UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The battle for the sabbath: the sabbatarian lobby in Canada, 1890-1912 Meen, Sharon Patricia 1979

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
UBC_1979_A1 M44.pdf [ 18.13MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0094766.json
JSON-LD: 1.0094766+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0094766.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0094766+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0094766+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0094766+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0094766 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0094766.txt
Citation
1.0094766.ris

Full Text

THE BATTLE FOR THE SABBATH: THE SABBATARIAN LOBBY IN CANADA, 1890-1912 by SHARON PATRICIA MEEN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1966 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1968 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( D e p a r t m e n t o f H i s t o r y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i m t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY'OF BRITISH COLUMBIA S e p t e m b e r , 19 79 (C) S h a r o n P a t r i c i a Meen, 1979 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t t he L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r ag ree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . n ^ , H i s t o r y Department o f _ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date 1 October 197 9 ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y t r a c e s t h e g r o w t h o f t h e S a b b a t a r i a n l o b b y i n C a n ada. L i m i t e d t o s p o r a d i c and e p h e m e r a l g r o u p s d u r i n g t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , S a b b a t a r i a n i s m became o r g a n i z e d i n r e s - p o nse t o t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e Sunday s t r e e t c a r i n t h e e a r l y 1890s. T h i s i s s u e p r e c i p i t a t e d t h e f o r m a t i o n o f an a g g r e s s i v e l o b b y , t h e O n t a r i o L o r d ' s Day A l l i a n c e . Owing t o a s u c c e s s i o n o f j u d i c i a l d e c i s i o n s handed down c o n c e r n i n g t h e Sunday c a r , t h e O n t a r i o A l l i a n c e f o u n d i t s e l f b a l k e d i n i t s p u r s u i t o f p r o v i n c i a l S a b b a t h o b s e r v a n c e l e g i s l a t i o n . As a c o n s e q u e n c e , i t e x p anded i n t h e e a r l y 1900s i n t o a n a t i o n a l l o b b y , t h e L o r d ' s Day A l l i a n c e o f Canada, i n o r d e r t o p r e s s u r e t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n - ment. As t h e A l l i a n c e d e v e l o p e d an i n c r e a s i n g a w a r e n e s s o f t h e r e q u i s i t e s o f s u c c e s s f u l l o b b y i n g , i t i m p r o v e d and b r o a d e n e d i t s t e c h n i q u e s : f i r s t , by p r e s e n t i n g t h e S a b b a t a r i a n a i m as a s o c i a l r a t h e r t h a n a m o r a l r e f o r m ; s e c o n d , by f o r g i n g a t e m p o r a r y a l l i - a nce w i t h o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r ; t h i r d , by d e v e l o p i n g new c a m p a i g n i n g methods s u c h as a membership and a p r e s s campaign; f i n a l l y , by p e r s u a d i n g t h e L a u r i e r L i b e r a l government t h a t t h e A l l i a n c e had t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e two m a j o r g r o u p s w i t h i n C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . T h r o u g h o u t i t s campaign, t h e A l l i a n c e m a i n t a i n e d a c o h e s i v e o r - g a n i z a t i o n and p r e s s u r e d t h e government on a l l f r o n t s -- two key d e t e r m i n a n t s t o a l o b b y ' s s u c c e s s w i t h i n t h e C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m . P o l i t i c a l s u c c e s s came t o t h e A l l i a n c e when t h e F r e n c h C a t h o l i c church, f o r i t s own reasons, decided to support the campaign f o r Sabbath observance l e g i s l a t i o n . Convinced t h a t he was e f f e c t i n g a compromise a c c e p t a b l e to both E n g l i s h and French, L a u r i e r agreed t o i n t r o d u c e a Lord's Day b i l l i n 19 06. The subsequent debates f o r c e d L a u r i e r t o mo- d i f y h i s p o s i t i o n i n the face of unexpected French Canadian h o s t i l i t y . The A l l i a n c e ' s l o b b y i n g i n s i d e Parliament was mar- ked l y l e s s e f f e c t i v e than i t had been o u t s i d e . Although a t r u n - c a ted v e r s i o n of the b i l l became law, the A l l i a n c e f a i l e d t o t u r n a p o l i t i c a l v i c t o r y i n t o a moral triumph. A f t e r f i v e y e a r s ' ardent p u r s u i t o f law enforcement, i t became apparent t h a t s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n d i d not guarantee a reform of Canadian morals. Canadian Sabbatarianism was one of many responses to v a s t s o c i a l and economic change i n the p e r i o d l e a d i n g up to the F i r s t World War. The p a r t i c u l a r s o l u t i o n advocated by S a b b a t a r i - ans was the reform of s o c i e t y ' s i l l s through the reform of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s morals. T h i s i d e a l had l i t t l e c o n t a c t w i t h the r e a - l i t i e s of an emerging urban and i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y ; i t had l i t t l e r e l e v a n c e t o the working c l a s s need f o r r e c r e a t i o n other than church-going on the week's one day o f l e i s u r e . S t u d i e s o f crusades f o r moral reform l e g i s l a t i o n demand d i s c u s s i o n because r e s t r i c t i o n s on r e c r e a t i o n a f f e c t e d l a r g e r ; groups more d i r e c t l y than d i d l e g i s l a t i o n concerning f a c t o r y hours or poor r e l i e f . The study of moral and s o c i a l reform groups i s a t t r a c t i n g the a t t e n t i o n o f i n c r e a s i n g numbers of Canadian h i s - i v t o r i a n s , w h i l e t h e s t u d y o f p r e s s u r e g r o u p a c t i v i t y i s a t t r a c t - i n g t h a t o f p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s . B a s e d on a t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e - work p r o v i d e d by D a v i d Truman and N e i l S m e l s e r , t h e c o r e o f my a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d o f a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p a p e r s o f t h e L o r d ' s Day A l l i a n c e o f C a n a d a , i t s a l l i e s , and t h e k e y p o l i - t i c i a n s i n v o l v e d ; t h e l e g i s l a t i o n p a s s e d a t a l l l e v e l s o f g o v e r n - ment; and t h e numerous j u d i c i a l d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g S a b b a t h o b s e r v a n c e . I t i s h o p e d t h a t t h e s t u d y o f t h e S a b b a t a r i a n l o b b y , i t s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f r o m a s i n g l e i s s u e g r o u p t o a more i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d g r o u p , i t s s h i f t f r o m t r a d i t i o n a l n i n e - ' . t e e n t h c e n t u r y t e c h n i q u e s t o more s o p h i s t i c a t e d methods o f l o b - b y i n g , i t s p o l i t i c a l s u c c e s s i n 1906 and s u b s e q u e n t f a i l u r e s , w i l l c o n t r i b u t e an h i s t o r i c a l d i m e n s i o n t o t h e d e b a t e c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p r e s s u r e g r o u p s and t h e p o l i c y - m a k i n g p r o c e s s i n C a n a d a . V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract i i Table of Contents v Abbreviations v i Preface v i i CHAPTER I Sabbath Observance i n B r i t i s h North America, 1800-1850- 1 II Sabbath Observance i n an I n d u s t r i a l i z i n g and T r a f f i c k - ing Age, 1850-1890 25 III The 'Giddy T r o l l e y ' and Sundays — The Question of J u r i s d i c t i o n 70 IV The Sunday Car as Cataly s t : The Formation of the Ontario Lord's Day A l l i a n c e , 1895-1899 87 V A Tale of " T o i l and Obloquy": John G. Shearer and the Ontario A l l i a n c e ' s Drive for Popularity 131 VI National Righteousness Aroused: The Organization of the Lord's Day A l l i a n c e of Canada, 1898-1903 174 VII The Lobby i n Action, 1903-1906 202 VIII The A l l i a n c e as C l e r i c a l Policeman, 1907-1912 244 Epilogue 283 Bibliography 286 Appendices I Who Worked on Sunday, 1888-1911: Estimates for Pre- and Post-Lord's Day Act of 1906 309 II The Lord's Day A l l i a n c e of Canada: P r o f i l e of Leadership, 1888-1906 311 III Claimed Membership i n the Lord's Day A l l i a n c e of Cana- da by Province, 1901-1906 332 IV Regional Proportions of Claimed Lord's Day A l l i a n c e Membership i n the years 1901 and 1906 333 V The Lord's Day Act of Upper Canada, 1845 335 VI The Lord's Day B i l l , drafted by the LDAC, and Intro- duced to the House of Commons, March 11, 1906 339 VII The Lord's Day Act of Canada, 1906 341 v i A b b r e v i a t i o n s u s e d i n f o o t n o t e c i t a t i o n s ; A. LDACP L o r d ' s Day A l l i a n c e o f Canada P a p e r s The LDACP ( T o r o n t o , Thomas F i s h e r Rare Book Room, U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o ) i n c l u d e t h e M i n u t e b o o k s , R e p o r t b o o k s , S c r a p b o o k s , and o t h e r r e c o r d s o f t h e L o r d ' s Day A l l i a n c e o f Canada, t h e O n t a r i o L o r d 1 s Day A l l i a n c e , and o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s F o o t n o t e c i t a t i o n s o f t h e s e s o u r c e s have u s e d t h e f o l l o w i n g a b b r e v i a t i o n s : LDAC LDAC, CR LDAC, MB LDAC, SB LB OLDA OLDA, CR OLDA, MB OLDA, SB L o r d ' s Day A l l i a n c e o f Canada L o r d ' s Day A l l i a n c e o f Canada, Committee Re- p o r t s L o r d ' s Day A l l i a n c e o f Canada, M i n u t e b o o k L o r d ' s Day A l l i a n c e o f Canada, S c r a p b o o k L e t t e r b o o k (The f i v e L e t t e r b o o k s i n t h e LDACP c o n t a i n l e t t e r s o f b o t h t h e L o r d ' s Day A l l i a n c e o f Canada and t h e O n t a r i o L o r d ' s Day A l l i a n c e , a r r a n g e d c h r o n o l o g i - c a l l y . Hence, no d i s t i n c t i o n b etween t h e two a s s o c i a t i o n s was p o s s i b l e . ) O n t a r i o L o r d ' s Day A l l i a n c e O n t a r i o L o r d ' s Day A l l i a n c e , Committee R e p o r t s O n t a r i o L o r d ' s Day A l l i a n c e , M i n u t e b o o k O n t a r i o L o r d ' s Day A l l i a n c e , S c r a p b o o k B. PAC, LP P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, L a u r i e r P a p e r s C. PC, APGA P r e s b y t e r i a n C h u r c h i n Canada, A c t s and P r o - c e e d i n g s o f t h e G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y (1875-1913) v i i Preface: The Battle for the Sabbath: The Sabbatarian Lobby in Canada, 1890-1912. This study traces the growth of the Sabbatarian lobby i n Canada. Limited to sporadic and ephemeral groups during the nineteenth century, Sabbatarianism became organized i n res- ponse to the appearance of the Sunday street car i n the early 1890s. This issue precipitated the formation of an aggressive lobby, the Ontario Lord's Day A l l i a n c e . Owing to a succession of j u d i c i a l decisions handed down concerning the Sunday car, the Ontario A l l i a n c e found i t s e l f balked i n i t s pursuit of provin- c i a l Sabbath observance l e g i s l a t i o n . As a consequence, i t ex- panded i n the early 19 00s into a national lobby, the Lord's Day A l l i a n c e of Canada, i n order to pressure the federal government. As the A l l i a n c e developed an increasing awareness of the requi- s i t e s of successful lobbying, i t improved and broadened i t s techniques: f i r s t , by presenting the Sabbatarian aim as a so- c i a l rather than a moral reform; second, by forging a temporary a l l i a n c e with organized labour; t h i r d , by developing new cam- paigning methods such as a membership and a press campaign; f i n a l - l y , by persuading the Laurier L i b e r a l government that the A l l i a n c e had the support of the two major groups within Canadian society. P o l i t i c a l success came to the A l l i a n c e when the French Catholic church for i t s own reasons, decided to support the campaign for Sabbath observance l e g i s l a t i o n . v i i i Convinced t h a t he was e f f e c t i n g a compromise a c c e p t a - b l e to both E n g l i s h and French, L a u r i e r agreed t o i n t r o d u c e a Lord's Day b i l l i n 1906. The subsequent debates f o r c e d L a u r i e r to modify h i s p o s i t i o n i n the face o f unexpected French Canadi- an h o s t i l i t y . The A l l i a n c e ' s l o b b y i n g i n s i d e P arliament was a l s o markedly l e s s e f f e c t i v e than i t had been o u t s i d e . Although a t r u n c a t e d v e r s i o n o f the b i l l became law, the A l l i a n c e f a i l e d to t u r n a p o l i t i c a l v i c t o r y i n t o a moral triumph. A f t e r f i v e y e a r s ' ardent p u r s u i t of law enforcement, i t became apparent t h a t s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n d i d not guarantee a reform of morals. Canadian Sabbatarianism was one of many responses to v a s t s o c i a l and economic change i n the p e r i o d l e a d i n g up to the F i r s t World War. These responses took many forms, but few d i s - p layed as d e f e n s i v e a r e a c t i o n as the Sabbatarian lobby. Richard A l l e n , i n h i s study of the S o c i a l Gospel, has c h a r a c t e r i z e d such c o n s e r v a t i v e reformers as those " c l o s e s t to t r a d i t i o n a l e v a n g e l i - c a l i s m , emphasizing p e r s o n a l - e t h i c a l i s s u e s , t e n d i n g t o i d e n t i f y s i n w i t h i n d i v i d u a l a c t s , and t a k i n g as t h e i r s o c i a l s t r a t e g y l e g i s l a t i v e reform of the environment."^" The s o l u t i o n advocated by the Sabbatarians was the reform o f s o c i e t y ' s i l l s through the reform o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s morals: the success of such a r e - form would be evidenced by i n c r e a s e d attendance a t p u b l i c worship twice a Sabbath, accompanied by prayer and p r i v a t e contemplation. T h i s i d e a l had l i t t l e c o n t a c t w i t h the r e a l i t i e s o f an emerging Rxchard A l l e n , The S o c i a l P a s s i o n : R e l i g i o n and S o c i a l Reform i n Canada 1 9 1 4 - 1 9 2 8 ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1973), p. 17. i x i n d u s t r i a l and urban s o c i e t y ; i t had l i t t l e r e l e v a n c e to the working c l a s s need f o r r e c r e a t i o n other than church-going on the week's one day of l e i s u r e . Sabbatarianism was but another of the "middle c l a s s panaceas which ignored the r o o t causes of 2 urban b l i g h t and the abuses of the f a c t o r y system." S t u d i e s of crusades f o r moral reform l e g i s l a t i o n demand d i s c u s s i o n , as B r i a n H a r r i s o n comments, because "much l a r g e r groups were more d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by r e s t r i c t i o n s on r e c r e a t i o n and by l i m i t a t i o n s on d r i n k i n g hours" than by l e g i s l a t i o n on 3 f a c t o r y hours or poor r e l i e f . The study of groups a g i t a t i n g f o r such reform i n Canada i s engaging the a t t e n t i o n of i n c r e a s - i n g numbers of Canadian h i s t o r i a n s , as the work of A l l e n , Terence Morrison, N e i l Sutherland,; and John Weaver, -among o t h e r s , demon- s t r a t e s . At the same time, p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s are paying more a t t e n t i o n to p r e s s u r e group a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the Canadian 4 p o l i t i c a l system. Based on a t h e o r e t i c a l framework p r o v i d e d 5 6 by David Truman, and N e i l Smelser, the core of my a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d of a d e t a i l e d examination of the papers of the Lord's K. McNaught and D.J. Bercuson, The Winnipeg S t r i k e : 1919 (Don M i l l s , O n t a r i o : Longman Canada L t d ~ , 1974), p. 2. 3 B r i a n H a r r i s o n , "State I n t e r v e n t i o n and Moral Reform i n Nineteenth-Century England," i n Pressure from Without i n E a r l y V i c t o r i a n England, ed., P. H o l l i s (London: Edward A r n o l d L t d . , 1974), pp. 288-9. 4 See Paul A. Pross, ed., Pressure Group Behaviour i n Canadian P o l i t i c s (Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1975), p. 3. 5 D. Truman, The Governmental Process (New York: A.A. Knopf, 1950) . N. Smelser, Theory of C o l l e c t i v e Behaviour (New York: The Free Press, 1962). X Day A l l i a n c e o f Canada, i t s a l l i e s , and t h e k e y p o l i t i c i a n s i n v o l v e d ; t h e l e g i s l a t i o n p a s s e d a t a l l l e v e l s o f government; and t h e numerous j u d i c i a l d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g S a b b a t h o b s e r - v a n c e . I t i s hoped t h a t t h e s t u d y o f t h e S a b b a t a r i a n l o b b y , i t s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f r o m a s i n g l e i s s u e g r o u p t o a more i n s t i - t u t i o n a l i z e d g r o u p , i t s s h i f t f r o m t r a d i t i o n a l n i n e t e e n t h c e n - t u r y t e c h n i q u e s t o more s o p h i s t i c a t e d methods o f l o b b y i n g , i t s p o l i t i c a l s u c c e s s i n 1906 and s u b s e q u e n t f a i l u r e s , w i l l c o n t r i - b u t e an h i s t o r i c a l d i m e n s i o n t o t h e d e b a t e c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e - l a t i o n s h i p between p r e s s u r e g r o u p s and t h e p o l i c y - m a k i n g p r o c e s s i n C anada. Chapter I: Sabbath Observance i n B r i t i s h North America, 1800- 1850. When Norman McLeod founded h i s settlement a t S t . Ann's on Cape Breton I s l a n d i n the e a r l y 1800s, he s u p e r v i s e d every d e t a i l of the Sabbath with c a r e f u l concern, p e r m i t t i n g o n l y works o f n e c e s s i t y to be done. In the maple sugar season, f o r example, the s e t t l e r s had to make the rounds of t h e i r t r e e s on Saturday evening "and upset the sap troughs so t h a t they would not even use the Sunday run of sap." Even n e c e s s i t y was not an a c c e p t a b l e excuse i f p l e a s u r e accompanied the deed. One Sunday when two boys skated to church, "they were ordered to c u t a h o l e i n the i c e and throw i n t h e i r s k a t e s . " McLeod allowed o n l y t h e o l o g i c a l t o p i c s as Sunday c o n v e r s a t i o n . A f t e r the morning s e r v i c e , the a d u l t s d i s c u s s e d the m i n i s t e r ' s sermon while the c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d the catechism.''" In c o n t r a s t to t h i s model of h o l y l i v i n g , d i s r e s p e c t or i n d i f f e r e n c e to the Sabbath c h a r a c t e r i z e d c o l o n i a l l i f e i n both the Maritime and Canadian c o l o n i e s . A f t e r p r e a ching h i s f i r s t sermon as the new P r e s b y t e r i a n m i n i s t e r i n P i c t o u , Nova S c o t i a i n 1784, James MacGregor l e a r n e d t h a t , immediately a f t e r the b l e s s i n g , "the l o c a l d o c t o r i n v i t e d the men to the n e a r e s t grog "Srlora McPherson, Watchman A g a i n s t the World; The .Story of Norman McLeod and His People (Toronto: The Ryerson P r e s s , 1962), pp. 100-102, c i t e d by J.S. Moir, ed., The Cross i n Canada: V i g n e t t e s of the Churches Across Four C e n t u r i e s (Toronto: The Ryerson P r e s s , 1966), pp. 131-133. 2 shop." At h i s next s t a t i o n , he had to warn h i s audience " a g a i n s t the s i n f u l n e s s of t h e i r ' s i n g i n g and w h i s t l i n g , and 2 laughing and b a w l i n g 1 as they approached the s e r v i c e . " In H a l i f a x , the h i g h l i g h t of the Sunday a f t e r n o o n was the g a r r i s o n parade a t 3 p.m., adding to the b u s t l e a l r e a d y generated by the 3 Sunday market and the open t a v e r n s . On P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , Bishop P l e s s i s of the C a t h o l i c church viewed the.conduct of the S c o t t i s h s e t t l e r s as " e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y indecorous." His g r e a t - e s t complaint concerned the "immodesty of the women, who came to the Sacraments w i t h t h e i r t h r o a t s exposed to a degree t h a t should not a l l o w them even to en t e r the church." But he was a l s o d i s t u r b e d by the s e t t l e r s ' h a b i t s o f " t a l k i n g f r e e l y , " and of p e r m i t t i n g " t h e i r dogs to en t e r the church and run around, as i f they were i n t h e i r masters' houses, without anyone check- 4 i n g them." In Lower Canada, the j u s t i c e s of the peace and grand j u r i e s , both i n Quebec and Montreal, complained of the unnecessary p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f taverns which, they claimed, caused " c o n t i n u a l scenes of r i o t and debauchery, p a r t i c u l a r l y on Sun- 2 G. P a t t e r s o n , L i f e of James MacGregor, P.P. (Edinburgh, 1859), p. 96, c i t e d by J . Moir, Enduring Witness: A H i s t o r y of the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church i n Canada (Toronto: Bryant P r e s s , 1975), p. 55. 3 M i c h a e l C r o s s , "The 1820s," i n C o l o n i s t s and Canadiens, ed., J.M.S. C a r e l e s s (Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1971), p. 156. 4A.A. Johnston, A H i s t o r y o f the C a t h o l i c Church i n E a s t e r n Nova S c o t i a ( A n t i g o n i s h : S t . F r a n c i s X a v i e r U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960), v o l . I, pp. 230-233, c i t e d by Moir, ed., The Cross i n Canada, p. 94. 3 d a y s , t o t h e g r e a t s c a n d a l o f s o c i e t y , and t h e r u i n o f l o w e r 5 c l a s s e s o f e v e r y age and s e x . " I n b o t h Lower an d Upper Canada, Sunday l a b o u r was t h e r u l e n o t t h e e x c e p t i o n . A r r i v i n g i n M o n t r e a l i n 18 20, one i m m i g r a n t , J o h n C r i c h t o n , o b s e r v e d : The f i r s t t h i n g t h a t s t r u c k o u r a t t e n t i o n , b e i n g t h e S a b b a t h , was t h e w h o l e s h o r e c o v e r e d w i t h p e o p l e f i s h i n g , and t h e m a r k e t p l a c e c o v e r e d w i t h s t a n d s o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f g o o d s , j u s t t h e same as [ i f ] i t had b e e n a f a i r d a y, and i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d o f t h e town numerous p a r t i e s g o i n g a b o u t w i t h g u n s , o r amus- i n g t h e m s e l v e s w i t h p l a y i n g a t b a l l . (6) P r o c e e d i n g t o Y o r k and d i s c o v e r i n g t h a t i t was n o t u n u s u a l t o f i n d s e t t l e r s " i n f i e l d s on t h e S a b b a t h day, o r g o i n g o u t a - s h o o t i n g , " C r i c h t o n c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e law d i d " n o t a p p e a r t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h them, and t h e r e f o r e t h e y do what t h e y p l e a s e on C i t e d by J . - P . W a l l o t , " R e l i g i o n and F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n M o r e s , " C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l R e view L I I (March 1971), p . 83. F o r d e s c r i p t i o n s o f S a b b a t h o b s e r v a n c e i n t h e d a y s o f t h e F r e n c h r e g i m e , s e e W.J. E c c l e s , The C a n a d i a n F r o n t i e r , 1534-1760 (New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1969), p. 98; W.J. E c c l e s , F r a n c e i n A m e r i c a ( T o r o n t o : F i t z h e n r y and W h i t e s i d e , 1972), p. 136; and C . J . J a e n e n , The R o l e o f t h e C h u r c h i n New F r a n c e ( T o r o n t o : M c G r a w - H i l l R y e r s o n , 1976). From E c c l e s 1 comments, i t w o u l d seem t h a t t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e C a t h o l i c c h u r c h l a y n o t so much i n p e r s u a d i n g t h e p e o p l e t o a t t e n d r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s on t h e S a b b a t h , b u t r a t h e r i n m a i n t a i n i n g p r o p e r s t a n d a r d s o f c o n d u c t a t t h e s e r v i c e s . U n a b l e t o s e c u r e p r o p e r b e h a v i o u r t h e m s e l v e s , t h e c l e r g y were f o r c e d t o a p p e a l t o t h e I n t e n d a n t who i s s u e d f r e q u e n t o r d i n a n c e s " o r d e r i n g t h e h a b i t a n t s o f t h i s o r t h a t p a r i s h t o b e h a v e w i t h more r e s p e c t t o w a r d t h e c l o t h ; t o c e a s e t h e i r p r a c t i c e o f w a l k i n g o u t o f c h u r c h as s o o n as t h e c u r e b e g an h i s sermon; o f s t a n d i n g i n t h e l o b b y a r g u i n g , e v e n b r a w l i n g , d u r i n g t h e s e r v i c e ; o f s l i p p i n g o u t t o a n e a r b y t a v e r n , o f b r i n g i n g t h e i r dogs i n t o c h u r c h and e x p o s t u l a t i n g w i t h t h e b e a d l e who t r i e d t o c h a s e them o u t . " ( E c c l e s , The C a n a d i a n F r o n t i e r , p. 98). R.F. B u r n s , L i f e and T i m e s o f Rev. D r . B u r n s ( T o r o n t o , 1871), p. 350. 4 t h a t day."' Others made s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n s . In the 1810s, W i l l i a m Case, an e v a n g e l i c a l preacher, d e c l a r e d the western set t l e m e n t s along the Thames R i v e r and Lake St. C l a i r to be "the most wicked and d i s s i p a t e d of any p a r t of America"; Sunday was but "a day of wicked amusements, v i s i t i n g p a r t i e s , o f t e n dancing, hunting, f i s h i n g , e t c . " In the 1820s, John Howison watched people spending "the day i n i d l e n e s s and amusement, e i t h e r s t r o l l i n g among the woods, or s h o o t i n g game, or wander- 9 i n g between t h e i r neighbours' houses." L e g a l p r o t e c t i o n f o r the Sabbath d i d e x i s t . Two B r i t i s h s t a t u t e s , the Sunday Observance A c t s of 1677 and 1780, theore- t i c a l l y guaranteed p r o t e c t i o n of the Lord's Day throughout the c o l o n i e s . N e i t h e r s t a t u t e compelled r e l i g i o u s observance of the day through attendance a t p u b l i c worship, but both s t r o v e to secure t h i s end by p r o h i b i t i n g labour and the p u r s u i t of p l e a - sure."^ The L e g i s l a t u r e s of the t h r e e Maritime c o l o n i e s , Nova S c o t i a , New Brunswick, and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , had a l l passed 7 I b i d . S.D. C l a r k , Church and Sect i n Canada (Toronto: U n i v e r - s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1948), p. 95. 9 John Howison, Sketches of Upper Canada (Edinburgh, 1821), pp. 157-8. 