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The battle for the sabbath: the sabbatarian lobby in Canada, 1890-1912 Meen, Sharon Patricia 1979

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THE  BATTLE  THE  FOR  THE  SABBATH:  SABBATARIAN LOBBY CANADA,  IN  1890-1912  by  SHARON B.A., M.A.,  THESIS THE  PATRICIA  University University  MEEN  o f Toronto, of Toronto,  1966 1968  SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL  FULFILLMENT  REQUIREMENTS  DEGREE  DOCTOR O F  FOR  THE  OF  PHILOSOPHY in  THE  FACULTY OF  GRADUATE  (Department  We  THE  of  History)  a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conformim to the required standard  UNIVERSITY'OF BRITISH September,  (C)  STUDIES  Sharon  Patricia  COLUMBIA  19 79  Meen,  1979  In  presenting this  thesis  an a d v a n c e d  degree at  the L i b r a r y  s h a l l make  I  the U n i v e r s i t y it  freely  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r of  British  available  by h i s this  It  for financial  is understood that gain shall  written permission.  n  ^  ,  History  Department o f  The U n i v e r s i t y  _  of  British  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date  I agree  that  study.  copying o f this  thesis  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r  representatives. thesis  Columbia,  f o r r e f e r e n c e and  f u r t h e r agree t h a t permission for e x t e n s i v e  for scholarly  of  in p a r t i a l  1 O c t o b e r 197 9  Columbia  not  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ABSTRACT  This in  Canada.  the  to  1890s.  the  the  the  Day  As  Canada,  Alliance  the  itself  to  pressure  developed  an  increasing  the  third,  of  a membership  and  Laurier Liberal the  two  major  a  forging  i t s campaign,  the  Alliance  ganization  and  the  government  determinants system.  to  a  Political  lobby's success  success  on  new  the  a  the  as  a  social a l l i -  finally,  by  Alliance  had  society. cohesive  Canadian  Alliance  of  campaigning  a l l fronts  the  govern-  temporary  the  maintained  within  came t o  aim  w i t h i n Canadian  Throughout  pressured  that  Lord's  broadened i t s  campaign;  government  of  federal  and  a  car,  the  awareness  developing  press  groups  lobby,  Sabbatarian  by by  succession  consequence,  the  i t improved  early  a  Sunday  a  res-  aggressive  i n i t s pursuit As  in  an  to  the  i n order  presenting  i n the  of  1900s i n t o a n a t i o n a l  labour;  support  car  lobby  during  organized  Owing  legislation.  organized  the  groups  formation  balked  second,  as  street  down c o n c e r n i n g  reform;  such  Sabbatarian  became  Alliance.  successful lobbying, by  the  ephemeral  Sunday  a moral  persuading the  Day  found  early  first,  than  with  methods  of  of  techniques:  ance  the  observance  i n the  the  requisites  rather  Lord's  Sabbath  Alliance  ment.  of  issue precipitated  Alliance  expanded  and  of  Sabbatarianism  d e c i s i o n s handed  Ontario  provincial it  century,  Ontario  judicial  growth  sporadic  appearance  This  lobby,  traces the  Limited to  nineteenth  ponse  of  study  when  --  two  orkey  political the  French  Catholic  c h u r c h , f o r i t s own r e a s o n s , d e c i d e d t o s u p p o r t t h e  campaign f o r S a b b a t h Convinced to  both E n g l i s h  Day  bill  dify  that  he was e f f e c t i n g  The s u b s e q u e n t  his position  kedly  effective  cated version  turn a p o l i t i c a l  legislation  victory  social  First  World  French  into  a moral  d i d not guarantee  P a r l i a m e n t was mar-  triumph.  Although a trunfailed to  After  five years'  i t became a p p a r e n t  a reform o f Canadian  that  social  morals.  S a b b a t a r i a n i s m was one o f many r e s p o n s e s t o  and e c o n o m i c c h a n g e i n t h e p e r i o d War.  t o mo-  Canadian  became law, t h e A l l i a n c e  The p a r t i c u l a r  ans was t h e r e f o r m o f s o c i e t y ' s i n d i v i d u a l ' s morals.  This  lities  urban  o f an e m e r g i n g  relevance  forced Laurier  lobbying inside  o f law e n f o r c e m e n t ,  Canadian vast  debates  t o introduce a Lord's  t h a n i t had b e e n o u t s i d e .  of the b i l l  ardent p u r s u i t  a compromise a c c e p t a b l e  i n the face o f unexpected  The A l l i a n c e ' s  less  legislation.  and F r e n c h , L a u r i e r a g r e e d  i n 19 06.  hostility.  observance  t o the working  s o l u t i o n a d v o c a t e d by S a b b a t a r i ills  ideal  l e a d i n g up t o t h e  through the reform of the  had l i t t l e  contact with the rea-  and i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y ;  class  need  for recreation  i t had other  little  than  c h u r c h - g o i n g o n t h e week's one d a y o f l e i s u r e . Studies o f crusades d i s c u s s i o n because groups hours is  restrictions  more d i r e c t l y or poor  attracting  f o r moral  relief.  reform l e g i s l a t i o n  on r e c r e a t i o n  affected  demand  larger  than d i d l e g i s l a t i o n  concerning  factory  The s t u d y o f m o r a l  and s o c i a l  reform  the attention o f increasing  ;  groups  numbers o f C a n a d i a n h i s -  iv  torians,  while  ing  of  that  work  the  ment;  David  Day  the  observance.  i t s transformation group,  century  bying,  i t s political  the  techniques  c o n t r i b u t e an relationship  process  in  a  historical  at  study  from  of  core  the  papers the  and  dimension groups  of  of  poligovern-  Sabbath  Sabbatarian  i s s u e group  to  traditional  nine-' .  the  and  a  methods  subsequent to  my of  key  a l l levels  the  frame-  the  and  sophisticated  1906  pressure  of  attract-  theoretical  i t s allies,  single  more in  a  is  decisions concerning  i t s shift to  on  Smelser,  passed  the  from  success  between  Canada.  that  activity  examination  Canada,  judicial  i s hoped  teenth  Neil  legislation  numerous  institutionalized  will  of  group  Based  and  detailed  Alliance  It  pressure  Truman a  i n v o l v e d ; the  and  lobby,  by  of  scientists.  c o n s i s t e d of  Lord's  ticians  study  political  provided  analysis  the  of  lob-  failures,  debate  the  more  concerning  policy-making  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract  i i  T a b l e o f Contents  v  Abbreviations  vi  Preface  v i i  CHAPTER I II III IV V VI  Sabbath Observance  i n B r i t i s h North America,  1800-1850-  Sabbath Observance i n an I n d u s t r i a l i z i n g and T r a f f i c k i n g Age, 1850-1890  25  The 'Giddy T r o l l e y ' and Sundays — Jurisdiction  70  The Q u e s t i o n o f  The Sunday Car as C a t a l y s t : The Formation o f the O n t a r i o Lord's Day A l l i a n c e , 1895-1899 A T a l e o f " T o i l and Obloquy": John G. Shearer and the Ontario A l l i a n c e ' s Drive f o r Popularity N a t i o n a l Righteousness Aroused:  VIII  87 131  The O r g a n i z a t i o n o f  the Lord's Day A l l i a n c e o f Canada, 1898-1903 VII  1  174  The Lobby i n A c t i o n , 1903-1906  202  The A l l i a n c e as C l e r i c a l Policeman, 1907-1912  244  Epilogue  283  Bibliography  286  Appendices I II III IV V VI VII  Who Worked on Sunday, 1888-1911: Estimates f o r Preand P o s t - L o r d ' s Day A c t o f 1906  309  The Lord's Day A l l i a n c e o f Canada: L e a d e r s h i p , 1888-1906  311  P r o f i l e of  Claimed Membership i n the Lord's Day A l l i a n c e o f Canada by P r o v i n c e , 1901-1906  332  R e g i o n a l P r o p o r t i o n s o f Claimed Lord's Day A l l i a n c e Membership i n the y e a r s 1901 and 1906  333  The Lord's Day A c t o f Upper Canada, 1845  335  The Lord's Day B i l l , d r a f t e d by the LDAC, and I n t r o duced t o the House o f Commons, March 11, 1906  339  The Lord's Day A c t o f Canada, 1906  341  vi  Abbreviations  A.  used  i n footnote  Lord's  LDACP  citations;  Day A l l i a n c e  o f Canada  Papers  T h e L D A C P ( T o r o n t o , T h o m a s F i s h e r R a r e B o o k Room, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto) include the Minutebooks, Reportbooks, Scrapbooks, and o t h e r r e c o r d s o f t h e L o r d ' s Day A l l i a n c e o f C a n a d a , t h e O n t a r i o L o r d s Day A l l i a n c e , a n d o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s F o o t n o t e c i t a t i o n s o f t h e s e s o u r c e s have used t h e f o l l o w i n g abbreviations: 1  Lord's  LDAC  Day A l l i a n c e  o f Canada  LDAC,  CR  L o r d ' s Day A l l i a n c e ports  o f Canada,  Committee  LDAC,  MB  Lord's  Day A l l i a n c e  o f Canada,  Minutebook  LDAC,  SB  Lord's  Day A l l i a n c e  o f Canada,  Scrapbook  LB  L e t t e r b o o k (The f i v e L e t t e r b o o k s i n t h e LDACP c o n t a i n l e t t e r s o f b o t h t h e L o r d ' s Day A l l i a n c e o f C a n a d a a n d t h e O n t a r i o L o r d ' s Day A l l i a n c e , a r r a n g e d c h r o n o l o g i cally. H e n c e , no d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e two a s s o c i a t i o n s w a s p o s s i b l e . )  OLDA  Ontario  Lord's  Day  Alliance  OLDA,  CR  Ontario  Lord's  Day A l l i a n c e ,  Committee  OLDA,  MB  Ontario  Lord's  Day A l l i a n c e ,  Minutebook  OLDA,  SB  Ontario  Lord's  Day A l l i a n c e ,  Scrapbook  B.  PAC,  C.  PC,  LP APGA  Public  Re-  A r c h i v e s o f Canada,  Laurier  Reports  Papers  P r e s b y t e r i a n Church i n Canada, A c t s and Proceedings o f t h e General Assembly (1875-1913)  vii  Preface:  The B a t t l e f o r the Sabbath:  The  Sabbatarian Lobby  i n Canada, 1890-1912.  T h i s study t r a c e s the growth of the Sabbatarian i n Canada.  lobby  L i m i t e d t o s p o r a d i c and ephemeral groups d u r i n g  the n i n e t e e n t h century, Sabbatarianism became o r g a n i z e d i n r e s ponse to the appearance of the Sunday s t r e e t car i n the e a r l y 1890s.  T h i s i s s u e p r e c i p i t a t e d the formation of an a g g r e s s i v e  lobby, the O n t a r i o Lord's Day A l l i a n c e . of  Owing t o a s u c c e s s i o n  j u d i c i a l d e c i s i o n s handed down concerning the Sunday c a r , the  O n t a r i o A l l i a n c e found i t s e l f balked i n i t s p u r s u i t of p r o v i n cial  Sabbath observance  legislation.  As a consequence, i t ex-  panded i n the e a r l y 19 00s i n t o a n a t i o n a l lobby, the Lord's  Day  A l l i a n c e of Canada, i n order to p r e s s u r e the f e d e r a l government. As the A l l i a n c e developed  an i n c r e a s i n g awareness of the r e q u i -  s i t e s of s u c c e s s f u l l o b b y i n g , i t improved and broadened i t s techniques: cial  f i r s t , by p r e s e n t i n g the Sabbatarian aim as a so-  r a t h e r than a moral reform;  second,  by f o r g i n g a temporary  a l l i a n c e w i t h o r g a n i z e d labour; t h i r d , by d e v e l o p i n g new  cam-  p a i g n i n g methods such as a membership and a press campaign;  final-  l y , by persuading the L a u r i e r L i b e r a l government t h a t the A l l i a n c e had the support of the two major groups w i t h i n Canadian s o c i e t y . P o l i t i c a l success came to the A l l i a n c e when the French church  f o r i t s own  Sabbath observance  Catholic  reasons, decided to support the campaign f o r legislation.  viii  Convinced ble  t o b o t h E n g l i s h and F r e n c h , L a u r i e r  L o r d ' s Day b i l l to  t h a t he was e f f e c t i n g  modify  i n 1906.  his position  an h o s t i l i t y . a l s o markedly  forced  Laurier  i n the face o f unexpected  French  Canadi-  effective  turn a p o l i t i c a l  victory  years' ardent p u r s u i t that  social  l o b b y i n g i n s i d e P a r l i a m e n t was than i t had been o u t s i d e .  Canadian vast  social  First  World  into  a moral  triumph.  d i d not guarantee  These  Allen,  i n h i s study o f the S o c i a l  c o n s e r v a t i v e r e f o r m e r s as t h o s e  a reform of morals.  "closest  to traditional  issues,  sin  acts,  as t h e i r  and t a k i n g  r e f o r m o f t h e environment."^"  reform o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s morals:  f o r m w o u l d be e v i d e n c e d by i n c r e a s e d  This  ideal  had l i t t l e  such  evangeli-  tending to identify social  strategy  The s o l u t i o n  by t h e S a b b a t a r i a n s was t h e r e f o r m o f s o c i e t y ' s  accompanied  Richard  G o s p e l , has c h a r a c t e r i z e d  personal-ethical  with individual  l e a d i n g up t o t h e  as t h e S a b b a t a r i a n l o b b y .  calism, emphasizing  t w i c e a Sabbath,  apparent  r e s p o n s e s t o o k many f o r m s , b u t few d i s -  as d e f e n s i v e a r e a c t i o n  the  five  S a b b a t a r i a n i s m was one o f many r e s p o n s e s t o  played  legislative  failed  After  i t became  and e c o n o m i c c h a n g e i n t h e p e r i o d War.  Although  became law, t h e A l l i a n c e  o f law e n f o r c e m e n t ,  legislation  to introduce a  debates  a truncated version of the b i l l to  agreed  The s u b s e q u e n t  The A l l i a n c e ' s less  a compromise a c c e p t a -  ills  advocated  through  t h e s u c c e s s o f such a r e -  attendance  at public  by p r a y e r and p r i v a t e  contact with the r e a l i t i e s  worship  contemplation.  o f an  emerging  R x c h a r d A l l e n , The S o c i a l P a s s i o n : R e l i g i o n and S o c i a l R e f o r m i n Canada 1 9 1 4 - 1 9 2 8 ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1973), p . 17.  ix  industrial working  and u r b a n  class  need  t h e week's one of the  society;  i t had  for recreation  day o f l e i s u r e .  "middle c l a s s  panaceas  little  relevance to the  o t h e r t h a n c h u r c h - g o i n g on  S a b b a t a r i a n i s m was which  ignored  but another  the root  causes o f  2 urban b l i g h t  and  the abuses  of the f a c t o r y  system."  S t u d i e s of crusades f o r moral reform l e g i s l a t i o n discussion,  as B r i a n H a r r i s o n comments, b e c a u s e  g r o u p s were more d i r e c t l y and by  limitations  affected  for  s u c h r e f o r m i n Canada  i n g numbers o f C a n a d i a n Morrison, N e i l strates.  by r e s t r i c t i o n s  on d r i n k i n g h o u r s " t h a n by 3  f a c t o r y hours or poor r e l i e f .  The  "much  larger recreation  legislation  study o f groups  i s engaging the a t t e n t i o n  historians,  on  of  increas-  S u t h e r l a n d , ; and J o h n Weaver, -among o t h e r s , scientists  on  agitating  as t h e work o f A l l e n ,  A t t h e same t i m e , p o l i t i c a l  demand  Terence demon-  are paying  more a t t e n t i o n  t o p r e s s u r e group a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the Canadian 4 p o l i t i c a l system. B a s e d on a t h e o r e t i c a l framework p r o v i d e d 5 6 by D a v i d Truman, and N e i l S m e l s e r , t h e c o r e o f my a n a l y s i s consisted  of a detailed  examination of the papers of the Lord's  K. McNaught and D . J . B e r c u s o n , The W i n n i p e g S t r i k e : (Don M i l l s , O n t a r i o : Longman Canada L t d ~ , 1 9 7 4 ) , p . 2.  1919  3 B r i a n H a r r i s o n , " S t a t e I n t e r v e n t i o n and M o r a l R e f o r m i n N i n e t e e n t h - C e n t u r y England," i n P r e s s u r e from Without i n E a r l y V i c t o r i a n E n g l a n d , e d . , P. H o l l i s (London: Edward A r n o l d L t d . , 1974), pp. 288-9. 4 See P a u l A. P r o s s , e d . , P r e s s u r e Group B e h a v i o u r i n Canadian P o l i t i c s ( T o r o n t o : M c G r a w - H i l l R y e r s o n , 1975), p . 3. 5 D. Truman, The G o v e r n m e n t a l P r o c e s s (New Y o r k : A.A. K n o p f , 1950) . N. S m e l s e r , T h e o r y o f C o l l e c t i v e B e h a v i o u r (New Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) .  X  Day  Alliance  involved; and  the  the  of  Canada,  i t s allies,  legislation  numerous  judicial  passed  and  the  key  politicians  at  a l l levels  of  government;  decisions  concerning  Sabbath  obser-  vance. It its  i s hoped  transformation  tutionalized tury  bute  an  in  to  success  historical  lationship Canada.  from  group,  techniques  political  that  between  the a  study  single  i t s shift more  in  of  issue  from  and  dimension pressure  group  methods  subsequent to  the  groups  Sabbatarian to  traditional  sophisticated  1906  the  more  the  insti-  nineteenth of  cen-  lobbying, i t s  failures,  debate and  a  lobby,  will  concerning  contri-  the  policy-making  reprocess  Chapter  I:  Sabbath Observance i n B r i t i s h North  America,  1800-  1850.  When Norman McLeod f o u n d e d h i s s e t t l e m e n t on Cape B r e t o n detail  of  the  I s l a n d i n the Sabbath with  early  careful  works o f n e c e s s i t y t o be d o n e . example, t h e Saturday not  evening  e v e n use  acceptable when two in  the  settlers  the  "and  had  upset  the  sap  troughs  throw i n t h e i r  the  children  s t u d i e d the  so  " t h e y were o r d e r e d  skates."  living,  to the Sabbath c h a r a c t e r i z e d c o l o n i a l  the Maritime  and  1784,  blessing,  Sunday  to cut a  the  t h e new  Canadian c o l o n i e s .  hole  only morning the  d i s r e s p e c t or life  A f t e r preaching  his  in  both  first  P r e s b y t e r i a n m i n i s t e r i n P i c t o u , Nova S c o t i a  James M a c G r e g o r l e a r n e d t h a t , i m m e d i a t e l y "the  an  catechism.''"  indifference  in  not  a d u l t s d i s c u s s e d t h e m i n i s t e r ' s sermon w h i l e  I n c o n t r a s t t o t h i s model o f h o l y  sermon as  on  would  One  McLeod a l l o w e d After  for  trees  t h a t they  the deed.  t o p i c s as Sunday c o n v e r s a t i o n .  service,  season,  E v e n n e c e s s i t y was  accompanied  to church,  every  permitting only  In the maple sugar  Sunday r u n o f s a p . "  boys s k a t e d  theological  concern,  supervised  t o make t h e r o u n d s o f t h e i r  excuse i f p l e a s u r e  i c e and  1800s, he  a t S t . Ann's  local  doctor  invited  t h e men  after  the  to the n e a r e s t  grog  "Srlora M c P h e r s o n , Watchman A g a i n s t t h e W o r l d ; The . S t o r y o f Norman McLeod and H i s P e o p l e ( T o r o n t o : The R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) , pp. 100-102, c i t e d by J . S . M o i r , e d . , The C r o s s i n Canada: V i g n e t t e s of t h e Churches A c r o s s Four C e n t u r i e s (Toronto: The R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) , pp. 131-133.  2  shop."  A t h i s next  "against  station,  the sinfulness  he h a d t o warn h i s a u d i e n c e  of their  'singing  a n d w h i s t l i n g , and 2  laughing  and b a w l i n g  Halifax,  t h e h i g h l i g h t o f t h e Sunday a f t e r n o o n was t h e g a r r i s o n  parade  a t 3 p.m.,  1  as they approached  adding  Scottish est  of the Catholic  settlers  On P r i n c e Edward  church viewed  as " e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y  complaint concerned  Island,  the.conduct  indecorous."  t h r o a t s exposed  t o a degree  s h o u l d n o t a l l o w them e v e n t o e n t e r t h e c h u r c h . " by t h e s e t t l e r s '  habits of "talking  of the  His great-  t h e "immodesty o f t h e women, who  to t h e Sacraments w i t h t h e i r  also disturbed  In  t o t h e b u s t l e a l r e a d y g e n e r a t e d by t h e 3  Sunday m a r k e t a n d t h e o p e n t a v e r n s . Bishop P l e s s i s  the service."  came that  B u t he was f r e e l y , " and  o f p e r m i t t i n g " t h e i r dogs t o e n t e r t h e c h u r c h and r u n a r o u n d , as  i f t h e y were i n t h e i r m a s t e r s '  houses,  w i t h o u t anyone  check-  4 ing  them."  grand  I n Lower Canada, t h e j u s t i c e s  juries,  unnecessary  both  o f t h e p e a c e and  i n Quebec and M o n t r e a l , c o m p l a i n e d  proliferation  o f t a v e r n s which,  of the  they claimed,  caused  " c o n t i n u a l s c e n e s o f r i o t and d e b a u c h e r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y on Sun2 G. P a t t e r s o n , L i f e o f James M a c G r e g o r , P.P. ( E d i n b u r g h , 1 8 5 9 ) , p . 96, c i t e d by J . M o i r , E n d u r i n g W i t n e s s : A H i s t o r y o f t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n C h u r c h i n Canada ( T o r o n t o : B r y a n t P r e s s , 1975), p. 55. 3  M i c h a e l C r o s s , "The 1820s," i n C o l o n i s t s and C a n a d i e n s , e d . , J.M.S. C a r e l e s s ( T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n o f C a n a d a , 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 156. A.A. Johnston, A H i s t o r y o f t h e C a t h o l i c Church i n E a s t e r n Nova S c o t i a ( A n t i g o n i s h : S t . F r a n c i s X a v i e r U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 0 ) , v o l . I , p p . 230-233, c i t e d by M o i r , e d . , The C r o s s i n C a n a d a , p . 94. 4  3 days,  to  the  great  scandal of  society,  and  the  ruin  of  lower  5 classes  rule  of  every  In  both  not  the  immigrant,  age  and  Lower  and  exception.  John  sex." Upper  Canada,  Arriving  Crichton,  Sunday  i n Montreal  l a b o u r was i n 18 20,  the  one  observed:  The f i r s t t h i n g t h a t s t r u c k o u r a t t e n t i o n , b e i n g t h e S a b b a t h , was t h e w h o l e s h o r e c o v e r e d w i t h p e o p l e f i s h i n g , and t h e m a r k e t p l a c e c o v e r e d w i t h s t a n d s o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f g o o d s , j u s t t h e same a s [ i f ] i t had b e e n a f a i r day, and i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d of the t o w n n u m e r o u s p a r t i e s g o i n g a b o u t w i t h g u n s , o r amusing themselves with p l a y i n g at b a l l . (6) Proceeding find  to York  settlers  shooting," interfere  and  "in fields  Crichton with  discovering  them,  on  the  concluded and  that  Sabbath  that  the  t h e r e f o r e they  i t was day, law do  or  did what  not  unusual  going "not  out  to a-  appear  they  please  to on  C i t e d by J.-P. W a l l o t , " R e l i g i o n and French-Canadian M o r e s , " C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w L I I ( M a r c h 1971), p . 83. For d e s c r i p t i o n s of Sabbath observance i n the days of the French r e g i m e , s e e W.J. E c c l e s , T h e C a n a d i a n F r o n t i e r , 1534-1760 (New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t a n d W i n s t o n , 1969), p . 98; W.J. Eccles, France i n America ( T o r o n t o : F i t z h e n r y a n d W h i t e s i d e , 1972), p . 136; a n d C . J . J a e n e n , T h e R o l e o f t h e C h u r c h i n New France (Toronto: McGraw-Hill R y e r s o n , 1976). From E c c l e s comments, i t w o u l d seem t h a t t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e C a t h o l i c c h u r c h l a y n o t s o much i n p e r s u a d i n g t h e p e o p l e t o a t t e n d r e l i g i o u s services on t h e S a b b a t h , b u t r a t h e r i n m a i n t a i n i n g p r o p e r s t a n d a r d s o f conduct a t the s e r v i c e s . Unable to secure proper behaviour t h e m s e l v e s , the c l e r g y were f o r c e d t o a p p e a l t o the I n t e n d a n t who issued frequent ordinances "ordering the h a b i t a n t s of t h i s o r t h a t p a r i s h t o behave w i t h more r e s p e c t toward t h e c l o t h ; t o c e a s e t h e i r p r a c t i c e o f w a l k i n g o u t o f c h u r c h as soon as t h e c u r e began h i s sermon; o f s t a n d i n g i n the l o b b y a r g u i n g , even brawling, d u r i n g the s e r v i c e ; of s l i p p i n g out to a nearby tavern, o f b r i n g i n g t h e i r dogs i n t o c h u r c h and e x p o s t u l a t i n g w i t h t h e b e a d l e who t r i e d t o c h a s e them o u t . " ( E c c l e s , The Canadian F r o n t i e r , p. 98). 1  R.F.  1871), p .  350.  Burns,  Life  and  Times  of  Rev.  Dr.  Burns  (Toronto,  4 t h a t day."'  O t h e r s made s i m i l a r  W i l l i a m C a s e , an settlements  e v a n g e l i c a l preacher,  along  t h e Thames R i v e r  " t h e most w i c k e d and was  but  "a day  dancing,  hunting,  and  spending  strolling  etc."  " t h e day  the  to  p a r t of America";  In the  parties,  be Sunday  often  1820s, J o h n H o w i s o n  i n i d l e n e s s and  among t h e woods, o r  1810s,  western  Lake St. C l a i r  d i s s i p a t e d o f any  fishing,  In the  declared  o f w i c k e d amusements, v i s i t i n g  watched people either  observations.  shooting  amusement,  game, o r  wander-  9 i n g between t h e i r  neighbours'  houses."  L e g a l p r o t e c t i o n f o r the statutes, tically  the  of  1677  Neither  s t a t u t e compelled  and Day  religious  through attendance a t p u b l i c worship, but  secure  this  sure."^  The  S c o t i a , New 7  sity  Sunday O b s e r v a n c e A c t s  guaranteed p r o t e c t i o n of the Lord's  colonies. day  Sabbath d i d e x i s t .  end  by  prohibiting  L e g i s l a t u r e s of B r u n s w i c k , and  labour  the  and  1780,  British theore-  throughout  the  observance of both  strove  the p u r s u i t of  three Maritime  P r i n c e Edward  Two  the  to plea-  c o l o n i e s , Nova  I s l a n d , had  a l l passed  Ibid.  S.D. C l a r k , C h u r c h and S e c t i n Canada o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 4 8 ) , p. 95.  (Toronto:  Univer-  9 J o h n Howison, S k e t c h e s o f Upper Canada 1 8 2 1 ) , pp. 157-8.  (Edinburgh,  T h e 1677 A c t (29 C a r . I I , c.7) p r o h i b i t e d "any w o r l d l y l a b o u r o r b u s i n e s s o r work" by t r a d e s m e n , a r t i f i c e r s , workmen, l a b o u r e r s , o r o t h e r p e r s o n s and f o r b a d e s u c h a c t i v i t i e s as " t h e s h o w i n g o r h o l d i n g o u t f o r s a l e o f any g o o d s , " t r a v e l l i n g o r frequenting inns or lodges. Exceptions to t h i s Act allowed "works, o f n e c e s s i t y and c h a r i t y , " t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f meat i n homes, t h e d r e s s i n g o r s e l l i n g o f meat i n i n n s and r e s t a u r a n t s , and t h e c r y i n g and s e l l i n g o f m i l k b e f o r e 9 a.m. or a f t e r 4 p.m. 1 0  5  Sabbath The  Observance  New B r u n s w i c k  Playing, or  A c t s a s one o f t h e i r law p r o h i b i t e d  on Sunday."  wardens t o a c t a s c l e r i c a l once  i n the forenoon.and  worship  "to observe.and  colonial  " S h o o t i n g , Gaming,  Hawking, f r e q u e n t i n g T i p p l i n g  Drunkenness  first  laws.  Sporting,  Houses, o r S e r v i l e  Labour  The Nova S c o t i a A c t , empowered  church  p o l i c e m e n t o w a l k t h r o u g h t h e town  once  i n the afternoon during  suppress a l l d i s o r d e r s ,  divine  and apprehend  12 all  o f f e n d e r s whatsoever."  enter public offenders.  houses  The A c t a l s o  authorized  o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t t o s e a r c h f o r and s e i z e any  I n t h e 1820s, Nova S c o t i a ' s L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r ,  P e r e g r i n e M a i t l a n d , "a m o r a l i s t o f a p u r i t a n i c a l in  Halifax  age fax.  of this  them t o  since  sort  n o t seen  t h e d a y s o f t h e Yankee p i o n e e r s , " t o o k  statute  to arrest  the d e c l i n i n g moral  By w a l k i n g t o c h u r c h , he p u t a b l i g h t  Sunday c a r r i a g e p r o c e s s i o n .  He a l s o  Sir  advant-  tone o f H a l i -  on t h e o n c e  popular  forbade the time-honoured  The 1780 A c t (21 Geo. I l l , c.49) made i t an o f f e n c e f o r k e e p e r s o f p u b l i c h o u s e s t o o p e r a t e t h e i r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a t any t i m e on Sunday e i t h e r f o r p u b l i c e n t e r t a i n m e n t o r p u b l i c d e b a t e . A fine o f f i v e s h i l l i n g s p u n i s h e d o f f e n c e s a g a i n s t t h e 1677 A c t , w h i l e f i n e s o f up t o two h u n d r e d pounds were l e v i e d a g a i n s t o f f e n d e r s o f t h e 178 0 s t a t u t e . The m a i n p u r p o s e o f t h e 178 0 A c t was t o suppress working c l a s s " d i s p u t i n g s o c i e t i e s " which the government v i e w e d as p o l i t i c a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e . See O n t a r i o Law R e f o r m C o m m i s s i o n , R e p o r t on Sunday O b s e r v a n c e L e g i s l a t i o n ( T o r o n t o : D e p a r t m e n t o f J u s t i c e , • 1970)., pp. 2 5 - 9 , • f o r . i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s l e g a l background.  c.3 c.3  Geo. I l l ( 1 7 6 1 ) , c l ( N . S . ) ; a l s o 31 Geo. I l l ( 1 7 9 1 ) , ( N . S . ) ; 26 Geo. I l l ( 1 7 8 6 ) , c.5 (N.B.); 20 Geo. I l l ( 1 7 7 9 ) , (P.E.I.) . 12  In 1851 t h e Nova S c o t i a A c t f o r t h e B e t t e r O b s e r v a n c e o f t h e L o r d ' s Day was c o n s o l i d a t e d a n d r e v i s e d i n t o an A c t c o n c e r n i n g "Of O f f e n c e s a g a i n s t R e l i g i o n . " R.S.N.S. ( 1 8 5 1 ) , c.156. T h i s c o n s o l i d a t i o n o m i t t e d t h e c l a u s e empowering t h e c h u r c h wardens t o a c t a s c l e r i c a l p o l i c e m e n .  6 pageantry of the Sunday g a r r i s o n parade, and i n person  fell  13 upon the Sunday market House of Assembly t e c t the Sabbath:  " l i k e a w r a t h f u l prophet."  The  i n Lower Canada a l s o passed laws t o p r o one i n 1805  to h a l t Sunday s a l e s of goods  or  liquor  ("Wine, S p i r i t s and o t h e r Strong L i q u o r s " ) ;  another  in  18 08 t o p r e s e r v e order d u r i n g r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s on Sun-  days; and a t h i r d  i n 18 27 to prevent " t i p p l i n g i n p u b l i c 14 houses d u r i n g d i v i n e s e r v i c e s . " In the absence of adequate p o l i c e f o r c e s to e n f o r c e these s t a t u t e s , "some p a r i s h e s even s e l e c t e d muscular strongmen  t o impose order i n t h e i r churches 15  and throw out the i n t e r r u p t o r s . " By the 1830s, o n l y the youngest c o l o n y of Upper Canada remained without i t s own  Sabbath observance laws.  Indiffer-  ence t o the day offended the r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s of many e v a n g e l i c a l P r o t e s t a n t s who,  b e l i e v i n g i n the l i t e r a l  interpre-  t a t i o n o f s c r i p t u r a l passages r e g a r d i n g proper Sabbath o b s e r 16 vance,  felt  i t should be a day devoted e n t i r e l y to r e l i g i o u s  e x e r c i s e s , p u b l i c worship morning and evening, and p r i v a t e votions.  