment* •[Ashamed of h i s own shortcomings L i L i u e n t r u s t e d m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s to L i Hsiung* Hsiung r e p e a t e d l y de f e a t e d Shang. ]*(HYKC 8/112.14) Shang took refuge i n the l a r g e r c i t y ( o f Ch'eng-tu)* Hsiung f o r d e d the (Yang-tze ) r i v e r and k i l l e d the A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Min—shan Ch'en T*u ^t- _] , thereby e n t e r i n g the walled c i t y of P'i ^ if^ . 1 1 1 L i u moved h i s encampment and occupied i t * The populace of 90 the three Shu a l l were defending themselves i n s t r a t e g i c p l a c e s and c o n s t r u c t i n g f o r t i f i c a t i o n s * l e a v i n g the c i t i e s a l l empty* L i L i u co u l d capture nothing from the c o u n t r y s i d e and h i s troops were s t a r v i n g and d i s t r e s s e d * Fan Ch'ang—sheng* a man of F o u — l i n g ]X Vi. X ^ *i- t had l e d over a thousand f a m i l i e s to l i v e on Ch'ing—ch*eng shan . 1 1 2 shang's M i l i t a r y Advisor ( t s ' an-chun ^ 'jjT ) H s S Yu of F o u — l i n g requested to be made A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Min-shan* wishing to e n l i s t the a i d of Fan Ch'eng—sheng and a t t a c k L i u on two f r o n t s . Shang would not permit t h i s and Hsu Yu resented i t . He asked to be sent west of the (Yang—tze ) R i v e r and subsequently surrendered to L i L i u . 1 1 3 He persuaded Fan Ch'ang—sheng to supply L i u ' s army with f o o d s t o r e s . Thus L i u ' s army was again i n a s t a t e to i n s p i r e f e a r . L i u had always esteemed L i Hsiung as having the v i r t u e of an e l d e r and always s a i d * "The one who w i l l r a i s e our house i s c e r t a i n l y t h i s man."* o r d e r i n g h i s sons to honor and serve him. When L i u ' s i l l n e s s became c r i t i c a l he s a i d to h i s v a r i o u s m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s * "The General of Doughty C a v a l r y ( L i Hsiang* ) i s l o f t y and benevolent and i n h i s knowledge and d e c i s i o n s has many stratagems. He i s c e r t a i n l y capable o f c a r r y i n g out great a f f a i r s . However the General of the Van ( L i Hsiung) i s brave and m a r t i a l and seems to be the c h o i c e of Heaven. You should a l l take orders from the General of the Van and make him King o f Ch'eng-tu." He then d i e d . At the time he was f i f t y - f i v e y ears o f age. The v a r i o u s generals j o i n e d i n e l e v a t i n g 91 Hsiung to Leader* When Hsiung usurped the i m p e r i a l t i t l e he posthumously honored L i u with the t i t l e King Wen of Ch'in 92 L i Hsiana L i Hsiang ^j- » s o b r i q u e t Hsuan-hsu ^ , was L i T'e's t h i r d younger brother* When young he was known f o r h i s ardent s p i r i t * He served at the commandery l e v e l as I n v e s t i g a t o r ( tu—yu ) and Master of Records ( c h u — D U i- i£f ); i n both cases he was commended f o r being a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the p o s i t i o n * In the f o u r t h year of the Yuan-k'ang ^  r e i g n p e r i o d (294) he was named F i l i a l and Pure ( frsjao-lien % ) 1 1 4 but d i d not respond to the summons* L a t e r because he was adept a t r i d i n g and archery he was recommended to be worthy Commandant ( Ii a n g — c h i a n g 1\ ) but again d i d not go ( t o f i l l the p o s i t i o n ) * Because h i s t a l e n t s encompassed both c i v i l and m i l i t a r y v i r t u e s the pr o v i n c e recommended him as Accomplished Prodigy ( fasiu-l / i A ) but he s t e a d f a s t l y r efused on p r e t e x t of i l l n e s s * The province and commandery would not l i s t e n to him and sent up h i s name the Army P r o t e c t o r of the Middle ( chuna hu—chun ^ ^ ) i n s i s t e n t l y summoned him* He had no c h o i c e but to respond to t h i s and was made Inspector of C a v a l r y f o r the Middle Army ( chuna-chun t u - c h i )• He was a d r o i t and nimble with bow and horse, p o s s e s s i n g above-average p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h , and people of h i s day compared him to Wen Ang . 1 1 5 Because Luo—yang was i n a s t a t e of d i s o r d e r he l e f t h i s p o s i t i o n c i t i n g i l l n e s s * He was by nature c h i v a l r o u s and l i k e d to a i d those i n d i f f i c u l t y * Men of h i s n a t i v e p l a c e v i e d to a l l y themselves to him* When he sought refuge i n Liang and I p r o v i n c e s together with the migrants from 93 the s i x commanderies i f he met one who was s t a r v i n g or i l l on the road Hsiang would i n v a r i a b l y p r o t e c t and nurture them and gi v e them succor, d i s t r i b u t i n g bounty to the impoverished* Thus he won the hearts of the masses* When he a r r i v e d i n Shu Chao Ch'in esteemed him h i g h l y and i n d i s c u s s i n g m i l i t a r y t a c t i c s with him would always p r a i s e h i s views. Chao Ch'in would o f t e n say to h i s i n t i m a t e s , " L i Hsuan— hsu i s the Kuan Yu fV| or Chang F e i of today." 1 1 6 When Ch'in was about to turn to treason he e n t r u s t e d Hsiang with a p o s i t i o n of utmost in t i m a c y . He then memorialized naming Hsiang Inspector of Regiments ( ) and caused him to gather together the st r o n g and brave men from the s i x commanderies , amassing over ten thousand. In r e c o g n i t i o n of h i s achievement i n supp r e s s i n g the r e b e l l i o n of the Ch' iang 1 1 7 Ch'in memorialized that he be made General I n t i m i d a t i n g B a n d i t s , be p e r m i t t e d use of a red banner and curved canopy 1 1 8 » be e n f e o f f e d as Marquis of Yang—ch'uan—t•ing and be presented with one m i l l i o n cash and f i f t y h orses. On the day that he was executed none of the men of the s i x commanderies f a i l e d to shed t e a r s f o r him. He was at the time f i f t y - f o u r . 94 CHAPTER 120 NOTES L Tang-ch'u was l o c a t e d seventy J.i. n o r t h e a s t of modern Ch * u acc o r d i n g to Ku Tsu-yu, Tu-shih fana-yu' chi-vao 6 8 / 2 9 5 3 while Chung—kuo ku-chln ti—mine ta t z ' u — t j e n (hereafter- r e f e r r e d to as T i — nina ) 4 4 9 . 1 does not give an exact d i s t a n c e . I f o l l o w Ku Tsu-yu 6 8 / 2 9 1 9 i n p l a c i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t e r of Pa—hsi comnandery twenty l i . east of modern Lang—chung fj-jf] ^ . T1—ming 1 4 8 . 3 and Morohashl 8 7 4 5 . 6 0 would l o c a t e i t to the west of Lang—chung and s i n c e Lang—chung i s on the e a s t e r n bank of the C h i a — l i n g r i v e r t h i s would n e c e s s i t a t e p l a c i n g i t on the western bank of the r i v e r . However the name Lang—chung, a l r e a d y i n use at t h i s time, would seem to r e f e r to the C h i a — l i n g R i v e r or Lang Chiang IX- as i t i s a l s o named which surrounds present Lang—chung on three s i d e s and hence could not have r e f e r r e d to a p l a c e west o f the r i v e r . Hua-vang Kuo-chih ( h e r e a f t e r a b b r e v i a t e d HYKC) 9 / 1 1 9 . 1 says that T'e h a i l e d from Lin—wei i n Lueh—yang commandery but that h i s a n c e s t o r s were Tsung people from Tang-ch'u i n P a — h s i . Lin—wel was e i g h t y _l_i southeast of Ch'in—an p r e f e c t u r e i n Kansu and was the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t e r of Lueh-yang ccmmandery. See Ku Tsu-yu 5 9 / 2 5 9 6 , Ti-ming 8 4 0 . 1 and 1 2 9 3 . 1 . 2 The name L i n Chun me G r a n a r i e s * , a r a t h e r p e c u l founder of a group of people, ans l i t e r a l l y 'Lord of the l a r name f o r the legendary e s p e c i a l l y one which r e l i e d 9 5 so h e a v i l y upon hunting and f i s h i n g as opposed to a g r i c u l t u r e . It may represent a non-Chinese word. The t e x t to t h i s p o i n t i s i d e n t i c a l with the S h i h — l i u kuo ch'un— ch* i u ( h e r e a f t e r a b b r e v i a t e d SKCC ) quoted In T 1 a i - c 1 ina v i l -l a n ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as TPYL ) 123/5a. TPYL does not quote the s t o r y concerning L i n Chun. 3 See t h e s e c t i o n o n t h e Pa p e o p l e f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h i s m o u n t a i n a n d v a r i a n t f o r m s o f i t s name • 4 Hou Han S h u 86/2840 h a s » ^ , w h i c h t h e c o m m e n t a r y s t a t e s i s r e a d __e_. • T P Y L 37/5b q u o t i n g t h e S h i h P e n r e a d s H u i ^ . 5 HHS a n d T P Y L ( c i t e d a b o v e ) a g r e e i n r e a d i n g H s i a n g f o r P o . 6 HHS r e a d s , " T h e y d i d n o t y e t h a v e a r u l e r and a l l s e r v e d g h o s t s a n d s p i r i t s . " T h e t e x t h e r e f o l l o w s , w i t h m i n o r c h a n g e s , t h e S h i h P e n a s q u o t e d i n T P Y L 3 7 . 7 The m o d e r n C h ' i n g C h i a n g > o f s o u t h w e s t e r n H u p e i . S e e a b o v e , p . 1 5 — 1 6 . 8 P e r h a p s t o be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e Y e n - s h u l *K p r e f e c t u r e e s t a b l i s h e d u n d e r t h e N o r t h e r n C h o u , l o c a t e d f o r t y i l e a s t o f m o d e r n S h i h — n a n 7?*5 . S e e a b o v e , p . P A G E . 96 9 T r a n s l a t i o n u n c e r t a i n * HHS says o n l y , " L i n Chun r e f u s e d • " 10 HHS reads "the myriad i n s e c t s " . 11 HHS says 'over ten days' while the subcommentary i n Hou Han Shu chi-ct>ieh ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as HHSCC ) S6 /9a-b quotes Hui Tung who c i t e s the Shih Pen as reading 'seven days and seven n i g h t s ' . I t i s unknown what Hui Tung's source was as the o r i g i n a l Shih Pep was l o s t about a thousand years ago and t h i s passage i s not quoted i n any source that I am f a m i l i a r with. See above, p. PAGE. 12 The subcommentary to the EHS c i t e s the Shui Chime_chu and the China-chou c h i fr'l 'JH X.ZJ of Sheng Hung-chih l_j 4^ 2^ speaking of a mountain cave c o n t a i n i n g a vana stone and a ___ stone. Sheng surmises that t h i s i s the stone which L i n Chun stood upon i n shooting the water s p i r i t . Thus i t would seem that the v e r s i o n he knew read vans ^Tfo f o r tang ( v a r i e g a t e d ) . However, d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h i s p l a c e do not a c c o r d w e l l with events i n our t a l e and I b e l i e v e t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s i n c o r r e c t . 13 T h i s p o r t i o n concerning the g i f t of a green thread f o l l o w s with minor v a r i a t i o n s the Shih Pen as quoted i n the commentary to the HHS account. The HHS says o n l y , " L i n Chun waited f o r h i s o p p o r t u n i t y and shot and k i l l e d her." 97 ( a d o p t i n g t h e e m e n d a t i o n o f s s u t o s s u 'i^l a f t e r H u i T u n g , HHSCC S6/5b). 14 I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s p l a c e i s t o b e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e Y e n — s h u i m e n t i o n e d i n n o t e 8 a b o v e . T h i s r e f e r e n c e t o I—ch*eng seems a n a c h r o n i s t i c s i n c e p r e s u m a b l y t h e c i t y w h i c h L i n Chun g o e s o n t o e r e c t i s t h i s I - c h ' e n g o f ' B a r b a r i a n C i t y * . 15 T h e L i B s i e n \ j^|F c o m m e n t a r y t o t h e HHS s t a t e s t h a t t h e p r e c e d i n g i s a l s o f o u n d i n t h e S h i h Pen . HBS i n c l u d e s a l l o f t h e p r e c e d i n g e x c e p t t h e e v e n t s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e f o u n d i n g o f I — c h ' e n g . I t c o n t i n u e s , "When t h e L i n C h u n d i e s h i s s o u l h a s become a w h i t e t i g e r f o r g e n e r a t i o n a f t e r g e n e r a t i o n . B e c a u s e t h e P a c l a n b e l i e v e s t h a t t i g e r s d r i n k m e n ' s b l o o d t h e y s a c r i f i c e men t o h i m . 16 S h i h C h i 5/313 r e c o r d s the t a k i n g o f C h ' i e n — c h u n g c o m m a n d e r y b y S s u - m a T s ' o i n t h e t w e n t y — s e v e n t h y e a r o f S i n g C h a o — h s i a n g ' s r e i g n (280 B . C . ) , w h i l e t h e c h a p t e r on S o u t h w e s t e r n B a r b a r i a n s s a y s t h a t C h ' i n t o o k C h ' u ' s Pa a n d C h ' i e n — c h u n g ( S C 116/2993). C h ' i e n — c h u n g commandery was a d m i n i s t e r e d a t t h e w a l l e d c i t y o f C h * i e n — c h u n g t w e n t y V i w e s t o f Y u a n — l i n g V7u ^ L _ i n Hunan a n d c o n t r o l l e d n o r t h e a s t e r n Hunan a n d p a r t s o f K u e i c h o w a n d B u p e i . I t I s n o t i n c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t a c i t y on t h e m i d — r e a c h e s o f t h e C h ' i n g C h i a n g , w h e r e we w o u l d p l a c e t h e s i t e s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e L i n C h u n m y t h , w o u l d f a l l w i t h i r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s p h e r e o f 98 Ch•ien—chung commandery however the r e g i o n normally a s s o c i a t e d with Pa, I.e. e a s t e r n Szechwan, would almost c e r t a i n l y have been administered from w i t h i n Szechwan. Hoy Han ShM 86/2841 says that King Hui of Ch'in (337-311) u n i f i e d Pa—chung One would be tempted to conclude that our Ch*ien—chung i s a mistake f o r Pa—chung , however SKCC, quoted i n TPYL 123/5a, o l f e r s a much c l o s e r p a r a l l e l to our t e x t i n t h i s s e c t i o n and i t reads Ch*ien—chung. 17 Wei Shu 96/2110 reads ' t h i r t y cash*. HHS 86/2842 mentions a tax of f o r t y cash i n connection with the Pan-shun Man under the Han dynasty, where i t i s one of the rewards given by Han Kao—tsu in r e t u r n f o r the a i d of the Pan Shun Man i n p a c i f y i n g the Shensi r e g i o n . In the s e c t i o n d e a l i n g with the Man of Fa and Nan commanderies the same work (86/2841) speaks of t h e i r l e a d e r s y e a r l y paying a tax or t r i b u t e of two thousand s i x t e e n cash, and a ' l o y a l t y t r i b u t e ' of one thousand e i g h t hundred cash every three years while each household p a i d eighty—two f e e t ( c h ' i h of c l o t h and t h i r t y hou of chicken f e a t h e r s (the commentary says t h i s equals one hundred f o r t y — n i n e , presumably f e a t h e r s ) y e a r l y . 18 Lu Ssu—mien has a t t a c k e d t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n of the o r i g i n of the term tsung • See above, n. 10 of the i n t r o d u c t o r y m a t e r i a l . 19 Feng was a c i t y w i t h i n P'el p r e f e c t u r e , east of 99 m o d e r n P ' e i i n C h i a n g s u ( T,ir*roinq 408.1 ) . Han K a o ^ - t s u f i r s t r a i s e d t r o o p s i n t h i s r e g i o n a n d he e x e m p t e d i t s i n h a b i t a n t s f r o m t a x e s a f t e r u n i f y i n g t h e e m p i r e . 20 The g h i h - l i M - k y o . c h ' v m - c h ' j u , q u o t e d i n T P Y L 123/5a r e a d s . " T h e e a r t h p o s s e s s e s t h e b e n e f i t s o f s a l t a n d i a c q u e r a n d t h e p e o p l e t h e r e b y p r o s p e r . " HYKC 1/2.3—4 g i v e s a more e x t e n s i v e l i s t o f l o c a l p r o d u c t s . 21 Yu i s a n o t h e r name f o r t h e C h i a - l i n g r i v e r . T h e SKCC c o n t i n u e s , " T h e i r d e s c e n d a n t s became n u m e r o u s and d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e r a l t e n s o f c l a n s . " ( T P Y L 123/5a ) . HYKC 1/4.2 p a r a l l e l s t h i s p a s s a g e , b u t i n c l u d e s t h e f o l l o w i n g d e c l a r a t i o n by K a o — t s u , " T h i s i s t h e s o n g s u n g when K i n g Wu a t t a c k e d C h o u , t h e l a s t S h a n g r u l e r . " S e e HHS 86/2842. 22 S o u t h e a s t e r n S h e n s i . The commandery o f t h i s name was a d m i n i s t e r e d a t Nan—cheng ^ two I i e a s t o f t h e m o d e r n N a n - c h e n g i n S h e n s i . T i , - m i n a 1102.3. HHS 86/2843 r e c o r d s an u p r i s i n g o f t h e P a n S h u n Man i n s u p p o r t o f a g r o u p o f Y e l l o w T u r b a n s i n Pa commandery i n 188. 23 T h e r e i s a Y a n g C h u m e n t i o n e d i n HYKC 9/119.6 a s one o f t h e men who moved t o L u e h — y a n g w i t h L i T ' e ' s g r a n d f a t h e r Hu a f t e r T s * a o T s ' a o c o n q u e r e d B a n — c h u n g . T h i s seems a more l i k e l y o r i g i n f o r t h e a p p e l a t l o n Yang C h u P a . I h a v e n o t b e e n a b l e t o f i n d a n y r e f e r e n c e t o a p l a c e Y a n g C h u . 100 24 HYKC 9/119.5 a n d T P Y L 123/5a a g r e e t h a t t h e name o f T ' e ' s g r a n d f a t h e r was Hu • L i H s i u n g ' s b i o g r a p h y ( C S 121/3036*6) g i v e s t h i s name as Wu i^V, s i n c e Hu was t a b o o e d i n t h e T ' a n g . S e e CS 121/3050, n.2. 25 A commandery o f C h ' i n p r o v i n c e a d m i n i s t e r e d a t L i n — w e i p r e f e c t u r e . See a b o v e , n . l . 26 I t h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t Pa T l £"6- i s a m i s t a k e f o r Pa 5*Uii o r t h e Pa c l a n . S h i h a n d t_i a r e v e r y e a s i l y c o n f u s e d g r a p h i c a l l y . SKCC ( T P Y L 123/5a ) a n d HYKC 9/119.6 b o t h r e a d Pa J e n 1 E-/\ o r ' P a p e o p l e " a n d b o t h t h e HHS a n d CS a c c o u n t s o f t h e L i n C h u n myth make f r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e to Pa s h i h • T h e C h i n Shu e d i t o r s (120/3032.4), p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t t h e Pa p e o p l e a r e n o t T i , a c c e p t t h i s a l t e r n a t e r e a d i n g . H o w e v e r , t h e t e r m T i may h a v e b e e n a p p l i e d more g e n e r a l l y t o a l l n o n — C h i n e s e p e o p l e s i n a r e g i o n w h e r e t h e T i p r e d o m i n a t e d a n d t h e t e r m Pa T l o c c u r s a g a i n a t HYKC 8/115.8. I s e e no c o m p e l l i n g r e a s o n t o c h o o s e o n e r e a d i n g o y e r t h e o t h e r , b u t what must b e t a k e n n o t e o f i s t h a t t h i s p a s s a g e , h o w e v e r r e a d , d o e s n o t i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e Pa p e o p l e a r e T i . 27 C f . HYKC 9/119.3. SKCC r e a d s t h e same w i t h m i n o r v a r i a t i o n s a n d c o n t i n u e s , " M u a l t o g e t h e r h a d f i v e s o n s : F u , T ' e , H s i a n g , L i u a n d H s i a n g * . " ( T P Y L 123/5a). 28 By m o d e r n m e a s u r e m e n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 f e e t 4 I n c h e s . 101 T h i s measurement and those belcw are based upon Wu Ch'eng-lu o ( 1 9 3 7 ) . It i s not u n l i k e l y that there i s an element of exaggeration i n v o l v e d . 29 HYKC 8 / 1 0 6 . 1 1 - 1 2 p l a c e s t h i s r e b e l l i o n i n 298 and s p e c i f i e s that i t i s the T i of the Kuan-chungj ( Shensi ) r e g i o n and the M a - l a n ^ Tj£] Ch'iang who had r e b e l l e d . SKcc reads, "The T i Ch'i Wan—nien d i s t u r b e d and threw i n t o d i s o r d e r the commanderies of T* l e n — s h u i ^L.?]^ , Lueh—yang, Fu-f eng and Shih-p« i n g -kk ^  . " (TPYL 1 2 3 / 5 b ) . 30 T h i s i s another name f o r Ban—chung. I t s use here i s perhaps a n a c h r o n i s t i c , as the name of Han—chung commandery was changed to Han—ch * uan only i n the S u i , however i t i s o b v i o u s l y d e r i v e d from the Han R i v e r which flows through the r e g i o n and the name may have been i n popular usage be f o r e i t s o f f i c i a l adoption under the S u i . Ti-mina 1 1 0 2 . 2 . 31 T h i s pass i s l o c a t e d to the north of modern Chien-ke p r e f e c t u r e i n northern Szechwan. Ti-mina 1 1 4 9 . 2 . 32 L i u Ch'an was the l a s t r u l e r of the Shu Han regime e s t a b l i s h e d by L i u P e i . His surrender to Teng A i i s recorded i n gan Ku,o QhXh 3 3 / 9 0 0 . 33 SKCC reads Yen Yu VSl ^ ( TPYL 123/5b). His name i s c o n s i s t e n t l y given as Yen Shih i n HYKC and the Chin Shu . 102 34 HYKC 8/106.12 a l s o m e n t i o n s He C h u \ ^ % , L I Y u a n t-L%^ a n d t h e T l - S o u a n d C h ' I n s - S o u Is) a s members o f t h e c o m p a n y . The p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h i s c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l e d i n S K C C , a s q u o t e d i n T P Y L 123. 35 HYKC 8/106.14 g i v e s L i P i ' s o f f i c e as A t t e n d a n t O f f i c i a l o f t h e O f f i c e o f C i v i l A f f a i r s ( h u - t s a o t s ' u n g -s h i h f>*tiLfu 36 HYKC 8/106.12-14 p r o v i d e s t h e o n l y e x t a n t p a r a l l e l f o r t h i s p a r a g r a p h a n d i t makes no m e n t i o n o f t h e b r i b e . I a n d L i a n g p r o v i n c e s a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e r e g i o n o f S z e c h w a n a n d s o u t h e a s t e r n S h e n s i . T h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t e r o f L i a n g p r o v i n c e was Nan—cheng ( s e e a b o v e , n . 19 ) w h i l e I p r o v i n c e was a d m i n i s t e r e d a t C h ' e n g — t u . 37 CS 9/S7.1 r e a d s K e n g Shengjjj^ $£for T ' e n g . T C T C 83/2647 f o l l o w s t h e r e a d i n g o f ' T ' e n g ' . S h e n g i s a s i m p l e g r a p h i c c o n f u s i o n f o r t h i s c h a r a c t e r . 38 L i u P e l e s t a b l i s h e d t h e Shu Han r e g i m e w h i c h s u r v i v e d i n S z e c h w a n f o r o v e r s i x t y y e a r s . A t t h i s p o i n t t h e HYKC (8/107.5-6) c o n t a i n s t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n e s n o t f o u n d i n t h e C h i n S h u s " I n t h e b e g i n n i n g , b e c a u s e t h e Y e l l o w P r o g n o s t i c a t i o n p f t h e S t a r s o f M a s t e r Chao ( g h a o _ h s i ng_hy.gQfl . chjap ^ § %. ^ & ) s a i d , ' H e whose s t a r i s y e l l o w s h a l l be k i n g . ' C h a o C h ' i n s e c r e t l y h a r b o r e d p l a n s t o r e v o l t . The l a n d o f S h u i s s u r r o u n d e d on 103 f o u r s i d e s by m o u n t a i n a n d one c a n e s t a b l i s h o n e s e l f s a f e l y t h e r e . " The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s p r o g n i s t l c a t i o n i s u n c l e a r . i 39 HYKC 8/107.7-8 h a s a f u l l e r v e r s i o n : " ' T h e m i g r a n t s a r e h a r d e n e d a n d t o u g h w h i l e t h e p e o p l e o f S h u a r e c o w a r d l y a n d w e a k . G u e s t a n d h o s t c a n n o t b e n e f i t e a c h o t h e r . T h e y s h o u l d b e r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r o r i g i n a l l o c a t i o n . O t h e r w i s e t h e y c a n be a l l o w e d t h e m o u n t a i n o u s r e g i o n o f t h e t h r e e e a s t e r n c o m m a n d e r i e s s o t h a t we may o b s e r v e t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . S m a l l b e g i n n i n g s m u s t n o t be a l l o w e d t o g r o w . T h e d i s a s t e r s o f C h ' i n a n d Y u n g w i l l be moved t o L i a n g a n d I p r o v i n c e s . * He a l s o s t a t e d t h a t , ' T h e g r a n a r i e s and s t o r e h o u s e s a r e e x h a u s t e d a n d t h e r e i s n o t h i n g w i t h w h i c h t o meet t h e e x i g e n c i e s o f an a t t a c k . T h i s w i l l c e r t a i n l y i n c r e a s e t h e d y n a s t y ' s w o r r i e s i n t h e w e s t . ' " The • d i s a s t e r s o f C h ' i n and Y u n g p r o v i n c e s ' r e f e r r e d t o a r e o f c o u r s e t h e d i s o r d e r s a t t e n d a n t u p o n C h ' i W a n — n i e n ' s r e b e l l i o n w h i c h h a d d r i v e n t h e m i g r a n t s f r o m t h i s r e g i o n i n t o S z e c h w a n o r i g i n a l l y . 40 C h i a n g — y u a n was l o c a t e d t e n I i e a s t o f m o d e r n C h u n g k i n g . T j - m i n a 327.2. 41 T h e C h i n Shu A n n a l s r e c o r d t h i s e v e n t u n d e r t h e t w e l f t h month o f t h e f i r s t y e a r o f Y u n g - k ' a n g * * * * C H E C K ( e a r l y 301) a n d e x p l i c i t l y i m p l i c a t e s L i H s i a n g a s w e l l a s C h a o C h ' i n . I t f u r t h e r a e n t i o n s t h a t t h e G r a n d 104 A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f C h * i e n - w e i L I M l £ ' —. , t h e G r a n d A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f M i n - s h a n Huo Ku a n d t h e C o l o n e l o f t h e W e s t e r n B a r b a r i a n s C h ' e n T s u n g were a l s o k i l l e d * ( C S 4 / 9 7 . 1 - 2 ) HYKC 8 /107 .14-108 .4 d e s c r i b e s C h a o C h ' i n ' s d e f e a t a n d k i l l i n g o f C h ' e n T s u n g . 42 HYKC h e r e o r i g i n a l l y r e a d C h a n g W e i ^ as d o e s CS 4 / 9 9 . HYKC 194.12 a n d 195.2 a g r e e w i t h a l l i n s t a n c e s i n t h e T s a i - c h i i n r e a d i n g C h e n g . See a l s o CS 120/3030 n . l l . 43 T h e C h i n Shu t e x t o r i g i n a l l y r e a d S h a n g - k u a n T u n Pi I h a v e f o l l o w e d t h e C h i n S h u e d i t o r s a n d HYKC 8 / 1 0 8 . 7 . See CS 120/3032 n . 6 . 44 HYKC 8/108.8 r e a d s T ' a ^ f o r T ' a ' f t . 45 A c c o r d i n g t o HYKC 8/108.6 p r e v i o u s t o t h i s a p p o i n t m e n t H s i a n g h e l d t h e p o s i t i o n o f G r a n d A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f Ch•ien—we i • 46 HYKC f o l l o w s t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f B s i a n g ' s e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o f h i s t r o o p s w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t , " H s i a n g ' s s u b o r d i n a t e s were u n d i s c i p l i n e d a n d u n r u l y a n d C h ' i n a n d t h e o t h e r s w e r e w o r r i e d a b o u t t h e m . " ( 8 / 1 0 8 . 9 ) T h i s seems somewhat c o n t r a d i c t o r y a n d t h e l a t t e r s t a t e m e n t may r e f l e c t C h ' i n ' s j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f h i s own a c t . 47 T s o C h u a n ( H a r v a r d - Y e n c h i n g I n d e x e d . ) 3 7 6 / C h a o 105 11/4, James L e g g e , The C h i n e s e C l a s s i c s V , p .635. 48 See T s o C h u a n 2 2 0 / C h ' e n g 4/7, w h i c h L e g g e ( p .355) t r a n s l a t e s , " T h e work o f t h e h i s t o r i o g r a p h y Y i h s a y s , ' I f he i s n o t o f o u r k i n , he i s s u r e t o h a v e a d i f f e r e n t m i n d • * " 49 T h i s i s a r e f e r e n c e t o L u n Yu ( H - Y I n d e x e d . ) 7/3/8. Pu S h a n g was a d i s c i p l e o f C o n f u c i u s , more c o m m o n l y known a s T z u — h s i a . C f . L e g g e I , p .157. 50 Y u n g i s t h e name o f a s t a t e w h i c h e x i s t e d i n t h e Han— c h u n g r e g i o n d u r i n g t h e C h o u . Shu r e f e r s t o S z e c h w a n . 51 HYKC 8/108.9 s a y s t h a t Chao C h ' i n e x e c u t e d H s i a n g a n d o v e r t e n o t h e r s , i n c l u d i n g h i s e l d e r b r o t h e r ' s s o n H u n g O n l y L i F u a n d T ' e were o l d e r t h a n H s i a n g , a n d T ' e h a d o n l y t h r e e n a t u r a l s o n s , S h i h , T a n g a n d H s i u n g , t h e r e f o r e t h i s m u s t h a v e b e e n L i F u ' s s o n . HYKC 8/108 r o u g h l y p a r a l l e l s t h e fihin SH?u i n t h i s s e c t i o n , b u t o m i t s C h a o C h ' i n ' s c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h T u Shu a n d C h a n g T s ' a n a s w e l l as h i s e n c o u n t e r w i t h L i H s i a n g . T C T C 84/2653 f o l l o w s t h e C h i n C h ' u n - c h ' i u ^ i n p l a c i n g t h i s e v e n t i n e a r l y 301. HYKC 8/108 I m p l i c i t l y p l a c e s i t i n t h e w i n t e r o f 300. 52 HYKC 8/108.11 h a s , " B o t h t h e s e men ( p r e s u m a b l y r e f e r r i n g t o T u S h u a n d C h a n g T s ' a n ) w e r e Chao C h i n ' s 106 i n t i m a t e a d v i s e r s . " 53 Mien—chu was t h i r t y — f i v e i i north cf modern Te—yang i n Szechwan. Aoyama Sadao 620b. T1—mjpfl 1189.1. 54 HYKC 8/108.12 reads 'over seven hundred'. TCTC 84/1654 f o l l o w s the Chin Shu . 55 HYKC 8/108.13 reads, "The people w i t h i n the c i t y w a l l s were t e r r i f i e d . " 56 HYKC 8/108.13 l i s t s a l s o the Palace Squire Ch'ang Mei *y ^ and F e i Yuan. 57 Most e d i t i o n s of the Chin Shu read 'Yuan Chih '. The Chin Shu e d i t o r s have emended to Ch'ia p r i m a r i l y on the b a s i s of Hua-yanc Kuo-chih 8/10S.2, where h i s o f f i c e i s giv e n as P r e f e c t of Hsiang—tu HYKC a l s o mentions a H s i Ni who was a l s o k i l l e d . See CS 120/3030, n.8. 58 CS o r i g i n a l l y read 'Governor of Liang >cT> province' . I f o l l o w the CS e d i t o r s (120/3033, n.9) i n emending on the b a s i s of HYKC 8/109.2 and Shang's CS biography, CS 57/1552.12. 59 HYKC 8/109.4-6 reads, "He (Shang) was s u p p l i e d with one thousand * t a l l y — p r o t e c t i n g * ( wei—chieh "gjl) troops, the two thousand troops of Liang p r o v i n c e and was a l s o 107 a s s i g n e d t h e one t h o u s a n d f i v e h u n d r e d v o l u n t e e r t r o o p s o f t h e T e r r i t o r i a l Commandant o f Shang—yung -t- At| , a l t o g e t h e r f o u r t h o u s a n d f i v e h u n d r e d men* The G r a n d A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f T z u - t ' u n g H s u C h i e n o f Y u e h - l i n g was named G e n e r a l P r o m o t i n g A r d e n c y f o r S h u commandery w h i l e H s i n J a n o f L u n g — h s i became G r a n d A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f K u a n g — h a n . L u o S h a n g m e m o r i a l i z e d a g a i n * r e q u e s t i n g t h a t t h e Yamen Commandant Wang T u n a n d h i s s e v e n t h o u s a n d t r o o p s e n t e r S h u . " T h u s i t w o u l d seem t h a t L u o S h a n g h a d a t o t a l o f e l e v e n t h o u s a n d f i v e h u n d r e d men u n d e r h i s command r a t h e r t h a n j u s t t h e s e v e n t h o u s a n d m e n t i o n e d h e r e * CS h e r e f o l l o w s SKCC ( T P Y L 123/6a ). 