1 0 T h e 1677 A c t (29 Car. I I , c.7) p r o h i b i t e d "any w o r l d l y labour or business or work" by tradesmen, a r t i f i c e r s , workmen, l a b o u r e r s , or o t h e r persons and forbade such a c t i v i t i e s as "the showing or h o l d i n g out f o r s a l e of any goods," t r a v e l l i n g or f r e q u e n t i n g inns or lodges. Exceptions to t h i s A c t allowed "works, of n e c e s s i t y and c h a r i t y , " the p r e p a r a t i o n of meat i n homes, the d r e s s i n g or s e l l i n g of meat i n i n n s and r e s t a u r a n t s , and the c r y i n g and s e l l i n g of m i l k b e f o r e 9 a.m. or a f t e r 4 p.m. 5 Sabbath Observance A c t s as one of t h e i r f i r s t c o l o n i a l laws. The New Brunswick law p r o h i b i t e d "Shooting, Gaming, S p o r t i n g , P l a y i n g , Hawking, f r e q u e n t i n g T i p p l i n g Houses, or S e r v i l e Labour or Drunkenness on Sunday." The Nova S c o t i a Act, empowered church wardens to a c t as c l e r i c a l policemen to walk through the town once i n the forenoon.and once i n the a f t e r n o o n d u r i n g d i v i n e worship "to observe.and suppress a l l d i s o r d e r s , and apprehend 12 a l l o f f e n d e r s whatsoever." The A c t a l s o a u t h o r i z e d them to enter p u b l i c houses o f entertainment to search f o r and s e i z e any o f f e n d e r s . In the 1820s, Nova S c o t i a ' s Lieutenant-Governor, S i r Pe r e g r i n e M a i t l a n d , "a m o r a l i s t of a p u r i t a n i c a l s o r t not seen i n H a l i f a x s i n c e the days of the Yankee p i o n e e r s , " took advant- age of t h i s s t a t u t e to a r r e s t the d e c l i n i n g moral tone of H a l i - fax. By walking to church, he put a b l i g h t on the once popular Sunday c a r r i a g e p r o c e s s i o n . He a l s o forbade the time-honoured The 1780 A c t (21 Geo. I l l , c.49) made i t an o f f e n c e f o r keepers of p u b l i c houses to operate t h e i r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a t any time on Sunday e i t h e r f o r p u b l i c entertainment or p u b l i c debate. A f i n e of f i v e s h i l l i n g s punished o f f e n c e s a g a i n s t the 1677 A c t , while f i n e s of up to two hundred pounds were l e v i e d a g a i n s t o f f e n d e r s of the 178 0 s t a t u t e . The main purpose of the 178 0 A c t was to suppress working c l a s s " d i s p u t i n g s o c i e t i e s " which the govern- ment viewed as p o l i t i c a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e . See O n t a r i o Law Reform Commission, Report on Sunday Observance L e g i s l a t i o n (Toronto: Department of J u s t i c e , • 1970)., pp. 25-9,•for .information on t h i s l e g a l background. Geo. I l l (1761), c l (N.S.); a l s o 31 Geo. I l l (1791), c.3 (N.S.); 26 Geo. I l l (1786), c.5 (N.B.); 20 Geo. I l l (1779), c.3 (P.E.I.) . 12 In 1851 the Nova S c o t i a A c t f o r the B e t t e r Observance of the Lord's Day was c o n s o l i d a t e d and r e v i s e d i n t o an A c t con- c e r n i n g "Of Offences a g a i n s t R e l i g i o n . " R.S.N.S. (1851), c.156. T h i s c o n s o l i d a t i o n omitted the c l a u s e empowering the church war- dens to a c t as c l e r i c a l policemen. 6 pageantry of the Sunday garrison parade, and i n person f e l l 13 upon the Sunday market " l i k e a wrathful prophet." The House of Assembly i n Lower Canada also passed laws to pro- tect the Sabbath: one i n 1805 to ha l t Sunday sales of goods or liquor ("Wine, S p i r i t s and other Strong Liquors"); another i n 18 08 to preserve order during r e l i g i o u s services on Sun- days; and a t h i r d i n 18 27 to prevent " t i p p l i n g i n public 14 houses during divine services." In the absence of adequate po l i c e forces to enforce these statutes, "some parishes even selected muscular strongmen to impose order i n t h e i r churches 15 and throw out the interruptors." By the 1830s, only the youngest colony of Upper Canada remained without i t s own Sabbath observance laws. I n d i f f e r - ence to the day offended the r e l i g i o u s convictions of many evangelical Protestants who, believing i n the l i t e r a l interpre- t a t i o n of s c r i p t u r a l passages regarding proper Sabbath obser- 16 vance, f e l t i t should be a day devoted e n t i r e l y to r e l i g i o u s exercises, public worship morning and evening, and private de- votions. But the absence of r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s made these T. Raddall, Halifax, Warden of the North (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1948), p. 182. 1 445 Geo. I l l (1805), c.3 ( L . C ) ; 7 Geo. IV (1827), c.3, s.6 (L.C.) . 1 5 W a l l o t , "Religion and French-Canadian Mores," p. 80. 1 6Genesis 2: 2,3; Exodus 20: 8-11; Isaiah 58: 13; Exeikel 20: 12-20, were the passages most often c i t e d by Sabba- tarians. See also Luke 12: 10-16; Mathew 12: 1-14, for discus- sions between Christ and the Pharisees concerning proper conduct on the Sabbath. Christ argued, for example, that i t was proper 7 r i t u a l s i m p o s s i b l e . In some communities i t was not uncommon f o r a year to pass without a v i s i t from a m i n i s t e r . V i s i t i n g Upper Canada i n the e a r l y 1820s, John Howison e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t w i t h i n one three hundred m i l e area i n the west of the p r o v i n c e , o n l y f o u r v i l l a g e s enjoyed r e g u l a r p u b l i c worship. A p p a l l e d , Howison concluded t h a t : the d e f i c i e n c y i n the number of r e l i g i o u s e s t a b l i s h - ments must have a f a t a l e f f e c t upon the p r i n c i p l e s of the people, the m a j o r i t y of whom are t r u l y i n a s t a t e of most p i t i a b l e moral d e g r a d a t i o n , g r o s s l y c o n c e i v i n g t h a t they never do anything p r o f l i g a t e , v i c i o u s or d i s h o n e s t , except when they i n f r i n g e the laws of t h e i r country. The Sabbath, p r e s e n t i n g no r o u t i n e of d u t i e s to t h e i r r e c o l l e c t i o n , g r a d u a l l y approximates a week day. They, when i t o c c u r s , a b s t a i n from la b o u r , more from h a b i t , than from p r i n c i p l e s . (17) At the end of the decade, immigrant John C r i c h t o n was s t i l l lamenting the l a c k o f church s e r v i c e s , n o t i n g t h a t i n the p a s t 18 year he had heard o n l y f i v e or s i x sermons. Under such circumstances, c o n s c i e n t i o u s Sabbatarians c o u l d do l i t t l e . Before 1830, no one attempted to e n f o r c e the B r i t i s h s t a t u t e s , r e l y i n g i n s t e a d on p e r s o n a l example to remind f o r him to h e a l on the Sabbath, as w e l l as f o r h i s d i s c i p l e s to pluck ears of corn (that i s , work) to feed themselves. In argu- i n g w i t h the P h a r i s e e s , C h r i s t maintained t h a t "the Sabbath was made f o r man and not man f o r the Sabbath." (Mark 2: 27). For d i s c u s s i o n s of the o r i g i n s and theology of the Sabbath, see W i l l i a m Hodgkins, Sunday: C h r i s t i a n and S o c i a l S i g n i f i c a n c e (London: Independent P r e s s , 1960); Winton U. S o l b e r g , Redeem the Time: the P u r i t a n Sabbath i n E a r l y America (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977); O n t a r i o Law Reform Commission, Report on Sunday Observance L e g i s l a t i o n , pp. 69-74. Howison, Sketches of Upper Canada, pp. 142-3. Burns, L i f e and Times of Rev. Dr. Burns, p. 352. 8 neighbours "of the weekly r e t u r n of the Sabbath." Some might r e f u s e to d e s e c r a t e the day by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n community f u n c t i o n s such as barn r a i s i n g s or q u i l t i n g bees; o t h e r s might i n s i s t t h a t t h e i r employees r e c e i v e t h e i r Sabbath r e s t , as long as they observed i t p r o p e r l y . Farmer Joseph Abbott, f o r example, t o l d h i s l o g g e r s t h a t he would "much r a t h e r see them g e t t i n g ready to go to church" than engaging i n other a c t i v i t i e s . When they asked him "with some astonishment and i n a depreca- t o r y manner" i f Abbott wished them to go to church every Sunday, he r e p l i e d t h a t he would c o n s i d e r a n e g l e c t of t h i s duty "with- out s u f f i c i e n t cause" tantamount to a n o t i c e to q u i t h i s s e r v i c e . 19 Needless to say, the men obeyed h i s wishes. Such i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t d i d l i t t l e , however, and Sabbath- breaking continued unabated. The town of York observed Sunday q u i t e i n a d e q u a t e l y , a c c o r d i n g to the Reverend W i l l i a m Proudfoot, a staunch S c o t t i s h S a b b a t a r i a n . Although there was, he recorded i n h i s d i a r y on October 7, 1832, "a g r e a t deal' of church-going at York," there was a l s o a g r e a t d e a l of c a r e l e s s n e s s and Sab- bath d e s e c r a t i o n : "Things are done openly here which I never 19 E. G u i l l e t , The Pioneer Farmer and Backwoodsman (Toronto: The O n t a r i o P u b l i s h i n g Co. L t d . , 1963), pp. 191, 340. Abbott continued i n h i s d i a r y : "They submitted to my wishes, but one of them thought me a hard and c r u e l task-master; t h a t one, however, i s now a s e r i o u s , o r d e r l y , and r e g u l a r attendant at church and a communicant, and a t t r i b u t e s a l l h i s subsequent success i n l i f e , as w e l l as h i s r e f o r m a t i o n of conduct, to such t r i f l i n g i n s t r u c t i o n as I was l e d to g i v e him on such occa- s i o n s . " Thus, Abbott concluded smugly, "a word i n season i s sometimes l i k e bread c a s t upon the waters, which may appear a f t e r many days." 9 saw done i n S c o t l a n d . " While few dared outrage p u b l i c f e e l i n g by working or s h o o t i n g i n the woods, they lounged about the 20 s t r e e t s ; being i d l e , they became " d i s o r d e r l y . " The Church of S c o t l a n d Synod w o r r i e d about Sabbath v i o l a t i o n s by persons en- gaging " i n w o r l d l y c o n v e r s a t i o n , ' i d l e v i s i t i n g and r e c e i v i n g o f v i s i t o r s ' , t r a v e l l i n g , f a i l u r e to do chores b e f o r e Sunday 21 and n e g l e c t of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e means of grace." Both the Church of S c o t l a n d and the Methodist church f e l t t h a t i n c r e a s i n g Sabbath labour connected w i t h the m a i l s and steamship t r a f f i c i n t e r f e r e d s e r i o u s l y w i t h C h r i s t i a n i t y . Not o n l y d i d such labour d e p r i v e hundreds of t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t y to a t t e n d d i v i n e worship, but p a r t i e s assembling a t wharfside taverns and crowds g a t h e r i n g a t the docks gave the whole p r o v i n c e "an a i r of secu- 22 l a r i t y and d i s s i p a t i o n . " The Methodist C h r i s t i a n Guardian, as p a r t of i t s campaign a g a i n s t amusement i n g e n e r a l and l i q u o r i n p a r t i c u l a r , f ocussed on steamship e x c u r s i o n s , the f i r s t p l e a s u r e t r a v e l a v a i l a b l e i n Upper Canada, and t h e i r e f f e c t i n l e s s e n i n g reverence f o r the Sabbath. Not only d i d e x c u r s i o n 20 C i t e d by Jean Burnet, "The Urban Community and Changing Moral Standards," i n Urbanism and the Changing Canadian S o c i e t y , ed., S.D. C l a r k (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1961), p. 73. 21 Church of S c o t l a n d Synod Papers, Report of Toronto P r e s b y t e r y on Sabbath V i o l a t i o n , 1837, c i t e d by Moir, Enduring Witness, p. 85. 22 C h r i s t i a n Guardian, 21 A p r i l 1841; a l s o P r e s b y t e r i a n Church, Acts and Proceedings of the Synod of the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church of Canada i n Connection w i t h the Church of S c o t l a n d , 1841, Appendix No. IV, p. 35. 10 p a t r o n s , presumably those of the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s , r e t u r n " h i g h l y i n t o x i c a t e d w i t h l i q u o r " but those s t i l l a t home were n e e d l e s s l y a f f e c t e d . The n o i s e and b u s t l e , o c c u r r i n g a l l too o f t e n d u r i n g d i v i n e worship, g r e a t l y annoyed m i n i s t e r s and "every w e l l r e g u l a t e d mind engaged i n p u b l i c worship." Excur- s i o n s presented "to the eye and ear a scene of c o n f u s i o n a l t o - gether a t v a r i a n c e w i t h t h a t p e a c e f u l and o r d e r l y s t a t e of t h i n g s designed t o be secured on t h a t day by the laws o f God and of country." E s p e c i a l l y harmful was the e f f e c t upon the young: being c o n f i n e d to busi n e s s d u r i n g the r e s t o f the week, the a t t r a c t i v e n o v e l t y of the Sunday wharfside scene e n t i c e d them from church attendance; as a r e s u l t , they grew up " i g n o r a n t of 23 g r e a t t r u t h s . " Demands f o r e i t h e r the enforcement of B r i t i s h law or the p a s s i n g of new l e g i s l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d . The Church of S c o t l a n d p e t i t i o n e d the Lieutenant-Governor f o r the appointment of r e s p o n s i b l e m a g i s t r a t e s to suppress v i c e s such as Sabbath- b r e a k i n g through the p r o h i b i t i o n of Sunday m a i l and Sunday 24 labour on the c a n a l s . The Methodist church, through the Guardian, urged m a g i s t r a t e s and c i t y a u t h o r i t i e s to take the necessary steps "to pr e s e r v e as f a r as p o s s i b l e the r e l i g i o u s 2 3 C h r i s t i a n Guardian, 25 September 1833; I b i d . , 18 May 1836. See a l s o C B . S i s s o n s , Egerton Ryerson: His L i f e and L e t t e r s (Toronto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1937), v o l . I, p. 261, n.2. 24 P r e s b y t e r i a n Church, Acts and Proceedings, 18 39, p. 198; I b i d . , 1841, Appendix No. IV, p. 35; I b i d . , 1843, p. 31; I b i d . , 1844, p. 29. 11 r i g h t s of the i n h a b i t a n t s , " and to e n f o r c e B r i t i s h law a g a i n s t the l a n d i n g and s h i p p i n g of goods on the Sabbath, and "the pur- s u i t o f t h e i r s e c u l a r occupations by c a r t e r s and o t h e r l a b o u r - in g c l a s s e s . " When l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s f a i l e d to take a c t i o n , the Guardian pressed upon the Union government i t s duty to pass l e - 2 5 g i s l a t i o n " f o r the accomplishment of so r e l i g i o u s an o b j e c t . " In 1844, C o l o n e l John P r i n c e , independent member f o r Essex, i n t r o d u c e d a comprehensive Sabbath observance b i l l to the 2 6 L e g i s l a t u r e . Since the b i l l aimed to e n s h r i n e i n l e g i s l a t i o n a B r i t i s h i d e a l , the "Act to Prevent the P r o f a n a t i o n of the Lord's Day, commonly c a l l e d Sunday," was to be a v i r t u a l r e - enactment of the 1677 B r i t i s h s t a t u t e i n a form more s u i t e d t o 27 Canadian c o n d i t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s . I t s f i r s t c l a u s e forbade Sunday s a l e s and labo u r by "any merchant, tradesman, a r t i f i c e r , mechanic, workman, l a b o u r e r or other person whatsoever, on the Lord's Day." Subsequent c l a u s e s attempted to e x t i r p a t e a l l Sabbath r e c r e a t i o n a l temptations of. c o l o n i a l l i f e : gambling, h o r s e - r a c i n g , hunting, f i s h i n g were a l l f o r b i d d e n ; even b a t h i n g " i n any exposed s i t u a t i o n i n any water w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f any i n c o r p o r a t e d c i t y o r town, or w i t h i n view of any p l a c e of P u b l i c 25 C h r i s t i a n Guardian, 18 May 1836; I b i d . , 21 A p r i l 1841. 2 6 Re P r i n c e , see D i c t i o n a r y o f Canadian Biography, v o l . IX, ed., F.G. Halpenny (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1976), pp. 642-6. 27 O n t a r i o Law Reform Commission, Report on Sunday Obser- vance L e g i s l a t i o n , p. 30. 12 Worship, or p r i v a t e r e s i d e n c e , " was i n c l u d e d i n an amendment by the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l . By i m p l i c a t i o n the p r o h i b i t i o n of Sabbath labour c o n t r o l l e d p l e a s u r e steamship e x c u r s i o n s . Re- f l e c t i n g the M e t h o d i s t s ' i n t e n s e concern w i t h the consumption of a l c o h o l as a l e i s u r e time p u r s u i t , the second c l a u s e of the b i l l d i r e c t l y forbade persons "to t i p p l e , or to a l l o w or permit t i p p l i n g i n any i n n , t a v e r n , grocery or house of p u b l i c e n t e r - tainment." I n d i r e c t l y i t attempted to c o n t r o l the flow of l i q u o r by f o r b i d d i n g Sunday p o l i t i c a l meetings, p u b l i c d i s p l a y s of i n t o x i c a t i o n and b r a w l i n g , or the use of profane language " i n the p u b l i c s t r e e t s or open a i r , so as to c r e a t e any r i o t , or 2 d i s t u r b a n c e , or annoyance to Her Majesty's peaceable s u b j e c t s . " When o p p o s i t i o n from Lower Canadian members f o r c e d him to withdraw the measure, P r i n c e amended i t to apply to Upper Canada alone, r e i n t r o d u c e d the b i l l i n the f o l l o w i n g s e s s i o n , 29 and saw i t through the L e g i s l a t u r e i n 1845. The f a c t t h a t the law would not apply to Lower Canada i r k e d i t s s u p p o r t e r s , par- t i c u l a r l y the C h r i s t i a n Guardian. "Did members of the Assembly t h i n k , " i t q u e r i e d : Debates of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of U n i t e d Canada, March 1845, p. 2305. 29 8 V i c t , c.45 (U.C.), see Appendix V; a l s o Debates of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of U n i t e d Canada, March 1845, pp. 2025- 28, 2305. The L e g i s l a t u r e added the category "merchant" to those whose labour was p r o h i b i t e d by the 16 77 s t a t u t e . The A c t d i d not apply to I n d i a n s . Any person c o n v i c t e d under the A c t was to be f i n e d a sum "not exceeding f o r t y d o l l a r s , nor l e s s than one d o l l a r , t ogether w i t h the c o s t s and charges a t t e n d i n g the proceedings and c o n v i c t i o n . " 13 t h a t the God of the C a t h o l i c s was more i n d u l g e n t than the God of the P r o t e s t a n t s , and t h a t l e s s would be exacted from the former than from the l a t t e r ? And d i d they t h i n k t h a t the g r e a t r u l e r of a l l r e - q u i r e d of them to a l l o w a breach of the h o l y day i n one c l a s s of the community and to punish i t i n another? I f not, why the d i f f e r e n c e i n l e g i s l a t i o n ? . . . T h i s may be expediency; but i t i s not c o n s i s t e n c y , nor C h r i s t i a n i t y . Nor i n f a c t i s i t t r u e expediency; f o r s u i t i n g o n l y p r e s e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s , and not r e s t i n g on the immutable p r i n c i p l e s of r i g h t , i t i s o n l y p r e - p a r i n g g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t i e s to come when oth e r l e g i s l a t o r s may resume the u n f i n i s h e d work. (30) The debate on P r i n c e ' s b i l l r a i s e d the problem t h a t would prove i n s o l u b l e to a l l f u t u r e Sabbatarians: how to r e - c o n c i l e r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n w i t h the d e s i r e f o r economic g a i n . On what b a s i s were d e c i s i o n s to be made to exempt a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y economic, from the r e s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e s of the b i l l ? An exempting c l a u s e allowed 'works of n e c e s s i t y and c h a r i t y 1 , d e f i n i n g these to be the conveying of t r a v e l l e r s or m a i l by land or by water, and the s e l l i n g of drugs and medicines. But g i v e n the interdependent and seasonal nature of Canada's r e s o u r c e - based economy, should other a c t i v i t i e s enjoy temporary exemption? In 1845 the d i s c u s s i o n concerned hunting and f i s h i n g . On one hand, many f e l t t h a t f i s h i n g along the D e t r o i t R i v e r was an a c t i v i t y of economic n e c e s s i t y and t h e r e f o r e should be exempt; on the o t h e r hand, the same people f e l t t h a t hunting "was gener- a l l y an amusement." In the end, the b i l l i n c l u d e d both i n i t s 31 p r o h i b i t i o n s , but the debate was a p o r t e n t of the f u t u r e . C h r i s t i a n Guardian, 25 September 1844. 31 Debates of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of U n i t e d Canada, March 1845, pp. 2027-8. Another member thought the b i l l should a l s o exempt maple sugar making, but the House voted down t h i s s u g g e s t i o n . 14 F i v e years a f t e r the passage of the Lord's Day A c t of Upper Canada, the f i r s t S abbatarian i n t e r e s t groups appeared i n King s t o n , Toronto, and B r a n t f o r d to lobby f o r f u r t h e r l e g i s l a - t i v e p r o t e c t i o n o f the Sabbath. T h e i r f i r s t t a r g e t was Sabbath labour i n the Post O f f i c e . In 1849 the I m p e r i a l government t r a n s f e r r e d j u r i s d i c t i o n over the Royal M a i l to the c o l o n i a l governments. The simultaneous i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a cheap postage system promised an i n c r e a s e i n the amount of correspondence throughout the country w i t h the c e r t a i n r e s u l t of a " m a t e r i a l i n c r e a s e i n the l a b o u r e r s r e q u i r e d and the labour exacted." I t seemed an a p p r o p r i a t e o c c a s i o n to e f f e c t changes i n procedures, a t l e a s t those a f f e c t i n g the Sunday opening of p o s t o f f i c e s and d e l i v e r y of m a i l . Experience had amply shown, argued the King- ston S o c i e t y i n 1851, t h a t i t was much e a s i e r to put a r e g u l a - t i o n on the S t a t u t e books b e f o r e a s i t u a t i o n developed i n t o com- mon p r a c t i c e than l a t e r . The S o c i e t y t h e r e f o r e b e l i e v e d i t should " s t r a i n every nerve to p r e v a i l on the p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s to begin w e l l . " The new p o s t a l system should "not be s t a i n e d with the s i n of l e g a l i z e d Sabbath d e s e c r a t i o n , but s i g n a l i z e d 3 2 by i t s e n t i r e a b o l i t i o n . " The formal s t r u c t u r e of the groups c o n s i s t e d o f an exe- c u t i v e board and a g e n e r a l membership. Laymen accepted the p r e s i d e n c i e s o f both the Toronto and Kingston s o c i e t i e s . James Hervey P r i c e , Commissioner of Lands i n Upper Canada, i n Toronto, Kingston C h r o n i c l e and News Supplement, 17 January 1851. 15 and a Lieutenant-Colonel Lawrence i n Kingston were the f i r s t presidents of t h e i r respective associations. On average, twenty members, the majority laymen, formed the executive boards ( c l e r i c a l representation was to be only e x - o f f i c i o ) . Consultations between the most active members of the executive, the President, Secretary, and Treasurer, were to take place at l e a s t once every three months, while each society was to meet once a year for the formal presentation of the board's annual report and the e l e c t i o n of new o f f i c e r s . The groups intended to correspond with B r i t i s h and American Sabbatarian associations 33 to c o l l e c t information on methods used i n those countries. They also projected the formation of a larger association, a Canada Sabbath A l l i a n c e . The groups planned to finance opera- tions from membership dues of 2s6d a year. Membership was based on the r e l i g i o u s conviction that: the Sabbath i s of Divine o r i g i n and perpetual obliga- t i o n ; that i t i s an i n s t i t u t i o n fraught with unspeakable blessings to mankind, temporal,sspiritual and eternal; that i t s v i o l a t i o n i n any form, by r u l e r s or subjects, must be highly displeasing to Almighty God; and that i t i s the duty of a l l to pray for, and use t h e i r best exertions to secure, the due observance of the Lord's Day. (34) Though members might come from any church, i t was expected that the congregations of the evangelical Methodist and Presbyterian churches would provide the main body of members; although the 33 Kingston Sabbath Reformation Society, "11th Annual Re- port," 17 January 1861, McGill University Library. 34 C h r i s t i a n Guardian, 16 January 1850. 16 groups spoke of s e c u r i n g the a i d of " a l l c l a s s e s of the commun- i t y , " no thought was g i v e n to r e c r u i t i n g membership o u t s i d e the churches. To achieve the ends of t h e i r "pious and p a t r i o t i c a g i - t a t i o n s , " the groups intended to employ o n l y " l a w f u l means." They r e l i e d s o l e l y on the c i r c u l a t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p e t i - t i o n s , the t r a d i t i o n a l technique o f the n i n e t e e n t h century, to 37 demonstrate to the government the s t r e n g t h of p u b l i c support. Such p e t i t i o n s , s t r e s s i n g the r e l i g i o u s b a s i s of sabbata-r.-ranisitb's aim, addressed the government both as a l e g i s l a t i v e body and as the employer o f Sabbath labou r i n the Post O f f i c e . The groups r e l i e d on the e v a n g e l i c a l churches to c i r c u l a t e the p e t i t i o n s and made no pla n s to i n f l u e n c e p u b l i c o p i n i o n through non- r e l i g i o u s means such as a s e c u l a r press campaign. Instead they r e s t r i c t e d themselves to u r g i n g m i n i s t e r s to " b r i n g the impor- t a n t s u b j e c t d i r e c t l y under the n o t i c e of those committed to t h e i r s p i r i t u a l o v e r s i g h t , " to r e c r u i t i n g c l e r g y to a c t as spokesmen on l e c t u r e t o u r s throughout the neighbourhoods, and to c i r c u l a t i n g t r a c t l i t e r a t u r e to p u b l i c i z e the cause. In i t s f i r s t y ear o f o p e r a t i o n , the Kingston S o c i e t y sent 5,000 t r a c t s to "a v a r i e t y o f c e n t r a l p o r t s throughout the P r o v i n c e , whence, 3 5 Kingston C h r o n i c l e and News Supplement, 17 January 1851, 3 6 I b i d . 3 7 See C o l i n Leys, " P e t i t i o n i n g i n the Nineteenth and Twentieth Century," P o l i t i c a l S t u d i e s I I I / l (1955), pp. 45-64. 17 through means of l o c a l agents, t h e i r f u r t h e r d i s t r i b u t i o n might 3 8 be conducted." The groups remained a c t i v e throughout.the 1850s and e a r l y 1860s, adding o p p o s i t i o n to Sunday labour on the canals to t h e i r concern about Sunday m a i l . Support f o r t h e i r cause came from a v a r i e t y of sources. The Free Church of S c o t l a n d , formed i n 1843, was the most ardent advocate: v o l u n t a r i s t i n most o t h e r r e s p e c t s , i t i n s i s t e d t h a t i t was the government's 39 duty to l e g i s l a t e i n favour of Sabbath observance. Members of the Free Church, i n p a r t i c u l a r the Reverend Dr. Robert Burns, a m i n i s t e r sent by the Free Church of S c o t l a n d to defend i t s break w i t h the Church of S c o t l a n d , were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the i n i t i a t i o n of the groups. Free Church Reform p o l i t i c i a n s backed 40 the lobby i n the L e g i s l a t u r e . In 1851, Honourable Adam Fergusson presented the p e t i t i o n s to the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l w h i l e James Hervey P r i c e took them to the Assembly. From 1853 to 1857, George Brown acted as the groups' p o l i t i c a l champion, both through h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h r e e Sabbath observance b i l l s and through h i s f r e q u e n t e d i t o r i a l s i n the Toronto Globe. As ^"Kingston C h r o n i c l e and News Supplement, 17 January 1851. 39 See Moir, Enduring Witness, p. 130: "George Brown was a s e l f - p r o c l a i m e d v o l u n t a r i s t i n a l l t h i n g s — except sabbath observance." 