de-  But the absence of r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s made these  T. R a d d a l l , H a l i f a x , Warden of the North (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1948), p. 182. s.6  1 4  45 (L.C.) .  Geo.  1 5  Wallot,  I l l (1805), c.3  (L.C);  7 Geo.  IV (1827), c.3,  " R e l i g i o n and French-Canadian Mores," p. 80.  G e n e s i s 2: 2,3; Exodus 20: 8-11; I s a i a h 58: 13; E x e i k e l 20: 12-20, were the passages most o f t e n c i t e d by Sabbatarians. See a l s o Luke 12: 10-16; Mathew 12: 1-14, f o r d i s c u s s i o n s between C h r i s t and the P h a r i s e e s c o n c e r n i n g proper conduct on the Sabbath. C h r i s t argued, f o r example, t h a t i t was proper 1 6  7  rituals a year  impossible.  I n some c o m m u n i t i e s  to pass without  Canada i n t h e e a r l y one  a visit  concluded  n o t uncommon f o r  from a m i n i s t e r .  Visiting  Upper  1820s, J o h n Howison e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t w i t h i n  t h r e e hundred m i l e area  four v i l l a g e s  i t was  enjoyed  i n the west of the p r o v i n c e ,  r e g u l a r p u b l i c worship.  Appalled,  only Howison  that:  t h e d e f i c i e n c y i n t h e number o f r e l i g i o u s e s t a b l i s h ments must h a v e a f a t a l e f f e c t upon t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e p e o p l e , t h e m a j o r i t y o f whom a r e t r u l y i n a s t a t e o f most p i t i a b l e m o r a l d e g r a d a t i o n , g r o s s l y c o n c e i v i n g t h a t t h e y n e v e r do a n y t h i n g p r o f l i g a t e , v i c i o u s o r d i s h o n e s t , e x c e p t when t h e y i n f r i n g e t h e laws o f t h e i r c o u n t r y . The S a b b a t h , p r e s e n t i n g no routine of duties to t h e i r r e c o l l e c t i o n , g r a d u a l l y a p p r o x i m a t e s a week day. T h e y , when i t o c c u r s , a b s t a i n f r o m l a b o u r , more f r o m h a b i t , t h a n f r o m p r i n c i p l e s . (17) At  the  end  lamenting  o f t h e d e c a d e , i m m i g r a n t J o h n C r i c h t o n was the  lack of church  services,  still  n o t i n g t h a t i n the  past  18 year  he  had  heard  Under s u c h c o u l d do British  little.  only  five  o r s i x sermons.  circumstances, Before  1830,  statutes, relying  no  conscientious one  i n s t e a d on  attempted  Sabbatarians to enforce  p e r s o n a l example t o  the  remind  f o r him t o h e a l on t h e S a b b a t h , as w e l l as f o r h i s d i s c i p l e s t o p l u c k e a r s o f c o r n ( t h a t i s , work) t o f e e d t h e m s e l v e s . In a r g u i n g w i t h t h e P h a r i s e e s , C h r i s t m a i n t a i n e d t h a t " t h e S a b b a t h was made f o r man and n o t man f o r t h e S a b b a t h . " (Mark 2: 27). For d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e o r i g i n s and t h e o l o g y o f t h e S a b b a t h , s e e W i l l i a m H o d g k i n s , Sunday: C h r i s t i a n and S o c i a l S i g n i f i c a n c e (London: I n d e p e n d e n t P r e s s , 1960); W i n t o n U. S o l b e r g , Redeem t h e Time: the P u r i t a n Sabbath i n E a r l y A m e r i c a (Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977); O n t a r i o Law R e f o r m C o m m i s s i o n , R e p o r t on Sunday O b s e r v a n c e L e g i s l a t i o n , pp. 69-74. Howison, Sketches Burns, L i f e  and  o f Upper C a n a d a , pp.  T i m e s o f Rev.  Dr.  142-3.  B u r n s , p.  352.  8 neighbours refuse  "of the weekly  r e t u r n of the Sabbath."  t o d e s e c r a t e t h e day  functions insist  by p a r t i c i p a t i n g  s u c h as b a r n r a i s i n g s  that  their  as t h e y o b s e r v e d  or q u i l t i n g  employees r e c e i v e t h e i r i t properly.  h i s l o g g e r s t h a t he w o u l d  getting  t o go  When t h e y a s k e d h i m  out  replied  bees;  Sabbath  others rest,  "much r a t h e r  to church" than engaging " w i t h some a s t o n i s h m e n t  t o r y manner" i f A b b o t t w i s h e d he  i n community  cause"  as  them t o go  tantamount  see  i n other and  long  them  activities.  i n a depreca-  to church every  t h a t he w o u l d c o n s i d e r a n e g l e c t o f t h i s  sufficient  might  Farmer Joseph Abbott, f o r  example, t o l d ready  Some m i g h t  to a notice  Sunday,  duty  "with-  to q u i t h i s s e r v i c e .  19 Needless  t o s a y , t h e men Such i n d i v i d u a l  breaking quite  obeyed effort  c o n t i n u e d unabated.  h i s wishes. did l i t t l e ,  The  however, and  town o f Y o r k  i n a d e q u a t e l y , a c c o r d i n g to the Reverend  a staunch S c o t t i s h in  his diary  at  York,"  Sabbatarian.  on O c t o b e r  t h e r e was  bath desecration:  also  7,  1832,  observed William  A l t h o u g h t h e r e was, "a g r e a t d e a l ' o f  SabbathSunday  Proudfoot, he r e c o r d e d  church-going  a g r e a t d e a l o f c a r e l e s s n e s s and  " T h i n g s a r e done o p e n l y h e r e w h i c h  Sab-  I never  19 E . G u i l l e t , The P i o n e e r F a r m e r and Backwoodsman ( T o r o n t o : The O n t a r i o P u b l i s h i n g Co. L t d . , 1 9 6 3 ) , pp. 191, 340. Abbott continued i n h i s d i a r y : "They s u b m i t t e d t o my w i s h e s , b u t one o f them t h o u g h t me a h a r d and c r u e l t a s k - m a s t e r ; t h a t one, however, i s now a s e r i o u s , o r d e r l y , and r e g u l a r a t t e n d a n t a t c h u r c h and a communicant, and a t t r i b u t e s a l l h i s s u b s e q u e n t s u c c e s s i n l i f e , as w e l l as h i s r e f o r m a t i o n o f c o n d u c t , t o s u c h t r i f l i n g i n s t r u c t i o n as I was l e d t o g i v e him on s u c h o c c a sions." T h u s , A b b o t t c o n c l u d e d smugly, "a word i n s e a s o n i s sometimes l i k e b r e a d c a s t upon t h e w a t e r s , w h i c h may appear a f t e r many d a y s . "  9  saw  done i n S c o t l a n d . "  by w o r k i n g  While  few  dared outrage p u b l i c  o r s h o o t i n g i n t h e woods, t h e y  lounged  feeling  about  the  20 streets;  being i d l e ,  Scotland  Synod w o r r i e d a b o u t  gaging  travelling,  neglect of p u b l i c  Church  Sabbath  and  o f S c o t l a n d and  Sabbath  failure  Church  by p e r s o n s  visiting  and  p r i v a t e means o f g r a c e . "  the Methodist church  seriously with C h r i s t i a n i t y .  but p a r t i e s  gathering larity  assembling  a t the docks  and  Not  felt  Both  that  The  traffic  o n l y d i d such divine  a t w h a r f s i d e t a v e r n s and  pleasure lessening 20  travel  f o c u s s e d on  Methodist C h r i s t i a n  available  steamship  e x c u r s i o n s , the  i n Upper C a n a d a , and  reverence f o r the Sabbath.  Not  crowds  a i r of  their  secu-  Guardian,  as p a r t o f i t s c a m p a i g n a g a i n s t amusement i n g e n e r a l and in particular,  the  increasing  steamship  g a v e t h e w h o l e p r o v i n c e "an 22  dissipation."  en-  receiving  l a b o u r d e p r i v e hundreds of t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t y to a t t e n d worship,  of  t o do c h o r e s b e f o r e Sunday 21  l a b o u r c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e m a i l s and  interfered  The  violations  " i n worldly conversation, 'idle  of v i s i t o r s ' , and  t h e y became " d i s o r d e r l y . "  liquor  first effect in  only d i d excursion  C i t e d by J e a n B u r n e t , "The U r b a n Community and C h a n g i n g M o r a l S t a n d a r d s , " i n U r b a n i s m and t h e C h a n g i n g C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y , e d . , S.D. C l a r k ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 73. 21 C h u r c h o f S c o t l a n d Synod P a p e r s , R e p o r t o f T o r o n t o P r e s b y t e r y on S a b b a t h V i o l a t i o n , 1837, c i t e d by M o i r , E n d u r i n g W i t n e s s , p. 85. 22 C h r i s t i a n G u a r d i a n , 21 A p r i l 1841; a l s o P r e s b y t e r i a n C h u r c h , A c t s and P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e Synod o f t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n C h u r c h o f Canada i n C o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e C h u r c h o f S c o t l a n d , 1841, A p p e n d i x No. IV, p. 35.  10  p a t r o n s , presumably "highly  those of the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s ,  intoxicated with liquor"  needlessly  affected.  The n o i s e a n d b u s t l e ,  o f t e n during d i v i n e worship, "every w e l l  but those s t i l l  greatly  r e g u l a t e d mind engaged  sions presented  return a t home were  occurring  annoyed m i n i s t e r s and  i n p u b l i c worship."  " t o t h e eye and e a r a scene  d e s i g n e d t o be s e c u r e d on t h a t day by t h e laws  being  Especially  h a r m f u l was t h e e f f e c t  state of things  o f God and o f  upon t h e y o u n g :  c o n f i n e d t o b u s i n e s s d u r i n g t h e r e s t o f t h e week, t h e  attractive from  Excur-  of confusion alto-  g e t h e r a t v a r i a n c e w i t h t h a t p e a c e f u l and o r d e r l y  country."  a l l too  n o v e l t y o f t h e Sunday w h a r f s i d e s c e n e  church attendance;  as a r e s u l t ,  enticed  them  t h e y grew up " i g n o r a n t o f  23 great  truths." Demands f o r e i t h e r  p a s s i n g o f new l e g i s l a t i o n petitioned  the enforcement increased.  the Lieutenant-Governor  The C h u r c h  through  the p r o h i b i t i o n 24  l a b o u r on t h e c a n a l s . Guardian,  such as  law o r t h e  of Scotland  f o r t h e appointment  r e s p o n s i b l e magistrates t o suppress v i c e s breaking  of B r i t i s h  of  Sabbath-  o f Sunday m a i l a n d Sunday  The M e t h o d i s t c h u r c h ,  urged m a g i s t r a t e s and c i t y  through the  authorities  t o take the  n e c e s s a r y s t e p s " t o p r e s e r v e as f a r as p o s s i b l e t h e r e l i g i o u s 23 C h r i s t i a n G u a r d i a n , 25 September 1833; I b i d . , 18 May 1836. See a l s o C B . S i s s o n s , E g e r t o n R y e r s o n : H i s L i f e and L e t t e r s ( T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1937), v o l . I , p. 261, n.2. 24 P r e s b y t e r i a n C h u r c h , A c t s a n d P r o c e e d i n g s , 18 39, p . 198; I b i d . , 1841, A p p e n d i x No. IV, p . 35; I b i d . , 1843, p . 31; I b i d . , 1844, p . 29.  11  rights the suit ing  of the i n h a b i t a n t s , "  landing  and s h i p p i n g  of their  and t o e n f o r c e B r i t i s h  o f goods  on t h e S a b b a t h , and  s e c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n s by c a r t e r s  classes."  When l o c a l  law  authorities  failed  G u a r d i a n p r e s s e d upon t h e U n i o n government  against "the pur-  and o t h e r  labour-  to take a c t i o n ,  the  i t s duty to pass l e 25  gislation  " f o r the accomplishment  In  1844,  o f so r e l i g i o u s  C o l o n e l John P r i n c e ,  Essex, introduced  a comprehensive  an  object."  i n d e p e n d e n t member f o r  Sabbath observance b i l l  to the  2 6 Legislature. a  British  ideal,  L o r d ' s Day, enactment  Since the b i l l  aimed  commonly c a l l e d  o f t h e 1677  Sunday s a l e s and  Sunday," was  British  statute 27  l a b o u r by  t o be a v i r t u a l r e -  i n a f o r m more s u i t e d Its f i r s t  "any m e r c h a n t ,  Subsequent  Sabbath r e c r e a t i o n a l  tradesman,  artificer,  any e x p o s e d  incorporated  city  life:  f i s h i n g were a l l f o r b i d d e n ;  situation  the  c l a u s e s attempted to e x t i r p a t e a l l  t e m p t a t i o n s of. c o l o n i a l  horse-racing, hunting,  to  clause forbade  workman, l a b o u r e r o r o t h e r p e r s o n w h a t s o e v e r , on  L o r d ' s Day."  "in  in legislation  the "Act to Prevent the P r o f a n a t i o n of the  C a n a d i a n c o n d i t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s .  mechanic,  to enshrine  i n any w a t e r w i t h i n  gambling, even  bathing  the l i m i t s  o r town, o r w i t h i n v i e w o f any p l a c e o f  of  any  Public  25 C h r i s t i a n G u a r d i a n , 18 May 1836; I b i d . , 21 A p r i l 1841. 26 Re P r i n c e , s e e D i c t i o n a r y o f C a n a d i a n B i o g r a p h y , v o l . IX, e d . , F.G. H a l p e n n y ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 7 6 ) , pp. 642-6. 27 O n t a r i o Law R e f o r m C o m m i s s i o n , R e p o r t on Sunday O b s e r v a n c e L e g i s l a t i o n , p. 30.  12  W o r s h i p , o r p r i v a t e r e s i d e n c e , " was the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l .  By  Sabbath labour  pleasure  flecting of  the Methodists'  a l c o h o l as  bill  directly  tippling  of "in  a leisure forbade  i n any  tainment." liquor  controlled  by  i n c l u d e d i n an  implication  persons  with  the  "to t i p p l e ,  i t attempted  by  of Re-  consumption  p u r s u i t , the second c l a u s e of  inn, tavern, grocery  Indirectly  the p r o h i b i t i o n  steamship e x c u r s i o n s .  intense concern time  amendment  or to allow or  the  permit  o r house o f p u b l i c e n t e r to c o n t r o l  the  flow  of  f o r b i d d i n g Sunday p o l i t i c a l m e e t i n g s , p u b l i c d i s p l a y s  intoxication  and  brawling,  the p u b l i c s t r e e t s  o r the use  of profane  o r open a i r , so as  language  t o c r e a t e any  riot,  or 2  d i s t u r b a n c e , o r a n n o y a n c e t o Her  Majesty's  peaceable  subjects."  When o p p o s i t i o n f r o m Lower C a n a d i a n members f o r c e d to  w i t h d r a w t h e m e a s u r e , P r i n c e amended i t t o a p p l y  Canada a l o n e , and  saw  i t through  law w o u l d n o t ticularly think,"  reintroduced the b i l l  apply  i n the  the C h r i s t i a n Guardian.  t o Upper  following session, 29  t h e L e g i s l a t u r e i n 1845. t o Lower Canada i r k e d  him  The  fact  that  i t s supporters,  " D i d members o f t h e  the  par-  Assembly  i t queried:  Debates of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly o f U n i t e d M a r c h 1845, p . 2305.  Canada,  29 8 V i c t , c.45 ( U . C . ) , s e e A p p e n d i x V; a l s o D e b a t e s o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y o f U n i t e d C a n a d a , M a r c h 1845, pp. 202528, 2305. The L e g i s l a t u r e added t h e c a t e g o r y " m e r c h a n t " t o t h o s e whose l a b o u r was p r o h i b i t e d by t h e 16 77 s t a t u t e . The A c t did not apply to Indians. Any p e r s o n c o n v i c t e d u n d e r t h e A c t was t o be f i n e d a sum " n o t e x c e e d i n g f o r t y d o l l a r s , n o r l e s s t h a n one d o l l a r , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e c o s t s and c h a r g e s a t t e n d i n g t h e p r o c e e d i n g s and c o n v i c t i o n . "  13  t h a t t h e God o f t h e C a t h o l i c s was more i n d u l g e n t t h a n t h e God o f t h e P r o t e s t a n t s , and t h a t l e s s w o u l d be e x a c t e d f r o m t h e f o r m e r t h a n f r o m t h e l a t t e r ? And d i d t h e y t h i n k t h a t t h e g r e a t r u l e r o f a l l r e q u i r e d o f them t o a l l o w a b r e a c h o f t h e h o l y day i n one c l a s s o f t h e community and t o p u n i s h i t i n another? I f n o t , why t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n l e g i s l a t i o n ? . . . T h i s may be e x p e d i e n c y ; b u t i t i s n o t c o n s i s t e n c y , nor C h r i s t i a n i t y . Nor i n f a c t i s i t t r u e e x p e d i e n c y ; f o r s u i t i n g o n l y p r e s e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s , and n o t r e s t i n g on t h e immutable p r i n c i p l e s o f r i g h t , i t i s o n l y p r e p a r i n g g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t i e s t o come when o t h e r l e g i s l a t o r s may resume t h e u n f i n i s h e d work. (30) The  d e b a t e on  Prince's  bill  r a i s e d the problem  would prove i n s o l u b l e to a l l f u t u r e S a b b a t a r i a n s : concile On  religious  c o n v i c t i o n with  economic, from the  An  clause  exempting  defining  these  the  allowed  t o be  o r by w a t e r , and  the  interdependent  the  and  1845  the  the  ally  an  nature  activities  that fishing  along  o f e c o n o m i c n e c e s s i t y and  other  hand, t h e  amusement."  same p e o p l e  In  t h e end,  the  and  1  by  But  given  temporary  exemption?  fishing.  On  D e t r o i t R i v e r was  that hunting  the b i l l  land  resource-  therefore should felt  bill?  charity ,  medicines.  enjoy  gain.  of the  or mail  o f Canada's  d i s c u s s i o n concerned hunting  hand, many f e l t activity  other  clauses  travellers  o f d r u g s and  seasonal  re-  activities,  'works o f n e c e s s i t y and of  to  d e s i r e f o r economic  restrictive  conveying  selling  b a s e d economy, s h o u l d  on  how  what b a s i s were d e c i s i o n s t o be made t o exempt  particularly  In  the  that  be  an  exempt;  "was  included both  one  generin its 31  prohibitions,  but  the  d e b a t e was  C h r i s t i a n Guardian,  25  a portent September  of  the  future.  1844.  31 Debates o f the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly o f U n i t e d Canada, M a r c h 1845, pp. 2027-8. A n o t h e r member t h o u g h t t h e b i l l should a l s o exempt maple s u g a r m a k i n g , b u t t h e House v o t e d down t h i s suggestion.  14  Five years  after  Upper Canada, t h e f i r s t Kingston, Toronto,  the passage o f the Lord's Sabbatarian  and B r a n t f o r d t o l o b b y  t i v e p r o t e c t i o n o f the Sabbath. labour i n the Post O f f i c e . transferred  jurisdiction  governments.  throughout  groups appeared i n  f o r further  Their f i r s t  legisla-  t a r g e t was  Sabbath  I n 1849 t h e I m p e r i a l g o v e r n m e n t  over  the Royal M a i l to the c o l o n i a l  The s i m u l t a n e o u s  system promised  interest  Day A c t o f  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a cheap  an i n c r e a s e i n t h e amount o f  the country with the c e r t a i n  result  postage  correspondence of a "material  i n c r e a s e i n t h e l a b o u r e r s r e q u i r e d and t h e l a b o u r e x a c t e d . " seemed an a p p r o p r i a t e o c c a s i o n t o e f f e c t at  least  delivery  those  affecting  of mail.  changes i n p r o c e d u r e s ,  t h e Sunday o p e n i n g  Experience  o f p o s t o f f i c e s and  had amply shown, a r g u e d  s t o n S o c i e t y i n 1851, t h a t i t was much e a s i e r  should to  than  "strain  every  begin w e l l . "  with  later.  into  com-  The S o c i e t y t h e r e f o r e b e l i e v e d i t  nerve  to prevail  The new p o s t a l  the s i n of l e g a l i z e d  the King-  to put a regula-  t i o n on t h e S t a t u t e books b e f o r e a s i t u a t i o n d e v e l o p e d mon p r a c t i c e  It  on t h e p u b l i c  system should  authorities  " n o t be s t a i n e d  Sabbath d e s e c r a t i o n , b u t s i g n a l i z e d 32  by  i t s entire The  abolition."  f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e g r o u p s c o n s i s t e d o f an e x e -  c u t i v e board  a n d a g e n e r a l membership.  p r e s i d e n c i e s o f both Hervey P r i c e ,  the Toronto  Laymen a c c e p t e d t h e  and K i n g s t o n  societies.  James  C o m m i s s i o n e r o f L a n d s i n Upper Canada, i n T o r o n t o ,  K i n g s t o n C h r o n i c l e and News S u p p l e m e n t , 17 J a n u a r y  1851.  15  and  a Lieutenant-Colonel  presidents  Lawrence i n Kingston were the  of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s .  twenty members, the m a j o r i t y boards  laymen, formed the  ( c l e r i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was  Consultations the P r e s i d e n t ,  On  to be only  average, executive  ex-officio).  between the most a c t i v e members of the Secretary,  and T r e a s u r e r ,  executive,  were to take p l a c e  l e a s t once every three months, w h i l e each s o c i e t y was once a year f o r the formal p r e s e n t a t i o n r e p o r t and  the e l e c t i o n of new  first  at  to meet  of the board's annual  officers.  The  groups  intended  t o correspond w i t h B r i t i s h and American Sabbatarian a s s o c i a t i o n s 33 to c o l l e c t information They a l s o p r o j e c t e d  on methods used i n those c o u n t r i e s .  the formation  Canada Sabbath A l l i a n c e .  The  of a l a r g e r a s s o c i a t i o n , a  groups planned to f i n a n c e  t i o n s from membership dues of 2s6d a y e a r .  Membership  operawas  based on the r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t : the Sabbath i s of D i v i n e o r i g i n and p e r p e t u a l o b l i g a t i o n ; t h a t i t i s an i n s t i t u t i o n f r a u g h t with unspeakable b l e s s i n g s to mankind, t e m p o r a l , s s p i r i t u a l and e t e r n a l ; t h a t i t s v i o l a t i o n i n any form, by r u l e r s or s u b j e c t s , must be h i g h l y d i s p l e a s i n g to Almighty God; and t h a t i t i s the duty of a l l to pray f o r , and use t h e i r b e s t e x e r t i o n s to secure, the due observance of the Lord's Day. (34) Though members might come from any  church, i t was  expected t h a t  the congregations o f the e v a n g e l i c a l Methodist and churches would p r o v i d e 33  Presbyterian  the main body o f members; although  Kingston Sabbath Reformation S o c i e t y , "11th p o r t , " 17 January 1861, M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y . 34 C h r i s t i a n Guardian, 16 January 1850.  the  Annual  Re-  16  g r o u p s spoke o f s e c u r i n g ity,"  t h e a i d o f " a l l c l a s s e s o f t h e commun-  no t h o u g h t was g i v e n  t o r e c r u i t i n g membership o u t s i d e t h e  churches. To tations,"  achieve  the groups intended  They r e l i e d tions,  t h e ends o f t h e i r  solely  and p a t r i o t i c  t o employ o n l y  on t h e c i r c u l a t i o n  the t r a d i t i o n a l  "pious  technique  agi-  " l a w f u l means."  and p r e s e n t a t i o n  of the nineteenth  of peti-  century, to 37  d e m o n s t r a t e t o t h e government t h e s t r e n g t h o f p u b l i c Such p e t i t i o n s , aim, the  addressed  s t r e s s i n g the r e l i g i o u s  relied and  i n the Post  on t h e e v a n g e l i c a l c h u r c h e s  made no p l a n s  tant their  to influence public opinion  subject d i r e c t l y  spokesmen on l e c t u r e t o u r s to c i r c u l a t i n g first to  year  tract  to recruiting  Instead  they  t o " b r i n g t h e imporcommitted t o  c l e r g y t o a c t as  t h r o u g h o u t t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , and  literature  of operation,  The g r o u p s  through non-  under t h e n o t i c e o f those  oversight,"  body and a s  the p e t i t i o n s  campaign.  themselves t o urging m i n i s t e r s  spiritual  Office.  to circulate  r e l i g i o u s means s u c h a s a s e c u l a r p r e s s restricted  b a s i s o f sabbata-r.-ranisitb's  t h e g o v e r n m e n t b o t h as a l e g i s l a t i v e  employer o f Sabbath l a b o u r  support.  t o p u b l i c i z e the cause.  the Kingston  "a v a r i e t y o f c e n t r a l p o r t s  Society  sent  5,000  throughout the Province,  In i t s tracts whence,  35  Kingston 3 6  C h r o n i c l e and News S u p p l e m e n t , 17 J a n u a r y 1851,  Ibid.  37  See C o l i n L e y s , " P e t i t i o n i n g i n t h e N i n e t e e n t h a n d T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y , " P o l i t i c a l S t u d i e s I I I / l ( 1 9 5 5 ) , p p . 45-64.  17  t h r o u g h means o f l o c a l  agents, t h e i r  further distribution  might  38 be  conducted." The  early to  groups  remained  active  1860s, a d d i n g o p p o s i t i o n  their  concern about  throughout.the  t o Sunday l a b o u r on  Sunday m a i l .  Support  came f r o m a v a r i e t y  of sources.  formed  t h e most a r d e n t a d v o c a t e :  i n 1843,  was  most o t h e r r e s p e c t s , duty of  to l e g i s l a t e  a minister  s e n t by  i t insisted  the  both and  the  government's 39  observance.  Members  Dr. Robert  Burns,  of Scotland to defend i t s  Free Church 40  lobby i n the L e g i s l a t u r e .  1857,  of Scotland,  o f S c o t l a n d , were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t h e  Price  took  Reform p o l i t i c i a n s  I n 1851,  Fergusson presented the p e t i t i o n s  to  cause  voluntarist in  the Reverend  the Free Church  of the groups.  w h i l e James H e r v e y  i t was  and  the canals  for their  Free Church  that  in particular  break w i t h the Church initiation  The  i n f a v o u r o f Sabbath  the Free Church,  1850s  Honourable  to the L e g i s l a t i v e  them t o t h e A s s e m b l y .  G e o r g e Brown a c t e d as t h e g r o u p s ' p o l i t i c a l  through h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h r e e Sabbath  backed  Adam Council From  1853  champion,  observance  bills  through h i s f r e q u e n t e d i t o r i a l s i n the Toronto Globe. As ^ " K i n g s t o n C h r o n i c l e and News S u p p l e m e n t , 17 J a n u a r y 1851. 39  See M o i r , E n d u r i n g W i t n e s s , p . 130: "George Brown was a self-proclaimed voluntarist i n a l l things — except sabbath observance." 40 See S.D. C l a r k , Movements o f P o l i t i c a l P r o t e s t , 16401840 ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 418. In d i s c u s s i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e 1837 R e b e l l i o n , C l a r k makes t h e p o i n t t h a t s u p p o r t o f t h e r e f o r m c a u s e came n o t f r o m S c o t t i s h p e o p l e as s u c h b u t f r o m S c o t t i s h P r e s b y t e r i a n s who were n o t a t t a c h e d t o the Church o f S c o t l a n d . Scotsmen a t t a c h e d t o t h e  18  a politician, ism,  like  Brown had  discovered that support  temperance, s t r e n g t h e n e d  him  of  Sabbatarian-  i n the r u r a l ,  "righteous  41 West" where t h e F r e e C h u r c h was petitions,"  he  urged  Alexander  S a r n i a R e f o r m Committee, arian  going nature encroached  on  and  "dense p o p u l a t i o n " f l o o d i n g of  the  Rectories, Sect-  Sabbath d e s e c r a t i o n . . . . i n Brown's o p i n i o n , t h e  Upper C a n a d i a n b u s i n e s s  Sabbath r e s t ,  s h o a l down  Mackenzie, Secretary of  Although,  of e a r l i e r  "Do  "about the Reserves,  S c h o o l s , M a i n e Law, 42  more t h e m e r r i e r . "  strongest.  new  life  threatened  "a g r o w i n g w o r l d l i n e s s i n t h e p u b l i c mind on  easy-  had  b u s i n e s s , e n e r g i e s and  the country  The  the  not  the creation  this point, 43  w h i c h w o u l d be He  easier  welcomed t h e  arguing  controlled  now  than  a t a l a t e r moment."  f o r m a t i o n o f Sabbath observance  t h a t "whether r e g a r d e d  as a r e l i g i o u s ,  o r mere m e r c a n t i l e q u e s t i o n , t h e  strict  associations, social,  observance  physical  o f one  day  C o vtelna n d o fh u r rc eh s t o fi n S c se i ,s mon e r ct ih fe u lo lt yh e ra h na en c de ,s s ci lteya.r"l y B ui td e nrteilfiigeido u thems s e l v e s with the Tory cause. This i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of r e l i g i o n and p o l i t i c s c o n t i n u e d a f t e r t h e 1837 t r o u b l e s , as S c o t t i s h F r e e Church P r e s b y t e r i a n s c o n t i n u e d t o s u p p o r t the Reform, l a t e r the L i b e r a l , p a r t y . As P.B. W a i t e comments, " t h e g r e a t p r o m o t e r s o f t e m p e r a n c e and S a b b a t a r i a n laws seem m a i n l y t o have b e e n on t h e L i b e r a l s i d e i n P a r l i a m e n t . " (Waite, " R e f l e c t i o n s on an U n - V i c t o r i a n S o c i e t y , " i n O l i v e r Mowat's O n t a r i o , e d . , D. S w a i n s o n ( T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n o f C a n a d a , 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 22. 41 J.M.S. C a r e l e s s , Brown o f t h e G l o b e ( T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n o f C a n a d a , 1 9 5 9 ) , v o l . I , p. 160; M o i r , E n d u r i n g W i t n e s s , p. 106. 42 C i t e d by J . M o i r , C h u r c h and S t a t e i n C a n a d a West: T h r e e S t u d i e s i n t h e R e l a t i o n o f D e n o m i n a t i o n a l i s m and N a t i o n a l i s m ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 67. 4 3  Toronto  Globe,  16 May  1850.  19  c o n v i c t i o n a l o n e m o t i v a t e d Brown, as i t d i d a l l F r e e Church S a b b a t a r i a n s , and c o n c e r n f o r t h e w o r k e r s  1  r i g h t t o a weekly  day o f r e s t p l a y e d no p a r t i n h i s s u p p o r t o f t h e S a b b a t a r i a n cause.  C a l l e d by Toronto workers "the p r i n c e o f Reformers, t h e  paragon o f a n t i - L a b o u r employers," Brown had shown h i m s e l f t o be a n t i - l a b o u r i n t h e p r i n t e r s ' s t r i k e s t h a t had b e d e v i l l e d h i s 44 own paper.  H i s own employees worked on Sunday e v e n i n g s a f t e r  d i n n e r ; i n h i s 1850s campaign a g a i n s t t h e Roman C a t h o l i c s , d u r i n g w h i c h he c l a i m e d , among o t h e r c h a r g e s , t h a t C a t h o l i c s "were bad C h r i s t i a n s who d i d n o t observe Sunday p r o p e r l y , " he c a r e f u l l y c o v e r e d t h e Globe's o f f i c e windows w i t h heavy b l a n k e t s "so t h a t t h e good p e o p l e g o i n g t o r e l i g i o u s meetings would n o t see the employees o f t h e 'Globe' were w o r k i n g on Sunday e v e n i n g s 45 i n defence o f Sabbath observance."  Brown had even  less  sympathy f o r t h e w o r k e r s ' need f o r r e c r e a t i o n on what might be t h e i r o n l y day o f l e i s u r e :  opposed t o s h o r t e r work days on  t h e grounds t h a t i f men had more time t o spend a t home t h e y would make a n u i s a n c e o f t h e m s e l v e s , he d i d n o t v i e w Sunday as 46 a day o f l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n .  