60 HYKC 8/109*7 r e c o r d s o n l y a s p e e c h by Wans T u n a n d mak es no m e n t i o n o f H s i n J a n i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n * T h i s s p e e c h i s p a r t i a l l y i n d e c i p h e r a b l e due t o t e x t u a l p r o b l e m s a n d I w i l l n o t t r a n s l a t e i t h e r e * 8/109*8 r e c o r d s t h a t Wang T u n was k i l l e d s h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s , i n t h e t h i r d month o f 301, i n a c a m p a i g n t o s u p p r e s s a r e b e l l i o n b y t h e C h * i a n g o f M i n - s h a n * 61 HYKC 8/109.7-8 i n t e r j e c t s H s i n J a n ' s summons o u t o f r o t a t i o n t o r e t u r n t o t h e c a p i t a l b e f o r e t h e e n c o u n t e r b e t w e e n L i T ' e a n d H s i n J a n * I n t h e C h i n Shu t h i s summons i s r e c o r d e d somewhat l a t e r , a t CS 3025*7* 62 C f . S h u C h i n e ( S h i h - s a n c h i n a c h u - g h u e d . ) 8/2 l a , w h i c h L e g g e I I I , p . 207 t r a n s l a t e s , " C a l a m i t i e s s e n t f r o m 108 H e a v e n may b e a v o i d e d , b u t f r o m c a l a m i t i e s b r o u g h t on b y o n e ' s — s e l f t h e r e i s no e s c a p e * " 63 HYKC 8/109.14-110.1 r e a d s , " H s i n J a n a n d L i F i a g a i n i n f o r m e d L u o S h a n g t h a t p r e v i o u s l y , d u r i n g t h e t i m e o f Chao C h ' i n ' s d i s o r d e r s t h e m i g r a n t s had w r o n g f u l l y s i e z e d many g o o d s a n d t h a t he s h o u l d t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e i r move t o e r e c t b a r r i e r s i n o r d e r t o c o n f i s c a t e t h e s e g o o d s . 64 T h e o r d e r o f e v e n t s i n t h e C h i n S h u t e x t i s somewhat c o n f u s e d . HYKC 8/110.1—2 g i v e s t h e s e v e n t h a n d e i g h t h month as t h e d a t e s when t h e b a r r i e r s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e were e s t a b l i s h e d . T h u s t h i s r e q u e s t f o r an e x t e n s i o n u n t i l f a l l must h a v e b e e n made b e f o r e t h i s t i m e . P e r h a p s t h i s p a s s a g e r e f e r s t o t h e r e q u e s t f o r a f u r t h e r e x t e n s i o n u n t i l w i n t e r m e n t i o n e d i n t h e HYKC q u o t a t i o n a b o v e . 65 Ku T s u - y t i 67/2894 p l a c e s M i e n - c h u t h i r t y - f i v e l i . n o r t h o f m o d e r n Te—yang i n n o r t h e r n S z e c h w a n . C f • T l —m i n e 1189.1. 66 I t i s u n c l e a r w h e t h e r t h i s s h o u l d be t a k e n as two d i s t i n c t e t h n i c g r o u p s o r w h e t h e r Sou i s h e r e a g e n e r i c t e r m f o r n o n - C h i n e s e . HYKC 2/23.1 a n d 23.12 r e f e r t o i n d i v i d u a l p e o p l e as T i — S o u , w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t S o u p a r a l l e l s I j £ i n u s a g e i n t h a t i t i s o f t e n a p p e n d e d t o t h e names o f m i n o r i t y g r o u p s w i t h o u t any c h a n g e i n s e n s e . HYKC 8/110.3 c o n t i n u e s a f t e r t h e w a n t e d p o s t e r i n t h e 109 f o l l o w i n g manner* "The m i g r a n t s o r i g i n a l l y h a d no i n t e n t i o n o f l e a v i n g and now a l l were a l a r m e d and f l e d t o T'e*" 67 HYKC 8/110.2-3 p l a c e s t h i s e v e n t i n t h e e i g h t h month of 301. The l a s t s e n t e n c e t h e r e r e a d s , "Shu w i l l f a l l i n t o d i s o r d e r . " 68 D u r i n g t h e d i s o r d e r s p r e c e d i n g t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f the L a t t e r Han a g r o u p o f l o c a l o f f i c i a l s i n t h e S h e n s i — K a n s u r e g i o n g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r and e l e c t e d one o f t h e i r number, Tou J u n g , to a c t a s t e m p o r a r y l e a d e r w i t h t h e t i t l e o f G r e a t G e n e r a l u n t i l an e f f e c t i v e c e n t r a l government was r e -e s t a b l i s h e d . See HHS 23/796-7 and 34/1165. HYKC 8/110 r e c o r d s the a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e s e o f f i c e s and a l s o T'e's a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e t i t l e P a s t o r o f I p r o v i n c e i n t h e t e n t h month o f 301, b u t makes m e n t i o n o f the Tou J u n g s t o r y o n l y a f t e r t h e c a p t u r e o f Kuang—han. 69 Kuang—han was a commandery a d m i n i s t e r e d a t Kuang—han p r e f e c t u r e . Modern S u i — n l n g i n Szechwan. Tl—m i n g 1158.4. 70 Modern L u p r e f e c t u r e i n Szechwan. Tj.—ming 328.2. HYKC 8/110.8 s a y s t h a t J a n f l e d t o Te-yan g , s o u t h e a s t o f modern S u i — n i n g . T h i s seems more p r o b a b l e . 71 T h i s b i o g r a p h y o f Huo Kuang r e c o r d s t h e s t o r y o f a man who was warned t o make t h e s e c h a n g es and d i d n o t and 110 c o n s e q u e n t l y n e a r l y l o s t h i s home t o f i r e * The m o r a l i s t o u s e f o r e s i g h t a n d t h e r e b y a v e r t d i s a s t e r * HS 68/2358* I r e a d i ^ u ^ § f o r c h i u Jij b a s e d o n t h e Han S h u r e a d i n g * 72 HYKC 8/110.4 d o e s n o t m e n t i o n t h e o f f i c e s o f C o m m i s s i o n e r B e a r i n g C r e d e n t i a l s a n d G r e a t I n s p e c t o r -g e n e r a l * M o r e o v e r * i t p l a c e s a l l o f t h e s e a p p o i n t m e n t s i n t h e t e n t h m o n t h , b e f o r e t h e a t t a c k u p o n Kuang—han* 73 BYKC makes no m e n t i o n o f L i S h i h . Cn t h e c o n t r a r y L i T a n g i s d e s c r i b e d a s T ' e ' s e l d e s t s o n . 74 HYKC r e a d s ' G e n e r a l s ' * 75 I n HYKC L i Y u a n , L i Po a n d H s i P i n a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g g r o u p , w h i c h i s l a b e l l e d ' a d v i s e r s ' ( t s ' a n -t s o w h i l e Y e n C h ' e n g , S h a n g - k u a n C h ' i , L i T ' a o a n d Wang H u a i a r e o m i t t e d . 76 I n HYKC Y e n S h i h , Be C h u and Chao Su a r e a l l r e f e r r e d t o as ' f o l l o w e r s ' ( c l n - t s ' u n g %j')t). (8/110.4-6) 77 In t h e v i c i n i t y o f K u a n \%, p r e f e c t u r e . Ku T s u - y u 67/2873 w o u l d l o c a t e i t t w e n t y i i e a s t o f K u a n w h e r e a s T i - m i n g 948.2 s a y s t e n i i • 78 T e n i i e a s t o f P ' e n g - s h a n \ \ <h i n S z e c h w a n . ( T i - m i n g 1036*4)* S e v e n h u n d r e d i i seems a b i t o f a n e x a g g e r a t i o n I l l f o r t h i s d i s t a n c e * 79 HYKC 8 / 1 1 1 * 1 s a y s t h a t Ya Po e n c a m p e d a t T z u - t ' u n g . I t a l s o s t a t e s t h a t C h a n s C h e n g ' s a p p o i n t m e n t was i n f a c t a r e a p p o i n t m e n t t o a p o s i t i o n he h a d p r e v i o u s l y h e l d a n d t h a t he was o c c u p y i n g T e — y a n g * 80 T h e w a l l e d c i t y o f F a n was l o c a t e d t o t h e n o r t h e a s t o f m o d e r n H s i n F a n * I t s name was c h a n g e d t o H s i n F a n o n l y u n d e r t h e N o r t h e r n C h o u , h o w e v e r t h e c i t y i s s o m e t i m e s r e f e r r e d t o b y t h i s name a n a c h r o n l s t l c a l l y i n t h e C h i n Shu • T i - m i n a 1 2 8 7 . 2 . 81 I h a v e b e e n u n a b l e t o f i n d any r e f e r e n c e t o a l e t t e r f r o m L i L i u t o L u o S h a n g . M o r e o v e r , a t t h i s t i m e L i L i u was n o t i n command o f t h e m i g r a n t s . T h e r e may be some c o n f u s i o n w i t h e v e n t s s u r r o u n d i n g L i L i u ' s s u r r e n d e r a f t e r L i T ' e ' s d e a t h . S e e b e l o w * CS 1 2 0 / 3 0 3 0 . 82 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n u n c e r t a i n . 83 Ku T s u - y u 6 8 / 2 9 2 4 - 5 l i s t s a C h i n - s h o u =g % e a s t o f Kuang—yuan 7^  a n a a c i t y o f C h i a - m e n g t o t h e n o r t h w e s t . T h i s p l a c e was c a l l e d C h i a - n e n e o r i g i n a l l y . The name was c h a n g e d t o Han—shou u n d e r S h u Han a n d t h e C h i n — s h o u u n d e r t h e C h i n * U n d e r C h ' e n g — H a n i t r e v e r t e d t o i t s o r i g i n a l name o f C h i a - m e n g u n t i l t h e r e g i o n was r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e C h i n r e a l m . T i ~ r o i n g 1058 .3 g i v e s a l o c a t i o n f i f t y JUL 112 s o u t h e a s t o f Chao—hua w h i c h c a n p r o b a b l y be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e l o c a t i o n g i v e n f o r C h i n — s h o u . U s h i o d a F u k i z o . " K a n d a i S e i n a n S h i n a po R e k i s h i c h i r i 1 1 , p .24 l o c a t e s t h e c i t y i n t h e Han a t m o d e r n C h a o — h u a . 84 N o r t h e a s t o f m o d e r n C h i e n — k e * S z e c h w a n . T j — m i n g 1105.2. 85 The c o m m e n t a r y t o HYKC 8/111.4 s t a t e s t h a t t h e t e x t ' P a — h s i * i s an e r r o r f o r T z u — t ' u n g t h r o u g h c o n f u s i o n w i t h i t s o c c u r e n c e a b o v e . 86 HYKC r e a d s H s i a n g P a n %'Jt.. (8/11.5) I t a l s o s a y s t h a t t h e G r a n d A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f T z u — t ' u n g C h a n g Y e n had f l e d b e f o r e t h e i r s u r r e n d e r . 87 HYKC 8/111.5-7: " Y a P o ' s t a l e n t s e n c o m p a s s e d b o t h t h e c i v i l a n d m i l i t a r y . He was e s t e e m e d b y t h e G r e a t G e n e r a l o f t h e W e s t e r n E x p e d i t i o n ( K i n g Y u n g ) . When he was f i r s t G r a n d A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f Y i n — p ' i n g he was r e m o v e d f r o m o f f i c e b y t h e A t t e n d a n t O f f i c i a l Mao F u o f Pa c o m m a n d e r y . F o r t h i s r e a s o n Ya Po h a d a g r u d g e a g a i n s t t h e men o f L i a n g p r o v i n c e . A t t h e t i m e o f t h e w e s t e r n e x p e d i t i o n t h e G e n e r a l o f t h e W e s t e r n E x p e d i t i o n H s u H s i u n g h a d t h e t a s k o f d e f e n d i n g Y a n g — m i e n . When t h e enemy h a d n o t y e t a r r i v e d he h e a r d t h e c a l l o f a c r a n e a n d r e t r e a t e d . Ya Po w i s h e d t o p l a c e t h e b l a m e o n ( t h e G o v e r n o r o f ) L i a n g p r o v i n c e * a c c u s i n g h i m o f n o t f u r n i s h i n g s u p p l i e s . T h e A t t e n d a n t 113 O f f i c i a l a t H e a d q u a r t e r s o f L i a n g p r o v i n c e m e m o r i a l i z e d t h i s a f f a i r a n d Fo t h e r e b y was i n d i c t e d * The c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t t h e n named H s u H s i u n g t o t h e p o s t o f G o v e r n o r o f L i a n g p r o v i n c e * " HYKC t h e n c o n t i n u e s w i t h t h e e x p e d i t i o n o f L i u C h ' e n r e c o r d e d b e l o w , f o l l o w i n g CS 120/3028.11. 88 S K C C , q u o t e d i n T P Y L 123/6a a n d T C T C 86/2677 p l a c e T ' e ' s a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e s e p o s t s a n d c h a n g i n g o f t h e r e i g n t i t l e i n t h e f i r s t month o f 303. T h e d a t i n g h e r e may be a c o n f u s i o n w i t h T ' e ' s a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e t i t l e G r e a t G e n e r a l i n t h e f i f t h month o f 302 r e c o r d e d i n CS 4/99. See CS 120/3033, n.12. 89 M o d e r n M i e n - y a n g i n S z e c h w a n . T i - m i n a 820.3. 90 HYKC 8/111.7 r e c o r d s t h i s u n d e r t h e e i g h t h month o f 303. 91 T e n j_i s o u t h o f H s i n - t u ~%$\ p r e f e c t u r e . T i - m i n a 636.1. 92 M o d e r n H e — c h ' u a n ^ J i n S z e c h w a n . T i - m i n a 1084.1. T h e Hu S a n - h s i n g c o m m e n t a r y t o T C T C 84/2679 s a y s t h a t _ i _ n h e r e s h o u l d be r e a d t i e h . B e t h r e a d i n g s a r e l i s t e d a s p l a c e names i n Pa i n t h e K u a n a - y u n • See S h i h — y u n h u l - p l e n p .254 a n d 311. 93 HYKC 8/111.8 r e a d s ' i n o r d e r t o r e c o n n o i t e r h i s 114 tr o o p s ' • 94 HYKC reacts 'Sou troops' and g i v e s no number* ( i b i d * ) 95 CS 89/2306, L i u Ch'en's biography, puts these events i n d i f f e r e n t l i g h t * Ch'en was di s p a t c h e d to a t t a c k L i L i u by the c e n t r a l government, however he was de t a i n e d on the way by King Yung of He-chien, who wished to r e c r u i t him i n t o h i s s e r v i c e * When an i m p e r i a l r e s c r i p t s p e c i f i c a l l y commanded Ch'en to proceed on to Szechwan Yung s i e z e d h i s troops* 96 TCTC 85/2678 reads L i Huang \. and t h i s i s a l s o the re a d i n g f o l l o w e d below, CS 120/3029.3 and 121/3036.5. L i Chin i s not mentioned elsewhere and the two c h a r a c t e r s are e a s i l y confused due to graphic s i m i l a r i t y . See CS 120/3034, n. 14. 97 HYKC 8/111.11 g i v e s the l o c a t i o n of h i s encampment as Chien—shang I have been unable to l o c a t e t h i s p l a c e . ' r i f c w h i i 98 HYKC 8/111.13 g i v e s t h i s name as Jen J u i 1^ ^ h l e the Chin Shu biography of Luo Shang (57/1553) reads Jen J u i £>V TCTC 85/2678 f o l l o w s the HYKC r e a d i n g . See CS 120/3034, n* 15* 99 SKCC c o n t a i n s t h i s speech by Jen Ming, then c o n t i n u e s with T'e's defeat and death. TPYL 123/6a-b. 115 100 Here I f o l l o w CS 43/1241.12, 57/1553.3 and 60/1634.3 i n reading Tsung 7^ f o r Sung See CS 4/112. n.22. 101 A l a t e r name f o r Fan-ch'eng. See above, n. 71. 102 HYKC 8/112.3 s t a t e s that Luo Shang d i d not pursue t h i s v i c t o r y , sending o n l y a mobile brigade a g a i n s t L i Tang. TCTC 85/2677-8 p l a c e s L i T'e's capture of Ch'eng-tu i n the f i r s t month of 303 and h i s death i n the second. However the u p r i s i n g a g a i n s t T'e d i d not occur u n t i l the t h i r d month. 103 Both of these men were renowned f o r t h e i r courage. They l i v e d d u r i n g the Warring S t a t e s p e r i o d and were f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d as examples of courageous men by l a t e r w r i t e r s . Meng Pen i s s a i d to have been u n a f r a i d of c r o c o d i l e s , r h i n o c e r o s e s and t i g e r s while Hsia Yu i s s a i d to have f r i g h t e n e d three armies by h i s vo i c e a l o n e . See the commentary to Shih Chi 79/2407, 101/2739, Wen-hsuan ( j , i u -ch'en ed. ) 8/24b and Chan-kuo t s ' e ( Kuo-hsueh chi-oen ts'ung-shu ed. ) I, 5/47. 104 There were two wa l l e d c i t i e s of Ch'eng-tu. The s m a l l e r was the c a p i t a l of Shu commandery while the l a r g e r was the c a p i t a l o f I p r o v i n c e . 105 A commandery administered at modern Tzu-t'ung. T i — 116 m i n e 818.2. 106 C h ' i h - t s u was n o r t h e a s t o f n o d e r n M i e n — c h u . Ku T s u -y u 67/2894. 107 M o d e r n P ' e n g - s h u l p r e f e c t u r e i n S z e c h w a n . T j — mi p a 820.2. HYKC 8/112.5 r e a d s F o u ( - c h • e n g ) and g e o g r a p h i c a l l y t h i s I s more l i k e l y . 108 HYKC 8/112.5 m e n t i o n s C h a n g K u e i i n p l a c e o f Huang H u n g . When H u a n g i s l a t e r m e n t i o n e d (112.7) h i s f i r s t name i s w r i t t e n , r e a d i i j a . 109 T h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s p h r a s e ' i mao ' ^ i s u n c e r t a i n . I t may r e f e r t o a l a n c e p l a c e d i n t h e e a r t h a t an a n g l e t o g u t a p p r o a c h i n g h o r s e m e n . HYKC 8/112*9 r e a d s ' a S o u ( b a r b a r i a n ) l o n g l a n c e * . 110 No f u r t h e r m e n t i o n i s made o f t h i s p a c t . JS.A. S t e i n c i t e s t h i s a s an e x a m p l e o f T a o i s t i d e a l s o f e q u a l i t a r i a n i s m . See T ' o u n a Pao 50 (1963)? p .34. S p e c i f i c a l l y he s t a t e s t h a t I t r e s e m b l e s t h e p r a c t i c e s a t t r i b u t e d t o T a C h * i n 7N. ^ a n d f o u n d among t h e a b o r i g i n e s . T a C h ' i n , i n t u r n , he b e l i e v e s i s a p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e T a o i s t v i s i o n o f U t o p i a . I l l N o r t h o f m o d e r n P ' i i n S z e c h w a n . T i - m i n a 859.3. HYKC 8/113.3-4 p l a c e s t h e d e a t h o f C h ' e n T ' u i n t h e s i x t h month 117 a n d t h e c a p t u r e o f P ' i i n t h e s e v e n t h month o f 303* 112 F i f t y l_ i s o u t h e a s t o f K u a n p r e f e c t u r e i n S z e c h w a n . T h i s m o u n t a i n h a s much s i g n i f i c a n c e i n r e l i g i o u s T a o i s m * I t i s t h e f i f t h H e a v e n l y G r o t t o ( t u n a - t ' i e n jt^ _ ) and i s t h e s u b j e c t o f a b o o k by t h e T ' a n g a l c h e m i s t a n d m y t h o g r a p h e r T u K u a n g - t ' i n g "i± ^ j{5< 850-933 ). Ku T s u - y u 66/2830. 113 HYKC 8/113.7 s a y s t h a t L i H s i u n g a p p o i n t e d H s u Yu t o t h e p o s t o f G e n e r a l P a c i f y i n g t h e W e s t . 114 T h e G r a n d A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f a commandery was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e c o m m e n d i n g to t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t t h o s e p e o p l e who e x h i b i t e d v i r t u o u s c o n d u c t a n d h e n c e were s u i t a b l e f o r h o l d i n g o f f i c e . T h e p r a c t i c e was I n s t i t u t e d b y Han W u - t i . See T ' u n g T i s p 13/73.3. 115 A man r e n o w n e d f o r h i s p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h . See CS 104/2725 a n d t h e P ' e l S u n g - c h i h c o m m e n t a r y t o SKC 28/766. 116 K u a n Y u a n d C h a n g F e i were f a m o u s g e n e r a l s i n t h e s e r v i c e o f L i u P e l d u r i n g t h e T h r e e K i n g d o m s p e r i o d . 117 T h i s c a m p a i g n i s o t h e r w i s e u n k n o w n . 118 The L i S h a n c o m m e n t a r y to Wen H s u a n ( Y i h - w e n e d . ) 57/7b s a y s t h a t t h e s e w e r e t h e c e r e m o n i a l i n s i g n i a a p p r o p r i a t e t o a G e n e r a l o r G o v e r n o r . CHAPTER 121 119 L I H s i u n g ^p^Tj!. » s o b r i q u e t C h u n g - c h u n 'ftfr i * ^ J , was L i T ' e ' s t h i r d s o n * O n c e h i s m o t h e r , Madame L u o yf&i^ji d r e a m t o f a p a i r o f r a i n b o w s a s c e n d i n g t o H e a v e n f r o m t h e i r d o o r w i t h one o f t h e r a i n b o w s s t o p p i n g m i d w a y * S o o n t h e r e a f t e r s h e g a v e b i r t h t o L i T a n g * L a t e r when Madame L u o was d r a w i n g w a t e r s h e s u d d e n l y f e l l i n t o a s l e e p — l i k e s t a t e , a n d d r e a m e d o f a huge s n a k e e n c i r c l i n g h e r b o d y * She became p r e g n a n t a s a r e s u l t a n d f o u r t e e n m o n t h s l a t e r g a v e b i r t h to H s i u n g * She w o u l d o f t e n s a y , " I f one o f my two c h i l d r e n d i e s f i r s t t h e o t h e r w i l l c e r t a i n l y a t t a i n t o g r e a t s t a t u s * " I n t h e e n d L i T a n g d i e d f i r s t . H s i u n g was e i g h t f e e t t h r e e i n c h e s i n h e i g h t 1 a n d h a d a b e a u t i f u l a p p e a r a n c e . *[ A p h y s i o g n o m i s t p h y s i o g n c m i z e d h i m , s a y i n g , " T h i s man w i l l become i m p o r t a n t * T h e r e a r e f o u r s i g n s o f t h i s : H i s e y e s a r e l i k e s t o r i e d c l o u d s , h i s n o s e i s l i k e a t u r t l e o r d r a g o n , h i s mouth i s s q u a r e l i k e a v e s s e l and h i s e a r s seem t o l o o k a t e a c h o t h e r * He i s d e s t i n e d t o b e a man o f i m p o r t a n c e , a n d h i s r a n k w i l l u n d o u b t e d l y s u r p a s s t h a t o f t h e T h r e e D u k e s * ] * ( T P Y L 123/7a) When y o u n g he was known f o r h i s a r d e n t s p i r i t and e a c h t i m e he w o u l d make t h e r o u n d s o f h i s n a t i v e p l a c e men o f d i s c e r n m e n t w o u l d v a l u e h i m h i g h l y * •[When H s i u n g was y o u n g H s i n J a n p h y s i o g n o m i z e d h i m a n d s a i d t h a t he was d e s t i n e d t o be n o b l e * ]#(HYKC 9/11S.8-9) T h e r e was a c e r t a i n L i u Hua l^'J'ffc,, a T a o i s t m a g i c i a n , who w o u l d a l w a y s t e l l o t h e r s , " T h e men o f Kuan— c h u n g f^j ^  a n d L u n g 2 w i l l a l l m i g r a t e s o u t h . Among t h e s o n s o f t h e L i f a m i l y o n l y Chung—chun h a s an e x t r a o r d i n a r y 120 a p p e a r a n c e a n d i n t h e end w i l l toe a r u l e r o f m e n * 3 When T ' e r a i s e d t r o o p s i n Shu a n d a s s u m e d c o n t r o l o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t he made H s i u n g G e n e r a l o f the V a n * * When L i L i u d i e d H s i u n g p r o c l a i m e d h i m s e l f G r e a t I n s p e c t o r — g e n e r a K t a t u - t u ), G r e a t G e n e r a l ( t q c f r i a n g - c h u n > a n d P a s t o r ( mjy ) o f I p r o v i n c e w i t h h i s c a p i t a l i n t h e w a i l e d c i t y o f o f P ' i • When L u o S h a n g s e n t a commander t o . a t t a c k H s i u n g * H s i u n g s t r u c k a n d r o u t e d h i m * • [ L u o S h a n g l a u n c h e d r e p e a t e d a s s a u l t s u p o n P ' i . L i H s i u n g s e n t P ' u T ' a l ^ o f Wu—tu t o d e c e i v e S h a n g , s a y i n g , " D u e t o t h e i r f a m i n e — r a v a g e d , i s o l a t e d , p e r i l o u s s i t u a t i o n L i H s i a n g ' 4 " a n d L i H s i u n g f i g h t a n d b l a m e e a c h o t h e r e v e r y d a y * H s i a n g * w a n t s t o l e a d t h e p e o p l e w e s t o f t h e Yang—tze i n s e a r c h o f g r a i n * I f an a r m y were t o come u n d e r c o v e r , w i t h me i n s i d e t h e c i t y t o r e s p o n d , t h e c i t y c o u l d be t a k e n * " L u o S h a n g t h o u g h t t h i s t r u e a n d o f f e r e d him huge a m o u n t s o f g o l d a n d j e w e l s * P ' u T ' a i s a i d , " I h a v e n o t s u c c e e d e d y e t . I t w i l l n o t be t o o l a t e t o c l a i m my r e w a r d a f t e r I have b r o u g h t r e s u l t s . " He a l s o a s k e d t h a t a man be d i s p a t c h e d t o a c c o m p a n y him a n d k e e p a w a t c h c n h i m , t c w h i c h r e q u e s t L u o S h a n g a g r e e d . P ' u T ' a i a g r e e d t o s e t a f i r e , u p o n w h i c h Wei Po a n d t h e v a r i o u s f o r c e s w o u l d a s s a u l t P ' i . L I Hsiang"*" s e t an ambush a l o n g t h e r o a d . He e r e c t e d a l o n g s c a l i n g d e v i c e up t o ( t h e w a l l o f ) Wei P o ' s e n c a m p m e n t . When P o ' s a r m y saw t h e f i r e a r i s e t h e y a l l s c r a m b l e d t o d e s c e n d t h e l a d d e r . L i H s i u n g t h e n s e i z e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o s p r i n g t h e ambush a n d s t r i k e a t t h e m , i n f l i c t i n g a h e a v y d e f e a t u p o n L u o S h a n g ' s f o r c e s . L i H s i u n g d i r e c t l y p u r s u e d t h e r e t r e a t i n g a r m y , 121 a r r i v i n g by n i g h t f a l l a t the c i t y w a l l ( o f C h ' e n g - t u ) . S h o u t i n g o ut "Long l i v e ! " and s a y i n g , "The w a l l e d c i t y o f P * i has a l r e a d y been t a k e n * " he e n t e r e d the s m a l l e r c i t y * O n l y t h e n d i d Luo Shang r e a l i z e (who t h e y were) and t a k e r e f u g e i n t h e l a r g e r c i t y * ]•(HYKC 8/113.7-11) L i H s i a n g * a t t a c k e d C h ' i e n — w e i , t h e r e b y c u t t i n g o f f Shang's l i n e o f s u p p l y * • [ L i Hsiang'*' s e p a r a t e l y a s s a u l t e d C h ' i e n — w e i , c u t t i n g o f f Luo Shang 's l i n e o f s u p p l y and c a p t u r i n g t h e G r a n d A d m i n i s t r a t o r Kung H u i ^ o f W u - l i n g . When Kung H u i had p r e v i o u s l y b e en P r e f e c t o f B s i p r e f e c t u r e i n T ' i e n — s h u i J e n B u i had been h i s s u b o r d i n a t e . J e n H u i a s k e d him, "Do you r e c o g n i z e y o u r o l d s u b o r d i n a t e ? " Kung H u i r e p l i e d , " I o n l y r e c o g n i z e y o u , t h a t ' s a l l . " The commandery o f f i c i a l s had s c a t t e r e d i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s and o n l y t h e ( A t t e n d a n t O f f i c i a l o f ) t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f M e r i t Yang Huan r e m a i n e d t o a t t e n d upon and p r o t e c t Kung H u i . J e n H u i a d d r e s s e d him, s a y i n g , "You , s i r , a r e a man of p r i n c i p l e s . I f e a r t h a t i t i s not w i t h i n my power t o s a v e you. You s h o u l d l e a v e w h i l e t h e r e i s t i m e . " Yang Huan r e p l i e d , "How can b e t r a y i n g o n e ' s r u l e e r i n o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e one's own l i f e compare w i t h d y i n g i n the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f d u t y . " C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e y were b o t h k i l l e d . • [ L i P'U was named Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f C h ' i e n — w e i * • [ L i H s i u n g c a p t u r e d Wei Po a l i v e * H s i u n g knew t h a t Po was m o r t a l l y wounded* Wei Pc's d a u g h t e r was the w i f e o f L i a n g Shuang* She was us e d by L i H s i u n g and f o r t h i s r e a s o n Wei Po was not k i l l e d * • [ I n t e r c a l a r y t w e l f t h n o n t h . ]•(HYKC 9/113.11-14) 122 S h a n g ' s army was s u f f e r i n g g r e a t h u n g e r a n d ( L i H s i a n g * ) a t t a c k e d him e v e n more s p i r i t e d l y * C o n s e q u e n t l y he l e f t h i s Yamen L u o T ' e i£% 5 t o m a i n t a i n t h e d e f e n s e s a n d , a b a n d o n i n g t h e c i t y , f l e d a t n i g h t * 6 L u o 7 o p e n e d t h e g a t e s a n d r e c e i v e d H s i u n g a n d t h u s C h ' e n g - t u f e l l * A t t h e t i m e f a m i n e was s e v e r e among members o f H s i u n g ' s army a n d he l e d h i s t r o o p s t o go i n s e a r c h o f s u p p l i e s t o C h ' i , w h e r e t h e y d u g up w i l d t a r o a n d a t e i t * 8 T h e p e o p l e o f Shu s c a t t e r e d , d e s c e n d i n g t o C h i a n g — y a n g >J- i n t h e e a s t a n d e n t e r i n g t h e s e v e n c o m m m a n d e r i e s t o t h e s o u t h * 9 B e c a u s e F a n C h ' a n g — s h e n g o f H s i — s h a n Y*9 L\A l i v e d i n s e c l u s i o n p u r s u i n g t h e T a o a n d c u l t i v a t i n g h i s s p i r i t 1 0 H s i u n g w i s h e d t o e s t a b l i s h him as r u l e r a n d s e r v e h im a s an o f f i c i a l * C h ' a n g — s h e n g a d a m a n t l y r e f u s e d , * [ s a y i n g , " I f one p r o j e c t s f o r w r d t o t h e G r a n d B e g i n n i n g t h e f i v e p r o c e s s e s c o n v e r g e i n t h e c h l a — t z u y e a r (304)* The t h r o n e w i l l come t o t h e L i c l a n , i t i s not t h e p r o p e r t i m e f o r me ( t o r u l e ) . ] * ( T P Y L 123/7a ) S t r o n g l y d e p r e c a t i n g h i m s e l f , B s i u n g d i d n o t d a r e t o assume c o n t r o l o f t h e g o v e r n n e n t a n d a l l a f f a i r s , no m a t t t e r how m i n o r , were d e c i d e d b y t h e b r o t h e r s L i Kuo -^ IS?) a n d L i L i \ $ftt • Kuo a n d t h e o t h e r s s e r v e d B s i u n g e v e n more d i l i g e n t l y * T h e v a r i o u s m i l i t a r y commanders i n s i s t e n t l y r e q u e s t e d t h a t H s i u n g a s c e n d t h e t h r o n e and i n the f i r s t y e a r o f t h e Y u n g — h s i n g r e i g n p e r i o d (304) he u s u r p e d t h e t i t l e o f K i n g o f C h ' e n g - t u , p r o c l a i m i n g a g e n e r a l a m n e s t y w i t h i n h i s t e r r i t o r y a n d e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e r e i g n - t i t l e o f C h i e n — h s i n g S^^- ( E s t a b l i s h i n g t h e E l s e ) . 1 1 He a b o l i s h e d t h e C h i n c o d e 123 o f l a w s a n d e s t a b l i s h e d a new c o d e i n s e v e n a r t i c l e s * He a p p o i n t e d h i s u n c l e Hsiang"*" t o be G r a n d T u t o r ( t 1 a i - f u ), h i s e l d e r b r o t h e r Shih"*" be G r a n d P r o t e c t o r ( t ' a l - pao ), t h e G e n e r a l R e p e l l i n g t h e C h a r g e ( c h e — c h ' u n g c h i a n g c h u n ~t\^\ ) L i L i t o be G r a n d Commandant ( t ' a i - w e j. ) , t h e G e n e r a l E s t a b l i s h i n g M a j e s t y ( c h i e n — w e i c h i a n a - c h u n ) L i Yun ^ t o be M i n i s t e r o v e r t h e M a s s e s ( ssu—  t ' u ^ 4 ^ . ) , t h e M i l i t a r y A i d e ( 1 - c h u n 1t%\ 'J^ ) L i H u a n g t o be M i n i s t e r o f Works ( s s u — k ' u n a ), a n d t h e T a l e n t e d O f f i c i a l ( t s ' a i - k u a n ~& ) L i Kuo t o be G r a n d S t e w a r d ( t 1 a i - t s a i )t w h i l e o t h e r s e a c h r e c e i v e d a p p r o p r i a t e a p p o i n t m e n t s * He p o s t h u m o u s l y h o n o r e d h i s g r e a t — g r a n d f a t h e r H u 1 2 w i t h t h e t i t l e o f Duke Huan o f Pa c o m m a n d e r y ( P a - c h u n Huan k u n g gl %f ^ ! 