40 See S.D. C l a r k , Movements of P o l i t i c a l P r o t e s t , 1640- 1840 (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1959), p. 418. In d i s c u s s i n g the nature of the 1837 R e b e l l i o n , C l a r k makes the p o i n t t h a t support of the reform cause came not from S c o t t i s h people as such but from S c o t t i s h P r e s b y t e r i a n s who were not att a c h e d to the Church of S c o t l a n d . Scotsmen at t a c h e d to the 18 a p o l i t i c i a n , Brown had d i s c o v e r e d t h a t support of Sabbatarian- ism, l i k e temperance, strengthened him i n the r u r a l , " r i g h t e o u s 41 West" where the Free Church was s t r o n g e s t . "Do s h o a l down p e t i t i o n s , " he urged Alexander Mackenzie, S e c r e t a r y of the S a r n i a Reform Committee, "about the Reserves, R e c t o r i e s , Sect- a r i a n Schools, Maine Law, and Sabbath d e s e c r a t i o n . . . . The 42 more the m e r r i e r . " Although, i n Brown's o p i n i o n , the easy- going nature of e a r l i e r Upper Canadian business l i f e had not encroached on Sabbath r e s t , new business, e n e r g i e s and the "dense p o p u l a t i o n " f l o o d i n g the country threatened the c r e a t i o n of "a growing w o r l d l i n e s s i n the p u b l i c mind on t h i s p o i n t , 43 which would be e a s i e r c o n t r o l l e d now than a t a l a t e r moment." He welcomed the formation of Sabbath observance a s s o c i a t i o n s , arguing t h a t "whether regarded as a r e l i g i o u s , s o c i a l , p h y s i c a l or mere m e r c a n t i l e q u e s t i o n , the s t r i c t observance of one day of r e s t i n seven i s m e r c i f u l l y a n e c e s s i t y . " But r e l i g i o u s Church of S c o t l a n d , on the o t h e r hand, c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d them-s e l v e s with the Tory cause. T h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of r e l i g i o n and p o l i t i c s continued a f t e r the 1837 t r o u b l e s , as S c o t t i s h Free Church P r e s b y t e r i a n s continued to support the Reform, l a t e r the L i b e r a l , p a r t y . As P.B. Waite comments, "the g r e a t pro- moters of temperance and Sabbatarian laws seem mainly to have been on the L i b e r a l s i d e i n Parliament." (Waite, " R e f l e c t i o n s on an U n - V i c t o r i a n S o c i e t y , " i n O l i v e r Mowat's O n t a r i o , ed., D. Swainson (Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1972), p. 22. 41 J.M.S. C a r e l e s s , Brown of the Globe (Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1959), v o l . I, p. 160; Moir, Enduring Witness, p. 106. 42 C i t e d by J . Moir, Church and S t a t e i n Canada West: Three S t u d i e s i n the R e l a t i o n of Denominationalism and N a t i o n a l - ism (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1959), p. 67. 4 3 T o r o n t o Globe, 16 May 1850. 19 c o n v i c t i o n alone motivated Brown, as i t d i d a l l Free Church Sabbatarians, and concern f o r the workers 1 r i g h t to a weekly day of r e s t played no part i n h i s support of the Sabbatarian cause. C a l l e d by Toronto workers "the p r i n c e of Reformers, the paragon of anti-Labour employers," Brown had shown himself to be a n t i - l a b o u r i n the p r i n t e r s ' s t r i k e s t h a t had b e d e v i l l e d h i s 44 own paper. His own employees worked on Sunday evenings a f t e r dinner; i n h i s 1850s campaign against the Roman C a t h o l i c s , during which he claimed, among other charges, t h a t C a t h o l i c s "were bad C h r i s t i a n s who d i d not observe Sunday p r o p e r l y , " he care- f u l l y covered the Globe's o f f i c e windows w i t h heavy blankets "so that the good people going to r e l i g i o u s meetings would not see the employees of the 'Globe' were working on Sunday evenings 45 i n defence of Sabbath observance." Brown had even l e s s sympathy f o r the workers' need f o r r e c r e a t i o n on what might be t h e i r only day of l e i s u r e : opposed to shorter work days on the grounds t h a t i f men had more time t o spend at home they would make a nuisance of themselves, he d i d not view Sunday as 46 a day of l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n . He r e j e c t e d out of hand suggestions t h a t a m i l i t a r y band might play on Sunday afternoon, Charles L i p t o n , The Trade Union Movement of Canada, 1827-1959 (Montreal: Canadian S o c i a l P u b l i c a t i o n s L t d . , 1966), pp. 17-19; a l s o S a l l y Zerker, "George Brown and the P r i n t e r s ' Union," J o u r n a l of Canadian Studies X (February 1975), pp. 42-7. 45 Henri Bourassa r e l a t e d t h i s p r a c t i c e of Brown i n the 1906 debate on the Lord's Day b i l l . Canada, House of Commons, Debates, 1906, c. 5653. L i p t o n , op. c i t . , p. 30. 20 or t h a t people might engage i n "snug dinner p a r t i e s , or cozy- p i c n i c s , or i n s p i r i t i n g d r i v e s , " a b a l l game or a hand of 47 w h i s t . The Sabbath must be spent i n r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s , attendance a t p u b l i c worship, morning and evening, Sunday- sc h o o l t e a c h i n g , p r i v a t e B i b l i c a l r e a d i n g , and f a m i l y p r a y e r s . In a d d i t i o n to Free Church P r e s b y t e r i a n s , the Method- i s t s s u p p l i e d a d d i t i o n a l support to the Sabbath observance cam- pai g n . Together, Methodists and Free Church P r e s b y t e r i a n s d e l i v e r e d 20,000 s i g n a t u r e s to p e t i t i o n s accompanying Brown's 48 1853 b i l l . Other welcome a i d came from the c o u r t s : i n h i s 1854 d e c i s i o n i n Regina v. T i n n i n g , Judge John B e v e r l e y Robinson concluded t h a t the c l a u s e of the 1845 A c t t h a t exempted the con- veying of t r a v e l l e r s d i d not apply to steamship e x c u r s i o n s . In h i s o p i n i o n , such people were not t r a v e l l e r s ; r a t h e r , they 49 were "persons n o t o r i o u s l y seeking mere r e c r e a t i o n . " On the o t h e r hand, the Church of S c o t l a n d , l e s s e n t h u s i - a s t i c than the e v a n g e l i c a l F r e e Church t o lobby f o r l e g i s l a - t i o n c oncerning a s u b j e c t i t c o n s i d e r e d a matter of church d i s - c i p l i n e , made onl y p a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e i n i t s annual r e p o r t s to the campaign f o r l e g i s l a t i o n . ^ The A n g l i c a n Church expressed 4 7 T o r o n t o Globe, 26 June 1856. 48 Moir, Enduring Witness, p. 125. 4 9 1 1 U.C.Q.B. 636. 50 P r e s b y t e r i a n Church, A c t s and Proceedings of the Pres- b y t e r i a n Church i n Canada, i n co n n e c t i o n w i t h the Church of S c o t l a n d , 1853, p. 30: "The Synod, having had t h e i r a t t e n t i o n c a l l e d to the s u b j e c t of Sabbath Observance, agreed to express t h e i r r e g r e t of the f a i l u r e i n Parliament, of the measure f o r 21 l i t t l e or no i n t e r e s t i n l e g a l i z i n g the severe Sunday required by Sabbatarians. Although he pronounced himself i n favour of a five-and-a-half day work week, 'John Strachan p u b l i c l y stated 51 in 1856 that Sundays should be happy, not "blue". The A n g l i - can journal, The Church, supported Strachan's view, maintaining that nowhere did the Bible forbid the pursuit of innocent amuse- ments. God i n fact delighted to see his people " i n the enjoy- ment of every blessing. . . which His bountiful land has pro- vided for them." This was p a r t i c u l a r l y so, the e d i t o r i a l con- cluded, when one considered "how e n t i r e l y large masses of those upon whom the curse of excessive labour presses most heavily are prevented on a l l other days from enjoying many of the purest 52 natural pleasures of t h i s present l i f e . " Seconding t h i s sentiment, the Roman Catholic church, e s p e c i a l l y the French Canadian hierarchy, rejected-the emotional and' l i t e r a l interpre- ta t i o n of the Fourth Commandment as a hobbyhorse inherited from 53 the Scottish Reformation. Of the 20,000 pet i t i o n s delivered i n 1853, only 3,000 came from Lower Canada, a l l from Protest- r e l i e v i n g the servants of the Public, from Sabbath labour, agree to declare anew t h e i r determination to use every e f f o r t to promote the better observance of the Sabbath . . . " Ibid., 1858, pp. 63-4. 51 J. Strachan, "Charge delivered at the v i s i t a t i o n of the clergy," 1856 (Toronto,1856), c i t e d by Moir, Church and State i n Canada West, p. 25. 52 . Cited by Toronto Globe, 16 June 1856. 53 J.S. Moir, The Church i n the B r i t i s h Era: From the B r i t i s h Conquest to Confederation (Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1972), p. 189. 22 a n t s . The p r e s s was d i v i d e d i n i t s a t t i t u d e s . B o t h T o r o n t o C o n s e r v a t i v e p a p e r s o p p o s e d Brown's ca m p a i g n . The C o l o n i s t o b j e c t e d t o S a b b a t a r i a n l e g i s l a t i o n on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t i t w o u l d 55 " c o n t r a v e n e t h e p r i n c i p l e o f s e p a r a t i o n o f c h u r c h and s t a t e , " w h i l e The L e a d e r , Brown's c h i e f c o m p e t i t o r , s t r e n u o u s l y o b j e c t e d t o t h e i n v a s i o n o f p e r s o n a l r i g h t s : We do n o t p r e t e n d t o d e c i d e t h e q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r i t be an o f f e n c e a g a i n s t h e a v e n f o r t h e a r t i s a n whose p u r s u i t c o n f i n e s h i m w i t h i n d o o r s s i x d a y s a week, t o w a l k o r r i d e o u t i n t h e c o u n t r y on t h e s e v e n t h day t o v i e w and a d m i r e t h e works and b e a u t i e s o f n a t u r e ; and t o i m b i b e t h o s e p o e t i c a l f e e l i n g s and t h a t a m i a b l e temper o f mind w h i c h s u c h a s c e n e i s c a l c u l a t e d t o p r o d u c e ; we do n o t s a y w h e t h e r t h i s be a s i n a g a i n s t t h e A u t h o r o f n a t u r e . B u t , t h e e d i t o r i a l c o n c l u d e d , i t was a c a s e i n w h i c h man had no a u t h o r i t y . I n a m a t t e r s o l e l y between t h e i n d i v i d u a l and h i s Maker, man's b i g o t r y had no r i g h t t o " u s u r p a j u r i s d i c t i o n t o 56 w h i c h no e a r t h l y power i s e q u a l . " F o r h i s p a r t , Brown u s e d t h e G l o b e t o expound h i s v i e w s , most o f t e n a t t a c k i n g o t h e r c h u r c h e s and n e w s p a p e r s f o r n o t s u p p o r t i n g h i s b i l l s . I n 1856, he a t t a c k e d The C h u r c h ' s v i e w s as b e i n g t h o s e o f t h e " d e g e n e r a t e L u t h e r a n s o f Germany." A t t h e same t i m e he a t t a c k e d The C h u r c h and The L e a d e r f o r " l o v i n g l y w o r k i n g i n t h e same c a u s e . " B o t h a b h o r r e d , he c o n t i n u e d : 54 M o i r , E n d u r i n g W i t n e s s , p. 125. 55 M o i r , C h u r c h a n d S t a t e , p. 25. ^ T h e L e a d e r , 17 September 1852, c i t e d by C h r i s t i a n G u a r d i a n , 22 September 1852. 2 3 what t h e y t e r m a J e w i s h , o r P u r i t a n i c , o r P h a r i s a i c a l o b s e r v a n c e o f t h e f i r s t day o f t h e week, and b o t h a r e d e s i r o u s t o i n t r o d u c e i m p r o v e m e n t s and m o d i f i c a t i o n s , f i t t e d i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e o p i n i o n s , t o c o r r e c t t h e unhappy o r a b o m i n a b l e m i s t a k e s i n t o w h i c h so many o f us h a v e f a l l e n on t h i s momentous s u b j e c t . 'The L e a d e r ' t h o u g h t we w o u l d be a l l r i g h t i f a m i l i t a r y band w o u l d b u t p l a y on Sunday a f t e r n o o n ; 'The C h u r c h ' t h i n k s t h a t m a t t e r s w o u l d mend, i f , f o r t h e p r e s e n t " J e w i s h s e v e r - i t y , " we w o u l d o n l y s u b s t i t u t e t h e " h o l y h i l a r i t y o f t h e h o l y day." ( 5 7 ) On a f i n a l v o t e i n 1 8 5 7 , t h e House d e f e a t e d Brown's b i l l (by one v o t e ) ; however, i n 1 8 6 0 t h e P o s t O f f i c e p e r m i t t e d U p p e r C a n a d i a n p o s t o f f i c e s t o c l o s e on Sunday i f t h e y w i s h e d . S i n c e Upper C a n a d i a n c a n a l s r e m a i n e d c l o s e d on S u n d a y s , t h a t i s s u e was o f m i n o r c o n c e r n . I n t h e a b s e n c e o f i s s u e s , t h e Sab- b a t a r i a n g r o u p s d i s a p p e a r e d . M o r e o v e r , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s them- s e l v e s had n o t d e v e l o p e d a s t r o n g , i n d e p e n d e n t i d e n t i t y . T h e y had r e l i e d t o o much on Brown's p r e s e n c e i n t h e House o f A s s e m b l y and h i s p o s i t i o n as e d i t o r o f t h e G l o b e . B u t h i s a d v o c a c y meant t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t s e c u r e p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t f r o m a l l . p a r t i e s . D i f f i c u l t i e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d e n i e d them a b r o a d b a s i s o f community s u p p o r t , and t h e y d i d n o t o r g a n i z e on a p r o v i n c e - w i d e b a s i s . A l t h o u g h t h e K i n g s t o n S o c i e t y engaged a " d u l y q u a l i f i e d A g e n t " t o c i r c u l a t e i t s p e t i t i o n s , n e i t h e r i t n o r t h e o t h e r s o c i e t i e s c o n s i d e r e d t h e h i r i n g o f p e r m a nent s t a f f 5 8 t o r e p l a c e v o l u n t a r y h e l p . The c l e r g y p u b l i c i z e d t h e c a u s e o n l y e r r a t i c a l l y ; S a b b a t h o b s e r v a n c e was b u t one o f a m u l t i t u d e T o r o n t o G l o b e , 2 6 J u n e 1 8 5 6 . 5 8 K i n g s t o n C h r o n i c l e and News S u p p l e m e n t , 1 7 J a n u a r y 1 8 5 1 . ~ 24 o f c o n c e r n s , a n d t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l p r o f a n i t y w a s o f g r e a t e r c o n c e r n t h a n t h e p o l i t i c a l l o b b y i n g . So t h e s i t u a t i o n r e m a i n e d u n t i l t h e g r o w i n g i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n a n d u r b a n i z a t i o n o f C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y p r o v o k e d a s t r o n g e r a n d m o r e d e t e r m i n e d r e s p o n s e . 25 Chapter I I : Sabbath Observance i n an I n d u s t r i a l i z i n g and T r a f f i c k i n g Age, 1850-1890. Between 1850 and the l a t e 1870s, Canada enjoyed a p e r i o d of Sabbath q u i e t serene enough to r i v a l any other country. Sun- day steamship excursions were common i n but a few of the urban centres. Sabbath labour e x i s t e d i n i s o l a t e d pockets on l y . The major c a n a l s , the Lachine, Cornwall, and Welland c a n a l s , were cl o s e d a l t o g e t h e r on Sundays. With the d e c l i n e of r a i l w a y con- s t r u c t i o n i n the 186 0s, only those few who worked on m a i l t r a i n s were a c t i v e on Sunday. In the commercial l i f e of the urban c e n t r e s , Sabbath r e s t was an assumed part of f a c t o r y or shop employment. Although r e t a i l establishments remained open u n t i l midnight Saturday n i g h t s , most c l o s e d the f o l l o w i n g day. Employment i n i n d u s t r i e s whose processes were of a con- tinuous nature was v i r t u a l l y unknown. Only i n lumbering and mining and i n domestic s e r v i c e was there any s i g n i f i c a n t Sab- bath labour; but such labour, not h i g h l y v i s i b l e to church- goers, d i d not cause concern. Only the Sunday work of some 2,000 p o s t a l employees i n the Quebec post o f f i c e s , which r e - mained open f o r one hour a f t e r morning mass, aroused comment."'" In 1868, the Postmaster-General promulgated by depart- mental order: "Postmasters i n Canada, except i n the Province of Quebec, are a t l i b e r t y to c l o s e t h e i r o f f i c e s t o the p u b l i c on Sunday; and i n the Province of Quebec postmasters should keep t h e i r o f f i c e s open f o r at l e a s t one hour e i t h e r before or a f t e r d i v i n e s e r v i c e , as may be most convenient t o the p u b l i c gener- 26 The bulk of the p o p u l a t i o n was r u r a l and, with the p a s s i n g of harsh pioneer c o n d i t i o n s and the growth of church i n s t i t u t i o n s p r o v i d i n g r e g u l a r s e r v i c e s , Sabbath r e s t became the r u l e not the e x c e p t i o n . A t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s were c a l - c u l a t e d to f i t i n w i t h the a g r i c u l t u r a l economy. E l e v e n o ' c l o c k became the standard hour f o r morning worship to permit e a r l y morning farm chores as weather c o n d i t i o n s and season 2 d i c t a t e d . Church-going became the r u l e and i n most d i s t r i c t s those not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a church would have been regarded as 3 "queer." For a man l i k e Newton Rowell, f u t u r e l e a d e r of the O n t a r i o L i b e r a l p a r t y and a prominent member of both the Sab- b a t a r i a n and temperance movements i n the 1890s, "attendance a t church and c l a s s meeting occupied much of every Sunday f o r a l l ages. In t h e i r approach to such Sabbath d e s e c r a t i o n as d i d occur, however, Sabbatarians became as r i g i d and l e g a l i s t i c as e a r l i e r Norman McLeod had been a t S t . Ann's. Committed "to a l i t e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s c r i p t u r e s , Sabbath observance s u p p o r t e r s , both l a y and c l e r i c a l , were c o n s t a n t l y "aware of a l l y . " The o n l y c i t y i n the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g p r o v i n c e s to r e - main open on Sundays was Charlottetown, which opened f o r one hour. Canada, House of Commons, Debates, 1876, c. 843. 2 O n t a r i o Law Reform Commission, Report on Sunday Obser- vance L e g i s l a t i o n (^Toronto: Department of J u s t i c e , 1970), p. 79. 3 A.R.M. Lower, Canadians i n the Making (Toronto: Mac- m i l l a n of Canada, 1958), p. 330. 4 Margaret Prang, N.W. Rowell: O n t a r i o N a t i o n a l i s t (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1975), p. 7. 27 the presence of God i n human a f f a i r s , " rewarding and p r o t e c t - ing His supporters, admonishing and punishing those who deviated 5 from His path. B e l i e v e r s i n the idea of o r i g i n a l s i n , they f e l t t h a t d e s e c r a t i o n of the Sabbath would b r i n g r e t r i b u t i o n — D i v i n e wrath i n t h i s l i f e and e t e r n a l punishment i n the next. C e r t a i n that most men and women, i f l e f t to t h e i r own dev i c e s , would not or could not r e s i s t temptation, they appro- p r i a t e d to themselves the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the ac t i o n s of others. When one man, as A.R.M. Lower r e l a t e s , attempted to take i n h i s g r a i n one f i n e Sunday, the neighbours soon put a stop to h i s labours. George Brown demanded enforcement of the 184 5 Upper Canada Act. Boys caught p l a y i n g s h i n t y or hu r l y games i n Toronto's s t r e e t s should be punished as a warn- i n g to ot h e r s , he e d i t o r i a l i z e d : "Twenty-four hours i n the c e l l s would be a good means of stopping boys from p r a c t i c e s of t h i s k i n d on the Sabbath." He and oth e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the c l e r g y , unanimously opposed Sunday reading of newspapers, s k a t i n g , and other p l e a s u r e s , and frowned upon the making of c a l l s on neighbours. Even v i s i t i n g the s i c k was questioned — only d e f i n i t e s p i r i t u a l e d i f i c a t i o n could e l e v a t e i t above a "weak apology f o r the crime of Sabbath-breaking." ^Goldwin French, "The E v a n g e l i c a l Creed i n Canada," i n The S h i e l d of A c h i l l e s , ed., W.L. Morton (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1968), pp. 18-21. Lower, Canadians i n the Making, p. 330. 7 Toronto Globe, 2 November 1863. g W.H. Elgee, The S o c i a l Teachings of the Canadian 28 But a f t e r t h i s b r i e f r e s p i t e , t h e r e arose the twin t h r e a t s of expanding i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and u r b a n i z a t i o n . With the i n t e g r a t i o n of the r a i l r o a d i n t o Canada's economic s t r u c - t u r e , Canada t r u l y entered the i n d u s t r i a l age. Renewed r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the 1870s l e d to expansion of r o l l i n g m i l l s i n the c i t i e s of Toronto and Montreal and engine works i n Hamil- ton. Railway needs promoted the new steam and s t e e l technology and the e f f e c t i v e s t a r t of heavy i n d u s t r y , some of whose con- tinuous processes demanded Sunday work. By the l a t e 188 0s a more complicated manufacturing p a t t e r n was emerging i n major e a s t e r n c e n t r e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n Montreal, Toronto, and Hamilton. The f o c u s s i n g e f f e c t of the r a i l w a y s had much to do w i t h i t , l e a d i n g i n d u s t r i e s to c o n c e n t r a t e a t p l a c e s with the b e s t t r a n s p o r t and supply f a c i l i t i e s , where labour c o u l d c o l l e c t and the advantages of l a r g e - s c a l e p r o d u c t i o n c o u l d 9 b e s t be secured. "Between 1871 and 1891, the number of em- ployees i n i n d u s t r i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n O n t a r i o alone more than doubled, i n c r e a s i n g from 87,000 to 166,000." 1 0 A g r i c u l - t u r e a l s o experienced a t e c h n o l o g i c a l r e v o l u t i o n as f i e l d and crop r o t a t i o n , the use of f e r t i l i z e r s , and employment of b e t t e r and more s o p h i s t i c a t e d farm machinery became common. Churches, P r o t e s t a n t , The E a r l y P e r i o d , before 1850 (Toronto: The Ryerson P r e s s , 1964), p. 211. Q J.M.S. C a r e l e s s , The R i s e of C i t i e s i n Canada Before 1914, Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , H i s t o r i c a l B ooklet No. 32, 1978, p. 24. 1^ >O.J. F i r e s t o n e , " I n d u s t r i a l Development," i n The Can- adians , ed., J.M.S. C a r e l e s s and R. C r a i g Brown (Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1967), p. 458. 29 Of s i g n i f i c a n c e to the S a b b a t a r i a n s was the t r e n d to more d i - v e r s i f i e d f arming, s i n c e i t i n c r e a s e d the demand f o r Sabbath labour i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l as w e l l as the i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r of the economy. The growing urban market f o r food i n c r e a s e d the herds of p i g s and cows i n O n t a r i o by 50 p e r c e n t , e s t a b l i s h e d the modern d a i r y and cheese i n d u s t r i e s , and promoted the c u l t i - v a t i o n of v e g e t a b l e crops and the p l a n t i n g of f r u i t o r c h a r d s . A l l o f these a c t i v i t i e s , the cheese f a c t o r i e s a l l y e a r round, and the f r u i t crops i n season, r e q u i r e d Sunday a t t e n t i o n . A v i g o r o u s growth of urban s e t t l e m e n t accompanied t h i s 12 economic growth. I n d u s t r y a t t r a c t e d p o p u l a t i o n to c i t i e s from farms where new machines such as the r e a p e r - b i n d e r reduced the farmer's need f o r manpower. Although e m i g r a t i o n g r e a t l y o f f - s e t the q u a n t i t a t i v e impact of immigration d u r i n g t h i s 13 p e r i o d , those immigrants who d i d stay were most o f t e n h i g h l y t r a i n e d workers o r p r o f e s s i o n a l men who, b r i n g i n g t h e i r s k i l l s and c a p i t a l w i t h them, wanted to remain i n the c i t i e s . By 1881, O n t a r i o ' s urban p o p u l a t i o n had r i s e n to 375,848 (23.1 ~1'1R. Col e H a r r i s and John Warkentin, Canada B e f o r e Con- f e d e r a t i o n (Toronto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974), pp. 138-42, 12 D e s p i t e economic r e c e s s i o n s , economic growth proceeded through the 1870s and 1880s a t a steady annual r a t e of 4.6 p e r - cent. See G.W. Bertram, "Economic Growth i n Canadian I n d u s t r y , 1870-1915," Canadian J o u r n a l o f Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e XXIX/2 (May 1963) , r e p r i n t e d i n Approaches to Canadian Economic H i s t o r y , ed., W.T. E a s t e r b r o o k and M.H. Watkins (Toronto: Mc- C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1967), p. 83. ' 13 See W. Kalbach and W. McVey, The Demographic Bases o f Canadian S o c i e t y (Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1971), p. 41, Table 2:4. 30 percent of i t s t o t a l population) from 133,463 i n 1851 (14.0 14 percent). In a d d i t i o n , the number of urban centres i n the var i o u s provinces increased. While manufacturing was concentra- ted i n the l a r g e r c i t i e s such as Montreal, Toronto, and Hamil- ton, other centres grew as t r a d i n g and s e r v i c e centres e i t h e r at crossroads or along the new r a i l w a y system. By 1881 south- c e n t r a l Ontario had a dense p a t t e r n of seventy-seven places w i t h 500 or more i n h a b i t a n t s , whereas i n 1851 there had only been twenty-four such p l a c e s . In Quebec, the number of v i l l a - ges w i t h 500 to 1000 r e s i d e n t s increased from t h i r t e e n to eighty-one. Only the Maritime c i t i e s d i d not "experience the t h r u s t i n g growth brought on by l a r g e - s c a l e manufacturing and 15 met r o p o l i t a n f u n c t i o n s . " Improvements i n urban l i v i n g a t t r a c t e d i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n . In the 1860s and 1870s horse-drawn s t r e e t r a i l w a y systems inaugurated s e r v i c e i n H a l i f a x , Montreal, Toronto, and Hamilton. In 1861; the M o n t r e a l - C i t y Passenger-Company s t a r t e d operations w i t h e i g h t cars and s i x miles of t r a c k running east- west and four m i l e s north-south, w h i l e the Toronto S t r e e t R a i l - way Company began w i t h s i x miles of s i n g l e t r a c k running north- Jacob S p e l t , Urban Development i n South-Central Ontario (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1972), p. 144. " ^ H a r r i s and Warkentin, Canada Before Confederation, p. 212. 31 s o u t h a l o n g Yonge S t r e e t , f o u r c a r s , and s e v e n t y h o r s e s . 1 6 C h a r g i n g a maximum f a r e o f f i v e c e n t s , t h e s y s t e m s r a n s i x d a y s a week, s i x t e e n h o u r s p e r day i n t h e summer months, f o u r t e e n i n t h e w i n t e r . The c i t i z e n s welcomed t h e new c o n v e n i e n c e : e n - t h u s i a s t i c crowds t h r o n g e d T o r o n t o ' s f l a g - d e c k e d s t r e e t s t o LX, „18 17 welcome t h e f i r s t c a r on September 10, 1861. I n H a l i f a x , t h e c a r s "were a t r emendous s u c c e s s ; e v e r y b o d y wanted a r i d e . As a c o n t e m p o r a r y , H.Y. H i n d , commented, p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w o u l d be a " g r e a t r e l i e f t o c o m m e r c i a l c i t i e s , where t h e b u s i n - e s s c e n t r e i s e v e r e x t e n d i n g and p u s h i n g t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n t o 19 t h e s u b u r b s . " • M o r e o v e r , t h e companies were s o o n p r o v i d i n g u r b a n c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n . I n T o r o n t o , h o r s e - b o a t s c r o s s e d t h e s h a l l o w w a t e r s o f L a k e O n t a r i o t o t h e I s l a n d , where a l l t h e amusements c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 16 J . I . C o o p e r , M o n t r e a l , A B r i e f H i s t o r y ( M o n t r e a l : M c G i i r ^ Q u e e n ' s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969), p. 104; T.H. Rad- d a l l , H a l i f a x : Warden o f t h e N o r t h ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1948), p. 219; T o r o n t o T r a n s i t C o m m i s s i o n , Wheels o f P r o g r e s s : A S t o r y o f t h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f T o r o n t o and I t s - P u b l i c T r a n s p o r t a t i o n S e r v i c e s ( T o r o n t o : T o r o n t o T r a n s i t C o m m i s s i o n , 1946) ; s e e a l s o J o h n McKay, Tramways and T r o l l e y s : The ; ,:Ris'e-of U r b a n T r a n s p o r t i n E u r o p e ( P r i n c e t o n , N . J . : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r - s i t y P r e s s , 1976) f o r d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h i s e a r l y e r a i n E u r o p e . T o r o n t o and M o n t r e a l b e g an s e r v i c e s o n l y f o u r y e a r s a f t e r t h e m a j o r A m e r i c a n c i t i e s . An E n g l i s h m a n , A. E a s t o n , who had b r o u g h t t h e h o r s e c a r s t o M i l w a u k e e and o t h e r A m e r i c a n c i t i e s , i n t r o d u c e d t h e i d e a t o T o r o n t o . C. A r m s t r o n g and H.V. N e l l e s , The Revenge o f t h e M e t h o d i s t B i c y c l e Company: Sunday S t r e e t - c a r s and M u n i c i p a l R e f o r m i n T o r o n t o , 1888-1897 ( T o r o n t o : P e t e r M a r t i n and A s s o c i a t e s , 1977), p. 28. 17 T o r o n t o G l o b e , 11 September 18 61. 