He r e j e c t e d o u t o f hand  s u g g e s t i o Cn hs a rt lh ea ts Lai mp it lo in t, a rThe y band a y on Sunday afternoon, Trademight Unionp l Movement o f Canada, 1827-1959 ( M o n t r e a l : Canadian S o c i a l P u b l i c a t i o n s L t d . , 1966), pp. 17-19; a l s o S a l l y Z e r k e r , "George Brown and t h e P r i n t e r s ' Union," J o u r n a l o f Canadian S t u d i e s X (February 1975), pp. 42-7. 45 H e n r i Bourassa r e l a t e d t h i s p r a c t i c e o f Brown i n t h e 1906 debate on t h e L o r d ' s Day b i l l . Canada, House o f Commons, Debates, 1906, c. 5653. L i p t o n , op. c i t . , p. 30.  20  or t h a t people might picnics,  engage i n "snug  or i n s p i r i t i n g  drives,"  dinner p a r t i e s ,  a ball  o r cozy-  game o r a hand o f  47 whist.  The  attendance  Sabbath  must be  a t p u b l i c worship,  school teaching, private In a d d i t i o n ists  supplied  paign.  practices,  evening,  r e a d i n g , and  t o Free Church  additional  in religious  m o r n i n g and  Biblical  Sunday-  family prayers.  P r e s b y t e r i a n s , the Method-  s u p p o r t to the Sabbath  Together, Methodists  delivered  spent  observance  cam-  and F r e e C h u r c h P r e s b y t e r i a n s  20,000 s i g n a t u r e s t o p e t i t i o n s  accompanying  Brown's  the c o u r t s :  in his  48 1853  bill.  Other  1854  decision  i n Regina  concluded  that  welcome a i d came f r o m  v. T i n n i n g , Judge John  t h e c l a u s e o f t h e 1845  veying of t r a v e l l e r s  Beverley  A c t t h a t exempted  d i d not apply to steamship  I n h i s o p i n i o n , s u c h p e o p l e were n o t t r a v e l l e r s ; were " p e r s o n s On astic tion  notoriously  s e e k i n g mere  t h e o t h e r hand, t h e C h u r c h  excursions. rather, 49  to lobby f o r  they  legisla-  of church  made o n l y p a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e i n i t s a n n u a l  4 7  con-  recreation."  concerning a s u b j e c t i t considered a matter  t h e campaign t i oJnu.n^e T o r o nftoor Gl le ogbies,l a26  the  of Scotland, less enthusi-  than the e v a n g e l i c a l Free Church  cipline,  Robinson  dis-  r e p o r t s to  The A n g l i c a n C h u r c h 1856.  expressed  48 Moir, Enduring Witness, 4 9  11  U.C.Q.B.  p.  125.  636.  50 P r e s b y t e r i a n C h u r c h , A c t s and P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n C h u r c h i n Canada, i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e C h u r c h o f S c o t l a n d , 1853, p. 30: "The Synod, h a v i n g had t h e i r a t t e n t i o n c a l l e d t o the s u b j e c t o f Sabbath Observance, agreed to express t h e i r r e g r e t o f t h e f a i l u r e i n P a r l i a m e n t , o f t h e measure f o r  21  little  or no i n t e r e s t i n l e g a l i z i n g the severe Sunday r e q u i r e d  by S a b b a t a r i a n s .  Although he pronounced  h i m s e l f i n favour of  a f i v e - a n d - a - h a l f day work week, 'John Strachan p u b l i c l y  stated  51 in  1856  t h a t Sundays should be happy, not  can j o u r n a l , The Church,  "blue".  The  Angli-  supported Strachan's view, m a i n t a i n i n g  t h a t nowhere d i d the B i b l e f o r b i d the p u r s u i t of innocent amusements.  God  i n f a c t d e l i g h t e d to see h i s people " i n the enjoy-  ment of every b l e s s i n g . v i d e d f o r them."  . . which His b o u n t i f u l land has p r o -  T h i s was  p a r t i c u l a r l y so, the e d i t o r i a l  c l u d e d , when one c o n s i d e r e d "how  con-  e n t i r e l y l a r g e masses of those  upon whom the c u r s e of e x c e s s i v e labour p r e s s e s most h e a v i l y are  prevented on a l l o t h e r days from e n j o y i n g many of the p u r e s t 52  natural pleasures of t h i s present l i f e . "  Seconding  this  sentiment, the Roman C a t h o l i c church, e s p e c i a l l y the French Canadian h i e r a r c h y , r e j e c t e d - t h e emotional and' l i t e r a l  interpre-  t a t i o n of the F o u r t h Commandment as a hobbyhorse i n h e r i t e d 53 the S c o t t i s h Reformation. in  1853,  Of the 20,000 p e t i t i o n s  from  delivered  o n l y 3,000 came from Lower Canada, a l l from P r o t e s t -  r e l i e v i n g the s e r v a n t s of the P u b l i c , from Sabbath l a b o u r , agree to d e c l a r e anew t h e i r d e t e r m i n a t i o n to use every to  promote the b e t t e r observance of the Sabbath  1858,  pp. 51  ..."  effort Ibid.,  63-4.  J . Strachan, "Charge d e l i v e r e d a t the v i s i t a t i o n of the c l e r g y , " 1856 (Toronto,1856), c i t e d by Moir, Church and S t a t e i n Canada West, p. 25. 52 . C i t e d by Toronto Globe, 16 June 1856. 53 J.S. Moir, The Church i n the B r i t i s h E r a : From the B r i t i s h Conquest to C o n f e d e r a t i o n (Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1972), p. 189.  22 ants. The Conservative objected  to  p r e s s was papers  divided  opposed  in i t s attitudes.  Brown's  Sabbatarian legislation  campaign. on  the  Both The  grounds  Toronto  Colonist that  i t would  55 "contravene while to  The  the  the  principle  Leader,  invasion  of  Brown's  of  separation  chief  personal  of  church  and  state,"  competitor, strenuously  objected  rights:  We d o n o t p r e t e n d t o d e c i d e t h e q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r i t be an o f f e n c e a g a i n s t h e a v e n f o r t h e a r t i s a n whose p u r s u i t c o n f i n e s h i m w i t h i n d o o r s s i x d a y s a week, t o walk o r r i d e o u t i n the c o u n t r y on t h e s e v e n t h day t o v i e w and a d m i r e t h e works and b e a u t i e s o f n a t u r e ; and t o i m b i b e t h o s e p o e t i c a l f e e l i n g s and t h a t a m i a b l e temper o f mind which such a scene i s c a l c u l a t e d t o p r o d u c e ; we d o n o t s a y w h e t h e r t h i s b e a s i n a g a i n s t the Author of nature. But,  the  editorial  authority. Maker,  In  concluded,  a matter  man's b i g o t r y  i t was  solely  had  no  a  between  right  to  case the  i n which  man  individual  "usurp  a  had  and  no  his  jurisdiction  to  56 which  no  earthly  power  Globe  to  expound  h i s views,  and  newspapers  attacked  The  Lutherans and  The  of  he  f o r not  Church's  most  For often  his part,  attacking  supporting his b i l l s . views  Germany."  Leader  abhorred,  i s equal."  At  as the  for "lovingly  being same  working  those time  he  i n the  In  of  the  Brown  churches  1856,  he  "degenerate Church  cause."  continued:  54 Moir,  Enduring Witness,  p.  125.  Moir,  Church  p.  25.  55 ^The G u a r d i a n , 22  and  L e a d e r , 17 September  State,  September 1852.  1852,  cited  by  the  other  a t t a c k e d The same  used  Christian  Both  23  what they term a J e w i s h , o r P u r i t a n i c , o r P h a r i s a i c a l o b s e r v a n c e o f t h e f i r s t day o f t h e week, and b o t h a r e d e s i r o u s t o i n t r o d u c e i m p r o v e m e n t s and m o d i f i c a t i o n s , f i t t e d i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e opinions, to c o r r e c t the u n h a p p y o r a b o m i n a b l e m i s t a k e s i n t o w h i c h s o many o f us h a v e f a l l e n on t h i s momentous s u b j e c t . 'The Leader' t h o u g h t we w o u l d b e a l l r i g h t i f a m i l i t a r y b a n d w o u l d b u t p l a y on Sunday a f t e r n o o n ; 'The C h u r c h ' t h i n k s t h a t m a t t e r s w o u l d mend, i f , f o r t h e p r e s e n t " J e w i s h s e v e r i t y , " we w o u l d o n l y s u b s t i t u t e t h e " h o l y h i l a r i t y o f the h o l y day." (57) On bill  (by  a  final  one  vote);  Upper  Canadian  Since  Upper  issue  was  batarian selves  however,  post  offices  Canadian  of  minor  groups  in 1857,  vote  developed  had  relied  too  much o n  and  his  that  p o s i t i o n as  they  could  Difficulties broad a  basis  of  nor  qualified  the  other  basis. Agent"  societies  Office  permitted  i f they  wished.  Sundays,  absence  of  issues,  the  associations  independent in  the But  support  and the  circulate  considered  they  House  of  from  Assembly meant  all.parties.  not  them  organize  Society  of  They  advocacy  i t s petitions, hiring  Sab-  them-  identity.  his  did  Kingston  the  that the  transportation denied  support,  to  Brown's  on  Globe.  and  Although  Post Sunday  presence the  defeated  closed  political  communication  province-wide  "duly  Brown's  community  the  strong,  secure  on  Moreover,  e d i t o r of  not  of  a  close  In  disappeared.  not  the  remained  concern.  had  House  18 60  in to  canals  the  a on  engaged  neither  permanent  a  i t staff  5 8  to  replace  only  voluntary  erratically; Toronto  help.  Sabbath Globe,  The  clergy  observance  26  June  was  p u b l i c i z e d the but  one  Kingston  Chronicle ~  and  of  a  multitude  17  January  1856.  5 8 1851.  cause  News S u p p l e m e n t ,  24  of  concerns,  greater  concern  remained of  and the  until  Canadian  response.  than the  society  prevention the  of  individual profanity  p o l i t i c a l lobbying.  growing  So  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and  provoked  a stronger  and more  the  was  of  situation  urbanization determined  25  Chapter I I : Sabbath Observance T r a f f i c k i n g Age,  i n an I n d u s t r i a l i z i n g  and  1850-1890.  Between 1850 and t h e l a t e 1870s, Canada e n j o y e d a p e r i o d o f Sabbath q u i e t serene enough t o r i v a l any o t h e r c o u n t r y .  Sun-  day steamship e x c u r s i o n s were common i n but a few o f t h e urban centres.  Sabbath l a b o u r e x i s t e d i n i s o l a t e d p o c k e t s o n l y .  The  major c a n a l s , the L a c h i n e , C o r n w a l l , and W e l l a n d c a n a l s , were c l o s e d a l t o g e t h e r on Sundays.  W i t h t h e d e c l i n e o f r a i l w a y con-  s t r u c t i o n i n t h e 186 0s, o n l y t h o s e few who worked on m a i l t r a i n s were a c t i v e on Sunday.  I n t h e commercial l i f e o f t h e  urban c e n t r e s , Sabbath r e s t was an assumed p a r t o f f a c t o r y o r shop employment.  A l t h o u g h r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s remained  open u n t i l m i d n i g h t S a t u r d a y n i g h t s , most c l o s e d the f o l l o w i n g day.  Employment i n i n d u s t r i e s whose p r o c e s s e s were o f a con-  t i n u o u s n a t u r e was v i r t u a l l y unknown.  Only i n l u m b e r i n g and  m i n i n g and i n domestic s e r v i c e was t h e r e any s i g n i f i c a n t Sabb a t h l a b o u r ; but such l a b o u r , not h i g h l y v i s i b l e t o c h u r c h g o e r s , d i d n o t cause c o n c e r n .  Only the Sunday work o f some  2,000 p o s t a l employees i n t h e Quebec p o s t o f f i c e s , which r e mained open f o r one hour a f t e r morning mass, aroused comment."'"  I n 1868, t h e P o s t m a s t e r - G e n e r a l promulgated by d e p a r t mental o r d e r : " P o s t m a s t e r s i n Canada, except i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f Quebec, a r e a t l i b e r t y t o c l o s e t h e i r o f f i c e s t o t h e p u b l i c on Sunday; and i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f Quebec p o s t m a s t e r s s h o u l d keep t h e i r o f f i c e s open f o r a t l e a s t one hour e i t h e r b e f o r e o r a f t e r d i v i n e s e r v i c e , as may be most c o n v e n i e n t t o t h e p u b l i c gener-  26 The  b u l k o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n was  rural  p a s s i n g o f h a r s h p i o n e e r c o n d i t i o n s and institutions the r u l e culated  providing  regular  not the e x c e p t i o n .  e a r l y morning  farm  Sabbath  and  to f i t i n with the a g r i c u l t u r a l  o ' c l o c k became t h e s t a n d a r d h o u r  with  the growth o f  services,  Attitudes  and,  rest  the church became  p r a c t i c e s were  economy.  cal-  Eleven  f o r morning worship  c h o r e s as w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s and  to permit season  2 dictated.  Church-going  became t h e r u l e  and  i n most  districts  t h o s e n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c h u r c h w o u l d have b e e n r e g a r d e d  as  3 "queer."  F o r a man  Ontario Liberal b a t a r i a n and c h u r c h and  like  p a r t y and  Newton R o w e l l , a prominent  future  leader of  member o f b o t h t h e  the Sab-  t e m p e r a n c e movements i n t h e 1890s, " a t t e n d a n c e  c l a s s meeting  at  o c c u p i e d much o f e v e r y Sunday f o r a l l  ages. In  their  approach  t o such  Sabbath  d e s e c r a t i o n as d i d  o c c u r , however, S a b b a t a r i a n s became as r i g i d earlier  Norman McLeod had  literal  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s c r i p t u r e s ,  supporters, both  l a y and  been a t S t . Ann's.  and  legalistic  as  Committed "to a  Sabbath  observance  c l e r i c a l , were c o n s t a n t l y "aware o f  ally." The o n l y c i t y i n t h e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g p r o v i n c e s t o r e m a i n open on Sundays was C h a r l o t t e t o w n , w h i c h o p e n e d f o r one hour. C a n a d a , House o f Commons, D e b a t e s , 1876, c . 843. 2 O n t a r i o Law R e f o r m C o m m i s s i o n , R e p o r t on Sunday O b s e r v a n c e L e g i s l a t i o n (^Toronto: D e p a r t m e n t o f J u s t i c e , 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 79. 3 A.R.M. Lower, C a n a d i a n s i n t h e M a k i n g ( T o r o n t o : Macm i l l a n o f C a n a d a , 1958), p. 330. 4 M a r g a r e t P r a n g , N.W. Rowell: Ontario Nationalist ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 7.  27  the p r e s e n c e o f God i n human a f f a i r s , " r e w a r d i n g and p r o t e c t i n g H i s s u p p o r t e r s , admonishing and p u n i s h i n g those who d e v i a t e d 5  from H i s p a t h .  B e l i e v e r s i n t h e i d e a o f o r i g i n a l s i n , they  f e l t t h a t d e s e c r a t i o n o f t h e Sabbath would b r i n g —  retribution  D i v i n e w r a t h i n t h i s l i f e and e t e r n a l punishment i n t h e  next.  C e r t a i n t h a t most men and women, i f l e f t t o t h e i r own  d e v i c e s , would n o t o r c o u l d n o t r e s i s t t e m p t a t i o n , they approp r i a t e d t o themselves t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e a c t i o n s o f others.  When one man, as A.R.M. Lower r e l a t e s , attempted t o  t a k e i n h i s g r a i n one f i n e Sunday, t h e n e i g h b o u r s soon p u t a stop t o h i s labours. the  George Brown demanded enforcement o f  184 5 Upper Canada A c t .  Boys caught p l a y i n g s h i n t y o r  h u r l y games i n T o r o n t o ' s s t r e e t s s h o u l d be p u n i s h e d as a warni n g t o o t h e r s , he e d i t o r i a l i z e d :  "Twenty-four hours i n t h e  c e l l s would be a good means o f s t o p p i n g boys from p r a c t i c e s o f t h i s k i n d on t h e Sabbath."  He and o t h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e  c l e r g y , unanimously opposed Sunday r e a d i n g o f newspapers, s k a t i n g , and o t h e r p l e a s u r e s , and frowned upon t h e making o f c a l l s on n e i g h b o u r s . —  Even v i s i t i n g t h e s i c k was q u e s t i o n e d  o n l y d e f i n i t e s p i r i t u a l e d i f i c a t i o n c o u l d e l e v a t e i t above  a "weak apology f o r t h e c r i m e o f S a b b a t h - b r e a k i n g . " ^Goldwin F r e n c h , "The E v a n g e l i c a l Creed i n Canada," i n The S h i e l d o f A c h i l l e s , ed., W.L. Morton (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1968), pp. 18-21. Lower, Canadians i n t h e Making, p. 330. 7 g  Toronto G l o b e , 2 November 1863. W.H. E l g e e , The S o c i a l Teachings o f t h e Canadian  28 But  after  this brief  t h r e a t s of expanding  respite,  industrialization  the i n t e g r a t i o n of the r a i l r o a d t u r e , Canada t r u l y  entered  c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the the c i t i e s ton. and  and  Montreal  the e f f e c t i v e  start  and  do w i t h  t h e b e s t t r a n s p o r t and and  age.  With  struc-  Renewed r a i l w a y  of r o l l i n g  mills  works i n  steam and  supply  By  p a t t e r n was  focussing effect  i t , leading industries  collect  urbanization.  engine  demanded Sunday work.  major e a s t e r n c e n t r e s , e s p e c i a l l y The  twin  steel  the  technology  late  con-  188 0s  a  emerging  i n Montreal,  Toronto,  o f t h e r a i l w a y s had  and  much t o  to concentrate at places facilities,  in  Hamil-  o f h e a v y i n d u s t r y , some o f whose  more c o m p l i c a t e d m a n u f a c t u r i n g  Hamilton.  the  Canada's e c o n o m i c  the i n d u s t r i a l  needs p r o m o t e d t h e new  tinuous processes  in  into  and  1870s l e d t o e x p a n s i o n  of Toronto  Railway  there arose  with  where l a b o u r c o u l d  the advantages of l a r g e - s c a l e p r o d u c t i o n c o u l d 9  b e s t be  secured.  ployees  in industrial  than doubled, ture also crop  and  the use  and  establishments  increasing  experienced  rotation,  better  "Between 1871  from  1891,  t h e number o f  i n O n t a r i o a l o n e more  87,000 t o 1 6 6 , 0 0 0 . "  a technological revolution of f e r t i l i z e r s ,  more s o p h i s t i c a t e d  em-  and  Agricul-  1 0  as  field  employment  and  of  f a r m m a c h i n e r y became common.  C h u r c h e s , P r o t e s t a n t , The E a r l y P e r i o d , b e f o r e The R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 211.  1850  (Toronto:  Q  J.M.S. C a r e l e s s , The R i s e o f C i t i e s i n Canada B e f o r e 1914, C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , H i s t o r i c a l B o o k l e t No. 32, 1978, p. 24. ^ O . J . F i r e s t o n e , " I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t , " i n The C a n a d i a n s , e d . , J.M.S. C a r e l e s s and R. C r a i g Brown ( T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n o f C a n a d a , 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 458. 1  >  29  Of  significance  versified labour the  farming,  i n the  economy.  herds  to the  of p i g s  agricultural  and  the  growing  and  cows i n O n t a r i o  crops  crops  A vigorous  the  the  urban market  trend  t o more d i -  by  and  the  the  50  sector of  increased  the  percent, e s t a b l i s h e d and  promoted  p l a n t i n g of  cheese  i n season,  industrial  f o r food  cheese i n d u s t r i e s ,  activities,  fruit  as w e l l as  The  v a t i o n of vegetable of these  was  s i n c e i t i n c r e a s e d t h e demand f o r S a b b a t h  t h e modern d a i r y and  All  Sabbatarians  factories  fruit  the  culti-  orchards.  a l l year  round,  r e q u i r e d Sunday a t t e n t i o n .  growth of urban  settlement  accompanied  this  12 economic growth.  Industry  f r o m f a r m s where new the  farmer's  off-set  need  attracted  machines such  f o r manpower.  the q u a n t i t a t i v e impact  as  population the  to  cities  reaper-binder  Although  reduced  emigration greatly  of immigration  during  this  13 period,  those  i m m i g r a n t s who  d i d s t a y were most o f t e n h i g h l y  t r a i n e d w o r k e r s o r p r o f e s s i o n a l men and  capital  1881,  with  Ontario's  them, w a n t e d  1  1  to remain  u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n had  ~ ' R. C o l e H a r r i s and f e d e r a t i o n (Toronto: Oxford  who,  bringing their i n the  risen  cities.  t o 375,848  skills By (23.1  J o h n W a r k e n t i n , C a n a d a B e f o r e ConU n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 4 ) , pp. 138-42,  12 D e s p i t e economic r e c e s s i o n s , economic growth proceeded t h r o u g h t h e 1870s and 1880s a t a s t e a d y a n n u a l r a t e o f 4.6 p e r cent. See G.W. B e r t r a m , "Economic Growth i n C a n a d i a n I n d u s t r y , 1870-1915," C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f E c o n o m i c s a n d P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e XXIX/2 (May 1963) , r e p r i n t e d i n A p p r o a c h e s t o C a n a d i a n E c o n o m i c H i s t o r y , e d . , W.T. E a s t e r b r o o k and M.H. Watkins (Toronto: McC l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 83. ' 13 See W. K a l b a c h and W. McVey, The D e m o g r a p h i c B a s e s o f C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y ( T o r o n t o : M c G r a w - H i l l R y e r s o n , 1 9 7 1 ) , p . 41, Table 2:4.  30  p e r c e n t o f i t s t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n ) from 133,463 i n 1851 (14.0 14 percent).  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e number o f urban c e n t r e s i n t h e  various provinces increased.  While manufacturing  was  concentra-  ted  i n t h e l a r g e r c i t i e s such as M o n t r e a l , T o r o n t o , and H a m i l -  ton,  o t h e r c e n t r e s grew as t r a d i n g and s e r v i c e c e n t r e s e i t h e r  a t c r o s s r o a d s o r a l o n g t h e new r a i l w a y system.  By 1881 s o u t h -  c e n t r a l O n t a r i o had a dense p a t t e r n o f seventy-seven  places  w i t h 500 o r more i n h a b i t a n t s , whereas i n 1851 t h e r e had o n l y been t w e n t y - f o u r such p l a c e s .  I n Quebec, t h e number o f v i l l a -  ges w i t h 500 t o 1000 r e s i d e n t s i n c r e a s e d from t h i r t e e n t o eighty-one.  Only t h e M a r i t i m e c i t i e s d i d n o t " e x p e r i e n c e t h e  t h r u s t i n g growth brought on by l a r g e - s c a l e m a n u f a c t u r i n g 15  and  metropolitan functions." Improvements i n urban l i v i n g a t t r a c t e d i n c r e a s i n g attention.  I n t h e 1860s and 1870s horse-drawn s t r e e t r a i l w a y  systems i n a u g u r a t e d s e r v i c e i n H a l i f a x , M o n t r e a l , T o r o n t o , and Hamilton.  I n 1861; t h e M o n t r e a l - C i t y Passenger-Company  started  o p e r a t i o n s w i t h e i g h t c a r s and s i x m i l e s o f t r a c k r u n n i n g e a s t west and f o u r m i l e s n o r t h - s o u t h , w h i l e t h e Toronto S t r e e t R a i l way Company began w i t h s i x m i l e s o f s i n g l e t r a c k r u n n i n g n o r t h Ontario  Jacob S p e l t , Urban Development i n S o u t h - C e n t r a l (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1972), p. 144. " ^ H a r r i s and W a r k e n t i n , Canada B e f o r e  p. 212.  Confederation,  31 south  along  Charging a  week,  in  the  Yonge  Street,  a maximum sixteen  hours  winter.  thusiastic  fare  The  crowds  four  of  per  cars,  five day  citizens  thronged  and  cents,  i n the  the  horses.  systems  ran  summer m o n t h s ,  welcomed  Toronto's  seventy  the  new  six  the  first  car  cars  "were a  As  contemporary,  a  would ess  be  a  centre  on  tremendous  success;  H.Y.  Hind,  "great r e l i e f i s ever  September  convenience:  flag-decked streets  to  10,  everybody  commented,  commercial  extending  1861.  and  public  cities,  pushing  the  en-  to LX,  In wanted  days  fourteen  17 welcome  1 6  Halifax,  „18 ride.  a  the  transportation where  the  population  busininto  19 the  suburbs."  urban In  • Moreover,  communities  Toronto,  Ontario  to  with  horse-boats the  Island,  the  companies  were  soon  increased opportunities crossed the where  a l l the  for  shallow waters amusements  providing recreation. of  Lake  characteristic  16  J.I. Cooper, Montreal, A B r i e f H i s t o r y (Montreal: McGiir^Queen's U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969), p . 104; T.H. Raddall, Halifax: Warden o f t h e N o r t h ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1948), p . 219; T o r o n t o T r a n s i t C o m m i s s i o n , W h e e l s o f Progress: A S t o r y o f the Development o f T o r o n t o and Its- P u b l i c T r a n s p o r t a t i o n S e r v i c e s ( T o r o n t o : Toronto T r a n s i t Commission, 1946) ; s e e a l s o J o h n M c K a y , T r a m w a y s a n d T r o l l e y s : The :Ris'e-of Urban T r a n s p o r t i n Europe ( P r i n c e t o n , N.J.: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976) f o r d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h i s e a r l y era i n Europe. T o r o n t o and M o n t r e a l began s e r v i c e s o n l y f o u r y e a r s a f t e r t h e major American c i t i e s . A n E n g l i s h m a n , A . E a s t o n , who had b r o u g h t the h o r s e c a r s t o Milwaukee and o t h e r American cities, introduced the idea to Toronto. C. A r m s t r o n g a n d H.V. Nelles, The R e v e n g e o f t h e M e t h o d i s t B i c y c l e Company: Sunday S t r e e t c a r s a n d M u n i c i p a l R e f o r m i n T o r o n t o , 1888-1897 ( T o r o n t o : P e t e r M a r t i n a n d A s s o c i a t e s , 1977), p . 28. ;,  17 Toronto  Globe,  11  September  18 61.  1p Raddall, North  H.Y. America  Halifax,  p.  219.  Hind, e t a l . , Eighty Years' Progress ( T o r o n t o , 1863), i n L e t Us B e H o n e s t  in British and Modest:  32  of beaches and other p u b l i c playgrounds were a v a i l a b l e . ^ Various  u  c i t y c o u n c i l s developed parks to meet the needs of  c i t i z e n s f o r open spaces.  In Montreal,  f o r i n s t a n c e , Sohmner  Park became the d e s t i n a t i o n of p i c n i c k e r s and T h i s burgeoning i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and  walkers. u r b a n i z a t i o n of  Canadian s o c i e t y posed t h r e a t s to the Sabbath unknown i n a pioneer  society.  In an a g r i c u l t u r a l community, the  farmer.was  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s d e c i s i o n whether or not to work on  the  Sabbath; i n such a s i t u a t i o n the church, once e s t a b l i s h e d , c o u l d hope to a f f e c t b e h a v i o u r a l  patterns.  In the emerging  21 " b u s t l i n g and  t r a f f i c k i n g age,"  however, the c h o i c e might not  l i e with the i n d i v i d u a l i f , as an employee, he worked f o r an employer who simply  demanded Sunday work.  S o u l l e s s c o r p o r a t i o n s were  impervious to t h r e a t s of s p i r i t u a l damnation.  Sabbat-  a r i a n s thus began to a s s o c i a t e Sabbath d e s e c r a t i o n with i n d u s t r i a l and  urban way  of l i f e and,  f o r g e t t i n g t h a t the Sab-  bath q u i e t of the r u r a l c o u n t r y s i d e was  a value only r e c e n t l y  and p a i n f u l l y a c q u i r e d , p r a i s e d Sabbath observance as a i s h e d and  t r a d i t i o n a l r u r a l value.  vance supporters  f e a r e d t h a t the demand f o r Sabbath  a r t i s a n s , and  cher-  Moreover, Sabbath obser-  would r a p i d l y i n c r e a s e with the growth of c i t i e s . chants,  an  pleasure Most mer-  l a b o u r e r s worked ten to twelve hours a  Technology and S o c i e t y i n Canadian H i s t o r y , ed., B. S i n c l a i r , N.R. B a l l and J.O. Petersen (Toronto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974), p. 257. 20 E. G u i l l e t , The Pioneer onto: The O n t a r i o P u b l i s h i n g Co. 21  PC,  APGA, 1877,  p.  Farmer and Backwoodsman (TorL t d . , 1963), v o l . I , p. 196.  cxxiv.  day,  s i x d a y s a week.  t i o n on weekdays and, of  leisure.  Such a r o u t i n e l e f t f o r most p e o p l e ,  A l r e a d y by  ment s u b - c u l t u r e had  in  f o r example, n e a r l y f i v e  j u s t o u t s i d e the c i t y  to watch a v e l o c i p e d e r a c e .  fighting,  clog  for recreat h e one  dancing  class  limits. thousand  During  t o 4,000 a t t e n d e d  and  Sunday was  emerged i n t h e w o r k i n g  and  c r o w d s o f up  time  t h e 1870s a v i g o r o u s Sunday  Montreal 1870,  no  On  May  of Sunday  spectators gathered  t h e same y e a r ,  acrobats, prize  events.  entertain-  areas  one  day  weekly  fights,  Additional  cock-  crowds watched  22 t h e Sunday h o r s e  r a c e s on  the Lachine  canal.  Editorxal  com23  plaints  by The  directly way  the Montreal  S t a r had  no  r a i l w a y most d i s t r e s s e d  effect  upon t h i s  the S a b b a t a r i a n s  i n c r e a s e d t h e need f o r S a b b a t h l a b o u r .  activity. as i t  Moreover,  c o m p a n i e s overcame o b j e c t i o n s t o Sunday l a b o u r by  t e e i n g e m p l o y e e s who  worked Sunday a day  and  levied  p a y i n g any  fines  rail-  guaran-  o f f d u r i n g t h e week  a g a i n s t workers f o r working  on  that  24 day.  E m p l o y e e s who  fired.  Railway  increasing cesses of  iron  demands had  a multiplier  Sundays effect  Sabbath l a b o u r i n o t h e r s e c t o r s ,  involving and  r e f u s e d t o work on  continuous  steel.  The  o p e r a t i o n such  the on  companies  the  economy,  especially as  i n pro-  the p r o d u c t i o n  number o f p e o p l e w o r k i n g  i n the  Post  '"''Alan M e t c a l f e , "The E v o l u t i o n o f O r g a n i z e d P h y s i c a l R e c r e a t i o n i n M o n t r e a l , 1840-1895," S o c i a l H i s t o r y XI (May 1978)  pp. 163-4. 23  Metcalfe states tween 187 0 and 18 94.  24  that  the S t a r complained  C a n a d a , House o f Commons, D e b a t e s ,  1876,  35  times  c.  855.  be-  O f f i c e also increased  (to 3,000 from 2,000),  25  as s p e c i a l m a i l  t r a i n s were e s t a b l i s h e d t o p r o v i d e more e f f i c i e n t s e r v i c e through l i n k i n g with the t r a n s - A t l a n t i c s h i p s out o f H a l i f a x . T h i s d i d n o t take i n t o account the numerous o t h e r s who, employed 26 i n domestic s e r v i c e ,  p o l i c e f o r c e s , o r on newspaper s t a f f s ,  r e g u l a r l y worked on Sunday. The  r a i l w a y ' s p o t e n t i a l r e c r e a t i o n a l value posed a  f u r t h e r t h r e a t to t h e Sabbath.  By the l a t e 1870s, r a i l w a y  companies were j o i n i n g the p o t e n t i a l l y l u c r a t i v e  excursion  27 business.  E x c u r s i o n s , whether by steamship o r r a i l w a y , c o u l d 28  o n l y be "drunken s a t u r n a l i a , " scenes o f r i o t and d i s o r d e r . In a d d i t i o n t o c o n v e r t i n g t h e Sabbath i n t o a mere h o l i d a y f o r amusement, these  indulgences 29  i d e a o f Sabbath l a b o u r .  