'A >i h i s g r a n d f a t h e r Mu w i t h t h a t o f K i n g H s i a n g o f L u n g - h s l ( L u p a - h s j , H s i a n e wane T t^."^  "J§^  ^ _ ), h i s f a t h e r T ' e w i t h t h a t c f K i n g C h i n g o f C h ' e n g - t u ( C j i l e j i g - t M C h i n a , gaga, )T a n d h i s m o t h e r Madame L u o w i t h t h a t o f Q u e e n M o t h e r ( wana t ' a i — h o u ^ " ^ "5^ . )• *[ He a l s o b e s t o w e d t h e p o s t h u m o u s t i t l e o f K i n g L l e h o f C h ' i ^ ^!} "X. u p o n h i s e l d e s t u n c l e F u * t h a t o f K i n g Wu o f L i a n g 2 ^ ~§\ ±_ u p o n h i s u n c l e H s i a n g , t h a t o f K i n g Wen o f C h ' i n "% i- u p o n h i s u n c l e L i u a n d t h a t o f Duke Chuang—wen o f K u a n g - h a n >^ Jfii / £ - ^ > u p o n h i s e l d e r b r o t h e r T a n g * He a p p o i n t e d h i s u n c l e Hsiang"*" G r a n d T u t o r , h i s e l d e r s t e p -b r o t h e r S h l h + G r a n d P r o t e c t o r , h i s m a t e r n a l e l d e r c o u s i n L i K u o G r a n d S t e w a r d , K u o * s y o u n g e r b r o t h e r L i L i G r a n d C o m m a n d a n t , h i s y o u n g e r c o u s i n L i Yun M i n i s t e r o v e r t h e M a s s e s , L i H u a n g M i n i s t e r o f W o r k s , Yen S h i h P r e f e c t o f t h e 124 S e c r e t a r i a t , Yang Pao A r c h e r - i n — w a i t i n g , Fa ( ? ) to be Palace Attendant, Kuei ( P r e f e c t ) of the S e c r e t a r i a t , Bung ( ? ) Governor o f I p r o v i n c e , Hsu Yu General S t a b i l i z i n g the South and Wang Ta Preceptor of the Army* He appointed a f u l l complement of o f f i c i a l s • ]*(HYKC 9/119.12-120.1) Fan Ch*ang—sheng came to Ch'eng—tu from Hsi—shan r i d i n g i n a white c a r t . L i Hsiung welcomed him at the gates and h o l d i n g a m i n i s t e r ' s t a b l e t 1 3 l e d him to h i s s e a t . He appointed Fan h i s C h a n c e l l o r ( ch' eng—hsiang 7_< ) and honored him with the t i t l e Worthy Fan (Fan Bsien >£. )• Ch'ang-sheng exhorted Hsiung to asssume the Im p e r i a l t i t l e and Hsiung thereupon usurped the i m p e r i a l throne, p r o c l a i m i n g a g e n e r a l amnesty w i t h i n h i s t e r r i t o r y and changing the r e i g n t i t l e to Yen—p* ing <fe- ~^ . x * He posthumously honored h i s f a t h e r T'e as Emperor Chlng and h i s mother Madame Luo as Empress Dowager ( t'ai-hpu )• He augmented Fan Ch'ang-sheng 1 s t i t l e to Great Teacher cf Heaven and E a r t h ( t ' i e n — t i t ' a i - s h i h 7\^L^^ ) 1 S and e n f e o f f e d him as Marquis of Hsi-shan ( flsi-shan hou Hfr )'6» exempting h i s f o l l o w e r s from m i l i t a r y c o n s c r i p t i o n and g r a n t i n g him a l l the taxes ( d e r i v i n g from h i s f o l l o w e r s ) . At the time L i Hsiung had j u s t made a rough beginning i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the s t a t e and s i n c e he had h e r e t o f o r e lacked a b u r e a u c r a t i c standards the v a r i o u s commanders r e l i e d on pers o n a l f a v o r i n c o n t e s t i n g f o r p o s i t i o n and rank. His P r e f e c t of the S e c r e t a r i a t ( shang—shu l i n g t&l ^ ) Yen Shih submitted a memorial s a y i n g , "In e s t a b l i s h i n g a s t a t e ' s b u r e a u c r a t i c system i t i s a l w a y s 1 7 best to continue past p r e c e d e n t s . Under the o l d 125 s y s t e m o f t h e Ben a n d C h i n d y n a s t i e s o n l y t h e G r a n d Commandant a n d t h e G r a n d M a r s h a l ( t a ssu—ma commanded t r o o p s * T h e G r a n d T u t o r a n d G r a n d P r o t e c t o r a r e o f f i c e s f o r f a t h e r s a n d e l d e r b r o t h e r s w i t h t h e f u n c t i o n o f d i s c u s s i n g m o r a l q u e s t i o n s w h i l e t h e M i n i s t e r o v e r t h e M a s s e s a n d M i n i s t e r o f Works a r e i n c h a r g e o f t h e v a r y i n g d u t i e s o f t h e f i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f t h e n i n e t y p e s o f s o i l . 1 8 The C h ' i n d y n a s t y (221-206 B . C . ) e s t a b l i s h e d t h e o f f i c e o f C h a n c e l l o r t o h a v e g e n e r a l c o n t r o l o v e r t h e m y r i a d s p r i n g s o f a c t i o n . T o w a r d s t h e end o f t h e r e i g n o f Han W u - t i ( 140-86 B . C . ) t h e G r e a t G e n e r a l was e l e v a t e d a b o v e o t h e r s t o c c n t r o l t h e g o v e r n m e n t . Now t h e s t a t e h a s j u s t b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d a n d t h e v a r i o u s a f f a i r s ( c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t ) a r e n o t y e t c o m p l e t e . W h e n e v e r one o f t h e h i g h o f f i c i a l s o r c o m m a n d e r s i s d e m o t e d i n r a n k he c l a m o r s f o r d i s p e n s a t i o n s t h a t a r e n o t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h c l a s s i c a l p r e c e d e n t s * I t w o u l d be a p p r o p r i a t e t o e s t a b l i s h r e g u l a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a f r a m e w o r k ( f o r a s s i g n i n g p o s i t i o n s ) * H s i u n g f o l l o w e d t h i s a d v i c e • • [ B e c a u s e t h e G o v e r n o r o f L i a n g p r o v i n c e H s u H s i u n g h a d n o t a d v a n c e d i n h i s c h a s t i z i n g o f t h e ' b a n d i t s ' he was summoned t o t h e i m p e r i a l j a i l i n a c a g e c a r t * O n l y t h e Army P r o t e c t o r a n d t h e G r a n d A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f Han—kuo V^L^ T u M e n g - c h i h ^ \^r"» t n e Commander o f t h e B a t t l e C h a o Wen fef! >^ a n d t h e G r a n d A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f C h l n g p r o v i n c e ( ? ) 1 9 o f T z u — t * u n g g u a r d e d Han—chung* • [ F i r s t y e a r o f Y u n g - h s i n g *K ^ ( 3 0 4 ) . S p r i n g , f i r s t 126 month* Luo Shane a r r i v e d i n Chiang—yang. The provost of the army Hsin Pao ^ "^ proceeded to Luo—yang to submit a memorial* An i m p e r i a l r e s c r i p t gave Luo Shang temporary c o n t r o l of the three commanderies of Pa—tung , Pa and F o u - l l n g , with the r i g h t to supply h i m s e l f with the m i l i t a r y taxes of the three* •[Winter* Luo Shang moved and encamped at Pa commandery* He di s p a t c h e d an army to r a i d Shu, which beheaded L i Hsiung's grand—uncle Jan and took p r i s o n e r the sons of L i Hsiang*'s wife Madame Tsan , L i Shou and h i s b r o t h e r * 2 0 • [ T w e l f t h month* L i Hsiung's Grand Commandant L i L i at t a c k e d Han—chung, k i l l i n g the Commander of the B a t t l e Chao Wen* • [ F i r s t year of Yung-chla ^ (307). S p r i n g . Luo Shang e s t a b l i s h e d roadblocks as f a r as Han—an and P'o— tao . 2 1 •[At the time the people of I province had migrated to Ching and Hsiang p r o v i n c e s as w e l l as Yueh-sui and Tsang— k'e. Luo Shang e s t a b l i s h e d 2 2 commanderies and p r e f e c t u r e s i n accordance with t h e i r present l o c a t i o n s , a l s o a p p o i n t i n g M i l i t a r y A d v i s o r s to the v a r i o u s v i l l a g e s . • [ T h i r d month* The migrants from the Kuan—chung r e g i o n Teng Ti n g ^ j ^ y ^ . Hung T i ^ } i\j et al« r e b e l l e d , p l u n d e r i n g Tung-ch* en-shih j^L/$c_ i n Han-chung. The Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Pa—hsi Chang Yen* * l e a d i n g the Yamen Wu Chao j^p" and the V i c e - a d m i n i s t r a t o r of Han-kuo commandery Hsuan T i n g ^ 7^1 t dispatched troops to besiege 127 t h e m . Hung T i s o u g h t r e s c u e f r o m L i H s i u n g • ] * ( H Y K C 8/114.1-7 ) *f Summer. F i f t h m o n t h . ] * L i H s i u n g d i s p a t c h e d L i Kuo a n d L i Y u n t o p l u n d e r H a n — c h u n g . 2 3 * [ W h e n T u M e n g — c h i h h e a r d o f L i L i ' s a r r i v a l he o r d e r e d C h a n g Y e n t o r e l e a s e t h e s i e g e and t a k e r e f u g e i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l . When C h a n g Y e n h a d f i r s t a s s a u l t e d T e n g T i n g . T i n g ' s t r o o p s were s t a r v i n g and he p r e t e n d e d t o s u r r e n d e r , p r e s e n t i n g C h a n g Y e n w i t h a g o l d v e s s e l w h i c h he a c c e p t e d . S e v e n d a y s l a t e r Hung T i a r r i v e d a n d T e n g T i n g r e t u r n e d t o T u n g — c h ' e n — s h i h . C h a n g Y e n a d v a n c e d a n d b e s i e g e d h i m , d i s r e g a r d i n g T u Meng— c h i h ' s w o r d s . When L i L i a r r i v e d he f i r s t a s s a u l t e d t h e camp o f Wu C h a o , o v e r c o m i n g i t . He n e x t a s s a u l t e d H s u a n T i n g , a l s o d e f e a t i n g h i m . C h a n g Y e n was a f r a i d t o do b a t t l e a n d f l e d a t t h e h e a d o f one h u n d r e d c a v a l r y . L i L i a n d c o m p a n y s e v e r e l y d e f e a t e d t h e p r o v i n c i a l a r m y . T h e Yamen Ts • a i S u n g ^ ^"4 A* r e t r e a t e d and a n n o u n c e d t o T u M e n g — c h i h , " T h e p r o v i n c i a l army h a s a l r e a d y b e e n d e f e a t e d . We c a n n o t a w a i t ( t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e ) r e b e l a r m y . " T u M e n g - c h i h was f r i g h t e n e d . T h e Army P r o t e c t o r w i s h e d t o make a s t a n d w i t h i n t h e c i t y w a l l s a n d s p o k e t o T u , s a y i n g , " A l t h o u g h t h e b a n d i t s come i n g r e a t n u m b e r s t h e y a r e n o t f i g h t i n g o n t h e i r own t e r r i t o r y . 2 * L i ( H s i u n g ) t o t h e s o u t h e a s t i s b e i n g p r e s s e d on a l l s i d e s . Be w i l l c e r t a i n l y n o t d i v i d e h i s t r o o p s a n d s t a t i o n them o u t s i d e h i s t e r r i t o r y . He o n l y i n t e n d s t o r e s c u e T e n g T i n g and Hung T l . " T u M e n g — c h i h r e p l i e d , " N o t s o . L i H s i u n g h a s d a r e d t o p r o c l a i m h i m s e l f E m p e r o r , h o p i n g t o g a i n c o n t r o l o f t h e e m p i r e . H a v i n g 128 d i s p a t c h e d a l a r g e f o r c e , he w i l l c e r t a i n l y take Ean-chung. Although we have a f o r t i f i e d c i t y the courage of the people has been broken* We cannot await the ' b a n d i t s ' with them." Tu Meng—chih then opened the c i t y gates and withdrew* The Army P r o t e c t o r returned to the north* Tu Meng—chih entered a l a r g e v a l l e y wooded i n mulberry t r e e s * With s e v e r a l thousand f a m i l i e s and thousands of c a r t s accompanying him Tu c o u l d only advance a few tens of l i each n i g h t * Because h i s f a t h e r had had a d i s p u t e with Tu Meng—chih Ching—tzu of Tzu—t'ung assembled h i s sons and b r o t h e r s and pursued him, c a t c h i n g up to h i s at the mouth of the v a l l e y * Tu f l e d abandoning h i s s o n ( s ) . Ching—tzu captured h i s s o n ( s ) as w e l l as over a thousand f a m i l i e s of r e t a i n e r s and peasants* The Attendant O f f i c i a l of the Department of M e r i t of Han—kuo commandery Wu C h i e n ^ alone grasped a s t a f f and s a i d , "Although I am unworthy I am the great o f f i c i a l of one s t a t e and when that s t a t e p e r i s h e s I cannot s u r v i v e * I w i l l r e f u s e to serve the 'bandits' to my death*" He s t a r v e d to death i n that v a l l e y * ]*(HYKC 8/114.8-115.1) The Governor of Liang p r o v i n c e Chang Y i n f l e d to Ch'ang-a n . 2 6 Kuo and the others reduced the c i t y of Nan—cheng 2 7 and moved a l l the i n h a b i t a n t s of Han—chung to Shu. *[The people of Han—chung, d r i v e n by the robbing and p l u n d e r i n g of L i Feng f l e d eastward to Ching and Mien prov i n c e s . 2 8 *[A man of Han—chung, Chu Fang }^ informed Luo—yang of these occurences and l e d a group of minor o f f i c i a l s and r e s i d e n t s to re—occupy Nan—cheng. 129 *[ S e c o n d y e a r ( 3 0 8 ) . A n i m p e r i a l r e s c r i p t a c k n o w l e d g e d L u o S h a n g * s m e r i t i n c h a s t i z i n g L i T ' e a n d s u p p l e m e n t e d h i m w i t h t h e o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s o f C a v a l i e r A t t e n d a n t - i n -o r d l n a r y a n d I n s p e c t o r — g e n e r a l f o r t h e two p r o v i n c e s ( o f L i a n g a n d I ) w h i l e a d v a n c i n g h i s t i t l e t o M a r q u i s o f I— l i n g ^ . H i s e l d e s t s o n Yu ~T r e c e i v e d ( ? ) t h e t i t l e T e r r i t o r i a l Commandant o f C h a r i o t s ( c h u tu— we i ' ^ f f i&l). H i s y o u n g e r s o n Y e n - s h o u J l ^ ^ was a p p o i n t e d T e r r i t o r i a l Commandant o f C a v a l r y . * [ L i a n g p r o v i n c e h a d b e e n l a i d i n r u i n s b y L i H s i u n g . C h i n now named Huang—fu S h a n g i 1^ t o b e G o v e r n o r o f L i a n g p r o v i n c e , h o w e v e r he was u n a b l e t o a s s u m e o f f i c e 2 9 a n d t h e B a i l i f f o f S h u n - y a n g f f , C h a n g K u a n g ^ o f C h i a n g — h s i a was i n s t e a d made G o v e r n o r , w i t h h i s s e a t o f g o v e r n m e n t a t H s i n - c h • e n g . ] * ( HYKC 8 / 1 1 5 . 1 - 4 ) E a r l i e r t h e s o u t h e r n r e g i o n s h a d b e e n r a v a g e d b y s u c c e s s i v e y e a r s o f f a m i n e a n d p e s t i l e n c e a n d t h o s e who h a d d i e d n u m b e r e d i n t h e h u n d r e d s o f t h o u s a n d s . T h e C o l o n e l o f t h e S o u t h e r n B a r b a r i a n s ( n a n — i h s i a o - w e i $1 i. $k.J$) i - i i \ ^t]^ s t e a d f a s t l y m a i n t a i n e d h i s p o s i t i o n a n d r e f u s e d t o s u r r e n d e r . H s i u n g i n d u c e d t h e C h i e n — n i n g I b a r b a r i a n s %^ t o a t t a c k h i m . When L i I d i e d o f i l l n e s s t h e c i t y f e l l a n d o v e r t h r e e t h o u s a n d b r a v e s o l d i e r s d i e d w h i l e o v e r a t h o u s a n d w i v e s a n d d a u g h t e r s were s e n t t o C h ' e n g - t u . 3 0 *[ T h i r d y e a r ( 3 0 9 ) . W i n t e r . ] * A t t h e t i m e L i L i was o c c u p y i n g T z u — t ' u n g . H i s D i v i s i o n a l C o m m a n d a n t s ( p y - c h i a p s % ) Luo Yang %^ a n d C h a n g C h l n - k o u ^ a n d o t h e r s 3 1 k i l l e d L i L i a n d Yen S h i h a n d w i t h t h e c i t y o f 130 T z u - t ' u n g s u b m i t t e d t o L u o S h a n g * • £ T h e G r a n d T u t o r L i H s i a n g * , L i Y u n a n d L i H u a n g a s s a u l t e d L u o Y a n g * T h e y w e r e d e f e a t e d a n d L i Y u n a n d L i H u a n g w e r e k i l l e d * Y u n a n d H u a n g w e r e L i H s i u n g * s f i r s t c o u s i n s a n d h e l d t h e p o s i t i o n s o f ( M i n i s t e r o v e r t h e M a s s e s ) 3 2 a n d M i n i s t e r o f W o r k s r e s p e c t i v e l y • • [ T w e l f t h m o n t h * H u n g C h * 1 e t a l * s e n t L i L i ' s m o t h e r a n d s o n s t o L u o S h a n g * S h a n g b e h e a d e d t h e m a n d d i v i d e d u p L i L i ' s f a m i l y p o s s e s s i o n s * ] • ( H Y K C 8/115*4-5) S h a n g s e n t h i s C o m m a n d a n t ( c h i a n f i / j ^ ) H s i a n g F e n t o e n c a m p a t I - f u jIL ^ { 7 i n A n - h a n - t vt^ 3 ' i n o r d e r t o p r e s s L i H s i u n g . H s i u n g l e d a b o d y o f t r o o p s t o a t t a c k F e n b u t w a s u n s u c c e s s f u l * • [ F o u r t h y e a r (310)]^ A t t h e t i m e L i K u o was s t a t i o n e d i n F a — h s i • H i s s u b o r d i n a t e , W e n S h i h X . ^H . 3 * k i l l e d K u o a n d s u r r e n d e r e d P a — h s i t o L u o S h a n g * • [ O r i g i n a l l y C h ' i a o T e n g o f P a - h s i h a d g o n e t o r e q u e s t t r o o p s o f t h e G e n e r a l S t a b i l i z i n g t h e S o u t h * T h e G e n e r a l S t a b i l i z i n g t h e S o u t h h a d n o t r o o p s b u t m e m o r i a l i z e d r e c o m m e n d i n g C h ' i a o T e n g f o r t h e p o s i t i o n s o f G e n e r a l P r o m o t i n g A r d e n c y ( Yan_- lJ , eh c h i a n g - c h u n ) a n d B a i l i f f o f T z u - t ' u n g s o t h a t h e m i g h t r e c r u i t v o l u n t e e r s f r o m t h e p e o p l e o f t h e T h r e e P a , S h u a n d H a n ( — c h u n g ) i n o r d e r t o r e c o n q u e r t h e t e r r i t o r y * H e f i r s t l a u n c h e d a n e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t T a n g — c h ' u , k i l l i n g L i H s i u n g ' s G r a n d A d m i n i s t r a t o r f o r P a — h s i , M a T ' u o * 3 5 H e t h e n w i t h d r e w a n d o c c u p i e d F o u . T h e G e n e r a l f o r R e p e l l i n g t h e C h a r g e C h a n g L u o a d v a n c e d a n d o c c u p i e d H e — s h u i i n C h ' i e n — w e i c o m m a n d e r y * T h e p e o p l e o f P a a n d S h u m a d e a s a y i n g w h i c h w e n t : C h ' i a o T e n g i s 131 headquartered at Fou—ch'eng, Wen Shih i s at P a — h s i , Chang Luo guards He—shui, How can the Pa T i be a b l e to advance.]*( HYKC 8/115.6-8) Hsiung thereupon withdrew and d i s p a t c h e d h i s Commandant Chang Pao to make a s u r p r i s e a t t a c k on Tzu-t'ung, c a p t u r i n g i t . *[Hsiung's commander Chang Pao's younger b r o t h e r C h ' i i a n 3 6 was i n the midst of Hung Ch*1's troops* L i Hsiung d i s p a t c h e d Chang Pao to act as a double—agent, promising to appoint him to re p l a c e L i L i . Pao was by nature f i e r c e and brave. He f i r s t k i l l e d a man and then f l e d to Tzu-t'ung. There he s e c r e t l y l i n k e d up with h i s i n t i m a t e s . P r e s e n t l y Luo Shang sent an emissary on a g o o d — w i l l m i s s i o n to Bung C h ' i . When Hung Ch'1 and company l e f t the c i t y to see the e a i s s a r y o f f Chang Pao c l o s e d the c i t y gates behind him. Ch'i and company f l e d to P a — h s i . Having obtained Tzu-t'ung, L i Hsiung appointed Chang Pao Grand Commandant. Hsiung p e r s o n n a l l y l e d an a s s a u l t on Hsiang Fen, who f l e d . L i Hsiang* was dispatched to a s s a u l t Ch'iao Teng. Teng had o r i g i n a l l y s i e z e d Hsiang*'s son Shou hoping to tempt Hsiang* ( t o s u r r e n d e r ) . Now he was being a t t a c k e d f i e r c e l y with no r e l i e f i n s i g h t and he r e t u r n e d L i Shou to Hsiang*. ]*(HYKC 9/120.7-10) S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r Luo Shang d i e d 3 7 and Pa commandery was i n d i s o r d e r • •[An i m p e r i a l r e s c r i p t appointed the Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Ch'ang-sha P ' i Su of H s i a - p ' i ( T ' a i H u n ) 3 8 to be Governor of I p r o v i n c e , h o l d i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y the o f f i c e s of C o l o n e l of the Western Ba r b a r i a n s and General Promoting Ardency with command of the v o l u n t e e r f o r c e and 132 t h e G e n e r a l Q u e l l i n g t h e West* Be was t o ad v a n c e and t a k e c o n t r o l o f t h e T h r e e P a s s e s ("Sang— p* i n g Kuan, C h i a n g Kuan and P a i — s h u i K u a n ) * 3 9 A t t h e time L i Hsiang'*' was making a v i g o r o u s a s s a u l t on C h ' i a o Teng* P ' i Su encamped a t Pa— t u n e . The G e n e r a l Q u e l l i n g t h e West Chang Shun and Yang H s l e n A " ^ ] were o r d e r e d to r e s c u e C h ' i a o Teng* Luo Shang's son Yu -J was f i l l e d w i t h h a t e and r e s e n t m e n t and would n o t f u r n i s h C h ' i a o Teng w i t h s u p p l i e s * When P ' i Su a r r i v e d i n H s i a — p ' i he w i s h e d t o s e t t h e o f f i c e h o l d e r s i n o r d e r and t h e y were a l l f r i g h t e n e d * • [ W i n t e r . T w e l f t h month. P • i Su a r r i v e d i n Pa commandery* Chao P'an and Yen Lan f_| fj^J e t a l . o f T ' i e n — s h u i , who had s u r r e n d e r e d , k i l l e d P'I Su by n i g h t . Su, s o b r i q u e t T ' a i - h u n ^ , was a man o f H s i a - p ' i . The T e r r i t o r i a l Commandant o f C h i e n — p ' i n g Pao Chung ^ k i l l e d Luo Yu and Chao P'an. Pa commandery f e l l i n t o d i s o r d e r and i n t h e end was n o t a b l e t o r e s c u e C h ' i a o Teng. S u b s i d i a r y o f f i c i a l s o f t h e t h r e e m i n i s t r i e s s u b m i t t e d t h e name o f t h e O v e r s e e r o f t h e Army f o r P a — t u n g and G e n e r a l C r e s t i n g t h e Army ( kuan-chyjn c h i a n g - c h u n ) Han Sung -fjff ^ £ o f Nan—yang to be G o v e r n o r o f I p r o v i n c e and C o l o n e l o f the W e s t e r n B a r b a r i a n s , w i t h h i s s e a t o f government t o be a t P a - t u n g . ]*(HYKC 8/115.S-14) L i H s i a n g * a t t a c k e d Fou, r e d u c i n g t h e c i t y and c a p t u r i n g t h e G r a n d A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f T z u - t ' u n g , C h ' i a o Teng • Then r i d i n g on t h e t i d e o f v i c t o r y he a d v n c e d t o a t t a c k Wen S h i h , k i l l i n g h i m . 4 0 H s i u n g was g r e a t l y p l e a s e d and p r o c l a i m e d a g e n e r a l amnesty, c h a n g i n g t h e r e i g n — t i t l e t o Yu—heng i l 133 • [ F i f t h year (311). S p r i n g . L i H s i a n g 4 captured Ch'iao Teng. L i Shih'*' was d i s p a t c h e d to lead L i Feng i n an a s s a u l t on P a - h s i . Wen Shih was k i l l e d . ]•( HYKC 9/120.10-11) •[Ching and Hsiang p r o v i n c e s f e l l i n t o d i s o r d e r . The T i Fu Ch'eng and Wei Wen c r e a t e d d i s o r d e r i n I-tu 'J[ * 4 1 They ascended to the west to Pa—tung. L i Hsiung*s f o r c e a s s a u l t e d P'o-tao, c a u s i n g the Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Ch'ien-wei Wei Chi "l^ fc "^ X to f l e e and k i l l i n g the Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Chiang—yang Yao Hsi •[Second month. The T l Wei Wen et a l . r e b e l l e d at Pa-tung. Pao Chung launched a campaign a g a i n s t them but d i d not defeat them. He k i l l e d the Governor Han Sung. Sung, s o b r i q u e t Kung—chih was a man of Nan—yang. Be was the grandson of the Wei Great M i n i s t e r over the Masses Han Chi -Taf )d • Pao took p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l of the a f f a i r s o f the three m i n i s t r i e s . • [ T h i r d month. The c i v i l and m i l i t a r y o f f i c i a l s of the three m i n i s t r i e s and the subordinate o f f i c i a l s of the Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Pa—tung together imprisoned Pao Chung together with h i s wife and sons at I-tu and k i l l e d them* They then j o i n e d i n recommending the Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Pa commandery Chang Luo, so b r i q u e t Ching—chih VT? , to c a r r y out the a f f a i r s o f the three m i n i s t r i e s * Chang Luo e s t a b l i s h e d h i s seat of government at Chih 4 2 and p e r s o n a l l y launched a campaign a g a i n s t Wei Wen at Kung—ch'i ( ? ) %l •^'T t d e f e a t i n g him and e f f e c t i n g h i s surrender* In a matter of weeks Wei Wen again r e b e l l e d , s i e z l n g the Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f Pa commandery Huang K'an ^ a n d s e , t * l n S 134 him up as a p u p p e t — r u l e r • Huang K*an was at the end of h i s rope and wished to commit s u i c i d e * The R e g i s t r a r Yang Yu sought to dissuade him, s a y i n g , " l e i Wen's pre v i o u s e v i l — d o i n g s are known throughout the Szechwan and Yang—tzu R i v e r b a s i n r e g i o n * When he kidnapped Your E x c e l l e n c y who d i d not f e e l h i m s e l f threatened? Who would b e l i e v e t h i s empty and f a l s e t i t l e (which he has bestowed upon you)? You should l e t General Chang (Luo) know of your earnest s i n c e r i t y * Why must you act r a s h l y l i k e t h i s ? " Huang K'an r e p l i e d , "The ' b a n d i t s ' have already cut o f f the highway* How do you propose to inform hi« of t h i s ? " Yang Yu then wrote a missive f o r Huang K'an and gave i t to h i s younger b r o t h e r that he might f l e e from the T i b a r b a r i a n s and present i t to Chang Luo* Luo s a i d , " I was a l r e a d y aware that Tzu— hsuan (Huang K'an?) ^- i& exudes s i n c e r i t y * " When Wei Wen heard of t h i s he a n g r i l y imprisoned Huang K'an and, s i e z i n g Yang Yu, he questioned him concerning the circumstances surrounding the sending of the l e t t e r * Huang K'an s a i d , "I d i d not send i t . " Wei Wen then g r i l l e d Yang Yu f o r a day and n i g h t but he would not speak. Wei Wen wished to k i l l Huang K'an but Yang Yu d i e d while being caned and, moved by Yu's l o y a l t y , Wen spared him. Chang Luo d i s p a t c h e d an army to c h a s t i z e Wei Wen which returned d e f e a t e d . Chang Luo p e r s o n a l l y l e d a campaign a g a i n s t him and, s u f f e r i n g a great d e f e a t , h i m s e l f p e r i s h e d . Luo, s o b r i q u e t Ching—shih, was a man of Liang i n He—nan. Thus there were no longer any ( C h i n o f f i c i a l s ? ) remaining i n Pa. P l u n d e r i n g the people on the run Wei Wen ascended to the 135 west and surrendered to L i Hsiung* L i Hsiung*s commander Jen Hui captured the Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Ch'ien—wei. Wei C h i * C i v i l and m i l i t a r y o f f i c i a l s of the three m i n i s t e r l e s j o i n e d i n recommending the Marshal Q u e l l i n g the West ( p' ina—fosi, ssu—ma ) Wang 1 ~i ^ to c a r r y out the a f f a i r s of the three m i n i s t e r l e s , a l s o a c t i n g as the Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Pa commandery* 4 3 The Governor of Liang p r o v i n c e Chang Kuang again e s t a b l i s h e d h i s seat of government i n Han—chung* * [ S i x t h year (312)* The Dragon-soaring General, Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f Chiang—yang Chang Ch'i of Ch'ien-wel together with Luo Ch'i„1i £«j of Kuang-han k i l l e d Wang I* I, so b r i q u e t Yen—ming $Q , was a man of Shu* Chang Ch* i ag a i n ( ? ) took charge of the a f f a i r s of the three m i n i s t e r i e s while Luo Ch'i assumed the post of Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Pa commandery* Chang Ch ' i d i e d of i l l n e s s . C h ' i , s o b r i q u e t Chin—ming was a man of Ch'ien—wei* He was the grandson of the General of C h a r i o t s and Cav a l r y of the s t a t e of Shu-Han Chang I If • The c i v i l and m i l i t a r y o f f i c i a l s of the three m i n i s t e r i e s again j o i n e d together i n recommending the Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of F o u - l i n g Hsiang Ch'en of I-yang Jfc f^ ) to f i l l the post of C o l o n e l of the Western Barbarians* Leading o f f i c i a l s and peasants, he entered F o u - l i n g to the south* • [ F i r s t year o f Chien-hsing ( 3 1 3 ) * S p r i n g . Hsiang Ch'en di e d * Many of the people of F o u - l i n g s u f f e r e d from the plague* The Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Shu commandery Ch'eng Jung l*fH^ of Chiang—yang, the Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r 136 of I - t u Y a n g F e n T">9 ^ o f C h ' i e n - w e i , t h e M a r s h a l o f t h e W e s t e r n B a r b a r i a n s C h ' a n g H s i n o : £ P a commandery and t h e P r e f e c t o f T u - a n T s * a n g Hung ^ ^ * * o f S h u commandery e t a l . j o i n e d i n r e c o m m e n d i n g t h e G r a n d A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f M i n - s h a n L a n Wei f$f*$£. o f F o u - l i n g t o b e C o l o n e l o f t h e W e s t e r n B a r b a r i a n s . • [ A t t h e t i m e t h e c e n t r a l p l a i n h a d a l r e a d y f a l l e n i n t o d i s o r d e r a n d t h e r e w e r e t r o u b l e s e a s t o f t h e Y a n g - t z e , h e n c e t h e r e was no p l a c e t o l o o k t o f o r a i d o r r e l i e f . C h ' e n g J u n g e t a l . t o g e t h e r l e d t h e o f f i c i a l s and p e a s a n t s t o e x i t f r o m C h i h t o t h e n o r t h , h o p i n g t o go down t o Pa— t u n g . T h e y w e r e c o n s e q u e n t l y d e f e a t e d a n d c a p t u r e d by L i H s i u n g ' s commanders L i K u n g a n d F e i H e i . • [ F i f t h m o n t h . The ( C h i n ) G o v e r n o r o f L i a n g p r o v i n c e C h a n g K u a n g l a u n c h e d a c a m p a i g n a g a i n s t L i Yun F o u — l i n g , a member o f Wang J u * s c l i q u e . Wang C h i e n "X-^^ o f Pa — h s i was e r e c t i n g a m o u n t a i n a t P ' a n — s h e — p i e n ^ o ' i ^ a n d ( C h a n g K u a n g ) s u s p e c t e d t h a t he d e s i r e d t o r e b e l . L i Yun a n d Wang C h i e n f l e d a n d t o o k r e f u g e i n K o u S h a n C h a n g K u a n g d i s p a t c h e d a n army t o a s s a u l t a n d d e f e a t t h e m , k i l l i n g t h e m . Wang C h i e n ' s son—in—law Y a n g Hu r e b e l l e d , t a k i n g r e f u g e i n H u a n g - c h i n S h a n . C h a n g K u a n g l a u n c h e d a c a m p a i g n a g a i n s t h i m . Yang Hu a b a n d o n e d h i s camp b y n i g h t a n d h u r r i e d l y r e t u r n e d a n d e n c a m p e d a t E S h u i /xL^)^* a p l a c e f o r t y JLi d i s t a n t f r o m the p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l . C h a n g K u a n g d i s p a t c h e d h i s s o n M e n g — c h ' a n g to c h a s t i z e h i m . T h e y b a t t l e d , a l t e r n a t e l y w i n n i n g a n d l o s i n g . C h a n g K u a n g s o u g h t a i d f r o m t h e K i n g o f t h e T i o f 137 Wu—tu, Yang Mao—sou. Yang Hu a l s o sought rescue i r o n Yang Mao—sou. O r i g i n a l l y Mao—sou 1s son Yang Nan—ti had sent h i s purchase f o r him the son of a good s c i o n . Chang Kuang was angered by t h i s and had him f l c g g e d to death. For t h i s reason Yang Nan — t l hated Chang Kuang, and s a i d , "When you f i r s t came i t was a f t e r a gre a t famine and both the troops and the populace r e l i e d on us T i to l i v e . (Now) a T i has committed a minor o f f e n s e yet he cannot be pardoned!" He s e c r e t l y planned to launch a campaign a g a i n s t Chang Kuang. S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r Chang Kuang and Yang Hu requested rescue• *[Autumn. E i g h t h month. Yang Mao—sou d i s p a t c h e d Nan—ti l e a d i n g c a v a l r y to enter Han—chung, outwardly saying that he was to a i d Chang Kuang but r e a l l y responding to Yang Hu*s request. When he reached the p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l Chang Kuang f e a s t e d him with wine and oxen. Chang Kuang then d i s p a t c h e d him together with Chang Meng—ch*ang to c h a s t i z e Yang Hu. Meng—ch'ang himself took the vanguard while Yang Nan—tl brought up the r e a r . A f t e r engaging Yang Hu i n b a t t l e f o r a long p e r i o d Chang Meng—ch'ang was s t r u c k from the r e a r by Yang Nan—ti and s e v e r e l y d e f e a t e d . Meng-ch'ang was captured a l i v e and k i l l e d . 