1 p R a d d a l l , H a l i f a x , p. 219. H.Y. H i n d , e t a l . , E i g h t y Y e a r s ' P r o g r e s s i n B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a ( T o r o n t o , 1863), i n L e t Us Be H o n e s t and M o d e s t : 32 of beaches and other public playgrounds were a v a i l a b l e . ^ u Various c i t y councils developed parks to meet the needs of c i t i z e n s for open spaces. In Montreal, for instance, Sohmner Park became the destination of picnickers and walkers. This burgeoning i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and urbanization of Canadian society posed threats to the Sabbath unknown i n a pioneer society. In an a g r i c u l t u r a l community, the farmer.was responsible for his decision whether or not to work on the Sabbath; i n such a s i t u a t i o n the church, once established, could hope to a f f e c t behavioural patterns. In the emerging 21 "bustling and t r a f f i c k i n g age," however, the choice might not l i e with the i n d i v i d u a l i f , as an employee, he worked for an employer who demanded Sunday work. Soulless corporations were simply impervious to threats of s p i r i t u a l damnation. Sabbat- arians thus began to associate Sabbath desecration with an i n d u s t r i a l and urban way of l i f e and, forgetting that the Sab- bath quiet of the r u r a l countryside was a value only recently and p a i n f u l l y acquired, praised Sabbath observance as a cher- ished and t r a d i t i o n a l r u r a l value. Moreover, Sabbath obser- vance supporters feared that the demand for Sabbath pleasure would rapidly increase with the growth of c i t i e s . Most mer- chants, artisans, and labourers worked ten to twelve hours a Technology and Society i n Canadian History, ed., B. S i n c l a i r , N.R. B a l l and J.O. Petersen (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1974), p. 257. 20 E. G u i l l e t , The Pioneer Farmer and Backwoodsman (Tor- onto: The Ontario Publishing Co. Ltd., 1963), v o l . I, p. 196. 2 1PC, APGA, 1877, p. cxxiv. day, s i x days a week. Such a r o u t i n e l e f t no time f o r r e c r e a - t i o n on weekdays and, f o r most people, Sunday was the one day of l e i s u r e . A l r e a d y by the 1870s a v i g o r o u s Sunday e n t e r t a i n - ment s u b - c u l t u r e had emerged i n the working c l a s s areas of Montreal and j u s t o u t s i d e the c i t y l i m i t s . On one May Sunday i n 1870, f o r example, n e a r l y f i v e thousand s p e c t a t o r s gathered to watch a v e l o c i p e d e r a c e . During the same year, weekly crowds of up to 4,000 attended a c r o b a t s , p r i z e f i g h t s , cock- f i g h t i n g , and c l o g dancing events. A d d i t i o n a l crowds watched 22 the Sunday horse races on the Lachine c a n a l . E d i t o r x a l com- 23 p l a i n t s by the Montreal S t a r had no e f f e c t upon t h i s a c t i v i t y . The r a i l w a y most d i s t r e s s e d the Sabbatarians as i t d i r e c t l y i n c r e a s e d the need f o r Sabbath l a b o u r . Moreover, r a i l - way companies overcame o b j e c t i o n s to Sunday labour by guaran- t e e i n g employees who worked Sunday a day o f f d u r i n g the week and paying any f i n e s l e v i e d a g a i n s t workers f o r working on t h a t 24 day. Employees who r e f u s e d to work on Sundays the companies f i r e d . Railway demands had a m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t on the economy, i n c r e a s i n g Sabbath labour i n other s e c t o r s , e s p e c i a l l y i n pro- cesses i n v o l v i n g continuous o p e r a t i o n such as the p r o d u c t i o n of i r o n and s t e e l . The number of people working i n the Post '"''Alan M e t c a l f e , "The E v o l u t i o n of Organized P h y s i c a l R e c r e a t i o n i n M o n t r e a l , 1840-1895," S o c i a l H i s t o r y XI (May 1978) pp. 163-4. 23 M e t c a l f e s t a t e s t h a t the S t a r complained 35 times be- tween 187 0 and 18 94. 24 Canada, House of Commons, Debates, 1876, c. 855. 2 5 O f f i c e also increased (to 3,000 from 2,000), as special mail trains were established to provide more e f f i c i e n t service through l i n k i n g with the trans-Atlantic ships out of Halifax. This did not take into account the numerous others who, employed 2 6 in domestic service, police forces, or on newspaper s t a f f s , regularly worked on Sunday. The railway's p o t e n t i a l recreational value posed a further threat to the Sabbath. By the late 1870s, railway companies were joining the p o t e n t i a l l y l u c r a t i v e excursion 27 business. Excursions, whether by steamship or railway, could 2 8 only be "drunken saturnalia," scenes of r i o t and disorder. In addition to converting the Sabbath into a mere holiday for amusement, these indulgences f a m i l i a r i z e d one's mind to the 29 idea of Sabbath labour. In short, by "rushing and rumbling" from place to place, the railway t r a i n became "a mighty engine for the dishonour of the Lord, the demoralization of the land, and the s p i r i t u a l ruin of those employed i n connection with 2 5PC, APGA, 1876, p. 229. 2 6The Census of 1871 (Table XIII.) l i s t e d 60,104 people employed i n the Domestic Class. By 1881 (Table XIV) t h i s num- ber had r i s e n to 74,830. This class included barbers and hair dressers, bar-keepers, hospital attendants, hotel keepers, laundresses, midwives, as well as household servants. Not a l l may have worked on Sunday. 2 7PC, APGA, 1878, p. c x x v i i ; Ibid., 1882, p. c x l v i i ; Ibid., 1883, p. c l x i i . 2 8 Canada, House of Commons, Debates, 1885, c. 263; Ibid., 1891, c. 1483. 2 9 I b i d . , 1878, c. 727. 35 i t . " 3 0 The P r e s b y t e r i a n church reacted w i t h alarm to the t h r e a t of increased Sabbath labour and pleasure. At the time of the union of the v a r i o u s P r e s b y t e r i a n bodies i n t o the new P r e s b y t e r i a n Church of Canada i n 1875, a Standing Committee on Sabbath Observance was e s t a b l i s h e d to resume the a g i t a t i o n f o r l e g i s l a t i v e enactments. The Committee organized deputations to p r o t e s t government offences, ranging from the members' use of the Commons' l i b r a r y on Sundays to continued labour i n the Post O f f i c e . 3 1 Coincident w i t h these developments, three L i b e r a l Scot- t i s h P r e s b y t e r i a n Members of Parliament, Adam Gordon, Thomas C h r i s t i e , and John C h a r l t o n , introduced b i l l s to prevent Sabbath labour on the canals and t o p r o h i b i t Sunday excursions by steam- 32 ship or r a i l w a y . These b i l l s provoked an unexpected response i n the House. The P r e s b y t e r i a n church had never questioned the c o n s t i - t u t i o n a l a b i l i t y of the f e d e r a l government to pass Sabbath obser- vance l e g i s l a t i o n , s i n c e S e c t i o n 91 of the B r i t i s h North America Act empowered the f e d e r a l government to r e g u l a t e a l l crimes 33 against r e l i g i o n . But the Macdonald government, w i t h - 3 0 P C , APGA, 1888, Appendix No. 14; Church of Scotland, Acts and Proceedings, 1863, p. 74. 3 1PC, APGA, 1879, p. c x l i v . 32 Canada, House of Commons, Debates, 1876, c. 851; I b i d . , 1878, c. 726; I b i d . , 1879, c. 75; I b i d . , 1885, c.46, cc. 256-66. 33 The Confederation Debates d e a l t oniy i n d i r e c t l y w i t h the question of Sabbath observance l e g i s l a t i o n . The B r i t i s h North America Act continued a l l previous l e g i s l a t i o n i n f o r c e 36 out testing the matter i n the courts, decided to declare Sab- bath observance a matter of p r o v i n c i a l rather than federal j u r i s d i c t i o n and so avoid a p o t e n t i a l l y troublesome ethno- 34 r e l i g i o u s issue. The Presbyterian church greeted t h i s i nterpretation with equanimity and even a cert a i n degree of enthusiasm. In the b e l i e f that a l l l e v e l s of government could l e g i s l a t e on the question, the church urged i t s p r o v i n c i a l Sy- nods to agitate at the p r o v i n c i a l as well as at the municipal 35 l e v e l . As a r e s u l t , i n d i v i d u a l Members of Parliament such as A.F. Wood of the Ontario L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, or small groups of S a b b a t a r i a n s , presumably members of p r o v i n c i a l Pres- byterian Synods, brought the matter before p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a - tures . The provinces proved responsive to t h i s lobbying. In i t s 1883 Street Railway Act, the Ontario Legislature forbade Sunday operations by street railway companies chartered under at the time of Confederation. With regard to future l e g i s l a - t i o n , two sections of the B.N.A. Act could be interpreted as applying to Sabbath observance: Section 92, which gave the pro- vinces the r i g h t to l e g i s l a t e upon property and c i v i l r i g h t s ; and Section 91, which empowered the federal government to regulate a l l crimes against r e l i g i o n . 34 Canada, House of Commons, Debates, 1885, c. 266. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that Macdonald expressed t h i s opinion notwithstanding the contrary opinion expressed by the J u d i c i a l Committee of the Privy Council i n 1882 regarding the Canada Temperance Act. See Russell v. the Queen (1882), 7 A.C. 829. 35 The municipal codes of most provinces allowed munici- p a l i t i e s to pass by-laws regulating Sabbath observance: C S . N.B. (1877), c.99, s.96(35); R.S.N.S. (1873), c.57, s.65(15); M.C.S. (1880), c.10, s.10; 22 V i c t . (1859), c.54, s.282 (Ont.); C.S.B.C. (1877), c.127, ,s.36 (30). In Ontario, for example, York County had enacted a by-law that prohibited inhabitants from 3 6 the A ct; i n 1885, i t amended the 1845 A c t to p r o h i b i t Sunday- steamboat o r r a i l w a y passenger e x c u r s i o n s undertaken f o r amuse- 37 ment o r p l e a s u r e o n l y . In 1891, the Nova S c o t i a L e g i s l a t u r e attempted to c o n t r o l the employment of Sabbath labour by amend- ing the 1851 A c t , "Of Offences A g a i n s t R e l i g i o n , " to make i t i l l e g a l f o r a c o r p o r a t i o n to employ or d i r e c t a person "to per- 3 8 form s e r v i l e labour on Sunday." Manitoba passed l e g i s l a t i o n 39 p r o h i b i t i n g Sunday o p e r a t i o n s of any s t r e e t r a i l w a y s , w h ile B r i t i s h Columbia passed a Sunday Observance A c t to apply to the p o r t i o n of the p r o v i n c e "comprised i n the former separate 40 colony o f B r i t i s h Columbia." An ordinance d e a l t with the 41 Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . Only Quebec's stand on the i s s u e seemed ambivalent: on one hand, Montreal's C i t y C o u n c i l c o u l d pass by-laws f o r the proper observance o f the Sabbath, and thus prevent amusement p l a c e s from opening and f o r b i d the s a l e of l i q u o r o f the p l a y i n g of games such as " b i l l i a r d s , p o o l , m i s s i s s i p p i , pigeon-hole, ten p i n s , b a g a t e l l e " i n taverns on hunt ng, f s h i n , o r sw aring a t cows on the Sabbath. J.M.S. C a r e l e s s , Brown of the Globe (Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1959), v o l . I, p. 160. 3 6 4 5 V i c t . (1883), c.16, s.4 (Ont.). 3 7 4 8 V i c t . (1885), c.44 (Ont.). T h i s b i l l was a d u p l i - cate of the b i l l i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the House of Commons i n 188 5 and r e j e c t e d . 3 8 5 4 V i c t . (1891), c.32 (N.S.). 3 9R.S.M. (1891), c.90, s.143. 4 0C.S.B.C. (1888), c.108; I b i d . , c.88, s.87(65). 41R.O.N.W.T. (1888), c.39. 38 Sundays;"1"- on the o t h e r hand, the Quebec L e g i s l a t u r e allowed some expansion o f Sabbath a c t i v i t y by l e g a l i z i n g the s a l e o f cand i e s , f r u i t s , refreshments, c i g a r s , and oth e r s u n d r i e s both 43 i n Montreal and on S t . Helen's I s l a n d . Yet, though i t seemed apparent by the l a t e 1880s t h a t the l e g i s l a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Sabbath observance enact- ments was p a s s i n g to the p r o v i n c e s , the P r e s b y t e r i a n church continued to lobby f o r f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n . I t s t i l l b e l i e v e d t h a t c o n c u r r e n t l e g i s l a t i o n by the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments was both necessary and p o s s i b l e . Although the O n t a r i o government had d e a l t with the problem of r a i l w a y excur- s i o n s , the p r o v i n c e s c o u l d not d e a l with through t r a f f i c on the r a i l w a y s and the problems of Sabbath labour on these i n t e r - 44 p r o v i n c i a l r o u t e s . The church b e l i e v e d t h a t the two l e v e l s of government had the a b i l i t y to pass necessary l e g i s l a t i o n 45 without i n f r i n g i n g on one another's j u r i s d i c t i o n a l r i g h t s . The P r e s b y t e r i a n church t h e r e f o r e pressed f o r the formation o f an a s s o c i a t i o n "of a wider --character r-• e i t h e r c f or e x e c u t i v e pur- 4 2 5 2 V i c t . (1889), c.79, ss.8-11 (Que.). 43 I b i d . , s.9. 4 4 P C , APGA, 1888, Appendix No. 14. 45 In 1886 the f e d e r a l government enacted the f i r s t r e - v i s i o n of the S t a t u t e s o f Canada. "Apparently the law o f f i c e r s of Canada took the view.. . . t h a t i t was d o u b t f u l whether the 1845 Upper Canadian s t a t u t e f e l l w i t h i n the f e d e r a l or p r o v i n - c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . They d i d not sever the s t a t u t e i n any way as they d i d with some oth e r p r e - C o n f e d e r a t i o n s t a t u t e s . In- stead, they l i s t e d the whole of the Upper Canadian s t a t u t e on p r o f a n a t i o n of the Lord's Day as d o u b t f u l , and omitted i t en- t i r e l y f-rom the f i r s t f e d e r a l r e v i s i o n . " O n t a r i o Law Reform poses or to combine the influence of a l l interested parties." The church perceived the lobby as a fo c a l point for the i n f l u - ence of "Christian people of t h i s land," which, by serving as a channel for "inter-denominational and international co-opera- 46 t i o n , " would bring ultimate success. By the la t e 1880s i t was e n t i r e l y possible that the Presbyterian church might enjoy a wide measure of support from other groups, both r e l i g i o u s and secular. While i t expected support from the Methodist church, i t might also a t t r a c t sup- port from the Evangelical Movement within the Church of England that was increasingly w i l l i n g to cooperate with other churches 47 i n t h e i r s o c i a l and moral reform campaigns. Moreover, the evangelical Protestants could well look forward to support from the Roman Catholic hierarchy. The Catholic church was generally 48 favouring s t r i c t e r r e l i g i o u s observance of the Sabbath. American Catholic bishops were advocating campaigns for s t r i c t e r controls on Sabbath a c t i v i t i e s and forbidding excursions and pi c n i c s . In 1880, i n response to an American request, Pope Leo XIII had delivered "an earnest address" to the Roman Catholic Commission, Report on Sunday Observance -Legislation, p. 31. 4 6PC, APGA, 1888, Appendix No. 14. 47 J.W. Grant, The Church i n the Canadian Era (Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1972), p. 7 6 . 48 . . See Aaron I. A b e l l , American Catholicism and Social Action: A Search for Social Justice (Garden C i t y , New York: Hanover House, 1960). 40 49 church opposing Sunday and f e s t i v a l p r o f a n a t i o n . In Quebec, the French C a t h o l i c h i e r a r c h y was a l s o f i n d i n g t h a t e a r l y morn- ing departures kept "people away from churches and made them 50 l o s e a l l s p i r i t of m e d i t a t i o n . " Thus, i n 1880, C a r d i n a l Taschereau of Quebec C i t y had banned "under p a i n of grievous s i n " the f a i t h f u l of h i s d i o c e s e t o take p a r t on Sundays or f e a s t s i n p l e a s u r e e x c u r s i o n s on r a i l w a y s , on steamers, or i n v e h i c l e s . Taschereau agreed w i t h the P r o t e s t a n t churches t h a t experience had shown t h a t such e x c u r s i o n s gave r i s e "to such 51 d i s o r d e r s as intemperance and immorality." The P r e s b y t e r i a n church might a l s o expect c l o s e coop- e r a t i o n from the temperance movement. Although the P r e s b y t e r - i a n s were not opposed to the consumption of l i q u o r seven days a week as were the M e t h o d i s t s , the Sunday s a l e of l i q u o r d i s - t r e s s e d both groups. They had a l r e a d y worked together to secure the passage of an O n t a r i o L i q u o r Act, a l b e i t much ear- l i e r , and i t seemed p l a u s i b l e t h a t e x e c u t i v e membership of the two groups might be o v e r l a p p i n g . Besides the churches and the temperance movement, the P r e s b y t e r i a n church might r e c e i v e support from both o r g a n i z e d 4 9 C i t e d by John C h a r l t o n , "How To P r o v i d e f o r the B e t t e r Observance of the Lord's Day," Speech d e l i v e r e d t o the House of Commons, 26 February 1885, p. 2, LDACP. 50 C i t e d by John C h a r l t o n , Canada, House of Commons, Debates, 1891, c. 751. 5 1Mandement No. 91, 26 A p r i l 1880, c i t e d by C h a r l t o n , I b i d . , c. 750; see a l s o Grant, The Church i n the Canadian E r a , p. 85. 41 l a b o u r and b u s i n e s s . " " I t was e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e t h a t i n c r e a s - i n g c o m p e t i t i o n among manufacturers, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the t e x - t i l e i n d u s t r y , might f o r c e owners to c o n s i d e r Sunday produc- 53 54 t i o n . Labour would thus be ready to support a campaign t h a t would prevent the e x t e n s i o n of the work week to seven days, presumably f o r o n l y s i x days' pay. C o o p e r a t i o n between r e l i - g ious d e p u t a t i o n s and c a n a l workmen had a l r e a d y a v e r t e d the ^'Changes i n the l a b o u r movement's a t t i t u d e towards eco- nomic development i n d i c a t e d "an acceptance of very l a r g e - s c a l e i n d u s t r i a l i s m , a g i t a t i o n f o r s h o r t e r hours, the o c c a s i o n a l use of s t r i k e s and b o y c o t t s , demands f o r w e l f a r e l e g i s l a t i o n -- i n s h o r t , r e c o g n i t i o n o f the e x i s t e n c e of a permanent urban work- i n g c l a s s w i t h i n t e r e s t s p e c u l i a r to i t s e l f . . . " S.E.D. S h o r t t , " S o c i a l Change and P o l i t i c a l C r i s i s i n R u r a l O n t a r i o : The Pa- t r o n s of I n d u s t r y , 1889-1896," i n O l i v e r Mowat's O n t a r i o , p. 229; see a l s o B. O s t r y , " C o n s e r v a t i v e s , L i b e r a l s and Labour i n the 188O's," Canadian J o u r n a l of Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e XXVII (May 1961); a l s o Steven Langdon, The Emergence of the Cana- d i a n Working C l a s s Movement '(Toronto: New Hogtown P r e s s , 1975). 53 See G. Kealey, ed., Canada I n v e s t i g a t e s I n d u s t r i a l i s m (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1973), pp. 198, 367. 54 There i s n o t h i n g t o support the n o t i o n t h a t l a b o u r i n i - t i a t e d the f o r m a t i o n o f t h e A l l i a n c e , an i d e a suggested both by Jean Burnet, "The Urban Community and Changing Moral Standards," i n Urbanism and the Changing Canadian S o c i e t y , ed., S.D. C l a r k (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1961), p. 82, and John Gray, "They're F i g h t i n g to Save What's L e f t of Sunday," Maclean's Magazine, 15 February 19 55. The LDAC c o n t a i n e d o n l y one p i e c e of evidence to support t h i s view, a pamphlet, "The Why and How of the Lord's Day A l l i a n c e of Canada," (n.d., c i r c a 1950), but i t s statement to t h i s e f f e c t seems erroneous. In h i s statement to the LDAC o r g a n i z i n g meeting on A p r i l 20, 1888, W.D. Armstrong, the Convenor of the P r e s b y t e r i a n church's Sabbath Observance Committee, a s s e r t e d t h a t " i n s e e k i n g to b r i n g about t h i s conference he had a c t e d i n obedience t o i n s t r u c t i o n s of the General Assembly of the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church." LDAC, Minutes, 20 A p r i l 1888, LDAC, MB 1888-1901. The P r e s b y t e r i a n church's g e n e r a l wariness i n s e e k i n g the c o o p e r a t i o n of l a b o u r b o d i e s , and the f a i l u r e of the LDAC to do so c a s t s doubts on the v a l i d i t y of Burnet's and Gray's statements. See a l s o E.A. 42 opening of the Welland Canal on Sunday i n the e a r l y 187 0s. For i t s p a r t , the churches would probably support l a b o u r ' s p e t i t i o n s f o r a reduced work day, a t l e a s t on Saturdays. As the P r e s b y t e r i a n church was f u l l y aware, f a c t o r y employees who r e c e i v e d t h e i r wages a t 7 o ' c l o c k Saturday n i g h t were f o r c e d to do t h e i r shopping t h a t evening. R e t a i l b u s i n e s s e s thus remained open u n t i l midnight f o r t h i s t r a d e , i n c a p a c i t a t i n g many from attendance a t Sunday morning w o r s h i p . ^ For t h e i r p a r t , s m a l l r e t a i l merchants would support the E a r l y Saturday c l o s i n g move- ment as p a r t of t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e " f l i g h t from c o m p e t i t i o n . " E a r l y c l o s i n g movements, which had appeared i n the 1860s, be- came a " r e g u l a r f e a t u r e of m u n i c i p a l b u s i n e s s l i f e i n the 1880s 57 and 1890s"; s u p p o r t i n g such a movement, merchants r e i n f o r c e d t h e i r t a c i t support of a q u i e t Sunday. With a l l t h i s p o t e n t i a l support, the 188 7 General As- sembly of the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church a u t h o r i z e d the Convenor of C h r i s t i e , "The O f f i c i a l A t t i t u d e s and Opinions of the P r e s b y t e r - i a n Church i n Canada w i t h Respect to P u b l i c A f f a i r s and S o c i a l Problems, 1875-1925"'' (M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1955); see a l s o Graeme D e c a r i e , "Something Old, Something New. . .: Aspects of P r o h i b i t i o n i s m i n O n t a r i o i n the 1890s," i n O l i v e r Mowat's O n t a r i o , p. 167. 5 5 D . J . O'Donoghue to A.G. B l a i r , 11 June 1898, PAC, LP, C757, p. 24278. 5 6 P C , APGA, 1886, Appendix No. 32. 57 M. B l i s s , "The P r o t e c t i v e Impulse: An Approach to the S o c i a l H i s t o r y of O l i v e r Mowat's O n t a r i o , " i n O l i v e r Mowat's O n t a r i o , p. 174; see a l s o , Ian F. J o b l i n g , " U r b a n i z a t i o n and Sport i n Canada, 1867-1900," i n Canadian Sport: S o c i o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s , eds., R. Gruneau and J . A l b i n s o n (Don M i l l s , O n t a r i o : Addison-Wesley (Canada) L t d . , 1976), p. 71. 43 i t s Sabbath Observance Committee to b r i n g together a group of i n f l u e n t i a l laymen and c l e r g y from o t h e r P r o t e s t a n t denomina- 5 8 t i o n s to d i s c u s s the f o r m a t i o n of a lobby. A f t e r c o n s i d e r - a b l e n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h the Methodist and A n g l i c a n churches, Reverend W.D. Armstrong brought together twelve c l e r g y and e i g h t laymen a t Ottawa's C i t y H a l l on the evening of A p r i l 20, 1888. In a d d i t i o n to ten P r e s b y t e r i a n s and f o u r Methodists p r e s e n t , there were a l s o three e v a n g e l i c a l A n g l i c a n s . Together these men planned the formation of the Lord's Day A l l i a n c e of Canada (LDAC). The f i r s t p r i o r i t y was the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a committee to examine the l e g a l aspect of the Sabbath q u e s t i o n . Proposed l e g i s l a t i o n would " b r i n g employers o f l a b o u r , whether i n d i v i - d ual or c o r p o r a t i o n s , w i t h i n reach of the law." Such l e g i s l a - t i o n , by a p p l y i n g to Dominion c o r p o r a t i o n s , g e n e r a l r a i l w a y t r a f f i c , and c a n a l s b e l o n g i n g to the Dominion, and the manage- ment of the p o s t a l s e r v i c e , would be " i n the h i g h e s t sense, necessary f o r promoting peace, o r d e r and good government i n the Dominion of Canada." Offences would be punished as misdemeanours 59 under c r i m x n a l law. The proposed o p e r a t i o n s of the A l l i a n c e showed t h a t the 5 8 P C , APGA, 1887, Appendix No. 15. 5 9LDAC, C i r c u l a r , 1889, i n LDAC, SB 1858-1928; LDAC, meeting of 20 A p r i l 1888, LDAC, MB 1888-1901; PC, APGA, 1888, Appendix No. 14; Canada, House of Commons, Debates, 1890, c. 1478. For a comment on the a t t i t u d e of s o c i a l and moral reform p r e s s u r e groups towards the C r i m i n a l Code, see R.C. Macleod, "The Shaping of Canadian C r i m i n a l Law, 1892 to 1902," Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , H i s t o r i c a l Papers, 1978, p. 71. f o u n d e r s had some a w a r e n e s s o f t h e r e q u i s i t e s o f s u c c e s s f u l l o b b y i n g . They p r o p o s e d t o f o r m t h e A l l i a n c e a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f t h e D o m i n i o n A l l i a n c e f o r t h e T o t a l S u p p r e s s i o n o f t h e L i - q u o r T r a f f i c , w h i c h had l o b b i e d s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r t h e p a s s a g e 6 0 o f t h e Canada Temperance A c t t e n y e a r s e a r l i e r . The A l l i a n c e was t o be a n a t i o n a l l o b b y and any e x i s t i n g p r o v i n c i a l S a b b a t - a r i a n a s s o c i a t i o n s w o u l d a p p o i n t d e l e g a t e s t o t h e n a t i o n a l e x e c u t i v e as c o r r e s p o n d i n g members. The E x e c u t i v e w o u l d assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c r e a t i n g p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s i n 61 Quebec and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a where none e x i s t e d . The B o a r d a l s o a r r a n g e d f o r d e l e g a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m t h e B r i t i s h P r o - t e s t a n t d e n o m i n a t i o n s : f o r t y - t h r e e f r o m t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n c h u r c h , t h i r t y - t h r e e f r o m t h e A n g l i c a n , t e n f r o m t h e M e t h o d i s t , s e v e n f r o m t h e B a p t i s t , f i v e f r o m t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n a l , and two 6 2 f r o m t h e Reformed E p i s c o p a l i a n . T h e s e members a l o n e had v o t i n g p r i v i l e g e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e members, t h e A l l i a n c e p r o v i d e d f o r o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s o f membership. Hon- o r a r y members w o u l d be " e m i n e n t w o r k e r s f o r t h e p r o m o t i o n o f S a b b a t h o b s e r v a n c e . " G e n e r a l members w o u l d be a l l t h o s e "who 6 3 a c c e p t t h e b a s i s o f t h e A l l i a n c e and c o n t r i b u t e t o i t s f u n d s . " LDAC, M i n u t e s o f E x e c u t i v e Committee, 2 A p r i l 1889, LDAC, MB 1888-1901. 61 T. I b x d . 6 2 LDAC, M i n u t e s o f E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e / 21 March-1889, I b i d , LDAC M i n u t e s do n o t i n d i c a t e t h e r e a s o n i n g b e h i n d t h i s a l l o c a - t i o n o f d e n o m i n a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . 6 3 L D A C , C i r c u l a r , A p r i l 188 9, LDACP. 