f a m i l i a r i z e d one's mind to the  In s h o r t , by "rushing and rumbling"  from p l a c e to p l a c e , the r a i l w a y t r a i n became "a mighty engine f o r the dishonour o f t h e Lord, the d e m o r a l i z a t i o n o f the l a n d , and  the sPpCi,r i APGA, t u a l r u1876, i n o fp. those 229.employed i n connection 2 5  with  T h e Census of 1871 (Table XIII.) l i s t e d 60,104 people employed i n the Domestic C l a s s . By 1881 (Table XIV) t h i s number had r i s e n to 74,830. T h i s c l a s s i n c l u d e d barbers and h a i r d r e s s e r s , bar-keepers, h o s p i t a l a t t e n d a n t s , h o t e l keepers, l a u n d r e s s e s , midwives, as w e l l as household s e r v a n t s . Not a l l may have worked on Sunday. 2 6  P C , APGA, 1878, p. c x x v i i ; I b i d . , 1882, p. c x l v i i ; I b i d . , 1883, p. c l x i i . 2 7  1891,  28 Canada, House o f Commons, Debates, 1885, c. 263; I b i d . , c. 1483. I b i d . , 1878, c. 727. 2 9  35 it."  3  0  The P r e s b y t e r i a n c h u r c h r e a c t e d w i t h a l a r m t o the t h r e a t o f i n c r e a s e d Sabbath l a b o u r and p l e a s u r e .  At the  o f t h e u n i o n o f the v a r i o u s P r e s b y t e r i a n b o d i e s i n t o the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church o f Canada i n 1875, Sabbath Observance was l e g i s l a t i v e enactments.  time new  a S t a n d i n g Committee on  e s t a b l i s h e d t o resume the a g i t a t i o n f o r The Committee o r g a n i z e d  deputations  t o p r o t e s t government o f f e n c e s , r a n g i n g from t h e members' use o f the Commons' l i b r a r y on Sundays t o c o n t i n u e d l a b o u r i n the Post  Office.  3 1  C o i n c i d e n t w i t h t h e s e developments, t h r e e L i b e r a l  Scot-  t i s h P r e s b y t e r i a n Members o f P a r l i a m e n t , Adam Gordon, Thomas Christie,  and John C h a r l t o n , i n t r o d u c e d b i l l s t o p r e v e n t  Sabbath  l a b o u r on t h e c a n a l s and t o p r o h i b i t Sunday e x c u r s i o n s by steam32 ship or railway. t h e House. tutional  These b i l l s provoked an unexpected response  The P r e s b y t e r i a n c h u r c h had never q u e s t i o n e d the  in  consti-  a b i l i t y o f the f e d e r a l government t o pass Sabbath o b s e r -  vance l e g i s l a t i o n , s i n c e S e c t i o n 91 o f t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h America A c t empowered the f e d e r a l government t o r e g u l a t e a l l c r i m e s 33 against r e l i g i o n . But t h e Macdonald government, w i t h P C , APGA, 1888, Appendix No. A c t s and P r o c e e d i n g s , 1863, p. 74. 3 0  14; Church o f S c o t l a n d ,  P C , APGA, 1879, p. c x l i v . 32 Canada, House o f Commons, Debates, 1876, c. 851; I b i d . , 1878, c. 726; I b i d . , 1879, c. 75; I b i d . , 1885, c.46, c c . 256-66. 33 The C o n f e d e r a t i o n Debates d e a l t o n i y i n d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f Sabbath observance l e g i s l a t i o n . The B r i t i s h North America Act continued a l l previous l e g i s l a t i o n i n f o r c e 31  36 out t e s t i n g the matter i n the c o u r t s , decided to d e c l a r e Sabbath observance a matter o f p r o v i n c i a l r a t h e r than f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n and so a v o i d a p o t e n t i a l l y troublesome ethno34 religious issue.  The P r e s b y t e r i a n church g r e e t e d t h i s  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i t h equanimity and even a c e r t a i n degree of enthusiasm.  In the b e l i e f t h a t a l l l e v e l s of government c o u l d  l e g i s l a t e on the q u e s t i o n , the church urged i t s p r o v i n c i a l  Sy-  nods to a g i t a t e a t the p r o v i n c i a l as w e l l as a t the m u n i c i p a l 35 level.  As a r e s u l t , i n d i v i d u a l Members of P a r l i a m e n t such  as A.F. Wood of the O n t a r i o L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly,  or small  groups of S a b b a t a r i a n s , presumably members of p r o v i n c i a l P r e s b y t e r i a n Synods, brought the matter b e f o r e p r o v i n c i a l  legisla-  tures . The p r o v i n c e s proved r e s p o n s i v e to t h i s l o b b y i n g . i t s 1883  In  S t r e e t Railway A c t , the O n t a r i o L e g i s l a t u r e forbade  p e r aotfi oCnosn by l w a y regard companies e r elde g under aSunday t the o time f e dsetrraeteito nr.a i With to cf hu a tr ut re islat i o n , two s e c t i o n s of the B.N.A. A c t c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as a p p l y i n g to Sabbath observance: S e c t i o n 92, which gave the p r o v i n c e s the r i g h t to l e g i s l a t e upon p r o p e r t y and c i v i l r i g h t s ; and S e c t i o n 91, which empowered the f e d e r a l government to r e g u l a t e a l l crimes a g a i n s t r e l i g i o n . 34 Canada, House of Commons, Debates, 1885, c. 266. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t Macdonald expressed t h i s o p i n i o n n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the c o n t r a r y o p i n i o n expressed by the J u d i c i a l Committee o f the P r i v y C o u n c i l i n 1882 r e g a r d i n g the Canada Temperance A c t . See R u s s e l l v. the Queen (1882), 7 A.C. 829. 35 The m u n i c i p a l codes of most p r o v i n c e s allowed m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to pass by-laws r e g u l a t i n g Sabbath observance: CS. N.B. (1877), c.99, s.96(35); R.S.N.S. (1873), c.57, s.65(15); M.C.S. (1880), c.10, s.10; 22 V i c t . (1859), c.54, s.282 (Ont.); C.S.B.C. (1877), c.127, ,s.36 (30). In O n t a r i o , f o r example, York County had enacted a by-law t h a t p r o h i b i t e d i n h a b i t a n t s from  the  Act;  36  i n 1885, i t amended t h e 1845 A c t t o p r o h i b i t  steamboat o r r a i l w a y passenger  excursions undertaken  Sunday-  f o r amuse-  37 ment o r p l e a s u r e o n l y . attempted ing  to control  I n 1891, t h e Nova S c o t i a  t h e employment  o f Sabbath  l a b o u r by amend-  t h e 1851 A c t , "Of O f f e n c e s A g a i n s t R e l i g i o n , "  illegal form  Legislature  t o make i t  for a corporation  servile  prohibiting British  t o employ o r d i r e c t a p e r s o n " t o p e r 38 l a b o u r o n Sunday." Manitoba passed l e g i s l a t i o n 39  Sunday o p e r a t i o n s o f any s t r e e t  Columbia  p a s s e d a Sunday O b s e r v a n c e  railways,  while  Act t o apply to  the  p o r t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e "comprised i n t h e former s e p a r a t e 40 colony o f B r i t i s h Columbia." An o r d i n a n c e d e a l t w i t h t h e 41 Northwest seemed  Territories.  ambivalent:  O n l y Quebec's  s t a n d on t h e i s s u e  o n one hand, M o n t r e a l ' s C i t y C o u n c i l  pass by-laws f o r t h e p r o p e r observance  o f t h e Sabbath, and  t h u s p r e v e n t amusement p l a c e s f r o m o p e n i n g of  liquor  o f the playing  could  and f o r b i d  o f games s u c h as " b i l l i a r d s ,  the sale pool,  mh iu sn st i sn g s, i p pf ii ,s h ip ni gg ,e o o n -rh s ow l e a, r itnegn a p itn scows , b a goant etlhlee "S a bibn n s on a ttha.v e r J.M.S. C a r e l e s s , Brown o f t h e G l o b e ( T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n o f C a n a d a , 1 9 5 9 ) , v o l . I , p . 160. 3 6  45 Vict.  ( 1 8 8 3 ) , c.16, s.4 ( O n t . ) .  4 8 V i c t . ( 1 8 8 5 ) , c.44 ( O n t . ) . T h i s b i l l was a d u p l i c a t e o f t h e b i l l i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e House o f Commons i n 188 5 and r e j e c t e d . 3 7  3 8  54 Vict.  39  R.S.M.  4 0  C.S.B.C.  41  ( 1 8 9 1 ) , c.32 ( N . S . ) .  ( 1 8 9 1 ) , c.90,  s.143.  ( 1 8 8 8 ) , c.108; I b i d . ,  R.O.N.W.T.  (1888),  c.39.  c.88,  s.87(65).  38  Sundays;" " 1  on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e Quebec L e g i s l a t u r e  -  some e x p a n s i o n candies,  o f Sabbath a c t i v i t y  fruits,  refreshments,  by l e g a l i z i n g  cigars,  allowed  the sale o f  and o t h e r s u n d r i e s  both  43 in  Montreal Yet,  a n d on S t . H e l e n ' s  Island.  t h o u g h i t seemed a p p a r e n t  the l e g i s l a t i v e  responsibility  by t h e l a t e  1880s  f o r Sabbath observance  that  enact-  ments was p a s s i n g t o t h e p r o v i n c e s , t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n c h u r c h continued  t o lobby  for federal  legislation.  It still  believed  t h a t c o n c u r r e n t l e g i s l a t i o n by t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s was b o t h n e c e s s a r y  and p o s s i b l e .  O n t a r i o g o v e r n m e n t had d e a l t w i t h sions,  the problem  the provinces could not deal with  Although the of railway  through  traffic  excuron  t h e r a i l w a y s and t h e p r o b l e m s o f S a b b a t h l a b o u r o n t h e s e i n t e r 44 provincial routes. The c h u r c h b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e two l e v e l s of government had t h e a b i l i t y t o pass n e c e s s a r y l e g i s l a t i o n 45 without The  infringing  on one a n o t h e r ' s  P r e s b y t e r i a n church  an a s s o c i a t i o n 4 2  jurisdictional  therefore pressed  f o r the formation of  " o f a w i d e r - - c h a r a c t e r r-• e i t h e r f o r  52 Vict.  c  (1889),  c.79, ss.8-11  rights.  executive pur-  (Que.).  43 I b i d . , s.9. 4 4  P C , APGA, 1888, A p p e n d i x No. 14.  45 In 1886 t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t e n a c t e d t h e f i r s t r e v i s i o n o f t h e S t a t u t e s o f Canada. " A p p a r e n t l y t h e law o f f i c e r s o f Canada t o o k t h e view.. . . t h a t i t was d o u b t f u l w h e t h e r t h e 1845 Upper C a n a d i a n s t a t u t e f e l l w i t h i n t h e f e d e r a l o r p r o v i n cial jurisdiction. They d i d n o t s e v e r t h e s t a t u t e i n any way as t h e y d i d w i t h some o t h e r p r e - C o n f e d e r a t i o n s t a t u t e s . I n s t e a d , t h e y l i s t e d t h e w h o l e o f t h e Upper C a n a d i a n s t a t u t e on p r o f a n a t i o n o f t h e L o r d ' s Day a s d o u b t f u l , and o m i t t e d i t e n t i r e l y f-rom t h e f i r s t f e d e r a l r e v i s i o n . " O n t a r i o Law R e f o r m  poses or t o combine the i n f l u e n c e o f a l l i n t e r e s t e d  parties."  The church p e r c e i v e d the lobby as a f o c a l p o i n t f o r the i n f l u ence o f " C h r i s t i a n people o f t h i s l a n d , " which, by s e r v i n g as a channel f o r " i n t e r - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l co-opera-  46 t i o n , " would b r i n g u l t i m a t e s u c c e s s . By the l a t e 1880s i t was e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e t h a t the P r e s b y t e r i a n church might enjoy a wide measure o f support from other groups, both r e l i g i o u s and s e c u l a r .  While i t expected  support from the Methodist church, i t might a l s o a t t r a c t  sup-  p o r t from the E v a n g e l i c a l Movement w i t h i n the Church o f England t h a t was i n c r e a s i n g l y w i l l i n g t o cooperate w i t h o t h e r churches  47 i n t h e i r s o c i a l and moral reform campaigns.  Moreover, the  e v a n g e l i c a l P r o t e s t a n t s c o u l d w e l l look forward to support from the Roman C a t h o l i c h i e r a r c h y .  The C a t h o l i c church was g e n e r a l l y  48 f a v o u r i n g s t r i c t e r r e l i g i o u s observance o f the Sabbath. American C a t h o l i c bishops were a d v o c a t i n g campaigns f o r s t r i c t e r c o n t r o l s on Sabbath a c t i v i t i e s and f o r b i d d i n g e x c u r s i o n s and picnics.  In 1880, i n response t o an American r e q u e s t , Pope Leo  X I I I had d e l i v e r e d "an e a r n e s t address" t o the Roman C a t h o l i c Commission, Report on Sunday Observance - L e g i s l a t i o n , p. 31. 4 6  P C , APGA, 1888, Appendix No. 14.  47 J.W. Grant, The Church i n the Canadian E r a (Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1972), p. 7 6 .  48  .  .  See Aaron I . A b e l l , American C a t h o l i c i s m and S o c i a l A c t i o n : A Search f o r S o c i a l J u s t i c e (Garden C i t y , New York: Hanover House, 1960).  40  c h u r c h o p p o s i n g Sunday and  festival  profanation.  the French C a t h o l i c  h i e r a r c h y was  also  finding  ing departures kept  " p e o p l e away f r o m c h u r c h e s  49  I n Quebec,  that  early  morn-  and made them  50 lose a l l s p i r i t  of meditation."  T a s c h e r e a u o f Quebec C i t y sin"  the f a i t h f u l  T h u s , i n 1880,  had b a n n e d  "under  Taschereau  e x p e r i e n c e had disorders  eration  shown t h a t  and  or i n  churches  s u c h e x c u r s i o n s gave r i s e 51  that  "to such  immorality."  P r e s b y t e r i a n church might  f r o m t h e t e m p e r a n c e movement.  i a n s were n o t o p p o s e d  on s t e a m e r s ,  agreed w i t h the P r o t e s t a n t  as i n t e m p e r a n c e  The  p a i n of grievous  o f h i s d i o c e s e t o t a k e p a r t on Sundays o r  f e a s t s i n p l e a s u r e e x c u r s i o n s on r a i l w a y s , vehicles.  Cardinal  also  expect c l o s e  coop-  Although the Presbyterseven  days  a week as were t h e M e t h o d i s t s , t h e Sunday s a l e o f l i q u o r  dis-  t r e s s e d both groups. secure the passage lier, two  and  t o the consumption  They had  a l r e a d y worked t o g e t h e r t o  o f an O n t a r i o L i q u o r A c t , a l b e i t much e a r -  i t seemed p l a u s i b l e  groups might  of l i q u o r  that  e x e c u t i v e membership o f  the  be o v e r l a p p i n g .  Besides the churches P r e s b y t e r i a n c h u r c h might  and  receive  t h e t e m p e r a n c e movement, t h e s u p p o r t from both o r g a n i z e d  49  C i t e d by J o h n C h a r l t o n , "How To P r o v i d e f o r t h e B e t t e r O b s e r v a n c e o f t h e L o r d ' s Day," S p e e c h d e l i v e r e d t o t h e House o f Commons, 26 F e b r u a r y 1885, p. 2, LDACP.  50  C i t e d by J o h n C h a r l t o n , Canada, House o f Commons, 1891, c . 751. M a n d e m e n t No. 91, 26 A p r i l 1880, c i t e d by C h a r l t o n , c . 750; s e e a l s o G r a n t , The C h u r c h i n t h e C a n a d i a n E r a ,  Debates,  51  Ibid., p. 85.  41  l a b o u r and ing  business.""  competition  tile tion.  t h a t would p r e v e n t  gious  the  for only  deputations  possible that increas-  particularly  i n the  f o r c e owners t o c o n s i d e r Sunday  Labour would thus  presumably  entirely  among m a n u f a c t u r e r s ,  i n d u s t r y , might 53  I t was  be  ready  extension  54  a  produc-  campaign  o f t h e work week t o s e v e n  s i x d a y s ' pay.  and  to support  tex-  Cooperation  c a n a l workmen had  already  days,  between  reli-  averted  the  ^'Changes i n t h e l a b o u r movement's a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s e c o nomic d e v e l o p m e n t i n d i c a t e d "an a c c e p t a n c e o f v e r y l a r g e - s c a l e i n d u s t r i a l i s m , a g i t a t i o n f o r s h o r t e r hours, the o c c a s i o n a l use o f s t r i k e s and b o y c o t t s , demands f o r w e l f a r e l e g i s l a t i o n -- i n s h o r t , r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p e r m a n e n t u r b a n worki n g c l a s s w i t h i n t e r e s t s p e c u l i a r t o i t s e l f . . . " S.E.D. S h o r t t , " S o c i a l Change and P o l i t i c a l C r i s i s i n R u r a l O n t a r i o : The P a t r o n s o f I n d u s t r y , 1889-1896," i n O l i v e r Mowat's O n t a r i o , p . 229; see a l s o B. O s t r y , " C o n s e r v a t i v e s , L i b e r a l s and L a b o u r i n t h e 188O's," C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f E c o n o m i c s and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e X X V I I (May 1 9 6 1 ) ; a l s o S t e v e n L a n g d o n , The E m e r g e n c e o f t h e C a n a d i a n W o r k i n g C l a s s Movement '(Toronto: New Hogtown P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) . 53 See G. K e a l e y , e d . , C a n a d a I n v e s t i g a t e s I n d u s t r i a l i s m ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. 198, 367. 54 There i s nothing t o support the n o t i o n t h a t labour i n i t i a t e d t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e A l l i a n c e , an i d e a s u g g e s t e d b o t h by J e a n B u r n e t , "The U r b a n Community and C h a n g i n g M o r a l Standards," i n U r b a n i s m and t h e C h a n g i n g C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y , e d . , S.D. Clark ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 82, and J o h n G r a y , " T h e y ' r e F i g h t i n g t o Save What's L e f t o f Sunday," M a c l e a n ' s M a g a z i n e , 15 F e b r u a r y 19 55. The LDAC c o n t a i n e d o n l y one p i e c e o f e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h i s v i e w , a p a m p h l e t , "The Why and How o f t h e L o r d ' s Day A l l i a n c e o f C a n a d a , " ( n . d . , c i r c a 1 9 5 0 ) , b u t i t s s t a t e m e n t t o t h i s e f f e c t seems e r r o n e o u s . I n h i s s t a t e m e n t t o t h e LDAC o r g a n i z i n g m e e t i n g on A p r i l 20, 1888, W.D. Armstrong, the Convenor of the P r e s b y t e r i a n church's Sabbath Observance Committee, a s s e r t e d t h a t " i n s e e k i n g t o b r i n g a b o u t t h i s c o n f e r e n c e he had a c t e d i n o b e d i e n c e t o i n s t r u c t i o n s of the G e n e r a l Assembly o f the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church." LDAC, M i n u t e s , 20 A p r i l 1888, LDAC, MB 1888-1901. The P r e s b y t e r i a n church's g e n e r a l wariness i n seeking the c o o p e r a t i o n of labour b o d i e s , and t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e LDAC t o do so c a s t s d o u b t s on t h e v a l i d i t y o f B u r n e t ' s and G r a y ' s s t a t e m e n t s . See a l s o E.A.  42 opening of For  i t s p a r t , the  petitions the  the Welland Canal  on  Sunday i n t h e  churches would p r o b a b l y  f o r a r e d u c e d work day,  P r e s b y t e r i a n c h u r c h was  received  t h e i r wages a t 7 o ' c l o c k  do  shopping  their  that evening.  open u n t i l m i d n i g h t f o r t h i s  ment as Early came a  part of  their  Saturdays.  R e t a i l businesses  the  collective  As who  S a t u r d a y n i g h t were f o r c e d  trade,  merchants would s u p p o r t  on  labour's  aware, f a c t o r y e m p l o y e e s  For  their  to  remained from  part,  small  E a r l y S a t u r d a y c l o s i n g move-  "flight  c l o s i n g movements, w h i c h had  thus  i n c a p a c i t a t i n g many  a t t e n d a n c e a t Sunday m o r n i n g w o r s h i p . ^ retail  support  at least  fully  e a r l y 187 0s.  from  appeared  "regular feature of municipal  competition."  i n the  business  life  1860s,  be-  i n the  1880s  57 and  1890s";  their  tacit  supporting support  of  s u c h a movement, m e r c h a n t s r e i n f o r c e d  a quiet  Sunday.  With a l l t h i s p o t e n t i a l support, sembly o f  the  the  P r e s b y t e r i a n Church a u t h o r i z e d  188 7 G e n e r a l  As-  the  of  Convenor  C h r i s t i e , "The O f f i c i a l A t t i t u d e s and O p i n i o n s o f t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n C h u r c h i n Canada w i t h R e s p e c t t o P u b l i c A f f a i r s and S o c i a l P r o b l e m s , 1875-1925"'' (M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1955); s e e a l s o Graeme D e c a r i e , " S o m e t h i n g O l d , S o m e t h i n g New. . .: A s p e c t s o f P r o h i b i t i o n i s m i n O n t a r i o i n t h e 1890s," i n O l i v e r Mowat's O n t a r i o , p. 167. 5 5  C757, p. 5 6  D . J . O'Donoghue t o A.G. 24278. P C , APGA, 1886,  Blair,  A p p e n d i x No.  11  J u n e 1898,  PAC,  LP,  32.  57 M. B l i s s , "The P r o t e c t i v e I m p u l s e : An A p p r o a c h t o t h e S o c i a l H i s t o r y o f O l i v e r Mowat's O n t a r i o , " i n O l i v e r Mowat's O n t a r i o , p. 174; s e e a l s o , I a n F. J o b l i n g , " U r b a n i z a t i o n and S p o r t i n C a n a d a , 1867-1900," i n C a n a d i a n S p o r t : Sociological P e r s p e c t i v e s , e d s . , R. G r u n e a u and J . A l b i n s o n (Don M i l l s , O n t a r i o : A d d i s o n - W e s l e y (Canada) L t d . , 1 9 7 6 ) , p . 71.  43 its  S a b b a t h O b s e r v a n c e Committee t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r  influential  laymen and  a group  of  c l e r g y from o t h e r P r o t e s t a n t denomina58  tions  to d i s c u s s the  formation of a lobby.  able negotiations with R e v e r e n d W.D. eight 1888.  the M e t h o d i s t  and  Anglican  Armstrong brought together  laymen a t O t t a w a ' s C i t y  Hall  on  twelve  clergy  four  planned  the  formation  of the Lord's  and  of A p r i l  20,  Methodists  t h e r e were a l s o t h r e e e v a n g e l i c a l A n g l i c a n s .  t h e s e men Canada  considerchurches,  the evening  I n a d d i t i o n t o t e n P r e s b y t e r i a n s and  present,  Day  Together  Alliance  of  (LDAC). The  first  t o examine t h e  priority  legal  l e g i s l a t i o n would  aspect  was  the  of the  establishment  by  of a  Sabbath q u e s t i o n .  law."  Such  a p p l y i n g to Dominion c o r p o r a t i o n s , g e n e r a l  traffic,  and  canals belonging  t o t h e D o m i n i o n , and  indivilegisla-  railway t h e manage-  ment o f t h e p o s t a l s e r v i c e , w o u l d be  " i n the h i g h e s t  necessary  and  f o r promoting peace, order  committee Proposed  " b r i n g employers o f l a b o u r , whether  dual or c o r p o r a t i o n s , w i t h i n reach of the tion,  After  sense,  good g o v e r n m e n t i n  the  Dominion o f Canada." O f f e n c e s w o u l d be p u n i s h e d as m i s d e m e a n o u r s 59 u n d e r c r i m x n a l law. The p r o p o s e d o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e A l l i a n c e showed t h a t t h e  5 8  P C , APGA, 1887,  A p p e n d i x No.  15.  L D A C , C i r c u l a r , 1889, i n LDAC, SB 1858-1928; LDAC, m e e t i n g o f 20 A p r i l 1888, LDAC, MB 1888-1901; PC, APGA, 1888, A p p e n d i x No. 14; C a n a d a , House o f Commons, D e b a t e s , 1890, c. 1478. F o r a comment on t h e a t t i t u d e o f s o c i a l and m o r a l r e f o r m p r e s s u r e g r o u p s t o w a r d s t h e C r i m i n a l Code, s e e R.C. M a c l e o d , "The S h a p i n g o f C a n a d i a n C r i m i n a l Law, 1892 t o 1902," C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , H i s t o r i c a l P a p e r s , 1978, p. 71. 5 9  founders  h a d some a w a r e n e s s  lobbying. of  of the requisites  They  proposed  t o form  t h e Dominion  Alliance  f o r the Total  quor  Traffic,  which  had l o b b i e d  of  the A l l i a n c e  successful  along  the lines  Suppression of theL i -  successfully  f o r the passage  60 of  t h e Canada  was  Temperance  t o be a n a t i o n a l  arian  associations  executive assume  Act ten years e a r l i e r .  lobby  would  and any e x i s t i n g  provincial  Alliance Sabbat-  appoint delegates to the national  a s c o r r e s p o n d i n g members.  responsibility  The  for creating  The E x e c u t i v e provincial  would  associations i n  61 Quebec also  and B r i t i s h  arranged  Columbia  denominations:  church,  thirty-three  from  none  existed.  f o rdelegate representation  testant  seven  where  forty-three  from  the Baptist,  from  the Anglican,  five  from  from  The  Board  the B r i t i s h  Pro-  the Presbyterian t e n from  the Methodist,  t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n a l , a n d two  62 from  t h e Reformed  voting  These  In addition  to these  privileges.  the A l l i a n c e orary  Episcopalian.  observance."  be  "eminent  workers  alone had  representative  provided f o r other categories  members w o u l d  Sabbath  members  members,  o f membership.  f o r the promotion  G e n e r a l members w o u l d  be a l l t h o s e  Honof "who  63 accept  t h e b a s i s o f t h e A l l i a n c e and c o n t r i b u t e t o i t s funds." LDAC, M i n u t e s o f E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e , 2 A p r i l 1889,  L D A C , MB  1888-1901.  61 .  Ibxd.  T  62 L D A C , M i n u t e s o f E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e / 21 M a r c h - 1 8 8 9 , I b i d , LDAC M i n u t e s do n o t i n d i c a t e t h e r e a s o n i n g b e h i n d t h i s allocation of denominational representation. 6 3  LDAC,  Circular,  April  188 9,  LDACP.  45 Although the r e l i g i o u s b a s i s o f membership the c o n s t i t u e n c y  restricted  from which the A l l i a n c e might draw a g e n e r a l  membership, i t d i d p l a n to broaden i t s base by e s t a b l i s h i n g 64 contact with lar.  "interested parties,"  both r e l i g i o u s and secu-  The Board hoped t o b e n e f i t from the change i n the French  Roman C a t h o l i c h i e r a r c h y ' s a t t i t u d e towards Sabbath observance. Aware o f t h e statements made by the Quebec b i s h o p s , ance agreed to seek the c o o p e r a t i o n though A l l i a n c e i n s t i n c t s favoured members o f the L i b e r a l p a r t y , ^ c o n t a c t w i t h the C o n s e r v a t i v e lobbying techniques. Honourable G.W.  the A l l i -  of the h i e r a r c h y . ^ A l a c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n with  i t also t r i e d to e s t a b l i s h  p a r t y and g e n e r a l l y broaden i t s  In 1888 i t a p p o i n t e d  a C o n s e r v a t i v e , the  A l l a n , . Speaker o f the Senate and C h a n c e l l o r o f  T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , as P r e s i d e n t .  In a d d i t i o n t o making  arrange-  ments t o meet d u r i n g the P a r l i a m e n t a r y  session " i n order to  b r i n g i n f l u e n c e to bear," i t appointed  a committee t o c o n s i d e r  PC, APGA, 1888, Appendix No. 14; see a l s o A l l e n P o t t e r , Organized Groups i n B r i t i s h N a t i o n a l P o l i t i c s (London: Faber & Faber, 1961), p. 134. T h i s b a s i s o f membership d i f f e r e d s l i g h t l y from t h a t used by t h e 1850s groups: "The b a s i s o f t h i s A l l i a n c e i s the D i v i n e a u t h o r i t y and t h e u n i v e r s a l and p e r p e t u a l o b l i g a t i o n o f the Sabbath, as o r d a i n e d by God a t the c r e a t i o n o f the world, e n j o i n e d i n the F o u r t h Commandment o f the Moral Law, and continued and m a i n t a i n e d by the Church o f God t o the p r e s e n t day, a"nd as e s s e n t i a l t o the b e s t p h y s i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , moral and s o c i a l w e l f a r e o f mankind." LDAC, C i r c u l a r , A p r i l 1889. 65 LDAC, Minutes o f E x e c u t i v e Committee, 21 March 1889. B i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n (Appendix II) concerning the LDAC e x e c u t i v e members i n 1888 l e d t o t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f f i v e L i b e r a l Members o f P a r l i a m e n t , one L i b e r a l P r e s i d e n t o f the Ottawa Reform A s s o c i a t i o n , one o t h e r L i b e r a l , and o n l y one Conservative. See a l s o Chapter I , pp. 17-18, r e t h e  46  ways o f p e r s u a d i n g i n f l u e n t i a l men i n i n d i v i d u a l r i d i n g s t o i n t e r v i e w t h e i r Members o f P a r l i a m e n t on t h e A l l i a n c e ' s be67  half.  And, a l t h o u g h t h e A l l i a n c e i n t e n d e d t o r e l y  on t h e p e t i t i o n , i t spoke o f mounting and an enforcement  campaign t o r a l l y  heavily  b o t h a p r e s s campaign s u p p o r t and p u b l i c i z e t h e  68  A l l i a n c e ' s e x i s t e n c e and purpose. Yet,  l i k e i t s p r e d e c e s s o r s i n t h e 1850s, t h e L o r d ' s  Day A l l i a n c e proved ephemeral.  To most m i n i s t e r s and t o t h e  c h u r c h h i e r a r c h i e s , Sabbath observance c o n t i n u e d t o be b u t one of  a m u l t i t u d e of concerns.  W i t h i n t h e movement i t s e l f , t h e r e  was a s i n g u l a r l a c k o f f o c u s on one d e c i s i v e i s s u e t h a t c o u l d s e r v e as a c a t a l y s t t o action. did  Isolated  stimulate  labour  t h e movement i n t o a g g r e s s i v e  on t h e c a n a l s o r i n t h e p o s t o f f i c e s  n o t b o t h e r t h e m a j o r i t y o f Canadians o r r e a l l y  w i t h t h e work o f r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r s .  Despite  interfere  Sabbatarian  r h e t o r i c , a Sunday o f t h e e a r l y 1890s was e x a c t l y t h e k i n d o f S a b b a t a r i a n a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y . See a l s o B r i a n H a r r i s o n , " S t a t e I n t e r v e n t i o n and M o r a l Reform i n N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y E n g l a n d , " i n P r e s s u r e from W i t h o u t i n E a r l y V i c t o r i a n E n g l a n d , e d . , P a t r i c i a H o l l i s (London: Edward A r n o l d L t d . , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 296: " I t i s i n f a c t t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y which i s t h e most c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h V i c t o r i a n i n t e r v e n t i o n i s m i n t h e moral sphere. . . . L i b e r a l n o n - c o n f o r m i s t s were o f t e n i m p r e s sed by t h e c h a p e l ' s need f o r p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t r e c r e a t i o n a l c o m p e t i t i o n , and by t h e need t o i n t r o d u c e i n t o n a t i o n a l l e g i s l a t i o n t h e ' r e l i g i o u s s o c i a l i s m ' o f t h e l o c a l c h a p e l and i t s s t r i c t s u p e r v i s i o n o f m o r a l conduct." P C , APGA, 1888, Appendix No. 14; LDAC, M i n u t e s o f Exec u t i v e .Committee, 5 May 1 8 9 0 , LDAC, MB 1 8 8 8 - 1 9 0 1 ; - a l s o M i n u t e s , 23 June 1 8 9 2 , I b i d . 6 7  68  LDAC, C i r c u l a r , A p r i l 1889.  day most Sabbath observance s u p p o r t e r s c o u l d d e s i r e .  I n 1889,  f o r example, t h e Sabbath Observance Committee o f t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n church sent out q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o the p r o v i n c i a l  synods  e n q u i r i n g about t h e e x t e n t o f Sabbath d e s e c r a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t the l a n d .  