4 5 • [ N i n t h month. Chang Kuang died of e x a s p e r a t i o n . The people of the pro v i n c e j o i n e d i n recommending that the gi v e n c o n t r o l of the p r o v i n c e . •[Winter. Tenth month. Yang Hu and T i tribesmen adopted son Shih Chia iQg_ ^ to Liang p r o v i n c e to p r i v a t e l y Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Shih-p'ing Hu be 138 a s s a u l t e d t h e p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l v i g o r o u s l y and Hu T z u - h s u was u n a b l e t o d e f e n d i t * A b a n d o n i n g t h e c i t y he w i t h d r e w and f l e d and t h e T i Yang Hu t h u s o b t a i n e d t h e c i t y * He exhumed Chang Kuang*s g r a v e and b u r n t h i s c o r p s e * Yang Nan-t i o b t a i n e d Chang Kuang*s m u s i c i a n s and c o n c u b i n e s and p r o c l a i m e d h i m s e l f G o v e r n o r * Yang Hu l e d t h e o f f i c i a l s and p e a s a n t r y i n e n t e r i n g Shu* A man o f Han—chung, Chang N a n — t i , who w i t h d r e w and r e t u r n e d * Chang H s l e n r e — e n t e r e d Shu* At t h i s t i m e t h e t h r e e p r o v i n c e s had f a l l e n t o L i H s i u n g . ]*(HYKC 8/115.14-117.8) L i H s i u n g t r u s t e d i n the words o f w i t c h e s and s o r c e r e r s and o b s e r v e d many t a b o o s , t o t h e p o i n t where when h i s mother, Madame Luo d i e d he d i d not want t o b u r y h e r . 4 6 I t was o n l y when h i s M i n i s t e r o f Works, Chao Su, r e m o n s t r a t e d w i t h him t h a t he f o l l o w e d Chao's a d v i c e . H s i u n g w i s h e d t o o b s e r v e the f u l l t h r e e y e a r s o f m o u r n i n g and t h o u g h t h e v a r i o u s o f f i c i a l s a d a m a n t l y r e m o n s t r a t e d ( a g a i n s t t h i s ) H s i u n g would n o t a g r e e w i t h them. L i H s i a n g + s a i d t o the M i n i s t e r o f Works Shang-kuan Tun & T^- , " J u s t now o u r t r o u b l e s have n o t y e t c e a s e d . I w i s h t o s t u b b o r n l y r e m o n s t r a t e so a s t o not p e r m i t o u r r u l e r t o c o m p l e t e t h e p e r i o d o f m o u r n i n g . What do you t h i n k a b o u t t h i s ? " Ch'un r e p l i e d , "The o b s e r v a n c e o f a t h r e e y e a r p e r i o d o f m o u r n i n g e x t e n d s from t h e Son o f Heaven down t o t h e common p e o p l e * I t i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t C o n f u c i u s s a i d , "Why must Kao-t s u n g be r e f e r r e d t o as an example o f t h i s , The a n c i e n t s a l l d i d s o * " 4 7 However s i n c e Han and Wei t i m e s t h e w o r l d and o t h e r s l a u n c h e d a campaign a g a i n s t Yang 139 h a s been p l a g u e d by many t r o u b l e s * The a n c e s t r a l temple I s o f utmost i m p o r t a n c e , and c a n n o t l o n g be l e f t u n a t t e n d e d . T h e r e f o r e ( r u l e r s ) have p u t o f f t h e i r m o u r n i n g g a r m e n t s o f s a c k c l o t h and w h i t e hemp and made do w i t h e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r e x t r e m e g r i e f . " Hsiang'*' s a i d , " J e n Hui i s a b o u t t o a r r i v e . T h i s man i s d e c i s i v e i n c a r r y i n g o u t a f f a i r s a n d , m o r e o v e r , H i s M a j e s t y o f t e n f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t t o oppose h i s s u g g e s t i o n s . L e t us a w a i t h i s a r r i v a l and make o u r r e q u e s t t o g e t h e r w i t h him." When J a n a r r i v e d he and H s i a n g * t o g e t h e r had an a u d i e n c e w i t h H s i u n g . H s i a n g * removed h i s c a p and, s h e d d i n g t e a r s , s t r o n g l y r e q u e s t e d t h a t H s i u n g f o r t h e good o f a l l abandon t h e m o u r n i n g p r a c t i c e s . H s i u n g , w a i l i n g and weeping, would not p e r m i t t h i s . J e n Hui k n e l t and a d v a n c e d , s a y i n g , "Now t h e k i n g l y e n t e r p r i s e h as j u s t b een e s t a b l i s h e d and t h e m y r i a d a f f a i r s have o n l y been p u t i n t o a ro u g h o u t l i n e . I f w i t h o u t a r u l e r f o r o n l y one day t h e p e o p l e o f t h e empir e w i l l p a n i c . Of o l d K i n g Wu j ^ , JL r e v i e w e d h i s t r o o p s i n w h i t e a r m o r 4 0 and M a r q u i s H s i a n g o f C h i n j o i n e d t h e b a t t l e w e a r i n g m o u r n i n g g a r m e n t s s t a i n e d w i t h b l a c k . 4 9 How c o u l d t h i s have been what t h e y d e s i r e d ? I t was b e c a u s e t h e y compromised t h e i r p r i n c i p l e s f o r the s a k e o f t h e em p i r e ( t h a t t h e y d i d t h e s e t h i n g s ) . I r e q u e s t t h a t y o u r m a j e s t y d i v o r c e h i m s e l f f r o m h i s e m o t i o n s and f o l l o w t h e e x i g e n c i e s of the moment. May you e v e r p r o s p e r and may Heaven p r o t e c t y o u . " Then, u s i n g f o r c e , he h e l p e d H s i u n g t o r i s e and amd made him sh e d h i s m o u r n i n g g a r m e n t s and t a k e p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l o f t h e government a g a i n . A t t h i s t i m e t o t h e s o u t h he o b t a i n e d H a n - c h i a 5 0 140 and F o u - l i n g and men f r o a d i s t a n t r e g i o n s a r r i v e d c o n t i n u o u s l y * T h e r e u p o n H s i u n g p r o c l a i m e d a l i b e r a l p o l i c y : A l l t h o s e who s u r r e n d e r w i l l be r e a p p o i n t e d to t h e i r p r e v i o u s p o s i t i o n s * He humbled h i m s e l f and was l o v i n g t o o t h e r s * 5 1 In a l l h i s a p p o i n t m e n t s he f o u n d men w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t a l e n t s and I p r o v i n c e was t h e r e b y p a c i f i e d * • [ A f t e r w a r d s Teng C h i h o f F u — f e n g , Yang Hu e t a l * e a c h l e d s e v e r a l t h o u s a n d f a m i l i e s o f m i g r a n t s t o e n t e r Shu* L i Feng was named G r e a t G e n e r a l o f the N o r t h e r n E x p e d i t i o n and G o v e r n o r o f L i a n g p r o v i n c e , J e n H u i was named G r e a t G e n e r a l S t a b i l i z i n g the S o u t h , C o l o n e l o f t h e S o u t h e r n B a r b a r i a n s and G o v e r n o r o f N i n g p r o v i n c e , and L i Kung was named G r e a t G e n e r a l o f t h e E a s t e r n E x p e d i t i o n , C o l o n e l o f t h e S o u t h e r n Man and G o v e r n o r o f C h i n g P r o v i n c e . L i H s i u n g and L i H s i a n g * were d i l i g e n t and s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e p e a s a n t s w i t h i n t h e s t a t e w h i l e L i Feng, J e n H u i and L i Kung g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r t h e m i g r a n t s o u t s i d e t h e b o r d e r s * I t was s a i d t h a t t h e y met w i t h s u c c e s s . The T i Fu Ch'eng and Wei Wen, h a v i n g s u r r e n d e r e d , had a g a i n r e b e l l e d and p e r s o n a l l y wounded H s i u n g * s mother b u t when t h e y came ( t o s u b m i t ) H s i u n g p a r d o n e d a l l t h e i r c r i m e s and a c c o r d e d them f a v o r e d t r e a t m e n t , making them commanders* Ch'en An o f T ' i e n — s h u i s u r r e n d e r e d Lung—yu. The K i n g of the Wu—tu T i Yang Mao—sou o f f e r e d t r i b u t e and p r o c l a i m e d h i s a l l e g i a n c e * Tu T'ao s e n t an e m i s s a r y f r o m H s i a n g p r o v i n c e s e e k i n g a i d * The C h i n G o v e r n o r o f L i a n g p r o v i n c e Chang Chun a m i s s i v e s e e k i n g f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s * K i n g Ch'ung o f the H a n - c h i a I s e n t h i s son a s h o s t a g e * S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r Shen Chao ^ 141 o f Chu— t ' i l e d a grou p o f p e o p l e t o s u r r e n d e r * Te'uan C h i a n g ^ -1J; and Meng H s i e n %^ o f C h i e n - n i n g g r a n t e d him t h e i r t r u s t . F u r t h e r , e v e r y day and month b r o u g h t more a d h e r e n t s . ]*(HYKC 9/120.11-121.1) He u s u r p e d t h e t i t l e o f Empress ( huang-hou £ /« ) f o r h i s w i f e , Madame J e n . The T i K i n g Yang N a n — t i and h i s b r o t h e r s were d e f e a t e d by L i u Yao £'( Vfi , f l e d t o Chia-meng , and s e n t t h e i r s o n s as h o s t a g e s . The b a n d i t l e a d e r o f L u n g - h s i n^l^D , Ch'en An <5?~ a l s o s u b m i t t e d t o H s i u n g . 5 2 • [ L i F e n g was s t a t i o n e d i n t h e n o r t h and had s e v e r a l t i m e s a c h i e v e d t h e s u r r e n d e r o f h i s e n e m i e s . L i Tang's son L i C h i h was encamped a t C h i n — s h o u 5 3 and was w o r r i e d by Fe n g ' s a c h i e v e m e n t s . • [ F i r s t y e a r o f T ' a i - h s i n g ( 3 1 8 ). L i Feng r e b e l l e d a t Pa— h s i . L i Hsiang'*' was s e n t cn an e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t him b u t t a r r i e d l o n g a t T z u - t ' u n g , n o t d a r i n g t o a d v a n c e . L i H s i u n g h i m s e l f a r r i v e d i n Fou and H s i a n g * c o n s e q u e n t l y b e h e a d e d L i F e n g . L i Shou was named t o r e p l a c e L I F e n g and g i v e n a u t h o r i t y f o r a f f a i r s i n t h e n o r t h o f L i a n g p r o v i n c e . 5 * ] * ( H Y K C 9/120.5-7) ( H s i u n g ) d i s p a t c h e d L i B s i a n g * on an e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t Y u e h — s u i ^ • The G r a n d A d m i n i s t r a t o r L i Chao s u r r e n d e r e d . 5 5 H s i a n g * a d v a n c e d v i a H s i a o - h u i ^jg and a t t a c k e d t h e G o v e r n o r o f N i n g p r o v i n c e , Wang Hsun Hsun s e n t h i s Commandant Yao Yueh 5 6 w i t h a f o r c e o f men t o r e p e l the a t t a c k . H s i a n g * ' s t r o o p s s u f f e r e d a d e f e a t and f u r t h e r e n c o u n t e r e d p r o t r a c t e d r a i n . H s i a n g * r e t r e a t e d and t h e m a j o r i t y o f h i s t r o o p s were l o s t i n 142 s c r a m b l i n g t o c r o s s t h e Lu Yjj£_^ r i v e r * When Chao a r r i v e d i n C h ' e n g — t u L i H s i u n g t r e a t e d him v e r y g e n e r o u s l y and m a t t e r s o f c o u r t c e r e m o n i a l and m o u r n i n g r i t u a l were a l l d e c i d e d by Chao • * [ F i r s t y e a r o f t h e T ' a i - n i n g r e i g n - p e r i o d (323). The S s u — s o u t r i b e s m e n o f Y u e h — s u i r e b e l l e d , a s s a u l t i n g and b e s i e g i n g J e n H u i and t h e Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r L i C h ' i e n <r The G e n e r a l o f t h e S o u t h e r n E x p e d i t i o n F e i H e i was d i s p a t c h e d t o r e s c u e them* • [ F i r s t y e a r o f t h e H s i e n — h e r e i g n — p e r i o d (326)* Summer* The S s u — s o u were d e f e a t e d * • [ S e c o n d y e a r (327 ). L i C h ' i e n t r a n s f e r r e d t h e p o p u l a c e o f Y u e h — s u i commandery t o Shu* ]*(HYKC 9/122*1 — 2) When Yang N a n — t i f l e d t o Chia—meng H s i u n g * s G e n e r a l P a c i f y i n g t h e N o r t h ( a n - p e i c h j a n e - c h u n ) L i C h i h had s o u g h t t o c c m f o r t him t h r o u g h g e n e r o u s t r e a t m e n t and had a l l o w e d ( h i m a n d ) h i s b r o t h e r s t o r e t u r n t o Wu—tu T h e r e r e l y i n g on h i s s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n he c o m m i t t e d many i l l e g a l a c t s * 5 8 L i C h i h r e q u e s t e d he be a l l o w e d t o a t t a c k him* H s i u n g s e n t the P a l a c e D i r e c t o r o f t h e Army ( phung l l n g - c h u n ^4^^ ) L i H a n i 5 9 and t h e G e n e r a l s Yueh T z ' u ^ , F e i T'a , and L i C h ' i e n t o a t t a c k H s l a - p i e n T- f f S *° from P a l - s h u i B r i d g e ^ ^ ^ , w h i l e t h e G e n e r a l o f t h e E a s t e r n E x p e d i t i o n ( c h e n g — t u n e c h i a j f l z c f r y n ) L i Shou l e d Han's y o u n g e r b r o t h e r Wu 1.J i n a t t a c k i n g Y l n - p ' i n g . N a n - t i d i s p a t c h e d an army t o b l o c k him and Shou was u n a b l e to a d v a n c e whereas Han and C h i h made a l o n g f o r c e d march to Wu-chieh "f\, tfij^ • 6 1 N a n - t i 143 sent some men to cut o f f t h e i r r e t u r n route and at t a c k e d them from a l l f o u r s i d e s * He captured L i Han and L i Chih and k i l l e d s e v e r a l t h o u s a n d 6 2 o i t h e i r troops* Han and Chih were the sons of Hsiung's e l d e r b r o t h e r Tang and Hsiung was s o r e l y g r i e v e d over t h e i r f a t e * 6 3 He d i d not eat f o r s e v e r a l days and every time he spoke he would break i n t o t e a r s , s e v e r e l y c a s t i g a t i n g h i m s e l f f o r h i s r o l e i n the a f f a i r . L a t e r Hsiung intended to e s t a b l i s h L i Tang's son Pan 1-as H e i r Apparent. Hsiung h i m s e l f had over ten s o n s 6 4 and the v a r i o u s o f f i c i a l s a l l wanted him to s e l e c t one of h i s own sons. Hsiung s a i d , "When I f i r s t took up arms I was merely r a i s i n g my hand to p r o t e c t my head. I o r i g i n a l l y had no designs on the p o s i t i o n s of King or Emperor. At that time, when the empire was i n great d i s o r d e r and the r u l i n g f a m i l y of the Chin was roaming about homeless the emotions of a l l were aroused to the cause of duty and to the de t e r m i n a t i o n to rescue the world from the muck and mire. Then my revered e l d e r s were prodded and encouraged to assume a place above kings and dukes. As f o r the o r i g i n a l f o u n d a t i o n o f t h i s e n t e r p r i s e , the achievement d e r i v e s from the former Emperor ( T ' e ) . My e l d e r b r o t h e r was the l e g i t i m a t e s u c c e s s o r , the r i g h t f u l occupant of the Imperial throne. Generous and v i r t u o u s , e n l i g h t e n e d and sagacious, s u r e l y he was the chosen of Heaven. Then j u s t as t h i s great endeavor was n e a r i n g completion he d i e d i n the midst of b a t t l e . Fan i s benevolent and f i l i a l i n comportment and nature, fond of l e a r n i n g and preco c i o u s * He w i l l c e r t a i n l y 144 toe a famous v e s s e l . " *£ "When Sun Ch'uan had carved o f f the r e g i o n east o f the Yang—tze (Chiang—tung ), although Sun T s 1 e had l a i d the founda t i o n h i s son only a t t a i n e d to the rank of Marquis, and the San Kuo Cfojh. d e c l a r e d t h i s a cause f o r shame* 6 5 When Duke Hsuan of Sung c a s t a s i d e h i s own son and e s t a b l i s h e d h i s younger br o t h e r the 'Sup e r i o r Man' thought that he knew men* 6 6 I intend to r e p a i r the shame of the San Kuo Chih and c a r r y on the t r a d i t i o n of Duke Hsuan's estimable conduct."]*(HYKC 9/121.12-14) L i Hsiang* and the M i n i s t e r over the Masses Wang Ta remonstrated, s a y i n g , "The former k i n g s ' establishment of the r i g h t f u l successor was the means whereby they guarded a g a i n s t the sprouts of us u r p a t i o n * You must pay heed to t h i s * The Baron of Wu •s abandonment of h i s son an establishment of h i s younger b r o t h e r was the reason why there was the d i s a s t e r of Chuan Chu * 6 7 Duke Hsuan 2- of Sung d i d not e s t a b l i s h Yu—i but r a t h e r e s t a b l i s h e d Duke Mu 4^ and i n the end there was Sung Tu's r e v o l t * 6 8 Your speaking of your nephew, how can i t compare with your own son? I f e r v e n t l y hope that Your Majesty w i l l c o n s i d e r t h i s matter." Hsiung d i d not f o l l o w t h i s advice and i n the end e s t a b l i s h e d Pan (a s H e i r A p p a r e n t ) . 6 9 Hsiang* withdrew and wept, sa y i n g , " D i s o r d e r begins from here." Chang Chun ••^1 .^ sent an e n v o y 7 0 to present Hsiung with a missive e x h o r t i n g him to abandon the Imperial t i t l e and d e c l a r e a l l e g i a n c e to Chin. Hsiung wrote i n r e p l y , "I was wrongly pushed forward by o f f i c i a l s ( t o be r u l e r ) , however o r i g i n a l l y I had no d e s i r e to be Emperor or King. 1 4 5 • [ T o b e a c o m m a n d e r p a t r o l l i n g t h e r i v e r s d f s a n d s o f K u e i p r o v i n c e h a s b e e n my c o n s t a n t d e s i r e . ] • ( H Y K C S / 1 2 2 . 1 4 -1 2 3 . 1 ) E n t e r i n g ( t h e c o u r t ) I h a v e h o p e d t o b e a n o f f i c i a l s h a r i n g i n t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e f o u n d i n g o f t h e d y n a s t y , w i t h d r a w i n g ( f r o m t h e c o u r t ) I h a v e h o p e d t o b e a c o m m a n d e r p r o t e c t i n g t h e b o r d e r , s w e e p i n g o u t a l l d i r t a n d d u s t i n o r d e r t o s t a b i l i z e t h e I m p e r i a l D o m a i n . H u t t h e C h i n r u l i n g h o u s e h a s b e e n i n d e c l i n e a n d no s o u n d o f v i r t u e h a s b e e n r a i s e d . I h a v e p a s s e d m o n t h s a n d y e a r s c r a n i n g my n e c k l o o k i n g t o t h e e a s t . When I w a s f a v o r e d t o r e c e i v e y o u r m i s s i v e my s i t u a t i o n w a s l i k e o n e i n a d a r k r o o m , w h a t w a s I t o d o ? 7 1 I k n o w I s h o u l d ( ? ) f o l l o w t h e d i s t a n t e x a m p l e o f C h ' u a n d H a n a n d p a y h o m a g e t o I — t i ^ y « 7 2 No p r i n c i p l e o f t h e C h ' u n C h ' i u ^ ^ i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h i s . " C h u n 7 3 t h o u g h t h i s w o r d s I m p o r t a n t a n d s e n t a s u c c e s s i o n o f e m i s s a r i e s t o c a l l t o h i m . P a c o m m a n d e r y s o u n d e d an a l a r m , r e p o r t i n g t h a t t h e r e was a n a r m y f r o m t h e e a s t . H s i u n g s a i d , "I h a v e o n o c c a s i o n b e e n c o n c e r n e d t h a t S h i h L e w o u l d ' o v e r s t e p t h e f e n c e * a n d i n v a d e a n d e n c r o a c h u p o n t h e K i n g o f L a n g - y e h ^ 5- ( C h i n Y u a n - t i ^ / u ^ ) a n d t h e t h o u g h t u n s e t t l e d me g r e a t l y . I n e v e r e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d b e a b l e t o r a i s e t r o o p s . I t m a k e s me h a p p y . " M a n y o f H s i u n g ' s r e f i n e d r e m a r k s w e r e o f t h i s n a t u r e . B e c a u s e t h e C e n t r a l P l a i n was l o s t t o d i s o r d e r H s i u n g r e p e a t e d l y s e n t e n v o y s t o h a v e a u d i e n c e a n d p r e s e n t t r i b u t e . ( h o p i n g t o ) d i v i d e t h e e m p i r e w i t h E m p e r o r Mu • 7 4 C h a n g C h u n c o n t r o l l e d t h e p r o v i n c e s o f C h ' i n a n d L i a n g • P r e v i o u s l y h e h a d s e n t F u Y i n g 'f \ t o r e q u e s t t h e 146 r i g h t to t r a n s i t Shu i n order to submit memorials to the c a p i t a l , which Hsiung d i d not permit* Now Chun sent the Attendant O f f i c i a l at Headquarters ( chih-chuna ts'ung—shih *lt.^ ) Chang Ch'un vj^to d e c l a r e a l l e g i a n c e to Shu, e n t r u s t i n g to him the task of o b t a i n i n g the r i g h t of t r a n s i t . Hsiung was d e l i g h t e d and s a i d to Ch'un , "Your r u l e r ' s h e r o i c r e p u t a t i o n Is known throughout the world. H i s l o c a t i o n i s s t r a t e g i c and h i s troops s t r o n g . Why does he not d e c l a r e h i m s e l f Emperor of one r e g i o n ? " 7 5 Ch'un r e p l i e d , "Because although my r u l e r ' s a n c e s t o r s g e n e r a t i o n a f t e r g e n e r a t i o n had l o y a l and m e r i t o r i o u s achievements, they were not abl e to wipe out the empire's d i s g r a c e nor save the masses from t h e i r i m p e r i l e d s t a t e , f o r t h i s reason my r u l e r f o r g e t s t c eat as the sun se t s and p i l l o w i n g h i s head on h i s halberd awaits the morning. Because the King of Lang-yeh was a b l e to r e s t o r e the dynasty east of the Yang-tze my r u l e r lends h i s support over a d i s t a n c e of ten thousand . l i • When he i s on the verge of completing the achievement of a Huan ^  or Wen]5^_ 7 6 how can you t a l k about h i s t a k i n g i t f o r h i m s e l f ? " With a m o r t i f i e d e x p r e s s i o n Hsiung s a i d , "My f a t h e r and grandfather were a l s o o f f i c i a l s of the Chin. In the past when I took refuge i n t h i s place with the people of the s i x commanderies I was pushed forward by my conf e d e r a t e s to be r u l e r and consequently we have the s i t u a t i o n as i t i s today. I f the King of Lang-yeh can r e s t o r e the Great Chin dynasty i n the Middle Kingdom I a l s o should lead my troops to h i s a i d . " Ch'un returned and submitted a memorial to the c a p i t a l which pleased the 147 E m p e r o r . 7 7 A t t h i s t i m e L i H s i a n g * d i e d . * [ T h i r d y e a r ( 3 2 8 ) . W i n t e r . L i H s i a n g * d i e d . He was p o s t h u m o u s l y humously awarded t h e rank o f M i n i s t e r o f S t a t e and was c a n o n i z e d K i n g H s i e n o f Han. L i Shou r e t u r n e d f o r t h e f u n e r a l . L i Wu was a p p o i n t e d G r e a t G e n e r a l of t h e N o r t h e r n E x p e d i t i o n a n d G o v e r n o r o f L i a n g p r o v i n c e t o r e p l a c e S hou. L i Fan was o r d e r e d t o f i l l t h e p o s i t i o n of G e n e r a l C o n t r o l l i n g t h e Army ( f u — c h u n c h j a n g - c h / n ) and r e p a i r t h e m i l i t a r y encampment a t C h i n - s h o u . • [ F i f t h y e a r (330 ).]*(HYKC 9/122.2—3) H i s s o n Shou was made G r e a t G e n e r a l and C o l o n e l o f t h e W e s t e r n B a r b a r i a n s and l e a d i n g t h e G e n e r a l of the S o u t h e r n E x p e d i t i o n ( c h e n a - n a n ) F e i H e i f 1, and t h e G e n e r a l o f t h e E a s t e r n E x p e d i t i o n J e n Shao he a t t a c k e d and r e d u c e d P a - t u n g » 7 8 T n e Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r Yang Ch* i e n r e t r e a t e d and f o r t i f i e d C h i e n - p * i n g « 7 9 Shou s e p a r a t e l y d i s p a t c h e d F e i H e i t o p l u n d e r C h i e n — p ' i n g and t h e C h i n O v e r s e e r o f t h e Army ( c h i e n - c h y j n i£ J|L ) Wu-ch'iu Ao r e t r e a t e d and o c c u p i e d I — t u . • [ S i x t h y e a r (331). S p r i n g . L i Shou r e t u r n e d . J e n Shao was d i s p a t c h e d t o encamp a t P a . * [ L i H s i u n g a p p o i n t e d h i s son Yueh G e n e r a l o f C h a r i o t s a n d C a v a l r y , s t a t i o n i n g him a t Kuang—han. •[Autumn. L i Shou marched cn Y i n — p ' i n g . 8 0 • [ W i n t e r . F o u - l i n g was f o r t i f l e d . ] • ( H Y K C 9/122.5-6) H s i u n g s e n t L i Shou t o a t t a c k C h u — t ' i t a k i n g F e i H e i and Ang P'an ^ 8 1 a s t h e v a n g u a r d . He a l s o s e n t t h e 148 G e n e r a l S t a b i l i z i n g t h e S o u t h ( c h e n - n a n c h i a n g - c h u n J^^ f^] * J e n Hui on an e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t Mu—luo i n o r d e r t o d i v i d e a i d and s u p p l i e s f r o m N i n g £p p r o v i n c e . • [ S e v e n t h y e a r ( 3 3 2 ) . Autumn. L i Shou l a u n c h e d an e x p e d i t i o n t o t h e s o u t h a g a i n s t N i n g p r o v i n c e . F e i H e i was named h i s M a r s h a l and t o g e t h e r w i t h Shao P ' a n 8 2 e t a l . f o r m e d th e v a n g u a r d . They e n t e r e d f r o m Nan—kuang* a t t h e same t i m e s e n d i n g J e n H u i * s son T ' l a o t o e n t e r from Y u e h — s u i . W i n t e r * t e n t h month. L i Shou and F e i H e i a r r i v e d a t C h u — t ' i . The G r a n d A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f C h u - t ' i Tung P i n g s e a l e d t h e c i t y . The G o v e r n o r o f N i n g p r o v i n c e Y i n F e n g d i s p a t c h e d t h e G r a n d A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f C h i e n — n i n g Huo P i a o !f|[ Jt^^ * t h e a r i s t o c r a t T s'uan S h e n ^ e t a l . t o a i d Tung P i n g . A t t h e t i m e L i Shou had a l r e a d y b e s i e g e d t h e c i t y and w i s h e d t o r e s i s t t h i s f o r c e . F e i H e i s a i d * " I e x p e c t t h a t w i t h i n t h e w a l l e d c i t y t h e y a r e s h o r t o f f o o d s t o r e s . A l t h o u g h Huo P i a o and company have a r r i v e d t h e y have n o t b r o u g h t much f o o d . You s h o u l d a l l o w them t o e n t e r t h e c i t y s o t h a t t h e y may a i d i n c o n s u m i n g t h e c i t y ' s g r a i n . I o n l y r e g r e t t h a t t h e y a r e so few. Why s h o u l d we r e s i s t them?" Huo P i a o a n d company a l l e n t e r e d the w a l l e d c i t y . But f o r a l o n g time the c i t y d i d n o t f a l l and L i Shou w i s h e d t o l a u n c h an a l l — o u t a s s a u l t on i t . F e i B e i r e m o n s t r a t e d * "The r o a d t o t h e s o u t h — c e n t r a l r e g i o n i s p e r i l o u s w h i l e t h e p e o p l e a r e f o n d o f r e b e l l i n g . We must w a i t u n t i l b o t h t h e i r s c h e m i n g and c o u r a g e a r e e x h a u s t e d . We need o n l y r e s t r a i n them f o r a p r o t r a c t e d p e r i o d and we w i l l g a i n a v i c t o r y w i t h o u r army i n t a c t t o s eek f o r more. 149 Why get upset over penned—up animals?" L i Shou could not be dissuaded from doing b a t t l e and i n the end he d i d not gain a v i c t o r y . Afterwards he e n t r u s t e d a l l m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s to F e i H e i . • [ E i g h t h year (333). Spring, f i r s t month. Tung Ping, Huo Piao et al« emerged and surrendered. Cur awe resounded through the t h i r t e e n commanderies.]•( HYKC 9/122.6-11) The Governor of Ning province Yin Feng p^" surrendered and L i Hsiung consequently possessed the s o u t h — c e n t r a l r e g i o n . • [ T h i r d month. Governor Y i n Feng surrendered the p r o v i n c e and presented tokens of h i s l o y a l t y . He was t r a n s f e r r e d to Shu. L i Shou was given c o n t r o l of Ning p r o v i n c e . When the southern barbarians had f i r s t been p a c i f i e d the members of h i s f o r c e were very s t r i c t l y d i s c i p l i n e d , but l a t e r they turned to o p p r e s s i n g and robbing the populace•]•(HYKC 9/122.11-12) Hsiung thereupon d e c l a r e d a g e n e r a l amnesty and sent L i Pan to a t t a c k and p a c i f y the I b a r b a r i a n s of Ning p r o v i n c e , a t the same time naming Pan ( G e n e r a l ) C o n t r o l l i n g the Army. •[Autumn. Men of the province of Chien—ning Mao Yen, Luo T'un et a l . r e b e l l e d , k i l l i n g the Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r Shao P'an. The Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Tsang-k'e Hsieh Shu d e c l a r e d h i s commandery f o r C h i n . L i Shou defeated him. • [ N i n t h year (334). S p r i n g . A p o r t i o n of Ning province was cut o f f to form Chiao p r o v i n c e . Huo Piao was made Governor of Ning province while Ts'uan Shen of Chien—ning was named Governor o f Chiao p r o v i n c e . • [ L i Shou was e n f e o f f e d King of Chien-ning.]•(HYKC 150 9 / 1 2 2 . 1 2 - 1 3 ) *£Third month. L i Shou returned.]#(HYKC 9 / 1 2 3 . 3 ) In the e i g h t h year of the Hsien—he r e i g n p e r i o d ( 3 3 4 ) 8 3 u l c e r s formed on L i Bsiung's head and he d i e d i n the s i x t h month. 8* At the time he was 61 s u i and had been on the throne f o r t h i r t y y e a r s . 