45 Although the r e l i g i o u s basis of membership r e s t r i c t e d the constituency from which the A l l i a n c e might draw a general membership, i t did plan to broaden i t s base by establishing 64 contact with "interested p a r t i e s , " both r e l i g i o u s and secu- l a r . The Board hoped to benefit from the change i n the French Roman Catholic hierarchy's a t t i t u d e towards Sabbath observance. Aware of the statements made by the Quebec bishops, the A l l i - ance agreed to seek the cooperation of the h i e r a r c h y . ^ A l - though A l l i a n c e i n s t i n c t s favoured a close association with members of the L i b e r a l p a r t y , ^ i t also t r i e d to e s t a b l i s h contact with the Conservative party and generally broaden i t s lobbying techniques. In 1888 i t appointed a Conservative, the Honourable G.W. Allan,. Speaker of the Senate and Chancellor of T r i n i t y College, as President. In addition to making arrange- ments to meet during the Parliamentary session " i n order to bring influence to bear," i t appointed a committee to consider PC, APGA, 1888, Appendix No. 14; see also A l l e n Potter, Organized Groups i n B r i t i s h National P o l i t i c s (London: Faber & Faber, 1961), p. 134. This basis of membership d i f f e r e d s l i g h t l y from that used by the 1850s groups: "The basis of th i s A l l i a n c e i s the Divine authority and the universal and perpetual o b l i g a t i o n of the Sabbath, as ordained by God at the creation of the world, enjoined i n the Fourth Commandment of the Moral Law, and continued and maintained by the Church of God to the present day, a"nd as e s s e n t i a l to the best p h y s i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , moral and s o c i a l welfare of mankind." LDAC, C i r c u l a r , A p r i l 1889. 6 5 LDAC, Minutes of Executive Committee, 21 March 1889. Biographical information (Appendix II) concerning the LDAC executive members i n 1888 led to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of f i v e L i b e r a l Members of Parliament, one L i b e r a l President of the Ottawa Reform Association, one other L i b e r a l , and only one Conservative. See also Chapter I, pp. 17-18, re the 46 ways of persuading i n f l u e n t i a l men i n i n d i v i d u a l r i d i n g s to i n t e r v i e w t h e i r Members of Parliament on the A l l i a n c e ' s be- 6 7 h a l f . And, although the A l l i a n c e intended to r e l y h e a v i l y on the p e t i t i o n , i t spoke of mounting both a press campaign and an enforcement campaign to r a l l y support and p u b l i c i z e the 6 8 A l l i a n c e ' s e x i s t e n c e and purpose. Yet, l i k e i t s predecessors i n the 1850s, the Lord's Day A l l i a n c e proved ephemeral. To most m i n i s t e r s and to the church h i e r a r c h i e s , Sabbath observance continued to be but one of a multitude of concerns. Within the movement i t s e l f , there was a s i n g u l a r l a c k of focus on one d e c i s i v e i s s u e t h a t could serve as a c a t a l y s t to s t i m u l a t e the movement i n t o aggressive a c t i o n . I s o l a t e d l a b o u r on the canals or i n the post o f f i c e s d i d not bother the m a j o r i t y of Canadians or r e a l l y i n t e r f e r e w i t h the work of r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r s . Despite S a b b a t a r i a n r h e t o r i c , a Sunday of the e a r l y 1890s was e x a c t l y the k i n d of Sabbatarian a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h the L i b e r a l p a r t y . See a l s o B r i a n H a r r i s o n , "State I n t e r v e n t i o n and Moral Reform i n Nineteenth- Century England," i n Pressure from Without i n E a r l y V i c t o r i a n England, ed., P a t r i c i a H o l l i s (London: Edward Arnold L t d . , 1974), p. 296: " I t i s i n f a c t the L i b e r a l p a r t y which i s the most c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h V i c t o r i a n i n t e r v e n t i o n i s m i n the moral sphere. . . . L i b e r a l non-conformists were o f t e n impres- sed by the chapel's need f o r p r o t e c t i o n against r e c r e a t i o n a l c o m p e t i t i o n , and by the need t o introduce i n t o n a t i o n a l l e g i s - l a t i o n the ' r e l i g i o u s s o c i a l i s m ' of the l o c a l chapel and i t s s t r i c t s u p e r v i s i o n of moral conduct." 6 7 P C , APGA, 1888, Appendix No. 14; LDAC, Minutes of Exe- c u t i v e .Committee, 5 May 1890, LDAC, MB 1888-1901; - a l s o M i n u t e s , 23 June 1892, I b i d . 6 8LDAC, C i r c u l a r , A p r i l 1889. day most Sabbath observance supporters could d e s i r e . In 1889, f o r example, the Sabbath Observance Committee of the Presby- t e r i a n church sent out questionnaires to the p r o v i n c i a l synods e n q u i r i n g about the extent of Sabbath d e s e c r a t i o n throughout the land. On the b a s i s of the r e p l i e s , the Committee concluded 6 9 that "as a whole t h i s i s a Sabbath-keeping land." The major- i t y of complaints concerned i n d i v i d u a l moral v i o l a t i o n s such as v i s i t i n g , hunting, f i s h i n g , pleasure d r i v i n g , the reading of s e c u l a r l i t e r a t u r e , and "the undue indulgence i n sleep on Sabbath morning." Although about 18 percent of the labour for c e d i d work on Sunday, few complaints i n f a c t d e a l t w i t h 70 the employment of labour or Sunday trade. Contemporary sources confirm t h i s impression of Sab- bath q u i e t . In her weekly column i n Saturday Night, Lady Gay wondered, on September 1 s t , 1894, i f those i n t h e i r homes up town r e a l i z e d the: grimness which Toronto shows to her Sunday guests. ... On Sunday, the wide bare s t r e e t s are s t i l l , a few men, fewer g i r l s l o a f or lounge; the h o t e l guest d r i v e s through a wilderness of grim s i l e n c e and i f I were the h o t e l guest, I t h i n k I'd stay i n bed a l l day. (71) B r i t i s h guests to the c i t y agreed w i t h her and complained b i t - t e r l y of the "melancholy and s u i c i d a l " nature of the Canadian PC, APGA, 1890, Appendix No. 35. See Appendix I to t h i s t h e s i s . Saturday Night, 1 September 1894. 48 72 Sunday. W r i t i n g i n 1895, one s u c h v i s i t o r , D o u g l a s S l a d e n , c o m p l a i n e d t h a t T o r o n t o was "one o f t h e most u n p l e a s a n t l y . . 73 r i g h t e o u s c i t i e s I was e v e r c a u g h t i n on a Sunday." The o n l y e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s g e n e r a l p a t t e r n were B r i - t i s h C o l u m b i a and Quebec. I n 188 9, t h e Synod o f C o l u m b i a had t h e d a r k e s t r e p o r t o f a l l f o r t h e G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y : f r e i g h t t r a i n s worked on Sundays as on o t h e r d a y s , e x c u r s i o n t r a i n s r a n between V a n c o u v e r and New W e s t m i n s t e r , and s t e a m b o a t s p l i e d t h e g u l f w a t e r s . B o t h V a n c o u v e r and V i c t o r i a h ad Sunday p a p e r s . The p o s t o f f i c e s were open as were s a l o o n s e v e r y w h e r e i n t h e p r o v i n c e , e x c e p t V a n c o u v e r c i t y ; p e o p l e h u n t e d and f i s h e d and p l a y e d a l l s o r t s o f open a i r games. T e a m s t e r s , m i n e r s , and dockmen g e n e r a l l y made no d i s t i n c t i o n between Sab- 74 b a t h d a y s and o t h e r d a y s . I n M o n t r e a l , " t h e customs o f t h e F r e n c h Roman C a t h o l i c s " were g e n e r a l on Sunday a f t e r n o o n . As t h e M o n t r e a l S t a r d e s c r i b e d i t , " M o n t r e a l has Sunday c a r s ; i t has t h e Sunday c o n c e r t g a r d e n , and has s e e n an a t t e m p t a t t h e Sunday t h e a t r e and a t t h e Sunday p a p e r . The Sunday s a l o o n a l s o t h r i v e s . " I n t h e summer, Sohmner P a r k drew t h o u s a n d s o f p i c n i c k e r s , w h i l e i n w i n t e r i c e - s k a t i n g r i n k s were t h e m a i n 72 W.T. C r o s s w e l l e r , Our V i s i t t o T o r o n t o , t h e N i a g a r a F a l l s , and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a ( p r i v a t e l y p r i n t e d , 1898), pp. 69-70, c i t e d by B u r n e t , "The U r b a n Community," p. 83. 73 D. S l a d e n , On t h e C a r s and O f f (London, 1895), p. 154, c i t e d by B u r n e t , p. 85. 7 4 P C , APGA, 1889, A p p e n d i x No. 14. 75 C i t e d by C h r i s t i a n G u a r d i a n , 16 December 1891; PC, APGA, 1891, A p p e n d i x No. 32. a t t r a c t i o n . D e s p i t e i t s s e e m i n g a w a r e n e s s o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f s u c c e s s f u l l o b b y i n g , t h e A l l i a n c e f a i l e d t o e s t a b l i s h i t s e l f a s an i n t e r d e n o m i n a t i o n a l g r o u p w i t h a b r o a d b a s e o f s e c u l a r and r e l i g i o u s s u p p o r t . F o r one t h i n g , i t c o n t i n u e d i t s c l o s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n c h u r c h . A l t h o u g h t h e A l l i a n c e e s t a b l i s h e d a n a t i o n a l e x e c u t i v e and a p p o r t i o n e d d e l e - g a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o t h e v a r i o u s d e n o m i n a t i o n s , t h e P r e s b y - t e r i a n c h u r c h c o n t i n u e d t o be t h e e f f e c t i v e a g e n c y f o r t h e c i r c u l a t i o n o f p e t i t i o n s and t h e d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f c o o p e r a t i o n among t h e v a r i o u s denomina- t i o n s p r o v e d l i m i t e d . The M e t h o d i s t c h u r c h d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e most w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o o p e r a t e and e x p r e s s e d i t s warm s u p p o r t o f t h e e n d e a v o u r , a n n o u n c i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a S t a n d i n g Committee 7 6 on S a b b a t h O b s e r v a n c e t o s u p p l e m e n t i t s e f f o r t . The C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d a t f i r s t r e s p o n d e d c o r d i a l l y t o P r e s b y t e r i a n i n i t i a - t i v e s . A r c h d e a c o n L a u d e r o f O t t a w a p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e o r g a n - i z a t i o n o f t h e A l l i a n c e and p r e s e n t e d t o -the m e e t i n g o f A p r i l 20, 1888 a l e t t e r f r o m t h e A n g l i c a n b i s h o p s " s t a t i n g t h e i r 7 7 r e a d i n e s s t o c o - o p e r a t e i n t h i s movement." The D o m i n i o n Synod 7 8 a l s o _ : p a s s e d a r e s o l u t i o n l a u d i n g A l l i a n c e a c t i v i t i e s . B u t , 7 6 M e t h o d i s t G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e , " R e p o r t o f S a b b a t h O b s e r - v a n c e Committee," J o u r n a l o f P r o c e e d i n g s , 18 90, pp. 298-299; LDAC, M i n u t e s , 22 May 1891, LDAC, MB 1888-1901. 7 7 L D A C , M i n u t e s , 20 A p r i l 1888, I b i d . 7 8 Canada, House o f Commons, D e b a t e s , 1890, c. 1478. 50 unable t o s u s t a i n i t s enthusiasm f o r what seemed a purely Pres- b y t e r i a n concern, A n g l i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n faded by the mid 1890s. Although G.W. A l l a n continued as P r e s i d e n t , no o f f i c i a l repre- s e n t a t i v e of the A n g l i c a n church attended board meetings. The A l l i a n c e was even l e s s s u c c e s s f u l i n i t s attempts to gain the approval of the Roman C a t h o l i c h i e r a r c h y . Although the A l l i a n c e Secretary interviewed C a r d i n a l Taschereau i n 1890 to request o f f i c i a l C a t h o l i c assent t o the lo b b y i n g , the Bishops of Montreal, Quebec, and Ottawa refused to express t h e i r views, without volun- 79 t e e r i n g an e x p l a n a t i o n , on a Sabbath observance b i l l . The Roman C a t h o l i c emphasis remained on church d i s c i p l i n e r a t h e r than on c i v i l laws. L i k e the 1850 groups, the A l l i a n c e d i d not e s t a b l i s h an o f f i c e nor d i d i t h i r e any permanent s t a f f to oversee and co- o r d i n a t e a c t i v i t i e s . I t d i d not secure l e g a l a s s i s t a n c e or the s e r v i c e s of a s o l i c i t o r . I t n e i t h e r attempted to enforce e x i s t - i n g laws nor d i d i t take any cases to court to t e s t the law's e n f o r c e a b i l i t y . I t made no e f f o r t to finance i t s a c t i v i t i e s other than to ask the churches f o r c o n t r i b u t i o n s when neces- 8 0 sary. As before, the A l l i a n c e r e l i e d s o l e l y on the c i r c u l a - t i o n of p e t i t i o n s among B r i t i s h P r o t e s t a n t church congregations to demonstrate support f o r i t s cause and d i d not e f f e c t i v e l y LDAC, Minutes of Executive Committee, 2 0 March 1890, LDAC, MB 1888-1901. 8 0LDAC, Minutes of Annual Meeting, 20 March 1889, I b i d . In 1893, f o r example, the A l l i a n c e operated on a $50.00 budget, c o l l e c t i n g $15.00 from the Church of England, $15.00 from the Methodist church, and $20.00 from the P r e s b y t e r i a n church; LDAC, Minutes of Executive Committee, 28 March 1893, I b i d . 51 pursue other methods of i n f l u e n c i n g the government.°x The A l l i a n c e took no steps towards the establishment of a general membership, nor d i d i t endeavour to mount a campaign aimed at the secular press. In a d d i t i o n , the A l l i a n c e made no attempt to f o l l o w up i t s r e s o l u t i o n t o seek contact w i t h other groups t h a t might support i t . R e f l e c t i n g the P r e s b y t e r i a n church's c o n t i n u i n g h o s t i l i t y t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n of labour, the A l l i a n c e made no e f f o r t to forge a bond w i t h the n a t i o n a l Trades and Labor Con- gress. Although i t pledged i t s e l f to the sec u l a r aim of secur- i n g "to the t o i l i n g man h i s r i g h t f u l c l a i m t o one day's r e s t i n seven" and res o l v e d to i n v i t e the cooperation of labour a s s o c i a - 8 2 t i o n s , any commitment by A l l i a n c e members t o t h i s s o c i a l aim was purely r h e t o r i c a l . I t d e l i b e r a t e l y turned i t s back on a whole c l a s s of p o t e n t i a l supporters, n e g l e c t i n g to lobby the Congress a t i t s annual meetings or opening d i s c u s s i o n i n any other manner. Nor d i d i t pursue the i n t e r e s t expressed by the Pr e s b y t e r i a n church i n a re d u c t i o n of the work week t o f i v e and a h a l f days i n the hope th a t t h i s might encourage a b e t t e r a t t e n - dance at church the f o l l o w i n g day. For i t s p a r t , the Congress d i d not i n i t i a t e any contact w i t h the A l l i a n c e . Although i t d i d UJ"LDAC, Minutes of Executive Committee, 14 A p r i l 1891, I b i d . D i s t r i b u t i o n of p e t i t i o n s : 3,200 each to P r e s b y t e r i a n and Methodist churches; 400 each to A n g l i c a n , B a p t i s t , and Con- g r e g a t i o n a l churches; 100 to the Reformed E p i s c o p a l i a n church. The LDACP do not i n d i c a t e the response r e c e i v e d by the A l l i a n c e to the c i r c u l a t i o n of these p e t i t i o n s . 8 2 LDAC, Minutes of Executive Committee, 22 May 1891, I b i d . 8 3 r a i s e the Sunday work i s s u e a t i t s annual congresses, t h i s i s s u e was not the most urgent matter f a c i n g the Congress, whose focus l a y on the reduced work day. The A l l i a n c e a l s o made no c o n t a c t w i t h the temperance groups and t h u s f a i l e d t o b e n e f i t from t h e i r l o b b y i n g experience. The Dominion Temperance A l l i - ance, f o r example, a l r e a d y l o b b y i n g the Trades and Labor Con- gr e s s , had opened an o f f i c e and employed a p a i d s t a f f o f f i c e r . Although the LDAC d e l i b e r a t e l y p a t t e r n e d i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n on the Dominion A l l i a n c e , i t e s t a b l i s h e d no d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h t h i s group, nor d i d i t r e c r u i t a d e l e g a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o i t s 84 board. Such r e l u c t a n c e r e f l e c t e d r e l i g i o u s h o s t i l i t y t o the promotion by temperance s o c i e t i e s of s e c u l a r Sunday a f t e r n o o n a c t i v i t i e s such as temperance meetings, p i c n i c s , and pro- 85 c e s s i o n s . In s h o r t , d e s p i t e i t s name, the LDAC d i d not become ah a l l i a n c e and i t was a n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o n l y i n so f a r as i t sought f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n . Not o n l y d i d i t not pursue i t s own plans f o r a n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , but i t proved u n r e c e p t i v e to the approaches of p r o v i n c i a l groups. When, f o r example, a Toronto-based group asked f o r c o o p e r a t i o n i n 1895, the LDAC 8 3 Trades and Labor Congress o f Canada, Proceedings, 188 8 p. 26; I b i d . , 1890, p. 31. 8 4LDAC, Minutes, 20 A p r i l 1888, LDAC, MB 1888-1901. The one prominent temperance worker on the LDAC board was John Mac- m i l l a n of Toronto, a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Sons of Temperance. 8 5 See Burnet, "The Urban Community," pp. 86-7. 53 8 6 h e s i t a t e d and t h e n r e f u s e d . As a c o n s e q u e n c e o f i t s f a i l u r e t o o b t a i n a w ide n e t - work o f s u p p o r t , t h e A l l i a n c e became i d e n t i f i e d , on a n a t i o n a l l e v e l , s o l e l y w i t h t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y a c t i v i t i e s o f J o h n C h a r l t o n , L i b e r a l Member f o r N o r t h N o r f o l k , O n t a r i o . I n l a t e r y e a r s , one A l l i a n c e o r g a n i z e r w o u l d remember i t s e f f o r t s as b e i n g " r e - s t r i c t e d a l m o s t a l t o g e t h e r t o a s s i s t i n g J o h n C h a r l t o n , M.P. i n b r i n g i n g h i s p r o p o s e d L o r d ' s Day A c t s b e f o r e t h e P a r l i a m e n t s 87 o f C anada." B o r n o f S c o t t i s h i m m i g r a n t f a r m e r s , C h a r l t o n remembered h i s c h i l d h o o d S a b b a t h s as a s u c c e s s i o n o f glum, h u m o u r l e s s d a y s . U n a b l e t o f i n d l o c a l r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s t o h i s l i k i n g , C h a r l t o n ' s f a t h e r , a member o f t h e s t r i c t C a l v i n i s t A s s o c i a t e R e f o r m e d c h u r c h , c o n d u c t e d c h u r c h s e r v i c e s i n h i s home. A f t e r m o r n i n g w o r s h i p and c h o r e s , t h e f a m i l y a s s e m b l e d t o h e a r t h e e l d e r C h a r l t o n r e a d a sermon. A f t e r a p l a i n , e a s i l y p r e p a r e d noon d i n n e r , f a m i l y w o r s h i p recommenced w i t h t h e r e a d i n g o f a n o t h e r l o n g sermon. The s h o r t e r c a t e c h i s m and e v e n i n g w o r s h i p f o l l o w e d a f r u g a l s u p p e r . A l t h o u g h t h e " b i l l o f t h e o l o g i c a l f a r e was a l w a y s sound and wholesome," ft fi G. M c R i t c h i e t o A . E . O'Meara, 25 J a n u a r y 1895, i n LDAC, MB 1888-1901: " I t was s u g g e s t e d (by t h e LDAC Board) t h a t w h i l e a P r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r a s p e c i f i c . p u r p o s e . . . w o u l d work i n t h e same l i n e as t h a t o f t h e LDA i t w o u l d be t h e w i s e r c o u r s e t o m a i n t a i n o u r own A l l i a n c e and a c c e p t any c o - o p e r a t i o n i n t h e g o o d work y o u c o u l d g i v e t o u s . I f , however, y o u saw p r o p e r t o work t h r o u g h t h e e x i s t i n g A l l i a n c e and t h u s s t r e n g t h e n i t , any m o d i f i c a t i o n s y o u m i g h t s u g g e s t w o u l d be d u l y c o n s i d e r e d . " 8 7 A n o n . , l e t t e r o f 31 M a r c h 1906, LDACP. 54 C h a r l t o n r e c a l l e d i t as a " t r i f l e heavy f o r the c h i l d r e n . " He never "looked forward to the coming of the Sabbath with any s p e c i a l a n t i c i p a t i o n of p l e a s u r e , " nor d i d he have "a very keen r e l i s h f o r the e x e r c i s e s of the day." Often h i s f a t h e r chose him to read the a f t e r n o o n sermon to r e s t o r e him to a " c o n d i t i o n of wakefulness." R e s i s t i n g h i s f a t h e r ' s e f f o r t s to persuade him to become a m i n i s t e r , C h a r l t o n entered mercan- t i l e l i f e i n s t e a d . Only a t the age of twenty, a f t e r moving w i t h h i s f a m i l y to the town of Ayr, O n t a r i o , d i d he begin to " d e r i v e some enjoyment from r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s and the company of r e l i g i o u s persons." But a fondness f o r humour and fun and "the i d e a t h a t r e l i g i o n was gloomy and gave no p l e a s u r e " p r e - vented him from j o i n i n g a church f o r another ten y e a r s . At t h a t time, e x p e r i e n c i n g an awakening a t a Methodist r e v i v a l meeting and d e c i d i n g t h a t i t was h i s "duty, as w e l l as a g r e a t p r i v i l e g e " to p r o f e s s f a i t h , he j o i n e d the P r e s b y t e r i a n c h u r c h . 8 8 As the "courage and vim of youth" vanished and a sense of duty s u p p l i e d "to a g r e a t extent the p l a c e of hope," C h a r l - ton p l a c e d g r e a t e r s t r e s s i n h i s p r i v a t e and p u b l i c l i f e on 8 9 e v a n g e l i c a l r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s . Throughout h i s a d u l t l i f e as a lumber merchant and p o l i t i c i a n , C h a r l t o n always managed to 8 8 John C h a r l t o n , "Autobiography," (n.d., c i r c a 1905), C h a r l t o n Papers, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, Thomas F i s h e r Rare Book Room, pp. 27, 110. 8 9 I b i d . , p. 412. 55 be a t home on t h e S a b b a t h . H i s u s u a l r o u t i n e c o n s i s t e d o f a t t e n d a n c e a t m o r n i n g w o r s h i p , a f t e r n o o n Sunday s c h o o l c l a s s and t h e r e a d i n g o f sermons, and p u b l i c w o r s h i p once a g a i n i n t h e e v e n i n g . As h i s one " s a f e g u a r d a g a i n s t b r e a k i n g down" i n a l i f e o f " i n c e s s a n t a c t i v i t y , " C h a r l t o n f o u n d t h e s e S a b b a t h a c t i v i t i e s " r e s t f u l and i n v i g o r a t i n g . " The o n l y n o n - r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t y he m i g h t o c c a s i o n a l l y a l l o w h i m s e l f was an a f t e r n o o n 90 v i s i t w i t h h i s a i l i n g f a t h e r . Becoming a c t i v e on t h e com- m i t t e e s o f t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y a t t h e same t i m e as he e n t e r e d P a r l i a m e n t , C h a r l t o n s t r o v e t o t r a n s l a t e h i s r e l i g i o u s and m o r a l i d e a s i n t o p o l i t i c a l l e g i s l a t i o n . He made h i m s e l f champion o f s u c h m o r a l r e f o r m c a u s e s as t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f c r u e l t y t o a n i m a l s and t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f young f e m a l e s 91 a g a i n s t s e d u c t i o n u n d e r p r o m i s e o f m a r r i a g e . Upon t h e d e a t h o f Adam G o r d o n , he became r e s p o n s i b l e w i t h D r . Thomas C h r i s t i e f o r i n t r o d u c i n g S a b b a t h o b s e r v a n c e b i l l s i n t o t h e House. H i s i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a b i l l i n 1884 and a g a i n i n 1885 t o p r o h i b i t s t e a m s h i p and r a i l w a y e x c u r s i o n s p r o mpted M a c d o n a l d ' s d e c i s i o n t o d e c l a r e S a b b a t h o b s e r v a n c e l e g i s l a t i o n u l t r a v i r e s t h e 90 I b i d . , p . 533; a l s o J o h n C h a r l t o n , " D i a r i e s , " J o h n C h a r l t o n P a p e r s , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , Thomas F i s h e r R a r e Book Room, v o l . I l l , e n t r i e s o f 1 A p r i l 1888, 15 A p r i l 1888, 29 A p r i l 1888. 91 B o t h a b i l l t o p r e v e n t c a t t l e f r o m b e i n g c o n f i n e d t o r a i l w a y c a r s l o n g e r t h a n t w e n t y - e i g h t h o u r s and a n o t h e r t o p r o t e c t young g i r l s u n d e r age 16 f r o m s e d u c t i o n u n d e r p r o m i s e o f m a r r i a c r e o r mock m a r r i a g e p a s s e d t h e House; f o r some d i s - c u s s i o n o f C h a r l t o n ' s p r o m o t i o n o f t h e s e b i l l s , s e e R.R. H e t t , " J o h n C h a r l t o n : L i b e r a l P o l i t i c i a n and F r e e T r a d e A d v o c a t e " (Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f R o c h e s t e r , 1 969). 56 f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . B e l i e v i n g f i r m l y t h a t f e d e r a l l e g i s l a - t i o n was e s s e n t i a l to c o n t r o l Sabbath labour on Dominion works ( r a i l w a y s , c a n a l s , and the Post O f f i c e ) , C h a r l t o n i n f l u e n c e d the P r e s b y t e r i a n church's d e t e r m i n a t i o n to continue l o b b y i n g the f e d e r a l government. As a V i c e P r e s i d e n t of the newly- formed Lord's Day A l l i a n c e , he agreed to i n t r o d u c e a g e n e r a l Sabbath observance b i l l i n 1890. The b i l l i n c o r p o r a t e d the core o f the 1845 Upper Canada A c t as w e l l as two new c l a u s e s — one t h a t made the employer of Sabbath labour g u i l t y of a misdemeanour and one t h a t made both the p u b l i s h e r and vendor 92 of a Sunday newspaper l i a b l e to p r o s e c u t i o n . Although t h i s b i l l f a i l e d t o g a i n approval o f the House, C h a r l t o n continued to i n t r o d u c e Sabbath observance b i l l s . H is 18 91 v e r s i o n was a m o d i f i c a t i o n of the pr e v i o u s year's b i l l , and h i s 1892 b i l l , 93 a y e t more "watered-down v e r s i o n , " d e a l t p r i n c i p a l l y w i t h the c l o s i n g o f c a n a l s , r a i l w a y s , and newspaper s a l e s . Debate on t h i s b i l l dragged on u n t i l i t was defe a t e d in-1898. C h a r l - ton a l s o i n t r o d u c e d a motion, i n 1893, to c l o s e the Canadian p o r t i o n of the Columbia E x p o s i t i o n i n Chicago on Sunday, but 94 the House r e j e c t e d i t a f t e r a lengthy debate. C h a r l t o n ' s views on Sabbath observance were n e i t h e r o r i g i n a l nor i n n o v a t i v e , but r a t h e r r e p e t i t i o n s of American 92 Canada, House of Commons, Debates, 18 90, c. 147 9. 93 O n t a r i o Law Reform Commission, Report, p. 37. 94 Canada, House of Commons, Debates, 1893, c c . 2217-44. arguments a l r e a d y i n use f o r t h i r t y or f o r t y y e a r s . But, although he borrowed h e a v i l y from these sources to s t r u c t u r e h i s arguments c o n c e r n i n g the needs and b e n e f i t s of a r e l i g i o u s Sabbath, C h a r l t o n ' s arguments and a t t i t u d e s r e f l e c t e d those o f most Canadian S a b b a t a r i a n s . In a world o f r a p i d s o c i a l and economic change, many c l u n g to t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s i n an e f f o r t to comprehend and c o n t r o l these changes. C h a r l t o n ' s r h e t o r i c e s t a b l i s h e d the v i s i o n of an i d e a l Sabbath-observing n a t i o n . Sabbath observance l e g i s l a t i o n was the c o n s e r v a t i v e panacea f o r a l l s o c i a l i l l s . I t would secure s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y and e r a d i c a t e n i h i l i s m , anarchism, and s o c i a l i s m by keeping the 96 l a b o u r e r i n h i s proper p l a c e w i t h i n a p a t e r n a l i s t i c s o c i e t y . Not o n l y would such l e g i s l a t i o n p r e s e r v e the b e s t o f Canada's B r i t i s h i n h e r i t a n c e by a s s e r t i n g the dominance of P r o t e s t a n t "'"''in 1893, C h a r l t o n r e p r e s e n t e d Canada a t a Congress on Sunday r e s t h e l d i n Chicago as p a r t o f the Columbia E x p o s i t i o n . There he l i s t e n e d to papers t h a t covered v i r t u a l l y the whole spectrum of Sunday observance: the p h y s i o l o g i c a l b a s i s of Sun- day r e s t ; the economic and e t h i c a l v a l u e o f Sunday r e s t ; the e f f e c t s o f Sunday r e s t on c h a r a c t e r , h a b i t s , women, c h i l d r e n , home and f a m i l y l i f e , and so f o r t h . H i s speeches t o the House of Commons r e f l e c t h i s a d o p t i o n o f the id e a s p r e s e n t e d there and h i s c o n s t a n t use o f American r a t h e r than Canadian examples t o i l l u s t r a t e h i s p o i n t s . O n t a r i o Law Reform Commission, Report, p. 3 9.. C h a r l t o n a l s o corresponded f r e q u e n t l y w i t h Wilbur C r a f t s , P r e s i d e n t o f the l a r g e New York Sabbath A s s o c i a - t i o n , and r e c e i v e d and used much American l i t e r a t u r e from C r a f t s . See a l s o H.G. Gutman, "Work, C u l t u r e , and S o c i e t y i n I n d u s t r i a l i z i n g America, 1815-1919," i n h i s Work, C u l t u r e and S o c i e t y i n I n d u s t r i a l i z i n g America (New York: V i n t a g e Books, 1977) , pp. 38-9. Canada, House of Commons, Debates, 1890, c. 1478. 