On t h e b a s i s o f t h e r e p l i e s , t h e Committee c o n c l u d e d 69  t h a t "as a whole t h i s i s a Sabbath-keeping l a n d . "  The major-  i t y o f c o m p l a i n t s concerned i n d i v i d u a l m o r a l v i o l a t i o n s such as v i s i t i n g , h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g , p l e a s u r e d r i v i n g , t h e r e a d i n g of s e c u l a r l i t e r a t u r e , and " t h e undue i n d u l g e n c e i n s l e e p on Sabbath morning."  A l t h o u g h about 18 p e r c e n t o f t h e l a b o u r  f o r c e d i d work on Sunday, few c o m p l a i n t s i n f a c t d e a l t w i t h 70 the employment o f l a b o u r o r Sunday t r a d e . Contemporary bath q u i e t .  s o u r c e s c o n f i r m t h i s i m p r e s s i o n o f Sab-  I n h e r weekly column i n S a t u r d a y N i g h t , Lady Gay  wondered, on September 1 s t , 1894, i f those i n t h e i r homes up town r e a l i z e d t h e : grimness which Toronto shows t o h e r Sunday g u e s t s . ... On Sunday, t h e wide bare s t r e e t s a r e s t i l l , a few men, fewer g i r l s l o a f o r lounge; t h e h o t e l g u e s t d r i v e s t h r o u g h a w i l d e r n e s s o f g r i m s i l e n c e and i f I were t h e h o t e l g u e s t , I t h i n k I ' d s t a y i n bed a l l day. (71) B r i t i s h g u e s t s t o t h e c i t y agreed w i t h h e r and complained b i t t e r l y o f t h e "melancholy and s u i c i d a l " n a t u r e o f t h e Canadian PC, APGA, 1890, Appendix No. 35. See Appendix I t o t h i s  thesis.  S a t u r d a y N i g h t , 1 September 1894.  48 72  Sunday.  W r i t i n g i n 1895,  one such  complained  that  "one o f t h e most u n p l e a s a n t l y  righteous  cities  .  The tish the  .  only  Columbia  I was  ran  plied  Vancouver  and p l a y e d  miners,  I n 188 9,  Both  t h e Synod  a n d dockmen  open  Bri-  o f Columbia  and  trains  steamboats had Sunday  saloons  people  had  freight  and V i c t o r i a  city;  made  73  excursion  as were  o f open  generally  Sladen,  Assembly:  days,  Vancouver  Vancouver  a l l sorts  Sunday."  Westminster,  were  Douglas  g e n e r a l p a t t e r n were  as on o t h e r  offices  the province, except  fished  i n on a  to this  a n d New  waters.  The p o s t  caught  of a l l f o r the General  on Sundays  the gulf  papers.  ever  and Quebec.  worked  between  was  exceptions  darkest report  trains  in  Toronto  visitor,  everywhere  hunted  a i r games.  and  Teamsters,  no d i s t i n c t i o n  between Sab-  74 bath  days  French  and o t h e r  days.  Roman C a t h o l i c s "  the  Montreal  has  t h e Sunday  Sunday  were  In Montreal,  g e n e r a l on Sunday  Star described i t , "Montreal c o n c e r t garden,  picnickers,  paper.  I n t h e summer, S o h m n e r while  i n winter  Park  ice-skating  The Sunday  rinks  a t the  saloon  thousands were  As  cars; i t  an attempt  drew  of the  afternoon.  has Sunday  and has seen  t h e a t r e and a t t h e Sunday  thrives."  " t h e customs  also  of  t h e main  72 W.T. C r o s s w e l l e r , O u r V i s i t t o T o r o n t o , t h e N i a g a r a F a l l s , and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f America (privately printed, 1 8 9 8 ) , p p . 69-70, c i t e d b y B u r n e t , " T h e U r b a n C o m m u n i t y , " p . 83. 73 D. S l a d e n , On t h e C a r s a n d O f f ( L o n d o n , 1 8 9 5 ) , p . 154, c i t e d b y B u r n e t , p . 85. 7 4  PC,  APGA,  1889, A p p e n d i x  No.  14.  75 APGA,  C i t e d by C h r i s t i a n G u a r d i a n , 1891, A p p e n d i x N o . 32.  16 D e c e m b e r  1891;  PC,  attraction. Despite successful an  awareness  lobbying, the Alliance  i n t e r d e n o m i n a t i o n a l group  religious  support.  identification Alliance gate  with  church  to establish  a broad  base  a national  executive  tions  proved  willingness endeavour,  as  i t s close  Although  the  the  agency  dele-  Presby-  f o r the  and t h e d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n .  o f c o o p e r a t i o n among  limited.  itself  and a p p o r t i o n e d  t o be t h e e f f e c t i v e  of petitions  of  o f s e c u l a r and  i t continued  the Presbyterian church.  continued  possibilities  most  failed  F o r one t h i n g ,  established  circulation The  with  of the techniques  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n to the various denominations,  terian  the  i t sseeming  The M e t h o d i s t  to cooperate  announcing  the various  church  and expressed  the formation  denomina-  demonstrated i t s warm  the  support  of a Standing  of  Committee  76 on  Sabbath  Observance  of  England  at first  to supplement  responded  tives.  Archdeacon  ization  of the Alliance  20,  1888  a letter  Lauder  from  i t se f f o r t .  cordially  o f Ottawa  to Presbyterian  participated  and p r e s e n t e d  The  i n the  t o -the m e e t i n g  the Anglican bishops  "stating  of  Church initiaorganApril  their  77 readiness  to co-operate  i n this  movement."  The Dominion  Synod  78 also_:passed  a resolution  lauding Alliance  activities.  But,  76 Methodist General Conference, "Report o f Sabbath Observ a n c e C o m m i t t e e , " J o u r n a l o f P r o c e e d i n g s , 18 90, p p . 298-299; L D A C , M i n u t e s , 22 M a y 1891, L D A C , MB 1888-1901. C a n a d a , H o u s e o f Commons, D e b a t e s , 1890, c . 1478. L D A C , M i n u t e s , 20 A p r i l 1888, Ibid. 7 7  78  50  unable t o s u s t a i n i t s enthusiasm f o r what seemed a p u r e l y P r e s b y t e r i a n c o n c e r n , A n g l i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n faded by t h e mid A l t h o u g h G.W.  1890s.  A l l a n c o n t i n u e d as P r e s i d e n t , no o f f i c i a l r e p r e -  s e n t a t i v e o f t h e A n g l i c a n c h u r c h a t t e n d e d board meetings.  The  A l l i a n c e was even l e s s s u c c e s s f u l i n i t s a t t e m p t s t o g a i n t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e Roman C a t h o l i c h i e r a r c h y .  Although the A l l i a n c e  S e c r e t a r y i n t e r v i e w e d C a r d i n a l Taschereau i n 1890 t o r e q u e s t o f f i c i a l C a t h o l i c a s s e n t t o the l o b b y i n g , the B i s h o p s o f M o n t r e a l , Quebec, and Ottawa r e f u s e d t o e x p r e s s t h e i r v i e w s , w i t h o u t v o l u n 79 t e e r i n g an e x p l a n a t i o n , on a Sabbath observance b i l l .  The  Roman C a t h o l i c emphasis remained on c h u r c h d i s c i p l i n e r a t h e r t h a n on c i v i l l a w s . L i k e the 1850 groups, the A l l i a n c e d i d n o t e s t a b l i s h an o f f i c e nor d i d i t h i r e any permanent s t a f f t o o v e r s e e and coordinate a c t i v i t i e s .  I t d i d not secure l e g a l a s s i s t a n c e or the  s e r v i c e s of a s o l i c i t o r .  I t n e i t h e r attempted t o e n f o r c e e x i s t -  i n g laws nor d i d i t t a k e any c a s e s t o c o u r t t o t e s t t h e law's enforceability.  I t made no e f f o r t t o f i n a n c e i t s a c t i v i t i e s  o t h e r t h a n t o ask t h e churches f o r c o n t r i b u t i o n s when neces80 sary.  As b e f o r e , t h e A l l i a n c e r e l i e d s o l e l y on the c i r c u l a -  t i o n o f p e t i t i o n s among B r i t i s h P r o t e s t a n t c h u r c h c o n g r e g a t i o n s t o demonstrate s u p p o r t f o r i t s cause and d i d not e f f e c t i v e l y LDAC, M i n u t e s o f E x e c u t i v e Committee, 2 0 March 1888-1901.  LDAC, MB  1890,  L D A C , M i n u t e s o f Annual M e e t i n g , 20 March 1889, I b i d . I n 1893, f o r example, t h e A l l i a n c e o p e r a t e d on a $50.00 budget, c o l l e c t i n g $15.00 from t h e Church o f E n g l a n d , $15.00 from t h e M e t h o d i s t c h u r c h , and $20.00 from t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n c h u r c h ; LDAC, M i n u t e s o f E x e c u t i v e Committee, 28 March 1893, I b i d . 80  51 pursue o t h e r methods o f i n f l u e n c i n g t h e government.° A l l i a n c e took no s t e p s towards t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  x  The  of a general  membership, n o r d i d i t endeavour t o mount a campaign aimed at the secular press. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e A l l i a n c e made no attempt t o f o l l o w up i t s r e s o l u t i o n t o seek c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r groups t h a t m i g h t support i t .  R e f l e c t i n g the P r e s b y t e r i a n church's c o n t i n u i n g  h o s t i l i t y t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f l a b o u r , t h e A l l i a n c e made no e f f o r t t o f o r g e a bond w i t h t h e n a t i o n a l Trades and Labor Congress.  A l t h o u g h i t p l e d g e d i t s e l f t o t h e s e c u l a r aim o f s e c u r -  i n g " t o t h e t o i l i n g man h i s r i g h t f u l c l a i m t o one day's r e s t i n seven" and r e s o l v e d t o i n v i t e t h e c o o p e r a t i o n 82 tions,  o f labour  associa-  any commitment by A l l i a n c e members t o t h i s s o c i a l aim  was p u r e l y r h e t o r i c a l .  I t d e l i b e r a t e l y turned  i t s back on a  whole c l a s s o f p o t e n t i a l s u p p o r t e r s , n e g l e c t i n g t o lobby t h e Congress a t i t s a n n u a l m e e t i n g s o r opening d i s c u s s i o n i n any o t h e r manner.  Nor d i d i t pursue t h e i n t e r e s t e x p r e s s e d by t h e  P r e s b y t e r i a n c h u r c h i n a r e d u c t i o n o f t h e work week t o f i v e and a h a l f days i n t h e hope t h a t t h i s might encourage a b e t t e r a t t e n dance a t c h u r c h t h e f o l l o w i n g day.  F o r i t s p a r t , t h e Congress d i d  not i n i t i a t e any c o n t a c t w i t h t h e A l l i a n c e .  Although i t d i d  "LDAC, M i n u t e s o f E x e c u t i v e Committee, 14 A p r i l 1891, Ibid. D i s t r i b u t i o n of petitions: 3,200 each t o P r e s b y t e r i a n and M e t h o d i s t c h u r c h e s ; 400 each t o A n g l i c a n , B a p t i s t , and Cong r e g a t i o n a l c h u r c h e s ; 100 t o t h e Reformed E p i s c o p a l i a n c h u r c h . The LDACP do n o t i n d i c a t e t h e response r e c e i v e d by t h e A l l i a n c e to the c i r c u l a t i o n o f these p e t i t i o n s . 82 LDAC, M i n u t e s o f E x e c u t i v e Committee, 22 May 1891, I b i d . UJ  raise  t h e Sunday work i s s u e a t i t s a n n u a l c o n g r e s s e s ,  i s s u e was focus  n o t t h e most u r g e n t m a t t e r  l a y on t h e r e d u c e d work d a y .  c o n t a c t w i t h the temperance from t h e i r ance,  lobbying  experience.  had  and  A l t h o u g h t h e LDAC d e l i b e r a t e l y  this  group,  Alliance,  thusfailed  Dominion  employed  to  benefit  Temperance  a paid  Alli-  staff  Con-  officer.  patterned i t s organization  i t established  nor d i d i t r e c r u i t  no d i r e c t  whose  a l s o made no  l o b b y i n g t h e T r a d e s and L a b o r  opened an o f f i c e  t h e Dominion  The  this  the Congress,  The A l l i a n c e  g r o u p s and  f o r example, a l r e a d y  gress,  facing  83  on  contact with  a delegate representative to i t s  84 board.  Such  p r o m o t i o n by activities  reluctance reflected  temperance  societies  s u c h as t e m p e r a n c e  religious  hostility  t o the  o f s e c u l a r Sunday a f t e r n o o n  meetings,  picnics,  and  pro-  85 cessions. In s h o r t , alliance it own  and  sought  despite  i t was  federal  legislation.  26;  Not  asked  groups.  i n so f a r as  but i t proved u n r e c e p t i v e When, f o r example,  f o r c o o p e r a t i o n i n 1895,  83 T r a d e s and L a b o r C o n g r e s s I b i d . , 1890, p. 31.  ah  only d i d i t not pursue i t s  organization,  of p r o v i n c i a l  Toronto-based group  p.  a national organization only  plans for a national  to the approaches  i t s name, t h e LDAC d i d n o t become  a  t h e LDAC  o f C a n a d a , P r o c e e d i n g s , 188 8  L D A C , M i n u t e s , 20 A p r i l 1888, LDAC, MB 1888-1901. The one p r o m i n e n t t e m p e r a n c e w o r k e r on t h e LDAC b o a r d was J o h n Macm i l l a n o f T o r o n t o , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e Sons o f Temperance. 8 4  85  See  Burnet,  "The  Urban  Community," pp.  86-7.  53 hesitated  and  As work  of  level,  a  then  consequence  support, solely  Liberal  refused.  the  with  Member  86  of  i t s failure  Alliance  the  became  parliamentary  to  obtain a  identified, activities  for North  Norfolk,  Ontario.  Alliance  o r g a n i z e r would  remember  i t s efforts  stricted  almost  bringing  h i s proposed  altogether to Lord's  assisting Day  Acts  In  John  wide  on of  a  as  national  John  later  net-  Charlton,  years,  being  "re-  C h a r l t o n , M.P.  before  the  one  in  Parliaments  87 of  Canada."  Born  remembered  his  humourless  days.  his  liking,  Associate home. to  hear  easily  the  Unable  Charlton's  noon  reading  of  and  evening  worship  of  to  religious of  was  a  The  frugal always  s e r v i c e s to  family  Calvinist  a  assembled plain,  recommenced  shorter  supper. sound  glum,  strict  After  family worship  followed  Charlton  services in his  the  sermon.  sermon.  the  church  chores, a  farmers,  succession of  a member  read  long  a  local  and  dinner,  fare  as  conducted  worship  another  theological  find  father,  elder Charlton  prepared  immigrant  Sabbaths  church,  morning  the  "bill  Scottish  childhood  Reformed  After  of  and  with  catechism  Although  the  wholesome,"  ft fi G. M c R i t c h i e t o A . E . O ' M e a r a , 25 J a n u a r y 1895, i n LDAC, MB 1888-1901: " I t was s u g g e s t e d ( b y t h e L D A C B o a r d ) t h a t w h i l e a P r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r a s p e c i f i c . p u r p o s e . . . would work i n t h e same l i n e a s t h a t o f t h e LDA i t w o u l d b e t h e w i s e r course t o m a i n t a i n o u r own A l l i a n c e a n d a c c e p t a n y c o - o p e r a t i o n i n t h e good work you c o u l d g i v e t o us. I f , h o w e v e r , y o u saw p r o p e r t o work t h r o u g h t h e e x i s t i n g A l l i a n c e and t h u s s t r e n g t h e n i t , any m o d i f i c a t i o n s y o u m i g h t s u g g e s t w o u l d be d u l y c o n s i d e r e d . " 8 7  Anon.,  letter  of  31  March  1906,  LDACP.  54 Charlton never  recalled  "looked  special  i t as  forward  a  "trifle  to the  coming o f  a n t i c i p a t i o n of p l e a s u r e , "  keen r e l i s h c h o s e him  f o r the  to read  e x e r c i s e s of  the  afternoon  "condition of wakefulness." to  heavy f o r t h e c h i l d r e n . "  p e r s u a d e him  nor  the  life  instead.  with  h i s f a m i l y to the  "the  have  Often  town o f A y r ,  of  entered  twenty, a f t e r  Ontario,  d i d he  s e r v i c e s and  the  gloomy and  g a v e no  m e e t i n g and privilege" church.  deciding to profess  mercan-  begin  i d e a t h a t r e l i g i o n was  fun  pleasure"  awakening a t a M e t h o d i s t  t h a t i t was faith,  he  his  and preAt  revival  " d u t y , as w e l l as  j o i n e d the  to  company  a church f o r another ten years. an  a  moving  f o r humour and  time, experiencing  to  efforts  a fondness  from j o i n i n g  father  sermon t o r e s t o r e him  age  any  very  his  Resisting his father's  Only at the  persons."  "a  But  v e n t e d him that  d i d he  day."  " d e r i v e some e n j o y m e n t f r o m r e l i g i o u s religious  Sabbath with  t o become a m i n i s t e r , C h a r l t o n  tile  of  the  He  a  great  a  sense  Presbyterian  8 8  As  the  " c o u r a g e and  of duty s u p p l i e d ton placed  vim  "to a great  greater  of youth" vanished  extent  the p l a c e  s t r e s s i n h i s p r i v a t e and  and  o f hope," C h a r l public l i f e  on  89 evangelical  religious values.  a lumber m e r c h a n t and  politician,  Throughout h i s a d u l t l i f e Charlton  a l w a y s managed  as to  88 John C h a r l t o n , "Autobiography," (n.d., c i r c a 1905), C h a r l t o n P a p e r s , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , Thomas F i s h e r R a r e Book Room, pp. 27, 110. 8 9  Ibid.,  p.  412.  55  be  a t home o n t h e S a b b a t h .  attendance  a t morning  and  the reading  the  evening.  a  life  activity  worship,  o f sermons,  "restful  he m i g h t  routine  afternoon  consisted of  Sunday  and p u b l i c worship  As h i s one "safeguard  of "incessant  activities  His usual  activity,"  against  Charlton  and i n v i g o r a t i n g . "  occasionally allow  school once  again  breaking  found  himself  i n  down" i n  these  The o n l y  class  Sabbath  non-religious  was  an  afternoon  90 visit  with  mittees as  he e n t e r e d  himself  Parliament,  and moral  champion  o f such  against  seduction  of  Gordon,  for  introducing  introduction steamship to  ideas  c r u e l t y to animals  Adam  father.  of the Presbyterian  religious  of  his ailing  Becoming  General  Charlton  Assembly strove  into political moral  reform  promise  Sabbath  and r a i l w a y  observance  legislation.  causes  with  bills  i n 1884 a n d a g a i n excursions  prompted  time  to translate h i s  of marriage.  he became r e s p o n s i b l e  com-  a t t h e same  as the  and t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f young 91  under  of a b i l l  a c t i v e on t h e  He  prevention  females  Upon t h e d e a t h  D r . Thomas  into  made  Christie  t h e House.  His  i n 1885 t o p r o h i b i t Macdonald's  decision  d e c l a r e Sabbath observance l e g i s l a t i o n u l t r a v i r e s the 90 I b i d . , p . 533; a l s o J o h n C h a r l t o n , " D i a r i e s , " J o h n C h a r l t o n P a p e r s , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , Thomas F i s h e r R a r e B o o k Room, v o l . I l l , e n t r i e s o f 1 A p r i l 1 8 8 8 , 15 A p r i l 1 8 8 8 , 29 A p r i l 1 8 8 8 . 91 Both a b i l l t o prevent c a t t l e from being confined t o railway cars longer than twenty-eight hours and another t o p r o t e c t y o u n g g i r l s u n d e r a g e 16 f r o m s e d u c t i o n u n d e r p r o m i s e o f m a r r i a c r e o r m o c k m a r r i a g e p a s s e d t h e H o u s e ; f o r some d i s c u s s i o n o f C h a r l t o n ' s p r o m o t i o n o f t h e s e b i l l s , s e e R.R. Hett, "John C h a r l t o n : L i b e r a l P o l i t i c i a n and Free Trade Advocate" (Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f R o c h e s t e r , 1 9 6 9 ) .  56 federal  jurisdiction.  Believing firmly  that  federal  t i o n was e s s e n t i a l t o c o n t r o l S a b b a t h l a b o u r (railways,  canals,  and t h e P o s t  Office),  the  Presbyterian church's determination  the  f e d e r a l government.  Sabbath observance b i l l core —  on D o m i n i o n works  Charlton  influenced  to continue  As a V i c e P r e s i d e n t  f o r m e d L o r d ' s Day A l l i a n c e ,  The b i l l  lobbying  o f t h e newly-  he a g r e e d t o i n t r o d u c e  i n 1890.  legisla-  a  general  incorporated the  o f t h e 1845 Upper Canada A c t a s w e l l a s two new  one t h a t made t h e e m p l o y e r o f S a b b a t h l a b o u r  clauses  guilty  of a  misdemeanour and one t h a t made b o t h t h e p u b l i s h e r and v e n d o r 92 of  a Sunday newspaper l i a b l e  bill to  failed  introduce  to gain  approval  to prosecution.  o f t h e House, C h a r l t o n  Sabbath observance b i l l s .  a modification of the previous  year's 93  a y e t more "watered-down v e r s i o n , " the on ton  closing of canals, this  bill  H i s 18 91 bill,  this  continued  v e r s i o n was  and h i s 1892 b i l l ,  dealt principally  r a i l w a y s , and newspaper s a l e s .  dragged on u n t i l  also introduced  Although  i t was d e f e a t e d  in-1898.  with Debate Charl-  a m o t i o n , i n 1893, t o c l o s e t h e C a n a d i a n  p o r t i o n o f t h e C o l u m b i a E x p o s i t i o n i n C h i c a g o on Sunday, b u t 94 t h e House r e j e c t e d i t a f t e r a l e n g t h y d e b a t e . Charlton's  v i e w s on S a b b a t h o b s e r v a n c e were n e i t h e r  o r i g i n a l nor i n n o v a t i v e , but r a t h e r r e p e t i t i o n s o f American 92 C a n a d a , House o f Commons, D e b a t e s , 18 90, c . 147 9. 93 O n t a r i o Law R e f o r m C o m m i s s i o n , R e p o r t , p . 37. 94 C a n a d a , House o f Commons, D e b a t e s , 1893, c c . 2217-44.  arguments a l r e a d y  i n use f o r t h i r t y  a l t h o u g h he b o r r o w e d his  heavily  arguments c o n c e r n i n g  Sabbath, C h a r l t o n ' s most C a n a d i a n  effort  from these  Sabbatarians.  t o comprehend  In a world  t h e v i s i o n o f an i d e a l  Sabbath observance l e g i s l a t i o n for a l l social  s o c i a l and  r e l i g i o u s values i n  and c o n t r o l t h e s e c h a n g e s .  nation.  eradicate  of rapid  to t r a d i t i o n a l  established  and  sources to structure  arguments and a t t i t u d e s r e f l e c t e d t h o s e o f  rhetoric  panacea  But,  t h e n e e d s and b e n e f i t s o f a r e l i g i o u s  e c o n o m i c c h a n g e , many c l u n g an  or f o r t y years.  ills.  I t would  n i h i l i s m , anarchism,  Charlton's  Sabbath-observing  was t h e secure  conservative  social  stability  and s o c i a l i s m by k e e p i n g t h e 96  labourer  i n h i s proper place  Not  would such l e g i s l a t i o n  only  British  inheritance  within  by a s s e r t i n g  a paternalistic society.  preserve  the best  t h e dominance o f  o f Canada's Protestant  "'"''in 1893, C h a r l t o n r e p r e s e n t e d C a n a d a a t a C o n g r e s s on Sunday r e s t h e l d i n C h i c a g o a s p a r t o f t h e C o l u m b i a E x p o s i t i o n . T h e r e he l i s t e n e d t o p a p e r s t h a t c o v e r e d v i r t u a l l y t h e w h o l e s p e c t r u m o f Sunday o b s e r v a n c e : t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l b a s i s o f Sunday r e s t ; t h e e c o n o m i c a n d e t h i c a l v a l u e o f Sunday r e s t ; t h e e f f e c t s o f Sunday r e s t on c h a r a c t e r , h a b i t s , women, c h i l d r e n , home and f a m i l y l i f e , and s o f o r t h . H i s s p e e c h e s t o t h e House o f Commons r e f l e c t h i s a d o p t i o n o f t h e i d e a s p r e s e n t e d t h e r e and h i s c o n s t a n t u s e o f A m e r i c a n r a t h e r t h a n C a n a d i a n e x a m p l e s to i l l u s t r a t e h i s points. O n t a r i o Law R e f o r m C o m m i s s i o n , R e p o r t , p . 3 9.. C h a r l t o n a l s o c o r r e s p o n d e d f r e q u e n t l y w i t h W i l b u r C r a f t s , P r e s i d e n t o f t h e l a r g e New Y o r k S a b b a t h A s s o c i a t i o n , a n d r e c e i v e d a n d u s e d much A m e r i c a n l i t e r a t u r e f r o m Crafts. See a l s o H.G. Gutman, "Work, C u l t u r e , and S o c i e t y i n I n d u s t r i a l i z i n g A m e r i c a , 1815-1919," i n h i s Work, C u l t u r e and S o c i e t y i n I n d u s t r i a l i z i n g A m e r i c a (New Y o r k : V i n t a g e B o o k s , 1977) , p p . 38-9. C a n a d a , House o f Commons, D e b a t e s ,  1890, c . 1478.  58 i d e a l s over r i v a l  F r e n c h C a t h o l i c ones,  tee  n a t i o n a l and i n d i v i d u a l p r o s p e r i t y .  was  i n the national  intelligent  In Charlton's  i n t e r e s t " t o have a v i r t u o u s ,  therefore  intelligent,  i t w o u l d be i n t h e e m p l o y e e ' s i n -  t o be t h e k i n d  fruits  o f Sunday o b s e r v a n c e w o u l d be b e t t e r  better  public health,  o f man d e s i r e d  a greater  that h i s b i l l ' s goal.  The b i l l  by e m p l o y e r s .  Other  sanitary  conditions,  degree o f c l e a n l i n e s s , temper-  ance, s e l f - r e s p e c t , and o b e d i e n c e  be  industrious,  S a b b a t h o b s e r v a n c e laws w o u l d  terest  secular  view i t  h e a l t h f u l man t o work f o r h i m . "  promised that  s e c u r e t h e s e ends and t h a t  sisted  guaran-  and s o b e r p e o p l e , " a n d i n t h e e m p l o y e r ' s i n t e r e s t  t o have a " c l e a n , Charlton  b u t i t would  t o the law.  Charlton  in-  r e l i g i o u s a i m was s u b o r d i n a t e t o i t s d i d not intend  "to force  the people to  r e l i g i o u s a n d t o o b s e r v e t h e s a n c t i t y o f t h e L o r d ' s Day";  rather  i tleft  each c i t i z e n  "a v o l u n t a r y  agent t o e x e r c i s e  98 that  r i g h t o r n o t a s he may c h o o s e . "  He c l a i m e d  that  govern-  ^ ' H a v i n g a d o p t e d C a n a d a a s h i s homeland, C h a r l t o n b e came an a r d e n t B r i t i s h C a n a d i a n n a t i o n a l i s t , b e l i e v i n g t h a t C a n a d a ' s d e s t i n y "must be b l e n d e d w i t h t h a t o f t h e G r e a t Emp i r e t o w h i c h we b e l o n g " t h r o u g h sympathy w i t h , d e v o t i o n t o , and l o y a l t y f o r , t h e common i n t e r e s t o f a l l t h e Commonwealths under t h e B r i t i s h f l a g . He f o u n d C a n a d a ' s own e t h n i c c o n d i t i o n s " p e c u l i a r " and f e l t t h a t any s u c c e s s i t m i g h t e n j o y i n c r e a t i n g a n a t i o n w o u l d depend upon t h e s u c c e s s i n a s s i m i l a t ing the d i f f e r e n t races. To C h a r l t o n , i t "was d e s i r a b l e t o s e c u r e t h e g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e d e g r e e o f h o m o g e n e i t y . " The " p e r p e t u a t i o n o f r a c e c l e a v a g e , " h e - b e l i e v e d , w o u l d be " c a l a m i tous." He o p p o s e d F r e n c h C a n a d i a n c l a i m s , s p e a k i n g o u t a g a i n s t t h e J e s u i t E s t a t e s b i l l , b e c o m i n g a member o f t h e E q u a l R i g h t s A s s o c i a t i o n , and o p p o s i n g t h e e l e c t i o n o f L a u r i e r as L i b e r a l party leader. ( C h a r l t o n , " A u t o b i o g r a p h y , " p p . 568-9, 578, 1012.) 98 C a n a d a , House o f Commons, D e b a t e s , 1892, c . 338 0.  59. merit e m p l o y e e s r e s e n t e d s h i p and  receive religious  experience" not  only  their in  their  t h a t the  ceaseless  shortening  a l l i t s tendencies,  blessings,  inability  the  toil  and  their  lives,  but  sad  drudgery  physical well-being,  purer."  i n f l u e n c e of  was  impairing  was  demoralizing  d e p r i v i n g them o f many c o m f o r t s  w o r s h i p would produce h e a l t h y foster  d i v i n e wor-  They knew "by  round of  "which w o u l d o t h e r w i s e  make them b e t t e r and  to attend  instruction.  d i s a s t r o u s to t h e i r  h e a l t h and  -  and  brighten  their  lives  Sabbath r e s t  spent  in public  citizens  happy f a m i l i e s and  the m i g h t i e s t  and  educational  and  agencies  in  99 the  land,  the  C h u r c h and  the  Sabbath  In c o n t r a s t to t h i s v i s i o n felt  distinguished British  painted  claimed,  society.  only  of the  devil."  one  day  Protestant  social  and  a day  of t o i l  and  quoting  devoted  "dedicated  Horse-racing, and  countries,  parades, reviews,  f o r the poor.  Citing  increased percent  a.holiday  England-jails-Sabbath-breakers, "ibid.,  1897,  c.  678.  but  the  he  flesh  the  and  the  excursions, f o r the  elaborate  social  rich  statistics  equated Sabbath  r a t e s o f c r i m e and o f a l l t h e men  the  picnics,  eminent a u t h o r i t i e s , C h a r l t o n  o n l y were 90  p r a c t i c e s of  to the world,  he  Charlton  t o m o r n i n g mass w h i l e  d i s s i p a t i o n made t h e day  secration with  harmony w h i c h  In C a t h o l i c European c o u n t r i e s ,  h o u r was  was  drinking,  not  of  the b l a c k e s t p i c t u r e to d e p i c t the  Sabbathless  rest  School.  de-  impurity:  incarcerated in  i n European c o u n t r i e s  New Sun-  60 day  was " t h e p r o l i f i c  d a y f o r s u i c i d e s among women and Monday  for  s u i c i d e s among men."  He compared t h e 4 p e r c e n t  macy r a t e o f S a b b a t h - o b s e r v i n g B r i t a i n w i t h cent of  r a t e s o f h e a t h e n P a r i s and Rome."^^  that  i n visiting  saw a n o l d man and f o u n d ing in  t h e 3 4 a n d 72 p e r -  The i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t  s u c h d e b a u c h e r y was p h y s i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n .  reported  that other  countries  who have t h e i r  Charlton,  one s c a r c e l y  wan and worn and l a c k -  heralded  o f "one o f t h e m o s t t r u l y Bearing  the labourers  Sunday r e s t . " " ^ ^ "  t h e appearance o f the American  newspaper u n f o r t u n a t e l y  world."  Travellers  stamina and v i v a c i t y which c h a r a c t e r i z e s  To  vasion  European c o u n t r i e s , "the labourers  illegiti-  the Continental  Sunday  Sabbath's i n -  Sabbatarian nations  t h e "most d i s a s t r o u s  fruits,"  of the  i t debased t h e  p e o p l e , m a k i n g them f r i v o l o u s , i m m o r a l and s e n s a t i o n a l , ficial day  t a s t e s and p u r s u i t s .  newspaper was " s a p p i n g  perity and  i n their  and s t r e n g t h  rendering  i n that  example a n d t o e s t a b l i s h i n s t e a d  habits  of  To a v o i d  following  country the American  i n Canada a " h e a l t h y ,  n a t i o n a l i t y , " to create  pros-  sapping p u b l i c v i r t u e ,  t h e o u t l o o k as t o t h e f u t u r e o f t h a t  most d u b i o u s a n d p e s s i m i s t i c . "  progressive  Day a f t e r d a y , t h e Sun-  the foundations of national country,  super-  and f o s t e r  sound,  sentiments,  o f t h o u g h t , a n d m o r a l a c t i o n t h a t w o u l d make Canada a  g h a r l t o n . , "How To P r o v i d e f o r t f i e - B e t t e r - O b s e r v a n c e t h e L o r d ' s Day," 26" F e b r u a r y " 1 » 8 5 . 1 0 1  Canada,  House o f Commons, D e b a t e s , 1897, c . 678.  61 great, his  vigorous,  and  Parliamentary  flourishing  colleagues to  people, support  Charlton pleaded his b i l l  with  f o r the  bene-  102 fit of  of  future generations.  Parliament  Ontario  a  paper  copy  with  of  a  Waving  the  Toronto  Sunday  in front  Sunday  edition,  of  the  World,  the  Members one  C h a r l t o n denounced  i t as  103 "the  harbinger  of  an  evil  Unconvinced were q u i c k ing;  that  to  by  Sabbath  f o r the  prevent  these  the  wanted  working  men  foul  h i s arguments,  p o i n t out  i s , i f he  swarm o f  from  basic "to  man,  working  Charlton's  colleagues  inconsistency of  stop  he  birds."  