8 5 He was given the c o u n t e r f e i t posthumous t i t l e of the M a r t i a l Emperor (Wu—ti ) and the temple name Grand Exemplar ( T a i - t s u n g Hsiung was by nature generous and s i n c e r e . He reduced punishments and s i m p l i f i e d the l e g a l code and a t t a i n e d to g r e a t renown. The T i l e a d e r s Fu Ch'eng and Wei Wen r e b e l l e d a f t e r having a l r e a d y surrendered and with t h e i r own hands wounded Hsiung's mother but when they came ( t o submit) Hsiung pardoned a l l t h e i r crimes and accorded them f a v o r a b l e treatment. For t h i s reason both Chinese and b a r b a r i a n were contented and h i s majesty overawed the western lands. At the time the whole world w i t h i n the seas was i n great d i s o r d e r and Shu alone was without t r o u b l e s , t h e r e f o r e people submitted to him one a f t e r the other. Hsiung e s t a b l i s h e d s c h o o l s on the commandery and p r e f e c t u r a l l e v e l s and appointed a h i s t o r i a n . In h i s moments of r e s p i t e from the hearing of audiences and the p e r u s a l of memorials he was never found without a book i n h i s hand. His taxes were three Jm of g r a i n per a d u l t male per year, with a d u l t females paying h a l f t h i s amount, while the household tax was no more than a few cfoang of s i l k and a few Ijang of c o t t o n . Wars were few, corvee l a b o r ) while h i s tomb was c a l l e d An—tu 151 i n f r e q u e n t and the common people prospered* The v i l l a g e gates were not c l o s e d and the people d i d not rob one a n o t h e r * 8 6 However Hsiung*s mind was f i x e d on e f f e c t i n g the submission of d i s t a n t lands and f o r t h i s s t a t e funds were i n s u f f i c i e n t t h e r e f o r e whenever the v a r i o u s commanders presented g o l d , s i l v e r or p r e c i o u s jewels they u s u a l l y r e c e i v e d an o f f i c e i n recompense* The C h a n c e l l o r Yang Pao remonstrated, s a y i n g , "Your Majesty i s the r u l e r of the empire and sh u l d embrace and c o n t r o l a l l w i t h i n the Four Seas* How i s i t that there i s the buying of gold with o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s ? " Hsiung excused himself with an evasive answer* Cn a l a t e r o c c a s i o n Hsiung got drunk, pushed the P r e f e c t of the Palace S e c r e t a r i a t ( chung—shu l i n g and ordered the P r e f e c t of the Grand P r o v i s i o n e r ( t ' a i — kuftn lj,na X\ 6 ^ ) f l o g g e d * Pao advanced and s a i d , "'The demeanor of the Son of Heaven should be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by majesty, that of the p r i n c e s by g r a v i t y * • How c o u l d there be a Son of Heaven who a c t s l i k e a drunkard!" Hsiung thereupon r e l e a s e d ( t h e P r e f e c t of the Grand P r o v i s i o n e r * Hsiung once went on a s m a l l o u t i n g f o r no reason* From h i s r e a r Yang Pao g a l l o p e d past him h o l d i n g a h a l b e r d * Hsiung thought t h i s strange and asked him about I t * He r e p l i e d , "To support a l l the weight of the empire i s l i k e my g a l l o p i n g an i l l - n a t u r e d horse h o l d i n g a h a l b e r d * I f one speeds him on then one f e a r s harming o n e s e l f , i f one a l l o w s him to go slowly one f e a r s h i s l o s i n g h i s way* I t i s f o r t h i s reason that when my horse g a l l o p e d I d i d not r e s t r a i n him*" Hsiung came to h i s senses and returned* Hsiung ran 152 h i s s t a t e without imposing r i t u a l and h i s o f f i c i a l s had no f i x e d emoluments* *[Many o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s came to be redundant * ]*(HYKC 9 / 1 2 1 . 4 ) Hank and s e n i o r i t y were not d i s c r i m i n a t e d and commoners and nobles d i d not d i f f e r i n t h e i r c l o t h i n g and i n s i g n i a * * [ B r i b e s were t r a n s m i t t e d openly and rewards and punishments were not admi n i s t e r e d c l e a r l y * ]*(HYKC 9 / 1 2 1 * 4 ) When h i s armies were on the march they made no use of commands and when using troops he d i d not d i v i d e them i n t o d i v i s i o n s or squads* I f i n b a t t l e ( h i s commanders) met with success they d i d not y i e l d to each other i n c l a i m i n g m e r i t , i f they met with d e f e a t they d i d not come to each other's rescue* In a t t a c k i n g a c i t y or redu c i n g a town they always put the capture of p r i s o n e r s and the t a k i n g of plunder f i r s t * These were the reasons f o r h i s f a i l u r e . 8 7 153 ______ LI Pan J i ' / i t s o b r i q u e t Shlh-wen f , *[ was L i Tang's f o u r t h son* He was adopted by L i Hsiung when young. ]*(HYJC 9 / 1 2 3 . 6 ) He was f i r s t appointed General Q u e l l i n g the South ( p'i^fi-nan chiang— chun ^ V^] .) and l a t e r e s t a b l i s h e d as He i r A p p a r e n t . 8 8 Humble, se I1—deprecatIng and open to sugg e s t i o n s , Pan was l o v i n g and and r e s p e c t f u l towards s c h o l a r s and wor t h i e s . From He Tien and L i Chao on Pan took a l l of them as tea c h e r s . He a l s o summoned the famous s c h o l a r Wang Chia ^ £f£. as w e l l as Tung Jung of Lung-hsi and Wen E'uei \ of T ' i e n - s h u i K *K to be among h i s r e t a i n e r s and f r i e n d s . He would o f t e n say to Tung Jung and the o t h e r s , "When I con s i d e r Eing Ching ~jfn of Chou's Hei r Apparent Chin T^ ? 8 9 or the H e i r Apparent o f the s t a t e of Wei (Ts'ao) P ' i ^ 9 0 or the H e i r Apparent of the s t a t e of Wu ^ , Sun Teng «.T> 9 1 , a l l of them s u r p a s s i n g l y e x c e l l e n t i n t h e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n and knowledge of l i t e r a t u r e , I never f a l l to f e e l ashamed. How l o f t y and e n l i g h t e n e d were the worthies of a n t i q u i t y whom none of p o s t e r i t y are a b l e to equal. *[He was proper i n manner and deportment and d i l i g e n t i n i n q u i r i n g from However he was give n to f r i v o l o u s a c t i o n s and h i s f a i l i n g was (an a d d i c t i o n t o ) hunting. ]*(HYKC 9 / 1 2 3 . 8 - 9 ) By nature k i n d to a l l , i n e v e r y t h i n g Pan adhered to the c o r r e c t path. At the time the v a r i o u s sons and b r o t h e r s of the L i f a m i l y were a l l fond o f extravagance and Pan o f t e n warned and rebuked them. Everytime the cou r t h e l d a g r e a t conference Hsiung would i n v a r i a b l y order Pan to p a r t i c i p a t e . It was Fan's 154 o p i n i o n t h a t , "In a n t i q u i t y i n bringing; land under c u l t i v a t i o n i t was d i v i d e d e q u a l l y and both r i c h and poor o b t a i n e d t h e i r proper p l a c e 9 2 whereas today the noble are occupying u n c u l t i v a t e d land on a grand s c a l e while the poor have no land to farm and the wealthy s e l l t h e i r excess produce* How c o u l d t h i s be the k i n g l y p r i n c i p l e of the gr e a t e q u a l i t y ? " Hsiung accepted t h i s c r i t i c i s m * When Hsiung was abed with i l l n e s s Pan waited upon him day and n i g h t * When young Hsiung had fought i n many b a t t l e s and had s u f f e r e d many wounds* Now as h i s i l l n e s s became severe the s c a r s a l l began suppurating and b u r s t i n g * Hsiung's sons Yueh and the others a l l thought t h i s d i s g u s t i n g and avoided him but Pan would suck the pus o f f , with no expre s s i o n of d i s t a s t e * Everytime he t a s t e d medicine ( f o r H s i u n g ) 9 3 he would be brought to t e a r s and he would not take o f f h i s o f f i c i a l robes and cap* Such was h i s f i l i a l p i e t y and s i n c e r i t y . When Hsiung d i e d Pan succeeded to the usurper's throne and d e l e g a t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the a f f a i r s of the Court S e c r e t a r i a t ( shana-shu V*\ ^ ) to him made L i Shou regent. Pan remained i n the palace observing the mourning r i t u a l w h i le the a f f a i r s of government were a l l e n t r u s t e d to Shou and the M i n i s t e r over the Masses He Ti e n , the P r e f e c t of the S e c r e t a r i a t Wang Huai 2- and o t h e r s . At the time L i Yueh was s t a t i o n e d i n Chiang-yang V> \ lp» Because Pan was not a d i r e c t descendant c f Hsiung Yueh thought i t most unjust ( t h a t Pan should succeed to the th r o n e ) . Now he retu r n e d f o r the observance of the mourning 155 r i t u a l and s e c r e t l y p l o t t e d with h i s younger b r o t h e r Ch'i about the matter* L i Wu "1^ exhorted Pan to send Yueh back to Chiang—yang and to appoint Ch'i Governor of Liang p r o v i n c e * s t a t i o n e d i n Chia-rteng. Because Hsiung had not yet been b u r l e d Pan c o u l d not b r i n g h i m s e l f to do t h i s * T r u s t i n g of o t h e r s and d w e l l i n g i n l i b e r a l i t y , h i s heart was without the s l i g h t e s t p e t t i n e s s * At the time there appeared two paths of white s t r u c t i v e energy which g i r d e d the heavens* The C h i e f Grand A s t r o l o g e r ( t ' a i — s h i h l i n g j ) Han Pao z[& tyy9* memorialized, "In the palace there i s the ether ( c h_!_i ^ ) of s e c r e t p l o t s and weapons* Beware of someone among your r e l a t i v e s * " Pan's eyes were not opened* In the n i n t h year of the Hsien—he r e i g n p e r i o d (334), when Pan was engaged in n i g h t — c r y i n g , Yueh k i l l e d him i n the palace where L i Bsiung's body was being h e l d i n s t a t e * •[Winter, tenth month, k u e i - h a i day (Dec. 5, 334). L i C h ' i and L i Yueh k i l l e d Pan at L i n - t z ' u . They a l s o k i l l e d Pan's e l d e r b r o t h e r , the ( G e n e r a l ? ) D i r e c t i n g the Army L i Tu. His younger b r o t h e r L i Wu f l e d to C h i n . Ch'i f a l s e l y canonized L i Pan the F r a c t i o u s H e i r Apparent ( L i T ' a i - t z u ) . L i Shou posthumously canonized him as the Sorrowful Emperor ( A i ^ H u a n g - t l ) . His sons Yu 1 ^ and Yung l | were k i l l e d by L i C h ' i . Pan and h i s b r o t h e r s , f i v e i n a l l , a l l met v i o l e n t deaths. Four of them l e f t no descendants. L i Wu under the Chin a d m i n i s t r a t i o n held c o n s e c u t i v e l y the posts of Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Fa, Hsiang—yang and I—tu commanderies and Dragon—soaring G e n e r a l . In the t h i r d year 156 of the Yung—he r e i g n p e r i o d (347) he d i e d i n b a t t l e at Shan—yang f o l l o w i n g the (Great General of the ) Western E x p e d i t i o n . J * ( HYKC 9 /123 .10-12) At the time he was f o r t y -seven SUA. and had been on the throne one year. Hsiung* s son Ch' i was chosen to i n h e r i t the throne from him. 157 L i C b ' i s o b r i q u e t S h i h - y u n i £ 'j^  , was t h e f o u r t h son o f L i H s i u n g * D i s c e r n i n g , wise and f o n d o f l e a r n i n g , by t h e time o f h i s c a p p i n g he was competent a t c o m p o s i t i o n * He d i d n o t esteem w e a l t h b u t was f o n d o f d i s t r i b u t i n g h i s b o u n t y and humbly s o l i c i t e d and a c c e p t e d a d v i c e * When C h ' i had f i r s t been named G e n e r a l E s t a b l i s h i n g M a j e s t y L i H s i u n g had o r d e r e d h i s v a r i o u s s o n s a s w e l l a s t h e o t h e r s o n s and y o u n g e r b r o t h e r s o f the i m p e r i a l h o u s e h o l d t o r e l y upon t h e i r p a s t b e n e f i c e n c e and s i n c e r i t y t o a s s e m b l e g r o u p s o f men* A t most t h e y were a b l e t o assemble a few h u n d r e d w h i l e C h ' i a l o n e r e a c h e d o v e r a t h o u s a n d men* #[He was made G e n e r a l P a c i f y i n g t h e E a s t . ]*(HYKC 9/123.13) Most of the p e o p l e he recommended by m e m o r i a l H s i u n g a c c e p t e d so t h a t many o f t h e s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c i a l s o f t h e v a r i o u s b u r e a u x had a d v a n c e d t h r o u g h h i s p a t r o n a g e . H a v i n g k i l l e d L i Pan, C h ' i w i s h e d t o e s t a b l i s h L i Yueh as r u l e r . However, b e c a u s e C h ' i was r a i s e d by the w i f e o f L i H s i u n g , Madame J e n and b e c a u s e o f h i s many t a l e n t s , Yueh y i e l d e d t h e t h r o n e t o him. He t h e r e u p o n u s u r p i n g l y assumed t h e p o s i t i o n o f Emperor a n d , p r o c l a i m i n g a g e n e r a l amnesty, he c h a n g e d the r e i g n — t i t l e t o Yu—heng 5* i ' ^ ( J a d e — l i k e c o n s t a n c y ) . He e x e c u t e d Pan's y o u n g e r b r o t h e r T u a n d s e n t L i Shou t o a t t a c k T u ' s you n g e r b r o t h e r Wu 2^ a t F o u . A b a n d o n i n g t h e c i t y , Wu s u r r e n d e r e d t o C h i n . 9 6 C h ' i e n f e o f f e d Shou as K i n g o f Han 2- and a p p o i n t e d him G o v e r n o r o f L i a n g p r o v i n c e , C o l o n e l o f t h e E a s t e r n C h ' i a n g and Army P r o t e c t o r o f t h e M i d d l e ( chung 158 '), a d m i n i s t e r i n g the a f f a i r s of the S e c r e t a r i a t * He e n f e o f f e d h i s e l d e r b r o t h e r Yueh as King of Chien—ning , a p p o i n t i n g him M i n i s t e r of S t a t e ( hs iang-kuo }Q] ) and Great General and a l s o e n t r u s t i n g him with the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the a f f a i r s of the S e c r e t a r i a t * He e s t a b l i s h e d h i s w i f e , Madame Yen , as Queen* * [ C h ' i * s e l d e r b r o t h e r L i Pa ^  was made Palace D i r e c t o r of the Army and Great General S t a b i l i z i n g the South* His younger b r o t h e r Pao was named Great General S t a b i l i z i n g the West, C o l o n e l of the Western B a r b a r i a n s and Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Min— shan while h i s e l d e r c o u s i n L i Shih"*" was made Great General o f the Ea s t e r n E x p e d i t i o n , r e p l a c i n g Yueh.]*(HYKC 9/124.1-2) He appointed h i s General of the Guard ( wei fab " chiapg—qhun ^3 J^ ) Yin Feng to the posts of C h a n c e l l o r of the Right ( yu ch'ena-hslang " ^ i ) and General of Doughty C a v a l r y and the P r e f e c t of the S e c r e t a r i a t Wang H u a i 9 7 to the post of M i n i s t e r over the Masses* *[Autumn. The ( C o l o n e l ? ) D i r e c t o r o f R e t a i n e r s Chlng Ch'ien ^ was named P r e f e c t of the S e c r e t a r i a t , the General of the Southern E x p e d i t i o n F e i Hei was named D i r e c t o r of R e t a i n e r s and LI Pan's unc l e Luo Yen was named Archer-in-waiting.]*(HYKC 9/124.3-4) C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t he had p e r s o n a l l y planned the 'great a f f a i r ' ( u s u r p a t i o n ) and had brought i t to f r u i t i o n , Ch* i s l i g h t e d a l l the former o f f i c i a l s . Outside the c o u r t he t r u s t e d and employed the P r e f e c t of the S e c r e t a r i a t Ching Ch'ien, the ( S q u i r e of the ) S e c r e t a r i a t Yao Hua and T'ien Pao IF ^  • Pao was l a c k i n g i n other t a l e n t s but during Hsiung's r e i g n he had 159 urged the establishment of Ch'i as H e i r Apparent and f o r t h i s reason he was favored most h i g h l y * Within the c o u r t he t r u s t e d the eunuch HSVJ Fou~^rf '/3f et a l . • The a f f a i r s of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the s t a t e were seldom again r e f e r r e d to the major o f f i c i a l s , both rewards and punishments being decided by a mere handful of people* Thus the g u i d i n g ropes of government became e n t a n g l e d . ' 8 *[ L i Pan's(?) uncle Luo Yen p l o t t e d with the M i n i s t e r ( hsjang ) to the King of Han (Shou), Shang-kuan Tan - t ft \%. of T ' l e n - s h u i , to take C h ' i by s u r p r i s e and enthrone Pan's son Yu* Word of the p l o t leaked out and Luo Yen and Shang-kuan Tan were k i l l e d * Pan's mother nee Luo, L i Han's son Yen^ijjj^ and L i Chih's wife nee Tsan were a l s o executed*]*(HYKC 9 / 1 2 4 . 4 - 5 ) The A r c h e r — i n - w a i t i n g of the S e c r e t a r i a t ( shane-shu c'u-veh ^%^k.%^\ ), the Euke of Wu-ling ^ L i T s a i was f a l s e l y accused of p l o t t i n g to r e b e l , i u p r i s o n e d and e x e c u t e d . " E a r l i e r the Chin General E s t a b l i s h i n g Majesty Ssu-ma Hsun ^ Jjfp/) had encamped at Han—chung. 1 0 0 Ch'i d i s p a t c h e d L i Shou to a t t a c k and reduce h i s p o s i t i o n . Consequently a s u p e r v i s i n g o f f i c i a l was appointed and Nan—cheng was g a r r isoned. LI Hslung's sons Pa and Pao both d i e d without d i s p l a y i n g any symptoms of i l l n e s s b e f o r e h a n d 1 0 1 and everyone s a i d that C h ' i poisoned them. At t h i s the great o f f i c i a l s a l l were s e c r e t l y f e a r f u l and the people were u n e a s y . 1 0 2 Heaven r a i n e d down a great f i s h i n the midst of the p a l a c e , yellow of c o l o r . F u r t h e r , a p i g and a dog mated i n the p a l a c e . 1 0 3 Many were they whom Ch'i executed, 160 c o n f i s c a t i n g t h e i r wives, daughters and possessions i n order to f i l l h i s i n n e r apartments* . Both w i t h i n and without the people were f i l l e d with f e a r and on the roads and highways they gave each other v e i l e d looks* Re menstrators were charged with crimes and the people were i n t e n t on a v o i d i n g m i s f o r t u n e by any expedient* Ch'i a l s o poisoned h i s General P a c i f y i n g the North L i Yu \ _ i i . 1 0 * Yu was L i Shou's adopted younger b r o t h e r * Thereupon Ch'i p l o t t e d with L i Yueh, Ching Ch'ien, T'ien Pao and Yao Hua to attack L i Shou et al« by s u r p r i s e , i n t e n d i n g to r e l y on the excuse of the burning of the Shih b r i d g e 1 0 5 to send out troops* Ch'i a l s o r e p e a t e d l y sent the Palace A t t e n d a n t - i n - o r d i n a r y ( chung ch'ana-shjh ) Hsu Fou to Shou's headquarters to spy on h i s a c t i v i t i e s . When Ch'i k i l l e d L i Yu, Shou was g r e a t l y alarmed and he was a l s o s u s p i c i o u s of Hsu Pou's frequent comings and goings. T h e r e f o r e at the head o_ ten thousand i n f a n t r y he marched from Fou on Ch'eng—tu, memorializing that Ching Ch'ien and T ' i e n Pao were throwing the government i n t o d i s o r d e r and sa y i n g that he (Shou) was r a i s i n g the 'troops of Chin-yang ^ ' 1 0 6 * n order to remove the e v i l at the side of the r u l e r . He made L i I + > ^ h i s vanguard. When Shou a r r i v e d at Ch'eng—tu Ch'i and Yueh had not a n t i c i p a t e d h i s coming and had made no p r e p a r a t i o n s b e f o r e h a n d . 1 0 7 Shou consequently took the walled c i t y and encamped h i s troops r i g h t up to the c i t y g a t e . 1 0 8 Ch'i d i s p a t c h e d a Palace Attendant ( shih-chuqa ^ ) to pay h i s r e s p e c t s to him. Shou memorialized t h a t the M i n i s t e r of S t a t e , King Yueh of 161 Chien—ning, the P r e f e c t o f the S e c r e t a r i a t , Duke of He—nan >n) if) £ Ching Ch'ien, the S e c r e t a r i e s T ' i e n Pao and Yao Hua, the Palace A t t e n d a n t — i n — o r d i n a r y Hsu Fou, the General of the Western E x p e d i t i o n L i Hsia and the General L i Hsi 3_ e_t a,l_* a l l , harboring t r e a c h e r y , d i s o r d e r i n g the government and pl a n n i n g to overt u r n the a l t a r s of s o i l and g r a i n , were g u i l t y of treason and that t h e i r crimes merited extermination* C h ' i accepted t h i s and thereupon k i l l e d Yueh, Ching Ch'ien and the others* C o u n t e r f e i t i n g a command from Madame Jen Shou deposed C h ' i , making him Duke of Ch 1 iung-tu p r e f e c t u r e and s e c l u d i n g him i n a s u b s i d i a r y palace* S i g h i n g , C h ' i s a i d , "That the r u l e r of the empire should be reduced to the duke of a small p r e f e c t u r e * It would be b e t t e r to d i e * " In the f o u r t h year of the Hsien-k'ang r e i g n p e r i o d ( 3 3 9 ) Ch'i hung h i m s e l f . 1 0 9 At the time he was twenty—five su j, of a g e 1 1 0 and had been on the throne f o r three y e a r s . 1 1 1 He was given the posthumous t i t l e Imprisoned Duke (Yu Kung t*]ii ^ )• When he was b u r i e d he was granted a phoenix c a r r i a g e with nine t a s s e l s 1 1 2 , e v e r y t h i n g e l s e f o l l o w i n g the e t i q u e t t e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a king* A l l of Hsiung's sons were k i l l e d by L i S h o u . 1 1 3 * [ F i f t h year ( 3 3 9 ) . C h ' i ' s wife and sons were t r a n s f e r r e d to Yueh—sui* L i Shih then sent a man to Yueh— s u i to execute h i s sons. ]*(HYKC 9/124.S) 1 6 2 LI Shou ^ ^ * s o b r i q u e t Wu-k'ao , was the son of L i Hsiang*. He was c l e v e r and fond of l e a r n i n g , broad i n h i s refinement and c a p a c i t y . When young he esteemed proper demeanor, i n t h i s way d i f f e r i n g from the other sons of the L i c l a n . L i Hsiung c o n s i d e r e d h i s t a l e n t remarkable and thought him capable o f b e a r i n g heavy r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . He appointed L i Shou General of the Van, g i v i n g him charge of the m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s o f P a — h s i , then promoted him to General of the Eas t e r n E x p e d i t i o n . At the time he was nineteen s u i of age and he r e c r u i t e d the r e c l u s e Ch*lao H s i u /b to be h i s r e t a i n e r so as to get the f u l l b e n e f i t of h i s c o u n s e l . Shou's majesty and gra c i o u s n e s s achieved reknown i n P a — h s i . When L i Hsiang* d i e d L i Shou was promoted to Great General, Great I n s p e c t o r — g e n e r a l and Palace Attendant, was e n f e o f f e d as Duke of Fu—feng and was delegated s u p e r v i s i o n of the a f f a i r s of the S e c r e t a r i a t . #[From the time when he r e p l a c e d h i s f a t h e r as commander h i s ambition was s e t on a c h i e v i n g m e r i t and fame. Therefore whether on an e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t the east or marching on the south he always achieved r e s u l t s . ]*(HYKC 9 / 1 2 4 . 9 ) On an e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t Ning p r o v i n c e , by a s s a u l t i n g and b e s i e g i n g f o r over a hundred days he completely p a c i f i e d the v a r i o u s commanderies. L i Hsiung was g r e a t l y pleased and e n f e o f f e d Shou as King of C h i e n - n i n g . 1 1 4 When L i Hsiung d i e d i t was h i s dying wish that L i Shou act as r e g e n t . 1 1 5 When L i Ch'i ascended the throne Shou's t i t l e vias changed to that of King of Han, he was granted the revenues of 163 ( t h e ? ) f i v e commanderies of Liang province f o r h i s sustenance and named Governor of Liang p r o v i n c e . 1 1 6 *[When L i Ch'i k i l l e d L i Fan, L i Shih o r i g i n a l l y wanted to a l l y h i m s e l f to Shou and p l o t together to c h a s t i z e C h ' i * Shou d i d not dare to do t h i s * L i Shih then a n g r i l y sought t o persuade L i Ch'i to s i e z e Shou* Ch'i f e a r e d L i Wu i n the n o r t h and wished to make use of L i Shou to c h a s t i z e him and t h e r e f o r e would not permit i t . Saving been e n f e o f f e d at Han Shou marched nor t h on Wu. Shou set out to Wu the b e n e f i t s of l e a v i n g and o f f e r e d him safe passage* L i Wu was thus a b l e to descend the Yangtze to the east to Wu ( i . e . Eastern C h i n ) from Pa. ]*(HYKC 9/124.10-11) L i Shou's awesome r e p u t a t i o n reached a f a r and L i Yueh, Ching Ch'ien et, a l . deeply feared him, which caused Shou gre a t worry. Be r e p l a c e d L i Wu i n occupying Fou. Whenever he was due to attend c o u r t he would announce that there were t h r e a t s of i n c u r s i o n s upon the borders and they c o u l d not be L e f t unguarded and thus he would avoid a t t e n d i n g c o u r t . 1 1 7 N o t i c i n g that L i C h ' i , L i Yueh and t h e i r b r o t h e r s , over ten men i n a l l , M e r e a l l j u s t at the peak of t h e i r manhood and t h a t , moreover, they a l l c o n t r o l l e d s t r o n g c o n t l g e n t s of troops, L i Shou fe a r e d f o r h i s own s a f e t y and r e p e a t e d l y c a l l e d upon and made r e s p e c t f u l Chuang d i d not respond to these o f f e r s of employment *[he f e a r e d he would be harmed and, l e f t with no c h o i c e , ]*(BYKC 9/124.13) he d i d pay s e v e r a l c a l l s on Shou. At the time Min-shan had c o l l a p s e d and the waters of the Yang—tze had o v e r t u r e s to of P a — h s i . Although Kung 164 d r i e d up. L i Shou c o n s i d e r e d these e v i l s i g n s 1 1 8 and would always ask Kung Chuang about methods whereby to secure h i s own s a f e t y . Because L i T'e had k i l l e d h i s f a t h e r and uncle Kung Chuang wished to make use ( o f Shou) i n order to revenge t h e i r death, but had not yet had an o p p o r t u n i t y . He t h e r e f o r e counseled L i Shou, s a y i n g , " I f Your E x c e l l e n c y i s able to d i s c a r d the small i n order to pursue the l a r g e , to tra d e s a f e t y f o r danger then you may found a s t a t e and cut o f f a t e r r i t o r y and have a long r u l e as a f e u d a l l o r d , your name w i l l be g r e a t e r than the Dukes Huan or Wen and your r e p u t a t i o n w i l l be t r a n s m i t t e d to a hundred g e n e r a t i o n s . " L i Shou accepted t h i s and s e c r e t l y j o i n e d with the Senior d e c l a r i n g a l l e g i a n c e to Chi n . * [ P r e s e n t l y Shou's adopted younger brother returned from Ch'eng—tu i l l and d i e d on the way. Shou then claimed that L i Yueh had poisoned him. In order to delude h i f o l l o w e r s he forged a l e t t e r from Jen T'iao saying that L i C h ' i and L i Yueh should depose Shou. They b e l i e v e d him. j>(HYKC 9/125.2-3) Shou then swore h i s f o l l o w e r s , m i l i t a r y and c i v i l , to an oath of a l l e g i a n c e *[ p r o m i s i n g to reward them with the s p o i l s w i t h i n the c i t y ( o f Ch'eng-tu)]*(HYKC 9/125.3-4), and, o b t a i n i n g s e v e r a l thousand men, f e l l upon Ch'eng—tu , c a p t u r i n g the c i t y . * [ H i s son L i Shih acted as h i s agent w i t h i n the c i t y and opened the gates. He thus captured L i Ch'i and L i Yueh and executed over ten of t h e i r r e l a t i v e s . j>( HYKC 9/125.4) He allowed h i s troops t o take p r i s o n e r s and plunder. They went A d m i n i s t r a t o r Luo of Lueh—yang and Bsieh Ssu— of Pa—hsi i n p l o t t i n g to occupy Ch'eng—tu and 165 so f a r as to v i o l a t e the daughter(s ) of LI Hsiung and the wives of the v a r i o u s members of the L i f a m i l y * The c a s u a l t i e s were many and the p l u n d e r i n g ceased only a f t e r s e v e r a l d a y s * 1 2 0 Luo Hens and Hsieh Ssu-mlnj together with L i I** Wang L i 5- i*\ et al« urged Shou to p r o c l a i m h i m s e l f General S t a b i l i z i n g the West, Pastor of I province and King of Ch'eng—tu, to acknowledge a l l e g i a n c e to Chin *[and name Kung Chuang Senior A d m i n i s t r a t o r so that he might p r o c l a i m i t to t h e i r u n d e r l i n g s * They a l s o urged that Shou order L i Ch'i sent to Chin*]*(HYKC 9/125.5-6) However, Jen T'iao together with the Marshal Ts' a i Hsing , the Palace Attendant L i Yen \ and Chang Lieh urged him to d e c l a r e h i s independence. LI Shou ordered that the matter be submitted to m i l f o i l d i v i n a t i o n and the d i v i n e r s a i d , "You may be Son of Heaven f o r a few y e a r s . " Jen T'iao s a i d h a p p i l y , "One day would be enough, how much more a few y e a r s . " Hsieh Ssu—ming s a i d , "How can being Son of Heaven f o r a few years compare with being a f e u d a l l o r d f o r a hundred g e n e r a t i o n s ? " Shou r e p l i e d , " ' I f a man i n the morning should hear the r i g h t way, he may d i e i n the evening without r e g r e t . ' 1 2 1 Marquis Jen's suggestion i s the best p l a n . " Consequently i n the f o u r t h year of the Hsien— k*ang r e i g n p e r i o d (038) he usurped the c o u n t e r f e i t throne, d e c l a r e d a g e n e r a l amnesty and changed the r e i g n — t i t l e to Han—hsing ( R i s e of the H a n ) . 1 2 2 He made Tung Chao h i s M i n i s t e r of State, Luo Heng and Ma Tang »-J yfj h i s r i g h t — hand men, L i I +» Jen T'iao and L i Hung instruments and 166 Hsieh Ssu—ming h i s c h i e f c o u n s e l l o r * Shou t r i e d to r e c r u i t Kung Chuang to be Grand Preceptor with a 'comfortable c a r r i a g e ' and a s h y of s i l k 1 2 3 , but Chuang p e r s i s t e n t l y r e f u s e d , so he was granted s p e c i a l permission to a t t e n d c o u r t i n a white s i l k cap and b e l t 1 2 * and was allowed to occupy the p o s i t i o n of a teacher or f r i e n d * S e l e c t i n g those who had been passed over or had come to dead ends i n t h e i r c a r e e r s , Shou placed them i n the f r o n t ranks ( o f o f f i c i a l d o m ) * He posthumously honored h i s f a t h e r L i Hsiang'*" as Emperor Hsien and h i s mother Madame Tsan ^ as Empress Dowager, e s t a b l i s h i n g h i s wife Madame Yen as Empress and h i s e l d e s t son Shih as Heir—apparent• *[Luo Heng was named P r e f e c t of the S e c r e t a r i a t , Hsieh Ssu—ming Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Kuang-han, Jen T'iao General S t a b i l i z i n g the North, Governor of Liang p r o v i n c e i n charge of northern a f f a i r s and C o l o n e l of the E a s t e r n Ch'iang, and L i I* was made General S t a b i l i z i n g the West and C o l o n e l of the Western Barbarians* The v a r i o u s commandery o f f i c i a l s and court o f f i c i a l s were a l l r e p l a c e d with h i s own r e t a i n e r s and a i d e s * Chiao province was a b o l i s h e d and Shou's nephew L i Ch'uan was made General S t a b i l i z i n g the South, C o l o n e l of the Southern Barbarians and Governor of Ning province* From t h i s time the v a r i o u s s c i o n s of the L i c l a n i n Ch'eng—tu no l o n g e r c o n t r o l l e d troops or power* The o l d o f f i c i a l s of L i Bsiung's time and men of the s i x commanderies were a l l c a s t a s i d e . ]*(HYKC 9 / 1 2 5 . 