58 i d e a l s over r i v a l French C a t h o l i c ones, but i t would guaran- tee n a t i o n a l and i n d i v i d u a l p r o s p e r i t y . In C h a r l t o n ' s view i t was i n the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t "to have a v i r t u o u s , i n d u s t r i o u s , i n t e l l i g e n t and sober people," and i n the employer's i n t e r e s t to have a " c l e a n , i n t e l l i g e n t , h e a l t h f u l man to work f o r him." C h a r l t o n t h e r e f o r e promised t h a t Sabbath observance laws would secure these ends and t h a t i t would be i n the employee's i n - t e r e s t to be the k i n d of man d e s i r e d by employers. Other f r u i t s o f Sunday observance would be b e t t e r s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s , b e t t e r p u b l i c h e a l t h , a g r e a t e r degree of c l e a n l i n e s s , temper- ance, s e l f - r e s p e c t , and obedience to the law. C h a r l t o n i n - s i s t e d t h a t h i s b i l l ' s r e l i g i o u s aim was subordinate t o i t s s e c u l a r g o a l . The b i l l d i d not i n t e n d "to f o r c e the people to be r e l i g i o u s and to observe the s a n c t i t y of the Lord's Day"; r a t h e r i t l e f t each c i t i z e n "a v o l u n t a r y agent to e x e r c i s e 9 8 t h a t r i g h t or not as he may choose." He claimed t h a t govern- ^'Having adopted Canada as h i s homeland, C h a r l t o n be- came an ardent B r i t i s h Canadian n a t i o n a l i s t , b e l i e v i n g t h a t Canada's d e s t i n y "must be blended w i t h t h a t of the Great Em- p i r e to which we belong" through sympathy with, d e v o t i o n t o , and l o y a l t y f o r , the common i n t e r e s t of a l l the Commonwealths under the B r i t i s h f l a g . He found Canada's own e t h n i c c o n d i - t i o n s " p e c u l i a r " and f e l t t h a t any success i t might enjoy i n c r e a t i n g a n a t i o n would depend upon the success i n a s s i m i l a t - i n g the d i f f e r e n t r a c e s . To C h a r l t o n , i t "was d e s i r a b l e to secure the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e degree of homogeneity." The "p e r p e t u a t i o n o f race cleavage," h e - b e l i e v e d , would be "ca l a m i - tous." He opposed French Canadian c l a i m s , speaking out a g a i n s t the J e s u i t E s t a t e s b i l l , becoming a member of the Equal R i g h t s A s s o c i a t i o n , and opposing the e l e c t i o n of L a u r i e r as L i b e r a l p a r t y l e a d e r . ( C h a r l t o n , "Autobiography," pp. 568-9, 578, 1012.) 9 8 Canada, House of Commons, Debates, 1892, c. 338 0. 59. - merit employees res e n t e d t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to a t t e n d d i v i n e wor- s h i p and r e c e i v e r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n . They knew "by sad experience" t h a t the c e a s e l e s s round of t o i l and drudgery was not o n l y d i s a s t r o u s to t h e i r p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g , i m p a i r i n g t h e i r h e a l t h and s h o r t e n i n g t h e i r l i v e s , but was d e m o r a l i z i n g i n a l l i t s t e n d e n c i e s , d e p r i v i n g them of many comforts and b l e s s i n g s , "which would otherwise b r i g h t e n t h e i r l i v e s and make them b e t t e r and purer." Sabbath r e s t spent i n p u b l i c worship would produce h e a l t h y c i t i z e n s and happy f a m i l i e s and f o s t e r the i n f l u e n c e of the m i g h t i e s t e d u c a t i o n a l agencies i n 99 the l a n d , the Church and the Sabbath School. In c o n t r a s t to t h i s v i s i o n of s o c i a l harmony which he f e l t d i s t i n g u i s h e d B r i t i s h P r o t e s t a n t c o u n t r i e s , C h a r l t o n p a i n t e d the b l a c k e s t p i c t u r e to d e p i c t the p r a c t i c e s of the Sabbathless s o c i e t y . In C a t h o l i c European c o u n t r i e s , he claimed, o n l y one hour was devoted to morning mass wh i l e the r e s t of the day was " d e d i c a t e d to the world, the f l e s h and the d e v i l . " H o r s e - r a c i n g , parades, reviews, p i c n i c s , e x c u r s i o n s , d r i n k i n g , and d i s s i p a t i o n made the day a . h o l i d a y f o r the r i c h and a day of t o i l f o r the poor. C i t i n g e l a b o r a t e s t a t i s t i c s and q u o t i n g eminent a u t h o r i t i e s , C h a r l t o n equated Sabbath de- s e c r a t i o n w i t h i n c r e a s e d r a t e s of crime and s o c i a l i m p u r i t y : not o n l y were 90 p e r c e n t of a l l the men i n c a r c e r a t e d i n New E n g l a n d - j a i l s - S a b b a t h - b r e a k e r s , but i n European c o u n t r i e s Sun- " i b i d . , 1897, c. 678. 60 day was "the p r o l i f i c day f o r s u i c i d e s among women and Monday f o r s u i c i d e s among men." He compared the 4 p e r c e n t i l l e g i t i - macy r a t e of Sabbath-observing B r i t a i n w i t h the 3 4 and 72 per- cent r a t e s o f heathen P a r i s and Rome."^^ The i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t of such debauchery was p h y s i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n . T r a v e l l e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t i n v i s i t i n g European c o u n t r i e s , one s c a r c e l y saw an o l d man and found "the l a b o u r e r s wan and worn and l a c k - i n g t h a t stamina and v i v a c i t y which c h a r a c t e r i z e s the l a b o u r e r s i n other c o u n t r i e s who have t h e i r Sunday r e s t . " " ^ ^ " To C h a r l t o n , the appearance of the American Sunday newspaper u n f o r t u n a t e l y h e r a l d e d the C o n t i n e n t a l Sabbath's i n - v a s i o n of "one of the most t r u l y S a b b a t a r i a n n a t i o n s of the world." Bear i n g the "most d i s a s t r o u s f r u i t s , " i t debased the people, making them f r i v o l o u s , immoral and s e n s a t i o n a l , super- f i c i a l i n t h e i r t a s t e s and p u r s u i t s . Day a f t e r day, the Sun- day newspaper was "sapping the foundations of n a t i o n a l p r o s - p e r i t y and s t r e n g t h i n t h a t country, sapping p u b l i c v i r t u e , and r e n d e r i n g the outlook as to the f u t u r e of t h a t country most dubious and p e s s i m i s t i c . " To av o i d f o l l o w i n g the American example and to e s t a b l i s h i n s t e a d i n Canada a "healthy, sound, p r o g r e s s i v e n a t i o n a l i t y , " to c r e a t e and f o s t e r sentiments, h a b i t s of thought, and moral a c t i o n t h a t would make Canada a gharlton., "How To Provide f o r tfie-Better-Observance - of the Lord's Day," 26" February"1»85. 1 0 1 C a n a d a , House of Commons, Debates, 1897, c. 678. 61 g r e a t , v i g o r o u s , and f l o u r i s h i n g p e o p l e , C h a r l t o n p l e a d e d w i t h h i s P a r l i a m e n t a r y c o l l e a g u e s t o s u p p o r t h i s b i l l f o r t h e b e ne- 102 f i t o f f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . Waving i n f r o n t o f t h e Members o f P a r l i a m e n t a copy o f t h e T o r o n t o Sunday W o r l d , t h e one O n t a r i o p a p e r w i t h a Sunday e d i t i o n , C h a r l t o n d e n o u n c e d i t as 103 " t h e h a r b i n g e r o f an e v i l swarm o f f o u l b i r d s . " U n c o n v i n c e d by h i s a r g u m e n t s , C h a r l t o n ' s c o l l e a g u e s were q u i c k t o p o i n t o u t t h e b a s i c i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f h i s r e a s o n - i n g ; t h a t i s , i f he wanted " t o s t o p l a b o u r and t o p r e s e r v e t h e S a b b a t h f o r t h e w o r k i n g man, he must e n a c t a law t h a t w i l l p r e v e n t t h e s e men f r o m w o r k i n g on Sunday t o g e t o u t a Monday 104 newspaper." The p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e Monday p a p e r , n o t t h e Sunday e d i t i o n , i n v o l v e d S a b b a t h l a b o u r . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r example, where t h r e e Sunday p a p e r s were a v a i l a b l e , t h e p u b l i s h e r s had d e l i b e r a t e l y a d o p t e d t h e p o l i c y o f p r e p a r i n g a Sunday e d i t i o n l a t e S a t u r d a y n i g h t i n o r d e r t h a t t h e i r employ- e e s m i g h t e n j o y Sunday as a day o f r e s t . O t h e r w i s e , t h e y a r g u e d , " i f t h e y had t o p u b l i s h on Monday, t h e y w o u l d be com- p e l l e d t o work t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f Sunday," as was i n d e e d t h e c a s e w i t h a l l o t h e r p a p e r s . T h e s e a r g u m e n t s had no e f f e c t on C h a r l t o n and he r e - f u s e d t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e i l l o g i c a l n a t u r e o f h i s p o s i t i o n . He 1 0 2 I b i d . , 1898, c . 1956; I b i d . , 1897, c. 681; I b i d . , 1898, c c . 1976, 2414. 1 0 3 I b i d ; , 1892, c..2303. - - . 1 0 4 I b i d . , 1898, c. 2418; I b i d . , 1894, c. 3423. also refused to forego his Monday paper. Instead he maintained that "the question of the amount of labour involved i n the publication of a Sunday newspaper i s a question of very small moment" i n comparison with i t s influence upon society, "the deleterious and disastrous influence that i s exerted upon society by the c i r c u l a t i o n , by [the] reading and by the sale of that newspaper on the Lord's Day, whether i t i s published 105 on the Lord's Day morning or upon the evening previous." Charlton's stand on the Sunday newspaper issue i l l u s - trates how tenuous was his commitment-to the sociali-.aim of Sabbath observance l e g i s l a t i o n , the guarantee to working men of a weekly day of rest. The p r o h i b i t i o n of Sabbath labour was Charlton's key to achieving the underlying r e l i g i o u s and moral aim of the l e g i s l a t i o n . He r e a l i z e d that i f labour i n the f i e l d of newspaper sales and commercial recreation could be prohibited, opportunities for Sabbath pleasure could be severely l i m i t e d . In order to prevent commercial operations from evading r e s t r i c t i o n s by granting another day i n the week_ as a rest day, Charlton refused to countenance the guarantee of any day but Sunday. Thus, although he i n s i s t e d that work- ing men might enjoy "whatever p r i v i l e g e s they may consider proper to exercise on that day," his stress lay on the. provi- sion of "the l e i s u r e necessary for attending divine worship . . . [and] for attending Sunday Schools." Only i f the work- Ibid. 63 ingman observed Sunday as a day of r e l i g i o u s observance, a t - tending "both morning and evening s e r v i c e , " would he be a "sober, a l e r t , c l e a n , r e s p e c t a b l e , e f f i c i e n t l a bourer, pre- pared to take hold of h i s work," i n s t e a d of a labourer who, having spent a d i s s o l u t e Sabbath, was " u n f i t t e d to labour upon Monday and o f t e n u n f i t t e d upon Tuesday." 1 0 6 Although Charlton c h a r a c t e r i z e d opponents of h i s b i l l s as " l o a f e r s , hoodlums, p r o s t i t u t e s , and drunkards," o p p o s i t i o n to Sabbath observance l e g i s l a t i o n centred around two respect- able groups, one e t h n i c , the other economic. Their combined 107 o p p o s i t i o n prevented Charlton's b i l l s from becoming law. Most o f t e n " t a l k e d out," only once d i d a b i l l pass t h i r d ,read- 108 i n g , then to be r e j e c t e d by the Senate. French Canadian members of the House r e s i s t e d the attempt to impose a P r o t e s t a n t r e l i g i o u s sentiment on them by law. The essence of Charlton's b i l l , they argued, was con- t r a r y to the teachings of the C a t h o l i c church which allowed i t s members to pursue innocent amusements such as walking, 109 t a l k i n g , or s i n g i n g songs a f t e r morning mass. In a d d i t i o n , Charlton's b i l l was u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l . Both the provinces and the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s had the j u r i s d i c t i o n to pass adequate 1 0 6 I b i d . , 1892, c. 3377; I b i d . , 1891, cc. 763, 2947. 1 0 7 I b i d . , 1892, c. 1076. 108 Ontario Law Reform Commission, Report, p. 38. 109 Canada, House of Commons, Debates, 1895, cc. 764-5, 64 Sabbath observance l e g i s l a t i o n . L e g i s l a t i o n such as C h a r l t o n proposed would be an i n v a s i o n of c i v i l r i g h t s and would d i s - regard p r o v i n c i a l autonomy. French Canada, Georges Amyot, L i b e r a l member f o r B e l l e c h a s s e , i r t a r t l y reminded the House, had j o i n e d Confederation "as a commercial p a r t n e r s h i p , and not as a s a l v a t i o n army. We do not b e l i e v e i n t h i s Parliament t u r n i n g i t s e l f i n t o a s a l v a t i o n army, and w i t h drums and f i f e s t r y i n g to f o r c e us i n t o h e a v e n . " 1 1 0 Economic h o s t i l i t y was not as cohesive as e t h n i c . Wholesale and r e t a i l merchants had l i t t l e d e s i r e to expand t h e i r work week to seven days and thereby run the r i s k of i n - c r e a s i n g c o s t s by spreading the same volume of s a l e s over a l o n - ger p e r i o d of time. To these men, the guarantee of Sunday as a weekly r e s t day reduced the t h r e a t of competition f o r the consu- mer's d o l l a r . 1 1 1 Of course they d i d not object t o Sunday being spent preparing the a r t i c l e s t h a t would then be s o l d i n these shops: i t seems c l e a r t h a t Timothy Eaton, u p r i g h t Sabbatarian who covered h i s st o r e windows so t h a t t h e i r tempting wares would not offend the r i g h t e o u s , tolerated a considerable amount of Sabbath sweatshop labour to prepare h i s goods f o r s a l e the 112 next day. Other S a b b a t a r i a n s , f a c t o r y owners such as the 1 1 0 I b i d . , 1894, c. 3404. 1 1 1 S e e Michael B l i s s , A L i v i n g P r o f i t : Studies i n the S o c i a l H i s t o r y of Canadian Business, 1883-1912- (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1974), pp. 33-54. 112 Cf. G. Kealey, Hogtown: Working C l a s s Toronto at the Turn of the Century (Toronto: New Hogtown Press, 1974), p. 13. 65 Massey family's a g r i c u l t u r a l implements concern, could also recognize the value of a pause day i n the d i s c i p l i n e d l i v e s of th e i r i n d u s t r i a l workers, i n that productivity on the other six days of the week would correspondingly increase. But owners of companies that required continuous production such as the emerging iron and s t e e l industries would r e s i s t a Sun- day stoppage of operations and might prefer to follow..the railways' example of guaranteeing t h e i r workers another day o f f i n the week i f they worked Sundays. Above a l l , the transporta- t i o n concerns were implacable i n t h e i r h o s t i l i t y to any sug- gestion that a l l operations stop for a twenty-four hour period from midnight Saturday to midnight Sunday. Both the railway and the steamship companies, argued that the close r e l a t i o n s h i p of Canada's transportation system, both water and r a i l , to the 113 American system made Sunday operations imperative. W. van Home, President of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company, de- fined the railways'; p o s i t i o n ' i n a l e t t e r he wrote: to theuLOrd's Day A l l i a n c e Secretary i n 1888: Our t r a i n arrangements, to the extent that trains are required to entrench more or less on Sundays, whether on the main l i n e or elsewhere, are forced upon us by the action of the American l i n e s with which we are competing for t r a f f i c , and I can see no way to overcome t h i s d i f f i c u l t y without destroy- ing our through business, upon which the railway largely depends. (114) 113 J. Hickson to W.D. Armstrong, 25 March 1889, quoted i n Canada, House of Commons, Debates, 1890, c. 1481. 114 W. van Home to W.D. Armstrong, 11 June 1888, i n Ibid., c. 1482. Other f a c t o r s made the c e s s a t i o n of t r a f f i c i m p r a c t i c a l : the s h o r t n a v i g a t i o n season made i t i m p e r a t i v e to keep the c a n a l s c o n t i n u o u s l y open a t the end of the n a v i g a t i o n season i n order to get the g r a i n h a r v e s t down to the Montreal Exchange. P e r i - shable loads of l i v e s t o c k and produce made i t i m p o s s i b l e to stop t r a i n s i n the middle of nowhere f o r a p e r i o d of twenty- f o u r hours, not to mention the inconvenience to passengers t r a v e l l i n g long d i s t a n c e s . Furthermore, c e s s a t i o n of s e r v i c e on Sundays would cause such c o n g e s t i o n of t r a f f i c , both a t the ends of the c a n a l s and on r a i l w a y s i d i n g s , t h a t Monday would ela p s e b e f o r e o p e r a t i o n s c o u l d resume t h e i r n a t u r a l rhythm. As t h e i r trump c a r d , the r a i l w a y s argued t h a t they a l r e a d y o f f e r e d t h e i r employees a day o f f i n l i e u of Sundays i f c o n d i - 115 t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t e d Sunday work. C i t i n g such reasons, the r a i l w a y and steamship compan- i e s v i g o r o u s l y l o b b i e d the government. As the r a i l w a y i n t e r - e s t s enjoyed d i r e c t access to the government at the c a b i n e t and prime m i n i s t e r i a l l e v e l , they were able to lobby by r e p r e - s e n t a t i o n s to committees and d i d not need to r e l y on p e t i t i o n s . Ship owners, Boards of Trade, and the Montreal G r a i n Exchange, l o b b i e d a t the same l e v e l to have the Welland Canal re-opened 116 on Sunday. American i n t e r e s t s , both v e s s e l owners and Boards 117 of Trade, supported the Canadian p r o t e s t s . 115 Hickson to Armstrong, 25 March 1889, I b i d . 1 1 6 P C , APGA, 1889, Appendix No. 14. 117 T. I b i d . 67 The f a t e of C h a r l t o n ' s b i l l s r e v e a l e d the s t r e n g t h of both the economic and e.thno-religious arguments a g a i n s t such l e g i s l a t i o n . To a v o i d d i r e c t c o n f r o n t a t i o n over the i s s u e , both the Con s e r v a t i v e and L i b e r a l governments e x p l o i t e d the ambiguity surrounding c o n s t i t u t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n i n such l e - g i s l a t i o n . The Macdonald government and i t s M i n i s t e r of Jus- t i c e , John Thompson, continued to i n s i s t t h a t Sabbath obser- vance was: a s u b j e c t of which the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e s have f u l l y possessed themselves, and i t i s , no doubt, w i t h i n the competence of the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e s , and w i t h i n t h e i r p r a c t i c e , to say how f a r the enactments of t h i s s u b j e c t are s u f - f i c i e n t l y severe or how much the s e v e r i t y should be i n c r e a s e d from time to time. (118) On assuming o f f i c e i n 1896, L a u r i e r r e f u s e d to support f e l l o w L i b e r a l C h a r l t o n , adopting the C o n s e r v a t i v e method o f d e a l i n g w i t h the i s s u e . When asked i n 1898 what p o l i c y he proposed to adopt towards Sabbath l e g i s l a t i o n , L a u r i e r r e p l i e d t h a t he i n - 119 tended "to leave the Sabbath to the laws of the p r o v i n c e . " C h a r l t o n h i m s e l f f i n a l l y wearied of the task o f being a v o i c e c r y i n g i n the w i l d e r n e s s , " a r i s i n g to advocate t h i s measure . . . under d i s c o u r a g i n g and de p r e s s i n g circumstances 120 . . . to an unsympathetic House." In an u n u s u a l l y frank statement to the Commons i n 1897, C h a r l t o n acknowledged t h a t 118 Canada, House of Commons, Debates, 18 91, c. 764. 1 1 9 I b i d . , 1898, c. 2429. 120 x u I b i d . , c. 1951. 68 l i t t l e support, even r e l i g i o u s , f o r h i s b i l l s e x i s t e d . " I t seems," he admitted: to be to a l a r g e e x t e n t a matter of i n d i f f e r e n c e to p r o f e s s i n g C h r i s t i a n people i n Canada whether or not a law i s enacted f o r the purpose of s e c u r i n g to l a b o u r e r s t h e i r r i g h t t o the Sunday r e s t . We do o c c a s i o n a l l y have r e s o l u t i o n s passed by synods, conferences, assemblies and p r e s b y t e r i e s b e a r i n g upon t h i s matter; but we have no i n d i c a t i o n of any g r e a t degree of popular f e e l i n g on the s u b j e c t . ... . . so f a r as I am aware, no d e l e g a t i o n of pro- f e s s i n g C h r i s t i a n people has ever v i s i t e d t h i s c a p i t a l to urge upon t h i s government or upon any other Government i n power, the p r o p r i e t y of en- a c t i n g a Sunday r e s t law. (121) At l e a s t a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , the Sabbatarian move- ment seemed to l a c k a broad consensus i n p u b l i c o p i n i o n . I f any d i d e x i s t , i t was e i t h e r q u i e s c e n t , owing to the serene (and some s a i d boring) calm of the Canadian Sabbath, or con- cerned w i t h l o c a l aspects of the Sabbath q u e s t i o n . The l a t t e r aspect would seem to p r o v i d e the answer. "To c r e a t e the sense of urgency and hasten m o b i l i z a t i o n of a c t i o n " necessary f o r an e f f e c t i v e lobby, a s o c i a l movement needs a c a t a l y s t or " p r e c i - p i t a t i n g f a c t o r " as p o l i t i c a l s o c i o l o g i s t N e i l Smelser terms 122 i t . Owing to i t s r e l a t i v e absence i n Canadian l i f e , the Sunday newspaper i s s u e t h a t C h a r l t o n t r i e d to promote as h i s burning i s s u e d i d not have the a b i l i t y to a c t as t h i s c a t a l y s t . But, a t the same time as C h a r l t o n was abandoning h i s f i g h t a t 121 I b i d . , 18 97, c. 67 5. The f i r s t i n t e r d e n o m i n a t i o n a l d e p u t a t i o n o r g a n i z e d by the LDAC took p l a c e i n May 1897. LDAC, Minutes of E x e c u t i v e Committee, 6 May 1897, LDAC, MB 1888-1901. 122 N. Smelser, The Theory of C o l l e c t i v e Behavior (New York: The Free P r e s s , 1962), p. 194. t h e f e d e r a l l e v e l , t h e Sunday c a r was e x c i t i n g tempers i n t h e e a s t e r n C a n a d i a n p r o v i n c e s . I t w o u l d t h u s be t h e Sunday c a r i s s u e t h a t w o u l d p r e c i p i t a t e t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e a g g r e s s i v e O n t a r i o L o r d ' s Day A l l i a n c e and o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l S a b b a t a r i a n l o b b i e s . 70 Chapter I I I : The 'Giddy T r o l l e y ' and Sundays — The Question of J u r i s d i c t i o n The r e l a t i v e calm of the Canadian Sunday, so disparaged by B r i t i s h v i s i t o r s , owed much to the l a c k of an a l t e r n a t i v e to church-going. Once ot h e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s became a v a i l a b l e , Canadians, l i k e the B r i t i s h and the Americans, q u i c k l y a v a i l e d themselves of new d e l i g h t s . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of urban t r a n s - p o r t a t i o n , f i r s t the b i c y c l e , then the giddy t r o l l e y , x began the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . Both i n n o v a t i o n s , but p a r t i c u l a r l y the e l e c t r i c s t r e e t c a r , goaded l a t e n t S a b b a t a r i a n s e n t i m e n t i n t o 2 m i l i t a n t a c t i v i t y . Although the Methodist and P r e s b y t e r i a n churches had a l r e a d y complained about steamboat and rai-1 excur- s i o n s , they had convinced themselves t h a t only the lower c l a s s e s and new immigrants a c t u a l l y p a t r o n i z e d them. The Sunday opera- t i o n of s t r e e t r a i l w a y s or i t s proposed i n t r o d u c t i o n , however, threatened to a t t r a c t from church attendance the very c l a s s t h a t p r o v i d e d the f i n a n c i a l backbone of the churches' s o c i a l and economic p o s i t i o n . As such, they c o u l d not a l l o w the c h a l - lenge to go unmet. For a decade (from 1895 u n t i l 1905), sab- x S a t u r d a y Night, 1 September 18 94. 2 For another treatment of the m a t e r i a l presented i n t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g chapter, see C h r i s t o p h e r Armstrong's and H.V. N e l l e s E "kind of n o n - f i c t i o n entertainment," The Revenge of the Methodist B i c y c l e Company: Sunday S t r e e t c a r s and M u n i c i p a l Re- form i n Toronto,. 1888-1897 (Toronto: P e t e r M a r t i n & A s s o c i a t e s L i m i t e d , 1977). 71 b a t a r i a n s t r i e d to defeat the Sunday car i n the c o u r t s ; by so doing they r a i s e d important c o n s t i t u t i o n a l questions concern- in g the r e s p e c t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n s of the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l (and even municipal) governments. Most importantly the s t o r y of the l e g a l tangle of those years e x p l a i n s why Macdonald and L a u r i e r were wrong i n a s s i g n i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n over Sabbath oob- servance l e g i s l a t i o n to the provinces and why the Lord's Day Act of 1906 was a f e d e r a l s t a t u t e . * * * * * * * * * * * * The appearance of the b i c y c l e symbolized Canada's o p t i m i s t i c s p i r i t as i t emerged from the r e l a t i v e s tagnation of the 1870s and 1880s. As P.B. Waite describes the Canadian scene of 1896, "thousands of c y c l i s t s were to be seen d a i l y , ' g l i d i n g along the s t r e e t s and out i n the suburbs of the c i t y , ' pleased w i t h the speed, the ease, and the grace w i t h which they 3 cover d i s t a n c e . " Although expensive — b i c y c l e s cost at l e a s t 4 $50 each — many were able to buy them and q u i c k l y demonstrated t h e i r i n t e n t to use them, even on Sundays. One Torontonian estimated t h a t one thousand b i c y c l e s passed him on College 5 S t r e e t i n the course of one hour on a Sunday morning. Accord- 3 P.B. Waite, Canada 1874-1896: Arduous Destiny (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1971), p. 279. 4 Toronto World, 16 March 1897; I b i d . , 3 A p r i l 1897. 5Saturday Night, 1 May 1897. i n g t o t h e T o r o n t o W o r l d , as many as t e n t h o u s a n d b i c y c l i s t s made t h e i r way t h r o u g h c i t y s t r e e t s on a h o t summer Sunday. T h e r e seemed i n d e e d much t r u t h t o S a t u r d a y N i g h t ' s a s s e r t i o n t h a t " q u i t e a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e , i f t r u t h were known, b o u g h t 7 b i c y c l e s t o f r e e t h e m s e l v e s f r o m o u r s t a y - a t - h o m e Sunday." The b i c y c l e c o m p e n s a t e d f o r t h e l a c k o f o t h e r f o r m s o f p u b l i c t r a n s - p o r t on Sund a y s , f a c i l i t a t i n g o u t i n g s t o p a r k s and l e s s crowded a r e a s o f t h e c i t i e s . To b i c y c l e e n t h u s i a s t s i n u r b a n and i n d u s - t r i a l c o m m u n i t i e s t h e "wheel" e n l a r g e d " v i e w s on t h e ne e d o f g r e a s o n a b l e r e c r e a t i o n . " I t o f f e r e d f r e e d o m o f o p p o r t u n i t y , e s p e c i a l l y t o t h e yo u n g , " t o g e t o u t somewhere on Sunday and 9 shake o f f t h e o d o u r s and c a r e s o f i n d o o r l i f e . " B u t , i n t h e e y e s and e a r s o f S a b b a t h o b s e r v a n c e s u p - p o r t e r s , t h e b i c y c l e d i s r u p t e d " t h e s w e e t n e s s and h o l y c a l m o f t h e Day o f G o d . " x ^ A l t h o u g h S a b b a t a r i a n s a g r e e d t h a t when p r o - p e r l y u s e d on weekdays, t h e b i c y c l e was as " h a r m l e s s as a w h e e l b a r r o w " and i n some c a s e s "even h e l p f u l and h e a l t h y , " t h e y a t t a c k e d i t s r o l e i n " t h e m a t t e r o f Sunday r e c r e a t i o n " a s " T o r o n t o W o r l d , 8 A p r i l 1897. 