labour  must on  and  enact  Sunday  a  to  to  law get  his  reason-  preserve that  out  the  will  a  Monday  104 newspaper."  The  Sunday  i n v o l v e d Sabbath  for  edition,  example,  publishers Sunday ees  had  argued,  enjoy  t o work  with  to 1  cc.  0  2  Sunday had  the  as  to  Monday  labour. papers  adopted night  In  were  the  paper, British  i n order  of  rest.  publish  on  Monday,  of  that  Sunday,"  as  the  preparing their  Otherwise, they  the  Columbia,  available,  policy  a day  not  employ-  they  would was  a  be  com-  indeed  the  papers.  arguments the  Ibid.,  1898,  c.  2414.  the  greater p a r t of  acknowledge  1976,  Sunday  Saturday  a l l other  These fused  late  " i f they  pelled  three  deliberately  edition  might  case  where  production of  had  no  effect  illogical 1956;  1  0  3  Ibid;,  1892,  c..2303.  1  0  4  Ibid.,  1898,  c.  2418;  on  C h a r l t o n and  nature  Ibid.,  of  1897,  - Ibid.,  re-  his position. c.  681;  .  1894,  he  c.  3423.  Ibid.,  He 1898,  a l s o r e f u s e d to forego h i s Monday paper.  Instead he  maintained  t h a t "the q u e s t i o n of the amount of labour i n v o l v e d i n the p u b l i c a t i o n of a Sunday newspaper i s a q u e s t i o n of very  small  moment" i n comparison with i t s i n f l u e n c e upon s o c i e t y , "the d e l e t e r i o u s and d i s a s t r o u s i n f l u e n c e t h a t i s exerted upon s o c i e t y by the c i r c u l a t i o n , by  [the] r e a d i n g and by the s a l e  of t h a t newspaper on the Lord's Day,  whether i t i s p u b l i s h e d 105  on the Lord's Day  morning or upon the evening  previous."  C h a r l t o n ' s stand on the Sunday newspaper i s s u e i l l u s t r a t e s how  tenuous was  h i s commitment-to the sociali-.aim of  Sabbath observance l e g i s l a t i o n , the guarantee to working of a weekly day of r e s t . was  men  The p r o h i b i t i o n of Sabbath labour  C h a r l t o n ' s key to a c h i e v i n g the u n d e r l y i n g r e l i g i o u s  moral aim of the l e g i s l a t i o n .  and  He r e a l i z e d t h a t i f labour i n  the f i e l d of newspaper s a l e s and commercial r e c r e a t i o n c o u l d be p r o h i b i t e d , o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Sabbath p l e a s u r e c o u l d be severely limited. from evading  In order to prevent commercial  r e s t r i c t i o n s by g r a n t i n g another  as a r e s t day,  proper  might enjoy  Thus, although  he i n s i s t e d t h a t work-  "whatever p r i v i l e g e s they may  to e x e r c i s e on t h a t day,"  s i o n of "the l e i s u r e necessary . . . [and]  consider  h i s s t r e s s l a y on the. p r o v i -  f o r a t t e n d i n g d i v i n e worship  f o r a t t e n d i n g Sunday Schools."  Ibid.  i n the week_  C h a r l t o n r e f u s e d to countenance the guarantee  of any day but Sunday. ing men  day  operations  Only i f the work-  63 ingman o b s e r v e d Sunday as a day o f r e l i g i o u s o b s e r v a n c e , a t t e n d i n g "both morning and e v e n i n g s e r v i c e , " would he be a "sober, a l e r t , c l e a n , r e s p e c t a b l e , e f f i c i e n t l a b o u r e r , p r e p a r e d t o t a k e h o l d o f h i s work," i n s t e a d o f a l a b o u r e r who, h a v i n g spent a d i s s o l u t e Sabbath, was " u n f i t t e d t o l a b o u r upon Monday and o f t e n u n f i t t e d upon  Tuesday."  1 0 6  A l t h o u g h C h a r l t o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d opponents o f h i s b i l l s as " l o a f e r s , hoodlums, p r o s t i t u t e s , and d r u n k a r d s , " o p p o s i t i o n to  Sabbath observance l e g i s l a t i o n c e n t r e d around two r e s p e c t -  a b l e g r o u p s , one e t h n i c , t h e o t h e r economic.  Their  combined 107  o p p o s i t i o n p r e v e n t e d C h a r l t o n ' s b i l l s from becoming law. Most o f t e n " t a l k e d o u t , " o n l y once d i d a b i l l pass t h i r d ,read108 ing,  t h e n t o be r e j e c t e d by t h e Senate. F r e n c h Canadian members o f t h e House r e s i s t e d t h e  attempt t o impose a P r o t e s t a n t r e l i g i o u s s e n t i m e n t on them by law.  The essence o f C h a r l t o n ' s b i l l , they argued, was con-  t r a r y t o t h e t e a c h i n g s o f t h e C a t h o l i c c h u r c h which a l l o w e d i t s members t o pursue i n n o c e n t amusements such as w a l k i n g , 109 t a l k i n g , o r s i n g i n g songs a f t e r morning mass. C h a r l t o n ' s b i l l was u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l . the  In addition,  Both t h e p r o v i n c e s and  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s had t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n t o pass  adequate  1 0 6  I b i d . , 1892, c. 3377; I b i d . , 1891, c c . 763, 2947.  1 0 7  I b i d . , 1892, c. 1076.  108 109  O n t a r i o Law Reform Commission, R e p o r t , p. 38. Canada, House o f Commons, Debates, 1895, c c . 764-5,  64  Sabbath observance l e g i s l a t i o n .  L e g i s l a t i o n such as C h a r l t o n  proposed would be an i n v a s i o n o f c i v i l r i g h t s and would r e g a r d p r o v i n c i a l autonomy.  dis-  F r e n c h Canada, Georges Amyot,  L i b e r a l member f o r B e l l e c h a s s e , i r t a r t l y reminded t h e House, had j o i n e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n "as a commercial p a r t n e r s h i p , and n o t as a s a l v a t i o n army.  We do not b e l i e v e i n t h i s P a r l i a m e n t  t u r n i n g i t s e l f i n t o a s a l v a t i o n army, and w i t h drums and f i f e s t r y i n g t o f o r c e us i n t o Economic  heaven."  1 1 0  h o s t i l i t y was not as c o h e s i v e as e t h n i c .  W h o l e s a l e and r e t a i l merchants had l i t t l e d e s i r e t o expand t h e i r work week t o seven days and t h e r e b y r u n t h e r i s k o f i n c r e a s i n g c o s t s by s p r e a d i n g t h e same volume o f s a l e s o v e r a l o n ger p e r i o d o f t i m e .  To t h e s e men,  t h e guarantee o f Sunday as a  weekly r e s t day reduced t h e t h r e a t o f c o m p e t i t i o n f o r t h e consumer's d o l l a r .  1 1 1  Of c o u r s e t h e y d i d not o b j e c t t o Sunday b e i n g  spent p r e p a r i n g t h e a r t i c l e s t h a t would t h e n be s o l d i n t h e s e shops: who  i t seems c l e a r t h a t Timothy E a t o n , u p r i g h t Sabbatarian  c o v e r e d h i s s t o r e windows so t h a t t h e i r t e m p t i n g wares would  n o t o f f e n d t h e r i g h t e o u s , t o l e r a t e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f Sabbath sweatshop l a b o u r t o p r e p a r e h i s goods f o r s a l e t h e 112 next day. Other S a b b a t a r i a n s , f a c t o r y owners such as t h e 1 1 0  I b i d . , 1894, c. 3404.  S e e Michael B l i s s , A L i v i n g P r o f i t : Studies i n the S o c i a l H i s t o r y o f Canadian B u s i n e s s , 1883-1912- (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1974), pp. 33-54. 112 C f . G. K e a l e y , Hogtown: Working C l a s s T o r o n t o a t t h e Turn o f t h e C e n t u r y (Toronto: New Hogtown P r e s s , 1974), p. 13. 1 1 1  65 Massey f a m i l y ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l implements concern, c o u l d  also  r e c o g n i z e the v a l u e o f a pause day i n the d i s c i p l i n e d l i v e s of t h e i r i n d u s t r i a l workers, i n t h a t p r o d u c t i v i t y on the o t h e r s i x days of the week would c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y i n c r e a s e . owners o f companies  But  t h a t r e q u i r e d continuous p r o d u c t i o n such  as the emerging i r o n and s t e e l i n d u s t r i e s would r e s i s t a Sunday stoppage of o p e r a t i o n s and might p r e f e r t o follow..the r a i l w a y s ' example  of g u a r a n t e e i n g t h e i r workers another day o f f  i n the week i f they worked  Sundays.  Above a l l ,  the t r a n s p o r t a -  t i o n concerns were implacable i n t h e i r h o s t i l i t y to any sugg e s t i o n t h a t a l l o p e r a t i o n s stop f o r a twenty-four hour p e r i o d from midnight Saturday to midnight Sunday.  Both the r a i l w a y  and the steamship companies, argued t h a t the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p of Canada's  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system, both water and r a i l ,  to the  113  American system made Sunday o p e r a t i o n s i m p e r a t i v e .  W.  van  Home, P r e s i d e n t of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company, def i n e d the railways'; p o s i t i o n ' i n a l e t t e r he wrote: t o theuLOrd's Day A l l i a n c e S e c r e t a r y i n 1888: Our t r a i n arrangements, to the extent t h a t t r a i n s are r e q u i r e d to e n t r e n c h more or l e s s on Sundays, whether on the main l i n e or elsewhere, are f o r c e d upon us by the a c t i o n of the American l i n e s w i t h which we are competing f o r t r a f f i c , and I can see no way to overcome t h i s d i f f i c u l t y without d e s t r o y i n g our through b u s i n e s s , upon which the r a i l w a y l a r g e l y depends. (114) 113  J . Hickson to W.D. Armstrong, 25 March 1889, quoted i n Canada, House o f Commons, Debates, 1890, c. 1481. 114  W. van Home to W.D. c.  1482.  Armstrong, 11 June 1888, i n I b i d . ,  O t h e r f a c t o r s made t h e short navigation continuously to  get  the  shable stop  trains  travelling  of  of  the  elapse  l i v e s t o c k and  offered  and  operations  trump c a r d , their  on  inconvenience  order  Exchange.  Peri-  to  railway  passengers  traffic,  service  both at  the  s i d i n g s , t h a t Monday w o u l d  resume t h e i r  railways  e m p l o y e e s a day  of  to  twenty-  Furthermore, c e s s a t i o n of  could  the  canals  p r o d u c e made i t i m p o s s i b l e  to mention the  canals  the  season i n  i n t h e m i d d l e o f nowhere f o r a p e r i o d o f  before  their  t o keep the  down t o t h e M o n t r e a l  long distances.  the  impractical:  navigation  Sundays w o u l d c a u s e s u c h c o n g e s t i o n  ends o f  As  end  grain harvest  loads  traffic  s e a s o n made i t i m p e r a t i v e  open a t t h e  four hours, not  on  c e s s a t i o n of  natural  argued t h a t they  off in lieu  of  rhythm. already  Sundays i f c o n d i -  115 t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t e d Sunday work. Citing ies  such reasons,  v i g o r o u s l y l o b b i e d the  ests and  enjoyed d i r e c t  access  prime m i n i s t e r i a l  sentations Ship  the  railway  government. to the  level,  t o c o m m i t t e e s and  they  lobbied  a t the  same l e v e l  As  steamship  the  railway  government a t the were a b l e  d i d not  o w n e r s , B o a r d s o f T r a d e , and  and  to lobby  need t o r e l y  the Montreal  on  Grain  t o have t h e W e l l a n d C a n a l  companinter-  cabinet by  repre-  petitions. Exchange, re-opened  116 on  Sunday.  American  interests,  b o t h v e s s e l owners and 117 Canadian p r o t e s t s .  of Trade, supported the 115 Hickson to Armstrong, 1 1 6  P C , APGA, 1889,  117 . Ibid. T  25 M a r c h 1889,  A p p e n d i x No.  14.  Ibid.  Boards  67 The  fate of Charlton's  bills  revealed  the strength of  b o t h t h e economic and e . t h n o - r e l i g i o u s arguments a g a i n s t legislation.  To a v o i d d i r e c t c o n f r o n t a t i o n o v e r t h e i s s u e ,  both the Conservative  and L i b e r a l  ambiguity  constitutional jurisdiction  gislation. tice,  such  surrounding  governments e x p l o i t e d t h e i n such l e -  The M a c d o n a l d g o v e r n m e n t a n d i t s M i n i s t e r o f J u s -  J o h n Thompson, c o n t i n u e d  to insist  t h a t Sabbath  obser-  v a n c e was: a s u b j e c t o f which the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e s h a v e f u l l y p o s s e s s e d t h e m s e l v e s , a n d i t i s , no d o u b t , w i t h i n t h e competence o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e s , and w i t h i n t h e i r p r a c t i c e , t o s a y how f a r t h e e n a c t m e n t s o f t h i s s u b j e c t a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y s e v e r e o r how much t h e s e v e r i t y s h o u l d be i n c r e a s e d f r o m t i m e t o t i m e . (118) On  assuming o f f i c e  Liberal Charlton, with  the issue.  i n 1896, L a u r i e r r e f u s e d adopting  the Conservative  When a s k e d  to support  method o f d e a l i n g  i n 1898 what p o l i c y  adopt towards Sabbath l e g i s l a t i o n ,  fellow  he p r o p o s e d t o  Laurier replied  t h a t he i n 119  tended  "to leave Charlton  t h e S a b b a t h t o t h e laws o f t h e p r o v i n c e . " himself  finally  a voice  c r y i n g i n the wilderness,  measure  . . . under d i s c o u r a g i n g  .  . . t o an unsympathetic  wearied o f the task o f being "arising  to advocate  and d e p r e s s i n g 120  House."  this  circumstances  I n an u n u s u a l l y  frank  s t a t e m e n t t o t h e Commons i n 1897, C h a r l t o n a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t 118 C a n a d a , House o f Commons, D e b a t e s , 18 91, c . 764. 1 1 9  Ibid.,  1898, c . 2429.  120 I b i d . , c . 1951. x  u  68 little  support,  seems," he  even r e l i g i o u s ,  for his b i l l s  existed.  "It  admitted:  t o be t o a l a r g e e x t e n t a m a t t e r o f i n d i f f e r e n c e t o p r o f e s s i n g C h r i s t i a n p e o p l e i n Canada w h e t h e r o r n o t a law i s e n a c t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f s e c u r i n g t o l a b o u r e r s t h e i r r i g h t t o t h e Sunday r e s t . We do o c c a s i o n a l l y have r e s o l u t i o n s p a s s e d by s y n o d s , c o n f e r e n c e s , a s s e m b l i e s and p r e s b y t e r i e s b e a r i n g upon t h i s m a t t e r ; b u t we have no i n d i c a t i o n o f any g r e a t d e g r e e o f p o p u l a r f e e l i n g on t h e s u b j e c t . ... . . so f a r as I am aware, no d e l e g a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i n g C h r i s t i a n p e o p l e has e v e r v i s i t e d t h i s c a p i t a l t o u r g e upon t h i s g o v e r n m e n t o r upon any o t h e r Government i n power, t h e p r o p r i e t y o f e n a c t i n g a Sunday r e s t law. (121) At  least  a t the n a t i o n a l  ment seemed t o l a c k a b r o a d any  did exist,  (and  some s a i d  cerned  with  i t was boring)  local  urgency  effective pitating  and  factor"  S a b b a t a r i a n moveopinion.  e i t h e r q u i e s c e n t , owing to the calm  t h e answer.  "To  m o b i l i z a t i o n of a c t i o n "  If  serene  of the Canadian Sabbath, or  aspects of the Sabbath q u e s t i o n .  hasten  lobby,  the  consensus i n p u b l i c  a s p e c t w o u l d seem t o p r o v i d e of  level,  con-  The  latter  c r e a t e the necessary  sense f o r an  a s o c i a l movement n e e d s a c a t a l y s t o r  "preci-  as p o l i t i c a l  terms  sociologist Neil  Smelser  122 it.  Owing t o i t s r e l a t i v e  absence i n Canadian l i f e ,  Sunday n e w s p a p e r i s s u e t h a t C h a r l t o n t r i e d burning But,  i s s u e d i d n o t have t h e a b i l i t y  a t the  same t i m e  as C h a r l t o n was  t o promote as  t o a c t as  this  the his  catalyst.  abandoning h i s f i g h t  at  121 I b i d . , 18 97, c. 67 5. The f i r s t i n t e r d e n o m i n a t i o n a l d e p u t a t i o n o r g a n i z e d by t h e LDAC t o o k p l a c e i n May 1897. LDAC, M i n u t e s o f E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e , 6 May 1897, LDAC, MB 1888-1901. 122 N. S m e l s e r , The T h e o r y o f C o l l e c t i v e B e h a v i o r (New Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 194.  the  federal  eastern issue  lobbies.  t h e Sunday  Canadian provinces.  that  Ontario  level,  would  Lord's  precipitate  Day  Alliance  c a r was I t would the  and  exciting  tempers  i n the  thus  be  t h e Sunday  formation  of  the  other  provincial  car  aggressive Sabbatarian  70  Chapter  III:  The  'Giddy  of  The  and  Sundays —  calm  by B r i t i s h v i s i t o r s ,  of the Canadian  Question  Sunday, so d i s p a r a g e d  owed much t o t h e l a c k o f an a l t e r n a t i v e  Once o t h e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s became  Canadians,  like  themselves  o f new  portation,  first  the B r i t i s h  and  delights.  The  the b i c y c l e ,  the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .  Both  electric  goaded  street  The  Jurisdiction  relative  church-going.  Trolley'  car,  the Americans, introduction  available, quickly  availed  of urban  then the giddy t r o l l e y ,  transbegan  x  i n n o v a t i o n s , but p a r t i c u l a r l y latent  Sabbatarian  to  the  sentiment  into  2 militant  activity.  churches  had  sions, and tion  of s t r e e t  about  convinced themselves  immigrants  threatened  t h e M e t h o d i s t and P r e s b y t e r i a n  a l r e a d y complained  t h e y had  new  Although  actually  s t e a m b o a t and  t h a t o n l y the lower  p a t r o n i z e d them.  r a i l w a y s or i t s proposed  to a t t r a c t  from  rai-1 e x c u r -  The  Sunday  introduction,  church attendance  the very  t h a t p r o v i d e d the f i n a n c i a l backbone of the c h u r c h e s ' and  economic p o s i t i o n .  l e n g e t o go unmet. x  Saturday  As  such,  F o r a decade  until  opera-  however, class social  they c o u l d not a l l o w the ( f r o m 1895  classes  1905),  chalsab-  N i g h t , 1 September 18 94.  2 For another treatment of the m a t e r i a l presented i n t h i s and t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r , s e e C h r i s t o p h e r A r m s t r o n g ' s and H.V. Nelles " k i n d o f n o n - f i c t i o n e n t e r t a i n m e n t , " The Revenge o f t h e M e t h o d i s t B i c y c l e Company: Sunday S t r e e t c a r s and M u n i c i p a l Ref o r m i n T o r o n t o , . 1888-1897 ( T o r o n t o : P e t e r M a r t i n & A s s o c i a t e s L i m i t e d , 1977). E  71 b a t a r i a n s t r i e d t o d e f e a t t h e Sunday c a r i n t h e c o u r t s ; by so d o i n g they r a i s e d i m p o r t a n t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e s p e c t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n s o f t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l (and even m u n i c i p a l ) governments.  Most i m p o r t a n t l y t h e s t o r y  o f t h e l e g a l t a n g l e o f t h o s e y e a r s e x p l a i n s why Macdonald and L a u r i e r were wrong i n a s s i g n i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r Sabbath oobs e r v a n c e l e g i s l a t i o n t o t h e p r o v i n c e s and why t h e L o r d ' s Day A c t o f 1906 was a f e d e r a l  *  *  *  *  *  statute.  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  T h e appearance o f t h e b i c y c l e s y m b o l i z e d Canada's o p t i m i s t i c s p i r i t as i t emerged from t h e r e l a t i v e s t a g n a t i o n o f the 1870s and 1880s.  As P.B. Waite d e s c r i b e s t h e Canadian  scene o f 1896, "thousands o f c y c l i s t s were t o be seen d a i l y , ' g l i d i n g a l o n g t h e s t r e e t s and o u t i n t h e suburbs o f t h e c i t y , ' p l e a s e d w i t h t h e speed, t h e ease, and t h e g r a c e w i t h w h i c h they 3 cover d i s t a n c e . " Although expensive — b i c y c l e s cost a t l e a s t 4 $50 each  —  many were a b l e t o buy them and q u i c k l y demonstrated  t h e i r i n t e n t t o use them, even on Sundays.  One T o r o n t o n i a n  e s t i m a t e d t h a t one thousand b i c y c l e s passed him on C o l l e g e 5 Street  i n t h e c o u r s e o f one hour on a Sunday morning.  Accord-  3 P.B. W a i t e , Canada 1874-1896: Arduous D e s t i n y (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1971), p. 279. 4 T o r o n t o W o r l d , 16 March 1897; I b i d . , 3 A p r i l 1897. 5  S a t u r d a y N i g h t , 1 May 1897.  ing  t o the Toronto World,  made  t h e i r way  There that  seemed "quite  through  city  i n d e e d much a large  a s many  as t e n thousand  streets  truth  bicyclists  o n a h o t summer  to Saturday Night's  percentage, i f truth  were  Sunday. assertion  known,  bought  7 bicycles bicycle port  to free  themselves  compensated  on Sundays,  from  f o r the lack  facilitating  areas  of the c i t i e s .  trial  communities  our stay-at-home o f o t h e r forms  outings to parks  To b i c y c l e  t h e "wheel"  enthusiasts  enlarged  "views  Sunday."  of public and l e s s  i n urban  The trans-  crowded  and  on t h e need  indusof  g reasonable especially  recreation." t o t h e young,  I t o f f e r e d freedom o f o p p o r t u n i t y , " t o g e t o u t somewhere on Sunday and 9  shake  o f f the odours But,  porters, the  i n t h e eyes  the bicycle  Day o f G o d . " ^  perly  x  used  Although  "Toronto 7  Saturday  8  Toronto  9  Saturday  "the sweetness  the bicycle  Night, World, Night,  8 April 1 May 8 April 9 May  was  "even  i n "the matter  World,  observance  sup-  and holy  calm o f  Sabbatarians agreed  a n d i n some c a s e s  i t s role  life."  and ears o f Sabbath  disrupted  on weekdays,  wheelbarrow" attacked  and c a r e s o f i n d o o r  that  as "harmless  helpful  o f Sunday  when  pro-  as a  and h e a l t h y , "  recreation"  they  as  1897. 1897. 1897. 1896.  " ^ M e t h o d i s t C h u r c h , T o r o n t o C o n f e r e n c e , M i n u t e s , 1896, p. 55-6, c i t e d by G e o r g e Emery, "Methodism on t h e C a n a d i a n P r a i r i e s , 1 8 9 5 - 1 9 1 4 : T h e D y n a m i c s o f a n I n s t i t u t i o n i n a New Environment" (Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  1970), p . 98.  "vicious."  The  C h r i s t i a n Guardian  complained  that  l a r g e num-  b e r s were: b r e a k i n g away f r o m t h e q u i e t r e f i n i n g p l e a s u r e s o f good homes, and . . . a r e s p e n d i n g t h e h o u r s o f t h e S a b b a t h amid t h e e x c i t e m e n t s o f t h e r o a d , o f the; p a r k , and o f t h e crowd . .. . F o r a l l o f t h i s t h e a l l e g e d b e n e f i t to h e a l t h i s but a poor compensation. (12) Yet the f u r o r to the storm transport urban  sical  systems  Slow and  i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e 1860s and proved  service,  characterized  limited  by  the e a r l y  f o r example, t h e n o r t h - s o u t h l i n e s  s t e e p as 11 p e r c e n t --  but a prelude car.  The  " a t what c o s t  urban  1870s i n m a j o r  c o m p l e t e l y i n a d e q u a t e t o meet  erratic  capabilities,  Montreal,  t h e b i c y c l e was  t h a t a r o s e o v e r t h e Sunday s t r e e t  c e n t r e s had  demand.  c a u s e d by  the  the h o r s e s ' phy-  operations.  In  climbed grades  t o t h e h o r s e must be  as  left  13 to the i m a g i n a t i o n . " extremely ies  slow,  f o l l o w e d no  Even  "scarcely fixed  a t t h e b e s t o f times,, movement  better  time  than a f o o t ' s pace."  s c h e d u l e and  Moreover,  Compan-  frequent stops to  accommodate f a v o u r e d p a t r o n s made t h e o p e r a t i o n s even pendable.  a l t h o u g h the Toronto Globe  less  described  was  appearance"  and  as  "well  lighted  dethe  T o r o n t o S t r e e t R a i l w a y Company c a r s as h a v i n g a " n e a t and fortable  was  com-  and v e n t i l a t e d , "  this  t r u e o n l y d u r i n g t h e summer months when t h e r i g h t - h a n d s i d e  " ^ C h r i s t i a n G u a r d i a n , 12 May 1897; W. A n d e r s o n L a u r i e r , 3 F e b r u a r y 1897, PAC, L P , C754, p . 2035.  to  W.  12 Christian  Guardian,  12 May  1897.  13 J . I . Cooper, M o n t r e a l , A B r i e f H i s t o r y ( M o n t r e a l : M c G i l l - Q u e e n ' s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969),.-p. 104.  of  the  c a r was  removed,  winter,  the  cars  were  liberal  sprinkling  leaving  in fact  of  pea  i t completely  extremely  straw  on  the  open.  cold, floor  and  14  In  only  served  to  the  "a help  keep  15 the  passengers' Sunday  cepting  feet  warm."  service  Ontario)  was  d i d not  rare,  forbid  a l t h o u g h most it.  The  provinces  charters  of  (ex-  most  16 companies Even  permitted  in Ontario, a  before those  the of  1883  the  (by n o t dozen  Street  Toronto  prohibiting)  o r more  Railway  and  Ottawa  Sunday o p e r a t i o n s .  companies  Act;  of  had  these,  companies,  been c h a r t e r e d only  two  contained a  charters, clause  17 forbidding way  Sunday  Company,  public  operations.  which  w14 orship, Toronto  was  introduced a the  Globe,  only 11  But  the  service  company  September  to  Hamilton i n 1874  at  sustain  a  Street the  Rail-  hours  Sunday  of  opera-  1861.  15 L . H . P u r s l e y , S t r e e t R a i l w a y s o f T o r o n t o , 1861-1921,. I n t e r u r b a n s S p e c i a l 25 (Los A n g e l e s : E l e c t r i c R a i l w a y P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p . 7; M.F. C a m p b e l l , A M o u n t a i n and a C i t y : The S t o r y o f H a m i l t o n ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d a n d S t e w a r t , 1966), p . 163; W.D. M i d d l e t o n , The Time o f t h e T r o l l e y (Milwaukee: K a l m b a c k P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1967), p . 290.  16 See, f o r example, c h a r t e r s o f t h e S t . John P e o p l e ' s S t r e e t R a i l w a y C o m p a n y , 30 V i c t . ( 1 8 6 6 ) , c.35 (N.B.); o f t h e H a l i f a x S t r e e t R a i l w a y C o m p a n y , 47 V i c t . ( 1 8 8 4 ) , c . 6 2 (N.S.) ; a n d o f t h e W i n n i p e g S t r e e t R a i l w a y C o m p a n y , 55 V i c t . (1892), c . 56 (Man. )  17 C i t y o f T o r o n t o , M i n u t e s o f C o u n c i l , 1861, Appendix, B y - L a w No. 353, c i t e d by A r m s t r o n g and N e l l e s , The Revenge o f t h e M e t h o d i s t B i c y c l e C o m p a n y , p . 187, n . 17; r e O t t a w a C i t y P a s s e n g e r R a i l w a y , s e e 29-30 V i c t . ( 1 8 6 6 ) , c.10.6.. F o r c h a r t e r s o f c o m p a n i e s c h a r t e r e d b e t w e e n 1867 a n d 18 83 i n O n t a r i o , s e e O n t a r i o , L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, S t a t u t e s , 1867-1883.  tion the  until  the  late  1880s.  Few  companies  in fact  realized  p o t e n t i a l i m p a c t o f p u b l i c u r b a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n on  the  19 mobility  habits of c e n t r a l c i t y  company owners f e l t the  city  to places  tle  interest  that  populations.  s e r v i c e should  Instead,  facilitate  o f employment on w o r k d a y s and  flow  into  showed  lit-  i n Sunday s e r v i c e t o r e c r e a t i o n a l a r e a s .  A c t i v e p r o m o t i o n o f Sunday s e r v i c e began w i t h g r o w t h and 1880s.  improvements o f  development of  t h e more a f f l u e n t  In T o r o n t o ,  f r o m 86,415- i n 1880  prompted a s i m i l a r  city  within  Montreal  The  i n the  had  areas  rapid  extension  t o 144,023 t o 6 8.5  reasonably  i n 1890,  the  system underwent s i m i l a r  ad-  to which  increase  of the  sys-  increased  horse-drawn  m i l e s , p l a c i n g every  easy access  late  already  f o r e x a m p l e , where t h e p o p u l a t i o n  s y s t e m expanded f r o m 19 the  suburban r e s i d e n t i a l  c i t i z e n s were m o v i n g .  urban p o p u l a t i o n  tems.  systems  A l t h o u g h slow, expansion of t r a c k l a i d  vanced the  in  street railway  the  of the  e x p a n s i o n as  part 20  railway. d i d those  of The in  " J . M i l l s , G a t a r a c t T r a c t i o n : The R a i l w a y s o f H a m i l t o n ( T o r o n t o : C a n a d i a n T r a c t i o n S e r i e s , 1 9 7 1 ) , v o l . I I , p. 73. An e f f o r t by t h e K i n g s t o n S t r e e t R a i l w a y Company t o i n t r o d u c e Sunday s e r v i c e i n t h e l a t e 1870s f a i l e d ; see PC, APGA, 1879, p. c x l i v . J  U  1 Q  P e t e r Goheen, V i c t o r i a n T o r o n t o , 1850-1900: P a t t e r n s and Growth ( U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o : D e p a r t m e n t o f G e o g r a p h y , R e s e a r c h P a p e r No. 127, 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 73. I b i d . , p . 72. Between 1861 and 1880 t h e T o r o n t o s y s t e m e x p a n d e d f r o m 4 t o 19 m i l e s . P u r s l e y , S t r e e t R a i l w a y s , p. 144. 2 0  had  76 Hamilton 1890,  and  those  21  Winnipeg. of  the  Profits  Toronto  55,000 p a s s e n g e r s d a i l y ,  Street Railway  these  major  growth  of  cation same  a  expansions,  the  enlarged  total  capacity  to  trip  suburban The  cut  of  unit  same  the  the  of  took  Electrification and,  length  and  the  journey  of  since time,  dispersal  now  improved  22  place  after  "giddy  trolley"  costs  and  at  the  the  thereby the  speed  i t further urban  in  Electrifi-  while  greater  as  about  part  increased  of  of  important  operations.  operating  carried  $25,000.  of  s e r v i c e drew more p a t r o n s  passengers;  development  quality  per  revenues.  i n the  an  introduction of  the  earnings  systems  played  by  Company, w h i c h  profits  the  rationalization  improved  carry  1873 of  i t s t i l l  The  thorough  markedly  time  longer  electrification  service.  permitted  i t s  accordingly:  $165,562 o n  totalled  $7 30,000, i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h Although  increased  systems' meant  a  encouraged  populations.  well,  f o r the  trolley  23 ride  was  smoother  Gradually profit ing  companies  margins,  class.  and  The  went  the  in so  normal  the  cars  g e n e r a l l y more  larger cities,  f a r as f a r e was  to  offer  five  comfortable.  assured  lower  cents,  of  fares  but  the  sufficient to  the  work-  Winnipeg  21 C o o p e r , M o n t r e a l , p . 104; Mills, Cataract Traction, p . 75; A . S . T h o m p s o n , S p a d i n a : A H i s t o r y o f O l d T o r o n t o (Toronto: P a g u r i a n P r e s s , 1975), p . 162.  22  A r m s t r o n g and N e l l e s , The Company, p. 29.  