7 - 9 ) *[ Autumn, seventh month ( 3 3 8 ) ] * Someone i n d i c t e d the Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Kuang—han L i Ch'ien f o r p l o t t i n g 167 with the g r e a t o f f i c i a l s to depose Shou* Shou ordered h i s son Kuang and the great o f f i c i a l s to convene a conference i n the f r o n t audience h a l l *[and e s t a b l i s h a pact of brotherhood with them* L i Hung was promoted to G e n e r a l S t a b i l i z i n g the East and Governor of Ching province and t r a n s f e r r e d to g a r r i s o n Pa commandery. ]*(HYKC 9/125*9— 10) He t r a n s f e r r e d L i Ch'ien to become Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Han—chia* There was a g r e a t wind and a v i o l e n t storm and l i g h t n i n g s t r u c k the main gate to the palace* L i Shou reproached h i m s e l f s e v e r e l y and commanded the v a r i o u s o f f i c i a l s to exhaust t h e i r l o y a l counsels without f e a r or taboo• * [ E i g h t h month* The heavens poured down a continuous stream of r a i n , harming the crops* The common people s u f f e r e d from famine and p e s t i l e n c e * The M i n i s t e r Dwelling Among the People Kung Chuang submitted a s e a l e d memorial which read, "Your servant has heard that concealed v i r t u e w i l l c e r t a i n l y have i t s manifest reward* For t h i s reason when Yu Kung ^ judged h i s cases he r a i s e d the v i l l a g e gate to await e n f e o f m e n t • 1 2 5 In my humble o p i n i o n Emperor Hsien ( L i Hsiang*) was generous, benevolent and f u l l of grace and pardoned many o f f e n s e s * His numinous v i r t u e was v a s t and p e n e t r a t i n g and t h i s has been passed down to Your Majesty* Your Majesty i s i n n a t e l y l o y a l and earnest* When you r e c e i v e d the dying command to e r e c t your standard ( t o e s t a b l i s h v i r t u e ? ) 1 2 6 your I n t e n t i o n s were equal to those of Chou Po j^ J ^ and Huo Kuang ^ -jKj * 1 2 7 Your s i n c e r i t y p e netrated to the d i v i n e s p i r i t s * However, the hearts ( o f 168 L i C h ' 1 e t a l . ) were c o u n t e r t o r e a s o n and t h e y o v e r t u r n e d t h e b e q u e a t h e d i n s t r u c t i o n s . 1 2 8 ' K u a n * a n d ' T s ' a i * 1 2 9 h a v i n g a r i s e n , s l a n d e r e r s a n d f l a t t e r e r s m u l t i p l i e d . G r e a t p r i n c i p l e s s u p e r s e d e b l o o d t i e s . ( W i s h i n g t o ) r e c t i f y d i s o r d e r a n d b r i n g s a l v a t i o n i n t h i s t i m e o f d a n g e r y o u p o i n t e d t o t h e s t a r r y c h r o n o g r a m s a b o v e a n d made c l e a r d e c l a r a t i o n t o H e a v e n a n d E a r t h , t h e n e s t a b l i s h i n g a c o v e n a n t w i t h y o u r t r o o p s b y s m e a r i n g t h e b l o o d o f a s a c r i f i c i a l v i c t i m on y o u r l i p s 1 3 0 y o u d e c l a r e d t h e a l l e g i a n c e o f y o u r s t a t e t o C h i n . H e a v e n r e s p o n d e d ( w i t h f a v o r a b l e p o r t e n t s ) a n d t h e p e o p l e were d e l i g h t e d . A w h i t e f i s h j u m p e d i n t o y o u r b o a t 1 3 1 , b o o m i n g t h u n d e r s e r v e d t o i n c r e a s e y o u r m a j e s t y a n d a v i o l e n t w i n d a c c o r d e d w i t h t h e r i g h t e o u s c o u r s e . Y o u r d i v i n e s i n c e r i t y was h o n e s t a n d f o r t h r i g h t a n d more b r i l l i a n t t h a n t h e s u n a n d m o o n . H o w e v e r y o u r a d v i s o r s d i d n o t c o m p r e h e n d t h i s a n d c r e a t e d an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e e x i g e n c i e s of t h e moment . I n c e s s a n t r a i n s h a v e i n u n d a t e d o u r t e r r i t o r y f o r n e a r l y one h u n d r e d d a y s a n d t h e c r o p s h a v e b e e n h a r m e d . On t o p o f t h i s t h e r e i s f a m i n e a n d e p i d e m i c a n d t h e common p e o p l e a r e d e s p e r a t e l y h o p i n g f o r r e l i e f . P e r h a p s H e a v e n s e e k s i n t h i s way t o show a m i r r o r t o Y o u r M a j e s t y . M o r e o v e r t h e a c t i o n o f t h e p r e v i o u s d a y w i l l do no more t h a n a v e r t c a l a m i t y . 1 3 2 Y o u r M a j e s t y i n y o u r e a r n e s t n e s s o r i g i n a l l y had no a s p i r a t i o n s t o i m p e r i a l power b u t t h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n h a s c o n t i n u e d u n c h a n g e d f o r a l o n g t i m e a n d who w i t h i n t h e e m p i r e c a n s t i l l c l e a r l y d i s c e r n t h i s a n d know o f Y o u r M a j e s t y ' s o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n s ? M o r e o v e r 169 the p r o g n o s t i c a t i o n s of the Darkened P a l a c e 1 3 3 are d i f f i c u l t to know while you have i n f a c t gone c o n t r a r y to your sworn covenant* I f one morning there should he an emergency i n your t e r r i t o r y both those w i t h i n the c o u r t and without would a r i s e i n r i o t * You must think deeply on long range plans and make l a s t i n g p r o v i s i o n s f o r your descendants* I humbly maintain that you should accord with your former covenant and e s t a b l i s h t i e s with Wu—kuei (Chien—k'ang ) 1 3 * i n order to draw near to the Son of Heaven* He w i l l c e r t a i n l y honor and esteem you and enfeof you and your descendants f o r generations* Although you w i l l thus be demoted i n rank one grade, your numinous v i r t u e w i l l l i n g e r e t e r n a l l y , your a n c e s t r a l temple w i l l be maintained and you w i l l experience u n l i m i t e d p r o s p e r i t y * The r u l e r and m i n i s t e r above w i l l have t h e i r m e r i t s i n s c r i b e d while the common people below w i l l enjoy p e a c e f u l repose* While p e n e t r a t i n g the high p r i n c i p l e s of the empire and promoting the f a i r precepts of t r u t h f u l n e s s and c i r c u m s p e c t i o n , you stand before the Emperor with hands c l a s p e d low before you and chant poems and perform the r i t e s * Above you w i l l compete with the Wei jj_ c l a n of P* eng( —ch* eng ) f o r e x c e l l e n c e 1 3 5 while below you w i l l be r i v a l l i n g the v i r t u e of Duke Huan of C h ' i and Duke Wen of C h i n * 1 3 6 Would t h i s not be a u s p i c i o u s ? Some of your a d v i s e r s say that i f the people of the two p r o v i n c e s ( o f L i a n g and I) a l l y themselves to Chin they w i l l c e r t a i n l y be honored while the people of the s i x commanderies w i l l not f i n d i t advantageous* Of o l d when L i u Pei entered Shu the 170 people of the Ch'u r e g i o n were honored while i n the time of Kung—sun Shu the migrants were aided and g i v e n r e p o s e * 1 3 7 However when Han invaded Shu over h a l f the populace were c a s u a l t i e s and when Chung Hui and Teng A i ^\ )L campaigned a g a i n s t L i u P e i they r e l e a s e d t h e i r troops to plunder and at that time who s t i l l took any cognizance of whether a man was from Ch'u or Shu? Some of your a d v i s e r s do not understand the foundations of s a f e t y and s e c u r i t y and are j e a l o u s of t h e i r t i t l e s and p o s i t i o n s * The f e u d a l l o r d s of a n t i q u i t y had t h e i r own great o f f i c i a l s . M i n i s t e r over the Masses and M i n i s t e r of Works* The s t a t e s of Sung and Lu were both thus* As f o r the o u t l y i n g kingdoms of the Han, they a l s o had M i n i s t e r s of S t a t e * If you now l o y a l l y submit to Chin they w i l l only e x a l t and esteem you* How should i t be the case that they would d i m i n i s h you* Of o l d the reason why the Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r s and P r e f e c t s under L i u Pei served ( o n l y ) i n the p r o v i n c e s and commanderies was t h a t the s t a t e had p e r i s h e d and the r u l e r had been r e p l a c e d * If today you submit y o u r s e l f i n l o y a l t y (you) the r u l e r w i l l f l o u r i s h while your o f f i c i a l s w i l l r e l y upon you* How can you d i s c u s s these two prospects on the same day ? Some of your a d v i s e r s say that I should act as Fa Cheng JP_ d i d * 1 3 8 Your Majesty covers me l i k e Heaven and n o u r i s h e s me l i k e E a r t h , i n d u l g i n g me with those t h i n g s which g i v e me repose* As to fame and g l o r y , I would not e n t e r o f f i c i a l s e r v i c e , whether i t be i n the (Shu) Han or the Chin dynasty* Why should I i m i t a t e Fa Cheng? Some of your a d v i s e r s say that Chin w i l l c e r t a i n l y demand hostages 171 and when they summon troops to campaign a g a i n s t the n o r t h e r n b a r b a r i a n s how s h a l l we respond to them? In my o p i n i o n Chin i s not worried about a f o o t — l o n g sword ( I . e . an i n s i g n i f i c a n t f o r c e ) * When the whole s t a t e submits, Chin's majesty w i l l encompass the f o u r seas and i t s t e r r i t o r y w i l l be enlarged ten thousand I j • Why should they demand hostages? The b a r b a r i a n s i n the north are a l s o our problem* Now we c o n s t a n t l y have a t h r e a t to the n o r t h e a s t * Even i f Chin summons troo p s i t w i l l only be to r e i n f o r c e the Han r i v e r * T h i s w i l l s t i l l be two s i d e s l e s s than at present which w i l l be i n d a n g e r * 1 3 9 The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s p l a c e d upon your servant are extremely heavy* F o r g e t t i n g the d e f i l e m e n t s of my own exhaustion and i l l n e s s I am t r u l y g r a t e f u l f o r my f a v o r a b l e treatment* I hope t h a t my i n s i g n i f i c a n t words may serve to supplement i n some smal l way an i l l u s t r i o u s era* My constant f e a r i s that I s h a l l d i e without having expressed my f o o l i s h thoughts, thus c r i m i n a l l y t u r n i n g my back on the grace and c o n s i d e r a t i o n you have accorded me* R e v e r e n t l y I advance and k n e e l i n g request my punishment*" L i Shou was d i s p l e a s e d but was c o n s t r a i n e d by h i s former words and h i d h i s f e e l i n g s * • [ N i n t h month* The A r c h e r - i n - w a i t i n g Jen Yen L i Hslung's wif e ' s younger b r o t h e r , p l o t t e d r e b e l l i o n * He was executed and Hsiung's son L i P a o * ^ ^ a n d company were a l s o k i l l e d . i * 0 • [ F i f t h year ( 3 3 9 ) . S p r i n g , second month. A Chin commander a t t a c k e d Pa commandery, c a p t u r i n g L i Bung. Hung 172 was L i lung's son* O r i g i n a l l y L i Shou had promised to g i v e Hung a l l the t e r r i t o r y east o i N i u — p i 1 4 1 but those i n charge of the government objected and Shou d e s i s t e d * Shou d i d not i n c r e a s e h i s troop s t r e n g t h e i t h e r and i t was f o r t h i s reason that he was captured* L i Hung's younger b r o t h e r bore a grudge over t h i s , c a using a r i f t between him and the o f f i c i a l s of the c o u r t * At the time L i Shou was g r a v e l y i l l * Luo Heng and Hsieh Ssu—ming et a l . a g a i n urged him to submit to Chin* P r e s e n t l y Pa commandery f e l l and Shou thought that i f he a l l i e d himself to Chin now they would t h i n k i t due to t h e i r m i l i t a r y might* For t h i s reason he was unable to come to a d e c i s i o n and the plan was dropped* * [ T h i r d month* L i I* was appointed General S t a b i l i z i n g the E a s t , r e p l a c i n g L i Hung* Summer. The Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Chien-ning commandery, Meng Yen \SL , l e a d i n g the people of the p r o v i n c e bound the Governor of Ning province Huo Piao and sent him to Chin and surrendered the province to C h i n . The General of the Right, L i Wei-tu ,was d i s p a t c h e d to c h a s t i z e them* At the time L i Ch'uan was i n Y u e h - s u i * 1 4 2 *[Autumn. The S e c r e t a r y L i Shu %• of Kuang-han was a g a i n d i s p a t c h e d as Censor to enter the S o u t h - c e n t r a l r e g i o n . L i Shu's g r a n d f a t h e r I had p r e v i o u s l y been the Governor of Ning province f o r the Chin and he had o l d t i e s with many of the men of the south. I t was f o r t h i s reason that he was sent. L i Shu's e l d e r c o u s i n L i Yen submitted a memorial from Yueh—sui u r g i n g L i Shou to r e t u r n to l o y a l t y to the Chin, abandoning the t i t l e of Emperor and 173 p r o c l a i m i n g h i m s e l f King* Shcu was angered and had him k i l l e d . *[ The General of C h a r i o t s and C a v a l r y Wang I'ao i was made M i l i t a r y A d v i s o r . ]*(HYKC 9/125.11-127.5 ) Shou d i s p a t c h e d h i s C a v a l i e r A t t e n d a n t — i n - o r d i n a r y Wang Chia and the Palace A t t e n d a n t — i n — o r d i n a r y Wang Kuang ;t T^F to pay h i s r e s p e c t s to Shih C h i - l u n g * 1 4 3 C h l -lung had p r e v i o u s l y sent Shou a m i s s i v e wishing to be h i s a l l y i n i n i n v a d i n g and p l u n d e r i n g ( C h i n ) and promising to d i v i d e the empire with him. Shou was g r e a t l y pleased and proceeded to c o n s t r u c t s h i p s on a grand s c a l e . Troops were put on a l e r t and ordered to mend t h e i r armor while both o f f i c i a l s and i n f a n t r y r e a d i e d p r o v i s i o n s . The P r e f e c t of the S e c r e t a r i a t Ma Tang was named In s p e c t o r — g e n e r a l of the S i x Armies and C r e d e n t i a l and Halberd Holder. * [ S i x t h month of the t h i r d year of Han-hsing (340). L i Shou is s u e d a r e s c r i p t s a y i n g , " The remnant ashes of the Chien-k'ang have long escaped d i v i n e punishment . Now I i n t e n d to r a i s e a myriad to p e r s o n a l l y c a r r y out the heavenly judgement." Ni n t h month. ]*(TPYL 123/8a-b) A camp was e r e c t e d on the e a s t e r n march and a great i n s p e c t i o n held with an army of over seventy thousand men. His marine f o r c e s came up the Yang—tze K i v e r . As they passed Ch'eng-tu t h e i r drums and the clamour of t h e i r shouts f i l l e d the r i v e r and L i Shou mounted the c i t y w a l l i n order to observe them. His many o f f i c i a l s 1 * * a l l s a i d , "Our country i s small and our troops few, while Wu-kuei 1* 5 i s d i s t a n t and i n a c c e s s i b l e . It w i l l not be easy to p l a n to take i t . " Hsieh Ssu—ming a l s o 174 i n s i s t e n t l y remonstrated with the utmost s i n c e r i t y and Shou thereupon ordered h i s v a r i o u s o f f i c i a l s to d i s c o u r s e upon the advantages and disadvantages of t h i s course of a c t i o n * Kung Chuang remonstrated, "How can Your Majesty's a l l y i n g h i m s e l f with the northern b a r b a r i a n s compare with a l l y i n g h i m s e l f with Chin? The b a r b a r i a n s are a n a t i o n of wolves* A f t e r Chin has p e r i s h e d you w i l l not be ab l e to escape f a c i n g north and s e r v i n g them* If you contend with them f o r the empire then we are i n a d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n of r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h from them* In t h i s one can see the e s t a b l i s h e d precedent of the s t a t e s of Yu ^ and K u o ^ j l j 1 4 6 , a c l e a r warning from the past* a l r e a d y r e s o l v e d themselves* I ask that Your Majesty c o n s i d e r t h i s w e l l * " The v a r i o u s o f f i c i a l s a l l thought Kung Chuang's words c o r r e c t and p r o s t r a t e d themselves and t e a r f u l l y remonstrated • L i Shou thereupon d e s i s t e d and h i s troops a l l cheered and wished him a long l i f e * The Great General S t a b i l i z i n g the East L i I + was d i s p a t c h e d on an e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t Tsang—k'e. The Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r Hsieh Shu l^ f^ ^£ took refuge i n the walled c i t y and held him o f f f o r s e v e r a l days and he d i d not take the c i t y . 1 4 7 P r e s e n t l y L i I"*"'s p r o v i s i o n s were exhausted and he l e d h i s troops back* L i Shou granted h i s Heir—apparent command of the Great Generals and charge of the a f f a i r s of the S e c r e t a r i a t . 1 4 8 L i Shou was h e i r to L i Hsiung's l i b e r a l i t y and f r u g a l i t y . When he had newly usurped the throne he f o l l o w e d the course of L i Hsiung's governing and d i d not make 175 manifest h i s ambitions and d e s i r e s * Now L i Huns and wane Ch i a returned from Yeh l l ^ f u l l or p r a i s e s f o r Shih C h i -lung's awesome s t r e n g t h and the beauty of h i s p a l a c e s as w e l l as the prosperous and t h r i v i n g c o n d i t i o n of Yeh. L i Shou heard that Shih C h i - l u n g made c r u e l use of c o r p o r a l punishments while Wang H s u n 1 4 9 a l s o used k i l l i n g and punishments to c o n t r o l h i s u n d e r l i n g s and both were able to r u l e t h e i r s t a t e s * L i Shou admired and envied them and whenever someone committed a minor offence Shou would k i l l him without ceremony i n order to e s t a b l i s h h i s majesty. Because the suburbs and o u t l y i n g d i s t r i c t s o f the c a p i t a l were not f u l l and the c i t y i t s e l f was empty and there was a shortage of s k i l l e d craftsmen as w e l l as t o o l s and machines L i Shou moved households with three or more a d u l t s from the surrounding commanderies i n order to f i l l up Ch'eng—tu* He e r e c t e d an Imperial Armoury and an Imperial Storehouse, m o b i l i z i n g the s k i l l e d workmen of the province and commanderies to f i l l them* Be erected p a l a c e s and b u i l d i n g s and commanderies to f i l l them* He e r e c t e d p a l a c e s and b u i l d i n g s be as extravagant as p o s s i b l e * He a l s o enlarged the Grand Academy ( t'ai—hsueh ^ ^ ) and e r e c t e d a Banquet H a l l * l S 0 The peasantry was exhausted by the corvee l a b o r and t h e i r s i g h s f i l l e d the roads* Nine out of ten f a m i l i e s longed f o r d i s o r d e r * His A r c h e r — i n - w a i t i n g of the Right T s ' a i Hsing e a r n e s t l y remonstrated ( a g a i n s t these a c t i o n s ) but Shou thought i t was s l a n d e r and had him excuted* The A r c h e r - l n - w a l t l n g of the Right L i I + + had o f t e n f a l l e n a f o u l of the i m p e r i a l w i l l through s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d 176 comments and due to the accumulated anger of these encounters L i Shou accused him of some other crime, imprisoned and executed him* * [ S i x t h year (343)* The s i x commanderies Hsing—ku ^ § T ^ f Yung-ch'ang ^ S , Yun-nan ^ j| , C h u - t ' i , Yueh-su i , a n d He—yang V"j ^ 7^ were separated from Ning p r o v i n c e to become Han p r o v i n c e . ] * ( TPYL 123/8b) *CSummer, f o u r t h month ( o f 343)* The ( C h i n ) Governor of I p r o v i n c e Chou Fu 1^1 and the Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Hsi-yang Y?7 f %> Ts'ao Chu ^ "^fc a t t a c k e d L i Shou, d e f e a t i n g h i s g eneral L i Heng % 1_L at Chiang-yang. ]*(CS 7/1S5) When L i Shou's i l l n e s s became c r i t i c a l he o f t e n saw L i C h ' i and T s ' a l Hsing haunting him. E i g h t h year ( 3 4 2 ) . 1 5 1 L i Shou di e d * At the time he was f o r t y - f o u r sui 1 5 2 and had been on the throne f i v e ( s i x ) y e a r s . 1 5 3 He was f a l s e l y g i v e n the posthumous t i t l e Chao—wen T i an *j* ( I l l u s t r i o u s , c u l t u r e d Emperor) and the temple name Chung— tsung y^^^ (Middle Exemplar). B i s b u r i a l tomb was c a l l e d An—ch'ang Lin g * When L i Shou f i r s t was made King he was fond of l e a r n i n g and l o v e d s c h o l a r s , and was h i m s e l f c l o s e to the path of goodness* Everytime he would read of a good commander, a worthy m i n i s t e r or one who had m e r i t o r i o u s achievements he would always r e c i t e i t over and over to h i m s e l f * For t h i s reason he was able to a t t a c k and conquer i n a l l f o u r d i r e c t i o n s and expand the s t a t e a thousand JL_i • While L i Hsiung d i s p l a y e d h i s benevolent heart above, L i Shou a l s o exhausted s i n c e r i t y below and was c a l l e d a worthy .177 m i n i s t e r * When he assumed the i m p e r i a l throne he a l t e r e d the a n c e s t r a l temple, e s t a b l i s h i n g h i s f a t h e r B s i a n e + i n the Temple of the P r i m o r d i a l Ancestor of the Han (Ban Shih — t s u miao ) and L i T'e and L i Hsiung i n the Temple of Great Ch'eng (ta-^Ch'eng miao )• He a l s o sent down a m i s s i v e saying that he was af a d i f f e r e n t c l a n from L i Ch ' i and L i Yueh* A l l the i n s t i t u t i o n s of government were a l t e r e d * From the great m i n i s t e r s on down he mostly used h i s own subordinates and aides and the o l d o f f i c i a l s from the time o f L i Hsiung and the men of the s i x commanderies a l l were c a s h i e r e d * When L i Shou f i r s t f e l l i l l Hsieh Ssu-ming et al« again argued f o r r e c o g n i z i n g the r o y a l house ( o f Chin) but Shou d i d not comply* L i Yen submitted a m i s s i v e from Yueh—sui urging Shcu to r e t u r n to a l l e g i a n c e , abandoning the t i t l e of Emperor and p r o c l a i m i n g h i m s e l f King* L i Shou was angered and k i l l e d him i n order to f r i g h t e n Kung Chuang, Hsieh Ssu-ming et a l . 1 5 4 Kung Chuang wrote seven poems 1 5 5, a t t r i b u t i n g them to Ylng Ch'u ( 1 9 0 — 2 5 2 ) , i n order to rebuke L i Shou* Shou r e p l i e d , " P e r u s i n g these poems I know your i n t e n t i o n s * I f these poems are the work of a contemporary author they are the words of a worthy savant* If they are the work of an a n c i e n t author they are merely the common words of a dead ghost*" Shou always wished to emulate the a c t i o n s of Emperor Wu of the Han ( r . 140-S7 B.C.) and Emperor Ming of the Wei ( r . 227—239) and was embarrassed to hear of a f f a i r s of the time of h i s f a t h e r and c o u s i n s . Those submitting memorials were not p e r m i t t e d to speak of the government of 178 t h e p r e v i o u s g e n e r a t i o n b e c a u s e L i S h o u t h o u g h t h i m s e l f b e t t e r t h a n them* 179 _______ LI Shih* s o b r i q u e t Tzu-jen * was L i Shou's e l d e s t son* O r i g i n a l l y Shou's wife Madame Yen had no c h i l d r e n * When L i Hsiang"*" k i l l e d L i Feng he took Feng's daughter f o r L i Shou. She gave b i r t h to S h i h . L i Ch'i p r i z e d Shih's b e a r i n g and appearance and appointed him General A s s i s t i n g the Army ( y j i - c h u n chiang-chun Jsf- ) and h e i r apparent to the King of Han (Shou). Shih was seven f e e t nine inches i n h e i g h t 1 5 * and h i s waist measured f o u r t e e n spans. He was adept at adapting to the e x i g e n c i e s of the moment 1 5 7 and he impressed the people of h i s time. When L i Shou d i e d Shih i n h e r i t e d the c o u n t e r f e i t thrcne* p r o c l a i m i n g a general amnesty and changing the r e i g n — t i t l e to T'al—he (Great H a rmony). l s e He honored h i s mother Madame Yen as Empress Dowager and h i s wife Madame L i 1 5 9 as E m p r e s s . 1 6 0 The C h i e f Grand A s t r o l o g e r Han Hao memorialized that the D a z z l i n g Deluder (Mars) was 'guarding' the c o n s t e l l a t i o n H e a r t 1 6 1 and that t h i s was because the r i t u a l s of the a n c e s t r a l temple had been d i s c o n t i n u e d . L i Shih ordered the v a r i o u s o f f i c i a l s to debate t h i s matter. H i s M i n i s t e r o f State Tung Chiac and Palace Attendant Wang Chia were of the o p i n i o n that Emperors Ching ( L i T'e) and Wu ( L i Hsiung) had caused the e n t e r p r i s e to f l o u r i s h while Emperor Hsien ( L i Hsiang"*") and King Wen ( L I L i u ) had i n h e r i t e d t h e i r foundation* that the c l o s e s t r e l a t i v e s are never d i s t a n t and that they should not be a l i e n a t e d or estranged. Shih ordered that L i T'e and L i Hsiung should a g a i n be s a c r i f i c e d to and that they should both be s t y l e d 180 Kine of Han. L i Shih's younger b r o t h e r , the Great General King Kuang of Han, i n view of the f a c t that Shih had no sons, sought to be named I m p e r i a l B r o t h e r — h e i r but Shih would not permit i t . Ma Tang and Bsieh Ssu—ming, c o n s i d e r i n g that Shih's s i b l i n g s were not many and that i f he d i s c a r d e d one of them he would be even more i s o l a t e d and i m p e r i l e d , i n s i s t e n t l y urged him to permit i t . L i Shih suspected Ma Tang et a l . of p l o t t i n g with Kuang. He d i s p a t c h e d h i s Grand P r o t e c t o r L i I* to a t t a c k L i Kuang at Fou(—ch'eng) and ordered Tung Chiao to a r r e s t and behead Ma Tang and Hsieh S s u — m i n g 1 6 2 , e x t e r m i n a t i n g t h e i r f a m i l i e s to the t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n . L i Kuang was demoted to Marquis o f L i n — c h ' i u n g and committed s u i c i d e . Hsieh Ssu—ming was a s t r a t e g i s t and remonstrated f o r c e f u l l y . Ma Tang had won the hearts of the people. From t h i s time on there were no more men of p r i n c i p l e s or remonstrants. L i I + r a i s e d troops from Chin—shou and r e b e l l e d . 1 6 3 Many of the men of Shu f o l l o w e d him and h i s f o r c e reached s e v e r a l tens of thousands. L i Shih climbed the c i t y w a l l s and fought to r e p e l them. L i I + r i d i n g alone rushed the gate and one of the gatekeepers shot and k i l l e d him. His f o r c e then c o l l a p s e d and s c a t t e r e d . Having "executed" L i I + , Shih proclaimed a g e n e r a l amnesty and changed the r e i g n - t i t l e to C h i a - n i n g -jfe. JsP ( E x c e l l e n t T r a n q u i l i t y ) . O r i g i n a l l y there had been no L a o 1 6 4 tribesmen i n the Shu r e g i o n . Now they began to emerge from the mountains. As f a r n o r t h as Ch'ien—wei and Tzu—t'ung they were s c a t t e r e d 181 throughout the mountain v a l l e y s i n over a hundred thousand v i l l a g e s * They c o u l d not be c o n t r o l l e d and were a major source of t r o u b l e f o r the peasants* Since L i Shih was haughty and m i s e r l y and by nature loved wealth and beauty he would o f t e n k i l l a man i n order to s i e z e h i s wife* *[He a l s o took L i I + 's daughter to be Empress ]*(WS 96/2112.7) Wild and l a s c i v i o u s , he pa i d no heed to a f f a i r s of s t a t e * While the I—l a o b a r b a r i a n s r e b e l l e d and c r e a t e d d i s o r d e r h i s defenses were s c a t t e r e d and d e f i c i e n t , and the borders of the s t a t e shrank d a i l y * In a d d i t i o n there were poor h a r v e s t s * By nature f e a r f u l and j e a l o u s , L i Shih k i l l e d and maimed the great o f f i c e r s , making u n r e s t r a i n e d use of p u n i s h m e n t s * 1 6 5 Men were a l l f i l l e d with f e a r and t r e p i d a t i o n * He r e p u d i a t e d and dismi s s e d the m i n i s t e r s and a i d e s of h i s f a t h e r and a n c e s t o r s , drawing to him and employing i n f e r i o r men of h i s p e r s o n a l f o l l o w i n g . These v a r i o u s lackeys r e l i e d on t h i s to d i s p l a y t h e i r power and good f o r t u n e , * [ e r e c t i n g and d e c o r a t i n g r e s i d e n c e s * He p a i d no heed t o the remonstrances of h i s o f f i c i a l s * ]*(WS 96/2112*10) L i Shih a l s o c o n s t a n t l y remained i n the inner palace and seldom saw the o f f i c i a l s of s t a t e * The h i s t o r i a n r e p e a t e d l y set f o r t h the warning of calamitous p o r t e n t s * Shih then supplemented Tung Chiao with the t i t l e Grand f a c t hoping to make him share i n the the b a l e f u l i n f l u e n c e of the p o r t e n t s * P r e c e p t o r ) e x a l t i n g him i n name but i n The Grand Marshal ( l e d a marine f o r c e on a campaign ag a i n s t L i . S h i h * 1 6 6 Wen 182 bivouacked at C h ' i n g - i "% T^. 