7 S a t u r d a y N i g h t , 1 May 1897. 8 T o r o n t o W o r l d , 8 A p r i l 1897. 9 S a t u r d a y N i g h t , 9 May 1896. " ^ M e t h o d i s t C h u r c h , T o r o n t o C o n f e r e n c e , M i n u t e s , 1896, p. 55-6, c i t e d by Ge o r g e Emery, "Methodism on t h e C a n a d i a n P r a i r i e s , 1895-1914: The Dynamics o f an I n s t i t u t i o n i n a New E n v i r o n m e n t " (Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1970), p . 98. " v i c i o u s . " The C h r i s t i a n Guardian complained t h a t l a r g e num- bers were: brea k i n g away from the q u i e t r e f i n i n g p l e a s u r e s of good homes, and . . . are spending the hours of the Sabbath amid the excitements of the road, of the; park, and of the crowd . .. . For a l l of t h i s the a l l e g e d b e n e f i t to h e a l t h i s but a poor compensation. (12) Yet the f u r o r caused by the b i c y c l e was but a p r e l u d e to the storm t h a t arose over the Sunday s t r e e t c a r . The urban t r a n s p o r t systems i n t r o d u c e d i n the 1860s and 1870s i n major urban c e n t r e s had proved completely inadequate to meet the demand. Slow and e r r a t i c s e r v i c e , l i m i t e d by the horses' phy- s i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s , c h a r a c t e r i z e d the e a r l y o p e r a t i o n s . In M o n t r e a l , f o r example, the north-south l i n e s climbed grades as steep as 11 p e r c e n t -- "at what c o s t to the horse must be l e f t 13 to the i m a g i n a t i o n . " Even a t the b e s t of times,, movement was extremely slow, " s c a r c e l y b e t t e r than a f o o t ' s pace." Compan- i e s f o l l o w e d no f i x e d time schedule and f r e q u e n t stops to accommodate favoured patrons made the o p e r a t i o n s even l e s s de- pendable. Moreover, although the Toronto Globe d e s c r i b e d the Toronto S t r e e t Railway Company c a r s as having a "neat and com- f o r t a b l e appearance" and as " w e l l l i g h t e d and v e n t i l a t e d , " t h i s was t r u e o n l y d u r i n g the summer months when the r i g h t - h a n d s i d e " ^ C h r i s t i a n Guardian, 12 May 1897; W. Anderson to W. L a u r i e r , 3 February 1897, PAC, LP, C754, p. 2035. 12 C h r i s t i a n Guardian, 12 May 1897. 13 J . I . Cooper, M o n t r e a l , A B r i e f H i s t o r y (Montreal: McGill-Queen's U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969),.-p. 104. 14 o f t h e c a r was removed, l e a v i n g i t c o m p l e t e l y o p e n . I n t h e w i n t e r , t h e c a r s were i n f a c t e x t r e m e l y c o l d , and o n l y "a l i b e r a l s p r i n k l i n g o f pea s t r a w on t h e f l o o r s e r v e d t o h e l p keep 15 t h e p a s s e n g e r s ' f e e t warm." Sunday s e r v i c e was r a r e , a l t h o u g h most p r o v i n c e s (ex- c e p t i n g O n t a r i o ) d i d n o t f o r b i d i t . The c h a r t e r s o f most 16 c o m p a n i e s p e r m i t t e d (by n o t p r o h i b i t i n g ) Sunday o p e r a t i o n s . E v e n i n O n t a r i o , a d o z e n o r more co m p a n i e s had b een c h a r t e r e d b e f o r e t h e 1883 S t r e e t R a i l w a y A c t ; o f t h e s e , o n l y two c h a r t e r s , t h o s e o f t h e T o r o n t o and O ttawa c o m p a n i e s , c o n t a i n e d a c l a u s e 17 f o r b i d d i n g Sunday o p e r a t i o n s . B u t t h e H a m i l t o n S t r e e t R a i l - way Company, w h i c h i n t r o d u c e d a s e r v i c e i n 1874 a t t h e h o u r s o f p u b l i c w o r s h i p , was t h e o n l y company t o s u s t a i n a Sunday o p e r a -14 T o r o n t o G l o b e , 11 September 1861. 15 L.H. P u r s l e y , S t r e e t R a i l w a y s o f T o r o n t o , 1861-1921,. I n t e r u r b a n s S p e c i a l 25 (Los A n g e l e s : E l e c t r i c R a i l w a y P u b l i c a - t i o n s , 1958), p . 7; M.F. C a m p b e l l , A M o u n t a i n and a C i t y : The S t o r y o f H a m i l t o n ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1966), p. 163; W.D. M i d d l e t o n , The Time o f t h e T r o l l e y ( M i l w a u k e e : Kalmback P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1967), p. 290. 16 See, f o r example, c h a r t e r s o f t h e S t . J o h n P e o p l e ' s S t r e e t R a i l w a y Company, 30 V i c t . (1866), c.35 (N.B.); o f t h e H a l i f a x S t r e e t R a i l w a y Company, 47 V i c t . (1884), c . 6 2 (N.S.) ; and o f t h e W i n n i p e g S t r e e t R a i l w a y Company, 55 V i c t . (1892), c . 56 (Man. ) 17 C i t y o f T o r o n t o , M i n u t e s o f C o u n c i l , 1861, A p p e n d i x , By-Law No. 353, c i t e d by A r m s t r o n g and N e l l e s , The Revenge o f t h e M e t h o d i s t B i c y c l e Company, p . 187, n. 17; r e O ttawa C i t y P a s s e n g e r R a i l w a y , s e e 29-30 V i c t . (1866), c.10.6.. F o r c h a r t e r s o f c o m p a n i e s c h a r t e r e d between 1867 and 18 83 i n O n t a r i o , s e e O n t a r i o , L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y , S t a t u t e s , 1867-1883. t i o n u n t i l the l a t e 1880s. Few companies i n f a c t r e a l i z e d the p o t e n t i a l impact of p u b l i c urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n on the 19 m o b i l i t y h a b i t s of c e n t r a l c i t y p o p u l a t i o n s . Instead, company owners f e l t t h a t s e r v i c e should f a c i l i t a t e flow i n t o the c i t y to p l a c e s of employment on workdays and showed l i t - t l e i n t e r e s t i n Sunday s e r v i c e to r e c r e a t i o n a l areas. A c t i v e promotion of Sunday s e r v i c e began wi t h the growth and improvements of s t r e e t r a i l w a y systems i n the l a t e 1880s. Although slow, expansion of t r a c k l a i d had a l r e a d y ad- vanced the development of suburban r e s i d e n t i a l areas to which the more a f f l u e n t c i t i z e n s were moving. The r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n urban p o p u l a t i o n prompted a s i m i l a r e x t e n s i o n of the s y s - tems. In Toronto, f o r example, where the p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d from 86,415- i n 1880 to 144,023 i n 1890, the horse-drawn system expanded from 19 t o 6 8.5 m i l e s , p l a c i n g every p a r t of 20 the c i t y w i t h i n reasonably easy access of the r a i l w a y . The Montreal system underwent s i m i l a r expansion as d i d those i n J " U J . M i l l s , G a t a r a c t T r a c t i o n : The Railways of Hamilton (Toronto: Canadian T r a c t i o n S e r i e s , 1971), v o l . I I , p. 73. An e f f o r t by the Kingston S t r e e t Railway Company to i n t r o d u c e Sunday s e r v i c e i n the l a t e 1870s f a i l e d ; see PC, APGA, 1879, p. c x l i v . 1 Q Peter Goheen, V i c t o r i a n Toronto, 1850-1900: P a t t e r n s and Growth ( U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago: Department of Geography, Research Paper No. 127, 1970), p. 73. 2 0 I b i d . , p. 72. Between 1861 and 1880 the Toronto system had expanded from 4 to 19 m i l e s . P u r s l e y , S t r e e t Railways, p. 144. 76 21 H a m i l t o n and W i n n i p e g . P r o f i t s i n c r e a s e d a c c o r d i n g l y : by 1890, t h o s e o f t h e T o r o n t o S t r e e t R a i l w a y Company, w h i c h c a r r i e d 55,000 p a s s e n g e r s d a i l y , t o t a l l e d $165,562 on e a r n i n g s o f a b o u t $7 30,000, i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h i t s 1873 p r o f i t s o f $25,000. 2 2 A l t h o u g h e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s y s t e m s t o o k p l a c e a f t e r t h e s e m a j o r e x p a n s i o n s , i t s t i l l p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h e g r o w t h o f s e r v i c e . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e " g i d d y t r o l l e y " p e r m i t t e d a t h o r o u g h r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f o p e r a t i o n s . E l e c t r i f i - c a t i o n m a r k e d l y c u t t h e p e r u n i t o p e r a t i n g c o s t s w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e t h e i m p r o v e d s e r v i c e drew more p a t r o n s and t h e r e b y e n l a r g e d t o t a l r e v e n u e s . E l e c t r i f i c a t i o n i n c r e a s e d t h e s y s t e m s ' c a p a c i t y t o c a r r y p a s s e n g e r s ; and, s i n c e g r e a t e r s p e e d meant a l o n g e r t r i p i n t h e same l e n g t h o f t i m e , i t f u r t h e r e n c o u r a g e d s u b u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e d i s p e r s a l o f u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n s . The q u a l i t y o f t h e j o u r n e y now i m p r o v e d as w e l l , f o r t h e t r o l l e y 23 r i d e was s m o o t h e r and t h e c a r s g e n e r a l l y more c o m f o r t a b l e . G r a d u a l l y c o m p a n i e s i n t h e l a r g e r c i t i e s , a s s u r e d o f s u f f i c i e n t p r o f i t m a r g i n s , went so f a r a s t o o f f e r l o w e r f a r e s t o t h e work- i n g c l a s s . The n o r m a l f a r e was f i v e c e n t s , b u t t h e W i n n i p e g 21 C o o p e r , M o n t r e a l , p . 104; M i l l s , C a t a r a c t T r a c t i o n , p. 75; A.S. Thompson, S p a d i n a : A H i s t o r y o f O l d T o r o n t o ( T o r o n t o : P a g u r i a n P r e s s , 1975), p. 162. 22 A r m s t r o n g and N e l l e s , The Revenge o f t h e M e t h o d i s t B i c y c l e Company, p. 29. 2 3 J . McKay, Trams_and T r o l l e y s : The R i s e o f U r b a n T r a n s p o r t i n E u r o p e ( P r i n c e t o n , N . J . 7 Vrinceton U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976), pp. 51-58; f o r d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f e l e c t r i c c a r s , s e e P u r s l e y , S t r e e t R a i l w a y s , p. 144; M i l l s , C a t a r a c t T r a c t i o n , p. 76. 77 S t r e e t Railway Company and o t h e r s s o l d t i c k e t s to workmen a t the r a t e of e i g h t f o r a q u a r t e r between 5.00 and 8.00 a.m. and 5.30 24 and 6.30 p.m. A change i n the t r a n s i t companies 1 a t t i t u d e towards the nature o f t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s accompanied these t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes. Companies now r e a l i z e d t h a t a l a r g e p o t e n t i a l market l a y i n the s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n t h a t f o l l o w e d expansion and improve- ments i n q u a l i t y . Such developments would a l l o w the movement of people out from the core of the c i t y not o n l y on workdays, but on h o l i d a y s as w e l l . Commenting on a proposed e x t e n s i o n o f the Toronto system to the n o r t h and e a s t o f the c i t y i n 1891, the Globe d e s c r i b e d the p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s on the c i t y ' s development as r e v o l u t i o n a r y : not onl y would i t be a "boon t o the wealthy and the w e l l - t o - d o , " who? worked.:,in ..the c i t y but l i v e d , i n the suburbs, but i t would a l s o "be a b l e s s i n g to the poor, who i n - h a b i t the lowly p l a c e s , the slums and s h a n t i e s of 'the ward,' f o r they w i l l be given o p p o r t u n i t i e s they do not possess o f b r e a t h i n g the f r e s h , pure a i r and of seein g the b e a u t i e s of „25 nature." In o r d e r to c u l t i v a t e t h i s market, some companies developed r e c r e a t i o n a l areas a t the end of t h e i r l i n e s w h i l e 24 C i t y of Winnipeg, By-Law No. 543, s.5 i n 55 V i c t . (1892), c.56, Schedule "A" .' The Toronto Railway Company o f f e r e d the same f a r e ; see P u r s l e y , S t r e e t Railways, p. 16. See a l s o c h a r t e r of Ottawa E l e c t r i c Railway Company, 57 V i c t . (1894) , c.76, s.39. 25 Toronto Globe, 15 May 1891. 78 others extended l i n e s to l i n k up w i t h e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . In Winnipeg, James A u s t i n , owner of the Winnipeg S t r e e t R a i l - way Company, created a 5.5 acre park at the southern end of h i s l i n e , complete w i t h refreshment booths, p a v i l i o n s f o r e l e c - 2 6 t r i c a l e x h i b i t s and con c e r t s , and b a l l grounds. In Toronto, i n response t o the b u i l d i n g of a new race t r a c k i n Glen Grove Park, the M e t r o p o l i t a n r a i l w a y company, which connected w i t h the c i t y r a i l w a y , extended i t s l i n e s t o the park entrance. During t h i s p e r i o d as w e l l , i n t e r urban companies obtained char- t e r s t o begin operations. Although the c o n s t r u c t i o n of such l i n e s had as i t s primary purpose the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of the f a r - 27 mer and h i s produce to market and not the reverse, the poten- t i a l h o l i d a y business q u i c k l y appeared a t t r a c t i v e . In B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r example, i n t e r u r b a n t r a i n s ran from Vancouver to Queen's Park i n New Westminster w i t h m u l t i p l e t r a i n s r e q u i r e d on September days when p r o v i n c i a l or n a t i o n a l l a c r o s s e f i n a l s 28 were played. I t was obvious t h a t Sunday customers e x i s t e d both w i t h - i n the c i t i e s and between c i t i e s . On one hand, a market e x i s t e d i n conveying people to church. As urban expansion continued and' 2 6 Thompson, Spadina, pp. 162, 186. See a l s o H.J. S e l - wood, "Urban Development and the S t r e e t c a r : The Case of Winni- peg, 1881-1914," Urban H i s t o r y Review, No. 3-77 (February 1978), p. 37. 27 M i l l s , C ataract T r a c t i o n , p. 24; re the development of Canadian interurban systems, see John Due, The I n t e r c i t y E l e c t r i c Railway Industry (Toronto: Uni v e r s i t y , of Toronto Press, 1966). 28 Ian F. J o b l i n g , "Urbanization and Sport i n Canada,' 1867- 1900," i n Canadian Sport: S o c i o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s , ed., Richard S. Gruneau and John G. A l b i n s o n (Don M i l l s , Ontario: Addison-Wesley (Canada) L t d . , 1976), p. 68. 79 people moved away from the central core, the operation of a Sun- day service would allow them to continue t h e i r church a f f i l i a - 29 tions. On the other hand, a large po t e n t i a l market existed among those who did not attend church. In the early 1880s the Toronto Globe conducted a survey to determine attendance at that c i t y ' s churches on a winter Sunday: although church attendance was c e r t a i n l y respectable, over half (55 percent) the c i t y ' s 30 population did not attend church. If the same number of people rode the cars on a Sunday as on a normal working day — and there were already indications i n Europe and the United States that i n fac t more people patronized the cars on Sundays than on normal 31 working days — a company such as the Toronto Street Railway Company could hope to r e a l i z e an increased yearly revenue of 32 $105,000 without substantial increases i n cost. The over- whelming success of the bi c y c l e as a means of getting around 2 9Saturday Night, 2 March 1895. 30 Toronto Globe, 7 February 1882, c i t e d by D.C. Masters, The Rise of Toronto, 1850-1890 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1947), p. 193. Masters, interprets t h i s figure to i n d i - cate a strong attendance at church. For a r e v i s i o n of Master's interp r e t a t i o n , see M.G. Decarie, "Something Old, Something New: Aspects of the Proh i b i t i o n Movement i n Canada," i n Olive r Mowat's Ontario, ed., D. Swainson (Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1972), pp. 166-7. 31 McKay, Tramways and T r o l l e y s , p. 226. See also T.G. Barker and M. Robbins, A History of London Transport (London: George A l l e n and Unwin Ltd., 1975), v o l . I, pp. 204-7; also George M. Smerk, "The Streetcar: Shaper of American C i t i e s , " T r a f f i c Quarterly XXI (December 1967), p..578. 32 Goheen, V i c t o r i a n Toronto, p. 72. This estimate was calculated on the basis of d a i l y passengers figures m u l t i p l i e d by $0.04 (adult fare — 5*, children's — 3*) x 52. 80 c i t i e s on Sundays p r o v i d e d even more c o n v i n c i n g evidence t h a t companies c o u l d w e l l hope to r e a l i z e s i g n i f i c a n t p r o f i t s on Sundays. As companies r e c o g n i z e d the p o t e n t i a l of Sunday s e r v i c e , they began to i n t r o d u c e i t . By the l a t e 1880s, Sunday c a r s were running i n the c i t i e s o f S t . John, H a l i f a x , and M o n t r e a l . In O n t a r i o , the Hamilton S t r e e t Railway Company i n c r e a s e d i t s s e r - v i c e , i n i t i a t e d twenty years e a r l i e r , t o a f u l l twelve hour 33 o p e r a t i o n . Appeals to the c i t y c o u n c i l to h a l t the s e r v i c e 34 were to no a v a i l . Cars a l s o ran on m t e r u r b a n l i n e s r a d i a t i n g out from Hamilton and i n the Niagara F a l l s a r e a . Only i n Toronto d i d r e p e a t e d e f f o r t s to commence Sunday s e r v i c e f a i l . The company c o u l d n e i t h e r o b t a i n an amendment to i t s c h a r t e r p e r m i t t i n g Sunday o p e r a t i o n s nor d i d i t succeed i n o p e r a t i n g i l l e g a l l y . When one well-known l i v e r y m a n , ' C i t i z e n ' W i l l i a m K e l l y , secured f o u r d i s u s e d horse-drawn buses from the company and operated them on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s , prompting o t h e r s to adopt t h i s method, c i t y by-laws were e n f o r c e d . I n s p e c t o r A r c h i - b a l d , Toronto's P u b l i c M o r a l i t y O f f i c e r , "swooped down and a r r e s t e d K e l l y d r i v i n g h i s f a m i l y to church i n one of the buses. 33 M i l l s , C a t a r a c t T r a c t i o n , p. 80; The Week, 16 June 1887. 34 OLDA, "Memorandum c o n c e r n i n g the f o r m a t i o n of a P r o v i n - c i a l A l l i a n c e f o r the b e t t e r observance o f the Lord's Day," 15 February 1895, i n LDACP, OLDA, SB ( h e r e a f t e r OLDA, SB) 1892-1900. 35 Armstrong and N e l l e s , The Revenge o f the M e t h o d i s t B i - c y c l e Company, pp. 202-3, n . l ; PC, APGA, 1886, p. c l i x ; Canada, House of Commons, Debates, 1894, c. 3437; P u r s l e y , S t r e e t R a i l - ways , p. 142. 81 The Sunday c a r p r e s e n t e d an e l u s i v e t a r g e t t o S a b b a t h o b s e r v a n c e s u p p o r t e r s , one d i f f i c u l t t o c h a l l e n g e s u c c e s s f u l l y . I n Nova S c o t i a , S a b b a t a r i a n s assumed t h a t t h e 1891 A c t , w h i c h made i t i l l e g a l f o r a c o r p o r a t i o n t o employ o r d i r e c t a p e r s o n t o " p e r f o r m s e r v i l e l a b o u r on Sunday," w o u l d p r e v e n t s t r e e t 3 6 r a i l w a y c o m p a n i e s f r o m o p e r a t i n g . I n O n t a r i o , S a b b a t a r i a n s assumed t h a t s e v e r a l a c t s made Sunday s e r v i c e i l l e g a l . A s p a r t o f i t s 1883 S t r e e t R a i l w a y A c t , t h e O n t a r i o L e g i s l a t u r e had f o r - 37 b i d d e n t h e Sunday r u n n i n g o f c a r s . F o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s , i t assumed (as d i d t h e S a b b a t a r i a n s ) t h a t t h e 1845 Upper Canada A c t w o u l d a p p l y t o c o m p a n i e s c h a r t e r e d b e f o r e 1883: B r i t i s h l e g a l p r e c e d e n t d e f i n e d t h e p h r a s e " o r p e r s o n w h a t s o e v e r " i n t h e A c t ' s f i r s t c l a u s e t o i n c l u d e b u s i n e s s c o r p o r a t i o n s s u c h as 3 8 s t r e e t r a i l w a y c o m p a n i e s ; m o r e o v e r , i n 1854 Judge J o h n B e v e r l e y R o b i n s o n o f t h e Upper C a n a d i a n b e n c h had r u l e d t h a t t h e A c t p r o h i b i t e d a l l l o c a l t r a f f i c and a l l o w e d o n l y t h r o u g h 39 t r a f f i c . More r e c e n t c o u r t d e c i s i o n s , however, were r a i s i n g d o u b t s as t o t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e A c t . The d e c i s i o n by t h e O n t a r i o A p p e a l C o u r t i n Regina. v . Somers (1893) i m p l i e d t h a t t h e 3 6 5 4 V i c t , c.32 ( N . S . ) . 3 7R.S.O. (1887), c.171, s.34. 3 8 OLDA, "Memorandum o f F a c t s and Reasons r e g a r d i n g De- s i r e d L e g i s l a t i o n amending t h e L o r d ' s Day A c t , " December 1897, i n OLDA, SB 1892-1900. 3 9 1 1 U.C.Q.B. 636. 82 A c t a p p l i e d o n l y to those people s p e c i f i c a l l y c i t e d i n the f i r s t 40 c l a u s e . Judge J.H. Hagarty's r u l i n g i n Regina v. Daggett (1882) made i t p o s s i b l e t h a t a l l passengers, whether they t r a - v e l l e d "wholly f o r p l e a s u r e , f r e s h a i r , r e l a x a t i o n from work, with or without luggage, or a c t u a l l y on important b u s i n e s s , " were exempt from the A c t . To Hagarty, any attempt to draw a d i s t i n c t i o n between persons, " a c c o r d i n g to the purpose which i n - duced them to t r a v e l , " was i n v a i n , " l e a d i n g to i m p o s s i b l e and i r r i t a t i n g e n q u i r i e s , and tending to b r i n g a u s e f u l and s a l u t a r y 41 enactment i n t o contempt." S e v e r a l years l a t e r , Hagarty upheld the r i g h t of the Niagara F a l l s , Wesley Park and C l i f t o n Tramway Company, c h a r t e r e d under the 1883 S t r e e t Railway A c t , to operate on Sundays, a r g u i n g t h a t the company;had i n f l i c t e d no punishable i n j u r y upon p u b l i c p r o p e r t y . G.W. Burton, Hagarty's c o l l e a g u e on the Appeal Court bench, made an even s t r o n g e r statement i n support of the Sunday ca r d u r i n g these same proceedings, com- menting t h a t : Human nature may have changed much i n the l a s t 1800 y e a r s , but i t i s r e a l l y p a i n f u l to f i n d i n t h i s n i n e t e e n t h century anyone, and e s p e c i a l l y a person assuming to be a teacher of r e l i g i o n , grudging the enjoyment of a number of poor people and t h e i r f a m i l i e s who a v a i l themselves o f , perhaps, the o n l y day open to them to v i s i t and enjoy one of nature r s grandest works, because i n o r d e r to do so they have 24 O.R. 24 4. The c o u r t decided t h a t a cab d r i v e r was not i n c l u d e d i n any of the c l a s s e s enumerated i n s e c t i o n 1 of the A c t and t h e r e f o r e c o u l d not be l a w f u l l y c o n v i c t e d f o r d r i v i n g a cab on Sunday. 4 1 1 O.R. 527. 83 to t r a v e l a few miles by t r a i n or other v e h i c l e . I t would seem almost i n c r e d i b l e had we not the witnesses' admission i n evidence. (42) Given the u n c e r t a i n nature of the law, opponents of the Sunday car decided t o ob t a i n l e g a l c l a r i f i c a t i o n . Two important cases entered the c o u r t s : f i r s t , the Hamilton S t r e e t Railway Company, whose c h a r t e r d i d not f o r b i d Sunday 43 ope r a t i o n s , was charged w i t h v i o l a t i n g Section 1 of the 1845 Upper Canada Lord's Day Act. The second case charged the H a l i f a x E l e c t r i c Tramway Company (whose c h a r t e r l i k e w i s e 44 d i d not f o r b i d Sunday operations ) wit h v i o l a t i n g the 1891 Act. In Ont a r i o , the case proceeded through the lower courts to the Ontario Appeal Court which handed down a d e c i s i o n i n 45 favour of the s t r e e t r a i l w a y company i n March 1897. As a r e s u l t , the Ontario L e g i s l a t u r e amended, a few months l a t e r , the 1845 Act to f o r b i d the Sunday operation of s t r e e t r a i l w a y s 46 and r a d i a l e l e c t r i c r a i l w a y s . In January 1898, however, 4 2 1 8 O.A.R. 459. 43 33 V i c t . (1873), c.lOO,(Ont.). 4 4 5 8 V i c t . (1895), c.107 (N.S.) 45 A.G. v. Hamilton S t r e e t Railway Company, 27 O.R. 49; a l s o Toronto Globe, 1 January 1896; A.G. v. Hamilton S t r e e t Railway Company, 24 O.A.R. 170; a l s o Toronto M a i l and Empire, 3 March 1897. The Ontario Appeal Court decided t h a t the phrase 'or person whatsoever', as defined by B r i t i s h precedent d i d not apply. The phrase d i d not apply to s t r e e t r a i l w a y companies, or indeed to any i n d u s t r i a l c o r p o r a t i o n . Chief J u s t i c e Burton reasoned that i f the 1845 L e g i s l a t u r e had wished to p r o h i b i t the labour of cor p o r a t i o n s i n the A c t , i t would have s p e c i f i c a l - l y named them since i t had been so s p e c i f i c i n i t s l i s t of per- sons whose Sabbath labour was p r o h i b i t e d . 4 6 6 0 V i c t . (1897), c.14, s.95 (Ont.); R.S.O.(1897), c.246. 84 the Nova S o c t i a Supreme Court r u l e d t h a t the 1891 s t a t u t e was u l t r a v i r e s the p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . The court de- cided t h a t the clause f o r b i d d i n g the employment of s e r v i l e labour had been an amendment to an 18 69 A c t , which was i t s e l f an amendment to the pre-Confederation s t a t u t e , "Of Offences 47 Against R e l i g i o n . " Since t h i s s t a t u t e was part of the c r i m i - n a l law of Nova S c o t i a , only the f e d e r a l government had the power to r e p e a l or amend i t . 4 8 The Nova Scotian d e c i s i o n c a s t doubt on the v a l i d i t y of a l l e x i s t i n g p r o v i n c i a l ( i n c l u d i n g municipal) l e g i s l a t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h Sabbath observance. As a consequence, the Ontar- i o government resubmitted the Hamilton S t r e e t Railway case to i t s Appeal Court f o r a d e c i s i o n on the Ontario L e g i s l a t u r e ' s a b i l i t y t o pass the 1897 Act. In 1902, the Ontario Appeal Court upheld the Ontario L e g i s l a t u r e ' s r i g h t to pass the A c t , although Chief J u s t i c e Armour d i s s e n t e d : i n h i s o p i n i o n , the pro f a n a t i o n of the Lord's Day was an offence against r e l i g i o n ; s i nce such offences were p r o p e r l y c l a s s e d as crimes, the enact- ment of appropriate laws and the i m p o s i t i o n of punishment by f i n e s or imprisonment p r o p e r l y belonged to the Parliament of 49 Canada. **'R.S.N.S. (1851), c.157; R.S.N.S. (1869), c.159. 4 8 3 0 N.S.R. 469; 1 C.C.C.424 (C.A.). Robert L. Borden was counsel f o r the prosecution. 49O.W.R. 312; 54 C.C.C. 344, quoted i n PC, APGA, 1902, p. 271. 85 Owing to the c o n f l i c t i n g opinions of the Canadian high 50 c o u r t s , the Sunday car issue proceeded to the J u d i c i a l Commi- t t e e of the P r i v y C o u n c i l f o r a f i n a l and a u t h o r i t a t i v e i n t e r - p r e t a t i o n . In J u l y 1903, i n i t s judgement on the Hamilton S t r e e t Railway case, the P r i v y C o u n c i l reversed the d e c i s i o n of the Ontario Appeal Court. In i t s o p i n i o n , the 1845 Act had been a s t a t u t e of c r i m i n a l law at the time of i t s enactment and was thus a matter of f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . Any amendments to t h i s A c t , such as t h a t of 1897, were t h e r e f o r e "beyond the compe- tency of the Ontario L e g i s l a t u r e to enact," and the 18 97 Act 51 "as a whole was i n v a l i d . " I t seemed c l e a r t h a t , as Chief J u s t i c e Armour had argued, only the f e d e r a l government could pass Sabbath o b s e r v a n c e e l e g i s l a t i o n . The P r i v y C o u n c i l d e c i s i o n s u r p r i s e d governments and Sabbath observance supporters a l i k e . They had assumed th a t the provinces had j u r i s d i c t i o n over t h i s matter, and both the Mac- donald and L a u r i e r governments had declared Sabbath observance a matter of p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . Since 1867 the provinces had asserted t h e i r supposed competence by passing v a r i o u s s t a t u t e s and amendments. By 1898, New 1 Brunswick, Quebec, Mani- toba, B r i t i s h Columbia, and the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , i n a d d i - t i o n to Nova S c o t i a and O n t a r i o , had s t a t u t e s d e a l i n g w i t h In 1899, i n a case unrel a t e d to the Sunday car (Ex Parte re Green, 4 C.C.C. 182; 35 N.B.R. 137), the New Brunswick Supreme Court r u l e d New Brunswick's Sabbath observance l e g i s l a - t i o n i n t r a v i r e s the p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . (1903) A.C. 524. 