Bicycle  Revenge  of  the  Methodist  J . McKay, Trams_and T r o l l e y s : The R i s e o f U r b a n T r a n s p o r t i n E u r o p e ( P r i n c e t o n , N . J . 7 V r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976), p p . 51-58; f o r d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f e l e c t r i c c a r s , s e e P u r s l e y , S t r e e t R a i l w a y s , p . 144; Mills, Cataract Traction, p. 76. 2  3  77 Street  Railway  Company a n d o t h e r s  sold  tickets  t o workmen a t t h e  r a t e o f e i g h t f o r a q u a r t e r between 5.00 and 8.00 a.m.  and 5.30  24 and  6.30  p.m. A change i n t h e t r a n s i t  nature  of their  changes. lay  o p e r a t i o n s accompanied  Companies now r e a l i z e d  people  h o l i d a y s as w e l l .  revolutionary:  and i m p r o v e -  Commenting on a p r o p o s e d e x t e n s i o n o f t h e  effects  i n 1891, t h e  on t h e c i t y ' s  development  n o t o n l y w o u l d i t be a "boon t o t h e w e a l t h y  t h e w e l l - t o - d o , " who? worked.:,in ..the c i t y  habit  market  n o t o n l y on w o r k d a y s , b u t  system t o t h e n o r t h and e a s t o f t h e c i t y  suburbs,  for  these t e c h n o l o g i c a l  S u c h d e v e l o p m e n t s w o u l d a l l o w t h e movement o f  Globe d e s c r i b e d the p o t e n t i a l  and  towards t h e  that a large potential  o u t from t h e c o r e o f t h e c i t y  Toronto  as  attitude  1  i n the suburbanization t h a t followed expansion  ments i n q u a l i t y .  on  companies  but lived, i n the  b u t i t w o u l d a l s o "be a b l e s s i n g t o t h e p o o r , who i n -  t h e l o w l y p l a c e s , t h e slums and s h a n t i e s o f 'the ward,'  they w i l l  be g i v e n o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h e y  b r e a t h i n g the f r e s h , „25 nature." In o r d e r developed  do n o t p o s s e s s o f  p u r e a i r and o f s e e i n g  to cultivate  recreational  areas  the beauties of  t h i s m a r k e t , some c o m p a n i e s a t t h e end o f t h e i r  lines  while  24 C i t y o f W i n n i p e g , By-Law No. 543, s.5 i n 55 V i c t . (1892), c.56, S c h e d u l e "A" .' The T o r o n t o R a i l w a y Company o f f e r e d t h e same f a r e ; s e e P u r s l e y , S t r e e t R a i l w a y s , p . 16. See a l s o c h a r t e r o f O t t a w a E l e c t r i c R a i l w a y Company, 57 V i c t . (1894) , c.76, s . 3 9 . 25 T o r o n t o G l o b e , 15 May 1891.  78 o t h e r s extended l i n e s t o l i n k up w i t h e x i s t i n g  facilities.  In Winnipeg, James A u s t i n , owner o f t h e Winnipeg S t r e e t R a i l way Company, c r e a t e d a 5.5 a c r e park a t t h e s o u t h e r n end o f his  l i n e , complete w i t h r e f r e s h m e n t b o o t h s , p a v i l i o n s f o r e l e c 26  t r i c a l e x h i b i t s and c o n c e r t s , and b a l l grounds.  In Toronto,  i n response t o t h e b u i l d i n g o f a new r a c e t r a c k i n G l e n Grove P a r k , t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n r a i l w a y company, w h i c h connected w i t h the  c i t y r a i l w a y , extended i t s l i n e s t o t h e park e n t r a n c e .  D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d as w e l l , i n t e r u r b a n companies o b t a i n e d c h a r t e r s t o b e g i n o p e r a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f such l i n e s had as i t s p r i m a r y purpose t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f t h e f a r 27 mer and h i s produce t o market and n o t t h e r e v e r s e , t i a l h o l i d a y b u s i n e s s q u i c k l y appeared a t t r a c t i v e . Columbia, f o r example,  the potenIn B r i t i s h  i n t e r u r b a n t r a i n s r a n from Vancouver  to  Queen's Park i n New Westminster w i t h m u l t i p l e t r a i n s r e q u i r e d on September days when p r o v i n c i a l o r n a t i o n a l l a c r o s s e 28  finals  were p l a y e d . I t was o b v i o u s t h a t Sunday customers e x i s t e d b o t h w i t h i n t h e c i t i e s and between c i t i e s .  On one hand, a market  existed  i n c o n v e y i n g p e o p l e t o c h u r c h . As urban e x p a n s i o n c o n t i n u e d and' 26 Thompson, S p a d i n a , pp. 162, 186. See a l s o H.J. S e l wood, "Urban Development and t h e S t r e e t c a r : The Case o f W i n n i peg, 1881-1914," Urban H i s t o r y Review, No. 3-77 (February 1978), p. 37. 27 M i l l s , C a t a r a c t T r a c t i o n , p. 24; r e t h e development o f Canadian i n t e r u r b a n systems, see John Due, The I n t e r c i t y E l e c t r i c R a i l w a y I n d u s t r y (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y , o f Toronto P r e s s , 1966). 28 Ian F. J o b l i n g , " U r b a n i z a t i o n and S p o r t i n Canada,' 18671900," i n Canadian S p o r t : S o c i o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s , ed., R i c h a r d S. Gruneau and John G. A l b i n s o n (Don M i l l s , O n t a r i o : Addison-Wesley (Canada) L t d . , 1976), p. 68.  79 people moved away from the c e n t r a l c o r e , the o p e r a t i o n of a Sunday s e r v i c e would a l l o w them to continue t h e i r church  affilia-  29 tions.  On the other hand, a l a r g e p o t e n t i a l market e x i s t e d  among those who  d i d not a t t e n d church.  In the e a r l y 1880s the  Toronto Globe conducted a survey to determine attendance a t t h a t c i t y ' s churches on a w i n t e r Sunday:  although church  was  (55 percent) the c i t y ' s  c e r t a i n l y r e s p e c t a b l e , over h a l f 30  p o p u l a t i o n d i d not a t t e n d church.  attendance  I f the same number of people  rode the c a r s on a Sunday as on a normal working day —  and t h e r e  were a l r e a d y i n d i c a t i o n s i n Europe and the U n i t e d S t a t e s t h a t i n f a c t more people p a t r o n i z e d the c a r s on Sundays than on  normal  31 working days — a company such as the Toronto S t r e e t Railway Company c o u l d hope to r e a l i z e an i n c r e a s e d y e a r l y revenue of 32 $105,000 without s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e s i n c o s t .  The  whelming success of the b i c y c l e as a means of g e t t i n g 2 9  overaround  S a t u r d a y N i g h t , 2 March 1 8 9 5 .  30 Toronto Globe, 7 February 1 8 8 2 , c i t e d by D.C. Masters, The R i s e of Toronto, 1850-1890 (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1 9 4 7 ) , p. 1 9 3 . Masters, i n t e r p r e t s t h i s f i g u r e to i n d i cate a s t r o n g attendance a t church. For a r e v i s i o n of Master's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , see M.G. D e c a r i e , "Something O l d , Something New: Aspects of the P r o h i b i t i o n Movement i n Canada," i n O l i v e r Mowat's O n t a r i o , ed., D. Swainson (Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 1 6 6 - 7 . 31 McKay, Tramways and T r o l l e y s , p. 226. See a l s o T.G. Barker and M. Robbins, A H i s t o r y of London T r a n s p o r t (London: George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1 9 7 5 ) , v o l . I, pp. 2 0 4 - 7 ; a l s o George M. Smerk, "The S t r e e t c a r : Shaper of American C i t i e s , " T r a f f i c Q u a r t e r l y XXI (December 1 9 6 7 ) , p..578. 32 Goheen, V i c t o r i a n Toronto, p. 7 2 . T h i s e s t i m a t e was c a l c u l a t e d on the b a s i s of d a i l y passengers f i g u r e s m u l t i p l i e d by $0.04 (adult f a r e — 5*, c h i l d r e n ' s — 3*) x 52.  80 cities  on  Sundays p r o v i d e d  companies c o u l d  e v e n more c o n v i n c i n g  w e l l hope t o r e a l i z e  evidence  significant  that  profits  on  Sundays. As they  companies  recognized  began to i n t r o d u c e  running  i n the  Ontario, vice,  the  cities  of  Hamilton  initiated  i t .  By  the p o t e n t i a l of the  late  Sunday s e r v i c e ,  1880s, Sunday c a r s  S t . J o h n , H a l i f a x , and  Montreal.  S t r e e t R a i l w a y Company i n c r e a s e d  twenty y e a r s  earlier,  to a f u l l  were In  i t s ser-  twelve  hour  33 operation.  Appeals  to the  city  c o u n c i l to h a l t  the  service  34 were t o no out  avail.  Cars a l s o ran  f r o m H a m i l t o n and  Toronto d i d repeated The  company c o u l d  permitting  Kelly, and  operated  bald,  efforts  Falls  nor  an  d i d i t succeed  Kelly  driving  in fail.  operating  'Citizen'  b y - l a w s were e n f o r c e d .  his family  in  from  b a s i s , prompting  Toronto's P u b l i c Morality O f f i c e r ,  arrested  Only  amendment t o i t s c h a r t e r  horse-drawn buses  a voluntary  method, c i t y  lines radiating  area.  well-known l i v e r y m a n ,  four disused  them on  mterurban  t o commence Sunday s e r v i c e  neither obtain  When one  secured  adopt t h i s  i n the Niagara  Sunday o p e r a t i o n s  illegally.  on  William  the  others  to  Inspector  "swooped down  to church  company  i n one  of  Archi-  and the  buses. 33 Mills,  Cataract  T r a c t i o n , p.  80;  The  Week, 16  June  1887.  34 OLDA, "Memorandum c o n c e r n i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a P r o v i n c i a l A l l i a n c e f o r t h e b e t t e r o b s e r v a n c e o f t h e L o r d ' s Day," 15 F e b r u a r y 1895, i n LDACP, OLDA, SB ( h e r e a f t e r OLDA, SB) 1892-1900. 35 A r m s t r o n g and N e l l e s , The R e v e n g e o f t h e M e t h o d i s t B i c y c l e Company, pp. 202-3, n . l ; PC, APGA, 1886, p . c l i x ; C a n a d a , House o f Commons, D e b a t e s , 1894, c . 3437; P u r s l e y , S t r e e t R a i l ways , p. 142.  81 The observance In  Nova  made to  Sunday  c a r presented  supporters,  Scotia,  i tillegal  "perform  an e l u s i v e  one d i f f i c u l t  Sabbatarians  assumed  f o ra corporation  servile  labour  target  to challenge that  successfully.  t h e 1891 A c t ,  t o employ  on Sunday,"  t o Sabbath  or direct  would  prevent  a  which person  street  36 railway  companies  assumed  that  of  i t s 1883  from  several Street  operating.  acts  made  Railway  In Ontario,  Sunday  Act,  service  the Ontario  Sabbatarians  illegal.  As  Legislature  part  had f o r -  37 bidden  t h e Sunday  assumed Act  the  of cars.  (as d i d t h e S a b b a t a r i a n s )  would  legal  running  apply  precedent  Act's  first  t o companies defined clause  For several that  chartered  the phrase to include  t h e 1845 before  "or person business  reasons, i t  Upper  1883:  Canada British  whatsoever" i n  corporations  such  as  38 s t r e e t r a i l w a y companies; m o r e o v e r , i n 1854 J u d g e J o h n B e v e r l e y Robinson o f t h e Upper Canadian bench had r u l e d t h a t t h e Act  prohibited  a l l local  traffic  and allowed  only  through  39 traffic. More doubts  recent  court  as t o t h e e f f i c a c y  Ontario  Appeal 3 6  3 7  54  Court  Vict,  R.S.O.  decisions, of the Act.  however,  The d e c i s i o n  i n Regina. v . Somers  c.32  were  raising by t h e  (1893) i m p l i e d  that the  (N.S.).  (1887), c . 1 7 1 , s . 3 4 .  38 sired  in  OLDA, "Memorandum o f F a c t s a n d R e a s o n s L e g i s l a t i o n amending t h e L o r d ' s Day A c t , "  OLDA, SB 1892-1900. 3 9  11  U.C.Q.B.  636.  r e g a r d i n g DeD e c e m b e r 1897,  82 Act applied  only to those people  specifically  cited  i n the  first  40 clause.  J u d g e J.H.  Hagarty's  (1882) made i t p o s s i b l e velled  that a l l passengers,  luggage,  were exempt f r o m distinction  To  between p e r s o n s ,  enquiries,  enactment i n t o the r i g h t  or a c t u a l l y  the A c t .  them t o t r a v e l , "  irritating  was and  v.  any  attempt  "leading  Wesley Park  the Appeal  G.W.  work,  t o draw a which i n -  t o i m p o s s i b l e and  a u s e f u l and  Several years l a t e r ,  o f the N i a g a r a F a l l s ,  and  S t r e e t Railway  salutary  Hagarty  Clifton  upheld  Tramway  Act, to operate no  Burton, Hagarty's  punishable colleague  C o u r t b e n c h , made an e v e n s t r o n g e r s t a t e m e n t  s u p p o r t o f t h e Sunday c a r d u r i n g t h e s e  tra-  important business,"  tending to bring 41  upon p u b l i c p r o p e r t y .  from  " a c c o r d i n g to the purpose  i n vain,  contempt."  Daggett  whether they  S u n d a y s , a r g u i n g t h a t t h e company;had i n f l i c t e d  injury on  on  Hagarty,  Company, c h a r t e r e d u n d e r t h e 1883 on  i n Regina  "wholly f o r p l e a s u r e , f r e s h a i r , r e l a x a t i o n  with or without  duced  ruling  in  same p r o c e e d i n g s , com-  menting t h a t : Human n a t u r e may have c h a n g e d much i n t h e l a s t 1800 years, but i t i s r e a l l y p a i n f u l to f i n d i n t h i s n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a n y o n e , and e s p e c i a l l y a p e r s o n a s s u m i n g t o be a t e a c h e r o f r e l i g i o n , g r u d g i n g t h e e n j o y m e n t o f a number o f p o o r p e o p l e and t h e i r f a m i l i e s who a v a i l t h e m s e l v e s o f , p e r h a p s , t h e o n l y day open t o them t o v i s i t and e n j o y one o f n a t u r e s g r a n d e s t w o r k s , b e c a u s e i n o r d e r t o do so t h e y have r  24 O.R. 24 4. The c o u r t d e c i d e d t h a t a c a b d r i v e r was n o t i n c l u d e d i n any o f t h e c l a s s e s e n u m e r a t e d i n s e c t i o n 1 o f t h e A c t and t h e r e f o r e c o u l d n o t be l a w f u l l y c o n v i c t e d f o r d r i v i n g a c a b on Sunday. 4 1  1  O.R.  527.  83  t o t r a v e l a few m i l e s by t r a i n o r o t h e r v e h i c l e . I t would seem almost i n c r e d i b l e had we n o t t h e w i t n e s s e s ' a d m i s s i o n i n e v i d e n c e . (42) G i v e n t h e u n c e r t a i n n a t u r e o f t h e law, opponents o f t h e Sunday c a r d e c i d e d t o o b t a i n l e g a l c l a r i f i c a t i o n . i m p o r t a n t cases e n t e r e d t h e c o u r t s :  Two  f i r s t , the Hamilton  S t r e e t R a i l w a y Company, whose c h a r t e r d i d n o t f o r b i d Sunday 43 operations,  was charged w i t h v i o l a t i n g S e c t i o n 1 o f t h e  1845 Upper Canada L o r d ' s Day A c t .  The second case charged  t h e H a l i f a x E l e c t r i c Tramway Company (whose c h a r t e r 44 d i d n o t f o r b i d Sunday o p e r a t i o n s Act.  likewise  ) w i t h v i o l a t i n g t h e 1891  I n O n t a r i o , t h e case proceeded t h r o u g h t h e lower c o u r t s  t o t h e O n t a r i o A p p e a l C o u r t which handed down a d e c i s i o n i n 45 f a v o u r o f t h e s t r e e t r a i l w a y company i n March 1897.  As a  r e s u l t , t h e O n t a r i o L e g i s l a t u r e amended, a few months l a t e r , t h e 1845 A c t t o f o r b i d t h e Sunday o p e r a t i o n o f s t r e e t r a i l w a y s 46 and r a d i a l1 8e l eO.A.R. c t r i c 459. railways. I n January 1898, however, 43 33 V i c t . (1873), c.lOO,(Ont.). 5 8 V i c t . (1895), c.107 (N.S.) 45 A.G. v. H a m i l t o n S t r e e t R a i l w a y Company, 27 O.R. 49; a l s o Toronto G l o b e , 1 January 1896; A.G. v. H a m i l t o n S t r e e t R a i l w a y Company, 24 O.A.R. 170; a l s o Toronto M a i l and Empire, 3 March 1897. The O n t a r i o Appeal C o u r t d e c i d e d t h a t t h e phrase 'or person whatsoever', as d e f i n e d by B r i t i s h precedent d i d n o t a p p l y . The phrase d i d n o t a p p l y t o s t r e e t r a i l w a y companies, o r indeed t o any i n d u s t r i a l c o r p o r a t i o n . C h i e f J u s t i c e B u r t o n reasoned t h a t i f t h e 1845 L e g i s l a t u r e had wished t o p r o h i b i t t h e l a b o u r o f c o r p o r a t i o n s i n t h e A c t , i t would have s p e c i f i c a l l y named them s i n c e i t had been so s p e c i f i c i n i t s l i s t o f p e r sons whose Sabbath l a b o u r was p r o h i b i t e d . 6 0 V i c t . (1897), c.14, s.95 ( O n t . ) ; R.S.O.(1897), c.246. 4 2  4 4  4 6  84  the Nova S o c t i a Supreme C o u r t r u l e d t h a t t h e 1891 s t a t u t e was u l t r a v i r e s t h e p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n .  The c o u r t de-  c i d e d t h a t t h e c l a u s e f o r b i d d i n g t h e employment o f s e r v i l e l a b o u r had been an amendment t o an 18 69 A c t , which was i t s e l f an amendment t o t h e p r e - C o n f e d e r a t i o n 47 Against R e l i g i o n . "  s t a t u t e , "Of O f f e n c e s  S i n c e t h i s s t a t u t e was p a r t o f t h e c r i m i -  n a l l a w o f Nova S c o t i a , o n l y t h e f e d e r a l government had t h e power t o r e p e a l o r amend  it.  4  8  The Nova S c o t i a n d e c i s i o n c a s t doubt on t h e v a l i d i t y of a l l e x i s t i n g p r o v i n c i a l  ( i n c l u d i n g municipal)  d e a l i n g w i t h Sabbath observance. i o government r e s u b m i t t e d  legislation  As a consequence, t h e Ontar-  the Hamilton S t r e e t Railway  case t o  i t s A p p e a l C o u r t f o r a d e c i s i o n on t h e O n t a r i o L e g i s l a t u r e ' s a b i l i t y t o pass t h e 1897 A c t . C o u r t upheld  I n 1902, t h e O n t a r i o A p p e a l  t h e O n t a r i o L e g i s l a t u r e ' s r i g h t t o pass t h e A c t ,  a l t h o u g h C h i e f J u s t i c e Armour d i s s e n t e d :  i n h i s opinion, the  p r o f a n a t i o n o f t h e L o r d ' s Day was an o f f e n c e a g a i n s t  religion;  s i n c e such o f f e n c e s were p r o p e r l y c l a s s e d as c r i m e s , t h e e n a c t ment o f a p p r o p r i a t e laws and t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f punishment by f i n e s o r imprisonment p r o p e r l y belonged t o t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f 49 Canada. **'R.S.N.S. (1851), c.157; R.S.N.S. (1869), c.159. 3 0 N.S.R. 469; 1 C.C.C.424 (C.A.). Borden was c o u n s e l f o r t h e p r o s e c u t i o n . 4 8  Robert L.  O.W.R. 312; 54 C.C.C. 344, quoted i n PC, APGA, 1902,  49  p. 271.  85  Owing t o the c o n f l i c t i n g 50 courts,  opinions  o f the Canadian h i g h  the Sunday c a r i s s u e proceeded t o the J u d i c i a l Commi-  t t e e o f the P r i v y C o u n c i l f o r a f i n a l and a u t h o r i t a t i v e i n t e r pretation.  In J u l y 1903,  i n i t s judgement on the H a m i l t o n S t r e e t  R a i l w a y c a s e , the P r i v y C o u n c i l r e v e r s e d Ontario Appeal Court.  the d e c i s i o n o f  I n i t s o p i n i o n , the 1845  A c t had  the been a  s t a t u t e o f c r i m i n a l law a t the time of i t s enactment and t h u s a m a t t e r of f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . A c t , such as t h a t o f 1897, t e n c y of the O n t a r i o "as a whole was  pass Sabbath The  L e g i s l a t u r e t o e n a c t , " and 51  Act  Chief  observanceelegislation. P r i v y C o u n c i l d e c i s i o n s u r p r i s e d governments  had  They had  and  assumed t h a t  the  j u r i s d i c t i o n over t h i s m a t t e r , and b o t h the Macdeclared  a m a t t e r of p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . asserted  this  argued, o n l y the f e d e r a l government c o u l d  d o n a l d and L a u r i e r governments had  had  the 18 97  I t seemed c l e a r t h a t , as  Sabbath observance s u p p o r t e r s a l i k e . provinces  amendments t o  were t h e r e f o r e "beyond the compe-  invalid."  J u s t i c e Armour had  Any  was  their  Sabbath observance  S i n c e 1867  the  supposed competence by p a s s i n g  s t a t u t e s and amendments.  By 1898,  t o b a , B r i t i s h Columbia, and  provinces  various  New B r u n s w i c k , Quebec, Mani1  the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s ,  t i o n t o Nova S c o t i a and O n t a r i o ,  had  statutes dealing  i n addiwith  I n 1899, i n a c a s e u n r e l a t e d t o the Sunday c a r (Ex P a r t e r e Green, 4 C.C.C. 182; 35 N.B.R. 137), the New Brunswick Supreme C o u r t r u l e d New B r u n s w i c k ' s Sabbath observance l e g i s l a t i o n i n t r a v i r e s the p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . (1903) A.C.  524.  86  Sabbath o f f e n c e s . But t h e p r o v i n c e s and the Prime M i n i s t e r s were wrong: a c c o r d i n g t o l e g a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Canadian law, o n l y the f e d e r a l government vance.  c o u l d pass laws r e g u l a t i n g Sabbath o b s e r -  Y e t . / C h i e f J u s t i c e Armour had been e n t i r e l y c o r r e c t i n  d e s c r i b i n g t h e p e c u l i a r i t i e s of t h e Canadian s i t u a t i o n t h a t not o n l y made p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n p r e f e r a b l e but would a l s o bed e v i l t h e problem from t h a t day t o t h e p r e s e n t . Day A c t , " Armour s t a t e d , was or o r i g i n or r e l i g i o n . "  "The L o r d ' s  "not a s u b j e c t m a t t e r i r r e s p e c t i v e  The Quebec A c t o f 1774 had a l l o w e d  Lower Canadians t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r customs, p r o p e r t y , and rights.  civil  C o n s e q u e n t l y , Quebecers had a d i f f e r e n t L o r d ' s Day  A c t than d i d t h e r e s t o f t h e c o u n t r y .  To " f o r c e a L o r d ' s Day  A c t on them would be t h e v e r y o p p o s i t e o f what t h e y c o n t r a c t e d f o r . The d i f f e r e n t P r o v i n c e s , " he.concluded,'"have  different  i d e a s on t h i s s u b j e c t and i t would be c o n t r a r y t o c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t s t o e n f o r c e the average i d e a o f t h e whole Dominion upon each 53 Province."  Thwarted i n i t s b i d t o o b t a i n comprehensive  Sabbath o b s e r v a n c e l e g i s l a t i o n a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l ,  however,  t h i s was e x a c t l y what a new and more a g g r e s s i v e S a b b a t a r i a n l o b b y would attempt t o do. P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d c o n t i n u e d , w i t h o u t amendment, i t s p r e - C o n f e d e r a t i o n s t a t u t e , 20 Geo. I l l (1779), c.3 ( P . E . I . ) . 53  Quoted  i n PC, APGA, 1902, p. 271.  87 Chapter  IV:  The  Sunday Car as C a t a l y s t :  The F o r m a t i o n  of  The O n t a r i o L o r d ' s Day A l l i a n c e , 1895-1899.  The Sunday c a r was  but one m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e  c o m p l e x i t y o f Canadian s o c i e t y .  growing  By the l a t e 18 90s, wheat and  i m m i g r a t i o n were h a v i n g dynamic impacts upon Canada's economic growth.  F e l t a c r o s s Canada, t h e i r m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t s upon the  x  economy s t i m u l a t e d f u r t h e r t e c h n o l o g i c a l change. use o f e l e c t r i c i t y , f o r example, was  rapid.  The  expanding  Electric  lighting,  e l e c t r i c r a i l w a y s , and t h e t e l e p h o n e a l l came i n t o common use. "Chains o f banks, department s t o r e s , and m a i l o r d e r houses, s t e e l r a i l s and t e l e p h o n e w i r e s " t i e d t h e c o u n t r y t o g e t h e r from 2 coast to coast.  I n c r e a s i n g l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d urban a r c h i t e c t u r e ,  i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g , and complex m u n i c i p a l  govern-  ments became t h e h a l l m a r k s of an abundant urban l i f e .  So t o o ,  however, were the c o n c e n t r a t e d s o c i a l i l l s o f wretched  housing,  c r i m e , and a l c o h o l i s m .  F o r , d e s p i t e the o b v i o u s p r o s p e r i t y o f  t h e t i m e s , l i f e was  b l e a k f o r the w o r k i n g c l a s s i n the l a r g e c i 3 t i e s o f T o r o n t o , H a m i l t o n , M o n t r e a l , and H a l i f a x . Unable t o  """See G.W. Bertram, "Economic Growth i n Canadian I n d u s t r y , 1870-1915," Canadian J o u r n a l o f Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e XXXIX/2 (May 1963) , r e p r i n t e d i n Approaches t o Canadian Economic H i s t o r y , ed., W.T. E a s t e r b r o o k and M.H. Watkins (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1967), p. 92. J.M.S. C a r e l e s s , The R i s e o f C i t i e s i n Canada B e f o r e 1914, Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , H i s t o r i c a l B o o k l e t No. 32, 1978, p. 25. 2  See G. K e a l e y , Hogtown: Working C l a s s Toronto a t t h e Turn o f the Century (Toronto: New Hogtown P r e s s , 1974); J.T. Copp,  88 afford  a house,  lies.  Cold  offered  i n winter,  never.  working  tional  lived  few a m e n i t i e s ,  cilities the  most  i n tenements w i t h  stifling  an outdoor  Returning  home  f a m i l y had l i t t l e  activity.  i n summer, privy  from  time  several other  such  tenements  possibly,  bathing f a -  a t e n or twelve  or inclination  The one day o f l e i s u r e  fami-  hour day,  for recrea-  continued  t o be t h e  Sabbath. The and  Sabbatarian  economic  movements tury.  c h a n g e was  Canadians  began  the i n d i v i d u a l i s t ,  ty's  attendant municipal  the  root  human  most  needy  that  approach Some  go u n s o l v e d .  Some  of help;  solve  attempted  focussed  others  A l l groups  cure  shared  above  Per capita  rather prosperi-  on t h e c h i l d that that  a desire to  tain  class.  cen-  the purification  problems  conditions i f p o s s i b l e f o r the working  middle  some o f  determined  rate  a l l the social  reform  saw a l c o h o l o r p r o s t i t u t i o n  o f s u f f r a g e t o women w o u l d  otherwise  social  progressive  the c o l l e c t i v i s t ,  might  groups  others  evil.  and r a p i d  a t t h e end o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h  to feel  governments;  of a l l social  being  tension  evils.  to the vast  b u t o n e o f t h e many  that proliferated  than  of  response  class,  and economic  superiority  productivity  would  as  as the  t h e exwould amelio-  but t o mainof the  not rise  i f absent-  The Anatomy o f P o v e r t y : The C o n d i t i o n o f t h e Working C l a s s i n M o n t r e a l , 1897-1929 ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d a n d S t e w a r t , 1974). L i f e i n t h e new c i t i e s o f t h e P r a i r i e s may n o t h a v e b e e n m u c h better f o r the working c l a s s . See P a u l V o i s e y , " I n Search o f Wealth and S t a t u s : An Economic and S o c i a l Study o f E n t r e p r e n eurs i n E a r l y Calgary.," i n F r o n t i e r C a l g a r y : Town, C i t y , a n d R e g i o n , 1885-1914, e d . , A.W. R a s p o r i c h a n d H. K l a s s e n ( C a l g a r y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , M c C l e l l a n d a n d S t e w a r t W e s t , 1975), p . 233.  89  e e i s m owing t o a l c o h o l i s m p r e v e n t e d t h e w o r k e r f r o m to economic growth.  P r o s p e r i t y would not c o n t i n u e i f  women, o r c h i l d r e n were a b s e n t T u e s d a y ) owing  contributing  f r o m work on Monday  to the debauchery  men,  (and  o f a Sunday r i d e on a  even street  car. In r a i s i n g  q u e s t i o n s about  the nature of s o c i a l  and  4 moral  reform,  the q u a l i t y central  t h e Sunday c a r c o n t r i b u t e d  of l i f e  i s s u e was  it  be  a day  it  be p a r t l y  i n an u r b a n  the weekly  devoted  solely  devoted  day  and  to that  end  and p a r t l y Car  of  f o r c o m p a n i e s were w i l l i n g  entirely  to the  Should or should  rational  railway  i n an u r b a n  com-  employee o f h i s day  to guarantee  i n t h e week as a r e s t d a y .  that  their  employ-  Sunday s e r v i c e  was  a m a t t e r o f c h o i c e f o r b o t h e m p l o y e e s and p a t r o n s .  The  man  his  j o b i f he  at  i t s use.  The  s u p p o r t e r s argued  a necessary convenience  I t d i d not rob the s t r e e t  e e s a n o t h e r day  and  about  society.  t o the h e a l t h of the s o u l ,  munity. rest,  industrial  of r e s t  r e c r e a t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l body? t h e Sunday c a r was  to the debate  who  liberty  worked on  so c h o s e .  to refuse  tions directed  t h e s t r e e t c a r s was  him  The  to r i d e  not t o .  p a t r o n , on  at liberty  to leave  t h e o t h e r hand, was  the c a r s i f h i s r e l i g i o u s The  service,  also  convic-  however, s h o u l d  be  4 See B r x a n H a r r i s o n , " S t a t e I n t e r v e n t i o n and M o r a l Reform i n N i n e t e e n t h - C e n t u r y E n g l a n d , " i n P r e s s u r e from Without i n E a r l y V i c t o r i a n England, ed., P a t r i c i a H o l l i s (London: Edward A r n o l d L t d . , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 289: "The n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y d e b a t e on S t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n c a n n o t be f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d u n l e s s t h e h i s t o r i a n , l i k e the V i c t o r i a n s themselves, d i s c u s s e s both moral and s o c i a l r e f o r m t o g e t h e r ; f o r a t t i t u d e s g e n e r a t e d i n t h e m o r a l sphere c a r r i e d over i n t o the s o c i a l . "  90  available. In  a d d i t i o n , c a r s u p p o r t e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t the Sunday c a r  would e f f e c t a t r u e s o c i a l r e f o r m .  Since working c l a s s people,  5 i t was  assumed, d i d n o t i n any case a t t e n d c h u r c h  services,  they s h o u l d have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e c e i v e some p h y s i c a l s p i r i t u a l s o l a c e i n the open a i r . t h o s e who  and  The Sunday c a r would a l l o w  l i v e d i n urban w o r k i n g c l a s s d i s t r i c t s t o escape the  s t u l t i f y i n g environment  i n w h i c h they both l i v e d and worked on  the one day o f the week they c o u l d c l a i m as l e i s u r e .  