1* 7 L i Shih m o b i l i z e d a la r g e army to guard a g a i n s t a t t a c k and,also sent L i Fu and Tsan Chien -t with s e v e r a l thousand men from Shan—yang to He — s h u i i n order to hold o f f Huan Wen* I t was s a i d that Huan Wen would ascend by means of fo o t p a t h s s and the commanders a l l wanted to s e t an ambush south of the Yang—tze i n order to await the r o y a l troops* Tsan Chien d i s a g r e e d and l e d the armies to c r o s s from north of the Yang—tze towards Ch'ien— wei at Yuan—yang Bend Huan Wen emerged south of the Yang—tze from Shang—yang* Only when he had a r r i v e d at Ch'ien—wei d i d Tsan Chien d i s c o v e r that he was on a d i f f e r e n t route from Buan Wen* He then turned back and cr o s s e d to the north of the Yang—tze at Sha—t'ou Ford If 1 6 9 By the time Tsan Chien a r r i v e d Huan Wen had a l r e a d y reached Ch'eng—tu*s Shih L i Mo • Tsan*s f o r c e s s c a t t e r e d of i t s e l f * Beaching the c i t y w a l l s Huan Wen set f i r e s and burned the ga l e s to the l a r g e r c i t y * L i Shih's troops were t e r r i f i e d and none remained r e s o l u t e of w i l l ( t o r e s i s t ) * H i s Overseer of the Palace S e c r e t a r i a t ( chuna-shu c h i e n ^% ^gL i Wang Chia and C a v a l i e r Attendant-i n - o r d i n a r y Ch'ang Ch'u et a l . urged L i Shih to surrender • Shih asked the Palace Attendant Feng Fu about i t * Fu r e p l i e d , "Of o l d when Wu Han 5^. campaigned a g a i n s t Shu he completely exterminated the Kung—sun ^ c l a n . 1 7 0 Now Chin has i s s u e d a m i s s i v e s a y i n g that they w i l l not pardon the L i s . I f e a r that even though surrender there i s no way of a s s u r i n g your s a f e t y . " Shih thereupon went out through the ea s t e r n gate by night and f l e d with 183 Tsan Chien to C h i n — s h o u . 1 7 1 He then sent a l e t t e r of s u r r e n d e r to Huan Wen which read, "Seventeenth day of the t h i r d month of the second year of the c o u n t e r f e i t C hia—ning r e i g n — p e r i o d • L i Shih of Lueh—yang p r o s t r a t e s h i m s e l f , g u i l t y of a c a p i t a l crime. With a l l h u m i l i t y I address His E x c e l l e n c y , the Great General . My f o r e b e a r s were migrants, who, r e l y i n g upon n a t u r a l defenses and t a k i n g advantage of a dispute came i n t o i l l e g a l p ossession of Min and S h u . 1 7 2 In my benighted weakness I came to c o n t r o l the l a s t few threads of t h i s e n t e r p r i s e . S t e a l i n g a few seasons of peace I have not yet been able to change my p l a n . I have i m p e r t i n e n t l y t r o u b l e d your v e r i r l l l i o n c a r r i a g e 1 7 3 to brave p e r i l o u s d e f i l e s . My unreasoning and d o l t i s h s o l d i e r s have t r a n s g r e s s e d a g a i n s t the Heavenly Majesty. M o r t i f i e d and ashamed , my essence and s p i r i t d i s s o l v e and s c a t t e r . I would g l a d l y accept the e x e c u t i o n e r ' s blade i n order to c o n s e c r a t e the drums of your a m y . 1 7 * As f o r the Great Chin dynasty, the g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s of Heaven are vast and expansive and Chin's bounty extends to the f o u r seas while i t s c h a r i t y o u t s h i n e s the sun. In h a r r i e d c o n f u s i o n I cast myself i n t o the w i l d e r n e s s . That same day I a r r i v e d i n F a i — shui—ch* eng and r e s p e c t f u l l y sent my p e r s o n a l l y appointed C a v a l i e r A t t e n d a n t — i n — o r d i n a r y Wang Yu b e a r i n g a missive announcing my surrender and a l s o o r d e r i n g the p r o v i n c i a l and commandery o f f i c i a l s t o d i s c a r d t h e i r h a l berds and r e l e a s e t h e i r s t a f f s ( i . e . throw down t h e i r weapons). I am a f i s h i n a dried—up pond aw a i t i n g i t s imminent demise." P r e s e n t l y he appeared at the gate of Huan 184 Wen's encampment with h i s hands t i e d behind h i s back accompanied by a c a r r i a g e c a r r y i n g h i s c o f f i n . Huan Wen r e l e a s e d h i s bonds, burned h i s c o f f i n and t r a n s p o r t e d L i Shih together with h i s u n c l e L i Fu, h i s c o u s i n Ch'uan $K and over ten other r e l a t i v e s to Chien—k*ang. Shih was e n f e o f f e d Marquis who r e t u r n s to L o y a l t y ( k u j — i froy d i e d i n Chien—k'ang. He occupied the throne f i v e years b e f o r e h i s d e f e a t . 1 7 5 L i T'e f i r s t r a i s e d troops i n the f i r s t year of the T'ai—an r e i g n p e r i o d ( 3 0 2 ) and the s t a t e went through s i x g e n e r a t i o n s and f o r t y — s i x years b e f o r e p e r i s h i n g i n the ( 3 6 1 ) he t h i r d year of the r e i g n p e r i o d of Emperor Mu ( 3 4 7 ). 185 i t o e . _ f l i s * Q r i a . a l 5 Comments T h e H i s t o r i a n c o m m e n t s : I n a n t i q u i t y when t h e v i r t u e o f t h e C h o u d y n a s t y was j u s t c o m i n g i n t o p r o m i n e n c e K i n g T ' a i o f C h o u s u f f e r e d t h e h a r d s h i p s c o n n e c t e d w i t h c r o s s i n g L i a n g m o u n t a i n * 1 7 6 When t h e Han t h r o n e seemed e t e r n a l , E m p r e s s H s u a n m o b i l i z e d t r o o p s t o c r o s s t h e H u a n g R i v e r * 1 7 7 T h u s we know t h a t t h e r i f t w h i c h c a u s e d t h e J u n g ^ a n d T i b a r b a r i a n s t o d i s r u p t C h i n a h a s b e e n d e e p s i n c e a n c i e n t t i m e s * How much more so i s t h i s t r u e o f t h e m i x e d r a c e s o f Fa a n d P ' u T h e i r v a r i e t i e s a r e t r u l y n u m e r o u s * T h e y r e l y u p o n p l u n d e r a n d r o b b e r y p r o v i d e f o r t h e n e c e s s i t i e s o f t h e i r l i f e a n d t h r o u g h l o n g p r a c t i c e s a v a g e f i e r c e n e s s has become h a b i t * L i T ' e i n h e r i t e d v i c i o u s c u n n i n g f r o m e a r l i e r g e n e r a t i o n s a n d i n h i s y o u t h was b o l d i n v a l o r o u s e r r a n t r y * When he g a v e a g r e a t s i g h a t t h e C h i e n — k e g a t e h i s a m b i t i o n was t o s w a l l o w up a l l o f S z e c h w a n * 1 7 9 When C h i n ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e n e t l o s t i t s k n o t s 1 8 ° , t a k i n g a d v a n t a g e o f L u o S h a n e ' s i n d e c i s i o n he a n d h i s f o l l o w e r s g a l l o p e d t h e i r h o r s e s a n d d o n n e d q u i v e r s , w i t h one v o i c e t h e y g a t h e r e d l i k e c l o u d s * 1 8 1 T h e y s l a u g h t e r e d and m a s s a c r e d Shu a n d Ban— c h u n g a n d a t e g r a s s i n P a a n d L i a n g * 1 8 2 N o t h a l f a b e a n was l e f t i n t h e f e r t i l e f i e l d s a n d t h e a s h e s o f b r o k e n b o n e s c o v e r e d H u a — y a n g * 1 8 3 T r u l y i t was t h e r u l e r l o s i n g t h e Way t h a t b r o u g h t a b o u t t h i s d e g r a d a t i o n * C h u n g - c h u n ( L i H s i u n g ) was i n n a t e l y o u t s t a n d i n g a n d c u t a m a r t i a l f i g u r e * He was p r a i s e d f o r h i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y m a j e s t y * T h r o u g h many y e a r s o f c a r r y i n g a l a n c e he was a b l e 186 t o b r i n e t h e h e g e m o n i c e n t e r p r i s e t o f l o u r i s h i n g * He t r e a d u p o n L i u P e l ' s f o r m e r b a s e o f power a n d s u b s u m e d u n d e r h i s r u l e t h e f o r m e r t e r r i t o r y o f Kung—sun S h u * He t a x e d l i g h t l y a n d r e c t i f i e d d e c a d e n t c u s t o m s * He s i m p l i f i e d t h e l a w s a n d t h e r e b y d e l i g h t e d h i s new c o u n t r y * T h u s he h a d t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e s t a n d a r d s o f a g o o d r u l e r , b u t i n f a c t he was S u n C h ' u a n ' s 1 9 * i n f e r i o r * Now r a i s i n g o n e ' s ( n a t u r a l ) s o n t o be H e i r A p p a r e n t i s t h e t e a c h i n g common t o t h e s a g e s o f t h e p a s t a n d f o r h i m t o c o n t i n u e o n e ' s b o d y a n d r e c e i v e o n e ' s f o u n d a t i o n I s t h e g r e a t m o d e l w h i c h o u r p r e d e c e s s o r s h a v e c u l t i v a t e d * H o w e v e r , B s i u n g was i g n o r a n t o f t h e f a r — r e a c h i n g p l a n s o f r u n n i n g a c o u n t r y a n d o n l y m a i n t a i n e d t h e m i n o r v i r t u e s o f a common f e l l o w * He t r a n s m i t t e d t h e c o n t r o l o f h i s s t a t e to b i s a d o p t e d s o n a n d e n t r u s t e d s t r o n g t r o o p s to h i s own p o s t e r i t y * No one b o t h e r e d t o g a t h e r up h i s a b a n d o n e d b o n e s f o r t h e r i f t s w h i c h c a u s e d them ( h i s s u c c e s s o r s ) t o t a k e up arms were a l r e a d y d e e p * B e f o r e t h e s t a r s h a d made o n e J u p i t e r c y c l e ( t w e l v e y e a r s ) d i s o r d e r s o v e r t u r n i n g t h e ' n e s t * had a r r i v e d * A l t h o u g h some may s a y t h i s was t h e p a t h o f H e a v e n ( i . e . f a t e ) was i t n o t a l s o t h e p l a n s o f men? L I Pan i n c u r r e d d i s a s t e r t h r o u g h l i b e r a l i t y a n d l o v e w h i l e C h ' i h a s t e n e d h i s d i s a s t e r t h r o u g h c r u e l v i o l e n c e . T h e s e w e r e d i f f e r e n t p a t h s b u t e q u a l l y m i s t a k e n , d i f f e r e n t m e t h o d s b u t t h e same d e s t r u c t i o n . L i Wu—k'ao ( S h o u ) r e l i e d u p o n t h e i n h e r i t e d power o f h i s f a m i l y a n d e x h a u s t e d h i s t r o o p s i n s t e a l i n g t h e t h r o n e . H i s c r i m e s w e r e t h o s e o f C h o u T a i a h u n d r e d f o l d o v e r w h i l e h i s p o i s o n was 187 worse than that of Ch'u Wei %^ J_§J . * 8 5 H e w a s f o r t u n a t e indeed to be able to d i e a n a t u r a l death. L i Tzu—Jen ( S h i h ) c a r r i e d on where he l e f t o f f and was a successor to h i s benighted c r u e l t y . Leading the remaining ashes of the s t a t e he dared to oppose a great country. When he i s s u e d armor to make a dawn e x p e d i t i o n h i s reasons were the same as those of a cornered animal but when he cut the bar of the gate and f l e d i n the night then he was not l o y a l l i k e a b i r d t h a t approaches o n e . 1 8 6 B i s head should have been hung from the gate of the c a p i t a l i n order to make c a p i t a l punishments c l e a r but Instead he was honored l i k e L i u Ch'an had b e e n . 1 8 7 Was t h i s not indeed favored treatment! E U L C G Y : When the Chin loosened the r e i n s upon i t s f u t u r e b a l e f u l i n f l u e n c e a c c u m u l a t e d . 1 8 8 Heaven d i s p l a y e d an upside—down t u r t l e and dragons fought i n the f i e l d . 1 6 9 L i T'e took advantage of a q u a r r e l to s t e a l our Pa and Yung )% • The dynasty l a s t e d f o r f i v e g e n e r a t i o n s , n e a r l y f o u r c y c l e s (48 y e a r s ) . Usurping, k i l l i n g and ta k i n g over the country, the t r a c k s of t h e i r benighted i n s a n i t y f o l l o w e d each other. When v i r t u e i s not c u l t i v a t e d even s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n s cannot be r e l i e d upon. 188 CHAPTER 121 - NOTES 1 Approximately s i x f e e t seven inches* 2 Modern Shensi and Kansu provinces* 3 T h i s e n t i r e f i r s t paragraph, except f o r the comment concerning h i s "ardent s p i r i t * i s found i n the Shu L i Shu , quoted i n TPYL 398/6a. It i s a l s o p a r a l l e l e d i n SKCC, quoted i n TPYL 123/7a, where we do f i n d the 'ardent s p i r i t * comment* 4 Cf. CS 120/3027.3. 5 The proper reading of t h i s name i s u n c e r t a i n . HYKC 8/114.1 says, "He l e f t the Yamen Chang Luo l | to hold ( ch' i h ^ r j ) the c i t y . " and t h i s ch* i h i s very e a s i l y confused with • HYKC goes on to say that i n the c o n f u s i o n Shang l o s t h i s t a l l y and halberd of a u t h o r i t y and that Luo T'e p i c k e d them up from behind. Here the T'e may be excrescent, an i n t e r p o l a t i o n from the c h ' j h above (CS 121/3050, n . l quotes t h i s passage rea d i n g ch* i h )• However the Ch i n Shu e d i t o r s p o i n t out that Chang Luo i s mentioned s e v e r a l times a f t e r t h i s (HYKC 8/115.8; 116.3,6; 9/120.7,11), always as a Chin o f f i c i a l and are u n w i l l i n g to conclude that i t was d e f i n i t e l y Chang Luo who surrendered Ch'eng—tu to Hsiung* 6 HYKC 8/114.1 c o n t i n u e s , "Ey the end of the night when 189 L i Hsiung awoke, Shang had a l r e a d y l i e d f a r away*" 7 See above, note 5* 8 Ch'i was l o c a t e d south of modern S a n - t ' a i p r e f e c t u r e i n Szechwan* G.A. S t u a r t (1911), p. 29 i d e n t i f i e s t h i s ' w i l d t a r o ' as A l o c a s i a macrpfhlza • 9 The commentary to the Hoy Han Shu (23/800) quotes a work t i t l e d T i - l i c h i h - M - ? _ *L-^ which l i s t s these seven commanderies as Ts'ang—wu ^ 4^  t Y u - l l n ' s j j ^ " ^ - t He-p'u ^ , C h i a o - c h i h >C J-> » Chiu-chen ~)h ij| , Nan-hai ^ $ and J i h—nan 10 SKCC (TPYL 123/7a ) reads, "seeking the r e s o l u t i o n to l e a d and c u l t i v a t e ( t h e c h ' i ?)••" ( c h ' i u tao-vana c h i h  c h i h gfc -J^L ^ £ jif, )* The Chjj,n Shy reading seems b e t t e r . H s i -shan i s to be i d e n t i f i e d with the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned Ch'ing-ch'eng-shan. Chin Shu chlao-chu 121/2b says that t h i s name, l i t e r a l l y western Mountain, d e r i v e s from i t s l o c a t i o n to the west of Chiang-yuan. T h i s occurrence o r i g i n a l l y read 'Shan-hsi'. See CS 3050, n.3. 11 HYKC 9/120.1 g i v e s the name of t h i s r e i g n t i t l e as Ta—wu ^ L ^ s . • T h i s seems to be a mistake f o r the name of the s t a t e , Ta Ch'eng 7v. • The Chin Sfru records that Hsiung e s t a b l i s h e d the r e l g n - p e r l o d T'ai-wu iF^ i n 306 when he assumed the t i t l e Emperor, but the CS e d i t o r s emend t h i s to 190 Yen-p'ing ^ » and the Ta-wu of HYKC may be a l a t e emendation to the text based upon t h i s CS reading* See CS 1 2 1 / 3 0 3 6 . 8 , 3050 n. 4 ; TCTC 8 6 / 2 7 2 0 . 12 CS o r i g i n a l l y read W u ^ , avo i d i n g the T'ang taboo of the word h_y ^  . HYKC 9 / 1 1 9 . 1 2 reads Hu. 13 The ha / was a jade t a b l e t h e l d by m i n i s t e r s while i n attendance upon the r u l e r i n order to w r i t e down commands, e t c . 14 CS o r i g i n a l l y read T'ai-wu . See above, n . l l . 15 HYKC o r i g i n a l l y read Grand Preceptor of the Four Seasons, E i g h t P e r i o d s and Beaven and E a r t h ( s s u — s h i h pa — c h i e h t ' i e n 7 t * tlaJ,-j Lh,jh \?j7 / N £ j» ^ - H E . ^ 1*^  )• The f i r s t f o u r c h a r a c t e r s have dropped out or been e d i t e d out of the modern BYKC but they are preserved i n the Tzu-chih t'una- c h l e n k'ao-1 , TCTC 8 6 / 2 7 2 1 . BYKC 9 / 1 2 0 . 3 p l a c e s t h i s welcoming of Fan Ch'ang—sheng to Ch'eng-tu i n 3 0 4 , a f t e r Hsiung's assumption of the t i t l e King. WS 96 /2111 agrees with CS and TCTC. 16 WS 96 /2111 reads 'King of Hsi-shan'. 17 Reading i u n g f o r .hsjin f o l l o w i n g Ku Kuang-ch'i. 18 The f i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s are u s u a l l y given as the 191 r e l a t i o n s h i p s between f a t h e r and son, r u l e r and s u b j e c t , husband and w i f e , e l d e r and j u n i o r and that between f r i e n d s . See Mencius (H-Y Index ed. ) 20/3a/4. The nine types of s o i l r e f e r to the s o i l composition, d e s c r i b e d as hard dark—orange, s a l t y , d r i e d marsh, e t c . The Chou L i ( Shih—san c h i n g chu-su ed. ) 16/7a-b l i s t s these d i f f e r e n t types c f s o i l and the type o f n i g h t s o i I a p p r o p r i a t e to each. 19 A name has dropped out of the HYKC text at t h i s p o i n t . F u r t h e r , the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e head of a province should hold the p o s i t i o n of Governor, r a t h e r than the commandery l e v e l p o s i t i o n of Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r . 20 The b r o t h e r r e f e r r e d to i s probably L i Fu ^ , although Shou a l s o had an adopted younger b r o t h e r named L i Yu • Below we f i n d them i n the c o n t r o l of Ch'iao Teng (HYKC 9/120.9-10) and i t was probably he who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r I n i t i a l s i e z u r e . 21 Han—an was s i x t y l i . east of modern Chiang—an vX-QZ while P'o-tao i s modern I— p i n %. ^ , both i n Szechwan. T i -ming 1103.1 and 1080.3. 22 Heading sbJJ} "flUL f o r shu % f o l l o w i n g Ku Kuang-ch'i. 23 HYKC 8/114.7-8 records that L i L i , L i Huang, L i Yun and L i Feng were sent on t h i s mission, but makes no mention 192 of L i Kuo. TCTC 86/2728 g i v e s only L i L i , L i Huang and L i Yun. CS S7/1564 says that the c i t y i n which Teng Ti n g was besieged was Ch'eng—ku T^A. 1^] • t h i s c i t y was l o c a t e d e i g h t e e n JLi northwest of modern Ch* eng—ku -t^ In Shensi. Perhaps t h i s i s to be i d e n t i f i e d with the Tung^ch*en-shlh mentioned above, which I have been unable to l o c a t e . 24 T h i s expression i s based upon Tso Chuan 451/Ting 8/3, which Legge, p. 769 t r a n s l a t e s , " A l l behave l i k e v i s i t o r s . " The idea i s that because they are not defending t h e i r own home t e r r i t o r y t h e i r courage i s t r a n s i t o r y and not true courage. 25 An e a r l y c o l l a t o r of the HYKC notes that there seems to be a mistake i n t h i s name. 26 T h i r t e e n JL._i northwest of modern Ch'ang—an p r e f e c t u r e i n Shensi p r o v i n c e . Ti—ming 550.4. 27 Two j . _ east of modern Nar-cheng i n S h e n s i . I t was the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t e r of Han—chung commandery. T_i—j 60 0.2. 28 T h i s paragraph o r i g i n a l l y f o l l o w e d the f o l l o w i n g three paragraphs i n the HYEC. I have moved i t to t h i s p o s i t i o n f o r the sake of c o n t i n u i t y . Mien province was e s t a b l i s h e d i n Hupei under the Northern Chou. Ti-ming 401 .2. 193 29 CS 60/1638 records that Buang-fu Shane, a f t e r having been defeated by the f o r c e s of Chang Fang was sent i n c o g n i t o c a r r y i n g an i m p e r i a l r e s c r i p t i n the emperor's hand to the Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Chin—ch'eng, i n the course of which he was captured by King Yung of He—chien and put to death* CS 4/101 p l a c e s Shang's d e f e a t i n the n i n t h month of 303 so he must have d i e d i n l a t e 303 or e a r l y 304* 30 The v e r s i o n of events recorded i n HYKC 4/52-3 d i f f e r s c o n s i d e r a b l y from t h i s * The reason f o r the r e b e l l i o n of the a b o r i g i n e s i s s t a t e d to be the f a i l u r e to keep a promise of clemency f o r L i J u i f , who had taken refuge among them* F u r t h e r i t i s recorded that the c i t y d i d 4 not f a l l but that r a t h e r L i I's daughter Hsiu /-> was chosen to r e p l a c e her f a t h e r u n t i l her b r o t h e r Chao a r r i v e d . The o n l y mention of L i Hsiung i s to say that h i s r e v o l t prevented reinforcements from a r r i v i n g * HYKC pla c e s h i s death i n the t h i r d month of 306. Cf. CScc 121/46 31 HYKC 8/115.4 a l s o mentions Hung C h ' i ^ / ^ i r j of T ' i e n -s h u i . 32 T h i s t i t l e has dropped out of modern e d i t i o n s of HYKC. Here I f o l l o w the Ku Kuang-ch'i emendation. 33 North of Nan—ch'ung p r e f e c t u r e i n Szechwan. 194 Xl-ming 310.2. 34 HYKC 8/115.6 reads shj.fr %. f o r Shih, while 9/120.10 i s the same as our t e x t . 35 Ch'iao leng's l a t h e r L i Hsiung. A f t e r Ch'iao l i v e r . See HYKC 11/201.5-6, L i L i ' s death. had been k i l l e d by Ma "I' uo and Teng executed T'uo he ate h i s which p l a c e s t h i s event before 36 Or perhaps, "Chang Pao's younger b r o t h e r s were a l l ( ch'uan 3- ) i n the midst...". There i s no other known mention of a Chang Ch'uan. 37 HYKC 8/115.8-9 reads: "Autumn. Seventh month. Luo Shang passed on i n Pa commandery. Shang*s s o b r i q u e t was Ching—chih although one source says that h i s name was Chung and h i s s o b r i q u e t C h i n g — c h e n ^ • He was a man of Hsiang—yang and passed through the o f f i c e s Squire to the V i c e — a d m i n i s t r a t o r of the S e c r e t a r i a t and Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of the commanderies of Wu—ling and Ju—nan. He was t r a n s f e r r e d to L i a n g province and had assumed o f f i c e (when he d i e d ) . " 38 Ku Kuang—ch*i notes that t h i s name i s e x c r e s c e n t . I t i s P'i Su's s o b r i q u e t . 39 Yang—p'ing Pass was northwest of modern Mien 195 p r e f e c t u r e i n Shensi* Chiang >J_ Pass was east of modern Feng—chieh and i s today r e f e r r e d to as Ch'u-t'ang-ch'ueh HJ^J. P a i - s h u l •fcK. Pass was northwest of Chao-hua i n nort h e r n Szechwan* and was a l s o c a l l e d Kuan— t'ou fjf) £fj^ « i i . — mLaM 40.2, 957.2, 329.2, 347.3. 40 HYKC 9/120.10 says t h a t Bsiang* sent L i Shih l e a d i n g L i Feng to attack Wen S h i h . See below. Ch'iao Teng's biography (HYKC 11/201.13) p l a c e s h i s capture i n the t h i r d year of Yung—chia, i . e . 309. T h i s may be a t e x t u a l e r r o r as three and f i v e are e a s i l y confused i n Chinese. 41 Northwest of modern I—tu p r e f e c t u r e i n Hupei. T i — mi ne 457-1. 42 Chih was l o c a t e d west of modern F o u — l i n g p r e f e c t u r e i n Szechwan. Xirfflipg! 628.3. 43 From HYKC 12/241.7 we know that the three m i n i s t r i e s r e f e r r e d to here are those attached to the o f f i c e s of General of the Western E x p e d i t i o n , C o l o n e l of the Western B a r b a r i a n s and Governor of I p r o v i n c e . 44 Omitting ch.1 ang Vj) as excrescent f o l l o w i n g Ku Kuang-c h 1 i . 45 CS 57/1565 has a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n o f these events. The reason given f o r Yang Na n - t i " s b e t r a y a l of 196 Chang Kuang i s Chang's r e f u s a l to pay a b r i b e while Yang Hu presented many g i f t s and f u r t h e r persuaded Nan—ti that even more r i c h e s c o u l d be obtained by a t t a c k i n g Chang Kuang* A l s o , Chang's son's name i s given as Yuan and he i s s a i d to have been k i l l e d i n b a t t l e by a s t r a y arrow* Chang Kuang i s reported to have held out against a siege from summer to winter , a f t e r these events had occured, before dying* 46 R.A. S t e i n b e l i e v e s t h i s r e f l e c t s a T a o i s t custom* See the s e c t i o n on Taoism and Fan Ch'ang-sheng above* 47 Lun-vu 30/14/40, Legge v o l . 1 , p. 291. 48 Han F e j - t z u c h i - s h l h (Ch'en Ch'i-yu ed. ) 1/4 records that King Wu l e d 3000 troops c l o t h e d i n armor of white c l o t h ( o r covered with white c l o t h ? ) to a t t a c k King Chou of Shang. 49 See Tso Chuan 143/Hsi 33/3, which Legge, p.225 t r a n s l a t e s , "The Ch'iang Jung were c a l l e d i n t o the f i e l d on the spur of the moment. The marquis ( j o i n e d the army) wearing h i s son's garb of unhealed mourning, s t a i n e d with b l a c k , and a l s o h i s mourning s c a r f . " 50 Modern P'eng-shui p r e f e c t u r e i n Szechwan. Ti-mina 1105.1. 51 HYKC 9/121.1 reads shou Jen ^  'accepts (the 197 s u g g e s t i o n s ) of o t h e r s ' f o r 'loves o t h e r s ' * 52 TCTC 92/2915 records Yang Nan-ti's f l i g h t to Han-chung i n 323, and says that the cause of t h i s f l i g h t was N a n - t l ' s r e c e p t i o n of the news of Ch'en An's death a t the hands of L i u Yao* The c h r o n o l o g i c a l framework of the BYKC at t h i s p o i n t i s then somewhat confused* 53 Chin—shou i s another name f o r Chia—meng* I t was used under the Chin, both b e f o r e and a f t e r the Ch'eng-Ban r e b e l l i o n * 54 F o l l o w i n g the emendation of Ku Kuang—ch'i* 55 The chronology here has been confused i n both CS and HYKC* There were two e x p e d i t i o n s a g a i n s t Ning p r o v i n c e , one i n 319-20, the second i n 323* L i Chao was captured i n 320 and sent to Ch'eng—tu, but escaped and was renamed Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Yueh—sui* He and Wang T s a i £ were again defeated by L i Hsiang'*" i n 323 and surrendered b e f o r e Hsiang"*" went an to be defeated at T'ang-lang. HYKC 9/121 mentions only the e x p e d i t i o n of 320, and mistakenly p l a c e s the b a t t l e a t T'ang—lang i n the t h i r d month o f that year* CS here seems to r e f e r only to the second e x p e d i t i o n * See TCTC 92/2911, £S 6/195, CS 81/2110, HYKC 4/54.2-4. 56 CS 81/2110 reads Yao Ch'ung ^ , while HYKC 4/54.2-4 i s the same as our CS t e x t . 198 57 HYKC 9/121.9 and TCTC 92/2915 agree i n r e p o r t i n g t h a t L i Chih accepted a b r i b e In r e t u r n f o r t h i s . TCTC p l a c e s these events i n the l a t t e r h a l f of 323, whereas Sung  Shu 98/2403-4 mention i t under o21. Huang Fan—kuang, p. 186 says that HYKC 4 a l s o p l a c e s t h i s event i n 321 but to the be s t of my knowledge there i s no mention of Yang Kan - t i i n t h i s c h a p t e r . 58 HYKC 2/24.2 says that he attacked and routed the Ch'eng Grand A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Yin-p'ing Luo Yeni^L>S^ , who was L i Chih's maternal u n c l e . 59 HYKC 2/24.2-3 reads t j ^ f o r Han • HYKC9/121.10-11 g i v e s the graphic form which we f i n d i n our CS t e x t . I t a l s o mentions t h a t Han held the p o s i t i o n of Palace At tendant. 60 West of Ch'eng A p r e f e c t u r e In Kansu. T h i s p i e n i s more commonly w r i t t e n ^ . T l-mlng 50.4. Cf. TCTC 92/2916. 61 East of T i - t a o p r e f e c t u r e i n Kansu. Ti—mine 507.4. 62 HYKC 9/121.10 says that the dead numbered over a thousand. 63 HYKC records that L i Hsiung had Intended to turn 199 over h i s throne upon h i s death to L i Han* ( i b i d * ) 6 4 HYKC 9 / 1 2 1 . 1 2 says t h a t Hsiung had f i f t e e n sons by concubines* 6 5 Ch'en Shou c a s t i g a t e s Sun Ch'uan i n t h i s regard i n h i s Comment ( ELX.H&\^ ) to the f i r s t chapter o± the h i s t o r y of the Wu s t a t e , SKC 4 6 / 1 1 1 3 . 6 6 Duke Hsuan passed on the throne to h i s younger b r o t h e r He r a t h e r than h i s son, the H e i r Apparent Yu—i f^ , • T h i s He then gave the throne to Yu—i upon h i s own death* However He's son Feng -Jjj was sent to the s t a t e of Cheng and because of the r i v a l claims to the throne t h i s engendered a s e r i e s of wars between Sung and Cheng* These i n turn aroused d i s s e n s i o n w i t h i n the s t a t e of Sung, l e a d i n g to Sung Tu ( o r Hua Tu ^ )'s a s s a s s i n a t i o n of Yu-i and establishment of Feng as Duke Chuang* The S u p e r i o r Man r e f e r s to moral judgements appended to the Tso Chuan* Here the comment r e f e r r e d to i s found at 1 0 / Y l n 4 / 4 * See SC 3 8 / 1 6 2 2 - 3 , Tso Chuan 1 0 / Y i n 4 / 4 , 2 5 / H u a n 2 / 5 . 6 7 The baron of Wu Chu Fan " n ^ ^ had three younger b r o t h e r s of which the youngest was the most worthy. He passed h i s throne on to h i s younger b r o t h e r , i n t e n d i n g that i t should e v e n t u a l l y devolve upon t h i s youngest b r o t h e r , Cha However when the time came Cha r e f u s e d the throne and the son of the second b r o t h e r was enthroned, becoming 200 King L i a o ^ . Chu Fan's son Kuang thought that he should have r e c e i v e d the throne and h i r e d Chuan Chu to a s s a s s i n a t e King L i a o . SC 86/2516-8. 68 See above, note 67. 69 HYKC 9/122.1 records the appointment of L i Pan to the p o s i t i o n of H e i r Apparent under the winter of 322. 70 HYKC 9/122.13-123.3 records that Chang's e m i s s a r i e s were the Fu Ying and Chang Ch'un of the next paragraph and i n HYKC i t i s they who " c o n s i d e r (Hsiung's) words important" at the end of t h i s paragraph. 71 There i s a f r e q u e n t l y encountered s a y i n g , 'do not d i s g r a c e a dark room' ( by wu an—shin ) which means that one should not do anything Improper, even when there i s no one to observe the i m p r o p r i e t y . HYKC 9/123.2 reads, "My emotions a l l come to me d a r k l y . " ( ch'ine chun an c h i h "t^ l ^ity ^  ), where chiji seems f a i r l y c l e a r l y to be a mistake f o r our t e x t s shjh • 72 A f t e r the overthrow of the Ch'in dynasty Bsiang Yu who had proclaimed h i m s e l f King of Ch'u, and L i u Pang, who had been given the t i t l e King of Han j o i n e d i n r a i s i n g King Huai of Ch'u to the i m p e r i a l throne, with the t i t l e I - t i , or the Righteous Emperor. The next year t h i s emperor was k i l l e d by Hsiang Yu. He was i n f a c t never more than Yu's 201 puppet* T h i s seems a r a t h e r strange a l l u s i o n to make and one wonders i f i t does not imply a c e r t a i n amount of doubt c o n c e r n i n g the Chin emperor and h i s f u t u r e * See SC 7/315* 73 HYKC a t t r i b u t e s t h i s r e a c t i o n to the e m i s s a r i e s Chang Ch'un and Fu Ying* 74 The CS t e x t reads Chin Emperor Mu , who d i d not come to the throne u n t i l 345, over a decade a f t e r Hsiung*s death* The l i n e i s taken from Hei Shu 96/2111.4 where i t i s not Chin Emperor Mu but T'o-pa C h , l - l u who was posthumously canonized as Emperor Hu who i s mentioned. See CS 121/3050, n.6. 