8 6 Sabbath offences. But the provinces and the Prime M i n i s t e r s were wrong: according to l e g a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Canadian law, only the f e d e r a l government could pass laws r e g u l a t i n g Sabbath obser- vance. Yet./Chief J u s t i c e Armour had been e n t i r e l y c o r r e c t i n d e s c r i b i n g the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of the Canadian s i t u a t i o n t h a t not only made p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n p r e f e r a b l e but would a l s o be- d e v i l the problem from t h a t day to the present. "The Lord's Day Act," Armour s t a t e d , was "not a subject matter i r r e s p e c t i v e or o r i g i n or r e l i g i o n . " The Quebec Act of 1774 had allowed Lower Canadians to preserve t h e i r customs, property, and c i v i l r i g h t s . Consequently, Quebecers had a d i f f e r e n t Lord's Day Act than d i d the r e s t of the country. To "fo r c e a Lord's Day Act on them would be the very opposite of what they contracted f o r . The d i f f e r e n t Provinces," he.concluded,'"have d i f f e r e n t ideas on t h i s subject and i t would be contrary to c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t s to enforce the average idea of the whole Dominion upon each 53 Province." Thwarted i n i t s b i d to o b t a i n comprehensive Sabbath observance l e g i s l a t i o n at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , however, t h i s was e x a c t l y what a new and more a g g r e s s i v e Sabbatarian lobby would attempt to do. P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d continued, without amendment, i t s pre-Confederation s t a t u t e , 20 Geo. I l l (1779), c.3 (P.E.I.). 5 3Quoted i n PC, APGA, 1902, p. 271. 87 Chapter IV: The Sunday Car as C a t a l y s t : The Formation of The Ontario Lord's Day A l l i a n c e , 1895-1899. The Sunday car was but one m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the growing complexity of Canadian s o c i e t y . By the l a t e 18 90s, wheat and immigration were having dynamic impacts upon Canada's economic growth. x F e l t across Canada, t h e i r m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t s upon the economy stimulated f u r t h e r t e c h n o l o g i c a l change. The expanding use of e l e c t r i c i t y , f o r example, was r a p i d . E l e c t r i c l i g h t i n g , e l e c t r i c r a i l w a y s , and the telephone a l l came i n t o common use. "Chains of banks, department s t o r e s , and m a i l order houses, s t e e l r a i l s and telephone wires" t i e d the country together from 2 coast to coast. I n c r e a s i n g l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d urban a r c h i t e c t u r e , i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher l e a r n i n g , and complex municipal govern- ments became the hallmarks of an abundant urban l i f e . So too, however, were the concentrated s o c i a l i l l s of wretched housing, crime, and a l c o h o l i s m . For, d e s p i t e the obvious p r o s p e r i t y of the times, l i f e was bleak f o r the working c l a s s i n the l a r g e c i - 3 t i e s of Toronto, Hamilton, Montreal, and H a l i f a x . Unable to """See G.W. Bertram, "Economic Growth i n Canadian Industry, 1870-1915," Canadian J o u r n a l of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science XXXIX/2 (May 1963) , r e p r i n t e d i n Approaches to Canadian Economic H i s t o r y , ed., W.T. Easterbrook and M.H. Watkins (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1967), p. 92. 2J.M.S. C a r e l e s s , The Rise of C i t i e s i n Canada Before 1914, Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , H i s t o r i c a l Booklet No. 32, 1978, p. 25. See G. Kealey, Hogtown: Working Class Toronto at the Turn of the Century (Toronto: New Hogtown Press, 1974); J.T. Copp, 88 a f f o r d a h o u s e , most l i v e d i n t e n e m e n t s w i t h s e v e r a l o t h e r f a m i - l i e s . C o l d i n w i n t e r , s t i f l i n g i n summer, s u c h t e n e m e n t s o f f e r e d few a m e n i t i e s , an o u t d o o r p r i v y p o s s i b l y , b a t h i n g f a - c i l i t i e s n e v e r . R e t u r n i n g home f r o m a t e n o r t w e l v e h o u r d a y, t h e w o r k i n g f a m i l y had l i t t l e t i m e o r i n c l i n a t i o n f o r r e c r e a - t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . The one day o f l e i s u r e c o n t i n u e d t o be t h e S a b b a t h . The S a b b a t a r i a n r e s p o n s e t o t h e v a s t and r a p i d s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c c h a n g e was b u t one o f t h e many p r o g r e s s i v e r e f o r m movements t h a t p r o l i f e r a t e d a t t h e end o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n - t u r y . C a n a d i a n s began t o f e e l t h a t t h e c o l l e c t i v i s t , r a t h e r t h a n t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s t , a p p r o a c h m i g h t s o l v e some o f p r o s p e r i - t y ' s a t t e n d a n t e v i l s . Some g r o u p s a t t e m p t e d t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t s ; o t h e r s saw a l c o h o l o r p r o s t i t u t i o n as t h e r o o t o f a l l s o c i a l e v i l . Some f o c u s s e d on t h e c h i l d a s t h e human b e i n g most needy o f h e l p ; o t h e r s d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e ex- t e n s i o n o f s u f f r a g e t o women w o u l d c u r e p r o b l e m s t h a t w o u l d o t h e r w i s e go u n s o l v e d . A l l g r o u p s s h a r e d a d e s i r e t o a m e l i o - r a t e c o n d i t i o n s i f p o s s i b l e f o r t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s , b u t t o m a i n - t a i n above a l l t h e s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e m i d d l e c l a s s . P e r c a p i t a p r o d u c t i v i t y w o u l d n o t r i s e i f a b s e n t - The Anatomy o f P o v e r t y : The C o n d i t i o n o f t h e W o r k i n g C l a s s i n M o n t r e a l , 1897-1929 ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1974). L i f e i n t h e new c i t i e s o f t h e P r a i r i e s may n o t have been much b e t t e r f o r t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s . See P a u l V o i s e y , " I n S e a r c h o f W e a l t h and S t a t u s : An E c o n o m i c and S o c i a l S t u d y o f E n t r e p r e n - e u r s i n E a r l y C a l g a r y . , " i n F r o n t i e r C a l g a r y : Town, C i t y , and R e g i o n , 1885-1914, e d . , A.W. R a s p o r i c h and H. K l a s s e n ( C a l g a r y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t West, 1975), p. 233. 89 eeism owing to a l c o h o l i s m prevented the worker from c o n t r i b u t i n g to economic growth. P r o s p e r i t y would not continue i f men, women, or c h i l d r e n were absent from work on Monday (and even Tuesday) owing to the debauchery of a Sunday r i d e on a s t r e e t c a r . In r a i s i n g q u e s t i o n s about the nature of s o c i a l and 4 moral reform, the Sunday c a r c o n t r i b u t e d to the debate about the q u a l i t y of l i f e i n an urban and i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y . The c e n t r a l i s s u e was the weekly day of r e s t and i t s use. Should i t be a day devoted s o l e l y t o the h e a l t h of the s o u l , or should i t be p a r t l y devoted to t h a t end and p a r t l y to the r a t i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n of the p h y s i c a l body? Car supporters argued t h a t the Sunday c a r was a necessary convenience i n an urban com- munity. I t d i d not rob the s t r e e t r a i l w a y employee of h i s day of r e s t , f o r companies were w i l l i n g to guarantee t h e i r employ- ees another day i n the week as a r e s t day. Sunday s e r v i c e was e n t i r e l y a matter of c h o i c e f o r both employees and p a t r o n s . The man who worked on the s t r e e t c a r s was a t l i b e r t y to l e a v e h i s job i f he so chose. The p a t r o n , on the o t h e r hand, was a l s o a t l i b e r t y to r e f u s e to r i d e the c a r s i f h i s r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c - t i o n s d i r e c t e d him not t o . The s e r v i c e , however, should be 4 See Brxan H a r r i s o n , "State I n t e r v e n t i o n and Moral Re- form i n Nineteenth-Century England," i n P r e s s u r e from Without i n E a r l y V i c t o r i a n England, ed., P a t r i c i a H o l l i s (London: Edward A r n o l d L t d . , 1974), p. 289: "The n i n e t e e n t h century debate on S t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n cannot be f u l l y understood u n l e s s the h i s t o r i a n , l i k e the V i c t o r i a n s themselves, d i s c u s s e s both moral and s o c i a l reform t o g e t h e r ; f o r a t t i t u d e s generated i n the moral sphere c a r r i e d over i n t o the s o c i a l . " 90 a v a i l a b l e . In a d d i t i o n , car supporters b e l i e v e d t h a t the Sunday car would e f f e c t a true s o c i a l reform. Since working c l a s s people, 5 i t was assumed, d i d not i n any case attend church s e r v i c e s , they should have the opportunity to r e c e i v e some p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l solace i n the open a i r . The Sunday car would allow those who l i v e d i n urban working c l a s s d i s t r i c t s to escape the s t u l t i f y i n g environment i n which they both l i v e d and worked on the one day of the week they could c l a i m as l e i s u r e . Was i t p o s s i b l e , queried Goldwin Smith, a car supporter, to serve the i n t e r e s t s of e i t h e r humanity or of C h r i s t i a n i t y by: mewing men, women and c h i l d r e n up i n a small room or compelling them to s i t on a doorstep i n the c l o s e a i r of the c i t y during a s u l t r y afternoon when they might be enjoying the a i r and verdure of High Park w i t h a t h a n k f u l heart not a l i e n to r e l i g i o n . (7) The Sunday car would i n f a c t " d r i v e people.out of the slums and g saloons on Sunday i n t o more wholesome and decent surroundings." Supporters f e l t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the P r o t e s t a n t e v a n g e l i c a l churches would demonstrate a r e a l commitment to reform i f they changed t h e i r f e a r f u l a t t i t u d e towards the car.and, i n s t e a d , ab- 5 C h r i s t i a n Guardian, 12 September 1888, c i t e d by S.D. C l a r k , Church and Sect i n Canada (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1948), p. 393: "We cannot get the r i c h and poor to mingle i n our f i n e churches. . . Churches are no sooner b u i l t than they have to be enlarged or r e b u i l t to accommodate the worshippers; and y e t , o u t s i d e of a l l t h i s i s a v a s t p o p u l a t i o n of from f o r t y to f i f t y thousand who go to no church." 6Toronto World, 14 June 1893. 7 I b i d . , 17 June 1893. 8Saturday Night, 24 A p r i l 1897. 91 sorbed t h i s technological innovation. E.E. Sheppard, editor of Saturday Night, suggested that the churches place themselves i n the forefront of the changes represented by the Sunday car. "Is i t not manifest," he postulated, "that i t would be wiser to place guiding hands upon the car of progress than to get vainly crushed under i t s wheels and have i t then run mad?" He recom- mended that the churches disarm the Sunday car "by acquiescence" by giving poorer parishioners free Sunday car t i c k e t s and by encouraging people to spend t h e i r afternoons (after public wor- 9 ship) i n the parks. Sabbath observance supporters also projected t h e i r cam- paign as one of s o c i a l reform: the Sunday car unnecessarily robbed one class of workers of t h e i r Sunday rest i n order that others might have fr i v o l o u s pleasure. Although they too agreed that the Sabbath should be a day of. l e i s u r e , they wished i t to be a day t o t a l l y devoted to the c u l t i v a t i o n of the r e l i g i o u s s p i r i t . Like t h e i r B r i t i s h counterparts, Canadian S a b b a t a r i a n s "saw Sunday as a C h r i s t i a n and r u r a l interlude of class harmony amidst the hectic rush of a m a t e r i a l i s t i c , competitive, and urban society. The Sunday car therefore infused new l i f e into the Sab- batarian movement, giving i t a focus that the e a r l i e r Lord's Day A l l i a n c e had lacked. Long before the court actions were 9 I b i d . , 4 July 1896. "^Harrison, "State Intervention and Moral Reform," p. 295. 92 complete, the Sunday c a r a c t e d as the p r e c i p i t a t i n g f a c t o r i n the f o r m a t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l l o b b i e s i n S t . John, H a l i f a x , and Toronto, whose g o a l i t was to c h a l l e n g e the Sunday c a r ' s r i g h t to run. The two M a r i t i m e a s s o c i a t i o n s , unable t o r e t a i n p u b l i c i n t e r e s t when l i t i g a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the Sunday c a r dragged on i n the c o u r t s , had l i t t l e o r no v i t a l i t y . Only i n Toronto d i d an a s s o c i a t i o n become t r u l y " a g g r e s s i v e , " as John G. Shearer, i n i t i a t o r o f the O n t a r i o Lord's Day A l l i a n c e , was to w r i t e some ye a r s l a t e r . 1 1 Here the anti-Sunday c a r sentiment d i d not focus o n l y on the c o u r t s but a l s o on the m u n i c i p a l referendum i n Toronto which would d e c i d e the i s s u e o f Sunday s e r v i c e . * * * * * * * * * * * * The 1891 c h a r t e r i n c o r p o r a t i n g the Toronto Railway Company ( f o r m e r l y the Toronto S t r e e t Railway Company) al l o w e d Sunday o p e r a t i o n s when approved by a m a j o r i t y o f the c i t y ' s 12 r a t e p a y e r s . The s i g n a t u r e s of 5,000 r a t e p a y e r s on a p e t i t i o n c o u l d o c c a s i o n a v o t e on Sunday s e r v i c e , and the f i r s t such v o t e took p l a c e on January 4, 1892. Over 24,000 people v o t e d and the a n t i - c a r f a c t i o n won h a n d i l y w i t h a m a j o r i t y of 3,936. The announcement o f a second v o t e f o r the end o f August 18 93 l e d to Rev. J.G. Shearer t o Rev. Dr. Waddell, 1 November 1901, LB 1899-1902, p. 883. 1 2 5 5 V i c t . , c.99, s s . 1, 4 ( 1 ) , 19(1), 21. 93 the formation of a C i t i z e n s ' Central Anti-Sunday Car Committee to organize p u b l i c meetings, c i r c u l a t e l i t e r a t u r e and p e t i t i o n s , and mobilize the vote i n each ward of the c i t y . Although the Committee was v i c t o r i o u s , the ant i - c a r majority slipped to 13 14 1,003. Fearing an adverse decision i n the next vote, the Committee contemplated two courses of acti o n : p e t i t i o n i n g the government to pass general l e g i s l a t i o n to supersede municipal l e g i s l a t i o n ; or challenging i n the courts Toronto's r i g h t to hold a vote, on the grounds that the 1845 Upper Canada Lord's Day Act forbade s t r e e t railway operations. E i t h e r course of action would "render a vote upon the question of no use whatso- „15 ever. In Hamilton, appeals by car opponents to the c i t y au- t h o r i t i e s to stop Sunday operations proved " f r u i t l e s s . " x ^ In the f a l l of 1894, therefore, a Hamilton Presbyterian minister, John G.. Shearer, approached J.K. Macdonald, h i s Toronto f r i e n d and colleague on committees of the p r o v i n c i a l Presbyterian Synod, with the suggestion of creating a p r o v i n c i a l lobby. As a r e s u l t of t h i s meeting, the Ontario Lord's Day A l l i a n c e was 13 Toronto M a i l , 28 August 1893. 14 In 1894 the Ontario government imposed a three-year i n t e r v a l between p l e b i s c i t e s on the Sunday car i s s u e . C. Arm- strong and H.V. N e l l e s , The Revenge of the Methodist B i c y c l e Company: Sunday Streetcars and Municipal Reform i n Toronto, 1888-1897 (Toronto: Peter Martin & Associates, 1977), p. 146. x^OLDA, "Memorandum concerning the formation of a Provin- c i a l A l l i a n c e f o r the better observance of the Lord's Day," 15 February 1895, i n OLDA, SB 1892-1900. 16T. I b i d . 94 f o r m e d i n J a n u a r y 189 5. I t s p r i m a r y a i m was t o s e c u r e a s p e c i - f i c amendment t o t h e 1845 Upper Canada A c t p r o h i b i t i n g t h e Sunday o p e r a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l and b u s i n e s s c o r p o r a t i o n s . A t t h e same t i m e , i t p e t i t i o n e d f o r g e n e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h e 1883 S t r e e t R a i l w a y A c t t o ban Sunday o p e r a t i o n s on t h e new i n t e r u r b a n , r a d i a l e l e c t r i c r a i l w a y s y s t e m s r a p i d l y a p p e a r i n g 17 on t h e O n t a r x o l a n d s c a p e . The A l l i a n c e c e n t r e d i n T o r o n t o i n o r d e r t o c a p i t a l i z e on s u p p o r t a l r e a d y g i v e n t o i t s c a u s e i n p r e v i o u s f i g h t s a g a i n s t t h e Sunday c a r . To a l a r g e e x t e n t , as A r m s t r o n g and N e l l e s ex- p l a i n , t h e a n t i - S u n d a y c a r f a c t i o n d e p e n d e d upon a h o s t o f . e x i s t i n g a g e n c i e s , t h e P r o t e s t a n t c h u r c h e s , t h e M i n i s t e r i a l A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e q u a s i - r e l i g i o u s s o c i e t i e s o f Orangemen, Temp- l a r s , Masons, and t h e l i k e , t o p r o v i d e "ready-made n e t w o r k s o f a s s o c i a t i o n , l i n e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n and s y s t e m s o f a u t h o r i t y . " The C h r i s t i a n G u a r d i a n , f o r example, " l e f t no s t o n e u n t u r n e d t o 19 p r e v e n t t h e i n n o v a t i o n . " The E v a n g e l i c a l Movement o f t h e A n g l i c a n C h u r c h a l s o c a m p a i g n e d a c t i v e l y a g a i n s t t h e Sunday c a r ; members o f t h e l o c a l T r a d e s and L a b o r C o u n c i l s l e n t t h e i r I b i d . Whereas i n 1894 o n l y two s u c h l i n e s r u n n i n g o u t f r o m H a m i l t o n o p e r a t e d , i n 1895 a l o n e e l e v e n c o m p a n i e s a p p l i e d t o b u i l d . 18 A r m s t r o n g and N e l l e s , The Revenge o f t h e M e t h o d i s t B i c y c l e Company, p. 177. 19 M a r i a n R o y c e , "The C o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e M e t h o d i s t C h u r c h t o S o c i a l W e l f a r e i n Canada" (M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1940), p. 249; C h r i s t i a n G u a r d i a n , 28 J u n e 1893, 12 J u l y 1893, 19 J u l y 1893, 26 J u l y 1893, 2 A u g u s t 1893, 9 A u g u s t 1893, 15 A u g u s t 1893, 23 A u g u s t 1893, 30 A u g u s t 1893. support as d i d s e v e r a l temperance l e a d e r s . ^ u In comparison to the LDAC, t h e r e f o r e , the O n t a r i o A l l i - ance proceeded most e n e r g e t i c a l l y about i t s t a s k . E i t h e r c l e r i - c a l o r l a y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the P r e s b y t e r i a n dhurch formed the core of the e x e c u t i v e ; they i n t u r n q u i c k l y r e c r u i t e d prom- i n e n t members of the Methodist and A n g l i c a n churches. A l l men who j o i n e d the A l l i a n c e e x e c u t i v e l i v e d i n c i t i e s d i r e c t l y threatened by the Sunday c a r , s i n c e the s t r e e t r a i l w a y companies of these c i t i e s had a l l been c h a r t e r e d b e f o r e the 1883 S t r e e t 21 Railway A c t . In a d d i t i o n , the A l l i a n c e e x e c u t i v e secured ex- t e n s i v e l e g a l e x p e r t i s e among i t s r e c r u i t s . Ten of Toronto's 22 lawyers, among them Sam Blake and Newton W. Hoyles, both a c t i v e i n the a f f a i r s o f W y c l i f f e C o l l e g e , the c e n t r e of evange- l i c a l A n g l i c a n i s m , and Dr. J . J . Maclaren, an e q u a l l y prominent Methodist layman, v o l u n t e e r e d t h e i r s e r v i c e s to the A l l i a n c e . A.E. O'Meara, a Toronto s o l i c i t o r , became the A l l i a n c e ' s p a i d S o l i c i t o r and S e c r e t a r y . The A l i i ance d i d not i n t e n d to r e l y s o l e l y on the e f f o r t s of one sympathetic member of the L e g i s l a - t u r e to i n t r o d u c e l e g i s l a t i o n , but to lobby the Premier and h i s A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l d i r e c t l y by d e p u t a t i o n . Toronto M a i l , 25 J u l y 1893; I b i d . , 22 J u l y 1893; Toronto World, 22 August 1893. 21 Toronto, B r a n t f o r d , Hamilton, London, Kingston, S t . C a t h e r i n e s , Guelph, and Niagara F a l l s . For c h a r t e r s , see O n t a r i o , L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, S t a t u t e s , 1867-1883.- 2 2 Blake had been r e s p o n s i b l e , as C i t y Counsel, f o r the n e g o t i a t i o n of the 1891 c h a r t e r of the Toronto Railway Company, s e c u r i n g the c l a u s e r e s t r i c t i n g Sunday o p e r a t i o n s . Toronto World, 3 March 1897. 9 6 The A l l i a n c e also made plans to r e c r u i t a general mem- bership to s a t i s f y the government that Sabbatarianism was i n - deed the sentiment of the majority. The membership campaign was to concentrate on urban centres, e s t a b l i s h i n g branches f i r s t i n every c i t y and then "so f a r as p o s s i b l e i n every town and 2 3 v i l l a g e of the Province." A f t e r some discussion as to the f e a s i b i l i t y of a membership fee of one or two d o l l a r s , the Exe- cutive decided on f i f t y cents i n order to a t t r a c t greater num- bers thereby. The Ontario A l l i a n c e attempted to promote contact with the Lord's Day A l l i a n c e i n Ottawa, but the LDAC was unprepared 2 4 to cooperate with the Ontario A l l i a n c e i n any concrete fashion. Nor did the Ontario A l l i a n c e e s t a b l i s h any d i r e c t l i n k s with American S a b b a t a r i a n a s s o c i a t i o n s , although i t was c e r t a i n l y aware of, and made .constant reference to, the f r i v o l o u s obser- vance of the Sabbath i n American c i t i e s . The A l l i a n c e perceived the American Sabbath as the Globe described i t , a day of turmoil 2 5 and abominations, open shows and open theatres. I t was much better, the A l l i a n c e believed, to enact l e g i s l a t i o n i n advance 2 6 of such a s i t u a t i o n than to t r y and regain i t , once l o s t . 2 3 OLDA, "Memo concerning formation," 1 5 February 1 8 9 5 . 2 4 G. McRitchie to A.E. O'Meara, 2 6 January 1 8 9 5 , LDAC, MB 1 8 8 8 - 1 9 0 1 . 2 5 Toronto Globe, 2 4 December 1 8 9 0 . 2 6 OLDA, Memorandum, February 1 8 9 6 , i n OLDA, SB 1 8 9 2 - 1 9 0 0 . 97 Y e t , d e s p i t e i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n and e x p e r t i s e , t h e f i r s t l o b b y i n g o f t h e A l l i a n c e was o n l y p a r t i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l . On one hand, i n 1895 t h e O n t a r i o L e g i s l a t u r e p a s s e d an E l e c t r i c R a i l - way A c t t h a t , among i t s p r o v i s i o n s , f o r b a d e a l l Sunday t r a f f i c on r a d i a l e l e c t r i c r a i l w a y s , e x c e p t f o r t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f m i l k . The A c t a l s o i n c l u d e d a c l a u s e s t i p u l a t i n g t h a t p a r k s o r p l e a s u r e g r o u n d s owned by a company c h a r t e r e d u n d e r t h e A c t " s h o u l d n o t be open on t h e L o r d ' s Day t o be u s e d f o r games, p i c n i c s , c o n c e r t s , e x c u r s i o n s , o r o t h e r p u b l i c e n t e r t a i n m e n t s . The e l e v e n e l e c t r i c r a i l w a y c o m p a n i e s c h a r t e r e d by t h e g o v e r n - 2 8 ment i n t h a t y e a r t h u s f e l l u n d e r t h e s e p r o h i b i t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e g o v e r n m e n t amended t h e 1883 S t r e e t R a i l w a y A c t t o i n c l u d e t h e E l e c t r i c R a i l w a y A c t r e s t r i c t i o n on p a r k s o r e n t e r - 29 t a m m e n t a r e a s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , P r e m i e r O l i v e r Mowat, b e l i e v i n g h i m s e l f t h a t S a b b a t h o b s e r v a n c e was r e a l l y a m a t t e r o f m u n i c i p a l r e g u l a t i o n , 3 0 r e f u s e d t o amend t h e 1845 A c t u n t i l t h e A l l i a n c e c o u l d p r o v e t h a t i t was i n s u f f i c i e n t . As a r e s u l t , t h e A l l i a n c e i n s t i t u t e d p r o c e e d i n g s a g a i n s t t h e H a m i l t o n S t r e e t R a i l w a y Company. When t h e c o u r t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e A c t was i n s u f f i c i e n t b e c a u s e t h e p h r a s e 'or p e r s o n w h a t s o e v e r ' d i d n o t i n c l u d e b u s i n e s s c o r p o r a t i o n s , t h e A l l i a n c e a g a i n l o b b i e d t h e 2 758 V i c t . , c.38, s s . 9 ( 2 ) , 136. 28 See O n t a r i o , L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y , S t a t u t e s , 1895. 2 959 V i c t . (1896), c.50, s.5. ^ T o r o n t o M a i l and E m p i r e , 24 J a n u a r y 1896. 98 31 p r o v i n c i a l government to amend the A c t . I t hoped t h a t t h i s would prevent the Toronto r a t e p a y e r s 1 vote on the Sunday c a r s e t f o r May 1897, as w e l l as f o r e s t a l l i n g Sunday o p e r a t i o n s by the Hamilton company. Again, the p r o v i n c i a l government only p a r t i a l l y acceded to the A l l i a n c e ' s r e q u e st: i n A p r i l 1897, the L e g i s l a t u r e passed an amending c l a u s e t o the 1845 A c t t h a t s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r - bade the o p e r a t i o n of s t r e e t r a i l w a y s and r a d i a l e l e c t r i c r a i l - 32 ways on Sundays. Exemptions to the c l a u s e , however, p e r m i t t e d companies t h a t had been o p e r a t i n g on Sundays p r i o r to the enact- ment of t h i s c l a u s e to co n t i n u e , and i t a l s o allowed the vote on the i s s u e to go forward i n Toronto. Although the A l l i a n c e c h a l l e n g e d the v a l i d i t y o f these exemptions, t h e r e was no time 33 to take the matter t o c o u r t b e f o r e the Toronto vote of May 1897. The A l l i a n c e s u f f e r e d p u b l i c h u m i l i a t i o n i n the f i n a l Toronto "Sunday Car A g i t a t i o n , " one of the most e x c i t i n g and b i t t e r m u n i c i p a l c o n t e s t s to take p l a c e i n l a t e V i c t o r i a n Toronto. The Globe r e p o r t e d t h a t the Sunday c a r by-law was " f o r weeks, the c h i e f , i f not the s o l e t o p i c of c o n v e r s a t i o n upon the 34 s t r e e t s , i n the c l u b s and churches and even i n the household." 31 A.G. (Ont.) v. Hamilton S t r e e t Railway Company, 27 O.R. 49; A.G. (Ont.) v. Hamilton S t r e e t Railway Company, 24 O.A.R. 170. 3 2 6 0 V i c t . (1897), c.14, s.95 (Ont.); R.S.O. (1897), c.246. 33 Mayor Fleming of Toronto had announced i n January 18 97 t h a t a vote would take p l a c e i n May as long as the O n t a r i o Ap- p e a l Court d i d not d e c l a r e i t a v i o l a t i o n of the 1845 A c t . Toronto World, 28 January 1897. 3 4 T o r o n t o Globe, 17 May 1897. A n t i - and p r o - c a r a s s o c i a t i o n s clamoured f o r the p u b l i c ' s a t t e n - t i o n , c i r c u l a t i n g p e t i t i o n s , h u r l i n g i n v e c t i v e , and employing q u e s t i o n a b l e t a c t i c s to win support. Of an evening, t h r e e or f o u r b o i s t e r o u s meetings f i l l e d t o c a p a c i t y the c i t y ' s l a r g e s t p u b l i c h a l l s , o f t e n l e a v i n g many more o u t s i d e unable to g a i n entrance. On the eve of the vote, the a g i t a t i o n had indeed taken on the a i