Was i t  p o s s i b l e , q u e r i e d Goldwin S m i t h , a c a r s u p p o r t e r , t o s e r v e the i n t e r e s t s o f e i t h e r humanity o r o f C h r i s t i a n i t y by: mewing men, women and c h i l d r e n up i n a s m a l l room or c o m p e l l i n g them t o s i t on a d o o r s t e p i n the c l o s e a i r o f t h e c i t y d u r i n g a s u l t r y a f t e r n o o n when they might be e n j o y i n g the a i r and v e r d u r e o f High Park w i t h a t h a n k f u l h e a r t not a l i e n to r e l i g i o n . (7) The Sunday c a r would i n f a c t " d r i v e p e o p l e . o u t o f the slums and g  s a l o o n s on Sunday i n t o more wholesome and decent s u r r o u n d i n g s . " Supporters f e l t ,  t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the P r o t e s t a n t e v a n g e l i c a l  churches would demonstrate  a r e a l commitment t o r e f o r m i f they  changed t h e i r f e a r f u l a t t i t u d e towards  5  the car.and, i n s t e a d ,  ab-  C h r i s t i a n G u a r d i a n , 12 September 1888, c i t e d by S.D. C l a r k , Church and S e c t i n Canada (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1948), p. 393: "We cannot g e t the r i c h and poor t o m i n g l e i n our f i n e c h u r c h e s . . . Churches a r e no sooner b u i l t than they have t o be e n l a r g e d o r r e b u i l t t o accommodate the w o r s h i p p e r s ; and y e t , o u t s i d e of a l l t h i s i s a v a s t p o p u l a t i o n of from f o r t y to f i f t y thousand who go t o no c h u r c h . " 6  T o r o n t o World, 14 June  7  I b i d . , 17 June  8  S a t u r d a y N i g h t , 24 A p r i l  1893.  1893. 1897.  91 sorbed t h i s t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n . Saturday N i g h t , suggested  E.E. Sheppard, e d i t o r of  t h a t the churches p l a c e themselves  in  the f o r e f r o n t of the changes r e p r e s e n t e d by the Sunday c a r . "Is i t not m a n i f e s t , " he p o s t u l a t e d , " t h a t i t would be wiser to p l a c e g u i d i n g hands upon the c a r of progress than to get v a i n l y crushed under i t s wheels and have i t then run mad?" mended t h a t the churches disarm the Sunday c a r "by  He recomacquiescence"  by g i v i n g poorer p a r i s h i o n e r s f r e e Sunday car t i c k e t s and encouraging  people to spend t h e i r afternoons  ship) i n the parks.  (after public  wor-  9  Sabbath observance  supporters a l s o p r o j e c t e d t h e i r cam-  paign as one of s o c i a l reform: robbed  by  the Sunday c a r u n n e c e s s a r i l y  one c l a s s of workers of t h e i r Sunday r e s t i n order t h a t  o t h e r s might have f r i v o l o u s p l e a s u r e .  Although  they too  agreed  t h a t the Sabbath should be a day of. l e i s u r e , they wished i t to be a day t o t a l l y devoted spirit. "saw  to the c u l t i v a t i o n of the  L i k e t h e i r B r i t i s h c o u n t e r p a r t s , Canadian  religious Sabbatarians  Sunday as a C h r i s t i a n and r u r a l i n t e r l u d e of c l a s s harmony  amidst the h e c t i c rush of a m a t e r i a l i s t i c , c o m p e t i t i v e , and urban s o c i e t y . The  Sunday car t h e r e f o r e i n f u s e d new  life  i n t o the  b a t a r i a n movement, g i v i n g i t a focus t h a t the e a r l i e r Day A l l i a n c e had  9  lacked.  I b i d . , 4 July  Sab-  Lord's  Long b e f o r e the c o u r t a c t i o n s were  1896.  " ^ H a r r i s o n , "State I n t e r v e n t i o n and Moral Reform," p.  295.  92  complete, the  t h e Sunday c a r a c t e d as t h e p r e c i p i t a t i n g  formation of provincial  lobbies  i n S t . John,  factor i n  Halifax,  and  T o r o n t o , whose g o a l i t was t o c h a l l e n g e t h e Sunday c a r ' s  right  to  public  run.  T h e two M a r i t i m e  interest in  when  the c o u r t s ,  an a s s o c i a t i o n initiator years  litigation  associations,  had l i t t l e  o r no v i t a l i t y .  become t r u l y  would  *  *  *  The  1891 c h a r t e r  (formerly  G.  *  *  *  c a r sentiment d i dnot  on t h e m u n i c i p a l  *  *  incorporating  the Toronto  Street  Sunday o p e r a t i o n s when a p p r o v e d  Shearer,  was t o w r i t e some  d e c i d e t h e i s s u e o f Sunday  *  on  i n Toronto d i d  " a g g r e s s i v e , " as John  Here the anti-Sunday  1 1  Toronto which  Company  Only  o f t h e O n t a r i o L o r d ' s Day A l l i a n c e ,  later.  to retain  c o n c e r n i n g t h e Sunday c a r d r a g g e d  focus o n l y on the c o u r t s b u t a l s o in  unable  *  *  service.  *  the Toronto  Railway  referendum  Railway  Company)  allowed  by a m a j o r i t y o f t h e c i t y ' s  12 ratepayers. could  T h e s i g n a t u r e s o f 5,000 r a t e p a y e r s o n a  o c c a s i o n a v o t e o n Sunday  took p l a c e on J a n u a r y anti-car  faction  4, 1892.  won h a n d i l y  announcement o f a s e c o n d  LB  vote  Rev. J . G . S h e a r e r 1899-1902, p . 883. 1 2  55  Vict.,  service, Over  and t h e f i r s t  petition such  24,000 p e o p l e v o t e d  w i t h a m a j o r i t y o f 3,936. f o r t h e end o f August  t o Rev. D r . W a d d e l l ,  c . 9 9 , s s . 1, 4 ( 1 ) , 1 9 ( 1 ) , 21.  vote  and t h e The  18 93 l e d t o  1 November 1901,  93 the f o r m a t i o n o f a C i t i z e n s ' C e n t r a l Anti-Sunday to o r g a n i z e p u b l i c meetings,  Car Committee  c i r c u l a t e l i t e r a t u r e and p e t i t i o n s ,  and m o b i l i z e t h e v o t e i n each ward o f the c i t y .  A l t h o u g h the  Committee was v i c t o r i o u s , the a n t i - c a r m a j o r i t y s l i p p e d t o 1,003.  13  F e a r i n g an adverse d e c i s i o n i n the next v o t e ,  Committee contemplated  two courses o f a c t i o n :  14  the  p e t i t i o n i n g the  government t o pass g e n e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n t o supersede m u n i c i p a l l e g i s l a t i o n ; o r c h a l l e n g i n g i n the c o u r t s T o r o n t o ' s r i g h t t o h o l d a v o t e , on t h e grounds t h a t the 1845 Upper Canada Lord's Day A c t f o r b a d e s t r e e t r a i l w a y o p e r a t i o n s .  E i t h e r course of  a c t i o n would "render a vote upon the q u e s t i o n o f no use whatso„15 ever. In H a m i l t o n , appeals by c a r opponents t o t h e c i t y aut h o r i t i e s t o s t o p Sunday o p e r a t i o n s proved  "fruitless." ^ x  In  the f a l l o f 1894, t h e r e f o r e , a Hamilton P r e s b y t e r i a n m i n i s t e r , John G.. S h e a r e r , approached  J.K. Macdonald, h i s T o r o n t o  friend  and c o l l e a g u e on committees o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l P r e s b y t e r i a n Synod, w i t h t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f c r e a t i n g a p r o v i n c i a l a r e s u l t o f t h i s meeting,  lobby.  As  the O n t a r i o L o r d ' s Day A l l i a n c e was  13 T o r o n t o M a i l , 28 August 1893. 14 In 1894 t h e O n t a r i o government imposed a t h r e e - y e a r i n t e r v a l between p l e b i s c i t e s on the Sunday c a r i s s u e . C. Arms t r o n g and H.V. N e l l e s , The Revenge o f t h e M e t h o d i s t B i c y c l e Company: Sunday S t r e e t c a r s and M u n i c i p a l Reform i n T o r o n t o , 1888-1897 ( T o r o n t o : P e t e r M a r t i n & A s s o c i a t e s , 1977), p. 146. ^OLDA, "Memorandum c o n c e r n i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a P r o v i n c i a l A l l i a n c e f o r t h e b e t t e r observance o f t h e L o r d ' s Day," 15 February 1895, i n OLDA, SB 1892-1900. x  16 I.b i d . T  94  formed fic  i n January  amendment  Sunday  189 5.  I t s primary  t o t h e 1845  Upper  operation of industrial  the  same  time,  the  1883  Street  interurban,  i tpetitioned Railway  radial  a i m was  Canada A c t p r o h i b i t i n g and b u s i n e s s  f o r general  a  speci-  the  corporations.  legislation  A c t t o ban Sunday  electric  to secure  At  similar  to  o p e r a t i o n s o n t h e new  r a i l w a y systems  rapidly  appearing  17 on  the Ontarxo The  on  support  the  Sunday  plain,  Alliance already car.  given  Masons,  association, Christian  i n Toronto  t o i t s cause  To a l a r g e  agencies,  Association,  The  centred  the anti-Sunday  existing  lars,  landscape.  extent,  car faction  and the l i k e ,  as Armstrong depended  societies  to provide  o f communication  Guardian,  f o r example,  to  i n previous  the Protestant churches,  the quasi-religious  lines  i n order  upon  fights  against  and N e l l e s exa host  of .  the Ministerial o f Orangemen,  "ready-made  and systems "left  capitalize  of  no s t o n e  Temp-  networks o f authority." unturned  to  19 prevent  the innovation."  Anglican car;  Church  members  also  The E v a n g e l i c a l  campaigned  of the local  Ibid. Whereas from Hamilton o p e r a t e d , to b u i l d .  actively  Trades  i n 1894 i n 1895  Movement o f t h e  a g a i n s t t h e Sunday  and Labor  Councils lent  their  o n l y two s u c h l i n e s r u n n i n g o u t alone e l e v e n companies a p p l i e d  18 Bicycle  Armstrong and N e l l e s , C o m p a n y , p . 177.  The Revenge  of the Methodist  19  M a r i a n R o y c e , "The C o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e M e t h o d i s t Church S o c i a l W e l f a r e i n C a n a d a " (M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1940), p . 249; C h r i s t i a n G u a r d i a n , 28 J u n e 1893, 12 J u l y 1893, 19 J u l y 1893, 26 J u l y 1893, 2 A u g u s t 1893, 9 A u g u s t 1893, 15 A u g u s t 1893, 23 A u g u s t 1893, 30 A u g u s t 1893.  to  support  as d i d s e v e r a l t e m p e r a n c e In comparison  leaders.^  u  t o t h e LDAC, t h e r e f o r e , t h e O n t a r i o  ance p r o c e e d e d most e n e r g e t i c a l l y  about i t s t a s k .  cal  or  P r e s b y t e r i a n dhurch  the  core  l a y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the of the e x e c u t i v e ;  they  i n e n t members o f t h e M e t h o d i s t who  j o i n e d the A l l i a n c e  threatened of  these  by  had  Either  cleri-  formed  i n turn quickly recruited and  executive  Anglican lived  t h e Sunday c a r , s i n c e t h e  cities  Alli-  churches.  in cities  All  men  directly  street railway  a l l been c h a r t e r e d b e f o r e  prom-  the  1883  companies Street  21 Railway Act. tensive  legal  lawyers, active lical  among them Sam  Anglicanism,  Blake  and  Dr.  and  Secretary.  solely  the  efforts  to introduce  Attorney-General  Newton W.  J . J . Maclaren,  layman, v o l u n t e e r e d  Solicitor  ture  and  Ten  their  solicitor, The  o f one  T o r o n t o M a i l , 25 W o r l d , 22 A u g u s t 1893.  by  ex-  Toronto's both  centre of  s e r v i c e s to the  evange-  prominent Alliance.  became t h e A l l i a n c e ' s p a i d  sympathetic but  of  equally  A l i i ance d i d not  legislation, directly  an  secured  Hoyles,  of W y c l i f f e C o l l e g e , the  O'Meara, a T o r o n t o  on  executive  e x p e r t i s e among i t s r e c r u i t s . 22  i n the a f f a i r s  Methodist A.E.  In a d d i t i o n , the A l l i a n c e  intend to  member o f  to lobby  the  rely  Legisla-  t h e P r e m i e r and  his  deputation.  J u l y 1893;  Ibid.,  22  J u l y 1893;  Toronto  21 T o r o n t o , B r a n t f o r d , H a m i l t o n , London, K i n g s t o n , S t . C a t h e r i n e s , G u e l p h , and N i a g a r a F a l l s . F o r c h a r t e r s , see O n t a r i o , L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y , S t a t u t e s , 1867-1883.22 B l a k e had b e e n r e s p o n s i b l e , as C i t y C o u n s e l , f o r t h e n e g o t i a t i o n o f t h e 1891 c h a r t e r o f t h e T o r o n t o R a i l w a y Company, s e c u r i n g t h e c l a u s e r e s t r i c t i n g Sunday o p e r a t i o n s . Toronto W o r l d , 3 M a r c h 1897.  96  The A l l i a n c e a l s o made p l a n s t o r e c r u i t a g e n e r a l membership to s a t i s f y  the government t h a t S a b b a t a r i a n i s m was i n -  deed the sentiment  o f the m a j o r i t y .  was in  The membership campaign  t o c o n c e n t r a t e on urban c e n t r e s , e s t a b l i s h i n g branches every c i t y and  then  first  "so f a r as p o s s i b l e i n every town and 23  v i l l a g e of the P r o v i n c e . "  A f t e r some d i s c u s s i o n as to the  f e a s i b i l i t y o f a membership f e e of one o r two c u t i v e d e c i d e d on f i f t y bers  dollars,  the Exe-  c e n t s i n o r d e r t o a t t r a c t g r e a t e r num-  thereby. The  O n t a r i o A l l i a n c e attempted  the Lord's Day  t o promote c o n t a c t w i t h  A l l i a n c e i n Ottawa, but the LDAC was  unprepared 24  to Nor  c o o p e r a t e w i t h the O n t a r i o A l l i a n c e i n any d i d the O n t a r i o A l l i a n c e e s t a b l i s h any  American  Sabbatarian  concrete fashion.  direct links  a s s o c i a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h i t was  certainly  aware o f , and made .constant r e f e r e n c e t o , the f r i v o l o u s vance of the Sabbath i n American c i t i e s .  with  obser-  The A l l i a n c e p e r c e i v e d  the American Sabbath as the Globe d e s c r i b e d i t , a day of t u r m o i l 25  and abominations, open shows and open t h e a t r e s . I t was much b e t t e r , the A l l i a n c e b e l i e v e d , t o e n a c t l e g i s l a t i o n i n advance of  such a s i t u a t i o n than t o t r y and 23  lost.  2 6  OLDA, "Memo c o n c e r n i n g f o r m a t i o n , " 1 5 F e b r u a r y 1 8 9 5 .  24  G. M c R i t c h i e t o A.E. MB  r e g a i n i t , once  O'Meara, 2 6 January  1 8 9 5 , LDAC,  1888-1901. 25 2 6  Toronto  Globe,  2 4 December 1 8 9 0 .  OLDA, Memorandum, F e b r u a r y  1896,  i n OLDA, SB  1892-1900.  97 Yet, lobbying hand, way on  despite  o f t h e A l l i a n c e was  i n 1895  the Ontario  Act that, radial  milk.  among  electric  grounds  "should  n o t be  picnics,  partially  except  included  owned  open  by  on  a  a  clause  the Lord's  railway  forbade  the  successful.  first On  an E l e c t r i c a l l Sunday  one  Railtraffic  f o r the transportation of  company  excursions,  electric  and e x p e r t i s e ,  L e g i s l a t u r e passed  railways,  concerts,  eleven  only  i t sp r o v i s i o n s ,  The A c t a l s o  pleasure  The  i t sorganization  stipulating  chartered  Day  under  t o be used  or other  companies  that  public  parks  or  the A c t  f o r games, entertainments.  chartered  by  the govern-  28 ment  i n that  addition, include  year  thus  fell  the government  the E l e c t r i c  under  amended  Railway  these  prohibitions.  t h e 1883  Street  Act restriction  In  Railway  on p a r k s  or  Act to enter-  29 tamment  areas.  believing of  himself  municipal  On  the other  that  Sabbath  regulation,  the  Alliance could  the  Alliance instituted  Railway  Company.  insufficient include  When  because  business  2 9  ^Toronto  observance  refused  that  Premier  t o amend  i t was  proceedings the courts  the phrase  was  Oliver  Mowat,  really  a  t h e 1845  insufficient. against  Act As  a  the Hamilton  indicated that  'or p e r s o n  matter until result, Street  t h e A c t was  whatsoever'  the A l l i a n c e again  d i d not  lobbied  the  c.38, s s . 9 ( 2 ) , 136.  Ontario,  59 V i c t .  0  corporations,  58 V i c t . , 28  2 7  See  prove  3  hand,  Legislative  Assembly,  Statutes,  (1896), c.50, s . 5 . Mail  and Empire,  24  January  1896.  1895.  98 31  provincial  g o v e r n m e n t t o amend t h e A c t .  would p r e v e n t t h e Toronto f o r May  1897, as w e l l  Hamilton  this  v o t e on t h e Sunday c a r s e t  1  as f o r e s t a l l i n g  Sunday o p e r a t i o n s by t h e  company. Again,  the p r o v i n c i a l  to the A l l i a n c e ' s passed  ratepayers  I t hoped t h a t  request:  government o n l y p a r t i a l l y  in April  acceded  1897, t h e L e g i s l a t u r e  an amending c l a u s e t o t h e 1845 A c t t h a t  specifically  bade t h e o p e r a t i o n o f s t r e e t r a i l w a y s a n d r a d i a l  electric  for-  rail-  32 ways on S u n d a y s .  E x e m p t i o n s t o t h e c l a u s e , however, p e r m i t t e d  c o m p a n i e s t h a t h a d b e e n o p e r a t i n g on Sundays p r i o r ment o f t h i s on  c l a u s e t o c o n t i n u e , and i t a l s o  t h e i s s u e t o go f o r w a r d  challenged  the v a l i d i t y  i n Toronto.  allowed the vote  Although  o f these exemptions,  to the enact-  the A l l i a n c e  t h e r e was no  time  33 to take the matter The Toronto  t o c o u r t b e f o r e t h e T o r o n t o v o t e o f May  Alliance  suffered public  "Sunday C a r A g i t a t i o n , "  humiliation  The G l o b e  weeks, t h e c h i e f ,  i n the f i n a l  one o f t h e most e x c i t i n g and  b i t t e r m u n i c i p a l c o n t e s t s to take p l a c e i n l a t e Toronto.  1897.  Victorian  r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e Sunday c a r b y - l a w was " f o r  i f not the sole  topic  o f c o n v e r s a t i o n upon t h e  34 s t r e e t s , i n t h e c l u b s and c h u r c h e s and e v e n i n t h e h o u s e h o l d . " 31 A.G. (Ont.) v . H a m i l t o n S t r e e t R a i l w a y Company, 27 O.R. 49; A.G. (Ont.) v . H a m i l t o n S t r e e t R a i l w a y Company, 24 O.A.R. 170. 3 2  60  Vict.  (1897),  c.14, s.95  ( O n t . ) ; R.S.O.  (1897),  c.246. 33 Mayor F l e m i n g o f T o r o n t o h a d a n n o u n c e d i n J a n u a r y 18 97 t h a t a v o t e w o u l d t a k e p l a c e i n May as l o n g as t h e O n t a r i o App e a l C o u r t d i d n o t d e c l a r e i t a v i o l a t i o n o f t h e 1845 A c t . T o r o n t o W o r l d , 28 J a n u a r y 1897. 3 4  Toronto  Globe,  17 May 1897.  Anti-  and  pro-car  tion,  circulating  questionable  a s s o c i a t i o n s clamoured petitions,  tactics  t o win  h u r l i n g i n v e c t i v e , and support.  four b o i s t e r o u s meetings f i l l e d public  halls,  entrance. taken  on  Of  an  employing  evening,  t o c a p a c i t y the  three  city's  the  eve  of the vote,  the a g i t a t i o n  had  or  largest  o f t e n l e a v i n g many more o u t s i d e u n a b l e t o  On the  f o r the p u b l i c ' s a t t e n -  gain  indeed  a i r o f a l i f e - a n d - d e a t h s t r u g g l e between  Christ-  35 lanity  and As  social  the Toronto  a l r e a d y noted,  be  only  day  i n an  of  reformers.  the debate c e n t r e d  population  industrial  leisure  to the  the city  of the  the  the moral  and  pleasure  a t a t i m e when Sunday  was  Both s i d e s claimed  c a r s argued  o f modern u r b a n l i f e ,  s u b u r b s and  on  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  f o r most p e o p l e .  Those i n support  changed c i r c u m s t a n c e s  core,  Company.  i m p l i c a t i o n s surrounding  transportation the  Railway  that  to  the  the d i s p e r s i o n of  crowded ' q u a r t e r s  demanded a c h e a p t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m as  i n the  an  city  "important  36 social fit,  and  moral c o n d i t i o n " of c i t y  t h e Sunday c a r w o u l d p l a c e  equality with occasion  the  r i c h man  and  proportionally less  coachmen and strengthen  cabmen.  the  As  spiritual  life.  As  a social  the poor i n a p o s i t i o n his carriage.  labour  than  a moral reform, tone of the  bene-  of  Moreover, i t would  a l r e a d y e x i s t e d among Sunday c a r s  community and  would  directly  aid  35 Saturday Night, between C h r i s t i a n i t y and  36  5 A u g u s t 1893: " I t i s not a f i g h t t h e T o r o n t o S t r e e t R a i l w a y Company."  C i t i z e n s ' Pro-Sunday Car o n t o W o r l d , 29 A p r i l 1897.  Committee,  "Manifesto,"  Tor-  100 the churches urban  areas The  rejected  by  e n a b l i n g , p e o p l e who  t o m a i n t a i n an Alliance,  affiliation  which  these arguments,  had  moved t o t h e new with  led opposition  attacking  the  sub-  their  o l d church.  to the  Sunday c a r ,  "contagious character  37 of  t h i s moral  and  industrial  plague."  As  the  "forerunner of  a great deal of  Sunday b u s i n e s s , Sunday c o n c e r t s , s p e c t a c u l a r  exhibitions  d e s e c r a t i o n by  and  open p l e a s u r i n g , "  the  Sunday  car  38 would open t h e d o o r s first it  of a never-ending  would  the  shoe-shine  visits  and  Not  centres.  would  the barber  to the graves  The  street  no  secularizers;  form  o f the dead  social  of the  and  visitings  moral  of a l l ,  to  and  had  "make t h e  pastimes 39  them o r o t h e r s . " benefit  parks  Shearer  t o A.  Scott,  after parlour,  the  Sunday  Sunday sick,  and  but  amusement  irrefutably  Sunday c a r s  and  shown  Thus,  t o t h e community,  27  June  1900,  the  refreshments the and  Sunday the  denounced t h e argument t h a t t h e Sunday c a r m i g h t add OLDA, "Memo c o n c e r n i n g f o r m a t i o n , " F e b r u a r y 3 8  the  i n search of increased p r o f i t s ,  steps necessary  by  worst  to c i t y  but  ice-cream  the beds o f the  experience of other c i t i e s  controlled  would b r i n g  of Sabbath  t h e Sunday c a r f a c i l i t a t e  means o f S u n d a y r e c r e a t i o n s parks  I t w o u l d be  shop, and  r a i l w a y companies,  t a k e any  labour.  i n the  o n l y would  would encourage  that  string  come w o r s e e v i l s  newspaper.  it  t o Sunday  LB  in car  Alliance  "to the 1895.  1899-1902, p .  11.  39 C i t i z e n s ' Anti-Sunday Car Committee, " M a n i f e s t o , " i n T h e T o r o n t o Book, ed.,- W i l l i a m K i l b o u r n ( T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n o f C a n a d a , 1 9 7 6 ) , pp. 71-2.  101  i n f l u e n c e and u s e f u l n e s s o f the churches and Sunday s c h o o l s by c o n v e y i n g s i o n and a  w o r s h i p p e r s t o d i s t a n t s a n c t u a r i e s " as a " d e l u snare":  The i n d i v i d u a l churches t h r o u g h o u t t h e c i t y have a l l t h e b e t t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s t r e n g t h because of t h e absence of s t r e e t c a r s , as i t l e a d s most p e o p l e t o a t t e n d churches near a t hand and no doubt the s t r e e t c a r s would l u r e more from t h e churches t h a n t h e y would l e a d t o them. (40) F i n a l l y , the Sunday c a r would not a i d the workingman: where the Sunday c a r was  in cities  a l r e a d y r u n n i n g , the A l l i a n c e i n s i s t e d , 41  i t d i d not p r o v i d e " v a l u a b l e r e l i e f t o t h e crowded c e n t r e s . " R a t h e r , by r o b b i n g the workingman o f h i s Sabbath r e s t , Sunday c a r s h a t t e r e d h i s home l i f e and  the  "his opportunity to  w o r s h i p on t h e f i r s t day o f each week, t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s f a m i l y , 42 h i s f r i e n d s , and the r e s t o f t h e community."  The A l l i a n c e  c l a i m e d t h e r e f o r e t h a t the workingman, r e c o g n i z i n g t h i s t h r e a t , had not a g i t a t e d f o r t h e Sunday c a r and had i n f a c t c o n s i s t e n t l y voted against i t . The A l l i a n c e viewed the T o r o n t o c o n t e s t as one o f supreme importance f o r the f u t u r e of the l o b b y t h r o u g h o u t t h e province.  O l i v e r Mowat, w h i l e P r e m i e r of O n t a r i o , had i n d i c a t e d  t h a t changes t o the 184 5 A c t would " l a r g e l y depend on what ap43 peared t o40 be p u b l i c o p i n i o n on t h e s u b j e c t . " The Toronto  C i t i z e n s ' A n t i - S u n d a y Car Committee, T o r o n t o M a i l and Empire , 1 May 1897. Ibid.  "Manifesto,"  Ibid. 43  T o r o n t o M a i l and Empire, 24 J a n u a r y  1896.  102 fight for of  gave t h e p u b l i c  a chance to v o i c e i t s o p i n i o n .  the p r o - c a r f o r c e s would c a s t the A l l i a n c e ' s  opinion.  claim  I f "Toronto  s e r i o u s doubt  on  the  to r e p r e s e n t the m a j o r i t y of  t h e Good," as c o n t e m p o r a r i e s  A  victory validity  public  dubbed  the  44 city,  should r e j e c t  cities  would soon  the Toronto  that  clamour  Railway  for i t s introduction.  Company p r o v e d  companies i n o t h e r c i t i e s A c t on  Alliance  victorious,  would c l a i m  the b a s i s of p u b l i c The  fight  image by w e l c o m i n g t h e c a r , o t h e r  exemption  citizens  street railway from  the  1897  demand.  thus poured  a l l i t s reserves into  t o d e f e a t t h e Sunday c a r i n T o r o n t o .  include  Moreover, i f  the  I n an a t t e m p t  both i n - a n d - o u t s i d e the churches,  the  to  Alliance  promoted the f o r m a t i o n o f a n o t h e r C i t i z e n s ' Anti-Sunday Car 45 m i t t e e on new  the model o f t h e s u c c e s s f u l  committee c i r c u l a t e d  huge p u b l i c m e e t i n g s ,  literature  and  I t pressed i t s a l l i e s  the f i g h t ,  asking ministers  to devote  and  t o do  to bring  flocks  and  committee.  petitions,  systematically  the c i t y .  the a t t e n t i o n of t h e i r  1893  canvassed  a l l in their  the matter  Com-  The  organized e a c h ward o f power t o a i d  repeatedly to  u r g i n g a l l the c i t y ' s  t h e Sunday b e f o r e t h e v o t e t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f  churches the  46 issue.  I t also  recruited  Trades  and  Labor  C o u n c i l members t o  s p e a k a g a i n s t t h e Sunday c a r i n t h e p u b l i c f o r u m s . And, i f t h e 44 C.S. C l a r k , Of T o r o n t o t h e Good ( M o n t r e a l : The T o r o n t o P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1898; C o l e s C a n a d i a n a C o l l e c t i o n , 1 9 7 0 ) . 45 Toronto World, 4 6  Saturday  19 A p r i l  N i g h t , 1 May  1897. 1897.  103  opponents so  of the Alliance  f a ras t o lobby  a r e t o be b e l i e v e d ,  the b i c y c l i s t s  t o vote  the Alliance  went  against the car i n  47 order  to preserve On  the roads  Saturday,  May  f o r themselves  on  Sundays.  15, i n t h e h e a v i e s t a n d p e r h a p s  most  48 corrupt  poll  i n Toronto  recorded  their  in  o f t h e newspaper  front  5 p.m. might  votes  history,  I t seemed again  bring  on t h e Sunday  that  offices  thirty-two  thousand  car issue.  Crowds  after  the organization  triumph,  the polls  people assembled  closed at  of the anti-car  but the pro-car  faction  forces  achieved  49 victory  by a s l i m  by  the Alliance  of  t h e Sunday  erable of  ma3ority  —  A  to obtain a court injunction  car failed,  day, "Toronto  people  o f 480 v o t e s .  a n d o n S u n d a y , May  t h e Good" welcomed  approximately  45,000—  last  effort  against the running 23, a wet a n d m i s -  t h e Sunday  rode  ditch  car.  the cars while  Crowds others  50 lined  the streets  *  futed  *  *  t o watch.  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  T o r o n t o W o r l d , 8 May 1897. The C h r i s t i a n t h i s a c c u s a t i o n , 21 A p r i l 1897.  *  Guardian r e -  48 Armstrong and N e l l e s d e s c r i b e grand-scale personation by ward w o r k e r s h i r e d by t h e s t r e e t r a i l w a y company, i n c l u d i n g t h e c a s e o f o n e u n e m p l o y e d E n g l i s h m a n p e r s o n a t i n g no l e s s t h a n twenty-five voters. T h e R e v e n g e o f t h e M e t h o d i s t B i c y c l e Comp a n y , p . 165. 49 T o r o n t o G l o b e , 17 May 1897; a l s o C l a r k , O f T o r o n t o t h e G o o d , p . 64: " A n d now, h o r r o r f o r h o r r o r s ! t h e p o p u l a c e o f T o r o n t o have d e c i d e d by a good s u b s t a n t i a l v o t e t h a t t h e y d e s i r e s t r e e t c a r s on Sunday a n d t h e y have them."  50  This  number  i s calculated  on t h e b a s i s  of total  receipts  104 Whereas the to  face  had on  defeat, the Alliance  "Defeated  the Alliance  granted  this  appeal  refused  Insisting right,  Railway  Company  provincial  i timmediately Street  retreated i n  returned almost  t o acknowledge  that  the Hamilton  have  but not vanquished"^  the Toronto  Sundays.  grant to  o f such  the fray.  vote,  a weaker-willed group might  by t h e Toronto  that  the public  a franchise legislation  lobbied  Railway  x  eagerly  to operate alone  the Ontario  decision  vote  could  government  to the Privy  52 Council the  f o ra  meantime  injunction province  and a u t h o r i t a t i v e  the Alliance  against  until  government of  "final  this  the Ontario courts'  again  demanded  vice.  18 98  observance diction ment  Council  decisions  amendment  legislation  forced  decided  Court.  t h e Nova  t o do t h i s  Supreme  Court  ruling  issue  a  case  reversal  Sunday  that  Sabbath juris-  to the Ontario  o r elsewhere  ser-  when i n  the Ontario  an i n j u n c t i o n  i n Toronto  When t h e  the provincial  As a r e s u l t ,  i n the  the Alliance  ready  the Hamilton  however, cars  that  seemed  was u l t r a - v i r e s  to resubmit  o f Sunday  the issue.  o f t h e 18 45 A c t t o p r o h i b i t  Scotia  In  t o g r a n t an  anywhere  was i m p r o b a b l e ,  reconsideration.  I t d i d not,  operation  decided  cars  r e q u e s t , on t h e grounds  The O n t a r i o government  January  t h e government  t h e r u n n i n g o f Sunday  the Privy  refused  petitioned  interpretation."  governAppeal  against the while  the issue  f o r t h e day and t h e p r i c e o f t i c k e t s , seven f o ra q u a r t e r . T o t a l r e c e i p t s a c c o r d i n g t o S a t u r d a y N i g h t w e r e $2,000 (29 May 1897). C f . Armstrong and N e l l e s , The Revenge o f t h e M e t h o d i s t B i c y c l e C o m p a n y , p . 167.  51 Toronto  52  Mail  Christian  and Empire,  Guardian,  22  17 May  September  1897. 1897.  105  was  in  litigation. Believing  lative  campaign,  car  problem  for  injunctions  judicial in  Alliance  started  When  the  Sunday  such  proceeded  Hamilton Sunday  service,  but  in i t s  approach  the  Sunday  to  the  encouraged  by  the  and  the  to  grant two  charters  support  the  1897  injunctions,  companies  that  specifically  (the M e t r o p o l i t a n S t r e e t  courts  public  i n defiance of  against  legis-  i t appealed  company  service  whose  to  that,  courts refused  proceedings  operation  First  companies  f o r the  had  temporarily stalled  methods.  against  instituted  started  only  Alliance  other  support  legislation.  bited  the  with  Toronto,  itself  Railway  the had  prohi-  Company  of  53 Toronto The  and  the  Alliance  legislation. Ontario  Toronto  also In  and  opposed 1899  Legislature  Mimico  Electric  attempts  alone,  nine  to  modify  companies  for permission  to  Railway or  repeal  applied  operate  Company).  to  local  the  1897  the  passenger  54 service these  on  Sundays.  applications,  Company  received Since 5 3  the  40 V i c t .  Although the  appeal  special Ottawa  the of  Legislature  the  Ottawa  rejected  Electric  most  of  Railway  consideration. Electric  Railway  Company  proposed  ser-  (1877), c.84, s.8  (re M e t r o p o l i t a n S t r e e t R a i l w a y C o m p a n y ) ; 54 V i c