75 CS 86/2236.15 reads, "Why does he not d e c l a r e h i m s e l f Emperor and amuse hi m s e l f with one r e g i o n . " T h i s p o r t i o n of Chang Chun's biography g i v e s us a background f o r Ch'un's speech. A f t e r a r r i v i n g i n Ch'eng he suggested that Ch'eng a l l y with i t s e l f Chang Chun to a t t a c k the T i . T h i s angered Hsiung and he planned to have Chang Ch'un waylaid on the road but Chang found out about i t and confronted Hsiung* Hsiung then t r i e d tc persuade Ch'un to s t a y and e n t e r h i s s e r v i c e , but was u n s u c c e s s f u l * The speech i n our t e x t i s Hsiung's f i n a l address as Chang Ch'un l e a v e s * 76 Duke Huan of Ch'i and Duke Wen of Chin were two of the f i v e _E_a or Hegemons of the Spring and Autumn per i o d * They were viewed by l a t e r Chinese as a type of secondary 202 m o d e l * T h e y were n o t t h e s a g e s t h a t w o u l d r e c e i v e t h e M a n d a t e o f H e a v e n b u t t h e y u n i f i e d the e m p i r e b y f o r c e o f a r m s a n d h e l p e d t o s e c u r e t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e C h o u r o y a l h o u s e * I t i s s u c h a r o l e t h a t Chang C h ' u n c l a i m s h e r e t h a t C h a n g C h u n was f u l f i l l i n g * 77 T h i s p a r a g r a p h f i n d s no p a r a l l e l i n t h e HYKC b u t i s i n l a r g e p a r t I d e n t i c a l w i t h CS 86/2236-7. 78 Pa—tung commandery was a d m i n i s t e r e d n o r t h e a s t o f m o d e r n F e n g — c h i e h i n S z e c h w a n . T i — m i n g 148.4. HYKC 9/122.3-4 g i v e s a f u l l e r l i s t o f t h e t i t l e s c o n f e r r e d u p o n L i S h o u a t t h i s t i m e . I t i n c l u d e s I n s p e c t o r -g e n e r a l o f I n n e r a n d O u t e r M i l i t a r y ( A f f a i r s ) , M i d d l e Army P r o t e c t o r a n d a c t i n g h e a d o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t . 79 M o d e r n Mfu— s h a n j E , p r e f e c t u r e i n S z e c h w a n * Ti—m i n g 614.2. CS 7/177.10 l i s t s t h i s u n d e r t h e t e n t h month o f 330. 80 T C T C 94/2979 g o e s on t o r e c o r d t h a t Y a n g N a n - t l s u r r e n d e r e d to S h o u . 81 HYKC q u o t e d b e l o w r e a d s Shao f o r A n g ^ j l . 82 A l s o r e f e r r e d t o a s A n g P ' a n b y C S * S e e a b o v e . 83 HYKC 9/123.3-4 s a y s t h a t H s i u n g d i e d o n Aug 7, 334 w h i l e S K C C , q u o t e d i n TPYL 123/7b g i v e s A u g u s t 11, 334 a n d 203 CS 7/178 a g r e e s w i t h them i n p l a c i n g i t i n t h e s i x t h month o f 334. T h e d a t e h e r e i s i n e r r o r . S e e CS 121/3051, n.9. 84 H e r e . i i h \3 ( d a y ) seems to toe a m i s t a k e t o r y u e h ( m o n t h ) . S i n c e b o t h t h e HYKC a n d t h e SKCC d a t e g i v e n i n t h e p r e v i o u s n o t e a r e n e a r t h e end o f t h e s i x t h m o n t h , w h i l e SKCC i s c l e a r i n s t a t i n g t h a t H s i u n g f e l l i l l i n t h e f i f t h m o n t h , he must h a v e b e e n s i c k more t h a n s i x d a y s . 85 I n a c c o r d a n c e - w i t h o u r d e t e r m i n a t i o n t h a t H s i u n g * s d e a t h o c c u r r e d i n 334 t h e C h i n S h u e d i t o r s b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s f i g u r e s h o u l d b e emended t o t h i r t y — o n e . T h i s t a k e s t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e t i t l e o f G r e a t G e n e r a l i n 303 a s i t s s t a r t i n g p o i n t . T h e m o d e r n e d i t i o n o f t h e HYKC (9/123.3) r e a d s t h i r t y , h o w e v e r Ku Kuang—ch*1 b e l i e v e s t h a t L i C h ' i c h a n g e d t h e HYKC t e x t on t h e b a s i s o f t h e CS T s a i - c h i . 86 HYKC 9/121.3 r e a d s , " T h e v i l l a g e g a t e s were n o t c l o s e d a n d no one p i c k e d up l o s t a r t i c l e s o n t h e h i g h w a y s . T h e r e was no o n e who r o t t e d i n p r i s o n a n d p u n i s h m e n t s were n o t u s e d i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y . " 87 R . A . S t e i n h a s s o u g h t t o i n t e r p r e t some o f t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s a s r e f l e c t i n g T a o i s t i n f l u e n c e u p o n t h e C h ' e n g -Han s t a t e . See t h e s e c t i o n o n T a o i s m . 88 HYKC l i s t s t h i s e v e n t i n t h e w i n t e r o f 322, w h i l e T C T C r e c o r d s i t u n d e r 324. See BYKC 9/122.1, T C T C 93/2921. 204 89 Pan seems to have made a mistake here. T ' a i — t z u Chin was the B e i r Apparent to King L i n g of Chou* Sing Ching was Chin's younger b r o t h e r Kuei \ • Chin d i e d before coming to the throne* Ylng Shao's Fepa—su t ' u n a — i C T'una—chien ed* ) 2/12 records that Chin was a pr e c o c i o u s youth and at age f i f t e e n had a c o n v e r s a t i o n with Shih K'uang the music master* i n which Chin p r e d i c t e d h i s own death* I have found no passages connecting Chin to i m p e r i a l patronage of worthy l i t e r a t i , which seems to be the p o i n t of these a l l u s i o n s . See a l s o Ch' ien-ftt lur) ( SPPY ed.) 9/15b-16a. 90 T s ' a o P ' i , t h e l a t e r E m p e r o r Wen o f t h e C h i n d y n a s t y , was h i m s e l f f a m o u s a s an a u t h o r , a l t h o u g h o n l y f r a g m e n t s of h i s m o s t i m p o r t a n t w o r k , t h e T i e n l u n ijHj %yftj s u r v i v e . SKC 2/88 r e c o r d s t h a t he s p o n s o r e d t h e c o m p i l a t i o n o f an e n c y c l o p a e d i c — t y p e wor k c a l l e d t h e g u a n a l a n ^ TQ^ i n o v e r a t h o u s a n d c h a p t e r s . A l s o , one o f t h e few p o r t i o n s o f h i s T i e n l u n t o s u r v i v e i s a work o f l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , t h e L u n wen o r D i s c o u r s e u p o n L i t e r a t u r e • 91 S u n T e n g was t h e B e i r A p p a r e n t t o Sun C h ' u a n t h e f o u n d e r o f t h e T h r e e K i n g d o m s s t a t e o f Wu. T e n g d i e d i n 241 b e f o r e c o m i n g t o t h e t h r o n e . He h a d a r e p u t a t i o n f o r l e a r n i n g . See SKC 59/1363-66. 92 T h i s i s a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e w e l l — f i e l d s y s t e m o f l a n d a l l o c a t i o n w h i c h l a t e r C h i n e s e b e l i e v e d was f o l l o w e d d u r i n g 205 the Chou dynasty, under t h i s system a s e c t i o n of land i s d i v i d e d i n t o nine p l o t s , eight of which are farmed p r i v a t e l y while one i s worked communally* 93 C f . Lj, C _ i ( S h i h - s a n c h i n g s h u - s h u e d . ) 5 / 1 5 a , w h i c h L e g g e , L j C f t i , B o o k o f R i t e s , v . I , p . 114 t r a n s l a t e s , "When a r u l e r i s i l l , a n d h a s t o d r i n k m e d i c i n e , t h e m i n i s t e r f i r s t t a s t e s i t . T h e same I s t h e r u l e f o r a s o n a n d a n a i l i n g p a r e n t . " 94 HYKC 9/123.14 reads Han Yueh %'J . T h i s i s probably the r e s u l t of g r a p h i c c o n f u s i o n . 95 HYKC 9/123.12 says that Madame Jen adopted Ch'i because h i s mother, surnamed Jan , was of lowly b i r t h . 96 HYKC 9/124.5 records that h i s commanders Chlao Kuai 4i i?and Luo K ' a i $ j £ . ^ J ^ a l s o surrendered with h i i t . 97 The CS e d i t o r s punctuate so as to i n d i c a t e that P r e f e c t of the S e c r e t a r i a t was one of the o f f i c e s c o n f e r r e d upon Y i n Feng, however as we see from the HYKC qu o t a t i o n below t h i s o f f i c e was g i v e n to Ching Ch'ien, t h e r e f o r e here i t must be the former o f f i c e of Wang Huai. C f . CS 121/3041.11. 98 HYKC 9/124.6 reads, "He spurned and ignored the high o f f i c i a l s of h i s f a t h e r ' s time. The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f 206 j u s t i c e f e l l i n t o d i s o r d e r * 99 HYKC 9/124.5 pl a c e s the execution of L i T s a i i n 336, a f t e r Luo Yen's r e b e l l i o n * 100 CS 7/180.12 records the d i s p a t c h i n g of Ssu-ma Hsun to Han—chung in the e l e v e n t h month of 336. 101 HYKC 9/124.4 says they both d i e d of sudden i l l n e s s e s . 102 HYKC ( i b i d . ) reads, "The great o f f i c i a l s began to have doubts about t h e i r continued s a f e t y while r e l a t i v e s became estranged." 103 C f . HYKC 9/128.3 where i t i s a l s o reported that t r e e s flowered i n the winter. 104 Four l_i. west of modern Ch'eng-tu. TjL—mina 206.3. 105 HYKC 9/124.7 records that Yueh advocated the d i s t r i b u t i o n of l a r g e s s i n order to r e c r u i t an army to appose Shou, but C h ' i r e f u s e d because he was sure Shou held no danger f o r him p e r s o n a l l y . 106 Kyna-vana chuan (H-Y Index ed.) 460/Ting 13/7 records that Lord Shang Yang r a i s e d troops from the C h i n -yang (T*ai—yuan ) r e g i o n i n order to e l i m i n a t e the i n f l u e n c e 207 o f Hsun Y i n ^ f [ a n d S h i h C h i - s h e - ± Ij^ J u p o n t h e Wei r u l e r . I t was l a t e r o f t e n u s e d as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r what were i n f a c t r e b e l l i o n s . 107 C S c c a t t h i s p o i n t q u o t e s a c o l l a t o r o f t h e C h i n S h u who r e m a r k s t h a t HYKC d o e s n o t e x p l i c i t l y s u p p o r t t h e c l a i m t h a t L i C h ' i p o i s o n e d L i Y u . He f e e l s t h a t S h o u o n l y made t h i s c l a i m a s an e x c u s e t o a t t a c k C h ' i . See C S c c 121/13b. 108 The J a p a n e s e T o k u g a w a e d i t i o n o f t h e C h i n S h u (121/9b) r e a d s * " • • . e n c a m p e d h i s t r o o p s a t t h e p a l a c e g a t e s . " 109 WS 96/2111.7-8 a g r e e s w i t h CS i n s t a t i n g t h a t C h ' i k i l l e d h i m s e l f , h o w e v e r HYKC 9/124.7-8.11 a n d CS 7/181.4 s a y t h a t S h o u k i l l e d h i m . HYKC a l s o p l a c e s C h ' i ' s d e a t h i n t h e f i f t h month o f 338 w h i l e CS 7 p l a c e s i t i n t h e f o u r t h m o n t h o f t h e same y e a r . 110 HYKC 9/124.8 g i v e s t w e n t y - f o u r . I l l T h i s s h o u l d r e a d f i v e y e a r s . C h ' i r u l e d f r o m 333 t o 33 8. 112 L i Chj . 38/15b s a y s t h a t n i n e t a s s e l s were a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e f l a g o f t h e S o n o f H e a v e n . 208 113 HYKC 9/124.8 says that over ten o i C h ' i ' s b r o t h e r s were k i l l e d by Shou. 114 WS 96/2111.10 says that t h i s kingdom c o n s i s t e d of twelve commanderies of the Nan—chung r e g i o n . 115 HYKC 9/124.9-10 records that when L i Hsiung f e l l i l l Shou waited i n attendance upon him and that Hsiung delegated h i s power of command to Shou. 116 SKCC adds that h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t e r was In Fou . 117 HYKC 9/123.12 r e f e r s to these r e q u i r e d c o u r t appearances as ch* ao—chih j£-IL » which designate the ceremonial v i s i t s of a v a s s a l upon h i s l o r d i n the s p r i n g and autumn r e s p e c t i v e l y . See Chou L i 18/12a-b. 118 HYKC 9/124.14 says that Shou c o n s i d e r e d these to be e v i l s i g n s because of the words of L i u Hsiang /j^ 'J f*] • I have been unable to d i s c o v e r what words of L i u Hsiang t h i s r e f e r s t o . 119 The Po-na e d i t i o n of the Chin Shu * 121/6a. reads Luo H u a n ^ l - . as does the Tokugawa e d i t i o n ? 121/10a. HYKC reads Heng. See CS 121/3052? n.14. 120 HYKC 9/125.5 i n s e r t s before the l a s t phrase of t h i s 209 sentence the passage, "•••many were s i a i n and maimed...". SKCC a l s o p a r a l l e l s the l a s t s e c t i o n of t h i s paragraph and i s c l o s e r to CS than the HYKC i s . TPYL 123/8a. 121 A q u o t a t i o n from the A n a l e c t s , Lun Yu 6/4/8, Legge, p.168. 122 At t h i s p o i n t he a l s o changed the name of the s t a t e to Han. See wS 96/2111.11. 123 L i Chi l/15a s t a t e s that when a Great O f f i c i a l has reached the age of seventy he should he summoned with a •comfortable c a r r i a g e * ( an-cfru )• I L l 22/12a says that a Great O f f i c i a l should be summoned with a shu of s i l k . A s?hy was f i v e l i a n g ^ . 124 These were t r a d i t i o n a l mourning c l o t h e s . See L i Chi 29/17a. In CS 94/2442 we read that a f t e r Kung*s f a t h e r and u n c l e ( s ) were k i l l e d by L i T*e he d i d not g i v e up mourning f o r years a f t e r w a r d . Here he oust s t i l l be o b s e r v i n g t h i s mourning a f t e r more than three decades. 125 Yu Kung was a l o c a l j u d i c i a l o f f i c i a l under the Ban who i s s a i d to have always r e s o l v e d h i s cases f a i r l y and to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of those concerned. Once when the gate to h i s v i l l a g e f e l l down he had i t r e b u i l t high enough to a l l o w an o f f i c i a l ' s c a r r i a g e to pass through because he was sure that the 'concealed v i r t u e ' which he had accrued 210 through years of f a i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n would cne day be r e p a i d through the enfeoffment of one of h i s sons. In the end h i s f a m i l y held the p o s i t i o n of Marquis f o r g e n e r a t i o n s . See Han Shu 71/3041, 3046. 126 It i s u n c e r t a i n whether the c h i e h of t h i s e x p r e s s i o n , c h i e n - c h l e h jj? -^ "j) i s to be taken to r e f e r to a t a l l y of a u t h o r i t y or a standard of v i r t u e . 127 Chou Po and Huo Kuang were o f f i c i a l s who acted more or l e s s as regents and assured the s t a b i l i t y of the dynasty a f t e r the deaths of Han Kao—tsu and Emperor Wu r e s p e c t i v e l y . See HS 40/3051-62 and 68/2931-58. 128 T h i s must r e f e r to L i Ch 1!, Yueh and c o h o r t s . 129 These are the b r o t h e r s of the Duke of Chou who r e v o l t e d d u r i n g h i s regency. See Shy Chins 17/la—4b. Legge, v. I l l , p.487. 130 T h i s was the t r a d i t i o n a l way of s e a l i n g an oath. C f . Tso Chuan 16/Yin 7/1. 131 Shih Chi 4/120 records that when King Wu of Chou was c r o s s i n g the Yellow River a white f i s h jumped i n t o h i s boat. T h i s was thought.to portend h i s eventual d e f e a t of Shang. The a l l u s i o n s f o l l o w i n g t h i s no doubt a l s o have some s o r t of h i s t o r i c a l r e f e r e n c e but they are too vague to 211 l o c a t e • 132 The Intended r e f e r e n c e c f t h i s remark i s u n c e r t a i n . 133 Morohashi 20814*78 quotes a commentary to Chuang—  tz u < H-Y Index ed. ) 16/6/33 where the Darkened P a v i l i o n i s ex p l a i n e d as a place where the r u l e r should q u i e t l y contemplate the way. I have been unable t o l o c a t e t h i s commentary i n any modern e d i t i o n of the Chuang—tzu. The hsuan i s the c o l o r a s s o c i a t e d with the northand t h i s palace i s s a i d to have been l o c a t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n of the c a p i t a l . 134 Chien—k'ang was the seat of government of the Ea s t e r n Chin regime. The name wu—kuei d e r i v e s from Wu p r e f e c t u r e and K u e i — c h i commandery. The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t e r of K u e i — c h i was i n Wu commandery and i t was common to r e f e r to the re g i o n by t h i s compound name. See Ti-mina 372.4. 135 T h i s was a f a m i l y that h e l d the p o s i t i o n of C h a n c e l l o r f o r ge n e r a t i o n s . See Shih Chi 96. 136 See above, n. 76. 137 L i u Pel founded the Three Kingdoas e r a s t a t e of Shu Han i n Szechwan. Kung-sun Shu e s t a b l i s h e d himself independently i n Szechwan a f t e r the f a l l of Wang Wang and 212 b e f o r e t h e r e u n i f i c a t i o n o f C h i n a u n d e r t h e L a t t e r H a n * 138 F a C h e n g p e r s u a d e d t h e G o v e r n o r o f I p r o v i n c e L i u C h a n g i^ t o g i v e h i s s u p p o r t t o L i u P e i . See SKC 3 7 / 9 5 7 . 139 P r e s u m a b l y t h i s r e f e r s t o t h e t h r e a t f r o m C h i n t r o o p s t o t h e e a s t a n d s o u t h . 140 T C T C 9 6 / 3 0 2 4 r e c o r d s t h a t a t t h i s t i m e a l l t h e r e m a i n i n g s o n s o f L i H s i u n g were k i l l e d . 141 West o f m o d e r n C h i e n - y a n g f j / j p r e f e c t u r e i n S z e c h w a n . T i ^ m i n e 1 7 0 . 4 . 142 CS 7/181 p l a c e s t h i s e v e n t i n t h e t h i r d month o f 3 3 9 , a n d p l a c e s L i H u n g ' s c a p t u r e i n t h e f o u r t h m o n t h . I t a l s o r e f e r s t o L i Hung a s " S h i h C h i — l u n g ' s g e n e r a l " . T h i s i s i n c o r r e c t . See CS 7 / 1 8 9 - 1 9 0 , n . 19 and CS 7 3 / 1 S 2 3 . 143 A l s o known a s S h i h Hu ^?_» t h e r u l e r o f t h e L a t t e r C h a o s t a t e . 144 T C T C 9 6 / 3 0 3 8 a t t r i b u t e s t h i s s p e e c h t o H s i e h S s u -m i n g . T P Y L 1 2 3 / 8 a - b a g r e e s w i t h t h e C S . 145 See a b o v e , n o t e 1 3 4 . 146 Yu a n d Kuo were n e i g h b o r i n g s t a t e s d u r i n g t h e 213 S p r i n g and Autumn p e r i o d * Yu allowed troops of the s t a t e of Chin to pass through i t s t e r r i t o r y i n order to attack Kuo* A f t e r Kuo was defeated the troops went on to attack and subjugate Yu. See Tso Chuan 96/Hsl 5/9. 147 Hsieh had r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t Ch'eng-Han r u l e i n 333. HYKC 9/122.12. 148 TCTC 96/3046 records t h i s appointment under the t w e l f t h month of 341. SKCC does not mention the month. TPYL 123/Sb. 149 Wang Hsun r e p l a c e s L i I as Chin Governor of Ning p r o v i n c e . He i s mentioned o f t e n above. 150 WS 96/2111 p a r a l l e l s t h i s paragraph q u i t e c l o s e l y * but does not c o n t a i n the preceding sentence. 151 CS 7/186 and HYKC 9/127.6 agree i n p l a c e i n g Shou's death i n 343. CS l i s t s i t under the e i g h t h month. See CS 121/3052, n. 15, TPYL 123/8b. 152 SKCC, quoted i n TPYL 123/8b, g i v e s Shou's age at death as f o r t y . 153 In accordance with our r e v i s i o n of the date of Shou's death to 343 t h i s should be emended to read ' s i x y e a r s ' . CS 121/3052, n. 16. 214 154 C f . a b o v e HYKC 9 / 1 2 7.3 - 4 and CS 3045 . 1-2. 155 T C T C 96/3035 r e c o r d s t h i s u n d e r l a t e 339 w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g v a r i a n t s : T u H s i -fci. f o r K u n g C h u a n g ; t e n c h a p t e r s f o r s e v e n . T C T C 96/3038-9 r e c o r d s t h a t a f t e r f a i l i n g i n h i s a t t e m p t t o p e r s u a d e S h o u t o s u b m i t t o C h i n K u n g , C h u a n g f e i g n e d d e a f n e s s a n d n e v e r a g a i n came t o C h * e n g — t u . 156 A p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x f e e t t h r e e i n c h e s . A s p a n was s o m e t i m e s t h r e e i n c h e s a n d s o m e t i m e s f i v e . H e r e i t i s p r o b a b l y f i v e , g i v i n g a g i r t h o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 6 . 5 i n c h e s . 157 Compare C h u a n g - t z u 3 8 / 1 4 / 3 8-9, w h i c h W a t s o n t r a n s l a t e s , " H a v e y o u n e v e r s e e n a w e l l sweep? P u l l i t , and down i t c o m e s ; l e t g o , a n d up i t s w i n g s . I t a l l o w s i t s e l f t o be p u l l e d a r o u n d by m e n ; i t d o e s n ' t t r y t o p u l l t h e m . So i t c a n go up a n d down a n d n e v e r g e t . b l a m e d by a n y b o d y . " B u r t o n W a t s o n (1970), p . 1 6 0 . 158 WS 96/2112 .5 r e c o r d s t h a t S h i h s e n t an e m i s s a r y t o p r e s e n t t r i b u t e , p r e s u m a b l y t o t h e T ' o — p a W e i . 159 P o - n a e d . 1 2 1 / 8 a a n d I o k u g a w a e d . 1 2 1 / 1 3 a r e a d Madame C h i • 160 The a b o v e p a r a g r a p h i s c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l e d i n S K C C , 215 q u o t e d i n T P Y L 1 2 3 / 8 b . T h e p o r t i o n o f c h a p t e r 9 o f HYKC d e a l i n g w i t h L i S h i h ' s r e i g n i s an a d d i t i o n by L i C h ' i a n d n o t t h e work o f C h ' a n g C h ' u . I t makes no s i g n i f i c a n t d i v e r g e n c e s f r o m t h e C h i " Shm t e x t a n d I s h a l l make no r e f e r e n c e t o i t . 161 H e a r t ( h s i n ) wag t h e f i f t h o f t w e n t y - e i g h t l u n a r m a n s i o n s a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e a n c i e n t C h i n e s e p l o t t e d t h e movements o f t h e p l a n e t s . I t i s l o c a t e d i n S c o r p i o and A n t a r e s . To ' g u a r d ' ( s h o u ) i s , a c c o r d i n g t o J o s e p h N e e d h a m , a t e c h n i c a l t e r m m e a n i n g t o r e m a i n i n one c o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r l o n g e r t h a n t w e n t y d a y s . See N e e d h a m , S c i e n c e a n d C i v i l i z a t i o n i n China^ , v o l . I l l , p . 3 9 9 , 2 3 5 , 2 4 0 . 162 T C T C 9 7 / 3 0 6 7 r e c o r d s t h i s u n d e r t h e e i g h t h month o f 3 4 5 . WS 9 6 / 2 1 1 2 . 5 — 6 i s u n e q u i v o c a l c o n c e r n i n g L i K u a n g ' s i n t e n t i o n s . I t s a y s t h a t K u a n g was p l a n n i n g t o make a s u r p r i z e a t t a c k o n L i S h i h . 163 T C T C 9 7 / 3 0 7 2 p l a c e s t h i s r e b e l l i o n u n d e r t h e w i n t e r o f 3 4 6 . 164 The L a o a**e t o be I d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e modern K e -l a o who a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e T h a i p e o p l e s . The L a o l i v e d i n p i l e d w e l l i n g s , d i d n o t p o s s e s s t h e c r o s s b o w and a r e s a i d t o h a v e a c u s t o m o f d r i n k i n g w a t e r t h r o u g h t h e n o s e . S e e I n e z de B e a u c l a i r , " T h e Keh L a o o f K w e i c h o w a n d 216 t h e i r h i s t o r y a c c o r d i n g to the Chinese r e c o r d s " i n T r i b a l C u l t u r e s of Southwest China , p.148-89, E.G. P u l l e y b l a n k , "The Chinese and t h e i r neighbours i n P r e h i s t o r i c Times", p. 31-35, Ruey Y i h - f u (1948). 165 WS 96/2112.7 reads "..., punishments were c r u e l and i n d i s c r i m i n a t e . " 166 The Annals of the Chin Shu record the la u n c h i n g of t h i s e x p e d i t i o n on the tenth of December, 346. At the time the c o u r t was under the c o n t r o l of the Empress of the deceased Emperor K'ang. Huan Wen made t h i s e x p e d i t i o n on h i s own i n i t i a t i v e , only s u b m i t t i n g a memorial before embarking. 167 North o f modern Ya-an ^ j . Zi^- p r e f e c t u r e . trj-roing 569.2. 168 Northeast of modern Ch'ien—wei on the Yang—tze. Ku Tsu-yu 72/3070, quoted i n CScc 121/20a. 169 Twenty l _ north of P*eng-shan i n Szechwan. Tj-ming 407. 1. 170 T h i s r e f e r s to the r e u n i f i c a t i o n of Szechwan i n t o the Han empire a f t e r the defeat of Kung—sun Shu i n 36 A.D. See HHS 13/543. 217 171 CS 8/193.11 p u t s L i S h i f t ' s s u r r e n d e r o n A p r i l 25, 347. T h e s a n e s o u r c e p l a c e s Huan W e n ' s a t t a c k u p o n C h ' e n g -t u o n t h e i - n a o 7_J "^jl d a y o f t h e t h i r d m o n t h , h o w e v e r t h e r e was no i - n a o i n t h e t h i r d m o n t h o f t h a t y e a r a n d t h i s may be a m i s t a k e f o r s e c o n d m o n t h . See CS 8/216, n . 6, where o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e l e t t e r o f s u r r e n d e r b e l o w , t h e CS e d i t o r s w o u l d emend t h e d a t e o f s u r r e n d e r t o A p r i l 13. 172 i . e . S z e c h w a n . 173 T h e v e r m i l l l o n c a r r i a g e I s s a i d t o b e u s e d b y a n i m p e r i a l e m i s s a r y , o r a l t e r n a t e l y b y h i g h o f f i c i a l s . See t h e c o m m e n t a r y t o y e n H s u a n (,Hu—ch'en e d . ) 46/10a a n d 21/8b. 174 I n a n c i e n t C h i n a i t was t h e p r a c t i c e t o c o n s e c r a t e t h e war d r u m s w i t h t h e b l o o d o f a s a c r i f i c i a l v i c t i m , human o r o t h e r w i s e . Human s a c r i f i c e f o r t h i s p u r p o s e i s no l o n g e r r e c o r d e d f o r t h i s p e r i o d . See T s o C h u a n 142 / H s i 33/3, L e g g e p . 225. 175 CS 8/193 r e c o r d s t h e r e v o l t o f T e n g T i n g a n d Wei Wen t h e f o l l o w i n g m o n t h , t h i e r e n t h r o n e m e n t o f F a n P e n a n d f i n a l s u b j u g a t i o n i n 349. 176 I t i s r e c o r d e d t h a t K i n g T ' a i , a n c e s t o r o f t h e l a t e r C h o u d y n a s t y , s u f f e r e d i n c u r s i o n s f r o m the J u n g a n d T i . He t r i e d t o a p p e a s e them w i t h g o o d s a n d v a l u a b l e s b u t 218 they were not s a t i s f i e d and d e s i r e d h i s t e r r i t o r y * So as to av o i d s u b j e c t i n g the i n h a b i t a n t s to war T ' a l l e f t the r e g i o n and c r o s s e d over to the other s i d e of the Li a n g mountain* However* the populace, r a t h e r than accept r u l e by the b a r b a r i a n s , moved t h e i r e n t i r e community to King T ' a i ' s new l o c a t i o n . See SC 4/113—14. Tj-mi ng g i v e s a l o c a t i o n f i v e _l j, northwest of Ch'ien p r e f e c t u r e i n Shensi f o r Liang mountain. 177 The Huang B i v e r marked the boundary of Han c o n t r o l i n C e n t r a l A s i a at t h i s p e r i o d . T h i s probably r e f e r s to the e x p e d i t i o n launched a g a i n s t the Ch'iang i n 61 B.C. by Chao Ch'ung—kuo /_ • However I have found no r e f e r e n c e c o n n e c t i n g t h i s e x p e d i t i o n with the Empress or Emperor Hsuan (73-49 B.C.). See Han S h " 69. 178 The P ' u a r e f i r s t m e n t i o n e d i n t h e S h u C h i n g a s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e C h o u c o n q u e s t o f S h a n g . D u r i n g t h e C h o u p e r i o d we f i n d them p r i m a r i l y i n H u p e i p r o v i n c e b u t b y o u r p e r i o d T s o S s u d e s c r i b e s them a s b e i n g d i s p e r s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e S z e c h w a n r e g i o n . T h e i r e t h n i c i d e n t i t y i s u n c e r t a i n . See S h a n g S h u c h e n e - i ( S h i h - s a n c h i n s c b u - s h u e d . ) , l l / 1 5 b , Weji B s u a n ( I—wen y i n — s h u - k u a n e d . ) 4 / 1 7 a . 179 C h i n g — l u o y$c r e f e r s t o s t a r s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t M i n - s h a n . S e e Wen H s u a n ( I - w e n e d . ) 4 / 2 6 a . 180 Th i s metaphor bases i t s e l f upon the common 219 d e s c r i p t i o n c f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a s t a t e as a n e t c o n t r o l l e d b y g u i d e r o p e s o f k a n a — c h i w h i c h t h e e m p e r o r g r a s p s * 181 C f . CS 120/3025 . 14 . 182 C f . 1 2 1 / 3 0 3 5 . 1 5 . A f t e r r e d u c i n g C h ' e n g - t u I i H s i u n g a n d h i s f o r c e s were f o r c e d t o w i t h d r a w t o C h ' i a n d e a t w i l d t a r o . L i a n g r e f e r s t o L i a n g p r o v i n c e , a d m i n i s t e r e d a t Nan— c h e n g . 183 S u n C h ' u a n was t h e f o u n d e r a n d f i r s t r u l e r o f t h e T h r e e K i n g d o m s e r a s t a t e o f Wu ( 2 2 2 - 2 8 0 ) . 184 I h a v e b e e n u n a b l e t o i d e n t i f y t h e s e two f i g u r e s , i f t h e y a r e i n d e e d p e o p l e ' s n a m e s . 185 In t i m e s o f h a r d s h i p t h e p e o p l e s o m e t i m e s r e s o r t e d to s p l i t t i n g t h e b o n e s o f t h e d e a d t o b u r n a s f i r e w o o d . Hua—yang i s a n o t h e r name f o r t h e S h u r e g i o n a n d i n p a r t i c u l a r C h ' e n g - t u . 186 T h i s i s a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e P i VSt, h e x a g r a m o f t h e J. C h i n a • The c o m m e n t a r y t o t h i s l i n e s a y s t h a t a b i r d t h a t a p p r o a c h e s i s t o be s p a r e d w h i l e one w h i c h t u r n s i t s b a c k a n d f l e e s s h o u l d be k i l l e d . The i m p o r t i s t h a t L i S h i h was d e s e r v i n g o f d e a t h . See C h o u I c h e n a — i ( S h i h — s a n c h i n g , chu— s h u e d . ) 2 / 1 3 a . 220 187 L i u Ch'an was the l a s t r u l e r of the Three Kingdoms s t a t e of Shu Han* A f t e r s u r r e n d e r i n g he was e n f e o f f e d and accorded f a v o r a b l e treatment. See SKC 33/901-2. 188 The p a i — l i u ^§ 7-\ (one hundred s i x ) , which I have t r a n s l a t e d ' b a l e f u l i n f l u e n c e s ' , r e f e r s to numerology. In a c y c l e of 4.617 years one hundred and s i x were i n a u s p i c i o u s . See Wen Bsffan ( I-wen ed. ) 47/31b. 189 Both of these are i n a u s p i c i o u s p o r t e n t s . 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Yu, Chung JC ^ • "Tui Ch'in y l ch'ien hsi-nan ke-tsu l i - s h i h y u a n — l i u te k ' u i — f a n " &$K$\&%**t8t£mi1lLfcty%il£ . Jen-min wen-hsygh, tsa - c j j j j j 7V ^ < 57/4 (Eec. 1957 ): 6 8-76. Yuan , S h u ^ ^ i . T'.Mng rchien chJ^sJiAh pen-mo i^L $ % • B a s i c S i n o l o g i c a l S e r i e s ed. v.2 pp.19—25. Shanghai: Commercial P r e s s , 1933. Yueh, Shih $1 5t • iJLaJLralliLe.hVan-yv chj, ik % %f fa • T a i p e i : Wen—hai ch'u-pan she, 1963. Repr.of ed. w/pref. dated 1803. 238 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS BlHP B u l l e t i n of the I n s t i t u t e cf H i s t o r y and F h i l o l o g y CS Chin Shu CScc Chin Shu chiao—chu HHS Hou Han Shu HS Han Shu HYKC Hua-yang Kuo-chih SC Shih Chi SKC San Kuo Chih SKCC S h l h - l i u Kuo Ch'un-ch'iu TPYL T ' a i - p ' i n g Yu-lan WS Wei Shu 

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